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Full text of "The roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, comprising biographical sketches of all the eminent physicians whose names are recorded in the Annals .."

LIBRARY 

*v f Ca 
IRVINE 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

IRVINE 

EX LIBRIS 
C. D. O'MALLEY, M.D. 



THE ROLL 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 

OF LONDON; 

COMPRISING BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

OF ALL THE EMINENT PHYSICIANS, WHOSE NAMES ABE BECOEDED IN THE ANNALS 

FBOU THE FOUNDATION OF THE COLLEGE IN 1518 TO ITS BEMOVAL 

IN 1825, FBOM WABWICK LANE TO PALL MALL EAST. 

I 

BY WILLIAM MUNK, M.D., F.S.A., 

FELLOW OF THE COLLEGE, ETC., ETC., ETC. 




SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED. 

VOL. II., 1701 TO 1800. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY THE COLLEGE, PALL MALL EAST 

MDCCCLXXVIII. 

[All Rights reserved."] 



R 
173 



Harrison and Sons, Printers in Ordinary to Her Majesty, St. Martin's Lane. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Addams, Thomas 


. 148 


Barry, Sir Edward 


. 238 


^ Addenbrooke, John . 


. 14 


Bartlett, Nathaniel . 


. 37 


Addington, Antony . . 


. 198 


Barton, James . 


. 444 


Adee, Swithen . 


. 256 


Batt, John Thomas . . 


. 167 


Aiken, John 


. 421 


/Battie, William . 


. 139 


Ainslie, Henry . 


. 437 


Bayford, David . 


. 368 


Akenside, Mark 


. 195 


Bayles, James 


. 14 


A! cock, Nathan . 


. 189 


Baylies, William 


. 271 


Alexander, Benjamin 


. 270 


Beale, John 


. 39 


Allen, Joseph 


. 272 


Beauford, John . 


. 110 


Andree, John 


. 148 


Bedford, William 


. 138 


Angler, Bazaliol . 


. 33 


Beirman, Arnold Boot 


. 33 


V Arbuthnot, John 


. 27 


Bellinger, Francis 


. 20 


Archer, Edward 


. 182 


Binns, Jonathan 


. 297 


Arnold, John 


. 76 


Birch, John 


. 93 


Ash, Edward 


. 465 


Bishop, John . . . 


. 174 




378 


Bkck, William . 


. 367 


Ashenden, Charles 


. 129 


Blackburne, William . 


. 363 


V Askew, Anthony 


. 185 


Blair, Thomas . 


. 435 


Atkinson, John . . . 


. 359 


Blakey, Henry . 


. 76 


Austin, William 


. 377 


Bland, Eobert . . . 


. 365 






Blane, Sir Gilbert 


. 325 


Babington, William . 


. 451 


Blanshard, Wilkinson 


. 240 


Bagge, Charles Elsden 


. 324 


Blondell, James Augustus . 


. 34 


Bailey, George . 


. 69 


Bodenham, Edward . 


. 14 


Baillie, Matthew 


. 402 


Bosanquet, Benjamin 


. 149 


Bainbrigg, Thomas 


. 83 


Bostock, John . 


. 286 


Bale, Charles 


. 68 


Bouchier, Ealph 


. 90 


Baker, Sir George 


. 213 


Bourne, Eobert 


. 401 


Bamber, John . 


. 107 


Bowdler, Thomas 


. 324 


Bankes, Bobert . 


. 134 


Bowles, Henry . 


. 445 


Banyer, Henry . 


. 131 


Bradley, Thomas 


. 419 


Banyer, Lawrence 


. 20 


Branthwait, John 


6 


Barclay, James Eobertson . 


. 371 


Bridges, Daniel . 


. 277 


Barker, John . . 


. 158 


Brickenden, John 


. 241 


Barrowby, William 


. 61 


Brinley, Nicholas 


. 95 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Brisbane, John . * 
Brocklesby, Richard . 
Bromn'eld, Robert 
Brooke, Humphrey . 
Brooke, Jonathan 
Brooke, Thomas 
Brown, Charles . 
Brown, Charles . 
Brown, Richard 
Brown, Simon . 
Browne, Edward 
Browne, Thomas 
Browne, Sir William 
Browning, William . 
Broxolme, Noel . 
Buchan, James . * . 
Budd, Richard . 
Burges, John 
Burton, Simon . 
Butter, William 
Buxton, George . 

Cadogan, William 
Campbell, James 
Canvane, Peter . 
Carslake, Abraham 
Cartledge, John . 
Caulet, John Gideon . 
Caverhill, John . 
Chambers, William . 
Chandler, Benjamin . 
Chapman, John . 
Chapman, Samuel 
Chase, Stephen . 
Chauncey, Charles 
Cheston, James . 
Clark, William . 
Clarke, Edward Goodman 
Clarke, John 
Clarke, Matthew 
Clephane, John 
Clerk, Thomas . 



PAOB 




274 


Clerke, John 


201 


Clifton, Francis 


276 


Clobery, Robert Glynn 


1 


Coatsworth, Edward . 


118 


Cole, Josiah 


258 


Colebrook, George 


234 


Collet, John 


346 


Colmer, Humphrey 


461 


Comarque, Renald 


1 


Combe, Charles . 


81 


Coningham, John 


18 


Connel, Michael 


95 


Conyers, Richard 


38 


Cooper, John 


89 


Cooper, William 


446 


Cotes, Charles 


311 


Cour, Philip de la 


306 


Cox, Daniel 


119 


Coxe, William . 


360 


Cranmer, . 


360 


Crawford, Adair 




Crawford, Stewart 


221 


Cresswell, John . 


88 


Crichton, Sir Alexander 


158 


Grose, William . 


26 


Crow, Thomas , 


37 


Crynes, Edmund 


338 




281 


Dale, Thomas 


87 


Daniel, Samuel . 


331 


Dargent, James . 


470 


Davison, John . 


263 


Dawson, Ambrose 


64 


Dawson, Thomas 


145 


De la Cour, Philip . 


302 


De la Rive, Gaspard Charles 


132 


De Leon, Solomon 


420 


Denman, Thomas 


369 


Dennison, Richard 


131 


Descherny, David 


180 


Dicker, Michael Lee . 


325 


Dickson, Thomas 



PAGE 

204 
115 
247 

38 
265 

10 
129 

40 
137 
337 
112 
145 
172 
364 
285 
137 
178 
171 
166 

39 
339 
447 
129 
416 

58 

23 
154 

362 
309 
181 
165 
134 
240 
178 
465 
418 
333 
447 
223 
58 
260 



CONTENTS. 





PAGE 




Didier, Andrew . 


. 198 


Fowle, William . 


Dimsdale, Thomas 


. 232 


Fowler, Richard 


Diodati, John 


. 86 


Fox, Edward Long . 


Dod, Peirce 


. 70 


Fox, John 


Doubleday, Nicholson 


. 283 


Fox, Joseph 


Douce, Francis . 


. 130 


Frampton, Algernon . 


Douglas, Sir Alexander 


. 460 


Eraser, William Mackinen 


Douglas, Andrew 


. 308 


Freer, Robert 


J Douglas, James . 


. 77 


' Freind, John 


V Dover, Thomas . 


. 79 


Frost, Edmund . 


*^ Drake, James 


. 15 


Fryer, Edward . 


Duncan, Sir William . 


. 211 


Fullerton, William . 


Duval, Francis Philip 


. 178 


Fullwood, William 


Dwight, Samuel 


. 117 








Galley, Thomas . 


Eaton, John 


. 129 


Gardiner, John . 


Eaton, Joseph . 


. 38 


Garthshore, Maxwell . 


Edmonds, Samuel Gurney . 


. 415 


Gilbert, Ralph . 


Elderton, James 


. 86 


Gillan, Hugh . 


Elliot, Sir John . 


. 239 


Gilling, Isaac 


Elliot, Philip . 


. 444 


Gisborne, Thomas 


Esteve, Samuel . 


. 19 


Glanvill, John . 


Evelin, Sidney . 


. 265 


Glynn, Robert . 






Gorman, John . 


Falconer, William 


. 278 


Gouldsmith, Jonathan 


Farquhar, Sir Walter 


. 461 


Gower, Charles . 


Farr, William . 


. 228 


Grainger, James 


Feake, Charles . 


. 158 


Grant, William . 


Fearon, Devey . 


. 469 


Graves, Robert . 


Ferris, Samuel . 


. 358 


Gray, Edward Whitaker 


Figg, James 


. 94 


Green, John 


Flaerton, John . 


1 


Green, John 


Fontaine, James Francis de la 


. 269 


Greive, James . 


Ford, James 


. 257 


Grieve, John 


Ford, James, junior . 


. 323 


Griffith, Moses . 


Ford, John 


. 272 


Grimbalston, William 


Ford, John . " . 


. 413 


Grosvenor, William . 


Fordyce, George 


. 373 




Fordyce, John . 


. 212 


Hadley, John 


Fordyce, Sir William 


. 359 


Hale, Richard . 


Fothergill, Anthony . 


. 322 


Halford, Sir Henry . 


V Fothergill, John 


. 154 


Hall, Abraham . 



PAGE 

444 

447 

376 

331 

390 

464 

358 

332 

48 

14 

412 

111 

33 

367 

40 

259 

18 

444 

88 

227 

131 

247 

37 

94 

470 

219 

256 

460 

298 

148 

275 

297 

360 

164 

21 

290 

259 

48 

427 

J26 



VI 



CONTENTS. 





PAGE 






Hall, Julian Gartner . . 


. 365 


Hunter, John 


. 


Hall, Stephen . 


. 25 


Hunter, William 


. 


Hallett, William 


. 57 


Hussey, William 


. 


Hallifax, Robert 


. 336 


Hutton, Addison 


. 


Hamilton, Sir David . 


. 12 






Hamilton, Robert 


. 443 


Jackson, Rowland 


. 


Hamilton, William 


. 366 


Jackson, Seguin Henry 


. 


Hamman, John . 


. 366 


James, Pinkstan 




Hardisway, Peter 


. 68 


James, Robert . 




Harris, George . 


. 92 


Jebb, John 


. 


Harvey, Gideon 


. 10 


Jebb, Sir Richard 


. 


Harwood, Thomas 


. 110 


Jebb, Samuel 


. 


Hawley, James . 


. 144 


Jernegham, Charles . 




Hay, Alexander . 


. 280 


Jodrell, Sir Paul 


. 


Hayes, Sir John Macnamara 


. 364 


Johnson, Samuel 


. 


Healde, Thomas 


. 231 


Johnston, Pelham 




Heath cot, Gilbert . 


. 68 


Jones, Richard . 


, 


Heberden, William . 


. 159 ' 


f Jurin, James 


. 


Heberden, William, junior 


. 457 






Heineken, Herman . 


. 177 


Karr, Thomas . 


. 


Hemming, John 


. 418 


Keay, John 


. 


Henderson, Robert 


. 427 


Keir, William . 


. 


Hepburn, Patrick 


6 


Keith, James 


. 


Hervey, James . 


. 330 


Kelley, George . 


. 


Hicks, George . 


. 287 


Kelly, Christopher 


. 


Hill, Caleb 


. 86 


Kennedy, Hugh Alexander 


Hill, John. 


. 267 


Kentish, Richard 


.. 


Hinckley, Henry 


. 198 


Kenyon, Roger . 


. 


Hoadley, Benjamin . 


. 132 


Kirkaldie, George 


. 


Hodgson, Thomas 


. 14 


Knight, Thomas 


. 


Hody, Edward . 


. 147 


Knowles, Thomas 


. 


Holland, Richard 


. 92 


Knox, Robert 


. 


Holland, Samuel 


. 470 


Kooystra, John . 


. 


Hollings, John . 


. 94 


Krohn, Henry . 


, 


Holman, James . 


. 463 


Kynaston, Edward 




Hooke, Peter 


. 113 


Kynch, John 


. 


Hooke, Peter 


. 286 






Hopwood, Robert 


. 132 


Lacy, John 


. 


Horsman, Samuel 


. 135 


Ladds, James 


. 


Huck, Richard . 


. 346 


Lamb, George . 


t 


Hulme, Nathaniel 


. 298 


Lament, George 




Hulse, Sir Edward 


. 62 


Langrish, Browne 





I'AOE 

425 

205 

86 

138 

276 
321 
466 
269 
309 
291 
179 

67 
378 
139 
126 
189 

64 

350 
283 
325 

18 
150 
222 
268 
413 

13 
392 
110 
342 
365 
303 
302 

82 

39 

21 
21 

26 
178 
130 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



PAGE 

Lansdale, William . . .359 
Latham, John .... 393 
Layington, Andrew . . . 143 

V Lawrence, Thomas . . .150 
Lawson, John .... 264 
Layard, Daniel Peter . . 181 
Leake, John .... 275 
Lee, Francis .... 20 
Lee, John 316 

V Lee, Matthew . . . .119 
Le Fevre, Sebastian . . . 109 
Leigh, Thomas . . 86 

Leith, Theodore Forbes . . 361 
j Letherland, Joseph . . . 135 
Lettsom, John Coakley . . 287 
Levett, Henry .... 22 
Lewis, Thomas .... 38 
Lister, William . . . .329 
Littlehales, John . . .372 
Lobb, Theophilus . . .146 
Lock, George .... 77 
Lovell, Thomas .... 79 
Lowder, William . . .362 
Lucas, Charles .... 223 
Luxmore, Henry . . . 463 

Macaulay, George . . . 181 

Macdonald, James . . . 149 

Maclaurin, James Chichester . 392 

Macneven, William James . 369 

Macqueen, Columbus . . . 446 

Maddocks, James . . . 287 

Manning, John .... 212 

* Manningham, Sir Richard . . 75 

Manningham, Thomas . . 267 

Marcet, Alexander J. G. . . 466 

Marshall, Andrew . . . 389 

Martel, Lawrence . . . 109 
Martin, William . . .110 

Massey, Richard Middleton . 93 

Mather, John .... 271 

Matthews, John .... 332 



PACK 

Maty, Matthew . . . .265 

Maundy, William ... 1 
May, William . . . .383 

Maynard, William Mushel . 129 
Mayo, John . . . .395 

Mayo, Paggen William . . 455 

/Mead, Richard .... 40 

Mead, Vernon .... 69 

Meyer, John .... 342 

Mikles, Samuel .... 165 

Milman, Sir Francis . . . 316 
Milner, Charles . . . .197 

Milner, Thomas .... 229 

Milward, Edward . . . 166 

Misaubin, John .... 67 

Moffat, Thomas . . . . 472 

Monro, Donald .... 293 
Monro, James . . . .113 

Monro, John .... 183 

Monro, Thomas .... 414 

Monsey, Messenger ... 84 

Montague, John Duke of . . 58 

Moore, William .... 424 

Morgan, John .... 261 

Morley, Matthew . . . 145 

Morris, George Paulet . . 437 

Morris, Michael .... 232 

Mortimer, Cromwell . . . Ill 

Morton, Charles . . . 174 

Morton, Richard ... 20 

Moseley, Benjamin . . . 368 

Mountford, John . . . 110 

Muller, John .... 421 
Munckley, Nicholas . . .194 

Murray, John Roger . . . 424 

Musgrave, Samuel . . . 312 

Mushet, William . . . 170 

Myddelton, Henry . . . 198 

Myers, Joseph Hart . . . 376 

Mytton, Devereux . . . 332 

Napier, John .... 269 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Nasmyth, Robert 


13 


Plumtro, Russell 


. 144 


Nelson, Thomas .... 


469 


Poignand, Louis . . 


. 390 


Nesbitt, Robert .... 


112 


Pont, Thomas 


. 57 


Newington, John 


117 


Porter, Robert . 


. 118 


Newman, Jeremiah W. 


414 


Potter, John 


. 358 


Nicholls, Frank .... 


123 


Powell, Richard 


. 456 


Nihell, Laurence 


876 


Pringle, Sir John 


. 252 


Norford, William 


235 


Pulteney, Richard 


. 264 


Norris, Edward .... 


39 


Purcell, John 


. 77 


Nott, John .... 


397 


Pye, Samuel 


. 117 


Nugent, Christopher . 


268 










Radcliffe, John . 


. 86 


Oldfield, John .... 


116 


Raitt, George 


. 171 


Orme, David .... 


267 


Rawlinson, John 


. 308 


Osborne, William 


336 


Rayner, John 


. 32 


Owen, Hugh .... 


129 


Reeve, Thomas . 


. 133 






Relhan, Anthony 


. 257 


Packe, Christopher 


83 


Relph, John 


. 345 


Parratt, Thomas 


116 


Reynolds, Henry Revell 


. 299 


Parry, Caleb Hillier . 


385 


Richardson, Henry 


. 137 


Parry, William .... 


158 


Richardson, John 


. 26 


Parsons, James .... 


175 


Richmond, the Duke of 


. 116 


Parsons, John .... 


803 


Riollay, Francis . 


. 357 


Pate, Robert .... 


182 


Roberts, Edward 


. 426 


Payne, William .... 


325 


Robertson, James 


. 371 


Pearson, George 


343 


Robertson, John . . . 


. 119 


Pearson, Richard 


391 


Robertson, John Stark 


. 390 


Pegge, Sir Christopher 


449 


Robertson, Robert 


. 426 


Pellet, Stephen .... 


324 


Robertson, Robert 


. 308 


Pellett, Thomas .... 


56 


Robertson, William . 


. 358 


Pemberton, Christopher Robert . 


450 


Robinson, Nicholas 


. 108 


Pennington, Sir Isaac 


320 


Rogerson, John . 


. 418 


Pepys, Sir Lucas 


304 


Romayne, Nicholas . 


. 446 


Peters, Charles .... 


143 


Ross, David 


. 171 


Petit, John Lewis 


280 


Rowley, William 


. 340 


Phelan, Joseph .... 


360 


Russe, Thomas . 


. 116 


Pile, George .... 


150 


Russell, Alexander 


. 230 


Pinckard, George 


436 


Russell, Richard 


. 149 


Pitcairn, David .... 


353 


Rutty, William . 


. 74 


Pitcairn, William 


172 






Plomer, John .... 


57 


Salmon, Nathaniel 


. 26 


Plumptre, Henry 


24 


Samuda, Isaac de Sequeyra 


. 82 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



PAGE 

Sandeman, Q-eorge . . . 362 
Sarmento, Jacob de Castro . . 92 
Saunders, Eichard Huck . . 346 
Saunders, William . . .399 
Savage, Thomas .... 364 
Schaw, William . . . .194 
Scheuchzer, John Gaspar . . 91 
Schomberg, Isaac . . . 295 
Schomberg, Meyer Low . . 81 
Scot, William . . . .420 
Scott, Charles . . . .418 
Scott, Joseph Nicoll . . .218 
Sequira, Isaac Henrique . . 291 
Shadwell, Sir John ... 37 
Shaw, Joseph .... 418 
Shaw, Peter . . . .190 
Sheppard, John .... 14 
Sherard, James .... 127 
Silvester, Sir John Baptist . . 178 
Simmons, Samuel Foart . . 318 
Sims, James .... 317 
Sims, John .... 322 
Skeete, Thomas .... 369 
Smith, Hugh . . . .241 
Smyth, James Carmichael . . 383 
Somers, Edmund . . . 419 
Sprengell, Sir Conrad Joachim . 64 
Spry, Edward . . . .281 
Squire, John . . . .366 
Stack, Eichard William . . 299 
Stanger, Christopher . . .396 
Steighertahl, John Q-eorge . . 38 
Stone, Arthur Daniel . . . 445 
Story, Thomas . . . .427 
Strother, Edward ... 77 
I Stukeley, William ... 71 
Stuart, Alexander . . .109 
Sutton, John .... 149 
Sutton, Thomas . . . 399 

Swinton, Peter .... 277 

Taprell, John . . . .283 



PAGE 

Tarry, Edward .... 18 
Taverner, James . . . 118 
Taylor, Eobert .... 79 
Taylor, Eobert . . . .167 
Teake, Samuel .... 76 
Teale, Musshey . . . .82 
Teighe, Michael . . . .303 
Temple, Eichard ... 421 
Tessier, G-eorge Lewis . . 69 
Thirlby, Charles ... 18 
Thomas, Edward . . . 446 
Thomas, Sir Noah . . .218 
Thomlinson, Eobert . . . 280 
Thompson, Gilbert . . .290 
Thomson, David . . . 165 
Thomson, George . . . 149 
Thynne, Andrew . . . 367 
Tomson, Thomas . . . 413 
Torre, Christopher Mann . . 330 
Tourville, Charles ... 57 
Turberville, George ... 95 
Turner, Daniel .... 35 
Turner, John .... 14 
Turner, John .... 25 
Turton, John .... 284 
Tyson, Eichard .... 59 
Tyson, Eichard .... 234 

Underwood, Michael . . . 336 

Valingen, Francis de . . . 273 

Vaughan, James . . . 235 

Vaughan, Walter . . . 424 

Vaughan, William . . . 274 

Vincent, Thomas ... 63 

Wadsworth, Thomas ... 63 
Wagstaffe, William ... 60 
Walker, James .... 273 
Walker, Sayer .... 423 
Wall, Martin . . . .372 
Waller, Benjamin ... 14 



CONTENTS 



Wallis, Edward . 
Walton, John . 
Walsh, Philip Pitt . 
Warren, Richard 
Wasey, William 
Wathen, Samuel 
Watson, Edmund 
Watson, Robert . 
Watson, Thomas 
Watson, Sir William . 
Watts, John 
Watts, Richard . 
Watts, William . 
Wayman, Luke . 
Webster, Charles 
Wells, William Charles 
Welsh, James . 
Welstead, Robert 
West, Thomas . 
Whalley, Thomas 
Wharton, Q-eorge 
Wharton, Thomas 
Wharton, Tobias 
Whitaker, William . 
White, Thomas . 
Whitehead, John 



PAQB 




PAGE 


297 


Wigan, John 


. 121 


171 


Wightman, Robert . 


. 461 


363 


Wilbraham, Thomas . 


. 194 


242 


Willan, Robert . 


. 350 


89 


Williams, Q-eorge 


. 467 


212 


Williams, William 


. 265 


128 


Willis, Robert Darling 


. 464 


180 


Wilmot, Sir Edward . 


. 106 


344 


Wintringham, Clifton 


. 34 


348 


Wintringham, Sir Clifton . 


. 250 


18 


Wollaston, Charlton . 


. 229 


113 


Wollaston, William Hyde . 


. 438 


204 


Wood, William . 


. 91 


268 


Woodford, William . 


. 115 


442 


Woodhouse, William . 


. 150 


379 


Woodville, William . 


. 345 


299 


* Woodward, John 


6 


32 


Wright, John 


6 


59 


Wright, Kervin . 


. 150 


14 


Wright, Richard 


. 87 


74 


Wright, Richard 


. 302 


197 


Wynter, Daniel . 


. 82 


14 






131 


Yellowly, John . 


. 471 


129 


Yonge, James 


2 


328 


Young, Joshua . 


. 117 



ROLL 

OF THE 

ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 
OF LONDON. 



JOHN FLAERTON, of Haverfordwest was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College 21st April, 1701. 

WILLIAM MAUNDY, M.B. A bachelor of medicine of 
Pembroke college, Cambridge, of 1693 ; was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 2nd 
July, 1701. Dr. Maundy practised at Canterbury. 

HUMPHREY BROOKE, M.D., was educated at Caius 
college, Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded 
M.B. in 1689, and M.D. 3rd July, 1694. He was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians the day 
after Palm Sunday, 1695; and a Fellow 22nd December, 
1701. He was Censor in 1702, 1711, 1713, 1715 ; 
Elect, in place of Dr. Gill, 31st July, 1714 ; and Kegis- 
trar, vice Dr. Bateman, 26th March, 1716. Dr. Brooke 
held that office for two years ; and dying in 1718, aged 
fifty -two, was buried in the church of St. Andrew Un- 
dershaft. 

SIMON BROWN, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Utrecht of 1695, practising in Shropshire, was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians, 20th 
May, 1702. 

VOL. II. B 



2 ROLL OF THE [1702 

JAMES YONGE was the son of Mr. John Yonge, a sur- 
geon at Plymouth, and was born in that town llth 
May, 1646. He was educated at the Plymouth Gram- 
mar school under Mr. Horsemann, where he remained 
only two years, being, in the early part of 1657, ere he 
had attained his eleventh year, apprenticed to Mr. Rich- 
mond, surgeon of the " Constant Warwick," a ship of 31 
guns and 130 men. In May, 1661, he was appointed 
surgeon's assistant to the "Montague/' 64 guns, and 250 
men, one of the fleet then lying at the Downs under 
lord Sandwich. He was present at the bombardment 
of Algiers, and in his diary (still preserved in MS. at 
the Plymouth institution) has left a painfully detailed 
account of the menial duties he had to perform, and of 
his sufferings, more especially after a battle. He went 
down, he informs us, to dress the wounded men, who 
were placed on heaps of clothes to make it soft for them. 
Here he had not only to dress wounds, but to perform 
all those duties which now devolve on nurses and surgery 
attendants. To boil gruel, to make barley-water for the 
sufferers, to prepare fomentations and poultices, to wash 
and dry bandages and rollers, to administer glysters, 
make the hammocks, to shave and trim any one requir- 
ing it, were the duties, besides the ordinary business of 
the surgery, which it fell to his lot to perform when 
surgeon's assistant to the "Montague." 

The fleet returned to England in May, 1662, when 
Mr. Yonge was discharged for a time from the service 
of the navy. He then came to London with the view 
of improving himself in the knowledge and practice of 
surgery, and spent four months with Mr. Clark, a sur- 
geon apothecary of Wapping, where he confesses he 
learned a great deal. Mr. Yonge returned to Plymouth 
in September, 1662, and bound himself to his father for 
seven years. The apprenticeship, however, lasted for a 
short time only. In February, 1663, he was engaged 
to go as surgeon of the " Reformation " to Newfound- 
land. He returned in September ; and in March, 1664, 
sailed in the " Bonaventure " for the West African coast, 



1702] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 3 

then went up the Mediterranean, and, returning to 
England, again received a temporary discharge from the 
service. In December, 1665, he again sailed in the 
same ship, but ere long the " Bonaventure " was cap- 
tured by two Dutch vessels. Mr. Yonge, with the other 
prisoners, was conveyed to Amsterdam, and remained a 
close prisoner of war until September, when he got out 
on parole. Shortly afterwards he was exchanged for a 
relative of the secretary of the Dutch admiralty, then in 
prison at Harwich; and, returning to England, pro- 
ceeded through London to Plymouth. There he re- 
mained, partly occupied in practice, by which, to use 
his own words, he made a little money to maintain 
himself; and partly in study, until February, 1668, 
when he sailed once more for Newfoundland. He finally 
returned to Plymouth in September, 1670, and then, 
after fourteen years' naval service, took leave of the sea 
with the resolution of settling in his native town, and 
attempting by the exercise of his profession, to main- 
tain himself at home. Mr. Yonge was in his 25th year 
when he settled at Plymouth ; and he obtained, for a 
beginner, a considerable amount of business. In the 
following year he married Miss Jane Crarupphorne, of 
Buckland Monachorum, a lady of respectable family and 
connectioDS, whose mother had a near relative married 
to Sir Thomas Clifford of Chudleigh, the high treasurer 
of England. In consequence of the war which had 
broken out with the French and Dutch, a naval hospital 
was established at Plymouth, and to it Mr. Yonge, 
through the interest of the treasurer, was appointed 
surgeon. This proved a steady source of professional 
income. The surgeon-general of the navy, Mr. James 
Pearse, appointed Mr. Yonge his deputy at Plymouth 
in 1674, an office which brought him no inconsiderable 
accession of emolument. In 1678 Mr. Yonge visited 
London in company with Mr. Sparke, then M.P. for 
Plymouth, and whilst there was introduced to some of 
the more distinguished fellows of the Royal Society. 
In consequence of a conversation with some eminent 

B 2 



4 ROLL OF THE [1702 

literary characters during this visit to London, Mr. 
Yonge was led to write his most important work, the 
" Currus Triumphalis de Terebintho." This small trea- 
tise is full of originality, contains many most important 
practical suggestions, and notwithstanding the quaint- 
ness of its phraseology, and the vast improvement which 
surgery has since undergone, may still be read with 
amusement and instruction. He gives a full account 
of turpentine as a means of arresting haemorrhage, dis- 
tinctly describes the flap operation in amputation, and 
shows that he was familiar with a contrivance analogous 
to the tourniquet, for the arrest of haemorrhage during 
operations. 

Mr. Yonge now became a person of much importance 
in his native town, and was called upon to fill in suc- 
cession the highest parochial and civic offices. He was 
elected a member of the common council for the borough 
of Plymouth in 1679, churchwarden of St. Andrew's in 
1682, and in 1694 alderman and mayor of Plymouth. 
He was appointed surgeon to lord Bath's regiment of 
militia in 1685, an office which was relinquished in 
1689, the duties proving incompatible with his rapidly 
increasing professional engagements at Plymouth. A 
more suitable office however, awaited him. In 1692 
he was appointed surgeon to the new dock at Hamoaze, 
and in consequence of this appointment had to visit 
London. During his stay he attended Dr. Tyson's 
anatomical lectures at Surgeon's hall, dined at the 
public dinner given by the Company, was made free, 
and without examination admitted a member, an honour 
which, he states, had never before been thus conferred 
on any one. 

In what year he began to practise as a physician is 
uncertain. We know that he possessed a licence from 
the bishop of the diocese to act in that capacity. In 
1702, being then in London, he was induced to present 
himself before the College of Physicians for examina- 
tion as an Extra-Licentiate. Of the examination he 
underwent (23rd May, 1702) he has left a detailed 



1702] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 5 

account. For a copy of this interesting and probably 
unique document, as well as for much other valuable in- 
formation, I am indebted to the courtesy and kindness 
of a learned Fellow of our college, the late Dr. James 
Yonge, of Plymouth, a direct descendant of the dis- 
tinguished practitioner whose career I am now attempt- 
ing to sketch. Our physician, for so henceforward we 
must consider him, was, it would seem, urged by his 
friend Dr. Charleton to apply for letters testimonial. 
Of the president, Sir Thomas Millington, and of Dr. 
Charleton and Dr. Torlesse, two other of his examiners, 
he speaks in terms of the highest respect and kind- 
ness. His estimate of Dr. Samuel Collins, the author 
of a well-known work on anatomy, is not so favour- 
able. All, however, complimented him on the appear- 
ance he had made, and treated him, he says, quite as 
their equal. His answers prove him to have been a 
man of much originality, of deep thought, and well 
versed in the practice of his art. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society 3rd November, 1 702, and 
his contributions to the Philosophical Transactions are 
numerous and important. 

In 1703, being then in the fifty-seventh year of his 
age, and having attained a good estate and more pro- 
fessional employment than he desired, feeling anxious 
too for relaxation and ease, he declined public business 
and employment. Thenceforward he lived somewhat 
retired, though not without usefulness. In 1707 he 
embalmed the body of admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 
who had lost his life in the wreck of the "Association " 
off the Scilly Isles, and whose body had been brought 
to the citadel at Plymouth, nine days after. This 
would seem to have been the last professional duty 
which he performed. Our physician survived for many 
years, and dying the 25th July, 1721, was buried in 
St. Andrew's church, Plymouth. On the monument 
to his memory is the following inscription : 

Here underneath, 
lyeth buried the body 



6 ROLL OF THE [1702 

of JAMES YONGE, Physitian, 

Fellow of the Royal Society. 

He was once Mayor of this his 

native town, and dyed the 25th 

day of July, 1721, in the 76th year 

of his age. 

He was the author of- 
Some Considerations touching the Debates, &c., concerning the 
Newfoundland Trade. 4to. 1670. 

Currus Triumphalis de Terebintho. 8vo. 1679. 

Wound of the Brain proved curable. 12mo. 1685. 

Medicator Medicatus. 8vo. 1685. 

Sidrophel Vapulans. 4to. 1699. 

Several Evidences which have not yet appeared in the Controversy 
on Kikon Basalic.* 

PATRICK HEPBURN, A.M. A master of arts of the 
university of Edinburgh, was admitted an Extra-Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 4th November, 
1702. 

JOHN BRANTHWAIT, M.D., was educated at Caius 
college, Cambridge, of which house he was a fellow. He 
proceeded A.B. 1687 ; A.M. 1691 ; and M.D. 2nd July, 
1700 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 23rd December, 1700 ; and a Fellow 22nd March, 
1702-3. He delivered the Gulstonian lectures (de 
Hepate) in 1704 ; and was Censor in 1705, 1708, and 
1711. He was dead in 1716. 

JOHN WRIGHT, M.D., was the son of Thomas "Wright, 
of Woodstone, co. Huntingdon, and was educated at St. 
John's college, Cambridge ; as a member of which house 
he proceeded A.B. 1671; A.M. 1675; and M.D. 1st 
July, 1684. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25th June, 1698 ; and a Fellow 22nd 
March, 1702-3. Dr. Wright's name had disappeared 
from the College lists in 1719. 

JOHN WOODWARD, M.D., was born in Derbyshire, on 
* Edinb. Med. and Surg. Journal for April, 1849. 



1702] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 7 

the 1st May, 1665 ; and educated at a country school, 
where he acquired a good knowledge of Latin, and made 
considerable progress in Greek. On leaving school he 
was apprenticed to a linen draper in London, but he 
soon withdrew from that employment ; when, following 
the dictates of his inclination, he devoted himself solely 
to study. Whilst thus occupied, he made the acquaint- 
ance of Dr. Peter Barwick, an accomplished physician 
and distinguished Fellow of our College, who received 
him into his house ; and during four years gave him 
instruction in anatomy, medicine, and the collateral 
sciences. He then visited Sir Ralph Dutton, at his 
seat at Sherborne, where he began those observations 
and collections relating to the present state of the 
earth's surface, which laid the foundation of his subse- 
quent geological writings. Woodward's progress was 
so satisfactory to his patron that, through his influence 
and recommendation he was, on the 13th January, 1692, 
elected to the Gresham professorship of physic. In the 
following year he was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and was often elected on the Council ; but in 
1710 was expelled that body, for conduct unbecoming 
a gentleman. Sir Hans Sloane was reading a paper of 
his own composition, when Woodward made some grossly 
insulting remarks. Sir Hans complained, and, more- 
over, stated that this was not the only occasion on 
which Dr. Woodward's conduct towards himself had 
been offensive. Woodward was required by the other 
members to make an apology, but refused, and was 
therefore expelled. Sir Isaac Newton was in the chair 
when the question of expulsion was agitated ; and when 
it was pleaded in Woodward's favour that he was a 
good natural philosopher, Sir Isaac remarked that, " in 
order to belong to that society, a man ought to be a 
good moral philosopher, as well as a natural one." Dr. 
Woodward brought an action against the council, with 
the view of being reinstated in his place, but was unsuc- 
cessful. 

He was created doctor of medicine by Tenison, arch- v 



8 ROLL OF THE [1702 

bishop of Canterbury, 4th February, 1695 ; and was 
incorporated on that degree at Cambridge, as a member 
of Pembroke college. He was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 25th June, 1698 ; and a Fel- 
low 22nd March, 1702-3 ; was Censor in 1703, 1714 ; 
and delivered the Gulstonian lectures " on the Bile and 
its uses," in January, 1710-1. Dr. Woodward was 
more distinguished as a natural philosopher than as a 
physician. His practice, according to his contemporary 
and neighbour, Dr. Daniel Turner, consisted principally 
of " vomits and canthartics administered alternately, de 
die in diem, till the sick man grows tired, or, being quite 
spent, is forced to give over." Turner, who was himself 
a practitioner of some notoriety, expresses his surprise 
that the " great naturalist " should have prevailed with 
so many of the softer sex to run this vomiting gauntlet 
for six weeks or two months successively. Woodward 
was indeed but an indifferent practitioner, and is only 
remembered, in his professional capacity, by his contro- 
versy with Mead and Friend, on the utility of purging 
in the secondary fever of small-pox. In this encounter 
he suffered no less in reputation than in body. The ire 
of each party was excited. Mead and Woodward, meet- 
ing accidentally under the gate of Gresham college, drew 
their swords. Woodward's foot slipped and he fell. 
" Take your life !" exclaimed Mead. " Anything but 
your physic," replied Woodward, with cutting sarcasm. 
This affair has been somewhat maliciously commemo- 
rated by Ward, in the engraved frontispiece to his 
" History of the Gresham Professors." 

Dr. Woodward's merits as a geologist, were, however, 
of a high order ; and his " Essay towards a Natural 
History of the Earth," published in 1695, when he was 
only thirty years of age, attracted much attention, and 
gained him considerable reputation. " Among the con- 
temporaries of Hooke and Ray," says Mr. Lyell, 
" Woodward, a professor of medicine, had acquired the 
most extensive information respecting the geological 
structure of the crust of the earth." He left to the 



1702] BOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 9 

university of Cambridge his valuable collection of fossils, 
with funds for the maintenance of the collection, and the 
endowment of a professorship on his favourite subject, 
geology. The formation of this museum was regarded 
by Dr. Whewell as one of the most remarkable occur- 
rences in the progress of descriptive geology in England. 
The Woodwardian museum still subsists, a monument 
of the sagacity with which its author so early saw the 
importance of such a collection. 

Dr. Woodward died of a decline, at his apartments 
in Gresham college, 26th April, 1728, in the 63rd year 
of his age ; and was buried in Westminster abbey, 
where a handsome monument of white marble bears the 
following inscription to his memory : 

M.S. 
JOHANNIS WOODWARD, 

medici celeberrimi, 
philosophi nobilissimi, 

cujus, 

ingenium et doctrinam 
scripta, per terrarum fere orbem 

pervulgata, 

liberalitatem vero et patria3 caritatem 

Academia Cantabrigiensis, rrmni- 

ficientia ejus aucta, 

opibus ornata, 

in perpetimm declarabit. 

Natns kal. Mail, A.D. 1665 ; 

obiit 7 kal. Mail, 1728. 

Richardus King, 

tribunus militum, fabrumque preefectus, 

amico optime de se merito 

D. S. P.* 

Dr. Woodward was a valued contributor to the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, and published therein his dis- 
covery of the secret of making Prussian blue. His 
separate works are as follows : 

An Essay towards a Natural History of the Earth and Terrestrial 

* For much in this brief sketch I am indebted to Mr. Weld's 
History of the Royal Society. 



10 BOLL OF THE [1702 

Bodies, especially minerals ; as also of the Sea, Rivers, and Springs ; 
with an Account of the Universal Deluge, and of the Effects that 
it had upon the Earth. 8vo. Lond. 1695. 

Remarks upon the Ancient and Present state of London, occa- 
sioned by some Roman Urns, Coins, and other Antiquities lately 
discovered. 8vo. Lond. 1713. 

Naturalis Historia Telluris illustrata et aucta, una cum ejusdem 
Defensione, praesertim contra nuperas objectiones Camerarii. 8vo. 
Lond. 1714. 

The State of Physick and Diseases, with an Inquiry into the Causes 
of the late increase of them, but more particularly of the Small-pox, 
with some Considerations upon the new practice of Purging in that 
Disease. 8vo. Lond. 1718. 

GEORGE COLEBROOK, M.D., was of Emmanuel college, 
Cambridge. He was created master of arts (Comitiis 
Regiis) 1690; proceeded M.D. in 1697; was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Sep- 
tember, 1698 ; and a Fellow 22nd March, 1702-3. Dr. 
Colebrook delivered the Gulstonian lectures " on the 
Vessels of the Thorax," in 1707, and the Harveian 
Oration in 1711. He was Censor in 1708, 1710, 1712 ; 
and was named an Elect, in place of Dr. Goodall de- 
ceased, 14th October, 1712. He died 24th July, 1716, 
and is commemorated in our Annals as " a very worthy, 
honest man, learned and industrious in his profession. 
He had," continues the record, " a great affection to the 
interests of the College." 

GIDEON HARVEY, M.D., was born about the year 
1669, and on the 12th May, 1688, was inscribed on the 
philosophy line at Leyden. He graduated doctor of 
medicine at Leyden in 1690 (D.M.I, de Febre Ardente, 
4 to), and was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge 
(per literas Regias) in 1698 as a member of Catherine 
hall. Dr. Gideon Harvey was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 3rd April, 1699, and a 
Fellow 22nd March, 1702-3. He was Censor in 1714, 
1726; Consiliarius in 1736, 1737, 1742, 1743, 1744, 
1747, and was named an Elect in 1716. He died in 
1754 or the following year, being then the father of the 
College. Dr. Harvey held the lucrative appointment of 



1702] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 11 

physician to the Tower of London. " About the latter 
end of king William's reign," says Mr. Wadd, " there was 
a great debate who should succeed the deceased physi- 
cian to the Tower. The contending parties were so 
equally matched in their interests and pretensions that 
it was extremely difficult to determine which should 
have the preference. The matter was at length brought 
to a compromise, and Gideon Harvey was promoted to 
that office for the same reason that Sextus Y was ad- 
vanced to the pontificate, because he was in appearance 
sickly and infirm, and his death was expected in a few 
months. He, however, survived not only his rivals, but 
all his contemporary physicians, and died after he had 
enjoyed his sinecure above fifty years."* . 

* Gideon Harvey, the physician to the Tower, is not to be con- 
founded, as has hitherto been done, and was so by me in the former 
edition, with another person of his name, probably his father, 
Gideon Harvey, M.D., the author of the " Conclave of Physicians," 
and many other small books of questionable character, who was not 
of our London College. This Gideon Harvey, M.D., senior, was born 
about 1637, and educated in the Low Countries, where he acquired 
a good knowledge of Latin and Greek. He was admitted at Exeter 
college, Oxford, but left that university without; aking a degree. 
Going thence to Leyden, where I meet with him in January, 1657, 
he studied under Vander Linden, Vanhorne, and Vorstius, all 
teachers of acknowledged excellence. He was taught chemistry by 
a German then residing at Leyden, and there also he learned the 
practical part of surgery and the business of an apothecary. After 
this he visited France, and on his return to Holland was appointed 
physician in ordinary to king Charles II, then in exile. On the 
title page of one of his books, " A New Discourse of the Small Pox 
and Malignant Fevers," 16mo., Lond., 1685, he styles himself, "in 
the time of the Rebellion, Fellow of the College of Physicians at 
the Hague." Harvey subsequently returned to England, and was 
shortly sent to Flanders, as physician to the English army there ; 
but getting tired of his appointment he resigned his commission, 
travelled through Germany into Italy, spent some time at Padua, 
Bologna, and Rome, and then returned through Switzerland and 
Holland to England. He had probably taken a doctor's degree at 
Leyden, ere leaving that university. The date of his death thus far 
escapes me. His books, which were numerous, attained a certain 
notoriety in their day, but were never esteemed by the profession. 
He seems, says one account of him, to have been " an hypothetical 
prater throughout, and to have differed just as much from his great 
namesake, the discoverer of the circulation, as a quack differs from 



12 BOLL OF THE [1703 

SIR DAVID HAMILTON, M.D., was a native of Scot- 
land. On the 30th October, 1683, being then twenty 
years of age, he entered on the physic line at Leyden. 
He graduated doctor of medicine in the university 
of Paris (D.M.L de Passione Hysterica, 4to. 1686), 
and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 9th April., 1688. On the 25th June, 1703, 
being then physician in ordinary to the queen, he was 
admitted a Fellow of the College. He was admitted a 
fellow of the Eoyal Society 5th May, 1708. Sir David 
Hamilton was the leading practitioner of midwifery in 
the metropolis, and is said to have amassed in the ex- 
ercise of his profession a fortune of 80,000^., all of 
which was lost in one year, 1720, in the South Sea 

a true physician." The following list includes the chief of his publi- 
cations : 

Archeologia Philosophica Nova, or New Principles of Philosophy. 
4to. Lond. 1668. 

A Discourse of the Plague. 4to. Lond. 1665. 

Morbus Anglicus, or the Anatomy of Consumptions. 12mo. 
Lond. 1666. 

Little Venus Unmasked, or a perfect discovery of the French 
Pox. 12mo. Lond. 1671. 

Great Venus Unmasked, or a more exact discovery of the Vene- 
real Disease. 8vo. Lond. 1672. 

De Febribus Tractatus theoreticus, et practicus prsecipue, quo 
Praxin curandarum Febrium continuarum modernam esse lethiferam 
et barbaram abunde patent. 8vo. Lond. 1672. 

The Disease of London, or a New Discovery of the Scurvy. 8vo. 
Lond. 1674. 

The Conclave of Physicians, in two Parts, detecting their In- 
trigues, Frauds, and Plots against their Patients, &c. 12mo. Lond. 
1683. 

The Family Physician and the House Apothecary. 18mo. Lond. 
1676. 

A Memorable Case of a Nobleman ; moreover the Art of Curing 
the most dangerous of Wounds by the first Intention. 8vo. Lond. 
1685. 

The Art of Curing Diseases by Expectation. 12mo. Lond. 1689. 

The Vanities of Philosophy and Physic. 3rd edit. 8vo. Lond. 
1702. 

A Treatise of the Small Pox and Measles. 12mo. Lond. 1696. 

His portrait, probably at Exeter college, Oxford, was engraved 
by Pierre Phillippe. 



1703] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 13 

scheme.""" " He was," says Daniel Turner, " better 
qualified for the chirurgical operation of delivery than 
the medical province of prescription."! He lived in 
Bow-lane, and died 28th August, 1721, being then 
physician to the princess of Wales. 
He was the author of 

Tractatus duplex ; prior de Praxeos Regulis ; alter de Febre 
Miliari. 8vo. Lond. 1710; 

and of some pamphlets of a religious tendency. In 
"The Private Christian's Witness to the Truth of 
Christianity," he represents it as the matter of his 
frequent experience, that future events were pointed 
out to him in the course of his praying, in such a man- 
ner that he could judge as to the success he should 
have in his undertakings. 

ROGER KENYON, A.B., was the son of Edward Ken- 
yon, rector of Prestwich, in Lancashire. He was edu- 
cated at Stockport school, was admitted a pensioner of 
St. John's college, Cambridge, 10th April, 1682, com- 
menced A.B. 1685, and was elected a fellow of his col- 
lege. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 22nd December, 1703. He was a non-juror 
and died at St. Germains. He was instrumental in 
the publication of Charles Leslie's works in 2 vols. 
folio, 1721. 

ROBERT NASMYTH was admitted an Extra-Licenti- 
ate of the College of Physicians llth February, 1703-4. 
He practised at Great Yarmouth. 

* Houston's Memoirs of his own Lifetime. 8vo. Lond. 1653 
p. 82. 

f "Vitse integritate spectabilis, literis doctus, et in arte suaperitus 
extitit David Hamilton, Medicus Annas reginae. Vir quam maxime 
benignus, pauperes eegrotos ssepe visitavit, et non solum remedia 
praescripsit, sed quidquid, arte sua, die Dominica acquisivit iis libe- 
raliter largitus est ; facinus eo magis laude dignum, quod non 
gloriose sed quam privatim, actum sit." Oratio Harveiana habita 
18 Octobris, 1775, Auctore Donaldo Monro, M.D. 



14 ROLL OF THE [170G 

EDMUND FROST, a practitioner at Hunston, in Suf- 
folk, was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 
26th April, 1704. 

THOMAS HODGSON was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 16th March, 1704-5. He 
practised at Lancaster. 

JOHN SHEPPARD was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
16th April, 1705. He practised at Framlingham, in 
Suffolk. 

THOMAS WHALLEY was admitted an Extra-Licenti- 
ate of the College of Physicians 20th June, 1705. He 
was then practising with much repute at Lewes. 

TOBIAS WHARTON, of Stockton, in the county of 
Durham, was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 10th 
August, 1705. 

BENJAMIN WALLER, of Newport Pagnell, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 12th December, 1705. 

JOHN TURNER, of Enfield, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College 25th March, 1706. 

EDWARD BODENHAM, of Benenden, Kent, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate 14th June, 1706. 

JAMES BAYLES was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College 24th June, 1706. He practised at Bidefoid, 
North Devon. 

JOHN ADDENBROOKE, M.D. A native of Stafford- 
shire, was educated at Catherine hall, Cambridge, of 
which house he was a fellow. He proceeded A.B. 1701 ; 
A.M. 1705 ; and on the 3rd September, 1706, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians, 



1706] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 15 

being represented as then of West Bromwicb, in his 
native county. He graduated M.D. at Cambridge in 
1712, and would seem to have practised his faculty for 
some years at Cambridge ; but of his professional career 
little is known. He died on the 7th June, 1719, aged 
thirty-nine ; and by his will bequeathed about four 
thousand pounds " to erect and maintain a small physi- 
cal hospital" at Cambridge, now known as Adden- 
brooke's hospital. The sum left by Dr. Addenbrooke 
being found insufficient for its support, an Act of Par- 
liament was obtained in the year 1766, for making it a 
general hospital ; and in October of the same year it 
was opened for the reception of patients, since which it 
has been chiefly supported by voluntary contributions. 
It was, however, further endowed in 1813 by Mr. John 
Bowtell, a bookseller and stationer in Cambridge, who 
bequeathed to the institution 7,OOOZ. Three per cent, 
consolidated bank annuities, a portion of which was 
appropriated to the addition of two wings. Dr. Adden- 
brooke is commemorated by the following inscription in 
the chapel of Catherine hall : 

M. S. 

JOHANNIS ADDENBROOKE, M.D. 
de Swinford Regis in Comitatu Staffordise, 

hujus Collegii olim Socii. 
Obiit 7 mo die Junii An Dom: 1719. JSt: 39. 

JAMES DRAKE, M.D., was born at Cambridge, in 
1667. He was educated at Caius college, and as a 
member of that house proceeded M.B. 1690, M.D. 1694. 
Settling in London, he was patronised by Sir Thomas 
Millington, and some other eminent physicians, and in 
1701 was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1698 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1706. 
Dr. Drake was a man of warm feelings, and, preferring 
politics to physic, became a violent party writer. He 
was concerned in 169 7 in the publication of a pamphlet, 
entitled " Commendatory Verses upon the Author of 
prince Arthur and king Arthur ;" and in 1 702 he pub- 



1C KOLL OP THE [l70G 

lished " The History of the last Parliament begun at 
Westminster Feb. 10, in the 12th year of king William, 
A.D. 1700." The House of Lords, thinking that this 
work reflected too severely on the memory of the king, 
summoned the author before them in May, 1702, and 
ordered him to be prosecuted by the attorney-general. 
He was brought to trial, but acquitted. In 1704 Dr. 
Drake, in concert with Mr. Poley, the member for 
Ipswich, wrote " The Memorial of the Church of Eng- 
land, humbly offered to the consideration of all true 
lovers of the Church and Constitution." This pamphlet 
was anonymous, and every precaution was taken by 
the authors to elude discovery. The treasurer Godol- 
phin, and the other great officers of the Crown, therein 
severely reflected on, were so incensed at the publica- 
tion that they represented it to the queen, as an insult 
on her honour, and as conveying an intimation that the 
Church was in danger under her administration. In the 
speech from the throne, 27th October, 1705, her Majesty 
alluded to " The Memorial," and was addressed by both 
Houses of Parliament upon that occasion. Soon after- 
wards the queen, on the petition of the House of Com- 
mons, issued a proclamation for discovering the author 
of the pamphlet. Drake was generally suspected, but 
proof could not be obtained against him ; and even the 
masked female who conveyed the MS. to the printer 
could never be discovered. Parliament, however, was 
not the only body that resented the publication ; for 
the grand jury of the city of London having presented it 
at the sessions, as " a false, scandalous, and traitorous 
libel," it was forthwith burnt in the sight of the Court 
then sitting, and afterwards before the Royal Exchange 
by the common hangman. In April, 1706, Dr. Drake 
was prosecuted for the publication of " Mercurius Poli- 
ticus," a newspaper which reflected seriously upon the 
conduct of Government. The case was argued in the 
court of Queen's Bench, when, upon a flaw in the infor- 
mation, the trial was adjourned ; and in November fol- 
lowing the doctor was acquitted ; but the Government 



1706] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 17 

brought a writ of error. The severity of this prosecu- 
tion, joined to repeated disappointments, and, it is said, 
ill-usage from some of his political party, produced a 
fever, and that fever death, on the 2nd March, 1706-7.* 
" Dr. Drake was a man of quick, pregnant parts, well 
stored with learning, and improved by good conversa- 
tion. He had a great mastery of the English tongue, 
and wrote with ease and fluency, in a manly style. 
Though various judgments were passed upon his politi- 
cal writings, according to people's different humours, 
passions, and interests, yet all agreed in commending 
his way of writing."! 

Dr. Drake is remembered in the profession by his 
" Anthropologia Nova ; or a New System of Anatomy, 
describing the Animal Economy, and a Short Rationale 
of many Distempers incident to Human Bodies," 2 vols. 
8vo. ; a work once highly and deservedly popular, which 
was finished a short time only before the author's decease, 
and was published in 1707, with a commendatory pre- 
face by Dr. Wagstafie, reader of anatomy at Surgeons' 
hall, and physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital. It 
came to a second edition in 1717, and to a third in 
1727, and continued to maintain its popularity until 
displaced by the " Anatomy," of Cheselden. Dr. 
Drake added notes to the English translation of " Le 
Clerc's History of Medicine ;" and in the " Philosophical 
Transactions" there is a clever paper from his pen, " On 
an Influence of Respiration on the Motion of the Heart, 
hitherto unobserved." He was also the author of a 
comedy, " The Sham Lawyer, or the Lucky Extrava- 
gant," chiefly borrowed from two of Fletcher's plays, 
which was produced at the Theatre Royal. In 1703 he 
sent to the press "Historia Anglo-Scotica ; or, an Impar- 
tial History of all that happened between the Kings 

* "The second day of this month (March, 1706-7) Dr. James 
Drake, Fellow of this College, died of a fever : a gentleman of very 
pregnant parts and good learning, as appears by the writings he has 
left behind him, and deserved a much better treatment from the 
great world than he met with in it." Annals, vol. vii, p 244. 

f Biographia Britannica. 
VOL. II. C 



18 ROLL OF THE [1707 

and Kingdoms of England and Scotland, from the be- 
ginning of the reign of William the Conqueror to the 
reign of queen Elizabeth." This was publicly burnt at 
Edinburgh, as his " Memorial " had been in London. 
The " Memorial" was reprinted in 1711, with an intro- 
ductory preface containing the life of the author, a 
memoir which has formed the basis of all subsequent 
sketches of this unfortunate man. His portrait by 
Thomas Foster was engraved by M. Van Gucht. 

JAMES KEITH, M.D. A doctor of medicine of Aber- 
deen, of 15th July, 1704 ; was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 30th September, 1706. He 
died 1st November, 1726. 

JOHN WATTS, of Aylesbury, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 5th December, 
1706. 

RALPH GILBERT, LL.D., was educated at Trinity 
hah 1 , Cambridge, of which society he beca.me a fellow. 
He proceeded LL.B. 1698 ; LL.D. 1705 ; and was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 17th 
April, 1707. 

EDWARD TARRY, of South Minims, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate 28th April, 1707. 

CHARLES THIRLBY, of Bristol, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th June, 
1707. 

THOMAS BROWNE, M.D., was the only son of Dr. 
Edward Browne, a distinguished fellow, and for seven 
years President of our College, by his wife, a daughter 
of Christopher Terne, M.D. He was bora in London, 
and baptized at St. Andrew's Undershaft, 21st January, 
1672-3, but spent most of his childhood at Norwich 
with his grandfather, the distinguished author of the 



1707] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 19 

" Religio Medici," and in that city would seem to have 
received his rudimentary education. At a suitable age 
he was sent to Cambridge, and entered at Trinity col- 
lege, as a member of which he proceeded M.B. 1695, 
M.D. 1700. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1704, and a Fellow 
30th September, 1707. On the death of his father, in 
1708, Dr. Thomas Browne came into possession of a 
good house and estate at Northfleet, Kent, and retiring 
thither, gave way, if we may credit Le Neve's state- 
ment, to habits of gross intemperance. He was killed 
in 1710, by a fall from his horse, while riding in a state 
of intoxication from Gravesend to Southfleet. His re- 
mains were interred in the church of Northfleet, and at 
the foot of his father's monument is the following short 
memento : 

Hie etiam situs est THOMAS BROWNE, M.D., ejusdem Edwardi 
Browne filius unicus. Ex hac vita migravit Anno ^Etatis 36 An- 
noque Domini 1710. 

In 1698 he had married his cousin Alethea, fourth 
and youngest daughter of his uncle Henry Fairfax, esq., 
but she died in 1704, leaving no children, and was 
buried at Hurst, in Berkshire. Among the Sloan e 
MSS. (No. 1,900) is an account in Dr. Thomas 
Browne's handwriting of a tour he took, in company 
with Dr. Robert Plot, " for the discovery of antiqui- 
ties and curiosities in England." This was published 
for the first time in Mr. Wilkin's excellent edition of 
the works of Sir Thomas Browne. 

SAMUEL ESTEVE, M.D. A French Protestant refu- 

fee, and a doctor of medicine of Montpelier, of 22nd 
uly, 1673, was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1707. His marriage with 
Marie Jacquin, in 1694, is recorded in the register of 
the French chapel, Hungerford market. * In his will 

* Burns' History of the French, Walloon, and other foreign Pro- 
testant refugees, p. 148. 

c 2 



20 ROLL OF THE [1708 

he gives the reversion of fifty pounds per annum to the 
congregation of French Protestants then assembling in 
the parish of St. Martin Orgars, in the city. 

KICHARD MORTON, M.D., was the only son of Dr. 
Eichard Morton, a Fellow of the College before men- 
tioned. He was created doctor of medicine at Cam- 
bridge, as a member of Catherine hall, in 1695 ; was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 22nd 
December, 1696 : and a Fellow 22nd December, 1707. 
Dr. Morton was appointed physician to Greenwich hos- 
pital, in April, 1716, and died there 1st February, 1729- 
30. He has some verses prefixed to his father's Pyre- 
tologia. 

FRANCIS BELLINGER. An undergraduate of Brase- 
nose college, Oxford, was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 29th March, 1708. He practised 
for a time at Stamford, but eventually removed to Lon- 
don, and died in September, 1721. He was the author 
of a work entitled 

A Discourse concerning the Nutrition of the Foetus in the Womb. 
8vo. Lond. 1717. 

A Treatise concerning the Small Pox. 8vo. Lond. 1721. 

LAWRENCE BANYER was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College 26th May, 1708. He practised at 
Wisbeach. Two of this name were buried at Wis- 
beach; which was the Extra- Licentiate I have no means 
of determining. The following certified copy, from the 
" Register Books of Wisbeach, St. Peter and St. Paul," 
is before me : 

Burials. 1720. June 7th. Lawrence Banyer, Gent. 
1728. Jan. 26. Lawrence Banyer, Grent. 

FRANCIS LEE, A.M. A native of Surrey, born 2nd 
March, 1661, was educated at Merchant Taylor's school, 
whence he was elected in 1679 probationary fellow of 
St. John's college, Oxford, as a member of which he 



1708] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 21 

proceeded A.B. 9th May, 1683 ; A.M. 19th March, 
1686. In 1691 he was deprived of his fellowship, for 
being a non-juror, and diverting to medicine, proceeded 
to Leyden, and on the llth May, 1692, being then thirty 
years of age, was inscribed on the physic line there. He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1708. He died at Gravelines 23rd August, 
1719. 

JOHN LACY, of Berkhampstead, co. Herts, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 22nd July, 1708. 

JAMES LADDS, M.D., was educated at Caius college, 
Cambridge. On the 27th May, 1689, he was entered 
on the physic line at Leyden. Returning to Cambridge, 
he proceeded M.B. 1690 ; M.D. 3rd July, 1695. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
22nd December, 1707, and a Fellow 23rd December, 
1708. He was Censor in 1715, 1722, and dying 3rd 
January, 1724-5, was buried on the 12th at St. 
Andrew's, Holborn. 

WILLIAM GRIMBALSTON, M.D., was educated at Je- 
sus college, Cambridge, as a member of which he pro- 
ceeded master of arts in 1688 ; and on the 1st of Octo- 
ber in that year was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians. The College having been ordered 
by the queen to name a physician to attend the fleet 
and soldiers designed for the West Indies, recommended 
Dr. Grimbalston, who had expressed his willingness to 
undertake that office. He was appointed to it. Pro- 
ceeding doctor of medicine at Cambridge in 1696, he 
was admitted a Candidate of the College 22nd De- 
cember, 1707, and a Fellow 23rd December, 1708. Dr. 
Grimbalston married Mary, a daughter of Philip Chet- 
wode, of Oakley hall, co. Stafford, esq., by his wife, 
Hester, daughter and heiress of William Touchet, of 
Whitley, in the county of Chester, esq. Dr. Grimbal- 
ston died 29th September, 1725. 



22 KOLL OF THE [1708 

HENRY LEVETT, M.D., was the son of William Levett, 
of Swindon, co. Wilts, esq., and was educated at the 
Charterhouse. On the 12th June, 1686, being then 
eighteen years old, he was matriculated at Magdalen 
hall, Oxford, and in July of the same year was elected 
demy of Magdalen college ; but being elected to a fellow- 
ship at Exeter college, he removed thither, and as a 
member of that house proceeded A.B. 24th November, 
1 692 ; A.M. 7th July, 1694 ; M.B. 4th June, 1695 ; and 
M.D. 22nd April, 1699. He was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 1707 ; and 
a Fellow 23rd December, 1708 ; was Censor in 1717 ; 
Treasurer, 1718, 1719, 1720, and again for 1723 and 
1724. He was physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital, 
and to the Charterhouse ; to the first he was elected 
29th April, 1707, to the second in 1713. Dr. Levett 
restored, or more properly rebuilt the physician's house 
at the Charterhouse, and left to his successors in that 
office the commodious residence in Charterhouse-square, 
on the left of the archway leading into the Charterhouse. 
He died at this his residence, in July, 1725. He was 
buried in the chancel of the Charterhouse chapel, where 
there is a monument with the following inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Apud suos Carthusianos, 

quos ita semper unice dilexit et coluit, 

ut, quorum intra parietes enutritus est, 

in iisdem vivere voluerit et mori 

HENRICUS LEVETT, M.D. 

qui, 

Oxonise 

e Collegio S. Magdalenae 
in Socium cooptatus Exoniensem : 

Lcradini 
Nbscomio S. Bartholomaei preepositus, 

et in Regali Medicorum Societate 

non una vice et Censor et Thesaurarius : 

ad bujusce insuper Hospitii curam accersitus, 

-iiEdes sibi pro suo munere destinatas 

sumptu baud modico instauravit, 

easque egregium successoribus suis donum 

et sibi ipsi monumentum reliquit. 

Diversis hujusce vitas officiis 



1708] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 23 

quocunque ea in loco obtigerant 

feliciter functus, 
omnium commodis inserviit, 

et omnibus gratiam 
et sine invidia laudem consectus est : 

erat enim ingenio 

simplici, aperto, perhumano, 

antiquis moribus et fide, 

neque illo quisquam 

aut amici aut viri probi, 

aut medici denique scientis et assidui 

partes cumulatius explevit. 

Ob. Julii A.C. 1725. Mi. 58. 

THOMAS CROW, M.D., was of Caius college, Cam- 
bridge, as a member of which he proceeded bachelor 
of medicine 1694; doctor of medicine 1699. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
22nd December, 1707, and a Fellow 23rd December, 
1708. He was Censor in 1713 and 1720. Dr. Crow 
in 1720, being then senior censor, gave to the college 
the clock now in the reading-room, then valued at 

O * 

30Z. He took a very active part in the preparation of 
the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis of 1746 ; and at his 
own cost furnished every member of the College with 
a printed copy, first of the original draft of the work ; 
and subsequently of it as finally agreed on by the 
committee for presentation to the College. Dying llth 
August, 1751, aged eighty, he bequeathed to St. Luke's 
hospital (of which he was vice-president) 400/. ; to St. 
Thomas's and Christ's hospitals 100?. each ; and to the 
College of Physicians 50/. and his library of Greek and 
Latin books, a very choice collection.' 3 ' 5 ' 

* The following are clauses from his will : " 1 give to the Col- 
lege of Physicians 50Z. in consideration of some loss sustained by 
them by a tenant of my recommending." " I, Thomas Crow, do 
make this codicil to my last will and testament. I give to the Pre- 
sident and College of Physicians in London and their successors for 
an addition to their library such of my printed books only as have 
no English in them and as they have not already in their library ; 
and if they like any copies of the printed books in my library better 
than the printed books of the like kind now in the college library, 
or if mine be better copies, though they have them already (I mean 



24 ROLL OF THE [1708 

HENRY PLUMPTRE, M.D., was born in Nottingham- 
shire and educated at Queen's college, Cambridge, of 
which house he was admitted a pensioner 19th Janu- 
ary, 1697-8. He graduated A.B. 1701-2, and on the 
15th February, 1702-3 was admitted a fellow of his col- 
lege, an office he vacated by not taking orders 4th July, 
1707. He proceeded A.M. 1705 and M.D. per literas 
Regias in 1706. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd December, 1707, and a Fel- 
low 23rd December, 1708. He delivered the Gulstonian 
lectures in 1711 ; the Harveian oration in 1722 ; and on 
the 19th March, 1732-3, was appointed to succeed Dr. 
Walter Harris as Lumleian lecturer. Dr. Plumptre 
was Censor in 1717, 1722, 1723, 1736 ; Registrar from 
1718 to 1722 inclusive; Treasurer 13th July, 1725, in 
place of Dr. Levett, deceased; and Consiliarius 1735, 
1738, 1739. On the 5th August, 1720, he "presented 
to the college a writing standish of plate of 80 ounces/' 
He was named an Elect 5th May, 1727; and occu- 
pied the Presidential chair for six consecutive years, 
viz., from 1740 to 1745 inclusive. During the whole 
of the period that Dr. Plumptre was president the fifth 
Pharmacopoeia Londinensis was in course of revision 
and re-construction. To its improvement he devoted 
his best exertions and energy, and to him it would 
seem was mainly due the simplification in the formulae 
that distinguished the work from all its predecessors. 
The Pharmacopoeia was published in the summer of 
1746. Dr. Plumptre died 26th November, 1746.* The 

such, as have no English), I give unto the College, to be chosen by 
Dr. Letherland, Dr. Hall, and Dr. Reeve, or any of them, within 
three months after my decease and after they have chosen for the 
College, as I doubt not they will do very fairly, I give all the 
remainder of my printed books as have no English in them I 
give them to my good friend, Mr. Paul of Cannon-street, London, 
surgeon." 

* " Meministis ipsi quam varia ille abundaret doctrina ; quo in- 
genio floreret ; quam splendide amplissimum apud vos magistratum 
gereret; ut omni studio, gratia, auctoritate incumberet ad hanc 
tuendam Remp. Nee minori sane cura et diligentia medicinae ipsius 
cultui et castitati prospexit ; qui Pharmacopoeias nostrae corrigendae 



17081 ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 25 



_i 



portrait of this physician, possessed by the College, was 
presented by himself 1st October, 1744. The doctor 
was physician to St. Thomas's hospital, an office he 
resigned in 1736. Dr. Plumptre was the author of a 
pamphlet entitled " A Serious Conference between 
Scaramouch and Harlequin," having reference to the 
controversy then raging between Dr. Woodward and 
Dr. Friend.* 

JOHN TURNER had previously practised as an apothe- 
cary, but, having been disfranchised of his Company, 
he was, after the usual examinations, admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 
1708. He was the author of a small work 

De Febre Britannica Anni 1712 Schediasma. 4to. Lond. 1713. ] 

STEPHEN HALL was a son of Mr. Henry Hall, a 
citizen and merchant taylor of London, who died 31st 
March, 1730. He had practised for some years as a 
surgeon in London, but, having relinquished that 
branch of the profession, was on the 1st February, 
1708-9, admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians. He was subsequently appointed phy- 
sician to Greenwich hospital, and died 29th October, 
1731, aged fifty-six. He was buried in the family 
vault at West Ham, and is commemorated with his 

tarn sedulo invigilaverit, inconditasque medicamentorum farragines 
et inexplicabiles mixturas tarn prudent! delectu, tarn elegant! sim- 
plicitate, temperaverit. Idem pariter in vita constans veritatis non 
fucate cultor, et inimicus fraudis ; in circulis, in congressionibus 
familiariiim festivus, dulcis, urbanus, non, nisi apud segros, se pro- 
fessus medicum. Neque enim oportere visuin est supercilium, et 
rugas, et senectutem induere ; nee dissociabiles esse res judicavit 
jucunditatem et sapientiam. Felicem ilium ingenii, qui seria sua 
quasi aliud agens et ludibundus expedire potuit ; et ne ludebat 
quidem, ut non in eo simul nescio quid egregii et excellentis elnces- 
ceret ! " Oratio Harveiana anno MDCCLXI habita, auctore Georgio 
Baker. 

* Rouse's Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Dr. Friend. 8vo. 
Lond. 1731, p. 84. 



26 ROLL OF THE [1709 

father and other members of his family on a handsome 
altar tomb there. 

ABB AH AM CAESLAKE, M.B., was of Exeter college, 
Oxford, as a member of which he proceeded A.B. 14th 
October, 1701 ; A.M. 16th June, 1704; M.B. 9th De- 
cember, 1708. He appeared at the College 10th March, 
1708-9, and "was examined particularly for the sea 
service, being recommended for that purpose by the 
right honourable the earl of Pembroke, lord high 
admiral of England, and was well approved of by 
the President and Elects, and the following certificate 
was given him by them : 

We, the President and three of the Elects of the College of Phy- 
sicians, London, have, according to Act of Parliament and in obedi- 
ence to his Excellency the Lord High Admiral of England, ex- 
amined Mr. Abraham Carslake, bachelor of physick, in the univer- 
sity of Oxford, and do approve of him as duly qualified to serve 
Her Majesty as a Physician in Her Majesty's fleet. 

Witness our hands Mar. 10, 1708." 

GEORGE LAMB was educated at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, but left the university without taking a 
degree. He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 29th October, 1709, and was 
then residing at Wallingford, co. Berks. 

JOHN RICHARDSON was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 29th October, 1709. 
He practised at Am wick, his native place, and was 
living in 1748. 

NATHANIEL SALMON, LL.B., was the son of the Rev. 
Thomas Salmon, rector of Mepsall, in Bedfordshire, by 
his wife, a daughter of the notorious Serjeant Brad- 
shaw. He was admitted at Benet college, Cambridge, 
llth June, 1690, and took the degree of bachelor of 
laws in 1695. Shortly after this he took orders in the 
church of England, and was for some time curate of 
Westmill, co. Herts. Though he had taken the oaths 



1710] KOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 27 

to king William III. he refused to do so to queen 
Anne, and when he could no longer officiate as a 
clergyman he applied himself to the study of physic, 
which he practised first at St. Ives, in Huntingdon- 
shire, and afterwards at Bishop's Stortford. He was 
settled at the last-named town 3rd February, 1709-10, 
when he was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians. He died 2nd April, 1742. He 
was a voluminous writer, as the following list of his 
works testifies : 

A Survey of the Roman Antiquities in the Midland Counties of 
England. 8vo. 1726. 

A Survey of the Roman Stations in Britain, according to the 
Roman Itinerary. 8vo. 1728. 

The History of Hertfordshire, describing the county and its 
ancient monuments, particularly the Roman, with the characters 
of those who have been the chief possessors of the lands, and an 
account of the most memorable occurrences. Folio. 1728. 

The Lives of the English Bishops from the Restoration to the 
Revolution. 8vo. 1733. 

The Antiquities of Surrey, collected from the most ancient 
records, with some account of the present state and natural 
history of the county. 8vo. 1736. 

The History and Antiquities of Essex, from the collections of Mr. 
Strangeman, with notes and illustrations. Folio. 1739. 

JOHN ARBUTHNOT, M.D., was descended from the 
noble family of his name and was the son of a clergy- 
man of the episcopal church of Scotland. He was 
born at Arbuthnot, near Montrose, and was educated 
at the university of Aberdeen, where he took the de- X 
gree of doctor of medicine. The Revolution deprived 
the father of his church preferment ; and though he 
was possessed of a small paternal estate, yet necessity 
compelled the son to seek his fortune abroad. Dr. 
Arbuthnot therefore quitted Scotland, and went to re- 
side at Doncaster, where, however, he met with so 
little success that he speedily left, and coming to Lon- 
don found an abode in the house of Mr. William Pate, 
a "learned" woollen draper. He commenced his career 
in town by teaching mathematics, but the appearance 



28 EOLL OF THE [1710 

in 1695 of Dr. Woodward's "Essay towards a Natu- 
ral History of the Earth/' containing as Arbuthnot 
thought, an account of the deluge wholly inconsistent 
with truth, induced him to publish a reply. This 
work not only excited much curiosity, but had the 
further, and, as regarded his interests, the more import- 
ant effect of attracting attention towards himself, and of 
giving him no small degree of literary fame. This soon 
afterwards received a considerable and deserved increase 
by his "Essay on the Usefulness of Mathematical Learn- 
ing." 8vo. 1700. About this time Arbuthnot commenced 
practice in the metropolis, and as his contemporaries 
testify, with every qualification to ensure success. His 
extensive learning and facetious and agreeable conver- 
sation, introduced him by degrees to practice, and he 
soon became eminent in the profession. Being acci- 
dentally at Epsom when prince George of Denmark was 
suddenly taken ill, he w r as called to his assistance. The 
doctor's advice was successful, and the prince recovering 
employed him ever afterwards as his physician. In 1 709, 
upon the indisposition of Dr. Hannes, Arbuthnot was 
appointed physician in ordinary to queen Anne, and 
soon obtained her Majesty's high favour. Swift calls 
him " the Queen's favourite physician," and " the 
Queen's favourite." As her Majesty's physician, Arbuth- 
not was instrumental in recovering the queen from a 
dangerous illness, and to this incident Gay, in the pro- 
logue to the " Shepherd's Week," thus alludes : 

A skilful leech (so God him speed) 
They say had wrought this blessed deed. 
This leech Arbuthnot was yclept, 
Who many a night not once had slept ; 
But watch'd our gracious Sovereign still : 
.For who could rest while she was ill ? 
Oh ! may'st thou henceforth sweetly sleep, 
Sheer swains ! oh sheer your softest sheep 
To swell his couch ; for well I ween, 
He saved the realm, who saved the Queen. 
Quoth I, please God, I'll high with glee 
To Court, this Arbuthnot to see. 

Arbuthnot was created doctor of medicine at Cam- 



1710] ROYAJ, COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 29 

bridge 16th April, 1705. On the 12th December, 1707, 
he was elected an honorary fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians of Edinburgh, and as physician in ordinary to 
the queen, was admitted a Fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians of London, 27th April, 1710. He was 
Censor in 1723 ; delivered the Harveian Oration in 1727 ; 
and was named an Elect in place of Dr. Slare, deceased, 
5th October, 1727. On the 12th November, 1713, he 
was appointed by the queen physician to Chelsea hos- 
pital. 

Dr. Arbuthnot's gentle manners, extensive learning, 
and excellent talents introduced him to the intimate 
acquaintance and warm friendship of the most cele- 
brated literary characters of his time to Pope, Swift, 
Gay, and Parnell, whom he met as a member of the 
Scriblerus club. It was not long before Arbuthnot 
added a new lustre to that constellation of wits by 
the brightness of his own. With Pope and Swift his 
relations were of the most intimate kind. Arbuthnot 
possessed all the wit of the dean without his virulence 
and indelicacy; and a considerable portion of the 
genius of Pope, without his querulous discontent. In 
1714 he engaged with them in a design to write a 
satire on the abuses of human learning in every branch, 
which was to have been executed in the manner of 
Cervantes, under the history of feigned adventures. 
They had observed that these abuses still kept their 
ground against all that the gravest and ablest authors 
could say to discredit them. They concluded, therefore, 
that the force of ridicule was wanting to quicken their 
disgrace, which was here in its place, when the abuses 
had already been detected by sober reasoning, and truth 
was in no danger of suffering by the premature use of 
so powerful an instrument. But a stop was put to this 
project by the queen's death, when they had only drawn 
out an imperfect essay towards it, under the title of 
" The First Book of the Memoirs of Martinus Scrible- 
rus." Dr. Warburton tells us that "Gulliver's Travels," 
" The Treatise of the Profound," the " Literary Criti- 



30 ROLL OF THE [1710 

cism on Virgil," and the " Memoirs of a Parish Clerk," 
are only so many detached parts and fragments of this 
work. The same writer does not hesitate to declare 
that polite letters never lost more than by the defeat 
of this scheme, in which each of this illustrious trium- 
virate would have found exercise for his own peculiar 
talent, beside constant employment for that which they 
all had in common. Arbuthnot was skilled in everything 
that related to science; Pope was master of the fine 
arts ; and Swift excelled in knowledge of the world : 
wit they had all in equal measure, and so abundant a 
degree, that no age, perhaps, ever produced three men 
on whom nature had more bountifully bestowed it, or 
in whom art had brought it to higher perfection. The 
queen's death, and the disasters which fell upon his 
friends on that occasion, deeply affected Arbuthnot's 
spirits, and to divert his melancholy he paid a visit to 
his brother at Paris. His stay there however, was but 
short; he returned to London, and having on the death 
of the queen lost his apartments in St. James's palace, 
took a house in Dover-street. He continued to prac- 
tise his profession with good reputation, and diverted 
his leisure hours in writing papers of wit and humour. 
In 1732 he contributed towards detecting and punish- 
ing the frauds and abuses which had been carried on 
under the name of the " Charitable Corporation." 

In 1734, having then for some years suffered severely 
from asthma, Arbuthnot retired to Hampstead, in hopes 
of finding some relief from his symptoms, but he died 
at his house in Cork-street, 27th February, 1735, an I 
was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly. He left one son 
and one daughter ; the former, George, was one of the 
executors to Pope's will, and held the place of first 
secretary in the Remembrance oflBce. A fine portrait 
of Dr. Arbuthnot, presumed to be by Jervas, formerly 
in the possession of Dr. Turton, bishop of Ely, was pur- 
chased for the College at the sale of the bishop's effects, 
in 1864, and is on the staircase. An engraving of 
Arbuthnot, now exceedingly scarce, is mentioned by 



1710] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 31 

Mr. Wadd as being in the collection of Sir William 
Musgrave, bart. 

Few men have been more esteemed during life than 
Arbuthnot, none have left behind them a higher cha- 
racter for learning, or for the most elevated social, 
moral, and religious virtues. The language of eulogy 
has been well nigh exhausted upon him, and this by 
some of the wisest and the best of men. He was, in 
Dr. Johnson's opinion, the first among the eminent 
writers in queen Anne's reign, and the great lexico- 
grapher describes him as " a man of great comprehen- 
sion : skilful in his profession, versed in the sciences, 
acquainted with ancient literature, and able to animate 
his mass of knowledge by a bright and active imagina- 
tion a scholar with great brilliance of wit a wit, who 
in the crowd of life retained and discovered a noble 
ardour of religious zeal." " Although," wrote lord 
Orrery, " he was justly celebrated for wit and learning, 
there was an excellence in his character more amiable 
than all his other qualifications, I mean the excellence 
of his heart. He has shown himself equal to any of 
his contemporaries in humour and vivacity ; and he 
was superior to most men in acts of humanity and be- 
nevolence. His very sarcasms are the satirical strokes 
of good nature ; they are like slaps in the face given in 
jest, .the effects of which may raise blushes, but no 
blackness will appear after the blow. He laughs as 
jovially as an attendant upon Bacchus, but continues as 
sober and considerate as a disciple of Socrates. He is 
seldom serious, except in his attacks on vice, and then 
his spirit rises with a manly strength and a noble in- 
dignation. No man exceeded him in the moral duties 
of life, a merit still more to his honour, as the ambi- 
tious powers of wit and genius are seldom submissive 
enough to confine themselves within the limitations of 
morality." Swift said of him "that he was a man who 
could do everything but walk ;" and Dugald Stewart 
testifies to Arbuthnot 's ability in a department of which 
he was peculiarly qualified to judge. "Let me add," 



32 ROLL OF THE [1710 

says he, " that in the list of philosophical reformers, 
the authors of ' Martinus Scriblerus ' ought not to be 
overlooked. Their happy ridicule of the scholastic 
logic and metaphysics is universally known ; but few 
are aware of the acuteness and sagacity displayed in 
their allusions to some of the most vulnerable passages 
in Locke's Essay. In this part of the work it is com- 
monly understood that Arbuthnot had the principal 
share." Lastly Thackeray characterises him as " one of 
the wisest, wittiest, most accomplished, gentlest of 
mankind." 

Dr. Arbuthnot was the author of 

On the Laws of Chance, or a Method of Calculation of the 
Hazards of Game plainly demonstrated. 8vo. Lond. 1692. 

An Examination of Dr. Woodward's Account of the Deluge, &c., 
with a comparison between Steno's philosophy and the Doctor's, 
in the case of marine bodies dug up out of the earth. 8vo. Lond. 
1695. 

Tables of Ancient Coins, Weights, and Measures. 4to. Loud. 
1727. 

An Essay on the Nature of Aliments and the Choice of them, with 
practical rules of diet in the various constitutions of the human 
body. 8vo. Lond. 1732. 

An Essay on the Effects of Air on Human Bodies. 8vo. Lond. 
His Miscellaneous Works, with an Account of his Life, appeared in 
2 vols., 12mo. Lond. 1770.* 

JOHN RAYNER, of Brotherton, co. York, was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd 
June, 1710. One John Rayner, of Brotherton, doubt- 
less our Extra-Licentiate, is said by Thoresby, the local 
historian and a family connection, to have died in Ja- 
maica, in 1712. He was of a nonconformist family, 
and the eldest son of Thomas Rayner, gent., by his 
wife Mary, daughter and co-heiress of Richard Sykes, 
of Leeds, merchant, f 

ROBERT WELSTEAD, A.M., was the son of Leonard 
Welstead, of Bristol, gent., and on the 4th December, 

* Rose's New General Biographical Dictionary, 
t Information from John Sykes, M.D., of Doncaster, October, 
1863. 



1710] EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 33 

1689, being then sixteen years of age, was matriculated 
at St. Edmund hall, Oxford. He was elected demy of 
Magdalen college, at the "golden election," in 1689, 
proceeded A.B. 25th June, 1691 ; A.M. 12th May, 1694 ; 
and was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians llth December, 1695. He was then 
practising at Bristol, where he remained for some years, 
but eventually removing to London, presented himself 
before the Censors of the College ; and having been 
re-examined, was admitted a Licentiate 30th Septem- 
ber, 1710. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society 20th March, 1718, and is said by Dr. Thomson* 
to have died 1st February, 1735. He was the author 
of- 

Tentamen de Variis Hominum N"aturis, remediisque ad singulas 
accommodandis. 8vo. Lond. 1721. 

De ^Btate Vergente Liber, ad Hugonem Reverendum admodum 
Episcopum Bristolliensem. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

De Adulta ^Etate Liber. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

De Medicina Mentis. 8vo. Lond. 1726. 

Tentamen alterum de propriis Naturae Habitibus et remediis ad 
singnlos accommodatis. 8vo. Lond. 1735. 

He also translated 

Longinus on the Sublime. 8vo. Lond. 1712. 

BAZALIOL ANGIER, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Utrecht 27th June, 1703 (D.M.I. De Apoplexia) ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1710. 

ARNOLD BOOT BEIRMAN, M.D., was a doctor of medi- 
cine of Utrecht, of 12th March, 1695. He was a native 
of West Friesland ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd December, 1710, and died 
in March, 1754, aged eighty-one. 

WILLIAM FULLWOOD, M.D. As an undergraduate 
of Catherine hall, Cambridge, he was, on the 21st Fe- 
bruary, 1710-11, admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the 

* History of the Eoyal Society. 4to. Lond. 1812, p. 34. 
VOL. II. D 



34 ROLL OF THE [1711 

College of Physicians. He proceeded M.D. at Cam- 
bridge, Comitiis Regiis, in 1717. 

JAMES AUGUSTUS BLONDELL, M.D. A Parisian by 
birth, then twenty -five years old, was entered on the 
physic line at Leyden, 28th April, 1691, and graduated 
doctor of medicine there 17th July, 1692 (D.M.I, de 
Crisibus). He was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 26th March, 1711. He died 5th Octo- 
ber, 1734, and was buried at Stepney. He was the 
author of 

The Strength of Imagination of Pregnant Women examined. 
8vo. Lond. 1727. 

The Power of the Mother's Imagination over the Foetus examined, 
in answer to Dr. D. Turner. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

And he has some verses prefixed to Morton's Pyreto- 
logia. 

CLIFTON WINTRINGHAM, was the son of the Rev. 
William Wintringham, vicar of East Retford, co. York, 
by his wife Gertrude, the daughter of Clifton Rodes, 
of Sturton, son of Sir Francis Rodes, of Barlborough, 
bart. He was baptised at East Retford, llth April, 
1689. He was for some time at Jesus college, Cam- 
bridge ; but he left the university without taking a 
degree, either in arts or medicine. He was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 3rd 
July, 1711 ; and about that time settled at York, where 
he practised with the highest reputation and success for 
more than thirty-five years. He was appointed one of 
the physicians to the York County hospital in 1746. 
Dying at York 12th March, 1748, he was buried at St. 
Michael-le-Belfrey in that city three days later. He 
had married for his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard Nettleton, of Earls Heaton, co. York, and had 
by her a son, Sir Clifton Wintringham, bart., an army 
physician and physician in ordinary to George III., to 
be mentioned subsequently. The elder Clifton Wint- 
ringham, the York physician, made his will 21st Janu- 



1711] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 35 

ary, 1746-7, and added a codicil 6th February, 1747-8. 
It was proved 24th July, 1749. The delay was pro- 
bably occasioned by his son's continuance abroad : " My 
son Clifton is at present beyond the seas, attending his 
Majesty's service. "* His published works, which are 
full of good sense and practical information, are 

Tractatus de Podagra, in quo plurimse de ultimis vasis et liquidis 
et succo nutritio propositas sunt observations. 8vo. Eboraci. 
1714. 

A Treatise of Endemic Diseases, explaining the different nature 
and properties of Airs, Situations, Soils, Water, Diet, &c. 1718. 

An Essay on Contagious Diseases, more particularly on the Small 
Pox, Measles, Putrid, Malignant, and Pestilential Fevers. 8vo. 
York. 1721. 

Observations on Dr. Freind's History of Physick. 8vo. Lond. 
1726. 

Commentarius Nosologicus, morbos epidemicos et aeris varia- 
tiones in urbe Eboracensi locisque vicinis per viginti annos gras- 
santes complectens. 8vo. Lond. 1739. 

These were collected and published, with large addi- 
tions and emendations from the original MSS. in two 
volumes, 8vo. by his son, Sir Clifton Wintringham, 
M.D., F.R.S., in 1752. 

DANIEL TURNER, M.D., was bred a surgeon, and 
practised in that capacity for several years in London ; 
but having been disfranchised from his company, he 
was, on the 22nd December, 1711, admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians an honour of which, 
if we may judge from the dedication of one of his nu- 
merous works, he was duly sensible. Not long after his 
admission as a Licentiate, he obtained the degree of 
doctor of medicine, but from what university I have 
not been able to discover. Dr. Turner had some cele- 
brity in his day; but was, as Mr. Wadd, following 
Grainger, remarks, too fond of displaying his talents 
upon paper ; the result being, that he published many 
volumes which are now forgotten. " His cases," con- 
tinues the author of the " Nugae Chirurgicse," " are not 

* Information from the Rev. C. Best Robinson, of York, and 
John Sykes, M.D., of Doncaster. 

D 2 



36 BOLL OF THE [1711 

stated in the most delicate terms ; nor was politeness 
amongst his excellencies." He has the credit of having 
invented the cerate composed of oil, wax, and calamine 
the ceratum calamince of the Pharmacopoeia, still 
popularly known as Turner's cerate. Dr. Turner died 
at his house in Devonshire-square, Bishopsgate, on the 
13th March 1740-1, aged seventy-four, and was buried 
in the church of Watton-at-Stone, co. Herts. He de- 
serves to be remembered was it only for the noble senti- 
ment conveyed in the following sentence written when 
he was seventy-two years of age : " Be not afraid, nor 
yet ashamed of your religious principles, however you 
keep those of politics to yourself. It can be no dis- 
grace for a physician, who owns himself at all times no 
more than Nature's minister, to acknowledge himself 
also the servant of Nature's Master." Dr. Turner's 
memorial at Watton is as follows : 

Nigh unto this place lye the bodyly remains of 

DANIEL TURNER, M.D., 

late of the College of Physicians of London, 

who departed this life on the 13th day of March, 1740, 

and in the 74th year of his age. 

Dr. Turner's portrait, in 1734, by J. Faber, has been 
engraved. He was the author of 

A Vindication of the Noble Art of Chirurgery. 8vo. Lond. 1695. 

A Remarkable Case in Surgery, being an account of an uncom- 
mon fracture and depression of the Skull in a Child, accompanied 
with a vast Imposthume of the Brain. 8vo. Lond. 1709. 

De Morbis Cutaneis. A treatise of diseases incident to the Skin. 
8vo. Lond. 1723. 

Syphilis. A practical dissertation on the Venereal Disease. 8vo. 
Lond. 1724. 

The Art of Surgery. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

On the Force of the Mother's Imagination on the Foetus in 
Utero. 8vo. Lond. 1726. 

A discourse concerning Gleets. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

An Answer to a Pamphlet on the Power of Imagination in Preg- 
nant Women. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

The Force of the Mother's Imagination upon the Foetus in Utero 
still further considered, by way of Reply to Dr. Blondell's book. 
8vo. Lond. 1730. 



1713] KOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 37 

De Morbo Gallico. A treatise published about 200 years past. 
Republished by D. T. 8vo. Lond. 1730. 

A Discourse concerning Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 1732. 

The Ancient Physician's Legacy impartially surveyed. 8vo. 
Lond. 1733. 

The 'Drop and Pill of Mr. Ward considered. 8vo. Lond. 1735. 

Aphrodisiacus. A summary of the ancient writers on the Vene- 
real Disease. 8vo. Lond. 1736. 

SIR JOHN SHAD WELL, M.D., was born in London, in 
1670, and was the 'son of Thomas Shadwell, poet lau- 
reate and historiographer in the time of William III. 
He was educated at All Souls' college, Oxford, and pro- 
ceeded A. B. 1st June, 1689; A.M. 26th April, 1693; 
M.B. 19th April, 1697 ; M.D. 5th June, 1701. In 1699 
he attended the earl of Manchester on his embassy ex- 
traordinary to Louis XIY, and he continued with that 
nobleman at Paris till 1701. On the 3rd December of 
that year he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society. 
He was physician in ordinary to queen Anne, and as 
such was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians 
22nd December, 1712. He held the same appointment 
to George I and George II, the former of whom con- 
ferred upon him the honour of knighthood, 12th June, 
1715. He resided in Windmill-street, and in 1735 
withdrew from practice and retired to France, where he 
remained for some time, but returned to his former re- 
sidence in 1740, and died on the 4th January, 1747. 

NATHANIEL BARTLETT, of Wareham, co. Dorset, was 
admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 9th June, 1713. 

JOHN CARTLEDGE, A.M. A master of arts of Mag- 
dalen hall, Oxford, of 2nd July, 1 700 ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1713. 
He died 29th July, 1752, aged eighty- one. 

JOHN GORMAN, M.D., an Irishman, and a doctor of 
medicine of Rheims of 16th March, 1692, was admitted 



38 BOLL OF THE [1714 

a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1713. 

JOSEPH EATON, M.D, A native of Cheshire, edu- 
cated at Pembroke hall, Cambridge, but a doctor of 
medicine of Leyden, 19th December, 1686 (D.M.I, de 
Vertigine, 4to.) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25th June, 1713. He was originally 
a nonconformist clergyman. He settled at Macclesfield 
in 1691, and was successively at Nottingham, Colches- 
ter, and London.* 

THOMAS LEWIS was born in Worcestershire, and edu- 
cated at Magdalen hall, Oxford, but left the university 
without taking a degree. He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1713, and died 
at his house in Hatton-garden on the 22nd October, 
1746. 

EDWARD COATSWORTH, M.D. A native of Durham, 
and a doctor of medicine of Utrecht of 14th July, 1703 
(D.M.I. de Variolis) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1713. 

WILLIAM BROWNING, a native of London, was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1713. 

JOHN GEORGE STEIGHERTAHL, M.D., was a native of 
Hanover, and physician in ordinary to king George I. 
whom he accompanied to this country on his accession 
to the throne of England. He was entered on the 
physic line at Leyden 12th May, 1688, being then 
twenty-one years of age, and he graduated doctor of 
medicine at Utrecht, in 1690 (D.M.I, de Medicamento- 
rum noxis, 4to.). He was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society, 18th November, 1714, and an Honorary 
Fellow of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 
1714. Dr. Steighertahl was "king's professor in the 

* Carpenter's Presbyterianism in Nottingham, pp. 123, 150. 



1716] BOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 39 

university of Helmstad." He left England in 1727, 
probably on the death of his royal master, and his name 
does not appear in the College lists after 1739. He 
was the author of 

Disputatio de Matheseos et Historiae Naturalis utilitate in Medi- 
cina. 4to. Helmstad. 1702. 

De Aquarum Mineralium prsestantia. Helmstad. 1703. 

JOHN BEALE. A native of Berkshire ; was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 1st April, 
1715. One Dr. Beale, a noted man midwife, died 20th 
June, 1724.* 

JOHN KYNCH, of Wantage, co. Berks, was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College 7th October, 1715. 

- CRANMER, of Mitcham, Surrey, was admitted 
an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 21st 
January, 1715-6. 

EDWARD NORRIS, M.D., was educated at Brazenose 
college, Oxford, as a member of which he proceeded 
A.B. 26th October, 1686 ; A.M. 1st June, 1689 ; M.B. 
19th January, 1691 ; and M.D. 12th March, 1695. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1698, and a Fellow 9th April, 1716. 
Dr. Norris was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 
9th November, 1698. He was brother to Sir William 
Norris, whom he accompanied on his embassy to the 
Great Mogul. Dying in 1726, our physician was buried 
in the chapel of Garston, in the parish of Chid wall, Lan- 
cashire, where he is thus commemorated: 

Under this tomb lies interred 

EDWARD NORRIS, M.D., of Speek, 

who departed this life 22 July, 1726, 

in the year of his age, 

Also ANN, his wife 
died y e 3 of January, 1729, aged 53. 

* Historical Register, 1724. 



40 BOLL OF THE [1716 

HUMPHREY COLMER, M.D., was educated at Exeter 
college, Oxford, and proceeded A.B. 12th November, 
1692 ; A.M. 25th June, 1695, and M.D., accumulating 
his degrees in physic, 5th July, 1705. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1706, and a Fellow 9th April, 1716. 

JOHN GARDINER, M.D., was of University college, 
Oxford, and proceeded A.B. 25th June, 1695 ; A.M. 
25th June, 1698 ; M.B. 6th May, 1701 ; and M.D. 28th 
June, 1706. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25th June, 1708 ; and a Fellow 9th 
April, 1716; was Censor in 1727, 1733, 1738, 1742; 
and was named an Elect 12th August, 1746. Dr. Gar- 
diner resigned his office of Elect, on account of ill-health, 
22nd August, 1748, and died very suddenly on the 
18th March, 1749, as he was returning in his chair 
from visiting a patient. He was buried at St. Andrew's, 
Holborn. 

RICHARD MEAD, M.D., was the son of the Rev. Mat- 
thew Mead, a celebrated nonconformist divine, and was 
born at Stepney llth August, 1673. He received his 
early education at home, under his father and a private 
tutor, Mr. John Nesbitt, who resided in the house. In 
1688 he was placed under the care of Mr. Thomas 
Singleton, and in the following year under the celebrated 
Grsevius, at Utrecht. He applied himself to the study 
of the classics and philosophy, and in 1692 removed to 
Leyden, where he remained three years, devoting him- 
self with great assiduity to the study of physic. There 
he "was contemporary with Boerhaave, then a student 
like himself, and with that great and good man Dr. 
Mead ever afterwards maintained a frequent and friendly 
intercourse. In the early part of 1695, having com- 
pleted the usual course of study at Leyden, he, in com- 
pany with his brother Samuel, Mr. David Polhill, and 
Dr. Pellett, travelled into Italy, and, whilst at Florence, 
he had the good fortune to discover the Mensa Isaica, 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 41 

which for many years had been given over as lost. He 
took the degree of doctor of philosophy and physic at 
Padua, 16th August, 1695, and then visited f Naples 
and Borne. On his return to England, about Mid- 
summer, 1696, he settled at Stepney, in the house 
where he was born, and for the few years that he con- 
tinued there did a considerable amount of business in 
that neighbourhood. His father was a man greatly re- 
spected, and possessed much local influence, especiaUy 
among the nonconformists, a numerous and respectable 
body in Stepney. He availed himself of every possible 
opportunity to advance his son, and some curious anec- 
dotes are recorded of his efforts in this direction, even 
from the pulpit. In 1702 Dr. Mead came before the 
public as an author, by the publication of his "Mechani- 
cal Account of Poisons." This work was received with 
great applause, and at once established his reputation. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1703, 
one of the council in 1706, and vice-president in 1707. 
On the 5th May, 1703, he was elected physician to St. 
Thomas's hospital, when he removed from Stepney to 
Crutched Friars ; at a subsequent period he removed to 
Austin Friars, and about that time was appointed 
reader of anatomy to the company of barber surgeons. 
On the 4th December, 1707, the university of Oxford I 
conferred upon him the degree of doctor of medicine. 
Hitherto, for reasons which have never been explained, 
he had not presented himself for examination before 
the College of Physicians : now, however, being pos- 
sessed of an English university degree, he appeared 
before the Censor's board, underwent the usual exami- 
nations, and was admitted a Candidate 25th June, 
1708. He was admitted a Fellow 9th April, 1716; 
was Censor in 1716, 1719, 1724; Harveian Orator in 
1723; Elect 5th November, 1735; and in 1744 was 
chosen President by the Elects, but he desired to be 
excused, and was so. He was Consiliarius in 1745, 
1747, 1748. On the 9th April, 1750, he resigned his 
office of Elect. On the 7th May, 1745, he was elected 



42 ROLL OF THE [1716 

an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh. 

On the death of Dr. Radcliffe, in 1714, Mead removed 
from Austin Friars to his house in Bloomsbury-square, 
and, succeeding to much of that physician's practice, 
resigned his office at St. Thomas's hospital. At a sub- 
sequent period (1722), when at the zenith of his repu- 
tation, he removed thence to Great Ormond-street. 
On the accession of George II, Dr. Mead was appointed 
physician in ordinary to the King, an office he continued 
to hold to his death, 

" After the most brilliant career of professional and 
literary reputation, of personal honour, of wealth, and 
of notoriety, which ever fell in combination to the lot 
of any medical man, in any age or country, Mead took 
to the bed, from which he was to rise no more, on the 
llth of February, and expired on the 16th of the same 
month, 1754. His death was unaccompanied by any 
visible signs of pain. In practice he had been abso- 
lutely without a rival ; his average receipts had during 
several years amounted to between six and seven thou- 
sand pounds, an enormous sum in relation to the value 
of money at that period. So great was the anxiety to 
obtain his opinion, that he daily repaired to a coffee- 
house in the City, and to another at the West End of 
the metropolis, to inspect written or to receive oral 
statements from the apothecaries, and to deliver his de- 
cision. His charity and his hospitality were un- 
bounded ; the epithet " princely" has often been ap- 
plied to him on this head ; but he has truly left an ex- 
ample which men of all ranks may be proud to imitate 
according to their means. These qualities in Mead 
were not the result of the accident which exalts or 
limits our means, but were the spontaneous expression 
of his heart. His gratuitous advice was ever open, not 
merely to the indigent, but also to the clergy, and to 
all men of learning ; and he devoted his emoluments to 
the patronage of literature and of the fine arts in a 
manner that requires a more distinct mention. 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 43 

cliffe was a worthy predecessor of Mead in the mag- 
nificent use which he made of his fortune. We may 
safely challenge any country to produce two individuals 
of the same profession, and flourishing at the same 
period, who have with equal generosity applied their 
revenue to the promotion of science and of erudition, 
and to the relief of misery. But Mead excelled, all the 
nobility of his age and country in the encouragement 
which he afforded to the fine arts, and to the study of 
antiquities. Considered merely in the light of a patron, 
he would remain, perhaps, the most conspicuous ex- 
ample of that character which biography has celebrated ; 
but when to his exertions in that difficult and often 
thankless career, are added the most eminent medical 
practice of his time, consummate acquirements and lite- 
rary labours important to the healing art, we shall find 
it difficult to select his equal among the annals of any 
period. Those excellent traits do not, however, com- 
plete his portrait ; a noble frankness, suavity of manners, 
moderation in the estimate of his own merit, and a 
cordial acknowledgment of the deserts of his cotem- 
poraries ; liberality, not merely of purse, but also of 
sentiment, must be drawn in order to finish the like- 
ness. 

" Mead possessed in an extreme degree the taste for 
collecting ; but his books, his statues, his medals, were 
not at all confined to ornament a secluded apartment, 
or to amuse only his own leisure the humble student, 
the unrecommended foreigner, the poor inquirer derived 
almost as much enjoyment from these unburied trea- 
sures as their ingenious owner. In his spacious mansion r 
in Great Ormond -street he had built a gallery, which 
only his opulence and taste could have filled. The 
printed catalogue of his library contains 6,592 separate 
numbers ; the most rare and ancient works were to be 
found there ; Oriental, Greek, and Latin MSS. formed 
no inconsiderable part. His collection of statues, coins, 
gems, prints, and drawings will probably remain for 
ever unrivalled amongst private amateurs. His pic- 



44 BOLL OF THE [1716 

tures alone were sold at Ids death for 3,400?. Ingenious 
men sought in his house the best aid for their under- 
takings, and in the owner their most enlightened as 
well as most liberal patron. He constantly kept in his 
pay several scholars and artists, who laboured at his 
expense for the benefit of the public. His correspond- 
ence extended to all the principal literati of Europe. 
They consulted him and sent him curious presents, but 
in such acts he was more frequently the creditor than 
the debtor. The king of Naples sent to request of him 
a complete collection of his treatises, and in return 
gave him the great work, which he was then encourag- 
ing, on the antiquities of Herculaneum ; a compliment 
not the less flattering from an accompanying invitation, 
to Mead to visit him at his palace. Afc his table might 
be seen the most eminent men of the age, both natives 
and foreigners, and he was often the only individual 
present who was acquainted with all their different 
languages. The good of mankind, and the honour of 
his country, were two of his ruling principles. He 
persuaded the wealthy citizen Guy to bequeath his 
fortune towards the foundation of the noble hospital 
which has honourably consecrated his name. 

" Mead was twice married. By his first wife, Ruth 
Marsh, he had eight children. One of his daughters 
was married to Sir Edward Wilmot, bart., an eminent 
physician, who enjoyed the particular favour of George 
the second and third ; another became the wife of 
Dr. Frank Nicholls, who was the most distinguished 
anatomical teacher of his time, and was the inventor of 
corroded anatomical preparations. Mead's second wife 
was Anne, the daughter of Sir Rowland Alston, bart. 

" Although his receipts were so considerable, and 
although two large fortunes were bequeathed to him, 
his benevolence, public spirit, and splendid mode of 
living prevented him from leaving great wealth to his 
family. The physician who was the Mecsenas of his 
day, whose mansion was a grand museum, who kept a 
second table for his humbler dependents, and who was 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 45 

driven to his country house near Windsor by six horses, 
was not likely to amass wealth ; but he did better he 
acted according to his conviction, that what he had 
gained from the public could not be more worthily 
bestowed than in the advancement of the public mind, 
and he truly fulfilled the inscription which he had 
chosen for his motto, Non sibi, sed toti."* 

Dr. Mead was buried in the Temple church ;t but 
the monument to his memory, with the following in- 
scription from the pen of Dr. Ward, was placed by his 
son in the north aisle of Westminster abbey : 

M. S. 

V. A. RICHARDI MEAD, Archiatri, 
antiqua apud Buckingenses familia nati, 

* Life by Dr. Bisset Hawkins in the Lives of British Physicians, 
p. 155 et -seq. 

f Defuncto jam laboribus Radclivio successit sodalium ipsius 
primus dilectissimus Meadus : Quanta scientia vir ! quanta gravi- 
tate ! quanta dignitate ! Qui tantum Radclivium doctrina, quantum 
Radclivius alios sagacitate superavit. Hie, tarn ingenio quam 
literis instructus, morbos plerosque facile fugavit; de uno autem 
reportavit victoriam. Ipse primus; de uno, qui, etsi propter in- 
genium suum, plerumque mitissimum diminutivo quodam nomine 
appellari solet, (sc: morbilli), tamen aliquando, stragem meditatur 
horribilem. Hunc peripneumonico esse genere primus intellexit 
Meadus: atque, viribus ejus penitus perspectis, de eo adeo ample 
triumphavit, ut nemo medicorum sub vexillo ejus militans huic 
morbo, unquam cesserit. Neque minus in hoc prorsus divincendo, 
quam in altero atrocissimo sublevando, valuit Meadus. Modum 
enim chirurgicum, quo aqua ex hydropicorum abdominibus tota 
una vice tuto exhauriri posset primus docuit Meadus, maxitno sane 
hydropicornm emolumento ; qui ante hunc modum inventum 
plus taedii aut plus periculi in aqua patiebantur exhaurienda quam 
doloris in retinenda. Propter haac illius prasclara facinora, quantas 
ei nos medici debernus gratias ? quanto majores ei gens humana, 
quorum illius, studio atque opera tot ab orci faucibus eripiuntur ? 
Qui vero in arte sna eminuit primus in nulla alia postremus esse 
voluit. Artes itaque liberates, quam turn plerique singulas, tan- 
tum Meadus coluit omnes ; quarum amore incensus pretiosissimam 
Nummorum antiquorum, Picturarum Sculpturarum et Librorum 
supellectilem undique conquisivit ; quorum nonnullos aliquando 
elegantiores, quos animo Ipse Regio dare solebat, ab eo Reges ipsi 
accipere non dedignati sunt. Quis igitur mirari debet si Meadi doc- 
trina et munificentia ita in regionibus exteris refulserint, ut earum 



46 ROLL OF THE [1716 

qui famam baud vulgarem medicinam faciendo 

in prima juventute adeptus, 

tanta nominis celebritate postea inclaruit, 

ut Medicorum hujus saeculi princeps haberetur. 

In aagris curandis lenis erat et misericors, 

et ad pauperes gratuito juvandos semper paratus : 

inter assiduas autem artis salutaris occupationes, 

operibus non paucis docte et eleganter conscriptis, 

quae ingenio perspicaci et usu diuturno notaverat, 

in generis humani commodum vulgavit, 

literarum quoque et literatomm 

patronus singularis. 

Bibliothecam lectissimam optimis et rarissimis libris 
veterumque artiam monumentis refertam 

comparavit, 

ubi eruditorum colloquiis labores levabat diurnos. 

Animo itaque excelso prseditus, et moribus humanis, 

orbisque literati laudibus undique cumulatus, 

magno splendore et dignitate vita peracta, 

annorum tandem ac famae satur placide obiit 

xiv kalendas Martias A.D. MDCCLIV. aetatis suaa Ixxxj. 

artium humaniorum damno baud facile reparabili, 

quibus ipse tantum fuerat decus et praesidium. 

Bis matrimonio junctus, 

ex priori decem suscepit liberos, 

quorum tres tantum superstites sibi reliquit, 

duas filias viris Archiatorum honore ornatis nuptas, 

et unnm sui ipsius nominis filium, 

qui pietatis causa patri optime de se merito 

Monumentum hoc poni curavit. 

The College of Physicians are indebted to Dr. Mead 

splendor in patriam ejus repercussus fuerit. Sed doctum esse pro 
nihilo duxit vir beneficentissimus nisi Doctorum etiam susciperet 
Patrocinium ; quod sane officium adeo egregie praestitit, ut literarum 
Fautor tam assiduus, tarn urbanus, tarn munificus nemo privatus 
certe antea extiterit. Neque profecto fieri potuit, ut qui omnes 
alias foverat artes, is patrocinari noluerit suaa. Quanto igitur can- 
dore ? quanta benevolentia erga ejusdem artis professores se ges- 
serit ? quanta comitate Tyrones semper exceperit ? quanta studio 
rem eorum auxerit ? quanta auctoritate nomen eorum protexerit ? 
Omnes equidem sui temporis Medicos animo vere fraterno amplexas 
est Meadus. Juniores autem tot et tantis perinde beneficiis quo- 
tidie divinxit, ac si ad idem Famae fastigium, quod attigerat Ipse, 
illos evehere totis viribus contenderet. Testemur haac, quotquot 
hie adsimus, qui viri dignissimi benevolentiam toties experti sumus : 
credant ilia Posteri, qui tot eruditorum opera viro private inscripta 
invenient." Oratio ex Harveii institute Anno MDCCLV auctore 
Rob: Taylor, p. 27 et seq. 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 47 

for the fine bust of Harvey in the library. It was done 
from an original picture in the doctor's collection, and 
in the old College in Warwick-lane had under it the 
following inscription by Dr. Ward : 

Hanc Magni illius GULIELMI HARVBII 

senis octogenarii imaginem, 
qui saiiguinis circuitum primus monstravit, 

medicinamque rationalem instituit, 
ad picturam archetypam, quam in sno servat Museo, 

effictam, 

honoris causa hie ponendum curavit 
Richardus Mead Medicus Regius. 

The College possess a splendid bust and three por- 
traits of Mead. The former, executed by Roubiliac at 
the expense of Dr. Askew, and presented by him to 
the College in 1756, was in Warwick-lane supported 
on a bracket, which bore the following inscription : 

HANG RICHARDI MEADII effigiem, literarum atque artis medicce 
statoris et vindicii perpetui, amicitiae causa ponendam curavit Anto- 
nius Askew, M.D. 1756. 

The larger and finer portrait was presented by Dr. 
Charles Chauncey in 1759 ; the portrait in profile by 
Mrs. Pelham Warren in April, 1836, and the remain- 
ing portrait by Mr. Bayford on the 20th March, 1837. 
There is also in the Censor's room a miniature portrait 
of Dr. Mead on ivory, which was presented to the Col- 
lege by the late distinguished surgeon, Sir William 
Fergusson, bart. 

Dr. Mead's published works were 

A Mechanical Account of Poisons. 8vo. Lond. 1702. 

De Imperio Solis ac Lunaa in Corpore Humano, et Morbis inde 
oriundis. 8vo. Lond. 1704. 

A Short Discourse concerning Pestilential Contagion, and the 
Methods to prevent it. 8vo. Lond. 1720. 

Oratio Anniversaria Harveeiana ; accessit Dissertatio de Num- 
mis quibusdam a Smyrnaais in Medicorum honorem percussis. 4to. 
Lond. 1724. 

A Discourse on the Plague. 8vo. Lond. 1744. 

De Variolis et Morbillis. Accessit Rhazis de iisdern Morbis Trac- 
tatus. 8vo. Lond. 1747. 



48 . ROLL OF THE [1716 

Medica Sacra : sive de Morbis insignioribus qui in Bibliis memo- 
ran tur Commentarius. 8vo. Lond. 1749. 

Monita et Prascepta Medica. 8vo. Lond. 1751. 

RICHARD HALE, M.D., was the son of Richard Hale, 
by his wife Elizabeth Church, and was educated at 
Trinity college, Oxford, as a member of which he pro- 
ceeded A.B. 19th May, 1693 ; A.M. 4th February, 1695 ; 
M.B. llth February, 1697 ; and M.D. 23rd June, 1701. 
He was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 23rd December, 1708 ; a Fellow 9th April, 
1716 ; was Censor in 1718, 1719, 1724 ; and Harveian 
Orator in 1724. Dr. Hale died 26th September, 1728, 
aged fifty-eight. * He was a liberal benefactor to the 
College. In the Annals we read : "August 11, 1729. 
The College seal was affixed to a discharge of 450^. 
being a legacy of Dr. Hale to the College, for buying of 
books, &c., which, with 501. he had given in his lifetime, 
made up the sum of 500/." 

At the next quarterly Comitia, held 30th September, 
1729, " It was desired by the College that a copy of 
Dr. Hales's picture might be drawn for the College li- 
brary.'^ 

JOHN FREIND, M.D., was the third son of the Rev. 

* "Neque hie prsetermittendus est Richardus Hale, qui quan- 
quam primo intuitu, Tit ii plerumque qui maniacorum curam ali- 
qnamdiu habent, quadanteniis asper, non illo tamen quisquam 
benignior, amicior, doctior, aut melior : Ea quippe comitate et 
integritate ut religio sibi fuerit alios in errorem ducere, ea etiam 
sapientia atque eruditione quae sibi ab aliquo imponi nullatenus 
paterentur ; singulari amore in viros suae Professionis ; multi in ilia 
no-minis, eamque adaugere et exornare omni ratione contendens ; 
Academicorum honorem atque commodum praecipue promovens ; 
dignitati et utilitati hujus Collegii animitus prospiciens, et legatis 
quingentis libris pro coemenda supellectile literaria, illud munifice 
ditans ; tarn probus denique tantusque, tarn in arte sua, quam caeteris 
vitse muniis, ut illius lethum fnerit, juxta ac illud L. Crassi apud 
Ciceronem, Acerbum suis, luctuosum patriae, grave bonis omni- 
bus." Oratio Harveiana, anno MDCCXXIX, auct. Piercio Dod. 

f In the Treasurer's book I read: 1733. October llth. Paid 
Mr. Richardson, the lymner, for painting Dr. Hales' picture by Dr. 
Tyson's order, twenty guineas. 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 49 

William Freind, A.M., rector of Croughton, North- 
amptonshire, and was born there in 1675. He was 
educated at Westminster, under Dr. Busby ; and in 
1694 was elected thence to Christ Church, Oxford, of 
which Dr. Aldrich was then the dean. Freind's attain- 
ments as a classical scholar were already so distin- 
guished that, in conjunction with Mr. Foulkes, he un- 
dertook, under the auspices of Dr. Aldrich, to give a 
new edition, with Latin notes and translation, of two 
Greek orations, the one of ^Eschines, the other of 
Demosthenes. They appeared in 1696, under the title 
of " jEschinis contra Ctesiphontem et Demosthenis de 
Corona Orationes. Interpretationem Latinam et vocum 
difficiliorum explicationem adjecerunt P. Foulkes et lo. 
Freind, ^Edis Christi alumni." About the same time, 
Freind undertook the revision of the edition of Ovid's 
" Metamorphoses," which had been prepared for the 
use of the Dauphin. He took the degree of A.B. 4th 
June, 1698 ; of A.M. 12th April, 1701. From the date 
of his first degree in arts, he applied sedulously to the 
study of physic; and in 1699 addressed to Sir (then 
Dr.) Hans Sloane a letter on hydrocephalus, which was 
published in the twenty-first volume of the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions." In 1701 he wrote another 
letter, in Latin, to the same distinguished physician, 
"de Spasmi Rarioris Historia," giving an account of 
some extraordinary cases of convulsion occurring in 
Oxfordshire, which made at that time a very great 
noise, and would probably have been magnified into 
something supernatural had not the writer taken the 
pains to set them in their true light. Freind proceeded 
bachelor of medicine 1st June, 1703 ; and the same year 
gave a solid proof of his professional and classical attain- 
ments, by the publication of his " Emmenologia, in 
qua Fluxus Muliebris menstrui Phenomena, Periodi, 
Vitia, cum medendi Methodo, ad Rationes mechanicas 
exiguntur." 8vo. This work, as its title implies, is 
based on the mechanical doctrines then so much in 
vogue ; and though at first it met with some opposition, 
VOL. IT. E 



50 ROLL OF THE [1716 

and was then and afterwards animadverted upon by 
various writers, has always been regarded as a masterly 
essay. " It is," says one authority, " admirable for the 
beauty of its style, the elegant disposition of its parts, 
its wonderful succinctness and perspicuity, and for the 
happy concurrence of learning and penetration visible 
through the whole." In the following year (1704) 
Freind was appointed reader on chemistry at Oxford, 
and in the performance of the duties of that office he 
delivered the course of lectures which were published 
in 1709, under the title of " Prselectiones Chymicae : 
in quibus omnes fere Operationes Chemicse ad Vera 
Principia et ipsius Naturae Leges rediguntur. Anno 
1704, Oxonii in Museo Ashmoleano habitse." In these 
lectures Freind applied with great judgment Newton's 
then recently established laws of nature to the expla- 
nation and elucidation of chemistry. By the size, 
shape, surface, specific gravity, and attraction of the 
component atoms of bodies, and the influence of the 
magnetic and electric forces upon them, he explained 
all chemical processes and operations, and by so doing 
simplified to its fullest extent what had hitherto been 
in the highest degree obscure and perplexed. In the- 
words of Sir Henry Halford,* "huic viro laudi fuit, 
illam attractionis vim quam in grandiore corporum 
ccelestium mole perspexerat Newt onus, summo cum 
judicio rebus Chemicis accommodasse et quicquid in 
theoria perplexum olim erat et obscurum legibus New- 
tonianis simplicissime expediisse." In 1705 Freind ac- 
companied lord Peterborough on his Spanish expedition, 
in the capacity of physician to the army, in which post 
he continued for about two years. He then made a tour 
of Italy, and spent some time at Rome. On his return 
to England, in 1707, finding the character of lord Peter- 
borough assailed, he published a defence of him, en- 
titled "An Account of the Earl of Peterborough's Con- 
duct in Spain, chiefly since the raising the Siege of Barce- 
lona," 1706 ; to which is added, "The Campaign of Valen- 
* Oratio ex Harveii institute habita die Octob. 18, 1800. 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 51 

cia, with original papers." 8 vo. 1 707. On the 1 2th June, 
1707, Freind was created doctor of medicine at Oxford, 
by diploma; in 1712 he was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society, and the same year attended the duke of 
Ormond into Flanders, as his physician. 

