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3 1833 01100 1721 





Gentlemen's Road and Family 

Is iittractiug great attention in New York and elsewlierc. 

44 .A^iiams Street, 



Weill' pstiil |i?cliarge liilitniitor 

This Amalgamator is capable of treating a ton or more at a chiu-gc, and is i>r<)- 
vided with an 


l)y which its speed may be increased to any desired rate wJtile i/riiidinf/, and rciliu-i-d 
to a verj' slow motion tvhile floiving off. 
It is also provided with an 


by which the flowing off can be so skillfully managed that the loss of mercury 
and amalgamated gold is almost entirely j>revented. 

These important features make it by far the most valuable and successful amal- 
gamator in use, and a single trial will convince any competent person of its suite 
I'iority over all others. Address 

Agent I'helps' Process, 
Box 395. ' CHICAGO, ILL. 

ielps^ Amttmaile i#li Wmm 

This simple and valuable invention supplies a long felt want, and will be 
endorsed at once by practical men as an invaluabi.k improvement on the pres<nt 
method of panning out by hand. 

Any person can, with this machine, do the work of ten men with the ordinary- 
gold pan, and so perfectly can the supply of water and the dhscharge be regulated, 
that fifty pounds of pulp or concentrated tailings may be washed down to a few 
ounces in less time than would be required to wash out a single panful by hand. 

This obviates the necessity of so close a concentration from the amalgamator — 
au operation usually attended with considerable loss of mercury and gold, and 
hence its use gives better results than can possibly be obtained on a large scale 

without it. 


Agent Phelps' Process, 




^1 cJk Jk I^I^I^i^ikB* #1 


The Least Expensive and Most Successful Gold Saving 
Process in the World. 




Is designed especially for treating all those refractory gold and silver bearing sul- 
phurets, except those containing a considerable portion of galena. 

It is claimed for this wonderful invention that it possesses the following advan- 
tages over all others of its kind in use: 

First — It will receive and transmit a far greater quantity of air than any other 
furnace, without carrj'ing any of the gold out, by force of the draft current. 

Second — It compels the thorough admixture of the "oxidizing currents" with 
the ore, thus supplying more available oxygen, in a less quantity of air, than any 
other furnace. 

Thi7-d— The ore is admitted into the oxidizing flue 40 feet from the fire-box, 
where the temperature is comparatively low, and is gradually heated as the quan- 
tity of sulphur diminishes. 

Fourth— The ore is kept constantly in motion by its own gravity, thereby 
avoiding the expense of labor and the carelessness of oi^eratives. 

Fifth — The ore distributes itself over the terraced floor of the furnace in the 
thinnest possible stratum, so that each particle is acted upon independently and 
"slagging" entirely prevented. 

iSix^/i— Sufficient time is secured to effect the perfect desulphurization and 
oxidation of the largest particle admitted into the furnace. 

Seventh— The sulphur is made to furnish its own fuel to a great extent, only a 
small quantity of wood being required to complete the oxidation of the base 

Fic/hih—So simple and perfect is it in its plan and mechanism that one man 
can attend it, treating a ton an hour with a degree of perfection never yet attained 
by any other means. Address 

1^. "VE.i^IjE!, 

P, O. Box SOS. 



Manufacturer of Fire and Burglar Proof 

Vaults, Doors and Dwelling House Safes 


60 and 62 South Canal Street, 

Tlioy are so constructed that the bolts of the doors shut behind a wrought iron frame, which fornix 
tlie front of the Safe, avoiding all danger of their being forced open by falling. Owing to tlie peculiiir 
construction of the door jamb, they will resist the action of fire for a longer time than luvs thus far been 
found necessary for perfect safety. 


■Without a single failure to preserve their contents. 

S®"- Prices LO"WER than any other reliable Safe. °^a 




.1 JLLI 





Des Moines and Roolc Island. 

This route is newly equipped with ELEGANT NEW COACHP'.S ami 


"Which rnn over a thoroughly ballasted road-bod, laid witli heavy new vail, with 

braced joints. 


Arrive at Chicago 6.00 A. M. 

Arrive at Chicago 4.15 P. .AI. 

S.OO A.M., daily, (Sundays excepted).. 
.•..•2U P.M., daily .". 

Trains leave in connection with trains arriving from the AVest. Both trains are 





And the only road running through the CAPITAL OF lOAVA. 


Via this line to all principal points EAST and SOUTH, for sale at the COMPANY'S 


Corner of Planter's House, DENVER, 

In Georgetown, Central Citj- and Denver, Colorado. 


Gcn'l Pass. Agt., Chicago. Qen'l Stipt., Chicago. 

Li. VI£L£, General Freight Agent, Chicago 


Gen'l Agt., Council Bliifld 






•^^^''' ^■<w;-'-\.^ 


We import the largest stock of fine woolens for men's 
wear in America. We make them to measure in the most 
thorou'gh, artistic style, at the LOWEST PRICES possi- 
ble for the article furnished. 

American Livery Artistically Furnished. 


Extra Durable and Perfect in Pit. 


Tailor, Draper and Importer of Fine Woolens 
for Men's Wear, 

S and ^ Washington St., 

Clergymen, 6 per cent, discount. 

Established in Chicago in 1851. 


Rocky Mouniain Directory^ 


For iSyiy 

Comprising a brief history of Colorado, and a condensed but comprehensive 
account of her Mining, Agricultural, Commercial and Manufactur- 
ing Interests, Climatology, Inhabitants, Advantages and 
Industries, together with a complete and accurate 


Denver, Golden City, Black Hawk, Central City, Nevada, Idaho, Georgetown, 
Boulder, Greeley, Colorado City, Pueblo, Trinidad, Etc. 

^ir%t Qbht af j^ttbluaiian. 




This gradual and continuous progress of the European races 

towards the Rocky Mountains, has the solemnity of a providential 

event. It is like a deluge of men rising unabatedly, and daily 

driven onward by the hand of God. 

De Tocqueville. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year of our Lord 1870 , by 


In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Printers, Binders, and Electrotjpers, 



The unlooked-for delay in the publication of this work, as well as some 

^ material changes in its contents from what was originally designed, require 

•0 brief explanation. Our best apology for the delay is the size, superior 

.^ of typographical execution, style of binding and finish, and the extra value 

\ the contents of the GtAZETTEEr. However, the time necessarily consumed 

■^j in collecting the amount we present of historical, statistical and directory 

matter must be considerable, and no publishing house, however extensive 

^4 and complete, can do hurriedly this style of printing, electrotyping and 

V, binding. Besides, a large amount of the proof of copy had to be sent to 

I the senior editor, at Denver, for correction, which of course caused much 

waste of time, which has been farther increased by the serious illness of the 

^ junior editor, who superintended the publication of the work in Chicago. 

fs: We trust these brief explanations, in connection with the superiority of our 

* work, will be considered suitable excuse for apparent delay. 

About the changes in character of contents, we have been compelled to 

1^ omit all biographical matter and many personal sketches concerning the 

*sf earlier settlers of the country, for lack of space. The historical, geo- 

i graphical, geological and directory matter, together with a description of 

J mines and mining, have taken up so much space that none remains for 
less important though perhaps more interesting subjects. In our next 
issue we will make ample provisions for what we are compelled to omit in 
this. For your great liberality in aiding in our arduous enterprise, which 
we trust will largely benefit our favored country, you have our hearty and 
sincere thanks. 

T. 0. BIGNEY, 

Editors and Publishers. 


Colorado is just now attracting a more general and earnest attention 
than any other section of the new West. 
Colonies are flocking to her borders. 
Railways are girdling the continent with iron tram-ways, in the race to 

tap her coffers. 

Her agricultural and pastoral possibilities are unlimited. 

Her mineral wealth is exhaustless and incalculable. 

Her manufacturing facilities are scarcely inferior to those of factory- 
fostering New England. 

Her climate is delightful. Invalids here find a bahn for their hurts, 
and healing for their disease-smitten souls. 

Poets, artists and tourists grow enthusiastic over the magnificence of her 
natural scenery. 

While these facts are daily becoming more widely appreciated, no satis- 
factory and sufficiently practical Guide Book, or Gazetteer, giving detailed 
and reliable information concerning the resources and advantages of this 
interesting and rapidly developing region, has yet been published. 

We have no other apology to offer for the appearance of this book. 

While no pains have been spared to make the work complete and accu- 
rate, some mistakes will inevitably occur in the first, which will be corrected 
in future issues. 

The Directory portion is as complete as it is possible to make such a 
work in a country so sparsely inhabited. Doubtless, some names will have 
been omitted ; others will be incorrect in orthography, on account of the 
impossibility of making a second canvass to correct the unavoidable errors 
of the first. 

Those who have so generously aided us, during the progress of the work, 
will be ever gratefully remembered. The few who have opposed and hin- 
dered our enterprise, are already forgotten by 

The Publishers. 



Introduction, etc. — General History — Mines and Mining — 
Observations — Description of Cities and Towns, with Gen- 
eral and Business Directories and Advertisements — Chicago 
Business Directory and Advertisements — Appendix. 

Introduction, Etc 1-16 


Discovery and Earliest Settlement 17-23 

Forms op Government Previous to Territorial Organi- 
zation 23-29 


Introduction 29, 30 

Rocky Mountains , 30,31 

Foot-hills 31 

Other ranges 32,33 

Parks 33-35 

Plains 35, 36 

Rivers 36-39 


Arapahoe 39,40 

Boulder 40-42 

Clear Creek 42-45 

Gilpin 45-47 

Park 47-50 

Summit 50,51 

Jefferson 52, 53 

Douglas 54, 55 

Lake , 55-57 

Fremont 57 

Huerfano 57 

Costilla 57,58 


Conejos 58 

Saguache 58, 59 

Bent 59 

Greenwood 59 

Pueblo 59-61 

Las Animas 61 

Dick Irwin on Southern Colorado 61-62 

Larimer 63 

Weld 63,64 

County Seats — Population — Acres in Cultivation — Total Valuation 

of Property in Counties 64 


Introductory 65 

First Division — Plains to the Base of the Foot-hills 65-83 

Second Division — Foot-hills, the Main Range and Its Spurs, and 

South Park 84-89 

Third Division — Mountains, Valleys and Parks West of the Range 89-97 

Fossil Insects Discovered in the Territory 97-100 

List of Metals and Minerals 100-103 


General Remarks 1 03-105 

Colorado as a Resort for Invalids 105-111 

Inhabitants 111-113 

Agriculture 113, 114 


Denver Pacific Railway 115, 116 

Union Pacific Railroad 116-119 

Kansas Pacific Railway 119-121 

Denver and Boulder Valley Railroad 121, 122 

Colorado Central Railroad 123 

Denver and Rio Grande Railway 123, 124 

Southern Overland Mail and Express Company 124,125 

Wagon Roads 125-127 

Telegraph Lines 128 


Introductory 128, 129 

Union 129-131 

German 131 

Chicago-Colorado 131, 132 

Southwestern 132, 133 



Introductory 133 134 

Episcopal Church 134. 135 

Methodist Church 135-138 

Catholic Church 138, 139 

Presbyterian Church I39 140 

Public Schools 140, 141 


Miners' and Mechanics' Institute, Central 141, 142 

St. James Library Association, Central 142 143 

Territorial Library 143, I44 

Colorado Agricultural Society 144, 145 

Boulder County Agricultural Society 145 

Ford Park Association 145, 146 

Turners 146, 174 

Masonic 147-149 

Odd Fellows 149 

Good Templars 149, 150 

O. A. R 150 

Other Societies 150 

Military Posts , 150 


Introduction 151, 152 

Discovery op Gold 152-156 

Discovery of Silver 156,157 

Prospecting 158, 159 

practical mining. 

General Remarks 159 

Lode Mining 159-169 

Gulch and Placer Mining 169-172 


Introductory 173 

Lodes of Gilpin County, alphabetically arranged 174-185 

Lodes of Clear Creek County, alphabetically arranged 186-207 

Lodes of Boulder County, alphabetically arranged 208-213 

Lodes of Summit County, alphabetically arranged 214, 215 

Lodes of Lake County, alphabetically arranged 216 


Introductory 217-221 

Description of Miscellaneous Mines 222, 223 



Character of Ores 226, 227 

Treatment of Gold Ores 227-233 

Description of Stamp Mills, Gilpin County 233-235 

Clear Creek 235 

Treatment of Silver Ores 236, 237 

Reduction Works 237, 238 

Concentration of Ores. 239,240 

Other Reduction Works 240 

Value of Ores 240-243 

Swindling and Unsuccessful Mining Operations 244-247 


Scenery 248,249 

To Immigrants and Colonists 250-252 

To Tourists 252 

First Impressions not Always Correct 253, 254 

Purity of Atmosphere 254 

Territorial 254-256 


Denver, History of 257-261 

Denver General Directory 261-300 

Denver Business Directory 300-31 8 

Golden. History of 319-321 

Golden General Directory 321-328 

Golden Business Directory 328-332 

Black Hawk, History of 332-835 

Black Hawk General Directory 335-340 

Black Hawk Business Directory 340-343 

Central, History of 343-345 

Central General Directory 345-356 

Central Business Directory 356-360 

Nevada, History of. 360 

Nevada General Directory 361-365 

Nevada Business Directory 365-367 

Idaho Springs, History of. 367-372 

Idaho Springs Directory 372-375 

Georgetown, History of. 375-377 

Georgetown General Directory 377-383 

Georgetown Business Directory 383-386 

Boulder, History of. 386 

Boulder Directory 387-390 

Greeley, History of 390 

Greeley Directory 390-394 

Burlington, History of 394 

Burlington Directory 394-396 

Valmont, History of 396 



Valmont Directory 3gg 

Trinidad, History of. 397 393 

Trinidad Directory 399-403 

Pueblo, History of. 4O4 

Pueblo General Directory 404-408 

Pueblo Business Directory 409 410 

Kit Carson, History and Directory 4X1 

Colorado City, History of. 412 

Colorado City Business Directory 4I3 

Grand Island District 4I4 415 

Caribou City 415' 416 

Keysport 416 

Haddairi 4I7 

Chicago Business Notices 418-431 


Gilpin County 432,433 

Clear Creek County 433 

Arapahoe County 433, 434 

Boulder County 434,435 

The Press 435,436 

Mountain Ranches 436,437 

Tunnels 437,438 

0. K. Silver Lode 438 

Pueblo 438 

Pike's Peak 438 

Mines and Mining 439 

"Old Sulphurets" 439 

Errata 440-442 



Armstrong & McClaskey, Saddles, Harness, etc. 

Ballin Charles, Dry and Millinery Goods. 

Bailey Joseph L., Proprietor Corral and Stock Yard. 

Bender L., Proprietor Denver Soap Works. 

Belden & Powers, Attorneys at Law. 

Bennett P., Attorney at Law. 

Broadwell House. 

Brooks Orson, General Insurance Agent. 

Brinker Isaac & Co., Wholesale and retail Grocers. 

Brunswick S., Jewelry. 

Browne, Harrison & Putnam, Attorneys at Law. 

Bucklin & Clark, Staple and Fancy Groceries. 

Burton H., Boston Shoe Store. 

Byers W. N., Notary Public. 

Camp Z. M., Proprietor Gale's Patent Peanut and Coffee Roaster. 

Camelleri Nick, Proprietor Denver Pacific Dining Rooms. 

Carr S. H., Proprietor jMammoth Corral and Carr House. 

California Powder Works. 

Cheesman W. S., Wholesale and Retail Druggists. 

Chain & McCartney, Stationers, etc. 

Chamberlain W. G., Denver Photograph Rooms. 

Chalfant, Cox & Co., Hosiery, Notions, etc. 

Cone A. T. Mrs., Hair Goods, etc. 

Cowell W., Groceries, Wines and Liquors. 

Colorado Central Railroad. 

Cornforth B., Wholesale Grocer. 

Colorado National Bank. 

Colorado Stage Company. 

Crater & Cobb, Real Estate, Insurance and General Agents. 

Crater David W., Attorney at Law. 

Cramer & Nyce, Contractors and Builders. 

Daugherty E., Marble Works. 

Daniels & Eckhart, Wholesale and Retail Dry Goods and Carpets. 

Denver Brewing Company. 

Denver Woolen Manufacturing Company. 

Denver Transfer Line. 

Denver City Dining Rooms, George T. Breed, Proprietor. 

Denver Theatre, J. S. Langrishe, Proprietor. , 


Denver Pacific Railway. 

Denver Dollar Store. 

Denver Tribune. 

Dietsch & Brother, Proprietors New York Store. 

Douglas J. W., Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Queensware, etc. 

Doolittle J. K., Dry Goods. Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, etc. 

Duhem & Brother, Art Gallery. 

Fawcett Richard, Civil Engineer and Surveyor. 

Farrar A. & Co., Agents Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machines. 

Fink John P. & Co., Wholesale and Retail Boots and Shoes. 

First National Bank of Denver. 

Ford House. 

France & Rogers, Attorneys at Law. 

Freund & Brother, Sportsmen's Depot. 

Geary R. H., Fresh Meat and Game. 

Gill & Cass, Real Estate Brokers. 

Grant S. A., Wholesale and Retail Booksellers and Stationers. 

Greenleaf & Co., Cigars, Tobacco, etc. 

Green H. R., Sash, Doors, Blinds, etc. 

Hallack E. F., Lumber, Sash, Doors, etc. 

Hauck C. C, Watchmaker and Jeweler. 

Hatten House. 

Hartman C. R., Livery, Feed and Sale Stable. 

Hamilton H. H. & Co., Music Dealers. 

Hannibal & St. Joe Railroad. 

Hense & Gottesleben, Wholesale and Retail Jewelers. 

Horner J. W., Attorney at Law. 

Horner J. W., & Co., Real Estate Brokers. 

Hussey Warren, Banker. 

Ingols A. B., Jeweler and Dealer in Clocks and Silverware. 

Jackson James W., Proprietor Denver Foundry and Machine Shop. 

Jones John S., Pork Packing House and Dealer in Coal, Grain, etc. 

Johnson B. F. & Co., Real Estate and Insurance Agents. 

Johnson C, Boots Shoes and Rubber Goods. 

Kansas & Pacific Railway. 

Kassler G. W. & Co., Wholesale and Retail Tobacco, Cigars, etc., and 

Kassler & Cram, Insurance Agents. 
Kansas City Fire and Marine Insurance Company. 
Kenyon Joseph, Wholesale and Retail Wines, Liquors, etc. 
Kerr H. W., Wholesale and Retail Tobacco, Cigars, etc. 
Knowlton & Dickey, Queensware and China. 
Lee & McMullin, Farm Implements. 

Levy W. W., Wholesale and Retail Wines, Cigars and Tobacco. 
Leach C. C, Sign and Carriage Painter. 
Lennon John A. & Son, Merchant Tailors. 
Livingston & Schram, Hardware, Stoves, etc. 
Leubbers Henry A., Civil Engineer and Architect. 
Mayer George & Co., Stoves, Tinware, etc. 
Matthews & Reser, Real Estate and Loan Agents. 
Maguire & Brother, Upholsterers, Cabinet Makers and Undertakers. 


Marix-Mayer M., M. D. 

Merriman Brothers, Sewing Machine and Safe Agents. 

Melvin House. 

Michael H. W. & Co., Wholesale and Retail Hardware. 

Miller J. A. & Co., Forwarding and Commission Merchants. 

Missouri Life Insurance Company. 

Mowbray R. C, Dentist. 

Myers William, Wagons and Farm Implements. 

McCormic & Shallcross, Pharmacy. 

McKnight, Green & Co., Key Stone Iron Works. 

McPhee C D., Carpenter and Builder. 

McClure Alvin, Wholesale and Retail Paints, Oils, Varnish, Glass, etc. 

Nathan S., Wholesale and Retail Dry Goods and Clothing. 

Nye Forwarding and Commission Company. "^ 

Osgood W. T., Whol. and Retail Hats, Caps, Gents' Furnishing Goods. 

Parkhurst Brewery. 

People's Restaurant. 

Peabody D. G., Clothing and Dry Goods, Buggies and Carriages. 

Pooler C E., Wholesale and Retail Foreign and Domestic Fruits. 

Potter Charles, Billiard Hall. 

Piitz Madame Eugenie, Milliner and Dressmaker. 

Reithmann & Co., Wholesale and Retail Druggists. 

Reichard & Winne, General Insurance Agents. 

Richards James W. k Co-, City Transfer. 

Richardson W., Boston Cracker Manufactory. 

Riethmann L. D. & Co., Groceries, Wines, Liquors and Produce. 

Rosenbloom I;, Merchant Tailor. 

Roberts & James, Hardware, etc. 

Rogers & Smedley, Dentists. 

Rocky Mountain News. 

Rocky Mountain Herald. 

Salomon Brothers, Wholesale and Retail Grocers. 

Sanderlin E. J., Bath House and Barber Shop. 

Sayre Alfred, Attorney at Law. 

Sargent & Trimble, Commission Merchants. 

Schrader & Co., Eating House and Saloon. 

Schleier George C, Real Estate Agent and Notary Public. 

Schuler J., Confectioner. 

Slaughter Wm. M., Attorney at Law. 

Smith & Doll, Furniture. 

Smith Alex., Wholesale and Retail Groceries and Provisions. 

Southwestern Colony. 

Spencer & Marchant, Harness, Saddles, etc. 

Sprague & Webb, Groceries, Provisions and Fruits. 

Stanton Fred. J., Surveyor, Draftsman and Law Claim Agent. 

St. Mary's Academy. 

Strickler & Mahar, Auction and Commission Merchants. 

Stevenson Mary Mrs., Cigars, Tobacco, etc. 

Steinhauer & Walbrach, Wholesale and Retail Druggists. 

Tayler C. M., Wholesale and Retail Grocers.* 

Taylor F. C, Proprietor Highland Nursery. " 


Tappan & Co., Wholesale and Retail Hardware and Agricultural Imple- 

Thompson W. C, Proprietor Clifton Boarding House. 

Tritch Geo., Wholesale and Retail Shelf Hardware, Woodenware, etc. 

Townsend M. H., Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds. 

Trounstine Phil., Proprietor "0. K." Clothing Store. 

Tremont House. 

Thayer H. L., Publisher Thayer's Map. 

Tynon James, Hides and Wool. 

Union Pacific Railroad. 

Wallihan S. S., Agent Northwestern Life Insurance and Publisher 
Rocky Mountain Directory. 

Walker Wm. S., Wholesale Wines, Liquors and Cigars. 

Wanless George P., Insurance Agent. 

Washington House. 

Whitsitt R. E. Real Estate Agent. 

Witter Hiram, Real Estate Dealer. 

Witter Daniel, Attorney at Law. 

Woeber A. & Co., Carriage Manufactory. 

Woolworth, Moffatt & Clarke, Wholesale and Retail Stationery 

Zell's Encyclopedia, L. E. Brooks, Agent. 


Barclay & Co., Contractors and Builders. 

Burlingame E. E., Assayer. 

Burrell James, Notary Public. 

Butler Hugh, Attorney at Law. 

Central Register, Collier & Hall, Proprietors. 

Chaffee Jerome B. <fc Co., Bankers. 

Charpiot J., French Restaurant. 

Colorado Herald, Thos. J. Campbell, Proprietor. 

Connor House, C Wentworth, Proprietor. 

Cremer N., Billiard Hall. 

Day John, Gunsmith. 

Dupont Powder Co., Foster Nichols, Agent. 

Fink John P. & Co., Boots and Shoes. 

Freas L. M., Groceries and Provisions. 

Giddings E. J., Insurance Agent. 

Hazard Powder Co., J. 0. Raynolds, Agent. 

Jones William, Proprietor Billiard Hall and Saloon. 

Kennedy W. R., attorney at Law. 

National Hotel, R. B. Smock, Proprietor. 

Pitts J. W. Brewer. 

Post C. C, Attorney at Law. 

Rocky Mountain National Bank. 

Sessler & Seaur, Wholesale Grocers. 

Shultz A. Von, Assayer. 

Smith J. Alden, Assayer. 

Thatcher, Standley & Co., Bankers. 

The "Pharmacy," John ]3est, Proprietor. 



Barton House, Wm. Barton, Proprietor. 

Bailey & Nott, Livery, Sale and Feed Stable. 

Burdsal C W., General Merchants, Lower Greorgetown. 

Chaffee Jerome B. & Co., Bankers. 

Colorado Miner, A. W. Barnard, Proprietor. 

Curtis A. F., Hardware, Tinware and Stationery. 

Doyle House, Dan. Doyle, Proprietor. 

Fish C. K,., Notary Public and Druggist. 

Fillius Brothers, Groceries, Provisions, etc. 

Freas L. M., Groceries, Provisions, etc. 

Guard Brothers, Butchers. 

Harrington H. G., Notary Public and Conveyancer. 

Heywood & Co., Boots, Shoes, Hosiery, etc. 

Johnson Albert, Civil and Mining Engineer. 

Marshall E. G., Cigars and Tobacco. 

3IcCoy House, J. 3IcCoy, Proprietor. 

Mills J. K., Groceries and Provisions. 

Moor Chas. H., Analytical Chemist. 

Pollard Chas. W., Hardware, Groceries and Provisions. 

Smith James & Bro., Boots, Shoes and Hosiery. 

Spruance & Love, General Merchants. 

Townsend C 0., Barber and Hair Dresser. 

Wood & Cree, Cigars, Tobacco and Stationery. 


Black Hawk Billiard Hall and Saloon, Charles Stienle, Proprietor. 

Boston Cracker Factory and Bakery, A. G. Rhoades, Proprietor. 

Hughes Ed. E., Meat Market. 

Kelly Thomas, Groceries and Provisions. 

McLaughlin William, Harness and Saddles. 

Mountain House, P. B. Wright, Proprietor. 

Orahood & Nesmith, Druggists. 

Rudolph C. G., Watches, Clocks and Jewelry. 

Seiwell Ed. A., Druggist. 

St. Charles Hotel, James H. Sutherland, Proprietor. 

St. Charles Livery Stable. Wm. Germain, Proprietor. 

Star Hair Dressing and Shaving Saloon, F. R. Walden, Proprietor. 

Vosburg H., Fruit Dealer. 

Walden F. R., Hair Dresser, etc. 

Warner & Scobey, Wines and Liquors. 


Barndollar Ferd. & Co., Forwarding and Commission Merchants, etc. 

Colorado Chieftain, Lambert & Co., Proprietors. 

Cooper Brothers, Hardware. 

Hyde & Kretschmer, Blacksmiths and Wagonmakers. 

Peabody & Jordan, Dry Goods, etc. 

Thatcher Brothers & Co., Dry Goods, etc. 

Thatcher Brothers, Bankers. 

Thatcher J. A. & M. D., Dry Goods, Wholesale and Retail. 




Beebee House, F. W. Beebee, Proprietor. 

Cowell & Patten, General Merchants. 

Fall River House, Austin & Easley, Proprietors, Spanish Bar. 

Faivre Dennis, General Merchants. 

Mammoth Bath House, J. H. Phillips, Proprietor. 

Montague H., Proprietor Ocean Bath House. 

Springs' House, John N. Harden, Proprietor. 

Theobold Peter, General Merchant. 

Warner J. H., Proprietor Billiard Hall. 


Boulder House, G. C. Squires, Proprietor. 
Colorado House, E. Pound, Proprietor. 
Mackey A. J., Broker. 
Red Rock Mills, S. Douty, Proprietor. 
Sommers Wilhelm, Meat and Vegetables. 
Squires F. A., Dry Goods, Groceries, etc. 
Westlake W. B., Wines, Liquors and Cigars. 


Haskins Henry, Hotel. 

Haswell W. H., Drugs and Medicines. 

Keystone Meat Market, J. W. Grow, Proprietor. 

Ratliflf J. W., Notary Public. 

Shanstrom J. A. & P. G., Butchers, etc. 

Vietor & Gunther, Union Bakery, and Groceries and Provisions. 


Carter T. J. & Co., Bankers. 

Colorado Transcript, Geo. West, Editor and Proprietor. 

Chicago Hall, Wines and Liquors, C. H. Judkins, Proprietor. 

Doolittle Thos. S., Livery Stable. 

Golden House, Chas. S. Abbott, Proprietor. 

Rock Flouring Mills, 0. F. Barber, Proprietor. 


Baird & Boyles, Attorneys at Law. 
Barraclough H. A,, General Merchandise. 
Davis & Sherman, Groceries, etc. 
Prowers & Hough, General Merchandise. 
Wooten R. L., Jr., General Merchandise. 
United States Hotel, W. G. Rifenburg, Proprietor. 


Beekwith & Co., Produce, etc. 

Burlington House, J. M. Smith, Proprietor. 

City Hotel, Mrs. Mary A. Allen. 

Newman E. B. Blacksmith. 

Streeter & Turrell, Drugs and Groceries. 


First National Bank. 

Omaha Smelting Works. 




St. Nicholas Hotel, E. Jennings, Proprietor. 

St. Louis and Peoria Plow Co., St. Louis and Kansas City. 

St. Louis Novelty Works. 

Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad. 


Gillette M. Gr., Hardware and Agricultural Implements. 
Terry & Bliss, Lumberman. 


Gehrung Emile, Groceries and Drugs. 


Plumb Ovid, Farmers' Exchange. 


Peters A. W., Physician and Surgeon. 


Janes A. N., General Merchant. 


Neio Mexican, Manderfield & Tucker, Proprietors. 


Rowell Geo. P. & Co., Advertisino; Aj'ents. 


Atkins & Burgess, Steam Engines, etc. 

Austin & Boyington, Patent Machine- 
Made Rope Molding. 

Avery, Murphy & Co., Lumber, Lath, etc. 

Batchelder J. B., Photographic Materials. 

Banks W. H., Hay and Cotton Press. 

Babcock Fire Extinguisher. 

Boyington k Son, Jewelry. 

Bowen, Hunt & Winslow, Dry Goods. 

Bradley & Banks, Agricultural Impl'ts. 

Brunswick J. M. & Bro.; Billiard Tables. 

Brunswick E., Billiard Tables, etc. 

Chicago & Alton Railroad. 

Chicago, Burlington (i Quincy Railroad. 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad. 

Chicago Gold and Silver Quartz Reduc- 
ing and Separating Co. 

Chicago Vise and Tool Co., Tools, etc. 

Chicago Iron Works, Letz & Co. 

Crane Bros., Foundry and Iron Works. 

Eaton Collins, agt. Ames' Steam Engine. 

Eagle Works Manufacturing Co. 

Ely Edward, Draper and Tailor. 
Gents' Furnishing Goods. 

Esmay, Simmons & Co., Whol. Liquors. 

Foster Thos., Lumber, Lath and Shingles. 

Furst & Bradley, Mnfrs. of Plows, etc. 

Forsman J. A., Mill Furnishing. 

Gardner J. E., Artificial Legs and Arms. 

Garden City Mnfg. and Supply Co. 

Government Goods' Depot. 

Goss & Phillips' Mnfg. Co., Sash, Doors, 
Blinds, etc. 

Harris S. H., Safes. 

Hatch, Holbrook & Co., Hardwood Lum- 
ber, etc. 

Heeney & Campbell, Lumber, Doors, etc. 

Hearson & Payn, Hand Rails, Stairs, etc. 

Hubbard G. & Co., Ship Chandlers, etc. 

Illinois Central Railroad. 

Kane Geo. B. & Co., Printing Inks. 

Mariner G. A., Assayer. 

Meyer C. J. L., Sash, Doors, Blinds, etc. 

Nevada House. 

Noye Wm. F., Mill Furnisher. 

Novelty Carriage Works, T. H. Brown. 

Palmer, Fuller & Co., Doors, Sash, etc. 

Phelps, Veale & Co., Miners' Tools. 

Porter H. B., Annunciators, etc. 

Pittsburgh & Fort Wayne Railroad. 

Republic Life Insurance Co. 

Piounds & Kane, Book and Job Printers. 

Savage & Bro., Engine Builders, etc. 

Schell H. A., Paper Boxes. 

Schultz Henry, Paper Boxes. 

Tansill R. W., Cigars. 

Thomas G. G., Ivory Goods. 

Western Bank Note and Engraving Co. 

Western Star Metal Co., Brass Foundry. 

Williams Charles R., Gen. Agt. Rocky 
Mountain Directory and Colobado 



The first explorers of that portion of the North American continent 
now embraced within the boundaries of Colorado Territory, were undoubt- 
edly Spaniards and Mexicans — adventurers from New Spain. The first well 
authenticated account of the discovery of the mountain ranges, plateaus, 
streams, valleys and plains that form the diversified physical features of thi;:^ 
vast Territory, Ls the record of Vasques Coranada, a Spanish military cap- 
tain. The expeditioB which he commanded was fitted out at the capital of 
Sinaloa, a province of New Spain, by order of Viceroy Mendoca, the repre- 
sentative of the Spanish crown in New Spain, now Mexico, and was com- 
posed of over 300 Spaniards and 800 Indians. They were well armed and 
equipped, and commenced their explorations early in the year 1540. 

From Sinaloa, this expedition proceeded northward to the base of the 
mountains — through canons to the source of the Gila — crossing mountains 
to the Rio del Norte, and up this stream to San Luis valley. From thence, 
they made their way over the Sangre de Cristo pass, to the great plains, in 
what is now Southern Colorado, and thence northward along the base of the 
mountains, and often far up their deep canons, until a point about the 40th 
north parallel of latitude was reached. These adventurers had to contend 
with all the usual difficulties that surround such enterprises in a wild country, 
traversed by innumerable streams and towering mountain ranges, and in 
many places infested with hostile savages. After months of fatiguing 
marches, attended with unusual danger and hardships, they were compelled 
to return to New Spain without accomplishing the object of their explora- 
tion — the discovery of gold. They had, however, passed over some of the 
richest deposits of gold in the known world, and explored a region unsur- 
passed in fertility of soil, and beauty and grandeur of scenery — all of which 
is now within the boundaries of Colorado. 

The report of Coranada was published, and is now filed away in the 
archives of Old Spain, and perhaps has a place in some American libraries, 
but we have not been able to procure a copy, and give this sketch from a 
verbal statement given us by a pioneer of the Territory. Traditions of this 
expedition are related by many of the old settlers of New Mexico and Colo- 
rado, who also talk of the exploration of Mexican padres, who proceeded as 
far northward as the Missouri river, which they described as a dead, slug- 
gish river, with muddy waters, not fordable. Tradition further asserts that 


these Mexicans were more successful than Coranada, and actually discovered 
gold in considerable quantities; formed settlements, and built towns; but 
were eventually unable to withstand the continued assaults of hostile Indians, 
and abandoned the country. There is some show of truth in these legends, 
as there is un((uestionable evidence, in the southern portion of the Territory 
especially, of the existence, at no very remote period, of inhabitants more 
learned in the arts of civilization, than aboriginal races. There is also evi- 
dence that placer diggings had been carried on in the Territory long before 
the discovery of gold in 1858. This may, however, have been the work of 
Indians, though it is the belief of the earlier settlers that the Mexicans or 
Spanish took out gold from Spanish Bar, on Clear creek, long before the 
arrival of Jackson and his party in 1859. 

The failure of the Coranada expedition seems to have discouraged the 
Spanish government, and we have no further accounts of authorized explora- 
tions from New Spain proceeding any further north than the Rio del Norte. 
This Territory was, at that time, supposed by the Spanish crown to be a por- 
tion of its North American possessions, but no boundaries were established, or 
any rightful claim maintained. The first record we have of this vast region 
being embraced in any particular province, is the claim established by the 
French colony of Louisiana, early in 1600. The vast region, which formerly 
comprised this dependency of France, was bounded on the north and east 
by the British North American possessions and Atlantic ocean, and on the 
south and west by the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain and California. Actu- 
ally, the first discovery of this region was made by the Spanish, in its extreme 
western portion, as Coranada's expedition preceeded Ferdinand De Soto's, but 
usually the discovery of Louisiana is attributed to De Soto, who traversed a 
portion of the valley of the 3Iississippi in 15-41. These vast and fertile 
regions were more fully explored by Col. Wood in 165-4, and visited by 
Capt. Bolt in 1670, and M. de-la-Salle in 1682. The first settlers were 
French colonists, who located upon the banks of the lower Mississippi and 
Red rivers, and on the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 1762, France ceded 
to Spain, then in her zenith of wealth, power and prosperity, this extensive 
province. The measure was strongly opposed by the French colonists, and 
Spain did not obtain full possession until the 17th of August, 1769. The 
French population of Louisiana galled under the yoke of Spanish authority, 
and never rested until they regained their allegiance to the French, which 
was effected October 1, 1800. But Louisiana did not long remain a French 
province. By treaty and purchase, during the presidency of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, the 3d day of April, 1803, the United States became the rightful pos- 
sessor of this rich and almost unbounded colony, and soon took measures to 
develop its unrivalled resources, and establish authority and government in 
due form over a vast extent of country, heretofore controlled, in the main, 
by savage Indian tribes. During the years which passed while France and 
Spain possessed Louisiana, but little was known of the middle and western 
part of the province, and the vast plains had not been crossed by any white 
adventurer who has left any record of his discoveries. As soon as United 
States authority was fully established, attention was directed to the vast 
extent of country between the Mississippi and Red rivers, and the discovery 
of the source of these rivers, and the Missouri and Arkansas, in the great 
mountains west of the plains, was determined upon by the authorities at 


The first expedition equipped by the War Department, under orders 
from Gen. James Wilkinson, commander-in-chief of the ai-my, for the pur- 
pose of exploring the comparatiYely unknown regions beyond the oreat 
plains, and the sources of the Arkansas and Red rivers, was commanded by 
Zebulon M. Pike, then a lieutenant in the United States army, but who, after 
his return from this expedition, was promoted to the rank of Major, as a 
reward for the skillful and daring manner in which his explorations were 
conducted. Major Pike was assisted by Lieut. James B. Wilkinson and 
Dr. J. Robinson. His party, composed of twenty-three men and officers, 
left Bellefontaine, July 15, 1806; and after many adventures, reached the 
Arkansas at a point near the mouth of the Pawnee Fork, on the 27th day 
of October, 1806. From this place, he detached from his small command, 
Lieut. Wilkinson and five men, to make a reconnoisance to the mouth of the 
Arkansas, which was accomplished successfully. With the remainder of his 
command, Maj. Pike continued his journey in search of the source of the Ar- 
kansas and the great mountains that form the western boundary of the plains. 

The first view of the mountains was obtained on the loth of November, 
1806. We quote from Maj. Pike's diary, of that date: '-At two o'clock 
in the afternoon, I thought I could distinguish a mountain to our right, 
which appeared like a small blue cloud. Viewed it with the spy-glass, and 
■was still more confirmed in my conjecture, yet only communicated it to Dr. 
Robinson, who was in front with me; but in half an hour, they appeared in 
full view before us. When our small party arrived on the hill, they with 
one accord gave three cheers for the Mexican mountain." 

Near the point from which the mountains were first discovered on the 
Greenhorn river, a tributary of the Arkansas, (at that time named St. 
Charles by Maj. Pike), a small fort was constructed, and a portion of the 
party left for its defense. With the remainder, Maj. Pike proceeded in a 
northwesterly direction toward the Grand Peak, now named Pike's Peak, 
in honor of its first American discoverer. From the same diary, November 
17, 1806, we make the following extract, which will be readily understood 
by all Colorado tourists: "Marched at our usual hour, pushed with an idea 
of arriving at the mountains; but found at night no visible diflFerence in 
their appearance from what we did yesterday." 

From the same, November 25, we quote: "Marched early, with expec- 
tation of ascending the mountain, but was only able to camp at its base, 
after passing over many small hills, covered with cedars and pitch pines." 
Maj. Pike writes, on the 27th of November: "Arose hungry and dry, and 
extremely sore, from the inequality of the rocks on which we had lain all 
night, but were amply compensated for the toil by the sublimity of the pros- 
pect below. The unbounded prairie was overhung with clouds, which 
appeared like the ocean in a storm — wave piled on wave, and foaming, while 
the sky was perfectly clear where we were. Commenced our march up the 
mountain, and in about one hour arrived at the summit of this chain. Here 
we found snow middle deep; no sign of beast or birds inhabiting the region. 
The thermometer, which stood at nine degrees above zero at the foot of ^he 
mountains, here fell to four below. The summit of the Grand Peak, which 
was entirely bare of vegetation, and covered with snow, now appeared at the 
distance of fifteen or sixteen miles from us, and as high again as what we 
had ascended, and would have taken a whole day's march to arrive at its 
base, where, I believe, no human being could have ascended to its pinnacle." 


On the 3d of December, Maj. Pike continues: "Dr. Robinson and 
myself went out and took the altitude of the north mountain, (now Pike's 
Peak,) on the base of a mile. The perpendicular height of the mountain, 
from the level of the prairie, was 10,581 feet, and admitting the prairie was 
8,000 feet from the level of the sea, it would make the elevation of this 
peak 18.581 feet." He adds, "This mountain was so remarkable as to be 
known to all the savage nations for hundreds of miles around, and to be 
spoken of with admiration by the Spaniards of New Mexico, and was the 
bounds of their travels northwest." 

Maj. Pike's measurement of the altitude of the peak has since been 
proven incorrect, being too high by over 3,000 feet, but no overestimate can 
be made of the importance of his discovery, which first attracted attention 
to these remarkable regions, now known to be extremely rich in mineral 
deposits and agricultural resources, and already the home of over 60,000 
prosperous people. The first name very appropriately given to this country, 
after the discovery of gold, Wiis the "Pike's Peak gold regions." To this 
bold explorer, Maj. Zebulon Pike, whom no dangers or hardships could deter 
from the rigid discharge of duty, or vigorous prosecution of his explorations, 
the citizens of Colorado are indebted for the discovery of their rich and 
beautiful Territory, and should award all honor. 

After failing in his attempts to ascend the Grand Peak, Maj. Pike and 
his party returned to the plains, and continued their explorations in a north- 
westerly direction, along the base of the mountains. The ascent of one of 
northwestern tributaries of the Arkansas to its source, brought the party to 
the "Divide." which was crossed, when a stream, forty yards in width, flow- 
ing northeast, was discovered, (December 13). This was, without doubt, 
the south fork of the Platte. After fording this stream, the journey north- 
westward was continued over plains, across mountains, and through deep 
canons, until the 18th of December, when another river was discovered, 
twenty-five yards in width, which "ran with great rapidity, and was filled 
with rocks." This, Maj. Pike first supposed to be the Red river, the source 
of which was the object of their continued search — but afterward acknowl- 
edged his mistake, and pronunced and mapped it the Pierre Jaunor, the 
Yellow Stone of to-day, a branch of the Missouri. 

This river has since been considered by Col. Fremont and others, not the 
Yellow Stone, but the Grand river (near its source), a tributary of the Great 
Colorado, which empties its vast accumulation of waters into the Gulf of 
California. According to this theory, Maj. Pike has the honor of being 
the first American explorer who discovered the head waters of this famous 
river, and the second that crossed the main range that crowns the Atlantic 
and Pacific slopes of the continent. 

Being now fully convinced that the object so diligently sought for, the 
source of the Red River of Louisiana, must be further south, their course 
was shaped accordingly. The suff"ering of the party at this time was extreme. 
They were in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, in mid-winter, without 
warm clothing or blankets — the latter had been cut up to make stockings 
to protect their feet as much as possible. Still the search was continued 
southward until the Rio del Norte was reached, and Maj. Pike found 
himself and party Spanish prisoners. 

This brief account of the portion of these explorations which refer to 
parts of the country traveled over, that are now within the boundaries of 


Colorado, shows that nearly its entire extent, north and south, was traveled, 
without meeting any evidence of the existence of regular settlements of 
civilized beings. No hunters or trappers — these pioneers of all wild coun- 
tries — were met within the limits of the country which now embraces our 
Territory, and probably nothing human, except the wild Indian, existed in 
all these regions, now populous and prosperous. 

The next expedition, sent west of the plains by the United States gov- 
ernment, was fitted out under orders from John C. Calhoun, Secretary of 
War, and started from Pittsburgh, Pa., in April, 1819. This was com- 
manded by Col. S. H. Long, assisted by Maj. Biddle, Lieut. J. D. Graham, 
Cadet W. H. Swift, Dr. Baldwin, Dr. Thomas Say, and others. This expe- 
dition traveled westward as far as the Blue river, a tributary of the Kansas, 
where their horses were stolen by the Pawnees, and they were compelled to 
go into winter quarters. During the winter. Col. Long returned to Wash- 
ington and completed arrangements for the further equipment of his party, 
and on the 6th of June, 1820, again set out for the Rocky Mountains. 
They first struck the Platte about forty miles south from where Fort Kear- 
ney is now located, and followed its south fork to where it escapes from the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Col. Long's first view of the mountains was from near St. Train's fort, 
and the peak which he first witnessed, towering above the clouds, was named 
Long's Peak, by which it is still known. The party did not ascend the 
peak, but from estimated measurement, pronounced it higher than Pike's 
Peak, which has not been established by correct survey. By this expedi- 
tion, a careful examination was made of the mountains, and the portions of 
the plains that lie along their base from the South Platte to the Arkansas, 
all of which is now within the limits of Colorado. Dr. James, of this party, 
and two men, made the ascent of the Grand Peak, described by Pike, and 
were, without doubt, the first Americans, if not the first human beings, who 
ever stood upon the summit of this famous mountain. This party named 
the peak James' Peak, in honor of Dr. James, and Col. Long describes it 
under this name in his published narrative of the expedition ; but when 
Col. Fremont visited the country in 18-12, he found that the white settlers 
had called it Pike's Peak, and so styles it in his very interesting account of 
explorations on the plains, in the Rocky Mountains, and on the western 
slopes of the continent and California. Dr. James' ambition to have a 
mountain peak named after him, has been gratified, however, and a very 
respectable peak, in Boulder county, now bears his name. Col. Long and 
his party have furnished names for three mountain peaks. Long's, Graham's, 
and James', and for one mineral spring. Bell's Springs, near the Arkansas, 
in southern Colorado. 

Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville, of the United States army, in 1832, com- 
manded an expedition fitted out by the American Fur Company, which 
made very thorough explorations in the Rocky Mountains, but mostly in 
portions of these either north or south of Colorado. The incidents of these 
explorations form the subject of a most interesting work, written by Wash- 
ington Irving, and published by Carey, Lea & Blanchard, Philadephia, in 
1837, under the title of "The Rocky Mountains j or, scenes, incidents and 
adventures in the far West; digested from a journal by Capt. B. L. E. 
Bonneville, and illustrated from various other sources." 

Capt. Bonneville claims to have been the first man who proved that the 


head waters of the great rivers, that flow east and west from the Rocky 
Mountains, had their origin very nearly together in the Sierra Madres, which 
has not been disputed. 

To Col. Fremont was entrusted the command of the next important 
expedition organized by the United States authorities for explorations across 
the vast plains, and over the Rocky Mountains to the the Pacific coast, by a 
route which lay through the territory now within the limits of Colorado. 
This expedition, by far the most complete and eiFective ever organized up to 
that date by the United States for these purposes, commenced explorations 
in 1842, which were completed in 1844. Col. Fremont's party, in 1842, was 
composed of about twenty-three men, well armed, and provided with all 
necessary equipments. Chas. Pruess was assistant-topographical engineer, and 
the celebrated scout, Kit Carson, guide. They left Chouteau's landing, on 
the Missouri river, (near the mouth of the Kansas), on the 10th day of June, 
and after many adventures, which are most graphically described by Col. 
Fremont in his interesting narrative of the expedition, arrived on the south 
fork of the Platte, at a point about forty miles from Fort Kearney, early in 
July. From here, Col. Fremont dispatched the larger portion of his party 
to Fort Laramie, and with the balance proceeded up the South Platte. 
Their first view of Long's Peak was obtained on the 8th of July, when 
they were about sixty miles from the base of the mountain. The party con- 
tinued their journey up the valley of the Platte as far as St. Train's Fort, a 
trading post and stronghold occupied by St. Vrain and his company, seven- 
teen miles east from Long's Peak, and about 100 miles north from Pike's Peak, 
on the right bank of the river. According to Col. Fremont's calculations, 
the longitude of this post is 105° 12' 12" west, and its latitude 40° 22' 30" 
north; its altitude 5.400 feet above sea level. St. Vrain and his company 
were engaged in trapping and Indian trading exclusively. Besides this 
company. Col. Fremont met near this place a party of independent trappers, 
mostly New Englanders; Chabonard, a Frenchman, in the employ of Bent 
and St. Vrain, and his followers, and one Spaniard, which were all the white 
inhabitants of the region. The Spaniard was the first of that nation met 
west of the Missouri. As Col. Fremont was anxious to push his explora- 
tions further north in the Rocky Mountains, and to join his party at Fort 
Laramie, he traveled no further southward at this time, but left St. Vrain's 
on the 12th of July. Journeying north, he crossed the *Big Thompson, 
Cache-a-la-Poudre, and Crow creeks, and passed along the base of the Black 
Hills to Fort Laramie, a post of the American Fur Company. From thifi 
point. Col. Fremont's explorations were continued in a direction which led 
him far north of the limits of our Territory, and we will not follow him. 
At this time the Indian tribes on the plains were very hostile and trouble- 
some, even to a party of troops numbering forty persons, well armed and 
equipped, and often caused delay to the largest parties of emigrants on their 
way to California. 

Col. Fremont's next expedition, which traversed a much larger portion 
of our Territory, was fitted out at Kansas, Mo., (now Kansas City), and 
numbered thirty-nine persons. 3Ir. Charles Pruess, the topographical engi- 
neer of the first expedition, was still one of the party, and its appointments 

* The names of these branches of the Platte were given to them by the officers of 
the American Fur Company, and trappers, and have .since been adopted by the United 
States authorities. 


were in every way complete. Early ia July, 1843, this party reached St. 
Vraiu's fort. From thence they proceeded southward to the "Divide," an 
elevation of the plains, which separates the waters of the Platte and Arkan- 
sas; across this to the Arkansas, and arrived at the celebrated Soda Springs, 
near the base of Pike's Peak, on the 17th of July. After carefully exam- 
ining these springs, and exploring the surrounding mountains and valleys, 
they returned to St. Vrain's fort, and journeyed from thence up the Caehe- 
aJa-Poudre, to the base of Long's Peak, and across the main range of the 
Rocky Mountains, to the head waters of the Colorado. After further explo- 
rations, westward and southward, they recrossed the main range, near the 
base of Mount Lincoln, and made their way through South Park to the 
Arkansas, and from thence eastward to the States. Space forbids our pub- 
lishing any of the details of these most important explorations, which were 
conducted with consummate skill and untiring energy. Col. Fremont's most 
interesting narrative, and accompanying maps, have attracted much atten- 
tion to this remarkable region, and contain excellent and accurate descrip- 
tions of the country traveled over. They should be read by every person 
interested in Colorado. A re^nme of our brief sketch of the discovery and 
earliest settlement of the Territory, will show that there were no white 
settlers in the country in 1843, except a ^a-^ independent trappers, traders 
and adventurers, and the employes of the American Fur Company; and 
that besides these, the only inhabitants were a small number of Pueblos, or 
civilized Indians and Mexicans, in the southern portion, and bands of 
savages, who roamed the plains. These latter were mostly Pawnees, Chey- 
enes, Arapahoes and Utes. It will be seen, also, that none of these discov- 
erers, explorers or settlers, who were in the country at this time, had any 
knowledge of the existence of precious metals beneath the soil or rocks they 
traveled over. Colorado did not commence to make history until the dis- 
covery of gold. 


If there were inhabitants in the territory, now embraced by the bound- 
aries of Colorado previous to the organization of the province of Louisiana, 
they were, undoubtedly, governed by the authorities of New Spain. After 
the boundaries of Louisiana were defined, they would, of course, become 
citizens of that extensive province, and be, first, subject to French authority, 
then Spanish, again French, and finally, United States. When Louisiana 
was divided into States and Territories, this portion became a part of the 
Territory, and afterward State, of Kansas. Before the United Statesbecame 
possessors of the country, we have no records of any settlements or inhabit- 
ants except in the southern portion, where a few Pueblos, Mexicans and 
Spaniards had possession ; but they considered themselves, and really were, 
Mexican subjects, and were governed accordingly. After the United States 
obtained possession, and, previous to th« discovery of gold in 1858, the only 


American settlers were Indian traders, hunters and trappers, mostly under 
control of the American Fur Company, and, of course, acknowledging the 
authority of the United States government, but having no representation ia 
any State or Territorial legislature, nor did they care for an}-. Their num- 
bers were inconsiderable, and but little is known of them in any way. The 
Fur Company enforced their regulations inside of their posts and forts by 
semi-military authority, and, outside of these, every man was his own law- 
maker, and enforced his enactments with the rifle or revolver. These 
pioneers were bold, adventurous men, wedded to the dangers and excite- 
ments of border life (as well as to Indian wives), and, as civilization 
intrudes, they move southward and westward, to regions yet but little 
known. In brief, the only recognized authorities in what is now Colorado,, 
after its possession by the United States^ previous to the discovery of gold, 
were the American Fur Company, and United States military, and these 
controlled only within the limits of forts, posts, or camps. After the dis- 
covery of gold, in 1858, and the great influx of inhabitants that immediately 
followed this important event, the necessity of proper representation in halls 
of legislation, and the enactment of local laws, were apparent. The first 
movement toward accomplishing these worthy objects, was effected by 
defining the boundaries of a county named Arapahoe, with Auraria as its 
county seat; the next measure, the election of a representative to the Kan- 
sas legislature and a delegate to Congress, This election was held in 
Auraria, on the 6th day of November, 1858, and resulted in the choice of 
A. J. Smith as representative and H. J. Graham as delegate. The delegate 
proceeded to Washington at once, with instructions to do all in his power to 
prevail upon Congress to separate the Pike's Peak gold regions from the 
State of Kansas, and form thereof a new Territory, Mr. Graham was not 
successful in his mission; but, no doubt, bis eftbrts did a good part toward 
paving the way to its accomplishment in 1861. During the winter of 1858, 
the citizens of Auraria, St. Charles, and such other settlements as were then 
on the plains near them, governed themselves by local laws enacted by the 
"people" of each settlement. The execution of these laws was entrusted 
to a probate judge, and other officials, who nominally represented the 
authority of the State of Kansas, but, really, that of the "people's courts," 
which have, since that time, occasionally been compelled to exercise authority 
when other recognized powers have been unable to guard the public peace 
and safety. When this court dictates, in Colorado, every body and every thing 
obeys. In the spring of 1859, the discovery of gold in the mountains 
attracted immense emigration, and miners thronged the mountain slopes, 
gulches and valleys along Clear creek. For the government of this popula- 
tion, congregated in these wilds from all portions of the world, rigid laws 
were required; and, though the authority of the State of Kansas was 
represented here, also, by oflicials elected by the citizens and commissioned 
by the State, this was found inadequate to enforce laws and secure public 
safety. Stronger power than that emanating from a distant State capital 
was required; and this was found in miners' courts, and that superior court, 
a miners' meeting. 

The miners' courts were organized at a general meeting of the inhabitants 
of a district, who enacted a code of laws, criminal and civil ; defined the 
boundaries of the district; prescribed the duties of officers, and elected these 
officers for the following year. The laws difiered in some minor points ia 


each district, but were all nearly alike, as they were based upon similar 
enactments in California and Nevada, and framed by miners from these older 
mining countries. The oflBcers of the court were : A president, judge, sheriff 
or constable, and a collector, surveyor and recorder, who was, ex-ojficio, 
secretary and treasurer of the district. Each had his special duties defined, 
and all were amenable to the miners' meetings, which were the superior courts 
of the districts. These laws presented many extremely primitive features, and 
were entirely free from the technicalities that retard the wheels of justice in 
ordinary courts of law. No "circumlocution office" delays followed the de- 
cisions of the miners' courts, and but little legal lore was required in those who 
argued points of law before the august judge of a mining district. The fol- 
lowing extracts from the laws of the miners' court of Spanish Bar district, in 
I860, will illustrate these conclusions. From the Criminal Code, section first, 
we quote: "Any person guilty of willful murder, upon conviction thereof, 
shall be hung by the neck until he is dead." Section second : "Any person 
guilty of manslaughter, or homicide, shall be punished as a jury of twelve 
men may direct." Section third: "Any person shooting or threatening to 
shoot another, using or threatening to use any deadly weapons, except in 
self-defence, shall be fined a sum not less than fifty nor more than five hun- 
dred dollars, and receive, in addition, as many stripes, on his bare back, as a 
jury of six men may direct, and be banished from the district." Section 
fourth : " Any person found guilty of petit larceny shall be fined in a sum 
double the amount stolen, and such other punishment as a jury of six men 
may direct." Section fifth : " Any person found guilty of grand larceny 
shall be fined in a sum double the amount stolen, and receive not less than 
fifty nor more than three hundred lashes, on his bare back, and be banished 
from the district, and such other punishment as a j ury of six men may direct." 

Not much chance for legal quibbling or evasion is apparent in these con- 
cise rules of action. One prominent feature, plain to every one who reads 
these laws, and perfectly well understood in the mining districts, is the pro- 
vision which enacts measures certain to rid the community of the offender, 
at once and permanently. In the first two sections, the manner by which 
the violator of the law is gotten out of the district, is quite clearly defined — 
he left for "that country from whose bourne," etc., rather suddenly, from 
the end of a rope with a noose affixed. A rigid enforcement of the third 
section, which always followed, sent him away with a lacerated back and slim 
purse, and such other doses of Colorado justice as the ingenuity of miners 
might suggest — in all, quite sufficient to last a life-time, without repetition. 
One wise provision of these laws, which always legalized hanging, if deemed 
necessary, was that "such other punishment" clause, that usually had a coil 
of rope in connection with its enforcement. 

Many of the sections of the civil code were Equally as pointed and con- 
cise. For instance, section twenty-three defines what constitutes citizenship, 
in the following unmistakable language: "Any person owning a claim, or 
working or living in this district, shall be entitled to a vote^and all the 
rights of citizenship." No distinction of sex or color in these Colorado 
laws, which were in force years before the ratification of the fifteenth 
amendment. Sturdy miners were the pioneers in the great progressive 
movement which has resulted in giving equal rights to all men, and ahead 
of all the world in the reform so much desired by the Cady Stantons and 
Anthonys of to-day — female suffrage. The sorosis societies and clubs of 


New York, New England, and elsewhere, should adopt resolutions of grate-, 
ful acknowledgment to the pioneer miners of Colorado for the prompt 
manner in which they admitted women to all the rights of citizenship. 

Their preemption and other laws, which defined what constituted a lode 
discovery and regulated the extent of each claim on the lode, and explained 
what formed regular ownership or legal title to the same; which also defined 
the extent and legal boundaries of mill sites, and water-powers, and giilch 
and placer claims, and regulated sales and transfers of property of all kinds, 
were primitive, and, perhaps, imperfect in regard to legal forms and techni- 
calities, but were executed promptly — and all proceedings under these have 
been already approved by enactments of Territoral legislatures and United 
States Congress. 

Besides exercising the authorities of criminal, district, and probate courts, 
the officers of the miners' courts were, ex-oj/icio, county, village, and city 
officials, and discharged all duties usually entrusted to these. Records of 
preemptions, mining claims, and transfers of property, were duly filed at the 
recorder's office, in books open for the inspection of all ; the recorder, beside 
keeping these records, acting as surveyor for the district, secretary of miners' 
meetings, and treasurer of the district. The president presided at miners' 
meetings and at courts, when the judge was in any way interested in the case 
at issue. He also signed all orders on the treasury, and appointed officers 
of the district to fill vacancies. The judge presided at the courts, and per- 
formed the duties of the president in his absence. The duties of the sherifi" 
were similar to those performed by the same official in regularly organized 
counties, such as the execution of all criminal penalties, service of official 
papers, attachment of property on execution, sales of such, and the due 
regulation of all courts. The collector performed the usual duties assigned 
to such officials; and all gave bonds for the faithful discharge of their 
respective duties. The laws were administered with promptness and fairness 
as a rule, by the officers of these courts, and their enactments have since been 
legalized by the General Government. Much litigation may result from the 
imperfect manner in which mining claims were defined in those early days; 
but, as yet, the old landmarks are respected, and old titles, however imper- 
fectly made out, are considered good and sufficient guarantee of ownership. 

The first miners' court in the Territory was organized in the mountains 
in Gregory district (now in Gilpin county), which was the first mining district 
organized after the discovery of a gold lode by Gregory, in honor of whom 
it was named. 

About this time (early in 1859) the discovery of many rich lodes and 
gulch claims, and the remarkable increase of the mining population, neces- 
sitated the organization of other districts, which followed rapidly. The 
boundaries of these were established at a general meeting of the miners of 
the districts, convened in Central City, Gilpin county, in Feburary, 1860, 
the same as they exist to-day. 

The failure of the delegate to Congress to efifect any Territorial form 
of government, the remoteness of the capital of Kansas, and the entire 
absence of United States officers of any kind, in the Pike's Peak gold 
region, which had already a population of over 20,000, made it apparent to 
all that some prompt measures should be taken by which a regular form of 
government should be established. Political matters were freely discussed 
by all classes, and the citizens of Arapahoe county, then the only county 


organized in the region, convened at a general mass meeting in Denver, in 
April, 1859, to take measures to effect the desired object. After much dLs- 
cussion, this meeting adjourned until the first day of August, 1859, after 
having decided that the adjourned meeting should be composed of delegates 
elected by the people. 

These were duly elected, and at the time specified, 128 met at Denver. 
There were two prominent parties in the convention; one favoring a Terri- 
torial form of government; the other, that the Pike's Peak gold region be 
admitted at once as a State, under similar enactments to those that admitted 
California. The former were in the majority, and decided to memorialize 
Congress for a Territorial form of government, and submit their proceedings 
to the people for confirmation. In accordance with this, an election was 
held on the 4th of September, 1859, at which the proceedings of the con- 
vention were ratified, and a delegate elected to visit Washington, and effect, 
if possible, the desired organization, in accordance with resolution adopted 
by the convention of August 1. Beverdy D. Williams was chosen for this 
important mission, and succeeded in so representing matters to Congress, 
that a Territorial organization was authorized by act of Congress; approved 
February 26, 1861. 

During the pending of these measures, the minority of the August con- 
vention, and many other citizens, decided upon a provisional government, 
and placed their proposition before the people. Pursuant to this measui'e, 
representatives were elected from all parts of the country, and a session of 
legislature was held in Denver during the months of xS ovember and Decem- 
ber, 1859, and January, 1860. The following were the ofiicers of this 
legislative body of questionable legality: James A. Gray, speaker of the 
house; Eli Carter, president of the council, pro tern., and L. W. Bliss, 
acting governor. They enacted laws, and passed special acts, which were 
duly promulgated, and remained in force until the Territorial government 
was inaugurated. Many of these have been confirmed by the regular law- 
making authorities that followed in due course, and still make up a portion 
of the general laws and special enactments of Colorado. The name for the 
country, adopted by the provisional government, was Jefferson Territory, 
and its boundaries embraced a much smaller section than that now within 
the limits of Colorado Territory. While these parties were agitating seces- 
sion frijm the State of Kansas, and the formation of a State or Territorial 
form of government, there was yet a third party, a hopeless sort of minority, 
who still claimed allegiance to Kansas, and elected representatives to the 
legislative body of that State. Nothing was effected by these officials, and 
the control of Kansas over the Pike's Peak gold regions was never duly 
acknowledged, especially in the mountain mining regions. Among the 
special acts of the Jefi'ersonian legislature, we find the following: 

An act to charter and consolidate Denver, Auraria and Highland, under 
the style and name of Denver. Approved December 3, 1859. 

An act to incorporate the Denver Mutual Insurance Company, with the 
following corporators: K. B. Bradford, D. P. Wallingford, Amos Steck, E. 
W. Cobb, William Davidson, Jones & Cartright, Hart & Clark, M. D. 
Hickman, and H. H. McAfee. Approved December 7, 1859. 

To corporate the Golden Gate Town Company, with the following mem- 
bers: J. L. Rodgers, Charles Fletcher, T. L. Golden, H. S. Hawley, and 
W. G. Preston. Approved December 7, 1859. 


To incorporate a wagon road from Auraria and Denver cities to South 
Park, with Samuel Brown, J. H. Cochran and Joseph Brown, as corporators. 
Approved December 7, 1859. 

To incorporate the Cibola Hydraulic Company, with the following mem- 
bers: J. W. Mclntyre, D. C. Vance, A. McPhaeder, D. McClery, and F. B. 
Chase. This authorized the company to build a dam across Clear creek, 
four miles above Golden City, and dig ditches through which water from 
the creek could be brought to Golden City and surrounding country. 
Approved December 7, 1859. 

An act to incorporate the Boulder City, Gold Hill, and Left Hand Creek 
wagon road; granted to T. J. Graham, E. D. Steele, and William Pelltheir. 
Approved December 7, 1859. 

The Consolidated Ditch Company, which is now well known in Gilpin 
county, and supplies water to the extensive mining districts about Nevada 
and Central, and the beautiful artificial lake near the latter city, was char- 
tered by an act approved December 2, 1859, with the following as charter 

members: W. G. Russell, B. F. Chase, J. M. Wood, C. K. Roberts, 

Dufrees, A. H. Owens, Henry Allen, W. M. Slaughter, and G. W. Cleve- 
land. These names are still as well known in Colorado as is their important 
enterprise, and belong to men who have all been prominent actors in events 
which have since become a part of the history of the country. This canal 
conveys a portion of the waters of Fall river, from a point about twelve 
miles from Central City, northwest to the lake above mentioned, and to all 
of the mills and mines on both sides of Russell gulch; along the slopes of 
Quartz hill, and surrounding gulches and mountains. Its waters have 
washed from the sands of these districts millions of dollars of shining gold, 
and supplied stamp mills, which have crushed hundreds of thousands of 
tons of quartz, yielding fabulous amounts of precious metals. 

By these extracts from the special acts of the provisional government, it 
will be seen that the earlier citizens of Colorado took prompt measures to 
develop, iu due form, their remarkably rich Territory, the results of which 
are excellent wagon roads, connecting all important points, and traversing 
the entire extent of every inhabited section; substantial bridges, spanning 
the principal streams; irrigating canals, supplying water to millions of acres 
of fertile soil, and to innumerable mines, mills and reduction works; and 
well built towns and cities, with public buildings, store-rooms and private 
residences, not surpassed in architectural beauty or capacity by those of 
older eastern cities. 

A brief resume of this sketch of forms of government previous to Ter- 
ritorial organization, shows that but little attention was paid to legislative 
matters previous to the discovery of gold, and that the vast extent of 
country, now embraced within our limits, was controlled either by military 
ofiicers of the Spanish, French or United States governments, or those of 
the American Fur Company. The people had no representation iu any 
legislative body, and were not much troubled with office seekers, caucuses 
or primary meetings. Civil-service reform, retrenchment, or free trade 
measures were not discussed by these hunters, traders and trappers, and 
but little interest taken in the appointment of internal revenue officers. 
Tax collectors, and even postmasters, were unknown. After the discovery 
of gold, and the great emigration that followed, political matters were freely 
discussed, delegates elected to Congress, and measures inaugurated for the 


establishment of a Territorial form of government, which waa secured in 
1861. _ 111 the meantime, the emigrants governed themselves by the neonle's 
and miners courts, and a provisional government. During this unsettled 
condition of governmental affairs, in a country remote from civilization with 
a population composed of adventurers from all countries, of course more or 
kss lawlessness existed, and acts of violence and bloodshed were not uncom- 
mon; but the perpetrators of these crimes were soon dealt summarily with 
by the law-abiding citizens, and early in 1860, after a few judicious hang- 
mg-s, whippings and banishments had taken place, the population was L 
orderly, and life and property as secure as in the old States. 


Colorado embraces, within her limits, the most elevated region in North 
America. The ascent to the summit of Mount Lincoln commences at the 
Atlantic ocean, on the east; the Pacific ocean, on the west; the Gulf of 
Mexico and Isthmus of Darieu, on the south ; and the unexplored regions 
of the north pole, on the north. From these remote points, the a^scent, 
though often interrupted, is gradual. The elevation reached falls short of 
that of the highest peaks of the Andes, in South America, and the towering 
summits of the Himalayas, in Asia, but exceeds that of any of the mountain 
ranges of Europe. 

The portion of the Rocky Mountains known as the Sierra Madres, of 
which Mount Lincoln is the lookout tower,forms the most remarkable feature 
of the Territory, and of the northern portion of the continent. Other 
interesting outlines are the plains — the broad threshold to these vniit 
mountain amphitheatres ; the foot-hills, which form the topmost stop of the 
stairway, thousands of miles in length, that leads to their grand corridors ; 
the parks, which are monster arenas within their walls ; and the great rivers, 
that form their system of sewerage. 

The location of the Territory is in the western central division of North 
America and of the United States; between the thirty-seventh and forty- 
first parallels of north latitude, and 102d and 109th meVidians of west longi- 
tude. It is bounded, on the north, by Wyoming and Nebraska; on the cast, 
by Nebraska and Kansas; on the south, by New Mexico; and on the west, 
by Utah. The area embraced forms nearly a square, its greatest length, exst 
and west, containing about 106,475 square miles, or 67,420,000 acres — a 
greater extent of country than all of Great Britain, with a colony or two 
included, and quite as large as New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachu.sett.s, 
with New Jersey thrown in for good measure. The plains extend over one- 
third of this vast region; the balance is covered by mountain chains, their 
valleys, and the great system of parks. About one-third of this area is 
good agricultural lands, with soil of unusual strength and fertility ; the larger 
portion of the balance, which occupies a location below " timber line." is covered 
with dense forest, suitable for lumber or fuel, and traversed by innumerable 


mountain ranges, many of these rent by deep fissure veins, bearing all kinds of 
valuable minerals and the precious metals. The principal^ rivers that drain 
the middle and western portion of North America, arise within the limits of 
this Territory. 


The Cordillera de la Sierra Madres of the Spaniards are the principal 
mountain ranges of Colorado Territory and North America. The por- 
tion of these which traverse the Territory, extend from Fisher's Peak, at the 
southern boundary, to the Black Hills, at the northern. From Fisher's Peak, 
which attains an elevation of 7,169 feet, the course of the main range is 
nearly due north to Pike's Peak ; it then curves south, and west, and again 
north, around South Park to Mount Lincoln ; then east, along the northern 
boundary of Park county to its centre; then turning to the north, and 
keeping that course to the centre of the western limits of Clear Creek 
county. From this point, it makes a sharp turn to the west, around the 
head waters of Clear creek; then curves north, and again east, along the 
northern boundary of Clear Creek county, to its central point; and then. 
away northward, to the limits of the Territory and the Black Hills. Follow- 
ing the convolutions of the main range, the distance from Fisher's Peak to 
the northern boundary of Colorado is over 500 miles; whereas, a direct line 
connecting these points is not quite 300 miles in length. The average 
breadth of the range, at its base, is about twenty miles. Its summit is 
broken and serrated : hence the name, Sierra. The highest elevation 
attained is the summit of Mount Lincoln, which, according to the estimate 
by Prof. Dubois, the metallurgist of the Stevens Mining Company, is 17,300 
feet above sea level. Other principal peaks attaining great elevations are : 
Long's Peak, arising from the northern division of the range, 14,056 feet ; 
Gray's Peak, south of this, 14,251 feet; Parry's Peak, near this, 13,133 
feet; and Pike's Peak, in the southern division, 14,216 feet. The average 
elevation of the base of the range is between 5,000 and 6,000 feet, and that 
of its summit, between 11,000 and 12,000 feet. The lowest points in the 
range — passes through which the wagon roads and trails have been con- 
structed — are from 11,200 to 11,487 feet; the former, Ute's Pass, 
and the latter, Georgia Pass, from South to Middle Park. The elevations at 
which timber ceases to grow — " timber line " — are irregular, being greater on 
the eastern than on western slopes, and greater on the peaks than on the 
main body of the range. The highest point at which timber grows, on the 
eastern slope, is over 11,800 feet; on the western, 11,300 feet; on the peaks, 
over 12,000 feet. The region of eternal snows is not continuous in the Rocky 
Mountains. In the warm summer months, the snow melts entirely from all 
parts of the range, except where great masses have lodged in deep ravines, 
near the summit. During the winter months, snows fall to great depths, and 
whiten the bald brows of these mountain giants, which, when illumined 
by the bright rays of the sun, shine with startling brilliancy, and presci: 
features of wondrous beauty. The melting of these snows forms great river- 
which do their part toward supplying the greater oceans with unfathome i 

Branching from the main range are innumerable spurs, presenting sim: 
lar features to those of the body of the range, and often reachins equ;: 
elevations. These form the dividing ridge between the water courses which 


flow from the slopes of the main mountains, and nearly inclose numerous 
beautiful valleys and parks. Where these terminate, on the east, the foot- 
hills begin. Until timber line is reached, forests, composed of different 
varieties of pines, cover the declivities of these mountains, and spread out 
over their valleys. Vegetation, including a great variety of grasses peculi- 
arly nutritious, and many specimens of flowering plants unusually fragrant 
and beautiful, is abundant in the valleys and on the range, even far above- 
timber, skirting the everlasting snows. The frosts of winter do not kill 
these grasses ; they never decay, but become cured during the winter months, 
and are equally as nutritious, and afford equally as good pasture at all seasons. 
This is characteristic of all the grasses of Colorado — a feature that makes 
the Territory the best grazing region in the world. 

The main range and its spurs are the principal homes of the silver 
lodes, and have, locked in their granite vaults, untold mineral wealth. 
These vaults open only to well-directed labor and enterprise, but reward 
these with treasures of great richness. The extent of the belt of silver 
mines is unknown, as new explorations always result in new discoveries ; 
but at present the only well developed mines are in Boulder, Clear Creek, 
Gilpin, Park, and Summit counties, although many lodes that promise 
immense yields have been discovered in Lake county, and other locations 
along the southern division of the mountain range. 


Running parallel with the main range, from the Black Hills, on the 
north, to the Wet Mountains, on the south, are the foot-hills — a chain of 
mountains, serrated, like the principal range, and broken through, at many 
points, by the numerous tributaries of the Platte and Arkansas rivers. In 
forcing their way through these monster hills, the streams excavate immense 
ravines, or gorges, called canons, which present the appearance of huge fis- 
sures in the rocky formation of the mountains, extending from their summit 
to their base, and are often thousands of feet in depth. Through these the 
waters rush with great violence, often carrying before them large boulders, 
that become round by attrition with the bed-rocks of the streams. These 
are frequently found, along the course of the tributaries of the Platte, con- 
siderable distance from the base of the mountains. The foot-hills reach an 
elevation of over 10,000 feet, and are from ten to twenty-five miles in width. 
Their greatest width is attained in Clear Creek county, and their least, near 
the base of Pike's Peak. Like the mountains, they inclose innumerable 
valleys, and small parks, covered with forest trees — the different varieties of 
pine, larch, and aspen — and other species of vegetation. 

The soil of these valleys is of unusual strength and fertility, and pro- 
duces the hardier cereals, potatoes, turnips, cabbage, and other vegetables, 
abundantly, besides being the best hay-growing ground in the world. 

Along the base of these hills, coal mines of vast extent have already 
been developed, and iron and, copper ores exist in considerable quantities. 
Traversing their slopes and summits, are the most extensive belts of gold 
mines ever discovered. These bear immense quantities of ores, of unusual 
richness, which have already yielded large sums of gold, and are now sup- 
plying wealth to thousands of industrious miners. The belt of developed 
mines lies chiefly in Boulder, Gilpin, and the eastern portion of Clear Creek 
counties, a full description of which appears in the appropriate chapter. 



South of the foot-hills, and east of the main range, are the Wet 
mountains, which branch out from the range, south of Pike's Peak, and run 
in a southeasterly direction, to the Huerfano rivers These forna the north- 
ern and eastern walls of Huerfano park. 

South of the Wet mountains, and east of the range, between the Huer- 
iano and Purgatory rivers, forming the divide between these tributaries of 
the Arkansas, are the Spanish peaks, an independent series of mountain 
cones, drained by the tributaries of the Arkansas, north, east, and south, and 
those of the Rio del Norte on the west. 

South of the Purgatory and north of the Cimarron river (a tributary 
of the Arkansas river), and forming the water-shed between these rivers, are 
the Ratoon mountains, which run nearly east and west, and form the 
southern base of Colorado. West of the main range, in the southern 
portion of the Territory, are, first, the Sierra San Juan, which form the 
western wall of San Luis park. These run nearly north and south j their 
northern and eastern limits, the Rio Grande del Norte ; and their -western, 
the Sierra la Platta, which also lie south of the Rio Grande del Norte, and 
extend westward, from the San Juan range to the southwestern boundary of 
the Territory. West of the main range, and north of the above series of 
mountain chains, are the Sawatch mountains, which run nearly parallel with 
the Sierra Madre, broken by many tributaries of the Gunnison (the principal 
southern branch of the Colorado), and often arising to elevations of 11,000 
feet above sea level. West of these are the Uncompahgre mountains, which 
form the divide between the principal southern branches of the Colorado 
and the Rio del Norte, and traverse the southwestern portion of the Terri- 
tory, from the Sawatch range, westerly, to the Sierra San Miguel, which lie 
between the Gunnison and the Rio del Norte, and extend westward to the 
■western boundary of the Territory. They form the extreme southwestern 
chain of the series of ranges that extend from the main range, west- 
ward, in the southern division of Colorado, to Utah. Northward of these 
mountains, and westward from the main range, in the central portion of 
the western division of the Territory, are the Elk Head ranges, which 
take a westerly direction from the range, until they join the Roan, or Book 
mountains, near the western limits of the Territory, between the waters of 
the White and Grand rivers. North of the latter chain, in the northwestern 
corner of Summit county, are the Sierras Escalante, the last of the sierras 
in Western Colorado. 

The vast region in the Territory, west of the Rocky Mountains, embracing 
an area of over 50,000 square miles (or over 32,000,000 acres), is traversed 
in every direction by these mountain chains and their numerous spurs. 
Their melted snows supply water to the tributaries of the great Colorado of 
the West and the Rio Grande del Norte — two of the greatest rivers on the 
American continent. Except the parks and valleys, but little of this vast 
extent of country is suitable for agricultural purposes; but fine forests, 
afibrding excellent fuel and timber, abound everywhere, except high up on 
the mountain summits; and luxurious grasses, and other species of vegeta- 
tion, are plentiful, making the greater portion of these millions of acres 
excellent pasture lands. 

Without doubt, innumerable belts of mines, bearing all kinds of minerals, 
traverse the entire extent of these mountain ranges; but, as yet, no explora- 


tious have been made, except in the southeastern corner of Sunmiit count}'. 
on the head waters of the Snake and Blue, in a strip of Lake county, along 
its eastern boundary, near the base of the main range, and in the mountains 
around San Luis park. 

The lodes already developed, are rich both in gold and silver, and yield 
largely. The gulch claims are amongst the richest in the Territory, and 
seem unlimited in extent. 


The most remarkable feature of this or any other country, is the park 
system of Colorado. The '"parks" constitute immense irregular basins; 
shut in on all sides by lofty mountain ranges, and were, at some earlier 
period of the geological history of the world, bottoms of great inland 
oceans. The surface of these mountain-locked plateaus is diversified by 
innumerable streams from the melted snows of the surrounding mountains, 
and by the lesser spurs or foot-hills of the ranges. The level or valley 
portion of the parks is clothed with luxuriant grasses and flowering plants of 
different species, and is extremely fertile. The beds of the streams furnish 
every variety of mineral and fossil, in remarkable quantities, and afford a 
field for geological explorations, unrivalled in the new or old world. The 
streams, which are the head waters of all the great rivers that arise in Col-o- 
rado, abound in fish, especially excellent trout. 

The hills or ridges which separate these water-courses, are covered with 
dense forests of pine, in which game, such as bear, elk, and deer, are abundant. 
Mineral springs, whose waters possess rare curative properties, bubble at the 
foot of almost every mountain, and salt and coal beds of great extent seem 
to underlie the entire surface. Besides these, gold gulch diggings, which 
yield good pay, are abundant. 

From the summit of Mt. Lincoln, or Gray's Peak, the observer looks 
down into these basins, as be would into the parks of a large city, from a 
lofty tower. The surrounding mountains are blocks of buildings; their 
peaks the steeples and towers of grand old cathedrals, and their valleys the 
streets and avenues. These have other features that resemble those of the 
pleasure grounds of great cities. Groves of beautiful forest trees, which 
shelter rare animals; pools of clear water, alive with uncommon specimens 
of the finny tribe, and bearing on their surface swimming birds of unusual 
beauty of plumage; and crystal streams, whose margins are bordered by 
soft, grassy banks, and quaint grottoes, adorned with mineral crystalizations 
■of unusual brilliancy. 

The pleasure houses which adorn these parks are different, however, 
from those in cities. Instead of fanciful structures, adorned with ornate 
architectural designs, these have the lodges of Indian tribes, and cabins of 
prospecters and hunters. 

The four principal plateaus, which form this great system of parks, are 
located in the central portion of the Territory, and occupy the largest part 
of a belt running from the sorthern to its southern limits, between the 
longitudinal limits 105° 50' on the east, and 106° 30' on the west. Com- 
mencing north, the first is the North, the second the Middle, the third South, 
and the fourth San Luis park. 

The North park is bounded, on the northeast and south, by the main 
range and its spurs, and, on the west, by the Rabbit Ears mountains and the 


spurs of the Elk Head range. It embraces an area of about 25,000 square 
miles, and is traversed by tributaries of the Morth Fork of the Platte, whick 
unite, near its northern limits, and flow northward beyond the northern 
border of the Territory. Its elevation is between 8,000 and 9,000 feet 
above sea level. 

Immediately south of this, and separated from it by spurs of the range, is 
Middle park, one of the largest of these elevated plateaus This is walled iu 
by spurs of the main range, and the range itself, on the northeast and south, 
and on the west by the Elk Head mountains. The streams flowing through 
this, mostly in a southwesterly direction, are all tributaries of the Grand — 
the main northern branch of the Colorado. Including the slopes of the 
ranges that surround it, and their spurs (which often extend far into the 
body of the plateau and form divides between its streams), the area embraced 
is about sixty-five miles north and south, and forty -five miles east and west; 
in all, about 1,900,000 acres. A considerable portion of this will produce the 
hardier cereals and vegetables. This park is connected with the plains by 
a good wagon road, through Berthoud pass, in the main range, which is 
11,349 feet above the sea. 

One of the notable features of Middle park is the hot sulphur springs, 
on a tributary of the Grand, about twelve miles from the southern boundary. 
The waters of these springs possess valuable medicinal properties, and will, 
eventually, attract the attention of invalids and tourists. These, with the 
beautiful surrounding scenery, abundance of large and small game in the 
forests, and speckled trout in the streams in the vicinity, will, eventually, 
make this locality a delightful and much-frequented summer resort. The 
altitude of this park is about 9.000 feet. 

Again southward, but on the eastern side of the main range, is South 
park, surrounded, on its northern, western, and southern boundaries, by the 
range, and closed in, on the east, by the foot-hills. Embraced within these 
rocky barriers is about 1,400,000 square acres, the greater portion of which 
is suitable for agricultural purposes, and nearly all excellent pasture lands. 
The lofty mountain towers which overlook this vast plateau are. Mount Lincoln 
on the northwest, and Pike's Peak on the southeast. The streams, which 
are supplied by melting snows from the surrounding mountains, and flow 
eastward, through the park, to the plains, and onward to the great oceans, are 
tributaries of the South Platte. Valuable salt springs have been discovered, 
and their waters condensed into excellent salt by suitable and extensive works, 
near the head of the park; and evidences of immense coal beds present 
themselves at difierent parts. The highest elevation reached, within the 
limits, of this plateau, is 10,000 feet; its average elevation, less than 9,000 
feet above tide-water. 

The largest of this system of parks, embracing an area quite as exten- 
sive as that comprised within the limits of all the above named, is San Luis 
park, which lies south of South park, from which it is separated by the 
main range. This forms its northern and eastern boundary. Its west limits 
are defined by the Sierra San Juan. 

,. 7^^ niillions of acres inclosed by these mountains are nearly all extremely 
tertile. The altitude of this park, never exceeding 7.000 feet, in connection 
with Its southern location, insures it a mild climate, and makes it peculiarly 
suitable lor agricultural industries. Already a population of many thousands, 
mostly Mexicans, inhabit this delightful region. These are engaged in agri- 


cultural pursuits and stock raising, and have already developed the country 
considerably; still San Luis valley has room for, and offers superior induce- 
ments to any reasonable number of emigrants who wish to engage in agri- 
cultural pursuits. The Hon. William Gilpin, one of the pioneers of this 
region — a most enthusiastic admirer and staunch friend of Colorado — owns 
1,000,000 of acres in this valley, which he obtained, by purchase, from 
parties holding grants; all of which he knows, from actual observa- 
tion, to be excellent farming and grazing lands. Gold and silver lodes have 
also been discovered in the surrounding mountains, and gulch diggings in 
the valley. The Rio Grande del Norte, and its numerous tributaries, flow 
through this park in a southerly direction, and afford innumerable water- 
powers, and other facilities for vast manufacturing enterprises. 

There are scattered through the mountains, west of the range, many 
smaller parks, which complete this remarkable system; these present similar 
features to those already described. m „r^ ^ ^^ 

THE PLAINS. -^^''-^->''-'^'0 

The geographical division of Colorado, east of the mountains, is called 
" the plains." This important division embraces over one-third of the entire 
Territory — an area of over 27.000,000 acres — of which, at least, one-fifth is 
suitable for agricultural purposes, with the aid of irrigation, and nearly the 
entire extent good grazing lands. These plains were formerly considered 
desert wastes, covered with arid sands, barren and desolate, and suitable only 
for the hunting grounds of savage hordes ; but agriculturists, who followed 
in the wake of the gold hunters, have already proven, by actual results, that 
the supposed arid sands are surface deposits — washings from the great moun- 
tains — carrying soil of unusual fertility and strength, requiring moisture 
only to make it exceedingly productive. Irrigating canals already supply 
the required moisture to millions of acres, and, literally, " the desert blooms 
as a rose." 

The surface of these plains is not one continuous level, but a series of 
valleys, separated by ridges, and traversed by innumerable water-courses — 
actually constituting a system of valleys not unlike the park system of the 
mountains, flattened out and spread over a greater extent of territory. They 
are the last of the elevated plateaus, that commence with the delta lands of 
Louisiana, and terminate at the base of the Sierra Madres, included in which 
are the prairies of the Southern and Western States. 

The soil of the bottom lands, which border the water courses, is pecul- 
iarly productive, without artificial supplies of moisture, and in its primitive 
state supports dense vegetation, including a great variety of nutritious grasses, 
flowering plants, shrubberies, and cotton-wood forests. The uplands and 
ridges between the water-courses, in their natural state, are covered with a 
short, crisp drab-colored grass, apparently devoid of all nutritious qualities, 
but really affording excellent pasturage, upon which stock fatten readily. 
This grass has furnished immense herds of buffalo and elk with abundance 
of excellent food for thousands of years, and will eventually supply the same 
to countless numbers of horses and cattle. Where herds of buffiilo can find 
abundant pasture, an equal number of domestic cattle will fatten. This 
fact establishes the future success of Colorado as a stock-raising country. 
The formation of the surface of the plains facilitates irrigation, wherever 
this is required. From the Sierra Madres to the Missouri river, the whole 


face of the country has an eastward trend. This, in Colorado, is varied as 
follows: From the "Divide," south to the Arkansas, the dip is southeast. 
From the same, north to the main branch of the South Platte, it is north 
and east. From the northern limits of the Territory, to the South Platte, 
it is again south and east; and from the Raton mountains, in the south, to 
the Arkansas, the trend is northeast. The streams follow these dips, and 
as their sources are in elevated regions, and their currents swift, artificial 
obstructions turn their waters through suitable channels, to all parts of the 
surrounding country, without difficulty; and, already, many millions of acres 
are well watered in this manner, which are cultivated and yielding abun- 
dantly. In the eastern-central portion of the plains, in Colorado, there is a 
considerable extent of territory that cannot be reached by irrigating canals, 
without large expenditure, on account of the remoteness of streams. This 
difficulty will be overcome, however, by a series of artesian wells, which are 
already being sunk by the Kansas Pacific Railway Company,, on their lands, 
along their line of railroad through this district. 

The most prominent feature in the profile of the plains is the "Divide," 
a main ridge, approached by a series of lesser ridges, which rises to an ele- 
vation of 7,500 feet. This separates the waters of the South Platte and 
Arkansas, and supplies many of their smaller tributaries. The " Divide " 
branches out from the foot-hills, north of Pike's Peak, and gradually slopes 
northward, southward, and eastward, until it is lost in the plains. Pine 
forests, exceedingly valuable for lumber purposes, cover this elevation, which 
is also clothed with the grass and other vegetations peculiar to the region. 

At Julesburg, in the northeast corner of the Territory, the elevation of 
the plains above tide-water is 3,703 feet; at Denver, 5,317 feet ; along the 
base of the foot-hills, from 6,000 to 7,000 feet ; and, at the summit of the 
divide, 7,500 feet — making the average elevation of this vast plateau, within 
the limits of Colorado, nearly 6,000 feet. 

The mineral and agricultural resources, improvements, cities, towns, 
geology, climatology, and inhabitants of this region, are fully described 

Previous to the construction of railways the passage of these plains was 
attended with much difficulty and danger, from the entire absence of water 
for considerable distances, and the attacks of hostile Indians. But all these 
are now overcome by the completion of the Union, Denver, and Kansas 
Pacific railways, which places the vast resources and advantages of Colorado 
within the reach of all mankind. 

RIVE lis. 

The principal tributaries of the Rio Colorado, Rio Grande del Norte, 
Arkansas, Platte, and Smoky Hill and Republican Forks of the Kansas, 
make up the river system of Colorado. The principal river that flows east- 
ward from the Sierra Madres, is the Arkansas, which arises at the base of 
31ount Lincoln, on the western slope of the main range. From thence, its 
waters flow in a southeasterly direction, along the base of the range, west 
and south of South park, until they break through the range at Canon City. 
I he river debouches from its mountain confines through a deep canon, which 
gives the name to the above city. From this point it continues its south- 
easterly course, across the plains, to the eastern boundarv of the Territory, 
onward to the Mississippi. In its various windings through Colorado this 


river traverses a distance of over 500 miles, and, after its exit from the 
mountains, is skirted this entire distance by bottom lands, unusually fertile. 
No part of this river, in Colorado, is navigable for boats of any size suitable 
for transporting passengers or freights. Its chief southern tributaries, 
which join it after it leaves the mountains, are, fir^t, the Greenhorn, which 
rises in the Wet mountains, and flows easterly until it joins the main river, 
a few miles east of Pueblo, and about fifty miles from the base of the moun- 
tains ; next, the Huerfano, which receives its water from the western slope 
of the Wet mountains and the Huerfano park, and runs, first south, then 
east, and, finally, northeast, to the Arkansas. The principal branch of the 
Huerfano is the Cochara, which flows from the Spanish peaks, nearly due 
north, until it joins the main river about eighteen miles from its confluence 
with the Arkansas. The next southern tributary is the Apishpa, taking its 
waters from the Spanish peaks, and emptying them into the main river about 
midway between Fort Lyon and Pueblo. East and south of the Apishpa is 
the Purgatory river, the largest southern tributary of the Arkansas. This 
rises from the southern and western declivities of the Spanish peaks and 
the northern slopes of the Raton mountains, and flows easterly and north- 
easterly, until it joins the Arkansas near Fort Lyon. The principal rivers 
that empty into the Arkansas from the north are, first, the Fontain qui 
Bouli, which has its source at the northern base of Pike's Peak, near the 
foot of South park, from whence it flows, nearly due south, to its con- 
fluence with the main river at Pueblo; east of this. Squirrel creek and 
the Little Sandy and Big Sandy — all flowing southeastward, from the 
"Divide" to the Arkansas — the two latter making their junction near Fort 

The eastern slopes of the mountains north of the '-Divide" are drained 
by the South Platte and its numerous tributaries. This river rises at the 
southwestern base of the main range, at the foot of Mount Lincoln, in the 
upper or northwestern corner of South park. While flowing through 
the park in a southeasterly direction, it receives numerous smaller streams 
from the surrounding ranges and spurs, and where it debouches from the 
park about- seventy miles north of the base of Pike's Peak, it is already a 
considerable stream of sparkling water. After breaking through the foot- 
hills, it changes its course nearly north, and maintains it over 100 miles, 
until it receives the waters of the Cache-a-la-Poudre. From this point the 
Platte flows in an easterly and northeasterly direction, until it leaves the 
Territory at its northeastern corner, near Julesburg. 

The principal tributaries which the South Platte receives from the 
mountains, all flow eastward, and join this river before its confluence with 
the Cache-a-la-Poudre, which also has its source in the mountains north of 
Long's Peak. There are, commencing south, the North Fork of the South 
Platte, Clear creek — which rises near the base of Gray's Peak, and flows 
through the rich mining districts of Clear Creek and Gilpin counties — St. 
Vrain and Big Thompson. The streams that flow into the South Platte 
from the "Divide" are Plum, Cherry, Terrapin, Kiowa, Bijou and Beaver 
creeks. Those from the northern limits of the Territory are the Crow, 
Pawnee, and Horse Tail creeks, which all flow in a southerly direction. 
The Smoky Hill and Piepublican forks of the Kansas arise in the eastern 
central portion of the plains, from the eastern terminus of the "Divide," 
and flow east to the limits of the Territory. The entire extent of country 


in Colorado, west of the main range, and north of the Uncompahgre moun- 
tains, is drained by the Rio Colorado and the south branch of the North 
Fork of the Platte. The latter stream rises in North park and surrounding 
mountains, and flows northward to the northern limits of the Territory. 
The principal northern branches of the Rio Colorado are the Bear, White 
and Grand rivers. The Bear, with its numerous tributaries, rises in Elk 
Head, Rabbit Ears, and Escalantes mountains, and flows westward to the 
main river. White river flows from the Elk Head and Rabbit Ears moun- 
tains, west of North and Middle parks, to its confluence with the main 
i-ange, near the western central boundary of Colorado. The Grand river, 
the principal tributary of the Rio Colorado, really the Colorado itself, rises 
from the northwestern slopes of the Sierra Madres, at the base of Mount 
Lincoln. It also receives numerous tributaries from Middle park, and sur- 
rounding mountains, and flows westward to its confluence with the Gunnison, 
the principal southern branch, near the western central limits of the Terri- 
tory. The course of this river is exceeding tortuous. It winds round the 
bases of innumerable mountain ranges, and breaks through rocky barriers 
of immense height, excavating a series of canons of unknown depth and 
extent. The Gunnison has its source in the Sawatch and Uncompahgre 
mountains, and flows northwest to its confluence with the Grand. This river 
has numerous branches, and its entire course lies through a continued series 
of mountain chasms. South of this, in western Colorado, are the Rio San 
Miguel and Rio Dolores, arising in the Sierra San Miguel and Sierra 
LaPlata, and flowing north and west to the main river. South of the 
Uncompahgre mountains, and Sierra San Miguel; east of Sierra LaPIata, 
and north and east of the Sierra San Juan, are the head water's of the 
Rio Grande del Norte, which flows eastward till it reaches San Luis park, 
and then south to the southern limits of the Territory. East of this, 
arising from the southern slopes of Raton mountain, is the head waters of 
the Cimaron river, which flows east to the southeastern corner of the Ter- 

This system of water-courses, thus briefly described, presents many 
remarkable features, peculiar to the rivers of Colorado only. It will be 
seen that, from the central division of the main range, near the base of the 
highest peak of the range, arise three, among the greatest, rivers of the 
Territory and of North America, the Rio Colorado, the Arkansas, and 
the Platte. From this, the most elevated point in the continent, the water 
naturally flows in every direction, and reaches the great oceans though 
channels proportionate in magnitude to the unrivalled grandeur of the 
surroundings at their source. On the plains, many of the smaller tributa- 
ries of the Arkansas and Platte are, at difi"erent points, entirely absorbed by 
the sands in their beds during the greater portion of the season, and instead 
ot being rivers of water, are really rivers of quicksands, beneath which 
the streams still continue their course, and still supply moisture to the 
bottom lands along their borders, and water to the inhabitants, who obtain 
It by digging to a trifling depth. 

The lakes of Colorado are unimportant, and are noted only for the beauty 
ana sublimity ot their surroundings, and receive mention in the chapter on 
scenery Ihe elevation of Colorado prevents the accumulation of any great 
body of tranquil waters within her boundaries. The only reservoirs suitable 
tor the waters, that result from the melting of the snows of the Mother of 


Mountains, are the great oceans ; and to these they make their way, through 
channels of vast magnitude and importance. 

The political divisions of Colorado will receive separate and appropriate 
notice, in the following chapter. 



The first political division of that portion of the State of Kansas — now 
in Colorado — which embraced the Pike's Peak gold region, was organized 
by the emigrants in and about Auraria, in the fall of 1858, and included all 
the region inhabited or explored at that time. Auraria was its principal 
town and county seat, and was the arena in which the political gladiators of 
those early days displayed their great prowess and endurance. The area 
then embraced by Arapahoe was much larger than that defined by the 
present boundaries, which were established by Government surveys, completed 
in 1861. These include a strip about 175 miles in length, east and west, and 
thirty miles in width, north and south; commencing at the eastern bounda- 
ries of Jefferson and Boulder counties, and extending to the Kansas line, 
east • and at the northern boundary of Douglas county, and extending to 
the southern limits of Weld county, north and south. This belt lies entirely 
in the plains, or valley division of Colorado, and presents all the features 
peculiar to this district. It is watered by the Platte and many of its 
branches — principal among them, the Clear, Cherry, Kiowa, Bijou and 
Beaver creeks — also, by the Republican Fork of the Kansas. 

Although gold was first discovered, in paying quantities, within the 
present limits of Arapahoe county, the amount was trifling, and mining has 
never been a leading industry. No mineral deposits of commercial value, 
except coal measures, have been discovered; and these have not been suf- 
ficiently developed to establish their value or importance, though, no doubt, 
extensive lignite beds underlie the whole extent of the county. Fossils and 
minerals, interesting to the student of geology, exist, however, in consider- 
able quantities along the beds of water-courses and on the ridges, which 
receive notice in the appropriate chapter. 

With the exception of scattering cotton-wood forests, along the Platte 
and its tributaries, there is no timber in the county ; but the usual vegeta- 
tion of the plains is abundant everywhere, and the soil is very fertile and 
productive. This makes agriculture the leading industry of Arapahoe, 
outside of her principal cities, and has already grown to be of vast impor- 
tance, and is attracting the attention of emigrants from all countries. 
Although the great portion of the soil of Arapahoe county, as well as that 
of other parts of the plains, requires irrigation, means of affording this are 
ample, and many thousands of acres of wheat, corn, and vegetables are 
already cultivated, annually, yielding large and profitable returns. Statistics 
illustrating this will appear in the chapter on agriculture, and should be care- 
fully examined by those seeking profitable agricultural investments. 


Denver, the principal city and capital of Colorado— tlie Queen City of 
the Plains— is the county seat of Arapahoe county, and is located on the 
Platte river and Clierry creek, at their confluence, in the western central 
portion of the county. This is the mercantile and manufacturing centre ot 
Colorado, as well as the most important city west of the Missouri river and 
east of the mountains, and has already a population of over 8,000 inhab- 
itants, noted for their prosperity, thrift, and enterprise. They have already 
projected manufacturing? enterprises which will, eventually, contribute largely 
to the general wealth o"f the. country, and established commercial relations 
with the larger cities, east and west, of unusual importance, considering the 
age and location of the city. These, with all the resources, advantages, 
public buildings, institutions of learning, religion, etc., will receive full and 
detailed descriptions in our history of Denver, in which will also appear all 
statistical matter and gazetteer information concerning Arapahoe county. 
The history of Arapahoe county and of Denver are so intimately connected, 
we give them in detail in the same chapter. 

There are no towns or cities of any importance in Arapahoe, besides 
Denver ; but comfortable farm houses are abundant throughout the culti- 
vated regions, and good wagon roads traverse every section. Besides these, 
the iron tracks of the Denver and Kansas Pacific railways traverse a con- 
siderable portion of the county, and pass through thousands of acres of 
excellent farm lands, still awaiting the plow of the agriculturist, and rea'dy 
to yield abundant wealth to all who may take advantage of their unusual 
fertility. Arapahoe county wants, and offers peculiar advantages to, indus- 
trious farmers, and can safely insure such comfort and competency. 


Embraces an area of 900 square miles, in one of the most delightful and 
salubrious sections of the Territory, and is possessed of more than ordinary 
attractions as a location for rapid development of material wealth to those 
taking advantage of its mineral and agricultural resources. 

It embraces that portion of the great mineral belt which approaches 
nearest, and is most accessible to the plains, and adjoins Gilpin and Jeffer- 
son counties on the south. Long's Peak forms its northwestern corner-stone; 
its northern limit, Larimer county; Summit county its western boundary, 
and Arapahoe and "Weld counties bound it on the east. 

With its immense and valuable deposits of coal, gold, silver and iron 
ores, 'and the extensive tracts of fertile land, only awaiting irrigation and 
cultivation to become productive of gigantic crops and incalculable profit, 
this portion of territory stands pre-eminent as an avenue to unbounded 

The streams that rise in or near the range, and traverse this county to 
the eastward, are the St. Vrain, Boulder, Little Thompson, and Coal creek, 
tributaries of the Platte river. These are skirted in the mountains by beau- 
tiful valleys, which occasionally widen out to fine parks, clothed with luxu- 
riant grass and dense pine forests. The soil of the valleys, and a large 
portion of the plains in the limits of Boulder county, is exceedingly fertile, 
and the hardier cereals, potatoes, and other vegetables, and hay, are produced 
abundantly. The plains, aided by irrigation, produce, besides these, wheat, 
oats, barley, and corn, with that large average yield peculiar to Colorado. 


The cereal products of tlie cultivated acres furnish four good flouring mills 
with a constant supply, besides large shipments of grain to markets beyond 
the limits of the county. 

To furnish timber for building purposes, and other improvements, thir- 
teen s:iw-mills are kept in active operation. Among the number, the Wall- 
ing steam mill, at Caribou City, Grand Island district, employs thirty men 
constantly; and the Tucker mill, located at Keysport, is also actively engaged. 

Besides agricultural and manufacturing interests, which are important, 
Boulder possesses remarkable mineral Avealth, regarded as unsurpassed by 
any other county of Colorado. Her belt of gold mines — among the very 
earliest discoveries in the Territory — traverse the entire extent of the county 
along the chain of mountains east of the main range. Her silver mines — 
of recent discovery — extend along the main range and spurs for many miles. 
in a northerly direction, from the southern boundary, to a point approaching 
Long's Peak. 

The principal mining districts are Sugar Loaf, Gold Hill, Central, Ward, 
Phoenix, and Grand Island, the latter the home of the celebrated Caribou 
lode, a full description of which appears in another chapter. 

Early in 1858, the first gold discovery in Colorado was made within the 
limits of Boulder county, on the St. Yrain. This occurrence brought in the 
vicinity scores of prospecters, who zealously labored to discover hidden 
riches; and ere long, (1859), gold was discovered in the mountains of the 
adjoining county, (Gilpin), and was followed by similar discoveries in this 
county. Among the most important lodes, first discovered, were the Horse 
Fall, Williams, Hope, Gold Hill, Wisconsin, Sucker, and Syracuse; and 
later, the Columbia, Horseshoe, Galena, and many others. The more recent 
discovery of silver mines in the Grand Island district — of which a full 
mention is made elsewhei-e — has given a sudden impetus to business, and 
imparted a healthful vigor to the materia] interests of the county and the 
Territory, and promises to add largely to the wealth of the entire nation. 

Another important feature of Boulder county is her immense and inex- 
haustible beds of coal, referred to in the commencement of this chapter, and 
more fully described elsewhere. These are located near the foot-hills^ 
and have already been sufficiently developed to establish their real value 
and importance. Cheap and good fuel furthers the interest of all manufac- 
turing enterprises, and encourages emigration in any country possessing this 
great desideratum; and, in this respect, Boulder county is peculiarly favored. 
Prominent among the coal mines, already extensively worked, is the Marshall 
mine, which receives due attention in an appropriate chapter. Still, too 
much cannot be written concerning this coal measure, capable of supplying 
a populous community and vast manufacturing enterprises, with abundance 
of excellent fuel at moderate expense. Other coal beds, also duly noticed 
elsewhere, are being actively developed, and their value fully established. 
Fire and potter's clay, of superior quality, also exist in large quantities, and 
altogether, the resources of Boulder county are unsurpassed, perhaps, by 
any other district in the Territory. 

If superior agricultural advantages, great mineral deposits, including 
gold, silver, iron, lead and copper ores, and superior lignite, abundance of 
excellent building material, superior water powers, healthy climate, and 
glorious scenery will make a country prosperous, and a people happy, surely 
the prospects of Boulder county are unusually brilliant, and the inhabitants 


amongst the most favored of mortals. That which is most needed to insure 
entire success to the mining interest of Boulder county, as well as to those 
of all similar districts in Colorado, is reduction works, capable of treating, 
successfully and economically, the sulphuret ores of the mineral belts. Such 
works, sufficiently capacious, and liberally managed, would give a fresh 
impetus to mining enterprises, and not only enhance the value and insure 
the working of mines already discovered, but stimulate prospecting, and 
aus^ment the importance of the mining industries generally. And no portion 
of Colorado affords more facilities or better inducements for the construction 
of such works than that part of Boulder county which lies along the base of 
the foot-hills. Everything requisite, except capital and skillful labor, is on 
the spot; fire-clay, building material, abundance of coal, and besides all 
these, easy access to the mining regions above. 

The principal towns of Boulder county are Boulder City (the county 
seat), Burlington and Valmont, which are fully described elsewhere. 


Is the principal silver-producing county of Colorado, and second to none in 
important and successful mining enterprises. A portion of the northern, the 
entire western, and about one-half of the southern boundary of this county is 
defined by three curves of the main range that indent the southeastern bound- 
ary of Summit county. The balance of its northern, its eastern, and the other 
half of its southern boundaries lie along spurs of the main range on the 
north, and along the foot-hills east and south. The political boundaries of 
Clear Creek are Summit and Gilpin counties on the north; Gilpin and Jef- 
ferson counties on the east; Park and Summit on the south, and Summit oa 
the west. The area thus defined is pear-shaped; the stem of the pear 
formed by the extreme western point of the "county, surrounded almost com- 
pletely by the main range; the body, by that portion inclosed by spurs of 
the range, the foot-hills, and the range itself. The greatest length of the 
county, east and west, is about thirty-five miles; its greatest breadth, north 
and south, about fifteen miles. The area, thus embraced, incloses South 
Clear creek and its tributaries entirely, except the point at which the creek 
breaks through the foot-hills and join its northern fork, which drains the 
gold regions of Gilpin county. The valley of this beautiful stream, which 
gives its name to the county, is one of its most important physical features. 
It extends from the junction of two of its principal tributaries at George- 
town, to the carton near the boundary of Jefferson county, a distance of 
over twenty miles. Its width varies from a few hundred feet to over one- 
half mile. Its surface is quite level, except its eastward trend, and is clothed 
with luxuriant grass and other species of mountain-valley vegetation. 

The soil is excellent, and produces the hardier cereals and vegetables 
abundantly. Besides these advantages, gold has been found in paying quan- 
tities in the sands of the valley; and gulch and placer diggings have been 
actively worked, at different points, along its eastern third, since 1859. 
The first settlers of the county were prospecters in search of precious nug- 
gets, which were first found by Americans— George Jackson and party— in 
tlie spring of 1859, on Chicago Bar, now within the limits of Idaho Springs. ;i 
That gold was taken out previous to this, by Spanish or Mexican explorers, fi 
from Spanish Bar, near the mouth of Fall river, is probable, but not well ]\ 


authenticated. However, the value of the placer and gulch diggings of 
South Clear creek have long since been fully established. 

Another important, and perhaps the most valuable feature of Clear creek 
and its beautiful valley, is the excellent water-power and mill-sites that 
are continuous from its source to its mouth. The stream affords ample 
supply of water at all seasons, and the valley peculiar facilities for the con- 
struction of mill buildings and manufactories. The fall of the waters are 
sufficient, in every 500 or 600 feet of the valley, to insure ample power to 
drive massive machinery, and the existence of a smooth bed rock at no great 
depth, at all points, makes the construction of dams, and the foundations of 
manufactories, comparatively easy. The declivities of the ranges and mount- 
ains which border this valley, and arise above it to elevations of from 1,000 
to 4,000 feet, are covered with dense forests of mountain pine, suitable for all 
lumber and fuel purposes, and are traversed their entire extent by lodes 
bearing the precious metals, and copper, lead and iron, in great abundance. 
The slopes of these mountains, besides furnishing abundance of pine lum- 
ber, afford good pasturage, as they are covered, nearly to their summits, with 
the mountain grasses peculiar to the region. Altogether, the advantages 
and resources of Clear Creek county are unsurpassed for mining, milling, 
manufacturing and grazing purposes, and these have been improved- already 
by many thousands of industrious and enterprising citizens. 

The first settlers of the county were gulch miners, who worked in the 
valley along Clear creek only, but these were soon followed by prospecters 
in the mountains, who made numerous lode discoveries. These were first 
worked for gold only, with but little success, except inland about Empire, in 
Upper Union district, where gold lodes of great value are still successfully 
operated. At this time, the existence of silver in the ores of Colorado had 
not been defined; but after this important fact was established in 1864, the 
great value of the mining districts of Clear Creek county was fully con- 
firmed, and from that fortunate event dates the present prosperity and 
importance of the county. Idaho Springs was the first town surveyed in 
the county. This very soon became the most populous portion of the 
county, and the county seat and archives and offices were located here until 
1867, when they were removed to the more populous town of Georgetown, 
near the head waters of Clear creek. This town was first settled in 1860, by 
the Griffith family, but did not commence a healthy and rapid growth until 
the discovery of silver in the extensive belt of lodes that traverse the sur- 
rounding mountains. This event secured the future prosperity of George- 
town, and it has already taken a place in the front rank of mining towns in 
Colorado, and may, ere long, rival that great centre of the mining industries 
of the Territory, Central City, of Gilpin county. 

The town next in importance to those above named is Empire, in Upper 
Union district. This beautiful mining camp is most pleasantly located, on 
the North Fork of Clear creek, in a beautiful valley at the base of Silver 
mountain. It was first settled, in 1860, by gold miners, who had made 
important discoveries of gold lodes in the adjacent mountain. The first 
house was built by D. J. Ball and D. C. Daily, who are still residents of 
the town, and among the prominent citizens of the county. The former 
(D. J. Ball) is agent of the Star Gold Mining Company, and notary public 
for the district. He is completely identified with the mining interests of 
the county, thoroughly well-informed in all mining matters, and a most 


reliable person from whom to gain information concerning these induatrie.^ 
His cabinet of minerals, metals, and fossils, is among the most caretuL; 
selected, extensive, and best arranged in the Territory, and should be exa^r 
ined by all visitors to Empire. Mr. D. C Daily is also large y interested ir 
mining enterprises, and thoroughly competent to give reliable and valuab,.- 
inforniation concerning the interests of the district. To Mr. August Guibo' 
and his son— gentlemen also thorouahly conversant with mining matters, aiu. 
laruely interested in those here and in Summit county— we are under 
esp'I'cial obligations for valuable statistical information and urbane courtesio 
Will they please accept our grateful acknowledgments ? 

The present population of Empire is comparatively small, on account v 
the suspension of work in nearly all the mines in the vicinity, from_ caus. 
which receive due notice in our chapter on mines; but, in the earlier an 
more prosperous days of the district, the town had over 1,000 inhabitant - 
and numerous stores, hotels, etc. 

