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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, IX.D. 

EDITED BY 

fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

tE. CAPPS, PH.D.. IX.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE. Lirr.D. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON. m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 
OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 
II 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
EARNEST GARY, Ph.D. 

ON THE BASIS OF THE VERSION OF 
EDWARD SPELMAN 

IN SEVEN VOLUMES 
II 




LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MOMLXI 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 



AIONY2IOY 

AAIKAPNASEOS 
PHMAIKHS APXAIOAOriAS 

AOrOS TPIT02 

I. TeXevri^Gavros Se HofnnXiov yevofievr) irdXiv 
ri ^ovXri Tcov koivcov Kvpia fieveiv eyvco cttI rrjs 
avT-fjs TToXtreias, ovSe rov Brjfxov yvcofirjv Xa^ovros 
irepav, /cat KaOiaTTjaiv e/c rtov TTpecr^VTcpcuv rovs 
ap^ovras Trjv fxeao^aatXeiov o.px'^v els wpiafievop 
rtva rjfjLepoJv dpidfjiov, U(/>' Sv aTToheiKwrai ^aaiXevs, 
ov anas 6 Stj/zo? tj^lov, TvXXos 'OariXios yevovs 
2 cSv ToiouSe* CK TToXecos MeSuAAta?, rjv 'AX^avoi 
jjikv €Kriaav, 'PcofxvXos 8e Kara avvdrjKas irapa- 
Xa^ojv 'PcDfjLaicov iiroirjaev aTTOLKiav, dvrjp evyevrjs 
Kai ■)(p'qiJiaaL hvvaros 'OariXios ovofxa fierevey- 
KOLfxevos els 'Pa)p.rjv tov ^lov dyerai yvvalKa e/c 
rov SajStVcop yevovs 'EpaiAiou ^ dvyarepa, rqv 
v(f)rjyrjcrafji€vrjv rais o^oedveai, Ttpea^evaai Tvpos 
rovs TTaripas VTrep rcbv dvSpaJv, ore Ha^lvoi 
'PcofiaioLS eTToXefxovv, /cat rov avveXdelv els (f)t,Xiav 
roils rjyeiJLOvas alriojrdrrjv yeveadat SoKovaav. 

^ Steph. : epoviXlov A, aepovtXiov B. 

1 Cf. Livy i. 22, 1 f. * Cf. ii. 67. 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

BOOK III 

I. After 1 the death of Numa Pompilius the 
senate, being once more in full control of the 
commonwealth, resolved to abide by the same 
form of government, and as the people did not 
adopt any contrary opinion, they appointed some 
of the older senators to govern as interreges for 
a definite number of days.^ These men, pur- 
suant to the unanimous desire of the people, chose 
as king Tullus Hostilius, whose descent was as 
follows. From Medullia, a city which had been 
built by the Albans and made a Roman colony 
by Romulus after he had taken it by capitulation, 
a man of distinguished birth and great fortune, 
named Hostilius, had removed to Rome and 
married a woman of the Sabine race, the daughter 
of Hersilius, the same woman who had advised 
her country-women to go as envoys to their fathers 
on behalf of their husbands at the time when the 
Sabines were making war against the Romans, 
and was regarded as the person chiefly responsible 
for the alliance then concluded by the leaders of 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovTOs 6 dvTjp TToXXovs avvSi€V€yKas 'PcofjivXcp 
TToXejjLovs /cat fxcydXa epya OLTToSei^dfjievos ev rals 
TTpos Ha^tvovs iJid)(ais, aTTodviqaKei KaraXiTTajv 
TraiSiov jjiovoyeves /cat ddnreraL rrpos rcbv ^aaiXecov 
iv rep KpariOTTCp rfjs dyopds tottco, arrjXrjg ctti- 

3 ypacf}-^ rr]v dperrjv pLaprvpovcrrjs d^LCodelg. e/c 
8e Tov jjLovoyevovs TratSo? etV dvSpas d(f)LKop,evov 
KOL ydfiov €7n(f)avrj Xa^ovros vlos ytVerat TuAAo? 
'OCTTtAto?, dvrjp hpaarr]pios, os dTTehei-)(d'f] ^aaiXevs 
tjjrj(j>cp re ttoXltikyj 8tev€;;(0etcn^ rrepc avrov Kara 
vofxovs /cat TOV Saipioviov 8t' olcovcov alalojv 
eTTLKvpcoaavTos rd Bo^avra rep B-^pucp. eros 8e 
"^v iv (p TTjV rjyepioviav irapeXa^ev 6 Sevrepos 
ivtavTOS TTJs e^Sopirjs /cat elKoarrjs oXupLTndSos, 
T^v ivLKa ardSLOV Kvpv^drrjs ^Ad-qvalos, dpxovros 

4 ^Ad'^vrjaL ^ Aeojcrrpdrov . ovros epyov dTrdvrcov 
pu^yaXoTTpeTTeurarov dTToSei^dpievos avros evdvs 
a/xa Tcp TTapaXa^eiv rrjv dpx'^jv drrav to dr^riKov 
TOV S-qpLOV /cat diropov OLKelov ea^'^v. tjv 8e 
Toiovhe' x^P^^ etxov e^aipeTOV ot rrpo avrov 
^auiXeXs TToXXrjv /cat dyaO-qv, i^ rjs dvaipovp.€VOL 
rds TTpocroSovs lepd re deols eTrereXovv /cat rag 
els TOV lSlov ^iov d^dovovs elxov eviropias, 'r]v 
CKT'^aaro p,e.v 'PcopivXos TToXdpicp rovs rore Kara- 
axovras dcfjeXopevos, eKeivov 8e a7Tat8os' avodavov- 
Tos HopbTTiXLos NopLas 6 pL€r^ eKelvov ^amXevaas 
eKapTTOvro' rjv 8e ovKeri hrjpiooia Krrjcns, oAAa 

5 Tcov del ^aaiXecov KXrjpos. ravrrjv 6 TuAAo? 
eTTerpeifie rols pbTjSeva KXrjpov exovai l?ajp.aLOJv 

^ 'A^ijtTjat added by Kiessling. 

1 Cf. ii. 45 f . 



BOOK III. 1, 2-5 

the two nations. 1 This man, after taking part 
with Romulus in many wars and performing 
mighty deeds in the battles with the Sabines, 
died, leaving an only son, a young child at the 
time, and was buried by the kings in the prin- 
cipal part of the Forum and honoured with a 
monument and an inscription testifying to his 
valour. His only son, having come to manhood 
and married a woman of distinction, had by her 
Tullus Hostilius, a man of action, the same who 
was now chosen king by a vote passed by the 
citizens concerning him according to the laws ; 
and the decision of the people was confirmed by 
favourable omens from Heaven. The year in 
which he assumed the sovereignty was the second 
of the twenty-seventh Olympiad, ^ the one in 
which Eurybates, an Athenian, won the prize in 
the foot-race, Leostratus being archon at Athens. 
Tullus, immediately upon his accession, gained 
the heai'ts of all the labouring class and of the 
needy among the populace by performing an act 
of the most splendid kind. It was this : The 
kings before him had possessed much fertile land, 
especially reserved for them, from the revenues 
of which they not only offered sacrifices to the 
gods, but also had abundant provision for their 
private needs. This land Romulus had acquired 
in war by dispossessing the former owners, and 
when he died childless, Numa Pompilius, his 
successor, had enjoyed its use; it was no longer 
the property of the state, but the inherited 
possession of the successive kings. Tullus now 
permitted this land to be divided equally among 

* 670 B.C. For the chronology see Vol. I., pp. xxix ff. 

s 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/car dvSpa SiaveLfiaadai, Tqv Trarpcoav avTca 
KTTJaiv dpKovaav a.TTO(f)aivcov els re to. Upd Kal 
rds rov ^iov harrdvas. ravrrj 8e rfj ^iXavdpaiTTla 
Tovs aTTopovs Twv TToXiTCJV dvcXa^c TTOvaas Xarpev- 
ovrag ev rot? dXXorpioLS' Iva Se /XTjSe otKias 
dfjiOLpos evT] TLs 7Tpo(T€T€iXi'Cr€ rfj TToAet Tov KaXov- 
fxevov KaiAior X6<f>ov, cvda oaoi 'PcopLaicov rjaav 
dveanoi Xaxdvres rov ^coplov ro dpKovv Kar- 
eoKevdaavr ^ ocKias, Kal avros iv rovrcp ra> roTTCp 
rr]v oLK7]aLV et^ev. TroAtrt/ca fjiev Srj ravra rov 
dvSpog epya Trapahihorai Xoyov deta- 
il. YloXefiiKal Se Trpd^eis ttoXXol [xev Kal 
dXXai ^ pivrjfjLovevovr at, fxeycorat, Se ^ jrepl Jjv 
epxoixai Xe^CDV, rrjv dp)(r]v TTOirjadixevos avro rov 
TTpos AX^avovs TToXefiov. air LOS Se rov SLaarrjvai 
rds TToXeis Kal Xvaai ro avyyeves dvrjp ^AX^avos 
eyevero KAotAio? * ovo/xa rrjs [xeytcTrTjs dp)(fjs 
a^LOjdeis, OS dxdofievos em rols 'PcDfxaiojv dya- 
dols /cat /cai-e^^eti^ rov <f>d6vov ov BvvdpLevos <f)vcr€L 
re avddSrjs Kal VTTOfxapyorepos cov eKiroXe piuioai 
2 ras TToXeis eyvo) rrpos dAAiyAa?. ov^ opajv Se 
oTTOis av Treicrete rovs AAjSavou? arparov avrcp Kara 
PoipLaLOiv dyeiv emrpei[jaL ixrjre SiKalas e^ovri 
TTpo<f>aaeLs pLrjre dvayKaias, p,rjxavdraL Srj ri 

* Smit : KaT€OK€vaaav 0. 

* fiev Kal aAAat B : re Kal ctAAai R, re Kal KoXal Steph., 
re Kal fieydXai. Sylburg. 

* niyioTai Se added by Sintenis. 

* kXoIXws a : KaiKios ^ loy B. Elsewhere the MSS. 
regularly give kolXios (except in ch. 3, § 4, where Ba had 
kXoiXlos). If Dionysius wrote KAOIAIOS it could have been 
interpreted either as KAotAioj (Cluilius ; cf. KoCvtos. Kowcos 
for Quintus, Quintius) or KXoiXtos (Cloelius). 

6 



BOOK III. 1, 5-2, 2 Oia 

such of the Romans as had no allotment, declaring 
that his own patrimony was sufficient both for 
the sacrifices and for his personal expenditures. By 
this act of humanity he relieved the poor among 
the citizens by freeing them from the necessity 
of labouring as serfs on the estates of others. 
And, to the end that none might lack a habita- 
tion either, he included within the city wall the 
hill called the Caelian, where those Romans who 
were unprovided with dwellings were allotted a 
sufficient amount of ground and built houses ; 
and he himself had his residence in this quarter. 
These, then, are the memorable actions reported 
of this king so far as regards his civil adminis- 
tration. 

II. Many ^ military exploits are related of him, 
but the greatest are those which I shall now 
narrate, beginning with the war against the 
Albans. The man responsible for the quarrel 
between the two cities and the severing of their 
bond of kinship was an Alban named Cluilius,^ 
who had been honoured with the chief magis- 
tracy ; this man, vexed at the prosperity of the 
Romans and unable to contain his envy, and 
being by nature headstrong and somewhat inclined 
to madness, resolved to involve the cities in war 
with each other. But not seeing how he could 
persuade the Albans to permit him to lead an 
army against the Romans without just and urgent 
reasons, he contrived a plan of the following sort : 

1 For chaps. 2 f. c/. Liyy i. 22, 3-7. 

* The traditional spelling of this name is followed in the 
translation, though it is uncertain whether Dionysius thought 
of it as Cluilius or Cloelius. See critical note. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

roLovhe- Tols aTTopcordrois 'AX^avcbv koI dpacrvrd- 
Tois €(f)rJK€ XrjareveLv rovs 'Pojjitatcuv dypovs 
dSeiav VTTLaxvovfxevos /cat -napeoKevaae ttoXXovs 
aKLvSwa KcpSrj StcoKovras, (vv ovhe KCxyXvopievoL 
VTTO Tov heovs aTroarrjcreadciL ^ e/xeAAov, ifJiTTXijaai 

3 TToXep^ov XrjaTpiKov ttjv ojxopov. tovto 8' eirparre 
Kara Xoyiapiov ovk direiKora, (hs to epyov ifxaprv- 
p-qae. 'Pco/iatous- p-ev yap ovk dvi^eadai rds 
aprrayas VTreXdp^avev , dXX eTrl rd onXa X^PV' 
aeiv, avTcp 8' e^ovuiav eaeadai Kar-qyopelv avrcov 
TTpos TOV hrjpLov cos dp^ovTCov TToXepuov, 'AX^avdJv 2 
8e Tovs TrXeiOTOVs (f)dovovvTas toZs diroiKOLs ttjs 
evTvxi'O.s Se^eadai ra? 8iajSoAd? dap,€vovs /cat tov 
/car avTcbv iroXepov i^oiaeiv, oirep /cat avve^rj. 

4 ayovTCOV yap /cat (fyepovTwv dAAryAou? rdjv KaKovp- 
yoTdTOJv €^ €KaT€pas ^ TToXecos /cat OTpaTids ttotc 
'Poj/xat/c^? ep^aXova-qs els Trjv ^AX^avdJv,^ v<j> 
rjs TToXXol Tcov XrjOTMV at pev dvr]pedr]aav, at 8e 
avveXrj(f>drjaav , avyKoXiaas to ttXtjOos els ckkXtj- 
aiav o KXolXios, ev i^ ttoXX7]v enoLTnaaTO tcov 

rctjpLaLOJv KaTTjyopLav, Tpavp,aTcas re avxvovs 
fnLO€LKvvp,evos /cat tovs rrpoa-qKovTas toIs "qprraa- 
p^evoLs ri TedvrjKoat napdycov /cat TrXeico tcov 
yeyovoTOJv eTTiKaTaipevhopevos , Trpea^eiav Trep^Treiv 
TTpaJTOV ei/j'q(f)taaTO St/ca? alTiqaovcrav tcov yeyovo- 
Tcov edv Be dyvcopovcoai 'Pcopaloi t6t€ tov ttoXs- 
p,ov €7T avTovs eK(f>epeLV. 

III. Acf>tKop,€Vcov 8e TCOV TTpea^evTcov els 

* dnooTT^aeaOai Bb : aTTOTT^afa9ai Ba, anoTiaiadai A. 

* 'AX^avcbv Reiske : \apdiv AB. 

* Kiessling : (.Kao-njs 0. 



BOOK III. 2, 2-3, 1 

he permitted the poorest and boldest of the Albans 
to pillage the fields of the Romans, promising 
them immunity, and so caused many to overrun 
the neighbouring territory in a series of plunder- 
ing raids, as they would now be pursuing without 
danger gains from which they would never desist 
even under the constraint of fear. In doing this 
he was following a very natural line of reasoning, 
as the event bore witness. For he assumed that 
the Romans would not submit to being plundered 
but would rush to arms, and he would thus have 
an opportunity of accusing them to his people as 
the aggressors in the war ; and he also believed 
that the majority of the Albans, envying the 
prosperity of their colony, would gladly listen to 
these false accusations and would begin war 
against the Romans. And that is just what 
happened. For when the worst elements of each 
city fell to robbing and plundering each other and 
at last a Roman army made an incursion into the 
territory of the Albans and killed or took prisoner 
many of the bandits, Cluilius assembled the people 
and inveighed against the Romans at great length, 
showed them many who were wounded, produced 
the relations of those who had been seized or 
slain, and at the same time added other circum- 
stances of his own invention ; whereupon it was 
voted on his motion to send an embassy first of 
all to demand satisfaction for what had happened, 
and then, if the Romans refused it, to begin war 
against them. 

III. Upon the arrival of the ambassadors at 

* Graaberger : ^AX^avriv O. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Pcofirjv, VTTOTTTevaas 6 TvXXos on 8t/ca? alrqaovres 
7]KOLev, auTOS" tovto TTOLTJaai TTporepos eyvoi 
Trepiarijaai PovX6[j,€vos els eKeivovs rrjv alrlav 
Tov XveLV TO. TTpos Tqv OLTTOiKiav crvyK€Lp,€va. 
(jvvdTJKat, yap rjaav rals ttoXcctlv im 'Poj fJLvXov 
yevojjievaL ra re oAAa €-)(ovaaL 8t/caia koL Iva 
firjSerepa iroXefMov apxj}' rj S' iyKaXoucra 6 tl 
SiJTTOTe dSiKrjfxa 8t/ca? alrol ^ Trapa ttjs dSiKovcrrjs, 
ei Se fiTj rvyxdvoL, totc tov i^ dvdyKrjs €TTi^epoi. 

2 TToXepiov, CO? XeXvfxevcjv rjSr] tcov aTTOvSojv. <j>vXar- 
TopLCVos hk TO fjir) TTporepovs atrrjdevras Si/ca? 

Pcu/xatoyj dvrenrelv, eTreira vnaLTiovs 'AX^avoLS 
yeveadai, Trpocrera^e tois eTn(f>aveaTdrois rdJv 
eavrov (fiiXcov rovs 'AAjSarcDi/ Tvpea^eis ^evl^eiv 
aTTacrr) ^iXo(f>poavvrf /cat Karexeiv €vBov Trap' 
eavTols' avTos 8' iv dcrxoXiais elvai tictlv dvay- 
KaioLS aK7)iJjdfj,€V0s SieKpovaaro ttjv vpoaoSov 

3 avrcov. rfj 8' eyyicrra vuktl 'PcopxLicov dvSpas 
iTTL<j)av€ls evTCiXdfJievos avToXs d )(^prj rrpdrreiv 
a-neareiXev els "AA^ai* dfxa rots elprivohiKais 
aLT-qaovras vrrep ojv "qBlKrjvro 'Poi/xatot SiKas 
Trap AXpavcov,^ ot vplv "qXiov dvia)(^eiv Btavvaav- 
T€s rriv ohov TrXrjdvovcrrjs rijs iojQLvfjs dyopds 
evrvy^avovaL rep KAoiAto) /car' dyopdv dvri koX 
hie^iovres oaa rjSlK-qvro 'Pco/xaLoi irpos ^AX^avdiv 
rj^tow TTpdrrnv to. crvyKeip^eva rats iroXeaiv. 

^ SiKas alrol Biicheler : SiKaaairo B. SiKdaerat. R. 
" Trap' 'AXPavoiv Schwartz : nap' 'KXfiavwv AajSeiv O, 
Jacoby. 

» CJ. ii. 72. 
10 



BOOK III. 3, 1-3 

Rome, Tullus, suspecting that they had come to 
demand satisfaction, resolved to anticipate them 
in doing this, since he wished to turn upon the 
Albans the blame for breaking the compact 
between them and their colony. For there existed 
a treaty between the two cities which had been 
made in the reign of Romulus, wherein, among 
other articles, it was stipulated that neither of 
them should begin a war, but if either complained 
of any injury whatsoever, that city should demand 
satisfaction from the city which had done the 
injury, and failing to obtain it, should then make 
war as a matter of necessity, the treaty being 
looked upon as already broken. Tullus, there- 
fore, taking care that the Romans should not be 
the first called upon to give satisfaction and, 
by refusing it, become guilty in the eyes of 
the Albans, ordered the most distinguished of 
his friends to entertain the ambassadors of the 
Albans with every courtesy and to detain them 
inside their homes while he himself, pretending 
to be occupied with some necessary business, 
put off their audience. The following night he 
sent to Alba some Romans of distinction, duly 
instructed as to the course they should pursue, 
together with the fetiales^ to demand satis- 
faction from the Albans for the injuries the Romans 
had received. These, having performed their 
journey before sunrise, found Cluilius in the market- 
place at the time when the early morning crowd 
was gathered there. And having set forth the 
injuries which the Romans had received at the 
hands of the Albans, they demanded that he should 
act in conformity with the compact between 

zi 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 o 8e KXolXios, d)s 'AAjSavcDv Trporepcov^ aTTearaX- 
KOTCOV els 'Pwfxrjv rovs alr'qcrovTas St/caj /cai 
jjiT^Se aTTOKpioecos Tj^iconevcov, aTTteVat tovs Pcd- 
fiaiovs ^ eKeXevaev (hs Trapa^e^r^Koras ras op,o- 
Xoyias /cat TrpoeiTTeu avrols rov TtoXepiov. aTToX- 
XaTTopievos Se o rrjs irpea^eias rjyepiCJV tovt 
rj^LCjaev aKovaac Trap* avrov fiovov, et irapa- 
^aiveiv ras aTTOvhas opLoXoyel rovs rrporepovs atn]- 
devras BiKas /cat pb'qBev vTrofieivavTas rrotetv rcov 

5 oaLoiv. opLoXoy-fjaavTOs Se rod KAotAtou, " Mapru- 
pOjLtat Toivvv" e<f>'q, " rovs Beovs, ovs eTTOvq- 
aajxeda ra)v aTTOvSaJv fidprvpas, on 'PcDjU-aiot? 
ov rv)(ovai rwv BiKaiajv Trporepois oaios o Kara 
rCbv TTapa^dvrcov rds OTTOvSas TToXejjLos ecrrai, ot, 
8e 7T€(f)€vy6r€s rovro ro SiKaiov vjjLets eare, o)? 
avrd rd epya §7yAot. Trporepoi re yap alrrjdevres 
ro StKaiov ovx VTrea^^ere /cat Trporepoi rov voXe- 
fxov ripuv TTpoeipt^Kare. roiydproi rovs apivvov- 
fxevovs vfxds TTpoahe-)(eade p,erd rG)v ottXcov ovk eis 

6 jLta/cpav." ravra rrapd ra)v rcpea^evrcjv d(f)(,Ko- 
jxevcov els 'Pconrjv aKovaas 6 TvXXos, rore rovs 
^AX^avovs TTpoadyeiv eKeXevae /cat Trept cov 
rJKovai Xeyeiv. dTrayyeiXdvroiv S aurtuv oaa 
vpoaera^ev 6 KXolXios /cat rov iroXepov d-neiXovv- 
rcov el fxrj rev^ovrai rijs St/cr^s', " 'Eycu irporepos 
vpuJov" €(f)T], " rovro TreTTolrjKa /cat /XT^Sev eupo- 

^ Kiessling : nportpov O. 
12 



BOOK III. 3, 4^6 

the cities. But Cluilius, alleging that the Albans 
had been first in sending envoys to Rome to 
demand satisfaction and had not even been 
vouchsafed an answer, ordered the Romans to 
depart, on the ground that they had violated 
the terms of the treaty, and declared war against 
them. The chief of the embassy, however, as 
he was departing, demanded from Cluilius an 
answer to just this one question, namely, whether 
he admitted that those were violating the treaty 
who, being the first called upon to give satisfaction, 
had refused to comply with any part of their 
obhgation. And when CluiUus said he did, he 
exclaimed : " Well, then, I call the gods, whom we 
made witnesses of our treaty, to witness that the 
Romans, having been the first to be refused 
satisfaction, will be undertaking a just war 
against the violators of that treaty, and that it 
is you Albans who have avoided giving satis- 
faction, as the events themselves show. For 
you, being the first called upon for satisfaction, 
have refused it and you have been the first to 
declare war against us. Look, therefore, for 
vengeance to come upon you ere long with the 
sword." Tullus, having learned of all this from 
the ambassadors upon their return to Rome, 
then ordered the Albans to be brought before him 
and to state the reasons for their coming ; and 
when they had delivered the message entrusted 
to them by Cluilius and were threatening war in 
case they did not obtain satisfaction, he replied: 
" I have anticipated you in doing this, and having 

* Tovs 'Puifiatovs Sylburg : tovs pcDiiaiuf O. 

«3 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fievos cov CKcXevov at crvvdrJKaL,^ tov avayKatov 
re KOI SiKaLov 'AA^arot? TrapayyeXXco TToXefiov," 

IV. Merci 8e ras 7Tpo<f)a.aeLs ravras TTapeaKcvd- 
l,ovTO aiJi(f)6T€poL ra npos rov TToXefiov, ov pLovov 
ras oiKctas KadoTTXit,ovT€s BwdpLets, dXXd Kal rds 
Trapa rcJov VTrqKocnv eTTLKaXovpievoi' (Ls Se TTOVTa 
rju avrols evrpeTrrj avvrjeaav opLoae /cat Karaarparo- 
TTeBevovrai, rerrapaKOVTa rrjs 'Piopurjs araSiovs 
d7Toax6vT€S, oi pikv 'AA^avot -nepl rds KaXovp.ivas 
KAotAta? Td(f>pov£ {(fyvXdrrovaL yap eVt rrjv rov 
KaraaKcvdaavTos avrds €TiiKXrjaLv), 'Pai/AaTot Se 
oXiyov ivSorepco rov iTrtTrjSeLoraTov els arparo- 

2 TreBeiav TOTTOv CKXe^dp^evoL. CTrel Se cruueLSov dXX'qXojv 
dpi(f)6T€poi, rds Svvdfieis ovt€ TrX'qdei. AetTrojueVa? ovre 
oTrAia/xots' evreXels ovre rais oAAai? TrapaaKevals 
ovaas evKara(f>povrjrovs , Trjg piev raxeias em 
TOV dycijva 6pp,rjs, rjv kot dpxds el^ov (hs avrfj 
€(f)6Sa) rpetfjopievoL rovs TToXepiiovs, dTrearrjaav 
(f)vXaK7Js 8e p,dXXov •^ TTpoenLXfLpijaecos vpovoiav 
iXdpL^avov vifiTjXoTepovs iyelpovTes rovs X'^P^' 
Kas, elarjet re avrtov toIs x^^/^'^'^'rctTOts XoyLapLos 
a)? ov ^ rd KpdrLara ^ovXevoptdvoLs kol Kard- 

3 fiepuJjLs Tojv iv reAei. iXKop^ivov 8e rov ;(/)dj^ou 

^ After avvSrjKoj, half a line is left blank in AB ; in the late 
MSS. we find a crude attempt to fill the supposed lacuna, and 
this reading was adopted by the editors down through Reiske. 
Kiessling and Jacoby merely indicated a lacuna; Co bet de- 
clared there was none. 

14 



BOOK III. 3, 6-4, 3 

obtained nothing that the treaty directs, I declare 
against the Albans the war that is both necessary 
and just." 

IV. After 1 these pretences they both pre- 
pared themselves for war, not only arming their 
own forces but also calling to their assistance those 
of their subjects. And when they had everything 
ready the two armies drew near to each other 
and encamped at the distance of forty stades from 
Rome, the Albans at the Cluilian Ditches,^ as they 
are called (for they still preserve the name of the 
man who constructed them) and the Romans a little 
farther inside,^ having chosen the most conve- 
nient place for their camp. When the two armies 
saw each other's forces neither inferior in numbers 
nor poorly armed nor to be despised in respect of 
their other preparations, they lost their impetuous 
ardour for the combat, which they had felt at 
first because of their expectation of defeating 
the enemy by their very onset, and they took 
thought rather of defending themselves by 
building their ramparts to a greater height than 
of being the first to attack. At the same time 
the most intelligent among them began to 
reflect, feeling that they were not being governed 
by the best counsels, and there was a spirit of 
faultfinding against those in authority. And as 

' For chaps. 4-12 cj. Livy i 23. 

^ Fossae Cluiliae. Livy also places this landmark at the 
same distance (five miles) from Rome ; nothing more is known 
about it. 

* i.e., nearer to Rome. 

^ XapLeoTOLTOis Aoyia/ioj ws ov Sintenis : p^apiearciTois eis tows 
Aoyia/xous ws 0. 

^5 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8ia K€vrjs {ovhev yap 6 rt Kal Xoyov d^tov rjv ^ 
KaraSpofiais ijjiXcov ^ aviXTrXoKois trnTecov e^XaTT- 
Tov aXXriXovs) 6 rod TroAe/xou Sofa? atVtos" yevove- 
vac KXolXlos a-xdoixevos im rfj drrpaKra) KadeSpa 
yvcojjirjv eax^v i^dyeiv ttjv crrparidv Kal TrpoKaXel- 
aOai rovs TToXepiiovs els ^d-)(j]v, idv Se /xr] VTraKov- 
4 acoGL TTpoa^dXXeLv avTcov irpos Ta epvfjLara. irapa- 
aKevaadjjievos Se rd Trpos rov dydJva Kai, el Serjcrei 
Tei;^o/>ta;(tas', oaa rep tolovtoj Trpoa^opa epyu) 
firjxavrjcrdfMevos , eirei vv^ lyeveTO Ka6ev8ajv ev 
rfj (TTpaTr]yLK7J crKrjvyj Trapovcrrjs avrco Trjs eloj- 
Ovias (f)vXaK7]s rrepl rov opdpov evplaKeraL veKpos, 
ovre a(f)ayfjs ovre dyx6v7]s ouVe <f)apfji,dKcov ovre 
(xAAtj? fiialov (JvpL(j>opds (rqp.€lov inl rov aojparos 

Ovhkv €XO)V. 

\ . HapaBo^ov Se rov irddovs uiairep elKos 
aTTaai <^aLvoyievov Kai i,7]rovjxevr]s rrjs alrias 
{ovSe ^ ydp voaov TrporjyyjaapevrjV el^c tls alrid- 
aaadai) ol p.ev em rrjv deiav rrpovoiav drrdaas 
ras avdpcDTTLvas dva(f)epovTes rvx^s Kara x^^^^ 
Sai/JLovLov eXeyov avrov drrodaveZt^, otl TToXepov 
e^eKavcre rfj ixrjTpoTroXeL irpos ttjv diroKTi-aLv 
ovre hiKaLov ovre dvayKoiov ol he ;;^/3'>j/xaTi(7|U,6v 
TjyovfievoL rov 7r6Xepx>v Kal pieydXcov aTTeareprj- 
adai vofii^ovres d)(f)eXeicov els eTn^ovX7]v Kal <j)d6vov 
dvdpcoTTLVOv ro epyov pLere<j>epov alricopevoi rcov 
dvrLTToXLrevop,ev(x)v rLvds d^avrj Kal Svae^eXeyKra 
i^evpovras (f)dpfxaKa Sia rovrojv rov dvSpa dvrjpr]- 

^ ^v Reiske : ^ye O, etre Jacoby. Neither Reiske's nor 
Jacoby's emendation is really satisfactory, since ^v is normally 
omitted by Dionysius in such phrases, while the combination 
etre ... ^ is altogether foreign to his style. Perhaps ijye 
of the MSS. is an outright interpolation. 
i6 



BOOK III. 4, 3-5, 1 

the time dragged on in vain (for they were not 
injuring one another to any notable extent by 
sudden dashes of the hght-armed troops or by 
skirmishes of the horse), the man who was looked 
upon as responsible for the war, Cluilius, being 
irked at lying idle, resolved to march out with his 
army and challenge the enemy to battle, and if 
they declined it, to attack their entrenchments. 
And having made his preparations for an en- 
gagement and all the plans necessary for an 
attack upon the enemy's ramparts, in case that 
should prove necessary, when night came on he 
went to sleep in the general's tent, attended by 
his usual guard ; but about daybreak he was 
found dead, no signs appearing on his body either 
of wounds, strangling, poison, or any other violent 
death. 

V. This unfortunate event appearing extra- 
ordinary to everybody, as one would naturally 
expect, and the cause of it being enquired into — 
for no preceding illness could be alleged — those who 
ascribed all human fortunes to divine providence 
said that this death had been due to the anger 
of the gods, because he had kindled an unjust 
and unnecessary war between the mother-city 
and her colony. But others, who looked upon 
war as a profitable business and thought they had 
been deprived of great gains, attributed the event 
to human treachery and envy, accusing some of 
his fellow citizens of the opposing faction of 
having made away with him by secret and un- 
traceable poisons that they had discovered. 

* Reiske : oure 0. 

17 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 K€vai' oi Sc VTTO XvTTTjs T€ Kol dfiTj^^avLas Kparov- 
[jievov eKovcTLU) ■)(priaaadai reXevrfj avrov e(f>aaav, 
eTTetSr] Trdvra ;\;aAe7ra, koI drropa avve^aivev avrcp 
/cat ouSev i)(cop€t Kara vovv tcov ev apxous, ore els 
ra TTpayixara elarjei, irpoahoKr^devrojv rots 8' 
CKTOS oiiac ^tAta? re /cai e-)(6pas rrjs Ttpos top 
aTparrjyov /cai dno Travros rov ^eXriarov Kpivovai, 
TO avfjL^e^rjKos ovre rj dela v€fx,eats ovre 6 tcDv 
avTiTToXiTevopiivoiv (ftdovos ovd^ rj rcov irpaypidruiv 
diroyvioais dvrjprjKdvai rov dvSpa iSoKei, dAA' 
rj TTJs (jivcrecos dvdyKT] koX to xP^div cLs eKTreTrXr^po)- 
Kora TTjv o(f)€LXofM€vr)v fiolpav, ■^s (XTracri rols yivo- 

3 fxevoLs 7T€7rpcx)raL rvx^tv. KAotAio? fJiev Srj Trplv 
rj yevvalov dTToSei^aadal tl roLavrrjs reXevrijs 
ervx^v, €is Se rov eKeivov tottov dTToSeiKwrai 
arparrjyos avTOKparcop vtto tcov em o-rparoTreSou 
Memos' ^ov<f>iTTL05 , dvrjp ovtc TToXefxov rjyepidiv 
LKavos ovT€ elpijvrjg ^e^aios ^vXa^, os ovSevo? 
rJTTOV AX^avdjv Tvpodvfios cov /car' dpxds hiaaTTJ- 
aai Tctj TToAet? koI 8ta tovto t-tjs dpx^js pLCTO. 
TOP KAotAtou ddvaTov d^icodets, eTretSr) ttjs rjyefxo- 
I'las" €TUX€ /cat oaa rjv iv toIs Trpdyfiaai Svax^prj 
/cat d-TTopa avvelSev, ovkcti SiepLeivev iirl tois 
avTols ^ovXevpiaaiv, aAA' els dva^oXds /cat Star/at- 
jSas' ayetv rj^iov Ta irpdypiaTa opdJv ovTe tovs 

AX^avovs aTTavTas 6p.olav exovras ert Ttpodv- 
fxiav 77/309 TToXefxov ovT€ Ta a(f)dyia ottotc Ovolto 

4 rrepl fidx^js /coAa yivofieva' TeXevTcHv 8e /cat els 



^ Livy styles him dictator (i. 23, 4; 27, 1) but calls Cluillus 
rex (i. 23, 4). 

l8 



BOOK III. 5, 1-4 

Still others alleged that, being overcome with 
grief and despair, he had taken his own life, since 
all his plans were becoming difficult and impractic- 
able and none of the things that he had looked 
forward to in the beginning when he first took 
hold of affairs was succeeding according to his 
desire. But those who were not influenced by 
either friendship or enmity for the general and 
based their judgment of what had happened on 
the soundest grounds were of the opinion that 
neither the anger of the gods nor the envy of the 
opposing faction nor despair of his plans had put 
an end to his life, but rather Nature's stern law 
and fate, when once he had finished the destined 
course which is marked out for everyone that is 
born. Such, then, was the end that Cluilius met, 
before he had performed any noble deed. In his 
place Mettius Fufetius was chosen general by 
those in the camp and invested with absolute 
power ^ ; he was a man without either ability to 
conduct a war or constancy to preserve a peace, 
one who, though he had been at first as zealous 
as any of the Albans in creating strife between 
the two cities and for that reason had been 
honoured with the command after the death of 
Cluilius, yet after he had obtained it and per- 
ceived the many difficulties and embarrassments 
with which the business was attended, no longer 
adhered to the same plans, but resolved to delay 
and put off matters, since he observed that not 
all the Albans now had the same ardour for war 
and also that the victims, whenever he offered 
sacrifice concerning battle, were unfavourable. 
And at last he even determined to invite the 

^9 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KaraXXayas eyvco TrpoKoXeiadai rovg 7ToXe[JiLovs 
Trporepos iTTLKrjpvKevadnevos, p,a6cov rov eTTLKpefxa- 
fxevov e^codev ' AX^avolg re /cat 'PcofiaioLs klvSvvov, 
ei fXT] OTTeiaovTai tov rrpos aXXrjXovs TToXejxov, 
d(f)vXaKrov ^ ovra, os efieXXev dfi(f)OT€pas dvapTrd- 
aeadai ^ rds Swdfieis. rjv 8e roidcrSe' 

VI. Omevravol /cat ^tSrjvaloL fxeydXas Kal 
TToXvavdpcoTTOvs ^xovTes TToXeis e-TTt fjL€v rrjs 'Pco- 
IxvXov ^aaiXelas els TToXepiov virep dpxrjs /cat Bvva- 
areias Pcu/xatotj KaTeaTrjaav, ev cp TToXXds 
diToXdaavres Swdfieis dfX(f)6repoi Kal ■)(ixjpas diro- 
SaapLcp ^rjpLLcodevTes VTT-qKOOL rot? KeKparrjKOdLV 
rjvayKdadrjaav yeveadai, irepi &v ev rfj -npo ravrrjs 
SeSi^XwKa ypa(f)fj to dKpi^es' eirl he rrjs No/ia 
Ilo/XTTtAtou Svvaare las elpijvrjs drroXavaavTes 
^e^aiov TToXXrjv ea^ov €7tl8o(jlv els evavSptav re /cat 
ttXovtov /cat TTjV dXXrjv evhatp^oviav. rovrois hrj 
roLS dyadols eTrapdevres eXevdeplas re ai5^ts' 
(hpeyovTO /cat (I)p6vrjfxa eXdpi^avov viprjXorepov 
TrapaaKevd^ovTO re ojs ou/ceVt 'Pcofxalcov dKpoaao- 
pievoL? reojs piev ovv dBrjXos avrcbv rj Stdvoia rrjs 
dTToardcrecos '^v, ev he tu) irpos * AX^avovs €<f)ave- 
pcodrj TToXepcp. d)S yap errvdovro TTavarparia 
Pcopaiovs e^eXrjXvOoTas * eTTi rov rrpos 'AX^avovs 
dycbva, Kpdriarov vnoXa^ovres elXrjcfievaL Kaipov 
eTTideaeois drropprirovs eiroLrjaavro 8td rcov Bwaro)- 
rdroiv dvSpcbv avvcopoaias aTravra? rovs ottXo- 
(f)opeLV BvvapLevovs els ^Lh-^vrjv avveXdelv Kpv(f)a 

^ d<f>vKTov Reiske. 

* Hertlein, Cobet : dvapTrdoaaOai 0, Jacoby. 
8 Hertlein, Cobet : aKpouifitvoi. 0, Jacoby. 

* Reiske : iireXriXvOoras 0. 

20 



BOOK III. 5, 4-6, 2 

enemy to an accommodation, taking the initiative 
himself in sending heralds, after he had been 
informed of a danger from the outside which 
threatened both the Albans and Romans, a danger 
which, if they did not terminate their war with 
each other by a treaty, was unavoidable and bound 
to destroy both armies. The danger was this : 

VI. The Veientes and Fidenates, who inhabited 
large and populous cities, had in the reign of 
Romulus engaged in a war with the Romans for 
command and sovereignty, and after losing 
many armies in the course of the war and being 
punished by the loss of part of their territory, they 
had been forced to become subjects of the con- 
querors ; concerning which I have given a precise 
account in the preceding Book.^ But having 
enjoyed an uninterrupted peace during the reign 
of Numa Pompilius, they had greatly increased in 
population, wealth and every other form of pros- 
perity. Elated, therefore, by these advantages, 
they again aspired to freedom, assumed a bolder 
spirit and prepared to yield obedience to the 
Romans no longer. For a time, indeed, their 
intention of revolting remained undiscovered, but 
during the Alban war it became manifest. For 
when they learned that the Romans had marched 
out with all their forces to engage the Albans, 
they thought they had now got the most favourable 
opportunity for their attack, and through their 
most influential men they entered into a secret 
conspiracy. It was arranged that all who were 
capable of bearing arms should assemble in Fidenae, 

^ ii. 63-55. 

21 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/rat Kar oXiyovs lovras, cl»? av TJKiara yevoivro 

3 rot? eTTL^ovXevofjievots Kara<j)aveZs' eKet S' vtto- 
fievovras eV8e;^eor^ai rov Kaipov, ore at 'Pa)[xai<ov 
re Kttt AX^avcov Sum/xei? e/cAcTTOuaai rovs ;^a/3a/cas' 
eTTt Tov dycai'a rrpoeXevaovr at {rovrov Se <f)av€p6v 
TTOietv avroLs e/xeXXov Sta avix^oXoiv gkottol rives 
ev rots opeai XoxoJvres), orav Se dpOfj ra arjpLeta 
Xa^ovras ra. ^ onXa x^^P^^v ert^ avrovs eSet, Trdvras 
Kara raxos (rjv Se ov ttoXXtj -q ^ errl rovs x^po-Kas 
OLTTO ^iST^v-qs (f)epovaa oSos, aXX* oaov t] Svalv 
ojpais ri rpialv dvvaOrjvaL ro fiaKporarov), em- 
(f)avevras Se rep dyajvi reXos rjSr) exovri, coairep 
eiKos, fJLTjSev riyeladai ^iXioVy dXX edv re ^AX^avol 
viKcocriv eap* re Pco/xatot Kreivetv rovs KeKparrjKoras 
avrcHv. ravra rjv d Sieyvcoaro Trpdrrew rots irpo- 

4 ecrrrjKocjL rcov TroXeojv. el jxev ovv dpaavrepov 
em rov dyojva ayppi-qaav 'AX^avol 'Pwfxalajv 
Kara(f)pov'ijaavres Kal pna Kplvai ptdxii ra oXa 
Sieyvcoaav, ovdev dv ro KcoXvaov ^ rjv rov re 
KaraaKevaadevra SoXov eir' avrots XeX-qdevai Kal 
SLe<j>Bdpdai ra arparevfiara avrcov dpicjiorepa- 
vvv Se 7] Siarpi^T] rod TToXepLov irapdSo^os drraai 
yevopevT] Kal 6 xpdvos ev w 7TapeaKevdt,ovro 
rroXvs TTapeXKvaOels * Siej^eev avrojv rd PovXevp,ara. 
rcov yap e« rrjs avvcop-oaias rives, eire oWeia KepSrj 
■nepi^aXeadai ^rjrovvres e'ire rois Kopv(f)aiordrois 
rd>v a(f)erepa)v Kal ro epyov elaT]yr]aap,evois 
<f)dovovvres etre pirjvvaiv erepayv SeSiores, 6 ri 
TToXXois avve^rj Tradeiv ev rais noXvavOpcoTTOis 

^ ra added by Cobet. * -q added by Kiessling. 

* Reudler : kcjXvov AB, Jacoby. 

* Cobet : a<f>eXKvadels O, e<f>€XKva9eis Reiske, Jacoby. 



BOOK III. 6, 2-4 

going secretly, a few at a time, so as to escape as far 
as possible the notice of those against whom the 
plot was aimed, and should remain there awaiting 
the moment when the armies of the Romans and 
Albans should quit their camps and march out to 
battle, the actual time to be indicated to them by 
means of signals given by some scouts posted on 
the mountains ; and as soon as the signals were 
raised they were all to take arms and advance 
in haste against the combatants (the road leading 
from Fidenae to the camps was not a long one, 
but only a march of two or three hours at most), 
and appearing on the battlefield at the time when 
presumably the conflict would be over, they were 
to regard neither side as friends, but whether 
the Romans or the Albans had won, were to 
slay the victors. This was the plan of action on 
which the chiefs of those cities had determined. 
If, therefore, the Albans, in their contempt for the 
Romans, had rushed more boldly into an engage- 
ment and had resolved to stake everything upon 
the issue of a single battle, nothing could have 
hindered the treachery contrived against them 
from remaining secret and both their armies from 
being destroyed. But as it was, their delay in 
beginning war, contrary to all expectations, and the 
length of time they employed in making their 
preparations were bringing their foes' plans to 
nought. For some of the conspirators, either seek- 
ing to compass their private advantage or envying 
their leaders and those who had been the authors 
of the undertaking or fearing that others might 
lay information — a thing which has often happened 
in conspiracies where there are many accomplices 

23 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

icat ;(povi^o/xeVatj auvcD/xoCTtat?, etre vtto deias ^ 
dvayKa^ofievoi yvcoixrjs ovk d^Lovarjs epyov dvo- 
aiov els evTVX^s KaraoKijifjai reAo?, ixrjvvral 
yivovrai tois TroXeixiois rov SoAou. 

VII. Tavra 817 fjiaOcov 6 Q)ov(f)iTrios en jxaXXov 
eoTTevae TTOi'qaacrdai rds StaAucrei?, o)s ovSe 
alpecreojs en ^ rov {Mr] ravra Trpdrreiv a(f}Lai 
KaTaXeLTTOfievTjs. iyeyovet 8e Kal ro) jSaatAei 
Tcov 'Pcofxalcov vrrep Trjs avvcofioaLas ravrrjs 
[ji'qvvais ^ TTapd rcov e/c ^iB'qvrjs (jiiXcov, coot 
ovh^ avros en Siap.eXX'qaas Se;^eTat rds tov 
^ov(f)€Tnov TTpoKXijaeis ■ CTrel Se avurjXdov els 
TO fJLeTo^v rcov arparoTreSajv ■)(ix)piov eTTayofievot 
avfJL^ovXovs CKdrepoi rovs (f)povfjaat rd Beovra 
LKavovs, doTTaadpievoi Trpcbrov dXX'qXovs (os Trpo- 
Tepov elcodecrav /cat (f)tXo(f)povr)6evTes rds eraipiKas 
re Kal avyyeviKds (f>cXo(f>poavvas SieXeyovro Trepl 
rwv BiaXvaeojv. rjpx^ro ^ 8^ 6 ^AX^avos Trporepos ^ 
roidSe Xeycov 

" ^AvayKOLOV elvai /xot So/cei rds alrias 
TTpoJrov eTTihel^ai, hi as eycb Trpcbros rj^lwaa 
irepl KaraXvaews rov TToXefJiov SiaXeyeaOaL, ovre 
fjidxj} KparTjOels vcf)^ vfMcbv ovr* emcrtnapLOVs 
elcrdyeadai, KcxiXvopuevos ovre els dXXrjv Kara- 
KeKXeicrfjLevos dvdyKrjv ovBepuiav, iva p,r] /xe 
VTToXd^rjre rijs fiev ot/ceta? Bwdp^ecos aadeveiav 
KareyvcoKora, rrjv Se vpierepav lu^yv hva- 
KaraydiVLorov elvai vopii^ovra evTrpeTrrj l^rjrelv 
dnaXXayrjv rov iroXepiov. d<f)6prjroi ydp dv yevoi- 
ade VTTO ^apvTTjros, el n TreLcdei-qre irepi rjpiwv 

* vrro deias Cobet, Sintenis : vno d^ofi or viroddaei 0. 
24 



BOOK III. 6, 4-7, 2 

and the execution is long delayed — or being com- 
pelled by the will of Heaven, which could not 
consent that a wicked design should meet with 
success, informed their enemies of the treachery. 

VII. Fufetius, upon learning of this, grew 
still more desirous of making an accommodation, 
feeling that they now had no choice left of any 
other course. The king of the Romans also had 
received information of this conspiracy from his 
friends in Fidenae, so that he, too, made no delay 
but hearkened to the overtures made by Fufetius. 
When the two met in the space between the 
camps, each being attended by his council con- 
sisting of persons of competent judgment, they 
first embraced, according to their former custom, 
and exchanged the greetings usual amorig 
friends and relations, and then proceeded to discuss 
an accommodation. And first the Alban leader 
began as follows : 

" It seems to me necessary to begin my 
speech by setting forth the reasons why I have 
determined to take the initiative in proposing 
a termination of the war, though neither defeated 
by you Romans in battle nor hindered from 
supplying my army with provisions nor reduced 
to any other necessity, to the end that you may 
not imagine that a recognition of the weakness of 
my own force or a belief that yours is difficult to 
overcome makes me seek a plausible excuse for 
ending the war. For, should you entertain such 
an opinion of us, you would be intolerably severe, 



^ €Ti Steph. : errl 0. 

' 17 before firjwQis deleted by Kiessling. 

* ^pxe Schwartz. ' Kiessling : nf 



I by Kiessling. 
Kiessling : irporepov 0. 

25 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TOLovrov, Kol ovdev av rcov /xerpicov VTrofxeLvaire 

3 TTOtelv, <x)s Kparovvres TJSr] rip TroXeficp. tva 
8r) [XT) rag i/jevSels alrlas eiVa^r^re rrepl rrjs €[Mrjg 
TTpoaipeaecos, Sc' a? d^ico KaraXvaaoOai rov 
TToXefJiOv, aKOvaare rag dXTjOets' eyco aTparrj-yos 
aTToSeixdcls VTTO rijs TrarpiSos avTOKpdrcop dfia Tip 
napaXa^elv rrjv dpx'^v iaKonovv rives '^arav ai 
crvvrapd^aaaL rds TToXeis rjp,djv Trpo^daeis. opoJv 
8c fjbiKpds /cat <f>avXas Kal ov^ iKavds SieAetv 
roaavrrjv <j>LXiav koX avyyeveiav ov rd Kpdriara 
'qyovfJLT^v ovre ^AX^avovs ovre vjxds ^ovXevcraadai. 

4 en Se fxaXXov eyvcov rovro kol TToXXrjv Kareyviov 
dfKf)orepijov 'r]pux)v fiaviav, iTretBrj TraprjXdov eiri 
rd TTpdyjxara Kal Trelpav iXap^^avov rrjs eKaarov 
vpoaLpeaecos . ovre ydp iv rot? tSiot? ovr 
€v rols KOLVols avXXoyoLS ofjiovoovvras vrrep rov 
TToXefiov Trdvras ^AX^avovs ecopojv, p,aKpip Se 
TLVi rwv e^ dvdpioTTLVOv Xoyidfjiov KaraXaix^avo- 
[idvojv p^oAeTTcDv rd Sai/xorta arjixeta, oirore xP''^<^o.i- 
piTjv a<j>ayioLs nepl fidx^js, X'^^'^^'^^P^ yLvofxeva 
ttoXXtjv 8vadv(XLav irapeZx^ P'Ot /cat dp,r)xaviav. 

5 iudvfwvfxevos S17 ravra rijs /xer em rovs dycovas 
6ppi,rjs erteaxov, dva^oXds Se /cat Siarpi^ds eTTOiov- 
firjv rov TToXepuov nporepovs vfxds ol6p,evos dp^eiv 
rcov Ttepl (fx-Xias Xoyajv /cat eSet ye, at TuAAc, 
rovro iroiecv vfxds diroiKovg ovras rjniov /cat firj irepi- 
fxeveiv ecus rj p.-qrpoTToXLs dp^rj. oar)s ydp a^Lovai 
TtfiTJs rvyxdveiv ol Ttarepes Trapd rcov eKyovcov, 
roaavrrjs ol Kriaavres rds iroXeis irapd rcov 

6 dTTOiKcov. iv at he rjfJLels ifxeXXoixev /cat iraperr)- 



36 



BOOK III. 7, 2-6 ra 

and, as if you were already victorious in the war, 
you could not bring yourselves to do anything 
reasonable. In order, therefore, that you may 
not impute to me false reasons for my purpose to 
end the war, listen to the true reasons. My 
country having appointed me general with absolute 
power, as soon as I took over the command I 
considered what were the causes which had dis- 
turbed the peace of our cities. And finding them 
trivial and petty and of too httle consequence to 
dissolve so great a friendship and kinship, I con- 
cluded that neither we Albans nor you Romans 
had been governed by the best counsels. And 
I was further convinced of this and led to condemn 
the great madness that we both have shown, 
when once I had taken hold of affairs and began 
to sound out each man's private opinion. For 
I found that the Albans neither in their private 
meetings nor in their public assemblies were all of 
one mind regarding the war ; and the signs from 
Heaven, whenever I consulted the victims con- 
cerning battle, presenting, as they did, far greater 
difficulties than those based on human reasoning, 
caused me great dismay and anxiety. In view, 
therefore, of these considerations, I restrained 
my eagerness for armed conflicts and devised 
delays and postponements of the war, in the belief 
that you Romans would make the first overtures 
towards peace. And indeed you should have done 
this, Tullus, since you are our colony, and not 
have waited till your mother-city set the example. 
For the founders of cities have a right to receive 
as great respect from their colonies as parents 
from their children. But while we have been 

VOL. II. . R 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

povfiev aXX-qXavs, irorepoi rcov cvyvcofJiovcov dp^ovat 
X6y(x)v, irepa ns rjfxds dvdyKrj Kpelrrwv aTravros 
avdpcoTTtvov XoyiapLOV TrepiXa^ovaa avvdyei' t]v 
iyco 7Tv66[Jievos ctl Xavddvovaav vfids ovKer* 
(hop/iqv heZv rrjs evirpeTreLas rcbv Bi,aXXaycov aro^d- 
t,eadai. Setvat ydp, a) TuAAe, p,rj-)(aval irXeKov- 
rai Ka6* ^jjlcov Kal SoXos d(f>VKTOS eppaTrrai 
Kar dp.(fiorepa)v , os efxeXXev dKovirl Kal BL)(a 
TTovov Trdvra avvrpiijjeiv Kal SiacfiOepelv rjjjicjv rd 
TTpdyfiara irvpos r] iroTayiov htKTjv ifiTTcacov. 

7 BrjfiLovpyol Be twv dvoaicov ^ovXev^idroiv eialv 
ol hvvarojTaroL ^ihrfvaiaiv re Kal OmevTaviov 
avveXdovres. oaris 8e 6 rrjs iTn^ovXrjs avrdJv 
rpoTTOS rjv Kal irodev et? eyuk 7) twv drropprircov 
^ovXevfJidrcov yvcoais iX'qXvdev d/couCTare." 

VIII. Taur' etVcuv 8i8ci»ai tcov Trapovrcov rcvl 
dvayvcovai rds eTTiaroXds a? avTCp /ce/co/xt/cctj? tls 
irvyxoLve irapd rcov iv OiSt^vt^ ^evcov /cat tov KOfii- 
aavra avrds Traprjyayev . dvayvcoadetaiov 8e tcov 
imaToXcov /cat rou avSpos i^rjyqaafjievov Travra 
oaa TTapd rcov iTndevTCOv ^ avrds diro arofiaros 
TjKovaev eKirXri^eois re jjieydXrjs Karaaxovarjs tovs 
aKovovras, ota eiKos inl t'^Xikovto) KaKw nap 
eATTtSa? aKovadivTi, puKpov e7TLa)(d)v 6 ^ov<f)€TTLOs 
TrdXtv eXe^ev 

2 *' 'AKTjKoaTe T«9 alrias, dvhpes 'PcojJLaloi, 
St' as" iyco riws jxkv ^ dve^aXXojjLTjv rovs rrpos 
vfxds dydJvas, vvv 8e /cat tcov Trept, ^tAias" 
r)^icx)aa TrpoTcpos dpx^tv Xoycov. u/xet? 8e to 

^ iinOfvTwi> Cobet : imTidftitvwv 0, Jacoby, imdfiUvutv 
Bticheler. 

* iycj re'tos fj.kv Reiuke : e'yw re 0, (yoDye Sylburg. 

28 



BOOK III. 7, 6-8, 2 

delaying and watching one another, to see which 
side should first make friendly overtures, another 
motive, more compelling than any arguments 
drawn from human reason, has arisen to draw us 
together. And since I learned of this while it 
was yet a secret to you, I felt that I ought no longer 
to aim at appearances in concluding peace. For 
dreadful designs are being formed against us, 
Tullus, and a deadly plot has been woven against 
both of us, a plot which was bound to overwhelm 
and destroy us easily and without effort, bursting 
upon us like a conflagration or a flood. The 
authors of these wicked designs are the chiefs 
of the Fidenates and Veientes, who have conspired 
together. Hear now the nature of their plot 
and how the knowledge of their secret design 
came to me." 

VIII. With these words he gave to one of those 
present the letters which a certain man had 
brought to him from his friends at Fidenae, and 
desired him to read them out ; and at the same time 
he produced the man who had brought the letters. 
After they were read and the man had informed 
them of everything he had learned by word of 
mouth from the persons who had despatched 
the letters, all present were seized with great 
astonishment, as one would naturally expect 
upon their hearing of so great and so unexpected 
a danger. Then Fufetius, after a short pause, 
continued : 

" You have now heard, Romans, the reasons 
why I have thus far been postponing armed 
conflicts with you and have now thought fit to 
make the first overtures concerning peace. After 

29 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ficra rovTO rjSr] aKOTtelade, TTorepov oteade Setr 
irepl ^olSIwv /cat Trpo^aricxiv ^ apiTayrjs aaTreiOTOV 

TToXepiOV <f)vXdTT€iV TTpOS TOVS KTtGaVTaS Kol 

TTarepas, ev w /cat KparrjOevTCs airoXeZade /cat 
Kpar-qaavreg, rj SiaXvadp,evoL ttjv irpos rovs 
avyyevels e^dpav jxed' tj/jlcov eTrt rovs kolvovs 
ixOpovs x^P^^^i o'' y^ ^^ n,6vov diTToaraaLV i^ov- 
Xevaav dcf)^ vficov, dAAa /cat eiravdaraaiv , ovre 
rreTTOvOores ovSev Seivov ovre fxr] nddcjai, SeSiOTej, 
/cat oj)S' e/c rov ^avepov eTredevro rjfi'iv, d)s 6 

KOLVOS a^lOt TOV TToXeflOV VOfJiOS, dAA' V7t6 gkotovs, 

(hs dv rJKLara vttiSolto tls avrcov ttjv eTn^ovXr^v 
/cat (f)vXd^at.TO . dXXd yap on p,€v era rovs 
avoaiovs dvdpatTTOVs iriov rjfilv aTrdarj GTrovSij 
KaraXvarafxevoLS rd ex^rj (fxavias ydp ddrepa 
d^iovv), d)s iyvcoKoaiv vfitv /cat TTOirjcrovacv ovSev 
Seofiai ttXcloj Xeyeiv /cat irapaKeXcveadai. ov 8e 
rpoTTOV at StaAuCTet? /caAai /cat avfx<f)€povcrai 
yevoLvr av a{X(f)orepa(.s rais TToXeai (rovro ydp 
lacos TTodelre dKovaai irdXai) vvv tJSt] TTeipd- 
aofxat, Xeyeiv. iycb vopiit^ix) Kpariaras fi€v elvai 
hiaXXayds /cat TTperraySeardras avyyevccri, /cat 
<f>iXois TTpos oAAr^Aous, €v als ovBev iariv eyKorov 
ovSe ^ fivqaiKaKov, d^eaecos (XTraai Trpds diravras 
vrrep cov eSpaaav rj eiradov ahoXov yivojxevqs, 
■^rrov Se rovrcov evTrpeTrels, iv als rd ixev ttXtjOos 
aTToXverai rojv iyKXrjfjidrcov, oi 8e dSiK-^aavrcs 



^ Cobet : npopdriov O. 
^ ov8k R : owTC AB. 



30 



BOOK III. 8, 2-4 

this it is for you now to consider whether, in order 
to avenge the seizure of some miserable oxen and 
sheep, you ought to continue to carry on an 
implacable war against your founders and fathers, 
in the course of which, whether conquered or 
conquerors, you are sure to be destroyed, or, 
laying aside your enmity toward your kinsmen, 
to march with us against our common foes, who 
have plotted not only to revolt from you but also 
to attack you — although they have neither 
suffered any harm nor had any reason to fear 
that they should suffer any — and, what is more, 
have not attacked us openly, according to the 
universally recognized laws of war, but under 
cover of darkness, so that their treachery could 
least be suspected and guarded against. But I 
need say no more to convince you that we ought 
to lay aside our enmity and march with all speed 
against these impious men (for it would be madness 
to think otherwise), since you are already resolved 
and will pursue that resolution. But in what 
manner the terms of reconciliation may prove 
honourable and advantageous to both cities (for 
probably you have long been eager to hear this) 
I shall now endeavour to explain. For my part, 
I hold that that mutual reconciliation is the best 
and the most becoming to kinsmen and friends, 
in which there is no rancour nor remembrance 
of past injuries, but a general and sincere remission 
of everything that has been done or suffered on 
both sides ; less honourable than this form of 
reconciliation is one by which, indeed, the mass 
of the people are absolved of blame, but those 
who have injured one another are compelled to 

31 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aW'qXovs avayKdt,ovTai Si'/ca? V7T€X€iv Xoycp Kpivo- 
fievoi /cat v6fx(x). rovrcov Sr) rcov StaXXaycbv i[jiol 
fjiev So/cet y^privaL ra? cvTrpeTTcarepas /cat /ieyoAo- 
i/jvxorepas rjlJids iXeadai /cat yvcoixrjv Oeadat nepl 
fxiqSevos riixds dAATyAot? pLvrjaiKaKCLv av S' ei 
fJiYj ^ovXec SiaXXoLTTeadai tovtov rov rpoTTOv, 
CO TvXXe, dAAo, /cat StSdt'at St/ca? /cat Xafi^dveiv 
allots rovs iv rat? atrtat? Trap' dAATyAcuv, eroipiOL 
/cat ravra iroielv elaiv ^AX^avol rd kolvo. ^x^rj 
TrpoKaTaXvadpievoL . el Se rti^a? e;!^ets' 7ra/>d rayra? 
Xeyeiv irepas eire /caAAtou? StaAAayd? etVe 
SiKaLorepas, ovk dv (f)6dvocs <j>€poiv els fieaov /cat 
TToAAi^i' crot X^P''^ etcrojLtat." 

IX. Tayr' elTTOvros rov ^ov(f>erriov irapaXa^div 
rov Xoyov 6 tcov ^Voipiaicov ^acriXevs eXe^e' 

" Kat rjpiels,io ^ov(f)eTTLe , ^apeiav vireXaix^dvop-ev 
rjfjids KaraXrjifjeadai avfi<f)opdv, el 8t' alfxaros /cat 
(f)6vo}v duayKaadel'qfMev Kplvai rov avyyevrj TToXefxov, 
/cat v7t6 tcov lepcov OTTore rd TrpoTToXepiia dvoLfiev 
eKwXvoixeda dpxetv p.dxy]S' rds re dvopp'qrovs 
^iSrjvaLcov /cat Ovt-evravcov avviop-oaias, d? err' 
dpi^orepoLs rjixTv avva)p,oaav, oXlyco irporepov 
aov TTeTTvafxeda Trapd rcou eKeWev ^evcov /cat ovk 
d(j>vXaKroL irpos avrds iap^ev, dAA' co? rradeZv re 
fiTjSev avrol kukov /cd/cetVoy? ripLOiprjaaadai rijs 
eTTL^ovXrjs d^tcD? TrapeaKevdap^eda, ovx rjrrov re 
aov KaraXvaaadai rov iToXepLOv dp.ax'^'T'l p-aXXov 
Tj Std rojv ottXojv e^ovXopieda. Trporepoi Se 
TTpea^eveadou Trepl hiaXXayiov ovk rj^iovpLev, ineiTrep 
32 



BOOK III. 8, 4-9, 2 T.r 

undergo such a trial as reason and law direct. 
Of these two methods of reconciliation, now, it 
is my opinion that we ought to choose the one 
which is the more honourable and magnanimous, 
and we ought to pass a decree of general amnesty. 
However, if you, Tullus, do not wish a reconciliation 
of this kind, but prefer that the accusers and the 
accused should mutually give and receive satis- 
faction, the Albans are also ready to do this, after 
first settling our mutual hatreds. And if, besides 
this, you have any other method to suggest which 
is either more honourable or more just, you cannot 
lay it before us too soon, and for doing so I shall 
be greatly obliged to you." 

IX. After Fufetius had thus spoken, the king 
of the Romans answered him and said : 

" We also, Fufetius, felt that it would be a grave 
calamity for us if we were forced to decide this 
war between kinsmen by blood and slaughter, 
and whenever we performed the sacrifices pre- 
paratory to war we were forbidden by them to 
begin an engagement. As regards the secret 
conspiracy entered into by the Fidenates and 
Veientes against us both, we have learned of it, 
a little ahead of you, through our friends in their 
midst, and we are not unprepared against their 
plot, but have taken measures not only to suffer 
no mischief ourselves but also to punish those 
foes in such a manner as their treachery deserves. 
Nor were we less disposed than you to put an 
end to the war without a battle rather than by 
the sword ; yet we did not consider it fitting that 
we should be the first to send ambassadors to 
propose an accommodation, since we had not been 

33 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovS TJp^aixev avrol Trporcpoi tov TToXijxov, dp^avras 
Se rjijivvdfxeda. OLTTorLdep^evcov 8e Vfxwv ra orrXa 
SexofieOa rds TrpoKXijcreis dafxevot /cat nepl StaAAa- 
ywv ovSev a.Kpi^oXoyovp.eda, aAAa ra? Kpariaras 
re Kal fjLeyaXoi/jvxordras Sexofjieda -ndv dSiK-qfia 
Kal Trdv dfidprrjfjLa rrjs 'AA^avcDv TroAecos" d^Uvres, 
€L h-q Kal KOLvd XP'^ '<^ctAerv' noXeaJS a/xapTT^juara, 
djv o arparr^yos v/jlcov KAotAio? ai-'rios' rjv, os 
VTrep aiKJiorepcov rjixcov ov ju,eju,7rra.s reriKe StKas 

3 Tols ueois. d(f}etadco Srj ndaa iyKXi^fiaros IStov 
T€ Kal Koivov 7Tp6(f)aais Kal /xi^Sevo? en p-vqixri 
Tiov TTapeXr^XvOorajv earco KaKcov, cos Kal aoi, 

^OV(f)€TTL€ ,^ SoK€L' dAA' OVK dTTOXpf] TOVTO 

piovov Tjixd'S aKOTTelv, ottojs dv rrjv rrapovaav 
exdpav hLaXvaaipLcda Trpos aAATyAof?, aAA' ottojs 
pL7]8 avdis TTore TToXep^TJaofxev ^ en Set Trapa- 
OKevauaadav ov ydp dva^oXds iroL-qaopLevoi rdJv 
KaKcov avveX7]Xv9ap.€v, aAA' aTraAAayas". rt? ovv 
7] ^e^ata rov iroXepov KardXvais earai Kal ri 
rrapaaxovTes et? rd TrpdypLara e/carepoi vvv re 
Kal els rov del xpdvov eaofxeOa (f)iXoc, av pikv irap- 
eAiTres", a» ^ov<f)erTLe, eyoj 8' ert /cat rovro Trpoa- 

4 deZvaL TTeLpdaofiaL. el Travaaivro fxev 'AX^avol 
(j>dovovvTes 'Pcop-aioLs e^' ots exovatv dyadoZs, 
OVK dvev fieydXtov klvSvvcov Kal ttovojv ttoXXcov 
avra KTrjcrafxevot {ovdev yovv ireTTOvdores v(f>' 
r][jicov ovre fxel^ov ovre eXarrov KaKov hid rovro 
fxiaelre rjpLas, on SoKov/xev dp^eivov vpLcov irpdr- 

^ <f>ov(j>eTTie 0: a) Oou^erTie Kiessling, Jacoby. 
* oncos . . . 'TToXefiTjaofiev Hertlein, Cobet : ware . . . 77oAe- 
fiTJaoifiev 0. 

34 



BOOK III. 9, 2-4 

the first to begin the war, but had merely defended 
ourselves against those who had begun it. But 
once you are ready to lay down your arms, we will 
gladly receive your proposal, and will not scrutinize 
too closely the terms of the reconciliation, but 
will accept those that are the best and the most 
magnanimous, forgiving every injury and offence 
we have received from the city of Alba — if, indeed, 
those deserve to be called public offences of the 
city for which your general Cluilius was responsible, 
and he has paid no mean penalty to the gods for 
the wrongs he did us both. Let every occasion, 
therefore, for complaint, whether private or 
public, be reraoved and let no memory of past 
injuries any longer remain — even as you also, 
Fufetius, think fitting. Yet it is not enough for 
us to consider merely how we may compose our 
present enmity toward one another, but we must 
further take measures to prevent our ever going to 
war again ; for the purpose of our present meeting 
is not to obtain a postponement but rather an end 
of our evils. What settlement of the war, there- 
fore, will be enduring and what contribution must 
each of us make toward the situation, in order 
that we may be friends both now and for all 
time ? This, Fufetius, you have omitted to tell 
us ; but I shall endeavour to go on and supply 
this omission also. If, on the one hand, the 
Albans would cease to envy the Romans the 
advantages they possess, advantages which were 
acquired not without great perils and many 
hardships (in any case you have suffered no injury 
at our hands, great or slight, but you hate us for 
this reason alone, that we seem to be better off 

35 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

reiv), TTavaaivTO Se 'Po^jitatoi 8i' viroifjlas exovres 
*AXpavovs a»? eTTL^ovXevovras «et a</>tcrt /cat 
^uAaTTo/xeroi KaQairep ix^povs- ov yap civ yevoiTO 

5 ^e^aLOS ^ (f>iXos rw aTTiarovvTi ^ ovheis. ttcos 
ovv yevqaerai rovrtov eKarepov; ovk eav ypa- 
ifjcop-ev avra iv rats op-oXoyiat? ovh eav opoacopev 
dp(f)6r€poi Kad^ leptbv [piKpal yap avTai ye ai 
(f)vXaKal /cat dadevels), dAA' eai^ kolvols rjyqaco- 
fieda Ttt? aXXi^Xajv rvxas- ev yap ian p.6vov, 
CO ^ov(f)eTrLe, Xvtttjs dvdpwTrlvrjs err aXXorpLois 
dyadots yLVop-ev-qg olkos, to juT^/ceVt rovs (f>dovovvras 
dXXorpia rd tcov (fiOovovpevcov dyadd -qyelaOai. 

6 Iva hrj rovTO yevrjrai, 'Pcopatovs fJiev olpai Seiv 
ei? TO KOLvov 'AAjSarot? Qelvai Trdvra oaa re vvv 
exovai /cat au^tj e^ovaiv dyadd, ^AX^avovs Se 
dyaTTTjTws Ta hihopeva Sex^crdai, Kal yeveadai 
paXiara pev ^ aTravra? vpdg, el he pi] ye, rovs 
TrXe LGTOV? re /cat dpiarovs vpwv rrjs 'Pa)paLa)v 
TToXecos OLK-qropas. ov yap hrj SajStvot? pev 
/cat TvpprjvoLs /caAcDs" e^X^^ e/cAtTTOucrt rag eavrdjv 
TToXeLs peraOeadat rovs ^iovs ws "qpas, vplv Se 
dpa rot? avyyeveardroLS ro avTO rovro yevo- 

7 pevov ovx c^et /caAoi?;^ el 8' ovk d^tojaere piav 
olKelv ttoXlv rrjv rjperepav peydXrjv re ovaav 
rjSr) /cat en /xdAAot' eaopev-qv, dXXd 0tAo;^cuprjaeT€ 
rot? narpipoLS €(f}earLOLS, eKelvo ye roi TTOfqaare- 
^ovXevT-qpiov ev diroSel^aTe, o rd avp-cpepovra 
VTtep eKarepas ^ovXevaec TToXeojs, Kal rrjv r^yepoviav 
diroSoTe /xta rfj KpeirrovL iroXei /cat irXeiova Svvap,evr] 

* jSe'jSoto? R : Pfpaiws B, Jacoby. 

* amaTovvTi Biieheler : fxiaoOvn 0, Jacoby. 
' u€v added by Meineke. 

* The mark of interrogation is due to Smit. 

36 



BOOK III. 9, 4-7 

than you) ; and if, on the other hand, the Romans 
would cease to suspect the Albans of always 
plotting against them and would cease to be on 
their guard against them as against enemies 
(for no one can be a firm friend to one who dis- 
trusts him). How, then, shall each of these 
results be brought about? Not by inserting 
them in the treaty, nor by our both swearing to 
them over the sacrificial victims — for these are 
small and weak assurances — but by looking upon 
each other's fortunes as common to us both. 
For there is only one cure, Fufetius, for the bitter- 
ness which men feel over the advantages of others, 
and that is for the envious no longer to regard the 
advantages of the envied as other than their own. 
In order to accomplish this, I think the Romans 
ought to place equally at the disposal of the Albans 
all the advantages they either now or shall here- 
after possess ; and that the Albans ought cheerfully 
to accept this offer and all of you, if possible, 
or at least the most and the best of you, be- 
come residents of Rome. Was it not, indeed, a 
fine thing for the Sabines and Tyrrhenians to 
leave their own cities and transfer their habita- 
tion to Rome ? And for you, who are our nearest 
kinsmen, will it not accordingly be a fine thing if 
this same step is taken ? If, however, you refuse 
to inhabit the same city with us, which is already 
large and will be larger, but are going to cling 
to your ancestral hearths, do this at least : appoint 
a single council to consider what shall be of advantage 
to each city, and give the supremacy to that one 
of the two cities which is the more powerful and 
is in a position to render the greater services 

37 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTOietv ayada Tqp rjrrova. eyco jU-ev Si] ravr 
d^tco Kal TOVTCOV yevojjidvcjDV t69' -qyoufiai ^e^aiovs ^ 
T^/Lta? 'iaeadai j)iXovs, Syo Se TroAei? OLKOvvras 
laoKopv<j)ovs, coaTjep vvv, ovScTTore oiiovo'qaeiv. ' 

X. Taur' aKovaas 6 ^ov<j>€mos ■)(^p6vov els 
^ovXrjv fir-qaaro, /cat jjueraaTas ck tov auAAoyou 
/xcTCt Tojv TTapovrojv ^PiX^avchv, el XPV Sex^adai 
ra? aipeaei's ecr/coTrei. cu? 8e to.? ctTrap'Taji' yvo)- 
[xas eXa^ev, eTnarpeifjas au^t? els rov crvXXoyov 
eXe^ev " 'H/xtr /ieV, c5 TuAAe, tt^i' [xev TTarplSa 
KaraXiTTelv ov So/cet ovS^ i^eprjpbovv tepa Trarpcpa 
Kal TTpoyovLKas earias /cat tottov ov iyyvg ircov 
TTevraKoaicov ot Trarepe? rjixaJv Karea-)(ov , /cat ravra 
fjL-rj TToXejjLov KareLXrjijyoTOS rjiJids /'"^S' (xAAtj? 
deoTTe/JLTTTOv crvficfyopas jur^Se/xtas"* ei' Se /caraari^- 
aaaOat ^ovXevr-qpLOV /cat jittav eij^at ti^j^ ap^ovaav 
TTJs irepas ttoXlv ovk o-TrapeaKeL. ypa.(j>eadoi 
8rj /cat TOVTO to piipos iv rats' crvvd'qKaig, el 8o/cet, 
/cat TToLaa avaipeiado} 7ToXep.ov irpoc^aaLs" 

'Q? 8e avve^rjaav eirl tovtois, rrepl TTJg ixeXXovarjs 
Trjv rjyejxovLav TrapaXiji/jecrdaL ttoXccos SiecjiepovTO, 
/cat TToXXol eXexdrjoav els rovro XoyoL Trap* dp,(f)OTe- 
pcov, SiKaiovvTOS eKarepov rrjv avrov ttoXlv dpx^LV 
TT]s ere pas- 6 fiev ovv ^AX^avos rocavra TTpotax^ro 
St/cata* 

" 'H/uet?, c5 TvXXe, /cat rrjs fiev dXXrjs dp- 
X^i-v d^LOL eafxev ^IraXlas, on eOvos 'EAATyw- 
Kov /cat jxeyiarov rwv KaroiKovvrajv r'qvSe rrjv 

^ Steph. : j3e)Satws 0, Jacoby. 
38 



BOOK III. 9, 7-10, 3 

to the weaker. This is what I recommend, and 
if these proposals are carried out I believe that 
we shall then be lasting friends ; whereas, so 
long as we inhabit two cities of equal eminence, 
as at present, there never will be harmony be- 
tween us." 

X. Fufetius, hearing this, desired time for 
taking counsel ; and withdrawing from the 
assembly along with the Albans who were present, 
he consulted with them whether they should 
accept the proposals. Then, having taken the 
opinions of all, he returned to the assembly and 
spoke as follows: "We do not think it best, 
Tullus, to abandon our country or to desert the 
sanctuaries of our fathers, the hearths of our 
ancestors, and the place which our forbears have 
possessed for nearly five hundred years, particu- 
larly when we are not compelled to such a course 
either by war or by any other calamity inflicted 
by the hand of Heaven. But we are not opposed 
to establishing a single council and letting one of 
the two cities rule over the other. Let this article, 
then, also be inserted in the treaty, if agreeable, 
and let every excuse for war be removed." 

These conditions having been agreed upon, 
they fell to disputing which of the two cities 
should be given the supremacy and many words 
were spoken by both of them upon this subject, 
each contending that his own city should rule over 
the other. The claims advanced by the Alban 
leader were as follows : 

" As for us, Tullus, we deserve to rule over 
even all the rest of Italy, inasmuch as we repre- 
sent a Greek nation and the greatest nation 

39 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yfjv idvcbv TTapexofieda,^ tov Se Aarivajv eOvovs, 
el Kal jLtT^Sews" rcov dXXcov,^ -qyeXadai SiKaioy/xev 
ovK drep alrias, dAAa /cara rov kolvov dvOpcovcov 
vofjLov, ov ri (f)vaig cScoKev aTraat, rdjv cKyoviov 
dp-)(^eiv Tovs TTpoyovovg . VTrep aTrdaas §e rds dXXas 
aTTOLKias, at? P'^XP'' ''"^^ Trapovros ovSev eyKaXov- 
fJi€v, TTJg vp^erepas olop^eda Selv TToXeojs dpx^i-v ov 
TTpo TToXXov TTjv diTOiKiav et? avTTjv aTTearaXKores , 
oiore i^LrrjXov elvaL rjSrj to dcf)' rjp,iov yevos vtto 
Xpdvov TToXaicodiv, dAAa rrj rpirr) TTpo TavTT]s 
yevea. idv 8e dvaarpeifjaaa rds dvdpcoTTtvas 
hiKaLojaets rj (j>vais rd via rd^rj rcov Trpea^vrepcuv 
dpx^Lv Kal rd eKyova rcov rrpoyovajv. Tore /cat 
rjpels dve^op-eda Trjv p.rjTp6TroXLP vtto ttjs aTTOi/cta? 
dpxop^evTTjv, nporepov Se ov. ev p^ev Sr] tovto 
TO hiKaiaypa Trapexop^evoi Trjg dpx^js ovk dv 
dvocrTairjpev vpilv eKovres, erepov Se rotoi'Se — 
Se^aade Se avro p,r) a»S" eVt SLa^oXfj Kal ovetSicr/uai 
TO) vp,€T€pa) Xeyopevov, dXXd tov dvayKalov 
eveKa — otl to p.€v AApavojv yevos olov rjv <Tn 

TCX)V KTLCrdvTiOV TTjV TToXiV, TOIOVTOV €60? TU)V KaO' 

rjp-ds XP^^^^ Sta/xeVet, Kal ovk dv exoi tls eTrtSei^ai 
(f)vXov dvdpwTTCov ouSev' e^co tov KXXrjvtKOV re 
Kat TOV AarLvcov, ch rrj^ voXiTeias p.eTa8e8a)Kap,ev 
vp,els Se rrfv dKpt^eiav tov Trap eavTols TToXtTCV- 
jxaTOS 8L€(f)ddpKar€ Tvpprjvovs re UTroSe^d/Ltei'ot 
Kal Ha^Lvovs Kal ctAAoy? TLvds dveoTiovs Kal 
rrXdvrjTas Kal ^ ^ap^dpovs rrdvv ttoXXovs, tScrre 
dAtyot" TO yv^aiov vp,djv ioTtv daov d(^' r)p,u)v 



*■ Sintenis : itapexoixevoi O. 

^ idv&v after aXXiov deleted by Reudler. 



40 



BOOK III. 10, 3-4 

of all that inhabit this country. But to the 
sovereignty of the Latin nation, even if of no 
other, we think ourselves entitled, not without 
reason, but in accordance with the universal 
law which Nature bestowed upon all men, that 
ancestors should rule their posterity. And above 
all our other colonies, against whom we have 
thus far no reason to complain, we think we ought 
to rule your city, having sent our colony thither 
not so long ago that the stock sprung from us is 
already extinct, exhausted by the lapse of time, 
but only the third generation before the present. 
If, indeed. Nature, inverting human rights, shall 
ever command the young to rule over the old and 
posterity over their progenitors, then we shall sub- 
mit to seeing the mother-city ruled by its colony, 
but not before. This, then, is one argument we 
offer in support of our claim, in virtue of which we 
will never willingly yield the command to you. 
Another argument — and do not take this as said 
by way of censure or reproach of you Romans, 
but only from necessity — is the fact that the 
Alban race has to this day continued the same 
that it was under the founders of the city, and 
one cannot point to any race of mankind, except 
the Greeks and Latins, to whom we have granted 
citizenship ; whereas you have corrupted the 
purity of your body politic by admitting Tyr- 
rhenians, Sabines, and some others who were 
homeless, vagabonds and barbarians, and that 
in great numbers too, so that the true-born 
element among you that went out from our midst 

^ Kol added by Kiessling. 

41 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(opjjLrjdr], ^aAAov Se iroXXoarov tov eireiadKrov t€ 

5 Kal dXXo(f)vXov . el Be r^fxeZs 7Tapa^a)pr]aaiiJiev 
VfJiiv rrjs dpxyjs, to vodov dp^ei tov yvrjalov Kal 
TO ^dp^apov TOV 'EAAtjvi/cou Kal to CTre laaKTOv 
TOV avdiyevovs. ouSe yap dv tovto exoiTe 
elireZv, otl tov p,ev eTTrjXvv 6\Xov ovhevos etctKare 
etvai Tcbv Koivcov Kvpiov, dp)(eTe S avTol ttj? 
TToXecos Kai ^ovXeveTe ot avdiyevels' dXXd /cat 
^aaiXels dTToheiKVVTe ^evovs, Kal Tr]s ^ovXrjg 
TO TrXeTaTov vpuv eoTiv e/c tcjv eTrrjXvScov, (hv 
ovhev dv (firjaaiTe eKovTes VTrofJueveiv. ti? ydp 
CKovaicos dpx^TaL KpeiTTOJV wv ^ vrro tov ■)(^eipovo£; 
TToXXrj Brj p^ojpia /cat /ca/coTTys', a 8i' dvdyKrjv 
^ai'r]T dv u/zet? vTTopieveiv, rayra rjpids eKovTas 

6 Bex^ardaL. TeXevTalos fMoi Xoyog eoTiv, otl ttjs 
^AX^avdJv TToXeojs ovOev en TrapaKcvel pcepos tov 
TToXiTevp^aTos OKTOJKaiBeKaT'qv TJBrj yevedv oIkov- 
IxevTjs Kal TrdvTa ev Koapujp Ta crvvrjdrj Kal rrdTpia 
emTeXovarjs, rj 8' v/xeTepa ttoXls aSta/cda/i.7^Tos" 
eoTLv eTL Kal dSiaTa/cros", are veoKTiCTOs ovaa Kal 
e/c TToAAtDv' avp,(f)opr]T6s edvcbv, fj puaKpcov Set 
Xpovojv /cat TTadrjjjidTCov TravToBaTTcbv it'a KaT- 
apTvOfj ^ Kal TTavarjTai TapaTTOfievq Kal aTacnd- 
t,ovaa oiorrep vvv. dnavTes 8' dv elTTOiev otl 
Bel TO. KadeoT'qKOTa tcov TapaTTOfxevojv Kal Ta 
TTeTTeLpajxeva tcov aBoKipidaTwv /cat ra vyiai- 
vovTa TCOV voaovvTwv dpxeLV ols vfxels Tdvamia 
d^iovvTes ovK opddJs TTOieiTe" 

^ KpetTTwv wv Cobot : tu>v Kpa-rrovcov 0, Jacoby. 
* Karaprvdrj A : KaTapTiadfj B, Jacoby. 



42 



BOOK III. 10, 4-6 

is become small, or rather a tiny fraction, in com- 
parison with those who have been brought in 
and are of alien race. And if we should yield 
the command to you, the base-born will rule over 
the true-born, barbarians over Greeks, and immi- 
grants over the native-born. For you cannot even 
say this much for yourselves, that you have not 
permitted this immigrant mob to gain any control 
of public affairs but that you native-born citizens 
are yourselves the rulers and councillors of the 
commonwealth. Why, even for your kings you 
choose outsiders, and the greatest part of your 
senate consists of the newcomers ; and to none 
of these conditions can you assert that you submit 
willingly. For what man of superior rank willingly 
allows himself to be ruled by an inferior .'' It 
would be great folly and baseness, therefore, on 
our part to accept willingly those evils which you 
must own you submit to through necessity. 
My last argument is this : The city of Alba has 
so far made no alteration in any part of its con- 
stitution, though it is already the eighteenth 
generation that it has been inhabited, but con- 
tinues to observe in due form all its customs and 
traditions ; whereas your city is still without order 
and discipline, due to its being newly founded 
and a conglomeration of many races, and it will 
require long ages and manifold turns of fortune 
in order to be regulated and freed from those 
troubles and dissensions with which it is now agi- 
tated. But all will agree that order ought to rule 
over confusion, experience over inexperience, and 
health over sickness ; and you do wrong in 
demanding the reverse." 

43 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XI. Toiavra rov ^ov(f>€Triov Xe^avros irapa- 
Xa^cjv 6 TuAAo? rov Xoyov eiTre* 

" To [xev CK (f)V(T€cos Kal TTpoyovcov dperrjs SiKaiov, 
cuOou^eTTie /cat vfxels dvSpes* AX^avoL, kolvov dp,^o- 
Tepois rjixlv rovs avrovs yap evxop'^da ^ rrpoyovovs 
CKOLTepot, ware ovSev Set rovrov X^P''^ ovre rrXeov 
■fjixcjjv e;^etv rovs irepovs oiir eXarrov. to Se 
dpx^i'V e/c TTavTos tcov olttoiklcov rds firjrpoTroXe is 
COS dvayKOLOv ri <l>vaeoiS vofJiifiov ovre aXrjdes 

2 ovT€ SiKaiov rj^iovTO V(f)* v/xcov TToXXa ye roi 
(f)vXd iariv dvdpcoTTCOv, Trap' ols at ixrjrpoTToXeis 
ovK dpxovaiv aAA' VTTordrrovTai rals dTToiKtais. 
jxeyLorov 8e /cat (f)av€pa>Tarov rov Xoyov rovSe 
7rapa8ety/xa r) TiTTapriaraJv ttoXcs, ov ra>v dXXiov 
[jiovov dpx^tv d^iovaa '^XX'qvcov, aXXd /cat tov 
AcopiKov yevovs odev dTTuyKiadrj. /cat rl Set Trept 
TCOV dXXojv Xeyeiv; avrol yap vfxeXs ot ttjv T^/xere'- 
pav TToXiv d7ToiKiaavT€s Aaov'CviaTCJV eare airoiKoi. 

3 et 817 <j)vae(x)s ecrrt vojjlos dpx^LV ttjs dTrot/cta? ttjv 
fjL-qrpoTToXLV, OVK dv <f>ddvOL€V a[X(f>OT€pois rjfJLlv 
AaovLViaTat ra Si/cata TaTTOVTes ,* Trpos l^ev Brj 
TO TTpcoTOv vybojv St/catcD/Lta Kat TrXeicrnqv ^xov 
evTTpoaiOTTLav ravd* iKavd- eVetSi^ 8e Kat Toys' 
jSt'ous' TcDv TToXeojv dvTLTTape^€Tdt,eiv dXXr^Xois 
eVep^etpet?,^ c5 (t>ov(f)erTLe, Xeycov on to p,kv 
^AX^avdJv €vyev€s ofioiov del Sta/xeVei, to 8 
rjpLeTepov 8ce(f>dapTaL ^ Tats eVt/it^tat? rov oAAo- 
ff)vXoVj Kal OVK 7]^iovs dpx^tv rcov yvrjaicov rovs 

^ fvxdneda : napexofieda Kiessling, evp6ii€da Sintenis. 
44 



BOOK III. 11, 1-3 

XI. After Fufetius had thus spoken, Tullus 
answered and said : 

" The right which is derived from Nature and 
the virtue of one's ancestors, Fufetius and ye men 
of All»a, is common to us both ; for we both boast 
the same ancestors, so that on this score neither 
of us ought to have any advantage or suffer any 
disadvantage. But as to your claim that by a 
kind of necessary law of Nature mother-cities 
should invariably rule over their colonies, it is 
neither true nor just. Indeed, there are many 
races of mankind among which the mother-cities 
do not rule over their colonies but are subject to 
them. The greatest and the most conspicuous 
instance of this is the Spartan state, which 
claims the right not only to rule over the other 
Greeks but even over the Doric nation, of which 
she is a colony. But why should I mention the 
others ? For you who colonized our city are 
yourselves a colony of the Lavinians. If, there- 
fore, it is a law of Nature that the mother-city 
should rule over its colony, would not the 
Lavinians be the first to issue their just orders 
to both of us.? To your first claim, then, and 
the one which carries with it the most specious 
appearance, this is a sufficient answer. But since 
you also undertook to compare the ways of life of 
the two cities, Fufetius, asserting that the nobiHty 
of the Albans has always remained the same 
while ours has been « corrupted ' by the various 
admixtures of foreigners, and demanded that the 
base-born should not rule over the well-born nor 

^ eVejfeipeis B : enixei-pe'ts R- 
* Co bet : i^i^daprai 0, Jacoby. 

^5 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

vodovs ovSe rit)v avdiyevcov rovs eTT'qXvSas, fxdde 
/cat Kara tovto ayLapravajv ixdXtara to St/catco/xa. 

4 Tjixets yap Toaovrov heofxev atap^wea^at Kotvrjv 
dvaSet^avres ttjv ttoXiv toZs ^ovXopbivoLS, cocrre Kol 
a€fxvvv6[JLeda em tovtco jaaAio-ra tm ^pyco, ovk 
avrol rov l,rjXov rovSe dp^avres, irapd Se rrj? 
^ Adr]vaia>v TroAeo)? to TrapaSeiy/xa Xa^ovTes, '^S 
fxeyiCTTOV kXcos iv "EAArjatV ecrri, Kal Sio, tovto 
ov)( rjKLaTa et pLf] Kai /zaAicrra to TToXtTevixa. 

5 Kal TO TTpdyjjia t^/xiv ttoXXcov yevopievov dyadcbv 
aiTLOv OUT e7njLte/ii/»iv ovt€ pLeTap-eXeiav cos i^/xaprTy- 
KoaL (f)€p€i, dpx^L T€ Kal ^ovXevei /cat Ta? aAAas" 
Tt/za? KapTTovTaL Trap rjpilv ov)( 6 TToXXd ^(^prjpLaTa 
KeKTTjiJLevos ovSe 6 ttoXXovs Trarepa? i7n)(0}piovs 
imSei^ai Svvdjjievos, dXX ootis dv fj tovtcov tu)v 
Tipwv a^tos". ov yap iv dXXco tivl ttjv dvdpto- 
7Tiv7]v evyeveiav vTrdp^eiv i^o/xi^Ojitei', aAA' iv dpeTjj. 
6 8e aAAo? oxXos ad>p,a ttjs TToXecos eaTLv la)^vv 
Kal Swa/xtv rots ^ovXevOeiaiv vvo tcov KpaTLaTcov 
■napexdfJLevos. p,eydXrj re rjfxojv rj ttoXls e/c p.iKpds 
Kal (f)o^epa tols Treptot/cots" e^ €VKaTa(f)povr]TOV 8ta 
TavTTjv TTjv (j)LXavd poiTTiav yeyove, ttjs re r^yepcovLas, 
"^S ^ TCOV dXXuiv Aarti'CDi' ouSet? ai^TtTrotetrat Trpos 
rjpids, TOVTO 'PcDjU.atotS' to TToXiTevpia "^pi^v ov 

6 ai) KaTTjyopeLS ,^ c5 ^ov(f)€TTL€. iv ta)(VL yap 
ottXcov /cetrat to twv iToXeojv KpdTOS, avrr] S 
e/c TToXXcbv acopidTOJv yiveTai' rat? 8e puKpats Kai 
6Xiyavdpa>7TOis Kal 8ta tovto dardeviaiv ovk eoTiv 

^ ^S Cobet : iirep ^s O, Jacoby. 
^ Biicheler : Karqyoptis 0. 

46 



BOOK III. 11, 3-6 

newcomers over the native-born, know, then, that 
in making this claim, too, you are greatly mistaken. 
For we are so far from being ashamed of having 
made the privileges of our city free to all who 
desired them that we even take the greatest 
pride in this course ; moreover, we are not the 
originators of this admirable practice, but took 
the example from the city of Athens, which enjoys 
the greatest reputation among the Greeks, due 
in no small measure, if indeed not chiefly, to this 
very policy. And this principle, which has been 
to us the source of many advantages, affords us 
no ground either for complaint or regret, as if 
we had committed some error. Our chief magis- 
tracies and membership in the senate are held and 
the other honours among us are enjoyed, not by 
men possessed of great fortunes, nor by those who 
can show a long line of ancestors all natives of 
the country, but by such as are worthy of these 
honours ; for we look upon the nobility of men as 
consisting in nothing else than in virtue. The 
rest of the populace are the body of the common- 
wealth, contributing strength and power to the 
decisions of the best men. It is owing to this 
humane policy that our city, from a small and 
contemptible beginning, is become large and for- 
midable to its neighbours, and it is this policy 
which you condemn, Fufetius, that has laid for 
the Romans the foundation of that supremacy 
which none of the other Latins disputes with us. 
For the power of states consists in the force of 
arms, and this in turn depends upon a multitude 
of citizens ; whereas, for small states that are 
sparsely populated and for that reason weak it 

47 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

7 apx^iv iripoiv, dAA' ot5S' lavratv apxecv. Ka96- 
Xov 8' eycoye rod' VTroXafi^dvco SeXv to.? ereptov 
hiaavpeiv TToXirelas Kai rrjv iSt'av eTraivelv, orav 
TLs €XJ) Set^at TTjv pikv eavrov ttoXlv ck rov ravra 
€7nr7]Sev€LV a (firjaiv eySai/xora Kal jJLeydXrjv oSaav, 
rds Se StajSaAAo/xeVa? 8ia to fxr] ravra irpoaipeZadat. 
KaKohaijxovovaas • ra 8' rjixeTepa Trpay^ara ov^ 
ovTOJS e;^ei, dAA' rj fxev vfxerepa ttoXls drro p,€tt,ovos 
avxT^fJ-CLTOs dpxofJLevq /cat vXeiovcov d(f>opiJia>v rv^pvcra 
els iXdrrova oyKov ^ avvrJKraL, rjixels 8e yuKpas 
rds TTpcoras dpxds Xa^ovres iv ov ttoXXco xpova> 
fieyLarrjv rcbv TrXrjcnoxcopcov ttoXccov ttjv Pcofxrjv 
TTeTTOL-qKafxev rovrois tols TToXLT€vp.aavu u>v ai) 

8 Karrjyopeis ^ ;^/366)uevoi. ro he araaidlov rjjjicov, 
€7761 Kal rovro Sl* alrias ei;^^?, <L Oou^erTie, 
ovK eVt hia(f}dopa Kal iXarrcoaet rdv koivcov, oAA' 
em aoirripia Kal au^-Tjaei ytVcrai. ^iXoTipLOvpLeda 
yap ol vecorepoi, irpos rovs Trpea^vrepovs Kai ot, 
eTTOLKOL Ttpos Tovs eTTLKaXeoap-lvovs , TTorepoL TrAetova 

9 TTOL-qcrofiev to kolvov dyadd. tva 8e crvvTep.a)v 
€1770), tols {jlcXXovolv €T€po)v dp^€LV hvo TTpooelvai 
Set TavTa, ttjv iv to) TToXepbelv laxyv Kal ttjv iv 
Tip ^ovXeveadat (f)p6vr]aiv, a nepl rjixds eoTiv 
dfx<f)6T€pa' Kal on ov kcvos 6 KOfXTTOS rj rravTOS 
Xoyov KpeiTTcov irelpa rjpXv piapTvpel. ToaavTr^v 
yovv fxeyedet Kal Svvdfxec ttoXiv ov^ olov re 7]v 
yeviadai Tpirr) yevea fXCTa tov oiKiapiov, cl {xtj 
TO T€ dvSpelov eTrepiTTevev avTJj /cat to <f)povifxov. 
iKaual 8e TeKfxrjpLcbaai, to Kpdros avTrjs TToXXai 
TToXeis c'k tov AaTLvojv ovaat yevovs Kal ttjp' 
KTicnv d(f)^ vpujjv exovaai, at ttjv vfxeTcpav 

* oyKov Reiske : oIkov 0. * Biicheler : Kartfyopiis 0. 

48 



BOOK III. 11, 6-9 

is not possible to rule others, nay, even to rule 
themselves. On the whole, I am of the opinion 
that a man should only then disparage the govern- 
ment of other states and extol his ov^^n when he 
can show that his own, by following the principles 
he lays down, is grown flourishing and great, and 
that the states he censures, by not adopting them, 
are in an unhappy plight. But this is not our 
situation. On the contrary, your city, beginning 
with greater brilliance and enjoying greater 
resources than ours, has shrunk to lesser impor- 
tance, while we, from small beginnings at first, 
have in a short time made Rome greater than all 
the neighbouring cities by following the very 
policies you condemned. And as for our factional 
strife — since this also, Fufetius, met with your 
censure — it tends, not to destroy and diminish 
the commonwealth, but to preserve and enhance it. 
For there is emulation between our youths and 
our older men and between the newcomers and 
those who invited them in, to see which of us 
shall do more for the common welfare. In short, 
those who are going to rule others ought to be 
endowed with these two qualities, strength in 
war and prudence in counsel, both of which are 
present in our case. And that this is no empty 
boast, experience, more powerful than any 
argument, bears us witness. It is certain in any 
case that the city could not have attained to such 
greatness and power in the third generation after 
its founding, had not both valour and prudence 
abounded in it. Sufficient proof of its strength is 
afforded by the behaviour of many cities of the 
Latin race which owe their founding to you, but 

49 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

VTrepiBovaai ttoXlv rjiJilv TrpoaKexoiprjKaai koX vtto 
'PcojjiaLcov dp)(€(7dat fxdXXov a^iovaiv ■^ vn 'AAjSa- 
va)Vy COS" rjixcov piev dp,(f)6r€pa tKavcbv ovtcov tovs 

T€ (^lAoU? 6U 7TOL€iV Kal TOVS e^QpOVS KaKOJS, 

10 vpLcbv 8 ovSerepa. ttoXXo, el^ov en Kal laxopd., 
c5 ^ov<j>eTTL€, irpos Tag St/catctjcret?, aj cru Tiap- 
eaxov, Xeyeiv fxdraLov 8e opdJv tov Xoyov Kal 
iv La(x) rd ttoAAo, rot? oXiyots ^ Xexd'Tjcropieva ^ 
irpos dvrnrdXovs ovras vpids rov SiKatov ^ Kpirds 
TTavojjLai XeycDV. eva Be vnoXapi^dvcov ^ Kpdri- 
OTOV elvat Kal piovov -qpicbv rd veiKf] SvvaaOaL 
SiaKpivai rpoTTov, w ttoXXoI ^dp^apol re Kal 
"KXXr]V€5 els €)(d7] Karaaravres ol p-kv VTvep 7]yep,o- 
rta?, ol 8e v-nep dp,(f)L(T^7jr7]aLpiov yijs ixprjaavro, 

11 TovTov eiTTCDv eTL TTavaopbai' el iroiiqaaipLeda pepei 
TLVL rrjs eavTcbv OTparids eKarepoi rov dyojva els 
oXiyoarov ^ rt, TrXrjdos dvSpcov avvayayovres rrjv 
rov TToXepiov rvx^jv e^ OTTorepas 8* dv TToXecos ol 
Kparrjaavres rojv dvrLTrdXiDv yevcovrat, ravrrj 
avyx<opijaaLpLev dpxeiv rrjs ere pas. oTToaa yap 
pL7] hLaipelrai vtto Xoyov, ravra vtto rd>v ottXcjv 
KpLverai." 

XII. Td pLev Srj Xexdevra ire pi rrjs rjyepiovias 
rcbv TToXecov StKaLcopiara vtt' dp,<^orepoiv rd)v 
arparrjycbv roidhe rjv reXos 8e rot? Xoyois avrd}V 
rjKoXovdr](jev olov 6 'Pcopiaios vrreridero. ol 
ydp ev TO) avXXoycp rrapovres ^AX^avdJv re Kal 

^ Tols oXiyois Steph.^ : rolg (jols Xoyois 0. 
* Xexdriaofxeva Reiske : iXfy^O-qaoixeva AB. 
^ rov SiKalov B : roiis SiKoious i^ ; Kal ov SiKalovs Sylburg, 
ov TOV biKaiov Kiessling. 

50 



BOOK III. 11, 9-12, 1 :■' 

which, nevertheless, scorning your city, have 
come over to us, choosing rather to be ruled by 
the Romans than by the Albans, because they look 
upon us as capable of doing both good to our 
friends and harm to our enemies, and upon you 
as capable of neither. I had many other argu- 
ments, and valid ones, Fufetius, to advance 
against the claims w^hich you have presented; 
but as I see that argument is futile and that the 
result vi^ill be the same whether I say much or 
little to you, who, though our adversaries, are at 
the same time the arbiters of justice,, I will make 
an end of speaking. However, since I conceive 
that there is biit one way of deciding our differences 
which is the best and has been made use of by 
many, both barbarians and Greeks, when hatred 
has arisen between them either over the supremacy 
or over some territory in dispute, I shall propose 
this and then conclude. Let each of us fight the 
battle with some part of our forces and limit 
the fortune of war to a very small number of com- 
batants ; and let us give to that city whose 
champions shall overcpme their adversaries the 
supremacy over the other. For such contests 
as cannot be determined by arguments are 
decided by arms." 

XII. These were the reasons urged by the 
two generals to support the pretensions of their 
respective cities to the supremacy ; and the out- 
come of the discussion was the adoption of the 
plan Tullus proposed. For both the Albans and 

* ei'a Se vTToXa/tpdvwv Cobet : iva 8e viroXafi^dvco 0, ov 8< 
vTToXafipdvw Biicheler. 

' oXiyoaTov B : oXiyiarov R. 

51 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Pco/z-atajt' rax^lav OLTraWayqv rov TToXeyiov ttoit^- 
aacrdai !^r]TovvTes ottXols to velKos eyvojaav 
hieXelv. avyxcoprjdevTog Be /cat rovrov Trepi 
Tov TrX-qdovg rcbv dycoviovfjievcov ^'^T7]cns iyivero, 
ov T7]V avTiqv CKarepov tcov arpaTTjycov BtdvoLav 

2 dTToBeLKVvp.evov. TwAAo? p-ev yap i^ovXero iv^ 
iXaxi-crois ac6p.aai yeveadai rrjv tov TToXepov Kpiaiv, 
€v6s AX^avov TOV XajXTrpoToiTOV Trpos eVa 'Pcop^dlov 
TOV dpiGTOv ^.iovop,a-)(riaovTOS , Kal 7Tp6dvp,o<; "^v 
avTos vrrkp r-i^s" eavTov TrarptSo? dycovLuaadai rrpo- 
KaXov[X€VOS ets" Trjv opioiav ^tAoTt/xtW tov ^AX^avov, 
KaXovs a.rro(l>aivoiv tols dveLXrjcf)6at Tag tojv 
GTpaTOTTehcov r)yep,ovLas tovs inrep dpxyjs Kal 
hwaoTeias dyiJovas, ov p,6vov idv VLKt^oojcriv 
ayadovs dvSpas, dXXd kolv avTol KpaTTjOcdaiv vtt* 
dyadcov, Kal Sie^icbv oaoi crTpaTrjyol Kal ^acnXeis 
TO,? eavTwv i/jv^ds TrpoKLvhwevaat tcov kolvwv 
TTapiaxpv heivov rjyovp,€VOi, tojv pikv Tip-cov TrXiov 

3 avTOL ^epeadai, tojv Se TTovoiv ^ eXaTTOV. 6 
Se AX^avog to pikv oXiyois acvpacn KivSweveiv 
Tag TToAet? opdcog €v6p,il^ev elprja-daL, Ttepl 8e ttjs 
evt TTpos eva p-d^T^s hie^ipeTO, Xeyojv otl tols 
pikv ■qyovp.ivoLs tcov OTpaToneScov OTav 18 Lav 
KaTaoKevdl^ojVTaL hvvaoTeiav KaXos Kal dvayKolos 
CGTLv ^ 6 TTepl TTJs dp^^js 77/30? aAAT^Aou? dycov, 
Tals 8k TToXecTLV avTOLS eTTeiBdv vrrkp tojv irpojTeiojv 
OLa<j>€pojVTaL Trpos dAAr^Aa? ov p,6vov acfjaXepos 
aXXd Kal alaxpos 6 Sio. p,ovop.ax^o.9 klv8vvos, 
eav re Trjs KpeLTTovos Xd^covTai tvx'^]? ^dv re t^js 

4 ;^€i/3ot'OS'. Tpelg 8k dv8pas cTTiXeKTOvs dtjj' e/care- 

^ ev B : om. R. 