Settling in London on his return, he was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1713, and a Fellow 9th April, 1716. He delivered the 
Gulstonian Lectures in 1718, the Harveian Oration in 
1720, and was Censor in 1718, 1719. In 1717 Dr. 
Freind published the First and Third Books of Hippo- 
crates, De Morbis Popularibus, with nine Commentaries 
on Fever. This work was attacked by Dr. Woodward, 
the Gresham professor of physic, in his " State of Physic 
and of Diseases," 8vo. Lond. 1718 ; and here was laid 
the foundation of a dispute which was carried on with 
great acrimony and violence on both sides. Parties 
were formed under these leaders, and several pamphlets 
were written. Freind supported his opinion " concern- 
ing the advantage of purging in the second fever of the 
confluent small-pox" for it was on this single point 
that the dispute chiefly turned in a Latin letter ad- 
dressed to Dr. Mead in 1719, and since printed among 
his works. He was likewise supposed to be the author 
of a pamphlet entitled "A Letter to the learned Dr. 
Woodward, by Dr. Byfield," wherein Woodward is rallied 
with great spirit and address for Freind made no 
serious answer to Woodward's book, but contented 
himself with ridiculing his antagonist under the name 
of a celebrated empiric. 

In 1722 Dr. Freind was elected a member of parlia- 
ment for Launceston, and in that capacity distinguished 
himself by some able speeches in the House of Com- 
mons, against measures of which he disapproved. He 
was a staunch Tory, and the intimate friend of bishop 
Atterbury. He attended that prelate in the Tower as 
his physician, and was suspected of participation in the 
so-called " bishops' plot." These various circumstances 
drew upon him so much resentment that, the Habeas 

E 2 



52 ROLL OF THE [1716 

r Corpus Act being at that time suspended, he was, in 
March, 1722-3, after an examination before a committee 

I of the Privy Council, committed a close prisoner to the 
Tower. He continued a prisoner until 21st June, when, 
owing to the firmness and determination of Dr. Mead, 
who refused to prescribe for Sir Robert Walpole, the 
minister of the day, until he was liberated, Freind was 
admitted to bail. His sureties were Dr. Mead, Dr. 
Hulse, Dr. Levett, and Dr. Hale. In November he was 
discharged from his recognizance.* 

The leisure afforded him by his confinement in the 
Tower, he employed in a manner suitable to his abili- 
ties and profession. It was during this period that he 
wrote the celebrated and elegant letter to Dr. Mead, 
" De quibusdam Variolarum Generibus Epistola," pub- 
lished in 4to. in 1723. There also he laid the plan of 
his last, elaborate, and most learned work, " The His- 
tory of Physick from the time of Galen to the begin- 
ning of the xvj th century, chiefly with regard to prac- 
tice, in a Discourse written to Dr. Mead." The first 
part appeared in 1725 ; the second in 1726. Soon after 
Freind obtained his liberty, he was appointed physician 
to the prince of Wales ; and on that prince's accession 
to the throne he became physician to queen Caroline. 
Early in the year 1727-8, Atterbury addressed to Dr. 

* " When Sir Robert Walpole, the minister of the day, sent to 
consult Mead on account of an indisposition, he availed himself of 
the occasion to plead the cause of the captive. He urged that 
though the warmth and freedom of .Freind might have betrayed 
him into some intemperate observations, yet no one could doubt his 
patriotic feelings and loyalty, that his public services had been 
great, for he had attended the earl of Peterborough in his Spanish 
expedition as an army physician, and had also accompanied in the 
same capacity the duke of Ormond into Flanders ; that he deserved 
well of science, for he had done much to call the attention of the 
world to the new and sound principles of the Newtonian philosophy : 
and was besides a man of excellent parts, a thorough scholar, and 
one whom all acknowledged to be very able in his profession and 
finally, the doctor refused to prescribe for the minister unless the 
prisoner was set at liberty. He was almost immediately relieved 
from prison and admitted to bail." The Gold Headed Cane, 2nd 
edition. 8vo. Lond. 1828, p. 79. 



1716] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 53 

Freind his celebrated " Letter on the character of 
lapis/' of whom the bishop considered this learned 
physician to be the modern prototype. In 1725 the 
College of Physicians petitioned the House of Com- 
mons against the pernicious and growing use of spirit- 
uous liquors among persons of all ranks and of both 
sexes, and they confided the presentation of the peti- 
tion to Dr. Freind, one of their own fellows, and then a 
member of the House. * Dr. Freind died 26th July, 
1728, in the fifty-second year of his age,t and was 

* 1725. Dec. 22. Order'd that a Committee of College Officers 
be appointed to review a Representation to be offered to the House 
of Commons against the pernicious use of strong spirituous 
liquors. 

The Petition was as follows : 

To the Honourable the House of Commons. 

The humble Representation of the College of Physicians in 

London. 

We, the President and College or Commonality of the Faculty of 
Physick in London who are appointed by the laws of the kingdom 
to take care of the health of his Majestie's subjects in London and 
within seven miles circuit of the same, do think it our duty most 
humbly to represent that we have with concern observed, for some 
years past, the fatal effects of the frequent use of several sorts of 
distilled Spirituous Liquors upon great numbers of both sexes, 
rendering them diseas'd, not fit for business, poor, a burthen to 
themselves and neighbours, and too often the cause of weak, feeble, 
and distemper'd Children, who must be, instead of an advantage 
and strength, a charge to their Country. 

We crave leave further most humbly to represent that this 
Custom doth every year increase, notwithstanding our repeated 
Advices to the contrary. We therefore most humbly submit to the 
consideration of Parliament, so great and growing an evil. In 
testimony thereof, We have this nineteenth day of January, 1725, 
caus'd our Common Seal to be affixed to this our Representation. 
Comitiis Maj: Extraord. 19 Januarii 1725 habitis. The Represen- 
tation of the College against the frequent use of strong Spirituous 
Liquors was read and approved, and the College Seal was thereto 
affixed, and Dr. Freind was desired by the College to take an oppor- 
tunity of presenting it to the House of Commons, which he (being 
a member) promised to do. 

t Dr. Freind's colleagues in the College have celebrated his 
praises in many of the Harveian Orations, but in none of them 
with equal felicity and elegance as in that by a kindred spirit, Sir 



54 ROLL OF THE [1716 

buried at Hitcham, co. Berks, the manor of which had 
been purchased by him in 1700. On a slab within the 
communion rails is the following inscription : 

H. J. 

Johannes Freind M.D. 

Serenissimee Reginse Carolines Archiatrus 

et hujus Manerii Dominus 

Obiit 26 Julii 1728 ret: 52. 

Dr. Freind had married in 1709 Anne, the eldest 
daughter of Thomas Morice, esq., then paymaster of 
the forces in Portugal, by whom he had an only son, 
John, who died unmarried in 1750. The doctor's 
relict died in 1737, and was buried at Hitcham, near 
her husband. 

George Baker. " His," says he, " accensere licebit medicum ad- 
prime eruditum, Oxonii sui delicias et decus, Joannem Freind. 
Cujus quidem viri quoties inspicere lubet in indolem, et labores, et 
studia, annon exemplnm, in illustri positum monumento, intuemur, 
qualem oporteat esse medicum, qui aiFectet aliquod ultra mediocre 
et quotidianum ? Fuit illi ingenium acre et excelsum ; multiplex, 
versatile, varium. Tanti sub ipsa adolescentia, tarn admirabiles ab 
eo in studiis progressus facti sunt ; infinita scientiarum pene om- 
nium materies tarn avide et toto, quod ajunt, pectore devorata, ut 
non ille discere sed reminisci, non excurrere videretur sed evolare ad 
omnom literature excellentiam. Duram et asperam tactu Philoso- 
phiam solus fere tractare potuit, nee tamen elegantiaa suss valedi- 
cere ; et simul ei et diserto esse concessum est, et Musas severiores 
colere. Ad rem vero medicinalem illustrandam non tarn alienis 
institutis, quam propria natures vi ; non tarn rudimentis artium, 
quam usu ; non tarn discendo, quam agendo atque experiundo, totus 
abreptus est. Neque tamen in ultimis ejus laudibus ponendum 
censeo, quod tarn ardenti flagraverit studio ea omnia versandi atque 
ediscendi, quse antiqui literis mandarunt, viri et arte et facundia 
insignes, quique miram in scriptis obtinent turn medendi turn 
scribendi salubritatem. Etenim si apud medicos alicujus pretii 
habeantur, quae habentur certe maximi, in observando acumen et 
diligentia, in communicando fides ; si honestius sit ac fructudsius 
scientiam ex ipsis fontibus potius haurire, quam earn in arescentes 
rivalos dispertitam consectari, profecto aut apud veteres est, aut 
nusquam est, quod quaeritur. Etsi enim diffitendum neutiquam 
sit, plurima, a veteribus prave intellecta, diem castigasse ; etsi vel 
praedicandem sit, plurima, ab iis prorsus ignorata, in lucem ususque 
vestros diem protulisse ; ea tamen eorum merita sunt, ut raro vir 
magnus quisquam extiterat, nisi quern haec studia oblectarint, haec 
ornaverit sapientia, hi magistri docuerint ; " p. 20. 



1716] KOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 55 

A monument to Dr. Freind's memory, with the follow- 
ing inscription, was erected in Westminster abbey : 

JOHANNES FREIND, M.D. 

Archiater 

Serenissimae ReginaB Carolines ; 

cujus perspicaci judicio cum se approbasset, 

quanta prius apud omnes Medicine fama, 

tanta apud Regiam Familiam gratia floruit. 

Ingenio erat benevolo et admodum liberal!, 

societatis et convictuum amans, 

amicitiarum (etiam suo alicubi periculo) tenacissimus. 
Nemo beneficia aut in alios alacrius contul,it, 

aut in se collata libentius meminit. 

Juvenis adliuc scriptis coepit inclarescere, 

et assiduo turn Latini turn Patrii sermonis usu 

orationem perpolivit ; 
quam vero in umbraculis excoluerat facundiam, 

earn in solem atque aciem Senator protulit. 

Humanioribus literis domi peregreque operam dedit ; 

omnes autem, ut decuit, nervos intendit 

sua in arte ut esset versatissimus : 

quo successu, Orbis Britannici cives et proceres, 

quam multiplici scientia, viri omnium gentium eruditi ; 

quam indefesso studio et industria, 

id quidem, non sine lacrymis amici loquentur. 

Miri quiddam fuit, quod in tarn continua occupatione, 

inter tot circuitiones, 

scribendo etiam vacare posset : 

quod tanto oneri diutius sustinendo impar esset, 

nih.il miri. 

Obiit siquidem, vigente adhuc setate, 

annum agens quinquagesimum secundum, 

set. Christi 1728, Jul. 26; 

Collegii Westmonasteriensis 

et aedis Christi Oxoniensis Alumnus ; 

Collegii Medicorum Londinensium 

et Societatis Regiaa Socius. 

A good portrait of Dr. Freind by Dahl is in the Col- 
lege dining-room. It was bequeathed to the College 
by Matthew Lee, M.D., to be mentioned hereafter, and 
in the old college in Warwick-lane, had the following 
inscription appended to it : " Joh. Freind, M.D., Oxon : 
hujus Collegii quondam socii quam cernis imaginem 
legavit moriens Matt. Lee, M.D., Oxon, et hujus 



56 BOLL OF THE [1716 

Collegii socius. A.D. 1755."* Another, and finer por- 
trait of Dr. Freind than the one just mentioned, is in 
the possession of George Owen Bees, M.D., of Albe- 
marle-street. 

There is, too, in the Censor's room, a spirited medal- 
lion of Dr. Freind, carved in boxwood. It was pre- 
sented to the College by Dr. Diamond, and had for- 
merly belonged to Sir George L. Tuthill, M.D., a Fellow 
of our College, which is all that is known concerning 
it. Beside these, there is extant a finely executed 
medal of Dr. Freind, with the doctor's bust on the ob- 
verse, inscribed " JOANNES FREIND, Coll. Med. Lond. et 
Beg. S.S," and on the neck the initial letters of the 
artist's name, S. V. (Saint Urbain). Beverse, an ancient 
and modern physician joining hands. " Medicina vetus 
et nova. Exergue, Uiiam facimus utramque." 

The doctor's valuable library was sold at auction by 
Mr. Cock, in January, 1728-9. 

THOMAS PELLETT, M.D., was born in Sussex, and 
admitted a pensioner of Queen's college, Cambridge, 
8th June, 1689, as a member of which he proceeded 
bachelor of medicine in 1694. In the following year 
he visited Italy, in company with Dr. Mead and Mr. 
Thomas Polhill, studied for a time at Padua, and then 
returned to England. He was created doctor of medi- 
cine of Cambridge (Comitiis Begiis) in 1705 ; and, set- 
tling in London, was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 22nd December, 1707 ; and a Fellow, 
9th April, 1716. He was Censor in 1717, 1720, 1727 ; 
Harveian Orator, 1719 ; Consiliarius, 1740, 1741 ; and 
President, 1735, 1736, 1737, 1738, 1739. Dr. Pellett 
and Mr. Martin Folkes were the joint-editors of the 
edition of Sir Isaac Newton's " Chronology of Ancient 
Kingdoms," which appeared in 1728. Dr. Pellett died 
at his house in Henrietta-street, Covent-garden, 4th 
July, 1744.t His portrait is on the staircase. 

* Malcolm's Londinum Redivivum, vol. iii, p. 384. 

t " Vir multis nominibus celebrandus, atque hoc uno (si nullum 



1717] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 57 

JOHN PLOMER. A native of Gloucestershire, in 
which county he was then practising ; was admitted an 
Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians, 12th 
June, 1716. 

WILLIAM HALLETT, M.D., was entered on the physic 
line at Leyden, 23rd August, 1713, and graduated 
doctor of medicine there in 1714 (D.M.I, de viribus 
Argenti Vivi). He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 31st July, 1716. Dr. Hallett 
practised at Exeter, was a Dissenter, and was implicitly 
trusted by those of his own persuasion in and around 
that city. He was one of the five physicians appointed 
to the Devon and Exeter hospital on its establishment 
in 1741. Dr. Hallett died in 1754. 

THOMAS PONT, of Liverpool, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th April, 
1717. 

CHARLES TOURVILLE. A younger son of Sir 

Tourville, of Ashton, co. Leicester, bart. ; was admitted 

subesset aliud) minime hie tacendus, quod anmiam hanc dicendi 
occasionem aliquandiu intermissam Ipse restituerit : cujus lauda- 
bili proposito non modo consummatam Ipsius sed posterorum 
quoque Oratorum omnium, debemus Eloquentiam. Singularis om- 
nino fuit et eximia Pelletti indoles. Artibus et ingenio ad medici- 
nam exolendam quo fuit instructior eo studiosius ejus exercendae 
grave onus detrectavit. Quanto magis meritorum suorum fuit 
conscius, tanto aegrius iniquam artis suae toleravit sortem, qui 
egregiis animi dotibus plerosque homines superavit, eum profecto 
coram Muliercularum tribunali ad quod quotidie citantur Medici 
causam dicere piguit maxime : qui injuriarum suspicionum, inimi- 
citiarum infamise, immo et famae omnino immeritae non valde fuit 
patiens, is artem istiusmodi in qua exercenda haec omnia insunt 
mala non aversari non potuit, qui otii literati et quotidianae litera- 
torum consuetudinis fuit amantissimus, is ab iis ad diurnos noctur- 
nosque artis aeerbissimae labores se divelli eagre passus est. Qui 
denique lucri gratia facere nihil is arte humanitatis et amicitiae 
potuit omnia. praeclarissimum Hominis Ingenium ! qui ita 
sentire numquam destiterit. invidendam Medici fortunam quae 
ita agere ei permiserit." Oratio Harveiana, 1755 habita, p. 35. 



58 ROLL OF THE [1718 

an Extra-Licentiate of the College 25th May, 1717. 
He practised at Whitehaven. 

His GRACE JOHN DUKE OF MONTAGUE was admitted, 
at his own request, a Fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians 23rd October, 1717.* He was often present at 
the delivery of the Harveian Orations, and not unfre- 
quently at the annual dinners. The duke died of a 
violent fever in July, 1749, aged fifty-nine. He was 
master-general of the ordnance, master of the great 
wardrobe, colonel of the 2nd dragoon guards, knight of 
the garter, grand master of the order of the Bath, a 
privy councillor, and a fellow of the Hoyal Society. 
Dying without issue the title became extinct. 

WILLIAM CROSE, of Richmond, Surrey, was admitted 
an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 8th 
May, 1718. 

MICHAEL LEE DICKER, M.D., was born in Exeter, and 
on the 20th August, 1717, being then twenty-two years 
of age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden, and 
in that university took his degree of doctor of medi- 
cine 30th May, 1718 (D.M.I, de Motibus Ordinatis 
et Inordinatis Animalium, 4to.). He was admitted an 
Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 14th June, 
1718, and then settled at Exeter, where he soon ac- 
quired the confidence of a numerous party. Dr. Dicker 
was a member of the society of Friends ; a man of in- 
offensive manners and plain good sense, rather safe than 
scientific, and more distinguished for mild attention 
than officious interference in the operations of nature. 
He was appointed one of the physicians to the Devon 

* " His Grace the Duke of Montague having been admitted 
doctor of physick at Cambridge, when king George was there : the 
president proposed him to be chosen fellow of the College. His 
Grace was ballotted for and elected n.c. Resolved that the fellows 
of the College will meet in their gowns at the Treasurer's house 
(which is near the Duke's), and go thence and admit his Grace at 
his own house." 



1718] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 59 

and Exeter hospital on its establishment, and continued 
to hold that office till his death, 3rd October, 1754, iii 
the fifty-ninth year of his age. A portrait of Dr. Dicker, 
by Thomas Hudson, is in the board room of the hospi- 
tal at Exeter. 

RICHARD TYSON, M.D., was born in Gloucestershire, 
and was the son of Edward Tyson, M.D., a Fellow of 
the College, who died in 1708. Dr. Richard Tyson was 
educated at Pembroke college, Cambridge, of which 
house he was a fellow. He proceeded M.B. 1710 ; M.D. 
1715; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 25th June, 1717 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 1718, 
He was Censor in 1718, 1728, 1734, 1736, 1737; Regis- 
trar from 1723 to 1735 inclusive ; was appointed Trea- 
surer 16th April, 1739, in place of Dr. Wharton, de- 
ceased, and held that office until October, 1746. He 
delivered the Harveian Oration in 1725. Dr. Tyson 
was named an Elect 18th August, 1735 ; and was ele- 
vated to the Presidential chair in 1746. This distin- 
guished office he continued to fill to the day of his death, 
3rd January, 1749-50. Dr. Tyson was physician to St. 
Bartholomew's hospital, to which office he was elected 
7th May, 1725. In September, 1729, whilst in the 
execution of his office there, he was violently assaulted 
by one of the patients, supposed to be in a disordered 
state of his senses. Help immediately coming, the fel- 
low was secured, but in the scufHe Dr. Tyson fell 
against the locker of a bed, by which the cap of his knee 
was put out, and his arms very much bruised. * 

THOMAS WEST, M.D., was born in Northamptonshire, 
and was originally of Exeter college, Oxford, as a mem- 
ber of which he took the degree of bachelor of arts 17th 
October, 1687 ; but then removing to Merton college, 
proceeded A.M. 13thNovember, 1691; M.B. 29th April, 
1693 ; M.D. 25th June, 1696. He was admitted a Can- 
didate of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 
* British Medical Journal for October 23, 1875, p. 527. 



60 ROLL OF THE [1718 

1717 ; and a Fellow 22nd December, 1718. He was 
Treasurer in 1721 and 1722 ; Censor, 1725, 1729 ; and 
dying suddenly at his house in Red Lion-square, 17th 
August, 1738, was buried in the chapel of Merton col- 
leo-e, Oxford, where he is thus commemorated: 

O ' ' 

Here, 

near the remains of his first wife, 

CATHERINE, daughter of Dr. Lydall, 

who died Dec r y e 16, A.D. 1705, 

lieth 

the body of THOMAS WEST, M.D. 

Fellow of the College of Physicians, 

and formerly Fellow of this College, 

who departed this life 

the seventeenth day of August, 

in the year of our Lord 

1738, aged 70 years. 

WILLIAM WAGSTAFFE, M.D., was descended from a 
very ancient family long settled at Knightcote, in War- 
wickshire ; but was actually born in Northamptonshire. 
His father, who was rector of Cublington, co. Bucks, 
took more than ordinary care of the education of this 
his only son. He was placed at an excellent school in 
Northampton, whence, at the age of sixteen, he was re- 
moved to Lincoln college, Oxford. At the university 
he was distinguished, not only for the soundness of his 
learning, but as an agreeable and facetious companion, 
which made his society much sought for by persons of 
superior rank and standing. He took the degree of 
A.B. 16th June, 1704 ; A.M. 5th May, 1707 ; and had 
some thoughts of entering the Church ; but a visit to 
London, to his relative the Rev. Thomas Wagstaffe, an 
amateur practitioner of physic, diverted him from his 
original intention, and induced him to apply to the 
study of medicine. He proceeded doctor of medicine at 
Oxford, accumulating his degrees, 8th July, 1714, and 
settling in London, was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 23rd December, 1717, and a Fel- 
low 22nd December, 1718. He was Censor in 1720. 
Dr. Wagstaffe was a fellow of the Royal Society, reader 



1718J ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 61 

on anatomy at Surgeons' hall, and physician to St. Bar- 
tholomew's hospital. His affairs becoming embarrassed, 
his spirits and his health gave way. In March, 1724-5, 
he took a journey to Bath, but had not been there 
many weeks before he relapsed. Growing progressively 
worse, he died in that city 5th May, 1725, in the for- 
tieth year of his age. Dr. Wagstaffe was twice married, 
first to the daughter of his relative, the Rev. Thomas 
Wagstaffe, and secondly to a daughter of Charles Ber- 
nard, esq., serjearit-surgeon to queen Anne. He edited 
Dr. Drake's " Anthropologia Nova," and was the author 
of a Letter to Dr. Andrew Tripe, at Bath, 8vo. Lond. 
1719, and of a specious pamphlet against small-pox 
inoculation, entitled 

A Letter showing the danger and uncertainty of Inoculating the 
Small-pox. 8vo. Lond. 1722. 

All his other writings were satirical : they were col- 
lected into one volume, and published in 1725, under 
the title 

Miscellaneous Works of Dr. William Wagstaffe, Physician to St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital ; with an Account of his Life and Writings. 

WILLIAM BAEROWBY, M.D., was born in London, 
and educated at Trinity college, Oxford, as a member 
of which house he proceeded A.B. 15th June, 1703, 
A.M. 27th October, 1706, M.B. 13th April, 1709, and 
M.D. 18th July, 1713. He was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 1717, a 
Fellow 22nd December, 1718. Dr. Barrowby was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 9th November, 
1721. He was Censor in 1721, 1730, 1734. He was 
elected physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital 28th 
March, 1750, and died suddenly "of a dead palsy," 
30th December, 1751. Dr. Barrowby's portrait by 
T. Jenkins, was engraved by J. S. Miller. He was the 
author, conjointly, it is said, with Dr. Kirkpatrick and 
one of the Schombergs, of 



62 ROLL OF THE [1718 

A Letter to the real and genuine Pierce Dod, exposing the Ab- 
surdity of a Spurious Pamphlet, ascribed to him by Dod Pierce. 
8vo. Lond. 1746 ; and of 

Syllabus Anatomicus Prselectionibus annuatim habendis, adap- 
tatus, 8vo. Lond. 1736. 

SIR EDWARD HULSE, BART., M.D., was the eldest 
son of Edward Hulse, M.D., a Fellow of the College of 
Physicians, by his wife Dorothy, a daughter of Thomas 
Westrow, esq. He was of Emmanuel college, Cam- 
bridge, and as a member of that house proceeded M.B. 
in 1704, M.D. 17th December, 1717. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 23rd Decem- 
ber, 1717, and a Fellow 22nd December, 1718; was 
Censor in 1720, 1721, 1735 ; Elect 5th June, 1736 ; 
and Consiliarius in 1750, 1751, 1753. He was physi- 
cian in ordinary to queen Anne and king George I, and 
was created a baronet in 1739. Sir Edward, who had 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Levett, 
lord mayor of London in 1700, withdrew from practice 
some years before his death, and retired to Baldwins, 
on Dartford Heath, co. Kent. He died on the 10th 
April, 1759, aged seventy-seven, and was buried at 
Wilmington, Kent, in the churchyard of which parish 
there is a vault of considerable dimensions, supposed to 
have been built in 1746, when the remains of lady 
Hulse were brought from Essex, where she had been 
buried, and deposited in it. Over the vault is raised a 
monument similar in its design to that erected in the 
churchyard of Chelsea to the memory of Sir Hans 
Sloane, there being a marble urn entwined by a ser- 
pent. On a tablet of white marble fixed in the east 
front of the pedestal is the following inscription : 

Here lieth the body of 
Sir Edward Hulse, Bart., 

First Physician to His Majesty George the Second. 

He practised in London forty years with reputation and success, 

and, retiring from business in the later part of life, 

died April 10, 1759, 

aged seventy-seven. 

Here also lieth the body of 



1718] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 63 

Dame Elizabeth, his wife, one of the daughters of 

Sir Richard Levet, knight, citizen of London. 

She died January 15th, 1741, aged 47. 

A few years before Sir Edward Hulse's death lie 
became childish, and was impressed with the idea that 
he should die in want. To obviate this feeling, his 
family were in the habit of putting some guineas into 
his pocket every day, which they made him believe he 
had taken as fees. He was probably aware of his 
approaching infirmities, for ten years before his death 
he declined visiting any patient unless accompanied by 
his intimate friend Dr. (afterwards Sir William) Wat- 
son. 

Sir Edward Hulse, although not the first medical 
baronet, is the first of that order who left a son and 
transmitted the title, which is now borne by his de- 
scendant Sir Edward, the fifth baronet of Bream ore, in 
Hampshire. The house and estate of Breamore was 
purchased by Sir Edward Huise, M.D., in 1738. The 
house was burnt down some years since, but has been 
rebuilt in the same style. There is a print of the old 
house in Prosser. All the family portraits were burnt. 
They were fixed to the walls, and could not be removed. 

Sir Edward Hulse's portrait was painted by F. Cotes, 
and engraved by J. Watson. 

THOMAS WADS WORTH, M.D., was born in Hertford- 
shire, and educated at Leyden, where he took the 
degree of doctor of medicine in 1699 (Theses Medico 
Inaugurales de Secretionibus in Genere, 4to.). On the 
7th December, 1717, he was created doctor of medicine 
at Cambridge ; was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 23rd December, 1717; a Fellow 
22nd December, 1718 ; and was Censor in 1721. Dr. 
Wadsworth was one of the physicians to St. Thomas's 
hospital, an office he resigned shortly before his death, 
which occurred on the 23rd June, 1733. 

THOMAS VINCENT was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 



64 KOLL OF THE [1719 

of the College 13th March, 1718-9. He practised at 
Plymouth, and, dying there 23rd October, 1780, in the 
89th year of his age, was buried in the south aisle of 
St. Andrew's church, where a floor stone is inscribed to 
his memory, and to that of several other members of 
his family. 

STEPHEN CHASE, M.D., was born in Buckingham- 
shire. Admitted at Magdalen hall, Oxford, he pro- 
ceeded A.B. 4th May, 1697 ; A.M. 8th February, 1699 ; 
M.B. 27th April, 1703. On the 3rd December, 1713, 
he took the degree of doctor of medicine as a member 
of Merton college ; was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 24th April, 1718 ; and a Fellow 
23rd March, 1718-9. He was Censor in 1722, and on 
the 10th December, 1724, was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society. Dr. Chase was twice married ; first to 
Philippa Duncombe, who died 23rd July, 1721, in the 
forty-third year of her age : secondly, to Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Edmund Pye, of Farringdon, esq., who died 
16th January, 1739, aged forty-seven years. Both are 
buried in the church of Great Brickhill, in his native 
county, to which place he retired, and where he him- 
self was buried 13th January, 1742. 

SIB, CONRAD JOACHIM SPRENGELL, M.D., a native 
of Leipsic, and a doctor of medicine of Angiers, of 12th 
March, 1710 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 23rd March, 1718-9. He was admitted 
a fellow of the Eoyal Society 23rd March, 1720-1. 
He received the honour of knighthood from George I 
1st May, 1725, and died, according to Dr. Thomson,""" 
14th March, 1740. He published a translation of the 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates and Sentences of Celsus. 
8vo. Lond. 1735. 

JAMES JURIN, M.D., was born in London, and edu- 
cated at Christ's hospital, whence he proceeded to 
* History of the Royal Society, p. xxxv. 



1719] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 65 

Trinity college, Cambridge, of which society he became 
a fellow. He took the two degrees in arts, A.B. 1705, 
A.M. 1709. On the 2nd November, 1709, he was [X 
entered on the physic line at Leyden, and on the 23rd 
January following was appointed master of the gram- 
mar school of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. During the 
period he was master there he published 

Burnhardi Yarenii Greographia Generalis, in qua affectiones gene- 
rales Telluris explicantur. Adjecta est Appendix, praecipna recen- 
tiorum inventa ad geographiam spectantia continens. Cantab. 1712. 
Dedicated to Dr. Bentley. 

Jurin's early attachment to those philosophical studies 
which he afterwards cultivated with so much success, 
was evident during his residence at Newcastle, where, 
according to Brand, he gave lectures on experimental 
philosophy, and saved a thousand pounds, which enabled 
huii to prosecute the plans he had formed, namely, to 
resign his mastership which he did in 171 5 return to 
Cambridge, and take the degree of doctor of medicine. 
This he did in 1716, soon after which he settled in 
London, was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1718 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 
1719. He was soon elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and was appointed secretary 30th November, 
1721, resigning that office on St. Andrew's day, 1727. 
In his capacity of secretary he edited the 31st and 
three following volumes of the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions." Dr. Jurin was appointed physician to Guy's 
hospital 21st April, 1725, but resigned it, on account of 
his steadily increasing professional engagements, 31st 
March, 1732. He was one of the Censors of the Col- 
lege in 1723, 1730, 1731, 1735, 1744; Elect, 17th 
July, 1744 ; Consiliarius, 1748, 1749; and finally, on 
the death of Dr. Tyson, was elected President 19th 
January, 1750. Dr. Jurin survived this honour for a 
few weeks only : he died at his house in Lincoln's-inn- 
fields, 29th March, 1750, in the sixty-sixth year of his 
age, and was buried at St. James's, Garlick-hill, on the 

VOL. II. F 



66 ROLL OP THE [1719 

south wall of which is a monument of neat workman- 
ship, bearing the following inscription : 

In this corner of the church 
are deposited the remains of 

James Jurin, M.D. 

Ob: 29 March 1750 set. 65. 

Mary his wife ob: 5 July 1784. 

James their only son, of the Hermitage in 

Northumberland, esq., ob: s.p. July, 1782. 

V Out of the ample fortune Dr. Jurin had acquired by 
his profession, he bequeathed a considerable legacy to 
Christ's hospital. A bust of this distinguished phy- 
sician, placed there by his son, is in the library of that 
noble foundation. * 

Dr. Jurin's merits as a mathematician were of the 
highest order, and his papers in the " Philosophical 
Transactions " are, perhaps, the most satisfactory ex- 
amples we possess of the application of mathematical 
science to physiology. His paper " De Potentia Cor- 
dis," in No. 358, and his essay in defence of it in No. 
362, addressed to Dr. Mead, and written in very choice 

* " Nee deerit inter laudes, Jurino etiam aliquod et loci et glorise ; 
quern credo non poenituit, cseteris Academies disciplinis satis imbu- 
tum, perfectam insuper geometric scientiam ex uberrimis ejus fon- 
tibus affluentius hausisse et in rebus Physicis inclarescere potuisse, 
vivente etiam atque regnante Physicorum Principe Newtono. Tali 
instructus apparatu cum ad medicinam tractandam accessisset, 
spinas eas et asperitates quibus omnis fere obstructa est cognitio 
facile superavit victor; et, certiora figens vestigia festinavit im- 
piger ad summam in re medica prsestantiam. Magna mihi est copia 
memorandi plurima turn doctrines ejus multiplicis monumenta, turn 
pietatis in hanc domum praeclara edita indicia. Sed ilia nota, dicta 
pervolgata sunt omnia. Id vero quod ego UK palmariam depute 
Insitivarum dico variolarum artificium ejus potissimum experi- 
mentis et auctoritate confirmatum, iniquissimus essem si prseterirem. 
Quod sane cum tarn felici exitu fortunaverit Deus ; cum, ejus ope 
frequentissma mortis janua obstrui fere et obsignari videatur, num 
dubitabimus adhuc mortales an hoc tantum boni quod divinitus 
oblatum est et datum ad conservandos homines et amplificandam 
Dei gloriam certatim conf eramus ? Crediderim equidem nullam fore 
in terris regionem artium modo et humanitatis commercio aliquo 
expolitam apud quam illius artificii usus non sit invaliturus." Ora- 
tio ex Harvsei instituto habita 1761 auctore Greo. Baker p. 24. 



1719] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 67 

Latin, were in opposition to the views of Dr. Keil of 
Northampton. His conduct towards that eminent man 
was most polite and handsome ; and it has been well 
observed that he preserved throughout the sermonum 
honos et vivax gratia, so desirable in all literary con- 
tests. Dr. Jurin also wrote, " On the Causes of Dis- 
tinct and Indistinct Vision ; " " On the Momentum of 
Running Waters ; " and " On Moving Bodies," which 
respectively led him into controversy with Robins, 
Michelotti, and some of the followers of Leibnitz. In 
" The works of the Learned " for 1737, 1739, he car- 
ried on a controversy with Dr. Pemberton, in defence 
of Newton, signing himself there " Philalethes Canta- 
brigiensis." By Voltaire in the Journal de Scavans he 
was styled " the famous Jurin." His efforts in behalf 
of inoculation were indefatigable, and in the highest 
degree judicious* The perusal of his carefully- written 
and cautiously-reasoned papers on this subject could 
scarcely fail to carry conviction of the efficacy, safety, 
and propriety of the practice to all not blinded by pre- 
judice or obstinately set on not being convinced. His 
only separate publication was on this subject, and is 
entitled, 

A Letter containing a comparison between the Mortality of the 
Natural Small Pox and that given by Inoculation. 8vo. Lond. 
1723. 

And in 1752, there appeared, 

An Abstract of the Case of James Jurin, M.D., written by him- 
self, as relates to his Lixivium for the Stone and Gravel.. 8vo. 
Lond. 

JOHN MISATJBIN, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 7th 
July, 1687, of the university " of Cahos, in France," 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College 25th June, 
1719. He died 20th April, 1734. 

CHARLES JERNEGHAM, M.D. His name is so spelt 
in the Annals. He was the third son of Sir Francis 
Jerningham, bart., of Costesey, who died 20th August, 

F 2 



68 ROLL OF THE [1719 

1730, by his wife Anne, daughter of Sir George Blount, 
bart., of Worcestershire. He was a doctor of medicine 
of Montpelier, of 24th May, 1708, and was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1719. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Roper, lord 
Teynham > who died 14th November, 1736. He married 
secondly Frances, daughter of Rowland Belasyse, 
brother of lord viscount Fauconberg. The doctor died 
in 1760, aged seventy-two, and was buried at Cossey.* 

GILBERT HEATHCOT, M.D. -A native of Derbyshire, 
who studied at Leyden, was entered on the physic line 
there 22nd February, 1686, being then twenty -two 
years of age. He was a doctor of medicine of Padua, 
of 13th June, 1688, and was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 29th June, 1719. This is 
probably the " Dr. Heathcoat an eminent quaker and 
physician," who was killed by the overturning of his 
coach between Hampstead and London 14th August, 
1719.t 

PETER HARDISWAY. A Londoner, formerly a stu- 
dent of Trinity hall, Cambridge ; was admitted an 
Extra- Licentiate 3rd August, 1719. 

CHARLES BALE, M.D., was born in London, and edu 
cated at Jesus college, Cambridge. He proceeded M.B' 
in 1716, and was created M.D. 6th October, 1717, on 
the occasion of king George I paying a visit to the uni- 
versity. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1719. Dr. Bale was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1718, and a Fel- 
low 30th September, 1719. He was Censor in 1723, 
and delivered the Harveian oration for 1729. He was 
elected physician to the Charterhouse 13th July, 1725, 
and died at his house in Charterhouse-square 17th Sep- 
tember, 1730. 

* Suckling's Suffolk, vol. ii, p. 46. 

t Histor. Regist. 1719 Chron. Diary 35. 



1720] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 69 

VERNON MEAD, of Winchester, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th De- 
cember, 1719. 

GEORGE LEWIS TESSIER, M.D. A foreigner, and a 
doctor of medicine of Leyden, of 3rd November, 1710 
(D.M.I, de Substantia Corticosa ac Medullosa Cerebri, 
4to.), who had obtained an act of naturalization ; and on 
the 5th March, 1715-6, had been appointed physician 
to the household of king George I ; was admitted a 
Fellow of the College 17th April, 1720. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 10th November, 
1725. He was subsequently appointed physician in 
ordinary to king George II, and died 22nd May, 1742. 
Dr. Tessier was chosen physician to the Westminster 
hospital in 1728, but withdrew from that institution in 
1733 ; and was one of the six physicians appointed to 
St. George's hospital at the first general board, held 19th 
October, 1733. He also held the appointment of phy- 
sician to Chelsea hospital. 

GEORGE BAILEY, M.D., was born at Havant about 
the year 1693, of parents distinguished for their virtuous 
and religious character. Their situation in life enabled 
them to bestow on their two sons, Edward and George, 
a very liberal education at home and abroad. After a 
course of study at Leyden under Boerhaave, they both 
graduated atRheims, and, returning to their native town, 
practised their profession in partnership ; but that place 
not affording sufficient occupation for the two, a sepa- 
ration became necessary. Edward Bailey continued at 
Havant, where he passed the remainder of his life. 
But George Bailey, a doctor of medicine of Rheims, of 
21st October, 1716, who was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 18th July, 1720, 
settled at Chich ester. In that city and in a wide cir- 
cuit of country round it, he practised physic for nearly 
half a century with great reputation and success. He 
died 1st December, 1771, leaving behind him "a name 



70 BOLL OF THE [1720 

dear to his friends, to numerous objects of his skill and 
bounty, and to all who knew him, and at the same time 
possessed a proper sense of the value of great learning, 
genuine piety, inflexible integrity, and diffusive bene- 
volence."* 

PEIRCE DOD, M.D., was born in Middlesex, and edu- 
cated at Oxford. He was entered at Brasenose college, 
and as a member of that house proceeded A.B. 14th 
October, 1701 ; soon after which, removing to All Souls, 
he proceeded A.M. 6th June, 1705 ; M.B. 22nd March, 
1710 ; and M.D. 29th October, 1714. He was admitted 
a fellow of the Eoyal Society 19th March, 1729-30. 
Dr. Dod was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1719 ; a Fellow 30th Sep- 
tember, 1720; and was Censor in 1724, 1732, 1736, 
1739. He delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 1720, 
and the Harveian oration in 1729. Dr. Dod was elected 
physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital 22nd July, 1725, 
and retained that office to his death, which occurred 
18th August, 1754. His remains were interred in the 
burial-ground of St. George the Martyr, Queen's-square, 
where an altar-tomb was erected to his memory, and to 
that of his three children. 

Dr. Dod was one of the most determined opponents 
of inoculation to be found among the members of the 
medical profession. In 1746 he published a small work 
entitled " Several cases in Physic, Small-pox, and 
Fever," the main object of which was to throw discredit 
on the new practice. It was at once answered in a 
satirical pamphlet, under the title of "A Letter to the 
real and genuine Peirce Dod, M.D., actual physician to 
St. Bartholomew's hospital, &c., with a full answer to 
the mistaken case of a natural small-pox, after taking 
it by infection. By Dod Peirce." The authors of this 
letter, which is said to have done considerable damage 
to Dr. Dod's professional character and business, were 

* A Tribute to the Memory of Dr. John Bailey. 



1720] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 71 

Dr. Kirkpatrick, author of " The Analysis of Inocula- 
tion," Dr. Barrowby, and one of the Schombergs. 

WILLIAM STUK.ELEY, M.D. This learned and inde- 
fatigable antiquary was born 7th November, 1687, at 
Holbech, in Lincolnshire. After a good preliminary edu- 
cation at the free school of his native town, he was admit- 
ted at Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, 7th November, 
1703, and chosen a scholar of that house in the April fol- 
lowing. He proceeded M.B. in 1709. He commenced 
practice at Boston, in his native county, but in 1717 re- 
moved to London, and having graduated M. D. in 1719, 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1719, and a Fellow 30th September, 
1720. He delivered the Gulstonian Lectures in 1722. 
These were published the following year, in folio, under 
the title, " Of the Spleen : its Description and History, 
Uses and Diseases, with Observations on the Dissec- 
tion of an Elephant ;" against which Haller writes,* 
"Valde paradoxus homo." He was Censor in 1725. 
Dr. Stukeley, soon after his arrival in London, was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and ere long was 
placed upon the council. He was one of the committee 
appointed to examine into the condition of the astrono- 
mical instruments at the Royal Observatory, Green- 
wich. He was also a fellow, and for some years secre- 
tary, of the Society of Antiquaries, and had been one of 
the most active of that illustrious band who revived 
the society in 1717 and 1718. 

In 1726 Dr. Stukeley removed to Grantham, in Lin- 
colnshire, where he practised for some years with the 
highest reputation. The dukes of Ancaster and Rut- 
land, the families of Tyrconnel, Cust, &c., &c., and most 
of the principal families in the county, were glad to 
avail themselves of his advice. During his residence 
there he declined an invitation from the earl of Hert- 
ford to settle at Marlborough, and another to succeed 

* Boerhaave's Methodus Studii Medici, vol. i, p. 364. 



72 ROLL OF THE [1720 

Dr. Hunton at Newark. In 1728 he married Frances, 
daughter of Mr. Robert Williamson, of Allington, near 
Grantham, a lady of good family and fortune. 

Dr. Stukeley had long ere this been a severe sufferer 
from gout, which generally confined him during the 
winter months. For the recovery of his health, he was 
in the habit of travelling during the spring, and in these 
excursions he indulged his innate love of antiquities by 
tracing the footsteps of Caesar's expedition in this 
island, his camps, stations, &c. The fruit of his more 
distant travels was his " Itinerarium Curiosum ; or, an 
Account of the Antiquities and Curiosities in Travels 
through Great Britain," folio. Overpowered at length 
with the fatigue of his profession and repeated attacks 
of gout, he turned his thoughts to the Church ; and, 
being encouraged in that pursuit by archbishop Wake, 
was ordained at Croydon 20th July, 1729. In the 
October following he was presented by lord chancellor 
King to the living of All Saints, Stamford. At the 
time of entering on his parochial cure (1730), Dr. 
Rogers of that town had just invented his oleum arth- 
riticum, which Dr. Stukeley, seeing others use with 
advantage, was induced to try, and, as the result 
proved, with equal success ; for it not only saved his 
joints, but with the addition of a proper regimen, and 
leaving off fermented liquors, he recovered his health 
and the use of his limbs, and thenceforward enjoyed a 
firm and active state of health to a good old age. This 
induced him to publish an account of the success of the 
external application of this oil in a letter to Sir Hans 
Sloane in 1733 ; and the year after he published also 
"A Treatise on the Cause and Cure of the Gout, with 
a new Rationale," which passed through several editions. 
His subsequent literary efforts were chiefly antiquarian, 
and are too numerous to be here specified. In ]737 
Dr. Stukeley lost his wife, and in the following year 
married Elizabeth, the only daughter of Dr. Gale, dean 
of York. From this time he often spent his winters in 
London. In 1747 the duke of Montague prevailed on 



1720] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 73 

him to vacate his preferment in the country by giving 
him the rectory of St. George's, Queen-square. 

Dr. Stukeley's interest in his original profession and 
in the College of Physicians continued to the last. He 
not unfrequently attended the Comitia and took part 
in the business of the College, as appears from the fol- 
lowing notes in his own copy of the Pharmacopoeia of 
1746.* 

" After I was in orders, I assisted (September 30th, 
1729) at the Michaelmas Comitia of the College, at 
choice of President, Censors, and other officers. 

"Oct. 18. I was present at the Oratio and Con- 
vivium Harveianum. The duke of Montague there. 

" 25 June, 1739. I assisted and dined at the Col- 
lege of Physicians at the Quarterly Comitia. 

"22 Dec., 1742. Assisted at the Comitia, was chap- 
lain at dinner. 

"15 Sep., 1750. Received a summons to attend the 
Croonian Lecture and Sermon, which I preached." 

The sermon here mentioned, " The Healing of Dis- 
eases as a character of the Messiah, preached before 
the College of Physicians 20th September, 1750," was 
published by the doctor, and came to a second edition. 

On Wednesday, 27th February, 1765, Dr. Stukeley 
was seized with palsy, brought on, it was said, by at- 
tending a full vestry, on a contested election for a lec- 
turer. He died 3rd March, 1765, in his seventy-eighth 
year, and was buried on the 9th in the churchyard of 
East Ham, Essex, at a spot he had fixed upon during a 
visit he had paid some time before to the vicar of that 
parish. In compliance with his own special request, 
no monument was placed over his grave, but it is stated 
that he was buried in the north of the churchyard. 
His character was thus drawn by Haller : " Medicus et 
antiquitatum cultor, vir pius, non satis cautus."t 

Dr. Stukeley's attainments as an antiquary were of 
a high order. His proficiency in Druidical history was 

* Gent. Mag., vol. Iviii, p. 120. 

f Biblioth. Anatom., vol. ii, p. 124. 



74 KOLL OF THE [1720 

so great that his familiar friends used to call him " the 
Archdruid of this age ;" and over the door of a house 
he possessed at Kentish Town, to which he frequently 
retired, was the following inscription : 

Me dulcis satttret quies, 
Obscuro positus loco, 
Leni perfruar otio, 
Chyndonax Druida. 

Dr. Stukeley's portrait by Kneller was engraved by 
J. Smith. In addition to the works mentioned above, 
Dr. Stukeley was the author of 

Stonehenge : a Temple restor'd to the British Druids. Folio, 
Lond. 1740. 

Abury: a Temple of the British Druids, with some others de- 
scribed. Folio, Lond. 1743. 

GEORGE WHARTON, M.D., was the son of Thomas 
Wharton, M.D., of Old Park, co. Durham, by his first 
wife, Mary, a daughter of John Hall, alderman of Dur- 
ham, and was born on the family estate, 25th Decem- 
ber, 1688. He was educated at Pembroke college, 
Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded M.B. 
1712 ; M.D. 7th July, 1719. Admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1719; 
and a Fellow 30th September, 1720 ; he was Censor in 
1725, 1729, 1732, 1737 ; and Treasurer from 1727 to 
his death, which occurred at his house in Fenchurch- 
street from "mortification of the bowels," 21st March, 
1739. He had married Anna Maria, daughter of 
William Petty, esq., and having died sine prole, the 
estate of Old Park came to his younger brother Robert, 
an alderman and once mayor of Durham. To Dr. George 
Wharton the College are indebted for the portrait of 
his grandfather, Thomas Wharton, M.D., by Van Dyck, 
which hangs in the Censors' room. 

WILLIAM RUTTY, M.D., was born in London, and 
educated at Christ college, Cambridge. He proceeded 
KB. in 1712; M.D. 17th July, 1719; was admitted 



1720] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 75 

a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1719 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1720. He 
delivered the Gulstonian Lectures in 1722, and was 
Censor in 1726. Dr. Rutty was elected secretary of 
the Royal Society 30th November, 1727, and died 10th 
June, 1730. He was the author of 

A Treatise on the Urinary Passages, containing their Description, 
Powers, and Uses. 4to. Lond. 1726. 

SIB RICHAKD MANNINGHAM was born in Hampshire, 
and was the second son of Thomas Manningham, D.D., 
bishop of Chichester. He took the degree of LL.B. at 
Cambridge (comitiis Regiis), 1717 ; and in the following 
year built Park chapel, Cheltenham. Whether he was 
ever in holy orders is uncertain ; we know, however, 
that shortly after this he devoted himself to physic. 
On the 24th March, 1719-20, he was admitted a fellow 
of the Royal Society, and on the 30th September, 
1720, a Licentiate of the College of Physicians. He 
practised chiefly as an accoucheur, and attained to 
great eminence in that department of the profession. 
He was knighted by king George I., 18th February, 
1721 ; and dying, after a very prosperous career, on the 
llth May, 1759, was buried at Chelsea. Sir Richard 
Manningham gained much credit by detecting and ex- 
posing the imposture of Mary Toft, the rabbit-breeder 
of Godalming, in Surrey, who had succeeded in deceiv- 
ing not only her own medical attendant, Mr. Howard, 
but also Mr. Ahlers and Mr. St. Andre, the former 
domestic} and the latter serjeant-surgeon to George I., 
who had sent them to Godalming to inquire into the 
circumstances. To queen Caroline, then princess of 
Wales, is ascribed the merit of having been active in 
promoting measures to detect the imposition. The 
miraculous Mary Toft was therefore brought to town, 
where she could be more closely watched than at Go- 
dalming, and prevented from obtaining the means of 
carrying on her imposture. Sir Richard Manningham 
was among those who took a part on this occasion ; and 



76 ROLL OF THE [1720 

he had at length the satisfaction of detecting her. The 
woman held out, till her courage was shaken by a threat 
to perform a dangerous operation upon her, which 
threat was backed by another from a magistrate, that 
she should be sent to prison. She then confessed the 
fraud, and the farce terminated by the Godalming 
miracle-monger being committed to Tothill Fields 
prison.* Sir Richard published in 1726 his 

Exact Diary of what was observed during a close attendance 
upon Mary Toft, the pretended Rabbit Breeder, from November 
28th to December 7th following ; together with an Account of the 
Confession of the Fraud. 

He was the author also of 

Artis Obstetricae Compendium, tarn theoriam quam praxin spec- 
tans. 4to. Lond. 1739. 

This was afterwards newly arranged and republished, 
in 1756, under the title " Aphorismata Medica," 12mo. 

An Abstract of Midwifery, for the use of the Lying-in Infirmary. 
8vo. Lond. 1744. 

The Plague no Contagions Disorder, published anonymously in 
1744; but reprinted in 1758, with alterations and his name, under 
the title of " A Discourse concerning the Plague and Pestilential 
Fevers : plainly proving that the general productive causes of all 
Plagues or Pestilence are from some fault in the Air, or from ill 
and unwholesome Diet." 

A Treatise on the Symptoms, Nature, Causes, and Cure of the 
Febricula, or Little Fever. 8vo. Lond. 1750. 

JOHN ARNOLD, M.D. A native of Devonshire, and 
a doctor of medicine of Padua, of 17th January, 1715 ; 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 13th 
December, 1720. He practised at Exeter. 

HENRY BLAKEY, of Lancashire was admitted an Ex- 
tra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Janu- 
ary, 1720-1. 

SAMUEL TEAKE was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 

* Sketches of Imposture, Deception, and Credulity. 2nd ed. 
Lond. 1840. p. 142. 



1721] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 77 

the College of Physicians 21st February, 1720-1. He 
practised in Sussex. 

EDWARD STROTHER, M.D. A Northumbrian, and a 
doctor of medicine of Utrecht of 8th May, 1720 (D.M.I, 
de Yi Cordis Mo trice 4to. Traj. ad Rhenam, 1720) ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 3rd 
April, 1721. He died 13th April, 1737, and was the 
author of 

An Essay on Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 1716. 

Euodia; or a Discourse of Causes and Cures. 8vo. Lond. 1718. 

Pharmacopoeia Practica, sive Praescriptorum Syndrome. 12mo. 
Lond. 1719. 

Experienced Measures how to manage the Small Pox, with the 
proper method in the Plague. 8vo. Lond. 1721. 

Upon the Engraftment of the Small Pox. 8vo. Lond. 1722. 

An Essay on Sickness and Health. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

Materia Medica; or, a New Description of the Virtues and 
Effects of Drugs and Simple Medicines now in use. Translated 
from the Latin of P. Harman. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1727. 

Practical Observations on the Epidemical Fever : added is a re- 
markable History of a Spotted Fever. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

Praslectiones Pharmacomathicae et Medico-practicae ; or, Lectures 
on the Rationale of Medicines. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1732. 

JOHN PURCELL, M.D. A native of Shropshire, and 
a doctor of medicine of Montpelier, of 29th May, 1699 ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
3rd April, 1721. He died 19th December, 1730, and 
was the author of 

A Treatise -of Vapours or Hysterick Fits. 8vo. Lond. 1707. 
A Treatise of the Cholick. 8vo. Lond. 1714 

GEORGE LOCK was the son of Mr. William Lock, 
bailiff of the duke of Somerset, the then owner of 
Alnwick Castle. He was born at Alnwick, and bap- 
tised there 19th September, 1693. He was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 15th 
May, 1721, and practised in his native town. 

JAMES DOUGLAS, M.D. This excellent anatomist was 
born in Scotland in 1675 ; but of his general or profes- 



7S ROLL OF THE [1721 

sional education little is known. He settled in London 
in the early part of the 18th century, and speedily at- 
tained to high reputation as an anatomist and obste- 
trician. He obtained his degree of doctor of medicine 
at the university of Rheims ; and was admitted an Hono- 
rary Fellow of the College of Physicians 26th June, 1721. 
He had been admitted a fellow of the Eoyal Society, 
4th December, 1706, and contributed many important 
papers to the " Philosophical Transactions." Cheselden, 
in the preface to his " Anatomy of the Human Body," 
acknowledges his obligations to our physician ; and 
HaUer, who visited him in London, speaks in praise of 
his works and anatomical preparations. Dr. Douglas 
was one of the first to demonstrate, from the anatomy 
of the parts, that the high operation for stone might be 
safely performed. He died at his house in Red Lion- 
square in April, 1742, and was buried at St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, on the 9th. "Vir eruditus et solers," writes 
Haller,* " diligentissimus incisor, cujus benignum ani- 
mum juvenis expertus, senex laudo." In addition to 
his reputation as an anatomist, and his practical skill as 
an accoucheur, he had the character of an accomplished 
botanist, and of a man of great literary information. 
Pope mentions him in the Dunciad thus : 

" To prove me, Goddess ! clear of all design, 
Sid me with Pollio sup, as well as dine : 
There all the learn'd shall at the labour stand 
And Douglas lend his soft obstetric hand." 

In his note to this passage, Pope describes Dr. Douglas 
as a physician of great learning and no less taste ; above 
all, curious in what related to Horace, of whom he col- 
lected every edition, translation, and comment, to the 
number of several hundred volumes. Dr. Douglas 
was, perhaps, unduly sensitive, and was certainly, in 
some instances, a peevish and captious critic. The fol- 
lowing is (I believe) a complete list of his published 
works : 

* Bibliotheca Anatomica, vol. ii, p. 31. 



1721] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 79 

Myographise Comparatse Specimen ; or a Comparative Descrip- 
tion of all the Muscles in a Man and in a Quadruped ; added is an 
Account of the Muscles peculiar to a Woman. 8vo. Lond. 1707. 

This work, " egregius labor, etsi juventutis opus/' says 
Haller, was translated into Latin by J. F. Schrieber, 
and published at Leyden in 1729. A second edition of 
the original appeared at Edinburgh in 1750, and a third 
in 1763. 

Bibliographise Anatomicae Specimen, sive Catalogus omnium pene 
Auctorum qni ab Hippocrate ad Harveium, rem Anatomicam ex 
professo vel obiter scriptis iJlustrarunt, Opera singulorum etlnventa 
juxta temporum seriem complectens. 8vo. Lond. 1715. 

The History of the Lateral Operation for the Stone. 4to. Lond. 
1726. Reprinted in 1731, with an Appendix, containing Mr. Chesel- 
den's present method. 

An Advertisement occasioned by some passages in Sir R. Man- 
ningham's Diary, lately published. 8vo. Lond. 1726. 

A Description of the Peritoneum, and of the Membrana Cellularis, 
which is on its outside. 4to. Lond. 1730. 

Lilium Sarniense ; or a Description of the Guernsey Lily ; to 
which is added the Botanical Dissection of the Coffee Berry. Folio. 
Lond. 1725. 

EGBERT TAYLOR, A.M. A master of arts of Glas- 
gow, practising at Boroughbridge, in Yorkshire ; was 
admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 26th June, 1721. 

THOMAS LOVELL, of Plymouth, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College 25th September, 1721. 

THOMAS DOVER, M.B. This extraordinary character 
was a native of Warwickshire, and a bachelor of medi- 
cine of Cambridge of 1687."* He was an acquaintance 
and friend, probably a pupil, of the great Sydenham, in 
whose house he resided. After taking his degree he 
settled at Bristol, and, having made money there, joined 
with some merchants of that city in fitting out two 

* So I was informed by the late Mr. C. H. Cooper, the learned 
author of the Athense Cantabrigienses. The degree is not given in 
the Graduati Cantabrig. 



80 ROLL OF THE 

privateers for the South Seas, in one of which, the 
"Duke," he himself sailed from Bristol 2nd August, 1708. 
On the passage out they touched at the island of Juan 
Fernandez, where Dover, on the 2nd February, 1708-9, 
found Alexander Selkirk, who had been alone on the 
island for four years and four months, and whom Dover 
brought away in the " Duke." In the April following 
Dover took Guiaquil, a city or town of Peru, by storm. 
In December, 1709, the two privateers took a large 
and valuable prize a ship of 20 guns and 190 men 
into which Dover removed from the " Duke," taking 
Alexander Selkirk with him as master, and finally reach- 
ing England in October, 1711.* On Dover's return to 
England he resumed practice at Bristol, and from the 
number of patients he says he visited each day during an 
epidemic fever, must have obtained the confidence of 
the inhabitants of that city. Sometime about 1721 he 
settled in London ; and on the 30th September of that 
year was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians. He resided in Cecil-street, Strand, where he 
continued for some years, but in the latter part of 1728 
he returned to Gloucestershire (to what part is not 
stated in his work), and there remained for four or five 
years, when he finally settled in London, and fixed his 
abode in Lombard-street, but attended regularly at the 
Jerusalem coffee-house, to which he had his letters ad- 
dressed, and where he would seem to have received most 
of his patients. In 1 7 3 6 he moved westward, to Arundel- 
street, Strand, where he probably died in the latter part 
of 1741, or beginning of 1742, as his name disappears 
from the College list of the last-named year. His 
" Ancient Physician's Legacy to his Country" is well 
known. It was a work very popular out of the pro- 
fession, and in the course of a few years ran through a 
large number of editions. To Dr. Dover we are indebted 

* A Cruising Voyage round the World. First to the South Sea, 
thence to the East Indies, and homewards by the Cape of Good 
Hope; begun in 1708 and finished in 1711. By Captain Woodes 
Rogers. 2nd Edition. 8vo. Lond. 1718. 



1721] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 81 

for the valuable powder of opium and ipecacuanha, <^ 
which is still known by his name. 

EDWARD BROWNE, M.D. A native of Limerick, and 
a doctor of medicine of the university of Caen in Nor- 
mandy, of 1st April, 1712 ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 10th November, 1721. He 
died in 1750. 

MEYER Low SCHOMBERG, M.D. " A Jew of Fetz- 
burg, a German," as he is described in the Annals, and 
a doctor of medicine of Geisseii, of 21st December, 
1710 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 19th March, 1721-2. At that time he was in 
very reduced circumstances ; his pecuniary resources 
were insufficient to meet the fees due on his admission, 
and the College considerately accepted his bond* for 
payment at a subsequent period. Cultivating an in- 
timacy with the Jews of Duke's-place, he, by their 
means, got introduced to the acquaintance of some of 
the leading men, merchants, and others of their religion, 
who employed him, and by their interest recommended 
him to a good practice. He had been librarian to some 
person of distinction abroad, was a fluent talker, and a 
man of insinuating address ; and as he understood man- 
kind well, he soon found out a method of acquiring 
popularity, which had never been practised by any of 
his profession. He took a large house and kept a public 
table, to which, on a certain day in the week, all the 
young surgeons were invited and treated with an indis- 
criminate civility, that had very much the appearance 
of friendship, but in reality meant nothing more than 
that they should recommend him to practice. The 
scheme succeeded : in the year 1 740 Schomberg, it is 
said, had distanced all the city physicians, and was in 
the receipt of a professional income of four thousand 

* His bond to the College, now before me, is signed Meyer Scham- 
berg ; and so his name is always spelt by Sir William Browne in 
his publications concerning him. 

VOL. II. G 



82 ROLL OF THE [1722 

guineas a year. Dr. Schomberg died 4th March, 1761, 
leaving two sons, who were bred physicians : Isaac, 
memorable for his contest with the College of Physi- 
cians, to be afterwards mentioned ; and Ralph, who 
practised successively at Yarmouth and Bath. Dr. Ralph 
Schomberg was a voluminous writer, the author of 
" Aphorismi Practici," and of the " Abridgment of Van 
Swieten's Commentaries on Boerhaave." His character 
was damaged by some disgraceful literary thefts, and 
by some money transactions of no reputable character. 
Eventually he relinquished the practice of his profes- 
sion, and retired first to Pangbourne, and afterwards to 
Reading, where he died 29th June, 1792. 

ISAAC DE SEQUEYRA SAMUDA, M.B. A Portuguese, 
and a bachelor of medicine of the university of Coim- 
bra, of 21st May, 1702 ; was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 19th March, 1721-2. He 
was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, 24th Octo- 
ber, 1724. His name disappeared from the College list 
in 1731. 

EDWARD KYN ASTON was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 7th September, 1722. 
He practised in Shropshire. 

DANIEL WYNTER was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College 24th November, 1722. He practised in 
Brecknockshire. 

MUSSHEY TEALE, M.B., was a native of Middlesex. 
Admitted a pensioner of Queen's college, Cambridge, 
llth October, 1715 ; he, in October, 1719, proceeded to 
Leyden, and entered himself on the physic line there. 
Returning to England, he graduated bachelor of medicine 
at Cambridge in 1722. He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 1722. Dr. 
Teale practised during the greater portion of his life in 
the country, latterly at Maidstone, and died the 6th 



1723] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 83 

June, 1760. He had married Mary, daughter of George 
Poole, esq., of Charing, co. Kent, in the church of which 
parish they were both buried. The memorial of them is 
as follows : 

Jfear this place lyeth 

Mary, the wife of Musshey Teale, Doctor of Physic, 
youngest daughter of George Poole, esq., of this place, 

a person truly eminent for her great piety, 

good understanding, and charitable disposition. 

She died lamented October 30th, 1752. 

Here lies likewise her husband, 

Dr. Musshey Teale, of Maidstone, 

who died the 6th of June, 1760. 

Great names which in our rolls recorded stand, 

Lend honors and protect the learned band ; 

But here the grateful Muse, to merit due, 

Has but one generous thought in view, 

By the deceased's unblemished worth to prove, 

As social virtue all the world approve ; 

While truth and honour both conjoin their seal, 

And center' d sense and virtue in the breast of Teale. 

THOMAS BAINBRIGG, M.D. A native of Cambridge- 
shire and a doctor of medicine of Cambridge (Comitiis 
Regiis) 1717 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 19th March, 1721-2, and a Fellow 8th 
April, 1723. He was Censor in 1728, and died 26th 
December, 1729, aged forty- two. 

CHRISTOPHER PACKE, M.D., was born at St. Alban's 
in 1682, and educated at Merchant Taylors' school. 
He was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge 
(Comitiis E-egiis) 1717. He was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1723 ; and, 
settling at Canterbury, practised there with much 
reputation for more than a quarter of a century. Dr. 
Packe died 15th November, 1749, and was buried in 
the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Canterbury, in the 
south aisle of which is a floor stone engraved with his 
name and the date of his death. His son, of both his 
names, was also a physician, and practised at Canter- 
bury. He was of Peterhouse, Cambridge, M.B. 1751, 

G 2 



84 ROLL OF THE [1723 

and dying 21st October, 1800, aged seventy-two, was 
buried in the same vault as his father, and is com- 
memorated on the same slab. Dr. Packe the elder was 
the author of 

A Reply to Dr. Gray's Three Answers to Mr. Worger's Case. 
4to. Canterbury, 1727. 

MESSENUER MONSEY, A.B., was born in 1693, and 
was the son of the Rev. Robert Monsey, one of the 
non-juring clergy, by his wife Mary, a daughter of the 
Rev. Roger Clopton, rector of Downham. After an 
excellent education at home, he was sent to Pembroke 
college, Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded 
bachelor of arts in 1714, and then removed to Norwich, 
where for some time he studied physic under Sir Ben- 
jamin Wrench, M.D. He was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1723. He settled at Bury St. Edmund's, and whilst 
there was called to the assistance of lord Godolphin, 
the son of queen Anne's lord treasurer, and grandson of 
the great duke of Maryborough, who had been seized 
on his way to Newmarket with an attack of apoplexy. 
The nearest medical aid was at Bury, and Mousey was 
summoned. He was successful in the treatment of his 
lordship, who was so fascinated with the conversational 
powers of his Suffolk doctor, that he invited him to 
London ; and eventually inducing him to relinquish his 
country practice, and accompany him to town, obtained 
for him, on the death of Dr. Smart, the appointment of 
physician to Chelsea hospital. Lord Godolphin intro- 
duced Monsey to many persons of great eminence and 
rank, among others to sir Robert Walpole, who assidu- 
ously cultivated his acquaintance ; and the earl of Ches- 
terfield, who acknowledged with gratitude the benefit 
he derived from Monsey's medical assistance. Dr. Mon- 
sey continued in his office at Chelsea for half a century, 
and died at his apartments in the hospital in 1788, 
aged ninety-six. 

Of this eccentric man Mr. Wadd writes thus : " A 



.1723] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 85 

medical oddity, with a considerable share of mental 
acuteness and literary endowments. He began business 
at Bury, where he experienced the common fate of 
country practice constant fatigue, long journeys, and 
short fees ; and in a rusty wig, dirty boots, and leather 
breeches, might have degenerated into a hum-drum pro- 
vincial doctor, his merits not diffused beyond a county 
chronicle, and his medical errors concealed in the country 
churchyard but for an accidental attendance on the 
earl of Godolphin, in which nature, or Monsey, was suc- 
cessful ; and the grateful earl procured for him the ap- 
pointment at Chelsea, and ultimately left him a hand- 
some legacy. From the narrow, unvaried rural circle 
he was suddenly transplanted into a land of promise 
and politeness, with the earls of Chesterfield and Bath, 
sir Robert Walpole, and Garrick, as his companions and 
friends. Even in such society Monsey maintained his 
original plainness of manners, and with an unreserved 
sincerity sometimes spoke truth in a manner that gave 
offence ; and as old age approached, he acquired an 
asperity of behaviour and a neglect of decorum that 
subjected him to the odium of being considered as a 
cynic and misanthropist. As a physician he adhered to 
the tenets of theBoerhaavian school, and despised modern 
improvements in theory and practice, uniformly pre- 
scribing contrayerva and ptisan, and adhering to rules 
and systems merely because they were sanctioned by 
sixty years' experience. In his politics he was a Whig, 
in his religion a latitudinarian. But unfortunately, 
when he shook off the manacles of superstition, he fell 
into the comfortless bigotry of scepticism, which, like 
religious bigotry, narrows the intellect and hardens the 
heart. He left his body for dissection ; and a few days 
before he .died wrote to Mr. Cruikshanks, the anatomist, 
begging to know whether it would suit his convenience 
to do it, as he felt he could not live many hours, and 
Mr. Forster, his surgeon, was then out of town. He 
died as he predicted, and his wishes with respect to his 
body were strictly attended to." A very fine portrait 



86 BOLL OF THE [1724 

of Monsey has been presented to the College within a 
few weeks, by Mr. Frederick Walford, of Bolton-street, 
Piccadilly. Monsey's portrait when over ninety years of 
age, was engraved by Bromley, from a sketch by 
Forster. 

CALEB HTLL was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 4th November, 1723. He 
practised at Ludlow. 

JAMES ELDERTON was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 3rd Ma.rch, 1723-4. He 
practised at Salisbury. 

THOMAS LEIGH, of Farnham, Surrey, was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate 17th March, 1723-4. 

WILLIAM HUSSEY, of Bourne, in Lincolnshire, was 
admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the College 20th April, 
1724. 

JOHN BADCLIFFE, M.D., was born in Middlesex, and 
educated at St. John's college, Oxford, as a member of 
which house he proceeded A.B. 2nd June, 1711 ; A.M. 
23rd April, 1714 ; when, accumulating his degrees in 
physic, he proceeded M.D. 30th June, 1721. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1723 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 1724. He died 
the 16th August, 1729. Dr. Eadcliffe was one of the 
physicians to St. Bartholomew's hospital, and in the 
records of that institution, on the occasion of his death, 
he is described as " a gentleman of excellent parts and 
sound learning, whose only crime was his singular mo- 
desty, which hindered him from being an ornament to 
his profession."* 

JOHN DIODATI, M.D., was born in Middlesex ; and 
as a member of Baliol college, Oxford, proceeded A.M. 

* British Medical Journal, 23rd October, 1875, p. 527. 



1724] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 87 

16th June, 1715; M.B. 10th July, 1718; and M.D. 
9th July, 1722. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1723; and a Fellow 
25th June, 1724. Dr. Diodati was admitted a fellow 
of the Royal Society 10th December, 1724. He was 
Censor in 1726 ; but dying 23rd May, 1727, during his 
year of office, was succeeded, on the 26th June, 1727, 
by Dr. Bouchier. 

RICHARD WRIGHT was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College 25th September, 1724. He practised at 
Sherbourne, co. Dorset. 

WILLIAM CHAMBERS, M.D., was born at Hull, and 
educated under Boerhaave at Leyden. He was entered 
on the physic line there 24th September, 1721, being 
then twenty-two years of age, and in due course took 
his degree of doctor of medicine. He was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 8th Oc- 
tober, 1724 ; and then settled in his native town, Hull, 
where, having practised with the most distinguished 
reputation and success for more than half a century, be 
died on the 8th July, 1785, in the eighty-sixth year of 
his age. " He had been brought up in infancy with all 
the respectable part of the town of his own age, and had 
attended in infancy almost all the juniors ; hence he 
was long considered not only as the physician, but the 
friend of all the best families in the town. He had out- 
lived a variety of competitors, and was now yielding 
from the influence of opinion to others, who saw him 
failing from age and imbecility of body, though his 
mind was as strong as ever. He did not live to see, or 
rather did not adopt the nomenclature or nosology of 
Dr. Cullen, just then coming into general vogue, and he 
could not bear to hear of a Scotch diploma. Dr. Cham- 
bers frequently returned one-half of the money which 
his patients thought he had deserved, but which he 
thought they were imprudent in giving. A gentleman 



88 ROLL OF THE [1724 

assured me* that he had often been obliged to take 
back a part of what he had presented him withal ; and 
on some occasions he had found it necessary to give him 
a larger sum than usual, in order that he might accept 
a portion back again." No wonder that under these 
circumstances he died poor. 

Dr. Chambers was buried in the church of the Holy 
Trinity, Hull, where a monument to his memory bears 
the following inscription : 

" Within the adjacent vault 
are deposited the remains of 

WILLIAM CHAMBERS, M.D., 

who, after sixty years' extensive and disinterested practice, 
concluded a beneficial life the 8th day of July, 1785, 

in the 86th year of his age. 

By his wife, Ellen, daughter of Richard Bagshaw, 
of the Oakes, in the county of Derby, esquire, 

he had eleven children, 
nine of whom are interred in the same vault with their parents." 

ISAAC GILLING was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College 8th October, 1724. He practised at Exeter, 
and was the intimate friend of Dr. Musgrave, of that 
city, the well-known antiquary, to whom he rendered 
important assistance in the preparation of his great 
work, the Antiquitates Britanno-BelgicaB. 

JAMES CAMPBELL, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
St. Andrew's of 1712 (4 Calend. Februar.) He was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 1st December, 
1718, and an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians 9th November, 1724. On the 2nd May, 1727, 
he was elected an honorary member of the College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh. He died 21st January, 
17323, being then physician in ordinary to the king 
for Scotland. 

* For these particulars I am indebted to Sir James Alderson, 
who has obliged me with this and other extracts from a MS. by 
his father, Dr. John Alderson, formerly of Hall, containing a series 
of very interesting sketches of his contemporaries. 



1724-5] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 89 

WILLIAM WASEY, M.D., was born in Norfolk, and 
educated at Cams college, Cambridge. As a member 
of that house he proceeded A.B. 1712, A.M. 1716, and 
then proceeding to Ley den was on the 1st October, 
1716, entered on the physic line there. Returning to 
England, he graduated M.D. at Cambridge in 1723 ; 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
23rd December, 1723 ; and a Fellow 22nd December, 
1724. He was Censor in 1731, 1736, 1739, 1748 ; was 
named an Elect 30th August, 1746 ; and was Con- 
siliarius in 1749 and 1754. On the death of Dr. Jurin 
he was elected President (2 April, 1750) ; and was re- 
appointed in 1750, 1751, 1752, and 1753. Dr. Wasey 
was chosen physician to the Westminster hospital, at 
its establishment in 1719, but resigned his office there 
in 1733, having been one of the six physicians appointed 
to St. George's hospital at the first general board held 
19th October, 1733. He died in April, 1757, aged 
sixty-two ; and his library was sold by auction the 
same year by Davis, Lockyer, and Reymers. 

NOEL BROXOLME, M.D., was born in the county of 
Rutland in 1686. He was admitted a King's scholar 
at Westminster in 1700 ; and in 1705 was elected to 
Christchurch, Oxford, as a member of which he pro- 
ceeded A.B. 20th May, 1709 ; A.M. 18th April, 1711. 
In 1715 he was elected to one of the first of the Rad- 
cliffe travelling fellowships ; and accumulating his de- 
grees in physic, proceeded M.D. 8th July, 1723. Dr. 
Broxolme then settled in London ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 
1723 ; and a Fellow 22nd March, 1724-5. He served 
the office of Censor in 1726 ; and delivered the Har- 
veian Oration in 1731. He was appointed one of the 
physicians to St. George's hospital in 1733 ; and in the 
following year physician to the prince of Wales, with 
salary annexed. Dr. Broxolme died at Hampton 
Court by his own hand, 8th July, 1748.'" By his will 

* "Alamrmm alterum eumque dulcissimum paulo ante Freindi 



90 ROLL OF THE [1724-5 

he bequeathed a legacy of 5QOL for the benefit of four 
of the King's scholars at Westminster, on their election 
to the universities. 

RALPH BOUCHIER, M.D., was born in Yorkshire, and 
was the fourth son of sir Barrington Bouchier, knt., of 
Benningborough, in that county, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Hardwicke, esq. He was educated 
at Trinity college, Cambridge; proceeded M.B. 1711; 
M.D. 1717 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 30th March, 1724, and a Fellow 22nd 
March, 1724-5. He was Censor in 1727, 1737, 1740, 
1748 ; and delivered the Harveian Oration in 1732. 
Dr. Bouchier, in December, 1736, married Barbara, 
daughter of sir Richard Musgrave, of Ashby, co. West- 

obitum in Collegium nostrum miserat Oxonium : Medicum dum 
vixifc, Medicis carum ; dum medicinam exercuit, eegrotis carissimum. 
Broxholmio enim Ingenii benigna vena cum tanta morum suavitate 
fuit conjuncta, ut jure dubitari possit utrum ingenio pra3stantior, an 
urbanitate fuerit amabilior ? Humanitatis studiis ab ineunte setate 
imbutus ; summorum familiaritate virorum quotidie usus ; mori- 
busque variarum nationum penitus perspectis, omnium, post homi- 
num memoriam, Medicorum pblitissimus evaserat. Ex iis qui Bad- 
clivii stipendia meruere primus omnibus posterioribus et stipendio 
ipse fuit ornamentum. In Broxholmii quidem inerat consuetudine 
tain curiosa felicitas, ut plus gratice apud omnes sua veritas quam 
aliorum obsequium inveniret. Etsi vero ab isto servili, Medicoque 
prorsus indigno, quo nonnulli gratiam turpissime colligunt, abhor- 
ruit obsequio, tamen in ilia honesta atque liberali ejus specie qua9 
nunqnam deest ingenio, admirabile est quantum ceeteris excelluerit ? 
qua sane eegrotorum animos leniter mulcendo corporibus eorum 
facilius medebatur. Sed quemadmodum in corporibus nonnullis 
formosissimis insigniores insunt maculse atque neevi, ita Broxholmio 
ipsi sua erat infirmitas. Periclitantibus suis amicis (et quot curavit 
eegrotos tot quidem habuit amicos) tanto plerumque dolore obrue- 
batur, ut qui mederi anxius optabat propter id ipsum medendo non 
sufficerit : ita de servando segroto supra modum erat sollicitus, ut 
morbum propterea oppugnaret impotentius: ita denique Amici 
muneri implendo erat intentus ut nonnunquam officio deesset 
Medici. His agitatus mceroribus a morbis refugit curandis ut mor 
borum ipse fieret praeda rapacium. miseram mortalitatis con- 
ditionem ! quam Broxholmii ipsius nee Ingenium nee Fortuna 
reddere potuerint tolerabilem." Oratio Harveiana anno MDCCLV 
habita, auct. B. Taylor. 



1724-5] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 91 

moreland, and had by her a son, Musgrave, born 29th 
July, 1742, who died before his father, and Margaret, 
born 18th December, 1739, who married Giles Earle. 
Having no issue and no cousins, she bequeathed Ben- 
ningborough to the rev. William Henry Dawnay, 
grandfather of lord viscount Downe. Dr. Bouchier 
died in August, 1768. 

WILLIAM WOOD, M.D., was born in Lancashire, and 
educated at Trinity college, Dublin, where he took the 
two degrees in arts. He removed to Oxford, was in- 
corporated on his master's degree, 17th October, 1719 ; 
and, as a member of Queen s college, proceeded M.B. 
19th November, 1719 ; M.D. 5th July, 1721. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
March, 1724, and a Fellow, 22nd March, 1724-5. He 
was Censor and Gulstonian lecturer in 1727, and Har- 
veian orator in 1733. His name disappears from the 
list of 1739. He was the author of 

A Mechanical Essay on the Heart. 4to. Lond. 1729. 

JOHN GASPAR SCHEUCHZER, M.D., was a native of 
Switzerland, the son of John James Scheuchzer, M.D., 
professor of mathematics at Zurich, and was born in 
1702. He graduated in philosophy at Zurich in 1722. 

CJ L J. / * 

and printed his inaugural essay on that occasion, " de 
Diluvio," 4to. He was created doctor of medicine at 
Cambridge during the visit of king George I. in 1728. 
Dr. Scheuchzer was a good antiquary, and an accom- 
plished medallist and natural historian. He was the 
protege and librarian of sir Hans Sloane, and on the 
14th May, 1724, was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and was for some time foreign secretary of that 
learned body. He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd March, 1724-5 ; and dying 
at the house of sir Hans Sloane, in Chelsea, in April, 
1729, was buried in the churchyard there. He was the 
author of 



92 ROLL OF THE [1725 

An Account of the Success of Inoculating the Small Pox, for the 
years 1727-1728. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

Dr. Scheuchzer translated Kaempfer's History of 
Japan into English ; and he has a good paper in the 
Philosophical Transactions on " The Method of Mea- 
suring the Heights of Mountains." His portrait, by 
J. H. Heidegger, was engraved by T. Lant. 

GEORGE HARRIS, of Haverfordwest, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 7th June, 
1725. 

RICHARD HOLLAND, M.D., was the son of John Hol- 
land, " merchant of the Staple," by his wife Jane Fowke, 
the only daughter by his second wife of Walter Fowke, 
of Brewood and Little Wyrley, co. Stafford, M.D. He 
was born in London, and educated at Catherine hall, 
Cambridge. He proceeded A.B. 1708, A.M. 1712, and 
M.D. 1723 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 25th June, 1724 ; a Fellow, 25th June, 
1725; and was Censor in 1728. Dr. Holland was a 
fellow of the Royal Society, and died 29th October, 
1730, aged forty-two. He was the author of 

Observations on the Small Pox ; or, an Essay to discover a more 
effectual Method of Cure. 8vo. Lond. 1728. 

JACOB DE CASTRO SARMENTO, M.D. A Portuguese 
and a doctor of medicine of the university of Coimbra 
of the 21st May, 1717, was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 25th June, 1725. On the 
7th September, 1739, he produced a diploma under the 
seal of the university of Aberdeen, dated 2nd July, 1739, 
that he had been created doctor of medicine in that 
university. Dr. Sarmento was a Jew, deeply versed in 
Hebrew and Jewish lore, and had come to this country 
as rabbi of his Portuguese brethren. The study of medi- 
cine and of the natural sciences was formerly a favourite 
pursuit of the Jewish rabbis ; and from the time of 
Maimonides to recent periods numerous doctors of 



1725-6] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 93 

Jewish law were also doctors of medicine and practising 
physicians. So it was with Dr. Sarmento ; but he ab- 
jured the faith of his ancestors, in a " Letter to the 
Heads of the Synagogue," printed in 1758; and during 
the later years of his life, does not appear to have held 
any intercourse with his former co-religionists. He had 
been admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 12th Fe- 
bruary, 1729-30, and he died 14th September, 1762, 
aged seventy. His portrait by Pine, was engraved by 
Houston. He was the author of 

Appendix ao que se acha escrito na Materia Medica. 8vo. Lond. 
1757. 

Materia Medica physico-historico-mechanica. 4to. Lond. 1758. 

JOHN BIRCH, M.D. A native of Cheshire. On the 
17th August, 1714, being then twenty years of age, he 
was entered on the medical line at Leyden, and gradu- 
ated doctor of medicine there 27th April, 1716. He was 
admitted an Honorary Fellow of the College 19th Janu- 
ary, 1725-6. He was " a noted man-midwife in Bow- 
lane," and died 26th January, 1729-30. 

RICHARD MIDDLETON MASSEY, M.D., was born in 
Cheshire, and was the eldest son of Edward Massey, 
esq , of Rostherne, in that county, by his wife Elizabeth 
Bowles. He spent some terms at Brasenose college, 
Oxford, but left the university without taking a degree. 
He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 
23rd November, 1706, and settled at Wisbeach, in 
Cambridgeshire, where he practised for some years with 
great success. He was created doctor of medicine by 
the university of Aberdeen, 7th March, 1720, when, 
leaving Wisbeach, he fixed his abode at Stepney, and 
was admitted an Honorary Fellow of the College of 
Physicians 19th January, 1725-6. Dr. Massey was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1718, 
and acted as secretary in 1725 and 1726. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 19th February, 
1712. He compiled and published "A Catalogue of 



94 ROLL OF THE [1726 

the Library at Wisbeach." 8vo. 1718. He also pre- 
pared a catalogue of the library of the College of Phy- 
sicians, and on the 30th September, 1727, was for his 
trouble in so doing voted Wl. to buy a piece of plate. 
Eventually he returned to his native county, and dying 
at Rostherne 29th March, 1743, aged sixty-five, was 
buried in the chancel of the church there. Over him 
is a flagstone inscribed as follows : 

Here lieth interred the body of 

RICHARD MIDDLETON MASSET, 
(son of Edward Massey, of Rostherne, Gent.) 

M.D. Honorary Fellow of the College of 

Physicians, and Fellow of the Royal Society of London. 

Obiit. 29 mo Martii, A.D. 1743. 

Dr. Massey's annotated copy of the Pharmacopeia 
Londinensis is in the College, and has been of much 
assistance to me. 

JAMES FIGG, of Guildford, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 20th June, 1726. 

JOHN HOLLINGS, M.D., was born in Shropshire, and 
educated at Magdalen college, Cambridge, as a member 
of which he proceeded M.B. 1705, M.D. 1710. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1725, and a Fellow 25th June, 1726. Dr. Hol- 
lings was a fellow of the Royal Society, physician- 
general to the army, and physician in ordinary to the 
king. He died 10th May, 1739, leaving the character 
of an able classical scholar, and a most accomplished 
man. His only publication was the Harveian oration 
for 1734, entitled " Status Humanae Naturae expositus 
in Oratione coram Medicis Londinensibus habita." 4to. 
Lond. 1734. 

JONATHAN GOULDSMITH, M.D., was the only son of 
John Gouldsmith, of Nantwich, co. Chester, gent, (and 
of the Middle Temple), by his second wife Elizabeth, 



172C] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 95 

eldest daughter of Jonathan Cope, esq. He was bap- 
tized at Nantwich 8th May, 1694, was matriculated at 
Oxford 26th February, 1711-12, and, as a member of 
Brasenose college, took the two degrees in arts, A.B. 
13th October, 1715, A.M. 13th June, 1718 ; and then, 
accumulating those in physic, proceeded M.D. llth 
June, 1724. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25th June, 1725, and a Fellow 25th 
June, 1726. Dr. Gouldsmith delivered the Gulstonian 
lectures in 1728, and was Censor in 1729. He was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 29th January, 
1 729-30. He died in Norfolk-street, Strand, 1 2th April, 
1732, and was buried on the 24th at St. Clement Danes. 
His widow, Elizabeth, renounced administration to his 
estate, and letters were granted llth May, 1732, to his 
sister and next of kin, Judith, wife of Walter Stubbs, 
esq., of Beckbury hall, co. Salop. Dr. Gouldsmith's 
portrait is at Beckbury hall. It is a half length, and 
the doctor has a volume of Hippocrates in his hand.* 

GEORGE TURBERVILLE was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College 22nd July, 1726. 

i 

NICHOLAS BRINLEY, of Totnes, Devon, was admitted 
an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd 
July, 1726. 

SIR WILLIAM BROWNE, M.D. Abundant materials 
exist for a lengthened sketch of this busy and pedantic 
physician. His egotism and garrulity were so great as 
to rivet the attention of his contemporaries, many of 
whom have delighted in recording their reminiscences, 
and holding up the worthy old knight to that good- 
natured ridicule to which he might lay so fair a claim. 

Sir William Browne was born in the county of Dur- 
ham in 1692, and was the son of a physician. In 1707 
he was entered at Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he 
describes himself in 1711 as in his soph's year, and at- 
* Colonel Chester's Collections. 



96 ROLL OK THE [1726 

tentively studying the Articles of the Church of Eng- 
land. He proceeded A.B. 1710; A.M. 1714; and 
having obtained a licence ad practicandum from the 
university, settled about the year 1716 at Lynn, in 
Norfolk, under the patronage of the Turner family. It 
was about this time that our physician wrote the well- 
known epigram on George the First's handsome present 
to the university of Cambridge. The circumstances 
were as follow. Dr. John Moore, successively bishop of 
Norwich and Ely, one of the most learned men of his 
time, had collected one of the best and most ample col- 
lections of all sorts of good books in England. It com- 
prised, according to Noble, 28,965 printed books and 
1,790 manuscripts. The bishop died 31st July, 1714; 
shortly after which the king purchased his library for 
6,000^., and presented it to the university of Cambridge. 
By a curious coincidence, a regiment of cavalry was 
despatched to Oxford at the very time that the library 
was removed to Cambridge. The event was com- 
memorated by Dr. Trapp in the following lines : 

The king, observing with judicious eyes, 

The state of both his universities, 

To one he sent a regiment, for why ? 

That learned body wanted loyalty : 

To th' other he sent books, as well discerning 

How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

Browne, stung by the reflection on his own Alma 
Mater, replied thus : 

The king to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For Tories own no argument but force ; 
With equal skill to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs admit no force but argument. 

He took the degree of doctor of medicine at Cam- 
bridge in 1721, and shortly afterwards, according to 
his own statement, got incorporated at Oxford. On 
the 1st March, 1738-y, he was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society. He practised at Lynn for more than 
thirty years, and acquired by his profession a com- 
petent fortune, though even then he evinced no small 



1726] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 97 

amount of eccentricity. Upon one occasion, a pam- 
phlet having been written against him, he nailed it to 
his own house-door. In 1748, through the influence of 
the duke of Montague, he was knighted by king George 
II. A respectable bookseller at Lynn used to relate, 
that the first time he had to make out his bill after 
the doctor had been dubbed a knight, he wrote, " Sir 
William Browne, debtor to Thomas Hollingbury ;" when 
he delivered it into the knight's hand, he looked at it a 
short time, and then turning to him said, " Mr. Hol- 
lingbury, you might have said ' the honourable Sir Wil- 
liam Browne/ ' "I beg your pardon, Sir William," 
replied the bookseller, " but upon my word I did not 
know it was customary to prefix to the name of a 
knight the word honourable." " As to that," rejoined 
the knight, "if it be not customary, it would yet have 
been pleasing." About the same period he distinguished 
himself as a champion of the fair sex at Lynn, but 
under what circumstances, and in what manner, are 
now unknown. The incident led to the following 
epigram, the product, it has always been thought, of 
his own pen : 

Domino Wilhelmo Browne, militi. 
Sit, Miles, terror, castigatorque Grigantis, 

Victima cui Virgo nocte dieque cadit. 
Herculeo monstris purgata est Lerna labore, 

Monstris purgetur Lenna labore tuo. 

Be thou, knight, the giant's scourge and dread, 
Who night and day preys on the victim maid. 

Herculean labour Lerna's monsters slew, 

Oh ! may thy labours those of Lynn subdue. 

From an early period of his professional career, Sir 
William Browne had contemplated an eventual removal 
to the metropolis ; and with the view of securing his 
due position, whenever that should be feasible, he pre- 
sented himself before the College of Physicians for 
examination, and was admitted a Candidate 30th Sep- 
tember, 1725, and a Fellow 30th September, 1726. In 
1749 Sir William removed to London. He was named 

\ r OL. II. H 



98 ROLL OF THE [l72( 

one of the Elects of the College 9th April, 1750, and 
delivered the Harveian oration in 1751. He served 
the office of Censor in 1750, 1751, 1752, 1753, 1771 
was elected Treasurer 3rd December, 1751, in place o1 
Dr. Horseman deceased ; was Consiliarius in 1752 
1755, 1762 ; and President in 1765 and 1766. This 
was a period of great excitement in the College. The 
dispute with the Licentiates was then at its height 
and Sir William Browne, a man of strong feelings, ex- 
traordinary garrulity, and utterly void of discretion 
was wholly unfit at such a crisis to occupy the presi- 
dential chair. He was an energetic defender of the 
exclusive privileges of the English universities ; and 
in the contest between the College and Dr. Schomberg 
had unfortunately printed a pamphlet as ill-judged as 
it must have been offensive to the Licentiates. These 
circumstances brought him under the lash of Foote, ir 
his " Devil on Two Sticks." Foote gave an inimitable 
representation of the Esculapian knight on the stage 
with the precise counterpart of his wig and coat and 
odd figure, and glass stiffly applied to his eye. Si] 
William sent Foote a card, complimenting him upor 
having so happily represented him, but, as he had for- 
gotten the muff, he sent him his own. Whilst he filleo 
the office of President, the Licentiates in a body forced 
their way into the College, and even into the room 
where the Comitia was being held. Sir William main- 
tained his composure, and at once dissolved the Co- 
mitia ; but the affair left an abiding impression on him, 
and, dreading a defeat or some indignity, he determined 
to resign his office, not choosing as he was wont to say. 
to stay to be beaten by the Licentiates. As another 
opportunity may not occur, I may here state that a 
second attempt was made the following year (1767) to 
break into the College, but the precaution had been 
taken of closing the iron gates which guarded the en- 
trance from Warwick-lane. The assembled Licentiates 
offered a smith ten guineas and an indemnification of 
three hundred pounds to force the gate, but he refused. 



1726] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 99 

At this time the following lines vindicating Sir Wil- 
liam against the abuse and anger of the Licentiates 
became public. They were represented as having been 
sent to him by an anonymous correspondent, but were 
more probably written by himself : 

AD PUSCUM, EQUITEM, PR^SIDEM. 
HORACE, ODE XXII, BOOK 1. 

Integer vitse, scelerisque purus, 
Non timet Scoti obloquium neqne iram, 
Nee venenatis gravidam sagittis, 
FUSCE, pharetram. 

Pone te Scotis ubi nulla campis, 
Arbor sestiva recreatur aura, 
Dulce ridentem comites te habebunt 
Dulce loquentem. 

TO BROWNE, KNIGHT, PRESIDENT. 

He whose just life due honour bears, 
Nor Scot's abuse nor anger fears, 

Nor his full loaded quiver : 
Browne ! let him try his treach'rous arts 
To wound thee with his poison' d darts, 

Thou shalt retort them ever. 

Place thee in Edin's foulest air, 
Which neither tree, nor nose can bear, 

Nor lungs with pleasure take in ; 
Ev'n there, such spirits flow in thee, 
Thee sweetly laughing all shall see, 

All hear thee sweetly speaking. 

On quitting the chair, Sir William Browne delivered 
an oration in Latin, in which he delineates his own 
character and history, and reviews the prominent events 
of his presidency. This valedictory address was forth- 
with published in Latin and in English : from the latter 
I extract the following : 

" The manly age and inclination with conformable 
studies I diligently applied to the practice of physic in 
the country, where, as that age adviseth, I sought 
riches and friendships ; but, afterwards, being satiated 

H 2 



100 ROLL OF THE [1726 

with friends, whom truth, not flattery, had procured ; 
satiated with riches which Galen, not fortune, had pre- 
sented, I resorted immediately to this College, where, 
in further obedience to the same adviser, I might to- 
tally addict myself to the service of honour. Conducted 
by your favour instead of my own merit, I have been 
advanced through various degrees of honour a most 
delightful climax indeed even to the very highest of 
all which the whole profession of physic hath to confer. 
In this chair, therefore, twice received from the Elects 
(shewing their favour to himself, he confesses, much 
more than to the College), your President 

Acknowledges, that he has happy been, 
And, now, content with acting this sweet scene, 
Chases to make his exit, like a guest, 
Retiring pamper'd from a plenteous feast, 

in order to attach himself and the remainder of his life 
no longer, as before, solely to the College, but by turns 
also to the medicinal springs of his own country, al- 
though as a physician never unmindful of his duty, yet, 
after his own manner, with hilarity rather than gravity, 
to enjoy liberty more valuable than silver or gold, as 
in his own right, because that of mankind not without 
pride, which ever ought to be its inseparable com- 
panion, 

Now the free foot shall dance its favourite round. 

" Behold an instance of human ambition not to be 
satiated but by the conquest of three, as it were, me- 
dical worlds ; lucre in the country, honour in the Col- 
lege ; pleasure at medicinal springs ! I would, if it 
were possible, be delightful and useful to all : to myself 
even totally and equal ; to old age, though old, diame- 
trically opposite ; not a censor and chastiser, but a com 
mender and encourager of youth. I would have mine, 
such as in the satire 

Crispus's hoary entertaining age, 

Whose wit and manners mild alike engage. 



1726] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 101 

" The age of presiding, by the custom of our prede- 
cessors, was generally a lustrum, five years ; although 
our Sloane, now happy, like another Nestor, lived to see 
three ages, both as President and as man. But two 
years more than satisfy me ; for that each of the Elects 
may in his turn hold the sceptre of prudence, far more 
desirable than power, given by Caius, which the law of 
justice and equity recommends, 

No tenure pleases longer than a year. 

" But, in truth, among such endearing friendships 
with you, such delightful conversations, such useful 
communications with which this amiable situation hath 
blessed me, one or two things, as is usual, have hap- 
pened not at all to my satisfaction. One, that, while 
most studious of peace myself, I hoped to have pre- 
served the peace of the College secure and entire ; I too 
soon found that it was not otherwise to be sought for 

o 

than by war ; but, even after our first adversary, be- 
cause inconsiderable, was instantly overthrown, and his 
head completely cut off by the hand of the law, yet 
from the same neck, as if Hydra had been our enemy, 
so many other heads broke out, yea, and with inhuman 
violence broke into this very senate, like monsters swim- 
ming in our medical sea, whom [ beheld with unwilling, 
indeed, but with dry or rather fixed eyes, because not 
suspecting the least mischief from thence to the College, 
and therefore laughing, so far from fearing. The other, 
in reality, never enough to be lamented, that while I 
flattered myself with having by my whole power of per- 
suasion, in the room of Orphaean music, raised the 
Croonian medical lecture as it were from the shades into 
day, if there could be any faith in solemn promises, that 
faith being to my very great wonder violated, this lec- 
ture, like another Eurydice, perhaps looked after by me 
too hastily, beloved by me too desperately, instantly 
slipped back again, and fled indignant to the shades 
below." 

As soon as he was out of office, Sir William started 



102 ROLL OF THE [1726 

on his visit to the springs. Whilst at Bath he paid a 
visit to bishop Warburton at Prior park. The learned 
prelate has drawn the following inimitable portrait of 
him in a letter to Dr. Hurd, dated 18th November, 
1767: "When you see Dr. Heberden, pray commu- 
nicate to him an unexpected honour I have lately re- 
ceived. The other day, word was brought me from 
below that one Sir William Browne sent up his name, 
and would be glad to kiss my hand. I judged it to be 
the famous physician, whom 1 had never seen, nor had 
the honour to know. When I came down into the 
drawing-room, I was accosted by a little well-fed gen- 
tleman, with a large muff in one hand, a small "Horace" 
open in the other, and a spying-glass dangling in a 
black ribbon at his button. After the first salutation, 
he informed me that his visit was indeed to me, but 
principally and in the first place to Prior park, which 
had so inviting a prospect from below ; and he did not 
doubt but, on examination, it would sufficiently repay 
the trouble he had given himself of coming up to it on 
foot. We then took our chairs, and the first thing he 
did or said, was to propound a doubt to me concerning 
a passage in Horace, which all this time he had still 
open in his hand. Before I could answer, he gave me 
the solution of this long misunderstood passage, and in 
support of his explanation had the charity to repeat his 
own paraphrase of it in English verse, just come hot, as 
he said, from the brain. When this and chocolate were 
over, having seen all he wanted of me, he desired to 
see more of the seat, and particularly what he called 
the monument, by which 1 understood the Prior's 
tower, with your inscription. Accordingly, I ordered a 
servant to attend him thither, and when he had satis- 
fied his curiosity, either to let him out from the park 
above into the downs, or from the garden below into 
the road ; which he chose I never asked, and so this 
honourable visit ended. Hereby you will understand 
that the design of all this was to be admired, and indeed 
he had my admiration to the full, but for nothing so 



3726] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 103 

much as for his being able at past eighty to perform 
this expedition on foot, in no good weather, and with 
all the alacrity of a boy both in body and mind." 

How long the knight continued on his travels I have 
no means of discovering. Ere long, however, he re- 
turned to Queen- square, and in a contest for some sub- 
ordinate parochial office, carried on so warmly as to open 
taverns for men, and coffee-house breakfasts for women, 
he exerted himself greatly, wondering, however, as he 
himself expressed it, that a man bred at two universities 
should be so little regarded. A parishioner, in reply to 
some such remark, answered, " That he had a calf that 
sucked two cows, and a prodigious great one it was." 
At the age of eighty, on 8t, Luke's day, 1771, he went 
to Batson's cotfee-house, in his laced coat and band and 
fringed white gloves, to show himself to Mr. Crosby, 
then Lord Mayor. A gentleman present observing that 
he looked very well, he replied, " he had neither wife 
nor debts/' 

Sir William Browne died at his house in Queen- 
square, Bloomsbury, 10th March, 1774, aged eighty- 
two. His lady died 25th July, 1763, in her sixty- 
fourth year. His remains w r ere interred at Hillington, 
co. Norfolk, and in the church is a handsome monument 
to his memory, with the following inscription, admitted 
in his will to have been the offspring of his own pen : 

M. S. 

D. Gulielmi Browne Militis 
Medicorum Londini bis Prsesidis 

S. R. S. 

Studium opusque qui valde persequens 

Medicinam hand sine Deo fecerat 

Die nocteque nitens pro viribns 

Salutem hilaris hominibus dare 

Labor turn ipse sibi voluptas fuit 

Eheu ! jam agendo haud spectator amplius 

Beatum tamen vixisse se adserens 

Probe contentus exacto tempore 

Uti conviva cedit vita satur 
Homo humani a se alienum nil putans 

Die decimo Martii 1774 mortuus 
Die Ciceronis natali 3 Jan" 1692 editus 



104 ROLL OF THE [1726 

Beatiorem bis preefatns adpetens 

Patria O ! perpetua esto et libera 

Sit anima mea cum Christosophis 

Prope Newtonum, Boylium, Lockium 

Procul insanis a sapientibus 

Velim edicas, Lector, quanti est vivere 

Licet qua terris noscere et agere. 

Sir William Browne's will, drawn up by himself, 
was a curiosity : it is singularly demonstrative of his 
character and oddities, but is not wanting in philan- 
thropy. In the preamble he lashes orthodox and hete- 
rodox alike, and the Greek and Latin with which it 
was interlarded puzzled the people at Doctors' Com- 
mons. On his coffin, when in the grave, he desired 
might be deposited, " in its leather case or coffin/' his 
pocket Elzevir Horace, " comes viae vitseque dulcis et 
utilis," he adds, " worn out with and by me." He dis- 
posed of his property judiciously and equitably, and 
left certain prize medals to be given yearly to Cam- 
bridge undergraduates. 

His publications are numerous, but unimportant. 
They are curious and witty, but dreadfully burdened 
with quotations. Their titles, even, are characteristic. 

Dr. Gregory's Elements of Catoptrics and Dioptrics, translated 
from the Latin original by William Browne, M.D., at Lynn Regis, 
in Norfolk. By whom is added : I. A Method for finding the Foci 
of all Specula, as well as Lenses universally ; as also Magnifying 
or Lessening a given object by a given Speculum or Lens in any 
assigned proportion. II. A Solution of those Problems which Dr. 
Gregory has left undemonstrated. III. A particular account of 
Microscopes and Telescopes from Huygens, with the Discoveries 
made by Catoptrics and Dioptrics. 8vo. Lond. 1735. 

Oratio Harveiana, Principibus Medicis parentans ; Medicinam, 
Academias utrasque laudans ; Empiricos, eorum cultores perstrin- 
gens ; Collegium usque a natalibus illustrans : in Theatre Collegii 
Reg. Med. Lond. habita Festo Divi Lucae MDCCLI. a Gul. Browne 
Equite Aurato, M.D. Cantab, et Oxon, hujusce Collegii Socio, 
Electo, Censore, S.R.S. et a Consiliis. 4to. Lond. 1751. 

This oration was embellished with Sir William's arms 
in the title-page, and a head-piece representing the 
theatre at Oxford, the Senate-house at Cambridge, and 
the College of Physicians, with an emblematic initial 



1726] EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 105 

letter. These ornaments accompanied all his future 
publications. 

A Letter from Sir William Browne, deputy-lieutenant of the 
county of Norfolk, to his tenants and neighbours, seriously recom- 
mended at this time to the perusal of all the people of England. 
8vo. Lond. 1757. 

Ode in imitation of Horace, Ode iii, 1. 3, addressed to the Right 
Hon. Sir Robert Walpole, on ceasing to be Minister, February 6, 
1741, designed as a just panegyric on a great Minister, the glorious 
Revolution, Protestant succession, and principles of Liberty. To 
which is added the original Ode, defended in Commentariolo. 4to. 
Lond. 1765. 

Opuscnla varia utriusque Linguae : Medicinam ; Medicorum Col- 
legium; Literas, utrasque Academias ; Empiricos, eorum cultores ; 
Solicitatorem, Praestigiatorem ; Poeticen, Criticen ; Patronum, 
Patriam ; Religionem, Libertatem, spectantia. Cum Prasfatione 
eorum editionem defendente. 4to. Lond. 1765. 

Appendix Altera ad Opuscula ; Oratiuncula, Coll. Med. Lond. 
cathedrae valedicens. In Comitiis, postridie Divi Michaelis, 
MDCCLXVII ad Collegii administrationem renovandam designatis ; 
Machinaque Incendiis extinguendis apta contra Permissos rebelles 
munitis, &c. 4to. Lond. 1768. 

A Farewell Oration, &c., a translation of the preceding. 4to. 
Lond. 1768. 

Fragmentum Isaaci Hawkins Browne Arm. sive Anti-Bolin- 
brokius. Liber Primus, translated for a second Religio Medici. 
4to. Lond. 1768. 

Fragmentum Isaaci Hawkins Browne completum. 4to. Lond. 
1769. 

Appendix ad Opuscula. 4to. Lond. 1770. 

Odes. 4to. Lond. 1771. 

A Proposal on our Coin : to remedy all present and prevent all 
future disorders. 4to. Lond. 1771. 

A New Year's Grift : a problem and demonstration on the xxxix 
Articles. 4to. Lond. 1772. 

The Pill Plot. To Dr. Ward, a quack of merry memory, written 
at Lynn, November 30, 1734. 4to. Lond. 1772. 

Corrections in verse from the Father of the College, on Son Cado- 
gan's Gout Dissertation, containing false physic, false logic, and 
false philosophy. 4to. Lond. 1772. 

Elogy and Address. 4to. Lond. 1773.* 

A full-length portrait of Sir William Browne in his 
gown as president, painted by Hudson, is at the Col- 
lege. It was presented by himself 13th April, 1767, in 
the second year of his presidency. 

* See Nichols's Literary Anecdotes. 



106 ROLL OF THE [1726 

SIR EDWARD WILMOT, BART., M.D., was descended 
from a family which was settled at Sutton-upon-Soar, 
in the county of Nottingham, soon after the Norman 
conquest, and removed thence into Derbyshire about 
the year 1539. He was the second son of Robert 
Wilmot, of Chaddesden, co. Derby, esquire, and was 
born 29th October, 1693. He was educated at St. 
John's college, Cambridge, of which house he was a 
fellow, and he proceeded A.B. 1714 ; A.M. 1718 ; M.D. 
1725.* He then settled in London; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1725 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1726. He was 
Censor in 1729 and 1741 ; and delivered the Harveian 
oration in 1735. He was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society 29th January, 1729-30. He married 
Sarah, the eldest daughter of Dr. Mead, and through 
his influence was appointed physician to St. Thomas's 
hospital. In April, 1731, he was appointed physician 
extraordinary to the queen, and soon afterwards physi- 
cian in ordinary to her Majesty, and to Frederick prince 
of Wales. After the queen's death he was appointed 
physician in ordinary to king George II, and in 1740 
physician-general to the forces. He was created a baro- 
net 17th February, 1759, and on the accession of king 
George III was appointed one of his physicians in or- 
dinary ; but about this time he retired from practice 
and withdrew from London. He resided for some time 
at Nottingham ; but finding it too cold for his age and 
constitution, he removed to Heringston, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Dorchester, co. Dorset, where he died 21st 
November, 1787, when he had more than completed 
his ninety- third year. He was buried in the parish 
church of Monkton, and is commemorated by the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Sir Edward Wilmot, Bart., M.D. 

He married Sarah Marsh, 

* He graduated as George Edward Wilmot. 



1726] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 107 

daughter of Richard Mead, M.D., 

by whom he left one son, 

Sir Robert Mead Wilmot, Baronet, 

and two daughters, Ann and Jane. 

He died at Heringston, in the county of Dorset, 

the 21st day of November, 1787, aged 93, 

and was interred by his own express directions 

in the parish church of Monkton, in the said county, 

near his beloved wife, who died 
the llth day of September, 1785, aged 83. 

JOHN B AMBER, M.D., a native of Kent, was bred a 
surgeon, and practised as such for many years in the 
city of London, and realised a large fortune. When of 
mature age, he withdrew from that department of prac- 
tice, devoted himself to physic, and, having produced 
letters diinissory from the company of Barbers and Sur- 
geons, dated 16th July, 1724, disfranchising him from 
that company, he was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 5th October, 1724. On the 12th 
April, 1725, he was created doctor of medicine at Cam- 
bridge, per lit eras Regias, as a member of Emmanuel 
college ; and coming again before the Censors for ex- 
amination, was admitted a Candidate 18th October, 
1725 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1726. He was 
Censor in 1730 and 1731 ; and dying 7th November, 
1753, was buried in Barking church, Essex, where a 
monument, ornamented with a fine bust of the doctor 
in white marble, bears the following inscription : 

Hie jacet JOHANNES BAMBEK, M.D. 
Reg. Soc. Colleg. Medic. Lond. Socius, 

qui per mnltos annos medicinam 

cum multa laude feliciter exercuit. 

Reipublic83 utilis suisque non inglorius vir; 

maritus, parens optimus, 
sociis charus, omnibus benevolus ; 
egenis arte atque re sua liberalis. 

Occidit eheu ! flebilis 
occidit morte subita nee inopinata, 

senectute gravi, non valetudine, 

Novembris die septimo, anno salutis 1753, 

set. suae 86. 

Dr. Bamber acquired large estates in the county of 



108 BOLL OF THE [1727 

Essex. His two daughters and co-heiresses married 
respectively Francis Walter Jones, surgeon, of Mincing- 
lane, afterwards of Wyfields, Barking, in right of his 
wife : and Margaret, Sir Crisp Gascoyne, knt., alder- 
man of Vintry ward and lord mayor in 1752 (the first 
lord mayor who lived in the present Mansion-house). 
Sir Crisp Gascoyne died 28th December, 1761, and 
was buried at Barking, leaving with other children 
Bamber Gascoyne,. a well-known political character in 
the last century. On his death in 1791 the Bamber 
estates descended, under Dr. Bamber 's will, to a second 
Bamber Gascoyne, who cut off the entail, pulled down 
the house at Bifrons, and sold the site and the park. 
His daughter and heiress married the marquis of Salis- 
bury, who took the name of Gascoyne before that of 
Cecil, and became possessed of the Bamber property, 
worth, it is said, 12,OOOZ. a-year. There is a fine por- 
trait of Dr. Bamber, by Verelst, at the top of the grand 
staircase at Hatfield house. 

NICHOLAS EOBINSON, M.D., a native of Wales, and a 
doctor of medicine of Rheims, of 15th December, 1718, 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
27th March, 1727. He died at an advanced age, 13th 
May, 1775, and was the author of 

A compleat Treatise of the Stone and Gravel. Dissolution of the 
Stone without bodily detriment, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1721. 

Theory of Physick and Diseases, founded on the principles of the 
Newtonian Philosophy. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

A new Method of treating Consumptions. 8vo. Lond. 1727. 

A new System of the Spleen, Vapours, and Hypochondriack 
Melancholy. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

Discourse upon the Nature and Cause of Sudden Deaths, and 
upon Bleeding in Apoplexy. 8vo. Lond. 1732. 

A new Treatise of the Venereal Disease. 8vo. Lond. 1736. 

The Christian Philosopher; or, a Divine Essay on the Principles 
of Man's Universal Redemption. 8vo. Lond. 1741. 

An Essay on the Gout and all gouty affections incident to Man- 
kind. 8vo. Lond. 1755. 

A Treatise on the Virtues and Efficacy of a Crust of Bread, eat 
early in a Morning, fasting. 8vo. Lond. 1756. 

A general Scheme for a course of Medical Lectures intended for 
the improvement of young physicians and gentlemen. 4to. Lond. 



1728] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 109 

SEBASTIAN LE FEVRE, of St. Alban's, Herts, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 5th May, 
1727. 

LAWRENCE MARTEL, M.D., was born at Twickenham, 
and educated at Merchant Taylors' school, on leaving 
which in 1715 he entered as a pensioner of Clare hall, 
Cambridge, and, as a member of that house, proceeded 
M.B. 1721 ; M.D. 5th July, 1726. Admitted a Can- 
didate of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 
1726, and a Fellow 22nd December, 1727, he was Censor 
in 1730, 1731, 1733, 1737, 1743; and Eegistrar in 1737 
and 1738. He died in 1746. 

ALEXANDER STUART, M.D., a Scotchman, who, on 
the 14th December, 1709, being then thirty-six years 
of age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden and, 
graduated doctor of medicine there 22nd June, 1711 
(D.M.I, de Structura et Motu Musculari, 4to.), was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College 25th June, 1720. He 
was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge (comitiis 
Regiis) 1728, and was physician in ordinary to the 
queen, in which capacity he was admitted a Fellow of 
the College of Physicians 2nd September, 1728. He 
was Censor in 1732 and 1741. Dr. Stuart was ap- 
pointed physician to the Westminster hospital on its 
establishment in 1719, and one of the six physicians to 
St. George's hospital, appointed at the first general 
board, held 19th October, 1733, when he resigned his 
office at the Westminster. He held his office at St. 
George's for a short period only, resigning it 9th July, 
1736. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and a 
member of the Royal Academy of Sciences ; from the 
former he received the Copley medal for his researches 
into the structure and action of muscle. Dr. Stuart 
died 15th September, 1742. His only published work, 
an amplification of his inaugural essay, was his 

Dissertatio de Structura et Motu Musculari. 4to. Lond. 1 738. 



110 ROLL OP THE [1720 

THOMAS KNIGHT, of Caernarvon, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College 23rd January, 1728-9. 
One of his name, probably our Extra-Licentiate, was 
the author of 

An Essay on the Transmutation of Blood, 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

A Vindication of an Essay on .the Transmutation of Blood. 8vo. 
Lond. 1731. 

A Dissertation on Chalybeats. 8vo. Lond. 1731. 

Reflections upon Catholicons, or Universal Remedies. 8vo. Lond. 
1749. 

THOMAS HARWOOD was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 30th January, 1728-9. 
He practised at Merrow, near Guildford. 

JOHN BEAUFORD, M.D., was born in Cornwall, and 
educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, as a member of 
which house he proceeded A.B. in 1686. He was created 
doctor of medicine at Cambridge (comitiis Regiis), 1728; 
and was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physi- 
cians 25th June, 1729. He died, at a very advanced 
age, in October, 1750. 