A pleasant feature of this town, besides its beautiful location and su; 
roundings, is the apparent attention paid by its citizens to religious an^ 
educational privileges. This is exemplified by a beautiful little churr' 
(Episcopalian), built under the direction of Bishop Randall, of Denver; 
Methodist church organization, and a good school — all of which receiv 
liberal support. 

Other towns, exclusively mining camps, now almost deserted, but f< • 
merly populous, located in the valley of Clear creek, are: jMills' City ai; 
Dowuieviile, between Idaho Springs and Georgetown; Silver Plume (a nc^ 
town), Brownville, and Bakerville, above Georgetown, on the middle tributat 
of Clear creek; and East Argentine, on the south branch of the creek, al- 
above Georgetown, on the main range. Besides these, there is a beautilr 
little embryo city, nestled in the valley of P^iU river, about five miles fro: 
its mouth, at Spanish Bar, which is named in honor of J. Mahaney, Esq.. 
Georgetown, and has peculiar facilities and advantages, both in regard r 
location and wealth of the surrounding mines, that will, eventually, insure : 
growth and population. Mahaneyvillemay,at some future day, be the centrt- 
of vast mining enterprises, and count its population by tens of thousand-. 
At present, however, it is only the abiding place of a few miners. 

A full description of the mines and mills of Clear Creek county, historic - 
of Georgetown and Idaho Springs, and complete statistical information co'. 
cerning the resources of the county, appear in their appropriate chapter- 

The altitude of the valley of Clear creek, at Idaho Springs, is 7,8ii 
above sea level; at mouth of Fall river, 7,930 feet; and at Georgei.r»; 
8,452 feet. The highest points on surrounding mountains average fror 
9,000 to nearly 15,000 feet— the latter the summit of Gray's Peak. N.. 
withstanding these great elevations, the climate is unusually mild, and gre ' 
falls of snow seldom occur. 

The principal branches of Clear creek are its North, Middle and Souti 
branches. Fall river, and Chicago and Soda creeks. These are all skirted b 
pleasant valleys, covered with grasses which aff"ord excellent pasturage, ani. 
flow through ranges of mountains traversed by belts of silver and gold lodes, 
and covered with pine forests. 

The valley is reached by excellent wagon roads from Denver and Central 
City, and will, no doubt, soon be linked to the rest of the world by a con- 
tinuation of the Colorado Central railway, which already reaches the base 



of the mountains, at Golden City. The practicability of this railway con- 
nection has been fully detiued by recent surveys, and its completion is only 
a matter of time. With railway communication with the plains, this county 
will possess unrivalled attractions for capitalists seeking profitable mining 
investments, and miners seeking paying returns for their labor. 


The smallest, but most important, of the political divisions of Colorado, lies 
chiefly in the foot-hills, and embraces, within its limited borders, the richest 
gold mining i-egion in the world. Its entire surface is broken by mountain 
ranges and their intervening gulches and chasms, and presents the serrated 
profile peculiar to all the mountain districts of the Territory; but it is rich 
in gold — pure, glittering, precious gold ; and, to the gold-hunter, jagged 
mountain steeps, inclosing the precious metal, are gently-sloping declivities; 
and deep chasms, whose sands are glittering, are pleasant dells, beautiful and 
enchanting; and all the surroundings of the coveted treasure, rose-hued and 
delightful. And, even to the ordinary observer, Gilpin county presents 
unusual beauties of scenery. The mountains are robbed of their naked 
horrors by a garb of fine forests of pines, luxuriant grass, and flowering 
vegetation; and the ravines of their terrors, by lippling water-falls and grass- 
clothed bottoms. The bottoms occasionally widen to valleys of considerable 
extent, which are unusually fertile and productive; and, under the careful 
culture of ranch-men, yield abundantly. They are peculiarly adapted to 
the culture of hay and vegetables, and have already made the agricultural 
interest of Gilpin of considerable importance. 

The northern liu)it of the county is Boulder county; its eastern, Jeffer- 
son county; its southern. Clear Creek county; and its western, Summit 
county. Its principal city and county seat is Central City, located in the 
central portion of the county, on Gregory gulch, which is the water-course 
of one of the branches of North Clear creek. This is the second city, in 
population, in the Territory, and the great centre of the mining enterprises 
of Colorado. It is surrounded and traversed by the richest belt of gold 
mines in the world, and is in the immediate neighborhood of gulch and 
placer diggings that have yielded millions of dollars worth of the precious 

Nearly east of Central, on Clear creek, is the city of Black Hawk, also 
surrounded and traversed by belts of rich gold lodes, paved with placer and 
gulch diggings, and resonant with the clang of machinery and the thud of 
the ponderous ore stamp. 

West of Central, and also joining it, on a tributary of North Clear creek, 
is Nevada, also belted and crowned and paved with gold mines and placer 
diggings, and noisy with the unwieldy music of steam-engines and the "fall" 
of the ore-crushing stamp. 

The first discovery of gold in the mountains occurred in Gilpin county; 
and some strange fate guided the first explorers of the region to the richest 
deposits ever discovered by mortal man. The assertion that tne gold mines 
of Gilpin county are not equalled, in richness or extent, by those of any 
other district in the world, of equal proportions, is a sweeping announcement; 
nevertheless, one that can be, and has been, fully confirmed by reliable sta- 
tistics. It cannot be averred, however, that this paramount advantage has 


secured large wealth or unusual prosperity to the inhabitants. The history 
of mining enterprises in Gilpin county, as well as in all other parts of the 
Territory, is not the description of a series of successful operations, yielding 
immense profits; but, in too many cases, the story of gigantic failures and 
proportionate losses. That gold should exist extensively, and in paying 
quantities, in a district, and not be a source of large wealth to the inhabit- 
ants thereof, seems impossible, but has been proven a fact, by actual results, 
in Gilpin county. The various causes that bring this about receive due 
condemnation elsewhere, and are, mainly, incompetent mining captains and 
mill-men, swindling mining operators, buncombe companies with penniless 
directors and senseless agents; charlatan metallurgical professors, with their 
worthless processes; and not either the quality or quantity of the ores, or 
the unusual actual expense of mining or reducing these. The wrecks, left 
by the storms of failure and disaster that have swept over the country, are 
painfully apparent everywhere. Crumbling walls and tottering chimneys of 
played-out reduction works; ponderous machinery, rusted and broken; and 
curious furnaces, whose fires have been extinguished years ago, m:ir the fair 
face of this golden county, and chill the hearts of capitalists anxious to 
invest in her rich mines. These accumulations of unsightly debris should 
be removed at once and forever. They do a vast amount of injury to the 
mining interest of Colorado, and benefit nobody. The charlatans and hum- 
bugs, who have induced honest capitalists to invest money in their useless 
processes, are disappearing rapidly from the country ; and these monuments 
of their follies and failures should not be permitted to outlive their project- 
ors. The lessons they inculcate have been already thoroughly learned by 
the practical miners of the country, who are gradually becoming excellent 
and experienced mining captains and competent mill-men, and can get along 
very fairly, without the aid of imported German-Freiburg brains, or " Toot- 
horn " professors. 

The cry of "refractory ores'' has been raised against the gold-bearing 
sulphurets of Colorado, and has been reiterated by every charlatan ore- 
reducer, who has failed, in the country, and harped upon by every dis- 
content and swindling operator, who has cursed it with his presence. This 
howl, however, is being borne away on the pure mountain winds of the ' 
region, and entirely suppressed by the rush of flames in Prof Hill's reducing 
furnaces, which are daily melting precious gold, from over twenty-five tons cf 
these same refractory ores, in such quantities, and at such trifling expense, 
that his company can declare dividends on capital stock of more than lOw 
per cent., annually. 

To fully establish the mining interests of Gilpin county, upon a perm;',- 
nent, paying basis, and secure a complete development of the great miner;;' 
wealth of the mines, other reduction works, of greater capacity, are requiretl. 
immediately. The attention of capitalists is already directed to this impoi- 
tant matter, and, without doubt, the much needed works will soon b- 
constructed. Probably the most suitable location for these is at the base <: : 
the mountains, near some of the extensive coal beds in Boulder or Jeff"ersou 
county, on account of the abundance of fuel; but works can be constructed I 
inUilpin county, where forests still supply great quantities of cheap fuel,' 
and be carried on with large profit to their owners, as is proven by the works , 
relerred to above. To make such works valuable to the whole county, and, 
the means of fully developing her resources, they should be conducted by 


capitalists, who would be satisfied with a reasonable per centage on the money 
invested, and be sufficiently public spirited and honest to insure fair and 
liberal management of the enterprise. 

Many years of expensive experiment have proven that stamp mills are 
only adapted to the treatment of surface auriferous quartz. They fail to 
save even fifty per cent, of the gold in the mineral ores, and, consequently, 
cannot be used for the treatment of such without incurring large and 
shameful loss. While the stamps are, and will always continue to be, a cheap 
and appropriate method of reducing surface quartz and low grades of ores 
carrying a large amount of gangue, they can never be available for the treat- 
ment of the deeper and more valuable ores. In view of this, and the 
absence of large reduction works (except. Prof. Hill's, which can be supplied 
by any one of the large mines of the county, if fully worked"), it is not 
strange that the mining industries of the county should be cramped and 

As the successful treatment of sulphureted gold-bearing ores is no longer 
doubtful, and the fact of their existence, in numerous true fissure veins, fully 
established, all that is now required to fully develop the mining interest of 
the county, and insure large wealth to its inhabitants, are extensive reduc- 
tion works, skillfully and economically conducted, and liberally managed. 
Notwithstanding all disadvantages, mining is not at a stand-still in the 
county, as will be fully understood by a perusal of our chapter on mines and 
mills. The ore taken out, annually, yields a large amount of bullion, and 
enables the mine owners to pay liberal wages — 83.50 per day — to common 
miners, and realize handsome profits besides, in spite of the large loss of 
gold by the stamp mill process, and the comparatively trifling price paid for 
smelting ores by Prof Hill. 

The mercantile and commercial interests of the county are important, 
and are skillfully managed by a class of merchants and business men, possess- 
ing unusual enterprise and ability. Educational and religious institutions 
and privileges are liberally sustained, and carefully fostered ; the professions 
represented by gentlemen of learning and character, and the "Press" con- 
ducted with unusual enterprise and ability. A detailed description of all 
these appear in appropriate chapters. 

The altitude of Central is 8,300 feet above sea level, and the average 
altitude of the whole county nearly 9,000 feet. The climate is mild, and, 
like that of all the foot-hill regions, unusually healthy. Altogether, Gilpin 
county offers great inducements to capitalists for safe, paying investments ; 
to laborers, the assurance of good wages and prompt payment, and to all 
classes of emigrants, a most desirable abiding place. 

Superior wagon roads traverse the county in all directions, and furnish 
ample facilities for communication between all parts of the mining districts, 
and the towns and cities of this and surrounding mountain counties, and the 
plains beyond; and soon the iron track of the Colorado Central railway will 
connect this land of gold with all sections east and west. . 


Lies chiefly in a semicircular basin ; its southern, western and northern rims 
form a curve in the main Ptocky Mountain range, from a point near Pike's 
Peak, on the southeast, to Mt. Lincoln on the northeast; its eastern boundary 


a series of mountain spurs broken by the tributaries of the Platte, which 
connect Pike's Peak and Mt. Lincola by a nearly direct line, about 100 
miles in length, running northeast and southwest. This county is the 
central division of Colorado, and is bounded on the south by Fremont 
county; on the east, by El Paso, a corner of Douglas, and Jefferson; on the 
north, by Clear Creek and Summit; and on the west, by Lake. An ele- 
vated plateau, over 10,000 feet above sea-level, the South park, covers the 
larger portion of this area, locked in by mountain chains, and is the principal 
feature of the county. The park embraces almost 3,000 square miles, nearly 
level, except where traversed by numerous spurs of the mountains that form 
its boundaries; is well watered with tributaries of the South Platte, and 
covered with luxuriant grasses and pine forests. One hot and several warm 
mineral springs, and extensive salt springs, have been discovered in the park 
— the latter about twenty miles from its northern border. In 1866, large salt 
works were erected at these, by Messrs. Kollius, Hall and Lane, at consider- 
able expense, which were worked for several years with profitable results, 
supplying the greater portion of the Territory ; but at present, from causes 
unknown to us, are idle. The springs, two in number, furnish large quanti- 
ties of brine of fair strength. The valley in which they are located is 
covered with an efflorescense .of alkali, and there is every evidence of 
extensive salt beds. About eight miles from the northern limit, lignite, 
suitable for ordinary fuel purposes, has been discovered in considerable quan- 
tities, and evidences of good coal beds present themselves at different parts. 
The soil of the park is exceedingly fertile, and, notwithstanding its great 
elevation, the hardier cereals, potatoes, turnips and other vegetables, mature 
and yield largely; and no better grass or hay-growing country can be found 
anywhere. The numerous streams which traverse the surface of the park, 
and break through its eastern boundaries to the great plains and the greater 
ocean beyond, are filled with brook trout of the finest species ; and game, 
such as ducks, geese, deer, elk and mountain sheep, is abundant everywhere. 
At the head of the park that giant among the mountain-monarchs of this 
region, Mt. Lincoln, rears its snow-crowned summit far above timber line, to 
an elevation of over 17,000 feet (Prof. Dubois' estimate). The melted 
snows from its eastern declivities supply the principal tributaries of the 
South Platte with clear, sparkling, eternal waters; and those from its 
western slopes reach the Pacific ocean through the Blue, Grande and Colo- 
rado. ^ The scenic view from Mt. Lincoln is unsurpassed in beauty and 

The principal town and county seat of Park county is Fair Play, located 
at the head of the park on a tributary of the Platte, at the base of the foot- 
hills, ninety-five miles from Denver, by the Buckskin Joe, or Fair Play wagon 
road, seventy-five miles from Caiion City, seventy miles from Colorado City, 
forty miles from Granite, in Lake, and thirty-five miles from California 
gulch. This town is on the direct or mountain route, from Denver to Santa 
Fe, by way of San Luis park, and is reached from Denver, by a daily line 
of first-class coaches, owned by the Colorado Stage Company; from San Luis 
parjc and Lake county, by a semi-weekly line, owned by Frank Logan ; from 
Canon City, by a weekly line, the property of W. H. Berry, of Fair Play; 
and from Montgomery and other mining towns above, a weekly line. Monte- 
zuma, Breckmridge, and the mining districts of Summit, are reached by a 
good road, through one of the lowest passes of the main range. Fair Play has 


a good church (3Iethodist Episcopal); school, with forty-five scholars; two 
hotels — the South Park House, Hugh Murdoch, proprietor, and Clinton 
House, David Miller, proprietor ; two stores — general merchandise and miners' 
supplies, A. M. Janes; drug store, L. H. Valiton. The post-oflBce, express 
office and land agency are at Janes' store. Livery stable, McLaughlin & 
Hall, proprietors. The county officers are: S. A. Safford, county clerk and 
recorder; Thomas Hubbard, probate judge; A. Hall, sherifi"; treasurer 
and collector, W. H. Berry; assessor, R. Ware; school superintendent, 
J. Marshall Paul, attorney at law; commissioners, Charles W. Lowe, James 
Moynahan, S. S. Slater; justice of peace, Thomas Willey. There is a 
United States land office at Fair Play, with James Castello, receiver, and N. H. 
Owings, register. Six townships around this town have been surveyed and 
are in the market for sale, and four more have been surveyed and are open for 
preemption. They are all in or near the park, well watered, well timbered 
with spruce and pine, and a large portion of them good agricultural lands. 
The present population is about 400, within the limits of the town, and 600 
in the surrounding mining districts, with this as a base of supplies. From 
the valley or gulch in which Fair Play is located, over 8250,000 in gold was 
taken out in 1S59, and all the placer diggings in the vicinity are rich and 
have produced largely — among them, "Beaver Creek gulch," where Messrs. 
Pease and Freeman have recently put in a bed rock flume, and have good 
prospects; and " Four Mile gulch," where Charles 'SV. Lowe was actively and 
profitably engaged last summer. The entire range of mountains in the 
vicinity is traversed by a rich belt of lodes, carrying minerals of all kinds 
Those of the greatest value and best developed are the "Orphan Boy." jMos- 
quito district, from which a large amount has been taken (the ores in this 
lode are sulphurets of iron, copper, lead and zinc, bearing gold and silver); 
the " V.'ar Eagle" and "Hattie Jane," also Mosquito district; the " Parson- 
age" and " Herrington," Montgomery district; the "Priest lode," Beaver 
Creek district; and "Ten-forty," "Excelsior," "Sub-let," "Union Four," 
and celebrated "Phillips" (from which more than a quarter of a million 
dollars was taken in a short time), all in Buckskin district. 

The other towns in the county worthy of note are Montgomery, at the 
base of Mt. Lincoln, twelve miles from Fair Play (an important mining camp 
as early as 1S60), surrounded by a belt of lodes of unusual richness, many of 
which have been extensively worked, and over a third of a million dollars 
taken out since 1S59; several quartz mills. Buckskin, on Buckskin creek, 
about nine miles north of Fair Play, surrounded by rich gulches and mines; 
a prospect of active operations here next summer. Mosquito, on Mosquito 
creek, also in the midst of a good mining district, considerably developed ; 
with two stamp mills and several arrastras constantly employed; and prospects 
of reduction works, for silver ores, next summer. Several gulch claims 
between Montgomery apd Fair Play were worked, during the past year, with 
fair results, and over $100, OUO in gold produced, being the principal yield of 
the county, owing to the existence of causes adverse to active mining opera- 
tions; principal among these, the lack of proper works for reducing ores, 
and insufficient capital for mining purposes. The principal companies 
owning mining and milling property in these districts are the Stephens 
Company, Philadelphia capitalists; South Park Exploring and Mining- 
Company, who own the "Orphan Boy;" and the Pioneer Mining Company, 
who own lodes and stamp mill and arrastras in IMontgomery district. 


Stock-raising is fast becoming an important feature- in the industries of 
Park county, for which its superior pasture-lands afford unusual advantages. 
There are already over 6,000 head of cattle and 700 head of horses owned 
by parties near Fair Play, and these herds will be increased rapidly. 

The vast mineral and agricultural resources, superior water powers, coal 
beds, mineral springs and salt beds, unrivalled scenery and healthful climate, 
will eventually secure large wealth and population to this county. Its prin- 
cipal town is already a good business point, and, from its beautiful and 
healthful surroundings, should be a fashionable resort for siimmer tourists. 


Summit is the extreme northwestern of the counties of Colorado, and 
embraces all that portion of the territory lying to the west of the summit of 
the main range, and north of the parallel 39° 30' of north latitude. To the 
south of it lies the great counties of Lake and Park, to the west the Terri- 
tory of Utah, to the north Wyoming, and to the east the counties of Larimer, 
Boulder, Gilpin, Clear Creek and a part of Park. The length of Summit 
county, on an east and west line, is about 145 miles, and north and south 
about 115 miles. Very nearly all of this large area (over 16.000 square 
miles) is uninhabited, save by wandering Indians; and it is only in the 
extreme southeastern corner of the county, on the head waters of the Blue, 
Snake and Swan rivers, that the adventurous and hardy miner has gained a 
foothold. The county is entered by several passes; the most traveled, and, 
indeed, the only road into it, being by way of Denver and the South park, 
and thence over the Tarryall pass. This road is a good one, and could be 
readily traveled all winter, were there vehicles enough passing over it to 
break a road through the first heavy snow. 

The Grand and its tributariee are the principal rivers of this county; and 
it is in the southeast part of Summit that the head waters of the great Col- ■ 
orado river have their origin — as it is from the melting snows of Summit 
county are fed the streams that make their exit into the ocean, through the 
great canon of the Colorado river and Gulf of California. The county is i 
densely timbered and possesses immense beds of valuable coal. The prin- 
cipal metals and minerals found in the county are gold, silver, copper, lead, 
iron and zinc, and the various combinations of these metals with sulphur, 
arsenic, antimony, etc. The rock of the county is mainly primitive, granite i 
and gneiss; and it is not until some distance from the range is obtained, is ! 
there met the younger formations. The sole business of the inhabitants of I 
Summit county is mining, and mainly in the placer deposits of gold, of which I 
the county possesses an immense area. I 

Commencing on the head waters of the Blue river, and thence north and I 
east as far as the Swan river, the gulches coming down from the range are [ 
auriferous. It was in 1859 that gold was first discovered in the gravel de- i 
posits of Summit county; and Gold Run, Galena, American, Georgia, Humbug, I 
French, Gibson, Corkscrew, Negro, Illinois and Hoosier gulches, and Stilson's ' 
and Delaware flats suddenly became endowed with reputation and a hardy, 
energetic population of miners. The first extensive ditch, six miles in length, 
was built in 1860, and the second, nine miles long, in 1862. The produc- 
tion of gold in Summit county, from the time of its first discovery to the 
present date, has been very large; but owing to the absence of mints, etc., in 


the early days of the county, no accurate return can be made. Its present 
production is about $500,000 per annum. Owing to the extent of placer 
ground in the county, and to the gradual adoption of river mining, and also 
to the gradual decrease in the price of labor, provisions, etc., the "gold crop" 
of Summit county will gradually increase and probably soon reach $1,000,000 
per year, which rate of production the county can sustain for an indefinite 
length of time. No gold lodes are being worked in the county, although 
such lodes undoubtedly exist. Gulch miners, as a class, are opposed to lode 
mining; and while the placers of Summit county continue to yield as they 
now do, there is but little lode mining to be done, except in the silver mining 
districts of Peru and Montezuma. Such of the lodes as have been discovered 
and opened in the county are mainly those containing ores of silver; this is 
the case even in the immediate vicinity to the best paying gulches in the 
county. There is no doubt, however, but that the deposits of valuable ores 
of both silver and gold, in Summit county, are quite as extensive and quite 
as valuable as those of any of the mining counties in the Territory. The 
lodes of the county are characterized by great width and heavy deposits 
of ore. 

Of the fitness of the lands of Summit county for agriculture, but little 
can be said. No attempt has been made to raise any crops in the county, 
except a few feeble attempts at patches of potatoes and turnips, yet there is 
no doubt but that wheat and other small grains, as well as turnips, potatoes 
and other vegetables can be raised in the county. Summit is, however, ad- 
mirably fitted for grazing stock. The grasses are those indigenous to the 
country — red top, wild timothy, wild flax, wild oats, bunch grass, etc.; and 
they grow with a wild luxuriance, surprising to those familiar only with the 
plains grasses. The valley of the Blue river and its tributaries, and of the 
Grand river and its tributaries, are as fine grazing grounds as any in Colo- 
rado; and when an outlet is provided to the north and west, to the Union 
Pacific railroad, or when a narrow gauge railway is built to connect with 
some of the roads east of the range, there is no doubt but that stock growing 
will be one of the permanent industries of the county. The extent and size 
of the timber, mainly pine and spruce, that grows within the limits of Sum- 
mit county, gives promise of a grand field for future population and wealth. 
There is no doubt but that Summit county is as well, if not better timbered 
than any other county in the Territory. The manufacturing of lumber is, 
however, in a great measure, dependent on railroad communication to carry 
the product to a market. The water-power of the county is large, and will 
be sufficient to run any number of mills, and gives, when its resources are 
fully developed, promise that the manufacturing industries of Summit county 
are to be of great value to her and to the whole Territory. 

The principal town, and county seat of Summit, is Breckinridge, which, 
as early as 1860, was quite a populous mining camp. It is located in a valley, 
on one of the tributaries of Blue, near the latter river, in the southeast cor- 
ner of the county. W. P. Pollock, county clerk and recorder, resides here. 
Montezuma, a mining camp on a branch of the Snake, at the base of Glazier 
mountain, has a population of over 200 in summer. The reduction works 
of the Sukie & St. Lawrence Mining Co. are located here, also a steam saw- 
mill, the property of F. E. & W. W. Webster. These towns are reached 
from Georgetown by a wagon road across the main range, near Gray's peak ; 
from Fair Play, Park county, by a road across the range via a low pass at 


Hall's gulch, on one of the numerous tributaries of the Platte ; from Denver, 
by way of South park and Tarryall pass, by a good wagon road, the best 
means of reaching these and the mining districts of the county. About half 
a mile from Montezuma, on a small tributary of the Snake, are the reduction 
works, saw-mill and other buildings of the Boston Mining Association, the 
proprietors of the Comstock lode. This little village is named St. John's, 
and the greater portion of its inhabitants are employes of the Boston asso- 


The western half of this county lies in the foot-hills, and the eastern 
half on the plains. It is bounded on the north by Boulder and Weld coun- 
ties; on the east by Arapahoe and Douglas counties; on the south by 
Douglas, and on the west by Clear Creek and Gilpin counties. 

Its western limits do not extend far enough up the foot-hills to reach the 
belt of gold lodes that traverse these mountains, but include a series of 
copper and iron veins, which contain ores of these metals in great quanti- 
ties. Along the base of the foot-hills, in the upturned tertiary strata, 
nearly the entire length of the county, coal measures of great extent have 
already been discovered and extensively worked; and fire-clay, gypsum and 
potter's clay also abound in unlimited quantities. 

The agricultural advantages of this county are unsurpassed by any other 
in Colorado. In the mountain portion, the valleys of streams (tributaries 
of the Platte) widen out as they approach the plains, and form quite exten- 
sive ranches, or farms, which are actively cultivated, with large and profit- 
able returns. These yield oats, hay and vegetables, and when the plains 
are reached, besides these, wheat, corn, and barley, with great profusion. 

On the "plains" portion of the county, agriculture is aided by irrigation, 
and ample facilities for this are in the reach of all, as canals traverse the 
entire county, affording an abundant and unfailing supply of water at all 
seasons. JelFerson county has but little waste land. The soil, not only of 
the plains and valleys, but of the mountain slopes, is unusually productive, 
and the climate favorable, even at the greatest elevations in the mountains. 
With these advantages, the agricultural resources of the county are important, 
and will afi"ord the means of support, and the opportunities for the accumu- 
lation of wealth, to a large population; but from the greater facilities afforded 
for manufacturing enterprises, these will, without doubt, eventually form the 
principal feature of the county's industries. The principal inducements for 
the investment of capital in manufactories are the abundance of cheap fuel, 
supplied by the immense coal deposits; the inexhaustable supplies of excel- 
lent building material; the existence of superior water-powers and mill- 
sites,_and the proximity of large deposits of minerals, including copper and 
iron in the county, and gold and silver in the adjoining counties of Boulder 
and Gilpin. These advantages have already been improved to a considerable 
extent, and the manufacturing enterprises of the county have assumed pro- 
portions that place Jefi"erson county ahead of all other counties of Colorado 
in such industries These embrace the manufacture of fire-brick, for fur- 
naces; ordinary brick, for building purposes; coarse earthen or pottery ware, 
and paper. Besides the factories engaged in the manufacture of these indis- 
pensable articles, there are breweries, a distillery, planing mills, saw-mills, 


a mill for grinding gypsum, and several extensive flouring mills. The fuel, 
water-power, crude material, and material for tlie construction of factories, 
used in all these, except that for paper, are among the products and resources 
of the county, and exist in unlimited supplies. Coal for fuel, superior in 
quality, and at cheap rates; fire, potter's, and ordinary clay, and gypsum at 
the base of the foot-hills; lumber in the pine forest on the mountains; cereals 
on the plains and valleys, and water-power from Clear creek and its tributa- 
ries, which traverse the entire county from east to west. That these superior 
advantages will induce the further investment of capital in manufacturing 
enterprises is unquestionable; and no doubt, in addition to present indus- 
tries, there will soon be constructed extensive reduction works, for the treat- 
ment of the ores of the gold and silver belts of adjacent counties. The 
facilities afforded for such works are unsurpassed, and should be taken 
advantage of at once. Besides the superior wagon roads, peculiar to every 
district of Colorado already inhabited, Jefferson is traversed by a railway, 
the Colorado Central, which affords the medium of cheap and ample trans- 
portation for her products to all markets, and places her in direct communi- 
cation with all commercial centres. 

The principal city, and county seat of Jefferson, is Golden City, located 
in the valley of Clear creek, near the base of the foot-hills, in the northern 
central portion of the county, about fifteen miles from Denver. This was 
first settled early in 1859, by gulch miners, and soon became prosperous and 
populous, and has remained so. It is not only the chief city of the county, 
but the home of her principal manufacturing, mining, and mercantile enter- 
prises, and educational and religious institutions. It is surrounded, traversed 
and mined by coal measures, beds of fire and potter's clay, and ledges of 
gypsum, and watered by Clear creek, which affords numerous superior water- 
powers and mill privileges, and is in the immediate vicinity of pine forests 
and cultivated lands. A detailed history of Golden and her advantages 
appears in an appropriate chapter. 

The only other town of importance in Jefferson county is Mount Vernon, 
a beautiful little village, nestled among the foot-hills, about eighteen miles 
from Denver, on the main wagon road from that city to Idaho Springs. It 
is surrounded by quarries of limestone, which makes excellent building mate- 
rial, and pine forests, affording good lumber in unlimited quantities. The 
principal streams of Jefferson county are Clear creek and its tributaries^ 
and branches of the Platte — Deer, Turkey, Bear and Coal creeks, also 
the North Fork of the South Platte, which flows through the southern 
division of the county. They all have an easterly direction, and flow from 
the foot-hills, across the county, to its eastern limits, and are skirted by 
(■bottom lands, eminently fertile and actively cultivated. 

The altitude of the county varies from 4,800 to 8,000 feet above the sea- 
level, and the climate is that peculiar to the region — healthy, invigorating, 
and free from all kinds of malarious or pulmonic diseases. Extremes in tem- 
perature are unknown, and great falls of snow never take place. Stock fatten 
at all seasons, without shelter, and without food save the grasses, which are 
abundant and possess all the nutritious and perennial qualities peculiar to 
those of Colorado. 

Jefferson has already a population which numbers among the thousands; 
but still has ample room, and offers superior inducements to tens of thousands 
of industrious miners, mechanics and ranch-men. 



This county lies exclusively ia the "plains" division of the Territory. 
Its southwestern limits take in a portion of the "Divide," which part is well 
timbered with pine; the balance is entirely valley lands, and well adapted to 
stock-raising (as the grasses are abundant) and agriculture, with the aid of 
irrigation. The county is bounded, north, by Arapahoe county; east, by 
the State of Kansas; south, by Greenwood county; and west, by Jefferson 

Nearly the entire county, from its southeastern border to its north- 
western limits, is traversed by the Kansas Pacific railway. The lands along 
this road are, at present, but partially improved, and, in fact, this is true of 
the entire county; and its whole population is trifling, in proportion to its 
extent and resources. But the completion of this line of railway (during 
the summer of 1870) has attracted attention to the county, and afforded 
facilities for its complete development; and soon emigrants, from the less 
favored farming districts, east, will find comfortable homes in this portion 
of the " great desert," and make themselves wealthy and the county populous. 

Coal beds and iron ore have also been discovered in Douglas couaty — the 
iron ore very superior in quality and in considerable quantities; but, at 
present, mining enterprises form no part of the industries of the county. 
In a country where gold and silver are abundant, but little attention is 
attracted to the baser metals, especially when that country, like Colorado, is 
remote from commercial and manufacturing centres, and not densely popu- 
lated. Hence, the copper, iron and lead of the Territory have, as yet, 
received but little notice; but the completion of two lines of railway, and 
the consequent influx of all classes of citizens, will very soon effect a change 
in the condition of things, and measures will be inaugurated by which our 
vast wealth of copper, iron and lead will be made available, and contribute 
their part to the general wealth of the Territory. Until this desired object is 
effected, the iron ore of Douglas county will not be disturbed, and mining 
enterprises will form no part of her industries. In the meantime, her pres- 
ent agricultural and stock-raising advantages will be her only source of wealth 
and population, and these are sufficiently important to make her populous 
and prosperous. 

In the western portion of the county, and on the " Divide," rains fall more 
frequently than in other locations, and crops can be raised without irrigation; 
but the greater portion of the county, like the balance of the plains, will 
not produce without artificial moisture. This can be supplied, readily, at 
comparatively small expense, as the county is traversed by streams which 
flow from the "Divide," northward, to the Platte river, of which they are 
tributaries. Principal among these are Plum, Cherry, Terrapin, Kiowa, 
Bijou and Beaver creeks. The bottom lands along these are, like those of 
all Colorado streams, exceedingly fertile and productive. It is along these 
strean^ that the greater portion of the population exists, and Douglas has 
no towns or cities of any importance, although her population is considerable. 

In addition to the Kansas Pacific railway, the county has the usual good 
wagon roads peculiar to Colorado; and these, combined, afford every facility 
tor reaching all parts of the county and adjoining sections, and ample means 
tor the transportation of her products to eastern and western markets. 

1 he altitude of the county is between 3,500 and 8,000 feet above sea- 
level, and the climate, like that of all the plains region, exceedingly healthful. 


This undeveloped county oflfers unusual inducements to colonists who 
wish to engage in farming or stock raising, and should be carefully examined 
by such, before making final choice of location. 


This is one of the mining divisions, and one of the largest counties in 
Colorado. It lies west of the Rocky Mountains, and has Summit county on 
the north, Park and Fremont on the east, Fremont, Saguache and Conejos 
counties on the south, and Utah on the west. This vast area, over 16,000 
square miles, is walled in on the west and south by the Sierra Madres and 
TJncompahgre mountains, and its surface broken by a continuous series of 
spurs and ranges, extending from the Rocky Mountains to its western and 
northern boundaries. The main southern branch of the Rio Colorado — the 
Gunnison river and its tributaries — traverse the county from its eastern and 
southern limits to its northwestern corner, and the head waters of the 
Arkansas flow along its eastern limits, from the base of Mt. Lincoln, its 
northeast look-out tower, about 100 miles, to the canon of that river, near 
the foot of South park. It is along this river, and on the head waters of 
the Gunnison, that the principal settlements, mining camps and mining 
districts are located. 

Lake has no continuous extent of level lands, but embraces a series of 
valleys and small parks, which contain millions of acres, well adapted to 
agricultural industries, and the greater portion of its entire area is suitable 
for stock raising, from its mild climate, abundance of water and superior 
grasses. Although farming and stock raising have not yet been engaged in 
to any extent in Lake county, these will be among its important resources 
when it is fully developed and densely populated. This county, with its 
millions of acres of valuable timber, agricultural and grazing lands, numer- 
ous water-powers, extensive belts of gold lodes, and vast areas of gulch and 
placer diggings, has but few inhabitants, and is but partially explored. The 
only settlements or improvements of any importance have been created by 
gulch mining, mostly along the head waters of the Arkansas, near its source, 
and are included in a belt along the eastern limits of the county, commencing 
at the base of Mt. Lincoln, and extending south and east along the Arkan- 
sas, to the caiion of that river. 

The settlement of this region dates back to 1859. and the inhabitants 
were more numerous in 1860, 1861, and 1862 than they have been at any 
other period in the history of the country. The first settlers were gulch 
miners and prospecters, and their operations were conducted mostly in the 
following locations, in and about which are all the towns and mining camps 
worthy of note in the county. Commencing with the most important gulch 
mining district — California gulch — which has been extensively worked, with 
large yields of the precious metal, we will enumerate a few of the most 
important: Colorado gulch, Iowa gulch, Cache Creek diggings, Georgia bar, 
Kelley's bar, Bortchey's gulch. Gold Run gulch, Gibson's gulch, Oregon 
gulch. Lake Creek gulch, Lost Canon gulch, and Sacramento flats. There 
are many other gulch and placer diggings besides the above named, all on 
the tributaries of the Arkansas and head waters of the Gunnison, and quite 
a number of lode discoveries, but we have no data concerning them. They 
are nearly all included in the following mining districts, some of which were 


or<?anized as- early as 1859: Lake Falls, Westphalian, Independence, Cali- 
Ibraia, Sacramento and Adams. As mining enterprises in these districts 
are now almost at a stand still, a detailed history of them would not be inter- 
esting to the general reader. Their story is about the same as that of every 
similar division in Colorado. First, wonderful discoveries of unheard of 
treasures; great rush of miners, with great expectations, followed by disap- 
pointment and failure — not in finding the precious metal in actual paying 
quantities, but in not finding it in anticipated quantities; bad management and 
fraudulent speculations, and then almost abandonment — not because gold did 
not exist abundantly, but because it took patient and skillful labor to obtain 
it. The principal settlements and towns are all in these mining districts, 
and though now almost depopulated, formerly numbered their inhabitants 
by thousands, which they will do again when proper measures are taken to 
develop the actual resources of the county. 

The only towns worthy of note are Granite, Dayton and Oro City. Day- 
ton is most beautifully located at the head of Twin Lakes, near the main 
range. These lakes are the largest bodies of tranquil water in Colorado, 
and remarkable for the rare beauty and sublimity of their surrounding 
scenery, even in the " Switzerland of America." They are, together, about 
two miles in width, and five miles in length, separated by a strip of forest 
land, about one-fourth mile in breadth. They give the name to the county, 
and tourists, who have visited them, acknowledge all attempts at description 
of their wonderful beauty, and the grandeur of the surroundings, as futile. 
All lovers of the rare or beautiful in nature, who visit Colorado, should not 
fail to witness the Twin Lakes. 

This portion of the county is reached by good wagon roads from Fair 
Play and other points in Park county, and by trails from Summit. The 
roads reaching Lake county from Park county, all pass through South park. 
The one from Fair Play to Dayton crosses the Montgomery spur of the 
range north of Buffalo peaks, and winds along a tributary of the Platte, 
and makes the passage of the mountain at a low point; and on the western 
slope follows a tributary of the Arkansas. This route is available at all 
seasons, and with further improvements in the present road, would admit of 
the passage of heavily laden wagons, without difficulty. The best route, 
however, is that via Canon City and the Colorado salt works, across the 
range south of Buffalo peaks, where the elevation of the pass is not more 
than 600 feet above South park. The passage of the range, at either of 
these points, presents no barrier to railroad communication, and when Lake 
county's resources are taken advantage of fully, the iron track will connect 
her with the plains; and, without doubt, that time is not remote. 

The lode mines of Lake present similar features to those of the western 
slopes of the range, and no doubt equal, and perhaps surpass them in rich- 
ness and extent; but, as before stated, they have not yet been operated to 
any extent. It is impossible, from entire absence of data, to give any 
approximate estimate of the amount of gold taken from the placer and 
gulch diggings of Lake county, but it has been considerable, and still her 
gulches and placers have only received partial development, and but little is 
known of their great extent and value. Altogether, this vast area of all 
sorts of mineral, grazing and farming, and timber lands, belongs mostly to 
luture explorers and settlers, and will hereafter afford the historian ample 
material lor statistics and observations. At present we can only record the 


great natural advantages of the county, and dwell upon her wonderful system 
of rivers, mountains and valleys, and the endless variety of geological forma- 
tions, strata and fossils, which present themselves everywhere. 


Lies immediately west of Pueblo county, the Arkansas river passing directly 
through it. It contains some beautiful and fertile valleys, but is chiefly 
broken and mountainous in its outline. It contains a population of about 
1,200. The now somewhat fiimous Wet Mountain valley, of German Colony 
fame, lies partly in this county. Not so well adapted for agricultural pur- 
poses or for grazing as many other less broken counties, yet the valleys are 
very fertile, well watered, and the whole county is well supplied with a very 
superior quality of bituminous coal — probably the only true coal in the Ter- 
ritory — as shown in our chapter on Geology. Petroleum oil has also been 
discovered in large quantities. Gypsum, marble and alum are among its 
mineral productions. Canon City is the chief town and county seat, and 
contains a rapidly increasing population of about 800. It is named from 
the canon of the Arkansas, which has here cut its way through the rocky 
barriers, and passes out to the plain through a deep canon, nearly eight miles 
in length. 

''Like a steed, in frantic fit, 

Tliat flings the I'rotli from curb and bit, 

The river chafes its waves to spray 

O'er every rock tl>at bars its way, 

Till foam globes on its eddies ride 

Thick as the schemes of human pride." 

The United States penitentiary for Colorado is located here. 


This county lies immediately south of Pueblo county, having Bent county 
on the east. Las Animas on the south, and Fremont on the west. It is named 
from the Huerfano river, which passes through it, and which, with its tributa- 
ries, the Cucharas and Apache, forms a stretch of sixty miles of exceedingly 
fertile valley land. It has a population of over 2.500, about one-half Ameri- 
cans and the other half Mexicans, or of Spanish-Mexican descent. 

Stock raising is the principal interest in this county, its grazing capacities 
being almost unlimited. Cattle and sheep are raised by thousands every 
year, and the business is highly remunerative. Agriculture is by no means 
neglected, the numerous valleys being adapted to the production of the vari- 
ous cereals in the greatest perfection. Corn, in particular, grows with great 
luxuriance in Huerfano, and thousands of bushels are produced annually, 
with very little outlay of husbandry. In the mountainous portion of the 
county, the precious metals exist, but not in such quantities as to make 
mining more profitable than agriculture, and they are accordingly neglected. 


This county is located chiefly in the beautiful San Luis park, and on the 
east side of the Rio Grande del Norte river. The population consists chiefly 
of Mexicans, or Spanish-Mexicans, who do not speak English. The settle- 
ments are scattered along the Costilla, Culebra, Ute, Trinchera, and Sangre 
de Cristo creeks, and the principal industry is stock raising. Sheep, horses, 


Croats cattle and asses are reared extensively. The people are, for the most 
part Catholics, and every little town has its church, located on the principal 
plaza. The houses are usually built of adobe, or sun-dried brick, and not 
more than one story high. 

The population is variously estimated at from 2,000 to 3,000, although 
the recent census returns less than 2,000. Fort Garland is in this county, 
and is a prominent frontier post of the government. The principal town 
and county seat is Costilla, situated on the Rio Costilla, a tributary of the 
Rio Grande. It claims a population of 1,000. San Luis is a thriving town 
of 700 inhabitants, and was formerly the county seat. It is on the Culebra 


This county, lying west of the Rio Grande river, contains a population 
of over 2,500, chiefly Mexicans and half-breeds. Owing to its somewhat 
isolated position, the resources of this county are comparatively little known. 
It contains a large area of well watered and arable land, but the class of 
inhabitants settled within its borders are not particularly noted for enterprise 
or thrift; hence very little has ever been accomplished in the way of devel- 
opment. The inhabitants live in adobe houses, grouped here and there into 
little plazas, or villages, for purposes of protection from hostile bands of 
Indians, as well as for social reasons. 

Wheat is the principal crop raised, and wool-growing the chief industry. 
In the mountain portions of the county the precious metals exist in greater 
or less quantities, but mining is not engaged in to any extent. Gypsum is 
found in abundance in various places in the county, and the native inhabit- 
ants use this substance largely in whitewashing their adobe buildings. 

Guadalupe is the county seat, and principal, town. It is located on the 
Conejos river, about twenty miles above its junction with the Rio Grande. 
The other villages, or plazas, are San Margarita, Rinsones, San Jose, San 
Raphael, San Antonio, Pinos, Conejos, Guadaloupita, Tirvietta, and Hilaris. 

Conejos is one of the largest counties in Colorado, containing over 11,000 
square miles of territory, enough to make several States as large as Rhode 
Island; but it is very much bnoken by mountains, and much of it yet unex- 
plored. It occupies the southwestern corner of the Territory, its western 
half being included in the Consolidated Reservation of the Ute Indians, and 
therefore forbidden ground to all white men. The time is not far distant 
when this interesting region, with its beautiful climate and rich grazing lands, 
will attract more attention than it has yet done. 


Saguache county is bounded north by Lake; east by Fremont and Huer- 
fano; south by Conejos, and west by Lake. It occupies the northern 
extremity of the beautiful San Luis park, which, now that a portion of it 
has been sold to Europeans by ex-Governor Gilpin for $2,500,000, bids fair 
to come into much more general notice. As yet, it is the most sparsely 
settled county in the Territory. It is a fertile and finely watered region, and 
ofi"ers inducements to stock raisers and farmers, elsewhere unequalled. Its 
valleys are great natural meadows, covered with the richest vegetation, and 
Its table lands afford the finest natural pasture lands in the world. The 
mountain scenery, hemming it in on three sides, is grand in the extreme. 


Near the centre of the county is the Saguache lake, from which it is named, 
and which is certainly a most remarkable sheet of water. Its waters ebb 
and flow with the regularity of the tides, and yet it is a comparatively small 
body of water, measuring but twenty-four miles in length, and not more than 
ten in width at the widest part. When at low ebb it is scarcely more than 
an ordinary swamp; while at full tide it has considerable depth. Some 
observers have attempted to show a similarity between its waters and those 
of the Great Salt Lake of Utah, and there is a crazy theory afloat that there 
is a subterranean communication between the two ! 

The population of Saguache, chiefly adventurous Americans, with their 
herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, numbers between 300 and 400. A few 
are engaged in cultivating vegetables and the cereals, and find ready market 
for their produce in the mining settlements along the upper Arkansas, etc. 
It is a beautiful county, and cannot fail to be densely populated at no dis- 
tant day. 


Lies on both sides of the Arkansas, extending from Pueblo on the west, to 
the Kansas state line on the east, and from Greenwood on the north, to Las 
Animas on the south. It is a large county, but sparsely settled, and contain- 
ing but one or two posts of any importance. It is named after Col. Bent, 
whose "Old Fort" is still a landmark in this region, and for an account of 
whose trapping and exploring expeditions, see chapter on Early History. 

Las Animas City, opposite Fort Lyon, and near the mouth of the Las 
Animas or Purgatoire river, is the principal town, and bids fair to become a 
point of some commercial importance. Boggsville is the county seat of Bent, 
but is a place of, as yet, but little importance. Except along the immediate 
valley of the Arkansas, the lands of this county are only adapted for grazing 
purposes, there being no facilities for irrigation. The population of this 
county is about 600 or 700. 


This county stretches from El Paso on the west, to the Kansas line on 
the east, and lies between Douglas on the north, and Bent on the south. 
The Kansas Pacific railway passes through it from east to west. Its surface 
is similar to that of the northern portion of Bent. It is, in fact, situated in 
the heart of the "Plains." It has no genuine running streams; abounds in 
bufi'alo grass and cactus, and possesses little interest, as yet, to the agricul- 
turist. In time irrigation, by means of artesian wells, may demonstrate that 
its soil is little inferior to that of more favored sections. For the present, 
there are plenty of more desirable lands to be had for the asking. 

Kit Carson, on the Kansas Pacific railway, is the county seat, and with 
the exception of one or two small stations, the only town in the county. 
The population of Greenwood is not far from 600. 


This valley county lies on each side of the Arkansas river, and is 
bounded, north, by El Paso; east, by Bent and a corner of Greenwood; 
south, by Huerfano; and west, by Fremont. It is one of the finest agri- 
cultural counties in Colorado — containing over 1,200 square miles of exceed- 
ingly fertile land, and including, within its borders, several of the richest 


valleys yet brought under the hand of the husbaudman, west of the Missis- 
sippi. The numerous tributaries of the Arkansas— principal of which are 
the Fontaine qui Bouille, St. Charles, Chico and Greenhorn— cut up this 
county into a series of valleys, with intervening mesa or table-lands, most 
of which can be easily irrigated. These undulated uplands form excellent 
natural pastures, all the year round, for stock, while the valleys^ are readily 
cultivated, and yield immense crops of vegetables and grain. Eastern and 
Northern travelers here first meet with those large ranches, so common 
further south, on which native Mexicans are employed to perform all the 
the labor. Some of these farms contain several thousand acres, and, in 
several instances, fifteen hundred acres are in cultivation on a single ranch. 
The Mexican laborers occupy these lands as tenants, and, in case of the 
larger farms, are so numerous as to constitute, each, a hamlet of several 
hundred souls. 

The county contains a population of over three thousand, and is 
rapidly increasing. Agriculture and stock raising are the chief pursuits, 
and both yield large returns to the industrious husbandman. Stock raising 
has recently been attracting more attention than farming, and may now be 
fairly stated as the leading pursuit of this county. The vast mesas lying 
between the streams furnish pasturage for more cattle and sheep than it will 
be possible to produce for many years to come. 

There are two military posts in Pueblo county — Fort Reynolds, at the 
junction of the Huerfano and Arkansas, and Fort Lyon, near the mouth of 
the Purgatoire or Las Animas. 

Water-power abounds along the various streams, and will, some day, form 
an important element in the industries of the Arkansas valley. 

The chief town of any importance in the county is Pueblo, which is the 
county seat, and is beautifully situated on the Arkansas, just above the 
mouth of the Fontaine qui Bouille. Pueblo has long been known as a dis- 
tributing centre for the Mexican trade, and a rendezvous for the various 
stage lines traversing Southern Colorado. It is a thriving town of nearly 
1,000 inhabitants, and, next to Denver, is growing more rapidly than any 
other town in the Territory. Already it possesses good schools, several fine 
churches, and numerous elegant private residences. The Colorado Chieftain^ 
a weekly newspaper, is published here, and merits the praise of having made 
itself decidedly the best local paper in Colorado. 

The following exhibit is an approximate statement of the business of 
Pueblo for 1870: 

Value of merchandise sold $500,000 

Bushels of grain sold 260 000 

Sacks of flour sold 13 qoq 

Feet of lumber sold \ 500 000 

Value of goods manufactured— tinware, harness and saddlery, boots and 

shoes, furniture, and agricultural implements $70,000 

Number of pounds of freight received 2,'20o'oon 

Amount paid for freight '$'J2!oOO 

Cash receipts of hotels .55 000 

Cash receipts of stage, offices for passenger and express fare 5o',000 

When this county shall possess an outlet by rail — which it will shortly 
have, either by direct connection with the Kansas Pacific at Bent's Fort or 
Kit Carson, or by means of the Denver and Santa Fe line, which is now 


being graded and is expected to reach Colorado City during the coming 
season — its trade and prosperity will increase a hundred fold. 


Lies along the southern boundary of Colorado, and takes its name from the 
principal stream running through it — the Las Animas, or Purgatoire (some- 
times vulgarized into '• Picketwire"). 

The Las Animas ("The Spirits") valley forms one of the most magnifi- 
cent tracts of farming land in Colorado, while the mesas or table-lands, out- 
lying, furnish unequaled grazing grounds for thousands of cattle and sheep. 
Tts population cannot fall short of 5,000, the official canvass in June, 1870, 
registering 4,276 names in the county. 

Trinidad is the county seat and principal town. It is situated on the 
Las Animas, but a few miles north of the territorial line, and is the centre 
of a large trade from New 3Iexico and the celebrated Moreno mines. The 
place contains a population of nearly 1,200, largely composed of people of 
Spanish and 3Iexican descent. 


This county lies immediately south of Douglas, below the great " Divide." 
It has Greenwood on the east, Pueblo on the south, and Park county on the 
west of it. Pike's peak is located in this county; also, the celebrated soda 
springs, first described by Fremont in his account of explorations in 1843-4, 
and the equally famous "Garden of the Gods." The country, as a whole, is 
beautifully diversified with mountain, plain and valley. The dashing Fon- 
taine qui Bouille leaves the mountains at the base of Pike's peak, and runs 
southward through the whole breadth of the county. Its valley is very 
fertile, and has been somewhat thickly settled along its whole extent. 

The county contains nearly 1,500 people, chiefly engaged in farming and 
stock raising. 

In the northern portion of the county lies the beautiful valley of Monu- 
ment creek, named from the natural curiosities of rock scattered along its 

Colorado City is the county seat, and only town of importance in the 

The following concerning Southern Colorado, contributed by that famous 
"prospector," Dick Irwin, will be found quite interesting: 

"The southwestern portion of Colorado furnishes the theme of many a 
camp-fire story. ^Twas here that Bill Williams was killed, in 1850, by the 
Utes, near the dead camp of Fremont's expedition of 1849. General Kit 
Carson made himself famous by exploits in this region, and died, a few years 
ago, at Fort Garland. Ruinsof Aztec towns are found in many places. Tra- 
dition says the civilized Indians abandoned their cities, rushed to the rescue, 
over 200 years ago, when Cortez beseiged Mexico, and Montezuma called to 
his assistance the worshipers of the sun; and the faithful went to fighl for 
their God. Some of those ancient buildings, situated on the high mesa of the 
Colorado of the West, contain as many as 300 small rooms, and are yet in an 
excellent state of preservation. Most of these are built of cedar, well fitted 


and plastered, but some are made of stone, and many have cellars. The Pagosa 
hot springs, on the San Juan, are a remarkable natural curiosity, and the 
■waters are said to possess wonderful medicinal properties. Hot springs are 
found in other localities. This section of Colorado has been the ' stamping 
ground' of many an old trapper and explorer, and quite a number of them 
lie yet where they died, unburied. Camp-fire tales, that warm ambition or 
freeze the blood with terror — tales founded on fact, with Kit Carson, the 
Bents, St. Vrain, Bill Williams, Col. Pfieffer, the Autobeas, Roubideaux, 
and other old mountaineers, as central figures; or Indian and Mexican 
atrocities, the Ute and Navajo wars, the Taos massacre, and the fiendish 
Espinosas — all have additional interest when told near the scene of their 
enactment. Most of the heroic band of old mountaineers have passed away. 
Many of them, after carrying life recklessly through the troubles incident 
to a change of government and continual war with 'our red brethren,' 
settled down to civilized life, ranching, and Mexican wives. None of 
them ever went back to the States. Col. St. Vrain lives in Taos. Tom 
Tobin (or Autobeas) has a ranch on the Trenchera, near Fort Garland; 
his brother Charley lives on the Huerfano, and both are extensively engaged 
in stock raising. 'Old Col. Pfieffer' (not yet quite forty-five) wanders, 
almost alone, among the scenes of his warfare and the graves of his com- 
rades. He was a careless boy, fresh from the military institute in Stock- 
holm, Sweden, when he first came to the far west, in 1847. He was always 
noted for his cool daring, and soon was distinguished as a good Indian 
fighter. He took an active part in the long series of wars with the Coman- 
ches. Apaches, Utes and Navajos, that have kept back progress in New 
Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, and are not quite over yet. He was lieuten- 
ant-colonel under General Kit Carson, during the Navajo campaigns of 
1863-4-5-6, when 11,000 of those 'lords of New Mexico,' who called the 
Mexicans their herders, were compelled to surrender to a small force, mostly 
volunteers, and were removed from the San Juan country to the Basque 
Redondo Military Reservation. Many wild stories are told of his exploits. 
On one occasion, in Santa Fe, he wrapped a 'serape' around his head, and 
went into a store that was on fire, and brought out two kegs of powder that 
were charred and blazing. At another time, with a knife in his right hand, 
he killed a grizzly bear that was chewing up his left arm. He fought a 
duel, once, with two Capote Indians. The weapons were camp-knives. He 
killed them both, though badly used up himself When the Apaches killed 
his wife and children, at the Ojo del Muerte (Spring of the Dead), in 1863, 
he was shot through both legs. In fact, there is hardly room for a fresh 
cut or bullet hole on his body; and still he lives, but lives unhappy. Since 
his family were killed his only pleasure has been revenge. It was a bad day 
for the Apaches when they killed old Pfieffer's family. He made several 
trips, alone, into their country, staying, sometimes for months, and always 
seemed pleased, for a few days, on his return. If there was no party going 
his way, in a few weeks he was off again, with his horse and trusty rifle. 
He was always accompanied by about half a dozen wolves, in the Apache 
country. 'They like me,' he said, once, 'because they're fond of dead 
Indian, and I feed them well.' Col. Pfieffer, when not out in the mountains, 
makes his home at Fort Garland and Conejos. He, too, will soon be gone." 



This county Las Wyoming Territory on the north, Weld county on the 
east, Weld and Boulder counties on the south, and Summit county on the 
west. The western portion of Larimer is extremely mountainous, and 
embraces the eastern declivities and numerous spurs of the main range, from 
Long's peak north to the northern boundary of the Territory, and also the 
foot-hills. These latter are broken through at many points by mountain 
torrents, where deep cartons are formed, which add much to the ruggedness 
and inaccessibility of this portion of Colorado. In this mountainous portion 
excellent pine timber is abundant, and available streams for water-powers 
are plentiful. Among these is the Cache-a-la-Poudre, a considerable and 
remarkably beautiful branch of the south Platte river. 

The eastern part of the county presents the undulating surface peculiar 
to that portion of the plains which lies along the foot-hills, and is exceedingly 
well adapted to agricultural pursuits. 

As yet mineral deposits of no great value have been discovered in 
Larimer, although the mountains in this region may be traversed with fissure 
veins and mineral belts that may enrich future prospectors and miners. 

Laporte, a beautiful village on the Cache-a-la-Poudre, in the eastern cen- 
tral portion of the county, is the principal town. The unusual beauty of the 
scenery surrounding this town, and the healthfulness of the location, make it 
a very pleasant place of summer resort for tourists. The manufacture of 
lumber from the pine forests, and farming, are the principal industries of 
Larimer county. 


This county lies entirely in the plains division and forms the north- 
eastern corner of Colorado. It has Wyoming and Nebraska on the north, 
Nebraska on the east, Arapahoe county on the south, and Boulder and 
Larimer counties on the west. Although exclusively on the plains, the 
surface of Weld county is beautifully diversified with valleys and ridges, and 
the greater portion covered with grasses and other vegetation. But few 
forest trees are to be found ^ but extensive coal beds exist. These supply 
ample fuel for all domestic and manufacturing purposes, and when fully 
developed will become a source of wealth to the county. Iron ores abound 
in the western portion, but, from the absence of smelting works, are valueless 
at present. The leading interests of Weld, however, will always be agricul- 
ture. So much has been said in this work concerning the richness of the 
soil of the valley lands of Colorado, that we need only state here that the 
Platte river and many of its tributaries traverse the county ; this 
establishes the fact that farming and stock raising will always be paying 
industries in this division of the Territory. Already many thousands of acres 
of excellent lands are under cultivation, which produce largely ; and vast 
herds of fat cattle graze upon the succulent grasses in the valleys and upon 
the ridges. 

One of the largest settlements in this county is the Union Colony at 
Greeley, which receives appropriate notice elsewhere. 

Although Weld is one of the best watered of the plains counties, still 
irrigation is necessary everywhere, and facilities for this abundant, except in 



the southeastern portion of the county, which presents but few inducements 
to agriculturists. This arid portion of the county is like the balance of the 
plains, covered with nutritious grasses, but the absence of moisture makes 
it almost uninhabitable. 

The entire county, from north to south, is traversed by the Denver Pacific 
railway. Along the lines of this road are the best agricultural lands and the 
largest towns in the county — Greeley and Evans being the principal. 

The following official statement does not represent fairly the number of 
inhabitants or total propertv valuation of Colorado, as there has been an 
unprecedented increase of population by immigration during the last portion 
of the past year and the first of the present, and proportionate increase of 
taxable property; and all this since the compilation of this table. Another 
matter to be considered is mining property — except a certain class of 
improvements, buildings, etc., — is not subject to taxation. 

Arapahoe .... 



Clear Creek. 




El Paso 



Greenwood ... 





Las Animas.., 



Saguache .... 






Boulder City.. 



Costilla , 

Colorado City. 

Caiion Citj' 

Central City.. 

Kit Carson 


Golden City.... 




Fair Play 

Pueblo , 


Breckinridge .. 























Total I 39,842 

Acres in Cul- 

Total Proprrty 





No return 






No return 









No return 







,830 00 
,248 50 
,972 00 
,112 25 
,702 60 
,0G2 00 
,397 00 
,965 84 
,950 00 
,431 00 
,924 00 
,932 00 
,738 50 
917 00 
510 00 
932 00 
559 00 
811 00 
653 00 
920 31 
381 00 

478,239 16,752,954 50 



The province of geology is to investigate tlie formations of the globe, 
and the various revolutions which have changed its surface; to define the 
causes, and determine the conditions under which metals, minerals, rocks, 
fossils and soils are developed and discovered; to classify the phenomena of 
creation, and define periods, and describe landmarks in, and boundaries to, 
the terrestial works of creative nature; to show how the Infinite has grad- 
ually clustered on the surface of this sphere, and stored within its deep, 
rocky recesses, all that is essential to the development and sustenance of the 
higher order of animal life, and enacted laws and prescribed rules by which 
that superior intelligence — reason — can make these conducive to the well- 
being and happiness of man. 

The geologist measures time by the same meter with which infinity is 
scanned. He reads on tHe surface of rocks, fossils and minerals the histo- 
ries of myriads of years, and records these intelligibly. He forges kej's to 
unlock the vaults in which are stored the richest treasures of the universe, 
and furnishes duplicates to every intelligent being. He dives beneath the 
waters of oceans, and explores the deepest caverns of earth in search of 
germs of scientific truth, which, under his skillful touch, expand to beau- 
tiful flowers and rich fruits of useful knowledge; and nowhere can he find a 
riper field for explorations than in this Territory. The beds of rivers and 
smaller streams, the plains, valleys, parks, and cafions, the "Divide," the 
foot-hills, and mountain ranges, furnish specimens of nearly every known 
variety of rock, strata, mineral and fossil, from those of the azoic period 
to the present era. 

The scope of this work, however, will only admit of a brief compila- 
tion from a recent survey, that of Prof. ¥. V. Hayden, United States 
geologist, made in the summer and fall of 1869, and extracts from an able 
chapter on tlte " Geology and Geological History of Colorado," prepared by 
Prof. Wm. Denton, of Boston, and published in O. J. Hollister's comprehen- 
sive work on the mines of Colorado. The following extracts are from Prof. 
Hayden's preliminary field report, as his full report of his important survey 
is not yet before the public; also, from Prof. Persifor Frazer's report of his 
examination of the mines and minerals of the mining districts of Colorado, 
made under direction of Prof. Hayden, and published with his preliminary 
report. For convenience, we will divide the Territory into three grand 
divisions. The first — the plains to the base of the foot-hills. Second — the 
foot-hills and the main range, and its spurs. Third — the mountains, valleys 
and parks west of the range. In the first division will be included the 
"Divide," between the waters of the Platte and Arkansas. In the second. 
South park, which is east of the main range. 

From Prof. Hayden's report we make the following extracts, which define 
the formations which present themselves in the northern portion of the first 
division. The first extracts are made from a portion of his journal which 
describes the geological features of the country between Cheyenne and 
Laporte, on the Cache-a-la-Poudre, a distance of about forty miles : 

"The distance from Cheyenne to Laporte, on the Cache-a-la-Poudre, is 
forty miles. The tertiary pudding-stone beds extend along the immediate 
flanks of the mountmins for twenty-five miles, but disappear from the plains 
within ten or fifteen miles of Laporte. 



"I have estimated their entire thickness here at from 1,200 to 1,500 
feet. The high hills, near the station, are capped with coarse sandstone, with 
horizontal strata, and are 800 feet above the bed of the creek that flows near 
their base. From beneath these recent beds arise the more somber-hued 
beds of the lignite tertiary. We have then broad grassy plains, dotted here 
and there with buttes, like truncated cones, and long narrow belts of table- 
lands, with perfectly plain surfaces to the eye from a distance. Why these 
more modern tertiary beds are so persistent along the immediate sides of the 
mountains, but have been entirely swept away tea miles to the eastward, I 
cannot tell. This narrow belt, about ten or fifteen miles wide, extending up 
to the granite rocks, and for the most part concealing all the intermediate 
rocks, forms a sort of bench, with a gently ascending grade for the Union 
Pacific railroad." 

We omit Prof. Hayden's description of the coal beds that lie about 
twenty miles south of Cheyenne, but quote fully from the matter which fol- 
lows, so as to give the reader a correct understanding of the geological fea- 
tures of this region. 

"Near Park station, about twelve miles north of Cache-a-la-Poudre, the 
upheaved ridges begin to spread out, revealing very clearly, to the scrutiny 
of the geologist, all the sedimentary rocks, to the tertiary, inclusive. Com- 
mencing in the plains, about ten miles east of the margin of the mountains, 
we find a series of gently inclined tertiary sandstones, dipping from 5° to 
10°. Then come the complete series of cretaceous strata in their order, 
inclining from 20° to 35°. Underneath the ridge, capped with the sand- 
stone No. 1, is a thin belt of ashen-gray marls and arenaceous marls, with 
one or two layers, two to four feet thick, of hard blue limestone, which I 
regard as of Jurassic age. These pass down into light reddish, loose arena- 
ceous sediments. Further toward the mountains come one to three ridges 
of brick-red sandstone, and loose, red sandy layers, sometimes variegated. 
Close to the mai-gin of the mountains, sometimes forming the inside ridge, 
is a bed of whitish limestone, underlaid by dull purplish sandstone and 
pudding-stones, which are probably of carboniferous age. These beds dip 
at various angles, from 30° to 60°, and, as far I can determine, conform 
generally to the inclination of the metamorphic rocks which compose the 
mountain nucleus. 

" The opening in the foot-hills of the mountains, through which Box 
Elder creek flows, exhibits the red beds and Jurassic in full development. 
The whitish-gray sandstones, which lie- between the red beds and the well- 
marked cretaceous strata, contribute much toward giving sharpness of outline 
to the hills, and the broken masses of rock from this bed are scattered over 
their sides. 

" The valley of the Box Elder is very beautiful, and, like the valleys of 
most of the little streams here, makes its way through the ridges and flanks 
of the mountains, nearly at right angles to the trend of the strata. 

"All these ridges, or 'hog-backs,' as they are called by the settlers of 
the country, vary much in the angle of dip. It not unfrequently occurs 
that the outer and more recent ridges incline at a very high angle, or stand 
nearly vertical; and there are many examples where they have been tipped 
several degrees past verticality; while the inner sandstone ridges, lying 
almost agamst the metamorphic rocks, incline at a small angle, or are nearly f 
horizontal; and again this maybe reversed. These mountain valleys are ' 


not only beautiful, but they are covered with excellent grass, making the 
finest pasture grounds for stock in the world. The animals are so sheltered, 
by the lofty rock-walls on each side, that they remain all winter in good 
condition, without any further provision for them. 

" The Box Elder separates into two branches in the foot-hills, and between 
the forks there is a large circular cone, with nearly horizontal strata of the 
7ed beds. A section, ascending, would be as follows: 

"1. Brick-red sandstone, with irregular laminae, and all the usual signs 
of currents or shallow water. Some of the layers are more loosely laminated 
than others, thus causing projecting portions — 300 to 400 feet. 

" 2. The red sandstone passes up into a yellow or reddish-yellow sand- 
itone, massive — 60 feet. 

'"3. Passing up into a bed of grayish-yellow rather massive sandstone^ 
50 feet. 

" 4. Ashen-brown nodular or indurated clay, with deep, dull purple 
bands; with some layers of brown and yellow fine-grained sandstone, 
undoubtedly the usual Jurassic beds, with all the lithological characters, as 
seen near Lake Como, on the Union Pacific railroad — 150 to 200 feet. 

"Near the base of these beds are thin layers of a fine-grained grayish 
calcareous sandstone, with a species of Ostrea and fragments of Pentacrinus 
asteriscus. Scattered through this bed are layers or nodules of impure lime- 

" 5. Above this marly clay there is at least 200 feet of sandstone and 
laminated arenaceous material, varying in color from a dirty brown to grayish- 
white, with layers of fine grayish-white sandstone. 

" We have, also, in this vicinity, an illustration of the difference of incli- 
nation in the same series of upheaved ridges. In the plains, some of the 
lower lignite tertiary beds and cretaceous No. 5 stand nearly vertical, or 85° 
east. No. 4 fills the intervening valley with its dark shale, and the next 
ridge west — cretaceous No. 3 — inclines 36°. Then come the Jurassic beds, 
capped with the sandstones of No. 1, inclining 8°. Then comes a series of 
red beds, dipping 1° to 3°. The inner ridge, or "hog-back," is the largest 
of all — 150 to 200 feet high — is partly covered on the east, or sloping side, 
with the loose red send of the triassic; and on the west, or abrupt side, is 
revealed a considerable thickness of limestone, which I suppose to be of car- 
boniferous age. This ridge is remarkably furrowed on the eastern slope by 
streams, but is too high up on the mountain side to be divided, by the cur- 
rents, into the peculiar conical fragments, as the lower ridges are. And 
hence it presents an almost unbroken flank for miles. There is no better 
exhibition of the sedimentary rocks, with all their peculiar characteristics 
and irregularities, than from the head of Box Elder creek to Cache-a-la- 
Poudre, where the belt of upheaved sedimentary rocks varies from five to 
fifteen miles in width. . 

" Inside of the sedimentary ridges are the metamorphic rocks, mostly red 
feldspathic granites, disintegrating readily, and easily detected by the eye, at 
a distance, by their style of weathering. Still further westward are the 
lofty snow-capped ranges, whose eternal snows form the sources of the per- 
manent streams of the country. 

"It seems clear to me that the more recent sedimentary formations, up 
to the lignite tertiary, inclusive, once extended over the whole country. 
Perhaps no finer locality exists in the West for the careful study of the 


different sedimentary formations, and their relations to the metamorphic 
rocks, than along the overland stage road from Laijfcmie to Denver. 

" Before reaching Laporte, the road passes, for twenty miles or more, 
through ridge after ridge, remarkably well exposed. After emerging from 
the mountains eastward, it runs south for four or five miles along the creta- 
ceous beds, with their upturned edges on the east side, and the Jurassic and 
triassic (?) on the west, forming a slope much like the roof of a house. 
The valley between the two ridges, through which the road runs, is a beau- 
tiful one. 

" South of Big Thompson creek, the belt of upheaved ridges, or un- 
changed rocks, becomes quite narrow, and continues so to Denver, and even 

" The cretaceous rocks in this region, though plain to one who has care- 
fully studied them on the Upper Missouri, are not separated into well-marked 
divisions. If they had first been studied along the foot of the mountains, 
only liom Cheyenne southward, it is very doubtful whether the five distinct 
groups of strata would have been made out. The three divisions, upper, 
middle, and lower cretaceous, are more natural south of the North Platte, 
inasmuch as Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 pass into each other by imperceptible gra- 
dations. Though very few organic remains are observed in them, yet I have 
never found the slightest difl&culty in detecting the different divisions, at a 
glance, by their lithological characters; but I find it quite impossible to draw 
any line of separation that will be permanent. Quite marked changes occur 
in the sediments of these divisions in different parts of the West ; but, by 
following them continuously in every direction, from their typical appear- 
ance on the Upper Missouri, the changes are so gradual that I have never 
lost sight of them for a mile, unless concealed by more recent deposits. 

" As I have before stated, I regard the group of sandstones, which are 
always found between well-defined cretaceous No. 2 and the Jurassic beds, as 
No. 1, or transition. No. 2 is certainly well shown, with many of its features, 
but is a black shale, often arenaceous, containing many layers of sandstone, 
with some concretions; but so gradually passing up into No. 3, that it is 
quite impossible to separate the two. Only in thin portions of either Nos. 
2 or 3 do we find any resemblance to the same groups as shown on the Upper 
Missouri. No. 3 is a thinly-laminated yellow chalky shale, with some layers 
of gray, rather chalky limestone, always containing an abundance of Inoce- 
ramus, doubtless /. problematicus, and Ostrea congesta. Remains of fishes 
are almost always found in the dark shales of No. 2. The black shales of 
No. 4 are quite conspicuous and well marked, and have been quite thoroughly 
prospected for coal, but to no purpose. These black shales pass gradually up 
mto yellow rusty arenaceous clays, which characterize No. 5 ; and No. 5 
passes up into the lignite tertiary beds, where they can be seen in contact, 
without any well-defined line of separation, that I could ever discover. But 
few species of fossils are found in Nos. 4 and 5 in their southern extension, 
but BaculUes ovatus and several species of Inoceramus Ammonites, etc., are 
common. ^ Another feature is well marked here, and that is, there are no 
beds that indicate long periods of quiet deposition of the sediments. Nearly 
all the sediments indicate either comparatively shallow water or currents 
more or less rapid. 

" Sometimes a single ridge will include all the beds of one formation, or 
even those of two or three. I have often seen the sandstones of No. 1, the 


Jurassic, aad a portion of the triassic included in one ridge and the adjoining 
valley. Again, a single formation ■will be split up into two or more ridges. 

" On the Cache-a-la-Poudre, about a mile above Laporte, on the south 
side of the river, the sandstones of No. 1 are separated into four successive 
ridges, inclining, respectively, 18°, 21°, 35° and 46° about southeast. 
Much of this sandstone is a fine-grained grayish-white and rusty yellow 
color, sometimes concretionary, or like indurated mud. Here all the divis- 
ions of the cretaceous extend eastward in low ridges, until they die out in 
the plains, or are concealed by the overlying tertiary. Along the Cache-a- 
la-Poudre and its branches is a series x>f terraces, which are quite uniform. 

" This valley is one of the most lertile in Colorado. The present year 
there has been so much rain that irrigation has been unnecessary. The bot- 
tom lands are about two miles wide, and thickly settled from mouth to 
source. The grass is unusually fine this year, everywhere. 

" In company with Dr. Smith, of Laporte, I visited the supposed gold 
and copper mines at or near the sources of the Cache-a-la-Poudre river. 
This stream makes its way through what might be called a monoclinal 
rift, or between two ridges, whether of changed or unchanged rocks, 
which incline in the same direction. We ascend to the axis of the main 
Rocky Mountain range by a series of step-like ridges, each one inclining in 
the same general direction at some angle, with their counterparts on the 
opposite side of the main axis. Speaking of these ridges, locally, I have 
called them in this report monoclinal, from the fact that, as a rule, their 
counterparts, although they have once existed on the west side of the range, 
are in most cases swept away. We passed up a beautiful valley, with the 
red beds on our left and a few remnants of the red beds and metamorphic 
rocks on our right, for about fifteen miles. We then came to the red feld- 
spathic granites, in which the mineral lodes are located. We first examined 
a local vein of black rock, in which hornblende predominates. It contains 
some mica and iron, so that it might be called a local outcrop of black horn- 
blende syenite. Masses ©f it have a rusty look, from the decomposition of the 
iron in the rock, and sometimes it is covered with an incrustation of common 
salt or potash. Iron, in some form, is one of the prominent constituents of all 
the rocks of this region, changed or unchanged. So far as I could deter- 
mine, the inclination of the metamorphic rocks is in the same direction as 
the sedimentary. I have assumed the position that all the rocks of the 
West are, or were, stratified, and that, where no line of stratification can be 
seen, as in some of the massive granites, they have been obliterated by heat 
during their metamorphism. Therefore, all the metamorphic rocks, whether 
stratified or massive, that form the nucleus of the Rocky Mountains, must 
have some angle of dip equal with the sedimentary rocks. In many cases I 
have to be guided by the intercalated beds of mica or talcose slates. I am 
of the opinion that there are anticlinals and synclinals among the metamor- 
phic rocks of this region, and that the mountain valleys are thus formed, for 
the most part. 

" We examined a number of lodes, which were moderately rich in copper. 
All the lodes have a trend about northeast and southwest, and are two to 
four feet wide, with well-defined walls. Much of the gangue rock is spongy, 
like slag, owing to the decomposition of iron pyrites; and there are large 
masses of the casts of cubes, evidently cubes of iron pyrites. Our examina- 
tions were not very thoroTxgh, but I was not very favorably impressed with the 



district as a rich mineral region. Some of the copper mines, at some future 
day, may yield a fair return; but it will be many years before the country 
will be built up by its mineral wealth. 

"Our route to-day was along the flanks of the mountains, from Cache- 
a-la-Poudre to Big Thompson creek. Lying over the red beds, and 
appearing to form a dividing line between the red beds and the ashen-gray 
marly clays above, is a well defined bed of bluish semi-crystalline limestone, 
two to four feet thick, somewhat cherty, though susceptible of a high polish, 
too brittle and liable to fracture in any direction to be valuable for orna. 
mental purposes — probably useful fo| lime only. I regard this as of 
Jurassic age, although I was unable to find in it any well-marked organic 
remains. The same bed occurs in the Laramie plains, where it contains 
many fragments of crinoidal stems, which Professor Agassiz referred to the 
well known Jurassic genus Apwonnites. 

" On the summit of the first main ' hog-back ' is a bed of massive sand- 
stone, immense blocks of which have fallen down on the inner side of the 
ridge, adding much to the wildness, as well as ruggedness, of the scenery. 
These rocks are made up almost entirely of an aggregation of small water- 
worn pebbles. The layers of deposition are very irregular, inclining at 
various angles. This irregularity in the laminae is a marked feature of this 
sandstone. It forms a portion of the group which I have called transition, 
or No. 1. They are certainly beds of passage from well-marked cretaceous 
to the Jurassic, and the lower portion being, almost invariably, a pudding- 
stone, they may well mark the boundary between the two great periods. In 
many places along our route this group forms lofty perpendicular escarp- 
ments, varying from thirty to sixty feet in height, indicating a considerable 
thickness of the massive sandstone. For fifteen miles we can pass along 
behind this 'hog-back' ridge parallel with the mountains, through a most 
beautiful valley with fine grass, and over an excellent natural road. On our 
left are the upturned edges of a ridge capped with No. 1, passing down into 
the limestone and ashen marly clays of the Jurassic, with a few feet of the 
red sandstone at the base, while the valley, which may be 300 to 500 yards 
wide, is composed of the worn edges of the loose red beds of the triassic, 
and on our right are the variegated sands and sandstones of the formation. 

" South of Cache-a-la-Poudre there seems to be but two principal ridges 
between the transition group No. 1 and the metamorphic rocks; although at 
times each one of these ridges will split up into a number of subordinate 
ridges, which soon merge into the main ridge again. In most cases the inner 
ridge includes all the red beds proper, and there is a well-defined valley 
between it and the metamorphic rocks, but sometimes the sedimentary beds 
flank the immediate sides of the metamorphic ridge. Through these ridges 
are openings, made by the little streams which issue from the mountain's 
side. Sometimes these openings are cut deep through to the water-level, 
and, at other times, for only a few feet from the summit. Sometimes there 
is a stream of water flowing through them, but most of them are dry during 
the summer. These notches in the ridges occur every few hundred yards, 
all along the foot of the mountains. 

"The cretaceous and tertiary beds generally form several low ridges, 
which are not conspicuous. The principal ridge outside, next to the plains, 
IS c^omposed of the limestones of No. 3, which is smoothly rounded and cov- 
ered with fragments or chips of limestone. Between this and the next 


ridge west there is a beautiful concave valley about one-fourth of a mile 
wide. The line between the upper part and the foot of the ridge proper is 
most perfectly marked out by the grass. The east slope of this ridge is like 
the roof of a house, so steep that but little soil can attach to it, and, in 
consequence of this, it can sustain only thin grass and stinted shrubs. 
These ridges are sharp or rounded, depending upon the character of the 
rocks of which they are composed. Cretaceous formation. No. 3, yields so 
readily to atmospheric agfcncies, that the ridges composed of it are usually 
low and rounded and paved with chipped fragments of the shell limestone. 
The harder sandstones give a sharpness of outline to the ridges, which has 
earned for them the appellation of 'hog-backs' by the inhabitants of the 
country. In No. 3 I found Ostrca congesta very abundant, and a species of 
Jnocerarmis identical with the one occurring in the limestone at South 
Boulder, and the same as the one figured by Hall in Fremont's Report, 
Plate IV, Fig. 2, and compared with Inoceramus involutus (Sowerby), 
page 310. The lower part of No. 3, containing the Inoceramus^ is a gray 
marly limestone, which passes up into a yellow chalky shale, which weathers 
into a rusty yellow marl that gives wonderful fertility to the soil, while the 
dark shales of Nos. 2 and 4, as well as the rusty arenaceous clays of No. 5, are 
distinctly revealed at different localities. The light-colored chalky limestones 
of No. 3 are more conspicuous, at all times, along the foot-hills of the moun- 
tains, even to New Mexico, than any other portion of the cretaceous group. 

" The valley of Thompson creek is very fertile, varying from half a mile 
to a mile in width, is filled up with settlers, and most of the land is under a 
high state of cultivation. The ci-eek itself is one of the pure, swift-flowing 
mountain streams, which have their source in the very divide or summit of 
the water-shed, and are rendered permanent by the melting of the snows. 
All these mountain streams would furnish abundant water-power, most of 
them having a fall of thirty feet to the mile. 

" There seems to be a decided improvement in the soil as we go south- 
ward. The geological formations are the same, but the climate is more 

"On a terrace on the north side of Big Thompson creek there is a bed 
of recent conglomerate, quite perfect, and belonging to the modern drift 
period. It is very coarse, and the worn boulders are held together by sesqui- 
oxide of iron. I note it here as an example of very recent conglomerate. 
There is much fine sand, and the rounded stones are exactly like those 
which pave the bottoms of streams. The thickness of this boulder deposit 
is considerable, and it seems to underlie the whole valley portion of the 

" The cretaceous beds of No. 3 pass down into a yellowish sandstone, 
which forms a low ridge on the north side of Big Thompson creek. Two 
or three low ridges of cretaceous appear east of this point, but die out in the 
prairie. This ridge inclines 15°, then comes a valley about one-fourth of a 
mile wide, and a second ridge of rusty reddish fine-grained sandstone, evi- 
dently No. l,or the transition group. This ridge inclines 25°. Underlying 
the sandstone, which forms a large part of this ridge, we find the ashen- 
gray marly and arenaceous clays of the Jurassic, including some thin beds 
of sandstone and one layer of limestone four to six feet thick, which has 
been much used for lime among the farmers. These beds pass down, with- 
out any perceptible break, into the light brick-r«d sandstones which form the 


next two ridges westward. These beds have a dip of 30°. About the 
middle of the red beds there is a layer of impure limestone standing nearly 
vertical 65°, two to four feet thick, which has also been used somewhat for 
lime. The next ridge west has a rather thick bed — ten to fifteen feet — of 
very rough impure limestone, looking somewhat like very hard calcareous 
tufa. The intermediate beds are loose brick-red sands. 

" There is here a somewhat singular dynamic feature — a local anticlinal. 
One of the ridges flexes around from an east dip to a west dip, from the fact 
that one of the eastern ranges of mountains runs out in the prairie near this 
point, forming at the south end originally a sort of semi-quaquaversal, the 
erosive action having worn away the central portions. This forms a short 
anticlinal of about a mile in length. On the east side of the anticlinal 
valley the principal ridges are shown, including nearly all the red beds; and 
on the west side, only the upper portions of the red sandstones with the 
Jurassic beds and the transition sandstones. The latter rocks form the 
nearly vertical wall in which is located a somewhat noted aperture, called the 
' Bear's Church.' In the west part of this anticlinal, within twenty feet of 
the brick-red sandstones, is a blue, brittle limestone layer about six feet thick, 
inclining 78°. This west portion of the anticlinal might be described across 
the upturned edges thus, commencing at the bottom : 

"1. Rather light brick-red sandstones in three layers — estimated 200 

"2. The red bed passes up into a massive reddish-gray, rather fine sand- 
stone — 20 feet. 

"3. Then comes a thin layer of fine bluish-brown sandstone — 2 feet; then 
the bluish limestone — i feet. 

"4. Then about twenty-five feet of ashen clay, with six to ten feet of blue 
cherty limestone, with some partings of clay. 

"5, About 200 feet of variegated clay. 

"6. A bed of quite pure limestone, blue, semi-crystalline — four to eight 
feet. The grass prevents definite measurements, and all the beds vary in 
thickness in different places, as well as in dip, which is from G0° to 80°. 

" 7. This intermediate space is covered over with a loose drab-yellow sand, 
doubtless derived from the erosion of the edges of the beds beneath, which 
are supposed to be Jurassic. There is one bed of limestone about two feet 
thick, similar to that before described. All these limestones appear to con- 
tain obscure fragments of organic remains. 

"8. A nearly vertical wall of sandstone; dip 60° to 65°. This bed is 
formed of massive layers, in all, 150 feet thick or more, and is composed 
largely of an aggregate of small water-worn pebbles of all kinds. Most of 
thepebbles are of metamorphic origin, but some of them appear to have bqen 
derived from unchanged rocks. There are also layers of fine-grained sand- 
stone. The prevailing color is a rusty yellow and light gray. Most of the 
sandstones in this country are of a rusty yellow color j No. 1, cretaceous. 

"9. A broad space, 300 to 400 feet, grassed over. The slope is complete, 
but It IS undoubtedly made up of the sands and sandstones at the base of 
the cretaceous group. 

"10. A fine sandstone passing up into a close, compact flinty rock. This 
IS a low ridge, appearing only now and then above the grassy surface. The 
slope then continues down to the stream which flows throu-h the synclinal 
valley, about a mile wide, and then we come to the gras^ slope' on the 


mountain side, inclining east again. A little below this point, the creek 
cuts through the sandstone and- black clays of No. 2, conforming perfectly^ 
to the wall of sandstone No. 1. 

" Between Big and Little Thompson creeks, the ridges are very numer- 
ous and bold, and it would seem as if the massive, fine-grained sandstones 
predominated, for they cap all the ridges, and the broken masses, often of 
large size, are scattered in great profusion everywhere. In one valley the 
abrupt side, which was composed of red sandstone, presented an unusually 
massive front, and in many places are weathered into the grotesque forms 
so well shown southwest of Denver. 

" Near the head of Little Thompson the ridges are admirably well shown. 
Two beds of sandstone, belonging to the lower cretaceous group, seem to 
have broken off in the process of elevation, and so tipped over that the 
upper edges are past verticality. The upper cretaceous beds really form but 
one principal ridge, although made up of three or four subordinate ones. 
The sediments of these beds are so soft and yielding that they have been 
easily worn down smoothly or rounded off and grassed over for the most 
part. But by looking across it, it is not difficult to detect the black shales 
of No. 4, the yellow laminated chalky marl of No. 3 passing into the alter- 
nate layers of light-gray limestone and black plastic clays of No. 2. As the 
little streams cut through these ridges at right angles, they reveal not only 
the different beds, but also the dip very distinctly. 

"The Little Thompson begins to show evidences of enormous drift agen- 
cies in the thick deposit of gravel, the high table-lands on each side of the 
creek, with here and there a butte with the top planed off, and over the 
surface is strewn a vast quantity of loose material, which has been washed 
down from the mountains. Each one of the little streams has worn its way 
through the ridges of upheaval, usually making enormous gorges, but some- 
times producing wide open valleys. The valley of St. Vrain creek is one 
of these valleys of erosion, with broad table-lands or terraces on each side, 
leaving the "Divide" in the form of a continuous smooth bench, extending 
far down into the prairie, giving to the surface of the country a beautiful 
and almost artificial appearance. 

" The banks of the St. Vrain seem to be composed of an upper covering 
of yellow marl, which soon passes down into gravel. The soil appears to 
derive its fertility from the eroded calcareous sediments of No. 3, but it 
rests upon a great thickness of a recent conglomerate, cemented, in part, at 
least, with oxide of iron. The greatest width of this valley is over ten 
miles, gradually sloping down to the bed of the creek from the north. The 
abrupt side is on the south, where a bank, fifty feet high, is cut by the chan- 
nel of the stream. This bank increases in height toward the mountains, 
but becomes lower further down the stream, eastward. Above this bank, 
southward, is a broad level plain about two miles in width, and then a gentle 
rise leads to another broad table plain which forms a bench or divide. 

" On the north side of St. Vrain creek, near the foot of the mountains, 
there is a long ridge of rather rusty yellow and gray sandstone, with a trend 
about north 5° east, or nearly north and south. There are also two other 
ridges, with a dip varying between 45° and 55° east. The first ridge is 
about 100 feet across the upturned edges, and there is then westward a 
grassy interval of 300 feet, and then another ridge of about the same thick- 
ness, the harder layers projecting above the grassy plain from two to thirty 


feet. It presents the appearance, in the distance, of a high, rugged, irregu- 
lar wall, or broken-down fortification, and is about three-fourths of a mile in 
length. These are the lower sandstones of the lignite tertiary projecting 
above the grassy plain. 

"Near the foot-hills of the mountains, about four miles south of St. 
Vrain creek, are some high cretaceous benches, extending down from the 
base of the mountains. They usually do not extend more than one or two 
miles in length before they break off, sometimes abruptly and sometimes 
gradually. Not unfrequently a sort of truncated, cone-shaped butte is cut 
off from the end of some of the benches. On the summit is a considerable 
thickness of a recent conglomerate, which has been cemented so as to form a 
yJ,olerabIy firm rock. In this drift some fragments of the red sandstone are 
found, but the rocks are mostly granitic. Sometimes there is a valley 
ftcooped out between these benches and the foot of the mountains; and 
ftgain, they ascend gently up to the base and lap on to the flanks. Some- 
times, in the interval between these benches, there is a low intermediate level 
ur terrace, about fifty feet above the valley. The higher benches are about 
1?00 feet above the bottom. It is to this peculiar configuration of the surface. 
Into bench and terrace, that the wonderful beauty of this region is due. 
In the distance, southward, can be seen a continuation of the ridges of ter- 
tiary sandstone, as they project above the surface far in the plains, five to eight 
miles from the base of the mountains. There are some of these sandstone 
ridges from 100 to 300 yards apart; the intervals level and completely 
grassed over, so that the laminated clays or coal beds are entirely concealed 
from view. These ridges continue to appear above the surface, now and then, 
nearly to Denver. Where they pass across the valleys of streams, or even 
dry branches, openings are made of greater or less depth and width, which 
give the irregular outlines to the sandstone ridges. 

"Between St. Vrain creek and Left-hand creek there is a broad plateau, 
about ten miles wide, which is as level to the eye as a table top. It is cov- 
ered over with partially worn boulders. Near the base of the foot-hills, 
behind this plateau, there is a most beautiful valley scooped out, about two 
miles wide, which must have been the result of erosion in past times, for 
there is very little water in it at present. 

"Further southward, those long narrow benches extend down into the 
prairie from the foot-hills. As we come from the north to the south side of 
the plateau, we can look across the valley of Left-hand creek to near Boulder 
valley, at least ten miles, dotted over with farm-houses, fenced fields, and 
irrigating ditches, upon one of the most pleasant views in the agricultural 
districts of Colorado. These plateaus and benches are underlaid by creta- 
ceous clays, only here and there passing up into the yellow sandstones of No. 5, 
with Inoceramus and BacuUtes. The plateau on the north side of Left-hand 
creek comes to the stream very abruptly, and seems to have presented a side 
Iront to the later forces which transported the boulder drift from the moun- 
tains, the sides being covered thickly with worn rocks of all sizes. This 
district IS very aptly called Boulder county; but the culmination of this 
boulder drift is to be seen in the valley of Boulder creek. 

" y <^™ Left-hand creek to Golden City the flanks of the mountains seem 
to be termed of the transition sandstones, or cretaceous'No. 1. with all the 
older sedimentary rocks lying against the metamorphic "rocks in such a way 
as to render them very obscure and the scenery quite remarkable. 


" Indeed, south of St. Vrain creek the change in the appearance of the 
belt, formed of the ridges, or ' hog-backs,' is very marked. 

"Since leaving St. Vrain creek the tertiary beds, containing the coal, 
have been approaching nearer the mountains. North of this point the belt of 
cretaceous rocks has been quite wide, varying from two to five miles, but in the 
valky of the Boulder the belt becomes quite narrow and forms a part of 
the foot-hills themselves, while Nos. 4 and 5 are entirely concealed from view. 

" In the Boulder valley the tertiary coal beds are enormously developed. 
The Belmont or Marshall's coal and iron mines, on South Boulder creek, 
are the most valuable and interesting, and reveal the largest development of 
the tertiary coal-bearing strata west of the Mississippi. 

" In the autumn of 1867 I had an opportunity of examining these mines, 
tinder the intelligent guidance of J. M. Marshall, Esq., one of the owners 
of this tract of land, and I wrote out the results of my examinations at that 
time in an article in Silliman's Journal, March, 1868. In July, 1869, I 
made a second examination of this locality under the same auspices. The 
following vertical section of the beds was taken, which does not differ mate- 
rially from the one hitherto published : 

" 48. Drab clay with iron ore along the top of the ridge. 

"47. Sandstone. 

" 46. Drab clay and iron ore. 

"45. Coal, (No. 11,) no development. 

''44. Drab clay. 

"43. Sandstone, 15 to 20 feet. 

"42. Drab clay and iron ore. 

"41. Coal, (No. 10,) no development. 

" 40. Yellowish drab clay, 4 feet. 

"39. Sandstone, 20 feet. 

"38. Drab clay full of the finest quality of iron ore, 15 feet. 

"37. Thin layer of sandstone. 

"36. Coal, (No. 9,) nearly vertical, where it has been worked, 12 feet. 

" 35. Arenaceous clay, 2 feet. 

".34. Drab clay, 3 feet. 

"33. Sandstone, 5 feet; then a heavy seam of iron ore; then 3 feet of 
drab clay; then 5 feet sandstone. 

"32. Coal, (No. 8,) 4 feet. 

"31. Drab clay. 

" 30. Sandstone, 25 to 40 feet. 

"29. Drab clay, 6 feet. 

"28. Coal, (No. 7,) 6 feet. 

"27. Drab clay, 5 feet 


( Sandstone, with a seam of clay, 12 to 18 inches, intercalated, 
^ 25 feet. 

'^^ \ Drab clay, 4 feet. 
^ I Coal, (No. 6,) in two seams, 4^^ feet. 

^ [ Drab clay, 3 to 4 feet. 


"23. _ 

"22. Yellowish, fine-grained sandstone in thin loose layers, with plants, 
to 10 feet. 
"21.") o' r Drab clay, excellent iron ore. ^ 
" 20. y "2: ^ Coal, (No. 5,) 7 feet. \ 15 feet. 

"19. )5 (Drab clay. ) 


"18. Sandstone, dip, 11°. This sandstone has a reddish tinge, and is 
less massive than 14. 

" 17. Drab clay. ") 

"16. Coal, (No. 4.) ,^20 feet, obscure. 

"15. Drab clay. ) 

"14. Sandstone, massive, 60 feet. • 

" 13. Drab clay. 

"12. Sandstone. 

"11. Drab clay. 

"10. Coal, (No. 3.) 

" 9. Drab clay. 

" 8. Sandstone, 25 faet. 

" 7. Drab clay. 

" 6. Coal, (No. 2,) 8 feet. 

" 5. Drab clay. 

" 4. Sandstone, about 25 feet. 

" 3. Drab, fire clay, 4 feet. 

" 2. Coal, (No. 1,) 11 to 14 feet. 

" 1. Sandstone. 

"In bed No. 23 there are three layers of sandstone, which contain a 
great variety of impressions of leaves. Belov? coal bed. No. 6, there is a 
bed of drab clay, seven feet thick, with a coal seam at the outcrop, three 
feet thick; but the coal appears to give out or pass into clay as the bank is 
entered, so that there are ten feet of clay above coal bed. No. 6. 

"Much of the iron ore is full of impressions of leaves in fragments, 
stems, grass, etc. The ore is mostly concretionary, but sometimes it is so 
continuous as to give the idea of a permanent bed. There are several varie- 
ties of the ore, of greater or less purity. Above coal bed (5) there is a seam 
of iron, with oyster shells, apparently Ostrea suhtrigonalls^ or the same 
species found so abundantly near Brown and O'Bryan's coal mine, about 
twenty miles southeast of Cheyenne. Nearly a dozen openings have been 
made here for the coal. 

" A beautiful valley has been scooped out by the South Boulder, leaving 
a bench covered with debris between the two Boulder creeks. Before reach- 
ing these huge sandstone walls, we pass over a portion of the cretaceous, and 
a great thickness of the red beds, inclining at a high angle. 

"Immediately south of the South Boulder creek there is a high bench 
that extends up close to the base of the mountains, and is covered with drift 
and boulders, three miles in width, entirely concealing all the unchanged 
rocks. But in the valley of Coal creek seven beds of coal are revealed by 
the scooping out of this valley. These beds all incline at a high angle, about 
45°, and are not easily worked. The sandstones project up above the loose 
material like irregular walls, and the creek itself forms a narrow passage or 
gorge through one of these ridges. 

"Between the sandstones, and apparently with very little clay either 
above or below, is one bed of coal four to six feet thick, which was wrought 
for a time, and then abandoned. 

"The next finest exhibition of coal in Colorado, to Marshall's mine, is that 
of the Murphy mine, on Ralston creek, five miles north of Golden City. 
The coal bed is nearly vertical in position, and varies in thickness from four- 
teen to eighteen feet, averaging sixteen feet from side to side. There are 


nine feet of remarkably good fire-clay on each side of the coal, and above 
and below, or on the west and east sides, are the usual beds of sandstone. 
This mine is very near the foot of the mountains, and the belt of sediment- 
ary rocks, which are all nearly vertical, is very narrow here — not more thao 
half a mile in width — and are mostly concealed by debris. 

" Mr. 3Iurphy thinks that there are eleven beds of coal within the dis- 
tance of one-fourth of a mile, all nearly or quite vertical in position, of 
which the one opened is probably the oldest. The mine is opened on the 
north side of the creek, and may doubtless be followed above water-line 
several miles to the northward, toward Coal creek. 

''On the south side of Ralston creek the same bed has been opened, and 
the indications are that it may be followed the same way southward, toward 
Golden City. The entire surface is so covered with superficial deposits, and 
grassed over, that it is impossible to work out these beds in detail, and the 
artificial excavations afford us the most reliable, knowledge. A hundred 
yards or more west of the coal bed there is a high ridge running parallel 
with the mountain range, capped with lower cretaceous sandstones, No. 1. 

'This ridge extends southward, with some interruptions, beyond Golden 

"At Golden City the upheaved sedimentary rocks are so swept away 
that the metamorphic foot-hills are plainly visible. No rocks older than the 
red beds or trias are exposed, and these somewhat obscurely. The red and 
gray sandstones lie close on the sides of the metamorphic rocks, inclining 
30° and 54°. In the trias there is a bed of silica, or an aggregation of very 
fine grains of quartz, which has attracted some attention, and close to it a 
layer of bastard limestone or calcareous sandstone. All the beds dip at a 
high angle and lie side by side, so that one can walk across the upturned 
edges of them all, from the metamorphic to the summit of the tertiary. 
Outside of the cretaceous beds there is a small valley of erosion, and then 
come the tertiary beds. The strike of the coal strata is very nearly north 
and south, and, so far as I could ascertain, the sequence of the beds, from 
within, outward, is as follows: 

" 1st. Rusty, yellow, soft sandstone. 2d. A bed of fire-clay. 3d. Coal 
about eight feet thick. 4th Fire-clay. 5th. Rusty, yellow sandstone. 

'•The clay underneath the coal appears to be ten or fifteen feet thick, 
with one or two unimportant seams of coal. These beds have been so ele- 
vated that the upper edges have passed verticality 5° to 10°. The clay is 
much used for fire-brick and potters' ware. In the bed of sandstone, above 
the coal, we found several impressions of leaves of deciduous trees, among 
them a Platamis^ probably P. haychniL From these we pass across the edges 
of a series of beds of sandstone, with intervening strata of iron ore. The 
thickness of all the tertiary beds here must be 1,200 to 1,500 feet. Near 
the outside is a bed of pudding-stone, and outside or above this, the bed of 
potters' clay, which supplies the pottery at Golden City. About midway, in 
this series of beds, an entrance has been made, exposing a second bed of coal. 
The surface is so grassed over that it is quite impossible to make out the full 
series of beds clearly, but the softer strata are well shown by the depressions 
between the beds of sandstones. 

" The north mesa is two and one-half miles long and about one mile wide. 
The south one is four miles long and about a mile wide. This one has an 
irregular surface and gradually slopes down eastward until it becomes a low 


ridge of tertiary sandstones and clays. The wall of basalt that surrounds 
the top is nearly perpendicular most of the way round, from fifty to one 
hundred and fifty feet in height. The lower portion of the basaltic bed, on 
the north side of the south mesa, is very vesicular, full of rounded porous 
masses somewhat like slag, and rests upon the slightly irregular surface of a 
bed of fine fire-clay, which contains traces of vegetable remains. Below the 
fire-clay are alternate beds of sandstone and arenaceous clay, inclining 
slightly east, and evidently protected from erosion by the hard cap of basalt. 
These beds are plainly tertiary lignite, and must be 600 to 800 feet thick. 
The lowest bed of vesicular basalt is evidently more recent than the columnar 

bed above. 

" Green Mountain is a lofty, grass-covered hill, and is entirely composed 
of the coal strata, while to the west of it is a nearly vertical ridge of sand- 
stone. Just inside of this ridge, or beneath it, is a coal bed which has been 
opened by Mr. John A. Roe. The entrance to this mine is the finest I have 
seen in Colorado, and is 170 feet in length, through 144 feet of sandstone, 
with a slope of 45°. The sides and roof of the entrance are not protected. 
The bed of coal is nearly vertical in position at this point, though at some 
places, where it is not wrought, it inclines east 70°. There are three seams 
of coal, four feet each in thickness, with three and one-half feet of clay 
intervening. Below the coal there is a bed of clay five feet thick, and, 
above, three and one-half feet arenaceous clay. The coal is close, compact, 
and makes an excellent fuel; and Mr. Roe, who is an old Pennsylvania 
miner, considers it better than the bituminous coals for all domestic pur- 
poses, but, for generating steam and smelting ores, he regards it as inferior. 
The ash is white, resembling pine-wood ashes, and the quantity is small. 
The coal at Murphy's, on Ralston creek and Golden City, leaves a red ash. 
There are no cinders, and, in burning, it gives a bright, clear flame ; and, 
although it burns iron, it does not give sufficient heat to weld it. I believe 
this to be a continuation, southward, of the Golden City bed. It is also the 
lowest of the coal strata in this region; for, in the valley immediately west, 
and on the sides of the ridge can be seen the dark clays of the cretaceous 
beds. This ridge is very high at this place, and is composed of the sand- 
stones of No. 1, and a portion of the red beds or triassic (?). Still further 
west are two or three rather low ridges of yellowish-gray and red sandstones, 
which cover the gneissoid rocks of the foot-hills of the mountains. By far 
the largest ridge here is the one containing the sandstones of No. 1, but it 
soon splits up into smaller ridges in its southern extension, 

" About twelve miles southwest of Denver, between Turkey and Bear 
creeks, are some remarkable soda lakes, which are of unusual interest. They 
are the property of Dr. Burdsall, of Denver, in whose company I made as 
careful an examination of them as my time would permit. There are four 
of these little lakes, and all are located on middle cretaceous rocks. The 
principal one lies just east of a low rounded ridge of cretaceous shale, No. 
3, and is surrounded, on the other sides, by low ridges of superficial sand 
and gravel. A little west of this cretaceous ridge there is a lake, a fourth 
of a mile in length, but, on account of the springs flowing into it from the 
slopmg sides of the sandstone ridge, No. 1, the water is not strong. The 
black shales of No. 2, cretaceous, underlie this lake. The soil, for twenty ; 
feet m depth, is fully impregnated with the soda; and, on the surface of one' 
of the lakes, is a crust which looks like dirty ice. A shallow ditch, which ■ 


Dr. Burdsall has made out into the lake a few feet, has a deposit of sulphate 
of soda at the bottom, in a partially crystalline state, one and a half inches 
thick Three and a half barrels of the water make one barrel of the sul- 
phate of soda, and three pounds of the soil, well leached, makes one pound 
of the salts. The salt, by analysis, contains sixty-three per cent of the 
soda, and the water about thirty-three per cent. It contains carbonate of 
soda, sulphate of soda, chloride of sodium, sulphide of calcium, and a trace 
of magnesia. It would seem that these deposits of soda m»st, at no distant 
period, play an important part in the industrial operations of Colorado. 
These soda salts can be manufactured into bicarbonate of soda; can be used 
in refining gold and silver; also, for the manufacture of glass, with silicic 
acid. There is an unlimited amount of soda at this locality, and it can be 
procured at a mere nominal cost. 

"Within a few yards of these lakes, and located in the black, shaly clays 
of cretaceous formation No. 2, are considerable quantities of brown iron ore 
of superior quality — as good as the best observed in the boulder coal strata. 
It occurs in the form of cretations, and occupies a very limited area. 

"The city of Denver is located on the tertiary rocks which contain the 
coal beds of the west, about ten to fifteen miles from the base of the mount- 
ains. The surface is so thickly covered with superficial drift deposits that 
the basis rocks are seldom seen ; but we have every reason to suppose that the 
same beds of coal, that are exposed by the uplifting of the formations along 
the immediate flanks of the mountains, extend eastward into the plains, and, 
of course, underlie, at certain depths, the city of Denver. 

"As we pass southward, up the valley of the South Platte, we find the 
tertiary sandstones exposed occasionally in the banks of the river; and near 
the canon a seam of coal has been opened and worked to some extent. The 
tertiary beds extend quite close up to the foot-hills of the mountains, leaving 
a comparatively narrow space for the exhibition of the older, unchanged 
rocks. Still, we may walk across the upturned edges of them all and stady 
them with care, 

"The valley of the South Platte presents a fine display of the terraces; 
and the drift, filled with water-worn rocks, is very thick. The sandstones 
of the tertiary formation are also plainly seen, appearing to be nearly hori- 
zontal, although not more than ten miles, iu a straight line, from the meta- 
morphic rocks. The whole prairie country has been so planed off that it is 
finely and gently rolling, and the drainage is excellent. The streams which 
flow from the sides of the mountains are fed by perpetual springs, and are, 
consequently, persistent and uniform in their amount of water, affording the 
best water-power in the country. 

"From the soda lakes to the great 'Divide' the cretaceous and tertiary 
beds, outside of the No. 1 sandstone ridge, are smoothed down and grassed 
over so that they are not conspicuous, though there are exposures enough to 
guide the geologist. They are so concealed by superficial gravel and sand 
that they present no good sections, either to show the strata or dip. This 
regularity of the surface renders the Platte valley, as well as those of its 
branches, remarkably fine for farming and grazing, and vast herds of cattle 
already cover the grassy hills and plains. The terraces and benches, which 
extend down from the foot of the mountains, are well shown. 

"Along the Platte river, near the caiion, a coal bed was opened at one 
time, but now it is covered with loose material which has fallen from above, 


so that it is entirely concealed. The strata here are nearly vertical Thero 
are two beds of coal, in all about five feet thick, separated by about two feet 
of clay. The coal is not very good, and has not been used for three years. 
It is probably the same bed seen at Golden City, thinning out southward 

"Along the Platte, and Plum creek, the streams cut heavy beds of boul- 
der gravel^and fiae sand, and it is under this deposit the coal is found. The 
valleys of the South Platte and its branches, between Denver and the 
mountains, are exceedingly fertile and productive, and, at this time, they are 
covered with splendid crops. Nearly or quite all of the available bottom 
lands are already taken up by actual settlers, and are under cultivation. 
The present season has been unusually favorable for farming throughout the 

"The plain country south of Denver comes close up to the foot of the 
mountains, so that the belt of upheaved sedimentary rocks grows narrower 
and narrower, until, a few miles south of the Platte canon, they cease 
entirely for a time. The ridges are very high, ranging from 400 to 600 feet 
above the bed of the Platte. To the southward can be seen, rising like a 
range of mountains, the high 'Divide' between the waters of the South 
Platte and Arkansas rivers, covered quite thickly with pines. 

" The first main ridge contains a few layers of No. 2 ; alternations of 
clay and sand passing down into the sandstones of No. 1. This ridge is 
quite massive, and inclines 43°. In the channel of the South Platte the 
distance from the outside of the ridge containing the sandstones of No. 1 to 
the metamorphic rocks is not more than half a mile. From this point to 
the 'Divide' the ridges are split up and much crowded. The reddish and 
variegated sands are worn, by atmospheric agencies, into the most wonderful 
and unique forms, equal to the ' Garden of the Gods,' only on a much 
smaller scale. Here, also, the red and variegated sandstones jut up against 
the metamorphic rocks as if the continuity was unbroken. Indeed, the 
apparent conformity is complete. 

"The hills of the first range, composed of metamorphic rocks, are curi- 
ously rounded and grassed over, and are made up of a reddish, decomposing 
granite. But, as we ascend, these peaks or rounded cones become sharper, 
the sides more rugged, and the rocks more compact. 

"As we go southward the indications of beds of Jurassic age become 
more and more feeble. Under the massive sandstones of No. 1 are a series 
of yellow and white sands and sandstones passing down into brick-red sands. 
Among this series of variegated beds are two thin beds of limestone. One 
of these is a very white rock, and on its weathered surface are small masses 
of chert, which appear to have the structure of corals. This bed is six or 
eight feet thick. Separated by eight or ten feet of sandstones is another 
layer of bluish limestone, which is much used for lime. I have never been 
able to detect any well-defined organic remains in these beds; but I believe 
a portion of them, between the lower cretaceous No. 1 and the true red beds, 
are of Jurassic age; and it is even possible that a portion of the red beds I 
are of that epoch. 

"From the point where the Union Pacific railroad crosses the Laramie 
mountains to Colorado City, I have been unable to find any well-marked I 
carboniferous or silurian rocks. The red sandstones, which I have been , 
accustomed to regard as triassic, jut up against the metamorphic rocks, or 
are the only exposures that meet the eye of the geologist. I do not believe ' 


that the carboniferous beds are altogether absent, for limestones of consider- 
able thickness, and containing characteristic fossils, occur at Granite canon, 
on the Pacific railroad, high up on the margins of the mountains; and also 
at Colorado City, about 200 miles to the south. In this long interval, I 
have been unable to discover any well-defined carboniferous or silurian 
Tocks, yet I am inclined to think that the carboniferous beds, at least, exist 
underneath all the other sedimentary rocks, but are not exposed by the 

" About five miles south of the Platte canon, the upheaved ridges come 
close up to the mountains, and are not worn away, but form the northern side 
of the ' Divide,' so that the entire series of unchanged rocks, known in this 
region, are exposed in regular continuity. A little further south, we come to 
a series of variegated beds of sands and arenaceous clays, nearly horizontal. 
Testing on the upturned edges of the older rocks. These beds form the 
northern edge of an extensive tertiary basin of comparatively modern date, 
either late miocene or pliocene age. From the point of their first appear- 
ance, about five miles south of the South Platte cafion to a point about five 
miles north of Colorado City, these beds jut up against the foot-hills of the 
mountains, inclining at a small angle, never more than five to eight degrees, 
and entirely concealing all the older sedimentary rocks. The upheaved 
ridge entirely disappears. Far ofi" to the eastward stretches this high ter- 
tiary divide, giving rise to a large number of streams, as Cherry creek, Run- 
ning Water, Kiowa, Bijou, and other creeks. Through this basin also flows 
Monument creek, which has become so celebrated for its unique scenery. 
The beds of this formation are of various colors — reddish, yellow, and white 
— and of various degrees of texture, from coarse pudding-stones to very 
fine-grained sands or sandstones. There is very little lime in the entire 
series of bed. There is much ferruginous matter in all the beds, to some 
of which it gives a rusty brown color. The valley of Plum creek is scooped 
)ut of this basin. The high ridge to the eastward is capped with coarse 
sandstones and pudding-stones. Along the immediate sides of the mount- 
ains the rocks are mostly coarse pudding-stones, the water-worn pebbles 
"varying in size from a grain of quartz to a mass several inches in diameter. 
But as we recede from the mountains, eastward, the sediments become finer 
and finer, until the coarse pudding-stones disappear. I am of the opinion 
that the materials composing the beds of this group have been derived from 
the mountain ranges and vicinity. In their general appearance the rocks 
of this group resemble the prevailing rocks which cover the country from 
Fort Bridger to Weber canon, and also a series of sands and sandstones 
along the Gallisteo creek below Santa Fe, which I shall call the Gallisteo 
sand group. To this group of modern tertiary deposits, I have given the 
provisional name of the Monument Creek group, and they occupy a space of 
about forty miles in width from east to west, and fifty miles in length, north 
and south. 