* ■n6v<x}v Reiske : iroXefj-wv 0. 

52 



BOOK III. 12, 1-4 

Romans who were present at the conference, in 
their desire to put a speedy end to the war, 
resolved to decide the controversy by arms. 
This also being agreed to, the question arose 
concerning the number of the combatants, since 
the two generals were not of the same mind. For 
Tullus desired that the fate of the war might be 
decided by the smallest possible number of com- 
batants, the most distinguished man among the 
Albans fighting the bravest of the Romans in 
single combat, and he cheerfully offered himself 
to fight for his own country, inviting the Alban 
leader to emulate him. He pointed out that for 
those who have assumed the command of armies 
combats for sovereignty and power are glorious, not 
only when they conquer brave men, but also when 
they are conquered by the brave ; and he enumer- 
ated all the generals and kings who had risked 
their lives for their country, regarding it as a 
reproach to them to have a greater share of the 
honours than others but a smaller share of the dan- 
gers. The Alban, however, while approving of the 
proposal to commit the fate of the cities to a few 
champions, would not agree to decide it by single 
combat. He owned that when commanders of 
armies were seeking to establish their own power a 
combat between them for the supremacy was noble 
and necessary, but when states themselves were 
contending for the first place he thought the risk 
of single combat not only hazardous but even 
dishonourable, whether they met with good or ill 
fortune. And he proposed that three chosen men 

* ioTiv B : earat R. 

53 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

pas TToXews avve^ovXevev vtto ttjv aTravrajv oifjLV 
AX^avcov T€ /cat 'PcDfjcaLcov hiaycoviaaadai . eTTtrr]- 
Seiorarov yap elvai rovSe rov dpidfxov els ajraaav 
ap.(f)La^r]TOVfJievov Trpdyixaros Siaipccnv dp-)(rjv re 
/cat /xecra /cat reXevT7]v e)(ovTa iv eaurtp. ravrr) 
Trpoadepbdvcov rfj yvcofxr] 'Va>p.aicov re /cat ^KX^avatv 
6 re avXXoyos SteXvOr] /cat ctti tows' Ihiovs OLTrrjeaav 
eKarepoi x^-paKas. 

XIII . "ETTeira KaXeaavres els eKKXrjalav rds 
Svvdp^eis dpc/)orepas ol arparrjyol Sie^rjXdov d 
re SieXexO'Tjcrav • avrol rrpos dXX'qXovs /cat icf)' ols 
avvedevro KaraXvaaadai rov iroXepov. ernKvpu)- 
advrciiv he rcov arparevp^drcov dp(f>orepojv Kara 
TToXXrjV evSoK-qaiv rds rcov crrparrjycov opoXoyias , 
davpaarr) perd rovro KareZ^^ ^iXoripla /cat 
Xoxayovs /cat arparicoras ttoXXcov irdw rrpodvpov- 
pevcov e^eveyKaadai rd rrjs pd^rjs dpiareZa /cat 
ov Xoyo) a7rov8al,6vra)V povov, dXXd /cat epycp 
<f)iXorLpLas drroSeLKVvp.evcov , ware xo-XeTrrjv yeveadai 
roLS rjyepioaLV avrdJv rr]V ra>v eTTLrrjSeiordrcov 8ta- 

2 yvojcnv. et yap ns rjv 7] Trarepojv eTTi^aveia Xap- 
rrpos Tj acoparos p^^pj) StaTrpeTr?)? t] rrpd^et rfj Kard 
p^etpa yevvalos r] /car aXXirfv rivd rvx'riv •^ roXpav 
eTTLarjpos eavrdv tj^lov rdrreiv TrpdJrov iv rols 

3 rptat. ravrrjv errt ttoXv x^^povaav iv dp^orepois 
rols arparevpaai rrjv (f)iXorLpLav 6 rcov 'AA^a- 
vcov erravae arparrjyos, ivQvprjdels on Oeia rt? 
TTpovoia iK TToXXov TTpoopcop-evT] rov peXXovra 
avp^rjaeadaL rals rroXeaiv dya)va rovs irpoKivhv- 
vevaovras virep avrojv KareaKevaae yeveadai 
OLKCDV re ovK dcjjavdjv /cat ra noXep-ta dyadovs 

54 



BOOK III. 12, 4-13, 3 '(^ 

from each city should fight in the presence of all 
the Albans and Romans, declaring that this was 
the most suitable number for deciding any matter 
in controversy, as containing in itself a beginning, 
a middle and an end. This proposal meeting 
with the approval of both Romans and Albans, the 
conference broke up and each side returned to its 
own camp. 

XIII. After 1 this the generals assembled their 
respective armies and gave them an account both 
of what they had said to each other and of the 
terms upon which they had agreed to put an end 
to the war. And both armies having with great 
approbation ratified the agreement entered into 
by their generals, there arose a wonderful emula- 
tion among the officers and soldiers alike, 
since a great many were eager to carry off the 
prize of valour in the combat and expressed their 
emulation not only by their words but also by their 
actions, so that their leaders found great difficulty 
in selecting the most suitable champions. For 
if anyone was renowned for his illustrious 
ancestry or remarkable for his strength of body, 
famous for some brave deed in action, or distin- 
guished by some other good fortune or bold achieve- 
ment, he insisted upon being chosen first among 
the three champions. This emulation, which was 
running to great lengths in both armies, was 
checked by the Alban general, who called to 
mind that some divine providence, long since fore- 
seeing this conflict between the two cities, had 
arranged that their future champions should be 
sprung of no obscure families and should be brave 

1 For chaps. 1^-20 cf. Livy i. 24 f. 

55 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

6(l>d'fjvai T€ KaXXlcTTovs /cat ov ^ yeveaecos o/xoia? 
TOts TToXXoXs [X€r€(,Xr]<f>6ras, dXXa OTraviov /cat 
4 davfxaarijs Std to TrapdSo^ov. 'Oparico yap tivl 
*P(x}[xaicx) /cat Kopiartoj ^ to yevog 'AAjSarai 
/caret. Tov auTov" ■x^povov iveyvrjcre dvyarepag 
SiSvfxovs St/ciVio? 'AX^avos. tovtols dpi(j}OTepoLS 
at yurat/cej iyKvpLOves ajxa yevopievai, ras" Trpcoro- 
TOKOvs €K(f)€povai, yovds dppeva Pp€(f)rj TpiSvfxa, 
/cat aura ot yeivdpievoi rrpos olcovov Xa^ovres 
dyadov /cat ttoXci /cat ot/coj to) a(j>erepo} rpd- 
<f)Ovat,v aTTavra /cat reAetouCTtv deos S' aurot?, 
woTTep /car' ap^d? €(f)rjv, StScoat /cdAAo? re /cat 
pcofj/qv /cat 817 /cat ^v)(T]s yewaLorrjra fjurjSevos 
Tcov dptara ttg^vkotcov ■)(eLpoaL yeviadat. rovrois 
eyvco rots dvhpdaiv 6 ^ov<j)imos iTTCTperreiv 
Tov VTTep TTJs rjyefiovlas dydjva /cat TrpoKoXead- 
fi€VO£ €LS Xoyovs TOV ^acfiXea tcov 'Pojixatiov Xeyei 
TTpos avTov 

XIV. " Qeos Tis €OLK€V, c5 TuAAe, TTpovoov- 

fieVOS TCOV TToXcCOV €KaT€paS €V oAAot? T€ TToXXols 

/cat S-q /cat /card TovSe tov dycova <f>av€pdv ttjv 
evvoLav TreTTOirjadai.^ to yap evpedrjvai tovs 
dyoovLovpievovs virkp navTcov yeVet re fJLrjSevos 
X^tpovas /cat Ta TToXepita dyadovs 6(f>drjvaL tc 
KaXXiaTOVs, rrpos 8e tovtois i$ €v6s Tre^y/cdras" 
TTaTpos /cat V7t6 p,ids yeyewqfjievovs ixrjTpSs, 
/cat TO davfxaaLcoTaTOV iv pna TrpoeXdovTas et? 

^ ov Bucheler : ovre 0. 

* Kop . aTLO) B (and so regularly) : Koparico R (regularly). 
Evidently B originally had Kopiarioi. The spelling Kopdrios, 
on the analogy of 'Opdnos, is much more apt to go back to a 
scribe than to Dionysius himself. 

56 



BOOK III. 13, a-14, 1 

in arms, most comely in appearance, and dis- 
tinguished from the generality of mankind by 
their birth, which should be unusual and wonder- 
ful because of its extraordinary nature. It seems 
that Sicinius, an Alban, had at one and the same 
time married his twin daughters to Horatius, a 
Roman, and to Curiatius,^ an Alban ; and the two 
wives came with child at the same time and each 
was brought to bed, at her first lying-in, of three 
male children. The parents, looking upon the 
event as a happy omen both to their cities and 
families, brought up all these children till they 
arrived at manhood. And Heaven, as I said in 
the beginning, gave them beauty and strength 
and nobility of mind, so that they were not 
inferior to any of those most highly endowed by 
Nature. It was to these men that Fufetius 
resolved to commit the combat for the supremacy ; 
and having invited the Roman king to a con- 
ference, he addressed him as follows : 

XIV. " Tullus, some god who keeps watch over 
both our cities would seem, just as upon many 
other occasions, so especially in what relates to 
this combat to have made his goodwill manifest. 
For that the champions who are to fight on behalf 
of all their people should be found inferior to 
none in birth, brave in arms, most comely in 
appearance, and that they should furthermore 
have been born of one father and mother, and, 
most wonderful of all, that they should have come 

^ On the spelling Curiatius see the critical note. 



^ veTToiijadai. : Troiijaai Schwartz. 

57 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(f)cos rjixepa,^ Trap" vfj.Lv /xev 'Opariovs, nap* rjfjuv 
8e Kopiartovs, davpLaarfj nvi /cat deia Travrd- 

2 TTaaiv €oiK€V evepyecria. rt ovv ov Bexop-eda 
TTjV ToaavTTjv Tov SaipLoviov TTpovoiav /cat irapa- 
Ka\ovp,€V im rov inrep rrjs rjyepLOvias dyoiva rovs 
rpLSv/jiovs d8eX(f)0vs e/carepot; rd re yap aAA', 
ocra ev toXs apLara p.ax'f^aop.evoLS ^ovXoip.ed* 
av ^ etvai, Kav tovtols eveari tols dvSpdai, /cat 
TO fxrj TTpoXiTreiv tovs TrapaaTnards ^ Kdp.vovras 
rovTOis p^aXXov VTidp^eL aSeA^ots' oucrt Trap' 
ovaTLvas dXXovs 'Pa)paLa)V re /cat 'AX^avcov, rj 
re (fnXoTip^ia rcbv dXXcov vecov -xP-XeTrr] Xvd-fjvai 
8t' irepov tlvos ovaa rpoiTOV raxelav efet Kpiaiv.* 

3 re/c/xatpo/xat ydp riva /cat Trap' vpZv epiv ^ ttoX- 
XoLS elvaL Tcov dvTnTOiovp,€va)V dperrjs, aiCTrep 
Kac Trap' AX^avols' ovs el SiSacr/cot/xer OTt 
^eia Tis" e(f)daKe tvxi) to.? di>dpa)T:ivas arrovhas 
avTTJs TTapaaxovcrrjg rovg ef taov rov vrrep rtov 
TToXewv dydjva tto 17)00 p.evovs , ov ;;^aAe7rct)s' ttci- 
aop.ev. ov ydp dperrj XeiTreadai So^ovol rdiv 
rpiSvfxcov aSeA^cDv, oAAa cfivoecDS evKXiqpia /cat 
rvxT^S laoppoTTOV Trpds rd dvriTraXov eTnrrjSeiorqri* 

XV. Toaavra rov ^ovcjjerriov Xe^avros /cat 
irdvrojv rrjv yvcop.rjv eiraiveaavrcov {ervxov 8e 

^ rifiepa R : yeveaei B, Jacoby. 
. •* av added by Meineke. 
J^.^ Kiessling : TrpoaoTnoTas O. 

* Kpiaiv : TTw Kpiaiv Grasberger, Jacoby. 

* epiv Capps, fpiv iv Sintenis, x**?'*" ^ Jacoby : txPV^ ^^*' 
AB. 

^ Literally, "equally inclined toward the adversary." 
Nature and Chance have specially favoured these six men 

5« 



BOOK III. 14, 1-15, 1 : 

into the world on the same day, the Horatii 
with you and the Curiatii with us, all this, I 
say, has every appearance of a remarkable 
instance of divine favour. Why, therefore, do 
we not accept this great providence of the god. 
and each of us invite the triplets on his side to, 
engage in the combat for the supremacy ? For 
not only all the other advantages which we could 
desire in the best-qualified champions are to be 
found in these men, but, as they are bx-others, 
they will be more unwilling than any others 
among either the Romans or the Albans to for- 
sake their companions when in distress ; and 
furthermore, the emulation of the other youths, 
which cannot easily be appeased in any other 
way, will be promptly settled. For I surmise 
that among you also, as well as among the Albans, 
there is a kind of strife among many of those 
who lay claim to bravery ; but if we inform them 
that some providential fortune has anticipated 
all human efforts and has itself furnished us with 
champions qualified to engage upon equal terms 
in the cause of the cities, we shall easily persuade 
them to desist. For they will then look upon 
themselves as inferior to the triplets, not in point 
of bravery, but only in respect of a special boon of 
Nature and of the favour of a Chance that is 
equally inclined toward both sides." ^ 

XV. After Fufetius had thus spoken and his 
proposal had been received with general appro-' 
bation (for the most important both of the Romans 

above all their fellows, but as between the Alban triplets and 
the Roman triplets the scales are evenly balanced. 

59 

VOL. II. C 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

*I*oifiaLO)V T€ /cat ^ PiX^ava>v ol KpariaroL Trapovres 
dfJL(f)OTepo is) jXLKpov eTTia-xoiv 6 TuAAo? Aeyei* 

" Ta pikv dXXa opdws iTnXeXoy lad ai /not SoKels, 
o) ^ov(f>€TTie' davfjiaarr] yap tls "f] ttjv oySeVore 
crvfJi^dGav 6p.oioyeveiav iv diJi(f>OT€pais rats TrdAe- 
aiv €7rt rrjs rjp,€T€pas yeveds e^eviyKaaa rv)(rj' 
ev 8' dyvoeiv eoiKag, o ttoXvv Trape^ei rots' veavL- 
CKOis oKvoVy edv a^idjp-ev avrovs dAAT^Aot? )(cop€iv 

2 Bid fjidx'rjS- rj yap 'Oparicov pnjrrjp tcov rjnere- 
pcjv aheX<j>ri Trjg Koptancov jxr^rpos eari rcbv 
^AX^avcov, /cat rddpaTrrai rd p,eipdKia iv tols 
dp.(f>07ep(x)v Tojv yvvaiKcbv koXttois d<J7rdt,ovTai 
r' dXXtjXovs Kai (jiiXovaiv ov)( rJTTOV i^ tovs 
iavTcbv 1 d8eA(/ious".^ opa Sr) purj ttot€ ovS* 
oaiov fj rovTois di'aStSopat rd orrXa /cat KaXeiv 
avTOVS €7ri tov /car' dXXijXa>v (j)6vov dveifjiovs /cat 
avvTp6(f>ovs dvras. ro ydp €[ji(f)vXiov dyos, idv 
dvayKaaddjcriv dAAi^Aoi'S' fJiiai(f)OV€iv, et? rjpids 
iXevaerai tovs dvayKa^ovras ." 

3 Acyet 77/30? avrov 6 ^ov<^errLOS' " OwS' ipik 
XeX-qdev, c5 TuAAe, to avyyeves rcov jxeipaKicov, oi)S' 
CO? dvayKaacov ^ avrovs rot? dveifjiois Std p-dx^S 
Xojpeiv €1 p,rj fiovXrjOeiev avroi tov dycova vrropieivai 
TrapeaKevaadpLrjV , dXX eTteihrj Td^ioTa iiri vovv rjXdi 
fjLoi ToSe TO ^ovXevp^a, tovs ^ AX^avovs KopiaTiovs 
fX€Ta7T€fnpdpL€vos avTOs ctt' epuavTOV hidireipav 
eXa^ov et ^ovXopevois avTois iaTiv 6 aydjv 
he^afxevcov S' avTwv tov Xoyov aTTiaTcp tivI 
Kal davfiaaTTj 7Tpo6vp.ia, t6t€ dvaKaXvTTTCiv eyvcov 
TO ^ovXevfia /cat (^ipeiv els p.€aov aoi re to 

^ TOVS iavTwv R : ttotc avrciv B ; oAAot tovs eavroiy Reiske, 
iToXXol TOVS eavTiHv Jacoby. 

6o 



BOOK III. 15, 1-3 

and Albans were present with the two leaders), 
Tullus, after a short pause, spoke as follows : 

" In other respects, Fufetius, you seem to me to 
have reasoned well ; for it must be some wonder- 
ful fortune that has produced in both our cities in 
our generation a similarity of birth never known 
before. But of one consideration you seem to be 
unaware — a matter which will cause great re- 
luctance in the youths if we ask them to fight with 
one another. For the mother of our Horatii is 
sister to the mother of the Alban Ciiriatii, and the 
young men have been brought up in the arms of 
both the women and cherish and love one another 
no less than their own brothers. Consider, there- 
fore, whether, as they are cousins and have been 
brought up together, it would not be impious in us 
to put arms in their hands and invite them to 
mutual slaughter. For the pollution of kindred 
blood, if they are compelled to stain their hands 
with one another's blood, will deservedly fall upon 
us who compel them." 

To this Fufetius answered : " Neither have 
I failed, Tullus, to note the kinship of the 
youths, nor did I propose to compel them to 
fight with their cousins unless they themselves 
were inclined to undertake the combat. But 
as soon as this plan came into my mind I sent for 
the Alban Curiatii and sounded them in private 
to learn whether they were willing to engage in 
the combat; and it was only after they had 
accepted the proposal with incredible and wonder- 
ful alacrity that I decided to disclose my plan and 
bring it forward for consideration. And I advise 

^ aSeA^ovs K : avtijiiovs B. " Stepb. : di/ayfca^cov AB. 

6i 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTO Tovro VTrorldeixai ttolclv KaXeaavri rovs 
Trap" vixlv rpLSvfJiovs Trelpav avroiv rrj? yvcofxr)? 
TTOLTjaaadai. iav fxev ovv €k6vt€S avveinSihcoaL 
KOLKelvot, TO. CTaj/xara TrpoKivSwevaai rrjg eavrcbv 
TTarpihos, hi)(ov rrjv -^dpiv, eav 8e dvaSucuvrai, 
fxrjSefJLLav avrols ^ Trpoa^epe avayKrjV. fiavrevo- 
fiaL Se /cat Trepl eKeivoiv ola koX rrepi rcbv r^p^ere- 
pcov, eiVep ovv ^ elaiv olovs aKovop^ev, oAtyot? ^ 
TOLS apiara 7T€(f>VK6aLV 6px>iOL koX to, 77oAe/Ltia 
ayadoi- kXcos' yap avrcov kol rrpos rip's.? iX-qXvOe 
r-fjg dperi]?. 

XVI. Aex^raL 8r) ^ rrjV Trapaiveaiv 6 TwAAo? 
KOL hex^p-^povs 7TOLT]crdpL€vos dvoxa-s, iv ah 
PovXevaeraC re /cat piadcDv rrjV Sidvoiav ra>v 
*OpaTi(x)v diroKpLveiTai, Traprjv els rrjv ttoXlv. 
rats S' i^rjs rjp.€paig ^ovXevcrdpLevos dp,a rot? 
dpiaTOLs, iTreiBr) rot? TjXeicrroLS eSo|-€ hex^crOai. 
ra? Tov ^ov(f)€rriov TrpoKX-qaeis, peraTrepiTTerai 
rovs Tpihvp,ovs d8eX(f>ovs /cat Aeyet Tipog avrovs' 

""ArSpeS 'O/DttTtOt, ^OV(f)€TTLOS 6 'AAjSaw? 

els Xoyovs avveXOdtv ^ ep,ol rrjv reXevraiav ein 
arparoTTeSov avvohov €<f)rj rovs TrpoKivhwevaovras 
VTTep cKarepas iroXecos rpels dvSpas dyadovs Kara 
deiav yeyevrjaOai Trpovoiav, oiv ovk dv €vpotp.€v 
iripovs ovre yevvaiorepovs ovre iTnrrjSeLorepovs, 
*AX^ava)v p,ev Kopiarlous, 'Pajp^aicDV Se vpds' 
TOVTo re Karap.add)v avros e^rjraKevai Ttpiorov 
el ^ovXopbevois e'irj rots dverptols vpMV iinSovvai 
rd (jiop-ara rfj TrarpiSi, puaOchv 8e avrovs ava- 
Sexop^evovs rov virep aTrdvrcjv aycova Kara 

^ avTols Sylburg : avros 0. 
* ctTTcp ovv Jacoby : etnep B, tl ovv R. 
62 



BOOK III. 15, 3-16, 2 

you to take the same course yourself — to send 
for the triplets on your side and sound out their 
disposition. And if they, too, agree of their own 
accord to risk their lives for their country, accept 
the favour; but if they hesitate, bring no com- 
pulsion to bear upon them. I predict, however, 
the same result with them as with our own youths 
— that is, if they are such men as we have been 
informed, like the few most highly endowed by 
Nature, and are brave in arms ; for the reputation 
of their valour has reached us also." 

XVI. TuUus, accordingly, approved of this ad- 
vice and made a truce for ten days, in order to 
have time to deliberate and give his answer after 
learning the disposition of the Horatii ; and there- 
upon he returned to the city. During the following 
days he consulted with the most important men, 
and when the greater part of them favoured ac- 
cepting the proposals of Fufetius, he sent for the 
three brothers and said to them : 

" Horatii, Fufetius the Alban informed me at a 
conference the last time we met at the camp that 
by divine providence three brave champions are 
at hand for each city, the noblest and most suit- 
able of any we could hope to find — the Curiatii 
among the Albans and you among the Romans. 
He added that upon learning of this he had him- 
self first inquired whether your cousins were wilhng 
to give their Uves to their country, and that, 
finding them very eager to undertake the combat 

^ oXiyois : ev oXiyois Reiske, Jacoby. 
* St] Kiessling : re 817 B, Se A. 
' avveXOwv B : iXdwv R. 

6j 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

7ToXXr]v TTpoQv}iiav dappcov els fieaov €K<f>€p€iv 
TJSr) Tov Xoyov, rj^tov re /cat e/x-e Trelpav vpiiov 
Xa^elv, TTorepov ^ovXiqaeade ^ TrpoKivSvvevaai ttjs 
TTarpiBos ofjLoae xcjp-r^aavres Kopiarioi? rj vapa- 
3 -xcjopelTe rrjs ^lAort/xta? ravrrjs irepois. eycb 8e 
dperrjs /xer eVe/ca Kal rrjs Kara X^^P*^ yevvaiorr]- 
Tos, T^v ov Xavdavovaav e^eTe, Trdvrcov jLtaAtcrra 
Be^o/jievovs ^ u/xaj tov vnep rojv dpiareioiv kLv- 
hvvov dpacrOai . . . . ^, SeSoiKCOs Se ■* /xtj to 
Trpos Toijs ^AX^avovs Tpihvyiovs avyyeves epLirohiov 
vptZv yevqTai ttjs TrpoQvpiias, XP^^^^ rjTrjadpuqv 
els ^ovXrjV dvoxa-s ^ hex'Ql^^povs TTOirjadfxevos ' 
cos 8e d(})LK6[X7]v hevpo ttjv ^ovXrjv avveKaXeaa 
Kol TTpovdrjKa TTepl TOV TTpdypuaTOS ev koivco 
OKOTTelv ho^av he Tois TrXeioai yvajpLais, el fJiev 
CKovTes dvahexoiade tov dychva KaXov ovto. Kai 
TTpoa'qKovTa vplv, ov eyd) TrpoOvjxos rjix-qv fiovos 
vuep aTravTcov SiaycovicraadaL, eTTaiveZv re /cai 
hex^oQai Tr)v x^P^^ v[xd>v, el 8e to avyyeves evTpe- 
Tiojxevoi juiaa/xa, ov yap Srj Ka/cot ipvxfjv ofxo- 
XoyovvTes etvai, tovs e^co tov yevovs d^nLaaiTe ^ 
KoXelv, ju.7j8eju.iar u/xtj.' dvdyK-qv rrpoacfjepeiv, — 
ravTa Hjs ^ovXrjs iljrjcl)La-aiJL€vrjs /cat ovTe rrpos 
opyrjv he^opieviqs el 8t' okvov to epyov AajSotre 
ovTe fJLLKpdv X'^P'-^ elaojjcevrjs vpiiv et TLfXLOJTepav 

^ ^ovX-qaeade B : ^ovXeveade A. 

^ Be^ofxevovs R(?): Be^afievovs B; fidXiar' av Se^a/xevoy 
Kiessling. 

^ After dpaadai CD supply imeiKcis v-rriXa^ov, but Jacoby 
suggested a participle, e.g. iyvo>K(i>s. Cobet added pSctv after 
liaXioTa. 

« §€ CD : om. AB, Jacoby. 

* avox^s B : dra»cco;^as R, Jacoby. 

64 



BOOK III. 16, 2-3 

on behalf of all their people, he could now bring 
forward this proposal with confidence ; and he 
asked me also to sound you out, to learn whether 
you would be willing to risk your lives for your 
country by engaging with the Curiatii, or whether 
you choose to yield this honour to others. I, in 
view of your valour and your gallantry in action, 
which are not concealed from public notice, 
assumed ^ that you of all others would embrace 
this danger for the sake of winning the prize of 
valour; but fearing lest your kinship with the 
three Alban brothers might prove an obstacle to 
your zeal, I requested time for deliberation and 
made a truce for ten days. And when I came 
here I assembled the senate and laid the matter 
before them for their consideration. It was the 
opinion of the majority that if you of your own 
free will accepted the combat, which is a noble 
one and worthy of you and which I myself was 
eager to wage alone on behalf of all our people, 
they should praise your resolution and accept the 
favour from you ; but if, to avoid the pollution of 
kindred blood — for surely it would be no admission 
of cowardice on your part — you felt that those 
who are not related to them ought to be called 
upon to undertake the combat, they should bring 
no compulsion to bear upon you. This, then, 
being the vote of the senate, which will neither be 
offended with you if you show a reluctance to 
undertake the task nor feel itself under any 
slight obligation to you if you rate your country 

^ This verb is missing from the Greek text ; see critical note. 
* Meineke : d^iwaere 0. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rjyT^aaiade ^ rrjs avyyeveias ttjv Trarpiha, rvy- 
xdvere ev ^ovXevadfjievoi" 

XVII. 'Q.S St? ravT rJKOvaav ol veaviai, 
fieracrrdvTes erepcoae koL SiaXexd^vres oXtya 
TTpos dX\i]Xovs TTpoaepxovrai, TrdXiv aTTOKpivov- 
fxevoL /cat Aeyet virep dTrdvrojv 6 TTpea^vraros 
TotaSe- " Et fiev eXevdepois rjpLV ovcru koI 
Kvpiois rrjs tSta? yvcujjirjs i^ovaiav TrapeZx^S, 
w TvXXe, ^ovXevcraadai Trepl rov Trpos tovs 
dveifjiovs dyojvos, ovdcv eVt BLafieXXrjaavres 
aTTeKpLvdyieda dv aoi rovs iavrcov BiaXoyiafxovs' 
CTTeLbrj 8e v^pUoTiv rjpuv 6 Trari^p, ov ^copts" ouSe 
TdAa;\;tcrTa Xeyeiv ■^ irpdrreiv d^iovjjiev, alrovjxeda 
ae oXiyov dvaSe^aadai XP^^^^ '^W dTTOKpiaiv 

2 rjpwv, ecos tco Trarpl StaAej^^co/xer. ' eTraive- 
aavros Be rov TvXXov ttjv evae^eiav avTiov /cat 
KeXevaavro's ovro) iroielv dTT-Qeaav <hs rov irarepa. 
drjXcvaavTes Se avrw ra? Trpo/cATyCTet? rov ^ov(f)eT- 
riov KOL ovs 6 TvXXos hieXexdrj Xoyovs /cat 
reXevratav rrjv iavrcov aTTOKpLaiv tj^lovv enreiv 

3 rjvTtva yvcofi'qv avros ^X^'" ^ ^^ inroXa^cov, 
" 'AAA' evae^es /xeV," e^r), " irpdyp-a TTOielre, 
w TTolhes, TO) Trarpl Iwvres /cat ouSev dvev rrjs 
€p,rjs yvcopLTis SLaTTparropLevoi, Kaipos 8e /cat 
vfids avrovs 'rjB-q Trepl vp.a)v rd ye rrjXiKavra 
<j)aiveadai ^povovvras . vvoXa^ovres ovv rov epov 
^Lov TJSrj reXos exeiv (f>avep6v Troi-qaare pot, ri 
ZriTTor dv avrol TrpoeiXeade TTpdrreiv avev rov 

4 Trarpog Trepl rcbv lSIcdv ^ovXevadpevoi,. aTTOKpive- 
rat TTpos avrov 6 Trpea^vraros roidSe' " 'ESe^a- 

^ Sylburg : ■qyqaeade B, rjyqaiadai. A. 

66 



BOOK III. 16, 3-17, 4 

more highly than your kinship, deliberate care- 
fully and well." 

XVII. The youths upon hearing these words 
withdrew to one side, and after a short conference 
together returned to give their answer; and the 
eldest ^ on behalf of them all spoke as follows : " If 
we were free and sole masters of our own decisions, 
Tullus, and you had given us the opportunity to 
deliberate concerning the combat with our cousins, 
we should without further delay have given you 
our thoughts upon it. But since our father is 
still living, without whose advice we do not think 
it proper to say or do the least thing, we ask 
you to wait a short time for our answer till we 
have talked with him." Tullus having commended 
their filial devotion and told them to do as they 
proposed, they went home to their father. And 
acquainting him with the proposals of Fufetius 
and with what Tullus had said to them and, 
last of all, with their own answer, they desired his 
advice. And he answered and said : " But indeed 
this is dutiful conduct on your part, my sons, 
when you live for your father and do nothing 
without my advice. But it is time for you to 
show that you yourselves now have discretion 
in such matters at least. Assume, therefore, 
that my life is now over, and let me know what 
you yourselves would have chosen to do if you 
had dehberated without your father upon your 
own affairs." And the eldest answered him thus : 

^ The first-born of the triplets is spoken of as the eldest, 
just as in the biblical story of Esau and Jacob we read, "and 
the elder shall serve the younger " (Gen. 25 : 23). And just 
below (chap. 18, end), the triplets take their places " according 
to age." 

67 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fied^ dv, CO TTOLTep, top virep ttj^ rj-ye/xovias 
aya)va /cat Traap^eir vTrcfxeLvafxev 6 ri av Sokjj 
TO) SatjjiovLq)- redvavai yap dv ^ovXoLfieda 
fjidXXov 7^ ^rjv dva^Lot yevoiJievoL aov re Koi tojv 
TTpoyovcov. TO 8e Trpog rovs dveipiov's avyyevks 
ovx r)p-€lg TTporepoL Xvaofxev, dAA' cu? vtto rrjg 

5 rv)(7]s SiaXeXvraL arep^o/xev. et yap KoptarioLs 
eXarrov Kpiverai tov KaXov ro avyyeves, ovSe 
'OparioLS TLpmLrepov ^avrjoerai to yevos rrjs 
dperrjs" 6 Se Trarrjp cu? efxade rrjv hidvoiav 
avTiov TTepL-^apris yevop-evos /cat raj p^et/jas 
ai^acT;)^^^^ et? tov ovpavov TroAAa? €^17 ;!^a/[)iTa? 
etSeWt Tot? deoZs, otl TraZhas eScoKav avTco yeve- 
adat KoXovs /cat dyadovs' eVetTa TrepiXa^wv 
iKacTTOV avTOJV /cat Tas rjhiaTas dTTohovs daTraaptov 
T€ Kai (f)iXr]pdTCOV ^LXo<j>pocrvvas , " "E;!^er'," 
€<^7y, " /cat Ty]v ipLTjv yvooprjv, cS TratSe? dyaOoi, 
/cat TTopevdevTeg dTTOKplvaaOe TyAAa» ttjv t 

6 evae^TJ /cat KaXrjv dTTOKpicnv." ol pev 8r] x^^~ 
povT€S em TTJ TTapaKeXevaei tov iraTpos dTrrjeaav 
/cat TTpoaeXdovTes tco ^aatAet ai'aSe;^ovrat tov dyCJva, 
KdKelvos avyKaXeaas ttjv ^ovXtjv /cat ttoAAou? 
CTTaivovs rdjv veavicrKwv hiadepevos aTToareAAci 
■npeu^eis irpog tov ^AX^avov tovs BrjXwaovTas otl 
BexovTai 'PcopatoL ttjv alpeaiv /cat Trape^ovTai ^ 
Toiis 'OpaTiovs Siayci)VLovp.€vovs inrep ttjs dp)(7J^. 

XVIII. ATTaiTOVorrjs Se ttjs virodeaecus /cat 
tov TpoTTOv hie^eXdeXv T-fjs P-d^ris dKpi^d>s Kal 
TO. jLtcTO. TavTTjv y€v6p,€va Trddrj deaTpiKols 
eoiKOTa 7r€pi7T€T€LaLS p-r} paQvpois hieXdeZv, Treipd- 
aopai /cat Trepl tovtojv eV* a/cpijSetasr 'iKaoTov, 

^ TTape^ovrai B : wop€;(oi/Tat A. 

68 



BOOK III. 17, 4-18, 1 

" Father, we would have accepted this combat 
for the supremacy and would have been ready 
to suffer whatever should be the will of Heaven ; 
for we had rather be dead than to live unworthy 
both of you and of our ancestors. As for the 
bond of kinship with our cousins, we shall not be 
the first to break it, but since it has already been 
broken by fate, we shall acquiesce therein. For 
if the Curiatii esteem kinship less than honour, 
the Horatii also will not value the ties of blood 
more highly than valour." Their father, upon 
learning their disposition, rejoiced exceedingly, 
and lifting up his hands to Heaven, said he 
rendered thanks to the gods for having given 
him noble sons. Then, throwing his arms about 
each in turn and giving them the tenderest of 
embraces and kisses, he said : " You have my 
opinion also, my brave sons. Go, then, to Tullus 
and give him the answer that is both dutiful and 
honourable." The youths went away pleased 
with the exhortation of their father, and going to 
the king, they accepted the combat ; and he, 
after assembling the senate and sounding the 
praises of the youths, sent ambassadors to the 
Alban to inform him that the Romans accepted 
his proposal and would offer the Horatii to fight for 
the sovereignty. 

XVIII. As my subject requires not only that 
a full account of the way the battle was fought 
should be given, but also that the subsequent 
tragic events, which resemble the sudden reversals 
of fortune seen upon the stage, should be related in 
no perfunctory manner, I shall endeavour, as far as 
I am able, to give an accurate account of every 

69 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(x)S efiTj Sura/xiff, etTretf. eTreiSrj yap 6 )(p6vos 
"fJKCv iv CO reXos eSet Xa^elv rag ofioXoytas, 
i^jieaav jxev at rcov 'Pco/iatcor Svvdfxeis irav- 
arpaTia, i^rjeaav Se fxera ravd* oi veaviaKoi toIs 
TrarpcpoLs deols ev^dfievoi Kal Trporjyov a/^a rip 
^acnXel Karev^rjpLovpievoi re vtto Travros rod 
Kara, rrjv ttoXlv oxXov Kal Trarropevoi rds K€(f)aXds 
avdeaiv TJSrj 8e /cat 'q rcov 'AX^avcbv i^eX'qXvdei 

2 err par td. cTrel Se KarearparoTreSevaavro TrX-qaiov 
aiXXriXiov fieraixP't-ov 7TOLrjadp,€voi rov hieipyovra 
rrjv 'Pcopaicov dno rfjs ^AX^avcbv opov, evda /cat 
TTporapov €L)(OV CKarepoL rov? p^apa/cas", rrpcorov 
fiev Lcpd Ovaavres cojjioaav €7rt rcov ejjLirvpcov 
arep^eiv rr]v rv^'^jv, 7]v av e/c tt^? H-(^XV^ '^^^ 
aveipicbv eKaripa ttoXis e^eveyKr^rai, Kal (f)vXd^€iv 
ras opoXoyia? ^e^aiovs [X'qSeva Trpocrdyovres 
avrats SoXov avroi re Kal yevos ro ef avrcov 
€TTei 8e ra irpos deov? oaia hierrpd^avro, dep,evoi 
ra OTrXa Trpoijyov e/c rov ^dpaKog dp,(f)6repoL 
dearal rij? H-^XV^ ea6p,evoL rptcov rj rerrdpcov 
ara^Lcov ro fxera^v p^coptor rot? dycovil^opLevoLS 
KaraXtTTovres' Kal fxer^ ov ttoXv Traprjv rovs re 
KopiarLOVs 6 rcov ^AX^avcov arparrjyos aycov koX 
rovs 'Opariovg 6 rcov 'Pcofxaicov ^acriXevs cLttXlo- 
fxevovs re /caAAicrra /cat rov dXXov e^ovras 
Koa/xov olov dvdpcoTTOL Xap-pdvovoLV em Bavdrco. 

3 yevopevoi he ovveyyvs dXXiqXcxJV ra [xev ^ Lefty] rots 
VTTaaTnaral<s TrapehcoKav , irpoahpajiovres Se Trepi- 
e^aXXov aAAT^Aoij ^ KXaiovres Kal rots -qSiarois 
ovopaaiv dvaKaXovvres, (Lore els hdKpva irpo- 
TTeaelv diravras /cat iroXXr^v daropyiav KaTqyopeiv 

^ aXXr}Xois B : oAAijAofs R. 
70 



BOOK III. 18, 1-3 

incident. When the time came, then, for giving 
effect to the terms of the agreement, the Roman 
forces marched out in full strength, and afterwards 
the youths, when they had offered up their prayers 
to the gods of their fathers ; they advanced 
accompanied by the king, while the entire throng 
that filled the city acclaimed them and strewed 
flowers upon their heads. By this time the Albans' 
army also had marched out. And when the armies 
had encamped near one another, leaving as an 
interval between their camps the boundary that 
separated the Roman territory from that of the 
Albans, each side occupying the site of its previous 
camp, they first offered sacrifice and swore over the 
burnt offerings that they would acquiesce in what- 
ever fate the event of the combat between the 
cousins should allot to each city and that they 
would keep inviolate their agreement, neither 
they nor their posterity making use of any deceit. 
Then, after performing the rites which religion 
required, both the Romans and Albans laid aside 
their arms and came out in front of their camps to 
be spectators of the combat, leaving an interval 
of three or four stades for the champions. And 
presently appeared the Alban general conducting 
the Curiatii and the Roman king escorting the 
Horatii, all of them armed in the most splendid 
fashion and withal dressed like men about to die. 
When they came near to one another they gave 
their swords to their armour-bearers, and running 
to one another, embraced, weeping and calling 
each other by the tenderest names, so that all the 
spectators were moved to tears and accused both 
themselves and their leaders of great heartless- 

71 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

G(f)cov re avrcov /cat rajv T^yejLtovtov, on irapov 
aXXoLs rial acofiaoL Kplvai Trjv ju.a;!^7yv ei? ifJi,(f)vXLOV 
alfjia /cat avyyeviKov dyos tov virkp rGiV TToXecjv 
dyoiva KareKXeiaav. jravadfjievoL Se rcov dcTTraa- 
fxcov OL veaviaKoi /cat rd $i(j)rj Trapd tojv VTraaTnarobv 
Xa^ovres dvaxcoprjcravrcov rcov TreXas eVafavro 
T€ Kad rjXiKLav /cat crvvrjeaav ofxoae. 

VT"V T" ' \ f t / \ \ 

AiA. leoj? /xer ovv ijavxt'O. re /cat aLyr] 
KaT€i-)(ev dix(f)OT€pas rds 8uva/x.ets" eTretra 
dva^o-qa-eLS re ddpoai Trap' dp/f)orep(x}v avrdjv 
iyivovTO /cat TrapaKeXevaeis tols p,axofX€vot.s 
ivaXXd^ evxo-i re /cat olpLOjyaX /cat TravTO? oAAof 
TTadovs ivaycDVLov <j)coval avvex^ls, at )U,ev Trpo? 
ra Spcofxevd re /cat opcofieva v(f>' eKarepojv, 
at 8e TTpo? TO. fieXXovrd re koX viroTrrevoixeva' 
/cat T^v TrAeioj rd €LKat,6fi€va ^ rcov yivofievwv. 

2 7] T€ yap oijjts e/c ttoXXov SLaar-qfiaTOS yivo[J,evrj 
TToXv TO dcra(f>es cZ^^e, /cat ro irpos rovs ot/cetous' 
dycovLcrrds eKaarots crvfinades iirl to ^e^ovXr)- 
jievov ^ eXdfx^ave rd irpaaaofieva, at re avvexets 
rcov fxaxofJidvcov iTrefi^daeis Kal VTravaxojprjcreLS 
/cat els ro avrivaXov avdcs dvrLfieraardareis ttoXXoI 
/cat dyxt-(yrpo<j)Oi ^ yLvofievai ro d/cptjSe? rrjs yvw- 
fjL7]s d(f>rjpovvro' /cat ravra em rroXiiv eylvero 

3 p^pdvot'. pcofirjv re ydp crco/Ltaro? ervxov ofiotav 
exovres eKarepoi /cat ro yewalov rrjg ^vx'fjs 

^ elKa^ofieva B : eiKa^ofJ-evd re Kal Spwfieva B. 

* Kiessling : /SejSouAeu/ncVoc 0. 

* aYxiorpcK^oi, B : avriarpo^oi R. 

72 



BOOK III. 18, 3-19, 3 

ness, in that, when it was possible to decide the 
battle by other champions, they had limited the 
combat on behalf of the cities to men of kindred 
blood and compelled the pollution of fratricide. 
The youths, after their embraces were over, 
received their swords from their armour-bearers, 
and the bystanders having retired, they took their 
places according to age and began the combat. 

XIX. For a time ^ quiet and silence prevailed in 
both armies, and then there was shouting by both 
sides together and alternate exhortations to the 
combatants ; and there were vows and lamen- 
tations and continual expressions of every other 
emotion experienced in battle, some of them 
caused by what was either being enacted or 
witnessed by each side, and others by their 
apprehensions of the outcome ; and the things 
they imagined outnumbered those which actually 
were happening. For it was impossible to see 
very clearly, owing to the great distance, and the 
partiality of each side for their own champions 
interpreted everything that passed to match 
their desire ; then, too, the frequent advances 
and retreats of the combatants and their many 
sudden countercharges rendered any accurate 
judgment out of the question ; and this situation 
lasted a considerable time. For the champions 
on both sides not only were alike in strength of 
body but were well matched also in nobility of 

^ The following description of the varied feelings that 
swayed the spectators of the combat is obviously inspired by 
the dramatic account in Thucydides (vii. 71) of the naval 
battle in the harbour of Syracuse, notwithstanding the total 
difference in details. 

73 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

LGoppoTTOV ottXols TC KoXXiaTOiS icTKeTTaafJLeVOl TO. 

cTcofxaTa oXa /cat yvfxvov ovSev aTToXiTTovres fiepos 
6 TL Kai rpojdev o^elav e)u,eAAei' otaeLV rrjv reXevnjv, 
coare ttoXXol 'Pa>ixaL(x>v re Kol * AX^avayv e/c rov 
^iXoveiKeZv re /cat avpLTTaOeZv rots a^erepois 
kXaOov avTOVs to twv KivBvvevovTOJv fxera- 
Xa^ovres Trddos aycoviarai re [xdXXov i^ovXovro 'q 

4 dearat rcov Spajfievcov yeyovevat. oipe 8' ovv 
TTore 6 TTpea^vraros rcov 'AA^avaii^ rep Trpos avrov 
dvrLrerayfxevcv avpLTtXeKerai iraicxyv re kol Traio- 
fievos dXXag evr' aAAat? ^ TrAr^ya? Kai ttojs rvyxd-vei 
rov 'Pco^atoy Sta jSou^cDvo? eveyKas ro ^i(j)o?. 
6 he rols re ctAAot? rpav/xaat KeKapojpLevog rjSr] 
/cat rrjv reXevraiav TrXrjyrjv 6avarr](f)6pov e^a)V 
VTToXvdevrcjv rcov [xeXcov Karappvels aTTodvqaKei. 

5 ojs Se rovr* elhov ol dearal rijs p-d-XV^ ^H^ Trdvres 
dve^67]aav, ^AX^avol fxev co? viKOivre? 'fjhrj, 

PajpaXoL o CO? Kparovp,evoc' rovs ydp Brj 
a<^erepovs hvo rols rpialv 'AAjSavot? evKarepyd- 
arovs VTTeXdp^avov yevi^aeaOaL. ev S 8' eyivero 
ravra, o TrapaoTn^cov rip Treaovri 'Pajpalos opdjv 
6771 ro) Karopdwpari Trepcxo-prj rov ^AX^avov 
chdelrai raxvs ctt' avrov /cat TroAAa piev rpavpara 
Govg, 77oAAa 8e avros Xa^chv rvy^dvei ttojs Kara 
rijs a<j)ay'r]s avrov fidijias ro ^icfios /cat hiaxprjcrd- 

6 pevos. pera^aXovarrjg 8e rijs rvx^jS iv oXlycp 
ra re rcvv dyajvi^op,€vojv epya /cat rd rcov 
decupevcjjv rrddr), Kai 'Pcjopatajv pev dvadappr]advrojv 
e/c rrjg rrporepov Karrjcjieias, ^ hX^avwv Se d(f)r)prj- 
pevcov ro x^^^pov, erepa TToAtv dvrcTTvevcraaa rots 
rG)v 'Pcupaicov KaropdcopLacri Tvxf) rovrcjv puev 

* aXXas eV dXXaxs Meineke, Cobet : oAAai; eV aXXaxs 0. 
74 



BOOK III. 19, 3-6 

spirit, and they had their entire bodies protected 
by the choicest armour, leaving no part exposed 
which if wounded would bring on swift death. 
So that many, both of the Romans and of the 
Albans, from their eager rivalry and from their 
partiality for their own champions, were un- 
consciously putting themselves in the position 
of the combatants and desired rather to be actors 
in the drama that was being enacted than spec- 
tators. At last the eldest of the Albans, closing 
with his adversary and giving and receiving blow 
after blow, happened somehow to run his 
sword through the Roman's groin. The latter 
was already stupefied from his other wounds, and 
now receiving this final blow, a mortal one, he fell 
down dead, his limbs no longer supporting him. 
When the spectators of the combat saw this they 
all cried out together, the Albans as already 
victorious, the Romans as vanquished ; for they 
concluded that their two champions would be 
easily dispatched by the three Albans. In the 
meantime, the Roman who had fought by the side 
of the fallen champion, seeing the Alban rejoicing 
in his success, quickly rushed upon him, and after 
inflicting many wounds and receiving many 
himself, happened to plunge his sword into his 
neck and killed him. After Fortune had thus in a 
short time made a great alteration both in the 
state of the combatants and in the feelings of the 
spectators, and the Romans had now recovered 
from their former dejection while the Albans had 
had their joy snatched away, another shift of 
Fortune, by giving a check to the success of the 



75 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

iraTTeivojae ras iXiriSas, ra 8e tcov TroXe/xiiov 
(f)poin]ixara eTrrjpcv. rod yap AX^avov Treaovros 
6 TTjv TrXfjaiov avrov e;^ajv ardaiv aSeA^os" 
crvpLTrXeKcrat rtp Kara^aXovri, Kal rvyxo-vovoLV 
ajK^orepoL koto, rov avTOv )(^p6vov TrXr^yag i^aiatovs 
€^€V€yKavT€s Kar' dXX-qXatv, 6 fxev 'AX^avos rod 
'PwpLaLov Kara rov pieracfypivov ^ /cat P'^XP'- "^^^ 
airXdyxviov ^difjas to ^i(f>os, 6 Se 'Pcojuaios' 
V7T€X6d)v rrjv Trpo^oX'qv rov TToXepnov /cat tcov 
lyvvcov TTjv erepav vTrorepicov. 

XX. '0 p,€V hr) TO Kaipiov rpavp,a Xa^wv 
c'udvs eredv^KCL, 6 Be ttjv lyvvav rerpcjopiivos 
ovKCTL ^e^acos rjv eardvat, aKd^ojv Be Kal rd 
TToXXd TO) dvpeo) BiepeiBopbevos dvretxev op-wg 
€TL Kal pierd rov TrepiXenropievov roJv dBeX(f>6jv 
€7rl rov VTTopLevovra 'Pcupialov ixcopeL, Trepiearr^adv 
re avrov 6 p.ev e^ evavrias Trpoatcov, 6 Be Kara 
2 voirov. ru) Be 'Pcu/zat'o) Beiaavri p,rj KVKXcoOelg 
Ttpos avrcbv evKarepyaaros yevrjrai Bvat re 
p.ax6p.evos KoX BixoQev eiTiovaiv, r]v Be dKpai^vrys 
cri, XoyiapLO? elaepxerai BieXelv rovs noXepLiovs 
d-n dXXriXoiv Kal x^P^^^ eKarepo) p,dxecrdai. 
paara Be Biaar-qaeiv avrovs vrreXdpi^avev , el 
Bo^av TTapdaxoi (f)vyrjg- ov yap vtt apu^orepcov 
BLco^eadaL rdJv ' AX^avwv ,^ dXX" u^' evos, opcov ^ 
rov dBeX(f)6v ovKeri Kaprepov ru>v TToBayvJ^ 
ravra ^ Biavorjdels d)s elxe rdxovs €(f)evye ^ 
Kal avve-neaev avrw pbrj B(,ap.apreiv rrjs eXTTiBos. 

^ rov neTa<f>p€vov B : tcov fieTacf>pei'a)v R. 

" 'AXPavwv Sintenis : a8eX(j>a>v 0. 

' opwv B : opaJiTOS R- 

* rwv iTobiov Co bet : rdtv ttoS . . Ba, rov noha R. 

76 



BOOK III. 19, 6-20, 2 

Romans, sunk their hopes and raised the confi- 
dence of their enemies. For when the Alban fell, 
his brother who stood next to him closed with the 
Roman who had struck him down ; and each, as it 
chanced, gave the other a dangerous wound at the 
same time, the Alban plunging his sword down 
through the Roman's back into his bowels, and 
the Roman throwing himself under the shield of 
his adversary and slashing one of his thighs. 

XX. The one who had received the mortal 
wound died instantly, and the other, who had been 
wounded in the thigh, was scarcely able to stand, 
but limped and frequently leaned upon his shield. 
Nevertheless, he still made a show of resistance and 
with his surviving brother advanced against the 
Roman, who stood his ground ; and they surround- 
ed him, one coming up to him from in front and 
the other from behind. The Roman, fearing that, 
being thus surrounded by them and obliged to 
fight with two adversaries attacking him from 
two sides, he might easily be overcome — he was 
still uninjured — hit upon the plan of separating 
his enemies and fighting each one singly. And 
he thought he could most easily separate them 
by feigning flight ; for then he would not be 
pursued by both the Albans, but only by one of 
them, since he saw that the other no longer had 
control of his limbs. With this thought in mind he 
fled as fast as he could ; and it was his good fortune 
not to be disappointed in his expectation. For the 



* 8^ added after TatJra by Cobet, Jacoby. 

• d)s elx^ TOLXovs e<f>evY€ Cobet : <Ls €?x^ e(f>evy€ raxovs O. 



77 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 6 fi€v yap erepos rcov 'AA^avcov ovSefiLav e^CDV 
7rXr)yrjv Kaipiov eSicoKcv avrov €K ttoSos, 6 8' 
CTTi^atveiv dBvvaTos cov ttoXv tov Seovro? varepei. 
evda Syj tcl)V 'AX^avcov rols a(j)erepois iyKeXevo- 
fxevcov, Tojv Se 'VcopLaioiv tov avrwv dycovLaTrjv 

KaKl^OVTCDV Koi TWV flCV StJ 7TaLaVll,6vTCOV T€ Kal 

arecfiavovfxevajv (hs cttl Karopdovp^evcp tco dycovL, 
Tcov o oSvpofjievcov cu? ovK dv ert rrjs TV)(r]s a<f>ds 
SLavaarrja-ofievrjs, ra/xteuCTa/xevo? tov Kaipdv 6 

'PcO/jLaloS VTTOGTp€(f>€t T€ O^eWS Kol TTplv rj <f)vXd- 

^aadai tov 'AX^avov (l)ddv€L tco ^ujiei /cara tov 
^pax^ovos TrXrjyrjv iveyKas Kal SieXdiV tov dyKCova. 

4 7T€crovarjg 8e x^fxal Trjs ^eipos d/xa tco ^t<^ei 
pLLav ert TrXrjyrjv Kaipiov e^eveyKas drroKTeLveL 
TOV AX^avov, Kal /xeTa tovtov em tov TeXevTalov 
ojaafievos rjfiLOvrJTa /cat Trapeipievov eTTt/cara- 
(j^aTTei. cjKvXevaas Se tovs tcov dve^iatv 
veKpovs etS" ttjv ttoXiv rjTreiyeTO TrpcoTOS dTrayyetXai 
deXcov TTjv eavTOV vLKrjv tco Txar/at. 

XXI. "ESet Se dpa Kal tovtov dvdpcoTTOV 
ovTa prj iravTa SievTV^eLv, dXX aTToXavaai ti 
TOV cf)dov€pov haipovos, os avTov e/c puKpov 
pidyav €v oXtycp del? ^povcp Kal els iTTLcftdveiav 
davpaoT^v Kal TrapdSo^ov e^dpas /care^aAe <j)epcjjv 
avdrjp.epov els d-^o-pLv avp,cf)opdv d8€X(J)OKT6vov . 
2 cos yap eyyvs eyeveTo tcov ttvXcov, dXXov re 
o)(Xov opa TTavToSarrov eKx^6p.evov e/c ttjs TToXecxys 
Kai St] Kal TTjv d8eX(f)r]v TrpoaTpexpvaav'^ 8ta- 
rapa^d^i'S Se /card ttjv ttpcLttjv oifiw, otl Kara- 

*■ TTpoarpexovaav Reiske : rpexovaav O. 

1 For chaps. 21 f. cf. Livy i. 26. 
78 



BOOK III. 20, 3-21, 2 

Alban who was not mortally wounded followed 
at his heels, while the other, being unable to keep 
going was falling altogether too far behind. Then 
indeed the Albans encouraged their men and the 
Romans reproached their champion with cowardice, 
the former singing songs of triumph and crowning 
themselves with garlands as if the contest were al- 
ready won, and the others lamenting as if Fortune 
would never raise them up again. But the Roman, 
having carefully waited for his opportunity, turned 
quickly and, before the Alban could put himself on 
his guard, struck him a blow on the arm with his 
sword and clove his elbow in twain, and when his hand 
fell to the ground together with his sword, he struck 
one more blow, a mortal one, and dispatched the 
Alban ; then, rushing from him to the last of his 
adversaries, who was half dead and fainting, he slew 
him also. And taking the spoils from the bodies of 
his cousins, he hastened to the city, wishing to give 
his father the first news of his victory. 

XXI. But ^ it was ordained after all that even 
he, as he was but a mortal, should not be fortu- 
nate in everything, but should feel some stroke 
of the envious god ^ who, having from an insig- 
nificant man made him great in a brief moment of 
time and raised him to wonderful and unexpected 
distinction, plunged him the same day into the 
unhappy state of being his sister's murderer. 
For when he arrived near the gates he saw a 
multitude of people of all conditions pouring out 
from the city and among them his sister running 
to meet him. At the first sight of her he was 

* Fortune. 

79 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XiTTOvaa TTjv [xera ^ jxr]Tp6s oiKovpiav Trapdevos 
iTTiyajJios els 6)(Xov avrrju cBcokcv dyvajra, Kal 
TToAAou? Xafx^dvoiV Xoyiapiovs oltottovs reXevrcbv 
CTTL Toj)? eTTiei/cets' Kal cfyiXavd pcLnovs dniKXivei^, 
CO? dcTTTaaaadai re Trpcorr) ^ rov acodevra dSeX(f)6v 
vodovcra Kal ra? dperdg rci)v Tedvr^Korojv Trap' 
avTov jxadelv ^ovXop.evri twv eva-)(r]p.6voiv virepihoi 

3 yvvaiKelov tl Trdaxovaa. rj he dpa ov rovs 
aSeA^ous" TTodovaa rag davvrjdeis eroXpuqaev e^eXdelv 
6hov£, dAA' epojTL KpaTovfievrj rcbv dveiffLcbv evos, 
d) KaOajfioXoy-qro vtto tov Trarpos ivl yafxcp, 
Kac Kpvmovcra to Trddos dTTopprjrov , eiTeLSrj ^ 
Tcov ttTTo rov arparorrehov rivo? rJKOvaev dirayyeX- 
Xovros rd irepl rrjv [Jid)(r)v, ovKeri Kareax^v, 
aXX eKXiTTOvaa rrjv OLKiav wcrrrep at fjLaivdSes 
€(f>epero TTpos rds TTvXas ovSev eiriarpecjiOjxevrj 
rrjg dvaKaXovarjg re Kal fxeraSLcoKovarjs rpo(f)Ov. 

4 e^o) 8e yevofievrj rijs iroXeois cos rov dSeX(f)6v 
eiSe 7Tepi)(aprj roiis eTnvLKiovs eTTLKeipuevov arecjid- 
vovs, OLS avrov 6 ^aaiXevs dveS-qae, Kal rovs 
iraipovs avrov ^epovras rd rcov 7re(f>ovevp,ev(x)v 
OKvXa, ev ots rjv ttcttXos ttoiklXos, ov avrrj fierd 
rrjs p-rjrpos e^vcl>ijvaaa rep p,vrjarTJpL BdJpov els 
rov p^eXXovra ydp,ov d-nearaXKei {ttolklXovs yap 
edos earlv dp.(j)ievvvadaL TreirXovs Aarlvcov roTs 
fierLovari rds vvp(f)as), rovrov Sr) rov TrerrXov 
deaaapievri TTe<f)vpp,evov aip,ari rov re x^'^dova 
Koreppri^aro Kal rats x^P^''^ dp(f)orepais Ttaiovaa 

^ ufra B : om. R. 

* Keiske : irpiorov 0. 

* ineibr) Kiossling ; eweiSij 8« 0. 

80 



BOOK III. 21, 2-4 

distressed that a virgin ripe for marriage should 
have deserted her household tasks at her mother's 
side and joined a crowd of strangers. And 
though he indulged in many absurd reflections, 
he was at last inclining to those which were 
honourable and generous, feeling that in her 
yearning to be the first to embrace her surviving 
brother and in her desire to receive an account 
from him of the gallant behaviour of her dead 
brothers she had disregarded decorum in a 
moment of feminine weakness. However, it 
was not, after all, her yearning for her brothers 
that had led her to venture forth in this unusual 
manner, but it was because she was overpowered 
by love for one of her cousins to whom her father 
had promised her in marriage, a passion which she 
had till then kept secret ; and when she had over- 
heard a man who came from the camp relating 
the details of the combat, she could no longer 
contain herself, but leaving the house, rushed to 
the city gates like a maenad, without paying any 
heed to her nurse who called her and ran to bring 
her back. But when she got outside the city 
and saw her brother exulting and wearing the 
garlands of victory with which the king had 
crowned him, and his friends carrying the spoils 
of the slain, among which was an embroidered 
robe which she herself with the assistance of her 
mother had woven and sent as a present to her 
betrothed against their nuptial day (for it is the 
custom of the Latins to array themselves in 
embroidered robes when they go to fetch their 
brides), when, therefore, she saw this robe stained 
with blood, she rent her garment, and beating 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO arrjdos edprjvei koL dve/caAetro rov dveipiov, 
cjare TToXXrjv KardnXri^Lv elaeXdeiv diTavTas oaoi 

6 Kara rov avrov rjaav r&rrov. dvaKXavaafieurj 
Be Tov jJLopov rov fxvrjorrjpos dreviai rolg o^daXfjiois 
€LS rov dSeX(f)6v Spa /cat Aeyet- " Mtapcvrare 
dvOpcoTre, x^^P^^^ drroKreivas rovs dvei/jiovs Kdfxe 
rrjv TTavadXiav dBeX(j)r]v dTToareprjaas ydfxov, w 
Svar'qve ! aAA' ouS' eAeos" elaepx^rai ae rdv 
aTToXcoXorojv avyyevwv , ovs dSeX(f>ovs cKaXeis, 
aAA (LaTTep dyadov tl hiaTreTrpayjxivos i^earqKas 
TU)v <f)pevo)v VTTO rrjs rjSovrjs /cat ar€(f)dvovs eirl 
roLS TOLOvroLs eTTLKeLaai. KaKols, rlvog excov 

6 ijjvxrjv dr]piov ; " /ca/cetw? vnoXa^cov, " OtAowTO?," 
€(^17, " rrjv TTarpiBa TToXirov /cat rovs KaKcog 
avrfj PovXofjievovs KoXd^ovros, edv re dXXorpioi 
rvxotaiv avrrjs ovres, edv re OLKeloL' iv ots 
ridefjiat. /cat ae, rjrLg evl Kaipcp rd [xeyiara dyadcov 
re /cat KaKcov avfi^e^TjKora tjixlv eTTiyvovaa, rrjv 
re vLKTjv rrjs narptSos, rjv 6 oos dSeA^o? eyd) 
rrdpeifXL Kardycov, /cat rov Bdvarov ra>v dSeXi^cov, 
ovK eTTL rot? aya^ot?, c5 fxiapd av,^ rols kolvols 
rrjs rrarpSos ;^at/3et? ovr* em rats av[xcf)opaLS 
rals tStat? rrjs oiKias dXyels, oAA' VTrepiBovaa 
rcbv aeavrrjs dSeA^cDj^ rov rov fivr^arrjpos dva- 
/cAaiei? fiopov, oi5S' vtto rov OKorovs drroc/jdapelad ^ 
TTOV Kara fiovas,^ dAA' ev rots aTrduriov 6(^daXp.ols , 
/cat jLtot rrjv dperrjv /cat rovs are^dvovs dvei,hit,eis , 
w ipevSorrdpdeve /cat p.LadheX<f)e /cat dva^ia rcov 
rrpoyovcov ! erreiS-q tolvuv ov rovs d8eX(f)ovs 

^ aw B : ov R. 

* aTTo<f>dapfioa B : <l>dapeiaa R, Kpv^ddaa Bucheler. 

* Kara fiovas B : om. R. 
82 



BOOK III. 21, 4-6 

her breast with both hands, fell to lamenting and 
calling upon her cousin by name, so that great 
astonishment came upon all who were present 
there. After she had bewailed the death of her 
betrothed she stared with fixed gaze at her 
brother and said : " Most abominable wretch, 
so you rejoice in having slain your cousins and 
deprived your most unhappy sister of wedlock! 
Miserable fellow ! Why, you are not even touched 
with pity for your slain kinsmen, whom you 
were wont to call your brothers, but instead, as 
if you had performed some noble deed, you are 
beside yourself with j oy and wear garlands in honour 
of such calamities. Of what wild beast, then, have 
you the heart ? " And he, answering her, said : 
" The heart of a citizen who loves his country and 
punishes those who wish her ill, whether they hap- 
pen to be foreigners or his own people. And among 
such I count even you ; for though you know that 
the greatest of blessings and of woes have happened 
to us at one and the same time — I mean the 
victory of your country, which I, your brother, am 
bringing home with me, and the death of your 
brothers — you neither rejoice in the public 
happiness of your country, wicked wretch, nor 
grieve at the private calamities of your own family, 
but, overlooking your own brothers, you lament the 
fate of your betrothed, and this, too, not after 
taking yourself off somewhere alone under cover 
of darkness, curse you ! but the before the eyes of 
the whole world ; and you reproach me for my 
valour and my crowns of victory, you pretender to 
virginity, you hater of your brothers and disgrace 
to your ancestors ! Since, therefore, you mourn, 

83 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

■neudels,^ dAAd rovs aveiftLovs, koL to jxev acofia 
iv Tols l,(x>aLv ex^LS, rrjv 8e tfjv^rjv Trapa ro) 
veKpw, drndi irpos €K€lvov ov dvaKaXjj /cat fi-qre 
TOP TTarepa jx-qre rovs d8eA(j&oi)s" Karaiaxwe." 

7 Taur' ecTTCJV ovk i(f)vXa^ev iv rco pnaoTTOy-rjpcp to 
fiCTpiov, dAA' (Ls ^^X^v opyrjs (hdeZ hid tcjjv TrXevpojv 
avTTJs TO $i(f>os, dTTOKTeivas Se Tr]v dBeX<f>rjv Trapijv cos 
Tov TTarepa. ovtcj 8e dpa ixiaoTTovrjpa /cat 
avddSr] Ta roir TOTe 'Y^iofxaicjv rjdr) /cat (f)pov^ixaTa 
"^v /cat, et TLS avTd ^ovXolto irapd ret vvv epya 
/cat Toy? e^' r)fjui)v i^eTa^eiv ^lovs, <I>ixd /cat 
OKXiqpa /cat TTJs drjpicoSovs ov ttoXv dirixovTa 
(f>va€a)s, oj(JT€ TTados ovtco Seivov 6 rraT'^p aKovaag 
ovx oTTCos riyavaKT-qaev, dAAd /coAcDj /cat Trpoa- 

8 TjKovTOJS VTTeXa^e to Trpaxdev ex^iv os ye ovtc 
els TTjv ot/ctW eiaaev elcrevexdyjvat tov veKpov 
TTJs dvyaTpos ovr iv rot? TraTpwois TeOrjvai 
HvrjixacjLV iireTpe^ev ovt€ /CTySeta? /cat TrepLaToXrjs 
Kol tCov dXXoiv vofxifjuov jjieTaXaPeLV , dAA' ol 
TrapLovTCS avTTjv ippL[j.fji4v7]v iv o) hiexpriadrj 
Xcopicp Xidovs i7n(f>opovvr€s /cat yrjv iK-qhevaav <x)s 

9 TTTWixa eprjfxov Kr]So[X€va)v. rayrd re 8r] OTeppd 
TOV dvhpos /cat eVi Trpos toutols, d /xiXXco Xiyew 
d)s yap €7n koXoXs re /cat evTVxioiv epyois avdrj- 
jjiepov eOve tols iraTpcLois deoZs Sis ev^aTo dvaias 
/cat Tovs avyyeveZs iaTidaeu XajXTrpa re /cat . . .^ 
Kaddrrep iv tols pceylaTais iopTols virehix'^TO, 

^ irevdels Ii(?) : nodeis B. "^ 

* Xafj-irpa re Kal R, Jacoby (wlio assumes the loss of one or 
more words after Kal) : Xafnrpq. koL B, Xa/iTrpq. Biicheler. 

84 



BOOK III. 21, 6-9 

not for your brothers, but for your cousins, and 
since, though your body is with the Hving, your 
soul is with him who is dead, go to him on whom 
you call and cease to dishonour either your father 
or your brothers." 

After these words, being unable in his hatred 
of baseness to observe moderation, but yield- 
ing to the anger which swayed him, he ran 
his sword through her side ; and having slain 
his sister, he went to his father. But so averse 
to baseness and so stern were the manners and 
thoughts of the Romans of that day and, to com- 
pare them with the actions and lives of those of 
our affe, so cruel and harsh and so little removed 
from the savagery of wild beasts, that the father, 
upon being informed of this terrible calamity, far 
from resenting it, looked upon it as a glorious and 
becoming action. In fact, he would neither per- 
mit his daughter's body to be brought into the 
house nor allow her to be buried in the tomb of 
her ancestors or given any funeral or burial robe 
or other customary rites ; but as she lay there where 
she had been cast, in the place where she was slain, 
the passers-by, bringing stones and earth, buried 
her like any corpse which had none to give it proper 
burial. Besides these instances of the father's 
severity there were still others that I shall men- 
tion. Thus, as if in gratitude for some glorious 
and fortunate achievements, he offered that very 
day to the gods of his ancestors the sacrifices he 
had vowed, and entertained his relations at a 
splendid ^ banquet, just as upon the greatest 

' Another adjective may have been lost after " splendid." 
See critical note. 

85 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eXdrrovs rjyovfievos ras tSta? avixi^opa.'s tcov 
10 KOLVcov rrjg TrarptSos ayadcov. rovro 8' ov fxovov 
o Oparios, dXXa /cat /Lter' CKeivov dXXot ovxi^ol 
'PcojJiaiojv pLvrfpLovevovraL Tronjaavreg dvSpes eVt- 
<f)aveLS' Xeycxi Se to Ovetv Kal are^avr]<^op€lv '^ 
Kai dpidfx^ovg Kardyeiv tckvcov avTols drroXo)- 
XoTOJV €vay)(os, orav evrv^cqarj 8t' avTOvs to 
KOLVov VTTep (bv /caro, tovs oiKeiovs ipcb Kaipovs. 
XXII. Mera 8e ttjv P'dx^v tcov TptSvpicov 
Pcojuatoi fiev ol tote 6vt€s cttI OTpaTOTreSov 
Ta(f)dg 7roLrjad[jL€voi Xafinpas tG)v dnodavovTCov iv 
OLS kireaov ^(CDpLOLs Kal dvaavTcs TaTTiviKia tois 
deols iv evTradeiaLs rjcrav, 'AX^avol 8e axdofxevoi 
Tols ^ avfjL^€Pr]K6aL Kal tov rjyejjiova 8i' atVtas' 
€xovt€S, CO? KaKOJs icTTpaTrjyrjKOTay daiToi re 
OL TToXXoi Kai ddepdnevTOL ttjv ioTrepav eKeivrjv 

2 SieTeXeaav. Trj 8' i^T)s rjpt,epa KaXeaas avTovs 
6 TCOV 'PcofxaLcov ^aaiXevg els cKKX-qaLav Kal 
TToXXd TTapafivd-qadfjievos, cos ovt€ dcrxi^fMov im- 
Ta^cov avTots ovdev ovTe ;)^aAe7roj^ ovd' o p/q 
avyyevem TrpcTrec,^ ttj 8e avTrj yvcopirj Trepl 
ap,<f)OTepcov tcov ttoXccov ra KpdTiOTa Kal avp,- 
<f>opcoTaTa ^ovXevcTcov ,'^ Kal tov dp^ovTa re 
avTCov ^ovcf^eTTLov inl ttjs avTrjs dpx'fjs /cara- 
axdiv dXXo T€ ovSev tcov ttoXltlkcov p-edappLoad- 
pi€Vos ovSe Kiv-qaas aTTrjyev lii olkov tt^v hvvap.Lv. 

3 Ys.aTayay6vTL 8e avTco tov il)rj<l)LadivTa vtto 

^ BiJcheler : are(f>T}(f>op€iv O. 

^ Tols B : em toi? R ( ?). 

* ^17 avyy€v4a(, npiTrei B : fir/ to avyyev^s emrpenei R. 



awv 



* ^ovXivaoiv Prou : BovXev PaotXevs cl>v B, avfi^ovXtvaovras 
A, avuPovXevacov Kiessling, Jacoby. 

86 



BOOK III. 21, 9-22, 3 

festivals, making less account of his private 
calamities than of the public advantages of his 
country. This not only Horatius but many other 
prominent Romans after him are said to have done ; 
I refer to their offering sacrifice and wearing crowns 
and celebrating triumphs immediately after the 
death of their sons when through them the 
commonwealth had met with good fortune. Of 
these I shall make mention in the proper places.^ 

XXII. After the combat between the triplets, 
the Romans who were then in the camp buried 
the slain brothers in a splendid manner in the 
places where they had fallen, and having offered 
to the gods the customary sacrifices for victory, 
were passing their time in rejoicings. On the 
other side, the Albans were grieving over what 
had happened and blaming their leader for bad 
generalship ; and the greatest part of them 
spent that night without food and without any 
other care for their bodies. The next day the 
king of the Romans called them to an assembly and 
consoled them with many assurances that he would 
lay no command upon them that was either dis- 
honourable, grievous or unbecoming to kinsmen, 
but that with impartial judgment he would take 
thought for what was best and most advantageous 
for both cities ; and having continued Fufetius, 
their ruler, in the same office and made no other 
change in the government, he led his army 
home. 

After he had celebrated the triumph which the 

1 No such places are found in the extant books of the 
Antiquities. 

87 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rrjs ^ovXrjs Bpiafx^ov Kal ra TroXinKO. Trpdrreiv 
dp^ajjievu) TTpoaepxovraL tojv ttoAitcDv dvSpes 
ovK d(f)av€LS Tov 'Opdrtov dyovres vtto SiKrjv, 
CO? ov Kadapov alpiaros ifJi(f>vXiov Sid tov rijs 
dSeX(f)rjg (fiovov Kal KaTaardvres '^ [xaKpdv 
Sie^rjXdov Srjixrjyopiav rovs vofjLovs 7Tape)^6iji€VOL 
rovs OVK icovras aKpirov dTTOKreiveiv ovdeva Kal 
rd TTapd rwv Oecov dirdvTcov ^ fMrjVLfjLara rals p.'r) 

4 KoXaiC^ovaais TToXeai roiis ivayels Sic^Lovres. 6 
Se TTarrjp aTreAoyetTO Trepl rov [xeipaKLOv Kar- 
Tjyopdjv Trjg dvyarpos Kal rLpLcopiav ov (j>6vov elvai 
TO Trpa^Qev Xeycov SiKaaT-qu re avTov d^tojv 
etvai TcJbv l8ia)V KaKcbv, dfji(f)OT€pcov yevofievop 
naTepa. av^vcxiv Se Xoycov prjdevTcov vcf)* CKaTepcov 
ttoAAt^ tov ^aaiXda KaTelx^v dpurj^avta, tl tcXos 

5 i^eveyKTj irepl rfjs SiKrjs. ovt€ ydp dTToXvaai 
TOV <f)6vov TOV ofJioXoyovvTa ttjv aheX^Tjv dvjjprj- 
Kevai rrpd Slkt/js Kal rayra icf)* ols ov avvexoi- 

pOVV d7T0KT€LV€lV ot VOfJiOL KaXoJS C^^I'V VTTeXdp,- 

Pavev, tva jmtj ttjv apdv /cat to dyos and tov 
SeSpaKOTOS ei? tov tStov oIkov elaeveyKr^Tat,, 
ovTe COS avSpo^ovov aTTOKTeZvai tov vrrkp rfjs 
vaTpiSos iXofxevov TrpoKLvSvvevaat koI ToaavTTjs 
avTrj SvvaGT€ias yevofjievov atTtov, dXXcos t€ koI 
TOV TTaTpos diToXvovTos avTov Trjs acTias, a» Trjv 
TTepi TTJs dvyaTpds 6pyr)v rj re (J>vgls aTreStSow 

6 TTpcoTcp Kai o vofios. aTropov/xevos 8e tl ^^p-qaeTai 
Tols TTpdyfMacn TeXevTcov KpdTiaTov elvat. Sicyva) 
Tcp hrjpup TTjv Stdyvcocnv iTTLTpeireLV. yevofxevos 

^ KaraaravTes is Kpiaiv (or ej Xoyov) Reiske. 
* nnavTCDv : aTravrcovTa Schwartz. 

8S 



BOOK III. 22, 3-6 

senate had decreed for him and had entered upon 
the administration of civil affairs, some citizens of 
importance came to him bringing Horatius for trial, 
on the ground that because of his slaying of his sister 
he was not free of the guilt of shedding a kinsman's 
blood; and being given a hearing, they argued at 
length, citing the laws which forbade the slaying of 
anyone without a trial, and recounting instances of 
the anger of all ^ the gods against the cities which 
neglected to pimish those who were polluted. But 
the father spoke in defence of the youth and blamed 
his daughter, declaring that the act was a punishment, 
not a murder, and claiming that he himself was the 
proper judge of the calamities of his own family, 
since he was the father of both. And a great deal 
having been said on both sides, the king was in great 
perplexity what decision to pronounce in the cause. 
For he did not think it seemly either to acquit any 
person of murder who confessed he had put his sister 
to death before a trial — and that, too, for an act 
which the laws did not concede to be a capital 
offence — lest by so doing he should transfer the curse 
and pollution from the criminal to his own house- 
hold, or to punish as a murderer any person who had 
chosen to risk his life for his country and had brought 
her so great power, especially as he was acquitted of 
blame by his father, to whom before all others both 
Natiu*e and the law gave the right of taking venge- 
ance in the case of his daughter. Not knowing, 
therefore, how to deal with the situation, he at last 
decided it was best to leave the decision to the people. 

^ The word " all " is disturbing here. There is much to be 
said for Schwartz's emendation aTravTwvTa (" meeting," 
" befalling "), the meaning then being "instances of the anger 
of the gods visited upon the cities.' ' 

89 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8e davaT7](f)6pov Kpiaecos rore Trpajrov 6 'Pojfxaicov 
Srjfxos Kvpios rfj yvco/JLT] tov Trarpo? Trpoaedero 
/cat aTToXvei rod <j}6vov rov dvSpa. 

Ov fJLTjv 6 ye ^aaiXevs aTTOXprjv inreXa^e ^ 
TOLS ^ovXojxevois TO, Trpos" rovs deovg ocna (fivXarreiv 
TTjv VTT avdpdjTTOiV avvTeXeadeiaav vrrep avrov 
Kpiaiv, aXXa [xeraTTefxi/jdfJievos rovs Upo<^dvTas 
eKeXevaev i^iXdaaodai deovs re /cat Sai/xovas 
/cat KadijpaL rov dvSpa ots vopLos rovs aKOvaiovs 

7 (j)6vovs dyvLt,ea6ai KadapfJiotg. KOLKelvoL ^wpiovs 
ISpvadnevoL Svo, rov puev "Hpas, rj XiXoyx^v 
errLGKOTTeXv aSeA^as", rov S' erepov iTnxojpiov 
oeov rivog 7] SaifMovos 'lavov Xeyajxevov Kara, rrjv 
CTTixcopiov yXcorrav, eirajvuixov ^ 8e Y^opiarioiv 
rGiv avaipeQlvroiv dveipiaJv vtto rov dvBpos, Kal 
dvaias rcvds I'n avrols TTOiiqaavres rols re dXXoLs 
KadapfioLS ixprjcroLvro /cat reXevroJvres VTrrjyayov 
rov *Opdriov vtto t,vy6v. ean he 'Pcu/xaiot? 
vo[Jii[Jiov, orav TToXefiiojv 7TapaSi,S6vra>v rd OTrXa 
yevcovrat Kvptoi, hvo Karam^rreiv ^vXa opdd 
/cat rptrov e(f)appi6rrei,v avrols avoidev irXdyiov, 
erreid virdyeiv rovs alxfiaXcorovs vtto ravra Kal 
bi-eXdovras aTToXveLv iXevdepovs ivl rd a(f>erepa. 
rovro KaXelrai rrap avrols ^vyov, co Kal ol rore 
Kaoaipovres rov dvSpa reXevraico rdjv Trepl rovs 

8 KaOapjjLovs vopiipujjv exprjaavro. iv aj Se rrjs 

7ToXea>s x^P^V '^^^ dyviGfiov eTTOirjaavro TTOvres 

^ vTreXa^e A : lAajSe Ba, eXeye Bb, Jacoby. 
^ fTTcjvvfiov B : inouvv/jLovs R. 

90 



BOOK III. 22, &-8 

And the Roman people, becoming upon this occasion 
judges for the first time in a cause of a capital 
nature, sided with the opinion of the father and 
acquitted Horatius of the murder. 

Nevertheless, the king did not believe that the 
judgment thus passed upon Horatius by men was a 
sufficient atonement to satisfy those who desired to 
observe due reverence toward the gods ; but sending 
for the pontiffs, he ordered them to appease the gods 
and other divinities and to purify Horatius with those 
lustrations with which it was customary for involun- 
tary homicides to be expiated. The pontiffs erected 
two altars, one to Juno, to whom the care of sisters 
is allotted, and the other to a certain god or lesser 
divinity of the country called in their language 
Janus, to whom was now added the name Curiatius, 
derived from that of the cousins who had been slain 
by Horatius ; * and after they had offered certain 
sacrifices upon these altars, they finally, among other 
expiations, led Horatius under the yoke. It is 
customary among the Romans, when enemies 
deliver up their arms and submit to their power, to 
fix two pieces of wood upright in the ground and 
fasten a third to the top of them transversely, then 
to lead the captives under this structure, and after 
they have passed through, to grant them their 
liberty and leave to return home. This they call a 
yoke ; and it was the last of the customary expiatory 
ceremonies used upon this occasion by those who 
purified Horatius. The place in the city where they 
performed this expiation is regarded by all the Romans 

^ CJ. Schol. Bob. to Cic, Tpro Milone, 7 : constitutis duabiis 
aria lano Curiatio et lunoni Sororiae, superque eas iniecto 
tigillo, Horatius sub iugum traductus est. 

91 

VOL. II. .. D 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

PcDjxaXoi vojXL^ovaiv Upov eari S' iv rw arevwrru) 
TO) (f)epovTL OLTTO K.apLvr]s KOLTOi ToXs cttI tov 
KvTTpiov ipxofxevoLs (JrevcoTTOv, evda ol re jSoj/xot 
fxevovaiv ol Tore ISpvOevres /cat ^vXov virep avrcov 
rerarai Sval tols dvriKpvs dAXijXcov roixois 
ivrjpjjLoafxevov, o ylverai toTs e^iovaiv virkp 
K€(f)aXrjg KaXovfxevov rfj 'PcojJiaCKfj StaXeKTcp 
9 ^vXov d8€Xcf)rjs. rovTO fxkv Srj ro x^P^<^^ "^^ 
av[X(f)Opdg tov dvSpos fJLvr]fji€lov iv rfj ttoXcl (f>vXdrTe- 
rai Ovaiais yepaipofievov vtto 'Pojjjiatcov Kad* 
CKaarov evtavrov, erepov 8e rrjs dperrjs rjv 
CTreSeifaTo Kara rrjv p-dxrjv fiaprvpLov rj ycjviaia 
CTvXis rj TTJs irepas TracrrdSos dp^ovaa iv dyopa, 
€(/> -^s CKetro rd OKvXa rcbv ^AX^avcov rpihvpujjv. 
ra fxev oiiv onXa rj^dviarai 8ta jjltjkos ;^/3oi'ou, 
rqv S iTTLKX-qoLv 7] arvXls en ^vXarrei rrjv 
10 avTTjv 'OpaTia KaXovfiivrj TriXa. ecrri Se /cat 
vofjLos Trap avTols 8t' iKelvo Kvpoidels ro Trddos, 
to /cat et? ifie xpdJvrai, rLfjLr)v /cat 86^av dddvarov 
rots dvSpdaiv e/cetVot? Trepirt^ei?, o KeXevcov, 
OLS av yevcovrai rpiSvfxoL iralSes iK rov hrjpioaiov 
ras rpo(f>ds rcbv TratSoji' xoprjyeiadai fiexpts 
'q^rjs- rd fiev Srj nepl rr]v 'Oparicav oIkIxiv 
yevofxeva Oavfiaa-rds /cat Trapaho^ovs TTepnrereias 
Xa^ovra rocovrov riXovs ervx^v. 

XXIII. *0 Se 'Ptofxatajv ^acriXevs iviavaLov 
oiaXnTOJv xpovov, iv (L irdvra rd irpos rov TToXefiov 

^ The vicus Cuprius (often written Cyprius because of a 
false etymology) was a street running north and south across 
the Carinae, the west end of the southern spur of the Esquiline. 
The tigilhim was evidently higher up on this spur in the part 
called the Mons Oppius. 

92 



BOOK III. 22, &-23, 1 

as sacred ; it is in the street that leads down from the 
Carinae as one goes towards Cuprius Street. ^ Here 
thfi altars then erected still remain, and over them 
extends a beam which is fixed in each of the opposite 
walls ; the beam lies over the heads of those who go 
out of this street and is called in the Roman tongue 
" the Sister's Beam." ^ This place, then, is still 
preserved in the city as a monument to this man's 
misfortune and honoured by the Romans with 
sacrifices every year. Another memorial of the 
bravery he displayed in the combat is the small corner 
pillar standing at the entrance to one of the two 
porticos ^ in the Forum, upon which were placed the 
spoils of the three Alban brothers. The arms, it is 
true, have disappeared because of the lapse of time, 
but the pillar still preserves its name and is called pila 
Horatia or "the Horatian Pillar." * The Romans also 
have a law, enacted in consequence of this episode and 
observed even to this day, which confers immortal 
honour and glory upon those men ; it provides that 
the parents of triplets shall receive from the public 
treasury the cost of rearing them till they are grown. 
With this, the incidents relating to the family of 
the Horatii, which showed some remarkable and 
unexpected reversals of fortune, came to an end. 

XXIII. The ^ king of the Romans, after letting a 
year pass, during \^hich he made the necessary 



* Sororium tigillum. 

* The Basilica Julia and the Basilica Aemilia. 

* The Latin term was ambiguous, pila meaning either 
"pillar" or "javelins." With the disappearance of the arms 
it was natural enough to interpret it in the first sense; but 
Livy (i. 26, 10) takes it in the second. 

* For chaps. 23-30 c/. Livy i. 27 

93 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eTTiTrySeta TrapeaKevdcraTO, arparov i^dyeLV im 
TTjv OiSryvatcuv ttoXlv eyvco Trpocfxicreis rod TroAe- 
piov TTOLrjadpLevog, on KXrjOevres els aTToXoyiav 
TTepi TTJg iTnpovXfjg, rjv ovvearijaavTO Kara. 
*Pa)jU.aia)v re /cat 'AX^avwv, ovx VTrrjKOvaav , 
aXX evdvs dvaXa^ovres rd oirXa /cat rds nvXag 
KXeiaavres Ovievravajv re avpLfxa^iav eTrayofievoi 
e/c rod cf)av€pov dcfieiar'qKeiaav /cat rot? irapayevo- 
fxevoLs e/c 'Pcofirjs irpea^evraZs TTwdavofievoLs 
rrjv airiav rrj? aTToardaeojs dTreKpivavro ixrjSev 
avroLs en rrpdypia rrpos rrjv 'Pcojuatcui' ttoXiv 
eti'at Koivov, e^ ov 'Poj/xuAo? o ^aaiXevg avrojv 
ereXevriqae, irpog ov eTTOi-qaravro rd nepl rrjs 

2 (fjiXias opKia. ravras ^r) rdg 7Tpo(/)daeis Xa^wv 
rrjv re oiKeiav KadcxiTrXiL^e hvvapLLV /cat rds Trapd 
rdJv avixixd^oiv ixereTreinrero. nXelcrrou 8e /cat 
Kpdnarov ernKovpiKov e/c rrjs ^AX^avdJv TrdAeco? 
Memos ^ov(/)ernos ^Kev dycov ottXols KeKoapLT]- 
fjievov eKTTpeireaiv, ware irdaas ^ virep^aXeodai 

3 TO.? avfXfjbaxi-Kds Sum/xet?. o fMev ovv TvXAos 
COS e/c TTpodvpiLas re /cat (itto rravrds rod ^eXriarov 
KOLvaiveZv eyvcjKora rov TToXefJiov rov Mernop 
ev^vei /cat Trdvroiv enoLelro rdJv ^ovXevfidrajv 
avviaropa- 6 Se dvr]p ovros ev air Lais irapd rols 
TToXtrais V7Tdp)(wv (Ls KaKU>s earparr^yrjKdis rov 
TToXepLOV, /cat St) /cat et? Trpohoaiav Sia^aXXo- 
fievos, eTTeiSrj rptrov eros eVt rrjs avroKpdropos 
dpx'fj^ 8i€fjLeve TuAAou /ceAeuaavros', ovk d^idJv 
en ^ dpxTjv exeiv erepas dpx'fj? vir-qKoov ouSe vtto- 
rarreadai fJidXXov ■^ ovk avros rjyeladai, Trpdyfxd 

4 n ene^ovXevaev dvoaiov. hLaTTpea^evadjxevos ydp 
Kpv^a TTpos Tovs 'Pajfiaicov TroXejxiovs ivSoiaaraJs 
94 



BOOK III. 23, 1-4 rvxOia 

preparations for war, resolved to lead out his army 
against the city of the Fidenates. The grounds he 
alleged for the war were that this people, being called 
upon to justify themselves in the matter of the plot 
that they had formed against the Romans and Albans, 
had paid no heed, but immediately taking up arms, 
shutting their gates, and bringing in the allied 
forces of the Veientes, had openly revolted, and that 
when ambassadors arrived from Rome to inquire the 
reason for their revolt, they had answered that they 
no longer had anything in common with the Romans 
since the death of Romulus, their king, to whom they 
had sworn their oaths of friendship. . Seizing on these 
grounds for war, Tullus was not only arming his own 
forces, but also sending for those of his allies. The 
most numerous as well as the best auxiliary troops 
were brought to him from Alba by Mettius Fufetius, 
and they were equipped with such splendid arms as 
to excel all the other allied forces. Tullus, therefore, 
believing that Mettius had been actuated by zeal and 
by the best motives in deciding to take part in the M-ar, 
commended him and communicated to him all his 
plans. But this man, who was accused by his fellow 
citizens of having mismanaged the recent war and 
was furthermore charged with treason, in view of the 
fact that he continued in the supreme command of 
the city for the third year by order of Tullus, dis- 
daining now to hold any longer a command that was 
subject to another's command or to be subordinated 
rather than himself to lead, devised an abominable 
plot. He sent ambassadors here and there secretly 
to the enemies of the Romans while they were as yet 

^ oitXois ■ ■ . TTaaas BC, Lapus : om. R. 
* Iti Kiessling : n Ba, re ABb, Jacoby. 

95 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€Tt TTpos Tqv aTToaraaiv €)^ovTa? eTrrjpev avrovs 
[XTj KaroKvelv, cu? avrog avv€7TL6r]a6[ji€Vo? 'PcoyLtatots' 
€V TO) aycDvt, /cat ravra Trparrcov re /cat Stav'oou- 

5 fievos airavras iXduOave. TuAAo? S' eTretSr) 
TTapecTKevdaaro tt]v t' OLKeiav /cat tt^i^ o-f/xjLta;^t- 
/ci^i' BvvafiLV e^rjyev im rovs TToXefxiovs /cat 
Bia^ds TOP 'AvtTjra TTOTafxov ov fxaKpdv rrjs 
f^iSrjvrjs KarearpaTOTTeSevaev. €vpd)v Se 77/30 t^s 
TToAeo)? aTparLCLV iKTeTayfxevrjv ttoXXtjv avrojv 
re ^I-Srjvaiojv /cat rojv avpLixaxovvroiv avrols 
€K€Lvr]v fiev TTjv rjp.€pav rjcrvxio-v eax^, rfj S' e^^? 
^ov(f)erTL6v re fxeraTrep-ilidfjLevos rov 'AX^avov 
Kai tG>v oXKcov (f>iXcov rovs dvavKaiordrovs 
eaKonei, pier eKeivcov riva ;;^p7^crTeop' ecrj rep 
TToXepLcp rpoTTov, /cat eireLSrj Trdatv eSofe p-dx^jv 
rideaOai Sta rax^cov /cat jur) rpi^eiv rov xpovov, 
X^opav /cat rd^Lv, rjv eKaarog epbe?0^ev e^eiv, 
vpoeLTTCov rjpiepav re opiaas rrj's P'dx'^s rrjv 
KaroTTLV SieXvae rov avXXoyov. 

6 Se 'AA^avo? ^ov(f)errLos {rjv yap Br) en 
dBrjXos /cat rcov eavrov (f)iXtov ttoXXoXs rrpo- 
Boaiav pLr]xava>p,evos) avyKoXeaag rovs eVt- 
(paveardrovs ^AX^avcov Xoxayovs /cat ra^idpxovs 
Xeyei rrpog avrovs rotaSe* 

" AvSpes ra^iapxoL /cat Xoxo.yoL,7TpdypLara p.eXXco 
€S vpds p-eydXa /cat d-rrpocrSoKrira eK<f)epeLV, d reojs 
CKpvTTrov, iKerevco Se vp^ds aTTopprjra rroiriaaadai, el 
pLTj pe hiepydaeade, /cat edv So^rj avvoiaeiv emreXrj 
yev6p.eva, avXXa^eadai piot avrcov. TroAAa p.ev 
ovv Xeyeiv 6 Kaipos ovk eTTirpeveL ^paxvs dov, 

7 avra Se rd dvayKaiorara epco. eyd) rrdvra rov 
p-era^i) XP^^^^ ^i o^ 'Pct;/Liatots V7TerdxOr)p,ev 
96 



BOOK III. 23, 4-7 

wavering in their resolution to revolt and encouraged 
them not to hesitate, promising that he himself 
would join them in attacking the Romans during the 
battle ; and these activities and plans he kept secret 
from everybody. Tullus, as soon as he had got 
ready his own army as well as that of his allies, 
marched against the enemy and after crossing the 
river Anio encamped near Fidenae. And finding a 
considerable army both of the Fidenates and of their 
allies drawn up before the city, he lay quiet that day ; 
but on the next he sent for Fufetius, the Alban, and 
the closest of his other friends and took counsel with 
them concerning the best method of conducting the 
war. And when all were in favour of engaging 
promptly and not wasting time, he assigned them 
their several posts and commands, and having 
fixed the next day for the battle, he dismissed the 
council. 

In the meantime Fufetius, the Alban — for his 
treachery was still a secret to many even of his own 
friends — calling together the most prominent cen- 
turions and tribunes among the Albans, addressed 
them as follows : 

" Tribunes and centurions, I am going to dis- 
close to you important and unexpected things 
which I have hitherto been concealing ; and I beg 
of you to keep them secret if you do not wish 
to ruin me, and to assist me in carrying them out 
if you think their realization will be advantageous. 
The present occasion does not permit of many words, 
as the time is short ; so I shall mention only the most 
essential matters. I, from the time we were subor- 
dinated to the Romans up to this day, have led a life 



97 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ecos T-fjaSe rrjs Tjfxepas ala)(vvr]s [xearov Kal 
oSvvrjs e)(cvv rov ^iov SiarereAe/ca Acatroi Tifirjdeis 
ye ^ V7TO Tov ^aaiXecvs avrwv rfj avTOKpdropi 
o-pxfjy f]v rpiTov €Tos rj^T] rovTO €)(co Kal el 
^ovXoLfjLrjv p-^XP^ TTavros e^o). dXXa Trdvrojv 
r^yovfievos eivai /ca/ccDv eaxarov ev ovk evrv^ovai 
Tols Koivolg piovos evTVX^^v, evBvpiovpievos Se 
OTL TTapd Trdvra to. vevop,Lap,eva Trap dvdpcoTTOLs 
oaia TTjv 'qyep.oviav vtt' avrcbv d(f)rjped7]pev, 
ioKOTTOvv OTTOJS ov avTTjv dvaKopiiaaip,eda ^ pnqhe- 
pLids TT€Lpadevres pLeydXrjg avp,(f)opds' ttoXXovs 
Be Kal TTavroSaTTOvs Xoytap,ovs Xap,^dvcov piav 
evpioKov ohov dyovaav ein rd Trpdypiara pdarrjv 
re Kal dKLvSvvordrrjv, et rts" avroZs dvaarair] 

8 TToAe/xos" eK tu)v TrXr^aioxoypiov TToXecov. els yap 
rovTOV {nreXdpL^avov a'drovs KaOiarapLevovs avp- 
pidxcov Se-qaeadaL Kal Trpwrcov ye rjp,(x)V. to 
St) pLerd TOVTO ov ttoXXtjs VTreXdpi^avov vpuv 
SiSax^js BeT^creiv, otl KdXXiov re Kal BiKaiorepov 
rrepl rrjg rjpLcov ^ avrcov eXevdeplas pidXXov 7] 
TTepl rrjs 'PcopuiLcov rjyepiovLas TTOcqaaaOai rov 
dycova. 

9 " Tavra Siavo-qOels VTrevojievaa 'Pa}p,aLOLs 
TToXepuov eK rci)v vTrrjKowv Ovtevravovs Kai 
^ihrivaiovs Treiaas eirl rd orrXa x^^P^^^t ^? avX- 
Xrjiff6p.evos avToZs rov TToXepiov. Kal p-expf- rovrov 
XeXrjda 'PcopLalovg ravra Trpdrrcov Kal ^ rapuevo- 
pcevos epavro) rdv rrjs eTTideaecos Kaipov ev co 

10 CKeifjaade ocra (l)(j>eXrid7]a6pe6a. Trpdirov p,€V ovk 
€v (f)avepa> ^ovXevaavres diroaraaLV , ev & kivSvvos 

^ ye Biichelcr : re AB. 

* Kiessling : dvaKOfuawiieda 0. 

98 



BOOK III. 23, 7-10 

full of shame and grief, though honoured by their 
king with the supreme command, which I am now 
holding for the third year and may, if I should so 
desire, hold as long as I live. But regarding it as the 
greatest of all evils to be the only fortunate man in 
a time of public misfortune, and taking it to heart 
that, contrary to all the rights mankind look upon as 
sacred, we have been deprived by the Romans of 
our supremacy, I took thought how we might recover 
it without experiencing any great disaster. And 
although I considered many plans of every sort, the 
only way I could discover that promised success, and at 
the same time the easiest and the least dangerous one, 
was in case a war should be started against them by 
the neighbouring states. For I assumed that when 
confronted by such a war they would have need of 
allies and particularly of us. As to the next step, I 
assumed that it would not require much argument to 
convince you that it is more glorious as well as more 
fitting to fight for our own liberty than for the 
supremacy of the Romans. 

" With these thoughts in mind I secretly stirred up 
a war against the Romans on the part of their subjects, 
encouraging the Veientes and Fidenates to take up 
arms by a promise of my assistance in the war. 
And thus far I have escaped the Romans' notice as I 
contrived these things and kept in my own hands 
the opportune moment for the attack. Just consider 
now the many advantages we shall derive from this 
course. First, by not having openly planned a 
revolt, in which there would have been a double 

* riixwv Steph. : vfuuv AB. * /cai B : om. R. 

99 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

•^v Kad* eKarepov -q OLTrapacrKevovs eTret^^^evras 
Kal rfj oi/ceta SvvdfxeL fiovrj TTiarevaavras top 
VTTep dTrdvTwv avappZipai Kvf^ov, ^ TrapaaKcva- 
C,ojJievov£ /cat ^o-qdetas dyeipovras ^ vtto tiov 
iv 7Tapa<JK€vfj ovriov TTpoKaTaXr](f)9rjvaL, ovSerepov 
rajv ;^aA€7rajp tovtojv TreipadevTes to ef dp.(l)OT€pojv 
XP'qcTt'P'Ov e^ofjiev. eTTCira TToXXrjv /cat BvGTToXe- 
fxrjTOV ovaav rrjv rcov dvTLndXcov la-)(yv Kal 
rvx^jv ovK €K rod ^taiov rporrov Treipaaopieda 
Kadaipelv, dAA' ols (xAta/cerat Trdvra rd ^ VTT€pav)((X 
/cat p/T] pdhia TO) ^tat'oj Kadaipedrjvai, SdAo) /cat 
aTrdrr), cure TrpaJroL dp^avres avriov ovre pLovoi. 

11 npos Se TOVTOLs ovk d^iop,dx(p ovarj rfj otVei'a 
hvvdp.€i TTpos aTTaaav rrjv 'Pcx)p.aLCx}V re /cat 
Tcbv avp^pid^iDV ia)(vv dvriraxdrjvaL rrjv ^LSrjvatcov 
re /cat OvievravaJv roaavrrjv ovaav oar)v opdre 
TrpoaeiXri<j)ap.ev re, Kal cos dv p^dXiara Odpaos 
rivl avp.p,axLas ^e^alou ro einKovpiKov TrapdaxoL 

12 TTpoayev6p,evov ovrto irapeaKevaarai fioi. ov yap 
ev rfj 7]p,erepa yfj OtSryi'atot rov dycova dpdfxevoL, 
rrjs Be avrcjv TTpoKivSvvevovres , ev rw avrco Kal 
rqv 7]p,erepav (f)vXd^ovaLv. o Se rrdvrcov fxev 
eariv ■qhiarov dvOpcoTTois, arravioLs ^ 8e Ttcrtv eK 
rov TTapeXdovros aldJvos e^eyevero, /cat rov9* 
•qplv ^ vrrdp^ei' ev^ Trdaxovres vtto rcov avp,- 

(3 fjLdxo}v eS Spdv eKCLvovg avrol ho^ofxev. /cat edv 
rjpXv Kara vovv x^P'^l^V "^^ epyov, axrvep ro 

^ dyelpovTas Sylburg, ayeipavras Cobet : iyeipavras 0, 
Jacoby. 

* TO added by Reiake. 

" oTTaviois Kiessling : airavicos 0, Jacoby. 

* rjfuv A : vp.lv B. 

XOO 



BOOK III. 23, 10-13 

danger — either of being hurried on unprepared and 
of putting everything to the hazard while trusting 
to our own strength only, or, while we were making 
preparations and gathering assistance, of being fore- 
stalled by an enemy already prepared — we shall 
now experience neither of these difficulties but shall 
enjoy the advantage of both. In the next place, 
we shall not be attempting to destroy the great 
and formidable power and good fortune of our 
adversaries by force, but rather by those means by 
which every thing that is overbearing and not easy 
to be subdued by force is taken, namely, by guile 
and deceit ; and we shall be neither the first nor the 
only people who have resorted to these means. 
Besides, as our own force is not strong enough to be 
arrayed against the whole power of the Romans and 
their allies, we have also added the forces of the 
Fidenates and the Veientes. whose great numbers 
you see before you ; and I have taken the following 
precautions that these auxiliaries who have been 
added to our numbers may with all confidence be 
depended on to adhere to our alliance. For it will 
not be in our territory that the Fidenates will be fight- 
ing, but while they are defending their own country 
they will at the same time be protecting ours. Then, 
too, we shall have this advantage, which men look 
upon as the most gratifying of all and which has fallen 
tothelot of but few in times past, namely, that, while 
receiving a benefit from our allies, we shall ourselves 
be thought to be conferring one upon them. And if 
this enterprise turns out according to our wish, as 



eS added by C!obet. 

lOI 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

et/co? ^x^i, ^LhrjvaXoL re /cat Ovievravol ^apeias 
aTTaAAa^avTe? rjixdg VTTorayfjg cos vcf)^ rj[jLcov tovto 
TTerrovdores avroL x^P'-^ rjijuv e'iaovTai. 