WILLIAM MARTIN, M.D., was born in Middlesex, and 
educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he pro- 
ceeded M.B. 1723. In the autumn of that year he was 
entered on the physic line at Leyden, and graduated 
doctor of medicine there in 1725 (D.M.I, de Fluxu 
Menstruale et Morbis Virginum). He graduated M.D. 
at Cambridge 7th July, 1728 ; was admitted a Candi- 
date of the College of Physicians 2nd September, 1728, 
and a Fellow 30th September, 1729. 

JOHN MOUXTFORD, M.D., was born in London, and 
educated at Trinity college, Oxford. He proceeded 
A.B. 7th December, 1702 ; A.M. 5th July, 1705 ; M.B. 
9th December, 1708; and M.D. 9th July, 1712. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1728 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 
1729 ; and died at his house in Wine-office-court, Fleet- 
street, 28th March, 1731. 



1729] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. Ill 

WILLIAM FULLERTOX, M.D., was born in Argyleshire, 
and on the 8th September, 1717, being then twenty- 
five years of age, was entered on the physic line at Ley- 
den. As a member of Balliol college, he was created 
bachelor and doctor of medicine at Oxford by diploma 
12th April, 1728. On the 5th November, 1728, he was 
elected an honorary member of the College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh. Dr. Fullerton was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1728, and a Fellow 30th September, 1729. He was 
physician to Christ's hospital ; on the 29th June, 1731, 
was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society; and died 
12th March, 1737. 

CROMWELL MORTIMER, M.D., was born in Essex, and 
was the second son of John Mortimer, esq., of Topping 
hall, in that county. He was educated at Leyden, under 
Boerhaave. He was admitted on the physic line there 
7th September, 1719 ; went through the very complete 
course of instruction given in that university, and took 
his degree of doctor of medicine there 9th August, 
1724 (Exercitatio Inaug. de Ingressu Humorum in 
Corpus Humanum. 4 to.). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1725 ; but, 
having been created doctor of medicine at Cambridge 
(comitiis Regiis), llth May, 1728, was admitted a 
Candidate 30th September, 1728, and a Fellow 30th 
September, 1729. Dr. Mortimer was a person of con- 
siderable importance in his day. He was a fellow of 
the Royal and of the Antiquarian Society ; of the 
former he was secretary for more than twenty years, 
and he was one of the most active of that illustrious 
band, who laboured for the incorporation of the latter. 
The Doctor's elder brother left him the family estate, 
where he died 7th January, 1752. He edited Fran- 
cisci Willughbeii de Historia Piscium libri quatuor, re- 
cognovit Joh. Raius accessit Index Piscium, &c., cura 
Cromwelli Mortimer, M.D. folio, 1743 ; and published 

On the Volatile Spirit of Sulphur. 8vo. Lond. 1744. 



112 BOLL OF THE [1729 

An Address to the Public, containing Narratives of the Effects of 
certain Chemical Remedies in most Diseases. 8vo. Lond. 1745. 

JOHN CONINGHAM, M.D., was a native of Cumber- 
land. He, being then twenty-two years of age was, on 
the 22nd August, 1718, entered on the physic line at 
Leyden, and he graduated doctor of medicine at Rheims 
21st July, 1719. He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1723 ; but, having 
been created doctor of medicine at Cambridge, 26th 
April, 1728, was admitted a Candidate 30th Septem- 
ber, 1728, and a Fellow of the College 30th September, 
1729. He was Censor in 1740, 1744, 1747; and was 
named an Elect 16th December, 1746. Dr. Coning- 
ham was appointed physician extraordinary to the Lon- 
don Hospital 16th March, 1742, and died 23rd January, 
1749. 

EGBERT NESBITT, M.D., was the son of Mr. John 
Nesbitt, a dissenting minister, and was born in London. 
He received his medical education at Leyden, where he 
was, on the 1st September, 1718, entered on the physic 
line. He attended the lectures of Boerhaave and the 
elder Albinus, and took his degree of doctor of medicine 
there 25th April, 1721 (D.M.I, de Partu Difficili. 4to.). 
He was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 22nd April, 
1725 ; a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1726 ; and having been created doctor of medi- 
cine at Cambridge 15th June, 1728, was admitted a 
Candidate 30th September, 1728, and a Fellow 30th 
September, 1729, Dr. Nesbitt was Censor in 1733, 
1738, 1742, 1745, 1748 ; on the 23rd March, 1740-1, 
was appointed Lumleian lecturer for a period of five 
years; an Elect 22nd August, 1748, and Consiliarius 
1750, 1754, 1758. Haller says of him* " bonus in 
universum auctor." He died 27th May, 1761 ; and 
was the author of 

Human Osteogony explained. 8vo. Lond. 1736. 

* Bibliotheca Anatomica, vol. ii, p. 286. 



1729] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 113 

RICHARD WATTS, M.D., a native of Hampshire, then 
practising at Lymington, was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College 26th June, 1703. A few years 
afterwards, removing to London, he presented himself 
at the Censors' board, and on the 30th September, 
1710, after the usual examinations, was admitted a 
Licentiate. He was created doctor of medicine at Cam- 
bridge 15th June, 1728 ; on the 30th September follow- 
ing, was admitted a Candidate of the College ; and on 
the 30th September, 1729, a Fellow. Dr. Watts died 
14th April, 1750, aged seventy-four. 

PETER HOOKE, M.D., was born at Norwich, and on 
the 28th May, 1718, was admitted a pensioner of Clare 
hall, Cambridge, under Dr. Laughton, and as a member 
of that house proceeded M.B. in 1723. On the 21st 
October, 1726, being then twenty-six years of age, he 
was entered on the physic line at Leyden, and he gra- 
duated M.D. at Cambridge in 1728. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th v Septem- 
ber, 1728 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1729. Dr. 
Hooke's name disappears from the annual list in 1736. 

JAMES MONRO, M.D., was the only son of Alexander 
Monro, D.D., principal of the university of Edinburgh, 
who just before the Revolution of 1688 was nominated 
by James II to the then vacant see of Argyle. The 
alterations which took place in the church of Scot- 
land at that period prevented his obtaining possession 
of the bishopric ; and, Dr. Monro and the government 
of William III not agreeing in their political opinions, 
he was fetched to London by a messenger in September, 
1691, and there remained until his death, which oc- 
curred in or about the year 1700. Dr. Alexander 
Monro (as we learn from the family pedigree) was de- 
scended from the chiefs of the Highland clan of Monro, 
whose ancestors fell at Bannockburn, Halidon-hill, 
Pinkie, &c., fighting in the cause of their country, and 

VOL. II. I 



114 ROLL OP THE [1729 

who are described as having been invested with the 
barony of Fowlis, in Ross-shire, by Malcolm Canmore, 
A.D. 1024. This ancient clan are said by Macaulay and 
other writers to have adhered to the side of William of 
Orange, and to have been hostile to the last of the 
Stuarts ; but Dr. Alexander Monro seems to have in- 
herited the more ancient royalist sentiments of the 
family, who are described by Buchanan as coming to 
the aid of Mary queen of Scots, with their followers, 
when attacked by the reformers of those days. 

Dr. James Monro was born in Scotland 2nd Septem- 
ber, 1680, and accompanied his father to England in 
1691. At a proper age he was entered at Balliol col- 
lege, Oxford, and as a member of that house proceeded 
A.B. 15th June, 1703; A.M. 3rd June, 1708; M.B. 
25th May, 1709 ; and M.D. 9th July, 1722. He com- 
menced practice in London, was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 1728, 
and a Fellow 22nd December, 1729. Dr. Monro was 
elected physician to Bethlem hospital 9th October, 
1728 ; he delivered the Harveian oration in 1737 ; and, 
dying at Sunning-hill, Berks, in the night of the 4th 
November, 1752, aged seventy-two, was buried in the 
church there. His son, Dr. John Monro, in his "Re- 
marks on Dr. Battie's Treatise on Madness," 8vo. Lond. 
1758, writes thus of this estimable physician : " He was 
a man of admirable discernment, and treated this dis- 
ease (insanity) with an address that will not soon be 
equalled. He knew very well that the management re- 
quisite for it was never to be learned but by observa- 
tion ; he was honest and sincere ; and, though no man 
was more communicative upon points of real use, he 
never thought of reading lectures upon a subject that 
can be understood no otherwise than by personal obser- 
vation : physic he honoured as a profession, but he des- 
pised it as a trade. However partial I may be to his 
memory, his friends acknowledge this to be true, and 
his enemies will not venture to deny it." 

A good portrait of this physician has recently been 



1729] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 115 

presented to the College by his descendant, Henry 
Monro, M.D., a Fellow of the College. 

WILLIAM WOODFORD, M.D., was born in Hampshire, 
and educated at Winchester, which he entered in 1701. 
Elected thence to New college, Oxford, he proceeded 
B.C.L. 22nd May, 1706 ; M.B. and M.D. 26th Novem- 
ber, 1724. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 23rd December, 1728 ; a Fellow 22nd 
December, 1729 ; and was Censor in 1733. Dr. Wood- 
ford was appointed Regius professor of Physic at Ox- 
ford 2nd April, 1730. On the 2nd August, 1734, he 
announced to the College his intention of leaving 
London and settling in Oxford. He retained the regius 
professorship until his death, which occurred at Bath on 
the 13th November, 1758. Dr. Woodford presented 
to the College, in 1738, the portrait of Dr. Croone, now 
in the Censors' room, and also the copy of " Scriptores 
de Re Rustica, impressa Regii," 1496, which had once 
belonged to our first president, Linacre. 

FRANCIS CLIFTON, M.D., was a native of Norfolk, and 
a doctor of medicine of Leyden, of 1724. His inaugural 
essay on that occasion, " De distinctis et confluentibus 
Variolis," 4to., was reprinted by Haller in his "Dis- 
putationes ad Morborum Historiam et Curationem 
facientes." Dr. Clifton was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society 29th June, 1727. He was created doctor 
of medicine at Cambridge (comitiis Regiis) 26th April, 
1728 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 23rd December, 1728 ; a Fellow, 22nd Decem- 
ber, 1729 ; and delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 
1732. He was physician to the prince of Wales, but 
resigned that office and left London in 1734. His name 
disappears from the list of the College in 1737. He was 
the author of the following works : 

Tabular Observations recommended as the surest way of im- 
proving Physick. 8vo. Lond. 1731. 

The State of Physick, ancient and modern, briefly considered. 
8vo. Lond. 1732. 

I 2 



116 ROLL OF THE [1730 

Proposals for Printing, by subscription, all the works of Hippo- 
crates in Greek and Latin, digested in a new and regular manner. 

The intended publication did not meet with sufficient 
encouragement, and never appeared. 

A Translation of Hippocrates upon Air, Water, and Situation, 
Epidemicks, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

His GRACE CHARLES DUKE OF EICHMOND was cre- 
ated doctor of medicine at Cambridge (comitiis Regiis), 
1728. He was elected a Fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians 25th June, 1728, but was not actually admitted 
until December, 1729. The duke died 8th May, 1750. 

THOMAS RUSSE was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College 23rd January, 1729-30. He practised at 
Chelmsford. 

JOHN OLDFIELD, M.D., was born in Surrey, and on 
the 23rd September, 1717, being then twenty-seven 
years of age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden. 
He graduated doctor of medicine there in 1718 (D.M.I, 
de Causis Motum Sanguinis circularem per vasa cor- 
poris animalis promoventibus ac obstantibus). He was 
created doctor of medicine at Cambridge (comitiis Regiis), 
26th April, 1728. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1729 ; a Fellow 25th 
June, 1730 ; and was Censor in 1735. Dr. Oldfield was 
appointed physician to Guy's hospital 21st April, 1725. 
He died 25th June, 1748. 

THOMAS PARRATT, M.D., was born in Huntingdon- 
shire, and was the son of Thomas Parratt, of Calworth, 
in that county. He was educated at Huntingdon school 
under Mr. Matthews, was admitted a pensioner of St. 
John's college, Cambridge, 8th June, 1703, aged seven- 
teen, his father being then dead. He proceeded M.B. 
1710; M.D. 1722; was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1729 ; and a Fel- 



1731] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 117 

low 30th September, 1730. His name disappears from 
the list in 1741. 

JOSHUA YOUNG, of Cheshunt, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College 5th April, 1731. His library 
was sold in 1757. 

SAMUEL PYE, M.D. A native of London, and a doc- 
tor of medicine of Glasgow, of 20th January, 1720 ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 12th 
April, 1731. He died at Bromley, near Bow, 2nd 
February, 1772 ; and was the author of 

Some Observations on the several Methods of Lithotomy. 4to. 
Lond. 1724. 

An Enquiry into the Legal Constitution of the Royal College of 
Physicians in London. 8vo. Lond. 1753. 

JOHN NEWINGTON, M.D., was born in Surrey, and 
educated at Queen's college, Oxford. He proceeded 
A.B. 21st April, 1719; A.M. 28th April, 1722; M.B. 
5th July, 1725 ; M.D. 6th July, 1728 ; was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1730 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 1731. Dr. Newing- 
ton practised at Greenwich, and died there 22nd Janu- 
ary, 1771. His only literary effort was the Harveian 
oration for 1738. 

SAMUEL DWIGHT, A.M., was a son of John Dwight, 
gent., of Wigan, and was for a short time at St. Peter's, 
Westminster, where he was admitted in 1686. Re- 
moving thence, however, in 1687, to Oxford, he was 
admitted a commoner of Christ church, and as a mem 
ber of that house proceeded A.B. 23rd May, 1691 ; 
A.M. 14th Februaiy, 1693. He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1731. 
He practised at Fulham and died there 10th Novem- 
ber, 1737. According to the "Gentleman's Maga- 
zine," vol. vii, " he was the first that found out the 



118 BOLL OF THE [1732 

secret to colour earthenware like china." He was the 
author of 

De Vomitione et Purgatione, eorumque excessu curando, necnon 
de Emeticis Medicamentis, de Catharticis, de Variolis et Morbillis. 
8vo. Lond. 1722. 

De Hydropibus. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

De Febribus Symptomaticis. 8vo. Lond. 1731. 

ROBERT PORTER, M.D. A native of London, was on 
the 16th September, 1726, being then twenty-three 
years of age, entered on the physic line at Leyden, 
where he graduated doctor of medicine 25th July, 1727 
(D.M.I, de Natura Vasorum in corpore humario). He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1731. He died in 1735 or 1736. 

JONATHAN BROOKE, M.D. A native of Warwick- 
shire ; admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 30th September, 1731. At that time he had no 
degree in arts or medicine ; but on the 3rd August, 
1733, he was created doctor of medicine by the univer- 
sity of St. Andrew's. Dr. Brooke practised midwifery, 
and died 12th March, 1735. 

JAMES TAVERNER, M.B., was born at Maiden, in 
Essex, and on the 17th March, 1725, was admitted a 
pensioner of Clare hall, Cambridge, under Mr. Greene. 
As an undergraduate of Clare hall, Cambridge, he was 
admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 18th February, 1731-2. He practised for a time 
at Sudbury, co. Suffolk, but after a few years removed 
to Witham, in Essex, where a medicinal spring had 
recently been discovered. To it high medicinal virtues 
were for a time assigned, and much benefit to the town 
was anticipated. The great hall of the mansion of New 
hall, near Chelmsford, was bought and translated to 
Witham for an assembly room ; but the whole project 
soon came to nothing. Taverner proceeded bachelor of 
medicine at Cambridge in 1733 ; and published "An 
Essay on the Witham Spa," 8vo. Lond. 1737. 



1732] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 119 

JOHN BOBERTSON, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Aberdeen, practising at Wells, co. Somerset ; was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 29th March, 
1732. 

SIMON BURTON, M.D., was born in Warwickshire, 
and was the eldest son of Humphrey Burton, of Caresly, 
near Coventry, by his wife, Judith, daughter of Abra- 
ham Bohun, of Coundon, co. Warwick, clerk. He was 
educated at Rugby, and at New college, Oxford, as a 
member of which he proceeded A.B. 29th November, 
1710; A.M. 26th May, 1714 ; M.B. 20th April, 1716 ; 
M.D. 21st July, 1720. He practised for some years 
at Warwick, but then settled in London ; was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 12th A.pril, 
1731 ; a Fellow 3rd April, 1732 ; was Censor in 1738 ; 
and delivered the Harveian oration in 1740. Dr. 
Burton was appointed one of the physicians to St. 
George's hospital 19th October, 1733. He died at his 
house in Savile-row llth June, 1744. Dr. Burton 
was one of the physicians who attended Pope in his last 
illness. 

MATTHEW LEE, M.D., was born in Northampton- 
shire ; and in 1709, being then fourteen years of age, 
was admitted a King's scholar at Westminster. Elected 
thence, in 1713, to Christ church, Oxford, he, as a mem- 
ber of that house, proceeded A.B. 17th May, 1717; 
A.M. 23rd June, 1720; M.B. 26th October, 1722; and 
M.D. 16th June, 1726. He practised for some years at 
Oxford with marked success, but about the year 1730 
removed to London ; was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 12th April, 1731 ; and a Fellow 
3rd April, 1732. He was Censor in 1734 ; and Har- 
veian orator in 1736. In 1739 he was appointed phy- 
sician to Frederick, prince of Wales, in place of Dr. 
Broxolme, deceased ; and himself dying 26th Septem- 
ber, 1755, was buried in the church of Little Linford, 
co. Bucks, where there is a monument with the follow- 
ing inscription : 



120 ROLL OF THE [1732 

H.S.E. 

Mattheeus Lee M:D. 

qui natus Northamtoniee, 

educatus in Schola Westmon 1 

Alumnus Regis, 
et cooptatus in ^Edem Christi Oxonias, 

Literis atque Scientiis 
uberrime instructus fuit et ornatus. 
Artem Medicam Oxonise et Londini 

tanta cum fama exercuit, 

ut Frederici Wallire Principis, 

et illustris Domus valetudini Regente 

Medicus constitueretur Ordinarius. 
Erat em'm in Morbis diagnoscendis sagax, 

in iisdem curandis peritissimus ; 

in consultando apertus, facilis, gravis. 

Uxorem duxit Saram, Job. : Knapp arm : 

filiam natu minimam. 
Obiit Sept : xxvi A.D. MDCCLV. 

set : LXI. 

Moriens sine prole, 

Conjugi dilectas, 

quse hoc Monumentum posuit ; 

et Conjugis Sorori, 
amplas opes annuas legavit. 

Et post illarum obitum, 

Collegas suas ^Edis ex Xti ^dis alumnos 

hseredes prope exasse constifcuit ; 

ad ingenuas omnis literatures 

reiq. physicae et anatomicse studia, 

in perpetuum promovenda. 

Dr. Lee* bequeathed to the College the portrait of 
Dr. Freind, now in the dining room. He was a muni- 
ficent benefactor to Christ church and to Westminster 
school. In 1750 he had founded an anatomical lecture- 
ship at Christ church, which he endowed with a stipend 
of 140?. a-year; he also gave money for building an 

* " In medendo acutus et eruditus, in loquendo apertus et facun- 
dus, in agendo probus et sincerus : Qui modestis facilis et comis, 
arrogantibus acer et intrepidus, panperibus misericors et liberalis, 
divitibus Justus neque avidus fuit. Adulationis Ipse impatiens 
adulatus est nemmi, plebeculaB sermunculos contempsit, optimatum 
blanditias neglexit : quod denique de Pisone oratore scribit Cicero, 
id quidem Leei nostri mores et valetudinem mirifice depingit. Is 
(inquit Cicero) laborem forensem quasi cursum diutius non tulit, 
quod corpore erat infirm o, et Hominum ineptias ac stultitias, qua3 
devorandee nobis sunt, non ferebat, iracundiusqtm respuebat, non 



1732] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 121 

anatomy school, and for converting the old library into 
rooms. His bequest to Westminster consisted of ex- 
hibitions for the students, 35Z. to each of the West- 
minster students of the first year, beginning in the 
quarter in which they are elected to the Lady-day fol- 
lowing. The residue is divided among the students 
who reside seven calendar months, and are not above 
eight years from their matriculation. 

JOHN WIGAN, M.D., was born 31st January, 1694-5, 
and was the son of the Rev. William Wigan, rector of 
Kensington. When fifteen years of age he was ad- 
mitted to Westminster school, and was elected thence 
to Christ church, Oxford, in 1714. Some verses of his 
occur among the academical lamentations on the death 
of queen Anne in 1714, and of Dr. Radcliffe in 1715 ; 
besides which, he wrote the lines on the death of dean 
Aldrich, which are published in V. Bourne's edition of 
the dean's poems, and four at least of the exercises in 
the Carmina Quadrigesimalia are ascribed to him. As 
a member of Christ church, he graduated A.B. 6th 
February, 1718; A.M. 22nd March, 1720; and then, 
accumulating his degrees in physic, proceeded M.D. 6th 
July, 1727. On the 5th October, 1726, he was ad- 
mitted principal of New Inn hall, Oxford, and about the 
same time was appointed secretary to the earl of Arran, 
the chancellor of the university. He was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians the 12th April, 
1731, and a Fellow 3rd April, 1732, when he resigned 
his office at New Inn hall, and settled in London. He 
was elected physician to the Westminster hospital in 
1733, and retained his office there until 1737. In 1738 
Dr. Wigan accompanied his friend Mr. afterwards Sir 
Edward, Trelawny (son of Sir Jonathan Trelawny, 
one of the seven bishops committed to the tower by 

morose ut putabatur, sed ingenio prorsus Hberoque fastidio. 
Virum hunc egregium lugeant nostrse quas dilexit, Academise 
lugeat nostrum quod ornavit Collegium ; lugeat denique, Ars ipsa 
Medica, cujus dignitatem tueri semper studuit." Oratio Harveiana 
A.D. 1755, nabita p. 34. 



122 BOLL OF THE [1732 

James II) to Jamaica, in the double capacity of physi- 
cian and secretary. They there married two sisters, 
daughters of John Douce, a planter in the island. Mary, 
who was married to Dr. Wigan, was the widow of Philip 
"Wheeler, of Jamaica. They had one daughter, Mary 
Trelawny Wigan ; she married Hose Herring May, esq., 
one of H.M. counsel for Jamaica. Dr. Wigan died in 
Jamaica 5th December, 1739, aged forty-three. His 
memorial still exists in the cathedral church of St. 
Catherine, Spanish town, Jamaica. It is a black marble 
slab, simply inscribed 

Doctr. John Wigan, obiit 5 Deer. 1739, a?tat. 43. 

Dr. Wigan's name will always be held in respect 
by the admirers of Aretseus, for his splendid edition 
of that author in folio, which issued from the Claren- 
don press in 1723. Maittaire compiled the index to 
it at the request of Dr. Freind, who, it would seem 
from Dr. Wigan's dedication of the book to him, de- 
frayed great part of the expense ; for the editor says 
that it was "tuo hortatu inchoatam, tua ope absolu- 
tam." When Boerhaave published his handsome edition 
of the same author in 1735, he availed himself of the 
labours both of Wigan and Maittaire, and in his dedi- 
cation made the following handsome acknowledgment 
to the former : " Addidi dein ilia omnia, quse eximius 
Wiganus summa diligentia, successu felicissimo, illus- 
trando Aretaeo protulerat, pulcherrima ad literarum 
studia, artemque medicam ; sola excepta version e, quam 
elaboravit optimam : quia jamdudum fuerat absoluta 
impressio textus nostrse edition is priusquam prodiret 
Wiganiana." 

Dr. Wigan had a share in editing Dr. Freind 's works ; 
and besides writing the life of Freind in choice Latin, 
he translated the " History of Physick " into Latin 
and prefixed to the folio edition of 1732 a long alcaic 
ode, dated 15th July, 1727, which he had composed on 
Freind's appointment as physician to the queen/''" Dr. 
Wigan's portrait, a three-quarter life size, by Hogarth, 
* Vide Alumni Westmonasterienses, p. 262. 



1732] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 123 

is in the possession of the Rev. W. W. Harvey, rector 
of Eweime, Oxfordshire, who is descended ex parte 
materna from Dr. Wigan, and to whom T am indebted 
for many of the facts stated above. 

FRANK NICHOLLS, M.D., was descended from a re- 
spectable family in Cornwall, but was born in 1699 in 
London, where his father practised as a barrister. He 
received his rudimentary education at a private school 
in the country, whence he was removed to Westminster. 
Entered a sojourner at Exeter college, Oxford, 4th 
March, 1714, under Mr. John Haviland, he proceeded 
A.B. 14th November, 1718 ; A.M. 12th June, 1721 ; 
M.B. 16th February, 1724; and M.D. 16th March, 
1729. From the commencement of his medical studies, 
he devoted himself to dissections, and thus laid the 
surest foundation for the fame he subsequently acquired 
as an anatomist and physiologist. He was appointed y 
reader in anatomy in the university, and in this capa- ^ 
city obtained much reputation at Oxford. His lectures 
were commenced at an early period, probably soon 
after he took his first degree in arts, and were conti- 
nued for several successive years. During this period, 
he did not permanently reside at Oxford ; but, when 
his course of lectures was completed, repaired to Lon- 
don, where he continued his anatomical and prac- 
tical studies. He settled in the first instance in Corn- 
wall, where he practised for a time with considerable 
reputation, but the fatigue of a country business in- 
duced him, ere long, to return to London. He visited 
France arid Italy for the sake of improvement in his 
favourite science, and on his return to England com- ( 
menced a course of lectures on anatomy and physiology ) 
in the metropolis. The novelty of his discoveries, the 
gracefulness of his manner, and the charms of his 
delivery attracted to him not only the medical people 
in every line, but persons of all ranks and all profes- 
sions who crowded upon him from every quarter. Dr. 
Nicholls was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 



124 ROLL OF THE \_1732 

in 1728 ; a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1730 ; and a Fellow 26th June, 1732. 
He was Gulstonian lecturer in 1734, and again in 
1736. On the former occasion he selected as his sub- 
ject " the Structure of the Heart and the Circulation 
of the Blood." On the latter, "the Urinary Organs, 
with the Causes, Symptoms and Cure of Stone." He 
was Censor in 1735 and 1746, and delivered the Har- 
veian oration in 1739. Dr. Nicholls was nominated 
Lumleian lecturer for a term of five years, 30th August, 
1746, and commenced the duties of that office with 
his elegant and weU-known dissertation " De Anima 
Medica." On the death of Dr. John Coningham in the 
early part of 1749, the Elects of the College ignored the 
claims and well-founded reputation of Dr. Nicholls, and 
elected Dr. Abraham Hall, his junior in age and stand- 
ing {is a Fellow, into their body. For an act so disre- 
spectful to Dr. Nicholls no adequate cause has ever been 
assigned, and contemporary Fellows of the College were 
unable to explain it. Dr. Nicholls resigned his Lumleian 
lectureship, and thenceforward took little part in the 
''affairs of the College. His wife's father, Dr. Mead, 
seems to have resented the slight offered to Dr. Nicholls, 
and on the 9th April, 1750, resigned his place as one of 
the eight Elects of the College. 

In 1743 Dr. Nicholls married Elizabeth, the youngest 
daughter of Dr. Mead, through whose influence he ob- 
tained considerable practice. On the death of Sir Hans 
Sloane in 1753, he was appointed physician to George 
II, and held that office until the king's death in 1760. 
Tired at length of London, and wishing personally to 
superintend the education of his son, he in 1762 re- 
moved to Oxford ; but when the study of the law re- 
called Mr. Nicholls to London, the doctor retired to 
Epsom, where he resided several years, devoting him- 
self to the study of botany and agriculture, and died 
7th January, 1778, in the eightieth year of his age. 
The life of Dr. Nicholls was written in choice Latin 
by his pupil and intimate friend, Thomas Lawrence, 



1732] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSIC CANS. 125 

M.D., " Franci Nichollsii Vita," 4to. Lond. 1780. His 
portrait, engraved by John Hall, from a model of Mr. 
Isaac Gossets, is prefixed thereto. * Dr. Nicholls was 
the inventor of corroded anatomical preparations. He 
was one of the first to study and teach the minute 
anatomy of tissues, in other words, general, as distin- 
guished from regional and descriptive anatomy ; a sub- 
ject which he made his own by the originality and 
precision of his views, and to which he devoted many 
of the lectures of his anatomy course. Dr. Nicholls was 
also the first to give a correct description of the mode 

* " Staturae fuit mediocris, corporis compact!, et, cum sevi integer 
erat, agilis. Facies ei honesta et decora ; vultus benevolentiam et 
dignitatem prae se ferens, ita ut primo aspectu reverentiam simul 
et amorem astantium sibi conciliaret ; varius autem et mutabilis, 
ut hominis naturae simplicis et aperti motus animi ex oris immuta- 
tione facile cognosceres. Mira suavitate et perspicuitate orationis, 
et in sermone f amiliari et in praelectionibus usus est ; in his autem 
id praecipue laudis fuit, ut verbis propriis, ordine lucido extem- 
pore prolatis, orationem aliorum meditatam et lepore et vi et 
i>ap>yeia facile vinceret. In aegrotorum curatione nihil prius habuit, 
quam ut signa morbi propria a communibus, quod optime potuit, 
nempe qui physiologiam perspectam haberet, sejungeret, ut quid 
oppugnandum esset cognosceret, ut motus, quibus ex naturae insti- 
tute morbi causa vel vinceretur vel expelleretur, a motibus illis, 
quibus homo patitur, nihil in malo amoliendo agit, secerneret : 
ilium enim medicinam feliciter facturum putavit, non qui sympto- 
matis supprimendis, sed, qui, ex naturae concilio, vim ejusdem fero- 
cientis temperare, eamdem languentem excitare, errantem, in viam 
reducere contendit. Quis enim prudens in Cholera materiam acrem 
per alvum excituram cohiberet ? Quis malo arthritico cum dolore 
et inflammatione pedem occupante, morbura in sanguine repelleret ? 
ut aeger molliculus et doloris impatiens avaX^rjaia frueretur. Nihil 
siquidem in morbis capitalius esse statuit, quam, morbi causa 
minime expulsa vel subacta, symptomata evanescere; unde vix 
aliud expectandum esse experientia docemur, quam ut segrotus 
afiaj^-rl manus hosti det. Medicamentorum in curationibus quod 
satis esset, parca manu adhibuit ; religio quippe illi fuit molestiis 
illis, quas morbus secum ferebat, alias addere. Literis Grraecis et 
Latinis satis doctus ; in multis libris legendis nonnulloram ob- 
scuram diligentiam contempsit ; cum medicinas principia vera, 
morborum facies varia, remediorum utendorum ratio paucis libris 
sint tradita, sententiam vero cujusque vel inepti, vel absurdi, vel 
delirantis, rogandi laborem stultum censuit." Franci Nichollsii 
Vita ; Thoma Lawrence M.D., scriptore, p. 104. 



126 ROLL OF THE [1732 

of production of aneurism ; and he distinctly recog- 
nised the existence and office of the vaso-motor 
nerves.* He was the author of 

Compendium Anafcomioum, ea omnia complectens, qiiae ad Humani 
Corporis CEconomiam specbant. In usum Academies Oxoniensis con- 
structum, 1732. 

This ran to several editions, was much enlarged, and 
eventually appeared under the title of " Compendium 
Anatomico-CEconomicum. " 

De Anima Medica Praelectio. 4to. Lond., 1750. 

To the second edition of which, in 1775, he added a 
dissertation " De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Homine 
nato et non nato." 

The Petition of the Unborn Babes to the Censors of the Royal 
College of Physicians. 4to. Lond. 1751. 

PELHAM JOHNSTON, M.D., was born in York, and was 
the son of Cud worth Johnston, M.D., a distinguished 
physician of that city, who died in 1692, by his wife 
Margaret, a daughter of John Pelham, of Hull. He 
was educated at Sedburgh school, and on the 2nd May, 
1700, being then nineteen years of age, was admitted a 
sizar of St. John's college, Cambridge. He proceeded 
M.B. 1711; M.D. 26th April, 1728; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1731 ; 
and a Fellow 30th September, 1732. He died at West- 
minster, 10th August, 1765. 

ABRAHAM HALL, M.D. was born in Yorkshire, and, 
after a good preliminary education, was entered at Tri- 
nity college, Cambridge, as a member of which he pro- 
ceeded M.B. 1 725, M.D. 1728. He was admitted a Can- 
didate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1731, 

* " At arterias nunquam non comitantur nervi, qui surculos suos 
in earnndem tunicas irnmittiint, quorum sensu peculiari sanguinis 
stimulus persentiscitur, pulsus moderamen fit, humorum in vasa, 
justa fit distributio, succorum utilium confectioni et secretioni, 
inutilium autem expulsioni prospicitur." Franci Nichollsii Vita 
scriptore Tho. Lawrence, p. 18. 



1732] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 127 

and a Fellow 30th September, 1732 ; was Censor in 1734 
and 1 745, and was named an Elect 2 7th February, 1 748-9. 
Dr. Hall was physician to St. Thomas's hospital, and to 
the Charterhouse : the former appointment he resigned 
in 1749, but he continued to hold the latter until his 
death, which took place at his official residence in Char- 
terhouse-square, 5th February, 1751. 

JAMES SHERAKD, M.D., was the son of George Sher- 
ard, of Bushby, in Leicestershire, and was born in 1666. 
He was educated at Merchant Taylors' school, and in 
February, 1681-2, was apprenticed to Mr. Charles 
Watts, an apothecary, who, shortly before, had been ap- 
pointed to the care and management of the Botanical 
garden at Chelsea, a circumstance which must have 
given his apprentice the opportunity of cultivating a 
taste for botany, and no doubt laid the foundation of his 
future excellence in that science. He practised for many 
years as an apothecary, in Mark-lane, and accumulated 
an ample fortune. He was a man of extensive attain- 
ments, an accomplished musician, and an excellent bo- 
tanist ; and at his country house at Eltham, in Kent, he 
had a good garden, richly stocked with exotic plants. 
His brother, William Sherard, D.C.L., fellow of St. 
John's college, Oxford, who had been English consul at 
Smyrna, was scarcely less eminent as a botanist. He 
cultivated an extensive garden at his country house near 
Smyrna, which he enriched with the rarer products of 
Natolia and Greece, and there began to form his cele- 
brated herbarium, which eventually comprised 12,000 
species. He died in 1728, and bequeathed to the uni- 
versity of Oxford his library, herbarium, and 3,000?. for 
the endowment of a professorship of botany, directing 
that the nomination shou]d for ever be in the gift of the 
College of Physicians of London. To James Sherard 
devolved the office of carrying into effect his brother's 
bequest ; on the completion of which, the university of 
Oxford conferred upon him the degree of doctor of me- 
dicine, by diploma, 2nd July, 1731. He had then for 



128 ROLL OF THE [1733 

several years retired from the business of an apothecary, 
and had withdrawn to Eltham. The College of Physi- 
cians, to mark their sense of the patronage vested in 
them as the electors of the Oxford professorship, on the 
recommendation of their President, Sir Hans Sloane, 
agreed to admit him to the Fellowship without exami- 
nation, and without the payment of fees. The propo- 
sition was submitted to the College, 26th June, 1732, 
and Dr. James Sherard was admitted a Fellow at the 
nextComitia, 30th September, 1732. He continued to 
reside at Eltham, where he pursued his favourite occu- 
pation the cultivation of valuable and rare plants a 
curious catalogue of which was published by Dillenius 
in 1732, under the title, " Hortus Elthamensis, sive Plan- 
tarum Rariarum quas in Horto suo Elthami in Cantio 
colligit vir ornatissimus et praestantissimus Jac. Sherard, 
M.D. Reg. Soc. et Coll. Med. Lond. Soc.," &c., &c. 

Dr. Sherard died, sine prole, 12th February, 1737-8, 
leaving behind him 150,000. He was buried in the 
church of Evington, near Leicester, where he possessed 
much property. A marble tablet, with the following 
epitaph, was erected by his widow in the chancel 

M.S. 

JACOBI SHERARD, M.D. 
Colleg. Medic. Lond. efc Soc. Beg. Soc. 

Viri multifari doctrina cultissimi, 
in Rerum naturalium, Botanices imprimis, scientia 

pene singularis, 
et ne quid ad oblectandos amicos deesset 

Artis Musicae peritissimi. 

Accesserant illi in laudis cumulum 

mores Christiani, vitae integritas, 

et erga omnes comitas et benevolentia. 

Obiit prid. Id. Feb. A.D. MDCCXXXVII. 

Annos natus LXXIT. 

EDMUND WATSON, M.D., was a doctor of medicine, 
but of what university is not recorded. He practised 
at Stockport, Cheshire, and was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College 30th April, 1733. His library 
was sold at auction, by Leacroft, in 1776. 



1734] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 129 

JOHN COLLET, M.D., was born in London, and on the 
3rd September, 1729, being then twenty years of age, 
was entered on the physic line at Leyden, where he 
graduated doctor of medicine in 1731 (D.M.I, de Peste, 
4to.). He was admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 6th July, 1733, and settling at 
Newbury, practised there with distinguished reputation 
for nearly half a century. He died, universally re- 
gretted, on the 12th May, 1780. Dr. Collet was a dis- 
senter, and his funeral sermon was preached in a Pres- 
byterian chapel in Newbury. 

THOMAS WHITE, of Manchester, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th July, 
1733. 

JOHN CKESSWELL, of Edmonton, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College on the 27th of Septem- 
ber, 1733. 

CHARLES ASHENDEN was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College 19th October, 1733. He practised 
at Durham. 

HUGH OWEN, M.D., was educated at Leyden, where 
on the 26th September, 1730, in the rectorship of Boer- 
haave, he was entered on the physic line, being then 
twenty- three years of age. He graduated doctor of me- 
dicine at Rheims 17th October, 1733, and was admitted 
an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 27th 
February, 1733-4. He practised in Merionethshire. 

JOHN EATON, M.D., a native of Cheshire, and a doctor 
of medicine of Aberdeen, of 12th June, 1727, was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 8th 
April, 1734. Dr. Eaton was elected physician to the 
Middlesex hospital 6th July, 1749, and resigned that 
office 4th July, 1751. He died in 1770. 

WILLIAM MUSHEL MAYNARD, of Wigan, was admitted 

VOL. II. K 



130 ROLL OF THE [1735 

an Extra-Licentiate of the College 25th July, 1734. He 
died in May, 1737. 

BROWNE LANGRISH, M.D. Of the birthplace, pa- 
rentage, or education of this excellent practical physi- 
cian, 1 can recover no particulars. He was certainly 
practising as a surgeon at Petersfield, in Hampshire, in 
1733, when his Essay on Muscular Motion was pub- 
lished. He was still there on the 25th July, 1734, 
when he was admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians, and began to practise as a physician. 
He subsequently removed from Petersfield to Winches- 
ter or Basingstoke (I am not sure which), and died at 
the last-named town 12th November, 1759. Dr. Lang- 
rish was elected a fellow of the Koyal Society 16th 
May, 1734. From his own original experiments de- 
tailed in one of the works mentioned below, with the 
Aqua Lauro-Cerasi he saw reason to infer that it might 
be beneficial in the treatment of disease. He may, 
therefore, be credited with having in reality suggested 
the employment of prussic acid as a remedy. He was 
the author of 

A New Essay on Muscular Motion, founded on Experiments, 
Observations, and the Newtonian Philosophy. 870. Lond. 1733. 

The Modern Theory and Practice of Physick, wherein the ante- 
cedent Causes of Diseases ; the rise of the most Usual Symptoms 
incident to them ; and the true Methods of Cure are explained. 8vo. 
Lond. 1735. 

Physical Experiments upon Brutes to discover a Method of dis- 
solving Stone in the Bladder by Injections ; to which is added a 
Course of Experiments with the Lauro-Cerasus ; on Fumes of Sul- 
phur, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1746. 

Plain Directions in regard to the Small Pox. 4to. Lond. 1758. 

FRANCIS DOUCE, M.D., was bred a surgeon. Having 
been disfranchised of the company of Barber Surgeons, 
he was, on the 31st March, 1735, admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians. He was created doctor of 
medicine by the university of Aberdeen 15th May, 1750, 
and died at Hackney 16th September, 1760, aged 
eighty-four. His portrait, on horseback, set. seventy- 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 131 

five, was painted by W. Keable, and engraved by 
McArdell. 

WILLIAM WHITAKER, M.D., a native of Yorkshire, 
was on the 1 7th September, 1717, entered on the physic 
line at Ley den, and there in the following year he gra- 
duated doctor of medicine (D.M.I, de Cantharidibus). 
He was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge (comi- 
tiis Regiis), 26th April, 1728 ; was admitted a Candi- 
date of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1734, 
and a Fellow 30th September, 1735. He was Censor 
in 1738, and his name disappears from the College lists 
in 1744. 

JOHN GLANVILL, of St. Michael's, Cornwall, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
13th July, 1736. , 

HENRY BANYER, of Wisbeach, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College 30th July, 1736. He 
was the author of the 

Pharmacopaeia Pauperum; or, the Hospital Dispensatory, con 
taining the chief medicines now used in the Hospitals of London. 
12mo. Lond. 1721. 

A Methodical Introduction to the Art of Surgery. 4to. Lond. 
1717. 

MATTHEW CLARKE, M.D., was born in London, and on 
the 5th September, 1721, being then twenty years of 
age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden. He 
was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge (comitiis 
Regiis) in 1728. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1735 ; a Fellow 
30th September, 1736, and was Censor in 1743. Dr. 
Clarke was elected physician to Guy's hospital 31st 
March, 1732, and resigned that office 23rd January, 
1754; soon after which he retired from practice, and 
removed to Tottenham, where he died in November, 
1778. 

K 2 



132 BOLL OF THE [1736 

WILLIAM CLARK, M.D., a native of Wiltshire, was 
educated at Leyden. He was entered on the physic 
line there 19th November, 1726,being then twenty-eight 
years of age, and he graduated doctor of medicine in 
that university on the 31st July, 1727 (D.M.I, de Viribus 
Animi pathematum in Corpus Hurnanum, 4to.). He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1736. He practised in London for 
some years ; but a favourable opening for a physician 
having presented itself at Bradford, co. Wilts, he re- 
moved thither in 1747. Dr. Clark retired from practice 
in 1772, when he withdrew to Colchester, and died 
there in or about the year 1780. 

He was the author of 

A Medical Dissertation concerning the Effects of the Passions on 
Human Bodies. 8vo. Lond. 1753. 

The Province of Midwives in the Practice of their Art, instructing 
them in the timely knowledge of such difficulties as require the 
timely assistance of Men for the Preservation of Mother and Child. 
8vo. Lond. 1751. 

ROBERT HOPWOOD, M.D., was born in Lancashire, 
and educated at Christchurch, Oxford. He took the 
two degrees in arts, A.B. 19th October, 1716; A.M. 
19th October, 1719; and then, accumulating those in 
physic, proceeded M.D. 5th July, 1726. He was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 22nd 
December, 1735 ; a Fellow, 29th December, 1736 ; was 
Censor in 1740 ; and Harveian orator in 1741. In 1745 
Dr. Hopwood left London and settled at Manchester, 
where he died 19th July, 1762. 

BENJAMIN HOADLEY, M.D., was the eldest son of 
Benjamin Hoadley, D.D., who died bishop of Winches- 
ter in 1761. Our physician was born in Broad-street, 
City, 10 February, 1705-6, and was educated at a school 
kept by Dr. Newcome, of Hackney. He was entered 
at Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, in 1722, as a 
member of which house he proceeded M.B. in 1727, and 
in April, 1728, was created doctor of medicine, comitiis 



1736] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 133 

Regiis. He then settled in London, was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society, and admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 22nd December, 1735 ; and a 
Fellow, 29th December, 1736. He was Gulstonian lec- 
turer in 1737, Censor in 1739, and Harveian orator in 
1742. On the 28th April, 1735, Dr. Hoadley was 
elected physician to St. George's hospital, and in 1736 to 
the Westminster hospital, both of which appointments 
he continued to hold for some years. That at the West- 
minster hospital he resigned in 1746, and that at St. 
George's in 1751. He was appointed physician to the 
king's household in June, 1742, and physician to the 
household of the prince of Wales in January, 1745-6. 
Dr. Hoadley died in August, 1757. He was the author 
of " The Suspicious Husband," a comedy : and he pub- 
lished his Harveian oration, and his Gulstonian lectures 
the latter on the Organs of Respiration, to which he 
added an appendix, containing " Remarks on some Ex- 
periments of Dr. Houlston, published in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions." This appendix is said by Haller to be 
a very ingenious defence of a bad cause. Its author 
is described by Haller as " elegantis ingenii vir, poeta 
etiam comicus."* 

THOMAS REEVE, M.D., was born in Middlesex, and 
educated at Emmanuel college, Cambridge, as a member 
of which he proceeded M.B. 1727, and M.D. 1732. He 
had studied physic for some time at Leyden under Boer- 
haave and Albinus, and was entered there 18th October, 
1725. He was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 22nd December, 1735; and a Fellow 29th 
December, 1736. He was Registrar from 1739 to 1741 
inclusive ; Censor in 1741 and 1749 ; Elect, 19th Janu- 
ary, 1750; Consiliarius, 1751, 1752, 1753; and Presi- 
dent from 1754 to 1763 included. Dr. Reeve was 
elected physician to St. Thomas's hospital in 1740, and 
resigned that appointment in 1760. Dr. Reeve died at 

* Bibliotb. Anat. vol. ii., p. 326. 



134 BOLL OF THE [1737 

his house in Throgmorton-street, 3rd October, 1780, 
aged eighty. He was probably the author of 

A Cure for the Epidemical Madness of drinking Tar Water. By 
T. R. 8vo. Lond. 1744. 

ROBERT BANKES, M.D., was born in London, and 
educated at Eton, whence he was elected, in 1720, to 
King's college, Cambridge, of which society he was a 
fellow. He proceeded A.B. 1724 ; A.M. 1728 ; M.D. 
1735 ; and the same year was appointed professor of 
anatomy in the university. He was admitted a Candi- 
date of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1736 ; 
and a Fellow 25th June, 1737 ; was Gulstonian lec- 
turer in 1738 ; Censor in 1739 ; and Harveian orator 
in 1743. Dr. Bankes was chosen physician to 
Christ's hospital in April, 1737, and died in November, 
1746. 

AMBROSE DAWSON, M.D., was born in Yorkshire, and 
was the son of William Dawson, of Langcliff, esq., by 
his wife Jane, a daughter of the ancient family of Pud- 
sey, of Bolton, in that county. He was educated at 
Christ's college, Cambridge. He proceeded M.B. 1730 ; 
M.D. 1735 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1736; and a Fellow, 25th June, 
1737. He was Censor in 1740, 1746, 1751, 1756 ; 
Harveian orator in 1744 ; Elect, 9th April, 1750 ; and 
Consiliarius, 1755, 1756, 1757, 1759. He was elected 
physician to St. George's hospital, 27th April, 1745, 
and retained that office until 1760. "He resided in 
Grosvenor-street, where he practised in a very unosten- 
tatious way, and was a most charitable man. Upon his 
leaving London about 1776, to reside at Lancliif hall, 
and when presents of plate were not quite so frequent 
as they are now, he received from the parish of St. 
George, Hanover-square, a magnificent tea-urn in the 
fashion of the time, with an inscription which may be 
considered a volume in a few words. ' The parish of 



1737] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 135 

St. George Hanover-square bo Ambrose Dawson esquire. 
M.D. Infirmus et visitastis me.' "* 

Lancliff hall not agreeing with him, Dr. Dawson 
eventually removed to Liverpool, where he died after a 
short illness, on the 23rd December, 1794, in his 
eighty-eighth year, being then the senior fellow of our 
college. He was buried at Bolton. We have from his 
pen 

Thoughts on the Hydrocephalus Interims. 8vo. Lond. 1778. 
Observations on Hydatids in the Heads of Cattle. 8vo. Lond. 

1778. 

SAMUEL HORSMAN, M.D. A native of Middlesex, 
was entered on the physic line at Leyden 7th Sep- 
tember, 1719, aged twenty-one, and graduated doctor 
of medicine there in 1721 (D.M.I, de Calculo Renum 
et Vesicse, 4to.). He was created doctor of medicine 
at Cambridge (comitiis Regiis) 25th June, 1728. Dr. 
Horsman was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1736, and a Fellow 30th 
September, 1737. He was Censor in 1741, 1748, 1751 ; 
Treasurer from 1746 to 1751 inclusive ; and Elect 4th 
March, 1751. He died 22nd November, 1751. 

JOSEPH LETHERLAND, M.D., was born in Warwick- 
shire, and received his medical education at Leyden. 
He was inscribed on the books of that university 
30th September, 1722, and attended the lectures of S 
Boerhaave, Albinus, and Oosterdijk Schacht. He pro- 
ceeded doctor of medicine there in 1724 (Spec. Inaug. 
Veterum. Medicorum sententias de Phrenitide curanda 
complectens, 4to.). He was created doctor of medicine 
at Cambridge, by royal mandate, 9th April, 1736 ; was } 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1736 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1737. 
He was Censor 1742, 1749 ; Consiliarius, 1757 ; and 
was named an Elect 28th April, 1757. Dr. Letherland 
was a man of deep and very extensive learning, but of 

* Gent. Mag.. June, 1841. 



136 ROLL OF THE [1737 

retired habits, and very little known even in his own 
profession, although he contributed by his literary in- 
formation to the popularity of more than one of his 
colleagues. Much of the valuable matter in Dr. Fother- 
gill's Account of the Putrid Sore Throat, Loncl., 1748, 
is generally allowed to have been derived from Dr. 
Letheiland. He was much esteemed by Dr. Heberden, 
and in 1761, when that physician's extensive practice 
made it inconvenient for him to accept the appointment 
of physician to the queen, the king, who had always 
shown towards Dr. Heberden the greatest esteem and 
regard, readily adopted his disinterested recommenda- 
tion of Dr. Letherland, who was thereupon appointed 
to the situation. Dr. Letherland was elected physician 
to St. Thomas's hospital in 1736, and resigned that 
office in 1759. He died on the 31st of March, 1764, 
and was buried in the church of St. Mary Alderman- 
bury, where there is a plain tablet with the following 
inscription : 

In memory of 

JOSEPH LETHERLAND, late of this parish, M.D. 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, 

One of the physicians to the Queen, 

And some time one of the physicians to St. Thomas's Hospital. 
He was born at Stratford-npon-Avon, A.D. 1699, 

And departed this life March 31, 1764; 
Not less eminent for the integrity of his heart, 

And benevolence of his disposition, 
Than for his knowledge in all parts of polite and useful literature.* 

He was the author of 



* " Inter erudites non praetereundus est Letberlandus, senio 
defunctus post vitam literatam civibus suis utilissimam. Hnic 
debemus, ni fallor, notas quasdam breves, quibus refelleret calum- 
niam a viro doctissimo, iisque non indigno, medicis Bomanis illa- 
tam. Sed quod majoris est momenti, ipse nostratium primus 
faucium ulcera gangreenosa animadvertit, felicemque medendi ra- 
tionem non casu, sed e libris, Hispaniornm preecipue, diligenter 
perlectis et observationibus collatis investigatam, cum Collegis suis 
communicavit." Oratio Harveiana anno MDCCLXV habita, auctore 
Tbo. Healde. 



1738] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 137 

Notae breves in Diss : de Medicorum apud Romanes conditione a 
C. Middleton editam. 8vo. Lond. 1726. 

RENALD COMARQUE, M.D., was a native of Middle- 
sex, educated at Corpus Christi college, Cambridge. He 
studied physic at Leyden,andwas inscribed on the books 
of that university, 2 6th October, 171 9, being then twenty- 
one years of age. He proceeded M.B. at Cambridge in 
1728, and was the same year created doctor of medi- 
cine, comitiis Regiis. He was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 30th September, 1736, and a 
Fellow 30th September, 1737. His name disappears 
from the list in 1742. 

CHARLES COTES, M.D., was the second son of John 
Cotes, of Woodcote, Shropshire, esquire, by his wife, 
lady Dorothy Shirley. He was entered at Magdalen 
hall, Oxford, of which his uncle, Digby Cotes, D.D. was 
then principal, and as a member of that house took 
the degree of A.B. 27th June, 1723. Elected a fellow 
of All Souls' college, he removed thither, and proceeded 
B.C.L. 27th October, 1727; D.C.L. 1st July, 1732. 
On the 24th November, 1736, he was created doctor of 
medicine at Oxford by diploma ; was admitted a Candi- 
date of the College of Physicians 4th April, 1737 ; and 
a Fellow 27th March, 1738. Dr. Cotes delivered the 
Gulstonian lectures in 1739, the Harveian oration in 
1745, and was Censor in 1743. He was elected phy- 
sician to the Westminster hospital in 1733, and re- 
tained his office until 1739. Dr. Cotes married Wil- 
liamina, the only daughter of Cheselden, the surgeon. 
He was returned a member of parliament for the bo- 
rough of Tamworth in 1734, and again in 1741 ; and he 
died without issue 21st March, 1748. 

HENRY EICHARDSON, M.D., was the son of John 
Richardson of Alnwick, an Extra- Licentiate of the Col- 
lege already mentioned, and was born there about 1713. 
He was a doctor of medicine of Leyden, of 1735 



138 BOLL OF THE [1738 

(D.M.I, de efficaci& Exercitationum in sanitate tuenda, 
4 to.), then practising at Alnwick,in Northumberland, and 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College on the 
28th of June, 1738. He survived just half a century, 
dying on the 18th March, 1788, aged seventy-five. His 
eldest son James, baptized at Alnwick 2nd August, 
1745, was bred a physician: he graduated at Edin- 
burgh in 1770, and settled at Wakefield. 

ADDISON HUTTON, M.D., was the last heir male of 
an ancient family in Cumberland, the Buttons of Gale 
and of Hutton hall, Penrith, who trace back to Adam de 
Hoton, in the reign of Edward I. He was of Queen's 
college, Oxford, and proceeded A.B. 5th July, 1731 ; 
A.M. 4th July, 1732 ; M.B. 8th July, 1734 ; M.D. 8th 
July, 1737. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1737 ; and a Fel- 
low 30th September, 1738. Dr. Hutton was one of the 
physicians to St. George's hospital, to which office he 
was elected 22nd October, 1736. He died 30th March, 
1742. 

WILLIAM BEDFORD, M.D., was the eldest son of Hil- 
kiah Bedford, A.M., by his wife Alice, a daughter of 
William Cooper, esq. He was educated at St. John's 
college, Cambridge, and proceeded A.B. in 1721, A.M. 
1725. He entered himself on the physic line at Ley den 
10th September, 1727. In 1737 he was created doctor 
of medicine at Cambridge by royal mandate, and then 
settling in London was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1737, and a Fel- 
low 30th September, 1738. He delivered the Gulsto- 
nian lectures in 1740 ; was Censor in 1742 and 1745, 
and Registrar in 1745 and 1746. Dr. Bedford was ap- 
pointed physician to Christ's hospital in November 1746. 
He died 10th July, 1747, and is commemorated by the 
following inscription in the church of St. Nicholas, Cold 
Abbey : 



1738] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 139 

GDLIELMO BEDFORD, M.D. 

Coll. Med. Soc. et Registr., R.S.S. 

et in Orphanotrophio .5M. Christi Med. ; 

Viro probitate, prudentia, et modestissimis moribus conspicuo : 
cui etiam id maxime tribuendum est laudis, 

quod tanta esset mentis solertia, 

Tit rebus gerandis natus, ingenio tarn amabili, 

ut ad amicitiae et humanitatis officia ornanda 

proprio quodam naturae munere factus videretur : 

qui, cuin multa linguarum ac rerum scientia, 

et assiduo virtutum socialium studio, 
suam pariter artem nomenque cohonestasset, 

Anno astatis 42, febre correptus, 
uxori, consanguineis, amicis desideratissimus, 

obiit die x. Julii, A.D. 1747. 
Elizabetha conjux mcestissima P. 

He was the intimate friend of Thomas Hearne, the anti- 
quary, who, according to the " Gentleman's Magazine,"* 
" left his MSS., which are very numerous, to Dr. William 
Bedford, physician in London." 

SAMUEL JOHNSON, A.M., was the son of Samuel John- 
son, gent., and was born in Canterbury. He was edu- 
cated at the grammar school there under Mr. Le Hunt ; 
and on the 3rd July, 1727, when seventeen years of age, 
was admitted a pensioner of St. John's college, Cam- 
bridge, as a member of which he proceeded A.B. 1730 ; 
A.M. 1738. He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th October, 1738. He prac- 
tised at Canterbury, and, dying there 20th June, 1763, 
was buried on the 24th at St. Mary's Northgate, in that 
city. 

WILLIAM BATTIE, M.D., was born at Modbury, in 
the county of Devon, in 1704, and was the son of 
the rev. Edward Battie, vicar of that place, formerly an 
assistant master at Eton, whom he had the misfortune 
to lose in September, 1714, when only ten years old. 
He was educated at Eton, where his mother resided 
after her husband's death, in order to assist her son 
with those necessary accommodations which the narrow- 
* Vol. v, p. 333. 



140 ROLL OF THE [1738 

ness of her finances would not permit her to provide in 
any other way. He is said to have manifested much 
industry and desire for advancement at Eton, and in 
the year 1722 was transferred to King's college, Cam- 
bridge, where he succeeded in obtaining a scholar- 
ship, upon the nomination of the earl of Craven. His 
inclination would have led him to the bar, but circum- 
stances concurring to frustrate his wishes, he applied 
himself to physic. He proceeded A.B. in 1726, and 
A.M. in 1730, and then, obtaining a licence ad prac- 
ticandum from the university, commenced practice at 
Cambridge, and delivered lectures there on anatomy, 
which were well attended, and among others, by Horace 
Walpole. Shortly before this he had published " Iso- 
cratis Orationes Septem et Epistolse : codicibus MSS. 
nonnullis et impressis melioris notae exemplaribus col- 
latis varias lectiones subjicit, versionem novam no- 
tasque ex Hieronymo Wolfio notissimum desumptas 
adjecit Gul : Battie Coll : Reg : Cantab : Socius." This 
publication exposed him both then and subsequently to 
some very satirical remarks. 

A fair opening for a physician presenting itself at 
Uxbridge, he left Cambridge and settled there. The 
provost of Eton, Dr. Godolphin, held him in much es- 
teem, and took a singular manner of evincing it. Upon 
Battie's fixing in practice at Uxbridge, the provost sent 
his carriage and four horses for him as a patient ; but 
when the doctor sat down to write his prescription, the 
provost, then ninety-four years of age, raising himself 
up, said, " You need not trouble yourself to write ; I 
only sent for you to give you credit in the neighbour- 
hood." Battie's success at Uxbridge was considerable, 
and he succeeded in laying by some money, to which 
was added some time afterwards a bequest of 20,OOOZ. 
from a relative. He took his degree of doctor of medi- 
cine at Cambridge in 1 737, and the same year removed 
to London. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 22nd December, 1737 ; arid a Fellow 
22nd December, 1738 ; was Censor in 1743, 1747, 1749 ; 



1738] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 141 

Harveian orator in 1746 ; Elect, 22nd May, 1755; Con- 
siliarius, 1758, 1760, 1763 ; and President in 1764. In 
November, 1749, he was appointed Lumleian lecturer, 
and held that office for five years, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Lawrence. The substance of some of 
these lectures he published under the title 

De Principiis Animalibus Exercitationes in Collegio. Reg. Medi- 
corum Loud, liabitae. 4to. Lond. 1757. 

Dr. Battie was physician to St. Luke's hospital, and 
was proprietor of a large private asylum. His practice 
seems to have been limited almost exclusively to in- 
sanity. In 1758 he published "A Treatise on Madness," 
4to. Lond., in which, having thrown out some censures 
on the practice formerly pursued at Bethlem hospital, 
he was answered and severely animadverted on by Dr. 
John Monro, in a pamphlet entitled " Remarks on Dr. 
Battie's Treatise on Madness." This reply contained a 
defence of the writer's father, who had been lightly 
spoken of in Battie's work. In 1762 he published 
" Aphorismi de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis non- 
nullis ad Principia Animalia accommodati ;" and in 
the following year he was examined before the House 
of Commons on the state of private madhouses in this 
kingdom, and received in the printed report, testimony 
highly honourable to his professional attainments. He 
resigned his office at St. Luke's hospital in April, 1764, 
and died, from the effects of a paralytic stroke, on the 
13th June, 1776. The night he expired, conversing 
with his servant, who attended on him as nurse, he 
said, " Young man, you have heard, no doubt, how 
great are the terrors of death. This night will pro- 
bably afford you some experiment ; but may you learn 
and may you profit by the example, that a conscien- 
tious endeavour to perform his duty through life will 
ever close a Christian's eyes with comfort and tranquil- 
lity." He soon afterwards departed without a struggle 
or a groan. He was buried by his own direction at 
Kingston, in Surrey, " as near as possible to his wife " 



142 BOLL OF THE [1738 

(a daughter of Barnham Goode, of Kingston, for seve- 
ral years under-master of Eton school,) " without any 
monument or memorial whatever." 

Dr. Battie, who is said by Horace Walpole in a 
letter to lady Ossory, to have died worth 100, OOO/., had 
during his life endowed a scholarship of 2,01. per annum 
at King's college, Cambridge, now known as Dr. Battie's 
foundation, and by his will gave 100/. to St. Luke's 
hospital, and WOl. to the Corporation for the Relief of 
the Widows and Children of Clergymen. Dr. Battie's 
character was sketched in a few words as follows by 
Judge Hardinge in his Latin life of his father ; 
" Battius, faber fortunes suse, vir egregise fortitudinis et 
perseverantiae, medicus perspicax, doctus, et eruditus, 
integritatis castissimae, fideique in amicitiis perspectae."* 

The doctor, at that time one of the Censors, took a 
very active part against Dr. Schomberg, in the proceed- 
ings between the College and that physician ; and the 
commencement of the lengthened and expensive liti- 
gation in which the College became involved, was appa- 
rently essentially due to him. Battie's part became 
generally known, and he was severely characterised in 
" The Battiad," a satirical poem, said to have been 
written by Moses Mendez, Paul Whitehead, and Dr. 
Schomberg : 

First Battus came, deep read in worldly art, 
Whose tongue ne'er knew the secrets of his heart ; 
In mischief mighty, tho' but mean of size, 
And, like the Tempter, ever in disguise. 
See him, with aspect grave and gentle tread, 
By slow degrees approach the sickly bed ; 
Then at his Club behold him alter'd soon 
The solemn doctor turns a low Buffoon, 
And he, who lately in a learned freak 
Poach'd every Lexicon and publish' d Greek, 
Still madly emulous of vulgar praise, 
From Punch's forehead wrings the dirty bays. 

Eccentricity was strongly marked throughout the 
whole of Dr. Battie's career. Many strange and amus- 

* N. Hardinge's Poems, p. 17. 



1739] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 143 

ing anecdotes concerning him are on record, but my 
limited space compels me to pass them over. " He was 
of eccentric habits, singular in his dress, sometimes 
appearing like a labourer, and doing strange things. 
Notwithstanding his peculiarities, he is to be looked 
upon as a man of learning, of benevolent spirit, humour, 
inclination to satire, and considerable skill in his pro- 
fession."* 

CHARLES PETERS, M.D., was of Christ church, Oxford, 
as a member of which he proceeded A.B. 3rd December, 
1713, and A.M. 15th June, 1724. Elected Kadcliffe 
travelling fellow in July, 1725, he passed some years 
upon the continent, arid, accumulating his degrees in 
physic, proceeded M.D. as a member of University col- 
lege, 8th November, 1732. He was admitted a Candi- 
date of the College of Physicians 27th March, 1738, 
and a Fellow 16th April, 1739. Dr. Peters in 1733 
was appointed physician extraordinary to the king, and 
in 1739 he succeeded Dr. Hollings as physician-general 
to the army. He was elected physician to St. George's 
hospital 28th April, 1735, and resigned his office there 
(probably on account of ill-health) in February, 1746. 
He was Censor in 1744 ; but indisposition obliging him 
to go into the country, Dr. Reeve was nominated in his 
place 8th April, 1745. His name disappears from the 
list in 1746. 

ANDREW LAVINGTON, M.D., was born in Exeter, and 
on the 3rd September, 1736, being then twenty years of 
age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden, where he 
took the degree of doctor of medicine in 1739 (D.M.I, 
de Ferro). He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 1st August, 1739, and then set- 
tled at Tavistock, co. Devon, where he practised for 
many years with considerable success. He died there 
12th October, 1782. 

* Nichol's Literary Anecdotes and Jesse's Memoirs of Celebrated 
Etonians. Vol. i, p. 18, et seq. 



144 KOLL OF THE [1739 

RUSSELL PLUMTRE, M.D., " of Notts," was admitted 
a pensioner of Queen's college, Cambridge, 12th June, 
1728, and of that house he subsequently became a fel- 
low. He proceeded M.B. 1733, M.D. 1738 ; was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1738 ; and a Fellow 1st October, 1739. He 
was appointed Regius professor of physic at Cambridge 
in 1741, and filled that chair for more than half a cen- 
tury. Dr. Plumtre died 15th October, 1793, aged 
eighty-four, having then been for many years father of 
the university, and the longest resident that had then 
been known. 

JAMES HAWLEY, M.D., was descended from a family 
which had been long settled in Somersetshire. He was 
entered first at St. Mary's hall, Oxford, as a member of 
which he took the degree of A.B. 23rd January, 1727 ; 
but then removing to Oriel, proceeded A.M. 30th June, 
1731 ; M.B. 26th June, 1733 ; M.D. 13th December, 
1737. He was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 22nd December, 1738 ; a Fellow, 22nd De- 
cember, 1739 ; was Gulstonian lecturer in 1741 ; Har- 
veian orator in 1747 ; Censor, 1744, 1747, 1751, 1754 ; 
Elect, 3rd December, 1751 ; and Consiliarius, 1756, 
1759, 1764. Dr. Hawley was elected physician to the 
Westminster hospital in 1739, and resigned his ap- 
pointment there in 1750. He died 22nd December, 
1777, and was buried in a vault he had built for him- 
self and family in the church of Leyborne, co. Kent. 
His monument bears the following inscription : 

In a vault underneath, 

are deposited the ^emains of 

JAMES HAWLEY, Doctor of Physick, 

who died at the Grange in. this parish, 

on the 22nd day of December, 1777, 

in the seventy-third year of his age. 

And also ELIZABETH, 
the wife of the said JAMES, 

who was one of the daughters of Joseph Banks, Esq., 

of Revesby Abbey, in the county of Lincoln. 

She died the 27th November, 1766, 



1740] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 145 

in the forty-seventh year of her age, 

and was buried at Isleworth, in the county of Middlesex, 

but was afterwards removed to this vault. 

MATTHEW MORLEY, M.D. On the 13th November, 
1724, being then twenty-three years of age, he was 
entered on the physic line at Leyden, and graduated 
doctor of medicine there in 1728 (U.M.I, de Pronuvio 
Muliebri, 4to.). He was created doctor of medicine at 
Cambridge, by royal mandate, in 1739; and was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians, 22nd 
December, 1738 ; and a Fellow, 3 1st March, 1740. He 
died at Kenuington 17th March, 1785. 

MICHAEL CONNEL, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Rheims of 21st September, 1724 ; was admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1740. 
He died in 1764, and was buried in old St. Pancras 
churchyard. 

CHARLES CHAUNCEY, M.D., was a grandson of Icha- 
bod Chauncey, an Extra-Licentiate of the College be- 
fore mentioned, and the eldest son of Mr. Charles 
Chauncey, citizen of London, by his wife Martha, the 
daughter of Philip Brown, esq,, of New Beckenham. 
Educated at one of the public city schools, he proceeded 
thence in 1727 to Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, 
as a member of which he graduated M.B. in 1734, M.D. 
in 1739. He was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 1st October, 1739, and a Fellow 30th Sep- 
tember, 1740. He was Censor in 1746. He died s. p. 
25th December, 1777, and was buried in St. Peter's 
church, Cornhill. Dr. Chauncey was a fellow of the 
Royal and Antiquarian societies. He left a very valua- 
ble library, which devolved on his brother, Nathaniel 
Chauncey, himself an ardent collector of books. The 
united libraries of the two brothers, both " very able 
scholars and able bibliomaniacs," was sold at auction, by 
Leigh and Sotheby, in April, 1790. To Dr. Chauncey 
the College are indebted for the fine paintings of Sir 

VOL. II. L 



146 ROLL OF THE [1740 

Samuel Garth and Dr. Mead, the one in the Censors' 
room, the other in the dining-room. For the former, 
thanks were voted 30th September, 1763 ; for the latter, 
25th June, 1759. Dr. Chauncey's portrait, by Cotes, 
was engraved by C. Watson. 

THEOPHILUS LOBB, M.D.,was descended from a highly 
respectable family in Cornwall. His grandfather, 
Richard Lobb, had served the office of high sheriff of 
Cornwall, and in the year 1659 was returned member 
of parliament for the borough of St. Michael's. Dr. 
Lobb was born in London 17th August, 1678, and was 
the son of Mr. Stephen Lobb, the pastor of a congrega- 
tion of Independent dissenters in London. From his 
childhood he had evinced a partiality for the study of 
physic, but he was nevertheless educated for the minis- 
try. In 1702 he settled as a dissenting minister at 
Guildford, and there made the acquaintance and culti- 
vated the friendship of an intelligent medical prac- 
titioner, from whom he seems to have derived no small 
amount of medical instruction. After a residence of 
about four years at Guildford, he removed to Shaftes- 
bury, where he remained about six years, and began ac- 
tually to practise as a physician. In 1713 he removed 
to Yeovil, his residence in which town was marked by 
the prosperity of his worldly circumstances, and the 
success and reputation which accrued to his practice as 
a physician. He still continued in his ministerial du- 
ties ; but it was even then predicted by some of his 
flock, that the doctor would spoil the divine, the conse- 
quence of which would be that he would eventually lay 
down the ministry. Owing to dissensions in his congre- 
gation at Yeovil, Mr. Lobb, in 1722, removed to Witham, 
in Essex, and remained for about ten years in the con- 
joint exercise of ministerial and medical functions. He 
was admitted a fellow of the Ptoyal Society 13th March, 
1728-9. In or about the year 1736, he resolved to de- 
vote himself exclusively to physic. He had been created 
doctor of medicine by the university of Glasgow as 



1740] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 147 

early as the 26th June, 1722 ; and on the 30th Sep- 
tember, 1740, he was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians. He practised in London ; and dying 
on the 19th May, 1763, in the eighty-fifth year of his 
age, was buried in Bunhill-fields. Haller says of him : 
" Vir pius et simplex, practica laude celebratus.""* His 
portrait, by N. Brown, was engraved by I. Hulitt. Dr. 
Lobb was a voluminous writer ; the following is, I be- 
lieve, an accurate list of his medical publications : 

A Treatise of the Small-pox. 8vo. Lond. 1731. 

Rational Methods of Curing Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

Medical Practice in curing Fevers exemplified in many Cases. 
8vo. Lond. 1735. 

A Treatise on Dissolvents of the Stone, and on Curing the Stone 
and Grout by Aliment. 8vo. Lond. 1739. 

An Address to the Faculty on Miss Stephens's Medicaments. 
8vo. Lond. 1739. 

A Treatise on Painful Distempers, their Causes and Remedies. 
8vo. Lond. 1739. 

Letters concerning the Plague, showing the Means to Preserve 
People from Infection, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1745. 

A Compendium of the Practice of Physic. 8vo. Lond. 1747. 

Medical Principles and Cautions. 8vo. Lond. 1753. 

Letters on the Sacred Predictions. 8vo. Lond. 1761. 

The Good Samaritan; or, Useful Family Physician. Selected 
from his Publications. 8vo. Lond. 

The Practice of Physic in general, as delivered in a Course of 
Lectures on the Theory of Diseases, and the proper Method of Treat- 
ing them. Published from his own MSS. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 
1771. 

EDWARD HODY, M.D., was descended from a Devon- 
shire family, the Hodys of Netheway, in Brixham. He 
was entered as a medical student at Leyden, 9th Sep- 
tember, 1719, being then twenty-one years of age, and 
went through a full course of medical study there ; but 
he graduated doctor of medicine at Bheims 5th October, 
1723. He was admitted a fellow of the Boyal Society 
22nd March, 1732-3, and a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1740. Dr. Hody was one 
of the physicians to St. George's hospital, and died at 
his house in Hanover-square 1st November, 1759. He 

* Biblioth. Anat., vol. ij, p. 271. 

L 2 



148 ROLL OF THE [1741 

edited and revised " Cases in Midwifery," by Mr. Gif- 
fard. 8vo. Lond. 1734 ; and was the author of 

An Attempt to Reconcile all Differences between the present Fel- 
lows and Licentiates of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 
8vo. Lond. 1752. 

THOMAS ADDAMS, M.D., was of Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, as a member of which he proceeded M.B. in 
1734 ; M.D. 1739. He was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 30th September, 1740 ; a 
Fellow, 30th September, 1741 ; and was Censor in 
1745, 1750, 1752. Dr. Addams was elected physician 
to St. Thomas's hospital in 1749, and resigned that 
office in 1759, when he was succeeded by the poet 
Akenside. He died 26th April, 1785, and was buried 
in the church of St. Lawrence, Reading. His memorial 
characterises him as " a most tender husband, an affec- 
tionate father, and a sincere friend." 

JOHN GREEN, of Eltham, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College llth November, 1741. 

JOHN ANDREE,M.D. A doctor of medicine of Rheims 
of 12th June, 1739; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd December, 1741. He was 
mainly instrumental in establishing the London hospital, 
of which institution he was the senior, and for a time 
only, physician. Nominated to that office 21st Oc- 
tober, 1740, he resigned it 5th September, 1764, and 
thenceforward declined practice. Dr. Andree died in 
Hatton-garden 4th February, 1785, aged eighty-seven 
years, being then the senior Licentiate of the College. 

He was the author of 

An Account of the Tilbury Water. 8vo. Lond. 1737. 

Cases of Epilepsy, Hysteric Pits, and St. Vitus's Dance, with the 
Process of Cure. 8vo. Lond. 1746. Republished in 1753, with 
additional Cases of the Bite of a Mad Dog, and a successful Method 
of Cure. 

Observations upon a Treatise on the Virtues of Hemlock in the 
Cure of Cancers. 8vo. Lond. 1761. 



1742] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 149 

GEORGE THOMSON, M.D., a doctor of medicine of 
Aberdeen, was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 15th January, 1741-2. He prac- 
tised at Maidstone, and was the author of 

The Anatomy of the Human Bones, with an Account of Muscular 
Motion, Circulation, Digestion, and Nutrition. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

A Short Method of Discovering the Virtues of Plants. 8vo. 
Lond. 1734. 

Of the Four Senses. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

The Art of Dissecting Human Bodies in a Plain, Easy, and Com- 
pendious Method. Translated from the Latin of Lyserus. 8vo. 
Lond. 1740. 

BENJAMIN: BOSANQUET, A.M., was descended from a 
family of Luiiel in Languedoc, some members of which 
sought refuge in England on the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes. He was the fourth son of David Bosanquet, 
one of these refugees, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Claude Hayes, esq. He was educated at Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, and became a fellow of that house. 
He proceeded A.B. 1730; A.M. 1734. On the 2nd 
October, 1737, being then twenty-eight years of age, he 
was entered on the physic line at Ley den. He was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 12th 
April, 1742 ; and died 22nd December, 1755. 

JAMES MACDONALD. Admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1742. He practised 
midwifery, and died 8th October, 1747. 

RICHARD EUSSELL, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Rheims of 7th January, 1738, then practising at Ware, 
co. Herts ; was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College 23rd July, 1742. He subsequently removed to 
Beading, and died there 5th July, 1771. He published 
a letter to Dr. Addington on his refusal to join in 
consultation with a physician licensed by the College in 
London. 8vo. Lond. 1749. 

JOHN SUTTON, M.D. A doctor of medicine, but of 



150 BOLL OF THE [1744 

what university is not stated ; was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College 10th December, 1742. He 
practised at Leicester. His only literary production 



was- 



Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the late Rev. John Jackson, 
&c. 8vo. Lond. 1764. 

WILLIAM WOODHOUSE, M.D., was entered on the 
physic line at Leyden 26th September, 1735, aged 
twenty-five, and proceeded doctor of medicine there, 
24th September, 1736 (D.M.I, de Fluore Albo Muliebri, 
4to.). Dr. Woodhouse was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 24th December, 1742. 
He practised at Leicester. 

GEORGE PILE, M.D., was a doctor of medicine of St. 
Andrew's, of llth November, 1741, and was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1743. He died in 1753. His portrait is at Apothe- 
caries' hall. 

GEORGE KELLEY, of Tmibridge Wells, was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 27th 
September, 1743. 

KF.RVIN WRIGHT, M.D, A doctor of medicine of 
Aberdeen, of 31st August, 1744 ; was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College 17th September, 1744. 
He practised at Norwich. 

THOMAS LAWRENCE, M.D., was the second son of 
capt. Thomas Lawrence, R.N., by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Mr. Gabriel Soulden, merchant, of Kinsale, 
in Ireland, and widow of colonel Piers, and was born in 
the parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, on the 25th 
May, 1711.* His preliminary education, which was 

" Dr. Lawrence is said to have been the grandson of another 
Dr. Thomas Lawrence, who was first physician to queen Anne, and 
physician-general to the army. He lived to a great age and held 



1744] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 151 

commenced in Dublin, was completed at the grammar 
school of Southampton, under the Rev. Mr. Kingsman. 
In October, 1727, he was admitted a commoner of 
Trinity college, Oxford, and as a member of that house 
proceeded A.B. 7th November, 1730 ; A.M. 25th May, 
1733 ; when, devoting himself to physic, he removed to 
London and attended the anatomical lectures of Dr. 
Frank Nicholls, and the practice of St. Thomas's hos- 
pital. He took the degree of M.B. 14th May, 1736 ; 
M.D. 17th October, 1740 ; and on the resignation of 
Dr. Nicholls was chosen anatomy reader in the univer- 
sity of Oxford. He continued in this office for several 
years, but resided in London, where he also delivered 
lectures on anatomy. In 1750, Dr. Lawrence ceased 
lecturing, and devoted himself entirely to practice. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1743; a Fellow, 1st October, 1744; 
was Gulstonian Lecturer in 1744 ; Censor, 1746, 1752, 
1753, 1757, 1759 ; and Registrar from 1747 to 1766 
inclusive. He delivered the Harveian oration in 1748 ; 
the Croonian lectures in 1751 ; and was appointed 
Lumleian lecturer in December, 1755. Dr. Lawrence 
was named an Elect 7th May, 1759 ; was Consiliarius 
1760, 1761, 1763 ; and was elected President of the 
College in 1767. To this office he was annually re- 
elected for seven consecutive years. 

Few men have been more respected by the College ; 
none, probably, by their attainments were better quali- 
fied for practice than Dr. Lawrence ; yet as a physician 
he made but little progress. He was an elegant clas- 
sical scholar, a good anatomist, and a sound prac- 
titioner ; but in his endeavour to attain to eminence it 
was his misfortune to fail. " He was a man/' says Sir 
John Hawkins, " of whom in respect of his piety, learn- 
ing, and skill in his profession, it may be almost said 

appointments under four successive princes, beginning with Charles 
II, by whom he was appointed physician to the garrison at Tangier, 
part of the dowry of queen Catherine." Gent's. Mag., vol. Ivii, 
part i, p. 191. 



152 ROLL OF THE [1744 

the world was not worthy, inasmuch as it suffered his 
talents for the whole of his life to remain in a great mea- 
sure unemployed, and himself to end his days in sorrow 
and obscurity. He was above the art by which popu- 
larity is acquired, and had besides some personal de- 
fects and habits which stood in his way a vacuity of 
countenance very unfavourable to an opinion of his 
learning or sagacity, and certain convulsive motions of 
the head and shoulders that gave pain to the beholder, 
and drew off attention from all that he said." 

Dr. Lawrence was the physician and intimate friend 
of our great lexicographer, Johnson, and was never men- 
tioned by him but in terms of the highest respect and 
admiration. " Lawrence," said Johnson, " is one of the 
best men whom I have known. He was a man of strict 
piety and profound learning, but little skilled in the 
knowledge of life or manners, and died without ever 
having enjoyed the reputation he so justly deserved." 
To console him under some family disappointment, John- 
son addressed to him a fine Latin ode, which is inserted 
in his works. In January, 1780, Dr. Lawrence lost his 
wife, a bereavement from which he never recovered. 
This sad event is memorable in our literary history, as 
it gave occasion to one of the finest letters which John- 
son ever wrote. Soon after this Dr. Lawrence lost his 
hearing, and in the early part of 1782 was struck with 
paralysis. He resigned his place of Elect 25th March 
of that year, and in the June following withdrew with 
his family to Canterbury. His mind eventually gave 
way. He died honoured and lamented by all who knew 
him, on the 6th June, 1783, aged seventy-two, and was 
buried in the church of St. Margaret, Canterbury. A 
tablet in Canterbury cathedral bears the following in- 
scription : 

M.S. 

THOMAS LAURENCE, M.D. 

Qui ad stndia, quaa virum liberaliter eductum medicinae 

aptiorem faciunt, ipsa quae faciunt Medicum adjunxit. 

Ilium adhuc juvenum ad se allexit optimum salutaris artis 

f undamen, Anatomia : 



1744] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 153 

hanc aetate provectior toto pectore excepit : 

hanc altius subtiliusque in Oxonio suo excoluit : 

hanc denique in medium protulit, 

atque ex cathedra illustravit. 
Ad usum medendi vocatus, munere suo functus est 

Diligenter et Honeste : 

In morbis dignoscendis acutus, in curandis simplex : 

Nihil interim sibi laudis arrogabat, 

nee gloriolae appetens nee lucelli ; 

In scriptis suis puritatem integram Latini sermonis attigit, 

rem suam omneiu ornate explicans, 

eamque nee impeditam verbis, nee brevitate obscuram : 

In communi vita victusque consortio facilis, modestus, affabilis : 

nunquam se aliis praeponens, neminem sibi adversum habuit. 

In collegio Medicorum Londinensi onera qua3vis, 

non secus ac honores, aequa mente sustinuit, 

in Registrarium, in Praalectorem saapius, 

in Praasidem per octennium electus. 

Accedente senecta morbo tentatus est insanabili ac diuturno ; 
nihilominus tamen beatus ille, etiam ante obitum, 
vere dici potuit, cui nnicum mali solamen adfuit, 

vitae bene acta3 conscientia. 

Natus est Patre classis Britannicae Navarcho ; 

Uxorem duxit Franciscam Caroli Chauncy Medici Derbiensis 

filiam, ex qua novem liberos suscepit : 

Quorum Grulielmus Chauncy in Indiis Orientalibus, 

Carolus apud Lyme Regis in Comitatu Dorsetensi, decesserunt ; 

FranciscaHarrietta et Johannes eodem quo pater tumulo clauduntur ; 

Tres alii tenera aetate abrepti fuerunt. 

Superstites Hoc monumentum posuere. 

Obiit 6 Die Junii A.D. 1783 

cum duos et septuaginta annos complevisset ; 

et sepultus est in vicina aede Parochiali 

Sanctae Margaretas. 

Dr. Lawrence was the author of the " Life of Har- 
vey," prefixed to the College edition, in quarto, of that 
great man's works, and on the 3rd March, 1766, was 
voted 100 for his services to the College in this re- 
spect. He also wrote the life of his friend and patron, 
Dr. Frank Nicholls ; and to him we owe the following 
works, all of them in the choicest Latin : 

De Hydrope Disputatio Medica. 12mo. Lond. 1756. 

This is an interesting and amusing book, written in 
very choice Latin. It purports to be a dialogue between 
the great Harvey, Sir George Ent, and Dr. Hamey ; 



154 ROLL OF THE [1744 

the two latter seeking information from the matured 
experience and cautious observation of the discoverer 
of the circulation. 

Prjelectiones Hedicae XII. de Calvaries et Capitis Morbis. 8vo. 
Lond. 1757. 

De Natura Musculorum. 8vo. Lond. 1759. 
Fran. Nicolsii Vita. 4to. Lond. 

EDMUND CRYNES, M.D., was the son of Jonas Crynes 
of St. Lawrence Jury, in the city of London, gent., and 
on the 15th September, 1727, being then sixteen years 
of age was matriculated at St. John's college, Oxford. 
He was elected a demy of Magdalen college in 1729, and 
as a member of that house proceeded A.B. 25th June, 
1731 ; A.M. 30th April, 1734 ; M.B. 13th May, 1737 ; 
M.D. 8th July, 1742. He was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 30th September, 1743 ; and a 
Fellow, 1st October, 1744. After practising for a few 
years at Hackney, he removed to Nottingham, and 
there continued until 1772, when he retired from prac- 
tice, and withdrew to Kenilworth, where he died, and 
was buried the 2nd July, 1787. 

JOHN FOTHERGILL, M.D., was the second sou of John 
Fothergill and Margaret Hough his wife, and was born 
at Carr End in Yorkshire, on the 8th March, 1712. He 
received his early education at Frodsham in Cheshire, 
and at Jedberg in his native county. About the year 
1728 he was placed with Mr. Benjamin Bartlett, an 
apothecary at Bradfield in Yorkshire, and on the ex- 
piration of his apprenticeship proceeded to Edinburgh, 
then rising into notice as a medical school. He attended 
the lectures of Monro (primus), Alston, Rutherford, 
Sinclair, and Plummer, all students of the Boerhaavian 
school, and whose merits have been recorded by Fother- 
gill himself in an account which he published in after 
life of Dr. Russell, his contemporary and associate. Dr. 
Monro discovered the powers of his . pupil, and urged 
him to reside sufficiently long to obtain the doctorate ; 
for till then he had only intended to qualify himself as 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 1.35 

an apothecary. He followed the advice of his preceptor ; 
and took his degree of doctor of medicine at Edinburgh ' 
the 14th August, 1736 (D.M.I. de Emeticorum Usu fi 
in variis Morbis tractandis). Dr. Fothergill then 
visited London ; attended the physician's practice at St. 
Thomas's hospital ; and having taken a short tour, in 
company with some friends, through Flanders and Hol- 
land, returned to England about the year 1740, and 
commenced the practice of his profession in London. 
He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 1st October, 1744, and is the first graduate in 
medicine of the university of Edinburgh who was ad- 
mitted by the College. Dr. Fothergill was a member \^ 
of the Society of Friends, and through their influence 
and exertions he was soon introduced into business. 
His " Account of the Putrid Sore Throat attended with 
Ulcers, 8vo. Lond. 1748," a disease which produced 
a great mortality in and around London, and excited 
much alarm, gave extended publicity to his name, and 
at once established his reputation. His progress on- 
wards towards the most extensive and lucrative prac- 
tice in the city was most rapid, and he is represented 
as having been for many successive years in the pos- 
session of a professional income of nearly 7,0 00. To ^ 
chemistry and botany he devoted his hours of relaxation 
and retirement. At Upton, near Stratford, Essex, he 
purchased an extensive estate, and furnished a noble 
garden, whose walls enclosed five acres, with a profusion 
of exotics, which he spared no pains in collecting. At 
an expense seldom undertaken by an individual, and 
with an ardour that was visible in the whole of his con- 
duct, he procured from all parts of the world a great 
number of the rarest plants, and protected them in the 
amplest buildings which this or any other country had 
then seen. He liberally proposed rewards to those 
whose circumstances and situations in life gave them 
opportunities of bringing hither plants which might be 
ornamental and probably useful to this country or her 
colonies, and as liberally paid these rewards to all that 



156 ROLL OF THE [1744 

served him. That science might not suffer a loss when 
a plant he had cultivated should die, he liberally paid 
the best artist the country afforded to draw the new 
ones as they came to perfection ; and so numerous were 
they at last that he found it necessary to employ more 
artists than one, in order to keep pace with their in- 
crease. His garden was known all over Europe, and 
foreigners of all ranks asked, when they came hither, 
permission to see it. Dr. Fothergill's attention was 
not confined to the vegetable kingdom. Da Costa was 
indebted for many valuable remarks in his " History of 
Shells," of which Fothergill possessed the best cabinet 
in England, next to that of the duchess of Portland. 
His collection of minerals was more rare than extensive, 
and the gratitude of his numerous friends had supplied 
liim with many curious specimens of the animal world. 
His collection of natural history was purchased on his 
decease by Dr. William Hunter, and is probably at this 
moment to be found in part in the museum which that 
distinguished physician bequeathed to the university 
of Glasgow, after having vainly solicited the ministers 
of the time to enable him to establish one in London. 
In 1754 Dr. Fothergill was elected a fellow of the 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and in 1763 a fel- 
low of the Royal Society. His reputation soon extended 
to other countries. He was one of the earliest members 
of the American Philosophical society, instituted at 
Philadelphia. Linnaeus distinguished by his name a 
species of Polyandria Digynia. The Royal Society of 
Medicine at Paris chose him an Associate in 1776 ; and 
his letters of admission were the more honourable be- 
cause they included a request that Fothergill would no- 
minate any persons of his acquaintance whom he might 
deem eligible to become corresponding members of the 
society. Vicq. d'Azyr communicated this mark of con- 
fidence in a Latin letter. 

In December, 1780, Dr. Fothergill experienced a 
second attack of suppression of urine ; two years pre- 
viously it had been relieved, but no art could now re- 



1744] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 157 



_i 



move it. The pain was very acute, the thirst insatiable, 
but his mind was as serene as in its best days. He ex- 
pressed to a friend his hope " that he had not lived in 
vain, but in a degree to answer the end of his creation, 
by sacrificing interested considerations and his own ease 
to the good of his fellow creatures." He died at his 
house in Harper-street, Red Lion-sqn.are, on the 26th 
December, 1780, and was buried in the Quaker's burial 
ground at Winchmore-hill . An exquisite full-length 
cabinet portrait of Dr. Fothergill, by Hogarth, is on the 
College staircase. It was presented by Mr. Cribb, of 
Covent-garden. An engraved portrait of him, by Green, 
after one by Stuart, is extant. " The person of Dr. 
Fothergill," writes his affectionate biographer, Dr. Hird, 
" was of a delicate, rather of an attenuated make ; his 
features were all character ; his eye had a peculiar bril- 
liancy of expression, yet it was not easy so to mark the 
leading trait as to disengage it from the united whole. 
He was remarkably active and alert, and, with few ex- 
ceptions, enjoyed a general good state of health. He 
had a peculiarity of address and manner, resulting from 
person, education, and principle, but it was so perfectly 
accompanied by the most engaging attentions that 
he was the genuine, polite man, above all forms of 
breeding. At his meals he was remarkably temperate ; 
in the opinion of some rather too abstemious, eating 
sparingly, but with a good relish, and rarely exceeding 
two glasses of wine at dinner or supper ; yet by his 
uniform and steady temperance he preserved his mind 
vigorous and active, and his constitution equal to all 
his engagements." Dr. Fothergill's library and paint- 
ings were sold in 1781 in York-street, Covent-garden. 
His house and choice botanical garden of rare plants at 
Upton were sold in the same year. His collection of 
shells was purchased by Dr. William Hunter. 

Dr. Fothergill contributed many papers to the " Gen- 
tleman's Magazine," the " Transactions of the London 
Medical Society," &c. &c. These, with a Sketch of his 
Life, a Selection from his Correspondence, his Inaugu- 



158 ROLL OF THE [1745 

ral Essay, and his Treatise on tlie Sore Throat, were 
published by Dr. Lettsom in three volumes 8vo. in 

178*. 

PETER CANVANE, M.D., was born in America, and on 
the 4th March, 1743, when twenty-two years of age, 
was entered on the physic line at Leyden. He gradu- 
ated doctor of medicine at Rheims ; and was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd Decem- 
ber. 1744. After practising for many years in the island 
of St. Christopher, he returned to England, and settled 
as a physician at Bath. Leaving that city, he withdrew 
to the continent, where he resided for several years 
before his death, which occurred at Brussels in 1786. 
Dr. Canvane was a fellow of the Royal Society, and the 
author of 

A Dissertation on the Oleum Palmse Christi, or Castor Oil. 8vo. 
Lond. 1764. 

WILLIAM PARRY, of Monmouthshire ; was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 9th 
April, 1745. 

CHARLES FEAKE, M.D., was of Caius college, Cam- 
bridge, and as a member of that house proceeded M.B. 
in 1738 ; M.D. 5th July, 1743. He was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1744 ; 
and a Fellow 25th June, 1745 : was Censor in 1747, 
1754, 1758; Harveian orator in 1749; Elect 25th 
June, 1761, and Consiliarius 1761. He was physician 
to Guy's hospital; and died 2nd August, 1762. 

JOHN BARKER, M.D., was educated at Wadham col- 
lege, Oxford, and proceeded A.B. 16th October, 1731 ; 
A.M. 24th May, 1737; M.B. 25th November, 1737. 
He then settled for a time at Salisbury, and whilst 
there published " An Inquiry into the Nature, Cause, 
and Cure of the Epidemic Fever of 1740, 1741, and 
1742." On the 3rd November, 1743, he took his de- 



1746] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 159 

gree of doctor of medicine at Oxford ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 8th April, 1745 ; 
and a Fellow, 24th March, 1746. About this time he 
removed to London ; was chosen physician to the West- 
minster hospital, in 1746, but resigned his office in 
1748, when he was appointed one of the physicians to 
the army. He did not long survive, and dying on the 
31st January, 1748-9, was buried in the small church 
of St. Stephen's, Ipswich, where there is a tablet with 
the following inscription : 

Here lieth the body of 

John Barker, M.D., 

Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 
And Physician to his Majesty's Forces in the Low Countries. 

Born April 18, 1708. 
Died January 31, 1748-9. 

In addition to the work on fever above mentioned, 
he was the author of 

An Essay on the Agreement betwixt Ancient and Modern Phy- 
sicians ; or, a Comparison between the Practice of Hippocrates, 
Galen, Sydenham, and Boerhaave. 8vo. Lond. 1748. 

WILLIAM HEBEKDEN, M.D. This distinguished or- 
nament of the medical profession was born in London 
in 1710, and educated at the grammar school in Saint 
Saviour's churchyard, Southwark ; whence he was 
transferred in December, 1724, at an unusually early 
age, to St. John's college, Cambridge. Of that house 
he was elected a fellow in 1730. He proceeded A.B. 
1728; A.M. 1732: M.D. 1739. Dr. Heberden prac- 
tised his profession for several years at Cambridge, 
where for about ten years he delivered an annual course 
of lectures on the Materia Medica. . Among his pupils 
were some who afterwards greatly distinguished them- 
selves, as Sir George Baker, Dr. Gisborne, and Dr. 
Glynn, of Cambridge. The specimens he had collected 
for the illustration of his lectures he presented to St. 
John's college when he quitted Cambridge. Of his 
method of lecturing a specimen is preserved in his Essay 
on Mithridatium and Theriaca, published in 1745, three 



160 ROLL OF THE 

years before he quitted the university. Treating of this 
famous medicine, Dr. Heberden proves that the only 
poisons known to the ancients were hemlock, monk's- 
hood, and those of venomous beasts ; and that to these 
few they knew of no antidotes. That the farrago called 
after the celebrated king of Pontus, which in the time of 
Celsus consisted of thirty-eight simples, had changed its 
composition every hundred years, and that therefore what 
had been for so many ages called Mithridatium, was quite 
different from the true medicine found in the cabinet of 
that prince. This, he states, was a very trivial one, com- 
posed of twenty leaves of rue, one grain of salt, two 
nuts, and two dried figs ; and he infers that, even sup- 
posing Mithri dates had ever used the compound (which 
is doubtful), his not being able to despatch himself was 
less owing to the strength of his antidote than to the 
weakness of his poison. The first accounts of subtle 
poisons that might be concealed under the stone of a 
seal or ring, as well as the stories of poisons by vapours 
arising from perfumed gloves and letters, he pronounces 
to be evidently the idle inventions of ignorance and 
superstition. The learning and good sense which cha- 
racterise the whole of this little essay will enable the 
reader to form a judgment of the manner in which he 
conveyed instruction to his class, and of the loss which 
the university must have suffered by his removal. 

Dr. Heberden was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25th June, 1745, and a Fellow 25th 
June, 1746. He settled in London at the close of 1 748 ; 
and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 1st Febru- 
ary, 1749. It was, however, long before his worth was 
discovered and appreciated, so long, indeed, that he was 
on the point of returning to end his days at Cambridge. 
But happily for the world and for his own fame he 
steadily persevered, and ultimately rose to a height in 
professional and general esteem, of which there have 
been but few instances. He was nominated Gulstonian 
lecturer in 1749 ; Harveian orator in 1750 ; and Croo- 
nian lecturer in 1760. He was Censor in 1749, 1755, 



1746] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 161 

1760 ; Consiliarius, 1762 ; and was constituted an Elect 
llth August, 1762, an office which he resigned 28th 
June, 1781. About this time, becoming sensible that 
his age required indulgence, he passed the summer at 
a house which he had purchased at Windsor, but he 
continued his practice in town during the winter for 
some years longer. Dr. Heberden died at his house in 
Pall-mall, honoured, esteemed, and venerated by all 
ranks in and out of the profession, on the 17th May, 
1801, in the ninety-first year of his age.* He was buried 
at Windsor, and on the south side of the parish church 
is a monument to his memory, with the following in- 
scription : 

Near this place are deposited the remains of 

William Heberden, M.D., 

who died the 17th May, 1801, 

in the 91st year of his age. 

He practised physic, 

first at Cambridge, afterwards in London, 
with great and unsullied reputation above 50 years. 

His distinguished learning, 

his sweetness of manners, and active benevolence 
raised him to an uncommon height in public esteem : 

above all, his deep sense of religion, 

which he cultivated with unremitting attention, 

regulated his conduct through a long and busy life, 

and supported him to the last 
with unabated cheerfulness and resignation. 

His widow and three surviving children erected this tablet to his 

memory. 



* The second Dr. William Heberden's eulogy of his father in 
the Harveian oration for 1809 is so delicately conceived and ex- 
pressed, that I here insert it : " Et tu quoque quern sicut vivum 
amplecti et audire semper fuit mihi jucundissimum, ifca mortuum 
honorare nunquam desinam. Taceam, O Socii, an loquar ? Immo 
vero a me petere unumquemque vestrum puto ut de optimo Parente 
pauca saltern dicam. Nisi enim me fallat gratissima memoria et 
amoris magnitudo, non alium cognoveritis aut integritate vitea ex- 
cellentiorem, aut optimarum artium studiosiorem, aut exercitatione 
medicinee humaniorem extitisse. Quo quidem animo medicinam ex- 
coluerit testantur Acta hujns Collegii Medica ; cujus operis cum ipse 
suasor et autor fuisset, turn illud multis et utilissimis tractatiouibus 
amplificavit : testatur Commentariorum volumen quod post mortem 

VOL. II. M 



1(>2 ROLL OF THE [1740 

By his wife Mary, the eldest daughter of William 
Wollaston, esquire, to whom he was married 19th 
January, 1760, he had five sons and three daughters. 
His second son, who was bred a physician, practised 
with great success in London, and fully maintained the 
reputation of his distinguished name. He will have to 
be mentioned in a subsequent page. 

Dr. Heberden's character has been so admirably drawn 
by Dr. Macinichael, that I have no hesitation in trans- 
ferring his sketch to my own pages : " Dr. Heberden 
was always exceedingly liberal and charitable ; there- 
fore, as soon as he found he could support himself in 
London, he voluntarily relinquished a fellowship which 
he held in St. John's college, for the benefit of some 
poorer scholar to whom it might be of use. He was 
forward in encouraging all objects of science and lite- 
rature, and promoting all useful institutions. There 
was scarcely a public charity to which he did not sub- 
scribe, or any work of merit to which he did not give 
his support. He recommended to the College of Phy- 
sicians the first design of their ' Medical Transactions/ 
was the author of several papers in them, also of some 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' as well as of ' Com- 
mentaries on the History and Cure of Diseases.' 

" He was much esteemed by his majesty king George 
the Third, and upon the queen's first coming to England 

editum est, in quo non magis eruditionem judiciumque admiramur, 
quam industriam ac laborem. Nihil ex opinione admisit, nihil ex 
conjectura, nihil ex probabilitate : quicquid autem vel novum addi- 
derit, vel receptum confirmaverit, ex usu et diuturna observatione, 
qua maxime fide potuit, duxit : Quid mirum, si immensum sui desi- 
derium nobis reliquit ? Non enim ille in luce modo, atque in oculis 
civium magnus ; sed intus, domique praestantior. Qui sermo ? 
Quae praecepta ? Quam multse literae ? Magno enim studio cum 
omni literarum generi, turn philosophise deditus fuit ; nee vero 
ineunte estate solum, sed et in omni vitse spatio ; in quo ita magna 
fuit medendi occupatio, ut non multum, sub ipso tecto, otii relin- 
queretur. Quid ego divinarum rerum contemplationem memorem ? 
qua delectatione satiari nulla aetas potest. Pater dilectissime ? quid 
non virtutes istse, tuusque in me animus mereantur ? Sed admi- 
ratione te potius, quam temporalibus laudibus ; utinam quoque simi- 
litudine possemus decorare." p. 19. 



1746] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 163 

in 1761 had been named as physician to her majesty 
an honour which he thought fit to decline ; the real 
reason of which was that he was apprehensive it might 
interfere with those connections of life that he had now 
formed. In 1796 he met with an accident which dis- 
abled him for the last few years of his life ; till then he 
had always been in the habit of walking, if he could, 
some part of every day. It deserves to be mentioned 
that when he was fast approaching to the age of ninety, 
he observed that, though his occupations and pleasures 
were certainly changed from what they had used to be, 
yet he knew not if he had ever passed a year more com- 
fortably than the last. He lived to his ninety-first year, 
and there can hardly be a more striking memorial of 
the perfect condition of his mind to the very last, than 
that within forty-eight hours of his decease he repeated 
a sentence from an ancient Roman author, signifying 
that ' death is kinder to none than those to whom it 
comes uninvoked.' 

" His address was pleasing and unaffected, his obser- 
vations cautious and profound, and he had a happy 
manner of getting able men to exhibit their several 
talents, which he directed and moderated with singular 
attention and good humour. But though rendered emi- 
nent by his skill as a physician, he conferred a more 
valuable and permanent lustre on his profession by the 
worth and excellence of his private character. From 
his early youth Dr. William Heberden had entertained 
a deep sense of religion, a consummate love of virtue, 
an ardent thirst for knowledge, and an earnest desire 
to promote the welfare and happiness of all mankind. 
By these qualities, accompanied with great sweetness of 
manners, he acquired the love and esteem of all good 
men, in a degree which perhaps very few have expe- 
rienced ; and after passing an active life with the uni- 
form testimony of a good conscience, he became a dis- 
tinguished example of its influence in the cheerfulness 
and serenity of his latest age. In proof of these asser- 
tions, I will mention an anecdote of him, which though 

M 2 



1G4 ROLL OF THE [1748 

now perhaps almost forgotten, somehow or other trans- 
pired at the time, and was duly appreciated by his con- 
temporaries. After the death of Dr. Conyers Middleton, 
his widow called upon Dr. Heberden with a MS. trea- 
tise of her late husband, about the publication of which 
she was desirous of consulting him. The religion of Dr. 
Middleton had always been justly suspected, and it was 
quite certain that his philosophy had never taught him 
candour. Dr. Heberden having perused the MS., which 
was on the inefficacy of prayer, told the lady that 
though the work might be deemed worthy of the learn- 
ing of her departed husband, its tendency was by no 
means creditable to his principles, and would be inju- 
rious to his memory ; but as the matter pressed, he 
would ascertain what a publisher might be disposed to 
give for the copyright. This he accordingly did ; and 
having found that 150?. might be procured, he himself 
paid the widow 200?. and consigned the MS. to the 
Barnes.** 

Dr. Heberden 's " Commentarii de Morborum Historic 
et Curatione," a posthumous work, which will transmit 
his name to the latest posterity, appeared both in Latin 
and English in 1802. They were received with equal, if 
not greater, applause on the continent than in England. 
Soemmering considered them of such value that he re- 
printed them in Germany with a preface, in which he 
styles their author the " Medicus vere Hippocraticus." 
Professor Friedlander, of Halle, published in 1831 a 
neat edition at Leipsic, as a portion of the " Scriptorum 
Classicorum de Praxi Medici nonnulloruui Opera Col- 
lecta." 

An admirable portrait of Dr. Heberden, in his eighty- 
sixth year, by Sir William Beech ey, is in the College. 
It was presented by his son, Dr. William Heberden, at 
the opening of the present College in June, 1825, and 
has been well engraved by W. Ward. 

MOSES GRIFFITH, M.D., was the son of Edward 

* The Gold-headed Cane. 2nd edition. Lond. 1828, p. 176. 



1748] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 165 

Griffith (" telionarii "), was born at Lapidon, co. Salop, 
educated at Shrewsbury school under Mr. Hotchkiss, 
and was admitted a sizar of St. John's college, Cam- 
bridge, 2nd June, 1742, aged eighteen. He received 
his medical education at Leyden, where he proceeded 
doctor of medicine the 30th December, 1744 (D.M.I, de 
Abortu prascavendo, 4to.). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 13th April, 1747, and 
practised for many years in London, but in 1768 with- 
drew to Colchester, where (I believe) he died in March, 
1785. He was the author of " Practical Observations 
on the Cure of the Hectic and Slow Fevers, and the 
Pulmonary Consumption ;" to which is added, " A 
Method of treating several kinds of Internal Haemor- 
rhages." 8vo. Lond. 1775. To Dr. Griffith we owe 
the compound iron mixture of the Pharmacopoeia. 

SAMUEL MIKLES, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Glasgow ; was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th April, 1747. We have from 
his pen 

Observations relating to the Practice of Physic and Surgery, 
abridged from the Philosophical Transactions. 2 Vols. 8vo. Lond. 
1745. 

Elements of Surgery. 8vo. Lond. 1746. 

JOHN DAVISON, M.D., was entered on the physic line 
at Leyden 9th October, 1733, aged twenty-one, and 
graduated doctor of medicine there in 1734 (D.M.I, de 
Dia3ta in Febribus acutis). He was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the CoUege 19th July, 1748. He prac- 
tised at Nottingham ; was physician to the hospital in 
that town; and died on the 10th December, 1790, in 
the seventy-eighth year of his age. 

DAVID THOMSON, M.D., of Camberwell, and a doctor 
of medicine of Aberdeen of 1739, was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd Sep- 
tember, 1748, 



1G6 BOLL OF THE [1748 

EDWARD MILWARD, M.D., was educated at Leyden, 
where he graduated doctor of medicine. On the 7th 
July, 1741, as a member of Trinity college, he was cre- 
ated M.D. at Cambridge by royal mandate, and on the 
21st January, 1741-2, was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1747; and a Fel- 
low 30th September, 1748. He was Censor in 1752, 
1758 ; and delivered the Harveian oration in 1752. He 
died 20th August, 1757, and was buried in the Kriigh- 
ton chapel, Lindridge, co. Worcester, where he is thus 
commemorated : 

Here lieth interred the body of 

Edward Milward, M.D., 

who departed this life 

the 20th day of August Anno Domini 1757 
aetatis suse 45.* 

Dr. Milward was the author of 

Trallianus Reviviscens ; or, an Account of Alexander Trallian, &c., 
in a Letter to Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

Letter to all Orders of Learned Men concerning a History of the 
Lives of British Physical and Chirurgical Authors. 8vo. Lond. 
1740. 

WILLIAM COXE, M,D., of Corpus Christi college, 
Cambridge; M.B. 1738; M.D. 4th July, 1743. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1747 ; a Fellow 30th September, 
1748; and was Censor in 1750, 1755, and Harveian 
orator in 1753. He was physician to the Westminster 
hospital from 1750 to 1757. His portrait is in the 
board room of that hospital. His son, William Coxe, 
fellow of King's college, Cambridge, born 7th March, 
1747, O.S., died 8th June, 1828, was well known as a 
traveller, and the author of " Memoirs of Sir Robert 
Walpole, earl of Orford," "Memoirs of Horatio lord 
Walpole/' " Memoirs of John, duke of Marlborough," 
&c., &c. 

* Nash's Worcestershire, vol. ii, p. 98. 



1749] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 167 

JOHN THOMAS BATT, M.D., was a son of William Batt, 
esquire, of Down ton, in the county of Wilts, by his 
wife Martha, daughter and heiress of Jonathan Clarke, 
esquire, of Nun ton house, in the same county. He was 
of Baliol college, Oxford, and proceeded A.B. 9th De- 
cember, 1736; A.M. 7th July, 1739; M.B. 6th No- 
vember, 1742 ; M.D. 12th July, 1746 ; was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1747 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1748. He 
was Censor in 1750, 1756, 1761 ; and Harveian orator 
in 1754. Dr. Batt was elected physician to St. George's 
hospital 7th February, 1746, and died 26th August, 
1762. 

EGBERT TAYLOR, M.D., was the son of John Taylor, 
of Newark, twice mayor of that town, and was born 
there in April, 1710. At an early age he was placed at 
the Newark grammar school, on Dr. Magnus's founda- 
tion, and in due course was entered at Trinity college, 
Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded M.B. 
1732; M.D. 7th July, 1737. Keturning to Newark 
in 1732, immediately after taking his first degree in 
physic, and where the vacancy left by the death of Dr. 
Mordecai Hunton in 1728 was still unoccupied, he 
conciliated the esteem of his fellow townsmen by his 
polished manners, professional assiduity, and general 
erudition. Whilst practising at Newark, a circum- 
stance occurred which laid the foundation for his rapid 
promotion, brought him prominently into notice, and 
led to his advancement to the foremost rank of his pro- 
fession in London. Lord Burlington and his lady were 
on a visit to Belvoir castle, some twenty -five miles 
from Newark, at that time the nearest place from 
which any extraordinary medical assistance could be 
procured. His lordship was taken dangerously ill, and 
Dr. Taylor was summoned to his assistance. The symp- 
toms were alarming, and the gravest apprehensions 
were entertained as to their issue, but they yielded to 
the doctor's unremitting attention and (it is said) to 



1G8 ROLL OF THE [1749 

the bold administration of opium. Dr. Taylor's skill 
and bearing so won on the noble inmates of the castle, 
that they prevailed upon him to remove to London, 
where their united efforts soon established him in ex- 
tensive business, and obtained for him the patronage 
of Sir Edward Hulse, who was then gradually with- 
drawing himself from practice. Lady Burlington's 
exertions in his behalf were indefatigable. She took 
him in her own carriage, as soon as he had established 
himself in London, and introduced him to all her ac- 
quaintance as a prodigy of medical skill, and she is said 
to have employed herself for several weeks in driving 
about and seeking out invalids, on all of whom she ab- 
solutely forced her favourite physician. 

Dr. Taylor was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 4th April, 1748, and a Fellow 20th 
March, 1749. He was Gulstonian lecturer in 1750, 
Censor 1751, and Harveian orator in 1755. His ora- 
tion, which ranks among the most polished in style and 
the most elaborated in matter of any that have been 
published, is remarkable as being the medium for dis- 
seminating, more especially to foreign countries, the 
opinion of the College of Physicians with respect to 
inoculation.* Dr. Taylor was admitted a fellow of the 

* " The College having been informed that false reports concern- 
ing the success of Inoculation in England have been published in 
foreign countries, think proper to declare their sentiments in the 
following manner, viz., that the arguments which at the commence- 
ment of this practice were urged against it had been refuted by 
experience ; that it is now held by the English in greater esteem, 
and practised among them more extensively than ever it was before, 
and that the College thinks it to be highly salutary to the human 
race." " Quoniam Collegio nuntiatum fuit, falsos de Variolarum 
Insititiarum in Anglia success a et existimatione apud exteras gentes 
nuper exiisse rumores, eidem Collegio sententiam suam de rebus 
hisce ad hanc modum declarare placuit : videlicet, argumenta, quee 
contra hanc variolas inserendi consuetudinem in principio affere- 
bantur, experientiam refellisse ; eamque hoc tempore majori in 
honore apud Anglos haberi, magisque quam unquam antea inter eos 
nunc invalescere ; atque humano generi valde salutarem esse se 
existimare." Oratio Anniversaria ex Harveii institute habita A.D. 
MDCCLV. a Roberto Taylor, M.D., p. 52. 



1749] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 169 

Royal Society 7th December, 1752. He held the ap- 
pointment of physician to the king, and died 15th May, 
1762. At the time of his decease he was erecting a 
fine mansion at Winthorpe, near Newark, where he 
had hoped to spend the evening of his days. But it 
was unfinished at the time of his death, and was soon 
afterwards sold. Dr. Taylor's body was to have been 
brought to Winthorpe for interment, but he was really 
buried in South Audley-street chapel, from which, 
however, in 1778, his remains and those of an infant 
son were removed to Winthorpe, where his widow had 
constructed a small private vault for their reception as 
well as for her own. He and his wife are commemo- 
rated by a monument in Winthorpe church, which is 
thus inscribed : 

To the Memory of 

Robert Taylor, M.D., 

Physician in Ordinary to his Majesty, 

who died 15th May, 1762, aged 53. 

Also 

of Elizabeth Taylor, his wife, 

who died 10th May, 1812, aged 86, 

and of Robert Taylor, their infant son. 

This monument is erected 

by their only daughter 

Elizabeth Chaplin. 

Dr. Taylor was twice married, first to Anne, youngest 
daughter of John Heron, esquire. She died in 1757, 
and was buried at Newark. Secondly, on the 9th No- 
vember, 1759, to Elizabeth Main waring, of Lincoln, 
" with a fortune of ten thousand pounds." His only 
surviving child, a daughter Elizabeth, became the 
wife of Henry Chaplin, esquire, of Blankney hall, co. 
Lincoln. Dr. Taylor's portrait is at Blankney. 

He was the author of 

Epistola Critica ad O.V.D. Edoardum Wilmot, Baronettum ; 
in qua quatuor Qusestionibus ad Variolas Insitivas spectantibus 
orbi medico denuo propositus ab Antonio De Haen in Univ. Vin- 
dobonensi Professore primerio, directe responsum est. 4to. Lorid. 
1761. 



170 ROLL OF THE [1749 

Sex Histories Medicee sive Morborum aliquot funestornm et rari- 
oruui Commentarius. 4to. Lond. 1761. 

These, with his Harveian oration, were published 
together, under the title of 

Miscellanea Medica. 4to. Lond. 1761. 

WILLIAM MUSHET, M.D., was descended from a fa- 
mily in Stirling, but was born in Dublin, whitber his 
parents had fled on account of their participation in the 
cause of the old Pretender. He is thought to have been 
educated at Trinity college, Dublin. He was entered on the 
physic line at Leyden 26th August, 1745, aged twenty- 
nine, and as a member of King's college, Cambridge, he 
proceeded M.D.in 1746. He was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 4th April, 1 746 ; and a Fellow, 
20th March, 1749. He delivered the Gulstonian lec- 
tures in 1751. Dr. Mushet was physician to the army ; 
he served in Germany, and was present at the battle of 
Minden in 1759, where he was pnysician-in-chief to the 
forces. At the conclusion of the war he received the 
thanks of both houses of Parliament for his services, and 
was offered a baronetcy, which he declined. Dr. Mu- 
shet was intimately connected with the duke of Rut- 
land, and for eleven years had apartments in Belvoir 
castle. * He died at York (to which city he had re- 
tired) 1 1th December, 1792, aged seventy-six. A monu- 
ment to his memory is in the church of St. Mary Castle- 
gate, York. It bears the following inscription from the 
pen of Sir Robert Sinclair, recorder of York : 

To the Memory of 
WILLIAM MUSHET, M.D., 

who, 
by availing himself of the early advantage 

of a polite and liberal education, 
by an unremitting pursuit of every species 

of useful and honourable learning, 

by a prudent and judicious culture of a 

cheerful disposition and lively imagination, 

* Information from W. B. Mushet, M.B. 



1749] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 171 

and by an uncommon share of natural 

acuteness and penetration, 

attained to very great and deserved 

estimation and eminence in his profession. 

He died at York, llth December, A.D. 1792, 

in the seventy-seventh year of his age. 