" Continuing our course southward, we find some curious mesas in the 
valley of West Plum creek. We ascended one lofty butte, with a flat table 
summit, situated west of the Plum Creek road. The top of this butte is 
about 1,000 feet above the road, and is capped with a rather close-grained, 
cream-colored rock, which looks quite porphyritic, fifty to one hundred feet 
thick, and plainly of igneous origin. Its fractures into slabs, which have a 
clinking sound. The beds below are quite variegated, of almost every color 



„..d texture, mostly fine sand, brick red, deep yellow, rusty red, white ash 
colored, dull black, etc. The rusty iron layers sometimes form a sort of 
limonite, but are composed largely of an aggregate of water-worn pebbles, 
cemented with the silicate of iron. There are also thick beds of quartzose 
sandstone, or an aggregate of crystals of quartz and feldspar, so compact as 
to look like a coarse granite. These large masses afford good illustrations 
of the process of weathering by exfoliation. 

" The evidence is clear, in a number of localities, that at a late period in 
geological history there were dikes or protusions of igneous material, which 
flowed over these Monument Creek sandstones in broad sheets or beds; and 
these broad, table-top buttes and mesas are the evidences that they are now 
left after erosion. 

"This modern tertiary basin is very interesting, as the introduction of a 
new feature in the geology of this region. The appearance of the country 
also undergoes a decided improvement. The great ' Divide ' is covered rather 
thickly with pine timber. It is full of excellent springs and fertile valleys, 
which give origin to numerous streams. The grass is excellent and abun- 
dant, even upon the summits of the table-lands. For a distance often miles 
about the sources of Plum creek, the red beds or triassic jut square against 
the sides of the metamorphic foot-hills of the mountains. The projecting 
summits of the upturned ridges gradually fiide out in importance. They 
have also lost their usual regularity, and are split up into an indefinite 
number of fragments of ridges, varying in dip from 10° to 45°. Near the 
water-divide these ridges gradually close up again toward the foot of the 
mountains, and are entirely concealed by the sands and arenaceous clays of 
the Monument Creek group. 

" In the valley of West Plum creek and its branches, as they emerge 
from the mountains, we have a fine exposure of the sedimentary beds. The 
coarse, yellowish-gray sandstones and pudding-stones of the Monument Creek 
group incline slightly, perhaps 3° to 5°. Then come the sandstones of the 
lignite teatiary, inclining 25°. Then west of West Plum creek are some 
ridges of cretaceous rocks. The first ridge is made up of a rather impure 
limestone, filled with well-defined species of Inoceramus and other shells, of 
No. 3, or middle cretaceous. The next ridge west is composed of No. 1, 
and the intermediate valley is underlaid with the shales of No. 2. Among 
the brick-red ridges is one low ridge, composed almost entirely of gypsum 
— an unusual development of this material — to the thickness of thirty or 
forty feet. 

" There is an extensive series of low ridges of red and gray sandstones 
extending up the base of the mountains. 

"The high portion of country, which is plainly visible from Denver 
when booking southward, and from the Arkansas river looking northward, 
would seem to have been protected from erosion by causes which I cannot yet 
well explain. The water divide is the long bench which extends down from 
the very base of the mountains eastward, and forms the line of separation 
between the sources of the streams which flow southward into the Arkansas 
on the one side, and into the South Platte on the other. This water-divide 
IS well worthy of especial notice, inasmuch as it is composed of the Monu- 
ment Creek formation, and juts up against the almost vertical metamorphic 
rocks retaining its nearly horizontal position, and perfectly concealing all 
the older rocks for at least five miles north of the line of separation. 


" The valleys of Plum creek and its branches are quite wide, and are 
scooped out of the modern deposits so as to form most beautiful and fertile 
lands, while on each side a bench extends down from the mountains like a 
lawn. The series of older rocks are exposed by the stripping off of the 
newer tertiaries in the valley of Plum creek. The bench on the north side 
conceals them, for the most part, close up to the foot of the mountains, 
while on the south side they are entirely concealed, until they reappear near 
Colorado City. 

"The 'Divide' forms a high ridge, with a mesa-like top, stretching far 
eastward beyond the horizon, covered with pines. On each side the beds 
of whitish-yellow and reddish sandstones appear like fortifications, holding a 
nearly horizontal position. Near the foot-hills there is a narrow valley, per- 
haps one-fourth of a mile wide, and lying against the side of the mountains, 
are remnants left after the erosion. I at first mistook them for the red 
triassic beds, but on a close examination I found them to be a coaese aggre- 
gate of feldspar and quartz, colored extensively with iron. There are 
inclosed in the rock various water-worn pebbles of all sizes and textures. 
This rock decomposes readily, especially by the process of exfoliation. The 
whole rock is so massive and compact that it might easily be mistaken for a 
metamorphic sandstone. 

"Just south of the first branch of Monument creek there is a fine exhi- 
bition of the erosion of the sandstones. At one locality they lie snug up 
against gneissoid rocks, showing the discordant relations perfectly. These 
illustrations seem to show plainly that the sediments of this recent tertiary 
deposit have all been derived from the disintegration or erosion of the meta- 
morphic rocks, and perhaps the older sedimentary beds in the immediate 

"In a beautiful little basin near Monument creek, which leads to the 
creek, is a lone pillar or column of sandstone, three-cornered, with the strata 
perfectly horizontal, about thirty feet high. The sands composing this are 
coarse, and of a yellowish or whitish color. It has been, for a long time, a 
favorite object for the photographer. 

"At one point on Monument creek the red granites, high up on the 
mountain side, show the perpendicular lines of cleavage in a marked manner. 
Some of the openings are several feet wide. The strike of these lines of 
cleavage is about southwest and northeast. 

"For a considerable distance, some ten or fifteen miles, along the imme- 
diate base of the mountains, on the west side of Monument creek, the long, 
smooth, grassy benches slope down toward the creek, sliced, as it were, or 
cut by the numerous little branches. These lawn-like slopes or benches 
vary in height. Sometimes, on the side of a little branch, where the valley 
is deep, there is an intermediate terrace or step to the higher ridge. 

" All these valleys seem to be occupied by farmers and stock-raisers. 
Almost every available spot is taken up by actual settlers." 

In the preceding copious extracts, from Prof. Hayden's journal, we have 
endeavored to select matter which would be of interest to the general reader, 
as well as to the scientific student; also, material which would show the 
existence of coal beds and minerals having commercial value. While we 
are aware we have omitted much valuable and interesting information, we 
believe we have given sufficient data to prove, beyond doubt, the existence 
of coal measures, carrying veins of unusual thickness and extent, capable of 


yielding vast quantities of excellent fuel at small expense. The extracts 
will also give a comprehensive exhibit of the physical features of this 
region of valley, plain and ridge, and define the prominent geological 
characteristics of that portion of the Territory which lies along the base of 
the mountains and extends across the adjoining prairies. In selecting data 
to define the features of the second division we have made of the Territory 
— the foot hills, the main range and its spurs, and South park — we will use, 
almost exclusively, material pertaining to the mineral belts. In describing 
these, the general characteristics of the region will be fairly explained. We 
quote from Prof. Hayden : 

"The gold and silver lodes of this Territory, so far as they are observed, 
are entirely composed of the gneissic and granite rocks, possibly rocks of 
the age of the Laurentian series, of Canada. At any rate, all the gold- 
bearing rocks about Central City are most distinctly gneissic, while those 
containing silver, at Georgetown, are both gneissic and granitic. The mount- 
ains in which the Baker, Brown, Coin, Terrible, and some other rich lodes 
are located, is composed mostly of gneissic and reddish feldspathic granite, 
while the Leavenworth and McClellan mountains, equally rich in silver, are 
composed of banded gneiss, with the lines of bedding or stratification very 

" There is an important question that suggests itself to one attempting 
to study the mines of Colorado, and that is, the cause of the wonderful 
parallelism of the lodes, the greater portion of them taking one general 
direction or strike, northeast and southwest. We must at once regard the 
cause as deep-seated and general; for we find that most of the veins or lodes 
are true fissures, and do not diminish in richness as they are sunk deeper 
into the earth. All these lodes have more or less clearly defined walls, and 
some of them are quite remarkable for their smoothness and regularity. We 
assume the position that the filling up of all these lodes or veins with mineral 
matter was an event subsequent to any change that may have occurred in 
the country rock. Now, if we look carefully at all the azoic rocks in this 
region, we shall find, more or less distinctly defined, depending upon the 
structure of the rock itself, two planes of cleavage, one of them with a strike 
northeast and southwest, and the other southeast and northwest. Beside 
these two sets of cleavage planes, there are, in most cases, distinct lines of 
bedding. The question arises, what relation do these veins hold to these 
lines of cleavage? Is it not possible that they occupy these cleavage open- 
ings as lines of greatest weakness? 

" I have taken the direction of these two sets of cleavage planes many 
times, with a compass, over a large area; and very seldom do they diverge, 
to any great extent, from these two directions, northeast and southwest or 
southeast and northwest. In some instances the northwest and southeast 
plane would flex around so as to strike north and south, and the other one 
so as to trend east and west; but this is quite seldom, and never occurs unless 
there has been some marked disturbance of the rocks. There are, however, 
a few lodes which are called 'east and west lodes,' and some, 'north and 
south. A few have a strike northwest and southeast, but are generally very 
narrow, and break off from the northeast and southwest lodes, are very rich 
tor a time and then 'pinch' out. It would seem, therefore, quite possible 
that the northeast and southwest veins took the lines of cleavage in that 
direction as lines of greatest weakness, and that the northwest and south- 


east lines cross the other set, and that a portion of the mineral material 
might accumulate in that cleavage fissure. I merely throw out this as a 
hint, at this time, which I wish to follow out in my future studies. I am 
inclined to believe that the problem of the history of the Kocky Mountain 
ranges is closely connected with these two great sets of cleavage lines. As 
I have before stated, my own observations point to the conclusion that the 
general strike of the metamorphic ranges of mountains is northwest and 
southeast, and that the eruptive trend northeast and southwest. The dikes, 
that sometimes extend long distances across the plains, in all cases trend 
northeast and southwest, or occasionally east and west. The purely eruptive 
ranges of the northern portion of the San Luis valley seem to be composed 
of a series of minor ranges ' en Echelon' with a trend northeast and south- 
west. But as soon as this range joins on to a range with a metamorphic or 
granitic nucleus, the trend changes around to northwest and southeast. 
Many of the ranges have a nucleus of metamorphic rocks, though the cen- 
tral and highest portions may be composed of eruptive peaks and ridges. In 
this case the igneous material is thrust up in lines of the same direction as 
the trend. It becomes, therefore, evident that all the operations of the 
eruptive forces were an event subsequent to the elevation of the metamorphic 
nucleus. This is shown in hundreds of instances in Southern Colorado and 
New Mexico, where the eruptive material is oftentimes forced out over the 
metamorphic rocks, concealing them, over large areas. 

" All over the mining districts are well marked anticlinal, synclinal, and 
what I have called monoclinal valleys. Nearly all the little streams flow, a 
portion or all their way, through these monoclinal valleys or rifts. In most 
cases the streams pass along these rifts, from source to mouth, but occasion- 
ally burst through the upheaved ridges at right angles, and resuming its 
course again in some monoclinal opening. There are a few instances of 
these streams flowing along anticlinal valleys, and, by any one, these remarks 
will be at once understood by studying the myriad little branches of Clear 
creek or South Platte, which flow, for long (^stances, through the mining 

"In these valleys are oftentimes accumulated immense deposits of 
modern drift. Sometimes there are proofs that these valleys have been 
gorged for a time, and a bed of very coarse gravel and boulders will accu- 
mulate, hundreds of feet in thickness. Near Georgetown there is a fine 
example of this modern drift action. 

"It would seem that the valley of that branch of Clear creek, in which 
the Brown and Terrible silver lodes are located, was gorged, at one time, 
perhaps, with masses of ice, and the fine sand and coarse materials accumu- 
lated against the gorge, and, at a subsequent period, the creek wore a new 
channel through this material. The upper side of this drift deposit is fine 
sand, but the materials grow coarser as we descend, until, at the lower side, 
there are immense irregular or partially worn masses of granite. On the 
sides of the valley the rocks are often much smoothed and grooved, as if 
by floating masses of ice. We assume the position, of which there is most 
ample evidence all over the Rocky Mountain region, that, at a comparatively 
modern geological period, the temperature was very much lower than at 
present, admitting of the accumulation of vast bodies of ice on the summits 
of the mountains. The valley of the South Platte, as that stream flows 
through the range east of the South park, show, not only these accumula- 


tions of very coarse boulder drift, but, when this drift is stripped off, the 
underlying rocks are found smoothed, and, in some instances, scratched, as 
if by floating icebergs. 

" In regard to the character of the gold and silver mines of Colorado, 
much information of practical value has been secured; but my limited time 
will not permit me to present it in detail in this preliminary report. It will 
be more fully elaborated during the coming winter. I would simply remark 
that my observations indicate to me that the silver mines of Georgetown are 
very rich, and practically inexhaustible, and that, under the present system 
of working them, they are becoming, daily, more and more important. The 
amount of labor that is continually expended in opening mines and driving 
tunnels is immense, and their future importance, as a source of wealth to the 
country, greatly increased. The same remarks will apply to the gold mines 
of Gilpin county. There are some remarkably rich lodes, which have 
yielded the enterprising miners untold wealth, and some that will continue 
to do so. In the majority of cases, where proper management and economy 
have been employed, the mines have been a great source of profit to the 
miner. It is not necessary to enter into the causes of the wonderful failures 
and swindling operations which have brought Colorado into such disrepute 
in the past. It is sufficient for me to state my belief that the mining dis- 
tricts of Colorado will yet be regarded as among the richest the world has 
ever known." 

In referring to Berthoud's pass through the main range, from the head 
waters of Clear creek to the Middle park. Prof. Hayden writes: 

"The range of mountains in which the pass is located is composed of 
gneissic rocks — as are all the ranges in the mining districts. The ascent 
was very steep on the south side, up to the region of perpetual snow; but 
the descent on the north side is quite gradual. 

"Great quantities of loose materials, from the basis rocks, are scattered 
thickly over the summits, of every variety of the metamorphic class. Most 
of the peaks are well rounded, and covered with soil and vegetation. Grass 
and flowers grow far up above the limits of arborescent vegetation. As 
we ascend, the pines, spruces, and cedars dwindle down in size until they 
become recumbent and trail on the ground. Some of the highest peaks are 
very sharp and covered with loose rocks, as if only the usual atmospheric 
influences had ever affected them. Their sides are often massive escarp- 
ments of rocks, down which an infinite quantity of fragments have fallen, 
making a vast amount of debris at the base. Of course their rocky sides 
are entirely free from vegetation, and the oxide of iron gives them a rusty 
reddish appearance. One mountain at the head of Clear creek is called 
Ked mountain, from the fact that the rocks have a bright red color in the 
distance. The evidences of the outpouring of igneous rocks in this mount- 
ain are very marked; indeed, it may be called an eruptive range. 

"From the summit of Berthoud's pass, at a height of 11,816 feet, we 
can look northward along the line of the main range, which gradually flexes 
around to the northwest, while the little streams seem to flow through the 
rifts. The general appearance of the western slope of this great range 
would mdicate that it is a huge anticlinal, composed of a series of ranges 
on each side of a common axis, and then smaller ranges ascend, like steps, to 
the central axis. The western side of this ridge slopes gently, while the 
eastern side projects over abruptly. This main range also forms a narrow 


dividing line, or 'water-divide,' between the waters of the Atlantic and 
Pacific. I stood where the waters of each side were only a few feet apart, 
and felt a real joy in passing down the western slope of the mountain by 
the side of a pure crystal stream, whose waters were hastening on to the 
great Pacific. 

''All down the western slope is a great thickness of superficial material, 
loose sand, decomposing feldspar, with partially worn rocks of all sizes. 
This is due, quite evidently, to local influences, ice and water wearing down 
the sides of the mountains and depositing the material adhering to the 
masses of ice along the slopes. 

"The springs of water are very numerous, and the water seems to collect 
in the thick grass and moss-covered earth, forming large bogs. It is also 
interesting to watch the growth of a stream from its source, receiving in its 
way the waters of myriads of springs, until it becomes a river too formidable 
to ford easily. This little stream, which rises in the pass, we followed to the 
park, where it is fifty yards wide, and contains an abundance of fine trout." 

Concerning the mountains that surround the South park on the north 
and northwest, and east, we make the following extract from Prof. Hayden's 
report : 

"But one of the most conspicuous formations, and greatest in extent and 
importance, is the boulder drift. This seems to be mostly confined to the 
northern and northwestern portions of the park, where the principal placer 
diggings occur. In the valley of the South Platte, especially near Fair 
Play, there is a prodigious exhibition of the boulder formation. The rocks 
are well rounded by attrition, and apparently have been swept down from 
the mountains. Wherever the drift occurs there are long table-lands or 
terraces, especially in the vicinity of the little streams, and they seem to be 
planed down with such wonderful smoothness that it must have been done 
by the combined action of water and ice. 

" Along the west and north sides of the park are a large number of lofty 
eruptive peaks, which seem to me old volcanic cones. One of the peaks, in 
the range west of Fair Play, seems to have a crater-like summit, the rim 
broken down on the east side. All around the inside of the remainder of 
the rim, the layers of basalt appear like strata, inclining from the opening 
in every direction, as if the melted material had been poured out and had 
flowed over the sides in regular strata. There are also tremendous furrows 
down the sides of others. In the mountains north of the park are huge 
depressions in these volcanic ranges, the sides of which are quite red, as if 
they had been in active operation at a comparatively modern period. I am, 
therefore, inclined to believe that the magnificent range of mountains on the 
west side of the Arkansas river, extending far northward, is one series of 
old volcanic cones. As we leave the plains and ascend the mountains at the 
northeast side of the park, we pass immediately from the older tertiary beds, 
covered thickly with drift, to the metamorphic rocks, mingled with outbursts 
of eruptive rock. Toward the summit, there was a great series of gneissic 
beds, of all varieties and textures. All these mountains east of the park 
have a gneissic and granitic nucleus. As we descend the valley of a small 
branch of the North Fork of the South Platte from the Kenosha House, we 
pass down a monoclinal rift. On the west side is the slope, covered with a 
thick growth of pine and spruce, while on the left side are the projecting 
edges of the massive red feldspathic granites, with two sets of cleavage 


lines- the vertical with a strike northeast and southwest, and the other 
inclining at an angle of 30°; the strike, southeast and northwest; while the 
bedding inclines with the hills. The bedding is so regular and massive that 
it looks like massive sandstone stratification. The Platte, with all its little 
branches, flows through these rifts or intervals between the ridges; one side 
of the stream, a plain gradual slope; the other, extremely abrupt, with the 
rugged ends of the gneissic or granitic rocks projecting out in a most remark- 
able manner. After passing along massive granite walls about five miles, we 
go through four or five miles of singularly banded gneiss, and then massive 
granite again, of every degree of texture, from a fine, close feldspathic rock, 
with no mica, to a coarse aggregate of quartz and feldspar and fine particles 
of mica. One of the interesting features of these mountains is the fact that 
all the little streams find their way through these monoclinal valleys. We 
see also the main axis of the range, composed of massive granite, with a 
distinct bedding, which is sometimes inclined, and sometimes horizontal, 
with the banded gneiss inclining from each side. It seems quite clear that 
each one of these great ranges of mountains is a grand anticlinal, with a 
massive granite axis, with the gneissic granites inclining from each side in 
the form of ridges, among which the various streams find their way. The 
trend of these ranges is in the most cases northwest and southeast, or nearly 
so. Some of the gneissic rocks in the Platte valley look like laminated 
sandstone, with a regular dip 18*^ to 30°. The tops of the highest ranges 
are, in some cases, covered very thickly with loose fragments of rocks. 

"Passing down from the junction to Denver, we have some of the finest 
examples of jointage structure in the gneissic rocks that I have ever seen; 
there are two lines of fracture — one with a direction northeast and south- 
west, the other northwest and southeast, with the lines of bedding — making 
a fine study for the geologist. Some of the beds are thus broken into 
nearly square blocks, and others in diamond-shaped masses. 

" On reaching the base of the mountains, the usual ridges of sedimentary 
rocks are passed over — red beds, Jurassic, cretaceous, and tertiary. The 
tertiary beds commence within a mile of the foot of the mountains, soon 
becoming horizontal in their position, and before reaching Denver, they are 
scarcely seen on account of the superficial deposit of drift and alluvial which 
covers them." 

Of the South park and its geological features. Prof Hayden says: 

"The South park is completely surrounded with gigantic ranges of 
mountains, and inside of them the sedimentary rocks, when exposed, seem 
to dip toward the centre of the park. Indeed, I should regard the South 
park as one immense quaquaversal. 

"Around the salt works is a group of laminated sandstones, mostly 
brown and gray, overlaid by a great thickness of light gray gypsiferous marl 
with a bed of crystallized gypsum four feet thick. The valley in which the 
salt springs are located is covered with an efiiorescence of what is usually 
called, in this country, 'alkali.' On the east side of the creek, which runs 
past the salt works, is a high isolated basaltic butte. About a fourth of a 
mile east there is a hill composed of the gypsiferous marls, on the surface of 
which are numerous deposits of calcareous tufa, as if a number of springs 
had issued from it in former times. 

_ " These salt works are quite extensive and costly. The springs are two 
m number, but the- brine is not abundant or strong. Salt has been manu- 


factured here in considerable quantities, and a large portion of Colorado has 
been supplied with it. These springs are very interesting, in a geological 
point of view, though their origin is somewhat obscure to me, yet I believe 
they belong to the triassic or saliferous sandstones. 

" About four miles north of the salt works is a high ridge, inclining 
northwest twenty degrees, composed of a series of variegated sandstones and 
shales 300 to 400 feet thick. These are, without doubt, the group which I 
have usually called triassic, or red beds. Still further north we find them 
inclining southeast, with several thin beds of blue, very hard, cherty lime- 
stone, which is characteristic of the red beds. Near Fair Play the brick- 
red beds are well shown. It seems, therefore, certain that the principal 
sedimentary rocks which are found in the South park are triassic. 

'' About ten miles south of Fair Play several thin beds of blue, close, brit- 
tle limestone appear, intercalated among the red sandstones, dipping a little 
east of south, forming a sort of synclinal; that is, the dip is nearly opposite 
that of the beds near the salt works. These limestones, with the red sand- 
stones, may possibly be of permian age. No fossils could be detected in 
them. The sandstone is, in some cases, micaceous, or composed of mica and 
small crystals of quartz; in others, a fine aggregate of worn pebbles, a sort 
of fine pudding-stone. These variegated or red beds continue close up to the 
eruptive ranges for five miles. North and wesfe from Fair Play we come to 
a high ridge of sandstone with a reddish tinge and slightly calcareous, the 
dip being north of east, or nearly east, and the ridge forming a marked line 
running nearly north or south, through the middle of the park, from the 
mountains nearly to the salt works. Just east of this ridge is another ridge 
of quartzose sandstone or cretaceous. Then comes a very large thickness of 
the laminated cretaceous clays, covering the country for about fifteen miles. 
Near McLaughlin's, twelve miles northeast of Fair Play, the lignite tertiary 
sandstones and clays overlie the cretaceous and jut up against the mountain 
side. About a mile north of the ranch Mr. McLaughlin has opened a coal 
mine. Hje sunk a shaft eighteen or twenty feet through a bed six to ten 
feet of very impure coal; some portions of it can be used for fuel. The dip 
of the coal bed is forty-five degrees northeast from the base of the mount- 
ains, which are not more than a quarter of a mile distant. Mr. McLaughlin 
informed me that he had found 'oak leaves' in the shale above the coal. 
These beds occupy the entire north end of the park, and no older rocks are 
seen between them and the eruptive foot-hills of the mountains. It seems, 
therefore, that the source of the elevating forces that upheaved these sedi- 
mentary formations was in the range of mountains that form the western 
rim of the park, and, so far as I could ascertain, there are no true ridges of 
upheaval on the eastern side. Exposures of eruptive rocks are seen every- 
where all over the park. 

"Thefe are several localities where these rocks are thrust up through the 
cretaceous and tertiary beds, and in the middle and southern portions of the 
park are quite lofty isolated buttes and mountains of eruptive rocks." 

Concerning the mountains south of the park, and the passage through 
these by way of Trout Creek pass, we extract the following, from the same 
report : 

" As we ascend Trout Creek pass, we find granites of all textures, from 
very fine compact feldspathic to a coarse aggregate of crystals. There are 
also many intrusions of trap. All the rocks seem to weather in the same 


way, by exfoliation, as if it were the desire of nature to round off all sharp 
points or corners. I think it may be said that Trout Creek valley is a true 

" Sometime before reaching the top of the pass, we find on the sides of 
the valley low foot-hills of carboniferous limestone, remnants of a once con- 
tinuous bed. As we emerge into a little park, just before reaching South 
park, we pass through a sort of canon, with walls of carboniferous limestone 
on each side, inclining northeast at an angle of eighteen to twenty degrees. 
This limestone rests directly upon the massive granite, and the bedding of 
the granite inclines in the same direction and at the same angle. The lime- 
stones are from 300 to 400 feet in thickness. There is one bed, about thirty 
feet thick, of rusty quartzose sandstone about the middle of the limestone. 
The lower beds are very hard, bluish, and cherty; but the upper ones are 
yellow, purer, and contain imperfect fragments of fossils. 

" There are here also several examples of the outbursts of basalt, assum- 
ing very marked castellated forms. 

" As we pass into this small park, which is about five or six miles long 
and two wide, we have, on the north side of the road, a bed of very thinly 
laminated black shale, passing up into a great thickness of laminated sand- 
etones, all inclining northeast fifteen degrees, and on the summits of the 
mountains, 400 to 600 feet directly above, are beds of limestone and quartzite 
inclining in the same direction. The black shales have been prospected for 
coal. Toward the upper end of this little park is a series of beds, some of them 
with a reddish tinge, composed of alternate thin beds of shale, sandstone, 
pudding-stone, and arenaceous limestones, which belong underneath the 
black shales before mentioned. 

"It seems to me that these beds are Jurassic, or much newer than the 
carboniferous, but, in the upheaval, have fallen down below the carboniferous 
limestones, which have been lifted far up in the ridge beyond. As we ascend 
the ridge which forms the southwestern rim of the South park, we meet 
with what appears to be the same black shales and sandstones on the summit, 
which we saw some hundreds of feet lower, in the small park." 

The following extract will sufficiently describe that portion of the second 
division south of South park : 

"The Kio Grande del Norte river rises in the park of the Animas, flows 
east about 150 miles to the San Luis valley, then bends abruptly south 
through the middle of the San Luis valley. The northern portion of the 
valley is called the San Louis park proper. This northern portion, above 
the bow of the Rio Grande, is about sixty miles in length, and has an average 
width of fifteen to twenty miles. About the centre of this park is a singu- 
lar depression, about ten miles wide and thirty miles long; it looks like one 
vast thicket of 'grease wood,' Sarcobatus vermicular is, and other chenopia- 
ceous shrubs. Into it flow some twelve or fifteen good sized streams, and 
yet there is no known outlet, neither is there any large body of water visible. 
It seems to be one vast swamp or bog, with a few small lakes, one of which 
IS said to be three miles in length. Although entirely disconnected from 
any other water system, the little streams are full of trout. 

"On the south side of the Sierra Blanca the foot-hills are composed of 
the hght-colored marls, and on the west side of the mountain, and near 
Mosca pass, are the sand hills, which are composed of the loose materials of 
this formation. 


" Here also is another conspicuous remnant of it left after erosion. On 
the west side, just below Sawatch creek, and in the Rincon, are some rather 
high hills of this marl at the base of the mountains. The materials thrown 
out of the excavations of prairie dogs show that the valley is entirely under- 
laid with it. I am convinced, therefore, that this fresh-water deposit occu- 
pied the whole of this valley from Poncho pass to the mouth of Gallisteo 
creek, and how much further southward I cannot tell; but there is evidence 
that it extends, either continuously or with interruptions, through New 
Mexico, and even further. 

" From Fort Garland to the Poncho pass no sedimentary rocks of older 
date than the marls are seen along the margins of the mountains on either 
side until we reach Kerber's ranch, about ten miles below the summit of the 
pass. On the west side of the valley, on the foot-hills, is a large thickness 
of carboniferous limestones, lifted high on the summits, and dipping east at 
an angle of fifty degrees. This limestone continues only a few miles, and is 
another of the remnants that are left of the sedimentary rocks among the 

"Commencing at Fort Garland, the range of mountains that wall in the 
San Luis park on the east side is grand in its proportions. From the Sierra 
Blanca nearly to the Poncho pass it appears to be purely eruptive, and to be 
composed of a series of ranges or axes trending nearly northeast and south- 
west. At the northern end the eruptive portion ceases, and the lower meta- 
morphic mountains flex around so as to trend northwest and southeast. On 
the west side, the mountains are far less lofty, but they seem to form a 
nucleus of metamorphic rocks, with a vast number of dikes, from which 
the basalt has poured over nearly the entire region. All the foot-hills south 
of the Sawatch are composed of eruptive rocks, but north of that point the 
gneissie rocks are seen. This range of mountains seems to be made up of 
a number of smaller ranges, with a general trend northwest and southeast. 
It would seem that where a range of mountains is purely eruptive, the 
minor ranges trend northeast and southwest, but that where there is a meta- 
morphic nucleus the eruptive materials follow the strike of the minor 

"At the summit of the pass the hills are grass-covered and the road 
excellent, but the nucleus of the mountains on the east side is metamorphic, 
with dikes of eruptive rocks everywhere. The little stream, the valley of 
which we descend, flows through a monoclinal rift or interval between the 
ridges of metamorphic rocks. 

"About two miles from the summit this little branch is joined by the 
main fork, and the whole continues to flow through a monoclinal valley until 
it empties into the South Arkansas. The main Poncho creek rises in 
one of the loftiest peaks in Colorado. This peak has a large depression on 
the east side, which may once have formed a portion of the crater. At the 
junction of the forks commences one of the most remarkable examples, of 
what appear to be igneous rocks, I have ever seen in the West. On the east 
side of the creek we have the steep slopes, and on the west the projecting 
edges. "We have here 800 to 1,000 feet of eruptive rocks with a sombre 
hue, but with a stratification as perfect as in any sedimentary rocks. It is 
composed of layers never over one to four inches in thickness, inclining south 
of west forty-five degrees. Some of the layers would make good flagging 


"A little further down we come to the gneissic rocks, inclining northwest 
fifty to sixty degrees. Some of the black-banded gneiss has zigzag seams 
of feldspar and quartz running through them. 

"About three miles before reaching the Arkansas there is a curious 
junction of the massive red feldspathic granites, inclining northeast seventy 
degrees, with the dark -banded gneiss, inclining northwest twenty -five 
decrees. At the point of synclinal junction all is confusion; the two kinds 
of rocks are crushed together, and yet there is no break in the mountain. 
As we emerge from the pass to the South Arkansas we have the finest exhi- 
bition of banded gneiss I have seen in the West. The rocks are of various 
colors — red, yellow, white, and black — and the layers are quite thin, and 
their appearance is very picturesque. The general course of the Poncho 
creek, from its source in the snow peak to the Arkansas, is north. 

"The gneiss is very varied in its texture; some of it contains garnets; 
some of it is very close feldspathic, micaceous, or whitish quartzose. 

"On the east side of Poncho creek, about 150 feet above the Arkansas, 
on the side of the mountain, is a hot spring surrounded with a large tufaceous 
deposit. There is also, near the foot of the pass, on the side of the mountain, 
an extensive deposit of the yellowish marl, filled with water-worn boulders. 

" Between the South and North Arkansas there are some remarkable 
terraces or benches, extending the whole breadth of the valley, from moun- 
tain to mountain. On the north side of the South Arkansas are three 
terraces, beside the rounded hills near the base of the mountains, which rise 
iia succession like steps. 

"The high eruptive range which seems to cross the South Arkansas, and 
to pass up along the west side of the North Arkansas, appears to be com- 
posed of a series of enormous dikes, in a chain, merging into each other, 
and having a strike about northeast and southwest. The general trend of 
the aggregate is about north and south. 

" On the west side of the Arkansas valley the recent tertiary beds run 
up to and overlap the margins of the mountains. They are composed mostly 
of fine sands, arenaceous clays, and pudding-stones, cream-colored arenace- 
ous clays and rusty yellow marls, fine sand predominating. These beds 
weather into peculiar architectural forms, somewhat like the 'Bad Lands' 
of Dakota Indeed, they are very nearly the same as the Santa Fe marls, 
and were, doubtless, cotemporaneous, and dip at the same angle, three to 
five degrees, a little west of north. The tops of the hills have all been 
planed down, as if smoothed with a roller. I have called this group the 
Arkansas marls. They occupy the entire valley of the Arkansas. This 
valley is about forty miles in length, and, on an average, about five to ten 
miles in width. It might properly be called a park, for it is completely 
surrounded by mountains. On the west side is one of the grandest ranges 
of eruptive mountains on the continent. On the east side is also a lofty 
range with a metamorphic nucleus, but intersected everywhere with basaltic 
dikes. The first and lowest range runs parallel with it, and is sometimes 
cut through by it. It seems to be composed of massive feldspathic granite 
of igneous origin. 

"Near the mill, on a little branch just below the mouth of Trout creek, 

^ there is a high rounded peak, with a crater-formed depression at the summit, 

which is grassed over, while all around the rim there is a fringe of pines. I 

am inclined to think it is an old volcano. 


"At the point where Chalk creek emerges from the eruptive range the 
sides of the canon present a singuhir white chalky appearance. This seems 
to be due to the decomposition of the eruptive rocks, which appear to be 
true dolerite. 

" The drift evidences in this valley are very conspicuous. All along the 
Arkansas, and in the valleys of the little branches, are very thick beds of 
water-worn boulders of all sizes. The last of the eroding forces seems to 
have come from the range of mountains on the west side. 

"The granite on the east side of the river possesses, in a wonderful 
degree, the tendency to disintegrate by exfoliation. There is a kind of 
bedding which breaks the exfoliation or confines it. In these massive 
granites there are two sorts of cleavage besides the lines of bedding; one of 
these is usually vertical, and has a strike northeast and southwest, and the 
other southeast and northwest, inclining twenty to forty degrees. 

"On the summit of the mountains is a series of beds, one above the 
other, of what appears to be basalt, and these beds, with the granites beneath 
them, incline each way from Trout Creek valley northeast and southwest, 
forming what appears to be an anticlinal." 

The scientific world is every season interesting itself more and more in 
the study of the Colorado system of parks, and of the stupendous and, as 
yet, scarcely explored volcanic structures beyond the snowy sierra. These 
form the prominent features in our third division of Colorado. Active vol- 
canoes are, for the most part, on the edges of continents, near the ocean 
borders, and in the islands of the sea, while those which have been long 
extinct, and whose seething funnels of eruption were long since closed, are 
met with in great numbers in the more central regions of continents. 

Of the extinct variety there are very many examples in western Colo- 
rado, some of which are of immense size. The lava rocks are not usually 
metalliferous, although they abound in mineral glass (obsidan). They 
have passed through a complete process of liquefaction and distillation, and 
are consequently brittle, porous, friable, and readily break down into fine 
powder, and eventually go to form a very fertile soil. In some instances 
the liquid ebullition has overflowed from fissures hundreds of miles in length. 
Vast areas have been submerged, so that they now resemble lakes of black 
solidified sea water. Pedrigal is the technical name applied to this forma- 
tion, while the rocks are termed malpais. This formation is found contin- 
uously over a considerable portion of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah and 
Idaho. It lies west of the main range or snowy sierra, and is parallel with 
its crest. 

The Rio del Norte, from its source in the snowy San Juan mountains, 
400 miles, to Albuquerque, uninterruptedly cleaves a pedrigal of wonderful 
dimensions. Green river penetrates, longitudinally, the same pedrigal, pro- 
longed to the northward. Its eastern shore is washed by the Great Salt 
Lake. It stretches away to Snake river, whose chasm, for more than 300 
miles, cleaves a naked plain of lava, which, in places, expands to a width of 
100 miles. 

This is, therefore, the site of what was once the most stupenduous vol- 
canic region of which the world has any record, but where the fires of 
nature have ceased to belch their wrath ! 

The direction of the mountains, and the drainage, is from north to south. 
The waters sweep away to the Pacific, through the Great Colorado of the 


West J to the Atlantic, through the Platte, the Arkansas, and the Rio del 
Norte'. The average width of this longitudinal trough is about 400 miles; 
the Rocky cordillera form its continuous eastern wall; the Sierras, Wasatch 
and Sierra Mimbres form its western wall. 

To give a more detailed description of the remarkable formations that 
characterize this division of the Territory we again quote from Prof. Hay- 
den's journal. Referring to the Middle park, he writes: 

" About ten miles above the hot springs Grand river flows through an 
enormous gorge, cut through a high ridge of basalt, which seems to be an 
intrusive bed, for above and below the sedimentary rocks are well shown, 
but partially changed. Underneath are the cretaceous shales of Nos. 4 and 
5, and above are the lignite tertiary beds. These beds all dip west 23°. 

" These eruptive rocks are very rough, as if they had been poured out 
without much pressure. Much of it is a very coarse conglomerate, the 
inclosed masses appearing to be the same kind as the paste; that is, origi- 
nally, of igneous origin. Some of the inclosed rocks are very compact, close, 
and all were more or less worn before being inclosed. This rock is a true 
dolorite. I did not see any inclosed masses .that I could call unchanged. 
This basalt extends a great distance, continuing a nearly uniform thickness, 
and inclining: in the same direction with the cretaceous beds below and the 
tertiary beds above. 

" On both sides of Grand river, but especially on the east and northeast 
sides, extending up nearly to the foot of Long's Peak, are quite large expos- 
ures of the recent tertiary beds. They are nearly horizontal, and have 
much the appearance, in color, of the Fort Bridger beds, of which Church 
buttes is an example. These beds are composed, for the most part, of fine 
sand and marl, but there are a few small rounded boulders scattered through 
it. Below the gorge, on the north side of Grand river, these outflows of 
basalt have formed some well-defined mesas; at least three beds ascending, 
like steps from the river. Below the gorge the river fiows through what 
seems to be a rift of basalt, that is, on the north side. The basalt lies in 
horizontal beds, but on the south side is the sloping side of a basaltic ridge. 
The dip is nearly northwest, though the trend of this basaltic ridge is by no 
means regular. One portion of it has a strike northwest and southeast, and 
another north and south. The tertiary rocks reach a great thickness, and 
are elevated high up on the top of the basaltic ridge, 800 to 1,000 feet above 
the river. They are mostly formed of fine sandstone and pudding-stone. 
These fine sandstones contain some well-marked impressions of deciduous 
leaves, among which are good specimens of Platanus haydeni. On the 
north side of Grand river, in some localities, the tertiary beds are elevated 
BO high, on many of the eruptive mountains, that they are covered with per- 
petual snow. These eruptive beds are certainly among the most remarkable 
examples of the overflow of igneous matter that I have ever seen in the West. 

" At one locality I saw a remarkable intrusive layer between the red or 
variegated beds, which are supposed to be triassic and the Jurassic. It is a 
very compact, heavy syenite, and forms a ridge of upheaval, and dips in the 
same direction and at the same angle with the unchanged beds above and 

" About four miles below the first basaltic canon on Grand river, appar- 
ently, the same ridge comes close to the river again. On the north side 
there is a high basaltic uplift, which shows well-marked lines of stratification,. 


as if the melted material had been poured out in thin regular sheets or 
layers. The dip is about north. In many places the entire mass is made 
up of a coarse conglomerate, and has the peculiar steel color which seems to 
characterize modern eruptive rocks. The dip of this basaltic ridge, at this 
point, is 36°. On the opposite side of the river there is an isolated portion 
cut ofiF from the main ridge, with a dip about south or southeast 24°. 

"Continuing our way west, down Grand river, we pass over a series of 
upturned ridges of sedimentary rocks, inclining in the same direction with 
the basaltic ridge, trending parallel with it, composed of cretaceous and older 
tertiary beds. Looking eastward from the Grand canon, below the hot 
springs, this remarkable basaltic ridge seems to form a semicircle, with a 
general dip about north 

" Immediately below the hot springs the Grand canon commences, and 
the river cuts its way through an upheaved ridge of massive feldspathic 
granite for three miles, between walls from 1,000 to 1,500 feet high. The 
south side is somewhat sloping, and covered thickly with pines, while the 
north side is extremely rugged, the immense projecting masses of granite 
forbidding any vegetation to gain a foothold. It would seem that the river 
had worn its way through a sort of rift in the granite, but at the upper end 
it has cut through the uplifted sedimentary ridges nearly at right angles. 
In some places the north side is gashed out in a wonderfully picturesque 
manner, so that isolated columns and peaks are left standing, while all the 
intermediate portions have been worn away. This granite ridge will aver- 
age, perhaps, five miles in width, and extends an unknown distance across 
the park northeast and southwest, and it is from the southeast side that the 
ridges of upheaval above described incline. 

"The granite ridge seems to form a sort of abrupt anticlinal. On the 
southeast side the rocks are all bare or coverec* with a superficial deposit of 
recent tertiary marls. None of the older unchanged rocks are seen on this 
side, but the modern sands and sandstones are exposed in a horizontal posi- 
tion in the channel of the river. 

"The hot springs are located on the right bank of Grand river, at the 
juncture of the sedimentary rocks with the granites. Just east of the 
springs is a high hill, Mt. Bross, 1,000 to 1,200 hundred feet above Grand 
river, which seems to be composed mostly of the older tertiary strata, alter- 
nate yellow and gray sandstones, and laminated arenaceous shaly clays. The 
whole is so grassed over that it is difficult to take a section. The beds 
incline east of north at a small angle. I regard the beds as of the age of 
the coal formations of the West, older tertiary. I found excellent impres- 
sions of deciduous leaves, among which are those of the genus Magnolia. 
Just opposite the springs the left bank of the river shows a perfect section 
of all the layers from the cretaceous to the Jurassic. The bank is not more 
than ten feet thick above the water, and yet it shows that the river itself 
rolls over the upturned edges of all these beds. 

"The section, in descending order, is as follows: 

" 1. Tertiary strata, forming the greater part of the hill known as Mount 

" 2. Gray laminated sandstones, passing down into arenaceous clays with. 
BacuUtes ovatus, etc. 

" 3. Black clays of No. 4. These are of great thickness and every variety 
of texture. As shown in a cut bank of the river, it is a yellow arenaceous 


clay with layers of sandstone, in which the impressions of deciduous leaves were 
observed. These layers project up a distance, along the bank , of seventy paces. 

"4. Dark plastic clay with cone in cone, seams of impure clay, iron ore. 
Then comes an interval in which no layers could be seen, sufficient to include 
No. 3 — 250 paces. 

"5. Dark, steel-black laminated slate, with numerous fish scales; dip, 
twenty-seven degrees. This slate passes down into alternate layers of rusty 
sandstone and shaly clay. 

"In the upper bed of sandstone and shaly clay are obscure vegetable 
impressions, leaves, stems, nuts, etc., evidently deciduous. In the upper bed 
of sandstones are two or three thin seams of carbonaceous shale, and the 
intervening layers of sandstone are almost made up of bits of vegetable 
matter. Toward the lower it becomes a hard mud rock, passing down into 
rusty, yellow sandstone with all sorts of mud markings. Then comes a bed 
of bluish plastic clay with sulphur and oxide of iron; dip, thirty-three 
degrees. Then rusty, fine-grained gray sandstone, passing down into a very 
close massive pudding-stone, composed of very smooth nicely-rounded peb- 
bles, surrounded with silica. This stone would be most excellent for build- 
ing material, and is susceptible of a very fine polish. A fracture passes 
directly through the pebbles, the paste being harder, if anything, than the 
inclosed pebbles; dip, thirty-one degrees. This is a very thick bed, and is a 
portion of No. 1, cretaceous, or a sort of transition bed between the creta- 
ceous and the Jurassic. 

"The red and variegated beds lie fairly upon the gneissic granites, and 
although they are shown very obscurely here, yet I think they must exist, 
inasmuch as they are so well revealed not more than fifteen miles east of 
this point, so that I have no doubt they are lost beneath the mass of super- 
incumbent material. I think the light-colored clays, lying underneath the 
bed of chalky clay, are Jurassic. There is a bed of fine gritty clay under- 
neath the pudding-stone, which would make excellent hones. 

"In the intercalated sandstones above the pudding-stones are plants just 
like those observed in No. 1 at Sioux City, on the Missouri river, and the 
composition of the strata is the same ; there is a Sah'x, a coniferous plant, 
the cones of a pine, etc. 

"I have given this detailed description of thp cretaceous rocks to show 
the exceeding variableness of their texture, and also to call the attention of 
scientific men, who may hereafter visit this interesting locality, which will 
soon become celebrated, to a section of the rock through which the waters 
of the spring must pass in reaching the surface. Now, in whatever rocks 
these springs may originate, the water must pass a long distance through 
the almost vertical strata of the cretaceous period, in the sediments of which 
are found, in other localities, nearly all, and perhaps a-11, the mineral constit- 
uents found in these springs. The deposits around these springs are very 
extensive. No analysis has yet been made, but large masses of gypsum and 
native sulphur can be taken out, at any time, from the sides of the large 
basin-like depression into which the water flows. They are properly ' Hot 
Sulphur Springs,' varying in temperature from eighty to one hundred and 
twelve degrees. 

"About fifteen miles west of the springs is the valley of the Trouble- 
some creek, a small branch of the Grand river, flowing from the basaltic 
mountains on the northern side of the park. 


" I visited the region under the guidance of Mr. Sumner, an old resident 
of the park. The surface of the country, along our road, was strewn with 
eruptive rocks. We saw several localities where the basaltic rocks pro- 
truded, and one place in Corral creek, about eight miles west of Grand river, 
where the little stream has cut a deep channel through the red granites. 
The older tertiary beds appear from time to time. 

"Troublesome canon, at the head of the creek bearing this name, is 
entirely basaltic, and the rugged walls, not only of the main stream, but also 
of the little branches, form a most picturesque view. 

'•Below the carton the valley of Troublesome creek, and also that of 
Grand river near the junction, is occupied by belts of modern tertiary sands 
and marls, like those observed at the entrance of the park by Berthoud's 
pass. Where the little stream cuts the terraces, horizontal strata of whitish 
and flesh-colored sands and marls are exposed. I looked in vain for fossils, 
and found only specimens of silicified wood. There are cold sulphur springs 
in this valley-. All through the park the benches or terraces are conspicu- 
ous in the vicinity of streams, as at the bat^e of mountain ranges. In the 
park through which Frazer's creek flows these benches or terraces are most 
beautifully carved out from the modern marls. 

"I regret that my visit to the Middle park was so short that I could not 
explore the entire area with care, for few districts in the West can afford 
more material of geological interest, and an entire season could be spent 
studying its geology and geography with great profit. 

"The agricultural resources of the Middle park are, as yet, unknown. 
No attempt has been made to cultivate any portion of it. Grass and grazing 
are excellent, and the soil good, and, if the climate will permit, all kinds of 
garden vegetables could be raised in abundance, and some varieties of the 
cereals. Timber is abundant, both for lumber and fuel. 

"In summing up the geology of the Middle park, we find that all the 
sedimentary rocks known in this country are found there. I did not see any 
beds that I could define as carboniferous; but the triassic, Jurassic, creta- 
ceous, and tertiary are well developed. I have no doubt as to the existence 
of true carboniferous limestones in the Middle park. 

"The tertiary deposits of this region may be divided into two groups, 
viz., the lignite or older tertiary, and the modern pliocene marls and sands 
which seem common to the parks and mountain valleys The former con- 
form perfectly to the older beds, while the latter seldom incline more than 
three to five degrees, and do not conform to the older rocks. The marl 
' group is undoubtedly contemporaneous with the Arkansas and Santa Fe marls 

"The geological structure of the Middle park is more varied, compli- 
I cated, and instructive than that of any other of the parks." 

From Prof. Denton's article on the "Geology and Geological History of 
Colorado," published in 0. J. Hollister's valuable work on the " Mines of Col- 
orado," we quote the following concerning the fossil insects discovered in the 
Territory : 

" Specimens of fossil insects from No. 3 (Petroleum shales, varying from 
a cream color to black) were submitted to Mr. Samuel H. Scudder, secre- 
tary of the Boston Society of Natural History, who has made fossil insects 
a special study. The following is his description of them: 

"'This is the fifth discovery of fossil insects in this country, if some 
tracks and an apparent larva in the triassic rocks of the Connecticut valley 


be correctly referred to insects; but it is the first time that they have been 
found in the tertiary beds of America. These were obtained by Prof. Den- 
ton on a trip of exploration west of the Rocky Mountain range, not far from 
the junction of White and Green rivers in Colorado. 

'"The specimens were brought from two localities, called, by Prof. Den- 
ton, Fossil canon and Chagrin valley, lying about sixty miles apart. The 
rocks in both cases are the same; above are the beds of brown sandstone, 
passing occasionally into conglomerate, and thin beds of bluish and cream- 
colored shale alternating with the sandstones, all dipping to the west at an 
angle of about 20°. These contain fossil wood of deciduous trees, fragments 
of large bones, most of which are solid, and turtles, some of which are two 
feet in length, and perfect. Prof. Denton considers this sandstone as prob- 
ably of miocene age. Beneath these rocks are beds of petroleum shale, a 
thousand feet in thickness, varying in color from a light cream to inky 
blackness; these shales are filled with innumerable leaves of deciduous trees, 
and throughout their extent the remains of insects abound. Tfce specimens 
brought home are about fifty in number, many of the little slabs containing 
several diiferent species of insects upon them. The number of species 
amounts to about fifty also, although a number of specimens are so fragment- 
ary or imperfectly preserved as to be difficult and often impossible of iden- 

" ' The most abundant forms are Diptera, and they comprise indeed two- 
thirds of the whole number, either in the larval or perfect state; the others 
are mostly very minute Coleoptera, and besides these are several Homoptera, 
an ant belonging to the genus Myrmica, a night-flying moth, and a larva 
apparently allied to the slug-caterpillars or Limacodes. 

"'The perfect insects among the Diptera are mostly small species of 
Mycetophilidge, a family whose larvae live mostly in fungoid vegetation, and 
Tipulidge, whose larvae generally live in stagnant water; there are, besides, 
some forms not yet determined, of which some are apparently Muscidae, a 
family to which the common house-fly belongs. The larvae of Diptera 
belong to the Muscidae and to another family, the latter of which live, during 
this stage, in water only — none of the larvae, however, belong to the species 
of which the perfect insects are represented on these stones. The Homop- 
tera belong to genera allied to Issus, Gypena, Delphax, and some of the 

" ' A comparison of the specimens from the two localities shows some 
differences. They both have Mycetophilidaj, but Fossil canon has a propor- 
tionately greater abundance and variety of them. Fossil canon has other 
flies also in greater number, though there are some in both; but Myrmica, the 
very minute Diptera, and the minute Coleoptera are restricted to Fossil 
carion. On the other hand all the larvae, both the Diptera and that which 
appears to be a Limacodes, were brought only from Chagrin valley. 

" ' Of course the number of specimens is too small to say that the faunae 
of these two localities are distinct, although the same species has not been 
found to occur in both, and the strata being 1,000 feet in thickness, there is 
opportunity for some difference in geological age, for new collections may 
entirely reverse the present apparent distinction. Neither is it sufficient to 
base any satisfactory, that is at all precise, conclusions concerning their age. 
Enough is before us, however, to enable us to assert, with some confidence, 
that they cannot be older than the tertiaries. They do not agree in the 


aggregation of species with any of the insect beds of Europe, or with the 
insects of the amber fauna; and, since they have been found in Europe in 
considerable numbers, only at rather wide intervals in the geological record, 
we should need more facts than are at our command, by the known remains 
of fossil insects, to establish any synchronism of deposits between Europe 
and America. Much more satisfactory results could probably be reached by 
a comparison of the remains of leaves, etc. Anything more than a very 
general statement is therefore, at present, quite out of the question.'" 

Of the region in which the shales that contain these fossil insects are 
found, and of the shales. Prof. Denton writes: 

"The country in which these are found is a most remarkable one. From 
the summit of a high ridge on the east, a tract of country containing 500 
or 600 square miles is distinctly visible. Over the whole surface is rock, 
bare rock, cut into ravines, canons, gorges and valleys, leaving in magnifi- 
cent relief, terrace upon terrace, pyramid beyond pyramid, rising to mountain 
heights, amphitheatres that would hold a million spectators, walls, pillars, 
towers, castles everywhere. It looks like some ruined city of the gods, 
blasted, bare, desolate, but grand ■ beyond a mortal's telling.' Originally an 
elevated country, composed of a number of soft beds of sandstone, of varying 
thickness and softness, underlaid by immense beds of shale, it has been worn 
down and cut out by rills, creeks and streams, leaving this strange, weird 
country to be the wonder of all generations. 

"In this region is found a deposit of petroleum coal, scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished in any way from the Albertite of New Brunswick. In lustre, 
fracture, and smell, it appears to be identical, and would yield as much oil 
as this famous oil-producing coal. It is in a perpendicular vein, three feet 
wide, and was traced from the bottom of Fossil canon, near Curtis Grove, 
White river, to the summit level of the country, a thousand feet in height, 
and for nearly five miles in length, diminishing in width towards the ends 
of the vein. Its description and analysis is thus given by Dr, Hayes, of 
Boston : 

"'Black, with high lustre like Albertite, which it resembles physically; 
specific gravity 1.055 to 1.075. Electric on friction; breaks easily, and con- 
tains .33 of one per cent, moisture. It affords 39.67 per cent, of soluble 
bitumen, when treated with coal naptha, and after combustion of all its parts 
1.20 per cent, of ash remains; 100 parts distilled afforded bituminous 
matter, 77.67; carbon or coke, 20.80; ash left, 1.20; moisture, .33; total, 
100.00. It expands to five or six time its volume, and leaves a porous cake, 
which burns easily.' 

"The vein is in an enormous bed of sandstone. No. 2; and its walls are 
smooth. Beneath the sandstone are the petroleum shales No. 3, one bed of 
whjch, varying from ten to twenty feet in thickness, resembles cannelite, and 
would, it is thought, yield from fifty to sixty gallons of oil to the ton. This 
bed was traced for twenty-five miles in one direction, and was seen at points 
sixty miles apart in another, and it no doubt extends over the entire distance. 
If so, in that single bed are twenty million million barrels of oil, or a thousand 
times as much as America has produced since petroleum was discovered in 
Pennsylvania. There are few beds of coal that can compare with this in the 
amount of bituminous matter which it contains, or in the great value that it 
possesses as an article of fuel. The tertiary beds of Colorado are as rich 
in fuel and gas-making material as any coal region with which we are 


acquainted; though it is more than probable that the petroleum now in the 
shales and petroleum coals came originally from the oil-bearing coral beds 
of some much older formations." 

In compiling this description of the geological features of the country, 
we have occupied more space than the character of our work demands, and 
still we have not done justice to the subject, nor to the author's from whom 
we quote so fully, but trust we have given sufficient interesting information 
to satisfy the general reader, and convey to the student of geology some idea 
of the vast geological field within the limits of Colorado, as yet but partially 
explored. In conclusion, we append Prof Frazer's list of metals and minerals : 

" Iron pyrites, (FeSj.) — Almost universal in the mines. Occurs in cubes 
from the size of a pin's head to those of an inch on the sides. Also, in 
pentagonal dodecahedra. 

" Copper pyrites, (CujS+FeSj.) — Is only second to iron pyrites in the 
frequency of its occurrence.* 

" Zinc-blende, (ZnS.) — Is also very common, especially in the Georgetown 
region. Fine specimens were obtained from the Baker lode. West Argen- 
tine, and the Griffith lode, close by Georgetown. Also, from Gilbert's 
(formerly Commonwealth Mining Company) lode, near Nevada City. 

" Galena, (PbS.) — Usually argentiferous. In all the lodes of the vicinity 
of Georgetown. Contains from one hundred to six hundred ounces silver 
per ton.f 

^'■Brittle silver ore, (StephaniteSAgS-f-SbsSj.) — Occurs in the silver 
mines of Georgetown. (Terrible and Brown lodes.) 

'' Fahlerz, [(4RS-f4Cu2S)QS3. R=Fe, Cu, Zn, and often some Ag and 
Hg=Q=Sb and As.] — Also in the region around Georgetown. The form- 
ulae here given are from Naumann's Mineralogy. I am not aware that Hg 
has been discovered in this ore ; but, as it coincides, in its physical properties, 
with the ordinary fahlerz, I append the above formula. 

'■'■Light ruby silver (Proustite), (SAgS.AsSs); Dark ruby silver (^Pyrar- 
gyrite), (SAgS.SbSs.) — Handsome specimens of these two ores were observed 
intermixed with the galena from the Brown lode. Also, from Snake river. 

" Silver glance, (AgS.) — From the Georgetown neighborhood. Equator 
and Terrible lodes. A ton of galena, containing much of this ore, was 
recently sold, by a gentleman of Central City, to Prof. Hill, for $1,900 cash, 
and the latter realized a profit of $700 from it. 

" Copper glance, (CujS.) — Bergen district, near Idaho City, Pleasant 
View, etc. 

* " Both iron and copper pyrites of this region contain gold in indefinitely fine 
particles. The former is, in fact, the gold ore. Where these minerals have been 
exposed to the action of the weather, they have been decomposed and the gold set 
free. The value of the gold in a ton varies from nothing to S500, and even more. I 
have observed small octahedra of gold on the crystal faces of iron pyrites from the 
Pleasant View mine near Central City. 

t" It is somewhat remarkable that these veins of galena generally ' pinch up,' or 
grow smaller, as the depth increases. I talce this general statement from the best 
authority I could obtain on the subject. A gentleman, well acquainted with the 
Georgetown ores, informed me that all attempts hitherto to produce lead for the market 
had failed from the deficiency in the supply of galena. This statement, which I give 
for what it is worth, appears all the more remarkable when one compares it with the 
icxperience of miners in Freilberg, Przibram, and Clausthal. 


''Malachite, (CuO.COz); Blue vitriol, (CuO.SOs+SHO); Green vitriol, 
(CuO.SOj+THO.) — Occur in various mines from the decomposition of the 

'■'■ PyromoryMte, (PbO-POj+PbCl.) — Associated with the galena of 
various mines near the surface. 

" Specular iron ore, (FeO.FejOs.) — Cache-a-la-Poudre, St. Vrain, etc. 

''Red and broicn hematite, (FcjOs ^^^ FejOg-f-HO.) — Of frequent 
occurrence in the vicinity of the coal. 

" Coal. — Beds of coal occur all along the flanks of the mountains; but 
in the property of Mr. Marshall are perhaps the best exposures. Here are 
no less than nine outcrops. They make their appearance at various points 
along the range as far down as Santa Fe, and are of unknown extent. 
Albertine coal, or solidified petroleum, is stated by Prof. Denton to occur on 
White river, in the western part of the Territory. 

" Gold — Occurs in the neighborhood of Central City, in the German 
lode, and many others. In the Placer diggings. Some beautiful crystals 
attached to cubes of iron pyrites in the ore from the Pleasant View 

" Silver. — In many mines as wire or hair silver. Brown and United States 
Coin lodes. 

" Cerussite, (PbO.COj.) — Pleasant View mine. — In small translucent 
crystals occurring in geodes. 

" Anglesite, (PbO.SOj.)— Freedland lode. Trail run. 

"Horn silver, (AgCl.) — Georgetown, Snake river. 

" Emholite, (AgBr-|-AgCl.) — Peru district. Snake river. 

" Titanic iron ore, {x TijOa-f-y FejOj.) — Quartz Hill, and Russell gulch, 
near Central City. 

"Micaceous iron ore, (FejOs- ) — Elk creek. In fine crystals, like 

" Spathic iron ore, (FeO.COs-) — Eureka and Griffith lodes, etc. 

" Smithsonite, (ZnO.COj-) — Running lode. Black Hawk, etc. 

" Salt, (NaCl.) — From Salt springs in South park, twenty miles south- 
east of Fair Play. Can produce 40,000 pounds per diem. 

" By characteristic minerals, I mean to include all those that have no 
commercial value. They furnish proof, in most cases, of the presence of 
other minerals, of rocks, or of formations. Of the characteristic minerals, 
among the most common are — 

" Hydrated oxide of iron, (brown ochre, yellow ochre, bog iron ore, etc.) 
— Occurs with the coal beds at South Boulder, Golden City, etc., etc., and 
is frequently regarded as a surface indication of the presence of gold, silver, 
and the precious ores generally. 

" Quartz, (SiOj.) — The most important of the characteristic minerals. 
Very widely diifused. Forms the gangue of nearly all the veins of the 
precious metals in Colorado. As the gangue rock it crops out on the hill 
sides in white or colored streaks, usually intersecting the planes of stratifica- 
tion of the rocks. Uncrystallized, presenting sharp and jagged edges, and 
a broken conchoidal uneven fracture, sometimes weathered by the disinte- 
gration of the minerals it contained. Pebbles and partially rounded crystals 
of quartz are abundant in the prairies east of the Rocky Mountains, whence 
they have been carried down, and may be observed hundreds of miles east 
of the easternmost 'hog-back.' Indeed, the abundance of these -small 


pebbles of quartz, and of the red feldspar, is very remarkable, occurring, as 
they do, in great quantities on the summits of the little prairie hillocks, at 
such an immense distance from their place of origin. 

" 1. Smoky quartz and black quartz. — Elk creek. 

" 2. Rock or Berg crystal. — Near ' Dirtywoman's Ranch,' and in geodes 
in various mines. 

" 3. Rose quartz. — Quartz Hill. 

« 4. Agate (Moss agate, etc.) — Middle park, Arkansas River park, etc. 

" 5. Amethyst.— Nevada City, Mill City, etc. 

" 6. Aventurine. — Elk creek. 

" 7. Heliotrope (bloodstone). — Middle park. 

" 9. Carnelian. — South park and Middle park. 

"10. Chalcedony. — South park, Trout Creek pass, etc. 

"11. Chrysoprase. — Middle park. 

"12. Jasper. — South and Middle parks. 

" 13. Onyx. — Middle park. Grand river, etc. 

" 14 Sardonyx. — Golden City, Mount Vernon. 

" Hornstone, flint, milk quartz, prase, cat's-eye, fire-stone, and other dif- 
ferent varieties of silicic acid, are met with in the above localities, but have 
no especial interest. 

^'Opal, (hydrated silicic acid.) — Idaho City, Golden City, South Boul- 
der, etc. 

^^ Feldspar. — Very abundant in the mountains, and, as boulders and 
pebbles, throughout the Territory. Associated with quartz iu the granites, 
gneisses, and porphyries of the gold-bearing mountains. 

"a. Orthoclase (Al2O3.3SiO3-f-KO.SiO3) is largely the predominant 
feldspar in the rocks in Colorado. 

"al. Pegmatolite. — Flesh-red, orthoclastic, abundant as pebbles, scat- 
tered, with quartz, over the prairies for hundreds of miles. Forms red 
granites and gneisses with quartz and mica, and red syenites with hornblende. 
Very common. 

" a 2. Adularia. — Forms a white porphyry when associated with quartz 
in many places along Fall river, and in many veins. Not common. 

" a 3. Sanidin. — Fine crystals of hopper-shaped sanidin from Quartz Hill. 

"6. Plagioclastic feldspars. 

"b 1. Albite, (AlA-aSiOs-t-NaO.SiOg.)— Trout Creek pass. 

" b 2. Oligoclase. — Arkansas River park, etc. 

"6 3. Labrador, (Al203.Si03-(-CaO.Si03.) — In the basalts and diabases 
of the region about the Spanish peaks, Trinidad, the upper part of San 
Luis park, and the Puntia pass. 

^^ Hornblende^ (silicate of lime, magnesia, and suboxide of iron.) — In the 
syenite in and around Idaho. 

" Diorite. — Near Empire City, and elsewhere. 

" Garnet. — South park, twenty miles from Fair Play. Breckinridge. 

" Mica, (K0.Si03+ Al^Oa.SiOa-hRO.SiOs.) 

"1. Potash mica. — Light colored. Frequent in the gneisses of Gilpin 
and other counties. 

" 2. Magnesian mica. — Dark colored. Frequent in the gneisses of South 
park. Trout Creek pass, etc. 

''Leucite, (Al203Si03-|-KO.Si03.)— In trachytic lava between the 
Cuchara and the Apishpa. 


" Chlorite. — In diabase, near Trinidad. 

^^ Amphihole, (augite.) — In basalts, near Trinidad, and diabase, near 

''Epidote, (CaO-SiOs+CAljOs+FeAjSiOs.)— Trail creek. 

" Tourmaline. — Guy Hill. 

" Calc spar, (CaO.Coa.) — Very widely distributed. Idabo, etc. 

" Gi/psuni, (CaO.SOs-l-HO.) — Interstratified in the new red sandstone 
or triassic beds. South park, etc. Also, accompanying the coal in thin 

" Anhydrite. — Elk creek. 

" Salt. (NaCl.) — In solution in many springs. As deposit on rocks in 
their vicinity. 

" Heavy spar, (BaO.SOg.) — As gangue rock in many mines. Baker 
lode, etc. 

" Meteoric iron. — Found near Bear creek. 

''Beryl, (AlA-SSiOa+GlASSiOs.)— Bear creek. 

"■ Brucite, (MgO.HO.) — James creek. 

''Idocrase, [(CaO+MgO)Si03.]— Bear creek." 


Although climate exerts an unlimited influence over every living thing, 
in both the animal and vegetble kingdoms, and is the constant subject of 
familiar and learned comment, and notwithstanding the fact that remarks on 
that inexhaustible theme — the weather — fill up all awkward gaps in every- 
day conversation, and become the forlorn (conversational) hope of timid 
lovers and bashful young gentlemen, still climatology, as a positive science 
(if it can be classed as such), is but little understood, and has not received, 
from scientists, the careful investigation and thorough discussion its import- 
ance demands. This is owing, in a great measure, to the absence of a com- 
plete concerted system of obtaining and recording meteorological observations, 
including every district of t-he country, and extending through any regular 
series of years. It is true, the Smithsonian Institute has established stations 
throughout the country, where suitable apparatus is placed in the hands of 
competent persons, and a great amount of valuable data collected, which 
reaches the public through documents published by that institution; and 
that, recently, the War Department has also established numerous stations 
within the limits of the States and Territories, where observations are taken 
regularly, and trans mtted to Washington by telegraph; but, as yet, the 
student of the climatology of Colorado receives but little assistance from 
these, and the compiler of this Chapter has not had access to any connected 
record of meteorological observations made within the borders of the Terri- 
tory. In the absence of these, our remarKS can only be a series of obser- 
vations — the result of personal investigation and careful inquiry. 

All of Colorado is included in the boundaries of the temperate zone, and, 
notwithstanding the great elevation of the mountain regions, no degree of 
cold exists which will give any portion a right to be classed otherwise than 


as temperate. According to Lorin Blodgett's maps, illustrating the mean 
distribution of heat, the plains portion of Colorado is embraced in the same 
isothermal lines that include New York and Philadelphia, on the Atlantic 
coast; Columbus and Cincinnati, in Ohio; Indianapolis, in Indiana; Spring- 
field, in Illinois; Leavenworth, Kansas; and Council Bluffs, Iowa. The 
foot-hills are embraced by the same lines that take in Boston and New Bed- 
ford, Massachusetts; New Haven, Connecticut; Albany and Buffalo, New 
York; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Detroit, Michigan; Chicago, Illinois; 
Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin; St. Paul, Minnesota; Omaha, 
Nebraska; and Fort Benton, on the upper Missouri. The main range and 
its western slope, and the greater portion of the Territory west of the 
mountains — that of Halifax, Nova Scotia; Frederickton, New Brunswick; 
Portland and Bangor, Maine; Hanover, New Hampshire; Burlington, Ver- 
mont; Montreal and Quebec, Canada; the upper Lake Superior region; and 
the country surrounding the head waters of the Red River of the North. 

Admitting the correctness of these lines, the periodical occurrence of 
heat and cold, in Colorado, is not characterized with the extremes peculiar 
to any of the locations above named. Although the altitude -of a great 
portion of the Territory makes the degree of cold greater than in the same 
latitudes at lower elevations, still the degree of cold indicated is not in pro- 
portion to the elevation, basing the calculation upon rules the result of 
established observations in European countries According to European 
theory, every 380 feet of elevation makes a change in climate equal to a 
degree of latitude. If this held good in Colorado, the summit of the main 
range would have a temperature equal to Greenland, and the plains that of 
the coast of Labrador, in British America; while the established fact is, 
the average temperature of the plains is about the same as that of the 
same latitudes on the Atlantic coast, and that of the mountain regions 
the same as exists on the Atlantic sea-board in a latitude but three or 
four degrees further north. It is not the province of this work to 
theorize upon the causes of this phenomenon, but to give publicity to 
the important fact which so largely influences the prosperity of the 
Territory. That the elevation has something to do with generating a latent 
heat in the soil and rocks, which destroys humidity, is apparent; and per- 
haps the peculiar geological formations of the country may also aid in pro- 
ducing the aridity peculiar to the plains and mountains of these regions. 
But, whatever may be the causes, the results are a less average fall of rain 
and a greater degree of dryness in the soil than in the same latitude on the 
prairies, the Appalachian range of mountains, or on the Atlantic sea-board. 
According to Blodgett, the average rain-fall of the plains is about eighteen 
and that of the mountains about thirty inches. One of the effects of this is 
the necessity of irrigation, on the plains, before the soil will produce vegeta- 
tion to any great extent. This absence of moisture does not, however, affect 
the growth of grasses indigenous to the country. These abound on the 
plains and mountain slopes, and are peculiarly abundant and nutritious in 
the valleys. 

Its influence upon the atmosphere is remarkable. This is entirely free 
from humidity, and wonderfully clear, health-inspiring, and exhilarating. It 
destroys miasma of every kind, and forbids the existence of noxious gases 
and offensive exhalations. In the mountain region the avera<.re deposit of 
moisture is sufficient for all agricultural purposes; but on the plains, as before 


stated, artificial means must be resorted to before the rich soil will produce 
largely. The numerous streams, supplied by the snows and rains of the 
mountains, furnish an ample supply of water for this purpose, and the for- 
mation of the country makes the use of this water practical, with trifling 

The greatest falls of snow on the plains, in the latitude of Denver, usually 
occur in the autumn months, commencing in October. This never exceeds 
ten or twelve inches, and never remains on the ground for any length of 
time — not often longer than twenty-four hours. In the southern part of 
the plains the fall of snow is trifling, and the winters very mild. Cattle find 
abundance of food, from native grasses, at all seasons, and do not require 

In the mountains the fall of snow commences in September, and the 
greatest amount falls in September, October and April. Although on and 
near the summit of the range the fall is considerable, and there are places 
where it remains the year round, still it does not usually remain on the 
ground for any length of time. It is not unusual for the greater portion of 
the mountains to be nearly bare at all seasons. 

On the plains the heavy falls of rain are in the spring and early sum- 
mer, scarcely any falling in autumn or winter. There is no "rainy season" 
in any portion of the Territory. In the mountains rains are quite frequent 
in the summer and autumn, but long continued rain storms are unknown. 

The greatest extremes of cold and the most severe storms occur in 
November and December, in all parts of Colorado. The balance of the 
season is comparatively mild, except at great elevations, where considerable 
cold is experienced at all seasons. Heavy wind storms are common in the 
mountains, and quite frequent in all parts of the Territory; but tornadoes 
are unknown. 

The absence of clouds, the year round, is remarkable. The clear, beau- 
tiful blue sky, and glorious sunshine, are seldom shut out by mists or fogs, 
except when rain or snow is falling. Cloudy weather is not peculiar to 

The average temperature of the plains regions of Colorado is from 50° to 
55°; that of the foot-hills from 45° to 50°; and that of the mountains from 
40° to 45°. The mercury rarely indicates below zero, on the plains, even in 
the coldest weather, and seldom exceeds 80° in the warmest. Damp, chilly 
days, or hot, sultry nights, are unknown in Colorado. On the summit of 
the mountain ranges, and on the higher peaks, the cold is often extreme; 
but in the mountain valleys and foot-hills it rarely reaches a point below 
zero, and in midwinter we have seen delightful weather not more than five 
miles from the region of perpetual snows. 

The results of these climatological conditions are, an extremely healthful 
and invigorating atmosphere, peculiarly beautiful and enjoyable, well adapted 
to all agricultural pursuits, stock-raising, wool-growing, and all other out 
door avocations. 


So much has been said of the wonderful eff"ects of a residence in Colo- 
rado in restoring invalids to health, and, in particular, of her wide-spread 
celebrity in the relief and cure of tubercular and pulmonary afiections, that 
a brief consideration of this important subject will not be out of place. 


Probably it is not amiss to assert that at least one-third of the present 
population of Colorado consists of reconstructed invalids. They have come 
here from all sections of America, and some, even, from the old world— all 
in ea-'-er search of the fabled Fountain. Some came with gnawing and 
intractable dyspepsia; some with asthma or bronchitis; others had com- 
menced "bleeding at the lungs," or were confirmed and hopeless victims of 
old-fashioned "consumption." Many, it must be said, came too late to be 
benfited, and only to be buried in the land of strangers, or expressed back 
to their friends, in metallic caskets. On the other hand, thousands, whose 
cases were considered hopeless, have here found permanent and gratifying 
relief This is especially true of asthmatics. For this class of patients the 
atmosphere of Colorado is almost a certain panacea. 

Having given this subject especial investigation, and closely questioned 
the best medical authorities of the locality, we are led to conclude that, in 
cases of asthma, although the above statements are not exaggerated, the 
cure is chiefly negative— an absence of the irritating and inciting causes — 
rather than any miraculous healing qualities inherent in atmosphere or 
climate. Without, however, entering upon a study of the metaphysics of 
physiology, it is enough to know that, unless the convalescent returns again 
to his old haunts and habits, and to the original causes of his disease, this 
dreadfully distressing malady is here perfectly and permanently cured. 

One of the most eminent medical authorities, in treating of asthma, 
strongly urges a change of residence, as a last resort, and says: 

"There are no fixed laws with respect to the best climate or situation for 
asthmatics; each case has its own law, which is only to be ascertained by 
experience. The principle to be acted on is that there is a locality in which 
each martyr to this complaint will sufier less, and, perhaps, be entirely free 
from it; and the plan should be, to make repeated trials until the desired 
spot is found." 

We can improve upon this advice by assuring its learned author (Prof 
Austin Flint, of Bellvue Medical College, New York), who is himself a 
great sufferer from asthma, that "the desired spot" has certainly been 
found. The disease, in its most aggravated and long-seated forms, is relieved 
in so nearly every instance, by a residence here, that the exceptions are not 
to be taken into account; and almost perfect immunity from it is enjoyed by 
every case remaining in the dry, salubrious atmosphere and perpetual sun- 
shine of Colorado. 

Consumptives, who come here before the ravages of the disease have been 
already too long unchecked, almost certainly recover; while others, who could, 
elsewhere, only exist in constant suffering and helplessness, are here enabled 
to pass the remainder of their days in comparative comfort, frequently regain- 
ing a considerable degree of vigor. 

Dyspeptics also recover their lost DOwers of assimilation, and, by proper 
care, become robust, and competent at table. 

Those afflicted with bronchitis and affections of the throat, many of 
whom have tried Minnesota, the West Indies, California and sea voyages, in 
vain, become sound and well by a sojourn in Colorado. 

An analysis of the elements combining to produce such apparently 
remarkable results would lead to the consideration of the following : 

1. Altitude. — As will be seen from our chapter on physical geography, 
Colorado, as a whole, occupies the topographic centre, and is, in fact as well 



as figuratively, the summit of the continent. Taken in detail, its different 
localities present a great variety of elevation, ranging from 4,000 feet, in 
the Arkansas valley, to 10,000 feet, in the mountain parks, above the sea-level. 

Considerable difference of opinion exists, among medical men, as to 
what altitude, other things being equal, is most favorable for chronic invalids 
of the classes mentioned. This, undoubtedly, depends very much on the 
chiiracter of the disease, the age, temperament, and habits of the patient, 
and the particular stage of advancement of the malady, whatever it may be. 
In some cases of asthma the higher the elevation the more speedy and per- 
fect the relief. Occasionally inveterate cases fail of substantial aid until 
they ascend to some of the mountain towns, a residence in the valley — as 
everything outside the mountains proper is here termed — only ameliorating 
the severity of the paroxysms. On the other hand, cases of advanced pul- 
monary disease at the altitude of Georgetown (nearly 9,000 feet) would 
prove speedily fatal; while at Pueblo, on the Arkansas (4,500 feet), the 
patient would steadily improve, or, at least, live in comparative comfort. 

Mere altitude is not, however, as a rule, the primary thing to be con- 
sidered, although its influence is more or less marked in every case. . The 
physiological effects of a residence in high altitudes are to hurry respiration, 
and, consequently, accelerate the pulse; to compel an augmentation of the 
breathing capacity rapidly and at once, in order to provide the requisite 
quantity of oxygen from the rarified air inspired. Hence the danger to 
those far advanced with tubercular consumption, and to such as are subject 
to pulmonary hemorrhage. For the same reason, patients suffering from 
certain forms of heart disease are more injured than benefited by a removal 
to localities much more elevated than the one to which they have been 

For almost every form of disease, barring the exceptions mentioned 
above, the increased activity imposed on the respiratory organs, by residence 
in high altitudes, is a direct and constant benefit. Nothing is better for a 
dyspeptic, or a sufferer from hepatic disorder, indigestion, or general torpor, 
than to make him breathe. Increase his respirations from sixteen to twenty- 
four per minute, and you give him a new experience. His blood circulates 
with equally increased rapidity, and is much more perfectly aerated; his 
appetite is increased; digestion and assimilation promptly responding to the 
increased demand and the increased action of the diaphragm, his biliousness 
oozes out through the pores of his skin, and lo, he becomes a new being! 

One of the curses of civilized life is the consummate stinginess with 
which most people breathe. Here, whether in the "valley" or on the 
mountain heights — for even the bed of the Platte, at Denver, is a lineal mile 
higher, above the sea-level, than New York or Philadelphia — one must 
breathe, both more fully and more rapidly, or die of suffocation. The result 
is a permanent increase of the breathing capacity. The chest of a well- 
proportioned man, by actual measurement, has been known to expand three 
inches in as many weeks, after arriving here; and the appetite keeps pace 
with the respiration. 

The effect is a general awakening of all the vital powers, that often seems 
lik§ very magic, so that, no matter what was the original complaint, the 
patient is suddenly and substantially improved. 

2. Climate. — This varies considerably with the altitude, as well as the 
varying topography of the country. Almost any climate desired can be 


found within the limits of Colorado. In the southern portion, and in some 
of the sheltered valleys, there are days in midsummer when, for a few hours, 
the mercury ranges above 100° Fahr.; while, at the same moment, there are 
heights in the mountains where one would be comfortable in the fur wrap- 
pings of a Laplander. 

At Trinidad, near the southern borders, in the valleys of the Huerfano 
and Apishapa, and at Pueblo, on the Arkansas, the season opens considerably 
earlier than at Denver and other points north of the " Divide." Even at 
Colorado City, on the Fontaine qui Bouille, the springs are noticeably earlier 
than they are but a short distance further north and across the "Divide." 
The southern slope of the latter, extending from its crest to the Arkansas — a 
distance of eighty miles — is so situated as to catch the perpendicular rays 
of the sun, and gather spring-like warmth from them, while yet the snows 
lie, unmelted, on the northern slope. Also, more snow falls, in winter, on 
the latter than on the former. 

Colorado City is situated at about the middle, and Pueblo at the base of 
the southern slope ; while Denver is midway, and St. Vrain at the foot of the 

Located in that happy mean of latitude (37° to 41° north), between the 
extreme winters of the Northern States and the enervating heats and 
humidity of the Southern, Colorado enjoys, as a whole, the most equable 
and desirable climate of any portion of the western hemisphere. Its win- 
ters are mild, comparatively little snow falling, except on the mountain 
ranges; and its summers are remarkably cool and bracing. There is about 
a month of each season during which, in the valley country, the mercury, at 
midday, ranges as high as at New Orleans; but one needs to keep on hand, 
in July, about the same clothing as is required at Christmas; and there are 
not half a dozen nights in the season when a pair of blankets to sleep under 
are, in any degree, uncomfortable. In the mountain towns gloves and over- 
coats are very convenient, even in dog-days • and flannel underclothing should 
everywhere be worn the year round. 

3. Alimentation. — By which is meant, not merely the kind and quantity 
of food taken, but its essential qualities and its utilization in the animal 

Bread, the leading staple in all dietaries, is of uniformly better quality, 
in Colorado, than in any other portion of the western country. Not that 
citizens of Colorado are, naturally or by practice, better bread-makers than 
those of other sections, but they have much better material to use, and 
could not, if they would, make an inferior article. The best specimens of 
wheat raised in Colorado are not excelled by that of any country in the 
world, while the quality of that cereal is more uniformly good than that of 
any section of the United States, not even excepting California. It is 
always plump, white, thin-skinned, and wholly free from every species of 
hereditary taint, smut, rust, blight, etc. The famous "blue stem" of the 
Genesee valley, the "white winter" of Michigan, and the "Southern white" 
of Tennessee and Kentucky are, none of them, equal to the commonest 
varieties grown from the fresh, airy and wholesome soil of these mountain 
regions. P 

Without extremely delicate and, as yet, impracticable scientific tests, it 
cannot be demonstrated that wheat grown in one section is chemically diflPer- 
ent from that of another; but, from various experiments, it would seem that 


Colorado-grown cereals are unusually rich in some of those essential elements, 
including the phosphates, now so highly extolled by physicians and physi- 
ologists in the treatment of tubercular and other diseases involving a lowered 
condition of the vital functions. 

We have not space to pursue this inquiry further, except to state, in a 
general way, that this soil, formed by centuries of slow disintegration and 
drifting down of mountain masses, is exceedingly rich in free alkaline matter 
— soda, potash, lime, etc. 

The first crop of wheat raised, in some localities, was so imbued with the 
alkaline principle that it would effervesce with an acid, and would almost 
"suds" with water. In fact, it could not be eaten at all. 

Since the same soil has been turned up to the air, exposed to frosts, and 
washed with frequent rains and artificial irrigation, it has parted with this 
superficial excess of alkali, and yet retains this element in sufficient propor- 
tion to render other needed elements more soluble and easier of assimilation 
by plants. 

Whatever be the causes, evidently Colorado flour is richer than other 
samples, in the earthy and essential elements that help to build up healthy 
tissue. Even the bread of the everywhere poorest of all breadmakers — the 
professional baker — is, here, fairly and uniformly passable and palatable. 
It is neither tough nor tasteless; it has flavor, and satisfies. 

Colorado beef is becoming equally famous with Colorado bread. One of 
the first reasons for this is that it is never made by stall-feeding. All the 
beef produced here is exclusively from animals that range at will, and grow 
tender and fat with feeding on the succulent and perennial grasses of the 
valleys and plains. It has the tenderness of the best stall-fed samples, while 
it acquires a flavor as delicate and appetizing as that of the wild game of the 
mountains, which, in respect to taste and tenderness, it certainly resembles. 

Chronic invalids are, almost always, benefited by a mere change of regi- 
men, even if it be, in some minor respects, for the worse. If some change 
can be made from the humdrum of the Eastern home to the fresh and novel 
life of a mountain country, with its more substantial bread, more virile, 
blood-invigorating beef, its tempting mountain trout, and juicy wild meat, 
the benefits are multiplied tenfold. 

After what has already been said, specific maladies and conditions for 
which this climate and its accompaniments may be confidently commended 
need not be particularized, but will readily suggest themselves to the merest 
tyro in pathology. A few of the more important may be further mentioned : 

Consumptives, in the first and second stages, may come to Colorado with 
assurance that whatever climate, natural hygienic surroundings, pure air and 
water, good food, grand scenery, romantic adventure and perpetual sunshine 
can do for an invalid here awaits them. 

In the third and last stage no combination of favorable influences and 
healthful climate, even with the aid of consummate medical skill, can avail 
further than to smooth the hopeless pathway to the inevitable end. Patients 
of this class can only be advised to come or stay according to the particular 
circumstances or preferences of each individual case. 

That eminent English physician. Dr. Chambers, in his incomparable 
lectures on the Renewal of Life, gives this very sensible rule respecting the 
choice of climate: 

"In choosing a home for your consumptive, do not mind the average 


hei^tt of the thermometer or its variations ; do not trouble yourself about 
the'^mean rain-fall: do not be scientilic at all. but find out. from somebody's 
journal, how manv days were fine enou^rh to go out forenoon and afternoon. 
That is the tost vou require, and by that you may be confidently guided."' 

Jud-ed by this standard. Colorado is one of the most favored spots on 
the face of the civilized globe for a consumptive's refuge. Although the 
sun does not glare, day inland day out, as in the heart of the African desert, 
but is. almostdailv. softened by "the interposition of blossomy clouds, there 
are not a score of davs. in any year, in which even delicate invalids may not 
sit out of doors, ride' or walk, forenoon and afternoon, with comfort and 
pleasure. Add to this the fact, already cited, that the nights are always cool. 
insurins plenty of restful and refreshing sleep, and two of the most essential 
conditions for tlie restoration of shattered nervous systems and broken con- 
stitutions have been secured. 

Another verv important condition is the uniform drvness of the atmos- 
phere. The air is never thoroughly saturated with moisture, as it so fre- 
quently is in every portion of the older States. There is no such thing 
known' as "damp nieht air.'' One may sleep with doors and windows wide 
open, summer and winter, for that matter, without once "taking cold.'' 
Even invalids sleep on the open plains, wrapped in a pair of blankets, but 
otherwise unprotected, with the most perfect impunity. Evervthing invites 
to outdoor life, and herein lies half the mystery of the -cures'' which are 
credited to the country. 

Of the restilts in dyspepsia, and all forms of indigestion, enough has 
aLreadv been said. Whatever will aid the consumptive will aid the dyspeptic ; 
for the constimptive is first a dyspeptic, and, in fatal cases, always starves to 

In patients afflicted with bronchitis the restilts are very flattering. 
Scarcely a case but is rapidly relieved. 

With regard to that scourge of the Eastern and Northern States, catarrh, 
there is c-onsiderable difference of opinion. In a sweeping sense, whatever 
benefits the general health relieves this malady, and, in this regard, the 
country may be considered favorable for sufferers from catarrh. On the 
other hand, the uniform dryness of the atmosphere is thought to aggravate 
many c-ases. by favoring the formation of incrustations or concretions upon 
the inflamed mucous surfaces, and thus further irritating them. In a 
country where the rain-fall is so scanty and the air and ground so dry, there 
is also necessarily experienced more irritation from dust; but this latter is 
much less annoying than it would be nattiral to expect. Some catarrh 
patients rep-on immediate and thorough relief. Others assert that their 
cases are rather aggravated than improved. Doubtless very much depends 
upon the varying c-onstitutional conditions and general habits of the different 

For aU of scrofulous habit — and, to the medical man, the term scrofula 
covers a multitude of physical sins, ranging all the way from delicate com- 
plexions and over-sensitive nervous systems to spinal complaint, sloughins | 
ulcers, and consumption itself — there is no better climate than that of Colo- j 
rado, and no country where nature so constantly invites this class of patients ' 
to recuperative efforts and occupations. 

And yet it is not enough that an invalid shotdd come here to sit help- 
lessly down, and wait for the climate alone to perform miracles in behalf of 


his restoration. All the inestimable aids of air and food, and sunshine and 
scenery, will be lost to such as allow themselves to mope in-doors, and pine 
■for home and former associations, and. perhaps, for the loss of coddling 
.habits and enervating indulgences. Let them, rather, take to the saddle, 
explore the parks, shoot antelope on the plains, elk in the mountains, or 
feast on brook trout at^d salmon of their own catching. If they must have 
business, let them keep out of office pens and away from dusty counters; let 
them herd their own cattle, and live half the time in the saddle and the 
other half under a tent or on the naked sod. While his steers, grazing as 
they jog slowly marketward. grow into money, the whilom, wheezy banker, or 
short-of-breath merchant will gain avoirdupois, chest measurement and sun- 
burn in equal proportions. 

There is another great army of sufferers, impossible to classify, who will 
find this country peculiarly adapted to their rapid and thorough restoration. 
We refer to those who, by close application, sedentary avocations, in-door 
confinement, or nervous wear and tear from afflictions, financial reverses or 
social discordances, have become shattered in constitution, unfit for any kind 
of business, and tired of life. For such, here are new scenes, fresh expe- 
riences, intimate communion with nature in her most persuasive moods, rest 
from the world, and that best of all balms for hurt consciences and constitu- 
tions — sleep. 


This brief notice of the inhabitants of Colorado will be confined entirely 
to the present white, or quasi white, population. The aborigines of the country 
still occupy some of the best agricultural lands of the Territory, but it is to be 
hoped they will soon be pushed further west or south, beyond our limits. 
The Indians should occupy no country which is suitable for the habitations 
of civilization. We have no statistics at hand which give their present num- 
bers in Colorado, and we do not intend to inflict upon the public the novelty 
of a register of the Utes. The tough names found in some of our southern 
towns are quite as much as our publishers can endure, and more than the 
printers can manage with any deirree of accuracy. What they would do 
with a dialect worse than bastard Spanish, we do not know, and do not 
intend to find out, as we read proof ourselves. 

The language of gold is universal, and all nations are equally familiar 
with its glittering power. When it went abroad to the world that Colorado 
was an El Dorado, representatives from all civilized countries were attracted 
thither by the magic potency of untold mineral wealth; and hence, our 
present copulation represents all nationalities. 

It is always the most adventurous and enterprising individuals from all 
communities who make up the pioneers of remote countries. It requires 
energy and daring to overcome the great difficulties that present almost 
insurmountable barriers to the development of new and distant sections; and 
especially was this the case in Colorado, before the construction of railways. 


The Western pioneer has always been characterized by great daring and 
energy, and the inhabitants of this Territory possess an unusual amount of 
these qualities, so essential to the rapid development of a new country. This 
is apparent everywhere. In a decade of years Colorado has made more pro- 
o-ress in civilization, the building of cities and towns, the establishment of 
institutes of learning and religion, and the accumulation of material wealth, 
than any other section of the country. 

As all classes of industries are represented, we have miners, mechanics, 
business and professional men, agriculturists, stock-raisers and wool-growers. 
These latter are mostly Americans, Englishmen and Mexicans. The miners, 
who are perhaps the most numerous class, represent all nations, but, among 
these, Americans and Cornishmen are most numerous. These make the 
greater portion of the population of the mountain towns, and present more 
peculiar characteristics than any other class. There is something in their 
arduous and dangerous vocation, and the grandeur and beauty of their sur- 
roundings, that makes them hospitable, daring, energetic, and generous. 
They repi-esent all nations, but after a residence of a year or two in the 
mountains, lose old national characteristics, in a great measure, and acquire 
new ones, peculiar to the region. These changes are physical, as well as 
mental. The thin, angular, and close-fisted Yankee becomes broad-shoul- 
dered, deep-chested, and generous; the blustering and loud-mouthed Irish- 
man is transformed into a quiet, industrious, and useful citizen; the canny 
Scotchman does not forget his thrift, but loses his miserly and penurious 
habits; the German retains all his industry, but becomes generous and 
liberal. The Cornishman changes but little; still, his ideas become more 
enlarged, and he is divested of his peculiar clannishuess. All classes become 
nearer alike than the same varieties of nationalities in any other section. 
One feature common to the miners of Colorado is unusual intelligence, 
for a laboring class. They undoubtedly represent the better class of citizens 
of the countries they migrate from, and many of them have, evidently, seen 
varied phases of life in almost every country, before they sought the gold 
mines of Colorado. 

The professional men of our larger cities are, as a class, unusually culti- 
vated and talented, for those of a new country. The want of professional 
knowledge and culture which, too often, characterizes this class in new 
countries, is not peculiar to our professional men. 

The business men of Denver, Central, Golden, and all the principal cities 
and towns of the Territory, are possessed of unusual enterprise, thrift, 
business capacity and integrity. They are mostly Americans — the greater 
number from the Eastern States. They retain all the thrift and capacity 
native to this class, but none of the penuriousness. 

The agricultural districts are populated mostly by "Western pioneers. 
These possess traits characteristic of this class everywhere, and, besides 
these, a spirit of progress and liberality peculiar to all the white inhabitants 
of Colorado. 

The mongrel races that inhabit the southern counties differ but little 
irom the same specimens of degraded humanity, in New Mexico and else- 
where, but that little is for the better. These races are neither industrious, 
intelligent, nor energetic; but they form only a small portion the population, 
and will soon be replaced by industrious citizens from the less favored agri- 
cultural districts east of this. 


With the exception of the Indian and the mongrel races — a mixture of 
Spanish, Mexican, Negro, and Indian — the inhabitants of Colorado are 
peculiarly enterprising, intelligent, prosperous and hospitable. 

In the large cities and towns good society exists, and moral and religious 
teachings are observed with as much regularity as in the older Eastern cities. 
The laws of the land are duly respected, and their enactments enforced as 
rigidly as in any country, and life and property as safe in Colorado as in 
Massachusetts. The days of lawlessness and unusual immorality are among 
the things that were. We are not free from the vices and crimes that fol- 
low civilization everywhere, but alive to the necessity of suppressing these 
as much as possible; and immigrants can come to Colorado with the assur- 
ance that they can enjoy the religious and educational privileges peculiar to 
the older and more densely populated sections of the country. 


How slight an accident sometimes brings about important results, initiates 
a new order of things, makes the beggar a millionaire, the king a beggar I 

In October, 1859, (that year from which the "oldest inhabitant" of 
Colorado now dates everything), two heads of wheat were discovered ia 
somebody's door-yard, in Denver. By some chance the seed had been 
brought from the States, had fallen by the way-side, had taken root, and here 
was the harvest. Probably but a single kernel was dropped, and the history 
of that grain of wheat is the key-note of the present history of agricultural 
experiments in the heart of the " Great American Desert." Ten years ago 
this desert spread its inhospitable horizon over all that region of the conti- 
nent now known as Colorado. Then hundreds of deluded seekers after gold, 
venturing to cross the dreary and dreadful "plains," starved ere the journey 
was half accomplished, and left their bones to whiten in the dry winds and 
blanching suns of this human wilderness — so many monuments of grasping 
human avarice. Those who survived to return, bronze-browned and half 
savage from familiar contact with barbarism and the semi-scorched earth, 
to tell the unwelcome tale of terrible suffering, hunger unsatisfied, thirst 
unquenched, and hopes unrealized, could but paint the region as a realm of 
horror, a dreary, unending and unmitigated waste of barrenness — treeless, 
trackless, uninhabitable, and utterly forlorn. 

But a single decade has passed, and lo, what a transformation ! Where 
only the shaggy bison and the graceful antelope roamed unmolested and at 
will, now a hundred herds of domestic cattle low to each other, from hill-top 
to hill-top, and ruminate, at ease, in peaceful valleys. Then only the 
war-whoop of the savage Indian, the fierce neigh^of the wild horse, or the 
hoarse croak of the buzzard broke the oppressive stillness; now the hum of 
human industry, the music of machinery, the whirl of swift wheels, and the 
laughter of happy children greet the ear on every side; and the savage 
"desert" has been made to teem with the ft-agrant rose of civilization. 

To-day, Colorado produces better bread, beef and vegetables than any 
other section of the known world. The yield of wheat from her tilled acres 



exceeds that of every other portion of the Union, except, possibly, Cali- 
fornia; while the quality is not equalled even by the best samples from the 
Pacific coast. 

The Colorado wheat crop of 1859 was two heads; that of 1S69, three- 
quarters of a million, and that of 1870 nearly one million bushels. 

The corn crop of 1870 amounted to 600,000 bushels; oats, rye and bar- 
ley, nearly 1,000,000 bushels; and, of potatoes, turnips, and other root ciops, 
350,000 bushels. 

The wool crop exceeds 2,000,000 pounds, while the live cattle and beef 
shipped to foreign markets or consumed at home, and dairy products of 
every kind, were accurate figures at hand, would show a still better balance- 
sheet in favor of the "arid waste." 

The soil of Colorado is peculiar, in many respects. Some of it appears^ 
to the Eastern observer, to be utterly worthless — dry, hard, dead-looking, 
and untillable. Very little grass grows on it in its wild state, and even 
this is stunted and dried-looking, as though it had been close-sheared and 
seared with a hot iron. But turn it up to the air, and give it a little water, 
and it will produce anything that will grow in the temperate climate. It 
produces not only a greater quantity, but, also, a much finer quality than 
the best black loams of Illinois andOhio. It is remarkably well adapted 
to the growth of wheat, oats, barley and rye. For corn, particularly in the 
northern portions of the Territory, the nights in summer are too cool to bring 
forward the crop to its greatest degree of perfection. In the southern valleys 
there is no difficulty in raising the best quality of this cereal. 

In fact, the grains of gold, that first tempted men hither, already begin to 
sink into insignificance, in comparison with her golden grains. 

Fruits, of every kind grown in this climate, have been tested sufficiently 
to prove that they will grow here, of the finest quality. Apples, pears, 
plums, cherries and grapes are an unquestioned success; while there is no 
doubt but that peaches, apricots, quinces, nectarines, etc., will be equally : 
successful. Grapes grown here are of an exquisite flavor, and very fine in I 
size and appearance ; while the small fruits grow with a luxuriance and lus- 
ciousness never attained east of the Missouri. 

But Colorado is, par excellence, a grazing and dairy country. Millions I 
of cattle may, yearly, be fattened on the succulent and nutritious grasses that 
grow in her valleys and on her hill-sides. It is better than any tame grass 
that ever grew, for the purpose, and, what is most singular of all, is as good 
in winter as in summer — is practically perennial. Thus, cattle seldom need j 
any artificial feeding in winter, but live and groio fat, from October till May, I 
on nothing but what they pick of this wonderful grass. \ 

There is no limit to the business of agriculture and stock raising in I 
Colorado. This is destined to become the dairy and granary of half the | 
continent. i 



This road was the first to give railroad communication to Colorado. It 
extends from Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, to Denver, Colorado — a dis- 
tance of 106 miles — connecting with the Union Pacific railroad at Cheyenne, 
the Kansas Pacific and Colorado Central at Denver, and the Denver and 
Boulder Valley at Hughes. 

The advantages and benefits accruing to Colorado, from the completion 
of this road, are incalculable. New life has been infused into her mining 
and agricultural industries, and vigorous vitality given to all business enter- 
prises. By this the tarifi^ on freight and passenger transportation has been 
so reduced, from the high rates which were peculiar to stage and wagon! 
lines, that it seems comparatively trifling. This has stimulated large immi- 
gration and vast shipments of merchandise, which have increased the rev-J 
enues of the Territory, and decreased the expense of conducting all business 
and mining enterprises, and the cost of living generally. 

The paramount advantages to Colorado of railroad communication, and 
the practical benefits derived from that afforded by the Denver Pacific rail- 
way, are everywhere apparent, and clearly demonstrated by the rapid increase 
of population, the building of towns and cities, the active development of 
mining property, and the extent and prosperity of agricultural industries. 

Through the medium of this railroad Colorado first had direct communi- 
cation with all business centres, east and west; her mineral and agricultural 
products found a suitable market, at small expense and with trifling delay; 
and capitalists, tourists, and all classes of immigrants, were enabled to avail 
themselves of her unbounded resources, without the exposure and delay con- 
sequent upon a journey across the great plains in a stage-coach or wagon 

The idea of constructing this railroad, which has afforded so much mate- 
rial aid toward the complete development of the Territory, and the measures 
which finally secured its completion originated with Colorado capitalists — 
prominent among these, Gov. John Evans, of Denver. 

In the fall of 1867 the initial steps were taken, by the organization of 
a company for the purpose of connecting Denver with the Union Pacific 
railroad, at Cheyenne, by means of a railway and telegraph line. The Board 
of Trade of Denver took a prominent part in this important enterprise, and 
were promptly and efficiently aided by the leading capitalists in the Terri- 
tory, who influenced capitalists from abroad, and succeeded in raising the 
necessary funds. Surveys were made at once, the route of the road decided 
upon, and work pushed forward so energetically that fifty-eight miles of the 
road — from Cheyenne to Evans — were completed and opened for business on 
the 16th day of December, 1869. The further completion of the road was 
effected without needless delay, and, on the 23d day of June, 1870, the first 
passenger train arrived in Denver. 

The financial exhibit of the company is represented by the following 
figures : 

Authorized capital stock $4,000,000 

Paid in 4,000,000 

Funded debt 2,600,000 

Total cost of railroad and equipment 3,000.000 


The road and its equipments and appurtenances are, in every way, first- 
class, and adapted to an extensive business. The management of the road 
is entrusted to the following directors and officers : 


^JoHN Evans, Denver City, Col. D. H. Moffat, Jr., Denver City, Col. 

John Pierce, " " Walter S. Cheesman, " " 

W. M. Clayton, '^ " Robert E. Carr, St. Louis, Mo. 

Frank Palmer', " " W.J. Palmer, " " 

R, H. Lamborn, Philadelphia, Penn. 

John Evans, President. C. W. Fisher, Superintendent and 

John Pierce, Vice-President. General Ticket and Freight Agent. 

D. H. Moffat, Jr., Treasurer. W. Wagner, G-eneral Accountant. 

R. R. McCoRMiCK, Secretary. James S. Potter, Road Master. 

S. C. Bradford, Master Mechanic. 

The well known business ability and financial responsibility of these 
gentlemen are sufficient guaranty to the public that this road will always be 
kept in excellent condition, and the comfort and safety of passengers, and 
the rapid transit of freight, be a certainty at all seasons. 

Along the line of the road, nearly its entire extent, are some of the best 
farming lands in the Territory, which have been already considerably 
improved by colonists and settlers; and, at difi"erent points, beds of lignite 
have been discovered, which promise to be valuable. 


One of the accomplished facts of the age is the existence of this great 
trans-continental railroad, which connects the Atlantic with the Pacific, and 
forms an unbroken chain in connecting the old world with the new. For 
many years before the commencement of the work, this matter had been 
constantly brought before the people, and agitated in Congress, by the friends 
and projectors of the movement. The feasibility ot the plans submitted, 
accompanied, as they were, by topographical surveys of the section of 
country marked out for the iron pathway, received, at first, but little notice 
or commendation ; but perseverance, and palpable assurances of success in 
the enterprise, by those whose sympathies were enlisted, at last procured the 
recognition and essential co-operation of the Government. Thus it was that 
a company, comprising, among the number, many of our wealthiest eastern 
capitalists, was formed, and arrangements immediately made for the com- 
mencement of a work, the magnitude of which can hardly be realized at 
this day, which witnesses the triumphant and successful completion of the 
greatest enterprises ever inaugurated. 

Omaha, Neb., located on the western bank of the Missouri river, was 
selected as the initial point; and here, on the 5th day of November, 1865, 
ground was broken, with appropriate ceremonies, and the work commenced 
with vigor. 

By the act of 1862, the utmost limit extended, in the completion of the 


enterprise, was July 1, 1875; and the opinion became general, with a large 
class, that the labor involved would prevent the work from being brought to 
a successful issue within the time allotted, though time and subsequent 
events have fully eradicated that impression. 

The work, on its inception, was necessarily slow and retarded, through 
the absence of available machinery and material essential in the prosecution 
of so great an enterprise. Shops were to be built, forges erected, and tools 
to be manufactured, and an army of mechanics and laborers to be procured ; 
all of which occupied time. However, these obstacles were soon met and 
overcome, and the work pushed forward with alacrity. As an evidence of 
the rapidity with which the work progressed, it is proper to mention that, by 
the 1st of January, 1866, forty miles of road had been constructed, which 
was increased, during that year, to 265 miles; and, in 1867, 285 miles more 
were added, making a total of 550 miles on January 1, 1868. From that 
time, the work proceeded with greater energy, and the following May wit- 
nessed its completion as far as Promontory Point, Utah Territory, where it 
met the Central Pacific railroad — the last 53-4 miles having been constructed 
in a little more than fifteen months, being an average of one and one-fifth 
miles per day. Although the world is generally acquainted with the history 
of the road, yet few can form an adequate conception of the immense 
amount of labor performed in obtaining the material to construct the first 
portion of it. 

The nearest railroad was 150 miles east of Omaha, and all the road 
material and supplies for the laboring force had to be brought from the 
Eastern cities ; thus, the only means of transportation to be had was through 
the agency of freight teams, at the most exhorbitant and extortionate prices. 
The laboring force was transported by the same means. As the country 
600 miles west of Omaha is completely barren of lumber, save a scanty 
supply of Cottonwood in the vicinity of Platte rirer, the company was 
obliged to purchase ties cut in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Xew York, at 
prices averaging as high as 82.50 per tie. It was not long, however, before 
these obstacles were removed, and the work proceeded advantageously, on a 
more economical basis. 

The 10th day of May, 1869, was an eventful one in the history of the 
Union Pacific railroad ; for it was then that the connection was made that 
joined the Union with the Central Pacific road. 

At a place called Promontory, a town (?) composed of about thirty board 
and canvass structures, including a number of saloons and restaurants, the 
great work of weary months was brought to a final and successful comple- 
tion. The ceremonies of laying the last tie, and driving the last spike, were 
not only impressive, but attended with the utmost enthusiasm. It was a 
curious and motley group that gathered on that bright May day, to view the 
consummation of one of the grandest of modern enterprises — an occasion 
of great national importance. It was a day that was to demonstrate the 
final triumph of the friends of the road over their croaking opponents ; and 
it was resolved to give the utmost effect to the proceedings, and arrangements 
were made accordingly, and carried out with great eclat. 

It will be remembered, on this occasion, that the last tie laid was manu- 
factured from California laurel, with silver plates bearing suitable inscrip- 
tions, while, of the last spikes driven, there was one of pure gold, one of 
silver, and another of gold, silver and iron. 


When the locomotives of the two lines approached, and finally came 
together and " kissed," the excitement was great, and the flow of wine 

The cost of this gigantic enterprise has been variously estimated ; but 
the estimate we publish is correct, as showing the amount of material used. 
In the construction of the whole line, there were used about 300,000 tons 
of iron rails, 1,700,000 fish-plates, 6.800,000 bolts, 6,126,375 cross-ties, and 
23,505,500 spikes. Besides this, there was used an incalculable amount of 
sawed lumber, boards for building, timber for trestles, bridges, etc. Esti- 
mating the cost of the road, complete, by that of other first-class roads 
(3105,000 per mile), we have the sum of $181,^0.000 as the approximate 
cost of this work. 

That out readers may be enabled to form some idea of the amount of 
rolling-stock required to successfully operate a road of this magnitude, we 
present the following exhibit, as showing the number of engines and 
different kinds of cars now in use : 

Locomotives 150 Fast freight cars 108 

Passenger cars 40 Derrick and wrecking cars 3 

Emigrantcars 22 Powder cars 2 

Mail and express cars 16 Pay cars 2 

Caboose cars 62 Officers' cars 3 

^age cars 11 Fruit cars 12 

Box carrs 1,032 Hay stock cars 48 

Flat cars l.]t;5 

Dump cars 52 Total 2,728 

The number of ties to a mile is 2.650, on this road j but, on the eastern 
roads, the number is far less. 

The rails are " fished," making one continuous rail, thus adding to the 
smoothness of the road, and securing an easy and pleasant motion to the 
cars. Since its completion, the companies have been active in finishing up 
and ballasting their tracks, so that, to-day, there exists no better road-bed in 
the United States than that of the Union Pacific. 

The principal works of the company are located at Omaha, and consist of 
machine shops, round-house, blacksmith shop, foundry, car and paint shop, 
stationary engine and water tank, and store-rooms. 

The company is now actively engaged in the erection of a railroad bridge 
across the Missouri, from Omaha to'Council Bluffs, Iowa. The bridge is of 
the pattern known as the " Post patent," and will be of iron, a half mile in 
length. ^ There will be eleven spans, of 250 feet each. It will rest fifty feet 
above high water, and seventy feet above low water. The piers are to be 
hollow cylinders — instead of stone— filled in with concrete, rocks, etc., and 
similar in construction to the bridge crossing the Harlem river. New York. 
This work will involve a cost of $2,000,000, and will be completed this year. 

The railways which connect at the eastern terminus of this road, at 
Omaha, and form, with it, a continuous line of communication to all the great 
commercial centres of the Atlantic, Middle, and Southern States, are . The 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; Chicago & Northwestern ; Burlington & 
Missouri; and St. Joseph & Council Bluffs. At the western terminus, the 
Central Pacific forms the giant link in this monster chain that binds together 
the shores of a continent. Its connection which is most important to the 
inhabitants of Colorado, is that with the Denver Pacific, at Cheyenne By 


this, the first railway commuuication was made between the great cities of 
the east and the queen city of the plains — Denver. It is impossible to cal- 
culate the importance of this line, which has already done more toward 
developing our unrivaled resources than all other causes combined, and has 
placed our vast extent of agricultural lands, and untold mineral wealth, 
within the reach of all mankind. 

The management of this road is, at present, entrusted to the following 
officers, with their principal business office at Omaha : 

President — Hon. Oliver Ames. 

Vice-President — John Duff. 

Treasurer — M. S. Williams. 

Assistant Treasurer and Secretary — E. H. RoLLINS. 

Chief Engineer — T. E. Sickles. , 

Auditor — J. W. Gannett. 

General Superintendent — T. E. Sickles. 

Assistant General Passenger Agent — W. C. Thompson. 

General Freight Agent — H. Bkownson. 

To these gentlemen, and, more especially, to the present efficient superin- 
tendent and chief engineer, the traveling public are largely indebted, as the 
road is always kept free from delays by snow, or other causes, and in excel- 
lent condition ; thus ensuring safety and comfort. Freights over this road 
are always pushed forward rapidly, as the rolling-stock is ample, and 
thoroughly adapted to meet all requirements. 


The acts of Congress incorporating the Union Pacific Piailway Companies, 
approved July 1, 1862, and July 2, 1864, authorized the construction of 
this road under the name of the Union Pacific railway. Eastern Division 
(name chan-ed to Kansas Pacific railway by joint resolution of Congress, 
March 3d, 1869), from the confluence of the Missouri and Kansas rivers, by 
the way of Fort Riley and the valley of the Republican river, to a junction 
with the Union Pacific railroad at the 100th meridian. 

The bonds and lands granted by the Government to this company were 
the same per mile as those authorized for the Union Pacific railroad east of 
the Rocky Mountains, viz.: §16,000 in bonds and 12,800 acres of land for 
every mile of road, the lands being the alternate odd-numbered sections, for 
twenty miles, on each side of the road. 

By an amendment to the original act, approved July 3, 1866, this com- 
pany was released from the obligation of connecting with the Union Pacific 
railroad at the 100th meridian, and authorized to change their line west- 
wardly up the Smoky Hill river from Fort Riley, on condition that they 
should only receive the same amount of bonds from the United States, to aid 
in the construction of their new line, that they would have been entitled to 
if they connected with the Union Pacific railroad at the 100th meridian, as 
was required in the original act of incorporation ; also, that they should join 


the Union Pacific railroad at a point not more than fifty miles west of the 
meridian of Denver, in Colorado. This company has accordingly followed 
the general route of the Smoky Hill branch of the Kansas river from lort 
Riley to the city of Denver, and from that point northwest to a connection 
with the Union Pacific railroad. By the survey made by Major Howell, U. 
S A under instructions from the President of the United States, the dis- 
tance'for which the company was entitled to bonds of the Government was 
found to be 393 15-16 miles, measured from the boundary line of Missouri 
and Kansas, at the mouth of the Kansas river, to the 100th meridian on the 

Union Pacific railroad. , , , -, r. 

The land grant, under the acts of Congress, extends the whole length ot 
the present line, from the initial point to the junction with the Union 
Pacific railroad west of Denver. By authority of Congress, the lands and 
franchises of that portion of the line from Denver to the junction with the 
Union Pacific railroad at Cheyenne, a distance of 106 miles, were transferred 
to the Denver Pacific railroad and Telegraph Company, which is now com- 
pleted and in operation from Denver to Cheyenne, making another through 
line to the Pacific ocean. 