" Taura fidv iariv a Sia noXXrjg ^povrihos Trapa- 
OKevaadevra t/cam etvat BoKel jjlol ddpaos re /cat 

14 TTpoOviilav rrjs dTrocrrdcrecos vfjuv 7rapaa)(€tv. ov 
8e rpoTTOV iTTLxeipeZv rip cpycp ^e^ovXevfiai, 
rovr* ^ aKovaare [xov rd^iv puev dTToSe'ScuKe 
fxoi TvXXos TTjv VTTO TO) Opel KoL KcXcveL fJLe 
darepov rcov KepaTwv apxeiv, orav 8e /ieAAcD/Aev 
ofjioae rots TToXepLLois p^copeti^, dp^co fxev iyd) 
Xvaas Tr]V rd^iv iiri to opos dyeiv, aKoXovdrjaeTe 
Se fioi vfietg avvreTayp^evovs dyovreg rovs Xoxovg. 
dij}dp.evos 8e t(x)v aKpcov /cat iv to) aa(/)aAet 
yevopLevos riva ;;^pr^crojuat rpoirov rols pierd ravra 

15 TTpdypLacriv aKovaari piov edv p.€v opco Kara 
yva)p,T]v d hiaXoyit^opLai x<^povvTd juot /cat Opaaeis 
pL€v yeyovoras tovs iroXepiiovs , cos rfpicjov avroXs 
avXAapi^avovTcov , raTreivovs Se /cat 7T€pi(f)6^ovs 
'PcopLaiovs, d)S TTpoBeSopLevovs V(f) rjpLcov, (f)vyrjs 
re pioiXXov -q aXKrjs Trpovoovpievovs , oirep eiKos, 
CTnd'qaopiaL avroZs /cat pueardv TTOC-qaco veKpdJv ro 
veSiov e^ VTTephe^Lov re Kariwv eVt ro tt paves dap- 
povar) re /cat avvreraypLevrj hwd/xeL irpos enroiq- 
pievovs dvOpcoTTovs 7Tpoacj>ep6pievos /cat airopdhas . 

16 Seti^ S' eV rols rroXepLois /cat rj 8ta Kevrjs e/x- 
TTLTTrovaa Trpohoaias ^ avpipiaxoov rj TToXepiioov dXXcov 
ecf)6Sov So/CT^at?, /cat voXXd rjSr] orparevpiara 
pLeydXa vtt* ovhevos ovrcos erepov (f)0^€pov 
TTad-qpiaros cos vtto B6^r)s Keinjs topiev TravcoXedpa 
Sia(f)dapevra. ro 8 rjpLerepov ov Xoyos earai 

^ ^f^ovXiviuu, rovT Kiessling : ^e^ovXTjfiai ravr' O. 
102 



BOOK III. 23, 13-16 

is reasonable to expect, the Fidenates and the 
Veientes, in delivering us from a grievous subjection, 
will feel grateful to us, as if it were they themselves 
who had received this favour at our hands. 

" These are the preparations which I have made 
after much thought and which I regard as sufficient 
to inspire you with the courage and zeal to revolt. 
Now hear from me the manner in which I have 
planned to carry out the undertaking. Tullus has 
assigned me my post under the hill and has given 
me the command of one of the wings. When we are 
about to engage the enemy, I will break ranks and 
begin to lead up the hill ; and you will then follow me 
with your companies in their proper order. When I 
have gained the top of the hill and am securely posted, 
hear in what manner I shall handle the situation after 
that. If I find my plans turning out according to my 
wish, that is, if I see that the enemy has become em- 
boldened through confidence in our assistance, and the 
Romans disheartened and terrified, in the belief that 
they have been betrayed by us, and contemplating, as 
they likely will, flight rather than fight, I will fall upon 
them and cover the field with the bodies of the slain, 
since I shall be rushing down hill from higher 
ground and shall be attacking with a courageous and 
orderly force men who are frightened and dispersed. 
For a terrible thing in warfare is the sudden impres- 
sion, even though ill-grounded, of the treachery of 
allies or of an attack by fresh enemies, and we know 
that many great armies in the past have been utterly 
destroyed by no other kind of terror so much as by an 
impression for which there was no ground. But 
in our case it will be no vain report, no unseen terror, 

* Steph. : TTpohoaia . B, npoSoaia R. 

103 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

K€vos ovB d(f)av€s Beljjia, dAA' epyov dTTdcrrj<; 

17 oijjeios Koi 7T€Lpas (fio^epcLrepov. idv S' dpa 
ravavria rwv XeXoyLa/xevcDv yivofxeva opoj {Xeyiadio 
yap Kai rd rrapd rdg dvdpojTrivas Sofa? elcvdora 
airavTav, irreiSri ttoAAo, /cat rd p/r] eiKora ol /Stoi 
^epovGi), rdvavria /cat avrds c5v 7Tpovd€p.r]v 
eTTLxeip'qcra) TTOtelv. d^oj ydp vpag inl tovs 
TToXepLovs dpa 'Pcopaiois /cat avXXijipopaL avrois 
rrj^ VLKTjs T-qv re KardXri^LV rwv vi}j7]X6jv TreTroirj- 
adai oKTuliopiai ttjs KVKXcjaecos rcov dvrireraype- 
voiv €V€Ka. yevrjaerai Se px>v Triaros 6 Xoyos 
epya opoXoyovpeva rfj OK-qifjei Trapeax^jp^vov, 
atad' ripds rcuv pev heivibv pLr^SerepoL? Koivcovrja-ai, 
T7JS" 8 dpieivovos rvx^jS Trap" dpL^orepcov pera- 
Xa^eiv. 

18 " JLyoj pkv St) ravTa eyvcoKd re /cat hpdaco 
avv Beois Kpdnara ovra ov p.6vov 'AA^aroi?, aAAa 
/cat rot? dXXoLs AartVot?, vpds 8e xP'h <^^Y^v pikv 
■npcbrov ^vXdrrovras, eVetra Koapiov re acot,ovras 
/cat rot? rrapayyeXXopevoLS o^ews VTrrjperovvras 
rrpodvpovs dycovLards yiveadai /cat rovs V(f>* 
avrois rrpodvpLovs Trapex^iv, evdvpovpevovs on 
ovx opioios eariv rjp.Lv re /cat rots' oAAot? dvdpoj- 
7TOLS o TTepi rrjs eXevdeptas dyiov, olariaiv iv 
edei KaOearrjKev dpxeadai v(f)^ erepcov /cat ooois" 

19 roLavrrjv TToXireiav ol -narepes TTapeSoaav. eXev- 
depoL ydp e^ eXevdepcDV e(j)vp,ev /cat dpxeiv rdjv 
TTpoaoLKwv irapihoaav rjplv ol rrarepes opov 
Ti ^ Trei'ra/cdcrta err) rovro rd ax'fjpa rov ^iov ^ 
hiacf)vXd^avres , ov p-q dTToareprjacopev rjpels rovs 
CKyovovs. rrapaarfj Se p,rj8evl vp,(ov Seos, dv 

^ Ti added by Kiessling. * rov ^iov B : om. R. 

XP4 



BOOK III. 23, 16-19 

but a deed more dreadful than anything ever seen 
or experienced. If, however, I find that the contrary 
of my calculations is in fact coming to pass (for 
mention must be made also of those things which are 
wont to happen contrary to human expectations, 
since our lives bring us many improbable experiences 
as well), I too shall then endeavour to do the 
contrary of what I have just proposed. For I shall 
lead you against the enemy in conjunction with the 
Romans and shall share with them the victory, pre- 
tending that I occupied the heights with the inten- 
tion of surrounding the foes drawn up against me ; 
and my claim will seem credible, since I shall have 
made my actions agree with my explanation. Thus, 
without sharing in the dangers of either side, we 
shall have a part in the good fortune of both. 

"I, then, have determined upon these measures, 
and with the assistance of the gods I shall carry them 
out, as being the most advantageous, not only to the 
Albans, but also to the rest of the Latins. It is 
your part, in the first place, to observe secrecy, and 
next, to maintain good order, to obey promptly the 
orders you shall receive, to fight zealously your- 
selves and to infuse the same zeal into those who 
are under your command, remembering that we 
are not contending for liberty upon the same terms 
as other people, who have been accustomed to obey 
others and who have received that form of govern- 
ment from their ancestors. For we are freemen 
descended from freemen, and to us our ancestors 
have handed down the tradition of holding sway over 
our neighbours as a mode of life preserved by them 
for some five hundred years ; of which let us not de- 
prive our posterity. And let none of you entertain 

105 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ravra ideXr) Trpdrreiv, fMrj avvO-qKas re Xvarj 
Kal opKovs Toiis ctt' avTots yevofxevovg Trapa^fj, 
dAA' €VvoeLadu> Stort ras vno *Pco[j,aLOJV XeXvfievas 
els TO e'f '^PXV^ aTTOKaTaarrjaeL /cat ov rag ye 
eXa^iarov a^ias, o.XX a? t] re cfivaLS rj dvdpcoTTeLa 
Kareariqaaro Kal 6 navrcov kolvos ^XX'qvojv 
re Kal ^ap^dpcov ^e^aiol vopios, dp-)(eiv koX rd 
hiKaia rdrreiv rovs irarepas rots eKyovois /cat rds 

20 iJLrjrpoTToXeLs rals aTrot/ctaij. ravras ^-q rds 
avvdrjKas ovherrore dvaLpedrjaofievas e/c rrjs dvdpco- 
TTeias (f>vaecxis ovx 'QP'^^s ol Kvptas a^iovvres atet 
hiapieveiv TTapaoTTovhovpLev , oyS' dv rts" rjixZv deoiv 
rj SaipLovcov vefxea-qaeLev co? ai'oata Trparrovaiv 
el hovXeveiv rols Ihiois eKyovois hvaavaa-)(erovpiev , 
dXX ol KaraXvaavres aura? dp)(7j9ev /cat epyo) 
em-^eipiqaavres ddepbirci) Kpelrroj TTOirjcraL rod 
deiov vopiov rdv dvdpoimvov /cat o re haip-ovLog 
xdXos ovx ^IP-Zv, dXXd rovroLS evavridyaerai Kara 
TO eLKos, Kal 7] Trap' dvdpwTTwv vepieais et? rovrovs 

21 dvd^ rjfjLOJV KaraaKtji/jeL. el jxev ovv ravra Kpd- 
Ttcrra Trdaiv vpXv eaeaOai So/cet, Trpdrrcofxev 
avrd deovs Kal Salfjiovas dpcoyovs errtKaXead- 
fjLevoL, el Be ng vfxcov rdvavria eyvojKe Kal Suetv 
ddrepov, r) fi-qSeTTore dvaawaaadat ro apx<uov 
d^iwfia rrjs TToXecos o'lerai helv, "^ Kaipov erepov 
riva ^ eTnrrjSetorepov rrepLp^evoiv ^ avajSaAAerai 
rov TTapovra, firj KaroKvelrco cfiepecv els fxeaov 
d ^poveZ- 6 TL ydp dv drraaLv vpuv Kpdriarov 
(f>av'rj ^ovXevfxa rovrco ■^(prjaoiJieda. 

XXIV. ^E.Traiveadvr(jOV 8e rrjv yvcopLrjv rdjv 

^ Tov irapovTo^ after Tiva deleted by Reudler. 
* irepifjuiviov B : avayLivoiv R. 

xo6 



BOOK III. 23, 19-24, 1 

the fear that by showing a will to do this he will be 
breaking a compact and violating the oaths by which 
it was confirmed; on the contrary, let him consider 
that he will be restoring to its original force the com- 
pact which the Romans have violated, a compact 
far from unimportant, but one which human nature 
has established and the universal law of both Greeks 
and barbarians confirms, namely, that fathers shall 
rule over and give just commands to their children, 
and mother-cities to their colonies. This compact, 
which is forever inseparable from human nature, is 
not being violated by us, who demand that it shall 
always remain in force, and none of the gods or 
lesser divinities will be wroth with us, as guilty of an 
impious action, if we resent being slaves to our own 
posterity ; but it is being violated by those who have 
broken it from the beginning and have attempted 
by an impious act to set up the law of man above that 
of Heaven. And it is reasonable to expect that the 
anger of the gods will be directed against them rather 
than against us, and that the indignation of men will 
fall upon them rather than upon us. If, therefore, 
you all believe that these plans will be the most 
advantageous, let us pursue them', calling the gods 
and other divinities to our assistance. But if any 
one of you is minded to the contrary and either 
believes that we ought never to recover the 
ancient dignity of our city, or, while awaiting a more 
favourable opportunity, favours deferring our under- 
taking for the present, let him not hesitate to 
propose his thoughts to the assembly. For we shall 
follow whatever plan meets with your unanimous 
approval." 

XXIV. Those who were present having approved 

107 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTapovTCov /cat iravra VTroa)(0}xev(x}v TTOLt^aetv opKois 
eKaarov avrojv KaraXa^cbv SUXvae top GvXXoyou. 
rfj S i^rjs Tjjjiepa Trpo-^ecrav p.ev e/c rod ■)(<xpaK09 
at ^LhiqvaLcov re Koi avpLpLdy^cov hvvdpieLS oifxa raj 
rov -qXiov dvaa)(€iv /cat iraperdaoovro cos els 
ixdx'rjv, dvreTre^rjecrav Se ol 'Poijuatot /cat Kad- 

2 laravro et? rd^LV. ro p,ev ovv dpiarepov Kepas 
avros 6 TuAAos" /cat ol 'PcofialoL Karel)(ov evavriot ^ 
Omevravols {ovrot, yap ro Se^iou rajv TToXepiLcov 
KareL)^ov Kepas), eTTt Se rod Se^tov roJv 'PcDpiaicuv 
Keparog 6 Memos /cat ol 'AA/^avoi Kara OiSt^- 
vaiovs TTapa nqv Xayova rod opovs erd^auro. 

3 e77et Se avveyyvs aAAr^Acov' eyivovro, rrplv euros 
^eXovs yeveaOai ol 'AA^avot a-)(Ladevres diro rov 
aXXov arparov avvrerayp-evovs rjyov rovs X6-)(ovs 
errl ro opos. ol fiev ovv OtSi^i^atot [xadovres 
rovro /cat Tnarevaavres dX-qdevetv ^ a^iat rds 
Trept rrjs Trpohoaias v7Toa)(^eaeis rGiv ^AX^avcov 
Bpaavrepov TJBr] rocs 'Pco/xatot? TTpoae(^epovro, 
/cat ro jxev Se^iov Kepas rcbv 'Pcxjfjiaiojv ei/jiXajfJievov 
rrjs avfjiixaxlcis TTapepprjyvvro re /cat a(f)6Spa 
eiTovety ro 8 evtx)vvp,ov dvd Kpdros ^ r]ya}vit,ero , 
evOa /cat avros rjv 6 TuAAos' eV rots' eViAe'/crots 

4 TCtir LTTTrecov /xaxofievos. ev Se rovrcp TrpoaeXdaas 
ns LTTvevs roLs djxa rip ^aaiXeZ p.axop.ei'ois, " Kdpi- 
vei ro Be^tov riplv Kepas " et^-qaev, " c5 TuAAe. 

AX^avoL re yap eKXnrovres rrjv rd^iv eirl rd 
fiereojpa erretyovrac, ^thr]valoi re Kad* ovs 
CKelvoL erd-)(di)(ycLV VTrep Keparos ovres * rod 
iifjiXcofievov ^ KVKXodadai fJieXXovaiv Tjfids." radra 

' ivapTioL B : ivavTiov R. ^ aX-qdeveiv B : akridfvaeiv R. 
^ di/d Kparos B : aKparan R. 

io8 



BOOK III. 24, 1-4 

of this advice and promised to carry out all his 
orders, he bound each of them by an oath and then 
dismissed the assembly. The next day the armies 
both of the Fidenates and of their allies marched out 
of their camp at sunrise and drew up in order of 
battle ; and on the other side the Romans came out 
against them and took their positions. Tullus himself 
and the Romans formed the left wing, which was op- 
posite to the Veientes (for these occupied the enemy's 
right), while Mettius Fufetius and the Albans drew 
up on the right wing of the Roman army, over against 
the Fidenates, beside the flank of the hill. When the 
armies drew near one another and before they came 
within range of each other's missiles, the Albans, sepa- 
rating themselves from the rest of the army, began to 
lead their companies up the hill in good order. The 
Fidenates, learning of this and feeling confident that 
the Albans' promises to betray the Romans were 
coming true before their eyes, now fell to attacking 
the Romans with greater boldness, and the right 
wing of the Romans, left unprotected by their 
allies, was being broken and was suffering severely ; 
but the left, where Tullus himself fought among the 
flower of the cavalry, carried on the struggle vigour- 
ously. In the meantime a horseman rode up to 
those who were fighting under the king and said : 
" Our right wing is suffering, Tullus. For the 
Albans have deserted their post and are hastening 
up to the heights, and the Fidenates, opposite to 
whom they were stationed, extend beyond our wing 
that is now left unprotected, and are going to surround 

* vTrkp Keparos ovres : vnepKepaTwaai'Tes Reiske, vnep- 
Kipaaavns Cobet. 

* rod iil)iXwp,4t>ov Bb R : to iipiXcuiidvov Ba. 

109 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aKovaavTas rovs 'PcojxaLovs /cat ISovrag rrjv 
opfirjv rcov 'AAjSavcut' rrjv erri ro opos Sei/xa co? 
KVKXcoao[Ji€vovs VTTO Tcov TToAe/xtotv KaTuXafi- 
Pdvei, ware ovre fidx^crdai ovre fxevetv avrols 

5 eTTrjei. evOa Sr) ao^ia Aeyerat ■)(^prjaaadai 6 

fAAos' ovoev eTTLrapa^^ueLS ttjv oiavoLav vtto 
roaovrov re /cat ovtcos oiTTpoaSoK'^TOv <j>avivros 
KaKov, St' T]v ov fjiovov ecrcoae rrjv 'Pw/xaLcov 
orpandv et? rrpovTrrov KaraKeKXeLfxemjv oXedpov, 
aAAa /cat to. tcui' rroXepnojv 7Tpayp.ara avpLvavra ^ 
avverpiipe re kol 8Le(f)deip€v. cos yap rjKovae 
rov dyyeXov, fieydXr) (f>covij ;(/3c6/xevoj, ware /cat 

6 roiis TToXepLtovs aKovetv, " Kparovfxev" etTrev, 
" dvSpes 'PojfxaLoi, rcov i^dpcov. 'AAjSavot p^ev 
yap rjijuv ro rrXTjaiov opos rovro KareiXrjt^aaLV , 
coaTTep Spare, Kara rds efids evroXds, it'a Kara 
vcorov yevopievoL rcov rroXep-Lcov erricoaLV avroZs. 
evdvpLTjOevres ovv on iv /caAo) rovs exdiarovs 
rjpLv e-)(op.ev, ol fiev dvriKpvs emovres, ol he 
KarortLv, evda ovre Trpoaco ■)^copeiv ovt ottloco 
eTnarpl(j>eiv Swdpievoi rrorapia) re /cat opei 
e/c ^ rcov TrXaytcov dtroKXeiopievoL KoX-qv hcoaovacv 
■qpuLv hiKTiv^ Ire * avv TToXXfi Kara<j)povriaei eTr' 
avrovs" 

XXV. Taura Trapa rds rd^eis dirdaas irap- 
e^Lcbv eXeye, /cat aurt/ca rovs p^ev OtSrjvatous" heos 
elaepxerai TTaXiVTrpoSoaias cos Karearparrjyrj- 
pLevovs VTTO rov AX^avov, errei ovre avrip-era- 
ra^dpuevov avrov elSov ovr em rovs Pcop-atovs 
evdvs ^ eXavvovra, wanep VTrea)(^ero avrols, rovs 

* avfiTravra B : ora. R. * eV Steph. : om. AB (?). 

no 



BOOK III. 24, 4-25, 1 

us." The Romans, upon hearing this and seeing the 
haste with which the Albans were rushing up the hill, 
were seized with such fear of being surrounded by 
the enemy that it did not occur to them either to 
fight or to stand their ground. Thereupon Tullus, 
they say, not at all disturbed in mind by so great 
and so unexpected a misfoi'tune, made use of a 
stratagem by which he not only saved the Roman 
army, which was threatened with manifest ruin, 
but also shattered and brought to nought all the 
plans of the enemy. For, as soon as he had heard the 
messenger, he raised his voice, so as to be heard 
even by the enemy, and cried : " Romans, we are 
victorious over the enemy. For the Albans have 
occupied for us this hill hard by, as you see, by my 
orders, so as to get behind the enemy and fall upon 
them. Consider, therefore, that we have our 
greatest foes where we want them, some of us 
attacking them in front and others in the rear, in a 
position where, being unable either to advance or to 
retire, hemmed in as they are on the flanks by the 
river and by the hill, they will make handsome 
atonement to us. Forward, then, and show your 
utter contempt of them." 

XXV. These words he repeated as he rode past all 
the ranks. And immediately the Fidenates became 
afraid of counter-treacherjs suspecting that the Alban 
had deceived them by a stratagem, since they did 
not see either that he had changed his battle order 
so as to face the other way or that he was promptly 
charging the Romans, according to his promise; 

* Ka)^fjv . . . SiVtjv B : om. R. * itc B : oAA' Ire R. 

^ fvOiis R : ivdvs avrwv Ba (?), evdvs avrov Bb (?), Jacoby. 

Ill 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

oe *Pco/xatoy? iTrrjpev els evroXfjiiav koX Odpaovs 
€V€TrXr]a€v 6 Xoyos' Kal fxeya ifx^oTjcravTes opixojaw 
€7TL Toirg voXe/JiLovs ddpooi. rpOTrrj 8e yiVerai 
/xera rovro tcjv ^iSr^vaicov Kal (j)vyr] Trpos rrjv 

2 TToXtv dKocrjJLOS. 6 Se tcov 'Pcofxaicov ^aaiXevg 
imppd^as avroZs rrjv Xttttov 7T€pL(f)6^0LS ovai Kal 
rerapaypuevoLs Kal p^^XP^ twos hioj^as, (hs ep^adev 
iaKeSaapLevovs 0.77' dXXrjXcov Kal ovre Xoyiapov 
en Tov avarrjvai Xrji/jopevovs ovre h'uvapLv 
exovrag, d^et? rovs (fyevyovras em to avvearrjKos 
€Ti Kal 8iap.4vov TCOV TToXepicov €X(Jop€L pepos. 

3 Kai yiveTat koXos p-kv /cat o tcjv TTet,cbv dyiLv, 
eVi Se KaXXicov 6 tcov iTnrecov. ov yap ^vIkXivov 
ol TjjSe TCTaypevoi OvievTavol tt]v ecfioSov ^ ttjs ^ 

Pcxjpa'iKrjg lttttov KararrXayevTes , dXX dvT- 
€Lxov axpi- TToXXov. eVeira padovreg on to 
evcovvpov ac^dJv ■^TTrjTai Kal ndaa rj ^i8r]vaicov re 
Kai TCOV dXXcov ovppdxcov OTpaTid (fjevyei rrpo- 
TpoTTdhiqVy heiaavTes pr) KVKXcoOdiaiv vtto tcov 
dvaaTpa(f>€VTcov ^ e/c tov Stcoypov TpenovTat, Kal 
avrol XvcxavTeg ra? Ta^ei? Kal Std tov iroTapov 

4 CToj^eii' eavTOVs ineLpcovTo. oaot pkv ovv eppco- 
peveaTaTOi re avTcov rjaav Kal -qKiOTa vtto 
TpavpidTCOV ^apvvopievoL veiv re ovk aSwarot 
Slxo. tcov ottXojv to peWpov hieTTepatovvTO , oaoi 
Se TovTCov TLVos iveXiTTOv €v Tar? Sti'ai? aTTeOvr^OKOV 
o^v yap TOV Te^e'pio? TrepL Tr)v ^Lh-qvqv Kal 

5 okoXlov to pevpia. 6 Se TuAAo? potpci tlvi tcov 
iTTTricov KeXevaas tovs errl tov TTOTapov coOovpevovs 

^ e(j>o8ov Rciske : e^oSov imo 0, Jacoby. 
^ rijs added by Hudson. 



BOOK III. 25, 1-5 

but the Romans, on their side, were emboldened by 
the words of Tullus and filled with confidence, and 
giving a great shout, they rushed in a body against 
the enemy. Upon this, the Fidenates gave way 
and fled toward their city in disorder. The Roman 
king hurled his cavalry against them while they were 
in this fear and confusion, and pursued them for 
some distance ; but when he learned that they were 
dispersed and separated from one another and 
neither likely to take thought for getting together 
again nor in fact able to do so, he gave over the pur- 
suit and marched against those of the enemy whose 
ranks were still unbroken and standing their ground. 
And now there took place a brilliant engagement 
of the infantry and a still more brilliant one on the 
part of the cavalry. For the Veientes, who were 
posted at this point, did not give way in terror at 
the charge of the Roman horse, but maintained the 
fight for a considerable time. Then, learning that 
their left wing was beaten and that the whole army 
of the Fidenates and of their other allies was in 
headlong flight, and fearing to be surrounded by the 
troops that had returned from the pursuit, they also 
broke their ranks and fled, endeavouring to save 
themselves by crossing the river. Accordingly, 
those among them who were strongest, least disabled 
by their wounds, and had some ability to swim, got 
across the river, without their arms, while all who 
lacked any of these advantages perished in the 
eddies ; for the stream of the Tiber near Fidenae 
is rapid and has many windings. Tullus ordered a 
detachment of the horse to cut down those of the 

* dvaaTpa(j>evTU)v B : dvaarpe^ovTcuv R. 

"3 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KT€LV€LV, aVTOS €771 TO OrpaTOTTehoV TCOV OviCU- 

ravcov Tr^v dXXrjv Bvvafjbiv ayojv e^ i<f)6hov yiverai 
Kvpios avrov' koI ra fxev 'Pcofiaicov Trpay/xara 
TTapaho^ov rv)^6vra aconqpias iv tovtois '^v. 

XXVI. '0 Se 'AX^avos eTTetSi) Aa/ZTrpcDs" rjBr] 
VLKcbvras ededaaro rovs dfM(j)l tov TvXXov, Kara- 
^L^dcras Koi avros diro tcov vi/jr]Xd)v Trjv ocKeiav 
Svvajxiv €771 Tovs (f)€vyovTas Twv ^LSrjvaiojv 
e-)((LpeL, Iva Srj tols 'Pco/xatot? yevoiro rrdaL ^avepos 
epyov Ti TToidJv av[jip.d)(ov, /cat av)(yovs tcov 

2 SieaKeSaafievajv iv rfj (f>vyfj hUi^deLpe. avvels 
Se TTjv ^Ldvoiav avrov Kal p.ia'qaag ttjv TraXiv- 
npoSooLav 6 TuAAos' ovhev i^eXey^etv (^ero 
Selv Kara to irapov, ecus" dv v(f) iavTco TTOtiqcnrjTai 
TOV dvSpa, aAA' eTraLvelv re ttjv dva)^d)pT]aLV avTov 
TTjv 67rt ra [xereajpa irpos ttoXXovs tojv irapovrcov 
CO? airo TTavros tov ^eXrtcrTOV yevofievr^v eoKrjTTTeTO 
Kai Twv iTTTTeaiv puolpdv Tiva Trepufsas ct>? avTov 
rjiiov TcXetav dTTohei^aadai ttjv TTpodvpiiav, tovs 
pur] BvvTjOevTas els ra Tcixr] tojv OiSrjvaLcov 
KaTa(f)€vy€iv dAA' icTKcSaapievovs dvd ttjv j^cLpav 
av)(yovs dvras KcXevoiv Siepevvcop^evov dTTOKreiveiv. 

3 KdK^lvos d)S Odrepov djv -qXiTLae SLaTreirpaypievos 
Kai XeX'qOcos rov TvXXov e^^atpe re /cat P'^xpt 
TToXXov KadiTTTTevcov rd TTeSta tovs KaToXap.- 
^avop-ivovs StecfideLpev, -qS-q Be SehvKOTOs rjXlov 
tovs LTTTTeas '^Kev dycov enl to arparoiTeBov to 
'Pwpa'iKov €/c tov hiioypiov /cat tt^v erreXdovaav 
vvKTa iv evTTadetais dpa rot? eratpot? rjv. 

4 *0 Be TvXXos ev tco OvievTavcbv p^apa/ct peivas 

d)(pi TTpCOTTjS cf>vXaK7JS Kai TOVS iTTL^aveOTdTOVS 

TcDv aixp-oXojTOiv dvaKpivas Twes ^aav ol rfjs 
114 



BOOK III. 25, 5-26, 4 

enemy who were pressing toward the river, while 
he himself led the rest of the army to the camp of 
the Veientes and captured it by storm. This was the 
situation of the Romans after they had been unex- 
pectedly preserved from destruction. 

XXVI. When the Alban observed that Tullus 
had already won a brilliant victory, he also marched 
down from the heights -with his own troops and 
pursued those of the Fidenates who were fleeing, 
in order that he might be seen by all the Romans 
performing some part of the duty of an ally ; and he 
destroyed many of the enemy who had become 
dispersed in the flight. Tullus, though he under- 
stood his purpose and detested his double treachery, 
thought he ought to utter no reproaches for the 
present till he should have the man in his power, 
but addressing himself to many of those who were 
present, he pretended to applaud the Alban's with- 
draAval to the heights, as if it had been prompted by 
the best motive ; and sending a party of horse to him, 
he requested him to give the final proof of his zeal 
by hunting down and slaying the many Fidenates 
who had been unable to get inside the walls and were 
dispersed about the country. And Fufetius, imagin- 
ing that he had succeeded in one of his two hopes 
and that Tullus was unacquainted with his treachery, 
rejoiced, and riding over the plains for a considerable 
time, he cut down all whom he found ; but when the 
sun was now set, he returned from the pursuit with 
his horsemen to the Roman camp and passed the 
following night in making merry with his friends- 

Tullus remained in the camp of the Veientes till 
the first watch and questioned the most prominent 
of the prisoners concerning the leaders of the revolt ; 

"5 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aiToaraaeoi'S rjyeixoves, a»? ejxaOe /cat tov AX^avov 
MexTiov ^ovcfyemov iv Tot? avvofiocTafievois 
V7Tdp)(ovTa, Sdfas" avvaBeiv ra TTpa)(0€VTa utt' 
avTOV ToZs iJiy]vvojX€VOLS VTTO rcbv alxfio-^fiiTCov , 
aj'a^as' CTrt tov lttttov /cat rovg Tnarordrovs 
riov iratpojv TrapaXa^cbv vpos rrjv ttoXlv d(f)L7T7T€V€L- 

5 /cat 77/30 fxecTcov vvktcjv e/c tojv olklwv rovs ^ov- 
Xevrds ovyKaXeaas rrjv re TTpoSoaiav avrols Aeyet 
rrjv rod AX^avov jxaprupas rovs alxP'O-Xwrovg 
TTapaaxoixevog /cat ov rpoTTOV avros icarearpa- 
rriyrjae tovs re TToXeixiovs ^ /cat rovs OtSijv'atou? 
StT^yetrai. reXos Srj ro Kpdriarov €lX7](f)6TOS 
TOV TToXepLOV Ta XoLTTa rjhrj OKorreiv avTovs tj^lov, 
Tiva xP'h "^poTTov TLfxcopTJaaadaL p.kv tovs npoSoras, 
aco(j)pov€aT€pav 8e ttjv 'AX^avcov dTToSovvai ttoXlv 

6 ei? TO AotTTOf. TO fiev ovv TLfiajp-qaaadai tovs 
imxeip'qaavTas epyois dvoaiois Trdaiv iSoKci 
hiKaiov T€ /cat dvayKalov elvai, ov 8e Tporrov 
TOVTO yevoLT dv paara /cat aCT(/>aAeaTaTa ttoXXt^v 
avTOis 7Tap€LX€V aTTopiav. aS'qXo) fiev yap /cat 
XeXrjdoTL fjiopo) TToXXovs /cat dyaOovs 'AX^avdiv 
dvSpas Siax^LpLcraadaL twv aSwdrayv avTols 
i(f}aLV€TO elvai' el 8e (f)av€pd)s avXXapb^dveiv /cat 
Tifjuopeladai tovs evo^ovs rat? atrtat? emx^i-p'^- 
aeiav, ov TrepioifjeadaL tovs ^AX^avovs vireXdix- 
^avov, dXX* €7tI Ta OTrXa ;)^a)pryCTetr. ctjua Se 
TroXe/JLelv ^iSrjvatoLs t€ /cat Tvpptjvols /cat rot? 
CTTt Tr)v crvfjifjiaxtav a<f)cov avv€Xr]Xv66GLV 'AA^avot? ^ 
ovK €^ovXovTO. dTTopovfJievcov 8' avTCJV TeXev- 
Talos dTToScLKwraL yv(vfir]v 6 TuAAo?, rjv diravTes 
i7TT]V€crav, VTrep -^s fxcTa fiiKpov ipd). 

^ rovs re Kpv<f>iovs woAe/xiou? Reiske. 

ii6 



BOOK III. 26, 4-6 

and when he learned that Mettius Fufetius, the 
Alban, was also one of the conspirators and considered 
that his actions agreed with the information of the 
prisoners, he mounted his horse, and taking with 
him the most faithful of his friends, rode off to Rome. 
Then, sending to the houses of the senators, he as- 
sembled them before midnight and informed them 
of the treachery of the Alban, producing the prisoners 
as witnesses, and informed them of the stratagem 
by which he himself had outwitted both their enemies 
and the Fidenates.^ And he asked them, now that 
the war was ended in the most successful manner, to 
consider the problems that remained — how the 
traitors ought to be punished and the city of Alba 
rendered more circumspect for the future. That the 
authors of these wicked designs should be punished 
seemed to all both just and necessary, but how this 
was to be most easily and safely accomplished was a 
problem that caused them great perplexity. For 
they thought it obviously impossible to put to 
death a great number of brave Albans in a secret 
and clandestine manner, whereas, if they should 
attempt openly to apprehend and punish the guilty, 
they assumed that the Albans would not permit 
it but would rush to arms ; and they were unwilling 
to carry on war at the same time with the Fidenates 
and Tyrrhenians and with the Albans, who had come 
to them as allies. While they were in this perplexity, 
Tullus delivered the final opinion, which met with the 
approval of all ; but of this I shall speak presently. 

^ Probably we should either supply ' ' secret ' ' before 
"enemies" (so Reiske) or substitute Albans for Fidenates 
(Spelman). 



Kiessling : oAjSowot' {?). 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XXVII. T errapaKovra S' ovtcjov ara^lcov 
rwv fiera^v (^iSijvrjg re /cat ' Po) fxrjg iXdaag rov 
LTTTTOV ai^a Kparos rrraprjv cttl rov y^apaKa koL Trplv 
rjfjiepav XapLTrpav yeviaOai KaXeaas MdpKov 
'Opdriov rov TrepiAet^^eWa e/c rcbv rpiSvfjLcov /cat 
Sovs avr(p rcbv LTTveajv /cat rcov Tre^cur rovs 
OLKfiaiordrovs eKeXevcrev cttI ttjv ^AX^avojv ttoXlv 
dyeiv, TTapeXOovra 8' evros rei)(ov'; ws <f)iXov 
ovra, orav VTTox^tpi'OVs Xd^rj rovs evSov, KaOeXeXv 
rrjv ttoXlv o-xpf- defieXicov fxrjdcvos fx-^re tStou 
jjL'qre kolvov KaraaKevdap,aros (j)€Lh6iX€Vov e^co 
rajv Lepojv, avOpwTTOJV 8e jji-qdeva ixrjre Kreiveiv 
[X'qre dSiKelv, aAAa Trdvras idv €)(€iv rd iavrojv. 

2 €KTT€pnf}a? he rovrov cKaXei rovs ra^tdpyovg 
/cat TOWS' Xo)(o.yovs /cat rd So^avra rfj ^ovXfj 
SiacracfyT^aag (j)vXaKr]v e/c rovrcov Kadiararai Trepl 
ro adjfia' /cat /xer ov noXv Traprjv 6 ^AX^avos 
(OS €7tI viKrJuarL kolvcv yeyiqdcbs /cat rep TvXXco 
avvrjSopievos . 6 Se TJAAo? aTTopprjrov r-qv yvojixr^v 
en <f)vXd(jGOiv errr]vei re avrov kol [xeydXcov 
d^Lov dTTe<f)aive Scopewv -napeKoXei re ypdipavra 
/cat rd rcbv dXXcuv ^AX^avcbv dvojxara rcbv eTrt^ave? 
Tt Kara rr)v [Jidxf]v SiaTTpa^afxevcov (jiepeiv cos 
avrov, tva KaKeZvoi rrjv e/c rdJv emviKLcov direvey- 

3 Kcovrai jxcLpav. 6 p,ev 8rj TTcpixaprjs yevofievos 
rovs TTiarordrovs rcbv (fjtXcvv, ois eypT^aaro rcbv 
arroppT^rcvv ^ovXevp-drcov avvepyols, elaypdifjas els 
SeXrov eTriStScoati/. o 8e raJv 'PcojJiaLcvv ^aaiXevs 
els eKKXiqaiav drravras dirodepievovs rd OTrXa 
e/caAef avviovrcvv 8e avrcbv rov fiev "qyepiova 
rcbv AX^avcbv dp,a rois ra^idpyocs re /cat Xo)(ayoLS 
Trap" avro rd ^rjixa eKeXevaev eardvai, e)(op.evovs 
Ii8 



BOOK III. 27, 1-3 

XXVII. The distance between Fidenae and Rome 
being fox*ty stades, Tullus rode full speed to the camp, 
and sending for Marcus Horatius, the survivor of the 
triplets, before it was quite day, he commanded him 
to take the flower of the cavalry and infantry, and 
proceeding to Alba, to enter the city as a friend, 
and then, as soon as he had secured the submission 
of the inhabitants, to raze the city to the foundations 
without sparing a single building, whether private or 
public, except the temples ; but as for the citizens, 
he was neither to kill nor injure any of them, but to 
permit them to retain their possessions. After 
sending him on his way he assembled the tribunes 
and centurions, and having acquainted them with the 
resolutions of the senate, he placed them as a guard 
about his person. Soon after, the Alban came, pre- 
tending to express his joy over their common victory 
and to congratulate Tullus upon it. The latter, 
still concealing his intention, commended him and 
declared he was deserving of great rewards ; at the 
same time he asked him to write down the names of 
such of the other Albans also as had performed any 
notable exploit in the battle and to bring the list to 
him, in order that they also might get their share 
of the fruits of victory. M ettius , accord i ngly , greatly 
pleased at this, entered upon a tablet and gave to 
him a list of his most intimate friends who had been 
the accomplices in his secret designs. Then the 
Roman king ordered all the troops to come to an 
assembly after first laying aside their arms. And 
when they assembled he ordered the Alban general 
together with his tribunes and centurions to stand 
directly beside the tribunal ; next to these the rest of 



ii9 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8e rovTcov rovs aXXovs 'AX^avov? ra-)(devras 
€KKXr]cndC,€LV, ixera Se tou? ^ AX^avovg to Xoittov 
Tcbv avjjifxdxoiv ttXtjOos- e^codev 8e ttclvtcov 
TTepUoTqae 'Vcoyiaiovs, iv ots rjaav ol yevvaioTarot,, 
^i(f)r) KpvTTTOvras vtto rals Trepi^oXals. (Ls 8' 
ev KaXo) Tovg i^dpovg ^X^*-^ vneXa^ev dvaards 
eAefe roiaSe* 

XXVIII. ""AvBpes 'PcofiaiOL re Kal dXXoL 
^lXoi Kal avfi/jiaxoi, tovs f^ev e/c tov <j)avepov 
ToXp,riaavras els TToXepiOV -qpuv KaTaarrjvai, ^lStj- 
vaiovs Kal roiis avpipidxovs avToyv, eTip.a)pT]ad}ieda 
avv deoZs, Kal hveZv ddrepov ■^ Travaovrai to 
XoLTTOV ivoxXovvTes rjjMv ^ StAca? tloovctlv en 

2 TOVTCov ;^et/30i^as'. aTTairel he 6 Kaipos, CTrel 
rd TTpcbra r)[juv Kar evx'f]v Kex^yp'rjKe, Kal Tovg 
dXXovs TLpuxjprjcraadai TToXepbiovs , oaoi (f)iX(vv 
fxev exovatv ovofxaTa /cat 7TapeXTJ(f>dr](7av eis TovSe 
TOV TToXefxov cos KaKOJs TOVS Koivovs exdpovs p.ed 
T^judir TTOirjaovTes, eyKareXiTTOv Se to Trpos rj/Jids 
TTiGTOv Kal /xera TOtv TToXefiiwv diToppijTovs 
TToirjadpievoL avvdiqKas Sta^^eipat rrdvTas rjfids 

3 iire^dXovTO. ttoXv yap oStol KaKiovs tcvv Ik 
TOV (jiavepov iroXepiLajv elal koI fxei^ovos Ti/icoptas" 
d^Loi' TOVS fJLev yap Kal (f)vXd^aadaL pdhiov 
ToZs eTn^ovXevojxevots Kat avpLTrXaKevTas ws exdpovs 
afivvaadai Svvarov, (f)LXovs 8 exdpojv epya 
TTOLOVVTas ovT€ cf)vXd^aa6aL pahiov ovre dp-vvaadai 
TOLS TrpoKaTaXr](f>deZaL hvvaTov. tolovtol ^ 8' 

€L(JLV Ol 7T€lJ.cf)6ePTeS T^plv VTTO TTJS AXfiaVCOV 

TToXecos em SoXco avjXfxaxot KaKov fiev ovdev 
vcf) rjjxcov nadovres , ayaldd 8e iroAAa Kal peydXa. 

4 a.TTOLKoi fiev yap avToJv ovTes ovOev ttjs tovtcov 
120 



BOOK III. 27, 3-28, 4 

the Albans were to take their place in the assembly, 
drawn up in their ranks, and behind the Albans the 
remainder of the allied forces, while outside of them 
all he stationed Romans, including the most resolute, 
with swords concealed under their garments. When 
he thought he had his foes where he wanted them, 
he rose up and spoke as follows : 

XXVIII. " Romans and you others, both friends 
and allies, those who dared openly to make war against 
us, the Fidenates and their allies, have been punished 
by us with the aid of the gods, and either will cease 
for the future to trouble us or will receive an even 
severer chastisement than that they have just ex- 
perienced. It is now time, since our first enterprise 
has succeeded to our wish, to punish those other 
enemies also who bear the name of friends and were 
taken into this war to assist us in harrying our 
common foes, but have broken faith with us, and 
entering into secret treaties with those enemies, have 
attempted to destroy us all. For these are much 
worse than open enemies and deserve a severer 
punishment, since it is both easy to guard against 
the latter when one is treacherously attacked and 
possible to repulse them when they are at grips as 
enemies, but when friends act the part of enemies it is 
neither easy to guard against them nor possible for 
those who are taken by surprise to repulse them. And 
such are the allies sent us by the city of Alba with 
treacherous intent, although they have received no 
injury from us but many considerable benefits. For, 
as we are their colony, we have not wrested away any 



^ ToiouToi Biicheler : ovtoi 0. 

121 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o.pX^'S TTapaaTrdaavres IS Lav lcr)(vv /cat 8vvafJi.iv 
OLTTo Tcov Ihioiv TroXefJLOJv ^ eKTrjadfieda, edveai 8e 
fxeytaroLS /cat TroAejUt/cajTCtTOts' eTnTei^j^tcravTe? rr^v 
7]IjLojv avTcbv TToXtv TToXXrjv d<T(l)dXeLav tovtois 
Tov re OLTTO Tvpprjvojv kol oltto Tia^ivcov noXefxov 
TTap€L)(oiieda' ^s Sr) rroXeajg ev re Trparrovarjs 
CLTTavrcov jxaXiara ■)(^aipeiv avrovs eSet /cat a<^aX- 
Xo/xevrj^ fxrjSev evheearepov rj Trepl rrjs avrcov 

5 a^^deadai. ol Se dpa (f)dovovvT€s ov)( rjpiv [xovov 
Tcbv dyadcbv dAAd /cat iavrdls ttjs Si' rj[J.ds 
evTVXi-o-9 Sl€t4Xovv /cat reXevTcovres cos ovkctl 
Karex^cv ttjv vttovXov ex^pav iSvvavro iroXepiov 'f]pA.v 
■jrpoelTTOV. p^adovTes S' r]pds €V irpos tov dycbva 
TTapeaKeuaapevovs , cos ovdev oloi t rjaav ipydara- 
adai KaKov, els StaAAayd? CKdXovv /cat (fiiXlav 
Kal TO TTepl TTJs rjyepxivias veiKos ev rpialv dcf}* 
eKarepas TToXecos acopaaiv rj^lovv Kpidrjvai. eSe^d- 
peda Kal ravras rds TrpoKXrjaets /cat VLKriaavres 
rfj pdxj) Trjv ttoXlv avrwv eaxopev VTTOxeipiov. 

6 cl>€pe Sr] ri perd ravra eiroirjaapev ; e^ov rjpXv 
oprjpd re avrojv Xa^elv /cat <f)povpdv ev rfj 
TToXec KaraXiTTelv /cat roiis Kopvcf)aLordrovs tcov 
SiacrTTjadvrajv rds TToXeis rovs pev dveXelv, rovs 
S' eK^aXelv, TToXireias re avrcx)v Koapov peraarij- 
crat rrpos to rjplv avp<^epov /cat x^P^^ '^^tt XPVH'^' 
TCOV aTTohaapoi tpqpiayaai Kai, o rrdvTcov paaTOv 
7^v, d(f)eXeadai rd oTrXa avTovs, e^ o)v ey/cpare- 
OTepav dv ttjv dpx^v KaTeoTrjadpeda, tovtcov 
p,ev ovSev rj^icoaapev TTOirjaat, tco 8' evae^ei 
pdXXov rj Tcp da^aXeZ ttjs dpx'rjs eTrerpeipapev 
/cat TO evTrpeires to irpos drravTas tov Xvai- 
TeXovvTos rjpiiv avToZs tSta KpetTTOV rjyr]adp,evot 

122 



BOOK III. 28, 4r-6 

part of their dominion but have acquired our own 
strength and power from our own wars ; and by 
making our city a bulwark against the greatest and 
most warUke nations we have effectually secured them 
from a war with the Tyrrhenians and Sabines. In the 
prosperity, therefore, of our city they above all others 
should have rejoiced, and have grieved at its adversity 
no less than at their own. But they, it appears, con- 
tinued not only to begrudge us the advantages we 
had but also to begrudge themselves the good fortune 
they enjoyed because of us, and at last, unable any 
longer to contain their festering hatred, they declared 
war against us. But finding us well prepared for the 
struggle and themselves, therefore, in no condition to 
do any harm, they invited us to a reconciliation and 
friendship and asked that our strife over the suprem- 
acy should be decided by three men from each city. 
These proposals also we accepted, and after winning 
in the combat became masters of their city. Well, 
then, what did we do after that ? Though it was in our 
power to take hostages from them, to leave a garrison 
in their city, to destroy some of the principal authors 
of the war between the two cities and banish others, 
to change the form of their government according to 
our own interest, to punish them with the forfeiture 
of a part of their lands and effects, and — the thing 
that was easiest of all — to disarm them, by which 
means we should have strengthened our rule, we 
did not see fit to do any of these things, but, consulting 
our filial obligations to our mother-city rather than 
the security of our power and considering the good 
opinion of all the world as more important than our 

^ 7rqXe(j.u)v R(?), woAc/u'tUK B : -novuiv Reiske. 

123 
VOL. II. E 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avv€XOip'qaa^€V avrois airavra ra a^irepa. Kap- 
TTOvadai, MeTTioi' 8c ^ov(j}irrLov, ov avrol rfj 
pLeyiaTT] apxj] iKoap^rjaav, ws S17 KpariaTov 
AX^avcJjv, hLOLKeZv ra Koiva fiexpf- rov Trapovros 
eldaafxev. 

7 " *Av6^ (Lv rivag 'q/juv ;!^aptTas' diTeSoaav, 
TjVLKa [xaXiaTa ^ ^iXoiv re koI avp^/jidxcov evvoias 
eSei, OLKOvaare- aTTopp-^rovs TTOL7]adp.evoi uvvOrj- 
Kas TTpos rovs kolvovs iroXep-iovs , <hs iv ra> dycovi 
avvGTndrjoopievoL rjpuv p.er avrcov, eTreiSr] TrXr^aiov 
aXX-qXiov eyivofieda KaraXirrovres rrjv rd^Lv i(f)* 
rjv erd^drjaav cpx^^'^^^ 77/30? rd TrXrjaLov op-q 
hp6p,cp TrpoKaraXa^eadai ajrevSovres rd o^vpd. 

8 et fxev ovv Kara vovv rj Trelpa avrots 6;^a!>pet, 
ovhkv dv rd KcuXvaov ^ rjv (XTrai'Tas" T^/xa? aTroAco- 
Acvai KVKXcodevras vtto re TToXefxicov Kal ^iXcov, 
Kai rovg ttoAAous' rrjs TToXecos rjfxcov dyojvas, ovs 
vrrep rrjs rjye/Jiovias 'qy(x)VLodp,e6a, iv 7}p.epa 

9 8ia(f>dap7Jvai [Mia. iTreiSri 8e Sierreaev avrdjv ro 
^ovXevfjia dedjv p.ev evvolas 7TporjyrjGap.evrjs {aTrdaas 
yap eyojye rds KaXds Kal dyadds Trpd^eis eKeivois 
avarLdrjm), eireira Kai rrjs ejxrjs arparr]yiag ovk 
iXaxLcrrrjv pLolpav els re ro heos rdJv TToXepiiciiv 
Kai ets ro ddpaos ro vfxerepov Trapaaxopievris 
(a ydp eyoj ^ ev rep rore dycovi e(f)r]v, cu? jJtt' 
e/Ltou KeXevadevres 'AX^avol rrpoKaraXapi^dvovrai 
ra opr) KVKXcoaecus rcov rroXe/jiLcov eveKa, rrXdapiara 

10 Kai arparr)yTJp.ara -^v ep.d), KexcoprjKorcov S' 
rjpLLV rd)v TTpay/xdrcov d)s r)fxiv avve(f>epev, ovk 



^ uoAtora Biicheler : fiaXXov 0, Jacoby. 
* Naber : kwXvov 0. 



124 



BOOK III. 28, 6-10 

own private advantage, we allowed them to enjoy all 
that was theirs and permitted Mettius Fufetius. as 
being supposedly the best of the Albans — since they 
themselves had honoured him with the chief magi- 
stracy — to administer their affairs up to the present 
time. 

" For which favours hear now what gratitude they 
showed, at a time when we needed the goodwill of 
our friends and allies more than ever. They made a 
secret compact with our common enemies by which 
they engaged to fall upon us in conjunction with them 
in the course of the battle ; and when the two armies 
approached each other they deserted the post to 
which they had been assigned and made off for the 
hills near by at a run, eager to occupy the strong 
positions ahead of anyone else. And if their attempt 
had succeeded according to their wish, nothing 
could have prevented us, surrounded at once by our 
enemies and by our friends, from being all destroyed, 
and the fruit of the many battles we had fought for 
the sovereignty of our city from being lost in a single 
day. But since their plan has miscarried, owing, in 
the first place, to the goodwill of the gods (for I 
at any rate ascribe all worthy achievements to them), 
and, second, to the stratagem I made use of, which 
contributed not a little to inspire the enemy Avith fear 
and you with confidence (for the statement I made 
during the battle, that the Albans were taking 
possession of the heights by my orders with a view of 
surrounding the enemy, was all a fiction and a 
stratagem contrived by myself), since, I say, things 
have turned out to our advantage, we should not be 

3 e'ya> B : om. B. 

??6 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

av €Lr)ix€V dvSpes olovs rjixds TrpoarJKev elvai, 
ei ixrj TificoprjGaLfjLeda rovg TTpoSoras, ot ye 
Xo^pi-s TTJs dXXrjs duayKaLOTT^Tos, r]v Sta to avy- 
yeves ^xprjv avrovs <f)vXdaa€LV, arrovSas Kal 
opKia TTOLrjadjjLcvoi irpos rjfxds evay^os, ovre Oeovs 
Seicravres, ovs rcov opLoXoyicbv iTTOLifjaavro yudp- 
Tvpas, ovre to SiKatov avro Kal rrjv dvOpojTTLvrju 
vefieaiv evrpaTrevres , ovre ro rov klvSvvov fxeyedos 
€L pLT] Kara vovv avrols rj TrpoSoaia ■)(cop'iqa€i.ev 
VTToXoyL^ofxevoi, tov olktiotov rpoTTov rjixds e-n- 
€X€Lprjaav dvoXeaai, tou? drroiKou? re /cat evepye- 
ras ot Kriarai,^ jxerd rwv i-xQiarcov re /cat 
TroXepLtojTdrcxiv oravres" 

XXIX. Tayra 8 avTov Xeyovrog olficoyaL re 
Tcov AX^avcbv eyivovTO /cat TravToSaTrat SeT^aet?, 
TOV fiev Sr^/xoy fxrjSev iyvajKevai XeyovTOS &v 
o MeTTios ifirj)(^avdTO, tcov 8e Tas rjyeixovLas 
€-)(ovTO)v ov TTpoTepov TTeTTVodai Tas drropp-qTovs 
^ovXds aK7]7TTOixevcx)v 7] iv avTcp yeveadai tco 
aydjvi, -qvLKa ovtc KcoXveiv ovtc fi-q rrpaTTeiv ra 
KeXevofieva iv BvvaTciJ aMcrw riv, rihri Se tivcov 
/cat CTTL TTjv aKovGLou avayK7]v avacpepovTOiv to 
TTpdypca Std Kr^SeLav ^ Sta avyyeveiav ols 6 
2 jSaCTtAeu? aiiOTT-fjaai KeXevaas eXe^ev ' 

" Oi)S' e/xe XeX-qdev, dvhpes 'AX^avoL, tovtcov 
cov aTToXoyeZade ovdev, dXXd to fxev 7rXi]dos Vfxwv 
ayvoelv ttjv irpoSoaiav otofjiai, TCKfjiaipofievos on 
TToXXiov avveiSoTiov ovSe tov iXaxtOTOV 7Te(f)VK€ 
TaTTopprjTa atwTrdaOai, )(p6vov, twv 8e Ta^iap^djv 
T€ /cat Xo)(Oiycov ^pa^v rt fiepos riyovpui to 

^ ol Kriorax Reiske : olKTiara Ba, olKTuna BbR. 
126 



BOOK III. 28, 10-29, 2 

the men we ought to be if we did not take revenge 
on these traitors. For, apart from the other ties 
which, by reason of their kinship to us, they ought to 
have presei'ved inviolate, they recently made a treaty 
with us confirmed by oaths, and then, without either 
fearing the gods whom they had made witnesses of 
the treaty or showing any regard for justice itself 
and the condemnation of men, or considering the 
greatness of the danger if their treachery should not 
succeed according to their wish, endeavoured to 
destroy us, who are both their colony and their 
benefactors, in the most miserable fashion, thus 
arraying themselves, though our founders, on the 
side of our most deadly foes and our greatest 
enemies." 

XXIX. While he was thus speaking the Albans 
had recourse to lamentations and entreaties of 
every kind, the common people declaring that they 
had no knowledge of the intrigues of Mettius, and 
their commanders alleging that they had not learned 
of his secret plans till they were in the midst of the 
battle itself, when it was not in their power either to 
prevent his orders or to refuse obedience to them; 
and some even ascribed their action to the necessity 
imposed against their will by their affinity or kinship 
to the man. But the kinjj, havincr commanded them 
to be silent, addressed them thus : 

"I, too, Albans, am not unaware of any of these 
things that you urge in your defence, but am of the 
opinion that the generality of you had no knowledge 
of this treachery, since secrets are not apt to be kept 
even for a moment when many share in the knowledge 
of them ; and I also believe that only a small number 
of the tribunes and centurions were accomplices in 

127 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avveTTL^ovXevarav rjixlv yeviadai, to Se TrXelarov 
€^r]7Tarrj(jdai, /cat ets" aKovatovs dvdyKas d(f)l)^6aL. 

3 el 8e ye tovtcov fx-qSeu dX-qdes rjv, dXXd Trdvras 
eiarjXOev *AX^avovs /cat rovs evddhe ovras vfids 
/cat Tovs €v rfj TrdAet KaraXenrofxevovs r] rov 
KaKoJs TTOLeZv r)iJ,ds eTTiOvyiia, koI tovto ov vDv 
TTpojTOV, aXX e/c ttoXXov irdw )^p6vov SeSoyfJievov 
v/jilv -qv, T-fjs avyyeveias eVe/ca ttoXXtj 'Pco/xaiot? 
dvdyKT) /cat ravd* vjX(x)v raSt/CT^jLtara (jyepeiv. 

4 Iva Se fJL'qdev eVt '^ ^ovXevar^re Ka9' rjfxcov dSiKov 
fjLTjre OT] ^laadevTes vtto rwv rjyovfxevojv rrj^ 
TToXecos fJi'qTe TrapaKpovadevres /xt'a <j}vXaKr] /cat 
TTpovoia eariv, et TTy? auTTy? TroAecu? TroAtrat 
yevoLfieda vdvres /cat jLttW r)yol[ji€da TrarpiSa, 
■fjs €V re /cat ■)(elpov <f)epoiievr]s to eVt^aAAov fiepos 
eKaaros oiaerai rrjg rv^^qs- ecos 8' dv e/c Siacfiopov 
yvcofiTjs, oiOTTep vvv e;(et, to re TrXelov /cat tov- 
XaTTOV eT[iKplv(x>\iev e/carepot, oj3/c ecrrat ^e^aios 
rjpZv rj ^ TTpos aAATyAou? (f>iXia, aAAto? re /cat et 
fxeXXoLev ol [lev rrpoTepoL eTn^ovXevaavres rot? 
eTepoL£ 7] KaTopOcoaavTCS TrXelov e^eiv r] a^aAeVre? 
ev fiTjSevl beivcp eaeadat Sta to avyyeves, Kad* 
(hv S' dv at eTTLx^Lpiqaeis yevcuvTaL vnox^Lpcoi 
KaraoTavTes tu eaxara TraOelv /cat Sta^uydrre? 
fir)6ev (ZoTTep e)(6poL ^ pLvqcLKaKeiv, drrep koX 
ev Tw TjapovTL yeyovev. 

5 " "lare brj TaCra Se8oyp,€va 'Poj/iaiot? tjj 
TTapeXdovarj vvktI avvayayovros efjLov ttjv ^ovXtjv 
/cat Ta So^avTa rocs avveSpois ypai/jafxevov ttjv 

^ €Ti added here by Prou, after PovXevaTjre by Sintenis, 
Jacoby. 

128 



BOOK III. 29, 2-5 

the conspiracy formed against us, but that the 
greater part of them were deceived and forced into 
a position where they were compelled to act against 
their will. Nevertheless, even if nothing of all this 
were true, but if all the Albans, as well you who 
are here present as those who are left in your city, 
had felt a desire to hurt us, and if you had not now 
for the first time, but long since, taken this resolution, 
yet on account of their kinship to you the Romans 
would feel under every necessity to bear even this 
injustice at your hands. But against the possibility 
of your forming some wicked plot against us here- 
after, as the result either of compulsion or deception 
on the part of the leaders of your state, there is but one 
precaution and provision, and that is for us all to be- 
come citizens of the same city and to regard one only 
as our fatherland, in whose prosperity and adversity 
everyone will have that share which Fortune allots 
to him. For so long as each of our two peoples 
decides what is advantageous and disadvantageous 
on the basis of a different judgment, as is now the case, 
the friendship between us will not be enduring, 
particularly when those who are the first to plot 
against the others are either to gain an advantage if 
they succeed, or, if they fail, are to be secured by 
their kinship from any serious retribution, while 
those against whom the attempt is made, if they are 
subdued, are to suffer the extreme penalties, and if 
they escape, are not, like enemies, to remember 
their wrongs— as has happened in the present instance. 
" Know, then, that the Romans last night came 
to the following resolutions, I myself having assem- 
bled the senate and proposed the decree : it is ordered 

* ■^ R : om. B. » Sclimitz : ix^pok 0. 

129 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

jjL€v ttoXlv i)iux)v Kadaipedrjvai, /cat fii7Te rcov 
Srjixoanov jx-qre rcbv ISlcotikwv KaTaoKevaaiidrcov 
opdov ^ edadai ^ Stafxevetv fxrjdev efo) tojv Updjv 

6 rovs S iv avTjj Travras exovras ovs /cat vvv 
exovai, KXripovs avhpaTTohcov re /cat ^oaK-rjixaTcov 
/cat Tcbv aAAcDi' ;)(/oi^/i.aTaji' fjurjdev a^atpe^eVras' iv 
*Pcx)[JL7] Tov dno TOuSe XP'^^^^ oiKelv oarjv 
re TO KOLVov u/xwi/ iKeKTrjro yijv rols fJirjdeva 
KXrjpov exovcriv 'AX^avdJv hiapbepiadilvaL x^P''^ '^^^ 
lepojv KT-qixdrcov, i^ (Lv at dvaiat, tols deols 
iyivovTO. olkcov ^ Se /caTaCT/ceyr]?, iv ols rovs 
piovs Ihpvaeade ol fJceraviardfjievoL, KaG* ovs 
eaovrai ri^s TrdAecu? tottovs, ifiG Tron^aaadai 
Trpovoiav avXXapL^dvovTa rots aTTopcoTdrois vfJLCov 

7 rTJ9 €15 rd epya SaTrdvrjs. /cat to fiev dXXo 
TrXrjdos vfJLcbv fierd tojv irap' rjiuv Stjixotlkcov 
avvTeXetv els 4>vXds /cat (f)pdrpas Karafxepiadev, 
^ovXrjs 8e fxerix^iv /cat dpxds Xafx^dveiv Kal 
Tot? TTarpiKLOLS TTpocTvefirjdrjvai, TOvaBe tovs oXkovs' 
'louAtoys", laepov'CXiovs , KopaTLovs, KolVrtAious', 
KAotAtous", TeyavLovs,* MertAtouj* Memov Se 
/cat rovs crvv tovtco ^ovXevaavras ttjv TrpoSoaiav 
St/ca? VTToax^lv, as dv T^/xet? rd^coiJiev Si/cao-rat 
TTcpl CKdarov rcov VTrairicov Kadel^ofievoi' ovOiva 
yap dTToaTepT^crofiev Kplaecos ovSe Xoyov." 

XXX. 'Qs 8e ravr' el-nev, daoi [xev -qaav 
^AX^avdJv 7T€vrjT€S r^yaTTiov et 'Pcofirjv re oIktJ- 
aovai /cat rrjs yrjs KXrjpov e^ovcn /cat iiri^vovv 

^ opdov B : opdov Tt R(?). 
* Kiessling : eaaai 0. 
' Kiessling : oIkicjv 0. 



BOOK III. 29, 5-30, 1 

that your city be demolished and that no buildings, 
either public or private, be left standing except the 
temples ; that all the inhabitants, while continuing 
in the possession of the allotments of land they now 
enjoy and being deprived of none of their slaves, 
cattle and other effects, reside henceforth at Rome; 
that such of your lands as belong to the public be 
divided among those of the Albans who have none, 
except the sacred possessions from which the sacri- 
fices to the gods were provided ; that 1 take charge of 
the construction of the houses in which you new- 
comers are to establish your homes, determining in 
what parts of the city they shall be, and assist the 
pooi-est among you in the expense of building; 
that the mass of your population be incorporated with 
our plebeians and be distributed among the tribes 
and curiae, but that the following families be admitted 
to the senate, hold magistracies and be numbered 
with the patricians, to wit, the Julii, the Servilii, 
the Curiatii, the Quintilii, the Cloelii, the Geganii, 
and the Metilii ; ^ and that Mettius and his accom- 
plices in the treachery suffer such punishments as we 
shall ordain when we come to sit in judgment upon 
each of the accused. For we shall deprive none of 
them either of a trial or of the privilege of making 
a defence." 

XXX. At these words of Tullus the poorer sort of 
the Albans were very well satisfied to become 
residents of Rome and to have lands allotted to 
them, and they received with loud acclaim the terms 

1 Cf. Livy i. 30, 2. 

* Steph. : yepaviovs 0. In all the MSS. except B yepaviovs 
and fieriXiovs follow aepoviXiovs. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

[xeyaXr] ^ofj ra ScSofxeva,^ ol Se XajjiTrporepoL 
roLS a^tajjxacTL koI rals rvxats Kpeirrovg rjxdovTO, 
el ScT^cret ttoXlv re rrjv yeiva[jievrjv avrovs e/cAiTretv 
/cat TTpoyovLKas eariag ipripLcocjat koI to Xoittov 
OLKelv iv rfj ^ivrj- ols ov'6ev eTTTjei Xiyeiv els 
TTjV icrx<irr]v /cara/ceKAet/xeVotS' dvdyK-qv. 6 Se 
TvXXos €7T€t,Sr] rrjv Sidpoiav efSe rcov ttoXXcov, 
aTToXoyeZadai rov Merrtov eKeXevaev , et rt irpog 

2 ravra Xeyeiv ^ovXeraL. ovk e^oiv S' o MeTTioj o 
Ti XPV Xeyeiv TTpos rovs Karrjyopovvrds re koI 
KarajxapTvpovvTas ttjv ^AX^avcbv ^ovXtjv e(f>r]aev 
avTO) ravra VTroOeadai rroieZv 8t' dTTopprjrwv, 
ore e^rjye rrjv SvvafXLv eVt rov TToXefiov, rj^tov re 
rovs AX^avovs , ots dvaKrrjaaadaL rrjv riyepLovlav 
errexeLpei, ^orjOeLV avrco /cat fXTJre rrjv rrarplSa 
KaraaKaTTroiJLevqv Tiepiopdv fjLTjre rovs ein^aveard- 
rovs rdjv TToXtrcov evrt rifiajpiais ^ avvap'nat^op.evovs . 
rapax'^S Se yLvopLevrjs Kara rrjv eKKXtiaiav /cat 
rivoiv cpevyeiv ctti, ra oirAa copp.rjKorcov ot irepi- 
eare^avcoKores rov oxXov dpdevros arjfxeiov nvos 

3 dveaxov rd ii(f>rj. 7TepL(f)6^o)v 8e yevo/xevcjv 
aTrdvrojv dvaaras TrdXiv 6 TvXXos elnev' " OySev 
ert ^ e^eariv vplv vecorepl^eLV ov8^ e^afxaprdveiv, 
dvSpes 'AX^avoL. edv yap ^ rrapaKivelv ri roXp^rj- 
arjrey Travres airoXeZade vtto rovrcov ^ {hei^as rovs 
exovras ra ii(f>rj). hexeade ovv rd StSd/xeva /cat 
yiveade (ztto rot? ;^/30i^ou rovhe 'Pcuyuatot. hveZv 
yap avdyK-q Odrepov vfids TTOieZv rj 'Pc6p,rjv 
KaroLKeZv t] pi,-qhepiiav eripav yrjv exeiv Trarpiha. 



T'lJ-copla Cobet. 



132 



BOOK III. 30, 1-3 

granted them. But those among them who were 
distinguished for their dignities and fortunes were 
grieved at the thought of having to leave the city of 
their birth and to abandon the hearths of their an- 
cestors and pass the rest of their Uves in a foreign 
country; nevertheless, being reduced to the last 
extremity, they could think of nothing to say. 
Tullus, seeing the disposition of the multitude, 
ordered Mettius to make his defence, if he wished to 
say anything in answer to the charges. But he, unable 
to justify himself against the accusers and witnesses, 
said that the Alban senate had secretly given him 
these orders when he led his army forth to war, and 
he asked the Albans, for whom he had endeavoured 
to recover the supremacy, to come to his aid and to 
permit neither their city to be razed nor the most 
illustrious of the citizens to be haled to punishment. 
Upon this, a tumult arose in the assembly and, 
some of them rushing to arms, those who surrounded 
the multitude, upon a given signal, held up their 
swords. And when all were terrified, Tullus rose up 
again and said: "It is no longer in your power, 
Albans, to act seditiously or even to make any false 
move. For if you dare attempt any disturbance, 
you shall all be slain by these troops (pointing to those 
who held their swords in their hands). Accept, then, 
the terms offered to you and become henceforth 
Romans. For you must do one of two things, either 
live at Rome or have no other country. For early this 



ovhev eri Biicheler : ovhevl B, ovSev A. 

iav yap Cobet : el yap av 0, u/xeis yap av Jacoby ; ei yap 

. ToXfi^qaere Hertlein. 

Tovruivi Cobet. 

^33 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 ot^erat yap ecoOev eK7reixj>dels vtt* e/xoO Map/cos" 
'Opdriog dvaip-qacov rrjv ttoXiv vjxcuv e/c dcfie- 
Xlojv /cat rovs dvdpa)TTOvg aTravras els 'PcofJirjv 
fjLerd^CDV. ravra ovv etSore? oaov ovtto) yemrj- 
aofieva Travaacrde OavaTcovres Kai TroieiTe rd 
KeXevo pieva. Merrtop' 8e Oouc^emov d(f)avcos re 
rjpuv eiTi^ovXevaavra koI ovhe vvv oKv-qaavra ctti 
rd OTtXa Tovs Tapa-)(^d>hets koI araoLaards KaXeiv 
Tip^cjoprjaopiai rrjs KaKrjs /cat SoXlov ipi>XV^ d^to)?." 

6 Taura Xe^avros avTov to pukv ipedi^opievov rrjs 
iKKXrjaiag p-ipos CTrrrj^ev, ota Brj Kparoupievov 
amy /cry d(f)VKrcp,^ rdv 8e ^ov<f>irrLov dyavaKrovvra 
en Kal KCKpayora pLovov rdg re avvdrjKas dva- 
KaXovpievov, as avTos e^riXeyxdrj Trapaanovhajv, 
Kal oj38' iv KaKOLS rod dpdaovs v<f)L€p,€vov ol 
pa^SovxoL KeXevaavTOS rov ^aaiXews TuAAou 
avXXa^ovres Kal ttjv eadrjra TrepLKarappTq^avres 

6 e^aivov to acopia pbdoTL^i ttovv TToXXals. errei 
Se TavTTjs dXis et;^e ti^? TipLOipias, TrpoaeXdaavTes 
hvo (jvvcopihas Tjj pikv erepa irpoar^pTOiv tovs 
Ppax^ovas avTOV, tjj S' erepa tovs TToSas pvTrjpat, 
KaTe^opLevovs pcaKpols' eXavvovTcov Se Tibv tjvio- 
XOiv Tds avvojpiSas dri" (xAAt^Acov ^aiv6p,€v6s tc 
TTepl TTJ yrj Kal dvdeXKopievos vcf)' CKaTepas ctti 
TduavTia 6 Set'Aato? iv oXiyco StacrTrarat XP^^V' 

7 MeTTtoj /xev 817 ^ov<J)4ttlos ovtchs oiKTpds /cat 
dax'riP'Ovos TeXevTrjs erup^e, toIs 8 CTaipois 
avTOV Kal auvetSdcri ttjv irpohoaiav ^ SiKaaTrjpLa 
6 ^aaiXevs Kadiaas tovs dXovTas i^ avTcov 
/card Tov tcov XenroTaKTiov re /cat TrpoBoTcov 

VOpiOV d7T€KT€LV€V. 

XXXI. 'Ev <L 8e raur' iyiveTo xpovw, MdpKos 
134 



BOOK III. 30, 4-31, 1 

morning Marcus Horatius set forth, sent by me, to 
raze your city to the foundations and to remove all 
the inhabitants to Rome. Knowing, then, that these 
orders are as good as executed already, cease to court 
destruction and do as you are bidden. As for Mettius 
Fufetius, who has not only laid snares for us in secret 
but even now has not hesitated to call the turbulent 
and seditious to arms, I shall punish him in such 
manner as his wicked and deceitful heart deserves." 

At these words, that part of the assembly which 
was in an irritated mood, cowered in fear, re- 
strained by inevitable necessity. Fufetius alone 
still showed his resentment and cried out, appealing 
to the treaty which he himself was convicted of having 
violated, and even in his distress abated nothing 
of his boldness ; but the lictors seized him at the 
command of King Tullus, and tearing off his clothes, 
scourged his body with many stripes. After he had 
been sufficiently punished in this manner, they 
brought up two teams of horses and with long traces 
fastened his arms to one of them and his feet to the 
other ; then, as the drivers urged their teams apart, 
the wretch was mangled upon the ground and, being 
dragged by the two teams in opposite directions, was 
soon torn apart. This was the miserable and shame- 
ful end of Mettius Fufetius. For the trial of his 
friends and the accomplices of his treachery the king 
set up courts and put to death such of the accused as 
were found guilty, pursuant to the law respecting 
deserters and traitors. 

XXXI. In 1 the meantime Marcus Horatius, who 
1 Cf. Livy i. 29. 

^ axbvKTO) B : a.<f>vXdKTa) R. 

* avTov after npoSoaiav deleted by Cobet, Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Opdrios 6 TTpoaTTearaXfxepos fjuera tcov eTTiXeKroiv 
e77t Tr]v KadaipeoLV ttjs "AA^a? ra^^cos Siavvaas 
Tqv oSov Kal KaraXa^wv rrvXas re d/cAetcrroy? koI 
TeZx^S a(f>vXaKTOv evTrercos yiverai rijs ttoXccos 
Kvpios. crvvayayojv 8e to TrXijdog ei? eKKX-qaiav 
ra T€ TTpaxdevra Kara Trjv fidx^jv aTravra iSi^Xcoaev 
avroLs /cat to tfj-qcfiLaiJLa ttjs 'Pco/xaicov j^ovXrjs 

2 Bie^rjXdev. dvTL^oXovvrojv Se tcov dvdpJiiTTOiv Koi 
Xpovov els TTpea^eiav alTovfxevwv ovbefxiav dva- 
^oXrjv TTOLrjadpievos ra? /u,er ocKias Kal to. Teixf] 
KaL €i Tt dXXo KaTacrK€vaap.a lSlcotlkov •^ SrjjxocrLOv 
7]v KaTeaKaTTTe, tovs Se dvOpcvTrovs [MeTo. TToXXijs 
(f)povTLhos TtapiireixTTev els 'P(x)[M7]v dyovTas re 

3 TO. eavTCov xP'^P-o.to- '^cti ^ipovTas' ovs 6 TyAAo? 
a(f)i,KOfxevos oltto aTpaToneSov rats" 'Po)p,aLOJv 
(f)vXa.Lg Kal <f>pdTpais iTnSielXev otKijaeLS re 
crvyKaTeaKevaaev ev ols avTol 7Tpor)povvTO ttjs 
TToXecos TOTTois Kal TTy? Sr^fiooLag yrjg ttjv dpKovaav 
Tot? drjTevovaiv i^ avTcov dnefMepLl^c Talg re 
oAAai? (f)i.Xav6pco7TLaLs dveXdpi^ave to ttXtjOos. 

4 1^ jxev Srj tcov ^ hX^avcjv ttoAis", r^v eKTtaev ^AoKdvios 
o €^ AivcLov Tov 'Ayx^crov Kal Kpcovcrqs ttjs 
TlpidfJiov OvyaTpos, €Tq htapLeivaaa /Lterd tov 
OLKLafxov TTevTaKocna Tptcjv cttI tois Se/ca Seoj^ra, 
ev ois TToXXrjv eax^v eTrihoaiv els evavSpiav Te 
Kal ttXovtov Kal rqv dXXrjv diraaav evBaifjioviav, 
Tj Tas TpiaKovTa AartrcDi' aTTOLKiaaoa rroXeLs Kal 
navTa tov xP^vov rjyrjaafievr] tov edvovs, vtto rfjs 
eaxdTiqs dTTOKTiaeaJS ^ KadaipedeZaa eprjfios els 
ToSe ;^/ooi'ou Stafxevet. 

^ diroKriafOiS Co bet: aTroiKiatois 0, airoiK-^afots Kiessling, 
Jacoby. 

136 



BOOK III. 31, 1-4 

had been sent on with the picked troops to destroy 
Alba, having quickly made the march and finding 
the gates open and the walls unguarded, easily made 
himself master of the city. Then, assembling the 
people, he informed them of everything which had 
happened during the battle and read to them the 
decree of the Roman senate. And though the 
inhabitants had recourse to supplications and begged 
for time in which to send an embassy, he proceeded 
without any delay to raze the houses and walls and 
every other building, both public and private ; but 
he conducted the inhabitants to Rome with great 
care, permitting them to take their animals and their 
goods with them. And Tullus, upon arriving from 
the camp, distributed them among the Roman 
tribes and curiae, assisted them in building houses in 
such parts of the city as they themselves preferred, 
allotted a sufficient portion of the public lands to 
those of the labouring class, and by other acts of 
humanity relieved the needs of the multitude. 
Thus the city of Alba, which had been built by 
Ascanius, the son whom Aeneas, Anchises' son, had 
by Creusa, the daughter of Priam, after having 
stood for four hundred and eighty-seven years from 
its founding, during which time it had greatly in- 
creased in population, wealth and every other form of 
prosperity, and after having colonized the thirty 
cities of the Latins and during all this time held the 
leadership of that nation, was destroyed by the last 
colony it had planted, and remains uninhabited to 
this day. 

137 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

5 BaCTtAeus' Se TvXXos rov iinovra x^Lfjiojva 8ia- 
XiTTOiv eapos apj^oyLivov arparov em ^iSiqvalovs 
TTaXiv e^dyei. rols Se (^LSrjvaiois kolvtj fiev 
oj5S' rjTLaovv ^o-qdeia i^ ovSefiids tcop ati/Lt/ia;)^t- 
oct)v acpiKero TToXecvv, fxiGdo^opoL he rives e/c TroAAoii' 
avveppvrjaav tottcov, ols Tnarevaavres eddpprjaav 
e/c rrjs iroXeois TrpoeXdelv Trapara^dpievoi he koI 
TToXXovs fxev ^ dTTOKreivavTes ev tjj p-d^r], ttoXXo) 
eTL TrXeiovs dno^aXovTes ^ KaTeKXeiadrjaav 

6 TidXiv els TO darv. ^ ujs he Trepiy^apaKioaas 
avTcbv r7]v ttoXlv 6 TvXXos koI 7TepLra(f)pevGas 
els rrjv ecrxdTrjv KareKXeiae tovs evhov aTTopiav, 
•qvayKaaOrjoav ra> ^aaiXel Trapahovvai G(f)ds avrovs 
€(f) OLS avros efiovXero. yev6p.evos he rov 
rpoTTov rovrov 6 ^aaiXevs rrjs rroXecDS Kvpios rovs 
atriovs rrjs aTTOcrraaecos arroKreivas, rovs he 
XoLTTOvs diravras diroXvaas koI rd a(f>erepa 
TTavra KaprrovadaL rov avrov edaas rporrov ry\v 
re TToXireiav , r\v uporepov eXypv, diTohovs avrols 
hieXvcre rrjv ar par Lav /cat Trapayevop-evos els 'PcopLT^v 
rr]v rpo7TaLO(f)6pov aTrehlhov rols deots TTopiTTrjv re 
/cat dvaiav hevrepov eKeZvov Kardywv dplap-^ov. 

XXXII. Merd he rovrov rov rroXep-ov erepos 
avearrj 'Pojp,aLOLs e/c rov 'La^Lvojv edvovs, dp)(rj 
he avrov /cat npo^aaLs eyevero roidhe' lepov 
earL KOLvfj rLp.a)p,evov vtto Ha^Lvcov re /cat Aarlvojv 
dyLov ev rols rrdvv Beds ^epajvlas dvop.alop,€vr}s, 
r]v OL p,era(f)pd^ovres els rrjv 'EAAaSa yXdJaaav oi 
fiev ^Avdo(f)6pov, OL he ^LXoare(f)avov, ol he 

^ [lev and itoXXu> S* ert nXeiovs aTrojSoAoi/Tcs added by Jacoby, 
following Hertlein and Cobet. 
* darv B : avro R. 

138 



BOOK III. 31, 5-32, 1 

King TuUus, after letting the following winter pass, 
led out his army once more against the Fidenates 
at the beginning of spring. These had pubUcly 
received no assistance whatever from any of the cities 
in aUiance with them, but some mercenaries had 
resorted to them from many places, and relying 
upon these, they were emboldened to come out from 
their city ; then, after arraying themselves for battle 
and slaying many in the struggle that ensued and 
losing even more of their own men, they were again 
shut up inside the town. And when Tullus had 
surrounded the city with palisades and ditches and 
reduced those within to the last extremity, they were 
obliged to surrender themselves to the king upon 
his own terms. Having in this manner become 
master of the city, Tullus put to death the authors of 
the revolt, but released all the rest, leaving them in 
the enjoyment of all their possessions in the same 
manner as before and restoring to them their previous 
form of government. He then disbanded his army, 
and returning to Rome, rendered to the gods 
the trophy-bearing procession and sacrifices of 
thanksgiving, this being the second triumph he 
celebrated. 

XXXII. After ^ this war another arose against 
the Romans on the part of the Sabine nation, the 
beginning and occasion of which was this. There 
is a sanctuary, honoured in common by the Sabines 
and the Latins, that is held in the greatest reverence 
and is dedicated to a goddess named Feronia ; some 
of those who translate the name into Greek call 
her Anthophoros or " Flower Bearer," others Philo- 
stephanos or " Lover of Garlands," and still others 

^ For chaps. 32 f. c/. Livy i. 30, 4-10. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(^€pa€(f)6vrjv KoXovaiv els S17 to lepov rovro 
crvvrjeaav ck tcov TreptoLKcvv TToXeojv Kara ras 
aTroSeSeiy/AeVa? copras ttoXXoI fxev eu;^as" oltto- 
SiSovres Kal dvaias rfj dew, ttoXXoI Se ;^p7^/zaTtou- 
fievoL Slgl Trjv TravrjyvpLV ep,7Topoi re /cat )(€ipoT€)(yai, 
Kai yecjpyoL, ayopai re avrodi XafiTTporarat. 
TOiv ev aAAoi? olancn ^ tottols Trjs 'IraAta? dyo- 
fievcov eyivovTO. els TavrrjV Se rrjv Trav-qyvpiv 
eXOovTas TTore 'Poj/xatcuv dvhpas ovk d(f)avels 
SajStfot Tildes' ^ avvaprrdcravTes eS-qaav Kal rd 
\p7]p.ara acfteiXovro, Trpea^eias re rrepl avTcbv 
a(pLKop.€V7]s ovSev i^ovXovro rcov hiKaioiv Troielv, 
oAAa /cat rd acojjLara /cat rd )(pij[jiaTa rwv 
avXX7](f>devTcov Kareixov eyKaXovvres /cat avrol 
PcofiaLOLS, on rovs Y^a^ivoiv <f)vyd8as vrreSexovro 
KaracrKevdaavres davXov lepov, vnep cov ev 
TO) irpo TovTOV Xoycp SeS-qXcoTai fioi. e/c rovrajv 
hrj TU)v eyKXrifidroiv els TToXepuov Karaardyres 
e^rjeaav els VTraidpov dfx^orepoL Svvdfieai rroX- 
Xals, yiverai re avrcbv e/c irapard^ews dycov 
hiefjievov ydp ^ dy^cofjudXaJS dycuvt^ofievoi /cat 
SieXvdrjcrav vtto rrjs vvKros dpL^iXoyov KaraXirrov- 
res ro viKr)ixa. rats S' e^rjs rjfxepais fxadofres 
afxcporepoL rcov re drroXcoXorcuv /cat roJv rpavfia- 
ridJv ro TrXrjdos ovKeri irelpav e^ovXovro erepov 
Xapelv ayojvos, oAA' eKXnrovres rovs xdpaKas 
dTTrjeaav. 

Kat BcaXLTTovres rov eviavrov eKelvov ttoXlv 
e^rjeaav ctt' diXX-qXovs fj-el^ovas TrapaaKevaadp-evoL 
Svvdfj^iS, yiverai re avrcjv irepl ttoXiv ^Hprjrov 

^ olaTiai Schafer : nol 0, Jacoby. 
* Tives B : rivts avhpes R (?). 
140 



BOOK III. 32, 1-4 

PersephonS. To this sanctuary people used to resort 
from the neighbouring cities on the appointed days 
of festival, many of them performing vows and 
offering sacrifice to the goddess and many with the 
purpose of trafficking during the festive gathering as 
merchants, artisans and husbandmen ; and here were 
held fairs more celebrated than in any other places 
in Italy. At this festival some Romans of consider- 
able importance happened to be present on a certain 
occasion and were seized by some of the Sabines, who 
imprisoned them and robbed them of their money. 
And when an embassy was sent concerning them, 
the Sabines refused to give any satisfaction, but 
retained both the persons and the money of the men 
whom they had seized, and in their turn accused the 
Romans of having received the fugitives of the Sabines 
by establishing a sacred asylum (of which I gave an 
account in the preceding Book^). As a result of 
these accusations the two nations became involved in 
war, and when both had taken the field with large 
forces a pitched battle occurred between them ; and 
both sides continued to fight with equal fortunes 
until night parted them, leaving the victory in doubt. 
During the following days both of them, upon 
learning the number of the slain and wounded, were 
unwilling to hazard another battle but left their 
camps and retired. 

They let that year pass without further action, 
and then, having increased their forces, they again 
marched out against one another and near the city of 

1 li. 15. 



' yap : 8e Portus. To justify ydp Reiske supplied fidXa 
Kaprepos after dywy. 

I4J 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aiTO arahicov i^rjKovra ^ Kal eKarov rrjs 'Pcofirjs 
ayoiv, ev (b ttoXXovs }ikv aix,(f>orepoiv avve^r] 
TreaeZv Lcroppoirov Se KaKeivrjs ttjs fx-dx'^s em 
TToXvv )(^p6vov Siaixevovarjs avareiVa? els rov 
ovpavov ras x^^P^^ o TuAAo? ev^aro rots deols, 
iav vLK-qarj rfj rod^ Vt^^P9- ^ol^^^ovs, Kpovov re 
Kat 'Pea? KaracrTijcrecrOaL St] fxoreXeLs ioprds, 
a? ayovai 'PcujU-atot fca^' eKaarov iviavrov orav 
aTTOvras rovs e/c yr\s auy/co/xtcroxn Kapirovs, Kal 
TOP Tcov HoXlcov KaXovfxevcov SiTrXaaidaeiv dpid- 
fiov. ovTOL S' elal Trarepcov evyevcov, ivoirXiovs 
opx'qo^eLs KLVovfxevoL irpos avXov iv tols Kad- 
7]Kovat xP^voLs /cat vfxvovs rtvds ahovres Trarpiovs, 

5 CDS" €v rep TTpoTCpo) SeST^Ato/ca Xoyo). [xera Se 
rrjv evxrjv Tavr-qv ddpaos ri KaraXapL^dvei rovs 
'Pcti/xat'ou? Kal coairep dKfxrJTes els Kdfivovras 
(oadfievoi SiaaTrwcn rds rd^eis avrcov Tvepl 
SclXtju oiplav TJSr) Kal dvayKd^ovai roiis Trpcoro- 
ardras dp^at cfyvyrjs, aKoXovd'^aavTes re avrols 
<f>evyovaLV eiri rov ;^apa/ca Kal irepl rds rd<f>povs 
TToXXcp rrXetovag Kara^aXovres,^ oi)S' ovrojs d-n- 
erpaTTOvro, dXXd TrapafieLvavres rrju einovaav vvKra 
Kat rovs ttTTO rov epvfxaros p-axofxevovs dveip- 

6 ^avres eKpdrrjoav rijs Trapepi^oXrjs . p.erd Be 
rovro ro epyov oarjv e^ovXovro rijs ^ rojv Ha^Lvcov 
XerjXar'qaavres , (os ousels' avrols en ^ irepl rrjs 
X<opas c^jjei p.ax'Tjaop.evos , aTrrjeaav eV oIkov. 
aTTO ravrr]s rrjs P-dx^)^ I'ov rpirov Kar-qyaye 
dptapL^ov 6 ^aaiXevs, Kal p.er ov ttoXv Trpea^evaa- 
piivoLS Tols Tia^LVOis KaraXverai rov iroXepxiv 
alxfiCiXairovs re nap' avra>v Kopnadpievos, ovs 

^ i^T^KOvra B : inra R. 

14* 



BOOK III. 32, 4-6 

Eretum, distant one hundred and sixty stades from 
Rome, engaged in a battle in which many fell on both 
sides. And when that battle also continued doubtful 
for a long time, TuUus, lifting up his hands to 
heaven, made a vow to the gods that if he conquered 
the Sabines that day he would institute public festivals 
in honour of Saturn and Ops (the Romans celebrate 
them every year after they have gathered in all the 
fruits of the earth i) and would double the number of 
the Salii, as they are called. These are youths of noble 
families who at appointed times dance, fully armed, 
to the sound of the flute and sing certain traditional 
hymns, as I have explained in the preceding Book.^ 
After this vow the Romans were filled with a kind 
of confidence and, like fresh troops falling on those 
that are exhausted, they at last broke the enemy's 
lines in the late afternoon and forced the first ranks 
to begin flight. Then, pursuing them as they fled 
to their camp, they- cut down many more round the 
trenches, and even then did not turn back, but 
having stayed there the following night and cleared 
the ramparts of their defenders, they made themselves 
masters of the camp. After this action they ravaged 
as much of the territory of the Sabines as they wished, 
but when no one any longer came out against them to 
protect the country, they returned home. Because of 
this victory the king triumphed a third time ; and not 
long afterwards, when the Sabines sent ambassadors, 
he put an end to the war, having first received from 

^ The Saturnalia and Opalia, in mid-December. 

2 ii. 70. 

* KarajSaAovres B : KarotAa/Sovre? R. 
' rijs a : yrjv R. 

* en Naber : ovKen 0, Jacoby. 

^43 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€Tvyxo-vov €lX-r]<f)6T€s iv rat? Trpovoixals, /cat 
avTOjjioXovs, ^oaKT^fidrcov re /cat VTrol^vyLCDV /cat 
TU)v dXXcov )^pr)ijLdTcov oaa rovs yecopyovs d(f>- 
eiXovro, riv era^ev rj ^ovXrj rcov 'PcofMatcov ^rjfjLLav 
TifiTjcrafievT] rds ^Xd^as Trpos dpyvpiov, dva-npd^as. 
XXXIII. ETTt TOVTOLS KoraXvadixevoi tov 
TToXeixov ol Ha^lvoi /cat rix)v o/xoXoyiajv ar-qXas 
dvTLypd(f)ovs devres iv rots Upols, iiTeiSrj avviar-q 
*Pa»/xaiotS' TTpos ray Aarlvcov voXets Koi,vfj 
avvLarafievas ^ TToXep-os ov pdSios iv oXiycp 
KadaipedrjvaL xpovo) (8t' as 8e atVta? oXlyov ^ 
varepov ipdj), Se^dfMevoi to avp.^dv dyaTT-qrios 
opKcov jxev eKeivcov /cat avvdrjKcbv ojairep ovhk 
yeyevqjjLevcov irreXddovTO, Kaipov Se vofjiiaavres 
CTTiTTJSeLov €)^€iv cov i^iriaav 'Pcop.aLOLs ^(prjpidrayv 
TToXXaTrXdaia Trap* avrcov dTToXa^elv, oAtyoi jxev 
TO TrpdJTOv /cat d(f)avcos i^tovTes iXrji^ovro ttjv 

OjJiOpOV €TT€lTa Sc TToXXol aVVLOVTCS /Cat e/C TOV 

<f)avepov, CTret ra Trpiora /caret yv(jjp,rjv avTols 
exoopqaev ouSe/xtas" eVt ttjv <f)vXaKr]v rcov yecopycov 
a<f)i.Koixivrjs ^o-qdeias, KaTacfipovqaavTes tcov ttoAc- 
pLLcvv ctt' avTTjv BtevoovvTO TTjv 'Pcofirjv iXavveiv 
/cat (JvvTJyov i^ aTrdarjs TToXeojs arparov, BceXiyov- 
To 8e /cat rat? Aartvojv voXeat Trepl avfi- 
p^axias. ov p.rjv i^eyiveTO ye avTols <j}iXiav re 
/cat op,aixp-Lav 7TOii]aaadat rrpos to edvos' p-adojv 
yap TTjv hidvoLav avTcbv 6 TvXXos dvoxds vpos 

^ avviaraiievas B : avvr]pirayfj,evas R ; avvr]ppayii4vos Reiske, 
avvqpyLoanivas Schaller, mivreTayfievas Naber. IS one of these 
emendations gives so satisfactory a meaning as B's reading, 
the one objection to which is the presence of awiorn in the 
immediate context. 

* Kallenberg : oAty^ 0, Jacoby. 



BOOK III. 32, 6-33, 3 

them the captives that they had taken in their 
foraging expeditions, together with the deserters, 
and levied the penalty which the Roman senate, 
estimating the damage at a certain sum of money, 
had imposed upon them for the cattle, the beasts of 
burden and the other effects that they had taken 
from the husbandmen. 

XXXIII. Although the Sabines had ended the 
war upon these conditions and had set up pillars in 
their temples on which the terms of the treaty were 
inscribed, nevertheless, as soon as the Romans 
were engaged in a war not likely to be soon termin- 
ated against the cities of the Latins, who had all 
united against them, for reasons which I shall 
presently ^ mention, they welcomed the situation 
and forgot those oaths and the treaty as much as if 
they never had been made. And thinking that they 
now had a favourable opportunity to recover from the 
Romans many times as much money as they had paid 
them, they went out, at first in small numbers and 
secretly, and plundered the neighbouring country ; 
but afterwards many met together and in an open 
manner, and since their first attempt had turned out 
as they wished and no assistance had come to the 
defence of the husbandmen, they despised their 
enemies and proposed to march even on Rome itself, 
for which purpose they were gathering an army out 
of every city. They also made overtures to the 
cities of the Latins with regard to an alliance, but 
were not able to conclude a treaty of friendship and 
alliance with that nation. For Tullus, being informed 
of their intention, made a truce with the Latins and 

^ In chap. 34. 

145 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

AaTivovs TTOLTjaafxevos cttI tovtovs eyvco arparov 
e^aycLV, Trjv re 'Pcofiaicov a-naaav SvvafXLv Kad- 
OTrAtcra? SuTrXaoLav ovaav rjbr] rrjs Trporepov, 
e^ ov TTTju AX^avciJv ttoXiv TrpoaiXa^e, /cat otto 
TCJbv aXXcov avixfjidxoov eiriKovpiKov oaov TrXelarov 
4 eSvvaro [jLeraTrepupdiJievos . avvrJKTO Se /cat TOt? 
Ha^LvoLs yjSrj ro OTpdrevpia, /cat eVetSi^ ttXtjoIov 
dXX'qXajv eyevovTO Trepl ttjv KaXovyLevqv vXrjv 
KaKovpyov oXiyov ro fiera^v ^((opiov d(f>€vr€s 
KarecrrparoireSevaavro. rfj S' c^yjs rjixipa avp.- 
TTeaoures epid^ovro /cat riaav laoppoTToi /u,e;^pt 
TToAAou* rihri 8e irepl SelXrjv oi/jiav eyKXivovaiv oi 
Ha^cvoL ^laadevres vtto rov 'Pcopalcov Ittttlkov 
/cat TToXvg avrojv ytVerat <f>6vos ev rfj (f>vyij- 
'Pcofialot 8e veKpovs re rcov TToXe/xiiov OKvXev- 
aavres /cat ■)(^prjpiara oaa rjv iv ra> ^(dpaKL 8i- 
apiraaavres rrjs re x^^pc-S Trjv Kparlarrjv XeriXarij- 
aavres aTrrjeaav eV olkou. rovro ro reXos 
eXa^ev 6 avpifids 'PcofxatoLs rrpos Ha^ivovs 
TToXefios eiTL rrjs TvXXov dpx'rjs. 

XXXIV. At 8e rojv Aarcvojv rroXets 'Pcujuaiots 
eyevovro hLd(j)opoL rore Trpcorov, ovk d^iovaai, /car- 
ecrKafiixevrjs rrjs 'AX^avcbv TToXecos rots dvr^piqKoaiv 
avrrjv 'Poj/xatot? rrjv rjyefxoviav TrapahiSovai.^ 
ircov yap Siayevofjievojv Trevre/catSe/ca fierd rov 
d(f)aviafi6v rrjs "AA^a? Trpea^eias ^ dTToareiXas 
6 rcov 'PcopLaicov ^aaiXevs els rds dnoiKovs re 
/cat VTT-qKoovs avrrjs rpidKovra TrdAeiS" rj^iov 
ireiOeaOai rolg vtto 'Pajp.aLa)v emrarrop.evois , 
ibs TTapetXr]^6rci)v avrcov dp.a rols aXAois ols 
elxov ^AX^avol /cat r^v rjyefxovLav rov Aarivcov 
^ irapaSibovai B : irapaSoCvai R. 

14(5 



BOOK III. 33, 3-34, 1 

determined to march against the Sabines; and to 
this end he armed all the forces of the Romans, 
which since he had annexed the Alban state, were 
double the number they had been before, and sent to 
his other allies for all the troops they could furnish. 
The Sabines, too, had already assembled their army, 
and when the two forces drew near one another 
they encamped near a place called the Knaves' 
Wood,i leaving a small interval between them. 
The next day they engaged and the fight continued 
doubtful for a long time ; but at length, in the late 
afternoon, the Sabines gave way, unable to stand 
before the Roman horse, and many of them were slain 
in the flight. The Romans stripped the spoils from 
the dead, plundered their camp and ravaged the best 
part of the country, after which they returned home. 
This was the outcome of the war that occurred 
between the Romans and the Sabines in the reign 
of Tullus. 

XXXIV. The cities of the Latins now became at 
odds with the Romans for the first time, being un- 
willing after the razing of the Albans' city to yield 
the leadership to the Romans who had destroyed it. 
It seems that when fifteen years had passed after 
the destruction of Alba the Roman king, sending 
embassies to the thirty cities which had been at once 
colonies and subjects of Alba, summoned them to obey 
the orders of the Romans, inasmuch as the Romans had 
succeeded to the Albans' supremacy over the Latin 
race as well as to everything else that the Albans had 

^ Silva malitiosa (Livy i. 30, 9), probably a hide-out of 
brigands. 

* npea^elas B : Trpdapeis R- 

147 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

edvovs, Syo fikv aiTO<f)aLVCov rpoTTOvs KT-qaecov, 
Kad^ ovs dvdpcoTTOi yivovTai rdv aXXorpicov Kvpioi, 
Tov T€ dvayKOiov Kal rov eKovaiov, 'Pcofiaiovs 
8e Xiyiov Kaff' eKarepov rov rpoTTov -napeiArj- 
<j>evai Trjv rjyefioviav ojv elxov ^AX^avol TToXecov. 

2 TToXefXLcov re yap avTwv ct^icti yevojxevojv toIs 
ottXols KCKparrjKevai Kal tt^v ttoXlv rrjv eavTOJv 
aTToXajXeKoai rfjs tSi'a? avrols fieraSeSajKevai- 
ioare Kal olkovolv 'AX^avols Kal CKOvai TTpoarJKeLV 
e^eardvaL 'Pcopcalots rrjs tcov VTTrjKocov dpxfjs. 

3 ai 8e rdjv Aarivojv TToXets I'Sta /xev ovSev (Xtt- 
CKpivavTO TTpos Tovs TTpea^eis, Koivfj 8e rov eOvovs 
ayopdv ev ^epevTLvo) TTOtrjadfievoL iprj(f)L^ovTai 
fir) 7Tapa)(0}p€lv 'PcofiaioLs rrjs dpx'fj? Kal avriKa 
alpovvrai Svo arpaTrjyovs avroKpdropas elpijvrjs 
re Kal TToXefiov, "AyKov IIottXlkiov ck ttoXccos 
Kopaj Kal Jjttovolov Owe/ciAtov e/c AaovCvlov. 

4 Sta rauras fxev St] rds alrias avvearr] 'Pcofxaiois 
6 rrpos rovs opLoedvels TToXefios, Trpov^rj 8e d^pi 
TTevraerovs XP^^^^ TToXiriKos ti? yevop-evos /cat 
dpxoi'iKos. ovre yap €K Trapard^ecos oXois rols 
arparevp-aai rrpos oXa avpL^dXXovat fxeydX-rj avp,- 
<f)opd Kal (f)66pos oXoax^p'^S avve^r] ovre ttoXis 
avrdjv ovhep^ia TToXepo) KparrjOelaa KaraaKa(l>rjs 
rj dvSpaTToSiap^ov ^ dXXrjs rivos dvrjKearov avp,- 
<j>opds eTTeipddrj- dAA' ep^aXovres els rrjv dXXt^Xcov 
yijv V7t6 rrjv dKp^rjv rov airov Kal irpovopevaavres 

^ Dionysius frequently gives this name to the place of 
assembly of the Latins, as if there had been a town there. 
Livy usually says ad lucum FereyUiiuie ("at the grove of 
Ferentina ") but also speaks of the aqua Ferenlina (" spring of 
Ferentina"). This place should not be confused with the 

148 



BOOK III. 34, 1-4 

possessed. He pointed out that there were two 
methods of acquisition by which men became masters 
of what had belonged to others, one the result of 
compulsion, the other of choice, and that the Romans 
had by both these methods acquired the supremacy 
over the cities which the Albans had held. For when 
the Albans had become enemies of the Romans, 
the latter had conquered them by arms, and after the 
others had lost their own city the Romans had given 
them a share in theirs, so that it was but reasonable 
that the Albans both perforce and voluntarily should 
yield to the Romans the sovereignty they had 
exercised over their subjects. The Latin cities gave 
no answer separately to the ambassadors, but in a 
general assembly of the whole nation held at Ferenti- 
num ^ they passed a vote not to yield the sovereignty 
to the Romans, and immediately chose two generals, 
Ancus Publicius of the city of Cora and Spusius 
Vecilius of Lavinium, and invested them with 
absolute power with regard to both peace and war. 
These were the causes of the war between the 
Romans and their kinsmen, a war that lasted for 
five years and was carried on more or less like a 
civil war and after the ancient fashion. For, as they 
never engaged in pitched battles with all their 
forces ranged against all those of the foe, no great 
disaster occurred nor any wholesale slaughter, and 
none of their cities went through the experience 
of being razed or enslaved or suffering any other 
irreparable calamity as the result of being captured 
in war; but making incursions into one another's 
country when the corn was ripe, they foraged it, and 

Ferentinum situated on the Via Latina in the land of the 
Hemicans. 

149 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aTTTJyov en olkov ras Suvct/xet? SiajU.eijSoju.ei'oi 
Tovs alxiJ'OLKuyrovs . /xtav he ttoXlv Ik tov 
Aariviov eOvovs MeSuAAi'ai' TraXairepov en 'Poj- 
fxaicov aTTOiKiav yevo/jLem^v eirl rijs *Pa»/xyAoy 
apx^S} COS iv Tip TTpo TOVTOV SeS'qXojKa Xoyo), 
fieradejjievrjv avdig cos rovs oyLoedvels TToXiopKia 
TTapaarrjadiievos 6 rcov 'PcoixaLcov ^acnXevs eneiae 
fjLTjdev ert vecorepit^eiv aXXo 8' ovdev wv ol 
TToXejJLOi (f)epovat Seivcoi/ ovSerepois ev to) rore 
avve^r) )(p6vcp. roLydproi paSiai re /cat ovBev 
eyKorov e^ovaaL TrpoOvp^rjOevrcov 'PcofJLaccov at 
BtaXvcreLS evereXeadrjaav, 

XXXV. Tavra SiaTrpa^dnevos eirl rrjs IBias 
dpx^s ^aaiXevs TvXXos 'OcrriXios, dvrjp ev oXtyois 
d^ios evXoyeZadai rrjs re evToXfitas eveKa rrjs 
irpos rd TroAe/xta /cat -ny? (f)povT^a€cos rrjs irepl rd 
heivd, VTTep d'/x^cu Se ravra, ort ov ra^vs cov els 
TToXepLOV levat jSe^Sato? i^v Karaards els avrdv ev 
diraai riov dvrnrdXojv 7Tpoe)(eLV, errj he Kara- 
axcov TTjv dp)(r}v hvo Kal rpidKovra reXevra 
TOV piov ep^TTpiqadeiaris ttjs ocKtas, Kal avv 
avT(p yvvrj re dTToXXvTai Kal TCKva /cat o ctAAo? 
oi/cert/co? aTra? oxXos KaTaXr]cf)9eLs vtto tov 
TTvpos. KaTaTTpr^adrjvai he ttjv oIkLov ol fxev 
VTTO Kepavvov ^ Xeyovai firjvlaavTOS tov deov 
St' oXiycopiav lepcov tlvcov {eKXiTrelv ydp eirl ttjs 
dpx'fjs Ttjs eKeivov TraTpiovs Tivds Ovaias, erepaj 
8* ovx VTTapxpvaas eTTL)(copi.ovs 'Pcofxaiois irap- 
ayayelv avTov ^ ), ol he irXeiovs e^ av6pa)7nvr]s (f)aaLV 
eTnBovXijs to trddos yeveaOat. dvaTidevTes to 
epyov MapKiu) to) jxeT* eKelvov dp^avTi ttjs 
^ Kepavvov R : Kipavwhv B. 