This tribute of piety and affection was paid 

by his daughter, MART MOSHET. 

DAVID Ross, M.D. A doctor of medicine of Rheims, 
of 27th August, 1726 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 20th March, 1749. He was ap- 
pointed physician to St. George's hospital 19th October, 
1733, and retained that office until hi& death, about the 
end of 1757 or beginning of 1758. 

DANIEL Cox, M.D. A doctor of medicine of St. An- 
drew's, of 8th November, 1742 ; was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 26th June, 1749. He 
was elected physician to the Middlesex hospital 16th 
October, 1746. and resigned that office 23rd May, 1749. 
Dr. Cox died in January, 1750. We have from his 
pen 

Observations on the Epidemic Fever of 1741. 8vo. Lond. 1742. 
An Appeal to the public in behalf of Elizabeth Canning. 8vo. 
Lond. 1753. 

A Letter to a Friend on Inoculation. 8vo. Lond. 1757. 
Observations on the Intermitting Pulse. 8vo. Lond. 1758. 
Family Medical Compendium. 8vo. Gloucester. 

GEORGE RAITT, M.D. A doctor of medicine of Ley- 
den ; was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 22nd September, 1749. He practised at 
Huntingdon, and died on the 17th January, 1785. By 
deed, bearing date 18th January, 1780, Dr. Raitt en- 
dowed a charity at Huntingdon, which still bears his 
name, with three yearly rent charges for the purchase 
of bread and coals for the poor. 

JOHN WALTON, of Lincoln, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College, 22nd June, 1750. 



172 ROLL OF THE [1750 

RICHARD CONYERS, M.D., was one of three Dr. 
William Pitcairn and Dr. Kennedy being the others 
upon whom the university of Oxford, at the opening of 
the Radcliffe library in April, 1749, conferred the de- 
gree of doctor of medicine by diploma. Admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians, 26th June, 1749 ; 
and a Fellow, 25th June, 1750 ; he was Censor in 1753 
and 1757, and Harveian orator in 1756. Dr. Conyers, 
having been appointed in 1758, one of the physicians 
to the forces, was obliged to leave England in pursu- 
ance of the duties of that office. He therefore resigned 
his office of Censor 25th July, 1758, and Dr. Addams 
was appointed in his place. Dr. Conyers was physician 
to the Foundling hospital, and died about the year 
1759. He had received his medical education at Ley- 
den. He was entered on the physic line there 3rd No- 
vember, 1727, being then twenty years of age, and he 
graduated doctor of medicine there in 1729 (D.M.I, de 
Morbislnfantum 4to.). He republished this essay, with 
additions and corrections, 8vo. Lond. 1748. 

WILLIAM PITCAIRN, M.D., was descended from the 
family of Dr. Archibald Pitcairn, celebrated as the 
founder of the mechanical sect of medicine, who, having 
followed the fortunes of the exiled James, was for a 
short time professor of the practice of physic at Leyden. 
Dr. William Pitcairn was born in 1711, and was the 
eldest son of the Rev. David Pitcairn, minister of Dy- 
sart, in Fifeshire, by his wife Catherine Hamilton, a re- 
lative of the ducal family of that name. I can recover 
but few particulars of his education, general or medical, 
except that he studied for a time under Boerhaave at 
Leyden, where he was entered on the physic line ] 5th 
October, 1734, and graduated doctor of medicine at 
Rlieims.* He was private tutor to James, the sixth 
duke of Hamilton, whilst that nobleman was studying 
at Oxford, and he accompanied him in 1742 in his tra- 
vels on the continent. At the opening of the Radcliffe 

* Russell's Letter to Dr. Addington on his Refusal, &c. &c. 



1750] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 173 

library in April, 1749, the university of Oxford, upon 
the recommendation of the trustees, conferred upon him 
the degree of doctor of medicine by diploma. Dr. Pit- 
cairn then settled in London ; was admitted a Candi- 
date of the College of Physicians 26th June, 1749 ; and 
a Fellow, 25th June, 1750. He soon obtained the con- 
fidence of the profession and of the public, and rapidly 
rose to eminence and fortune. He delivered the Gul- 
stonian lectures in 1752; was Censor in 1753, 1755, 
1759, 1762; Elect, in place of Dr. Letherland, 16th 
April, 1764 ; Consiliarius, 1764 ; and eventually Presi- 
dent. To this office he was elected in 1775, and was 
annually re-elected for ten years, resigning in 1785, and 
then retiring from the practice of the profession. On the 
30th September, 1785, a motion was made, seconded, 
and passed unanimously in the College, "That the 
thanks of the College be given to Dr. William Pitcairn 
for his unremitting attention to the affairs of the Col- 
lege, and for the great zeal which he showed for its 
honour and prosperity during the ten years in which 
he held the office of President." Dr. Pitcairn was 
elected physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital 22nd 
February, 1750, and resigned his office there 3rd Feb- 
ruary, 1780. The governors of the hospital, to mark 
their sense of the value of his services, elected him one 
of the almoners on the 26th June, 1 782 ; and he was 
appointed treasurer of the hospital 4th March, 1784. 
This circumstance, probably, hastened his retirement 
from practice, and he removed from his residence m 
Warwick-court to the treasurer's house within the 
hospital. Dr. Pitcairn was an accomplished botanist. 
He had a house in the Upper-street, Islington, oppo- 
site Cross-street, to which he frequently retired, and 
where he had a botanical garden five acres in ex- 
tent, laid out with great judgment, and so abundantly 
stocked with the scarcest and most valuable plants 
as to be second only in size and importance to Dr. 
Fothergill's garden at Upton. At this, his suburban resi- 
dence Dr. Pitcairn died on the 25th November, 1791. 



174 ROLL OF THE [1751 

He was buried on the 1st of December in the church 
of St. Bartholomew- the-Less.* His garden was dis- 
mantled, and it and its contents sold by auction in 
May, 1792. Dr. Pitcairn was also physician to Christ's 
hospital, and a fellow of the Royal Society. Dr. Pit- 
cairn did not publish anything. But tradition hands 
him down to us as an eminently sound and successful 
physician. He introduced and taught in the wards of 
St. Bartholomew's hospital a much freer employment of 
opium in the treatment of disease, and especially of 
fevers, than was customary with his contemporaries. Of 
his practice in this respect his Currus triumphalis Opii, 
as it was designated by some of his brethren he was 
justifiably proud ; and the more so when (through the 
medium of his nephew, the future Dr. David Pitcairn, 
then a student of medicine at Edinburgh) it reached 
the ear of Dr. Cullen, and was the means of saving the 
life of the son of that great master of physic. The case 
was thought desperate by Dr. Cullen, who, acting on 
what he had heard from the nephew, of Dr. Pitcairn's 
practice in London, administered to his son a larger 
dose of laudanum than was usually prescribed, and with 
complete success. t His portrait, by Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, engraved by Jones, now in the Censors' room, was 
bequeathed to the College by Elizabeth (Almack), the 
widow of David Pitcairn, M.D. 

JOHN BISHOP, of Crewkerne, was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College 14th September, 1750. 

CHARLES MORTON, M.D., was born in Westmoreland 
in 1716, and educated at Ley den. He was entered on 
the physic line there 18th September, 1736 ; settled in 
the first place at Kendal in his native county, and 

* " Vir bonus et doctus in medicina exercenda peritus, et re her- 
baria curiosus cujus Hortus Botanicus herbis et fructicibus rariori- 
bns turgebat : sed pree omnibus Proculeius alter notus in fratres 
animi paterni, in omnes benevoli." Oratio ex Harveiae institute ha- 
bita 1792, auc. Gulielmo Cadogan, p. 19. 

t Gold-Headed Cane. 2nd ed. Lond. 1828. P. 185. 



1751] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 175 

practised there for a short time with much reputation. 
Returning to Leyden, he graduated doctor of medicine 
there 30th August, 1748 (D.M.I, de Tussi,) and was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
6th September, 1748. Shortly after this he removed 
to London ; was elected physician to the Middlesex hos- 
pital 19th April, 1750 ; and admitted a Licentiate of 
the College 1st April, 1751. He was appointed phy- 
sician to the Foundling hospital in 1754. On the esta- 
blishment of the British Museum in 1756, Dr. Morton 
was appointed under-librarian of the manuscript and 
medal department ; and on the death of Dr. Maty, in 
1776, he succeeded to the office of principal librarian. 
He had been admitted a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1752, and was elected secretary in 1759, an office he 
continued to hold for fourteen years. Dr. Morton, who 
is represented as a person of great uprightness and in- 
tegrity, and was much admired as a scholar, died at his 
apartments in the British Museum, 10th February, 1799, 
aged eighty-three, and was buried at Twickenham on 
the 18th, He was thrice married : 1. In 1744 to Miss 
Mary Berkeley, a niece of lady Betty Germaine, by 
whom he had an only daughter; 2. In 1772 to lady 
Savile, who died 10th February, 1791 ; and lastly, to- 
wards the close of 1791, to Elizabeth Pratt, a near re- 
lative of his second wife. Dr. Morton's only medical 
effort was a paper on muscular motion, in the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions." In 1759 he published an im- 
proved edition of Dr. Bernard's engraved Table of Alpha- 
bets, and in 1772 Bulstrode Whitelock's "Account of 
the Swedish Embassy in 1653 and 1654," 2 vols. 4to. 
In 1768 he was appointed, jointly with Mr. Farley, to 
superintend the publication of Domesday, but this task 
he soon relinquished. 

JAMES PARSONS, M.D., was born in March, 1705, at 
Barnstaple, co. Devon, and received his early education 
in Dublin, his father having removed to Ireland on re- 
ceiving the appointment of barrack -master at Bolton. 



17G ROLL OP THE [1751 

When he had completed his general and classical edu- 
cation, he became tutor to lord Kingston ; but ere long, 
turning his thoughts to medicine, relinquished that 
office, and proceeded to Paris, where he studied for 
several years. On the llth June, 1736, he took the 
degree of doctor of medicine at Rheims. In the follow- 
ing month Dr. Parsons came to London, bringing with 
him from Paris letters of introduction and recommen- 
dation to Sir Hans'Sloane, Dr. Mead, and Dr. James 
Douglas. He assisted the last-named physician in his 
anatomical pursuits ; through his interest was appointed 
physician to the public infirmary of St. Giles's, in 1738 ; 
and was introduced by him into extensive obstetric 
practice. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety in 1741, and was appointed its foreign secretary 
in November, 1751. Dr. Parsons was admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 1st April, 1751. 
" He resided for many years in Red Lion-square, where 
he frequently enjoyed the company of Bishop Lyttleton, 
Dr. Stukeley, Mr. Henry Baker, Dr. Knight, and many 
other of the most distinguished members of the Royal 
and Antiquarian societies. He enjoyed also the literary 
correspondence of D'Argenville, Buffon, Le Cat, Beccaria, 
Bertrand, Valltravers, Ascanius, Turberville, and others 
of the most distinguished rank in science. As a prac- 
titioner, he was judicious, careful, honest, and remark- 
ably humane to the poor ; as a friend, obliging and 
communicative, cheerful and decent in conversation, 
severe and strict in his morals, and attentive to fulfil 
with propriety all the various duties in life." In 1769, 
finding his health impaired, he proposed to retire from 
business and from London. With that view he dis- 
posed of a considerable number of his books and fossils, 
and went to Bristol. But he returned soon after to his 
old house, and, dying in it, after a week's illness, on 
the 4th April, 1770, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, 
was buried at Hendon, and in obedience to his special 
instructions, not until the 21st of that month. On his 
tomb is the following inscription : 



1751] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 177 

Here, 

taken from his sorrowful family and friends, 
by the common lot of frail humanity, rests 

JAMES PARSONS, M.D., 

Member of the College of Physicians, 

and F.R.S. and S.A. 

A man, 

in whom the most dignifying virtues were united, 

with talents the most numerous and rare. 

Firm and erect in conscious conviction, 

no consideration could induce him to desert Truth 

or acquiesce to her opponents. 
Physic, Anatomy, Natural History, Antiquities, 

Languages, and the Fine Arts, 

are largely indebted to his skill and industry in each, 

for many important truths discovered in their support, 

or errors detected in which they were obscured. 

Yet, though happy beyond the general 

race of mankind in mental endowments, 

the sincere Christian, the affectionate Husband, 

the generous and humane Friend, 
were in him superior to the Sage, Scholar, and Philosopher. 

He died April 4, 1770, 
in the 66 th year of his age. 

A portrait of Dr. Parsons, by Wilson, is in the British 
Museum. 

He was the author of 

Elenchus Gynaicopathologicus et Obstetricarius. 8vo. Lond. 
1741. 

A Mechanical and Critical Inquiry into the nature of Herma- 
phrodites. 8vo. Lond. 1741. 

The Croonian Lecture on Muscular Motion. 4to. Lond. 1745. 

Microscopical Theatre of Seeds. 4to. Lond. 1745. 

A Description of the Human Urinary Bladder and Parts belong- 
ing to it. 8vo. Lond. 1742. 

Human Physiognomy explained in the Croonian Lectures on 
Muscular Motion. 4to. Lond. 1747. 

Philosophical Observations on the Analogy between the Propa- 
gation of Animals and that of Vegetables, with Observations on the 
Polypus. 8vo. Lond. 1752. 

Remains of Japhet, being Historical Inquiries into the Affinity 
and Origin of the European Languages. 

HERMAN HEINEKEN, M.D., was born in London, and 
on the 15th April, 1742, in his twenty-sixth year, was 
entered on the physic line at Ley den, but he graduated 
doctor of medicine at Franeker 5th June, 1744 (D.M.I. 

VOL. II. N 



178 ROLL OF THE [1751 

de Diabete), and was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 1st April, 1751. He was elected 
physician to the Middlesex hospital 29th August, 1749, 
and, after a service of seven months only, resigned his 
office there 3rd April, 1750. Dying in 1772, aged 
fifty-seven, he was buried in the church of St. Mary 
Aldermary. 

SIR JOHN BAPTIST SILVESTER, M.D., was born in 
Aquitaine, and educated at Leyden, where he graduated 
doctor of medicine 9th October, 1738. He served as 
physician to the army in the Low Countries, and was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1751. Appointed physician to the London hos- 
pital 22nd February, 1748, he resigned his office 3rd 
October, 1764, and in 1777 withdrew from practice, 
and retired to Bath, where he died the 2nd November, 
178i). He was interred in the Dutch church, Austin 
Friars. He was knighted 21st July, 1774, but under 
what circumstances I have been unable to discover. 

GEORGE LAMONT, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Aberdeen, of llth July, 1727 ; was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1751. 

FRANCIS PHILIP DUVAL, M.D. A doctor of medi- 
cine of Leyden, of 25th October, 1726 (D.M.I, de 
Emeticorum effectibus in Corpore Humano), was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1751. Dr. Duval was physician to the dowager 
princess of Wales, and died 9th July, 1768. 

PHILIP DE LA COUR, M.D., was born in London, and 
on the 12th April, 1730, being then twenty years of 
age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden, where 
he took the degree of doctor of medicine 18th August, 
1733 (D.M.I, de naturali Catameniorum fluxu, 4to.). 
He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 25th June, 1751. In 1772 he retired to Bath, 
and died there 2 1st November, 1780. 



1751] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 179 

SAMUEL JEBB, M.D. This accomplished scholar was 
the second son of Samuel Jebb, a maltster of Mansfield, 
co. Nottingham, and was born either in that town or at 
Nottingham, but most probably the former. He was 
destined for the church, and was sent to Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded bache- 
lor of arts in 1712. Becoming attached, however, to 
the non-jurors he left the university, and accepted the 
office of librarian to the celebrated Jeremy Collier. 
Shortly after this he married a relation of the wife of 
Mr. Dillingham, a noted apothecary in Red Lion-square, 
from whom, on the recommendation of Dr. Mead, he 
took instruction in chemistry and pharmacy. He had 
before this made for himself a reputation as an able 
scholar, and for many years mainly supported himself 
by his pen. The intervals from these labours he now 
devoted to the study of physic ; and, proceeding to 
Rheims, there took his degree of doctor of medicine 
12th March, 1728. He was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 25th June, 1751 ; and settling 
at Stratford, Essex, practised there with considerable 
success for some years. Having accumulated a mode- 
rate fortune, he retired to Chesterfield, co. Derby, where 
he died 9th March, 1772, leaving several children, one 
of whom, Sir Richard Jebb, bart., M.D., will have to be 
mentioned hereafter. Dr. Jebb's publications were very 
numerous. The following will, I believe, be found a 
tolerably correct list of them : 

Justini Martyris cum Tryphone Dialogus. 8vo. Lond. 1719. 

Translation of the Rev. Daniel Martin's Two Critical Disserta- 
tions I. Upon the 7th verse of the 1st chapter of St. John's First 
Epistle. II. In Defence of the Testimony given to our Saviour by 
Josephus. 8vo. Lond. 1719. 

Proposals for publishing a new edition of the Works of Aristides 
in Four Volumes. 8vo. Lond. 1720. 

Bibliotheca Literaria. 

This extended to ten numbers, the first of which ap- 
peared in 1722, the last in 1724. 

De Vita et Rebus gestis Marias Scotorum Regin, Francioa 
Dotariee. 2 vols. Fol. 

N 2 



180 ROLL OF THE [1752 

The History of the Life and Reign of Mary Queen of Scots and 
Dowager of France ; extracted from original Records and Writers 
of Credit. 8vo. Lond. 1725. 

./Elii Aristidis Adrianensis Opera Omnia Greece et Latine. 2 torn. 
Oxon. 4to. 1730. 

Johannis Caii Britanni, de Canibus Britannicis, Liber unus de 
Variorum Auimalium et Stirpium &c. Liber unus de Libris Pro- 
priis, Liber unus de Pronunciatione Graecae et Latinae Linguae cum 
Scriptione Nova, Libellus, ad optimorum exemplarium fidem recog- 
niti. 8vo. Lond. 1729. 

Friar Bacon's Opus Majus, from a MS. in the Public Library.- 
Fol. Lond. 1733. 

Humphr. Hodii de Graecis illustribus, Linguae Graecae, Litera- 
rumque humaniorum Instauratoribus Praemittitur de Vita et 
Scriptis ipsius Humphredi Hodii Dissertatio. 8vo. Lond. 1742. 

Mr. Bridges' MSS. relating to the History of North- 
amptonshire were confided to the editorial care of Dr. 
Jebb, who published two parts in folio ; but circum- 
stances then occurred to interfere with its completion, 
and the papers were handed to Mr. Whalley. 

ROBERT WATSON, M.D., was of Catherine hall, Cam- 
bridge ; M.B. 1745; M.D. 3rd July, 1750. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 1st 
October, 1750, and a Fellow 30th September, 1751. 
He delivered the Gulstonian Lectures in 1753, and was 
Censor the same year. Dr. Watson was for a short 
time physician to the Westminster hospital. Elected 
to that office in 1752, he resigned it in 1754, and died 
2nd March, 1756. " In him," writes the " Gentleman's 
Magazine," " the public has lost a real scholar, an excel- 
lent physician, an admirable philosopher, and, in every 
consideration, a most worthy person." 

JOHN CLEPHANE, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
St. Andrew's, of 29th May, 1729, who had served as 
physician to the army in the Low Countries, was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1752. He was appointed physician to St. George's 
hospital, 8th May, 1751. He was admitted a fellow 
of the Royal Society 4th May, 1749, and died llth 



1752] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 181 

October, 1758. Dr. Clephane is remembered as the 
intimate friend and correspondent of David Hume the 
historian. 

GEORGE MACAULAY, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Padua, of 16th April, 1739 ; was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 24th September, 
1746. In 1752 he removed to London, and on the 25th 
June of that year was admitted a Licentiate. He was 
physician and treasurer to the Lying-in hospital in 
Brownlow-street. About the year 1756, as Dr. Denman 
tells us, there was a consultation of the most eminent 
obstetricians in London to consider the moral rectitude 
of and advantages which might be expected from the 
induction of premature labour in certain cases of con- 
tracted pelvis ; when the plan received their general 
approval, and it was decided to adopt it for the future. 
The first case in which it was considered necessary was 
undertaken with success by Dr. Macaulay in 1756. He 
died the 16th September, 1766. 

JAMES DARGENT was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College 3rd July, 1752. He was physician to the West- 
minster hospital from 1762 to 178 7. 

DANIEL PETER LAYARD, M.D., was a doctor of medi- 
cine of Rheims of 9th March, 1742. He was elected 
physician-accoucheur to the Middlesex hospital in April, 
1747; but, his health giving way shortly afterwards, 
he retired for a time to the continent. On his return 
to England he settled at Huntingdon, and practised 
there for some years with eminent success. He was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 3rd 
July, 1752. About 1762 he quitted Huntingdon, and, 
returning to London, soon got into extensive practice 
as an accoucheur. Dr. Layard died at Greenwich in 
February, 1802, in the eighty-second year of his age. 
He was a fellow of the Royal societies of London and 
Gottingen, and a vice-president of the British Lying-in 



182 BOLL OF THE [1752 

hospital, of which he had been one of the founders. He 
was brother to Mary Anne duchess of Ancaster, and 
father to the dean of Bristol. In 1792 he had the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. conferred upon him by the 
university of Oxford. Dr. Layard contributed some 
papers to the " Philosophical Transactions," and pub- 
lished 

An Essay on the Contagions Distemper among the Horned Cattle 
in these Kingdoms. 8vo. Lond. 1757. 

Essay on the Bite of a Mad Dog. 8vo. Lond. 1762. 

An Account of the Somersham. Water in the county of Hunting- 
don. 8vo. Lond. 1767. 

Pharmacopoeia in Usum Gravidarum Puerperarum, &c. 8vo. 
Lond. 1776. 

ROBERT PATE, M.D. A doctor of medicine of Aber- 
deen, of 12th June, 1750 ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1752. He 
was elected physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital 
16th January, 1752 ; and died at his house in Hatton- 
garden 13th January, 1762. 

EDWARD ARCHER, M.D., was born in South wark, 
and studied his profession first in Edinburgh, and 
afterwards at Leyden, where he proceeded doctor of 
medicine 26th August, 1746 (D.M.I, de Rheumatismo, 
4to.). He was elected physician to the Small-pox hos- 
pital in 1747 ; and was admitted a Licentiate of the 
CoUege of Physicians 30th September, 1752. The great 
object of Dr. Archer's life was the improvement of the 
practice in small-pox, and the advancement of inocula- 
tion. He was a humane, judicious, and learned physi- 
cian ; and to the study of medicine he added that of 
polite literature, which he patronised in most of its 
branches. He was an accomplished classical scholar 
and left behind him a valuable and well-chosen Jibrary. 
Possessing a fortune adequate to his views in life, and 
being fond of retirement and study, he was never soli- 
citous about the emoluments of his profession, and for 
some years before his death altogether declined private 



1752] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 183 

practice. His health at length giving way, and symp- 
toms of hydrothorax manifesting themselves, he ex- 
pressed a wish to be removed to the Small-pox hospital, 
that he might die in an institution whose welfare he 
had so much at heart, and with which he had been so 
long and so honourably associated. Rooms were forth- 
with prepared for his reception, and he died there on 
the 28th March, 1789, in the seventy-second year of his 
age. His remains were interred in a vault belonging 
to his family at Woodford in Essex. The funeral, which 
took place on the 4th April, was attended by the trea- 
surer, house committee, and several governors of the 
Small-pox hospital, who were anxious to testify their 
regard for one who had served the institution so long 
and so well. To the hospital, which owes so much to 
his incessant and benevolent exertions during the long 
period of forty-two years, Dr. Archer by his will be- 
queathed 5001. In the board room of the hospital is an 
excellent whole-length portrait of Dr. Archer, by Pine, 
done in the year 1782, at the expense of the thirteen 
governors who at that time composed the house com- 
mittee. To each of those gentlemen who should be 
alive at the time of his decease, the doctor bequeathed 
the amount of their subscription on that occasion. 

JOHN MONRO, M.D., was the eldest son of James 
Monro, M.D., a fellow of the college before mentioned, 
and was born at Greenwich 16th November, 1715. He 
received his rudimentary education at Merchant Tay- 
lors' school, and in 1733 was sent to St. John's college, 
Oxford, of which society he became a fellow. He pro- 
ceeded A.B. 13th May, 1737; A.M. llth July, 1740; 
and in the April following was elected one of the Kad- 
cliffe travelling fellows. He studied physic first at 
Edinburgh and then at Leyden ; and was admitted 
bachelor of medicine at Oxford, as a member of Univer- 
sity college, IQth December, 1743. Returning to the 
continent, he resided for some time in Paris, again 
visited Holland, and after a short stay there proceeded 



184 ROLL OF THE [1753 

to Germany. He then visited Italy and returned 
through France to England, which he reached in 1751, 
when the term of his travelling fellowship had expired. 
During his absence the university of Oxford had con- 
ferred upon him (27th June, 1747), the degree of doc- 
tor of medicine by diploma. His father's health begin- 
ning to decline, he was, on the 24th July, 1751, shortly 
after his arrival in England, appointed joint physician 
with him to Bethlem hospital ; and on Dr. James 
Monro's death, the following year, he was continued 
so\f physician. 

Dr. Monro was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 25th June, 1752 ; and a Fellow, 25th 
June, 1753. He was Censor in 1754, 1759, 1763, 1768, 
1772, 1778, 1785 ; and he delivered the Harveian ora- 
tion in 1757, on which occasion he was honoured by the 
presence of Don John de Braganza, brother to the king 
of Portugal. Dr. Monro limited his practice almost ex- 
clusively to insanity, and in the treatment of that disease 
is said to have attained to greater eminence and success 
than any of his contemporaries. In January, 1783, 
while still in full business, he was attacked with para- 
lysis. The strength of his constitution, however, en- 
abled him to overcome the first effects of his disorder 
and resume the exercise of his profession, but his 
vigour, both of mind and body, began from that time to 
decline. In 1787 his son Dr. Thomas Monro was ap- 
pointed his assistant at Bethlem hospital, and he then 
gradually withdrew from business. In the beginning 
of 1791 he retired to Hadley, near Barnet, and there 
continued until his death, which occurred, after a short 
illness, on the 27th December, 1791, in the seventy- 
seventh year of his age. 

Dr. Monro possessed a correct and elegant taste for 
the fine arts, and his collection of books and engravings 
was very considerable. He was deeply versed in the 
early history of engraving, and the specimens he had 
collected of the works of the earlier engravers were 
select and curious. From these, as well as from the 



1753] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 185 

communications of Dr. Monro, Mr. Strutt derived great 
assistance in the preparation of his " Histoiy of En- 
gravers." Horace and Shakspeare were Dr. Monro's 
favourite authors, and his notes and remarks on the 
latter were considerable. These he communicated to 
Mr. Steevens previous to the publication by that gentle- 
man of the works of our immortal bard. Dr. Monro's 
fondness for reading was great, and proved a consider- 
able resource to him in the evening of life fortunately 
he was able to avail himself of this solace till within a 
very few days of his death. His only published writ- 
ings were his Harveian oration, and a small pamphlet 
entitled " Remarks on Dr. Battle's Treatise on Mad- 
ness." 8vo. Lond. 1758. This feeling tribute to a 
father's memory, whose character he considered had 
been unjustly assailed by Dr. Battie, has been already 
alluded to. It perfectly effected its object, and, it is 
said, covered Dr. Battie with well-merited ridicule. A 
portrait of Dr. John Monro, presented by his great- 
grandson Dr. Henry Monro, is in the College dining- 
room. To Dr. John Monro the College is indebted for 
two very fine manuscripts " of our ancient and great 
benefactor Dr. Hamey." For these the thanks of the 
College were voted 25th June, 1783. 

ANTHONY ASKEW, M.D., was born at Kendal, in 
Westmoreland, in 1722. He was the eldest son of 
Adam Askew, M.B., of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by his 
wife Ann, daughter and co-heiress of Richard Cracken- 
thorp, esq., of Newbiggin, co. Westmoreland. His 
father was a physician in such estimation at Newcastle 
that he was considered another Radcliffe, and was con- 
sulted by all the families of consequence for many miles 
around. Anthony Askew was educated at the gram- 
mar school of Sedburgh, whence he proceeded to Emma- 
nuel college, Cambridge, of which he was elected a 
fellow, and where he remained until December, 1745, 
when he took the degree of bachelor of medicine. He 
then went to Leyden and remained there twelve months, 



180 ROLL OF THE [1753 

soon after which we find him in the suite of the English 
ambassador at Constantinople. He remained abroad 
for three years, visiting Athens and Hungary, and re- 
turning home through Italy and Paris, where, in 1749, 
he was elected a member of the Academy of Belles 
Lettres. At Paris he had an opportunity of purchasing 
several rare MSS., early editions of the classics, and 
valuable books in various branches of science, and of 
laying the foundation of that elegant and extensive 
library which afterwards became so celebrated! Having 
finished his travels, he returned to Cambridge, and 
proceeded doctor of medicine in 1750. He settled in 
London ; was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 
8th February, 1749 ; a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1752 ; and a Fellow, 25th June, 
1753. On the 22nd August, 1754, he was elected 
physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital. He delivered 
the Harveian oration in 1758 ; was Censor in 1756, 
1761, 1764, 1766, 1767; and Registrar from 1767 to 
his death in 1774. 

On Dr. Askew's settling in London he was visited by 
all who were distinguished for learning or curious in 
the fine arts. He soon acquired the warm friendship 
of Dr. 'Mead, to whom he had, while studying physic 
at the university of Leyden, dedicated his specimen of 
an edition of ./Eschylus, and who, we are told by Dr. 
Dibdin, " supported him with a sort of paternal zeal ; 
nor did he find in his protege an ungrateful son. Few 
minds were probably more congenial than were those 
of Mead and Askew : the former had a magnificence of 
sentiment which infused into the mind of the latter just 
notions of a character aiming at solid intellectual fame, 
without the petty arts and dirty tricks which we now 
see too frequently pursued to obtain it. Dr. Askew, 
with less pecuniary means of gratifying it, evinced an 
equal ardour in the pursuit of books, MSS., and in- 
scriptions. I have heard from a very worthy old gentle- 
man who used to revel 'midst the luxury of Askew's 
table, that few men exhibited their books and pictures, 



1753] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 187 

or, as he called it, showed the lions, better than did the 
doctor. Of his attainments in Greek and Latin litera- 
ture it becomes not me to speak, when such a scholar 
as Dr. Parr has been eloquent in their praise." f Amongst 
the other rich stores of Dr. Askew's library was a com- 
plete collection of the editions of ^Eschylus, some illus- 
trated with MS. notes, and likewise one or two, if not 
more, MSS. of the same author, which were collected 
purposely with the intention of publishing an edition 
of ^Eschylus. So early as the year 1746 he had printed 
a specimen of his intended edition, in a small quarto 
pamphlet, under the title of" Novse Editionis Tragce- 
diarum ^Eschyli Specimen, curante Antonio Askew, 
M.B. Coll : Emman : apud Cantabrigienses haud ita 
pridem Socio Commensali. Ludg : Bat: 1746." This 
pamphlet, which has now become very scarce, consisted 
only of 25 lines of the " Eumenides." It contained 
various readings from his MSS. and books, and the 
" Notae Variorum." 

Dr. Askew resided in Queen 's-square. " His house 
was crammed full of books, the passages were full, the 
very garrets overflowed, and the wags of the day used 
to say that the half of the square itself would have 
done so before the book appetite of Dr. Askew would 
have been satiated. He saw a good deal of company 
attracted as well by the abundant luxuries with which 
his table was furnished as by the classical conversations 
and learned accounts of curiosities which he had brought 
with him from Greece. Among the literary people who 
were most frequently there, were Archbishop Markham, 
Sir William Jones, Dr. Farmer, Demosthenes Taylor, 
and Dr. Parr. By these distinguished persons Dr. 
Askew was considered as a scholar of refined taste, 
sound knowledge, and indefatigable research into every- 
thing connected with Grecian and Roman learning. In- 
deed, from his youth upwards, he had been distinguished 
for his love of letters, and had received the early part 
of his education under Richard Dawes the critic. His 
father, on presenting him to the schoolmaster, marked 



188 ROLL OF THE [1753 

those parts of his back, which Dawes, who was cele- 
brated for his unsparing use of the birch, might scourge 
at his pleasure, excepting only his head from this disci- 
pline ; and Dr. Askew was wont to relate with some 
humour the terror with which he surveyed for the first 
time this redoubted pedagogue. As a collector of books 
Dr. Askew was the first who brought bibliomania into 
fashion ; and no one exhibited his various treasures 
better than himself. The eager delight with which he 
produced his rare editions, his large paper copies, his 
glistening gems and covetable tomes, would have raised 
him high in the estimation of the Roxburgh club. 
Some, indeed, were of such great rarity, that he would 
not suffer them to be touched, but would show them to 
his visitors through the glass cases of the cabinet of 
his library, or, standing on a ladder, would himself read 
aloud different portions of these inestimable volumes. 
As no one had enjoyed greater opportunities, possessed 
more sufficient means to gratify his taste, or had an 
acuter discrimination, the Bibliotheca Askeviana was 
well-known to all at home and abroad who were in the 
least eminent for bibliographical research. And as he 
had expressed a wish that his books might be unre- 
servedly submitted to sale after his decease, the public 
became ultimately benefited by his pursuits, and many 
a collection was afterwards enriched by an Exemplar 
Askevianum* Dr. Askew died at Hampstead 28th 
February, 1774, aged fifty-two, and was buried there. 
On a tablet near the organ in Hampstead church is the 
following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of 

ANTHONY ASKEW, M.D. F.R.S., 

who exchanged this life for a better, 

the 28th day of February, 1774, 

in the fifty-second year of his age. 

Dr. Askew was twice married : 1st, to Margaret, 
daughter of Cuthbert Swinburn, esq., of Long Witton, 

* The Gold-Headed Cane. 2nd ed. Lend. p. 161, et seq. 



1754] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 189 

and the Westgate in Northumberland, but had no 
issue by her ; 2ndly, to Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
Holford, esq., a master in chancery, by whom he had 
six sons and six daughters. 

The doctor's very valuable library was sold by Baker 
and Leigh, on the 19th February, 1775, and nineteen 
following days. The MSS. were sold separately in 
1781, and produced a very considerable sum. The 
Appendix to Scapula, published in 1789, was compiled 
from one of these MSS. A fine portrait of Dr. Askew is 
at Emmanuel college, Cambridge ; and the College of 
Physicians possess a very curious model of him in un- 
baked clay, the work of a Chinese, who had been his 
patient ; and said to be an admirable likeness. This 
was presented to the College by lady Pepys, the widow 
of Sir Lucas Pepys, bart, M.D., and a daughter of Dr. 
Askew. The splendid bust of Mead by Roubiliac, now 
in the Censors' room, was presented by Dr. Askew 30th 
September, 1756.* 

RICHARD JONES was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 2 1st February, 1754. He 
practised at Coventry, and died there 23rd January, 
1762. 

NATHAN ALCOCK, M.D., was born at Runcorn, in 
Cheshire, in 1707, and, after studying his profession at 
Edinburgh and Leyden, proceeded doctor of medicine 
at the latter university in 1737 (D.M.I, de Peripneu- 
monia Vera, sive de Pulmonum Inflammatione). On 
the 22nd October, 1741, he was actually created master 
of arts at Oxford by decree of Convocation. He pro- 

* " So highly pleased was Dr. Askew with the execution of this 
bust, that, though he had previously agreed with the sculptor for 
50, he offered him 100 as the reward of his successful talent; 
when, to his astonishment, the sordid Frenchman exclaimed it was 
not enough, and actually sent in a bill for 108, 2s. ! The demand, 
even to the odd shillings, was paid, and Dr. Askew inclosed the re- 
ceipt to Hogarth, to produce at the next meeting of artists." The 
Gold-Headed Cane. 2nd ed. 8vo. Lond. 1827. p. 159. 



1SK) BOLL OF THE [1754 

ceeded bachelor of medicine, as a member of Jesus 
college, Oxford, 30th June, 1744 ; and doctor of medi- 
cine 19th June, 1749. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society 25th January, 1749-50. He was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 16th 
April, 1753 ; and a Fellow 8th April, 1754. Dr. Alcock 
practised his profession for some years at Oxford, and 
was for many years reader on anatomy and chemistry 
in the university. He eventually removed to Run- 
corn, where he died the 8th December, 1779. He was 
buried in the parish church, and close to the chancel 
screen is a marble monument thus inscribed : 

Hie situs est 

N. ALCOCK, fil. D. A. ex bona uxore sua M. Breck ; 

in Academ: Oxon: et Lugdun: Batav: M.D., Coll: Med 

Lond et B.S. Socius, necnon apud Oxonienses in Chymia 

et Anatomia per multos annos celeberriinus Preelector. 

Vitam iniit xxvii Sept: MDCCVII 

finivit viii Dec: MDCCLXXIX. 

Fratres superstites M. Alcock et Thomas Alcock 

A.M. hujus ecclesiee vicarius hoc marmor posuerunt in 

memoriam doctissimi et dignissimi vivi. 

PETER SHAW, M.D. Of this eminent physician and 
voluminous writer but few records remain. He is said 
to have been descended from an old county family in 
Berkshire, and was the son of Robert Shaw, A.M., 
master of the Grammar school at Lichfield, who died in 
1704, and whose memorial is in St. Mary's church in 
that city. Dr. Peter Shaw presumably was born at 
Lichfield about 1694. Of his education, general or 
medical, I fail to recover any particulars. Many of the 
early years of his professional life were probably passed 
in the country, and some of them certainly at Scar- 
borough. But as early as 1726 he was already in 
London, apparently without any degree, and practising 
physic, without the licence of the College. * Where he 
was residing for some years after this, is not known, 

* "1726. July 1. Mr. Shaw appeared, said he was not deter- 
mined to stay in town, nor to follow the practice of physic here." 



1754] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 191 

but he was " usefully employed in facilitating the study 
of chemistry in England by his excellent translations of 
the chemical works of Stahl and of Boerhaave, as well 
as by his own writings and lectures on that subject/'* 
On the 25th June, 1740, being then a doctor of medi- 
cine, but of what university is not stated, he was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians, and 
about that time must have settled in London, where 
he soon attained popularity and an extensive busi- 
ness. He was warmly patronised by Sir Edward Hulse, 
bart., one of the court physicians then gradually with- 
drawing himself from practice, who, writing in 1748 
to Dr. Heberden, said that Dr. Shaw had even then 
too much business, and more than he could possibly do. 
In 1752 he was appointed physician extraordinary to 
George II, and the same year was created doctor of me- 
dicine at Cambridge, by royal mandate. After coming 
again before the Censors' board for examination, he was 
admitted a Candidate of the College 16th April, 1753, 
and a Fellow 8th April, 1754. In the last named year 
he was appointed physician in ordinary to the king, and 
he was the usual medical attendant upon that monarch 
in his journeys to Hanover. He was nominated to the 
same office on the accession of George III, but did not 
long survive, dying on the 15th March, 1763. He was 
buried in the nave of Wimbledon church, where there 
is the following inscription : 

To the Memory of 

PETER SHAW, M.D. 

Physician in Ordinary to their 

Majesties George the 2nd and George the 3d 

who died March 15th, 1763. 

Aged 69 Years. 

Dr. Shaw had married Frances, the daughter of 
John Hyde, esq., of Quorndon, co. Leicester. His 
daughter Elizabeth, by this marriage, became the wife 

* Thomson's Life, Lectures, and Writings of William Cullen, M.D. 
8vo. Edinb. 1859. Vol. i, p. 39. 



192 ROLL OF THE [1754 

of Dr. Richard Warren. Dr. Shaw's portrait is in the 
College. It was presented by Mrs. Pelham Warren, 
19th April, 1836. 

Dr. Shaw, who is now but little known, except by 
his editions of Bacon and Boyle, was one of the most 
active, industrious and favoured physicians of his time. 
He wrote largely, and in some instances hastily, as he 
was wont in his later years to confess, and as is admitted 
by his son-in-law and eulogist, Dr. Richard Warren. 
His character and services to literature and science are 
so feelingly portrayed by Dr. Warren, in his Harveian. 
oration for 1768, that I give the passage in a note.* 

* Vir erat, si quis alius, ad societatem plane factus. Quid illo 
aut fidelins amico ant sodali jucnndius ? Mira in sermone, mira 
etiam in ore ipso vnltuqne snavitas. Ad hoc, ingenium dnlce, facile, 
emditnm, semper infra aliorum aestimationes se metiens, nihil sibi 
vindicans. Laboriosnm vitae curriculum, nt vobis vestrseque arti 
quam maxime inserviret, institnit et peregit. Postquam Baconi 
philosophiam illustrasset, et auctiorem reddidisset, ad artem chemi- 
cam excolendam sese accinxit. Artem satis in se amplam invenit, 
sed caligine involutam, iisque principiis fere innixam, quae vix in- 
telligi, nednm explicari potuerunt. Hnic arti multum lucis attulit 
insignis ille philosophise experimentalis instaurator Boyleus ; qui 
tarn en non tarn nova chemiae extruxit fundamenta, quam dejecit 
vetera : lautam satis supellectilem ab eo, rationes vero non accepi- 
mus ; materiam unde erui possit vera rerum explicatio uberem satis 
reliquit, explicationem vero non attigit. Hie igitur, cujus desiderio 
omnes tenemur, farraginem Boyleanam apte, distincte, ordinate dis- 
posuit, ex fumo lucem dedit, ea demum chemiae posuit principia, ut 
artem vere philosophicam esse jam tandem agnoscamus, et quod 
inter scientias jure reponi mereatur lubentissime illi acceptam refe- 
ramus. Idem, juvenis admodum, literarnm et medicinae cultures 
totum se tradidit ; quod satis testantur multa et erndita opera, non- 
nulla quidem ab aliis scripta, sed ab eo edita et illustrata, nonnulla 
proprio marte elaborata. Fatendum sane est, quod quaedam forsan 
prsepropero et prsecoci ingenio, generosi tamen, etsi nondum subacti 
saporis, inter prima studiorum rudimenta effudit : nee pudet hoc 
fateri, cum hujusmodi scripta, quae aliorum famse, forsan satis essent, 
ipse (nam saepe de iis pulchre disputantem audivi) ipse solitus est 
minoris facere. " More scilicet magnorum virorum et magnarum 
rerum fiduciam habentium ; nam levia ingenia, quia nihil habent, 
nihil sibi detrahunt. Magno ingenio multaque nihilominus habituro, 
convenit etiam simplex veri erroris confessio ; praecipueque in eo 
ministerio, quod utilitatis causa posteris traditur." Oratio ex Har- 
veii Institute habita MDCCLXVIII. 



1754] KOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 193 

Of the products of Dr. Shaw's prolific pen the follow- 
ing is, I fear, but an imperfect list : 

The Dispensatory of the Royal College of Physicians, London. 
8vo. Lond. 1721. 

A Treatise of Incurable Diseases. 4to. Lond. 1723. 

The Philosophical Works of the Hon. Robert Boyle, abridged, 
methodised, and disposed under the general heads of Physics, 
Statics, Pneumatics, Natural History, Chemistry, and Medicine. 
The whole illustrated with notes containing the improvements 
made in the several parts of Natural and Experimental knowledge. 
3 vols. 4to. Lond. 1725. 

The Dispensatory of the Royal College of Physicians of Edin- 
burgh. Translated from the Latin. 8vo. Lond. 1727. 

A New Method of Chemistry, including the Theory and Prac- 
tice of the Art, being a translation of Boerhaave's " Institutiones 
Chemise." 4to. Lond. 1727. 

A New Practice of Physic, wherein the various Diseases incident 
to the Human Body are described, their Causes assigned, their 
Diagnostics and Prognostics enumerated, and the Regimen proper 
to each delivered ; with a competent number of Medicines for every 
stage and symptom thereof, prescribed after the manner of the 
most eminent physicians among the moderns, and particularly 
those of London. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1726. The 7th edition of 
which appeared in 1753. 

Philosophical Principles of Universal Chemistry, from the Colle- 
gium Jenense of Gr. E. Stahl. 8vo. Lond. 1730. 

Three Essays in Artificial Philosophy, or Universal Chemistry. 
8vo. Lond. 1731. 

The Philosophical Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, 
&c., Methodised and made English from the Originals ; with occa- 
sional notes to explain what is obscure and show how far the seve- 
ral plans of the author for the advancement of all the parts of 
knowledge have been executed to the present time. 3 vols. 4to. 
Lond. 1733. 

Chemical Lectures read in London in 1731 and 1732, and at 
Scarborough in 1733, for the Improvement of Arts, Trades, and 
Natural Philosophy. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

An Inquiry into the Contents and Virtues of the Scarborough 
Spa. 8vo. Lond. 1734. 

Examination of the Reasons for and against the Subscription for 
a Medicament for the Stone. 8vo. Lond. 1738. 

Inquiries on the Nature of Miss Stephens's Medicaments. 8vo. 
Lond. 1738. 

Essays for the Improvement of Arts, Manufactures, and Com- 
merce, by means of Chemistry. 8vo. Lond. 1761. 

Proposals for a Course of Chemical Experiments, with a view 
to Practical Philosophy, Arts, Trade, and Business. 8vo. Lond. 
1761. 

VOL. II. O 



194 ROLL OF THE [1754 

New Experiments and Observations upon Mineral Waters, by 
Dr. F. Hoffman, extracted from his Works, with Notes, &c. &c. 

THOMAS WILBRAHAM, M.D., was at first of Brase- 
nose college, Oxford, as a member of which he gradu- 
ated A.B. 22nd April, 1721 ; but shortly afterwards, 
removing to All Souls, he proceeded B.C.L. 14th June, 
1727 ; and D.C.L. 7th July, 1732. On the llth No- 
vember, 1738, he obtained from the university a licence 
to practise medicine ; on the 25th March, 1741-2, was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society ; and, removing 
to London, was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians, 30th September, 1751. Dr. Wilbraham 
was created doctor of medicine at Oxford, by diploma, 
12th December, 1752 ; was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 16th April, 1753 ; and a 
Fellow 8th April, 1754. He was Censor in 1754, 1760, 
1765, 1769, 1773 ; and Treasurer from 1754 to 1761 in- 
clusive. He died 29th March, 1782. Dr. Wilbraham 
was physician to the Westminster hospital from 1739 
to 1761. 

WILLIAM SCHAW, M.D., was born in Scotland, and 
educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of 
medicine 27th June, 1735 (D.M.I, de Morbis ex Animi 
Passionibus orientibus). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 23rd March, 1752 ; 
and was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge, by 
royal mandate, in 1753. Dr. Schaw was admitted a 
Candidate of the College 16th April, 1753 ; and a Fel- 
low 8th April, 1754. His name disappears from the 
College list in 1757. He was the author of 

A Dissertation on Stone in the Bladder. 4to. Lond. 1739. 
A Scheme of Lectures on the Animal (Economy. 4to. Lond. 
1739. 

NICHOLAS MUNCKLEY, M.D., was educated in part at 
Leyden, where, on the 25th August, 1745, being then 
twenty-four years of age, he was entered on the physic 
line. He was created doctor of medicine at Aberdeen 



1754] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 195 

10th March, 1747. On the 2nd July, 1748, he was 
elected physician to Guy's hospital ; and on the 23rd 
March, 1752, was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians. He was created doctor of medicine at 
Cambridge, by royal mandate, in 1753 ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College 16th April, 1753 ; and a Fel- 
low 8th April, 1754. He was Gulstonian Lecturer in 
1756 ; Censor, 1756, 1762, 1766, 1767 ; and died 20th 
February, 1770. 

MARK AKENSIDE, M.D., was the son of Mark Aken- 
side, a substantial butcher at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and was born in that town the 9th November, 1721. 
He had the earliest part of his education at the gram- 
mar school of Newcastle ; but his parents were dissen- 
ters and they soon removed him from that school and 
placed him at an academy in the town kept by Mr. 
Wilson, a dissenting minister. The future poet and 
physician was destined by his parents for the ministry, 
and with this in view he was sent to Edinburgh in 1739 ; 
but his inclination leading him to the study of medicine, 
he returned a sum of money he had received from the 
Dissenters' Society, and in his nineteenth year com- 
menced attendance on the medical classes at Edinburgh. 
He remained at Edinburgh two years, and applied him- 
self with great diligence to the study of physic. On the 
30th December, 1740, he was admitted a member of the 
Medical Society of that city ; and in that capacity ac- 
quired much reputation by his readiness and facility as 
a speaker. He settled in his native town as a surgeon, 
but after a short stay there proceeded to Leyden, where 
he took the degree of doctor of medicine 16th May, 1744 
(D.M.I, de Ortu et Incremento Foetus Humani. 4to.). 
There he made the acquaintance of Mr. Dyson, a law 
student, and being of congenial tempers, a friendship 
was then commenced which lasted through their lives. 
Returning to England, Dr. Akenside, in June, 1744, 
settled as a physician at Northampton ; but remained 
there for a year and a half only, the medical practice 

o 2 



196 ROLL OF THE [1754 

and emoluments of that town and neighbourhood being 
then engrossed by Dr. Stonehouse. Akenside then came 
to London, under the patronage of Mr. Dyson, who had 
then been called to the bar, and was possessed of a 
handsome income, with a portion of which he supported 
his friend, while he was endeavouring to make himself 
known as a physician. On Mr. Dyson's becoming clerk 
of the house of Commons, he purchased a house at 
North End, Hampstead, where Akenside dwelt with 
him during the summer season. Mr. Dyson, with a 
generosity rarely witnessed, having assigned to Aken- 
side an annual income of three hundred pounds to enable 
him to make his way in the metropolis, he, in 1747, 
removed to Bloomsbury-square, and became a candi- 
date for town practice. He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1751 ; but hav- 
ing, on the 4th January, 1753, been created doctor of 
medicine at Cambridge, he was admitted a Candidate 
16th April following: and a Fellow, 8th April, 1754. 
He was Censor in 1755 and 1760 ; was Gulstonian 
Lecturer in 1755 ; Croonian Lecturer in 1756 ;* and 
Harveian orator in 1759. In 1759 he was elected 
physician to St. Thomas's hospital, and assistant-phy- 
sician to Christ's hospital ; and in 1761, through the 
interest of his friend Mr. Dyson, was appointed physi- 
cian in ordinary to the queen. Dr. Akenside died at 
his house in Old Burlington-street, of a putrid sore 
throat, the 23rd June, 1770, in the forty-ninth year of 
his age, and was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly. " He 
was much devoted to the study of ancient literature, 
and was a great admirer of Plato, Cicero, and the best 
philosophers of antiquity. His knowledge and taste 
in this respect are conspicuous in his poems and in the 
notes and illustrations which he annexed to them. 

* "1755, May 28, 29, 30. Dr. Mark Akenside read the Gulsto- 
nian Lecture." Annals. 

"1756. September 7, 8, 9. Dr. Akenside read the Croonian 
Lecture." Annals. There is certainly, therefore, no foundation 
for the oft-repeated assertion that he did not finish this course of 
lectures. 



1754] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 197 

That he had a sincere reverence for the great and fun- 
damental principles of religion is apparent from several 
passages in his writings, and he was warmly attached 
to the cause of civil and religious liberty/' Dr. Aken- 
side was never married, and left all his effects to his 
warm and constant friend Mr. Dyson. The life of Aken- 
side has been so often written, and is of such easy ac- 
cess, that I have confined myself to a record of his pro- 
fessional career. Dr. Akenside is the author of the 
preface to the College edition of Harvey's works in 
quarto, published in 1766,* and he it was who saw the 
work through the press. His medical publications were 
the following : 

Oratio Harveiana. 4to. Lond. 1760. 

De Dysenteria Commentarius. 8vo. Lond. 1764. 

THOMAS WHARTON, M.D., was the eldest son of Mr. 
Robert Wharton, alderman and sometime mayor of 
Durham, by his wife Mary, daughter of Richard Mid- 
dleton, of Offerton, esq. He was educated at Pem- 
broke college, Cambridge, of which house he was a fel- 
low. He proceeded A.B. 1737 ; A.M. 1741 ; M.D. 
1752 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 3 Oth September, 1752 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 
1754. He practised in London fora few years only ; 
was Censor in 1757 ; and in 1759 removed to Old Park, 
Durham, the family estate ; and dying there, was buried 
at Whit worth, in the county palatine, 22nd December, 
1794, aged seventy-seven. 

CHARLES MILNER, M.D.. was of Christ's college, 
Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded A.B. 
1720. On the 8th September, 1721, he was entered 
on the physic line at Leyden. Returning to Cambridge 
he proceeded A.M. 1725 ; and M.D. 1734. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1753 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 1754. In that, 

* Annals, 3rd March, 17t>6. 



198 ROLL OF THE [1755 

year he settled at Aylesford hall, near Maidstone ; and 
died there in 1771 or 1772. 

ANDREW DIDIER, M.D., was a doctor of medicine 
of Aberdeen, 10th December, 1753. He was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 23rd Decem- 
ber, 1754 ; and was elected physician to the Middlesex 
hospital 2nd January, 1755. His health, however, at 
once gave way. In May he went to Bristol to drink 
the waters ; and he died in July, 1756. 

HENRY HINCKLEY, M.D., was educated at Magdalen 
college, Cambridge, as a member of which he took the 
degree of A.B. in 1749 ; when, removing to King's col- 
lege, he proceeded M.D. in 1754. He was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 
1754 ; and a Fellow, 22nd December, 1755 ; was Cen- 
sor in 1758, 1762, 1770, 1774, 1777; and Treasurer 
from 1762 to his death on the 1st November, 1779. 
Dr. Hinckley was elected physician to the Middlesex 
hospital 23rd January, 1752. He was appointed phy- 
sician to Guy's hospital 26th June, 1756; and a few 
days after resigned his office at the Middlesex, in which 
he was succeeded by Dr. Richard Warren. 

HENRY MYDDELTON, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
St. Andrew's of 1st April, 1755 ; was admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College 12th April, 1756, 

ANTONY ADDINGTON, M.D., was the youngest son of 
Henry Addington, gent., of Fringford, in Oxfordshire, 
and received his preliminary education at Winchester, 
whence he was elected to Trinity college, Oxford, as a 
member of which he proceeded A.B. 14th July, 1739 ; 
A.M. 13th May, 1740; M.B. 6th February, 1741 ; M.D. 
24th January, 1744. His bodily powers, which had 
never been very robust, gave way somewhat suddenly 
about the year 1740, and serious apprehensions were 
entertained by his friends as to the result. He was ad- 
vised to return to the country, where, by close care of 



1756] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 199 

himself, continued uninterruptedly for several years, he 
at length recovered sufficiently to enter on the practice 
of his profession at Reading. He is known to have ob- 
tained a good practical knowledge of the treatment of 
insanity, and he is supposed to have been connected, 
whilst at Heading, with a private asylum, in the capa- 
city of physician, proprietor, or both. In 1754 he re- 
moved to London, was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 24th March, 1755 ; and a Fellow, 
25th June, 1756. He delivered the Gulstonian lectures 
in 1757, and was Censor the same year. Dr. Addington 
practised with distinguished reputation in London for a 
period of more than twenty years. He was the confi- 
dential friend and physician of the great lord Chatham, 
and a friendship grew up between their respective fami- 
lies which produced the happiest effects to both. The 
doctor was an ardent politician, and was prominently 
engaged in some political negotiations which created 
much noise in their day, lengthened particulars of which 
may be seen in Dodsley's Annual Register. About the 
year 1780 he withdrew from practice, having realised by 
his profession sufficient for the purchase of the valuable 
reversionary estate of Upottery in Devonshire, which 
is still possessed by his family. During his latter years 
he resided again in Reading, where, on the 26th No- 
vember, 1788, he received bis royal highness the prince 
of Wales' commands " to proceed immediately to Wind- 
sor to consult with his majesty's physicians on the cure 
of his majesty." Dr. Addington remained at Windsor 
four days, visiting the king twice each day. He was 
afterwards examined, in conjunction with the king's 
physicians Sir George Baker, Sir Lucas Pepys, Drs. 
Warren, Gisborne, Reynolds, and Willis first on the 
.3rd December by the privy council, and again on the 
9th by the parliamentary committee. On both occa- 
sions he expressed a very strong expectation of his 
majesty's recovery, founded on the circumstance " that 
this illness had not for its forerunner that melancholy 
which usually precedes a serious attack of this nature." 



200 ROLL OF THE [1756 

The king's temporary recovery, shortly afterwards, 
evinced the correctness of his prognosis. Dr. Adding- 
ton died at Reading on the 22rid March, 1790,* and 
was buried in Tringford church, where a marble tablet, 
with the following simple inscription, denotes the place 

of his repose : 

Near this place are interred the remains of 
ANTONY ADDINGTON, M.D., 



* Addingtonus noster, loco natus honesto, ab ingenio literis a 
puero optime fuerat instructus. A Wiccamicis in Sacro-Sanctse 
Trinitatis Oxonii Collegium translates ; ubi studiis operam tarn 
felici successu navavifc ut primam lauream mature adeptus est. 
Adversa autem valetudine nimium festinanter ab Oxonio, et in rus, 
nt natalis soli et aeris frueretur oblectamentis, recipere se coactus : 
ibi, victus regimine attente servato, annis pins minus quam decem 
in hunc modum exactis, convaluit. Sed dum rusticus fait, ne 
animi facultates in otio torpescerent, libros fere omnes de anatomia, 
de physiologia, et de chemia ; multos etiam in re medica Gragcorum 
scriptores, animo in ea studia intentiore, perlegit ; praecipue autem, 
et prae aliis, Boerhaavii opera evolvebat ; cujus semper scholee se 
amatorem professus est. Quare tandem in sanitatem restitutus, 
ut prselectiones omnes, vitse institute quam maxime consentaneas, 
exaudire potuerit, in Oxonium denuo et mox Londinum sese con- 
tulit : deinde titulo doctoris medicines apud Oxonienses suos ador- 
natus, sede et domicilio Readings constitutis, ad medendi scientiam 
in praxin reducendam eadern industria, eodem, quo antea in acqui- 
rendo, labore indefesso incubuit ; uxorem, benignam sociam, sibi 
adjunxit, e qua paterfamilias factus f uit ; et e filiis ejus, natu maxi- 
mus comitiorum in senatu fait Rogator illustris, et in hunc excelsum 
honorem ob doctrinam summam cathedras illi sublimiori maxime 
idoneam, et ob eloquentiam dilucidam publics, voce vocatus. Post 
aliquot annos Addingtonus noster, sedibus in Londinum translatis, 
eadem diligentia simul atque ingenio in urbe ut olim in rure mag- 
nam sibi famam consecutus est. Quanto honore omnes medendi 
rationes exercuit exquisitas, quam singulari unumquemque asgrotum 
assiduitate observavit, base omnia vobis omnibus inclaruerunt, et me 
dicere vetant hujusce orationis limites. 

Fama indies digniore amplificatus, per viginti et plures annos 
Londini artem nostram exercuit ; Spartam nactus est, et earn strenue 
exornavit ; annos jam pene septuaginta natus, et in senectutem ver- 
gens, Readingam denuo rediit, ubi prorsus medicinae usus deposue- 
rat, paucorum nisi infelicium et miserorum gratia, quos rure apud 
se humanius receperat, et quibus auxilium et operam usque ad octo- 
gesimum et ultimum jam vitas annum benigne largitus est ; et subito 
eublatus fuit. Oratio Harveiana, anno MDCCXC. habita, autore 
Joanne Ash. 



1756] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 201 

who died March 22nd, 1790, aged 76 years ; 

and of MART his wife, 
who died November the 7th, 1778. 

Dr. Addington had survived to witness his eldest 
son's elevation to the chair of the house of Commons, 
and, yet more, the handsome manner in which the 
House voted in his behalf, and for the first time, a 
fixed annual salary in place of the fluctuating and 
objectionable manner, partly by fees, and partly from 
sinecures conferred by the Crown, in which the speakers 
had hitherto been remunerated. Dr. Addington's bust 
is in the College library. It was taken after death, by 
command of his distinguished son, lord Sidmouth, "to 
preserve in marble those features which for so many 
years he was accustomed to regard with delight and 
reverence," and was presented to the College by lord 
Chatham in 1827. Dr. Addington was the author of 
two pamphlets, viz. : 

An Essay on the Scurvy, with the Method of Preserving Water 
Sweet at Sea. 8vo. Lond. 1753. 

An Authentic Account of the Part taken by the late Earl of 
Chatham in a Transaction which passed in the beginning of the 
Year 1778, concerning a Negotiation between Lord Camden and 
Lord Bute. 

RICHARD BROCKLESBY, M.D., was the only son of 
Richard Brocklesby, esq., of Cork, by his wife Mary 
Alloway, of Minehead, co. Somerset, where, at the re- 
sidence of his maternal grandfather, he was born on the 
llth August, 1722. He received his preliminary edu- 
cation at Ballytore, in the north of Ireland, at the same 
school in which Edmund Burke was subsequently edu- 
cated. He commenced the study of medicine at Edin- 
burgh, and on the 3rd March, 1742, was admitted a 
member of the Medical Society there. He was entered 
on the physic line at Ley den 22nd November, 1743, 
attended the lectures of Albinus, Gaubius, Oosterdijk 
Schacht, and Van Royen, and proceeded doctor of me- 
dicine there 28th June, 1745 (D.M.I. de Saliva Sana 



202 ROLL OF THE [1756 

et Morbos&. 4to.). Soon after this Dr. Brocklesby 
settled in London, and was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 1st April, 1751. On the 
28th September, 1754, he was created doctor of medi- 
cine by the university of Dublin ; and having, in De- 
cember of the same year, been incorporated at Cam- 
bridge on that degree, he was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 25th June, 1755 ; and a Fel- 
low, 25th June, 1756. He was Gulstonian lecturer in 
1758; Censor, 1758, 1763, 1765; Harveian orator in 
1760; Croonian lecturer in 1763; and finally was 
named an Elect in 1778 in place of Dr. James Hawley, 
deceased. On the 1st October, 1787, Dr. Brocklesby 
presented to the College an elegant copy of Graevius 
and Gronovius's Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum et 
Grsecarum,in 25 volumes folio, being the best edition ; for 
which he received the unanimous thanks of the College. 

In 1758, on the recommendation of Dr. Peter Shaw, 
and through the patronage of lord Barrington, Dr. 
Brocklesby was appointed physician to the army, and 
in this capacity served for some time in Germany 
during the seven years' war. He distinguished himself 
there by his knowledge, zeal, and humanity, and at- 
tracted to himself the notice of the duke of Eichmond, 
lord Pembroke, and others. Jn October, 1760, he was 
appointed physician to the hospitals for. the British 
forces, and once more proceeded to the seat of war ; but, 
finally, returned to England some time before the peace 
of 1763. He then settled in Norfolk-street, Strand, 
where he died somewhat suddenly on the llth Decem- 
ber, 1797, aged seventy -five. At dinner he appeared to 
be in his usual health and spirits, but he expired sud- 
denly a few minutes after retiring to bed. He was 
buried at St. Clement Danes. 

Dr. Brocklesby bad early attained a considerable rank 
in his profession, and from the time he settled in Nor- 
folk-street, had lived on terms of intimacy and friend- 
ship with the most distinguished men of his day, to 
whom he was recommended by his medical skill, his be- 



1756] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 203 

nevolence, and his literary attainments. Dr. Brocklesby 
was the physician and friend of Johnson, of Wilkes, 
and of Edmund Burke, and was generally esteemed for 
his acquirements, conversational and social qualities. 
His income from private and professional sources was 
more than adequate to his wants, and his table was fre- 
quently filled with persons the most distinguished for 
rank, learning, and abilities, in the kingdom. His 
generous offer to Dr. Johnson of an annuity to enable him 
to resort to a milder climate ; and also of apartments in 
his own house in Norfolk-street when Johnson's confined 
dwelling in Bolt-court was considered injurious to his 
health, is well known ; as is also the circumstance that, 
having bequeathed in his will a legacy of 1,000 to 
Edmund Burke, he gave it to him in his life -time, be- 
fore the grant of an ample pension had made such a 
gift no longer necessary for his comfort. And it was 
Dr. Brocklesby who suggested and aided by Sir Samp- 
son Gideon raised a subscription for the support of cap- 
tain Coram, the founder of the Foundling hospital, who 
had impoverished himself and exhausted his means on 
that noble institution.* Dr. Brocklesby bequeathed 
his Irish estates, which were considerable, to his ne- 
phew, Mr. Beeby ; and to another nephew, the very 
celebrated Dr. Thomas Young, his house and furniture in 
Norfolk-street, his library, his prints, a choice collection 
of pictures, chiefly selected by his friend, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and about 10,000 in money ; other legacies 
were made to his servants and to other members of his 
family. Dr. Brocklesby's portrait, by Copley, was en- 
graved by Ridley. He contributed some papers to the 
Philosophical Transactions, and to the " Medical Obser- 
vations and Inquiries," and was the author of 

* On Dr. Brocklesby's applying to Captain Coram to know 
whether his setting on foot a subscription for his benefit would not 
offend him, he received this noble answer : " I have not wasted the 
little wealth of which I was formerly possessed in self -indulgence or 
vain expenses, and am not ashamed to confess that in my old age I 
am poor." Biographia Britannica, Art. Coram. 



204 ROLL OF THE [1756 

An Essay concerning the Mortality among Horned Cattle. 8vo. 
Lond. 1746. 

Economical and Medical Observations from 1758 to 1763, tending 
to the Improvement of Military Hospitals. 8vo. Lond. 1764. 

A Dissertation on the Music of the Ancients. 

WILLIAM WATTS, M.D., was the son of John Watts, 
junr., of Danett's hall, co. Leicester, a barrister, who sank 
a considerable fortune in the South Sea scheme, and died 
in 1728, aged thirty- two, by his wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Nicholas Mosley, esq. As a doctor of medicine, of 
King's college, Aberdeen, of 22nd March, 1753, he was 
admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 8th September, 1756. He practised in Leices- 
tershire, his native county, and was a man of philan- 
thropic aims and persuasive eloquence. By his periodical 
addresses to the affluent he laid the foundation of 
the Leicester infirmary. When Dr. Vaughan, in 1771, 
received the thanks of the first general meeting of the 
subscribers for his great care in compiling and digesting 
the rules and orders for the government of the infirm- 
ary, Dr. Watts also received the thanks of the meeting 
in language of the highest commendation as being the 
first public projector of that charity. Dr. Watts died 
17th December, 1786, aged sixty-one, and is commemo- 
rated on a mural tablet in the chancel of Medbourne 
church, co. Leicester, which bears the following inscrip- 
tion : 

In memory of 

WILLIAM WATTS, M.D., 

who resided some years in this place, 

where his charitable attention to the sick and needy 

claims the tribute of a grateful remembrance. 

In friendship few exceed him ; 

in benevolence none ; 

his name will be ever respected for the great exertions 
he used to establish an infirmary at Leicester, 

which he saw happily accomplished, 
received the warmest acknowledgments, 

and was voted a perpetual governor. 
He died December 17th, 1786, aged sixty-one years. 

JOHN CLERKE, M.D., was educated at Peterhouse, 



1756] EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 205 

Cambridge, of which he was a fellow. He proceeded 
A.B. 1738 ; A.M. 1742 ; M.D. 1753 ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1755 ; arid a Fellow 30th September, 1756. He 
was Censor in 1758. Dr. Clerke settled at Epsom in 
1763, and died about the year 1791, in which year his 
name disappears from the college list. 

WILLIAM HUNTER, M.D., was born on the 23rd 
May, 1718, at Kilbride, in Lanarkshire. He was the 
son of John Hunter, the owner of a small estate called 
Long Calderwood, a man of excellent understand- 
ing and of great integrity, but of an anxious temper, 
by his wife Agnes (Paul), a woman of great worth, of 
a handsome person and considerable talents. When 
fourteen years of age he was sent to the university of 
Glasgow, where he passed five years, and by his be- 
haviour and diligence acquired the esteem of his pro- 
fessors, and the reputation of a good scholar. At this 
period he was intended for the church ; but some con- 
scientious objections respecting subscription arose in 
his mind, and while in doubt and uncertainty he met 
with Dr. Cullen, who was then in practice at Hamilton. 
Cullen's conversation soon determined him to lay aside 
all thoughts of the church, and devote himself to the 
profession of physic. His father's consent having been 
obtained, Mr. Hunter, in 1737, went to reside with 
Dr. Cullen, and remained there for nearly three years, 
a period to which in after life he was accustomed to 
look back with the utmost pleasure, and which he re- 
garded as the happiest of his life. It was then agreed 
that he should go and prosecute his medical studies at 
Edinburgh and London, and afterwards settle at 
Hamilton in partnership with Dr. Cullen. He passed 
the winter session of 1740-1 at Edinburgh, and in the 
summer of 1741 arrived in London and took up his 
residence with Mr. afterwards Dr. Smellie, at that 
time an apothecary in Pall-mall. He had brought 
with him from Scotland a letter of recommendation to 



206 ROLL OF THE [1756 

Dr. James Douglas, the well-known anatomist and 
obstetric physician, who was then engaged upon a work 
on the bones, and was in search of a young man of 
ability and industry whom he might employ as a dis- 
sector. This circumstance fixed his attention on Hunter, 
and finally induced him to invite him into his family, for 
the double purpose of assisting in dissections and super- 
intending the education of his son. Mr. Hunter, having 
accepted Dr. Douglas's offer, was by his friendly 
assistance entered as a surgeon's pupil of St. George's 
hospital, and as a dissecting pupil of Dr. Frank 
Nicholls, who was then teaching anatomy with great 
reputation. He also attended a course of lectures by 
Dr. Desaguliers, on experimental philosophy. Hunter 
soon became expert in dissection, and Dr. Douglas was 
at the expense of having some of his preparations en- 
graved. But before many months had elapsed he had 
the misfortune to lose his friend and patron, who died in 
April, 1 742, leaving a widow and two children. The death 
of Dr. Douglas made no change, however, in Hunter's 
situation, for he continued to reside with the doctor's 
family, and to pursue his studies with the same dili- 
gence as before. To teach anatomy was now the object 
of his ambition, and in 1746 an opportunity of doing 
so occurred which he at once embraced. A society of 
naval surgeons had an apartment in Covent-garden, 
where they engaged Mr. Sharpe to deliver a course of 
lectures on the operations of surgery. Mr. Sharpe con- 
tinued to repeat this course, until, finding that it in- 
terfered too much with his other engagements, he de- 
clined it in favour of Hunter, who gave the society so 
much satisfaction that they requested him to extend 
his plan to anatomy, and, as an encouragement to do 
so, allowed him the use of their room for that purpose. 
In this new department he gave equal satisfaction to 
his hearers, and thenceforward continued his lectures 
with steadily increasing reputation for a long series of 
years. In 1747 Mr. Hunter was admitted a member 
of the Corporation of Surgeons, and in the spring 



1756] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 207 

of the following year accompanied his pupil, James 
Douglas, on a tour through Holland to Paris. At Ley- 
den he visited Albinus, whose admirable injections in- 
spired him with a strong desire to excel in that de- 
partment of anatomy. In the early part of his career, 
Hunter practised both surgery and midwifery, but he 
always entertained an aversion to the former, and 
gradually confined himself to the latter line of practice, 
for which he was singularly calculated by the delicacy 
of his manners and a very quick perception of the 
caprices of the world. Dr. Douglas had acquired a 
high reputation in this branch, and Hunter's connec- 
tion with him not unnaturally led him into the same 
line of practice. He was appointed one of the surgeons- 
accoucheur to the Middlesex hospital in 1748, and to 
the British Lying-in hospital in 1749. Some favourable 
circumstances conspired also to advance his prospects. 
Dr. Smellie, although a man of merit, was unpleasing 
in his exterior and manners, and was unable to make 
way amongst the refined and fastidious. The abilities 
of Hunter at least equalled those of Smellie, and his 
person and deportment gave him a decided advantage. 
Sir Richard Manningham, one of the most eminent 
accoucheurs of the time, died about this period, and 
Dr. Sandys, who divided with him the fashion of the 
day, retired into the country a few years after the 
commencement of Hunter's reputation. On the 24th 
October, 1750, Hunter obtained the degree of doctor 
of medicine from the university of Glasgow, and about 
that time quitting the house of Mrs. Douglas, settled 
in Jermyn-street, when he entirely relinquished his 
practice as a surgeon, and began his career as a physi- 
cian. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1756. 

In 1762 Dr. Hunter was consulted by queen Char- 
lotte, and two years afterwards was appointed physi- 
cian extraordinary to her Majesty. By this time his 
engagements had become so numerous that he was 
compelled to seek an assistant in his lectures, and 



208 ROLL OF THE [1756 

Mr. Hewson, then one of his pupils, was engaged, first as 
assistant and subsequently was admitted as a partner 
in the lectures. This connection subsisted until 1770, 
when a separation was occasioned by some disputes, 
and Mr. Cruikshank succeeded to the office. In 1767 
Dr. Hunter was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and in the following year a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries. In 1768 he was appointed by George 
the Third professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy, 
an office on which he conferred celebrity by the zeal and 
ability with which he discharged its difficult and oner- 
ous duties. On the death of Dr. Fothergill, Dr. Hun- 
ter was unanimously elected president of the Medical 
Society of London, and in 1780 the Royal Medical 
Society of Paris created him one of its foreign asso- 
ciates. He soon afterwards obtained a similar distinc- 
tion from the Royal Academy of Sciences of that city. 

About ten years before Dr. Hunter's end, his health 
was so much impaired that, fearing he might soon become 
unfit for the profession which he loved, he proposed to re- 
cruit himself by a residence in Scotland, and was on the 
point of purchasing a considerable estate when the pro- 
ject was frustrated by a defect in the title-deeds. This 
trifle banished his rural plans, and he remained in Lon- 
don continually declining in health, but pursuing dis- 
tinction with the same ardour with which he had 
courted it in his earlier days. He rose from a bed of 
sickness to deliver an introductory lecture to a course 
on the operations of surgery, in opposition to the earnest 
remonstrances of his friends. The lecture was accord- 
ingly delivered, but it was his last ; towards the con- 
clusion his strength was so much exhausted that he 
fainted away, and was finally replaced in the chamber 
which he had been so eager to quit. In a few days he 
was no more. Turning to his friend Dr. Combe in his 
latter moments, he observed, " If I had strength enough 
to hold a pen, I would write how easy and pleasant a 
thing it is to die." He expired on the 30th March, 
1783, and was buried in the rector's vault of St. James's, 



1756] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 209 

Piccadilly. A mural monument on the south of the 
church is thus inscribed : 

Sacred 

to the Memory of 
William Hunter, M.D., F.R.S., 
celebrated as a physician 

and physiologist. 

Born at Kilbride in Lanarkshire, May 23rd, 1718. 
Died in London March 30th, 1783. 

When Dr. Hunter began to practise obstetrics his 
ambition was fixed on the acquisition of a fortune suffi- 
cient to place him in easy and independent circum- 
stances. Before many years had elapsed, he found him- 
self in possession of a sum adequate to his wishes in 
this respect, and this he set apart as a resource of which 
he might avail himself whenever age or infirmities 
should oblige him to retire from business. After he 
had obtained this competency, as his wealth continued 
to accumulate, he formed a remarkable and praiseworthy 
design of engaging in some scheme of public utility, and 
at first had it in contemplation to found an anatomical 
school in this metropolis. For this purpose, about the 
year 1765, during the government of Mr. Grenville, he 
presented a memorial to that minister, in which he 
requested the grant of a piece of ground in the Mews 
for the site of an anatomical theatre. Dr. Hunter un- 
dertook to expend seven thousand pounds on the build- 
ing, and to endow a professorship of anatomy in per- 
petuity. This scheme did not meet with the reception 
which it deserved. In a conversation on this subject, 
soon afterwards, with the earl of Shelburne, his lordship 
expressed a wish that the plan might be carried into exe- 
cution by subscription, and very generously requested to 
accompany his name with a thousand guineas. Dr. 
Hunter's delicacy would not allow him to adopt this pro- 
posal. He chose rather to execute the plan at his own 
expense, and accordingly purchased a spot of ground in 
Great Windmill-street, where he erected a spacious house, 
to which he removed from Jermyn-street in 1770. In this 

VOL. ir. p 



210 ROLL or THE [1756 

building, besides a handsome amphitheatre and other 
convenient apartments for his lectures and dissections, 
one magnificent room was fitted up with great elegance 
and propriety as a museum, only second in extent and im- 
portance to that subsequently formed by his distinguished 
brother and pupil, John Hunter. Of the magnitude and 
value of Dr. Hunter's collection some idea may be formed 
when we consider the great length of years which he em- 
ployed in making anatomical preparations, and in the 
dissection of morbid bodies, added to the eagerness 
with which he procured additions from the museums of 
Sandys, Falconer, Blackall, and others which were at 
different times offered for sale in the metropolis. Friends 
and pupils were constantly augmenting his store with 
new specimens. On removing to Windmill -street, he 
began to extend his views to the embellishment of his 
collection by a magnificent library of Greek and Latin 
classics, and he formed also a very rare cabinet of ancient 
medals, which was at the time considered as only infe- 
rior to that belonging to the king of France. The coins 
alone had been purchased at an expense of twenty 
thousand pounds. Minerals, shells, and other objects 
of natural history were gradually added to this museum, 
which became an object of curiosity throughout Europe. 
It now enriches the university of Glasgow, to which it, 
with eight thousand pounds as a fund for the support 
and augmentation of the whole, was bequeathed by its 
liberal owner.* 

Dr. Baillie has said of Dr. Hunter, that " no one ever 
possessed more enthusiasm for his art, more persevering 
industry, more acuteness of investigation, more per- 
spicuity of expression, or, indeed, a greater share of 
natural eloquence. He excelled very much any lecturer 
whom I have ever heard in the clearness of his arrange- 
ment, the aptness of his illustrations, and the elegance 
of his diction. He was perhaps the best teacher of ana- 
tomy that ever lived. 

* Lives of British Physicians. 2nd edition. Lond. 1857. p. 
224, et seq. 



1756] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 211 

" Of the person of Dr. Hunter it may be observed 
that he was regularly shaped, but of a slender make, 
and rather below a middle stature. His manner of 
living was extremely simple and frugal, and the quan- 
tity of his food was small, as well as plain. He was an 
early riser, and when business was over, was constantly 
engaged in his anatomical pursuits, or in his museum. 
There was something very engaging in his manner and 
address, and he had such an appearance of attention to 
his patients when he was making his inquiries' as could 
scarcely fail to conciliate their confidence and esteem. 
In consultation with his medical brethren he delivered 
his opinion with diffidence and candour. In familiar 
conversation he was cheerful and unassuming. All 
who knew him allow that he possessed an excellent 
understanding, great readiness of perception, a good 
memory, and a sound judgment. With these intel- 
lectual powers he united uncommon assiduity and pre- 
cision, so that he was admirably fitted for anatomical 
investigation." Dr. Hunter's portrait, by Zoffani, is at 
the College. It was presented by Mr. Bransby Cooper, 
13th April, 1829. 

Dr. Hunter contributed several papers to the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions " and the " Medical Observations 
and Inquiries," and published 

Medical Commentaries. Part I. Containing a plain and direct 
Answer to Professor Monro, jun., with Remarks on the Structure, 
Functions, and Diseases of several Parts of the Human Body. 4to. 
Lond. 1762. 

Supplement to the First Part of Medical Commentaries. 4to. 
Lond. 1764. 

Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus exhibited in Figures. Fol. 
Birm. 1744. 

After his death appeared 

Two Introductory Lectures to his Course of Anatomical Lectures. 
4to. Lond. 1784. 

Anatomical Description of the Human Gravid Uterus and its 
Contents. 4to. Lond. 1794. 

SIR WILLIAM DUNCAN, Bart., M.D., was a doctor of 
medicine of the university of St. Andrew's of 4th May, 

p 2 



212 ROLL OF THE [1757 



1751 ; and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1756. He was appointed 
physician in ordinary to George the Third shortly after 
his accession to the throne, and was created a baronet 
in 1764, the year preceding which he had married lady 
Mary, daughter of Sackville, earl of Thanet. Sir William 
Duncan died at Naples in 1774. His body was brought 
to England, and buried at Hampstead. 

SAMUEL WATHEN, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Aberdeen of 28th September, 1752 ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1756. He died at Dorking in 1787. 

JOHN FORDYCE, M.D., was born in the north of 
Scotland, and received his medical education at Leyden, 
where, on the 1st December, 1737, when twenty-one 
years of age, he was inscribed on the physic line. He 
left Leyden without taking a degree, and settling at 
Uppingham, practised for several years as a surgeon 
apothecary. Having realised a competency he disposed 
of his business there to Dr. Garthshore ; was created 
doctor of medicine by Marischal college, Aberdeen, 7th 
March, 1756, and settling in London, was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 4th April, 1757. 
His name disappears from the list of 1760. He was 
the author of 

Historia Febris Miliaris et de Hemicrania. 8vo. Lond. 1758. 

From the last-named disease, hemicrania, Dr. For- 
dyce had himself suffered long and most severely. He 
cured himself by drachm doses of the valeriana sylves- 
tris in powder taken three or four times a- day. 

JOHN MANNING, M.D. On the 21st September, 
1753, being then twenty-three years of age, he was in- 
scribed on the physic line at Leyden. He graduated 
doctor of medicine there in 1756 (D.M.I, de Cachexia 
Virginea, 4to.) ; and was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the-College of Physicians llth April, 1757. He 



1757] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 213 

settled at Norwich ; was appointed one of the physicians 
to the Norfolk and Norwich hospital on its establish- 
ment in 1772, and continued in that office until 1805. 
Dr. Manning died at Norwich 16th March, 1806, aged 
seventy-six, and was buried at St. Gregory's in that city, 
where there is a monument with the following inscrip- 
tion : 

In a vault in the middle aisle of this church 
are deposited the remains of 

JOHN MANNING, M.D., 

who died the 16th March, 1806, 

in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 

His practice as a physician in this city and county 

was highly honourable to himself and beneficial to the public. 

His exertions in favour of the Norwich and Norfolk hospital 

were unremitting and exemplary. 
The excellencies and virtues of his private character 

not less endeared him to all who knew him, 

and who did not know him in the wide circle in which he moved ? 
His understanding was of the first form and enriched by extensive 

reading. 
He was a scholar without pride, 

a Christian without bigotry, 

and devout without ostentation. 

His penetration into character was keen, 

but tempered with the manners of a gentleman ; 

he was severe only to hypocrisy and open vice. 

He selected his intimate friends with judgment, 

but was steady and unaltered in his attachments to them. 

His beneficence was great ; 
it was not so much the sacrifice to duty 

as the offspring of a feeling heart, 
which extended to the whole animal creation. 
In fine, his Creator had been liberal to him, 

and, as far as man can judge, 

he did not misuse the Creator's bounty. 

This testimony to his memory is not the tribute of relatives 

alone, but also of a stranger to his blood, whom from an 

intimate acquaintance of many years had known indeed 

to love, but never knew to flatter. 
In the same vault are also interred the remains of 

ANN MANNING, his wife, 
who died the 17th February, 1812, aged eighty-two years. 

SIR GEORGE BAKER, BART., M.D. This profound 
scholar and accomplished physician was born in Devon- 



214 ROLL OF THE [1757 

shire in 1722. He was the son of the Rev. George 
Baker, vicar of Modbury, and archdeacon and registrar 
of Totnes, by his wife, a daughter of Dr. Stephen 
Weston, bishop of Exeter. He was educated at Eton, 
and was transferred thence in July, 1742, to King's col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which society he was elected a 
fellow. He proceeded A.B. 1745; A.M. 1749; M.D. 
1756 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 30th September, 1756 ; and a Fellow, 30th Sep- 
tember, 1757. He commenced his professional career 
at Stamford in Lincolnshire, to which place he had been 
invited by a large circle of friends whom he had known 
in early life ; but this was a situation too limited for 
the exertion of his talents, and about the year 1761 he 
removed to London, where he rapidly rose to the fore- 
most rank in his profession. He filled in succession the 
most important offices in our College ; was Censor in 
1761, 1764, 1774, 1780 ; Harveian orator in 1761 ; 
Elect in 1780; and President, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 
1789, 1790, 1792, 1793, 1795. He was successively 
appointed physician to the queen's household, physician 
in ordinary to the queen, and physician in ordinary to 
the king (George the Third). He was created a baronet 
26th August, 1776. Sir George Baker was a fellow of 
the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and an honorary fellow of the College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh, and one of the foreign fellows of the Royal 
Society of Medicine of Paris. He resigned his office of 
elect in July, 1798, and died 15th June, 1809, in the 
eighty- seventh year of his age. He passed through a 
long life, singularly free from the ordinary diseases of 
man, or the infirmities of age. His death was con- 
sonant with his life, for he departed so easily, and ap- 
parently so free from pain, that the words of his favourite 
Cicero are said to have had in his death their nearest ap- 
plication : " Non illi fuit vita erepta, sed mors donata." 
He was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly, and on a plain 
mural tablet to the north of the Communion table is 
the following simple memorial : 



1757] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 215 

Near this spot 

are deposited the remains of 

SIR GEORGE BAKER, BART., 

who departed this life June the 15th, 1809, 

in the eighty-seventh year of his age. 

No man ever followed the career of physic and the 
elegant paths of the Greek and Roman muses with 
more success than Sir George Baker. As a scholar he 
had few equals, and no superior. His " Dissertatio de 
Affectionibus Aiiimi et Morbis inde oriundis," published 
as an exercise at Cambridge, in 1755, has been charac- 
terised by a kindred spirit and very competent judge, 
the late Sir Henry Halford, as one of the most elegant 
exercises of modern times. His Essays on the Cause 
of the Colic of Devonshire and Poitou are no less de- 
monstrative of his attainments as a philosophical phy- 
sician. They evince a rare union of acute but patient 
observation, extended inquiry, a just appreciation of the 
value of individual facts, and the most rigorous logical 
deduction. They present one of the best examples 
modern times have afforded of the method to be pur- 
sued in medical inquiries, and they constitute a model 
for all who are labouring to extend the boundaries of 
medical science. As a practitioner he was no less emi- 
nent. " The soundness of his judgment," writes Dr. 
Macmichael, " was acknowledged by all. To him the 
whole medical world looked up with respect, and in the 
treatment of any disease in the least degree unusual, if 
it was desired to know all that had ever been said or 
written on the subject from the most remote antiquity 
down to the case in question, a consultation was pro- 
posed with Sir George Baker. From his erudition 
everything was expected. Sir George Baker was par- 
ticularly kind to the rising members of his profession, 
whom he encouraged and informed with great condes- 
cension and apparent interest. With studious habits 
and unassuming manners he combined great playful- 
ness of imagination, as will appear from the two follow- 
ing specimens of Latin pleasantry : 



216 BOLL OF THE [1757 

EPIGRAM ON TWO BROTHERS WHO APPLIED TO SIR GEORGE BAKER FOR 
ADVICE NEARLY AT THE SAME TIME. 

Hos inter fratres quantum disconvenit ! alter 
Corpus ali prohibet, se nimis alter alit ; 
Hinc ambo segrotant ; sed non est causa timoris ; 
Nam penes est ipsos certa utriusque salus. 
Cautus uterque suam mutet, me judice, vitam ; 
Huic cibus, ast illi sit medicina fames. 

Which may be thus rendered in English 

Behold two brothers, how unlike their state ! 
One's too indulgent, one too temperate ; 
Hence both are sick ; but let not this alarm them, 
The cure is in themselves, and will not harm them. 
Let me prescribe, with caution, to each brother, 
Food for the one, and fasting for the other. 

On Mrs. Vanbutchel, who was preserved as a mummy 
at the request of her husband, Sir George wrote the 
following inscription. Under the superintendence of Dr. 
Hunter, Mr. Cruikshank injected into the arteries spirits 
of turpentine, coloured by vermilion. She died at the 
age of forty, and her body, thus preserved, was kept by 
her husband in his own house during his lifetime ; at 
his death, his son presented it to the College of Surgeons 
where it is now to be seen in a mahogany case. 

IN RELIQUIAS MARLE VANBUTCHEL, NOVO MIRACULO CONSERVATAS, ET A 
MAKITO SUO SUPERSTITE, CULTU QUOTIDIANO ADORATAS. 

Hie, expers tumuli, jacet 
Uxor Joannis Vanbutchel, 
Integra omnino et incorrupta, 
Viri sui amantissimi 
Desiderium simul et deliciee ; 
Hanc gravi morbo vitiatam 
Consumtamque tandem longa morte 
In hunc, quern cernis, nitorem, 
, In hanc speciem et colorem viventis 

Ab indecora putredine vindicavit 
Invita et repugnante natura 
Vir egregius, Gulielmus Hunterus, 
Artificii prius intentati 
Inventor idem, et perfector. 
O fortunatum maritum 
Cui datur 



1757] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 217 

TJxorem multum ataatam 

Retinere una in unis aedibus, 

AfEari, tangere, complecti, 

Propter dormire, si lubeb, 

Non fatis modo superstitem 

Sed (quod pluris sestimandum 

Nam, non est vivere, sed placere, vita) 

Edam suaviorem 
Venustiorem 
Habitiorem 

Solidam magis, et magis succi plenam 
Qaam cum ipsa in viris fuerit ! 
O ! forfcunatum hominem et invidendum 
Cui peculiars hoc, et proprium contingit 
Apud se habere faaminam 
Non variam, non mutabilem 

Et egregie taciturnam ! * 

Sir George Baker's merits t as a writer are to be esti- 
mated rather by the value than the extent of his works. 
He was the author of the elegant and classical preface 
to the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis of 1788. His Es- 
says on the Devonshire Colic, &c., were published in 

* Gold-Headed Cane. 2nd edit. 8vo. Lond. p. 227. 

f " Atque hie loci, pro more mihi liceret Orationi hodiernaa finem 
facere ; quando vero unde initia cseperim in memoriam revoco ; 
quando non modo honestam illam mecum reputo, sed necessariam 
fere medicinae cum literis et philosophia conjunctionem, nequeo 
Illustrissimum Yirum (Georgium Baker, Baronetum) preetermittere 
qui vivo exemplari suo ad majora nos provocat atque incendit. 
Vidistis eum nuperrime summum apud vos magistratum summa 
cum laude tenentem ; et dum eo munere f ungebatur, novistis Phar- 
macopceiae renovanda3 quam totum se dederit. Audivistis earn, hac 
ipsa ex cathedra, incorrupta Bomanee dictionis sanitate, et eloquen- 
tia Ciceronianaa setatis non indigna, nostrorum Medicorum asterna 
statuere monumenta. Scripta ejus in manibus atque in deliciis 
habetis, quee sive rei propositee explicationem, et, quaa vera dicitur, 
Philosophiam spectes, sive verborum pond era et venustates, inter 
pulcherrima collocanda sunt, ne dicam medicinaa solum sed universaa 
eruditionis ornamenta. Inter alia testari licet libellum. egregie 
scriptum de Catarrho et Dysenteria, morbis ejusdem anni epidemicis 
et etiam Dissertationes illas de Colica Pictonica in quibus sin- 
gularis morbi historia ab omni fere antiquitate ad hsec usque tem- 
pora deducitur, et ejus causa non nisi simplex et una esse monstra- 
tur. At mitto plura, et mori Antiquorum obsequor qui non nisi 
solis occasu Heroibus suis sacra faciebant." Oratio ex Harveii in- 
stitute auct. Henrico (Vaughan) Halford. MDCCC, p. 13. 



218 ROLL OF THE [1757 

the Medical Transactions of the College, but were col- 
lected into an octavo volume in 1767. 
His other writings were 

Thesis de Affectibus Animi, &c. 

Oratio Harveiana. 4to. Lond. 1761. 

De Catarrho et de Dysenteria Londinensi Epidemicis, 1762. 4to. 
Lond. 1764. 

Inquiry into the merits of a Method of Inoculating the Small-pox 
which is now practised in several counties of England. 8vo. Lond. 
1766. 

A fine portrait of this ornament of our College, by 
Ozias Humphrey, R.A., is in the College, and has been 
engraved by J. Singleton. It was presented by Sir 
Frederic Baker, bart., on the opening of the present 
College. 

JOSEPH NICOLL SCOTT, M.D. A doctor of medicine 
of Edinburgh of 1744 (D.M.I, de quibusdam Capitis 
Nervorumque Affectionibus) ; was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 17th October, 
1757. He was originally a dissenting minister. He 
seems to have practised physic at Ipswich, and he died 
about 1773. He was the editor of Bailey's English 
Dictionary, and the author of two volumes of sermons, 
and of an essay towards a translation of Homer's works 
into blank verse. 

SIB NOAH THOMAS, M.D., was educated at St. John's 
college, Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded 
A.B. 1742 ; A.M. 1746 ; M.D. 1753. Admitted a Can- 
didate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1756 ; and a Fellow, 22nd December, 1757 ; he was 
Gulstonian lecturer in 1759 ; and Censor in 1761, 
1766, 1767, 1781. He was appointed physician extra- 
ordinary to George the Third in 1763, and physician in 
ordinary in 1775, when he received the honour of 
knighthood. He was for many years physician to the 
Lock hospital, and died at Bath on the 17th May, 1792."" 
A remarkably fine portrait of Sir Noah Thomas by Sir 

* " Vir bonus et eruditus, amicus certus, ingenio acuto et suavitate 



1758] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 219 

Joshua Reynolds is in the combination room of St. 
John's college, Cambridge. 

JAMES GBAINGER, M.D., was born about the year 
1721, of, as he himself said,* a gentleman's family in 
Cumberland, and, according to most accounts, at Dunse, 
a small town in Scotland. He received his medical 
education at Edinburgh. Entering the army as a sur- 
geon, he served in that capacity during the rebellion of 
1745, and in a similar capacity in Pulteney's regiment 
of foot in Holland in 1746, 1747, and 1748. He then 
quitted the army, made the tour of Europe, and, re- 
turning to his native country, graduated doctor of 
medicine at Edinburgh 13th March, 1753 (D.M.I, de 
Modo excitandi Ptyalismum et Morbis inde penden- 
tibus). He then came to London and established him- 
self in Bond-court, Walbrook. Imbued with a taste 
for literature, his pen found employment in adding to 
the income derived from professional labours. In 1755 
appeared his Ode on Solitude in Dodsley's Collection, 
which possessed merit enough to obtain from Dr. John- 
son, whose friendship he had the good fortune to acquire, 
the term "noble." In May, 1756, he commenced writ- 
ing in the Monthly Review with a criticism of Mason's 
Odes, and during this and the two following years 
contributed a variety of articles, chiefly on poetry and 
the drama, to that journal, relinquishing his connection 
with it 1758. Not wholly neglectful of physic he pub- 
lished in 1757 his 

Historia Febris Intermittentis Anomalse Batavse Annorum. 1746, 
1747,1748: Accedunt Monita Syphilitica. 8vo. Edinb. 

He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 20th March, 1758. In the autumn of that year 
he engaged to travel for four years with a Mr. Bourryan, 
a young man of large West India property, whose studies 

morum beatus." Oratio Harveiana, anno MDCCXCII. habita, auctore 
Gul. Cadogan. 

* Prior's Life of Goldsmith, vol. i, p. 237. 



2'2Q ROLL OF THE [1758 

from an early period had been in part committed to his 
charge. The resolution to quit London, he writes to 
Bishop Percy, was not adopted in a hurry, for though 
" his practice was not exceeded by that of any young 
physician in London/' the proposed leave of absence he 
believed would not interfere materially with his views, 
while it promised to add to the number and respecta- 
bility of his friends. In the spring of 1759 he em- 
barked for the island of St. Christopher in the West 
Indies ; quarrelled soon after reaching it, as is said, with 
his patron ; commenced practising as a physician in the 
island ; and married a lady of good family but small 
fortune, some of whose friends fancied the union not to 
her advantage. In the autumn of 1763, he returned 
to England. His poem the " Sugar Cane," written 
during his abode in the West Indies, had been pre- 
viously transmitted home, but, owing to some uncer- 
tainty as to the mode of publication, did not appear 
until after he had sailed in May, 1764, on his return 
to St. Christopher. His affairs there had become in- 
volved during his absence in England, but some pro- 
perty he acquired at this time from the death of a 
brother in Scotland enabled him in part to meet the 
difficulties in which he found himself. Unsettled in his 
plans at this period ; speculating on the advantages to 
be derived from removing to other islands less populous 
and more open to the enterprise of new settlers ; antici- 
pating wealth as well from planting as his profession ; 
and the enjoyment, as he says, of many happy days in 
England, when that good should be attained : projects 
conceived with all the warmth of poetry and overthrown 
with the usual speed and sternness of matter of fact, 
he was taken ill and died on the 16th December, 1766, 
in the forty-sixth year of his age.* 

Dr. Grainger's claims to the character of a poet were 
acknowledged by Johnson, who, we are told by Bos- 
well, would repeat with great energy the exordium to 
his " Ode on Solitude," and add liberal praises of the 
* Prior's Life of Goldsmith, vol. i, p. 237, et seq. 



1758] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 221 

whole. His " Bryan arid Pareene " was printed in his 
friend Bishop Percy's "Beliques." Dr. Grainger is 
best known by the " Sugar Cane," a poem of consider- 
able merit, and by a translation, with copious explana- 
tory notes, of the Elegies of Tibullus. " Grainger," 
writes Bishop Percy, " was not only a man of genius 
and learning, but had many excellent virtues ; being 
one of the most generous, friendly, and benevolent men 
I ever knew." In 1764 there appeared from his pen 

An Essay on the more common West Indian Diseases, and the 
Remedies which that country itself produces, with Hints for the 
Management of Negroes. 8vo. Lond. 

WILLIAM CADOGAN, M.D., was born in London and 
educated at Oriel college, Oxford, where he took the 
degree of bachelor of arts 18th June, 1731. He then 
proceeded to the continent, was inscribed on the phy- 
sic line at Ley den, 6th October, 1732, and graduated 
doctor of medicine there in 1737 (D.M.I, de Nutritione, 
Incremento et Decremento Corporis, 4 to.), shortly after 
which he was appointed physician to the army. He 
settled in London about the year 1750, and was ap- 
pointed physician to the Foundling hospital in 1754. 
With the view of securing his admission to the fellow- 
ship of our College, he returned to Oxford ; proceeded 
A.M. 20th June, 1755 ; and on that day week, 27th 
June, 1755, bachelor and doctor of medicine. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 4th 
April, 1757 ; and a Fellow, 26th June, 1758 ; was Cen- 
sor in 1759, 1770, 1775, 1781 ; was named an Elect in 
1781 ; and was twice called upon to deliver the Har- 
veian oration, viz., in 1764 and 1792. He died at his 
house in George -street, Hanover-square, the 26th Feb- 
ruary, 1797, aged eighty-six, and was buried at Fulham, 
where he had a house, to which, in the latter years of 
his life, he was in the habit of retiring during the 
summer months. His monument in Fulham churchyard 
bears the following inscription : 



222 ROLL OF THE [1758 

M. S. 

GULIELMI CADOGAN, 
Oxoniee et Lugduni Batavorum 

Alumni et M.D. 

Coll. Beg. Med. Lond. Socii. 

Ob. 26 die Feb. A.D. 1797, 

set. snae. 86. 

Dr. Cadogan was a fellow of the Royal Society, a 
man of pleasing manners and strong good sense, who 
by his writings drew much attention to himself and 
paved the way to a lucrative business. His " Essay 
on the Nursing and Management of Children/' 8vo. 
Lond. 1750, attracted the notice of the governors of 
the Foundling hospital, who adopted the rules he 
therein inculcated, and, as we have seen, soon after- 
wards appointed him physician to that institution. 
His " Dissertation on the Gout and all Chronic Dis- 
eases, jointly considered as proceeding from the same 
Causes," 8vo. Lond., became a most popular work. It 
ran to eleven editions, and called forth a large number 
of replies from persons of acknowledged standing in 
the profession, as Sir William Browne, Dr. Carter of 
Canterbury, and Dr. Falconar of Bath, besides others of 
lesser note. To none of these did he deign a reply. He 
refers the gout to indolence, vexation, and intempe- 
rance, and his plan of treatment is generally judicious.* 
A portrait of Dr. Cadogan is on the staircase. It was 
painted by R. E. Pine in 1769, has been engraved by 
"W. Dickinson, and was presented by Whitlock Nicholl, 
M.D., 8th March, 1828. 

CHRISTOPHER KELLY, M.D. A doctor of medicine 
of Aberdeen, of 22nd November, 1756 ; was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians, 30th Septem- 

* " Pectore erat hie aperto, virili, omnia sine fuco et praestigiis 
agens. Imaginem viri in tractatu, quern de Podagra in lucem 
edidit, depictam licet aspicere. In quo, nullius vestigiis inhasrens, 
sed de seipso omnia depromens, sensus suos audacter in medium 
profert, de aliorum opinione securus, sibi cam animi sinceri esset 
conscius." Oratio Harveiana, Anno MDCCXCVII. habita Bob. Bourne. 



1759] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 223 

her, 1758. He was physician to the British Lying-in 
hospital, and the author of 

A Course of Lectures on Midwifery. 8vo. Lond. 1757. 

DAVID D'ESCHERNY, M.D., was a doctor of medicine 
of Marischal college, Aberdeen, of 25th July, 1758 ; 
and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 9th April, 1759. We have from his pen 

A Treatise on the Causes and Symptoms of the Stone, and on the 
Remedies. 8vo. Lond. 1755. 

An Essay on the Small-pox, -with Reflections on Patents. 8vo. 
Lond. 1760. 

An Essay on the Causes and Effects of the Gout. 8vo. Lond. 
1760. 

An Essay on Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 1760. 

A Defence of Mrs. Stephen's Medicine for the Stone. 8vo. Lond. 

CEARLES LUCAS, M.D., was better known as an Irish 
politician than as a physician. His ancestors were 
farmers in the county of Clare, and it is supposed that 
by misfortune or mismanagement the property of his 
family had been lost. Dr. Lucas was born in the sister 
isle on the 26th September, 1713. He was bred an 
apothecary, and practised in that capacity for several 
years in Dublin. In 1741 he published his first work, 
" Pharmacomastix ; or the Office, Use, and Abuse of 
Apothecaries explained," 8vo., Dublin ; and on the 6th 
June, 1748, was sworn one of two assistant-apotheca- 
ries, nominated by the Corporation of Apothecaries in 
Dublin to assist the inspector appointed by the King 
and Queen's College of Physicians in the visitation and 
examination of apothecaries' and druggists' shops in 
Dublin. But long before this, Lucas had committed 
himself to politics. It was, to use his own words, his 
" fro ward fate to have too much of a political knight- 
errantry interwoven with his frame."'"" He had become 
a member of the corporation of Dublin, and had ingra- 
tiated himself with the large number of his fellow- 

* Essay on Waters. Part iii, p. ccxiii. Dedication to Lord 
Chesterfield. 



224 ROLL OF THE [1759 

citizens who, like himself, were opposed to the court 
pnrty in the corporation and in the Irish senate. If he 
did not actually establish " The Freeman's Journal "in 
support of the principles he was advocating, which, by 
many, he is represented to have done, he certainly 
edited it for several years, as he did also " The Censor, 
or the Citizen's Journal." As he made warm friends 
on the one side, so he made bitter enemies on the other, 
and the latter were then in the ascendant. Party- 
feeling at that time ran rancorously high in Dublin, 
and when Lucas, in 1749, was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for the representation of that city in the Irish par- 
liament, the house of Commons, at the instance, it is 
said, of the Government, and by an unanimous vote, 
pronounced his writings seditious, and himself an enemy 
to his country. The house desired the attorney-gene- 
ral to issue an order for Lucas's apprehension, and to 
escape this he sought an asylum in England. He then 
applied himself to the further study of physic, proceeded 
to Paris where he was a pupil under Petit, and then 
visiting Rheims and Leyden, at the last-named univer- 
sity graduated doctor of medicine 20th December, 1752 
(D.M.I, de Gangrsena et Spacelo). Returning to Eng- 
land he settled as a physician at Bath. On the 25th 
June, 1759, he was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians of London. 

Dr. Lucas's popularity in Ireland was not diminished 
by his long and enforced absence, which, as is not un- 
usual in such cases, had blunted the edge of hostility 
against him, and given occasion to the gradual develop- 
ment of a reaction in his favour, of which he was now to 
reap the benefit. On the 6th May, 1761, he was elected 
by the city of Dublin a member of the Irish house of 
Commons ; in the course of the same month was restored 
to the freedom of the city of Dublin, of which he had 
been disfranchised in 1749 ; and on the last day of May, 
1761, was presented with the freedom of the city of 
Cork in a silver box. He probably intended, on his re- 
turn to Dublin, to resume the exercise of his profession 



1759] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 225 

as a physician, for we find that on the ]2th June, 1761, 
he presented himself to the King and Queen's College 
of Physicians for examination for a licence, and was 
approved of, for the first time. But when his second 
examination became due, he requested its postpone- 
ment, on the ground " that, through his attendance in. 
Parliament, he could not be duly prepared." He never 
presented himself for this second examination, and con- 
sequently was never admitted by the Dublin college. 
His time was now fully occupied with his senatorial 
duties, but any detailed account of his parliamentary 
career would be out of place in a work like the present. 
Suffice it to say that Lucas, a man of popular assemblies, 
and trained amidst civic broils, was not a very effective 
speaker in the house of Commons, an assembly of 
lawyers and disciplined orators. "As a politician," 
writes Mr. Hardy,* " Dr. Lucas was, (as the due de 
Beaufort was called during the time of the Fronde at 
Paris, un Hoi des halles) a sovereign of the corpora- 
tions. In the house of Commons, his importance was 
withered and comparatively shrunk to nothing. Lucas 
had, in truth, little or no knowledge as a leader in 
parliament, and his efforts there were too often dis- 
played in a sort of tempestuous alacrity to combat men 
whose lofty disregard of him left them at full liberty to 
pursue their argument as if nothing had disturbed them. 
Self-command, whether constitutional or arising from 
occasional contempt, is a most potent auxiliary. His 
opponents were, sometimes indeed, rendered indignant ; 
but, whether calm or angry, the battle always left him 
worse than before. Yet, with all his precipitancy, and 
too frequent want of knowledge, he annexed a species 
of dignity to himself in the house of Commons that was 
not without its effect/' He succeeded in passing 
through the Irish parliament in 1761, an act, commonly 
known as Lucas's Act, by which, inter alia, the King 
and Queen's College of Physicians were empowered " to 

* Life of James, earl of Charlemont. 2nd edit. 2 vols. 8vo. 
1812. 

VOL. II. Q 



22G ROLL OF THE 

enlarge the number of their body," which, by the charter 
of William and Mary, was limited to fourteen fellows : 
and in 1768 another act, limiting the duration of parlia- 
ment to eight years. For this last-named act, and in 
recognition of his efforts to remedy great and obvious 
evils, his statue in white marble, by Edward Smyth, of 
Dublin (a very fine work of art), was placed in the 
Royal Exchange, now the City Hall, at the public ex- 
pense. The doctor is represented in his senatorial robe, 
and as if energetically addressing the house of Com- 
mons ; and in his right hand he holds a copy of Magna 
Charta. 

Dr. Lucas suffered long and seriously from gout, and 
this, with the excitement, anxieties, and labours he had 
undergone, had the effect of ageing him at an unusually 
early period. When but little more than fifty years 
of age (and he died when he was fifty-eight), he had 
already the bodily infirmities and characteristics of 
the old man, and was generally thought to be much 
older than he was. " In his old age," writes Mr. Wills, 
" Dr. Lucas was an object of general respect, which 
his appearance and venerable deportment in society 
contributed to increase. During the latter years of his 
life, he was reduced to the lowest state of infirmity by 
repeated attacks of gout, so that he was always carried 
to the house of Commons where he could scarcely stand 
for a moment. In this situation he is thus described : 
' The gravity and uncommon neatness of his dress ; his 
grey, venerable locks, blending with a pale but inte- 
resting countenance, in which an air of beauty was still 
visible, altogether excited attention, and I never knew 
a stranger come into the house without asking who he 
was.'"* 

Dr. Lucas died in Henry-street, Dublin, the 4th 
November, 1771. His popularity in Ireland had been 
like and fully equal to that of Wilkes in England, and 
his funeral was honoured by the attendance of the lord 

* Wills, James, Lives of Distinguished Irishmen. 5 vols. 8vo. 
Dublin. Vol. v, p. 153. 



1759] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 227 

mayor and principal members of the corporation of 
Dublin in their robes, of many members of both houses 
of Parliament, and of a vast assemblage of other persons. 
He was buried in the churchyard of St. Michan, Dublin, 
where there is a monument with the following inscrip- 
tion : 

To the Memory of 

Charles Lucas, M.D., 

formerly one of the Representatives in Parliament 

for the city of Dublin ; 

whose incorrupt integrity, 

uneonquered spirit, 

just judgment 
and glorious perseverance, 

in the great cause of 

Liberty, Virtue, and his Country, 

endeared him to his grateful constituents. 

This tomb is placed over his much-respected remains, 

as a small yet sincere tribute of Remembrance 

by one of his fellow- citizens and constituents, 

Sir Edward Newenham, knight. 

Lucas ! Hibernia's friend, her joy and pride, 

Her powerful bulwark and her skilful guide, 

Firm in the Senate, steady to his trust, 

Unmoved by fear and obstinately just.* 

Lucas's portrait was often engraved. By far the best 
and most characteristic is a mezzotinto by J. M'Arditt, 
from a half-length by Sir Joshua Reynolds, Passing 
by without notice Dr. Lucas's political writings arid 
pamphlets, which were numerous, I confine myself to 
an enumeration of his medical works. In addition to 
the " Pharmacornastix " above-mentioned, he was the 
author of 

An Essay on Waters. In three parts. 8vo. Lond. 1756. 

An Analysis of Dr. Rutty's Methodical Synopsis of Mineral 
Waters. 8vo. Lond. 1757. 

On a Physical Confederacy at Bath. 8vo. Lond. 1757. 

Cursory Remarks on the Method of Investigating the Principles 
and Properties of the Bath and Bristol Waters. 8vo. Bath. 1764. 

THOMAS GISBORNE, M.D., was the son of the Rev. 
James Gisborne, rector of Staveley and prebendary of 

* This inscription was written by R. Lewis, author of the Post 
Chaise Companion through Ireland. 



228 ROLL OF THE [17GO 

Durham. He was educated at St. John's college, Cam- 
bridge, of which house he was a fellow. He proceeded 
A.B. 1747; A.M. 1751 ; M.D. 1758 ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1758 ; and a Fellow 1st October, 1759. He delivered 
the Gulstonian lectures in 1760 ; was Censor in 1760, 
1768, 1771, 1775, 1780, and 1783; Elect 28th June, 
1781 ; and President 1791, 1794, 1796, 1797, 1798, 
1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803. Dr. Gisborne was phy- 
sician to St. George's hospital. To this office he was 
elected 24th January, 1757 ; and he resigned it in 1781. 
He was also physician in ordinary to the king ; and at 
the time of bis death, which occurred at Romeley, co. 
Derby, 24th February, 1806, was the senior fellow of 
St. John's college.* 

WILLIAM FARE, M.D., was educated under Dr. 
Doddridge, of Northampton ; and having selected me- 
dicine as his profession, spent two years in its study 
at Aberdeen before visiting Edinburgh, where he took 
the degree of doctor of medicine in 1755 (D.M.I, de 
Usu Mathematicis et Philosophise Naturalis in Medicinae 
Studio). Dr. Farr entered the navy ; was admitted 
an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 10th 
March, 1760 ; and about that time was appointed phy- 
sician to Haslar hospital. He was promoted thence to 
the royal naval hospital at Plymouth, an appointment 
which he retained for a long series of years. After a 
service of forty years to the two hospitals, he withdrew 
from active life ; and, retiring to Bath, died at his house 
in Pulteney-street the 23rd August, 1809. Dr. Farr 
was a fellow of the Royal Society. He contributed some 
papers to the " Philosophical Transactions," and to the 
" Medical Observations and Inquiries." 

* " Praefuit huic Societati per multos annos, egregia sibi laude, et 
integritatis suse opinione ; postremo, ut earn, qua hanc Societatem 
coluit, benevolentiam ostenderet, testamento multos libros precio 
carissimos nobis legavit." Oratio Harveiana, die Oct. 18, Anno 
1806, habita a Christ Eoberto Pemberton. 



1760] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 229 

CHARLTON WOLL ASTON, M.D., was the son of Francis 
Wollaston, esq., F.R.S., of Charterhouse-square, by his 
wife Mary, daughter of Dr. Fauquire. He was born 
23rd May, 1733, and educated at Sidney Sussex col- 
lege, Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded 
bachelor of medicine in 1753. On the 3rd March, 1757, 
he was elected physician to the Middlesex hospital, but 
retained that office for a few months only, resigning it 
in January, 1758, and removing to Bury St. Edmunds, 
where he remained for about four years. He took his 
degree of M.D. at Cambridge in 1758 ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1759 ; 
arid a Fellow, 9th July, 1760. DBF Wollaston returned 
to London in 1762 ; and on the 26th August in that year 
was elected physician to Guy's hospital. He was Censor 
in 1762, and delivered the Harveian oration in 1763. 
He was a fellow of the Eoyal Society, and physician 
to the queen's household, but was prematurely arrested 
in his course towards fame and fortune by an attack 
of fever, which terminated fatally on the 26th July, 
1764.* 

THOMAS MILNER, M.D., was the son of Dr. John 
Milner, the pastor of a congregation of Presbyterian 
dissenters at Peckharn, where he for many years con- 
ducted a seminary with distinguished success and repu- 
tation. Our physician was a doctor of medicine of St. 
Andrew's of 20th June, 1740 ; and was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1760. He was appointed physician to St. Thomas's 
hospital in 1759 ; but he resigned his office there in 
1762, and then removed to Maidstone. In that town 
and neighbourhood he enjoyed a high reputation, and 
for many years was in the possession of a large and lu- 
crative business. Notwithstanding his parentage and 

* " Ille, scientiam et eruditionem quibus polluit, insigni ornavit 
verecundia, et mansuetudine singular! cunctos sibi devinxit animos. 
Quanti fuit, qnanti fuisset, si diutius vitse ejus pepercisset fatum, 
epistola Bakero nostro data manifesto ostendit." Oratio Harveiaua, 
Anno MDCCLXV habita, auctore Tho. Healde. 



230 ROLL OP THE [1760 

education Dr. Milner was a steady churchman, and was in 
the habit of marching to the parish church of Maidstone, 
gold headed cane in hand, with his three maiden sisters 
in single file behind him. He died at Maidstone, 13th 
September, 1797, in the seventy-ninth year of his age, 
and was buried in the church of All Saints, in that 
town, on the 20th. Dr. Milner was the author of 

Experiments and Observations on Electricity. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

It was at his father's school at Peckham that Oliver 
Goldsmith for some time acted as usher. 