The Kansas Pacific railway company has made careful surveys, by the 
way of New Mexico, and the thirty-fifth parallel, to the Pacific coast, and 
contemplate extending their road by that route if Congress grants the 
necessary authority and aid in lands. 

Grading was commenced at Wyandotte in September, 1863, and the 
road was completed as follows : 

To Lawrence, 88 miles, in July, 1865. To Ellsworth, 223 miles, in July, 1867. 

" Topeka, 67 miles, in January, 1866. " Hays, 289 miles, in October, 1867. 
" Junct'n City, 139 miles, in Oct., 1866. " Sheridan, 405 miles, in August, 18G8. 
" Salina, 185 miles, in May, 1867. " Denver, 639 miles, in August, 1870. 

The gross earnings have been as follows : 

For the year 1865 $ 70,525 80 

" " 1866 442,327 20 

" " 1867 1,811,458 11 

" " 1868 1,910.161 83 

" '« 1869 2,225,850 11 

ten months, 1870 2,927,477 99 

Total $9,387,801 04 

Rolling stock, December 19, 1870: Locomotives, 76; passenger cars> 
43; baggage, mail and express cars, 15; freight cars, 1,158. 

The following are the connections of the Kansas Pacific railway : 

At Kansas City, with the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs railroad. 

" " " " " Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad. 

" " " " " North Missouri railroad. 

" " " " " Pacific (of Missouri) railroad. 

" " " " " Missouri River, Fort Scott & Gulf railroad. 

" Lawrence, " " Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston railroad. 

" Leavenworth, " " Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs railroad. 

" " " " Leavenworth, Atchison & Northwestern railroad. 

" " " " Pacific railroad (of Missouri). 

" Topeka, " " Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad. 

" Junction City, " '"' Missouri, Kansas & Texas railroad. 

" Denver, " " Denver Pacific railroad. 

" " " " Colorado Central railroad. 


The land grant to the company amounts to over 6,000,000 acres, and 
comprises some of the most fertile and valuable lauds iu Kansas and Colo- 
rado. A portion of their lands were opened for sale January 1, 1868, and 
the company have already sold over 600,000 acres, and the sales would have 
been much larger, but that a large portion of the lands in western Kansas 
and Colorado have never been surveyed by the Government until the present 
year (1870). The lands are sold for cash, or part cash and part notes, the 
latter bearing interest at six per cent, per annum and payable iu from one to 
five years. 


John D. Perry, President, St. Louis, Mo. 

Adolphus Meier, First Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

KoBERT E. Carr, Second Vice-President, St. Louis, Mo. 

Carlos S. Greeley, Treasurer, St. Louis, Mo. 

Sylvester T. Smith, Auditor, St. Louis, Mo. 

Chas. B. Lamboon, Secretary, St. Louis, 3Io. 

A. Anderson, General Superintendent, Lawrence, Kan. 

Geo. Noble, Assistant General Superintendent, Lawrence, Kan. 

T. F. Oakes, General Freight Agent, Kansas City, Mo. 

R. B. Gemmell, General Ticket Agent, Lawrence, Kan. 

G. W. Gushing, Superintendent Machinery, Armstrong, Kan. 

J. P. Devereux, Land Commissioner, Lawrence, Kan. 

The completion of this road to Denver was a most important event in the 
history of Colorado, and was duly celebrated by our citizens, the capitalists 
connected with the enterprise, and the "Press" of the western country gen- 
erally. By this, direct communication has been opened with the great 
prairie regions east of the "Plains," and with the Middle and Southern 
States, and millions of acres of good agricultural and grazing lands made 
available to settlers. It has already substantially advanced all Colorado 
industries, and inaugurated a new and permanent era of progress. The 
management of the road, under Superintendent General A. Anderson, has 
been acknowledged as nearly faultless as possible; and notwithstanding the 
difficulties which surround railroad travel across the great plains during 
inclement seasons, passengers and freight are transported safely and with 
dispatch at all times. As a permanent source of advantage to Colorado, this 
railway has no successful rival, and, besides our Territory, a large section of 
country is largely benefitted by its construction. 


This road branches from the Denver Pacific at Hughes, a station eighteen 
miles from Denver, and extends, at present, to Erie, a distance of fifteen 
miles, and will soon be completed to Boulder City, a further distance of six- 
teen miles. 


The Denver and Boulder Valley Railroad Company was organized in 
October, 1870, with a capital stock of $1,000,000. The following well 
known business men and capitalists constitute its board of officers : 

Hon. Jerome B. Chaffee, Pres't. R. R. McCormick, Secretary. 
W. S. Cheesman, Vice-Pres't. D. H. Moffat, Jr., Treasurer. 


John Evans, W. S. Cheesman, 

J. B. Chaffee, P. M. Housell, 

D. H. Moffat, Jr., Granville Burklet, 

General W. J. Palmer. 

Bonds to the amount of $300,000, bearing seven per cent, interest, pay- 
able semi-annually, were issued by the company — their payment guaranteed 
by the Denver Pacific Railway Company. From the sale of these bonds the 
necessary funds were realized, and work was commenced on the 24th of 
October, 1870, and completed to Erie, its present terminus, in January, 1871. 

From one of the Denver dailies we copy the following description of 
the road : 

"The work has been done in a first-class ma»Dner, and reflects high credit 
on all engaged on it. The contractors were Messrs. Robert E. Carr, of St. 
Louis, and D. H. Mofiat, Jr., whose energy and financial ability are too well 
known to need any extended praise at this time. The engineer was Mr. H. 
R. Holbrook, a young man of great experience and skill, and whose success 
is a sufficient guarantee of bis ability. He was ably assisted by Messrs. M. 
P. Reynolds and J. D. Schuyler. The tracklayers were Mike Green and 
Alex. Stevens. The road is as good a piece of new track as was ever laid. 
The bridges are substantially constructed, and everything about the con- 
struction may be characterized as a success." 

This road penetrates a portion of the best agricultural lands in Boulder 
county, and its present terminus is at a newly-organized town — Erie — in the 
immediate vicinity of extensive coal mines, the property of the Boulder 
Valley Coal Company. This company is composed of Denver and Eastern 
capitalists, with tTudge R. Balcome, of Biughampton, New York, president; 
Hon. E. C. Kattell, vice-president; and Major H. C. Hill, superintendent. 

Their property consists of nearly 7,000 acres of coal lands, on which 
three or four distinct veins have already been discovered. Only one of these 
veins are worked, at present, but that will furnish aa almost inexhaustible 
amount of lignite, which forms excellent fuel. The roud affijrds facilities 
for this reaching Denver and other markets, where consumers can be sup- 
plied at small expense. 

Altogether, the completion of the road, thus far, is an important event 
in the history of Colorado enterprises, the fruits of which are already 
apparent, as a Chicago colony has been attracted by the vast resources of 
the region it penetrates, and has chosen a location near its terminus as the 
head-quarters of the new and flourishing colony. 

The road has been leased by the Denver Pacific railway, and will be 
under the efficient management of that excellent company. This insures a 
careful and efficient government of its afi'airs, and guarantees safety and com- 
fort to passengers, and care and dispatch in the transportation of freights. 



The object of this road is railway communication between Denver and 
the mountain towns and cities of Colorado. It was completed to Golden 
City in September, 1870, which event was duly celebrated by the citizens of 
Denver, Golden City, and Gilpin and Clear Creek counties. Its completion 
thus far has already largely benefitted not only the rich agricultural and coal 
mining region it traverses, but the gold and silver mining districts in the 
mountains. This is the first railway to reach the foot-hills in Colorado, and 
may be the first to penetrate these and climb the mountain ranges beyond. 
'Careful surveys have already defined the line of this road through the foot- 
hills and along spurs of the range to Georgetown, and have established, 
beyond question, the fiict that our mountain cities and mining districts can 
and will have railroad facilities. It is, perhaps, needless to add that the 
mining interests of the Territory have already received a fresh impetus from 
the success of this enterprise, and that their future prosperity will be largely 
enhanced by the means of cheap and rapid transportation for freight and 
passengers, which this road will aflFord, when completed, to the mining 

The initial steps toward the formation of a company to construct and 
stock the Colorado Central were taken by W. A. H. Loveland, of Golden 
'City, who is one of the present directors, and has always been an active and 
able friend of the enterprise. In his untiring efforts in pushing forward the 
work he has been ably aided by T. J. Carter, Esq., also of Golden City — the 
president of the road. These gentlemen have been promptly assisted by 
other capitalists, and have displayed commendable energy and business 
capacity in the management of the company's affairs ; and have not only 
made rapid progress in constructing the road, but have made it first-class in 
every way. 

The work of completing the road to the mining districts is being pushed 
forward with much energy, and in a short time miners of Gilpin and Clear 
Creek counties will have railroad transportation for their ores to the base 
of the mountains. 

The officers who have immediate charge of the business of the Colorado 
Central railroad are: T. J. Carter, President; J. B. Shepherd, 
General Freight and Ticket Agent. 


This line of road, when completed, will connect Denver with the 
El Paso, in Old Mexico, and with the Denver Pacific, of which it is really, 
a continuation, will make a continuous line of railway in Colorado, from the 
northern to the southern limits. 

Proceeding southward from Denver the road will cross the Divide at 
the head of Plum creek — will pass down Monument creek to the Fountaine 
qui Bouille — down this stream to the Arkansas, and up the Arkansas to 
Poncho pass. From this pass it will follow the course of the Rio Grande 
through New Mexico and onward to its terminus — El Paso. 


The Denver and Rio Grande Railway Company has been organized, with 
General W J Palmer, of Denver, as president, and has issued stock to the 
amount of one million dollars, for the construction of the first 80 miles of road, 
and work is progressing rapidly. One hundred thousand dollars ot the 
stock was taken in Colorado ; two hundred thousand in other parts of the 
United States, and seven hundred thousand in Europe. The first 80 miles 
of this road will be completed during the summer of 1871, and the balance 
as soon thereafter as possible. j -ii 

The company expects the countries, through which their road will 
pass, to aid them in securing the necessary funds required to complete it, 
by voting bonds for that purpose. This should be done liberally, as the 
road will develop the country and enhance the value of all kinds of property 
along its line. The route of this road, in Colorado, is through the richest 
agricultural and grazing districts, and sufficiently near the mountains and 
foot-hills to benefit the gold, silver and coal mining regions. 

The well known energy and business ability of the president of the 
company make the success of this enterprise a certainty, and ensure Colorado 
a continuous line of railroad from the northern to the southern borders. 


This company was organized at Kansas City, Mo., in 1862, by Messrs. 
Barlow, Sanderson & Co. At that time it consisted of a weekly line of post 
coaches from Kansas City to Santa Fe, via Smoky Hill route to FortHarker, 
Kan , and thence to Fort Zarah, on the Arkansas; up the Arkansas to Bent's 
old fort, in Colorado, and on to Santa Fe by way of Trinidad, Fort Union, 
and Las Vegas. The time occupied in making the through trip was 
twenty days. 

July 1, 1866, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division 
(now Kansas Pacific), having reached Junction City, 138 miles west of 
Kansas City, the company moved its initial office to this point, and changed 
the line to a tri-weekly. Time to Santa Fe, eight days. In the spring of 
1867 the company advanced to Saliua, Kan., continuing the line, as a tri- 
weekly, from this point to Santa Fe; time seven days. During the summer 
of 1867 the road reached Fort Harker, and the route was then traveled 
from this point, by way of Fort Zarah, as before; time, six days. In the 
fall of the same year, the iron track having been pushed as far as Fort Hays, 
Kan., the route was changed to run from the latter, southwest, by way of 
Fort Dodge, on the Arkansas, leaving forts Larned and Zarah to the east- 
ward. From Fort Dodge the route continued as before. Time to Santa Fe, 
five days. 

In July, 1868, the company followed in the wake of the iron steed, to 
Sheridan, Kas., 397 miles west from Kansas City. The route was now 
reconstructed, striking west to forts Wallace and Lyon and Bent's Fort; 
continuing west to Trinidad, and so on, as before, to Santa Fe, and was also 
changed to a daily line. Time from Sheridan, four days. 


A branch line was also put in operation, from Bent's Fort to Pueblo, 
connecting, at the latter place, with the Denver and Santa Fe stages for 
Denver and Northern Colorado. 

The line continued to start from Sheridan until in February, 1870, 
when track-laying had proceeded sufficiently to warrant a new change of 
base; and the company moved its head-quarters, respectively, to Pond Creek, 
Eagle Tail, and finally, on the 9th of April, to Kit Carson, 485 miles west 
from Kansas City. 

The main route, since that time, has been and will, for some time, con- 
tinue to be from Kit Carson, via Fort Lyon, Trinidad, etc., to Santa Fe, 
and the trip is made in three days. 

A second important line is now also operated by this company, as suc- 
cessor to A. Jacobs & Co., running from Denver to Trinidad, by way of 
Colorado City and Pueblo, connecting, at Trinidad, with the Kit Carson, or 
main line, for Santa Fe. Daily coaches are run over the entire length of 
both lines. Time from Denver, same as from Carson — three days. 

The fare from Kit Carson to Santa Fe is $90.00; fare from Denver to 
Colorado City, S9.00; to Pueblo, §15.00; Trinidad, 830.00; and to Santa 
Fe, $80.00. 

The company consists of J. L. Sanderson, B. Barlow, and Gr. J. Barnum. 

The officers are: J. L. Sanderson, Superintendent, Kansas City; John 
R. Griffith, Secretary and Treasurer, Kansas City; W. S. Stone, Denver, 
Paymaster and Assistant Superintendent. 

The number of coaches now in use on the several lines is fifty. The 
company employs 100 men, and between 600 and 700 horses and mules. 


The traveler in Colorado is equally gratified and surprised at the excel- 
lent condition of the roads of the Territory, both on the plains and in the 
mountains, and at all seasons. The expense of road making on the plains 
is comparatively trifling; but on the mountains, thousands of dollars are 
often required to construct a few miles of road, as almost insurmountable 
barriers must be overcome. 

On the plains the expense of constructing roads is borne mainly by the 
counties which the roads traverse. This is the case also in the settled portion 
of the Territory west of the mountains; but in the mountains roads are built 
and kept in repair almost exclusively by individuals or companies, who remu- 
nerate themselves by the tolls collected from all classes of travelers. 

A detailed description of the wagon roads that traverse the plains in 
every direction — connecting towns, cities and settlements, and forming 
convenient mediums for the transportation of freight and passengers at all 
seasons — would be superfluous in a work of this character; but a brief 
description of a few of the roads in the mountains may be interesting, and 
will serve to illustrate the statement that excellent wagon roads are one of 
the important features of our new country. 


The following roads are only a few among the many in the mountains, 
which are equally as good in all respects. We give them, because they 
traverse the rich gold and silver mining regions, and afford excellent and 
safe communication between the principal mountain towns and cities. 

No tourist can visit Colorado, and interview her fine scenery and rich 
mineral deposits, without traveling over nearly every road we mention, and 
though he may find the indications that toll must be paid rather frequently, 
he will feel satisfied that he has his money's worth in safety and comfort. 


This road was chartered in 1861, by the first legislature of Colorado. 
It extends from the centre of Black Hawk, ten miles east, down the valley. 
At Black Hawk the road branches, and comes together again within two miles 
of the terminus. One of the roads was built by Harry Fliggers & Co. in 
1859, and is known as the old road; the other by the Smiths and Fliggers, 
in 1860, and is known as the new road. Capital stock, §30,000. The first 
President was N. K. Smith; present President, N. K. Smith; L. K. Smith 
in charge of road, and acting Secretary. The route of travel between Central 
City and the plains lies along this road. It is always in excellent condition. 


This road intersects the Enterprise wagon road, on Dory's hill, three and 
a half miles from Black Hawk, and runs to Boulder City. Capital stock of 
the Boulder Valley and Central City Wagon Road Co. is S75,000. C. N. 
Tyler is Secretary and Business Manager. It is the main traveled road 
between Boulder City and the gold regions of Gilpin county. 


The charter to build this road was granted by Gilpin and Summit coun- 
ties, in July, 1870. Capital stock, $4,000. This road will be completed to 
Middle park by July, 1871. 

Officers. — Wm. Atcheson, President; Ben. Wiseburt, Secretary; 
T. H. Potter, Treasurer; Maj. Geo. H. Hill, Surveyor. 

This road is already nearly completed to James' peak, and tourists can 
leave Central City in the morning and returti before dark, having time to l 
remain an hour on the peak. The scenery surrounding this road, its entire 
length, is unsurpassed in beauty and sublimity, and the road itself is in good 
condition for traveling with buggies or carriages during the summer months. 


This road extends the greater portion of the distance from Central to 
Georgetown, via Eureka gulch. Fall river and Clear creek. It is twelve 
miles in length. I 

Officers.— Walter Bates, Superintendent; J. C. Eabley, in charge I 
of toll gate. 

This road is traveled extensively at all seasons, and is always in good 
repair and suitable for all classes of vehicles. 



This road extends from Idaho to the head of Virginia canon, three miles, 
and gains an elevation of 2,000 feet in that distance. 

Officers. — Fox Diefendorf, President; F. W. Beebe, Secretary and 
Treasurer; G. W. Decker, in charge at toll gate. 

A ride down Virginia canon, via this road, in one of the six-horse coaches 
of the Colorado Stage Co. — the horses at full trot — is thrilling in the extreme. 


This road extends from Idaho to Burgen's ranch. It is twelve miles in 
length. The owners are Edwards & Camp. This forms the first portion of 
the main stage road that connects Idaho Springs with the plains, and is sur- 
rounded by scenes ever varied and beautiful. 


This road extends from Idaho Springs, seven miles up Chicago creek. 
H. W. Teller, of Central, is its principal owner and manager. It lies 
along the borders of the beautiful creek that carries the surplus waters of 
Chicago lakes to Clear creek, and afi"ords tourists good facilities for reaching 
these remarkable sheets of water. 


This road was constructed by Clear Creek county in 1860. It was pur- 
chased by the Idaho and Fall River Road Co. in 1869, put in a complete 
state of repair, and converted into a toll road. It is three miles in length, 
and extends from Idaho Springs to the mouth of Fall river. 

Officers. — W. Teller, President; A. E. Patten, Agent in charge at 
toll gate. 


This road was built and is owned by the Baker Silver Mining Co., and 
extends from Georgetown to the base of Gray's peak, being eleven miles in 
length. The officers of this road are the officers of the Baker Silver Mining 
Co. The cost of constructing this road was §16,000. Tourists from George- 
town pass over this road on their way to Gray's peak. 


This road was incorporated under general laws in 1868, and built by the 
Georgetown and Argentine Wagon Road Co., aided by subscriptions from 
Clear Creek and Gilpin counties, at an expense of §5.000. 

Officers. — W. Carpenter, of Chicago, President; Prof Frank Dib- 
BEN, Vice-President; H. C. Chapin, Secretary and Treasurer. 

This road was built under the supervision of Prof. Dibben. Its length 
is seven miles. This road extends from Georgetown nearly to the base of 
the main range, along the south fork of South Clear creek; and though 
the region is extremely rugged, the road is accessible for all kinds of wagons 
or carriages, at all seasons. Tolls, nominal. 



The first telegraph line across the continent was built by the Pacific Tel- 
egraph Co., under a government subsidy of 140,000 per year. The line was 
started from Brownville, Neb., in 18G0, and was run to Omaha; thence, up 
the north bank of the Platte, to Ft. Kearney; thence, up the south bank ot 
the Platte, to Julesburgj and from thence, via the Old Stage Road to Ft. 
Laramie and Ft. Bridger, to Salt Lake, where it connects with a line that 
had been previously constructed eastward from San Francisco. 

In the summer of 1863 Mr. Edward Creighton obtained a liberal 
subscription from the citizens of Denver, to aid in the construction of a 
branch line from Julesburg to Denver. The building of this line was com- 
menced in August, of the same year, and completed to Denver in October, 
under the supervision of B. F. Woodward, who opened intermediate offices 
at Valley Station, Junction and Living Springs, and assumed the manage- 
ment at Denver, upon the completion of the line. 

Two years later the Pacific Telegraph Co. was merged into, and became 
a part of the system of lines of the Western Union Telegraph Co. Mr. 
Woodward still continues to represent the Western Union Co. as superin- 
tendent of lines in Colorado and New Mexico. This line has stations at 
Golden, Central, Georgetown, and other mountain towns. 


In the summer of 1867, an association of Denver gentlemen organized 
the LTnited States and Mexico Telegraph Co. ; and, during the following 
winter and spring completed the first Colorado telegraph enterprise, by open- 
ing a line for business from Denver to Santa Fe. The first board of trustees 

were — 

> < 

D. H. Moffat, Jr., Henry M. Porter, 

William N. Byers, Fred. Z. Salomon, 

George P. Shire, Samuel H. Elbert, 
B. F. Woodward. 

This line has done much towards promoting intercourse and traffic 
'between the Territories of Colorado and New Mexico. 


^ The success of the Meeker-Greeley colony, organized at New York city 
in the winter of 1869-70, and locating within the borders of Colorado in the 
spring following, was such as to give a decided impetus to similar organiza- 
tions m various sections of the States. Scarcely a State east of the Mississippi 
but has had its colony scheme and colony excitement. In fact, colonization 
schemesarejust now the rage, and the rage intensifies daily as the season 
advances. The results thus far developed'set at rest the many grave doubts 
expressed by wiseacres while the plans were being agitated, as to the practi- 
cability of what might be termed cooperative immigration. 


^Ve cannot afford space to give an extended history of the various 
organizations of this character which have, thus far, cast their lots — both 
real and figurative — on Colorado soil. A brief outline of such as have 
advanced far enough to have an initiatory history will be sufficient to show 
that the colonization theory has been carried into practical execution, and is 
an unqualified success. 

l^y this means families retain their relative positions in coumiunity, 
instead of each wandering alone and into comparative seclusion to wait iur 
the slow development of the country about them. They do not break away 
from the social circle, but carry it with them into the far-west wilds. 


The history of this colony is too generally known to require any extended 

Organized in New York city on the 2.3d of December, 1869, by the 
election of a president, vice-president and treasurer, and the appointment 
of an executive committee of five persons, this movement has grown from 
an enrolled membership of fifty-nine persons, until now it can boast of a 
large settlement, a thrifty and substantial town ornamented with artificial 
lakes, parks and water-courses, and a harmonious couimunity of several 
hundreds of intelligent and energetic people. It was an experiment, but 
the experiment, despite the predictions of croakers, has crystalized into a 
pronounced success. 

The executive committee of this colony, after having investigated the 
advantages and inducements offered by Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah, 
and Colorado, fixed upon the latter as in every way more desirable, while 
presenting fewer and less formidable drawbacks than any of the other 
sections inspected. After a careful and thorough examination of the various 
localities, a selection of lands was made along the valley of the beautiful 
Cache-a-la-Poudre river, in the northern portion of the Territory. The town 
site was located on the banks of this stream, a few miles above its junction 
with the South Platte. 

In honor of one of its originators, the new town was named Greeley. 

The site of the town is a delta formed by the Cache-a-la-Poudre and 
South Platte rivers, and on the line of the Denver Pacific railway, midway 
between Denver and Cheyenne. It has an elevation of a little less than 
4.800 feet, and is in latitude 40° 25' north; and longitude, 27° 48' west 
of Washington. 

The colony purchased from the Denver Pacific Railway Company, and 
from private individuals, twelve thousand acres of land. The preliminary 
steps for the occupation of sixty thousand acres of government lands were 
also taken, and a contract made with the Denver Pacific railway to purchase, 
at any time within three years, fifty thousand acres more, at a cost of from 
S3 to S4 per acre, by paying interest from date of contract. Thus the 
colony at once gained control of nearly one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand acres, including some of the finest lands in the Territory, with 
charters for irrigating canals covering the entire area. 

The town site was subdivided into 520 business lots, 25 x 190 feet; 673 
residence lots, ranging in size from 50 x 190 to 200 x 190 feet; and 277 
lots, reserved for schools, churches, public buildings, etc. The adjacent 



lands were divided into plats of from five to one hundred and twenty acre? 
each, according to distance from the town centre, and each member allowed to 
select one of these plats under his colony certificate of membership. All 
the lands are to be supplied with water, and are not subject to assessment on 
any account, except for the nominal cost of keeping the irrigating canals 
and ditches in repair. A plaza^ or public square, of ten acres was laid out 
in the centre of the town, artificial lakes constructed, trees planted, and by 
June, 1870, the first canal was completed, and water running through all the 
principal streets. An island in the river, just above the town, comprising 
nearly fifty acres, and nicely shaded with native cottonwoods, was reserved 
for public uses, and named "Island Grove Park." 

The usual experiences of pioneering, want of accommodations, remote- 
ness from settlements, etc., were endured by the early arriving colonists; and 
the inevitable dissatisfactions and disappointments attending such novel 
enterprises followed. The faint-hearted and the visionary — those who could 
not at once realize their chateaux en esjKigne — did the usual amount of 
crumbling, and some returned to the States in disgust. 

Other canals were, in time, completed ; the melted snows of the mountain 
tops came splashing through the town and over the sun-parched soil, and 
transformed the forlorn wilderness into a promise of paradise. The despond- 
ing took heart as they saw the cactus gradually supplanted by the cucumhcr, 
(columbine), and new comers were spared the disappointment and mortifica- 
tion experienced by the advance guard of the colony at the apparent dcsolate- 
ness of the country. Their doubts and prejudices respecting irrigation were 
soon dispelled. Buildings were completed, gardens began to bloom, and 
with the exception of a few discontents, who would find fault with the 
climate or the soil, or the sunshine, or something, if they were to be turned 
loose in Paradise, the colony became a community of cheerful, hopeful and 
industrious men and women. 

This, the oldest of the new experiments in the colony line, is a success. 
Some mistakes have occurred in its management, and there has been some 
dissatisfaction with various officers and leading spirits. As is usually the 
case, self-aggrandizement and ambition have prompted over-reaching elForts 
on the part of prominent managers. But, in the main, the original plan of 
the organization has been as faithfully carried out as circumstances would 
adn)it. There is no doubt but that " the thoughts of men arc widened by 
the process of the suns," — especially western suns; and the Greeley colonista 
will broaden in their sympathies and views of life, after inhaling thu 
mountain atmosphere of this region for a few years. In turn they may 
teach these recklessly extravagant; Coloradans a wholesome lesson of saving 
and economy. For, while the hospitality of the latter knows no bounds, 
their purses have come to be as open as their hearts. Scarcely a family in 
the Territory but wastes as much as would support a similar family in Ne\f 
England. They spend dollars where eastern-bred people are sparing of 

Greeley is a fixed fact. It has its schools, churches, banks and estab- 
lished business houses. It has its newspaper — a sprig of its godfather, the 
N. Y. Tribune,— Its Educational Board, Farmer's Club, Exchange Place, 
Its ].yceum and Library Association. The town now contains over three 
hundred and fifty buildings, ranging from board shanties to red brick 
fronts. There are seventeen stores, three lumber yards, three blacksmith and 


wapron shops, one printing office, and one livery stable. There is still oppor- 
tunity to join the colony. All information can be obtained by addressing 
the " Bureau of Statistics and Information," Greelc}^, Colorado. 


This colony, which was organized at Chicago in the spring of 1870, 
under the leadership of Carl AV'ulsten, and which made the passage from 
Chicago, via the Kansas Pacific route, to the Wet Mountain valley, wIlIi a 
good deal of parade and echit^ has not succeeded in accomplishing as much 
or making as satisfactory a record as the one already described. Charges 
of corruption and dishonesty have been openly preferred against some of 
the prominent men of the organization, by members who have left in disgust. 
Others report that the situation selected is the very worst that could have 
been found in Colorado. They assert that the elevation is so great, and the 
valley so hemmed in by bleak mountains, that nearly all crops fail to mature 
before the frost period cuts them off. On the other hand, these reports are 
declared to be the exaggerated croakings of disaffected members, who fool- 
ishly expected to find all the hills flowing with wine and honey, and milk, 
and — lager! 

We have no statistics at hand with which to either corroborate or con- 
tradict the above statements. Doubtless the disaffected exaggerate the dis- 
advantages and disappointments, while the managers equally overrate the 
advantages and successes of the enterprise. 

Wet Mountain valley lies south from Canon City, in Pueblo and Fremont 
counties. It is well shut in by spurs of mountain ranges; well watered; 
abundantly supplied with timber* in the vicinity of excellent and extensive 
beds of coal, and will doubtless attract more and more attention as it becomes 
better known. 


This colony, yet in its infancy is one of the most important that has yet 
selected this Territory as its home-site. Unlike the Union Colony, it orig- 
inated at the West, and is chiefly composed of Western men. With their 
characteristic enterprise and grit they have found a location just where 
every locating committee, preceding them, had overlooked it; close to coal, 
iron, timber and building-stone; well watered; near railroads and markets; 
and comprising a soil, facilities for irrigation, water-power, and general 
physical features every way desirable. The lands selected, amounting to 
nearly 60,000 acres, lie along the rich valleys of the Boulder St. Yrain, 
Left Hand and Little Thompson creeks. They include the lower range of 
foot-hills, and extend eastward, from the base of the mountains, for a distance 
of about twenty miles. The site for the new town, which is to be the radi- 
ating centre of the new community, is located about a mile north from the 
little village of Burlington, in Boulder county. It is to be called Longmont, 
and is distant from the nearest railway station about eight miles. It is 
thirty three miles from Denver, and about the same distance from Greeley; 
fifteen miles from Boulder City, and from twenty-five to fifty miles from the 
heart of the silver and gold mining regions of Boulder and Gilpin counties. 
From Longmont the mountain view is magnificent. The foot-hills are not 
more than eight miles distant, and Long's peak lifts its snowy crest 10,000 


feet above the little hamlet, nearly due west, and, apparently but an hour's 
drive, is distant about thirty miles. It is worth a journey of a thousand 
miles even in a break-bone stage coach, to witness a winter sunrise dawning 
upon tliis grand monarch of mountains. 

The Boulder valley is one of the richest and most beautiful in Colorado. 
The stream is clear, rapid and full of trout, affording facilities for irrigation, 


marliets. In fact, the coal fields of Boulder county are absolutely inex- 

Thus favorably situated, and carefully managed, the Chicago-Colorado 
colony cannot but prove a success. The mistakes of its predecessors need 
not be repeated, while its managers can certainly learn much from the expe- 
rience of others. The spontaneity of the organization in the beginning; the 
prompt and unhesitating action of the locating committee, and the enthusiasm 
with which every man connected with the enterprise throws himself into the 
work, are all characteristic of the locality from whence they come. Irriga- 
ting streams of water already cover much of the colony's lands, and the 
management have promptly ordered nearly 2,000 acres of grain to be soWn. 
Lumber is on the ground; buildings are going up; the village of Burlington 
has surrendered unconditionally, and most of its citizens have joined the 
incoming colony. Until the advent of these tireless, driving, steel-sinewed 
and steam-driven Chicagoans, the little community, now so full of ambition 
and enterprise, was in a hopeless state of human hibernation. 

To reach the colony from the East, tickets should be purchased to 
Denver, where connection is made with the Boulder Valley railroad to Erie, 
the present terminus of the latter, and but eight miles distant from Longmont. 


This organization, although not so far advanced as others, has matured 
its plans sufficiently to be mentioned. It was initiated at Memphis, Tenn., 
but its members are from various States, including Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. A town site has been selected on the banks ol 
the South Platte, twenty-five miles below Evans, on the Denver Pacific rail 
way, and seventy-five miles from Denver. It is near the old landu)ark.; 
known as "Fremont's Orchard," and just below an island in the river, which 
is covered with native cottonwoods. The town has been named Greensboro, 
in honor of its chief projector and patron, Col. D. S. Green, a gentleman 
well and favorably known in Colorado. Lost Spring creek debouches into 
the Platte, just above the town site, and its valley constitutes one of the 
chief attractions of the locality. It is about two miles wide; its soil is o. 
deep alluvial loam, as light and friable as an ash heap, and produces a mosf' 
luxuriant growth of a peculiar kind of perennial grass, resembling the 
famous blue grass of Kentucky. At least 15,000 acres of these valley'lands 
need no artificial irrigation whatever, and the broad expanse of uplands, 
further back, furnish unlimited range for pasturage. On the Platte bottom 
there are also thousands of acres, which may be cultivated without irrigation. 
Besides these, there are easy facilities for constructing an irrigating canal, 
of not more than two or three miles in length, which will cover 8,000 or 


10,000 acres more; while, eventually, by a little more outlay, water can be 
carried over nearly all the highlands in the vicinity, including hundreds of 
thousands of acres. 

The plan of this colony is somewhat different from that of others now 
located. Each member pays over a moderate membership fee, which entitles 
him to special rates of transportation to the colony site, a share in the division 
of the town property, and such other privileges as inhere to similar organiza- 
tions. At the same time there are no restrictions or obligations imposed 
upon members; no communism or cooperative interests. Each one is left to 
make his own selection of vocation; to preempt lands; claim as homestead or 
otherwise, as he may elect, and in every respect to act his or her own prefer- 
ence as in ordinary communities. The location is certainly very desirable in 
many respects. At present, it is twenty five miles to the nearest railway 
station; but in time, no doubt, a line of railway will be constructed up the 
valley of the South Platte, connecting, at the mouth of the latter, with the 
Union Pacific, and opening up the grand expanse of grazing lands spread 
out on either side of this stream. In this event, which can only be consid- 
ered as a matter of time, Greensboro will have a much more direct eastern 
outlet than any town or colony yet projected in Colorado. Among its promi- 
nent members are some of the leading men of the various sections represented, 
and the colony bids fair to become the nucleus of a large and thrifty settle- 
ment. Full information concerning it, may be obtained by addressing Col. 
D. S. Green, at Denver. 

In addition to the foregoing there are numerous other colonies, whose 
locating committees are actively exploring the different sections of the Ter- 
ritory for the most favorable locations; but, up to this writing, they either 
have not fioally fixed upon their sites, or they decline to make the chosen 
spots known, lest wily land sharks thwart their purposes. Of these, there 
is a Boston colony, a Western colony, a Tennessee colony, and several 
others not specially named. 


The pioneers of this land of grains of gold and golden grains, though 
lemote from the great centres of Christianity and civilization, have ever been 
mindful of the importance of religious influences and teachings. At an early 
period in the history of the country, when the gold excitement was inteiKe, 
and all other interests seemed to have been absorbed in the one fascinating 
pursuit — gold hunting — church organizations were not forgotten, and a 
series of systematic efforts were inaugurated, which have resulted in the 
present prosperous condition of the churches. 

When every passion and emotion is aroused, and every faculty absorbed 
by some intensely exciting pursuit, the importance of preparation for a future 
life is often partially overlooked, or entirely neglected. No avocation so com- 
pletely engrosses every sentiment of the human heart as the search for gold. 
As this was the leading pursuit of the earlier settlers of Colorado, it would 


not have beeu strange if religious interests had been neglected; but such 
was not the case, and it speaks well for the hardy pioneers, when it can be 
said that many of them were, and still remain in the front ranks of religious 
progress, and that they have been the bearers of Christianity and civilization 
wherever the attractions of glittering gold allured them. 

We have not at hand sufficient data from which to compile a com- 
plete history of all the church organizations in the Territory, nor is it to be 
expected in a work of this kind, but we give sufficient statistics to illustrate 
the important fact that religious matters have not been neglected in Colo- 
rado, and to assure immigrants to our Territory, that they can enjoy all the 
religious privileges they may have beeu accustomed to in their homes east of 
the great plains. 

Besides the data given below, the Presbyterians, Congregationalists and 
Baptists have churches and church organizations in all the principal cities 
and towns in the Territory, which are fairly supplied with clergymen, and 
are enjoying a degree of prosperity encouraging to all lovers of gospel truths. 
"We regret an almost entire absence of any detailed account of these churches, 
except what follows, but can safely assert that every denomination has its 
share of support and success, and that persons of every sect, who make a 
home in Colorado, will find the means of enjoying their peculiar religious 
privileges always at hand. 


St. John's Cathedral; the Rt. Rev. Geo. M. Randall, D. D., Bishop of 
Colorado, rector; the Rev. Samuel J. French, A. M., assistant minister. 
This parish was organized in 1860, by the Rev. John II. Kehler, who still 
resides in Denver, and officiates but occasionally, in consequence of infirmi- 
ties incident to increasing years. The church edifice has recently been 
enlarged. Measures are in progress for securing the means wherewith to 
erect a new church, which, in point of material, dimensions, and architec- 
tural taste, will be worthy the sacred purposes for which it is to be used, and 
suited to the wants of the metropolis of Colorado. 

Wolfe Hall, a high school for girls, is situated in Denver. It has a corps 
of well qualified instructors. This institution will compare favorably with 
similar schools at the East. The pupils are thoroughly trained in all the 
branches of education which fit girls to be accomplished and useful women. 
Wolfe Hall is a large brick building; an ornament to Denver, and a credit 
to the Territory. Of this school, Bishop Randall is the rector, and resides 
in the institution. 


Calvary Church is a substantial brick edifice, built in the Gothic style 
of architecture, with an open timber roof, and windows of stained glass. 
The Rev. Wm. J. Lynd is rector of the parish, which was organized about 
four years ago. 

Jarvis Hall is a collegiate school, located about a mile from Golden, on 
the road to Denver. This institution is designed to prepare boys for college, 
and to fit them for the business pursuits of life. It has three departments: 
grammar, classical and scientific. The buiMing is of brick, eighty-three 


by tliirty-tliree feet, tliree stories, with a tower. On a line with the hall, 
and about 100 feet from it, is another brick edifice, and of similar style of 
architecture, forty by thirty feet, having three stories, with a tower, and is 
to be used for purposes connected with a school of mines. The location of 
this college is not surpassed for beauty and grandeur of natural scenery, and 
for purity of atmosphere, by any institution in the land. With hills and 
mountains within easy reach, it affords to the boys uncqualcd facilities for 
that physical exercise which develops the muscles and promotes Jiealth. To 
boys who are affected with bronchial trouble, or disease of the lungs, in its 
incipient state, or asthmatic complaints, this school affords the rare opportu- 
nity of securing the recovery of health, without sacrificing the educational 
period of life. Jarvis Hall has an able faculty, of which Bishop Kandall is 
the head. 

St. Paul's Church, Central City, was organized in the early settlement 
of the Territory. The church has been recently enlarged. A parish school 
is maintained'undcr the supervision of the rector, the Rev. Jos. M. Turner. 
Measures have been taken to establish a hospital under the auspices of the 

Christ Parish, Nevada City, of which the Rev. Francis Byrne is rector, 
has a neat church edifice, which was erected about four years ago. 

There are fine churches at Idaho and Empire City. In Georgetown, a 
church is nearly completed, and will be soon consecrated. 

St. Peter's, at Pueblo, is a comfortable, commodious church edifice. 
Here also is St. Peter's Institute, a classical school, of which the rector of 
the parish, the Rev. Samuel Edwards, is principal. 

At Littleton, a church is in the course of erection, and is to be completed 
on the first of March. 


As usual, the earliest history of Colorado found the pioneering Metho- 
dist preacher, whose seed-sowing has produced the harvest of a large and 
flourishing church. We give a few historic and statistical items. The 
Kansas conference organized a district here early in the settlement of the 
Territory, and fully su-pplied the general demands of the work with preach- 
ers. In proper succession, and with commendable increase, the work went 
on in that form until in July, 1863, Rev. Bishop Ames organized the Rocky 
Mountain conference (the name was changed in 1864: to the Colorado con- 
ference). The preaching force appointed that year was composed of two 
presiding elders, and six preachers in charge of circuits and stations. In 
the changes since then, all the names of that list have disappeared from the 
present list of appointments but one, John L. Dyer, familiarly known as 
Father Dyer. This old storm-hardened veteran labors as heroically and suc- 
cessfully as ever for his Divine Master. 

Societies were organized at Denver, Golden, Boulder, Central, Black 
Hawk, South Park, Blue River, California Gulch, Colorado City and Pueblo, 
with a membership of 273. Ten Sunday schools were also reported, with 
an average attendance of 520. One church worth §300, and one parsonage 
worth $400, were reported. The little chapel in which this conference was 
held, was situated on the west bank of Cherry creek, facing Larimer street. 
It was carried away in the flood of 1864. 


Seven annual sessions of the Colorado conference have been held, with 
a steady increase of preachers and members from year to year. At its 
or<ranization, only Colorado Territory made its limits, but now Wyoming 
and New Mexico are embraced within its boundaries. It is our intention, 
however, only to make a statement of Colorado Methodism in this artide. 

There are few settlements of any importance that are not included in the 
circuit system of this church, and few country school-houses in which the 
Methodist itinerant does not occasionally or regularly preach. Societies and 
Sunday schools are now organized in every considerable settlement. The 
membership reported at the'last session of the conference, held in Pueblo, 
June, 1870, was as follows: In full communion, 540; on probation, 173; 
total, 713; twenty-five Sunday schools, with an attendance of 1,647; four- 
teen churches, worth 076,000; five parsonages, worth $6,100. 

We give now, for the general information of our readers, and for the 
special convenience of strangers and new comers, an outline of each society's 
history where church buildings have been erected : 


The chapel, to which allusion has been made, was rented in 1863, and 
fitted up very neatly and comfortably for church use, and was occupied by 
the society until the flood of 1864. Services were then held in the Denver 
Theatre, until the fine edifice, now occupied, was dedicated. This building, 
which for beauty inside and out is not excelled in church architecture west 
of the Mississippi, was begun under the pastorate of llev. Oliver A. Williard, 
during the summer of conference organization. It was dedicated in the 
spring of 1865, under the pastorate of Rev. Geo. Richardson, Mr. Williard 
being presiding elder. The cost of this church was about §21,000. Its 
pastors have been Gr. Richardson, W. M. Smith, 13. T. Vincent, and J. L. 
Peck, the present pastor. The records now exhibit a membership of 150, 
and an average of Sunday school attendance of 22b. A fine brick parson- 
age was erected in the early part of 1870. 


The services of this society were held in Lawrence hall and the court 
room, until the autumn of 1868, when, through the labors of Rev. G. H. 
Adams, the large stone church which now adorns this mountain city was so 
far completed as to admit the congregation into its lecture room. This 
building, though of plainer architecture than the church of Denver, is yet 
not second to it in appropriate appearance, and is a commanding and beauti- 
ful structure. Its cost, when completed, will exceed $20,000. The pastors 
at Central, since the organization of the conference, have been B.T.Vincent, 
W. A. Amsbary, Gr. 11. Adams and W. D. Chase, who was recently trans- 
ferred from New York State, and is now in charge. The membership of 
the church is now about 100; Sunday school, about 150. 


The regular services of this society were held, in 186.3-4, in a hall over 
a billiard saloon. A good brick building was then secured for several years. 
In 1868, under the labors of Rev. G. W. Swift, a good, substantial building 
of bnck and stone was begun. It was so constructed that the present room 


may be the basement of a large and fine church, when the society may be 
able, in the future, to build it. It was finished and dedicated under the 
pastorate of Rev. G. Wallace. Cost, about 8-4,000. The pastors have been 
B. T. Vincent, O. P. McMains, W. W. Baldwin, G. H. Adams, G. W. 
Swift, and G. Wallace, the present pastor. The membership is about thirty, 
and the Sunday school averages an attendance of sixty. Nevada is under 
tlie care of this pastor. 


Very early in the history of Georgetown an occasional sermon was 
preached, in some private dwelling, by preachers in adjoining circuits. Beg- 
ular services were established there in 1866-7, and halls were hired until, in 
1868, a beautiful frame church was built and dedicated under the pastorate 
of Bev. G. 3Iurray, at a cost of about §8,000. The pastors have been Geo. 
Bichardson, Geo. Murray, and Isaac H. Beardsley, the present pastor. The 
membership is sixty-three; the Sunday school about 100. 


A neat brick chapel was built here in 1S68, under the pastorate of Bev. 
B. T. Vincent, costing a little upwards of 83,000. Its plan, as that of Black 
Hawk, is to be built upon at some future duy, the present structure being so 
arranged as to be the lecture room of the final structure. A very fine build- 
ing is in contemplation, and, with the present promise of rapid growth of 
Golden, it is hoped the entire building will be, ere long, completed. Th^ 
pastors here have been B. C. Dennis, 0. A. Willard, I). W. Scott, W. M. 
Smith, B. T. Vincent, P. Peterson, E. C. Brooks, and F. C. Millington, the 
present pastor, lately transferred from the State of New York. The mem- 
bership is about fifty; Sunday school, 100. 


A church worth §2,000 was built here in 1867, and a flourishing society 
exists. Within the same circuit, at a point on Monument creek, another 
neat church has just been dedicated, costing about 81,200. The pastors on 
this circuit have been J. L. Dyer, George Murray, 0. P. McMains, and W. 
F. Warren, who is now in charge. The membership is about sixty; Sunday 
schools, in both churches named, average an attendance of about 100. 


A good adobe church was erected here in 1869, under the pastorate of 
Rev. 0. P. McMains. Its value is upwards of 8-1,000, and it is of very cred- 
itable appearance. The pastors of circuits, including Pueblo, since 1863, 
have been W. H. Fisher, C. H. Kirkbride, and 0. P. McMains, the present 
pastor. Membership about fifteen; Sunday school averages an attendance 
of fifty. 


A church and parsonage block is owned here by the Methodist society, 
and valued at 82.500. The pastors have been W. H. Fisher, P. J. Smith, 
(leo. Murray, W. M. Smith, and R. A. Hoffman, a late transfer from Ohio, 
;tnd the present pastor. The membership is about thirty; Sunday school, 
about fifty. 



Now called South Park City. This and aa adjoining town have Metho- 
dist chapels, valued at $1,500. J. L. Dyer was the itinerant of this region 
for many years, and W. F. Warren has worked faithfully there for the past 
three years. Rev. Jesse Smith is the present pastor. The membership so 
varies here in summer and winter, changes owing to the climate and mining 
seasons, that we have no accurate report. 


This is a farming region, about six miles north of Golden City. A neat 
little frame church was built here under the pastorate of Rev. Jesse Smith, 
costing about $1,800. This is the first strictly rural church ever built in 
Colorado. The pastors of this circuit have been W. M. Smith, D. W. Scott, 
Jesse Smith, and G. W. Swift, the present pastor. 


Here a plain, brick chapel was built some years ago, under the pastorate 
of Rev. C. King. The membership is about twenty-five. A good Sunday 
school is in existence. The pastors of the circuit have been C. King, O. P. 
McMains, W. W. Baldwin, R. Van Valkenburg, and R. W. Bosworth. who 
was transferred here since the last conference, to take pastoral charge of this 
place and Boulder. 


Has a small, unfinished chapel, built, under the direction of Rev. G. Rich- 
ardson, in 1866-7. This place has been included in the Empire and Idaho 

Projects are in hand for building at Boulder, Idaho, Nevada, Littleton, 
and Trinidad; and in other places the question of church building is being 

The presiding elders of the Methodist Church in Colorado have been 
as follows: 0. A. Willard, W. B. Slaughter, W. M. Smith, J. L. Dyer, Geo. 
Murray, and B. T. Vincent. The last two are at present in charge of the 
districts. The work is undergoing constant enlargement. A District jMin- 
isterial Association and Sunday School Institute are in active existence in 
the Denver district. 


Before the organization of the Territory the churches, in what is now 
Colorado, were under the jurisdiction of the Right Rev. Bishop Miege, of 
Leavenworth, Kan. Bishop Miege transferred his jurisdiction to Bishop 
Lamy, of Santa Fe, who retained the charge until 1868, at which time 
Bishop Joseph P. Machebeuf, formerly Vicar General of the Territory, was 
appointed Bishop of Colorado and Utah, and assumed the charge, which he 
now retains. 

In 1860, Bishop Machebeuf and Father John B. Raverdy came to the 
Territory as missionaries. They both had charge of the whole Territory for 
nearly three years, without any clerical assistance. When they came to 
Denver there was no church, but there was one in course of erection, which 
was soon completed and occupied. 


Early ia 18G0 a mission was organized in Central City, a most beautiful 
location selected, a frame chapel built, which was attended, every two weeks, 
from Denver. In 1863 a permanent pastor was appointed, and preparations 
have been made for schools and a hospital under the care of the Sisters of 

In Georgetown a most commanding and central block was secured, some 
improvements made, and a church is now being built; and a permanent 
pastor will soon be appointed. 

In Boulder county, on South Boulder creek, a beautiful farm has been 
secured for the benefit of the church, a monthly visit made to the Catholic 
settlement, and a church will soon be erected for their accommodation. 

At Colorado City and Pueblo good locations have been selected, and a 
church will be built, during the spring of 1871, at Pueblo. At Trinidad, 
Calebra, Costilla and Conejos, in San Luis park, churches have already been 
erected and parishes organized. 

In Golden City a neat frame church was erected, in 1866, on a fine block 
generously donated by Hon. W. M. Loveland and Judge Johnson. Prepara- 
tions are also made for schools, etc. 

In the southern part of the Territory, where there are from lO.OUO to 
12,000 Catholics (mostly Mexicans), four parishes have been organized and 
seven priests appointed to attend to their spiritual wants. 

The diocese of the Bight Kev. Bishop Machebeuf includes Colorado and 
Utah. His residence is at Denver. The church at Denver is in charge of 
the Bev. Father McGrath ; that at Central City in charge of the Bev. Father 
John B. Baverdy; and the one at Salt Lake is presided over by the Bev. 
Father John B. Foley. 


St. Mary's Academy, under the direction of the Sisters of Loretto, was 
established in 1864. The property of the institution comprises one and a 
half blocks of ground on California street, between E and F streets, Denver. 
When this property was purchased there was located on it a building — a 
private residence. Since that time the Sisters have constructed a large brick 
building, which was partially destroyed by fire in April, 1869, and rebuilt 
the same year, with a third story, with capacity to furnish ample accommo- 
dations for thirty boarders, and will be further enlarged to meet the wants 
of this rapidly-growing Territory. There are at present, at the school, 
thirteen Sisters, who have charge of all the departments. Every branch of 
education usually included in a seminary course, with the modern languages, 
is taught at this school. This institution has been liberally patronized by 
all classes, and is amongst the first in the Territory. 

Another flourishing school was established, last spring, at Trinidad, 
under the care of five Sisters of Charity; and two more such schools will be 
opened, during the spring of 1871, by the same Sisters, in Conejos and 
Costilla, in San Luis park. 


The first Presbyterian church, of Denver, was organized December 15, 
1861, in the International Hall, on Ferry street. It is now located on F 
street, between Lawrence and Arapahoe streets, and is a substantial brick 
building, valued at 88,000. Number of members, fifty-five. 


Officers.— J. Q. Charles, W. F. McClelland, elders. J. Q. Charles, 
J. W. Horner, J. E. Estabrook, J. Moncrief, 11. -11. Hamilton, trustees. 
W. H. Hubbard is superintendent of the Sunday school; average attend- 
ance, 112; volumes in library, 100. 

The stated supplies of this church, since its organization, have been as 
follows: Rev. A. S. Billinesley, December 15, 1861, to 18—; Rev. A. R. 
Day, March 14, 1863, to>cbruary 10, 1865; Rev. J. B. McClure, Octo- 
ber 1, 1865, to November 1, 1867; Rev. A. Y. Moore, March 15, 1868, 
to May 15, 1868. Rev. E. P. Wells, the present pastor, entered upon the 
discharge of his duties November 12, 1868. 


The public school system of Colorado is similar to that of other Terri- 
tories and the States. The people are alive to educational interests, and, in 
several instances, better and more expensive school buildings have been 
erected than can be found in Eastern towns containing twice as many inhab- 
itants. Many portions of the Territory are yet, unavoidably, without ade- 
quate school facilities; but, as a whole, it is better supplied than any 
Territory in the Union. 

The whole number of school districts is 125; the whole number of 
school houses, 100; school enumeration, 7,539; and the number of pupils 
attending, 4,067. 

There are high schools organized at Denver, Central City, Black Hawk, 
Burlington, Boulder City, Pueblo and Greeley. The high school building 
at Central City is built of stone, is a model of architectural taste, and, for 
commodiousness and adaptation to its purpose, would do credit to the most 
enterprising and fastidious New England city. It has recently been com- 
pleted, at a cost of about S20,000. Another, at Black Hawk, cost nearly 
§15,000; and, at Denver, arrangements are in progress to erect a building at 
a cost of $40,000. At the latter place the authorities are now occupying 
the Colorado Academy building; but it is inadequate to the wants of the 
place, and must soon be superseded by an edifice which will fully accommo- 
date the growing wants of the town, and correspond with its enterprise and 
intelligence in other directions. 

The school fund of 1870, raised by a special school tax in the various 
counties, amounts to $61,881.27. There is, as yet, no Territorial fund, 
although the usual reservation of school lands (sections sixteen and thirty- 
six in each township) has been made by Government, so that, as soon as the 
Territory shall have become a State, this will largely augment her ability to 
foster means of public education. 

There is a territorial superintendent of public instruction, and a county 
superintendent for each county. These are all elected once in two jears. 
The counties are divided into districts, and each district has its board of 
three directors, who employ teachers and have general supervision of the 
aifairs of the district. These directors are elected annually, ia May. 



The following is a list of the territorial and county superintendents of 
Colorado, for 1871-2: 

AY. C. LoTHROP, Territorial Superintendent of Puhlic Instruction. 




W. C. Lothrop 



Las Animas City 


A. R. Day 

Clear Creek 

Wm. M. Clark 


Frank Sager 


(No report.) 

Cherry Creek 

Colorado City 

Canon City 

Central City 

El Paso 


W. R. Fowler 


James Mills 

M. A. Stewart 

St. Mary's 


JI. C Kirhy 

Golden City 


Big Thompson 

Las Animas 

Jacob Beard 



J. Marshal Paul 

Fair Play 



John Cox 

R. P. Powell 


Delaware City 

IT B Turner 



In the winter of 1866, the leading citizens of Central concluded, in view 
of the rapid growth of their city, to organize, if possible, a public library 
and literary institute. The want of such an institution was felt keenly by 
the intelligent portion of the community, and the initial movement, which 
has already brought about most favorable results, received the prompt sup- 
port of all classes. 

The first systemized action in the matter was taken at a public meeting, 
convened by a general call in the newspapers of the day, which was held on 
the 13th day of December, 1866. The attendance at this first meeting, for 
the public discussion of the advantages of a public library and the adoption 
of proper measures to speedily secure the desired object, was large, and a 
lively interest in the matter was manifested by all present. The following 
well known gentlemen were called upon to act as officers of this gathering: 

President, H. B. Morse; Vice-Presidents, L. C. Tooles, A. J. Vanderen, 
Charles W. Mather, George T. Clark; Secretary, Frank C. Young. 


The matter under consideration was discussed generally, and a copy of 
resolutions, urging the necessity of immediately organizing and liberally sus- 
taining a public library, was submitted by W. R. Thomas. These were suit- 
ably amended and adopted. It was further resolved that a committee of 
seven be appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws, to be submitted to a 
subsequent meeting, which was to take place one week from that date. 

At the time specified, December 20, 18G6, the friends of the organization 
again assembled, with H. B. Morse in the chair. The committee on con- 
stitution and by-laws reported, they believed, that to effect a regular organi- 
zation, the granting of a charter was the first object to be accomplished; 
and, that in view of this, they had drawn up a petition to be submitted to 
the Territorial legislature, then in session. This petition was read before 
the meeting, and became the subject of spirited debate. Certain portions 
of it were extremely objectionable, and on motion of George T. Clarke, the 
committee was instructed to present a revised report of the proceedings at 
the next meeting. This was done; the charter was obtained; constitution 
and by-laws adopted, and the following gentlemen elected as first officers of 
the Miners and Mechanics Institute, at a meeting held in Washington Hall, 
January 21, 1867: 

President, G. P. Buchanan; Vice-President, S. P. Lathrop; Secretary, 
Frank C. Young; Treasurer, J. H. Goodspeed; Librarian, C. E. Sherman. 

This brief history of the initial steps in the organization of the institute 
conveys but a poor idea of the magnitude and importance of the work accom- 
plished by the sturdy friends of science and literature, who have been active 
members of this association. But a visit to the institute to-day, and an exam- 
nation of its shelves, laden with nearly 1,000 volumes of carefully selected 
and well bound works on art, science and literature (besides numerous monthly 
journals, and weekly and daily periodicals), and its rare and costly cabinets of 
ores, minerals, fossils, petrifactions and specimens of the precious metals, will 
give even the casual observer abundant evidence of the earnest and effective 
manner in which the live members of this association have conducted their 
arduous labors. 

The charge of the affairs of the institute has always been entrusted to 
officers chosen from among our most intelligent and energetic citizens. In 
looking over the records, we find that James Burrell, Samuel Cushman, 
Hugh Butler, George T. Clark, A. J. Vanderen, Charles E. Sherman, 
and many others of Central's prominent citizens, have been especially active 
in promoting its welfare. Such efficient aid ensures success. As an assur- 
ance to the friends of the institute that its affiiirs are still under the control 
of suitable officers, we append the names of those elected at a meeting; held 
on the second Monday in October, at the rooms of the institute, in Odd Fel- 
lows building, Lawrence street: 

President, Samuel Cushman; Vice-President, Thomas J. Campbell; Sec- 
retary and Librarian, E. E. Burlingame; Treasurer, T. H. Potter. 


This library contains over 400 well bound volumes, besides journals and 
periodicals, comprising many valuable literary, scientific and religious works, 
selected with great care, by persons thoroughly qualified for the task, both 
by natural tastes and educational attainments. 


The rooms of the association are in the basement of the Methodist church 
building, on Eureka street, Central, and are tastefully fitted up and furnished 
by the association for library purposes exclusively, and are a very pleasant 
place of resort for lovers of good literature. 

The character of the works in St. James' library are of a high order, 
and, though not numerous, are exceedingly valuable, and the affairs of the 
association are in a prosperous condition. 

The library is conducted on the circulating plan, but is open to visitors 
at all seasonable hours. The present officers are: 

President, D. C. Collier; Vice-President, Hal. Sayre; Treasurer, A. J. 
Yanderen; Secretary and Librarian, I. W. Stanton. 


The valuable collection of books, public documents, and mineral speci- 
mens which constitute this library are kept in suitable rooms in Denver, in 
charge of the Territorial Librarian. The collection of works for this insti- 
tution commenced early in the history of the Territory, and a librarian (W. 
S. Walker) was appointed in 18G2. The duties of this librarian, and the 
management of the library, are defined in chapter fifty-two of the Revised 
Statutes; and a general supervision of the institution becomes a part of the 
duties of the Territorial Legislature. 

To give a fair exhibit of the condition of the library, and the number of 
volumes contained therein, we publish the report of a committee of the 
Legislature, who examined the library in 1870: 

"Denver, Colorado Territory, February 9, 1870. 
' lion. Geo A Hinsdale^ President of the Legislative Council: 

"Sir: Your committee, to whom was referred the examination of the 
Territorial Library, beg leave to submit the following report: 

" We find the total number of volumes in the library to be 2,506, as 
follows : 

Books catalogued, on hand and accounted for 891 

Books catalogued, but not accounted for 137 

United States public documents (bound) 627 

Statute laws, journals, reports, etc., of d:trerent States and Territories (bound).. i'l~ 

United States public documents (pamphlet form) 127 

Laws and documents of diCFerent States and Territories (pamphlet form) 235 

Miscellaneous books not heretofore catolosrued 62 

"All of which is respectfully submitted 

"J.C.Hughes, ') 
J. W. Nesmith, V 
J. M. Yelasquez, 3 

J. W. Nesmith, V Committee." 

Owing to the interest taken in this important public institution by the 
present efficient librarian, Geo. T. Clark, valuable additions have been made 
to the library since the date of this report. 

The rooms are open to the public generally, and volumes can be taken 
out, by complying with the prescribed rules. 



This is a literary society, organized at Georgetown in the spring of ISTO. 
hv a few of the citizens of that beautiful city, who have, evidently, amoug 
thoir nuuibors some true lovers of the artistic and beautiful, or they would 
not have invoked the spirit of that great master of the human he;\rt, Charles 
Dickens, to preside over their deliberations. 

Althou;:h we sojourned in Georgetown some weeks, in the fall of ISTv), 
we have no data concerning the society, except the list of officers, kindly 
furnished by C. A. Hoyt, Esq., one of the club. They are as follows: 

II. C. Chapin, President; C. 0. Marble, Vice-Pre'sident; K. S. Morri- 
son, Secretary; E. C. Parmelee. Treasurer. 

Executive Committee. — C. A. Iloyt, Chairman ; C. A. Martine, F. A 


This organization, which has for its object the advancement of all Terri- 
torial industries, as well as agricultural, is one of the most important institu- 
tions of Colorado, and h:xs the hearty encouragement and support of all 
public spirited citizens. 

The first annual exhibition of the society was held in Denver, in the fall 
of 1SG6, and yearly exhibitions have been holden regularly from that time 
to the present. It has exerted a ]>owerful aud wide-spread influence in pro- 
moting all industries, and has aided efficiently in increasing the material 
wealth aud general prosperity of the Territory. 

The steady and healthy growth of this society, and the never-failing 
interest it has excited among all classes, is one of the best evidences of the 
real solid basis upon which the superstructure of Colorado industries are 
founded, aud insures the future greatness and wealth of her people. 

The grounds and buildings of the society are located about two miles 
from the centre of Denver, adjoining the grounds of the Ford Park Associ- 
ation. The location is well chosen, and the grounds and buildings admirably 
suited for the purpose of exhibiting stock, agricultural and mineral products, 
manutacturers' material of every description, and the works of art, which 
display the taste and cultivation of our educated citizens. 

The exhibit of 1S70 surpassed all others in the quantity and quality 
of the material displayed, and was attended by all the leading citizens of 
the Territory, and vast numbers of people from all parts of this and adjoin- 
ing Territories and States. The prizes awarded to those whose products 
excelled, were appropriate and valuable, and the general management of ■ 
affairs, in all respects, satisfactory to all interested. The success of this 
society, in every way, is beyond doubt, and its sphere of usefulness will be 
constantly enlarged. 

Although Colorado has only commenced her second decade — and her 
limus reach far out into the unexplored regions of the Great West, and 
embrace the Great Desert and inaccessible mountains — still her progress in 
the arts, agriculture, stock raising and manufacturing, as exemplified" by tl;.-! 
exhibitions of this society, gives her an enviable position amon^ the politicnl 
divisions of the country west of the Missouri, and insure her from the rival- 
ship of any adjoining districts. 


The following is a list of the officers and directors of this society : 
Officers of the Association. — Horatio B. Bearce, President; Jos. 

W. Watson, Vice-President; Oliver A. Whittemore, Secretary; David A. 

Chever, Treasurer; Col. Ralph C. Webster, Chief Marshal. 

Executive Committee. — David C. Collier, Peter Magnes, Isaac H. 

Batchellor, James M. Wilson, George T. Clark. 

Directors. — D. C. Collier, Gilpin county; S. G. Nutt, Jeffijrson county; 

J. T. Lynch, Clear Creek county; John S. Wheeler, Weld county; W. B. 

Osborn, Larimer county; J, B. Kice, Pueblo county; B. B. Field, Pueblo 

county; Anton Schingelholtz, Douglas county; W^illiam Sheppard, Fremont 

county; P. M. Housel, Boulder county; Jos. W. Bowles, Arapahoe county; 

Ferdinand Meyer, Costilla county; William Craig, Huerfano county; L. S. 

Head, Conejos county; W. J. Godfrey, Sagauche county; Samuel Hartsell, 

Park county; W. P. Pollock, Summit county; H. H. DeMary, Lake county; 

L. Mullin, Greenwood county; Mark B. Price, Bent county. 


Like the parent society, at Denver, this institution has for its object the 
promotion of all Territorial industries, and has done its part towards increas- 
ing the general wealth of the Territory, by encouraging and fostering all 
agricultural, mining and manufacturing enterprises. 

Although a youthful organization, it has the the growth and strength of 
manhood, and is under the management of gentlemen largely interested in 
the welfare of the county, and anxious and able to advance her interests in 
every way. 

The grounds are finely located near Boulder City, and the buildings sub- 
stantially constructed, and well suited to the purpose. 

The exhibitions are held yearly, and are largely attended and well con- 

The usefulness of similar associations is well known in all countries, and 
the Boulder County Agricultural Society is not behind any other of its 
years, with equal facilities, and is a credit to the county and Territory. We 
regret our paucity of statistics concerning this institution, as we are not able 
to give its present officers and directors, but know of its general good repu- 
tation and prosperity, and feel assured that its growth will be commensurate 
with that of the county and Territory. 


The initial measures toward the organization of this association were 
inaugurated by William R. and H. F. Ford, who at that time owned a race 
track on a part of the ground now belonging to the association. Among 
the petitioners for a charter, which was granted by special act of the Terri- 
torial legislature, approved January 7, 1867, we find the following names, 
which are well and favorably known to the citizens of Denver, and the Ter- 
ritory generally : James M. Broadwell, Henry J. Rodgers, Alexander Ben- 
ham, Wm. F. Wilder, Charles A. Cook, Fox Diefendorf, Isidor Dietsch, 
Isaac H. Batchelder, John Wanless. 

A meeting of the corporators for reading and accepting the act of incorpo- 
ration was held January 18, 1867, at the house of Ford & Bro., in Denver, at 



which the following were present: Henry J. Rodgers, Isidor Dietsch, Charles 
A. Cook, James A. Broadwell, Alexander Benham, William F. Wilder, and 
Fox Diefendorf, by his attorney, Hiram F. Ford. The act was accepted, 
and William F. Wilder was authorized to open books for subscription to the 
capital stock of said association, and the entire stock was taken by the fol- 
lowing gentlemen: William R. Ford, twenty shares; Hiram F. Ford, twenty 
shares; William F. Wilder, ten shares; Charles A. Cook, ten shares; Henry 
J. Rodgers, ten shares; Fox Diefendorf, ten shares ;_ Isidor Dietsch, five 
shares; Alexander Benham, five shares; J. Bright Smith, ten shares. 

William R. Ford was appointed a committee to report by-laws, rules and 
regulations for the government of the association, to the next meeting, which 
took place January 21, 1867, where ninety shares of the stock of the associa- 
tion were represented by the following stockholders: Charles A. Cook, 
Isidor Dietsch, Alexander Benham, William F. Wilder, Fox Diefendorf, by 
his attorney, Hiram F. Ford, and William R. Ford. The report of the com- 
mittee on by-laws, rules and regulations was submitted and approved. The 
by-laws, comprising sixteen articles, embraced all the leading features of 
similar codes elsewhere; and the rules and regulations — thirty-two articles 
and twenty-four rules — were very comprehensive, and contained every sug- 
gestion, explanation and direction necessary for the complete government 
of a jockey club or racing association of the highest character. No racing 
association in America has a better code of laws, or insists upon the observa- 
tion of these more rigidly than the Ford Park Association of Denver. 

The officers of the association are a president, vice-president, secretary, 
treasurer, and three directors. The president, vice-president and directors 
compose the board of directors. 

The first officers were elected at the meeting held January 21, 1867, and 
were as follows: J. Bright Smith, president; Wm. R. Ford, vice-president, 
Wm. F. Wilder, secretary; Henry J. Rodgers, treasurer; Isidor Dietsch, 
Charles A. Cook, Alexander Benham, directors. 

The funds, accruing from the sale of stock and other sources, have been 
used to improve the grounds, which are now inclosed with a concrete wall 
of considerable height and superior workmanship. The grand stand, stables, 
and other buildings are commodious, and well and tastefully finished, and 
the track one of the best in America. It is so arranged that it can be flooded 
with water, from a neighboring irrigating canal, at any time, and consequently 
is free from dust, and is never heavy from the accumulation of mud. 

The location of the park is about two miles from the centre of Denver, 
near the junction of the Kansas Pacific and Denver Pacific railways, and 
is reached by excellent roads from all quarters, and surrounded by scenery 
of surpassing beauty and grandeur. At present, the greater portion of the 
stock is owned, and the track entirely controlled by the following gentlemen: 
John Hughes, David H. Mofi'att, Abram K. Lincoln 


This German society, so well known and so much revered by the children 
of the "Fatherland" in every country, has already been firmly established 
111 the principal cities of the Territory. 

At Denver the Turners are numerous, and their society in a prosperous 


At Central they have a fine hall, well furnished and fitted up as a gym- 
nasim and concert and dance hall, with necessary dressing and withdrawing 
roouis. The building, which was formerly an extensive ore mill, was pur- 
chased by the society for the sum of $3,000, and additions and improve- 
ments have been added at an additional cost of 85,000; and, altogether, the 
hall is well adapted to the purposes of the society, and is valuable property, 
and under the charge of A. Carstens, who resides on the premises. 

The Turners of Central, Black Hawk and Nevada are united in one 
society, under the following officers: Charles Steinle, President; E. Gold- 
man, Vice-President. Number of members, forty. 


The first lodges of this ancient order, in Colorado, were organized under 
charters granted by the Most Worshipful Grand Lodges of Kansas and 
Nebraska. In 1861, the matter of the formation of a Grand Lodge of Colo- 
rado was freely discussed, and on the 2d of August, of that year, the masters 
and wardens of the several lodges in the Territory convened at Golden, in 
accordance with previous agreement, and the Grand Lodge of Colorado was 
regularly organized, and the following officers duly installed: 

J. M. Chivinston, G. M., Gold Hill; S. M. Bobbins, D. G. M., Park- 
ville; James Ewing, S. G. W., Parkville; J. M. Holt, J. G. W., Gold Hill; 
Eli Carter, G. T., Golden; O. A. Whittemore, G. S., Parkville. 

The following lodges were represented in this Convention : Golden City, 
No. — ; Rocky Mountain, No. 8, Gold Hill; Summit, No. 7, Parkville. 

The first annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Colorado was held 
in Denver, December 18, 1861. Returns from the following lodges were 

Golden City, No. 1, Golden City, Wm. Train Muir, W. M., number of 
members, 18; Summit Lodge, No. 2, Parkville, James Ewing, W. M., num- 
ber of members, 31; Rocky Mountain, No. 3, Gold Hill, J. M. Holt, W. M., 
number of members, 13. 

These lodges, with a total membership of 62, represented Masonry in 
Colorado, in 1861. At the ninth annual communication, held at Denver, 
September 28, 1869, returns were received from the following lodges, all in 
' Colorado : 

Golden City, No. 1, Golden City; Nevada, No. 4, Nevada; Denver, No. 
5, Denver; Central, No. 6, Central; Denver, No. 7, Denver; Empire, No. 8, 
Empire; Black Hawk, No. 11, Black Hawk; Washington, No. 12, George- 
town; El Paso, No. 13, Colorado City; Columbia, No. 14, Boulder City; 
Mt. Moriah, No. 15, Canon City; Pueblo, No. 17, Pueblo; Valmont, under 
dispensation, Valmont; Germania, under dispensation, Denver. 

Total number of members 717 

Entered Apprentices 71 

Fellow Crafts 18 

Grand total 806 

These figures demonstrate the growth and prosperity of Masonry in the 


The following is a list of the officers of the Grand Lodge, regularly chosen 
and duly installed at this meeting : ^ ^ ,, ^ t^ » , 

Henry W. Teller, G. M.; Richard Soporis, D. G. M.; W. D. Anthony, 
S. G. W. ; Hal Sayr, J. G. W. ; Wm. W. Ware, G. T. ; Ed. C. Parmelee, G. S. 

We have no data from the tenth annual communication of the Grand 
Lodge, held at Central, in September, 1870, nor statistics from but few of 
the subordinate lodges. 

The following is all the data at hand : 

Nevada Lodge, No. 4. — List of officers of Nevada Lodge, No. 4, F. & 
A. M., for the ensuing year: Isaac N. Henry, W. M.; William Emperor, 
S. W.; W. S. Haswell, J. W.; J. F. Phillips, Treasurer; J. W. Ratliff, 
Secretary; Wm. M. Finley, S. D.; James Trezise, J. D.; Michael Braun 
and W. R. Hyndman, Stewards; J. K. Jones, Tyler. 

Denver Lodge, No. 5, at its regular communication, held December 
17, A. L. 5870, elected and installed, for the ensuing year, the following 
officers: G. G. Brewer, W. M.; F. M. Danielson, S. W.; J. Lambert, 

J. W.; Phil. Trounstine, Secretary; George Tritch, Treasurer; , 

S. D.; L. McCarty, J. D.; A. T. Randall, Tyler. 

Denver Union Lodge, No. 7, elected and installed the following, as 
officers for the ensuing year, on the 24th of December, A. L. 5870: W. D. 
Anthony, W. M.; E. A. Willoughby, S. W.; M. A. Rogers, J. W.; E. G. 

Matthews, Secretary; Frank Palmer, Treasurer; , S. D.; 

, J. D.; A. T. Randall, Tyler. 

Black Hawk Lodge, No. 11. — The following is a list of officers for 
the ensuing year: Geo. E. A. Coggdon, W. M.; Geo. F. Simmons, S. W.; 
H. P. Cowenhoven, Treasurer; S. H. Bradley, Secretary; Geo. Wells, S. D.; 
Robert Bushney, J. D.; Jacob Tullman and P. Willey, Stewards; J. M. 
Sutter, Tyler. 

Laramie Lodge, No. 18, A. F. & A. M., have elected the following 
officers for the ensuing year: J. H. Hayford, W. M.; T. J. Dayton, S. W.; 
G. W. Ritter, J. W.; Gustave Schuler, Treasurer; J. E. Gates, Secretary; 
Martin Follet, S. D.; A. T. Williams, J. D.; J. S. Pfeiffer and Walter Sin- 
clair, Stewards; W. W. Smithson, Tyler. 

The masons of Greeley have been granted a dispensation for Occidental 
Lodge, No. — , but have not, at this date, December 28th, been instituted. 
The brethren recommended F. L. Childs, for W. M., E. W. Gurley, for 
S. W., and H. W. Lee, for J. W. Address E. B. Annis, Secretary. 

Chivington Lodge, No. 6, (Central), A. F. & A. M., was chartered 
by the Grand Lodge of Colorado, December 11, 1861: Allyn Weston, 
W. M.; Thos. J. Brower, S. W.; Henry M. Teller, J. W. At the annual 
session of the Grand Lodge, in October, 1868, the name of Chivington was 
changed to Central Lodge, No. 6, its present name. The present officers 
are: E. C. Beach, W. M.; N. H. McCall, S. W.; Benj. Lake, J. W.; R. C. 
Lake, Treasurer; S. I. Lorah, Secretary; Foster Nichols, S. D.; James 
Hutchinson, J. D.; Geo. A. Pugh, Tyler. 

Central City Chapter No. 1, Royal Arch Masons, was chartered by 
the General Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons, of the United States of 
America, March 23, 1863, with the following officers: A. J. Van Deren, 
H. P.; Aaron M. Jones, K.; James T. White, S. The present officers are: 
Benj. W. Wisebart, M. E. H. P.; H. M. Orahood, K.; John W. Ratliff, S.; 
R. C. Lake, C. H.; James V. Dexter, P. S.; A. M. Jones, R. A. C; John 


Best, M. 3d Veil; Benj. Lake, M. 2d Veil; Wm. Fullerton, M. 1st Veil; 
Thos. H. Potter, Treasurer; S. I. Lorah, Secretary; Geo. A. Pugh, Sentinel. 


Previous to the organization of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, at Denver, 
in November, 1867, the lodges in the Territory were under charter from 
the Grand Lodge of Kansas. The rapid increase in the number of Odd 
Fellows in the Territory, in 1867, and the remoteness of the Grand Lodge 
of Kansas, made the necessity of the above organization apparent, and active 
measures for its completion were inaugurated. Dr. R. G. Buckingham, of 
Denver, an active and honored member of the order, was prominent in this 
desirable movement, and was ably aided in his efforts by leading members 
from all parts of the Territory. The elective officers of the first Grand 
Lodge of Colorado were the followinir: 

R. G. Buckingham, M. W. G. W., ^Denver; H. E. Hyatt, R. W. D. G. M., 
Nevada; John Chamord, R. W. G. W., Denver; John W. Ratliff, R. W. 
G. S., Nevada; Herman H. Heiser, R. W. G. T., Central; Clarence P. 
Elder, G. R. to G. L. U. S., Denver. 

The following are the officers of the Grand Lodge, regularly chosen and 
duly installed at the session of October, 1870, at Denver: 

C. H. McLaughlin, M. W. G. M., Denver; J. H. Vandeventer, R. W. 
D. G. M., Denver; John H. Jay, R. W. G. W., Kit Carson; John W. 
Ratliff, R. W. G. S., Nevada; George Wirth, R. W. G. T., Nevada; Omer 
0. Kent, G. R. to G. L. U. S., Denver. 

The following are the subordinate lodges in Colorado, with number of 
members returned to Grand Lodge session, of October, 1870: 

Union, No. 1, Denver, number of members, 90; Rocky Mountain, No. 
2, Central, number of members, 83; Colorado, No. 3, Black Hawk, number 
of members, 78; Denver, No. 4, Denver, number of members, 74; George- 
town, No. 5, Georgetown, number of members, 40; Nevada, No. 6, Nevada, 
number of members, 48; Canon City, No. 7, Canon City, number of mem- 
bers, 23; Pueblo, No. 9, Pueblo, number of members, 35; Boulder, No. 10, 
Boulder City, number of members, 39; South Park, No. 11, Fair Play, num- 
ber of members, 28; Elder, No. 13, Kit Carson, number of members, 28; 
in all, 11 lodges, with 566 members. We have no data from encampments 
in the Territory, nor have we the names of the present officers of the sub- 
ordinate lodges. The order owns valuable property in the principal cities 
of the Territory, and is financially prosperous. Its condition, in regard to 
number of lodges and members, is illustrated by the above statements. The 
high character and great usefulness of this order in the Territory, require 
no comment here — these are universally acknowledged. 


This most excellent and well known order is represented in Colorado by 
the Grand Lodge of the Territory, and sixteen subordinate lodges, from 
which we have no statistics. The number of lodges at this time must be 
more numerous, but we have no recent data, on account of the remoteness of 
our place of publication from the Territory. 


The first annual session of the Grand Lodge was in 1867, and since that 
time the growth of the order, in number of members and general usefulness, 
has been ' uninterrupted, and it 'already includes among its members the 
greater number of our prominent citizens, both male and female. 

The efforts of this order to reclaim the victims of intemperance, and 
place about them influences likely to prevent further attacks from this insid- 
uous monster, are well known and deservedly commended by all respectable 
members of society. 

At the third annual session of the Grand Lodge of Good Templars, which 
was held in Georgetown, in September, 1869, the number of members of 
Colorado lodges amounted to 1,051. Since that time they have increased 
steadily, and no doubt the actual number of the order at present is not far 
short of 1,500. 

The interest taken in this order, which has for its object the alleviation 
of the worst form of human suffering, by the best citizens of Colorado, is 
strong evidence of the high moral tone of public character, generally, in the 

We regret our inability to give complete statistics of the different lodges 
of this order, but it has a strong hold in the Territory, and its success is 
beyond question. 


This military order is represented by posts regularly organized, with 
duly installed officers, in all the prominent towns and cities in the Territory. 
Among the members of this order are most of the veterans of the " Grand 
Army of the Union" in Colorado, and consequently many of the best and 
truest citizens, and warmest lovers of human liberty in the country. 

We have no statistics of the order that would be interesting to the gen- 
eral reader. 


There are scattered throughout our cities and villages, different charita- 
ble societies, base-ball clubs, and national associations, which are represented 
by goodly numbers of citizens of all classes; but space, as well as a lack of 
accurate and recent data, forbids particularization. 


Colorado is in the military department of Missouri, division of Missouri, 
with Gen. John Pope, commanding department, and Gen. Phil. Sheridan, 
commanding division. 

The posts and their commanders are as follows: Ft. Lyon, Maj. R. S. 
Dodge Third Infantry, commanding; Ft. Reynolds, Capt. H. B. Bristol, 
i^iith Infantry, commanding; Ft. Sedgwick, 

Capt. H A. Elderkin. C. S., U. s! A., purchasing C. S., is stationed at 
Denver, Col. 

There are no hostile Indians in the Territory at present, and the number 
or troops is inconsiderable, and their duties confined to escort and camp and 
garrison duty. ^ 




The leading features of the past history of mining in Colorado are not 
unlike those of other countries where the precious metals have been discov- 
ered. When the key-notes of gold discoveries were sounded throughout 
the length and breadth of the country, by Green Russell and his party, there 
was the usual rush to the region, of men filled with high hopes and vague 
visions of untold wealth. The greater portion of these gold hunters had no 
idea, whatever, of the manner in which gold occurs in mineral districts; not 
the slightest knowledge of practiciil mining, and but a limited conception of 
the difficulties to be overcome, and the dangers to be encountered before any 
part of these visions could be realized. 

The greater portion of these pioneers were sorely disappointed when they 
learned, practically, the exact condition of things, and not a few of them, 
vxtterly disheartened and completely cured of the gold fever. These of course 
abandoned the country after expending, in comparatively fruitless explora- 
tions for the precious metal, all their available means. Others — who receive 
due notice elsewhere — still persisted in the search for gold, and yet others, 
more determined and adventurous, though partially discouraged and sadly 
disappointed, concluded not to return to their Eastern homes unless well 
supplied with treasures obtained in some way. These kept up the gold 
excitement for their own purposes, until discoveries were made which estab- 
lished the existence of gold in paying quantities in their adopted country. 
Although the El Dorado of their bright visions was not found, a region 
was explored which promised well, and presented to their keen optics a wide 
field for successful financial operations. Knowing, from their own experi- 
ences, how readily men are controlled by the magic potency of the language 
of gold, they made themselves thoroughly conversant with this glittering 
vocabulary, and soon became adepts in all the arts used in creating mining 
excitements, and experts in mining operations and jobbing in mining stocks. 

Deceived, themselves, at the outset, they soon became learned in the 
science of deluding others, and never allowed the flames of excitement, kin- 
dled by the first Pike's Peakers, to become entirely extinguished. The fact 
of the existence of gold in considerable quantities in the gulches, and the 
discoveries of many valuable gold mines in the mountains, served the pur- 
poses of their speculations admirably, and through the influence these impor- 
tant events had upon the public mind, and a series of sharp financial 
practices, they managed to bring enough gold to Colorado and their own 
pockets to make the country the El Dorado they had pictured. But these 
unscrupulous speculators receive due attention elsewhere. Although they 


have done a vast amount of injury to the real finances of the country, they 
managed to keep money afloat in the Territory at a time when it had not 
yet been taken from the mines or the soil, and may have done a small quota 
of good while efi'ecting a fearful balance of wrong against our mining inter- 
ests. Be this as it may, while these swindling operations were being con- 
ducted by sharpers, their blandishments and glittering reports of the richness 
of the mineral deposits of the country attracted continued notice to Colorado, 
and did their part towards bringing out to the mineral districts capitalists 
and miners who had honesty of purpose and suflScient knowledge of their 
business to enable them to fully develop the country. The efibrts of this 
latter class are apparent everywhere, and the future prospects of our mining 
interests never promised so well as at present. 

Mining and dealing in mining property in Colorado is now a legitimate 
pursuit, and has among those engaged in it the most reliable gentlemen and 
the heaviest capitalists of the country. The day has gone by when it is 
dangerous to dabble in Colorado mining stocks, and this most important 
interest of the country is established upon a firm basis. 

There may be hanging around the outskirts of mining camps a few of 
the old sharpers, watching for some unwary greenhorn with a few paltry 
dollars; but the majority of those who deal in mining stocks, and buy and 
sell mining property, are men of business integrity and responsibility, and 
deal as honestly and legitimately as any other financial operators in the world. 

In a country where good gold and silver veins are as abundant as they 
are in Colorado, that class of property will always be in the market, but in 
no transfer of property does the buyer stand a better chance to get the value 
of his money than when he purchases good gold or silver claims in the mining 
districts of Colorado. 

In the following chapters we have endeavored to give a fair exhibit of 
the mines and mining interests of the Territory, together with some account 
of the discovery of the precious metals, and other matters of interest per- 
taining to our mining industries. While we know we have failed to do the 
subject ample justice, and that there must be many errors and imperfections 
in our descriptions, we are confident we have labored honestly and faithfully, 
and that our shortcomings are attributable, mainly, to the difficulty of obtain- 
ing correct data, and the impossibility of examining for ourselves in every 
individual case. We expect the public to consider the difficulties we have 
had to contend with, and not judge too harshly of a work, the magnitude 
of which can only be understood by persons who have undertaken similar 


This important event, the results of which have already peopled with 
enterprising, energetic and prosperous inhabitants, a vast region, formerly 
wild, unexplored and comparatively unknown, is surrounded by mystery and 
uncertainty. Spanish documents, filed away in the archives of Spain, if 
accessible, might furnish accounts of Spanish adventures and adventurous 
Mexican padres, who, accompanied by bands of aboriginees from old Mexico, 
pushed their explorations far north to the Missouri river and its tributaries, 


and into the heart of the Sierra Madre mountains, in search of the precious 
metals. These might also give data concerning the pioneer miners who dug 
out gold from the Spanish Bar diggings on South Clear creek, and nuggets 
from the sands of Cache-a-la-Poudre, llalston's creek, and other tributaries 
of the Platte; but they are beyond our reach. Vague legendery traditions, 
rife with the adventures of old trappers and Indian traders, who enriched 
themselves with golden treasures from beyond the vast plains, and far up in 
the wild canons of the Rocky Mountains, have been narrated around the 
camp fires of western pioneers, since the earliest settlement of these regions, 
and many of the Indian tribes who roam the great " American Desert," have 
had in their possession nuggets of pure gold, such as are now dug from the 
placers of the Territory; but nothing definite is known of the existence of 
gold in what is now Colorado, previous to 1852. In the summer of this 
year, one Parks, a Cherokee cattle trader, with a party of his tribe, on their 
way to California, discovered gold on the banks of a small stream — Ralston's 
creek — which empties its waters into "Yasquez" fork of the Platte (now 
Clear creek). This was near the mouth of the stream, on the old Cherokee 
trail. After this, parties of the tribe prospected at different times along the 
tributaries of the Platte in this vicinity, and at length succeeded in obtaining 
a small amount of the precious metal. This was carried to Georgia, where 
a portion of the tribe still had habitations, and exhibited in the States 
through which they passed. Rumor magnified this small quantity of glit- 
tering dust to vast sums, and the Western and Middle States were filled 
with exaggerated accounts of immense deposits of gold near the head waters 
of the South Platte. 

The first white man who successfully organized a party to explore these 
regions, was W. Gr. Russell, a Georgian, of considerable mining experience 
elsewhere. This party, composed of Green Russell and nine others, left 
Georgia on the 9th day of February, 1858, and arrived on the head waters 
of Cherry creek early in the June following. At Kansas City, Mo., this 
party was joined by another, making the whole number who crossed the 
plains together, about 100 persons. The Kansas City party became dis- 
couraged and returned, after reaching Ralston's creek, but Green Russell's 
followers, sustained by entire confidence in their leader, who was fully con- 
vinced that gold existed in paying quantities in the Rocky Mountaios, and 
along the course of streams which had their origin in these rugged ranges, 
continued their explorations, and eventually were rewarded by finding the 
long sought for treasure. This was on Dry creek, about five miles from 
its confluence with the Platte, and seven miles south of Denver. 

The first paying pan of dirt was washed by Green Russell himself, and 
yielded 83 in pure gold. The land of gold was discovered, and the realiza- 
tion of many a bright vision seemed certain. A portion of the party con- 
tinued work at this point until winter set in, taking out from $3 to 810 a 
day per hand. Others continued prospecting, and Green Russell returned 
in the fall of the same year to Georgia, carrying with him specimens of the 
precious metal, and glowing accounts of the richness of this promised land. 
The tidings of this important event spread rapidly over the entire continent, 
and crossed the great oceans, attracting adventurous spirits from all coun- 
tries. Parties assembled at different points along the Missouri river; sup- 
plied themselves with all the appliances for gold hunting, gulch minings and 
pioneer life, and set out for the "Pike's Peak" gold regions. The wild 


tribes of the plains were startled at the invasion of the pale face, with his 
immense trains, laden with supplies and machinery. They questioned and 
disputed his right to cross their vast domains, and were answered by the 
bullet of deadly revolver or unerring rifle. The red skin could not impede 
the march of progress or the hurried stride of the gold hunter, and was 
compelled to see cabins of the white man built upon his favorite hunting 
grounds, whilst his camp fires no longer illuminated the waters of the Platte, 
nor his ponies grazed upon the rich grasses along its border. But the 
Indian did not abandon his hunting grounds without a desperate struggle. 
Truthful tales of deadly strife with these warriors of the plains are still 
related by the hardy pioneers of Colorado; and tourists, in the Rocky Moun- 
tains and along the valleys of the Territory, will often meet with quiet, 
unassuming settlers, engaged in the peaceful pursuits of mining, farming 
or stock raising, who, in the earlier days, participated in bloody frays with 
the red men, when nothing but the most determined bravery and unerring 
skill in the use of arms, saved them from horrible torture, mutilation, and 
agonizing death. 

Sufficient of these parties had reached " Auraria" and the other settle- 
ments in the vicinity, to make the population about 400, who wintered in the 
Territory in 1858-9. Early in the spring, many of these commenced pros- 
pecting, and followed up the streams on which gold had been found. The 
course of Clear creek prospected better than any other stream, and this was 
followed up to a distance of about four miles from the foot-hills, where 
extensive placer diggings were worked, and a town of nearly 400 inhabitants 
and forty or fifty houses was built in a few weeks, named Arapahoe. This 
was soon abandoned, when a town was started a short distance further up 
the stream, named "Golden City," which soon became populous and pros- 
perous, and remains so to this day. Notwithstanding the numbers hunting 
incessantly for the precious metals, but little was found, and consequently 
many became completely disheartened, and determined to seek their homes 
beyond the plains — fully convinced gold did not exist in paying quantities in 
the Pike's Peak country, and thoroughly disgusted with the prospecter's life. 
In the way homeward, at ''Auraria," St. Charles, and along their line of 
travel across the plains, they met with thousands eu route for the land of 
gold, full of bright visions of golden nuggets, and untold treasures, for the 
gathering. To these they told the story of failure and disaster — which 
was repeated, until the tide of emigration was turned from Pike's Peak gold 
regions, and a general stampede made for the Missouri river. Many inci- 
dents of the stampede have been related to us, but space forbids their publi- 
cation; one will suffice: 

Maj. D. C. Oaks, now a citizen of Denver, was amongst the pioneers 
of 1858. After satisfying himself that the peculiar advantages of the 
country, and the existence of mineral deposits of value, would make it a 
desirable place for permanent residence, he returned to the States for the 
material to commence the business of supplying lumber to the settlers. 
Previous to leaving for the States, he procured a copy of the journal kept 
by Green Russell's Georgia party, in the spring and summer of 1858; and 
alter his arrival at Pacific City. Iowa, his former home, he, in company with 
S. W. Smith, another Pike's Peaker. determined to publish this, with full 
descriptions of the best routes across the plains, as a guide-book to emisrrants. 
This was done, and the work, with its glowing descriptions of the land of 


gold, was largely circulated amongst the numerous parties then starting from 
the Missouri to the Eldorado. These met with the stampeders, and were 
horrified at their tales of suffering, failure, and disaster. They then looked 
upon Maj. Oaks' book as the author of their misfortunes, and vowed sum- 
mary vengeance upon its author. Deadly threats were made, and his effigy 
hurried in the sands of the plains, and above it raised a Buffalo bone, with 
the following poetical epitaph : 

"Here lies the bones of Major Oaks, 
The author of this G— D— Hoax." 

The innocent cause of all this commotion was, at the time, on his way to 
Auraria, with a steam saw-mill — the second in the country — and had the 
pleasure of reading his own epitaph. This book was the first work ever 
published on Colorado. 

While the discouraged gold hunters were on their way to the States, 
adventurous pioneers were pushing onward through deep canons and rugged 
ravines, to the mountain ranges beyond — still believing the land of gold was 
discovered, and untold treasures were within their grasp ! In the front rank 
of these bold prospecters were George Jackson and John H. Gregory. 
The former found his way up the valley of Clear creek, to the mouth of 
Chicago creek, now within the limits of the town of Idaho Springs, Clear 
Creek county, and commenced digging and taking out good pay from what 
is still known as Jackson's diggings, on Chicago bar. The latter, entirely 
alone, pushed forward through the deep ravines of the north branch of Clear 
creek, to a point twenty-four miles above " Golden City." Here he commenced 
prospecting in a gulch (now Gregory gulch), and from indications, believed 
the long sought for treasure was found. Before he could fully satisfy him- 
self, a severe snow storm occurred, which prevented further explorations at 
that time, and nearly cost him his life. When the storm was over, he was 
compelled to return to the valley for supplies. After procuring necessary 
provisions, and a companion, Wilkes DeFrees, of South Bend, Ind., he 
returned and completed his discovery of gold on the Rocky Mountains — one 
of the most important events in the history of the continent. The first 
pan of pay dirt, washed by the sturdy pioneer, yielded $4 in gold. The 
treasure was found, and wealth, unsurpassed by the fabled riches of eastern 
princes, was before him. His excitement was intense. Night came on, but 
the realization of his brightest dreams, chased sleep from his eyelids, and 
the night was spent in waking dreams of the joys and pleasures his new 
found wealth would purchase. Around him were the stern old mountains, 
yawning chasms, dense forests, and ferocious wild animals. But he saw 
only gold! sparkling, glittering, precious gold! and the rare, beautiful and 
pleasurable things that gold would buy. 

The date of this discovery — the first discovery of a gold hearing lode in 
Colorado — was May 6, 1859. The exact point. Claim No. 5, on Gregory 
lode (named after its discoverer), in Gregory mining district, Gilpin county. 

Gregory and his coniDanion soon returned to the valley with news of 
their success, and S40 in gold, the result of one day's work. This joyous 
intelligence swept like a tornado through the towns on the plains; away 
across the vast prairies, and over the mighty ocean to all parts of the civilized 
world. The tide of emigration from Pike's Peak was turned, and soon 
thousands of prospecters were busy with pick and pan in the gulches, and 


on all the mountains surrounding this favored spot. The work of gold 
hunting was pushed forward vigorously, and before the winter of 1859, 
much valuable mining property— lodes and placer claims— were discovered 
and developed; and in the spring of 1860, there were over 20,000 inhabit- 
ants in the Territory. The pioneer miners and prospecters, who are still in 
the mining districts, are known as "'59ers," and are proud of the title. 
The development of the most extensive and richest gold and silver mining 
districts in the world is attributable to these adventurous spirits, and it is 
just that their names should be honored in this great country they have 
have discovered and developed. By these, privations were endured, dan- 
gers braved, and formidable difficulties overcome. Trackless plains, infested 
by hordes of hostile savages, were crossed; wild cf.fions explored, and tow- 
ering mountains ascended. Many of them may never reap a suitable reward 
for all this; but the country and coming generations will owe them a lasting 
debt of gratitude, and the monuments of their daring adventures will be 
great and prosperous cities, vast fields of ripening grain, huge factories and 
reduction works, and a wealthy and happy people. 


The actual discovery of the precious white metal, in the Territory, dates, 
from the first discovery of gold, as silver exists, to some extent, in all the 
gold ores of our metalliferous belts. 

The exact time, when ores were pronounced silver bearing, is not gener- 
ally known; and in the absence of any published records of this event, we 
have taken pains to collect correct data in the matter, and arrive at the 
truth as nearly as possible. Many of the important silver lodes of the Ter- 
ritory, among these the celebrated "Seaton," in Idaho district, Clear Creek 
county, and the Griffith, Turner, and others, in the silver mining districts of 
this county, were first discovered and worked for gold only. These yielded 
fair pay on the surface, but after any considerable depth was obtained, they 
ceased to be profitable and were abandoned or worked deeper, with the hope 
of finding more gold at greater depths. The "blossom rock," (quartz 
stained with metallic oxides), which indicates the proximity of mineral 
deposits, differs but little in gold or silver lodes, and no marked diff'erence 
was detected by the earlier prospecters, who had no experience in silver 
mining. The ores in these veins, however, differ materially in character 
and analysis; but these features were not then understood by Colorado 
miners — hence the most valuable silver sulphurets were passed by as worth- 
less. A brief history of the Seaton lode, now among the most valuable 
silver mines in the world, will illustrate this condition of afiairs. 

From Mr. S. B. Womack, one of its discoverers and owners, we learn this 
great fissure vein was discovered in July, 1861, and mined during the balance 
of that year, and 1862 also, for gold only. After a depth of forty or fifty 
feet was reached, the gold saved from the ores by stamp mill process — the only 
successful manner of treating ores then adopted in the Territory — was pro- 
nounced by bankers and experts almost valueless, and brought only $8 per • 


ounce. The metal was nearly white, and received the name of " Seaton 
gold." This unlocked for feature in the product of their mine nearly dis- 
couraged the owners, and excited considerable interest and much comment 
among miners. But few educated assayers were in the country at that 
time, and none that had any amount of experience with silver ores, and 
consequently a shaft was sunk on this lode to the depth of 278 feet, before 
any correct assay was made. About the time the "Seaton gold" was excit- 
ing considerable interest, Mr. Holman, a California miner, who had been in 
the mines about Black Hawk for over two years, made a trip to California, 
during which he visited Nevada, examined silver mines there, and brought 
to Colorado with him on his return, specimens of silver ore from the cele- 
brated Comstock lode. Mr. Womack had an interview with this gentleman, 
examined his specimens of silver ores, and noticed at once their resemblance 
to the ores from his mine. Mr. Holman was requested to visit and examine 
the Seaton mine, which he did. He noticed similar characteristics in the 
ores with those of the Nevada silver lodes, but said they could not be silver 
bearing, because there were no silver ores in this Territory. About this 
time — the winter of 1861-2, Messrs. Eben Smith and Jerome B. Chaffee, Cali- 
fornia miners of considerable experience, also examined the ores, and decided 
that from their general appearance they should be very rich, and thought if 
a sufficient depth was reached, they would yield largely in gold. The shaft 
was then about 150 feet in depth. Nothing was done to prove positively 
the existence of silver in the Seaton ores, though Mr. "Womack felt con- 
vinced the white precious metal was the leading feature of his mine, and 
would eventually make it valuable. His convictions have proved entirely 
correct, although the mine was not worked successfully until the fact of 
the existence of silver ores in Colorado was demonstrated elsewhere. 

In the summer of 1864, Mr. Cooley and Capt. Short, while on a pros- 
pecting tour in Summit county, discovered ore in a lode (now the Cooley), 
on Glazier mountain, Montezuma mining district. After gathering speci- 
mens of this ore, these prospecters visited Central City, Gilpin county, where 
the ore was examined by Prof. Dibbin, an educated and experienced metal- 
lurgist, D. 0- Collier, editor of the Register, and other experts, and pro- 
nounced silver ores. Prof. Dibbin, by a careful assay, established this beyond 
doubt, and from this dates the true discovery of silver in the ores of Colo- 
rado. The importance of this event cannot be estimated. Its influence 
upon the mining interest of the country was at once apparent. A new and 
healthy impetus was given to all mining enterprises in the silver districts ; 
new and valuable lodes were discovered and worked, and old discoveries, 
heretofore worthless, became valuable and important. 

To these adventurous prospecters, Mr. Cooley and Capt. Short, and to 
Prof. Dibbin (now the efficient manager of the International Company's min- 
ing property on McCIellan mountain, East Argentine district. Clear Creek 
county), who was the first scientific metallurgist to prove the existence of silver 
in the lodes of Colorado, the country is indebted for the development of the 
richest belts of silver mines in the known world. The vast treasures of 
these mines will not only enrich the inhabitants of the mining districts, but 
eventually contribute largely to the general wealth and prosperity of the 
■entire nation. 



It seems to have been the design of the Superior Wisdom to make all 
other created matter contribute to the pleasures and happiness of the supe- 
rior terrestrial intelligence and masterpiece of creative workmanship — Man. 

Certain conditions, the requirements of which are also conducive to his 
well being, are imposed; paramount among these — labor. The richest 
treasures are buried deepest, and the wildering charms of radiant beauty 
the most difficult to win. This incites action and begets energy and enter- 
prise, the fruits of which are vigorous health, prosperity and plenty. These 
axioms are well illustrated in the subject under consideration — prospecting, 
or gold hunting — the means by which mining property is discovered. The 
homes of the ores bearing precious metals are deep fissures in the primitive 
or secondary formations; their immediate surroundings, solid granite or 
dense gneiss, or granitoid, or gneissoid rocks. The locations of these are in 
the deep ravines and rugged steeps of mountain ranges. The guide to 
mineral bearing fissures or lodes is the "blossom rock," one of the numerous 
varieties of quartz which is always a portion of the contents of mineral bear- 
ing veins in gold or silver districts. This quartz is porous, and stained red- 
dish brown by the oxides of metals, mostly brown and red hematites, and when 
usually found by the prospecter, is, like himself, a " traveler," and has in the 
interstices of its numerous cells what the prospecter wants in his pockets — the 
precious metals. The first object of the prospecter is to find this "blossom ;" 
the next, where it comes from. Both require much industry, patience and 
perseverence, which are the characteristics of the experienced gold hunter. 
His outfit is a pick, pan and shovel. The pick and shovel for their usual 
purposes", and the pan to wash earth or decomposed crevice material, sup- 
posed to contain particles of gold dust. He is supplied with as much solid 
provisions as he can carry. Thus equipped outwardly and inwardly filled 
with hope and confidence, he starts out. His way is through dense forests, 
along the slopes of steep mountains, over rugged crags, and across towering 
ranges. He moves along with a slow, measured step, carefully scans all the 
ground within the range of vision, turns over loose rocks, examines the beds 
of mountain torrents, and the crevices of rocky ledges. He notes the for- 
mations and outlines of mountains, peculiarities of the surface material and 
drift, and the character of rocks over which he passes; in short, nothing 
escapes his educated vision. When a piece of the "blossom rock " is found, it 
is carefully and skillfully examined. When its corners are rounded by con- . 
tact, while in motion, with harder material, he knows it has traveled some ' 
distance, and the crevice from which it came is remote, perhaps high up on the 
mountain at whose base it has been found. When the corners are sharp, 
and the fracture, where it has been broken from the mass it originally formed 
a part of, is recent, he is satisfied its home is near by. In either case, he 
makes diligent search foi; the crevice from which it came. Sometimes this 
IS found readily, and in other cases his search continues for days or week>. 
Every inch of the ground or rocks for thousands of feet around is carefully i 
and skillfully inspected. His labors end only with discovery or night, and 
he lays down where the latter overtakes him, with no covering save the 
canopy of the star and moon lit, or cloud and night darkened sky; his lul- , 
laby the soughing of winds through mountain pines, or the roar of mountain 


cataracts. Unremitting travel, which is extremely fatiguing at great eleva- 
tions, insures sleep, and his visions are golden-hued — the great fissure vein 
has been found, filled with precious nuggets; mountains recede; beautiful 
valleys appear; the kiss of love is on bis cheek, and the loving arms of home 
are around him. At early dawn he awakes, partakes of a hearty meal, and 
the search is resumed. When the "blossom" is found in considerable quan- 
tities or in ledges, he digs down in search of crevice material (decomposed 
quartz and minerals with metal ores,) and other evidences of a fissure in the 
country rock, with well defined walls. The earth and crevice material taken 
out is carefully inspected and washed, and the "color" anxiously watched 
for. These found, and a lude is discovered. This may be worth a million 
or nothing. It requires much skillful labor and considerable expenditure 
of money to define this. What follows is practical mining. 


The practical operations of mining vary with the mode of occurrence of 
the metals sought for by the miner. The character of mineral deposits in 
Colorado is described fully elsewhere in this work, but must receive brief 
notice here to aid in a proper classification of the leading features of practical 
mining, and to better enable the reader to understand our brief description 
of mining operations, implements and appurtenances. 

All mineral deposits are either snperjicial or inclosed. The former 
include all particles or masses of metals found in debris, or surface material, 
washed into plateaus, gulches, or ravines, from the mountains above, and 
permanent formations of ore, which are not inclosed in rocky walls nor cov- 
ered by surface material. Among the precious metals mined in Colorado, 
gold only is found in surface deposits, and this in gulches or placers exclu- 

Inclosed deposits include sheet or tabular deposits, lodes, seams and beds. 
These embrace all irregular deposits in rocky formations, pockets, chimneys, 
gash veins, etc. la this Territory the only inclosed deposits from which 
the precious metals, or ores carrying these, are taken in paying quantities, 
are lodes — true fissure veins, bearing mineral — and these only will be referred 
to in this chapter. 

As lode mining is by far the most important feature of the mining inter- 
ests of Colorado, and requires large capital and much skill and experience 
to make it remunerative, it demands more extended notice than gulch or 
placer digging, and will first occupy our attention. The character of gold 
and silver bearing lodes is similar, but their locations and geological forma- 
tions differ — gold lodes having their homes mostly in the gneiss, gnessoid, 
and transition, or conglomerate rocks, and silver lodes in granite, trap, 
basalt, and other primitive formations. How these great fissures in the 
country rock have been formed, or in what manner they have been filled 
with crevice material, will not be discussed here. That they are numerous 
in Colorado, and that they yield, besides the precious metals, lead, zinc, cop- 
per and iron in large quantities, are well established facts. The condition 
in which the miner finds the crevice and its contents, the peculiar character- 
istics of the contents, and the mode of making them available, is the subject 


under consideration. The greater portion of the gold and silver lodes of 
Colorado have a northeasterly and southwesterly direction, a trend all the 
way from 5° to 60°, and a width varying from one to forty or fifty feet. 
The walls enclosing these fissures are composed of the "country rock," and 
are often worn quite smooth by the attrition of their contents. When well 
defined, they have two good walls; the upper known as the " hanging wall," 
and the lower as the " foot wall." These veins are never regular for any great 
extent, either in length or depth. They pinch up and widen out, and, 
sometimes, are nearly or completely closed by the " cap," and lost by a " fault." 
All these conditions materially afiect the prospects of the miner, and increase 
the expense and risk of mining operations. Besides being irregular, these 
lodes have often numerous spurs or branches, which extend out from the 
main fissure for considerable distances. These are frequently mistaken for 
true fissures, and discovered, recorded, worked and sold for such. This has 
already caused, and will hereafter lead to much litigation, as continued 
working on the spur will trace it to the true fissure, and the question of 
ownership becomes a matter of legal dispute and difficulty. Persons buying 
mining property in Colorado, should fully satisfy themselves that their claims 
are on a true lode before purchasing. 

The contents of these fissures vary in different districts, but, besides min- 
eral deposits, are mainly composed of the difi"erent varieties of quartz, spar, 
clay, slate and talc. In many of the large fissures, great masses of the coun- 
try rock, broken from the walls by some convulsion of nature, are wedged 
between them, and form what is termed, by miners, a " horse." These often 
compose the entire contents of crevices for considerable distances, and their 
removal requires a large expenditure of time and money. The term " gangue " 
is applied to all crevice material except metals and ores. The manner in 
which the mineral is deposited in crevices, varies in different lodes, and 
in the same lode at different depths. The usual character of the ores, that 
bear both gold and silver in Colorado, are sulphurets of the different metals 
and minerals — but rarely do either chlorides or carbonates form any part 
of this crevice material. On the surface, and frequently to a depth of forty 
or fifty feet, these sulphurets are changed by the action of the elements, 
lose a portion of their sulphur, and acquire certain equivalents of oxygen. 
When such is the case in gold lodes, the metal is disseminated throughout 
the entire contents of the crevice, and the whole mass is decomposed and 
broken down, often into quite fine particles, and is easily removed. A por- 
tion of the contents, however, carries the precious metal in greater quanti- j 
ties than the balance. This is called the "pay streak." When greater 
depths are reached, the particles of mineral become aggregated, condensed 
and quite solid, and distinct from the gangue, and receive the name of 
ore vein. This varies from one inch to four or five feet in thickness, not 
only in different veins, but at various points in the same fissure. There is 
usually but one ore vein in a crevice, which follows one or the other of the 
walls; but this is not universal, as there are frequently two veins, one along 
each wall, and sometimes numerous seams distributed throughout the entire 
crevice material. Besides these veins there are always more or less of the 
metals intimately combined with the entire contents of the fissure. 
^ The work of the practical miner is the breaking of this ore in the lode, 
Its conveyance to the surface, its proper classification, and the means of 
transporting it to accessible points. The manner of accomplishing this 


includes all the operations of practical mining. As lode mining is usually 
conducted in Colorado, the first steps toward accomplishing these objects are 
digging surface openings to define the course, trend and breadth of the 
fissure, and the sinking of shafts, and running drifts and adit levels to reach 
all parts of the mine. 

The removal of surface material is effected by the pick and shovel, 
requires no skill, and is attended with but little labor and trifling expendi- 
ture of money. Sinking a shaft requires practical mining skill and consider- 
able outlay. The labor and expense of this vary in difl'erent lodes. Where 
the breadth of the crevice is four feet or over, and the walls regular and well 
defined, these are less than in narrow fissures with ragged walls. The den- 
sity or looseness of the contents of the crevice likewise vary the cost of 
shafting, as does, also, the different depths obtained. Besides breaking and 
removing the contents of the crevice, and, in narrow veins, a portion of the 
wall rock in the space required, the shaft has to be timbered — that is, 
inclosed in walls of timber, strongly jointed together, to keep the surround- 
ing material from filling it, and to secure a safe transit for miners, their 
implements, and the material to be removed. 

Ladder-ways must also be constructed, and hoisting apparatus for the 
purpose of bringing all rock, ore, etc., to the surface. The implements used 
by the miners in breaking rock and ore in the shaft, and in the drifts and 
levels, are picks, drills, striking-hammers, sledges, shovels, and the apparatus 
and powder necessary for blasting purposes. Three different varieties of 
picks are in use, the surface or oi'dinary, the pole pick, and the quartz pick. 
The surface pick is the longest of the three, and has its sharp steel points 
drawn out quite fine. The quartz pick is shorter, stouter and heavier. The 
pole pick has a hammer head on the back, which can be used for breaking 
rock, quartz or ore. They vary in weight from three and a half to seven 
pounds, and are manufactured from the best of steel. 

Two kinds of drills are used. The hand-drill, made of one inch, and 
one and one-quarter inch octagon English steel, is used by one man, who 
both holds the drill and strikes it with the hammer, and tlie ordinary drill, 
which is held by one man, and struck with the hammer by another. The 
striking hammers are also of steel, and weigh from eight to ten pounds. 
There exist among miners different opinions concerning the use of drills; 
some claiming that the hand-drill is preferable, and others that the ordinary 
drill is the most practical. When common blasting powder is used, doubt- 
less the ordinary, or large drill, is most advantageous, but when powder, 
manufactured by the California Powder Company, has been introduced, there 
seems to be no question about the superiority of the hand-drill. Concerning 
the use of the different manufactures of powder, a difference of opinion also 
exists, but we believe that the greatest number of experienced miners admit 
that the use of the California company's powders cheapens mining operations, 
and is not attended with any unusual danger. The character and price of 
explosives used in mining is a matter of grave import, and is attracting 
universal attention, but we have no data upon which we can base any statis- 
tical information. 

The manner of charging the hole, drilled in raaterial to be broken up, 
varies with the class of powder used, and different modes of discharging the 
blast have been adopted. Electricity was at one time considered safe and 
available, but either from ignorance of electrical laws of those using it, or 



imperfections in the apparatus, numerous accidents have occurred, and, at 
present, this system is nearly abandoned in Colorado. A properly con- 
structed fuse is now in universal use, and is, without doubt, best adapted to 
the purpose in all cases. A thorough knowledge of blasting is most import- 
ant to the practical miner, and this seems to have been acquired by all Colo- 
rado miners, as accidents are of rare occurrence, and mining operations are 
conducted as cheaply here as in older mining countries. 