BOOK III. 34, 4-35, 2 

then, returning home with their armies, exchanged 
prisoners. However, one city of the Latin nation 
called Medullia, which earher had become a colony 
of the Romans in the reign of Romulus, as I stated 
in the preceding Book,^ and had revolted again to 
their countrymen, was brought to terms after a siege 
by the Roman king and persuaded not to revolt for 
the future ; but no other of the calamities which wars 
bring in their train was felt by either side at that 
time. Accordingly, as the Romans were eager for 
peace, a treaty was readily concluded that left no 
rancour.2 

XXXV. These ^ were the achievements performed 
during his reign by KingTulkis Hostilius, a man worthy 
of exceptional pi'aise for his boldness in war and his 
prudence in the face of danger, but, above both these 
qualifications, because, though he was not precipitate 
in entering upon a war, when he was once engaged 
in it he steadily pursued it until he had the upper 
hand in every way over his adversaries. After he 
had reigned thirty-two years he lost his life when 
his house caught fire, and with him his wife and chil- 
dren and all his household perished in the flames. 
Some say that his house was set on fire by a thunder- 
bolt. Heaven having become angered at his neglect of 
some sacred rites (for they say that in his reign some 
ancestral sacrifices were omitted and that he intro- 
duced others that were foreign to the Romans), but 
the majority state that the disaster was due to 
human treachery and ascribe it to Marcius, who 

^ ii. 36, 2. 2 Gf. Livy i. 32, 3. 

3 C/. Livy 1.31, 5-8. 

* wapayayetv avrov Capps : Ttapayayclv 0, iraptiaaxd'^vat 
Sylburg. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 TToAecos". TOVTOV yap ck tt^s" No/u-a Ilo/MTnAiou 
dvyarpos yevofxevov d)(dea6aL re on eV ^aaiXeiov 
yepovs 7Te(f>VK(hs avrog ISlcottjs rjv, Kal yevos 
eiTiTpecfioiJLevov ^ opwvra tco TuAAo) Travro? fidXtarra 
VTTOTrreveiv, et ti Trddoi TyAAo?, et? Tovg eKcivov 
TTalSas "^^eiv TT^v dpxrjv. ravra Srj Siavoov- 
fievov CK TToXXov arijaaaOaL /card tov ^aaiXecos 
CTTL^ovX-qv TToXXovs c^ovTa 'Poj/xatcor rovs avy- 
KaracrKevd^ovTas avrco rrjv hvvaareiav , ^iXov 
he ovra tov TvXXov koI iv rot? ixdXiara TTiarevo- 
fievov <j>vXdTTeiv ore Kaipo'S eTTirrjheios (f)av€irj 

4 TTJs eTnOecreoJS. fxeXXovros 8e rov TvXXov dvaiav 
rwd Kar oTkov entreXelv, 7]v avrovs fiovov e^ovXero 
rovs dvayKaiovs elhevai, koX Kara haifiova rrjs 
rifjLcpas eK€Lvr]s xetjU.e/3ioy acf)68pa yevo/ieviqs Kard 
re o/x^pov Kal ^dXrjv Kal OKoros,^ coar eprjfiov 
a'noXeL(f>6T)vai rov irpo rrjs ot/cia? roTTOv rcov 
<f)vXarr6vrcov, emrijSeiov vnoXafju^dvovra rov Kaipov 
afxa rots eraipois exovaiv vrro rats Trepi^oXals rd 
gL(py] TTapeXdelv elaco rG)v Ovpcov, aTTOKreivavra 
8e rov ^aaiXea Kal rovs TratSa? avrov koI rojv 
dXXcov oaoLS evervx^v ^ evelvai TTvp els Trjv 
otKiav Kara ttoXXovs roTTOvs, ravra Se npd^avra 
rov vnep rrjs Kepavvayaecos hiaanelpaL Xoyov. 

5 eyo) 8e rovrov p,ev ov Bexofxat, rov Xoyov ovr* 
dXrjdrj vofil^ojv ^ ovre mdavov, rip he Trporeptp 
fxdXXov TTpoarLdefxevos Kara haifxova vofxi^o) rov 
avopa ravTTjS rrjs reXevrrjs rvxelv. ovre yap 
anopprjrov <j>vXaxOrjvaL rrjv rrpSi^iv vtto ttoXXcjv 
avaKeva^ofievTjv eiKos "^v, ovre ru> arvarijaavri 

^ cVirpe^o/icvov B : viToypa<f>6fJievov R. 



BOOK III. 35, 2-5 

ruled the state after him. For they say that this 
man, who was the son of Numa Pompilius' daughter, 
was indignant at being in a private station himself, 
though of royal descent, and seeing that Tullus had 
children growing up, he suspected very strongly that 
upon the death of Tullus the kingdom would fall to 
them. With these thoughts in mind, they say, he 
had long since formed a plot against the king, and 
had many of the Romans aiding him to gain the 
sovereignty ; and being a friend of Tullus and one 
of his closest confidants, he was watching for a suitable 
opportunity to appear for making his attack. Accord- 
ingly, when Tullus proposed to perform a certain 
sacrifice at home which he wished only his near rela- 
tions to know about and that day chanced to be very 
stormy, with rain and sleet and darkness, so that 
those who were upon guard before the house had 
left their station, Marcius, looking upon this as a 
favourable opportunity, entered the house together 
with his friends, who had swords under their gar- 
ments, and having killed the king and his children 
and all the rest whom he encountered, he set fire to 
the house in several places, and after doing this 
spread the report that the fire had been due to a 
thunderbolt. But for my part I do not accept this 
story, regarding it as neither true nor plausible, but 
I subscribe rather to the former account, believing 
that Tullus met with this end by the judgment 
of Heaven. For, in the first place, it is improbable 
that the undertaking in which so many were concerned 
could have been kept secret, and, besides, the author 



* Jacoby : okotov 0. ' Kayser : ervx^v 0. 

* Reiske : vo/it^co 0. 



153 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avrrjv ^e^aiov ■^v otl fiera rr^v 'OariXiov reXevTTjv 
eKCLVov a.TTohei^ov(JL 'Poiju-aiot ^aaiXea rrjs TroAeco?, 
OVT , €1 TO. Trap avdpcoTTcov avrtp TnoTo. /cat 
^e)Saia rjv, rd ye rot, Trapd tcov Oewv ofxoLa 

6 ejueAAe rat? dvOpuiTrivais dyvoiais eaecrdai. pberd 
yap TTjv v7t6 tcov t^vXcov yevqaofievrjv iljr)(l)0(f}opLav 
Tovs deovs eSei rrjv ^aaiXeiav avrcv 8t' olojvcov 
alaiojv eTTideaTriaar dvSpa Se pnapov Kal roaov- 
Tots fj[jiayfjiei>ov (f)6voLS dBiKOLs ^ ris e'jueAAe 6eu>v 
ri haipLovcov Trap'^creiv ^cojjlols re Trpoaiovra /cat 
dvpidraiv Karap-)(opievov /cat rdg aAAa? eTTireXovvra 
depaireias ; iydi p.ev Sr) Sid ravra ovk els dvdpco- 
7TiV7]v iin^ovXrjv aAA' eis deov ^ovX-qaiv to 
epyov dva^ipoi- Kpiveroj 8' eKaaros cos ^ovXerai. 
XXXVI. Mera Se rrju 'OariXiov TvXXov 
reXevrrjv -q fjicao^aoiXeios vtto rrjs ^ovXrjs dTToSeiX' 
Oelaa dpyr] Kara roiis rrarpiovs iOiajjiovs alpeirai 
jSaCTiAea rrfs TToXeoJS MdpKiov iTTiKXrjaiv "AyKov 
CTTLKvpcoaavros Se rov S'qfxov rd Bo^avra rfj ^ovXfj 
/cat rdJv e/c rov deov koXcov yevofxevcov avvreXeaas 
rd Kard vo^jiov aTravra TrapaXajx^dvei rrjv dpxrjv 
6 Ma/3/ctos" eviavrcp Sevrepu) rrjs rpiaKoarrjs /cat 
TTepL7Trr]s dXvfXTndSos, r]v eviKa ^ Ti(f)aXpos Aa/ceSat- 
fxovios,^ Kad^ ov XP^^°^ ^Ad-qvrjGi rrjv iviavaiov 

2 dpx^jv elx^ AajLtacria?. ovros 6 ^aaiXevs TToXXds 
rcov lepovpyicjv dpLeXovjxevas KarajxaOcov , as 
6 fxrjrpoTTarcop avrov UofjnriXios Nop-as KareoTq- 

^ Kiessling : dSiVws O. 

* iviKa : eviKa ardSiov Jacoby. In four other passages 
the MSS. omit ardSiov in this phrase; Jacoby omits the 
word in vi. 34 and ix. 61, but supplies it in iii. 46 and xi. 1. 

' XaK€8ai.fi6vios B : o Aa^eSot/iovios K.(?), Jacoby. 

154 



BOOK III. 35, 5-36, 2 

of it could not be certain that after the death of 
Hostilius the Romans would choose him as king 
of the state ; furthermore, even if men were loyal to 
him and steadfast, yet it was unlikely that the gods 
would act with an ignorance resembling that of men. 
For after the tribes had given their votes, it would be 
necessary that the gods, by auspicious omens, should 
sanction the awarding of the kingdom to him; 
and which of the gods or other divinities was going 
to permit a man who was impure and stained with the 
unjust murder of so many persons to approach the 
altars, begin the sacrifices, and perform the other 
religious ceremonies ? I, then, for these reasons do 
not attribute the catastrophe to the treachery of 
men, but to the will of Heaven ; however, let every- 
one judge as he pleases. 

XXXVI. After i the death of Tullus Hostilius, 
the interreges appointed by the senate according 
to ancestral usage chose Marcius, surnamed 
Ancus, king of the state ; and when the people 
had confirmed the decision of the senate and the 
signs from Heaven were favourable, Marcius, 
after fulfilling all the customary requirements, 
entered upon the government in the second year 
of the thirty-fifth Olympiad ^ (the one in which 
Sphaerus, a Lacedaemonian, gained the prize ^), 
at the time when Damasias held the annual 
archonship at Athens. This king, finding that 
many of the religious ceremonies instituted by 
Numa Pompilius, his maternal grandfather, were 

1 Cf. Livy i. 32, 1 f. 

2 638 B.C. 

® lu the short-distance foot-race. See critical note. 

155 

VOL. II. F 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aaro, TToXeynaras re /cat irXeoveKras rovs vXei- 
arovs 'Pojfialcov yeyovoras opcbv Kal ovk4tl 
TTjV yfjv (hs TTporepov epyal^opievov? , avvayaywv 
els eKKXrjaiav ro TrXrjdos rd re dela ae^eiv avroiis 
rj^tov TTciXiv, cooTTep em NojLta hiereXovv ae^ovres, 
SLe^LOjv oTi Trapd rqv tcov decov oXiycopiav voaoi re 
XoifXiKol TToAAat KareaKr)ifjav els rrjv ttoXlv, 
vcf)* d)V e(f)ddprj fioTpa rov TrX-qdovs ovk oXiyrj, /cat 
^aaiXevs 'OariXios 6 firj iroLovpievos avra)v rjv 
eSet (f)vXaKrjv Kafivcov em ttoXXovs \p6vovs ro 
acofjua TrddeaL TravroBaTTols koI ovSe rry? yvcofx-qs 
en rrjs avrov ^ Kaprepos Siafievcov, dXXd avv- 
hia<j>6apeis rep aw/xari rds ^pevas, oLKrpds 
Karaarpo(f)rjs erv^ev avros re /cat yevos ro i^ 
avrov' TToXireias re dyojyijv rrjv vtto Nojua 
Karaaradelaav 'Pcofiaiois eTraivayv cos KaXrjv 
/cat Gco(f>pova /cat aTro rcov SiKaiordrcov epycov rds 
Kad* rjfxepav eKdarcp TTape-)(ovaav evTTopias, 
dvavecoaaaOai TidXiv avrrjv TrapeKoXet yewpyiais 
re /cat KTiqvor po jiiais /cat rais" aAAat? epyaaiais, 
oaaLS firjdev dSt/ci^/xa Trpoarjv, dprrayrjs Be Kal 
pias /cat ra>v e/c rov TToXe/xov yivofxevcov <l)(j>eXeL(jL)v 
virepiSelv. ravra /cat rd rovrois opLOia SiaAeyo- 
fievos Kal els TTO?<X'rjv eTTidvpLiav Kadiards aTravras 
rjavxias aTToXepiOV Kal <j>iXepyias aco(f>povos Kal 
fxerd rovro avyKaXeaas rovs lepocf)dvras Kal rds 
TTepl rdv lepdJv avyypa(f)ds, a? nojU.7rtAto? ovvearq- 
aaro. Trap avrdv Xa^wv dveypatfiev els SeXrovs 
Kal vpovdrjKev ev dyopa Tidai rols ^ovXap-evois 
OKOTTelv, a? d(f)avLad-fjvaL avve^rj rtp XP^^V 
XaXKaX yap ovttoj arrjXaL rore rjoav, oAA' ev 
* Steph. : o«5t^s A, avrijs B. 



BOOK III. 36, 2-4 

being neglected, and seeing the greatest part 
of the Romans devoted to the pursuit of war and 
gain and no longer cultivating the land as afore- 
time, assembled the people and exhorted them 
to worship the gods once more as they had done 
in Numa's reign. He pointed out to them that 
it was owing to their neglect of the gods that not 
only many pestilences had fallen upon the city, 
by which no small part of the population had been 
destroyed, but also that King Hostilius, who had 
not shown the proper regard for the gods, had 
suffered for a long time from a complication of 
bodily ailments and at last, no longer sound even 
in his understanding but weakened in mind as 
well as in body, had come to a pitiable end, both 
he and his family. He then commended the 
system of government established by Numa for 
the Romans as excellent and wise and one which 
supplied every citizen with daily plenty from the 
most lawful employments ; and he advised them 
to restore this system once more by applying them- 
selves to agriculture and cattle-breeding and to 
those occupations that were free from all injustice, 
and to scorn rapine and violence and the profits 
accruing from war. By these and similar appeals 
he inspired in all a great desire both for peaceful 
tranquillity and for sober industry. After this, he 
called together the pontiffs, and receiving from 
them the commentaries on religious rites which 
Pompilius had composed, he caused them to be 
transcribed on tablets and exposed in the Forum 
for everyone to examine. These have since been 
destroyed by time, for, brazen pillars being not 
yet in use at that time, the laws and the ordinances 

^57 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Spvtvaig €)(^apdrrovro aaviaiv ol re vofXOL Kal at 
TTepl raJv tepcov Siaypacfyar fiera Se rrjv CK^oXrjv 
Tcbv PaaiXdcov els dvaypa(f)7]v hrip.oalav avdis 
T^x^riaav vn* dvSpos lepoi^dvTov Vatov Xiainpiov, 
rqv anavrcov rcov upaJv ^ r^yepioviav e^ovro?. 
dvaKTYjcrdfJievos Se rd Kareppadvfxrjiiei'a rwv 
tepcov Kal Tov dpyov 6)(Xov iTrl rds ISias ipyaaias 
d-noareiXas eirjivei fxev rovs iirLp^eXels yeojpyovs, 
€pLijjb(j)ero Se rovs /ca/cco? Trpo'CaTapLevovs rcov 
IStcov ^ cJjs ov ^e^atovs TToXtrag. 

XXXVII. Tavra Kadiardpievos rd TToXirev- 
jxara Kal rravros ^ jxaXiara iXTrtaas dvev TToXip.ov 
Kal KaKcov drravra rdv ^iov SiareXeaeiv, coairep 
6 fJLTjrpoTrdrcop, ovk eay^ev ofioiav rfj Trpoaipeaei 
rrjv rvx'^v, dXXd irapd rrjv eavrov yvco[j,rjv 
TToXefiiarrjs "qvayKdcrdrj yeveaQai /cat ixTjSdva 

2 ■)(^povov dvev Kivhvvov /cat rapa)('f]S ^icoaai. evdvs 
yap djjia rep TrapeXdelv avrov eTrl rrjv riyep,oviav 
Kal rrjv drrpdyp^ova KaOiuracrOai rroXireiav Kara- 
<f)pov^aavres avrov Aarlvot Kal vofxtaavres St' 
dvavhpiav ov)( LKavdv elvai rroXefxovs * arpar- 
TjyeZv, Xrjorrjpta SieTTefnrov els riqv opiopovaav 
avrois eKaaroL 'x^copav, ix/)* a>v ttoXXoI 'Pco[xaia)v 

3 e^Xdirrovro . d<jiiKop,evcov Se Trapa rod ^aaiXecos 
rrpea^evrcov Kal rd Si/cata 'Pco/xatois" d^iovvrtov 
vrrexetv Kard rds avvdrjKas, ovre yivcLoKeiv 
iaKi]7Trovro ruiv rrepl rd Xrjarrjpia Karrjyopovpievuiv 
ovBev, (Ijs ov fxerd kolvtjs yvcofirjs yeyovorcov, 

* iepcjv : iepewv Sylburg, Jacoby. 

^ iSt'coV B : (SlCUV KTrjfJidTtDV R. 

* TTavTos Kiessling : Sia navros 0. 
' Sintenis : noXefiov 0. 



BOOK III. 36, 4-37, 3 

concerning religious rites were engraved on 
oaken boards ; but after the expulsion of the kings 
they were again copied off for the use of the 
public by Gaius Papirius, a pontiff, who had the 
superintendence of all religious matters. After 
Marcius had re-established the religious rites which 
had fallen into abeyance and turned the idle 
people to their proper employments, he com- 
mended the careful husbandmen and reprimanded 
those who managed their lands ill as citizens not 
to be depended on. 

XXXVII. While ^ instituting these adminis- 
trative measures he hoped above all else to pass 
his whole life free from war and troubles, like 
his grandfather, but he found his purpose crossed 
by fortune and, contrary to his inclinations, was 
forced to become a warrior and to live no part of 
his life free from danger and turbulence. For 
at the very time that he entered upon the govern- 
ment and was establishing his tranquil regime 
the Latins, despising him and looking upon him 
as incapable of conducting wars through want of 
courage, sent bands of robbers from each of their 
cities into the parts of the Roman territory that 
lay next to them, in consequence of which many 
of the Romans were suffering injury. And when 
ambassadors came from the king and summoned 
them to make satisfaction to the Romans according 
to the treaty, they alleged that they neither had 
any knowledge of the robberies complained of, 
asserting that these had been committed without 
the general consent of the nation, nor had become 

1 Sor chaps. 37-39, 2 c/. Livy i. 32-33, 5. 

159 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovT€ VTToSiKot ycviadat ^ 'PcofxaLois Trepl ovdevos 
Trpay/xaro?- ovSe yap irpos eKeivovs irofqaaadai 
ras (JVvd-qKas aXXa irpos TvXXov, reXevT-qaavTOs 
he rod TvXXov XeXvaOai a(f)Lcn rag Trepl t^? 

4 eLprjvqs opLoXoyiag. dvayKaaOels Srj 8ia ravras 
Tas atTta? /cat airoKpiaeLs ^ TOiv Karrlvoiv 6 
Map/cto? e^dyei Grparidv en' avrovs, Kal Trpoa- 
Kadet,6iievos YioXirojpioj iroXei,^ rrplv eTTLKOvpiav 
TLva Tois TToXiopKovixevois efc Tcov dXXcov d(f)LKeadai 
Aarivcov TrapaXapL^dvei rrju ttoXiv Kad* op-o- 
Xoy las' ov p,€vroL SiedrjKe rovs dvdpcoTTOvs Seivoi' 
ovdev, aXX exovras rd acfterepa TravS-qpiel p.eT- 
riyayev els 'Pcofirjv Kal Kareveip^ev els ^uAa?.* 

XXXVIII. Tip S' e^^js eviavrcp Aarlvcov els 
eprjpLov TO YioXnuipLov cttolkovs ^ dTToareiXdurajv 
/cat 7171' TCOV YloXiTCopLvajv ^ ^^pav eTrepyal^ofxe- 
vu>v avaXa^wv ttjv Svuap^LV 6 MdpKLos rjyev enr 
avrovs. TTpoeXdovrcuv Se rov Tel^ovs rdJv Aarlvcov 
Kai napara^ap^evcov viKrjaas avrovs TrapaAa/i.- 
jSctvet TTjv TToXiv TO hevTepov. ep.TTp-qaas Se rds 
ot/cta? /cat relxos KaraaKdipas, Iva p,r]dev avdis 
opp,r}Tr]pLov e^oiev ol TroAe/xtot /xt^S' ipydl,oiVTO 

2 rrfv yrjv, aTrrjye ttjv arparidv, rep 8' e^yjs 
erei AarZvoi p.ev em MeSuAAtaf rroXtv arparevaav- 
res, ev fj 'Pcop^alcov rjaav aTTOiKOi, rrpoaKade^o- 
fievot TO) relxei, /cat Travraxpdev TroLTjadpievot, rds 

^ ycviadai added by Bucheler ; Sylburg supplied tlvai, Cobet 
yeveoOai €<f>aaav. 

^ ras ahias Kai airoKpiaeis R(?) : ras anoKpiaeis B; ras 
avddSeis diroKplaeis Grasberger. 

^ IloXiTwpioi TToAei Gary : rfj wdAei (but in B about twenty 
letters have been erased after rro'Aet) ; t<J) IIoAtrcopiV Sylburg, 
rj TToAet avTwy HoXijiupltu Jacoby. « 

160 



BOOK III. 37, 3-38, 2 

accountable to the Romans for anything they did. 
For they had not made the treaty with them, 
they said, but with Tullus, and by the death of 
Tullus their treaty of peace had been terminated. 
Marcius, therefore, compelled by these reasons 
and the answers ^ of the Latins, led out an army 
against them, and laying siege to the city of 
Politorium, he took it by capitulation before any 
aid reached the besieged from the other Latins. 
However, he did not treat the inhabitants with 
any severity, but, allowing them to retain their 
possessions, transferred the whole population to 
Rome and distributed them among the tribes. 

XXXVIIL The next year, since the Latins had 
sent settlers to Politorium, which was then unin- 
habited, and were cultivating the lands of the 
Politorini, Marcius marched against them with 
his army. And when the Latins came outside the 
walls and drew up in order of battle, he defeated 
them and took the town a second time ; and having 
burnt the houses and razed the walls, so that the 
enemy might not again use it as a base of opera- 
tions nor cultivate the land, he led his army home. 
The next year the Latins marched against the 
city of Medullia, in which there were Roman 
colonists, and besieging it, attacked the walls on 

^ The text is uncertain here. Possibly we should read with 
Grasberger "haughty answers," an expression used several 
times by Dionysius, in place of "reasons and answers." 



* €15 <f>vXas Jacoby : «*s ras <f>vXds, Pflugk. 

* eTToiKOvs B : d-n-oiKovs R. 
' Sylburg : noXiTioplcav 0. 

i6i 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

trpoa^oXas alpovaiv avrrjv Kara Kpoiros. MdpKLOs 
Se TeXX-qvas ttoXlv rcov Aarlvcov €7n(f>avij Kara 
Tov avrov alpel XROvov ck Trapard^ecos t€ viK-qaas 
Kal Sid T€L)(o [xax^ag TTapaarrjadp.evog , rovs re 
dXovra? ovSev d)v elxov d(j)eX6pievos els 'PcLpLTjv 
pbcr-qyaye Kal Tjjg TToXecos els KaracTKevrjv oIklcxjv 

3 TOTTov aTTepjipiae' MeSuAAtav re rpLcrrj xpovov 
V7t6 rot? Aartvois yevopevrjv rw rerdpTCo Kofxi- 
^erai TrdXiv iviavro) ttoXXols Kal fieydXais Trapa- 
GTiqaaixevos [xd^ats. /cat jxeT ov ttoXv rrjv 
^iKavaLcov ^ alpel ttoXlv, fjv rpiru) Trporepov 
eviavTO) Xa^dyv Kad* ofioXoyias Kal rovg i^ avrrj'; 
diravras els 'Pcofxrjv fxerayaywv, aAAo 8e rrjs 
TToXews ovSev KaKcoaas, eTnetKearepov jxaXXov rj 

4 (f)povL[Ma)r€pov eBo^e ^ovXeveaOai. aTTOiKovs yap 
aTToareiXavres els avrrjv ol Aarlvoi Kal rrjv 
^copav avTcbv hiaKarexovres avroi riqv tcov 
^iKavaicov eKapnovvTO, ware rjvayKdadrj TrdXiv 
6 MdpKios ro Sevrepov em rrjv ttoXlv arparevaai 
Kai ixerd TToXXr]s TrpayjxareLas Kvpios avrijs Karaards 
epLTTpriaai re rds ot/cta? /cat rd rei)(7] KaraarKdipai. 

XXXIX. Merd rovro yivovrai Aarlvojv re 
/cat 'Pcofj-alajv pieydXais hvvdfieai TTapara^apuevajv 
fidxcit Strrat. rfj p,ev ovv Trporepa lie^pt- ttoXXov 
SiayaiviGrdpievoL /cat So^avres laoppoTTOi yeyovevai 
hieKpiOiqaav Kal em rovs tStou? eKdrepoL ^dpaKas 
aTTTjXXdyrjaav, rfj 8' varepa 'Pa)jLtatot viKcbcn rovs 
2 AartVou? /cat fxexpi- crrparoTreSov SuvKovai. fxerd 
8e rds fxdxas ravras dyojv jxev e/c Trapard^ecos 
ouSels avrois en irpos aXXriXovs avvearr), /cara- 

* ^iKavaiwv Spelman, Schwegler : <f>i8r)paicuv BbR, (f>e^8rj- 
vaidiv Ba (and so just below). 
162 



BOOK III. 38, 2-39, 2 

all sides and took it by storm. At the same time 
Marcius took Tellenae, a prominent city of the 
Latins, after he had overcome the inhabitants in 
a pitched battle and had reduced the place by 
an assault upon the walls ; after which he trans- 
ferred the pi-isoners to Rome without taking any 
of their possessions from them, and set apart for 
them a place in the city in which to build houses. 
And when Medullia had been for three years 
subject to the Latins, he recovered it in the 
fourth year, after defeating the inhabitants in 
many great battles. A little later he captured 
Ficana, a city which he had already taken two 
years before by capitulation, afterwards trans- 
ferring all the inhabitants to Rome but doing no 
other harm to the city — a course in which he 
seemed to have acted with greater clemency than 
prudence. For the Latins sent colonists thither 
and occupying the land of the Ficanenses, they 
enjoyed its produce themselves; so that Marcius 
was obhged to lead his army a second time against 
this city and, after making himself master of it 
with great difficulty, to burn the houses and raze 
the walls. 

XXXIX. After this the Latins and Romans 
fought two pitched battles with large armies. 
In the first, after they had been engaged a con- 
siderable time without any seeming advantage 
on either side, they parted, each returning 
to their own camp. But in the later contest 
the Romans gained the victory and pursued the 
Latins to their camp. After these actions there 
was no other pitched battle fought between them, 



1^3 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Spofxal 8e T-^s" oiiopov )(a)pas vtt' dfi(f)OT€pct)v 
eyivovTO avvex^ts kol avinrXoKoi twv TTepnroXoiv 
rrjs yijs LTTTreajv re /cat ifjiXcov, iv afs" eTTeKpdrovv 
(1)9 rd TToAAo, 'Pcu/iatoi SvvafXLv vnaidpov exovres 
iv roLS eTTLKaipoLS (f)povpLOLS VTTOKadiqixevrjv, •^s' 
o Tvpprjvos TapKvvLos rjyeXro. aTrearrjaav 8e 
Kol ^iSrjvaioL 'Pa)[j.aLcov Kara rovg avrovs 
Xpovovs, ovK €/c Tov <f)av€pov Tov TToXepiov dvahei- 
^avres, dXXd Kar oXiyovs koL Kpv(f>a rrjv )(a)pav 
avTcov KaTaSpojJLals KaKovpyovvres' e(^' ovs 6 
Mct/aKto? €vl,a>vcp arparia iXdaas, irplv -^ irapa- 
OKevdaaoOaL rovs ^iS-qvaiovg rd Trpos tov TToXefJiov, 
iyyvs rfjs TroXecog rideraL tov ydpaKa. ol 8e 
KOLT ap)(ds p-€v ayvoeiv eaKTjTTTOvTO dvTi ttolcov 
dhiKriiidrcov OTpaTos ctt avTovg 'PiOfJ-aLiov 
d(j)iKTai, TOV 8e ^aaiXeo}? etTTOvro? on SiKas Trap' 
avrcov rjKeL Xrjtfjofievos (Lv hirjpTraadv t€ Kal 
Kare^Xaipav avrov ttjv yfjv, aTreXoyovvro rrpos 
ravTa (hs ov to koivov airiov elrj tcov dSiKrjixdTOjv, 
Kal xP^^ov TjTovvTO els hidyvwaiv re koL t,rjrq(nv 
Tcov ivoxoiv rat? aiVtais" Kal ttoAAo.? KaTerpiif/av 
rjfiepag irpdTTOVTes p.ev ovhkv tcov SeovTCxjv, 
eTTiKaXovpievoi 8e Kpvtpa Tovg avp.pLd-)(ovs Kal 
TTepl KaTaaKevrju ottXojv yivofxevoi. 

XL. y[add>v 8e Tr]v SidvoLav avTcov 6 MdpKios 
VTTovofjLovs wpVTTCv dno rrjs IBias TTapefjL^oXijs 
dp^djjLevog vtto rd tclxI "^V^ rroXecos, Kal 
eTTeihr] TeXog ^^X^^ V^V "^^ epyov, dvaarrjaas 
TOV arpaTov ^ rjyev em ttjv ttoXiv, p^rfxavd's re 

^ TOV orpoTov B : ti^v arpanav R. 
164 



BOOK III. 39, 2-40, 1 

but continual incursions were made by both into 
the neighbouring territory and there were also 
skirmishes between the horse and light-armed foot 
who patrolled the country ; in these the victors 
were generally the Romans, who had their forces 
in the field posted secretly in advantageous strong- 
holds, under the command of Tarquinius the 
Tyrrhenian. About the same time the Fidenates 
also revolted from the Romans. They did not, 
indeed, openly declare war, but ravaged their 
country by making raids in small numbers and 
secretly. Against these Marcius led out an army 
of light troops, and before the Fidenates had made 
the necessary preparations for war he encamped 
near their city. At first they pretended not to 
know what injuries they had committed to draw 
the Roman army against them, and when the king 
informed them that he had come to punish them 
for their plundering and ravaging of his teri'i- 
tory, they excused themselves by alleging that 
their city was not responsible for these injuries, 
and asked for time in which to make an in- 
vestigation and to search out the guilty ; and 
they consumed many days in doing nothing 
that should have been done, but rather in 
sending to their allies secretly for assistance 
and busying themselves with the preparing of 
arms. 

XL. Marcius, having learned of their purpose, 
proceeded to dig mines leading under the walls 
of the city from his own camp ; and when the 
work was finally completed, he broke camp and 
led his army against the city, taking along many 

165 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToAAa? /cat KXifjLaKag /cat ^ raAAa npos retx^- 
fj,ax^o.v KareaKevaa^ieva eTrayofjievos, ov Kad 
ov at Stcupuye? eyivovro rod reixovg roirov, aAAa 

2 /ca^' erepov. rwv Se OtST^vatcoi' evrt ra TToXiop- 
KOVfxeva pcepr] Trjg noXecos avvhpap-ovroiv adpooiv 
/cat ra? rrpoa^oXag yevvaicos OLTroTpi^oixevajv 
dvaaTO[JLa)cravT69 ra rrepara rcov VTTOVopLOJV ot 
rax^^vres irrl rovrcp 'Pcofxaloi. ivros eyeyoveaav 
rod nepL^oXov, /cat roijs ojjLoae ;)(a>powra? Sta- 
<j)deipavres avoiyovai rols TToXiopKovai ras TTvXas. 

3 TToXXcov 8' iv rfj KaraXrufjei rrjs noXecos olttoXo- 
fxevcov ^ rovs Xolttovs rojv ^iBrjvaicov brrXa re 
Tiapahovvai KeXevoas 6 Map/cto? /cat et? eva 
rovov rrjg noXetog artavras vpoKrjpv^as avveXdeiv, 
oXiyovg i$ avrcov rovg alriovs rrjg OLTToaraaecDS 
fxaari^LV atKLadpievos d.7T€Kreivev , oiKias 8e OLTrav- 
ra)v hiapTrdaai rols arparicorais eTTirpeipag /cat 
(f)povpdv iv rfj rroXei KaraXnrdjv d^Loxp^iov dTrijye 

4 rrjv hvvapLLV inl Ha^ivovg. ovSe yap €K€lvol 
Ste'/zetvav iv ralg op^oXoyiais at? iTTOii)aavro 
rrepi rrjg elprjvrjs ^ rrpos ^aaiXea TvXXov, dXX 
ip^aXovres et? rr^v ' Poj/iatajv yriv iS-povv au^t? * 
rrjv opiopov. paOojv S' o Map/cio? Trapa re Kara- 
OKOTTCov /cat avropoXojv rov Katpov rrjg errLX^ipr]- 
aecos ioKehacrpLeviov rcov Ha^ivcov /cat XerjXarovvrcov 
Toy? dypovg, avros pbev d.p.a rols 7re!l,otg ctti rov 
xdpaKa roJv rtoXepiojv d(f>LK6pevog oXiyrjv exovra 
(pvXaKTjV KaraXapL^dvei ro epvpia i^ i(f)68ov, 

^ HTjXavds re noXXas Koi KXifiaKas Kal Jacoby : iiTjxavds re 
TToAAds Kal AaB, but to ii-qxavds A adds in margin kcu 
KXt^aKa^. Steph. road /fAt'/xa/caj re noXXds Kal iirjxavds kox. 

^ dirokofievwv R : dTioXXvuevwv AB, Jacoby. 

i66 



BOOK III. 40, 1-4 

siege-engines and scaling-ladders and the other 
equipment he had prepared for an assault, and 
approaching a different point from that where the 
walls were undermined. Then, when the Fidenates 
had rushed in great numbers to those parts of the 
city that were being stormed, and were stoutly 
repulsing the assaults, the Romans who had been 
detailed for the purpose opened the mouths of the 
mines and found themselves within the walls ; 
and destroying all who came to meet them, they 
threw open the gates to the besiegers. When 
many of the Fidenates had been slain in the taking 
of the town, Marcius ordered the rest to deliver 
up their arms, and made proclamation that all 
should repair to a certain place in the city. There- 
upon he caused a few of them who had been the 
authors of the revolt to be scourged and put to 
death, and having given leave to his soldiers to 
plunder all their houses and left a sufficient garri- 
son there, he marched with his army against the 
Sabines. For these also had failed to abide by 
the terms of the peace which they had made with 
King Tullus, and making incursions into the 
territory of the Romans, were again laying 
waste the neighbouring country. When Marcius, 
therefore, learned from spies and deserters the 
proper time to put his plan into execution, 
while the Sabines were dispersed and plundering 
the fields, he marched in person with the infantry 
to the enemy's camp, which was weakly guarded, 
and took the ramparts at the first onset ; and he 

' Trept TTJs elp-qvr]s B : om. R. 
* av^is Sintenis : avr^s AB. 

167 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TapKvvLou 8e tows' iTTTTels ^ dyovra evrt rovg ev 
TTpovo^Jials iaKehaa/xevovs eTreiyeadai e/ce'Aeue. 

6 fiaOovres 8e ol ILaplvoi r-qv lttttov tcov * Pcoju.aicoi' 
€771 a(f)ds iXavvovaav a^eVre? rrjv Aetav /cat 
ras ctAAa? wcfieXeLas, o(ja? e^epov re /cat -qyov, 
€(f)€vyov eTTL rov ;^apa«:a- ws Se KaKeivov eyvojaav 
Karexoixevov vtto ribv 7T€t,cov, airopovvres ottoi 
rpoLTTOLVTO avvcTeivov ^ els vXas re /cat opt]. 
8ta>/cd/xevot 8e vtto tcov i/jlXcov /cat tcov LTnrecov 
oXiyoL jjLev rives iacLdiqcrav , ol 8e irXeiovs 8ie(f)dap7]- 
aav. /cat ixera ttjv avpi^opav ravrrjv npea^evaa- 
fievoL TToXiv els 'ViLp^-qv elprjvqs rvyxavovaiv 
olas i^ovXovro. en yap 6 Trpos ras Aartvcov 
■noXeis ovvearr]K(hs rols 'Pcop-aioLs TToXepios avay- 
Kalas evrotet ras irpos rovs dXXovs e^^povs 
avoids re koX hiaXvaeis- 

XLI. TerapToj 8e fxaXicyra {jcerd rovSe rov 
TToXe/Jiov evtavrcp MdpKLOs 6 tcov 'Pco/xatcov 
^aaiXevs r-qv re TToXirLKrjV Svvafxiv dycov /cat tt^v 
avuaayLKriv ueTaTreu-djaixevos oarjv eSvvaTO rrXei- 
OT'qv ecTTpaTevorev eTTL UvievTavovs /cat ttoAAtjv 
TTJs x^P^^ avTcov eh-^coaev. eKelvoi 8' fjp^av ^ 
ivLavTO) TTpoTepov * els ttjv *Pcop,aLCOV yrjv ep,- 
^aXovTes /cat TroAActs' fxev dpTrayds xP^P-^^^^^i ttoXvv 

2 8e dvdpcjTTCxiv oXeOpov TTOirjaavTes' arpaTids 8e 
TToXXfjs TTapd TCOV OvievTavdJv e^eXdova-qs Kai 
TTepav Tov Te^epios TTOTap^ov Trpos tt] ^uS-qvaLcov 
TToAei ;)^a/3a/ca depievrjs, dvaXa^chv rqv 8i;va/LiiJ' 
"^yev (OS etx^ Taxovs Kai Trpcorov p.ev rcov eTTL rr)v 

1 Kiessling : Ittttovs O. 

* avvereLvov B : avvereivav R, Jacoby. 

' Cobet : rjpiavTo 0, Jacoby. 

i68 



BOOK III. 40, 4-41, 2 

ordered Tarquinius to hasten with the cavalry 
against those who were dispersed in foraging. The 
Sabines, learning that the Roman cavalry was 
coming against them, left their plunder and the 
other booty they were carrying and driving off, and 
fled to their camp ; and when they perceived that 
this too was in the possession of the infantry, they 
were at a loss which way to turn and endeavoured 
to reach the woods and mountains. But being pur- 
sued by the light-armed foot and the horse, the 
greater part of them were destroyed, though 
some few escaped. And after this misfortune, 
sending ambassadors once more to Rome, they 
obtained such a peace as they desired. For the 
war which was still going on between the Romans 
and the Latin cities rendered both a truce and 
a peace with their other foes necessary. 

XLI. About ^ the fourth year after this war 
Marcius, the Roman king, leading his own army 
of citizens and sending for as many auxiliaries as 
he could obtain from his allies, marched against 
the Veientes and laid waste a large part of their 
country. These had been the aggressors the year 
before by making an incursion into the Roman 
territory, where they seized much property and 
slew many of the inhabitants. And when the 
Veientes came out against him with a large army 
and encamped beyond the river Tiber, near 
Fidenae, Marcius set out with his army as rapidly 
as possible ; and being superior in cavalry, he 

1 Cf. Livy i. 33, 9. 

* eVtauToi npoTepov : rip irporepov iviavri^ Cobet. 

169 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

)(a)pav e^oSojv avrovg aTre'/cAeicrev LTTTTOKparcov, 
eTreir' els Trapdra^Lv TrpoeXdelv dvayKaaag iviK-qae 
Koi Tov ■)(apaKos avTOJv eKparrjoe. ■)(<jjprjaavTOS 
8e avTU) /cat rovrov Kara yvcojjirjv rov noXepiov 
rrjv eTTLVLKLov 7T0[ji7T7]v xttt TOV etoidoTa dpiapL^ov 
rols Oeols Kar-qyayev els ttjv ttoXlu d^iKopievos. 

3 Sevrepcp 8' varepov erei irdXiv twv ^ OmevTavtov 
XvadvTCov as eTroLrjaavro npos avrov avoxas Kai 
rds dXds ^ d^LovvTcov aTToXa^eiv, d>v ctti 'Pcd/xuAou 
^aaiXecos KaO opLoXoyias aTrecrrr^aav, erepav 
riderai irpos avrovs P'dx'i^v Trepl rals oAat? pLeil,ova 
rrjs TTporepas, 'r]v evirercbs euLKTjae, /cat rds dXds 

4 e^ eKeivov Karelxev dva[Jicf>iX6ya>s • rd 8e dpiareZa 
Kol €K ravrrjs eXa^e rrjs [^dx'QS d rcov iTTTreajv 
rjyeiMwv TapKvvLos, /cat avrov 6 MdpKios dvSpa 
irdvrcov Kpdriarov rjyqadpLevos rd re dXXa 
aepivvvoiv hiereXei /cat els rov rcbv TrarpLKicov 

5 re /cat povXevrojv dptdp,6v Kareypaijfev. eyevero 
he KOL TTpos TO rcov OvoXovaKOiv edvos rep MapKicp 
TToXepLOs Xrjarrjpioiv KdKeWev e^iovrcov CTrt rovs 
rcov 'Pojpaicov dypovs' /cat arparevaas eir 
avrovs pbeydXrj ^etpt ttoXXtjv irepie^dXero Aetav* 
rroXei re avrdjv OveXlrpaiS rrpoaKnfiel,6pLevos 
drrerd^peve /cat Trepiexo-pdKov /cat reixopax^av 
avvtararo rrjs vrraidpov Kparayv. e^eXdovrcuv 
8e avv CKerr^piais rcov npea^vrarcov /cat ras re 
pXd^as SiaXvaeiv vrroaxop^evcov , cos dv 6 ^aaiXevs 
BiKaicoarr) y /cat rovs evoxovs raZs alriais irri StKrjv 

* ndXiv TUiv H : Travrcov B. 

^ dXas Sylburg : dXXas O (and similarly just below). 

1 See ii. 56, 5. 
170 



BOOK II. 41, 2-5 ^^n 

first cut them off from the roads leading into the 
country, and then, forcing them to come to a 
pitched battle, defeated them and captured 
their camp. Having succeeded in this war also 
according to his desire, he returned to Rome and 
conducted in honour of the gods the procession in 
celebration of his victory and the customary 
triumph. The second year after this, the Veientes 
having again broken the truce they had made with 
Marcius and demanding to get back the salt- 
works which they had surrendered by treaty 
in the reign of Romulus,^ he fought a second 
battle with them, one more important than the 
first, near the salt-works ; and having easily 
won it, he continued from that time forth in 
undisputed possession of the salt-works. The 
prize for valour in this battle also was won by 
Tarquinius, the commander of the horse ; and 
Marcius, looking upon him as the bravest man in 
the whole army, kept honoui'ing him in various 
ways, among other things making him both a 
patrician and a senator. Marcius also engaged 
in a war with the Volscians, since bands of robbers 
from this nation too were setting out to plunder 
the fields of the Romans. And marching against 
them with a large army, he captured much booty ; 
then, laying siege to one of their cities called 
Velitrae, he surrounded it with a ditch and 
palisades and, being master of the open country, 
prepared to assault the walls. But when the 
elders came out with the emblems of suppliants and 
not only promised to make good the damage they 
had done, in such manner as the king should de- 
termine, but also agreed to deliver up the guilty 

171 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTape^cLv ojxoXoyovvroiv, avo-)(a? irpos avrovs 
TTOLTqaaixevos koX to. hiKaia ■nap' ckovtcov Xa^wv 
elprjirqv /cat (f>iXiav avvriderai. 

XLII. 'E/c 8e rov Ha^Lvcov cOvovs avdis 
erepoi tlvcs rrjs 'Pcjofxaicov ovtto) 7T€7T€ipafX€vot 
SvvdfX€Cx)s . . . ^ TToXiv oiKovvres evSatf^iova /cat 
fjLeydXrjv , eyKaXelv p,€V avTols ovBev €)(ovt€s, 
(j)dovelv Se rat? evrvx'-o.LS dvayKal,6pLevoL p,€it,oaLv 
^ Kara Xoyov yivofxevais , dvOpojirot. Beivol rd TToXefiia 
TO fX€V TTpwTOV (XTTo Xrjarrjpiwv /cat KaraSpofJirjs 
dypdJv dXiyoi avveXdovTes rjp^avro, errena SeAea- 
t,6p,€voi rats to^eAetat? (f)avepdv -noiovvrai 
arpareiav ctt avrovs /cat ttJ? ofxopov ttoXXt^v 

2 XerjXarovvres eKdKOJorav laxvpdJs- ov fMTjV i^eye- 
v€t6 ye avroLs ovre rds dx^eXeias ajrayeiv ovr 
avroLS ddiooLS aTreXdelv, aAA' eK^onqdiqaas Kara 
aTTOvh'r]v 6 rcbv 'Pcofxaicov ^aaiXeiis /cat TrXrjaiov 
rrjs CKeLvcov TTapefX^oXrjs Oefxevos rov •^(dpaKa 

3 TTpoeXdeiv avrovs -qvdyKaaev et? fji,d)(r]v. iyevero 
/xev ovv fzdyas dycbv Kal ttoXXol Trap d[Ji(f)orepct)v 
erreaov, eKpdrrjoav he *Pa)jU,atot /caret to epiTreLpov ^ 
re Kal ^epeirovov^ wv eddhes rjaav e/c TiXeiarov, 
Kal TTepieyevovro rrapd ttoXv r<x)v Ha^ivcov roZs 
re (j>evyovaiv avrojv em rov yapaKa anopaat. 
/cat davvrdKrois e/c ttoSo? eTTOfxevoL ttoXvv, erroLovv 

4 (f)6vov. KparTjoavres Se /cat rrjs napepL^oXiis 
avra)v TTavrohaiTUiV ;^pT7/xaTajy yejxovay]s Kal 
rovs al)(P-aX(i)rovs , ovs eXa^ov ol Ha^lvoi Kara 
rds TTpovopids diToXa^ovres aTrfjeuav exr oikov. 

^ Lacuna indicated before ttoXiv by Kiessling. 
* ffxireipov AB : (fnrovov R. 

172 



BOOK 11. 41, 5-42, 4 

to be punished, he made a truce with them, and 
after accepting the satisfaction they freely offered, 
he concluded a treaty of peace and friendship. 

XLII. Again, some others of the Sabine nation 
who had not yet felt the Roman power, the 
inhabitants of . . .,^ a great and prosperous 
city, without having any grounds of complaint 
against the Romans but being driven to envy 
of their prosperity, which was increasing dis- 
proportionately, and being a very warlike people, 
began at first with brigandage and the raiding of 
their fields in small bodies, but afterwards, lured 
by the hope of booty, made war upon them openly 
and ravaged much of the neighbouring territory, 
inflicting severe damage. But they were not 
permitted either to carry off their booty or them- 
selves to retire unscathed, for the Roman king, 
hastening out to the rescue, pitched his camp near 
theirs and forced them to come to an engagement. 
A great battle, therefore, was fought and many 
fell on both sides, but the Romans won by reason 
of their skill and their endurance of toil, virtues 
to which they had been long accustomed, and 
they proved far superior to the Sabines ; and pur- 
suing them closely as they fled, dispersed and in 
disorder, toward their camp, they wrought great 
slaughter. Then, having also captured their 
camp, which was full of all sorts of valuables, 
and recovered the captives the Sabines had taken 
in their raids, they returned home. These in 

1 The name of the city has been lost from the MSS. 
Compare the similar case of Politorium in chap. 37, 4. 

* if>epf7TOvov : <f>MiTovov Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

at [Jiev Srj TroAe/xt/cat Trpa^et? rovbe rov ^aaiXecog 
at ixv^fxrjs /cat Xoyov Trapa 'Poj/xatot? rvy^^d- 
vovaac rotatSe TLves XeyovTai yeviadar TroAtrt/cat 
Se a? ep)(o fxat Xe^wv. 

XLIII. ITptoTor [xev TTJ TToXei fiolpav ov 
jjLLKpav TTpoaddrjKe reiy^iaas ^ tov Xeyojxevov 
Aovevrlvov eWt 8e X6(/)os vi/jt^Xos eVtetKco? 
oKraiKaihcKa. ttov araSLcov ttjv TrepipLerpov , os 
rore /zev vXt^s TravroSaTrrjs puearos rjv, TrAetcrrTys' Se 
/cat KaXXiarrjs 8d<j)i>7]s, i(f>^ rj? Aavprjrov ^ vtto 
'Pco/xatcov /caAetrat tottos" rt? e7r' ^ avrov' vvv 
he oIklojv icTTi TrXrjprjs airas, evda avv ttoXXols 
aAAot? /cat TO TTJs 'ApTeputSos lepov iSpvrai, 
etpyeraL 8e a(/>' irepov tcou avpLTrepiexop-evcov ^ 
rfj 'PcopLrj ^ X6(f>cov rov KoXovpievov HaXXavriov, 
irepi ov 7] TTpcoTT] KaracrKevaadelaa iroXts ISpvdr], 
^adeia /cat arevfj (fxipayyi' iv Se rot? varepov 
)(p6voLS ix^joadr] ttSLs 6 pcera^v r(x)v Xocfiojv avXcov. 
2 rovrov Srj rov X6(f)OV eTnreixKyp'O. Kara rrjs 
TToAeco? opojv iaopievov, et ns avrfj inioi arparos, 
reLxei /cat ra^paj TrepteXa^e ^ /cat rovs /xer- 
axdeuras e/c TeAAi^v'T^s" ^ re /cat noAtTa)ptou /cat 
rix)v dXXcov TToXecov oacov eKpdriqaev iv rovrcp 
rw X'^P^V KadiSpvaev. ev puev 8r) rovro ^ 
TToXirevpia rov ^aatAeo)? Trapahihorai KaXov dp,a 
/cat TTpaypLariKoVy e^ ov pieLt,ovd re avvejSr] yeve- 
adai rrjv -ttoXlv erepas TTpoaOeaei rroXecos /cat 

^ Teix^aas Jacoby : evreix^oas 0. 

^ AavprJTov Steph. : Xavpevros A, Xavpevros B. 

' in' Biicheler : i^ 0. 

* avfXTT€pi,exop.(vci}v R ; om. B. 

* rg pwp-rj R : iv rfj p(up.Ji B. 

174 



BOOK III. 42, 4-43, 2 

brief are the military exploits of this king that 
have been remembered and recorded by the Romans. 
I shall now mention the achievements of his civil 
administration. 

XLIII. In 1 the first place, he made no small 
addition to the city by enclosing the hill called 
the Aventine within its walls. This is a hill of 
moderate height and about eighteen stades in 
circumference, which was then covered with 
trees of every kind, particularly with many 
beautiful laurels, so that one place on the hill 
is called Lauretum or " Laurel Grove " by the 
Romans ; but the whole is now covered with 
buildings, including, among many others, the 
temple of Diana. The Aventine is separated 
from another of the hills that are included within 
the city of Rome, called the Palatine Hill (round 
which was built the fii-st city to be established), 
by a deep and narrow ravine, but in after times 
the whole hollow between the two hills was filled 
up. Marcius, observing that this hill would serve 
as a stronghold against the city for any army that 
approached, encompassed it with a wall and ditch 
and settled here the populations that he had 
transferred from Tellenae and Politorium and the 
other cities he had taken. This is one peace-time 
achievement recorded of this king that was at once 
splendid and practical ; thereby the city was 
not only enlarged by the addition of another city 

1 CJ. Livy i. 33, 2. 

* TTepceXa^e Kiessling : wepie/SaAe 0. 
' TeXXi^vrjs Lapus : ttcAAij? AB. 

* TovTo Cobet : tovto to 0, Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ttoAAt^ X^I'P'' TToXeiiicov ^TnaTparevadvrcov rjrTOV 
evXrjTTTov.^ 

XLIV. J^repov Se ri rov TrpoeipriyLlvov ttoXl- 
revfiaros Kpelrrov, o /cat roZs /cara tov ^lov 
aTTaaiv evSaifiovearepav avrrju ivoL-qcre /cat irpay- 
jjidrcov eTTrjpev dijjaad at yevvatorepcov. tov yap 
Te^epios TTorajJiov Kara^atvovTOS fiev €K tcov 
A-TTevvLvojv opaJv, Trap* avTrjv Se rrjv 'Y^uifxrjv 
piovros, ifi^dXXovTos S' els alyiaXovs dXifxevovs 
/cat TTpoaex^ls, ovs to Tvpp-qviKov vroiet ireXayos, 
fiiKpd 8e /cat OVK afia Xoyov T-qv 'PwfjLTjv (hfjieXovv- 
Tos 8ta TO ixridkv im rat? e/cjSoAat? ^x^i'V ifiTTopiov,^ 
o TOLS eloKoiXL^ofievag 8ta OaXdTTrjg /cat /car- 
ayojxivag dvojdev dyopds yTroSeferat re /cat 
d)Lt€ti/feTat Tot? ifjiTTopevonevois , iKavov 8e orros' 
a;;(/3t [xev tcov TTTjyoJv TTOTafxrjyoLS OKd^eaiv 
evfieyedeaiv dvaTrXeiaOat, Trpos avTrjv he ttjv 
'PojjLtT^v /cat daXaTTiais oA/cctat fieydXatg, eiriveLov 
eyvoi KaTaaKevdt,eLV im Tat? e/cjSoAats" aurou 
Xifievi xpi^f^dfieuos aura) roi CTTOjuart rou TTOTap.ov. 
2 evpvveTai re yap CTrt ttoAu tt^ daXdTTj] avvdnTCov 
/cat koAttou? Xafx^dvei p-eydXovg , olovs ot KpdTtcrTOi. 
TCOV OaXaTTicov Xt-jxevcov o 8e fidXiaTa dav/xdaeiev 
dv Tts", ou/c aTTO/cAet'eTat toO CTTO/xaro? utto tt^? 
daXaTTias dcvog epi^paTTopievos , o Trdaxpvai, 
TToAAot /cat TcDv p,eydXcxiv rroTajjicov, oi)8* eij 
eAi7 /cat TeAjuara TrXavcop^evo? dXXoTe dXXr) rrpo- 
/carai^aAta/cerat vrpti' •^ tt^ daXdTTjj crvvdiljaL to 
peWpov, dXXd vavoLvepaTOS earti' aet /cat St' 
ews" €/c8i8a»CTi Tou yvqacov aTopLUTOs , dvaKOTTTCOv 
TOLS neXayiovs paxio-s rrjs OaXdTTrjs, /caiVot ttoXvs 

^ Reiske : evXrjTrrorepav O. 
176 



BOOK III. 43, 2-44, 2 

but also rendered less vulnerable to the attack of 
a strong enemy force. 

XLIV. Another peace-time achievement was of 
even greater consequence than the one just 
mentioned, as it made the city richer in all 
the conveniences of life and encouraged it to em- 
bark upon nobler undertakings. The river Tiber, 
descending from the Apennine mountains and flow- 
ing close by Rome, discharges itself upon harbour- 
less and exposed shores made by the Tyrrhenian 
Sea ; but this river was of small and negligible 
advantage to Rome because of having at its 
mouth no trading post where the commodities 
brought in by sea and down the river from the 
country above could be received and exchanged 
with the merchants. But as it is navigable quite 
up to its source for river boats of considerable 
size and as far as Rome itself for sea-going ships 
of great burden, he resolved to build a seaport 
at its outlet, making use of the river's mouth itself 
for a harbour. For the Tiber broadens greatly 
where it unites with the sea and forms great 
bays equal to those of the best seaports ; and, 
most wonderful of all, its mouth is not blocked 
by sandbanks piled up by the sea, as happens in 
the case of many even of the large rivers, nor 
does it by wandering this way and that through 
fens and marshes spend itself before its stream 
unites with the sea, but it is everywhere navi- 
gable and discharges itself through its one genuine 
mouth, repelling the surge that comes from the 



* ifiTTopiov Capps : <f>povpiov 0, Jacoby. 

177 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avroOi yLverai /cat x'^Xerros 6 ttvIwv oltto rij^ 

3 earrepas avefiog. at fiev ovv €7tlkcu7tol vrjes 
OTTrjXiKaL TTOT ov ovoai Tu;\;a)crt /cat tiov oA/caScui' 
at l^'^XP'' '''P'cr;)i(;tAto^opajr eladyovoi re Sta tov 
arofxaros avrov /cat f^expt- ttjs 'Pcu/xt^? elpeaia /cat 
pvfiaaL TTapeXKOfjcevai KOfJUL^ovrai, at 8e p.€lt,ovs 
irpo TOV arofxaTos eV dyKvpaJv aaXevovaai rats 
TTorafi-qyoLg aTroye^tXovTat re /cat dvTL<f)opril,ovrai 

4 CT/ca^atj. eV 8e toj fiera^v rod re TTorafiov /cat 
ttJ? daXdrr-qs dyKoyvi ttoXiv 6 ^aaiXevs evTet-x^Gas, 
7)v aTTo TOV GVjx^e^rjKOTOs ^CloTLav (hvofxaaev, 
CO? o av rjpLels eiTrotfiev dvpav, ov p.6vov rjTreipcoTiv, 
aXXa /cat daXaTTiav vapeoKevaae ttjv 'Pwfxrjv 
yeveaOai /cat rcoi/ StaTTOvrto;;' dyaOcov eyevaev. 

XLV. ETet;:^tae 8e /cat to KaXov/xevov 
laviKoXov opos vifjTjXov €7T€Keiva tov Te^epLos 
TTOTapLov Keifxevov /cat (j)povpdv iKavrjv iv avTco 
KaT€aT7]a€V aa(f)aXeLag eveKa tcov Sta tov rroTapLov 
TrXeovTcov IXrjQTevov yap ol Tvpprjvol Tovg 
CfiTTopovs arraaav KaTe^ovTes ttjv eVe/ceiva tov 
2 TTOTafxov ;^ctjpap'. /cat ttjv ^vXivqv yl^vpav, riv 
dv€V x^^'^ov /cat aihripov SeSeadai'^ ^e/xt? vtt* 
avTCov 8LaKpaTOVfji€vr]v tcov ^vXlvcov,^ cKelvos 
eTnOelvaL tco Te^epet Aeyerat, rjv dxpi tov 
TTapovTOS hia^vXdTTovoLv Updv etvai vopLi^ovTcs. 
et Se TL 7Toviqa€L€V avTrjs p-ipog ol L€po(})dvTaL 
depaTTCvovoL dvaiag Tim? eTriTeAowre? dpua ttj 
€TnaK€V7J^ TTaTpiovs. TavTa SiaTTpa^dpievos eVi 

^ SeSeaBai B : om. R. ^ ^vXivcov : fuAojv Steph. 

• ' emoKevrj Capps : KaTaoKevfj 0, Jacoby. 



^ Literally " three thousand [measures]." 
» Cf. Livy i. 33, 9. s cy. Livy i. 33, 6. 

178 



BOOK III. 44, 2-45, 2 

main, notwithstanding the frequency and violence 
of the west wind on that coast. Accordingly, 
oared ships however large and merchantmen up 
to three thousand bushels ^ burden enter at the 
mouth of the river and are rowed and towed up 
to Rome, while those of a larger size ride at anchor 
off the mouth, where they are unloaded and loaded 
again by river boats. Upon the elbow of land that 
lies between the river and the sea the king built a 
city and surrounded it with a wall, naming it from 
its situation Ostia,^ or, as we should call '\t,thyra or 
" portal " ; and by this means he made Rome not 
only an inland city but also a seaport, and gave it 
a taste of the good things from beyond the sea. 

XLV. He^ also built a wall round the high 
hill called Janiculum, situated on the other side 
of the river Tiber, and stationed there an ade- 
quate garrison for the security of those who 
navigated the river; for the Tyrrhenians, being 
masters of all the country on the other side of 
the river, had been plundering the merchants. He 
also is said to have built the wooden bridge over 
the Tiber, which was required to be constructed 
without brass or iron, being held together by 
its beams alone. This bridge they preserve to 
the present day, looking upon it as sacred ; and if 
any part of it gives out the pontiffs attend to it, 
offering certain traditional sacrifices while it is being 
repaired.* These are the memorable achieve- 

* The pons suhlicius ("pile-bridge") leading to the Janicu- 
lum was for centuries the only bridge at Rome. Dionysius 
has already, in discussing the pontijices (ii. 73, 1), stated that 
they were so named from one of their important duties, the 
repairing of the wooden bridge. Thus he follows Varro (L.L., 
V. 83) in deriving pontifex from pons and /acere. 

179 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rrjg tSta? oi.px'fjs 6 ^aaiXevs ovtos laropia^ d^ia 
/cat rrjv 'Pco/jlt^v ovk oXiyto Kpeirrova Txapahovs 
TOLS eiTLyivoixevoLS rjs avros TrapeXa^ev, errj 
rerrapa irpos rol^ eiKoai rqu ^aacXeiav Kara- 
a^ajv a7TodvrjaK€L hvo KaraXnrcov vlovs, tov fxev 
€TL TratSa ttju rjXcKLav, tov 8e Trpea^vrepov 
dpTLcos yev€id)vra. 

XLVI. Mera Se rov "AyKov Ma/>Ktou davarov 
7) ^ovXt] rrdXiv iTnrpeifjavro^ avrfj rov Sy^fiov 
TToXireiav rjv i^ovXero Karaary'jaaadaL fieveiv 
em TTJg avrrjs eyvco /cat OLTToSeLKwai /xecrojSaCTtAet?. 
oi Se avvayayoures els apxcipealas to TrXrjdos 
aipovvTaL jSacriAea AevKiov TapKvvcov. jSe^atco- 
advTcov Se /cat tcov Trapd tov Satp,ovLOV arjpieiojv 
TO. Kpidevra vtto tov rrX-qdovg vapaXafji^dvei. Trjv 
fiaaiXeiav eviavTCp bevTepcu p-dXictTa rrjg /Ltta? 
/cat T€TTapaKoaTrjs 6Xv[jt,7TLd8os, tjv eVt'/ca ^ KXewv- 
8as ^ Qrj^alos, dp-^ovTOs ^Ad^vr^atv 'Hf'to;^iSoi'. 

2 yovecov 8' ottolcuv tivwv oStos 6 TapKvvios "^v 
/cat TTarptSo? ef ^? €(f)v /cat St aarti^a? atrta? et? 
'Pcofxrjv d(f)(.KeTO /cat St' oicov eTTLTrjSevpidTCov 
€77t TYjv ^aaiXeiav TraprjXOev, co? ev tols e7rt;^a>ptoi? 

3 avyypa(f)dLS evpov epdj. KoptV^to? Tt? din^p 
ovojxa ArjixdpaTos e/c rijs Ba/c;^iaSa;t' avyyeveias 
efjLTTopeveadai TrpoeXofievog dTrenXevaev ^ els ttjv 
'IraAtW oA/cctSa re olKeiav dvdyoiv /cat <f)6pTov 
tStoi'. i^ep.TToX'iqaas Se tov (f>6pTov ev rats 
TvpprjvdJv TToXeaiv evSaip-ovovaats /xaAtara tcov 
ev 'IraAta Tore /cat fieydXa KcpSr] rrepi^aXopievos 

^ fVLKa AB : eViVa araSioc Steph., Jacoby. 

* Meineke : KXewviha^ A, KXeoviSas B. 

* Kiessling : iirdnXevaev B, enXevaev A. 

i8o 



BOOK III. 45, 2-46, 3 

ments of this king during his reign, and he handed 
Rome on to his successors in much better condition 
than he himself had received it. After reigning 
twenty-four years he died, leaving two sons, one 
still a child in years and the elder just growing a 
beard.^ 

XLVI. After the death of Ancus Marcius the 
senate, being empowered by the people to 
establish whatever form of government they 
thought fit, again resolved to abide by the same 
form and appointed interreges.^ These, having 
assembled the people for the election, chose 
Lucius Tarquinius as king; and the omens from 
Heaven having confirmed the decision of the 
people, Tarquinius took over the sovereignty 
about the second year of the forty-first Olympiad' 
(the one in which Cleondas, a Theban, gained the 
prize *), Heniochides being archon at Athens. I 
shall now relate, following the account I have 
found in the Roman annals, from what sort of 
ancestors this Tarquinius was sprung, from what 
country he came, the reasons for his removing to 
Rome, and by what course of conduct he came to 
be king.^ There was a certain Corinthian, Demara- 
tus by name, of the family of the Bacchiadae, 
who, having chosen to engage in commerce, sailed 
to Italy in a ship of his own with his own cargo ; 
and having sold the cargo in the Tyrrhenian 
cities, which were at that time the most flourishing 
in all Italy, and gained great profit thereby, he 

1 Cf. Livy i. 35, 1. 

* Cf. ii. 57, iii. 1. » 614 b.c. 

* In the short-distance foot-race. See the critical note on 
chap. 36. 

» For chaps. 46, 2-48, 4 cf. Livy i. 34. 

i8i 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€K€td€V ovKeri els a'AAou? i^ovXero KardyeaOat 
At/xeVa?, dAAa rrjv avTqv elpydt^ero avveyjhs ddXar- 
rav 'EiXXrjviKov re (f)6pT0v els Tvpprjvovs KOfiLt,cov 
Kol Tvpp-qvLKov els ttjv 'EAAaSa (f)epa)v, /cat 
yLveraL ndvv ttoXXiov ^prjjjLarujv Kvpios. ctti- 
KaraXa^ovarjs Se urdaeaos rrjv l^opivdou /cat rrjs 
Ys^v^iXov rvpavviSos eTravLaraixevrjs rols Ba/c- 
;\;ia8ats ovk da<^a\es etvat Sokcov ev rvpavviSi 
t,7Jv TToXXd- KeKTTjfjievos aAAo)? re kol ttjs oXiyap- 
Xi-Krjs OLKLas V7Tdp-)(^cx)V , avveoKevaapLevos rrjV 
ovaiav oar]v olos t' tjv a>;^eTO irXecov e/c rijs 
Koptvdov. excov 8e <j)iXovs ttoXXovs /cat dyadovs 
Tvpprjvwv Std rds avvex^Zs empn^ias, p-dXtora. 
S' ev TapKVVLOLs ttoXcl pieydXr) re /cat evSaip^ovt 
rore ^ ovarj, oIkov re avrodi KaracrKevdl^erai 
/cat yvvaiKa e7n(j)avr] Kara yevos dyerai. yevo- 
p^evcov 8 avrcp Svelv vatScov Tvppr]VLKd Qepbevos 
avTOLS ov6p,ara, rco p-ev "Appovra,^ rw Se Ao/cd- 
pLCjova, /cat TratSeuCTa? dpL^orepovs 'YiXX-qviKiqv re 
/cat TvpprjVLK-qv TratSetW, els dvSpas eXOovatv 
avroZs yvvaiKas eK rcov eTn<j}aveardro)v oIkcjv 
Xap^dvei. 

XLVII. Kat pier ov ttoXvv ypovov 6 piev 
Trpea^vrepos avrov ra>v Tzaihcov yevos ovhev 
KaraXiTTajv epi^aves dnodvi^aKeL. /cat /xer' dAtyaj 
Tjp.epas avTos 6 Arjpidparos vrro Xvtttjs reXevra 
KXrjpovopiov aTTdarjs rrjs ovaias rov TrepiXenro- 
pievov rcov rraihcov AoKopaova KaraXnrwv os 






^ t6t« D, Sylburg : nore A13. 
* appovra A : appovvTa B. 



BOOK III. 46, a-47, 1 

no longer desired to put into any other ports, 
but continued to ply the same sea, carrying a 
Greek cargo to the Tyrrhenians and a Tyrrhenian 
cargo to Greece, by which means he became 
possessed of great wealth. But when Corinth fell a 
prey to sedition and the tyranny of Cypselus 
was rising in revolt against the Bacchiadae,^ 
Demaratus thought it was not safe for him to 
live under a tyranny with his great riches, par- 
ticularly as he was of the oligarchic family ; and 
accordingly, getting together all of his substance 
that he could, he sailed away from Corinth. 
And having from his continual intercourse with 
the Tyrrhenians many good friends among them, 
particularly at Tarquinii, which was a large and 
flourishing city at that time, he built a house 
there and married a woman of illustrious birth. 
By her he had two sons, to whom he gave 
Tyrrhenian names, calling one Arruns and the 
other Lucumo ; and having instructed them in 
both the Greek and Tyrrhenian learning, he 
married them, when they were grown, to two 
women of the most distinguished families. 

XLVII. Not long afterward the elder of his 
sons died without acknowledged issue, and a 
few days later Demaratus himself died of grief, 
leaving his surviving son Lucumo heir to his 
entire fortune. Lucumo, having thus inherited 

^ The Bacchiadae were the ruling family at Corinth in early 
times. The kings after Bacchis {ca. 926-891 B.C.) were all 
chosen from among his descendants, and after the abolition of 
the monarchy, the family ruled as an oligarchy. Cypselus 
(father of the famous Periander), who overthrew their rule 
ca. 657, soon became so popular a ruler that he dispensed with 
a bodyguard. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TrapaXa^cbv rov TrarpiKov ttXovtov fxeyav ovra 
TToXirevcadaL re /cat ra kolvo. Trpdrreiv /cai 
iv TOLS vpcoTOLs Tcjv darcov elvai nporjprjro. oltt- 
cXavvofievos Se TTavra^odev vtto tcov imxcopicov 
/cat ovx oTTcos iv rot? TrpcLrois dpi.9fjiovp,evog, 
dXX ov8 iv Tols piicTOLs, dvLapcos €(f)€pe rrjv 
aTLjiiav. dKovcav Se Trept ri]? 'Pcopcaicov ttoAccd?, 
OTt TTavras aajxevcos vnoSexofMivq rovg ^evovg 
aarovs Trotetrat /cat rtjua /cara ttjv d^iav eKaarov, 
cKel fiereviyKacrdai rrjv OLKTrjatv eyvco rd re 
XpyiP-dra Trdvra avoKevaadpievos /cat ttjv yvvalKa 
inayopLevos /cat twv aAAoiP' <^iXcov /cat olKeiojv 
rovs PovXopLevovs' iyevovro Se ol avvaTraipeiv 
avrw 7rpodvpi-q9evT€s avxvoi. a»? Se /caret to 
KoXovpLevov ^laviKoXov rjaav, odev rq 'Pc6/X7^ rot? 
aTTO Tvpprjvlag ipxopiivois Trpcorov d(j>opdrai, 
KaraTTTas deros d(f)va} /cat rov mXov avTOV rov 
irrl rijs K€(/)aXrjs Keip,evov dprrdaas,^ dviirrit) irdXiv 
dvco Kara rrjv iyKVKXiov alcjpav (f>€p6pi€vos /cat 
€LS ro ^ados rov Trepiexovros dipog diriKpyifiev 
eTretr €^aL(f>V7]s iiTLrLdrjaL rco AoKopLcovL rov 
ttlXov CTTt rrjv Ke(f>aXrjV dpp,6aras ctJs" TTporepov 
rjppLoaro. davpiaarov Se /cat irapaho^ov irdai 
rov arip,€Lov (f)avevros rj yvvrj rov AoKopLOJVos 
ovopua TavaKvXXa ^ ipiTreipiav iKavrjv iK Traripoiv 

* After apiTaaas Schnelle proposed to supply koI and re- 
arrange the whole passage thus : ap-ndaas Kal Kara r-qv . . . 
<f>fponfvos (TnTid-qai. rtp Ao/fd/itovi . . . rjp^oaTO- eTreir" i^ai^VT)S 
aviTTTTi TrdXiv dvo) KoX eiy to fidOos . . . dneKpvipev. 

' TavaKvXXa B : ravaKvXa R. 

1^4 



BOOK III. 47, 1-4 

the great wealth of his father, had aspired to 
pubHc life and a part in the administration of the 
commonwealth and to be one of its foremost 
citizens. But being repulsed on every side by 
the native-born citizens and excluded, not only 
from the first, but even from the middle rank, he 
resented his disfranchisement. And hearing that 
the Romans gladly received all strangers and made 
them citizens, honouring every man according 
to his merit, he resolved to get together all his 
riches and remove thither, taking with him his 
wife and such of his friends and household as 
wished to go along ; and those who were eager 
to depart with him were many. When they were 
come to the hill called Janiculum, from which 
Rome is first discerned by those who come from 
Tyrrhenia, an eagle, descending on a sudden, 
snatched his cap from his head and flew up again 
with it, and rising in a circular flight, hid himself 
in the depths of the circumambient air, then of a 
sudden replaced the cap on his head, fitting it on 
as it had been before.^ This prodigy appearing 
wonderful and extraordinary to them all, the wife of 
Lucumo, Tanaquil by name, who had a good under- 

^ Livy's account of this episode (i. 34, 8) is as follows : 
ibi ei carpento sedend cum uxore aquila suspensi.i demissa 
leniier alls pilleum aufert, superque carpenturn mm ma<jno 
clangore volita7is, rursus vdxit mmislerio divinitw" mis-ta capiti 
apte reponit ; inde suhlimis abiit. At first sight this appears 
the more straightforward account, and Schnelle (see critical 
note) proposed to rearrange the clauses of Dionysius' account 
to conform to it. But Dionysius was probably following a 
different tradition, according to which the eagle was represented 
as temporarily disappearing in order to descend then direct 
from Heaven, as it were, with Tarquinius' cap. Palaeographic- 
ally SchnelJe's proposal is very improbable. 

185 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€-)(ovaa TTJg TvpprjvtK-fjs olcovoaKOTr tag, Xa^ovcra 
fjiovov avTOV OLTTO TMV ovvovTOiv rjcrTrdaaro re 
Kai ayadojv eXiTihoiv iveTrXrjaev cus ii tSituri/c^? 
rv)(r]? eiV e^ovaiav ^aoLXtKrjv iXevaofjievov. 
OKOTTetv jxevroL avve^ovXevev ottcos Trap* eKovrwv 
Xrnfjerai 'Vwiiaiojv rrjv riyepioviav a^iov ttjs 
ripirj's ravTrjs iavrov Trapaa-)(a>v . 

XLVIII. *0 6e TTepi)(apy]S ro) a-qp^eicp yev6~ 
jxevos, eTTeiSr) tols TTvXais rjSr] ovviqyyLt,€v , ev^d- 
fxevos rols deols iTTLTeXrj yeviadai rd p-avrevpiara 
/cat avu dyadais elaeXdeZv rvxo-i'S TrapijXdev els ttjv 
TToXiv Kol perd tovto avveXdcov els Xoyovs 
Map/ctoj TO) ^aaiXel npcorov pev iavrov eS-qXcDaev 
oaTLs rjv, eTTetO^ on KaroiKelv ev rfj TToXet ^ovXo^ 
p,evos TTapeirj irdaav rrjv TTarpiKrjv ovaiav enayo- 
pievos, T^v els to kolvov e(f>r] rep ^aaiXel /cat rrj 
*Pa)paLcov TToXei ridevai, puel^ova ovaav •^ /car* 

2 IhicjTiqv dvSpa KeKrrjadai. dapivois 8e rov 
^aaiXecos avrdv vnoSe^apevov /cat KaTa)(copLaavros 
dpua rots avpLirapovaiv aincp Tvpprjvcov els 
^vXrjv re /cat (fiparplav, oIklov re KaraaKevdl,erai 
roTTov hiaXaxdjv rrjs TToXeoJS rov dpKovvra Kai yijs 
XapL^dvei KXrjpov. CTrel Se ravra hicoKiqoaro /cat 
rcnv darcbv els eyeyovei, paQojv on 'Pcopalcuv 
eKdarcp koivov r ovopa Kelrai /cat perd rd kolvov 
erepov, o St) avyyeviicov avrols ean /cat Trarpco- 
vvpLiKov, e^opoiovadai Kai /card rovro avrols 
^ovXopevos AevKLov p.ev dvrl AoKopuxivos eavrcp 
riderai rd kolvov ovop,a, TapKvvLov 8e rd avy- 
yeviKov CTTi rrjs ttoXccos ev ^ yeveaeios re /cat 

3 rpo^r)s erv)(e- ^acnXeoJS re (f)lXos ev dXiytp 
vdvu xpovo) yiverai dcopa StSouy, cov avrdv iv 
i86 



BOOK III. 47, 4-48, 3 

standing, through her ancestors, of the Tyrrhenians' 
augural science, took him aside from the others 
and, embracing him, filled him with great hopes of 
rising from his private station to the royal power. 
She advised him, however, to consider by what 
means he might render himself worthy to receive 
the sovereignty by the free choice of the Romans. 
XLVIII. Lucunao was overjoyed at this omen, 
and as he was now approaching the gates he besought 
the gods that the prediction might be fulfilled and 
that his arrival might be attended with good fortune ; 
then he entered the city. After this, gaining an 
audience with King Marcius, he first informed him 
who he was and then told him that, being desirous of 
settling at Rome, he had brought with him all his 
paternal fortune, which, as it exceeded the limits 
suitable for a private citizen, he said he proposed 
to place at the disposal of the king and of the Roman 
state for the general good. And having met with 
a favourable reception from the king, who assigned 
him and his Tyrrhenian followers to one of the tribes 
and to one of the curiae, he built a house upon a 
site in the city which was allotted to him as suffi- 
cient for the purpose, and received a portion of 
land. After he had settled these matters and had 
become one of the citizens, he was informed that 
every Roman had a common name and, after the 
common name, another, derived from his family 
and ancestors, and wishing to be like them in this 
respect also, he took the name of Lucius instead of 
Lucumo as his common name, and that of Tarquinius 
as his family name, from the city in which he had 
been born and brought up. In a very short time 
he gained the friendship of the king by presenting 

187 

VOL. II. ' O 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

;^peia /xoAio-ra yLVOfievov jiaddvero, koX ;^pT7/xaTa 
Trapexiov els ras TroAe/xi/ca? ;^peias' oacov eSeiro, 
iv 8e rat? arpaTeiais aTrat'Tajv Kpdriara Tre^cDv 
T€ fcai LTTTTeiov ayajvi^o/Ltevos" yvwynris t€ ottou 
Seiyaetev dya^?^? cv TOts" Travu ^povipiOLs rdv 
4 avfxPovXojv dpLQp.ovp.evos. yevop-evos 8e Trapd 
Toi jSacriAet ripuios ovhe rrjs rcbv dXXiov ^ 'Pojp-aLCDV 
evvoias Si'qp.apTev, dAAd Kat tcDv TraTpiKicxiv 
TToXXovs Tois evepyecrtacs VTTTjydyero Kai to 8r]p,o- 
riKov nXrjdos oiKetajs ex^iv eavrcp TrapeoKevaaev 
€V7rpoar]y6poLS re doTraapiols Kal Kexo-pi^opievais 
d/xiAt'ais' KoX ;)(/37j/xdTa»i' pberahoaei /cat rais dAAai? 
<j)i\o<f)poavvais . 

XLIX. ToLovTOS p-ev h-q ns 6 TapKvvios '^v 
Kal Sid ravras rds alrias ^covro? re Map/cioy 
Trdvrcxiv iyevero 'PwpLaicov eTn<j>aveararos Kat 
reXexjrqaavros eKeivov rfjs ^aacXeias vtto Tiavrajv 
d^Los eKpid-q. eVetSTj he jrapeXa^e Tr]v dpx'qv, 
irpwTOV piev eTToXepbrjae rot? KaXovp,evois AiTLoXa- 
vols TToXeL Tov AaTLVOJV edvovs ovK a(f>aveL. 

2 ol yap ^AfTioXavoL Kal ol aXXoi avp,7Tavres AarlvoL 
pcerd TOV "AyKov MapKLov OdvaTOV XeXvadat Tag 
TTepl rrjs elpiqvrjs 6p.oXoyias olopievoi XrjareiaLS 
Te /cat 7rpovop,aXs rrjv 'Pojpala)v yrjv eTTopdovv 
dvd* <Lv Tip-ajpriaaadai ^ovX6pi,evos avrovs 6 
TapKVVLOs e^eaTpdrevoe ttoXXtj Swdp-ei Kal rrjs 

3 yijs avrd)v rrjv Kpariart]v ehrjcoaev d(f>LKop,€vr)s 
b' €K Tcov TTXr]Giox<^p<J^v Aarivwv CTTiKovpias 
p,€ydiXr)S rols * ATTioXavots Sirrds riderai irpos 
avrovs p-dx^s, Kparrjo-as S' ev dpL(j)orepais Trepi rrjv 

^ rrjs ratv dXXwv Pflugk, Biicheler, t^s aAAwv Jacoby : t^s 
aXXifs O. 

i88 



BOOK III. 48, 3-49, 3 

him with those things which he saw he needed most 
and by supplying him with all the money he required 
to carry on his wars. On campaigns he fought most 
bravely of all, whether of the infantry or of the 
cavalry, and wherever there was need of good 
judgment he was counted among the shrewdest 
counsellors. Yet the favour of the king did not 
deprive him of the goodwill of the rest of the 
Romans ; for he not only won to himself many of 
the patricians by his kindly services but also 
gained the affections of the populace by his cordial 
greetings, his agreeable conversation, his dis- 
pensing of money and his friendliness in other 
ways. 

XLIX. This was the character of Tarquinius and 
for these reasons he became during the lifetime 
of Marcius the most illustrious of all the Romans, 
and after that king's death was adjudged by all as 
worthy of the kingship. When he had succeeded 
to the sovereignty he first made war upon the 
people of Apiolae, as it was called, a city of no 
small note among the Latins.^ For the Apiolani 
and all the rest of the Latins, looking upon the treaty 
of peace as having been terminated after the death 
of Ancus Marcius, were laying waste the Roman 
territory by plundering and pillaging. Tarquinius, 
desiring to take revenge upon them for these in- 
juries, set out with a large force and ravaged the most 
fruitful part of their country ; then, when important 
reinforcements came to the Apiolani from their Latin 
neighbours, he fought two battles with them and, 
having gained the victory in both, proceeded to 

» CJ. Livy i. 35, 7. 

189 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToXiopKiav rrjs TToXecog iyivero /cat Trpoarj-yc rols 
reix^ai ras Swa/xet? ^k Scahox^S' ol 8' e/c rrj? 
TToAecu? oAi'yoi re rrpog rroXXovg fiaxoixevoi 
Kal /car' ouSeVa Katpov dvaTravaecos Tvyxd-vovres 
i^r^pedrjoav avv p^poi'O). o.Xovaiqs Se Kara Kparos 

TTJS TToXeCOS ol p,€V TzXeLOVS TCOV 'ATTtoXavcov 

fjiaxofjievoL Kareacfidyrjcrav, oXtyot Se rd onXa 
TTapaBovres dfjua rols dXXois Xacfivpois eTrpaorjaav, 
TratSes' tc avrcbv Kal yvvaiKes avSpaTToScadevres 
V7t6 'Vcop-aiojv dTTrj-x6r]aav , koI t] ttoXls St- 

4 apTTaadelaa ev€TTpiqadT]. ravra StaTrpa^a/xevo? o 
^aaiXevs xal ro relxos eV OefxeXliov KaraaKaif/ag 
OLTTrjye rrjv Syvafxtv eV olkov, Kal pierd rovu 
irepav arparidv rjyev ^ eirl Tqv KpovaropiepLVCDV 
ttoXlv. avTT] 8e aTTOt/ct'a p,ev rjv Aarivcov, rrpoar- 
€X(i)pr]cre 8e 'Pcofxaioig e-rrl rrjg 'PwpvXov Svvaaretas, 
TapKvvLov he t7]v dpxf]v TrapaXa^ovro's rd Aarivcov 

5 av^t? rjp^aro (f)pov€iv. ov fxr^v eSer)ae ye Kai 
ravTTjV TToXiopKLa ^ re ' TrapaariqaaaQai /cat ttovo)' 
fjLadovres ydp ol KpovaropLeptvoL ro re TrXrjBog 
rijs r)Kovar]s err* avrovs Suvdpeco? KaL rr]v 
eavrcov daOevetav, ouSe/xta? avrots eTTLKovpiag 
TTapd rcov dXXojv Aarivcov d(f)LKOfj,evr]s , dveco^av 
ras rrvXas, Kal TrpoeXdovres ^ ol Tvpea^vraroL rcov 
TToXtrwv Kal ripicLraroL Tvapehoaav ^ avrip rrjV 
ttoXlv d^iovvres eTnetKcos cre^tat xpriaaadai Kat 

6 fierpicos. ro) he /car' evx^v ro Trpdyp.a e(f)avT] 
/cat 7TapeX6d)v els ro relxos dneKreLve p.ev ovheva 
J^povaropieplvcov, oXlyovs he ttovv roiis aLriovs 

^ ijycv Kiesaling : anijyev 0. 
* Steph. : TToAtop/fiais AB. 
' Tc A : om. B. 



BOOK III. 49, 3-6 ui 

besiege the city, causing his troops to assault the 
walls in relays ; and the besieged, being but few 
contending against many and not having a moment's 
respite, were at last subdued. The city being taken 
by storm, the greater part of the Apiolani were 
slain fighting, but a few after delivering up their 
arms were sold together with the rest of the booty ; 
their wives and children were carried away into 
slavery by the Romans and the city was plundered 
and burned. After the king had done this and had 
razed the walls to the foundations, he returned 
home with his army. Soon afterwards ^ he under- 
took another expedition against the city of the 
Crustumerians. This was a colony of the Latins 
and in the reign of Romulus had submitted to the 
Romans; but after Tarquinius succeeded to the 
sovereignty it began again to incHne to the side of 
the Latins. However, it was not necessary to reduce 
this place by a siege and great effort; for the 
Crustumerians, having become aware both of the 
magnitude of the force that was coming against them 
and of their own weakness, since no aid came to 
them from the rest of the Latins, opened their gates ; 
and the oldest and most honoured of the citizens, 
coming out, delivered up the city to Tarquinius, 
asking only that he treat them with clemency and 
moderation. This fell out according to his wish, 
and entering the city, he put none of the Crus- 
tumerians to death and punished only a very few, 

1 For chaps. 49, 4-54, 3 cf. Livy i. 38, 1-4. 



* Sylburg : irpoaeXdovres 0. 

* Cobet : Trapfdiboaav 0. 



^9? 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTJs dTToardacaJS (fivyal? aiSiot? it/qymoae, toZs 
8' oAAot? aTTaai rd a(j>erepa avve-)(^u)py](yev €-)(tiv 
Koi TTJs 'PcoiMatcov TToXtreias {JLerex^tv (Ls Trporepov, 
Tov Be firjScv €tl TrapaKivijaat X^P*-^ cttolkovs 
avrois KariXnre 'Pajfjiaiovs. 

L. Td 8' avrd Kal l^wfievravols hLavorjOelai 
rGiv (xvrGiv rvx^^v i^eyevero. Kal yap ovrot 
Xjiarripia TrejJiTTOvres inl rovs 'PcojJLaLcov aypovs 
TToXefXLOL KaTeGTTjcrav avrois e/c tov TTpo<f)avovs 
rais AaTLVOiv TreTToidoreg avpLpiaxt-oxs' arparev- 
aavTOS 8' 67r' avrovs TapKvviov Kal rrjs Aartvcov 
iTTiKOvpLas vaTeptt,ovarjs ovx olot, re ovreg avroi 
irpos Toaavr-qv Svvapnv avTex^cv, LKerrjpLas ava- 
Xa^ovres i^rjXdov e/c rrjs TToXecog Kal rrapehoaav 

2 eavrovs. ol 8e rriv KaXov[X€irrjv K^oXXariav Kar- 
oiKovvres CTreipadrjaav [xev iXdelv hid P'dx'r]? irpos 
rds 'PiofJiaLOJv Svvdfieis Kal TrporjXdov e^co ttjs 
TToXetos, iv aTracrats' 8e rat? avinrXoKaZs eXar- 
rovp,evoi Kal TrXrjyds TToXXds Xajx^dvovres rjvayKa- 
adrjoav rrdXiv els ro relxos Kara<j)vyeiv koX 
hieTTepLTTOVTO TTpos TO,? Aarivoiv TToXets alrovfievoi 
avfXfxax^CLV. cu? 8e ^paSvrepa rd irap eKeivojv 
rjv, Kal /card rroXXd fiepr] rov reixovs ol noXefiiot 
rds TTpoapoXds eiroiovvTO, irapahovvai rrjv ttoXiv 

3 rjvayKdadrjaav avv XP^^V- ^^ jxevroi rrjs avrrjs 
fierptoTrjTOS ervxov rjs NcojJLevravoi re /cai 
JUpovarofxeplvoi, dXX' onXd re 6 ^aaiXevs d^eiXero 
KoX els XPVH'^'''^ e^rjfxiojae Kal (f)povpdv KareXnrev 
€v rjj TToXei rrjv iKainju dpxeiv re avrcou era^e 
rrjV dvvTTevdvvov dpx'rjv 8td ^lov TapKvviov 
"Appovra rov Ihiov dSeX<f>L8ovv , o? fiera rrjv 
reXevrrjv rov re irarpos "Appovros koi rov 
19^ 



BOOK III. 49, 6-50, 3 

who had been the authors of the revolt, with per- 
petual banishment, while permitting all the rest to 
retain their possessions and to enjoy Roman citizen- 
ship as before ; but, in order to prevent any uprising 
for the future, he left Roman colonists in their 
midst. 

L. The Nomentans also, having formed the same 
plans, met with the same fate. For they kept 
sending bands of robbers to pillage the fields of the 
Romans and openly became their enemies, relying 
upon the assistance of the Latins. But when 
Tarquinius set out against them and the aid from 
the Latins was too late in arriving, they were unable 
to resist so great a force by themselves, and coming 
out of the town with the tokens of suppliants, they 
surrendered. The inhabitants of the city called 
CoUatia undertook to try the fortune of battle 
with the Roman forces and for that purpose came out 
of their city ; but being worsted in every engage- 
ment and having many of their men wounded, 
they were again forced to take refuge inside the 
walls, and they kept sending to the various Latin 
cities asking for assistance. But as these were too 
slow about relieving them and the enemy was 
attacking their walls in many places, they were at 
length obliged to deliver up their town. They did not, 
however, meet with the same lenient treatment as 
had the Nomentans and Crustumerians, for the king 
disarmed them and fined them in a sum of money ; 
and leaving a sufficient garrison in the city, he ap- 
pointed his own nephew, Tarquinius Arruns, to rule 
over them with absolute power for life. This man, 
who had been born after the death both of his father 



i9i 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TrdiTTTOV Arjuapdrov yevofxevos ovre riJov TTarpaxvv 
ovre Tojv rod iraTTTTov "^prip^drcov ttjv irpoa-qKov- 
aav iKXr^povoixr^ae [xoXpav /cat Sta Tavrrjv rrjv 
alriav Hyeptos eTTCovoixdad-q- rovs yap OLTTopovs 
Kal TTTCoxovs ovTOJS ovofxdl^ovaL 'Pca/xatot. ef 
oS 8e TrapeAttySe ttjv eKeiurjs ri^s TToXeoJS ivt- 
fieXetav avros re KoXXarlvos eTTeKX-^drj /cat 
vdvTes ol aTT* eKeivov yevofievoL. 

Mera Se rrjv KoAAart'as' rrapdSoaiv em tov 
KaXovpievov KopvLKoXov 6 ^aacXevs earpdrevaev rjv 
Se KaKeivrj rov AaTivoiV eOvovs rj ttoXls. XerjXar^- 
aas Be rrjv x^P^^ avrcov Kara ttoXXtju aSeiav 
ovSevos VTTep aurrjg dpivvoixevov Trpos avrfj arparo- 
TTeBeverat rfj rroXei ^ 7TpoKaXovp,evos rovs dvBpas 
els (f)iXiav ov ^ouXofJievcov Se avrcJov els BiaXXayds 
eXdeZv, aAAa /cat rov reix^vs rfj exvporrjrc TreTTOido- 
ro)v Kal av[ji[xaxias TToXXaxodev ^ rj^eiv olopLevoiv, 
irepi TTOvra rov kvkXov rrjs TToXeojs rrjv Bvvajxiv 
TTepiarrjoas eVet;\;o/xa;^et. at Se Kopi'i/coAap'ot 
TToXvv fiev xpovov ^ dvBpeicos d7ropiax6p.evoL -noXXas ^ 
rols rrpoa^aXovat, irXriyds ehcoKov,^ Kdfxvovres 
Se rfj avvexeia riov ttovcjov Kal ovBe rrjv avrrjv 
en yva)[ji7]v arravres (f)vXdrrovres {rols fiev yap 
eSo/cet TrapaStSdvat rrjv ttoXiv, rols Se P-^XP^ 
TTOvros avrexeiv), St' avro ro aracnd^eiv [idXiara 
KaraTTOvovfJievoL Kara Kpdros edXonaav. ro fiev 
ovv Kpdriarov avrcov [xepos ev rfj KaraXrjiltei rrjs 
TToXeois [laxoixevov Bie^ddpr), ro Se dyewes Kal 

^ Trpos o-vrfj oTpaToireBeveTCU rfj TroAet Kiessling : Trpos avri^v 
arpareviTai rrjv noXtv 0, Jacoby. 
* TToXXaxodev B : Travraxodev R. 
' Xpovov B : xP^vov avrtlxov A. 

194 



BOOK III. 50, 3-6 

Arruns and of his grandfather Demaratus, had 
inherited from neither the part of their respective 
fortunes which otherwise would have fallen to his 
share and for this reason he was surnamed Egerius or 
" the Indigent " ; for that is the name the Romans 
give to poor men and beggars. But from the time 
when he took charge of this city both he himself 
and all his descendants were given the surname of 
CoUatinus. 

After the surrender of Collatia the king marched 
against the place called Corniculum ; this also was 
a city of the Latin race. And having ravaged their 
territory in great security, since none offered to 
defend it, he encamped close by ^ the city itself 
and invited the inhabitants to enter into a league 
of friendship. But since they were unwilling to 
come to terms, but relied on the strength of their 
walls and expected allies to come from many 
directions, he invested the city on all sides and 
assaulted the walls. The Corniculans resisted long 
and bravely, inflicting numerous losses upon the be- 
siegers, but becoming worn out with continual labour 
and no longer being unanimous (for some wished to 
deliver up the town and others to hold out to the last) 
and their distress being greatly increased by this 
very dissension, the town was taken by storm. The 
bravest part of the people were slain fighting during 
the capture of the town, while the craven, who 
owed their preservation to their cowardice, were 

^ Adopting Kiessling's emendation (see critical note) in 
place of the reading of the MSS., which means "marched 
toward the city itself." 

* TToAAaj A : Kol noXXas Ii(?)- * eScoKav R : ISoaav B. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Sta rovTO acxidev €v avSpaTToScov iTrpddr] Xoyo) 
yvvaL^lv 6fju)v /cat t€kvols, rj Se TrdAt? aurcav 
hiapTTaaQelaa vtto rdv KeKparT^KOTWv eveirptjcrdT) . 

7 e^' ols ol AaTLVot p^aAeTTcSs' (jiepovres iip-qcfyiaavTO 
KOLVTJ arpariav irrl 'Pcujuatou? i^ayayeiv koI 
TrapaaKevaaajJievoi, TToXXrjv Svvapiiv ets" ttjv Kpari- 
GTTjv ■)(copav avruiv ive^aXov, i^ rjg alxP'oXoorovs 
T€ TToXXovs dmi^yayov koI Aetaj iyevovro ficydXrjs 
KvpiOL. jSaatAey? 8e TapKvvios i^rjXde fiev in 
avrovs ttjv ev^covov re koI iv irolpicp BvvajjiLV 
eTTayopievos, ovKeri 8e KaraXa^eZv avrovs (f)ddaas 
els rrjv iKeivojv )(^copav ive^aXe Kal rd opioia 

8 SiedrjKe. roiavra awi^atve ttoAAo, irapaXXd^ 
eKarepoLS errt rds opuopovs x^P*^^ eKorparevo- 
pbivoLS eXaTTOipLord re /cat TrXeoveKTiqpiara, /xta 
8e avrcov e/c Trapard^eojs iyevero pidyr] ^iSTyvTj? 
rroXetos TrXrjaiov dirdaais avp,^aX6vTCOv rat? 
SwdpLeaiVy iv fj iroXXol p-kv erreaov dpi^oripoiv, 
ivLKT^aav 8e 'PcojLtatot /cat rovs Aarlvovs rjvdy- 
Kaaav XiTTovras rov ydpaKa vvKrcop els rds eavraJv 
TToXeis dneXdelv. 

LI. Mera 8e rov dycova rovrov eycov avvreray- 
p.evrjv rrjv 'Pojp,aiojv bvvap.LV 6 TapKvvLos em rds 
TToXeis avrcov i^wpei Xoyovs 7Tpoa(f>epa>v ^ Trept 
<f)iXias. ol 8' ovr* iv ra> koivco avvearcoaav 
eyovres hvvapnv ovre rals iStat? TrapaoKevaZs 
TTeTToiOores eheyovro rds Tr/ao/cAi^crets', /cat irap- 
eStSoaav avrcov rives rds iroXeis, opwvres drt, 
rdis p-kv dXovaais /caret. Kpdros dvhpaTTobiapioi 
re VKoXovdovv /cat KaraaKacftal, rals 8e Trpoa- 
Xcopovaais xad" op-oXoyias ro TTeidap)(elv rols 

^ iTpoa<f>fpwv : ■npo<f>ipoiv Jacoby. 
X96 



BOOK III. 50, e-51, 1 

sold for slaves together with their wives and children ; 
and the city was plundered by the conquerors and 
burned. The Latins, resenting this proceeding, 
voted to lead a joint army against the Romans ; 
and having raised a numerous force, they made an 
irruption into the most fruitful part of their country, 
carrying off thence many captives and possessing 
themselves of much booty. King Tarquinius marched 
out against them with his light troops who were 
ready for action, but being too late to overtake them, 
he invaded their country and treated it in similar 
fashion. Many other such reverses and successes 
happened alternately to each side in the expeditions 
they made against one another's borders ; and they 
fought one pitched battle with all their forces near 
the city of Fidenae, in which many fell on both sides 
though the Romans gained the victory and forced 
the Latins to abandon their camp by night and retire 
to their own cities. 

LL After this engagement Tarquinius led his 
army in good order to their cities, making offers of 
friendship; and the Latins, since they had no 
national army assembled and no confidence in their 
own preparations, accepted his proposals. And some 
of them proceeded to surrender their cities, observing 
that in the case of the cities which were taken by 
storm the inhabitants were made slaves and the 
cities razed, while those which surrendered by 
capitulation were treated with no other severity 

197 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KCKpar-qKoaL fiovov, dXXo 8e dv-qKcarov ovSev. 

2 TTpcxJTov [xev ovv ^LKoXveoi ^ rrpoaidevTO avra> 
TToXts d^ioXoyos CTTt ayy/cei/xeVots" rtcrl SiKaiois, 
evreiTa Ka/xapti^ot, at? rjKoXovdr]aav dXXai rives 

3 TToXi)(yai fxiKpai Kat (f>povpia ixvpd. icj) ols 
rapa)(6€VT€S ol Xolttol Aartvoi /cat Setaavres [xr] 
ttSLv v(f)^ eavTCp 7TOL'qar]TaL to edvos, els rrjv ev 
^epevTLVCx) avveXdovreg dyopdv etprjcffiaavTO Tr\v 
re OLKeiav Svvafiiv e^ dndcrqs iroXecos e^dyeiv 
Koi rdjv TrX-qaLoxiopctiv edvcov rd Kpdriara Trapa- 
KaXelv, Kai hierrpea^evovro irpos Tvpprjvovs re 

4 Kal Ha^tvovs alrovjxevoi crt;/xju,a;)^iai'. SaiStroi 
pev ovv VTTea-)(ovro avroZs, erreiSdv eKeivovs 
ep^e^XrjKoras els rrjV 'PcojLtatajv y^v dKOvacoaiv, 
dvaXa^ovres Kai avrol rd onXa riqv ttXtjctlov avrdJv 
Xiopav XerjXar'^aei.v Tvpprjvoi 8e crvp-p-axlav 
dTToareXelv wfMoXoyrjaav, rjs dv [xrj ^ avrol Serj- 
dctXTiv, ovx drravres eirl rrjs avrrjs yevop-evoi 
yva)fJL7]s, dXXd irevre TToXeis fiovai KXovalvoi re 
Kal ^ Kpp-qrZvoi Kal OvoXareppavol 'PovaiXavoi 
re Kal en rrpos rovrois OvervXcuvLaraL. 

LII. Taurat? eTrapdevres raZs eXTriaiv ol Aarlvoi 
7TapaaKevaadp.€vo(, SvvafJLLV oLKeiav avxvrjv Kai rrjv 
TTapd Tvpprjvcjv TTpoaXa^ovres els rrjv 'Poj/xatcoi' 
yfjv eve^aXov, Kal Kard rov avrov xpovov €k rov 
Ha^ivojv edvovs at rov TroXepiov Koivcov-qaeiv 
avrois VTToaxofJievai TToXeis rrjv 6p,opovaav ^ avrais 
Xiopav eh-Qovv. 6 he rdJv 'Pcop.aia)V ^acriXevs 

^ ^iKoXveoi. Sylburg : <^i8ijvatoi R, (^etSijvatoi B. 

* ^11 added here by Cobet, after avrol by Reiske. But it is 
possible that avrol here has crept in from two lines above, in 
which case there would be no need for a negative. 

198 



BOOK III. 51, 1-52, 1 

than to be obliged to yield obedience to the con- 
querors. First, then, Ficulea, a city of note, 
submitted to him upon fair terms, then Cameria; 
and their example was followed by some other 
small towns and strong fortresses. But the rest of 
the Latins, becoming alarmed at this and fearing 
that he would subjugate the whole nation, met to- 
gether in their assembly at Ferentinum and voted, not 
only to lead out their own forces from every city, but 
also to call the strongest of the neighbouring peoples 
to their aid ; and to that end they sent ambassadors 
to the Tyrrhenians and Sabines to ask for assistance. 
The Sabines promised that as soon as they should 
hear that the Latins had invaded the territory of the 
Romans they too would take up arms and ravage 
that part of their territory which lay next to them ; 
and the Tyrrhenians engaged to send to their 
assistance whatever forces they themselves should 
not need,^ though not all were of the same mind, 
but only five cities, namely, Clusium, Arretium, Vola- 
terrae, Rusellae, and, in addition to these, Vetulonia, 
LIL The Latins, elated by these hopes, got ready 
a large army of their own forces and having added to 
it the troops from the Tyrrhenians, invaded the 
Roman territory ; and at the same time the cities 
of the Sabine nation which had promised to take 
part with them in the war proceeded to lay waste 
the country that bordered their own. Thereupon 
the Roman king, who in the meantime had also got 

^ Or, reading tJ? av Se-qdaiau (see critical note), " whatever 
forces they [the Latins] should need." 

^ ofiopovaap Jacoby (in Addenda) : npoaotiopovoav A, irpoa- 
o(iopovaav Kvpovaav B, npoaoyLovpov KVpovaav Jacoby (in text). 