ALEXANDER RUS^JLL, M.D., was born in Edinburgh, 
and was the son of a lawyer of eminence in that city. 
He was educated at the High school of Edinburgh, and 
then passed two years in attendance on the general 
classes of the university. He began the study of medi- 
cine under his uncle, one of the most eminent practi- 
tioners in Edinburgh, and in 1732 began to attend the 
lectures of the medical professors. Having finished 
his studies at Edinburgh, though without applying for 
a degree, he in 1735 came to London, and erelong em- 
barked for Turkey, and about the year 1740 settled at 
Aleppo, to the English factory at which place he was 
for several years physician. On arriving in Turkey, 
Dr. Russell immediately applied himself to the study of 
the language, and, soon overcoming every difficulty, 
commenced practice at Aleppo with greater advantages 
than had ever before fallen to the lot of any Christian 
physician. He was consulted by all ranks and pro- 
fessions Franks, Greeks, Armenians, Jews, and Turks. 
In this instance they forgot that he was an unbeliever, 
remitted of their usual contempt for strangers, and not 
only beheld him with respect, but courted his friendship, 
and placed unlimited confidence in his opinion. The 
pasha of Aleppo particularly distinguished him, and 
this intimacy enabled the doctor to render important 
services to the factory. Dr. Russell returned to England 
in February, 1755, and in that year published his 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 231 

" Natural History of Aleppo," 4to. 3 a work of standard 
authority and acknowledged merit, to the preparation 
of which he was mainly incited by his friend and corre- 
spondent, Dr. Fothergill. His character was at once 
established by this work, and he determined on settling 
in the metropolis. In 1757, when the government was 
alarmed with the report that plague had broken out at 
Lisbon, and was solicitous to take every precaution to 
prevent its importation into this country, Dr. Russell 
received orders to attend the Privy Council. To the 
questions proposed to him he gave such pertinent and 
satisfactory answers, that he was desired to communi- 
cate in writing his information, and the method he pro- 
posed to prevent the spreading of that disease. Some 
time before this he had graduated doctor of medicine 
at Glasgow ; he was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1760, and in that 
year was elected physician to St. Thomas's hospital. 
He continued in this office to the time of his death, 
" an example of diligence and humanity to the sick, of 
great medical abilities as a physician, and, as a gentle- 
man, irreproachable." His death, which occurred at 
his house in Walbrook, on the 28th November, 1768, 
was caused by a putrid fever, which, notwithstanding 
the utmost endeavours of Dr. Pitcairn and his attached 
friend Dr. Fothergill, carried him off on the ninth day. 
" In respect of stature, Dr. Russell was rather tall than 
middling, well made, of a fresh, sanguine complexion, 
grave in his deportment, cheerful in conversation, active 
in the business of his profession, and sagacious ; an at- 
tentive and diligent observer, clear in his intentions, 
manly in his prescriptions, and in his conduct to the 
sick benevolent and discreet."* His portrait by Dance 
was engraved by Trotter. 

THOMAS HEALDE, M.D., was of Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, and as a member of that house proceeded M.B. 

* An Essay on the Character of Alexander Russell, M.D., by J. 
Fothergill, M.D. 



232 ROLL OF THE [1761 

1749 ; M.D. 1754. He settled first in the small town 
of Witham, in Essex ; was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd December, 1759 ; and a 
Fellow, 22nd December, 1760. He delivered the Gul- 
stonian lectures, in 1763, and the Harveian oration in 
1765. In 1767 Dr. Healde left Witham, and removed 
to London ; he was Censor 1769, 1771 ; Croonian lec- 
turer, 1770, 1784, 1785, and 1786 ; and was appointed 
Lumleian lecturer 22nd December, 1786, an office he 
continued to hold till his death. He was elected phy- 
sician to the London hospital 20th June, 1770 ; a fel- 
low of the Royal Society 28th June, 1770 ; and about 
the same time was appointed Gresham professor of 
physic. He died the 26th March, 1789, in very reduced 
circumstances, leaving his widow and family in the 
greatest destitution. At the Comitia Majora of 25th 
June, 1789, 100Z. was voted as " a bounty granted by 
the College to the widow and family of Dr. Healde." 
Mrs. Healde became a pensioner on the Society for the 
relief of the widows and orphans of medical men, and 
thenceforward for many years acted in the capacity of 
midwife. Dr. Healde was the author of two papers on 
"The Use of Oleum Asphalti," 8vo. Lond. 1769 ; and 
of the " New Pharmacopoeia of the Royal College of 
Physicians, translated, &c." 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

MICHAEL MORRIS, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Rheims of 23rd July, 1750 ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 1 6th March, 1761. He was 
elected physician to the Westminster hospital in 1761, 
and retained his office for thirty years a longer period 
than any of his predecessors. He died 29th May, 1791. 
He was also physician to the army, a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and the author of some papers in the " Medical 
Observations and Inquiries." 

THOMAS DIMSDALE, M.D., was the son of John 
Dimsdale, by his wife Sarah, daughter of Thomas Bow- 
yer, of Albury hall, near Hertford, and was born at 



1761] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 233 

Theydon Gernon, co. Essex, where his father practised 
as a surgeon. His family were Quakers, and his grand- 
father Robert Dimsdale/ had been the companion of 
Penn in America. After studying at St. Thomas's hos- 
pital he settled at Hertford, which he quitted in 1745, 
when he engaged himself as surgeon to the army, and 
went through the whole of the Scotch campaign. On 
the taking of Carlisle, he determined to return to Hert- 
ford and practise as a physician. He obtained a diplo- 
ma from King's college, Aberdeen, dated 3rd July, 1761 , 
creating him doctor of medicine; and on the 28th of 
August following was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the CoUege of Physicians of London. He devoted much 
of his attention to small-pox inoculation, and in 1767 
published " The Present Method of Inoculating for the 
Small-pox, to which are added some experiments insti- 
tuted with a view to discover the effects of a similar 
treatment in the Natural Small-pox." 8vo. Lond. ; a 
work which became very popular, and in the course of 
three years ran through at least seven large editions. 
The reputation which he attained in this department 
recommended him to the notice of the empress Cathe- 
rine of Russia, at whose request he visited St. Peters- 
burgh in 1768. His successful inoculation of the 
empress herself, and of her son the grand duke, was 
rewarded with the rank of baron of the empire, coun- 
sellor of state, and physician to the empress, besides a 
pension of 500Z. per annum and a present of J 2,000/. 
He had also permission to add to his arms a wing of 
the Russian eagle, in a gold shield, with the customary 
helmet, adorned with a baron's coronet over the shield. 
His son, who had accompanied him, shared his honours, 
and was presented by the empress with a gold snuff- 
box set with diamonds. He returned to England, and 
for some time continued to practise at Hertford. He 
was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society llth May, 
1769. In 1776 he published " Thoughts on General 
and Partial Inoculation;" and, two years after, "Ob- 
servations on the Introduction to the Plan of the DLs- 



234 ROLL OF THE [1761 

pensary for General Inoculation." This involved him 
in a controversy with Dr. Lettsom, into the particulars 
of which it is not necessary to enter. Dr. or Baron 
Dimsdale, as he was now called, some time after this 
opened a banking house in Cornhill, in partnership 
with his sons and the Barnards, which still flourishes. 
In 1780 he was elected member of parliament for the 
borough of Hertford, and then declined all practice 
except for the relief of the poor. He went once more, 
however, to Russia in 1781, when he inoculated the 
emperor and his brother Constantine, and, as he passed 
through Brussels, the emperor Joseph received him 
with great consideration. In 1790 he resigned his 
seat in parliament, and passed some winters at Bath ; 
but at length returned to Hertford, where he died, 
30th December, 1800,'* aged eighty-nine. He was 
buried in the Quakers' burial ground at Bishops Stort- 
ford. An engraved portrait of him by Ridley is ex- 
tant. 

CHARLES BROWN, M.D., was educated at Edinburgh, 
where he took the degree of doctor of medicine in 
1755 (D.M.I, de Morbillis). He was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians llth 
September, 1761, and practised at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, to the infirmary in which town he was for many 
years physician. 

RICHARD TYSON, M.D., was of Oriel college, Oxford, 
A.B. 13th October, 1750 ; A.M. 5th July, 1753; M.B. 
30th April, 1756 ; and M.D. 15th January, 1760. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1760 ; and a Fellow, 3 Oth September, 
1761 ; was Censor in 1763, 1768, 1773, 1776 ; Regis- 
trar from 1774 to 1780 inclusive; and Elect, 25th 
March, 1782. On the 9th August, 1784, he fell down 
in a fit, and as two of his servants were carrying him 
up stairs to put him to bed he expired in their arms. 
* Rose's Biographical Dictionary. 



1762] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 235 

Dr. Tyson was physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital, 
to which office he was elected 5th February, 1762. His 
portrait is in the College. To him the College are in- 
debted for the portrait of his great-uncle, Dr. Edward 
Tyson, which he presented 25th June, 1764. 

WILLIAM NORFORD was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 26th November, 1761. 
He practised successively at Halesworth in Suffolk, and 
at Bury St. Edmunds, and died in 1793, aged seventy- 
five. His portrait, by G. Ralph, was engraved in 1788 
by J. Singleton. He was the author of 

An Essay on the Treatment of Cancerous Tumours. 8vo. Lond. 
1753. 

Concisas et Practices Observationes de Intermittentibus Febribus 
Curandis. 4to. Bartas. 1780. 

JAMES VAUGHAN, M.D. This estimable man and 
sound practical physician (the father of four sons of 
distinguished eminence in their respective professions, 
the elder of whom was Sir Henry Halford, the Pre- 
sident of the College of Physicians), was the son of 
Henry Vaughan, a surgeon at Leominster, where he 
was born and baptised in 1740. He began the study 
of medicine at Worcester under Dr. John Wall, and 
then went to Edinburgh, where he took the degree 
of doctor of medicine in June, 1762 (D.M.I, de Polypo 
Cordis) ; and was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 8th September, 1762. Dr. Vau- 
ghan then settled at Leicester, where he practised with 
great success and reputation for nearly forty years. He 
was physician to the Leicester infirmary, and, as I was 
informed by one who was his contemporary at Leicester, 
and knew him well, the late Dr. Robert Bree, was a 
practitioner of no ordinary attainments. Acute percep- 
tion, accurate observation, and a just appreciation of 
the practically important circumstances of disease, were 
his medical characteristics, to which were added a well- 
founded reliance in the efficacy of medicine, and no or- 



236 ROLL OF THE [1702 

dinary skill in its adaptation to the special requirements 
of the case before him. His doses of medicine are said 
to have been large, but they were administered with a 
confidence and success which afforded ample proof of his 
sagacity and their correctness. Dr. Vaughan married 
Hester, the second daughter of William Smalley, esq., 
alderman of Leicester, by Elizabeth, daughter of sir 
Richard Halford, bart., of Wistow, co. Leicester. He 
had six sons, viz. : 

1. James, who died 29th May, 1788, in the twenty- 
third year of his age. 

2. Sir Henry Halford, bart.,G.C.H. M.D., President 
of the College of Physicians, to be mentioned in a sub- 
sequent page. 

3. The Right Honourable Sir John Vaughan, knt., 
one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, a privy 
councillor, D.C.L., &c., &c. 

4. The Very Reverend Peter Vaughan, D.D., dean 
of Chester, and warden of Merton college, Oxford. 

5. The Right Honourable Sir Charles Richard 
Vaughan, G.C.H., formerly envoy extraordinary to the 
United States of America, and a privy councillor. 

6. The Reverend Edward Vaughan, vicar of St. Mar- 
tin's, Leicester, and the author of several valuable pub- 
lications on religious subjects. 

To each of these Dr. Vaughan gave a most liberal 
education. When his sons attained the age at which 
their education should commence, Dr. Vaughan had al- 
ready acquired a moderate competency, and he deter- 
mined for the future to apply the whole of his annual 
professional receipts to their education, trusting that 
they would reap the harvest by success in their re- 
spective professions. All his sons were educated at 
Rugby, and five of them received a complete university 
education the four elder at Oxford, and the youngest 
at Cambridge. The gratitude of his sons for this act 
of self-denial and confidence in their exertions was un- 
bounded ; and Sir Henry Halford, in a biographical sketch 
of his brother, Mr. Justice Vaughan, thus feelingly 



1762 j ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 237 

expressed himself : " All the sons of the late Dr. Vau- 
ghan, of Leicester, acknowledge with deep and sincere 
gratitude their father's generosity, as well as his pru- 
dence in resolving as he did to lay out the annual pro- 
duce of his profession in affording them the advantage 
of a liberal education, whereby they might be enabled 
to make their own fortunes, rather than to accumulate 
resources not to be made available for any purposes of 
theirs until his death. He sent four of them therefore 
to Oxford when they had left Rugby school, and the 
youngest subsequently to Cambridge and not one of 
them asked or received further pecuniary assistance 
from him after he had finished his education, and com- 
menced his own efforts to provide for himself. The 
success of these brothers in their several callings, with 
the distinctions acquired by each of them, has abund- 
antly justified their parent's sagacity and his liberality, 
and we record the anecdote with pleasure, as furnish- 
ing a good and useful example of the result of so much 
prudence and so generous a self-denial." I may add, that 
Dr. Vaughan survived not only to be a witness of the 
success and eminence of Sir Henry Halford, but to re- 
ceive from him for several years an annuity of 300Z. in 
augmentation of his own pecuniary resources. Dr. 
Vaughan died at Leicester on the 19th August, 1813, 
in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He was buried at 
Wistow, where a tablet, erected by Sir Henry Halford, 
commemorates him thus : 

Sacred to the memory of 
JAMBS VAUGHAN, M.D. and of Hester his wife, 

who are interred beneath this Tablet. 
James Vaughan was descended from a respectable family in 

Herefordshire, 

and practised physic in Leicester about forty years, 
with that facility and success which a quick perception, a sound 

judgment, 
and a perfect knowledge of the resources of his art were calculated 

to command. 

He died Aug. the 19th, 1813, in the 75th year of his age. 
HESTER VAUGHAN was the second daughter of William Smalley, esq. 

of Leicester, 



ROLL OF THE [1702 

by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Sir Richard Halford, bart. 

of this place, 

and was one of the gentlest and most amiable of women. 
She died April the 2nd, 1791, in the 51st year of her age. 
By this connection with the house of Wistow, and by the 

kind distinction 

of Sir Charles Halford, bart. the last male heir of the Halfords, 
Henry, eldest surviving son of James and Hester Vaughan, 

succeeded to 
the possessions of that ancient and loyal family. 

A portrait of Dr. Vaughan is in the great hall of 
the mansion at Wistow. The doctor was the author 
of 

Cases and Observations on the Hydrophobia, with an account of 
the Caesarian Section, &c. 8yo. Leicester. 1778. 

SIR EDWARD BARRY, BART., M.D., was admitted a 
scholar of Trinity college, Dublin, in 1716, proceeded 
A.B. in 1717, and on the 25th April, 1718, being then 
twenty-two years of age, was entered on the physic 
line at Leyden, where he graduated doctor of medicine 
in 1719 (D.M.I. de Nutritione). He proceeded M.B. 
at Trinity college, Dublin, in the spring of 1740 ; M. D. 
8th July, 1740. He practised for some time in Dublin. 
He was admitted a fellow of the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians 26th July, 1740, was Censor of 
that body in 1740, 1741, 1750, 1751, President 1749, 
and Treasurer 1750. On the 18th May, 1761, he re- 
quested permission to resign his fellowship, when he 
was placed on the list of honorary fellows. He was 
incorporated at Oxford on his Dublin degree 30th June, 
1761, and the same day received from the university a 
licence to practise. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians of London 30th September, 1761 ; 
a Fellow,30th September, 1762, and was Censor in 1763. 
He was created a baronet about the year 1775, and 
died on the 27th March, 1776. Sir Edward Barry was 
a fellow of the Royal Society, physician-general to the 
forces in Ireland, and professor of physic in the uni- 
versity of Dublin. His eldest son, Sir Nathaniel 



1762] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 2;i9 

Barry, bart., M.D., was a distinguished physician in 
Dublin. A fine portrait of him by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
is in the King and Queen's College of Physicians. Sir 
Edward Barry was the author of 

A Treatise on the three different Digestions and Discharges of 
the Human Body, and the Diseases of their principal organs. 8vo. 
Lond. 1759. 

Observations, Historical, Critical, and Medical, on the Wines of 
the Ancients, and the Analogy between them and the Modern 
"Wines. 4to. Lond. 1775. 

SIR JOHN ELLIOT, BART., M.D., was of obscure parent- 
age, and was born at Peebles, in Scotland. After a 
tolerable education, he became the assistant to an apo- 
thecary in London,, and then went to sea as surgeon of 
a privateer. Being fortunate in obtaining prize-money, 
he determined on practising in London as a physician. 
He obtained a degree of doctor of medicine from the 
university of St. Andrew's 6th November, 1759; and 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1762. Assisted by the patronage of 
Sir William Duncan, M.D., he soon got into good 
business, and is said to have acquired a professional 
income of 5,000/. a year. He was knighted in 1776, 
an honour which is supposed to have been due to the 
influence of lord Sackville and Madam Schwellenberg. 
He was intimate with persons of rank as well as with 
many of the first literary characters of the metropolis, 
and was countenanced by the heir-apparent to the crown, 
who appointed him one of his physicians in ordinary. 
He was subsequently created a baronet. * He died 7th 
November, 1786, and was the author of 

Philosophical Observations on the Senses of Vision and Hearing. 
8vo. Lond. 1780. 

* It is of Sir John Elliot that the following anecdote is recorded : 
" When lord G. Germain requested George III. to confer the title 
of baronet on Elliot who had never been a favourite of the king, 
his Majesty manifested much unwillingness, saying at length, ' But 
if I do he shall not be my physician.' ' No, sire,' replied his lord- 
ship, ' he shall be your Majesty's baronet and my physician.' This 
excited the royal smile, and the title was conferred." 



240 ROLL OF THE [1762 

Essays on Physiological Subjects. 8vo. Lond. 1780. 

Address to the Public on a subject of the utmost importance to 
Health. 8vo. Lond. 1780. 

A complete Collection of the Medical and Philosophical Works 
of John Fothergill, M.D., with an Account of his Life and Occa- 
sional Notes. 8vo. Lond. 1781. 

The Medical Pocket Bonk. 18mo. Lond. 1781. 

An Account of the Principal Mineral Waters of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 8vo. Lond. 1781. 

Elements of the Branches of Natural Philosophy connected with 
Medicine. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

WILKINSON BLANSHARD, M.D., was the son of Wil- 
kinson Blanshard, of York, attorney-atJaw, and was 
baptized at St. Mary's, Castlegate, in that city, 1st 
February, 1733-4. He was admitted a pensioner of 
Queen's college, Cambridge, 4th July, 1751, and as a 
member of that house proceeded M.B. 1756 ; M.D. 30th 
July, 1761. Admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1761 ; and a Fellow 22nd 
December, 1762; he was Censor in 1765, and Harveian 
orator in 1766. He was elected physician to St. 
George's hospital 27th May, 1766, and retained that 
office until his death, which occurred on the 5th 
January, 1770. 

THOMAS DAWSON, M.D., was the son of Eli Dawson, 
who was the youngest son of the Rev. Joseph Daw- 
son, of Thornton, co. York, ejected under the Act of 
Uniformity in 1662. He was educated as a dissent- 
ing minister, and for some time performed the duties of 
that office at a meeting-house in the Gravel Pit at 
Hackney. Devoting himself, however, to the study of 
physic, he graduated doctor of medicine at Glasgow 8th 
June, 1753 (D.M.I, de Aquis Mineralibus Medicatis); 
and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 22nd December, 1762. In his new capacity of 
physician, he was called to attend Miss Corbett, of 
Hackney. He found the lady one day sitting alone, 
piously and pensively musing upon the Bible, when 
by some strange accident his eyes were directed to the 



1762] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 241 

passage where Nathan says to David, "Thou art the 
man." The doctor profited by the kind hint, and after 
a proper time allowed for drawing up articles of capitu- 
lation, the lady surrendered, and they were married 
29th May, 1758.* Dr. Dawson was elected physician 
to the Middlesex hospital 1st February, 1759, but re- 
signed his office there 3rd February, 1761. He was 
elected physician to the London hospital 3rd October, 
1764, and resigned that appointment 5th September, 
1770. Dr. Dawson, who died 29th April, 1782, was 
the author of 

Cases in the Acute Rheumatism and the Gout. 8vo. Lond. 1774. 
An Account of a safe and efficient Remedy for Sore Eyes and Eye- 
lids. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

HUGH SMITH, M.D. A doctor of medicine of Edin- 
burgh, of 22nd April, 1755 (D.M.I de Sanguinis Mis- 
sion e) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 22nd December, 1762. He was elected phy- 
sician to the Middlesex hospital 5th August, 1756, and 
resigned that office 9th August, 1764. To him belongs 
the credit of having first delivered clinical lectures in 
that hospital. The permission to do so was sought from 
the governors on the 28th June, 1757, and was conceded 
on the 4th of August following. At the time of Dr. 
Smith's death, which occurred at Stratford, Essex, 26th 
December, 1790, he was alderman of Tower ward. He 
was buried in the church of West Ham, in the north 
aisle of which a monument was erected to his memory. 
He published 

Essays Physiological and Practical, on the Nature and Circulation 
of the Blood, and on the Effects and Use of Blood-letting. 12mo. 
Lond. 1761. 

Formulae Medicamentorum in varias Medendi Intentiones concin- 
natee. 12mo. Lond. 1763. 

Medicamentorum Formulae, or a Compendium of the Modern 
Practice of Physic. 12mo. Lond. 1768. 

JOHN BEICKENDEN, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 

* Nichol's Literary Anecdotes, vol. ix, p. 694. 
VOL. II. R 



242 ROLL OF THE [1762 

Edinburgh, of 16th May, 1759 (D.M.I, de Radice Scil- 
\se), was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 22nd December, 1762. He practised for a short 
time at Leicester, but in 1765 removed to London, and 
in that year was elected physician to the Westminster 
hospital, an appointment which he continued to hold 
until his death in 1774 or 1775. 

RICHARD WARREN, M.D. was born on the 13th De- 
cember, 1731, and was the third son of the Rev. Dr. 
Richard Warren, archdeacon of Suffolk, and rector of 
Cavendish in that county, a divine of great eminence 
and an accomplished scholar, one of the antagonists of 
bishop Hoadley in the controversy respecting the eu- 
charist, and the editor of the Greek commentary of 
Hierocles upon the Golden Verses of Pythagoras. The 
younger Warren was educated at the grammar school 
of Bury St. Edmund's, whence, in the year 1748, im- 
mediately after his father's death, he removed to Jesus 
college, Cambridge. Warren was one of those rare cha- 
racters which distinguish themselves equally during the 
period of education and in the more trying scenes of 
mature life. At this moment his means of support 
were scanty, and the prejudices which then prevailed 
among certain members of the university were not cal- 
culated to encourage or smooth the progress of the son 
of an able Tory. Young Warren, however, overcame 
every difficulty of his position, and his name was fourth 
on the list of wranglers in the year of his degree 1752. 
He was elected to a fellowship of his college he ob- 
tained the prize to middle bachelors for Latin prose 
composition, and the following year that for senior ba- 
chelors. On obtaining his fellowship at Jesus college 
the church naturally offered itself as his profession, but 
his inclination was for the law. Whilst in this state of 
doubt, the son of Dr. Peter Shaw, an eminent London 
physician, was entered at Jesus college, and placed 
under his tuition. The acquaintance thus formed de- 
termined his lot in life, for the talents of the tutor were 



17G3] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 243 

not lost on Dr. Shaw, who soon took a warm interest 
in his pursuits, strongly recommended him to pursue 
the study of medicine, and predicted that should he 
do so he would rank with the first physicians of his 
country. Finally, in proof of his esteem and affection, 
Dr. Shaw gave him the hand of his daughter Elizabeth 
in 1759. He proceeded A.M. 1755; M.D. 3rd July, 
1 762 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 30th September, 1762 ; and, having produced 
the warrant by which he was made physician in ordinary 
to the king, a Fellow, 3rd March, 1763. He delivered 
the Gulstonian lectures in 1764, and the Harveian 
oration in 1768; was Censor in 1764, 1776, 1782; 
and was named an Elect 9th August, 1784. On the 
5th August, 1 756, having at that time a licence adprac- 
ticandum from the university of Cambridge, he was 
elected physician to the Middlesex hospital, and on the 
21st January, 1760, physician to St. George's hospital ; 
the former appointment he resigned in November, 1758, 
the latter in May, 1766. 

Dr. Warren's progress as a physician was unusually 
rapid. Not only had he the influence and recommenda- 
tion of his father-in-law Dr. Shaw to advance his in- 
terests, but those also of Sir Edward Wilmot. Shortly 
after he commenced practice, Sir Edward, then physi- 
cian to the court and much employed among the nobility, 
was in attendance on the princess Amelia, daughter of 
George the Second. Sir Edward, then advanced in 
years and looking to retirement, proposed Dr. Warren 
as an assistant, to attend to the more minute and ardu- 
ous duties required by the princess, who was subject to 
sudden seizures that created alarm. At the commence- 
ment of his professional career, Dr. Warren, during 
three summers, went to Tunbridge Wells, and on two 
of these occasions her royal highness visited that water- 
ing place under his care. On the retirement of Sir 
Edward Wilmot, Dr. Warren continued physician to 
the princess, and one of the rewards bestowed upon 
him was the appointment of physician to George III, 

R 2 



244 ROLL OF THE 

which was procured for him by her royal highness' in- 
fluence on the resignation of his father-in-law, Dr. Shaw. 
" Dr. Warren's eminence is not to be ascribed, however, 
to mere patronage, nor to singularity of doctrine, nor 
to the arts of a showy address, nor to any capricious 
revolution of Fortune's wheel ; it was the just and 
natural attainment of great talents. These talents, 
indeed, cannot be subjected to the scrutiny of literary 
criticism, because he was too eagerly engrossed by 
pressing occupations to find leisure sufficient to commit 
many of his observations to paper ; but the accuracy of 
his prognosis, and his fine sagacity, survive in the recol- 
lection of a few. His ready memory presented to him 
on every emergency the extensive stores of his know- 
ledge ; and that solidity of judgment which regulated 
their application to the case before him would have 
equally enabled him to outstrip competition in any de- 
partment of science and art. He was one among the 
first of his professional brethren who departed from the 
formalities which had long rendered medicine a favourite 
theme of ridicule with the wits who happened to enjoy 
health. He was one of the few great characters of his 
time whose popularity was not the fruit of party favour. 
Without any sacrifice of independence he gained the 
suffrages of men of every class, as well as the more diffi- 
cult applause of his own fraternity. He enjoyed the 
friendship of many distinguished men, and among others 
of lord North ; his conversation, indeed, was peculiarly 
fitted to conciliate every variety of age and of tempera- 
ment. The cheerfulness of his own nature, and the 
power which he possessed of infusing it into others, 
enabled him to exercise over his patients an authority 
very beneficial to themselves ; and in this respect, as in 
some others, he has left an instructive example to future 
professors of medicine, who perhaps do not always suffi- 
ciently seek to inspire the objects of their care with a 
train of animating thoughts. Warren arrived early at 
the highest practice in this great metropolis, and main- 
tained his supremacy to the last with unfading facul- 



1763] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 245 

ties. The amount of revenue sometimes enters into the 
computation of a medical character, and such anecdotes 
perhaps form a link in the domestic history of the pro- 
fession. He is said to have realised 9,0001. a year from 
the time of the regency, and to have bequeathed to his 
family above 150,000."* If posterity should ask what 
works Dr. Warren left behind him worthy of the great 
reputation he enjoyed during his lifetime, it must be 
answered that such was his constant occupation in prac- 
tice among all classes of people, from the highest to the 
lowest, that he had no leisure for writing, with the ex- 
ception of a very few papers published in the College 
Transactions. But the unanimous respect in which he 
was held by all his medical brethren, which no man ever 
obtains without deserving it, fully justifies the popular 
estimate of his character. To a sound judgment and 
deep observation of men and things he added various 
literary and scientific attainments, which were most 
advantageously displayed by a talent for conversation 
that was at once elegant, easy, and natural. Of all 
men in the world, he had the greatest flexibility of 
temper, instantaneously accommodating himself to the 
tone of feeling of the young, the old, the gay, and the 
sorrowful. But he was himself of a very cheerful dis- 
position, and his manner being peculiarly pleasing to 
others, he possessed over the minds of his patients the 
most absolute control ; and it was said with truth, that 
no one ever had recourse to his advice as a physician, 
who did not remain desirous of gaming his friendship 
and enjoying his society as a companion. In interro- 
gating the patient he was apt and adroit ; in the re- 
sources of his art, quick and inexhaustible ; and when 
the malady was beyond the reach of his skill, the minds 
of the sick were consoled by his conversation, and their 
cares, anxieties, and fears soothed by his presence. And 
it may be mentioned among the minor qualities which 
distinguished Dr. Warren, that no one more readily 

* Dr. Bissett Hawkins' Memoir of Dr. Warren, in Lives of British 
Physicians, p. 232. 



246 ROLL OF THE [17G3 

gained the confidence, or satisfied the scruples of the 
subordinate attendants upon the sick by the dexterous 
employment of the various arguments of encouragement, 
reproof, and friendly advice.* The height Dr. Warren 
had rapidly attained in his profession he maintained 
with unabated spirit till his death, which took place at 
his house in Dover-street on the 22nd June, 1797t ; his 
disease was erysipelas of the head, which destroyed him 
in his sixty-sixth year, at the very tune when the most 
sanguine hopes were entertained of his recovery by sir 
George Baker and Dr. Pitcairn. His widow, two 
daughters, and eight sons survived him. He was buried 

* The Gold Headed Cane. 2nd Edn. 8vo. Lond. 1728, p. 205, 
et seq. 

t " Ecquis erat unquam scientia morborum locupletatus magis, 
vel magis curatione exercitatus; ecquis erat unquam qui suavi ilia 
sermonis et morum humanitate, quee in ipso remediorum loco haberi 
potest, ecquis erat unquam qui Warrenum superabat ? Erat illi 
ingenii vis maxuma, perceptio et comprehensio celerrima, judicium 
acre, memoria perceptorum tenacissima. Meministis, Socii, quam 
subtiliter et uno quasi intuitu res omnes segrotantium perspiceret 
penitus et intelligeret ! in interrogando quam aptus esset et oppor- 
tnnus, quam promptus in expediendo ! Omnia etenim artis subsidia 
statim illi in mentem veniebant, et nihil ei novum, nihil inauditum 
videbatur. In ea autem facultate qua corsolamur afflictos et de- 
ducimus perterritos a timore, qua languidos incitamus, et erigimus 
depresses, omnium Medicorum facile princeps fuit : et si qui medi- 
camentis non cessissent dolores, permulcebat eos, et consopiebat hor- 
tationibus et alloquio. 

stetit urna paulum 
Sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 
Carmine mulcet. 

" Verum ea est quodammodo artis nostrse conditio, ut Medicus, 
quamvis sit eruditus, quamvis sit acer et acutus in cogitando, quam- 
vis sit ad prsecipiendum expeditus, si fuerit idem in moribus ac 
voluntatibus civium suornm nospes, parum ei proderit oleum operam- 
que inter calamos et scrinia consumpsisse. Warrenus autem in 
omni vitae et studiorum decursu, si quis unquam alius, Pallade 
dextra usus est. atque omnium quibuscum rem agebat mentes sen- 
susque gustavit ; et quid sentirent, quid vellent, quid opinarentnr, 
quid expectarent arripuit, percepit, novit. Tantam denique morum 
comitatem et facilitatem habuit, ut nemo eo semel usus esset 
medico, quin socium voluerit et amicum." Oratio Harveiana, 
Anno MDCCC. habita, auctore Henrico Halford, p. 12. 



1763] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 247 

at Kensington church, where a tablet to his memory is 
thus inscribed : 

RICHARDO WARREN, 

apud Cavendish in agro Suffolciensi nato, 
Collegii Jesn Cantab, quondam socio, 

Regis Georgii Tertii medico, 

Viro ingenio prudentiaque acuto, 

Optimarum artinm disciplinis erudito, 

Comitatis et beneficentiae laude bonis omnibus commendatissimo ^ 

qui medicinam feliciterque Londini factitavit. 

Decessit x Kalend. Jul. 

Anno Christi MDCCXCVII. 

-<Etat. suae LXVII. 

Elizabetha uxor et liberi decem superstites 
H.M. faciendum curaverunt. 

Two papers from Dr. Warren's pen are to be seen in 
the " Medical Transactions." His portrait, by Gains- 
borough, is in the College. It has been engraved by 
I. Jones. It was presented by his son, Pelham Warren, 
M.D., on the opening of the College in Pall Mall East 
in June, 1825. 

EGBERT GLYNN CLOBERY, M.D. " This great, distin- 
guished, virtuous, and consummate scholar and physi- 
cian/' of one of his eulogists ;"* the " dilectus lapis 

" The loved lapis on the banks of Cam ; " 

of another,t was born on the 5th August, 1719, at 
Kelland, near Bodmin, co. Cornwall, of an ancient and 
very respectable family, and was educated at Eton, 
upon the foundation. He was admitted a scholar of 
King's college, Cambridge in 1737 ; subsequently be- 
came a fellow of that society ; and proceeded A.B. 
1741 ; A.M. 1745, and M.D. 1758. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 5th April, 
1762, and a Fellow 28th March, 1763. Dr. Glynn 
commenced practice at Richmond, but soon returned 
to Cambridge, where he continued to reside and per- 

* Pursuits of Literature, vol. iv, p. 444. 

t Jesse's Memoirs of Celebrated Etonians, vol. ii, p. 86. 



248 ROLL OF THE [1763 

form the active duties of his profession until his death 
in 1800. He changed his name from Glynn to Clo- 
bery, in pursuance of the will of a relative who left 
him some property, but he was usually addressed and 
known by his paternal name. His life was one uniform 
course of integrity and benevolence. Though his 
practice for a long series of years was very extensive, 
and his establishment confined within the walls of a 
college, on a plan of most temperate and strict economy, 
his effects scarcely exceeded 10,000^., including the 
bequest of his relative. In what manner he applied 
the principal part of his professional emoluments was 
known to those who were supported or assisted by his 
beneficence. His faculties were clear and vigorous 
Avithin a very short time of his decease. During his 
illness, sensible of his gradual decay, he expressed 
nothing but resignation and kindness, and expired 
without a struggle or a groan on the 8th of February, 
1800, in the eighty-first year of his age. Agreeably 
to Dr. Glynn's repeated directions, he was interred in 
the vault of Bang's college chapel in a private manner, 
between ten and eleven o'clock at night. On this occa- 
sion, in compliance with his wishes, the members of the 
college only attended. But public feeling demanded 
that some more eminent mark of respect should be paid 
to his memory. The vice-chancellor, Dr. Mansel, of 
Trinity college, subsequently bishop of Bristol, commu- 
nicated, therefore, to the gentlemen of the university 
his intention to accompany the friends of Dr. Glynn, in 
mourning, from Trinity college to St. Mary's church, on 
the following Sunday. The procession consisted of the 
heads of houses, the noblemen, and a numerous body 
of masters of arts. The sermon on this occasion was 
preached by the Kev. John Henry Mich ell, fellow of 
King's college. Dr. Glynn bequeathed the bulk of his 
property to King's college, the larger portion towards 
the improvement of the college (on buildings then in 
progress) ; and a sum to be annually divided between 
such two scholars of the college as in the course of the 



1763] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 249 

year have been most distinguished for learning and re- 
gularity of conduct. To mark their sense of such muni- 
ficence, the fellows of King's college erected an elegant 
tablet on the south side of their chapel, with the follow- 
ing inscription : 

M. S. 

ROBERT: GLTNN CLOBERY, M.D. 
et veteri in agro Cornubiensi prosapia oriundi, 

hujus Collegii LXIII. annos Socii, 
Morum anti quorum et literarum bonarum 
Cultoris, Patroni, Vindicis; 

qui Collegio 

amplissimam pecuniae summam 

ad studia juventutis promovenda, 

ad naves sedes astruendas 

legavit. 
Obiit vin. Id. Feb. MDCCC. set. LXXXI. 

Hanc tabulam 
in pietatis et desiderii testimonium 

P. C. 

ex publico decreto 
Collegium. 

The materials for composing the story of Dr. Glynn's 
life are confined to little more than brief records of his 
goodness, his integrity, his benevolence, and the saga- 
city and humanity displayed by him in the exercise of 
his professional calling. Of long and distinguished 
celebrity in the university of Cambridge, eminent on 
account of his abilities, but still more eminent on ac- 
count of his virtues, this venerable philanthropist con- 
tinued to enjoy to the end of his days the heartfelt 
reverence and affection, not only of the middle-aged 
and advanced in years, but also of the young. For 
many years his tea table was frequented by young men 
of the highest rank and character, who subsequently 
attained to the highest offices in church and state. 
The suggestions of his experience were so tempered by 
the urbanity of his manners, that his society had a 
very visible influence upon the direction of their studies 
and conduct. * Dr. Glynn's eccentricities were long re- 

* Nichol's Literary Anecdotes of the 18th Century, vol. viii, 
p. 215. 



250 ROLL OF THE [1703 

membered at Cambridge. He is said to have been 
eminently successful as a practitioner, and was impli- 
citly trusted in and for a wide circuit around Cam- 
bridge. In his practice he relied much on counter 
irritation and a " vesicatorium amplum et acre " (the 
phraseology is his own), was a part of the prescription 
from which few of his patients suffering under acute 
disease escaped at one or other period of its course. 
He seldom employed either opium or mercury, and 
was convinced that syphilis might be cured without 
the last-named medicament. Being taken seriously 
ill, when at some distance from home, he sent for a 
neighbouring physician, to whom he said, " I am going 
to be very ill, and commit myself to your care, but on 
no account give me any of that vile drug, opium, or 
any preparation of it." On his recovery he said he 
hoped his friend had complied with his request, but 
begged he would inform him whether he had given 
him any opium or not. "If I had not," said his 
friend, " you would not have been here to ask the 
question."* 

There is a fine and scarce portrait of Dr. Glynn en- 
graved by J. G. and G. S. Facius, after a drawing by 
the Rev. Thomas Kerrick, to whom, as his friend and 
executor, he bequeathed a handsome legacy. 

Sm CLIFTON WINTRINGHAM, BART., M.D., was born 
at York in 1710, and was the son of Clifton Wintring- 
ham, an eminent physician of that city, by his first wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Nettleton, of East 
Heaton, co. York. He was educated at Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded 
M.B. in 1734, and then entered the medical service of 
the army. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society 13th January, 1742-3, proceeded doctor of me- 
dicine at Cambridge in 1749 ; and was appointed phy- 
sician to the duke of Cumberland, and physician-general 
to the army. In 1762 he was gazetted physician in 
* Jesse's Memoirs, ut supra. 



1763] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 251 

ordinary to George the ^Third. He was knighted the 
same year ; and on the 25th of June, 1763, in sequel to 
being physician in ordinary to the king, was admitted a 
Fellow of the College of Physicians. He served the 
office of Censor in 1770 ; and was created a baronet in 
1774. In 1773 he published in two volumes a hand- 
some edition of Mead's " Monita et Prsecepta Medica 
permultis annotationibus et observationibus illustrata," 
a really valuable practical work, embodying the ripe 
experience of two of our soundest practical physicians. 
His object, and to it he had devoted much time and 
attention, was to illustrate, confirm, and render more 
precise and useful Mead's latest and most matured 
work. Sir Clifton Wintringham died, after a lingering 
illness, at his house in the Upper Mall, Hammersmith, on 
the 10th January, 1794, at the advanced age of eighty- 
three. A monument to his memory was erected in 
Westminster abbey, with the following inscription : 

Memoriae sacrum 
CLIFTON: WINTRINGHAM, Baronetti, M.D. 

Qui domi, militiaeque, 

tarn in re medica insignis, 

quam ob vitas innocentiam morumque suavitatem 

percharus, flebilis omnibus. 
Obiit 10 Jan. A.D. 1794, set. suae 83. 

Monumentum hoc, 

amoris quo vivum coluerat maritum, 

desiderii quo mortuum prosecuta est, 

indicium ut esset diuturnum extrui curavit 

Anna Wintringham. 

Sir Clifton Wintringham was a foreign fellow of the 
Royal Society of Medicine of Paris. " He was a man of 
liberal education, of extensive classical attainments, 
and of great skill and judgment in his profession. In 
domestic life he was affable and endearing ; in conver- 
sation polite, lively, and entertaining ; and in his 
friendship steady and affectionate." Haller * says of 
him " Vir acuti ingenii, iatro-mathematicus et experi- 
mentis feliciter ususatque ratiocinio." He published 

* Biblioth. Anat. ii, 324. 



J.VJ ROLL OF THE [17G3 

An Experimental Inquiry concerning some parts of the Animal 
Structure. 8vo. Lond. 1740. 

An Inquiry into the Exility of the Vessels of the Human Body. 
8vo. Lond. 1743. 

The Works of the late Clifton Wintringham, physician at York ; 
now 6rst collated and published entire, with large Additions from 
the Original Documents. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1752. 

De Morbis quibusdam Commentarii. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

SIR JOHN PRTNGLE, BART., M.D., was the youngest 
son of Sir John Pringle, of Stichel house, Boxburgh- 
shire, by his wife, a sister of Sir Gilbert Elliot, of Stobs, 
and was born the 10th April, 1707. He received his 
rudimentary education at home under a private tutor, 
and was next sent to the university of St. Andrew's, 
where he continued his studies under the direction of 
his uncle, Dr. Francis Pringle, the professor of Greek 
in that university, and a physician practising there. 
He then studied for a year in Edinburgh; at the ter- 
mination of which, being intended for commerce, he pro- 
ceeded to Amsterdam. During a casual visit to Ley- 
den he heard a lecture by Boerhaave, which made so 
strong an impression on his mind that he determined to 
devote himself to physic. He fixed himself at Leyden, 
and on the 30th September, 1728, was entered on the 
physic line there ; attended the lectures of Boerhaave, 
and of the other distinguished persons who then occu- 
pied the medical chairs in that celebrated university, 
and proceeded doctor of medicine 20th July, 1730 
(D.M.I, de Marcore Senili. 4to.). At Leyden, he con- 
tracted an intimate friendship with van Sweiten, the 
commentator on Boerhaave, afterwards so celebrated 
both as professor and practitioner at Vienna. Having 
completed his medical education by a visit to Paris, 
Pringle returned to Edinburgh, and commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. On the 28th March, 1734, he 
was appointed by the patrons of the university joint 
professor of moral philosophy, with the right of suc- 
cession on the death of his senior, Mr. Scott. In 1742, 
Dr. Pringle became physician to the earl of Stair, then 
in command of the British army in Flanders. Thither 



1763J ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 253 

he proceeded, and on the 24th August, 1742, was ap- 
pointed to the charge of the military hospital. Dr. 
Pringle remained in Flanders, during the campaign of 
1744, and by his conduct attracted the favourable notice 
of the duke of Cumberland who, on the llth March, 
] 744, gave him a commission, by which he was appointed 
physician-general to his Majesty's forces in the Low 
Countries and other parts beyond the seas ; and another 
creating him physician to the royal hospitals in the 
same countries. He then resigned his professorship of 
moral philosophy, the duties of which had been per- 
formed by deputy during his absence. He next accom- 
panied the army to Scotland, and remained there until 
August, 1746 ; but during the two following years was 
again with the troops abroad, and did not finally return 
to England until after the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
He then took up his abode in London, and commenced 
private practice. In 1749 he was appointed physician 
in ordinary to the duke of Cumberland ; in 1761, through 
his royal highness's influence, was made physician to 
the queen's household ; and in 1763, physician in ordi- 
nary to the queen. Yet higher honours were in store. 
He was created a baronet in 1766, and was gazetted 
physician in ordinary to the king in 1774. He was 
also physician to the princess dowager of Wales. Sir 
John Pringle was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 26th June, 1758 ; and a Fellow, speciali 
gratia, 25th June, 1763. He was appointed Censor in 
1770, but declined to act, and paid the fine enjoined by 
the bye-laws under such circumstances. Few members 
of our profession have obtained a wider reputation than 
did Sir John Pringle. * He was a fellow of the Col- 

* " Neque equidem inter hos Pringleium praetermitteudum arbi- 
tror ; qui cum universam remm cognitionem animo complexus est, 
turn medicinam amore singular! coluit et prosecutus est. Ingenii 
fuit perspicacis, virilis, quod omnis scientiee fundamenta ad expe- 
rientiam revocabat ; praeterea pietate insigni, morumque integritate 
et maxima benevolentia, omnibus bonis carus factus est. Itaque 
doctissimorum hominum familiaritatibas domus ejus semper flore- 
bat ; multaeque ab eo scriptae epistolse externos etiam in societatem 



254 ROLL OF THE [1763 

lege of Physicians of Edinburgh, to which he was ad- 
mitted 4th February, 1735, and one of the foreign fel- 
lows of the Royal Society of Medicine of Paris ; a mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of Gottingen, and of the 
Academy of Sciences at Haarlem, and Madrid. Of 
the Royal Society of London, the scene of his highest 
honours, he was admitted a fellow in 1745. He was 
chosen one of the council of that Society in 1753, and 
was elevated to the office of president in 1772. "The 
period of his election was a fortunate epoch of natural 
knowledge : a taste for experimental investigation was 
diffusing itself through every part of the civilised world, 
and the genius of Pringle found a happy occupation in 
cherishing this spirit. An universality of knowledge, 
and a singular liberality of spirit, united to very con- 
siderable experience, both of active and studious life, 
seem to have peculiarly fitted him for his difficult post. 
Sir Godfrey Copley had originally bequeathed five 
guineas to be given at each anniversary meeting of the 
Royal Society, by the determination of the president 
and council, to the author of the best experimental ob- 
servations made during the preceding year. This pecu- 
niary offering was at length converted, with greater 
propriety, into a gold medal ; and Pringle ably carved 
a new road to personal distinction and utility, by the 
excellent discourses which he took occasion to deliver 

studiorum trahebant. Qubs vero edidifc libros quis non legit ? 
Quis, qui legit, non admiratur ? In quibus morborum historias suc- 
cinte, absolute tamen, exposuit ; inque causas eonim, non tanquam 
plerique nescio quid somniantes, sed ubi veri aliquid subluceret, 
ipsaeque res rationes suggererent, ut decet prudentem, inquisivit. 
In ea vero parte, quse ad curationem attinet, omnes, meo quidem, 
judicio, superiores vicit. Dysenteriam, febremque castrensem, 
geminam militum perniciem, persequi et tollere imprimis conatus 
est : et validissimus nobis autor fuit, ut aer purus, et mundities, et 
laxius habitare, quanti sint, intelligeremus. Unde etiam maximum 
illud malorum gravissimumqne, Pestem, his saltern regionibus, Deo 
juvante, extinctam esse speramus. Neque vero de corporis, tan- 
tummodo affectibus quam plumiris accurate diligenterque scripsit ; 
verum etiam pmdentiae militaris documenta tradidit nunquam ob- 
liviscenda," &c., &c. Oratio Harveiana, Anno MDCCCIX. habita, 
anctore Gul. Heberden fil. p. 18. 



1763] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 255 

on the presentation of this annual tribute. Six of these 
have been edited by Dr. Kippis, and display an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the history of philosophy, a 
noble zeal for its advancement, and a style unaffected, 
elegant, and perspicuous. The subject of the fourth 
discourse was particularly suited to his disposition and 
pursuits ; it accompanied the award of the medal to 
Captain Cook, and discussed the means employed by 
that sagacious commander towards preserving the health 
of seamen. The intimate friendship which subsisted 
between them renders it probable that Pringle had com- 
municated some valuable suggestions on the subject to 
his intelligent friend ; and no pupil in the schools of 
Hygiene has ever existed more capable of reducing its 
rules to practice, since, with a crew of one hundred and 
eighteen men, Cook performed a voyage of three years 
and eighteen days, throughout all the climates between 
52 N. and 71 S., and only lost one companion of his 
wanderings. The use of sweet wort, a rigid attention 
to cleanliness, and the careful preservation of his com- 
pany from wet and other injuries of weather, formed 
the chief part of his dietetic code. His example has 
not been lost upon our navy, which now maintains in 
the confinement of a ship a degree of health equal to, if 
not often exceeding, the average observed at home." 

The pressure of advancing years, increased by an in- 
jury from a fall, induced Sir John Pringle, in 1778, to 
resign the presidency of the Royal Society, although 
earnestly solicited to retain it. In 1780 he paid a visit 
to Edinburgh and purchased a house, to which he re- 
tired the following year. Neither his health nor his 
spirits were so much improved by the change as he had 
anticipated ; the climate proved too sharp for his en- 
feebled frame, and his contemporaries had disappeared. 
He therefore returned to London, but before leaving 
Edinburgh he presented to the College of Physicians 
of that city ten folio volumes of MS. medical and phy- 
sical observations. He did not long survive his return, 
and died the 18th January, 1782, in the seventy-fifth 



256 ROLL OF THE [17G3 

year of his age. He was buried in the church of St. 
James, Westminster, and a monument by Nollekens 
was erected to his memory in Westminster abbey. His 
portrait, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is in the possession of 
the Royal Society. Sir John Pringle contributed seve- 
ral papers to the " Philosophical Transactions," and was 
the author of 

Observations on the Nature and Cure of Hospital or Jayl Fevers. 
8vo. Lond. 1750. 

Observations on the Diseases of the Army. 8vo. Lond. 1752. 

Six Discourses at the Royal Society, on Occasion of the Assign- 
ment of the Copley Medal. Edited, with Life, by A. Kippis. 8vo. 
Lond. 1783. 

SWITHEN ADEE, M.D., was of Corpus Christi college, 
Oxford; A.B. 14th June, 1721; A.M. 22nd February, 
1724 ; M.D. 4th July, 1733. He practised for several 
years at Guildford and at Oxford, but in 1762 removed 
to London ; and was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1762 ; and a Fellow 
30th September, 1763. He was Censor in 1764 and 
1770; he delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 1767, 
and the Harveian oration in 1769. In 1770 Dr. Adee 
retired from business and returned to Oxford, and spent 
the remainder of his life amongst his old college friends, 
with whom he lived respected and esteemed. He died 
at Oxford the 12th August, 1786, aged eighty-one. He 
was a fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and obtained no small amount of reputation 
for a very happy explanation of the Greek inscription on 
the Corbridge altar of Astarte.* We owe to Dr. Adee's 
pen : " Meadus : Poema, grati animi testimonium :" edi- 
tum A.D. MDCCLV ; a pleasing encomium on Mead. 

WILLIAM GRANT, M.D. A native of Scotland, and 
a doctor of medicine of Marischal college, Aberdeen, of 
22nd September, 1755 ; was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 30th September, 1763. He 
practised for several years with considerable and well- 
* Archeeologia, vol. ii, p. 98. 



1764] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 257 

deserved reputation in the city, and was physician to 
the Misericordia hospital, an institution for the cure of 
the venereal disease, situated in Great Alie-street, 
Goodman's-fields. Dr. Grant died at Edinburgh 30th 
December, 1786. He was the author of 

An Inquiry into the Nature, Rise, and Progress of the Fevers 
most common in London. 8vo. Lond. 1771. 

Observations on the Nature and Cures of Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 
1772. 

An Essay on the Pestilential Fever of Sydenham, commonly 
called the Jail, Hospital, Ship, and Camp Fever. 8vo. Lond. 1775. 

A Short Account of the Epidemic Cough and Fever, in a Letter 
to Dr. de la Cour. 8vo. Lond. 1776. 

Account of a Fever and Sorethroat in London in September, 
1776. 8vo. Lond. 1777. 

Observations on the Atrabilious Temperament and Gout. 8vo. 
Lond. 1779. 

Observations on the Influenza of 1775 and 1782 the Febris 
Catarrhalis Epidemica of Hippocrates. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

JAMES FORD, M.D., of Marischal college, Aberdeen, 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
22nd December, 1763. Dr. Ford enjoyed for several 
years a very lucrative obstetric practice at the west- 
end of London. He was physician extraordinary to 
queen Charlotte, physician extraordinary to the West- 
minster Lying-in hospital, and consulting man-midwife 
to the Westminster General dispensary. Having accu- 
mulated a handsome fortune, he retired from practice 
and withdrew to Wales. He died at Langattock, near 
Crickhowell, December 18th, 1795, aged seventy-seven. 

ANTHONY RELHAN, M.D., was educated at Trinity 
college, Dublin. He was entered a scholar there in 
1734; proceeded A.B. in the spring of 1735, and on 
the 15th October, 1740, being then twenty-five years 
old, entered himself on the physic line at Leyden. Re- 
turning to Dublin, he graduated doctor of medicine 
there, 12th July, 1743 ; and in October, 1747, was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the King and Queen's College of Phy- 
sicians of Ireland, of which learned body he was pre- 

VOL. II. S 



258 ROLL OF THE [1764 

sident in 1755. He held the office of physician to 
Mercers' hospital, and would seem to have occupied a 
distinguished position among the physicians of the Irish 
capital. Having however about the year 1758 pre- 
scribed James's powder, the members of the college 
over which he had so recently presided, resented this 
encouragement given to a quack medicine and refused 
to join with Dr. Relhan in consultation. He then 
opened a correspondence with Dr. James, and by his 
advice was induced to leave Dublin for England. The 
death of Dr. Russell in December, 1759, leaving an 
opening for a physician at Brighton, Dr. Relhan pro- 
ceeded to fill it, and by his exertions and abilities main- 
tained and augmented the reputation which Brighton 
was then attaining for invalids. In 1762 or 1763 he 
removed to London, and having, according to our Annals, 
been incorporated at Cambridge on his doctor's degree, 
he was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 25th June, 1763 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 1764 ; 
was Censor in 1765 and 1771 ; Gulstonian lecturer in 
1765 ; and Harveian orator in 1770. Dr. Relhan died 
in October, 1776, and was interred in the burial ground 
in Paddington-street, Marylebone. Dr. Relhan was 
twice married. By his first wife he had a son, Richard, 
who graduated A.B. at Cambridge in 1776, as a mem- 
ber of Trinity college, and entered into holy orders ; 
and a daughter. His second wife was the widow of 
Sir William Hart, a banker, in London. This lady had 
built herself a house in East-street, Brighton, for her 
summer residence, and there Dr ; Relhan and she annually 
passed some months of the bathing season until his 
death. The doctor's widow continued her occasional 
residence there until 1786, when she disposed of the 
property. Dr. Relhan published 

A Short History of Brighthelmston, its Air and its "Waters. 8vo. 
Lond. 1761. 

Refutation of the Reflections against Inoculation. 4to. Lond. 
1764. 

THOMAS BROOKE, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 



3764] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 259 

Trinity college, Dublin, of 10th June, 1753 ; incorpo- 
rated, it is said in our Annals, at Oxford ; was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1763 ; and a Fellow 25th June, 1764. He was Censor 
in 1766, 1767, 1772. Dr. Brooke was elected physi- 
cian to the Westminster hospital in 1757, but retired 
from that office in 1764. He was also physician to St. 
Luke's hospital, and died in August, 1781. 

JOHN HADLEY, M.D., was born in London and edu- 
cated at Queen's college, Cambridge, of which house he 
was a fellow. He took the two degrees in arts A.B. 
1753; A.M. 1756; and in the last-named year was ap- 
pointed professor of chemistry in the university. Pro- 
ceeding doctor of medicine at Cambridge 5th July, 1763, 
he was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physi- 
cians 30th September, 1763 ; and a Fellow 1st October, 
1764. Dr. Hadley was physician to St. Thomas's hos- 
pital and to the Charterhouse : to the former he was 
elected in 1762 ; to the latter in 1763. He was pre- 
maturely arrested in his career, and died on the 5th 
November, 1764, aged thirty-three. His portrait was 
painted by B. Wilson in 1759, and engraved by E. 
Fisher. His only publication was 

Plan of a Course of Chemical Lectures. 8vo. Cambridge. 1758. 

MAXWELL GARTHSHORE, M.D., was born in 1732 at 
Kirkcudbright, of which place his father was the minis- 
ter. At the age of fourteen he was placed with a sur- 
geon at Edinburgh, and during his apprenticeship at- 
tended the medical lectures at the university. He then 
entered the medical service of the army, and served in 
lord Charles Hay's regiment as mate to Mr. Huck, 
afterwards well-known as Dr. Huck Saunders, but soon 
quitted it ; and in 1756 settled at Uppingham, succeed- 
ing to a lucrative business just relinquished by Dr. John 
Fordyce, where he made the acquaintance and obtained 
the warm friendship of Dr. (subsequently Sir George) 
Baker, then practising at Stamford, by whom he was at 

s 2 



260 ROLL OP THE [1765 

a subsequent period encouraged to settle in London. 
Preparatory thereto, he returned to Edinburgh ; took 
his degree of doctor of medicine there 8th May, 1764 
(D.M.I, de Papaveris Usu tarn noxio quam salutari in 
Parturientibus ac Puerperis. 8vo.), and was admitted a 
fellow of the College of Physicians of that city. Proceed- 
ing to London, he was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 1 st October, 1764. He practised chiefly 
as an accoucheur, and attained to considerable eminence 
in that department. " He was extremely patient as long 
as patience was a virtue, and in cases of difficulty or of 
extreme danger he decided with quickness and great 
judgment, and he had always a mind sufficiently firm to 
enable his hands to execute that which his head had dic- 
tated." He was a fellow of the Royal and of the Anti- 
quarian Societies, and physician to the British Lying-in 
hospital. Dying on the 1st March, 1812, aged eighty, 
he was buried in Bunh ill-fields. Dr. Garthshore was 
thought strikingly like the first earl of Chatham in 
person, and was sometimes mistaken for him. This 
likeness on one occasion produced a considerable sen- 
sation in the house of Commons lord Chatham was 
pointed to as in the gallery, and all present believed 
him to be there. The person really in the gallery was 
Dr. Garthshore.' 55 ' Dr. Garthshore's portrait, by Slater, 
was engraved by Collyer. He was the author of 

On Extra Uteriue Cases and Rupture of the Tubes and Uterus. 
8vo. Lond. 1787. 

On a Case of Numerous Births. 4to. Lond. 1787. 

THOMAS DICKSON, M.D., was born at Dumfries, and 
took his degree of doctor of medicine at Leyden 8th 
April, 1746 (D.M.I. de Sanguinis Missione). He was 
elected physician to the London hospital 1st May, 1759 ; 
and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 9th February, 1765. He was admitted a fellow of 
the Eoyal Society 17th May, 1770. Dr. Dickson was 
a man of considerable attainments, a good Greek scho- 
* Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxii, p. 391. 



1765] EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 261 

lar, and well read in his profession. " He was," says a 
contemporary account, " a man of singular humanity 
and generosity ; he had a warm heart and an open hand ; 
he was a man of strict probity, and died a Christian 
believer." His death, which occurred at his house in 
Broad-street buildings, 1st June, 1784, was caused by 
pulmonary consumption. He was buried by his own 
directions in the church of St. Mary, Whitechapel, 
where there was a monument with the following in- 
scription : 

In memory of 

THOMAS DICKSON, M.D., F.R.S., 
born at Dumfries, educated at Edinburgh and Leyden, 

25 years physician to the London Hospital. 

A man of singular probity, loyalty, and humanity ; 

kind to his relations, beloved by all who knew him ; 

learned and skilful in his profession, 

unfe'ed by the poor, 

he lived to do good, 

and died a Christian believer, 

June 1, 1784, aged 58 years. 

Dr. Dickson communicated several papers to the 
" Medical Observations and Inquiries," and was the 
author of 

A Treatise on Blood-letting. 8vo. Lond. 1763. 

JOHN MORGAN, M.D., was born in Philadelphia in 
1736, and educated at the college in that city, from 
which institution he received the degree of A.B. in 
1757, that being the first occasion on which degrees of 
any kind were conferred there. He commenced the 
study of medicine under Dr. Redman, of Philadelphia, 
and having made some progress in it, joined the pro- 
vincial troops in the capacity of surgeon. In 1760 he 
visited Europe to complete his professional education. 
After attending the lectures of Dr. William Hunter and 
Mr. Hewson in London, he proceeded to Edinburgh, 
carrying with him, among other letters of introduction, 
one from Benjamin Franklin, commending him in no 
ordinary terms to the advice and countenance of Dr. 
Cullen, whose good opinion and friendship he soon sup- 



262 ROLL OF THE 

ceeded in securing to himself. He passed two years in 
Edinburgh, and graduated doctor of medicine there 18th 
July, 1763. In his inaugural essay on this occasion, 
" Tentamen Medicum de Puris Confectione," he main- 
tained that pus is a secretion from the vessels, and in 
this view anticipated John Hunter. * Dr. Morgan next 
visited France and Italy. He had, while in England, 
become a proficient in the art of injecting organs with 
wax, and preparing them by subsequent corrosion. 
While in Paris and attending the anatomical lectures of 
M. Sue, he prepared a kidney by this process and ac- 
quired by it, and some similar specimens he had brought 
with him from England, such a reputation as led to his 
election as a corresponding member of the Royal Aca- 
demy of Surgery of Paris, In the course of his tour 
into and from Italy, he visited Morgagni at Padua and 
Voltaire at Geneva. Returning to London, he was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 9th 
February, 1765. About the same time he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society and a fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians of Edinburgh, and soon afterwards 
returned to America. During his residence in Europe 
he had concerted with Dr. Shippen the plan of a me- 
dical school in his native city, which he proceeded to 
carry out on his arrival at Philadelphia, and was nomi- 
nated to the chair of the theory and practice of physic. 
In 1769 he witnessed the first fruits of his labours in 
this direction, for in that year five gentlemen received 
at Philadelphia the first academic honours in medicine 
that were conferred in America. Dr. Morgan was the 
first physician in America who declined the practice of 
pharmacy, and restricted himself to prescribing medi- 

* Dr. James Curry, physician to Guy's hospital and lecturer on 
medicine there, after careful examination awards the credit of 
priority in this view, to Dr. Morgan, and says : " I could not avoid 
giving that merit to Dr. Morgan, who discussed the question with 
great ingenuity in his Inaugural Dissertation on taking his degree 
at Edinburgh in 1763 ; whilst I could find no proof that Mr. Hunter 
had taught or even adopted such an opinion until a considerably 
later period." London Medical and Physical Journal, 1817. 



1765] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 263 

cine for the sick. He was active in establishing the 
American Philosophical Society in 1769, and he under- 
took a journey to Jamaica in 1773 to solicit benefactions 
for the advancement of general literature in the college 
of Philadelphia. In October, 1775, he was appointed 
director-general and physician-in-chief to the general 
hospital of the American army, when he repaired to 
Cambridge. The dissensions between the surgeons of 
the hospital and of the regiments rendered Dr. Morgan's 
position a very difficult one, and calumnious statements 
against him having gained credence, he was removed 
from his office in 1 7 77 without being allowed an oppor- 
tunity of vindicating himself. After his removal, how- 
ever, he presented himself before a Committee of Con- 
gress appointed at his request, and was honourably ac- 
quitted. Dr. Morgan, who had for some years retired 
very much from active life, chagrined, it is said, at his 
treatment by congress in removing him from the post 
of director-general upon charges from which he had 
been exonerated, died 15th October, 1789, aged fifty- 
three. His successor in the professor's chair was Dr. 
Hush. Dr. Morgan was the author of 

A Discourse on the Institution of Medical Schools in America, 
with a Preface, containing, among other things, the Author's 
Apology for attempting to introduce the regular mode of practising 
physic at Philadelphia. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1765. 

Four Dissertations on the Reciprocal Advantages of a perpetual 
Union between Great Britain and her American Colonies. 1766. 

A Recommendation of Inoculation. 8vo. 1766. 

A Vindication of his Public Character in the Station of Director- 
General. 8vo. 1777.* 

SAMUEL CHAPMAN, M.D., was a native of Oxford, 
and a doctor of medicine of Aberdeen of 20th February, 
1763. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 1st April, 1765. 

* History of the Medical Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania from its foundation in 1765, by Joseph Carson, M.D. 8vo. 
Phil., 1869. Life, Lectures and Writings of William Cullen, M.D., 
by John Thomson, M.D. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinb. 1859 ; Vol. 1, pp. 
140, 633. Allen's American Biographical and Historical Dic- 
tionary. 8vo. Boston, 1832, p. 593. 



264 ROLL OF THE [1765 

JOHN LAWSON. A native of Middlesex, but not a 
graduate in arts or medicine ; was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 1st April, 1765. 

RICHARD PULTENEY, M.D., was the son of Samuel 
Pulteney, by his wife Mary Tomlinson, and was born at 
Loughborough, co. Leicester, on the 17th February, 1730. 
He was educated in an ordinary elementary school in 
that county ; after which he served a seven years' ap- 
prenticeship to an apothecary, and then commenced 
practice at Leicester. His progress there was slow, and 
wholly inadequate to his deserts ; but he devoted the 
abundant leisure he possessed to self-improvement, and 
especially to the study of his favourite sciences, botany 
and natural history. At a very early period he became 
a contributor to the " Gentleman's Magazine," and some 
years later to the " Philosophical Transactions." His 
papers to the Royal Society introduced him to the no- 
tice of Sir William Watson, M.D., and through him to 
the earl of Macclesfield, then president of the society, 
and several other eminent literary characters. Through 
their recommendation he was induced to leave Leicester, 
and take the necessary steps to qualify himself as a phy- 
sician. With this object he proceeded to Edinburgh, 
and there, by a special act of favour, was admitted to 
examination without residence or attendance upon lec- 
tures, and proceeded doctor of medicine in 1764 (D.M.I. 
de Cinchon& Officinali). Dr. Pulteney then came to 
London, and was appointed domestic physician to the 
earl of Bath. The death of that nobleman within a 
year gave a different direction to his views ; and, a good 
opening for a physician presenting itself at Blandford, 
Dr. Pulteney determined on removing thither. Pre- 
liminary to this he presented himself before the College 
of Physicians, and was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
18th April, 1765. He soon got into extensive practice 
at Blandford, and accumulated a handsome fortune. He 
died, generally esteemed and respected, 13th October, 
1801, aged seventy-one ; and was buried at the village of 



1765] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 265 

Langton, about a mile from Blandford. A tablet with 
the following inscription was placed in Blandford 
church : 

This tablet 

is erected in memory of 

RICHARD PULTENEY, M.D., F.R.S., 

who, after 36 years' residence in this town, 

died on the 13th October, 1801, aged 71. 

That modesty for which he was 

remarkable through life, forbad any 

vain eulogium on his tomb ; but he will 

long be remembered with gratitude and 

affection, both as a physician and as a 

friend ; and with the truest reverence 

and sorrow by Elizabeth, his afflicted 

widow, daughter of John and 
Elizabeth Gatton, of Shapwick, Dorset. 

Dr. Pulteney's portrait by J. Beach was engraved by 
T. Roberts. He was a fellow of the Royal Societies of 
London and Edinburgh, a fellow of the Linnaean So- 
ciety, and an honorary member of the Royal Medical So- 
ciety of Edinburgh. Besides his contributions to the 
" Philosophical Transactions," the " Gentleman's Maga- 
zine," and the " Transactions of the Linnsean Society," 
he was the author of 

A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus. 4to. Lond. 

Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany 
in England, from its origin to the introduction of the Linneean 
System. 8vo. 2 vols. Lond. 1790. 

WILLIAM WILLIAMS was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 23rd May, 1765. 

SIDNEY EVELIN was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the CoUege 23rd May, 1765. 

JOSIAH COLE, M.D. A native of London, and a doc- 
tor of medicine of Glasgow of 17th December, 1742; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1765. 

MATTHEW MATY, M.D., was the son of a Dutch Lu- 



266 ROLL OF THE [1765 

theran clergyman; and was born, in 1718, at Mont- 
fort, near Utrecht. Originally intended for the Church, 
in whose communion he was born, he was induced, in 
consequence of some heterodox opinions entertained by 
his father, to turn his attention to physic. He studied 
at Ley den, and on the 31st March, 1732, when fourteen 
years of age, was entered on the philosophy line there. 
He graduated doctor of medicine at Leyden llth Febru- 
ary, 1740 (D.M.I, de Consuetudinis Efficacia in Corpus 
Humanum) ; immediately after which he quitted Hol- 
land and settled in England. In 1750 he commenced 
the publication in French of the " Journal Britannique," 
printed at the Hague, and giving an account of the pro- 
ductions of the English press, " This humble, though 
useful labour," to use the words of the historian Gibbon, 
" which had once been dignified by the genius of Bayle 
and the learning of Le Clerc, was not disgraced by the 
taste, the knowledge, and the judgment of Maty. His 
style is pure and eloquent, and in his virtues, or even 
in his defects, he may be reckoned as one of the last 
disciples of the school of Fontanelle." The Journal, 
which was continued for five years, was held in high 
estimation in England, and served to introduce him to 
some of the most eminent literary men in this his 
adopted country. It was to their active and uninter- 
rupted friendship, no less than to his own merits, that 
he owed the important situations which he subsequently 
filled. On the establishment of the British Museum, 
in 1753, he was appointed one of the under-librarians ; 
and on the death of the principal librarian, Dr. Knight, 
was nominated to that office. Dr. Maty was admitted 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1752 ; and a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1765. He was 
elected foreign secretary of the Royal Society the 4th 
March, 1762 ; and secretary, 30th November, 1765, an 
office he continued to hold for eleven years. He died 
in the latter part of 1776. A portrait of Dr. Maty was 
by his own order engraved after his death by Barto- 
lozzi, to be given to his friends. Of these one hundred 



1765] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 267 

copies only were struck off, and the plate then destroyed. 
The doctor at the time of his death had nearly finished 
the " Memoirs of the Earl of Chesterfield," which were 
completed by his son-in-law, Mr. Justamond, and pre- 
fixed to the earl's " Miscellaneous Works/' published 
in 1777, in two volumes quarto. He was the author 
also of 

Essai surl' Usage. Ultr. 1741. 

Ode sur la Rebellion en Ecosse. 8vo. Amst. 1746. 

Essai sur le Caractere du Grand Medicin, ou Eloge Critique de 
Boerhaave. 8vo. Col, 1747. 

Authentic Memoirs of the Life of Richard Mead, M.D. 12mo. 
Lond. 1755. 

Translation of a Discourse on Inoculation by M. de la Conda- 
mine. 8vo. Lond. 1765. 

New Observations on Inoculation, by Dr. Garth, Professor of 
Medicine in the University of Paris. From the French. 8vo. Lond. 
1768. 

DAVID ORME, M.D. A native of Scotland, and a 
doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 29th June, 1749 
(D.M.I, de Angina Inflammatori) ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1765. 
He held the office of man-midwife extraordinary to the 
City of London Lying-in hospital, and died at Lamienby, 
in the parish of Bexley, Kent, on the 4th April, 1812, 
in his eighty-fifth year. 

THOMAS MANNINGHAM, M.D., was the second son of 
Sir Richard Manningham, an obstetric physician, who 
has been already mentioned in this volume. He was a 
doctor of medicine of the university of St. Andrew's, of 
24th May, 1765 ; and was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June following. He resided 
for some years in Jermyn-street, but in 1780 removed 
to Bath, where he died 3rd February, 1794. 

JOHN HILL, M.D. A native of Somersetshire, and a 
doctor of medicine, but of what university is not re- 
corded ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1765. He died at Canonbury 
the 9th February, 1789. 



268 ROLL OF THE [1765 

HUGH ALEXANDER KENNEDY, M.D. An Irishman, 
and a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of llth June, 
1754 (D.M.I, de Rhabarbaro) ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1765. He was 
elected physician to the Middlesex hospital 1st Febru- 
ary, 1759, and held that office for more than twenty- 
three years. He was also physician to the army ; and 
at the time of his death, which occurred on the 28th 
April, 1795, was physician extraordinary to the prince 
of Wales, and director-general of British hospitals on 
the continent. 

CHRISTOPHER NUGENT, M.D. An Irishman, and a 
doctor of medicine, but of what university is not stated, 
had practised for several years with success at Bath, 
but then settled in London and on the 25th June, 1765, 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians. 
He was one of the Johnsonian clique, and one of the ori- 
ginal nine members of the Literary club formed by 
Johnson and Sir Joshua Reynolds, which met at the 
Turk's Head in Gerard-street every Monday evening. 
" Dr. Nugent," writes Sir John Hawkins, " was a physi- 
cian of the Romish communion, and rising into practice 
with persons of that persuasion. He was an ingenious, 
sensible, and learned man of easy conversation and ele- 
gant manners. Johnson had a high opinion of him and 
always spoke of him in terms of respect." * He was a 
fellow of the Royal Society and died in Suffolk-street, 
Strand, 12th October, 1775. His daughter, Jane Mary, 
became the wife of Edmund Burke. We have from his 
pen 

An Essay on Hydrophobia. 8vo. Lond. 1753. 

LUKE WAYMAN, M.D. A native of Huntingdon- 
shire, was bred an apothecary, in which capacity he 
practised for several years at Royston. He was created 
a doctor of medicine of Marischal college, Aberdeen, 
17th December, 1760 ; and was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1765. 

* Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. 2nd edition, p. 415. 



1765] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 269 

JAMES FRANCIS DE LA FONTAINE, M.D. A Swiss, 
and a doctor of medicine, but of what university is not 
stated ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25fch June, 1765. 

JOHN NAPIER, M.D. A native of Scotland, was en- 
tered on the physic line at Ley den 29th September, 
1734, being then twenty years of age, and graduated 
doctor of medicine at Rheims 10th October, 1735. He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1765. 

ROBERT JAMES, M.D., was born, in 1703, at Kin- 
vaston, in Staffordshire. His father was a major in 
the army ; his mother a sister of Sir Robert CJarke. He 
had his preliminary education at the grammar school of 
Lichfield, where he was contemporary with the great 
lexicographer Johnson. He went thence to St. John's 
college, Oxford, and as a member of that house pro- 
ceeded A.B. 5th July, 1726. He was admitted an Ex- 
tra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 12th January, 
1727-8, and the 8th May of the same year was created 
doctor of medicine at Cambridge, by royal mandate. 
He practised successively at Sheffield, Lichfield, and 
Birmingham, but eventually removed to London ; and 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College 25th June, 
1765. Dr. James was the inventor of the celebrated 
" fever powders," which bear his name. He was a per- 
son of very considerable attainments, and was highly 
esteemed by Dr. Johnson, who is reported to have said 
of him, that " no man brought more mind to his pro- 
fession ;" but he tarnished the fair fame he might other- 
wise have obtained, by patenting his powders, and falsi- 
fying their specification. Dr. James died 23rd March, 
1776, aged seventy- three. He was a voluminous writer, 
and published the following works : 

A Medical Dictionary, with a History of Drags. 3 vols. Fol. 
Lond. 1743. 

A Treatise on the Gout and Rheumatism. 8vo. Lond. 1745. 



270 ROLL OF THE [17G5 

A Translation of Bammazini de Morbis Artificum, &c. 8vo. 
Lond. 1746. 

The Presages of Life and Death in Diseases, translated from the 
Latin of Prosper Alpinus. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 17-46. 

A Dissertation on Fevers and Inflammatory Distempers. 8vo. 
Lond. 1748. 

This ran to eight editions, to the last of which, a posthu- 
mous publication, was appended 

A Vindication of the Fever Powder, and a short Treatise on the 
Disorders of Children. 8vo. Lond. 1778. 

Pharmacopoeia Universalis ; or, a New Universal English Dis- 
pensatory. 8vo. Lond. 1752. 

The Practice of Physick. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1760. 

A Treatise on Canine Madness. 8vo. Lond. 1760. 

BENJAMIN ALEXANDER, M.D., was an Irishman. On 
the 28th November, 1761, being then twenty-five years 
of age, he was inscribed on the physic line at Leyden, 
preparatory to taking his degree of doctor of medicine, 
which he did 1st December, 1761 (D.M.I, de Motu 
Musculorum). He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1765. He was elected 
physician to the London hospital 5th June, 1765 ; and 
died 27th April, 1768, about the thirty- third year of 
his age. Dr. Alexander is still remembered by his 
translation into English of Morgagni's great work " De 
Sedibus et Causis Morborum," which issued from the 
London press, in three volumes quarto, the year after 
his death. "Dr. Alexander," says Mr. Wadd, "was a 
short, corpulent man, and so great a devotee of the 
Brunonian system, that he drank thirteen pints of por- 
ter the day of his death. He was not in much business, 
and was chiefly supported by two bachelors of the name 
of Cook, opulent silk mercers at Aldgate, by whose in- 
terest he was introduced into the London hospital. He 
used to say he undertook the translation of Morgagni's 
work in consequence of a taunt from Sir George Baker, 
but the guinea per sheet from the bookseller was a more 
probable cause. He was a clever man, but vain of his 
talents." 



1765] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 271 

JOHN MATHER, M.D., was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 18th September, 1765. 

WILLIAM BAYLIES, M.D., was born in Worcester- 
shire, and bred an apothecary, in which capacity he 
practised for some years in the country. By a marriage 
with the daughter of Mr. Thomas Cookes, a wealthy 
and influential attorney at Evesham, he acquired an in- 
dependency, and thereupon determined to practise as a 
physician. He obtained a degree of doctor of medicine 
from the university of Aberdeen 18th December, 1748, 
and on the 7th August, 1759, was admitted a fellow of 
the College of Physicians of Edinburgh. He settled at 
Bath, and shortly afterwards published a small treatise, 
entitled "Reflections on the Use and Abuse of Bath 
Waters/' which involved him in an acrimonious dispute 
with Dr. Lucas and Dr. Oliver, the two leading physi- 
cians in that city. He next printed " A Narrative of 
Facts, demonstrating the Existence and Cause of a Phy- 
sical Confederacy, made known in the printed letters of 
Dr. Lucas and Dr. Oliver ;" and, in consequence of this 

Publication, was excluded from all consultations at Bath, 
n 1761 Dr. Baylies was a candidate for the represen- 
tation of Evesham in Parliament ; and in November of 
that year presented a petition against the return of one 
of the members, alleging that he himself had received 
a majority of votes, and ought to have been returned. 
The petition was ordered to be heard the 15th of De- 
cember ; but before the day arrived it was allowed to 
be withdrawn. Having lost all chance of success at 
Bath, he removed to London ; and on the 8th Novem- 
ber, 1764, was elected physician to the Middlesex hos- 
pital. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1765 ; and about that time 
" took a magnificent house in Great George-street, 
Westminster, where he kept an excellent table and tine 
carriages, gave splendid entertainments and wines, and 
was remarkable for an enormous tie-wig. He lived there 
about six months, put off notes, and then was obliged 



272 ROLL OF THE [1765 

to abscond, on account of some disgraceful money trans- 
actions." He retreated to Germany, and practised first 
at Dresden, and then at Berlin, where he succeeded in 
gaining the confidence and patronage of Frederick the 
Great. The doctor died at Berlin, apparently a rich 
man, the 2nd March, 1787, aged sixty-three. A por- 
trait of him, by H. Schmid, engraved by D. Berger, was 
published at Berlin. Dr. Baylies, in addition to the 
two pamphlets above mentioned, was the author of 

Remarks on Perry's Analysis of the Stratford Mineral Water. 
8vo. Stratford-upon-Avon. 1745. 

A History of the General Hospital or Infirmary at Bath. 8vo. 
Lond. 1758. 

Facts and Observations relative to Inoculation at Berlin. 8vo. 
Edinb. 1781. 

JOHN FORD, M.D. A native of London, and a doc- 
tor of medicine of the university of St. Andrew's ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1765. He practised as an accoucheur, and 
was for many years physician to the Charity for Deli- 
vering Poor Married Women at their own Houses. Dr. 
Ford died at his house in Highbury-place 27th May, 
1806, aged seventy. "About twenty years before his 
death he retired from practice ; and having married a 
rich widow, had since resided in Highbury-place. He 
was a man of learning and much respected, a Methodist, 
and for many years had been in the habit of occasionally 
preaching at the principal chapels of that sect."* 

JOSEPH ALLEN, M.D., was born in Ireland, and bred 
a surgeon, in which capacity he accompanied lord 
Anson in his celebrated voyage round the globe. On 
his return to England he was chosen master of Dulwich 
college. He obtained the degree of doctor of medicine 
from the university of St. Andrew's 23rd April, 1754 ; 
and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 30th September, 1765. Dr. Allen retained his 
mastership of Dulwich college for thirty years, and then 
* Gentleman's Magazine. 



1765] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 273 

vacated it by marriage. He died, after a few days' ill- 
ness, on the 10th January, 1796, being then in his 
eighty-third year, and, as was believed, the last survivor 
of those who accompanied Lord Anson. " His conduct 
in public and private life was most exemplary ; he was 
charitable, just and liberal, full of information, friend- 
ship, and benevolence ; and by his will, dated 12th No- 
vember, 1793, bequeathed 500Z. to the Asylum; 500/. 
to the Lying-in hospital, and 200?. to the vicar and 
churchwardens of Camberwell, the interest on which 
was to be laid out in coals and distributed annually 
among the poor housekeepers of Dulwich for ever." 
Dr. Allen's portrait, by G. Bomney, was engraved by 
C. Townley. 

JAMES WALKER, M.D. A doctor of medicine of St. 
Andrew's, and a fellow of the College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians of London 23rd December, 1765. He 
practised in Jamaica, and his name continues on our 
list until 1804. 

FRANCIS DE YALINGEN, M.D., was born at Berne 
in Switzerland, and received his general and medical 
education at Leyden. Though educated in physic, it 
was not originally his intention to pursue it as a pro- 
fession, his connections having led him to look for 
advancement in a department of public life. Towards 
the end of the reign of George the Second, he kissed 
hands on receiving some diplomatic appointment to the 
court of Madrid ; but on the retreat of his patron from 
power almost immediately afterwards, he declined the 
honour, and then devoted himself to physic. He was 
created doctor of medicine by the university of St. 
Andrew's 9th July, 1763 ; and was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 
1765. He resided in Fore-street, Cripplegate; but about 
1772 purchased some ground near White Conduit-fields 
where he erected a house, extensive in conveniences 

VOL. II. T 



274 ROLL OF THE [17G6 

but fanciful in construction, being built on a plan laid 
down by himself. At this suburban house, Hermes- 
hill, Pentonville, he thenceforward resided, but he con- 
tinued his practice in Fore-street. He died, after a 
short illness, 1st March, 1805, aged eighty, at Hermes- 
hill, and was buried in Cripplegate church. Dr. de 
Valingen was a person of refined taste and an ardent 
lover of music and painting in the former art he was 
a good performer, and he left behind him in manuscript 
some remarks on the theory of musical composition.* 
He was the author of "A Treatise on Diet." 8vo. Lond. 
1768 ; and was the first to suggest the employment of 
the chloride of arsenic in practice. A large quantity 
of this compound he prepared with his own hands, and 
presented it to the Apothecaries' Company, under the 
name of " solvent mineral," a solution of which was 
thenceforward kept on sale at the Hall, and was ex- 
tensively prescribed by some of the leading physicians 
in the city. It was supposed to be safer and more effi- 
cacious than Fowler's solution, and on these grounds 
was admitted into the last London Pharmacopoeia, under 
the name of Liquor Arsenici Chloridi. Dr. de Valin- 
gen's portrait, by Abbot, was engraved by J. Collyer 
in 1794. 

WILLIAM VAUGHAN, M.D., was born in London, and 
received his medical education at Edinburgh, where he 
graduated doctor of medicine 19th July, 1756 (D.M.I, 
de Kheumatismo). He was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 23rd December, 1765 ; and 
died at his house in Union-court, Old Broad-street, 
from the effects of a violent cold, 7th August, 1790, 
aged fifty-nine. He is represented as a good practi- 
tioner, a passionate lover of music and poetry, an ac- 
complished classical scholar, and an enthusiastic admirer 
of Virgil and Homer. 

JOHN BRISBANE, M.D. A Scotchman, and a doctor 

* Wadd's Nugee Chimrgicse, p. 26o. 



1766] ROYAL COLLEGE OP PHYSICIANS. 275 

of medicine of Edinburgh of 1750 (D.M.I. de iis quse 
Medico ad artem bene exercendam adesae debent), was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 24th 
March, 1766. He was elected physician to the Mid- 
dlesex hospital 4th May, 1758. In February, 1772, 
he obtained leave of absence from the hospital lor three 
months this in April was extended to a further period 
of six months, and in November to the 1st June, 1773. 
Failing then to return, the office of physician was de- 
clared vacant. Dr. Brisbane's name disappears from 
the College list in 1776. He was the author of 

Select Cases in the Practice of Medicine. 8vo. Lond. 1762. 

Anatomy of Painting ; or, a Short aud Easy Introduction to 
Anatomy, &c., &c. To which are added, the Anatomy of Celsus, 
with notes, and the Physiology of Cicero. Folio. Lond*. 1769. 

JOHN GREEN, M.D., was born in Middlesex, and edu- 
cated at St. John's college, Oxford, as a member of 
which he proceeded A.B. 10th October, 1744; A.M. 
8th July, 1745 ; M.B. 28th April, 1748 ; and M.D. 4th 
February, 1752. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1765 ; and a Fellow, 
25th June, 1766. Dr. Green delivered the Harveian 
oration in 1771. He resided at Greenwich, and was 
Censor in 1777, but did not live through his year of 
office. He died 1st January, 1778. 

JOHN LEAKE, M.D., was born the 8th June, 1729, at 
Ainstable, in Cumberland, of which place his father, 
the Rev. William Leake, was then curate. He was a 
doctor of medicine of Rheims of the 9th August, 1763, 
and was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 25th June, 1766. He devoted himself to mid- 
wifery, delivered lectures on that subject, and was the 
first physician appointed to the Westminster Lying-in 
hospital, of which institution he is regarded as the 
founder. He died at his house in Parliament-street, 
8th August, 1792, and was buried on the 16th in the 
north cloister of Westminster Abbey. Dr. Leake's 

T 2 



276 BOLL OF THE [1706 

portrait was painted by D. Gardiner, and engraved by 
Bartolozzi. His published works are 

A Syllabus of Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. 
4to. Lond. 1767. 

Practical Observations on Childbed Fever ; also on the Nature 
and Treatment of Uterine Hemorrhage, Convulsions, &c. 8vo. 
Lond. 1772. 

A Lecture introductory to the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. 
4to. Lond. 1773. 

Practical Observations on the Acute Diseases incident to Women. 
8vo. Lond. 1774. 

The Description and Use of a New Forceps. 4to. Lond. 1773. 

Vindication of his Forceps against the remarks of T. Denman, 
M.D. 4to. Lond. 1774. 

Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. 8vo. 
Lond. 1777. 

Medical Instructions towards the Prevention and Cure of Chronic 
or Slow Diseases peculiar to Women. 8vo. Lond. 1777. 

A Dissertation on the Properties and Efficacy of the Lisbon Diet 
Drink in the Venereal, Scurvy, Gout, &c. 8vo. Lond. 

A Practical Essay on Diseases of the Viscera, particularly of the 
Stomach and Bowels, the Liver, Spleen, and Urinary Bladder. 8vo. 
Lond. 1792. 

ROBERT BROMFIELD, M.D. A native of Hampton, 
and a doctor of medicine of Marischal college, Aber- 
deen of 25th May, 1766 ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1766. Dr. 
Bromfield was physician to the British Lying-in hos- 
pital. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 
22nd April, 1779 ; and he died 24th March, 1786. 

ROWLAND JACKSON, M.D., was born in Ireland, and 
graduated doctor of medicine at Rheims 16th August, 
1746. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1766 ; and then went to Cal- 
cutta, where he probably died in 1787 or 1788. He 
was the author of 

De Vera Phlebotomise Theoria Sanguinis Circulationis Legibus 
innixa Tentamen. 8vo. Lond. 1747. 

A Physical Dissertation on Drowning, in which submersion is 
shewn to be a long time consistent with the continuance of life. 
8vo. Lond. 1747. 



1766] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 277 

A New Theory of the Oblate Spheroidical Figure of the Earth. 
8vo. Lond. 1748. 

DANIEL BRIDGES was bred as an apothecary ; but, 
ambitious of a higher position, he presented himself 
before the Elects of the College of Physicians, and on 
the 4th October, 1766, was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate. He practised at Hull, and was the first appointed 
physician (1782) to the infirmary in that town. " With 
his more regular practice as a physician he combined 
that of an accoucheur, much against the wishes of the 
surgeons and contemporary apothecaries, so that he 
was obliged to connect himself with a dispensing drug- 
gist, then quite a new character ; and thus, though 
well respected by a particular set of acquaintances, he 
never attained any eminence in the opinion of the 
faculty, or of the higher ranks in the town or country. 
He was a man of genius and a scholar, though rough 
in his manner. He it was who first discovered a 
method of converting spermaceti into a composition 
well adapted for burning as wax ; and the Hull sper- 
maceti candles, which he manufactured, were burned 
in almost every drawing-room in the kingdom. Had 
he had common prudence, and kept the invention 
secret, he might have died rich from this manufacture 
alone ; but, being fond of company and shooting, he 
entrusted his secret to his workman, who soon found 
occasion to leave him and set up for himself, and thus 
to draw away most industriously the advantages of the 
invention. His family came to poverty, whilst his ser- 
vant left a fortune behind him."* He died about the 
year 1792. 

PETER SWINTON, M.D., was born in Cheshire, and 
obtained his degree of doctor of medicine from Marischal 
college, Aberdeen, 3rd October, 1764. He was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd Decem- 

* MS. Sketches of some of his Contemporaries, by John Alder- 
son, M.D. of Hull. Penes Jac. Alderson, M.D. 



278 BOLL OF THE [1767 

ber, 1766 ; and dying in 1785, aged fifty-seven, was 
buried at St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill. 

WILLIAM FALCONER, M.D., was born at Chester, in 
February, 1744, and was the son of William Falconer, 
esq., recorder of that city, by his wife Elizabeth, a 
daughter of R. Wilbraham, esq., of Townsend, near 
Nantwich. He received his medical education at Edin- 
burgh, where he took the degree of doctor of medicine 
in 1766 (D.M.I, de Nephritide Vera). He then pro- 
ceeded to Leyden, and attended the lectures of Gaubius 
and Albinus. He was admitted an Extra- Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 12th March, 1767 ; and, 
settling in practice at Chester, was the same year 
elected physician to the Chester infirmary, and on the 
18th March, 1773, was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society. After a successful career in Chester, Dr. Fal- 
coner removed to Bath. His scientific reputation had 
preceded him, and at once introduced him into good 
practice. He was appointed physician to the Bath 
general hospital the 12th May, 1784, an office which 
he retained until the 10th February, 1819. He died 
at his house in the Circus, Bath, 31st August, 1824, 
aged eighty, and was buried at Weston, where he is 
thus commemorated : 

Beneath are deposited the remains of 

WM. FALCONER, M.D., F.R.S., son of Wm. Falconer, 

Recorder of Chester, and Elizth. Wilbraham, dau. 

of Randle Wilbraham, of Nantwich, Cheshire. 

Born Feb. 23 (N.S.), 1744, died Aug. 31, 1824. 

HENRIETTA, his wife, dau. of Thomas Edmunds of Wosboro' Hall, 

York. 
Born March 22, 1739; died Sept. 10, 1803. 

Dr. Falconer was a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
a man of varied attainments, general as well as pro- 
fessional. He occupied a prominent position among 
his contemporaries ; and his writings, which were very 
numerous, are still deservedly esteemed. They are 

An Essay on Bath Waters. 8vo. Lond. 1772. 



1767] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 279 

Observations on Dr. Cadogan's Dissertation on the Gout and 
all Chronic Diseases. 8vo. Lond. 1772. 

An Essay on the Bath Waters : on their External Use. In Two 
Parts. I. On Warm Bathing in General. II. On the External 
Use of the Bath Waters. 8vo. 1774. 

Observations and Experiments on the Poison of Copper. 12mo. 
Lond. 1774. 

An Essay on the Water used in Diet at Bath. 12mo. Lond. 
1776. 

Experiments and Observations. In Three Parts. 8vo. Lond. 
1776. 

Observations on some of the Articles of Diet and Regimen 
usually recommended to Valetudinarians. 12mo. Lond. 1778. 

Remarks on the Influence of Climate, Situation, Country, Popu- 
lation, Food, and Way of Life. 4to. Lond. 1781. 

Account of the Epidemic Catarrhal Fever called the Influenza. 
8vo. Lond. 1782. 

On the Influence of the Passions upon tbe Disorders of the Body. 
8vo. Lond. 1788. 

Essay on the Preservation of the Health of Persons Employed in 
Agriculture, and on the Cure of Diseases incident to that Way of 
Life. 8vo. Bath. 1789. 

A Brief Account of the newly-discovered Water at Middle Hill, 
near Box, in Wiltshire. 8vo. 1789. 

Practical Dissertation on the Medicinal Effects of the Bath 
Waters. 8vo. Bath. 1790. 

An Account of the Efficacy of the Aqua Mephitica Alkalina in 
Calculous Disorders and other Complaints of the Urinary Passages. 
8vo. Lond. 1792. 

Miscellaneous Tracts and Collections relating to Natural History, 
selected from the Principal Writers of Antiquity on that subject. 
4to. Camb. 1793. 

An Account of the Use, Application, and Success of the Bath 
Waters in Rheumatic Cases. 8vo. Lond. 1795. 

Observations respecting the Pulse. 12mo. Lond. 1796. 

An Essay on the Plague ; also, a Sketch of a Plan of Internal 
Police. 8vo. Lond. 1801. 

An Examination of Dr. Heberden's Observations on the Increase 
and Decrease of Different Diseases, and particularly the Plague. 
8vo. Bath. 1802. 

An Account of the Epidemic Catarrhal Fever, commonly called 
the Influenza, as it appeared at Bath in the Winter and Spring of 
1803. 8vo. Bath. 1803. 

A Remonstrance addressed to the Rev. Richard Warner on the 
subject of his Fast Sermon. 8vo. Bath. 1804. 

A Dissertation on the Ischias ; or, the Disease of the Hip- joint, 
commonly called a Hip Case. 8vo. Lond. 1805. 

Arrian's Voyage round the Enxine Sea, with a Geographical De- 
scription ; and three Discourses. 4to. Oxford. 1805. 



280 ROLL OF THE [1767 

Observations on the Words which the Centurion uttered at the 
Crucifixion of our Lord. 8vo. Oxford. 1805. 

Dissertation on St. Paul's Voyage from Ceesarea to Puteoli ; on 
the Wind Euroclydon ; and on the Apostle's Shipwreck on the 
Island of Melite. 8vo. Oxford. 1817. 

Dr. Falconer's portrait, by Daniel, was engraved by 
J. Fittler. 

ALEXANDER HAY, M.D. A native of Edinburgh, 
and a doctor of medicine of Leyden, of 14th December, 
1765 (D.M.I. de Affectionibus Hystericis et Hypochon- 
driacis) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 13th April, 1767. He was admitted a fel- 
low of the Eoyal Society 25th June, 1778. 

ROBERT THOMLINSON, M.D., was born in London, and 
educated at Trinity college, Cambridge. He proceeded 
M.B. 1740 ; M.D. 1766 ; was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 30th September, 1766 ; and 
a Fellow 30th September, 1767. He was Censor in 
1769, 1773, 1779, 1784; Treasurer from 1780 to 1787 
inclusive ; and was named an Elect 30th September, 
1784. Dr. Thomlinson was physician to Guy's hospital, 
to which he was elected 10th August, 1764. He died 
of gout in the stomach 5th June, 1788. 

JOHN LEWIS PETIT, M.D., was descended from a re- 
spectable French family that fled to this country on the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes. He was the son of 
John Petit, esq., of Little Aston, in the parish of Shen- 
stone, Staffordshire, by his wife Sarah, daughter of John 
Hayes, of Wolverhampton, esq. ; and was educated at 
Queen's college, Cambridge, as a member of which house 
he proceeded A.B. 1756, A.M. 1759, M.D. 1766. He 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1766 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 
1767. He delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 1768 ; 
and was Censor 1768, 1774, 1777. Dr. Petit was elected 
physician to St. George's hospital 2nd February, 1770 ; 



1767] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 281 

but resigned that office in 1774, having, on the 17th 
March in that year, been elected physician to St. Bar- 
tholomew's hospital. He died in the prime of life, on 
the 27th May, 1780. 

JOHN CAVERHILL. A Scotchman ; admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1767. He died at Old Melrose, Roxburghshire, 1st 
September, 1781. He was a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, and the author of 

A Treatise on the Cause and Cure of Gout. 8vo. Lond. 1769. 

Experiments on the Causes of Heat in Living Animals. 8vo. 
Lond. 1770. 

A Dissertation on Nervous Ganglions and Nervous Plexus. 8vo. 
Lond. 1772. 

Explanation of the Seventy Weeks of Daniel, and of the several 
Sections of the Seventy Weeks. To which is added, An Exposition 
of the Chronology of the Jewish Judges. With Tables illustrating 
both Subjects. 8vo. Lond. 1777. 

EDWARD SPRY, M.D., was born at Plymouth. Des- 
tined by his father for the church, he received an ex- 
cellent classical education, and was matriculated at 
Oxford. His own predilection being for physic rather 
than theology, he soon left the university, and return- 
ing to Plymouth, was apprenticed for five years to Mr. 
George Woollcombe, an eminent practitioner in that 
town. On the completion of his articles, Mr. Spry pro- 
ceeded to London, where he attended lectures and the 
medical and surgical practice of the two borough hospi- 
tals. He then travelled on the continent for a some- 
what lengthened period ; and having visited the most 
celebrated universities and medical schools of Scotland, 
Ireland, France, Holland, and Italy, he returned to De- 
vonshire and commenced practice as a surgeon at Ply- 
mouth. In 1756 Mr. Spry's name was brought promi- 
nently before the scientific world. At the fire of the 
Eddystone lighthouse, on the 4th December, 1754, a 
man ninety-four years of age was seriously injured by 
the fall of a quantity of molten lead upon him, a por- 
tion of which, to use the old man's reiterated assertion, 



282 ROLL OF THE [1767 

" ran down his throat into his body." With much diffi- 
culty the aged sufferer was brought on shore, when 
Mr. Spry was sent for. His treatment of the case was 
eminently judicious, and the man survived the accident 
for twelve days. On examination after death, a lump 
of lead, 3f inches in length by Ij in breadth, and 
weighing 7 oz. 5 drs. 1 8 grs. was extracted from the sto- 
mach. Mr. Spry immediately drew up an account of 
the case, and on the 19th December, 1755, forwarded it 
to the Royal Society. The circumstances were so ex- 
traordinary as to raise some doubts of the writer's vera- 
city ; the reading of the paper was, therefore, post- 
poned, confirmatory evidence was demanded, and Sir 
William (then Mr.) Watson, an influential fellow of the 
society, wrote to Dr. Huxham requesting him to inquire 
into the case. Unfortunately Mr. Spry had been alone 
at the post-mortem examination of the body, and no 
eye-witness of the actual removal of the lead from the 
stomach could be produced. Mr. Spry, therefore, in- 
stituted a series of experiments upon the lower animals, 
which proved so conclusive that he drew up a report of 
them in a letter addressed directly to the president of 
the society the earl of Macclesfield. Dr. Huxham, 
too, who would seem in the first instance to have been 
incredulous, expressed himself perfectly satisfied, and 
in his reply to Sir William Watson testified to his own 
belief in Mr. Spry's veracity. The original report of 
the case, Mr. Spry's letter to the president, and Dr. 
Huxhain's communication, were read to the society on 
the 5th February, 1756, and published in the "Philoso- 
phical Transactions/' vol. xlix, p. 477. 

On the 4th January, 1759, Mr. Spry was created 
doctor of medicine by the university of Aberdeen. He 
continued, however, in general practice until 1762, 
when he retired from that laborious branch of the pro- 
fession. Intending to practise thenceforward as a phy- 
sician, he devoted himself for a time to further study, 
and with this view proceeded to the continent, where 
he once more visited the principal medical schools of 



1768] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 283 

Europe. He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 9th November, 1767 ; and then, 
passing over to Holland, proceeded master of arts and 
doctor of medicine at Leyden 20th January, 1768 
(D.M.I, de Variolis ac Morbillis iisque Inoculandis, 
4to.). Dr. Spry commenced his career as a physician 
at Totnes, where he practised for three or four years 
with considerable success. Desirous, however, of a 
wider field for his exertions, he determined on removing 
to his native town. Prior thereto, he passed a session 
at Edinburgh ; and on the 3rd May, 1774, was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the College of Physicians there. 
.Returning to Devonshire, he proceeded direct to Ply- 
mouth, where he arrived but a few months before Dr. 
Remmett, with whom he shared for some years the 
practice and professional emoluments of the town and 
neighbourhood. Dr. Spry was a good linguist. He 
wrote Latin with great facility and elegance ; his 
knowledge of Greek was considerable, and he read 
Hebrew and Arabic. To these he added an acquaint- 
ance with French and German. In his exercise at 
Leyden for his doctor's degree, are numerous quota- 
tions in all these languages. Those in Hebrew and 
Arabic occur, indeed, with a frequency that savours 
somewhat of ostentatious display. I have not recovered 
the precise date of Dr. Spry's death. It must have 
occurred before October, 1796, for his name has disap- 
peared from the College list then published. 

JOHN KEAY, of Newmarket, in the county of Flint, 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 15th December, 1767. 

JOHN TAPRELL, of the county of Derby, was ad- 
mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 19th Feb- 
ruary, 1768. 

NICHOLSON DOUBLEDAY, M.D., was the seventh son 
of Humphrey Doubleday, of Butterby and Old Elvet, 



284 ROLL OF THE [1768 

co. Durham (who died in 1727, aged sixty-two), by his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Martin Nicholson, of Dur- 
ham, merchant. He was a doctor of medicine of the 
university of Rheims, and was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 29th March, 
1768. He practised first at Hexham, and then at 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, and died 12th April, 1802. 

JOHN TURTON, M.D., was born in Staffordshire, and 
educated at Queen's college, Oxford, as a member of 
which he proceeded A.B. 16th June, 1756 ; A.M. 31st 
May, 1759. He was elected Radcliffe travelling fellow 
in May, 1761, and in September of that year was en- 
tered on the physic line at Leyden. As a member of 
University college he proceeded M.B. llth December, 
1762, and M.D. 27th February, 1767. He was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 24th 
September, 1767; and a Fellow, 30th September, 1768 ; 
was Censor in 1769, 1775, 1782, 1788 ; and was named 
an Elect 25th June, 1788. Dr. Turton's progress 
as a physician was unusually rapid, and he accumu- 
lated a very ample fortune. In 1771 he was appointed 
physician to the queen's household ; in 1782, physician 
in ordinary to the queen, and physician extraordinary 
to the king ; and in 1797, physician in ordinary to the 
king, and to the prince of Wales. Dr. Turton was a 
fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Royal Society 
of Medicine of Paris. He resigned his place of Elect 
26th December, 1800, and died the 14th of April, 1806, 
aged seventy, leaving to his widow a life interest in 
the whole of his fortune, a few legacies only excepted, 
namely, nine thousand a year in landed estates, most 
of which were in Yorkshire, and sixty thousand pounds 
in the funds. Having no family, Dr. Turton adopted 
as his heir his kinsman, Mr. Edmund Peters, who as- 
sumed the name of Turton on succeeding to the pro- 
perty. Dr. Turton purchased Brasted-place, co. Kent, 
of lord Frederick Campbell, and made it his country 
house. He pulled down the old mansion, " venerable 



1769] EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 285 

enough for its antiquity," said Philipott, and built the 
original portion of the present imposing mansion. To 
his new house Dr. Turton transferred some interesting 
mementoes of royal favour. The clock which now tells 
the time to the inhabitants of Brasted was a present 
from George III, and had once a more exalted position 
and the more public duty of striking the hours, as the 
time oracle of all London from the turret at the Horse 
Guards. And on the wall of the billiard-room is still 
preserved the document which the emperor of China 
had forwarded to the king illustrating the different arts 
and manufactures of the Celestial empire. This was a 
present from queen Caroline to her physician, * 

Dr. Turton is commemorated in Brasted church by a 
massive white marble monument a sarcophagus on 
which are placed a bible and prayer-book, and a snake 
coiled round a staff. The monument bears the follow- 
ing inscription : 

Mary the wife of John Turton, M.D., 

caused this monument to be erected 

to the memory of her beloved husband. 

Eminently skilled in the medical art, 

He saved or lengthened the lives of others. 

His own alas ! this marble tells us no art could save. 

With full hope in Christ, of life to come immortal, 

He died April 14th, 1806, aged 70. 

His widow survived until 28th January, 1810, and 
is also commemorated in Brasted church. 

WILLIAM COOPER, M.D., was born in Worcestershire. 
On the 24th November, 1766, being then twenty-five 
years of age, he was entered on the physic line at 
Leyden, where he graduated doctor of medicine 3rd 
February, 1767 (D.M.I, de Abortionibus). He was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 20th 
March, 1769. Dr. Cooper was chiefly engaged in the 
practice of midwifery, and was one of the physicians to 

* History of Brasted, its manor, parish and church, by J. Cave 
Brown, A.M. 8vo. Westerham. 1874. 



28 G ROLL OF THE [".770 

the charity for delivering poor married women at their 
own houses. He died in May, 1779. 

PETER HOOKE, A.M., was of Catherine hall, Cam- 
bridge, and proceeded A.B. 1753 ; A.M. 1756. He 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 23rd May, 1769. He settled at Norwich, 
was appointed physician to the Norfolk and Norwich 
hospital on its establishment in 1772, and dying at his 
house in that city in September 1804, was buried the 3rd 
October at St. Stephen's church. 

JOHN BOSTOCK, M.D., was educated at Edinburgh, 
under Dr. Cullen, whose esteem and affection he soon 
succeeded in obtaining. His assiduity in the study of 
practical medicine in the wards of the Royal infirmary 
attracted the marked notice of Dr. Cullen, and called 
forth from him the following handsome encomium on 
the occasion of Dr. Bostock's graduation : " Quantum 
in studio practice operam posuit, norunt condiscipuli 
ejus omnes qui viderunt quot et quantos labores in No- 
socomio exantlaverit, dum collegse amicissimo et mihi 
assiduus comes et adjutor egregius, ipse praxin medicam 
penitus ediscere voluit, nee ex dictatis nostris, sed noctu 
diuque ad lectos segrotantium assidens a natura ipsa 
quip! faciat aut ferat noscere voluit." He graduated 
doctor of medicine at Edinburgh in 1769 (D.M.I, de 
Arthritide), and was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians of London 13th March, 1770. 
Dr. Bostock settled at Liverpool in that year, and was 
at once appointed physician to the Royal infirmary 
there. Dr. Cullen predicted that his talents would se- 
cure for him a brilliant future, but the hopes of his 
friends were doomed to be disappointed. " He had 
scarcely settled in Liverpool, married advantageously, 
and become possessed of a son",* than he sank beneath 
an incurable disease, himself predicting the fatal termi- 

* The future John Bostock, M.D., V.P.R.S., the physiologist. 



1770] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 287 

nation, calmly resigning the sweetest blandishments of 
life, and in his last moments emulating the exit of a 
Socrates or a Seneca."* Dr. Bostock died 10th March, 
1774, at the age of thirty. 

JAMES MADDOCKS, M.D., was born in Herefordshire, 
and studied his profession at Edinburgh, where he 
graduated doctor of medicine in 1762 (D.M.I, de Lava- 
tione Frigida). He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 9th April, 1770 ; was elected 
physician to the London hospital 19th September, 1770 ; 
and died in October, 1786. His portrait, painted by 
Caldwell, was engraved by Trotter. 

GEORGE HICKS, M.D. A native of Kent, educated 
at Edinburgh, where he took the degree of doctor of 
medicine 13th June, 1768 (D.M.I, de Enteritide) ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 9th 
April, 1770. He held the appointment of physician to 
the Westminster hospital from 1775 to his death, which 
occurred at Rochester in December, 1792. 

JOHN COAKLEY LETTSOM, M.D., was born in the 
small island of Little Vandyke, near Tortola, in Decem- 
ber, 1744, and when only six years of age was sent to 
England for his education. Fortuitous circumstances 
threw him on landing in the way of Mr. Fothergill, a 
well-known preacher among the Society of Friends, and 
brother to the celebrated London physician. By his 
advice young Lettsom was sent to a school near War- 
rington, where Mr. Fothergill resided, then kept by 
Mr. Thompson, where he remained for several years. 
Selecting medicine as his profession, he was placed by 
Mr. Fothergill, who, in consequence of the death of 
Lettsom's father, had become his guardian, with Mr. 
Sutcliff, of Settle, in Yorkshire. On the termination of 
his apprenticeship Lettsom came to London, where he 

* Thomson's Life, Lectures, and Writings of William Cullen, 
M.D., vol. i, p. 645, et seq. 



288 ROLL OF THE [1770 

remained two years attending medical lectures and the 
practice of St. Thomas's hospital. He then returned to 
Vandyke to take possession of a property which de- 
volved upon him by the death of his father and elder 
brother, the latter of whom, having contrived to run 
through an ample fortune in a few years, left but little 
of the estate, except a number of slaves, to be inherited 
by his successor. Lettsom's first act on landing was to 
emancipate the whole of his slaves, a noble piece of 
conduct, which, while it did honour to his heart, left 
him worse than penniless, and with nothing to depend 
upon but his profession. He settled at Tortola, com- 
menced practice, and became so extensively employed, 
that in a short space of time he accumulated sufficient 
means to return to England, and by further study 
qualify himself for the office of physician. He visited 
Edinburgh, and attended the lectures of Dr. Cullen, of 
whose views on the causes, nature, and treatment of 
fever, he very freely availed himself in his earliest pub- 
lication, "Reflections on the General Treatment and 
Cure of Fevers," and, as he made no reference to the 
source from which he derived them, in a way to create 
an unfavourable idea of his candour. From Edinburgh 
he went to Paris and Leyden, and at the last-named 
university proceeded doctor of medicine 29th June, 
1769. He then settled in London, with the undevia- 
ting friendship and good wishes of his guardian, Mr. 
Fothergill, and, through his efforts, with the warm 
patronage of Dr. Fothergill, then in very full business 
in the city. Dr. Lettsom was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 25th June, 1770, a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries the same year, and a fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1773. 

The recommendation of Dr. Fothergil], who about 
this time withdrew from the city to Harpur-street, Red 
Lion-square, soon introduced Dr. Lettsom into practice ; 
his interests were warmly cared for by the Society of 
Friends, his co-religionists ; and his marriage shortly 
after, with a lady of good means, placed him in a posi- 



1770] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 289 

tion to command success. For many years he enjoyed 
the largest medical business in the city. Of his real 
merits as a practitioner we know but little, but of his 
character as a philanthropist it is impossible to speak 
too highly. The name of Lettsom was to be found asso- 
ciated with every project for the public good ; he was 
on terms of friendship with most of the distinguished 
characters of his day ; and from all parts of the king- 
dom, from the colonies, and America, he received the 
most flattering proofs of the estimation he had excited. 
His life has been written by Mr. Pettigrew, and to it 
I may refer for ample details of his career. The doctor 
died at his house in Sambrook-court, Basin ghall-street, 
on the 1st November, 1815, and was buried in the 
Friends' burial-ground, Little Coleman-street, Bunhill- 
row. 

Dr. Lettsom was a fellow "of the College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh, and of the Royal Society of that 
city ; fellow of the Linnsean Society, and of the Medical 
Society of London ; physician extraordinary to the City 
of London Lying-in hospital, and to the General dis- 
pensary, Aldersgate-street ; honorary member of the 
Literary and Philosophical societies of Manchester and 
Philadelphia ; of the Agricultural society of Bath, and 
of the Academy of Sciences of Montpellier. His por- 
trait was painted and engraved by W. Skelton. 

Dr. Lettsom's writings are very numerous, but I can 
find space only to enumerate those which have a direct 
bearing on his profession. 

Reflections on the General Treatment and Cure of Fevers. 8vo. 
Lond. 1772. 

The Natural History of the Tea Tree, with Observations on the 
Medical Qualities of Tea, and the Effects of Tea-drinking. 4to. 
Lond. 1772. 

This was a translation, with much new matter, of his 
inaugural essay at Ley den, " De Viribus These." 

Observations on the Plan proposed for Establishing a Dispensary 
and Medical Society, with Formulae Medicamentorum, Pauperibus 
preecipue accommodatae. 8vo. Lond. 1772. 

VOL. II. U 



290 ROLL OF THE [1770 

Medical Memoirs of the General Dispensary in London. 8vo. 
Lond. 1774. 

Improvement of Medicine in London on the basis of Public 
Good. 8vo. Lond. 1775. 

Observations preparatory to the use of Dr. Mayersbach's Medi- 
cines. 8vo. Lond. 1776. 

History of the Origin of Medicine. 4to. Lond. 1778. 

A Letter upon General Inoculation. 4to. Lond. 1779. 

Observations on Human Dissections. 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

The Life and Works of John Fothergill, M.D. 3 vols. 8vo. Lond. 
1784, 

GILBERT THOMPSON, M.D., was born in Lancashire, 
and for many years kept a well-frequented school in the 
neighbourhood of Lancaster, on retiring from which he 
went to Edinburgh, applied himself to the study of me- 
dicine, and proceeded M.D. 8th June, 1753 (D.M.I, de 
Exercitatione). He then came to London, but meeting 
with little encouragement as a practitioner, he for a 
time attended a boarding-school at Tottenham, in the 
capacity of writing master, and subsequently became a 
dispensing assistant to Mr. Be van, the druggist. About 
the year 1765 his uncle, Gilbert Thompson, of Penketh, 
died and left him four thousand pounds. He then com- 
menced practice as a physician in the city, and event- 
ually attained to a fair proportion of business. He was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1770 ; and died at his house in Salter's-court, 
Cannon-street, 1st January, 1803, aged seventy-four. 
Dr. Thompson was a Quaker, and is represented as a 
man of great integrity, of mild and unassuming man- 
ners, and possessed of considerable learning and pro- 
fessional skill. He was the intimate friend of Dr. 
Fothergill, and the author of a biographical memoir of 
that physician. Dr. Thompson published shortly before 
his death, " Select Translations from Homer and Horace, 
with Original Poems." 8vo. Lond. 1802. 

WILLIAM GROSVENOR, of Bewdley, Worcestershire, 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College 8th 
August, 1770. 



1771} ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 291 

The Annals are wanting from 7th July, 1771, to 25th 
June, 1781 ; but for this interval the book of sub- 
scriptions, the treasurer's books, and the annual lists of 
the College supply the necessary information. 



ISAAC HENRIQUE SEQUIRA, M.D., was born at Lis- 
bon, of an Esculapian family his grandfather, father, 
and two uncles having been all physicians. He was in- 
structed in general literature and philosophy by the 
Fathers of the Oratory, a body of learned men then 
highly popular in Portugal. Having chosen medicine 
as his profession, he was sent to the university of Bor- 
deaux in France, where he remained for two years. He 
then removed to Leyden ; and having completed the 
three years' residence which the statutes of that uni- 
versity required, he proceeded doctor of medicine 31st 
August, 1758 (D.M.I, de Polypo Cordis). Eventually 
he settled in London ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th March, 1771 ; and was in- 
troduced into practice by his uncle, Dr. De la Cour, 
who soon after withdrew to Bath. Dr. Sequira attained 
to great reputation among his countrymen resident in 
England. He held the honorary appointment of phy- 
sician extraordinary to the prince regent of Portugal ; 
and was physician to the Portuguese embassy at the 
court of St. James. He lived to old age ; and at the 
time of his death, which occurred in Mark -lane in No- 
vember, 1816, aged seventy-eight, was the oldest Licen- 
tiate of the College. 

SIR RICHARD JEBB, M.D., was born at Stratford, 
Essex, and baptized there 30th October, 1729. He was 
the son of Samuel Jebb, M.D., of that place, a Licen- 
tiate of the College, who has been mentioned in a former 
page. He was matriculated at Oxford as of St. Mary's 
hall 8th April, 1747, but did not take a degree there. 
He is said, but, I believe incorrectly, to have graduated 
at Leyden. He was a doctor of medicine of Marischal 
college, Aberdeen, of 23rd September, 1751, and was 

u 2 



292 ROLL OF THE [1771 

admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 24th 
March, 1755. He was chosen physician to the West- 
minster hospital in 1754 ; and on the llth December, 
1760, was appointed to do duty as physician to St. 
George's hospital, in place of Dr. Donald Monro, then 
ordered abroad on his majesty's service ; and at the 
vacancy which occurred shortly afterwards in the medi- 
cal staff of the hospital by the resignation of Dr. Batt, 
he was (7th May, 1762) definitively elected one of the 
physicians, when he resigned his office at the West- 
minster hospital. His private engagements increasing, 
he was obliged to resign the appointment in 1768. Sir 
Richard Jebb was admitted a Fellow of the College of 
Physicians, speciali gratia, 30th September, 1771. He 
was Censor in 1772, 1776, 1781 ; and delivered the 
Harveian oration in 1774. He was a fellow of the 
Royal and Antiquarian societies, physician extra- 
ordinary to George the Third, and physician in ordinary 
to the prince of Wales. When Enfield chase was dis- 
forested, Sir Richard Jebb purchased about two hundred 
acres, which he converted into a park, and built thereon 
a convenient residence, to which he gave the name of 
Trent-place, in commemoration of his successful treat- 
ment of the duke of Gloucester, when seriously ill at 
Trent some years previously. At the death of Sir 
Richard, the property was purchased by the earl of 
Cholmondeley. Sir Richard died unmarried at his house 
in Great George-street, Westminster, 4th July, 1787, 
and was buried in the west cloister of Westminster 
abbey. A monument to his memory in Westminster 
abbey bears the following inscription : 

RICHAKDI JEBB, equitis aurati, 

Societ. Reg. Socii, 

serenissimo Regi Georgio III, 

necnon Georgio Walliae principi, 

medici primarii, 

in memoriam posuit R. J. 