After the material in the shaft, drift or level, has been broken by blast- 
ing and the use of picks and sledges, its conveyance to the surface is the 
next important measure. To accomplish this, a great variety of hoisting 
apparatus is in use. Until considerable depths are obtained, the common 
bucket and windlass can be used quite successfully, and in many mining dis- 
tricts no other hoisting facilities have yet been introduced, but where shafts 
have been sunk to any great depths, more improved hoisting machines are 
employed, and among these the Cornish kibble seems to be the most popu- 
lar. Still we have seen, in Colorado, every form of hoisting apparatus, from 
the ordinary bucket, made from one-half of a barrel, securely ironed, and 
elevated and lowered by means of a rope and common windlass, to the supe- 
rior guided cage, with steel wire cable and all improvements; the motor 
power varying from a one armed negro, or an old mule and whim, to a 100 
horse-power steam engine. 

When drifts and levels have been run to any extent in a mine, the broken 
material has to be conducted from the extreme limits of these to the bottom 
of the principal shaft. For this purpose wooden railways, with suitable cars, 
have been introduced quite generally. These are sometimes moved by horse 
or steam power, but are usually pushed along by men to the desired point. 
In mines where these railways have not been built, the ore and other crevice 
material is transported in buckets, wheel or hand barrows — operations both 
tedious and expensive. 

Drifts and levels, as well as shafts, require either timbering or the intro- 
duction, at intervals, of stout joists, securely wedged between the wall rocks 
of the crevices, to prevent them closing in, and where chambers of any great 
extent have been excavated, these have to be surrounded and roofed by 
staunch timbers, to prevent caving. While a mine is being opened by shaft- 
ing and drifting only^ all of the material broken must be hoisted to the sur- 
face, but when fully opened, instead of sinking shafts and running levels to 
uncover the mineral, the miners commence "stoping," that is, breaking the 
crevice material that forms the roof and a portion of the sides of the drifts 
and chambers. This system of mining is attended with less expense, iu 
various ways, but principally from the fact that the gangue and broken 
wall rock need not be hoisted to the surface. In " stoping," the mineral 
vein is "stripped," the gangue allowed to form the floor of the mine, and 
the mineral only removed for classification and separation. The classification 
of ore usually takes place at the top of the shaft. The first, second and third 
class ores are skillfully sorted, and the residue thrown in the " dump heap." 

From the great loss or expense attending any mode of treating ore in 
Colorado, until recently, and the absence now of any means of reducing a 
low grade of ore profitably, the class of material the miner has been com- 
pelled to throw in his "dump heap" has been quite rich in the precious, 
metals, and no doubt the average value of the contents of these " heaps/" 
throughout our mining districts, is over $8 per ton. 


From the great elevation above the valleys of many mines in Colorado, 
especially the silver mines, and the impracticability of constructing reduc- 
tion works on the mountains, the transportation of ores, from the mines to 
good wagon roads below, becomes a matter of considerable importance. 
Where proper roads can be constructed of course suitable wagons and teams 
are employed, but when these are impracticable, other means of transfer must 
be adopted. For this purpose "jack-trains" are used in some districts, and 
"chutes" in others, but the cheapest and safest manner by which ores are 
transferred from the summit of a mountain to its base is by means of a 
wooden railway, or tram-way, with cars which furnish their own motor 
power, the loaded car, descending, affording sufficient force to drag up the 
empty one, and the suspension wire tram-way, with its iron ore baskets or 
cages, and steel cables, and the same motor power. We have seen both of 
these in operation, and think the former preferable, when the formation 
of the mountain admits of its construction. The suspension wire tram-way 
is used successfully at the Brown and Coin lodes, about four miles above 
Georgetown, where the ore from these lodes is transferred in this manner to 
the Brown reduction works; at the Stephens' mine, above Bakerville, near 
Gray's peak, and at the Griffith mine, in Georgetown. 

We observed the working of the wooden tram-way or railway, and its 
peculiar advantages, at the Comstock lode, the property of the Boston 
Mining Association, in Summit county. There are two entrances to this 
great mine, the principal one about 1,000 feet above the valley, on Glazier 
mountain, and the other about 700 feet above this. By Capt. Ware, an 
educated and experienced mining captain, and one of the best practical 
miners in Colorado, who has charge of the working of this mine, we were 
informed that the expense per ton, of delivering ores from their mine to the 
reduction works at the base of the mountain, did not exceed twenty cents. 
This we could readily understand, after examining the road, which is con- 
structed of square timber, with double track, carrying ore cars capable of 
transporting about 8,000 pounds each. These cars are so constructed that 
they dump the load by a mechanical contrivance, when their destination 
is reached, and the only labor required to keep the trains in continuous 
motion is that of one man at the brakes. The entire cost of the construc- 
tion of the road, its cars and appurtenances, was about $3,000, and with this 
trifling expenditure immense quantities of ore can be transported from the 
mines to the reduction works at a merely nominal expense. The brake used 
by Capt. Ware, is one of his own invention, and the entire construction of 
the road so simple, and yet so secure, and so well adapted to its purpose, 
that it is well worthy of careful inspection, and should be duplicated in most 
of the mines, on the mountains surrounding Georgetown, where ores are now 
transferred by "jack-trains," at an expense of $10 a ton, for a few thousand 

A visit to the Comstock mine, in Summit county, is highly beneficial to 
the student of practical mining, as he can see there one of the best opened 
mines in Colorado, and also learn some practical lessons concerning the 
manner in which excellent and well developed mining property is rendered 
valuless to its owners by the peculiar management of impractical agents. 

When any considerable depth is reached in a mine by shafting, other 
obstacles present themselves, which must be overcome. In all locations, 
more or less water is encountered and must be gotten rid of, and also 


measures for the introduction of pure air and perfect ventilation of the 
mine must be adopted. Besides these, safe and practical means for afford- 
ing the miners necessary light should be at hand. 

The usual modes of draining shafts are the use of suitable pumps, by 
which large quantities of water can be raised with unerring certainty. An 
absence of large amounts of water is one of the favorable characteristics of 
Colorado lodes, and in many valuable mines, which are worked quite exten- 
sively, pumps have not yet been introduced, and the seepage water is removed 
by the ordinary bucket and windlass; but, in many of these, pumps would 
greatly facilitate mining operations, and in other cases they are indispensable. 
The one most used, and considered the best under all circumstances, is the 
Cornish pump, which is superior in workmanship and design. The result of 
suspending the operation of one of these pumps, in a leading gold lode in Gil- 
pin county, has been extremely disastrous to the district, and illustrates the 
necessity of introducing a proper power pump in every valuable mine worked 
in the country, and the folly of trusting to insufl&cient means of drainage. 

The introduction of pure atmosphere into the mines of Colorado, and their 
proper ventilation, is usually effected by sinking "air shafts" down to dif- 
ferent levels and drifts of mines, at regular intervals, and creating, thereby, 
a natural current of pure air, which thoroughly removes all noxious gasses, 
carries away the smoke from blasting powder, and supplies any quantity of 
healthy breathing material to the workmen. When this means is not adopted, 
artificial blowers are introduced, and different mechanical appliances used, to 
force the required amount of atmospheric air to every part of the mine. 
J Much ingenuity and mechanical skill has been displayed, by practical 
miners of all countries, in the invention and manufacture of ventilating 
apparatus; but we have no means of deciding upon the peculiar advantages 
of any of these, and are led to believe that the means of creating natural 
currents, which are available to every practical miner, is better adapted to 
all Colorado mines than any of the most improved apparatus, which may 
become deranged by unavoidable accidents. We admit our inability to dis- 
cuss this subject of ventilating mines with any degree of erudition, and only 
plainly assert what is known to every practical miner — its absolute necessity. 

Besides the modus operandi of gold and silver mining, thus briefly 
sketched, another system, presenting many advantages, is justly attracting 
considerable attention in Colorado, and is being practically tested by some of 
our largest capitalists and most experienced miners. We refer to mining by 
tunneling. Wherever the formation of the country and the location of 
lodes admit of their being reached, at great depths, by a cross-cut tunnel or 
tunnel on lode, the facilities for removing large quantities of ore, at small 
expense, are attainable, and many of the obstacles to be overcome in mining, 
by shafts, are partially removed or entirely obliterated. It is a well estab- 
lished axiom that the mineral deposits in true fissure veins extend down to 
great depths, and often increase in value, slightly, as they descend It is 
also well known that the greater number of gold and silver lodes of Colo- 
rado traverse mountains of considerable elevation, and that it is usually near 
the tops of these where the ore is first discovered. In sinking a shaft on 
the lode, of course the direction of the crevice is followed, and there is but 
little blind work in the matter; but, as depth is obtained, expenses increase 
largely, as considerable power must be expended to hoist ore and water from 
the shaft and force pure air to all parts of the mine. The ore, in this case, 


must not only be hoisted to the top of the mountain from the deep shaft, at 
considerable expense, but must be removed to the base of the mountain at 
no trifling cost. Also, all miners' materials, tools, lumber, etc., must be 
dragged to the summit of the range and lowered to the depths of the mine. 
All these difficulties are obviated by the excavation of a tunnel, from the 
valley into the mountain a sufficient distance to strike the lode to be worked 
upon, at a point several hundred feet from the surface, where the deposit of 
ore in the vein is likely to be rich in character and considerable in extent. . 

In driving a tunnel in a mountain, upon which there has been discovered 
lodes whose value has been established, of course a definite direction is given 
to the excavation, so that the known veins will be crossed nearly at right 
angles, at a depth from the surface most favorable for the removal of large 
quantities of ores. Besides the certainty of striking lodes already discovered, 
there are chances of opening "blind veins," carrying extensive deposits of 
rich minerals and metals, which do not present themselves above the surface 
material on the slopes of the mountains; also, favorable opportunities for 
touching valuable lodes, the contents of which may crop out far above, but' 
have escaped the acute observations of prospecters. 

The process of driving tunnels for any considerable distance in mount- 
ains, composed of dense primary rocks, is, necessarily, attended with con- 
siderable expenditure of time and money. This large outlay, before the 
possibility of any returns, and the apparent uncertainty of the enterprise, 
are discouraging features inseparable from tunnel mining, and do much 
towards discouraging miners and capitalists from engaging in this true system 
of mining for the precious metals in Colorado. 

The theory, advanced by many of the charlatan mineralists and geologists 
who have cursed the Territory with their presence, that the fissure veins in 
Colorado do not extend deeper than the base of the mountains they traverse, 
has also exerted an influence unfavorable to this process of working mines; 
but, in every case where sufficient energy, skill and perseverance have been 
exemplified in conducting tunnel-driving enterprises, the result has been 
entirely satisfactory to the individual or company engaged, and beneficial to 
the country at large. As an illustration of this we will give place to a brief 
description of the success of the Burleigh tunnel, which we quote from the 
Colorado Miner, of March 3, 1871: 

" Seven hundred feet below the surface of the earth the Burleigh tunnel, 
935 feet in length, has cut a noble true fissure vein, fifteen feet in breadth, 
incased between walls of primitive rock. The vein matter is composed of 
feldspar, quartz, argentiferous galena, blende and iron pyrites. The breadth 
of the mineral deposit in the whole vein is about four feet. The highest 
assay yet obtained is seventy-two ounces in silver and sixty per cent. lead. 
By measurements, lately made, we are authorized to state that the vein cut is 
not the Mendota. The beneficial influence that this strike will exert on the 
mining interests of Colorado no one can estimate. 

"Twenty-three months since, Charles Burleigh, Esq., the inventor of the 
Burleigh drill and air compressors, commenced his greatest enterprise, the 
Burleigh tunnel. The mineral bearing portion of Sherman mountain has 
just been reached, and we may safely say that Mr. Burleigh and the few 
friends who have stood by him, financially, are the owners of one of the 
richest inheritances for themselves and their posterity that ever mortal men 


" Mr. Burleio-h, by his faith and firm belief in the doctrine of true fissure 
.veins being continuous in depth, has achieved a success of incalculable 
'benefit for^'himself, his partners, and the country at large. The laurels 
achieved by labor, the crown jewel of manhood, are far more enduring than 
those awarded to the greatest warrior whose deeds are recorded in the 
history of the world." 

Other tunnels have been driven into different mountains in the silver 
mining districts, with nearly or equally as favorable results, and a coopera- 
Ntive association, the Quartz Hill Mining Company, are running, a tunnel 
under Quartz hill, near Central, in Gilpin county, which promises remuner- 
ative results. The mountain which this tunnel penetrates is traversed by 
numerous true fissure veins, bearing gold in inexhaustible quantities. The 
greater number of these can be reached at depths peculiarly favorable for 
cheap and successful mining, and, without question, the Quartz Hill Tunnel 
Company, which is composed entirely of Colorado miners, will eventually 
draw immense treasures from this remarkable mountain, as a reward for 
their industry and perseverance. 

The process of tunneling requires the use of the same mining imple- 
ments as shafting, except hoisting apparatus, and the expense varies with 
the character of the country rock to be penetrated, and the distance attained. 
The entrance to a tunnel, or that portion of the excavation which passes 
through surface and drift material, or broken and disintegrated masses of 
rock, is always timbered, that is, walled in and roofed with lumber of great 
strength. The expense of tunneling, per foot, varies from three or four to 
fifty dollars, at the present cost of labor, explosives, tools and material. When 
ore veins are struck, adit levels and drifts are run along the course of the 
lode, and the mineral broken and classified in the usual manner, and removed 
by cars and suitable railways, without the expense of hoisting and hoisting 

The means of ventilating and draining tunnels is simple, and the cost 
trifling. The construction of a tube, or air chamber, the entire length of the 
excavation, and an occasional air shaft, reaching the surface, insure a suffi- 
cient and continued supply of pure atmosphere, and the trend of the floor 
of the tunnel its complete drainage. 

The superior advantages of mining by tunnels, wherever the location of 
the lode is favorable, are admitted by all practical miners, and, as the forma- 
tion of the surface of the country in most of the silver mining districts of 
Colorado is peculiarly adapted to this system, without doubt, the greater 
number of our silver mines will eventually be worked through the medium 
of tunnels. 

In the gold districts many of the most important veins cannot be struck 
at any great depth by tunnels, and the general outlines of the surface of the 
region are not especially favorable for this system of minins; still, when the 
gold mines of Gilpin county are thoroughly opened, complete advantage 
taken of their immense wealth and extent, and their wonderful resources 
Jfully developed, tunnels, many miles in length, will penetrate all the mount- 
ains upon which rich mines have been discovered, and form a general high- 
way to the vast amount of hidden treasures that are stored in the rocky 
depths of this series of mountain spurs. 

The great variety of conditions and circumstances that aff"ect the expense 
ot mining, either by shaft or tunnel, renders it extremely diflicult to make 



correct estimates of the cost of mining any given quantity of ore, in either 
the gold or silver mining districts. The breadth of crevice, character of 
country rock and crevice material, depth of shaft or length of tunnel, dif- 
ference in price of material and supplies, and rates of wages, the flow of 
water in the mine, its proximity to good wagon roads, and numerous other 
causes, increase or decrease the cost of mining. We give, however, some 
valuable statistics bearing upon the subject, for which the public and our- 
selves are indebted to Col. Randolph, of Central, who is in charge of valua- 
ble mining claims, on the Burroughs and Kent county lodes. From the 
Kent county, in August, 1870, Col. Randolph mined 301 tons of ore, from 
a part of the lode where the ore vein was thirty inches in width, at an 
expense of §4.82^ per ton. In September, of the same year, 200 tons from 
the same lode, which cost $8,181 per ton. In October, of the same year, 301 
tons from the same vein, at $4.62, and 273 tons at $4.47. In November, 
from the same mine, 300 tons were taken at an expense of 83.81. These 
: rates include every item of expense incurred in connection with mining the 
quantity specified. The following exhibit will illustrate the matter more 

DATE— 1870. 

Name of Lodes. 



Kent County 
Kent County 
Kent County 
Kent County 
Kent County 

No. of Tons. 



Cost of Mining 
per Ton. 

8 18f 
4 62 
4 47 
3 81 

Stamp Mill Re- 
turn per Ton. 

511 27 

7 80 

13 49 

15 14 

13 49 

From this statement it will be seen that the cost of mining 1,375 tons, 
was $7,125.25, an average of $5,185 P^^ ton, and that the stamp mill returns 
from this amount to $16,827.25, an average of $12.23| per ton. Add to 
the expense of mining, the cost of hauling the ore to the mill and milling, 
$5.25 per ton, which amounts to $7,218.75 for the 1,375 tons, and deduct 
these sums from the amount received, and the balance in favor of the miner 
will be $2,483.25 clear gain above all outlays of every description. In this 
calculation, no allowance is made for the value of tailings. If the miner 
realized eighty per cent, from his 1,375 tons of ore, instead of thirty per 
cent., which is the highest average yielded by the stamp mill process, from 
some species of reduction works, which would not increase the expense of 
reducing the ore above that of the stamps, his profit on this amount of ore 
would be $30,528.66, or about $22.20 on each ton, a very handsome profit 
for five months' work, where only a small number of men were employed. 
These figures give not only a fair idea of the general expense of mining and 
milling in the gold regions of Gilpin county, but a glimpse at the enormous 
loss annually resulting from the absence of reduction works suitable for the 
treatment of sulphuret gold-bearing ores. 

The expense of mining is largely decreased when operations are con- 
ducted on a large scale. As an evidence of this we will again draw upon 
statistical information, furnished by Col. Randolph. During the season of 


1868, the Colonel mined 3,122 tons of mill ore, and seventy tons of first- 
class smelting ore, with the following table of expenditures : 

For "breaking" ore ^21,289 80 

Supplies ; _f!^'^ ^\i 

Wages of agent, foreman, blacksmith, hoisting, steam power, etc /l,oV)y 16 

Total $44,784 93 

The gross receipts from this were as follows : 

Stamp mill return from 3,122 tons $53,777 15 

Prof. Hill's reduction works, for seventy tons 6,076 00 

$60,453 15 

From careful estimates. Col. Randolph assures us that three times the 
above amount of ore — fifty tons per day — could be mined with the following 
additional expense: 

Cost of "breaking," and for supplies, three times the above $70,157 40 

Fifty per cent, additional on all other expenses, such as agents' wages, 

hoisting, blacksmithing, etc 32,098 69 

$102,256 09 

This sum would be the total cost of mining 9,366 tons, with wages $4 
per day. Deduct from this twenty-five per cent., the difference between 
labor at $4, and the present price, ^3 per day, which makes the sum of 
$25,564.00, and we have, as the total cost of mining, 9,366 tons, ^76,692.09. 
As no deduction is made in this estimate for the decrease in the price of 
mining supplies since 1868, the actual expense of mining this quantity of 
ore, at the present time, will fall short of this estimate at least ten or twelve 
per cent. From the best information we could gain from practical miners 
in Gilpin county, we think it fair to place the real average cost of mining 
gold ores at from $4 to S6 per ton. 

The usual expense of mining a ton of silver-bearing ore is considerably 
in advance of this sum, but the difi"erence in the value, per ton, of gold and 
silver-bearing ores, counterbalances the extra cost of mining, and makes 
silver mining equally as profitable as that of gold. 

Safety lamps, as a means of lighting mines, are not in general use in 
Colorado. Candles take their place, and answer the purpose fairly. As our 
mines become more fully developed, and greater depths are obtained by 
shafting or tunneling, of course the present primitive system will be aban- 
doned, and improved safety lamps be introduced generally. Their greater 
safety and less expense make them preferable in every way. The improved 
Davy's safety lamp we believe to be best adapted to all classes of mines, and 
no doubt its advantages are well understood by all practical miners. 

The clothing worn by Colorado miners varies with the tastes and habits 
of the wearer, but is usually manufactured from close, firm material, which 
will not tear readily, and will keep out cold and moisture. Over the usual 
garments, oil-cloth coats are frequently worn, and aprons, covering the parts 
which come in contact with damp rocks, when the sitting posture is assumed. 
The "killing outfit" of a Broadway swell would not be well adapted to prac- 
tical mining purposes, nor would the creature himself be considered pecul- 
.iarly valuable in a Colorado mine. 


In this glance at the operations of practical mining, we have endeavored 
to notice briefly the leading features of this important industry, very imper- 
fectly we know, still we hope we have given the general reader some idea 
how the precious metal ores are taken from their rocky homes and made 
conducive to the well-being of man. 


The only precious metal found in superficial deposits in Colorado, which 
is mined to any extent, or requires attention here, is gold. This is discov- 
ered in drift material and debris, which has been washed from mountain 
summits and slopes to plateaus, ravines, gulches and valleys below, and in 
the form of minute scale-like particles, grains and nuggets. Water, or 
water and cold combined, forming ice, disintegrates the drift material and 
metal from similar formations on the mountains, and carries them to the 
place of deposit. The manner in which minute particles of gold attach 
themselves to each other, while in motion, and form a mass of metal nearly 
as dense as pure gold, often weighing several ounces, and occasionally more 
than 100 pounds, is not well defined bv scientists who have made this a 
matter of careful investigation, although many plausible theories have been 
advanced and sustained by fair arguments. We will take no part in discuss- 
ing the principles involved in the formation of nuggets, but will endeavor 
to explain, briefly, the modus operandi of mining these from the placers and 
gulches of Colorado. The existence of gold in a gulch or placer is proven 
by washing a pan full of the drift material from either of these. If a 
"color" is discovered, the existence of gold is established. The particles, 
grains and nuggets are distributed throughout the entire surface material or 
washings, but are seldom found in large or paying quantities, except at or 
near the "bed-rock," which underlies the surface formation. Where gold 
is found in paying quantities, in the bed of a stream, it is usually at or near the 
junction of the stream with one of its tributaries where "bars" are formed 
by the eddy created by the confluence of the waters. In all cases where 
gold exists in superficial deposits, the particles are thoroughly imbedded in 
the surrounding drift, and the process of separating the gold from the debris 
is what constitutes practical gulch or placer mining. The vehicle of separa- 
tion is water, and the manner of making this available varies with the for- 
mation of the placers or gulches. 

The first gulch miners, who were the first miners who operated in Colo- 
rado, made use of various implements for the purpose of washing the debris 
from the precious metal; among these, the "rocker" and "Long Tom" had 
their appropriate place, but the necessity of bringing the material to be sep- 
arated in contact with a large quantity of water, flowing rapidly, soon sug- 
gested the idea of sluicing, which was followed by the construction of surface 
and " bed rock " flumes, and the introduction of the hydraulic system. Abun- 
dance of water, at trifling cost, is the great desideratum of gulch mining. 

The surface flume is constructed of suitable lumber, and is usually from! 
two to three feet in breadth, and from twelve to eighteen inches in height.' 
The grade of this flume is from one-third to one-fourth of an inch to a foot, 
and its bottom contains the requisite "rifiles." This flume extends along the 
gulch whose sands are to be washed, and is filled with water, which flows con- 
tinuously and rapidly. The debris to be treated is shoveled into this sluice, 
which varies in length from a few yards to a mile. The force of the current 


of -water carries sand, pebbles, and even boulders of considerable size, the 
entire length of the flume. The particles of gold, having greater specific 
gravity than any of the surrounding material, naturally fall to the bottom, 
where mercury has been introduced. The debris, supposed to contain the 
precious metal, is placed in this flume constantly for several days, when 
" cleaning up " takes place. This is an important and exciting event. Nug- 
gets, often weighing several ounces, and occasionally several pounds, have 
been discovered in the bottom of flumes, and numbers of these may be in 
this one, besides any amount of smaller nuggets, and pounds of amalgam, or 
there may be comparatively nothing. 

"Cleaning up" is accomplished by shutting off the supply of water, and 
gathering, with a suitable scoop, and the hand, the accumulation of nuggets 
and amalgam in the bottom of the flume. The nuggets are sought for very 
earnestly, and when found are kept separate from the smaller grains and 
amalgam. After the nuggets (if there be any,) are separated from the 
material accumulated, the residue is placed in the ordinary "pan" and sub- 
mitted to the skillful manipulations of a practical miner. This panning 
process washes away, gradually, every thing except the particles of gold and 
amalgam. When this "cleaning up" is accomplished, the result of the last 
week's work is known. 

In the early days in Colorado, when the gulches of Gilpin, Clear Creek, 
Lake, Summit and Park counties were being extensively and successfully 
worked, the average, per hand, was frequently as high as S25, and occasion- 
ally reached the enormous sum of $50 per day. At the present time, how- 
ever, the miners are well satisfied if they realize from $7 to $8, per hand, 

Drift material, carrying gold, is always richest near the "bed rock." 
When the surface deposit is considerable, the "pay dirt" on the "bed 
rock" must either be hoisted to the surface and washed, or washed where 
it is deposited, by means of the "bed rock flume." The construction of 
this is attended with considerable expense, and mining enterprises of this 
character require large capital; but, without doubt, when the location chosen 
is favorable, and the deposits of "pay dirt" considerable, they are among the 
most profitable mining ventures in Colorado. The " bed rock flume " is similar 
to the surface flume, and the manner of using it the same. To place it in 
position, shafts must be sunk to the rock, and drifts run from these through 
the material to be washed, a sufficient distance to get the requisite length 
of flume and necessary fall for the flow of water. These shafts and drifts 
must be kept free from surplus water by suitable pumps, and candles, or other 
means of affording light, must be provided. Among the advantages of " bed 
rock flumes," which more than offset their extra cost, are the facts they can 
be worked the year round, as water will not freeze solid any considerable 
depth from the surface, and from their location on the "bed rock" only the 
richest deposits need be handled by the miner, or washed by the waters of 
the flume. 

When a large supply of water is at hand, and the location otherwise 
favorable, the "hydraulic" system of separating gold from surface deposits, 
presents many superior advantages. This is, in fact, the only means by 
which (/e6m, containing only a trifling amount of gold, can be washed with 
profitable results. The apparatus for hydraulicing, consists of strong canvas 
hose, trom four to six inches in diameter, to which is attached a stout brass 



nozzle, from two to three inches in diameter. This hose must be attached 
to suitable pipes, which convey water from sufiGicient elevations to insure its 
forcible ejectment through the hose and nozzle. The nozzles are handled 
by one or two men, and the stream of water directed against the ground to 
be washed, and so manipulated that the washings are conducted to a proper 
sluice or flume, in passing through which the particles are caught in "riffles" 
or retained by mercury. We have no data or statistics from which to give 
comparative statements of the expense of mining by these different systems, 
but, in the latter, two men can remove and wash at least as much earth as 
can be similarly treated by thirty men, with the ordinary flume, where all 
the material has to be broken by the pick, and placed in contact with water 
in the flume by means of the shovel exclusively. 

At present, gulch and placer mining is not carried on to any great extent 
in Colorado, but in the earlier days immense amounts of gold were gathered 
in this way. The gulches and placers of the Territory are not exhausted, 
however; in fact, they are inexhaustible, and in Park, Lake and Summit 
counties, unbounded gulches and placers are yet unexplored, but the more 
important interest, quartz mining, has absorbed the attention of miners and 
capitalists almost exclusively. But, from present indications, a fresh impe- 
tus will be given to this industry during the present season, and no doubt 
the yield from the gulches, in 1871, will be much larger than it has been in 
any year since 1861-2. 

The only successful gulch mining operations conducted in the Territory, 
in 1870, from which we have any data, were in Gilpin county, near Black 
Hawk and Central; Clear Creek county, along the valley of the South Clear 
creek, near Idaho Springs; in Summit county, near Breckinridge, and in 
Park county, near Fair Play. 

The following gulch mining operations came under our immediate obser- 
vation in the fall of 1870, and were the source of considerable profit to all 
interested : 

The Pleasant Valley Mining Company, New York capitalists, who own 
extensive claims in Russell gulch, and are now working on claims adja- 
cent to Pleasant Valley, (one of the most beautiful miniature parks in the 
mountains of Colorado). This company employ between fifty and sixty 
men, and use the surface flume and hydraulic system. The agent of the 
Pleasant Valley Mining Company is Alfred Owens, of Central, and the 
superintendent, Walter O'Connor, who is one of the pioneers of the county, 
and an experienced and efficient miner. Root & Queen, who are operating 
in Gregory gulch, within the limits of the town of Black Hawk, have sunk a 
shaft to the "bed rock," about thirty feet, and are running drifts along this 
for considerable distances in every direction. By steam power, they hoist 
the " pay dirt" to the surface, and sluice it in a surface flume. Owing to 
the expense of keeping the mine free from water, and supplied with suffi- 
cient ventilation, and the cost of hoisting material not extremely rich, the 
profits have been small thus far; but, notwithstanding the fact that the 
ground they are washing has been gulched previous to this, they have taken 
out gold in sufficient quantities to warrant the construction of a "bed rock 
flume," after which their expenses will be lessened, and the profits satisfactory. 

Alexander Cameron owns claims one and one-fourth miles in length, 
including all the valley of the North Clear creek for that distance, 
commencing about two miles below Black Hawk. Mr Cameron has 


constructed one of the largest and best surface flumes in the Territory. It is 
over one-half mile in length, and three feet in breadth ; the bottom formed of 
Nicholson pavement, and the " rifl3es" the improved Hungarian. The grade 
of this flume is three inches to twelve feet, which gives the water the requi- 
site fall, and its appointments are complete in every way. Besides this val- 
uable improvement, Mr. Cameron has a boarding house and blacksmith shop 
located on this claim. Since the construction of this flume, the proprietor 
has employed from twelve to fifty men, and has gathered sufficient gold to 
make the average nearly ^12 per hand, daily. The character of gold taken 
from this claim is what miners call "coarse gold," and many nuggets, pecul- 
iarly pure and beautiful, have been found, which took a premium at the 
annual meeting of the Territorial Agricultural Association, in 1870. Mr. 
Cameron has a sufficient supply of water for operations the greater part of 
the year, and expects large yields from his claim during the present season. 

Queen & Co. This firm is composed of Wm. Queen, John Cochran, and 
C. W. Ainsworth, all pioneers of the country, and thoroughly skilled in prac- 
tical mining operations of all kinds, own and are working some good claims 
in Russell gulch, about two miles from Central City. We were present at^ 
one of their "cleanings up" in September, 1870, and though the yield was 
not large, the character of the gold was superior, and in that form which 
receives from miners the name of "fine gold." They use the surface flume, 
and receive their supply of water from the Consolidated Ditch Company. 
A considerable portion of their claims are still unbroken, and their prospects' 
for next season look favorable. 

Richard White and David Henderson are each owners of gulch claims 
in Russell gulch, a short distance from Queen & Co.'s property, and were 
working these, successfully, during the season of 1870, and Peter Kruse and 
Bernard Wieser also own and are working claims below the Pleasant Valley 
property, in the same gulch. 

David Rollins has put in a " bed rock flume" in Gregory {ulch, on North 
Clear creek, within the limits of Black Hawk, near Prof Hill's reduction 
works. He took out good pay during the summer of 1870, and continued 
his operations, without interruption, during the winter months. The char- 
acter of gold taken from this claim is "coarse gold." with occasional nuggets 
of considerable size. We noticed one which weighed one and one-fourth 

We have no statements from which we can estimate the aggregate 
amount of gold taken from the above named claims, or from the gulches 
and placers of Colorado, for any given period, but they were large during 
the earlier days of the Territory, and will again be considerable when our 
superficial deposits are fully explored and developed. 



In the following brief description of many of the mines of Colorado, we 
have adopted a tabular system of presenting the leading features of a lode, 
to enable us, in our limited space, to notice the greatest possible number of 
lodes, and to place before the general reader the most important information 
concerning mining property, in the most condensed and available form. As 
a glance at the following tables will exemplify, we have not confined our 
descriptions to a few of the most important lodes in the country, whose great 
wealth has given them a world-wide reputation, nor have we given our entire 
space to "reports" on the property of this, that or the other great gold or 
silver mining company of Colorado, but have given equal attention to all 
lodes concerning which we could obtain correct data, irrespective of owner- 
ship. We are aware that we have given the names of many lodes, whose 
value is doubtful, but have, as much as possible, avoided all notice of "wild 
cat" property, and in no instance have we knowingly misrepresented. 

Although over four months' time was devoted to gathering information 
concerning mining interests, of course we have not visited every mine 
described, but have collected data from the most reliable sources available, 
and the statistics which follow can be relied upon as mainly correct. 

In the matter of assay value and mill returns, we believe the aggregate 
of the figures in these columns of our chapter will show a higher average 
than is strictly correct. Mine owners, in furnishing data concerning their 
property, will naturally give the highest figures at hand, and suppress the 
lowest; but we have corrected this natural error in tables which follow this 
chapter, in which are given the average assay value of all ores treated by the 
Territorial, and other careful assayers, and mill returns from the most relia- 
ble mill-men and reducers in the Territory. 

In the matter of ownership, or that column which names the present 
owner, we have made no attempt to give an abstract of title, but simply to 
make public the name of some one person connected with the mine, from 
whom all further desired information concerning the property can be obtained. 
We have given the discoverers of lodes, to do our part towards perpetuating 
the names of the sturdy pioneers of Colorado, who have discovered and 
developed the richest mining country in the world. 

In describing the character of ores, we have used terms familiar to every 
miner, and avoided technical phrases, which would not be understood by the 
general reader. 

In referring to improvements, we often give only those that are on some 
one claim of a lode, not having any data from the balance. 

We consider the chapter principally a directory or register of mines, 
which will show to the outside world the actual existence, location and lead- 
ing features of a great number of gold and silver mines, and prove, beyond 
question, the fact that the mining districts of Colorado have more valuable 
mines in the same space than any other country in the world. 




Name of Lode 



















No. 2. 








COLFAX, 2d. 



Gilpin County. ^ .1 

Nevada Dist. 



Spring Gulch. 

Gregory Dist. 

Central Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 

Russell Dist. 
Central Dist. 
Lake Gulch. 
Lake Gulch. 
Elkhorn Gulch 
Enterprise Dist 
Gregory Diet. 
Nevada Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 




Nevada Dist. 


111. Central 
Central Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 



Russell Dist. 


House Dist. 
Central Dist. 







Name of 

D. McNeil. 
William Alger. 
C. Jones. 

E. Dougherty. 
W. Aux. 

Ben. Hinds & Co, 

Teese & Linn. 
J. E. Dougherty 
John Day. 
Wesly Barrett. 
Hickox & Co. 
Bradley & Moss. 
Teaman & Co. 

Elijah Buford. 

Bates, Gregory & 

Briggs Bros. 
Q. W. Hunter. 

E. A. Linn. 
James D. Wood. 

1864 Geo. Billings. 

1860 M. Cooper. 
1863 Linsley & Co. 

James R. Jones. 
1867 Chas. Fix .t Co. 
1866 Herrick & Co. 

1861 Smith & Talbot. 

Name of Owner. 

M. K. Moore, 

et al. 
Jacob Tascher, P. 

Spanner, et al. 
Dr. A'Duddell. 

T. Oshea, et al. 

I. H. Boham. 

S^ H. Valentine, 

, 8, 9, west. 
Cyrus Hurd, Jr. 
500 feet. 

Teese, 100 feet. 
Chas. Fix, et al. 

J. L. Schellenger 

&. Co., et al. 
J. M. Cochran, 

et al. 
J. F. Hall, et al. 

Hickcox & Co. 

Bradley & Moss. 

Teaman & Burke 

R. Glennan, et al. 

S. H. Valentine, 

et al. 
S. H. Valentine, 

et. al. 
Bates Mining Co., 


Smith & Parme- 
lee, et al. 

S. H. Valentine, 
et al. 

Smith & Panne- 
lee, 300 feet. 

Conrad Teese, 
et al. 

James D. Wood, 
et al. 

WiUiard Teller. 

John H. Schewssa 

Waterman & 

D. M. Andrews, 

et al. 
James R. Jones. 

Chas. Fix. et al. 

J. C. Cleveland. 

C. W. Havens. 

C. Young & Mon. 
Gold Mining Co. 


1 shaft, 100 ft.: 9 shafts, from 20 to 

40 ft.; drifting about 200 ft. 
Shafting, 165 ft. 

Shaft, 100 ft. 

Shaft, 21 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 
Well developed. 

Shaft, 287 ft.; pump shaft, 167 ft.; 
4 shafts, 100 to 150 ft., each; 
drfting con. shafts, shaft house, 
steam hoist, appar. and pump, 
6 in. cornish ; eng. 60 horse pow. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 

4 shafts, from 15 to 35 ft. 

Shafts, 79, 25, and 32 ft. 

Shaft, 50 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 65 ft. 

Shaft, 50 ft. 

Shaft, 55 ft. 

Well developed. 

Well opened. 

Several shafts, 125 to 280 ft. ; tun- 
nel in lode, 250 ft. ; shaft house, 
hoist, appar., and stamp mill, 
steam power. 

Several shafts ; the deepest, 450 ft. 
Levels, 1,000 ft. 

Shaft, 70 ft. 

Shaft., 500 ft. ; drift., 250 ft. ; shaft 

houses and hoisting apparatus. 
Well developed. 

Shafting, 200 ft.; drifting, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 80 ft.; level, 50 ft. I 

Shaft, 150 ft. ; 5 drifts, from 40 to | 
100 ft. I 

Shaft, 110 ft.; considerable drifting. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 

Drifting, 60 ft.; Shafts, 25, 40, 120. 

and 230 ft. 
Shafts, 140 and SO ft. 




Character of Ores. 

Cop., iron pyr and galena ; 

gold and silver bearing. 
Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

bearing, with silver. 
Argentiferous galena. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Auriferous quartz. 

Cop. and iron pyr., zinc 
blende and galena ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold. 

Auriferous quartz. 

Oxide of lead; silver 

Auriferous quartz. 

Cop., iron and lead sulph.; 

gold and silver bearing. 
Cop., iron and lead sulph.; 

gold and silver bearing. 
Auriferous quartz and iron 

pyr. ; gold bearing. 
Aur. quartz, cop. and iron 

sulph. ; gold bearing. 
Cop. and iron sulph.; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr., and 

zinc blende ; gold bear- 
ing, with silver. 

Aur. quartz, cop. and iron 
pyr. ; gold bearing. 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 

Gray copper; gold. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Aur. quartz ; arg't galena. 

Cop. pyr.,- galena and zinc 
blende ; gold and silver. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; zinc 
blende ; gold and silver. 

Cop. and iron pyr. gold 

Aur. quartz, sulph. silver 

and galena. 
Auriferous quartz, iron 

and copper pyr. 

Per Ton. 


S73 silver 
S13 gold. 

20 to 143 

$50 to 
$75 T. 
5 ozs. C. 

$200 T. 

7 to 12 ozs., 
gold, 10 to 
15, silver. 

$20 to $400 

8}^ ozs. 


30 to 800 
$155 T. 

590 C. 

6 ozs. C. 

$60 to 
$100 0. 
17 ozs. C. 

$500 to 
S600 C. 
8154 C. 

$36 T. 

3 ozs. C. 

3137 C. 
$110 C. 

$20 to 
$30 T. 

$25 T. 

$300 0. 
$125 C. 
6 ozs. C. 
$125 T. 
15 ozs. C. 

Ore from bottom — deep shaft, yields from 2 to 
4 ozs. gold per cord, stamp mill. 

Visited this lode, which is a true, strong fissure 
vein ; the shaft well timbered ; a good wagon 
road to lode. 

Stamp mill. 

Promises well. 

Was sold in 1867 for $30,000. No statistics. 

Average stamp mill return. A Chicago patent 
rotary stamp mill is being tested on this lode, 
and if a success will be used to treat the ores. 

Promises well. 

Stamp mill. 

Stamp mill ; first class ore. 

Discovered while plowing. Working. 

Stamp mill. 

1,000 feet. 

Stamp mill ; 1,200 feet. 

Fine gold specimens taken from lode ; amongst 
the first discovered in lodes in the mountains. 

Keith's process, on select ore, returned $5S7 per 

Stamp mill $115 first class ; smelting. 

Stamp mill. The yield from tliis lode has been 
very large. 

Stamp mill ; select ore. 

Stamp mill ; working. 

O. S. patent for 1600 ft., March 14, 1870. 

Stamp mill. 

50 per cent. lead. One of the most promising 

lodes in the district. 
20 per cent, silver. Producing large amount of 

first class ore, and very promising. 

Promises well. 

Surface, oxide of lead with silver. 




Name of Lode. 






















Gilpin County. 

Russell Dist, 
Central Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 
Eureka Dist. 
Russell Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 
Hawkeye Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 
Russell Dist. 


Enterprise Dist 

Russell Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 
111. Cent. Dist. 
Enterprise Dist 
Central Dist. 
Eureka Dist. 
111. Cent. Dist. 
Russell Dist. 




No. 2. 







Gregory Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 

Russell Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 
Enterprise Dist 


Name of 





Hickcox & Co. 

Pearson & 
A. Van Camp. 


S. H. Valentine. 

J. F.'Applebury. 

Connelly & 

D. Clough and 


David Henderson 

Livingston Bros. 

A. A. Smith and 
Germain Bros. 

W. Ryan. 

Hindman & 
J. L. Sliellenger. 

F. A. Rudolph, 
et al. 

Name of Owner, 

1864 1 Valentine & 

j Deven. 
1863 Rich'd McNiel. 




Isaac Wicher. 

G Waldschmidt 

Bowman 4 Court- 
Valentine & 

A. J. Flack. 

Hickcox & Co. 

Pearson & 

Van Camp & 

Tuttle, et al. 
S. H. Valentine, 

9 and 10, east. 
S. H. Valentine, 

et al. 
Rob't Teats, et al 

Connelly, et al. 

Caledonia Min'g 
Co., et al. 

H. M. Teller. 
Andrew Gross, 
David Henderson 

Helms, Paul & 
Co., et al. 

Charles Demond 
L. G. Douglass, 
Henry Grannis. 

A. A. Smith, Ger- 
main Bros., and 
Bates Ming Co. 

J. Mahaney, 
100 ft. 

Hindman & 

A. W. Philips. 

F. A. Rudolph, 

S. B. Hahn. 

Valentine <S: De- 
ven, et al., 500 ft. 
Bitzenhofer, et al. 

G. W. Currier, 
et al. 

G. Waldschmidt 

S. F. Nuckols, 

one claim ; 

Manhattan Co. & 

Blackhawk Co., 

250 ft. 
3. II. Valentine, 

et al. 
Valentine 4 

Blackhawk Co., 

150 ft. 
Lake 4 Field, 

800 ft. 
Fairfield M. Co., 

Van Deren, ch'g 
Waterman, Alney 

& White. 
F. A. Rudolph, 

G. Tippett, et al. 


Shaft, 65 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 90 ft. ; drifting, 60 ft. 

Partially developed. 

Shaft, 47 ft. 

Shaft, 60 ft.; several other shafts 

from 20 to 30 ft. 
On Caledonia property, shafts 267, 

140, and 90 ft.; a large amount 

of surface opening. 

Well developed. 

Shaft, 280 ft.; drifting considerable. 

Shaft, 50 ft.; shaft, 53 ft. 

Fully developed. 

Shafts, 475, 130, 56, and 103 ft. ; 2 
shafts, 25 ft. each ; hoist, appar., 
with steam power, on lode. 

Shaft, 50 and 40 ft.; drifting con- 
necting these shafts. Additional 
50 ft.; shaft, 26 ft. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 

2 shafts, 45 ft. each. 

Shaft, 50 ft.; drift, 60 ft. 

Shaft, 80 ft. 

Shafting, about 460 ft.; consider- 
able drifting and surface opening. 
Shaft, 16 ft. 

3 shafts, from 20 to 30 ft. 

Main shaft, 75 ft., well timbered, 
with ladder ways and shaft house; 
other shafts, from 25 to 50 ft. 

Shaft, 41 ft. 

Shaft, 150 ft.; several deep ahafbs, 
and considerable drifting. 

Partially opened. 
Partially opened. 
Shafts, from 60 to 270 ft. 

Shafts, 70 and 40 ft.; drifting, 

100 ft. 
Shaft, 544 ft.; other deTelopments. 

Shaft, 64 ft. 



GILPIN COV^^TY— Continued. 


Character of Ore. 





Per Ton. 






A\iriferous quartz, copper 
iron and sulph.; gold. 

S1.54 C. 

Stamp mill. 



Auriferous quanz. 

Easy accea3. 



Auriferous quartz and iron 
pyr.; gold. 


$450 C. 

Stamp mill ; first class ore. 


Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

$50 C. 

Stamp mill. 


Cop. and iron pyr and ga- 
lena ; gold bearing. 

$60 T. 

Average value. 


Iron pyr., with small per 

$300 to 

Stamp mill. One claim of 100 feet on this lode 

cent, of copper ; gold 

$525 C. 

has produced $56,000 in gold. The principal 


lode in Hawkeye District not working. Sam. 
Cushman, agent. Central City. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

$1.50 to 

Stamp mill. U. S. patent issued May 5, 1869 ; 


$225 C. 

1(X»0 ft. * 

Cop and iron pyr. ; gold 

$125 to 1 Stamp mill. U. S. patent issued Dec. 4, 1809; 


$256 C. 1 9<X) ft. 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

SSI .50. 

David Henderson's 1700 feet of gulch claims in 


Russell Gulch, and 800 ft. in Illinois Gulch; 
working with pay. 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 



Zinc -blende and galena, 

J75 to 

The assay from select ore. Stamp mill and 

bearing gold and silver. 


smelting works, with first class buildings, oa 
the lode. 



Galena, cop and iron pyr.; 
gold and silver bearing. 

.50 oz. sily'r 
J/o oz. gold 

^ mile from Black Hawk mill. 


Decomposed aur. quartz. 


Aur. quartz, copper, iron, 
and galena. 

$68 C. 

Average value of contents of crevice. Stamp 
mill. On road from Central to Nevada. 



Copper and iron pyr. and 


$22 T. 

Stamp mill. On Quartz Hill. Promises well. 



Zinc-blende, galena, bear- 

71 0Z3. 

Assay by Prof. Burlingame. 

ing gold and silver. 


Aur. quartz, cop. and iron 
pyr.; gold bearing. 

5 to 8 ozs. 

Stamp milL 


Auriferous quartz. 



Quartz, with copper and 

$100 C. 

Stamp mill. Crosses Consolidated Ditch on 

iron pyr. 

Quartz Hill. 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Avr. crev., 

$250 C. 

Lode claim, 1600 ft. Mill site, 250 ft. square. 

and silver bearing. 

2 ozs. gold 
16oz8. sil. 

The mill return from surface quartz. Largest 
assay, from select specimen, $1600. 


Galena ; gold and silver 

The company have houses, blacksmith shop, 
and other mining property. Not fully de- 

12 to 

Cop. and iron sulph.; gold 

Select ore, taken to Swansea, Eng., by Prof. 



Hill, assayed fll.WXJ per cord. 



Cop. and iron sulph.; gold 

3 to 9 ozs. 

Stamp mill run ; $30 to $70 per ton, first class. 



Geo. E. Randal, agent. 


Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 


$60 C. 

Assay by Prof. Burlingame. 


Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 

j No statistics. 



Copper and iron pyr. and 
quartz ; gold bearing. 


$15 to , Stamp mill. The ore from this lode is 15 per 
$20 T. cent, copper, per assay. 




Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 
and silver bearing. 

$200 to ' Fairfield Company, Boston capitalista. 
^100 T. 1 



Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 
and silver bearing. 


$150 C. 

First class ; 10 per cent, copper. 



Argentiferous gal., with 
native silver and sulph. 

1100 ozs. 

$300 to 
$60 T. 

Claim, 1400 ft. 







Nanie of 

Name of Lode. 


Name of Owner. 


Gilpin County. 

c3 i-' 



Bates Hill. 


Ed. Young. 

Wm. Y'oung. 

Shaft, 70 ft.; considerable drifting. 



Lake Gulch. 


Thomas Gill. 

J. G. Collier, 

Shaft, 12 ft. 




Enterprise Dist 


Sam. Farver, 

Opened in different places. 




Gregory Dist. 


James Gaston. 

Wiley & Arrihi Shaft, 60 ft.; drift, 60 ft. 
R. Glennan & Co. Shaft, 100 ft. 


Enterjirise Dist 


R. Glennan. 


Eureka Dist. 

1 864 llohn Scarf. 

S. H. Valentine, Not fully developed. 

No. 2. 




468 ft. 
M. B. Hays, agt. 

Shafts, 525, 300 and 200 ft.; 17 shafts 
from 4<» to 150 ft. Over 3,000 ft. 
of level and drifts ; shaft house ; 
steam power, 40 horse, and 6 in. 
Cornish pump. 


Near Gilpin 


Meshler and 

Johnson, Tibbits, ] Shaft, 65 ft. 




Rudolph, et al. 


Gregory Dist. 



Black Hawk 
Gold Mining Co. 
et al., (500 ft.) 

Shafts. 576 and 531 ft.; drifting to 
depth of 550 ft.; total extent, over 
10,000 ft. Total shaft, over 3,000 
ft. Steam eng., Cornish pump, 
hoist, appar. shaft house, etc. 



Smith & Parme- 

Shafts, several from 100 to 450 ft.; 


lee.550ft. B. H. 
G. M. Co., 250 ft. 

large amount drifting. Fully 


Russell Dist. 


T. H. Pittinger. 

Pippin Bros. & 

Shaft, 40 ft. 




Nevada Dist. 



Teets, 100 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Central Dist. 


E. A. Hill. 

E. A. Hill, et al. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 




Hope Co. & Eagle 

Extensive improvements on the 



prop, of Hope Co.; amongst these, 
shafts between 500 and 6U0 ft. in 
depth; drained by Cornish pump 
and steam power. Also, con- 
siderable improvements on the 
prop, of the Eagle Co. In all, 
nearly 2.000 ft. shaft., and over 
4,000 ft. drifting. 


Gregory Dist. 

H. M. Teller, 

Fully developed. 


111. Central 

H. M. Teller, 
et al. 

Shaft, 60 ft. 


Nevada Dist. 

A. Budder. 

Bolthoff & 
Wokott. ' 

Not fully developed. 


Russell Dist. 


Wm. Queen. 

Thos. McGuire & 

Shaft, 20 ft. 




Payne & Co. 

Wm. Queen. 
P. M. Martin, 

Shafts, 100, 27, and 30 ft. 




G Waldschmidt 

et al. 
G Waldschmidt 

Shaft, 50 ft. 





Gregory Dist. 


John Teaman. 

Teaman & Burke 

Shafts, 115 and 100 ft.; drifting, 


Eureka Dist. 


Hunter & Co. 

S. H. Yalentine, 
et al. 

200 ft. 
Not fully developed. 


111. Cen. Dist. 


Webster & Co. 

Plumb, King, 

Over 200 ft. shafting. 


Hlinois Dist. 


James Snow. 

James Snow, 

Shaft, 6.5 ft. 


Nevada Dist. 


Thomas Bros. 


Shaft, 160 ft.; level, 100 ft. 


Lake Gulch. 



Shafts, 240 and 40 ft. 


Russell Dist. 


Geo. Hickcox. 

Geo. Hickcox. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 


Nevada Dist. 


Thos. Jennings. 

Jennings & Co. 

Shafting, 125 ft.; drifting, 265 It. 


Eureka Dist. 



Wightman & 

Shaft. 25 ft.; drift., 50 ft.; shaft, 20 
ft.; drift., 50 ft. 



GILPIN COV'^TY— Continued. 

Character of Ores. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; goIJ 

Copper and iron pyr. 

Auriferous quartz, iron 
and copper pyr. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 

Cop. and iron sulph. ; gold 

Galena, zinc-blende and 

Bulph. of silver. 
Copper and iron pyr. and 

quartz ; gold and silver 


Aur. quartz, cop. and iron 
pyr. ; gold and silver 

Cop., iron pyr. and quartz : 
gold bearing. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Quartz, copper and iron 
pyr.; gold bearing. 

Decomposed crevice, ma- 
terial iron and copper; 
gold bearing. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Quartz, copper and iron 

pyr.; gold bearing. 
Gold and silver bearing ; 

Cop and iron sulph.; gold 

bearing. • 

Aur. quartz, cop. and iron 
pyr.; gold bearing. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr., zinc- 
blende and galena ; gold. 

Auriferous quartz. 

Aur. qr'tz, cop. and iron ; 

gold bearing. 
Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Auriferous quartz, copper 

and iron. 

i2 gold ; 
16 silver. 

$50 to S450 



$200 C. 
$25 to $60 


6i ozs. C 
$800 C. 

$100 C. 
5 ozs. C. 

3 to 10 
ozs. C. 

3 to 10 
ozs. C. 

$40 to 

$14 to 
$125 T. 

150 to 
$3--'0 C. 

8100 c. 

$80 to 
$200 C. 

3 to 9 
ozs. C. 

3 to 4 
ozs. C. 


Stamp mill return. 

Easy of access. 

600 feet from wagon road. 

500 feet. 

Stamp mill, 1,000 feet. 

No statistics. 

Average stamp mill return. Officers Gunnell 
Co.: J. P. G. Foster, pres.; John Rolston, sec. 
and treas. New York capital. 

Prof. Hill's reduction works. 

Stamp mill. Has yielded nearly $2,000,000. 
The first gold lode discovered in Colorado, 
and one of the richest. 

Stamp mill. First class ore, $260 per ton. 
Eastern extension of Gregory lode. 

Near the Consolidated Ditch, north side Russell 

Prospects, well. 

Stamp mill. On road between Nevada and 

A large mill, Keith's process, owned by Hope 

Co. 50 stamp mill owned by Eagle Co., on 

North Boulder, '2]4 miles from mine. Steam 

and water power. 

Stamp mill. U. S. patent issued to H. M. Teller. 

Stamp Mill. U. S. patent to H. M. Teller, et ah, 
for 300 feet. 

Stamp mill. 

Shaft well timbered. 

U. S. patent applied for. 

No statistics. 

Discovered under the Consolidated Ditch. 

Easy of access. 

Stamp mill. 

Crevice, at points, 15 feet. 

1,400 feet lode. 

Stamp mill. Assay from select ore. 

Stamp mill. ■ ' 




Name of I^iie, 





























Gilpin County 

Russell Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 

Russell Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 

Gregory Dist. 



Nevada Dist. 

Gregory Dist. 



Nevada Dist. 

Russell Dist. 

Lake Gulch. 

Nevada Dist. 

Central Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 

111. Cen. Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 

Lake Gulch. 

111. Cen. Dist. 

Central Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 

■2 o 





Name of 

Name of Owner. 

Jas. Madison. 

Jones & Hardesty 
Tripp & Bennet. 
S. H. Valentine. 



P. McDonald. 
A. Miller. 
W. J. Mann. 

F. Hock. 

Etna 6. M. Co., 
No. 4 east. Kin^ 
ney & Steinle. 

McCarroI, Whit, 
lock & Briggs. 

Hardesty Bros., 
Discov. No. 1, 
east. A.S.Ben 
net, et al., No. 4. 

Hardesty Bros. 


A large amount of shaft, and drift. 

The shaft now worked, 215 ft. 
Shafts, 110 and 262 ft. 
Shafts, 30 and 40 ft. 

2 shafts, 50 ft., each, with surface 
openings, on 6, 7 and 9 ; shaft., 
250 ft.; drift, to depth of 30 ft., 
entire e.xtent of claim. Shaft on 
No. 4, 106 ft.; drift., 15 to 50 ft. 

Shafts, 70 and 40 feet; others, 
amounting, in all, to 200 feet ; 
drifting, 40 feet. 

Considerable shafting and drifting. 

Tripp k Bennet. 
S. H. Valentine, 

S. H. Valentine, 
et al. 

Smith & Parme- 
lee,200ft. Lake 
& Fields, .500 ft. 
Smith & Parme- 
lee, 50 ft. 

Fairfield Co., 300 j 
feet. Empire 
State Co., 75 ft. 
Andrew Gross, 
e.t al. 
Chas. Walker, 
J. L. Shellenger, ]-2 shafts, 45yt., each; 30, 25 and 20 
et al. ft. 

W. J. Mann & 2 shafts, 70 and 56 ft. : shaft house. 
I B. F. Pease. 

F. McGlothlin & !•'• McGlothlin & Shaft, 15 ft. I 

Co. Co. I : 

E. Rouke & Co. E- Rouke & Co., iShafts, 80, &5 and 40 ft. ' 

I et al. I I 

6 shafts, in all, 350 feet ; 200 feet | 
drifting. < 

Shaft, 274 ft.; whim-house. ; 

Not developed. 

Shafting, 80 ft. 

Several shafts developing the lode 

Shaft, 100 ft. 

Hock, Miller, 

Case & Kushter, 
S. F. Nuckolls, 2 

claims. E. L. 

Salsbury, et al. 
W. Mack. I Teaman & Co. 

R. Glennan. 
Miller. |J- Daren, G. Da 

ren, H. Agen. 
Morrell & Hays. |J>^- B. Hays. 

Stevens & Smith, i Stevens & Smith 

John Mears 

S. Ewing. 

Wm. Fitzgerald 
Chas. Messenger. 

Hopkins & 

John Leonard & 


Dick Irwin. 

Conrad Tease, 
et al. 
Worn & Ewing. 

Hardesty Bros., 

120 ft. 
H. M. Teller, 

Fitzgerald, et al. 

J. Schellenger, 
& Co., et al. 

Jackson, Hop- 
kins & Banta. 

Leonard & Dr. 

S. H. Valentine,; 

Smith & Parme- 

lee, 100 ft. 

Shaft, 200 ft.; over 1,000 ft. drifting. 

Shafting, 100 ft.; drifting, 50 ft. 

Shaft, 100 ft.; drifting, 200 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

2 shafts, 15 ft. each. 

Shaft, 100 feet; drifting, 75 feet; 

depth, 75 feet. 
Well developed. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, on 10 west, 45 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

6 shafts, from 50 to 90 ft. 

Not fully developed. 



GILPIN COV:^TY— Continued. 

Character of Ore. 

Per Ton. 



Auriferous quartz, copper 
and iron pyr.; gold bear- 
ing, with zinc-blende. 

Auriferous quartz, copper I $492. 
and iron pyrites; gold 
bearing, with z i n c - 
blende and galena. 

Aur. quart/, cop. and iron 


Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron p}"r. ; gold 

Auriferous quartz. 

6 to 10 [Mill run. S95 first class; Prof. Hill's reduction 
ozs. C. works. This mine is now producing 25 cords 
weekly. Col. G. E. Randolph, agent. 
No statistics. 

flOO to 
9]/^ ozs. 

$100 C. 

$50 to 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr., carb.ofj$13 to S172 
iron ; gold bearing. 

Quart, iron and cop., with 

Aur. quartz, copper and 
iron pyrites. 

Aur. quartz, cop. and iron ; 
gold bearing. 

Cop. and iron pyr. and ga- 
lena ; gold bearing. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Pyrites of iron ; gold 

Cop., iron pyr. and galena ; 

gold bearing. 
Auriferous quartz. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Quartz, cop. and iron pyr.; 

gold bearing. 
Aur. quartz, cop. and iron 

Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Auriferous quartz. 

Cop. and iron pyr.; gold. 

Argentiferous galena. 

Aur. quartz, copper, iron 
and lead sulph.; gold. 

$100 to 

$125 C. 

1 3 to 6 ozs. 

I C. 

4 to 8 ozs. 
1 C. 
lS60 to 
$168 C. 

12 to 14 
ozs. C. 
11 ozs. C. 

$80 to 
$90 C. 

$100 C. 

10 ozs. C. 

5 ozs. C. 

33^' ozs. 

3 ozs. C. 

3 to 10 

ozs. C. 

$100 C. 

$50 C. 


$40 to 
$2,000 C. 

Stamp mill. On Quartz Hill, near Nevada. 

Stamp mill. 

7 tons, 10 cords ; surface ore ; stamp mill. 

No statistics. 
No statistics. 
No statistics. 

Stamp mill. A. J. Van Deren, in charge. 

Stamp mill. tJ. S. patent, Dec. 22, 18(;9, for 700 

Stamp mill. 

Stamp mill. 

Stamp mill. 

F. McGlothlin owns 20.000 feet mining property, 
in Vermillion District, undeveloped. 

Near mill, and good wagon road on lode ; north 
of California, 300 feet. 

Gort. title; 1100 feet. 

First 70 feet in shaft [yielded $15,000 profit. 
C. Nuckolls, agent. 

Stamp mill. 

Prof. Hill pays $32 per ton. 

Stamp mill. From mineral surface ore, $200 to 

$500 per cord. Extension of Topeka, west. 
Stamp mill. 

Stamp mill. 

In Centi-al City. 

Stamp mill ; average. On Quartz Hill. 

30 per cent, copper. U. S. patent for 1600 feet, 

May 21, 1870. 
Claim, 1400 ft. 

Hill pays $500 per cord of 8 tons. A superior 
lode ; supposed by some to be the French lode. 
See French. 

No statistics. 




Name of Lode. 


NOS. 2 A 3. 





























Gilpin County. 


Central Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 

Russell Dist. 

Central Dist. 
Russell Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 
Russell Dist. 

111. Cen. Dist. 

Gregory Dist. 


Nevada Dist. 



House Dist. 
Central Dist. 

HI. Central and 
Nevada Dist. 


111. Cen. Dist. 

Russell Dist. 

Lake Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 

Name of 








Williams & 
Brown & Watsou. 

H. N. Shannon. 

Helmors, Paul . 


C. S. Fassett. 


Dr. Mann. 

Wm. Pierce. 

Sid. Parent. 

Kenneth McLeod 

John Jones. 

Wm. Ingraham. 
Wm. Fitzgerald. 
W. J. Mann, M.D. 
F. McGlothlin. 

H. Herrick. 

Scheidemental & 
Stevens & Hall. 

J. McCaskiU. 

Bradley & Cree. 

R. Kirkpatrick. 

Rudolph & 
Mullin & Demert. 

D. Jenkins. 

L. Bamett. 

Name of Owner. 


Smith & Parme- 
lee,100ft. Lake 
& Field, 600 ft. 

Pippin & Co. 

Brown, Lucky & 
Watson, el al. 

.■^mith & Parme- 
lee, 250 ft. Lake 
& Field, 2.W ft. 

Dickerson & 

Fox Diefferdorf, 
et al. 

Hines, Carter & 
Co. Helmers, 
Paul & Co. 

W. W. Wight- 
man, et al. 

P. Black, et al. 

Wright & 

S. H. Valentine, 

S. H. Valentine, 

ct al. 
S. H. Valentine, 

et al. 
Pewabic Gold 

Mining Co. 

I. C. Beard, et al. 

Hardesty Bros. 
Eastern Cos. 
H. M. Teller. 
.K Van Camp. 
Fitzgerald, et al. 
Pease & Mann. 

F. McGlothlin & 

W. B. Rockwell, 

et al. 
M. K.Moore, 

et al. 
Rothschild Min'g 

Central Gold 

Mining Co.. N.Y. 
McCaskiU, et al. 

Bradley & Cree. 

Garrett, Thatcher 
& Royle. 

Sutton Bros. & 

Mullin Bros. <fe 

D. Jenkins & Co. 

& H.Granis, eiai.] 

Shaft, 25 feet. 
Shaft, 70 ft. 

Shaft, 65 ft. 

Shaft, 100 ft. 

Shaft, 160 ft. 
Shaft, 50 ft. 
Shaft, 27 ft. 
Well developed. 
Well developed. 
Partially developed. 

Shafts, 150, 60, and 75 ft.; drifting, 
mo ft.; fhaft house and steam 
lioisting apparatua ; engine, 50 

Shafts, 60, 80, and 90 ft. 

ShafU, 70 and 30 ft.; drift., 30 ft. 

Considerably developed. 

Shaft, 12.5 ft. 

Shaft, 45 ft.; level, 65 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 

Shaft, 44 ft. 

Shaft, 54 ft. 
Shaft, 43 ft. 

Shaft, 300 ft. ; 3 levels, from 30 to 

300 ft. 
Shaft, 360 ft.; drift., 70, 80, and 90 

Shaft, 210 ft.; level, 187 ft. 

Surface opening, 50 feet deep for 
700 feet ; several shafts, 25 to 100 
feet deep. 

Shafting, 129 ft. 

Shafts, 30 and 18 feet. 

Shaft, 70 ft. 

Shaft, on discovery, 90 ft. Shafts 
on other parts of lode. 



GILPIN CO\J]<iTY— Continued. 

Ft. In. 












Character of Ore. 

Per Ton. 

Aur. quartz, copper and 

iron pyr. 
Aur. quartz, cop. andiron 

pyr.; gold. 

Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Cop. and iron pjT.; gold 
and silver bearing. 

Cop, and iron ; gold. 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 

Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Aur. quartz, with copper 

and iron pyr. 

Cop. and iron pyr., zinc- 
blende and galena; gold 
and silver bearing. 

Aur. quartz, copper and 
iron pyr. 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 
Auriferous quartz. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Quartz, copper and iron; 

gold bearing. 
Qalena and sulph.; silver. 

Galena ; silv«r bearing. 

Copper and iron; gold 

Cop. and iron pyr., arsen- 

iteof cop.; gold bearing. 
Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Gal., zinc-blende, and iron 

pyr. ; gold and silver. 
Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 


Copper and iron sulph.; 

gold bearing. 
Gold bearing. 

Iron and cop. ; gold bear- 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 





Located near Bobtail lode. Prospects, well. 
800 feat owned by Brown, liucky & 'Watson. 

5 ozs. C. Stamp mill. 

$100 to 
$200 C. 

$163 C. 

$450 C. 
$200 C. 

16 to 18 
ozs. C. 


390 to 
$1:35 C. 

$172. $110. 

$30 to $110 

264 ozs. 
$20 to $80. 

$48 to $75. 

200 ozs. 

3 to 10 

ozs. C. 

1 ozs. C. 

7 ozs. 

5 ozs. C. 

870 gold 

13i ozs. 
6 ozs. C. 

Stamp mill. 

1,400 feet promises well. 
Stamp mill. 

10, 11 and 12, west, owned by S. H. Valentine. 

No statistics. 
First-class ore. S. H. Valentine owns 9 and 10 

The gold of the finest quality. 

Stami) mill. 

Stamp mill. 300 feet from Hardesty's mills. 

Was considered good in early days, but aban- 
doned now. 
Stamp mill. U. S. patent issued May 5, 1869. 

Stamp mill. 

Claim, 1,400 feet. 

Highest; stamp mill. 


Ore on each wall. 1,.500 feet lode. 

Stamp mill. $50 per ton for smelting ore. 

Stamp mill. Good paying property. 

Stamp mill. 

Stamp mill ; has run from 4 to 15 to the cord. 
This mine is now being worked vrith success. 

Stamp mill. 

Claim, 1,400 ft. (Promising well.) 

Stamp mill ; splect ore. 

Stamp mill. 




Name of Lode. 















tJ. P. R. 










Gilpin County 

Gregory Dist, 
Enterprise Dist 
Nevada Dist. 

Russell Dist. 
Hawkeye Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 
Central Dist. 
Gregory Dist. 
Eureka Dist. 

Gregory Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 
Russell Dist. 
Central Dist. 
Eureka Dist. 
Russell Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 
Eureka Dist. 





Name of 

Isaac Holmes. 
Teamay &, Co. 
R. Glennan. 
Da\'id L. Hardy. 
A. A. Smith. 

Kelly & Good. 
James Snow. 
A. F. Stewart. 

J. K. Jones. 
Joseph Hurst. 
John Tearuay. 
John Nichols. 

Dunnagan, et al. 

J. Oxley. 

J. E. Dougherty. 

Whiting & Co. 

Robert Wood. 


Hardesty Bros. 

Name of Owner 

M. Washington, 
Tearnay & Co. 

R. Glennan, et al. 

D. L. Hardy, ct al. 

Bates Mining Co., 
400 ft. ; McCar- 
roU k Rough, 1 
and 2, east ; Ora- 
hood & Wright, 
et al., 100 ft. 

Kelly k Good. 

J. Snow, tt al. 

G. H. Peters & 
W. C. Bartlett, 
G. R. Sabin, tt al. 

T. Garrison, et al. 

J. K. Jones. 

J. Hurst et al. 

Tearnay & Co. 

A. Tucker, et al. 

Thatcher & 

H. M.Teller, e<ai. 

W. Barrett, Ed. 
Hunchal, et al. 

Dougherty, Fix, 
et al. 

J. C. McShane, 
et al. 

J. C. McSbane, 

McCarroll. Whit- 
lock k Briggs. 

Hardesty Bros. 


Shaft, 47 ft. 

Shafts, 60 and 45 ft. 

Shaft, 65 ft. 

Considerable shafting and drifting. 

Shaft, 100 and ,30 ft. ; 30 ft. surfaca 
opening. Shaft, 1.50 ft.: opened 
full length of claim ; 100 feet ia 

Shaft, 20 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 

Principal shaft, 90 ft.; considerable 
surface opening. 

Shaft, 500 ft.; other improvements 
fully developing the mine. 

Shafts, 130 and 70 ft. ; 40 ft. drift- 

Shaft, 40 ft. 

Shafts, 70 and 45 ft.; drift., 50 ft. 

Shafting, 140 ft.; drifting, 200 ft. 

Shafting and surface opening to 
depth of 60 ft. 

Shafting, 1,450 ft. ; drifting, 860 ft. 

Shaft house, steam engine and 

hoisting api)aratus. 
Well developed. 

5 shafts, from 10 to 100 ft. 

Shaft, 65 ft. 

Shaft, CO ft.; shaft house. 

Shaft, 30 ft.; drifting surface, 25 ft. 

S. H. Valentine, | Shaft on discovery, 30 ft. 
et al. I 



GILPIN COVl^TY— Continued, 



Character of Ores. 







Per Ton. 





Cop. and iron pyr. gold 

$90 C, 

Stamp mill process. 



Lead, cop. and iron sulph.; 
silver bearing. 


U. S. patent for 1,600 feet. 


Aurifer. quartz and iron 
sulf/h.; gold bearing. 


4 ozs. C. 


Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 


ozs. C. 

Stamp mill. 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

4 to 8 

Stamp mill, 1870. Fine gold specimens taken 


ozs. C. 

from this lode. 


Aurif. and argt. quartz. 

3 ozs. C. 

Stamp mill. 


Auriferous quartz. 

Prospects, well. 


Aurifer. quartz with iron 

10 ozs. C. 

Surface quartz ; stamp mill. 

Cop., iron pyr, and galena ; 

$500 C. 

Stamp mill. U. S. title secured. Has been 

gold and silver bearing. 

worked since ISGO, and has j'ielded largely. 



Cop, and iron pyr. ; gold 
bear, with zinc-blende. 

5 ozs. C. 

Stamp mill. 



Zinc-blende, snip, of cop 
iron and lead ; gold, sil. 




Cop. and iron sulph. ; gold 

Cop. and iron sulph.; gold 

$75 C. 

Stamp mill. 


134 T. 

Sells to Hill, ?34 per ton. U. S. patent. 




Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Decomposed crevice material to depth of CO ft. 
Paid dividend above expenses by sluicing. 
The lode has been l^nown as the Eureka for 
several years; and a large stamp mill has 
been erected by parties claiming the property 
on the lode. 


Anr. quartz, cop. and iron 

SlOO to 


1,100 cords have been taken from this lode since 

pyr.; gold bearing. 


ozs. C. 

1868. Total from the mine, fl50,llOU. 

Cop. and iron ; gold bear- 


Stamp mill. TJ. S. patent for 800 feet, Oct. 27, 


S2O0 C. 




Auriferous quartz. 

5 to 13 
ozs. C. 

.Stamp mill. No. 2, 3, and half of 4, west, owned 
by M. Cochran. 


Auriferous quartz. 

$100 C. 

Stamp mill process. 



Quartz, cop. and iron pyr.; 
gold and silver bearing. 



Keith Co. paid $100 per cord. 



Auriferous quartz, copper 
and iron. 

$200 C. Stamp mill. Discovered while working Gulch 
claim. 120 feet from Hardesty mill. 


Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

No statistics. 





Name of Lode. 


(D > 

w o 

Name of 

Name of Owner. 


Clear Creek Co. 



Republican Mt. 
Griffith Dist. 


De Le Mar & Co. 

De Le Mar & Co. 

3 shafts, 10, 20 and 110 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


W. P. Simm. 

Old & Lampshire. 

Tunnels on lode, 50 and 160 ft. 


Mt., Eiist Ar- 


Thomas & Nelson 

H. M. Thomas, 


Shaft, 35 ft. 


Jackson Dist. 


H. M. Thomas. 

Kelso & Noxon, 
C. A. Dimick. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Mt., 


C. A. Dimick. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 


Brown Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


W. Richards. 

C. W. Bramel & 


Shaft, 212 ft. 




G. Packard. 

C. W. Bramel & 

Shaft, 10 ft.; adit on lode, 105 ft.; 


Mt., Griffith 


cross-cut, 85 ft., striking lode 68 
ft. from surface. 




Peirson & Fel- 

Peirson & Fel- 

Shaft, 60 ft. 

Mt., Griffith 







Hutchinson & 

Hutchinson & 

Open surface, 30 ft. in length and 

Mt., Griffith 



18 ft. deep; opening at other 


points deepening lode. 


Sherman Mt., 


Packard, Scott & 

Packard, Scott <t 

Shaft, 20 ft. Tunnel on lode, 100 

Griffith Dist. 





Kelso Mt., 
Arg. Dist. 


Prof. Bowman. 

Eggleston, et al. 




E. Clemans & W. 

E. Clemans & W. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Mt., Griffith 
McClellan Mt., 

H. Armstrong. 

U. Armstrong. 



Bell Bros. 


Shafting, 10 ft. 


Emanuel, et al 



Idaho Dist. 


P. E. Sharruai 

P. E. Sharruad. 

Shafting, 37 ft. 


Spanish Bar. 


A. Medley. 

Bangs, Russell & 

Shaft, 30 ft. 




Iowa Dist. 


H. Anderson. 

J. H. La Franz. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Kelso Mt., 
Argentine D't 


Hough & Kelso. 

West Argentine 
Mining Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Silver Mt., 


R. Jones. 

Peck Gold 
Mining Co. 

Shaft, 225 ft.; drifting, 70 ft. 


Silver Mt., 


Jones, Russell & 

Jones, Russell & 

Considerable shafting. 

Union Dist. 






Shaft, 80 ft. 


Empire Dist. 


S. Robeson. 

Montana Pros- 

Shaft, 15 ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


Malcom McKen- 


pecting Co. 
Thatch & Kinked 

Shaft, 40 ft. ; surface opening, 100 


Lincoln Dist. 


J. M. Holland. 

J. M. Holland, 
et al. 

Tunnel on lode, 170 ft. : shafting, 
14(J ft. 


Kelso Mt., 
Argentine D't 


John Baker. 

Baker Silver 
Mining Co. 



J. T. Harris. 

J. T. Harris. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 



Idaho Dist. 


T. T. Variing. 

T. T. Variing, 
et al. 
C. W. Bursdall. 

G. Hickcox, 
et al. 
Hickcox & Co. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 
Shaft, 40 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Bursdall, et al. 

Shaft, 18ft. 


Cohimbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Darrah & Parker. 

Darrah & Parker. 

Shaft. 30 ft. ; several surface opea- 


McClellan Mt., 
West Slope. 

McClellan Mt., 
West Slope. 


A. Walters. 

Walters, Bechtel 

Shaft, 10 ft. 



6. A. Walters. 

& Isaacs. 
Walters & 

Shaft, 10 ft. 








Character of Ore. 

Per Ton. 

'^'" REMARKS. 







3 to 

Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Galena, ■with sulphurets of 




300 to 
1T80 0Z3. 

Select specimens. 

1,500 feet from Stewarts' works. 

Easy of access. 



4 to 

4 to 

Galena, sulph. silver, cop. 

and iron pyr. 
Argentiferous galena. 

Argentiferous galena. 

$80 to 
$160 T. 
81 ozs. T. 

No assay. 
J^y of access. 


Argentiferous galena and 

$58 T. 

Easy of access. 



Argt. galena, quartz and 

50 to 130 


Easy of access. 


10 to 

Argrt. quartz, argt. galena 
with zinc-blende. 


Select ore. Easy of access, by good pack trail ; 
1,000 ft. from wagon road. 


Sulph. silver, argt. galena 
and quartz. 

$150 T. 

$28,S43 assay of select specimens. This lode is 
3,000 ft. above Georgetown. 


Argt. quartz with galena. 

Easy of access by tram-way. 


Argt. quartz with galena. 
Surface quartz. 


1,500 ft. from base of mountain, and promising 
well. A tram-way can be easily constructed. 
Good wagon road. 



Auriferous quartz. 


Easy of access. 



Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Cop., iron pyr. and galena ; 

gold bearing. 
Argentiferous galena. 


Prospects fairly. 
Select ore. 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

530 to $50. 

Easy of access, with railroad leading from milL 


Decomposed crevice ma- 
Argt. and aur. quartz. 

Easy of access. 




8 to 



3 to 

Decomposed quartz with 
mineral streak. 

Argt. and aur.quartz, min- 
eral vein, cop. and iron 
pyr., small quantities of 
galena and zinc-blende. 

Argentiferous galena, 
zinc-blende and black 

Argentiferous galena. 

563 to 886. 

$60 to 

300 ozs. 

to 350 

30 ozs. 





2 to 

Argentiferous galena with 

Argentiferous galena with 

-Argentiferous galena. 


$75 to $100 
$20 to $40. 

The assay from entire contents of crevice. 



Argt. galena with sulph. 

Argt. galena and zinc- 

Zinc blende and argent, 
galena, decomposed. 

300 to 

1000 ozs. 
50 to 1100 

150 ozs. 

Examined a silver button weighing llj^ ozs., 

reduced from 100 pounds of ore. 
Claim, 3,000 ft. 




Name of Lode. 



















Clear Creek Co 

Democrat Mt. 

Columbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 
Brown Mt. 

Saxon Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Idaho Dist., J^ 
mile west of 

Cascade Dis 

Brown Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 
Cascade Dist. 

Lincoln Dist. 

Silver Mt., 
Union Dist. 

Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Saxon Mt., 
Griffitli Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Republican Mt. 
Griffith Dist. 

Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 
Trail Run Dist 

Trail Run. 
Virginia Dist. 
Idaho Dist. 


Cascade Dist. 
Idaho Dist. 

Cascade Dist. 
Id.iho Dist. 

Cascade Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 

McClellan Mt., 
W. Argentine 












Name of 

Cooper & Fisher. 

P. Parker. 

W. H. Gray. 

Nash & Bro. 

Steinle, Wagoner 
& Kline. 

W. R. Griffiths & 
J. P. Jones. 
G. A. Mills. 


C. C. Bangs. 

J. G. Mahaney. 

Stephens, Free- 
man & Taylor. 
H. C. Parker. 

Robert Shaw. 

A. M. Graves, 
et al. 

C. Hiltibiddle. 

Hanbrist & Hack 

C P. Baldwin 

& J. Huff. 
Dr. E. F. Holland 

et al. 

T. Cooper. 

W. H. Latshaw. 

Wm. Bell, et al. 

Wm. Hobbs, et al. 
Gaskill & Co. 
P. Richards, etal. 
John Needham. 

R. B. Griswold. 
H. M. Thomas. 


B. P. Haman. 
J. M.Smith, eiort. 

Name of Owner. 

Adams, Phillet, 
P. Parker. 

Gray & Co. 

Nash & Bro. 

Steinle, Wagoner 
& Kline, et al. 

W. R. Griffiths & 
J. P. Jones. 
G. A. Mills, et al. 

Griswold, et al. 

C. C. Bangs, et al. 

Taylor & Free- 
man, et al. 

H. C. Parker, 

.\lleghany Silver 
Mining Co., and 

Nash & Bro. 

G. L. Sites & 
A. M. Graves. 

W. N. Hutchin- 
son & C. Hilti- 

Steinle, et al. 

C. P. Baldwin & 
J. Huff. 

Champion Gold 
and Silver Min- 
ing Co. 

Hale & Co., et al. 

W. H. Latshaw, 

et al. 
Fulton Silver 

Mining Co. 

D. Faivere, et al. 
Gaskill & Co. 

P. Richards, et al. 

Needham & 

R. B. Griswold & 
Dr. Noxon. 

R. C. Gray & Co. 

B. P. Haman. 



Shaft, 28 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

Cnt by tunnel, 138 feet long, at 

depth of 100 feet. 
Shaft, 35 ft. 

Shafting, 500 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 45 ft. 
Shaft, 60 ft. 
Shaft, 22 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 35 ft. 
Shafts, 80 and 20 ft. 

Shafting, 00 feet ; adit 50 feet cross- 
cut, striking lode at depth of 63 
and 80 feet. 

Shaft, 90 ft. 

Shaft, 18 ft. 

Surface opening, 20 feet in length, 
and 15 feet deep. Other surface 
openings. Shaft, 16 feet. 

Shaft, 60 ft. 

Shaft, 23 ft. 

Shafting, 100 ft. ; tunnel on lode, 
14 feet. 

Shafting, 60 ft.; drifting, 80 ft. 

Shafts, 40 ft.; drift., 55 ft. 

Tunnel on lode, 175 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 80 ft. 

Snaft 20 ft. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 
Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 60 ft. ; tunnel on lode, 40 ft 

Shaft, 20 ft. 
Shafting, 38 ft. 



CLEAR CREEK COVt^TY— Continued. 



Character of Orea. 






Per Ton. 






Argent, galena quartz. 




Vein stripped for 440 ft. 



Zinc-blende and argent. 

440 oza. 


Not fully developed, but promises well. 

3 to 4 


Aur. and argent, and de- 
composed argt. quartz. 

6 to 8 
ozs. C. 

Stamp mill ; gold from surface quartz. 



Easy of access. 



Argentiferous galena. 



Galena, gray copper and 
sulphurets of silver. 

400 to 500 

$175 T. 

Paid by Prof. IIUl. 



Galena, withsulphureta of 


Select specimen. Easy of access. 


Decomposed quartz ; gold 
and silver bearing. 



Cop. and iron pjr. ; gold 


Easy of access. 

4 to 5 


Argt. galena, zinc-blende, 
cop. and iron pyr. 

$40 T. 

40 per cent, lead ; 600 feet from base of moun- 


4 to 

Argt. quartz, galena and 

160 ozs. 

Is of easy access, and being rapidly developed. 


sulphureta of silver. 



Crevice not well defined. 


Quartz with argentiferous 
galena through entire 

Not fully developed. Easy of access. 



Galena, copper and iron 

51 ozs. 

Easy of access, by tunnel or tram-way. 



Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 
and silver bearing. 


% silver, % gold. 



Argt. quartz, with galena 
and zinc-blende. 

Is 1,000 ft. from Magnet, and promises well. 


8 to 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 


$200 to 

From select specimens, aasay 8150 ; three mile 




from mill. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 


$300 to 

$700 T. 

Select ore. 


Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 


Stamp mill. 



Galena, copper and iron 
sulph., zinc-blende, ar- 
senites of cop. and iron. 

$160 T. 



Galena, copper and iron ; 

300 oza. 

Select specimens. 

silver bearing. 

Cop. and iron pyr., galena; 

$40 T. 

Crevice not fully denned. 

silver bearing. 



Galena and sulphureta of 


$300 to 



Copper and iron pyrites, 

50 to 100 


galena and zinc-blende ; 
silver bearing. 




Galena, copper and iron 


Easy of access, and near good water-power. 



Galena, cop. and iron pyr, 
with sulphurets ; gold 
and silver bearing. 

Copper and iron pyrites, 
galena and sulphurets; 
silver bearing. 


Easy of access, and 15 ft. from Virginia CaSon 
wagon road. 



Argt. quartz ; silver bear- 



Sulphurets of silver, with 


$65 to 

Select specimens as high as $5,000. J^ mile 


8100 T. 

from Baker mill. 




Name of Lode. 
































F. ,7. MAR- 

Clear Creek Co. 

McClellan Mt., 

W. Argentine 


Spanish Bar 

Silver Mt., 

Upper Dist. 
Griffith Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 

Covode Mt., 
Union Dist. 
Montana Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 

Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

McClellan Mt.. 
West Slope. 
Idaho Dist. 

Cascade Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Griffith Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Republican Mt 

Griffith Dist. 
Republican Mt, 

Griffith Dist. 
Spanish Bar. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

McClellan Mt., 
West Slope. 

Saxton Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 

Griffith Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Spanish Bar 

Idaho Dist. 

Silver Mt., 
Union Dist. 
Jackson Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 

Red Mt., Daily 

Brown Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 

Trail Creek 


Argentine Dist 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 








Name of 

J. M. Smith, eiaZ. 

Prof. Bowman. 
J. S. Cook. 

Disbrow & 

L. B. Taft & E. 


L. H. Sheppard. 

A. H. Whitehead. 

A. H. Huyett. 

Churchill, Perry, 
et al. 
L. H. Merill 

G. A. Patten. 

Ray k Clark. 

T. Burr. 

Pearson k 
Ira 0. Mann. 

Webster k Ames. 

A. C. Smith. 
L. Merrill. 
Cowles Bros. 

B. P. Harman. 

J. T. Harris. 

Conrad Tease. 
D. C. Daily k Co. 
H. M. Thomas. 

C. Freeman. 

Michel & Light. 

J. M. Smith, et 


Kelso & Hough. 
J. T. Harris. 

Name of Owner. 


J. M. Smith, et al. Shaft,' 75 ft, 

Eggleston Bros., 
et al. 
Einkred, et al. 

Disbrow k 

Co. P. A. Taft, 
C. B. Baldwin k 
0. 0. Smith. 

L. H. Sheppard. 

A. H. Whitehead, 
et al. 

A. H. Huyett. 

B. F. Darrah, M. 
P.Parker, et al. 

Walters, Bechtl 
k Isaacs. 
G. A. Patten. 

Dr. Noxon, et al. 

Burr, liarsha, 

et al. 
Pearson k 

Mann, Bell & 

Light, et al. 

Clark, Crocker k 
Palmer, et al. 
A.C. Smith. 

Walters, Bechtl 
k Isaacs. 
Cowles Bros. 

B. P. Harman. 

C. J. GosB. 
J. T. Harris. 

Conrad Tease. 
D. C. Daily k Co. 

H. M. Thomas, 
et al. 

Freeman, Shep- 
pard, et al. 

Michel k Light. 

Hussey & Co. 
B. F. Wadsworth, 

J. M. Smith, et 

Colvin Gold and 

Silver Mining 

West Argentine 

Mining Co. 
J. T. Harris. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 50 ft.; tunnel on lode, 170 ft. 

Shafting, 182 feet; drifting, 44 feet, 
at depth of 60 feet on lode. 
Tunnel on lode, 60 feet. Other 
drifting, 100 feet. 

Shaft, 20 ft. ; tunnel on lode, 25 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

Shaft, 13 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 16 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

Shaft, 83 ft. 

Shaft, 16 ft. 

Shafting, 27 ft. 

Shaft, 55 ft.; drift, 35 ft. 

Shaft, 40 ft. on No. 3, east ; other 

Shaft, 34 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 50 ft. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 

Shaft, 45 ft. 

Shaft, 100 ft. 

Shaft, 50 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 60 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Opened on surface, 2,000 ft., to 60 ; 
to 280 ft. in depth. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 



CLEAR CREEK COVl^TY— Continued. 

Character of Ore. 

Per Ton. 

Decomposed crevice ma- $60. 
teriaJ. I 

Argt. galena, -with sulph. 

Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

Argt. galena, zinc-blende, 
cop. and iron pyrites ; 
silver bearing. 

Decomposed aur. quartz. 

Argentiferous quartz. 

6 to; Sulph urets of silver. 

« i 

■Argentiferous galena and 
I zinc-blende. 
2 to I Argentiferous galena and 

S zinc-blende. 
10 Cop., iron, zinc-blende and 
galena; silver bearing. 
Cop. and iron, with galena 
and sulphurets. 
2 to Argentiferous galena and 
20 zinc-blende. 
20 Argt. quartz, with galena. 

Argentiferous galena, with 

Argentiferous galena with 

carbonate of copper. 
Argt. galena, zinc-blende 

and silver-glance. 
Argentiferous galena,with 

Argt. quartz, galena and 


$10 to 


52 ozs. 
300 ozs. 

230 ozs. 

05 ozs. 

$40 to 
182 ozs. 

175 to 

50 ozs. 
1033 ozs. 

Cop. and iron pyr.; silverjSTT. 

Argentiferous galena, with $400. 


Argentiferous galena. 

Argt. and aur. quartz. 

Specular iron and copper 
pyr. ; gold bearing. 

Quartz, galena and sulph. 
of silver. 

Zinc-blende; silver bear- 
ing, with small quantity 
of chloride of silver. 

Argt. quartz, with iron. 

Argentiferous quartz, ga- 
lena in streaks through 

Argentiferous quartz, iron 
and copper pyr. ; gold 
and silver bearing. 

Argt. quartz, « ith carbon- 
ate of copper. 

Argentiferous galena. 

136 ozs. 


330 G. 

$20 S. 

73 to 12 



140 T. 

102 ozs. 


$500 T. 

$150 to 
$200 T. 

$45. T. 


Select specimens as high as $1,500. 200 feet 
south of Coney. 

Not fully developed. Easy of access by tram- 

Prospects well in gold. 
200 feet from Min.ietta lode. 

Promises well ; easy of access. 
Claim, 3,000 feet. 

Easy of access ; }4 mile from wagon road ; 

water near for milling purposes. 
Easy of access. 

Easy of access. 

Easy of access. 

Easy of access. 

1st class ore, $636.31 mill return. Near Watson 
wagon road ; 2}/2 miles from Georgetown. 

2d class ore, $300. 700 ft. from the valley. 

Promises well. 

CreTice not developed. 

Easy of access. 

Easy of access. 

Prospects well. 

At first was supposed to be silver bearing— 

hence the name of the mountain. 
No assay. 

Average assay. 

Easy of access. 

Promises well, but not fully developed. 


Near Argus .ode ; 100 ft. from base of mountain. 
Crevice not well defined. 




Name of Lode. 








Clear Creek Co. 

Idaho Dist. 


Republican Mt. 

Griffith Dist. 
McClellan Mt., 

Queen's Dist. 
Chicago Creek, 
Jackson Dist. 

Mt., Griffith 


Mt., Griffith 






G. W. PEA- 
















Name of 

Capt. Hall. 

Capt. Hall. 

De La Mar & Co. 

Campbell & 

Mat. Coddington. 

Bluner & McMil- 

Eli Courtney. 

Name of Owner. 

Franklin Silver 

Mining Co., etaJ 


Shafting, 495 ft.; drifting, 60 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

De Lo Mar & Co. 

France, Campbell Drifting on lode, 85 ft., and 75 ft. 

& Haggart. from surface. 

Coddington & Shaft, 80 ft. 

Campbell, e.t nl. 
Bluner & McMil-| Shaft, 10 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Republican Mt 
Griffith Dist. 

Alpine Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 
Carroll Dist. 

Jackson Dist. 

Carroll Dist. 

Silver City Dist 

Silver Mt., 
Union Dist. 

Empire Dist. 

Silver Mt., 
Miners" Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Empire Dist. 


Mt., East Ar- 

E. Argentine. 

Republican Mt 
Griffith Dist. 
Cascade Dist. 

Spanish Bar. 

Spanish Bar. 

Upper Fall 
River Dist. 




Cooper k Fisher. 
David Lees. 

W. 11. Armstrong 

John Baker. 

J. N. Goff. 

M. B. Graeff. 

G. E. Congdon & 

A.Guibor k Sons 

Churchill, Cronk 

& House. 

John Anderson. 

J. T. Harris. 

J. T. Harris. 

C. M. Shipman, 
et al.y west half; 
Dr. Jos. McCord, 
east half. 

Shafts, 125 ft.; shaft, 20 ft.; cross- 
cut tunnel on lode, 19 ft.; drift 
following south wall, 126 ft.; 
tunnel on lode, from principal 
shaft to discovery, 170 ft.; cross- 
cut connecting drift and tunnel, 
30 ft. 

1863 S. Robeson. 



S. Robeson. 
H. M. Thomas. 

H. M. Thomas. 

De Le Mar A 
T. H. Todd & Co. 

J. F. Hukill. 

Dr. Ray k Co. 

G. E. Congdon k 

Adams, Rogers, 

et al. 
Alleghany and 

California Silver 

Mining Cos. 
Armstrong k 

P. P. Shatter, 

P. E. Sharruand, 

M. B. Graeff. 

G. E. Congdon k 
A.Guibor k Sons 

Rosecrans k Co. 

Martin, Law, 

et al. 
Peck Gold 

Mining Co. 
Harris k Brown. 

J. T. Harris. 

Montana Pros- 
pecting Co. 

Mont^tna Pros- 
pecting Co. 

H. M. Thomas, 
et al. 

H. M. Thomas, 

Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 40 ft. 

De La Mar k 

Gaskill k Co. 

M. B. Graeff k 
Ray k Davis. 

G. E. Congdon k 

Tunnel on lode, 15 ft. 

Shafting, 92 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 

Shafting, 120 ft. 

Shaft, 70 ft. 

Shafting, 160 ft.; drifting, 30 ft. 

Shafting, 350 ft.; drifting, 200 ft. 

Tunnel on lode, 100 ft. ; shafling, 

70 ft. 
Shaft, 34 ft. 

Shaft, 18 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 

Shaft, 19 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

Shaft, 90 ft. ; surfiice opening, 800 

Shaft, 16 ft. 

Shaft, 127 ft. 










Character of Ore. 



Per Ton. 





Argentiferous g-.ilena. 

ST.j to 
S:;4() S.; 



Argentiferous galena. 


nill's process. 


Argentiferous quartz. 

Not developed, but promises well. 



Argentiferous galena,zinc- 
Iilende and sulpliuret:-. 

200 to 
900 oz?. 

One mile from Baker reduction works. 



Black iron ; gold bearing. 


Stamp mill: from select ore. 


Argt. quartz, with sulph. 
of silver. 

Xo assay or mill return. 

■8 to 20 


Argt. galena, zinc-blende. 



Average from all ore treated — about 300 tons. 


copper pyrites, oxides 
and carbonates of cop- 
per ; silver bearing. 
The galena 70 per cent, 


The improvements are on the west halt of the 
lode, but the east pi'oiiiists equally as valu- 
able as the developi<l portion. The facilities 
for working tliis lud.' are j;ciod. A tnun-wav 
of 1,000 feet would afford the means of deliv- 
ering ore at the base of tlie mountain at small 
expense. The fissure is strong, and has all 
the characteristics of a true vein, and 
has been traced over 3,iK.iO feet. 





4 to 

Argt. galena quartz. 

1.50 ozs. 

Easy of access. 



Argt. quartz, with decom- 
posed minei-al. 

117 ozs. 

Easy of access. Xear Argentine wagon 
Good water power. 


Iron pyr.; gold bearing. 

Great fis.«ure vein not fully but 
promises fitirly. One mile from Whale Mill. 


Easy of access, and considered to b" valuable 
mining property. 



Surface quartz. 

217 ozs. S.; 
$96 6. 

Easy of access by good wagon road. 



Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 


Easy of access. 



Auriferous quartz. 


Very easy of access. 




Decomposed argentiferous 

$75 to 

$120 to 

Eas}- of access. 

and auriferovis quartz. 





Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 

$50 to 



3 to 


Select ore. 


Argentiferous galena. 


Average value of mineral. 


Argt. and aur. quartz. 

Easy of access. 


Argt. and aur. quartz. 

Easy of access. 


4 to 

Argt. galena, with sulph. 
of silver. 

70 ozs. 

Easy of access. 


Quartz, argt. galena and 
sulphurets of silver, 
in streaks throughout 
crevice. Xo ore vein. 

6 to 30 ozs. 


Solid argt. quartz with 

Promises well. The ore can be delivered at 
Georgetown at a very small expense. 



Galena and zinc-blende ; 
silver bearing. 



Ii-on, lead and zinc- 

$150 C. 


Quartz and iron pyrites; 
gold bearing. 

318 to 


Iron and cop. pyr.; gold 

S188 a. 

Can be mined easilj- by tunnel from base of 

and silver bearing. 

and S. 





Niiiiic of Lode. 












Clear Creek Co 

Spanish Bar 

Upper Union 


Argentine Dist. 

Summit Mt., 

Griffitii Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 

Saxon Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 



Siierman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Douglas Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Mt., Griffith 

Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Union Dist. 

Republican & 
Democrat Mts 
Griffith Dist. 

Kelso Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
(iriffith Dist. 

Hrown Mt. 
Griffith Dist. 



G. W. Churchill, 
J. M. Smith and 

T. J. Hough. 

Pearson & Fel- 

De La Mar & 

Capt. Hall. 

Nash Bros. 

John Mairs. 

A. C. Smith. 
John Mpore. 

Name of Owner. 

G. W. Churchill 
J. M. Smith and 

West Argentine 
Mining Co. 

Johnson k Bros. 

De Le Mar &. 

Hickcox & 

Church Bros. 
Nash Bros. 

Merchants & 
Mechanics Co., 
of Baltimore. 

A. C. Smith. 

C. W. Burdsall. 




C. H. Moor. 
John Anderson. 

Prof. Bowman. 
F. Tofte. 

B. F. Wadsworth, 
J. M. Smith, 
et al. 
J. REMSEN Empire Dist. 1867IS. C. Bennett, 

BENNETT. ' et al. 

KIT CARSON. Republican Mt. 1869 Mann, Bell & 

1 Griffith Dist. | Symonds, 

KALIBOUGH. i;epublicanMt.lS6o " 

I Griffitli Dist. 
KREMLIN. ! Cascade. 1869 

C. R. Fish. 

J.F. & A. C. 

Tucker, et al. 

Tunnel on lode, 100 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft.; surface opening, 200 

Shaft, 130 ft.; drift, 140 ft.; tun- 
neling, ;'iO ft. 
Shaft, 80 ft.; tunnel on lode, 154 ft. 

Shaft, 19 ft. 

Shafting, 68 ft.; tunnel on lode, 

40 feet. 
Shaft, 50 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 

Shaft, 11 ft. 

Shaft, 60 ft. 

Tunnel, 23 ft. long, cuts lodo 127 ft. 

KANSAS. jGriffithMt., 

I Griffith Dist. 
KING. Leavenworth 

Mt., Griffith 
] Dist. 
KASHMERE. ILeavenworth 
I Mt., Griffith 
KING DAVID Republican Mt. 

Griffith Dist, 
KANGAROO. Idaho Dist. 





Trail Run. 
Idaho Dist. 

Chicago Creek 

Columbia Mt., 

Griffitli Dist. 
Douglas Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 



De La Mar & Co. 
Cook & Moor. 
J. Hadley, Sr. 

Peareon & Fel- 

D. Harsha. 

Wm. Howarth. 


H. M. Thomas. 
C. A.Dimick. 
6. A. Mills. 

James Conner, 

i et al. 

Eggleston, et al 
W. H. Armstrong 

B. F. Wadsworth, 
J.M. Smith, 
et al. 

S. C. Bennett, 

Mann, Bell & 

De Le .Mar & Co. 

Cook, Moor & 

C. W. Bramel & 


Pe.arson & Fel- 

D. Harsha. 

Hale Mining Co.. 

H ol. 
H. M. Thomas, 

ct al. 
Brow n & Dimick. 

G.A.Mills &Bro. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 34 ft. 
Shaft, 20 ft. 
Shaft, 35 ft. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 
Shafting, 180 ft. 

Shaft, 100 ft. Tunnel on lode, ov« 

250 feet. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 

Tunnel on lode, 20 ft. 






Character of Ores. 






Per Ton. 






No statistics. 


Auriferous quartz, decom- 


Discovered, while placer digging, on south slope 


$75 to 

of Silver Mountjiin. 

Pockets containing ore throughout entire 


1 to 


First-class smelting ore, $964 per ton. United 
States patent secured. Kasy of access. 


Argentiferous quartz.witli 

Promises well. 




Argentiferous galena and 

.>4oO S. 



Decomposed crevice mate- 
rial and sulphurets of 
lead and silver. 

25 ozs. 

100 feet from valley. 


3G Sulpliuret galena. 

$00 to 

Good lode — promises well. Ore similar to Live 

$100 S. 

Yankee and Wall Street lodes, and but a few 
yards distant. 


Argentiferous galena. 

No assay. 



Aur. and argent, quartz, 

$92 to 


sulph. of iron and cop.; 
silver and gold bearing. 




Argentiferous galena and 

1200 to 
1400 ozs 

Second-class ore — 150 ozs. per ton. 


3 Sulphurets of silver. 

150 ft. south of State of Maine lode. 


Auriferous quartz, with 

copper and iron sulph. 



8200 to 



This lode crosses through both mountains. 


Argt. quartz, with streaks 
of galena. 

Easy of access. 


Streaks of argent, galena 
throughout crevice. 

Promises well, and is easy of access. 



Ore veins, ^ to 1 inch, dispersed throughout 
entire contents of crevice. 60 rods west of 
Coin lode. Easy of access. 



Decomposed aur. quartz. 

Prospects well for gold, and promises to be val- 
uable. Easy of access. 


Argentiferous galena and 
sulphurets of silver. 


From argentiferous galena. 


Argentiferous galena. 

Not developed. 


Zinc-blende and sulph. of 


$60 to 


Claim, 1,400 ft. 



Argentiferous galena. 

$288 to 

Easy of access. 



Argt. galena quartz. 



Argt. quartz, galena and 

30 to 150 

Easy of access. 


4 to 

Argentiferous galena and 

500 ozs. 

Select ore. Easy of access, and 160 ft. from 



Argentine wagon road. 



Galena, zinc-blende, cop. 
and iron pyr.; silver 

$153 S. 


Paid by Prof. Hill. J^ mile from main road, 
and easy of access. 



Cop. and iron pyr. ; gold 


$90 to 

Near the Champion lode. 


Argt. galena with sulph. 
of silver. 

No assay. Promises well. 


8 to 

Sulphurets of silver. 



Select ore. 


Argentiferous quartz. 

Easy of access, but undeveloped. 500 ft. from 

valley and 2,000 ft from Stewart's mill. 



Argentiferous galena,with 


60 per cent. lead. 





Name of 

Name of Owner. 


Name of Lode. 

Clear Creek Co. 




Griffith Mt., 


D. Faivre. 

D. Faivre, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 
Montana Dist. 


A. H. Whitehead. 

A. H. Whitehead, 

et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Columbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


G. A. Mills. 

G. A. Mills k 

Shaft, -io ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


Burkhart & 

Burkhart & 

Shaft, 66 ft.; well timbered. 





Spanish Bar 


0. Meyers & Co. 

Shafting, 250 ft. 



Silver Mt., 
Union Dist. 

Allen, Lowe & Co. 

Bay State 
Mining Co. 

Shaft, 100 ft. ; well timbered. 


Silver Mt., 
Union Dist. 

Leibig Gold 
Mining Co. 

Tunnel on lode, at>out 300 ft. 


Iowa Dist. 


Mr. Johnson. 

La Franc, et al. 


Republican Mt. 


Ira 0. Manu. 

I. 0. Mann, C. T. 

Shaft, 3.J ft. 


Griffith Dist. 

Bell & William 


Gilson Gulch, 
Idaho Dist. 


Campbell & 


Campbell, et al. 

Shaft, 80 ft. 


Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


T. Barr. 

A. C. Smith. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 


H. C. Parker. 

U. 0. Parker, 

Sliaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 

et al. 


Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Whitford & 

Whitford & 

Tunneling, irsit ft., on lode. 


Kelso Mt. 

1870 'J. Williams. 

J. William.s. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 




Rubv Mt., 

1868 'Robinson & 

Ilussey & Co. and 

Shafting, TO ft.; tunnel on 



Daily Dist, 


S. RoLiinson. 

35 feet. 


Chicago Creek 


C. A. Dimick. 

Airy, Brown & 

Shaft, l.l ft. 




Griffith Mt., 


Johnson & Bros. 

Johnson & Bros. 

Shaft discovery, 40 ft. ; east of diB- 


Griffith Dist. 

covery, 'Xi ft. 


Sherman Mt., 

D. Tooker. 

Rockford fin.) 

On east end, adit on vein, 70 

Griffith Dist. 

Co. & D. Tooker. 

feet; west end, adit and 



Columbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


AY. 11. Gray. 

50 feet. 
Shaft, 40 ft.; drift., 20 ft. 


RedMt., Dailv 


Timothy Chase. 

G. C. Ransdcll, 
et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

MARS. Kelso Mt.. 


Prof. Bowman. 

Eggleston et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 


Cascade Dist. 


T. II. Todd & Co 

Gaskill i Co. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Morris Dist. 


S. C. Bennett, 
H. K.Pearson. 

S. C. Bennett, 

Shaft, 30 ft. 



Cohimbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


et al. 
II. K.Pearson. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Upper Union 


Mitchell & Light. 

Hussey & Co. 

Sliaft, 20 ft. 


Lincoln Dist. 


J. G. Mahany. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 


Lincoln Dist. 


J. G. Mahany. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Lincoln Dist. 

J. M. Holland. 

Holland & 

Shaft, 11 ft. 


Mt.. Griffith 

Montana Dist. 

Wm. Browu, 

M. Lynch, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 



A. H. Whitehead. 

A. H. Whitehead, 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


Shanner & John- 

et al. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 


Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


D. Harsha. 

D. Harsha. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 






Character of Ore. 







Per Ton. 





Galena, with sulpburets. 

$40 to $90. 

Easy of acce.S8, and 1.000 feet from Georgetown. 



Sulphurets of silver and 


Select specimens ; easy of access. 


Argentiferous quartz. 

Not developed ; e;isy of access. 



Argt. galena, copper and 
iron pyr. ; silver bear- 
ing, with argt. quartz. 

89 ozs. 

1st class ore ; e.isy of access. 



Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 
and silver bearing. 


$60 to 

Xear mill, with tram-way connecting. 



Aur. quartz; iron and 
copper pyrites. 

Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

Situated about 300 feet from Le Franc's water 
power on Fall river. 


8 to 

Argt. quartz, with sulpli. 

$1990 to 

Philadelphia mint. Easy of access. 


of silver; cop. Traces 
of gold. 




Auriferous galena. 


$400 per cord, in gold, by stamp mill, select ore. 
Not developed. 


Argentiferous galena. 

No assay. 3,000 feet. 



Argentiferous galena. 

$200 to 


Average of 28 tons. (Specimens of native sil- 



Argentiferous galena, de- 


Zinc-blende, ruby silver, 

$75 to 


Good tunnel site secured. A mass of quartz, in 

argt. galena and sulph. 


some places, 10 feet above the surface. 

of silver. 

White iron and galena. 


Select ore. This company owns 20 other lodes, 
partially developed. 



Spar, argt. quartz, veins 
of argt. gali'ua, zinc- 
blende, and copper and 
iron pyrites, with car- 
bonate of copper. 


Easy of access. 


10 to 

Argentiferous galena and 

250 to 

2d class ore, 80 to 100 ozs. 1st class ore 50 per 



300 ozs. 

cent. lead. • 



Argentiferous galena and 



Argt. quartz and galena. 

SO to 90 

450 feet east of Pollock's Pet. 


Argt. quartz, with galena. 


Not fully developed, but easy of access. 


Sulph. of iron and copper ; 
silver bearing. 

48 ozs. 



Argt. quartz, with galena. 

540 to 
SI 00. 

Easy of access. 



Argentiferous quartz with 

50 ozs. 

Very easy of access. 

40 to 

Auriferous quartz. 

840 to 

Easy of access. 




Cop. pyr. ; gold and silver 




4 to 

Sulphurets of silver, ga- 
lena and copper. 


Easy of access. 



Argentiferous quartz. 


Select specimens of silver ; easy of access. 


Argent, quartz and sulph. 

of silver. 

50 ozs. 



Argt. quartz, with galena 
and sulphurets. 

236 ozs. 

From surface mineral ; easy of access. 




Name of Lode. 



Name of 

Name of Owner. 


Clear Creek Co. 




Empire Dist. 


C. W. Tyrer. 

Montana Pros- 
pecting Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 





S. Robeson. 

Montana Pros- 
pecting Co. 

Shafting, 80 ft. 




A. S. Carpenter. 

Greenleaf, Clark, 
Rutherford & 

Shaft, 40 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 


Benj. F. Darrah. 

West half, Bur- 

Shaft, 180 feet; tunnel cross-cut, 

Griffith Dist. 

lington Silver 
Mining Co. 
Ea-st half, Benj. 
F. Darrah and 
M. P. Parker. 

connecting with bottom of shaft, 
225 feet. Surface openings, al 
different points, defining crevice 


McCIellan Mt., 
West Slope. 


L. H. Merrill. 

Walters, Bechtl 
& Isaacs. 

Sliaft, 10 ft. 


Kelso Mt., Ar- 
gentine Dist. 


W. Light. 

Hussey & Co. 

Drift on lode, 35 ft. 


Saxon Mt., 


H. K.Pearson. 

H. K. Pearson. IShaft, 15 't. 


Griffith Dist. 


Upiier Union 


J. M. Smith. 

J. M. Smith, 
d al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Columbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Scott & Packard. 

Scott & Packard. 

Shafting, 150 ft.; tunnel on lode, 
(jOft.; cross-cut tnneling, 400 ft. 
striking lode, at diflerent points, 
at depth of 210 ft. 


Silrer Mt., 
Union Dist. 


Daily & Taylor. 

Daily & Taylor. 


Democrat Mt., 


S. W. Leroy. 

F. De La Mar & 

Shafting, 120 ft.; drift, 12 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 



Between Dem- 
ocrat and Co- 
lumbia Mts , 
Griffith Dist. 


Tiles & Rigsby. 

Tiles, Rigsby & 
Crescent Silver 
Mining Co. 

Sliafting, 96 ft.; adit, 100 ft. 


Columbia Mt., 
Montana Dist. 


John Thompson. 

Jeff Co. Silver 
Mining Co. 

Sliaft, 112 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


Wyoming Silver 

Tunnel, 150 ft. in length. 

0. K. SILVER. 



W. B. RockwellA 

Cowles, Rockwell 

Shaft, 75 ft.; tunnel, 40 ft.; other 

Mt., Griffith 


& Lee. 



Griffitli Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


C. A. Dimick. 

Di.xon & Dimick. 

Tunnel 35 ft. from entrance, and 
1-5 ft. from surface. 


Mt., Griffith 

Sliaft, 10 tt. 


Griffith Dist. 


Pearson & Fel- 

Pearson & Fel- 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Mt., Griffith 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 


Utter & Gunn. 

Tunnel on lode and surfiace open- 
ing, 300 ft. 



W. H. Armstrong 
II. M. Thomas. 

W. II. Armstrong 
H. M. Thomas. 

Tunnel on lode, 40 ft. 
Shaft, 18 ft. 






Character of Ore. 






Per Ton. 








Argt. and aur. quartz, ga- 
lena and zinc-blemle. 



Argentiferous galena. 


200 feet south of Comet. 



Argt. quartz, and galena. 

§40 to $S(). 


Besides this return of silver, the average per 


zinc-blende, iron and 
copper pyr. Streaks of 
mineral "throigh entire 
contents of crevice (8 

cent, of lead in dressed ore is 60 to 70 per cent. 
A tram-way can be constructed from this lode 
to base of mountain, at Georgetown, for tri- 
fling expense, by which ore can be delivered 
at reduction works at an expense not to ex- 
ceed 50 cents per ton. The owners of the 
east half have secured ground on which to 
erect suitable works ; also, a tunnel site, from 
which a tunnel can be started that will follow 
the lode, and reach the discovery at a depth 
of 1,111 feet from surface. On the property 
is a stream with sufficient water for engine 
and other milling purposes, and on the mount- 
ain above the lode plenty of good timber for 
fuel. We have examined this property, ami 
believe it to be, in every respect, valuable, 
and possessing more than ordinary advan- 
tages from location, the characterof the vein, 
which has all the characteristics of a true fis- 
sure, and the ease with which the ores can be 
treated by smelting. 



Argentiferous galena and 

80 ozs. 



Argt. quartz, galena and 
sulph. of silver. 



V.^ of mile from wagon road. 



Argentiferous quartz and 

30 to 80 ozs 1 

Eiisy of access. 