199 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTapaaKevaadixevos Kal avrog ip rio [xera^v 
Xpovcp TToXXr^v /cat dyadrjv Svvafxiv e^ijyev im 

2 TOV£ TToXeixiovs 8ia ra^ecDV. Ha^iVots jxkv ovv 
afxa /cat AartVoi? TToXefxelv /cat Staipetv et? Svo 
ixepy] rr)v Svvafiiv ovk da(f)aXeg vTreXa^ev elvai, 
aTTcaav 8e rrjv arpandv im Aarivovs dyeiv 
e^ovXevaaro Kal riderai TrXy^aiov avrojv tov 
XcpaKa. /car ap;^a? p.ev ovv oKvrjpcos elxov 
eKarepoi TraaaLs OLTTOKLvSwevaai rat? Svvdfxeai 
BcSiores rds dXXi]Xojv napaaKevds, dKpo^oXiajxovs 
8e Kariovres e/c tcov ipvfxdrcov ol ipiXol Trap' 
CKarepcov avvex^ts irroLovvTO /cat rjoav (hg rd 

3 TToXXd laofxaxof XP'^^V ^' varepov ipLTreaova-qg 
d[ji(f)OT€poiS €K roJv TOLOVTOjv di/jLiiaxi-cov cf)iXov€i,- 
/cta? i7n^orj6ovvT€S eKarepoL rot? a^erepoi'S , 
oXiyoL fiev TO TrpiJorov, eVetra crvfiTravreg rjvayKd- 
ad-qaav e/c ra>v arparoTreSajv TrpoeXdelv. /cat 
KaraardvTes et? p-d^qv dvSpes ovre TToXepuKcov 
aywvcov dTpt^els ovre nX-qdeL ttoXv dTToSeovres 
aXAT^Xojv TTet,OL re /cat iTTTrels Trpodvp^iq. re d}pp,r]- 

fXeVOL TTpOS TOP 7ToXep.OP OpLOiq. /cat KLvhvVlOV TOP 

eaxo-Top avappLTTTeip popLiaavTes rjyiopiaavro fiep 
apit^OTepoL Xoyov d^icos, SieKpidiqaap 8e dw' 

4 dXX-qXwp la6p,axoL pvktos iTTcXa^ovGTjs. rj p^ePTOt 
pLeTa TOP aycbva hidvoia eKarepcup ovx opLoia 
yepop,€vrj (jiovepovs iiroLTjae Tovg KpeiTTOP dycopiaa- 
pLevovs Tcop eTepwp- ttj yap i^rjg rjpLepa Aarlpoi 
pLCP ovK€TL irporjeaav e/c tov ;^dpa/co?, o 8e tcop 

PojpiaLOJp ^aaiXevs i^ayaydiP to.? hwdpceis els 
TO rreSiop eTOipios rjp erepav TToieZadai p-d^'^jP 
Kal piexpt TToXXov Kareaxep ep rd^ei Trjv (f)dXayya. 
cos S' OVK dpTeTre^rjeaav ol noXepnoi, OKvXevaag 

200 



BOOK III. 52, 1-4 

ready a large and excellent army, marched in haste 
against the enemy. But thinking it unsafe to attack 
the Sabines and the Latins at the same time and to 
divide his forces into two bodies, he determined to 
lead his whole army against the Latins, and encamped 
near them. At first both sides were reluctant to 
hazard an engagement with all their forces, being 
alarmed at each other's preparations ; but the light- 
armed troops, coming down from their entrenchments, 
engaged in constant skirmishes with one another, 
generally without any advantage on either side. 
After a time, however, these skirmishes produced a 
spirit of rivalry in both armies and each side supported 
its own men, at first in small numbers, but at last 
they were all forced to come out of their camps. 
The troops which now engaged, being used to 
fighting and being nearly equal in numbers, both 
foot and horse, animated by the same warlike 
ardour, and believing that they were running the 
supreme risk, fought on both sides with noteworthy 
bravery; and they separated, without a decision, 
when night overtook them. But the different 
feelings of the two sides after the action made it 
clear which of them had fought better than their 
opponents. For on the next day the Latins stirred 
no more out of their camp, while the Roman king, 
leading out his troops into the plain, was ready to 
fight another engagement and for a long time kept 
his lines in battle formation. But when the enemy 
did not come out against him, he took the spoils 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTOJv Tovs vcKpovs Kal rovs tSiou? dreAo/ze^o? 
avv TToXXo) avx'rit^o.TL aTTrjye rrjv crrpariav cttl 
Tov eavTov ^^apawa. 

LIII. Tat? 8* i^rjs rjiJLepaLS d(f)iKoixevrjs rots 
AartVot? irepas Trapa Tvpprjvcov cru/Lt/xa;^ias' 
Sevrepos dyojv yiverai ttoXv pLeit,oiv tov TTporepov, 
i^ ov VIK7JV dvaipelraL ^aaiXevs TapKvvLos 
imcjiaveaTciTrjv , rjs avros atrios ^ (hp-oXoyelro 

2 v7t6 TTOLvrcov yeyevTJadat. Kapivovarjs yap rjSrj 
TTJs 'PojfjiaiKrjg (j)a.Xayyos Kal Kara ro dptarepov 
Kepas TTapappTjyvvjJieprjs , jxadojv to yivopuevov 
iXdrroj/j-a rrepl tovs a(f)€T€povs {^rvx^ 8e t6t€ 
fjiaxop-^vos eTTL tov Sc^lov KepaTOs), tcls KpaTiOTas 
TciJv LTTTTeojv cAtt? imcTTpeifjas Kat tcjv Tre^cov tovs 
aKjJiaioTdrovg dvaXa^cov rjye Kara vujtov ttjs 
iavTov CTTparta? Kal TrapaXXd^ag to apiOTepov 
Kepas rjXavvev en TrpoacoTepco ttj^ cf)dXayyos. 
eTretra eTrtarpei/ra? inl Bopv /cai ra KevTpa 
Trpoa^aXcbv toIs lttttols €is irXayiovs e/x^ctAAet 
TOVS Tcov Tvppr]V(Ji)u Xoxovs [ovTOL yap ein tov 
be^Lov Twv TToXefiLCov p,ax6p-evoi KepaTOS eTpe- 
ifjavTO TOVS Kad^ eavTOVs), eTn(f>avels S avToZs 
dTTpoahoK-qTOs TToXXrjv eKTrXrj^iv /cat Tapax'']v 

3 TTapeax^v. iu 8e tovtco Kal r) 7ret,r) t(x>v Pcopiaicov 
BvvafJiLS dvaXafiovaa iavTT]V e/c tov npoTepov 
heifxaTOS els dvTiTraXa excopei, Kat p.eTa tovto 
<f}6vos TC TToXvs ra>v Tvpprjviov iytveTO Kat Tpoirq 
tov be^Lov KcpaTOS vrafreAr^?. TapKvvios 8e 
ToZs rjyefxoai tcov Tre^cDt' dKoXovdelv KeXevaas 
ev KocrfJLO) Kal ^diSrjv avTos em to aTpaToneSov 

iXiOp€l TO Tcbv TToXepiloiV €XaVVU)V ToilS LTTTTOVS 

dvd KpaTOS, (f>Odaas Se tovs ^k ttjs Tporrijs 



BOOK III. 52, 4-53, 3 

from their dead, and carrying off his own dead, led 
his army with great exultation back to his own camp. 
LIII. The Latins having received fresh aid from 
the Tyrrhenians during the days that followed, 
a second battle was fought, much greater than the 
former, in which King Tarquinius gained a most 
signal victory, the credit for which was allowed 
by all to belong to him personally. For when the 
Roman line was already in distress and its close 
formation was being broken on the left wing, Tar- 
quinius, as soon as he learned of this reverse to his 
forces (for he happened then to be fighting on the 
right wing), wheeling the best troops of horse about 
and taking along the flower of the foot, led them 
behind his own army and passing by the left wing, 
advanced even beyond the solid ranks of his line 
of battle. Then, wheeling his troops to the right and 
all clapping spurs to their horses, he charged the 
Tyrrhenians in flank (for these were fighting on the 
enemy's right wing and had put to flight those who 
stood opposite to them), and by thus appearing to 
them unexpectedly he caused them great alarm and 
confusion. In the meantime the Roman foot also, 
having recovered themselves from their earlier fear, 
advanced against the enemy ; and thereupon there 
followed a great slaughter of the Tyrrhenians and the 
utter rout of their right wing. Tarquinius, having 
ordered the commanders of the infantry to follow in 
good order and slowly, led the cavalry himself at full 
speed to the enemy 'scamp ; andarrivingthereaheadof 
those who were endeavouring to save themselves from 



^ amoiTaroj Naber. ,^ 

203 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avaaait,oii4vovs iyKparqs ylverai. rov )(dpaKos 
evdvg ef i<f)68ov. ol yap iv avrcp KaraX€L(f>divT€S 
ovT€ rrjv Karaaxovaav rovs a(f)€T€povs avix(f)opav 
TrpoeyvoiKores ovre rovs TTpoaiovras tTTTret? yvoj- 
piaai 8ta ro al(f)vcSiov rrjs i(f)68ov BvinrjOevres 

4 eiaaav avrovs TrapeXdeiv . dXovcriqs 8e rrjs irapefx- 
^oXrjs ^ Tcov Aartvcov ol fxev a.va-)(wpovvres e/c 
Trj's TpoTTrjs (hs ^ els da(f)aXrj Kara(f)vyrjv vtto tcov 
KaraXa^oixevcov avrrjv ImTeajv OLTTcoXXwro, ol 
8' €/c Tov arpOTOTrehov (f)€vy€Lv opp.'qaavTes els 
to TTchiov VTTO TTJs 'PcojJLa'tK'qs (jioXayyos Ofxocrc 
X<opovar]s dTriQvrjctKov , ol he irXelovs avrcov 
(hdovpbevoi re vn dAAiyAcov koI KaraTrarovixevoi 

776/31 ToZs aKoXoijjLV 7] KaTOi TO-S TOLcfipOVS TOV 

oXktlcttov re /cat ayevveararov rpoTTov 8i,e(f)dd~ 
prjoav wcrr^ rjvayKdcrdrjaav ol TrepiXeLvofievoL 
rfjs aojTTjpias ovSeva iropov evpelv hwdnevot 

5 Trapahovvai rols KeKpaTrjKoaiv eavTovs. yevo- 
jjLevos 8e o TapKvvLos ttoXXcov aajfidrcov re koI 
■X^pripbdrajv eyKparrjS tovs p-ev alxP'O.XwTOVs dn- 
eSoTO, rd 8' ev rcp )^dpaKt KaTaXrj(f)6evTa rots 
OTparicoTaLs exo-ploaro. 

LIV. Tayra Sia7Tpa^dp,evos em Tas rroXeis 
TCOV Aarlvcov rjye rqv hvvap,LV, cos P'd)(7j Tas fJ-rj 
7Tpoa)(copovaas avrco vapaarrjcrofMevos' ov p/r]v 
eSerjae ye avrw reixop-o-X^^^' OLTravres yap els 
uceaias /cat her^aeis erpdrrovro /cat rrpea^eis dTTO 
TOV Koivov irefxipavres KaraXvaaadai tov iroXep^ov 
rj^iovv ecf)* ols avros rj^ovXeTO /cat ra? TToXeis 
t TTapehoaav. yev6p,evos 8c tcov TToXecov Kara 
TdaSe rds 6p.oXoyias 6 ^aaiXevs Kvpios eiri- 
ci/ceWara ndaais TTpocrqvexQy] xal fxeTpLcoTara. 
204 



BOOK III. 53, 3-54, 2 

the rout, he captured the entrenchments at the very 
first onset. For the troops which had been left there, 
being neither aware as yet of the misfortune that had 
befallen their own men nor able, by reason of the 
suddenness of the attack, to recognize the cavalry 
that approached, permitted them to enter. After 
the camp of the Latins had been taken, those of the 
enemy who were retiring thither from the rout of 
their army, as to a safe retreat, were slain by the cav- 
alry, who had possessed themselves of it, while others, 
endeavouring to escape from the camp into the 
plain, were met by the serried ranks of the Roman 
infantry and cut down ; but the greater part of them, 
being crowded by one another and trodden under foot, 
perished on the palisades or in the trenches in the 
most miserable and ignoble manner. Consequently, 
those who were left alive, finding no means of saving 
themselves, were obliged to surrender to the con- 
querors. Tarquinius, having taken possession of 
many prisoners and much booty, sold the former and 
granted the plunder of the camp to the soldiers. 

LIV. After this success he led his army against 
the cities of the Latins, in order to reduce by battle 
those who would not voluntarily surrender to him; 
but he did not find it necessary to lay siege to any of 
them. For all had recourse to supplications and 
prayers, and sending ambassadors to him from the 
whole nation, they asked him to put an end to the 
war upon such conditions as he himself wished, 
and delivered up their cities to him. The king, 
becoming master of their cities upon these terms, 
treated them all with the greatest clemency and 



^ irapfiJ.PoXijs Portus : irapaaKevijs 0, Jacoby. 
* (Ls added by Kiessling. 



205 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ottre yap aTreKrewev ovre (f)evyeiv rjvdyKaaev 
ODT€ ■)(p'rjiJiaaiv e^r^jLtictxre Aartvcov ovSeva yfjv re 
avroi<s KapTTOvadai rrjv iavrcov iTrerpetpe /cat 
TToXireviiaat, xp-qaaadai. rots TTarptotg icjyTJKev, 
OLTToBovvai Be avrovs eKcXevae 'Pcu^atots" Toy? 
re avTOfjioXovs Kal rovs alxP'O-Xcorovg avev 
Xvrpcov depaTTOvrds re OLTTOKaraaTrjaaL rols Se- 
OTTorais oaojv eyevovro Kara rag TTpovop,ds KvpioL 
/cat ^(p'qiJiara oaa rovs yecopyovs d(f)€iXovTO 
BiaXvaaL /cat et tl dXXo Kare^Xatpav ■^ hi.e(j)6eLpav 

3 cv rat? eta^oAat? iTravopOaxjaL. ravra Se TTOi-q- 
aavras elvai (f)LXovs 'Paj/xatojv /cat avfifxaxovs 
OLTTavra rrpdrTOvras oaa dv e/cetvot KeXevcocriv. 
6 jLtev Brf vpos AaTLVovs avards 'Poj/xaiot? 
TToXefJLos ei? TOVTO TO reAo? /carea/cT^i/te, /cat 
^aaiXevg Tap/cwto? rov eTrivt/ciov e/c rov TToXe- 
fiov rovTov Kar-qyaye dplafx^ov. 

LV. To) S' e^iy? €T€i TTapaXa^wv rrjv 8vi'ap,LV 
€ttI Ha^Lvovg rjyev e/c ttoXXov ttjv Trpoatpeatv 
avTOV /cat rrjv TrapaGKcvrjv rrjv icji' iavrovs 
TTpoeyvcjKOTas . ov^ VTTO/JLetvavres Be els Trjv 
eavTcov ^(Lpav Trapelvai rov TToXefxav, aAA' durL- 
TTapaoKevaadpievot, BvvafiLv LKav7]v e-)((x)povv ofiocre. 
yevopbevrjs Be aurot? p-dx"]? Trepl rd p,ed6pi,a rrjg 
)(Cjopas dxpt vvKTog eviKiov p,€V ovBerepoi, irdw 

2 S' la)(vp(x)S eTTovrjaav dp,(f)6repoi. rals yovv e^rjs 
Tjp.epaig ovre 6 rcbv Da^tVa>v riyep,d>v Trporjyev 
e/c rov xdpaKog rag Bvvdp.eLS ovre 6 rcov 'Pu)pata)v 
^aaiXevg, oAA' dvaarparoveBevaavreg dpxf>6repoi 
Kal rrjg aXXi^Xcjv yrjg ovBev KaKcoaavreg ^ dTrrjeaav 
e-n OLKOV. yvcopLT] 8' dp.(f)orepcx)v rjv 6p,oia, p,ei- 

^ KaKtoaavres B : STfwoam-es R.- 

ao6 



BOOK III. 54, 2-55, 2 na 

moderation ; for he neither put any of the Latins 
to death nor forced any into exile, nor laid a fine upon 
any of them, but allowed them to enjoy their lands 
and to retain their traditional forms of government. 
He did, however, order them to deliver up the de- 
serters and captives to the Romans without ransom, 
to restore to their masters the slaves they had 
captured in their incursions, to repay the money 
they had taken from the husbandmen, and to make 
good every other damage or loss they had occasioned 
in their raids. Upon their performing these com- 
mands they were to be friends and allies of the 
Romans, doing everything that they should com- 
mand. This was the outcome of the war between the 
Romans and the Latins ; and King Tarquinius 
celebrated the customary triumph for his victory in 
this war. 

LV. The ^ following year he led his army against 
the Sabines, who had long since been aware of his 
purpose and preparations against them. They were 
unwilling, however, to let the war to be brought into 
their own country, but having got ready an adequate 
force in their turn, they were advancing to meet 
him. And upon the confines of their territory they 
engaged in a battle which lasted till night, neither 
army being victorious, but both suffering very 
severely. At all events, during the following days 
•neither the Sabine general nor the Roman king led 
his forces out of their entrenchments, but both 
broke camp and returned home without doing any 
injury to the other's territory. The intention of 
both was the same, namely, to lead out a new and 

» For chaps. 55-57, 1 c/. Livy i. 36, 1 f., 37. 

207 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

t,ova SvvafMLV irepav eVi rrjv aXKriXu)v ^(copav 

3 e^dyeiv eapos dpxofjLevov. eTrel Be Travra ^ Trap- 
€GK€vaaTO avroLs, Trporepoi fxev i^'qXdov ol 
Ha^ivoi Tvpprjvcov e^ovres tKavrjv avpLpLa^iav ^ 
/cat KaraarparoTTehevovTai, OtSi^p^? TrXrjaiou Trepl 
rds avjjL^oXds rod re ^Avlrjros /cat tov Te^ipios 
TTora/Jiov Slttovs ^aAd/u,evot rovs xapaKas ivavrlovs 
re /cat avvexels aAAi^Aots", pieaov e^ovres ro koivov 
i^ dix(j>or€pcx)v rwv TTorapiaiv peldpov, icf)* ov 
KarecTKevaaro y€(f>vpa ^vXocjipaKTOs cr/ca^atj dv- 
exojJidvr] /cat a;)^eStai? 17 rroLovaa rax^ias rds 
Trpos dXXrjXovs a^tfet? /cat tov ;(apa/ca eva. 

4 TTvdofievos Se rr)v ela^oX'qv avrwv 6 TapKvvios 
i^^ye /cat avros ro 'Pco/jLaicuv arpdrevpia Kad- 
ihpverai re jxiKpov dvcorepw rrjs eKelvcov arparo- 
rreheias Trapd rov ^Avirjra irorapiov em X6(f>ov 
TLVos Kaprepov. aTrdarj 8e TrpoQvpiia irpog rov 
TToXepiov d)pix7]piev(ov apL<f)orepcov ovSels dydjv 
e/c TTapard^ews ovre pLeil,ojv oiir iXdaacov avrols 
avvearrj. €<j>6aae yap 6 TapKVVLOs dyxi-vola 
arparrjyiKTJ rrdvra cruvrpii/jas rd rcov Sa^tVojv' 
rrpdyixara /cat to,? Trapepu^oXds avrcov dpL(f)orepas 
dpdfievos. ro 8e crrpaTqyrjfia rod dvBpos roLovSe 

LVI. ljKd(f)as TTorajxrjyovs /cat crp^eSia? ^vXojv 
avcov /cat tjypvydvoiv yep,ovoas, en he Triaarjs re' 
Kol deiov^ TTapacTKevaadfievos errl darepov rcov 
TTorafJLCov, Trap' ov avrog earparoTreBevKei, erreira 
<f>vXd^as dvepLOV ovpiov Trepl rrjv ecodivrjv <j>vXaKrjv 
TTvp et'etrat rat? vXais eKeXevae /cat fiedelvai rds 
aKd(f)as Kal rds axeBias <f)€pea6ai, /caret povv. at 

* Travra added by Kiesaling. 
2o3 



BOOK III. 55, 2-56, 1 

larger force against the other's country at the begin- 
ning of spring. After they had made all their 
preparations, the Sabines first took the field, 
strengthened with a sufficient body of Tyrrhenian 
auxiliaries, and encamped near Fidenae, at the 
confluence of the Anio and the Tiber rivers. They 
pitched two camps opposite and adjoining each other, 
the united stream of both rivers running between 
them, over which was built a wooden bridge resting 
on boats and rafts, thus affording quick com- 
munication between them and making them one 
camp. Tarquinius, being informed of their irruption, 
marched out in his turn with the Roman army and 
pitched his camp a little above theirs, near the river 
Anio, upon a strongly situated hill. But though both 
armies had all the zeal imaginable for the war, 
no pitched battle, either great or small, occurred 
between them ; for Tarquinius by a timely stratagem 
ruined all the plans of the Sabines and gained posses- 
sion of both their camps. His stratagem was this : 
LVI. He got together boats and rafts on the one 
of the two rivers near which he himself lay encamped 
and filled them with dry sticks and brushwood, also 
with pitch and sulphur, and then waiting for a favour- 
able wind, about the time of the morning watch he 
ordered the firewood to be set on fire and the boats 
and rafts turned adrift to drop downstream. These 

* iKavrjv {!) avfi/jLaxiav B : SvvafiiviKavrjv npos au/x/iax'av R. 
' maanjs re /cai deiov B : deiov re Kal maoTjs R. 

209 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Se ev oXlycx) ttolvv -x^povco SteXdovaai rov fjiera^v 
TTOpov efjLTTLTTTOvai, TTJ y€(f)vpa Koi avdirrovaiv 

2 avrrjv -rroXXaxodev . raJv Se Ha^Lvcjv to? etSor 
d(f)VU) TToXXrjv (f)X6'ya cfiepofjbevrjv avvhpafJLOvrcov 
em TTjv ^orjdeLav /cat Trdvra purj^aviofxevcov oaa 
a^ecrrrjpia rod rrvpos rjv, rJKev 6 TapKvvios Trepl 
Tov bpdpov dycov crvvrerayfxevr^v rr^v ' Pco fiaicDV 
BwajjuLV Koi TTpoa^aXojv darepco -xapaKi, raJv 
{jL€v TrXeiarcov iKXeXonrorcov rds ^uAa/cas" Sia tt^v 
6771 ra Kaiopieva opixijv, oXtycov Se tlvcov Trpos 
aXKTjv TpaTTOpievcov, iyKpar-qs avrov ytverai 

3 Sixo- TTovov. iv a> Se ravra iTrpdrrero xP'^vco 
Kai rov erepov rcov Ha^ivajv ^(^dpaKa rov iireKeLva 
rov TTora/jiov Keipbevov irepa Svvapus 'Pcop^alcov 
erreXdovaa alpel, rj TrpoarrearaXro p,€V vtto 
TapKvviov rrepl rrpcorov vttvov, SieXrjXvOei. Se 
rov €K rwv Svelv irorapLcbv eva yevofievov iv 
aKd(f)ats /cat cr;^eStats' Kad' o piepos 7Tepaiovp,€inj 
Xrjaeadai e/xeAAe rovs Ha^tvovs, TrXrjaLov Se 
rrjs irepas iyeyovet Trapepi^oXrjs dpia rep dedaaadai 
rr]v ydcjivpav KacopLevrjv rovro yap tjv avrfj ro 

4 avvdrjpLa rrjs icjwSov. rcov S' iv rols ;^apaft 
KaraXr](j)6evra>v ol pckv vtto rcov 'Poi/xaicor p-a^o- 
pcevot KareicoTTrjoav, ol S' et's rqv avpL^oXrjv rcov 
TTorapLwv piipavres iavrovs ov Bvvrjdevres vrrep- 
ev€)(6r]vai rds StVas KareTTodrjaav hie^ddprj ^ Se' 
Tt? avrcov pcoipa ovk oXiyrj /cat /caret rr]v ^o-qdeiav 
rrjs ye(f)vpas vtto rov rrvpos. Xa^cbv Se o Tap- 
Kvvtos api(f)6r€pa rd arparorreSa rd pikv iv avroZs 
KaraXr]^dlvra xPVf^^'^^ ''"O'^S' orpariwrats irri- 
rpeijje Siavei/xaa^at, rovs Se atxp^aXcorovs ttoX- 

^ Su^ddpr] Co bet : €(f>ddpr) 0, Jacoby. 
310 



BOOK III. 56, 1-4 

covered the intervening distance in a very short 
time, and being driven against the bridge, set fire 
to it in many places. The Sabines, seeing a vast 
flame flare up on a sudden, ran to lend their assist- 
ance and tried all means possible to extinguish 
the fire. While they were thus employed Tar- 
quinius arrived about dawn, leading the Roman army 
in order of battle, and attacked one of the camps ; 
and since the greater part of the guards had left their 
posts to run to the fire, though some few turned 
and resisted, he gained possession of it without any 
trouble. While these things were going on another 
part of the Roman army came up and took the other 
camp of the Sabines also, which lay on the other side 
of the river. This detachment, having been sent 
on ahead by Tarquinius about the first watch, had 
crossed in boats and rafts the river formed by the 
uniting of the two streams, at a place where their 
passage was not likely to be discovered by the Sabines, 
and had got near to the other camp at the same time 
that they saw the bridge on fire ; for this was their 
signal for the attack. Of those who were found in 
the camps some were slain by the Romans while 
fighting, but others threw themselves into the con- 
fluence of the rivers, and being unable to get through 
the whirlpools, were swallowed up ; and not a few 
of them perished in the flames while they were 
endeavouring to save the bridge. Tarquinius, having 
taken both camps, gave leave to the soldiers to 
divide among themselves the booty that was found 
in them ; but the prisoners, who were very numerous, 

211 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Xov? TTOLVV ovras SajStVcov re avrtov /cat Tvp- 
privajv etV 'Pcofxrjv dyayojv Sto. ttoAA'^s' ef;^e 
<^uAa/c7y?. 

LVII. SajStvoi jLiev ow iyva)aLnd)(r](Tav vtto ^ 
Tfjs Tore av[Jb(f}opds ^laaOevres koI Trpea^evrds 
aTToaTeiXavTes dLvo)(dg eTTOir^aavro rod TToXefxov 
e^aereis,^ Tvpprjvol 8e dpyfj (f)4povres on rjrrrjvro 
re VTTO Pcofxaiajv ttoWolkls Kac on rovs at^/xa- 
Xcvrovs avrols 6 TapKvvios ovk dnehiSov 
Trpecr^evaafievoLg, aAA' iv ofx'qpcov Karelxe Xoyco, 
^7y(^tCT/xa TTOiovvrai rrdaas rds rwv Tvpprjvcov 
TToAet? Koivfj rov Kara 'PcofxaLcov rroXefiov eK- 
(f)ep€Lv, rrjv Se fir] fierdxovaav rrjg arpareias €k- 

2 OTTovSov etvai. ravr eTTLKvpojaavres i^rjyov rds 
Svvdp,€LS Kol hia^dvre? rdv Te^epiv dy^ov <I>t8i]- 
VTjs" ndevrai ra oTrXa. yevofievoL 8e rrjs TToAeco? 
ravrr]s iyKpareXs Sia Trpohoaias, araaiaadvriov 
TTpos oAAt^Aoi'S' rojv iv avrfj, Kol ttoAAo. fxev 
acofiara Xa^ovres, ttoXXtjv 8e Xeiav e/c ti^s' 'Pcd- 
fiaicov ;^C(j/3a? iXavvovres, dnrjXdov ctt' olkov, 
(jjpovpdv iv rfj OtSi^vr^ KaraXLTTovres dTTO^pdJaav . 
avrT] yap r) ttoXis opfirjrT^ptov avrotg eaeadai 
Kpancrrov eSo/cei rov Kara 'Ptofxaicov TroXefiov. 

3 ^aaiXevs 8e TapKvvLos et? rovTnov eros 'Pcofiaiovs 
re avp^TTavras KadoTrXiaas koX Trapd rcov crv[xpidxo>v 
oaovs iSvvaro TrXetarovg rcapaXa^div e^ijyev 
irrl rovs rroXepiiovs eapos dp^ppievov, rrplv eKcivovs 
avvaxOevras i^ diraGcjv rwv TToXeojv in* avrov 
d>S rrporepov iXdelv /cat SteAcui' els Svo p-oipas 
CLTTaaav rrjv hvuap.iv, rrjs /xef 'Pojp,aLKrjs arpands 

^ imo Pflugk : ano 0. 
212 



BOOK III. 56, 4-57, 3 

not only of the Sabines themselves but also of the 
Tyrrhenians, he carried to Rome, where he kept 
them under strict guard. 

LVII. The Sabines, subdued by this calamity, 
grew sensible of their own weakness, and sending 
ambassadors, concluded a truce from the war for 
six years. But the Tyrrhenians, angered not only 
because they had been often defeated by the Romans, 
but also because Tarquinius had refused to restore 
to them the prisoners he held when they sent an 
embassy to demand them, but retained them as 
hostages, passed a vote that all the Tyrrhenian 
cities should carry on the war jointly against the 
Romans and that any city refusing to take part in 
the expedition should be excluded from their league. 
After passing this vote they led out their forces and, 
crossing the Tiber, encamped near Fidenae. And 
having gained possession of that city by treachery, 
there being a sedition among the inhabitants, and 
having taken a great many prisoners and carried off 
much booty from the Roman territory, they returned 
home, leaving a sufficient garrison in Fidenae; 
for they thought this city would be an excellent base 
from which to carry on the war against the Romans. 
But King Tarquinius, having for the ensuing year 
armed all the Romans and taken as many troops as 
he could get from his allies, led them out against 
the enemy at the beginning of spring, before the 
Tyrrhenians could be assembled from all their 
cities and march against him as they had done 
before. Then, having divided his whole army into 
two parts, he put himself at the head of the Roman 

'^ €^a€T€ls Kiessling (cf. chap. 59, 1) : onovSas e^aerets O, 
Kal ffTTovSdj i^aereis Portus. 

213 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTos 'qyovixevo'S irrl ras ttoXcls roiv TvpprjvaJv 
iarpdrevae , rrjg 8e avfXfjLa^^LKrj-; , iv fj ro TrXelarov 
fJiepos rjv rojv Karivojv, ^Yiyepiov rov iaurov 
avyyevTJ arparrjyov (XTroSet^a? cttI rovs €v OiSt^i^tj 

4 TToXejJiLovs eKeXevae ■)(^cji)p6iv. rj fiev ovv avyLpca^LKri 
TrXrjaLov rijs OlStJvtj? tov yapaKa ovk ev aat^aAet 
Xojpicp defievT] 8ia to KaracfypoveZv tcDv TToXefjiLOJV 
oXiyov TLvos iSerjaev Trdcra Siacjidaprjvar ol yap 
iv rfj TToAet (f)povpol ^o-qdeiav erepav napa 
Tvpprjvwv Kpv<j)a [ji€ra7T€fjnlj<xp.evoL koI (pvXd^avres 
Kacpov eTnTTjheLov i^eXdovres e/c t'^? TToAeoj? tov 
re ■ydpaKa roij^ iroXeyiioiv eXa^ov i^ €(f)68ov 
<j)avX(x)s (fivXaTTop^evov koX tcov e^eXrjXvOoTOJV ^ 

5 €771 ras" rrpovopas ttoXvv eipydaavTO (f)6vov. rj 
Se 'Poj/xatcov dvvaixis t)? TapKvvLos rjyelTo ttjv 
OvievTaviov Keipovaa /cat Aer^AaToucra )(^a)pav koI 
TToXXas ox^eAeta? e^eveyKap^evq avveXdovarjg i^ 
drraaaJv twv TvppiqviScov TToXecov p,€ydXr]? rot? 
OvievTavolg emKovpias els l^d)(7]v KaTaoTaaa 
VLKirjv avap.(f)i.Xoyov^ dvaipelTai'^ /cat p,eTd tovto Si- 
e^Lovaa ttjv ycopav tcov rroXeixLCDv dSeaj? ivopdei 
yevop^evT) re ttoXXcov p,ev o-iop,dTcov iyKpaTrjs, 
TToXXdJv 8e y^prjpidTCOV ola ef evhaipiovos x^P^^> 
TeXevTCovTos rjSr] tov depovs ot/caSe aTTT^et. 

LVIII. OvievTavol p,ev ouv i^ eKeivrjs ttjs 
fjidx^js p^eydXcDS KaKcodevTes ou/ceVt Trporjeaav e/c 
Trjs TToXeojs, dAA' r]V€L)(ovTO Keipojjievrjv ttjv 
X^opav opcovTes. ^aatXevs 8e Tap/cwto? Tptalv 
ela^oXaZs ;^pi7crd/xevo? Kat TpieTrj xpovov aTToaTeprj- 
aas Tovs OvievTavovs tcov e/c ttjs acfyeTepas yrJ9 
iiTLKapTnaJv, ws €pr]p,ov iTTOirjcrc ttjv TrXeLGTTjv 

^ i^eXr^XvOoTcvv B : i^eXOovTcav Er. 
214 



BOOK III. 57, 3-58, 1 

troops and led them against the cities of the Tyr- 
rhenians, while he gave the command of the allies, 
consisting chiefly of the Latins, to Egerius, his 
kinsman, and ordered him to march against the 
enemy in Fidenae. This force of allies, through 
contempt of the enemy, placed their camp in an 
unsafe position near Fidenae and barely missed 
being totally destroyed ; for the garrison in the 
town, having secretly sent for fresh aid from the 
Tyrrhenians and watched for a suitable occasion, 
sallied forth from the town and captured the enemy's 
camp at the first onset, as it was carelessly guarded, 
and slew many of those who had gone out for forage. 
But the army of Romans, commanded by Tarquinius, 
laid waste and ravaged the country of the Veientes and 
carried off" much booty, and when numerous reinforce- 
ments assembled from all the Tyrrhenian cities to aid 
the Veientes, the Romans engaged them in battle and 
gained an incontestable victory. After this they 
marched through the enemy's country, plundering it 
with impunity ; and having taken many prisoners 
and much booty — for it was a prosperous country — 
they returned home when the summer was now 
ending. 

LVIII. The Veientes, therefore, having suffered 
greatly from that battle, stirred no more out of their 
city but suffered their country to be laid waste before 
their eyes. King Tarquinius made three incursions 
into their territory and for a period of three years 
deprived them of the produce of their land ; but 
when he had laid waste the greater part of their 



a.va^(j)iXoyov B : avay^i^oXov R. 
dvatpetrai Jacoby : alperai 0. 



215 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kot ^ ovSev en pXaTrreiv avrrjv €t)(€v, im rqv 
Kaipi^Tarcor ttoXlv rjye rrju Svvafiiv, -f] nporepov 
[jLev "AyvXXa eKaXeZro YieXaayoiv avrrjv /car- 
oiKOvvTOiv, VTTO Sc TvpprjvoLs yevopbivit] Katpr^ra 
pbeTivvofxaadr], evhacfiajv S "^v et /cat tls dXXrj tojv 

2 €V Tvpprjviq, ttoXccov koX TToXvdvOpcoTTOS' i^ "^S 
OTparia [xeydXt] fxaxrjcropievr] Trepl rrjg )(a)pag 
i^rjXde, Koi ttoXXovs /xev ^La(f)deipaaa rajv ttoXc- 
fiicov, TToXXw 8' ert irXeiovg OLTTO^aXovaa tojv 
a<j)ercp(xiv, els ttjv ttoXlv Kare^vye. rrjg 8e 
)(a>pas avroJv ol 'Pcu/xatot Kparovvres d(f>dova 
TTOvra TTapexofievTjs avx^ds SUrpLipav rjpiepas, kox 
eTTeiSrj Kaipos OLTrdpaecos '^v, dyovreg oaas oIol 

3 re ■^aav (x)<f)eXeiag aTrrjeaav en oLkov. TapKvvLos 
8', eTTeiBrj rd -npos Ovievravovs exioprjaev ainio 
Kara vovv, cttI rovs iv ^iS-qv-r) rroXeiiLovs i^dyei 
Tr]v arpandv eK^aXelv re ^ovXojJuevos rrjv ev 
avT^ (f>povpdv Kal roiis rrapaBovrag rots Tvpprj- 
VOLS rd Tct^^T^ rLpujjprjaaadai TTpodvfXovpievog . 
eyevero [xev ovv koI e/c Trapard^eojg P'dx^ tols 
'PcDju.atoiS' Tipds rovs e/c rrjg rroXecos e^eXdovras 

4 Kal ev rats reixop.ax'-o.i.s dyoiv Kaprepos. edXo) 
8' ovv ri TToAt? /card Kpdros, Kal ol [xev (f)povpot 
hedevres dfia rols aAAoi? rwv Tvpprjvcov al^fxa- 
XatroLs "qaav ev (f)vXaKfj, ^L^rjvaicov Se ol SoKovvres 
atrial yeyovevai rijs drToordaeajs ol fxev vtto 
fiaarlyajv alKiadevres ev rco (f>avepa) roiis av)(eva's 
drreKOTrqaav, ol Se (f>vyaLS e^rjyLLOjdriaav diSt'oij' 

^ KoX B : Kal uis K> 
?«6 



BOOK III. 58, 1-4 

country and was unable to do any further damage 
to it, he led his army against the city of the Caeretani, 
which earlier had been called Agylla while it was 
inhabited by the Pelasgians but after falling under 
the power of the Tyrrhenians had been renamed 
Caere,^ and was as flourishing and populous as any 
city in all Tyrrhenia. From this city a large army 
marched out to defend the country ; but after des- 
troying many of the enemy and losing still more of 
their own men they fled back into the city. The 
Romans, being masters of their country , which afforded 
them plenty of everything, continued there many 
days, and when it was time to depart they carried 
away all the booty they could and returned home. 
Tarquinius, now that his expedition against the 
Veientes had succeeded according to his desire, led 
out his army against the enemies in Fidenae, wishing 
to drive out the garrison that was there and at the 
same time being anxious to punish those who had 
handed over the walls to the Tyrrhenians. Accord- 
ingly, not only a pitched battle took place between 
the Romans and those who sallied out of the city, 
but also sharp fighting in the attacks that were made 
upon the walls. At any rate, the city was taken by 
storm, and the garrison, together with the rest of the 
Tyrrhenian prisoners, were kept in chains under a 
guai-d. As for those of the Fidenates who appeared to 
have been the authors of the revolt, some were 
scourged and beheaded in public and others were 
condemned to perpetual banishment ; and their 

* Dionysius made his Latin names conform as far as pos- 
sible to recognized Greek types. Not fancying such a nomi- 
native as Kaipe, he constructed a form Kai'pijra (Caereta) from 
the stem of the Latin word. Other Greek writers used Kaipij, 
Kaipea and even Kaipe. 

317 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rag 8e ovaiag avrajv SieXaxov ol KaraXei^BivTeg 

Va>lXaiOiV CTTOLKOi T€ Koi (f)pOVpol TTJS TToXcCOS . 

LIX, TeXevraia 8e ^ l^-ot-XV 'Ptoju.atcoi' koi 
Tvpprjvcov iyevero TToXecog 'liprjrov TrXrjaiov iv 
rfj Ha^ivcDv yfj. 8t' eVeiVrj? yap eTTOi-qaavro 
rrjv ejTL tovs 'Poi/xatou? eXaatv ol Tvpp-qvol 
TTeiGoevTes vtto rcov €K€l Svvarcijv,^ ws avarparev- 
aop.iva)v ^ acj^iai rcbv Ha^u'cov. at yap e^aerets 
avTols rrepL rrjg elp-rjVTqs vpos TapKvvLov dvoxcd 
e^eXrjXvOeaau * rjSr), /cat TToAAot? tcjv Sa^tVcoi' 
TTodos Tjv eTTavopdojaaddai rds" Trporepas "^rras 
eTTLTeopafJifievrjs ev rats TroXeai veorrjTos LKavrjg. 

2 ov nr)v i)(a)pr)ae ye avroig rj Trelpa Kara vovv 
ddrrov eVi^at'etcn^? rrjg 'Pcoixaicov ar par tag, 
ovo i^eyevero irap ovSefMids rcov TToXecov koivtjv 
diToaraXrjvaL rots Tvpp-qvols av/xpLax^av, dXX 
edeXovrat rtves eTreKovprjaav avroig oXiyot paadolg 

3 fieyaXoLg VTra^Oevres. ck ravrrjs rijg P-^XV^ 
p.eyLar7]g rcov Trporipojv yevop,evrjs, oaag rrpos 
aXXiqXovg €TroX€piT]aav, rd pikv 'Pcopiaicov rrpdy- 
jxara davpiaarrjv oarjv iiri^oaiv e'AajSe VLK-qv 
e^ev€yKap.evixiv KaXXiarrjV, koX jSacrtAet TapKvviu) 
rrjv rpoiraio^opov 7Top,7Trjv Kardyeiv rj re ^ovXrj 
KaL o 8fjp,os eifjTj^iaaro , rd he roJv Tvpprjvcov eWcre 
^poviqpiara irdaas fxev e^aTToareiXavrixiv elg rov 
aycbva rds c^ eKdarr]s TToXews hvvdpieis, oXiyovs 
oe rivas e/c ttoAAcDp' rovs hiaoiodevras vvobe^a- 
fxevcov. OL fxev ydp ev rfj napard^ei pLaxd/xevoL 
KareKOTTTjaav, oi S ev rfj rponfj Suaxcoplais 

^ Se Kicssling : B-a B, 8' ti R. 
ovvarwv ti : ova, xvtov rt. 

?i8 



BOOK III. 58, 4-59, 3 

possessions were distributed by lot among those 
Romans who were left both as colonists and as a 
garrison for the city. 

LIX. The last battle between the Romans and 
Tyrrhenians was fought near the city of Eretum in 
the territory of the Sabines. For the Tyrrhenians 
had been prevailed on by the influential men there 
to march through that country on their expedition 
against the Romans, on the assurance that the Sabines 
would join them in the campaign; for the six-years' 
truce, looking to peace, which the Sabines had made 
with Tarquinius, had already expired, and many of 
them longed to retrieve their former defeats, now 
that a sufficient body of youths had grown up in the 
meantime in their cities. But their attempt did not 
succeed according to their desire, the Roman army 
appearing too soon, nor was it possible for aid to be 
sent publicly to the Tyrrhenians from any of the 
Sabine cities ; but a few went to their assistance 
of their own accord, attracted by the liberal pay. 
This battle, the greatest of any that had yet taken 
place between the two nations, gave a wonderful 
increase to the power of the Romans, who there gained 
a most glorious victory, for which both the senate 
and people decreed a triumph to King Tarquinius. 
But it broke the spirits of the Tyrrhenians, who, 
after sending out all the forces from every city to 
the struggle, received back in safety only a few out 
of all that great number. For some of them were cut 
down while fighting in the battle, and others, having 
in the rout found themselves in rough country from 

' Steph. : avaTpaTevofieviov AB. 

* i^cXrjXvdeaav Co bet : BceX-qXvdeaav 0, Jacoby. 

219 
VOL. II. *' H 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

iyKvp'qaavres dve^oSois Trapehoaav rols KCKparq- 
4 KoaLV iavTOVs. roiavrrjs fievroi (Tvp,(f>opdg Treipa- 
Oevres ol SwaTcoraroi tu>v ev Tat? TtoXeaiv 
epyov iTTOLTjaav avdpcoTTOJV <j>poviixcov . irepav 
yap (TTpariav ctt' avrovs i^ayayovros ^aaiXeajs 
TapKVVLov, avva-)(6€vres ft? piiav ayopav Trepl 
KaraXvaecos rod iroXepiov BiaXeyeaOai Trpos avrov 
iiftrjcfjiaavTO /cat TrepiTTOvai tovs vpea^vraTovs 
dvSpas Kal Tipbioyrdrovs i^ iKaaTt]s TToXecos 
avTOKpdropas dTroSei^avres rcov Trepi TTJg elprjirqs 
ofioXoyicov. 

LX. *0 Se ^aaiXevs dKovcra^ avrcov ttoAAo, 
hiaX€-)(devr(x)v iiraycoyd irpos CTrtet/cetav Kat [xerpio- 
rrjra /cat rrjs cruyyeveias, '^9 efj^e Trpos ro cdvos, 
VTTOfjLLixvrjaKOVTCov €v rovro fiovov €(f)rj Trap' 
avrcov ^ovXeadai p-adclv, TTorepov ert SLa(f>€povTat 
7T€pl rojv lacov /cat eTrt prjrots not rds Trepl rrjs 
elprjviqg opboXoyias Trdpeiai TTOLrjaopievoi, rj avy- 
yivoiOKOvaiv iavrdls KeKparrjixevotg /cat rds vroAets' 
iTTLTpeTTOvaiv avTcp. d7TOKpLvap.4va>v 8' avrcov 
on /cat rds TroAct? imrpeTTOvcnv avra> /cat rr^v 
elpr]vr]v arip^ovaiv i<f)' ols dv ttotc St/catoi? 
avrrjs rvxojcn, Trepixdpy}? ctti rovrois yevop-evos, 

2 " 'A/coyo-are vvvj" e(f)r)aev, " i<f)' ols Kara- 
XvaofxaL rov TToXepov St/catot? /cat rtra? vpXv 
8t8a>/i.t ^dpiras' iyoj Tvpprjvcov ovre dTTOKreivai, 
riva TTpodvpos eijut ovre (f)vydSa iroLrjaai rfjs 
irarplSos ovre d(f)aipia€i, rG)v vnapyovriav ^Tj/ittcD- 
aat, Ttt? re TroAet? vplv d^ir\p,i Trdaas d(f)povp'qrovs 
/cat dcf)opoXoyi^rovs /cat avrovopovg TroAircta? 
re Koapov eKdarrj <f)vXdrreLV avyx(vpa) rov 

3 dpxolov. 81S0US Se ravd* vplv ev o'lop-ai Selv 
220 



BOOK III. 59, 3-60, 3 

which they could not extricate themselves, surrend- 
ered to the conquerors. The leading men of their 
cities, therefore, having met with so great a calamity, 
acted as became prudent men. For when King 
Tarquinius led another army against them, they met 
in a general assembly and voted to treat with him 
about ending the war; and they sent to him the 
oldest and most honoured men from each city, 
giving them full powers to settle the terms of peace. 
LX. The king, after he had heard the many argu- 
ments they advanced to move him to clemency and 
moderation and had been reminded of his kinship 
to their nation, said he desired to learn from them 
just this one thing, whether they still contended 
for equal rights and were come to make peace upon 
certain conditions, or acknowledged themselves to 
be vanquished and were ready to deliver up their 
cities to him. Upon their replying that they were 
not only delivering up their cities to him but should 
also be satisfied with a peace upon any fair terms they 
could get, he was greatly pleased at this and said : 
" Hear now upon what fair terms I will put an end 
to the war and what favours I am granting you. 
I am not eager either to put any of the Tyrrhenians 
to death or to banish any from their country or to 
punish any with the loss of their possessions. I 
impose no garrisons or tributes upon any of your 
cities, but permit each of them to enjoy its own laws 
and its ancient form of government. But in granting 
you this I think I ought to obtain one thing from you 

221 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

dv0' d)v SiSoifiL TTOvroiv VTrdp^ai jxol Trap' vfiajv, 
TTjv rjyefjioviav rcov ttoXcojv, -^s Kvpios i^ev eaofxai 
KOL puY] ^ovXofjievojv vfMcbv eoj? dv Kparcb toi? 
ottXols, Trap' eKovrctiv he ixdXKov r) rrap' aKovroiv 
TV)(€iv avrrj? ^ovXopiai. ravr' dirayyeXXeTe rat? 
TToAecrtv, iyu) 8e vfjblv eKe^^eipiav ecos dv d(f)iKr]ad€ 
TTape^eiv V7TL(j-)(yovpi,ai" 

LXI. Taura? Xa^ovres ol Trpea^eis rds aTTOKpi- 
aeis a>xovTO Kol pier oAiya? rjixepas Traprjaav ov 
Xoyovs avro) [xovov <j)epovTe£ ijjiXovs, aXXd Kai ra 
avfi^oXa TT]s riyepLovias, of? eKoafiovv avTOi rovs 
a(f)eT4povs ^aaiXels, KopLt^ovres arecl>av6v re 
■)(pvaeov /cat Opovov eXe^avrivov /cat aKTJrrrpov 
derov e^ov €7tI ri]S Ke(f)aXi]s )(^irdjva re rropcfyvpovv 
XpvaoaiqpLov /cat Trepi^oXaiov 7Top(f)vpovv ttolklXov, 
Ota AuScDv re /cat Uepacjv e(f>6povv ol jSaCTtAet?, 
ttXtjv ov rerpdyo)v6v ye rep a)(T]piari, Kadairep 
eKelva r^v, dXX -qpuKVKXiov . rd he roiavra rdv 
dp.(f)Leapidrcov 'Pcop^aZot pikv royas, "EAAr^t'e? 8e 
rrj^evvas ^ KaXovaiv, ovk otS' oTToQev pLadovres' 
'^XXtjvlkov yap ov <j>aiverai p.oi rovvopca eivaL. 
2 d)s he nves laropovai, /cat rovg hcoheKa TreXeKeis 
eKopaaav avra> Xa^ovres e^ eKdarrjs TToXecos eva. 
TvpprjvLKov yap etvai edos So/cet ^ eKdarov rcov 
Kara ttoXiv ^aaiXecov eva TTporjyelad ai pa^ho(f)6pov 
ajLta rfj heapbrj rcbv pd^hwv rreXeKW (l>epovra' 
el he KOLvrj yivoiro rcbv hcoheKa rroXecov arpareia, 
rovs hoiheKa TreAe'/cet? evl irapahihocrd ai rep 

^ TTjjSeway Prou : r^jSevrov (r^jSevoc A) 0, Jacoby. 
• Jacoby : c'Sd/fei 0. 

222 



BOOK III. 60, 3-61, 2 

in return for all that I am giving, and that is the 
sovereignty over your cities — something that I shall 
possess even against your will as long as I am more 
powerful in arms, though I prefer to obtain it with 
your consent rather than without it. Inform your 
cities of this, and I promise to grant you an 
armistice till you return. 

LXI. The ambassadors, having received this answer, 
departed, and after a few days returned, not 
merely with words alone, but bringing the insignia 
of sovereignty with which they used to decorate their 
own kings. These were a crown of gold, an ivory 
throne, a sceptre with an eagle perched on its head, a 
purple tunic decorated with gold, and an embroidered 
purple robe like those the kings of Lydia and Persia 
used to wear, except that it was not rectangular in 
shape like theirs, but semicircular.^ This kind of 
robe is called toga by the Romans and tebenna ^ by 
the Greeks ; but I do not know where the Greeks 
learned the name, for it does not seem to me to be a 
Greek word. And according to some historians they 
also brought to Tarquinius the twelve axes, taking 
one from each city. For it seems to have been a 
Tyrrhenian custom for each king of the several cities 
to be preceded by a lictor bearing an axe together 
with the bundle of rods, and whenever the twelve 
cities undertook any joint military expedition, for the 
twelve axes to be handed over to the one man who 

^ Dionysius is here describing the insignia of a Roman 
triumphator (of. chap. 62, 2 and v. 47, 3). The tunic is the 
tunica palmata and the robe the toga picta. 

^ The word rrj^ewa (of uncertain origin) is found only in 
late Greek writers. Dionysius has already used it to re- 
present the Latin trahea (ii. 70, 2), and Polybius used it for the 
yalvdamentum (x. 4, 8). 

i?«3 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 Aaj5dvTi Tr]v avTOKpdropa dpx'^v. ov fMrjv aTravris 
ye avix(j)ipovraL rot? ravra Xeyovaiv, aXXd TraAat- 
repov eVi Trjs TapKvviov hwacrretas TreAe/cei? 
BwdeKa TTpo rojv ^aatXecov (jyepeadai ^acrt, /cara- 
OT-iqaaaQai 8e ro edos rovro 'PcojJivXov €v9v9 
ttjLta TO) TTapaXa^elv rrjv dp-)(rjv. ovOev he KOiXvet 
TO fjLev evprjfxa ^ Tvpp-qvcov etvai, ;\;p7^cracr^ai 8 
avro) rrpcoTov 'Pco^jlvXov 7ra/>' eKeivoiv Xafiovra, 
KOfJLiadrjvai Se TapKuvLco avv toLs aXXois Koapujis 
^aaiXiKoZs KoX Tovs SajSe/ca TreAe/cet?, wairep ye 
/cat vvv 'Poj/Aaiot rd aKrJTrrpa Koi rd BiaBrjjxaTa 
hojpovvTaL rot? ^aaiXevai ^e^aiovvres avrols rd? 
i^ovaias, eVei /cat /Jir) Xa^ovres ye Trap* eKeiviov 
exovaLv avrd. 

LXII. TayTat? rat? Tt/itat? o Tap/cwto? ovk 
evOvs e-)(priaaro Xa^cLv, cu? oi TrXeZaroi ypd(j)ovaL 
Tcov 'PajfjLdLKOJv avyypa<^ecov, aXX dirohovs Trj 
T€ PovXjj /cat rw Stj/xoi rrjv hidyvcocnv et Xr^nreov 
avrds,^ eTretS?) 77aat ^ovXajxevois rjv, rore 
TTpoaehe^aro /cat Trdvra rov i^ eKeivov y^povov 
eto? els TO )(pe<hv fxerearr) aT€(f)av6v re ■)(^pvaeov 
€(f)6pet /cat 7Top(f)vpdv eaO-qra ttolkiXtjv ripLTn<J-)(e- 
ro /cat (TKi]TTrpou eXe<j)dvrivov excov em dpovov 
eKadet^ero eXe^avrivov, kol ol SoiSe/ca pa^Sovxoi 
rovs TreAe/cet? c/yepoures dpca rat? pd^boig 8t/ca- 
t,ovrL re avro) Trapiaravro /cat iropevopievov Trpo- 

2 riyovvro. ovrog 6 Koap^os diras ^ /cat rot? p^er 
eKelvov rrjv fiaaiXiKrjv dpx'qv exovai Trapepueive 
/cat p,erd rrjv eK^oXrjv rcov jSaatAecov rot? /car 
ivtavrov vrrdrois e^co rov are(f>dvov Kat rrjs 
TTOLKlXrjs iadijros' ravra 8' avriov d<f)r)p€dr] 

^ Steph. : cvpe/xa 0. 
324 



BOOK III. 61, 3-62, 2 

was invested with absolute power. However, not all 
the authorities agree with those who express this 
opinion, but some maintain that even before the reign 
of Tarquinius twelve axes were carried before the 
kings of Rome and that Romulus instituted this custom 
as soon as he received the sovereignty. But there is 
nothing to prevent our believing that the Tyrrhenians 
were the authors of this practice, that Romulus 
adopted its use from them, and that the twelve axes 
also were brought to Tarquinius together with the 
other royal ornaments, just as the Romans even 
to-day give sceptres and diadems to kings in con- 
firmation of their power; since, even without re- 
ceiving those ornaments from the Romans, these 
kings make use of them. 

LXII. Tarquinius, however, did not avail himself 
of these honours as soon as he received them, accord- 
ing to most of the Roman historians, but left it to the 
senate and people to decide whether he should accept 
them or not; and when they unanimously approved, 
he then accepted them and from that time till he 
died always wore a crown of gold and an embroidered 
purple robe and sat on a throne of ivory holding an 
ivory sceptre in his hand, and the twelve lictors, 
bearing the axes and rods, attended him when he 
sat in judgment and preceded him when he went 
abroad. All these ornaments were retained by the 
kings who succeeded him, and, after the expulsion 
of the kings, by the annual consuls — all except the 
crown and the embroidered robe ; these alone were 



^ Reiske : ovra 0, Jacoby. 
^ Biicheler : dnaai 0. 



225 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fiova (f)opTLKa ho^avra etvai /cat eiri^dova. ttXtjv 
orav e/c TToXefJLOv vlktjv Kardyovres dpidfi^ov 
TTapa rrjs ^ovXrjs d^njodcoai, rore /cat ^(^pvao- 
(bopovat /cat TroiKt'Aat? aXovpyiatv dpi^Uvvvvrai. 
6 p-ev ovv TTpos Tovs Tvpprjvovs avards TapKVvico 
TToXepLos errj Karaa^cov ivvea roLavrrjv €(T)(e rrjv 
avvreXeiav . 

LXIII. 'Evo? 8e KaTaXeL7Top,€vov rod SajStVojj^ 
kdvovs avTLTrdXov Pcujaatots VTrep rrjs OLPXV^ 
dvSpas re p^ax^^ds exovros /cat ^copav vep,op,€vov 
TToXXrjv /cat dyadrjv Kai rrjs 'VojpLrjs ov irpoaoi /cet/Lie- 
VTqv^ TToXXr^v ea^ev 6 TapKVVLos TrpoOvpiav /cat rov- 
rovs virayayeadai /cat TrpoetTrev avrols rov iToXepiOV, 
cyKoXcbv raZs TToXeaiv on rovs VTToaxop-evovs 
TvpprjvoXg idv d^t/ccovrat arparov dyovres els 
TTjv x^P^v avrcov eKeivois p^v ^t'Aas", 'Pcop^aioLS 8' 
ix^pds TTOcqaeLV rds a^€.r€pag Trarpihas ovk 

2 e^ovXovro cKSovvat. ot 8e dapevoi re vnoSexov- 
raL rov rroXepiov ovk d^tovvres rovs Swarcord- 
rovs rcov darcov dcfiaipedrjvai, /cat Trplv d(f>LK€adai 
'Pajp-aLcov 8ui^a/ztv eVt a(f)ds avrol arparov e^- 
dyovaiv €7tI rrjV eKeivcov. ^aatXevs 8e Tap- 
KvvLos ct»? rJKovcre hia^efirjKoras rovs Ha^ivovs 

Avcrjra irorapdv /cat Ae7^Aaroy^ei^a vtt avrcjv 
TO, 7T€pl rrjv TTapepL^oXrjv diravra, dvaXa^cbv rrjv 
ev^covordrrjv 'PcopiaLWV veorrjra ws efj^e rdxovs 
i^rjyev cttI rovs ^i€OTrapp,€Vovs eVt rds Trpovo/xds. 

3 aTTOKreivas 8e ttoAAo?)? avrojv /cat rrjv Xeiav 
oarjv rjyov d<j>eX6pLevos iyyvs rrjs eKeivcov napep.- 
^oXrjs rWerai rov ;^ci/3a/ca /cat SiaAtTroJV' oAtya? 
Tim? Tjpiepas, lo)? 17 re Xoitttj Bvvap,i,s e/c ri]s 

^ Kcifidvrjv Bb : KuyUvov Bali. 
326 



BOOK III. 62, 2-63, 3 

taken from them, being looked upon as vulgar and 
invidious. Yet whenever they return victorious from 
a war and are honoured with a triumph by the senate, 
they then not only wear gold ^ but are also clad in 
embroidered purple robes. This, then, was the out- 
come of the war between Tarquinius and the Tyrrhe- 
nians after it had lasted nine years. 

LXIII. Since there now remained as a rival to 
the Romans for the supremacy only the Sabine race, 
which not only possessed warlike men but also in- 
habited a large and fertile country lying not far 
from Rome, Tarquinius was extremely desirous of 
subduing these also and declared war against them. 
He complained that their cities had refused to 
deliver up those who had promised the Tyrrhenians 
that if they entered their country with an army 
they would make their cities friendly to them and 
hostile to the Romans. The Sabines not only 
cheerfully accepted the war, being unwilling to be 
deprived of the most influential of their citizens, but 
also, before the Roman army could come against them, 
they themselves invaded the others' territory. As 
soon as King Tarquinius heard that the Sabines" 
had crossed the river Anio and that all the country 
round their camp was being laid waste, he took with 
him such of the Roman youth as were most lightly 
equipped, and led them with all possible speed against 
those of the enemy who were dispersed in foraging. 
Then, having slain many of them and taken away all 
the booty which they were driving off, he pitched his 
camp near theirs ; and after remaining quiet there for 
a few days till not only the remainder of his army 

^ The crown actually worn was of laurel, but a public slave 
held the golden crown of Jupiter above the victor's head. 

227 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToXeojs 77/30? avTov a^iKeTO /cat at Trapa tcSv 
crvfjifjidxc^v imKovpiai avvrj)^dr]aav, Kare^aivev 
els TO TTeBiov cos fiax^jooixevos . 

LXIV. 'ISdvres' Se tovs 'Vcofxalovs ot SajStvot 
TTpodvfJicos e77t rov dyojva ;^a)powTa? i^rjyov /cat 
auTOt rds Suvajuei? oure TrArj^et Xenropuevoi rcov 
TToXefMLOJu ovre d-perfj /cat avixTreaovres iixdxovro 
TTaaav aTToSet/ct'u/xevot roA/xai', eco? ^v aurot? etj 
jjiovos 6 TTpos TOVS dvTLTeraypLevovs dycov. eTreira 
[xaOovres ernovra a<j)iai Kara vojtov arparov 
TToXefXLojv erepov iv rct^ct re /cat /coct/zo) ;j(;ajpowTa 
KaraXiTTOvres rd arjijiela rpiiTOvrai rrpos ^ (fjvyrjv. 
rjaav 8e 'PcD/xatcuv dvhpes eTTiXeKroi Tre^ot re 
/cat LTTTTeXs ot /caT077tP' €Tn(j)avivres roZs SajStVot?, 
ou? o Ta/)/cwto? et' ^ CTTir-qSeiois ;(6t)ptots' 8ta 
2 vuKTo? eAd;^tCTe. toutous' S"*) tous" dvBpas ot 
SajStP'ot SetCTav'Te? e/c roy dSo/cT^rou (j<f)iaiv 
iTn<j)aivoiievovs ovdev ert yevvalov epyov ave- 
hei^avro, aAA' o)? KarearparrjyrjiJievoc vtto rdv 
ixdpoov /cat <jviX(f)opa TTeTrXrjyores dp^dx^p (Jcol,€iv 
iavrovs dXXoi /car' ctAAa? ohovs eTrecpcjvro, /cav 
TOUTOJ pidXiara ttoXvs avrcbv (f)6pos eyevero 
hicoKopiivcov VTTO TTj? 'Pto/Ltat/CT^s" Ittttov /cat 
TTavraxddev aTTO/cAetojueVcoJ^* cSare oAtyou? rti^a? 
6^ auTcot' Kop^L^fj yevdadat. rovs Staato^eWa? 
€19 TO.? eyytara TToXeis, rd 8e TrAetov' p,epos baov 
pLT) Kara rrjV pdx^iv erreaev VTrox^f-p^ov rot? 
'Pcu/xatot? yeveaOat.' ovhk yap ot KaraXei,(f)d€vr€S 
iv ru) ;)^apa/ct T17V €cf)ohov dnoKpovaaadaL rtov 
CTTiovrcov a(^iaiv eddpprjaav 01)8' €i? ireipav rjXdov 
p,dx'f]S, oAA' CKrapax^^vres vtto rov irap eXinoa 

' Trpos B : «tV li. 
228 



BOOK III. 63, 3-64, 2 

from Rome had reached him but the auxiliary forces 
also from his allies had assembled, he descended into 
the plain ready to give battle. 

LXIV. When the Sabines saw the Romans eagerly 
advancing to the combat, they also led out their 
forces, which were not inferior to the enemy either 
in numbers or in courage, and engaging, they fought 
with all possible bravery, so long as they had to 
contend only with those who were arrayed opposite 
them. Then, learning that another hostile army 
was advancing in their rear in orderly battle forma- 
tion, they deserted their standards and turned to 
flight. The troops that appeared behind the Sabines 
were chosen men of the Romans, both horse and foot, 
whom Tarquinius had placed in ambush in suitable 
positions during the night. The unexpected appear- 
ance of these troops struck such terror into the 
Sabines that they displayed no further deed of 
bravery, but, feeling that they had been out- 
manoeuvred by the enemy and overwhelmed by an 
irresistible calamity, they endeavoured to save them- 
selves, some in one direction and some in another; 
and it was in this rout that the greatest slaughter 
occurred among them, while they were being pursued 
by the Roman horse and surrounded on all sides. 
Consequently, those of their number who escaped to 
the nearest cities were very few and the greater 
part of those who were not slain in the battle fell 
into the hands of the Romans. Indeed, not even 
the forces that were left in the camp had the courage 
to repulse the assault of the enemy or to hazard 
an engagement, but, terrified by their unexpected 

^ iv added by Kiessling. 

229 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KaKov irapehoaav a/i.a;^Tt cr^as" re avrov? Ka\ 

3 TO cpvfia. at /xev Br] rcbv SajStVcof TroAei?, 
to? KaTeoTparqyrjfjLevaL /cat ou/c dpeTrj ttjv vlktjv 
d<f>r]pr]fi€vai vpos rcov TToXepLioiv oAAa SoAoj, 
juei^ora? avdis aTTOoriXXeLv hwdp-eis TrapeaKevd- 
ll,ovTO Kol arparrjyov ipureiporepov. 6 Se Tap- 
Kvi'Los p-adajv TT^v Stai'otai'' adrcov crvvrjye rrjv 
arparidv Sta Td-)(ovs Kal Tvpiv eKeivovs diravras 
St] cruveXdelv (ftddvei Stands rou 'At'ir^ra TTorapiov. 

4 raOra jxadcbv 6 toiv Sa^ircoi' arparTjyos e^T^et 
fiev COS" etx^ rd^ovs rrjv veoicrrl ainnrjyfi4vr]v 
BvvafMiv avoAa^cui' koI arparoTTeheverax TrXrjaiov 
ru>v * Poj/xat'o)!' 6771 X6<f)ov Tivog vijr^Xov koX 
dTTOTo/JLOv, p-d)(rjs Se dp^^iv ovk iSoKifia^ev ecu? 
at AotTrat rcov Yta^ivoyv hvvdp.eis crvviXdojcnv , oAA' 
cm rovs Trpovofxevovras rrjv ;^o6pav e/CTre/itTrtui' 
del Tiva? TcDi' Ittttccov Kal Xo^ovs iyKadi^cjv 
vXais rj vdirais et/jye roi/s *Pojp.aiovs rcjv irrt 
TTjv ■)(^copav i^oScov. 

LXV. Tovrov Se rov rponov avrov xpcofxevov 
ra> TToXefio) TToAAai fxev av[j.7TXoKal ^ Kor dXi- 
yovs ifjiXcov re /cat imreoiv eyivovro, t^-O-XV ^^ 
oXoaxcp^]^ aTrdvrojv ovBefxia. iXKOjxevov Se 
rov xP^^^^ ^*' dpyijs <f>€pa}v rrjv hiarpL^rjv 6 
TapKVVLOs eiTi Tqv irapep^oXrjv rcov TToXefiicov 
rdg Si'm/Ltei? CKpivev dyeiv /cat ttoAAo.? eTToirj- 
2 aaro Trpoa^oXds. eireira Karap-adcbv - tco ^laicp 
rcov rpoTTcov ov pahiav ovaav avrrjv aXdJvai Sta 
T^v exyporr^ra^ rij (nrdvei rcov eTTirrjSetcov 
iroXefxeiv roLS * ev avrij hieyvct), /cat irapd Ttdaas 
rds <f>epovoas e7r' avrfjv oSovs <f>povpia Kara- 

* Koi after ov/iirAoicai deleted by Bucheler. 
230 



BOOK III. 64, 2-65, 2 

misfortune, surrendered both themselves and their 
entrenchments without striking a blow. The Sabine 
cities, feeling that they had been outmanoeuvred and 
deprived of the victory by their foes, not by valour 
but by deceit, were preparing to send out again a 
more numerous army and a more experienced com- 
mander. But Tarquinius, being informed of their 
intention, hastily collected his army, and before the 
enemy's forces were all assembled, forestalled them 
by crossing the river Anio. Upon learning of this 
the Sabine general marched out with his newly raised 
army as speedily as possible and encamped near the 
Romans upon a high and steep hill; however, he 
judged it inadvisable to engage in battle till he was 
joined by the rest of the Sabine forces, but by 
continually sending some of the cavalry against the 
enemy's foragers and placing ambuscades in the 
woods and glades he barred the Romans from the 
roads leading into his country. 

LXV. While the Sabine general was conducting 
the war in this manner many skirmishes took place 
between small parties both of the light-armed foot 
and the horse, but no general action between all the 
forces. The time being thus protracted, Tarquinius 
was angered at the delay and resolved to lead his 
army against the enemy's camp ; and he attacked it 
repeatedly. Then, finding that it could not easily be 
taken by forcible means, because of its strength, he 
determined to reduce those within by famine ; and by 
building forts upon all the roads that led to the camp 

* KaTafxaOcbv B : fiaOoJv R. 

' 8io Tvv ixyporrjTa ii : Si' laxvpOTrjra R. 

* Tols Jacoby : toOs O. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

OKeval^oiievos , ^vXit,ea6ai re avrov? koX ;^iAoi' 
LTTTTOLS avudyeiv ^ Kai aXXa iroXXa ^ eTTtr-qSeLa 
Xajx^dveLV e/c rrjs )(a)pas ovk ecov els TTo?Oir}v 
KarearTjoev aTrdvTcov dTTopiav a)ar* rjvayKacrdrj- 
aav (f)vXd^avr€S vvKra ■)(eiixipiov uSacri /cat dvefxto 
(j}vyeZv ata;^/)a»? ck tov )^dpaKos KaraXnrovres 
iv avra> rd re VTrol,vyLa /cat rds aKrjvds koX 
Tovs rpav/jiarias /cat Trjv els tov TToXepLov napa- 

3 aKevTjv diraaav. rrj S' €^rJ9 rjfxepa puadovres ol 

Pcojuatot rr^v dnapaiv avrcov /cat yevojxevoL tov 
)(dpaKos dixa)(r]TL Kvpioi aKrjvds fiev /cat V7Tol,vyia 
/cat )(p-qiJiaTa Si'qpTraaav, tovs Be at;^/xaAc6Tou? 
aTrdyovres ^ els ttjv 'Pcofirjv dveaTpeipav. ovtos 
6 TToXepios eTTj TTevTe Siefjueive avvex^os TToXepiov- 
fjievos, ev (L yfjv dpi^oTepoL ttjv dXXyjXcjv Tiop- 
dovvres /cat fidx^s TroAAa? iXaTTOVs re /cat 
fxei^ovs piaxopcevoi, SieTeXeaav, oXiya /xeV rira 
/cat Tcx)v Ha^LViov cvtv^ovvtcov * iv toZs dyojai, 
ra 8e TrXelaTa 'Poj/xatcov iv Se ttj TeXevTala 

4 p-dxi) TeXos eXa^ev oXoax^pis. Ha^voi yap 
ovx cos TTpoTepov iK BiaBox^jS, aAA' a/xa -ndvTes 
ol arpaTevuLpLOV exovres 'qXiKLav i^rjXdov im 
TOV TToXejxov, Poi/xatot re avp.7TavT€S ret? Aarti'CDt' 
/cat YvpprjvdJv kul tu)v dXXa)v avpipiaxcov Svvdpi,eis 

6 TTapaXa^ovTes ixcopovv opboae toZs TToXepLiois. 6 
p,ev ovv Tcov lla^iv<x}v aTpaTrjyos Bixfj [xepiaas ra? 
Svvdp,eLS 8vo TTotetrat OTpaTOTreha, 6 he Ta)v 
'Po)p.aicov ^aaiXevs Tpia noL-qcras TdyfiaTa /cat 
Tpets TTapepL^oXds ov piaKpdv dji aXXrjXojv Bepievos 
avTos p.ev TTjs 'Pwfia'LKrjs TjyeiTo Bwdfieuis, 

* avvdyeiv Cobet : avvayayelv 0, Jacoby. 
232 



BOOK III. 65, 2-5 

and hindering them from going out to get wood for 
themselves and forage for their horses and from 
procuring many other necessaries from the country, 
he reduced them to so great a shortage of everything 
that they were obliged to take advantage of a stormy 
night of rain and wind and flee from their camp in a 
shameful manner, leaving behind them their beasts of 
burden, their tents, their wounded, and all their 
warlike stores. The next day the Romans, learning 
of their departure, took possession of their camp 
without opposition and after seizing the tents, the 
beasts of burden, and the personal effects, returned 
to Rome \^ith the prisoners. This war continued 
to be waged for five years in succession, and in its 
course both sides continually plundered one another's 
country and engaged in many battles, some of lesser 
and some of greater importance, the advantage 
occasionally resting with the Sabines but usually with 
the Romans ; in the last battle, however, the war 
came to a definite end. The Sabines, it seems, did 
not as before go forth to war in successive bands, but 
all who were of an age to bear arms went out together ; 
and all the Romans, with the forces of the Latins, 
the Tyrrhenians and the rest of their allies, were 
advancing to meet the enemy. The Sabine general, 
dividing his forces, formed two camps, while the Roman 
king made three divisions of his troops and pitched 
three camps not far apart. He commanded the Roman 



* dXXa TToAAo Jacoby (following Spelman) : noXXa 0, rdAAa 
Reiske. 

* tiTTayovTes Kiessling : dyayovres AB, dyovres R 

* evTvxovpTCov Cobet : SievruxovvTcov 0. 

233 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

"Appovra Se tov dSeX(f)i,8ouv rrjg TvpprjvLKrjg avp,- 
6 ixa)(La9 aTreSei^c arparrfyov Aarivoiv 8e koL 
Tcov d)0^a)v avpLfxaxcDV era^ev dp-^eiv dvSpa yev- 
valov fxev ra TToXipua /cat (fypoveZv to. Seovra LKavco- 
rarov, ^evov 8e /cat aTroAtv'- Sepouto? avTio 
TTpocx'qyopLKOv ovojxa riv, TuAAto? 8e to avy- 
yevLKov a> 'Poj/xatot p,€rd rrjv AevKiov Tap- 
KvvLov TeXevTTjv ^aaiXeveiv rrjs TToXeojg iTTerpeipav 
ovK ovarjs TapKvvLO) yeveds dppevos, ayajxevoL tov 
dvSpa TTJs T€ TTepl ra TroAtrt/ca /cat ttjs rrepl rd 
7ToAe/xta dpcTTJs. yevos Be rov dvSpos TOvSe /cat 
Tpo(f>ds /cat Tvxo.? Kal ttjv e/c tov deiov yevopcevrjv 
TTepi avTov €7n(f)aveLav, OTav /cara tovto yevcofiai 
TO jjiepog TOV Xoyov, hL'r]yr^aopLai. 

LXVI. Tore S' ovv, eTreih-q TrapeaKevaaTO diJi(f>o- 
TepoLS Ta TTpos TOV dycova CTrtrT^Seta, avvrjecrav 
els fjidx^v, efj^ov 8e to /nev evcLwfiov Kepas ol 
'Pco/xatot, TO he he^iov ol Tvpp-qvoi, /cara fiecrqv 
8e TTjv (f)dXayya AaTivoL eTd)(dr]aav. yevofxevov 
8e dydJvos KapTepov 8t' oXrjg r]}xepas cvlkkov ol 
'Pcu/xatot TTapa ttoXv /cat ttoXXovs piev diroKTei- 
vavTes T(JL)V TToXefiLcov ev tjj pidxij yevofxevovs 
dvhpas dyadovs, TToXXtp 8' eVt irXeiovs alxjJiaXa)- 
Tovg Xa^ovTes ev ttj (f^vyfj, tcov 8e Trapepi^oXchv 
dix<^oTepo}v iyKpaTelg yevop-evoi /cat XPVI^^'^^^ 
fxeyav Tre pL^aXofxevoL ttXovtov, dhecos yjhr] ttjs 
VTcaidpov Trdcjrjg eKpaTovv, r^v TTvpl /cat aiS'qpcp 
/cat Trdcn Xcof^rjadp^evoi /ca/cot?, e-neihn) to depos 
CTeAeura, XvaavTes ras Trapefx^oXds airrjeaav eir 
OLKOv. /cat o ^aaiXevs TapKvvLos TpiTOV em 
TrfS Ihias dpx^js tov e/c T-fjahe ttjs P'dx'f]? KaT-qyaye 
2 6pLap.^ov. TO) 8' i^rjs ivLaVTCp Trapacr/ceua^o- 

234 



BOOK III. 65, 5-66, 2 -KT 

contingent himself and made his nephew Arruns 
leader of the Tyrrhenian auxiliaries, while over the 
Latins and the other allies he placed a man who was 
valiant in warfare and of most competent judgment, 
but a foreigner without a country. This man's first 
name was Servius and his family name TuUius ; 
it was he whom the Romans, after the death of Lucius 
Tarquinius without male issue, permitted to rule the 
state, since they admired him for his abilities in 
both peace and war. But I shall give an account of 
this man's birth, education and fortunes and of the 
divine manifestation made with regard to him when 
I come to that part of my narrative.^ 

LXVL On this occasion, then, when both armies 
had made the necessary preparations for the struggle, 
they engaged; the Romans were posted on the left 
wing, the Tyrrhenians on the right, and the Latins 
in the centre of the line. After a hard battle that 
lasted the whole day the Romans were far superior ; 
and having slain many of the enemy, who had 
acquitted themselves as brave men, and having 
taken many more of them prisoners in the rout, 
they possessed themselves of both Sabine camps, 
where they seized a rich store of booty. And now 
being masters of all the open country without fear 
of opposition, they laid it waste with fire and sword 
and every kind of injury; but as the summer drew 
to an end, they broke camp and returned home. 
And King Tarquinius in honour of this victory 
triumphed for the third time during his own reign. 
The following year, when he was preparing to lead 

^ See iv. 1 ff. 

235 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fxevov TToXiv Tov PaaiXeois arparov eVt ras TrdAei? 
Tiov "Za^Lvwv €^dy€Lv Kal TToXtopKtaLs avrag 
npoaayeadai hieyvioKorog , yevvaZov p,kv ovhkv 
CTi jSouAeu/xa koI veaviKov ov^epudg eyivero, 
irdaai he kolvjj yvcofirj XPV^^I^^^^'- '^p''-^ ^^^ 
Kcvovvov iXdelv dvhpaTrohiapiov koL KaTaaKa(f)7]g 

3 KaraAvcraadat tov iroXepLov e'yvcoaav. Kal irap- 
rjaav e^ eKaoTq? TroXeojs ol KpaTiarot, rcvv 
Ha^ivcov TTpos ^aatXea TapKVUiov e^eXrjXvdora 
/xera iracr-qs 'rjBr] Svvdfxews TrapaSihovre^ avrcb rd 
reixr] Kal Seo/iewt ixerpias TTOL-qaaadai avpL^daeis.^ 
6 Se daTTaard)^ Se^djxevos rrjv dvev klvSvvojv ^ 
VTTOTayrjv tov edvovs OTTOvhds re Trotetrat irpos 
avTovs VTrkp elprjvrj^ re /cat (jyiXias irrl rats' 
aurat? op^oXoyiais at? Tvpprjvovs npoTepov vtt- 
7]ydyeTO, Kal tovs alxfiaXiOTOvs aTreScoKev avrols 
dvev XvTpcov. 

LXVII. Ayrai iroXefxiKal Trpd^eis jSaaiAeco? 
TapKVVLov fJLV7]fjLovevovTaL, elprjviKal Se kol 
TToAtrt/cat TOtatSe Tives' ovhe yap TavTas ^ ^ov- 
Xopiai TrapeXdelv dfjivrjixovevTOVs. evOvs yap a/xa 
Td) TrapaXa^elv rqv dp)(r]v tov SrnxoTiKov o^Xov 
oLKelov davTcp TToirjaai Trpodvfxrjdets, (Larrep ol 
TTpoTepoi ^aaiXel'S erroiovv, hid TOiavTas evepyeoias 
VTTrjyayeTO- CTrtAe^a? dvSpa? eKaTOV e^ dirdvTCJV 
TdJv 8r]fioTiKCJV, 0I9 dpeTrfV Tiva TToXejXLKrjV r} 
TToXiTLKrjv (f)p6v'qaLV dnravTes efxapTvpovv, iraTpi- 
KLOvs eTTOirjae kol KaTCTa^ev et? tov Td)v ^ovXev- 
TOJv apidfxov, Kal t6t€ TrpdjTOV eyevovTO 'PcD^atoiS" 

2 rpLaKoatoi ^ovXemat, Tecos ovTes SiaKocnot. eireiTa 



236 



* ovfJi.pdafis O : ras au/xjSaacis Reiske, Jacoby. 

* Kwbvvajv B : Kivbvvov R. 



BOOK III. 66, 2-67, 2 

his army once more against the cities of the Sabines 
and had determined to reduce them by siege, there 
was not one of those cities that any longer took any 
brave or vigorous resolution, but all unanimously 
determined, before incurring the risk of slavery for 
themselves and the razing of their cities, to put an 
end to the war. And the most important men among 
the Sabines came from every city to King Tarquinius, 
who had already taken the field with all his forces, 
to deliver up their walled cities to him and to beg 
him to make reasonable terms. Tarquinius gladly 
accepted this submission of the nation, unattended as 
it was by any hazards, and made a treaty of peace 
and friendship with them upon the same conditions 
upon which he had earlier received the submission of 
the Tyrrhenians; and he restored their captives to 
them without ransom. 

LXVII. These are the military achievements of Tar- 
quinius which are recorded ; those that relate to peace 
and to the civil administration (for these too I do 
not wish to pass over without mention) are as follows : 
As soon as he had assumed the sovereignty, being 
anxious to gain the affections of the common people, 
after the example of his predecessors, he won them 
over by such services as these : He chose a hundred 
persons out of the whole body of the plebeians who 
were acknowledged by all to be possessed of some 
warlike prowess or political sagacity, and having 
made them patricians, he enrolled them among the 
senators ; and then for the first time the Romans 
had three hundred senators, instead of two hundred,' 

1 Cf. ii. 47, 1 f. and Livy i. 35, 6. 



237 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tois lepoLS TTapOevoLs, y0' Sv to da^eaTov 
(f)vXaTT€TaL TTvp, rirrapoiv ovaais, Swo irpoaKar- 
eXe^ev irepas' TrXetovcov yap •^'Sry avvreXovfjievajv 
vnep ^ rrjs ttoXccos lepovpyicov, at? eSet rds" rrjs 
'Earia? Trapelvai OvqiroXovs, ovk iSoKovv at 
rerrapes dpKeXv. TapKVviov Se dp^avros rjKoXov- 
6ovv ot XoLTTol jSaCTtAet?, Kal P'^XP'' "^^^ /ca^' 
■j^jLtas" XP^^^^ ^^ aTToSeLKVvvraL rrjs 'EcTTta? 

3 ap,(f>L7ToXoL. 80/cet Se Kal rds rip-Oipias, at? 
KoXdt,ovTai TTpos Tcjv lepo^avTCJV at /xt) ^vXdrTov- 
aai TTjv TrapdevLav, eKelvos i^evpelv TrpdJro? eire 
Kard XoyLopLov e'lre, cos oLovrai rives, oveipcp 7T€i66- 
jJLivos, a? pierd ttjv eKeivov reXevrrjv iv rots 
Hi^vXXeioLs evpeOrjvai jj^pTyajuot? 01 rtov Upcov 
i^rjyrjral Xeyovaiv icfxxjpddr] yap ns inl rrjs 
€K€Lvov ^aaiXetas te'peta Dtj^apta IloTrAtoy dvydrqp 
ovx dyvT) TTpoaiovaa rocs Upots. rpoTTOs 8e 
rLpaopias oans iariv, w /coAa^ouat rds Sta- 
<f>6ap€iaas, iv rfj rrpo ravrqs SeSTyAoirat juot 

4 ypa(f>7J. n^v re dyopdv, iv "^ SiKa^ovcri /cat 
€KKXriaidt,ovaL Kai rds dXXas TroAtTt/cd? eiTLreXovai 
rrpd^eis, eKelvos eKoapuriaev ipyaarrjploLs re /cat 
iraardaL ^ -jrepiXa^wv, /cat rd reixf] rrjs TToXecus 
avroax^^i-o. /cat <f)avXa rals epyaaiats ovra 
npcoros (pKoSofxrjaaro ^ Xidois dpua^LaioLS elpyaa- 

5 [xevoLS rrpos Kavova. rjp^aro Se /cat rds vtto- 
vofiovs opvrrew rd(f>povs, St' cov em rov Te^epiv 
ox^reveraL rrdv ro avppeov e/c ruiv arevconcov 
vScop, epya davpcaard /cat Kpeirrco Xoyov Kara- 

^ virkp Sylburg : vtto 0, Jacoby. 

* TTaardai B : iraot R. 

' wKoSoiiTJaaro Biicheler : e'Sp/iijaaro B, e'SoKi/taae R. 

«38 



BOOK III. 67, 2-5 

as previously. Next, he added to the four holy 
virgins who had the custody of the perpetual fire two 
others ; for the sacrifices performed on behalf of the 
state at which these priestesses of Vesta were required 
to be present being now increased, the four were 
not thought sufficient. The example of Tarquinius 
was followed by the rest of the kings and to this day 
six priestesses of Vesta are appointed. He seems also 
to have first devised the punishments which are 
inflicted by the pontiffs on those Vestals who do not 
preserve their chastity, being moved to do so either by 
his own judgment or, as some believe, in obedience to 
a di*eam ; and these punishments, according to the 
interpreters of religious rites, were found after his 
death among the Sibylline oracles. For in his reign a 
priestess named Pinaria, the daughter of Publius, was 
discovered to be approaching the sacrifices in a state of 
unchastity. The manner of punishing the Vestals who 
have been debauched has been described by me in 
the preceding Book.^ Tarquinius also adorned the 
Forum, where justice is administered, the assemblies 
of the people held, and other civil matters transacted, 
by surrounding it with shops and porticos.^ And he 
was the first to build the walls of the city, which 
previously had been of temporary and careless con- 
struction, with huge^ stones regularly squared.* He 
also began the digging of the sewers, through which 
all the water that collects from the streets is con- 
veyed into the Tiber — a wonderful work exceeding all 



1 ii. 67. 

2 C/.Livyi.35, 10. 

^ Literally, ' ' large enough to load a wagon.' ' 
* Cf. Livy i. 38, 6. 

239 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aK€vaadiX€Vos. eywy* ovv iv rpial rot? [JieyaXo- 
7rp€7T€GTarois KaraaKevdafiaoL T'fjs 'Poj/XTys', i^ 
lov [xaXiGTa TO rrjg -qyefiovias e/A^aiVerat fieyedos, 
rds T€ Tcjv vSdrcov dycoydg Ti^ejuat /cat rds tcov 
oowv arpcoacLs Kal rds rcov VTrovoficov ipyaaiag, 
ov pLovov els TO -^prjaipLov rijs KaraaKevrjs Trjv 
otavoLav dva(f>epcov, vrrep ov Kara rov OLKelov 
Kaipov epw, dXXd /cat €ts" ttjv rcJov dvaXajpLdrcDV 
TToXvreXeiav, t^v ef eVo? epyov reKpLrjpaLT* dv 
Tt? latov A/ctAAioi^ TToiTjadpievos [rod p-eXXovros 
XeycadaL ^] ^e^aicorriv, os (f>r]aLV dpieXrjdeLcrcov 
TTore Tcou Ta^piov /cat p/qKeTi Siappeop^evcov rovs 
TLpLTqrds TTjv dvaKdQapaiv avrcov /cat rriv eVior/ceuT^i/ 
p^iAtcDf pnadcoaai TaXdvrcov. 

LXVIII. Kareor/ceuaae Se /cat top p,eyiarov 
Tcjv LTTTToSpop-ajv VapKyvLos rov piera^v rov re 
AovevTLVov /cat rov IlaAAap'Tiot; Keipuevov TTpwros 
VTToareyovs TTonjaas Trepl avrov KaOeSpas {reojs 
yap earwres ededjpovv ) e-n iKpiois, ^ Sokcov ^ 
^vXivaLs aKrjvalg inroKecp.evojv''^ /cat SieXcbv 
rovs roTTovs eis rpidKovra <f)pdrpas eKdarrj ^ 
pLolpav ttTTeScD/ce pbiav, ware ev rij TTpocrrjKovcnj 
2 x^P^' KaOe^opievov eKaarov decopelv. e/xeAAe Se 
apa aw xP^v^ k'^'' Tovro ro epyov iv rols irdvv 
KaXoLs Kal davp,aaroZs KaraaKevdapuaat rrjs 
TToXews yevrjaeadai. p,rJKos p-ev yap rod ltttto- 
SpopLov rpicbv /cat 'qpLiaovg earl arahia>v, evpos he 
rerrapcov rrXedpcov Trepc^ Be avrov /caret re 

^ rov neXXovTos Xtyeadax is probably a gloss. 

* iKpiois Bb : iKpiais Ba, iKplwy A. 

* BoKwv B : SovaKwv A. C. Peter suggested eV Uplwv 
SuiSeKaiToScov, comparing Livy's description (i. 35, 9) : speclavere 
farcis duodenos ab terra spectacula alia sustinentibus pedes. 
240 



BOOK III. 67, 5-68, 2 

description.^ Indeed, in my opinion the three most 
magnificent works of Rome, in which the greatness of 
her empire is best seen, are the aqueducts, the paved 
roads and the construction of the sewers. I say this 
with respect not only to the usefulness of the work 
(concerning which I shall speak in the proper place), 
but also to the magnitude of the cost, of which one 
may judge by a single circumstance, if one takes as 
his authority Gaius Acilius,^ who says that once, 
when the sewers had been neglected and were no 
longer passable for the water, the censors let out the 
cleaning and repairing of them at a thousand talents. 
LXVIII, Tarquinius ^ also built the Circus Maxi- 
mus,* which lies between the Aventine and Palatine 
Hills, and was the first to erect covered seats round it 
on scaffolding (for till then the spectators had stood), 
the wooden stands being supported by beams. And 
dividing the places among the thirty curiae, he 
assigned to each curia a particular section, so that 
every spectator was seated in his proper place. 
This work also was destined to become in time one 
of the most beautiful and most admirable structures 
in Rome. 5 For the Circus is three stades and a half 
in length and four plethra in breadth.^ Round about 

1 Cf. Livy, ibid. 

^ A senator of the second century B.C. who wrote a history 
of Rome in Greek. 
» Cf. Livy i. 35, 8 f. 

* Literally, "the largest of the hippodromes." 

* From this point Dionysius describes the Circus as it 
existed in his own day ; in later times its size and splendour 
were still further increased. 

* A stade was 600 Greek feet, a plethron 100 feet. 



* Portus : (.TTiKeifxivoiv 0. 

* (f)pa.Tpq. after tKaarri deleted by Jacoby. 



241 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ra? ^ lxeit,ovs irXevpag koX Kara fxiav tcov iXar- 
Tovojv evpiTTOs €Ls VTToSoxrjv vBaros opcopvKrai 
^dOos T€ /cat TrXdros BeKaiTovs. fieTO. Be tov 
evpLTTOv cpKoS 6 [XTjvr ai aroal rpiaTeyoi. tovtojv 
oe at fjiev eTTtTreSot Xidivas e)(ovaLv wa-nep iv 
TOi? dedrpoLs oXiyov VTrepavearr^KVLa? dXX-^Xcov 

3 KadeSpas, at S' imepcpoL ^vXivas. avvdyovrai, 
o et? TO avTO /cat crvvdnTovaiv dAATjAat? at 
fj.eLL,ovs VTTO rrjs iXdrrovos, p-T^woeiSes €)(ovarjs 
TO axrjp-a, avyKXeiopievai, ware fxiav e/c rojv 
rpiu)v yiveadat gtoolv dii^iOiarpov oktw arahitov 
LKairqv vTToBe^aaOat Trei^re/catSe/ca /iU/otctSa? dvOpco- 
TTCov. rj Be XotTTT] Tihv eXarrovcov rrXevpaJv 
aWpios dveipiivrj ipaXtBiOTas tTTTTa^eaet? e;^€t 8ta 

4 juiasr VGTrXiqyo^ afxa Trdaas dvotyojxevas. eari 
Be KOL TTepl TOV l-mroBpofxov e^codev erepa arod 
[xovocrreyos ipyacjrrjpLa €)(ovaa iv avrfj /cat 
oiKTjaeig virep avrd, 8i' -^j elaiv etaoBoi re /cat 
ava^daeig rot? enl ttjv deav d(f>LKvoviJievoLs ^ nap* 
eKaarov epyaar-qpLov , a)are pnqBev evoxXeZadai rds 
TOcrdaBe pivpidBas elaiovaas re /cat aTroAuo/MeVas". 

LXIX. Ei'e;(eip7^CTe Be koX tov vewv Kara- 
GKevdleiv tov re Atos" /cat Trjs "Hpas" /cat rfjs 
AdT]vds 6 ^amXevs ovtos evx'r]u aTToSiSoi;?, ^v 
eTTOirjaaTo rots Scots' ev ttj TeXevTaia Trpos 

^ Toj added by Reiske. 

* a<f>iKvovfievois A : d(f>iKOfj.evois B, Jacoby. 

' The original purpose of the canal was to protect the specta- 
tors from any wild beasts that might get out of control in 
the arena. Under Nero it was filled in. 

* It is obvious from his use of the adjective anx^x-Bearpos 
here and in the similar passjige, iv. 44, 1, that Dionysius did 
not think of this word as necessarily implying a circular or 
242 



BOOK III. 68, 2-69, 1 

it on the two longer sides and one of the shorter sides 
a canal has been dug, ten feet in depth and width, 
to receive water.* Behind the canal are erected 
porticos three stories high, of which the lowest story 
has stone seats, gradually rising, as in the theatres, 
one above the other, and the two upper stories wooden 
seats. The two longer porticos are united into 
one and joined together by means of the shorter one, 
which is crescent-shaped, so that all three form a 
single portico like an amphitheatre,^ eight stades in 
circuit and capable of holding 150,000 persons. The 
other of the shorter sides is left uncovered and con- 
tains vaulted starting-places for the horses, which are 
all opened by means of a single rope.^ On the outside 
of the Circus there is another portico of one story which 
has shops in it and habitations over them. In this 
portico there are entrances and ascents for the spec- 
tators at every shop, so that the countless thousands of 
people may enter and depart without inconvenience. 
LXIX. This king also undertook to construct the 
temple to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, in fulfilment of 
the vow he had made to these gods in his last battle 

elliptical structure, as it soon came to do, but that he used it 
in the original sense of "having seats on all sides." The 
U-shaped figure which he describes — two long parallel sides 
connected by a shorter, semicircular end — was essentially that 
of the Greek hippodromes to be seen at Olympia and elsewhere^ 
But the circus was narrower than the hippodrome, and the 
arrangement of the starting-places (carceres) was different. 

^ The varrXr]^ was the rope drawn across the bounds of a 
Greek racecourse and let down as a starting signal. In the 
Circus the barriers at each entrance consisted of folding gates, 
which were all thrown open at the same moment by slaves, 
two at each barrier; possibly this was done with the aid of 
a rope or ropes. Spelman took the phrase figuratively in the 
sense of " at one signal." 

243 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Sa^tVoy? I^o-xij- Tov fxkv ovv Xo^ov, e<^' ov ro Upov 
e/xeXXev Idpueadai,^ TToXXTJg Seofjievov Trpayfia- 
relag {ovre yap evrrpoaohos rjv ovre ofiaXos, 
dAA anoTOfjios /cat elg Kopvchrjv avvayofievos 
o^cXav), dvaX-qp,p,aaLV viprjXols TToXXaxodev irepi- 
Aa^cav' /cat ttoXvv ^ovv els to p.€ra^v tcov re 
avaXrjpLiidTCOV /cat t'^? Kopv^rfs ep-cfiop-qaas, ofxaXov 
yeveadai napeaKevaae /cat irpos lepchv vttoSox'^v 

2 eTTiTrjSeiOTarov. rovs Be dep-eXiovs ovk ecftdaae 
delvat Tov veo) ;^pot'oi' em^nbaas p-erd rr]v 
KaraXvaiv tov rroXepLov rerpaeTrj. ttoXXols 8' 
varepov ereaiv o rpiros ^aaiXevaras o.tt' eKelvov 
TapKvvios, 6 rrjs d.px'yjs eKTrecrcov, tovs re dep,e- 
Xlovs Kare^dXero koI rrjs olKoSop.ijg rd ttoAAo, 
eipyaaaro. ov p,i]v ereXeicoae to epyov ouS' 
ovros, aAA em tcov evLavaiOJV dp^ovTcov rdv 
Konra. tov rpiTOV eviavTOV vrraTevadvTcov ttjv 
avvTeXecav eXa^ev 6 vecos. 

3 "A^tov 8e /cat ra 7Tp6 ttjs KaTaaKevrjs avTOV 
yevopieva hteXdelv, d TrapahehcjKaaiv dnavTes ol 
Tag eTTLx<^pf-ovs avvayayovres loTopias. eVetSi^ 
yap ep,eXXe KaTaaKevdl,eLv 6 TapKvvLos tov 
vaov, avyKaXeaas tovs oLcovop,dvTeLS eKeXevae 
Toi? avBpdai ^ rrepl avTOV Trpcorov Btap^avrevcraodat, 
TOV TOTTov, Tt? eTTLTrjSeLOTaTo? eoTL rijs TToXews 
Xiopos lepos aveladai /cat rot? deois avTols pdXioTa 

4 Kexo.pLap.evos. dTToBei^dvTOJV 8' avTOJv rov vrrep- 
Keipevov rrjg dyopds Xoc^ov, os TOTe p,ev eKaXecTO 
Tap-n-qios, vvv he KaTTLrajXlvog, avdis eneXevaev 
avTovs SiapiavTevaapLevovs eLTrelv ev ottolu) tov 

^ Kiessling : Ihpvadai 0. 

^ rols avhpaoi suspected by Jacoby of being a gloss. 
244 



BOOK III. 69, 1-4 

against the Sabines.^ Having, therefore, surrounded 
the hill on which he proposed to build the temple 
with high retaining walls in many places, since it 
required much preparation (for it was neither easy 
of access nor level, but steep, and terminated in a 
sharp peak), he filled in the space between the re- 
taining walls and the summit with great quantities 
of earth and, by levelling it, made the place most 
suitable for receiving temples. But he was prevented 
by death from laying the foundations of the temple ; 
for he lived but four years after the end of the 
war. Many years later, however, Tarquinius, the 
second ^ king after him, the one who was driven from 
the throne, laid the foundations of this structure and 
built the greater part of it. Yet even he did not 
complete the work, but it was finished under the 
annual magistrates who were consuls in the third 
year after his expulsion. 

It is fitting to relate also the incidents that preceded 
the building of it as they have been handed down by 
all the compilers of Roman history .^ When Tarquinius 
was preparing to build the temple he called the augurs 
together and ordered them first to consult the aus- 
pices concerning the site itself, in order to learn what 
place in the city was the most suitable to be conse- 
crated and the most acceptable to the gods them- 
selves; and upon their indicating the hill that 
commands the Forum, which was then called the 
Tarpeian, but now the Capitoline Hill, he ordered them 
to consult the auspices once more and declare in what 

1 Cf. Livy i. 38, 7 ; 55, 1. 

* Literally "the third," counting inclusively. 

* Livy (i. 55, 2-4) refers the incident that follows to the 
reign of the second Tarquin. 

245 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

A6<pov ■)(0)pLio deadai Ser^crei rovs defJicXiovs. 
rovTO 8e ov irdw pahiov rjv ttoXXoI yap rjaav ev 
avTcp ^co/xot decov re Kat SaLp.6vojv oXiyov arr- 
exovres aXX-^Xcov, ovs eSet fxerdyeiv irepcoae ttoi, 
/cat TTdv aTToSovvai rco fidXXouri rols Oeols repievei 

5 yev-qaeadai to BdneSov. edo^e Srj toXs olcovo- 

TToXoLg V7T€p eKdoTOV ^OJHOV TCOV Ka6 18 pV [JL€V(x)V 

SLajxavTevaafjievoLs, idv Trapax^jpojaiv ot deol. 
Tore Kiveiv avrovs. ol jxev ovv dXXoL Oeot re 
/cat Saifioves eTrerpeipav avroXs els erepa X'^pia 
rovs ^cojxovs C(f>cbv /xera^epetv, ol Se rov Tep- 
fiovos /cat rrjs NeoTTjTo? TroAAa TTapairovfievois 
TOLS fidvreaL /cat Xirrapovcjiv ovk eTreiadiqaav ou8' 
r]vecr)(ovro TrapaxojprjaaL rcov tottoju. roiydproL 
avpLTT€pLeXri^dr]aav avrdjv ol ^cjfxol rfj Kara- 
GKevfj rcov lepcbv, /cat vvv 6 fxev erepog eariv ev 
TOJ rrpovdo) ri]s Adrjvds, 6 S' erepos ev avrio 

6 Tip arjKcp TTXrjaLov rov eSovs. e/c Be rovrov 
avve^aXov ol pidvreis on rrjs 'Pujpaiojv noXecos 
ovre rovs opovs pieraKLvrjuei Kaipos ovdelg ovre 
rrfv aKiJL7]v /xerajSaAet* /cat fiexp'' twv /car' ifxe 
Xpovcuv aXrjOes avrwv eariv eKdrepov elKoarr]v 
rjBrj /cat rerdprrjv ^ yevedv. 

^ reraprr^v O : Trpwrrqv Ambrosch {i.e. A' instead of A'). 

^ Livy {I.e.) names Terminus only. 

^ Inasmuch as the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus actually 
consisted of three shrines under one roof (see iv. 61, 4), 
Dionysius could speak of it either in the singular or plural. 
He has already used the plural once before, near the beginning 
of the chapter. 

^ The Greek word indicates that it was a seated statue. 

* Ambrosch, believing, with some of the early editors, that 
Dionysius often used yevca for a definite period of 27 years, 
246 



BOOK III. 69, 4-6 

part of the hill the foundations must be laid. But 
this was not at all easy ; for there were upon the hill 
many altars both of the gods and of the lesser 
divinities not far apart from one another, which 
would have to be moved to some other place and 
the whole area given up to the sanctuary that was to 
be built to the gods. The augurs thought proper to 
consult the auspices concerning each one of the altars 
that were erected there, and if the gods were willing 
to withdraw, then to move them elsewhere. The rest 
of the gods and lesser divinities, then, gave them 
leave to move their altars elsewhere, but Terminus 
and Juventas,^ although the augurs besought them 
with great earnestness and importunity, could not be 
prevailed on and refused to leave their places. 
Accordingly, their altars were included within the 
circuit of the temples ,2 and one of them now stands 
in the vestibule of Minerva's shrine and the other 
in the shrine itself near the statue^ of the goddess. 
From this circumstance the augurs concluded that 
no occasion would ever cause the removal of the 
boundaries of the Romans' city or impair its vigour ; 
and both have proved true down to my day, which 
is already the twenty-fourth generation.* 

proposed to read "twenty-first" here; see critical note. But 
the interval involved (extending from 576 B.C., at the very 
latest, to 7 B.C.) was a little more than twenty-one full 
generations of 27 years each; so that he needed to read 
" twenty-second," or else assume 28 years to the generation. 
Dodwell was almost certainly right in declaring that Dionysius 
did not use yeved for any definite number of years. He 
showed that for the earliest times and down through the 
regal period at Rome he regularly counted as a generation the 
reign of each successive king ; and he argued that for the 
republican period he counted his generations by the records of 
some important family, probably that of Julius Caesar. 

247 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

LXX. O oe TO)v oLcovoaKOTTcov i7n(f>av4aTaTos , 
o ^ TOWS' ^aijJLOvs ^ediBpvadfjievos /cat ro Upov rov 
Aio? reixevicjas koI raXXa TrpoXeycvv ra deZa ^ 
TO) hripicp 8ia fiauTtKTJs avros [xev eKaXelro to 
KOLVov ovofia KOI TTpoariyopiKov Ne'/Sto?,^ ro hk 
GvyyevLKOv "Attio?, o? drTavTcov deo^iXeararos 
opLoXoyeZrai yeviadat rdjv OLKpi^ovvTcov rrjv revimv 
Kai jjieyLaTOV rv^^lv St' avrrju ovofiaros dTriarovs 
Ttm? VTTep^oXds Ti]s olojvop,avriKr\s iTTLaTrjpLiqs 
€TTLhei^dpi€Vos' (x)v iyu) jxiav, rjv ixdXiara redav- 
fjLaKa, TTpox^t-piodiievos ipco, npoeLTTcbv i^ otas 
opjXTjdeLS avvrvxias Kal rivas d(f)opiJids napd rov 
haipLovLov Xa^ojv roaavrrjv ear^ev e7Ti<^dv€iav 
ojare navrag a^T^Aof? (ZTToSet^at rovs Kara rrjv 

2 avrrjv aKfxdaavras -qXiKiav. rrevris avra> Trarrjp 
eyevero x^P^ov evreXes yeojpyojv, at rd re dXXa 
avv€Lpydt,€ro irals wv 6 Ne'^Sto?, oaa rot? rrjXiKov- 
Toi? Svvafiis rjv, koI ra? vg i^eXavvcov e^ooKev. 
aTTOKOLfJi-qdeis Se ttotc Kal pLerd rrjv i^eyepaiv 
ovx evplcTKojv rivds rcov vajv, rews pLcv e/cAate rds 
TrXrjydg oppojSojv rds irapd rov Trarpos, CTretr' 
iXdwv inl rr^v KaXidha rrjv iv ra> x^P^<i^ Kad- 
iSpvpLevqv rjpa)(x)V "q^iov rovs TJpojas arvve^evpelv 
avrcp rds vs, yevopcevov 8e rovrov dvcreiv avrolg 
VTreax^ro rov pieyiarov rcov ck rov p^cDpt'ou 

3 ^orpv(DV. evpcbv Se /act' oXlyov rds uj e^ovXero 

^ 6 added by Kiessling. 