Obiit 4to die Julii, A.D. 1787, eetatis 58. 

Sir Richard Jebb's eccentricities are matters of tradi- 



1771] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 293 

tion in our profession, and many extraordinary anec- 
dotes are related of him. His character was probably 
misunderstood. Dr. Lettsom, who knew him well, 
writes thus : "I loved that man with all his eccen- 
tricity. He had the bluntness, but not the rudeness, 
of Radcliffe. He had the medical perception, but not 
the perseverance and temporizing politeness, of Warren. 
In every respect, but fortune, superior to Turton ; or to 
Baker, but in classical learning ; and yet he was the 
unhappy slave of unhappy passions. His own sister is, 
and has long been, in a madhouse ; the same fate at- 
tends his cousin, and a little adversity would have 
placed poor Sir Richard there also. There was an im- 
petuosity in his manner, a wildness in his look, and 
sometimes a strange confusion in his head, which often 
made me tremble for his sensorium. He had a noble, 
generous heart, and a pleasing frankness among his 
friends ; communicative of experience among the faculty, 
and earnest for the recovery of his patients, which he 
sometimes manifested by the most impetuous solicitude. 
Those who did not well know him, he alarmed ; those 
who did, saw the unguarded and rude ebullition of 
earnestness for success." A good portrait of Sir Richard 
Jebb, by Zoffani, is in the College. It was presented 
in 1827 by the Rev. Robert Fitzwilliam Hallifax, of 
Batchcott, near Ludlow. 

DONALD MONRO, M.D., was the son of Alexander 
Monro, M.D., the first of that name, professor of ana- 
tomy and surgery in the university of Edinburgh. Dr. 
Donald Monro was educated at Edinburgh, under the 
eye of his father, and there took his degree of doctor of 
medicine 8th June, 1753 (D.M.I, de Hydrope). Soon 
after this he was appointed physician to the army. He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
liith April, 1756 ; and on the 3rd November, 1758, was 
elected physician to St. George's hospital. His military 
duties, however, soon called him abroad ; and on the 
llth December, 1760, Dr. Richard Jebb was appointed 



294 ROLL OF THE [1771 

to perform his duties during his absence. On Dr. 
Monro's return to London he published " An Account 
of the Diseases of the British Military Hospitals in 
Germany, from January, 1761, to March, 1863." 8vo. 
Lond. 1764. Dr. Monro was a man of varied attain- 
ments, of considerable skill in his profession, and was 
highly esteemed by his contemporaries. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 1st May, 1766. 
Dr. Monro was admitted a Fellow of the College of 
Physicians, speciali gratia, 30th September, 1771 ; was 
Censor in 1772, 1781, 1785, 1789; and was named an 
Elect 10th July, 1788. He delivered the Croonian lec- 
tures in 1774 and 1775 ; and the Harveian oration in 
1775. These he published in 1776, in one volume 8vo. 
with the title, " Prselectiones Medicse ex Croonii insti- 
tute Annis 1774 et 1775 ; et Oratio Anniversaria ex 
Harveii institute, die Oct. 18, 1775, habita in Theatre 
Coll. Reg. Med. Lond." He resigned his office at St. 
George's hospital in 1786. He had long been in ill- 
health, and he withdrew himself altogether from pro- 
fessional business and in great measure from society. 
He died in Argyle-street 9th June, 1792, aged seventy- 
five.* In addition to the works already mentioned, 
Dr. Monro was the author of 

An Essay on Dropsy, and its different Species. 8vo. Lond. 
1756. 

A Treatise on Mineral Waters. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1770. 

Observations on the Means of preserving the Health of Soldiers, 
and of conducting Military Hospitals, and on the Diseases incident 
to Soldiers. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1780. 

A Treatise on Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and the 
Materia Medica. 3 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

He contributed various articles to the " Essays, 
Physical and Literary," and was the author of the 
biographical memoir of his father, Dr. Alexander Monro, 

* " In ilia cui incubuit medicinae parte gnarus fuit et expertus : 
valetudine infirma diu conflictato, nescio sane an ea lugenda esset 
mors quae illi fuit serurnnarum requies." Oratio Harveiana auct. 
Gulielmo Cadogan, Anno 1792, p. 20. 



1771] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 295 

prefixed to the quarto edition of that distinguished phy- 
sician's collected works, published in 1781. 

ISAAC SCHOMBERG, M.D., is now remembered only 
for his lengthened contest with the College of Physi- 
cians. He was the eldest son of Meyer Low Schom- 
berg, M.D., a Licentiate of the College, and received 
his early education at Merchant Taylors' school, but his 
medical studies were pursued at Leyden, where he took 
his degree of doctor of medicine. E/eturning to Eng- 
land, he commenced practice in London under the aus- 
pices of his father, and in February, 1745-6, was sum- 
moned by the Censors' board to present himself for ex- 
amination as a Licentiate. This he declined to do ; and 
in place of appearing, sent a letter of excuse, which (to 
quote the words of the Annals) was judged improbable 
and indecent. There can be little doubt that he was 
incited to this course by his father, who at that period 
was under the heavy displeasure of the College, having 
recently been convicted by the Censors of some very 
disreputable conduct to a professional brother, for which 
he had been fined and censured. My space will not 
allow me to give a full account of all the circumstances 
which ensued : suffice it to say, that in the early part 
of 1747, Dr. Isaac Schomberg was entered at Trinity 
college, Cambridge ; and on the 3rd April in that year 
he appeared before the Censors to notify the fact, and 
at the same time request that he might be permitted to 
practise until he should have taken his degree at Cam- 
bridge. This, under the circumstances, was, not unna- 
turally, refused ; and the College, to whom the matter 
had been referred by the Comitia Minora of 25th June, 
1747, ordered that he should be formally interdicted 
practice " till he shall have given proper satisfaction to 
the President and Censors." On the 21st July, 1749, 
Dr. Schomberg was created doctor of medicine at Cam- 
bridge by royal mandate, and shortly afterwards apply- 
ing for leave to be examined, it was resolved by the 
College " that the Censors be desired not to examine 



29G BOLL OF THE [1771 

him until such time as his prohibition from practice be 
taken off, upon making proper satisfaction to the Pre- 
sident and Censors." On the 1st December, 1749, he 
came before the Censors' board and proffered an expla- 
nation of his former conduct, with an apology, which, al- 
though deemed sufficient by some of the board, was not 
so regarded by all. He again attended on the 2nd 
February, 1749-50, and on this occasion demanded his 
examination for admission into the order of Candidates 
as a right derived from his Cambridge degree. The 
examinations were allowed the Censors, however, re- 
serving their opinion as to the right and he was found 
fully competent for practice. At the Comitia Majora 
next ensuing, the College negatived his admission as a 
Candidate by a very large majority. The interdict on 
his practice still continued. He made repeated appli- 
cations for admission as a Candidate, but was as fre- 
quently refused ; he was told, however, that if he re- 
quired a licence to practise, he was at liberty to apply 
to the College for that purpose. This he declined to 
do ; whereupon he preferred his appeal to the Visitors 
appointed under the charter of Charles II, which they 
at first entertained, but afterwards dismissed, on the 
ground that they had in reality no jurisdiction. The 
doctor, thus foiled in his endeavours to enforce admis- 
sion as a right, then expressed himself ready to solicit 
it as a favour, on the terms which the College had pre- 
viously offered ; but they, having incurred the expense 
of a protracted litigation, now refused to concede it. 
On the 23rd December, 1765, he was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College. It was not until after the lapse of 
many years that the feeling engendered by these occur- 
rences was removed. In the meantime, the elder 
Schomberg had died ; many of the fellows who had 
been most concerned had also departed ; and Dr. Isaac 
Schomberg's conduct had, it would seem, been correct 
and conciliatory; and with the view, doubtless, of mark- 
ing their approval, the College eventually determined 
to admit him to the much-coveted Fellowship. He was 



1773] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 297 

admitted a Fellow 30th September, 1771 ; was Censor 
in 1773 and 1778 ; and died at his house, in Conduit- 
street, on the 4th May, 1780. His portrait, by Hudson, 
was engraved by Sherlock. 

JAMES GREIVE, M.D., was educated at Edinburgh, 
where he took the degree of doctor of medicine 31st 
April, 1752 (D.M.I, de Calculo Vesicae). He was admit- 
ted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Sep- 
tember, 1762. Dr. Greive was physician to St. Thomas's 
hospital, and to the Charterhouse ; to the former he 
was elected in 1764, to the latter in 1765. He was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 2nd March, 1769, 
and a Fellow of the College of Physicians, special i 
gratia, 30th September, 1771, but did not long survive ; 
and died at his official residence in Charterhouse-square, 
9th July, 1773. Dr. Lettsom, who knew Dr. Greive 
well, and as a pupil attended his practice at St. Thomas's 
hospital, describes him as an amiable man and unassu- 
ming scholar. He is still remembered as the translator 

O 

of " Celsus, with Notes critical and explanatory." 8vo. 
Lond. 1756. 

JONATHAN BINNS, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Edinburgh, of 12th September, 1772 (D.M.I. de Exer- 
citation e) ; was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 21st October, 1772. He practised 
at Liverpool, but after a time withdrew from the exer- 
cise of his profession, and superintended a school be- 
longing to the society of Friends (of which body he was 
himself a member) in Yorkshire. He subsequently re- 
moved to Lancaster, where he resumed practice as a 
physician, and died in the early part of 1812.* 

EDWARD WALLIS, M.D., was admitted an Extra-Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 14th July, 1773. 
He practised at York, where he was held in high esti- 
mation. He filled the office of sheriff of York in 1758, 

* Liverpool Medico-Chirurgical Journal, vol. i, p. 151. 



298 BOLL OF THE [1774 

was elected an alderman of that city 29th August, 1770, 
and was lord mayor of York in 1771. He died in that 
city 13th October, 1782, aged seventy-three. He was 
the author of " Remarks on Henry's Magnesia." 8vo. 
1777. 

EDWARD WHITAKEU GRAY, M.D., a well-known phi- 
losopher and naturalist, was born in 1748. He was 
librarian of the College of Physicians ; and while yet 
holding that office was admitted an Extra-Licentiate, 
namely, on the 6th August, 1773. He was subsequently 
appointed keeper of the departments of natural history 
and antiquities of the British Museum. Dr. Gray was 
a fellow of the Royal Society, and was appointed secre- 
tary to that learned body on St. Andrew's day, 1797. 
He died in 1807, aged fifty-nine. His portrait, by 
Callcott, is at the Royal Society. 

NATHANIEL HULME, M.D., was born in Yorkshire in 
1732, and educated at Edinburgh, where he took the 
degree of doctor of medicine in 1765 (D.M.I. de Scor- 
buto). He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 28th March, 1774, and in the same month 
was appointed physician to the Charterhouse. He was 
also physician to the London Lying-in hospital. Dr. 
Hulme was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 10th 
July, 1794. He fell from the top of his staircase to the 
basement, and surviving the accident a few days only, 
died on the 28th March, 1807, aged seventy-five. Con- 
ceiving that the church is adapted for the living and 
the churchyard for the dead, he was interred at his own 
request in the pensioners' burial-ground of the Charter- 
house, where a gravestone presents the following in- 
scription : 

Here lie the remains of 

NATHANIEL HULME, M.D., 

who was born on the 17th June, 1732, 

and died on the 28th March, 1807. 

He was elected physician to the Charterhouse 

on the 17th of March, 1774, 



1774] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 299 

and continued so to the time of his death. 
He practised medicine during a long course of years 
with advantage to his patients, and with honour to himself. 

Dr. Hulme's portrait, by Medley, was engraved by 
Bran white. He was the author of 

Libellus de Natura, Causa, Curationeque Scorbuti : with a Pro- 
posal for preventing the Scurvy in the British Navy. 8vo. Lond. 
1768. 

A Treatise on the Puerperal Fever. 8vo. Lond. 1772. 

Oratio de Re Medica Cognoscenda et Promovenda, habita apud 
Societatem Medicam Londinensem die xviii. Jan. 1777. Cui accessit 
Via tuta et jucunda Calculum solvendi in Vesica Urinaria inhseren- 
tem, ab Historia Calculosi Hominis confirmata. 8vo. Lond. 1777. 

A Safe and Efficacious Remedy, proposed for the Relief of the 
Stone and Gravel, the Scurvy, Gout, &c., and for the Destruction 
of Worms in the Human Body. 4to. Lond. 1778. 

RICHARD WILLIAM STACK, M.D., was born at Cork, 
and educated at Leyden, where he proceeded doctor of 
medicine 12th July, 1764 (D.M.I, de Ventriculi Imbe- 
cillitate. Accedunt Observationes practices de usu 
Balnei Tepidi in Variolis). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 28th March, 1774, 
and practised for some years in London ; bub then re- 
moved to Bath, where he died 24th October, 1787. He 
published a small treatise, entitled " Medical Cases, 
with Remarks." 8vo. Bath. 1784. 

JAMES WELSH, M.D. A native of Dumfries, was 
entered on the physic line at Leyden 10th October, 
1748, aged twenty-five, and graduated doctor of medi- 
cine there the same year (D.M.I, de Generatione). He 
was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 4th March, 
1773, and a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1774. 

HENRY REVELL REYNOLDS, M.D., was a posthumous 
child, and was born in Nottinghamshire on the 26th 
September, 1745, a few weeks only after the death of 
his father. Committed to the charge of his maternal 
great uncle and godfather, Mr. Henry Revell, of Gains- 



300 ROLL OF THE [1774 

borough, he was sent hy him at an early age to the 
grammar school of Beverley, then in high repute, under 
the government of Mr. Ward. At eighteen years of 
age, Mr. Reynolds was entered as a commoner of Lin- 
coln college, Oxford ; but before he could take a degree 
he had the misfortune to lose his godfather and bene- 
factor, who left him a small estate in Lincolnshire, suf- 
ficient to meet the expenses of his education. With the 
view of shortening his curriculum he moved to Trinity 
college, Cambridge, and kept one term, when he re- 
paired to Edinburgh, where he spent two winter ses- 
sions, and on the 5th December, 1767, was admitted a 
member of the Medical Society of that city. Returning 
to Cambridge, he proceeded bachelor of medicine in 
1768, immediately after which he came to London, and 
entered himself as a physician's pupil at the Middlesex 
hospital. In 1769 he settled at Guildford and married ; 
but was soon induced, by the advice of Dr. Huck Saun- 
ders, to remove to London. This he did in the summer 
of 1772. The following year he proceeded doctor of 
medicine at Cambridge, and was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1773 ; and 
a Fellow, 30th September, 1774. Dr. Reynolds was 
elected physician to the Middlesex hospital 13th July, 
1773, and held that office for four years, resigning it in 
1777, when he had been elected to succeed his friend, 
Dr. Huck Saunders, as physician to St. Thomas's hos- 
pital. Dr. Reynolds was Censor in 1774, 1778, 1782, 
1784, 1787, 1792; Registrar, 1781, 1782, 1783; and 
Elect in December, 1791. He delivered the Gulstonian 
lectures of 1775 and theHarveian oration for 1776, but 
declined to print it. 

Dr. Reynolds's progress as a physician was rapid. In 
1783 his engagements had become so numerous that he 
was compelled to resign his office at St. Thomas's hos- 
pital. In 1788 he was called into attendance on George 
the Third, and so highly were his services regarded, 
that in every subsequent illness of that monarch his 
assistance was required. He received the appointment 



1774] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 301 

of physician extraordinary to the king in 1797, and 
that of physician in ordinary in the year 1806. Dr. 
Reynolds's death was in great measure owing to his 
attendance on his sovereign. When called into at- 
tendance at Windsor, in the early part of 1811, he was 
suffering from rheumatism, which was aggravated by 
the bodily exertion and mental anxiety inseparable 
from his position. The first day on which he seriously 
felt the fatigues of body and mind, was after an ex- 
amination before the House of Lords. The etiquette 
of the Upper House not allowing a witness to sit 
down, Dr. Reynolds, who, in consequence of having 
attended his Majesty in all his previous similar illnesses, 
was examined at greater length than any of his medical 
brethren, was kept standing for two hours. The whole 
of the next day he was compelled to keep his bed, but 
on the following he returned to Windsor. From this 
time his appetite began to fail, and his strength and 
flesh visibly to diminish. In the month of March these 
symptoms had so much increased that his friends be- 
sought him to retire from his attendance on the king 
to spare his body and mind, and devote himself en- 
tirely to the re-establishment of his own health. Despite 
these solicitations he determined to remain at his post, 
and did so till the 4th of May, when he returned to 
London extremely ill. After a confinement to his room 
of nearly three weeks he was prevailed upon by Dr. 
John Latham and Dr. Ainslie to go to Brighton. He 
remained there about two months, and at times during 
this period seemed to rally, but the improvement was 
not sustained. At the end of July he returned to his 
house in Bedford-square, never again to leave it alive. 
He died the 22nd October, 1811, aged sixty-six, and 
was buried in the cemetery behind St. James's church, 
in the Hampstead-road. 

Dr. Reynolds's private character was worthy of all 
praise, and probably few members of our profession 
have been more extensively, none certainly more sin- 
cerely lamented. His intellectual attainments and pro- 



302 ROLL OF THE fl775 

fessional qualifications were, too, of the highest order. 
" In the investigation of diseases he was acute yet 
cautious ; in the application of remedies, fertile in re- 
source, yet not rash in experiment; decided though 
gentle ; gaining entire ascendancy over the minds of 
his patients by the rare fascination of his manners, and 
the confidence with which he inspired them in his skill, 
and in his zeal to relieve them. Among his peculiar 
excellencies may be mentioned, perhaps, an unequalled 
felicity of combination in his prescriptions : there was 
something introduced for every symptom or even incon- 
venience, yet the whole harmonized and had immediate 
reference to the principal complaint." Dr. Reynolds's 
portrait, by Abbot, was engraved by V. Green in 1798. 

HENRY KROHN, M.D., was born at Hamburgh, and 
received his medical education at Utrecht, where he 
proceeded doctor of medicine 20th October, 1762 
(D.M.I, de Usu Opii in Puerperis). He was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1774, and was physician-accoucheur to the Mid- 
dlesex hospital, an office which he held for nearly thirty 
years, resigning it the 6th February, 1798, about which 
time he left London and retired to St. Neot's, Hunting- 
donshire. He died in May, 1816, aged eighty, and was 
buried on the 18th of that month in the churchyard of 
Eynesbury. He published " Foetus extra Uterum His- 
toria." Fol. Lond. 1791. 

JAMES CHESTON, of Abingdon, Berks, was admitted 
an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physicians 14th 
December, 1774. 

KICHAUD WRIGHT, M.D., was born in Derbyshire and 
educated at Emmanuel college, Cambridge, of which 
house he was a fellow. He proceeded A.B. 1762, A.M. 
1765, M.D. 1773; was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 28th March, 1774, and a Fellow 
10th April, 1775. He was Censor in 1775, 1779, 1783. 



1775] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 303 

Dr. Wright was a fellow of the Royal Society, and phy- 
sician to St. George's hospital from 6th January, 1769 
to 1785. He died at Knightsbridge of a " deep decline," 
14th October, 1786. His select and curious library, 
" the strength of which lay chiefly in publications rela- 
ting to the drama and romances," was sold by T. and J. 
Egerton, 23rd April, 1787. 

MICHAEL TEIGHE, M.D., an Irishman, and a doctor 
of medicine of Rheims, was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 10th April, 1775. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 17th March, 1774, 
and died 30th August, 1784. 

JOHN KOOYSTRA, M.D. A native of Holland, and a 
doctor of medicine of Groningen, of 1770 (D.M.I, de 
Dysenteria,), was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 10th April, 1775. He died at his residence 
in Union-court, Broad-street, City, 19th January, 1781, 
aged thirty-three years. 

JOHN PARSONS, M.D., was born in Yorkshire in 1742, 
and educated at Westminster school, of which he was 
admitted a king's scholar in 1756. Elected thence in 
1759 to Christ church, Oxford, he proceeded A.B. 27th 
April, 1763, and A.M. 6th June, 1766. Selecting medi- 
cine as his profession, he pursued the study of it, not 
only at Oxford, but also in London and Edinburgh. In 
the last-named city he evinced a particular predilection 
for natural history and botany, and obtained the prize 
medal given by Dr. Hope for the best hortus siccus. 
His reputation and influence at Oxford must have been 
considerable, for in 1766, before he had taken a degree 
in medicine, he was nominated to the then newly-esta- 
blished office of Lee's reader in anatomy at Christ 
church. He proceeded M.B. 12th April, 1769 ; M.D. 
22nd June, 1772. Dr. Parsons was elected reader of 
anatomy in the university in 1769, physician to the 
Radcliffe infirmary 6th May, 1772, and clinical professor, 



304 ROLL OF THE [1775 

on lord Lichfield's foundation, 1780. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1774, a Fellow 30th September, 1775, and he de- 
livered the Harveian oration in 1784. Dying of fever 
the 9th April, 1785, aged forty- three, he was buried in 
Oxford cathedral.* 

Sm LUCAS PEPYS, BART., M.D., was a younger son 
of William Pepys, esq., of London, banker, and of Ridley 
hall, Cheshire, by Hannah, daughter of Richard Russell, 
M.D., of Brighton, and widow of Alexander Weller, 
esq. He was born in London, 26th May, 1742, and 
educated at Eton, whence he removed to Christ church, 
Oxford, and as a member of that house graduated A.B. 
9th May, 1764, when, applying himself to medicine, he 
proceeded to Edinburgh, and on the 22nd February, 
1765, was admitted a member of the Medical Society of 
that city. Returning to Oxford, he graduated A.M. 
13th May, 1767, M.B. 30th April, 1770, and M.D. 14th 
June, 1774. Shortly after taking his second degree in 
arts, he obtained a licence ad practicandum from the 
university, and settling in London, was on the 10th 
February, 1769, elected physician to the Middlesex hos- 
pital. He was, as we have seen, a grandson ex parte 

* " In numero antem horum piaculum esset non commorasse unum 
(cujus quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus), qui professorium nmnus 
quod artem anatomicam, chymicam et clinicam, snrnma dignitate 
implevit, Parson ; cui nimia forsan in visendis et curandis segro- 
tantibus assiduitas offieiosaque sedulitas adduxit febrem, nulla 
omnino arte medendi superabilem. Omnibus quidem ille flebilis 
occidit, quibus inter prima ducuntur cura, anirui cogitatio vigilantia 
cum summa virtute conjuncta. Occidit etiam, nos probe moniturus 
ne, inter prasentis horae gaudia, Lethaeo quasi rore madentes quam 
breves humanas spes quam caduci honores obliviscamur. Meministis 
omnes qua dulcedine, quali eloquio capti eum superioris anni orato- 
rem his e rostris disserentem audivistis. Meminerunt Oxonienses 
et in eeternum meminerint quali diligentia saluti invigilaret pub- 
lics. In Tyronum animis infixa manent praacepta quibus paucis ! 
paucissimis ! abhinc mensibus corporis humani compagem dilucide 
explicavit, quam scienter, veterum thesauris e propiis scriniis nova 
quamplurima adjecerit." Oratio ex Harvaei instituto auctore Jac. 
Hervey, 1785. 



1775] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 305 

materna of Dr. Kussell, of Brighton, the author of a 
well-known work on the use of sea water in glandular 
diseases ; and on commencing practice, was in the habit 
of residing during the summer months at Brighton. 
This he did for many years, and on the death of Dr. 
Relhan, in 1776, had the whole of the medical business 
there without any competitor. Dr. Pepys was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1774, a Fellow 30th September, 1775 ; he was 
Censor in 1777, 1782, 1786, 1796 ; Treasurer from 1788 
to 1798 inclusive; Elect 21st March, 1797 ; and Pre- 
sident from 1804 to 1810. He was appointed physi- 
cian extraordinary to the king in 1777 ; was created 
a baronet 22nd January, 1784 ; and was called into 
attendance on George the Third in his severe illness of 
1788 and 1789. As an acknowledgment of his services 
on this occasion, Sir Lucas Pepys was appointed in 
1792 physician in ordinary to the king, and on the 
death of Sir Clifton Wintringham, in 1794, physician- 
general to the army. This appointment gave him 
much patronage and authority. An army medical board 
was appointed in 1794, consisting of the physician - 
general to the army, the surgeon-general, and the in- 
spector-general, the president of which was the physi- 
cian-general, Sir Lucas Pepys. In this capacity he had 
the appointment of all the physicians in the army, as 
had the surgeon-general of all the surgeons. Sir Lucas 
made his appointments, we are told by Sir James 
M'Grigor, from the ranks of civil life, without regard 
to previous service in the army, and proceeding on the 
principle that the army physician should possess the 
most extensive acquirements and the most complete 
education, he made it a rule that all candidates for ap- 
pointment should be fellows or licentiates of the Col- 
lege of Physicians of London, of which body he was 
himself, during many of the years he was at the head 
of the army board, the President. This army medical 
board, with Sir Lucas Pepys at its head, directed the 
whole medical affairs of the army for above fifteen years, 

VOL. II. X 



30G ROLL OF THE [1775 

when it was found expedient by Government to super- 
sede it and establish a new board, consisting of medical 
officers of long service in the army, of practical expe- 
rience, and who had served abroad and in various 
climates. This change was necessitated by the over- 
whelming sickness and mortality of the troops at Wal- 
cheren, to investigate and report on which to Govern- 
ment, the physician-general, Sir Lucas Pepys, was 
ordered to proceed thither. But he in an evil hour 
declined, assigning as his reason that he was not ac- 
quainted with the diseases of soldiers in camp or in 
quarters. Unfortunately neither of the other two 
members of the Board volunteered their services. The 
army medical board on retiring, as they had to do 
shortly after this episode, received from Government 
handsome remuneration for their past services, each of 
its members being assigned a liberal pension for life. 

Sir Lucas Pepys took an active part in establish- 
ing the National Vaccine institution, which was formed 
during his presidency, and its direction vested, mainly 
through his influence, in the College of Physicians and 
the College of Surgeons. The Pharmacopoeia Londi- 
nensis of 1809 appeared during Sir Lucas Pepys' pre- 
sidency, and the preface to it is from his pen. 

Sir Lucas Pepys was a person of great firmness and 
determination, somewhat dictatorial in his bearing, and 
formed to command. He lived singularly free from 
suffering or disease, survived to a ripe old age, and 
died at his house in Park-street, Grosvenor-square, 
17th June, 1830, aged eighty-eight. He was twice 
married first, on the 30th October, 1772, to the right 
honorable Jane Elizabeth, countess of Rothes, a peeress 
of Scotland in her own right, by whom he had two 
sons and one daughter ; and secondly, on the 29th June, 
1813, to Deborah, daughter of Anthony Askew, M.D., 
who survived him. His portrait by Edridge was en- 
graved by J. Godby. 

JOHN BUKGES, M.D., was born in London in 1745, 



1775] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 307 

and was educated at Westminster. He was entered 
at Christ church, Oxford ; and, as a member of that 
house, proceeded A.B. 27th October, 1764 ; A.M. 25th 
June, 1767 ; M.B. 30th April, 1770; M.D. 14th June, 
1774. He was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1774 ; and a Fellow 30th 
September, 1775 ; was Censor in 1776, 1780, 1785, 
1790, 1794, 1797; and was named an Elect, 26th 
June, 1797, in place of Dr. Richard Warren, deceased. 
Dr. Burges was elected physician to St. George's hos- 
pital, 8th April, 1774, and resigned that office 23rd 
February, 1787, when he was succeeded by Dr. Mat- 
thew Baillie. He died at his house in Mortimer- 
street, Cavendish-square, 2nd April, 1807. 

" Dr. Burges was a man of strict principle, acknow- 
ledged erudition, and classical attainments, and devoted 
to his profession ; but, as his health did not allow him 
to enter into general practice, he lived very quietly 
with his two maiden sisters upon his patrimonial pro- 
perty. He had made the study, and his collection, of 
the materia medica, his occupation and amusement, 
and his zealous perseverance in this pursuit was con- 
tinued as long as his health permitted. Taking ad- 
vantage of opportunities fortunately afforded by the 
assistance of a near relative, Sir James Bland Burges, 
for some time under-secretary of state in the Foreign 
Office, his collection thus became remarkable for its 
extent and authenticity ; and he frequently gave gra- 
tuitous lectures upon particular subjects, sometimes 
public, more frequently private, and always had plea- 
sure in imparting information to others."""" The nature 
and extent of Dr. Burges' collection had become so 
well known that various applications were made to him 
respecting its disposal. Particular feelings which he 
had upon the subject of its possession and care induced 
him to leave it by will to Mr. E. A. Brande, a former 
pupil of his, and a son of one of his oldest friends, by 

* See a MS. Memoir of Dr. Burges, by E. A. Brande, csq., iu 
the College Library. 

X 2 



308 ROLL OF THE [1770 

whom it was presented in 1809 to the College of Phy- 
sicians, upon the sole condition that they would engage 
to take all necessary steps for its preservation, and for 
its being made of use to the public. This trust the 
College have faithfully fulfilled. By the purchase of 
Dr. Combe's collection, and by subsequent donations, 
among which must be mentioned one of Cinchona barks, 
by Mr. Howard of Stratford, the original cabinet of 
Dr. Burges has been considerably extended, and ren- 
dered one of the most complete, as it is, probably, the 
most curious now existing in the United Kingdom. 

JOHN RAWLINSON, M.D., was born in London and 
on the 19th February, 1760, was admitted a pensioner 
of Queen's college, Cambridge, as a member of which 
he proceeded M.B. 1767, M.D. 1774. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1774 ; a Fellow, 30th September, 1775 ; and was 
Censor in 1778. Dr. Rawlinson was elected physician 
to St. Thomas's hospital in 1773, and resigned his office 
there in 1780. He left London in 1783, and retired to 
Coombe in Hampshire. 

ROBERT ROBERTSON, M.D., a native of Scotland, and 
a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 1765 (D.M.I, de 
Scorbuto), was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1775. 

ANDREW DOUGLAS, M.D., was born in Teviotdale, 
and received his medical education at Edinburgh. In 
1756 he was appointed a surgeon in the navy, and 
served for some years with reputation in that capacity. 
He settled afterwards as a surgeon at Deal, but left it 
and returned to Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor 
of medicine in 1775 (D.M.I, de Variolae Insitione). He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1776 ; and then, settling in London, 
devoted himself to the practice of midwifery, and was 
for several years physician to the Charity for Delivering 



1777] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 309 

Poor Married Women at their own Houses. Having ac- 
quired a considerable fortune by marriage, Dr. Douglas 
relinquished practice, and in 1792 visited the continent. 
There he was detained, and it was not until 1796 that 
he obtained permission from the Directory to return 
home. In 1800 he removed to Ednam-house, Kelso, 
which he had recently purchased, and was on his way 
thence to London when he was taken seriously ill at 
Buxton, and died there 10th June, 1806, aged seventy. 
He was the author of 

Observations on an Extraordinary Case of Ruptured Uterus. 8vo. 
Lond. 1785. 

Observations on the Rupture of the Gravid Uterus : with the 
Sequel of Mrs. Manning's Case. 8vo. Lond. 1789. 

SAMUEL DANIEL, M.D., was the son of Mr. John 
Daniel, a surgeon in extensive practice at Beaminster, 
co. Dorset. He received his medical education at 
Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of medicine 
12th September, 1776 (D.M.I. de Ictero) ; and was 
admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 29th March, 1777. He practised at Crewkerne, 
co. Somerset. 

JOHN JEBB, M.D., was the eldest son of Dr. John 
Jebb, dean of Cashel, and was born in London 16th 
February, 1736. He received his preliminary educa- 
tion in Ireland, whence he was transferred to Cam- 
bridge, and entered at Peterhouse, of which society he 
subsequently became a fellow. He proceeded A.B. 
1757, A.M. 1760, received orders in the Church of 
England, and obtained some Church preferment. He 
had early adopted the plan of giving theological lec- 
tures at Cambridge, which were attended by numerous 
pupils, until his peculiar opinions became generally 
known, when (in 1770) a prohibition was published in 
the university. How soon he had begun to deviate 
from the opinions he held at the time of his ordination 
is uncertain, but in a letter dated 21st October, 1775, 



310 ROLL OF THE [1777 

he says, " I have for seven years past in my lectures 
steadily maintained the proper unity of God, and that 
He alone should be the object of worship." He adds, 
that he warned his hearers that this was not the re- 
ceived opinion, but that his own was settled, and ex- 
horted them to inquire diligently. He had vacated 
his fellowship at Peterhouse by his marriage, on the 
29th December, 1764, to Miss Torkington, and in 1775 
he came to the resolution of resigning his ecclesiastical 
preferments, viz., the rectory of Homersfield, and the 
vicarage of Flitton, in Suffolk. By the advice of his 
friends he then applied himself to the study of medi- 
cine. For this new object he studied indefatigably, 
and was created doctor of medicine by the university 
of St. Andrew's in the early part of 1777. He was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1777, when he settled in Craven-street, Strand, 
and commenced practice as a physician. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 25th February, 
1779. 

Dr. Jebb was highly esteemed among the violent par- 
tisans of unbounded liberty, religious and political, and 
was undoubtedly a persoji of learning and talents, 
though they were both so much absorbed in controversy 
as to leave little among his writings of general or per- 
manent use. Amidst the cares of his new profession he 
did not withdraw his attention from theological study, 
nor from whab he considered as the cause of true liberty. 
He was still, as he had been for many years, zealous for 
the abolition of subscription, a warm friend to the cause 
of America against England, an incessant advocate for 
annual parliaments and universal suffrage, a writer in 
newspapers, and a speaker at public meetings. So many 
eager pursuits seem to have exhausted his constitution, 
and he died, apparently of a decline, in March, 1786. 
His portrait, by Hoppner, was engraved by J. Young. 
Dr. J ebb's learning was varied and extensive. He was 
master of many languages, among which were Hebrew 
and Arabic, and during his last illness he studied Saxon 



1777] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 311 

and the Anglo-Saxon laws and antiquities. He had 
twice been a candidate for the professorship of Arabic 
at Cambridge. He had, too, some knowledge of the 
law, which he once thought of making his profession, 
even after he had applied himself to medicine. He was 
a good mathematician, and was concerned with two 
friends in publishing at Cambridge a small quarto volume 
entitled " Excerpta qusedam e Newtonii Principiis Phi- 
losophic Naturalis, cum Notis Variorum," which was 
received as a standard book of instruction at the uni- 
versity. Dr. Jebb's only medical publication was " Se- 
lect Cases of the Disorders commonly called Paralysis 
of the Lower Extremities. 8vo. Lond. 1782." This, 
with his other writings, were collected into three volumes 
8vo. by Dr. Disney, and published in 1787.""" 

RICHARD BUDD, M.D., was descended from a family 
long settled in Hampshire; but was born, in 1746, at 
Newbury, in Berkshire, where his father was a man of 
influence as a banker. He was educated at Jesus col- 
lege,t Cambridge, as a member of which he proceeded 
M.B. 1770, M.D. 1775. He commenced practice at 
Newbury, but in 1780 removed to London. Admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1776, and a Fellow, 30th September, 1777; he 
was Censor in 1780, 1783, 1786, 1789, 1791, 1798 ; 
Gulstonian lecturer andHarveian orator in 1781 ; Trea- 
surer from 18th March, 1799, to 4th April, 1814 ; and 
Elect, 22nd December, 1797, an office which he resigned 
14th July, 1818. Dr. Budd was elected physician to 
St. Bartholomew's hospital 23rd June, 1780, and re- 
tired from that office in 1801. He was also physician 
to Christ's hospital, and in this capacity was the means 
of introducing potatoes as a part of the diet of the in- 
mates of that school. Dr. Budd had rendered himself 

* Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, vol. i, p. 571. 

t At Jesus college, Cambridge, is a scholarship, founded in 1630, 
by his great great grandfather, Richard Budd, esq., king's auditor 
for the counties of Hants, Wilts, and Dorset. 



312 ROLL OF THE [1777 

independent by marriage with the only child of a 
wealthy city merchant of the name of Stubler, and he 
was not solicitous of much laborious professional exer- 
tion. He died at Battersea-rise on the 2nd September, 
1821, aged seventy-five, was buried at Speen, near 
Newbury, co. Berks, and is commemorated on the same 
gravestone with bis sister who had preceded him to 
the grave. Dr. Budd's portrait was painted by Dance, 
and engraved by W. Daniels. 

SAMUEL MUSGRAVE, M.D. This accomplished scho- 
lar was born at Washfield, in the county of Devon, on 
the 29th September, 1732; and was educated at the 
grammar school of Barnstaple during the mastership of 
Mr. Wright. He was entered a scholar of Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford, 27th February, 1749 ; and pro- 
ceeded A.B. 27th February, 1753 ; A.M. 5th March, 
1756. Soon afterwards he was elected one of the Rad- 
cliffe travelling fellows, and, in pursuance of the condi- 
tions of that appointment, spent several years upon the 
continent. He divided his time between Holland and 
France. In 1760 he sent to the press " Some Remarks 
on Dr. Boerhaave's Theory of the Attrition of the Blood 
in the Lungs/' 8vo. Lond. ; and in 1762 published at 
Leyden " Exercitationes duee in Euripidem," 8vo. In. 
1763 he took the degree of M.D. at Leyden, and printed 
as his academical exercise a learned essay in defence of 
empirical medicine (" Dissertatio Inauguralis de Medi- 
cina Empirica"). He then revisited Paris, and was 
elected a corresponding member of the Royal Academy 
of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres. The term of his 
Radcliffe fellowship having expired, Dr. Musgrave re- 
turned to England, and settled at Exeter ; and on the 
24th July, 1766, was elected physician to the Devon 
and Exeter hospital. His success in Exeter not proving 
commensurate with his expectations, he resigned his 
office at the hospital, and in the latter part of 1768 re- 
moved to Plymouth. 

In the following year (12th August, 1769), Dr. Mus- 



1777] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 313 

grave astonished the county, and indeed the whole king- 
dom, by the publication of " An Address to the Gentle- 
men, Clergy, and Freeholders of the County of Devon." 
This Address, ostensibly called forth by the circum- 
stance that the sheriff of the county had then summoned 
a meeting to consider the propriety of petitioning both 
Houses of Parliament for the redress of grievances, was 
altogether of so extraordinary a nature, and proved so 
damaging to the doctor's character, that some account 
of its contents becomes necessary in elucidation of Dr. 
Musgrave's subsequent career, and of the lamentable 
circumstances under which he died. In the Address 
Dr. Musgrave tells us that, during his residence at Paris 
in 1764, he had received trustworthy information that 
an overture had, in that year, been made to certain in- 
fluential members of Parliament, in the name of the 
chevalier d'Eon, importing that he, the chevalier, was 
ready to impeach three persons, two of whom were peers 
of the realm and privy councillors, of selling the then 
recent peace to the French Government. On Dr. Mus- 
grave's return to England in 1765, he obtained an in- 
terview with lord Halifax, then Secretary of Sta,te, and 
communicated the information he had received, at the 
same time urging his lordship to send for the chevalier, 
question him, and examine his papers. Lord Halifax, 
who the doctor admits was polite though evasive, at 
first objected to any public step that might excite alarm, 
and naturally asked for confirmatory or documentary 
evidence in support of so grave a charge. Dr. Mus- 
grave thereupon submitted copies of four letters to and 
from lord Hertford, purporting to bear upon the sub- 
ject. These were apparently unsatisfactory as evidence ; 
and lord Halifax, considering the charge groundless, 
peremptorily refused to take any steps whatever in the 
affair. Nothing daunted, Dr. Musgrave then applied 
to the Speaker of the House of Commons, but with no 
better result. Here for a time the matter rested as re- 
gards the doctor, who, however, tells us he had been 
informed by Mr. Fitzherbert, that, subsequently to his 



,'U4 ROLL OF THE [1777 

interview with lord Halifax, an overture had been made 
to the chevalier d'Eon, the object of which was to get 
the papers out of his hands for a stipulated sum of 
money. 

It is difficult to assign a reason for Dr. Musgrave's 
untimely publication. Although he had not succeeded 
as a physician in Exeter, where the ground was already 
occupied by Dr. Andrew and Dr. Glass, his prospects 
at Plymouth were most encouraging, and nothing was 
wanting but patience and abstinence from public and 
party strife, to place him at the head of the profession 
in that town and neighbourhood. All Dr. Masgrave's 
hopes of professional success were however blighted by 
the publication of the Address. In it he claims credit 
for pure patriotism, and a desire to visit with befitting 
punishment those who, high in the councils of this 
country, had proved traitors to its interests. He ad- 
mits he was himself unable to support the charge of 
corruption against those he accused ; and his immediate 
complaint to the freeholders of Devon was of a different 
nature, and against a different person the refusal of 
lord Halifax to proceed on his information, he regarded 
as a wilful obstruction of national justice, for which he 
wished to see his lordship undergo a suitable punish- 
ment. The Address led to a host of pamphlets. It was 
at once answered by the chevalier d'Eon, who repu- 
diated all knowledge of Dr. Musgrave, and emphatically 
denied everything that had been advanced concerning 
himself; the statements in the Address were also 
minutely examined, and discredited in an anonymous 
pamphlet ; and finally, after a full hearing in the House 
of Commons, the doctor's assertions were voted in the 
highest degree frivolous and unworthy of credit. 

Devonshire no longer offered Dr. Musgrave a chance 
of success, and after a time he determined on trying 
his fortune in London. Preparatory thereto, aud as a 
necessary preliminary to his admission to the Fellow- 
ship of the College of Physicians, he, on the 8th of De- 
cember, 1775, took his degree of doctor of medicine at 



1777] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 315 

Oxford. He fixed himself in Hart-street, Bloomsbury; 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
on 30th September, 1776 ; and a Fellow, 30th Septem- 
ber, 1777. He was Gulstonian Lecturer and Censor 
in 1779. Dr. Musgrave's life in town was a constant 
struggle with difficulties. Though active and energetic, 
a good practitioner, and a most accomplished scholar, 
he did not succeed as a physician. His sole resource 
thenceforward was his pen, which, indeed, was rarely idle. 
In 1776 he published a pamphlet, entitled, " Specula- 
tions and Conjectures on the Qualities of the Nerves " 
in 1777 his relative Dr. William Musgrave's treatise, 
" De Arthritide Primigeniil, et Regulari;" in 1779 his 
Gulstonian lectures before the College of Physicians, 
embracing dyspnoea, pleurisy, periprieumony and pul- 
monary consumption ; and lastly, a thin pamphlet, "On 
the Nature and Cure of the Worm Fever." These, Dr. 
Musgrave's medical works, are now well. nigh forgotten. 
They were evidently written as a last and desperate 
effort to obtain notice and practice. They did not 
effect their object ; the doctor's circumstances became 
more and more embarrassed, and he died at his lodg- 
ings, in Hart-street, in great poverty, on the 5th of 
July, 1780, in the forty-eighth year of his age. In 
the burial ground of St. George's, Bloomsbury, where 
he was interred, is a stone with the following short 
inscription : 

Here lies the body of SAMUEL MUSGBAVE, M.D., who departed this 
life July 5, 1780, in his 48th year. 

In 1781 a posthumous work was published, by sub- 
scription, for the benefit of the doctor's family. It 
comprised, " Two Dissertations. 1. On the Grecian 
Mythology. 2. An Examination of Sir Isaac Newton's 
Objections to the Chronology of the Olympiads." 8vo. 
Lond. 

As a Greek scholar Dr. Musgrave had few superiors. 
He was passionately fond of Euripides, with whose 
works his name will descend to the latest posterity. 



316 ROLL OF THE [1778 

He had, as we have seen, already published at Leyden 
two valuable dissertations on this author, and his MS. 
notes and collections were known to be so valuable, 
that the university of Oxford purchased them for 200. 
They are incorporated in the excellent edition, in four 
volumes 4to. which issued from the Oxford press in 
1778. This edition, besides the Greek text and Latin 
version, contains the author's life, by Moscopulus, 
Thomas Magister, and Aulus Gellius ; a chronology 
of events relative to the Grecian stage, various read- 
ings and annotations, the fragments of the lost trage- 
dies, with the Greek scholia of seven tragedies, and an 
index to the notes. 

JOHN LEE, M.D. A native of Kerry, and a doctor 
of medicine of Rheirns, was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 13th April, 1778. He was 
admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 7th February, 
1782. Dr. Lee practised at Bath, where he died at an 
advanced age on the 6th July, 1822. He published 
"A Narrative of a singular Gouty Case, with Observa- 
tions." 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

SIR FRANCIS MILMAN, BART., M.D., was the son of 
a clergyman, and was born in Devonshire in 1746. He 
was seat to Exeter college, Oxford, and as a member of 
that house proceeded A.B. 9th May, 1764 ; A.M. 14th 
January, 1767 ; M.B. 7th July, 1770 ; and M.D. 23rd 
November, 1776. In May, 1771, he was elected one of 
the RadclifFe travelling fellows ; and whilst abroad, in 
compliance with the conditions of his fellowship, was 
called into attendance on the duke of Gloucester at 
Rome. Dr. Milman was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1777 ; and a 
Fellow 30th September, 1778. He would seem about 
this period to have had some idea of quitting the 
medical profession and entering the church, for in 
September, 1779, he resigned his office of physician 
to the Middlesex hospital, to which he had been elected 



1778] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 317 

in 1777; and on the 10th November, 1778, took the 
degree of bachelor of divinity at Oxford. The inten- 
tion, however, if seriously entertained, was speedily 
given up, and by the patronage of the duke of Glou- 
cester he was soon introduced into good practice. Tn 
1785 he was appointed physician extraordinary to the 
king's household; and in 1796 joint physician to the 
household. He was created a baronet in 1800, and 
about the same time physician extraordinary to the 
king, shortly afterwards physician in ordinary to the 
queen, and in 1806 physician in ordinary to the king. 
Sir Francis Milman was Censor in 1779, 1784, 1788, 
1794, 1799; Croonian lecturer in 1781 ; and Harveian 
orator in 1782. He was named an Elect 30th July, 
1798, in place of his fellow countryman, Sir George 
Baker, resigned; and was elected President in 1811, 
an office which he filled for two years, resigning it on 
the 6th October, 1813. Sir Francis Milman died at his 
seat, Pinner grove, Middlesex, 24th June, 1821, in the 
seventy-fifth year of his age, and was buried in the old 
church at Chelsea. He was the author of 

Animadversiones de Natura Hydropis ejusque Curatione. 8vo. 
Lond. 1799. 

On the Source of the Scurvy and Putrid Fever. 8vo. Lond. 
1782, 

JAMES SIMS, M.D., \vas the son of a dissenting 
minister, born in the county of Down in 1741, and 
after a good preliminary education was sent to Leyden, 
where he proceeded doctor of medicine in 1764 (D.M.I, 
de Temperie Fceminea et Morbis inde Oriundis). Re- 
turning to Ireland, he settled at Tyrone, where he 
practised for nine or ten years with distinguished re- 
putation, and then removed to London. He was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1778. In 1810, after a successful career in 
town, whereby he had accumulated an easy competency, 
Dr. Sims removed to Bath, where he died in 1820, in 
the eightieth year of his age. Dr. Sims was physician 



318 ROLL OF THE [1773 

to the General dispensary, and one of the founders of 
the London Medical Society, of which he was for many 
years president. " He was," says Mr. Wadd, " a 
good-humoured, pleasant man, full of anecdote, an 
ample reservoir of good things, and for figures and 
facts a perfect chronicle of other times. He had a most 
retentive memory, but when that failed in any parti- 
cular he referred to a book of knowledge in the shape 
of a pocket-book, from which he quoted with oracular 
authority." Dr. Sims' portrait was painted by Medley, 
and engraved by Bran white. He was the author of 

Observations on Epidemic Diseases, with Remarks on Nervous 
and Malignant Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 1773. 

A Discourse on the best method of prosecuting Medical Inquiries. 
8vo. Lond. 1774. 

The Principles and Practice of Midwifery, by G. Foster, M.D., 
completed by James Sims, M.D. 8vo. Lond. 1781. 

SAMUEL FOABT SIMMONS, M.D., was born at Sand- 
wich, co. Kent, 17th March, 1750, and educated at a 
seminary in France, where he obtained not only a com- 
petent knowledge of the classics, but a minute and 
critical knowledge of the French language, which he 
wrote and spoke with the same ease and correctness as 
his own. His medical studies were commenced at 
Edinburgh, where he continued three years. He then 
passed over to Holland, and at Leyden proceeded doc- 
tor of medicine in 1776 (D.M.I, de Bubeola). Dr. 
Simmons then visited Groningen, where he made the 
acquaintance of the celebrated Camper, and proceeded 
thence to Aix-la-Chapelle, visiting different parts of 
Germany, and stopping for a time at each of the prin- 
cipal universities in that country. At Berne he became 
known to Haller, who afterwards ranked him among 
his friends and correspondents. On his way from Berne 
to Geneva he paid his respects to Voltaire, at Ferney, 
and after spending a few weeks at Montpelier pro- 
ceeded homewards through Bordeaux to Paris. His 
intention was to have practised in his native county, 
Kent, and with this view he came before the College of 



1778] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 319 

Physicians, and on the 1st July, 1777, was admitted 
an Extra-Licentiate. Within a few months, however, 
he determined on settling in London, and was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College 30th September, 1778. Dr. 
Simmons was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1779, and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1791, as he 
had before been of the different academies of Nantes, 
Montpelier, and Madrid. He was an honorary fellow 
of the College of Physicians of Lorraine, a foreign fellow 
of the Royal Society of Medicine of Paris, an honorary 
member of the Medical Society of Edinburgh, and of 
the Philosophical Society of Manchester. In 1780 he 
was appointed physician to the Westminster dispen- 
. sary, and in 1781 physician to St. Luke's hospital. From 
this time to the period of his death he devoted himself 
almost exclusively to the treatment of insanity, in 
which department he attained a high reputation, and 
from it accumulated an ample fortune. In 1803 Dr. 
Simmons was called into attendance on the king, and 
in May, 1804, was appointed one of his Majesty's phy- 
sicians extraordinary. He resigned his office at St. 
Luke's hospital in February, 1811 ; when the governors, 
as a mark of their esteem and respect, appointed him 
consulting physician, an office created expressly for 
him and allowed to lapse on his decease. Dr. Simmons 
died at his house in Poland-street, 23rd April, 1813, 
aged sixty-three, and was buried in the churchyard of 
St. Clement's, Sandwich, Kent. His tomb bears the 
following inscription : 

Within this tomb lieth 

SAMUEL FOART SIMMONS, M.D., 

Physician Extraordinary to his Majesty, 

Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and Physician to the hospital of St. Luke's, in London. 

He was a native of this town and port, 
and after a life zealously devoted to his profession, 

and the pursuits of science, 
died on the 23rd day of April, 1813, aged sixty-three years. 

His widow and son have caused this monument 

to be erected in grateful affection for his memory. 

Here are also deposited the remains of 



320 ROLL OF THE [1779 

SUSANNA, wife of Samuel Foart Simmons, M.D., 
who died on the 20th of June, 1820. 

He left one son, Richard Simmons, M.D., a Fellow of 
the College. 

Dr. Simmons was a voluminous writer. He was for 
many years the sole editor of the "London Medical 
Journal," and of the " Medical Facts and Observations." 
He was also the originator and compiler of the "Medical 
Register " the prototype of the Medical Directories of 
the present day. Papers from his pen are to be found 
in the " Philosophical Transactions," the " Medical 
Commentaries," and in other periodical publications. 
Of his separate works, the following is, I believe, a com- 
plete list : 

Elements of Anatomy and the Animal Economy. Translated 
from the French of M. Person, with Notes. 8vo. Lond. 1775. 

Observations on the Cure of the Gonorrhoea. 8vo. Lond. 1780. 

An Account of the Tenia, and the Method of treating it, as prac- 
tised at Morat, in Switzerland. 8vo. Lond. 1778. 

Practical Observations on the Treatment of Consumption. 8vo. 
Lond. 1780. 

An Account of the Life and Writings of Dr. William Hunter. 
8vo. Lond. 1783. 

Sm ISAAC PENNINGTON, M.D., was born in Lanca- 
shire, and received his early education at the grammar 
school of Sedbergh. He was entered at St. John's col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1763, and was elected a fellow of 
that house in 1768. He proceeded A.B. 1767 ; A.M. 
1770; M.D. 1777; was appointed professor of chemis- 
try in the university of Cambridge in 1773 ; and regius 
professor of medicine in 1793, when he resigned the 
chair of chemistry. He was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 13th April, 1778 ; a Fellow 
29th March, 1779 ; and was Harveian orator in 1783. 
He was elected physician to Addenbrooke hospital in 
1785, and continued in that office until his death. He 
received the honour of knighthood in 1796. Sir Isaac 
Pennington's professional attainments were consider- 
able, and his amiable disposition and social qualities 



1779] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 321 

endeared him to a numerous circle of friends. He was 
never married ; and at the time of his death, which oc- 
curred 3rd February, 1817, in the seventy-second year 
of his age, he was the senior fellow of St. John's col- 
lege. The bulk of his fortune, which was considerable, 
he gave to St. John's college, to augment the master- 
ship and establish exhibitions of poor scholars. To mark 
their gratitude and their estimation of his virtues, the 
master and fellows of St. John's caused a tablet, with 
the following inscription, to be placed on the north wall 
of the ante-chapel of their college : 

H. S. E. 

ISAACUS PENNINGTON, 

Eques Auratus, M.D. 

Coll. Medicorum Regal, apud Lcradinum 

Socius, 

in Acad. Cantab, primo Chemise 
deinde Regis Mandate Medicinse 

Professor, 
hujus Collegii plus XLVIII. annos 

Socius. 

In curandis morbo laborantibus 

diligens, benevolens, prudens, felix, 

erga omnes comis et humanus, 

suorum amantissimus : 
Collegium quod virtutibus vivus 

ornabat, 
Moriens suis omnibus fere bonis auxit. 

Decessit annorum LXXII. 
in Non. Feb. MDCCCXVII. 

Magister et Socii 
L. L. M. ponendum curaverunt. 

SEGUIN HENRY JACKSON, M.D., was born in London, 
and was the son of Ralph Jackson, a medical practi- 
tioner. He was educated at Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated doctor of medicine in 1778 (D.M.I, de Physio- 
logia et Pathologia Dentium). He was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 29th March, 
1779 ; and died at his house in Hanover-street, Han- 
over-square, 14th October, 1816, aged sixty-four. We 
have from his pen 

A Treatise on Medical Sympathy, and on the Balance and Con- 
VOL. II. Y 



322 ROLL OF THE [1779 

nection of the Extreme Vessels of the Human Body. 8vo. Lond. 
1787. 

Dermato-Pathologia, or Practical Observations on the Pathology 
and proximate Cause of Diseases of the true Skin and its ema- 
nations, the Rete Mucosum and Cuticle. 8vo. Lond. 1792. 

Cautions to Women respecting the State of Pregnancy. 12mo. 
Lond. 1798. 

Observations on the Epidemic Disease which lately prevailed at 
Gibraltar, intended to illustrate the Nature of Contagious Fevers in 
general. 8vo. Lond. 1806. 

JOHN SIMS, M.D., was born in Canterbury. After a 
good private education at a school at Burford in Oxford- 
shire, and afterwards under his father, a good classical 
scholar, at home, he was sent to Edinburgh. He passed 
the session of 1773-74 at Ley den, and then returned to 
Edinburgh, where he took the degree of doctor of medi- 
cine 12th September, 1774 (D.M.L de Usu Aquse Fri- 
gid se Interne). He settled in London ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1779 ; 
and was appointed physician to the Surrey dispensary, 
and to the Charity for Delivering Married Women at 
their own Houses. Dr. Sims died at Dorking 26th 
February, 1831, aged eighty- two. He was an accom- 
plished botanist, and for many years edited the " Bota- 
nical Magazine." He was the author of 

A Letter on the Pregnancy of the pretended Prophetess Joanna 
Southcott. 

ANTHONY FOTHERGILL, M.D., was born at Sedbergh, 
and obtained his medical education at Edinburgh, Ley- 
den, and Paris. He graduated doctor of medicine at 
Edinburgh in October, 1763 (D.M.I, de Febre Inter- 
mittente) ; and soon after, at the recommendation of 
his namesake, though no relation, Dr. John Fothergill, 
settled at Northampton. There he met with more dif- 
ficulties and had greater opposition to encounter than 
either he or his patron had been led to expect. Ulti- 
mately, however, they were overcome, and his position 
in that town and neighbourhood seems to have come up 
to his desires. He continued at Northampton many 



1779] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 323 

years, and in 1774 was appointed physician to the hos- 
pital in that town. Dr. Fothergill was admitted a 
fellow of the Royal Society 12th November, 1778 ; a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1779 ; and in 1781, on the death of Dr. John 
Fothergill, he removed to London and settled in Harpur- 
street, the residence of his deceased friend. But his suc- 
cess in town not proving equal to his expectations, he 
removed to Bath in the latter part of 1784, where he 
soon acquired an extensive business, and realised a good 
fortune. In 1803 Dr. Fothergill relinquished practice, 
and set out on a visit to the western hemisphere. He 
remained in America several years, but returned to this 
country in 1812, and died at St. George's-place, Surrey, 
llth May, 1813, aged seventy- eight. He left consider- 
able wealth, most of which was bequeathed to chari- 
table institutions. He was a frequent contributor to 
the Transactions of the Medical Society of London, 
and the following separate publications were from his 
pen : 

Hints for Restoring Animation, and for Preserving Mankind 
against Noxious Vapours. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

A New Inquiry into the Suspension of Vital Action in cases of 
Drowning and Suffocation. 8vo. Lond. 1795. 

A New Experimental Inquiry into the Nature and Qualities of 
the Cheltenham Waters. 8vo. Bath. 1788. 

Cautions to the Heads of Families on the Poison of Lead and 
Copper. 8vo. Bath. 1790. 

An Essay on the Abuse of Spirituous Liquors. 8vo. Bath. 1797. 

An Essay on the Nature of the Disease occasioned by the Bite of 
a Mad Dog. 8vo. Lond. 1798. 

An Essay on the Preservation of Shipwrecked Mariners, in 
Answer to the Prize Questions proposed by the Royal Humane So- 
ciety. 8vo. Lond. 1799. 

JAMES FORD, JUNR., M.D., was the son of James 
Ford, M.D., physician extraordinary to the queen, and 
a Licentiate of the College already mentioned. He re- 
ceived his preliminary education at Westminster, and 
was then sent to Edinburgh, where he took his degree 
of doctor of medicine in 1777 (D.M.I, de Fermenta- 

Y 2 



324 ROLL OF THE [1781 

tione). He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1779 ; and was elected phy- 
sician to St. George's hospital 23rd June, 1786, but re- 
signed that office in the latter part of 1793. He died 
at Exmouth, co. Devon, after a short illness, 18th 
March, 1799, aged forty -five. 

STEPHEN PELLET, M.D., was born in London. His 
education was commenced at Lausanne ; afterwards he 
went to Geneva, and for two years was a pupil of De 
Saussure. He returned to England, and was matri- 
culated at Hertford college, Oxford, as a member of 
which house he proceeded A.B. 14th May, 1773. He 
then removed to Edinburgh, where, after a four years' 
course of study, he graduated doctor of medicine 24th 
June, 1779 (D.M.I, de Palustrium Locorum Insalubri- 
tate a Miasmate Oriunda). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 20th March, 1780 ; 
and practised first at Reading, but afterwards removed 
to St. Alban's, where, besides his usual practice as a 
physician, he had a house for the reception of lunatics 
of the upper class. He was for more than a quarter of 
a century an acting magistrate for the liberty of St. 
Alban's. Dr. Pellet eventually retired from practice, 
and removed to London. He died at Westbourn-green, 
November 28, 1824, aged seventy-eight. 

CHARLES ELSDEN BAGGE, M.D., was born in Norfolk, 
and educated at Caius college, Cambridge, of which he 
was a fellow. He proceeded M.B. 1774 ; M.D. 1779 ; 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1779 ; and a Fellow, 30th September, 
1780. He practised for a short period in London, but 
then settled at Lynn Re^is, where he remained some 
years, but eventually removed to East Dereham ; and, 
as I conceive, died there in 1798 or 1799. 

THOMAS BOWDLER, M.D., was born at Ashley, near 
Bath, 4th January, 1754, and received his medical edu- 



1781] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 325 

cation at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 1776 
(D.M.I, de Febrium [ntermittentium Natura et Indole). 
He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 9th April, 1781 ; a fellow of the Boyal Society in 
1781 ; and a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 
1784. In 1788 he published an interesting volume of 
" Letters written in Holland in 1787 ;" and in 1818 a 
well-known and useful work, "The Family Shake- 
speare." Dr. Bowdler closed a long and useful life at 
Bhyddings, near Swansea, on the 24th February, 1825. 

THOMAS CLERK, M.D., a native of Edinburgh, and a 
doctor of medicine of the university of that city of 12th 
September, 1776 (D.M.I, de Hydrocephalo) ; was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 15th 
May, 1781. 



Here, namely from 25th June, 1781, we have again 
the Annals for our guidance. 



WILLIAM KEIR, M.D., was born in Perthshire, and 
educated at Edinburgh, where he took the degree of 
doctor of medicine 12th September, 1778 (D.M.I, de 
Attractione Chemica). He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1781. Dr. Keir 
was elected physician to St. Thomas's hospital in 1780 ; 
and died of fever 6th June, 1783, aged thirty. 

WILLIAM PAYNE, M.D., was born at Worcester, New 
England, and had resided and studied for two years at 
Harvard college, in that country. He was created 
doctor of medicine by the university of Aberdeen 1st 
November, 1775 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 1st October, 1781, and held the 
appointment of physician to the army. 

SIR GILBERT BLANE, BART., M.D., was the son of 



326 ROLL OF THE [1781 

Gilbert Blane, esq., of Blanefield, co. Ayr, and was 
born 29th August, 1747. He was intended for the 
church, and received a good preliminary education ; 
but, his original views having undergone a change, he 
devoted himself to medicine, and spent five years in 
its study at Edinburgh. He took his degree of doctor 
of medicine at Glasgow, 28th August, 1778. Whilst 
at Edinburgh, Dr. Blane had obtained the notice and 
friendship of Dr. Robertson, Dr. Blair, and Dr. Cullen, 
by the last of whom he was introduced to Dr. William 
Hunter, then at the zenith of his reputation in Lon- 
don. To the kindness of lord Holdernesse and the 
warm recommendation of Dr. Hunter, Dr. Blane was 
indebted for an introduction to lord Rodney, with 
whom he sailed in the capacity of private physician, 
but without any public appointment. He was soon 
however, appointed by lord Rodney physician to the 
fleet, and performed the duties of that office with so 
much ability and satisfaction to all concerned, that, 
although the mode of his appointment precluded him 
from enjoying half-pay, yet, in consequence of the 
unanimous application to the Admiralty of all the prin- 
cipal officers who had been on the station, he was re- 
warded by a pension from the Crown, which pension at 
a later period was doubled by the recommendation of 
the Lords of the Admiralty. Returning to England, 
Dr. Blane settled in London ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 3rd December, 1781 ; arid 
in 1783, through the warm recommendation of lord 
Rodney and the friendly assistance of his countrymen 
Sir Walter Farquhar, M.D., and Dr. Saunders, was 
elected physician to St. Thomas's hospital. In 1785, 
on the application of the duke of Clarence, Dr. Blane 
was appointed physician extraordinary to the prince of 
Wales, and in the following year physician to his royal 
highness's household. He was at a later period se- 
lected by the Prince to proceed to Spa, to attend the 
duke of Cumberland, then dangerously ill at that 
watering place. So highly to the satisfaction of the 



1781] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 327 

Prince was this mission executed, that he had next, as 
a mark of royal favour, the higher appointment of phy- 
sician in ordinary. He was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society 13th January, 1785. 

The Government during a series of years had recourse 
to Sir Gilbert Blane on many important occasions. 
When the Admiralty was under lord Spencer, he was 
appointed one of the commissioners for the sick and 
wounded. His arrangements for the provisioning of 
fleets on foreign stations were of a very superior de- 
scription, particularly in supplying them with abun- 
dance of lemon-juice, and making it a regular ingredient 
of diet ; in consequence of which scurvy was soon 
banished from the fleet. He was consulted on the sub- 
ject of quarantine, on the arrangement of the huJks, 
and of some of the prisons on shore, and also with 
respect to the transportation of convicts on all of 
which his advice was conspicuously beneficial. The 
most remarkable occasion, however, on which his opinion 
was sought, was during the alarming mortality which 
took place among the troops at Walcheren. The report 
which he then made was concurred in by the medical 
officers of the army, and led to the abandonment of the 
island. As an acknowledgment of these important 
services, he was created a baronet by the Prince Regent 
26th December, 1812. On the accession of George IV, 
Sir Gilbert Blane was appointed one of the physicians 
in ordinary to the king, and he was continued in the 
same office on the accession of William IV. Sir Gil- 
bert Blane's health began to fail in 1821. He was 
attacked with prurigo senilis in its most inveterate 
form, which nothing but opium in large doses would 
alleviate. This palliative he continued to use in gra- 
dually increasing doses to his death. In January, 1834, 
he was seized with diarrhoea, followed by anasarca and 
ulceration of the legs, which proved fatal on the 27th 
June, 1834, in the eighty-seventh year of his age. He 
was a fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edin- 
burgh, and a member of the French Institute. He read 



ROLL OF THE [1782 

the Croonian lecture on Muscular Action to the Eoyal 
Society in 1788, contributed many important papers 
to the Transactions of various societies, scientific and 
medical, and was the author of 

Observations on the Diseases incident to Seamen. 8vo. Lond. 
1785. 

The Croonian Lecture on Muscular Motion. 4to. Lond. 1790. 

Address on the Practice of Vaccination. 8vo. Lond. 1811. 

Elements of Medical Logiek ; or, Philosophical Principles of the 
Practice of Physic. 8vo. Lond. ]819. 

Select Dissertations on Medical Science. 8vo. Lond. 1822. 

Statement of the Progressive Improvement in the Health of the 
Royal Navy at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th 
century. 8vo. Lond. 1830. 

Warning to the Public on the Cholera of India. 8vo. Lond. 
1832. 

An unfinished portrait of Sir Gilbert Blane, by Sir 
Martin Archer Shee, presented by his family, is in the 
College. 

JOHN WHITEHEAD, M.D., was born in Lancashire of 
humble parents, about the year 1740. Early in life he 
became connected with the Wesleys, and under their 
auspices preached at Bristol and elsewhere. He soon 
however left them, and started as a linen draper at 
Bristol ; but failed in business, when he came to London 
and joined the society of Friends. By some leading 
members of that body he was established in a school at 
Wandsworth, where many of their children were edu- 
cated. Some time after this Mr. Barclay, wishing his 
son to travel on the continent, proposed to Whitehead 
to become his companion, offering him an annuity of 
one hundred pounds for life, and paying all the ex- 
penses of the tour. He accepted the offer, and in 
course of travel they reached Leyden, where White- 
head, then thirty-nine years of age, was on the 16th 
September, 1779, inscribed on the physic line. He 
graduated doctor of medicine at Leyden 4th February, 
1780 (D.M.I, de Causa Reciprocarum Contractionum 
Cordis et Arteriarum). He was admitted a Licentiate 



1782] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 329 

of the College of Physicians 25th March, 1782. Dr. 
Whitehead on the death of Dr. Kooystra in 1781 be- 
came physician to the London dispensary, and in 1784 
the Friends made a vigorous effort to secure his elec- 
tion as physician to the London hospital. On the 28th 
July in that year he was returned as elected, but 
almost immediately afterwards the election was de- 
clared not valid, and Dr. John Cooke was appointed to 
the vacant office. Soon after this Dr. Whitehead 
seceded from the society of Friends, and united him- 
self again to the Wesley s. Thenceforward he preached 
often in their connection, and was highly esteemed 
therein, both as physician and preacher, so much so 
indeed, that he attended Wesley in his last illness as 
his physician, and preached his funeral sermon. Dr. 
Whitehead died in London 7th March, 1804, aged 
sixty -four. He was the author of 

A Report of a New, Easy, and Successful Method of treating the 
Childbed or Puerperal Fever, made use of by M. Doulcet. From 
the French. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

Letter on the difference between the Medical Society of Crane 
court and Dr. Whitehead. 8vx>. Lond. 1784. 

The Life of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M., sometime fellow of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, collected from his Private Papers and 
printed Works, and written at the request of his Executors. 2 vols. 
8vo. Lond. 1793-96. 

WILLIAM LISTER, M.D., was born in Hertfordshire, 
and educated at Edinburgh, where he took the degree 
of doctor of medicine 12th September, 1781 (D.M.I, 
de Fermentatione). He then settled in London, and 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th March, 1782. Dr. Lister was appointed physician 
to the Small-pox hospital 16th April, 1789, but resigned 
that office in February, 1791. On the death of Dr. 
Crawford, in 1795, he was elected physician to St. 
Thomas's hospital, which appointment he retained 
until 1817. He died at his house in Lincoln's-inn- 
fields, from disease of the heart, the 3rd February, 
1830, aged seventy -three. Dr. Lister was much es- 



330 ROLL OF THE [1783 

teemed by his contemporaries. " He possessed an 
acute and vigorous understanding, which had received 
the culture of a liberal and extended education. He 
was a good classical scholar, and until within a short 
time of his death was in the daily habit of devoting 
some intervals of leisure to the poets or historians of 
Greece and Rome. He was a painstaking, judicious, 
and successful practitioner, had a just conception of 
what belonged to the character of a physician, and 
always maintained by example as well as by precept 
the dignity and value of his profession." His bust is 
in the entrance hall of the new St. Thomas's hospital. 

JAMES HERVEY, M.D., was born in London, and re- 
ceived his preliminary education, first at a school at 
Northampton, and subsequently at home under a private 
tutor. He was then sent to Oxford, and entered at 
Queen's college, as a member of which he proceeded A.B. 
30th May, 1771; A.M. 9th June, 1774; M.B. 15th 
January, 1777 ; M.D. 7th July, 1781. Dr. Hervey was 
elected physician to Guy's hospital in 1779 ; was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 1st Oc- 
tober, 1781 ; and a Fellow, 30th September, 1782. Pos- 
sessed of a comfortable independence, Dr. Hervey was 
little solicitous for business. He regularly attended for 
some years at Tunbridge Wells during the summer, but 
more for the sake of his own health and recreation than 
for professional employment. His practice there was 
select rather than extensive ; but he acquired the repu- 
tation of an able physician. He was Gulstonian lec- 
turer in 1783 ; Censor in 1783, 1787, 1789, 1795, 1802, 
1809 ; Registrar from 1784 to 1814; Harveian orator 
in 1785; Lumleian lecturer from 1789 to 1811; and 
Elect, 4th May, 1809. Dr. Hervey was the first ap- 
pointed registrar of the National Vaccine Establishment. 
He died at the commencement of 1824. 

CHRISTOPHER MANN TORRE, A.M. Of Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, A.B. 1779 ; A.M. 1782. He was ad- 



1783] KOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 331 

mitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
15th March, 1783, and then settled at Pontefract, where 
he practised for many years ; and, dying on the 23rd 
October, 1824, was buried in All Saints church in that 
town, where there is a tablet thus inscribed : 

To Christopher Mann Torre, Esq , 

son of Nicholas Torre, Esq., and Mary his wife, of Pontefract, 
who departed this life October 23, 1824, 

in the 68th year of his age. 
That he possessed the best feelings of the heart, 

was manifested by his piety to God, 
and his unwearied benevolence to those who required his assistance. 

That he was beloved and esteemed, 

was evidenced in the grief of his sorrowful relations, 

in the unfeigned regret of many who cherish the remembrance of 

his worth, 

and in the heartfelt tribute of him whose gratitude and affection 
dedicates this tablet to the memory of his virtues. 

JOHN Fox, M.D. A doctor of medicine, of what uni- 
versity is not recorded ; was admitted an Extra- Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 29th April, 1783. He 
practised at Falmouth. 

BENJAMIN CHANDLER, M.D., was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College 31st October, 1783. He prac- 
tised at Canterbury ; and, dying there on the 10th May, 
1786, aged forty-nine, was buried in the church of St. 
Mary Magdalene, in that city. In the south aisle is a 
flagstone thus inscribed : 

Here lie the remains of 
Benjamin Chandler, Junr., M.D., 

a man of great erudition 
and singularly eminent in his profession. 

He died on the 10th of May, 1786, 
deeply lamented by his relatives and friends. 

He was the author of- 
An Essay on the present Method of Inoculation. 8vo. Lond. 

1767. 

An Enquiry into the various Theories and Methods of Care in 

Apoplexies and Palsies. 8vo. Canterbury. 1785. 



332 ROLL OF THE [1783 

ROBERT FREER, M.D. A native of Perthshire, and 
a doctor of medicine of Aberdeen, of 23rd February, 
1779 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 25th June, 1783. He died in Scotland, where 
he had long practised, about the year 1827. 

DEVEREUX MYTTON, M.D., was born in Montgomery- 
shire, and educated at Pembroke college, Oxford. He 
proceeded A.B. 2nd December, 1773; A.M. 5th July, 
1776 ; M.B. 6th January, 1781 ; M.D. 13th December, 
1781 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 30th September, 1782 ; and a Fellow, 30th Sep- 
tember, 1783. He practised for a few years at Wind- 
sor, but at the age of fifty withdrew to his native county 
and took to farming, in which he was very successful. 
He died at Varchoel, Montgomeryshire, on the 30th 
September, 1841, aged eighty-seven, and was buried in 
the parish church of Garth, in that county. His memo- 
rial is as follows : 

Sacred to the Memory of 
Devereux Mytton, Esq., M.D., 

of Varchoel, in this parish, 
third son of Devereux Mytton, Esq., 

of Garth, and Anne his wife, 
and grandson of Richard Mytton, Esq., 

of Pontyscowryd, 
and Dorothy his wife, only child of 

Brochwell Wynn, of Garth. 

He departed this life Sept. 30th, 1841, 

in the 87th year of his age. 

JOHN MATTHEWS, M.D., was born in Herefordshire, 
and educated at Merton college, Oxford, as a member 
of which he proceeded A.B. 3rd March, 1778 ; A.M. 2nd 
June, 1779; M.B. 31st May, 1781; M.D. 6th July, 
1782. He was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1782 ; and a Fellow, 30th 
September, 1783. He delivered the Gulstonian lec- 
tures in 1784. Dr. Matthews was elected physician to 
St. George's hospital 20th April, 1781, but resigned that 
office in 1783, when he relinquished the practice of his 



1783] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 333 

profession, and withdrew to his native county. He 
there became alderman and one of the magist rates of 

O 

Hereford, chairman of the quarter sessions, and colonel 
of the first regiment of Herefordshire militia. He died 
at his seat, Belmont, Hereford, after a protracted illness 
of intense suffering, on the 15th January, 1826, aged 
seventy. 

THOMAS DENMAN, M.D., was born at Bakewell, co. 
Derby, 27th June, 1733, and was educated at the gram- 
mar-school of that town. He was the second sou of 
Mr. John Denman, a respectable apothecary, who died 
in 1752, when our future physician for some time as- 
sisted his elder brother, who succeeded to the business. 
In his twenty-first year he came to London, and attended 
two courses of lectures on anatomy, and the practice of 
St. George's hospital. He then procured the appoint- 
ment of surgeon's mate in the navy. In 1757 he 
was made surgeon through the interest of the dowager 
duchess of Devonshire, and, after a cruise of seventeen 
months off the coast of Africa, was appointed to the 
Edgar, a new ship of sixty guns, commanded by captain 
(afterwards admiral) Drake, with whom he continued 
until the conclusion of peace in 1763, when he left the 
service. Repairing to London, he renewed his studies, 
and attended Dr. Smellie's lectures on midwifery. He 
was created doctor of medicine by the university of 
Aberdeen 13th July, 1764, and then endeavoured to 
establish himself as a physician at Winchester. This 
attempt proving unsuccessful, he returned to London, 
but his prospects were so little flattering, that he ac- 
tually made an attempt to resume his situation as sur- 
geon in the navy. Fortunately for his future career he 
was unable to procure a warrant. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the surgeoncy to one of the royal yachts, 
which he obtained through the influence of lord George 
Cavendish, and the friendly recommendation of his for- 
mer commander, captain Drake, bringing him a salary of 
seventy pounds per annum, without materially affecting 



334 ROLL OF THE [1783 

his London practice, afforded him an important addition 
to his small income. About this period he commenced 
lecturing on midwifery, in conjunction with Dr. Osborne. 
These lectures, which were continued for fifteen years, 
gave him a high reputation; and on the 5th October, 
1769, he was appointed physician-accoucheur to the 
Middlesex hospital. Dr. Denman's progress as a prac- 
titioner was at first, however, slow. Dr. William Hun- 
ter then occupied the first place as accoucheur at the 
west end of the town, and Dr. Ford was in the enjoy- 
ment of an extensive and lucrative practice. On their 
removal Dr. Denman made rapid progress ; he soon 
attained to the summit of his department of the pro- 
fession, and maintained his position with a firmness of 
which there have been but few examples. In 1783 his 
private engagements had become so numerous that he 
was compelled to resign his office at the Middlesex hos- 
pital. He was admitted by the College of Physicians 
a Licentiate in Midwifery 22nd December, 1783.* In 
1791 Dr. Denman purchased a house at Feltham, near 
Hounslow, and withdrew from the more harassing and 
laborious part of his practice, but he never quitted it 
entirely. He limited himself to consultations, and in 
that capacity was much esteemed and much resorted 
to. He died at his house in Mount-street, Grosvenor- 
square, 26th November, 1815, aged eighty-two, and 
was buried at St. James's, Piccadilly, where there is the 
following simple inscription : 

Thomas Denman, M.D., 
born June 27, 1733, died Nov r . 26, 1815. 

Elizabeth his wife 
born Jan*. 23, 1746, died Jan y . 19, 1833. 

"To a well-cultivated mind and sound judgment, 
aided by experience and enriched by reading the best 
authors, Dr. Denman added the more pleasing qualities 
of mildness, amenity of manners, patience, and unre- 

* "1783, Oct r . 6. The College having taken into consideration 
the Practice of Midwifery resolved that Licences be granted to 
Practitioners in Midwifery." Annals, vol. xv, p. 35. 



1783] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 335 

mitting attention to his profession. He was of a cheer- 
ful disposition and peculiar simplicity of manners, re- 
markably temperate and regular in his habits of life, 
humble and unassuming in his deportment. To the poor 
he was ever attentive and a kind benefactor ; not only 
privately relieving them and giving them advice, but 
also an active promoter of public charities, In the pri- 
vate circles of domestic life and the bosom of his family, 
he was always amiable and entertaining, and from his 
reading, experience, and having been much in the high- 
est circles he was full of anecdote. But the best trait 
in the character of this excellent man was his religious 
principle ; he not only had a firm belief in religion, but 
he adorned it by his practice, uniformly showing it by 
his life."* By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. 
Alexander Brodie, he left one son, Thomas, who became 
lord chief justice of England, and a peer of the realm ; 
and two daughters, one married to Matthew Baillie, 
M.D., and the other to Sir Richard Croft, M.D. Dr. 
Denman's portrait by L. F. Abbot was engraved by 
Skelton in 1792. From Dr. Denman's pen we have 

A Letter on the Construction and Use of Vapour Baths. 8vo. 
Lond. 1768. 

Essays on the Puerperal Fever, and on Puerperal Convulsions. 
8vo. Lond. 1768. 

Aphorisms on the Application and Use of the Forceps and Yectis 
in Preternatural Labours, or Labours attended with Hemorrhage or 
Convulsions. 18mo. Lond. 1783. 

An Essay on Uterine Hemorrhages depending on Pregnancy and 
Parturition. 8vo. Lond. 1786. 

An Essay on Preternatural Labours. 8vo. Lond. 1786. 

An Essay on Natural Labours. 8vo. Lond. 1786. 

A Collection of Engravings tending to illustrate the Generation 
and Parturition of Animals, and of the Human Species. 4to. Lond. 
1787. 

An Introduction to the Practice of Midwifery. 8vo. Lond. 

Plates of Polypi of the Uterus. 4to. Lond. 1800. 

Observations on Rupture of the Uterus, on the Snuffles in Infants, 
and on Mania Lactea. 8vo. Lond. 1810. 

Observations on the Cure of Cancers. 8vo. Lond. 1810. 

* Gent. Mag. for 1815, vol. Uxxv, part ii, p. 567. 



336 ROLL OF THE [1784 

WILLIAM OSBORNE, M.D. A native of London, and 
a doctor of medicine of St. Andrew's of 10th October, 
1777; was admitted by the College of Physicians a 
Licentiate in Midwifery 22nd December, 1783. He 
was physician to the General Lying-in hospital in 
Store-street, and for many years delivered lectures on 
midwifery in conjunction with Dr. Deiiman. He died 
at his residence, Old Park, near Dover, 15th August, 
1808, aged seventy-two. His portrait by J. Hardy, 
was engraved by J. Jones. Dr. Osborne was the author 
of 

An Essay on Laborious Parturition, in which the Division of the 
S jraphy sis Pubis is considered. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

Essays on the Practice of Midwifery. 8vo. Lond. 1792. 

BOBERT HALLIFAX, M.D., was born in 1735, and 
was the son of Robert Hallifax an apothecary at Mans- 
field, by his wife Hannah, a sister of Samuel Jebb, 
M.D. Of his education, general or medical, I can re- 
cover no particulars. He had been apothecary to the 
king's household and to the prince of Wales ; and hav- 
ing, on the 24th January, 1783, been created doctor of 
medicine by the archbishop of Canterbury, was, on the 
5th April, 1784, admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians. In the following year he was appointed 
physician extraordinary to the prince of Wales, and 
physician to H.RH/s household ; and in 1787, physi- 
cian in ordinary to the Prince, an appointment which 
he retained to the time of his death, which occurred 
at Bath, 17th September, 1810. His brother was 
bishop of Gloucester. 

MICHAEL UNDERWOOD, M.D., was born in Surrey, 
and educated as a surgeon-apothecary, in which capa- 
city he practised for several years. Eventually, how- 
ever, he limited his practice to midwifery and the 
diseases of women and children, and was admitted by 
the College of Physicians a Licentiate in Midwifery 
5th April, 1784. Shortly after this he obtained a 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 337 

degree of doctor of medicine from one of the Scotch 
universities. Dr. Underwood was physician to the 
British Lying-in hospital, and physician to the princess 
of Wales, whom he attended at the birth of the prin- 
cess Charlotte. He died at Knightsbridge March 14, 
1820, aged eighty-four, being the last surviving Licen- 
tiate in Midwifery of the College. Dr. Underwood was 
the author of 

A Treatise upon Ulcers of the Legs, Scrophulous Sores, and 
Mammary Abscesses. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

Surgical Tracts on Ulcers of the Legs. 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

A Treatise on the Diseases of Children, with General Directions 
for the Management of Infants. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1795. 

CHARLES COMBE, M.D. This accomplished scholar 
and estimable man was the son of a respectable apothe- 
cary, and was born in Southampton-street, Bloomsbury- 
square, 23rd September, 1743. He was educated at 
Harrow under Dr. Thackeray ; and, having risen to the 
sixth form, left the school when between sixteen and 
seventeen years of age, with the intention of proceeding 
forthwith to Queen's college, Oxford. His elder bro- 
ther, who was then assisting his father in the business, 
being in a bad state of health, and soon afterwards 
dying, Dr. Combe remained at home ; and, having gone 
through the usual education at -the London hospitals, 
in 1768 succeeded to his father's business. His taste 
for antiquities, more especially numismatics, was early 
manifested, and introduced him to the notice of Dr. 
William Hunter, whose esteem and friendship he soon 
succeeded in obtaining. At his death in 1783, Dr. 
Hunter left him, jointly with Dr. George Fordyce and 
Dr. David Pitcairn, executor and trustee to his museum. 
Dr. Combe's attainments as a scholar and antiquary 
were by this time generally known and appreciated. He 
had been elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
in 1771 ; and a fellow of the Royal Society in 1770 ; 
and in 1784 the university of Glasgow conferred on him 
the degree of doctor of medicine. Dr. Combe then com- 
menced practice as an obstetric physician, and on the 

VOL. II. Z 



338 ROLL OF THE [1734 

5th of April, 1784, was admitted by the College of Phy- 
sicians a Licentiate in Midwifery. He was elected phy- 
sician to the British Lying-in hospital in 1789 ; and, on 
resigning that office in 1810, was, at a special general 
court convened for that purpose, unanimously appointed 
consulting physician. Dr. Combe died at his house in 
Vernon-place, Bloomsbury-square, 18th March, 1817, 
in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and was buried in 
Bloomsbury cemetery, Brunswick-square. His portrait 
was painted by Medley, and engraved by N. Bran- 
white. Dr. Combe had made a very valuable collection 
in Materia Medica, and this the College purchased 
shortly after his death. He contributed various papers 
to the periodical publications of the time, but the works 
by which he is best known, and on which his reputation 
now rests, are the following : 

Index Nummorum omnium Imperatorum Augustorum et Cassa- 
rum, a Julio Caesare ad Postumum, qui tarn in Roma et Coloniis, 
quam in Graecia, Egypto, et aliis locis ex ^Ere magni moduli sig- 
nabantur. 4to. Lond. 1773. 

Nummorum veterum Populorum et Urbium qui in Museo Grulielmi 
Hunter asservantur Descriptio, figuris illustrata. 4to. Lond. 1782. 

In 1793 Dr. Conibe brought out, conjointly with 
Mr. Homer, fellow of Emmanuel college, Cambridge, a 
splendid edition of Horace in two volumes, quarto, a 
magnificent specimen of typography, enriched with a 
judicious selection of notes, and the best index to the 
works of Horace which had ever appeared. This led to 
the publication of a pamphlet entitled 

A Statement of Facts relative to the Behaviour of Dr. Parr to 
the late Mr. H. Homer and Dr. Combe. 8vo. Lond. 1793. 

A Catalogue of a Collection of Prints, formed with a view fco elu- 
cidate and improve the History of Engraving from ths earliest 
period of the Art till the year 1700. 8vo. Lond. 1803. 

JOHN GIDEON CAULET, M.D., was the son of John 
Caulet, late of Oporto, wine merchant, and Elizabeth 
(Page) his wife. Born in London and educated at St. 
Paul's school, he was admitted a pensioner of St. John's 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 339 

college, Cambridge, 17th May, 1770, aged seventeen, 
and as a member of that house proceeded M.B. 1777 ; 
M.D. 1782. He was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 25th June, 1783 ; a Fellow, 25th 
June, 1784 ; was Censor in 1784 ; and Gulstonian lec- 
turer in 1785. He was elected physician to St. Bar- 
tholomew's hospital 26th August, 1784; and died of 
fever 24th July, 1786, in the thirty-sixth year of his 
age. 

AD AIR CRAWFORD, M.D., was born at Antrim, in 
Ireland, and took his degree of doctor of medicine at 
Glasgow 24th January, 1780. He then settled in Lon- 
don, was appointed physician to the General dispen- 
sary ; and on the resignation of Dr. H. R. Reynolds, 
was elected physician to St. Thomas's hospital. He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1784; and a fellow of the Royal Society 
18th May, 1786. Dr. Crawford was an accomplished 
chemist, and will long be remembered as the author of 
an ingenious theory on the origin of animal heat. He 
held the professorship of chemistry at Woolwich, and 
died at the marquis of Lansdowne's seat, near Lyming- 
ton, Hants, whither he had gone for the benefit of his 
health, on the 29th July, 1795. His epitaph was writ- 
ten by Mr. Gilbert Wakefield for a monument which 
lord Lansdowne had purposed erecting to the memory 
of his friend. The monument was not completed, in 
consequence of the death of the marquis, which occurred 
shortly after he had given orders for its erection. Mr. 
Wakefield's inscription was as follows : 

To the Memory of 
ADAIK CRAWFORD, M.D. F.R.S., 
who departed this life on the 29th of 
July, 1795, in the forty-seventh year of his age. 
In the practice of his profession 
intelligent, liberal, and humane ; 

in his manner 

gentle, diffident, and unassuming : 

his unaffected deference to the wants of 

others, 

z 2 



340 ROLL OF THE [1784 

his modest estimation of himself, 
the infant simplicity of his demeanour, 

the pure emanation 

of kind affection, and a blameless heart, 
rendered him universally beloved ! 

To these virtues of the man, 
his contemporaries alone can testify. 

As a votary of science, 

and Author of a treatise on Animal Heat, 

posterity will repeat his praise. 

The most noble the Marquis of Lansdowne, 
to whose house the Doctor had retired 
from London, for a respite from the 
duties of his profession, and who 

respected him while living, 
erected this Monument to his Memory. 

Dr. Crawford was the author of 

Experiments and Observations on Animal Heat, and the Inflam- 
mation of Combustible Bodies. 8vo. Lond. 1779. 

An Experimental Enquiry into the Effects of Tonics and other 
Medicinal Substances on the cohesion of the Animal Fibre. Edited 
by Ad. Crawford. 8vo. Lond. 1816. 

WILLIAM ROWLEY, M.D., was of Irish extraction, 
but was born in London on the 18th November, 1743. 
He was bred a surgeon ; and in that capacity was in the 
king's service from 1760 to 1765 ; and was present at 
the siege of Belleisle, and the taking of Havannah. He 
commenced practice in London as a surgeon and ac- 
coucheur, but after a few years, viz., on the 23rd April, 
1774, obtained a degree of doctor of medicine from the 
university of St. Andrew's ; and was admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1784. 
He had some time previous to this entered himself at 
St. Alban's hall, Oxford, with the view of qualifying 
himself for admission to the Fellowship of the College 
of Physicians ; and as a member of that house he pro- 
ceeded A.B. 9th June, 1784; A.M. 24th May, 1787; 
M.B. 17th July, 1788. Some objections on account of 
non-residence, or some deviation from the statutes of 
the university, were opposed to his further progress ; 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 341 

and he was not allowed to complete his doctor's degree. 
Dr. Rowley was physician to the Marylebone infirmary, 
and consulting physician to the Queen's Lying-in hos- 
pital. He died at his house in Savile-row 1 7th March, 
1806, and was buried with much pomp in St. James's 
chapel. Hampstead-road. 

Dr. Rowley was a determined opponent of vaccina- 
tion, and obtained an unenviable notoriety by his asso- 
ciation with Dr. Moseley in opposing every conceivable 
obstacle to the reception and progress of that invaluable 
discovery. His writings, which were numerous, are 
most of them popular in style, addressed to the public 
rather than to the profes'sion ; and were calculated to 
promote his own private interests rather than to ad- 
vance the science and art which it was his province to 
cultivate and practise. They have long fallen into com- 
plete and deserved oblivion. Neither his character nor 
career were of a kind we delight to dwell on. I hasten, 
therefore, to the following list of his writings : 

A Treatise on the Causes and Cure of Swelled Legs, on Dropsies, 
and on the Modes of retarding the Decay of the Constitution in the 
Decline of Life. 8vo. Lond. 1770. 

Essay on Ophthalmia, or Inflammation of the Eyes and the Dis- 
eases of the Transparent Cornea. 8vo. Lond. 1771. 

Essay on the Cure of Gonorrhoea, or fresh contracted Venereal 
Disease, without the use of internal medicines. 8vo. Lond. 1771. 

Practical Essay on the Disease of the Breasts of Women. 8vo. 
Lond. 1772. 

A Course of Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. 
8vo. Lond. 1773. 

A Letter to Dr. William Hunter, occasioned by the Death of the 
late Lady Holland. 8vo. Lond. 1774. 

A Second Letter to Dr. Hunter. 8vo. Lond. 1775. 

Medical Advice for the Army and Navy in the present American 
Expedition. 8vo. Lond. 1776. 

Seventy-four Select Cases, with the Manner of Cure, and the 
proportion of the Remedies. 8vo. Lond. 1778. 

An Essay on the Malignant Ulcerated Sore Throat. 8vo. Lond. 
1778. 

The Gout and Rheumatism cured or alleviated. 8vo. Lond. 1780. 

A Treatise on Female, Nervous, Hysterical, Hypochondriacal, 
Bilious, Convulsive Diseases, Apoplexy, and Palsy. 8vo. Lond. 
1789. 



342 ROLL OF THE [1784 

A. Treatise on Regular, Irregular, Atonic, and Flying Gout. 8vo. 
Lond. 1792. 

Observations on the Causes of the great number of Deaths in 
Putrid Scarlet Fevers and Ulcerated Sore Throats. 8vo. Lond. 
1793. 

Schola Medicinse Universalis Nova, historian!, anatomiam, phy- 
siologiam atque pathologiam specialem continens, cum 68 tabulis 
seneis. 2 torn. 4to. 1793. 

The New Universal History and School of Medicine, translated 
into English from the original Greek and Latin edition. 4to. 
Lond. 1793. 

The Rational and Improved Practice of Physic, &c. 4 yols. 8vo. 
Lond. 1793. 

The most Cogent Reasons why Astringent Injections, Caustic, 
Bougies, and violent Salivations in Venereal Affections should be 
banished for ever from practice. 8vo. Lond. 

A Treatise on the Hydrocephalus, or Watery Head of Children. 
8vo. Lond. 

Truth Vindicated ; or, the Specific Differences of Mental Dis- 
eases ascertained. 8vo. Lond. 1 790. 

A Treatise on the Plague, Putrid, Malignant, Infectious Fevers 
of Spain, Gibraltar, Hot Climates, &c. 8vo. Lond. 

Cow-pox Inoculation no Security against Small-pox Infection. 
8vo. Lond. 

JOHN MEYER, M.D., was the son of a banker at 
Vienna, and was born at Lindau, on the lake of Con- 
stance, 27th December, 1749. He entered the univer- 
sity of Strasburg in 1764 ; and after an extended clas- 
sical and medical education, proceeded doctor of medi- 
cine in 1771 (D.M.L de Fistula Ani. 4to.). He then 
studied for three years under Quarin at Vienna ; and 
after visiting Dresden, Leipsic, and Berlin, came to Lon- 
don and attended the medical practice of Guy's hos- 
pital. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1784. He practised for some 
years in London, and died at Brighton, after a lingering 
illness, on the 30th July, 1825, aged seventy-five. 

THOMAS KSOWLES, M.D. A native of Yorkshire, 
who was entered on the physic line at Leyden 18th 
June, 1771, being then thirty-five years of age, and 
graduated doctor of medicine there in 1772 (D.M.L de 
Vita Sedentaria), was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 343 

lege of Physicians 25th June, 1784. He died at his 
house in Lombard-street, 16th November, 1786. His 
widow, a Quaker, was eminent for her skill in needle- 
work.* 

GEORGE PEARSON, M.D., was born in 1751, at Ro- 
therham in Yorkshire ; and after a good preliminary 
education was sent to Edinburgh, between which, Ley- 
den and London, he pursued his medical studies. He 
took the degree of doctor of medicine at Edinburgh in 
1774 (D.M.I, de Putredine Animalibus post Mortem 
superveniente). Dr. Pearson settled in the first in- 
stance at Doncaster, but subsequently removed to Lon - 
don ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 25th June, 1784 ; and elected physician to St. 
George's hospital 23rd February, 1787. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the Royal Society 30th June, 1791. 
For a long series of years he lectured on chemistry, 
materia medica, and the practice of physic. As a lec- 
turer he was plain, distinct, comprehensive, and im- 
pressively energetic, and on many occasions he was 
argumentative, often witty, and even eloquent when a 
favourite subject was the object of display. His lec- 
tures were always popular, and to the last he com- 
manded a numerous class. As a practitioner he was 
judicious and safe rather than strikingly acute or origi- 
nal. He was a sound Latin scholar, a disinterested 
friend, a good-humoured and jocose companion ; he 
abounded in anecdotes, which in his lectures, equally as 
in society, he told with excellent effect. He was a 
passionate admirer of Shakespeare, was in the constant 
habit of quoting him, and left in manuscript some 
clever commentaries on the great dramatic bard. He 
and Kemble knew each other at Doncaster, and their 
intimacy continued long after. Dr. Pearson continued 
in practice to the last. He died at his house in Hano- 
ver-square, from a fall down stairs, on the 9th Novem- 
ber, 1828, aged seventy-seven. He was a frequent con- 

* Public Characters, 17901800, p. 545. 



344 ROLL OF THE [1784 

tributor to the " Philosophical Transactions," and the 
author of the following works : 

Observations and Experiments for Investigating the Chemical 
History of the Tepid Springs of Buxton. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

Directions for Impregnating the Buxton Waters with its own 
and other Gases, and for composing Artificial Buxton Waters. Bvo. 
Lond. 1785. 

Translation of the Table of Chemical Nomenclature proposed by 
De Gayton, &c. 4to. Lond. 1795. 

An Inquiry concerning the History of the Cow-pock, principally 
with a view to supersede and extinguish the Small-pox. 8vo. Lond. 
1798. 

Experiments and Observations on the Constituent Parts of the 
Potatoe Root. 4to. Lond. 

The Substance of a Lecture on the Inoculation of the Cow-pock. 
8vo. Lond. 1798. 

Arranged Catalogue of the Articles of Food, Seasoning, and Me- 
dicine, for the use of Lectures on Therapeutics and Materia Medica. 
8vo. Lond. 1801. 

An Examination of the Report of the Committee of the House 
of Commons on the Claims of Remuneration for the Vaccine Pock 
Inoculation. 8vo. Lond. 1802. 

Report on the Cow-pock Inoculation during the years 1800, 1801, 
and 1802. 8vo. Lond. 1803. 

A Statement of Evidence from Trials of Yariolous and Vaccine 
Matter in Inoculation, to judge whether or no a person can un- 
dergo the Small-pox after being affected with the Cow-pock. 8vo. 
Lond. 1804. 

A Communication to the Board of Agriculture on the use of 
Green Vitriol or Sulphate of Iron as a Manure. 4to. Lond. 1805. 

A Syllabus of Lectures on the Practice of Medicine. 8vo. Lond. 

An Address to the Heads of Families, by one of the Physicians 
to the Vaccine Pock Institution. 

A Paper containing the Results of Eleven Years' Practice at the 
Original Vaccine Pock Institution. 8vo. Lond. 1811. 

THOMAS WATSON, M.D. A native of London, and a 
doctor of medicine, of what university is not recorded, 
but probably of Leyden, as his name was entered on 
the physic line there 14th July, 1782, he being then 
thirty-six years of age. He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 9th August, 1784. He 
practised for some years in Chan eery -lane, but then 
removed to Burwash in Sussex, and finally to Tun- 
bridge. 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 345 

WILLIAM WOODVILLE, M.D., was born at Cocker- 
mouth, co. Cumberland, and educated at Edinburgh, 
where he became a favourite pupil of Dr. Cullen, and 
took the degree of doctor of medicine 12th September, 
1775 (D.M.I, de Causis Irritabilitatem Fibrarum Motri- 
cium augentibus). He began practice at Papcastle in 
his native county, but shortly removed to Denbigh, 
North Wales, where he remained a few years only. In 
1782 Dr. Woodville settled in London, and was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 9th 
August, 1784. He was elected physician to the Small- 
pox and Inoculation hospitals 17th March, 1791 ; and 
died of a chronic pulmonary complaint at the hospital, 
whither he had been removed at his own particular re- 
quest, on the 26th March, 1805, in the fifty-eighth 
year of his age. His portrait by Abbot is at the 
Small- pox hospital. It was engraved by Bond. Dr. 
Woodville was an accomplished botanist, and his office 
of physician to the Small-pox hospital afforded him the 
opportunity of cultivating that science. Some two 
acres of the ground belonging to the institution, then 
situated at King's Cross, was appropriated by him as 
a botanical garden, which he maintained at his own 
expense. He was the author of 

Medical Botany : Systematic and General Descriptions, with 
Plates of all the Medicinal Plants, indigenous and exotic, compre- 
hended in the catalogues of the Materia Medica, as published by the 
Royal College of Physicians of London and Edinburgh. 3 vols. 
4to. Lond. 1790. 

Supplementary Volume. 4to. Lond. 1794. 

The History of the Inoculation of the Small-pox in Great Bri- 
tain. 8vo. Loud. 1796. 

Reports of a Series of Inoculations for the Variolas Vaccinaa or 
Cow-pox. With Remarks and Observations on the Disease con- 
sidered as a Substitute for Small-pox. 8vo. Lond. 1799. 

Observations on the Cow-pox. 8vo. Lond. 1800. 

JOHN RELPH, M.D., a native of Cumberland, was 
entered on the physic line at Leyden 20th March, 1778. 
He graduated doctor of medicine there the same year 
(D.M.I, de Kubeola), and was admitted a Licentiate of 



346 EOLL OF THE [1784 

the College of Physicians 9th August, 1784. He was 
elected physician to Guy's hospital in 1789 ; and died 
in Mark-lane 24th March, 1804. His portrait by 
Medley was engraved by N. Branwhite. He was the 
author of-- 

An Inquiiy into the Medical Efficacy of the Yellow Peruvian 
Bark. 8vo. Lond. 1794. 

CHARLES BROWN, M.D., was admitted an Extra 
Licentiate of the College 2nd September, 1784. He 
practised for some years at Caermarthen, but ultimately 
removed to Berlin. His name disappears from the 
College List in 1830. 

RICHARD HUCK SATJNDERS, M.D., was born in West- 
moreland in 1720 ; and had the misfortune to lose his 
father (Mr. Huck) when he was but a few months old. 
His education was directed by his maternal uncle, 
Mr. Harrison, who sent him to the grammar school of 
Croughland in Cumberland. There he received the ru- 
diments of a classical education, and acquired a compe- 
tent knowledge of Latin. He was then apprenticed for 
five years to Mr. Neal, a surgeon-apothecary, at Penrith, 
after which he proceeded to London, and entered him- 
self at St. Thomas's hospital as a pupil of Mr. John 
Girle. In 1745 he was appointed surgeon to lord 
Semple's regiment, and continued in the service until 
the peace of 1748. He then settled at Penrith; and 
on the 13th October, 1749, received the degree of 
doctor of medicine from Marischal college, Aberdeen. 
In 1750 he was appointed surgeon to the 33rd Regi- 
ment, then at Minorca, whither he at once proceeded, 
and remained for three years. Returning in 1753, the 
regiment was quartered at Edinburgh, and there re- 
mained for two years, when Dr. Huck availed himself 
of the opportunity to attend the medical lectures in 
that university. He next went out to America under 
the earl of Loudoun, was by that nobleman promoted 
to the rank of physician to the army, and in this capa- 
city served during the whole of the war, much to his 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 347 

own credit, and greatly to the benefit of the troops 
under his care. After the successful expedition against 
Havannah he returned to England, but with his health 
much impaired, and was in consequence advised to 
spend some time upon the continent. He made the 
tour of Germany, Italy, and France; when, returning 
to England with his health much improved, he settled 
in London, and commenced practice as a physician. He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
1st April, 1765 ; was elected physician to the Middle- 
sex hospital in September, 1766 ; a.nd physician to St. 
Thomas's hospital in 1768, when he resigned his office 
at the former institution. In 1777 Dr. Huck married 
the niece and heiress of Sir Charles Saundejrs. By this 
union he acquired a large fortune, both in land and 
money, and assumed the name and arms of Saunders. 
He now resigned his appointment at St. Thomas's hos- 
pital, and introduced as his successor Dr. H. R. Rey- 
nolds, who had been induced, mainly on his recommen- 
dation, to leave Guildford and settle in London. In 
1780 Mrs. Saunders, after a protracted illness, died; 
and the doctor, who for many previous winters had suf- 
fered severely from a chronic pulmonary complaint, now 
became much worse his spirits drooped, and never 
recovered their former buoyancy. Although his prac- 
tice was often interrupted by illness, he never relin- 
quished it entirely. His reputation with the public 
and with the profession continued to increase ; and on 
the 18th September, 1784, he was admitted, speciali 
gratid, a Fellow of the College. Dr. Huck Saunders 
died 24th July, 1785, esteemed and lamented by all 
who knew him."* He left two daughters : the elder of 
whom became viscountess Melville ; the younger, coun- 
tess of Westmoreland.f 

* " Neque profecto fas erit incelebratum praeterire Saundersium, 
limati siraul judicii, benignitatis singular-is atque eximiae, qui, eo 
ipso, quo in societatem nostram ascriptus erat, anno e vita excessit : 
cui neque incorrupta fides, nee humanitas summa, raorara indomitaa 
morti afferret." Oratio ex Harvsei institute auctore Jac. Hervey. 

t Duncan's Medical Commentaries, vol. x, p. 325. 



348 BOLL OF THE [1784 

SIR WILLIAM WATSON, M.D., was the son of a re- 
spectable tradesman in St. John-street, Smithfield, and 
was born in 1 7 1 5. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' 
school, and in 1730 was apprenticed to Mr. Richardson, 
an apothecary in the city. In 1738 he commenced 
business for himself. His skill, activity, and diligence 
in his profession, soon distinguished him among his 
acquaintance, as did his taste for natural history and 
his knowledge of natural philosophy among the members 
of the Royal Society, of which he was elected a fellow in 
1741. He devoted much attention to botany and elec- 
tricity, and his writings on these subjects are numerous, 
original, and valuable. His researches in electricity 
were of so interesting a nature that they gave him the 
undisputed lead in this branch of philosophy, and were 
the means not only of raising him to a high degree of 
estimation at home, but of extending his fame through- 
out Europe. At that time it was no small achievement 
in electricity to be able to fire spirits of wine. He was 
the first in England who effected this, and he after- 
wards fired inflammable air, gunpowder, and inflammable 
oils by the same means. He was the first to note the 
different colour of the spark as drawn from different 
bodies, and to prove that electricity suffered no refrac- 
tion in passing through glass ; that the power of elec- 
tricity was not affected by the presence or absence of 
fire, since the sparks were equally strong from a freez- 
ing mixture as from red-hot iron ; that flame and smoke 
were conductors of electricity, and that the stroke was 
as the points of contact of the non-electrics on the out- 
side of the glass. This last investigation led to the 
coating of phials, in order to increase the power of accu- 
mulation, and eminently qualified him to be the prin- 
cipal actor in the celebrated experiments made on the 
T names and at Shooter's-hill in 1747 and 1748, in one 
of which the electric circuit was extended to four miles 
in order to prove the velocity of its transmission. He 
received the Copley Medal in 1745 for his " surprising 
discoveries in electricity exhibited in his late experi- 



1784] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 349 

ments." Mr. Watson's house in Aldersgate-street be- 
came the resort of the most ingenious and illustrious 
experimental philosophers, that Europe could boast. 
Several of the nobility attended to witness his experi- 
ments ; there it was that amongst a large concourse of 
people the duke of Cumberland, recently returned from 
Scotland, took the shock with the point of the sword 
with which he had fought the battle of Culloden ; and 
on one occasion George the Third, when prince of Wales, 
honoured him with his presence. The university of 
Halle, to mark its sense of his merits, created him doctor 
of medicine by diploma, bearing date 6th September, 
1757 ; and the university of Wittemberg, about the 
same time, conferred on him a similar honour. He now 
removed from Aldersgate-street to Lincoln's-inn-fields. 
Having been disfranchised from the Apothecaries' com- 
pany, he commenced practice as a physician ; and after 
the usual examinations was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 22nd December, 1759. In 
October, 1762, Dr. Watson was elected physician to 
the Foundling hospital, which office he retained during 
the remainder of his life. As Dr. Watson lived in in- 
timacy with the most illustrious and learned members 
of the Royal Society, so he was himself one of its most 
active members, and ever zealous in promoting the ends 
of that institution. For many years he was a frequent 
member of the council, and during the presidentship of 
Sir John Pringle was elected one of the vice-presidents. 
On the 30th September, 1784, on the recommendation 
of the President, he was elected, and on the 18th Octo- 
ber next ensuing actually admitted a Fellow of our 
College. He was Censor in 1785 and 1786. He was 
knighted in 1786, but did not long survive that honour, 
dying on the 10th May, 1787. 

Sir William Watson's character was affectionately 
and accurately drawn by his warm and constant friend, 
Dr. Garthshore. "As a physician," writes he, "his 
humanity, assiduity, and caution were eminently con- 
spicuous ; and his exact observance of the duties of 



350 ROLL OF THE [1785 

social politeness must ever be remembered with plea- 
sure by all those who enjoyed the happiness of his ac- 
quaintance. The smile of benignity was always dis- 
played on his countenance ; he invariably continued 
the general, the ready, and the obliging friend of man- 
kind ; he was respectful to the elder and superior, en- 
couraging to the younger, and pleasant and easy to all 
with whom he had any intercourse. The same affability 
and good humour which adorned his character in public 
life was preserved also in the bosom of his family, and 
endeared him to all those who were more immediately 
around him."' 55 ' Sir William Watson's portrait by Abbot 
is at the Royal Society. It was engraved by Ryder. 
He was the author of 

Experiments and Observations on Electricity. 8vo. Lond. 1745. 

Account of a Series of Experiments instituted with a view of 
ascertaining the most successful Method of inoculating the Small- 
pox. 8vo. Lond. 1768. 



THOMAS KAKR, M.D., was admitted an Extra Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 24th January, 
1785. He practised at Huntingdon, and died about 
the year 1789. 

ROBERT WILLAN, M.D., the founder of English der- 
matology, was born on the 12th November, 1757, at 
Hill, near Sedburgh, in Yorkshire, where his father, 
Robert Willan, M.D., one of the society of Friends, and 
the author of a sensible Essay on the King's Evil, 8vo. 
Lond. 1746, was in the enjoyment of a wide reputation 
and an extensive business. He received his general 
education at Sedburgh ; his classical education at the 
grammar school of that town under the Rev. Dr. Bate- 
man, and his mathematical under Mr. Dawson. In both 
of these departments he distinguished himself beyond 
his fellows, and by the time he left school was deemed 

* See Pulteney's Biographical Sketches. 



1785] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 351 

to excel his master, confessedly a good scholar, in a 
critical knowledge of Greek. He commenced his me- 
dical studies at Edinburgh in 1777, and graduated doc- 
tor of medicine there 24th June, 1780 (D.M.I, de 
Jecinoris Inflammatione). Dr. Willan then visited Lon- 
don, and for one season attended lectures with great 
assiduity. In 1781 he settled at Darlington, where he 
published a small tract, entitled, " Observations on the 
Sulphur Waters of Croft." But he soon removed to 
London, and was appointed physician to the Public dis- 
pensary on its establishment in the early part of 1783. 
Dr. Willan was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 21st March, 1785. 

The Public dispensar}', in the course of Dr. Willan's 
tenure of office there, became a favourite school with 
young physicians for instruction in the practical part of 
their profession. His practice there was very nume- 
rously attended, and many (it was said more than forty) 
physicians who subsequently attained to a foremost place 
in reputation and business in London and elsewhere, 
were among his pupils. In 1796 Dr. Willan commenced 
a series of monthly reports containing a brief account 
of the weather and of the prevalent diseases in the me- 
tropolis. These reports were published in the Monthly 
Magazine, and were continued to the year 1800, when 
he collected them into a small volume, and published 
them under the title of " Reports on the Diseases of 
London." The work is pregnant with original and im- 
portant observations, especially on points of diagnosis. 
In December, 1803, finding his increasing engagements 
incompatible with the time and care he had always 
given to the duties of the dispensary, he resigned his 
office there. The governors of the charity, to mark 
their gratitude for his services and their esteem for his 
character, named him consulting physician, made him a 
life governor, and presented him with a handsome piece 
of plate. 

Dr. Willan was an accomplished classical scholar, a 
good antiquary, and a sound practical physician. He 



352 ROLL OF THE [1785 

was the first in this country to arrange diseases of the 
skin in a clear and intelligible manner, and to fix their 
nomenclature on a satisfactory and classical basis. He 
thus facilitated the comprehension of a difficult depart- 
ment of pathology, and invested the study of cutaneous 
disease with an interest and popularity which have gone 
on increasing to the present time. What were the cir- 
cumstances which directed Dr. Willan's attention in an 
especial manner to diseases of the skin is not known. 
As early as 1784 and 1785, he had begun to attend to 
the elementary forms of eruption. He saw that upon 
that, or some such basis, could a definite nomenclature 
alone be founded, and upon it at a later period he 
erected the system developed in his great work. He 
sought out, with untiring zeal, the original acceptation 
of all the Greek, Roman, and Arabian terms applied to 
eruptive diseases, and he finally founded his nomen- 
clature on this basis. His arrangement and nomen- 
clature were probably decided about the year 1789, as 
in the following year his classification was laid before 
the Medical Society of London, and honoured by the 
award of the Fothergillian gold medal of 1790. The 
practical utility of Willan's simple classification is re- 
markably evidenced in the fact, that notwithstanding 
the great advances made of late years in cutaneous me- 
dicine, it is still used by the bulk of English practi- 
tioners for all diagnostic purposes, as at once the most 
simple and satisfactory mode of classing diseases of the 
skin. 

Dr. Willan's opus magnum, the Description and 
Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases, 4to. Lond., was issued 
in parts. The first part appeared in the beginning of 
1798 ; the others at long and varying intervals ; the 
last, which Dr. Willan lived to see through the press, 
in 1808. A remaining part on Porrigo and Impetigo 
was published separately after his death by his relative, 
Dr. Ashby Smith, in 1814. The appearance of the first 
part of this work established Dr. Willan's reputation, 
and the emoluments he derived from his practice were 



1785] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 353 

thenceforward ample. . He was generally consulted by 
persons labouring under cutaneous disease, and was, as 
generally deferred to by his medical brethren, as the 
ultimate appeal on these subjects. In 1810 Dr.Willan's 
health began to give way, and after a time symptoms 
of pulmonary consumption were developed. He went 
to Madeira, and died there on the 12th April, 1812, 
aged fifty-four. Dr. Willan " was one of the most amia- 
ble of men, a sincere friend, a good husband, and an 
affectionate father. He was, in truth, a model of the 
perfect human character, a benevolent and skilful phy- 
sician, a correct and sound philosopher, and a truly vir- 
tuous man."* 

Dr. Willan was elected a fellow of the Society of An- 
tiquaries in 1791, and a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1809. In addition to the works mentioned above, Dr. 
Willan was the author of a valuable treatise " On Vac- 
cine Inoculation." 4 to. Lond. 1806; and in 1821 there 
appeared in one volume his " Miscellaneous Works ; 
comprising an Inquiry into the Antiquity of Small-pox, 
Measles, and Scarlet Fever ; Reports on the Diseases 
of London, and detached papers on Medical Subjects. 
Edited by Ashby Smith, M.D." 8vo. Lond. 