Auriferous quartz. 



Average value. 1 mile from Empire. Easy of 
access by wagon road. 



Argentiferous quartz and 
sulphurets of silver. 



Assay from select specimen. Mill return from 
1st ore. Located 900 feet above Clear 
Creek, near Georgetown. Average value of 
ore, $175. 


Argt. quartz, zinc-blende, 
galena, copper and iron 


:J5 ozs. 

Easy of access. 



Continuous argt. quartz. 

4.5 percent. 

with galena. 

lead, with ! 

50 ozs. 




Gray silver, argentiferous 

Situated about 700 feet from a gooa wagon road. 


galena and decomposed 

and at a short distance from the Swansea re- 
duction works. 



Argt. quartz, with galena 
and sulphurets. 

Easy of access. 


6 to 

Sulpherets of silver. 


S113.5 to 

Price paid for first class ore at Hill's reduction 






Spar, sulph. and argent. 

Sulphurets and galena. 


Select ore. 



Easy of access. 



SlOOO coin. 

1st class. 2d class, S250. 




400 feet below snow drift, and 800 feet east of 
Willow lode. Easy of access. 



Argt. galena, with sulph. 

30 to 40 

Easy of access. 




NiiiiK' of Lode. 

Clear Creek Co. 

'o o 

Name of 

Name of Owner. 



Virginia Dist. 

H. S. Thomas. 

D. Faivre, d al. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

"0 K." 

Griffith Dist. 


J. M. Holland. 

J. M. Holland, 

Chicago & Clear 

Shaft, 15 ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


A. Huyett. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Creek Gold and 

Silver Min. Co. 


Queen's Dist. 


James O'Brien. 

Merchants <fe 
Mechanics Co., 
of Baltimore. 

Shaft, 11 ft. 


Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


A. C. Smith. 

A. C. Smith. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 


Silver Mt., Il865 

J. AY, AYhite. 

J. \y. AVhite. 

Shafts, 80 and 50 feet ; tunnel ou 

Upper Union 

lode, 78 feet. 



Rubv Mt., 


Wm. Light. 

Hussey & Co. 

Shaft, 20 ft.; tunnel on lode, 

243 ft 


Daily Dist. 


McClellan Mt., 


Leroy & Smith. 

Argentine Silver Surface opening, 100 ft., and 50 ft. 

Argentine D't. 

Mining Co. 



Red Mt., Daily 


S. Broden. 

G. C. Ransdell, 

Shaft, 10 ft. 





Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


J. M. Smith and 
L. Pameter. 

J.M.Smith, £<aJ. 

Shafting, 30 ft.; tunnel lodo 
and 100 ft. in depth. 

50 ft,. 


Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Dr. J. McCord. 

Dr. J. McCord. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 


Cascade Dist. 


T. H. Todd & Co. 

Gaskill & Co. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 



Idaho Dist. 


A. E. Patten. 

A. E. Patten, 

Shaft, 15 ft. 


Argentine Dist. 


Kelso & Hough. 

West Argentine 
Mining Co. 

Shaft, 12 ft.; tunnel on lode, 



Argentine Dist. 


W. F. Kelso. 

West Argentine 
Mining Co. 


Idaho Dist. 


Hickcox & Co. 

Hickcox & Co. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 




John Baker. 

John Baker. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 





Shaft, 25 ft. ■ 


Lincoln Dist. 


L. K. Bowdish. 

Shafting, 300 ft. 


Enterprise D't. 


C. W. Tyrer. 

Montana Pros- 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


E. A. Hill. 

pecting Co. 
E. A. Hill. 

Shaft, 27 ft. 





Fitzpatrick <!!: 

Shaft, 15 ft. 


Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Taft &. Bros. 

Taft & Bros. 

Shaft, 18 ft. 


Empire Dist. 

0. W. Tyrer. 

Martin Saw, et al. 

Shafting, 100 ft. 


Mt., Griffith 


R. Gustke. 

Old & Lampshire. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Siiermau Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


T. Burr. 

C. W. Bramel & 
J. Broden, et. al. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 


Red Mt., Daily 



Timothy Chase. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Mt , 


S. C. Bennett, 

S. C. Bennett <t 

Shaft, 15 ft. 



Griffith Dist. 
Idaho Dist. 


G. A. Patten. 

Patten & Bogue. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 


Empire Dist. 


S. Robinson. 

J. G. Mahany, 


Spanish Bar 


Dr. Eae A Co. 

et al. 
Dr Kae,dnZ. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 


Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Fisher, Meyer & 

Fisher, Meyer, 
Freds, et al. 

Shafting, 55 ft.; tunneL 





Character of Ores. 





Per Ton. 





Galena, cop. and iron pyr.; 
silver and gold bearing. 

322 G. 



.4rgt. galena, with zinc- 

Ore vein not well defined. 


6 to 





Argentiferous g;Uena. 

$05 S. 

Discovered sliaft 75 feet above discovery of Ter- 
rible; has similar ore. 



Argentiferous quartz. 


Near Watson wagon road. 



Auriferous quartz, coppor 

$170 C. 

Stamp mill. Good wagon road on lode. Near 


and iron pyrites; silver 

Silver Mountain lode. 


Sulph., argt. galena, with 


Ore vein in seams tlirough entire crevice. 

ruby silver. 



Argt. galena ; 70 per cent. 

f'W to 


Near wagon road. 




10 to 


Argt. quartz, with argt. 

00 ozs. 

1,000 feet from valley, and easy of access ; can 




connect by tunnel or tram-wa}\ 


1 to 

Argentiferous galena and 

Sinoo to 

J.^ mile from base of mountain, and V/^ miles 




from Georgetown. 


Argentiferous galena,with 

Believed to be the same as Silver Plume. Easy 
of access. 



Chloride of silver, with 

?98 to 


sulph. of copper, iron, 
lead and silver. 




Iron and cop. pyr. ; gold 
and silver bearing. 


This property vei-y valuable. 


Sulphurets of silver. 


Crevice not fully defined. 



Argentiferous galena. 

274 ozs. 






Gold and silver 


Copper pyr., galena and 

$200 C. 

Connected with good wagon road ; has 150 feet 

zinc-blende ; gold and 

of well timbered shafting, shaft house, whim 

silver bearing. 

and hoisting apparatus. 




Argentiferous galena. 


For 150 feet, solia mineral rises to surface, 
from 10 to 15 inches in width. East of 
Franklin lode. 





Argt. galena, argt. quartz, 
zinc-blende, copper and 
iron pyr. 

S40 to $350 


.\ur. and argent, quartz 

S50 C 

700 feet south of Golconda. 



Argt. quartz, galena and 
sulph. of silver. 

30 to 114 

900 feet above llelmic tunnel. 



Argt. quartz, interspersed 
with galena. 


Easy of access. 

Crevice not fully defined, but evidently a strong 


Aur. quartz, with galena 
and sulphurets. 


Easy of access. 



Galena, zinc-blende and 
copper: silver bearing. 



Argt. and aur. quartz. 

Easy of access. 



Gold bearing quartz. 


500 feet from mill. 


6 to 


Argentiferous galena. 





Name of Lode. 


a > 

Name of 

Name of Owner. ' IMPROVEMENTS. 

Clear Creek Co. 





Sherman Mt, 
Griffith Dist. 


C. S. Stowell. 

Sexton & Stowell Shaft, 14 ft. 




Wm. Brown. 

M. Lynch, et al. Shaft, 10 ft. 


Mt., Griffith 


Sherman Mt., 


J. T. Harris. 

J. T. Harris. Shaft, 20 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


Republican Mt. 
Griffith Dist. 


De La Mar & Bell. 

De La Mar <t Bell. .Shaft, 40 ft.; drift., 30 ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


John Baker. 

Baker k Shafter, Shaft, 100 ft. 
it al. 1 


Griffith Dist. 


De La Mar k Co. 

De La Mar & Co. Shaft, 40 ft. 


Gilson Gulch, 


Campbell & 

Campbell k ! Shaft, 20 ft. 

Idaho Dist. 


Neely. | 


Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


A. C. Smith. 

A. C. Smith. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


L. Whitford. 

N. Y. capitalists. 

Shaft, 60 ft. ; tunnel, 25 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 


Cooper & Fisher. 

Adams k Rogei-s 

Shaft, 2.5 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 



Mt., Griffith 


3. Baster. 

C. W. Bramel k 


Shaft, 18 ft. 




F. Delamar. ; Shaft, 40 ft. ; drift, west, 50 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 


Mt., Griffith 

Sherman Mt., 

Jas. Walker. 

Jas. Walker. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 



Gray, Wythe k 

St. Louis Mining 

Drift on vein, 140 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 




Sherman Mt., 


Gray, Wythe k 

St. Louis Mining 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 




Sherman Mt., 


Gray, Wythe k 

St. Louis Mining 

Shaft, 40 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 



S. F. NUCK- 

Columbia Mt., 


Palmer & Co. 

Packard, Scott & 

Shaft, 30 ft. 

OLLS, No. 2. 

Griffith Dist. 



Democrat Mt., 


C. H. Moor. 

C. R. Fish. 

Shaft, 18 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


McClellan Mt. 



Emanuel, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


H. M. Thomas. 

H. M. Thomas. 

Shaft, 25 ft. 


Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


R. J. Collins. 

R. J. Collins, C. 
P. Baldwin, eiai. 

Shaft, 28 ft. 


Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


S. Peterson. 

Taft Bros., et al. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 


Idaho Dist. 


Womack k 

Womack, Dean, 

Shafting, over 600 ft., and large 



amount of drifting fully devel- 
oping the lode. 




C. Kimberlin. 

Cincinnati Min. 

Shaft, 65 ft. 




Freeman, Adams 
k Wilson. 

Co., et al. 
Freeman, Adams 
k Wilson. 

Shafting, 110 ft. 


Ca-scade Dist. 


Todd & Co. 

T. H. Todd, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Paynes' Bar. 


Bangs k Edwards 

Bangs k Edwards 

Shaft, 10 ft. 



J. Elsam. 

J. Elsam & Co. 


Idaho Dist. 


Conrad Tease. 

Conrad Tease. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Spanish Bar 


Tunnel on lode, 100 ft. 


Upper Union 



E. Willson & Co. 

Shaft, 12.5 ft.; drifting, 1.50 ft. 


Silver Mt., 


Russell, Jones k 

Bullion Consoli- 

Union Dist. 


dated Co. 



CLEAR CREEK COU'^TY— Continued. 


Character of Ore. 






Per Ton. 








Argentiferous galena and 


Argentiferous quartz. 

Ea^y of access, and promise.s well. 



Argentiferous galena and 

1300 ozs. 

Easy of access ; 200 feet from wagon road. 



Argentiferous galena with 

34o ozs. 

175 feet from wagon road, and easy of access. 



Aur. and argent, quartz 
with sulphurets. 



Gold specimens, select, a.ssaying as high as 



Argentiferous galena. 

Not fully developed. 



Argentiferous galena; gold 

3'j() ozs. 

Head of Gilson gulch. 


Argentiferous galena. 



Argentiferous galena with 

$300 to 

Represented by Messrs. Lord, Whitford and 







Select ore. 


Ai-gentiferons quartz. 

SO ozs. 

A few specimens of native silver taken from 
this lode. 



Argentiferous galena and 

400 ozs. 

Two feet of crevice material, 2d class ore, as.says 



Argentiferous galena. 


4 to 


500 ozs. 


Argt. quartz and galena. 

100 oza. 



Sulphurets, zinc - blende 
and galena. 

280 ozs. 



Sulphurets of silver and 




Easy of access 


Argt. galena, interspersed 
throughout crevice 


Select ore ; easy of access. 
Not developed. 



Argent, and aur. quartz 
with copper and iron 

Easy of access. 

Crevice not well defined, but promises well. 



Argt. quartz, galena with 
gray copper, sulphuret-s 
of iron and copper. 



Select ore. 



Galena, zinc-blende, cop- 
per and iron pyrites, 
gray copper and sulph. 
of silver. 

Further description elsewhere. 



Iron, copper, zinc-blende 
and sulph. 



Paid by Prof. Hill. 



Galena and zinc-blende. 

.50 ozs. 




Select specimens. A fine streak of surface ore, 
with nuggets of gold imbedded. 


Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 

S150 C. 

Ci"evice well defined. 





Argt. snd aur. quartz. 



No statistics. 



Aur. quartz, copper and 
iron pyrites. 


sios c. 

Easy of access. 



S155 C. 

E; of access. 




Name of Lode. 

Location, l'^ ?.] 

Clear Creek Co. jd. I 


Name of 

Name of Owner. 




















U. S. COIN. 




Idaho Dist. 

14 Queen Dist., 
the other half 
Griffith, on 
Brown and 
Sherman Mts. 

Silver Mt., 
Union Dist. 

Brown Mt.. 
Griffith Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

I Democrat Mt., 
; Griffith Dist. 
I Sherman Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Sherman Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Cascade Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 

Union Dist. 

Leaven'rth Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Ruby Mt., 

Daily Dist. 
Kelso Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Columbia Mt., 

Griffith Dist. 
Idaho Dist. 

Brown Mt. 

Griffith Dist. 
Republican Mt. 

Griffith Dist. 
Republican Mt. 

Griffith Dist. 
Daily Dist. 


H. M. Thomas. 
H. M. Thomas. 
D. Jutton, ei al. 

J. C. Hough, et al. 

Shaft, on discovery, 10 ft. 

Terrible Lode .t Fully developed. 
Clark Mining | 
Co. , 

Knickerbocker Shaft, 190 ft. 
Gold Mining Co. 
Campbell A Clark, Crow i IShaft, 75 ft. 

Haggart. | Campbell. | 

A.C.Smith. A.C.Smith. Shaft, 10 ft. 

Thos. Burr. 

A. C. Smith & Co. Tunnel being driven on (be lode; 
. shaft, b,') ft. 

1866 J. Bell. 

C. J. Goss. 

1860 Cooper & Fisher. | Adams, Rogers, 
j PhillettsiUick- 

1865 'Russell & Scott. ! Scott & Brother. 

1869 ]H. H. Hewitt. 


1868, Ray & Clark. 

1869 S.C. Bennett, 

1867 lA.H. Whitehead. 

1865 1 P. H. Rhodes. 









Griffith Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 
Idaho Dist. 

Virginia Dist. 

Idaho Dist. 


Virginia Dist. 



M. Light. 
Prof. Bowman. 
Malone &. Moor. 
Wm. Ilobbs. 

J. W. Ames. 

Webster & Ames. 

J. M. Dennis and 
Timothy Chase. 

C. II. Ilurlbut. 
F. Leighton. 
W. H. Latshaw. 

Ewrs & Dun- 

Dr. Pollock.W.lI. 

P. L. Bryant & 

Dr. Noson, et al. 

j S.C. Bennett, 

A. H. Whitehead. 


Wood '& Weaver. 

Hussey & Co. 

Eggleston, et al. 

Scott & Packard. 

Barnes & Hobbs. 

Brown Mining 
De La Mar &. Co. 

Webster & Co. 

G. C. Ransdell, 

Tunnel on lode, 30 ft. ; drift from 
I tunnel, '20 ft. 
IShaft, 30 ft. 

'shaft, 30 ft. 

(Surface opening, 4i) ft ; shaft, 15 ft, 

jshaft, 15 ft. 

[Shaft, 14 ft. 

Shaft, 35 ft. 


Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft.; drift on lode, 96 ft. 

^Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Ishaft, 12 ft. 

Fully developed. 


Shaft, 10 ft. 

'shaft, 40 ft. 

iTunuel on lode, 75 ft. ;' shaft, 10ft. 

Bailey, Nott & Shaft, 15 ft.; drift, 20 ft. ; tunnel 
John Cree. | on lode, 60ft. 

Needham & 
Latshaw & Mixer 


Shaft, 20 ft. 
Shaft, 35 ft. 

Shaft, 75 ft. 
Shaft, 100 ft. 






Character of Ore. 





Per Ton. 






.Krgt. and aur. quartz. 

■40 ozs. of access. 


16 to 

Galena, zinc-blende, iron 

51 to 3135 

50 to 630 

Further statistics elsewhere. 


pyrites, stephanite, pyr- 
argyrite and silver 





Solid iron and cop. pyr.; 
gold bearing. 


$100 C. 

Assay from 13 different specimens. Eii-sy of 



Sulph. of silver, galena 
and zinc-blende. 

$500 to 

900 feet west of Terrible. 


Argentiferous galena. 

4 to 6 

3 to 

Argt. galena, with siilpb.i8240 to 


The average value of entire contents of crevice 




(5 feet). The tunnel will cross the Ida, Smith, 
Tom Moonlight, Eureka, Mt. A'eriion and 
Peabody lodes; also, Robt. Emmett and 
trend of Mendota. 



Argentiferous galena. S20 to $700 




Argt. quartz and galena. 


Select ore. 



Silver from argt. galena. 


50 per cent, lead ; easy of access ; 15iX) feet 
above Georgetown. 


Argt. quartz, with galena $3000. 
and sulphurets. ' 


Select ore ; easy of access. 



Argentiferous quartz anil $175. 
sulphurets. 1 

Surface ore. It is of esxsy access, and is beiug 
fully developed. 


Argt. quartz, with cop. and 

iron pyr.; sulph. silver. 



Argt. quartz, with galena, 
cop. and iron pyr. 

40 to 300 

A good wagon road to shaft house. 

Crevice not fully developed, but 5 ft. of quartz 
already exposed. Easy of access and promises 

Located near the Equator lode. 


3 to 

Sulphurets of silver, with 

590 ozs. 


galena and zinc-blende. 



Zinc-blende, ruby silver 

Crevice material, soft quartz and Talcott mat- 

and argt. quartz. 


ter. Easy of access. 



Argentiferous quartz. 

Easy of access by tram-way. 



Sulphurets of silver and 


1000 feet east of Nuckolls, and supposed to be 
an extension. 


Galena, copper and iron 
pyrites ; silver bearing. 


Decomposed crevice material. 


4 to 

Galena, zinc-blejide and 

S200 to 

S50 to 

Near the Brown and Terrible lodes. 


chloride of silver. 




Argentiferous galena. 



Argentiferous quartz. 

No assay or mill return. 


Argt. galena, with sulph. 
of silver. 

$24 to S209 

48 ozs. 

Mill run from ore vein. The crevice material 
in this lode is from 100 to 200 feet in breadth, 
and contains, besides ore, feldspathic quartz 
and porphyry. Entire content.-, of this great 
fissure assay from 12 to 24 ozs. silver. About 
}A mile from good wagon road. 



Argt. quartz, zinc-blende, 

60 to 325 

Easy of access. The mill is willing to pay at 

sulph. and little galena 


the rates named, in any quantity. 


Aur. quartz, with galena. 

219 ozs. 



Argt. quartz ^d galena ; 
silver bearing. 




Silver bearing. 

$300 to 



Gold bearing. 


Surface ore. 


Cop. and iron pyr.; gold 







Name of 

Name of Lode. 

Clear Creek Co 



Name of Owner. 


WM. M. 

Republican Mt 


Collins & Stowell. 

E. P. Sexton & Co. 

Shaft, 75 ft.; drift., 40 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


Idaho Dist. 


A. H. Huyett. 

Chicago & Clear 

Shaft, 140 ft. 


Creek Gold andl 
Silver Min. Co. | 


Fall River Dist. 

Shaft, 22 ft. 



Snake River 



Wilson Mining 

Shaft, 45 ft. 


Sherman Mt., 


Watson & Ed- 

Clark, Crocker, 

Tunnel cross-cut, 80 feet ; 3 shafts. 

Griffith Dist. 


Newell & Wat- 

20 ft. eacli. 


Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Darrah & Parker. 

Darrah & Parker. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Columbia Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


Decker & Thomas 

Campbell, Decker 
& Clark. 

Shaft, 26 ft. 


McClellan Mt., 
E. Argentine 


T. J. Campbell. 

Henshel, Garrett, 
et al. 

Shafting and drifting im 
meuts, $:i,otiO. 



Democrat Mt., 


Cooper & Fisher. 

Astor Silver Min. 

Shafting, 217 feet ; tunnel on lode. 

Griffith Dist. 

Co., et al. 

20 ft.; drifting, 50 ft., to a 
of 80 ft. 



Democrat Mt., 


Cooper & Fisher. 

Adams, Rogers, 

Shaft, 35 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 

Phillets & Hick- 


Sherman Mt., 


Shaft, 13 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


Sherman Mt., 


G. L. Sites. 

Wyoming Silver 

Shaft discovery, 10 ft.; shaft at east 

Griffith Dist. 

Mining Co. 

extent of lode, 20 ft. 


Mt., Griffith 


Pearson & 

Pearson &, 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Democrat Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 


6. L. Sites and 
D, T. Rigsby. 

Sites & Rigsby. 

Shafting, 90 ft. 


McClcUan Mt., 
Griffith IHst. 


Stewart & Moore 

J. 0. Stewart and 
C. R. Fish. 

Shaft, 14 ft. 


Shiriiuai Mt., 


P. L Bryant, 

Shaft, 70 ft. ; drifting, 38 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 



Cascade Dist. 


W. R. Griffiths & 
J. P. Jones. 

W. R. Griffiths &. 
J . P. Jones. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 



Bangs AWomack 

Bangs AWomack 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 


C. J. Goss. 

Baltimore Min. 


Chicago Creek 


C. H. Dimick. 

C. H. Dimick. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 







Character of Ore. ^^^^^'' 
Per Ton. 




In.) 1 


5 to 8 


Argt. quartz, with galena 
and sulphurets. 

Argt. galena; gold bear- 

SoOO to 

277 ozs. 


Auriferous quartz. 

Supposed to be very rich. 


Galena, zinc- blende and 
silver sulphurets. 

5200 to 



Not developed; 1600 feet. 



Sulphurets, with galena. 




ArgentiferoTia galena. 

$500 to 

300 ozs. 


3 to 

Argt. quartz, galena, zinc- 
blende and sulphurets. 

13 to 
18300 ozs. 



Argt. quartz, galena, zinc- 
blende and sulphurets. 






Argentiferous gajena and 

Argt. quartz, with galena 

distributed throughout 

entire crevice. 
Argt. quartz, sulphurets 

and galena. 

$120 to 

Select ore. 

High up on the mountain. 


4 to 5 

4 to 


2 to 


8 to 


Argt. quartz, with galena 

and sulphurets. 
Streaks of mineral thro'gh 

Argt. quartz, with sulph. 

197 ozs. 

200 to 
lOOO ozs. 


Select specimens, $1,000. Easy of access. 
Near summit. 
Easy of access. 


Easy of access. 


Sulphurets and galena. 


Argt. quartz, with galena 
and zinc-blende. 





Name of Owner. 











Ilanna & Fro- 
Haight & Havens 

E. Burns & Co. 

Everest & Martin 

Cutter & Conger. 

Conger, Hite & 

W. A. Martin & 

S. Ewiug, et al. 

S. P. Conger. 

S. Moekert, et al. 

Ilite & Co. 

B. F. Leonard & 

Carter & Co. 



CARIBO, No. 2 




E. F. LOWE. 


No. 2. 









Carter & Co. 

J. Anderson, etal. 

A. D. Breed & Co. 
and Cariljou 
Mining Co. 

S. Conlclin. 

F. Ruljidoux. 
Everest & Martin 
Baker & Co. 
S. Conlilin. 
Strait & Ebert. 

B. F. Leonard & 

Strait & Ebert. 

J. Snow, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 20 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 23 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 25 ft. 
Shaft, 25 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 
[Shafting, 5i ft. 

Sliaft. 20 ft. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 

Shaft, 14 ft. 

Shaft, 25 ft' 

Well developed. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 

Shaft. 11 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 20 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 

Haight & Havens 
Thos. Smail, et al. 
Quinn k Co. 

Cosgrove & Borie. Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 30 ft. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 

W. W. Warner, 

et al. 

J. C. Beard, & Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 






Character of Ores. 

Per Ton. 











Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. quartz, with copper 

.\rgt. quartz, with sulph. 

79 ozs. 

Not fully developed. 


Argt. quartz, with galena. 

Ore vein not defined. 





Zinc-blende and argt. ga- 

Argt. galena, with sulph. 
of silver. 

Argt. galena, with sulph. 
of .silver. 

Argt. quartz, with sulph. 

196 to 254 

More specimens of native silver taken from this 

lode than any other in the district. 
Assay from select specimens, $15,767. 

Ore vein not well defined. 


7 to 

Argt. galena, zinc-blende 

and black suljih. 
Argt. galena, zinc-blende 

and sulph. 
Argt. quartz, with galena. 

260 ozs. 

The first lode discovered in Grand Island dist. 
Ore vein undefined. 





Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. quartz. 



Argt. and aur. quartz, with 

sulph. of .silver. 
Surface argt. quartz. 

97 ozs. 






Sulph. of silver, lead and 
cop. ; chloride of silver 
in small quantities. 

Argt. quartz, with sulph. 

Argt. quartz, with brittle 

Argt. quartz, with galena. 

.?111 to 

1S2 ozs. 

$100 to 

The great silver mine of Colorado. Further 
statistics elsewhere. 

Assay from surface quartz. 34 mile from a 

traveled road. 



Galena, sulph., iron and 
copper; silver bearing. 

Argt. quartz, with brittle 

Surface quartz. 


Not fully developed; promises well. 



Argt. quartz, with galena 
and copper. 

This lode not fully developed. 






Argt. galena, with zinc- 
blende and sulphurets 
of copper. 

Gold and silver bearing 

Sulphurets of silver and 
argt. galena ; gold bear- 

101 ozs. 

■?90 to 

18 ozs. 

Surfece quartz, and easy of access. 

Prof. Hill's reduction. 
Stamp mill. 


Argt. quartz, brittle silver 
with sulp^n-eta and 

Argt. quartz. 

3 miles northeast of Caribo lode; promises welL 





Name of Lode. 

Boulder Co. f 


S. O 

Name of 

Name of Owner. 



jrand Island ] 
"i. I. Dist. 


Pugh, Lang & 
G. C. Albright. 

Mishler & Pugh. 
Albright & Co. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 


3. 1. Dist. 


McCormick & Co. 

McCormick & Co. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 

CO. 1 
JOE DATIS «. I. Dist. 

& CO. 1 
J. ATSAN- G. I. Dist. 


r. McAlister. 
J. Schaffer. 

r. McAlister & 
J. Aisanhuit&Co 

Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 25 ft. 

JONES. G. I. Dist. 


John Jones. 

John Jones. 

Shafting, 25 ft. 







G. I. Dist. 

a. I. Dist. 

G. I. Dist. 

Sugar Loaf 
G. I. Dist. 

G. I. Dist. 


J. B. Tomlinson 
Thos. Smail, et al. 

F. C. Albright. 

John Duncan. 

McPhereon & 
E. Burns & Co. j 

J. B. Tomlinson 
rhos. Small, e<oJ. 

J. E. Kitzen- 
mayer, et al. 
John Duncan. 

McPherson. Ilar- 
rigan & Hill. 
E. Burns & Co. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 6 ft. 
Shaft, 14 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 

ST.\R. 1 


G. I. Dist. 
G. I. Dist. 


F. Brandry & Co. 

T. McBreen & Co. 
F. Brandry & Co. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


Everest & Martin 

Everest & Martin 

Shaft, 341^ ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


S. Conger. 

Conger & Cutter. 

Shaft, 18 ft. 



G. I. Dist. 
G. I. Dist. 


Uite & Edwards. 
E. Burns & Co. 

Hite & Edwards. 
E. Bums & Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft.; 30 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 

on weat. 


G. I. Dist. 


J. S. Kesler. 

J. S. Kesler. 

Shaft, 15ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


M. J. Stone. 

S. B. McPherson. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


John Baker. 

Baker & Co. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 




Sugar Loaf 
G. I. Dist. 

G. I. Dist. 


J. C. Blake. 
D. Smith. 
W. A. Martin. 

Tappan & Co. 

Smith, Boyles & 
W. A. Martin. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


Chase & Co. 

Pacific Co. 

Shaft, 28 ft. 




G. I. Dist. 
G. I. Dist. 


J. Snow. 

S. L. Higby, et al. 

J. Snow. 

Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 12 ft. 



G. I. Dist. 
G. I. Dist. 


G. J. mte & Co. 
T. J. Hill. 

G. J. Hite & Co. 

Shaft, 26 ft. 
Shaft, 20 ft. 




McMain & Co. 

Richard Fowley, 
John Anderson. 

Shafting, 50 ft. 




John Anderson. 

Shaft, 40 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 



Cosgrove & Borie 

Sliaft, 10 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


F. Brandry. 
J. Schaffer. 

Brandry & Rob- 
J. Aisanhuit & Cc 

Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft; 3 6 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


Is. Ewing,e<a?. 

S. Ewing, et al 

Shaft, 14 ft. 



BOULDER COVl!iTY— Continued. 

>■ Character of Ores. 

' Assay, Mill 
: Per Ton. Return. 






Argt. galena, with snlph. 
of silver. 

Promises exceedingly well. 




Argt. quartz, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. quartz. 

70 ozs. 

Surface ore. 

Undeveloped, but promises well. 



Argt. quartz. 
Argt. quartz. 



246 ozs. 

Crevice and ore vein undefined, but evidently 

a large fissure. 
Prof. Hill's reduction. 

Not fully developed. 



Argt. quartz, with brittle 

Sulph. and argt. galena. 


Shaft house and blacksmith shops. 
Select ore. 

Argt. quartz. 


Not fully developed ; promises well. 
Crevice not fully developed ; easy of access. 





Argt. quartz. 

100 ozs. 





Argt. and aur. quartz, and 

Argt. quartz, with galena 
and sulph. 

Argt. quartz, galena, zinc- 
blende, cop.and iron pyr. 
with sulph. of silver. 

Decomposed quartz. 

Sn ozs. S. 
30 ozs. G. 


Select ore. ^ mile from main road from Cari- 
bou to Boulder City. 

Easy of access. 






Argt. quartz, sulphurets of 

copper pyr. 
Argt. and aur. quartz, 

with galena, cop. and 

iron sulph. 
Chloride and sulphurets 

of silver 
Sulphurets, zinc - blende 

and galena. 
Zinc-blende, cop. pyr. and 

gray sulph. of silver. 
Argt. quartz, with galena. 

14 ozs. 

$.'i00 to 



250 ozs. 

Promises finely. 

Easy of access, and to be fully developed. 


Silver ; highest assay. Average assay, $620. 

Easy of access, but undeveloped. 



Copper and iron pyr. with 

Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of copper and iron. 

Is easy of access, and promises well. 
250 feet above Caribo. 



.4rgt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. quartz, with galena 

and sulph. 
Aur. and argt. quartz. 

368 to $320 
$52 to $240 
5110 C. 

Situated near main wagon road, and accessible 
at all seasons. 


Argt. galena. 


2200 ozs. 

Assay, from select specimens, by Prof. Hill. 

Argl. quartz, with sulph. 

30 ozs. 

Surface quartz ; crevice undefined. 




Name of Lode. 

Boulder Co. 

- £"1 

° ^ Name of 

^ ^ Discoverer. 



Name of Owner. , IMPROVEMENTS. 



Grand Island 
G. I. Dist. 



J. C. Beard. 
J. C. Beard. 

J. C. Beard, et al. 
J. C. Beard, et al. 

Shaft, 14 ft. 
Shaft, 16 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


II. Wood & Co. 

H. Wood & Co. 

Shafting, 30 ft. 





G. I. Dist. 
G. I. Dist. 
G. I. Dist. 
Gold Hill Dist. 


Geo. Spencer. 
F. C. Albright. 
Hite & Co. 
Thos. Quinn. 

Moekert & Spen- 
cer, et al. 

J. E. Katzen- 
mayer, et al. 

Hite & Co. 

Thos. Quinn. 

Shaft, 18 ft. 
Shaft, 15 ft. 
Shaft, 10 ft. 
Shaft, 14 ft. 




G. I. Dist. 


J. Anderson. 

J. Anderson, «<aJ. Shaft, 33 ft. 

G. I. Dist. 

Pugh Mt., 
G. I. Dist. 


F. C. Albright & 
Ulysses Pugh. 

F. C. Albright & 
Ulysses Pugh. 

Shaft, 14 ft. 

6 shafts, and considerable drifting. 


6. 1. Dist. 


R. Gustke. 

R. Gustke & Co. 

Tunnel on vein, 15 ft 
breadth of tunnel. 

; height and 
6 ft., each. 


G. I. Dist. 


Hite & Co. 

Hite A Co. i Shaft, 10 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


W. Cox. 

Whimsray & Cox 

Shaft, 13 ft. 





G. I. Dist. 
6. 1. Dist. 

G. I. Dist. 



G. W. Carter & 
Dougherty & Co. 

Moekert & Co. 

G. W. Carter & 
Dougherty 4 Co. 

Moekert & Co. 

Shaft, 45 ft. 
Shaft, 14 ft. 

Shaft, 27 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


Hite & Co. 

Hite & Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


G. I. Dist. 


Wm. Worn. 

Wm. Worn. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 


Sugar Loaf 
Gold Hill Dist. 


John Duncan. 
Gill & Brooks. 

John Duncan. 

John C. Collier, 
S. Ewing, etal. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 
Shafting, 160 ft. 




S. Ewing, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 



BOULDER COV^TY— Continued. 




Character of Ore. 

Per Ton. 







Snlpbnrets of silver. 

43 ozs. 

300 feet south of Caribo mine. 


Quartz and decomposed 

crevice material. 
Argt. quartz. 


$9 to $15. 1 

Silver and gold. 
Promises well. 


6 to 


50 ozs. 



Argt. quartz, with brittle 

Argt. quartz, with galena. 

Crevice uncertain, and ore vein undefined. 



Auriferous quartz. 
Surface argt. quartz. 

95 ozs. C. 

20 ozs. 

1400 feet claim. Handful of dirt from surface, 
panned from tin plate, yields $1.50. 







Galena, zinc -blende and 

Argent, quartz, sulph. of 

silver, copper, iron, zinc 

and lead. 
Argt. and aurifer. quartz. 

with galena, copper and 

iron pyrites. 
Argt. quartz, with galena. 

$1093 to 

$80 to $100 

100 ozs. 

One mile north of Caribo. 

One of the best silver mines in the Territory. 

Specimens of native gold ; promises well. 

Ore vein undefined. 





Argt. quartz, with copper 

Argt. and ajirifer. quartz, 

with sulph. of silver. 
Argt. quartz, \ "itli sulph. 

of galena. 

26 ozs. 


Being actively developed. 

Specimens of native silver and gold. Mill re- 
turn — price paid by Prof. HUl. 
Easy of access. 


Decomposed argt. galena. 

Not developed. 


Argt. galena, with sulph. 

of silver. 
Argt. quartz, with sulph. 

Promises well. 

Crevice undeveloped, but promises well 


Copper and silver and coi>- 
per pyrite.s and galena. 
Auriferous quartz. 


$10 6 C. 

Stamp mill. 


30 ozs. 






Name of 

Name of Lode. 


Name of Owner 


Summit Co. 



Snake Biver 


Fisher & 


Fisher, et al. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Peru Dist. 


Webster & Co. 

Webster & Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Snake River 


H. M. & W. 

H. M. & W. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 






Glazier Mt., 



Boston Silver 

Shafting, 200 ft.; 2 cross-cut tun- 

Peru Dist. 

Mining Associa- 

nels, 100 and 1.50 ft. ; levels and 
drifts, over 800 ft.; considerable 


Peru Dist. 


Webster & Co. 

W. W. & F. E. 


Shaft, 15 ft. 


Glazier Mt., 


Guibor, Harring- 

Cincinnati Min- 

Shaft, 12 ft. 


Snake River 

ton & Co. 

ing Co. 


Glazier Mt., 


A. Guibor. 

Boston & Cincin- 

Shaft, 18 ft ; tunnel on lode, 28 ft. 


Snake River 

nati Mining Co. 


Peru Dist. 


S. Ware. 

S. Ware. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Snake River 


Cbas. Fix. 

Harrington & 

Shaft, 12 ft. 


Snake River. 


Chas. Fix. 

II. C. Harrington 
and Cbas. Fix. 

Drift on lode, 20 ft. 


Peru Dist. 


Webster & Co. 

Webster & Co. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 


Snake Biver 


Fisher k 

Fisher, et al. 


Peru Dist. 


Webster & Co. 

Webster & Co. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Snake Biver 

Glazier Mt., 

Peru Dist. 


Cbas. Fix. 

Fix & Harring- 

Shaft, 12 ft. 



Daily & Martin. 

Daily, Martin (c 

Shaft, 10ft.; cross-cut tunnel, 250 


in length, 300 ft. at lode ; drift- 


Peru Dist. 


S. Ware. 

S. Ware. 

ing. Km ft. 
Shaft, lU It. 


Snake River 
Snake River. 


LjTich & Pratt. 

Sukey Mining 

Shafting, 55 ft.; tunnel on lode, 



F. Walker. 

Huyett & Fix. 

260 ft. 
Tunnel on lode, 150 ft. 


Snake River. 


Huyett & Fix. 

Huyett & Fix. 

Shaft, 12 ft. 






Character of Ore. 





Per Ton. 





Crevice undefined. 


Argentiferous quartz. 



Galena, zinc-blende with 

§25 to $936 

4to 5 


Argt. quartz and galena, 

3.5 to 100 

Ore from this lode is delivered at the reduction 

sulph. of barjta, gray 


works, at the base of the mountains — a dis- 

copper and zinc-blende ; 

tance of over 1.000 feet — by a wooden tram- 

silver bearing. 

way, at an expense of not over 20 cents a ton. 
This is one of the best opened mines in Colo- 
rado, and ore can be taken from it, in any de- 
sired quantity, at small expense. 



Argentiferous galena. 

70 ozs. 

Easy of access. 



Argt. galena, with heavy 
spar and iron. 


A good road nearly to the mine. 


Galena and black sulph. 


150 feet east of the Grand Turk lode, and be- 

of silver. 

lieved to be an extension of the famous Corn- 
stock mine. 



Iron and copper pyr. with 
galena and argt. quartz. 

Promises well. 


Argt. quartz and galena. 

This lode is near the La Plata, and is not fully 


Argft. galena, with copper 
and iron pyr. 


3 or 4 seams of ore, from 1 to 6 inches, dis- 
tributed throughout crevice material. In 
the neighborhood of good water-power. 



Sulphurets, with galena. 

50 ozs. to 

Easy of access. 



Argentiferous quartz. 


Aur. quartz, with galena. 

Easy of access, and ne;ir La Plata and Harring 
ton lodes. 


Argentiferous galena. 

.?.500 to 




Galena, baryta and sulph. 
of copper. 

Promises well. 



Argentiferous galena. 


4 to 

Argt. galena, with sulph. 

200 to 1500 

$200 to 

8 tons of ore taken from this lode yielded $-100 


4 to 

Argt. quartz, with ruby 

GOO to 3000 


per ton. , , , , 
This is a vein of unusual strength and richness. 


silver and gray copper. 









Name of Lode. 

Name of Lode. 

Lake Countj-. 

Per Ton. 

Lake County. 

Per Ton. 


Red Mt. Dist. 


Red Mt. Dist. 

$146 81 


Red Mt. 

$121 44 


Red Mt. 

104 01 


Red Mt. 

59 05 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

152 37 


Red Mt. 

96 9» 


Red Mt. 

190 34 




Red Mt. 

121 74 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

149 76 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

174 85 




Red Mt. 

2G9 63 


Red Mt. 

188 14 ' 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

93 38 


Red Mt. 



Red Mt. 

132 37 


Red Mt. 

108 39 


Red Mt. 

98 12 


Red Mt. 

170 71 


Red Mt. 

114 72 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

128 44 



176 2;i 


Red Mt. 

87 35 


Red Mt. 

109 VO 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

92 09 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 



73 92 


Red Mt. 

88 71 


Red Mt. 



Red Mt. 

94 24 


Red Mt. 

67 7» 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

118 63 




Red Mt. 





Red Mt. 

92 44 


Red Mt. 

128 82 1 


Hed Mt. 

123 16 


Red Mt. 



Red Mt. 

140 80 


Red Mt. 

134 33 1 



Red Mt. 

85 75 


Red Mt. 

275 18 


Red Mt. 

177 53 



176 46 1 


Red Mt. 




154 19 



Red 5It. 

97 20 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 

162 65 


Red Mt. 


Red Mt. 



92 87 


Red Mt. 

155 84 


Red Mt. 

125 29 


Red Mt. 

177 53 

WM. TELL. ' 

Rod Mt. 

97 57 



In order that o«r list of lodes may be as complete as possible, we append 
the following miscellaneous descriptions. The data concerning some of 
these was received too late for regular insertion. In other cases important 
additional statistics were expected, which either did not reach us at all, or 
came too late for appearance in regular order; and, in a few instances, we 
wished to publish a more complete history of mines and their improvements, 
than could be condensed in our tabular form of description. 

Prominent among the latter class is the great silver mine of Grand 
Island district, Boulder county, the Caribou. This lode is not only one of 
the most valuable silver mines in Colorado, but among the richest ever 
discovered in America, and, when fully developed and worked to its full 
capacity, will not only enrich all of its proprietors, but add largely to the 
material wealth of the Territory. The discoverers of this lode were prac- 
tical miners and prospecters, and took active measures toward the devel- 
opment of the property, which they considered valuable from the first. 
Although the district, at the time of the discovery of the lode, was but 
sparsely settled, comparatively unknown, and remote from any town or depot 
of supplies, work was pushed forward on the mine, energetically, by the orig- 
inal Caribou company, which was composed of the following members: 
William J. Martin, Greorge Lyttle, Hugh McCammeron, John H. Pickle 
and Samuel Conger. The latter soon sold his interest to the others, who 
still constitute the company. 

As a result of their labors the lode was opened, by a shaft, to the depth 
of seventy feet. The existence of a well defined crevice, five feet in width, 
between good walls of horn-blendic granite, with an ore vein varying from 
two or three to thirty-six inches, was fully established, and the contents of 
this crevice and ore vein proved to be unusually rich in silver ores. The 
entire contents of the crevice assay from $109.73 to $16,498.95, and are com- 
posed of true argentiferous quartz, sulphurets of silver, and sulphurets of 
silver and antimony (silver glance and brittle silver), sulphurets of copper, 
small quantities of sulphurets of lead, and minute particles of chloride of 
silver, with specimens of native leaf silver. The percentage of copper in 
the ore, according to an analysis by Prof Burlingame, is about 8fo per 
cent. When the shaft was sunk to a depth of fifteen feet, the contents of 
the ore vein were assayed by Prof Hill, of Black Hawk, and found to contain 
470 ounces of silver to the ton of 2,000 pounds, and the enormous sum of 
$13,000 was offered by the professor for one ton of first-class ore from this 
vein. Five assays from ore taken from the vein, at a depth of thirty ieet, 
show the following remarkable returns, $109.73, $111.48, $207.35, $1,487.20, 
and $16,498.95. Three assays, made by Chas. E. Sherman, from ore taken 
out at a depth of from eighty to ninety feet, gave the following returns, 
$145.57, $634.53, $1,054.48. These were made from the average contents 
of the ore vein. 


In September, 1870, the Caribou company made a sale of the west-half 
of the lode to A. J). Breed, of Cincinnati, lor a considerable sum of money. 
As soon as Mr. Breed made the purchase, he placed the property in charge 
of B 0. Cutter, a mining captiiin of large experience in the management of 
silve rmines, and a most energetic and efficient business man. Mr. Cutter, 
haviu<'- at his disposal all requisite means, commenced active operations on a 
lar<-e scale, and has the mine opened extensively, and is prepared to take any 
desired quantity of ore, varying in value from 8100 to 82,000 per ton, from 
this inexhaustible supply. At present there are no reduction works for the 
treatment of silver ores nearer the mines than Prof. Hill's works at Black 
Hawk, and as the cost of transporting a ton of ore from the mines to the 
works 'averages at least 810, the mine will not be worked to itsfuU capacity 
until contemplated reduction works are erected nearer the mines. Never- 
theless, the amount of quartz taken out, daily, is large, and exceedingly 
remunerative to the owners of the property. We have no statistics of the 
full amount of ore taken from the mine, but know the amount to be large, as 
over fifty men have been constantly at work, the greater portion of this 
number on the west-half, under tlie efficient management of B. O. Cutter. 
The direction of this great fissure in the country rock, the contents of which 
are so immensely rich, is that usual to the true fissures of the mining districts 
of Colorado, northeast and southwest, and its trend about 1S°. Its location 
is on Caribou mountain, about one and a half miles from the summit of the 
main range and the region of eternal snow, a few hundred ieet from the city 
of Caribou, and about eighteen miles from Central, in Gilpin county. 

When its value was fully established, much attention was attracted to the 
district, and prospecters swarmed the surrounding mountains and ravines. 
Many of these have made discoveries of other silver lodes in the neighbor- 
hood, which promise well; and, altogether, the prospects of Grand Island 
district and Caribou City look favorable. 

Another silver mine, worthy of more than usual notice, from which we 
have full statistics, owing to the courtesy of its able superintendent, Prof 
R. 0. Old, is the Terrible lode, on Brown and Sherman mountains, near 
Georgetown, Clear Creek county. The portion of the mine from which we 
have statements, is that owned by the Colorado Terrible Lode Mining Co., 
English capitalists. We quote from Prof. Old : 

" When our company purchased and took charge of the present property, 
viz:^ 1.100 feet, there had been sunk a main shaft, 251 feet deep; an a"ir 
shaft, o6 feet deep, three sets of levels commenced and run, airgre«ratiug. in 
their length east, 270 feet, and west, 294 feet, and 53 fathoms of ground 
stoped out in what is still the Clark Mining Co.'s property (500 feet) east, 
and 170 fathoms west. The yield of the mine, to date of ownership by our 
company, had been, from 401 fathoms of ground worked (including shafts, 
levels and stopes), about $150,000. 

''Since my management (April 11th, last), the following are the facts: 
ii.xtension of first, second and third level drifts beyond former head- 
ings, 10 a feet, 13U feet, and 200 J feet, respectively, amounting to 79 
iathoms of ground. ' i- J ' o 

, 1 K?].'^!''^' ^'^^'^^^^e 47 i feet, and a part of another, 26 feet, amounting 
to 15^ fathoms of ground. > » o 

"Stoping in first level, 79| fathoms. 

'•Stoping in second level. 50^ fathoms. 


" Sloping in third level (No. 1 stope), 422 fathoms, and (No. 2 stope), 9 

" Total of ground worked out since the purcnase oy our company, 276 

"We have car tracks and trip plats in each leve.. The tracks, respect- 
ively, are 249i feet, 255^ feet, and 228J feet. 

"Our ladder ways are perfect and safe, and comprise 120 feet in the old 
workings of Clark & Crow, and 224 feet in those of our company. 

"The yield of the Terrible company's portion of the lode, since Api'il 1, 
to December 31, 1870, has been, of first-class ore, 189,606 pounds, or 94 
tons, 1,606 pounds, ranging, in value, from 319 ounces to 5)57 ounces of 
silver per ton — American assay — the English assay making a difference in 
favor of the ore of from 6 ounces to 50 ounces silver per ton, 2,000 pounds, 
the long ton, as it is called, returning 386 ounces to 630 ounces. 

"Of second-class ore, the yield has been 148 tons, 1,070 pounds (all 
treated by the Stewart Silver lleducing Co.), assaying in bulk from 90 
ounces to 172^ ounces of silver per ton, of which 80 per cent, was returned 
in fine bullion. 

"Of third-class ore, the yield has been about 290 tons, of which 771 
tons only has been treated, assaying, the concentrated, 115 ounces silver per 
ton, and as mined, 51 ounces. 

"The ore in our mine increases, in per ton value, as depth is obtained, 
but not in quantity, as usually expected. The mineral in our third level is 
of twice the value that mined in our first. Our working force, in and out 
of the mine, is thirty-six hands, which includes our force in the tunnel. 

"Our tunnel is, at present, in 276^ feet, with about 68 feet yet to run. 
Its point of reaching the lode is 221 feet west of the main shaft, at about 
300 feet below the surface. The rock is a hard, syenite granite, in which we 
are only enabled to make an average of four feet per week. Are expecting 
to reach the Terrible about the 1st of May next, by which time we pro- 
pose to have our suspension wire-way up and ready for transporting the ore 
of the whole mine coming through the tunnel to the foot of the mountain." 

The Federal lode, Griffith mountain, Griffith district, Clear Creek county, 
owned by Messrs. Stowell, Cox, Barrett and Lusk, carries ores of unusual 
richness and purity. Through the courtesy of one of the proprietors, G. W. 
Barrett, an experienced miner, we had an opportunity to examine ore from 
this vein, and found specimens of true argentiferous quartz and pure crys- 
talized sulphurets of silver (silver glance) peculiarly rich and beautiful, and 
from facts presented to us, which are illustrated by the following figures, the 
existence of considerable quantities of such ore in the vein is proven clearly. 
The lowest assay, obtained from the contents of crevice, was $124; the high- 
est, §30,000 per ton of 2,000 pounds. First-class ore averages about $800 
per ton. One ton, first-class ore, shipped to Newark, N. J., assayed $2,250. 
We examined an assay certificate, dated September 25, 1809, made by Chas, 
A. Martine, of Georgetown, which represented the average value of one ton 
of ore at $1,730.40. As an evidence that the mine produces considerable 
quantities of ore of this high grade, we give the following positive assertion 
of the proprietors that the labor of two men, during the last sis months, has 
yielded to the proprietors a net earning of $10,000. This lode is near the 
summit of Griffith mountain, about 2.000 feet above the valley, and is 
reached by a good trail. 


We examined specimens of pure crystalized sulphuret of silver (silver 
elance) and true argentiferous quartz in the fall of 1870, taken in consid- 
erable quantities from the Ni Wot lode, the property of the Wyoming 
Silver Mining Co., of Colorado, of which G. L. Sites is agent and manager. 
The specimens were from an ore vein, thirteen inches in thickness, in a 
three feet crevice, about 100 feet from the surface. We examined an assay 
certificate from first-class specimens, which presented the following high 
ficrures $22 077.90 coin per ton of 2,000 pounds. Mr. Sites believes that 
se^veral' inches of this ore vein will yield ore worth $10,000 per ton. This 
mine is being fully developed by shafting and tunnels 3 is easy of access, and 

valuable property. . . o 1 -d j 

We regret our inability to give complete statistics from the Urown and 
Coin lodesfthe property of the Brown Mining Co., and among the most val- 
uable lodes in Griffith district. They are located near each other, on the 
Brown mountain, below the Terrible lode, and a few hundred feet above the 
Brown Reduction Works, also the property of this company. These lodes are 
fully developed by shafts, drifts, levels and tunnels, and are yielding largely 
of ore extremely rich in silver, and with characteristics similar to that of 
Terrible lode. The ore from these mines is transported to the reduction 
works by means of a suspension wire tram-way and suitable appurtenances, 
and every facility for successful and skillful mining operations is at hand. 
The property is under the immediate charge of J. W. Watson, one of the 
most experienced mining captains and prospecters of the Territory, and a 
thoroughly practical and efficient business man. 

We have also to regret a paucity of statistics from the Belmont and 
International silver mines, in East Argentine district. We visited these 
lodes with Prof Dibben, the agent and general manager of the International 
Mining Co.'s property, in the fall of 1870, and know them to be well opened, 
by shafts and tunnels, and that they yield large quantities of silver ores, 
mostly sulphurets of lead, zinc and silver, which are treated successfully at 
the International Co.'s Reduction Works. They are among the first discov- 
eries of silver lodes in the country, and are located near the summit of the 
main range, and near the wagon road which crosses the main range to the 
head waters of the Snake river, in Summit county. From the well known 
ability of Prof. Dibben, as a metallurgist, mining engineer and practical 
miner, we infer the management of this property yields fair returns to the 

Although we have given the New Boston lode, on Democrat mountain, 
Griffith district, ample space elsewhere, we will again reter to it on account 
of its possessing, in a marked manner, all the important characteristics of a 
true fissure vein. The walls are peculiarly well defined, the existence of 
"slickenside" on these giving evidence of the motion of the crevice material 
and consequent attrition. The mineral contents of this crevice are massive, 
dense, and nearly four feet in thickness, and, though not especially rich in 
silver, contain over sixty per cent, of lead, and are exhaustless. 

In Gilpin county we have failed to obtain recent and complete statistics 
from many of the most important lodes, from various causes, which are not 
explainable here. Among these, the Bob Tail, one of the oldest and 
richest gold mines in the Territory. The location and general history of 
this lode is so well known, however, that any information we might give 
would only be a repetition of former published statements. This mine is 


located near Central City and Black Hawk, and has been extensively worked 
in years gone by, and has yielded fabulous amounts of gold, nearly §3,000.000. 
It has several shafts, from 90 to 575 feet in depth; nearly 7,000 feet of levels 
and drifts, and considerable surface openings. Its crevice is from four to 
ten feet; ore vein from twelve to thirty-six inches. The character of the 
ore, auriferous quartz, copper and iron pyrites, gold and silver-bearing. The 
mineral ore carries thirty-seven per cent, copper, and is worth, in gold and 
silver, from 815 to §200 per ton of 2,000 pounds. From some conflict 
between the proprietors of claims, this mine is not being worked extensively, 
although it has always yielded large profits to the miner. 

The Sudeberg lode, near Nevada and Central, is another prominent mine 
from which we have no important statistics. Much litigation, and a personal 
difficulty which resulted fatally, has taken place between the owners of this 
property and the Prize lode, which intersects it, but we have no data from 
which we can give any detailed description of this mine. It has always been 
considered valuable mining property, and has been extensively worked. 

In Park county, the Orphan Boy and Phillips lodes deserve more than 
usual attention, as they are, unquestionably, great fissure veins, carrying vast 
quantities of ore of great value. From J. B. Stausell, who worked these 
lodes in an early day, when only the crudest means of saving the gold were 
available, we learn that the yield, per cord, varied from five ounces to sixteen 
ounces gold. Without question, the ores from these mines are extremely 
rich, and the mines themselves very valuable property. 

While we are aware our list of mines of Colorado is very imperfect, not 
from lack of care in gathering data, but from the utter impossibility of 
obtaining statistics from a large amount of valuable property, still we have 
given the "local habitation and the name" of a sufficient number of lodes to 
prove, beyond question, the existence of innumerable true fissure veins in 
the mining districts of Colorado. In the following chapter, on the character 
and treatment of ores, we will illustrate, by statistics, the true value of the 
contents of these veins, and define, clearly, the real importance of the mining 
interests of the Territory. 

A word to capitalists, who are or may be seeking profitable investments 
in mining property. Examine for yourselves before you make large invest- 
ments. Professional reports of mines, by any of the innumerable professors 
who infest the country, may be very learned and equally correct, and in 
many cases are both of these; but, again, the professor may be needy, and 
mine owners liberal, and golden goggles may so impair the vision of the 
professor that imperfections in the mining property examined might not be 
visible, and of course could not be embraced in the report. Beware, also, 
of "extensions" of all the great lodes of the country. " Extensions" of the 
Gregory and Bob Tail lodes are still marketable mining property in Chicago, 
although these same are located many miles from the discovery shafts on 
either of the above mines. 

In our next issue of this work we will be enabled to make our descrip- 
tion of mines more comprehensive and complete. We consider our present 
efforts the initial steps toward the publication of thorough statistics of the 
mines of Colorado. 




Name of Lode. Location. 







URER, No. 2. 



111. Cen. Dist. 11869 



CALIFORNIA Nevada Dist. 

Gilpin Co. 
Nevada Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 
Silver Hill. 

Eureka Dist. 

House Dist. 

Russell Dist. 


Central Dist. 
Russell Dist. 

Name of 

Name of 0^*Tier. 

Benj. Burroughs. Ophir Gold >Iin. 

I Co. llardesty 

I Bros., et al. 
Thos. Ryan, e<a7. Tlios. Ryan, 

I J. G. Mabaney, 

I (tal. 
J. H. Applebury. J. H. Appleburj. Shaft, 30 ft. 

James Connor, James Connor, Shaft, Go fl. 
\ etal. \ ttal. 

Several shnfts from 2fW to 600 ft. 

in depth, with large uuiouut of 

Shaft, on discovery, 40 ft.; drift, 

33 ft. 

1864 1 Valentine* 

1860 C. A. Dimick. 

1860 ;H. Henderson, 

ISGoHnrley 4 
1 Haycocks. 

1864 Richard Irwin. 

IS6S1E. L. Dwen. 

Valentine k 
I .Archibald. 
Ilardesty Bros. 

Dimick k Bro. Shafting, 90 ft. 

H. M. Thomas, ! Shaft, 67 ft. 

etal. I 

Stapleton, Rvan. Well developed. 
I etal 

HI. Cen. 








Quartz Hill, 1859 
Russell Dist. 
Nevada Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 

Russell Dist. 

Eureka Dist. 

Nevada Dist. 

Clbab Creek. 
Queen Dist. 

Griffith Dist. 


Sherman Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

Brown Mt., 
Griffith Dist. 

j Griffith Dist. 






Harsh Bros. 

F. Temence. 

Mr. Baker. 

Burr k Richards. 
C. H. Mar 
Jacobs k Co. 

J. Kalbeugh, 
et al. 

Stiles k Rigsby. 

La Haye k 


Harsh Bros. 

Shaft, 120 ft.; drift, CO ft. 

i Shaft, 10 ft. 

Stalker, Honpe 4 ' Shafting, over 1.200 ft.; 9 drifts. 
Harper. from 100 to 300 ft. 

T. G. Howard, 

V,-. W. Wipht- 

man, et al. 

Merchants and 
Mechanics Co. 
of Baltimore. 

Merchants and 
Mechanics Co. 
of Baltimore. 

Merchants and 
Mechanics Co. 
of Baltimore. 

Cashier Silver 
Mining Co., 
Boston, west J^ 
C. A. Hoyt, agt. 

Brown Min. Co., 

J. W. Watson, 

Stiles & Rigsby, 

and Crescent 

Mining Co. 

Shafting, 210 ft. 

Shaft, 22 ft. 

Shaft, 14 fL, and drifts along the 

One shaft, 55 ft. ; 2 shafts, 10 to 20 

Shafting, 200 ft.; drifting, 200 ft. ; 
considerable sloping. 

Completely developed by shafting, 
drifting and tunnel. 

Shaft, 30 ft. 






Assav, 1 Mill 



Character of Ores. 



Per Ton. Return. 





24 to 

Aur. quartz, with copper 


SlOO to One of the best lodes in the Territory, 


and iron pyrites; gold 

S500 C. 



Aur. quartz, with copper 
and iron pyrites ; gold 

J87 C. 

Easy of access. 


Gold bearing. 

Not working. 


Argentiferous and aurif- 
erous quartz and iron 


■M 1 Auriferous quartz, surface 

$100 c. 

copper and iron pyrites ; 

gold bearing. 



Argentiferous and aurif. 

$60 to 

Easy of access. 


quartz, with carbonates 
of lead and galena. 



Argentiferous galena. 

$25 to $40 

Easy of access. 



Aur. quartz, and sulph. 
of iron and copper ; gold 


6 ozs. 

Stamp mill. 

2 to :, 

Gold and silver bearing. 

5 to 7 ozs. 

W. Dwen, working owner. 

G.; 60 to 

75 ozs. S. 


4 ozs. C. 


4 to 10 
ozs. C. 

3 to 12 


CoDDer and iron pyrites. 

4 ozs. C. 

Has produced over $"50,000 coin. " Cap," from 

6U 1 zinc-blende and arseu- 

150 to 175 feet, has been penetrated, and the 

ical copner ; gold bear- 

mine is in complete working order and pay- 


ing largely. One of the best gold mines in 
See Nimrod. This lode will be fully worked 
during the coming summer. 

Gold bearing. 


8 ozs. C. 



Dcomposed quartz. 

Very little value. 


48 ' Argentiferous galena with 
I copper and iron pyrites. 


iVO per cent. lead. 




Argentiferous galena with 
iron pyrites and sulph. 

5168 S. 

20 to 35 per cent. lead. Select specimens sul- 
\ phuret ore assay nearly S2,000. Blacksmith 



of silver. 
Argentiferous galena, py- 

$50 to 

$50 to |The surface improvements of the C;ishier Silver 


rites, brittle silver, gray 
copper, and specimens 
of native silver. 



Mining Co. are a shatt ana wiiim-iiouse, a 
blacksmith shop, and a barn and boarding 
house. The ladder-ways, timbering of shafts, 
and all improvements are first-class. No 
statistics from east half 


ISto Argentiferous gal., zinc- 

•>G blende, chloride and 

bromide of silver. 

300 to 1200 

100 to 
600 ozs. 

A suspension wire tram-way transports ores 
from the mine to the Brown reduction works. 


t to Argentiferous quartz,with 300 to 5600 

From select specimens. 


pure sulphurets. 





Name of Lode. 


o S 


Name of 

Name of Owner. 


Clear Creek. 




H. M. Thomas. 

Dr. A. M. Noxou. 

Shaft, 30 ft. .1 


Griffith Dist. 


Stowel, Cox, et al. 

Stowel.Cox, e<a;. 

Shaft, 50 ft. ; tunnel on lode. 


Idaho Dist. 


Sam. S. Davidson 

Shaft, 80 ft. 


East slope of 


W. F. Kelso. 

Shaft, 10 ft. 


Irwin's Peak. 



Mining Co. 


Griffith Dist. 


Geo. F. Griffith. 

Fully developed. Iron tram-way 
for conveying ore to of 


Brown Mt., 


J. M.Smith, Geo. 

S. W. Clark. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Griffith Dist. 

Graves, B. F. 




Slierraan Mt., 


Campbell & 

F. A. Dudgeon, 

Slmft, 10 ft. 

Griffith Dist. 

Dudgeon, et al. 

Campbell, et al. 

Park Co. 


Mosquito Dist. 

N. AV. Webber, 

J. W. Smith, H. 

12 shafts, from 30 to 150 ft.; drift 

H. W. Dnrsett & 

P. Newlin, Soutli 

ing, WKJ ft. ; surface openings 


Park Gold Min- 
ing Co. 

defining crevice, over 2,Cu(J ft. 


Buckskin Dist. 


H. P. Newlin. 

H. P. Newlin, 

5 shafts, from 20 to 90 ft.; drifting, 
50 ft. 


Jefferson Co. 


Dr. Joseph 


Dr. Joseph 

Tunnel, 30 ft. 




F. P. Butler. 

J. W. Partridge. 

Shaft, 22 ft. 


W. A.&G.Rund 
and F. P. Butler. 


Lake Co. 


Wm. A. Rand. 

J. W. Partridge, 
W. A.iG. Rand 
and F. P. Butler. 

Shaft, 20 ft. 


Granite Dist. 


Niagara Mining 

Shaft, 50 ft. 





Co. own 14 
Niagara Mi'iiing 

Co. own i< 
Niagara Mining 

Co. own west }/^ 
Niagara Min. Co. 

Shaft, 60 ft. 

Shaft, 60 ft., and well timbered 




Shaft, 120 ft. 






Character of Ore. 

Per Ton. 





5 to 6 



6 to 

Copper and iron pyrites, 
■with galena and silver; 
silver and gold bearing. 

True sulph. of silver, with 
argentiferous quartz. 

Pyrites of iron, silver, cop- 
per and zinc. 

Argentiferous galena and 
sulphurets of silver. 


$45 T. 

Near wagon road. 

Result from one ton of ore, $1,730.42. 

Promises well. 

One of the first discovered, and largest silver 
mines in the district. 




Black sulphurets and ga- 
lena with native and 
brittle silver mixed. 

Argentiferous galena,with 

$500 to 

120 ozs. 

80 rods west of the celebrated Brown and Coin 
lode* — supposed to be an extension of the 

Is easy of access, and promises well. 

4 to 16 

Iron and copper pyrites; 
gold bearing, with sil- 

Ore distributed through entire contents of 


15 to 

Argentiferous galena. 

$35 to 

$60 to $70. 

$200 C. 

Mineral distribution through entire contents of 
crevice. Near town of Buckskin. Good 
wagon road to lode. 

65 per cent, lead ; easy of access. Near the best 
pass known across the main range. 



Gray copper and brittle 


Assays 60 per cent, copper. 



Gray copper and brittle 

An extension of the Partridge. This and the 
Partridge are extremely rich lodes. Prof. 
Hill speaks in the highest terms of this ore ; 
says they furnish their own flux. First, con- 
sidered copper lodes, but soon developed rich- 
ness in silver. 




The scope of this work will not admit of any exhaustive or learned dis- 
quisition on these subjects, but a brief notice of the marked characteristics 
of the gold and silver bearing ores of Colorado, descriptions of a few of the 
mills, reduction works and processes which have been and still are used with 
varied success in the treatment of these, and statistics showing their average 

value. 1.1 

That these ores are sulphuret ores, that is, chemical combinations of 
sulphur with the metals, minerals and other substances that form the con- 
tents of gold and silver bearing fissures, is their prominent feature, and one 
that has earned for them the title of refractory, obdurate, and other oppro- 
brious epithets, and rendered them almost valueless in the estimation of 
miners and capitalists, and made them particularly troublesome to metallur- 
gists, mineralists and proprietors of new-fangled processes for the reduction 
of ores. That sulphur combines chemically with gold, forming a sulphide 
of that metal, has been proven beyond question by recent experiments by 
Prof. Skey, of the geological survey of New Zealand, and others. Its com- 
binations with silver in different quantities, forming sulphurets of silver 
(silver glance), sulphurets of silver and antimony (brittle silver, etc.), are 
well known. With base metals, found in all gold and silver bearing fissures 
in the Territory, it also chemically combines. Its combinations with iron, 
iron pyrites, with copper, copper pyrites, with lead, galena, with zinc, zinc- 
blende, etc., are all well known to Colorado miners, and form the principal 
and noticeable portion of the crevice material — the ore vein of all fissures. 
Near the surface, the action of the elements desulphurizes the metals, 
and forms oxides of these instead of sulphurets. In such cases the gold, in 
gold ores, is in the form of free gold, as an oxide of that metal is unknown, 
and is readily attracted by the mercury, and forms an amalgam with that 
metal. The result of this is, that surface ores are easily treated by the 
simplest process of reduction — the stamp-mill and amalgamation, or the 
arrastras — and no chemical reaction or change is required. When the depth 
of the deposit prohibits desulphurization and oxidation by the elements, and 
the metals and minerals of the ore remain as sulphurets, the necessity for 
means of getting rid of the sulphur is apparent. To accomplish this, suc- 
cessfully and cheaply, is the chief object of the reducers of ore, and the 
great desideratum in our mining districts. 

In the earlier days of the history of quartz or lode mining enterprises in 
Gilpin and Boulder counties, we have truthful accounts of large yields from 
stamp-mills and other simple mechanical means of reducing ores. Even by 
the ordinary mode of prospecting, the dirt, or pulverized decomposed quartz 
from the surfiice contents of crevices, could be washed in the pan, and yield 
good wages to the miner, and to this day, in lodes recently discovered, or 
those which have not been worked to any great depth, good yields are 
received from stamp-mills and arrastras. But where any great depth is 
reached, and ores of the largest assay value are taken out, the return from 
the stamps or any mechanical means of reduction, is so trifling, that the 
expenses of mining are not realized, and consequently the mine must be 
abandoned, when its real value has been established. Of course this condi- 
tion ot things has attracted the attention of metallurgists, and all interested 


in the treatment of ores, or in any way engaged in mining operations in 
Colorado, and a vast amount of money, and no little expenditure of theoret- 
ical knowledge and inventive genius, have been squandered upon various 
processes, having for their object the cheap and efficient desulphurization of 

ores, or the reduction of these, despite the grasp of the giant monster 


A history, however brief, of each and all of these processes, which have 
been failures mostly, would fill a volume larger than our present work, and 
be of no particular interest to the public generally. That the majority of 
experiments have failed, is the simple fact, and that all who have attempted 
the introduction of new-fangled processes have met with complete disaster, 
is equally true. The debris of these mar the fair outlines of our mountains 
and valleys, and impede the swift flow of the rippling waters in our crystal 
streams. "Too much learning," and not enough practical knowledge, have 
made these experimenters mad, and madmen cannot handle, successfully, as 
difficult a subject as the proper means of desulphurizing and reducing the 
mineral ores of our great fissure veins. 

We make no pretensions to any knowledge of this difficult subject, and 
are not going to astonish the miners and mill-men of Colorado with our 
infallible, immaculate, back-action, high pressure process of reducing all ores 
to gold or silver, in quantities to suit customers, but must believe that the 
scientific mineralists and metallurgists of the day, who have made proper 
experiments with Colorado ores, will not fail to bring about the desired 

That the ores can be successfully treated, has been illustrated by Prof. 
Hill, at his reduction works, at Black Hawk, but either from the cupidity 
of the proprietor of the establishment, or some imperfection in the mode of 
reducing ores, these are not treated cheaply; in fact, low grade ores are 
entirely ignored, and only the first-class, or selected specimens, find any favor 
in the estimation of the management of this establishment. If we under- 
stand Prof Hill's process, it is reverberatory smelting, that is, smelting ores, 
combined with the proper fluxes, in a reverberatory furnace, and separating a 
"mat," containing copper and the precious metals, from a "slag," containing 
silicates of other metals and minerals in the ore. By a skillful selection of 
ores and tailings, he has the necessary flux without adding anything. The 
operations of reverberatory smelting, are roasting ores in heaps in the open 
air, depriving them of a portion of their sulphur, and partially oxidizing 
their metals — calcining concentrated tailings in a suitable furnace with simi- 
lar results — producing, among other salts, a large amount of iron oxides. 
The ores, roasted in heaps, and the calcined tailings are mixed in proper 
proportions, and introduced into a smelting furnace, where the iron oxides 
combine with the quartz, making a "slag" containing fifty or sixty per cent, 
of silicate of iron. The copper, as a sulphate with the gold and silver, enters 
into a "mat," which settles below the "slag." The "slag" is drawn from 
the furnace every five or six hours, and the "mat," when sufficiently accu- 
mulated, is also drawn from the furnace. This "mat" is crushed and sacked 
for shipment to Swansea, England, and is estimated to contain $1,0U0, in 
gold, per ton of 2,000 pounds; silver, varying in proportion to amount in 
the ores treated, and an average of sixty to seventy-five per cent, copper. 
That this process has been eminently successful, on the class of ores treated, 
is sufficiently exemplified by the immense profits realized by Prof Hill's 


establishment. Whether it will be a success on low grades is still unknown. 
Amon- the many processes we have glanced at, we think favorably of Dr. 
Phelps' (of Chicago), intended especially for treating the refractory gold- 
bearing sulphurets, by oxidation and amalgamation, which bids fair to rival 
all competitors for the long coveted honors and emoluments Oxygen and 
mercury are the only chemicals used, the former obtained from the atmos- 
phere "without money and without price," while the latter is so skillfully 
manipulated, that the loss from flowering and imperfect discharge is a mere 

trifle, • ,.1 • • 1 • ^ 1 

Dr. Phelps does not claim to have discovered any new principle in metal- 
lurgy, but he does claim, and we think with the best of grounds, to have 
successfully executed and carried out those well known principles, acknowl- 
edged to be essential to success, but so difficult of execution as to have defied 
many attempts in that direction. 

To understand the difficulties involved in the operation of desulphurizing 
auriferous pyrites on a large scale, '-with cheapness and despatch," we invite 
the scientific reader's attention to the following curious estimate, condensed 
from a well written essay by the doctor, entitled "The Theory and Practice 
of Desulphurization:" 

" The conditions essential to the successful desulphurization and oxida- 
tion of the gold-bearing sulphurets, in quantities at all adequate to our wants, 
are chiefly the following: Firat — A supply of oxygen sufficient to meet all 
the demands of oxidation. Second — A proper and timely regulation of the 
heat. Third — The constant agitation of the ore. Fourth — Sufficient time to 
perfect the chemical changes involved. 

"To show the enormous quantity of air necessary to sufficient 
oxygen to treat twenty-four tons of ore a day, and hence the difficulties 
imposed by the first condition mentioned above, we call the reader's atten- 
tion to the following facts and figures : 

"Sulphur, as every chemist knows, when burned, consumes an amount 
of oxygen equal to its own weight; hence, if we can ascertain the number 
of pounds of sulphur contained in a ton of ore, we at the same time deter- 
mine the quantity of oxygen necessary to efi'ect its combustion. 

"This, of course, cannot be done with absolute correctness, for the reason 
that the ores, as delivered at the mills, are never chemically pure, but a suffi- 
cient approximation to the truth can be obtained to answer the purpose of 

"Iron pyrites, the most abundant and the richest, as well as the most 
refractory gold-bearing ore of the Rocky Mountain districts, is a bisulphu- 
ret, consisting of two equivalents of sulphur and one of iron. Reduced to a 
per cent., it contains 53fo of the former and 46,i, of the latter. But, as just 
remarked, this ore, as delivered at the mills ready for reduction, is never 
pure, but is generally combined with other sulphurets, such as that of copper, 
zinc, lead, arsenic or antimony, each of which contains a less proportion of 
sulphur than the iron. In addition to these, it is frequently mixed with 
quartz and other gangues, containing little or no sulphur in their composi- 
tion. Let us assume then, that the ore, ready for the metallurgist, contains 
twenty-five per cent., or 500 pounds of sulphur to the ton. Now if it be 
necessary to burn, i. e., Oxidize this entire quantity, it follows that 500 
pounds of oxygen will be required for the purpose; but, fortunately, such 
16 not the case. One equivalent of the sulphur may be expelled by the 


action of heat alone, and without the aid of oxygen — a fact daily demon- 
strated in the process of obtaining the sulphur of commerce; a large portion 
of which is taken from non-auriferous pyrites, the identical bisulphuret so 
richly impregnated with gold in many sections of the United States. In 
the process just alluded to, the air is carefully excluded from the furnace, 
in order to prevent the formation of sulphurous acid gas, but only one-half of 
the sulphur is driven off, and any amount of roasting, with the air excluded, 
fails to dislodge the remaining portion. 

"So in roasting auriferous pyrites, preparatory to amalgamation, it is 
found an easy matter to drive oft" fifty per cent, or more of the sulphur; but 
ore, only half desulphurized, is nearly as tenacious of its gold as the raw. 

" The fact appears to be that while one equivalent of the sulphur is easily 
expelled, the other is held in such close chemical combination with the iron, 
that heat alone, however intense and long continued, is insuflBcient to over- 
come the affinity, and oxygen must be introduced, in quantity at least equal 
to the weight of sulphur, in order to accomplish what the heat has failed to 

" We have already supposed a ton of ore to contain 500 pounds of sul- 
phur, and allowing that one-half may be driven off by heat alone, there will 
still remain 250 pounds in intimate combination with the iron, requiring 250 
pounds of oxygen or 1,250 pounds of air for its combustion. A pound of 
air, at the level of the sea (under certain standard conditions of temperature 
and dryness), measures 13.29 cubic feet; but at the altitude of most mines, 
in the Kocky Mountain districts, a pound will measure at least fifteen cubic 
feet. On this hypothesis, 1,250 pounds will measure 18,750 feet, and this 
may be set down as the quantity required to burn out the sulphur in one ton 
of ore. But this is not the only demand made for oxygen, for the iron, as 
previously explained, must be thoroughly oxidized in order to be thoroughly 

" As the proportion of iron is a little less than that of sulphur, let us 
assume that 490 pounds is the average quantity to a ton of ore, the conver- 
sion of which into a peroxide will require 210 pounds of oxygen or 1,050 
pounds of air, measuring 15,750 cubic feet. 

"From these data we are able to make the following statements: 

Air required to oxidize the sulphur 18,750 cubic feet. 

Air required to oxidize the iron 15,750 " " 

Total air required for one ton of ore 34,500 " " 

Twenty-four tons will therefore require 828,000 " " 

"This, be it remembered, is upon the hypothesis that every pound of 
oxygen, contained in this quantity of air, is used — no allowance having been 
made for loss or waste. In practice, however, only a small portion of the 
oxygen can be secured during its transit through the furnace, and an addi- 
tional quantity of air, sufficient to make up the loss, must be transmitted or 
another "failure" will reward the eftbrts of the disappointed and baffled 
metallurgist. Any person watching the operation of roasting ore in any of 
the furnaces now in use, will be convinced that not ONE tenth of the oxy- 
gen transmitted is secured and appropriated during its transit. 

" Now if it be true, as the above facts and figures prove, that ALL the 
oxygen contained in 828,000 cubic feet of air is required, it follows, if only 
one-tenth is secured, that ten times the above quantity, or 8,280,000 feet 
will be required to perfect the work. 


"In order to assist our minds to comprehend this vast quantity, we will 
make one more estimate. Let us imagine this number of cubic feet to be 
extended in a single straight line; and when we ascertain it would form a 
body of" air twelve inches square, and 1,568 miles in length, the thing 
beginstoloomupinitstruly giant proportions! ^ , • „ 

"Enormous as this quantity is, it is probably far short ot what is really 
required by many furnaces now in use, owing to the fact that the one great 
and essential feature of economy in the use of air is entirely ignored in their 
construction. The prevailing practice is to 'save' one pound of oxygen and 
suffer ten or more to escape, and after much labor and vexation of spirit, to 
wonder why the operation proved a failure ! A far greater wonder would it 
have been, had it proved a success. 

"A person attempting to melt a ton of pig iron by using only one 
BUSHEL of coal, would be considered a fool or a lunatic, yet men of sense 
have been trying, for years, to accomplish a similar absurdity, by burning a 
ton of sulphur with one or two hundred pounds of oxygen ; whereas^ nothing 
less than a ton can accomplish the work. In one respect, such experiments 
have been uniformly successful. They have proven, to a demonstration, how 
the thing cannot be done. 

"There are other conditions essentially necessary to the puccessful man- 
agement of this all important part of the work, but none that admit of so 
clear a mathematical demonstration as the one I have sought to elucidate. 
The truth of the old adage, that there is a right and a wrong way to do 
every thing, is strikingly verified in the daily experience of the metallurgist. 
The great danger is the production of too intense a degree of heat, while a 
considerable portion of the sulphur yet remains, thereby causing a partial 
fusion or slagging of the ore. This is particularly liable to occur in those 
furnaces in which the ore is roasted in batches, and constant care and labor 
are required to heat the ore gradually, with constant stirring, in order to pre- 
vent the accident alluded to." 

Dr. Phelps has experimented with his process in Colorado, and on Colo- 
rado refractory ores, sufficiently to satisfy himself that he can treat all classes 
of gold-bearing ores successfully and cheaply, and that mineral ores of the 
lowest grade can be reduced, with a fair profit to the miner and reducer. 
We sincerely hope, and have reason to believe, that the doctor can accom- 
plish all he claiujs, and that the introduction of his furnace, in the Territory, 
will revolutionize mining industries. 

Messrs. 'Cash & Rockwell, of Central City, have erected works at the 
head of Chase gulch, near that city, where they are treating ores and con- 
centrated tailings successfully, so Mr. Cash informs us, by a process known 
as the Bron Piere, in which chlorine gas is used, and the precious and 
base metals reduced to chlorides in solution, and precipitated from these by 
chemical action. The only apparent objection to this mode of reducing, is 
the expense of acids and salt, and other chemicals necessary; but the pro- 
prietors assure us the extra per cent, of the precious metals saved, above 
that by all other known processes, more than counterbalances the extra 
expense They claim that they only lose from two to five per cent, of the 
gold in all ores treated. 

In the summer of 1870, works were constructed in Black Hawk, under 
the direction of Prof. West, a metallurgist of large experience, and consid- 
erable reputation in the Eastern cities. Mr. West constructed appropriate 


furnaces for calcining "tailings" and roasting, and desulphurizing ores, and 
a cupola furnace for the final smelting and reduction of these. These works 
promised fairly, and, as Mr. West assured the public he could treat low 
grades of ore profitably to all concerned, the miners looked forward to the 
completion of the works with anxious hope, and trusted a new and brilliant 
era was about to dawn upon them; but the works were nearly completed, 
when the cupola furnace was charged, and, from some unknown cause (to 
us), the process was not a success. Mr. West, however, still is satisfied he 
can treat sulphuret ores successfully, and may do so. 

We have no space to devote to the Keith, Crosby & Thompson, Mon- 
nier, and other processes, which have been miserable and expensive failures, 
but will notice the stamp-mills, which have been and will always be used 
extensively in treating surface and low grade ores. Every person who has 
visited a mining district is familiar with every part of a stamp-mill, and 
understands fully their mode of treating ores. To those who have never 
been within the limits of a mining country, a brief description of a stamp- 
mill may be interesting. The modus ojjerandi of treating ore by stamps is 
simply mechanical pulverization, in contact with a large supply of water, 
which washes the finely powdered ore over copper plates and "riffles," which 
are coated and charged with mercury. The precious metals having a pow- 
erful affinity for the mercury, combine, mechanically, with this, forming an 
amalgam, and the baser metals, gangue rock and other substances of which 
the ore is composed, pass off beyond plates and "riffles," and are known 
as " tailings." The amalgam is brushed from the plates, placed in strong 
cloth bags, subjected to great pressure, by which all particles of fine mer- 
cury are removed, and is then placed in a retort, and sufficient heat applied 
to drive off the mercury, which is condensed and caught in a receiver 
attached to the retort, and ready for use again. The gold, combined with 
such proportions of silver as may have been in the ore, and perhaps a small 
per cent, of copper, is then ready for sale, or for further refining, and is 
known as "retort gold." The "tailings" containing, besides iron and cop- 
per sulphurets, all the way from thirty to eighty per cent of the precious 
metals contained in the ore, are ready for further treatment. The most con- 
centrated portions of these are placed in arrastras, and pulverized thoroughly 
in contact with mercury, and afterwards by washing in dolly tubs, or by 
other suitable means are freed from all gangue and foreign substances. 
The amalgam is collected and retorted as above. The residue of the " tail- 
ings" is washed in "buddies," or in other mechanical contrivances, until the 
gangue rock is separated as much as possible from the metals of the ore. 
These concentrated "tailings" are then ready for smelting or other process 
of reduction, and as they contain a large quantity of iron pyrites, are espe- 
cially valuable to those reducing ores by reverberatory smelting. The me- 
chanical appurtenances by which these operations are effected are iron stamp 
heads, with shafts weighing from 400 to 1,000 pounds. These are sup- 
ported upright by suitable frame-work, elevated by steam or water power a 
proper distance, and then let fall in a battery, in which the ore is placed. 
By proper mechanical appliances a rotary motion is given to these stamps, 
and the action on the ore is that of crushing and grinding. Water, in suffi- 
cient quantities, is conveyed into this battery, which is enclosed by perfo- 
rated metal plates, that admit only of the passage of minute particles. The 
battery is a strong iron casting of proper dimensions, and is so constructed 


that ore broken into small fragments, can be fed into it by means of a com- 
mon shovel. Mercury is placed in this battery, as well as on the copper 
plates and more or less amalgam collects here, which is removed when 
"cleaning up" takes place. The action of the stamps pulverizes the ore, 
and forces it, in connection with water, through the meshes of the perfo- 
rated metal, when it immediately passes over the copper plates, which are 
arranged with the proper fall, and from thence over "blankets" or "shaking 
tables''" and through "riffles" to its final destination. From the time the 
ore is'placed in the battery, until it reaches the heap of " tailings,"^ it is kept 
as much as possible in contact with mercury, and every means is used to 
favor amalgamation. 

The number of stamps used in Colorado mills vary from ten to sixty or 
seventy. Each mill has, besides these, different numbers of arrastraa or 
amalgamating pans, and other apparatus for pulverizing, amalgamating and 
washing. When "cleaning up" takes place, which is about twice a week, 
ordinarily, the motion of the machinery is stopped, and the amalgam col- 
lected is gathered from the battery, brushed from the plates, and collected 
from the "riffles;" new charges of mercury are properly applied, and the 
work goes on again. 

There is a diversity of opinion among mill-men concerning the proper 
weight of stamps, and the rapidity of their fall; some maintaining that the 
heavy stamp and slow drop are the most favorable, and others that the light 
stamp and rapid fall are most advantageous. We believe the best authority 
is in favor of the light stamp and rapid fall. The " blanket," referred to 
above, is a heavy woolen fabric, so placed that the washings from the battery 
pass over it after leaving the coppers. It is claimed that particles of the pre- 
cious metals are caught and retained in the meshes of the cloth, which is 
washed out by hand usually. We noticed in the fall of 1867, in the Mon- 
tana mills, at Central, a patent contrivance, invented by Messrs. Douglas & 
Smith, lessees of the mill at that time, by which the " blankets" were washed 
automatically, thereby saving the labor of the men necessary for "blanket" 
washing (two every twenty-four hours'), and doing the work much more 
thoroughly. These gentlemen are practical miners of large experience, and 
they assure us their invention answers admirably. It is so simple that it 
can be applied to any stamp-mill at trifling expense, and should have a fair 
trial in every one. 

The loss of mercury in the stamp-mill process is quite small. We have 
no figures giving the exact per cent. This much for the operations of 
stamp-mills. Their usefulness is admitted by all, although it is well known 
that they save only a small per cent, of the precious metals in mineral ores, 
and perhaps not more than sixty per cent, from the best surface quartz. 
They, however, pulverize thoroughly, and leave the "tailings" in a most 
favorable condition for further treatment, and are, no doubt, the best and 
cheapest means for dry pulverization ever adopted in any mining country. 
We will refer to this more fully when noticing the treatment of silver 

We give a description of a few of the principal stamp-mills, which were 
visited by us in the fall of 1870, with the quantity of ore treated, and the 
average returns. Many other mills were in active operation, but we have no 
data from these. The following will give a fair idea of the amount of ores 
treated by stamp-mills in Gilpin and Clear Creek counties. The price 


charged for crushing a cord by these mills varies from $20 to $35. A cord 
of ore measures 128 cubic feet, and weighs from six to ten tons, according 
to the density of the ore. 


Rough's MiU. — Near Black Hawk; 15 stamps, 500 pounds each; 4 Bar- 
tola pans; capacity, 12 cords a week; water power, from Clear creek; 650 
feet mill site; working on ore from Smith lode and custom ores. George 
Ptough, proprietor. 

Smith & Farmelee's Mill. — In Black Hawk; 25 stamps, 600 pounds 
each; all first-class apparatus for amalgamating and treating ores by this 
process to the best advantage; steam power, 75-horse; substantial building 
and out-buildings; the main building covers the discovery shaft of the Greg- 
ory extension, and a shaft on the Briggs; the steam power of the mill works 
pumps and hoisting apparatus; there was treated at this mill, in 1869, 1,031 
cords of ore, of 8 tons each, with a yield of b\ ounces per cord, all from the 
Gregory extension and Briggs' lodes; the ore hoisted immediately from the 
shafts to the mill. Smith & Parmelee Co., proprietors; B. P. Wells, agent. 

Black Hawk Mill. — In Black Hawk; 65 stamps, 40 weighing 1,000 
pounds, and 25 weighing 550 pounds; 6 Bartolapans; shaking tables, rotary 
buddle, and all first-class appurtenances; steam power, engine, 100-horse; 
adjoining this, another mill; 20 stamps, 500 pounds each; water power in 
summer, and steam power from the large engine in the Black Hawk mill in 
winter; the water supplied from Clear creek, by a flume 600 feet in length; 
the wheel, 18 feet overshot; also a mill building, with race 800 feet in 
length, with 24 feet fall, known as the Tiger mill; capacity, 50 cords a 
week; running on custom ore; average yield, 5 ounces. Black Hawk Gold 
Mining Co., proprietor; George E. Congdon, agent. 

Hurd Mill. — Black Hawk; 20 stamps, 800 pounds each; 3 Bartola 
pans; steam power, 30-horse; leased and run by Mosely & Boylan, on cus- 
tom ores; capacity 15 tons weekly. Cyrus Hurd, Jr., proprietor. 

Boh Tail Mill. — Black Hawk; 20 stamps, 500 pounds each; 3 Bartola 
pans; steam power, 30-horse; all appurtenances complete; running. on cus- 
tom ores; from the Burroughs' lodes the yield is 7 and 8 ounces per cord; 
averages of ores treated, 5 ounces; this mill was formerly owned by J. F. 
Field. H. W. Lake, proprietor. 

Keith Mill. — Black Hawk. — This mill was constructed by a company for 
the purpose of treating ores by a process known as the Keith process, which 
included pulverizing, roasting, leaching, amalgamating, etc., and was not a 
success; the building and out-buildings are capacious and substantial; the 
parts of the property, besides the building, now valuable, are : 20_ stamps, 
500 pounds each, and a superior steam-engine of 75-horse power, in excel- 
lent condition; to be used as an ordinary stamp-mill; adjoining the mill, 2 
dwelling houses, labratory and stable, etc. E. L. Salsbury, proprietor. 

Mead J/i7^.— Black Hawk; 20 stamps, 600 pounds each; 6 Bartola 
pans; power, steam and water; engine, 16-horse; water power, a Turbine 
wheel. R. W. Mead & Co., proprietors. 

HoTbrook i/i7?.— Black Hawk; 15 stamps, 500 pounds each; 2 Bartola 
pans; power, steam and water; running on custom ore. R. W. Mead & Co., 


University i/iY?.— Black Hawk; 15 stamps, 500 pounds each; 1 Bartola 
pan; steam power, 20-horse engine; running on custom ore. In charge of 

R. W. Mead 

Enterprise J/i?^.— Black Hawk; 20 stamps, 500 pounds each; steam 
power, 25-horse engine; running on custom ore; building and apparatus in 
good condition. J. B. Borham, Samuel and John Mellor, proprietors. 

Dickenson iM^.— Black Hawk; 15 stamps, 600 pounds each; 4 Bartola 
pans; 2 Frieburg pans; dolly tub and other fixtures complete; steam and 
water power; engine, 25-horse power; water power, breast-wheel, 18 feet; 
running on custom ore; average, 2i ounces. W. N. Dickenson & Co., pro- 

Polar Star Mill. — Black Hawk ; owned by Garrott, Buffington & Kim- 
ber; was built in 1867, and an addition constructed in 1868, and still fur- 
ther enlarged and improved in the fall of 1870; 32 stamps, 435 pounds 
each; 8 pans, and improved Chilian mill; steam power, 50-horse engine; 
water power, 20 feet overshot wheel; 5 feet face; capacity of mill, 24 cords 
weekly; return 3j to 10 ounces per cord. This mill runs constantly; on 
custom ores mostly; is in the charge of mill-men of large experience, who 
thoroughly understand their business, and is one of the best arranged and 
managed stamp-mills in the Territory. 

Lexington Mill. — Central; Sullivan & Wheeler, proprietors; John Scud- 
der, agent; 24 stamps, 550 pounds each; steam power; in the fall of 1870, 
was running on ore from the French and Gunnel lodes, with returns from 
3 J to 7 ounces per cord. 

Walker's Mill. — Black Hawk; owned by Walker; 18 stamps, 425 

pounds each; 6 Bartola pans; 1 Dodge crusher; steam power. 

Quartz Hill Co.'s Mill. — Nevada; 12 stamps, 550 pounds each; 2 Bar- 
tola pans; steam power; capacity, 7 cords per week. 

Neio York Mills. — Black Hawk; M. B. Hays, Central, proprietor; 55 
stamps, 550 pounds each; 8 Bartola pans; steam power, 65-horse engine; 
water power, 25 feet overshot wheels; the buildings and machinery in every 
respect first-class; capacity, 40 tons daily; running in fall of 1870 on Nevada 
ores, with an average return of nearly 6 ounces per cord; Mr. Hays' exten- 
sive experience as a mill-man ensures good returns from all ores entrusted 
to his treatment. 

Montana i/i7^.— Central ; owned by Mountain Gold Mining Co.; J. L. 
Schellenger, agent; leased in fall of 1870, by Messrs. Douglas & Smith; 30 
stamps, 700 pounds each; double issue; 8 pans, dolly tubs, and improved 
amalgamating apparatus; steam power; running on custom ore; building 
and machinerv, first-class. 

_ Eardesty 31ill.~East Nevada; owned by Hardesty Bros.; 18 stamps, 
570 pounds each; steam power; 2 Bartola pans; a sood frame building; 
mill return from 3 to 11 ounces per cord. 

Quartz Valley Mill.— Owner, Joseph Harper; 6 stamps, 550 pounds 
each; 2 Bartola pans; steam power; capacity. 5 cords per week. 

Whitcomb's JiiYZ.— Nevada; owned by Truman Whitcomb; — stamps, 
525 pounds each; (lately added, 10 stamps, California style); capacity, 16 
cords per week. j y> f jj 

Excelsior JM.— Located two miles below Black Hawk; 2 Bruckner 
cylinders; capacity, 10 tons a day; for the treatment of either gold or silver 
ores; process, roasting and amalgamatinc^. 


Pease's Mill — Vermillion district; 12 stamps, 500 pounds each; 1 Bar- 
tola pan; portable 20-horse power engine; the main building is 25x40, with 
additions 15x19; this mill is in good running order. 

Camp Grove Mill. — Nevada; B. C. Waterman, owner; 32 stamps, 425 
pounds each; 75-horse power engine; building substantially constructed of 
stone, and all appurtenances complete, and in every way first-class (the steam 
power of this mill does the hoisting of the Kansas and Camp Grove lodes, 
which are near the mill, and a portion of which belongs to this property) ; 
running constantly; one of the best mills in the Territory. 

Eureka Mill. — Eureka district; owned by B. C. Waterman; 20 stamps, 
525 pounds each; steam power; capacity, 2 cords per day; a first-class mill. 

Enterprise Mill. — Nevada; owned by Messrs. Potter & Nolly; 15 stamps, 
450 pounds each; 2 Burtola pans; steam power; capacity, 11 tons daily; in 
charge of experienced mill-men, and a first-class mill. 

Stevens Mill. — Black Hawk; leased by Martin Lewis; 14 stamps, 400 
pounds each; 1 Bartola pan; steam power; running on custom ore. 


Montrose J/??/.— Mahanyville, Fall river; owned by J. S. Mahany; 18 
stamps, 600 pounds each; 5 six feet Dodge improved pans; 2 sets of water 
pipe, for cold water and steam or hot water; boiler of sufficient capacity to 
supply hot water and steam; an Andrews' centrifugal pump; complete set 
of settling tanks and water vats; the power is superior overshot water wheel, 
6j feet breast; the buildings, which enclose the mill and water wheel, are 
capacious, substantially constructed of lumber, on solid masonry foundation, 
and everyway first-class and complete; connected with this milling property 
are dwelling and out-houses, substantially constructed, with suificient room 
for all necessary purposes. This property is about 6 miles from Central, 
Gilpin county, and 4i miles from Idaho Springs, Clear Creek county, and 
comprises, besides the mill and buildings, a large amount of valuable mining 
property, mostly undeveloped. 

Peck Mill. — North Empire; owned by the Peck Mining Co., of Boston; 
12 stamps; Blake crusher and ball pulverizers; Tyndale process. 

Whale Mill. — Owned by the Spanish Bar Mining Co.; was erected in 
1865, and consists of a main building 80x300 feet, with wings 75 feet in 
width; constructed of brick; water power, and also steam engine; capacity, 
10 tons a day; for treating gold and silver ores; Bruckner cylinders; leach- 
ing and amalgamation. 

Phoenix Mill. — Spanish Bar district; Kinkead & Thatch, proprietors; 12 
stamps. 500 pounds each, and 2 arrastras; water power; Turbin centre vent; 
Thos. H. Thatch in charge. 

Stone Mill. — Situated 5 J miles from Idaho Springs; owners, Dr. Rae & 
Co.; the process, Rae's electrical, for the reduction of gold and silver ores. 
Dr. Rae's process promises well, and, if successful, the lowest grade of ores 
can be treated with profit to miner and reducer. 

Boi/ State Mill. — Empire; leased by D. J. Ball; 12 stamps; steam 

Star Mill. — Empire; owned by Ebenezer Wilson & Co.; 24 stamps, 6 
Frieburg pans; steam power. 



These like "■old ores, are also sulphurets of the different metals and min- 
erals which, witli gangues of various kinds, make upthe contents of all lodes 
in the silver districts. The presence of large quantities of sulphur in these, 
of course renders them difficult to treat, and impairs their real value. 

In reducing these ores, as well as gold ores, the most important object to 
accomplish is a cheap and effectual mode of getting rid of sulphur. When 
the ores contain but a small per cent, of galena, the system of saving silver 
in Colorado, and perhaps the most effectual yet introduced, is desulphuriza- 
tion and amalgamation. When sufficient quantities of lead or iron exist in 
the ores, or are available, the process of desulphurization, smelting and cupel- 
lation is generally adopted. 

Different processes for effecting the above objects have been introduced 
in the Territory, with about the same per cent, of failures that have followed 
new-fangled systems in the gold districts. Georgetown, as well as Central, 
Black Hawk and Nevada, has many ruins of "played out" reduction 
works; lofty chimneys — crumbling and unsightly; huge furnaces, whose 
fires have been quenched for years, and ponderous machinery — rusted, 
broken and worthless. Notwithstanding these, however, reduction work.<, 
which accomplish the desired objects with a fair degree of success, are in 
active operation, and immense quantities of silver bullion are reduced from 
the ores of the district, with good profits to the miners and reducers; and, 
upon the whole, the means of treating silver ores in Colorado are more 
effectual than those generally available for the treatment of gold. 

To the enterprising spirit, energy and capital of Dr. Garrott, now of 
Black Hawk, and Dr. Buchanan, of Georgetown, the silver districts aie 
indebted for the erection of the first works, in which a well known and good 
system of treating silver ores was introduced : crushing and pulverizing, 
iiig and desulphurization in the Bruckner cylinder, and amalgamation. The 
works were built at Georgetown, and are still in active and successful opera- 
tion, under the management of Messrs. Palmer & Nichols. Owing probably 
to the incompetency of the metallurgist in charge, when the works were first 
constructed, they were not, financially, successful while the property of Drs. 
Garrott and Buchanan; but, without question, the process is among the 
best and most economical yet in use in Colorado. 

The Bruckner furnace, or cylinder, consists of a cylinder of boiler iron, 
lined with fire-brick, and made to revolve between a fire-box and a flue. 
From the fire-box the flame and air pass through a pipe into the cylinder, 
and from thence, together with the gasses produced in roasting the ores, 
combined with proper quantities of common salt, into the condensing cham- 
bers, from whence the vapors escape through smoke stacks. A diaphragm, 
made of cast iron pipes, is set at an angle of about 15° to the axis of the 
revolution, and extends diagonally through nearly the whole length of the 
cylinder. For the purpose of moving the ore from the cooler parts to the 
hottest parts of the cylinder, automatically, flanges, set at an angle of about 
45 , convey the ore within reach of the diaphragm, which does not extend 
the entire length of the cylinder. The mode of working the cylinder is as 
tollows: A charge, say of 3,000 pounds of ore, pulverized fine, and from 150 
to dUU pounds ot salt, is introduced through a suitable aperture into the cyl- 
inder, the mside of which has previously been heated to a red heat. The 


opening is then closed, more fuel added, and the cylinder caused to revolve 
at one to one and a half revolutions per minute. The fire is so arranged 
that, after an hour's time, the sulphur commences to burn. The ore is kept 
all this time at a temperature approaching a red heat. When considerable 
portions of the sulphur have been oxidized the temperature is increased to 
a bright red heat, which reduces the ore to a pulp. This is continued until 
sulphurous fumes no longer escape. The ores are then removed from the 
cylinder, cooled and amalgamated. 

The same process — dry crushing, desulphurizing by roasting with com- 
mon salt, and amalgamating — is adopted in Stewart's works, the most exten- 
sive silver reducing works in the Territory, but the roasting is effected in a 
reverberatory furnace, instead of a Brtickner cylinder. 

At Stewart's works, which are located at Georgetown, the ore is first 
crushed by Dodge crushers, dried in a suitable furnace, pulverized by stamps, 
transferred to a furnace, where they are roasted with the proper proportions 
of common salt, cooled and amalgamated. The capacity of these works in 
the fall of 1870, was ten tons daily; but when additions to the works — then 
in course of erection — will be completed, twenty tons can be reduced every 
twenty-four hours.. The superiority of the stamps for dry pulverization, 
over ball pulverizers, Cornish rollers, etc., is well illustrated in Stewart's 

Besides the above process, by which most of the first-class silver ore of 
the district can be treated profitably, and eighty per cent, of the silver saved, 
Mr. Stewart is erecting an Airy furnace, a modification of the Stetefeldt, for 
the reduction of ores not readily treated by the ordinary process. When 
these works are in every way complete, it is to be hoped low grade ores can 
be reduced with profit. At present it does not pay to mine ores in the silver 
districts of Clear Creek county, unless they are worth about 8100 per ton. 
The average of all the ores reduced at Stewart's works in 1870, exceeded 
this considerably. Consequently, only the best grades are milled, and the 
balance, which has already been mined, is worthless, unless treated by some 
concentrating process which will remove the gangue and worthless portions 
of the ore, and so reduce the bulk and concentrate the mineral that it can be 
handled profitably. We will hereafter notice more fully this most important 
subject — the concentration of low grade ores. 

Besides the Stewart Silver Reducing Co.'s works, and those of Palmer, 
Nichols & Co., at Georgetown, there are, in this part of Clear Creek county, 
Brown's Reduction Works, at Brownville, ahout four miles from George- 
town; the Baker Works, at Bakerville, about eight miles above George- 
town ; the International Co.'s Works, in East Argentine district, and the 
Swansea Reduction Works, owned by Collom & Co., about four miles below 
Georgetown, on Clear creek. At the latter, both gold and silver ores are 

At the Brown Co. Reduction Works, the process is : crushing the ores 
by stamps with water, concentration by " buddelling," desulphurization by 
roasting in a suitable furnace, from which they are removed to a smelting 
furnace, mixed with the proper portions of lead and iron, the silver and lead 
drawn from the furnace in the form of lead " riches," and the silver separated 
from the lead by cupellation. The largest cupel furnace in the Territory 
is at these works, and silver "buttons," weighing several hundred pounds 
each, are produced weekly. The ores reduced at these works are mostly 


from the Browa and Coin lodes, and we believe the returns from the works 
make the operations of the mine profitable, notwithstanding the expense ol 
purchasing lead and iron, which do not exist in sufficient quantities in the 
ore to make the process practicable. .„ . , , . , , 

The process at the Baker Co.'s Mill, at Bakerville, is dry crushing, desul- 
phurization by roasting the ores with salt in the Bruckner cylinder, and 
amalgamation. The present capacity, about twelve tons a day, with steam 
power and building capacity sufficient to double this, with the addition of 
more cylinders and amalgamating apparatus. This mill reduced, in IST'i. 
550 tons of ore from the Baker mine, which yielded $34,000. It is als > 
eno-aged on ores from the Stephens' mine, with returns profitable to the 
owners of that valuable property. 

The International Mill is also chlorination and amalgamation, dry crush- 
ino- by jaw crushers and ball pulverizers, roasting in Bruckner cylinders 
with salt, and amalgamation. During three months in the fall of 1870, ll^l 
tons of ore from the Belmont and International lodes were treated, with tli'' 
following returns: Bullion produced 7,154 ounces, and 8.35 fine, coin vahu', 
$7,764.86. This mill is under the immediate charge of Dr. B. W. Cheever, 
an experienced metallurgist. 

At the Swansea Reduction Works, which have been but recently com- 
pleted, the process, besides the dressing and concentrating of ore — which will 
be noticed elsewhere — is crushing and pulverizing, roasting and desulphur- 
izing in Collom's patent automatic metallurgic furnace, and smelting in a 
cupalo furnace, separating the precious metals and lead of the ores in the 
form of lead "riches," and final separation of gold and silver from the lead 
by cupellation. By this process Mr. CoUom claims that about 80 per cent. 
of the lead, and from 90 to 100 per cent, of the orecious metals are saved 
from all ores treated. In this process of course the requisite quantity of 
lead and iron must exist in the ores treated, or be supplied from other 
Sources. Mr. CoUom, who is an experienced mining captain and metallur- 
gist of large experience in England and the mining regions of Lake Supe- 
rior and Colorado, claims that he can treat the low grade gold-bearing iron 
and copper pyrites of the gold districts, and the low grade galena ores of the 
silver districts, profitably to both miner and reducer. 

In Summit county the Sukey Silver Mining Co. has reduction works; 
dry pulverization, chlorination and amalgamation; and the Boston Associa- 
tion, near their most valuable Comstock mine, has reduction works, in which 
we believe various processes have been tried, with an average degree of 
failures, but we have no statistics. 

This brief notice of the reduction works in the silver districts includes 
all the mills of any importance now in operation. Besides these, there are 
the remains of various processes, which have been, in the main, worthless 
experiments, and the source of loss and disaster to their owners and project- 
ors, and the country at large. 

Besides the ores treated at the works referred to, larse quantities are 
shipped out of the Territory for treatment, which does not speak well for 
either the skill of our reducers, or the perfection of their processes; but we 
are still in our infancy as a mining country, and evils that now exist will be 
removed by the experience that years will bring. 



Includes all mechanical operations for separating the mineral and valuable 
portions of ores from gangue, quartz rocks and other worthless contents of 
mineral veins. Both gold and silver ores of low grades require concentra- 
tion and separation before being subjected to any reducing process. By 
concentration, the bulk of the ore is decreased, and the expense of handling 
and transportation lessened, and their condition rendered more favorable for 
reduction. Without concentration, all the third-class and much of the sec- 
ond-class ores of our mineral districts are valueless for any process of reduc- 
tion yet introduced into the country; hence its importance is obvious to all 
interested in mining matters. 

Many modes of separation and concentration have been adopted in, dif- 
ferent mining districts, but space will only permit us to notice briefly, first, 
dry separation, by the Krom separator, by which process, it is claimed, 
mechanical separation of the metals from gangue rock is thoroughly effected 
and the bulk of low grade ores, containing lead, zinc, iron and copper, 
reduced to one-third or one-fourth of their original bulk, with but trifling 
loss of value. At the Washington mills, in Georgetown, the Krom separators 
were in active operation in the fall of 1S70. The ores worked were second 
and third-class, worth about 850 per ton, in their crude state. They are first 
dried — taking out from 75 to 150 pounds of water from each ton — then 
crushed, passing through Cornish rollers into elevators; thence through 
revolving screens, which take out chips, nails and dust, and return the ore, 
that is not finely powdered, back to the crushers. The ore, finely powdered 
and cleansed, passes into bins, from which it is drawn by mechanism into 
the concentrators, where the rock is separated from the ore by the Krom 
Dry Ore Separators. The principle of separation is the action of air upon 
the finely pulverized atoms of ore. The specific gravity of the metal being 
greater than that of the gangue, the latter is blown away, while the former 
remains. While there is no doubt about the value of this process of sepa- 
ration when the gangue contains no precious metals, and these lie entirely in 
the galena, zinc-blende, or copper and iron pyrites of the ores, its value is 
questionable, however, when argentiferous and auriferous quartz form the 
valuable portion of the crevice material. 

Wet separation is practiced very generally in the gold mining districts. 
At the tail of every stamp-mill there is some contrivance by which the 
gangue is washed from the metals of the ore, with more or less complete- 

Besides these diflferent systems of "huddling tailings," we noticed, in 
the fall of 1870, two new inventions for the purpose of wet concentration. 
First, Collom's patent automatic ore washing machines, four of which are 
in successful operation at the Swansea Reduction Works, near Georgetown. 
They are capable of dressing about 30 tons daily, and seem to do their work 
very efiectually. We have no statistics, however, from which we can give 
any comparison between the results from this process, and those from the dry 
separation. The second invention we examined was at the mill of E. W. 
Sinclair, at Georgetown. Mr. Sinclair has experimented with machines, for 
the purpose of concentrating ores, for several years, and as a result has per- 
fected the invention of an ore-dressing and separating machine which we 
believe to be very well adapted to the desired purpose, and one which should 


be carefully examined by practical mill-men. Mr. Sinclair has every confi- 
dence in the success of his invention, and only requires capital to bring it 
properly into notice. 


Besides works for the reduction of ores and separation of bullion in the 
Territory, we have examined, recently, the Omaha Smelting Works, at |- 
Omaha, Neb. These were constructed and are superintended by Leopold 
Balbach, of Newark, N. J. The buildings are capacious, substantial, and 
exceedingly well arranged; the furnaces carefully constructed of the best 
material, and the appurtenances all complete in every way. The location of 
these works is favorable, being immediately on the Union Pacific railway, 
and their facilities for treating ores unrivalled in the Western country. 
They are prepared to treat all grades of ore, and especially fitted up for the 
purpose of bullion separation by the Balbach process. Their capacity is 
about twenty tons daily of ore, besides bullion separation, which is sufficient 
to meet the wants of a large mining district. The officers of the com- 
pany are most responsible and reliable business men, and altogether the 
enterprise is sure of success and prosperity, and well worthy of liberal 

The Chicago Gold and Silver Quartz Eeducing and Refining Co., whose 
works are in Chicago, also promise well. They have extensive buildings, and 
furnaces and appurtenances for treating ores of all grades and kinds, and for 
bullion separation. The capital of this company is ample, and its officers 
enterprising and reliable business men. The metallurgist in charge of the 
works is Dr. Phelps, who, perhaps, has no superior as a mineralist and prac- 
tical reducer of ores in the Western country. 

The fact that active business men have invested large capital in works 
for the reduction of Colorado ore, remote from the mines, when the expense 
of transporting ore to them is necessarily large, should, and no doubt will, 
stimulate capitalists in the Territory to construct similar works in our mining 


This is the most important subject, in connection with ores, yet under 
consideration. To make mining, milling and reducing enterprises successful, 
there must be in a mining district not o'^oly large quantities of ores, but these 
must have sufficient value per ton to pay all expenses of mining and milling, 
and per centage on capital invested, or money will not be used for mining 

Can it be proven, by statistics, that Colorado gold and silver ores possess 
the requisite value? We think the following statistics will fully decide this 
in the affirmative. The following data from Prof Burlingame, Territorial 
assayer, gives a fair estimate of the average value of different grades of ores 
in various districts, and can be relied upon as strictly correct. We quot« 
from a letter from the professor. 



"Central City, Col., February 17, 1871. 

" In response to your request I forward you statistics of the average assay 
value of ores produced by some of the principal mining districts of the 
Territory : 

" The following table represents the coin value, per ton of 2,000 pounds, 
of ore : 




Illinois Central 


Central City. ... 






72 samples of mill ore, second-class., 

35 " " smelting ore, first-class... 

56 " " mill ore, second-class... 

32 " " smelting ore, first-class 

31 " '♦ mill ore, second-class... 

9 " " smelting ore, first-class 

59 " " mill ore, second-class... 

23 " " smelting ore, first-class... 

22 " " mill ore, second-class..., 

8 " " smelting ore, first-class.. 

25 " " mill ore, second-class.... 

17 " " mill ore, second-class 

12 " " mill ore, second-class 

39 " " mill ore, second-class.... 

13 " " smelling ore, first-class.. 

34 *' " mill ore, second-class 

22 " '/ smelting ore, first-class.. 

First-class (smelting) average about 

Grand Island. 

Tailings from stamp mills (concentrated), 84 samples. 



$ 24 10 

$ 11 37 

138 92 

80 32 

22 61 

12 85 

90 30 

37 62 

19 93 

13 12 

86 39 

40 67 

20 07 

17 14 

50 28 

61 90 

17 SO 

10 60 

63 61 

23 44 

8 47 

27 05 

29 42 

12 02 

6 31 

18 60 

7 82 

35 97 

18 44 

228 90 

86 31 

409 81 

200 00 

17 84 

5 21 

per ton. 