* TO 9fia B : om. R. 

' N«/3{os appears to be the reading of the MSS. regularly, 
excej)t that Ba had vaiptos 12 lines bolow. As Navius was 
often corrupted by the Romans into Naevius, it is quilo 
possible that Dionysius wrote Natj3ioy (or, more probably, 
Natou'toff), which could easily pass into Ne/Sioy. 

248 



BOOK III. 70, 1-3 

LXX. The most celebrated of the augurs, the one 
who changed the position of the altars and marked 
out the area for the temple of Jupiter and in other 
things foretold the will of the gods to the people by 
his prophetic art, had for his common and first name 
Nevius,^ and for his family name Attius ; and he is con- 
ceded to have been the most favoured by the gods of 
all the experts in his profession and to have gained 
the greatest reputation by it, having displayed some 
extraordinary and incredible instances of his augural 
skill. Of these I shall give one, which I have 
selected because it has seemed the most wonderful 
to me ; but first I shall relate from what chance 
he got his start and by what opportunities vouchsafed 
to him by the gods he attained to such distinction as 
to make all the other augurs of his day appear 
negligible in comparison. His father was a poor man 
who cultivated a cheap plot of ground, and Nevius, 
as a boy, assisted him in such tasks as his years could 
bear ; among his other employments he used to drive 
the swine out to pasture and tend them. One day 
he fell asleep, and upon waking missed some of the 
swine. At first he wept, dreading the blows his father 
would give him ; then, going to the chapel of some 
heroes ^ that had been built on the farm, he besought 
them to assist him in finding his swine, promising 
that if they did so he would offer up to them the 
largest cluster of grapes on the farm. And having 
found the swine shortly afterwards, he wished to 



^ It seems best to retain the spelling of this name given 
by the MSS., since there is doubt as to the form which Dionysius 
would have used. See critical note. 

* The lares compitales, 

249 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ft€v dnohovvat. rolg rjpcoat rrjv evx^v, iv drropia Be 
rjv ttoXXt] tov [xeycarov ov Swdfievos e^evpelv 
^orpvv. dBrjjxovaJv S gttl tco rrpay/xart rolls' 
deovs rj^Lov 8t' olajvcijv <j)avep6v avrcb TTOirjaat to 
^rjTovfxevov. eVeir' ineXdov avrco /caret, haip-ova 
^Lxfj vefxei ^ rov dpiTreXojva, Odrepa fiev avrov 
\ap.^dvcov eK Se^ids, ddrepa 8 e^ dpLGTepds, 
CTTeid' virep eKarepov tcov p.epa>v rovs vapayLVo- 
pievovs ^ olojvovs iaKOTrei. (fiouevrcov S em 
daripov [xepovs opvWcov, otcov ^ ayro? e^ovXero, 
TTaXiv eKetvo Si^fj Strjpei to x^P^^^ '^^^ tovs 
opviOas hieKptve rovs Trapaytvofxevovs Kara to 
avTO. TavTT) ;)^pajju,evos" Tfj Statpeaet tcov tottcov 
/cat TTjv caxdTTjv vtto tcov opvidwv^ a7roSet;^^et- 
aav dfXTTeXov vrreXdcbv evpioKei ^oTpvog aTTiGTov 
TL xp^y^^ x^^^ avTov ^ipoiv em Tr]v KaXidSa twv 

4 rjpcoajv oparat Trpos" tov iraTpog. 6avp.daavTL 
8e TO fjidyedos ttjs aTa(f)vXrjg Kal irodev elXri<j>€i 
Trvvdavop,€vq) StTjyetrat rrdvTa e^ apx'^S- 6 8' 
VTToXaPcov, oTTcp rjv, €p,(f)VTOVs elvat TLvas dpxds 
IxavTCKrj? iv tco TratSt, Kopiiaas avTov els ttjv 
ttoXlv ypapip,dTa)v SiSaaKaXoLS avviaTrjaiv €7T€c 
8e TTJ'S KOtvrjs TraiSeLas dTTOXptovTCOS /xere'Aa^Se, 
Tvpprjvcov avTOV Trapahihojai t(x> XoyiojTaTw 

5 TTjv olojvoaKOTTiKrjV TexvTjv 8 ihax6T]o 6 p,€Vov. exojv 

8e TTjV €[X(f)VTOV 6 Ne'^lOS p,aVTLKrjV KoL TTjV eTTLKTrj- 

Tov Trapd Tvppr]vcov TrpoaXa^ojv /xa/cpa> hrjTTOv 
TOV? dXXovs olcovoGKOTTOvs UTTavTas, d)S e<:f)r]v, 
VTrepe^dXeTo, eh aTrdaas re Tas B-qpioalas eVt- 
crKeifjcLS ol ttjs TToXews oiojvopiavTeL^ ovk ovTa e/c 
TOV avaTT^p-aTOS irapeKoXovv avTOV 8id ttjv 

^ Rciske : viiinv 0. 
250 



BOOK III. 70, a-5 

perform his vow to the heroes, but found himself in 
great perplexity, being unable to discover the largest 
cluster of grapes. In his anxiety over the matter he 
prayed to the gods to reveal to him by omens what he 
sought. Then by a divine inspiration he divided the 
vineyard into two parts, taking one on his right hand 
and the other on his left, after which he observed 
the omens that showed over each ; and when there 
appeared in one of them such birds as he desired, he 
again divided that into two parts and distinguished 
in the same manner the birds that came to it. Having 
continued this method of dividing the places and 
coming up to the last vine that was pointed out by 
the birds, he found an incredibly huge cluster. As 
he was carrying it to the chapel of the heroes he was 
observed by his father ; and when the latter marvelled 
at the size of the cluster and inquired where he had 
got it, the boy informed him of the whole matter 
from the beginning. His father concluded, as was 
indeed the case, that there were some innate rudi- 
ments of the art of divination in the boy, and taking 
him to the city, he put him in the hands of elementary 
teachers ; then, after he had acquired sufficient general 
learning, he placed him under the most celebrated 
master among the Tyrrhenians to learn the augural art. 
Thus Nevius, who possessed an innate skill of divina- 
tion and had now added to it the knowledge acquired 
from the Tyrrhenians, naturally far surpassed, as I 
said, all the other augurs. And the augurs in the city, 
even though he was not of their college, used to 
invite him to their public consultations because of 

* TTapayivoixevovs Hertlein : napaKci^ievovs 0, Jacoby. 

* olwv avTos ipovXfTO . . . ino twv opvldcDv BC : om. R. 

VOL. II. T 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€7nTV)(tav Tibv fjiavTCVfjidTOJV /cat ovdev 6 tl jjutj 

d6^€l€V €K€LV(x) TTpOvXeyOV. 

LXXI. OvTos 6 Ne^io? ^ovXofJLeva) ttotc tco 
TapKvvLa) rpels <j>vXas crepas a.7ro8et^ai vea? e/c 
rojv v(f)' avTov Trporepov KareiXeyiievcov ImTeajv 
/cat TTOL-fjaat, rag eTnderovs (f)vXas eavrov re /cat 
Tcov tSicDV eraLpojv eTTwvvpiovs fiovog avreiTTe 
Kara to Kaprepov, ovk itov Kiveiv rdv vtto 

2 'Pco/xuAoy Karaaradivrojv ovdev. a)(d6yievos S' 
CTTt rfj KioXvaei /cat 8t' opyrjs excov rov NeyStor 
o ^aaiXevs Kara^aXelv avrov ttjv CTTtcrr'qp.rjv els 
TO iJi,7]8ev €7T€)(^Lprja€v, to? dXa^ov€VO[X€vov /cat 
HrjOev dXrjdes Xeyovrog. Tavra bLavorjdels €Ka.Xei 
Tov Ne'^tov €7rt to Prjixa ttoXAov rrapovros o^Xov 
/caret. TTJV dyopdv. 7TpoSiaX€)(deLg 8e toi? Trept 
avTov 8t' ou TpoTTOV ipevSofiavTiv dTTohei^eiv tov 
olojvooKOTTOV VTTeXdfjiPavev , €7T€LSr) TTapeyevcTO 
(f)i,Xavdpa)7TOLS avTov doTTacrpiOis dvaXa^wv, " Nw," 
6017 , " Kaipos eTnSeL^aadaL ae ttju dKpi^eiav ttjs 
fiavTiKTJs €TnaTrip.rjs , c5 Ne)3te. Trpd^ei yap e-m- 
X€ip€LV [xeydiXrj Siavoovp^evos, el to SvvaTov 
avTjj TTpoaeoTt, [xadetv jSoyAojitat. dAA dindi 
/cat SianavTevadfievos "i^/ce rap^eo)?, eycu 8 

3 ivOdSe Kady^fxevos dvap^evw^ CTTOiei to. KeXevo- 
p,€va 6 pidi'TLs /cat /xer' oi) ttoAi) Traprjv aioLovs 
elXrj(f)ivaL Xeyojv olcovoifs /cat Svvarqv eivaL t7]v 
TTpd^LV dTTO(f)aLva>v . yeXdaas 8' d Ta/s/cwio? CTrt 
TO) Xoyo) /cat irpoeveyKas e/c tou /coAttou ^vpov 
/cat a/cdvr^v' Ac'yei Tr/aos" avrdi^, " 'EctAw/ca?, cS 
Ne^/Ste, <f)evaKit,(x)v rjfxdg /cat KaTatpevSoixevos tov 
haipLoviov KaTacftavcos , oTTOTe /cat ra? d8ymTOi'S' 
irpd^ecs TeToXfxrjKas Xeyeiv Syvardj. <Lyoiy ovv 
252 



BOOK III. 70, 5-71, 3 

the success of his predictions, and they foretold 
nothing without his approval. 

LXXI. This Nevius,^ when Tarquinius once de- 
sired to create three new tribes out of the knights 
he had previously enrolled, and to give his own name 
and the names of his personal friends to these addi- 
tional tribes, alone violently opposed it and would not 
allow any of the institutions of Romulus to be" 
altered. The king, resenting this opposition and 
being angry with Nevius, endeavoured to bring his 
science to nought and show him up as a charlatan 
who did not speak a word of truth. With this purpose 
in mind he summoned Nevius before the tribunal 
when a large crowd was present in the Forum ; and 
having first informed those about him in what 
manner he expected to show the augur to be a false 
prophet, he received Nevius upon his arrival with 
friendly greetings and said : " Now is the time, Nevius, 
for you to display the accuracy of your prophetic 
science. For I have in mind to undertake a great 
project, and I wish to know whether it is possible. 
Go, therefore, take the auspices and return speedily. 
I will sit here and wait for you." The augur did 
as he was ordered, and returning soon after, said 
he had obtained favourable omens and declared the 
undertaking to be possible. But Tarquinius laughed 
at his words, and taking out a razor and a whetstone 
from his bosom, said to him : " Now you are convicted, 
Nevius, of imposing on us and openly lying about 
the will of the gods, since you have dared to affirm 
that even impossible things are possible. I wanted 

1 Cf. Livy i. 36, 2-7. 

253 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

oi€^avT€v6fJLrjv, el rip ^vpco rwBe ttjv olkovtjv 
: TrX-q^as fxdcxrjv Svvqaofxai SieXelv." yeXcorog 8' 
i^ aTTavTcov yevofxevov tojp Trepl to ^rjjxa ovdkv 
emrapaxdel? 6 NejSio? vtto tov Tcodaajxav re 
/cat TOV dopv^ov, "Hale dappojv" ^(}>r], "TapKvvie, 
rr]v aKovTjv, cog Trpoaipfj- hiaiped-qaerai yap t] 
-TTaa)(€Lv oTLOvv eTOijxos eyo)." Oavpidcras 8e 
o paaiAevs to dpdaos tov jxavTeaJS (f>epei to 
^vpov Kara rrjs aKomrjs, rj 8e OLKpLrj tov aiS-qpov 
St oXov KareXdovcia tov XiOov tt^v re aKovrjv 
otaipet /cat Trjs KaTe')(ovarjs avrrjv ^eLpog drro- 
i Tep.v€i ^ TL jxepog. oi pcev ovv aXXoi Trdvres cos 
TO davpiaoTOV tovto /cat aTnarov epyov ededaavTO, 
KaTarrXayevTes dve^orjaav , 6 he TapKvviog, atSe- 
adeis em rfj StaTretpo, ttjs re^vrfs /cat to dirpeTres tu)v 
oveLhiapL(x)v erravopdwaaadai ^ovX6p.evo£, npcoTOV 
jxev Tcbv TTepl rds cf)vXds eyx^tprjp-dTcov dveaTr}, 
erreLTa S avTov rov ^e^Lov aTTodepaTrevcrai hiayvovs, 
(hs aTrdvTcov dvdpcoTTOJV 6eo(f)iXearaTov , dXXais re 
TToXXals <f)iXavdpojTTiats VTT-qydyeTO /cat tva p.vijpLrjs 
atojvioy TvyxdvTj Trapd tcov €7nyLvop,€va)v elKova 
KaTaoKevdaas avrov xo-Xktjv dveoTrjaev ev dyopa,^ 
rj /cat eis ep,e "qv ert Trpo tov ^ovXevTripiov Keifxevrj 
TrXrjaiov rrjs Upas gvktjs eXdrroiV dvhpos pierptov 
T7]v Trepi^oXrjv e^ovaa Kara rrjs K€(f)aXrjs. oXcyov 
Se drrcodev avrijs "q re aKovrj K€Kpvcf)dai Xeyerai 
Kara yrjs /cat to $vp6v ^ vtto ^ajp-o) tivl • KaXelrai 
be (fypeap 6 rorros vtto 'Pajpuaicov. /cat Ta pueu 

* Naber : emTdfivei. 0, Jacoby. 

* avforqafv iv dyopa B : hiiarqaev ivl Ttjs dyopds R. 

* KeKpvidai . . . $vp6y B : y€ypa.<^6ai Xeyercu /cat d $vp6s 
Kara yijs R. 



BOOK III. 71, 3-5 

to know from the auspices whether if I strike the 
whetstone with this razor I shall be able to cut it in 
halves." At this, laughter arose from all who stood 
round the tribunal ; but Nevius, nothing daunted 
by their raillery and clamour, said: "Strike the 
whetstone confidently, as you propose, Tarquinius. 
For it will be cut asunder, or I am ready to sub- 
mit to any punishment." The king, surprised at 
the confidence of the augur, struck the razor against 
the whetstone, and the edge of the steel, making its 
way quite through the stone, not only cut the whet- 
stone asunder but also cut off a part of the hand that 
held it. All the others who beheld this wonderful and 
incredible feat cried out in their astonishment ; and 
Tarquinius, ashamed of having made this trial of 
the man's skill and desiring to atone for his unseemly 
reproaches, in the first place desisted from his 
intention regarding the tribes, and, in the next 
place, resolved to win back the goodwill of Nevius 
himself, seeing in him one favoured above all men 
by the gods. Among many other instances of 
kindness by which he won him over, he caused a 
bronze statue of him to be made and set up in the 
Forum to perpetuate his memory with posterity. 
This statue still remained dovra to my time, standing 
in front of the senate-house near the sacred fig-tree ; 
it was shorter than a man of average stature and the 
head was covered with the mantle. At a small 
distance from the statue both the whetstone and the 
razor are said to be buried in the earth under a 
certain altar. The place is called a welU by the 

^ Puteal was the Roman name for this place. Strictly 
speaking, puteal was the curbing round the well, puteus the 
well itself. A puteal was constructed about a spot that had 
been struck by lightning. 

255 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 



<» / 



7T€pL Tov jxavrecos rovrov fivrjfxovevofieva rarjra 
iarL. 

LXXII. BacrtAeys" Se TapKVvios dva7T€7Tavfi€vos 
^Bt] twv TToXefXLKcHv epyciiv Sia yrjpas, '^v yap 
oyhorjKovraeTrjs , ho\o^ovr]deis vtto tcDv "AyKov 
^lapKLov TTatScov oLTTodirqaKei €7TL^€i,p7]advTa>v fxev 
€TL vporepov eK^aXelv avrov e/c ttjs" OLpx^js Kal 
TToAAa/ct? Tovro 7Tpaypiarevaap,ivoiv /car' eXiriha 
TOV TTepieXdelv '^ els avrovs eKTreaovros CKeivov 
TTjv BuvacTTeLav, ws Brj Trarpwav a^LOLV vtt- 
dpxovcrav /cat e/c rod paarov npos rGiv -noKnGiv 

2 Sodiqcrofjievqv. eTret Se hiripLapTOV rrjg cXttlSos, 
eTn^ovXrjv d(j>VKrov /car avrov epLrj^avqaavro, 
riv ovK e'iaaev dTLpia)p7]rov yeveadai to SaifJioviov . 
SirjyrjcrofxaL 8e Kal tov ttjs €m,^ovXrjg Tponov 
drro Trjs 7Tpd)Tr]s emxeiprjaeais avTCxiv dp^dfievo? .^ 

3 o Ne^/Sto? cKelvos 6 Seivos olcovofiavTis,^ ov €(f)rjv 
ivavTLcodijvaL irore Tcp ^aatXel TrXeiovas e^ iXaa- 
aovcDV TTOiTJaai Tas (f)vXds ^ovXojJievcp, otc fiaXiaTa 
rjvdet, Sid Tr]v re^^yrjv Kal TrXelaTov rjSwaTO 
'PojfiaUjov aTrdvTcov, etre <j)dovr]Oels vtto twv 
dvTiTexvcov TLvos etr' eTTifiovXevdels vrr €)(9pa)v 
ctre o Ti hrjTTOTe dXXo TraOdiv d(f}avrjg d(f)vco ytVerai, 
Kal ovre tov fJLopov avTov ns rjSvvaTO tcov 
TTpofjTjKovTCov ovp^^aXeZv ovT€ to CTcDjua evpelv^ 

4 dxdopievov Se tov St^/xou Kal Seivcos (f>€povTOs to 
Trddos VTTOvoias re TroAAas" Kal Kara ttoXXcov 
Xap^fidvovTOS , KaTavot^aavTCS ttjv opiJLrjv tov rrX-q- 
dovs 01 TOV M.apKLov TTalSes, em tov ^aaiXca 

* nepieXdelv Naber : nepnTeaelv 0, Jacoby. 

• ano . . . dp^dfievos B : om. R. 

256 



BOOK III. 71, 5-72, 4 

Romans. Such then, is the account given of this 
augur. 

LXXII. King Tarquinius,^ being now obHged to 
desist from warlike activities by reason of old age 
(for he was eighty years old), lost his life by the 
treachery of the sons of Ancus Marcius. They had 
endeavoured even before this to dethrone him, 
indeed had frequently made the attempt, in the hope 
that when he had been removed the royal power 
would devolve upon them ; for they looked upon it as 
theirs by inheritance from their father and supposed 
that it would very readily be granted to them by 
the citizens. When they failed in their expectation, 
they formed against him a plot from which there would 
be no escape ; but Heaven did not allow it to go 
unpunished. I shall now relate the nature of their 
plot, beginning with their first attempt. Nevius, 
that skilful augur who, as I said, once opposed the 
king when he wished to increase the number of the 
tribes, had, at the very time when he was enjoying 
the greatest repute for his art and exceeded all the 
Romans in power, suddenly disappeared, either 
through the envy of some rival in his own profession 
or through the plotting of enemies or some other 
mischance, and none of his relations could either 
guess his fate or find his body. And while the people 
were grieving over and resenting the calamity and 
entertaining many suspicions against many persons, 
the sons of Marcius, observing this impulse on the 

I For chaps. 72 f. c/. Livy i. 40-41, 1. 

' o Setvos olcjvofiavns placed here by B, after airdvrwv (four 
lines below) by R. 

* evpelv B : ejtevpdv R, i^evptiv Jacoby. 

257 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TapKvviov TTjv BiaBoXrjv tov dyovs av€<f>€pov, 
dXXo jjiev ovdev e^ovres (j>ipeLV rijs SLa^oXijs ovre 
reKiJi-qpiov ovre arjfieLOV, Bval Se rols eiKocn 
rovTOis KparvvofJiivoi, Trpcorov fxev on ttoAAo, koI 
Kaivd 776/31 TTjv TToXireiov hieyvojKCJS Trapa- 
vop,€LV TOV ivavricoGofxevov wanep iirl rcbv npo- 
repcov €K7ToS(x)v i^ovXero TTOL'qaaaOaL, eVetTa 
OTL Seivov Trddovs yeyovoros ovhepiiav eTtoirjaaro 
Tcov BeSpaKOTCov S^'qTrjaLv, dAA' d/xeAeia 7rapeScu/ce 

TO TTpa-)(d^V, OTTCp OVK dv TTOLTJaaC TLVa rdjv 

6 €^cx) Tijs OLLTLas VTTapxdvrcov . TrapaaKevaadp-evoL 
Se fieydXag eraipeias rrepl avrovs TrarptKicov 
re /cat Stj/xotikcov, ols rds iavrcov ovaias Kar- 
€-)(oprqyovv , TToXXrjV cttoiovvto tov TapKVviov KaT~ 
Tjyopiav /cat to) S'qp.co Traprjvovv p^r) Trepiopdv ^ 
dvSpa pLiapov tepols re irpoa^ipovTa Tas ■)(Gipas 
/cat T7]v e^ovaiav pnaivovTa /cat Tavr ovk ctti- 
)^copLOV dAA' €7rr]Xvv Ttva ^ ovra /cat a77oAtf . 

6 TOiavTa /card ttjv dyopdv BrjpbrjyopovvTes dvSpes 
LTapiol /cat Xeyeiv ovk dSwarot ttoXXovs p-ev 
rjpedLaav tcov Sr]p,0TtKd}v, ot 7Tapay€v6p,€vov avTov 
els T7)v dyopdv dTToXoyias X^P^^ ^ i^eXavveiv €tt- 
ex^iprjoav cos ov Kadapov ov p,rjv KaTayojvLcra- 
adai ye rqv dX'qdeiav 'icrxyaav ouSe TTCiaat tov 
Srjp,ov ehvvrjdrjaav CK^aXelv avTOv e/c ttjs dpx^js. 

7 67761 8e aurd? re d77oAoyi^^ets' KpdTLGTa jrepi 
avTOV TTjv Bia^oXrjv dTreXvaaTO /cat d KrjSeaTTjs 
avTov TuAAtosr, <p ttjv eTcpav SeBojKws '^v dvya- 

^ Kiessling : napopdv 0. 

' firqXvv riva Prou, emjXvv Kiessling : eni/jXvTov riva R, 
(irqXvTov B, Jacoby. Dionysius elsewhere (in seTen instances) 
uses the form imjXvs. 

258 



BOOK III. 72, 4-7 

part of the multitude, endeavoured to put the blame 
for the pollution upon King Tarquinius, though they 
had no proof or evidence to offer in support of their 
accusation, but relied upon these two specious 
arguments : first, that the king, having resolved 
to make many unlawful innovations in the consti- 
tution, wished to get rid of the man who was 
sure to oppose him again as he had done on the former 
occasions, and second, that, when a dreadful calamity 
had occurred, he had caused no search to be made 
for the perpetrators, but had neglected the matter — 
a thing, they said, which no innocent man would 
have done. And having gathered about them strong 
bands of partisans, both patricians and plebeians, upon 
whom they had lavished their fortunes, they made 
many accusations against Tarquinius and exhorted 
the people not to permit a polluted person to lay 
hands on the sacrifices and defile the royal dignity, 
especially one who was not a Roman, but some new- 
comer and a man without a country. By delivering 
such harangues in the Forum these men, who were 
bold and not lacking in eloquence, inflamed the minds 
of many of the plebeians, and these, when Tarquinius 
came into the Forum to offer his defence, endeavoured 
to drive him out as an impure person. However, 
they were not strong enough to prevail over the truth 
or to persuade the people to depose him from power. 
And after both Tarquinius himself had made a power- 
ful defence and refuted the calumny against him, 
and his son-in-law Tullius, to whom he had given 
one of his two daughters in marriage and who had 



' anqXoyias xoipw B : om. R. 

259 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

repa, fieyiGTOV iv tco St^/aoj Swdfievos, els eXeov 
Tovs 'Pojfxaiovs VTrrjydyeTO , avKo<j>dvTai koI 
TTovTjpol 86^avT€S ctvai /cat TroXXrjv ocfiXovres 
ala-)(yvr]v OLTTrjXdov e/c rrjs dyopds. 

LXXIII. Tavrrjs ^rj ^ rijs Treipas dTTOTVx6vT€S 
KoX hiaXXayds rrjs cxdpas Sta (f>iXo}v evpofievoi, 
fxeTplois TTjv dyvoifJLoavvrjv avrcov ivdyKavros rov 
TapKVVLOV 8td rds €k rod rrarpos evepyeaias Kai 
rrjv fjLerdvoiav LKavrjv vrroXapi^dvovros etvat rrjs 
TTpoTTerelas hiopQoiOLV, err] fxev rpia hUi^eivav ^ 
iv rfj TTpoaiTot.'qaet, r-fjs ^tAtas' eTrecBrj 8e Kaipov 
VTTeXa^ov eTTLr'qBeLov e)(CLv BoXov eir avro) pairrovcn 
roLovBe' veavLCTKOvs Bvo rcov e/c t'^s' avvwyioaias 
roiis roXixTjpordrovs TTOLfievLKais ivSvaavres aro- 
Xals /cat hperrdvoLS KadoTrXiaavres vXovpyols 
rrepLTTOvaiV cttI rrjv OLKiav rov ^acnXecos 7)p.epas 
fi€aovar]s hiSd^avres d XP'^ Xiyeiv re /cat Trpdrreiv 
Kai rov rporrov rrjs eTTiOeoecos avrols v(f>r]yr]aa- 
[xevoL. ovroL TrXrjaiov rcov ^aaiXeicov yevofxevoi 
KaKcbs re dXX-qXovs eXeyov cos dhiKovpLevoL /cat 
ov8e ru) X^^P^ "^^^ acoixdrcov direixovro ^ofj re 
fieydXr] ;)(pa>)U.evot rrjv napd rov jSaatAecus' po-qdeiav 
eKdXovv dpL<j)6repoL, rrapovrcov avrols crvxvojv e/c 
rrjs avvix)}xoaias , dypoiKcov Br) ^ rco Xoyo), avv- 
ayavaKrovvrojv re dpL(f)orepoLs Kat avfjLjxaprvpovv- 
rcov. d)s Be eloKaXeaas avrovs 6 ^aatAeuy Aeyeti' 
eKeXevaev vrrep oJv BLe(f)epovro, alydJv fiev * d/x^tcr- 
^rjrelv ^ ioK-qTrrovro, KeKpayores Be ^ djxa /cat 

^ Kiessling: he 0. 

* ern fiev rpla BUfitipav B : (.fxfivav fiiv enj rpla R- 
» 8^ Schaller : 8^ 0. 

* aiywv fiev B : alywv Se (veKa R. 

86o 



BOOK III. 72, 7-73, 3 

the greatest influence with the people, had stirred 
the Romans to compassion, the accusers were looked 
upon as slanderers and wicked men, and they left the 
Forum in great disgrace. 

LXXIII. Having failed in this attempt and having, 
with the aid of their friends, found reconciliation with 
Tarquinius, who bore their folly with moderation 
because of the favours he had received from their 
father, and looked upon their repentance as sufficient 
to correct their rashness, they continued for three 
years in this pretence of friendship ; but as soon as 
they thought they had a favourable opportunity, 
they contrived the following treacherous plot against 
him : They dressed up two youths, the boldest 
of their accomplices, like shepherds, and arming 
them with billhooks, sent them to the king's house 
at midday, after instructing them what they were 
to say and do and showing them in what manner 
they were to make their attack. These youths, upon 
approaching the palace, fell to abusing each other, 
as if they had received some injury, and even pro- 
ceeded to blows, while both with a loud voice implored 
the king's assistance ; and many of their accomplices, 
ostensibly rustics, were present, taking part with 
one or the other of them in his grievance and 
giving testimony in his favour. When the king 
ordered them to be brought before him and com- 
manded them to inform him of the subject of 
their quarrel, they pretended their dispute was about 
some goats, and both of them bawling at the same 



• 8e Reiske : re 0. 



261 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTadaivofievoL tov dypiov rpOTTOv /cat firjOep 
€1? TO TTpdyixa Xdyovres ttoXvv iKivrjaav i^ 
aTTavTcov yeXcoTa. a>? 8' e/c tov KaTacfjpovetadai. 
Kaipov eSofav eiArj^eVai ttjs €TTL)(etp-qG€(jos ^ tov 
eTTiT-qSeiov, (f)€pov(JL /cara ttjs /ce^aA"^? tov 
jSaaiAecos" nXrjyds tois BpeTrdvois koI tovto Trpd^av- 
T€s €(f)evyov e^co Qvpcbv. Kpavyrjs 8e yevofxevrjs 
em TO) ndOei Kal ^orjdeias TToXXaxodev avv- 
hpafxovaris ^ ov SvvrjdcvTes hia^vyelv auX- 
XapL^dvovTai vpos tcov eTTihioi^dvTcov , koX ficTa 
TOVTO PaadvoLS KaTaiKLoOevTes Kal tovs dpx'q- 
yovs TTJs iTTL^ovXrjs dvayKaadevTes etTretv ttjs 
7Tpoa7]Kovar]s Tifjucopias erv^ov avv xpovo).^ 

^ inix^ipT^aecos B : imdia^ws R. 

* KOX PoT)9eias iroXXaxoOev avvSpafiovcrqs B : Kal avv8pafiovai)s 
noXXijs Por]delas R. 

3 There follow in the MSS. the first three lines of Book 
IV {^aaiXevs . . • reXivra), which are repeated at the be- 
ginning of the new book. Kiessling was the first editor to 
delete here. 



:2tjS3 



BOOK III. 73, 3-4 

time and gesticulating passionately, after the manner 
of rustics, without saying anything to the purpose, 
they provoked much laughter on the part of all. 
And when they thought that the derision which 
they were exciting offered the proper moment for 
putting their design into execution, they wounded 
the king on the head with their billhooks, after 
which they endeavoured to escape out of doors. But 
when an outcry was raised at this calamity and 
assistance came from many sides, they were unable 
to make their escape and were seized by those who had 
pursued them; and later, after being put to the 
torture and forced to name the authors of the con- 
spiracy, they at length met with the punishment they 
deserved.^ 

* See the critical note. 



263 



AIONY2IOY 

AAIKAPNASEnS 
PHMAIKHS APXAIOAOriAS 

AOrOS TETAPTOS 

I. BaatAeu? fjLev Sr) ^ TapKvvLos ov {iiKpcov 
ouS' oXiycDV 'PojaaioLS ayaOcbv oItlos yevouevos, 
OKTO) Kai rpiaKovra err] ttjv ap^-qv Karaar^oju 
ovTOi TeAeuTct vloivovs ^ re hvo KaraXiTTOiv 
V7]TTvovs /cat hvo Ovyarepas avSpdaiv rj^rj avvoiKov- 
aas. 8idSoxos Se Ti]s rjyepLovias 6 ya/x^pos 
avTov yiverai TuAAtoj eviavrcp rerdprq) rrjs 
TTevTrjKoarrjs oXvfnndSos, t]v ivLKa ardSLov 'Etti- 
tcAiSt^S" AdKOJv, dp)^ovTOS ^ AdijvrjaLV * Apx^orpari- 
hov irepl oS Kaipos rjSr] XeyeLV, d kot dp^ds 
TTapeXcTTOfiev, e^ cov re yoveojv e<j>v koI rivas 
aTTeSei^aro irpd^eis ISicorr^s d)v ert /cat Trplv 
2 CTTt rrjv Swaareiav TrapeXdeiu. ret fxev ovv 
nept Tov yevovs avrov Xeyo/xeva, ols ixdXiaT 
eyuyye avyKararlde^ai, roiavr eariv. iv Kopvi- 
KoXo) TToXei TOV AaTLvojv cdvovs dirqp tls €K tov 
^aaiXeiov yivovs TwAAto? ovofxa yvvaiKc avvrjv 

1 fih 8r,B: 8« A. 
* vicjvovs Casaubon : vlovs 0. 
264 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

BOOK IV 

I. King Tarquinius/ accordingly, who had conferred 
not a few important benefits upon the Romans, 
died in the manner I have mentioned, after holding 
the sovereignty for thirty-eight years, leaving two 
grandsons who were infants and two daughters 
already married. His son-in-law Tullius succeeded 
him in the sovereignty in the fourth year of the 
fiftieth Olympiad ^ (the one in which Epitelides, a 
Lacedaemonian, won the short-distance foot-race), 
Archestratides being archon at Athens. It is now 
the proper time to mention those particulars relating 
to Tullius which we at first omitted,^ namely, who 
his parents were and what deeds he performed while 
he was yet a private citizen, before his accession to 
the sovereignty. Concerning his family, then, the 
account with which I can best agree is this : There 
lived at Corniculum, a city of the Latin nation, a 
man of the royal family named Tullius, who was 



1 For chapa. 1 f. c/. Livy i. 39. 
» 676 B.C. » See ill. 65, 6. 



265 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

O/cptata KaXXiarrj re Kat acjO(f)pov€aTdrr) rcov iv 
KopvLKoXcp ywaiKcov. avros fxev ovv 6 TuAAto?, 
od 7] TToAi? V7t6 'VcofjLaioiv KaTeXajji^dvero, 
IJ,ax6fX€Vos dTToOvrjOKet, ttjv S' '0/cptcrtai' iyKV- 
fxova ovaav i^aiperov ck tcov Xacfivpcov Xap,- 
^av€L TapKvvLos 6 ^aaiXevs koI SiScoat Bcopedv 
rfj iavTov yvvaiKL. [xaOovaa 8' €K€Lvr] Trdvra rd 

TTept T7]V dv6pa>7TOV OV TToXXoLS ^^^jOOV'OtS" VGTepOV 

iXevdepav avrrjv d(f}L7](n /cat Traacov fxdXtaTa 
yvvaLKcJov daTra^ofxem] re koI Tcp-coaa SieTeXeaev. 
3 e/c rauTTj? yiverai ttjs 'OK/aicrias" en SovXevovcrrjs 
TTaiBiov, J) TideraL rpa^evri rj p,rir7]p to p-kv 
Ihiov re /cat avyyeviKov 6vop,a TuAAtoi' cttI rod 
Tvarpos, ro 8e koivov /cat tt poorly opiKov Hepoviov 
€Tn rrjs tSta? rv^ris, on SovXevovaa ereKev avrov. 
eirj 8 ar o Zepouio? etj rrjv * EAAt^vi/ct^v SiaAe/CTOV 
jLtera^t^a^o/xero? 8oi;Ato?. 

II (Deperat 8e rts" iv rat? e7ri;^a>ptois' ava- 
ypa(f>ais Kat ^ erepos vTrep rrjs yeveaecus avrov 
Xoyog CTTt ro p^vOajSes i^aipojv rd irepl avrov, 
OV €v 77oAAat? 'Pco/Ltal/cats' laropiais €vpop,€v, el 
deols T€ /cat haipboai Xeyeadai <f)CXos,^ roiovros 
TiS"^ drro rrjs earias rcbv ^aoLXelajv,^ €(j>' ^'s dXXas 
T€ Pco/Ltatot avvreXovaiv lepovpyias /cat rds 
a-no rajv beiTTVojv d7Tap)(d? dyii^ovcnv, VTrep rov 
TTvpos avaa^etv Xeyovaiv aiBoLov dvSpos- rovro 
8e dedaaadai rrjv 'O/cptai'ai' Trpcvrrjv (j)4povaav 
rovs eloidora? neXdvovs ctti ro nvp Kal avriKa 

* KOL added by Kiessling. 

* 4>l\ov Steph.* 

^ ToiouTo? Tis Steph. : roiovroai ris A, toioutos" airices -Bb, 
Jacoby ; (ii'Aos iarlv toiovtos Biicheler, 

266 



BOOK IV. 1, 2-2, 1 

married to Ocrisia, a woman far excelling all the other 
women in Corniculum in both beauty and modesty. 
When this city was taken by the Romans, Tullius 
himself was slain while fighting, and Ocrisia, then with 
child, was selected from the spoils and taken by 
King Tarquinius, who gave her to his wife. She, 
having been informed of everything that related to 
this woman, freed her soon afterwards and continued 
to treat her with kindness and honour above all 
other women. While Ocrisia was yet a slave she bore 
a son, to whom, when he had left the nursery, she gave 
the name of Tullius, from his father, as his proper 
and family name, and also that of Servius as his 
common and first name, from her own condition, 
since she had been a slave when she had given birth 
to him. Servius, if translated into the Greek tongue, 
would be doulios or " servile." 

II. There is also current in the local records another 
story relating to his birth which raises the circimi- 
stances attending it to the realm of the fabulous, 
and we have found it in many Roman histories. 
This account — if it be pleasing to the gods and the 
lesser divinities that it be related — is somewhat as 
follows : They say that from the hearth in the palace, 
on which the Romans offer various other sacrifices 
and also consecrate the first portions of their meals, 
there rose up above the fire a man's privy member, and 
that Ocrisia was the first to see it as she was carrying 
the customary cakes to the fire, and immediately 

* Sylburg : PaaiXewv 0. 

267 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 npog rovs ^aaiXels iXdovaav elTreZv. rov jxev 
ovv TapKvviov aKovaavTo. re /cat fxera ravr 
IBoura TO repag iv davfjuari yevdadai, rrjv be 
TavaKvXiSa rd t' aAAa ao(f>r}v ovaav koX Stj Kal 
Ttt fjLavTiKa ovSevos ■)(eZpov Tvpprjvcov eTTiara- 
fxevTjv etTTeLV Trpos ainov on yevog airo rrjs 
earias rrjs ^aaiXeiov TreTrpcoTaL yeveadai Kpelrrov 
Tj Kara rrjv dvdpoirreiav (fyvcriv eV rrjs fJLtxdeicrrjg ru> 
^dafxart yvvauKos. rd 8' aura Kal roiv dXXcov 
reparocTKOTTCov d7TO(f)r]vafjLevojv So^at rep ^aaiXel 
rrjv '0/c/3icTtav, fj Trpcorr) e(f)dvr] ro repas, eis 
o/xiXtav avra> avveXdelv Kal jxera rovro rr]v 
yvvalKa KoapirjaaiJievrjv, ols edos earl KoapLeladai 
Tct? yapLovfjievag, KaraKXeLaOrjvaL pLovrjv el? rov 

3 OLKOV, ev & ro repas (x)<f)9r]. fxix^evros S-q rivos 
avrfj 9ecov -q Satfxovcov Kal [xerd rqv fil^iv d(f)avL- 
adevros, eW^ '}r[(f>aiarov, Kaddrrep otovrai rives, 
etre rov Kar oIkLov •qpcoos, iyKUfiova yeveadai 
Kal reKeiv rov TvXXiov ev rois Kadr^Kovai xP^^^is. 
rovro ro fivdevfjLa ov rrdw ri marov elvai hoKovv 
erepa ris iTTi(f)dveia deia yevop,evr] irepl rov 
dvbpa Oavfxaarrj Kal vapdSo^os rjrrov aTnareiadai 

4 TTOiei. KadrjfjLevov ydp TTor avrov fieaovarjs 
jjbdXiad^ r)ixepas ev ri] rraordSi rwv ^aaiXeicov ^ 
Kal Karevexddvrog e^' vttvov, TTvp aTreXapi^ev 
ttTTo ^ T7y? Ke(f)aX7Js avrov, rj re P'rirrjp avrov Kai 
7) rov ^aaiXecos yvvf) TTopevopievai Sid ri]g Traard- 
8o? eOedaavro Kal rrdvres oaoi avv rais yvvai^lv 
ervyxo-vov rore irapovres, Kal pt^expt rovrov 
Siefievev rj <f)X6^ oXrjv avrov KaraXdpLrrovaa 
TTjv Ke(f)aXr)v ecus rj fX'qrrjp TrpoaSpafiovaa Siav- 

^ Sylburg : PaaiXdotv O. 
268 



BOOK IV. 2, 2-4 

informed the king and queen of it. Tarquinius, they 
add, upon hearing this and later beholding the prodigy, 
was astonished ; but Tanaquil, who was not only 
wise in other matters but also inferior to none of 
the Tyrrhenians in her knowledge of divination, 
told him it was ordained by fate that from the royal 
hearth should issue a scion superior to the race of 
mortals, to be born of the woman who should con- 
ceive by that phantom. And the other soothsayers 
affirming the same thing, the king thought it fitting 
that Ocrisia, to whom the prodigy had first appeared, 
should have intercourse with it. Thereupon this 
woman, having adorned herself as brides are usually 
adorned, was shut up alone in the room in which the 
prodigy had been seen. And one of the gods or lesser 
divinities, whether Vulcan, as some think, or the 
tutelary deity of the house,^ having had intercourse 
with her and afterwards disappearing, she con- 
ceived and was delivered of Tullius at the proper 
time. This fabulous account, although it seems not 
altogether credible, is rendered less incredible by 
reason of another manifestation of the gods relating 
to Tullius which was wonderful and extraordinary. 
For when he had fallen asleep one day while sitting 
in the portico of the palace about noon, a fire shone 
forth from his head. This was seen by his mother 
and by the king's wife, as they were walking through 
the portico, as well as by all who happened to be 
present with them at the time. The flame continued 
to illumine his whole head till his mother ran to him 

^ The lar familiaris. 



* dno Gelenius : int O, Jacoby. 

269 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

earrjaev avrov /cai rj <f>X6^ a/xa rip vttvo) 8ia- 
aKehaadelaa rj(f>avLadr] . ra [xev 817 Trepi rov 
yevovs avrov Aeyo/>ceva roiavr' iariv. 

III. "A 8e TTpo rov ^aaiXevaai SiCTTpd^aro 
Xoyov d^t-a, i^ Sv TapKvvLos r avrov rjydad-q Kal 
6 *Pa)/u.atajv Sij/xos rrjs fxerd ^aaiXia riyi.rjs 
Tj^iov, TotaSe. at'TiTrats' ^ fiev cov erL rfj TTpcorrj 
arpareia, riv enl Tvpprjvovs TapKvvtos icrrpd- 
revaev, ev rots iTnTevai rerayfievos ovrcos eSo^ev 
dycovtaaadai KaXcos cocttc Trepi^orjros evdvs yeve- 
adai Kol ra dpiareta irpcbros dnavrcov Xa^elv 
CTrei^' irepas yevopbivqs ^ttI ro avro edvos arpa- 
reias /cat P'dx^s Kaprepds irepl ttoXiv "Uprjrov 
dvBpeLoraros dirdprajv (jyavel? crrecfidvois av6i,s 

2 dptareCois vtto rov jSacrtAeca? ^KoapLelro. err) 8e 
yeyovojs elKoai fxdXt,ara rrjs cry/x/xa;(tK7ys" arparrj- 
yog aTTeBeLxOrj Swdfiecos, rjv AarlvoL CTTefn/jav, 
Kal avyKarcKriqaaro ^aaiXel TapKvvico rriv rcbv 
Tvpprjvajv dpx'rjv' ev re rco irpos Ha^Lvovs TToXefxo) 
ra> TTpcorcp avardvri rcbv iTnreoiv aTTOoetxd^ls 
riyepLUiv irpeifiaTO rovs rcov TToXepiioiV LTTrreZg Kai 
fJiexpi- TToXecos ^Avrefivrjs eXdaas ra apiarela Kai 
€/c ravrrjs rijs P'dxf]^ eXa^ev irepas re ttoXXols 
TTpos ro avro edvos dycovLodpievos fidxas, rore p.ev 
liTTTeajv r^yovpLevos , rore he rrel^cov, ev airaaaLS 
i(f>dvr] iJjvx'Tjv dptaros /cat vpwros iarecfyavovro 

3 rcov dXXcov. /cat eTrctSr) Trapearrj 'Pa)/xatots' 
els VTTora^Lv re /cat rrapdhoaiv rwv TToXecov ro 
edvos, alricoraros etvai So^a? TapKvvla) /cat 
ravrrjs rrjs Swaareias rols emvLKLois are^dvoLS 
dveheZro utt' avrov. ^v he Kai <l)povrjaai ra 

' at^riirais B : irals R. 
270 



BOOK IV. 2, 4-3, 3 

and wakened him ; and with the ending of his sleep 
the flame was dispersed and vanished. Such are 
the accounts that are given of his birth. 

III. The memorable actions he performed before 
becoming king, in consideration of which Tarquinius 
admired him and the Roman people honoured him 
next to the king, are these : When, scarcely more 
than a boy as yet, he was serving in the cavalry in the 
first campaign that Tarquinius undertook against the 
Tyrrhenians, he was thought to have fought so splen- 
didly that he straightway became famous and received 
the prize of valour ahead of all others. Afterwards, 
when another expedition was undertaken against the 
same nation and a sharp battle was fought near the 
city of Eretum, he showed himself the bravest of all 
and was again crowned by the king as first in valour. 
And when he was about twenty years old he was 
appointed to command the auxiliary forces sent by 
the Latins, and assisted King Tarquinius in obtaining 
the sovereignty over the Tyrrhenians. In the first 
war that arose against the Sabines, being general 
of the horse, he put to flight that of the enemy, 
pursuing them as far as the city of Antemnae, and 
again received the prize of valour because of this 
battle. He also took part in many other engage- 
ments against the same nation, sometimes command- 
ing the horse and sometimes the foot, in all of which 
he showed himself a man of the greatest courage 
and was always the first to be crowned ahead of the 
others. And when that nation came to surrender 
themselves and deliver up their cities to the Romans, 
he was regarded by Tarquinius as the chief cause of 
his gaining this dominion also, and was crowned by 
him with the victor's crown. Moreover, he not only 

371 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToAtrt/ca avv€T(x)TaTos /cat Aoyoi ra ^ovXevOdvra 
€^€V€yK€iv ovSevos x^^P^^ OLTrdaats d^ dpfioaai raXs 
rvxP'i'S Koi TTavTL avve^oixoLcodrjvai 7Tpocra)TT(o ^ bvva- 

4 Twraros. /cat Sict ravra 'Paj/tatot /xei/ avrov ck 
Tov hrjixov ixerayayelv rj^tcoaav eiV rovs TrarpiKtovs 
tprj(f>ov itreveyKavTes, ajairep TapKvviov re TTporepov 
Kal ert irpo tovtov Nofiav UopLTriXiov 6 8e 
^aaiXevs Krjhearrjv eTTOi-qaaTO rr)v irepav tcov 
dvyarepcxiv eyyvqaas, Kal Trdvd* oaa, hid voaovs 
7] hid yrjpas dhvvaros rjv emreXeiv hi iavrov, 
Tovru) Trparreiv eTreaKrjTTrev, ov fxovov tov iStov 
OLKov eTTLrpiiTCov, oAAa koI rd KOivd ttjs voXeojs 
SioiKciv d^Lcov. iv of? diraaLV i^rjrdadrj ttiotos 
Kai hiKdios, Kal ovSev <aovTO 8ia(f)epeiv ol Si^/iorai 
lapKvviov eTnixeXetadai rcov kolvcov rj TvXXiov 
ovTOJS i^edepaTTevdrjaav utt' avrov rat? evepye- 
aiats. 

IV. ^vaecos re St) fiereiXrjcfxhs dTTOXP<J^vr(DS 
KaTeaKevaajxevrjs irpos rfyefiovlav ovros 6 dvrjp 
Kal rds TTapd rrjs rvxr]S TroAAa? Kal fieydXas 
iaxrjKOJs d(f>opfjids, eVetSi) reXevrrjaai avve^r) 
TapKvvLov imPovXevdevra vtto tcov "AyKov 
MapKiov TTaihcov dvaacoaaadai ttjv tov irarpos 
o.px^v PovXo[jLeva)v, d)s iv to) npo tovtov Se- 
SijXcoKa Xoyo), Sofa? vtto tu>v Trpayp-aTcov avTcov 
€7TL rqv ^acnXelav KaXeZadai, hpaar-qpios dvrjp 

2 ovK a(l)rJK€v e/c tcov ;)^eipa;v tov Kaipov. rj 8e 
avyKaraoKevdcracra tyjv -qyefiovLav avTcp Kal TvdvTOiv 
atVta yevopiivr) tcov dyadcov rj tov TCTeXevTrj- 

^ npoawTKo Bb : rpontp ABa, 

^ For chaps. 4 f. c/. Livy i. 41. * iii. 72 f. 

272 



BOOK IV. 3, 3-4, 2 

had the shrewdest understanding of public affairs, 
but was inferior to none in his ability to express his 
plans ; and he possessed in an eminent degree the 
power of accommodating himself to every circum- 
stance of fortune and to every kind of person. 
Because of these accomplishments the Romans 
thought proper to transfer him by their votes from 
the plebeian to the patrician order, an honour they 
had previously conferred on Tarquinius and, still 
earlier, on Numa Pompilius. The king also made him 
his son-in-law, giving him one of his two daughters 
in marriage, and whatever business his infirmities or 
his age rendered him incapable of performing by 
himself, he ordered Tullius to transact, not only 
entrusting to him the private interests of his own 
family, but also asking him to manage the public 
business of the commonwealth. In all these employ- 
ments he was found faithful and just, and the 
people felt that it made no difference whether it 
was Tarquinius or Tullius who looked after the 
public affairs, so effectually had he won them to 
himself by the services he had rendered to them. 

IV. This man,i therefore, being endowed with a 
nature adequately equipped for command and also 
supplied by Fortune with many great oppor- 
tunities for attaining it, believed, when Tarquinius 
died by the treachery of the sons of Ancus Marcius, 
who desired to recover their father's kingdom, as I 
have related in the preceding book,^ that he was 
called to the kingship by the very course of events 
and so, being a man of action, he did not let the 
opportunity slip from his grasp. The person who 
helped him to seize possession of the supreme power 
and the author of all his good fortune was the wife 

273 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KOTOS ^aanXecos "^v yvvrj, yaix^pco re cruAAaju.- 
^avovaa i8ta> /cat e'/c ttoXXwv avveyvcoKvla 6ea~ 
(JxiTcov or I, ^aacXevaai 'PcofiaLCJv CKeZvov tov 
avhpa elfxapTo. erv^e 8' avrfj veavias" fJiev 
VLOS ov 77/30 TToXXov TereXevTTjKchs xpovov, TraiSta 

3 8' €^ CKelvov 8vo vrjiTia /caraAetTro/xeva. eV- 
dvfxovp,€inf] 8e rr)v rrepi tov olkov iprjfiLav koI 
TrepiSerjs ovaa pur] KaraaxovTes ol MdpKioi t7)v 
apxTjv dpojvTat to. iraihia koI Trdaav t7]v ^aaiXLKrjv 
avyyeveiav a^aviainaL, TrpcoTOv p,kv eVeVafe ray 
TU)v ^aaiXeiajv dvpas /cAetaai ^ koI ^uAa/ca? in* 
avTois €7TeaTrj(j€ BtaKeXevaapievr) p/qheva Trapiivai, 
p-TjTe eaoi p.T]Te efac e-neiT e'/c tov Sajp-arlov 
iravTas i^eXdelv KeXevaaaa tovs dXXovs, ev a> tov 
TapKvvtov TjpLiOvrjra edecrav, ttjv S' 'O/c/jictiW /cat 
TOV TvXXlov /cat TTjv dvyaTepa ttjv axxvoiKovaav 
T<5 TuAAtoj Karacrxovaa /cat rd TratSta vtto tojv 
Tpo(j)U)v ivexdrjvai KcXevaaaa Xeyei Trpos avTOVs' 

4 " TapKvviog pkv -qpilv 6 ^aaiXevs, c5 TuAAte, 
Trap d) Tpo(f)rjg /cat 7rat8eias' eTVx^S, diravTajv 
[xaXtOTa ae TipLijaas (fiiXcjv koX avyyevojv dvoaia 
iraudjv eKTreTrX'jpcoKe rrjv iavTOv pLoXpav ovt€ 
TTept, TOiv ISicov TTpaypLOLTaiv SiaOepievos ovSev 
OVTC TTepL TOJV Kotvcov /Cat ttoXltlkcov eTnoK-qifjas, 
oAA oi)S' daTrdoaadai Tiva rjpcov /cat ^ irpoa^ 
ayopevaat, Tovg iaxdrovs doTraapLOvs SvvrjdiLs. 
eprjpa Se /cat 6p<f)avd ret hvaTTjva tovtI TratSta 
/caTaAet77€Tat Kivhvvov ov tov iXdx'-O'Tov vnep 
rrjs ipvxrjs Tpexovra- el yap eVt Map/ciotj rots- 
aveXovcri tov TrdTnrov ayTcSr Ta ttjs TroXeojs 
earat TTpaypLOTa tov oIktiotov diroXovvTai Tpoirov 

^ inira^e , , . KXflaau, B : l/cAetae (omitting cWra^e) R. 
274 



BOOK IV. 4, 2-4 

of the deceased king, who aided him both because 
he was her son-in-law and also because she knew 
from many oracles that it was ordained by fate that 
this man should be king of the Romans. It chanced 
that her son, a youth, had died shortly before and 
that two infant sons were left by him. She, there- 
fore, reflecting on the desolation of her house and 
being under the greatest apprehension lest, if the 
sons of Marcius possessed themselves of the 
sovereignty, they should destroy these infants and 
extirpate all the royal family, first commanded that 
the gates of the palace should be shut and guards 
stationed there with orders to allow no one to pass 
either in or out. Then, ordering all the rest to leave 
the room in which they had laid Tarquinius when he 
was at the point of death, she detained Ocrisia, 
Tullius and her daughter who was married to Tullius, 
and after ordering the children to be brought by 
their nurses, she spoke to them as follows : 

" Our king Tarquinius, in whose home you received 
your nurture and training, Tullius, and who honoured 
you above all his friends and relations, has finished 
his destined course, the victim of an impious crime, 
without having either made any disposition by will 
of his private interests or left injunctions concerning 
the public business of the commonwealth, and without 
having had it in his power even to embrace any of us 
and utter his last farewells. And these unhappy 
children here are left destitute and orphaned and in 
imminent danger of their lives. For if the power 
falls into the hands of the Marcii, the murderers of 
their grandfather, they will be put to death by them 

* KOI B : ovbe R. 

275 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

VTT avTiDV earai o ^ ovo v/xlv aacpaArjg o ptog, 
ofs" iveyvrjcre TapKvvLos ra? eavrov dvyarepag 

€K€tVOVS VTTepidcLv, ioLV ol <f)OV€VCraVT€S aVTOV TTjV 

OLpx'Tjv KaTdcrxoj(nv, ovSe rots aAAois' avrov 
^iXocs Kal avyyeveuLv ouS' i^/xtv rats ddXtais 
yvvai^iv aXXd TTavras rapids (f)avepd)s re Kal 

5 Kpv(f)a TTeipdaovrai hioXiaat. ravr ovv ivdvptov- 
pLevovs rjP'ds Set pir) Ttepiopdv rovs eKelvov 
dnoKreivavras dvSpas dvoaiovs /cat irdatv rjpuv 
i^dpovs roaavrrjv dp)(r]v Krrjaapievovs , dXX ivav- 
riovadai Kal KcoXveiv, vvv puev andrj] Kal SdAoj 
Xpf]<ycLP'€vovs (rovrojv yap iv rep napovrL Set), 
orav Se rd Trpcora rjpuv x^PV^T] Kara vovv, rore 
Kal e/c rod (fyavepov Trdar] bvvapLct, /cat pted 
ottXcov avrols 6p.6a€ ;)^a»/3owTas", idv dpa Kal 
rovrcov Ser^. dAA' ov Se'qaei ^ PovXrjdevrwv 

6 TjpidJv TTpdrreiv vvv d Set. rtVa Se ravr iari ; 
irpcorov pikv KpvnrwpieOa rov rov ^aaiXecos 
ddvarov, Kal npos dnavras e^evexd'fjvai. irapa- 
(TKevdacopLev on TrX-qyr^v ovhep-iav e^^i- Kaipiov, 
ol r larpol Xeyercoaav iv oXiyais 'qp-epais avrov 
dTToBei^eiv vyirj' cTreiT eyd) TrpoeXdovaa eis" 
rovpL(j>aves cpw Trpos rov oxXov, cus St^ TapKvviov 
piOL rain' eiTTclv eTTLaKrji/javros, on Travrcov 
dTToSeLKvvaiv €7np,€Xr]rriv Kal (f)vXaKa rcov r 
Ihioiv /cat rcx)v kolvcov, ecos avros e/c rdjv rpav- 
p,dru)v vytrjs yevrjrai, rov erepov rcov eavrov 
yapL^pcov, ro aov elrtovaa, <L TuAAte, 6vop,a' 
earai S' ovk aKovai 'PcvpLaLOis, oAAa ^ovXopLevois 
VTTO aov rrjv ttoXlv emrpoTreveadai, vcf) ov TToXXd- 

7 KLS TJBr] Kal TTporepov eTTerpoirevdr], orav he 
rov Ttapovra kCv^vvov StaCT/ceSctaoj/xev {ovSev yap 
276 



BOOK IV. 4, 4-7 

in the most piteous manner. Even the lives of you 
men, to whom Tarquinius gave his daughters in 
preference to them, will not be safe, should his 
murderers obtain the sovereignty, any more than the 
lives of the rest of his friends and relations or of us 
miserable women ; but they will endeavour to destroy 
us all both openly and secretly. Bearing all this 
in mind, then, we must not permit the wicked 
murderers of Tarquinius and the enemies of us all 
to obtain so great power, but must oppose and prevent 
them, now by craft and deceit, since these means 
are necessary at present, but when our first attempt 
has succeeded, then coming to grips with them 
openly with all our might and with arms, if those 
too shall be necessary. But they will not be neces- 
sary if we are willing to take the proper measures now. 
And what are these measures ? Let us, in the first 
place, conceal the king's death and cause a report to 
be spread among all the people that he has received 
no mortal wound, and let the physicians state that 
in a few days they will show him safe and sound. 
Then I will appear in public and will announce 
to the people, as if Tarquinius had so enjoined, 
that he has committed to one of his two sons- 
in-law (naming you, Tullius) the care and guardian- 
ship both of his private interests and of the 
public business till he is recovered of his wounds ; 
and the Romans, far from being displeased, will 
be glad to see the state administered by you, who 
often have administered it already in the past. 
Then, when we have averted the present danger — 



^ 8c Pflugk : TC 0, y Jacoby. 
* dAA' oi Se^aet BC : om. R. 



277 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€Ti rGiv lyQpGiv layypov eon t,7\v rod jSaatAe'co? 
ayyeAAo/xeVou ), TrapaXa^oiv av rds re pd^Sovs 
Kttt rrjv Tcov ottXojv i^ovaiav AcaAei rovs ^ovXev- 
aavras OLTTOKrelvai TapKvviov cttI top hrjfiov 
arro rcov MapKLov TTaiScov dp^d[Ji€vos Kal Trpodeg 
avToXs St/cas" Tip.o}prjcrd[X€Vos 8e rovrovs aTTavra?, 
eav jxev viropieivojcri rds Kpiaeis, Bavdrois, idv 
8 eprjpLovs d(f>a)aLv, o fidXXov avrovs olpiai TTOL'q- 
aeiv, aet^uyia /cat hrjpLevcrei rcov VTrapxovrcov , 
Kadiaraao tJSt} rd Trepl rrjv dpxrjv ojuiAtats re 
<f)LXavdpa>TTOis ro TrXrjdos dvaXafx^dvcov Kal rod 
IXT]8ev dSiKYjiJia yeviadai ttoXXtjv e;^cov (f>povrL8a 
Kai rovs aTTopovs rojv ttoXltcov evepyeataig rial 
Kal ScopeaXs VTrayopievos' evret^' orav rjpXv Kaipos 
etvat 8oKfj, rore Xeycofxev dTToredvriKevai Tap- 
Kvviov Kal ra(f)ds avrov voLcbfxev dTTo rov (f)av€pov. 
8 BiKaios S' et, TyAAte, rpa^ets' ^' V(f)* rjp,a>v Kal 
TTaiSevdels Kal Trdvrojv p,€r€a)(r]Kd)s dyadojv 
oacov Trapd fxrjrpos re /cat irarpos viol fieraXap,- 
^dvovai, Kal dvyarpl avvoiKcJov rjnercpa, idv St) 
/cat ^aaiXevs ert yevrf 'PcojuatcDr epiov /cat els 
rovro aoi avvaycovLaafxevrjs , Ttarpos evvoiav rois 
TraiStots' TOtcrSe 7Tapacr;^€CT0af orav 8' els dvSpas 
eXdojai Kal rd Koivd rrpdrreiv IkovoI yevcovrai, 
rov TTpea^vrepov avrcov dnoSel^ai 'Pojixalcov 
^ye/xova." 

V. Taur' eliTOvaa Kal rdjv TTaihicov eKarepov 
els rds dyKoXas efx^aXovcra rov re yap-^pov /cat 
rrjs dvyarpos Kal ttoXvv e^ dyi(j)orepcov Kivijoaaa 
olKrov, eTTeiBrj Kaipos rjv, e^rjXdev e/c rov 8ojp,ariov 
Kal TTap-qyyeiXe rots evBov evrpeTrfj rd rrpos rrjv 
deparreiav eVixT^Seta TToielv Kal rovs larpovs 
278 



BOOK IV. 4, 7-5, 1 

for the power of our enemies will be at an end the 
moment the king is reported to be alive — do you 
assume the rods and the military power and summon 
before the people those who formed the plot to 
assassinate Tarquinius, beginning with the sons of 
Marcius, and cause them to stand trial. After you 
have punished all these, with death, if they submit 
to be tried, or with perpetual banishment and the 
confiscation of their estates, if they let their case go 
by default, which I think they will be more apt to do, 
then at last set about establishing your government. 
Win the affections of the people by kindly affability, 
take great care that no injustice be committed, and 
gain the favour of the poorer citizens by sundry 
benefactions and gifts. Afterwards, when we see a 
proper time, let us announce that Tarquinius is dead 
and hold a public funeral for him. And as for you, 
Tullius, if you,who have been brought up and educated 
by us, have partaken of every advantage that sons 
receive from their mother and father, and are married 
to our daughter, shall in addition actually become 
king of the Romans, it is but just, since I helped to 
win this also for you, that you should show all the 
kindness of a father to these little children, and when 
they come to manhood and are capable of handling 
public affairs, that you should appoint the elder to 
be leader of the Romans." 

V. With these words she thrust each of the children 
in turn into the arms of both her son-in-law and her 
daughter and roused great compassion in them both ; 
then, when it was the proper time, she went out of 
the room and ordered the servants to get everything 
ready for dressing the king's wounds and to call the 



279 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

crvyKoXeLV. SiaXnrovaa Se rrjv jxera^v vvKra 
rfj KaroTTiv 'rjfJ'^pa ttoXXov vpos ra ^aatXeia 
avvSpafjLovTos ox^ov TrporjXdev etV rovp.(j>av€s 
rats dvpioLV eTnardaa rai? (ftepovaais ^ els rov 
TTpo rojv dvpajv arewtoTTOv, /cai Trpcorov fxev 
eSt^Xcoae tols rrapovai roiis ^ovXevaavras eirl tco 
jSttCTtAet rov (f)6vov, /cat tovs em rovpyov aTTOora- 

2 Xevras vtt* avrcov SeSefxevovs Trap-^yayev cttci^' 
(vs efSe TToXXovs oXocjivpoixevovs re to Trddog /cat 
Tot? SeSpa/cocrtv drrex^ofidvovs, reXevrcoaa clTjev 
ovSev avTols e/c rd)v dvoaCcov iTTi^ovXevfJidTcov 
yeyovivai ov hvvrjdeiaiv dTTOKretvai TapKvviov. 
ayaTTrjTcjjs 8e tov Xoyov dTrdvTOiv he^ajxevcov t6t€ 
rov TwAAtot' avrois avviarrjaiv cos v-no rov 
paaiXecjs eTTtrpoirov andvrcov rwv r ISlcov Kal 
rcov Koiva>v dTToSeiKvvfxevov, ea>? avrog patcrrj. 

3 o fJicv ovv SrjpLos cxTri^et Trept^^api^? yevofxevos el 
firjSev TTeiTovdev 6 ^aaiXevs heivov, /cat p-expf' 
TToXXov rrjv So^av excov ravrrjv StereAei. o Se 
TuAAios" Ictxvpdv x^^P^ TTepl avTov exojv /cat rovs 
pa^Sovxovs eTTayojxevos rovs ^aaiXiKovs TrporjXdev 
els rrjv dyopdv /cat rovs MapKLOvs eKi^pvrTev 
TjKeiv v<j>e^ovras Blktjv d)s S' ovx vtttJkovov, 
eiTLKiqpv^as avroXs aiSiovs (f>vyds /cat ra? ovalas 
avaXa^d)v els ro hrjpioaiov da<^aXa)s rj^-q rrjv 
TapKvvLov Karelxev dpxi]v. 

VI, BoJAo^at S' einarrjaas rov e^rjs Xoyov 
anoSovvai rds alrias St' a? ovre ^a^ico avyKar- 
edefjLTjv ovre rols oXXols IcrropiKols, oaoi ypd(f)ovaiv 
viovs etvai rovs KaraX€t.(f)devr as TratSa? vtto 
TapKVviov, Iva p/q nves rcov eKeivats evrvxdvruiv 

^ (f>tpovaai,s : pXenovaais Cobet. 
280 



BOOK IV. 5, 1-6, 1 

physicians. And letting that night pass, the next 
day, when the people flocked in great numbers to 
the palace, she appeared at the windows that gave 
upon the narrow street before the gates and first 
informed them who the persons were who had 
plotted the murder of the king, and produced in 
chains those whom they had sent to commit the deed. 
Then, finding that many lamented the calamity and 
were angry at the authors of it, she at last told them 
that these men had gained naught from their wicked 
designs, since they had not been able to kill Tar- 
quinius. This statement being received with uni- 
versal joy, she then commended Tullius to them as 
the person appointed by the king to be the guardian 
of all his interests, both private and public, till he 
himself recovered. The people, therefore, went away 
greatly rejoicing, in the belief that the king had 
suffered no fatal injury, and continued for a long 
time in that opinion. Afterwards Tullius, attended 
by a strong body of men and taking along the king's 
lictors, went to the Forum and caused proclamation 
to be made for the Marcii to appear and stand trial ; 
and upon their failure to obey, he pronounced 
sentence of perpetual banishment against them, 
and having confiscated their property, he was 
now in secure possession of the sovereignty of 
Tarquinius. 

VI. I ^ shall interrupt the narration of what follows 
that I may give the reasons which have induced me 
to disagree with Fabius and the rest of the historians 
who affirm that the children left by Tarquinius were 
his sons, to the end that none who have read those 

^ For chaps. 6 f. c/. Livy i. 46, 4. 

281 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tat? Laropiais a)(€Sidt,€iv jxe VTroXd^coaiv ov)( 
vlovs aAA' vlwvovs avrov ypdcjiovTa rovs TraiSas. 
TravraTTaat yap anepLcrKeTrrcos Kal paOvixcos ol 
avyypa<f)€Zs nepl ^ avrcbv ravrriv i^evrivoyctaL 
Ty\v LOTopiav ovoev egrjTaKore? rcov avaLpovvrajv 
avT7]v dhvvdrcxiv re koI droTTCov wv eKaarov 
cyo) TTeipaaofxaL iroirjaai (f>avep6v 8t' oXlyojv. 

2 TapKvvLos e/c Tvpp-qvias fxeravLararai top olkov 
oXov dvaaK€vaadfjL€vos €v rfj KpaTLarrj rov (f)pov€iv 
V7Tdp-)(0}v rjXiKLa. iroXiTeveadai yap rjhr] /cat 
apx^iv Kal rd Koivd rrpdrreLV d^icbv TrapaSiSorat, 
/cat TTjv aTTapaiv eKeldev 7T€7TOL7]fi€vos 8td to p/r]he- 

3 /Ata? eV rfj TroAet rifjLTJs fieraXafx^dveiv . erepos 
fxev ovv dv ris avrov vnedero ^ Kal rpiaKoarov 
eras e^ovra rovXd)(^Larov , or aTrrjpev e/c Tvpprj- 
vias' aTTO ^ ravr-qs ydp ol vofiot rrjs rjXiKias 
KaXovaiv * CO? cttI ro ttoXv rovs dp-)(eiv re Kal 
TTpdrreiv ^ovXop-evovs rd Koivd' iyoi 8* eri 
vecorepov avrov VTroridepiai rrevre oAot? ereai, Kal 
TTOLcb Kara rd Tre/XTrrov Kal eiKoardv eros dirav- 
Lard[xevov. Kal jxrjv on yvvaiKa TvpprjviSa eir- 
Tjydyero, rjv ^covros en rov irarpos eyrjfjbev, 
aTTOvres ofJioXoyovaiv ol rds 'Pcu/Ltai/ca? avy- 

4 ypdifjavres laropias. rrapayLverai 8' et? 'Pcofxrjv 
"AyKov MapKLOv ^aaiXevovros , to? fiev FeAAto? 
laropel, Kara rov jrpcorov eviavrdv rrjs jSacriAeia?, 
ct)? 8e At/ctWio? ypd(f)eL, Kara rov oySoov. earco 
817 /caret rovrov eX-qXvdcbs rov evtavrov Kad* 
ov ypd(f)€i AiKivvLos, Kal fxrj Trporepov ev varepcv 
fiev ydp OVK dv etrj XPovo) Trapayeyovcos, etye 

* irepl Steph." : om. AB. 
283 



BOOK IV. 6, 1-4 

histories may suspect that I am inventing when I call 
them his grandsons rather than his sons. For it is 
sheer heedlessness and indolence that has led these 
historians to publish that account of them without first 
examining any of the impossibilities and absurdities 
that are fatal to it. Each of these absurdities I will 
endeavour to point out in a few words. Tarquinius 
packed up and removed from Tyrrhenia with all his 
household at an age the most capable of reflection ; 
for it is reported that he already aspired to take part 
in public life, to hold magistracies and to handle 
public affairs, and that he removed from there 
because he was not allowed to share in any position 
of honour in the state. Anyone else, then, might 
have assumed that he was at least in his thirtieth 
year when he left Tyrrhenia, since it is from this 
age onwards, as a rule, that the laws call to the magis- 
tracies and to the administration of public affairs those 
who desire such a career; but I will suppose him 
five whole years younger than this and put him in 
his twenty-fifth year when he removed. Moreover, 
all the Roman historians agree that he brought with 
him a Tyrrhenian wife, whom he had married while 
his father was yet alive. He came to Rome in the 
first year of the reign of Ancus Marcius, as Gellius ^ 
writes, but according to Licinius,^ in the eighth 
year. Grant, then, that he came in the year Licinius 
states and not before; for he could not have come 

^ For these annalists see i. 7, 3 and note. 



^ VTTedero : vneOoiro Biicheler. 

' diTo : TTpo Prou. 

* KoXovaiv : KcuXvovaiv Prou. 

283 
VOL. II. ** K 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Brj Kara rov evarov iviavrov rrjs "AyKov Svva- 
areias iTTirecov 'qyoufxevos cttI tov irpog Aarcvovs 

TToXeiXOV VTTO TOV jSaCTlAcCOS" 7T€fX7T€TaL, (XJS d[Ji(f)6- 

repoL XeyovcTLV ol crvyypa<f)€LS- el 817 Trapeyevero 
p,kv els 'PcofXTjv ov TrAetof rcbv ttcvtc Kal exKoai 
yeyovcjs ircbv, "AyKco Se jSacriAet Kara rov oySoov 
rrjg o.px'fjs iviavrov <f>iXos yevofievos eTTTa/catSe/ca 
Sierpn/jev errj Trap' avro) ra Xoltto. {rerrapa yap 
€771 rots eiKoai ^e^aaiXevKev "AyKos), err] S' 
o/CTO) Kal rpLCLKOvra rrjv ^aaiXeiav Karea-)(ev 
avros, o)s drravres 6p.oXoyovaLV, oySorjKovraerrjs 
av -^v, or* ereXevra. eV yap rov avXXoyiapuov 

5 rayv er(x>v rovro avvdyerai ro ttXtjOos. r) yvvrj 
8' el ^ rrevre ereaiv rjv avrov vecorepa, Kaddnep 
eiKos, e^SofirjKoarov av S'qTTOv Kal irepLTTTOV el)(ev 
eras or aTredvrjaKe TapKvvios. el 817 rov 
vecorepov rojv vloJv ecrxo-Tov eKvrjaev eros e^pvaa 
rrevrrjKoarov {Trpoaajrepcj yap ovKeri KvtoKerai 
rovrov rov xpovov yvvq, dAA' eariv ovros avros ^ 
rcbv (LSlvcov 6 ^ opos, ois ol ravr e^rjraKores 
ypd(f)ovaLv), ovros fJ-ev ovv ovk dv eXdrrco yeyovcos 
rjv erdJv irevre Kal e'lKoai Kara rov rov Trarpos 
ddvarov, 6 he AevKLOs 6 irpea^vrepos ov jxelcov 
errraKaietKoaLerovs'^ ovk dpa vrjTrlovs KareXnrev 
vlovs 6 TapKvvLos eK ravrrjs yeyovoras rrjs 

6 yvvaiKos. dXXd fxrjv evy dvBpcbv -qXiKiav etxov 
ol TTalSes od* 6 irarrip avrcbv drredvrjaKev, ovr 
dv rj [XT^rrjp avrwv ovrcos "^v ddXla Kal deo^Xa^rjs 
oicsr d^aipelaQai fiev rcov eavrrjs reKvcov rjv 
KareXnrev avrols d Trarrjp dpx^^v, rep 8' dXXorpio) 
Kal eK SovXrjs yeyovori ;^a/3t^€CT0at • ovr* dv avrol 

^ S' el Reiske : Sc 0. 
284 



BOOK IV. 6, 4-6 

after that time, since in the ninth year of the reign 
of Ancus he was sent by the king to command the 
cavalry in the war against the Latins, as both those 
historians state. Now, if he was not more than 
twenty-five years old when he came to Rome, and, 
having been received into the friendship of Ancus, 
who was then king, in the eighth year of his reign, 
lived with him the remaining seventeen years (for 
Ancus reigned twenty-four years), and if he himself 
reigned thirty-eight, as all agree, he must have been 
fourscore years old when he died ; for this is the sum 
obtained by adding up the years. If his wife was 
five years younger, as may well be supposed, she 
was presumably in her seventy-fifth year when 
Tarquinius died. Accordingly, if she conceived her 
second and last son when she was in her fiftieth year 
(for at a more advanced age a woman no longer 
conceives, but this is itself the limit of her child- 
bearing, as those authors write who have looked into 
these things), this son could not have been less than 
twenty-five years old when his father died, and Luciujs, 
the elder, not less than twenty-seven; hence the 
sons whom Tarquinius left by this wife could not have 
been infants. But surely, if her sons had been 
grown men when their father died, it cannot be 
imagined either that their mother would have been 
so miserable a creature or so infatuated as to deprive 
her own children of the sovereignty their father had 
left them and bestow it upon an outsider and the son 
of a slave-woman, or, again, that her sons themselves. 



* avTos B : avrais A. 

® o added by Kiessling. 

* iTTTaKMeiKoaUTovs B : ewTa kcu eiKoacv ercov R. 

285 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

T7J^ TTarpcpag ^PXV^ (XTroCTTepou/xeroi (f)avX(i)S 
/cat paOvfiaJS ro dSiKrjiJLa rjveyKav /cat ravr' 
€v rfj Kpariarrj rov Xiyeiv re /cat Trpdrreiv 6vt€s 
dKfxfj' ovT€ yap cvyeveia TTpoei-)(ev avrcov 6 
TuAAio? e/c SovXrjs fxrjrpos cov ^ ovd^ -qXiKias 
d^id>jxari Trapd ttoXv StTyAAarrei^, dAAa rpial 
fjiovov ereoL darepov TTpea^vrepos rjv ojor ovk 
dv ye TTapexcopi^crcLV avrcp ttjs ^aaiAeta? eKovres. 

VII. "E;;^et 8e /cat dXXas rivds to Trpdyfia 
droTTias, as aTravres "qyvorjaav ol rd 'Pco/xat/ca 
avvra^dpievoL ttXtjv evos, ov jxerd jxiKpov ipd) 
Tovvopia. (vfioXoyrjraL ydp on fierd rrjv Tap- 
KVVLOV TeXevrrjv TrapaXa^djv ttjv ^aaiXeiav TuA- 
Ato? ctt' €Trj TerrapdKovra /cat rirrapa Kareaxev, 
a)ar el ^ /car' eKeZvov rov -x^povov e/cra/catei/coat- 
err)? '^v or' direarepeLTO ttjs dpx'^S 6 irpeo^v- 
repos Tcbv TapKvvioiv, VTrep e^Sojxt^KovTa err] 

2 yeyovdis dv -qv ore rov TuAAiov dTreKreivev. ev 
Kpariarrj Se y' avrov i^Ai/cta ror^ dvra Trapahehoj- 
Kaaiv ol avyypa^eZs /cat <f)aaiv on TuAAtov ainos 
dpdfievos e/c rov ^ovXevrrjplov /cat (f)epiov e^io Kara 
rwv KprjTrlhcov e^e^eev. rj r e/c rrjs Oipxi^ 
eKirrcjoais avrov yiverai TTejXTrra) /cat eLKoarat 
fierd ravr erei, /cat rovrw rep erei arparevo- 
fxevos ev ra> irpos 'A/aSearas eladyerai rroXefxcp 
/cat rrdvra rd epya St' eavrov reXcL>v ovk e^ei ^ 
8e Adyoi' iv TToXepxus e^erdt,e(jdaL acop,a dvSpog * 

3 c^ /cat evevrJKOvra jSe/Stoz/coTO? ^ err). eKTreaojv 
re rrjs dpxrjs en TToAe/xet ® 'Poz/xatot? ovk iXdrru) 

^ €K 8ov\qs fnjTpos "Jv B : om. R. 
* ware et Steph. : ware O. 
' €X€i. R : flxf Bi Jacoby. 

286 



BOOK IV. 6, 6-7, 3 Mf 

when thus deprived of their father's sovereignty, 
would have borne the injustice in so abject and supine 
a manner, and that at an age when they were at the 
very height of their powers both of speech and of 
action. For Tullius neither had the advantage of 
them in birth, being the son of a slave-woman, nor 
excelled them much in the dignity of age, being only 
three years older than one of them ; so that they 
would not willingly have yielded the kingship to him. 
VII. This view involves some other absurdities, 
too, of which all the Roman historians have 
been ignorant, with the exception of one whom I 
shall name presently. For it has been agreed 
that Tullius, having succeeded to the kingdom 
after the death of Tarquinius, held it for forty-four 
years ; so that, if the eldest of the Tarquinii was 
twenty-seven years old when he was deprived 
of the sovereignty, he must hav^ been above 
seventy when he killed Tullius. But he was then in 
the prime of life, according to the tradition handed 
down by the historians, and they state that he him- 
self lifted up Tullins, and carrying him out of the 
senate-house, hurled him down the steps. His 
expulsion from the kingship happened in the twenty- 
fifth year after this, and in that same year he is 
represented as making war against the people of 
Ardea and performing all the duties himself; but 
it is not reasonable to suppose that a man ninety-six 
years old should be taking part in wars. And after 
his expulsion he still makes war against the Romans 



* (Ttu/xa dvSpoj R : om. B. 

' Pe^icoKoros R : /SejSicoKcb? B. 

• TToXenei ABa : TroAe/xetv Bb, Jacoby. 

287 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rerrapcov Kol Se/ca ircov, avros iv rot? Trpdy- 
fiaaiv ^ e^eTa^d/zei^o?, a>s (f)aaiv o ^ Trapa ra? 
Koivas aTTovrcov earl So^as, /cat o tov ^lov 
Xpovos avTcp TrXeLojv ava^atVerat rcJov eKarov 
Kai Se/ca yeyovcbs ircov rovro 8e to fiiJKos tojv 

4 ^iojv ov <j}epovaLv ol /ca0' rjlids tottol? ravra 
Br) TO. aroTTa avveiSores rcov 'Poj/xatAcajt' avy- 
ypa^eoiv tlv€S irepais avra Xvclv iTT€Lpddr]aav 
aroTTiais, ov TavaKvXiha TTOiovvres [xrjTepa tcjv 
TTaihicoVy aAAa Veyaviav rivd, Trepl rjs ovSefxiav 
7Tap€LXr](f)afji,€v laropiav acopos Srj yiverai ttoXiv 
o ydfxos TOV TapKVviov puKpov aTToXeiTTovTos 
eraJv oySo'qKovTa, /cat 7] tcov t€kvcov yeveaig rots 
ravrrjv e^ovcn rrjv rjAt/ciav dmaros' ovSe yap 
aTTais rjv, oior Ik Travros i7n6vp,rjaaL reKvcov, 
aAAa dvyarepes rjaav avrw hvo /cat avrai y' 

6 rihrj yeyajjirjfxevai. rovrcov Sr) rcov dSvvdrojv 
re /cat droTrcov e/cacrra i7nXoyil,6fJievos ov^ vlovs 
eti^at YapKvviov ypd<j)co rovs TratSas", oAA' vlcdvovs, 
AevKLO) YleLcrcovL rco Opuyt '^ avyKaraddfievos • 
eKelvos yap iv rats ivLavalois TTpayfiareiais rovd* 
laroprjKe [jlovos' et jury y' dpa yovco p,€V -^crav 
VLOJvol rod ^aaiXicos ol TratSe?, TTOL-qaei 8' utoi, 
/cat rovr rjv atriov rrjs aTrdrrjs rols dXXois 

^ TTpayfiaaiv 0: Tay/iaatj' Portus, rrpajTois rayfiaffii' Kayser. 

" <f)aaiv o Portus : <j)aai 0. 

^ TOTTOt : roKOi Steph.^, dvdpwirot Grasberger. 

* (Ppvyi Cobet : ^puyt 0. 



^ There were tales current in the Graeco-Roman world 
of the remarkable longevity enjoyed by the inhabitants of 
various remote regions. Thus, according to Herodotus, 

288 



BOOK IV. 7, 3-5 

for no less than fourteen years, being present himself, 
they say, at all the engagements — which is contrary 
to all common sense. Thus, according to them, he 
must have lived above one hundred and ten years ; 
but this length of life is not produced by our climes.^ 
Some of the Roman historians, being sensible of these 
absurdities, have endeavoured to solve them by 
means of other absurdities, alleging that not Tanaquil 
but one Gegania, of whom no other account has come 
down to us, was the mother of the children. But 
here again,the marriage of Tarquinius is unseasonable, 
he being then very near fourscore years old, and the 
begetting of children by men of that age is incredi- 
ble ; 2 nor was he a childless man, who would wish by 
all means for children, for he had two daughters 
and these already married. In the light, therefore, 
of these various impossibilities and absurdities, I 
state that the children were not the sons, but the 
grandsons, of Tarquinius, agreeing therein with Lucius 
Piso Frugi ^ (for he in his Annals is the only historian 
who has given this account) ; unless, indeed, the 
children were the king's grandsons by birth and his 
sons by adoption and this circumstance misled all the 

some of the Ethiopians lived to the age of 120 and over; 
and Strabo mentions reports that some tribes of India lived 
130 years and that the Seres lived more than 200, while the 
Hyperboreans were credited with 1000 years. Of the half- 
dozen Greeks recorded as having passed the century mark, 
Gorgias led with from 105 to 109 years. The Romans of the 
historical period, so far as records tell, all fell short of a 
century. 

* No such feat is recorded of any Greek or Roman But 
Masinissa, the loyal ally of Scipio Africanus, is said to have 
had a son when he had passed his 86th year (Livy, Periocha 
to Book L). 

' For this annalist see the note on i. 7, 3. 

289 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

amaai roZs avyypdifjacn. ras 'PcojU-atKas" iaropias. 
TTpoeLprjixevcov Srj tovtojv Kaipos iTravdyetv ctti 
T7]v a7ToX€L7TO[xevr]v Si-qyTjaiv. 

VIII. 'EttciSi^ Se TrapaXa^chv ttjv imTpoTrrjv 
rijs jSaatAetas' o TwAAios" Kal rrjv iraipiav rcov 
Map/ctoiv c^eXdaas jSe^SatcD? rjBr] Tijs dp)(rjs 
iu6p,L^€ Kparelv, rov re jSaatAea TapKvvtov, cos 
CK Tcov Tpavpidraiv reTcXevTrjKora evay^os, eK- 
KOfiiSj] re TToXvreXeZ Kal ixvrjfMaros eTna'qu.ov Kara- 
OKevfj Kal rals oAAats" rifxals eKoapLGi, Kal rov 
i^ eKCLvov xP'^vov d)S eTrirpoTTos cov rcov ck rov 
^aaiXeiov yevovs iraihoyv rov r Ihiov avrcbv ^iov 
Kal rd KOLvd rrpdyixara rrjs ttoXccos Sta (f)vXaKrjs 

2 re Kal <f>povrihos eiroielro. rols Se TrarpLKiois 
ovK -^v rd yivofieva Kad* ■j^Som?, aAA' rjyavd- 
Krovv Kal ■)(aXe'TTa)g ecf)epov ovk d^iovvres avrov 
iavrcp riva p,rj)(av'^aaadat jSaaiAt/cijv e^ovaiav, 
fMrjre ^ovXrjs j/'Tj^taa/xeVr^? fx-^re rwv dXXwv 
rcov Kard vojxov einreXeadivrcov . crvviovres re 
TToXXaKLs ol irXelarov e^ avrcov SvvdjxevoL SieXeyovro 
TTpos dXX-qXovs TTepl rrjs KaraXvaecos rrjs Trapa- 
vojxov dp)(rjs, Kal eSo/cei avrols, eTretSai' TrpaJrov 
els TO avveSpLov vtto rod TuAAtou avvaxOcoaLV,^ 
dvayKdaai rov dvSpa rdg pd^Sovs aTTodeadai Kal 
rd Xonrd rrjs dpx^js avix^oXa' orav Se rovro 
yevqraiy rovs KaXovfievovs yLeao^aoiXels drToSel^ai. 
Kal Sl eKetvcov iXecrdai rov dp^ovra rrjs rroXecos Kard 

3 voijLOVs. ravra Siavoovfievcov avrcbv emyvovs 6 
TvXXlos errl ro SrjfiaycoyeZv Kal deparrevecv rovs 
arropovs rojv rroXircbv erperrero, SC eKeCvcov 
eXiTiaas rrjv dpx^v Kade^eiv, Kal crvyKoXeaas ro 

^ Reiske : dvaxBoioiv 0, Jacoby, 
290 



BOOK IV. 7, 5-8, 3 

other Roman historians. Now that these explana- 
tions have been made by way of preface, it is 
time to resume my narrative where it was broken 
off. 

VIII. When Tulhus, after receiving the guardian- 
ship of the kingdom and expeUing the faction of the 
Marcii, thought he was now in secure possession of 
the sovereignty, he honoured King Tarquinius, as if 
he had but recently died of his wounds, vnth a very 
costly funeral, an imposing monument, and the other 
usual honours. And from that time, as guardian 
of the royal children, he took under his protection 
and care both their private fortunes and the public 
interests of the commonwealth. The patricians, 
however, were not pleased with these proceedings, 
but felt indignation and resentment, being unwilling 
that Tullius should build up a kind of royal power for 
himself without either a decree of the senate or the 
other formalities prescribed by law. And the most 
powerful of them met together frequently and dis- 
cussed with one another means of putting an end to 
his illegal rule : and they resolved that the first 
time Tullius should assemble them in the senate- 
house they would compel him to lay aside the rods 
and the other symbols of royalty, and that after this 
was done they would appoint the magistrates called 
interreges ^ and through them choose a man to rule the 
state in accordance with the laws. While they were 
making these plans, Tullius, becoming aware of their 
purpose, applied himselt to flattering and courting the 
poorer citizens, in hopes of retaining the sovereignty 
through them ; and having called an assembly of the 

i Cj. ii. 57. 

291 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ttXtjOos els eKKXrjaiav rd re TratSta TrpoTJyayev 
€7rt TO ^rjfjia /cat Xoyov SLe^rjXde roiovSe* 

IX, " IIoAA?^ /Lte dvayKT] KaT€LXr)(j)ev, dvhpes 
TToXtrai, KTiheadat rcov TraLhioiv tovtcov koI 
vTjTTLOJV. TapKvvios ydp 6 TTdmros avrcbv airaropa 
/cat aTToXiv ovra jxe TrapaXa^div i^edpeipev ovSev 
ivSeeaTepov dycvv rojv avrov reKvcov, /cat rrjv 
drepau rdJv Ovyarepcov eSco/ce pLoi yvvaiKa, Kai 
TTapd irdvTa ^ rov rod ^iov )(p6vov ojcnrep i^ 
avrov yeyovora nputiv /cat (f)i,Xcov, ojs /cat Vfiels 
tare, StereXeae- /cat i7T€t,8rj rd rrepl rrjv eTTi^ov- 
Xrjv avrw avveTreaev , et rt Trddoi rdJv avSpcomvcov, 

2 ejLtot rrjv eTri/ieAetav rdiv TraiSicov eTriarevae. Tis" 

OVV Tj TTpOS deOVS OCTLOV Tj TTpOS dvdpCOTTOVS SlKaiOV 

VTToXruJjerai p-e, edv iyKaraXiTTco /cat TTpoSd) rovs 
6p(f)avovs, ols roaavras d^eiAoj ■)(dpiras ; dXX 
ovre rrjv ip,avrov Trpohcoaco ttlotlv ovSe rrjv 
rcov TTaihiojv ^ €pr)p,Lav iyKaraXeii/jo) /caret 8vi'ap.LV 
rrjv ipirjv. StKaiot 8' eare /cat vp-els Sta/ie/Lti^- 
a^at rds cvepyeaias a? o TraTTTTOS avrdJv ro 
Koivov evrjpyerrjaev vrrord^as p^ev vpuv ras 
Aarivoiv roaavras TToXets dvrt,TTOi,ovp.ivas rrjs 
dpxrjs, VTTTjKoovs 8e iroLijaas Tvpprjvovs dnavras 
pieyiarov rwv TrepioiKcov Bvvap,4vovs, avayKaaas 
Se ro Ha^LVOJv edvos VTTO^eipiov vpZv yeveadai, 
p,€rd TToXXaJv diravra ravra /cat p,€ydX(x)v klvBvvcov 

3 Karepyaadp^evos . oaov p,kv oSv avros e^i^ xpovov, 
€K€Lva} TTpocrfJKev vp,ds rds ^ vnep rcov evepyeaidjv 
xdpLras cibevai, irreLSr) Se rereXevrrjKe rov ^lov 
roLS iyyovoLS avrov rds dp,oi,^ds dTTorlveLV, 

* tTOLVTa added by Cobet. 

* Kiessling : naiBwv O. 
292 



BOOK IV. 8, 3-9, 3 

people, he brought the children forward to the 
tribunal and delivered a speech somewhat as follows : 
IX. " I find myself under great obligation, citi- 
zens, to take care of these infant children. For 
Tarquinius, their grandfather, received me when I 
was fatherless and without a country, and brought 
me up, holding me in no respect inferior to his own 
children. He also gave me one of his two daughters 
in marriage, and during the whole course of his Ufe 
continued to honour and love me, as you also know, 
with the same affection as if I had been his own 
son. And after that treacherous attack was made 
upon him he entrusted me with the guardianship 
of these children in case he should suffer the fate of 
all mortals. Who, therefore, will think me pious 
towards the gods or just towards men if I abandon 
and betray the orphans to whom I owe so great a 
debt of gratitude ? But, to the best of my ability, 
I shall neither betray the trust reposed in me nor yet 
abandon the children in their forlorn condition. 
You too ought in justice to remember the benefits 
their grandfather conferred upon the commonwealth 
in reducing to your obedience so many cities of the 
Latins, your rivals for the sovereignty, in making all 
the Tyrrhenians, the most powerful of your neigh- 
bours, your subjects, and in forcing the Sabine 
nation to submit to you — all of which he effected at 
the cost of many great dangers. As long, therefore, as 
he himself was living, it became you to give him 
thanks for the benefits you had received from him; 
and now that he is dead, it becomes you to make a 
grateful return to his posterity, and not to bury the 

* Tcts added here by Cobet, before xo-ptras by Kiessling. 

293 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kol 117] avyKaropvrreLV a/ia Tot? acvfiaai, rthv 
evepyeTiov /cat Tqv ixvTJfxr]v rdv epycov. Sofare 
ovv KOLvfj TTavres eTrLTponoL KarcLXeXeZ(j>9ac tG>v 
TratStcov KoX ^e^aiovre avrols r]v 6 TTOLTrTTOs kcvt- 
eXiTTev dp)(T]v. ovSev yap roaovrov aTToXavaeiav 
av 1 €/c T7]'5 ipiTJs €v6s ovros 7Tpo(TTaatag, oaov 

4 e/c TTJs Kotvrjs aTravrcov vp,a)v ^orideias. ravra 
S' €L7T€Lv rjvdyKaafJiaL avvLarapiivovs Twdg ctt' 
avrovs aiadofJL€vos Kal rrjv dpx'^v erepots rrapa- 
Sovvai ^ouXofievovs. d^tco S' viids, dvSpes 

rcofjiaioi, Kai tcov efxcou fxepLvrjixevovs ayojvcov, 
ovs VTTep TTJs 'qyepiovias riycovt.adp,rjv, ovre puKpatv 
OVTOJV ovT oXiycov, ovs ovSev 8eo/xai npos elSoras 
V[j,ds Xeyeiv, ra? dvrl rovrcov ocfieiXofjievas efxol 
■)(apiras rot? TraiStoi? aTroSowat Tovroig. ov 
yap ihiav dp)(r]v ipiavrcp Kara(yKevat,6p.evos , rjs 
ovSevos rJTTOv d^Los rjv jSouATy^et? Tvyxdveif, 
aXXd TO) TapKvviov yeua ^orjOtov Ta KOLvd 

5 TTpdrreiv Trpoj^pr^/xat. LK€rr]g 8' vfidjv yivopLai 
fir) ^ Tovs dp(j>avovs iyKaraXiTreZv, vvv fiev virkp 
rrjg apxrjs KivSvvevovras, el S' tj tt/jcottj nelpa 
rot? ixOpols avTcov ;^a)/)7^(7et /caret vovu, /cat e/c 
ri]s TToXecos i^eXadrjaofievovs. dAA' virep jxev 
rovrcov d)s eyvcvKoaiv vjxZv rd Seovra Kal TTOL-q- 
aovoLv oaa Trpoa^qKei, ovSev Seofxai TrXeicu Xeyeiv. 

6 " "A Se Trapea/ceuaa/xat TTOtetv vjxds avros 
ayaua /cat cov x^pti^ rrjv eKKXrjaiav avveKdXeaa, 
aKOvaare piov. oaoi p,€v vpid)u d^eiXovres -qSr) 
XP^^ oia TTeviav dhvvaroi etatv dTToSovvat, rovrois 

^ av added here by Jacoby, after yap by Reiake. 
* firi Jacoby : firjre 0, ix-qBe Sintenis ; fx^e tows op^avovs 
</LnjT€ ifi€y Reiske. 

294 



BOOK IV. 9, 3-6 

remembrance of their deeds together with the persons 
of your benefactors. Consider, therefore, that you 
have all jointly been left guardians of these little 
children, and confirm to them the sovereignty which 
their grandfather left them. For they would not 
receive so great an advantage from my guardianship, 
which is that of one man only, as from the joint 
assistance of you all. I have been compelled to say 
these things because I have perceived that some 
persons are conspiring against them and desire to hand 
the sovereignty over to others. I ask you, Romans, 
also to call to mind the struggles I have undergone 
in the interest of your supremacy — struggles neither 
inconsiderable nor few, which I need not relate to 
you who are familiar with them — and to repay to 
these little children the gratitude you owe me in 
return. For it has not been with a view to securing a 
sovereignty of my own — of which, if that had been 
my aim, I was as worthy as anyone — ^but in order to 
aid the family of Tarquinius, that I have chosen to 
direct public affairs. And I entreat you as a suppliant 
not to abandon these orphans, who are now, indeed, 
only in danger of losing the sovereignty, but, if 
this first attempt of their enemies succeeds, will 
also be expelled from the city. But on this sub- 
ject I need say no more to you, since you both 
know what is required and will perform your 
duty. 

" Hear from me now the benefits I myself have 
arranged to confer upon you and the reasons that 
induced me to summon this assembly. Those among 
you who already have debts which through poverty 
they are unable to discharge, I am eager to help, 



295 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^oTjdeiv TTpodv/xovfievos, iveiSrj TroXlrat r elai 
Kal TToXXovs VTTep TTJs TTarpihog avrivrXrjKaaL 
TTovovs, Iva fJLTj rrjv ISiav acfyaipedthaiv eXevdepiav 
ol TTjv Koivrjv ^e^aiayoravTes, €k tcov ipiavrov 

7 ■)(^pripLdro)v hihoijn SiaXvaaadat ra XP^^- oaot 8' 
dv n€ra ravra SaveLcrcDvrai, rovrovs ovk idaay 
vpos ra X/'ea dTrdyecrdaL Kal vopLov d-qaofxai 
fi-qSeva hav€L(,€{,v irrl aa)pia.aLV eXevdipois, Ikovov 
rjyov[x,evos rols BaveiGrats rrjs ovaias tcx)v avpL- 
fiaX6vru)v ^ Kparelv. iP'a 8e Kal rds els ro 
BrjfjioaLov yLvopLevas ela<j>opds. Si a? ol Tremjres 
eTTi^apovvrai re Kal dvayKd^ovrai SaveiajxaTa 
TTOLeZv, Kov(j)orepas els to Xoittov (f)€prjT€, rifiij- 
aaadai rds ovaias diTavras KeXevao) Kal drro 
Tov TLpu'qp.aTOS eKaarov ela^epei,v ^ ro erti^dXXov , 
ws iv rals fieytarais Kai evvofxcorarais TToXecrc 
TTvvddvopiai yivofxevov,^ Si/caiov re Kal crupi<j)ipov 
ro) KOLvcp rovd* rjyovixevos * rovs fxev ttoXXol 
K€KrrjpL€vovs TToXXd €la(f)4p€LV, rovs 8 oXiya 

8 e^ovras oXiya. Bokcl 8e fxoi koI rijs hripioaias 
yrjs, riv 8ta rchv ottXcov KrrjadpievoL Kard^ere, 
fj/rj rovs dvatSeardrovs axxTrep vvv Kparelv ovre 
xdpiTL Xa^ovras ovr (hvfi Krrjaaiiivovs , dXXd 
rovs pLTjSeva KXrjpov e^ovras vp-cjv, Iva [mtj drjrevrjre 
ovres iXevdepoL [MtjSc ^ rds dXXorptas KrqacLs, 
dXXd rds IBlas yecopyrjre' ov yap dv yevoiro 
<f>p6vr]iJia evyeves iv dvSpdaiv dnopovfievoLs tcov 

* Cobet : avfipaXX6vT<ov 0. 

* ^la<f)ipei.v Biicheler : <f>epeiv 0. 
' Sintenis : yevoixevov 0. 

* Tovd' (rovTo) rjyovfjLevos Sintenis : to avro 'qyovfjui 0. 

* fiTjhe Sintenis : /x^re 0. 

296 



BOOK IV. 9, 6-8 

since they are citizens and have undergone many 
hardships in the service of their country ; hence, in 
order that these men who have securely established 
the common liberty may not be deprived of their 
own, I am giving them from my own means enough 
to pay their debts. And those who shall hereafter 
borrow I will not permit to be haled to prison on 
account of their debts, but will make a law that no 
one shall lend money on the security of the persons 
of free men ; for I hold that it is enough for the lenders 
to possess the property of those who contracted the 
debts. And in order to lighten for the future the 
burden also of the war taxes you pay to the public 
treasury, by which the poor are oppressed and 
obliged to borrow, I will order all the citizens to 
give in a valuation of their property and everyone 
to pay his share of the taxes according to that valua- 
tion, as I learn is done in the greatest and best 
governed cities;^ for I regard it as both just and 
advantageous to the public that those who possess 
much should pay much in taxes and those who have 
little should pay little. I also believe that the public 
lands, which you have obtained by your arms and now 
enjoy, should not, as at present, be held by those 
who are the most shameless, whether they got them 
by favour or acquired them by purchase, but by 
those among you who have no allotment of land, to 
the end that you, being free men, may not be serfs to 
others or cultivate others' lands instead of your own ; ^ 
for a noble spirit cannot dwell in the breasts of men 

^ Dionysius was doubtless thinking particularly of Solon's 
division of the Athenians into four classes for purposes of 
taxation. 

« Cf. Livy, i. 46, 1. 

«9? 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

9 Ka9* rjixepav avayKaioiv . virep dvavra 8e ravra 
eyvcoKa ^ tcrrjv /cat Koiurjv ttol€lv ttjv TroXireiav 
Kal ra St/cata Trdcrt, npos dnavTas ofxoia. els 
Tovro yap -qKovaC rives avdaSeias, coct^' v^pit,eiv 
els TO hrjpbOTLKov d^iovai Kal fJ-rjS^ ^ eXevdepovs 
rjyeladai rovs nevriras vpbd)v.^ Iva Se /cat 
XapL^dvcoai ra St/cata /cat v7T€)(Ojcn,v ol [xeCl^ovs 
rols eXdrroGLV e^ 'iaov, vopLOVs O-qaofxaL KcoXvrds 
fjiev rrjs ^las, (f>vXaKas Se 7-^? St/catoawTys", Kal 
avros ovhiva xpovov dvqaio rrjs dvdurcov irpovoov- 
fievos taTjyoplas.* 

X. Totaura Xeyovros avrov ttoXus e-naivos €k 
rrjs eKKXiqaias iyevero, rwv fxev, on TTiaros rjv 
/cat St/caio? 7T€pl rovs evepyeras, eTraivovvnov , 
rdjv 8', on (fnXdvdpoiiTos Kal pLeyaXoijjvxos els 
rovs aTTopovs, rdJv 8', ol? puerpios Kal SrjfjionKos 
Trpos rovs raneivorepovs , drrdvruiv 8', on vopupLOS 
Kal SiKaios dpxojv, dyancovrcov re Kal redavixa- 

2 KorcDV. hLaXv6€iar]s 8e rrjs e/c/cA7jcrta? rat? e^yjs 
rjfiepais diToypd^ead at KeXevaas rovs vtto)(P^ovs, 
oaoL rrjv inanv dhvvaroi r^aav (f>vXdrreLV, riaiv 
o(f)eiXovcn Kal ttooov eKaaros, eTrciSrj rds drro- 
ypacfids eXa^e, rpaTre'^a? dels ev dyopd Trdvroiv 

3 opwvrojv dnrjpidiJLei rols SaveiaraZs ra ^pea. ravra 
hiairpa^dixevos e^eOrjKev ev ^avepu) hidrayfxa 
^aatXiKOV, eKxcupelv rrjs Br^fioalas yrj; rovs 
KapTTOvfxevovs re Kal tSta Karexovras avrqv ev 
(vpiafMevo) nvl xP^^^i '^ct^ rovs ovSeva KXrjpov 
e^ovras rdv rroXirajv npos eavrov dTToypdcfeadai- 

^ eyvcoKa Naber : iyvwv koI 0, Jacoby. 
* fir)8€ Reiske : /x^re 0. 
' Sintenis : ifids AB. 

298 



BOOK IV. 9, 9-10, 3 

who are in want of the necessaries of daily life. But, 
above all these things, I have determined to make the 
government fair and impartial and justice the same 
for all and towards all. For some have reached that 
degree of presumption that they take upon themselves 
to maltreat the common people and do not look 
upon the poor among you as being even free men. 
To the end, therefore, that the more powerful may 
both receive justice from and do justice to their 
inferiors impartially, I will establish such laws as 
shall prevent violence and preserve justice, and I 
myself will never cease to take thought for the 
equality of all the citizens." 