DAVID PITCAIRN, M.D., was born the 1st May, 1749, 
in Fifeshire, and was the eldest son of Major Pitcairn, 
who was killed at the battle of Bunker's-hill, where he 
commanded a corps of marines. He received his pre- 
liminary education at the High school of Edinburgh, 
when he was removed to the college of Glasgow, where 
he continued some years in attendance on the general 
classes. He next revisited Edinburgh, attended lec- 
tures in the college there, and in 1773 was sent by his 
uncle, Dr. William Pitcairn, president of the College of 
Physicians, to Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, as a 
member of which house he proceeded M.B. 1779 ; M.D, 
1784. He settled in London as soon as he had taken 
his bachelor's degree ; and on the 10th February, 1780, 

* Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxii, pfc. i, p. 595. 
VOL. II. 2 A 



354 KOLL OF THE [1785 

was elected physician to St. Bartholomew's hospital. 
Dr. David Pitcairn was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians 9th August, 1784 ; and a Fellow, 
15th August, 1785. He was Censor in 1785, 1786, 
1791, 1796, 1806; Gulstonian lecturer and Harveian 
orator in 1786; and Elect, llth March, 1806. "The 
success of Dr. Pitcairn in practice (writes Dr. Mac- 
michael) was great ; and though one or two other phy- 
sicians might possibly derive more pecuniary emolument 
than himself, certainly no one was so frequently re- 
quested by his brethren to afford his aid in cases of dif- 
ficulty. He was perfectly candid in his opinions, and 
very frank in acknowledging the extent of his confidence 
in the efficacy of medicine. To a young friend who had 
very recently graduated, and who had accompanied him 
from London to visit a lady ill of consumption in the 
country, and who, on their return, was expressing his 
surprise at the apparent inertness of the prescription, 
which had been left behind (which was nothing more 
than infusion of roses with a little additional mineral 
acid), he made this reply : ' The last thing a physician 
learns, in the course of his experience, is to know when 
to do nothing, but quietly to wait and allow nature and 
time to have fair play in checking the progress of dis- 
ease and gradually restoring the strength and health of 
the patient.' His manner was simple, gentle, and dig- 
nified ; from his kindness of heart he was frequently 
led to give more attention to his patients than could 
well be demanded from a physician ; and as this evi- 
dently sprung from no interested motive, he often ac- 
quired considerable influence over those whom he had 
attended during sickness. No medical man, indeed, of 
his eminence in London, perhaps, ever exercised his 
profession to such a degree gratuitously. Besides, few 
persons ever gained so extensive an acquaintance with 
the various orders of society. He associated much with 
gentlemen of the law, had a taste for the fine arts, and 
his employment as a physician to the largest hospital in 
the kingdom made known to him a very great number 



1785] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 355 

of persons of every rank and description in life. His 
person was tall and erect ; his countenance during youth 
was a model of manly beauty ; and even in advanced 
life he was accounted remarkably handsome. But the 
prosperous views that all these combined advantages 
might reasonably open to him were not of long en- 
durance. 

Ill health obliged him to give up his profession, and 
quit his native country. He embarked for Lisbon in 
the summer of 1798, where a stay of eighteen months 
in the mild climate of Portugal, during which period 
there was no recurrence of the spitting of blood with 
which he had been affected, emboldened him to return 
to England, and for a few years more resume the prac- 
tice of his profession. But his health continued delicate 
and precarious ; arid in the spring of the year 1809 he 
fell a victim to a disease that had hitherto escaped the 
observation of medical men. Pitcairn, though he had 
acquired great practical knowledge, and had made many 
original observations upon the history and treatment of 
diseases, never published anything himself; but the 
peculiar and melancholy privilege was reserved for him. 
to enlighten his profession in the very act of dying. 

On the 13th of April he complained of a soreness in 
his throat ; which, however, he thought so lightly of 
that he continued his professional visits during that 
and the two following days. In the night of the 1 5th 
his throat became worse, in consequence of which he 
was copiously bled at his own desire, and had a large 
blister applied over his throat. On the evening of the 
16th Dr. Baillie called upon him accidentally, not 
having been apprised of his illness ; and, indeed, even 
then observed no symptom that indicated danger. But 
the disease advanced in the course of that night, and a 
number of leeches were applied to the throat early in 
the morning. At eleven o'clock in the forenoon Dr. 
Baillie again saw him. His countenance was now sunk, 
his pulse feeble and unequal, his breathing laborious, 
and his voice nearly gone. In this lamentable state he 

2 A 2 



356 ROLL OF THE [1785 

wrote upon a piece of paper that he conceived his wind- 
pipe to be the principal seat of his complaint, and that 
this was the croup. The tonsils were punctured, some 
blood obtained, and a little relief appeared to have been 
derived from the operation. Between four and five 
o'clock in the afternoon, his situation seemed consider- 
ably improved, but soon afterwards a slight drowsiness 
came on. At eight, the patient's breatliing became 
suddenly more difficult, and in a few minutes he was 
dead. This was the first case of this peculiar affection 
of the throat that has been distinctly recognised and 
described. It was an inflammation of the larynx, or 
upper part of the windpipe, of so insidious a nature as 
hitherto to have passed unnoticed."* Dying on the 
17th of April, 1809, in Craig's-court, Charing-cross, he 
was buried at St. Bartholomew's-the-less, in the same 
vault with his father, Major Pitcairn, whose remains 
had been brought from Bunker's-hill, and his uncle, 
William Pitcairn, M.D. Dr. Pitcairnt is commemorated 
by a mural tablet in the church of Hadham Magna, 
co. Herts, which bears the following brief inscription : 

* The Gold-Headed Cane. 2nd ed. 8vo. Lond. 1828, p. 230. 

f Pitcairnus de patria bene meritus est, qui valetudinario sancti 
BartholomaBi plures annos singular! laude pra3fuit : in quo pauperes 
pene innumerabiles cura sublevavit, multosque discipulos, praeceptis 
ex re natis, ad medicinam faciendam optime institnit. Nam fuit in 
illo gravitas et autoritas, quanta magistrum decet ; simul gratia et 
probitas, quibus discentium animos mire ad se allexit. Postea, re- 
lictis publicis muneribus, cum ad privata totum se converterat, 
inter summi ordinis segros occupatissimus vixit, donee ad versa 
valetndo, ut sibi caveret, monuisset. Tune sine mora Ulyssipponem 
se subduxit, ubi otium perinde ac salutem reciperet. Inde ut rediit, 
paucos modo curare constituit, neque, ut ante, mediis negotiorum 
fluctibus si implicari sivit. Medicinam tamen adhuc exercebat, 
crescente etiam eetate vegetior factus, cum hominem temperantem, 
summum medicum, tantus improvise morbus oppresserit, ut prse- 
clusis inflammatione et tumore faucibus, vix diem unum atque 
alterum superesset. Lugeamus, amici, sortem humanum ! lugea- 
mus socios amissos ! vel potius eorum sic meminerimus, ut quoties 
cunque de clarissmis et beatissimis viris cogitemus, nosmetipsos ad 
virtutem accendere, et ad omnem fortunam paratiores praestare 
videamur. Oratio Harveiana habita die Octobris xviii, A.D. MDCCCIX, 
a Gulielmo Heberden. P. 23. 



1785] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 357 

To the memory of DAVID PITCAIKN, M.D., F.R.S., S.A., who de- 
parted this life April 17th, 1809, aged fifty- nine years. 

An excellent portrait of Dr. Pitcairn, by Hoppner, is 
in the College.""" It was engraved by Bragg. 

FKANCIS BIOLLAY, M.D., was born in Brittany, and 
at a fitting age was entered at Trinity college, Dublin, 
where he took the degree of bachelor of arts ; when, 
removing to Oxford, he was incorporated on that de- 
gree as a member of Hertford college ; and proceeded 
A.M. 29th April, 1780; M.B. 23rd March, 1782; 
M.D. 13th July, 1785. He was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians, 9th August, 1784 ; and a 
Fellow, loth August, 1785 ; was Gulstonian lecturer 
and Harveian orator in 1787 ; and Croonian lecturer in 
1788, 1789, 1790. In 1791 he left London and settled 
at Margate. Dr. Biollay died, probably, in 1797. He 
was the author of 

A Letter to Dr. Hardy on the Hints he has given concerning the 
Origin of Gout in his late publication on the Devonshire Colic. 8vo. 
Lond. 1778. 

The Doctrines and Practice of Hippocrates in Surgery and Physic. 
8vo. Lond. 1783. 

* The portrait was bequeathed to the College by Elizabeth, the 
widow of Dr. David Pitcairn, and only daughter of William Al- 
mack, esq., by her will, dated llth August, 1837 : " I give and 
bequeath to the Royal College of Physicians in London the portrait 
of my beloved husband, Dr. David Pitcairn, painted by Hoppner ; 
and also the portrait of Dr. William Pitcairn, painted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and also the portrait of Dr. Matthew Baillie, painted by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. I give and bequeath to Sir Ralph An- 
struther, bart., my picture of his great-grandfather, Dr. Archibald 
Pitcairn, painted by Sir John Medina. I give to his brother, 
Hamilton Lloyd Anstruther, esq., my little silver cup with the 
Greek motto, that was his great-grandfather's, Dr. Archibald Pit- 
cairn." In 1844 a request was made by Sir John Campbell that 
the portraits above-mentioned might be allowed to remain in tho 
possession of the relatives and legal representatives of the deceased, 
but the College resolved that an answer should be returned to the 
effect that " The President and Fellows do not feel themselves 
entitled to alienate from the College the portraits of three of its 
most highly-esteemed fellows, which had been bequeathed in so 
kind a manner to the College." 



358 ROLL OF THE [1785 

A Critical Introduction to the Study of Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 
1788. 

WILLIAM MACKINEN FEASER, M.D., was born in the 
island of Antigua, and received his medical education 
at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of medicine 
12th June, 1775 (D.M.T. de Sanguinis Detractione). 
He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 30th September, 1785. In 179 9, after practising 
successively at Southampton and Bath, he removed to 
London ; and a short time before his death, which oc- 
curred at Shornbrook, near Bedford, on the 22nd Sep- 
tember, 1807, had been honoured with the appoint- 
ment of physician extraordinary to the prince of Wales. 

WILLIAM ROBERTSON, M.D. A doctor of medicine 
of St. Andrew's of 24th April, 1779 ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1785. He died at Bath 19th January, 1837. 

JOHN POTTER, M.D., was born in Oxfordshire, and 
educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of 
medicine 24th June, 1784 (D.M.I, de Sedentarise Vitse 
Malis). He was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 30th September, 1785. 

SAMUEL FERRIS, M.D., was born in Wiltshire, and 
began the study of medicine by an apprenticeship to a 
surgeon -apothecary in Hertfordshire; after which he 
came to London, and attended the lectures of Dr. Wil- 
liam Hunter. He completed his studies at Edinburgh, 
where 'he obtained a prize medal in 1784, for an ex- 
perimental examination of the properties of milk. He 
took his degree of doctor of medicine 13th September, 
1784 (D.M.I, de Sanguinis per Corpus Vivum circulan- 
tis Putredine) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1785, and then 
went to reside at Missenden in Buckinghamshire, but 
soon removed to London, where he remained for some 
years. He was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 



1786] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 359 

in April, 1797. In the beginning of 1800 he was com- 
pelled by an increasing asthma to leave town. Re- 
turning to Buckinghamshire, he took up his residence 
at Beaconsfield, where he practised with great success, 
and was appointed a magistrate of the county. Dr. 
Ferris died at Exmouth, Devon, 18th September, 1831. 
He was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and the 
author of 

A Dissertation on Milk, in which an attempt is made to ascertain 
its Natural Use, and explain its Effects in the Cure of Various 
Diseases. 8vo. Lond. 1785. 

A General View of the establishment of Physic as a Science in 
England by the incorporation of the College of Physicians of Lon- 
don. 8vo. Lond. 1795. 

WILLIAM LANSDALE was admitted an Extra-Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 14th February, 1786. 
He settled in Maryland, and his name is continued on 
the College list until 1833. 

JOHN ATKINSON was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College 24th February, 1786. He practised at 
Leicester, and died about the year 1788. 

SIR WILLIAM FORDYCE, M.D., was the brother of 
Dr. John Fordyce before mentioned (Roll, vol. ii, p. 212), 
was born at Aberdeen in 1724, and educated at Maris- 
chal college. His medical knowledge was probably 
acquired at Edinburgh, as I see he was admitted a 
member of the Medical Society of that city 22nd De- 
cember, 1744. He joined the army as a volunteer, and 
afterwards served as surgeon on the coast of France and 
in the wars of Germany. Upon the establishment of 
peace he settled as a surgeon in London, and attained 
to considerable business. In 1770 he was created doc- 
tor of medicine at Cambridge by royal mandate, and 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
10th April, 1786. He was knighted by George the 
Third in 1787, and died at his house in Brook-street, 
Grosvenor-square, after a long and severe illness, 4th 



360 ROLL OF THE [1736 

December, 1792, aged sixty-eight. He was the author 
of 

A Review of the Venereal Disease and its Remedies. 8vo. Lond. 
1767. 

A new Inquiry into the Causes, Symptoms, and Cure of Putrid 
and Inflammatory Fevers, with an Appendix on the Hectic Fever 
and on the Ulcerated Sore Throat. 8vo. Lond. 1773. 

The great Importance and proper Method of cultivating and 
curing Rhubarb in Britain for Medical Uses. 8vo. Lond. 1784. 

Fragmenta Chirurgica et Medica. 8vo. Lond. 1784. 

A Letter to Sir John Sinclair on the Virtues of Muriatic Acid in 
curing Putrid Diseases. 8vo. Lond. 1790. 

JOHN GRIEVE, M.D. A native of Peebles-shire and a 
doctor of medicine of Glasgow of 2nd October, 1777 ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
10th April, 1786. He was admitted a fellow of the 
Royal Society 5th June, 1794. Dr. Grieve settled in 
Russia ; and his name disappears from the College List 
in 1807. 

JOSEPH PHELAN, M.D. A native of King's county, 
Ireland, and a doctor of medicine of Glasgow of 25th 
July, 1785 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 10th April, 1786. 

GEORGE BUXTON, M.D.,was born in Middlesex, 14th 
December, 1730, and was the son of Charles Buxton of 
Braxtead, co. Essex, by his wife Hannah, daughter of 
George Read of London, esq. He was educated at Edin- 
burgh, where he took his degree of doctor of medicine 
9th July, 1756 (D.M.I, de Amaurosi). He was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th 
June, 1786. Dr. Buxton was a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and practised for some time at Chelmsford, 
whence he removed to Greenwich, where he died, 1st 
January, 1805, in his seventy-fifth year. 

WILLIAM BUTTER, M.D., was born in the Orkneys 
in 1726, and educated at Edinburgh, where he gradu- 



1786] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 361 

ated doctor of medicine 16th September, 1761 (D.M.I. 
de Arteriotomia). He was admitted a fellow of the 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh 1st November, 
1763 ; and about that time settled at Derby, where he 
practised for several years, and acquired a moderate 
fortune. He removed to London in 1782 ; was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th 
June, 1786 ; and died at his house in Lower Grosvenor- 
street, 23rd March, 1805. We have from his pen 

A method of Cure for the Stone, chiefly by Injections; -with De- 
scriptions and Delineations of the Instruments contrived for those 
purposes. 12mo. Edinb. 1754. 

Dissertatio de Frigore quatenus Morborum Causa. 8vo. Edinb. 
1757. 

A Treatise on the Kink Cough, with an Account of Hemlock 
and its Preparations. 8vo. Lond. 1773. 

An Account of Puerperal Fevers as they appear in Derbyshire. 
8vo. Lond. 1775. 

A Treatise on the Infantile Remittent Fever. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

An Improved Method of Opening the Temporal Artery, and a 
New Proposal for Extracting the Cataract. 8vo. Lond. 1783. 

A Treatise on the Disease commonly called Angina Pectoris. 
8vo. Lond. 1791. 

A Treatise on the Venereal Rose. 8vo. Lond. 1799. 

THEODORE FORBES LEITH, M.D., was the second son 
of John Forbes, esq. (who assumed as heir to his 
mother the additional surname of Leith), by his wife 
Jean, eldest daughter of Theodore Morrison of Bogny, 
and was born in the county of Aberdeen. He gradu- 
ated doctor of medicine at Edinburgh 1 2th September, 
1768 (D.M.I, de Delirio Febrili) ; and was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th June, 1786. 
He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and is represented 
as a person of extensive scientific attainments. After 
practising for many years at Greenwich he retired to 
Scotland. He succeeded on the death of his elder 
brother in 1806, to the family estate of Whitehaugh, 
in his native county, where he died 6th September, 
1819, in the seventy -fourth year of his age, from lock- 
jaw, consequent on fracture of the collar-bone. He had 



362 ROLL OF THE [1786 

married in 1776 Mario d'Arboine, a French lady of 
ancient family, and had by her three sons and three 
daughters.* 

GEORGE SANDEMAN, M.D., was born in Perthshire, 
and received his medical education at Edinburgh, where 
he graduated doctor of medicine 12th September, 1769 
(D.M.I, de Rheo Palmato). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 26th June, 1786 ; and 
died at his house in Red Lion-square 13th November, 
1818, in the seventy-second year of his age. He was 
buried in Bunhill-fields. 

WILLIAM LOWDER, M.D., was born at Southampton, 
and graduated doctor of medicine at Aberdeen 6th 
March, 1775. He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 26th June, 1786. Dr. Lowder 
practised midwifery, arid was a well-known lecturer on 
that subject in St. Saviour's churchyard, Southwark. 
He died at his house in Upper East Hayes, 24th 
October, 1801. 

THOMAS DALE, M.D., was the son of an American 
physician, who was not only a member of the Upper 
House of Assembly, but also a judge and justice of the 
peace at Charlestown, in South Carolina. Dr. Dale 
left America at an early age, and received his preli- 
minary education at St. Paul's school ; whence he pro- 
ceeded to Edinburgh, where, after a residence of five 
years, he took his degree of doctor of medicine 12th 
June, 1775 (D.M.I, de Erysipelate). He was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th June, 
1786, and for along series of years maintained a highly 
respectable position in the city of London. He died 
at his house in Devonshire-square, Bishopsgate, 21st 
February, 1816, aged sixty-seven, and was buried in 
Bunhill-fields. Dr. Dale was a good classical scholar, 
and was well acquainted with most of the European 

* Bnrke's Landed Gentry, sub nomine, Forbes of Tolquhon. 



1786] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 363 

languages. He was one of the eight persons who in- 
stituted the Literary Fund. In 1790 he accepted the 
honorary office of registrar of the society, the duties of 
which he performed with great zeal for many years. 

PHILIP PITT WALSH, M.D. A native of Ireland, and 
a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 12th September, 
1780 (D.M.I, de Luis Venereae Stadio confirmato) ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th 
June, 1786. He practised chiefly as an accoucheur, de- 
livered lectures on midwifery, and was physician to the 
British Lying-in hospital. He was the author of 
"Practical Observations on Puerperal Fever," 8vo. 
Lond. 1787 ; and died at his house in Ely-place 25th 
December, 1787. 

WILLIAM BLACKBUHNE, M.D., was born at Rich- 
mond in Yorkshire, and was the son of the Rev. 
Francis Blackburne, rector of that town, and arch- 
deacon of Cleveland. He was educated at Edinburgh, 

o * 

where he took the degree of doctor of medicine 24th 
June, 1781 (D.M.I, de Sale). He practised for a short 
time at Durham, but soon removed to London ; and was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 26th 
June, 1786. He was elected physician to the West- 
minster hospital in 1791, but resigned that office in 
1794. He died at Eastcot-house, near Wells, co. So- 
merset, on the 9th April, 1835, in the eightieth year of 
his age. He was buried at Wookey, and in the north 
aisle of the church there is a mural tablet bearing the 
following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of 

WILLIAM BLACKBURNE, M.D., 

who was of an ancient family of Yorkshire, 

the last surviving son of FRANCIS BLACKBURNE, 

Archdeacon of Cleveland and rector of Richmond, in the county of 

York. 

He was born in that town on the 25th of October, 1 755. 
After the successful practice of his profession in London for 
many years, he retired to this village, in which he dedicated his 



364 ROLL OF THE [1786 

skill and experience chiefly to the relief of his poorer neighbours ; 
and where he died on the 9th of April, 1835. 

SIR JOHN MACNAMARA HAYES, BART, M.D. A na- 
tive of Limerick, and a doctor of medicine of Rheims of 
20th March, 1784 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 26th June, 1786. He had served 
with distinction as a surgeon in the army, but at the 
time of his admission by the College was one of the 
physicians to the forces. He was appointed physician 
extraordinary to the prince of Wales in 1791 ; and was 
elected physician to the Westminster hospital in 1792, 
but resigned his office there in 1794. He was created 
a baronet in 1797 ; and at the time of his death, which 
occurred 19th July, 1809, from acute laryngitis, was 
inspector-general of the military department at Wool- 
wich. Sir John Macnamara Hayes was buried at St. 
James's, Piccadilly. A small mural monument, on the 
north side of the church under the gallery, bears the 
following inscription : 

Sacred to the Memory of 

SIR JOHN MACNAMARA HAYES, Baronet, 

Inspector- General of the Medical Department in the Ordnance. 

Sir John was raised to the Baronetage 

in 1797, as a reward for his services, and 

died in 1809, aged fifty-nine, beloved and respected 

by all who knew him. 

His portrait, by Medley, was engraved by N. Bran- 
white. 

THOMAS SAVAGE, M.D. A native of Staffordshire, 
and a doctor of medicine of Rheims, of 5th June, 1753 ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
26th June, 1786. He enjoyed a large obstetric practice, 
and died at his house in Conduit-street, 14th March, 
1804, in the eightieth year of his age. 

JOHN COOPER, M.D. A native of Kidderminster, 
and a doctor of medicine of St. Andrew's, of 21st June, 



178G] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 365 

1779 ; was admitted by the College a Licentiate in Mid- 
wifery 26th June, 1786. 

EGBERT KNOX, M.D., was a native of Edinburgh, 
and a doctor of medicine of St. Andrew's, of 5th March, 
1750. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 1st April, 1765, and was then physician to 
the army. Dr. Knox was elected physician to the 
Middlesex hospital 10th February, 1769. In 1779 he 
was ordered, to America, and obtained leave of absence 
from the governors of the hospital. He resigned his 
hospital appointment in October, 1782. On the 26th 
June, 1786, he was admitted a Fellow of the College, 
speciali gratia ; and was Censor in 1790. He died at 
his house in Mortimer-street, Cavendish-square, 22nd 
May, 1792. 

JULIAN GARTNER HALL was admitted an Extra-Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 27th June, 1786. 
He practised at Ludlow. 

ROBERT BLAND, M.D., was born at Lynn Regis, and 
was the son of Mr. David Bland, an attorney in that 
town. He was educated in London for a surgeon, in 
which capacity he practised for some years. He was 
created doctor of medicine by the university of St. 
Andrew's 4th December, 1778 ; and was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1786. Dr. Bland practised chiefly as an accoucheur, 
and contributed to Rees' Cyclopaedia all the articles 
relating to midwifery. He died at his house in Lei- 
cester-square, 29th June, 1816, aged seventy-six. He 
was the author of 

Some Calculations of the Number of Accidents or Deaths which 
happen from Parturition. 4to. Lond. 1781. 

Observations on Human and Comparative Parturition. 8vo. 
Lond. 1794. 

Proverbs, chiefly taken from the Adagia of Erasmus, with ex- 
planations ; and illustrated by Examples from the Spanish, Italian, 
French, and English languages. 2 vols 12mo. Lond. 1814. 



366 ROLL OF THE [1786 

WILLIAM HAMILTON, M.D., was born at Strabane, co. 
Tyrone, in 1758, and educated at Glasgow, where he 
passed through the curriculum of arts, and then pro- 
ceeded to Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of 
medicine 24th June, 1779 (D.M.I, de Sanguine Hu- 
mano). He was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 30th September, 1786 ; was elected phy- 
sician to the London hospital 5th December, 1787, 
and died at his house in Old Broad-street 5th May, 
1807. 

JOHN H AMMAN, M.D., was born in Kent, and gra- 
duated doctor of medicine at Leyden, 22nd September, 
1785. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1786; was elected physician 
to the Middlesex hospital 15th October, 1789 ; and died 
23rd July, 1793. 

f 

JOHN SQUIRE,. M.D., was born in Suffolk, and edu- 
cated at the grammar school of Lavenham, of which 
parish his father was for many years rector. He studied 
medicine at the London hospitals ; was appointed sur- 
geon to the army ; and was present at the three impor- 
tant sieges of Louisburgh, Quebec, and the Havannah. 
He was created doctor of medicine by the university of 
Aberdeen 6th September, 1765 ; and, eventually set- 
tling in London, and devoting himself to the practice of 
midwifery, was elected physician to the Maternity 
Charity; and on the 30th September, 1786, was ad- 
mitted by the College of Physicians a Licentiate in Mid- 
wifery. He died very suddenly on the 28th August, 
1816, aged eighty-four. At the instant of his death 
he was engaged in the exercise of his profession, assist- 
ing a medical friend at the delivery of a patient, whose 
labour was attended with circumstances of much diffi- 
culty and danger, and whilst so occupied expired in an 
instant without a sigh or a struggle. He was buried in 
a vault at St. Andrew's, Holborn. Dr. Squire, in con- 
junction with his friend Mr. Chamberlaine, was the 



1787] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 367 

founder of the Society for the Relief of the Widows and 
Orphans of Medical Men in London and its vicinity.* 

THOMAS GALLEY, M.D., was born in Lancashire. 
Educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of 
medicine 24th June, 178 5 (D.M.I, de Tussi Convulsiva), 
he was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians 22nd December, 1786. Dr. Galley must have 
died within a few months of his admission, as his name 
does not appear in the College list for 1787. 

WILLIAM BLACK, M.D., was born in Ireland, and re- 
ceived his medical education at Leyden, where he pro- 
ceeded doctor of medicine 20th March, 1772 (D.M.I. de 
Diagnosi, Prognosi, et Causis Mortis in Febribus). He 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
2nd April, 1787, and died at Hammersmith in Decem- 
ber, 1829, in the eightieth year of his age. He was 
the author of 

Observations Medical and Political on the Small-pox, the Advan- 
tages and Disadvantages of general Inoculation, and on the Morta- 
lity of Mankind at every Age. 8vo. Lond. 1781. 

An Historical Sketch of Medicine and Surgery from their Origin 
to the Present time. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

A Comparative View of the Mortality of the Human Species at 
all Ages. 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

Reasons for Preventing the French, under the Mask of Liberty, 
from Trampling on Europe. 8vo. Lond. 1792. 

A new edition of General Monk's Observations on Military and 
Political Affairs. 8vo. Lond. 1796. 

A Dissertation on Insanity, extracted from between Two and 
Three Thousand Cases in Bedlam. 8vo. Lond. 1810. 

ANDREW THYNNE, M.D. A native of Ireland, and 
a doctor of medicine of Rheims of 22nd August, 1775 ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
2nd April, 1787. He was in much esteem as an ac- 
coucheur, was lecturer on midwifery at St. Bartholo- 
mew's hospital, and physician to the Westminster Ly- 

* Gent. Mag. for 1816, vol. Ixxxvi, part ii, p. 285. 



3G8 ROLL OF THE [1787 

ing-iii hospital. He died in St. George's-fields towards 
the end of 1813, aged sixty-four. 

DAVID BAYFORD, M.D., was born in Hertfordshire, 
and educated as a surgeon. He became a member of 
the Corporation of Surgeons, and practised in that ca- 
pacity for some years at Lewes. He was admitted a 
fellow of the Eoyal Society 10th May, 1770 ; was 
created doctor of medicine by the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, Dr. Cornwallis, 12th April, 1782 ; and, having 
been disfranchised as a surgeon, was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 2nd April, 1787. 

BENJAMIN MOSELEY, M.D., was descended from an 
ancient family in Lancashire, but was born in Essex. 
He received his professional education in London and 
Paris. On its completion he embarked for Jamaica, and 
soon after his arrival was appointed surgeon-general of 
the island. He remained there some years, attained a 
high reputation, and accumulated a considerable for- 
tune. .Returning to England, he obtained the degree 
of doctor of medicine from the university of St. 
Andrew's 12th May, 1784. In the following year he 
settled in London as a physician, and was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College 2nd April, 1787. On the 
death of Dr. Mousey, 1788, he was appointed, through 
the influence of lord Mulgrave, physician to Chelsea 
hospital, an office which he filled with the highest eclat 
for more than thirty years. Dr. Moseley died at South- 
end 25th September, 1819. His remains were interred 
at Chelsea. Though a shrewd practitioner, and undeni- 
ably a man of extensive mental capacity and very con- 
siderable attainments, Dr. Moseley was a violent oppo- 
nent of vaccination. His communications on this sub- 
ject to the periodical press were incessant. They did 
little credit to his medical penetration or his qualifica- 
tions as a dispassionate searcher after truth, and, hap- 
pily for his reputation, are now well-nigh forgotten. 
His published works are 



1787] EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 369 

Observations on the Properties and Effects of Coffee. 8vo. Lond 
1775. 

A Treatise on Tropical Diseases ; on Military Operations ; and on 
the Climate of the West Indies. 8vo. Lond. 1785. 

A Treatise on Sugar. 8vo. Lond. 1799. 

A Treatise on the Lues Bovilla, or Cow-pox. 8vo. Lond. 1801. 

On Hydrophobia, its Prevention and Cure. 8vo. Lond. 1808. 

A Review of the Report of the Royal College of Physicians of 
London on Vaccination. 8vo. Lond. 1808. 

THOMAS SKEETE, M.D., was born in Barbadoes. 
After studying for six years with Mr. Farre, an eminent 
surgeon in the island, the father of Dr. John Richard 
Farre, a well-known London physician, to be subse- 
quently mentioned, he was sent to England, and en- 
tered as a pupil at Guy's hospital. He then proceeded 
to Edinburgh, and after a two years' course of study in 
that university removed to Glasgow, and graduated 
doctor of medicine there on the 8th February, 1785. 
Dr. Skeete settled in London ; was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 2nd April, 1787; 
and was elected physician to Guy's hospital in 1788. 
He died from disease of the liver 29th May, 1789, aged 
thirty -two. He was the author of 

A Treatise on Peruvian Bark. 8vo. Lond. 1786. 

A Representation of the Uncandid and Extraordinary Conduct of 
John Coakley Lettsom at the Election for Physician to the Finsbury 
Dispensary. 8vo. Lond. 1786. 

WILLIAM JAMES MACNEVEN, M.D. An Irishman, 
and a doctor of medicine of Vienna of 2nd June, 1785 ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
2nd April, 1787. He practised in Dublin, and was the 
author of 

An Essay on the Use and Construction of the Mine Auger, from 
the German of Mr. G-eise. 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

JOHN CLARKE, M.D., was born in 1758 at Welling- 
borough in Northamptonshire, and was the son of 
Mr. John Clarke, a surgeon of that town. He was 
educated at St. Paul's school, of which he rose to be 

VOL. II. 2 B 



370 ROLL OF THE [1787 

" captain." His medical education was obtained at St. 
George's hospital, and by attendance on the lectures of 
the two Hunters, Dr. George Fordyce, Dr. Osborne, 
and Dr. Denman, with the two latter of whom he was 
afterwards associated as a lecturer on midwifery. He 
became a member of the Corporation of Surgeons, and 
then commenced business in Chancery-lane, where he 
soon began to reap the fruits of his exertions both as 
a teacher and practitioner. As a lecturer on midwifery, 
he speedily gained a deservedly high reputation ; his 
lectures contained a fund of information ; the principles 
of the art were clearly and succinctly developed, and 
his practical precepts were precise, well considered, and 
in the highest degree judicious. He was chiefly soli- 
citous to simplify the management of difficult cases and 
improve the after treatment : and how well he suc- 
ceeded, our best obstetrical writers bear ample testi- 
mony. He was a good classical scholar, a man of in- 
domitable industry and perseverance, and possessed of 
all the other elements for success as a practitioner. To 
great acuteness of perception was added a promptitude 
in action and a fertility of resources vvhich obtained for 
him the confidence of patients and the admiration of 
the profession. His progress was rapid, and for many 
years he was confessedly at the head of bis particular 
department of practice. He was admitted by the Col- 
lege of Physicians a Licentiate in Midwifery on the 2nd 
April, 1787, and shortly afterwards removed from Chan- 
cery-lane to the West-end. About the year 1791 he 
obtained a degree of doctor of medicine from one of 
the Scotch universities. Dr. Clarke eventually with- 
drew from the practice of midwifery, resigning that 
portion of his business to his brother Mr., subsequently 
Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke, bart., M.D., and thence- 
forward limited his attention to the diseases of women 
and children. For some time before his death, which 
occurred in August, 1815, from organic disease of the 
stomach and ascites, Dr. Clarke had withdrawn in great 
measure from practice, and resided during half the year 



17S7J ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 371 

in the country. He was physician to the Lying-in hos- 
pital in Store-street, and to the Asylum for Female 
Orphans, and was for some years lecturer on midwifery 
at St. Bartholomew's hospital. He sent two papers to 
the Royal Society, and was the author of 

An Essay on the Epidemic Disease of Lying-in "Women in 1787-8. 
4to. Lend. 1788. 

Practical Essays on Pregnancy and Labour and the Diseases of 
Lying-in Women. 8vo. Lond. 1793. 

Commentaries on some of the most important Diseases of Children. 
8vo. Lond. 1815. 

" The London Practice of Midwifery" was an attempt 
by an anonymous compiler to give the substance of Dr. 
Clarke's lectures, one of the excellencies of which (as I 
was informed by the late Sir Charles Clarke) consisted 
in a successful attempt to illustrate his subject by fami- 
liar analogies. Dr. Clarke's bust, by Chantry, is at- 
Lockleys, Welwyn, co. Herts, the seat of George 
Edward Dering, esq. 

JAMES ROBERTSON BARCLAY, M.D., was born in Fife- 
shire, and educated at Balliol college, Oxford, where he 
took the two degrees in arts, A.B. 19th April, 1776 ; 
A.M. 10th October, 1778; and in April, 1780, was 
elected one of the RadclifFe travelling fellows. As a 
member of University college he proceeded M.B. 10th 
October, 1783 ; M.D, 20th October, 1783 ; was admit- 
ted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 10th April; 
1786 ; and a Fellow, 25th June, 1787. He was Censor 
in 1787, 1792, 1800; Gulstonian lecturer, 1788; Har- 
veian orator, 1789 ; Croonian lecturer, 1791 ; and was 
named an Elect 29th December, 1800. He was elected 
physician to St. George's hospital 27th May, 1785, and 
continued in that office until 1800. He was admitted 
a feUow of the Royal Society 18th November, 1790 ; 
was appointed physician extraordinary to the princess 
of Wales in 1799 ; and died, I believe, in 1827. He 
changed his name from Robertson to Barclay in Octo- 
ber, 1799. 

2 B 2 



372 ROLL OF THE [1787 

MARTIN WALL, M.D., was born at Worcester, and 
was the son of John Wall, M.D., a distinguished phy- 
sician of that city. He was educated at Winchester, 
whence he was elected to New college, Oxford ; and as 
a member of that house proceeded A.B. 17th June, 
1767; A.M. 2nd July, 1771; M.B. 9th June, 1773; 
M.D. 9th April, 1777. He studied medicine also at 
Edinburgh and at St. Bartholomew's hospital. In 1774 
Dr. Wall commenced practice as a physician at Oxford ; 
and on the 2nd November, 1775, was elected physician 
to the Radcliffe infirmary. In 1781 he was appointed 
reader in chemistry ; and on the death of Dr. Parsons, 
in 1785, was, after a sharp contest, elected lord Lich- 
field's professor of clinical medicine. He was admitted 
a fellow of the Royal Society 5th June, 1788. Dr. Wall 
was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
26th June, 1786 ; a Fellow, 25th June, 1787. He de- 
livered the Harveian oration in 1788. Dr. Wall died 
21st June, 1824, in his seventy-eighth year. He con- 
tributed some curious papers to the " Transactions of 
the Manchester Literary Society," and published the 
following works : 

The Medical Tracts of John Wall, M.D., collected, with the 
Author's Life. 8vo. Oxford. 1780. 

Dissertations on Select Subjects in Chemistry and Medicine. 
8vo. Oxford. 1783. 

Clinical Observations on the Use of Opium in Slow Fevers. 8vo. 
Oxford. 1786. 

Malvern Waters : being a republication of Cases formerly collected 
by John Wall, M.D., and since illustrated by his Son. 8vo. 1806. 

JOHN LITTLEHALES, M.D., was born in Shropshire, 
and educated at Pembroke college, Oxford, as a mem- 
ber of which he took the two degrees in arts, A.B. 15th 
June, 1775; A.M. 30th April, 1778; when, coming 
before the College of Physicians, he was, on the 25th 
June, 1778, admitted an Extra-Licentiate. He then 
settled at Winchester ; and, accumulating his degrees 
in physic, proceeded M.D. at Oxford 9th July, 1782. 
He was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physi- 



1787] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 373 

cians 26th June, 1786 ; and a Fellow, 25th June, 1787. 
He was physician to the Winchester hospital ; and died 
2nd January, ]810, aged fifty-seven years. A monu- 
ment to his memory in Winchester cathedral bears the 
folio whig inscription : 

Near to this place are deposited the remains of 

JOHN LITTLEHALES, M.D., 
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, 
and formerly of Pembroke College, Oxford. 

His eminent professional talents, 
by the blessing of Divine Providence, 

were successfully exerted with a generosity so distinguished, 
and beneficence to the poor so diffusive and unwearied, 

amidst a very extended practice, 

that his decease was an event most deeply regretted and lamented. 
The principal inhabitants of Winchester and its neighbourhood, 

have erected this monument, 

as a public record of their affectionate gratitude 

to the memory of their friend and benefactor : 

but from the Saviour of the world, 
whose faith he adorned by a life devoted to Christian benevolence, 

he will receive his final reward. 
He departed this life the 2nd of January, 1810, aged 57 years. 

GEORGE FORDYCE, M.D., was born at Aberdeen 18th 
November, 1736. He was the posthumous and only 
child of Mr. George Fordyce, the possessor of a small 
landed estate called JBroadfbrd, in the neighbourhood of 
that city. He received his school education at Fouran, 
and was transferred thence to the university of Aber- 
deen, where he was created master of arts when only 
fourteen years of age. Having evinced a partiality for 
the medical profession, he was sent, when fifteen years 
of age, to his uncle Dr. John Fordyce, who was then 
practising at Uppingham, in Rutlandshire. He re- 
mained with him for some years, and then proceeded 
to Edinburgh, where he was one of the earliest and 
most favoured pupils of Dr. Cullen. He graduated doc- 
tor of medicine there the 13th October, 1758 (D.M.I, 
de Catarrho). Dr. Fordyce then came to London to 
continue his studies in anatomy under Dr. William 
Hunter, and in botany at the Chelsea gardens. In the 



374 ROLL OF THE [1787 

autumD (of 1759) he went over to Leyden for the ex- 
press purpose of studying anatomy under Albinus, and 
pathology under Gaubius. Returning to London, he at 
once commenced a course of lectures on chemistry. This 
was attended by nine pupils. In 1764 Dr. Fordyce 
began to lecture also on materia medica and the prac- 
tice of physic. These three subjects he continued to 
teach with rapidly-increasing reputation for nearly 
thirty years, giving for the most part three courses of 
lectures on each subject in every year. A course lasted 
nearly four months, and during it a lecture was delivered 
six times in the week. His time of teaching commenced 
about seven o'clock in the morning and ended at ten 
o'clock, his lectures on the three subjects being given 
one immediately after the other. He was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1765 ; 
and in 1770 was chosen physician to St. Thomas's hos- 
pital, after a very sharp contest with Dr., subsequently 
Sir William Watson, the number of votes in his favour 
being 109, in that of his opponent 106. In 1774 Dr. 
Fordyce became a member of the Literary Club ; and 
in 1776 a fellow of the Royal Society. He was ad- 
mitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians, speciali 
gratia, 25th June, 1787, and rendered most important 
aid in the preparation of the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis 
of 1788, for which his knowledge of chemistry and ma- 
teria medica peculiarly fitted him. He was Censor in 
1787, 1792, 1800; Gulstonian Lecturer in 1789; and 
Harveian orator in 1791. Dr. Fordyce was always fond 
of society, and in the earlier years of his life to render 
the enjoyment of its pleasures compatible with his pro- 
fessional pursuits, he used to sleep but little. He was 
often known to lecture for three consecutive hours in 
the morning without having undressed himself the pre- 
ceding night. He had satisfied himself that man eats 
far oftener than nature requires, and for many years 
he took but one meal in the twenty-four hours. He 
dined every day for more than twenty years at Dolly's 
chophouse, in Paternoster-row. At four o'clock the 



1787] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 375 

doctor regularly took his seat at a table always reserved 
for him, on which were placed a silver tankard of strong 
ale, a bottle of port wine, and a measure containing a 
quarter of a pint of brandy. The moment the waiter 
announced him, the cook put a pound and a half of 
rump steak on the gridiron, and on the table some deli- 
cate trifle as a bonne bouche, to serve until the steak 
was ready. This was sometimes half a boiled chicken, 
sometimes a plate of fish ; when he had eaten this he 
took one glass of brandy and then proceeded to devour 
his steak. When he had finished his meal he took the 
remainder of his brandy, having during dinner drank 
the tankard of ale and afterwards the bottle of port ! 
He thus spent an hour and a half of his time, and then 
returned to his house in Essex-street. He made no 
other meal until his return next day at four o'clock to 
Dolly's.* The vigour of his constitution enabled him 
to sustain for a time without apparent injury this mode 
of life. But at length he was attacked with gout, which 
afterwards became irregular, and for many years fre- 
quently affected him with excruciating pains in the 
stomach and bowels. He died at his house in Essex- 
street, Strand, 25th May, 1802, and was buried at St. 
Anne's Soho. His memory was singularly capacious 
and retentive. He had read extensively, and, accord- 
ing to his friend and colleague, Dr. Wells, was probably 
more generally skilled in those sciences directly or re- 
motely connected with medicine than any person of his 
time. His manners were less refined, and his dress in 
general less studied than is expected in this country in 
the physician. From these causes and from his spending 
no more time with his patients than was barely suffi- 
cient for forming a just opinion of their ailments, he 
had for many years but little private employment in 
his profession, and never, even in the latter part of his 
life when his reputation was at its height, enjoyed 
nearly so much as many of his contemporaries. A good 
memoir of this distinguished physician, from the pen of 
Chirurgicee. 8vo. Lond. 1827, p. 8. 



376 ROLL OF THE [1787 

his friend and colleague Dr. Wells, is to be seen in the 
" Gentleman's Magazine" for June, 1802. Dr. Fordyce's 
portrait, by Phillips, is at St. Thomas's hospital, and 
was engraved by Keating. He contributed several im- 
portant papers to the " Philosophical Transactions," and 
was the author of the following works : 

Elements of Agriculture and Vegetation. 8vo. Edinb. 1765. 

Elements of the Practice of Physic. 8vo. Lond. 1770. 

A Treatise on the Digestion of Food. 8vo. Lond. ] 791. 

Dissertations on Fever. 8vo. Lond. No. 1,1794; No. 2, 1795 ; 
No. 3, in two parts, 1798, 1799 ; No. 4, 1802. The fifth was left by 
the author in MS. and was published by Dr. Wells in 1803. 

JOSEPH HART MYERS, M.D., was born of Jewish 
parents at New York, where he received his preliminary 
education. At a comparatively early age he was sent 
to this country, when he commenced the study of his 
future profession by attendance on the lectures of Dr. 
William Hunter and Dr. George Fordyce. From Lon- 
don he repaired to Edinburgh, and there, after a resi- 
dence of four years, took the degree of doctor of medi- 
cine 24th June, 1779 (D.M.I, de Diabete). Dr. Myers 
then visited Leyden, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna, making 
a considerable stay in each ; when he returned to Eng- 
land and settled in London. He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1787; and 
was soon afterwards appointed physician to the Portu- 
guese hospital and to the General dispensary. He died 
at his house in John -street, America-square, 1st June, 
1823, aged sixty-five, from gout, a disease from which 
he had long suffered, and which for some years had in- 
capacitated him from the practice of his profession. 

LAURENCE NIHELL, M.D. A native of Antigua, and 
a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 12th September, 
1780 (D.M.I, de Cerebro) ; was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1787. 

EDWARD LONG Fox, M.D., was the second son of 
Joseph Fox, a surgeon of Falmouth, by his wife Eliza- 
beth, a daughter of Bichard Kingston, of Penryn, and 



1787] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 377 

was born in 1761. He was a doctor of medicine of 
Edinburgh of 24th June, 1784 (D.M.I, de Voce Hu- 
mana) ; and was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 26th June, 1787. He practised at 
Bristol ; and after a very prosperous career there as a 
general physician, devoted himself to the treatment of 
insanity. In 1804 he opened Brislington house near 
Bristol, as an asylum for the reception and cure of in- 
sane persons. He died at this his residence in June, 
1835, aged seventy -four. 

WILLIAM AUSTIN, M.D., was born in Gloucestershire, 
and educated at Wadham college, Oxford, as a member 
of which he proceeded A.B. 9th November, 1776 ; A.M. 
8th July, 1780 ; M.B. 12th February, 1782 ; M.D. 4th 
February, 1783. He was elected physician to the Rad- 
cliffe infirmary 9th April, 1783, and with unexampled 
rapidity attained to extensive practice in Oxfordshire. 
Ambitious of a wider sphere for his exertions, he in 
1786 resigned his office at the infirmary and removed 
to London, where a similar but more briUiant success 
attended him than in his former situation, his profes- 
sional receipts soon exceeding four thousand pounds a 
year. He was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1786; a Fellow, 1st Oc- 
tober, 1787 ; was Censor in 1788 ; and Gulstonian lec- 
turer in 1790. Dr. Austin was elected physician to Sfc. 
Bartholomew's hospital 10th August, 1786 ; but was 
suddenly cut off by fever on the 21st January, 1793.""" 
His only published work was 

A Treatise on the Stone, its Origin and Component Parts. 8vo. 
Lond. 1791. 

* Non possum quin nni, vobis fere omnibus familiari, cujus et 
ego consuetndine usus sum, Austino, memoris animi testimonium 
afferam. Conspiciebatis eum ingenio acutum, moribus suavem, 
studio indefessum ; conspiciebatis, iter quod ad famam ducit arduum, 
non, ut plerosque, aegre scandentem, sed quasi cursu conficieritem ; 
conspiciebatis denique de tanta spe, subito, morte nimis acerba, 
dejectum. Oratio Harveiana anno M.DCCXCYII. habita, auctore Rob. 
Bourne. 



378 ROLL OF THE [1787 

SIR PAUL JODRELL, M.D., was the son of Paul Jod- 
rell, esq., solicitor- general to Frederick prince of Wales, 
by his wife Elizabeth, a daughter of Richard Warner, 
esq., of North Elmham, co. Norfolk. He was born in 
Middlesex, and educated at St. John's college, Cam- 
bridge, of which house he was a fellow. He proceeded 
A.B. 1769; A.M. 1772; M.D. 1786; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1786 ; and a Fellow, 1st October, 1787. He was 
elected physician to the London hospital 6th Decem- 
ber, 1786, but resigned that office in November, 1787, 
when he went out to India in the capacity of physician 
to the nabob of Arcot. That potentate had applied to 
George the Third to send him a physician. Sir George 
Baker, then president of the College, being consulted, 
recommended Dr. Jodrell, who was thereupon appointed. 
He received the honour of knighthood, proceeded forth- 
with to India, and died 6th August, 1803, at his house 
on Choaltry-plain, Madras. 

JOHN ASH, M.D., was born in Warwickshire in 1723, 
and educated at Trinity college, Oxford, as a member 
of which he proceeded A.B. 21st October, 1743 ; A.M. 
17th October, 1746; M.B. 1st December, 1750; M.D. 
3rd July, 1754. He settled at Birmingham, where he 
soon got into extensive business, and was for many 
years the oracle of the profession throughout a widely- 
extended district around that town. He was the 
founder and first physician of the General hospital 
there. When at the height of his reputation, and 
in the fullest business at Birmingham, Dr. Ash's health 
gave way. He. became deranged in mind, and lived 
miserably under a delusion that he had been reduced to 
beggary. After a separation from his family of some 
months, he was advised to resume the study of Euclid, 
to which he had occasionally dropped hints of his par- 
tiality. He did resume it, with great satisfaction to 
himself and with the happiest effect, and recovered at* 
length so entirely as to be able to recommence business 



1787] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 379 

in London, and to continue to practise physic until his 
death. Dr. Ash was admitted a Candidate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 22nd December, 1786; in the fol- 
lowing year resigned his office at the Birmingham hos- 
pital ; and then, removing to London, was admitted a 
Fellow of the College 22nd December, 1787. He was 
Censor in 1789, 1793; Harveian orator, 1790; Guls- 
tonian lecturer, 1791 ; and Croonian lecturer, 1793. Dr. 
Ash died at Brompton-row, Knightsbridge, 18th June, 
1798, aged seventy-five, and was buried in Kensington 
church. A full-length portrait of him, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, was engraved by Bartolozzi in 1791. Dr. 
Ash was the founder of a social and literary club in 
London, called in honour of him the Eumelian, from 
the Greek Evfj,e\ia<;, though it was warmly contended 
and put to the vote that it should have the more obvious 
appellation of Fraxinean, from the Latin.'" He was a 
fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and the 
author of 

Experiments and Observations to investigate by Chemical Analysis 
the Properties of the Mineral Waters of Spa, Aix, &c., &c. 12mo. 
Lond. 1788. 

WILLIAM CHARLES WELLS, M.D., was born at Charles- 
town, South Carolina, in May, 1757 ; and was the se- 
cond son of Robert Wells, a native of Scotland, who 
had settled in Carolina in 1753, and at the time of his 
son's birth carried on the business of a bookseller and 
printer of a newspaper. Before the younger Wells was 
eleven years of age he was sent to Scotland to a gram- 
mar school at Dumfries, where he remained about two 
years and a half, when, having finished the course of 
studies pursued there, he, in 1770, went to Edinburgh, 
and attended several of the lower classes of the univer- 
sity. He returned to Charlestown in 1771, and was 
placed as an apprentice with Dr. Alexander Garden, 
the chief practitioner of physic in that place, and well 
known to naturalists by his communications to the 

* Boswell's Life of Johnson, by Croker. Lond. 1847, p. 798. 



380 BOLL OF THE [1788 

Royal Society. In 1775, soon after the commencement 
of the American war, he left Charlestown suddenly and 
came to London. He had been called upon to sign a 
paper denominated " The Association," the object of 
which was to unite the people in a resistance to the 
claims of the British Government. This he positively 
refused to do, and neither the authority of his master 
nor the remonstrances of his friends were enough to 
shake his determination. In the autumn of 1775 he 
repaired to Edinburgh, and commenced attendance on 
the medical lectures. He continued there three years, 
and passed the usual examinations in the summer of 
1778, but did not then graduate. In the autumn he re- 
turned to London, attended lectures on anatomy and 
midwifery, and entered himself as a surgeon's pupil at St. 
Bartholomew's hospital. Early in 1779 he went to Hol- 
land as surgeon to a Scotch regiment in the service of 
the United Provinces. In this position he remained 
about a year, when a quarrel with his commanding 
officer induced him to throw up his commission in dis- 
gust. He thereupon retired to Ley den, occupied him- 
self in the composition of his inaugural thesis " De Fri- 
gore ;" and then, proceeding to Edinburgh, took his 
degree of doctor of medicine 24th June, 1780. In the 
following year he returned to Carolina in order to ar- 
range the affairs of his family ; and whilst there was, at 
one and the same time, an officer in a company of volun- 
teers, a printer, bookseller, merchant, and trustee for 
some of his father's friends in England for the manage- 
ment of affairs of considerable importance in Carolina. 
There he remained for three years ; and of his career 
during that period he has left an interesting account in 
some memoranda of his own life which were published 
shortly after his death. Dr. Wells came to London in 
1784, and at that time made the acquaintance of Dr. 
Baillie, who proved himself ever afterwards his steady, 
warm, and affectionate friend. In the spring of 1785 
Dr. Wells spent three months in Paris ; and in the 
autumn of that year fixed himself in London as a phy- 



1788] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 381 

sician. He commenced practice without any pecuniary 
resources ; and, notwithstanding the strictest economy, 
straitened means were unfortunately his lot through 
life. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 17th March, 1788; was appointed physician 
to the Finsbury dispensary in 1790 ; assistant physician 
to St. Thomas's hospital in 1798 ; and full physician to 
that institution in 1800. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1793 ; and a fellow of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh in 1814. In 1816 the Royal Society of 
London awarded him the Romford medal for his ori- 
ginal and scientific researches on Dew, a subject with 
which his name must ever be inseparably connected. 
Dr. Wells was one of the most active and energetic of 
the Licentiates in their contest with the College ; and 
was the author of a clever and spirited " Letter to lord 
Keiiyon" on that subject. Though Dr. Wells did not 
succeed in obtaining private business, he was a shrewd 
and observing physician. As a careful observer and a 
cautious reasoner, he had few equals among his con- 
temporaries, and no superiors. His papers on Erysip- 
elas, on Scarlatinal Dropsy, on Rheumatism of the Heart, 
and on Albuminous Urine, in the Transactions of a 
Society for the promotion of Medical and Chirurgical 
Knowledge, are sufficient proofs of his qualifications in 
these respects. His papers read before the Royal So- 
ciety, and published in their " Transactions," are in like 
manner evidences of his high attainments as a philo- 
sopher. " He was," writes one who knew him well, 
" laboriously diligent, eager and steady in his pursuits, 
and less satisfied with any present success than cheered 
by it in his attempts to obtain greater. He was frugal, 
yet liberal ; high minded, and unwilling to be obliged, 
perhaps uneasy under obligation, but most grateful for 
kindness ; resentful but placable ; irascible, and in- 
dulging his feeling when it arose from trifling causes, 
but exercising the utmost self-command under very 
great provocation, if the occasion was important and 
propriety required it ; indignant at insolence and op- 



382 ROLL OF THE [1788 

pression, and regardless of all personal consequences in 
the expression of his indignation ; but submissive to the 
appointments of heaven, and calm and cheerful under 
the sufferings which flowed from them ; a sense of duty 
was the paramount feeling in his mind, to which hatred 
and love, fear and desire gave way, and which danger 
and difficulty served only to make more active and vigo- 
rous." "Dr. Wells/' says Sir Benjamin Brodie, when 
writing of his contemporaries at the end of his own pro- 
fessional life, " was one of the most remarkable persons 
with whom it has been my lot to be personally ac- 
quainted. He is too well known by his writings, among 
which his Essay on Dew deserves more especial notice, 
for it to be worth while for me to speak of him as a 
philosopher, but I may venture to give some account of 
him otherwise. He was never married, but lived by 
himself, with (I believe) only a single maid-servant in 
a small house in Serjeants'-inn, Fleet-street. Although 
he had paid great attention to his profession and had 
ample opportunities of studying it as physician to St. 
Thomas's hospital, he had never more than a very limited 
practice. For this, indeed, he was in many respects 
very unfit ; having dry, and, in general society, un- 
gracious manners, and being apt to take offence where 
no offence was intended. Yet he had great kindness 
and warmth of heart, mixed up with these less amiable 
qualities, and while he was greatly respected by those 
who really knew him, he was even beloved by the very 
few with whom he was intimate. His autobiogra- 
phy, which is prefixed to the posthumous edition of 
his works, is very characteristic, and, when I read it, 
reminded me very much of that of David Hume, to 
whom, indeed, as to the character of his intellect he 
bore a considerable resemblance, however different he 
may have been from him in some other respects." Dr. 
Wells died at his lodgings in Serjeants'-inn, 18th Sep- 
tember, 1817, and was buried in St. Bride's, Fleet- 
street, where a tablet was soon afterwards erected by 
one of his sisters to the joint memory of himself and of 



1788] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 383 

his father and mother. The inscription to Dr. Wells 
is as follows : 

Near this place are deposited 

the remains of 
WILLIA.M CHARLES WELLS, M.D., F.R.S., L. & E. 

who was born May 24, 1757 ; 

and who died September 18, 1817. 

A skilful and learned physician, 

an inventive philosopher, 

a man of singular worth and honour. 

He extended the boundaries of natural science ; 

and exhibited in his conduct 

an union of generosity and frugality, 

of high-mindedness with prudence, 

and a strict and scrupulous integrity 

above the reach of suspicion as well as of reproach. 

Dr. Wells's published works were 

An Essay on Single Vision with Two Eyes, together with Expe- 
riments and Observations on several other Subjects in Optics. 8vo. 
Lond. 1792. 

An Essay on Dew, with several appearances connected with it. 
8vo. Lond. 1814. 

WILLIAM MAY, M.D., was born at East Looe, in 
Cornwall, and received his general education in his 
native town. He served an apprenticeship to Mr. Bice, 
a surgeon ; and then proceeded to Leyden, where he 
took his degree of doctor of medicine 16th May, 1787 
(D.M.I, complectens de Typho qusedam). Returning 
to England, he determined on trying his fortune in 
London, and was appointed physician to the Universal 
dispensary. He held that office for a few months only ; 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 5th June, 1788 ; and in the ensuing autumn 
fixed himself as a physician at Truro. In 1792 he re- 
moved to Plymouth, and the same year published his 
short " Essay on Pulmonary Consumption," 8vo. Ply- 
mouth, 1792. 

JAMES CARMICHAEL SMYTH, M.D., was born in Perth- 
shire in 1741, and educated at Edinburgh, where, after 



384 EOLL OF THE [1788 

a six years' course of study, he took the degree of doctor 
of medicine 29th October, 1764 (D.M.I, de Paralysi). 
In 1768 he settled as a physician in London ; the in- 
termediate years having been devoted to hospital prac- 
tice in town, and to attendance on lectures at different 
medical schools in France, Italy, and Holland. Dr. 
Smyth was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1770 ; and was elected physi- 
cian to the Middlesex hospital 4th May, 1775. He was 
admitted a fellow of the Eoyal Society 1 3th May, 1779. 
In 1780 he was appointed by government to take charge 
of the prison and hospital at Winchester, where a ma- 
lignant typhus or pestilential fever was raging with ex- 
treme violence, and causing a frightful mortality. To 
obviate contagion he employed the fumes of nitrous acid, 
the superior efficacy of which over the measures pre- 
viously adopted was quickly apparent. The hospital 
and prison were soon brought into a comparatively 
healthy condition ; and subsequent experiments made 
by order of government on board one of the prison 
ships were deemed so conclusive, that parliament, as a 
remuneration of his services, voted him 5,000?., and 
shortly afterwards he received the appointment of phy- 
sician extraordinary to the king. To the parliamentary 
grant much opposition was raised. Dr. Johnstone, of 
Kidderminster, set up a counter claim, on the ground 
that his father had recommended the same acid as a 
remedy against infection, many years before the appli- 
cation of it by Dr. Smyth. The discovery was claimed 
also for the French nation by M. Chaptal, who affirmed 
that it had been used by Guyton Morveau in 1773. To 
these claims Dr. Smyth gave a sufficient refutation. 
The College of Physicians, who were probably the fittest 
judges on such a question, seem to have admitted the 
validity of Dr. Smyth's claim ; and on the 25th June, 
1788, admitted him, speciali gratia, to the Fellowship. 
He was Censor in 1788, 1793, 1801 ; he delivered the 
Harveian oration in 1793 ; and was named an Elect 
26th June, 1802. Shortly after this Dr. Smyth with- 



1788] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 385 

drew from active practice, and took up his abode first 
at East Acton and then at Sunbury, where he died 18th 
June, 1821, in the eightieth year of his age. His name 
originally Carmichael, he had long changed to Smyth, 
in compliance with the testamentary injunction of James 
Smyth, of Atbenry, his grandfather, ex parte materna. 
To Dr. Smyth we owe the following works : 

An Account of the Effects of Swinging employed as a Remedy in 
Pulmonary Consumption. 8vo. Lond. 1787. 

The Works of the late Dr. William Stark. 4to. Lond. 1788. 

A Description of the Jail Distemper, as it appeared among the 
Spanish prisoners at Winchester, in the year 1780 ; with an Account 
of the Means employed for Curing that Fever and for Destroying 
the Contagion which gave rise to it. 8vo. Lond. 1795. 

The Effects of the Nitrous Vapour in Preventing and Destroying 
Contagion, ascertained from a variety of trials, &c., &c. 8vo. Lond. 
1799. 

Letter to William Wilberforce, Esquire, containing Remarks on a 
Pamphlet entitled " An Account of the Discovery of the Power of 
the Mineral Acid Vapours to destroy Contagion, by John Johnstone, 
M.D." Lond. 1805. 

Remarks on a " Report of M. Chaptal," with an Examination of 
the Claim of M. Guyton de Morveau to the Discovery of the Power 
of Mineral Acid Gases to destroy Contagion. 8vo. Lond. 1805. 

A Treatise on Hydrencephalus, or Dropsy of the Brain. 8vo. 
Lond. 1814. 

CALEB HILLIEE, PAKRY, M.D., was born in Cirences- 
ter 21st October, 1755, and was the eldest son of a dis- 
senting minister distinguished for his knowledge, ta- 
lents, and loyalty, the rev. Joshua Parry, by his wife, 
a daughter of Caleb Hillier, of Upcote and Minety, in 
the county of Gloucester. He received his school edu- 
cation at Cirencester, under Mr. Washbourn, and sub- 
sequently spent three years at the dissenters' academy 
at Warrington. In J 773 he proceeded to Edinburgh 
and commenced the study of medicine ; but in the sum- 
mer of 1775 removed to London, and during two years 
resided chiefly with Dr. Denman. He returned to 
Edinburgh in 1777, and took his degree of doctor of 
medicine there in 1778 (D.M.I, de Rabie Contagiosa, 
vulgb Canina). In October of that year he married the 
daughter of John E-igby, esq., of Lancaster, a lady no 

VOL. II, 2 c 



386 ROLL OF THE 

less celebrated for her beauty than for her amiable dis- 
position and engaging manners. Dr. Parry then visited 
Holland, Belgium, and France ; and returning to Eng- 
land settled at Bath, in November, 1779. He was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1788. His progress at Bath was rapid, 
and by the time he had been ten years there, his pro- 
fessional receipts exceeded fifteen hundred pounds per 
annum. From that time the amount rapidly increased; 
and is said to have varied from three to over six hun- 
dred a month. Of one day the receipts for separate 
attendances were fifty guineas. His exertions as a 
practitioner, pathologist, and writer were incessant. To 
these were subsequently added those of a scientific 
agriculturist. In 1787 he became possessed of a farm 
in the neighbourhood of Bath, and within a walk of his 
town residence. He there commenced those experi- 
ments which established his reputation as one of the 
most original and scientific agriculturists of his day, 
and obtained for him a succession of prizes, the distinc- 
tions of many societies, and the friendship of some of 
the most eminent persons in the land. His " Essays " 
on these subjects in the volumes of the Bath and West 
of England Society of Agriculture, Arts, Manufactures, 
and Commerce, are numerous and important. 

As a physician, Dr. Parry was distinguished by a 
clear insight into the nature of various maladies, by 
promptness and decision in their treatment, and by 
marked humanity and kindness to his patients. In his 
professional connexions and relations he was eminently 
liberal, and at the same time independent. While he 
treated his medical brethren and his patients with can- 
dour and deference, he would submit to no improper 
dictation ; nor for the purpose of retaining a friend or 
conciliating a foe, submit to any measure which was 
inconsistent with the strictest integrity. In his opinion 
the qualities of the gentleman and really honest man 
were necessarily associated in the character of the phy- 
sician, Dr. Parry's writings bear ample evidence of the 



1788] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 387 

extent of his pathological investigations, the acuteness 
of his perception, and the originality of his views. They 
exerted a wide and on the whole a beneficial influence 
on pathology and practice, and deserve more attention 
than is now accorded to them. Dr. Parry was for 
many years physician to the Bath General hospital. He 
was a fellow of the Royal Society, a vice-president of 
the Bath and West of England Society of Agriculture, 
a member of the Society of Natural History of Gottin- 
gen, and an honorary member of the Farming society 
of Ireland. On the 26th October, 1816, he was sud- 
denly arrested in his career of usefulness and prosperity 
by an attack of paralysis, which deprived him of the 
use of his right side, and during the remainder of his 
life rendered his speech imperfect and almost unintel- 
ligible. Though his existence had become a state of 
complicated bodily disease and suffering, his mental 
activity never deserted him, and he was able to amuse 
himself by reading during many hours of the day. Dr, 
Parry died at Bath on the 9th March, 1822, aged sixty- 
six, and was buried in the Abbey church, where a hand- 
some monument to his memory presents the following 
inscription : 

H. S. E. 
CALEB HILLIEE PARRY, M.D., R.S.S. 

Vir probus, 

Cultor Dei pius, 

Medicus sagax. 

Artem qua pollebat 

in hac urbe per annos fere xr,. 

ingenio, moribus, 
multiplici literarum cognitione, 

exornavit ; 

gcientia, naturae indagatione perspicaci, 

feliciter promovit. 

N"e tanto nomini 

ulla pars observantise 

desideraretur, 

Amici, eadem arte consociati, 
hoc marmor 

P. C. 

Vixit annos LXVJ. Obt. ix. die mensis Mart. 
A.S. 1822. 

2 C 2 



388 ROLL OF THE [1788 

" In person, Dr. Parry was remarkably handsome. 
With much dignity of manner he united a certain play- 
fulness which, while through life it had invigorated and 
charmed his domestic circle, scarcely deserted him under 
the severest trials and amidst the heaviest afflictions. 
His miscellaneous reading, extensive knowledge of men 
and manners, and an excellent memory, supplied, in his 
intercourse with society, a constant fund of amusing 
anecdote and of appropriate allusion. From an in- 
timate acquaintance with many celebrated military and 
naval characters, he had become remarkably conversant 
with the details and adventures of their profession ; 
and scarcely a battle had occurred during the preceding 
century, with the minute circumstances of which lie was 
not acquainted. During a severe illness of nearly six 
years' duration, he amused himself with dictating anec- 
Jdotes of many distinguished friends and contempo- 
raries." Dr. Parry had four sons and five daughters ; 
of the former were Charles Henry Parry, M.D., F.R.S., 
to be noticed in the next volume, and the distinguished 
Arctic navigator, captain Sir William Edward Parry, 
31. N., who was the youngest. 

Dr. Parry contributed papers to the " Philosophical 
Transactions ;" to the Memoirs of the London Medical 
Society ; and to several reviews, magazines, and news- 
papers. His separate publications were 

An Address to theMedical Society of Edinburgh. 8vo. Edinb. 1778. 

An Inquiry into the Symptoms and Causes of the Syncope 
Anginosa, commonly called Angina Pectoris, illustrated by Dissec- 
tions. 8vo. Bath. 1799. 

Facts and Observations tending to show the Practicability and 
Advantage of producing, in the British Isles, Clothing Wool equal 
to that of Spain ; together with some Hints towards the Manage- 
ment of Fine-woolled Sheep. 4co. Lond. 1800. 

Elements of Pathology and Therapeutics. 8vo. Bath. 1815. 

Cases of Tetanus and Babies Contagiosa, or Canine Hydrophobia. 
8vo. Bath. 1814. 

An Experimental Inquiry into the Nature, Causes, and Varieties 
of the Arterial Pulse, and into certain other properties of the large 
Arteries in Animals with Warm Blood. 8vo. Bath. 1816.* 

* Memoir by his son, Dr. Charles Henry Parry, in " Lives of 
British Physicians," in Murray's Family Library. 



1788] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 389 

ANDREW MARSHALL, M.D., was born in 1742, at 
Park-hill, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, and was destined 
by his father to be a dissenting minister. With this 
view he was sent when sixteen years of age to an insti- 
tution at Abernethy, where he studied philosophy and 
divinity. Whilst there he published in a periodical 
work a short essay on composition, some remarks in 
which gave offence to his co-religionists, and he was 
summoned before the synod of his sect at Edinburgh, 
by whom, on refusing to retract, he was excommu- 
nicated. He was then nineteen years of age, and at 
once proceeded to Glasgow, where he divided his time 
between teaching Greek at a school, and attending lec- 
tures in the university. At twenty-one years of age 
he became tutor in a gentleman's family in the island 
of Islay, and remained in that office four years, after 
which he went to Edinburgh, where he gave private 
lessons in Greek and Latin to students of the univer- 
sity. Hitherto he had regarded himself as a student 
of divinity, but his views about this time were directed 
to medicine. In 1777 he was enabled by the assistance 
of a friend to visit London for professional improvement, 
when he attended the lectures of Dr. Hunter on ana- 
tomy, and those of John Hunter on surgery. The fol- 
lowing year he was appointed surgeon to the 83rd, or 
Glasgow regiment, and continued to hold that office 
until the corps was disbanded. He took his degree of 
doctor of medicine at Edinburgh 1 2th September, 1782 
(D.M.I, de Militum Salute Tuenda), and then, settling 
in London, commenced lecturing on anatomy. These 
lectures he continued with much reputation for nearly 
thirty years. Dr. Marshall was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1788; 
and died from disease of the bladder, at his house in 
Bartlett's-buildings, Holborn, 2nd April, 1813, in the 
severity-first year of his age. He was the author of 
" An Essay on Ambition," and a translation of the 
Three First Books of Sirnson's Conic Sections, and after 
his death there appeared from his pen 



390 ROLL OF THE [1788 

The Morbid Anatomy of the Brain in Mania and Hydrophobia, 
with the Pathology of these two Diseases ; and a Sketch of the 
Author's Life, by S. Sawry. 8vo. Lond. 1815. 

JOSEPH Fox, M.D., was born in Cornwall, and edu- 
cated as an apothecary, in which capacity he practised 
for some years at Falraouth. Having acquired by mar- 
riage and his profession a small independence, be deter- 
mined on trying his fortune in London as a physician. 
He went therefore to Edinburgh, where he studied for 
some time ; and on the 1st February, 1783, was created 
doctor of medicine by the university of St. Andrew's. 
Shortly after this Dr. Fox settled in London. He was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30fch 
September, 1788, and on the 30th April following was 
elected physician to the London hospital. On the 6th 
March, 1792, he was admitted a Fellow of the College 
of Physicians of Edinburgh. In the spring of 1800 he 
was compelled by his increasing private engagements to 
resign his office at the London hospital ; and, having 
by that time accumulated a fortune fully adequate to 
the supply of all his wants, he soon afterwards relin- 
quished his practice in favour of Dr. Frampton, and 
quitted London. He retired first to Falmouth, and after- 
wards to Plymouth, where he died on the 25th Febru- 
ary, 1832, aged seventy-three. 

JOHN STARK ROBERTSON, M.D., was born in Fife- 
shire, and, as John Stark, graduated doctor of medicine 
at Edinburgh 24th June, 1783 (D.M.I, de Malo Hypo- 
chondriaco). Shortly afterwards, but under what cir- 
cumstances I fail to discover, he took the name of Ro- 
bertson, and as such was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 30th September, 1788. 

Louis POIGNAND, M.D., a native of Poictou, in 
France, was admitted by the College of Physicians a 
Licentiate in Midwifery 30th September, 1788. He 
was appointed physician-accoucheur to the Middlesex 
hospital 22nd March, 1798 ; and died 17th June, 1809, 



1788] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 391 

aged sixty-three. His portrait was painted by Rigaud. 
He was the author of 

An Historical and Practical Inquiry on the Section of the Sym- 
physis Pubis as a Substitute for the Caesarian Operation. 8vo. 
Lond. 1778. 

RICHARD PEARSON, M.D., was born at Birmingham 
in 1765, and educated at the grammar school of Button 
Coldfield during the mastership of Mr. Webb, an accom- 
plished classical scholar ; and subsequently under Dr. 
Rose, of Chiswick. His medical education was com- 
menced under Mr. Tomlmson, a practitioner of good re- 
pute in Birmingham. Whilst with him he obtained 
the gold medal from the Royal Humane Society for the 
best dissertation on the signs of death with reference to 
its distinction from the state of suspended animation. 
Proceeding to Edinburgh, he graduated doctor of medi- 
cine 24th June, 1786 (D.M.I, de Scrophula). After 
travelling for two years through Germany, France, and 
Italy, in company with the honourable Mr. Knox, after- 
wards lord Northland, he returned to England, and 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
22nd December, 1788. He settled in his native town, 
Birmingham, and was elected physician to the General 
hospital there in September, 1792. He resigned his 
appointment at the hospital in 1801, when he removed 
to London, where he remained some years, but then 
withdrew to Reading, and from Reading to Sutton. 
Eventually he returned to Birmingham, where, in con- 
junction with Mr. Sands Cox, he took an active part in 
the establishment of the medical school of that town. 
Dr. Pearson died at Birmingham llth January, 1836, 
in the seventy -first year of his age, and was interred in 
the burial-ground of St. Paul's chapel in that town. Dr. 
Pearson was a sound practical physician and a very 
careful observer. His little treatise on the Influenza 
was regarded by a very competent authority, Dr. E. A. 
Parkes, as one of the best that has ever appeared on 
that disease. Dr. Pearson was a fellow of the Society 



392 BOLL OF THE [1789 

of Antiquaries, and a very voluminous writer. At the 
earnest desire of the editor, the venerable Archdeacon 
Nares, he wrote the medical reviews in " The British 
Critic." He contributed the articles on medicine in the 
early part of Rees's Cyclopaedia, and was associated with 
Dr. Hutton and Dr. Shaw in the Abridgement of the 
Philosophical Transactions. He was also the author 
of- 

A Short Account of the Nature and Properties of different kinds 
of Airs, so far as relates to their Medicinal Use, intended as an 
Introduction to the Pneumatic Method of treating Diseases. 8vo. 
Birmingham. 1795. 

The Arguments in favour of an Inflammatory Diathesis in Hydro- 
phobia considered. 8vo. Lond. 1798. 

Observations on the Bilious Fever of 1797, 1798, and 1799. 8vo. 
Birmingham. 1799. 

Some Observations on the present Epidemic Catarrhal Fever or 
Influenza, chiefly in relation to its Treatment. 8vo. Lond. 1803. 

Outlines of a Plan calculated to Stop the Progress of the Malig- 
nant Contagion which rages on the Shores of the Mediterranean, if 
it should unfortunately make its way to this Country. 8 vo. Lond. 
1804. 

Thesaurus Medicaminum ; orj a New Collection of Medical Pre- 
scriptions. 8vo. Lond. 

A Practical Synopsis of the Materia Alimentaria and Materia 
Medica. 8vo. Lond. 1807. 

Account of a Particular Preparation of Salted Fish, to be used 
with boiled Rice, boiled Potatoes, &c. 8vo: Lbnd. 1812. 

A brief Description of the Plague. 8vo. 1813. 

Observations on the Action of the Broom Seed in Dropsical Af- 
fections. 8vo. Lond. 1835. 

GEORGE KIRKALDIE, M.D. A native of Angusshire, 
and a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 12th Septem- 
ber, 1786 (D.M.I, de duabus Aeris speciebus Aquam 
giguentibus) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 25th June, 1789. 

JAMES CHICHESTER MACLAURIN, M.D., was the eldest 
son of Robert Maclaurin, M.D., an obstetric physician 
in large practice, residing in the city of London, by his 
wife Jean, the eldest daughter of Sir James Kinlock, of 
Kinlock castle. He was born in London 7th Decem- 



1789] BOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 393 

her, 1765, and passed the early years of his life with 
his maternal aunts at Kinlock castle. At a fitting age 
he was placed at St. Paul's school under Dr. Eoberts, 
and from St. Paul's went to Edinburgh, where he gra- 
duated doctor of medicine 12th September, 1788 
(D.M.I, de Fluxlis Menstrui Indole Causisque). Dr. 
Maclaurin was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1789, and was physician to the 
British Embassy at Paris at the revolution in 1790. He 
died at Exnaouth, whither he had gone for the benefit 
of his health, 18th February, 1804. 

JOHN LATHAM, M.D., was the eldest son of the Rev. 
John Latham, A.B., of Oriel college, Oxford, minister 
of Siddington in Cheshire, by his wife Sarah, daughter 
of Richard Podmore, esq., of Sandbach, in the same 
county, and was born on the 29th December, 1761, at 
Gawsworth, co. Chester, in the house of his great-uncle 
the Bev. William Hall, then rector of that parish. He 
received his early education at the grammar school of 
Manchester, and in 1778 was entered at Brasenose col- 
lege, Oxford, as a member of which he proceeded A.B. 
9th February, 1782; A.M. 15th October, 1784; M.B. 
3rd May, 1786 ; M.D. 3rd April, 1788. He married 
in 1784 ; and, having obtained from the university a 
licence to practise, commenced business at Manchester. 
He was elected physician to the infirmary of that town 
in 1784, but resigned his office in 1786, when he re- 
moved to Oxford; and on the llth July, 1787, was 
appointed physician to the Radcliffe infirmary. In the 
following year Dr. La/tham settled in London ; was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1788 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1789. 
He was elected physician to the Middlesex hospital 
15th October, 1789, and about the same time physician 
to the Magdalen hospital. On the 17th January, 1793, 
he received the appointment of physician to St. Bartho- 
lomew's hospital, when he resigned his office at the 
Middlesex. Dr. Latham from the first was an active, 



394 BOLL OF THE [1789 

and soon became a very influential, fellow of the Col- 
lege. In 1792 he undertook to arrange the library, 
which had fallen into great disorder, and he accom- 
plished the task in a manner so satisfactory to his 
colJeagues that he was unanimously voted one hundred 
pounds. He was Censor in 1790, 1794, 1801, 1803, 
1807 ; Gulstonian lecturer, 1793 ; Harveian orator, 
1794 ; Croonian lecturer, 1795 ; Elect, 4th July, 1806 ; 
and President, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1816, 1817, 1818, 
1819. He resigned his office of Elect llth August, 
1829. Dr. Latham's exertions on first settling in Lon- 
don were excessive, and he soon obtained a large and 
lucrative practice. In 1795 he was appointed physician 
extraordinary to the prince of Wales, and was reap- 
pointed to the same office on the accession of that 
prince to the throne in 1820. "At the age of forty-six," 
says the writer of an interesting memoir of him (his son, 
P. M. Latham, M.D.) in the "Medical Gazette," 5th May, 
1843, "Dr. Latham was worn out by the hard labour of 
his early success. He was believed to be consumptive, 
and he retired into the country, it was thought, to die. 
He had a few years previously purchased an estate at 
Sandbach, Cheshire, whither he removed, and, under 
the influence of country air and complete relaxation from 
the cares and toils of professional business, eventually 
recovered. He thereupon returned to London, and 
resumed the exercise of his profession. He felt, 
however, that if he was to keep the health he had 
regained, he must never again put it to the same 
hazard. Accordingly he now removed far away from 
the sphere of his former business. He left Bedford-row 
and settled in Harley-street. And here for twenty 
years he enjoyed, with a more moderate practice, a 
larger share of health than he had known during the 
days of his greater labour and greater success. In 
1829, having reached his sixty-eighth year, Dr. Latham 
finally left London. Fourteen years of life yet remained 
to him. For two-thirds of this period he enjoyed the 
comforts which are still within the reach of a vigorous 



1789] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 395 

old age. For the last third was reserved the sharpest 
of all bodily afflictions the formation and gradual in- 
crease of stone in the bladder. Under this he sank, 
and died at his seat, Brad wall-hall, Cheshire, on the 
20th April, 1843, in the eighty-second year of his age, 
having then been for some years the father of the Col- 
lege. Those who knew Dr. Latham, both his patients 
and brother physicians, speak of him with great esteem 
and affection. His patients remember the confidence 
and encouragement which accompanied his address, his 
sincerity, his straightforwardness, and his liberality ; 
and there are physicians now grey-headed who speak 
of the kindness and countenance they received from 
him in the days of their youth. But the highest vir- 
tues of good men are unseen by the world while they 
live, and are kept sacred for the solace and contempla- 
tion of their families when they die. More, therefore, 
need not be said of Dr. Latham, except that he was 
singularly temperate, when temperance was hardly yet 
thought to be a virtue ; he was most pure in life and 
conversation when to have been otherwise would have 
provoked no censure ; and he was not ashamed to be 
religious when religion had yet no recommendation or 
countenance from the world." 

Dr. Latham's portrait, by Dance, in 1798, was en- 
graved by W. Daniell ; and another at a later period of 
his life, in his robes as President of the College of Phy- 
sicians, was painted by Jackson, and engraved by 
Sievier. He was a fellow of the Royal and Linnsean 
Societies, contributed several papers to the " Medical 
Transactions," and was the author of 

On Rheumatism and Gout. 8vo. Lond. 1796. 
A Plan of a Charitable Institution to be established on the Sea- 
Coast. 8vo. Lond. 1791. 

Facts and Opinions concerning Diabetes. 8vo. Lond. 1811. 

JOHN MAYO. M.D., was born in Herefordshire, and 
commenced his university education at Brasenose col- 
lege, Oxford, as a member of which he took the degree 
of A.B. 14th January, 1782 ; but then, removing to 



390 ROLL OF THE [1789 

Oriel, proceeded A.M. 2nd June, 1785 ; M.B. 31st 
January, 1787; M.D. 15th July, 1788. Admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1788; and a Fellow, 30th September, 1789; he 
was Censor in 1790, 1795, 1797, 1804, 1808 ; Har- 
veian orator in 1795; and Elect, 10th April, 1807, 
which last office he resigned 6th October, 1813. Dr. 
Mayo was appointed physician to the Foundling hos- 
pital in 1787, and physician to the Middlesex hospital 
6th November, 1788. The latter office he resigned in 
1803 ; the former in 1809. He was also physician in 
ordinary to the princess of Wales. For many years 
before his death it was Dr. Mayo's custom to divide his 
time between London and Tunbriclge Wells, residing at 
the latter place during the summer months. There he 
enjoyed the implicit confidence of all ranks, and took 
the undisputed lead in the medical business and emolu- 
ments of that town and neighbourhood. Dr. Mayo 
fixed his permanent abode there in 1817; and dying 
in 1818, aged fifty-eight, was buried at Speldhurst. 
Dr. Mayo published a small pamphlet, entitled " The 
Information and Complaint made to the Court at the 
Hospital for the Maintenance and Education of exposed 
and deserted Children. 8vo. Lond. 1790." 

CHRISTOPHER STANGER. M.D., was descended from a 
family which for several centuries possessed estates in 
the vale of Keswick. He was born at Whitehaven in 
Cumberland, where his father was a considerable and 
much respected merchant. He commenced his medical 
education by an apprenticeship to a surgeon at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne ; after which he proceeded to Edin- 
burgh, where he took the degree of doctor of medicine 
24th June, 1783 (D.M.I, de iis quse ad Sanitatem con- 
servandam plurimum conferre videntur). He then 
visited the more celebrated medical schools upon the 
continent Paris, Montpellier, Vienna, Gottingen, and 
Leyden ; and, after an absence of four years, returned 
to England and settled in London. He was admitted 



1789] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 307 

a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1789 ; was appointed Gresham professor of physic 
in 1790; and physician to the Foundling hospital in 
1792. He died 21st September, 1834, aged seventy- 
five. Dr. Stanger was a person of extensive attain- 
ments and great energy of character. He obtained 
much notoriety in his day by his contest with the Col- 
lege of Physicians. He was the author of 

A Justification of the Right of every well-educated Physician of 
fair character and mature age, residing within the jurisdiction of 
the College of Physicians of London, to be admitted a Fellow of 
that Corporation, if found competent. 8vo. Lond. 1798. 

Remarks on the Necessity and means of suppressing Contagious 
Fevers in the Metropolis. 12mo. Lond. 1802. 

JOHN NOTT, M.D., was born at Worcester, 24th 
December, 1751. Of his general education but little 
is known ; at an early period he evinced a taste for 
poetic composition, and is said to have made some 
happy translations from the Latin classics. He com- 
menced his medical studies under Mr. Hector of Bir- 
mingham, and then removed to London, where he con- 
tinued them under Sir Caesar Hawkins. After a resi- 
dence of some time in Paris, he travelled for two years 
on the continent, in medical charge of an invalid 
gentleman. In 1783 he went out as surgeon on board 
an East Indiaman, and was absent from England about 
three years. It was at this period that he learned Per- 
sian ; and of his proficiency in that language he after- 
wards gave a convincing proof, in a beautiful and faith- 
ful translation of some of the " Odes of Hafiz." On his 
return to England, he attended his brother and family 
to the continent, whither they were obliged to go on 
account of health. He came back in 1788, when Dr. 
Warren urged him to graduate in medicine. He did 
so, but where is uncertain ; and on the 8th October, 
1789, was admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians ; about which time, on Dr. Warren's re- 
commendation, he attended the duchess of Devonshire 
and lady Duncannon, as their physician, to the con- 



398 ROLL OF THE [1789 

tinent. With that family he remained connected, more 
or less, until 1793, when he settled at the Hotwells, 
Bristol, where he practised with distinguished repu- 
tation and success until disabled by hemiplegia. This 
confined him almost wholly to the house for the last 
eight years of his life. Dr. Nott died at Bristol in 1825, 
aged seventy-four, and was interred in the old burial- 
ground at Clifton. He was a voluminous writer, as the 
following list of his published works will testify : 

Alonzo ; or, the Youthful Solitair : a poetic tale. 4to. 1772. 

Basia ; or, a poetic translation of the " Kisses of Johannes Secun- 
dus." 8vo. 1775. 

Leonora ; an Elegy on the Death of a Young Lady. 4to. 1775. 

Sonnets and Odes from the Italian of Petrarch. 8vo. 1777. 

Poems, consisting of Original Pieces and Translations. 8vo. 
1780. 

Heroic Epistle in Verse, from Mons. Yestris in London to Mdine. 
Heimel in France. 4to. 1781. 

Propertii Monobiblos ; or, the Book of the Elegies of Propertius, 
entitled " Cynthia." 8vo. 1782. 

Select Odes from the Persian of Hafiz. 4to. 1787. 

The Poems of Caius Valerius Catullus, in English verse, with the 
Latin Text versified, and Classical Notes. 2 vols. 8vo. 1794. 

Belinda ; or, the Kisses of Bonefonius of Auvergne. 8vo. 1797. 

The First Book of Titus Carus Lucretius on the Nature of 
Things, with the Latin Text. 8vo. 1779. 

The Lyrics of Horace, with the Latin Text revised. 2 vols. 8vo. 
1803. 

Sappho : after a Greek Romance. 12mo. 1802. 

Petrarch : a selection from his Odes and Sonnets translated, with 
Notes. 8vo. 1808. 

Select Poems from the Hesperides, or Works both Human and 
Divine of Robert Herrick. 

His medical writings were 

A Treatise on the Hotwell Waters, near Bristol. 8vo. Lond. 
1793. 

A Chemical Dissertation on the Thermal Waters of Pisa, and on 
the neighbouring Acidulous Spring of Asciano, &c. To which are 
added, Analytical Papers respecting the Sulphureous Water of Yver- 
dnn. 8vo. Lond. 1792. 

A Posologic Companion to the Pharmacopoeia. 12mo. Lond. 
1793. 

On the Influenza as it prevailed in Bristol and its vicinity during 
1803. 8vo. Bristol. 1803. 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIAXS. 399 

THOMAS SUTTON, M.D., was born in Staffordshire. 
His medical education was commenced in London, con- 
tinued at Edinburgh, and completed at Leyden, where 
he proceeded doctor of medicine 19th June, 1787 (D.M.T. 
de Febre Intermittente), being then twenty years of 
age. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 29th March, 1790 ; and soon afterwards was 
appointed physician to the army. Dr. Button even- 
tually settled at Greenwich, where he practised for 
many years with great reputation, and died in 1835. 
He was a man of much originality, a careful observer, 
acute reasoner, and a very shrewd practitioner. He 
was the first of modern British physicians who advo- 
cated bleeding and a rigid antiphlogistic treatment of 
fever,"' and to him we are indebted for the description 
and discrimination of delirium tremens from the other 
diseases with which it had been previously confounded. 
We have from his pen 

Considerations regarding Pulmonary Consumption. 8vo. Lond. 
1799. 

Practical Account of a Remittent Fever frequently occurring 
among the Troops in this Climate. 8vo. Canterbury. 1806. 

Tracts on Delirium Tremens, Peritonitis, and Gout. 8vo. Lond. 
1813. 

Letters addressed to the Duke of Tork on Consumption. 8vo. 
Lond. 1814. 

WILLIAM SATJNDERS, M.D., was the son of Dr. James 
Saunders, an eminent physician at Banff, in the north 
of Scotland, and was born in that town in 1743. He 
received his medical education at Edinburgh, where he 
obtained the notice and friendship of Dr. Cullen. He 
took his degree of doctor of medicine in that university 
28th October, 1765 (D.M.I, de Antiinonio), and then 
settled in London. Dr. Saunders's inaugural exercise 
gave ample proof of his attainments as a chemist, a cir- 
cumstance which served probably to introduce him to 
Sir George Baker, who was then investigating the 
whole subject of Devonshire colic, and was assisted by 

* British and Foreign Medical Review, vol. 1, p. 44. 



400 ROLL OF THE [1790 

Dr. Saimders in the chemical experiments necessary to 
the inquiry. He was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 26th June, 1769 ; and on the 6th 
May, 1770, was elected, chiefly through the influence 
of Sir George Baker, physician to Guy's hospital. Dr. 
Saunders's attainments in science were considerable ; 
his industry and exertions indefatigable ; and what he 
chiefly wanted to insure success was practical expe- 
rience, which his hospital appointment now afforded him 
the opportunity of obtaining. Dr. Saunders's progress 
to eminence was rapid ; and in the course of a few years 
he was in the enjoyment of a very lucrative city busi- 
ness. He was early elected a fellow of the Royal and 
Antiquarian Societies ; and on the nomination of his 
friend Sir George Baker, then the President, was ad- 

O* 

mitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians, speciali 
gratia,, 25th June, 1790. He served the office of Censor 
in 3791, 1798, 1805, 1813; was Gulstonian lecturer in 
1792 ; andHarveian orator in 1796. He was appointed 
physician extraordinary to the prince Regent in 1807 ; 
and died at Enfield (whither he had retired about three 
years previously) on the 2 9th May, 1817, aged seventy- 
three. His monument in Enfield church is thus in- 
scribed : 

M. S., 

Gulielmi Saunders, M.D., 
jColl : Regal : Med : Lond : et Reg : Societ : Soc. ; 

viri probi, benefici, rerum sagacis, 
artisq : suee (ut testantur scripta) periti, 

in hac illustranda felicissimi, 

ejusq cultoribus strenue et constanter faventis. 

.Qui vixit Annos LXXIII. Ob : Mail xxix, MDOCCXVir, 

Hoc M. Patri optimo Liberi posuemnt. 

Dr. Saunders' portrait is at the College, to which it 
was presented by his son, Mr. J. J. Saunders. He was 
the author of 

Syllabus of a Course of Lectures pn .Chemistry and Pharmacy. 
8vo. Lond. 1766. 

A Letter to Dr. Baker on the Endemial Colic of Devonshire. 
8vo. Lond. 1767. 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 401 

A New and Easy Method of giving Mercury to those affected 
with the Venereal Disease. Translated from> the Latin of J J 
Plenck. 8vo. Lond. 1768. 

An Answer to Greach and Alcock on the Endemial Colic of Devon- 
shire. 8vo. Lond. 1768. 

Observationes de Antimonio ejusque TJsu in Morbis Curandis 
12mo. Lond. 1773. 

Observations and Experiments on the Power of the Mephitic 
Acid in dissolving Stones in the Bladder. 8vo. Lond. 1777. 

Observations on the superior Efficacy of the Red Peruvian Bark 
in the Cure of Agues and other Fevers. 8vo. Lond. 1782. 

A Treatise on the Structure, (Economy and Diseases of the Liver, 
with an Inquiry into the proportions and component parts of the 
Bile and Biliary Concretions. 8vo. Lond. 1793. 

A Treatise on the Chemical History and Medical Powers of some 
of the most celebrated Mineral Waters ; with Practical Remarks on 
the Aqueous Regimen. 8vo. Lond. 1800. 

Observations on the Hepatitis of India, and on the prevalent Use 
of Mercury in the Diseases of that Country. 12mo. Lond. 1809. 

EGBERT BOURNE, M.D., was born at Shrawley, in 
Worcestershire, in 1761, and educated at the grammar 
school of Bromsgrove in that county, whence he was 
elected to a scholarship, and eventually to a fellowship 
in Worcester college, Oxford. He proceeded A.B. 26th 
April, 1781; A.M. 1st April, 1784; M.B. 15th July, 
1786 ; M.D. 6th June, 1787. He was elected physi- 
cian to the Radcliffe infirmary llth July, 1787; was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1789 ; and a Fellow, 30th September, 1790. 
He delivered the Harveian oration in 1797. Dr. Bourne 
was appointed reader of chemistry in the university of 
Oxford, on the resignation of Dr. Beddoes, in 1794 ; 
Aldrichian professor of physic in 1803 ; and lord Lich- 
field's professor of clinical medicine in 1824. He died 
at Oxford, after a long illness, 23rd December, 1829, 
aged sixty-nine, and is commemorated by the following 
inscription in the chapel of Worcester college : 

Robertus Bourne M.D. 
apud Shrawley in agro Vigorniensi natus A.D. MDCCLXI. 

in schola Bromsgroviensi eductus, 

intra hasce eedes receptus est alumnus A.u. MDCCLXXVII ; 

mox in Sociorum ordinem adscriptns, 

VOL. II. ^ D 



402 ROLL OF THE [1790 

per aliquot annos literis quibus ipse baud leviter imbutus fuerat, 

summa cum laude publice docebat. 
Londinum profectus diligentissime medicinam excolluit, 

adeo ut oculos principum turn temporis medicorum, 
inter quos, Yir ille egregius Greorgius Baker praecipue numerandus est, 

in se converterit. 

Academiam reversus Artem Medendi 

per quadraginta annos ita factitavit, 

ut non modo apud familiares et vicinos, 

sed apud plurimos Collegii Begalis Londinensis Socios 

primarius judicatus fuerit. 

Mortuus apud omnes desiderium sui reliquit ; 

Quippe qni jam inde ab adolescentia fuerit 

imprimis liberalis, simplex, modestus, fidus : 

in arte exercenda, donatus indonatus, 

sibi parcere nescius, 

aliis impenso deditus, 

ingenio sagacissimus, moribus admodum suavis ; 
quibus dotibus, ilia longe optima dos accessit 

pietas erga Deum. 
Vitam utilissimam et recordatu dulcissimam, 

mors placida consecuta est 

xxiii die Decembris AD MDCCCXXIX. 

Artis Chemicae Praelector A.D. MDCCXCIV 

Professor Aldrichianus Medicinse Praxeos AD MDCCCIII 

Professor Clinicus AD MDCCCXXIV. 

He was the author of- 

An Introductory Lecture to a Course of Chemistry. 8vo. Oxford. 
1797. 

Cases of Pulmonary Consumption treated with Uva TJrsi ; to 
which are added some Practical Remarks. 8vo. Oxford. 1805. 

MATTHEW BAILLIE, M,D., was born on the 27th Oc- 
tober, 1761, at the manse of Shotts, in Lanarkshire. 
He was the son of the Rev. James Baillie, D.D. (sub- 
sequently professor of divinity in the university of Glas- 
gow, a divine of excellent understanding, of polished 
and dignified manners, and of a highly cultivated mind), 
by his wife Dorothea, sister of the celebrated anatomists, 
William and John Hunter. He received his early edu- 
cation at the grammar-school at Hamilton, the master 
of which, Mr. Whale, was a man of quick parts, of 
various knowledge, and with a considerable turn for 
humour. He was an excellent Latin scholar, but not 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 403 

very thoroughly acquainted with Greek, although he 
had enough of that language for the creditable teach- 
ing of the school. Before Dr. Baillie had completed his 
thirteenth year he was sent to the college of Glasgow, 
where he passed five sessions in the study of classics, 
mathematics, and general philosophy. Having obtained 
one of the Scotch exhibitions at Balliol college, Oxford, 
he proceeded thither in 1779, and thenceforward spent 
his vacations in London, under the roof of his uncle, Dr. 
William Hunter. He graduated A.B. 14th January, 
1783; A.M. 14th June, 1786; M.B. 15th July, 1786; 
M.D. 7th July, 1789. In the intervals of his residence 
at Oxford he applied himself diligently to the study of 
anatomy in London, was engaged in making prepara- 
tions for Dr. Hunter's lectures, in conducting: demon- 

* O 

strations, and superintending the dissections of the 
students. On the death of Dr. Hunter, in 1783, 
Baillie inherited a sum of 5,000. in money, the house 
and premises in Great Windmill-street until the end 
of thirty years from Dr. Hunter's death, and the use of 
the museum for the same period ; as also a small estate 
in Scotland, the latter of which he thought fit to hand 
over to the celebrated John Hunter, as having, in his 
opinion, the best right to it. He succeeded in addition 
to a moiety of the lectures, Mr. Cruikshank being his 
colleague, and gave his first course in the session of 
1784-5. As a teacher he succeeded in the highest de- 
gree ; his demonstrations were remarkable for their 
clearness and precision ; abstruse and difficult points 
under his hand became most simple and intelligible ; 
he possessed a perfect conception of his subject, and 
imparted it with the utmost plainness and perspicuity 
to his hearers. He continued to lecture until 1799. 
Dr. Baillie's practice as a physician may be dated from 
the summer of 1786, when he took his first degree in 
physic; and on the 23rd February, 1787, he was 
elected physician to St. George's hospital. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
30th September, 1789 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 

2 D 2 



404 ROLL OF THE [1790 

1790. He delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 1794 ; 
the Croonian lectures in 1796, 1797, 1798; and the 
Harveian oration in 1798. He was Censor in 1791, 
1796 ; and was named an Elect 27th July, 1809. On 
the 13th November, 1809, he was elected an honorary 
fellow of the College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Dr. 
Baillie's relationship to the Hunters, and his marriage, 
in 1791, to Sophia, daughter of Dr. Denman, tended 
in some degree to advance him as a practitioner. The 
temporary secession from practice of Dr. David Pit- 
cairn, the early and intimate friend of Dr. Baillie, in 
1798, to whom that estimable physician recommended 
his patients during his absence at Lisbon, brought a 
large accession of business to Dr. Baillie, whilst the 
death of Dr. Warren contributed in no slight degree to 
extend his practice. His private engagements then in- 
creased BO rapidly that, in 1799, he resigned his office 
at St. George's hospital, gave up his anatomical lectures, 
and, removing to Grosvenor-street, devoted himself en- 
tirely to practice. His professional receipts were very 
large, and are said for many successive years to have 
reached ten thousand pounds. In 1810 Dr. Baillie was 
called into consultation, with Sir Henry Halford, on the 
princess Amelia, and in the course of his attendance 
was appointed physician extraordinary to George the 
Third ; and, in 1814, physician in ordinary to the prin- 
cess Charlotte. He attended the king in his last ill- 
ness, and was offered a baronetcy, an honour which he 
begged permission to decline. During many years Dr. 
Baillie was in the habit of devoting sixteen hours of 
each day to business. Under such exertions, his health, 
as might have been expected, gave way, and compelled 
him at length to lessen his fatigues. He withdrew 
from all but consultation practice, and retired during 
the summer months to an estate he had purchased in 
Gloucestershire. In 1823 he was attacked with inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane of the trachea, to re- 
lieve which he visited Tunbridge Wells, but without 
experiencing much relief. He therefore retired to his 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 405 

seat, Duntisbourne-house, near Cirencester, where he 
expired on the 23rd September, 1823, aged sixty-two. 
He was interred in Duntisbourne church, and over the 
vault is a tablet thus inscribed : 

Sacred to the memory of 
Matthew Baillie, M.D., 

who terminated his useful and honourable life 
September 23rd, 1823, aged 62. 

Also of 

Sophia, his beloved wife, 
who died August 5th, 1845, aged 74. 

But the professional friends of Dr. Baillie erected a 
monument to his memory in Westminster abbey at an 
expense of eight hundred guineas. It consists of a fine 
bust by Chantry, and below bears on the pedestal the 
following inscription : 

Matthaso Baillie, M.D., 

Coll: Beg: Medic : Lond : et Edin: Socio, 

in agro Scotico Lanerkee nato, 

Glasguee literis instituto, 

Oxoniae expolito, 

Praelectori anatomico apud Londinium insigni ; 

qui ad certiorem rationis normam 

eas anatomise partes, quae morbos 

spectant, primus redegit : 

Medico summo 

viro probitatis integrse 

animi perspicacis, sinceri, 

simplicis, liberalis, pii : 

Hunc effigiem 

complures ejusdem setatis 

Medici et Chirurgi 

P. C. 

Decessit nono kal Octob. A.S. Mocccxxiii 
set: LXU. 

Upon intelligence of the death of Dr. Baillie being 
received by the College of Physicians, the following 
record was directed to be inserted in the Annals'" : - 

" That our posterity may know the extent of our ob- 
ligation to the benefactor whose death we all deplore, 
be it remembered that Dr. Baillie gave the whole of his 
* 80th September, 1823. 



406 ROLL OF THE [1790 

most valuable collection of anatomical preparations to 
the College, and six hundred pounds for the preserva- 
tion of the same ; and this, too, after the example of 
the illustrious Harvey, in his lifetime. His contempo- 
raries need not an enumeration of his many virtues to 
account for their respectful attachment to him whilst 
he lived, or to justify the profound grief which they feel 
at his death ; but to the rising generation of physicians 
it may be useful to hold up for an example, his re- 
markable simplicity of heart, his strict and clear integ- 
rity, his generosity, and that religious principle by which 
his conduct seemed always to be governed, as well 
calculated to secure to them the respect and goodwill of 
their colleagues and the profession at large, and the 
high estimation and confidence of the public." 

By his will Dr. Baillie bequeathed to the College of 
Physicians a legacy of 30 OZ. together with all his medi- 
cal, surgical, and anatomical books, and the copper-plates 
of his illustrations of morbid anatomy ; and, in case of 
his son dying without legitimate issue, a sum of 4,000?.* 
His effects were sworn under 80,000?., and his will was 

* 1823, December 22. It was resolved that the following ex- 
tracts from the late Dr. Baillie's will, be inserted in the Book of 
Annals of the College : 

" I give to the President and Fellows for the time being of the 
Royal College of Physicians in London, for the use of the said Col- 
lege, all the copper-plates belonging to my work upon morbid ana- 
tomy ; and all my medical, chemical, and anatomical books what- 
soever. I also give to the same President and Fellows, for the use 
of the said College, the sum of 300Z., to be paid out of my personal 
estate ; and I do direct that the interest or annual produce of the 
said 300Z. be applied to keeping the said medical, chemical, and 
anatomical books in proper preservation and in augmenting the 
library of the said College." 

A codicil dated 2nd November, 1822, runs thus : 

" In case my son, William Hunter Baillie, should die unmarried, 
or a widower, or married without legitimate children, then I desire 
that 4,OOOZ. sterling be paid out of my personal property, to the 
President and Fellows for the time being of the Royal College of 
Physicians in London, in order to form a permanent fund, the in- 
terest of which may be expended for purposes that may be condu- 
cive to the advantage of the said College, or for the promotion of 
medical science at large in Great Britain." 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 407 

dated 2 1st May, 1819. Sir Henry Halford, on the 22nd 
December, 1823, having announced to the College the 
bequests contained in Dr. Baillie's will, read the follow- 
ing observations on the medical character of his departed 
friend and colleague : 

" The same principles which guided Dr. Baillie in his 
private and domestic life governed his public and pro- 
fessional behaviour. He was kind, generous, and sin- 
cere. His purse and his personal services were always 
at the command of those who could prefer a proper 
claim to them, and every branch of the profession met 
with equal attention. Nay, such was his condescension, 
that he often incurred great inconvenience to himself 
by his punctual observance of appointments with the 
humblest practitioners." 

"In consultation he was candid and liberal in the 
highest degree ; and so industriously gave credit to 
the previous treatment of the patient (if he could ap- 
prove it), that the physician who called him in never 
failed to find himself in the same possession of the 
good opinion of the family as he was before the cir- 
cumstances of the case had made a consultation neces- 
sary." 

" His manner of explaining the disease, and the reme- 
dies recommended, was peculiar to himself, and singu- 
larly happy. It was a short compressed lecture, in 
which the objects in view, and the means by which 
they were to be obtained were developed with great 
clearness of conception, and in such simple unadorned 
language as was intelligible to his patient and satisfac- 
tory to his colleague." 

The following donations from Mrs. Baillie were announced : 
A gold-headed cane, which originally belonged to Dr. Radcliffe, 
and then to Dr. Mead, and afterwards to some of the most distin- 
guished fellows of the College (in succession), whose arms are en- 
graved on it. 

Dr. Baillie's collection of articles of the Materia Medica ; and 
A picture by Zoffani, which belonged to Dr. William Hunter, and 
which exhibits portraits of himself (lecturing) and all the then mem- 
bers of the Boyal Academy. 



408 ROLL OF THE [1790 

" Before his time it was not usual for the physician to 
do much more than prescribe remedies for the malady, 
and encourage the patient by such arguments of con- 
solation as might present themselves to humane and 
cultivated minds. But as the assumed gravity and 
outward signs of the profession were now considered 
obsolete customs, and were by general consent laid 
aside by the physicians ; and as a more curious anxiety 
began to be observed on the part of the patient to 
learn everything connected with his complaint, arising 
naturally from the improved state of general know- 
ledge, a different conduct became necessary in the sick 
room. The innovation required by the spirit of 
modern times never could have been adopted by any 
one more fitted by nature and inclination to carry it 
into effect, than by Dr. Baillie. The attention which 
he had paid to morbid anatomy, enabled him to make 
a nice discrimination in symptoms, and to distinguish 
between diseases which resemble each other. It gave 
him a confidence also in propounding his opinions, 
which our conjectural art does not readily admit ; and 
the reputation which he enjoyed universally for open- 
ness and sincerity, made his dicta be received with a 
ready and unresisting faith/' 

" He appeared to lay a great stress upon the informa- 
tion which he might derive from the external examina- 
tion of his patient, and to be much influenced in the 
formation of his opinion of the nature of the complaint 
by this practice. He had originally adopted this habit 
from the peculiar turn of his early studies ; and as- 
suredly such a method, not indiscriminately but judi- 
ciously employed, as he employed it, is a valuable 
auxiliary to the other ordinary means used by a physi- 
cian of obtaining the knowledge of a disease submitted 
to him. But it is equally true that, notwithstanding 
its air of mechanical precision, such examination is not 
to be depended upon beyond a certain point. Great 
disordered action may prevail in a part without having 
yet produced such disorganisation as may be sensibly 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 409 

felt ; and to doubt of the existence of a disease because 
it is not discoverable to the touch, is not only unphilo- 
sophical, but must surely, in many instances, lead to 
unfounded and erroneous conclusions. One of the in- 
evitable consequences of such a system is frequent 
disappointment in foretelling the issue of the malady, 
that most important of all points to the reputation of a 
physician; and though such a mode of investigation 
might prove eminently successful in the skilful hands 
of Dr. Baillie, it must be allowed to be an example of 
dangerous tendency to those who have not had his 
means of acquiring knowledge, nor enjoyed the advan- 
tages of his great experience, nor have learned by the 
previous steps of education and good discipline to reason 
and judge correctly. The quickness with which a phy- 
sician of keen perception and great practice makes up 
his mind on the nature of a disease, and the plan of 
treatment to be adopted, differs as widely as possible 
from the inconsiderate haste which marks the decisions 
of the rash and uninformed." 

" Dr. Baillie acquired business early by the credit of 
his book on morbid anatomy. From the date of its 
first publication in 1793, its materials must have been 
furnished principally by a careful inspection of the dis- 
eased preparations collected in the museum of his uncle, 
Dr. Hunter. But it opened a new and most produc- 
tive field of curious knowledge and interesting research 
in physic ; and when he came to add, in the subsequent 
editions which were required, an account of the symp- 
toms which accompany the progressive alteration made 
in the natural structure of parts by some diseases dur- 
ing the life of the patient, from his own observation 
and experience, he rendered his work highly valuable 
and universally popular. Impressed as he was with 
the great importance and value of such morbid prepa- 
rations in assisting the physician to discriminate obscure 
internal diseases, his generosity prompted him, after 
the example of the immortal Harvey, to give, in his 
lifetime, his own collection to the College of Physicians. 



410 ROLL OF THE [1790 

He has thus laid the foundation of a treasury of know- 
ledge for which posterity will owe him a debt of grati- 
tude to the latest period." 

"He published from time to time several papers in 
the Transactions of the College and in other periodical 
works ; all written in a plain and simple style, and use- 
ful as containing the observations of a physician of such 
extensive experience." 

" But justice cannot be done to Dr. Baillie's medical 
character, unless that important feature in it, which 
appeared in every part of his conduct and demeanour 
his religious principle, be distinctly stated and. recog- 
nised. His ample converse with one of the most won- 
derful works of the Creator the formation of man 
inspired in him an admiration of the Supreme Being 
which nothing could exceed. He had, indeed, " looked 
through Nature up to Nature's God ; " and the pro- 
mises of the Gospel, on the conditions explained by our 
Redeemer, were his humble but confident hope in life, 
and his consolation in death." 

" If one precept appeared to be more practically ap- 
proved by him than another, it was that which directs 
us to do unto others as we would have them to do unto 
us ; and this was felt and acknowledged daily by all his 
professional brethren in their intercourse with him.*" 

* "Ne vero innimium crescat magnomm viromm commemoratio 
qui inde longo ordine secuti sunt, praecipiti curs a ad aetatem nos- 
tram feror ut adeam Matthesum Baillie, praeceptorem hujus artis 
illustrem, talemque medicum, qualem non sine magno reipublicaa 
raalo lagenms morte correptum : quo non digniorem video qui 
compleat orbem eorum hominum, per quos a studiis ad humani 
corporis naturam cognoscendam institutis maximse res ad meden- 
dnm accesserunt. Erat ei ad docendum mens aptissima, enodata, 
simplex ; quae memoria comprehenderat, distincte habuit omnia 
et ordinate collocata ; quorum expositio perspicua fuit et dilucida ; 
quae si ad eloquentiam verbis ipsis non attgit, eo usque pervenit, 
ut ejus vice fungi videretur. Aperte loqui et breviter ei fuit mos, 
nulla exornatione usus est, singula quaeque quasi ad vivum delineavit 
plane, luculenter, nulla verborum aut rerum ambiguitate. Memini 
ipse cum jam juvenis essem, et iis quae docuit me dedissem, quanta 
solertia, quanta sedulitate res difficiles enucleabat, involutas aperi- 
bat, ita quidem ut mirifice sibi placeret auditor, KG tanti negotii 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 411 

" On the whole, we may say of him, what Tacitus does 
of Agricola : ' Bonum virum facile crederes ; magnum 
libenfer.' " 

opus tarn facile potuisse consequi. Quoties de ea parte in qua est 
physiologia disseruit, ea fuit sermonis felicitas, is rerum ordo niti- 
dus, ea narratio, ea argumenti distribatio, ut cum ipse summus 
esset artifex, nihil posset artificii in eo reperiri. Inerant moribus 
singularis simplicitas, candor, moderatio, bonitas, expressa quasi 
signa probitatis et benevolentiae ; ad hsec sinceri quoddam atque 
veri ; qo.se omnia sai fiduciam fecerunt maximam. Attentus erat, 
acutus, diligens symptomatum investigator; interrogabat apte, 
breviter, explicate, ut qui majores res quas morbis incidunt vellet 
onines animo complecti, nee mentem suam sineret in minimis dif- 
fundi, nee levioribus irretiri vet suspensam teneri. Gravia erant 
quae ferebat judicia, brevia, prompta, et ad rem ; comprehensa 
leni sententiarum ambitu, quas vestiebat facilis quaedam et pellu- 
cens oratio, qua sic utebatur ut quae presse dicebat, carerent obscu- 
ritate ; quae breviter ne curta essent ; simplicibusque verbis ita 
disserebat, ut difficillimas res intelligerent audientes, vel saltern 
se intelligere crederent. Quare scilicet viventem tantopere amavi- 
mus, nonne quod ad eum delatus sit, non ab eo expetitus honor, 
quern meruisse magni, tulisse minoris habuit, propter, innocentiam, 
vitae et modestiam, universam in medicos mansuetudinem, qua 
principatum gessit aequitatem, summum erga artem suam studium 
et amorem, diligentiam qua coluit, qua ornavit munificentiam. Eas 
igitur virtutes, nunc amotas nobis, nee jamdudum, nee adeo procul, 
ut effugerent oculos, quarum et ortum aliqui nostrum et cursum 
vidimus et occasum, nunc etiam, ut e longinquo respicimus ac uno 
quasi mentis intuitu percipimus, earum admiratione tenemur et 
desiderio. Cum igitur conjuncta sit iis tota ejus vitae ratio, ad 
artem suam amplificandam accommodata, cumque ea repetamus 
quae de anno in annum eidem contulit ac maguum illud opus de 
laasionibas corpori a morbo allatis contemplemur, (quae res ab eo 
non inchoata licet inde formam cepit et stabilitatem) ; necnon 
Museum vobis quod exhibuit vivus, quasque opes ad id susten- 
tandum suppeditavit, cujus custodes suaeque famse vos et heredes 
reliquit, et ad expoliendum absolvendumque instituit, et a3re sculp- 
tas iconas earum rerum, quae per aures vix attingunt mentem, sed 
per oculos eo facillime feruntur, quas faciendas curavit perpe- 
tueeque fidei vestree commisit moriens, quasque ideo legavit pecu- 
nias, quos bibliothecae adjecit libros ; miremur ei monumentum 
amicos, vos decrevisse statuam ? Quam ei esse fingendam erexit, 
non solum apud suos verum etiam apud exteros fama, et id prae- 
terea, quo aequi essemus erga nostros et nostratum memoriam. 
At vereor ne diutius hie constiterit oratio. Duaa res mihi fuerunt 
incommoditati ne non satisfecisse viderer magni viri famae, ne non 
amicitise qua ilium complexus sum. Aliud etiam me in divorsum 
traxit, ne nimius essem aut prolixior. Utcunque sint ea, si nimis 



412 ROLL OF THE [1790 

A portrait and bust of Dr. Baillie are in the College. 
The portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence was bequeathed 
to the College by Elizabeth ( A] mack), the widow of Dr. 
David Pitcairne ; the bust by Chantry was executed in 
1824 at the expense of the College. Dr. Baillie edited 
Dr. Hunter's great work " The Anatomy of the Human 
Gravid Uterus." 

His separate publications were 

The Morbid Anatomy of some of the most Important Parts of 
the Human Body. 8vo. Lond. 1793. 

A Series of Engravings tending to illustrate the Morbid Anatomy 
of some of the most Important Parts of the Human Body. 4to. 
Lond. 1803. 

Lectures and Observations on Medicine. 8vo. Lond. 1825. 

The last, a posthumous work, of which 150 copies were 
printed for private circulation only, in accordance with 
the directions in Dr. Baillie's will. 

EDWARD FRYER, M.D., was bom at Frome in So- 
mersetshire in 1761, and educated at the grammar- 
school of that town ; on leaving which he was placed 
with a medical practitioner in Wiltshire. He then 
spent some time at the London hospitals, and went 
thence to Edinburgh, and eventually to Ley den, where 
he proceeded doctor of medicine 29th January, 1785 
(D.M.I, de Vit& Animantium et Vegetantium). After 
travelling for some years upon the continent, he re- 
turned to England, and settled in London. He was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1790. Dr. Fryer, who held the appoint- 
ment of physician to the duke of Sussex, died in Upper 
Charlotte-street, on the 9th January, 1826, in the sixty- 
fourth year of his age. " Distinguished ability, various 

dixerim, haud ingratam fore vobis arbitror hanc in eo commemo- 
rationem ; si parcius, id condonabitis imperative ; etenim quee in 
eo erant, cum eodem modo in alio homine nusquam congregata 
viderim, fere singularia dicam, quee et erant sui generis et in suo 
genere perfecta et absoluta." Oratio Harveiana prima in Novis 
-<3Mibus Collegii, habita sext. kalend. Jul. an, MDCCCXXVI a Pelham 
Warren, M.D., p. 20, et seq. 