> 35 47 

169 24 
35 36 

127 92 
33 05 

126 96 
37 21 

112 18 
27 90 
87 05 
35 52 
41 44 
24 91 
43 79 

247 34 
86 31 

409 81 

200 00 
23 05 

" The average of the silver ores from Griffith district is higher than that of 
the other localities, from the fact that the ores are richer, although the veins 
are not, usually, as large as those of the gold mines, and the mill-men have 
charged higher prices for reduction, so that the lower grades would not pay 
for working. It is somewhat difficult to correctly estimate the value of the 
ores from Grand Island district, as a majority of the samples are taken from 
new discoveries, and have been selected with a view to obtaining a high 
result; some of them assaying nothing, or a mere truce; others yielding 
several thousand dollars per ton. Although the district is new and not yet 
developed, some of the lodes have yielded enormous quantities of very rich 
ore; and there can be no doubt of its being one of our best mining 
localities. Yours, very truly, 

E. E. BUELINGAME, Territorial Assayer." 

We have the average assay from seventy-six samples of concentrated 
tailings," made by Prof Burlingame in the spring and summer of 1870, 
which shows an average value of $40.87. They were, probably, from the 
very best "tailings" dressed in the district during the year, and not a fair 
exhibit of the av^erage of "tailings" generally. The following letter, from 
in experienced and reliable assayer at Idaho Springs, contains valuable data: 

"I have the honor herewith to forward the result of average assay of 
5old and silver lodes, made by me during the four months of August, 



September, October and November, 1870, within a boundary of five miles 

" Gold Lodes.— GoU, 3 oz., 9 dwt., 21 gr., per ton of 2,000 lbs., ore. 
" Silver iWes.— Silver, 89 oz., 11 dwt., IG gr., per ton of 2,000 lbs., ore. 
"I have not here stated the quantity of gold contained in the silver ores; 
but. if you wish it, I can give you items from time to time. 
"I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Henry Kearsino, Ansayer." 

The following statistics, from Jerry G. Mahany, of Georgetown, a gentle- 
man of large experience in mining matters, and entirely reliable, will still 
further demonstrate the actual value of Colorado silver ores: 

"During ten months, ending November 1, 1870, there was mined and 
treated, in Griffith and Queen districts. Clear Creek county, 1,396 tons of 
ore of all grades, that yielded 8171,945.75 silver, coin value, or an average 
of $123.17 per ton. The first-class ore, from seven lodes, averaged 1,106^ 
ounces per ton, ranging as follows: Snowdrift, 1,156 ounces; O. K., 1,135 
ounces; Federal, 1^335 ounces; Sterling, 1.000 ounces; W. B. Astor, 990 
ounces ; Terrible, 630 ounces; Guthrie, 1.500 ounces per ton, silver, as worked. ' 

"Of sixty-five assays made by the Brown Mining Company, the lowest 
was 91 ounces and the highest 603 ounces, and the average 268 ounces, 
silver, per ton. Of thirty-two assays made from Baker mine, lowest 
12 ounces and highest 1,002 ounces; average 240 ounces per ton. Of 
eighteen miscellaneous assays from mines in Argentine the average was 216 
ounces per ton, silver. Six assays from Stevens' mine gave an average of 
160 ounces per ton. The largest assay from the Federal Iqdo is 2,152 
ounces per ton, and from the W. B. Astor lode 17,137 ounces per ton. Two 
men worked eighteen days on the E I'luribus Unum lode, took out one and 
a half tons sulphurets of silver that yielded, at Stewart's Reduction "Works. 
300 ounces per ton. They paid §35, currency, per ton, for reducing, and 
$11 per ton, currency, for packing, which left them a neat little sum for 
wages. There are now four companies of miners working on this lode, on 
shares. A few months* development will place this mine foremost of the 
paying mines of Colorado. The owners are Wm. T. Reynolds and James 
A. Wilson. 

"Of C. H. Moore I gained the following information: He made 500 
assays in three months, ending this date (December 26, 1870), the average 
of which is $178.32." 

Prof A. Von Shultz, a mining engineer and assayer, who has superior 
attainments, is entirely reliable, and has been engaged in assaying and exam- 
ining the mines and minerals of the Territory for the past three years, gives 
the following estimates: "Average mill value of first-class ores in Clear 
Creek county, $200, coin; average value of first-class ores in the Gilpin 
county mineral belt, $80, coin; average value of mill ores, per cord, §70; 
average cost of mining ores in Gilpin county, about $5 per ton." 

Prof Moore, assayer at the Stewart Reduction Works, Georgetown, 
assures us that the average of all ores assayed by him during the year of 
1870 was about $100, and that all ores treated at the works averaged over 
$100 per ton. These are silver ores, exclusively. 

The average of assays and mill returns given by owners of mines, and 
represented in our description of mines, is still higher than these estimates; 


but we do not give them, as we are fully aware that only the highest fiirures 
have been given in by owners of property. We think it entirel/safe tcTtake 
Prof Burliugame's estimate, as a fair exhibit of the real assay value of ores 
in the Territory. From this we find the average value of the second-class 
ores, in the Gilpin belt, to be 833.80, coin. If eighty per cent, of this 
could be saved there would be the sum of 827.04 for the minin"', trans- 
mitting to reduction works, and reducing. Deduct from this the average 
expense of mining and hauling any distance within the district, §6.50, and 
there remains, for reducing and profit, S20.54. With any cheap means of 
treating gold ores with eighty per cent, saving, the profits on this class of 
ore, which is very abundant, would be sufficient to satisfy tho most 

The average assay of the first-class or smelting ores, from the same dis- 
trict, is $116.23. Of course this class is not so abundant, but it forms part 
of the crevice material of every fissure vein in the district, and is mined 
already in large quantities, which will be vastly increased when satisfactory 
reduction works are erected. 

With silver ores, taking the average value of all ores treated at Prof. 
Stewart's works, during his first six weeks' run in his new works, in the fall 
of 1870, as a basis for calculation, we find that figures will clearly demon- 
strate that silver mining in that district, under all existing unfavorable 
circumstances, is a profitable business. The average assay of all ores 
treated was SI 18. Of this eighty per cent, was saved, or guaranteed, to 
the miner, which makes the sum of 89-4.40 actual amount received for the 
ore. Deduct from this 835 (the charge for reducing), and the miner has 
859.40 for mining and transporting to the reduction works one ton of ore, 
any quantity of which is found in all the numerous veins which have been 
opened in the district. Deduct, again, 810 — the highest amount charged — 
for transportation, per ton, by pack trains, in the district, and the miner has, 
for his labor and profits, 849.40 on each top. And further, while the 
miner is taking out this one ton of ore, worth 894.40, he takes with it at 
least aa additional ton, worth 850, which he leaves in his "dump" heap, 
and a small quantity of first-class specimens, worth, probably, 825 more. 
Besides this ore, worth 895.40 per ton, which reaches Mr. Stewart's and 
other reduction works in Colorado, a large amount of ore, worth from 8350 
to 8650 per ton, is shipped to England, Newark, or elsewhere, for reduction. 

In conclusion, while we know we have not given such complete statistics 
concerning mining matters as the importance of the interest in the Territory 
demands, we have done the best that present space, time and opportunity 
will permit, and hope, in future issues of our work, to complete fully what 
we have just commenced; still, we know we have published sufficient data 
to establish the fact that the mining districts of Colorado carry more exten- 
sive and richer deposits of the precious metals than any other in the known 
world. This is beyond question. And so soon as these mineral resources 
are fully developed the wealth and greatness of our people will be secured. 



This -will be a chapter of generalities, and though gold is the principal 
subject under consideration the generalities will not be gUtterimj. The 
descriptive history of the principal mines of Colorado, their improvements, 
character of ores, assay value, etc., have shown that a large amount of val- 
uable mining property has been fully or partially developed, sufficient^ to 
insure large wealth and an immense population to any country possessing 
them. Other chapters, in this fair exhibit of the Territory as it is, will point 
out our deficiencies in the matters of large wealth and population. The 
object of this article is to attempt an explanation of these discrepancies, 
especially apparent to the casual visitor to the Territory. He will see the 
evidence of failure in deserted towns, abandoned mining districts, and silent 
mills atid reduction works. Still a careful examination of the country, or a 
glance at our chapter on mines, will show that the Territory has remarkable 
mineral wealth, and unusual advantages and resources. In no other country, 
in the same area, is there such a vast number of gold and silver mines, suffi- 
ciently improved to establish their true value and importance. 

Gilpin, Clear Creek, and a part of Boulder, Park and Summit countiefe 
are traversed by a net-work of immense fissure veins, bearing vast quantities 
of ores, rich in gold, silver, copper, lead and iron. Coal beds, unsurpassed 
in depth and extent by any other fields in the u{)per tertiary, abound at the 
base of the foot-hills. Superior water powers are numerous along the 
mountain streams in the mining districts; excellent timber for lumber and 
fuel is abundant everywhere, and nutricious grasses cover the valleys and 
slopes of the mountains; and still, in the face of all this, there is unmistak- 
able evidence of numerous failures in our mining districts. The ruggedness 
or inaccessibility of our canons or mountains, or the severity of the climate, 
does not show cause for these. The mining districts of Gilpin, Clear Creek, 
Boulder, and the greater part of those of Summit and Park are traversed 
by excellent wagon roads, passable at all seasons. The climate is unusually 
mild and pleasant, and — notwithstanding the great elevation and proximity 
to the snow ranges, of the silver districts especially — the thermometer seldom 
indicates the extremes of cold that are common on the prairies of Illinois or 
Wisconsin; and quartz mining can be and is prosecuted at all seasons with- 
out any interruptions from extreme cold. 

The only drawbacks or natural disadvantages of Colorado, as a mining 
country, have been her remoteness from commercial centres, and the refrac- 
tory character of her ores — the former making the price of staples high, and 
the latter the saving of the precious metals difficult. The first has been 
overcome by two good and efficient causes, the Union Pacific and the Kansas 
Pacific railways; the second by the patent fact that Prof Hill, at his reduc- 
tion works, treats all classes of mineral and so called refractory ores, success- 
fully, and with enormous profits to his company, if not to the miners. It is 
safe, however, to assert that the surplus earnings of these works, after all 
expenses are paid and a handsome dividend to the stockholders, if divided 
among the miners furnishing the ores, these too would be well paid for their 

And now to the task of explaining the only causes for failures in the 
mining matters of Colorado— the only unpleasant labor imposed upon the 


compilers of this fair exhibit of Colorado's resources. A retrospective 
glance at the manner in which certain mining companies, so called, have 
been organized and conducted; the class of men in charge of these enter- 
prises, and a brief notice of the metallurgical charlatans and bogus profes- 
sors, who have introduced neio processes and massacred old ones, will explain 
why mining operations have failed in Colorado. Swindling and unsuccessful 
mining companies are of two classes. The first, companies formed expressly 
for speculative purposes, with operating mines no part of their scheme. The 
second, operative and speculative. The organization of the first class requires 
dishonesty and trickery at both poles of the battery; dishonest men in Colo- 
rado to secure "wild cat" mining property, procure lying " reports," sworn to 
by bogus professors, maps, plats, photographs and assays; and ditto in New 
York, or elsewhere, to issue and sell, say $250,000 of worthless stock, based 
upon this worthless property. These schemes have been successful in too 
many cases. The stock is put in the market at any price, and manipulated 
by shrewd stock-jobbers. The money is realized, and then swindler No. 1, 
from Colorado, meets swindler No. 2, from New York, or elsewhere; the 
winnings are divided, and the bubble bursts. Stockholders, A, B and C, 
call upon the president of the great Bamboozle 'em Gold Mining Co., of Col- 
orado, for dividends, and are quietly informed that the stock is worthless 
(truthful); that the money received from the sale of stock has been 
expended, and no gold found (true again); that the Colorado gentleman, 
with the big gold mine, was a swindler (again truthful), and the share- 
holders, who put in honest money to develop mining property in Colorado, 
are robbed, and the country cursed both loudly and deeply. The organiza- 
tion of the operative and speculative companies requires no swindling on the 
part of Colorado. The dirty work is done by the capitalists themselves, and 
their tools. Old Bullion Bull, of New York, or elsewhere, purchases valua- 
ble mining property from honest men in Colorado, who are compelled to sell 
their " lodes," from impecuniosity, at half their real value. A stock company 
is organized and stock sold, say to the amount of f 250,000, a sum sufficient 
to pay for the mine and a surplus of $100,000. At first Old " B. B." intends 
to work the mine, as he knows it contains large quantities of rich ore, and 
believes money can be made rapidly and easily. To efi'ect this, he sends out 
as agent, Mr. Bozyfizzle, who must be a good mining captain, as he is entirely 
worthless for all other purposes, and places at his disposal one-half of the 
$100,000 surplus. Mr. Bozyfizzle, in due time, reaches Central City, or 
thereabouts. After he gets over his first Rocky Mountain drunk, he con- 
cludes a large mill, or reduction works, is required to treat ores yet in the 
strong, rocky confines of a true fissure vein, which he has never seen, and so 
mill buildings are erected, and machinery ordered. The completion of this 
work is entrusted to Prof. Toothorn, who introduces his improved-baek-action- 
lightning-gum-elastic-cylinder-and-Spanish-fly amalgamator, with which he 
can draw gold from a Rocky Mountain turnip. Toothorn completes the 
works. A ton of gangue rock, the result of Bozyfizzle's work in the mine 
while the mill was being built, is treated. The yield from this does not 
induce the company to declare a dividend, but prompts Old Bullion Bull, 
the president, to investigate matters: the result is not satisfactory. Agent 
Bozyfizzle is recalled; Prof. Toothorn is dismissed, and goes into the assaying 
business; the mill is abandoned, and work on the mine suspended. Old 
Bullion Bull finds all the money, raised from the sale of stock, except that 


which was paid for the mine, has been squandered; however the mine is 
leit and this he knows to be valuable, but stockholders must be convinced 
to the contrary. This he sets about to accomplish. Mr. Screwtight-or-loose, 
the confidential business man of Old B. B. is sent to Colorado; he sells 
the machinery of Toothorn process, for old iron; pockets the proceeds, and 
reports to the stockholders of Bullion Bull's company that the property is 
entirely worthless, and their mining venture a failure. The stock depre- 
ciates and sinks to a mere nominal price, when an agent of Old B. B. buys 
it up, and the entire mine is the property of B. B. at a trifling outlay. 
The owner of the B. B. mining property, mill, reduction works, etc., is in 
uo hurry about working his mines. He knows they will not decrease in 
value, and is satisfied that labor will cheapen, and all mining supplies come 
down' besides it would not be politic to resume operations too soon ; defrauded 
stockholders might gain information of this, and injure the fair fame of Old 
B. B., who always manages his stock swindling operations so as to avoid 
the suspicion of fraud. As a result, a mine, on which 400 or 500 men could 
be employed profitably, is lying idle, and the country suffering in consequence. 
In some of the above cases, stockholders will not part with the stock for 
a nominal sum. Then commence a series of sharp practices, known as 
"freezing out" among mining operators, which require consummate tact, 
untiring patience, and unscrupulous dishonesty. To superintend these trick- 
eries — nominally to superintend the mine — Mr. Screwtight-or-loose is kept 
in Colorado on a fat salary, paid by assessments on the stockholders. Under 
the direction of Bullion Bull, this agent does every thing in his power to 
misrepresent and injure the mining interest of the Territory; reports of gash 
veins, and no true fissures, refractory ores, wild, inaccessable and barren 
country, frigid climate, and like calumnies, are widely circulated, and cruel 
wrong is done to this favored laud and her sturdy pioneers. The usual 
results of these "freezing out" affairs are the success of Bullion Bull, 
and disaster to the mining interests of the district. 

Another class of companies and speculators, who do wrong to the country, 
are the "bonding property operators." These, with the hope of effecting 
sales of mining property at fabulous prices in England, or elsewhere, induce 
mine owners to bond their property to them for a given time, at a certain 
fixed sum, in event of sale. One of the usual conditions of these bonds, or 
the result of the contracts, is the cessation of work on the lode in question. 
Sales are sometimes efiected in this way for fair prices to the owners, and 
extravagant sums to the speculators; but, as a rule, the only result that fol- 
lows is the injury caused by the suspension of work. 

And yet another class, a small fry set of speculators, who club together 
and get control of a quantity of poor mining property, on which they get an 
extravagant report from some charlatan metallurgist. With this, and the 
usual outfit of specimen assays, maps and plats, one of their number goes 
East to make a sale. These are too small fish for the net of Old Bullion.BuU, 
and altogether beneath the notice of stock-jobbers of any means or character; 
but they manage to pick up some fellow with a little money and less brains, 
and efiect a sale. Small fry returns and divides the spoils, less hotel expenses 
and .s(r/i and booby comes out to take possession of his property, (t) with 
visions of untold wealth filling his empty cranium. Of course booby " bursts 
up in a lew months, and adds his feeble wail to the general outcry against 
Colorado mines. 


And now the metallurgical charlatans and bogus professors, who have 
done an incalculable amount of harm to the mining interests of the Terri- 
tory, and have shamefully robbed capitalists who have invested money liber- 
ally to develop the richest mining country in the world. These humbugs 
are foreigners as a rule, and graduates from all the schools of mines in the 
old world, especially Frieburg, so they represent. The truth is, they are 
only second rate apothecaries, and nothing more, except unscrupulous liars 
and swindlers. In the manipulations of pharmacy they have learned the use 
of the pestle and mortar (which is about the most important knowledge neces- 
sary for a fire assayer), and have picked up a smattering of the nomencla- 
ture of chemistry. The straight forward miner or capitalist knows nothing 
about sailing under false colors, and less about the science or manipulations 
of chemistry or metallurgy; and, partly from honesty of purpose, and the 
balance from ignorance, listens to the professor's glowing description of his 
means of reducing ores, and invests money in the professor and his new pro- 
cess. Forthwith, reduction works are erected; costly apparatus purchased, 
and freighted from the States at large expense; furnaces constructed with 
huge chimneys, that reach the summit of some neighboring mountain, and 
ponderous machinery is placed in position. Rich ores, from an adjacent 
mine, are at hand; steam is raised; the shrill shriek of the whistle affright* 
the mountain sheep in the ravines, and startles the prospector on the mount- 
ains; cylinders revolve; ball pulverizers clatter; red flames and blue shoot 
out from the mouths of heated furnaces; great volumes of smoke and sul- 
phurous acid fumes go up the towering chimney, and the gold and silver, too, 
for all the professor knows — at least, he never finds any of it worth mention- 
ing — and then another failure, and another howl about refractory ores, or the 
modest request that $100,000 or so more be furnished for this charlatan to 
expend in learning the rudiments of his profession. Again poor Colorado 
is deeply wronged, and her best friends swindled. How the goddess of 
riches, who has yielded her fairest charms to the embrace of the pioneers 
of this favored land, must weep over these failures and disasters. 

This retrospective view of mining and milling failures, and swindles, is not 
too highly colored; but it is to be hoped these are mostly among the things 
that were, and there are good and sound reasons upon which to base these 
hopes. '"Tis true 'tis pity, and pity 'tis 'tis true," however, that all evils 
connected with mining operations, are not yet corrected. There still exist a 
few tunnel selling companies — a class not mentioned before — that are grave 
stupidities, and are doing their quota of wrong to the country, and a few 
stock-jobbing and "freezing out" concerns, which are retarding the develop- 
ment of valuable mines, and crippling the resources of the country; but 
these will be gotten rid of or overlooked entirely by the class of men and 
capitalists that will soon control the mining interests of the Territory. These 
latter are the sturdy, enterprizing and practical miners and capitalists of 
Colorado, and the educated and skillful laborers and mill-men, who are grad- 
uates from the mines and mills of our own mineral districts. Let honest 
capitalists from abroad interest themselves with these, for the true purpose 
of taking money from the rich lodes so abundant in our mountains, and the 
chronicler of events in Colorado will hereafter record only well merited and 
complete success. 




Celebrated travelers, learned tourists, versatile newspaper correspond- 
ents, poets, authors and editors have exhausted the vocabulary of laudatory 
phraseology in attempting to describe the grandeur, beauty and sublimity of 
the mountain and valley scenery of the "Switzerland of America," and have 
acknowledged their attempts, failures. The range of human thought and 
expression is limited. Even fancy cannot penetrate the infinite, nor soar to 
the boundaries of immensity. In the " mad pride of intellectuality" we 
may attempt to scan the upper atmosphere of the universe, and analyze the 
particles of light that emanate from the solar centre of unbounded space, 
but our efforts are futile. As well might we hope to achieve these things 
which only gods can accomplish, as to expect to portray, with our humble 
powers of expression, the wondrous beauty and marvelous sublimity of a 
view from the summit of the Rocky range or the towering brow of Gray's 
Peak. Thought is awed by sublimity; fancy paralyzed by the immensity of 
grandeur, and sensation drowned in an ocean of loveliness. It is not neces- 
sary, however, to ascend the range or summits of mountain peaks to find 
scenes of rare beauty or grandeur. These cluster about every mountain, 
and linger in every valley. We will not attempt description of what is 
indescribable, but particularize to tourists a few of the points which afford 
fine views in the mining districts, and the immediate vicinity of good roads. 

Gray's Peak rises abruptly from the summit of the main range, near 
the head waters of a branch of the middle fork of South Clear creek, on the 
eastern slope, and the source of a branch of the Snake, a tributary of the 
Blue, on the western. The summit of the peak and its eastern slope are in 
Argentine mining district. Clear Creek county; its western declivity in 
Snake River district. Summit county. The distance from Georgetown, 
about thirteen miles, and from Montezuma, on the Snake, in Summit county, 
about eight miles. A good wagon road connects Georgetown with the base 
of the peak, via Brownville, Bakerville, and the Baker and Stephens mines 
The ascent to the crown of this giant king can be made on horse-back, and 
mounted on one of Bailey & Nott's sure-footed saddle animals, ladies can 
reach the highest point with ease and safety, and look upon a scene unsur- 
passed m the Switzerland of America. Parties can leave Georgetown, where 
tliere are excellent hotels, in the morning, spend two or three hours on the 
peak, and return before night-fall. The elevation of Gray's Peak is 14,251 
loot above sea level — about 3,000 feet above the summit of the snow range 
at this point. Westward— the parks, the main range, with its spurs and 
peaks, and the innumerable lesser ranges parallel with it, to the canons of 


the Colorado, their countless ravines and valleys, the Blue and Grand and 
their tributaries; eastward — spurs of the range, the foot-hills, unnumbered 
branches of the Platte, and its and their valleys, and beyond these the plains, 
stretching away to where the sky touches their sands, are before and around 
you, like the streets and blocks of a great city, from the top of a lofty tower. 
Denver and the lesser cities of the plains, and the trains of the Kansas & 
Denver Pacific railway, can be seen by the aid of a good glass. 

James' Peak, about eighteen miles from Central, is reached by the Central 
and Middle Park wagon road, and aflfords a view nearly equalled iu gran- 
deur and beauty with that trom Gray's Peak. Parties can leave Central in 
carriages in the morning; spend an hour on the peak, and return before 
night. The entire route from Central to the summit of the mountain is 
surrounded by every variety of scenery peculiar to these regions, replete 
with beauty and grandeur. 

The Chief, which rises from a spur of the main range, three miles from ' 
Idaho Springs, southward, to an elevation of over 11,000 feet, also affords 
a rare view of mountain scenery. Parties can reach the summit of this, 
away above timber line, on horseback, without difficulty. From this is 
obtained one of the best possible views of the eastern slope of the Rocky 
Mountains, Pike's Peak, the head waters of the Platte, and its tributaries, 
and the vast plains. Its proximity to this exceedingly pleasant watering 
place, Idaho Springs, with its beautiful surrounding and good hotels, 
makes the Chief a favorite resort of tourists. Other points in the neigh- 
borhood of the springs, affording fine views, are the mountains at the head 
of Virginia Caiion and Gilson Gulch. These are about three miles from 
Idaho, and about the same from Central City — 2,000 feet above the valley — 
and are reached by excellent wagon roads. Good, well developed silver 
mines are numerous in the hills, mountain ranches well cultivated in the 
valleys, and in no place in the mountains can the tourist spend a more 
delightful day, with the assurance he can reach good hotels at night. 

Chicago Lakes, where Bierstadt locates his " Storm in the Rocky Moun- 
tains," should not escape the attention of travelers. These are near the 
head waters of Chicago creek, and the base of the main range in Ottaway 
mining district. Clear Creek county, about twelve miles from Idaho Springs. 
The route to the lakes lies along the valley of Chicago creek, surrounded 
by mountain and valley scenery peculiarly attractive. The Chicago Creek 
wagon road, owned and kept in good condition by the Tellers, of Central, 
makes seven miles of the distance accessible by carriage; the balance is 
reached by a good trail or bridle path. The lakes, two in number, sur- 
rounded by towering mountains, traversed by a rich belt of silver lodes, 
and covered by dense pine forest to timber line, are beautiful sheets of clear, 
cold sparkling water; the larger covering an area of about two acres; the 
smaller one, half its extent. No soundings have yet been, or perhaps ever 
"will be made to find the bottoms of these remarkable basins. Space forbids 
further particularization; but every mountain around Georgetown, Idaho 
Springs, Central, Black Hawk, Golden; the ranges, summits and peaks of 
Park and Summit, and other of the mountain counties; the valleys and 
caiions of the Platte, the Arkansas, the Blue, Grand, and their branches 
and tributaries, aflPord scenes of bewildering splendor and grandeur rarely 
e(£ualled and never excelled. 



Every new comer to a new country is naturally anxious to learn just 
where the best locations are to be found. The information he usually 
receives is varied and conflicting. His informants may each be candid, and 
as "reliable" as human nature averages the world over, and yet each will, in 
a de<-ree exaggerate the advantages of his preference, and the disadvantages 
of orher'sectio^DS. It is a very difficult matter to give any general advice of 
this kind that will not be more or less partial, according to the predilections 
of observers for this or that particular quality of soil, scenery and sunound- 
ino-s or the more or less propitious season at which the various spots have 
been visited. We may, however, venture a few suggestions, gathered from 
a general consideration of Colorado as a whole, rather than from personal 
preferences for any single locality. 

For that large class of men of moderate means who are now seeking 
locations in this Territory, and who desire to make for themselves perma- 
nent homes as tillers of the soil or gatherers of flocks and herds, there are 
still fine tracts of government lands to which they may acquire title by 
occupation and improvement. Here, as elsewhere, land-sharks have been 
busy hunting up the "best" sections and "securing" them; but, in very 
many instances, their straw filings are worthless when opposed by the bona 
fide residence and tillage of the actual settler. Thousand of acres arc now 
" held" by these unscrupulous speculators, which may be readily and success- 
fully "jumped" by men who are honest in their intentions to occupy the 
land. After the lapse of six months or more, many of these sham preenipt- 
ors will be successful in "proving up" their bogus claims at the land offices, 
and acquire absolute title, unless genuine claimants have stepped in and 
thwarted their plans. 

Many choice valleys, in various portions of the Territory, have been thus 
seized upon by the sharks, and are now " claimed" by them. But " claims," 
without accompanying evidences of actual occupation, go for very little in 
the eyes of the law, and hence, whole townships of choice lauds may yet be 
reclaimed by means of actual setlement. Mere filings at the land offices 
need not frighten any land seeker, if he oe satisfied the filer is a man of 
straw, or has no intention of occupying his claim. The government never 
intended that the public domain should fall into the hands of merciless spec- 
ulators through the medium of hard swearing and pretended improvements. 
There are yet unclaimed, detached sections here and there, within from 
ten to thirty miles of Denver, and other thriving towns; but for any con- 
siderable bodies of government land it is necessary to go farther away. 
South of the " Divide," in Douglas, El Paso and Pueblo counties, are some 
choice locations. There are also some vacant lands along the upper St. 
Vrain, the Big Thompson, and other mountain streams in the northern- 
middle portion of the Territory. The above applies to a belt of land thirty 
to torty miles wide, extending along the eastern base of the mountains, and 
readily irrigable by means of the numerous mountain streams. 

Within this belt the principal sites, for the accommodation of colonies 
and cooperative associations of settlers, have now been occupied. Within 
tne past three months, at least three distinct colonies, each numbering from 


one to three hundred families, have located along the valley of the Platte, 
Cache-a-la-Poudre, Big Thompson, St. Vrain and Boulder, and are vigor- 
ously at work subduing and developing their respective sections. 

For organizations of lesser magnitude there are still desirable locations 
within forty or fifty miles of the mountains. South of the "Divide" are 
the valleys of the East Monument creek, Fontaine qui Bouille, the Arkan- 
sas and its tributaries, and still further south, the Cucharas, Apishapa, San 
Carlos, Apache, Huerfano, and other lesser streams, along each of which are 
greater or less bodies of wild lands, available to settlers. 

For the accommodation of a very large colony, the San Luis park, in 
Seguache and Costilla counties, is now one of the most desirable regions 
unappropriated. It possesses all the elements of a successful agricultural 
and stock raising country, and contains an available area large enough for 
the accommodation of a moderate sized State. 

Another region, as yet not more than half explored, and entirely unoc- 
cupied, but which must, ere long, become, in point of population, what it 
already is in point of natural scenery, the "Switzerland of America," is the 
Middle park. Mountain ranges, whose lowest passes are 5,000 feet higher 
than the snow-covered summit of Mount Washington — the crown of New 
England — now bar the passage to its beauties. Wild tribes of Indians still 
frequent it in summer time, and claim it as their hunting-ground, but the 
day is not far distant when* its encircling walls of granite will be tunneled 
to let in the insatiable spirit of the nineteenth century, or scaled by ladders 
of iron track, over which will pour the van of empire in the wake of the iron 

Already English capitalists are on the way to test the feasibility of a 
railway line that shall pierce the snowy range at or near the base of James' 
Peak, and open up this rich and interesting region to the world. At 
present, no ordinary colony need attempt its settlement; but by another 
season, preparations might be perfected so as to make its occupation feasible. 
Its mountain gorges are rich in deposits of the precious metals; its streams 
are full of the finest fish ; its valleys teem with luxuriant grasses and rarest 
wild flowers, and its sublime scenery is equaled nowhere on this continent. 

Tlie western or Pacific slope of Colorado, yet so little known, will, in 
time, become a thickly settled country. It abounds in finely watered, fertile 
and undulating prairies, and when made accessible to the arts of civiliza- 
tion, will be found to off'er great inducements to all classes of settlers. The 
southern half of this slope is embraced in the consolidated reservation of the 
Ute tribe of Indians, and is, therefore, ineligible for occupation by whites; but 
these savage tribes are all waning, and must finally become extinct, leaving 
their rich possessions to be occupied and developed by a more appreciative 

For another class, who come to Colorado for the sake of her climate, 
natural scenery and advantages, and who have money to invest, the settled 
valleys, already supplied with railroads, markets, educational and religious 
privileges and society, oifer greater attractions. Our descriptive chapter of 
counties gives general details concerning all these, which we need not here 
repeat. Some cheap lands are yet open to settlement in each of these, the 
prices ranging from 02.50 to §10 per acre; but the best portions are occu- 
pied, and for the most part in a good state of cultivation. Well improved 
farms, lying contiguous to towns and railways, are held all the way from 825 


to SI 00 per acre. The valley of the Platte is, in many respects very desira- 
be but the valleys of some of its mountain tributaries, though much less 
eTt'cusive in area, are more choice and picturesque^ ^rT'T\ """"^ A 
are the Clear C^eek, Boulder, St. Vrain Left Hand Big Thompson and 
Cachc-a-la-Foudre on the north, and the Cherry and Plum Creek valleys on 
the south of Denver. The valley of the Boulder (north and south branches) 
is probably the finest small valley in the Territory. It is as beautiful as it is 
fertile South of the " Divide" the valley of the East and West Monument 
creeks, thou-h narrower, and as yet little settled, are quite as beautiful and 
Drobab'lv as fertile as that of the Boulder. 

Por those who would make stock raising their business, more extensive 
ranches are found farther from the mountains, in the "plains" tributaries of 
tbe^Platte and Arkansas. The most noted of these are the Kiowa, Bijou, 
Huerfano and Las Animas. 


As the first inquiry of immigrants invariably is for the best localities to 
settle in, so tourists, travelers, pleasure seekers and invalids are anxious to 
be told where to find good stopping places, and the most desirable scenery 
and experiences. This is another point on which it is impossible to give 
anything more than brief general advice. Some will prefer to make Denver 
their headquarters and rallying point while in the country, since here they 
miss, less than elsewhere, society privileges, culture and bustle to which they 
have been accustomed. Others will not be content without a nearer contact 
with the rugged mountains themselves, and will prefer Central, Georgetown, 
or Idaho Springs as a rendezvous, from which to plan expeditions to the 
various points of interest. As a desirable mean between the two extremes, 
the mountain sheltered and thrifty town of Golden, located at the mouth of 
Clear Creek canon, and the present terminus of the Colorado Central rail- 
road, offers many advantages. Communication with the East is as direct and 
rapid as at Denver, while it is twelve miles nearer to every point of interest 
to be visited, and is also in close proximity to some of the wildest scenery in 
Colorado. It now contains an excellent hotel, kept in first-class style, and 
which is supplied with mineral and other baths, for such as seek health and 
recuperation. The Golden House is one of the finest hotels in Colorado, 
being built of brick, new, roomy and well ventilated, besides being kept in 
a style to make travelers feel at home. 

Among the picturesque and curious attractioijs of the immediate vicinity 
are Castle or Pulpit rock, overhanging the town. Table mountain. Chimney 

. . i , , — f, poi_- -_ 

tliiit of economy. The cost of living is no higher than at Denver, while at 
many other places it is double. 



The first impressions of an Easterner, on arriving in Colorado, are not 
usually very flattering. Accustomed to the sight of deep green landscapes, 
fringed and fretted with luxuriant foliage, and subdivided into many-fielded 
farms, the inevitable conviction is that the old geographical tradition of an 
American desert had its foundation ia truth. He ruisses the stately forests, 
the wealth of vegetation, the exuberance of flowers and grasses, the rankness 
of iceech, the fenced highways and subdivided farms, and the fatness of soil, 
that, in its black, unctious-looking furrows, promises even more than it can 
perform. All these are wanting. There are, comparatively, no trees; even 
shrubs are wanting; the grass is, in most places, short, dead-looking stufi", 
even in its prime, and is found in tufts and patches; at least half the surface 
being barren of every thing, and naked to the sun. The soil is dead gray, 
or pule brown; looks gravelly and sterile, and there is nothing attractive, 
apparent, on its surface. He listens to the tales of great productiveness, 
mammoth turnips, and wheat, as beautiful as its yield is bountiful, with a 
kind of patronizing incredulity. 

Irrigation is a great stumbling block to his faith in the possibilities of 
the country. Neither he nor his father, nor his father's father ever prac- 
ticed it; he knows nothing whatever of its practical details, and has only a 
vague, general idea that it requires as much complicated and expensive prep- 
aration as the water supply of a great city. 

It requires a residence of at least twelve months to enable any ordinarily 
observing man to form a comparatively correct opinion of the country. If 
homesickness drives him back to the States before that time, he is sure to 
carry an incorreot, and frequently a very damaging report of what he has 
seen. Of all unreliable things in the world, the most unreliable is a home- 
sick man's opinion of a new country or place. A year's familiarity with the 
scenes and soil of Colorado efi'ectually cures the conceit of unbelief and prej- 
udice with which most men arrive here. 

Irrigation is found to bo a very simple matter, both inexpensive and 
easy. By ita aid two of the chief drawbacks to farming in the States are 
fully overcome, viz : wet seasons and drouths. The former is a meteorolog- 
ical impossibility, and irrigation is the reliable and ever-ready remedy for the 
latter. The clouds are robbed of moisture by the mountains, so that the 
plains get but little rain; but the mountains yield their plundered stores 
again just when most needed by the independent husbandman, who is never 
storm-hindered, and whose stacks never sprout or spoil from excess of damp 
or rainy weather. Grain need not be housed, not even stacked before it is 
threshed. It may stay in the field until it is ready for market, and not a 
bushel of it will be lost by mildew or mould. The straw never rusts before 
it is cut, and comes out as bright in spring as when first tied in bundles. 
Grass cures without blanching, as it stands, and is more nutritious for stock, 
after a whole winter of exposure to the elements, than the best tame hay, 
scientifically cured (in the right time of the moon, and accurate to a day as 
to blossoming stage ! ) and royally housed. 

Nearly every year at the East is either too wet or too dry. No farmer 
there but suff^ers from constant anxiety as to which extreme will prevail, and 


particularly in harvest time. Here he gives no thought to the morrow, 
liain never interrupts or damages him, and if showers do not come, he taps 
the mountain streams and makes sure his yield. 


In the chapter on " Climatology" this subject receives proper notice, but 
too much cannot be written concerning the remarkable purity and health- 
fulness of this upper atmosphere. 

Though in many places, on mountains and in canons and gorges, snows 
remain all the year round, and the melting of these, during the heat of 
summer, produces streams of limpid waters, still vapors, mists and fogs are 
comparatively unknown. Malarious or poisonous exhalations never burden 
this pure air. Decomposition of animal matter takes place eo slowly that 
the noxious gases engendered pass away imperceptibly, and no unpleasant 
effluvia is detected in the neighborhood of decaying carcasses. Fresh 
meats, left in the open air, are dried and perfectly cured. The unpleasant 
odors that emanate from offal, and the usual conglomeration of stenches 
that "smell to heaven" from the purlieus of human habitations, especially 
in large cities, are unknown in Colorado. Sloughing or indolent ulcer 
rarely follow gunsnot wounds or other serious injuries, involving destruction 
of tissues, and the formation of tubercles never takes place in lungs expanded 
with this rarified air. The refractive power of this atmosphere is also 
remarkable, and produces illusions strange, startling and beautiful. The 
mirage of the mountains and plains are familiar to travelers in these regions. 
The thirsty emigrant on the plains sees clear streams of sparkling water he 
can never reach, and the mountaineer, beautiful valleys that are far below the 
horizon. At Denver, the mountains are twelve miles distant at their nearest 
point; still, at times, they seem near at hand, and strangers, at the hotels, 
often attempt a walk to the foot-hill before breakfast. In crossing the plains, 
after the first view of the mountains, they never appear distant more than a 
day's journey for an ox train. Hunters often shoot at antelope a mile off, 
and tourists attempt the ascent of mountains, believing it can be accom- 
plished in an hour when it will require a day's hard climbing. These 
illusions add new charms to scenery, ever varying, grand and beautiful. 


Although ten years have passed away since the boundaries of Colorado 
■nen iefaned and a Territorial form of government inaugurated within the 
Imnts, with the Hon. W. H. Gilpin as first governor, still she has made no 
great ettort to become a State. But the recent remarkable impetus given to 
all tier mdustnes by complete railroad connections, and the great additions to 


her population, by the influx of colonists and imniipjrants of every description, 
bespeak for her a speedy admission into the Federal Union; and no doubt 
the watchmen on the political towers of earth, already see, just above the 
horizon, gleams of the brilliant star so soon to appear in all its radiancy in 
the constellation of States. 

No decade of years, since the independence of the United States, has been 
fraught with such momentous events as the last. During this, the tidal wave 
of unholy rebellion has swept over a portion of the surface of our fair land, 
bearing upon its bosom the argosies of war and destruction, and has been 
driven back and dried up by the winds of true human liberty and the sun- 
shine of patriotism and righteousness. The foul waters, which formed this 
monstrous wave, were already gathering, and murmurs of the coming storm 
of anarchy filled the air, when the birth of Colorada was announced. As 
great numbers of the population of the Territory, at this time, were from the 
disaffected portion of the Union, a powerful eifort was made by these to drag 
the Territory into open rebellion, and array her on the side of slavery and 
anarchy; but these efforts were bravely battled, and completely frustrated 
by the loyal, true-hearted men of our rich and beautiful land, and Colorado 
saved the shame and disgrace of disloyalty and rebellion. Space will not 
permit us to give any detailed account of the noble deeds of the staunch and 
energetic friends of liberty in Colorado. That they organized three good 
regiments, which did efficient service in crushing treason and slaying traitors, 
and presented everywhere an unbroken front, when assailed by the emissaries 
of disloyalty, are facts well known, the records of which brighten the fairest 
pages of our country's history. The friends of liberty in Colorado were firm 
in battle, and wise in council, and nobly acted their important part in saving 
the glorious union of States, whose broad boundaries inclose the homes of 
millions of freemen, and the towering temples of equal rights to all men. 

Besides battling for the general freedom of the country, and warring with 
armed traitors, Colorado troops were compelled to contend with treacherous 
savages, who threatened the lives and homes of her citizens. The savage 
hordes of the plains and mountains, emboldened by the dangers which beset 
the country from the emissaries of rebellion, and urged on by the brutal 
councils of those disaffected white men, were especially troublesome while the 
rebellion lasted, and waged a merciless warfare against the white settlers in 
the Territory. But our troops were equal to this emergency, and taught 
these savages a lesson which will not soon be forgotten, and has already 
secured the country from further attacks from these enemies of progress and 
civilization. No part of our great country has a fairer record, during the 
last decade of years, than the part we are now discussing, and nowhere does 
the sun-rays of future peace and prosperity shine brighter than over her 
mountains and plains. 

The manner in which the general government controls her Territories is 
too well known to require notice here. We append the names of the officers 
who are now entrusted with the administration of Territorial affiiirs : " 

Territorial Officers. — Governor, Edward M. McCook; Secretary, 
Frank Hall; Treasurer, George T. Clark; Auditor, James B. Thompson; 
Adjutant General, Hal Sayr; Attorney General, L. C. Rockwell; Surveyor 
General, W. H. Lessig; Superintendent of United States Branch Mint, J. 
F. L. Schirmer; Territorial Assayer, E. E. Burlingame; Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, W. C Lothrop. 


Supreme Court. — Chief Justice, Moses F. Hallett; Associate Justice, 
E. T. Wells; Clerk, David W. Crater; Marshal, M. A. Shaffenberg. 

Congressional Delegate.— Jerome B. Chaffee. 

United States Revenue Officers. — Assessor, Daniel Witter; Col- 
lector, J. H. Merrison. 

We believe these officials are well qualified to fill their various positions, 
and discharge all duties faithfully, and that our government affairs are ably 
conducted. '^One office and its incumbent, however, requires especial notice, 
from its paramount iuiportanoe. We refer to the Territorial assay office, at 
Central, and the officer. Prof E. E. Burlingame. This office, established, 
but in 1868, has been of great service to the prospecters and miners of 
the Territory. Previous to its existence, the price charged for a common, 
fire assay was so extravagant, that poor men, making explorations in the 
mining districts, could not afford to have frequent assays from the ores dis- 
covered, and often passed by lodes containing valuable ores, or expended 
much time and labor in developing worthless property from this cause. In 
the establishment of the Territorial assay office these obstacles to successful 
mining enterprises have been entirely removed, as the price charged for an 
assay is only ^2.50, a comparatively trifling sum, always readily obtained by 
all interested. The manner in which Prof Burlingame has discharged his 
onerous duties has been entirely satisfactory to miners generally, and much 
good has been done by the wise legislation which created this office. 

The United States Branch Mint, at Denver, also requires notice. The 
building, which is a capacious, substantial brick structure, located on the 
northwestern corner of Gr and Holladay streets, was first constructed by 
Messrs. Clark & Gruber, in 1861, and fitted out with the necessary appa- 
ratus for coining, and operations commenced on the 16th of July, of that 

In 1862, a bill was introduced in Congress, by H. P. Bennett, the dele- 
gate from Colorado, to authorize the establishment of a branch mint or gov- 
fernment assay office at Denver. This bill passed in April of the above year, 
and commissioners were appointed to examine and report upon the propriety 
of purchasing the mint of Clark, Gruber & Co., for that purpose. The 
^ report of the committee was favorable, and the purchase was effected by 

ws_* Secretary Chase, of the United States Treasury. Previous to the sale, 

t^. ^ Messrs. Clark & Gruber coined 8594,305.50, and purchased §1,402,647.75 
worth of gold bullion, besides private deposits. 
^ The building has been enlarged by the government, but no apparatus for 
coining has been supplied, and it is exclusively a United States assay office, 
on a large scale, under the charge of Prof J. L. F. Schirmer. His prin- 
cipal assistants are Chambers C. Davis, melter and refiner; Rodney Curtis, 
chief clerk, and M. H. Slater, calculation clerk. The retort gold from 
^tauip-mills, and dust from placer diggings, are melted and refined at this 
mstuution, and their degree of fineness stamped upon them. Bricks, weigh- 
ing from a few ounces to three or four pounds, are molded here daily. 

A fine assortment of minerals, fossils and coins has been collected by the 
otticers ot this institution, and, altogether, the mint is one of the prominent 
objects of interest in Denver, and should be visited by all tourists. 



■^TOv ^ ^iM [nm ^^ii Ew^ 
11 1. Jl ^|L I^^ 


|lirt |ook Hianteteiiiiii |i|gr|iiL 


1866 — At tlie first Colorado Territorial Fair, first premiums for job 
printing, book manufacturing and binding. 

1867 — First premiums for Plain and Fancy job printing, book making 
and binding. 

1868 — Made no entries. 

1869 — First premiums for Plain and Fancy job printing, blank books 

and book binding. 
1870 — First premiums for job printing and book work. 
1869 — First premiums for plain and fancy pi'inting, and Ijook making 

at Boulder County Fair. 
1870 — First premiums for all tbe above at P>oulder County P^air. 

\_7y/e abore are all t?ie pabllc I^airs erer ftcld i/f Colorado.^ 

/||TOLORADO is bounded east by Kansas, south by New Mexico, west by Utah, and 
J.A north by Wyoming. Its area is nearly 200,000 square miles. Its mines of gold 
silver, copper, lead, iron, and coal, are unlimited and ine.\haustible ; it pro- 
duces its own supplies of agricultural products, aiul possesses an unlimited 
breadth of the best pastoral lands in the world. It possesses an e(iuitable and 
delicious climate, beneficial to invalids and promotive of longevity Its scenery is 
unsurpas.sed. Denver, the capital and commercial center, is connected with San Fran- 
cisco, Chicago and St. Louis by direct lines of railway. Other lines are being rapidly 
built, making it a railway focal point. IJenver is 5.300 feet above the sea. 


B®aT®p® Wmlmw>mmm 

||e |(w?i |wpf» mi lie |e$f |eip$poper 

r^ rMs ^QcsF M@v^r^s^ CQ^^rar; 



$3 Per Year; 4 Copies, $10. I 


$12 Per Year; 2 Copies, $22. 

Established, April 93, 1859 

■ y "vi js. '■ v-^ji. 







enver Tritune, 


Tribune Bloek, F Street, 

Kelou- Klal.-f 

|lamT#t, Oii)L 


|ei i|is-|^NFioftl!! JM |rfpOiirf. 



One Year i;i2 oo 

Six Month.'^ 7 00 

Three Moiulis 4 00 

By the Week 40 

Single Copy. 

■^ <^ WEKHLV. ,:> 

One Year S3 00 

Six Montiis 2 00 

Three Monllis 1 00 

Single Copy 15 

lO^j^^g^^Specinieii copies >ent free. 


I'hc l)enver Triimne is one of the l^est papers in this 'I'errilorv. — [Coliir;i(ln 

The Tribune is one of the most extensively circulated papers in the Tcrrilniy. 
[Mis.souri Democrat.] 

The Tribune, by its al)le management, has steadily grow n until it occupies ;i 
position second to no paper in the 'I'erritory. — -[Colorado Miner.] 

A Journal of much popularity, well conducted and ])laced on a solid footing 
by its enterprising proprietors. — [Missouri Re])ublican.] i 

The Denver Tribune seems to be well filled with advertising, dentjting an j 
extremely healthy condition, while its editorial character is second to no sheet | 
publishetl in the Territory. — [Miners' Register, Central, Col.] 

The Denver Tribune, published at Denxer City, is a model and abl) con 
ducted paper. — [Kullon, 111., J(nn-nal.] 

In all itx vavUniH liranvhin. cuucuteil MiAT, (JlUC^i,'. All »«.*•/.• * 
doH)- >vh<-n itrotnisfil, ami Snlis/in-tion (iaarantfril, fi^ 


duick Sales and Small Profits 

th: e 

Boston Shoe Store 

Has a Stook of (Joods tliat wriv 


AiHl not 1(1 1)0 hfld lor high prices, oeing satislifd that a niinbh' Sixuciu-f is ))ottiT 
Uirtii a slow ^Shilling. 

No old shop-worn goods are ever offered to any of our customers at any prico. 
AH our goods are just bought, and you will not only hav(? tlie advantage of 
llie pre>ient low Eastern prices, but will be sure of getting the best and hit est 
style of goods. ^ " 

There are No Better Goods offered, and None so Cheap, 

As can be had at the 


opposite Roci.-n Mountain Xars Office, 392 Larimer Street, cor. G. 

Com., and srr l„r yoursi'lf before you buy. H. IBXTIlTOlSr, 

Fine Goods a Specialty. 




J. CLOlTill. 


Insurance Agents, 

Office, 356 Larimer Street, up Stairs, 

Warehouse, 2 doors west of Estabrook's Stable, Holladay St. 



F»ost OlTlee Box 60. 



€!¥¥ TMJk 

Fi^eight charges advanced and goods delivered to 
all lyarts of the city, 

Oflioe, 41 IBlake Street, 





mem aaa mmwwm&w 

{Chief Engineer Chicago-Oilorado Colony.) 
Engineering, in all its Branches, Promptly attended to. 




For the States and Territories. 


Office, cor. G and Larimer Sts., 

Second Floor, 


J^. J. G-ILL. ' JOE. B. C.A.SS. 

iP7 rMm.'. ms* 

Holladay Street, 

(Adjoining Ilusfej's,) 

I'arties wishing to purchnse improved or unimproved City Property, Farms, or 
Farming I>ands, Gold or Silver Mines in any part of Colorado; parties wishing to 
loan or borrow money, will find it to their interest to address or call on us, both 
having been residents of Colorado for ten years. 

.T. K. Bates, Pres't. C. C. Johnson, Treas. R. R. McCormick, Sec. 

BinYia iiiwin 



For sale at Eastern prices. 



Real Estate Agency 


Established, and Uninterruptedly Continued, since 1858. 

Loans Negotiated ; Titks Examined and Perfected ; Prop- 
erty Bought, Sold and genei-ally managed. 


Office, F Street, near Larimer, 

'^^^^ ««%. 

CONRAD TRANKLE, Ppoprietor. 

F- Street, bet. Wazee ana "Wynltoop, 


The tabic will, at all times, be supplied with all the delicacies of the season. 
rcHsonahle price '"''°"''' *'°'"^*'''^^^^>' furnished, will be let to families at a 

The proprietor is determined that his 


Comfort to his Guests is Guaranteed. 



■mwmw Twrnmui 


Frolglits *i<lva.ii.<!«tl oil soocls^ .and ^Iie sa,ii>« <<leli>rerecl to all 
l>ai-ts of tlxe oity. 

SATXSFACJXlQiiIi' mXWIk^^M.XU'E^l^m,^. 


Comer P and Blake Streets, 




Larimer Street, bet. G and H, opp. Broadwell House, 

Sleals at ^11 Hours, from. 5 JL, 'M.. to IS F». M!. 

Transient custom solicited. 
(3-EO. T- BI^EEID, - - I=I^O:F'I^XETOE,. 


mmmmm nAiEif 



Agent for C. S. Maltby's Baltimore Oysters. 

F Street, near Larimer, 



General Dealer, Wholesale and Retail, in 


All kinds of Nails, at "Wtiolesale, at 


Cor. F and Wynkoop Streets, 





First a?id ontj one ere?^ established i?i Colorado. 

And a General Pork House Business. 



Attorney at Law. A, B. Hill. 




Larimer Street, near F, 


Woolen Manufacturing Go. 

iiNrcoia:poieuA.TEi:, i87o. 
O^^FIT^^^L, - - - #100,000 

J. \V. SMITH, President. H. S. SMITH, Secretarj'. 

JNO WINTERBOTTOM, Treas. and Supt. 

Factory, corner Cheyenne Avenue and Larimer Street, 

Manufactures and keeps on hand for sale, wholesale and retail, a good assort- 
ment of BLANKETS, of various weights, colors and prices; JEANS, CASSIMERES, 
BLANKETS, YARN, WOOL BATTING, etc., etc., suitable for the Colorado and New 
Mexico trade, all of which will be sold at reasonable prices, for cash, or in exchange 

A liberal share of patronage is respectfully solicited and is required to sustain 
the institution. 

-O" We invite all persons visiting Denver to give us a call.'°SM 



Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 


Miners', Millmen's, Carpenters', Blacksmiths', and Mechanics' 
Tools generally, and Smoke Conductors. 


Larimer Street, 


Eating House and Saloon, 


61 IBlake Street, near <3S-. 

The Finest Braods of 



61 Blake Street, - Denver, Colo. 


G. A. McCLASKEY. j. ^,y^ ARMSTHONc;, 

Armstrong & McGlaskey, 

Manufacturers and Dealers in 

J4T I''' Street, below Slake, DENVER COL. 

DEITSCH & BRO., Proprietors, 

Corner of F and Larimer Sts., IDEjIsr"V"EI2.. 

■^ Wholesale and Hetail Dealers in 

PaM €;3f i Ita^pl© Wwf' 

J^ar^e Stock of Carpets ^ Oil Cloths, ^tc, 
ahraj^s on ?ia?id. 



4S Blako Street, 


PIES^ " M Jai n., - . - - C;OXjC^XI.A.X>C?. 

These houses are kept in flrst-class style. Meals at all hours, day and night. Best cigars and 


B. L. FORD, Proprietor. 


352 Larimer St., Denver, Colo., 

Keeps constantly on liand the largest and most complete stock of 

Dry Goods, Notions, Shawls, 


Laces, Fancy Goods and Kid Gloves , 

And offers the same at Eastern Prices. 

mM^w^TmB M^^^ ^ wBmQ'ZM.^'m\ 

352 Larimer St., Denver, Colo, 

Wholesale and Xtetail Denier in 

Shelf Hardware, Wooden Ware, Iron, Steel, 


Carpenters", Blacksmiths' and Miners' Tools, Reapers, Mowers, Threshing Machines, Saws, Rubber and 

Leather Belting, Builders' Hardware, House Furnishing (ioods, Bar and Sheet Iron, Horee Shoes 

and Nails, Pumps of all kinds. Gas Pipe, Steam Engine Fixtures, Gum and Hemp Packing, 

Clothes Wringer.s, Tubs, Buckets, Churns, Milk Coolers, Plows, Harrows, Seed Drills, 

Axes, Picks and Handles, Horse Rakes, Wagons, Carts, ^\■lleelllarrows, etc., 

and Manufacturer of Tin, Copper and Iron work ; also, 

nvE3E3T:"jflLjL.ijic::? c::jox^t^ii^s. 

The only article that wi'.l preserve the body for ages. 
Coffin Trimmings and Ornamental Coffin Plates always on hand. 

Fairbanks' Scales— all sizes. 

1^5 & 137 F street, - - DENVER, COLO. 




^ ^^i^^iiwisa^^^ 



Siiritclies and Curls 



[Aim ^mwmiimYmAmm wO) Qmmmm, 


Larimer Street, 

Opp. Broailwell House, 




Cor. Lawrence and G Sts,, 


J. S. LAHGRISHE, Manager and Proprietor. 



A Fnll and Efficient Company, Surpassed by None in the West. 


S. R. EDWARDS, Proprietor, 

Oorner Gr and Larimer Streets, 



niis popular house has a fine bar and billiard room attached; also, 
good stabling. 

















348 Larimer Street, between E and F, 

BgM¥BM?, ©©lt@MAB@ 





143 F Street, Denver, Col, 


.lotis I>. Perbt, St. Louis, Mo. 
ADii.PHLS Meier, St. Louis, Mo. 
)i. H. l.AMBORN, Secretary and Treasurer Lake 
Superior & Mississipiji R. K., Philadelphia. 

lion. John Evans, Denver, Col. 

Chas. C. Leeds, of Anthon & Leeda, Broadway, 

New York. 
J. C. Tbadtwine, C. E., Philadelphia. 





Blake Street, near G, 


Real Estate Agent & Notary Public 

IVo. 193 F Street, 


H7 r street, below Wazee, Denver. 

^vp!i'"!f^''"f""''" ^'''^" *" Carriage Painting and Trimming. Mixed Paints ..f 
«very snade always on hand. All Mork warranted to give satisfaction, and prices 
low. Stencil and Brand work done to order. 





18 Karat Jewelry 



Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Diamonds, Watches, Silver and Plated Ware, Etc. 



Which will be furnished to the Trade at 
With the usual Discount. 

Any article of 18 Karat Jewelry or Silver Ware made to order. 

368 Larimer Street, 






Office in Clayton's Bfii-ding, 

Corner F" and Larimer Streets, 

Special attention given to handling property in the suburbs, by 
the block or addition. 



OflBce, in Hughes' Building, 



Attorney at Law 




Genuine American and Foreign Drugs, Medicines, Oiemicals, Paints, 
Oils, Varnishes, Glass, Etc., Perfumery and Fancy Goods. 

3S Blake Sti-eet, 



Shop, cor. L and 'Lawrence St., ilSfTll, €M%. 

luU'i lead foKil iii4 Umk f iii 

*- -t t' r -if' 



Cor. G and Wazee Streets, 
JOSEPH L. BAILEY, Proprietor. 

General agent for the sale of Ilav, Coal, Stock and Fat Cattle ; also agent for the celebrated Temple 
■^Vooden Pump. Always ou Laud and for sale, all siz^s of the Bishop & Pnndlo ^\ agon8. 


Trains leave Golden, - 6.00 A. M. Arrive Denver, - 7.00 A. M, 

2.00 P. M. " " 3.00 P. M. 

" Denver, 7.15 A.M. " Golden, - 8.15 A.M. 

4.30 P. M. " " 5.40 P. M. 

Connecting at Golden with Coaches of COLORADO STAGE CO. on the arrival of 
morning train, for 


Also, the mining districts of Summit, Lake and Park counties, and the 

new mines of Grand Island, connecting at Denver with the Denver 

Pacific and Kansas Pacific Railways, for all points 

h^oi^th:, ej^st j^isriD sotjth:. 


General Freight and Ticket Ag«at^ 


Fniit, Imported and Domestic Cigars, Tobacco, 
Fancy Goods, Smokers' Articles, Meer- 
schaum Pipes, Etc., Etc. 

Having been a resident of California for fifteen j-ears, he enjoys facilities for the 
sale of California Goods possessed by no other house in Colorado. 



Cor. G and Larimer Streets, 

(Opp. Broadwell House,) 




Attorney at Law M Real Estate Apnt. 




Special attention given to business of all kinds before any Land OfiBce, and in the 

Departments at Washington. Lands and City Property purchased and sold. 

Rents collected, Taxes paid, Patents for Land secured, and Abstracts 

to Property promptly furnished. Agricultural Scrip for 

sale. Fees and Charges in all cases reasonable. 

Office in Feuerstein's New Blocl(, Corner G and Larimer Sts. 


Successors to MILLER &. IVIcCORD and B. M. HEERMANS & CO. 

Forwarding and Commission Merciiants, 



Our facilities for forwarding to all points in Southern Colorado and New Mex- 
ico are unrivalled ; and our largely increased business in that direction, the past 
season, is a guaranty that we have given satisfaction to our patrons. 

Through contracts on Ores, Wool, Hides, etc., given to all Eastern cities. 

Especial attention paid to consignments of all kinds, and remittances made on 
day of sale. 

Mark all consignments to be forwarded beyond this point, 

" CARE J. A. M. & CO., DENVER." 


Establislied in ISOO. 


37^5 Larinaei:- Street, 

(Next door to Post Office.) 

The Largest Variety to be found in any Establishment 

in the West. 

Pipes and Stnokera* Articles, 







A full and complete assortment of Rods, Lines, Reels, 

Hooks, Flies, &c., especially adapted 

to Colorado Waters. 

Our Stock will be found fully up to the times, and embracing all the 
latest novelties. 

L. TV. C^I^E1E]XLE:.4.I^ -Sc oo., 

375 Larimer Street, Denver, Col. 




E®®K¥ MOOTI^Ai: 


Over three hundred views taken in Colorado, making a most magnificent collec- 
tion, and giving a more accurate and vivid impression of the wild scenery of the 
"Switzerland of America" than volumes written on the same subject. 

The above collection comprises views taken in the vicinity of Denver, Central 
City, Black Hawk, Georgetown, Nevada (Bald Mountain), Granite City, Fair Play, 
Colorado City, The Garden of the Gods, Pleasant Park, South Park, Monument 
Groups on Monument Creek, The Snowy Range, Pike's Peak, Longs Peak, Gray's 
Peak, Spanish Peaks, Little Professor, McClellan Mountain, Mt. Lincoln, Idaho 
Springs — famous for medicinal waters and as a summer resort— and the different 
streams of Colorado, etc., etc. 

Old pictures, of any description, however badly defaced, copied, enlarged to any 
desired size and painted in oil or water colors, by the skilful artist, Mrs. MAGGIE 
DUHEM, at the 



Larimer Street, 

(Over the Post Office,) 





Pure Kentucky 


Importers and Jobbers 

Forii lis, Lips Hip, 

IVo. 3T8 Lai-imer Sti-eet, 



fi^ Orders Solicited."^a 



LOYAL S. NYE, President. 

GEO. STILLE, Cashier. 

Wholesale Dealers in 




Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. 






I>EIWER^, C30L0I^^^I>0. 




■ Cor. Larimer mid H Streets, 





Malt, Hops and Yeast for sale, in quantities to suit. Orders 
from the country promptly filled. 

L. PARKHURST, Denver, Colo. 



F" Street, 



Dry Goods, Teas, Glassware, Jewelry, Sil- 
verware, Plated Ware, Pictures, Hair 
Goods, Perfumery, Japanese and 
Chinese Goods. 



8. A. GRANT & CO., 


Booksellers & Stationers 



School ^oo/cs, Chromos, Cards, Inh, Te7ts a?id 
Tencils, :Sla7ih :Sooks, Sc, Sc, 


383 Larimer Street, Denver, Colo. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 


Glue, Brushes, Artists' Materials, 

Mirrors, Gilt Mouldings, Picture Frames, 

Window Shades and Cornices, Paper Hangings, 

)^ m%^^ 


HOUSE, siG]v ) 143 JF^ Street, 

AND f 

Done to Order. J DEMVERi 



Wholesale and Retail Grocer 


One Door East of the American House, 


Begs to inform the citizens of Colorado that he has opened his New Store at the 
above address, where he intends keeping on hand a large and select assortment of 

Teas, Coffees, Sugars, Spices, 



BROOMS, Sfc, Sfc, Sfc. 

And guarantees that the Quality and Price shall be such as will meet the approval 
of all who give him a call. 

Particular attention paid to the 

j'OBBiisra- Ti^A.nDE. 


Notice the addres?, 

75 Blake Street, < 



(Nee Charpiot.) 

Frencli Milliner and Dress Maker 

Sab-agent of the Wilson Shuttle Sewing Machine Company. Masquerade costumes for rent 
and made to order. Latest styles of Millinery Goods constantly on hand. 

Roper's Block, entrance on G- Street, opposite Broadwell House, 

denver, colorado. 




Sporting, Cannon, Mining & Blasting. 


£iireka Grain, I Pacific Rifle, 

Pacific Sporting, ' Sea & River, 
Gala. Sportsman, I Valley Mills. 


Tlie Best in tliese Moiiiitaiiis. 

WM. LARNED, Central City; ISAAC BRINKER & CO., Denver, Col. 



Wholesale and Retail Grocers 


^g-ents California Powder "WorUs. 


"O.K." "O.K." 

Phil. Trounstine, 

" o. K." 

Clothing Store 

172 F Street, 

"O.K." "O.K." 



No. 163 F Street, Denver, 

Jobber and Eetail Dealer in 


Dry Croods, 


Cash Paid for 'Wool and Pelts. 

Also, keeps constantly on hand a large stock of 

Bli@l'i All iABlIAi£i» 

Agent for 


Fire and Burglar-Proof Safes. 

163 F Street, 


n. :Et. c3-i^EEi<r, 





West end Larimer Street Bridge, 



D. S. GREEN, Pres. S. P. BERNARD, Vice-Pres. I. C. HAGUE, Sec. L H. COLE, Treas. 

FRED. J. STANTON, Engineer. 

JOHN C, FEBLES, Rev. J. DIX MILLS. P. B.WILLS, GeneralTraveling Agents. 

Hon. E. M McCook, GoTernor of Colorado; Hon. Wm. Gilpin, Ex-Governor of Colorado; Hon. John 
EvanB do.and President D. P. Railway; Hon A. C. Hunt, Ex-Governor of Colorado; Hon. Frank Hall, 
Secretary of Colorado; Hon. Moees Hallett, Chief Justice of Colorado; Hon. 8. H. Elbert, Ex-Secretary 

Int i!? t^^ ^P+ ' ^ipO^hich secures transportation to Colorado at reduced rates and purchases one 
«?»t 1 tL^ town of Greensboro, located on the South Platte river, twenty-five miles below Evans 
imm^ri;«t« J^!fr.>'"'\»f li^'l^'ay- Each member is then left to make his own selection of lands in the 
immediate vicinity, than which there are no better in Colorado, 
lars, addr^^B?'^*'' description of the location, see chapter on COLONIES, in this work. For full particu- 

Col. n. S. GREEN, rres% 






S. H. CARR, Proprietor, 

Foot of" F* Sti-eet, Denver, Col, 

Board, per day $2 00 

" per week 6 00 

Boarding and lodging, per week 8 00 

Single meals 50 

One span— hay per day 1 00 




Foreign and Domestic Fruits, 


IVo. 146 F Street, 




Manufacturer of 


Jewelry, Chains 



Biaioflfls, Ifatclies, Cloch, Etc., Etc. 


Howard, Elgin, "Waltham, TJ. S. Company's, 


II©41i W4t©SEi. 

I also keep constantly on hand the best variety of 

Moss Agates and otlier Native Stones. 

Every article manufactured by me is warranted to be 


360 Larimer Street, DENVER, COL. 



Is the county seat of Arapahoe county, and the capital of Colorado. It is 
finely located on the South Platte, above and below the mouth of Cherry 
creek; contains a rapidly increasing population of nearly or quite 9,000; i.s 
the railroad and distributing centre of the Territory, and is, at this writing, 
in proportion to population and age, the liveliest and most enterprising town 
in America. 

The first rude trapper's hut, built in Colorado, occupied a site within the 
present limits of Denver, and was occupied by one of the oumipresent and 
never-dying Smith family. It was built in the fall of 1857. The first cabin, 
dirt-roofed and built of logs, in what is now East Denver, the principal town, 
was the architectural conception of Gen. William Larimer, whose name has 
been perpetuated in the principal street, as well as in one of the counties of 
the Territory, and saw the light of day in the latter part of October, 1858. 
The place was then named St. Charles, and soon after a rival sprang into 
existence on the opposite side of Cherry creek, which was called by the clas- 
sically ambitious name of Auraria. Its site is now known simply as West 
Denver. Such is earthly glory! A month later the town site of St. Charles 
changed hands, and was named Denver, in honor of Col. J. W. Denver, then 
governor of Kansas, to which all this region, now known as Colorado, was 
then an indefinite and unexplored western appendage. 

The first family on the ground was that of S. M. Rooker, who arrived 
from Salt Lake, in August, 1858. The first business house was opened by 
Messrs. Blake & Williams. Mr. Blake's name has been canonized in Blako 
street, but that of Williams has been lost in the mutations of inexorable fate. 
The pioneer blacksmith was Thomas I'oUok, who arrived from New Mexico, 
in December, 1858. The first hotel was opened on the 1st of February. 
1859, by Murat & Smoke, and was called the EI Dorado. The first child 
born was a half-breed son of one McGaa, and an Arapahoe mother. The 
first election was in March, 1859. The whole number of votes cast in the 
county was 774. Denver precinct polled 114, and Auraria 231. 

Up to this time there was not a pane of glass nor a board in either of 
the jealous "cities." All buildings were constructed of logs, without floors, 
and with dirt roofs. A saw-mill was put up in the pineries, thirty miles 
south, in the spring of 1859, and soon began to supply the "cities" with 
lumber. This was the beginning. 

The pioneer newspaper was the Rocky Mountain News, and was put forth 
i by Wm. N. Byers & Co., the senior partner of which firm is now proprietor 
I of that sheet. Almost simultaneously, the Cherry Creek Fioneer^vfus issued 
, by John L. Merrick, but this affair was soon absorbed by the News, never. 

in fact, issuing but a single number. ^ 

, The first coach of the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Express Co. arrived 

; in Denver, May 7, 1859. The first election for county officers was held lu 

i March, 1859. The first matrimonial collision occurred on the IGth of the 

following October; the parties being John B. Atkins and Lydia II. Allen. 

The first legislative body ever convened in the Territory, met in Denver, 

on the 7th of November, and included among their acts, the granting of a 



charter to "Denver City." The first election and formal organization under 
this charter was efi'ected on the 19th of December. The year 1870, there- 
fore, witnesseth the eleventh anniversary of the birth of Denver. 

Eleven years have wrought greater changes, and resulted in more sub- 
stantial progress in Denver, than ordinarily attends the growth and history 
of towns in new countries, for in that time Denver has been transformed 
from a mining camp to a metropolis. 

To briefly sum up the practical in connection with the history of Denver, 
its situation is well selected. It might have been located at the foot of the 
mountains, with the single view of accommodating the trade of the mining 
regions; but, in that case, it could never have become the centre of so many 
radiating lines of travel as now. Nor would it have secured to the esthetic 
portion of its citizens the magnificent and ever -changing panorama of 
mountain beauties, now forever spread before them. It is built upon a slope. 
which rises gradually from the bed of the Platte to a distance of a mile and 
a half, where it reaches an elevation of nearly 200 feet from the level of the 
river. This slope faces westward, as if on purpose to guarantee to every lot 
owner a perfect mountain view. To this end, the projectors of the town 
plat must have unconsciously connived, for, by running diagonally with the 
points of the compass, every street has been made to open, in one direction, 
upon some portion of the snowy range. 

The town is well and solidly built up, many of its banks, churches, public 
buildings, and principal business blocks comparing favorably with those of 
much older and larger cities further East. It contains not far from 1,500 
buildings, and its population is perhaps a little under 9.000. Some 300 
new buildings were erected in 1870, and the indications are that more than 
that number will go up in 1871. 

The Board of Trade report for 1870, foots up the commercial statistics 
as follows: 


Dry goods and fancy goods $2,388,000 

Groceries, liquors, etc ],(J36,000 

Produce and provisions 1,825,000 

Hardware 551]. 0(0 

Fruit 1(50,000 

Leather, boots and shoes, etc 2o5,000 

Miscellaneous 1,703,000 

Total trade $8,500,000 

This does not include many important items, including coal, lumber, live 
stock, land sales, manufactures, value of new buildings, etc., which would 
swell the amount as follows: 

Coal $104,250 

Lumber 600,000 

Manutactures 008,800 

Value of new buildings 575 QOO 

Sales of land— to settlers .../..............'. 575^000 

Live stock and beef .......'.'.*.'.*.,!!*'.".*.!."]! 375 000 

Fresh meats— at retail '....'.*.*.'.'.'.'......'."."'.!!"'*1!'.*.'.! 172!800 

Flour manufactured — value "..'.*/.".".'..'.'.'..".'.'.'.'..!..!.!'. 75* 000 

„ , '- $3,14.5,850 

bales— previous total 8,500 000 

Total business for 1870 $11,645,860 



The banks of Denver carry an average of 81,500,000 in deposits, and 
the shipments of bullion, in 1870, were nearly $6,000,000. 

Four lines of railway already centre here, the Kansas Pacific, Denver 
Pacific, Colorado Central, and Boulder Valley. A fifth, the Denver & Rio 
Grande, leading southward, is being graded, and a sixth is projected, open- 
ing up and connecting with the mining regions of Clear Creek and Gilpin 

The manufacturing facilities of the place have but just begun to attract 
attention. The unlimited water-power supplied by the Platte will eventu- 
ally be utilized, and Denver will become a manufacturing town. Already 
there is a fine, brick woolen mill, two flouring mills, an iron foundry, two 
planing mills, a terra cotta foundry, a carriage factory, several wagon facto- 
ries, a turning shop, etc. 

Many other departments of manufacture would find here a very favorable 
opening. One of the most needed of these, is a tannery. Hides are cheap 
and plenty, because there is no one to transform them into leather. A good 
tannery and leather factory would find itself crowded with business from the 
start, and could not fail to make money for its owners. 

Smelting works, in the immediate vicinity, are also coming to be a vital 
necessity. If Denver is wise, she will see to it that they are erected before 
the greater portion of the traffic of the mountains is diverted to some less 
favorable locality. 

Besides churches, school buildings, capacious business blocks, hotels, 
elegant private residences, and the usual conglomerate or transition system 
of buildings which fill the spaces between the larger structures, Denver has 
a branch of the United States mint, and a theatre, both of which receive 
detailed notice elsewhere. 

The elevation of Denver, above sea level, is 5,317 feet, and the climate 
that of the "plains" generally — exceedingly healthful and invigorating. 

The following table shows the most important climatic features of the 
last fourteen months: 



December, 1869.. 
January, 1870.... 
February, 1870.. 

March, 1870 

April, 1870 

May, 1870 

June, 1870 

July, 1870 , 

August, 1870 , 

September, 1870. 

October, 1870 

NoYember, 1870.. 
December, 1870... 
Januaiy, 1871.... 

















68 2° 
23. ° 















I The total amount of rain and melted snow for the fourteen months is 
'seen to be 13.45 inches, or for the year 1870, 12.65 inches. The average, 
per year, is believed to be from fifteen to eighteen inches. The fall of snow 


in 1870, -was 48.20 inchea, which would give about five inches of water. 
The year 1870 was unusually dry, and December was the coldest month 
since the settlement of the country. 

Frequent mention is made, throughout this work, of the unusual enter- 
prise, dash and reliability ot the business men of Colorado, and the superior 
attainments and abilities of the professional gentlemen. In Denver, these 
i'eaturcs are especially prominent among the classes referred to. No city, 
either East, West, North or South, possesses business men who, as a class, 
have more enlarged ideas of financial enterprises, broader views of mercan- 
tile and commercial ventures, or principles of stricter fairness, honor and 
honesty in all business transactions and relations with each other, and with 
those they deal with elsewhere. Although the capitalists of Denver use 
money freely and liberally, and are always ready to invest in any legitimate 
enterprise that presents favorable features, still they are not wild speculators 
or desperate gamblers in stocks, and never take other than legitimate risks; 
so with the ordinary merchant, although anxious to push his trade to the 
utmost, and ambitious of large success, he rarely ventures out of his depth, 
and is seldom caught in the meshes of bankruptcy. Let all Eastern dealers 
make a note of this. Denver merchants are, as a rule, safe, reliable, honest 
business men, and sharp, capable, and well informed buyers, that know how 
to hiiy, and how to pay for what they purchase. One infallible evidence of 
their superior business tact, is the i'act that they advertise judiciously and 

In the general and business directory that follows, we have taken great 
pains to avoid errors or omissions; but more or less of these cannot be 
avoided under the most favorable circumstances, and in our case, where 
many adverse features have presented themselves, we can only acknowledge 
imperfections, and trust that the public will overlook them as much as 

As additional evidence of the business activity, prosperity and growth 
of Denver, we append the following statistics: 

The receipts for premiums, of twelve life insurance companies doing 
business in Denver in 1869-70, amounted, in round numbers, to §85,000. 
The business for 1870-1, will not iall short of 6150,000 — a single company 
having issued new policies to the amount of nearly a million dollars on the 
lives of Coloradans during the year. 

Fire insurance is also well patronized, the premium receipts for 1869-70, 
amounting to over 875,000. 

The number of Eastern letters received and delivered daily, at the Denver 
post-office, averages from 600 to 800, and as high as 1,200 have been received 
in a single day. 

The voting population of Denver has increased more than 700 during 
the last six months, and the prices of real esUit^, in the city, have doubled 
in the same time. \ 




agt agent 

;iv avenue 

bet between 

IkIs boards 

bldg biiiUlini; 

Ilk block 

;'J) colored [ ne., 

cor corner 

a. or e ea.-st 

lab laborer 

mnfr manirfacturer 

nr near 

N. or n north 

, northeast 

11 w northwest 

opp opposite 

pres president 

prop proprietor 

r residence 

St street 

S. ors south 

se southeast 

sw southwest 

sec secretary 

supt superintenden t 

treas treasurer 

W. or w west 

whol wholesab; 


ABBOTT M. C. blacksmith, bds. 
Broadwell House 

Abraham Maggie Miss, lauudress, r. 
Stout, bet. F and G 

Abrahams Belle, chambermaid, Ameri- 
caa House 

Abrams J. merchant, bds. Tremont. House 

Abram M. clothing and agt. California 
cigars, Holladay, bet. F and G 

Adams Geo H. ranchero, bds. Metropo- 
litan Restaurant 

Adams L. B. carpenter, bds. foot of 

Adams L. L. physician and surgeon, 
Larimer, bet. F and G 

Albee Alfred, shoemaker, r. K, bet. Wi- 
watta and AYynkoop 

Albright C. A. Mrs. dressmaker, Lari- 
mer, bet. G and H 

Alcorn Robert, carpenter, bds. foot of 

Alfred N. C. drover, bds. Broadwell House 

Alhambra Hall, A. Fogus, prop. cor. 
Blake and F 

AllenderW.T. prop. Smith House, Fourth,^ 
nr. Front 

Allebaugh Henry C. barkeeper, with W. 

P. Jones, 29 Blake 
Allen A. M. r. cor. F and .\rapahoe 
Allen Henuy, clerk, bds. Holladay, bet. 

F and G 
Allen J. carpenter, bds. Tremont House 
Alston David (Curtis & Co.), restaurant, 

F, bet. Wazee & Wynkoop 
Alston Joseph, fruit dealer, bds. F, bet. 

Wazee and Wynkoop 
Alexander & Smitll (A. Alexander and 

A. H. Smith), whol. grocers, etc. 1-4.0 F 
Altmeyer W. F. operator, W. U. Tel. Co. 

bds. Tremont House 
AliandF. A. cabinetmaker, with Maguirc 

& Co. 185 F 
Allison (col'd), nurse, bds. Law- 
rence, bet. F and G 
American House, H. S. Smith, prop. cor. 

G and Blake 
Anderson, A. gen. supt. K. P. R y. 

general office, Lawrence, Kan. 
Anderson C. domestic, with G. T. Breed 
Anderson J. C. teller First National Bank, 

r. cor. E and Lawrence 
Anderson Samuel, r. Blake, bet. H uud 1 







Notaries Public and Conveyancers, 
Holladay Street, opp. Mint, 

Autlerson AV. H. bJs. Elephant Hnuse 
Audersoa T. merchant, bds. Tremont 

Andrew John, carpenter, K. P. & D. P. 

R. R. Junction 
Andrews J. bds. Tremont House 
Andrews John (col'd), waiter, American 

Andrews R. P. employ«5 U. S. Branch 

Mint, r. San Luis, bet. Sixth & Seventh 
Andrus J. D. carpenter, r. cor. Arapahoe 

and II 
Anglum J. (J. J. Reithman & Co.), drug- 
gist, cor. F and Larimer 
Anthony C. E. deputy county clerk, r. 

Curtis, bet. E and F 
Anthony F. R. r. Champa, bet. C and D 
Anthony Scott J. deputy county clerk 

and sec. Mutual Building and Loan 

Association, r. Curtis, bet. E and F 
Anthony TV. D. county clerk, office, 

Larimer, bet. F and G, r. Curtis, bet. 

E and F 
Archer James, pres. Denver Gas Works, 

bds. Arapahoe, bet E and F 
Arndt G. G. butcher, cor. Fourth and 

Front, r. Ferry, bet Fourth and Fifth 
Arpp P. carpenter, r. San Luis, bet. 

Fourth and Fifth 
Arpass Hans, pressman, Tribune office, 

r. foot of Arapahoe 
Armstrong C. (col'd), chambermaid. Hat- 
ten House 
Armstrong Geo. bds. Ferry, bet. Sixth 

and Seventh 
Armstrong J. W. harnessmaker, r.Cherry, 

bet. Larimer and Sixth 
Armstrong J. J. moulder, bds. Bell House 
Armstrong M. clerk, with Daniels & 

Eckhart, 359 Larimer 
Armstrong L. (col'd), bds. cor. H and 

Armstrong W. fireman, Hallack's Planing 

Mill, bds. cor. K and Holladay 
Arens A. C. laborer, bds. Colorado House 
Arnett L. prop, bowling alley, 56 Blake, 

bds. People's Restaurant 
Arbour A. prop. Capitol Hall saloon, r. 

cor. E and Holladay 
Art man L. drayman, bds. Larimer, bet. 

M and N 
Armor John, contractor, r. cor. G and 

Asbury J. Mrs. bds. 66 Holladay 

Ashley E. M. chief clerk surveyor gen- 
eral's office, r. cor. Curtis and N 

Ashley William, surveyor, r. cor. and 

Ashard J. B. contractor and builder, r. 
Arapahoe, bet. L and M 

Assessor City, E. H. Starrette, office, 
Larimer, bet. F and G 

Assessor County, Geo. T. Clark, office, 
cor. Larimer and F 

Assessor Internal Revenue, Daniel 
Witter, office, cor. G and Larimer 

Atchison House, T. Campbell, prop. Front, 
bet. Third and Fourth 

Atkins Geo. hostler, -with W. M. Burns, 
bds. Washington House 

Atkinson G. W. brick moulder, r. Arapa- 
hoe av. bet. Fifth and Sixth 

Aubrens James, farmer, r. Welton, bet. 
L and M 

Auditor Territorial, Jf>s. B. Thomp- 
son, executive rooms, McCool's bldg. 
cor. F and Larimer 

Austin Mary Mrs. r. Lawrence, bet. D 
and E 

BABEY Justin, saloon keeper, cor. K 
and Wazee 
15abbitt W. laborer, bds. California House 
Babcock Geo. r. cor. Arapahoe and M 
Babcock E. L. Mrs. milliner, 346 Larimer 
Bare S. N. painter, bds. Carr House 
Barr Robert, carpenter, bds. Railroad 

Barbier Prosper, farmer, r. Wazee, bet. 

F and G 
Bailey G. W. barkeeper, r. Larimer, bet. 

G and H 
Bailey J. L. propr. Bull's Head corral, 

cor. G and Wazee, r. Lawrence, bet. F 

and G 
Bailey R. B. hostler. Bull's Head corral 
Bailey Wm. (col'd), laundryman, coi-. D 

and Lawrence 
Baxter , with Jones & Co. second- 
hand store, 14 Blake 
Baxter Ben. J. carpenter, bds. Railroad 

Baxter J. carpenter, r. Holladay, bet. 

and P 
Baxter, Jas. clerk, with Beatty & Co. 18 

Baker , brick moulder, r. Cheyenne 

av. bet. Sixth and Seventh 
Baker Andrew, farmer, r. foot Seventh 
Baker Wm. J. (Baker & Co.), grocer, 

Larimer, bet. F and G 
Baker & Co. (Wm. J. Baker and .John H. 

Martin), grocers, Larimer, bet. F and G 
Baker Jacob (Wolff & Co.), butcher, 58 

Blake, r. California, bet. H and I 

WHEELER & WILSON Sewing Machine Depot, 205) Street, Denver, Col. 






Best companies in the world represented. 
Losses adjusted at our office. 

Baker (Beaker & Co.), grocer, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 
liaker John, speculator, bds, cor. G and 

Glen arm 
Baker H. A. saloon keeper, 43 Blake, r. 

Larimer, nr. Front 
Baker William, Colorado Stage Co. bds. 

American House 
Bassett Anthony (col'd), porter, with 

Salomon Bros. 
BiUieroft F. J. physician and surgeon, 
office cor. F and Larimer, bds. Ameri- 
can House 
Banks Geo. 0. freighter, r. Holladay, 

bet. H and I 
Bancroft G. W. speculator, r. Lawrence, 

bet. F and G 
Bard R. J. barkeeper, Broadwell House 
Bates J. E. pres. Denver Ale Brewing 

Co. r. cor. Seventh and Ferry 
Barndt Thos. carpenter, bds. California 

Barrett J. waiter, Railroad House 
Barnctt W. bds. Charter Oak House 
Barnell T. (col'd) barber, 20 Blake 
Bartels J. L. grocer, Holladay, bet. E 

and F, r. cor. Arapahoe and I 
Bartels L. F. grocer, Holladay, bet. E 

and F, r, California, bet. F and G 
Band City, W. Earl Reid, leader, G. A. 

R. Hall, Blake, nr. F 
Baur — (Colwell & Baur), confectioner, 

etc. cor. Lawrence and G 
Barth M. boot and shoe dealer, 1G"9 F, 

r. 1G9 F 
Barth Wm. boot and shoe dealer, 169 F, 

r. cor. G and Stout 
Badger J. C. fruit dealer, etc. 198 F 
Bacon L. W. carpenter, r. foot of Champa 
Barber G. M. bookkeeper, Hallack's 
planing mill, r. Glenarm, bet. H and I 
Ballin Clias. dry goods merchant, 352 

Barter T. hostler, with J. Hughes, bds. 

Broadwell House 
Barnes J. Miss, rooms GG Holladay 
Bagley H. J. carpenter, r. California, 

bet. M and N 
Baldwin E. Mrs. r. Welton, bet. E and F 
Bennett Chas. propr. boarding Louse, 

Larimer, bet. Front and Cherry 
Bennett Elisha, clerk, post office, r. Wel- 
ton, bet. D and E 

Nortliwestern Iiitnal Life lusiiraiice Co. 

Home Office, Milwanliee, Wis. 
ASSETS, - - $9,000,000 

DR. S. S. WALLIHAJV, Gen'l A,jt. 

Bennett H. P. postmaster, r. Champa, 

bet. D and E 
Bennett W. H. bds. Front, bet. Third 

and Fourth 
Beade Jas. bds. Tremont House 
Beatty Christine, laundress, r. foot of G 
Beatty Jas. second-hand dealer, 18 Blake 
Beatty W. R. bookkeeper, with J. S. 

Brown & Bro. 49 Blake 
Berrons M. saloon keeper, cor. AVynkoop 

and K 
Benton Jesse, laborer, r. cor. I and Blake 
Beckstrom L. upholsterer, r. Curtis, bet. 

K and L 
Benway A. waiter, American House 
Bensoff A. laborer, r. foot of Arapahoe 
Bell House, W. B. Ladd propr. Cherry, 

bet. Fourth and Larimer 
Bell A. G. variety store, cor. Larimer 

and Cherry 
Bell E. M. contractor, r. Capital av. nr. 

South E 
Bell Sarah (col'd) laundress, r. Arapa- 
hoe, bet. M and N 

Beyers , laborer, bds. California 

Betts John, cook. Railroad House 
Beck M. clerk, with L. F. Bartels, Hol- 
laday, bet. E and F 
Bergrer Win. B. cashier Colorado Na- 
tional Bank, r. Champa, bet. G and H 
Beach J. M. clerk, with AVells, Fargo & 

Co. r. Arapahoe, bet. L and M 
Beach Wm. laborer, bds. 44 Blake 
Bemer, C. G. laborer, r. foot of K 
Bement W. S. saloon keeper, r. Holladay, 

bet. L and M 
Berry B. clerk, with S. Hexter, IGG F 
Benedict M. attorney at law, office 337 

Bergmann T, tailor, 191 F 
Beran A. D, physician and surgeon, 

office Larimer, bet. F and 
Benson C. domestic, with Daniel Witter 
Benson C. Mrs. domestic, with Daniel 

Benson J. printer, bds. Broadwell House 

J3elden , carpenter, with E. A. Wil- 

oughby, G, bet. Larimer and Law- 
Bclden D. D. (Belden & Powers), attor- 
ney at law, office Clayton's bldg. r. cor. 
I and Champa 



T!ie Mitel Life Imraiice Co. 

Largest and Ijest in the -world. 
ASSETS, S»-45,000,000, CASH 

CRATER & COBB, Agents, 

IIoIliKiiiy Street, opposite Mint, Denver, Colorado. 

[]("l(Icn it Power.S, attorneys at law, 

office Clayton's bldg. 
Be:iumont J. B. lumber merchant, bds. 

Arapahoe, bet. H and I 
Berndt J. carpenter, r. I, bet. Lawrence 

and Arapahoe 
Benton Annie Miss, bds. cor. K and IIol- 

Bean 11. P. carpenter, bds. Blake, nr. 

Beckwith George C. r. Champa, bet. G 

and H 
Becker J. butcher, r. California, bet. H 

and I 
IJonder Louis, propr. soap works, High- 
Bearce H. B. adjutant general of Colo- 
rado, and president Colorado Ag. and 

Indus. Ass'n, office 35G Larimer, r. 

Biggs Jas. employe saw mill, bds. Tre- 

niont House 
Biggs Jesse, carpenter, K V. Junction 
Bivens Wm. farmer, bds. Tremont House 
Biddle Alf. bds. Metropolitan Restaurant 
Bickford L. J. laundress, r. foot of Cherry 
Bissell A. trader, oifice cor. F and Hol- 

Billings Geo. N. carpenter, r. cor. G and 

Bibb Geo. R. physician and surgeon, of- 
fice and r. Arapahoe, bet. E and F 
Bishop R. C. carpenter, r. Lawrence, 

bet. K and L 
Blanchard Frank, attorney at law, bds. 

Tremont House 
Blanchard J. J. agt. Eagle Foundry, bds. 

Broad well House 
Bliss M. C. Mrs. propr. Elephant House, 

cor. E and Blake 
Bliss Jos. clerk, with W. Richardson, 44 

Bliss Jos. saloon keeper, cor. K and 

Block D. bds. Wasliington Hotel 
Block 1). grocer, cor. H and Arapahoe 
Block Jos. butcher, r. Lawrence, bet. G 

and H 
Blake Chas. S. r. San Luis, bet. Sixth 

and Seventh 
Blake J. A. editor Colorado Tribune, r. 

F, bet. California and Welt on 
Blair 0. Miss, bds. 75 Holladay 

Blair Robert, printer. Herald ofacc, i-. 

Curtis, bet. C and D 
Borst W. W. freight agent K. V. and D. 

P. R. R. office Wazee, bet. K and L 
Bowles J. carpenter, bds. AVashingion 

Bowles Joseph, carpenter, bds. ^Missouri 

BohlemannH. cabinet maker, Avith Smith 

& Doll 
Bown J. B. pastry cook, American House 
Boyd J. G. train despatcher, K, P. Ry. 

bds. American House 
Bond H. G. attorney at law, office, Holla- 
day, nr. F 
Bonner J. saloon keeper, Holladay, bet. 

F and G 
Bornholdt J. porter, with F. A. Brocker 
Boz.ier H. (col'd), laborer, bds. HoUada}-, 

bet. G and H 
Bonsall J. H. draftsman and surveyor, 

l)ds. Curtis, bet. G and H 
Boone L. (col'd), laborer, r. Champa, 

bet. K and L 
Boone ]\L (col'd), laundress, r. Champa, 

bet. K and L 
Boone Mattie Miss, bds. 75 Holladay 
Boolsen C. carpenter, r. cor. K and 

Bostwick J. F. attorney at law, office, 

Roper's blk. bds. Broadwell 
Booth S. C. carpenter, r. Arapahoe, bet. 

L and M 
Booth A. teamster, bds. Arapahoe, bet. 

L and M 
Boyce N. Miss, prop, private boarding 

house, cor. F and Arapahoe 
Bowman G. J. butcher, cor. Arapahoe 

and H 
Bnnser S. plasterer, r. cor. M and Stout 
Bottles J. F. contractor, r. Welton, bet. 

L and M 
Broa ]\Iaggie, waiter, Tremont House 
Broadwell J. M. stock dealer, Broadwell 

Brown A. K. carpenter, r. Welton, bet. 

H and I 
Brown A. florist, bds. Colorado House 
Brown E. H carpenter, bds. Carr House 
Brown C. H. laborer, bds. I, bet. Wiwatta 

and Wynkoop 
Brown C. H. clerk, with J. S. Brown & 

Bro. 49 Blake 
Brown George, carpenter, r. Stout, bet. 

L and M 
Brown Geo. W. blacksmith, bds. Wash- 
ington House 
Brown (lieo. >V. banker, 345 Larimer, 

bds. American Ho)ise 
Brown H.C.real estate and money broker, 

office, Larimer, nr. Front, r. Broadway, 

bet. Cofield and Brown 

SEWING MACHINE THREAD, SILK and OIL, at 209 G St., Denrer, Col. 



Liverpool, aM Loiiloii anil Ciiolie 


ASSETS, OVER - $18,000,000 


AfjPtits for Colorado, DEyVEIt. 

Brown II. G. mercbant, bJs. Pennsylva- 
nia House 
Brown H. R. painter, r. cor. South E 

and Capitol av. 
Browu J. bds. Tremont House 
Brown J. F. (J. S. Brown & Bro.), r. 

cor. E and Welton 
Brown J. S. & Brother, whol. grocers, 49 

Blake, r. cor. E and Stout 
Brown Isaac (col'd), saloon, G, bet. Blake 

and HoUaday 
Browne S. E. (Browne, Harrison & Put- 
nam), attorney at law, office, 383 Lari- 
mer, r. Larimer, bet. Q and R 
Bro^^Tie, Harrison & Putiram, (Sam. 
E. Browne, N. Harrison and T. G. Put- 
nam), att'ysatlaw, office, 383 Larimer 
Browne T.'prop. Eagle Laundry Cherry, 

bet. Fourth and Larimer 
Browne JI. Mrs. laundress, r. cor. Third 

and Cherry 
Browne W. C. commercial traveler, bds. 

Tremont House 
Browne L. M. actor, Denver Theatre, 

cor. G and Lawrence 
Bradburn AV. L. blacksmith and wagon- 
maker, cor. Wazee and F 
Brewster J. M. stock dealer, bds. Carr 

Braun T. F. civil engineer, office, 145 F 
Brinker A. A\'. (I. Briuker & Co.), grocer, 
cor. F and Blake, bds. American House 
Briuker Isaac & Co. (Isaac Brinker and 
A. W. Brinker), grocers, cor. F and 
Blake, bds. American House 
Bridges C. F. agt. Erie and Pacific Dis- 
patch, office, at K. P. R'y office 
Brinker 0. with I. Brinker & Co. bds. 

American House 
Brewer G. G. tobacco, etc. Larimer, bet. 

F and G, bds. American House 
Broadwell House, S. R. Edwards, prop. 

cor. Larimer and G 
Briggs A. W. bds. Hatten House, Law- 
rence, bet. G and H 
Briggs S. C. blacksmith and wagonmaker, 

cor. F and Wiwatta 
Briggs H. L. r. Ferry, bet. Fourth and 

Brannigan M. teamster, bds. Missouri 

Brannigan S. miner, bds. Missouri House 
Brocker F. A. grocer, 187 F, r. same 


Mutual Life Insurance Co. 



DB. S. S. V7ALL'HA:T, C-ei'l kt-, Seive:. 

Broocker Justin, with H. Burton, Roper's 

Brooker L. E. stationery dealer, F, nr. 

Brevoort H. N. tobacco dealer, 198 F, 

bds. Broadwell 
Brunner R. drayman, r. Holladay, bet. 

L and M 
Breckenridge G. E. contractor, r. cor. F 

and Curtiss 
Breed G. T. prop, restaurant, Larimer, 

nr. cor. G 
Brnnswiek S.mnfg. jeweller and watch- 
maker, Clayton's blk. Larimer, nr. F 
Erainard T. C. r. Stout, bet. E and F 
Brosuan P. Mrs. r. Stout, bet. F and G 
Brooks Orson, U. S. Commissioner and 

life ins. agt. r. cor. M and California 
Burnham J. cook, Tremont House 
Butler J. H. painter, bds. Depot House 
Butler AV. moulder, bds. Missouri House 
Buckner C. Miss (col'd), laundress, r. 

AVynkoop, bet. I and K 
Buckner Felix (col'd), teamster, bds. 

Champa, bet. G and H 
Burns A. baker, r. foot of F 
Burns E. Miss, domestic, with F. A. Clark 
Burns J. J. gas fitter, bds. AVashington 

Burns John, stone mason, r. K, bet. AVa- 

zee and Blake 
Burns AV. M. prop, livery stable, G, bet. 

Holladay and Larimer 
Bush B. P. manager AV. U. Tel. Co. r. 

cor. Colfax av. and F 
Bush H. upholsterer, with V. Kreig, 049 

Burton H. Boston shoe store, Roper's 

blk. r. F, cor. Arapahoe 
Burton John, gunsmith, with M. L. Rood, 

141 F 
Buck H. baker, 30 Blake 
Buckley M. laborer, r. Parkinson, bet. 

E and F 
Buckley P. laborer, r. Parkinson, bet. E 

and F 
Buckley Thomas, laborer, r. cor. M and 

Buckley M. gas fitter, r. cor. M and Lar- 
BnckHn & Clark, (A\\ C. Bucklin and 

Geo. T. Clark), grocers, Clayton's bldg. 

cor. F and Larimer 





>e®=- Assets, nearly six million doUars.'SJa 

Losses paid, S27,OUO,COO in 51 years. 


Ckatek & Cobb, Agents, Holladay Street, 

0pp. Mint, Denver, Col. 

Buckingham R.G. physician and surgeon, 

office, Cole's blli. r. cor. E and Champa 
Buchanan D. printer, News office, bds. 

Champa, bet. I and K 
Burdsall C. physician, r. cor. Cheyenne 

av. and Fourth 
Burdsall Alice C. teacher, r. cor. Chey- 
enne av. and Fourth 
Burnett A. Mrs. laundress, r. cor. Front 

and Fourth 
Buttrick L. butcher, r. Ferry, bet. Sixth 

and Seventh 
Butteas J. waiter. Railroad House 
Burke E. J. telegraph repairer, r. cor. 

N and Lawrence 
Burnell S. carpenter shop and r. cor. G 

and Holladay 
Boutelle Geo. V. M. surveyor, r. Larimer, 

bet. G and H 
Byers W. N. general manager National 

Land Co. and editor and prop. Kocky 

Mountain News, office, News bldg. 
r. cor F and Arapahoe 

Front. J. Weinshink prop. 
Carey J. laborer, bds. Calit'oriiia House 
Carey Thos. hostler, with A. Templeton 
Campbell Thomas, saloon and boarding 

Louse keeper, Front, bet. Third and 

Campbell Kate Miss, waiter, Bell House 
Campbell Fannie Miss, chambermaid. 

Bell House 
Campbell I. N. plasterer, r. cor. Ferry 

and Ninth 
Campbell Sarah Mrs. r. cor. Stout and G 
Campbell Thos. B. bds. Broadwell House 
Carr Mary, bds. Tremont House 
Carr William, gas fitter, bds. Washington 

Carr S. H. prop. Carr House 
Carr House, F, bet. Wynkoop and Wi- 

Carr George, cook, Broadwell House 
Carroll H. bricklayer, bds. Washington 

Carroll Daniel, laborer, bdg. Washington 

Camelleri Nick, propr. Denver Pacific 

restaurant, r. Blake, bet. H and I 
Carpenter S. P. contractor, bds. Ameri- 
can House 

Carpenter Charles, with C. M. Stebbins, 

Blake, nr. F 
Cain J. waiter, Broadwell House 
Cashman M. brewer, r. cor. Arapahoe 

and Fourth 
Cashman Nora Miss, domestic, with John 

Casey J. G. drayman, r. Cherry, bet. 

Second and Third 
Casey John, teanis^ter, r. Cherry, bet. 

Second and Third 
Casey Wm. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Carter W. T. life ins. agt. r. Arapahoe av. 

bet. Fifth and Sixtli 
Carter J. (col'd), waiter, Hatten House 
Catlin Anna Miss, cook, Sniitli House 
Catlin Maggie Mrs. r. Champa, bet. G 

and H 
Cadwell E. A. drug clerk (with W. S. 

Cheesman), 08 Blake 
Cass J. B. (Gill & Cass), real estate bro- 
ker, office, Holladay, bet. F and G, r. 

cor. Curtis and G 
Cassell D. bds. Arapahoe, bet. E and F 
Case F. M. civil engineer, office cor. 

Lawrence and G, r. Lawrence, bet. V 

and AV 
Case M. F. speculator, r. Holladay, bet. 

M and N 
Ciesar John (coFd), cigamiaker, bds. cor. 

Lawrence ami G 
Castle Frank, carpenter, Kansas Pacific 

R. R. Junction 
Cann , blacksmith, r. Arapahoe, bet. 

K and L 
Calsen P. carpenter, Kansas Pacific R. 

R. Junction 
Carrol M. laborer, bds. Curtis, bet. E 

and F 
Carson G. W. painter, bds. F, bet. Blake 

and Larimer 
Cavanaugh Thos. laborer, r. cor. Curtis 

and D 
Chamberlain John, bds. Tremont House 
Cliamberlain W. G. photographic art- 
ist, cor. Larimer and F 
Chamberlain Geo. W. attorney at law, r. 

Welton, bet. H and I 
Champion Kate Miss, r. cor. Holladay 

and H 
Chamard Margaret (widow), r. Law- 
rence, bet. G and H 
Chandler T. J. bricklayer, r. cor. San 

Luis and Eighth 
Chandler A. P. bricklayer, r. W'ynkoop, 

bet. H and I 
Chapman G. farmer, r. Larimer, bet. G 

Charpiot F. restaurant, cor. Holladay 

and F, r. cor. Clency and E 
Charpiot G. cook, r. Holladay, bet. G 

and H 

For reference respecting best Sewing Machine, call at 209 G St., Denver, Col. 





ASSETS, OVER - - $3,000,000 

Aijeiits for Colorado, DENVER. 

Charles &; Elbert (J. Q. Charles and S. 

H. Elbert), attorneys at law, office 337 

Charles J. Q. (Charles & Elbert), attor- 
ney at law, r. cor. Curtis and F 
Charter Oak House, C. Murphy, prop. 

cor. I and Wazee 
Chase , carpenter, bds. Front, bet. 

Third and Fourth 
Chase J. prop. Cricket Hall, r. cor. 

Blake and I 
Chase E. pawn broker, r. Blake, bet. I & K 
Chase J. r. cor. Cheyenne av. and Sixili 
Chatnian Annie, bds. cor. Holladay and H 
Chever D. A. secy D. H. R. R. Co. bds. 

Larimer, bet. G and H 
Chever Geo. B. capitalist 
Chever Chas. G. real estate broker 
Chew G. B. real estate broker, office 347 

Cherot C. A. clerk, with Y. Kreig 
Cherot A. druggist, bds. Lawrence, bet. 

Chicago Factory, H. R. Green, 

prop. cor. Larimer and Front 
Clioesuian W. S. druggist, 88 Blake 
Cherry Jas. hostler at Elephant corral, 

Christman M. tailor, Blake, nr. Front 
Christ Ida Miss, rooms 170 Holladay 
City .Jail, Front, bet, Larimer and Fourth 
City Hall, Larimer, bet. E and F 
City Clerk's Office, Clayton's bldg. cor. 

Larimer and F 
City Collector's Office, Larimer, bet. F 

and G 
Clemens C. bds. Washington House 
Clelland James, clerk, with C. M. Sleb- 

bins, Blake, nr. F 
Clelland George, clerk, with H. H. Mund, 

r. Curtis, bet. I and H 
Clark L. ranchero, bds. Broadwell 
Clark C. T. clerk, bds. Ferry, bet. Sixth 

and Seventh 
Clark R. laborer, r. cor Cheyenne av. 

and Seventh 
Clark W. S. trader, bds. San Luis, bet. 

Eighth and Ninth 
Clark Wm. carpenter, bds. Bell House 
Clark H. C. auctioneer, with Strickler & 

JIahar, bds. Welton, bet. F and G 
Clark J. with J. H. Eastabrook, bds. Hol- 
laday, bet. F and G 



Dr. S. S. Wallihan, Gen'l Agt., Denver. 

Clark George T. (Bucklin & Clark), 

grocer, city clerk, cor. F and Lari- 
mer, r. cor. Arapahoe and G 
Clark , carpenter, bds. F, bet. Law- 
rence and Larimer 
Clark Fred. A. Colorado Stage Co. r. 

Curtis, bet. G and II 
Clark Alex, mason, r. Glenarm, bet. H 

and I 
Clarke Clarence J. (Woolworth, Moffat 

& Clarke), books, stationerj', etc., Post 

Office bldg. r. cor. G and Larimer 
Clements C. B. attorney at law, r. cor. 

Lincoln and Clements 
Clements H. r. cor. Lincoln and Clements 
Cleghan W. bds. Bell House 
Clavton T. S. clerk, with George Tritch, 

139 F 
Clayton's Building, cor. F and Larimer 
Clayton G. W. vice-prest. First National 

Bank, office Clayton's bldg. entrance 

on F 
Clinton S. C. with Sprague & Webb, r. 

Stout, bet. L and M 
Clifford M. D. lumber merchant, r. Wel- 

ton, bet. F and G 
Clifford T. bds. Welton, bet. F and G 
Clougll Henry A. judge probate court, 

bds. American House 
Clough J. (B. F. Johnson & Co.), real 

estate and ins. agt. etc. office Larimer, 

nr. F 
Clough C. bds. cor. L and Lawrence 
Cook J. shoemaker, r. Blake, nr. Front 
Cook G. prop. Rialto House, Blake, nr. 

Cook J. A. speculator, bds. Ferry, bet. 

Sixth and Seventh 
Cook D. jailor, county jail, bds. Larimer, 

bet. G and H 
Cook C. H. Mrs. (widow), r. cor. Eighth 

and Ferry 
Courtney M. S. stock dealer, bds. Tre- 

mont House 
Corbett W. F. (Robinson & Corbett), 

painter, 211 G, r.Wyukoop, bet. H and I 
Colorado Central i)ei)ot, freight and 

ticket office, Wazee, bet. K and L, J. 

B. Shepherd, gen. frgt. and ticket agt. 

Colorado Daily Tribune, office and 

editorial rooms, Tribune bldg. U5 F 

Colorado >'ational IJanli, A. Kountze 
pres. cor. F and Holladay 



"^ " OF NEW YORK. 

Cash Secnrit.y, Four Million Dollars. Large Lines, 
Liberal Kates, Fair Adjustments. 

CHA-TEH «fc COBB, .A.gts., 

, Ilolladay Street, opp. Mint, 


Colorado House, C. Kaufman, prop. 
Blake, bet. E and F 

Coleman T. W. gas fitter, bds. Washing- 
ton House 

Colwell & Baur, confectioners, etc. cor. 
G and Lawrence 

Colston W. E. carpenter, bds. Carr House 

Cole Frank, stock raiser, r. Blake, bet. 
H and I 

Cole L. H. cattle dealer, r. "Wazee, bet. 
H and I 

Cole's Block, Larimer, bet. F and G 

County Assessor's Office, Larimer, cor. 
F, Geo. T. Clark, assessor 

County Conunissioiiers' Office, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 
County Coroner's Office, R- L. Ilatten, 

coroner, Larimer, bet. F and G 

County Physician's Office, Larimer, 

bet. F and G 
Court Probate, Larimer, bet. F and G, 

Henry A. Clougb, judge 
Court Supreme, rooms Larimer, bet. F 

and G, M. F. Hallet, chief justice 
Colorado Brewery, M. Sigi, prop. cor. 

San Luis and Larimer 
Colorado Stage Co. office, cor. Holladay 

and F, J. H. Jones, agt. 
County Jail, D. Cook, jailor, Larimer, 

bet. E and F 
County Hospital, cor. Eighth and Ferry 
County Treasurer's Office, A. R. Lin- 
coln, treasurer, Larimer, bet. F and G 
County Clerk's Office, W. D. Anthony, 

clerk, Larimer, bet. F and G 

County Surveyor's Office, C. A. Deane, 
surveyor, Larimer, bet. F and G 

Courts Police, Blake, nr. Front and Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 

Corcoran Pat. carpenter, bds. Rocky 
Mountain House 

Corcoran M. carpenter,bds. Rocky Moun- 
tain House 

Cone A. J. carpenter, bds. Carr House 

Cone Charlotte Mrs. (widow), r. Arapa- 
hoe, bet. M and N 

Cone A. T. Mrs. dealer in hairwork, 
hair jewelry, etc. Larimer, opposite 
Broadwell House 

Conners Dennis, laborer, bds. Curtis, 
bet. E and F 

Collins James, bds. Broadwell House 

Collins S. T. clerk, First National Bank 
Collins J. L. bricklayer, r. Stou/, bet. 

H and I 
Cornforth Birks, grocer, 14G F, r. 

Holladay. bet. H and I 
Cowell William, grocer, 144 F, r. Stout, 

bet. H and I 
Cowell C. E. clerk, with W. Cowell, 

144 F 
Cowell E. R. plasterer, r. Arapahoe, bet. 

E and F 
Conway E. R. (AV. B. Daniels & Co.), 

157 F, bds. American House 
Coiield J. B. capitalist, bds. American 

Copeland George, machinist, r. foot of 

Cobb P. R. private boarding bouse, Lari- 
mer, nr. Front 
Cobb , real estate broker, bds. Lari- 
mer, bet. H and I 
Cobb F. M. stock dealer, r. Stout, bet. 

D and E 
Cobb Chas. D. (Crater & Cobb), ins. and 

gen. agt. othce Holladay, bet. F and G, 

r. Arapahoe, bet. K and L 
Cochran James, barkeeper, r. Front, bet. 

Fourth and Larimer 
Cochran S. foreman Hallack's planing 

mill, r. cor. K and Holladay 
Cort D. T. clerk, with W. B. Daniels & 

Co. bds. Tremont House 
Cort Mary E. Mrs. (widow), teaches 

painting, r. Welton, bet. E and F 
Connell E. blacksmith, r. Champa, bet. 

K and L 
Connor W. B. watchmaker, with A. B. 

Conner Anna Miss, cook, Colorado House 
Courvoisier A. watchmaker, Larimer, 

nr. G 
Connelly Mary, cook, Hatten House 
Connelly David, speculator, r. Curtis, 

bet. F and G 
Colored School, E. H. Richardson, prin- 
cipal, cor. L and Arapahoe 
Coii^^reg'ational Chnrcli, F, bet. Law- 
rence and Arapahoe 
Conway F. contractor, r. Larimer, bet. 

G and H 
Cohen R. grocer, cor. H and Arapahoe 
Conway E. laborer, r. Stout, bet. D and E 
Cody M. J. expressman, r. Champa, 

bet. E and F 
Coberly W. D. stock dealer, r. cor. Colfax 

av. and South F 
Commuck Therese, domestic, with A. C. 

Crater D. W. attorney at law and clerk 

supreme court, office, Tappan blk. 
Crater , brakesman, D. P. Ry. bds. 

Front, bet. Third and Fourth 





Assets, over - - . $600,000 


Crater «S: Cobb (Geo. E. Crater and Chas. 
D. Cobb), ins. and gen. agts. Ilolladay, 
bet. F and G 

Crater Geo. E. (Crater & Cobb), insur- 
ance and general agt. Holladay, bet. 
F and G 

Crawford Thomas, machinist, bds. Tre- 
mont House 

Crawford A. domestic, with .T. 0. .Jordan, 
Welt on, bet. F and G 

Crane D. W. stock dealer, bds. Tremont 

Craven James, laborer, bds. Carr House 

Craig W. H. farmer, bds. Railroad House 

Craig H.C carpenter, bds. Railroad House 

Craig M. J. Mrs. r. cor. K and Wazee 

Craig H. H. bds. Cherry, bet. Fifth and 

Craig A. stock manager S. 0. Mail and 
Express Co. cor. H and Wazee 

Craig S. A. (D. Tom Smith & Co.), livery 
stable prop. Holladay, bet. F and G 

Crump C. Mrs. (col'd), laundress, r. Wa- 
zee, bet. G and H 

Crouch T. B. waiter, American House 

Crowder D. laborer, r. cor. Arapahoe av. 
and Foui-th 

Crowley J. blacksmitli, r. cor. Ferry and 

Crabtree M. J. Mrs. r. Terry, bet. Fourth 
and Fifth 

Crosswaite W. E. bds. Bell House 

Crumb A. J. Mrs. monthly nurse, bds. 
Bell House 

Crocker F. B. (Scudder & Crocker), gro- 
cer, 51 Blake, r. Cherry, bet. Larimer 
and Sixth 

Cramer S. M. tinsmith, r. cor. Sixth and 

Cramer A. C. carpenter, r. cor. Holladay 
and L 

Cramer Fred, carpenter, r. cor. L and 

Craft .J. N. clerk, with M. L. Rood, 141 
F, bds. Eureka House. 