X. While he was thus speaking there was much 
praise from the assembly, some commending him for 
his loyalty and justice to his benefactors, others for his 
humanity and generosity to the poor, and still others 
for his moderation and democratic spirit towards those 
of humbler station ; but all loved and admired him for 
being a lawful and just ruler. The assembly having 
been dismissed, during the following days he ordered 
lists to be made of all the debtors who were unable to 
keep their pledges, with the amount each owed and 
the names of the creditors ; and when this list had 
been delivered to him, he commanded tables to be 
placed in the Forum and in the presence of all the 
citizens counted out to the lenders the amount of the 
debts. Having finished with this, he published a 
royal edict commanding that all those who were 
enjoying the use of the public lands and holding 
them for their own should quit possession within a 
certain specified time, and that those citizens who 
had no allotments of land should give in their names 



299 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

vofjiovs re avviypa(j)ev , ovs fJiev ^ ck roiv dpxo.icov 
/cat TTaprjfxeXriixevoyv dvaveovfievos , ovs 'PotfiuXos 
T elarjy^aaTO /cat Nd/xa? Ho/jlttlXios, ovs 8' 

4 auTo? Kadiardfjievos. ravra 8' avrov ttoXltcvo- 
[xevov )^aXe7Tcbs €(f)€pov ol Trarpt/ctoi KaTaXvo[j,€vrjv 
rrjv hvvaareiav rrj^ ^ovXijs opcovres, /cat Xoyi- 
apLovs ovK€Tt Tovs avTovs , dAA' ivavTLovs rots 

6 TTporepoLS eXdfi^avov. iv dp^aus ftev yap copp/qaav 
dcfieXeadat rrjv TrapdvopLov avrov Svvaareiav (XTro- 
Sel^avres pieao^aaiXels /cat 8i' eKeivcov iXeadaL 
Tov Kara vopLOVS e^ovra rrjv dpx'rjv rore Se 
aripyeiv cttI rols irapovaiv &ovro helv /cat 
pLrjhev TToXvTTpaypLOvelv. elai^ei. ^ yap avroZs Aoyt- 
cr/xo? ort, rrjs p^ev ^ovXijs ov avrrj irporjpeXro Trap- 
ayovarjs eirl rd rrpdypiara, 6 drjpios ivavriojoerai 
Tr]v i/jrj(f)ov dvaXa^(x)v edv 8' em rco S-qpup tcoltj- 
acuai TTjv rov ^aatXecos alpeaiv,^ aTracrat rov 
TvXXlov ilf7j(f)0(f)opT]aov(nv at cf>pdrpai, /cat irepi- 
ecrrat ra> dvBpl ro Sokclv Kara vopLOVs apx^iv. 
eBo^ev ovv avrols dpLeivov elvai KXerrrovra ttjv 
dpx^v rov dvhpa /cat TrapaKpovopievov rovg 
TToXiras pidXXov rj Treiaavra /cat cf>av€pcbs Xa^ovra 

6 Karex^iv- aAA' ovSev avrols iyevero irpovpyov 
rojv XeXoyKjpLevcov ovrco Karearparrjyrjaev avrovs 
6 TuAAto? /cat Karea^e rrjv ^aaiXeiav aKovrcov 
CKeLvcov. KaracTKcvdcrag yap e/c ttoXXov (f)'q pias 
Xeyeadai Kara rrjv * ttoXcv a»? eTn^ovXevovrcov 

^ ovs fi€v added by Reiske. 

^ ctffTJei Cobet : elomTTTei O. 

' a'ptaiv B, but space of 3^ letters left vacant before the 
word : ■npoaipemv A, Jacoby. Except in B the order of 
words is ttjv npoaipeaiv rov paatXecos. 

300 



BOOK IV. 10, 3-6 

to him. He also drew up laws, in some cases renewing 
old laws that had been introduced by Romulus and 
Nvuna Pompilius and had fallen into abeyance, and 
establishing others himself. While he was pursuing 
these measures, the patricians were growing indignant 
as they saw the power of the senate being overthrown, 
and they proceeded to a plan of action which was 
no longer the same as before, but the opposite. 
For whereas at first they had determined to deprive 
him of his illegal power, to appoint interreges, and 
through them to choose one who should hold the 
office legally, they now thought they ought to ac- 
quiesce in the existing state of affairs and not to 
interfere at all. For it occurred to them that, if the 
senate attempted to place a man of its own choosing 
at the head of affairs, the people, when they came to 
give their votes, would oppose him ; whereas, if they 
should leave the choice of the king to the people, all 
the curiae would elect Tullius and the result would 
be that he would seem to hold the office legally. 
They thought it better, therefore, to permit him to 
continue in the possession of the sovereignty by 
stealth and by deceiving the citizens rather than 
after persuading them and receiving it openly. 
But none of their calculations availed them aught, so 
artfully did Tullius outmanoeuvre them and get 
possession of the royal power against their will. 
For having long before caused a report to be spread 
through the city that the patricians were plotting 

* TTji' : om. Jacoby. 

301 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTO) rcov TraTpiKicov TrporjXdev et? ttjv dyopav 
iu9i]Ta mvapav TTepi^e^Xrjfjievos Kal Karrj^-qs, 
avvovarjs avrw /cat rijs p^rjrpos 'O/c/aicrtas' koI rrjg 
TapKVVLov yvvaiKog Tava/cuAtSo? Kal rrjg avyyeveias 
rrjs ^aaiXiKrj's oXrjs. o^Xov 8e avvBpa[x6vTog 
TToXXov TTpos TO TTapdSo^ov TT]? oifjecos CKKX-qaiav 
uvyKaXeaag TrporjXdev eTTi to ^rjfia Kal Ste^rjXde 
roiovrov riva Xoyov 

XI. " OvKen fjiOL TTepl rcov TapKvviov Traihajv 
fiovov 6 KivSvvos eariv, ip-a fxrjSev vtto tojv i^dpcov 
Seivov TTOidioaLV, oAA' 17817 /cat ttc/ji rijs ifxrjg 'pvx'fjs 
Beos clcrepxeTaL, prj Trt/cpa? dfioi^ds rrjs St/cato- 
avvqs aTToXd^oi. CTrt^ouAeuo/xat yap vtto tcov 
TTarpiKLOiv, /cat [xejx'qvvvTaL /itoi tlvcs i^ avrdJv 
aTTOKTeXvai [xe avvopuvvjjLevoL dSt/ci^jLta ^ei^ ovBev 
ovre iJLetl,ov ovr eXarrov e^ovres eyKoXelv, 
wv Se Tov hyjpbov ev TreTrotiy/ca /cat Trapecr/ceuacr/xat 
2 TTOieiv d^Oop-evoi re /cat dva^LoiraOovi'res- ol 
haveLaral p,kv on rovs Trevrjras vp,a)v ovk etaaa 
rrjv iXevdepiav d^aipedrjvai 77/30? rd XP^^ '^^' 
avrdJv dTTaxdevras'^ ol Se Karavoa<f)i.t^6pievoL 
rd Si7)U.ooia /cat Karexovres , 'rjv vp.eZs St' alfxaros 
eKT-qaaaOe yrjv eKXnreZv dvayKat,6p,€voi, (Larrep 
rd Trarpcpa aTToarepovp^evoi /cat ov raXXorpia 
aTTohihovres' ol S' dv€ip.ivoi rcov ela^opcov rcov 
etV rovs TToXepbovs, et rip^rjaaadai rovs ^iovs 
avayKaodrjcrovrai /cat 0,776 rd)v rLp,r]p,dr(x)v rds 
Eia^opds cFvv€ia(f)€peiv Koivfj Se avpLTTavres, on 
Kara v6p.ovs yeypap.p.4vovs idLod'^aovrai ^ijp rd 
Si/caia i^ taov StSdi^e? vpuv Kal Xapi^dvovres , 
aXX ovx iOGTrep dpyvpojvrjrois irapaxpijarovraL 

^ OLTTaxdeyras Niebuhr : axOeyras 0, Jacoby, 
302 



BOOK IV. 10, 6-11, 2 

against him, he came into the Forum meanly dressed 
and with a dejected countenance, accompanied by 
his naother Ocrisia, Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius, 
and all the royal family. And when great crowds 
flocked together at so unexpected a sight, he called 
an assembly, and ascending the tribunal, addressed 
them much as follows : 

XI. " It is no longer the children of Tarquinius 
alone whom I see in danger of suffering some injury 
at the hands of their enemies, but I am already 
coming to fear for my own life, lest I receive a 
bitter requital for my justice. For the patricians 
are plotting against me and I have received informa- 
tion that some of them are conspiring to kill me, not 
because they can charge me with any crime, great or 
trivial, but because they resent the benefits I have 
conferred and am prepared to confer upon the people 
and feel that they are being treated unjustly. The 
money-lenders, for their part, feel aggrieved because I 
did not permit the poor among you to be haled to prison 
by them because of their debts and to be deprived of 
their liberty. And those who misappropriate and hold 
what belongs to the state, finding themselves obliged 
to give up the land which you acquired with your 
blood, are as angry as if they were being deprived 
of their inheritances instead of merely restoring what 
belongs to others. Those, again, who have been 
exempt from war taxes resent being compelled to 
give in a valuation of their property and to pay taxes 
in proportion to those valuations. But the general 
complaint of them all is that they will have to accus- 
tom themselves to live according to written laws and 
impartially dispense justice to you and receive it from 
you, instead of abusing the poor, as they now do, as if 

303 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 rots TTevrjOLV, o ttolovci vvv. /cat ravra Brj ra 
eyKXrifxaTa avveveyKavre? els ro koivov ^e^ov- 
XevvTai re koI avvo^oiixoKaai Kardyeiv rovs 
(fivydSas /cat rot? Map/ctou Traial rr)v fiauiXeiav 
aTTOotSoi/at, ovs vfjiels TapKvviov aTTOKTeLvavras 
Tov ^aaiXea vfjicov dvSpa xpricrrov /cat ^lXottoXlv 
/cat TqXiKovTO SiaTrpa^afxevovs dyos rds re 
St/ca? ipripiovs eKXnrovras /cat (f)vyrjs eavrols 
nurjaapievovs TTvpos /cat vSaros etpyetv €iJjrj(f)L- 
aacrde' epbeXXov r, el /lit) Odrrov ifiol Trepl 
rovroiv eyevero iirjvvais, ^evLKTjv Swajxiv enayo- 
lievoi vuKros en TToXXrjs ^ Kardyeiv els rrjv ttoXiv 

4 rovs (j>vydhas. rd fxerd ravra rrdvres tare 
hriTTOv, Kov eydi fxr) Xeyco, on, Map/ctot avXXajx- 
^avovrcov avrols rdjv TrarpcKLOJV Karaa^ovres rd 
TTpayfiara St;;^a ttovov, Trpcorov jxev e/xe rov 
^uAa/ca rwv ^aaiXeoiv /cat rds /car' avrcov evi- 
reXeadjjLevov St/ca? efieXXov dvaprrdaeaOaL,^ eireira 
ravn ra TratSta /cat rovs oAAoys' cwyyevels re 
/cat ^iXovs TapKvvLov Trdvras dpeladat-^ yvvaiKas 
S' 'f]p,a}v Kal fxrjrepas /cat Ovyarepas /cat irdv ro 
dijXv yevos ev dvSpaTToScuv TTOirjaeadai, * Xoycp, 
TToXi) rd drfpLiohes e^ovres iv rfj (f)vaei /cat rvpav- 
VLKov. el piev ovv koX vpuu ravra /SoyAo/xeVot? 
iariv, c5 Si^jLtorat, rovs piev dvhpo(f>6vovs Kardyeiv 
Kai ^aaiXels dvoSeiKvvvai, rovs 8e rcbv evepye- 
ru)v TTalSas e^eXavveiv /cat r7]v vtto rov irdTTTTOV 
KaraXei(f)delaav dpx^jv dcjiaipelceOai, arep^o/xev 
rrjv rv)(rjv. aAAa Trpos aTrdvrcov decbv re koX 



^ TToXXijs ABa : TroXXrjv Bb, Jacoby. 
* Co bet, Hertlein : dvapndaaaOai O. 



304 



BOOK IV. 11, 2-5 

they were so many purchased slaves. And making com- 
mon cause of these complaints, they have taken counsel 
and sworn to recall the exiles and to restore the king- 
dom to Marcius' sons, against whom you passed a vote 
forbidding them the use of fire and water for having 
assassinated Tarquinius, your king, a worthy man and 
a lover of his country, and, after they had committed 
such an act of pollution, for having failed to appear 
for their trial and thus condemned themselves to 
exile. And if I had not received early information 
of these designs, they would, with the assistance of a 
foreign force, have brought back the exiles into the 
city in the dead of night. You all know, of course, 
what would have been the consequence of this, 
even without my mentioning it — that the Marcii, 
with the support of the patricians, after getting 
control of affairs without any trouble, would first 
have seized me, as the guardian of the royal family 
and as the person who had pronounced sentence 
against them, and after that would have destroyed 
these children and all the other kinsmen and friends 
of Tarquinius ; and, as they have much of the savage 
and the tyrant in their nature, they would have treated 
our wives, mothers and daughters and all the female 
sex like slaves. If, therefore, it is your pleasure also, 
citizens, to recall the assassins and make them kings, 
to banish the sons of your benefactors and to deprive 
them of the kingdom their grandfather left them, 
we shall submit to our fate. But we all, together 
with our wives and children, make supplication 

* apeiadai Cobet : alpeiaOai, Bb, alpetadat Ba, dvaipelaOat R, 
dveAeiff^oi Hertlein. 

* Cobet, Hertlein : TTon^aaadat 0, Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Baijiovcov, oaoi rov avdpwTTivov iTroTrrevovai ^lov, 
t/ceVai TTavres Vficbv yivofxevot, avv yvvat^i re 
/cai reKvoiSj dvrl ttoXXojv fiev cov TapKvvios 6 
Tcbv TTacoiixiv ttolttttos €v TToioJv vfxds SiereXeaev, 
ai'Ti TToXXoJV 8e (bv avros iyoj Kara ttjv €p.avTOV 
Svvafxiv i'yev6iJL7]v vfxlv ■)(priaLiJios , d^Lov[X€v vfids 
fJLiav rjjjuv bovvai ravTTjv Bcopedv, (^avepdv TTOirjaat, 

6 rrjv vficbv avrcov yvcLp/qv. el yap irepovs rivas 
a^LOVLKorepovs rjfJiOJV VTr€iX'q<^aT€ elvai ravTrjs rrjs 
TLjxrjs rvyxdv€iv, rd [xev TratSia olxrjc^erai t7]v 
TToXiv vfjiXv ^ KaraXiTTOVTa /cat rj dXXr] TapKvviov 
avyyeveia' eycj 8' erepov ti ^ovXevaofxaL yev- 
vaiorepov inrep ifiavrov' ^e^tcorai ydp rjhrj [loi 
/cat TTpos dperrjv /cat Trpos evho^iav d7TO)(p(Jovra)s 
/cat ovK dv d^LcoaaLfii rijs Trap' vpLcov ewotas 
ipevadeis, t^v dvrl Travros elXofxriv dyadov, l^rju 
alaxpcos iv aAAots" rtcrt. napaXd^ere brj rds 
pd^Sovg /cat Sore, et ^ovXeade, tols TrarpiKLOts' 
iyd> 8' vfjiLv OVK evoxXxjacxi TrapcLv." 

XII. Tayra Xiyovros avrov /cat Trapaxcopelv 
oLov re ovTos drro rov ^rjp,aros Kpavyi^ re Trapd 
irdvrcov i^aCcnos iyevero ^ /cat 8e'?yaets' fieficyfievaL 
hdKpvaiv, Iva p-dvrj re /cat hiaKarexQ to irpdypiara 
pL7]heva SeSoLKcos. eTreir eyKeXevaroi rives StetAi^- 
(f>6res Tqv dyopdv ^aaiXea iroieZv avrov e^ocov 
/cat avyKaXelv rds <j)pdrpas rq^lovv /cat ^•^(^ov 
rjroW ap^ap^evcov 8e rovrcov evdvs 6 b'qp.os 
aTTas eTTL rrjg avrrjs Trpoaipeaecos eyeyovei. 

2 rovro Karapiadcbv 6 TvXXtos ovKen TraprJKe rov 
KaipoVf oAAd TToXXds avrols elhevai (jnqaas ^dpi-Tas, 

^ Vfiiv B : ifjLoJv R. 
306 



BOOK IV. 11, 5-12, 2 

to you by all the gods and lesser divinities who 
watch over the lives of men that, in return for the 
many benefits Tarquinius, the grandfather of these 
children, never ceased to confer upon you, and in 
return for the many services I myself, as far as I 
have been able, have done you, you will grant us 
this single boon — to declare your own sentiments. 
For if you have come to believe that any others are 
more worthy than we of this honour, the children, with 
all the other relations of Tarquinius, shall withdraw, 
leaving the city to you. As for me, I shall take a 
more generous resolution in my own case. For I 
have already lived long enough both for virtue and 
for glory, and if I am disappointed of your goodwill, 
which I have preferred to every other good thing, 
I could never bring myself to live in disgrace among 
any other people. Take the rods, then, and give them 
to the patricians, if you wish ; I shall not trouble you 
with my presence." 

XII. While he was speaking these words and seemed 
about to leave the tribunal, they all raised a tremend- 
ous clamour, and mingling tears with their entreaties, 
besought him to remain and to retain control of 
affairs, fearing no one. Thereupon some of his 
partisans, who had stationed themselves in diiferent 
parts of the Forum, following his instructions, 
cried out, " Make him king," and demanded that 
the curiae should be called together and a vote taken ; 
and after these had set the example, the whole popu- 
lace was promptly of the same opinion. Tullius, seeing 
this, no longer let the occasion slip, but told them 
that he felt very grateful to them for remembering 



' iyiveTO R : eyeivero Ba, iyiviTO Bb, Jacoby. 



307 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

OTt fiefivTjvraL tcov cvepyeaicov, koI en TrXeiova 
VTroa-)(oiievos dyada TTOL-qaeiv, idv avrov drro- 
Sei^coai ^acriXea, TrpoeiTrev rjfxdpav apxct-i-pecrLcov , 
ei? T]v CKeXevae /cat rovg e/c tcov dypdv amavras 

3 Trapelvai. avveXdovros Se rov S-^fxov kclXcov rds 
<j>pdrpa.s Kara [xlav aveStSou rds j/r-r^c^ous". aTrdcraLs 
8e rats (f>pdTpaLs KpiOels rijs ^aaiXeias d^ios 
TTapaXafi^dvei rore rqv dpx^v rrapd rov Stj/xoti,- 
Kov TrXrjdov^ ttoAAo, ^ ■)(aipet.v rfj ^ovXfj <f)pdaas, 
T]v ovK Tj^Lcocrev iTTLKvpcoaai rd rov St^/xou 
Kpifxara,^ warrep avrfj iroieZv edos '^v. rovrov Se 
rov rpoTTOv cttI rqv ^acriXeiav irapeXdcbv tto)(Xcx)v 
fi€v Kal dXXcov TToXLTCvfidrcov elarrjyrjrrjs iycvero, 
fieyav Se /cat Xoyov d^iov iTToXefirjae vpos Tvp- 
p-qvovs TToXepLov. Troir^aopiai, 8e irepl rcou TToXirev- 
fjidrcov avrov irpcxirov rovs Xoyovs. 

XIII. Kvdvs dfjba rep TTapaXa^elv rrjv dpx^v 
Sieveifie rrjv hripioaiav ;;^cupav rot? drjrevovai 
'PcopiaLOJV 6776 tra rovs vopLovs rovs re crvv- 
oXXaKriKovs Ktti rovs irepl rwv dSiKrjfidrcDV en- 
CKvpojae rats ^pdr pats' rjaav Be Trevrr^Kovrd ttov 
fidXiara ^ rov dpLdpLov, (bv ovhev Seo/jiaL jxefivrjcrdai 

2 Kara ro irapov. rfj re TToXei TrpooeOrjKe Svo 
X6(f)ovs, rov re OvifiivaXiov KoXovfievov Kal ro 
^loKvXlvov, Jjv CKdrepos d^ioXoyov TToXecos e^ei 
jxeyedos, Kal Sieveifjiev avroiis rols dvecrrtois 

^ iTapa\anPdvei . . . iroXXa B : oni. R. 

* Kpi/xara B : om. R. 

' nov udXiara B : om. R. 



TTow /naAtoTo B : om. R 



308 



BOOK IV. 12, 2-13, 2 

his services; and after promising to confer even 
more benefits if they should make him king, he 
appointed a day for the election, at which he 
ordered everybody to be present including those from 
the country. When the people had assembled he 
called the curiae and took the vote of each curia 
separately. And upon being judged worthy of the 
kingship by all the curiae, he then accepted it from 
the populace, telling the senate to go hang; for he 
did not ask that body to ratify the decision of the 
people, as it was accustomed to do.^ After coming 
to the sovereignty in this manner, he introduced 
many reforms in the civil administration and also 
carried on a great and memorable war against the 
Tyrrhenians. But I shall first give an account of his 
administrative reforms. 

XIII. Immediately upon receiving the sovereignty 
he divided the public lands among those of the 
Romans who served others for hire.' Next he caused 
both the laws relating to private contracts and those 
concerning torts to be ratified by the curiae; these 
laws were about fifty in number, of which I need 
not make any mention at present. He also added 
two hills to the city, those called the Viminal and the 
Esquiline,^ each of which has the size of a fairly 
large city. These he divided among such of the 

1 Cf. Livy i. 41, 6 f.; 46, 1. In the first passage he states 
that Tullius primus iniussu popvli voluntate patrum regnavit ; 
and in the second he says that when the young Tarquiniua 
hinted that he was ruling without the sanction of the people, 
he proceeded to conciliate the plebeians and then, putting the 
question to a vote of the people, was declared king by them. 

2 Livy (i. 44, 3) states that Tullius added the Viminal and 
the Quirinal, and enlarged the Esquiline. Strabo (v. 3, 7) 
agrees with Dionysius. The Quirinal had already been added 
by Numa according to Dionysius (ii. 62, 5). 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Pio/JLaicov OLKLus KaraaKevdaaadar evda ^ koX 
avros eTTOL-qaaro ttju OLK-qaiv iv to) Kpariaro) 

3 T7^? 'Icr/cuAta? tottco. ovros 6 j^aaiXevs reXevraXos 
Tjv^rjae tov Trept^oXov rrjs TToXecos rovg Svo rolg 
TT€VT€ TTpoadels X6(f>oLs, opvidevadpievo^ re ws 
vofjios ■^v Kal ToiXXa rd tt/jo? deovs ocrta 8ta- 
TTpa^dpcevos . TTpocrcurepco 8' ovKeri TrporjXdev rj 
KaraaKevrj ttjs TToXeoJS, ovk iajvros, ws cf)aaL, 
TOV oaLpLovLov, dAA' ecTTLv drravra Ta Trepl rrju 
TToXiv OLKOvp-eva ;^cupta, ttoAAci ovra /cat /tieyaAa, 
yvp,vd /cat dreixi-ora /cat paara TToXcpLioig iXdovauv 

4 vTTOXitpi-a yeveadai- /cat et ptev elg ravrd rig 
opcou TO pueyedos i^erd^eiv ^ouArycrerat Tijg 

Pwpcrjs, TrXavdadai r dvayKaadijaerai /cat ov^ 
e^et ^e^aiov arjpeloi' ovhev, a> Stayt'djaerai pi^xpi 
7TOV TTpo^aivovaa en ttoAi? earl /cat nodev dpxerai 
p^r^Keri elvai ttoXls, ovtco avvvcf^ai'Tai to darv rfj 
^ojpa /cat et? arreipov €KpLr]Kvuop.eur]s noXecog 

5 VTroXrupiv rots decopLevoig rrapexcTai. et 8e tw 
Telx^L,- Svaevpero) piev ovtl 8td Tag nepi- 
Xap^avovaag avTo noXXaxodev OLKijaeig, tx^rj 
oe Tt^•a (f)vXdTTOVTi /card TtoXXovg Tonovg rrj^ 
dpxoLias KaTaaKevri?, ^ovXrjOeir] pierpelv avTTjv 
Kara top kvkXop tov irepLixovra * Ad-qvaLcvu ^ to 
doTV, ov rroXXw tlvi p,€il,a}v 6 Trjg 'PwpLrjs dv 
avTO) <j>av€Lr) kvkXos. dAA' vTrep puev tov p-eye- 
vovg re koi KoXXovg Trjg noXecog, d)s Kard 7171^ 

' ivtia deleted by Kiessling : Bikheler proposed to read 
evravOa, with the punctuation after the adverb. 

* TU) after Tci'xei deleted by Pflugk. 

* TOP kvkXov t. it. 'hBiwaiwv Jacoby : tov 'A^votoi' 
{' \6y}vaj.iov B) hvkXov t. tt. 0; Reiske proposed tov 'A^ijvwv 
kvkXov tov ■nepie-j^ovra, 

310 



BOOK IV. 13, 2-5 

Romans as had no homes of their own, so that they 
might build houses there ; and he himself fixed his 
habitation there, in the best part of the Esquiline 
Hill.^ This king was the last who enlarged the circuit 
of the city, by adding these two hills to the other 
five, after he had first consulted the auspices, as the 
law directed, and performed the other religious 
rites. Farther than this the building of the city has 
not yet progressed, since the gods, they say, have 
not permitted it ; but all the inhabited places round 
it, which are many and large, are unprotected and 
without walls, and very easy to be taken by any 
enemies who may come. If anyone wishes to estimate 
the size of Rome by looking at these suburbs he will 
necessarily be misled for want of a definite clue by 
which to determine up to what point it is still the city 
and where it ceases to be the city ; so closely is the city 
connected with the country, giving the beholder the 
impression of a city stretching out indefinitely. But 
if one should wish to measure Rome by the wall, which, 
though hard to be discovered by reason of the build- 
ngs that surround it in many places, yet preserves 
in several parts of it some traces of its ancient struc- 
ture, and to compare it with the circuit of the city 
of Athens, the circuit of Rome would not seem to 
him very much larger than the other. But for an 
account of the extent and beauty of the city of 

^ Livy (I.e.) says that he established his residence on the 
Esquiline ut loco dignitas fieret. 

3" 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ifirjv eTx^v rjXtKLav, erepos earai rfj SirjYqaei, 
Kaipos €TnrrjBet6r€pos . 

XIV. *0 Se TvXXlos, CTTeiSi^ rovs iina. X6(f)OVS 
ivl retx€i TrepceXa^ev, els rerrapas fxoipag BieXcov 
rr]v TToXw Koi depucvos eTTt ra)v X6<j)Cov raZs pioipais 
ras eTTiKXijaeis, rfj fxev UaXarivT^v, rfj Be Xo^o- 
pdvTjv,^ rfj 8e rptTT) KoXXivrjv,^ rfj 8e rerdprrj 
rcov [xoipcov IctkvXlvtjv, rerpd(f)vXov eTToir^ae rr)v 

2 ttoXlv etvai, rpi(f)vXov ovaav r ecus' Kal rovs 
dvdpcorrovs era^e rovs ev eKdarrj pioipa rdv 
rerrdpoiv ocKovvras, wairep Kajpi-qras, p^-qre fxera- 
Xap^^dveiv irepav OLKTjaiv pi/qr dXXodi ttov avv- 
reXeZv, ras re Karaypa^ds rcov arparicorcijv /cat 
rds elaTrpd^eis rojv XPVH-^'^^^ ''"^S" yivopievas els 
rd arparicorLKa Kal rds dXXas ^^/jeta?, as eKaarov 
eSei ra> KOLva> Trapexeiv, ovKeri Kard rds rpeZs 
<f>vXds rds yevLKas, cos irporepov, dAAa /caret 
ras rerrapas rds roTTiKds rds v<f>' eavrov 8ta- 
raxdeiaas eTTOielro, -qyepLovas e^' eKacrrrjs aTToSei^as 
avix/xopias, wairep (f>vXdpxovs t] Kojfxdpxas, ols 
TTpoaera^ev elhevai TToiav oIkLov eKaaros olKel. 

3 €77eiTa Kard iravras eKeXevae rovs crrevojirovs ^ 
iyKaraaKevaordrjvai /caAtctSa? vtto rdv yeirovojv 
Tjpcoai TTpovoiTriois /cat Ovaias avroZs evofw- 

^ co^opdvrjv B : ^aPopdvTjv A, 'LovPovpdvrjv Reiske, Jacoby. 

* Portus : KoXXartinijv O. 

* After arevojiTovs the MSS. have itpa (AB) or tepas (R); 
Kiessling deleted. 

^ No such passage is to be found in the extant portions of 
the Antiquities. 

» C/. Livyi. 43, 13. 

' This was named from the Subura, which was not a hill, 
but a valley entering the Forum from the northeast. 
312 



BOOK IV. 13, 5-14, 3 

Rome, as it existed in my day, another occasion will 
be more suitable.^ 

XIV. After Tullius had surrounded the seven 
hills with one wall, he divided the city into four 
regions ^, which he named after the hills, calling the 
first the Palatine, the second the Suburan,^ the third 
the Colline,* and the fourth the Esquiline region; 
and by this means he made the city contain four 
tribes, whereas it previously had consisted of but 
three.^ And he ordered that the citizens inhabiting 
each of the four regions should, like persons living 
in villages, neither take up another abode nor be 
enrolled elsewhere ; and the levies of troops, the col- 
lection of taxes for military purposes, and the other 
services which every citizen was bound to offer to 
the commonwealth, he no longer based upon the three 
national tribes, as aforetime, but upon the four 
local tribes established by himself. And over each 
region he appointed commanders, like heads of 
tribes or villages, whom he ordered to know what 
house each man lived in. After this he commanded 
that there should be erected in every street ^ 
by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood chapels to 
heroes whose statues stood in front of the houses,' and 

* This name was derived from Collis, a common term for the 
Quirinal. 

* The Ramnes, Titles and Luceres. 

* The word arevwTros usually means a narrow passage or lane, 
but in this chapter it is used for the Roman compitum (com- 
pare 13 lines below), and this we know was a cross-road. 

' This seems to be the literal meaning of TrpovcoTnos, but 
evidently the word is used here to express compitalis, the 
heroes being the lares compitales. These lares doubtless 
reminded Dionysius of the Greek herms, and his descriptive 
adjective is more appropriate to the latter. 

3^3 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Oerqcrev eTnTeXelaQat Kad* eKaarov iviavrov TreXd- 
vovs eLacf>epovarjs eKdarrjs oi/cta?* rots 8e rd rrepl 
rcov yeiroviov lepd avvreXovaiv iv rolg Trpovco- 
TTLOig ^ ov Tovs iXevdepovs, aAAa rovs SovXovs era^e 
TTapelvai re /cat avviepovpyetv, c6? KexcpiafMe- 
vr]s roXg rjpcocri rrjs rwv depaTTOvrcov VTrr^peaias' 
rjv en koI Kad* rjP'ds ioprrjv dyovres 'Pajfjualoi 
StereAouv oXiyaig vcrrepov rjfxepais rcbv Kpovicov, 
aefjivrjv iv rots irdw kcI TToXvreXrj, Koju,7riTaAia 
irpoaayopevovTes avrrjv cttI tcov arevcoTrtdv KopL- 
7TLTOVS yap TOVS arevcoTTovs koXovol' /cat <f>vXdr- 
Tovai Tov dpxouov idiapLov im rcov lepdjv, Sid 
Tcov depaTTOVTCov rovs 'qpcuas IXaoKopLcvoi /cat 
aTrai^ to hovXov dcf)aipovvT€s avrwv iv rals 
rjp,epais iKeivais, tva rfj <j>iXavQpa>7Tia. ravrrj 
TiOaaaevopievot [xiya n /cat acpcvov ixovar) 
Xo-piiarepot. yivcovrat TTcpl rovs Seanoras /cat to. 
XvTTTjpd rrjs rvxf]S -^rrov ^apvvcovrai. 

XV. AteiAe ^ Be /cat rrjv j^ajpav drrraaav, 

^ iv Tots TTpovoi-niois, the reading of the MSS, is probably 
corrupt ; Casaubon proposed rots (or Oeois) TrpovtoTrt'ois (omit- 
ting iv), Biicheler iv toIs arivuivols- 

^ The text of this section is given as arranged by Niebuhr 
{Rom. Gesch. I. n. 973). In the MSS. rerrapas (1. 4) is 
followed by »cai (om. B) rpiaKovra ^uAa? afi<f>0Tepa}v Kartov 
fj-evTOi TOVTWV inl TuAAiou ras iraaas yeviaOai Xeyei oij 8^ 
Ovfvvcovios KT€. Jacoby differs from Niebuhr in placing 
TpidiKovTa (^iiAdff em TdAAiou ras irdaas yevdadat Xeyei after 
a^iOTTiaroTepos cuv. 



^ Literally, "in the places before the houses." Of the 
emendations proposed (see the critical note), that of Casaubon 
means ' ' to the (heroes) in front of the houses,' ' that of Biicheler 
" at the cross-roads." 



BOOK IV. 14, 3-15, 1 ' a 

he made a law that sacrifices should be performed to 
them every year, each family contributing a honey- 
cake. He directed also that the persons attending 
and assisting those who performed the sacrifices at 
these shrines ^ on behalf of the neighbourhood should 
not be free men, but slaves, the ministry of servants 
being looked upon as pleasing to the heroes. This 
festival the Romans still continued to celebrate even 
in my day in the most solemn and sumptuous man- 
ner a few days after the Saturnalia, calling it the 
Compitalia, after the streets ; for compiti,^ is their 
name for streets.^ And they still observe the ancient 
custom in connexion with those sacrifices, propitiating 
the heroes by the ministry of their servants, and 
during these days removing every badge of their 
servitude, in order that the slaves, being softened 
by this instance of humanity, which has something 
great and solemn about it, may make themselves 
more agreeable to their masters and be less sensible 
of the severity of their condition. 

XV. Tullius * also divided the country ^ as a whole 

^ The usual plural was compita, but the form compiti is 
occasionally found. 

* See note 6 on p. 313. 

* The first section of this chapter is badly confused in the 
MSS. and two entire lines are missing from all but two of the 
extant MSS- Unfortunately we have no confirmation of the 
statements attributed by Dionysius to Fabius Pictor, 
Vennonius and Cato. The relation of the country districts 
to the city tribes is a moot question and it is not at all certain 
that the districts here mentioned are identical with the pagi, 
as Dionysius assumed. The number of tribes at this early 
period cannot have been as large even as thirty. Indeed, 
Dionysius himself in describing the trial of Coriolanus (vii. 64, 
6) states that there were twenty-one tribes then; and Livy 
(vi. 6) records the same number for 387 B.C. 

" t.e., the country as distinguished from the city. 

315 
VOL. II. * L 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

d)S fiev OajSto? <f>r]aLV, els fwtpas e^ re koI 
etKoaLV, as koI avras ^ KoXei (f)vXas koI ras 
dariKas TrpocmOels avrals rerrapas rpidKovra 
^uAa? eTTi TuAAtou rds nrdaas yevecrOat Xeyet,' 
(OS 8e OvewcovLos IcrroprjKev, els fitav re Kol 
TpiaKovra, otare ^ avv raZs Kara ttoXiv ovaais 
iKTrenX-qpcoaOaL rds en /cat els 'qf^ds vrrapxovcras 
rptdKovra /cat rrevre (f)vXds' Karcuv fxevroL rovrcov 
dix(f)OTepo)v d^iomarorepos (ov ovx dplt,ei ^ tcjv 

2 fjLotpdJv Tov dpiOfiov. SieXchv S' ovv 6 TvXXios 
els OTToaas S-qnore [lolpas rrjv yrjv Kara rovs 
opeivovs /cat ttoXv ro da<f)aX€s rots yecopyots 
Trapex^t-v Swrjaofjuevovs ox^ovs Kpr](j(f)vyera /car- 
eaKevaaev, 'EAAtjvi/cois ovofiaaiv avrd KaXdJv 
irdyovs, evda avve<j)evyov e/c rcbv dypcov drravres, 
OTTore yivoLro TroXefilcov ecj^oSos, /cat rd iroXXa 

3 BievvKrepevov evravda. dpxovres 8e Kal rovrcov 
■^aav, ols eTTifxeXes eyivero rd r ovofxara rcov 
yeiopydjv eiSeVat rdiv crvvreXovvrcov els rov avrov 
Trdyov, Kal rds Kr-qaeis ev at? o ^ios avTcbv riv 
Kal oTTore XP^^^ yevoiro eirl rd OTrXa rovs ;;^6optTas' 
KoXeZv rj xP''l[J'drcx)v ela^opds /car dvhpa CKXeyeiv, 
ovTOL rd re acojxara avvrjyov Kal rd XPIP^^'^^ 
elaeirparrov. Iva 8e /cat Tovrcjv rj ttXtjBvs p/q 
hvaevperos, oAA' evXoyLcrros fj /cat ^avepa, ^ojp,ovs 

^ avras B : avrog R. 

* C00T6 . . . TpiaKOvra koI nivre BO : om. R. 
' ovx opl^ti R : ov ;fa)pi^ei (or ovj^ oipC^ti ?) B, koX ov xwpt'Jft 
Jacoby. 



* An annalist of whom almost nothing ia known. He seems 
to have lived in the second century B.C. 

316 



BOOK IV. 15, 1-3 

into twenty-six parts, according to Fabius, who calls 
these divisions tribes also and, adding the four city 
tribes to them, says that there were thirty tribes in 
all under Tullius. But according to Vennonius ^ he 
divided the country into thirty-one parts, so that 
with the four city tribes the number was rounded 
out to the thirty-five tribes that exist down to our 
day. However, Cato, who is more worthy of cre- 
dence than either of these authors, does not specify 
the number of the parts into which the country was 
divided. After Tullius, therefore, had divided the 
country into a certain number of parts, whatever 
that number was, he built places of refuge upon 
such lofty eminences as could afford ample security 
for the husbandmen, and called them by a Greek 
na.me, pagi or "hills." ^ Thither all the inhabitants fled 
from the fields whenever a raid was made by enemies, 
and generally passed the night there. These places 
also had their governors, whose duty it was to 
know not only the names of all the husbandmen who 
belonged to the same district but also the lands 
which afforded them their livelihood. And whenever 
there was occasion to summon the countrymen to 
take arms or to collect the taxes that were assessed 
against each of them, these governors assembled the 
men together and collected the money. And in 
order that the number of these husbandmen might 
not be hard to ascertain, but might be easy to 
compute and be known at once, he ordered them to 

* Dionysius was misled by the Greek word Trdyos (a rocky 
hill) to apply the Latin term primarily to the natural stronghold 
rather than to the district it served. While both words 
are doubtless from the same root pag-, " fix," the meanings 
developed along different lines ; fogus seems to have 
meant a " fixed " or marked area. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

CKeXevaev avrols ISpvaaadaL decov CTnaKOTTcov 
re Kol <f>vXdKOJv rov irdryov, ovs era^e dvaiais 
Koivals ycpalpeiv Ka6' CKaarov iviavrov ajiia 
avvep)^oiJL€vovs , iopr-qv riva Kai ravrrjv iv rolg 
TTavv TLpLtav Karacrrqadfievos , ra KoXovpieva 
IlayamAia* /cat v6p,ovs vnep rcov tepcov rovrcov, 
ovs ert 8ta (f>vXaKijs exovai 'Poj/xatoi, avveypaipev. 

4 els 8e Trjv dvaiav ravrqv /cat ttjv crvvoSov aTravras 
€/ceAeucre tovs opbOTrdyovs Kara KecfxiXrjv (hptapuivov 
vo/xtCT/xa Ti avveLa(f>epeiv , erepov p,iv tl rovs 
dvSpas, erepov Se rt, rds yvvacKas, oAAo Se 
Tl rovs avrj^ovs. ef ov avvapiOfjiTjOevTos vtto 
rcbv i(f)€arr)K6TO}v rots Upots (f>av€p6s 6 rcov dvOpco- 
7TCOV dpLdfios iyivero Kara yevrj re /cat /ca^' i^Ai/cta?. 

6 (I)s Se Ileiaoju AevKios iv rfi Trpcvrrj rcou ivtavuicov 
dvaypa(f>wv laropel, PovXofxevos /cat rcov iv darei 
SiarpL^ovTcov to TrXijOos elBevat, tcov re yewco- 
fieviuv /cat tcov aTToyivopLevojv Kal tcov els dvBpas 
iyypa(j>op.evo}v, era^ev oaov eSei vop-iapa /cara- 
^epeiv vTTep eKdoTOv tovs irpocrqKOVTas, els fJ-ev 
rov TTJs KlXeidvlas drjoavpov, r^v 'Pcujitatot 
KoXovaiv "Yipav ^oja(f>6pov, virep tojv yevvoj- 
fievojv els 8e tov rrjs *A(f)po8LT7]s ttjs ^ iv 
dXcrei KaOiSpvfievTjs, t]v Trpoaayopevovai Ai^itlvtjv, 
VTTep TCOV dTToyivofxevcov els Be tov ttjs NeoTTjTOS, 
VTTep TCOV els dvBpas dpxofievcov avvreXelv i^ cLv 
rjpeXXe hiayvcoaeadaL Kad' eKaoTov iviavTOv 
oaoL T€ ol avpLTTavTes rjaav Koi rives i$ avrcov 

6 rrjv (rrparevcTLfiov "qXiKiav et^ov. ravra /cara- 

* T-^s added by Kiessling. 



BOOK IV. 15, 3-6 

erect altars to the gods who presided over and were 
guardians of the district, and directed them to 
assemble every year and honour these gods with 
public sacrifices. This occasion also he made one 
of the most solemn festivals, calling it the Paganalia ; 
and he drew up laws concerning these sacrifices, 
which the Romans still observe. Towards the ex- 
pense of this sacrifice and of this assemblage he 
ordered all those of the same district to contribute 
each of them a certain piece of money, the men paying 
one kind, the women another and the children a third 
kind. When these pieces of money were counted by 
those who presided over the sacrifices, the number of 
people, distinguished by their sex and age, became 
known. And wishing also, as Lucius Piso writes 
in the first book of his Annals, to know the number 
of the inhabitants of the city, and of all who were 
born and died and arrived at the age of manhood, 
he prescribed the piece of money which their relations 
were to pay for each — into the treasury of Ilithyia 
(called by the Romans Juno Lucina) for those who 
were born, into that of the Venus of the Grove (called 
by them Libitina ^) for those who died, and into the 
treasury of Juventas for those who were arriving at 
manhood. By means of these pieces of money he 
would know every year both the number of all the 
inhabitants and which of them were of military age. 



^ Libitina was a goddess of corpses, but in the course of 
time, perhaps through a confusion of Libitina with Libentina 
(an epithet of Venus), she came to be identiiied with Venus. 
Not only was the register of deaths kept in her temple, but 
everything necessary for a funeral might be bought or hired 
there. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

<TT7]ad[Ji€Vos eKeXevcrev aTramas *Pco/Ltatoy? oltto- 
ypd<j>eadai re /cat Tijidcrdat ras ovcrias Trpo? 
dpyvpiov ofioaavTas rov vofJiifjLov opKOV, ^ jxtju 
rdXrjOrj /cat oltto Travros rov jSeArtarou rerifjirj- 
adai,^ rraripoiv re (Lv eicrt ypd^ovras /cat i^At/ctW 
Tjv exovat Sr]Xovvras yuvat/ca? re /cat TratSa? 
6vondt,ovras /cat ev rivi KorroiKovcriv l/caarot 
rris TToXeoJS t^vXfj ^ 'q Trdycp rrjs ;^copa? rrpoa- 
ridevras' ra> 8e pur] rLp/T]aap.eva) rLfxcopiav wpiae 
rijs r ovatas aripeadai /cat avrov pLaanyoiOevra 
Trpadrjvai' Kal P'^XP'' '^oXXov hiep.eive irapd 
'Vcopaiois oSros 6 vopLos. 

XVI. Tip,7]aap€vcov Se Trdvrcov dvaXa^cbv rd 
ypapLpiareXa /cat Siayvovs ro re ttXtjOos avrcov 
Kal rd pbeyedrj rcov jStcov ao(f)(x)rarov dTrdvrcDV 
TToXLrevp,dro)v elcrqyi^aaro /cat fxeyicrrcov 'PojpLaiois 
dyadwv alriov, cos rd epya edi^Xcoae. ro Se 
TToXirevpa roLovhe rjv /xtav d(jieiXev i^ dTrdvroJV 
poXpav, T^s" ro pLeyiarov tjv rip,'r]p,a rrjg ovcrlas 
ovK eXarrov e/carov p,v(Jov. rovrovs Se crvvrd^as 
els oyhoiJKOvra Xoxovs OTrXa (fyepeiv eirera^ev 
daTTihas 'ApyoAt/ca? /cat hopara /cat Kpdvr) 
xdXKea /cat dcopaKas /cat KvrjpXSas /cat ^t^'J^. 
SteAcov 8' avrovs ^(■XJ1> rerrapdKovra p,ev eTTOirjae 
veojrepcov Xoxovs, ots rds viraidpiovs direhcoKe 

'^ reTififjcrdai : reTiin^aeadai. Reiske, Tt/iijaea^ai Kiessling. 
* <f>vXyj added by Kiessling, tottw by Steph. 

^ On the Servian constitution and census described in 
chaps. 16-22 cf. Livy i. 42, 4-43, 11. 

" In giving Greek equivalents for the Roman sums involved 
in the census Dionysius amused himself by stating the amounts 
alternately in minae and in drachmae (1 mina = 100 drach- 
mae). Assuming equivalence between the drachma and 
320 



BOOK IV. 15, 6-16, 2 

After he had made these regulations, he ordered aU 
the Romans to register their names and give in a mon- 
etary valuation of their property, at the same time 
taking the oath required by law that they had given 
in a true valuation in good faith ; they were also to 
set down the names of their fathers, with their own 
age and the names of their wives and children, and 
every man was to declare in what tribe of the city 
or in what district of the country he lived. If any 
failed to give in their valuation, the penalty he estab- 
lished was that their property should be forfeited and 
they themselves whipped and sold for slaves. This 
law continued in force among the Romans for a long 
time. 

XVI. After all had given in their valuations, 
TuUius took the registers and determining both the 
number of the citizens and the size of their estates, 
introduced the wisest of all measures, and one which 
has been the source of the greatest advantages to the 
Romans, as the results have shown.^ The measure 
was this : He selected from the whole number of the 
citizens one part, consisting of those whose property 
was rated the highest and amounted to no less than 
one hundred minae.^ Of these he formed eighty 
centuries, whom he ordered to be armed with 
Argolic bucklers, with spears, brazen helmets, 
corslets, greaves and swords. Dividing these 
centuries into two groups, he made forty centuries 
of younger men, whom he appointed to take the 

the Roman denarius, he gave to the latter its earlier value of 
10 asses. Thus his figures when given in drachmae are just 
one-tenth as large as Livy's figures expressed in asses. The 
sums named by the two historians agree except in the case of 
the fifth class, where Dionysius gives 1,250 drachmae as 
against Livy's 11,000 asses. 

321 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

orpaTetas, TerrapaKovTa 8e Trpea^vripcov, ovs 
eBei TTJs veoTqros els rroXepiov i^Lovarjg vtto- 
[xevovras ev rfj vroAei ra ivros rei^ovs (fivXarreiv. 

3 avTT] TrpcoTT] avvra^Ls rjv x^P^^ ^^ Karelxev iv 
rols TToXefjLois rrjv Trpoaycovi^ofjieinjv ttjs (f)d- 
Xayyos oXrjs. erreiT* e/c ra>v VTroXenro/xevcov 
erepav a(f)^p€i fwlpav, otg -^v ivros p,ev fivpccov 
SpaxfMJov, ov fxeXov 8e TreVre /cat i^Bofi-qKovra 
jivajv TO ri[jLr]fxa. avvrd^as Se rovrovs ^ els 
CLKOcn Xo^ovs rd [xev dXXa <f)opeLV oirXa irpoa- 
era^ev ocra tovs Trporepovs, rovs Se OcopaKas 
avrcov a^eiAe, /cai dvrl rajv darriSajv dveScoKe 
dvpeovs. SteAcov Se /cat toutcdv rovs vnep 
rerrapdKOvra /cat irivre err] yeyovoras dno rdjv 
exdvrojv rrjv arparevaijjLov rjXtKiav, Se'/ca [xev 
irroLTjcre Xoxovs vciorepcuv, ovs eSet TTpovoXcixeTv 
rrjs TToXeios, Se/ca Se npea^vrepcov, ols drrihoiKe 
r€Lxocf)vXaK€LV. avrr) Sevrepa avvra^is rjv 
eKoafieTro S' iv rols dycoat, fierd roiis Trpofxdxovs. 

4 rrjv Se rpcrrjv eTTOiei avvra^w iK rcov vnoXenro- 
fxivcov, ocroi rijxrjaiv etxov iXdrrova fiev rcov 
€7TraKLaxiXiiov /cat irevraKoaloiv hpaxp^djv, ov 
fieiova Se fJLvdjv TrevriJKOvra. rovrcov S' c'/zetcocre 
rov OTrXiapiov ov /xovov rots Ocopa^iv, waTrep rdJv 

5 Sevripcov, dXXd /cat Tat? TrepLKvrjpXai. avvira^e 
Se /cat rovrovs els etKoai Xoxovs /cat StetAe rov 
avrov rpoTTOv rols Trporepots Kad* 'qXiKtas, Se'/ca 
Xoxovs drroZovs roZs vecorepois /cat Se'/ca rols 
irpea^vrepois. X^P^ ^^ '^'*^ ardats yjv rovrcov rojv 
Xoxcov iv rats p.dxo.LS r] fierd rovs i^earatras 
rols TTpofxdxois. 

* TouTous Kiessling : rois O. 

33i 



BOOK IV. 16, 2-5 

field in time of war, and forty of older men, whose 
duty it was, when the youth went forth to war, 
to remain in the city and guard everything inside 
the walls. This was the first class ; in wars it oc- 
cupied a position in the forefront of the whole 
army. Next, from those who were left he took 
another part whose rating was under ten thousand 
drachmae but not less than seventy-five minae. 
Of these he formed twenty centuries and ordered 
them to wear the same armour as those of the first 
class, except that he took from them the corslets, 
and instead of the bucklers gave them shields.^ 
Here also he distinguished between those who were 
over forty-five years old and those who were of mili- 
tary age, constituting ten centuries of the younger 
men, whose duty it was to serve their country in 
the field, and ten of the older, to whom he committed 
the defence of the walls. This was the second class ; 
in engagements they were drawn up behind those 
fighting in the front ranks. The third class he con- 
stituted out of those who were left, taking such as 
had a rating of less than seven thousand five hundred 
drachmae but not less than fifty minae. The 
armour of these he diminished not only by taking 
away the corslets, as from the second class, but also 
the greaves. He formed likewise twenty centuries 
of these, dividing them, like the former, according 
to their age and assigning ten centuries to the 
younger men and ten to the older. In battles the 
post and station of these centuries was in the third 
line from the front. 

^ The Greek word here used means a large, oblong shield, 
Livy's scutum. The Argolic buckler or clipeus, on the 
other hand, was a round shield. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XVII. 'A(f>eX<hu 8e TToiXiv e/c rajv VTToXenro- 
fievcov Tovs iXdrro) TTevraKia-)(^LXicx)v hpaxP'^v 
exovras ovaiav oixpt Trevre /cat et/coCTi fivcov, 
rera.pTr]v inoLrjae fxolpav. Siera^e 8e /cat rov- 
rovs els eiKoat Xoxovs, /cat 8e/ca fiev eTTOLrjcre rcbv 
iv dK[Mfj, 8e/ca 8e raJv VTrep-qXiKcuv, Kara ravrd 
ToXs TTporipois. onXa 8e ^ipeiv era^ev avrovs 
dvpeovs Kal iL(f>r} /cat Sopara /cat ardaiv exetr 

2 ev rot? ayoicri -n^v vcrrdrrjv. rrjv 8e TrefXTTrrjv 
{xolpav, ots ivTos eiKoat, /cat nivre puvcov d.xpi' 
8a»8e/ca Kat rjfxlcrovs fivcov 6 ^ios rjv, els rpid- 
Kovra avvera^e Xoxovs. Blt^ptjvto Se /cat ovtoi 
Kad^ TjXiKLav TTevTCKaiheKa /xev yap i^ avrojv 
XoxoL TOVS Trpea^vrepovs elxov, TrevreKaiheKa 
he TOVS veojrepovs. tovtovs era^e aavvia /cat 
a(f>ev86vas expvras e^oj rd^ecos o-varpareveadai. 

3 rerrapas 8e Xo^ovs ovhev e^ovras ottXov aKoXov- 
delv cKeXevcre roZs evoTrXois' rjaav 8e tojv rerrdpoiv 
rovTwv Suo pLev ottXottolojv re /cat TeKrovcov Kat 
Tu>v dXXiov T(x>v KaraaK€va^6vTCov rd els rov 
voXefJiov €vxp'i']crra' Svo 8e aaXinaTwv re /cat 
^VKaviarojv /cat rdJv aXXois rialv opydvoLS em- 
07]p.aLv6vrojv rd TrapaKXrjriKa rov TToXepLOV. irpoa- 
eKeivro 8' ol p.ev ;^et/30Te;^vat rots' rd hevrepov 
exovai rlwqpia SLrjprjpLevoL Kad' rjXtKLav, 6 p,ev 
rots TTpea^vrepoLs, 6 8e rot? vecvrepois aKoXovdcov 

4 Xoxos.^ ol 8e aaXiTiarai re Kal ol ^VKaviaral 
rfj rerdprrj avverdrrovro pLoipa.' ^v 8e /cat rovrcov 
els p-ev rcov Trpea^vrepcov Xoxos, els Se rojv 
veojrepcov. Xoxo.yol 8' e^ dTrdvrojv eTTiXexdevres 
ol yewaioraroi rd 7ToXep,ia rous IBlovs eKcaroi 

^ Fortus : Adxois AB, but ( deleted in B ? 



BOOK IV. 17, 1-4 

XVII. Again taking from the remainder those 
whose property amounted to less than five thousand 
drachmae but was as much as twenty-five minae, 
he formed a fourth class. This he also divided into 
twenty centuries, ten of which he composed of such 
as were in the vigour of their age, and the other ten 
of those who were past it, in the same manner as 
with the former classes. He ordered the arms of 
these to be shields, swords and spears, and their 
post in engagements to be in the last line. The 
fifth class, consisting of those whose property was 
between twenty-five minae and twelve minae and a 
half, he divided into thirty centuries. These were 
also distinguished according to their age, fifteen of 
the centuries being composed of the older men and 
fifteen of the younger. These he armed with javelins 
and slings, and placed outside the hne of battle. 
He ordered four unarmed centuries to follow those 
that were armed, two of them consisting of armourers 
and carpenters and of those whose business it was to 
prepare everything that might be of use in time of 
war, and the other two of trumpeters and horn- 
blowers and such as sounded the various calls with any 
other instruments. The artisans were attached to 
the second class and divided according to their age, 
one of their centuries following the older centuries, 
and the other the younger centuries ; the trumpeters 
and horn-blowers were added to the fourth class, 
and one of their centuries also consisted of the older 
men and the other of the younger.^ Out of all 
the centuries the bravest men were chosen as cen- 
turions, and each of these commanders took care 

^ Livy, on the contrary, says that the artisans were attached 
to the first class and the musicians to the fifth. 

325 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Xoxovs evTreidels toIs TrapayyeXXofxevoL^ nap- 
€ixovro . 

XVIII. AvTTj fiev 7] SiaKoafXTjais '^v rj to 
TTcl^iKov cKTrXripovaa rcov re <j>aXay'Yircbv koI 
Tcov if/iXcov arpdrevpia' to Se tcov iTTTriaiv TrXrjdos 
eveXe^ev eK tcov cxovtcov to pbeyiaTov TipL-qpia 
Kai KaTO. ylvos i7n(f)avcov avveTa^e S' els oktoj- 
/caiSe/ca Xoxovs Kai npoaeveipLev avTovs toZs 
TTpwTois TGiv cf)aXayytTwv oySo-qKOVTa Xoxols' 
eixov Se /cat ovtol tovs €Tn<j>ave.aTdTovs Xoxciyovs. 

2 TOVS Se XoLTTOVs TToXiTas, ot Tiprjaiv etxov iXaTTOva 
ScuSe/ca /cat rjiJilaovs /xi/ajv, ttX^lovs tov ^ dpidpiov 
ovTas TCOV TTpoTepoiv, (XTTtti'Ta? ei? ei/a avvTa^as 
Xoxov OTpaTeias r' dWAuae /cat Trdcr-qs elacfiopds 
CTTOLTjaev dreAet?. eyevovTO Brj avpLp,opiai pikv 
€^, d? PcD/iatot KoXovcri /cAdcrets',^ rd? 'EAAt^- 
VLKas KX'qaets TrapovopdcravTes (o ydp rjpels 
prjpa TrpoaTaKTLKcos axTjP-OLTiaavTes eK<f)epopL€v 
KaXei, TOVT CKeZvoL Xeyovcri /cdAa, /cat tols 
/cAdcret? ^ to* dpxcuov cKdXovv /caAe'aet?^), 

3 Ao;;^ot S', ovs at avpipuipiai TrepieXdp^avov, cKaTov 
Kai ivevrjKovTaTpeZs . iirelxov Se tt)v pikv rrpcvTrju 
avpipLopiav OKTtti /cat ivev^Koin-a Xoxot avv tols 
iTTTTevaf TTjv Se BevTepav et/coat /cat Suo avv 
ToXs ;^etpoTe';)^j^ats* rr^i' Se TpiTrjv et/coaf Tr^i^ Se 
TeTdpTTjv TrdXiv iiKoai. /cat Suo ctui' tols oaXTnoTaZs 

Koi ^VKaVlOTois' TTjV Se 7T€p,7TTr)V TpidKOVTa' TTjV 

B* em ndaais T€Tayp,€vr]v els Xoxos 6 tu)v aTTopcov. 

^ rov added by Sylburg. 

* /fAaff.eis B, KOI A : KXdaaeis Jacoby. After KXaaeis the 
MSS. have Kara, which was deleted by Bb and Kiesaling. 

* *cAaa«s ABb : /cAdaaets Jacoby. 



BOOK IV. 17, 4:-18, 3 

that his century should yield a ready obedience to 
orders. 

XVIII. This was the arrangement he made of 
the entire infantry, consisting of both the heavy- 
armed and light-armed troops. As for the cavalry, 
he chose them out of such as had the highest rating 
and were of distinguished birth, forming eighteen 
centuries of them, and added them to the first eighty 
centuries of the heavy-armed infantry; these cen- 
turies of cavalry were also commanded by persons 
of the greatest distinction. The rest of the citizens, 
who had a rating of less than twelve minae^ and a half 
but were more numerous than those already men- 
tioned, he put into a single century and exempted 
them from service in the army and from every sort 
of tax. Thus there were six divisions which the 
Romans call classes, by a slight change of the Greek 
word kleseis^ (for the verb which we Greeks pro- 
nounce in the imperative mood kalei, the Romans 
call cala,^ and the classes they anciently called 
caleses), and the centuries included in these divisions 
amounted to one hundred and ninety-three. The 
first class contained ninety-eight centuries, counting 
the cavalry; the second, twenty-two, counting the 
artificers; the third, twenty; the fourth, again, 
contained twenty-two, counting the trumpeters and 
horn-blowers ; the fifth, thirty ; and the last of all, 
one century, consisting of the poor citizens. 

^ /cAiJffis means a ' ' calling " or " summoning.' ' 

• This root is seen in Calendae{Kalendae), in comitia ccUata, 

and in intercalare. The statement about an early form caleais 

(better ccUasis) is probably pure conjecture. 

* TO added by C!obet. 

* KoXeads : KoXdaeis Biicheler. 

3*7 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XIX. TavTT) rrj SiaKoafn^aei, xPV'^o.fjievos ras 
fxkv ra)v arpaTiwrcov Karaypa(f>as Kara rrjv 
Siaipeaiv iiroielTO rrjv ra>v Ao;^a)V, ras Se rcov 
€ta^opa>v eTTtrayd? Kara ra Ti/x7]ju,aTa rwv 
^Lcov. 6tt6t€ yap aura) SeT^aeie fxvpLcov rj 
Siafivpiiov, el rv)(oi,, arparLcorcov, KaraSiaipajv 
TO TrXrjdos els rovs eKarov evevrjKovraTpels Xoxovs 
TO eTnPdXXov eKaarcp Xo^co ttXtjOos eKeXeve Trape^^LV 
CKaarov X6)(ov' ttjv 8e SaTrdvrjv ttjv els rov 
eTTLaiTLafiov rajv arparevofJievojv kol els ras aXXas 
Xoprjyias ras rroXefjUiKas eTTLreXeadrjaopievrjv avfx- 
fierprjaafievos, oTToa-q tls dpKovaa earai, hiaLpcjv 
Tov avTOV rpoTTOV els rovs eKarov evevrjKovTarpels 
Xoxovs, TO eK Ti]s rifnjaeojs im^aXXov eKaarcp 

2 hid^opov OLTTavras CKeXevev ^ ela(f)€pei,v. avv- 
e^aivev oSv rols raj p,eyiaras exovcriv ovaias, 
eXdrroai fxev ovacv, els irXeiovas he Xoxovs 
p^epiepLcrpLevois, arpareveadai re ttXclovs arparelas 
ovheTTore dvaTravofxevovs /cat ;)(/37^/xaTa TrXeioi 
Tu>v (xAAcor ela(j)ipeiv rols 8e ra pierpia Kal puKpa 
K€Krr]fjL€voLs, TrXeioaiv ^ ovaiv ev ^ eXdrroai Xoxois, 
arpareveadai r dAiya/ct? Kal e/c SiaSo;!^7js' kol 
Ppax^las avvreXelv ela(f>opds' rots 8' eXdrrcj rcbv 
iKavaJv KeKrrjfjievoLS * d^eZaO ai rrdvrtov oxXr^- 

3 paJv. eiToiei 8e rovroiv eKaarov ovk drep alrias, 
aXXd TTeTTeia/xevos on rrdaiv dvOpcoTTOts ddXa rcov 
TToXepicov earl rd xP'^f^^'^^ '^ct^ rrept rrjs roiircov 
<l>vXaKrjs diravres KaKOTradovaiv opOcos ovv ex^i'V 

^ Kiessling : eKfXevaev O. 

* nXtioaiv A : ("kooiv B. 

* cV added by Reiske (wlio also added 8k after eXdrroai,). 
" KtKTTjiJLevois Cobet : T«Ti/t?j^«Vois 0. 

328 



BOOK IV. 19, 1-3 

XIX. In pursuance of this arrangement he 
levied troops according to the division of the centuries, 
and imposed taxes ^ in proportion to the valuation of 
their possessions. For instance, whenever he had 
occasion to raise ten thousand men, or, if it should so 
happen, twenty thousand, he would divide that num- 
ber among the hundred and ninety-three centuries 
and then order each century to furnish the number 
of men that fell to its share. As to the expenditures 
that would be needed for the provisioning of the 
soldiers while on duty and for the various warlike 
supplies, he would first calculate how much money 
would be sufficient, and having in like manner divided 
that sum among the hundred and ninety-three 
centuries, he would order every man to pay his share 
towards it in proportion to his rating. Thus it 
happened that those who had the largest possessions, 
being fewer in number but distributed into more 
centuries, were obliged to serve oftener and without 
any intermission, and to pay greater taxes than the 
rest ; that those who had small and moderate pos- 
sessions, being more nimaerous but distributed into 
fewer centuries, served seldom and in rotation and 
paid small taxes, and that those whose possessions 
were not suflicient to maintain them were exempt 
from all burdens. Tullius made none of these regu- 
lations without reason, but from the conviction that 
all men look upon their possessions as the prizes at 
stake in war and that it is for the sake of retaining 
these that they all endure its hardships ; he thought 

^ The Greek word ela^opa, translated " tax " in these 
chapters, means a special tax, particularly one levied for war 
purposes ; it is here equivalent to the Roman tributum. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

<oero Tovs fJiev Trepl fieiS^ovcov Ktv8vvevovras 
ddXcov fieii^ovas VTToyieveiv KaKOTradeias rots 

T€ CTCU/XttCTt /cat TOLS XPVI^'^^''f "^OU? §6 TTCpl cAttT- 

rovcDV rjTTOv ivox^eicrdaL Kar a/^t^orepa, tovs 
8e 776/31 fjLTjSevos SeSoiKoras firjSev KaKorraOeiv, 
riov fiev €ca(f)opajv a.TToXvofJL.cvovs 8ta rrjv aTTOpiav, 
Tcov 8e arpareicov 8ta rr^v aveia(j)opiav .^ ov 
yap eXajx^avov €k tov SrjfjiocrLov rore 'Pco/xatot 
arpartcoTLKOvs fxiadovs, dXXa toIs ISlocs reXeatv 

4 eaTparevovTO. ovre Brj ;^/37^/xaTa avveca^ipeiv 
TOVS ovK expvras OTTodev ovvetaoiaovacv, aXXd 
Twv Kad rjfjLepav dvayKaicov drropovpLivovs (^ero 
Selv, ovre [xrjSev ou/i^oAAo/xeVous' arpareveadat 
rivas €K riov aXXorpicov oipajvia^opLevovs XPVH'°'-'^^^> 
waTTcp rovg fj,icrdo(f)6povs. 

XX. Tovrov 8e rov rponov drrav eTTidels ro 
^dpos roLS TrXovcriois rGiv re kivBvvcov /cat rcov 
avaXcofidrojv, ws etScv dyavaKrovvras avrovs, 
8t' irepov rpoirov rqv r dOvpiiav avru}u irapejivdrj- 
aaro /cat rrjv opyrjv iirpdvve TrXeoveKrrjua hoipr]- 
adfJievos, e^ ov Trdcrrjs cfMeXXov rrjg TToXireias 
eaeadai Kvpioi, roiis niviqras drreXdaas ^ d-no rcjv 
KOLvdJv /cat rovro SiaTrpa^dp-evos eXaOe rovs 
Stjuotlkovs. "^v Se ro TrXeoveKrrjfjLa Trepl ra? 
eKKXiqaias, ev ais ret pLeyiara. eireKvpovro ^ vno 

2 rov S-qfiov. etprjrac Se /lot /cat -nporepov, on 
rpicov TTpayfidrcov 6 bijixos e/c rdjv TroAatoiv' vopuov 
Kvpios '^v rcbv fieyiarcov re /cat dvayKaLordrcop, 
apxds aTToSel^ai rds re Kara ttoXlv /cat rets enl 

• dv€ia<f>opiav Fischer : ela<f>opav 0. 

• Sintenis : aTrcAaaavres O. 

• Kiossliog ' ineKvpovvTO O. 



BOOK IV. 19, 3-20, 2 

it right, therefore, that those who had greater 
prizes at stake should suffer greater hardships, both 
with their persons and with their possessions, that 
those who had less at stake should be less burdened 
in respect to both, and that those who had no loss 
to fear should endure no hardships, but be exempt 
from taxes by reason of their poverty and from 
military service because they paid no tax. For at 
that time the Romans received no pay as soldiers 
from the public treasury but served at their own 
expense. Accordingly, he did not think it right either 
that those should pay taxes who were so far from 
having wherewithal to pay them that they were in 
want of the necessaries of daily life, or that such as 
contributed nothing to the public taxes should, like 
mercenary troops, be maintained in the field at the 
expense of others. 

XX. Having by this means laid upon the rich the 
whole burden of both the dangers and expenses and 
observing that they were discontented, he contrived 
by another method to relieve their uneasiness and 
mitigate their resentment by granting to them an 
advantage which would make them complete masters 
of the commonwealth, while he excluded the poor 
from any part in the government; and he effected 
this without the plebeians noticing it. This advan- 
tage that he gave to the rich related to the 
assemblies, where the matters of greatest moment 
were ratified by the people. I have already said 
before ^ that by the ancient laws the people had 
control over the three most important and vital 
matters: they elected the magistrates, both civil 

» ii. 14, 3. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

arparoTTeSov , /cat vofiovs rovs [^ev irnKvpcocrai, 
Tovs 8' aveXelu, Kal Tvepl 7roAe/xoy cryvtcrra/xevou 
T€ Kal KaraXvofxevov Siayvcovai. ttjv Se Trepl rov- 
rcov hidaKeipLv /cat Kpiaiv iiroLeiTO Kara ras cjjpdrpas 
iprj(f)0(f)opa)V' Kal rjcrav ol rd iXd)(LaTa KCKT-qpLevoi 
rots ras fJieytoras exovcnv ovcnas La6iftr}(f)OL' oXiycov 
S' ovrcjov, ojOTTep €lk6s, rcov TrXovaioiv, ol Trevqres 
iv rat? ifj'rj(f)0(f)opLaLS eTreKpdrovv pbaKpcp irXeiovs 

3 ovres eKeivcov. rovro crvvL^a)v 6 TuAAto? CTrt 
rovs TrXovaiovs jjLeredrjKe ro rcov tjiri(j>oiv Kpdros. 
oTTore yap dpxds (XTroSei/cvuetr ■^ Trepi vopLov 
hiayLvaxjKeiv r) voXepiov iK(f)ep€LV B6^€L€v avrco, 
rrjv Xox^riv dvrl rrjs (/}parpiKrjs crvvrjyev e/c/cArycrtav. 
e/coAei 8' els aTTOcj^acnv yvcoixrjs Trpcorovs p-ev Xoxovs 
rovs drro rov p^eyiarov rip-Tjp-aros Karaypacf)ev- 
ras, iv ots rjaav ol re rcov LTTTTecov oKroiKaiheKa 

4 /cat ol rcov 7Tet,cov oySoiJKovra. ovroi rpial irXeiovs 
ovres rcov VTroXenropLevdiv , el ro avro cfypovrjcreiav, 
CKpdrovv rcov erepcov Kal reXos efj^et' rj yvcop-r]' el 
8e p,r) yevoLvro cttI rijs avrijs Trpoaipeaecos aTravres 
ovroi, rare rovs aTro rov Sevrepov rip.'qp.aros 
eLKocri Kal Svo Xoxovs eKdXei. p,epLadet,crcov 8e 
fcai rore rcov ijjrjcjycjov rovs aTro rov rpirov np/q- 
p,aros eKoXet,- /cat rerdprovs rovs dTTO rov 
rerdprov rLp,'qpiaros' Kal rovr eTTolei p-^xpi' tov 
yeveadai Xoxovs eirrd /cat evevrjKOvra looijj'qcjyovs . 

6 el he p-^XP'- '"7S' TrepLTrrqs KXifjaecos pirj rvxoi 
rovro yev6p.evov, dXX els icra />tep7y axt^'^delev 
at rcov €Kar6v evevqKovra 8vo Xoxcov yvcop-ai,, 
r6r€ rov ecrxarov e/caAet Xoxov, iv. co ro rcov 



332 



BOOK IV. 20, 2-5 

and military ; they sanctioned and repealed laws ; and 
they declared war and made peace. In discussing 
and deciding these matters they voted by curiae, 
and citizens of the smallest means had an equal vote 
with those of the greatest ; but as the rich were 
few in number, as may well be supposed, and the poor 
much more numerous, the latter carried everything 
by a majority of the votes. Tullius, observing this, 
transferred this preponderance of votes from the 
poor to the rich. For whenever he thought proper 
to have magistrates elected, a law considered, or 
war to be declared, he assembled the people by 
centuries instead of by curiae. And the first centuries 
that he called to express their opinion ^ were those 
with the highest rating, consisting of the eighteen 
centuries of cavalry and the eighty centuries of in- 
fantry. As these centuries amounted to three more 
than all the rest together, if they agreed they 
prevailed over the others and the matter was decided. 
But in case these were not all of the same mind, then 
he called the twenty-two centuries of the second 
class ; and if the votes were still divided, he called 
the centuries of the third class, and, in the fourth 
place, those of the fourth class ; and this he continued 
to do till ninety-seven centuries concurred in the 
same opinion. And if after the calling of the fifth 
class this had not yet happened but the opinions of 
the hundred and ninety-two centuries were equally 
divided, he then called the last century, consisting 

^ If taken literally, this expression is erroneous. The 
popular assemblies were not deliberative bodies; they could 
merely vote ' ' aye " or " no " to a specific proposal. But 
probably Dionysius meant no more by his expression than ' • gi ve 
their vote.' ' 

333 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aTTopwv Kal Blol tovt* a<f)€i,iJLevctiV aTrdarjg arpareias 
re Kai €La(f)opds ttoXltcov TrXrjdos rjv onorepa 
0€ TTpoadolro tcjv fMcpiScov oSros 6 Xoxos, avrr) 
TO Kparos iXdfx^avc. rovro 8' "qv aTrdviov /cat 
ov fiaKpdv d.7T€xov rdSwdrov.^ rd TroXXd fxev 
yap €771 rrjs Trpcorrjs kXt^gccus reXos eXdfi^avev, 
oXiya 8e fiexpt rrjs rezdprrjs TTpov^aivev rj 8e 
TTeixTTTT} KX-fjoTLs Kal 7j TeXevTaia TrapeiXKOvro . 

XXI. iovro TO rroAtreu/xa KaTaaTrjadyLCVos 
Kai TrXeoveKTTjfjLa tols TrXovaiots ttjXlkovto Soiis 
eXade tov Sijfxov, oiairep ecjuqv, KaTaaTparrjyq- 
aas Kai tovs TrevrjTas aTreXdaas tcov Kotva)v. 
VTreXdfi^avov fjLev yap aTravres utov ex^tv ttj? 
TToXiTcias fiepos /car' dvbpa SiepcoTwfievoi ra? 
yvcjpias iv toXs ISlols e/caaroi Xoxois, i^r^TraTwvTO 
8e T(h fiiav clvat, tJjrj(l)ov oXov tov Xoxov rod t 
oXiyovs exovTOS iv aura) TToXiras /cat tov ndw 
TToXXovs' /cat Tip TcpiOTOVS eTTLcjiepeiv tfjrj(f)OV tovs 
to fieyiarov exovras TLfxyjua Xoxovs, vXeiovs fiev 
ovras rdjv VTroXeiTTOfievajv, cXdTTOva 8' dpidpLov 
avdpcoTTcov exovras ' fidXiara Be rip tovs drropovs 
p,iav iljijcfjov ex^iv ttoXXovs ovTas /cat TeXevTaiovs 
2 KaXeladai. yevofxevov 8e tovtov tols p^ev ttXov- 
CTtots" TOLS TToXXd SaTTaviop^evoLs /cat p^rjBepLav 
avairavoLv tcx)v TToXepLKCJv KLvhvvaiv Xap^dvovaiv 
■^TTOV elarjCL ^ ^apvveadai KvpioLS re yeyovcai 
Twv p,eyiaTcx)v /cat Trdv to Kpdros d(f>r)p7jp,€voLS 
riov fMTj TO, avTa TroLovvTOiV ^ rot? 8e Trevr^ai 
TOLS TToXXoaTrjv exovai tu>v ttoXitikwv ' pxilpav 

^ Hertlein : ahxrvarov O. 

334 



BOOK IV. 20, 5-21, 2 

of the mass of the citizens who were poor and for 
that reason exempt from all military service and 
taxes; and whichever side this century joined, that 
side carried the day. But this seldom happened 
and was next to impossible. Generally the question 
was determined by calling the first class, and it 
rarely went as far as the fourth ; so that the fifth and 
the last were superfluous. 

XXI. In establishing this political system, which 
gave so great an advantage to the rich, Tullius 
outwitted the people, as I said, without their noticing 
it and excluded the poor from any part in public 
affairs. For they all thought that they had an equal 
share in the government because every man was 
asked his opinion, each in his own century ; but they 
were deceived in this, that the whole century, 
whether it consisted of a small or a very large number 
of citizens, had but one vote ; and also in that the 
centuries which voted first, consisting of men of the 
highest rating, though they were more in number 
than all the rest, yet contained fewer citizens ; but, 
above all, in that the poor, who were very numerous, 
had but one vote and were the last called. When 
this had been brought about, the rich, though 
paying out large sums and exposed without inter- 
mission to the dangers of war, were less inclined 
to feel aggrieved now that they had obtained control 
of the most important matters and had taken the 
whole power out of the hands of those who were not 
performing the same services ; and the poor, who had 
but the slightest share in the government, finding 

' TTotovvTCDv : <f>povpvvTOiv OX TTovovvruiv Kiessling, rekovvTOiv 
Grasberger. 

335 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

evXoyiaTOJS Kal irpacos ^ipeiv rrjv iv rovTOts 
iXdrrcoaiv, d^ei^evoi? tojv €lacf>op6Jv /cat tmv 
arpaTGLCov rfj 8e TroAet rovs avrovs ^x^i'V 
rovs ^ovXevaofidvovs re vnep avrrjs d Set 
/cat rovs rcov klvSvvojv TrXetarov rcov dXXoiv 
3 pieraXa-)(6vras kol Trpd^ovras oaa Set. ovtos 6 
Koapios rod TToXirevfiaros €ttI TToXXds Sie'ju.eti'e 
yevea? (f)vXarr6p,evos vrro 'Pcop^aicov iv 8e 
rot? Kad* TjfMds /ce/cti^rat -x^povois koX jxera- 
Pd^XrjKev els to S-qfioriKcorepov, amy/cat? riat 
^laadels la-)(vpais, ov rcov Xo^cov KaraXvdevrcov, 
dXXd rrjs KX-qaecos ^ avrcov ou/ce'rt rrjV dpxatav 
dKpt^eiav (f)vXarrovcrrjs , cos eyvcov rats apxatpcaiats 
avrdjv TToAAa/cts' Trapcov. dAA' VTrep p^ev roiircov 
ov)(^ 6 TTapuiv Katpos dpp,6rrcov rots Xoyois. 

XXII. Tore 8' ovv 6 TvXXios iTTeiSrj SieVo^e 
ro Ttepl rds riprjaeis, /ceAeucra? rovs iroXiras 
diravras avveXOelv els to peyiarov rcov irpo rrjs 
TToXecos veSlcov e)(Ovr as rd onXa, /cat rd^as rovs 
G' LTTTTeis Kara reX-q /cat rovs TTet,ovs ev <j)dXayyi 
Kal rovs earaXpievovs rov ifitXiKov orrXiapLov ev 
rols IBlois eKdarovs Xoxols, Kadappov avrcov 

^ KX-qaecDS B : Kplaecos R- 



^ No ancient writer gives us an explicit account of this 
reform of the comitia centuriala; but from scattered allusions 
it is known that each of the five classes later contained 70 
centuries (one of seniores and one of iuniores from each of the 
35 tHbes). To these 350 centuries must bo added the cen- 
turies of knights (probably 18, as before, though 35 and 



336 



BOOK IV. 21, 2-22, 1 

themselves exempt both from taxes and from military 
service, prudently and quietly submitted to this 
diminution of their pow^er ; and the commonwealth 
itself had the advantage of seeing the same persons 
who were to deliberate concerning its interests 
allotted the greatest share of the dangers and 
ready to do whatever required to be done. This 
form of government was maintained by the Romans 
for many generations, but is altered in our times 
and changed to a more democratic form, some 
urgent needs having forced the change, which was 
effected, not by abolishing the centuries, but by no 
longer observing the strict ancient manner of calling 
them ^ — a fact which I myself have noted, having 
often been present at the elections of their magis- 
trates. But this is not the proper occasion to discuss 
these matters. 

XXII. Thereupon ^ Tullius, having completed the 
business of the census, commanded all the citizens 
to assemble in arms in the largest field before the 
city ; 2 and having drawn up the horse in their 
respective squadrons and the foot in their massed 
ranks, and placed the light-armed troops each in 
their own centuries, he performed an expiatory 

even 70 have been suggested), and perhaps also those of 
the artisans and musicians (4 as before ?) and the one 
century of proletarii. The knights no longer voted first, 
but one century out of the first class (or possibly out of 
all five classes) was chosen by lot to give its vote first ; then 
followed the knights and the several classes in a fixed order. 
This reform may have been introduced at the time when the 
last two tribes were created, in 241 B.C. Livy's statement 
(i. 43, 12) is tantalizingly brief. 
: 2 Cf. Livy i. 44, 1 f . 
' The Campus Martius. 

337 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eTTOirjoaro ravpco /cat Kpio) /cat KaTrpcp.^ ra 
8' tepeta rayra rpls TrepLaxOrji'ai Trepl to arparo- 
TTchov KcXevaas eOvae ^ ru) KaT€)^ovrL ro ttcSIov 

2 "Apei. TOVTOV Tov KadapfJLOv la*? rajv /car' 
ijJie ■)(^p6va}v 'PcojJialoc KadaipovrcLi fjiera r'qv 
ovvreXeiav rcov rifi-qaecov vno rcov ixovrcov rrjv 
iepcordrrjv ap)^-^v, Xovcrrpov ovopid^ovTes, 

YiyeveTO S o avpura^ rcov TLpi,7]aapL€vojv roiis 
^Lovs 'PcopiaLcov dpidpios, cos iv roXs rt/xT^Tt/coi? 
(f>4p€Tai ypd/xfiaaiv, irrl pLvpidaLV oktoj ;^tAta8es' 

3 nevre TpiaKocricov aTroSeouaat. iTTOL-qcraro he 
/cat TTJs av^tjaecos tov ttoXitlkov avvrdypLaros 
ov pLLKpdv TTpovoiav ovros 6 ^aaiXevs, rrpdypia 
ovvlScov o TrapiXiTTOV diravres ol TTpo avrov 
^aaiXels. eKelvoi pikv yap roiig ^evovs VTrohe^d- 
fxevoi /cat ^eraStSoi^e? rrjs IcroTToXireias (jyvaiv t* 
ri TV-)(7]v avrojv ovhepilav dira^Lovvres , els ttoXv- 

4 avdpcoTTiav Trpo'qyayov Trjv ttoXlv 6 8e TuAAto? /cat 
rols eXevdepovfxevoLs rcov depaTTOvrcov, edv firj 
deXcoaiv ets rds eavrcov TroXeis aTTievai, pierex^i-v 
rrjs laoTToXireias eirerpeilfe. KeXevcras ^ yap dpux 
roils aXXoLs aTracnv eXevdepois /cat rovrovs TipL-q- 
aaadai rds ovaias, els <f>vXds Karera^ev avrovs 
Tas Kara ttoXiv rerrapas VTrap^ovcras , ev at? /cat 
fie)(pi ru>v Kad' rjpLas xpovcov rarrop^evov Stere'Aet * 
TO i^eXevdepiKov (f>vXov, oaov dv ■^' /cat Trduroiv 

^ Karrpw Roscher : rpdyo) 0, Jacoby. 

* Biicheler : edve 0. 

' €iT€TptiJ)e KeXfvaas B : eVeAcuaev em.rp&lias R. 

* 8ier<iX€i O : StaTcAei Cobet, Jacoby. 

* The sacrifice referred to is of course the well-known 
euovetaurilia. It seems incredible that Dionysius could have 



BOOK IV. 22, 1-4 

sacrifice for them with a bull, a ram and a boar.^ 
These victims he ordered to be led three times round 
the army and then sacrificed them to Mars, to whom 
that field is consecrated. The Romans are to this 
day purified by this same expiatory sacrifice, after 
the completion of each census, by those who are 
invested with the most sacred magistracy ,2 and they 
call the purification a lustrum.^ 

The number of all the Romans who then gave in a 
valuation of their possessions was, as appears by the 
censors' records, 84,700.* This king also took no 
small care to enlarge the body of citizens, hitting 
upon a method that had been overlooked by all the 
kings before him. For they, by receiving foreigners 
and bestowing upon them equal rights of citizenship 
without rejecting any, whatever their birth or con- 
dition, had indeed rendered the city populous ; but 
Tullius permitted even manumitted slaves to enjoy 
these same rights, unless they chose to return to 
their own countries. For he ordered these also to 
report the value of their property at the same time 
as all the other free men, and he distributed them 
among the four city tribes, in which the body of 
freedmen, however numerous, continued to be ranked 
even to my day; and he permitted them to share 

overlooked the obvious meaning of this compound word 
and substituted a goat for the boar, as our MSS. do. Roscher 
pointed out that the later Greeks sometimes performed a 
triple sacrifice of a bull, a ram and a goat, and he suggested 
that the knowledge of such a sacrifice may have misled a 
scribe who was less familiar with Roman customs. 

* The censorship. 

* From this original meaning the word lustrum came to be 
applied also to the entire period from one census to the next, 
and finally could be used of any five-year period. 

* Livy {I.e.) reports 80,000, Eutropius (i. 7) 83,000. 

339 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

OLTTeScoKe rojv kolvcov avrdls fxerex^iv Jiv TOt? 
aAAot? SrjiJiOTiKOLs. 

XXIII. A-)(dojX€.voiv 8e Twv TrarpiKLOiv cttI 
TO) TrpdyixaTL /cat Svaavaar^^erovvrcov avyKaXeaas 
TO TrXrjdos ets" eKKXr^criav , TTpcoTOV fjcev 6avfjidt,€i,v, 
e(f>r], Tojv dyavaKTOvvTcov , el rfj (f>va€L ro iXevdepov 
oiovrat rod hovXov Sta^epeti^, dAA' ov rfj rvxj]' 
kireLra el jxrj rots rjdecn /cat rolg rpoTTOis i^erd- 
^ovai Tovs d^iovs Tcov koXwv, aXXd rats ovv- 
rv^laLS, opcovres cvs dcrrddixrjrov icrri Trpay/ita 
€VTV)(ia /cat dyxicrTpo(f>ov, /cat ovSevl pahtov 
eiireZv ovhe rGiv Trdvv fxaKaplcov P'^xpi' rivos 

2 avro) TrapearaL xpovov. rj^iov r' avrovs oKOTrelv 
oaai fjiev rjSr) TroXeis e/c SovXelag piere^aXov eh 
eXevdepiav ^dpfiapoi re /cat 'EAAiyi^tSe?, ocrat S' 
ets" hovXeCav ef eXevdepias' evrjdeidv re TroXXrjv 
avrojv KareylvoiOKev, el rrjs eXevdepias rot? 
a^ioLs rwv depaiTovroiv {JLeraSiBovres, rrjg ttoXl- 
relas (f^dovovai- avve^ovXeve r avrols, el pLev 
TTovrjpovs vofiL^ovai, p,r] TTOielv eXevdepovs, el 
8e xPV^'^^^^y H-V 'n'epiopdv ovras dXXorpiovs' 

3 droTTov re Trpdyjxa TTOielv avrovs e^t] /cat dpLades 
airaaL roZs ^evoLS emrpeTTOvras rijs TToXecos 
fxerexeiv /cat piT] ScaKplvovras avrwv rds rvxcLS 
pirjS^ et rives e/c SovXcov eyevovro eXevdepoi 
TToXvTT pay pLovovvr as, rovs ^ Trapd a<f)iai SeSovXev- 
Koras dva^LOvs rjyeZadai ravrrjs rrjs xdpiros' 
cjjpovrjaei re hia<f)epeLV olopievovs rcov dXXcov 
ovSe rd ev ttoul /cat Koivorara opdv ecftaaKev, d /cat 
roLS ^avXordroLs etvai TrpoS-qXa, on roXs p-ev 
oecFTTorais TToXXrj (f)poyTts ear ai rod purj Ttpox^ipoiS 

* 8^ after rovs deleted by Kiessling, 
340 



BOOK IV. 22, 4-23, 3 

in all the privileges which were open to the rest of 
the plebeians. 

XXIII. The patricians being displeased and in- 
dignant at this, he called an assembly of the people 
and told them that he wondered at those who were 
displeased at his course, first, for thinking that free 
men differed from slaves by their very nature rather 
than by their condition, and, second, for not deter- 
mining by men's habits and character, rather than by 
the accidents of their fortune, those who were worthy 
of honours, particularly when they saw how unstable 
a thing good fortune is and how subject to sudden 
change, and how difficult it is for anyone, even of 
the most fortunate, to say how long it will remain 
with him. He asked them also to consider how many 
states, both barbarian and Greek, had passed from 
slavery to freedom and how many from freedom to 
slavery. He called it great folly on their part if, 
after they had granted liberty to such of their slaves 
as deserved it, they envied them the rights of 
citizens ; and he advised them, if they thought them 
bad men, not to make them free, and if good men, 
not to ignore them because they were foreigners. 
He declared that they were doing an absurd and stupid 
thing, if, while permitting all strangers to share the 
rights of citizenship without distinguishing their con- 
dition or inquiring closely whether any of them had 
been manumitted or not, they regarded such as had 
been slaves among themselves as unworthy of this 
favour. And he said that, though they thought them- 
selves wiser than other people, they did not even see 
what lay at their very feet and was to be observed 
every day and what was clear to the most ordinary men , 
namely, that not only the masters would take great 

341 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rivas iXevOepovv, cos ra fjLdyicrra tcjv iv avOpcoTTOts 
ayadCbv ols erv^c ScopT]aoix€voi9, rols Se hovXoig 
€T(, ^ fxcl^ojv VTrdp^ei Trpodvpiia ^^pTycrrots" etuat 
TTepl rovs SeCTTTOTa?, eav pAdaicriv on Trjs cAeu- 
deplas a^ioi Kpidcvres evSaifiovos evdecos Kal 
fieydXrjs eaovrai TToXiTai iroXeoiS, Kal ravd^ 
e^ovaiv 0LiJi,(f)6T€pa irapd tojv SeoTTorcov ray add. 

4 reX^VTuyv 8e rov Trepl rov avp.(j>epovros ela7]yrjaaro 
Xoyov, rovs p^cv CTnaTapiivovs V7Top,tp,vi^aKa}v, roiis 
8' dyvoovvras SiSdaKOJV, otl TToXei Svvaareias 
i<f)i€pev'rj /cat peydXcov 7Tpayp.drwv iavrrjv d^iovcrrj 
ovSivos ovru) Set Trpdyp-aros cu? TToXvavdpcoTTias , 
tP'a BiapKear) Trpos rravras rovs TToXip^ovs ot/ceioi? 
ottXois xP^H'^^' '^"^ H-l ieviKols arparevpaai 
KarapLa6o(f)opovaa arvve^avaXcodfj rols p^prj/naaf 
Kal Bid rovro e^-q rovs irporepovs ^aaiXeZs aTraai 

5 pcraBeScoKevai rijs iToXireias rols ^cvols. €i 
Se Kal rovrov Karaarrjaovrai rov vopov, 7roXXr)v 
avrols eXeyev e/c ra>v cXevdepovpevojv €TTLrpa(f)'q- 
oeadai veorrjra Kal ovScrrore aTTop'qaeiv rrjv 
TToXiv OLKelcov ottXcov, dAA' €^€LV Svvdpins aiel ^ 
SiapKels, Kov TTpos irdvras dvdpcoTTOvs dvay- 

6 Kaadfj TToXepielv. p^copt? Se rov KOturj ;^/07^crt/Ltou 
Kal tSio. TToXXd ci)<f)€X-qa€a9ai rovs eviropwrdrovs 
'Va)paiix)v, idv rovs dneXevdepovs iajai rrjs 
TToXireias p^erix^LV, iv eKKXr]aiaLS re /cat i(jr](f)0(f)o- 
plais Kal rals dXXais TToXiriKals ;(/)€iai9 rds 
^dpiras iv ols pidXiara Siovrat TrpdypaoL 
Kopit,op,ivovs Kal roiis e/c rtov aTreXevdipuyv 
yivopevovs TreXdras rols iyyovots rols iaurcbv 

7 /caTaAeiTTovTa?.^ rotaura Xiyovros avrov avv- 

^ In Kiessling : on O. 



BOOK IV. 23, 3-7 

care not to manumit any of their slaves rashly, for 
fear of granting the greatest of human blessings 
indiscriminately, but the slaves too would be more 
zealous to serve their masters faithfully when they 
knew that if they were thought worthy of liberty 
they should presently become citizens of a great and 
flourishing state and receive both these blessings 
from their masters. He concluded by speaking of 
the advantage that would result from this policy, 
reminding those who understood such matters, and 
informing the ignorant, that to a state which aimed 
at supremacy and thought itself worthy of great 
things nothing was so essential as a large population, 
in order that it might be equal to carrying on all its 
wars with its own armed forces and might not exhaust 
itself as well as its wealth in hiring mercenary 
troops ; and for this reason, he said, the former kings 
had granted citizenship to all foreigners. But if 
they enacted this law also, great numbers of youths 
would be reared from those who were manumitted 
and the state would never lack for armed forces of its 
own, but would always have sufficient troops, even if it 
should be forced to make war against all the world. 
And besides this advantage to the public, the richest 
men would privately receive many benefits if they 
permitted the freedmen to share in the government, 
since in the assemblies and in the voting and in their 
other acts as citizens they would receive their reward 
in the very situations in which they most needed it, 
and furthermore would be leaving the children of 
these freedmen as so many clients to their posterity. 
These arguments of TuUius induced the patricians 

* aiei Kiessling : dyeiv 0. 

• Kiessling : /caroAtTrdinras 0. 

343 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

exc^pyjoav ol irarpLKLoi to edos els rrjv voXiv 
TTapeXdeZv, kol fJ-expi rcbv Ka9* ^{Jt^dg ^povcov cos 
€v rt, rcjv lepcov /cat aKLvijrojv vopblfjuov StareAet 
TOUT ev rfj voXei (f)vXaTT6{M€vov . 

XXIV. EttciSi^ 8e Kara tovto yiyova to 
fiepos TTJs SLrjyqaecos, avayKoiov etvai fioi Sok€l 
SieA^eti^ at? etxe rore tols 'PcofiaLois to, Trepl 
roiis SovXovs €07], tva /xtJtc top ^aiXia tov 
vpcoTOv eiTLX^ip-^aavTa rovs SeSovXevKoras dcrrovs 
TTOtetv p/rjTe rovs TrapaSe^afjuevovs rov vofjuiv iv 
an Lais axfj ns, d)S piTTrovvras elKrj ra KoXd. 

2 irvyxo-vov 8r) roXs 'Pco/xaiois" at rcov depairovTcov 
KrrjoeLs Kara rovs St/catoTttTOUS" ytt-o/xevat rponovs. 
7] yap CDV^adfJievoL irapd rov SrjfMoaLov rovs 

VTTO BopV 7TCoXoV[JL€VOVS €K TCOV Xa<f)VpO}V, r^ 

rod arparriyov avyxojp'qcravros a/xa Tat? aAAai? 
ctx^eAetats" /cat rovs SopiaXcvrovs roXs Xa^ovaiv 
ex^iv, •^ TrpidfjievoL ^ Trap* irepcov Kara rovs 
avrovs rpOTTOVs Kvpicov yevop,€vo}v eKeKrrjvro rovs 

3 oouAoys'. ovSev 8'q irpdyixa noieXv alaxvvr]s rj 
PXdprjs KOLvrjs a'iriov ovd^ 6 TuAAto? o Kara- 
arr]aafjL€vos ro eOos ovd' ol TrapaSe^dfievoi /cat 
BLa(j)vXd^avT€s <^ovro, el rots d(f)aLp€deXaLV iv 
TToXepLO) rrjv re narplSa /cat rrjv eXevdepiav XPV~ 
aroXs yevofievoLs Trepl rovs KaraSovXcoaafievovs ^ 
rovs TTapd rovrcov npLafxevovs dp,(f>6repa ravra 

4 TTapd rdJv BeaTTorcov VTrdp^ei. ervyxavov 8e rrjs 
eXevdepias ol fjiev TrXeXaroi TrpoXKa 8td /coAo/cdya- 
^tav /cat Kpdriaros aTtaXXayrjs Searrorajv rpoTTOs 
ovros '^v oXlyoi Se rives Xvrpa Kararidevres i^ 
oaioiv /cat SiKaicov ipyaaiajv avvaxdivra. 

^ npidfievoi K : npiofitvois AB, Jacoby. 
344 



BOOK IV. 23, 7-24, 4 

to permit this custom to be introduced into the 
commonwealth, and to this day it continues to be 
observed by the Romans as one of their sacred and 
unalterable usages. 

XXIV. Now that I have come to this part of my 
narrative, I think it necessary to give an account of the 
customs which at that time prevailed among the 
Romans with regard to slaves, in order that no one 
may accuse either the king who first undertook to 
make citizens of those who had been slaves, or 
the Romans who accepted the law, of recklessly 
abandoning their noble traditions. The Romans 
acquired their slaves by the most just means ; for 
they either purchased them from the state at an 
auction ^ as part of the spoils, or the general per- 
mitted the soldiers to keep the prisoners they had 
taken together with the rest of the booty, or else 
they bought them of those who had obtained pos- 
session of them by these same means. So that 
neither Tullius, who established this custom, nor those 
who received and maintained it thought they were 
doing anything dishonourable or detrimental to the 
public interest, if those who had lost both their 
country and their liberty in war and had proved 
loyal to those who had enslaved them, or to those 
who had purchased them from these, had both 
those blessings restored to them by their masters. 
Most of these slaves obtained their liberty as a free 
gift because of meritorious conduct, and this was the 
best kind of discharge from their masters ; but a 
few paid a ransom raised by lawful and honest 
labour. 

* Literally, "sold under the spear." Dionysius here uses 
a Latinism {sub hasta vendere). 

345 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

AAA ovK iv Tols Ka9* rjfjids "xpovois ovrco 
ravr e^ei, oAA' et? roaavrrjv avyxvcriv tjkci ra 
Trpdyfiara /cat ra KoXa ttjs 'Piofiaccov TroAeco? 
ovTOJs arifxa /cat pvrrapa yeyovev, cSct^' ol yiev 
aiTO Xr)(jr€Las /cat Tot^copy^^ta? /cat iropveias /cat 
TTavTos aXXov TTOvrjpov TTOpov ■)(prip.aTtadiJi€voL 
rovTwv (hvovvrai rcov ^(^prjixdrcDV rrju iXevdepiau 

6 /cat evdvs cIgl 'Pco/xatof ol Se avviaropes /cat 
avvepyol tols BeaTrorais yevofievoi <j>apfxaKeLii}v 
Koi dvSpo(f}ovLajv /cat tcSv els deovs ^ to kolvou 
dSiKrjixdTOJV TavTas (f>epovTai Trap' avT(x)v ra? 
■)(dpiTas' ol 8' ij'a tov brj^oaia SiBofxevov oltov 
XafJL^dvovTcs Kord firjva /cat et rt? oAAiy Trapa 
Toil' 'Qyovfievojv yiyvovro tols diropoLS twv ttoXi- 
Twv (f)LXav9pa)7TLa (f>€pco(n tols SeSco/cocrt Trjv 
iXevOepiav ol Se Std Kov^oTrfTa Tibv SecrTTOTWv 

6 /cat Kevr)v So^OKOTriav. eymy ovv I'nlaTa.p.al 
TLvas aTTaoL toZs SovXols crvyKexcjprjKoTas etvai 
iXevdepoLs fieTa Tas eavTcov TeXevrds, tva XPV~ 

CTTOt KoXoJVTai VCKpol Kol TToXXol TOLS /cAtVat? 

avTOJV eKKopLLt^opiivaLS TrapaKoXovOcoai tovs ttlXovs 
exovTes ctti rat? /ce^aAats" iv ols eTTOfJiTTevov TLves, 
ws '^v TTapd Tctjv iTnarafievoiv aKoveLV, e/c tcov 
BeafiojTTjpLOJv i^cXrjXvOoTes dpTLOJS KaKovpyoL 
fivpLOJv af ta SiaTTeTTpayfJLevoL davdTcuv. els tovtovs 
fxevToi tovs SvaeKKaddpTovs ottlXous ^ e/c ttjs 
noXecDS dTTo^XiiTovTes ol ttoXXol Svax^palvovaL 

^ Sylburg : m'Aous 0. 



^ The pUleus was a brimless (or almost brimless) cap, 
generally of felt. In the form worn by all Romans at the 



BOOK IV. 24, 4-6 

This, however, is not the case in our day, but things 
have come to such a state of confusion and the 
noble traditions of the Roman commonwealth have 
become so debased and sullied, that some who have 
made a fortune by robbery, housebreaking, pros- 
titution and every other base means, purchase their 
freedom with the money so acquired and straightway 
are Romans. Others, who have been confidants 
and accomplices of their masters in poisonings, 
murders and in crimes against the gods or the state, 
receive from them this favour as their reward. 
Some are freed in order that, when they have received 
the monthly allowance of corn given by the public 
or some other largesse distributed by the men in 
power to the poor among the citizens, they may bring 
it to those who granted them their freedom. And 
others owe their freedom to the levity of their masters 
and to their vain thirst for popularity. I, at any 
rate, know of some who have allowed all their slaves 
to be freed after their death, in order that they might 
be called good men when they were dead and that 
many people might follow their biers wearing their 
liberty-caps;^ indeed, some of those taking part in 
these processions, as one might have heard from those 
who knew, have been malefactors just out of jail, 
who had committed crimes deserving of a thousand 
deaths. Most people, nevertheless, as they look 
upon these stains ^ that can scarce be washed away 
from the city, are grieved and condemn the custom. 

Saturnalia and by newly emancipated slaves it was nearly 
cylindrical. 

* There is probably an intentional pun in the Greek between 
ottIXovs ("stains") and irlXovs ("caps") just above. A few 
lines later the historian substitutes another word {pvTrovs) for 
cmiXovs- 

347 

VOL. II. M 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/cat TTpo^e^Xrjvrat, to eOos, cos ov vpeTTOV i^ye- 
[XoviKfj TToAet /cat Travros apx^iv d^iovarj tottov 
roiovTOVs TTOielddai TroAtVas'. 

7 ''E;;^ot S* av tis ttoAAo. /cat aAAa Sta^aAetv e^iy 
/caAcus" /xev wtto tcDv apxcicov imvorjOevra, /ca/ccD? 
S' UTTO raJv vvv eTTLTpL^opbeva. iyo) 8e tov 
vopov rovrov ovk oto/xat Selv avaLpeiv, [Mrj ri 
fiell^ov eKpayfj rep kolvco 8t' avrov KaKov eTTOV- 
opQovadai pivroL <f)r]p,l Seiv ra Swara /cat p,r) 
TT^piopdv ovetSr] /xeyaAa /cat pvTTOvs hvaeK- 

8 Kaddprovs et? ti]!^ TToXireiav elaayopievovs. /cat 
pdXicrra p,€v rovs rip,r]rds d^icoaaip, av rovrov 
rov p.lpovs TTpovoelv el Se p,-/^ ye/ rovs virarovs 
(Set yap dpx'^S nvos pbeydXrjs), ot rovs Kad^ 
eKaarov iviavrov iXevdepovs yivop,evovs e^erdcrovac, 
rives ovres /cat 8ta ti /cat rraJs rjXevOepwdrjaav, 
woTTep ye rovs rcov Imreajv /cat rovs rcov ^ovXevrcov 
^iovs e^erdt,ovaLv cTret^' ovs p^ev dv evpcoaiv 
d^tovs rrjs TroXeoJS ovras, ets <f>vXds /cara- 
ypdijjovai /cat pueveLV e(f)T]aovai,v ^ iv rfj TToAei, to 
Se piapov KoX dKddaprov (f)vXov eVjSaAoucrtr e/c rrjs 
TToXeios, evirperres ovopa ro) irpdypiari ridevres,^ 
aTTOLKiav. ravra pev ovv rrjs VTTodeaeojs airairov- 
arjs dvayKolov re /cat hiKaiov eSo^ev etj^at /xot 
TTpos roiis emrLpidJvras rots 'Pcopaiiov edecnv 
clrrelv. 

XXV. *0 Se TuAAtos OVK iv rovrois povov 
roLs TToXirevpiacrL SrjpxiriKos iov iS'qXwaev, ev 
ols eSoKei rrp) re rrjs ^ovXrjs e^ovalav /cat r-qv 
rojv rrarpiKicov hvvaarelav eXarrovv, aAAa Kat 

1 ye added by Kiessling. 
* Kiessling : d^TJaovmv AB. 