1790] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 413 

and extensive knowledge, strict probity and unsullied 
honour, united with the most prompt, ardent, indepen- 
dent, and generous feelings, adorned by the most en- 
gaging and gentlemanly manners, combined to render 
him beloved and admired by all who knew him." Dr. 
Fryer was the author of 

A Life of Mr. Barry, B.A. 

JOHN FORD, M.D. A native of Somersetshire, then 
practising at Bristol, was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 4th September, 1787. He 
was created doctor of medicine by the archbishop of 
Canterbury 10th March, 1788 ; and then, settling in 
London, was admitted a Licentiate of the College 30th 
September, 1790. Dr. Ford soon, however, removed to 
Liverpool, and eventually to Chester, where he died 
9th October, 1807, aged seventy-six. 

He published 

Three Letters OB Medical Subjects: 1. An Account of the Effects 
of an Aloetic Medicine in the Gout and other Chronical Complaints. 
2. A pi-actice which has been successful in the Individual Prevention 
of the late Epidemic. 3. An Account of the Sedative Properties 
of the Granulated Preparations of Tin in some Affections of the 
Mind. 8vo. Lond. 1803. 

THOMAS TOMSON, M.D., was born in Kent, and gra- 
duated doctor of medicine at Leyden 5th November, 
1788. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1790. 

BICHARD KENTISH, M.D., was born in Yorkshire, and 
educated at Edinburgh, where he took the degree of 
doctor of medicine 24th June, 1784 (D.M.I, de Phthisi 
Pulmonali Idiopathic&). He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1 790. We 
have from his pen 

Experiments and Observations on a New Species of Bark. 8vo. 
Lond. 1785. 

Essay on Sea- water Bathing and the Internal Use of Sea- water. 
8vo. Lond. 1786. 



414 ROLL OF THE [1791 

An Essay on the Method of Studying Natural History. 8vo. 
Lond. 1787. 

Advice to Grouty Persons. 8vo. Lond. 1789. 

JEREMIAH WHITAKER NEWMAN was bred a surgeon, 
and practised for several years in that capacity in Lon- 
don. He was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 9th December, 1790, when he settled 
as a physician at Bingwood, in Hampshire, and died 
there 27th July, 1839, aged eighty. He was the 
author of 

A Short Inquiry into the Merits of Solvents, so far as it may be 
necessary to compare them with the Operation of Lithotomy. 8vo. 
Lond. 1781. 

An Essay on the Principles and Manners of the Medical Pro- 
fession ; with some occasional Remarks on the Use and Abuse of 
Medicines. 8vo. Lond. 1783 ; and of an agreeable work 

The Lounger's Common-Place Book. 3 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1805. 

THOMAS MONRO, M.D., was the youngest son of John 
Monro, M.D., a fellow of the College, and was born in 
London in 1759. He was educated under Dr. Parr, at 
Stanmore, on leaving which he was sent to Oriel col- 
lege, Oxford, and as a member of that house proceeded 
A.B. 4th December, 1780 ; A.M. 15th July, 1783 ; M.B. 
24th January, 1785 ; M.D. 24th May, 1787. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 29th 
March, 1790 ; and a Fellow 18th April, 1791. He was 
Censor in 1792, 1799, 1812 ; Harveian Orator in 1799 ; 
and was named an Elect 28th November, 1811. Dr. 
Monro was appointed assistant physician to Bethlem 
hospital 19th July, 1787 ; and physician, 2nd February, 
1792, an office which he continued to hold until June, 
1816, when he was succeeded by his son Dr. Edward 
Thomas Monro. He died 14th May, 1833, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age, and was buried at 
Bushey, having many years previously retired from 
the practice of his profession.* Dr. Monro was a lover, 

* Licetne filio patris memoriam dilectissimi proferre ? anne 
obstet virtutum recensioni quod ex lingua profluat nepotum genitoris 
commendatio. Vereor certe ne tarn cari capitis nimium accen- 



1791] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 415 

and towards the close of his life, a great patron, of the 
fine arts. His judgment was accurate, his taste cor- 
rect ; he' was one of the first to recognise the talents of 
the celebrated painter Turner, to whom he proved a 
warm and constant friend. That great artist was a fre- 
quent visitor at Dr. Monro's house at Bushey, and the 
doctor possessed a large collection of the early works 
of his protegG. A portrait of Dr. Monro, in chalk, 
has been recently presented to the College by his grand- 
son Dr. Henry Monro. 

SAMUEL GURNEY EDMONDS, M.D. A doctor of me- 

dantur laudes, ne mihi nee opinanti quidem, nedum de industrial, 
amor, affectus, desiderium justae quicquid veritatis fines transeat, 
ne luctus sibi praeteritas am felicioris imagines repetens, in meros 
abeat questus, nee veram intimi cordis effigiem exprimat. Recor- 
damini tamen, quaeso, quorum casus misereamur ipsos intueri licet 
et nosse familiariter, ut ab imo pectore quaa dicta sunt hand dubie 
proficiscantur, nee minus amicus vester, quod pater esset meus. A 
me praesertim desideratum semperque desiderandum nomen, vobis, 
uti credo, non indignum, quod in memoria teneatur, sed cupio, ut 
satis dicam, nee nimis, pium quaa unice deceant filium, parentem 
quae non dedeceant honoratissimum. Ecquis autem majori simpli- 
citatis aut honestatis laude societatem hanc unquam exornavit ? 
In arte sua candidus et apertus veritati unice consuluit, non orna- 
mentis. Studiorum, qua3 naturae imitatione multiplici allectant ho- 
minum animos et mores emolliunt, amantissimus. Tabularum etiam 
signorumque pulchritudine, atque omni antiquitatis elegantia ex- 
ercitatissimus, eorumque omnium quae pictoris ingenium calliditate 
graphica depinxit mirave colorum varietate decoravit, opifex ipse 
vaferrimus si quis alius, ut inter eos quibuscum inclaruit paucissi- 
mos certe pares inveniatis. In tota vitae consuetudine gravitas, 
sinceritas. Judicium sanum, verum et ab omni affectatione alienum. 
Nilj.il unquam in vita illiberale, nihil in praxi sordidum, nihil sub- 
dolum aut facere potuit aut pati. Quis intimos illos nexus cognovit 
melius quibus ad parentes, ad amicos, conjugem, liberos obstricti 
eumus ? Quis vitae inter rnris delicias actae (quantum inter negotia 
licuerit) perteutavit acrius ? Has avide haurire solitus et ubi jam 
consenuerit inter senectutis solamina vitaeque decedentis gaudia ju- 
dicavit. Quinetiam affectus hosec moresque blandos, ut qai se ab 
ineunte setate mitioribus studiis, dediderit usque ad extremum vitae 
retinuit quo plures gravioresque nobis causas relinqueret et desiderii 
et doloris. Sic "Genitorem omnis cura3 casusque levamen amitto." 
Oratio Harveiana, habita sext. kal. Jul. an. MDCCCXXXiv, ab Edvardo 
Tho. Monro, M.D., pp. 17 and et seq. 



416 ROLL OF THE [1791 

dicine, of Leyden, of 7th June, 1788, and then twenty- 
three years of age, was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 21st June, 1791. He died 
at Wendover, 23rd March, 1838. 



SIR ALEXANDER CRICHTON, M.D., was the second 
son of Mr. Alexander Crichton, of Woodhouselee and 
Newington, in Mid Lothian, and was born in Edinburgh, 
2nd December, 1763. He received his general educa- 
tion in his native city, and was placed at an early age 
with Mr. Alexander Wood, a surgeon of much eminence 
in Edinburgh. At the termination of his apprentice- 
ship in 1784, he came to London to continue his studies, 
and in the summer of the following year, passing over 
to Leyden, proceeded doctor of medicine there 29th 
July, 1785. From Leyden he went to Paris, to perfect 
himself in the French language, and improve his know- 
ledge of medicine. Leaving Paris in 1786, he studied 
successively at Stuttgard, Vienna, and Halle, and 
during his stay in the last named university resided in 
the house of professor Meckel. Having visited Berlin 
and Gottingen he returned to London, and in May, 
1789, became a member of the Corporation of Surgeons, 
and commenced business as a surgeon in London ; but, 
dish" king the operative part of that profession, he got 
himself disfranchised of the Surgeons' company, and on 
the 25th June, 1791, was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians. In 1794 he was elected physi- 
cian to the Westminster hospital, and during his con- 
nection with that institution lectured (as did his con- 
temporary, Dr. George Fordyce) on the three subjects 
of chemistry, materia medica, and the practice of physic. 
In 1798 appeared his work on Mental Derangement, 
which gained him reputation at home and abroad. He 
was appointed physician to the duke of Cambridge, and 
in 1804 was offered the appointment of physician in 
ordinary to the emperor Alexander I of Russia. Dr. 
Crichton was graciously received in St. Petersburgh, 



1791] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 417 

and soon gained the full confidence and esteem of the 
emperor and of the several members of the imperial 
family. Within a few years he was appointed to the 
head of the whole Civil Medical Department ; and in 
this capacity was much consulted by the dowager Em- 
press, in the construction and regulation of many insti- 
tutions which owe their origin to her active charity and 
watchful superintendence. 

Dr. Crichton's exertions to mitigate the horrors of 
an epidemic, which was devastating the south-eastern 
provinces of Russia in 1809, were most exemplary, and 
were fully acknowledged by the emperor, who conferred 
on him the knight grand cross of the order of St. Anne 
and St. Vladimir, third class ; and in 1814 for his long 
aud faithful services that of the second class. 

Having obtained leave of absence on account of the 
state of his health, Dr. Crichton returned to this country 
in the spring of 1819; but in the following year was re- 
called to Russia to take charge of the grand duchess 
Alexandra, whom he accompanied on her convalescence 
to Berlin, where he stayed for a short time, and then re- 
turned to his family. On the 27th December, 1820, 
Frederic William III of Prussia created him knight 
grand cross of the Red Eagle, second class ; and in 1821 
he was knighted by George IV, and obtained the royal 
permission to wear his foreign orders.* Sir Alexander 
Orichton died at Sevenoaks, Kent, 4th June, 1856, at 
the patriarchal age of ninety-two, having been for many 
years the senior licentiate of the College. He was 
buried in the cemetery at Norwood. He was the 
author of 

An Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Mental Derangement, 
comprehending a Concise System of the Physiology and Pathology 
of the Human Mind ; and, A History of the Passions and their Effects. 
2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1798. 

A Synoptical Table of Diseases, exhibiting their Arrangement in 
Classes, Orders, Genera, and Species, designed for the use of Stu- 
dents. Lond. 1805. 

* Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of London, vol. viii, p. 269. 
VOL. II. 2 E 



418 ROLL OF THE [1791 

An Account of some Experiments with the Vapour of Tar in the 
Cure of Pulmonary Consumption. 8vo. Edinb. 1817. 

On the Treatment and Cure of Pulmonary Consumption. 8vo. 
Lond. 1823. 

Commentaries on some Doctrines of a Dangerous Tendency in 
Medicine, and on the General Principles of Safe Practice. 8vo. 
Lond. 1842. 

JOHN ROGERSON, M.D. A native of Scotland, and a 
doctor of medicine, of Edinburgh, of 24th June, 1786 
(D.M.I, de Sanguinis Detractionis Usu et Abusu) ; was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1791. He died (I believe) at Dumcrieff 21st 
December, 1823. 

JOSEPH SHAW, M.D. A native of Cheshire, and a 
doctor of medicine of Aberdeen of the 21st May, 1787, 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1791. 

SOLOMON DE LEON, M.D., was born in the island of 
St. Christopher, and educated at Leyden, where he 
proceeded doctor of medicine 17th September, 1790 
(D.M.I, de Inflammatione). He was admitted a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1791. 

CHARLES SCOTT, M.D. A native of Yorkshire, and a 
doctor of medicine, of Edinburgh, of 24th June, 1790 
(D.M.I, de Podagra) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1791. 

JOHN HEMMING, M.D., was born at Kingston, in 
Surrey, and was the son of Mr. Thomas Hemming, a 
surgeon in that town. He received his medical educa- 
tion at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of medi- 
cine 24th June, 1785 (D.M.I, de Somno). He was ad- 
mitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1791 ; and, settling in London, was ap- 
pointed physician to the Marylebone infirmary. Sub- 
sequently he removed to Newbury, and thence to An- 
dover, where he died on the 16th February, 1809. 



1791] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 419 

EDMOND SOMERS, M.D., was born in Dublin, and 
educated at Trinity college, where he took- the degree 
of bachelor of arts ; after which he removed to Edin- 
burgh, and graduated doctor of medicine there 12th 
September, 1 783 (D.M.I, de Sonis et Auditu). He then 
visited the medical schools of Paris and Leyden ; and, 
returning to Dublin, was elected a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy. Dr. Somers was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 1791, and 
then commenced practice in London ; but in 1795 was 
appointed physician to the Forces. His first destina- 
tion in that capacity was the Cape of Good Hope, where 
he remained several years, and was placed at the head 
of the medical staff as director of hospitals. Return- 
ing to England, he was employed for a time upon the 
home district ; but ere long proceeded as staff physician 
to Jamaica. After two years' residence in that island 
he was compelled by ill health to return to England. 
His health improving, he joined the army in the Penin- 
sula, and remained there, doing duty at the principal 
dep6ts during the whole of the operations in Portugal 
and Spain. Soon after the battle of Waterloo, Dr. 
Somers retired from active service, and fixed his abode 
in London, where he died (I believe) in 1828. He was 
the author of " Commentariolum, quaedam de Dysen- 
teria, Febribus Intermittentibus ac Remittentibus Me- 
dendis complectens, Exercitus Castrenses per certas 
AnniTempestates potissimum infestantibus," 8vo. Lond. 
1816; an English version of which was published by 
the author the same year. 

THOMAS BRADLEY, M.D., was born in Worcester- 
shire, in which county he for many years conducted a 
school, where mathematics, in which he was a proficient, 
was the prominent department of study. About the 
year 1786 he withdrew from the business of education, 
and. devoting himself to medicine, proceeded to Edin- 
burgh, where he graduated doctor of medicine 24th 
June, 'l791 (D.M.I. de Epispasticorum Usu). He then 

2 E 2 



420 ROLL OF THE [1792 

settled in London, and was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd December, 1791. Dr. Brad- 
ley edited the "Medical and Physical Journal" for 
many years ; was physician to the Westminster hos- 
pital from 1794 to 1811; and died in St. George's fields 
in 1813, aged sixty-two. His retired habits in early 
life had unfitted him for the metropolis, to which he 
proved unequal, rather from diffidence than from want 
of professional knowledge. He was more read in books 
than in men ; and, as he always hesitated, like a genuine 
mathematician, to draw conclusions from uncertain 
premises, he appeared to little advantage in the sick 
room. His portrait, by Medley, was engraved by N. 
Branwhite. He published 

A New Medical Dictionary, containing a Concise Explanation of 
all the Terms used in Medicine, Surgery, Pharmacy, Botany, 
Natural History, and Chemistry, compiled by the late J. Fox, M.D. 
Revised and augmented. 12mo. Lond. 1803. 

A Treatise on Worms and other Animals which infest the Human 
Body. 12mo. Lond. 1813. 

WILLIAM SCOT, M.D. A native of Edinburgh, and 
a doctor of medicine of Glasgow, of 26th June, 1786 ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
2nd April, 1792. 

EDWARD GOODMAN CLARKE, M.D. A native of 
London, and a doctor of medicine of Aberdeen, of 24th 
October, 1791 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 2nd April, 1792. He held the office 
of physician to the army, and was the author of the 
following works 

Medicines Praxeos Compendium, Symptomata, Causas, Diagnosin, 
Prognosin, et Medendi rationem exhibens. 12mo. Lond. 1799. 

The Modern Practice of Physic. 8vo. Lond. 1805. 

Pharmacopceiarnm Collegiorum Regalium Londini, Edinburgi et 
Eblanee Conspectus Medicus. 12mo. Lond. 1810. 

Conspectus of the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharmaco- 
poeias. 12mo. Lond. 1810. 

The New London Practice of Physic. 8vo. Lond. 1812. 



1792] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 421 

JOHN MULLER, M.D. A doctor of medicine of the 
university of Copenhagen, of 1st July, 1787 (D.M.I. de 
Medicamentis Antimonialibus, 8vo.) ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1792. 
He practised at Christiana, in Norway. 

EICHARD TEMPLE, M.D., was born at Malton, in 
Yorkshire, and received his medical education at Edin- 
burgh and Leyden. He proceeded doctor of medicine 
in the last-named university 8th October, 1791, being 
then thirty-two years of age (D.M.I, de Synocha), and 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
25th June, 1792. Settling in London, he was in 1802, 
elected physician to the Marylebone dispensary. Dr. 
Temple died 14th May, 1826. He was the author 
of 

The Practice of Physic ; wherein is attempted a concise Exposi- 
tion of the Characters, Causes, Symptoms of Diseases, and Method 
of Cure, 8vo. Lond. 1792. 

JOHN AIKEN, M.D., was the son of a dissenting 
minister, and was born at Kibworth, in Leicestershire, 
15th January, 1747. After a good preliminary educa.- 
tion from his father, who kept a respectable and well 
frequented boarding school, and then at the Dissenters' 
academy at Warrington, to which his father had been 
appointed theological tutor, he was apprenticed to Max- 
well Garthshore, at that time practising as an apothe- 
cary at Uppingham, who afterwards graduated in phy- 
sic, settled in London as an accoucheur, and has been 
mentioned in this volume. He studied medicine at 
Edinburgh ; and in 1771 settled as a surgeon at Ches- 
ter, but soon removed to Warrington, and was appointed 
lecturer on physiology and chemistry to the Dissenters' 
academy there. He proceeded doctor of medicine, at 
Leyden, 19th July, 1784 (D.M.I, de Lactis Secretione 
in Puerperis) ; and then settled as a physician at Yar- 
mouth, where he continued with steadily^ increasing 
professional reputation for a period of eight years. 
Towards the end of that time he became involved in 



422 ROLL OF THE [1792 

the political agitation consequent on the attempt to 
obtain a repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts ; he 
took an active part with the Dissenters, and published 
two pamphlets on the subject. The clergy of the 
church of England, who had warmly supported him, 
now took alarm, withdrew their countenance, and 
encouraged Dr. Girdlestone to settle at Yarmouth. Dr. 
Aiken, seeing his prospects in that town destroyed, 
escaped from the impending bitterness of a personal 
controversy by removing to London. He was admitted 
a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1792. Although his connexions in London by family 
and acquaintance were considerable, he never obtained 
much professional employment. He was little fitted by 
temper or habit for the fatigue and struggle necessary 
to success in town, and he willingly and wisely followed 
the bent of his disposition, and devoted himself almost 
exclusively to literary pursuits. Immediately after set- 
tling in London he commenced, in conjunction with his 
sister, Mrs. Barbauld, the well-known series entitled 
" Evenings at Home," which was completed in June 
1795, by the publication of the fifth and sixth volumes. 
This work had a most extensive sale, is still popular, 
and has been translated into almost every European 
language. His next and probably most important work 
was " Letters from a Father to a Son, on various Topics 
relative to Literature and the Conduct of Life." In 
1796 he became the editor of the "Monthly Magazine," 
and continued so for ten years ; and in 1807 started a 
new magazine, " The Athenseum," which lasted for two 
years and a half only. In the same year in which he 
undertook the editorship of the " Monthly Magazine," 
he commenced, in conjunction with his friend Dr. En- 
field, his " General Biographical Dictionary." This 
work extended to ten quarto volumes, and his own por- 
tion is said to have amounted to almost one-half. He 
was engaged upon it twenty years, the tenth and con- 
cluding volume being published in 1815. He undertook 
the editorship of " Dodsley's Annual Register," in 1811 ; 



1792] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 423 

and his last publication, " Select Works of the British 
Poets, with Biographical and Critical Prefaces," made 
its appearance in 1820. Dr. Aiken died from paralysis 
at Stoke Newington (where he had resided since 1797), 
on the 7th December, 1822, in his seventy -fifth year. 
His portrait, by J s Donaldson, was engraved by C. 
Knight. He was the author of many other works than 
those above mentioned, for a list and some particulars 
of which I must refer to a memoir of his life and writ- 
ings by his daughter, Lucy Aiken, published in 1823. 
His medical writings were 

An Essay 011 the Ligature of Arteries. 8vo. London. 1770. 

Observations on the External Use of Preparations of Lead, with 
Remarks on Topical Medicines. 8vo. Lond. 1771. 

Thoughts on Hospitals. 8vo. Lond. 1771. 

Specimen of the Medical Biography of Great Britain, with an 
Address to the Public. 8vo. Lond. 1775. 

Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain, from the 
Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey. 8vo. Lond. 1780. 

A Manual of Materia Medica. 8vo. Yarmouth. 1785. 

SAYER WALKER, M.D., was born in London, and 
educated as a dissenting minister. For some years he 
presided over a congregation of presbyterian dissen- 
ters at Enfield, but after a time his mind took a bias 
towards medicine, the study of which he commenced in 
London and completed at Edinburgh. He was created 
doctor of medicine by the university of Aberdeen 31st 
December, 1791 ; and was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians . 25th June, 1792. He devoted 
himself to midwifery and the diseases of women and 
children, and in June, 1794, was elected physician to 
the city of London Lying-in hospital. Dr. Walker died 
at Clifton, whither he had retired a few years previously, 
on the 9th November, 1826, in the seventy-eighth year 
of his age. He was the author of 

A Treatise on Nervous Diseases, in which are introduced some 
Observations on the Structure and Functions of the Nervous 
System, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1796. 

Observations on the Constitution of Women, and on some of the 
Diseases to which they are more especially liable. 12mo. Lond. 
1803. 



424 BOLL OF THE 

WALTER VAUGHAN, M.D., was born in 1766, at 
Frome, in Somersetshire, and was the son of Walter 
Hamilton Vaughan, M.D., a much respected physician 
in that town. He received his preliminary education 
under a relative of his mother, a clergyman of the 
church of England, beneficed at Beverstone, in Glouces- 
tershire. His medical education was commenced at 
Winchester, by an apprenticeship to a surgeon ; after 
which he entered at the united Borough hospitals, and 
during the latter part of his abode in London resided 
with Dr. Babington. He then proceeded to Ley den, 
where he graduated doctor of medicine 18th July, 1786 
(D.M.I, de Connubio Chemico). After travelling for 
some time on the continent he returned to London, and 
went from thence to Edinburgh, where he passed one 
medical session. He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 1st October, 1792. Dr. Vaughan 
then settled at Rochester, where he continued until his 
death in 1828. He was the author of 

An Exposition of the Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, con- 
taining the Praelectiones Anatomicse of Ferd. Leber, translated from 
the original Latin. 2 vols. 8vo. 1791. 

An Essay, Philosophical and Medical, concerning Modern Cloth- 
ing. 8vo. Rochester. 1792. 

Evidence of the Superior Efficacy of the Yellow Bark, &c. 8vo. 
Lond. 1795. 

Some Account of an Appearance in the Flesh of a Sheep. 8vo. 
1813. 

An Essay on Headaches and their Cure. 8vo. Lond. 1825. 

JOHN ROGER MURRAY, M.D. A native of London 
and a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 12th Sep- 
tember, 1787 (D.M.I, de Abortu) ; was admitted a Li- 
centiate of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 
1792. 

WILLIAM MOORE, M.D., was born in London, and 
was the eldest son of Mr. William Moore, who, after 
acquiring an ample fortune in the drug trade, in Lon- 
don, retired to Missenden, co. Bucks. He received his 
early education at Campden school, near Broadway, 



1793] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 425 

Worcestershire, whence he was transferred to Pembroke 
college, Oxford, as a member of which he proceeded 
A.B. 22nd October, 1784 ; A.M. 6th June, 1787 ; M.B. 
17th June, 1788 ; M.D. 10th May, 1791. He was ad- 
mitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th 
June, 1792 ; a Fellow, 25th June, 1793 ; and was Cen- 
sor in 1793. He was physician to the duke of York, 
and to the army, and went through the greater part 
of the campaign in Flanders. He was subsequently 
sent with troops to Ireland ; and, after remaining there 
some time, returned with the intention of settling in 
London. In 1803, however, on the renewal of the war, 
Dr. Moore was selected to fill the newly created office 
of principal medical officer to the army depot in the 
Isle of Wight. He therefore fixed his residence in that 
island, and continued there till his death, which oc- 
curred at Hyde in the spring of 1832, at the age of 
sixty- six. 

JOHN HUNTER, M.D., was born in Perthshire, and, 
after a good preliminary education, proceeded to Edin- 
burgh, and commenced the study of medicine. He took 
the degree of doctor of medicine there 12th September, 
1775 (D.M.I, de Hominum Varietatibus et harum 
Causis) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 24th March, 1777 ; and about that time was 
appointed physician to the army. He was admitted a 
Fellow of the College, speciali gratia, 25th June, 1793 ; 
was Censor in 1793, 1799; Gulstonian Lecturer in 1796 ; 
and Croonian Lecturer in 1797, 1799, 1800, 1801. Dr. 
Hunter was a fellow of the Royal Society, and physi- 
cian extraordinary to the prince of Wales. He would 
seem to have been the first to recognise softening of the 
brain as a distinct pathological condition, and he made 
this subject the topic of his Gulstonian lectures in 1796.* 
He died at his house, in Hill-street, Berkeley-square, 
29th January, 1809.f He was the author of- 

* Bright's Reports on Medical Cases, vol. ii, part i, p. 195. 

t " Huntems cum in insulas occidentales cum exercitu profectus 



426 ROLL OF THE [1793 

Observations on the Diseases of the Army in Jamaica, and on the 
best means of Preserving the Health in Hot Climates. 8vo. Lond. 
1788. 

ROBERT ROBERTSON, M.D., was born in Scotland 
about 1742, and educated as a surgeon, in which capa- 
city he entered the navy in 1768. He was created 
doctor of medicine by the university of Aberdeen 1 2th 
February, 1779 ; and was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June, 1793, about which 
time he was appointed physician to Greenwich hospital. 
Dr. Robertson died at Greenwich in 1829, aged eighty- 
seven. He was a fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian 
Societies, and the author of 

A Physical Journal kept on board H.M. Ship " Rainbow," daring 
three voyages to the Coast of Africa and the West Indies ; with a 
Particular Account of the Remitting Fever which happened on that 
coast in 1769 in H.M. Sloop " Weasel." 4to. Lond. 1779. 

Observations on Jail, Hospital, or Ship Fever, from 4th April, 
1776, to 30th April, 1789, made in various parts of Europe and 
America, and on the Intermediate Seas. 8vo. Lond. 1789. 

An Essay on Fevers ; in which their theoretic genera, species, 
and various denominations are, from experience and observation of 
thirty years, reduced to their characteristic genus, febrile infection, 
and the cure established on philosophic induction. 8vo. Lond. 
1790. 

Observations on the Diseases incident to Seamen. 4 vols. 8vo. 
Lond. 1807. 

Synopsis Morborum : a Summary View or Observation on the 
Principal Diseases incident to Seamen or Soldiers. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Lond. 1810. 

EDWARD ROBERTS, M.D., was born in Surrey, and 
educated at Trinity college, Cambridge. He proceeded 
M.B. 1787 ; M.D. 1792 ; was admitted a Candidate of 

esset, ita militum curam agebat, ut ejus operam et sedulitatem satis 
laudare nonpossim. Nihil quidem, quod ad sanitatem tuendam ullo 
modo pertinebat, videtur neglexisse ; sed et tempestates cceli accura- 
tissime observavit ; et locorum opportunitates providentissime mons- 
travit ; morborumque causas, et signa, curationemque sedulo in- 
vestigavit ; postremo, quod nostra prsecipue interest, omnia, ut scitis, 
libro perutili comprehensa edidit." Oratio Harveiana habita anno 
MDCCCIX a Gulielmo Heberden. p. 23 



1794] BOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 427 

the College of Physicians 1st October, 1792 ; and a 
Fellow 30th September, 1793. He was Censor in 1794, 
1800, 1805, 1810, 1813; Gulstonian lecturer, 1795; 
Harveian orator, 1801 ; Croonian lecturer, 1802, 
1803, 1804 ; and Elect, 6th October, 1813. On taking 
his bachelor's degree in physic, he commenced practice 
at Lewes, but in 1793 removed to London ; and on the 
13th February, 1794, was elected physician to St. Bar- 
tholomew's hospital, an office the duties of which he 
performed for forty years, resigning it in 1834, when 
he retired from practice, and quitted London. Dr. 
Roberts died at Croydon 21st November, 1846, aged 
eighty-four. 

ROBERT HENDERSON, M.D. A native of Scotland, 
and a doctor of medicine of Aberdeen, of 20th May, 
1786 ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 23rd December, 1793. He held the appoint- 
ment of physician to the forces, and died at Brighton 
3rd April, 1808. 

THOMAS STORY, M.D., was born in Cumberland, and 
received his medical education at Edinburgh, where he 
graduated doctor of medicine 24th June, 1791 (D.M.I, 
de Hydrope Anasarca). He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 23rd December, 1793 ; 
and would seem to have died about the year 1798. 

SIR HENRY HALFORD, BART., M.D., G.C.H. This 

distinguished member of the medical profession was 
the second son (the eldest son having died at an early 
period) of Dr. James Vaughan, an eminent physician at 
Leicester, and was born in that town on the 2nd Octo- 
ber, 1 766. He was educated at Rugby, and whilst 
there evinced that love of classical literature for which 
he was afterwards so distinguished. He went from 
Rugby to Christchurch, Oxford, and, as a member of 
that house, proceeded A.B. 31st January, 1788 ; A.M. 
17th June, 1788; M.B. 14th January, 1790; M.D. 



428 ROLL OF THE [1794 

27th October, 1791. Previously to taking his degrees 
in physic, he had spent some months in Edinburgh, 
and he practised for a short time in conjunction with 
his father at Leicester. Dr. Vaughan came to London 
about 1792 ; and, consulting Sir George Baker on his 
future prospects, was told that he stood little chance 
in the metropolis for five years, during which time he 
must continue to support himself from other sources at 
the rate of about 300/. a year. Nothing daunted, and 
doubtless confident in his own powers, he, with this in- 
tention (and the alternative, in case of failure, of re- 
turning to Leicester, to take his father's position), 
borrowed 1,0001., and on that capital commenced his 
career in London. He was elected physician to the 
Middlesex hospital on the 20th of February, 1793 ; was 
admitted a Candidate of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians on the 25th of March, 1793 ; and a Fellow on 
the 14th of April, 1794. 

His Oxford connexions, elegant attainments, and 
pleasing manners at once introduced him into good 
society, and he secured a position among the aristocracy 
by his marriage, on the 31st of March, 1795, to the 
Hon. Elizabeth Barbara St. John, the third daughter 
of John eleventh Lord St. John of Bletsoe. Dr.Vaugban's 
success from the very first would seem to have been 
certain ; and Dr. Richard Warren, then one of the lead- 
ing physicians in London, and a man of shrewd obser- 
vation and sound judgment, predicted, on his settling 
in town, that he would rise to the head of his profession. 
His progress to wards that position was rapid. In 1793, 
within a year of his settlement in London, he was 
appointed physician extraordinary to the king ; and by 
the year 1800, his private engagements had become so 
numerous, that he was compelled to relinquish his hos- 
pital appointment. Other circumstances conspired to 
advance his interests. After the death of lady Denbigh, 
widow of his mother's cousin, Sir Charles Halford, he 
became possessed of an ample fortune, and changed his 
name in 1809, by act of Parliament, from Vaughan to 



1794] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 429 

Halford, and, as a mark of royal favour, was created a 
baronet on the 27bh September, 1809. 

About this time, when in attendance on the Princess 
Amelia, George III desired him, in case of his Majesty's 
experiencing a relapse of his mental derangement, to 
take the care of him, adding that Sir Henry must pro- 
mise not to leave him ; and, if he wanted further help, 
he should call Dr. Heberden ; and in case of further 
need, which would necessarily occur if Parliament took 
up the matter, Dr. Baillie. 

On the illness of the king, which occurred soon after- 
wards, Sir Henry Halford, though physician extraor- 
dinary only, was summoned to attend ; and his prompt 
introduction of Dr. Heberden and Dr. Baillie, at once 
insured the confidence of the queen and of the prince of 
Wales, the latter of whom appointed Sir Henry one of 
his physicians in ordinary, and secured for him in 1812 
the appointment of physician in ordinary to the king. 
The confidence then reposed in Sir Henry by the prince 
was continued when the latter came to the throne, 
he was appointed physician in ordinary to George IV, 
and he held the same position in the medical establish- 
ments of William IV and of her present Majesty Queen 
Victoria. Sir Henry Halford was thus physician in 
ordinary to four successive sovereigns. At the death- 
bed of three of these it was his melancholy privilege to 
minister. Almost every member of the royal family 
from the time of George III had been under Sir Henry's 
professional care. His attentions to the duke of York 
during his last iDness were so unremitting, that, to 
manifest the sense entertained of them, he received, by 
royal warrant, a grant of armorial augmentations and 
supporters. His arms were previously : Argent, a grey- 
hound passant sable, on a chief azure three fleurs-de- 
lis or. For the centre fleur-de-lis was substituted a 
rose argent ; and, in further augmentation, was added, 
on a canton ermine a staff entwined with a serpent 
proper, and ensigned with a coronet composed of crosses 
patee and fleurs-de-lis (being that of a prince of the 



430 ROLL OF THE [1794 

blood-royal). As a crest of augmentation, a staff en- 
twined with a serpent or, as on the canton. As sup- 
porters, two emews proper, each gorged with a coronet, 
composed of crosses pate'e and fleurs-de-lis. 

Upon the decease of George IV. Sir Henry received 
another flattering proof of royal esteem and appre- 
ciation a very splendid clock, surmounted by a bust 
of his Majesty, was presented to him by the royal 
family, in evidence, as the inscription states, " of 
their esteem and regard, and in testimony of the high 
sense they entertain of his professional abilities and un- 
wearied attention to their late beloved sister the Princess 
Amelia, her late Majesty queen Charlotte, his late 
Majesty King George III, his late royal highness the 
duke of York, and lastly, to his Majesty George IV." 

Sir Henry Halford's progress and eminence among 
his professional brethren, and in the College of Phy- 
sicians, were no less rapid and distinguished than with 
the public and the royal family. His attainments as a 
practical physician were of the very highest order. 
Though inferior, it is said, to Dr. Baillie in accuracy of 
diagnosis, he was undoubtedly superior to him in that 
which constitutes the real aim and office of the physi- 
cian the cure and alleviation of disease. In this point 
of view, Sir Henry Halford attained to consummate 
skill. Endowed with quick perception, a sound judg- 
ment, and an almost intuitive knowledge of the powers 
of medicines, he wielded the resources of his art with a 
confidence, precision, and success, which was unap- 
proached by any of his contemporaries. For many 
years he shared with Dr. Baillie the highest professional 
honours, confidence, and emoluments of the metropolis ; 
and on the death of that great anatomist, in 1823, he 
was left without a rival. Thenceforward, until over- 
taken by age and illness, he maintained an indisputable 

. ,1 n 

pre-eminence in tne protession. 

No sketch of Sir Henry Halford's life would be com- 
plete without especial reference to his long and distin- 
guished connection with the Royal College of Physicians. 



1794] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 431 

Throughout the whole of his successful career, and even 
when most oppressed by the arduous and harassing 
duties of his extensive professional business, Sir Henry 
was ever attentive to the highest interests of that 
learned body, and ready and anxious to devote himself, 
his energies, a,nd influence to the furtherance of its wel- 
fare and the maintenance of its dignity. He served the 
office of Censor in 1795, 1801, 1815; he delivered the 
Harveian oration in 1800, and again in 1835 ; he was 
named an Elect the 6th of February, 1815 ; and on the 
30th of September, 1820, was elected President, an 
office to which he was annually and unanimously re- 
elected, and the duties of which he continued to per- 
form with honour to the College and credit to himself 
till his death, on the 9th of March, 1844, in the seventy- 
eighth year of his age. 

To Sir Henry Halford's energy and exertions the 
College of Physicians mainly owe their removal from 
Warwick-lane to Pall-mall East, The inconvenience 
of the former situation, the rapidly increasing and 
almost irremediable dilapidations of the buildings of the 
old College, with the consequent deterioration of the 
property, had long been seen and lamented. Various 
attempts towards repair or removal had been made, but 
each and all had proved abortive. On Sir Henry's elec- 
tion to the office of President, he applied his energies 
to the furtherance of an object which the Fellows had 
much at heart, but had not dared to encounter. Mainly 
through Sir Henry Halford's influence, a grant of the 
ground on which the College now stands was obtained 
from the Crown ; the Fellows lent their pecuniary aid 
by donations, subscriptions, and loans ; the present Col- 
lege was commenced ; and on the 25th of June, 1825, 
was opened by Sir Henry Halford, with an eloquent Latin 
oration, delivered to an audience of upwards of three 
hundred persons, among whom were their royal high- 
nesses the dukes of York, Sussex, Cambridge, Glou- 
cester, the Prince Leopold, and a brilliant assemblage 
of the most noble and learned of the land. The king, 



432 BOLL OP THE [1794 

on the moraing of the opening of the College, had been 
graciously pleased to confer on the President the star 
of a knight commander of the Guelphic order, and 
William IV subsequently promoted him to be a grand 
cross. Sir Henry, in testimony of his appreciation of 
the " noble exertions " which the Fellows had made to 
furnish the means of rebuilding the College, munificently 
defrayed the expenses (amounting to 300/.) of the splen- 
did collation provided on the occasion of the opening. 

The debt of gratitude due from the College of Phy- 
sicians to Sir Henry Halford, for his unwearied exer- 
tions in its behalf, cannot be overrated. It has been 
respectfully acknowledged in several of the Harveian 
orations in none, however, with equal elegance, or 
with so happy a sketch of the President's character, as in 
the eloquent oration of 1848, by Dr. Francis Hawkins : 
" Ecquis enim unquarn fuit, vel Medicus clarior vel lit- 
teris perpolitior, vel Collegii amantior, vel omnibus fere 
acceptior ? Sit mihi fas in hoc dilecto nomine paulisper 
immorari. Erat, ut nostis, ad morbos dijudicandos sa- 
gax, ad sublevandos pollens ; iogenii acumine, reme- 
diorum copia, pariter insignia. Nolite autem existimare, 
Auditores, eum ingenii vi aut acumine tantummodo 
esse confisum. Vobis ego hoc confirrnare possum, vel 
diligentissimk eum juvenilem setatem egisse. Tuto, 
prius, et scienter, armis uti perdidicerat, quam celeriter 
et venuste. Studio igitur et labore extitit Medicus, 
plenus et perfectus, cui nihil neque a Natura denega- 
tum, neque a Doctrina non delatum esse videretur. 

" Mores hominum et vitse consuetudinem apprim 
callebat ; atque is er'at qui, facillime citissimeque, rnentes 
omnium sensusque degustaret. Ejus erat proprium 
maxime, ' scire uti foro ;' et laus ea, uon ultima 

' Principibus placuisse viris.' 

Erga omnes erat benevolus, quippe, suapte natura, 
suavis et benignus ; quippe, cum dolentibus optime me- 
deri soleret, a dolore quovis animanti cuiquam incu- 
tiendo refugiebat. Itaque, vir erat plurimis amicitiis, 
inimicitiis perpaucis aut nullis : nam si forte dissensio 



1794] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 433 

aliqua incidisset, quamprimuin redire in gratiam ges- 
tiebat animus. 

" Ardebat, mihi credite, singular! quodam amore in 
hoc Collegium, cui, tarn diu, omnium concessu, prsefuit. 
Quid enim ? testabor has ipsas sedes ? quas maximis cu- 
ris et laboribus suis, nobis adparavit ; quas dedicavit 
oratione puni sic, ut Latine loqui poene solus videretur ; 
quas igitur ei, quern prope dixerim Conditorern nos- 
trum quintum, perpetuo fore monumento prorsus existi- 
mo. Hie, hie inquam, si qugerat quispiam Halfordi 
monumentum, circunaspiciat." 

Sir Henry Halford was a fellow of the Royal and 
Antiquarian societies, and a trustee of Rugby school ; 
and, in virtue of his office as President of the College 
of Physicians, was president of the National Vaccine 
Establishment, and a trustee of the British Museum. 

He died from the effects of natural decay, attended 
with much neuralgic pain, at his house in Curzon- 
street, May Fair, on the 9th March, 1844, and was 
buried in the church of Wistow, Leicestershire, where 
a monument to his memory bears the following inscrip- 
tion : 

HENEICO HALFORD, Baronetto, G.C.H., 

ex M&Q Christi apud Oxonienses M.D. 

Jacobi Vaughan, Medici clari, 

Filio clariori: 
Qui Sobrini sui Caroli Halford, Baronetti, 

(eidem ordini et ipse adscriptus), 
Hsereditatem ex Testamento et Nomen suscepit. 

Medicorum Coll. Beg. Londin. 

cum plausu et favore omnium Annos xxiv. praefuit. 
Begum Georgii III. Georgii IV. Gulielmi IV. 

Medicus Ordinarius ; 
Necnon a plerisque ejusdem stirpis principibus 

in opem familiariter vocatus. 

Ad morbos dijudicandos sagax, ad sublevandos pollens, 

ingenii acumine, remediorum copia pariter insignia, 

Artem quam moribus ornabat, 

late et feliciter exercebat. 

Literis humanioribus admodum imbutus, 

Vixit omnibus acceptus, erga omnes benevolus. 

Natus die Octobris ii, A.s, MDCCLXVI. 

Obiit die Mart. ix. A.S. MDCCCXLIV. 

VOL. II. 2 F 



434 ROLL OF THE [1794 

In solo Salutis Auctore Jesu Christo 

spem vitse immortalis omnem collocavit. 

Filius gratus pius 

H. M. fac. cur. 

Sir Henry Halford's portrait by Sir Thomas Law- 
rence is at Wistow. It was engraved by C. Turner. 
His bust by Chantry is in the Censor's room. It was 
presented by certain of the fellows of the College at 
the opening of the new building in Pall Mall East.* 

* Some papers concerning it are now before me, and are as fol- 
lows : 

" At a meeting of the undersigned Fellows of the College held 
at the house of Dr. Turner on Thursday, 27th May, 1824, 

" Sir Lucas Pepys, bart., in the chair, 

" Resolved. That in the opinion of this meeting the zeal and 
ability with which Sir Henry Halford, bart., has conducted the 
affairs of the College since he has been President, and the signal 
success which has resulted from his indefatigable exertions, not 
only in forwarding the great object of building a new edifice, but 
in promoting the general welfare and dignity of the College, justly 
entitle him to the gratitude of all the Fellows. 

" That placing his bust among those of former eminent charac- 
ters and benefactors at the period of opening the new edifice, would 
be an appropriate and lasting memorial of the estimation in which 
he is held by the College. 

" That in order to obtain this object, the President be requested 
to sit to Chantry for his bust, who has undertaken to finish it in 
the course of a few months at the price of one hundred and fifty 
guineas. 

" That the sum of one hundred and fifty guineas be raised by a 
subscription among such of the Fellows as are willing to con- 
tribute. 

" That the bust when completed be presented to the College, to 
be placed at their discretion at the opening of the new edifice. 

" That three guineas be paid forthwith by each subscriber, 
which, from the number who have already signified their assent to 
the measure, it is deemed will be sufficient. 

" That Dr. Turner be requested to receive the subscriptions. 
" Signed by the fellows present : 

' Lucas Pepys, Edward T. Monro, 

J. Latham, Geo. L. Tuthill, 

G. P. Morris, W. Macmichael, 

H. Ainslie, P. Mere Latham, 

J. Franck, Francis H. Ramadge, 

' Thomas Turner, H. H. Southey, 

Thomas Hume, Robert Bree. 

' John Bright, 



1794] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 435 

Sir Henry Halford's early success as a physician left 
him but little leisure for composition. His two essays 
in the " Medical Transactions " the one on the " Cli- 
macteric Disease," the other on the " Necessity of 
Caution in the Estimation of Symptoms in the last 
steps of some Diseases " the only strictly medical 
writings from his pen, are of a character to make us 
regret that his contributions to our professional lite- 
rature were not more numerous. His remaining essays 
were read at the evening meetings of the College, be- 
fore a mixed assemblage, and are, therefore, necessarily 
of a somewhat popular character. They were admirably 
adapted to the occasion, and they afford abundant 
proof of Sir Henry's elegant taste and classical attain- 
ments. His two Harveian orations, and his oration 
on the opening of the new College, are models of Latin 
composition ; while his " Nugae Metricse," written 
chiefly in his carriage, and in the course of his profes- 
sional rounds, testify to his ability in the composition 
of Latin poetry. 

THOMAS BLAIR, M.D., was born in Scotland, and 
educated at Edinburgh, where he took his degree of 
doctor of medicine 12th September, 1792 (D.M.I, de 
Kespiratione). He then repaired to Leydenfor further 
improvement ; returned to England, was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1794 ; and, settling at Lewes, practised there for 
several years. When the army returned after the 
battle of Corunna, some detachments of the troops 

(The names of thirty-three additional fellows were obtained 
subsequent to the meeting,) 

The bust was presented to the College on the 4th June, 1825, 
under which date we read in the Annals : " Resolved that the 
bust of the President, Sir Henry Halford, barb., which has been 
executed by Chantry (in consequence of the Resolutions which 
passed at a private meeting of the Fellows held on the 27th May, 
1824), be accepted by the College, and placed at the opening of the 
new edifice, among those of former eminent characters and bene- 
factors already in the possession of the College." 

2 F 2 



436 ROLL OF THI: [1794 

were quartered near Lewes, and among them typhus 
fever prevailed to a great extent. Dr. Blair was ap- 
pointed to the charge of these men, and for his skill 
and attention on this occasion he received the thanks 
of the duke of York. In 1814 Dr. Blair removed to 
Brighton, where he continued to practise with consider- 
able repute until within a few years of his death, which 
occurred on the 15th April, 1853, at the advanced age 
of eighty-nine. Dr. Blair took an active part in the 
establishment of the Sussex county hospital, and was 
for many years one of its physicians. 

GEORGE PINCKARD, M.D., was the son of Henry 
Pinckard, esq., of Handley hall, Northamptonshire, and 
received his early education under a clergyman, the 
friend and relative of his father. He commenced his 
professional education at Guy's and St. Thomas's hos- 
pitals, after which he proceeded to Edinburgh, and ulti- 
mately to Leyden, where he proceeded doctor of medi- 
cine 20th June, 1792. He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 30th September, 1794, and 
then settled in London. Towards the end of 1795, Dr. 
Pinckard was appointed physician to the forces, when he 
accompanied Sir Ralph Abercromby in the expedition 
to the West Indies. On his return to England, he was 
placed in charge of troops, then suffering from a malig- 
nant form of fever, at Ashford, Kent. He subsequently 
went to Ireland with the Guards, on the staff of Gene- 
ral Hulse, and served there during the rebellion. For 
these services he was promoted to the rank of deputy 
inspector-general of hospitals, and was appointed to the 
joint direction of the medical department of the army 
in the expedition to the Helder, under the command of 
the duke of York. On his return to England, Dr. 
Pinckard took up his permanent abode in London, and, 
with untiring zeal and activity, established the Blooms- 
bury dispensary, to which he was for more than thirty 
years the sole physician. For some years prior to his 
death Dr. Pinckard had suffered from symptoms of dis- 



1795] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 437 

eased heart, causing him much bodily suffering, and in- 
capacitating him from much active exertion. He died 
of angina pectoris in his consulting room, while in the 
act of writing a prescription for a patient, 15th May, 
1835, aged sixty-seven. Dr. Pinckard was the author 
of 

Notes on the "West Indies, written during the Expedition under 
Sir Ralph Abercromby. 3 vols. 8vo. London. 1816. 

Cases of Hydrophobia. 8vo. Lond. 1819. 

Suggestions for Restoring the Moral Character and the Indus- 
trious Habits of the Poor, for Establishing District Work-Farms, &c. 
8vo. Lond. 1835. 

GEORGE PAULET MORRIS, M.D., was born in West- 
minster, and educated at Trinity hall, Cambridge,, as a 
member of which he proceeded M.B. 1787 ; M.D. 1793. 
Admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 14th 
April, 1794 ; and a Fellow, 30th March, 1795 ; he was 
Censor in 1802, 1809 ; and delivered the Harveian ora- 
tion in 1803. Dr. Morris was physician to the Westmin- 
ster hospital from 1787 to 1791. He died in Prince's- 
court, St. James's-park, 17th September. 1837,. aged 
seventy-eight. 

HENRY AINSLIE, M.D. r was the son of James Ainslie, 
M.D., a distinguished physician at Kendal, but was born 
in Cumberland in 1760. After a sound preliminary edu- 
cation at Kendal, he was sent to Pembroke college, Cam- 
bridge, of which house he was a fellow. He graduated 
A.B. 1781, and was senior wrangler of his year. He 
proceeded A.M. 1784 ; had a licence ad practicandurn 
from the university in 1787 ; and, commencing the prac- 
tice of his profession at Cambridge, was elected one of 
the physicians to Addenbrooke's hospital. He com- 
menced M.D. 1793 ; and then, settling in London, was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 14th 
April, 1794 ; and a Fellow, 30th March, 1795. He was 
Censor in 1795, 1803, 1810, 1814, 1818; Harveian ora- 
tor in 1802 ; and was named an Elect 14th July, 1818. 
Dr. Ainslie was elected physician to St. Thomas's hos- 



438 BOLL OF THE [1795 

pital in 1795, but resigned his office there in 1800. 
He resigned his office of Elect, on account of ill health, 
30th September, 1 828 ; and died at Grizedale, near 
Hawkshead, co. Northumberland, 26th October, 1834, 
aged seventy-four. He is commemorated, with his 
father and elder brother, on a tablet in the church of 
Over Kellet, co. Lancaster. Dr. Ainslie's portrait, by 
T. Stewardson, was engraved by W. Ward. R.A.* 

WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON, M.D. This distin- 
guished philosopher was descended from a family origi- 
nally settled in Staffordshire. He was the third son of 
the Rev. Francis Wollaston, F.R.S., rector of Chisel- 
hurst, and St. Vedast, Foster-lane, and precentor of 
St. David's, by his wife Althea Hyde, and was born in 
Norfolk 6th August, 1766. He was one of fifteen chil- 
dren, all of whom reached the age of manhood. His 
constitution was naturally feeble, but by leading a life 
of the strictest sobriety and abstemiousness he kept 
himself in a state fit for the highest mental exertions. 
Dr. Wollaston received his academical education at 
Caius college, Cambridge, of which house he was a fel- 
low ; and proceeded M.B. 1788; M.D. 1793. He 
settled, in the first instance, at Bury St. Edmunds, 
but before long removed to London ; was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 14th April, 
1794 ; and a Fellow 30th March, 1795. He was Cen- 

* "Is cum Cantabrigiee suae prima labra scientiee admovisset, 
ibi tam pleno se proluit haustu, ut prsestantissimorum et summi 
ingenii atque industries juvenum, actis examinationibus facile Prin- 
ceps salutaretur, fratre suo majore natu proximum honoris locum 
obtinente. Hisce sub auspiciis, cum ad medicinam exercendam se 
accinxisset quis non ei pateret aditus ad opes, ad famam, ad amplitudi- 
nem ? Omnes omnia bona dicere, et laudare fortunas medici, cui 
visa sunt et fausta omnia ac felicia in procinctu stare. At ea est 
tamen, quodammodo, artis nostraa conditio, ut Medicus, quamvis sit 
eruditus, quamvis sit in omni scientia ad artem suam pertinente, 
instructissimus, si fuerit idem in consuetudine vitae et in moribus ac 
voluntatibus civium suornm hospes, parum ei proderit oleum 
operamque inter calamos et scrinia consumpsisse." Oratio ex 
Harvseii Institute habita 25 Junii, 1835, auct. Henr. Halford. 



1795] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 439 

sor in 1798, and became an Elect 13th February, 1824, 
in place of Dr. Hervey, deceased. In 1800 Dr. Wol- 
laston became a candidate for the office of physician to 
St. George's hospital ; but, having been successfully 
opposed by Dr. Pemberton, he took a dMike to the 
profession, withdrew from its exercise, and thencefor- 
ward devoted himself almost exclusively to chemistry. 
His means, in consequence of the large family of his 
father, were necessarily small, and he looked to che- 
mistry as his means of livelihood. In this department 
of science he attained to the highest eminence, and for 
minuteness of apparatus, neatness of manipulation, and 
accuracy of results, has never been surpassed. One of 
his great discoveries, the malleability of platinum, pro- 
duced him, it is said, as much as thirty thousand 
pounds. He, with Sir Humphry Davy and Dr. Thomas 
Young, ranked as the most eminent representatives of 
English science of their age. He was secretary of the 
Royal Society from 1804 to 1816, and on the 29th 
June, 1820, was elected president of that society, an 
office which he retained for a few months only, resigning 
it on the 30th November following, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Sir Humphry Davy. He received the Copley 
medal in 1802, for various papers in the Philosophical 
Transactions, and one of the Royal medals in 1828, for 
his communication of a method of rendering platina mal- 
leable. " Wollaston," writes Dr. Peacock, "is less known 
by any striking discoveries than by the happy invention 
of many processes in chemistry and the arts some of 
which he made subservient during his lifetime to the in- 
terests of his fortune as well as by various essays on 
very different branches of philosophy, which are gene- 
rally remarkable for great precision of thought and state- 
ment, and by a command of the subject of which he is 
treating so complete, that he was very rarely mistaken 
in his conclusions. He was a good geometer, a good 
optician, and a thorough master of mechanical princi- 
ples, as far as his very limited knowledge of analysis 
would enable him to apply them ; but he was wanting 



440 ROLL OF THE [1795 

in the courage of Young and the enthusiasm of Davy, 
and would rather have sacrificed the credit of the 
greatest discovery than expose himself to the danger 
or the imputation of failure. And there is every reason 
to conclude that much of the credit which Dalton and 
Berzelius have gained from the proposition and esta- 
blishment of the great principles of the atomic theory 
would have been appropriated by Wollaston, if his 
courage and enterprise had been equal to his know- 
ledge and to the clearness of his views of the proper 
import of definite chemical analyses and combinations. 
His name is consequently not permanently connected 
with any great real epochal advancement in the sciences, 
and it is on this account that posterity is not likely to 
maintain the same high estimate of his powers which 
was made by his contemporaries." 4 

Towards the latter part of 1828, Dr. Wollaston 
became dangerously ill of the disorder of which he died. 
His conduct under the heavy dispensation of his malady 
(disease of the brain) may well be called ' divine,' if that 
of Socrates merited such an epithet. In the midst of 
disease and pain, and feeling that the duration of his 
life was precarious, he devoted his numbered hours to 
communicate by dictation, and thereby to preserve, all 
the discoveries and improvements which he had made, 
and the knowledge of which is calculated to be most 
beneficial to his fellow creatures. A nobler example of 
fortitude and virtue has never been witnessed in any 
age or country. A short time before his death he gave 
a fresh proof of his love of science, and of the interest 
he felt for its advancement. He wrote a letter to the 
secretary of the Royal Society, informing him that he 
had that day invested in the funds, in the name of the 
Royal Society, stock to the amount of 1,000?., the in- 
terest of which he wished to be employed in the en- 
couragement of experiment in natural philosophy. 



* Life of Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S., 8vo. Lond., 1855, 
p. 469. 



1795] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 441 

When he was nearly at his last agony, a circumstance 
occurred which shows that he still preserved his facul- 
ties and gives an interesting proof of the power of his 
mind over physical suffering. One of his friends having 
observed, loud enough for him to hear, that he was not 
at the time conscious of what was passing around him, 
he immediately made a sign for a pencil and paper, 
which were given him ; he then wrote dow r n some 
figures, and, after casting up the sum, returned them. 
The amount was right. 

Dr. Wollaston died on the 22nd December, 1828, and 
was buried in the family vault at Chiselhurst, Kent. 
His portrait, by J. Jackson, II. A., is at the Royal 
Society. It was engraved by Thomson. 

" Wollaston," says Dr. Henry, " was endowed with 
bodily senses of extraordinary acuteness and accuracy, 
and with great general vigour of understanding. Trained 
it^ the discipline of the exact sciences, he had acquired a 
powerful command over his attention, and had habi- 
tuated himself to the most rigid correctness both of 
thought and of language. He was sufficiently provided 
with the resources of the mathematics to be enabled to 
pursue with success profound inquiries in mechanical 
and optical philosophy, the results of which enabled him 
to unfold the cause of phenomena not before understood, 
and to enrich the arts connected with those sciences by 
the invention of ingenious and valuable instruments. 
In chemistry he was distinguished by the extreme nicety 
and delica.cy of his observations, by the quickness and 
precision with which he marked resemblances and dis- 
criminated differences ; the sagacity with which he de- 
vised experiments and anticipated their results ; and 
the skill with which he executed the analysis of frag- 
ments of new substances, often so minute as to be 
scarcely perceptible by ordinary eyes. He was remark- 
able, too, for the caution with which he advanced from 
facts to general conclusions ; a caution which, if it some- 
times prevented him from reaching at once to the most 
sublime truths, yet rendered every step of his ascent a 



442 ROLL OF THE [1795 

secure station from which it was easy to rise to higher 
and more enlarged inductions." " He had," writes Dr. 
Thomson,^ " without exception the sharpest eye that I 
have ever seen : he could write with a diamond upon 
glass in a character so small that nothing could be dis- 
tinguished by the naked eye but a ragged line ; yet, 
when the letters were viewed through a microscope they 
were beautifully regular and quite legible. "f 

CHARLES WEBSTER, M.D. A native of Scotland, and 
a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of the 12th Septein- 

* History of Chemistry, in 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1831. Vol. ii, p. 
249. 

f Wollastono ea fuit indoles, ut exquisitiores illas philosophies 
provincias, quas summo ardore excoluisset, neque steriles, neque ab 
hodierno usu semotas esse vellet, sed ex umbraculis eruditorum de- 
vocatas in solera et pulverem produceret. Novistis enim, Socii, 
quanta solertia, quantoque animi acumine, chemia duce et facem 
praeferente, vesicae renumque calculos investigaverit, diversa eorum 
genera distinxerit, causas tarn atrocis morbi explicaverit et exinde 
rationalem medendi normam desumpserit. Meministis etiam quam 
curiose et sagaciter, prima veri initia, quando pullulare inceperant, 
ab omni parte odoraretur atque vestigaret, et quam sedulo incre- 
mentis ejus invigilaret. Sicut enim Freindio laudi tribuitur " quod 
illam attractionis vim, quam in grandiori coelestium mole perspexe- 
rat Newtonus, rebus chemicis accommodaverit," ita Wollastoni 
famam auxit, quod in eruenda ilia nova de Atomorum conjugio doc- 
trina, quae in suo saaculo primum innotuerat, ipse cum praeclaro illo 
philosopho se consociaverit, qui, si non a3mulus sit Newtoni (quia 
enim tanto nomini par sit aut secundus ?) at certe hominum qui 
nunc sunt proximos illi honores in rebus physicis occupavit. Post- 
quam enim Daltonus nova philosophise sues rudimenta exposuerat, 
et quasi crudam ejus effigiem in lucem protulerat, noster primo 
quasi intuitu veram esse et naturae accommodatam intellexit, neque 
nnquam cessavit, quin aut experiments earn confirmaret, aut auc- 
toritate sua aliis commendaret. Inerat enim Wollastono ea perspi- 
cacitas, ut quae communi hominum sensui parum obvia essent, ea 
statim animo arriperet atque complecteretur ; sicut enim ex repertis 
ejus accepimus, esse quasdam. chordas, quas sonos edant, quibusdam 
animalibus vocales, caeterorum vero auribus omnino non percipiendas, 
ita ex ipsius exemplo docemur, inesse rebus notas quasdam, quas, 
quamquam prae nimia sua tenuitate vulgi captum fugiant, discerni 
tamen atque intelligi possunt, si modo philosophum scrutatorem sui 
atque interpretem invenerint. Oratio ex Harveii Institute habita 
25 die Junii, 1845, authore Carolo G. B. Daubeney, M.D. p. 10. 



1795] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 443 

ber, 1777 (D.M.I, de Vasorum Sanguiferorum Libra- 
mine) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians 30th March, 1795. He died in the follow- 
ing year. Dr. Webster was a fellow of the College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh, and physician to the army. 
We have from his pen 

Medicinae Praxeos Systema, ex Academies Edinburgensis Disputa- 
tionibus Inauguralibus preecipue depromptum. 3 torn. 8vo. Edin. 
1781. 

An Account of the Life and Writings of the celebrated Dr. A. 
Pitcairne. 8vo. Edinb. 1781. 

The Edinburgh New Dispensatory. 8vo. Edinb. 1786. 

Facts tending to show the connection of the Stomach with Life, 
Disease, and Remedy. 8vo. Edinb. 1793. 

ROBERT HAMILTON, M.D., was descended from a 
Scottish family of respectability, but was born at Cole- 
raine, in Ireland, in 1748, and received his medical edu- 
cation at Edinburgh, where he took his degree of doctor 
of medicine 24th June, 1780 (D.M.I, de Nicotianse Vi- 
ribus in Medicina, ut et de ejus malis effectibus in usu 
communi et domes tico) ; immediately after which he 
entered the army as a surgeon. He was admitted an 
Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians 8th Janu- 
ary, 1784; and a Licentiate, 30th March, 1795. Dr. 
Hamilton practised first at Dorchester, and afterwards 
at Ipswich, where he obtained a respectable share of 
business. Ere long he became totally blind. He sur- 
vived this affliction more than thirty years, and died at 
Ipswich, 29th May, 1830, in the eighty-second year of 
his age. He was the author of 

Remarks on the Means of Obviating the Fatal Effects of the Bite 
of a Mad Dog, or other Rabid Animals. 8vo. Ipswich. 1785. 

The Duties of a Regimental Surgeon considered ; with Observa- 
tions on his General Qualifications. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1788. 

Practical Hints on Opium considered as a Poison. 8vo. Ipswich. 
1791. 

Observations on Scrophulous Affections. 12mo. Lond. 1791. 

Rules for Recovering Persons recently Drowned. 8vo. Lond. 
1795. 

Observations on the Marsh Remittent Fever, and on the Water 
Canker and Leprosy : with Memoirs of his Life. 8vo. Lond. 1801'- 



444 ROLL OF THE [1795 

HUGH GILLAN, M.D. A native of Scotland, and a 
doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 12th September, 
1786 (D.M.I, de Igne) ; was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians 30th March, 1795. Dr. Gil- 
Ian was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society 19th Feb- 
ruary, 1795, and died 19th May, 1798. 

PHILIP ELLIOT, M.D., was born in Wales, and re- 
ceived his medical education at Edinburgh, where he 
graduated doctor of medicine 24th June, 1791 (D.M.I, 
de Dyspepsia). He was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 30th March, 1795, and practised 
for some years at Reading ; but about the year 1800 
settled in London, which he left for Swansea in 1807. 
Ultimately he removed to Bath, after which I lose all 
traces of him. 

JAMES BARTON, M.D., was bred a surgeon, and in 
that capacity served for some time in the army. He 
was in Jamaica from 1780 to the end of 1782 in charge 
of troops, which suffered severely from dysentery. He 
graduated doctor of medicine at Ley den 24th Decem- 
ber, 1788, and was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 25th June, 1795. 

WILLIAM FOWLE, M.D., was born in Berkshire, and 
on the 5th October, 1791, being then twenty-five years 
of age, was entered on the physic line at Leyden pre- 
paratory to graduating doctor of medicine there, which 
he did on the 26th of the same month (D.M.I, de Febre 
Erysipelatosa cum nonnullis indagationibus de ortu in- 
flammationis localis). He was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1795. Dr. 
Fowle was in the army, and saw considerable service in 
the West Indies. We owe to his pen 

Experiments with Mercury in the Small Pox, translated from the 
French of Van Woensel. 8vo. 1793. 

Treatise on the Different Fevers of the "West Indies. 8vo. 1800. 



1795] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 445 

ARTHUR DANIEL STONE, M.D., was born the 14th 
February, 1764, at "Worth, in Sussex, and educated at 
the Charterhouse, whence he was sent to University 
college, Oxford, and as a member of that house pro- 
ceeded A. B. llth November, 1785 ; A.M. 12th July, 
1788; M.B. 12th May, 1789; M.D. 15th July, 1794. 
His medical knowledge was obtained at St. Bartholo- 
mew's hospital and Edinburgh. He was admitted a 
Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1794 ; and a Fellow, 30th September, 1795 ; was Cen- 
sor in 1797, 1806, 1816, 1819; Harveian orator in 
1804 ; and was named an Elect 21st July, 1818. Dr. 
Stone commenced his professional career at Richmond 
in Surrey, but in 1805 removed to London, and in 
1807 was appointed physician to the Charterhouse. 
He resigned his office of Elect 3rd April, 1823, and his 
physicianship to the Charterhouse about the same time, 
and dying on the 12th August, 1824, was buried in the 
cloisters of the Charterhouse near to the chapel. We 
have from his pen 

A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Stomach and of Digestion . 
8vo. Lond. 1806*. 

HENRY BOWLES, M.D., was born at Shaftesbury in 
Dorsetshire, and educated at Edinburgh, where he 
took the degree of doctor of medicine 24th June, 1790 
(D.M.I, de Febre Typhoidea). He was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th September, 
1795, and practised for a short time at Winchester; 
but then entered the medical service of the army, and 
died at Gibraltar, of fever caught in the discharge 
of his duties, in 1804, aged thirty -nine. His brother, 
the Rev. William Lisle Bowles, rector of Bremhill, co. 
Wilts, erected in his grounds a funereal urn, the pede- 
stal of which was thus inscribed 

M.S. 
HENRICI BOWLES, M.D. 

Qui ad Calpen, 
febre ibi exitiali grassante, 



440 ROLL OF THE [1795 

ufc opem miseris praestarefc, 

publice missus 

ipse miserrime periit, 

Anno 1804, set. 39. 

Fratri optimo moerens P. W. L. B. 

COLUMBUS MACQUEEN, M.D., was the son of the 
Rev. Donald Macqueen, of Skye, a gentleman men- 
tioned by Dr. Johnson in terms of respect and esteem. 
Our physician, after a sound general education at home 
under his father, proceeded to Edinburgh ; and, after 
the usual course of study, took his degree of doctor of 
medicine 12th September, 1777 (D.M.I, de Mulierum 
Sanitate tuenda). He then settled at Norwich, where 
he practised with considerable success for some years. 
About 1794 he removed to London, and was admitted 
a* Licentiate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1795. By the death of his wife's father, Judge 
Potter, he became possessed of an ample fortune ; and, 
being fond of agriculture, he withdrew from practice in 
1807, and retired to the neighbourhood of Woburn. 
He died, at an advanced age, at Ridgemont house, 
Bedfordshire, on the 24th July, 1829. 

NICHOLAS ROMAYNE, M.D., was born in New York, 
and received his medical education at New York and 
Edinburgh ; in the latter he took the degree of doctor 
of medicine 24th June, 1780 (D.M.T. de Puris gene- 
ratione). He was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 22nd December, 1795. 

EDWARD THOMAS, M.D., was born in the island of 
St. Christopher's, and took his degree of doctor of 
medicine in the university of Copenhagen 13th June, 
1789. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College 
of Physicians 22nd December, 1795, and then settled 
at Barbadoes. 

JAMES BUCHAN, M.D. A native of Scotland, and a 
doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 12th September, 



1796] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 447 

1792 (D.M.I, de Coeli Effectibus) ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd December, 
1795. 

RICHARD DENNISON, M.D., was born in Norfolk, and, 
after a good preliminary education, commenced the 
study of medicine under Mr. William Donne, a distin- 
guished practitioner at Norwich, and one of the sur- 
geons to the Norfolk and Norwich hospital ; after which 
he proceeded to Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor 
of medicine 12th June, 1775 (D.M.I, de Vasorum Irri- 
tabilitate). He then settled at Stafford, practised 
there for several years, and was physician to the County 
General infirmary. Removing to London, and being 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 9th 
January, 1796, he devoted himself to midwifery, and 
enjoyed for several years the best practice in that de- 
partment in the city. The date of his death has thus 
far escaped my research. 

STEWART CRAWFORD, M.D. A native of Ireland, 
and a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 24th June, 
1795 (D.M.I, de Angina Pectoris) ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 1 6th February, 
1796. He practised during many years at Bath, and 
in 1807 was appointed physician to the Bath United 
hospital, an office which he resigned in 1819. He died 
in the Circus, Bath, 5th May, 1847. 

RICHARD FOWLER, M.D. This venerable physician 
who attained a greater age than has any other member 
of the College from its foundation to the present time, 
was born in London, 28th November, 1765. At an 
early age he was so feeble in health that it was thought 
necessary to send him to reside with a relation in Staf- 
fordshire. His education, general and medical, was 
obtained at Edinburgh, from which he went to Paris, 
" at a time when Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and 
the Dauphine were yet to be seen in their regal state ; 



448 ROLL OF THE [1706 

and Dr. Fowler was fond of telling how he saw them 
thus, and also of having exchanged greetings with Tal- 
leyrand while yet the young and courtly bishop of 
Autun. He remained long enough in Paris to witness 
much of the strife of the first French revolution. He 
was personally acquainted with Mirabeau, and often 
listened to his eloquence in the National Assembly." 
He returned to Edinburgh in 1790, applied himself to 
the further study of science, particularly galvanism, 
and of medicine, and on the 12th September, 1793, 
graduated doctor of medicine there (D.M.I, de Inflam- 
matione). He was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians of London 21st March, 1796, and 
settling at Salisbury, was at once elected physician to 
the infirmary of that city, which institution he served 
in that capacity until 1841, a period of forty-five years, 
and as consulting physician up to his death in 1863, a 
further period of twenty-two years, making together 
sixty-seven years of service to the infirmary. Dr. 
Fowler was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1802, and in 1805 married a daughter of William 
Bowles, esq., of Heale house. " He had an extensive 
medical practice during many years, and a still more 
extensive acquaintance with the leading men of the 
day, for which he was partly indebted to his early 
friendship with the marquis of Lansdowne and lord 
Holland, but also to his own social qualities and con- 
versational powers, the latter being enlivened by anec- 
dote, apt quotation, and varied knowledge, which en- 
abled him to say something agreeably and well on 
almost every subject ; at the same time his kindly 
nature mellowed and improved everything he said and 
did." Doctor Fowler enjoyed unwonted health of body 
and mind to a very late period of his prolonged exist- 
ence. Originally of feeble power, he braced himself by 
the abundant use of cold water and by accustoming 
himself habitually to degrees of cold in his sleeping and 
dwelling rooms which the majority of persons could not 
endure, and from which all would shrink in this age of 



1796] BOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 449 

luxury and effeminacy/"" In 1859, when in his ninety- 
fourth year, Dr. Fowler made the journey from Salis- 
bury to Aberdeen, to attend the meeting of the British 
Association, in the Work of which he had long been 
interested. During the later years of his life Dr. Fowler 
was afflicted with loss of sight ; nevertheless his mental 
activity was so great, that when he could no longer see 
to read, he kept employed two men and two boys in 
reading to him and writing down memoranda from his 
dictation. One of his latest acts, in conjunction with 
Mrs. Fowler, was to purchase and endow a suitable 
home for the Salisbury and South Wiltshire museum, 
in which he took a great interest, and bestowed on it a 
large portion of his books and collections. He died at 
his residence, Milford, near Salisbury, 13th April, 1863, 
in the ninety-eighth year of his age. We have from 
his pen 

Experiments and Observations on Animal Electricity. 8vo. 
Edinb. 1793. 

Observations on the Mental State of the Blind, and Deaf and 
Dumb. 12mo. Salisbury. 1843. 

SIR CHRISTOPHER PEGGE, M.D., was descended from 
an old family in Derbyshire, but was bom in London. 
He was the son of Samuel Pegge, esq., F.S.A., a barris- 
ter of the Middle Temple, one of the grooms of the 
privy chamber, and well known to the literary world 
by his "Curialia," "Anecdotes of the English Lan- 
guage," and some other works. Sir Christopher Pegge 
was admitted a commoner of Christchurch, Oxford, in 
1782; and took his degree of A.B. 23rd February, 
1786 ; when, having been elected a fellow of Oriel col- 
lege, he removed thither, and, as a member of that 
house* proceeded A.M. 10th June, 1789 ; M.B. 18th 
July, 1789. In 1790 he resigned bis fellowship ; was 
re-admitted at Christchurch ; and, by the favour of the 
dean and chapter, was the same year appointed Lee's 

* Carlyon's Precepts for the Preservation of Health, Life, and 
Happiness. 8vo. Lond. 1859. p. 74. 

VOL. II. 2 G 



450 -ROLL OF THE [1796 

reader in anatomy. He proceeded M.D. 27th April, 
1792; and was elected physician to the Radcliffe in- 
firmary 9th November, 1790. He was admitted a fel- 
low of the Royal Society in 1795 ; was knighted by 
George III in 1799 ; and was constituted Regius pro- 
fessor of physic in 1801. Sir Christopher Pegge was 
for many years the leading physician in Oxford, where 
he shared with Dr. Bourne the medical emoluments of 
the university and neighbourhood. In 1816, in conse- 
quence of a severe asthmatic affection, from which he 
had for some time suffered, and which about that 
period became much worse, he resigned his readership 
in anatomy, and, quitting Oxford as a permanent resi- 
dence, removed to London. He had joined the Col- 
lege of Physicians shortly after taking his doctor's de- 
gree, having been admitted a Candidate 25th June, 
1795, and a Fellow 25th June, 1796. He delivered 
the Harveian oration in 1805 ; and now, on taking up 
his abode in London, was in 1817 appointed Censor. 
His asthmatic paroxysms becoming more and more se- 
vere, he was again compelled to change his abode ; and 
giving up his house in George-street, Hanover-square, 
he removed to Hastings. He still, however, retained 
his Regius professorship ; and, by occasional visits to 
Oxford during term time, regularly performed the duties 
of his office. On one of these occasions his malady at- 
tacked him with unusual severity ; and he died at his 
lodgings, in the High-street, Oxford, 3rd August, 1822, 
in the fifty-eighth year of his age. Sir Christopher 
Pegge was master of Ewelme hospital, and his remains 
were interred in the south aisle of Ewelme church. 
Over him is a small marble slab, inscribed with his 
name, age, and the date of his death, but the inscrip- 
tion is even now nearly obliterated, and portions of it 
only are legible. His portrait, in the full dress of his 
degree, by T. Nevins, has been engraved. 

CHRISTOPHER ROBERT PEMBERTON, M.D., was a 
grandson of the lord chief justice Pemberton, and 



1796] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 451 

was born in Cambridgeshire. He was educated at Bury 
St. Edmund's, and at Caius college, Cambridge, of which, 
society he was a fellow. He proceeded M.B. 1789; 
M.D. 1794; was admitted a Candidate of the College 
of Physicians 25th June, 1795 ; and a Fellow 25th 
June, 1796. He was Censor in 1796, 1804, 1811; 
Gulstonian lecturer in 1797; and Harveian orator in 
1806. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and phy- 
sician extraordinary to the king. Dr. Pemberton was 
elected physician to St. George's hospital 25th April, 
1800, but resigned that office in 1803- He had long 
suffered from tic douloureux in its most aggravated 
form, and had submitted with great patience to a division 
of several branches of the fifth pair of nerves under the 
judicious operation of Sir Astley Cooper. But neither 
the operations nor any assistance which the experience 
of any of his colleagues could afford him gave him relief, 
or controlled the violence of the attacks. * He with- 
drew from practice and from London, and, after sus- 
taining his tortures for some years with a constancy 
which attracted the pity and esteem of all who knew 
him, died of apoplexy at Fredville, Kent, the seat 
of his brother-in-law, John Plumptre, esq., 31st July, 
1822, aged fifty-seven. Dr. Pemberton t was the author 
of an excellent practical work entitled 

A Practical Treatise on Various Diseases of the Abdominal Vis- 
cera. 8vo. Lond. 1806. 

WILLIAM BABINGTON, M.D. This estimable man 
and excellent physician was born 21st May, 1756, in 

* Essays and Orations by Sir Henry Halford, Bart. 3rd edit. 
p. 39. 

f " Inter Collegii recentiores sodales, nobiscum suavissima ami- 
citia conjnnctos, inemorare licet nostrum Christophorum Pem- 
bertonum, qui cursum cum honore magno prosecutus est donee ille 
morbo immani, pressus, absfcinere ab officio suo coactus est. Dolores 
gravissimos sese potuisse ferre eonstanti et f orti animo plane probavit. 
Turn demum omnino fractus neuralgia, magnamque sui desiderium 
apud omnes cum suos, turn alios, relinquens ob comitatem erga 
omnes, jucunditate ornatam decessit." Oratio Harveiana habita, 
Junii xxv, MDCCCXXVI, a Roberto Bree M.D., p. 20. 

2 a 2 



452 ROLL OF THE [1796 

the county of Antrim, and received his preliminary edu- 
cation in Ireland. He was apprenticed to a practi- 
tioner in Londonderry, but completed his professional 
education at Guy's hospital. Through the influence of 
kind friends he received, in 1777, an appointment from 
government as an assistant-surgeon at Haslar hospital ; 
and being, in the course of his duty, ordered thence to 
attend the prisoners of war at Winchester, among whom 
a malignant jail fever had broken out, he became him- 
self the subject of it, and narrowly escaped with his life. 
From Haslar he was, after four years' service, recalled 
to London to undertake the office of apothecary to 
Guy's hospital, to which he was appointed in the year 
1781. He then commenced lecturing on chemistry at 
the hospital school ; and, having obtained the coun- 
tenance and friendship of Dr. Saunders, was induced, on 
his recommendation, to take a degree in medicine, and 
qualify himself as a physician. He was created doctor 
of medicine by the university of Aberdeen, 1 3th March, 
1795 ; in the course of the same year was elected phy- 
sician to Guy's hospital ; and on the 25th June, 1796, 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians. 
Dr. Babington's progress as a physician was rapid, and 
in the course of a few years he was in the possession of 
a large and lucrative city business. In 1811 his pri- 
vate engagements had become so numerous that he was 
compelled to resign his office at the hospital, and for 
many subsequent years was the acknowledged head of 
his profession in the city. History does not supply us 
with a physician more loved or more respected than 
was Dr. Babington. Dr. Gooch, writing in Dr. Babing- 
ton's lifetime (and many still alive re-echo the senti- 
ment), describes him as " a man who, to the cultivation 
of modern sciences, adds the simplicity of ancient man- 
ners ; whose eminent reputation and rare benevo- 
lence of heart have long shed a graceful lustre over a 
profession which looks up to him with a mingled feeling 
of respect, confidence, and regard." Dr. Babington 
was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians, 



1796] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 453 

special! gratia, 26th July, 1827; and about the year 
1831 was presented with the honorary degree of M.D. 
by the university of Dublin, which, as an irishman, and 
yet wholly unconnected with that seat of learning, he 
justly valued as the highest compliment which could be 
paid him by his countrymen. Dr. Babington's last profes- 
sional effort was in the service of our College. In common 
with most physicians, he had been much harassed by 
the epidemic of influenza which began in London, in 
March, 1833, and was prevented by the demands made 
upon him by others, from giving to his own case the re- 
pose and care which it required. Though labouring 
under cough attended with great debility, he yet con- 
tinued to visit his patients on Wednesday, the 24th 
April, till seven o'clock in the afternoon. He was then 
much oppressed and extremely weak, but a committee 
for preparing the new Pharmacopoeia having been ap- 
pointed to sit at his house that evening, he insisted on 
joining it, and up to eleven o'clock that night was occu- 
pied at what proved the last of his professional labours. 
He then went to bed exhausted, became delirious, and 
was next morning in a hopeless state; the chest affection 
rapidly assuming the character of peripneumonia notha ; 
and the lungs becoming oppressed with mucus, which 
he was unable to expectorate, he died (at his residence 
in Devonshire-street, Portland-place) on the 29th April, 
1833, in the seventy-seventh year of his age/* His 

* " Ecce autem ejusdem sevi, scientia insigni, miraque morum 
suavitate, anno vix preeterito, ex oculis aufert nostris incassum 
lugentibns et 

' durse rapit inclementia mortis ' 

provecta jam aetate Gulielmum Babington, virum sane cui fortius 
acumen, ingenium mitius acriusque jadicium dedit natura quam 
cuivis sa3pe contigit. 

" Mihique indulgete, precor, Socii qui non mini copiosam ver- 
boruni supellectilem compararim nee pari consequar gressu 

' manet ' enim ' alta mente repostum 
Judicium Paridis ' 

illnd, qui jam sub ipsum amici interitum tarn veris variisque 
coloribtis, ingenium, virtutes, comitatem, sagacis hujus dilectique 
senis tarn diserte dilucideque depinxit, ut nemo rectius aut fidelius 



454 ROLL OF THE [1796 

death elicited an universal feeling of regret from all ranks 
of the profession : and the medical press, without an 
exception, did itself honour by the eulogies that were 
penned to his worth. " The character of Dr. Babing- 
ton," writes one of them,* "was probably as nearly 
without fault as is consistent with human nature. Be- 
nevolence was most strikingly depicted on his coun- 
tenance, and it was also the leading feature of his mind. 
We allude not to mere sentiment or feeling, but to an 
active principle of philanthropy, which led him to do all 
the good he could to others ; thus we know that some 
of the last visits he ever paid, and at a time when he was 
himself suffering severely from the epidemic (influenza), 
were to persons whose circumstances prevented him from 
accepting any remuneration. No man in our profession 
was more extensively known, no man was more univer- 
sally respected, none will be more sincerely regretted." 
Dr. Babington's remains were interred in the family 
vault, at St. Mary-the- Virgin, Aldermanbury, and a 
handsome monument by Behnes, with a full-length 
figure of the doctor in the academic gown of his degree, 
was erected by public subscription in St. Paul's cathe- 
dral. The inscription, from the pen of Dr. J. A. Paris, 
is as follows : 

WILLIAM BABESTOTON, M.D., F.R.S., 

Fellow of the Eoyal College of Physicians, 

Born May 21st, 1756. Died April 29th, 1833. 

Eminently distinguished for science, 

magisve luculente rem totam exprimat. Certe dulci quadam abun- 
davit et nativa suavitate amici nostri ingenium solarique inopes, 
segrisque auxilium ac levamen prsebere inter delicias habuit vitae 
nee benignitate tantum affectibusque cordis mitioribus vigere vide- 
batur, quicquid enim ingenii acumen investigare, quicquid usus et 
exercitatio conservare potuit, id omne in communem efferre fructum 
gaudebat. Sagacitasque admirabilis, quo pluribus stipata virtu- 
tibus, eo sit amabilior, et sive hominis fidem spectetis singularem, 
sive apud suos morum comitatem, sive denique apud omnes probi- 
tateni, neque in ullo unquam gratior enituit neque pulchrior." 
Oratio Harveiana habita sext. kalend. Juli An. MDCCCXXXIV, ab 
Edvardo Tho. Monro, M.D., pp. 15, 16. 
* Medical Gazette, May, 1833. 



1796] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 455 

Beloved for the simplicity of his manners 

and the benevolence of his heart, 
Respected for his inflexible integrity 

and his pure and unaffected piety, 

In all relations of his professional life 

he was sagacious, candid, diligent, and humane. 

Firm in purpose, gentle in execution, 

justly confident in his own judgment, 

yet generously open to the opinion of others ; 

liberal and indulgent to his brethren, 
but ever mindful of his duty to the public. 
To record their admiration of so rare a union 
of intellectual excellence and moral worth, 

and to extend to future generations 

the salutary influence which his living 

example can no longer diffuse, 

this monument has been erected 

by the public subscription 
of his contemporaries, A.D. 1837. 

Dr. Babington was a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
was one of the founders of the Geological and of the 
Hunterian Societies. He was one of the best mineralo- 
gists of his time, and was one of the referees appointed 
by government to put a price upon the Greville collection 
of minerals bought by the nation, and now in the Bri- 
tish Museum. Dr. Babington's bust is in the library 
of the College of Physicians. It was presented to 
the College 25th March, 1839, through their chair- 
man, Dr. Paris, by the committee for raising the monu- 
ment to the memory of Dr. Babington in St. Paul's. 
His portrait, by Medley, was engraved by N. Bran- 
white. 

Dr. Babington was the author of 

A Syllabus of a Course of Lectures read at Guy's Hospital on 
Chemistry. 8vo. Lond. 1789. 

A Systematic Arrangement of Minerals. 4to. Lond. 1795. 

A New System of Mineralogy, in the form of a Catalogue, &c. 
4to. Lond. 1799. 

PAGGEN WILLIAM MAYO, M.D., was the eldest son 
of the Rev. Herbert Mayo, D.D., rector of St. George's- 
in-the-East, Middlesex, by his wife Mary, the eldest 
daughter of George Coldham, of St. Paul's, Covent 



456 ROLL OF THE [1796 

Garden, esq., and was born at the rectory house of 
St. George' s-in -the -East llth January, 1766. He re- 
ceived his preliminary education at Merchant Taylors' 
school, whence he was elected to a fellowship at St. 
John's college, Oxford, as a member of which he pro- 
ceeded A.B. llth April, 1788; A.M. 27th January, 
1792; M.B. 12th July, 1792; M.D. 20th January, 
1795. He settled in London shortly after taking his 
first degree in medicine, and on the 23rd August, 1793, 
was appointed physician to the Middlesex hospital. 
Admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1795 ; and a Fellow, 30th September, 1796; 
he was Censor in 1797 ; he delivered the Gulstonian 
lectures in 1798, and the Harveian oration in 1807. 
Dr. Mayo resigned his hospital appointment in 1801, 
and withdrew to Doncaster. He was in the habit for 
many years during his residence at Doncaster, of spend- 
ing the season at Buxton, where he succeeded in securing 
a considerable proportion of practice among the visitors. 
In 1819 he removed to Bridlington quay, where he 
continued to the time of his death, which occurred 6th 
July, 1836. He was buried in Bridlington churchyard. 

RICHARD POWELL, M.D., was born in Oxford, and 
educated at Winchester, on leaving which he was en- 
tered at Merton college, Oxford, and proceeded A.B. 
23rd October, 1788 ; A.M. 31st October, 1791 ; M.B. 
12th July, 1792 ; M.D. 20th January, 1795. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1795 ; and a Fellow, 30th September, 
1796; was Censor in 1798, 1807, 1820, 1823; Guls- 
tonian lecturer, 1799 ; Harveian orator, 1808 ; Lum- 
leian lecturer from 1811 to 1822 inclusive; and Elect, 
3rd April, 1823. Dr. Powell was elected physician to 
St. Bartholomew's hospital 14th August, 1801, and 
continued in that office until 1824. He died at York- 
terrace, Regent's-park, 18th August, 1834.* Dr. Powell 

* " Nee ingratum fore censeo vobis, Socii, si in altero nomine 
paulum immorer, et in tuos cineres, Ricarde Powell ' purpureos 



1796] KOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 457 

was esteemed a good chemist , and was an active mem- 
ber of the committee for the revision of the " Pharma- 
copoeia Londinensis " of 1809, a translation of which he 
published. He was for many years secretary to the 
Commissioners for regulating Madhouses, and from the 
documents which came before him in that capacity he 
deduced some valuable statistical results on the pre- 
valence of insanity. Dr. Powell was the author of 
several papers in the " Medical Transactions," and of 

Heads of Lectures on Chemistry. 12mo. Lond. 1796. 

Observations on the Bile and its Diseases, and on the Economy 
of the Liver. 8vo. Lond. 1800. 

A Case of Hydrophobia. 8vo. Lond. 1808. 

The Pharmacopoeia of the Royal College of Physicians, translated 
into English with Notes. 8vo. Lond. 1809. 

Observations on some Cases of Paralytic Affection. 8vo. Lond, 
1814. 

Three Cases of Convulsive Affection. 8vo. Lond. 1815. 

Some Cases illustrating the Pathology of the Brain. 8vo. Lond. 
1815. 

WILLIAM HEBERDEN, M.D., was the second but only 
surviving son of William Heberden, M.D., the distin- 
guished author of the " Commentarii de Morborum 
Historia et Curatione," by his wife Mary, daughter of 
Francis Wollaston, esq., F.R.S., and was bom in Cecil- 
street, 23rd March, 1767. He was educated at the 
Charterhouse, and at St. John's college, Cambridge, of 
which house he was a fellow. He proceeded A.B. 
1788 as first senior optime, and was the second Chan- 
cellor's medallist for that year. In 1789 he obtained 
one of the member's prizes for middle bachelors, an4 

spargam flores.' Tu etenim de pathologia quaedam optime per r 
pensa protulisti. Et in medieina administranda optimorum magis- 
trorum vestigiis insistens naturam ducem semper secutus es, et 
quosdam nervorum morbos proprio Marte debellasti. Heec Acta 
nostra litteraria intuenti facile patent. Hec nosocomii S ctl Bartho- 
olomei memorabilia testantur et confirmant. Tuus est honos igitur 
in serarium nostrum, qnicquid potuisti, conjecisse ; tua laus, ali- 
quantnlumde miseriis et doloribus human se conditionis dextraxisse. 
Nee levis est ilia quidem, nam quorum ingeniis heec referuntur 
accepta, ab iis, et Collegii nostri, et patriae fama adaucta est." 
Oratio ex Harveii Institute auct. Henr. Halford, Bart. 



458 ROLL OF THE [1796 

in 1790 one of those for senior bachelors. He proceeded 
A.M. 1791 ; was incorporated on that degree at Oxford, 
as a member of Christchurch, 9th July, 1791 ; and 
then took his degrees in physic M.B. 26th June, 
1792; and M.D. 28th April, 1795. He was admitted 
a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th Septem- 
ber, 1795; a Fellow, 30th September, 1796; was 
Censor 1799, 1808 ; Harveian orator, 1809 ; and Elect, 
1st November, 1823, in place of Dr. Baillie, deceased. 

Dr. William Heberden was elected physician to St. 
George's hospital 15th November, 1793, and resigned 
his office there in 1803. He was appointed physician 
extraordinary to the queen in 1795, physician extra- 
ordinary to the king in 1805, physician in ordinary to 
the queen in 1806, and in 1809 physician in ordi- 
nary to George III, "by whom he was more than 
once offered a baronetcy with a pension in the most 
gracious manner distinctions which his own feelings 
induced him to decline. While thus in much prospe- 
rity, having attained in all periods of his life the high- 
est honours to which his studies or profession could lead 
him, and being in the full enjoyment of the reputation 
they carried with them, he was suddenly, in 1812, left 
a widower with nine young children. Everything was 
at once sacrificed to the sense of duty by which he felt 
himself called upon to superintend the highest interests 
of the children committed to his charge. The charms 
of general society, the excitement of professional en- 
gagements, each having strong claims upon an intel- 
lectual and active mind, were abandoned cheerfully for 
the wearisome and unostentatious duties of watching 
over an infant family and administering to their com- 
fort. His practice as a physician was now restricted to 
his attendance at Windsor castle, and this alone inter- 
rupted even for a day his devotion to his children. 
Under the suspension of the more bustling engage- 
ments of life, he retired to the little village of Datchet, 
Bucks, where he lived for fourteen years, surrounded 
by his books, and rather avoiding than courting society. 



1796J EOYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 459 

During this period he printed and dedicated to his 
children a translation of Plutarch on ' Brotherly Love/ 
and he had previously written and published a little 
treatise on general education, * which of themselves 
sufficiently attest the anxious occupation of his mind. 
As he obtained further leisure, he amused himself with 
translating Cicero's ' Letters to Atticus,' which he pub- 
lished in two vols. octavo. In 1826, having attained his 
purpose in absenting himself from London, he returned 
thither again, partly with the design of affording one 
of his sons, then entering upon the preliminary studies 
of a physician, that information and encouragement 
which he had himself received with so much delight 
from a parent's lips."t The death of this son in 1828 
from a dissection wound ; of another son in 1829 ; and 
subsequently of his eldest daughter, led him to devote 
the years of life yet remaining to him to the study of 
the Scriptures and the consolations of religion. In 1830 
he published his " Reflections on the Gospel of St. 
John;" in 1836 a translation of the " Catholic Epis- 
tles," which was circulated among his friends : and in 
1839, at their request, he published a translation and 
commentary on the whole of the Apostolic Epistles and 
the Book of Revelation. 

Dr. Heberden died at his house in Cumberland- 
street, on the 19th February, 1845, aged seventy-eight, 
and was buried in the family vault at Windsor. He is 
commemorated by the following inscription : 

In memory of an excellent father, 

William Heberden, M.D., 
for many years physician to his late Majesty 

King George the Third. 
He was an elegant and an accomplished scholar 

graced by great suavity of manners, 
and influenced in all his intercourse with the world 

by practical and unaffected piety. 
To his children he was endeared by every claim 

* A Dialogue after the Manner of Cicero's Philosophical Disqui- 
sitions. 12mo. Lond. 1818. 
f Medical Gazette. 



460 ROLI< OF THE [1796 

that Iqve or care or self-denial 

can make upon gratitude and affection. 

He was born 23 March, 1767, and died 19 February, 1845. 

In memory also of 

Elizabeth Catherine, his amiable and beloved wife, 
who died 21 May, 1812, in her 36 th year, leaving 9 children. 
She was the only child of Charles, son of Sir John 
Miller, Bart., formerly of Lavant, Sussex. 

Dr. William Heberden was a fellow of the Royal Society 
and the author of 

Observations on the Increase and Decrease of different Diseases, 
particularly of the Plague. 4to. Lond. 1801. 

Commentaries on the History and Cure of Diseases. 8vo. Lond. 
1802. A translation of his father's celebrated work. 

Morboram Puerilium Epitome. 8vo. Lond. 1804. 

SIR ALEXANDER DOUGLAS, B^RT., M.D., was the only 
son of Sir Robert Douglas, bart., author of the Peerage 
of Scotland, by his wife Margaret, eldest daughter of Sir 
James Macdonald, bart. Of his history I can recover 
but few particulars, He was entered on the physic line 
at Leyden 17th September, 1759, being then twenty-one 
years of age, and was created doctor of medicine at St. 
Andrew's, llth July, 1760. On the 10th May, 1796, 
he was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh, and one week later on the 18th 
May, 1796, a fellow of that college. On the 30th 
September, 1796, he was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians of London. He lived at Dundee 
(whether he really practised physic I know not) ; and 
died there 28th November, 1812, although his name is 
retained on the College list until 1822.""" 

ROBERT GRAVES, M.D., was born in Lincolnshire, 
15th September, 1763, and received his medical educa- 
tion at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of medi- 
cine 24th June, 1788 (D.M.I, de Strabismo). He was 
admitted an Extra- Licentiate of the College of Physi- 

* Anderson's Scottish Nation, vol. ij, pp. 49 59 ; Douglas and 
Wood's Peerage of Scotland, vol. ij, p. 14. 



1796] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 461 

cians 5th August, 1788 ; and a Licentiate 30th Sep- 
tember, 1796. Dr. Graves practised successively at 
Northampton, Sherborne, Dorchester, Weyrnouth, Wor- 
cester, and Reading ; but ultimately settled at Brid- 
port, where he died at an advanced age, 9th September, 
1849. He was the author of 

An Experimental Inquiry into the Constituent Principles of the 
Sulphureous Water at Nottington, near Weymouth; and Observa- 
tions relative to its application in the Cure of Diseases. 8vo. 1792; 

Conspectus of the New London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharma- 
copoeias. 12mo. Lond. 1796. 

EGBERT WIGHTMAN, M.D., was born in Ireland, and 
educated at Edinburgh, where he took the degree of 
doctor of medicine 24th June, 1789 (D.M.I, de Hypo- 
choiidriasi). He was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1796. He practised 
at Southampton, where he died on the 15th January, 
1843. 

RICHARD BROWN, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Edinburgh, of 24th June, 1795 (D.M.L de Peripneu- 
monia Notha) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1796. He practised 
at Huntingdon, and died about the year 1800. 

SIR WALTER FARQUHAR, BART., M.D., was the son 
of a clergyman, and was born in the north of Scotland 
about the year 1738. He received his education chiefly 
in the university of Aberdeen, where he attended the 
general classes, and took the degree of master of arts. 
In 1757 he commenced the study of medicine at King's 
college in that university, and continued there until 
the end of 1759, when he repaired to Edinburgh ; and 
on the 5th January, 1760, was admitted a member of 
the Medical Society of that city. He was appointed 
surgeon to the nineteenth or lord Howe's regiment, and 
in that capacity was present at the siege of Belleisle, 
after which he proceeded to Gibraltar, where the nine- 
teenth were stationed for a lengthened period. Whilst 



462 ROLL OF THE [1796 

the regiment was at Gibraltar he obtained leave of ab- 
sence ; and, availing himself of that opportunity to im- 
prove his professional knowledge, proceeded to France, 
where he remained for nearly a year and a half, visiting 
the hospitals in Paris, and in the more important pro- 
vincial towns. He made a lengthened stay at Rouen, 
where he studied for several months under the cele- 
brated anatomist and surgeon, Le Cat. On his return 
to Gibraltar his health gave way, when, resigning his 
appointment, he proceeded to England, and, taking up 
his abode in London, commenced practice as an apothe- 
cary. Even in this subordinate position his progress 
towards eminence was rapid his great industry no less 
than his talents acquired him friends wherever he ap- 
peared, and he is said to have possessed, far beyond any 
of his contemporaries, the enviable power of converting 
his casual patients into fast friends. Superadded to 
his skill as a professional man, was an intuitive sagacity 
and knowledge of human nature a gift which, in him, 
seems constantly to have been directed towards bene- 
volent purposes. He was created doctor of medicine 
by the university of Aberdeen 29th January, 1796; 
was admitted a fellow of the College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh 3rd May, 1796; about the same time was 
created a baronet ; and was admitted a Licentiate of 
the CoUege of Physicians 30th September, 1796. Long 
before this he had limited himself to prescribing prac- 
tice, and had for some time been the confidential pro- 
fessional adviser of Mr. Pitt and lord Melville. Now 
that he had taken due rank as a physician, the influence 
of these distinguished patients was brought to bear in 
his behalf upon the highest personages in the realm, 
and Sir Walter Farquhar was shortly afterwards ap- 
pointed physician in ordinary to the prince of Wales. 
Thenceforward his practice was most extensive, and 
few of his contemporaries were in the receipt of larger 
professional incomes. About 1810 Sir Walter Farquhar 
began to suffer from a pulmonary complaint, which re- 
peatedly compelled a temporary retirement from the 



1797] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 463 

active duties of his profession. In 1813 his health had 
so far deteriorated that he withdrew almost wholly 
from practice, and confined his exertions thenceforward 
to attendance on the prince Regent, and a few distin- 
guished families with whom he was on terms of inti- 
macy and friendship. He died 30th March, 1819, at 
the advanced age of eighty-one, and was buried in 
the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. " Sir Walter 
Farquhar was distinguished by his consummate skill 
and ability in medical practice. He was, if possible, 
still more distinguished for those domestic virtues 
which marked through a long life, in an eminent de- 
gree, his valuable character. As a son he was a pattern 
of filial piety, a most affectionate brother, an exemplary 
and tender husband, a warm and steady friend, scarce 
to be equalled in his exertions of kindness, or to bring 
forward merit wherever he found it. He was the pa- 
tron of the friendless ; and distress, even accompanied 
by error, was never disregarded by him. More free 
from frailty himself than most men, he was charitable 
and lenient in his judgment of others ; and, although 
always doing some good, declining the praise attached 
to it."* Sir Walter Farquhar's portrait by H. Rae- 
burn, was engraved by W. Sharp in 1797. 

HENRY LUXMORE, M.D. A native of Devonshire ; 
educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor of 
medicine, 12th September, 1787 (D.M.I, de Scorbuto) ; 
was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
10th April, 1797. 

JAMES HOLMAN, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Edinburgh, of 24th June, 1789 (D.M.I, de Frigoris 
generalioribus in Corpora viva effectibus, ejusque usu 
in morbis febrilibus fugandis) ; was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th September, 
1797. He settled at Bath ; and on the 9th April, 1800, 
was elected physician to the General hospital in that 

* Gentleman's Magazine. 



4G4 ROLL OF THE [1798 

city, which office he resigned in 1804. Dr. Holman 
eventually retired to Wellington, and died there on the 
llth March, 1812. 

ROBKRT DARLING WILLIS, M.D., was born in Lin- 
colnshire, and was the son of the Rev. Dr. Willis, the 
clerical physician to George the Third in his first ill- 
ness, to whom the king took so great a dislike that he 
could never afterwards hear his name mentioned with- 
out a shudder. Dr. Bobert Willis was educated at 
Caius college, Cambridge, of which house he was a 
feUow. He proceeded M.B. 1783; M.D. 7th July, 
1789 ; was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1797 ; and a Fellow, 1st 
October, 1798. He was Censor in 1800 and 1809 ; and 
died at his house in Tenterden-street 23rd May, 1821. 

ALGERNON FRAMPTON, M.D., was the eldest son of 
the Bev. Algernon Frampt on, incumbent of Tokenham, 
in Wiltshire, and was born 7th January, 1766. He re- 
ceived his early education at the grammar school of 
Marlborough, and was then sent to St. John's college, 
Cambridge. He proceeded A.B. 1787, and obtained 
the second place in the Tripos ; was elected a fellow of 
St. John's, and in due time filled the office of moderator 
in the university. He graduated A.M. 1790; M.D. 
1797. Dr. Frampton passed two years at Edinburgh in 
the study of medicine, and subsequently entered himself 
to the medical practice first of St. Bartholomew's, and 
afterwards of the London hospital. He commenced 
business in London, was admitted a Candidate of 
the CoUege of Physicians 30th September, 1797 ; and 
a Fellow, 1st October, 1798. He delivered the Gul- 
stonian lectures in 1800; was Censor in 1801, 1811, 
1821, 1825 ; and was named an Elect 28th May, 1825. 
He was elected physician to the London hospital 3rd 
April, 1800; and resigned his office there, after forty 
years' service, in 1841. He died at Hackney, 21st 
September, 1842, aged seventy-six. 



1799] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 465 

EDWARD ASH, M.D., was born in London, and re- 
ceived his early education at Birmingham, under the 
auspices of his uncle, Dr. John Ash, a fellow of our 
College, and the leading physician in that town. He 
was then entered at Chris tchurch, Oxford; and pro- 
ceeded A.B. 23rd February, 1786 ; A.M. 4th November, 
1788. He was elected to one of the Radcliffe travelling 
fellowships in July, 1790 ; and in compliance with the 
conditions of that endowment, passed some years upon 
the continent. On his return, accumulating his degrees 
in physic, he proceeded doctor of medicine 6th Decem- 
ber, 1796, as a member of University college. Dr. Ash 
then settled in London ; was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians 2nd April, 1798 ; a Fellow, 
18th March, 1799 ; was Gulstonian lecturer in 1801 ; 
and Censor in 1802, 1811, 1822. He was a fellow of 
the Royal Society, and physician extraordinary to the 
king. Dr. Ash, by an early marriage with his cousin, 
and the death of her father, Dr. John Ash, was placed 
in competent circumstances, and rendered independent 
of his profession. He was of retiring habits, and, " as 
a public character, was little known beyond a select 
circle of friends, chiefly of the literary and scientific 
class, by whom he was highly and universally esteemed, 
as well on account of his strict moral qualities as his ex- 
tensive intellectual attainments. Endowed largely with 
various stores of knowledge beyond what are usually 
acquired in his profession, his habits were yet unobtru- 
sive and unassuming ; and his disposition and manners 
were not well calculated for contention with his brethren 
in the pursuit of a large and first-rate metropolitan 
practice, although none probably excelled him in sound 
professional knowledge." * 

Dr. Ash died at his house in Foley- place, 29th March, 
1829, aged sixty-five. He was the author of " The 
Speculator," 8vo. 1790, published in weekly numbers. 

GASPARD CHARLES DE LA EIVE, M.D. A Swiss, and 

* Medical Gazette. 
VOL. II. 2 H 



466 ROLL OP THE [1799 

a doctor of medicine of Edinburgh of 24th June, 1797 
(D.M. de Galore Animali) ; was admitted an Extra- 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 5th April, 1799. 
He practised at Geneva, his native place, with distin- 
guished success and reputation. 

PINKSTAN JAMES, M.D., was born in London, and was 
the third son of Dr. Robert James, the inventor of the 
well-known " fever powders." He was educated at 
Merchant Taylors' school, and commenced active life as 
a midshipman in the royal navy. He was on board the 
Invincible during the engagement in which the Spanish 
admiral Langara was defeated and taken. From the 
Invincible he was removed to the Pegasus frigate, cap- 
tain Stanhope, and whilst with her saw much service 
in the West Indies. On his return to England he 
quitted the navy, and, proceeding to Edinburgh, com- 
menced the study of physic. He graduated doctor of 
medicine in that university 12th September, 1787 
(D.M. I. de Ictero) ; and, eventually settling in Lon- 
don, was admitted a Licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians 25th June, 1799. Dr. James was physician 
to the parochial infirmary of St. George's, Hanover- 
square, and physician extraordinary to the Prince Re- 
gent. He died of apoplexy, at the house of his son, 
near Evreux, 14th July, 1830, aged sixty-four. 

ALEXANDER JOHN GASPARD MARCET, M.D., was 
born at Geneva in 1770, and received a good prelimi- 
nary education in that city. He proceeded to Edin- 
burgh in 1794, and graduated doctor of medicine in 
that university 24th June, 1797 (D.M.I, de Diabete). 
Dr. Marcet then settled in London ; was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 
1799 ; and about the same time was appointed physi- 
cian to the City dispensary. He was elected physician 
to Guy's hospital 18th April, 1804. In 1809, having 
volunteered his services on behalf of the troops then re- 
turned from Walcheren, he was appointed to the charge 



1799] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 467 

of the temporary military hospital at Portsmouth, and 
remained there some months. Returning to London, 
he resumed his practice and his duties at Guy's hos- 
pital. Some years after this, having come into posses- 
sion of an ample fortune by the death of his wife's 
father, Mr. Haldimand, a wealthy London merchant, 
Dr. Marcet determined to withdraw from practice and 
devote himself exclusively to the cultivation of science 
and literature. He resigned his office at Guy's hospital 
10th March, 1819, and returned to Geneva, where he 
was appointed a member of the Representative Council, 
and honorary professor of chemistry. In conjunction 
with his friend Dr. de la Rive (an Extra-Licentiate of 
our College), he gave a course of lectures on chemistry 
in the spring of 1820. Dr. Marcet returned to England 
in the autumn of 1821, to spend the ensuing winter 
in London, but with the intention of finally removing 
with his family to Geneva. He paid a visit to Scot- 
land, and whilst on his way back, through London to 
Switzerland, was attacked with gout in the stomach, 
and died in Great Coram- street, 19th October, 1822, 
aged fifty-two. Dr. Marcet was a very accomplished 
chemist, and published many valuable papers in the 
" Philosophical Transactions," and in various scientific 
journals. He was a fellow of the Royal and Geological 
Societies, and was one of the original promoters of the 
Medico-Chirurgical Society. His portrait, by Raeburn, 
was engraved by Meyer. 

Dr. Marcet was the author of 

A Chemical Account of the Brighton Chalybeate. 8vo. Lond. 
1805. 

An Essay on the Chemical History and. Medical Treatment of 
Calculous Diseases. 8vo. Lond. 1817. 

GEORGE WILLIAMS, M.D., was the son of an able 
and excellent clergyman, and was born at Gathering- 
ton, in Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester, 
and when first admitted on the foundation, excited no 
small surprise by his recitations of the Iliad, a subject 



468 ROLL OF THE [1799 

on which he had been well exercised by his father. He 
was elected to a Hampshire scholarship at Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford, of which he subsequently be- 
came a fellow, and eventually vice-president. He pro- 
ceeded A.B. 21st June, 1781 ; A.M. 14th January, 
1785 ; M.B. 10th December, 1788 ; M.D. 17th Decem- 
ber, 1788 ; was elected physician to the Radcliffe in- 
firmary, 22nd January, 1789 ; and appointed Regius 
professor of botany in 1796. Dr. Williams was admit- 
ted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 1st Oc- 
tober, 1798 ; and a Fellow 30th September, 1799. He 
was appointed keeper of the Radcliffe library in 1811, 
being the first graduate in physic ever elected to that 
office. Dr. Williams died at his residence in the High- 
street, Oxford, universally esteemed and lamented, on 
the 17th January, 1834, aged seventy-one. To mark 
their sense of his many virtues, the president and fel- 
lows of Corpus Christi college erected in their chapel a 
monument to his memory, with the following affec- 
tionate inscription : 

Scias qui haec tecum contempleris 

mortalitatis documenta, 
marmor quod spectas honorarium 

G-EORGIO WILLIAMS, M.D. 

Socio, Yicepresidenti, Benefactori, 

in Academia Bei Botanicse Professori, 

Bibliothecse Custodi Radclivianee, 

Prsesidentem et Socios C.C.C. 

ponendum censuisse, 

ne intra hos parietes titulo careat 

Sodalis memoria conjunctissimi, 

ne testimonio 

grati Collegii pietas, mcerentis desideria. 
Inerant, Lector, in hoc viro, 

Medico vere Christiano, 

summa erga Deum religio, 

stabilis in meritis Servatoris nostri fides, 

illibata morum sanetitas, modestia plane singularis, 

ingenium judicii quadam severitate subactum, 

eruditio multiplex, litterae elegantiores, 

ad Linacri normam, 

penitiori medicines scientise 

et philosophise disciplinis inservientes. 



1800] ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 469 

Interea elucebant 

perspicax in expedendis remm momentis prudentia, 

animus in quotidiana vitae consuetudine 

erga omnes comis et benevolus, 

suornm semper amantissimus. 

In Coll. C. C. ascitus est Hantoniensis, A.D. MDCCLXXJ. 

morbo confectus obdormivit die xvij. Jan. A.D. MDCCCXXXIV. 

annum agens septuagesimum prirnum. In Csemeterio 

Sancti Petri in Oriente ejusdem vici incola sepultus, 

hie juxta cineres Avunculi cenotaphio donatus est. 

DEVEY FEARON, M.D., was born in London, and 
educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he took 
the two degrees in arts A.B. 1791; A.M. 1794; and 
wa.s then incorporated at Oxford, as a member of Pem- 
broke college; and proceeded M.B. 12th June, 1795; 
M.D. 28th April, 1798. He was admitted a Candidate 
of the College of Physicians 1st October, 1798 ; a Fel- 
low 30th September, 1799 ; and was Censor in 1802. 
He was elected physician to the Middlesex hospital 8th 
February, 1803 ; but he resigned his office there in 
January, 1807, on account of ill health, and retired 
from the exercise of his profession. 

THOMAS NELSON, M.D., was born in Staffordshire. 
He received a good classical education at Douay, and 
then entered on the study of medicine in London. In 
1787 he commenced business as a surgeon-accoucheur, 
under the auspices of his maternal uncle, Dr. Savage, 
of Conduit-street ; but after a time, becoming desirous 
of qualifying himself for a higher department of prac- 
tice, he proceeded to Edinburgh, where, after a resi- 
dence of three years, he took the degree of doctor of 
medicine 24th June, 1799 (D.M.I, de Frigoris Effectibus 
in Morbis sanandis). Dr. Nelson then returned to Lon- 
don ; was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Phy- 
sicians 7th April, 1800 ; and through the introduction 
of Dr. Savage, then an aged man, and retiring from 
the profession, succeeded to much of his uncle's prac- 
tice. Dr. Nelson was an early promoter of vaccination, 
and was one of the physicians to the Vaccine Pock in- 



470 ROLL OF THE [1800 

stitution, in Warwick-street, Golden-square. He 
eventually withdrew from practice, and retired to Tun- 
bridge-wells, where he died, llth March, 1848, aged 
eighty. 

JOHN CHAPMAN was admitted an Extra-Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians 8th July, 1800. He prac- 
tised in Barbadoes. 

CHARLES GOWER, M.D., was born at Chelmsford, 
and was the son of Dr. Foote Gower, the historian of 
the county of Chester. He was educated at the Char- 
terhouse and at Oriel college, Oxford, as a member of 
which he proceeded A.B. 8th May, 1787 ; A.M. 14th 
January, 1790 ; and then, accumulating his degrees in 
physic, graduated M.D. 13th February, 1799. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 30th 
September, 1799 ; a Fellow, 30th September, 1800 ; 
was Gulstonian lecturer in 1802 ; Censor, 1803, 1812 ; 
and Harveian orator in 1814. Dr. Gower was elected 
physician to the Middlesex hospital 12th February, 
1801 ; and retained that office until his death, which 
occurred in the early part of April, 1822. " Gower/' 
writes Mr. Wadd, who knew him well, " had con- 
siderable talents, but they were directed every way 
but the right. He made medicine a plaything, never 
being steady in professional pursuits. His unsteadi- 
ness led him into difficulties, and he died in obscurity." 
Dr. Gower was the author of a small treatise entitled 
" Hints and Auxiliaries to Medicine." 8vo. Lond. 
1819. 

SAMUEL HOLLAND, M.D. A native of Kent, was 
educated at Worcester college, Oxford, as a member of 
which he proceeded A.B. 14th January, 1792; A.M. 
14th July, 1795 ; M.B. 3rd May, 1796 ; M.D. 8th May, 
1799. He was admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians 30th September, 1799 ; a Fellow, 30th Sep- 
tember, 1800 ; and was Censor in 1803. Dr. Holland 



ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 471 

was elected physician to the Middlesex hospital 15tli 
January, 1801 ; but resigned that office in 1806, when 
he quitted the profession of physic, and soon afterwards 
received orders in the church of England. He had 
married a daughter of lord Erskine, and at the time of 
his death, which occurred at Brighton 16th April, 
1857, aged eighty-five, he was rector of Beaudesert, 
co. Warwick, and precentor and prebendary of Chi- 
chester. 

JOHN YELLOWLY, M.D., was born 30th April, 1774, 
at Alnwick, in Northumberland, in which county he 
received his early education. He commenced the study 
of medicine at Edinburgh, where he graduated doctor 
of medicine 12th September, 1796 (D.M.I, de Cynanche 
Tracheali). He was admitted a Licentiate of the Col- 
lege of Physicians 30th September, 1800, and about 
that time was elected physician to the General dispen- 
sary. In September, 1807, he was elected physician to 
the London hospital, which office he resigned in June, 
1818, when he left London and settled at Norwich; 
and in 1820 was appointed physician to the Norfolk 
and Norwich hospital. In 1832 Dr. Yellowly retired 
from the practice of his profession, and withdrew to 
Woodton-hall, Norfolk, and finally to Cavendish-hall, 
where he died, 31st January, 1842, aged sixty-seven. 
Dr. Yellowly was one of the most active among those 
who established the Medico-Chirurgical Society, in the 
welfare of which he continued to take a warm interest 
to the last. He was a person of considerable scientific 
attainments, an accomplished chemist, and a sound 
practitioner. He was a fellow of the Royal and of the 
Geological Societies, and the author of 

Remarks on the Tendency to Calculous Diseases, with Observa- 
tions on the Nature of Urinary Concretions ; and an Analysis of a 
large part of the Collection belonging to the Norwich and Norfolk 
Hospital. 4to. Lond. 1829. 

" Sequel " to the above. 4to. Lond. 1830. 

Observations on the Arrangements connected with the Relief 
of the Sick Poor, in a Letter to Lord John Russell. 8vo. Lond. 
1837. 



472 ROLL OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. [1800 

THOMAS MOFFAT, M.D. A doctor of medicine of 
Edinburgh of 24th June, 1800 (D.M.I, de Apoplexia 
Hydrocephalica) ; was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians 22nd December, 1800. 



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