Cram F. W. (G. W. Kassler & Co.), mer- 
chant and gen. ins. agt. r. E, bet. Lar- 
imer and Lawrence 

Crawson F. clerk, with C. E. Pooler 

Cromwell J. B. clerk, with Woolworth, 
Moffat & Clarke, Post Office bldg. 

Crandall Laura, r. cor. H and Holladay 

Cros's F. C. turner, cor. G and Holladay 


Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

DR. S. S. WALLIUAN, Geti'l Atjt. 


Cross Leonard, tinsmith, bds. Curtis, bet. 
C and D 

Craddock Rachel, domestic, with Mrs. 
Williams, Arapahoe, bet. M and N 

CruU W. M. supt. Indian agency, r. cor. 
G and Glenarm 

Crosby P. laborer, K. P. Junction 

Curran John, tinsmith, bds. Washington 

Currigan M. B. plasterer, bds. Washing- 
ton House 

Curtis A. hostler, Mammoth corral, bds. 
Carr House 

Curtis C. T. (Curtis & Alston), prop, res- 
taurant, F, bet. Wazee and Wynkoop 

Curtis & Alston (C. T. Curtis and David 
Alston), restaurant, etc., F, bet. AV'azee 
and Wynkoop 

Curtis T. P. saddler, bds. F, bet. Wazee 
and Wynkoop 

Curtis W. H. clerk, Broadwell House 

Curtis R. bookkeeper, U. S. Branch Mint, 
r. Curtis, bet. F and G 

Curtis J. domestic, with H. P. Bennett 

Curtice W. J. employ^ U. S. Brancli Mint, 
r. Ferry, bet. Seventh and Eightli 

Curtice L. A. real estate broker, etc., r. 
Cheyenne av. bet. Seventh and Eighth 

Curley H. Mrs. chambermaid. Railroad 

Cull M. bds. Rocky Mountain House 

Culver J. D. bds. Bell House 

Cutting AValter J. carpenter, r. Law- 
rence, bet. E and F 

Cutler L. W. contractor, r. Welton, bet. 
E and F 

Cyr S. A. watchmaker, 353 Larimer 

DAILEY J. L. printer, r. South F, 
nr. Colfax av. 
Dailey M. C. speculator, bds. Tremont 

Daily Anthony, laborer, r. Stout, bet. E 

and F 
Daly Patrick, bds. K, bet. Wazee & lUake 
Daniels A. B. r. cor. Curtis and G 
Daniels Chas. barkeeper, 5<5 Blake 
Daniels Jacob, carpenter, r. Curti.«, bet. 

K and L 
Daniels W. B. (Daniels & Eckhart), dry 

goods, 359 Larimer 
Daniels W. B. & Co. clothing emporium, 

157 F 



iMraice Co. of Ml kmm 


Oldest Companv in the United Stiites. Cash Assets, 

nearly Tliiee"MilIion Dollars. Fii e Losses paid, 

S'24',000,000 in 76 years. Ability for future 

service unimpaired. 

Crater &. Cobb, Agents, Holladay Street, opp. Mint, 

icrw-EiR.. GO 

Danielson F. M. photographer, Roper's 

blk. bds. French restaurant 
Danielson J. M. ]\Irs. milliner, bds. Lari- 
mer, bet. G and H 
Dauglierty Eli, marble works, Fifth, 

bet. Cherry and Front 
Davis C. C. refiner, U. S. mint, bds, 

American House 
Davis D. M. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Davis John, bds. Pennsylvania House 
Davis Lillie, bds. cor. K and Holladay 
Davis Mary Mrs. (widow), r. Larimer, 

bet. F and G 
Davis Mary, domestic, with Mrs. A. Kline 
Davis Mary Mrs. dressmaker, r. cor. 

Third and Front 
Davis Samuel S. barkeeper, r. cor. Third 

and Front 
Davis Sanford, turnkey, county jail, bds. 

Lawrence, bet. D and E 
Davis Tillman, asst. jailor, bds. Law- 
rence, bet. D and E 
Davis William, bds. Front, bet. Third 

and Fourth 
Davison Alex, brewer, r. Wynkoop, bet. 

F and G 
Dea Daniel, lives with P. P. Gomer 
Dean John, saloon keeper, cor. E & Blake 
Deane C. A. county surveyor, Larimer, 

bet. F and G, r. South C and Capitol av. 
Dedrick Albert, cook. People's restau- 

rajit, 42 Blake 
Deitch Nicholas, barber, r. Fourth, bet. 

Ferry and Cherry 
Deitscll & Bro., dry goods merchants, 

cor. F and Larimer 
Deitsch Isidor (Deitsch & Bro.), cor. F 

and Larimer 
Deitsch Jacob, clerk, bds. American 

Deitsch Jonas (Deitsch & Bro.), r. Arapa- 
hoe, bet. F and G 

Delavanty Miss, bds. 75 Holladay 

De Lappe J. A. clerk, "One Price" 

clothing store, r. cor. Cherry & Sixth 
De Lappe Mary, dressmaker, cor. Cherry 

and Sixth 
De Soto Jos6 D. professor of languages, 

r. Front, bet. Larimer and Fourth 
Deleny Ada (widow), r. Fifth, bet. Ferry 

and San Luis 
Deline J. M. carpenter, bds. Holladay, 
bet. Fund G 

Denver Breivingr Co., Ferry, bet. 

Fourth and Fifth 
Denver Fonndry and Machine Shop, 

Cheyenne av. bet. Fifth and Sixth 
Denver Gas Co. Jas. Archer, pres. oitice 

Larimer, nr. G 
Denver Hook and Ladder Co. No. 1, 

Lawrence, bet. F and G 
Denver House, John C. Ruffncr, prop. 

10.5 F 
Denver Pacific Railway, freight and 

ticket oitice, Wazee, bet. K and L 
Denver Theatre, cor. G and Lawrence, 

J. S. Langrishe, prop. 
Denver Terra Cotta Foundry, cor. N and 

Denver Woolen Mnfg'. Co. Arapahoe 

av. bet. Fifth and Sixth 
Dend C. T. veterinary surgeon, r. cor. E 

and Clency 
DenistonAV. W. police justice, office. City 

Hall, r. cor. Bromlway and Capitol av. 
Denslow I\L bds. Ferry, bet. Sixth and 

Dent George W. bricklayer, bds. Bell 

Depot House, .John Eames, prop. cor. K 

and Wynkoop 
Dercley Hubert, carpenter, bds. Wash- 
ington House 
Perry Portia Miss, domestic, cor. I and 

Detrick Frank, bricklayer, r. Arapahoe, 

bet. E and F 
Devine Josh, laborer, with L. Bender, 

Deavlin Honora, laundress, r. Second, 

bet. Front and Cherry 
Dewitt George, bds. Tremont House 
Dibble A. machinist, Blake, nr. Frot^t 
Dickinson Anna, laundress, r. Larimer, 

bet. L and M 
Dickinson Cassius, hostler, with W. J. 

Dickinson Mr. r. Wiwatta and Wynkoop 
Dickinson J bds. Wiwatta and Wynkoop 
Dickinson John S. physician, r. and office 

347 Larimer 
Dickey J. P. (Knowlton & Dickey), bds. 

Tremont House 
Diffendorlfen Geo. S. bookkeeper, rooms 

cor. K and Larimer 
Dillon E. teamster, r. Cheyenne av. bet. 

Sixth and Seventh 
Dillon J. C. clerk, bds. Metropolitan 

Dillon Maggie, dressmaker, F, bet. Lar- 
imer and Lawrence 
Dimmen Matt, blacksmith, cor. F and 

District Conrt, first judicial district, 

office, Larimer, bet. F and G 





Of any kind to place, will conserve their 
interests by consulting 

HEICHAItD & iriNyE, General Agents, 


Uobbs John, brakeman, D. P. Ry. bds. 

Depot House 
Dohson H. lather, hds. Curtis, bet. E & F 
Dobson Jas. carpenter, bds. Curtis, bet. 

E and F 
Dodd , carpenter, rooms cor. G and 

Dodson Isa Miss, domestic, with W. C. 

Dodge D. C. gen. agt. K. P. Ry. r. Law- 
rence, bet. K and L 
Dolan Jas. stonemason, bds. Charter Oak 

Doll Louis (Smith & Doll), furniture 

dealer, r. Fourth, bet. Ferry & Cherry 
Donahue James, laborer, bds. Charter 

Oak House 
Donnelly Chas. contractor, r. Stout, bet. 

D and E 
Donnelly E. dry goods, cor. E and Larimer 
Donavan Thos. boarding house keeper, 

Blake, bet. F and G 
Doubekin Geo. laborer, r. K. P. Junction 
Doolittle J. K. dry goods dealer, 350 

Dorsey S. C. carpenter, bds. Larimer, 

bet. G and H 
Doug^las J. W. crockery and glassware, 

r. cor. H and Lawrence 
Douglas P. S. clerk, bds. American House 
Douglas W. clerk, bds. Broadwell House 
Downing Geo. laborer, bds. Washington 

Downing J. attorney at law, Larimer, 

bet. G and H 
Doyle Jas. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Doyle Pat. laborer, bds. Elephant House 
Dozier J. L. clerk, 25 Blake 
Drake A. teamster, bds. cor H and Blake 
Drake Frank, driver, Denver Transfer i 

Co. bds. Broadwell House 

Drake , painter, bds. cor. H & Blake 

])raughn G. E. waiter, American House 
Drixler Fred, laborer, r. Stout, bet. G 

and H 
Drennen AVilliam, stock dealer, bds. Tre- 

mont House 
Drew Frank, saddler, 47 Blake 
Driscoll F. A. clerk, with J. R. Early 
DiiscoU John, gardener, r. Blake, bet. K 

and L 
Drixlien Martin, r. cor. Arapahoe av. 

and Sixth 



Dr. S. S. Wallihan, General A-c-nt, 

Droz J. A. watchmaker, Larimer, nr. G 
Driimniond R. laborer, r. cor. Sheridan 

and Broadway 
Dubois Louis, livery keeper, r. G, bet. 

Lawrence and Arapahoe 
Dufere Chas. cook, F st. Lunch House 
Diiliem Bros, photographers, Larimer, 

bet. F and G 
Duhem C. (Duhem Bros.), photographer, 

Larimer, bet. F and G 
Duhem Victor, (Duhem Bros.), photo- 
grapher, Larimer, bet. F and G 
Dugan Jas. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Dudley Wni. A. physician and surgeon, 

r San Luis, nr. Larimer 
Dunican John, ivory dealer, bds. Broad- 

M'ell House 
Dunn J. T. clerk, Tremont House 
Dunham Wright, r. Larimer, bet. K & L 
Dunnison Wm. G. r. Arapahoe, bet. E & F 
Durkee C. 0. clerk, r. San Luis, nr. Lar- 
Duval Ben. barber, bds. Pennsylvania 

Duncan Merritt (col'd), r. Holladay, bet. 
G and H 

Duncan , carpenter, bds. Larimer, 

bet. G and H 
Dupree & Co. props. Melvin House, 
Holladay, bet. F and G 

EAMES JOHN, prop. Depot House, 
cor. K and Wynkoop 

Early J. R. & Co. crockery, etc. 356 Lar- 

Early J. R. (J. R. Early & Co.), r. Law- 
rence, bet. H and I 

Eaton Cyrus (W. S. Walker & Co.), liquor 
merchant, Larimer, bet. F and G 

Earle E. A. merchant, bds. Arapahoe, 
bet. H and I 

Eaves Octavia (col'd), chambermaid, cor. 
H and Holladay 

East Denver Public School, Mrs. 
Townsley, principal, cor. E and Ara- 

Eckhart J.M. (Daniels &^Eckhart). gen. 
dry goods merchant, 357 and 350 Lari- 

Edom Wm. laborer, r. Cherry, bet. Sixth 
and Seventh 

Edwards J. Mrs. dressmaker, F, bet. 
Larimer and Lawrence 




Cash Assets, nearly Three Million Dollars. Poli- 
cies on the I'arlicjiiatinii Plan. Holders share in 
the profits without liability. For particulars and 
l)olicie8 in this sterling company, apply to 

CJtATER & COBB, Agents, 
Holladay Street, opposite Mint, Den ver, Colorado. 

Edwards J. J. commercial agt. r. F, bet. 

Larimer and Lawrence 
Edward Charles, engraver, -with Hense 

& Gottesleben, r. Curtis, bet. I and K 
Edwards S. R. prop. Broadwell House, 

cor. G and Larimer 
Edmonds Charles, painter, bds. Ferry, 

bet. Sixth and Seventh 
Equil M. brewer, cor. Cheyenne av. and F 
EUerschewitz F. tailor, bds. cor. Cherry 

and Fourth 
Elder Henry G. assayer, r. San Luis, bet. 

Fifth and Sixth 
Elluschervick F. tailor, Blake, bet. E 

and F 
Elephant House, Mary C. Bliss, prop. 

cor. E and Blake 
Elephant Corral, Blake, bet. E & F, 

T. W. Farmer, prop. 
Elbert S. H. (Chariest Elbert), attorney, 

C37 Larimer, r. cor. E and Arapahoe 
Elderkin W. A. capt. and C. S., U. S. A. 

office, McCool's bldg. r. Champa, bet. 

K and L 
Elsuor J. physician and surgeon, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 
Elder C. P. speculator, office, cor. E and 

Eldridge F. B. bds. Arapahoe, bet. H & I 
Eldridge M. bds. Arapahoe, bet. H & I 
Elsworth Nellie, rooms 70 Holladay 
Emerson L. RL carpenter, r. F, bet. Cal- 
ifornia and Welton 
Epstein Julius, teamster, r. Larimer, bet. 

P and Q 
Ermerins Bertha Mrs. milliner, cor. G and 

Ermerins John, physician, oflRce, cor. 

F and Larimer, r. cor. G and Larimer 
Estabrook C. J. teller Colorado National 

Bank, r. Curtis, bet. F and G 
Estabrook J. H. liveryman, Holladay, bet. 

F and G 
Estabrook G. H. liveryman, Holladay, 

bet. F and G 
Esbenson Hans, bds. foot of Arapahoe 
Evans John, pres. D. P. Ry. office, cor. 

F & Blake, upstairs, r. E, cor. Arapahoe 
Evans Hugh, steward, Broadwell House 
Evans Thomas, carpenter, with E. A 

Evans , carpenter, bds. Champa, bet. 

F and G 

Evans Thomas N. carpenter, r. Champa, 
nr. Ford Park 

Excelsior Flouring Mills, cor. Sixth and 
Arapahoe av. J. W. Smith & Co. projis. 

Eyser Chas. architect and builder, bds. 
Colorado House 

EystPr C. S. judge district court, .Ara- 
pahoe county, r. cor. Araj)ahoe and G 

F. andFiskFarrar),agls. Wheeler & 
Wilson Sewing Machines, 200 G 
FARRAR FISK (Arthur Farrar & Co.), 

aait. Wheeler & Wilson Scw'g Machine, 

209 G 
Fairbanks C. H. (col'd), barber, bds. cor. 

I and Lawrence 
Farmer F. C. conductor, K. P. Ry. r. 

Stout, bet. K and L 
Fr.rmer T. W. prop. Elephant Corral, 

Blake, bet. E and F 
FarwcU S. T. Jr. clerk, with ^\ . Cowell, 

140 F 
Failing II. II. teamster, r. Cherry, bet. 

Second and Tliird 
Farron Thonuis, minstrel, r. Blake, bet. 

H and I 
Feind C. II. cigars and tobacco, 42 F, 

bds. 42 F 
Fernan Henry, bookkeeper, with Brocker, 

187 F, bds. American House 
Fetter Philip, r. Arapahoe, bet. E and F 
Ferguson A. physician, bds. P>ell House 
Fee Susan, r cor. H and Holladay 
Feuerstein Henry, prop. Feuerstein's 

blk. cor. G and Larimer, r. Curtis, 

bet. E and F 
Fink J. clothing store, 55 Blake 
Fink John V, & Co. (J. P. Fink and C. 

Frick), boot and shoe dealers, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 
Filler I. barkeeper, with II. A. Baker, 

15 Blake 
First National Bank of Donver, Je- 
rome B. Chati'ee. pres. cor. F and Blake 
First C'ong'reg'ational t'liurcli, cor. 

F and Curtis 
First Presbyterian Churcli, Rev. E. P. 

Wells, pastor, Fifth, bet. Larimer and 

Fredendal Ira, clerk, with Baker & Co. 

Ltrimer, bet. F and G 
Field Thos. M. civil engineer, r. cor. 

I and Arapahoe 
Fisher S. M. conductor, D. P. R'y, r. 

cor. I and Curtis 
Fisher AV. H. ins. agt. r. California, bet. 

N and 
Fisher W. G. clerk, with Daniels & Eck- 

hart, bds. American House 
Fisher Peter, night watchman, Branch 

Mint, r. Cherry, bet. Fifth and Sixth 


Watchmaker and Jeweler 

374: Larimer St,, Opposite I*ost Office, 


Particular Attention Paid to REPAiRiNa Fixe Watches. 

istAlolislxecl, lOeT, 


Eooms, on Larimer St., 

Bet.FandG, - DENVER, COL. 

N. B.— Nitrous Oxide Gas used for tlie Painless Extraction of Tcjtli. 



llDliolstBrBrs, Calfil Mers aifl UMertal^ers, 


Also, Dealers in all kinds of 


185 F street, Denver, Col. 



Auction and Commission Merchants 


IVe have unrivaled facilities for the disposal of Merchandise at 
Auction and Private Sale> 



11© Pfcarmaty.. 


itists k Di 



^mrrit AMf'rftmm and Foreign Brng s 

Chemicals, Patent Medicines, Toilet Soaps, Toilet Po-wders, 

Perfumery, Hair Brushes, Clothes Brushes, 

Combs, Fine Pocket Cutlery, &c. 



S- isrjLTH:.A.isr, 

35J4 Lai-inic^i:' Street, 

■Wholesale and Retail Bealor h\ 


Notions and Fancy Goods, 



EstatoHslicd. In 1850. 


"Wholesale and Retail Druggists, 

Corner Larimer and F Streets, 


Citizens or Strangers who desire a QriET and Comfortable Boarding House, 
away from the noise and bustle incident to hotel life, can be accommodated at 


Lawrence St., between G and H. 



Opposite Post Ofliee, 

IDEiT^V^EIE^, _ _ _ OOXjO:E?..^IDO. 
Candy Manufacturer, Wholesale and Retail. 


No. 44 Blake Street, DEXVER, COLORADO. 



aM soi-^Y. Mi. 

CAPITAL, - ~'- - $400,000.00 



Presidtnt. Vicr-Presidrnt. Stcretary. 







293 and 295 Broadway, New York. 

H. WESENDONCK, Pres't. C. DOREMUS, Sec'y. 

Asspts $4,000,000 

Annual Income L.'iOO.OOO 

Dividend, in Cash among FoUcy Holders nOOAiOit 

Faid to Widows and Orphans 1,S.110,000 

Annual dividends, on tlie contribution plan, to date, have been uniformly 40 per 
cent, on the Life Premiums. 


No unnecessary restrictions in the policies. Traveling to an'l residing in Europe permitted l>v the 
pohcy. the only American Company which has established agencies throughout Europe. 

All Policies become Non-forfeitable by their Terms. 

Rate.s as low as consistent with solvency. 

The Comiiany's assets are C 4?II 

IVMiiiunis are payable iu Ca'sh" 

bivirtends are payable in !!!!!...."'.*.'.'....'. CA»I1 

A all losses promptly paid full in..." ."'.......'.".'. .'..!.!'.'.'.'.V.'.'/.'.'.'.'.'.'.'."".".y.'.y.'.!'///.""V.^ 

ORSON BROOKS, Gen'l Agt., 





;5fiiie^-9 ^*^ fP ^ *l^ ^ ^; % % 


ASSETS, Jan., 1871, - - $9,000,000 

Loaned, in 1870, $1,500,000, at ten 
per cent, interest. 


Losses paid since organization of the Company, $1,700,000. 





Holding a HIGH RESERVE, realizing a HIGH RATE OF INTEREST, with a 
LOW RATIO OF MORTALITY and EXPENSES, and having had twelve years' 
successful experience, this Company oflfers the assured every ADVANTAGE COM- 







Colorado, TTyoming^, Utah and IVe^tv 3i:exico. 

DR. S. S. WALUHAN, General Agent, 

Office, cor. F and Larimer Sts., 







Depot for STUDEBAKER BROS.' Celebrated 



Champion Reapers and Mo^wers; Perkins' Steel Tooth 
Sulky Hay Rake; "Sweepstakes" and Dayton Threshing 
Machines; Fanning Mills; Two-horse Walking Com Cul- 
tivators; Skinner's Excelsior and Gang Plows; Hol- 
brook's Swivel and Side Hill, and Oliver's Celebrated 
Cold Chilled Cast Iron Plows; Holbrook's Regulator 
Garden Seed Drill; Van Brunt's & Esterly's Broadcast 
Seed Sower, Wagon Covers, Bows and Spring Seats; 
Collins' Cast-Cast-Steel Plows. 


Wazee Street, bet. F and G, 






We represent some of the leading companies in the 
world, noted for their prompt settlement and payment ot 
all honest losses. 

Will place all kinds of risks at rates commensurate with 
the hazard. 

The Companies we represent furnish Sound and Reliable 

By fair dealing and prompt attention to business, we 
hope to continue to merit and receive, as heretofore, a fair 
share of patronage. 

All business entrusted to us will, at all times, bs 
promptly and properly attended to. 

Cor. G and Larimer Streets^ 




Wholesale and Retail Dealers 




F'E:IM^"^ Ac CO.'S 

Garden Seeds 


Eakin's Egg Suljstitiite, 

F and BLAKE STS., 

IS, .. , ^@la@R4®@, 







South cor, Blake and F Streets, 

$20,000,000.00 TO PAY LOSSES. 





PHCEN'IX INSURANCE CO., of Hartford. INSURANCE ?0., of New York. 

This agency offers to the pnblic reliable protection againBt loss and d.amHge by fire, on terms an 
fsvorablo as tbe cb;iracti-r of the risks will justify. Losses equitably adjusted and promptly paid. 

KASSLER & CRAM, Agents, Denver, Col. 


Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Fine Tobacco, Cigars and Pipes 

Foreign and Domestic Stationery, 


South cor, Blake and F Streets, 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 


OrangeSf Lanoiis, Fi{/s, Dates, JVmYs, Apples, 
I*ears, Grapes, &c,, <£rc., &c. 


Dried Fruits and Canned Goods, 



At all seasons, and on the most advantageous terms. 


113 F StrfiBt, ifiit ioor to Coloraflo NatMal Baii, 



Dealers in 

Flour, Cri-aiii, Feed, Ace. 

Goods deliverd to all parts of the City free of charge. 

LARIM£R STREET, Between F and G, 

iDEj^^vEK,, can,. 


Tonsorial Artist and Fashionable Hair-Dresser, 

Shampooing, Shaving and Hair-Bying Saloon, 

IVo. ST'^l: Lai'iixier Street, 





Blake Street, Opposite American House, Denver. 

Constantly on hand, the very best of AViues, Litiuors and Cigars. 


V. »'. AVuoj.wouTH, T>. II. Moffat, Jr., (j-akenh e J. (i.akke, 

XiwYork. Ij'Mivcr. Denver. 

Woolworth, Moffat &, Clarke, 

Post Office Building, Larimer Street, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



Standard, Miscellaneous, Blank and School 


Iiik^ and TVall Paper, 

Gold Pens, Letter Presses and Fancy Goods. 

.^''All orders entrusted to our care will meet prompt and careful attciiii^in 
rxamine our goods before purchasing elsewhere. 

Sniiscrlptiom received for all KaMern Periocltcals, and the same sent o 
any portion of tile country. 



Formerly Prnftssor in Latorence 
University, Wisconsin, 


OfiBce, 356 Larimer St., near F, 

SPECIALTY.— Diseases of the Throat and Lnnfjs. 
which are treated by inlmlatiou of Atomized Med- 
icated Vapors. / 


Allorney aiii CoDiselor at Law, 





Office of National Land Company, 



Attorney at Law 


P. D. Belden. 

E. II. Powers. 


Attorneys at Law, 



Attorney at Law, 

Office at the Post Office, 

U?IE¥. fill All i AM ilAlIil, 

Fourth Street, 


Parties dpsiiring a good turn-out, with or without a driver, for city or mountain travel, can be accom- 
lioJated on reasonable terms. .^"Boarding by day or week. 


T^PP^N & CO. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers 



Aericiiral Iqlemts, 

Blacksmiths' Tools, 

Carpenters' Tools, 

Miners' Tools, 

IRON, Nails and Steel, 

F Street, 





W Mi 

China and Glassware, 



Window Glass, 


Wood and WiUow-warr, 

Lamps, Lanterns, Chandeliers, a 



Coal Oil, Etc., Etc., \ 

B Cutlery, Plated and Britannia 


|F 'Ware, 

Balla, Cues, Tips, 



ISo, 37^0 Larimer Street, 



Buying exclusively from the manufacturers, and importing my goods 
from the potteries, I am prepared and 


Send rof Price T^ist and Compare. 

J. W. DOUGLAS, 379 Larimer St., Denver. 


*'jl\'M)£l\ 1,. 

m wmm^ 

Mcknight, geeen & co. 

(Successors to J. P. Green,) 

Portable and Stationary Steam Engines 

Tubular, Locomotive and Flue Boilers, Cast Iron Building Fronts, Mill 

and Mining Macliinery and Supplies, Higli and Low Mortar Stamp 

Mills, Wrouglit Iron Jails, Stamps and Dies of best Cliillcd, Cold 

Blast. White Iron, Steam Pumps and Hoisting Machinery. 

Also, keep in stock Wire Rope, Wrought Iron Pipe, 

Rubber and Lcatlier Belting. 

Office and Works, near Union Depot, West Kansas City, 

p. O. Drawer 3161. 

Office, G St., two doors south of Broadwell House. 

J. P. GREEN, Resident Partner. 


Agent for Pitch and Gravel Roofing, warranted to stand 

for five years. Also offers Tarred Paper and Pitch 

by the barrel, at reasonable rates. 

HoUaday Street, bet. I and K, 





LorllMFiretaraflceCofflpaiiy I TllB Nflrtlwestem Illtll 

ASSETS, - - si,'roo,ooo 



Fisher John, cook, French restaurant, 

cor. Holladay and F 
Eisher C. W. supt. D. P. R y, office at 

depot, foot of K, r. cor. E and Curtis 
Fisher D. R. carpenter, r. N & Lawrence 
Fisher Miers, farmer, r. on Clear creek 
Fitspatrick Michael, lab. K. P. .Junction 
Finn A. E. dining room boy, American 

Finn C. C. dining room boy, American 

Finn J. G. A. plasterer, r. Arapahoe, 

bet. G and H 
Flinn Samuel, farmer, bds. Hotel Garni 
Fluke E. A. watchman. First National 

Flair John, barkeeper, Tambien saloon, 

•355 Larimer 
Flood P. cook, K. P. Junction 
Fletcher S. M. physician, office, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 
Flescher L. clerk, with Sands & Kline, 

Larimer, bet. F and G 
Flowers Josephine, rooms, cor. H and 

Ford Frank, ticket clerk, K. P. R'y, bds. 

American House 
Ford Michael, carpenter, r. bet. H and I 

Ford , carpenter, bds. Bell House 

Ford AVm. R. stock raiser, r. Wazee, bet. 

H and I 
Eord B, L. prop. People's restaurant, 42 

Blake, and Ford House, nr. depot 
Eord House, B. L. Ford, prop. opp. D. 

P. Ry. depot 
Ford C. W. clerk for Brinker & Co. bds. 

American House 
Ford Hiram F. stock dealer, r. Curtis, 

bet. L and M 
Ford Park, head of Downing av. 
Foster James F. sawyer, r. Blake, bet. I 

and K 
Foy MoUie, r. Holladay, bet. I and K 
Foulkes Thomas, laborer, r. Curtis, bet. 

C and D 
Forbes Nelson, carpenter, r. head of N 
Forrest .J. B. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Fowler Henry, cook, K. P. Junction 
Forsburg Charles, yardmen, American 

Force J. E. prop. National barn, Front, 

bet. Fourth and Fifth, r. Front, bet. 

Larimer and Sixth 

Receipts in 18V0, - - . $.3,«?0.370 07 
Losses paid since organization, 1,700,000 00 

Dr. S. S. Wallihan, Gen'l Agt,, 

Fogus A. prop. Occidental saloon, r. San 
Luis, bet. Sixth and Seventh 

Fox Wm. carpenter, bds. Missouri House 

Forey Charles, jeweler, 155 F, r. Blake, 
nr. Front 

Foshay , bricklayer, bds. Lawrence, 

bet. G and H 

Freund k Bro. gunsmiths, Blake, bet. 
F and G 

Freund F. W. (Freund & Bro.), gun- 
smith, Blake, bet. F and G 

Freund George (Freund & Bro.), gun- 
smith, Blake, bet. F and G 

Freund L r. cor. E and Curtis 

Frey W. H. barber, r. Blake, bet. I and K 

French Restaurant, F. Charpiot, prop, 
cor. and F Holladay 

Frein Patrick, prop, boarding house, cor. 
K and Holladay 

Frick Conrad (John P. Fink & Co.), 
boot, shoe and leather merchant, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G, r. cor. I and Ara- 

Freeman , laborer, bds. cor. D and 


Freeman Ed. farmer, bds. Larimer, bet. 
Front and Cherry 

Frank Mary, r. Third, bet. Ferry and 

Fretz Wm. laborer, r. San Luis, bet. Fifth 
and Sixth 

France L. B. (France & Rogers), attor- 
ney at law, office, Larimer, bet. F and 
G, r. cor. Stout and L 

Frazer J. (col'd), well digger, r. Holla- 
day, bet. G and H 

Franklin N. jeweler, with Hense & Got- 
tesleben, bds. Washington House 

French Nellie, r. 75 Holladay 

Fries Margaret (widow), laundress, Ara- 
pahoe, bet H and I 

Furlong Phil, laborer, r. Stout, bet. E 
and F 

Fuhrman Joseph, r. 


AFF JOHN, bds. Tremont House 

Gaif John S. r. Front, bet. Third & Fourth 
Gas Works (Denver), cor. I and Wiwatta, 

Jas. Archer, pres. 
Gay Frank, engineer, bds. Depot House 
Garnett Isaac, miner, bds. Railroad 




fi]^eni3E Wtvt ^nmmnct mo. 

Of Brooklyn, New York. 

Cash Assets, nearly Two Million Dollars. 

For Policies in this "time-tried, fire-tested" and 

vr ell-managed Cdmpatiy, apply to 

BATES t COBB, Agents, 

Holladay Street, opposite Mint, Denver, Colorado. 

Gallup & Gallatin, saddlers, 50 Blake 
Gallup Francis (Gallup & Gallatin, 50 

Blake), r. F, bet. Lawrence and Ara- 
Gallatin E. L. (Gallup & Gallatin, 50 

Blake), r. bet. F and G 
Gasper Eva, chambermaid, Broadwell 

Gasper Lizzie, laundress, Broadwell 

Galbreth J. flour and feed merchant, cor. 

Fifth and Front 
GangloflF, Clara, bds. Arapahoe, nr. H 
Gabathuler J. plasterer, r. Lawrence, 

bet. L and M 
Galligan Bridget, laundress, Champa, 

bet. F and G 
Gallagher Mary, domestic, cor. Lincoln 

and Clements 
Gallaher Pat. engineer, K. P. Junction 
Gettes Jas. cook, Tremont House 
Gelbreth D. blacksmith, bds. Carr House 
George John, laborer, bds. cor. H & Blake 
George H. B. stationer, bds. American 

George Robt. r. Curtis, bet. F and G 
Geary R. H. prop. People's meat market, 

F, bet. Larimer and Lawrence, bds. 

cor. G and Lawrence 
Gerdon J. scullion, American House 
German House, John Wehr, prop. 48 

Gehrung E. C. physician, office, Larimer, 

bet. F and G 
Girdlestone E. laborer, bds. Depot House 
Gill A. J. (Gill & Cass), office, Holladay, 

ur. F, r. cor. Curtis and E 
Gibson N. J. Mrs. r. Lawrence, bet. E & F 
Gibson H. M. clerk, l%e Forwarding Co. 

bds. American House 
Gibson Isabella Mrs. (col'd), bds. Curtis, 

bet. G and H 
Gilshorn H. county hospital 
Gilbert J. blacksmith, bds. Carr House 
Gillman J. barkeeper. Cricket Hall, bds. 

Denver House 
Oilman Ed. carpenter, r. cor. I and Stout 
Gillis R. (Gillis & O'Brien), shoemaker, 

bet. G and H, bds. Tremont House 
Gillis & O'Brien, shoemakers, Larimer 

bet. G and H 
Gilson Samuel H. civil engineer and 

surveyor, office, cor. G and Lawrence 

Giltner A. shoemaker, r. Welton, bet. G 

and H 
Glascott R. A. check clerk, K. P. Ry. 

bds. American House 
Glascott D. S. clerk, K. P. Ry. 
Glascott D. L. bds. Pennsylvania House 
Glines & Noble, prop. Denver Transfer 

Co. office, Lawrence, bet. F and G 
Glines George (Glines & Noble), Denver 

Transfer Co. 
Glover W. A. clerk, with Heywood & Co, 

159 F, bds. Smith House 
Glenmore Luella Mrs. cor. H and Holla- 
Gomer Philip P. lumber merchant, cor. 

Larimer and K 
Gottlieb Joseph, pawnbroker, 47 Blake, 

r. Arapahoe, bet. G and H 
Goodman F. clerk, with Steinhauer & Wal- 

brach, 32 Blake, bds. Ford's restaurant 
Goldman & Co. cigars & tobacco, (iO Blake 
Goulden Geo. laborer, bds. cor. H and 

Goetz Henry, barkeeper, bds. Denver 

Gordon Chas. glazier, Hallack's Planing 

Gordon John, carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Godfrey Ed. carpenter, bds. cor. E and 

Gottesleben P. (Hense & Gottesleben), 

mnfg. jeweler, Laramie, nr. Fourth, r. 

Champa, cor. F 
Good John, prop. Rocky Mountain Brew- 
ery, cor. Cheyenne av. and Second 
Golding Philip, prop. Cabinet saloon, 

bds. American House 
Goddard A. M. barkeeper, r. Blake, nr. 

Gove C. gunsmith, Blake, bet. E & F, r. 

Stout, bet. D cS: E 
Goodfellow H. prop, bowling alley, 56 

GottingC millwright,bds. Colorado House 
Goldsby J<jhu, driver of water wagon, r. 

Champa, bet. F and G 
Goodrich H. M. collector, r. cor. K and 

Govers Geo. domestic, cor. G & Champa 
Goodwin John F. r. cor. E & California 
Goodridge H. M. capitalist, r. cor. M and 

Green AVilliam, stock dealer, bds. Tre- 
mont House 
Green James, merchant, bds. Tremont 

Green Thos. blacksmith, bds. Washing- 
ton House 
Green W. H. (col'd), barber, r. cor. I and 

Green H. R. prop. Chicago Sash and i 

Door Factory, r. Glenarni. bet. H & I' 

Western Agts. for Wlieeler & Wilson Sewing Machines, 209 {i St., Denver. 







Haying returned ?JO,000 more premiums for 1870 
than any other agency in Colorado. 

Green James, laborer, bds. Charter Oak 

Green S. W. clerk, Nye Forwarding Co. 

bds. American House 
Green Michael, roadmaster, K. P. Ry. r. 

Arapahoe, bet. P and Q 
Green Betsey Mrs. (widow), r. Stout, 

bet. K and L 
Grolu Joseph, brickmaker, r. K, bet. 

Wynkoop and Wazee 
Greenleaf J. H. prop, barn, bet. F and 

(greenleaf L. N. & Co. dealers in fancy 

goods, etc. next door to post office 
Greenleaf L. N. (L. N. Greenleaf & Co.), 

r. cor. I and Curtis 
Gray W. F. employe K. P. Ry. r. Fourth, 

nr. Front 
Gray A. bds. Pennsylvania House 
Gray Frank, harnessmaker, bds. Broad- 
well House 
Gray Horace, clerk, president's office K. 

P. Ry. bds. cor. E and Arapahoe 
Griffith C. W. waterman, D. P. Ry. bds. 

Railroad House 

Griffith , messenger, K. P. Ry. office 

Grill H. H. T. Mrs. (widow), r. Law- 
rence, bet. E and F 
Greet Geo. laborer, bds. cor. H & Blake 
Graham Geo. butcher, 189 F, rooms, 

189 F 
Graham J. C. Mrs. prop. Railroad House, 

G, bet. Wazee and Wynkoop 
Graham Belle, r. 75 Holladay 
Greer C. N. saloonkeeper, bds. French 

Greer Maria J. (widow), laundress, r. 

Seventh, bet. Cherry and Ferry 
Greer Chas. cook, Missouri House 
Griffin James, principal. West Denver 

Schools, rooms Arapahoe, bet. E and F 
Gray A. bds. Pennsylvania House 
Greenfield E. butcher, 66 Blake, bds. 

American House 
Greenfield A. butcher, 66 Blake, bds. 

Railroad House 
Gravelle 0. E. carriagemakcr, bds. Cali- 
fornia House 
Graller J. county hospital 
Griswold L. carpenter, r. Front, bet. 

Larimer and Sixth 
Gross W. J. actor, Denver Theatre, cor. 

G and Lawrence 


Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

Holds a Four Per Cent. Keserve. 

Perpetual Charter and Perpetual Security. 

DR. S. S. WALLIHAN, General Agent, 


Grupp M. blacksmith, bds. California 

Grade Louis, cook, Metropolitan restau- 
Greenwood W. H. chief engineer K. P. 
Ry. office, cor. F and Holladay, r. 
Champa, bet. F and G 
Grimms J. musician, rooms, cor. K and 

Gregory J. painter, Lawrence, nr. F 
Grant S. A. & Co. wholesale and retail 
stationers and booksellers, 383 Larimer 
"Grant S. A. (S. A. Grant & Co.), book- 
seller, etc. 383 Larimer, bds. Hatten 
Grant A. E. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Griffith J. N. actor, Denver Theatre, cor. 

G and Larimer 
Grosclaud T. carpenter, r. cor. M and 

Grosclaud C. F. carpenter, bds. cor. M 

and Curtis 
Griggs J. W. blacksmith, nr. F, Highland 
Griggs J. W^. Jr. blacksmith, nr. F, High- 
Groves J. R. machinist, K. P. Junction 
Gurlele E. waiter, Holladay, bet. E and F 
Gunnell J. T. barber, r. Lawrence, bet. 

E and F 
Guibor Aug. miner, rooms, Roper's blk. 
Guiraud A. Mrs. r. Stout, bet. K and L 
Guthrie George, with J. J. Ileithmann & 
Co. bds. San Luis, cor. Eighth 

HALEY THOMAS, laborer, bds. Cal- 
ifornia House 
Hakey William, laborer, bds. California 

Hagler Emil, bricklayer, bds. Blake, nr. 

Hagen C. carpenter, bds. California House 
Harvey Wm. laborer, bds. Tremont House 
Harvey J. clerk, K. P. Ry. 
Harvey John, bds. Pennsylvania House 
Harvey Lydia Mrs. canvasser, bds. Ara- 
pahoe, nr. H 
Harvell Martha Mrs. r. cor. I & Wynkoop 
Hannigan Hannah, cook, Carr House 
Hall M. E. Mrs. chambermaid, Carr 

Hall S. C. carpenter, bds. Bell House 
Hall Moses (col'd), barber, bds. Law- 
rence, bet. I and K 





Cash Assets, nearly One and a Half Million Dollars. 
iivcok.i>or.a.i-k:x> .«..d. iszi- 

For perfect indemnity against loss, apply for poli- 
cies iu this VETERAN COMPANY. 

CRATER &. COBB, Agents, 

Holladay Street, opposite Mint, DenTer, Colorado. 

Hall Geo. watchman, Hallack's planing 

Hall , carpenter, bds. F, bet. Lari- 
mer and Lawrence 

Hart D. S. painter, bds. Carr House 

Hansen P. laborer, bds. Railroad House 

Harriman John, laborer, r. Wazee, bet. 
H and I 

Hartman Felix, harnessmaker, withWm. 
Lerchen, 53 Blake 

Hartinau Caspar R. livery stable. 
Fourth, bet. Front and Cherry 

Hartmann George, barkeeper, 24 Blake 

Hartmann Fred, teamster, cor. Cheyenne 
av. and Third 

Hale H. W. clerk, with C. E. Pooler 

Hafner 0. harnessmaker, bds. Broadwell 

Harper & Housman, hardware mer- 
chants, 170 F 

Harper John (Harper & Housman), hard- 
ware merchant, r. cor. Curtis and E 

Harris D. (col'dj, domestic, Holladay, 
bet H and I 

Harris N. painter, etc. r. alley rear of 
Front, bet. Fourth and Fifth 

Harris R. W. cook, Lawrence, bet. G & H 

Harris T. (col'd), laborer, r. Curtis, bet. 
G and H 

Harrigan Mary, laundress, American 

Hawkins B. I. porter, American House 

Hawkins S. T. second hand dealer, r. 
Arapahoe av. bet. Third and Fourth 

Hamerschlak Geo. expressman, r. Cher- 
ry, bet. Third and Fourth 

Haskell A. L. Mrs. r. Ferry, bet. Sixth 
and Seventh 

Harvill Jas. carpenter, r. cor. Sixth and 

Hastings John, carpenter, r. Cheyenne 
av. bet. Sixth and Seventh 

Hagus J. J. clerk, with Jas. Tynon, r. 

Wazee, bet. F and G 
Hasenbalg T. tailor, F, bet. Blake and 

Harlan J. H. & Co. variety store, 26 Blake 
Harlan J. H. (J. H. Harlan & Co.). mer- 
chant, 26 Blake 
Harlan J. M. printer, Neivs office 
Hannah P. J. tailor, r. cor. E and Holla- 
Haymaker Lon, fruit dealer, 182 F 

Hammill Rie, saloonkeeper, 186 F, r. 
cor. E and Champa 

Haggerty H. tailor, Larimer, r. Arapa- 
hoe, bet. G and H 

Hardin W. J. barber, Larimer, nr. F 

Harrison N. (Browne, Harrison & Put- 
nam), attorney, r. cor. I and Arapahoe 

Hayden F. W. barber, r. cor. H and Hol- 

Hallack E. F. prop, planing mill, HoUa- 
dav, bet. I and K 

Hairack'.s Planing- Mill, Holladay, bet. 
I and K 

Hallack & Webber, lumber merchants, 
cor. Lawrence and F 

Hallack C. (Hallack & Webber), lumber 
merchant, r. California, bet. D and E 

Haberl L jeweler, with Hensc & Gottes- 
leben, r. Blake, bet. K and L 

Hamilton Geo. tailor, 346 Larimer 

Hamilton H. H. k Co. music dealers, 
Larimer, bet. F and G 

Hamilton H. H. (H. H. Hamilton & Co.), 
music dealer, teacher, and piano tuner, 
38.3 Larimer 

Hamilton Eva, rooms, 75 Holladay 

Hamilton Jas. stock dealer, r. Champa, 
bet. E and F 

Harrinarton Chas. E. editor Daily News 
bds. American House 

Harrington Jas. blacksmith, bds. Amer- 
ican House 

Hauck C. C. watchmaker and jeweler, 
Larimer, bet. E and F, bds. Amei-ican 

Hadfield Ed. carpenter, bds. Blake, bet. 

Hatten R. L. prop. Hatten House, Law- 
rence, bet. G and H 

Hatten House, R. L. Hatten, prop. Law- 
rence, bet. G and H 

Hayman Mary W. r. G, bet. Curtis and 

Hardie J. W. actor, r. G, bet. Curtis and 

Hammond Sarah, domestic, Arapahoe, 
bet. F and G 

Hacket , bds. Arapahoe, bet. E & F 

Halstead James, clerk, with C. Caspar, 
r. Champa, bet. E and F 

Halstead James, driver, Denver Transfer 
Co. bds. Broadwell House 

Hasselbacker J. shoemaker, r. foot of F 

Hake J. bds. Pennsylvania House 

Hagar C. E. printer, bds. Champa, bet. 
E and F 

Hangs George, printer, bds. cor. D and 

Hazlehurst H. B. U. S. mail agt. D. P. Ry. 
bds. D. P. Rv. restaurant 

Healy Michael' (H. W. Michael & Co.), 
hardware merchant, F, nr. Larimer 




|fr?h?fif$' psor^pf io* 



.A.SSETS, _ _ _ $800,000 

REICHARD &. WINNE, Agents, Denver, Colo, 

Heany Mary Miss, domestic, witli Joseph 

Kenyon, Arapahoe, bet. M and N 
Heathy E. Mrs. r. foot of Sau Luis 
Heathy A. Mrs. r. foot of San Luis 
Heath H. fruit dealer, cor. G and Blake 
Hennegan Kate, waitress, Tremont House 
Helderer F. brewer, Colorado Brewery 
Helmar Antoine, domestic, with V. Kreig 
Helmer W. farmer, bds. California House 
Helmer F. laborer, r. Cheyenne av. bet. 

Sixth and Seventh 
Helsolbaker J. shoemaker, F, bet. Wazee 

and Wynkoop 
Heckendorf A. foreman, J. P. Fink & 

Co. r. Larimer, bet. L and M 
Henkel A. mnfr. of cigars, 190 F, bds. 

Denver House 
Heimberg'er D. physician, office, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and CI 
Hewitt J. P. Mrs. dressmaker, with Mrs. 
E. Babcock, bds. cor. G and Lawrence 
Hewitt J. M. engineer, bds. Lawrence, 

bet. G and H 
Henry J. dishwasher, Carr House 
Hempstead Asa, blacksmith, bds. Carr 

Heywood & Co. boot and shoe dealers, 

159 F 

Heywood D. H. (Heywood & Co.), boot 

and shoe dealer, 159 F, r. cor. H and 


Heitler E. grocer, 64 Blake, r. 64 Blake 

Hess W. C. trader, r. cor. Sixth and 

Hepburn C. B. clerk, with C. Gove, Blake, 

bet. E and F 
Hermans J. R. watchman, Colorado Na- 
tional Bank, bds. Hotel Garni 
Hexter S. clothing merchant, 166 F 
Henshall Jas. clerk, 339 Larimer 
Helling William, cook, bds. Pennsylvania 

Hense & Gottesleben (J. H. Hense and 
p. Gottesleben), watchmakers and jew- 
elers, Larimer, bet. F and G 
Hense J. H. (Hense & Gottesleben), man- 
ufacturing jeweler, r. Central City 
Hendricks Wm. 0. laborer, r. Arapahoe, 

bet. K and L 
Heyl Walter, clerk, with Sprague & 

Webb, bds. Holladay, bet. F and G 
Hedges Miner, carpenter, r. California, 
bet. I and K 


Mutual Life Insurance Company 

Loaus at 12 per cent, on Real Kstate 

DR. S. S. WALLIHAN, General Agent, 


Herbert P. E. engineer, K. P. Ry. r. 

Champa, bet. E and F 
Hibschle H. bakery and saloon, 30 BLike 
Hickman C. B. clerk, with J. K. Doolittle, 

350 Larimer, bds. Broadwell House 
Hill Mohican (col'd), cook, bds. Wazee 

bet. G and H 
Hill Edward (col'd), domestic, with W. PI. 

Hill J. G. tinsmith, bds. Front, bet. Third 

and Fourth 
Higgins Patrick, dining room boy, Amer- 
ican House 
Higgins M. D. farmer, bds. cor. I and 

Higgins L. L. attorney at law, bds. cor. 

I and Arapahoe 
Hildreth Jennie Miss, dressmaker, r. nr. 

I and Wynkoop 
Hillander P. M. bds. Elephant House 
Hilary Charles, merchant 
Hitchcock A. clerk, with Freund & Bl-o. 

200 F, bds. cor. I and Curtis 
Hitchcock Amory, r. cor. I and Curtis 
Hitchcock D. M. stock dealer, bds. Tre- 
mont House 
Hiss Henry, porter, with J. J. Reithman 

& Co. cor. Fifth and Larimer 
Hively Andrew, broommaker. Fifth, bet. 

Front and Cherry 
Hoard Frank, bookkeeper. First National 

Hobson W. B. waiter, Carr House 
Hodges J. H. shoe store, cor. Front and 

Blake, r. Cherry, bet. Larimer & C 
Hodgson Wm. (McKee & Hodgson), gro- 
cer, etc. 57 Blake, r. Arapahoe 
Hodgson Joseph, farmer, r. Arapahoe, 

bet. K and L 
Hoffer Dan'l, butcher, cor. F and Larimer 
HolFer Brothers, butchers, cor. F aud 

Hotfer F. J. butcher, cor. F and Larimer 
Hoffer John G. butcher, r. Welton, bet. 

F and G 
HoflFman P. L. carpenter, bds. cor. E and 

Holmes Thomas, cook, Carr House 
Holt George E. lumber merchant, r. Wi- 

watta, bet. I and K 
Holt Mrs. M. r, Holladay, bet. I and K 
Hogberg Niels, silversmith, Hense & 

Gottesleben, r. Curtis, bet. I and K 



Tonlfers & New Yorli Fire Insnrance Co. 

ox^ j\r:E TV xrojftxic. 

Cash Assets, nearly a Million Dollars. 

Liberal Rates— ConBervative— Prompt to 

pay Losses. 

OEATEE & COBB, Agents, 

HoUaday Street, opposite Mint, Denver, Colorado. 

Holt , carpenter, bds. California 

Holly F. M. musician, rooms, cor. K and 

HoUiday William, bds. Lawrence, bet. E 

and F 
Holbrook Geo. teamster, r. Champa, bet. 

I and K 
Holland J. M. miner, r. Stout, bet. I 

and K 
Holland John, miner, r. Stout, bet. I 

and K 
Holland T. S. actor, rooms G, bet. Curtis 

and Champa 
Hommel Frank, real estate agent, r. Cur- 
tis, bet. E and F 
Hooper Thomas J. carpenter, bds. Tre- 

mont House 
Houston C. R. ranchman, bds. Tremont 

Horner J. W. attorney at .law, office, 

Larimer, bet. F and G 
Horr M. L. attorney at law, office. Ro- 
per's blk. r. H, bet. Arapahoe and 

Hood Joseph E. journalist, r. cor. L and 

Hoskins S. E. conductor, K. P. Ry. r. 

cor. M and Champa 
Hotchkiss Margaret (col'd) domestic, 
- with H. G. Bond, cor. I and Arapahoe 
Horton Edwin, laborer, with W. N. Byers, 

cor. F and Arapahoe 
Hopkins Georg'e M. city marshal, office, 

Larimer, bet. E and F, r. California, 

bet. E and F 
Hotel Garni, A. Schultz, prop. F, bet. 

Wynkoop and Wazee 
Houston E. R. ranchman, bds. Tremont 

Houston Charles (col'd), laborer, r. Cur- 
tis, bet. G and H 
Hough Ben. J. clerk, K. P. Ry. 
Howe George M. music teacher, bds. 

Tremont House 
Howe Samuel, barkeeper, bds. Colorado 

Howard J. expressman, bds. Carr House 
Howard Joseph, asst. pastry cook, Ameri- 
can House 
Howard Nellie Miss, rooms, cor. H and 

Howard Hy. r. cor. H and Champa 

Hoyes A. G. jeweler, Blake, bet. H 

and I 
Howell Louis, stock trader, r. cor. Sixth 

and Cherry 
Housman Henry (Harper & Housman), 

hardware, etc. 170F,r. Cheyenne, W.T. 
Hoyt S. N. mining engineer, r. cor. H 

and Champa 
Hoyt G. E. brickmaker, r. foot of K 
Hubbard John M. hostler, with C. R. 

Huffman Dan. printer. News office, bds. 

Champa, bet. E and F 
Hudson James, bds. Tremont House 
Hust Frederick, dyer, r. Larimer, nr. 

Front, W. D. 
Hughes T. T. laborer, bds. Carr House 
Hngrhes B. M. attorney at law, office, 

Hughes' bldg. Larimer, bet. F and G, 

r. Champa, bet. H and I 
Hughes A. S. trader, cor. F and Holla- 
day, r. Arapahoe, bet. F and G 
Hughes John, trader, office, over U. S. 

express office, r. Lawrence, bet. G 

and H 
Hughes Thomas, tailor, Larimer, bet. F 

and G, r. Blake, nr. Front 
Hughes Maggie Miss, bds. cor. H and 

Hughes V. A. Miss, rooms, 170 Holladay 
Hughes Ellen Miss, domestic, with J. Q. 

Charles, cor. H and Curtis 
Hunt Michael, butcher, with WolflF & Co. 

bds. Carr House 
Hunt H. R. attorney at law, office. Ro- 
per's blk. r. California, bet. G and H 
Hunt M. C. Mrs. (widow), r. Stout, bet. 

G and H 
Hunt Georgie Miss, music teacher, r. 

Stout, bet. G and H 
Hunt A. C. National Land Co. r. Hunt's 

addition, cor. Eighth and Washington 
Hummel Fred, cook, Pennsylvania House 
Hummel Frank A. r. Curtis, bet. E and F 
Humason E. F. barkeeper, cor. G and 

Blake, bds. Broadwell House 
Hussey Warren, banker, cor. F and 

Holladay, r. Salt Lake City 
Hussey Hyatt, banker, with Warren 

Hussey, cor. F and Holladay 
Hutchins S. A. railroad contractor 
Hurley H. r. Fifth, bet. San Luis and 

Ferry * 

Humphreys J. accountant, D. P. Ry. of- 
fice, cor. F and Blake 
Hutter S. bds. 64 Blake 
Hunter John, carpenter, r. Lawrence, 

bet. E and F 
Hurlburt Jeannett Mfs. dressmaker, r. 

Arapahoe, bet. I and K 
Hulett Henry M. printer, News office, r. 

Champa, bet. E and F 

A. Farrar & Co., Agrts. Wlieeler & Wilson Sewing Machines, 209 (^ St., Denver. 




As!>et$, over - - - $1,300,000 


EEICHARD & WINNE, Managers, 

IXGOLS A. B. watchmaker and jewel- 
er, 184 F, r. Champa, bet. F and G 
Ingersoll H. J. clerk, r. Stout, bet. D &E 
Irving Kate Miss, milliner, rooms, Roper's 

Irwin Andrew, carpenter, r. cor. N and 

TACKSON E. J. bds. Broadwell House 

Jackson M. V. B. printer, bds. Cherry, 
bet. Fifth and Sixth 

Jackson J. A. moulder, r. cor. Cheyenne 
av. and Seventh 

Jackson James W. prop. Denver Foun- 
dry, r. cor. Cheyenne av. and Seventh 

Jackson Eliz. (col'dj, r. cor. E and Cali- 

Jackson Charles (col'd), laborer, r. cor. 
H and Glenarm 

Jackson Sheldon Rev. supt. Presbyterian 
missions, r. cor. Colfax av. and Evans 

Jacobs Royal, r. San Luis, bet. Eighth 
and Ninth 

Jacox H. S. yard master, K. P. Ry. r. 
HoUaday, bet. L and M 

James Robert (Roberts & James), hard- 
ware merchant, r. Arapahoe, bet. E 
and F 

Janson Christina, domestic, with Chas. 

Jail County, Larimer, bet. E and F 

Jenson Ferdinand, clerk, with Tappan 
& Co 181 F 

Jenks G. D. stock dealer, r. Lawrence, 
bet. H and I 

Jones J. H. agt. Wells, Fargo & Co. and 
U. S. Ex. Co. bds. Amei-ican House 

Jones W. H. plasterer, bds. Bell House 

Jones A. B. clerk, post office, bds. 
Breed's dining rooms 

Jones Robert M. life insurance agt. bds. 
Larimer, nr. Front, West Denver 

Jon?3 A. A. bds. California House 

Jones , prop, second hand store, bds. 

Tremont House 

Jones John S. prop. Red Barn, cor. F 
and Wynkoop 

Jones W. P. 

Jones E. P. notary public and convey- 
ancer, office and rooms, Tappan blk. 

Jones E. J. haruessmaker, with Loben- 
stein & Co. cor. G and Holladay 


Charges XO EXTRA PREMIUM on Live? ..f O 1. 
orado Miners. 

DR, S. S. WALLIHAN, General Agent, 


Jones Jas. A. agt. P P. Gomer. r. Cali- 
fornia, bet. N ami 
Jones W. H. tinsmith, r. D, bet. Arapa- 
hoe and Curtis 
Jones Samuel G. trader, r. Champa, bet. 

I and K 
Jones M. C. bds. Pennsylvania House 
John Hugo, barber, \o\ F, r. Blake, nr. 

Johnson William plasterer, r. cor. F and 

Johnson James, property man, Denver 

Theatre, bds. cor. F and Wiwatta 
Johnson Samuel, clerk, J. A. Miller & 

Co. bds. Railroad House 
.Johnson Joel, teamster, r. Wazee, bet. 

H and I 
Johnson Chas. lab r. cor. H and Blake 
Johnson Thomas (col'd), porter. Wells, 

Fargo & Co. bds. Curtis, bet. G and H 
Johnson E. L. confectioner, bds. Breed's 

dining rooms 
Johnson E. L. att'y at law, bds. Breed's 

dining rooms 
Johnson Alexander (col'd), cook, bds. 

Lawrence, bet. F and G 
Johnson C. C. bookkeeper, r. Lawrence, 

bet. F and G 
Johnson Madison (coPd). waiter, Hat- 
ten House 
.Johnson A. W. laborer, r. Champa, bet. 

F and G 
Johnson Thomas Rev. (col'd), pastor Zion 

Baptist Church, r. Champa, bet. I and K 
Johnson Annie Miss, domestic, with S. 

Jolmson B. T. k Co. f B. F. Johnson and 

J. Clough, real estate agts. etc. 356 

Johnson Charles, boot and shoe dealer, 

167 F 
Jordan Jacob C. r. Welton, bet. F and G 
Jordan Mark L. bds. Welton. bet. F & G 
Justice A. L. physician and surgeon, 

office, Larimer, bet. F and G 

freight and ticket office, foot ot K, 
W. W. Borst, agt. 
Kansas Pacific Railway, general ticket 

office. Blake, nr. G 
Kane John T. r. with John Nuchhng, 
cor. K and Champa 



WasliiDEtoi Fire Iisrace Co. 


Cash Assets, nearly a Million Dollars. 

Well managed. Worthy the honored 

name it bears. 

CKATER & COBB, Agents, 

Holladay Street, opposite Mint, Denver, Colorado. 

Kane Sarah Mrs. r. foot of Seventh 

Kane Mary Miss, domestic, with L. A. 

Kasserman Stephen, contractor, r. High- 

Kanarun Hugh, laborer, r. cor. Front 
and Larimer 

Kassler G. W. (G. W. Kassler & Co), 
stationer and insurance agt. r. cor. I 
and Lawrence 

Kassler G. W. & Co. (G. W. Kassler 
and F. W. Cram), stationers and deal- 
ers in tobacco, cigars, etc. cor. F and 

Kassler & Cram (G. AV. Ka.«sler and F. 
W. Cram), general insurance agts. cor. 
F and Blake 

Kastor L H. clothing, 168 F, r. same 

Kasler Chas. harnessmaker, bds. Arapa- 
hoe, bet. E and F 

Kaufman J. C. prop. Colorado House, 
Blake, bet. E and F 

Kemp Phillis, clerk, with Joe Gottleib, 
47 Blake 

Kerchival Gerrett (col'd), porter First 
National Bank 

Kelsey J. C. harnessmaker, bds. Holla- 
day, bet. F and G 

Kelsey Thos. harnessmaker, bds. Holla- 
day, bet. F and G 

Keyser , lab. bds. cor. H and Blake 

Kesler Albert, cook, French restaurant, 
cor. F and Holladay 

Kern Philip, tailor, 346 Larimer, bds. 
Pennsylvania House 

Kehler J. H. Rev. r. Arapahoe, bet. F 
and G 

Kent Omer Jr. molder, bds. cor. N and 

Kent Omer 0. attorney at law, r. foot of 
Arapahoe av. 

Keith W. M. r. Champa, bet. E and F 

Keith Chas. H. coal otfice, foot of Blake, 
r. foot of G 

Kenney W. B. r. K. P. Junction 

Kern Phillips, tailor, bds. Pennsylvania 

Kelley Richard, porter, r. Fourth, bet. 
Front and Cherry 

Kelley J. G}. canvasser, bds. Broadwell 

Keller J. H. clerk, with Birks Cornforth, 
146 F 

Kettle Edward, butcher, cor. Fourth and 

Kettle G. E. butcher. 189 F, r. up Cherry 

Creek, West Denver 
Kemick Joseph, saddler, F, bet. AVazee 

and AVynkoop 
Kerr Henry W. cigar and tobacco dealer, 

cor. F and Blake 
Kennedy David, carpenter, bds. Colorado 

Kershaw Jere, r. Arapahoe, bet. F and G 
Keyes Thos. clerk, with J. P. Fink & Co. 

Larimer, bet. F and G 
Keiiyon Joseph, whol. liquor dealer, 
Roper's blk. r. Arapalioe, bet. M and N 
Kinsey & Ellis, blacksmiths and wagon- 
makers, cor. F and Wazee 
Kinsey W. J. (Kinsey & Ellis), black- 
smith, etc. r. cor. I and California 
Kirkland G. W. artist, r. F, bet. Blake 

and AVazee 
Kingsley A\^ C. attorney at law, r. Cur- 
tis, bet. K and L 
King John H. lab. r. Curtis, bet. C & D 
King Thomas, engineer, r. Fifth, bet. 

Ferry and San Luis 
King J. B. barber, bds. Hotel Garni 
King Philip, saloonkeeper. 14 Blake 
Kiernan Jas. laborer. K. P. Junction 
Kiernan J. butcher, 66 Blake, bds. Rail- 
road House 
Kidd T. R. G. miller, bds. Bell House 
Kimball Maria Mrs. bds. Smith House 
Kiefer Henry, barkeeper, Colorado House 
Kirkpatrick James, witli J. Kenyon, r. 

Arapahoe, bet. M and N 
Klink John, butcher, with AVolf & Co. 

bds. AVasiiington House 
Kline Ann Mrs. r. cor. L and Arapahoe 
Kline Francis Miss, school teacher, r. 

cor. L and Arapahoe / 

Kline Ellen Miss, r. cor. L and Arapahoe 
Kline Henry, r. Sixth and San Luis 
Kline Joseph, r. San Luis, bet. Sixth and 

Kline D. (Sands & Kline), dry goods mer- 
chant, Larimer, bet. F and G, r. same 
Kline John F. painter, r. cor. T & Ciiampa 
Klopfer H. saloonkeeper. Fourth, bet. 

Front and Cherry 
Klots John, butcher, r. Fourth, bet. Front 

and Cherry 
Kiiowltoii k Dickey (AV. F. Knowlton 
and J. P. Dickey), glass and crockery 
ware, 140 F 
Knowlton AY. F. (Knowlton & Dickey), r. 

Blake, bet. K and L 
Kueeland Belle Miss, rooms cor. H and 

Knox J. W. r. Arapahoe, nr. H 
Knight James, carpenter, r. cor. F and 




Aiiiericaii Central iBsiirance Co. 

Assets, over - - - ^300,000 

Colorado Branch, 
REICHARD&WINNE, Managers, Denver, Colorado. 

Kouiitze A. pres. Colorado National 

Koiintze C. B. vice -pres. Colorado 

National Bank, r. Champa, bet. G and II 
Koch Alois, prop, bakery and saloon, 

Holladay, bet. E and F 
Koch Joseph, stone cutter, bds. Holla- 
day, bet. E and F 
Kolmar C. painter, bds. cor. Fourth and 

Kroeck Rudolphe, barber, bds. Hotel 

Kreig Y. furniture dealer, 349 Larimer, 

r. cor. San Luis and Sixth 
Kraatz Aug. furniture d,ealer, 337 Larimer 
Kuhn Wni. carpenter, r. Fourth, bet. San 

Luis and Ferry 
Kuhn Chas. upholsterer, 349 Larimer 

LAMBIE JAMES F. clerk, bds. Hol- 
laday, bet. F and G 
Lamb Wm. R. salesman, with Daniels & 

Eckhart, 359 Larimer 
Lamme Perry, cook, 42 Blake 
Lane John H. collector, News office, r. 

Champa, bet. D and E 
Lane Thomas, bds. Pennsylvania House 
Lane Amos, clerk, American House 
Lane Oliver, switchman, D. P. and K. 

P. Railways. 
Laiigrishe J. S. prop, Denver Theatre, 

r. cor. F and Welton 
Laiin Charles, bricklayer, r. Stout, bet. 

G and H 
Lafferty John A. clerk, r. Glenarm, bet. 

G and H 
Lawrence Wm. carpenter, r. cor. M and 

Lawrence Henry (col'd), waiter, Law- 
rence, bet. F and G 
Laugan Jas. blacksmith, bds. American 

Langdon T. J. actor, r. Arapahoe, bet. 

D and E 
Landon Samuel, clerk, with D. Witter, 

bds. Larimer, bet. G and H 
Laughlin Alex, bricklayer, r. foot of Fifth 
Lawler John, plasterer, r. Sixth, nr. 

Lare G. P. (Lare & Bradburn), black- 
smith, etc. cor. F and Wazee 
Lare & Bradburn, blacksmiths and 

wagonmakers, cor. F and Wazee 


ASSETS, $9,000,000.00. 

No Extra Rate on Lives of M'omen. Policies 
Liberal. Losses Promptly Paid. 

Dr. S. S. Wallihan, General Agent, 

Land Alfred, prop. Mammoth Corral, 
cor. F and Wynkoop 

Land D. H. bds Carr House 

Latlirop H. P. physician, ofiBce, cor. F 
and Blake (up stairs) 

Lauerth Eliza', cook, Colorado House 

Lackey Annie Miss, laundress, cor. K 
and Holladay 

Levi J. L. cook. Metropolitan restaurant 

Levy M. W. dealer in wines, fruit and 
cigars, cor. G and Larimer 

Lerchen Wm. saddler and harnessmaker, 
53 Blake 

Lewis James M. bookkeeper, bds. Penn- 
sylvania House 

Lewis John, harnessmaker, bds. Broad- 
well House 

Lewis Jacob, clerk, bds. cor. E and Curtis 

Lewis John, coachman, bds. Colorado 

Lewis C. M. speculator, bds. Colorado 

Lewis J. r. cor. F and Stout 

Lewis Wm. r. cor. F and Stout 

Lewis W. J. saloonkeeper, Blake, nr. 

Lewis H. W. laborer, bds. Carr House 

Lee J. M. machinist, bds. Elephant House 

Lee Henry (Lee & McMuUin), dealer in 
agricultural implements, bds. Carr 

Lee & SIcMulliu (Henry Lee and Thos. 
McjMullin), agricultural implements, 
Wazee, bet. F and G 

LeasG. W. machinist, bds. Tremont House 

Leimoil «k Son J. A. (J. A. Lennon and 
J. B. Lennon), merchant tailors, 344 

Lennon John A. (Lennon & Son), mer- 
chant tailor, 344 Larimer, r. Lawrence, 
bet. P and Q 

Lennon John B. (Lennon & Son), mer- 
chant tailor, 344 Larimer, r. Lawrence, 
bet. P and Q 

Leimer & Co. grocers, Holladay, nr. F 

Leimer Charles, clerk. Wells, Fargo & 
Co. bds. Lawrence, bet. E and F 

Lessig' W. H. surveyor general, cor. E 
and Larimer, r. Arapahoe, bet. F and G 

Lessig John, surveyor, r. cor. K and 

Ledesar Frank, carpenter, Larimer, bet. 
H and I, r. Holladay, bet. I and K 



Don't go on ajouiney without an Accident 
Ticket of the 



a,n r>.t\r\S 1 "^^y. ^ -"^ ^ 5 days, $1.25. 

$3,000 1 10 days, S2.50; 30 days, $5.00. 

Can he procured in one minute. 

Crater&Cobb,Agts,,HolladaySt.,opp. Mint, Denver. 

Leahy B. Mrs. laundress, r. cor. M and 

Lenahan Mary Mrs. laundress, r. Curtis, 

bet. M and N 
Leary John, laborer, bds. Pennsylvania 

Leach Chas. carpenter, bds. Pennsylva- 
nia House 
Leach C. C. painter, 147 F, bds. Carr 

Leidinger F. W. teamster, Colorado 

Levenstein Jacob, county hospital 
Levantow Fred, with B. Cornforth, r. 

Blake, bet. N and 
Leber Stephen, teamster, bds. California 

Leightou H. painter, F, nr. Wazee 
Leonard Nellie E. Miss, dressmaker, 

Blake, bet. G and H 
Linton Thomas, shoemaker, Blake, bet. 

G and H 
Linton Charles, shoemaker, Blake, bet. 

G and H 
Lincoln David, with Deitsch & Bro. cor. 

F and Larimer 
Lincoln A. R. county treasurer Arapa- 
hoe county, r. Larimer, bet. E and F 
Library Territorial, Larimer, bet. F 

and G. G. T. Clark, ex-officio librarian 
Link .John, bookkeeper, Denver House 
Link George, butcher, 66 Blake, bds. 

Pennsylvania House 
Livingston & Scliram, hardware deal- 
ers, 351 Larimer 
Livingston 8. V. (Livingston & Schram), 

hardware merchant, r. Arapahoe, bet. 

I and K 
Linhart George, freighter, r. Glenarm, 

bet. M and N 
Lingner Henry, butcher, with G. C. Arndt 
Lindauer S. clerk, with I. H. Kastor, 

168 F 
Littlefield S. S. bookseller, rooms, 341 

Lloyd Michael, laborer, bds. Charter Oak 

Lloyd B. bds. Pennsylvania House 
Lorighry John, prop, boarding house, 

Holladay, bet. E and F 
Lobenstein & Co. hide and leather deal- 
ers, cor. G and Holladay 

Lobenstein W. C. (Lobenstein & Co.), 
hide and leather dealer, r. Leaven- 
worth, Kan. 

Longshore J. T. clerk, with A. Block, 
cor. H and Arapahoe 

Long J. K. bds. Pennsylvania House 

Loos Jacob, carpenter, r. Arapahoe, bet. 
B and C 

Loosley John, dining room boy, Ameri- 
can House 

Loosley A. Mrs. milliner, Lawrence, nr. I 

Lowery T. H. clerk, with Nye Forward- 
ing Co. r. cor. N and Lawrence 

Lorcy Nancy Mrs. r. Arapahoe, Ijet. E 
and F 

Love J. C. la))orer, bds. Carr House 

Lond Michael, barber, bds. Wazee, bet. 
H and I 

Londoner & Bro. whol. grocers, 148 F 

Londoner W. (Londoner & Bro.), r. Ara- 
pahoe, bet. G and H 

Londoner J. (Londoner & Bro.) r. cor. 
F and Champa 

Lockilt Wm. clerk, with B. Cornforth, 
146 F 

Lotlirop W. C. supt. of public instruc- 
tion, office, 345 Larimer, r. cor. I and 

Luebbers Henry A. civil engineer and 
architect, office, 145 F 

Lutz Wm. horse trainer, r. Cheyenne av. 
bet. Sixth and Seventh 

Lynch Johu, hostler, Broadwell House 

Lynch David, hostler, Broadwell House 

Lyden Martin, gas fitter, bds. Charter 
Oak House 

lyTARK JOHN, carpenter, bds. Cali- 
J^\. foruia House 

Martin Juo. miner, bds. California House 
Martin James (Post & Co.), blacksmith, 

F, bet. Wazee and Wynkoop 
Martin 0. printer, bds. Washington House 
Martin Ed. laborer, r. Blake, bet. I & K 
Martin Ida Mrs. r. Blake, bet. I and K 
Martin W. S. waiter, Broadwell House 
Martin & Nuckolls, merchants, 339 Lari- 
Martin J. H. (Baker & Co.), grocer, Lar- 
imer, bet. F and G, r. Cheyenne 
Martin Thos. laborer, with S. E. Browne, 

Larimer, bet. Q and R 
Martin D. J. (Martin & Nuckolls), mer- 
chant, 339 Larimer 
Martin James, blacksmith, r. cor. K and 

Martin J. McVay, actor, Denver Theatre, 
cor. G and Lawrence 

Manning . bds. Smith House 

Manning H. H. druggist, r. H, bet. Law- 
rence and Arapahoe 
Mann John S. cook, Pennsylvania House 




Eptalle Lift Assurance Societi ; „ ''"^ northwestern 

OF isET^ YORK. I mutual Life Insurance Company 

The Leading Life Insurance Company of the World. ' O"^ Milwaukee, wis., 

EEICHA2D i WDTilE, Gsnera". Agsst;, ' ^* *^'^ Leading Life Company of the West. 



Mack Toney, cook, bds. Tremont House 

Magins John, laborer, r. cor. Wiwatta 
and F 

Malony Wm. blacksmith, bds. Carr House 

Malony John, dealer in agrl. impls. F, 
nr. Wazee, member city council, r. 
Arapahoe, bet. E and F 

Machette A. H. saddler and harness- 
maker, F, bet. Wazee and Wynkoop 

Machette Chas. C, gloves and furs, 162 
F, bds. cor. Larimer and San Luis 

Mayer Geo. & Brother, hardware mer- 
chants, cor. G and Blake 

Mayer J. C. (Geo. Mayer c& Bro.), hard- 
ware merchant, cor. Blake and G 

Mayer , K. P. Ry. r. Larimer, bet. 

G and H 

Marlow Jas. U. mining operator, bds. 
American House 

Marlow Hamilton, saloonkeeper, Plant- 
ers' House 

Magill Jane, housekeeper, American 

Marshall Joe. porter, American House 

Marshall Josephine Miss, bds. 76 Holla- 

Marshall Amos (col'd), cook, Arapahoe, 
bet. M and N 

Marshall Frank, miner, r. cor. I & Curtis 

Matthews E. G. (Matthews & Reser), 
real estate agts. bds. American House 

Matthews & Reser (E. G. Matthews and 
E. A. Reserj, real estate agts. office, 
389 Larimer 

Matthews John R. laborer, bds. foot of H 

Magle Nicholas, bds. with H. Klopfer 

Mathias Joseph, domestic, with J. Oster- 

Mahon Thomas, teamster, at Hartman's 

Mahoney D. machinist, K. P. Junction 

Matthewson David, contractor, r. Chey- 
enne av. bet. Sixth and Seventh 

Mackle Joseph, bookkeeper, r. Arapahoe 
av. nr. Seventh 

Mackie Tim. teamster, bds. cor. G and 

Maguire Wm. painter, r. Larimer, nr. 

Maguire M. C. & Bro. (M. C. and E. R. 
Maguire), furniture dealers, 185 F 

Maguire M. C. (M. C. Maguire i: Bro.), 
furniture dealer. 185 F 

DR. S. S, WALLIHAN, Gen'l Agt, Denver. 

Maguire C. lab. r. California, bet. F & 6 

Maguire E. R. (M. C. Maguire & Bro.), 
furniture dealer, 185 F 

Maguire Thos. (M. C. Maguire & Bro.), 
furniture dealer, 185 F 

Mahar C. J. (Strickler & Mahar), auc- 
tion and commission merchant, 25 
Blake, bds. Tremont House 

Malhesias R. baker, 30 Blake 

Marchant Wm. (Spencer ^^ Marchant), 
saddler and harnessmaker, 32 Blake 

Markisa Peter, with P. Schueler, Lari- 
mer, bet. F and G 

Mays D. W. (J. A. Miller & Co.). commis- 
sion merchant, r. Stout, bet. H and I 

Maroney J. T. tailor, 346 Larimer 

Marion Joseph, r. Arapahoe, bet. F & G 

Magnet M. Nye, dentist, bds. Larimer, 
bet. F and G 

Markham Y. D. attorney at law, office, 
Roper's blk. cor. G and Larimer 

Mayer-Marix M. physician, 356 Lari- 
mer, bds. American House 

Manchester Thos. expressman, r. Ara- 
pahoe, bet. H and I 

Maine V.'. H carpenter, r. Front, bet. 
Third and Fourth 

Mather C. W. miner, r. cor. L and Ara- 

Maxey John J. blacksmith, F. nr. AVyn- 
koop, r. Welton, bet. D and E 

Mason Thomas, Welton, bet. E and F 

McAvery T. porter Broadwell House 

McClintock Ed. speculator, r. Sixth and 

McCarty L. prop. Tremont House 

McCarty F. clerk, W. S. Walker & Co. 
Larimer, bet. F and G 

McCabe J laborer, bds. California House 

McConnell A. D. saloonkeeper, Blake, 
nr. Front 

McConnell J. B. bookkeeper, Colorado 
National Bank 

McCuue A. painter, 142 F, r. Arapahoe, 
bet. E and F 

McCune J. H. painter, 142 F 

McCleary J. ranchero, bds. Tremont 

McClure G. W. machinist, r. Curtis, bet. 
H and I 

McClure F. D. r. Curtis, bet. H and I 

McClure C. T. teller, Warren Hussey's 
Bank, r. Curtis, bet. H and I 



Dont insure life or property until you read the list 
of sterling companies represented by 

On the upper left hand corner of the ten 

preceding pages in this hook. 

Aggregate Assets, Sixty-five Million Dollars. 

No "Shoo Fly" Companies represented. 
Office, Holladay Street, opp. Mint, Denver, Col. 

McCloud J. W. hatter, r. Arapahoe av. 
bet. Third and Fourth 

McClaskey G. H. (Armstrong & McClas- 
key), saddler and harnessmaker, r. 
Ferry, bet. Fifth and Sixth 

McClelland W. F. physician and sur- 
geon, office, cor. Larimer and F, r. 
Curtis, bet. H and I 

McComb H. E. blacksmith, bds. Wash- 
ington House 

McComb L. H. blacksmith, bds. Wash- 

• ington House 

McCool J. bds. 22 Blake 

McCool J. S. capitalist and prop. McCool 
blk. r. Champa, bet. M and N 

McCool T. clerk, -with C. Johnson, 167 F 

McCormiss F. C. saddler, 50 Blake 

McCormick R. R. sec. D. P. Ry. and T. 
Co. r. Lawrence, bet. F and G 

McCorinic & Shallcross (T. B. McCor- 
mic and A. P. Shallcross), druggists, 
371 Larimer 

McCormic T. B. (McCormic & Shall- 
cross), druggist, 371 Larimer 

McCormick Isaac L. carpenter, Holladay, 
bet. F and G 

McCord Chas. R. clerk, post office, bds. 
Larimer, bet. G and H 

McCord William, bds. Lawrence, bet. G 
and H 

McCord A. painter, r. Riverside 

McCoy W. clerk, with J. A. Miller & 
Co. bds. Lawrence, bet. G and H 

McCoy D. domestic, Arapahoe, bet. M & E 

McCoy J. W. carpenter, r. Champa, bet. 
L and M 

McConners , saddler, bds. Railroad 


McCook E. M. governor of Colorado, 
executive rooms, McCool's blk. Lari- 
mer, nr. F, bds. American House 

McCuUum J. blacksmith, bds. American 

McCullough J. carpenter, r. Curtis, bet 
M and N 

McConahan M. V. miner, bds. Pennsyl- 
vania House 

McDonald , speculator, bds. Ferry, 

bet. Sixth and Seventh 

McDonald , carpenter, bds. Penn- 
sylvania House 

McDonald M. Mrs. bds. cor. M and Law- 

McDonald F. A. clerk, with C. M. Steb- 

bins, Blake, nr. F 
McDougal J. B. carpenter, bds. cor. E 

and Holladay 
McDermid A. W. carpenter, r. cor. I and 

McEwen B. F. freighter, r. Champa, bet. 

I and K 
McElroy T. laborer, r. Glenarm, bet. E 

and F 
McEachern A. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
McFarland J. tinsmith, bds. Curtis, bet. 

C and D 
McGregor A. foreman carpenter shop, 

K. P. Junction 
Mcllvain Thomas, sawyer, bds. Tremont 

Mclntj're J. W. contractor, r. Stout, bet. 

F and G 
McKee «S: Hodgson (J. C. McKee and 

AVm. Hodgson), grocers, 67 Blake 
McKee Wni. laborer, bds. Colorado House 
McKee J. C. (McKee & Hodgson), grocer, 

57 Blake 
McKee J. lab. bds. cor. K and Holladay 
McKibben A. broker, bds. American 

McKindley J. P. Mrs. bds. American 

McLaughlin Mary Miss, r. Blake, bet. H 

and I 
McLaughlin AV. T. clerk, r. Curtis, bet. 

Gand H 
McLaughlin C. H. receiver U. S. land 

oflBce, office, Feuersteins lilk. r. cor. F 

and Colfax av. 
McLeod J. W. bookkeeper, with Harper 

& Housnian 
McMullin Thomas (Lee & McMullin), 

Wazee, b'-t. F and G, r. Lawrence, 

bet. and P 
McNeil J. clerk, D. P. Ry. 
McNeil J. Mrs. r. Glenarm, bet. E and F 
McNulty J. laborer, K. P. Ry. shops 
McNichols R. carpenter, K. P. Rj'. chops 
McPhee J. laborer, bds. Curtis, bet. C & D 
McPliee C. I), carpenter, r. cor. F and 

McQuann G L. stencil cutter, bds. Wash- 
ington House 
McTaggart J. (Haggerty & McTaggart), 

tailor, Larimer, bet. F and G 
Meginnis J. H. machinist, K. P. Junction 
Meal T. luindryman, Tremont House 
Melvin House, Dupree & Co. props. 

Holladay, bet. F and G 
Meredith Mary, waitress, Tremont House 
Merk Andrew, shoemaker, F, bet. Wazee 

and Wynkoop 
Merchants' Flouring Mills, 0. W. Shack- 

leton & Co. props, cor. Arapahoe av. 

and Seventh 

The 1^ HEELER & 1>1LS0N SE^TNG MACHWE does all kind of Work. 



dsj^js :z'Sy -^ - sif 00,000 

ff)^NVER, - - - COLORADO. 

Merchant John, carpenter, K. P. Ry. 

Metropolitan Restaurant, 31 Blake 
Merseburg Chas. tailor, Blake, bet. E 

and F 
Meyer H. H. with I. Brinker & Co. cor. 

F and Blake 
Metcalf C. P. clerk, with Phil. Troun- 

stine, 172 F 
Merriiiiau R. L. (Merriman Bros.), gen. 

agt. sewing machines and safes, cor. 

G and Larimer 
Merriman E. R. (Men-iman Bros.), gen. 

agt. safes and sewing machines, cor. 

G and Larimer, r. Stout, bet. F and G 
Merriman J. F. plasterer, r. Glenarm, 

bet. E and F 
Merritt Wm. bricklayer, bds. Colorado 

Me'chling John, attorney at law, oflBce, 

Clayton's bldg. r. cor. K and Champa 
Metz Julius, clerk, bds. Melvin House 
Merrill J. W. rooms, Arapahoe, bet. E 

and F 
Metliodist Episcopal Chnrcli, Rev. J. 

L .Peck, pastor, cor. E and Law- 
Missouri House, Front, bet. Third and 

Mickle John A. shoemaker, Blake, nr. 

Mickel AVm. r. Holladay, bet. H and I 
Mickie S. W. gen. dealer, bds. Tremont 

Miller H. M. lab. bds. I, bet. Wiwatta 

and Wynkoop 
i^Iiller Jacob, cook, Washington House 
Miller J. A. & Co. (J. A. Miller and D. 

W. Mays), forwarding and commission 

merchants, Blake, nr. G 
Miller J. A. (J. A. Miller & Co.), for- 
warding and commission merchant 
Millen P. Mrs. (col'd), laundress, r. cor. 

Third and Front 
Millen J. C. (col'd), barber, r. cor. Third 

and Front 
Miller Louis, prop, livery stable, r. Ferry, 

bet. Fifth and Sixth 
Miller Ed. C. clerk, Bell House 
Miller H. cook, Bell House. 
Miller Wm. barkeeper, 30 Blake 
Miller T. S. with S. Brunswick, r. cor. H 

and Arapahoe 


I]vsrRA^CE CO. 

Combines Eastern prudence in management 

u'ith Western rates on its investments. 

DR. S. S. WALLIHAN, General Agent, 


Miller G. W. (Miller & Markham), attor- 
ney at law, ofhce, Ropers blk. r. Cur- 
tis, bet. N and 
Miller & xMarkham (G. W. Miller and Y. D. 
Markham), attys. at law, Roper"s blk. 
Miller J. G. carpenter, bds. Pennsylvania 

Miller H. A. Mrs. r. Champa, bet. N 

Miller Chas. cook, r. foot of F 
Millsaps Wm. laborer, r. I, bet. Wazee 

and Blake 
Millsap S. B. hostler, with W. M. Burns 
Millsap ]\L M. carpenter, r. Lawrence, 

bet. D and E 
Mius Ellis (col'd), County Hospital 
Mitchell J. H. laborer, bds. Carr House 
Mitchell & Son, grocers, etc. 188 F 
Mitchell S. J. (Mitchell & Son), grocer, 

188 F, r. cor. H and Arapahoe 
Mitchell D. clerk, with Mitchell & Son, 

188 F 
Mitchell J. (Mitchell & Son), grocer, r. 

cor. H and Arapahoe 
Mitchell Jas. cook, Curtis, bet. D and E 
Mitchell John, lab. K. P. Junction 
Mitchaud AVm. with James Tynon, bds. 

Railroad House 
Milcham D. F. teamster, r. Ebert's addi- 
Michael H. W. & Co. (H. W. Michael 
and M. Healey), hardware merchants 
and tinsmiths, Larimer, bet. F and G 
Millard C M. S. printer. News office 
Miles A. H. farmer, r. Arapahoe, bet. F 

and G 
Mills Pat. carpenter, r. Stout, bet. F & 6 
Mofl'at R. W. carpenter, bds. Front, bet. 

Third and Fourth 
Moftat I). H. Jr. cashier First National 

Bank, r. Lawrence, bet. F and G 
Mofifett C. P. (Pierce & Motfett). prop. 
Dollar Store, Tappan's blk. bds. Ameri- 
can House 
Molfett J. H. carpenter and builder 
Moore W. stage driver, bds. Tremont 

Moore F. S. bookkeeper, B. Cornforth 
Moore Robt. teamster, bds. Carr House 
Moore Robt. hostler, with W. T. Palmer 
Moore Emma Mrs. r. Champa, bet. F .S: G 
Morrill E. engineer, bds. Tremont House 
Morris James, bds. Tremont House 








Notaries Public and Conveyancera, 
Holladay Street, opp. Mint, 

I>li2I>fVEIt, - COIjOItA.I>0. 

Mortimer B. S. actor, Denver Theatre, 

cor. G and Lawrence 
Monroe Ed. prop, stable, G, bet. Wazee 

and Wynkoop 
Montoyo Domingo, r. Blake, bet. H and I 
Mosby A. (col'd), cook, Broadwell House 
Mosby R. W. Mrs. (col'd), music teacher, 

r. Arapahoe, bet. I and K 
Mountain Daniel, papermaker, r. Ferry, 

bet. Fifth and Sixth 
Mount , speculator, bds. Ferry, bet. 

Sixth and Seventh 
Montgomery J. L. carpenter, r. cor. 

Ferry and Sixth 
Montgomery Geo. N. barkeeper. 186 F 
Montgomery Geo. K. bookkeeper, bds. 

Holladay, bet. F and G 
Montgomery J. A. artist, bds. Holladay, 

bet. F and G 
Montgomery Mattie, r. cor. K & Holladay 
Morrison John, barkeeper, 46 Blake, 

bds. 48 Blake 
Morrison A. clerk, with I. H. Kastor 
Morrison S. B. with J. H. Morrison, r. 

H, bet. Lawrence and Arapahoe 
Morrison J. H. U. S. Collector Int. Rev. 

r. H, bet. Lawrence and Arapahoe 
Morrison W. F. painter, cor. H and 

Morgan J. P. with A. K. Tilton, 52 Blake 
Monk S. shoemaker, 191 F, r. Glenarm, 

bet. E and F 
Monk B. with S. Brunswick, bds. Hotel 

Mowbray Roscoe C. surgeon dentist, 

office, cor. G and Lawrence 
Mosser P. blacksmith, Holladay, nr. G, 

r. Lawrence, bet. G and H 
Moss R. L. painter, Lawrence, bet. N & 
Moses T. stock dealer, bds. Curtis, bet. 

K and L 
Moseley F. H. route agt. D. P. Ry. rooms 

Feuerstein's blk. 
Moseley A. L. mechanical engineer, r. 

Stout, bet. C and D 
Moncriefif J. carpenter, Holladay, nr. G, 

r. Arapahoe, bet. I and K 
Morris W. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Murphy C. prop. Charter Oak House, r. 

Wynkoop, bet. H and I 
Murphy S. steward, American House 
Murphy H. butcher, cor. Fifth & Cherry 
Murphy A. plasterer, bds. Missouri House 

Murphy Jno. lather, r. Curtis, bet. E & F 

Mulvie F. bds. Wynkoop, bet. H and I 

Mund H. H. tobacconist, Larimer, bet. 
F and G 

Murry J. (col'd). County Hospital 

Mueller Wm. Countj- Hospital 

Muehler William, bookkeeper 

Munshow , carpenter, 341 Larimer 

Murat H. saloonkeeper, Larimer, bet. 
F and G 

Mulahy J. Mrs. dressmaker, F, bet. Lar- 
imer and Lawrence 

Mumford N. Mrs. bds. 75 Holladay 

Muire A. A. Mrs. r. cor. E and California 

Mulholland W. P. merchant, bds. Penn- 
sylvania House 

Munsporrer Geo. carpenter, bds. Penn- 
sylvania House 

Myers Win. dealer in agricultural im- 
plements, etc. F and Wynkoop 

Myer Geo. tinsmith, r. Arapahoe av. bet. 
Third and Fourth 

Myer J. tinsmith, bds. Arapahoe av. bet. 
Third and Fourth 

Myer Otto, mattressmaker, r. cor. San 
Luis and Fourth 

Myers A. wagonmaker, r. Holladay, bet. 
G and H 

Myers W. G. carpenter, r. cor. K and 

Myers S. E. Mrs. dressmaker, r. cor. K 
and Larimer 

Myers J. coachman, with Gov. E. M. 

Myers J. H. bricklayer, r. cor. H and 

XTATIONAL LAND CO. office, Lari- 
±yi mer, nr. G, W. N. Byers, manager 
Nathan S. dry goods, etc 354 Larimer 
Nagel H. P. with Hense & Gottesleben, 
bds. Denver House 

Newell , carpenter, bds. Tremont 

Newmark H. musician, r. cor. F and Ara- 
Newland Wm. contractor, r. cor. M and 

Nettleton , switchman, D. P. & K. P. 

railways, bds. Depot House 
Nehls W. wagonmaker, bds. Carr House 
Neal Alex, (col'd), cook, r. cor. H and 

Nelson 0. tailor, 346 Larimer, bds. Hol- 
laday, bet. E and F 
Nillson C. Miss, domestic, with J. Evans 
Norris J. rooms cor. F and Wynkoop 
North Chas. saloon keeper, bds. Ameri- 
can House 
Norrid W. (col'd). welldigger, r. Lari- 
mer, bet. H and I 
Nuttal Wm. saloonkeefer, 46 Blake 

All WHEELER & AITLSON Sewing Machines Warranted for Fire Years. 



NortUEricaiFiretaraiceCo. ! NflrllWBStfin Mil Liffi 


c»hc^^^>;i:^b:I3 x:v is23. 

ASSETS, - . . . $800,000 
Reicliard <fc Winne, Agents, 

BENVER, = - = e©LQRAQ.Q. 

Xje Forwarding' Co. 41 Blake, Loyal 

S. Nye, pres. 
Nye L. S. pres. Nye Forwarding Co. r. 

Larimer, bet. K and L 
Nyce Geo. W. carpenter, r. Larimer, bet. 

N and 

AKES D. C. r. Curtis, bet. C and D 

O'Brien M. overseer, D. P. Ry. bds. 

Charter Oak House 
O'Brien J. E (Gillis & O'Brien), bds. 

Tremont House 
O'Connell P. prop. Missouri House 
Oder W. R. engineer, bds. Fourth, nr. 

Oetter Adam, cabinetmaker, r. cor. N 

and Well on 
Ogsberry C. carpenter, bds. Colorado 

Olsen 0. G. scullion, American House 
O'Neill J. C. gentleman, bds. American 

Opitz Gns. sec. Colorado Savings, Build- 
ing and Loan Ass'n, office, 145 F 
Orman AVm. trader, bds. American 

Orman Jas. trader, bds. American 

Osborn A. W. brickmaker, r. San Luis, 

bet. Fifth and Sixth 
Osborn R. A. clerk, bds. Ferry, bet. 

Sixth and Seventh 
Osment W. W. bricklayer, r. San Luis, 

bet. Eighth and Ninth 
Osterwick J. saloonkeeper, cor. Fifth 

and Ferry 
Ostrander R. H. teamster, at Hartman's 

Oswald D. C. butcher, 145 F, r. down 

O'Sullivan W. clerk, Railroad House 
Osmond T. cook, bds. Elephant House 
Ostrom W. H. carpenter 
Owen T. M. architect, office, G, bet. Lar- 
imer and Lawrence 
Owens W. carpenter, r. Curtis, bet. I 

and K 
Osgood W. T. hat, cap and fur dealer, 

F, nr. Larimer, bds. Hatten House 
Ott Moritz, with Barth & Bro. 169 F 
Otis 0. G. with Harper & Housman, r. 

cor. G and Curtis 


Batio of expense to income in 1870, only 14.81 

Dr. S. S. WalUhan, General Agent, 


PALMER FRANK, manager Ilussey's 
Bank, r. Champa, bet. M and N 

Palmer W. J. civil engineer, r. cor. Cle- 
ments and Lincoln 

Palmer W. T. prop. Elephant Corral, 
Blake, bet. E and F 

Palmer A. R. Mrs. milliner, 341 Larimer 

Palmer Daniel D. r. 341 Larimer 

Parmelee J. farmer, bds. Tremont House 

Patten Bridget, dishwasher, Tremont 

Patten T. H. with E. Donnelly, r. Cali- 
fornia, bet. H and I 

Parrott Sam. laborer, r. Wynkoop, bet. 
I and K 

Pattengill H. blacksmith, bds. Washing- 
ton House 

Papst Aug. shoemaker, r. Cheyenne av. 
nr. Fourth 

Parker H. barber, 40 Blake 

Parker Wm. carpenter, bds. Larimer, nr. 

Parklmrst L. brewer, cor. H & Larimer 

Partridge J. W. miner, r. cor. H & Curtis 

Payne C. H. AV. farmer, r. Cherry, bet. 
Fifth and Sixth 

Payne Henry, farmer, r. Cherry, bet. 
Fifth and Sixth 

Payne Daniel S. farmer, r. Cherry, bet. 
Fifth and Sixth 

Patrick S. G. clerk, Blake, nr. F 

Parence Aug. helper. Metropolitan res- 

Pammon Chas. laborer, bds. Washington 

Parsons Fred, night watchman, U. S. 

Page Frankie, r. cor. K and Holladay 

Perrenoud , r. head of Glenarm 

Penny Stephen, bds. Pennsylvania House 

Peterson P. f»g'- Chalfant, Cox & Co. 
office, 339 Larimer 

Pearce G. F. laborer, bds. Wynkoop, bet. 
I and K „ . 

Pearce G. tinsmith, bds. Front, bet. 
Third and Fourth 

Pearse Julius, barber, Blake, bet. G ^; H 

People's Restaurant, 42 Blake, B. L. 
Ford, prop. 

Peite C. Mrs. laundress, Holladay, bet. 
G and H , ^ 

Penwright C. Mrs. (col'd), laundress. 
Lawrence, bet. I and K 



Tie Mntoal Life Iiisiiiwe Go. 

Largest and best in the world. 

A-SSETS, $45,000,000, CA.SH 

CRATER & COBB, Agents, 

Holladay Street, opposite Mint, Denver, Colorado. 

Perren ]Mary A. domestic, with J. B. 

A shard 
Peabody H. 0. r. California, bet. E and F 
Pcabody W. S. with D. G. Peabody, bds. 

American House 
Peabody D. G. dry goods merchant, 163 

F, r. Colfax av. nr. F 
Peck J. L. Rev. pastor M. E. Church, 

r. cor. E and Stout 
Pemberton James, malster, Denver Ale 

Brewing Co. 
Pearl Joseph, laborer, r. Blake, nr. Front 
Pettepier Frank, prop. Metropolitan res- 
taurant, 31 Blake 
Pennell S. bds. Elephan., House 
Pennsylvania House, J. Stockdori, prop. 

28 Blake 
Perry M. A. Mrs. furnished rooms, Ara- 
pahoe, bet. E and F 
Pekaric Kate Miss, domestic, with D. C. 

Phelps S. H. lumber merchant, bds. 

Depot House 
Phelps Lizzie Mrs. r. I, bet. AVazee and 

Phillips H. T. cook, Hotel Garni 
Phillips S. carpenter, bds. Smith House 
Phisterer E. gunsmith, 51 Blake 
Philbeck Geo. grocer, 196 F, r. same 
Philbrook M. carpenter, K. P. Junction 
Phitten Miller, tinsmith, r. cor. Fourth 

and Arapahoe 
Phifer W. G. freighter, bds. Curtis, bet. 

D and E 
Pierce John, vice pres. D. P. R. R. cor. 

F and Blake, r. cor. D and California 
Pierce & Moffett (W. H. Pierce and C. 

P. Moffett), props. Denver Dollar Store, 

Tappan blk. 
Pierce G. H. speculator, bds. American 

Pierce AV. H. (Pierce & Moffett), civil 

engineer, etc. r. Arapahoe, bet. F & G 
Pierce Jonathan, bds. Curtis, bet. K 

and L 
Piper F. M. with W. S. Walker & Co. r. 

cor. I and California 
Pierson S. L. carpenter, r. Champa, bet. 

E and P 
Pitzer H. L. grocer, cor. Fifth and Cherry 
Piper F. saloonkeeper, r. California, bet. 

I and K 
Platte Water Co. F. Z. Salomon, pres. 

Post E. J. & Co. blacksmiths, F, bet. 

Wazee and Wynkoop 
Post Office, 377 Lai-imer, H. P. Bennet, 

Pollock Alex, wagonmaster, r. cor. F and 

Pollock J. G. operator, W. U. Tel. Co. 

bds. Tremont House 
Pooler C. E. whol. fruit dealer, 173 F, 

r. cor. K and Curtis 
Pooler R. L. with C. E. Pooler, r. Arapa- 
hoe, bet. I and K 
Potter A. G. prop, restaurant, 42 Blake 
Potter C. saloon keeper, cor. G & Blake 
Potter B. Mrs. laundress, Lawrence, bet. 

D and E 
Police Court, 349 Larimer, (up stairs) 
Powell Peter, r. Curtis, bet. K and L 
Pomeroy Chas. blacksmith, bds. fooi of 

Arapahoe av. 
Pomeroy Thos. blacksmith, r. Ferry, bet. 

Fifth and Sixth 
Pope A. shoemaker, r. cor. Cheyenne av. 

and Fourth 
Pope W. D. with J. J. Reithmann & Co. 

cor. F and Larimer 
Porter Carrie, r. cor. Cherry and Third 
Power A. Mrs. saleswoman, 44 ]'>lake 
Pochin J. L. carpenter, r. cor. I and Cal- 
Proctor H. W. telegraph operator, K. P. 

Ry. depot, bJs. American House 
Prugh W. W. clerk, supfs office, D. P. Ry. 
Preston H. D. surveyor, bds. Holladay, 

bet. E and F 
Preston E. Miss, r. Hollailny, bet. H and I 
Probate Court Ai-apahoe Co. H. A. 

Clough, judge, Larimer, bet. F and G 
Primble , bds. F, bet. Lawrence and 

Pringle J. P. shop clerk, K. P. Junction, 

r. cor. E and Lawrence 
Prince H. blacksmith. Fifth, bet. Cherry 

and Ferry 
Prince Chris, baker, with G. Reith 
Pratt Frank, hostler, with C. R. Hartman 
Pursell A. K. clerk, Tremont House 
Purcell J. lab. bds. Charter Oak House 
Purdy — , carpenter, rooms 341 Larimer 
Purdy Wm. carpenter, bds. Cherry, bet. 

Fifth and Sixth 
Putnam T. G. (Browne, Harrison & Put- 
nam), attorney at law, office, Larimer, 

nr. G 
Putman G. L. (Fisher, Putman & Bulen), 

life ins. agt. r. Curtis, bet. C and D 
Piitz Engenie Mdme. French milliner, 

etc. 205 G, Ropers blk. 

QUAINTANCE W. L. expressman, r. 
Champa, bet. G and H 
Quiner AVm. teamster, cor. H and Blake 




CAPITAL, - - - $400,000.00 


President. Vice-President. Secretary. 






293 and 295 Broadway, New York. 


Assets ■ $4,000,000 

Antiital Income I,500,i)OO 

nivldentt, in Cash among Policy Holders BOO.OOO 

Paid to Widoti's and Orphans 1,2S0,0<)0 

Annual dividends, on the contribution plan, to dat«, have been uniformly 40 per 
cent, on the Life Premiums. 


No unnecessary restrictions in the policies. Traveling to and residing in Europe permitted bj the 
policy. The only American company which has established agencies througliout Europe. 

All Policies become Non-forfeitable by their Terms. 

Bates as low as consistent with solvency. 

The Company's assets are CASH 

Premiums are payable in CASh! 

Dividends are payable in ].CASn! 

And all losses promptly paid full in 


^ Local Agent, Denver General AgenU 


H. H. Hamilton & Co. 



Of New York, and for the 


Of Boston, 


Prince & Co.'s Organs and Melodeons, 

And the unrivalled 


We are also prepared to sell Pianos and Organs of any mannfactnre desired. We keep the Pianos 
we sell in tune for one year, gratis, and warrant them fob five tears. 

We give special attention to the tuning and repairing of Pianos and Organs, doing the work in the 
most thorough manner and at the lowest prices. 

SSf For a more detailed description of the ARION PIANO-FORTE and BURDETT ORGAN, see 
advertisement elsewhere in this work. 

Store, 383 Larimer Street, 

mmmwmm^. m mm'^mm 




Has obtained a sale unprecedented in the annals of the trade in this country, and 
gained, by intrinsic merit, a ■world-wide reputation, unsurpassed by any 

and all other instruments of this class. It is superior in 

1. Volume of Power and Variety of Expression, combining a roundness of expression and purity 
of tone heretofore considered unattainable. 

2. Promptness of Actiox. together with delicacy and elasticity of touch, rendering them e^peciully 
desirable and superior to all otlieis for the execution of Rapid Music, Runs, Trills, Cadences, etc., etc. 

3. Their Grand Oechestrai, Effects, which may be produced at the will of the performer. 

4. The fact that they contain the most useful and important musical inventions and improvements 
of the age, the same being protected by separate patents, and ustD exclusively in THB "BURDETT 

The following are some of the more important recent improvements : 
Doubles the power of the instrument without increasing its size or the number of its reeds. 

Is a now and valuable improvement, bringing into use an extra set of reeds, which, by their peculiar 
arrangement and method of tuning, produce a beautiful string-like quality of tone. 

Brings into use an independent set of large and powerful reeds, operated upon the usual key-board. It 
requires no extra space, is a perfect substitute for a pedal-bass, and increases the power of the bass notes 
more than three-fold. 

Confessedly the most important of all modern improvements on Reed Organs, an<l the result of m.any 
years' study and experiment by R. W. Carpenter, E.sq. This improvement is found only on the BURDETT 
ORGAN, and is, without exception, the most beautiful addition ever introduced. 

A most effectual mode of increasing or diminishing sound. By its use the performer has under perfect 
control an appliance for producing any required degree of "light and shade" of sound at pleasure. 

A beautiful, bell-like attachment, which gives to the instrument a brilliancy of effect and vivacity of 
expression that renders it surpassingly sweet in music of a light, airy character. 

J&' See advertiiement of H. H. Hamilton & Co., elsewhere in this worA-.-®R 



Arion Piano-Forte 


The following are some of the reasons why the ARION is superior to all other 
pianos : ^ 

It combines Manner's Four Simplifying Patents, viz.: 

Patent Arion Reversed "Wooden Agraffe, 

Patent Arion Compound "Wrest Plank, 

Patent Arion Full Iron Frame, 

. Patent Arion Siistaining Bar. 

Tlie ARION has greater power than any other piano manufactured. It will dtand in tuno lonRer, 
is more perfect in its mechanical construction, and therefore more dur.'il'le than any iuBtrumeut made in 
the usual manner. The arrangement of the agraffe, the manner of slrinping, and the peculiar form und 
arrangement of the iron frame, are all superior to anythirrg heretofore derised. 

The construction of the ARION is such that th^re are no strings that rest on any metal surface. 
Every string in the ARION Piano rests on wood, and consequently the tone can never become sharp or 
metallic, as is always the case in all oiher pianos which use the Metal Agraffe. 

The Patent ARION Piano was awarded the premium at the two last fairs of the American Institute. 

All ARIONS are Square Grands, and all are "J-^ octaves; the difference in the price and class is 
caused only by ornamentation of the case. 


We, the undersigned, make oath, that at the time of the last fair of the American Institute, held in 
New York, Immediately following the French Kxposition in Paris, two pianos, made by Steinway & S^ns, 
one piano by Chickering & Pons, one PATENT ARION PIANO, made by O. C. Manner, and several 
other makers' instruments, were tried against each other, by order and under control of the officers of 
the Institute, to decide which piano on exiiibition in compc'tition should receive tlie first premium 'as 
the best Square Piano known " To obtain an impartial trial, twice all of said pianos were covered with 
papers, so that one piano could not be distinguished from another (during the absence of the Judges), 
and twice did they select one of said Pianos as the best, which, upon uncovering, both times, proved to 
be the said PATENT ARION PIANO, awarding it "the^rs< »remnm" "over all others, for being the 
best Square Piano known to them." 
EDWAHD MOLT.ENHADER, Prof, of Music, Musical Director and originator of the New York and 

Brooklyn Conservatories of Music. 
CHARhES FRADKL, the eminent and favorite Composer, and Pianist to his Royal Highness the Due 

Gustave of Sax Weimar, Eisenach. 
^'''^'"a'J^L't,'^,?;.?'^^'^^"'-^' P>-o<'es8nr of Music; Teacher of the higher school of Music, etc., etc. 
iTTiVi,a^,?,^,^.^^vP''S»°"«t " Cathedral, Jersey Citv; Pianist, etc. 



o_. , , "• "• MANNER, Inventor and Patentee of the Arion Piano-Forte, 
sworn before me this twenty-second day of July, 1869. 

G. G. TAYLOR, Commissioner of Deeds. 

Rt«in!!i\.'l'c '«8 ""f^Ch'ckering & Sons' Piano had received the Legion of Honor and Medal, and 
Bteinway & Sons the Medal from Napoleon. 

^=- See advertiiement 0/ IT. If. Hamilton rf Co., eUewhtrt in ihu work:'&, 




United States Disbursing Officers 





Anthorized Capital, - S500,000 

Paid-in Capital, - 200,000 

Undivided Profits, ------ 100,000 

r> lit E C T O R. S ; 




J. B. OHAFrEE, President. GEO. W. OLAYTOTT, Vice-President. 

D. H. MOFPAT, JK., Cashier. 

Comer Blake and F Streets, Denver. 



i^tomi® Nmtl®nml Mmmk 


(Successor to Kountzo Brothers,) 

Capital Paid In, ------ ^100,000 

Capital Authorized, ----- S00,000 

Designated Depository and Financial Agents 


Approved Depository for Disbursing Officers. 

Augustus Kountze, President. Wm. B. Berger, Cashier. 

Hocky Mountain national Bank, 


(Successors to Eonntze Brothers.) 

H. Kountze, President. J. S. Raynolds, Cashier. 


( Successor to Kountze Brothers.) 

E. Creighton, President. A. Kountze, Cashier. 



For Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Blake St., bet. G and H, ©^M'^^M^ 

NICK CAMELLERI, Proprietor. 

LXJlSrCH ^i^T -A.L.IL1 HOXJIlS of the r>A.'ir AND IViGHIT. 

The trayeling public is respectfully informed that this house will be kept iu first- 
class style, aud travelers cau get a first-class meal at all hours. 

dliftoii Boarding House 

Cor. San Luis and Larimer Streets, 

W. C. THOMPSON, Propr. 


This house has been thoroughly refitted and furnished with new bedding and furniture, and is kept 
in first class style. 

lltt^S IlilitiPIMA 


Coat of Zell's Encyclopedia, as Compared icUh other IForks of Reference. 

A Complete Dictionary of Language costs S ^2 00 

A Gazetteer of the World 10 Ou 

The Cheapest American Encyclopedia. '2' "'' 

A Complete Bible Dictionary 20 00 

A Dictionary of Medicine J^ 9i 

A Dictionary of Architecture and Building J^ ^ 

A Law Dictionary ^? rj 

A Dictionary of Religious Denominations ' ** 

A Complete Biographical Dictionary -" "^ 

Total *'-^ ^ 

Zell's Encyclopedia and Dictionary costs, bound- • "' "^ 

Difference in favor of Zell's Encyclopedia 820" 00 

T. ELL WOOD ZELL, Publisher, 

Philadelphia, New York and Chicago. 




Fire and Life | 


Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co., of Hartford, Conn. 

Assets, $35,000,000. Purely Mutual. 

Pacific Insurance Company, - of San Francisco, Cal. 

Gold Assets, $1,800,000. Individual Liability of Stockholders. 

Also, General Agent for the celebrated 


^ Wk 


Guns, Pistols, Field Glasses, Sportsmen's Goods, Breech and Muzzle Loading Sliot 

Guns and Rifles, Fishing Tackle, Cutlery and Sporting Goods of latest 

patterns, Amunition, etc., wholesale and retail. Manufacturers of 

Shot Guns and Rifles of all kinds. Ropairing done. 

All work and goods warranted. 




Pre.sents many Inducements to your notice, among whicli are the following: 

First— Its rapidly increasing assets, without stock or borrowed lie^JDning, are now $9,0iMj OijO. 

Second— It is a Purely Mutual Company. Each member is a Full partner in thb whole business. 
with his liability limited to premiums paid 

Third —It tias the firm foundation of thirteen years' Buccessful growth, and is justly termed the 
"Model" Life Insurance Company of the continent. 

J<\>urth—lt furnishes insurance at its exact cost. AU over-payments or surplus are returned to its 

Fifth— Eyery policy is non-fobfeiting. Even for lapsed policies a just surrender value is paid at 
anytime. «- *- j 

AiX/i — It has issued 60,000 policies. 

Seventh— ItH premiums are as low as safety will permit. 

Eighth— It has recently adopted the hiosest reserve known to American life insdrance. 

iVin(/i— Its DIVIDENDS have averaged larger than those of other companies. 





Wool and Hides bought on commission a specialty. 

Sole Agents for the Territory for the sale of the 


SKI.F-BAKING Reaper and Self-Raking Re