BOOK IV. 24, 6-25, 1 

looking upon it as unseemly that a dominant city 
which aspires to rule the whole world should make 
such men citizens. 

One might justly condemn many other customs 
also which were wisely devised by the ancients 
but are shamefully abused by the men of to-day. 
Yet, for my part, I do not believe that this law ought 
to be abolished, lest as a result some greater evil 
should break out to the detriment of the public ; 
but I do say that it ought to be amended, as far as 
possible, and that great reproaches and disgraces 
hard to be wiped out should not be permitted 
entrance into the body politic. And I could wish 
that the censors, preferably, or, if that may not be, 
then the consuls, would take upon themselves the 
care of this matter, since it requires the control of 
some important magistracy, and that they would 
make inquiries about the persons who are freed each 
year — who they are and for what reason they have 
been freed and how — ^just as they inquire into the 
lives of the knights and senators ; after which they 
should enroll in the tribes such of them as they find 
worthy to be citizens and allow them to remain in 
the city, but should expel from the city the foul and 
corrupt herd under the specious pretence of sending 
them out as a colony. These are the things, then, 
which, as the subject required it, I thought it both 
necessary and just to say to those who censure the 
customs of the Romans. 

XXV. Tullius showed himself a friend to the people, 
not only in these measures by which he seemed to 
lessen the authority of the senate and the power of the 

' TiddvTcs B : d4vT€s A. 

349 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

iv ots rrjv^aatXiKrjv dpx^^ efieicoaev avros iaxrrov 
rrjv rjfjiiaeLav Trjs e^ovaias a.(f>eX6iJLevos. rojv 
yap TTpo avrov ^aaiXecov aTrdaag a^iovvroiv €cf> 
iavrovs dyeiv rds SiKas Kal vavra rd iyKX'^p.ara 
rd r tSia /cat rd Koiva Trpos top eavrdJv Tpoirov 
hLKaiC,6vTa)v , CKelvos BieXcbv aTTO rcov IBlcotikwv 
rd hrip,6aia, rcov fiev els to kolvov (j)ep6vro)V 
dhiKrip^dTOJV CLVTOS eTTOielro rds hiayvcoaeis, roJv 
S' ISicDrLKcbv ISccoras era^ev elvat, hcKaaras, opovs 
Kal Kavovas avrols rd^as ovs avrds eypatpe vofiovs. 
'ETTet 8' avrw rd iv rij TroAei rrpdyfjiara rov 
Kpdriarov elXrj(f)ei Koapbov, els iTndvpilav rjXdev 
eTTicjiaves n SiaTrpa^dpievos alcoviov eavrov pbvqixrjv 
rots €TTLyLvop.€Vois KaraXiTTelv. i(f>Lards 8e rqv 
Bidvotav iiTL rd ra>v dp)(aicov ^aaiXeoiv re Kai 
noXiriKCJV dvhpcbv ixirqpLeia, e^ (Lv els ovopiara Kat 
ho^as ^ TTporjXdov, ovre rov Ba^vXcoviov reixovs 
epLaKapiae rqv ^Acravplav eKeivqv yvvaZica ovre 
rdjv iv Me/x^et TTVpapiiSojv rovs AlyvTrrov ^aaiXeis 
ovr el ns aXXr] nXovrov kol 7ToXv)^€LpLas iTrihei^ts 
rjv dvBpos rjyepLovos, dXXd ravra irdvra puKpa 
/cat 6XLyo-)(p6vLa /cat ovk afta crTrouSTys" rjyiqaa- 
[xevos 6>ped)s r dirdras, ovk dXrjOels ^iov ^ koX 
7Tpaypi,dra)v wcfteXelas , ii cov jLta/captCT/xot rots 
KaracTKevaaapLevoLs rjKoXovdovv pLovov,^ e-naivov 
Se /cat * tjiXov d^ia rd rrjs yvcopLtjs epya VTToXa^cov, 

^ ovofiaTa Kal Sofa? : ovo/xa Kal 86^av Steph.^ 

* OVK dXtjdels piov Reiske: ovk els^'-ovs 0, ovk tig fiiov Steph.* 

* (lovov : /xoVots Kiessling. 

* iTToUvov Se Koi Steph. : enaivoi 8e ov Ba, enaivov Se ov Bb, 
inaivov Be ovhe A ; eiraivoi Se ov, ^-qXav 8e a^ia Kiessling ; «^ 
(Lv fxaKapiafiol fxev (for fiovov) . . , "qKoXovdovv, enaivoi S* ov 
Cobet. 

m 



BOOK IV. 25, 1-3 

patricians, but also in those by which he diminished 
the royal power, of half of which he deprived him- 
self. For whereas the kings before him had thought 
proper to have all causes brought before them and 
had determined all suits both private and public as 
they themselves thought fit, he, making a distinction 
between public and private suits, took cognizance 
himself of all crimes which affected the public, but 
in private causes appointed private persons to be 
judges, prescribing for them as norms and standards 
the laws which he himself had established. 

When ^ he had arranged affairs in the city in the 
best manner, he conceived a desire to perpetuate 
his memory Avith posterity by some illustrious 
enterprise. And upon turning his attention to the 
monuments both of ancient kings and statesmen by 
which they had gained reputation and glory, he did 
not envy either that Assyrian woman ^ for having 
built the walls of Babylon, or the kings of Egypt for 
having raised the pyramids at Memphis, or any other 
prince for whatever monument he might have 
erected as a display of his riches and of the multitude 
of workmen at his command. On the contrary, he 
regarded all these things as trivial and ephemeral 
and unworthy of serious attention, mere beguile- 
ments for the eyes, but no real aids to the conduct 
of life or to the administration of public affairs, since 
they led to nothing more than a reputation for 
great felicity on the part of those who built them. 
But the things that he regarded as worthy of praise 
and emulation were the works of the mind, the 



1 For chap. 25, 3-26, 5 c/. Livy i. 45, 1-3. 
« Semiramis. 



351 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

"^S ^ TrXelaTOL r aTToXavovai. koI iirl [X'qKiaTOV 
Xpovov KapTTOvvrai ras co^eAeia?, TrdvrcDV jxdXicrTa 
r(x)v TOLOvrojv epycov rrjv * AiJ,(f)LKTVovog rod 
"KX\7)vos eTTLVOiav rjydcrOr], os daOeves opcvv /cat 
pdSiov VTTO Toyv irepioiKovvroiv ^ap^dpcov i^avaXo)- 
drjvai TO '^XXrjviKov yevos, els rrjv ctt cKeLVOv 
KXrjdelaav * AfJi(f>LKrvoviKrjV avvoSov /cat rrav- 
riyvpiv avro avvqyaye, vojJiovs Karacrrrjadixevos 
e^o) Twv Ihictiv, wv eKdarr] ttoXis ^^X^' rovs koivovs 
OLTTaaLV, ovg KaXovaiv ^AiJL(f)LKTVOVLKovs, ef (ov 
(f>LXoi p,€V 6vT€S dXXt^XoLs SLiTeXovv Kol TO avyyeves 
(f)vXdTTOVT€s fxdiXXov epyoLS rj XoyoLS, XvTrrjpol 8e 

4 TOLS ^ap^dpoLS Kal (f>o^€poi. Trap' ov to irapd- 
heiyjxa Xa^ovTcs "lojves re ol /xera^e/xevot Trjv 
OLKrjaLV e/c Trjs Eupa»7rrj? eiV Ta TrapadaXdTTia 
TTJs Kapia? Kal AcopieZs ol rrepl tovs avTovs 
TOTTOVs TOLS TToAet? IhpvodpievoL lepd KaTeoKevaaav 
aTTO Koivojv dvaXojfidTCDV "la)V€S p-ev iv 'E^ecro) 
TO TTJs 'A/aTe/xtSoj, Acoptet? S' em TpioTrio) to 
Tov 'AttoXXojvos' €v6a avviovTes yvvai^lv op,ov 
/cat TCKvois KaTo. tovs dTToheixd^vTas XP°^^^^ 
avvedvov re /cat avve'navriyvpit,ov koX dycbvas 
CTTeTeXovv lttttikovs /cat yvpiviKovs /cat tcjv 
TTcpl [xovaiKrjv dKovcrp,dT(ov Kal tovs deovs 

5 dvadiqpiaai kolvoZs ihoipovvTO. deayprjuavTes Se 
/cat TTavrjyvpLoavTes Kal tols oAAa? (f)iXocf>poavvas 

^ ^s : <Lv Reiske. 

^ The Greek words can mean either ' ' the son of Hellen ' * 
or " the Greek"; but the latter does not seem to be a very 
natural way of describing him. Other writers regularly 
regarded Amphictyon as the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, 
and thus the brother of Hellen. Spelman proposed to add 

352 



BOOK IV. 25, 3-5 

advantages from which are enjoyed by the greatest 
number of people and for the greatest length of time. 
And of all the achievements of this nature he admired 
most the plan of Amphictyon, the son of Hellen,i 
who, seeing the Greek nation weak and easy to be 
destroyed by the barbarians who surrounded them, 
brought them together in a general council and 
assemblage of the whole nation, named after him 
the Amphictyonic council ; and then, apart from the 
particular laws by which each city was governed, 
established others common to them all, which they 
call the Amphictyonic laws, in consequence of which 
they hved in mutual friendship, and fulfilling the 
obligations of kinship by their actions rather than by 
their professions, continued troublesome and for- 
midable neighbours to the barbarians. His example 
was followed by the lonians who, leaving Europe, 
settled in the maritime parts of Caria, and also by the 
Dorians, who built their cities in the same resrion 
and erected temples at the common expense — the 
lonians building the temple of Diana at Ephesus and 
the Dorians that of Apollo at Triopium — where they 
assembled with their wives and children at the 
appointed times, joined together in sacrificing and 
celebrating the festival, engaged in various contests, 
equestrian, gymnastic and musical, and made joint 
offerings to the gods. After they had witnessed the 
spectacles, celebrated the festival, and received the 

the word d8eX<f>ov (" brother") to the Greek text here. The 
ancients did not all accept this aetiological myth as the true 
explanation of the Amphictyons and the Amphictyonic 
League. Several of the later authors rightly recognized in 
dfi<j)iKTvoves a mere variant of a.ix(f>iKrioves ("those dwelling 
round about," "neighbours"), the equivalent of Homer's 
TreptifTioves. 

353 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Trap' oAAt^Acov dvaXa^ovres , et tl TrpoaKpovcfia 
TToAei ^ Ttpos TToXtv iyeyovcL, hLKaarai Ka6- 

€t,6fJi€VOL SlT^TCOV, Kal 7T€pl TOV TTpOS TOV? ^ap^dpOVS 

TToXefjLOV Kal TTepi rrjs Trpos aXXt^Xovs op-o^pocruvrig 
6 KOLvdg eiTOLovvro jSouAa?. ravra Srj Kal rd 
opLoia rovroLS TrapaheiypiaTa Xa^cov TrpodvpLtav 
eax€ Kal avros d-ndaas rds p.ere'xpvaas TroAets" 
rod Aarlvojv yevovs avarrjcraL Kal avvayayelv , 
Iva pLT] araaidl^ovaai Kal TToXepLOvaai Trpos oAAi^- 
Xas VTTO Tcbv TTpocroiKovvTcov ^ap^dpcov rrjv 
eXevdepiav df/jaipedcoai,. 

XXVI . Tvovs 8e ravra roiis Kpariarovs 
dvhpas i^ eKdarrjs TToXeois cruveAcaAet nepl fxeydXcov 
Kal KOLvdJv (jiT^aas rrpaypidrcov avpc^ovXovs avrovs 
avyKoXetv. inel Se ovvijXdov, avvayayojv rrjv 
re 'Pa)p,aicov ^ovXrjv Kal rovs aTTO rojv iroXecov 
rJKovras Xoyov Sie^T^A^e TrapaKXrjrtKov opiovoias, 
hihdaKOJV <hs KoXov p,€v )(^prjpa TToXXal TroXeis 
pLia yvwpLfi )(pa)p,€vai, alcr^pd 8 oi/rt? airyyevdJv 
aAAi^Aais" SLa(f)€popi€va>v atriov r la)(^vos p-ev 
rats dadevecLv dTTO<^aivcjov 6pLO(f)poavvr}v, raneivo- 
rrjros 8e Kal dadevetas Kal rals ttow laxv- 
2 pals dXXr]Xo(f)6opiav .^ ravra Su^eXOcov eSihaaKev 
avrovs ws XPV AaTiVou? piev rcov TrpoaoLKcov 
dp)(€iv Kal rd SiVaia rdrretv "EXXrjvas ovras 
^ap^dpois' 'Vcjpiaiovs 8e rr^v dTravrtov Aarivcov 
ex^i'V TTpoaraalav pieyedei re TToXecos rrpovxovras 
Kal TTpaypidrojv oyKcp koX rfj Trpovoia rod 8at/xo- 
viov KpeirrovL Kexp'^ip^^vovs eKeivoiv, 8i riv els 



^ ■n6X€i added by Reiske. 

* a.XXr]Xo(f)dopiav Cobet : dXXrjXo^Ooviav 0. 



354 



BOOK IV. 25, 5-26, 2 

other evidences of goodwill from one another, if any 
difference had arisen between one city and another, 
arbiters sat in judgment and decided the controversy ; 
and they also consulted together concerning the 
means both of carrying on the war against the bar- 
barians and of maintaining their mutual concord. 
These and the like examples inspired Tullius also 
with a desire of bringing together and uniting all 
the cities belonging to the Latin race, so that they 
might not, as the result of engaging in strife at 
home and in wars with one another, be deprived of 
their liberty by the neighbouring barbarians. 

XXVI. After he had taken this resolution he 
called together the most important men of every 
city, stating that he was summoning them to take 
counsel with him about matters of great consequence 
and of mutual concern. When they had assembled, 
he caused the Roman senate and these men who 
came from the cities to meet together, and made a 
long speech exhorting them to concord, pointing 
out what a fine thing it is when a number of states 
agree together and what a disgraceful sight when 
kinsmen are at variance, and declaring that con- 
cord is a source of strength to weak states, while 
mutual slaughter reduces and weakens even the 
strongest. After this he went on to show them that 
the Latins ought to have the command over their 
neighbours and, being Greeks, ought to give laws to 
barbarians, and that the Romans ought to have the 
leadership of all the Latins, not only because they 
excelled in the size of their city and the greatness 
of their achievements, but also because they, more 
than the others, had enjoyed the favour of divine 
providence and in consequence had attained to so 

355 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ro(Tavrr]v i7Ti,(f)dv€Lav vpoijXOov. roiavra Ste^- 
eXdcov avve^ovXevev avrols lepov acrvXov o-tto kolvojv 
dvaXcofJidrcov iv 'Pcu/xrj KaraaKeudaaadaL, ev w 
dvaovai re at TrdAet? avvepxcfMevai Kad^ eKaarov 
iviavrov iSt'a? re /cat Kotvds Ovaias Kai vav- 
rjyvpeis a^ovaiv, iv ols dv opiacoai. ^porot?, /cat, 
€t Tt yevoiro irpoaKpovapLa avraZs rrpos aXXrjXas, 
Kara ra)V lepcijv ^ rovro ^ SLoXvaovraL, rat? 
a'AAat? TToXeoLU imrpeiljaaaL rd ey/cArJjuara 8ta- 
yvcovai. Steftoji' ravra re /cat oaa dXXa e^ovoLv 
dyad a ^ovXevrrjpiov iyKaraar-qadfievoi, Trdvras 
CTTeiae rovs ev rip avvehpicp irapovras' /cat piera 
rovro KareaKevaaev e| wv diraaoL avvriveyKav at 
TToAet? ^(^pripLdraiv rdv rijs 'ApreyLttSo? vecov, rov 
eTTL rov pueyiarov rdJv iv r-fj 'PcujU-ry X6<f)cov I8pv- 
piivov ^ Kovevrivov /cat rovs vopiovs avveypaipe 
rals rroXeat rrpog aAAT^Aa? Kat rdAAa rd vepi rr]v 
eoprrjv /cat Trau-qyvpiu, ov iTTLreXeadrjaerai rporrov, 
era^ev. Iva 8e pLr]8eLS XP^^°^ avrovs dcfjavicrr), 
crr'qXrjv KaraaKevdaas p^aA/c-^v eypai/jev iv ravrrj 
rd re So^ap-ra rots avvehpois /cat to.? pterexovaas 
rrj? avvoBov TroAet?. avrq hiepLeivev rj (jr-qXrj 
piexpt' rrjs ip-'^S rjXLKias iv ra> rrjs ^AprepLiSos 
Upo) Keip.evr] ypapLp-drcuv exovaa ;)^apa/CT'>^/3as' ^ 
ols rd TToXaiov tj 'EAAas ixpT]TO.'^ o Kat avro 
rroirjaair dv ris ov puLKpov reKpit^ptov rov p,7] 
^ap^dpovs elvat rovs OLKLoavras rr]v Pcopi-qv 
ov ydp dv 'EAAr^v'i/cot? ixpdJvro ypdpip-aaiv ovres 

^ Kara raiv ifpu>v Naber : c'k tcDv tepcuv 0, Jacoby, cV tuiv 
Koivaiv Schaller, (k twv lowv Kiessling. 
* TovTO B : TOVTWv A, vofj-cov Reiskc. 
^ 'EXXr]vi.Ku>v after xoipo-Krijpas deleted by Kiessling. 



BOOK IV, 26, a-5 

great eminence. Having said this, he advised them 
to build a temple of refuge at Rome at their joint 
expense, to which the cities should repair every 
year and offer up sacrifices both individually and 
in common, and also celebrate festivals at such 
times as they should appoint ; and if any difference 
should arise between these cities, they should 
terminate it over the sacrifices, submitting their 
complaints to the rest of the cities for decision. 
By enlarging upon these and the many other 
advantages they would reap from the appointment 
of a general council, he prevailed on all who were 
present at the session to give their consent. And 
later, with the money contributed by all the cities, 
he built the temple of Diana, which stands upon 
the Aventine, the largest of all the hills in Rome ; 
and he drew up laws relating to the mutual rights 
of the cities and prescribed the manner in which 
everything else that concerned the festival and the 
general assembly should be performed. And to the 
end that no lapse of time should obliterate these 
laws, he erected a bronze pillar upon which he 
engraved both the decrees of the council and the 
names of the cities which had taken part in it. This 
pillar still existed down to my time in the temple 
of Diana, with the inscription in the characters 
that were anciently used in Greece.^ This alone 
would serve as no slight proof that the founders of 
Rome were not barbarians ; for if they had been, 
they would not have used Greek characters. These 

^ The Romans got their alphabet from the Greeks (Chal- 
cidians) who settled at Cumae and Neapolis. 

* Cobet : expS.TO 0. 

357 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

6 pdp^apoi. TToAiTt/cai fiev Srj Trpd^ets rov ^aai- 
Xeois rovTOV avv aAAat? TroAAat? eXdrroai re 
Kal dixavporepai^ at fxeyccrrai /cat XaiXTrporaraL 
avrai ^ fivrjuovevovrat, TToXefXLKal 8' at ^ npos 
€v TO TvpprjvoJv edvos yevopbevai, uepl cSv fieXXoj 
vvv SiefteWt. 

XXVII. Mero. TTiv TapKvviov reXevrrjv at 
TTapaBovaai rqv 'qyeixoviav eKeivco TroXeis ovKeri 
(f)vXdrT€LV i^ovXovTO rds opLoXoyias, TvXXico r 
ovK d^iovaat raTreivw Kara yevos ovtl viraKoveiv 
Kat T7]v hia^opdv tcov TrarpLKLCov rrjv Trpos rov 
Tjyefxova yevofievrjv [xeydXr^v a^laiv oi^eAeiav' 

2 vape^eiv vo/jLi^ovaai. rjp^av ^ Se rifs aTroard- 
aecos oi KaXovjjLevoL Ovievravol koI roXg iXdovai 
vapa rov TvXXlov Trpea^evraZs dveKpivavro ^rjSe- 
jLttai' etP'at a(f)iai npog eKetvou p^t^d' vTrep riye/JLo- 
vias 7Tapa)(OjpTja€a)s P-'f^re irepl ^iXias koX 
avp,pLa)(^Las avvQ-qKriv. dp^dvrcov 8e rovrcov 
K.aipr)ravoi r rjKoXov6r]aau Kal TapKvvirjraL, 
Kal reXevrcbaa iv ottXols rjv diraaa rj Tvpprjvia. 

3 ovros 6 TToXep.o's eiKocn SiefieLvev errj avvexdJs 
TToXepiovfievos ela^oXdg re TToXXds dp.(f)OTepa)V 
/LieyaAot? arparevp-aai TTOcovpievcov els rrjv dXXij-j 
Xct)u Kal Trapard^eis dXXas eV a'AAat? avvtara"', 
p,evojv. ev aTrdaaig Se rat? p,dxo.is Karopdwv 6 
1 uAAios", oaai Kara TToAet? re Kal Trpos oXov ro 
edvos avra> avvearrjaav, Kal rpialv €7n(f)aveard- 
roLs Kocr[xr]9els dpidfx^oLs reXevrcop rjvdyKaae 
rous OVK d^Lovvras dp^eaOaL rov ;(aAt^'6^' aKovras * 

^ auTtti Bb : Toiaurai ABa. 

* at B(?), Reiske: om. R. 

* Cobet : rjp^avTO O, Jacoby. 



BOOK IV. 26, 6-27, 3 

are the most important and most conspicuous 
administrative measures that are recorded of this 
king, besides many others of less note and certainty. 
His military operations were directed against one 
nation only, that of the Tyrrhenians ; of these I shall 
now give an account. 

XXVII. After ^ the death of Tarquinius those 
cities which had yielded the sovereignty to him 
refused to observe the terms of their treaties any 
longer, disdaining to submit to Tullius, since he was a 
man of lowly birth, and anticipating great advan- 
tages for themselves from the discord that had 
arisen between the patricians and their ruler. The 
people called the Veientes were the leaders of this 
revolt ; and when Tullius sent ambassadors they 
replied that they had no treaty with him either 
concerning their yielding the sovereignty or con- 
cerning friendship and an alliance. These having 
set the example, the people of Caere and Tarquinii 
followed it, and at last all Tyrrhenia was in arms. 
This war lasted for twenty years without inter- 
mission, during which time both sides made many 
irruptions into one another's territories, with great 
armies and fought one pitched battle after another. 
But Tullius, after being successful in all the battles 
in which he engaged, both against the several cities 
and against the whole nation, and after being 
honoured with three most splendid triumphs, at last 
forced those who refused to be ruled to accept the 

1 Cf. Livy i. 42, 2 f. 

* uKovras Hertlein : CKovras 0, Jacoby. Hertlein also 
retained ^Kovras, but placed it after a^iovvTas- 

359 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 Xa^elv. elKocTTO) 8' ovv erei avveXdovaai ttoXiv 
at 8a)8e/ca TroAet? i^avrjXcofievat. rep ttoX^^xco rd 
T€ awfJiara Kal ra ^^pTy/zara yvcvfjirjv ea)(ov 
TTapaSovvat 'Pcu/^atoi? ttjv rjycfxovLav icf)* ols 
irporepov iipr]cf)L(TavTo . /cat Traprjaav ano Traaiqs 
TToXecos ol npox^LpLadivres ovv LKer-qptais ctti- 
rpiiTOvres TvXXicp rag rroXeis /cat ix7]Bev dv- 

6 i^Kearov ^ovXevaai, 7T€pl avrcov d^iovvres. Ti/AAtos 
Be rrjs p-ev d(f>po<JVvr}s eveKa /cat rcbv els rovs 
deovs daePrjp,drcov,^ ovs iyyvrjTas TTOi,-qadp,€VOL 
Tcbv 6p.oXoyia)v Trape^rjaav rd avyKeip-eva, ttoX- 
Xii)v avTovs €(f)r) rip^coptaJv a^iovs eivat, Kat /xeya- 
Xiov TTJ^ Se 'Pajp^aLtov imeLKeLas /cat pberpio- 
TTjTOS, ineiSri avyyvovres aSt/cett' arepipaaL /cat 
Airavetatsr Traprjrovvro rrjv opyrjv, ovSev ev ra> 

6 TTapovTL dTV)(iqa€Lv. ravr eiTTOiv KaraXveraL rov 
TTpos avTOVs TToXepLov, rals piev dXXais TToXeaiv 
dnXajs ^ Kal 8t;(a opyfjg pLvrjotKaKov noXiTev- 
eadai t aTTohovs d>S Trporepov /cat rd i8ta /cap- 
TTovadai, pLevovaaig ev rats ypa(f)eLaais rrpog auras' 
avid'^Kacs V7t6 ^aaiXeois TapKvvlov rpeZs 8 
c^ avTciyv TroAei?, at Trpoe^avearrjadv re /cat ret? 
aAAa? eTT-qyayovTO ^ /cara 'Pw/u.ata;i' e^evey- 
KeZv Tov TToXepLov, Kaiprjravovs /cat TapKvvLiJTas 
/cat Ovievravovs f'^ dcjyaipecTeL ■)((hpa'5 TLp.copr]ad- 
p.evo's, Tjv Kar€KXr)pov)(r]ae 'Pcup-aLcov Tols uecoari 
7TpoaeXr]Xv66aL irpos rriv TToXLreiav. 

' doeP-qiMarcuv B : adeTr)fj,dTwv R. 
^ an . Atus B '■ aTTOvcos A. 

* i-Trqyayovro AB : VTnjydyovro R. 

* Kaipijravous Kai T. kox OvKVTavov^ Jacoby : Kaipiravovs 
Kal ovfvravovs Kai TapKvviras B, Kaiprjraviov Koi rapKvviTwv 
Koi ovevravijiiv R. 

360 



BOOK IV. 27, 4-6 

yoke 1 against their will. In the twentieth year, 
therefore, the twelve cities, having become exhausted 
by the war both in men and in money, again met 
together and decided to yield the sovereignty to the 
Romans upon the same terms as previously. And so 
the men chosen as envoys from each city arrived 
with the tokens of supphants, and entrusting their 
cities to Tullius, begged of him not to adopt any 
extreme measures against them. Tullius told them 
that because of their folly and their impiety towards 
the gods whom they had made sponsors of their 
treaties, only to violate their agreements afterwards, 
they deserved many severe punishments ; but that, 
since they acknowledged their fault and were come 
with the fillets of suppliants and with entreaties to de- 
precate the resentment they had merited, they should 
fail of none of the clemency and moderation of the 
Romans at this time. Having said this, he put an end 
to the war against them, and in the case of most of the 
cities, without imposing any conditions or harbouring 
any resentment for past injuries, he permitted them 
to retain the same government as before and also to 
enjoy their own possessions as long as they should 
abide by the treaties made with them by Tarquinius. 
But in the case of the three cities of Caere, Tarquinii 
and Veii, which had not only begun the revolt but 
had also induced the rest to make war upon the 
Romans, he punished them by seizing a part of 
their lands, which he portioned out among those 
who had lately been added to the body of Roman 
citizens. 



1 Literally "bridle" or "bit," a different metaphor but 
with essentially the same meaning. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

7 Taura hiaiTpa^d^evos iv elprjvr) re /cat Kara 
TToXefjiovs xal vaovs Svo KaraaKevacrafxevos Tu^^r^?, 
7j TTapa TTOvra rov ^tov eho^ev dyadfj Kexp'TJcrdai, 
rov fiev iv dyopa rfj KaXovixevrj Boapta, rov 8' 
erepov cttl rat? rjioai rov Te^epios rrjs Tvx'T]S ^ '^v 
dvSpelav Trpoarjyopevaev , ws Kal vvv vno 'Poj/xaicoi' 
KaXeirat, -qXiKcas re Trpo^e^rjKais em ttoXv Kal 
riji- Kara ^vcnv reXevrrjs ov fxaKpdv aTrexoJV, 
evL^ovXevdels vtto TapKvviov re rod yapu^pov 
Kal rrjs eavrov dvyarpog aTrodvi^aKet,. Birjyi^ao- 
[xaL 8e Kal rfjs em^ovXrjs rov rpo-nov puKpd rcov 
epiTTpoadev yevopieva>v dvaXa^cov. 

XXVIII. 'Haav rip TuAAta> 8vo Ovyarepes 
eK yvvaiKos yevopievai TapKVvias, y]v eveyvrjaev 
avro) ^aaiXevs TapKvvi.os. ravras rds Kopas 
eTTLydpiovs ^ yevopuevas e/cStSorat roXs aSeA^iSor? 
rrjs pirjrpos avrcov, vlcovoXs Se TapKVviov, rat re 
■npea^vrepo) rrjv rrpea^vrepav appLoaas Kal rep 
veojrepcp rrjv vecorepav, ovrcos olopuevos avrds 

2 pidXiara avvoiaeadai rots Xa^ovaiv. erv)(e he 
roJv yapi^pcov eKdrepos evavria avva^dels tvxU ^ 
Kara rrjv ovx opiorpomav AevKicp puev yap 
rep TTpea^vrepo) roXpLrjpcp /cat ay^aSei /cat 
rvpavvLKcp rr]v (f}vaLV ovri ■)(^p7]arr] Kal (Tcocftpcov 
Kal (f)LXoTTdra}p avvrjXde yvvq, "AppovTL * Se rep 
vecurepo) ttoXv ro rrpaov e^ovri Kal evXoyiarov 
avoaia Kal pLLOovdreop Kal navroXpios '^v rj 

^ rrjs TvxTjs Cappa : om. 0, Jacoby. 

^ emydfiovs R: eTraKfiovs B; iv aKfiy ydfJiov (or ya/icov) 
Kiessling. 

' rvxTj : ff'^xV Cobet. 

* Gary: dppovvri. 0(1), J acohy. 



BOOK IV. 27, 7-28, 2 

Besides these achievements in both peace and war, 
he built two temples to Fortune, Avho seemed to have 
favoured him all his life, one in the market called the 
Cattle Market, the other on the banks of the Tiber 
to the Fortune which he named Fortuna Virilis,^ as 
she is called by the Romans even to this day. And 
being now advanced in years and not far from a natural 
death, he was treacherously slain by Tarquinius, his 
son-in-law, and by his own daughter. I shall also 
relate the manner in which this treacherous deed 
was carried out ; but first I must go back and mention 
a few things that preceded it. 

XXVIII. TuUius^ had two daughters by his wife 
Tarquinia, whom King Tarquinius had given to him 
in marriage. When these maidens were of marriage- 
able age, he gave them to the nephews of their 
mother, who were also the grandsons of Tarquinius, 
joining the elder daughter to the elder nephew and 
the younger to the younger, since he thought they 
would thus live most harmoniously with their hus- 
bands. But it happened that each of his sons-in-law 
was joined by an adverse fate in the matter of 
dissimilarity of character. For the wife of Lucius, 
the elder of the two brothers, who was of a bold, 
arrogant and tyrannical nature, was a good woman, 
modest and fond of her father ; on the other hand, 
the wife of Arruns, the younger brother, a man of 
great mildness and prudence, was a wicked woman 
who hated her father and was capable of any rash 

^ Dionysiua is probably in error here; Varro {L.L. vi. 17) 
states that this temple on the banks of the Tiber was dedicated 
to Fors Fortuna. 

« For chaps. 28-40 c/. Livy i. 42, 1 f.; 46^8. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 yaixerrj. avve^atve Brj tcov avhpchv eKarepcp 
(f)€peadai [xev evrt rrjv iavrov (f)vcnv, /xerayea^ai 
S VTTO TTJs yvvaiKog em rdvavria' 6 /xeV ye 
TTOvr]p6s CK^aXelv rrjs ^aaiXeias rou KrjhearTjv 
TTpodvp-ovixevos Koi iravra fxrj^audop.evos els rovro 
VTTO TTJs yvvaiKos ixereTTeldero avn^oXovcnqs re 
/cat oBvpojjievTjS' 6 8' eTneLKrjs ov8ev ol6p,€vos 
helv i^afjiaprdveiv etV rov Trevdepov, dXXd nepi- 
fievecv ecos rj (jivais avTOv e/c rov t,r]v i^aydyrj, 
Kal Tov dSeX^ov ovk icov Trpdrretv rd jxtj Strata, 
VTTO rrjs dvoaicLs yvvatKog eVi rdvavria /xer- 
Tjyero vovderovarjs re Kal XoLSopovfxevrjs Kal rrjv 

4 dvavSplav KaKt^ovcr7]s . to? S' ovSev eTrepaivov 
ovre at rijg aw(f)povos Xiravelai rd Kpdriara rov 
ov hiKaiov dvSpa TreiOovaris , ovre al rrjs /xtapa? 
TTapatveaeis eTTi rds dvoaiovs vpa^ets rov ov 
TTovqpov etvai TT€(f)VK6ra TrapaKoXovaTjg, dXX' 
eKdrepos enl rrjv eavrov (f)V(nv e^epero Kal Xvtttj- 
pav rjyeiro rrjv ixrj rd o/xota ^ovXafxev-qv, rfj 
fxev ohvpeadai re Kal (f)epeiv rov iavrijg SaifMova 
TTepirjv, rfi Se TravroXpnx) -x^aXeTTaiveiv /cat dTT- 

5 aXXayrjvaL l,7]relv citto rov crvvoiKovvros . eTreira 
7] KaKTj rrjv (f)vcnv dTTOvorjdelcra Kal vofxiaaaa 
rols eavrrjs rpoTTOLs appLorreiv pidXiara rov rrjg 
a8eX<f)rjs dvhpa [xerane iXTrerat r avrov <hs VTrep 
avayKaiov TTpdyp.aros ScaXe^o[Jievrj. 

XXIX. Kai €TTetSr] rrapeyevero, jxeraarrjuai 
KeXevaaaa rovs evSou, Iva p,6vq SLaXe)^6eLr] npos 
fxovov, " ^Ap'," e(f)r]CTev, " c5 TapKvvie, fxerd 
TTapprjorias e^eari fxoi Kal dKivhvvois aTrai^a 
eiTTett' oaa (f>pova) Ttepl rdv kolv^ avp.<j)ep6vru)v, 

364 



BOOK IV. 28, 2-29, 1 

action. Thus it chanced that each of the husbands 
tried to follow his own bent, but was drawn in the 
opposite direction by his wife. For when the wicked 
husband desired to drive his father-in-law from the 
throne and was devising every means to accomplish 
this, his wife by her prayers and tears endeavoured 
to prevail on him to desist. And when the good 
husband thought himself obliged to abstain from all 
attempts against the life of his father-in-law and to 
wait till he should end his days by the course of 
nature, and tried to prevent his brother from doing 
what was wrong, his wicked wife, by her remon- 
strances and reproaches and by reviling him with a 
want of spirit, sought to draw him in the opposite 
direction. But when nothing was accomplished by 
either the entreaties of the virtuous wife as she 
urged upon her unjust husband the best course, or by 
the exhortations of the wicked wife when she strove 
to incite to impious deeds the husband who was not 
by nature evil, but each husband followed his 
natural bent and thought his wife trouble- 
some because her wishes differed from his own, 
nothing remained but for the first wife to lament 
and submit to her fate and for her audacious sister 
to rage and endeavour to rid herself of her husband. 
At last this wicked woman, grown desperate and be- 
lieving her sister's husband to be most suitable to her 
own character, sent for him, as if she wanted to talk 
with him concerning a matter of urgent importance. 
XXIX. And when he came, after first ordering 
those who were in the room to withdraw, that she 
might talk with him in private, she said: " May I, 
Tarquinius, speak freely and without risk all my 
thoughts concerning our common interests ? A nd 

3^5 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kal Kade^ets ovs civ aKovarjs Xoyovs ; t] aicondv 
dfjL€iv6v i(XTL juoi Kal [ir) (jyepeiv els fJ-eaov ^ovXas 
oLTTopprjTovs ; " KeXevcravTos 8e rov TapKvviov 
Xeyetv 6 n ^ovXerai, Kal Trepl rov Kade^etv iv 
eavTO) rovs Xoyovs mcrrets" eTndivros Si' 6pKCi)v, 
ovs iKeivT) TTporjpeiTo, ovhev ert alax^vdeZaa Xeyei 
77/00? avTov " Me^pt tlvos, c5 TapKvi'Le, ttjs 
^aariXeLas aTroarepovixevos avej^eadai hiavofj ; ttotc- 
pov €K raireLvaJv Kai aaiqpLCjJv e<j)vs TTpoyovcov Kal 
Blo. tovto ovk d^ioLS em aeavrat jxeya (f>poveLV ; 
dXXd iravres taaaiv on roZs puev dp-)(aiois vpuov 
Trpoyovois "^XXtjolv odai Kal d(f)' *H/oa/cAeoy? 
yeyovoai rrjs evSaifiovos dp^ai J^opivdov rr)v 
avTOKpdropa VTrrjp^ev dpx'rjv eVi TroAAa?, cos 
aKovco, yeveds' rw Se ■ndTrrrcp aov TapKvvlcp 
IxeTaOefxevo) ttjv OLKrjcnv e/c Tvpprjvcov ravrrjs 
^aaiXevaai ttjs TroXeoJS i^eyevero Si' dper'qv 
oi) av KXr]povopL€lv ov /jlovov rdjv ^^prjixdrcov, 
dXXd Kal rrjs ^aaiXeias dt^eiAei? irpccj^vrepos 
VLcovos cov. T] crcofMaTos ovk ervx^s Ikovov irpdr- 
reiv oaa jSacriAei TrpoarJKe, 8i' daOeveidv re Kal 
ap,op^Lav ; dXXd aoi ye Kal pcLfXTj Trdpecmv, 
ola ^ Tols Kpdriarra Tre^vKooi, Kal fJU)p(f)r) rov 
^aGiXeiov yevovs dfi'a. ->} tovtojv fxev ovSerepov, 
7) 8 dadevrjs en Kal ttoXv drrexovaa rov (f)povelv 
TO. rrpoariKovra veorqs fxedeXKet, ae, 8i' rjv ovk 
allots rd TToXiriKa Trpdrreiv, os ov ttoXXols diroBels 
ereai ^ TTevrrjKovraeTrjs elvai. ; Kpdnara 8' dv6pa>TTOL 
TTe<f>VKaaL <j)poveZv ol Trepl ravr-qv fxdXiara yevo- 

* Ota B : iKavri ola R. 
I»ii .■ * TToAAois dnobils €T€CT(. B : TToXv anoSeri R. 

366_ 



BOOK IV. 29, 1-3 

will you keep to yourself what you shall hear? 
Or is it better for me to remain silent and not to 
communicate plans that require secrecy?" And 
when Tarquinius bade her say what she wished, and 
gave her assurances, by such oaths as she herself 
proposed, that he would keep everything to himself, 
Tullia, laying aside all shame from that moment, said 
to him : " How long, Tarquinius, do you intend to 
permit yourself to be deprived of the kingship? 
Are you descended from mean and obscure ances- 
tors, that you refuse to entertain high thoughts of 
yourself? But everyone knows that your early 
ancestors, who were Greeks and descended from 
Hercules, exercised the sovereign power in the flourish- 
ing city of Corinth for many generations, as I am 
informed, and that your grandfather, Tarquinius, 
after removing from Tyrrhenia, was able by his 
merits to become king of this state ; and not only 
his possessions, but his kingdom as well, ought to 
descend to you who are the elder of his grandsons. 
Or have you been given a body incapable of per- 
forming the duties of a king because of some weakness 
and deformity ? But surely you are endowed both 
with strength equal to those most highly favoured 
by Nature and with a presence worthy of your royal 
birth. Or is it neither of these, but your youth, as 
yet weak and far from being capable of forming 
sound judgments, that holds you back and causes 
you to decline the government of the state — you who 
want not many years of being fifty ? Yet at about 
this age a man's judgment is naturally at its best.^ 

1 Cf. Solon 27 Edmonds (L.G.L.), 1. 13: sWa 8e vow xal 
Y^oaav iv i^ho^iaaiv /xe'y' oipiaros oktu) r\ — " in seven sevens 
and in eight he is at his best in mind and tongue." 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 fJLevoi rr)v T^At/ciar. (fyepe,^ aAA' rj tov Kar- 
ey^ovrog ra irpayixara evyeveia Kal rj rrpos rous 
Kpartarovs rcov TToXircov iTnrrjBeiorrjs , Si' rfv ovK 
eveTTL^etprjTog iarLv, dvey^eadai ae at-ay/ca^et; 
dAAa /cat ravra dpicf)6T€pa /ca/caj? ^ e^ovra avrw 
Tvy)(dv€i, Kal ovSe avros avrd ye dyvoel.^ /cat 
fjL7}v 7] ye roXjxa /cat ro ^iXoKLvhwov evearl crov 
Tols rpoTTOis, cSi' p-dXiara to) ^aaiXeveiv fieX- 
Xovri Set. VTrdpy^ec Se aoi /cat ttXovtos li<av6s 
/cat ^t'Aot TToAAoi /cat aAAai Trpo? to. Trpdyfiara 

5 d^opfial TToXXal /cat [leydXai. rt ow en /xe'AAei? 
/cat Toi' avrofiaTov e/cSe';^!^ Kaipov, os 17^61 ctoi 
tf)€pcov TT]*' ^aaiXeiav pirjhkv els tovto Trpaypua- 
Tcvaafievcp , fxerd rrrjv rov TuAAiou SryTToy reAeu- 
TTjj/; ajcTTTep avafxevovarrjs Trjs rvxfjS Tas avdpoi- 
•nivas pLeXXriaeig, ■^ tt^? (f>VG€tos rjficbv rds Kad^ 
rjXiKiav cKdarcp reXevrds (f)epov(rqs, oAA' ovk 
€v dhriXo) Kal SvareKfidpTU) reXet, Travroiv rix>v 

6 dudpcoTTLvcov rrpayfidrcov Keip-eviov. ipco S17 [lerd 
IT apprjolas , /cat et jLte (fi-qcreis dpaaetav, to 
So/cow atriov efi^ai fJLOi rov /LtTjSe/xtas' opiyeadai 
(T€ l^'']T€ (f)iXoTiiJLLas fJi'^TC So^Tjg . yvvrj aoi 
avvea-n fxrjSev ioiKvla tols crolg rpoTTois, rj ae 
KT)Xovaa Kal Kardhovaa fiaXdaKov d77o8e'Saj/ce, 
Kat AT^cret? utt' avrrjs yevop-evos i^ dvSpos to 
pLrjhev oiOTTep ye /cd/xot ij/ocfioSerjs Kal ovSev 
e)(Oiv auhpos avrjp, o? fxe Tarreivrju TTOiei pLeyaXiav 
ovaav afiap" /cat KaXrjv to aajp^a, p^apavdelaav 

7 S' vtt' avTOV. el S' e^eyeveTO aoi re Xa^etv 
c/te yui'atKa /cd/Ltot ^ aov tvx^lv dvBpos, ovk dv 

^ <f>(pe B : om. R. ^ jca/ctoj Bh : koXws ABa. 

• dyvoei ABa : ayvoels Bb. 
368 



BOOK IV. 29, 4-7 

Well, then, is it the high birth of the man who is now 
in control of affairs and his popularity with the best 
citizens — which makes him difficult to attack — that 
forces you to submit ? But in both these respects too 
he happens to be unfortunate, as not even he himself 
is unaware. Moreover, boldness and willingness 
to undergo danger are inherent in your character, 
qualities most necessary to one who is going to reign. 
You have sufficient wealth also, numerous friends, 
and many other important qualifications for public 
life. Why, then, do you still hesitate and wait for 
an occasion to be provided by chance, an occasion 
that will come bringing to you the kingship without 
your having made any effort to obtain it ? And that, 
I presume, will be after the death of Tullius ! As if 
Fate waited on men's delays or Nature dispensed 
death to each man according to his age, and the 
outcome of all human affairs were not, on the con- 
trary, obscure and difficult to be foreseen ! But I 
will declare frankly, even though you may call me bold 
for it, what seems to me to be the reason why you 
reach out for no coveted honour or for glory. You 
have a wife whose disposition is in no respect like 
your own and who by her allurements and enchant- 
ments has softened you ; and by her you will in- 
sensibly be transformed from a man into a nonentity. 
Just so have I a husband who is timorous and has 
nothing of a man in him, who makes me humble 
though I am worthy of great things, and though 
I am fair of body, yet because of him I have 
withered away. But if it had been possible for you 
to take me as your wife and for me to get you as my 

* KOLfioi Sylburg : Ka/ae 0, Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

€V lOLcarr] ^lco roaovrov 8t€^7^cra/xet' ^povov.^ ti 
ovv ovK CTTavopdoviieda ro rrjs tv^t]s eXdrrcopia 
7)fJi,€is fieradeixevoL rovs ydfxovg, /cat cry fxev 
aTraAAarTet? tov ^lov rrjv aavrov yvvaiKa, 
eyo) Se to avro SLadrjaoj ^ tov ifiov dv8pa ; otov 
he TOVTCov SiaxeLpLadevTcou avveAdw/xev els to 
avTO, aa<f)aXa)s rjSrj to. Xoltto, ^ovXevaofxev, 

CKTTohcbv 7T€7TOLr)p,€VO(, TO. XvTTOVVTa rjpids. Kol 

yap idv raAAa ti? dSi/ceiv OKvfj, ^aaiXeias ye 
X^-P^v ov ve/xeais dnavTa ToXpcdv." 

XXX. Toiayra ttjs TvXXias Xeyovarjs dapievos 
Se^eTai Tas alpeaeis 6 TapKvvLos, kol aurt/ca 
Sou? avTrj TTtCTTei? Kal Xa^cov, Ta TrpoTeXeia tCov 
avooLcov ydpLOiv SiaTrpa^dpievos aTrepxeTai. St- 
eXdovTos 8' ov TToXXov p,€Td TavTa xpovov ToXs 
avTOLS TrddeaLv dnoOvqaKovaiv rj re irpea^vTepa tcov 
TvXXlov OvyaTcpcov Kal 6 vecoTcpos tcov TapKvvioiv. 
YiVTavda TrdXiv dvayKat^opbai pLep^vrjadai ^a^iov 
/cat TO pdOvpiov avTov irepl ttjv e^eTaaiv tcov 
Xpdvoiv iXeyxetv. eirl yap ttjs "AppovTos ^ TeXev- 
TTJs yePop^evos ov /ca^' ev dp^apTavet, piovov, o 
Kal TTpoTepov ecjiTjv, otl yeypa(f>€v vlov elvai. Tap- 
Kvviov TOV "AppovTa, dXXd Kal Kad* eTepov, otl 
<l)'r]aLV aTTodavovTa vtto ttjs p,7)Tp6s Tat'a/cuAAtSo? 
Te6a(f}6ai,, rjv dpirjxavov rfv ert Kat /car' e/cetVou? 
1 TTepielvai tovs ;\;/3ot'ou?. eheixdr] yap iv dpxcus 
i^Sop.rjKoaTov exovaa Kal irepiTTTov ctos rj Tai^a- 
KvXXlg oT€ /SacrtAeu? TapKvvios ereAeura* Trpoa- 

^ Xpovov A : jStov B. 

* Siaflijao) Reiske : SiaOrjao^ai 0, Jacoby. 

* Gary : appovros B, appoSvros A, Jacoby (and eimilarly 
twice below). 

37° 



BOOK IV. 29, 7-30, 3 

husband, we had not lived so long in a private station. 
Why, therefore, do we not ourselves correct this 
error of fate by exchanging our marital ties, you 
removing your wife from life and I making the same 
disposition of my husband ? And when we have put 
them out of the way and are joined together, we 
vdll then consider in security what remains to be 
done, having rid ourselves of what now causes our 
distress. For though one may hesitate to commit 
all the other crimes, yet for the sake of a throne 
one cannot be blamed for daring anything." ^ 

XXX. Such were Tullia's words, and Tarquinius, 
gladly agreeing to the course she proposed, imme- 
diately exchanged pledges with her, and then, 
after celebrating the rites preliminary to their 
unholy nuptials, he departed. Not long after this 
the elder daughter of Tulhus and the younger 
Tarquinius died the same kind of death. 

Here again, I find myself obliged to make mention 
of Fabius and to show him guilty of negligence in his 
investigation of the chronology of events. For when 
he comes to the death of Arruns he commits not only 
one error, as I saidbefore,^ in stating that he was thie 
son of Tarquinius, but also another in saying that 
after his death he was buried by his mother Tanaquil, 
who could not possibly have been alive at that time. 
For it was shown in the beginning that when Tar- 
quinius died Tanaquil was seventy-five years of age ; 

1 Cf. Euripides, Phoen. 524 f . ; eiTrep yap dSiKelv XPV' Tvpav- 
V180S TT€pi KaXXiarov dScKetv, rdXXa 8' cuae/Sctv xpewv — " If wrong 
e'er be right, for a throne's sake Were wrong most right: — 
be God in all else feared." — Way in L.C.L. These lines, 
according to Cicero (de Off., iii. 21), were often quoted by 
Caesar. 

=* In chap. 6. 

37? 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

redcvTcov Srj tols i^hoynrjKovra /cat TreWe ereoLV 
erepojv rerrapaKOVTa ircov {iv yap rat? ipiavaioig 
avaypa^aZ^ Kara tov rerrapaKoarov iviavrov 
rfjs TvXXlov apxrls rov "Appovra rereXevrr]- 
Kora 'napeiXrj(j>aixev), irtov rj TavaKvXXls earac 
7revr€Kai8€Ka Trpos rols eKarov. ovrcos oXiyov 
€cmv eV rat? laropiai? avrov ro jrepl rr)v ef- 
draaiv ttjs dX-qdeias raXaiiraipov } 

4 Merd rovro to epyov ovSev en 8tajU.eAA7yora? 
o TapKWios eVayeTat ^ yvvaiKa rrjv TuAAtav, 
ovT€ rov rrarpos avrijs ^e^aLovvros rov ydpLov 
ovre rrjs fJirjrpos crvvevSoKovarrjs, aAA' avrrjv nap 

5 eavrr\s Aa^cov. ibs Se avveKepdadrjaav al ^ dvo- 
oLoi /cat dvSpocf)6vot ^ycrei?, CK^aXeZv e/c ttjs 
jSaatAeia? rov TvXXlov, el jjlt) ^ovXoiro ckwv 
TTapahovvai rrjv dpxrjv, ifi-q^avcovro eraipias re 
avvayovres /cat rcbv TrarpiKLcov rovs aXXorpicos 
e^ovras irpos rov ^aaiXia /cat rd h-qpLoriKa 
7ToXirevp.ara TrapaKaXovvres, e/c re rov Srjixori- 
Kov ttXt^Oovs rovs drropcordrovs, ols ovSevos 
rcov hiKaioiv (f)povrls rjv, )(p'qijiacnv e^oivovpievot, 
/cat ovoe a(f)av(jL)s eKacrra rovrwv rrpdrrovres. 

6 ravra 8 opcov 6 TvXXios 7J)(0ero pcev /cat Trepl 
eavrov SeSicos, et ri ireiaerat TrpoKaraXrj^deis' 
TjyavdKrei S' ovx rJKcora ei dvyarpi /cat yapL^pu} 
TToXepLetv dvayKaad-qaerai /cat Tt/i.coptas" cu? Trap' 
e\dpa)v XapL^dveiv, TroAAa/ct? p-erd roJv <j>iXojv 
npoKaXovp-evos els Xoyovs rov TapKvviov, /cat 
rd p.€v eyKaXcov, rd 8e vovBercov, rd 8e ireidcjv 
fjir)8ev els eavrov €^ap,aprdveLv. co? S' ov irpoa- 

* oXiyov . . . ToKaiiToipov B : 6\iyov . . . aToXaincopov A, 
avxvov . . . aTaXaimopov Naber. 

372 



BOOK IV. 30, 3-6 

and if to the seventy-five years forty more are 
added (for we find in the annals that Arruns died in 
the fortieth year of the reign of TuUius), Tanaquil 
must have been one hundred and fifteen years old. 
So Uttle evidence of a laboi-ious inquiry after truth 
do we find in that author's history. 

After this deed of theirs Tarquinius married TuUia 
without any further delay, though the marriage had 
neither the sanction of her father nor the approval of 
her mother, but he took her of her own gift. As soon 
as these impious and bloodthirsty natures were com- 
mingled they began plotting to drive Tullius from the 
throne if he would not willingly resign his power. 
They got together bands of their adherents, appealed 
to such of the patricians as were ill-disposed towards 
the king and his popular institutions, and bribed 
the poorest among the plebeians who had no regard 
for justice ; and all this they did without any secrecy. 
Tullius, seeing what was afoot, was not only disturbed 
because of his fears for his own safety, if he should be 
caught unprepared and come to some harm, but was 
especially grieved at the thought that he should be 
forced to take up arms against his own daughter and 
his son-in-law and to punish them as enemies. Ac- 
cordingly, he repeatedly invited Tarquinius and his 
friends to confer with him, and sought, now by 
reproaches, now by admonitions, and again by 
arguments, to prevent him from doing him any wrong. 

* Roiske : dij-ayeToi 0, ayercu Cobet. 

* ai added by Kiessling. 

373 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

elx^v avTco rriv hidvoiav, dAA' €ttI rrjs ^ovXrjg 
€(f>r) TO. Si/caia Trpos" avrov epeiv, avyKoXeaas ro 

7 avvihpiov " "AvSpes" e(f)r], " ^ovXevrai, TapKV- 
VLos eratpta? €77 e/xe avvdycov ^ /cat vpodvfxov- 
[JLCvos CK^aXelv fie rrjs OLpx'tjS Kara(f)avr]s yeyove 
fjiOL. PovXo/xaL 8e ttovtcov v/jlcov Trapovroiv fjuadelv 
Trap avrov, rt ir^TTOvdois lBlo, KaKov ^ ti ttjv 
TToXiv opcbv dSt,Kov[ji€vr]v vtt' ifxov ravr iv' 
efxoL [X'r])(avdr ai. dTTOKpivai hiq, TapKvvie, p/qhkv 
avoKpviJjdfxevos , rt /xou Kariyyopetv e^etj, irreLSr] 
Tovrovs rj^Lovs aKovcrai." 

XXXI. Aeyet Trpos avrov 6 TapKvvLos' " Bpa- 
Xvs iariv 6 Trap' iixov Xoyos, a> TuAAie, /cat 
BLKaios' /cat Sta rovro TrpoecXofirjv avrov jet? 
TOvrovs €K(f>€peiv. TapKvvios ifxos cov TraTnTog 
eKrqcraro rrjv 'Pcofxalojv dpx'^v ttoXXovs /cat 
[leydXovs dydJvas VTrep avrrjs dpdpievos' €K€lvov 
reXevrT^aavros iyco SidSoxos cIjxl Kara rovs 
Koivovg dvdvrwv '^XXt^vcov re /cat ^ap^dpoiv 
vofiovs' /cat TrpoCTT^/cet /not, Kaddirep /cat rots' 
aAAotj rot? BcaSexofJ-evoLs rd TTainTcpa, fir] fj,6vov 
rdjv XPVH'^'^^^' dXXd koI rrjs jSaortAeta? aurou 

2 KXrjpovofieXv. av 8e rd fiev p^piy/Ltara rd Kara- 
X^L^Oevra vtt* avrov TrapaSeScu/cas" /xot, rxfv 8e 
^aaiXeiav aTToarepels fie /cat roaovrov 'qSr] 
/caTep^et? XP^^'°^> ^^'^ ^'^ '''^^ St/catou Xa^iov 
ovre ydp pLeao^aaiXeis ae aTreSetfai/, ovre rj ^ 
^ovXrj iJnj(f)ov VTrkp gov Si-qveyKcv, ovre dpxo.cpeaLais 
vopbipioig rrjs e^ovaias ravrrjg ervx^S, cos d TrdrnTos 
re ovfios /cat Trdvres ol rrpd avrov yevofievoL 



374 



^ Biifheler : awayaywv 0. 
• ij added by Reiske. 



BOOK IV. 30, 6-31, 2 >i [ 

When Tarqiiinius gave no heed to what he said but 
declared he would plead his cause before the senate, 
Tullius called the senators together and said to them : 
" Senators,^ it has become clear to me that Tar- 
quinius is gathering bands of conspirators against 
me and is anxious to drive me from power. I desire 
to learn from him, therefore, in the presence of you 
all, what wrong he has personally received from me 
or what injury he has seen the commonwealth suffer 
at my hands, that he should be forming these plots 
against me. Answer me, then, Tarquinius, concealing 
nothing, and say what you have to accuse me of, 
since you have asked that these men should hear you." 
XXXI. Tarquinius answered him: " My argu- 
ment, Tullius, is biief and founded on justice, and 
for that reason I have chosen to lay it before these 
men. Tarquinius, my grandfather, obtained the 
sovereignty of the Romans after fighting many 
hard battles in its defence. He being dead, I 
am his successor according to the laws common to 
all men, both Greeks and barbarians, and it is my 
right, just as it is of any others who succeed to the 
estates of their grandfathers, to inherit not only his 
property but his kingship as well. You have, it is 
true, dehvered up to me the property that he left, 
but you are depriving me of the kingship and have 
retained possession of it for so long a time now, 
though you obtained it wrongfully. For neither did 
any interreges appoint you king nor did the senate 
pass a vote in your favour, nor did you obtain this 
power by a legal election of the people, as my 
grandfather and all the kings before him obtained it ; 

^ Dionysius usually makes no attempt to render literally 
the Latin mode of address — patres or patres conscripti. 

375 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

jSaatAeis" aAAct to dvecmov /cat aTTopov /cat irpos 
KaroBiKas t] XP^°- '^^ eVtrt/iiav cxTroAcuAe/cos' 
<j)vXov, (L rGiv KoivGiv ouSevo? e/iteAe, /cara- 
fjiicrdoSoT'^aas /cat Trat^a rpoTTOv Siacfideipas , /cat 
ovSe Tore /xeVrot aavrw vpoirTciv ttjv Svvaaretav 
Xiycov, dAA' T^jMti^ (j)v\d^eiv aKrjTTTOfievos op^avois 
ovcjL /cat VTqTTLOLs, CTTt Ttt TTpdypiara TraprjXdes /cat 
iravTOjp' aKovovrcov ajpLoXoyeis , orav dvSpcodaJfiev 
rjfieLS, ifiol irapaScoaeLv ovti Trpea^vrepcp ttjv 

3 apxT^v. ^XPW H'^^ ^^^ ^^> ^^ ''"'^ 8t/cata TToielv 
"qdeXes, ore jjlol tov oXkov rov TraTnTOV TrapeSlSovs, 
dfia Tot? ;)^p7y^acrt /cat 7171' jSacriAetW ciTroSeSco/ceVat, 
TTapaSeLyjjiaoi ^(pcoiJievov rots tcjv koXojv /cat dya^cDt' 
CTTLTpoTTCov epyois , ocroi ^aaiXtKovs TratSa? dp(f)a- 
vovs TTarepiov TrapaXa^ovres els dvdpas eXdovcnv 
opddJs Kal St/catci)? rd? Trarpcoas /cat irpoyovi- 

4 Aca? aTTcbcoKav dp^ds' et Se p/qTTOi aoi (j)pov€lv 
TO, KddrjKovTa €(f)atv6fjirjv, dAA' ert 8td to t'eov 
T^? TjXtKias ovx t/cavos" eft-at ttoAii/ rrjXiKavr-qv 
OLOLKeZv, OT* els ttjv KparLCTTrjv Trapeyevofirjv rov 
acofJLaros /cat rrjs cf>pov'^a€OJS dKfirjv rpidKovra 
yeyovois err], jjierd rov ydfiov rfjs dvyarrpos ^ 
/cat ra tt^s" TToXeoys iyxet-pioai irpdypiara' ravrrjv 
ye roi Trjv rjXiKiav e)(cov Kal av tov t' oIkov tov 
Tj/xeTepov eTTiTpoTTeveLv rjp^o) /cat ttjs ^aaiXeias 
eTTifieXeXadai. 

XXXII. " Ylepirjv yap dv aoi TavTa rrpdi^avTi 
TrpojTov fxev evae^eZ /cat 8t/cata> Xeyeadai, eireiTa 
avpi^acriXeveLv efxol Kal Trdcrrjs fxeTexeiv TLpbrjs, 
evepyeTTjv re /cat irarepa Kal arcoTrjpa Kal TrdvTa 
oaa Tt/xtajTara ovofxaTa v'n dvdpcjTTcav cttI KaXols 
^ dvyarpos B : dvyarpos <8«t R. 



BOOK IV. 31, 2-32, 1 

but by bribing and corrupting in every way possible 
the crowd of vagabonds and paupers, who had been 
disfranchised for convictions or for debts and had no 
concern for the public interests, and by not admitting 
even then that you were seeking the power for your- 
self, but pretending that you were going to guard 
it for us who were orphans and infants, you came 
into control of affairs and kept promising in the 
hearing of all that when we came to manhood you 
would hand over the sovereignty to me as the elder 
brother. You ought, therefore, if you desired to do 
right, when you handed over to me the estate of my 
grandfather, to have delivered up his kingship also 
together with his property, following the example of 
all the upright guardians who, having taken upon 
themselves the care of royal children bereft of their 
parents, have rightly and justly restored to them the 
kingdoms of their fathers and ancestors when they 
came to be men. But if you thought I had not yet at- 
tained a proper degree of prudence and that by reason 
of my youth I was still unequal to the government 
of so great a state, yet when I attained to my full 
vigour of body and mind at the age of thirty, you 
ought, at the same time that you gave me your 
daughter in marriage, to have put also the affairs of 
the state into my hands ; for it was at that very age 
that you yourself first undertook both the guardian- 
ship of our family and the oversight of the kingship. 
XXXII. " If you had done this you would, in 
the first place, have gained the reputation of a 
loyal and just man, and again, you would have reigned 
with me and shared in every honour ; and you would 
have been called my benefactor, my father, my 
preserver, and all the other laudatory names that 

377 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kelrai irpdyfiaaiv, aKovecv, /cat ju-t) reraprov 
rjSrj TOVTo Kal rerrapaKoaTOV eros aTToarepelv /xe 
TcDv cfjicvv, ovre aco/xaTos avairi^pov TV^ovra ovt€ 
Siavoias 'qXidiov. eVeiT' epcordv fjLe ToX[xas ri 
TTaddiv heivov i^dpov 'qyovpLaC ere Kal 8ia rl 

2 crov Kar-qyopco ; av fjcev ovv aTTOKpivai fxoL, TvXXie, 
TLVos alrias X^P''^ ^^'^ d^iols p.e tcov rod TTdmrov 
TijJLwv KXrjpovopielv Kal riva irpo^aaiv evTrpeTrrj 
rrjs aTToarepr^crecos aKrjTrTop.evos ; TTorepov ov^ 
'qyovp.evos ef eKecvov yevovs elvai fxe ym^aiov, 
oAA VTro^oXipLOLov Tiva Kal voOov ; ri ovv inerpo- 
Trefe? rov dXXoTpLov rov yevovs Kal rov oXkov 
dvhpoidivTi direhl^ovs ; dAA' eVt vofjiL^ojv fxe 
op^avov elvai TratSa /cat rd Koivd Trpdrreiv dSv- 
varoVy OS ov ttoXv d7T€)(co TTevrrjKovraeTLas ; 
Kard^aXe 8r] ^ Tr\v elpcoveiav rdv dvaicr^vvrcov 
epcoTrjixarcov /cat Travaai vore TJSrj Trovrjpos cov 

3 et 8e Tt ^ hiKaiov ey^eis rrpog ravra elTreZv, eroifxos 
elpLi TovTOis eTTiTpeTTetv StKacrrdts, ctJv ovk dv 
loots' irepovs eLTrelv dvSpas iv rfj TroAei KpeCrrovs' 
edv 8' evrevdev drroSLSpdaKcov, onep iarlv del 
aot, TTOieZv crvvr^Oes, inl rov €KSr]ixaycoyovfX€vov 
VTTO aov Kara(f)evy7)s oyXov, ovk €7nrpi>poi aof 
TTapecTKevaafjLaL yap cos Kal rd St/cata ipdjv Kal 
et jxTj rreldoLo rd /Stata Trpd^cov" 

XXXIII. Uavaaixeuov 8' avrov TrapaXa^div 
rov Xoyov 6 TvXXios eXe^ev coSe* " "ATiai'Ta fiev, 
COS" eoiK€V, dvdpcoTTov ovra Set TrpoahoKav, J) 
^ovXrj, rd TTapdSo^a^ Kal fjLrjSev rjyelaOai aTnarov, 

^ Sr/ Kiessling : §€ O, rjSt) Cobet (omitting rjSj] just below), 
cm. Jacoby. 

* €1 S^ Ti Kiessling : koX et ti A, ei Si} ti B. 



BOOK IV. 32, 1-33, 1 i(T 

men bestow in recognition of noble actions, instead 
of depriving me for all these forty-four years of what 
was mine, though I was neither maimed in body nor 
stupid in mind. And after that have you the 
assurance to ask me what ill-treatment provokes me 
to look upon you as my enemy and for what reason 
I accuse you? Nay, do you, answer me rather, 
Tullius, and declare why you think me unworthy to 
inherit the honours of my grandfather and what 
specious reason you allege for depriving me of them. 
Is it because you do not regard me as the legitimate 
offspring of his blood, but as some supposititious and 
illegitimate child ? If so, why did you act as guardian 
to one who was a stranger to his blood, and why did 
you deliver up his estate to me as soon as I reached 
manhood ? Or is it that you still look upon me as an 
orphan child and incapable of handling the business 
of the state — me who am not far from fifty years 
old ? Lay aside now the dissimulation of your 
shameless questions and cease at last to play the 
rogue. However, if you have any just reason to 
allege against what I have said, I am ready to leave 
the decision to these men as judges, than whom you 
can name none better in the city. But if you attempt 
to run away from this tribunal and fly for refuge, as 
is ever your habit, to the rabble you mislead by your 
cajolery, I will not permit it. For I am prepared, 
not only to speak in defence of my rights, but also, 
if this should fail to convince you, to act with force." 
XXXIII. When he had done speaking, Tullius 
took the floor and said: "Anything, it seems, 
senators, that is unexpected is to be expected by 
a mortal man, and nothing should be regarded as 

' TO irapd8o|a deleted by Hertlein, Jacoby. 

379 

VOL. II. N 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

07T0V ye KOLfJue TapKvvLos ovToal rijs apx*}^ Travcrai 
Trpodvjxos iarriv ov iydi vrj-nLov TrapaAajScoi' /cat 
CTTi^ovXevofjievov vtto tcov i^^dpcov eaojcra Koi 
i^idpetpa koX els dvSpas eXOovra Kt)hearrjv 'q^ioicra 
Xa^eZv, /cat e'i tl TrddoLpn, SiaSo;^ov ejJieXXov /cara- 
Xeiilteiv aTTavroiv rtov epxjjv. iTreiBrj 8e Trapd 
yvcofirfv aTrai^a o.TT'qvrqKe /xot /cat axnrep dStKcov 
avTos iyKoXovfxai, ttjv [lev tvxH^ vcrrepov dvaKXav- 

2 cro/xai, ra he St/caia vvv irpos avrov epco. iyoj rrjv 
fiev eTTLrpoTTeiav vjjlcov eXa^ov, c5 TapKvvLe, vrjTTLOjv 
KaTaXei(f)devTcov ov^ eKUiv, dAA' vtto tCjv rrpay- 
fxarcov dvayKaadeis' eneiSr) tov fxev TraTTTTOv 
Vfjuov ot TTJs ^aaiXeias dvTi7TOLov[xevoi <f)avepd)s 
a7T€KT€Lvav, vjjuv Be /cat rots" aAAot? avrov avy- 
yevecriv em^ovXeveiv eXeyovro d(f)avd)S' /cat Trdvres 
rovTO oi 7rpo(n]KOVT€S vpZv ojpioXoyovv , on Kparq- 
cravres eKelvoi rijs dp^rjs ovSe anepfia rov 
TapKvvieiov KaraXeii/jovcri yevovs. K-qBefiMV 8e 
/cat (f)vXa^ ovSels vficov erepos rjv, on fjbrj yvvij, 
TTarpog jjLrjrrjp, /cat aurrj 8ta yrjpas erepcov Seo- 
lievt) KrjSeixovcov dXX* eir* ^ epx>l KaTeXei-neade 
fjiovcp (f)vXaKL rrjs ep-qpLLas, ov vvv aXXorpiov koX 

3 oiihev Trpoa-qKovTa diroKaXeis. toiovtols fxevroi, 
TTpdyfiacTLv imaTas eyd) tovs re drroKreivav- 
ras rov TTdmrov vp,u)v enp,copr]adp,'qv /cat vfxds 
els dvBpas rjyayov /cat yeveds dppevos ov^ vn- 
apxovarjs rdjv ifxavrov Kvpiovs TTpoeiXop.-qv TTOLrjaai. 
e^^is TOV TTJs eTnrpOTrrjs Xoyov, <L TapKvvie, /cat 
ovK dv iinx^ipTJcreLas elvelv ws ipevBopiai ri 
rovTiov. 

* in' Naber : eV 0, Jacoby. 
380 



BOOK IV. 33, 1-3 

incredible, since Tarquinius here is set upon deposing 
me from my office, though I received him when he was 
an infant and, when his enemies were forming 
designs against his life, preserved him and brought 
him up, and when he came to be a man, saw fit to 
take him for a son-in-law and in the event of my death 
was intending to leave him heir to all that I pos- 
sessed. But now that everything has happened to me 
contrary to my expectation and I myself am accused 
of wrongdoing, I shall lament my misfortune later 
on, but at present I will plead my just cause against 
him. I took upon myself, Tarquinius, the guardian- 
ship of your brother and yourself when you were 
left infants, not of my own will, but compelled by the 
circumstances, since those who aspired to the kingship 
had openly assassinated your grandfather and were 
said to be plotting secretly against you and the rest 
of his kin ; and all your friends acknowledged that if 
those men once got the power into their hands they 
would not leave even a seed of the race of Tarquinius. 
And there was no one else to care for you and guard 
you but a woman, the mother of your father, and she, 
by reason of her great age, herself stood in need of 
others to care for her ; but you children were left in 
my charge alone, to be guarded in your destitute 
condition — though you now call me a stranger and in 
no degree related to you. Nevertheless, when I had 
been put in command of such a situation, I not only 
punished the assassins of your grandfather and 
reared you boys to manhood, but, as I had no male 
issue, I proposed to make you the owners of what I 
possessed. You have now, Tarquinius, the account 
of my guardianship, and you will not venture to say 
that a word of it is false. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XXXIV. " Ylepl Se rrjs ^acriXeias, eTreihr] 
rovT eanv o KanqyopeZs /xoy, aKovaov, ottojs t' 
avrijs ervxov /cat 8t' as alrias ovO* v/mv ovr 
dXXip TLvl nedUfxai. ore rrjv eTTifxeXeiav ttjs 
TToXecDS irapeXa^ov, alcrdofievos im^ovXas rivas 
Kar cfJLavTov yivofievag, irapahovvai rco St^/xo) 
Ttt Trpdyixara e^ovX-qd'qv Kal crvvayayojv a-navras 
els eKKXiqaiav aTrehihovv avToZs ttjv a.p-)(7]v avri 
TTJs e7n(f>66vov ravTTjs /cat TrXelco ra XvTrrjpa rcov 
TjSecov i)(^ovaT]s "QyefiovLas Trjv olklvSwov dvTLKar- 

2 aXXaaaofXcvos r}av)(^Lav. ovk rjv4(Jxovro 'PcofiaioL 
ravTO. [xov Trpdrreiv ^ovXopievov ouS' rj^iojcrav 
erepov riva rcov koivcov aTroSet^at Kvptov, dXX 
ip-e Kareaxov /cat ttjv ^acnXeiav eScoKav poL 
tprj^ov €7T€V€yKavT€s, TTjv cavTcov, Tap/cwie, KTrjaiv, 

3 ov TTjv vperepav wanep ye /cat top TTdmrov 
vpM>v TTapTjyayov eirl rd Trpdypara ^evov ovra 
Kal ovSev TTpocrqKovra Tip irpoTepov ^aaiXeZ' 
KaiTOL TToihds ye ^ "Ay/co? Ma/3/ctos" o ^aaiXevs 
KareXnrev dKpd^ovras, ov^ vlojvovs Kal vtjttlovs, 
oiairep vp.ds TapKvvios. el Se kolvos aTrdurcov 
v6px>s riv Tovs SiaSexopevovs rrfv re ovaiav ^ 
KoX rd xP^t^o.ra rdiv €KXenT6vra>v ^aaiXetov criiv 
rovrois Kal rds ^acriXeias avrcov TrapaXapi^dveiv , 
OVK dv TapKvvios 6 irdTTTTOS vpojv rrjv -qyepioviav 
TrapeXa^ev "AyKov reXevr'qcravTos , dXX* 6 irpea^v- 

4 repos r(x)v eKeivov TTaihiov, oAA' o Srjpxis 6 
*Pojp,aLa}v ov rov Sidhoxov rov Trarpos, dXXd 
rdv d^Lov rrjs dp)(ijs cttI rd Trpdypara e/coAcf 
"qyelro ydp rd p,ev ;^/oi^/i.ara rayv Krqaapevcov 
etvai, rrjv 8e ^aaiXeiav rcbu SeScDKoriov Kal rd 

^ iraiSas ye B : iralSds yt aippevas R. 
382 



BOOK IV. 34, 1-4 

XXXIV, " But concei-ning the kingship, since this 
is the point of your accusation, learn not only by what 
means I obta,ined it, but also for what reasons I am not 
resigning it either to you or to anyone else. When 
I took upon myself the oversight of the common- 
wealth, finding that there were certain plots forming 
against me, I desired to surrender the conduct of 
affairs to the people ; and having called them all 
together in assembly, I offered to resign the power 
to them, exchanging this envied sovereignty, the 
source of more pains than pleasures, for a quiet life 
free from danger. But the Romans would not 
permit me to follow this preference, nor did they see 
fit to make anyone else master of the state, but re- 
tained me and by their votes gave me the kingship^ 
a thing which belonged to them, Tarquinius, rather 
than to you or your brother — in the same manner as 
they had entrusted the government to your grand- 
father, who was a foreigner and in no way related to 
the king who preceded him ; and yet King Ancus 
Marcius had left sons in their prime of life, not 
grandchildren and infants, as you and your brother 
were left by Tarquinius. But if it were a general 
law that the heirs to the estate and possessions of 
deceased kings should also be heirs to their kingly 
office, Tarquinius, your grandfather would not have 
succeeded to the sovereignty upon the death of 
Ancus, but rather the elder of the king's sons. But 
the Roman people did not call to power the heir of 
the father, but rather the person who was worthy to 
rule. For they held that, while property belongs to 
those who acquired it, the kingly office belongs to 

* ovaCav Kiessling, ^avepav ovaiav Jacoby : i^vaw 0, Krqaiv 
Portus. 



DIONYSIUS OF ITALICARNASSUS 

[i€v orav Ti TrddojaLv ol Kvpioi rovs Kara yevos 
iq /caret Siad-qKas 8iaSo;^oi>s" TrpoarjKeiv vapa- 
Xafi^dvcLV, TTjv 8' orav e/cAtVcoCTtv ol Xa^ovres 
Tovs BeScoKoras e-)(€iv ei ix-q ti toiovtov e^et? 
hiKaioiiia (hepeiv, on rrjv ^aaiKeiav 6 TTOLTnTos 
vfiwv 6771 prjTols rial rrapeXa^ev, ware /cat avTOS 
€)(ei,v ava<f)aipeTOV /cai vpilv roZs iyyovoLS /cara- 
XiTTetv, /cat o SrjfMos ov Kvpios -^v a(f)eX6yi€VO£ avrrjv 

5 vficov ifiol Sovvai. ei yap ri toiovtov clirelv €.-)(ei,s, 
TL ov (f>€p€Ls rag avvd-qKas et? fieaov ; oAA' ovk 
av e^ot?. et 8' ov Kara rov ^eXTtarov a'urrjs 
€rv)(ov iyco rpoTTOv, ws Xeyeis, yirid^ vtto tcjv 
fieao^aaLXcayv alpedels /^^re rrjs ^ovXtjs /xoi 
7rapaSovar)s to, irpayixara fi.'qre rcov dXXcov yevo- 
fievcDv Tcov Kara vofJiov, tovtovs aSi/cco 87^7701; /cat 
ovxl ere, /cat utto tovtcdv TravOrjuat 8t/cato? et/xi 

6 T7]S dpX'fjS, OVX VTTO GOV. oAA' OVT€ TOVTOVS 

ovT dXXov ovSeva dSiKco. [xdpTus Se ttjs e/c 
Tov ^ SiKaLov /Ltot /cat t6t€ Sodeiarjs /cat vvv 
VTTapxovcrrjs i^ovcrias 6 )(p6vos, ev o) TCTrapa- 
KovTa€Tel ^ yeyovoTi 'PajfiaLcov ovSels rfyqcraTO 
fi€ 7TC07T0T dSiKelv, ovB^ eK^aXelv fie Trjs dpxjjs 
eTTex^t-P'Tjoev ovd* 6 8'^/xos' ovd* rj ^ovXij. 

XXXV. " 'AAA' ii'a ravTa TrdvT* d<j)Ui /cat 
ofioae xcop'qcrai tols ools Xoyois, et ac napa- 
Karadi^KTjv TraTTTTutav dTicoTepovv koX irapd Trdvra 

' TOV added by Pflugk. 

* Before TeTTopoKovracTel Kiessling added Terrapa Kal. 



BOOK IV. 34, 4-35, 1 

those who conferred it, and that the former, when 
anything happens to its owners, ought to descend to 
the natural heirs or the testamentary heirs, but that 
the latter, when the persons who received it die, 
should return to those who gave it. Unless, indeed, 
you have some claim to offer to the effect that your 
grandfather received the kingship upon certain 
express conditions, whereby he was not to be deprived 
of it himself and could also leave it to you, his grand- 
sons, and that it was not in the power of the people 
to take it from you and confer it upon me. If you 
have any such claim to allege, why do you not produce 
the contract ? But you cannot do so. And if I did 
not obtain the office in the most justifiable manner, 
as you say, since I was neither chosen by the inter- 
reges nor entrusted with the government by the 
senate and the other legal requirements were not 
observed, then surely it is these men here that I 
am wronging and not you, and I deserve to be 
deprived of power by them, not by you. But I am 
not wronging either these men nor anyone else. 
The length of my reign, which has now lasted forty 
years,^ bears me witness that the power was both 
then justly given to me and is now justly vested in 
me ; for during this time none of the Romans ever 
thought I reigned unjustly, nor did either the people 
or the senate ever endeavour to drive me from power. 
XXXV. " But — to pass over all these matters 
and to come to grips with your charges — if I had been 
depriving you of a deposit that had been left in my 
hands by your grandfather in trust for you and, 

^ Kiessling proposed to read "forty-four years," which is 
not improbable in view of the use of the exact number by 
Tarquinius above {chap. 32, 1). 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TCI iv dvdpcoTTOis Si/caia ttjv cttjv ^aaiXeiav Karelxov, 
^XPW ^^ irapayevoixevov im rovs SeScoKoras fu>i 
rrjv i^ovaiav ayavaKrelv Koi Karrjyopelv cfjiov re, 
on TO. fiTj TTpocri^Kovra Kariy^m, /cat twv 8e8w- 
Koriov, on raXXorpia ex^piaavro [Xol- paStw? 
yap av eireiaas avrovs, et n hiKaiov ^Ix^^ Xeyeiv. 

2 €L Be TovTio fxev ovK eTTLOTeves rco Xoytp, ov 
SiKaccos 8' dp)^€a6ai Tr]v ttoXlv ivo/Jii^es vtt* 
ipLOV Koi aeavTov eTnTrjheiorepov elvai ttjv cttl- 
jxeXiiav Tojv kolvow TrapaXa^eZv , cKilva TTOielv aoi 
TTpoarjKev • e^eraaiv rQv ificov TTOLr^adp-evov dixapTq- 
p-GLTCov Kai rds aavrov irpd^eis i^apidfirjcrdpievov 
KaXelv jJLc els SiaSiKaaiav wv ovhirepov irroLrjaas, 
aAAa Toaovrois XP^^^'-^ varepov, wanep €k [xaKpds 
dvavrnpas pedrjs, vvv Tj/cets p-ov KarrjyopdJv, /cat 

o ovSe vvv 07T0V Bet. ov yap ivddSe aot, ravra 
irpoa'qKeL Xiyeiv — Kal p-qBev dxdeadrjre poi ravra 
Xeyovn, c5 ^ovXiq' ov yap vpcov d(f)aipovp€vos 
rrjv Bidyvcoaiv, dXXd rrjv rovrov avKo^avriav 
eiTihei^ai ^ ^ovXofievos ravra Xeyoj — Trpoenrovra ^ 
8e cr eSei ^ fioi rov Brjpov els eKKXrjcrLav ovvayayelv 
eKel * p.ov Karr]yopelv. ttXtjv eirel av rovro 
7Te<f>evyas, eyw rrepl aov TTOi-qcru) Kal avyKoXeaas 
rov hrfpov rrape^op.ai aoL Bi.Kacrrrjv (Lv av piov 
Karrjyopt^mrjs, /cat dTToBwcrco TrdXiv avrw Biayvojvai 
TTorepos rjpLcbv €7nrrjBet6rep6s eanv e^^f-v rrjv 
apx^jv' Kal 6 n dv drravres ovroi yvcoai Trpdrreiv 



^ Kiessling : (mSei^aadai 0, Jacoby. 

* npofiiTOvra B : vpoenrovTO A. 

' 8e a' <8ei Jacoby, 8" eSei o€ Grasberger : 8e (only) 0. 

* eVet B : kox e'/cei A, KaKti Jacoby. 



BOOK IV. 35, 1-3 

contrary to all the established rules of justice recog- 
nized by mankind, had been retaining the kingship 
which was yours, you ought to have gone to those who 
granted the power to me and to have vented your 
indignation and reproaches, both against me, for 
continuing to hold what did not belong to me, and 
against them, for having conferred on me what 
belonged to others ; for you would easily have con- 
vinced them if you had been able to urge any just 
claim. If, however, you had no confidence in this 
argument and yet thought that I had no right to 
rule the state and that you were a more suitable 
person to be entrusted with its oversight, you ought 
to have done as follows — to have made an investiga- 
tion of my mistakes and enumerated your own services 
and then to have challenged me to a trial for the 
determination of our respective merits. Neither of 
these things did you do ; but, after all this time, as 
if recovered from a long fit of drunkenness, you now 
come to accuse me, and even now not where you 
should have come. For it is not here that you should 
present these charges — do not take any offence at 
this statement of mine, senators, for it is not with a 
view of taking the decision away from you that I 
say this, but from the desire to expose this man's 
calumnies — but you ought to have told me before- 
hand to call an assembly of the people and there to 
have accused me. However, since you have avoided 
doing so, I will do it for you, and having called the 
people together, I will appoint them judges of any 
crimes of which you may accuse me, and will again 
leave it to them to decide which of us two is the more 
suitable to hold the sovereignty ; and whatever they 
shall unanimously decide I ought to do, I will do. 

387 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 /xe Selv,^ TTOiijaoj. /cat npos jxev ae ^ ravB* 
iKavd- iv taco yap iari, ro ^ re TroAAa StVaia Trpos 
Tovs dyvcofiovas avTihiKovs Xiyeiv koL to ^ oXiya' 
TO yap TTclaov avrovs etvai p^piycrToy? ov 7Ti(f)v- 
Kacri (f)€p€LV ol Aoyoi.* 

XXXVI. " 'Y[x6jv 8e reOavfiaKa, et rives 
claLv, o) ^ovXij, rrjs d.p)(fjs fie aTraXXd^aL ^ovXo- 
fievoL Kol p.erd rovrov avvearrjKores ctt' e/xe*^ 
'qSccos 8' dv TTvdocfxrjv Trap* avrdiv rivos dSi/CTy- 
fxaTOs ev€Ka jroXeixovai [xol /cat ctti riVt rcjjv 
cfiojv epyojv dxddixevoi' moTepov on rroXXovs 
taaaiv errt rrjs ip-rfs dpx^^s aKpirovs drroXoiXoras 
7] rfjs TTarpihos arepop-lvovs ^ ri rds ovaias 
aTToXojXeKOTas t] dXXrj tlvl avpL(f)opa K^xpf]- 
fievovs ' aSt/cco? ; ^ t? tovtcxjv p,kv rcbv TvpawiKcov 
dhiK-qixdrcov ovSev e^ovaiv eLTrelv utt' e/xou yeyovog, 
v^peis 8c pLoi TLvas avvoiSacnv et? yvvatKas 
ya/xera? t] 7rpo7rrjXaKicrp.ovs els dvyarepas irap- 
devovs T] dXXrjv rivd Trepl CTcDjua eXevdepov d/co- 
Xaaiav ; 8t/catos" /xeW dv etrjv,^ et rt p,oi roiov- 
rov rjp,dpTr]Tai, rrjs dp^rj'S re d/xa /cat t'^? ^pvx^js 

2 dTTOcrreprjdrjvai}^ ^e'pe/^ oAA' VTr€pr}<f)av6s et/ai 
/cat 8td ^apvrrjra eTTaxd^jS koI rrjv avddBeiav, 
"fj K€Xpy]p-aL 7T€pl rrjv dpx'^v, ovSetj ^ipeiv hvvarai 
fxov ; TLS /ueVrot rdJv irpd €p,ov ^aaLXecov ovrco 
fierpios <x>v ^^ iv e^ovaia Stere'Aecre /cat <f)iXdvdpa)- 
TTOs diraai, tols TroAtVats" co? ■narrjp irpaos viols 

* 8«tv added by Biicheler. 

* ae added by Reiske. 
' TO Cobet : ra 0. 

* ol Adyoi BC : ora. R. 

' e'/xe : e'/xot Readier, Jacoby. 

* Kiessling : arepovfiivovs 0. 

S88 



BOOK IV. 35, 4-36, 2 

As for you, this is a sufficient answer, since it is all the 
same whether one urges many or few just claims 
against unreasonable adversaries ; for mere words 
naturally cannot bring any argument which will 
persuade them to be honest. 

XXXVI. " But I have been surprised, senators, 
that any of you vdsh to remove me from power and 
have conspired with this man against me. I should 
Uke to learn from them what injury provokes them to 
attack me and at what action of mine they are 
offended. Is it because they know that great numbers 
during my reign have been put to death without a 
trial, banished from their country, deprived of their 
possessions, or have met with any other misfortune 
which they have not merited ? Or, though they can 
accuse me of none of these tyrannical misdeeds, are 
they acquainted with any outrages I have been guilty 
of toward married women, or insults to their maiden 
daughters, or any other wanton attempt upon a person 
of free condition ? If I have been guilty of any such 
crime I should deserve to be deprived at the same 
time both of the kingship and of my life. Well then, 
am I haughty, am I burdensome by my severity, and 
can no one bear the arrogance of my administration ? 
And yet which of my predecessors constantly used 
his power with such moderation and kindliness, 
treating all the citizens as an indulgent father treats 

' Sylburg : kctt . prjiiivovs Ba, KeKpifievovs ABb. 

* ahiKCDs Kiessling : aSt'/coj 0. 

• SiKaios /X.CVT* av e'rjv Reiske : SiKaiuis fievr' dv B, Jacoby, 
SiVatov fxevr' av R (?). 

^^ dnoareprjOiivai, R: a.TTocrrepTjdei'qv B, Jacoby. 
^^ ({>ep€ B : <j>€pe ciTreiv R. 
^* wv added by Bucheler. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTOV ;!^/3a)/Aep'o? ; o? ye /cat 7-17^ e^ovaiav, rfv 
vfiels ehoiKari jxol Trarepcov cf)vXdTrovT€s Trapa- 
Soxds, ovx diraaav e^ovX-qd-qv €X€lv, dXXa voyiovs 
6 vrrep rcbv KvpnoraTCtiv Karaarqadixevog, ovs 
aTTOMTes erreKvpcoaare, Kara tovtovs vpuv dir- 
eScoKa SiSovaL rd StKaia Kal Xajx^dveiv, /cat avros 
e^-qra^oixrjv Trpcoros ols wpiaa Kara rcbv aXKoiv 
ot/catois" c5(T7rep iStcoTT^s" Treidofxevos' rdjv r* 
dhLK-qfjidrajv ovx dTrdvTiov avros iyivopL-qv 8i- 
KaaTT]s, dAAa rds iStcuri/cds- St'/caj ^ vjjuv dn- 
eSiOKa SLayivcoa-Keiv, o ribv efiirpoadev ouSet? eTroi- 

3 r]ae ^acnXioiv. dAA' eoiKcv d8LKrjp.a [xev ovhev 
ett-at St o hvax^paivovcri fioC TLves, at 8' els to 
hrjpLOTLKov TrXrjdos evepyeaiai Xvttovolv vfids ^ 
dSiKCOs,^ TTepl &v TToAAd/ct? diroXeXoy-qyiai npos 
vp-ds. aXX ovSev Set rovrcov vvvl rwv Xoyoiv 
ei 8e * So/cet KpeZrrov imp^eXijaeadai rcbv koivcov 
TapKvvios ovTOcrl rd rrpdypiara TrapaXa^cov, 
bv (paovco rfj iroXei ^eXriovos rjyep.6vog' dnoSovs 
oe rrjv dpxrjv ro) SeSco/cdrt p,0L S-qp-u) /cat yevo- 
p.evos lBiu)Trjs Tretpdaop^ai iroi.'fjaaL irdai ^ ^avepov, 
on Kal dpx^iv eVt'crTajuat /caAcD? /cat dpx^crdat, 
Bwap-ai cr(x)(f)p6va)s ." 

XXXVII. Totaura 8taAe;^^ets' /cat ei? TToXXrjv 
atSd) Karaar'qcras rovs crvvicrrap,evovs evr' avrdi 
BieXvae rov avXXoyov /cat p,€rd roCro rovs ktj- 
pvKas avaKaXeadpbevos eKeXevcre 8td irdvrcov rdJv 
arevojTTdJv Sie^iovras rov Srjp,ov eiV eKKX-qaiav 

2 ovyKoXeiv. avvSpap,6vros S* els rrjv dyopdv 

^ SiKas added l)y Sintenis. 

^ Xvnovaiv i5/xaj CD : Xvnovai /xe A, Xvyreiv fie B, AvTretc vfiag 
Jacoby. 

m 



BOOK IV. 36, 2-37, 2 

his own children? Why, I did not even desire to 
retain all the power which you, following the tradi- 
tions of your fathers, gave to me, but after estab- 
lishing laws, which you all confirmed, relating to 
the most essential matters, I then granted to you 
the privilege of giving and receiving justice in accord- 
ance with these laws; and to these rules of justice 
which I prescribed for others I showed myself the first 
to yield obedience, like any private citizen. Nor did 
I make myself the judge of all sorts of crimes, but 
causes of a private nature I restored to your jurisdic- 
tion — a thing which none of the former kings ever 
did. But it appears that it is no wrongdoing on my 
part that has drawn upon me the ill-will of certain 
persons, but it is rather the benefits I have conferred 
on the plebeians that grieve you unjustly — con- 
cerning which I have often given you my reasons. 
But there is no need for such explanations now. If 
you believe that Tarquinius here by taking over the 
government will administer affairs better than I, 
I shall not envy the commonwealth a better ruler; 
and after I have surrendered the sovereignty to the 
people, from whom I received it, and have become a 
private citizen, I shall endeavour to make it plain 
to all that I not only know how to rule well, but can 
also obey with equanimity." 

XXXVII. After this speech, which covered the 
conspirators with shame, TuUius dismissed the meeting, 
and then, summoning the heralds he ordered them 
to go through all the streets and call the people 
together to an assembly. And when the whole 

' aSiVtoj : BoKovat Jacoby. 

* Se added by Reiske. 

' ndai Bb in ras. : om. R. 

391 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rod Kara rrjv ^ ttoXlv ox^ov irpoeXduiV im ro 
^rjfxa fiaKpav /cat crvfiTradrj SLe^rjXde h-qii-qyopiav 
rds re TToXefxtKas iavrov rrpd^eis e^api9p,ov- 
fievos, as TapKvvLov re ^lovros hieirpd^aro /cat 
yiera rrjv cKeivov reXevrt^v, /cat rojv noXtrev- 
fxdrcov Ka9* ev eKacrrov eTTLXeyofxevos, e^ cov 
TToXXds /cat jjLeydXas eSo^ev ea^^rjKevai ro kolvov 

3 ui^eXeias. ttoXXov S' e(^' eKaarco rix)v Xeyo- 
fievcDV aTTavrcbvros eTraivov /cat Trdvrcov aTrovSrjv 
e^ovroiv fiadeZv rivoiv eveKa ravra Xeyei, reXevrcov 
€(f)rjaev on TapKvvLos avrov atrt,drai rrjv ^auiXeiav 
ov St/cato)? Karex^iv eavra> TrpooT^KOvaav Kara- 
XiTTelv yap avru) rov TrdTnrov dirodv-qaKovra avv 
rots XPVH-'^^'' '^^^ "^^ ^PXV^> ''"°^ ^^ Sijfiov ovk 

4 efi^at Kvpiov rdXXorpia erepco StSdt'at. Kpavyijs 
Se /cat dyavaKrijarecos cf drrdvrcov €7tl rovro) 
yevofxevTjs cricoTrrjcrat KeXevaas avrovs rj^tov firjSev 
dydeadai [M-qSe dyavaKreZv Trpos rov Xoyov, dXX el 
Tt SiKaiov ei7T€Lv e^et TapKvvios, KaXetv avrov /cat 
hiSaxdcvras, edv r dSiKovpLevov evpcocxLv edv r 
eTTirrjSeLorepov dpxeiv, eKeivcp TrapaSovvai rrjv 
rrjs TToXeios tt poor aa lav avros Se rrjs dp^ijs 
ecfiTjaev d(f)iaraa6ai /cat (XTToStSoi^at rots' Kvpiois, 

6 nap <Lv avrrjv eXa^ev. ravra Xe^avros avrov 
Kara^aLveiv r aTTo rov ^ijixaros ^ovXofJievov 
Kpavyrj r e^ aTrdvroiv eyivero /cat he-qaeis ttoX- 
Xal avv olfxcoyals VTrep rov fJLrjSevl Tvapaxoipelv 
rrjs dpxrjs' rives S' e^ avr<ov /cat jSaAAetv rov 
TapKiiviov i^ocov. eKelvos fiev ovv Setcraj t^v 

^ T1JV O : om. Jacoby. 



BOOK IV. 37, 2-5 

populace of the city had flocked to the Forum, he 
came forward to the tribunal and made a long and 
moving harangue, enumerating all the military 
achievements he had performed, both during the 
lifetime of Tarquinius and after his death, and re- 
counting in addition one by one all his administra- 
tive measures from which the commonwealth 
appeared to have reaped many great advantages. 
And when everything he said met with great 
applause and all the people earnestly desired to 
know for what reasons he mentioned these things, 
at last he said that Tarquinius accused him of retain- 
ing the kingship unjustly, since it belonged to him- 
self; for Tarquinius claimed that his grandfather at 
his death had left him the sovereignty together with 
his property, and that the people did not have it in 
their power to bestow on another what was not their 
own to give. This raising a general clamour and 
indignation among the people, he ordered them to be 
silent and asked them to feel no displeasure or 
resentment at his words, but in case Tarquinius had 
any just claim to advance in support of his pretensions, 
to summon him and if, after learning what he had to 
say, they should find that he was being wronged and 
was the more suitable man to rule, to entrust him 
with the leadership of the commonwealth. As for 
himself, he said, he now resigned the sovereignty 
and restored it to those to whom it belonged and 
from whom he had received it. After he had said 
this and was on the point of descending from the 
tribunal, there was a general outcry and many 
begged of him with groans not to surrender the sov- 
ereignty to anyone ; and some of them even called 
out to stone Tarquinius. He, however, fearing 

393 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€/c ^^eipos Slkt)v, opfirjg tjSt) yLvofievrjs ^ rcov 
ox^ojv €77 avTov, S)(€TO <j>evyojv a/za rots' eratpois, 
rov 8e TvXKiov rj ttXtjOvs aTracra fiera ;^apa? koI 
KpoTOv Kol TToXKrjg 2 €V(f)r]fjiLa? TrapaTTCfnTovcra 
fiexpi- rrjs oiKias avrov ^ Karearrjaev . 

XXXVIII. 'Q.S 8e /cat ravTTjs Si-qp-apre ttjs 
TTetpas o TapKvvios, dBrjfjiovcov em rat /i,7ySe/xtav 
avrtp ^orjdeiav Trapa ttjs PovXrjs, fj fidXiara 
e7T€7TOidei, yeveaOai, ;^/3oi'ov [xep riva SteV/atjSe 
KWT oLKiav TOLs iraipois }i6vois BcaXeyo/jievos' 
.€7T€Lra yva)fir]v aTToSei^anevqs rrjs yvvatKos fi'qSev 
€Ti [xaXaKil^eadai /xi^Se KaroKveZv, dXXd Kara- 
^aXovra rovs Xoyovs inl rd epya x<^P^^^> StaA- 
Xayds TTpcoTov evp6[j,evov Bid <j>iXoiv irpo? rov 
IvaXlov, tva TTiarevaas cos <j)iXco yeyovori "^Jttov 
avTOv (f)vXdTTOiTO, Sofa? * avrrjv rd Kpariara 
VTTOveadai, pieTavoeiv re Tre/ai r<x)v y^yovoriov 

€<JKr)7TT€TO /Cat TToXXd 8td ^iXcOV XlTTapaJV TOP 

2 TvXXiov "q^LOV avyyvcojxova yeveadai. paara Se 
TTCiaas Tov dvBpa <j)vaei t evStdXXaKTov ovra 
/cat ovK a^Lovvra iroXefXov daireiaTov dvyarpl 
Kai yafJL^pip 7ioXep.eZv, iTreiBrj rov oIkcXov Kaipov 
eXa^e BiecrKeBacrfxdvov rov Bi]fiov Kard rovs 
aypovs €TTL rrjv rcjov Kapncov crvyKOfxiBi^v, i^rjXde 
fjLera ra>v eratpcov exovrojv vtto rals Trept^oXais 
gi.(f>rj, rovs re TreAe'/cets" inriqperais rialv dvaBovs 
/cat auro? ry]v ^aaiXiKrjv eadijra Xa^ojv ^ /cat xdAAa 
TTapdarjua rrjs dpxrjs eTrayofxevos' iXdojv B* 
€is Tr]v dyopdv /cat Tipd rov ^ovXevrrjpiov ards 

L^ "^ X**P°s ... ytvonivTjs B : e*c x^i-P^s opurjv jjSti ytfo/xn^i' 

* noXX^s B : om. R. 



BOOK IV. 37, 5-38, 2 

summary punishment, since the crowds were already 
making a rush against him, fled, and his companions 
with him, while the entire populace with joy, applause, 
and many acclamations conducted Tullius as far as his 
house and saw him safely established there. 

XXXVIII. When Tarquinius failed in this attempt 
also, he was dismayed that from the senate, upon 
which he had chiefly relied, no assistance had come to 
him, and remaining at home for some time, he con- 
versed only with his friends. Afterwards, when his 
wife advised him no longer to play the weakling or 
hesitate, but to have done with words and proceed 
to deeds, after he should first have obtained a re- 
conciliation with Tullius by the intercession of 
friends — to the end that the king, trusting him as 
having become his friend, might be the less upon his 
guard against him — believing that her advice was 
most excellent, he began to pretend to repent of 
his past behaviour and through friends besought 
Tullius with many entreaties to forgive him. And 
he very easily persuaded the man, who was not 
only by his nature inclined to reconciliation but was 
also averse to waging an implacable contest with his 
daughter and his son-in-law ; then, as soon as he saw 
a favourable opportunity, when the people were dis- 
persed about the country for the gathering of the har- 
vest, he appeared in public with his friends, all having 
swords under their garments, and giving the axes to 
some of his servants, he himself assumed the royal 
apparel and all the other insignia of royalty. Then, 
going to the Forum, he took his stand before the 

^ Capps : auT'^s A, om. B, in' avrrjs Reiske. 
* Bo^as R : 86^as Se ABb, Jacoby. 
' Cobet : dvaXa^ojv O. 

395 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

cKeXevcre ru> KrjpvKi rovs jSouAeurd? KoXetu els 
TO avvihpLov. rjaav 8' eV TrapacrKevrjg eTOLfioi 
TTcpi rrjv ayopav ol cryveiSore? avro) rrjp npa^iv 

3 /cat TTapopjxoJvres ck tcov TrarpiKiuiv avxyoi. ol 
fj,€v Brj avvrjeaav rat 8e TvXXicp Xeyei tls iXOwv 
ovTL /car' OLKiav, on TapKvvios iv iadrjri ^aaiXiKfi 
TTpoeX'qXvde /cat KaAei rovs ^ovXevras et? to 
avveSptov. 6 Se 6avp,daas ttjv roXpiav avrov 
raxi'OV ■^ ^povLii(x)T€pov TrporjXdev e/c rrjs ot/cta? ov 
TToXXovs TTepl iavrov €)(Ciiv. iXdoiv 8' els ro 
avvehpiov /cat rov TapKvvtov IScbv IttI rfjs ^aatXi- 
KTJs Kad-qiievov eSpas ^ /cat rov dXXov ^aalXeiov 

4 exovra Koafxov " Tij," elTrev, " w inapcLrare 
avup(x)7T(ov, rovro aoi ro a^'f^p-o, avvexcoprjae 
Xa^eZv ; " /cat oj viroXa^cov " *H ctt^ roA/xa /cat 
ai'atSeta," elnev, " a> TyAAte, o? oj}8' iXevdepos 
tou, aAAa 8oyAos' e/c 8ouA7js', '^t' ov/xos eKr-qaaTO 
TTaTTTTos e/c Tcav alxp-aXcoTOjv, eroXp^-qaas ^aaiXea 

Vcop-aicov aeavTov avaSet^at." cos 8e ravr 
TjKovcrev o TvAAios", eKTriKpavdels em to* Aoya> 
irapa ro avpL(f)epov (Lpp^rjcrev err* avrov cos e^ava- 

6 arrjaojv rrjs eSpas. /cat o TapKvvios dap.evos 
rovro loujv dvaTnrjSa re dno rov Slcjipov, /cat avv- 
apTTaaas rov yepovra KCKpayora /cat rovs vnrjperas 
eTTLKaXovp,evov e^epe. yev6p,evos 8' e^a> rod 
PovXevrrjplov p.ereojpov e^dpas '^ avrov dKp,d(^o)v 
ro CTcDjLia /cat poip-aXios dvrjp purrel ^ Kara rdJv 
Kprjrrihcjv rov ^ovXevrripiov rdv els ro IkkXt]- 

6 aiaarrjpiov ^epovaa)v. p,6yt.s 8' e/c rov rrrcopiaros 
dvaords 6 Trpeo^vrrjs, d)s etSe fxeard rd -nepf,^ 

^ fSpas B : KoBihpas R- 



BOOK IV. 38, 2-6 

senate-house and ordered the herald to summon the 
senators thither ; indeed, many of the patricians who 
were privy to his design and were urging him on 
were by prearrangement ready in the Forum. And 
so the senators assembled. In the meantime someone 
went and informed Tullius, who was at home, that 
Tarquinius had appeared in public in royal apparel 
and was calling a meeting of the senate. And he, 
astonished at the other's rashness, set out from his 
house with more haste than prudence, attended by 
but a few. And going into the senate-house and 
seeing Tarquinius seated on the throne with all the 
other insignia of royalty, he exclaimed : " Who, most 
wicked of men, gave you authority to assume this 
attire?" To which the other replied: "Your 
boldness and impudence, Tullius ; for, though you 
were not even a free man, but a slave and the son of a 
slave mother, whom my grandfather got from among 
the captives, you nevertheless have dared to proclaim 
yourself king of the Romans." When Tullius heard 
this, he was so exasperated at the reproach that, 
heedless of his own safety, he rushed at him with the 
intent of forcing him to quit the throne. Tarquinius 
was pleased to see this, and leaping from his seat, 
seized and bore off the old man, who cried out and 
called upon his servants to assist him. When he got 
outside the senate-house, being a man of great 
vigour and in his prime, he raised him aloft and 
hurled him down the steps that lead from the senate- 
house to the comitium. The old man got up from 
his fall with great difficulty, and seeing the whole 



i$dpas Reiske : i^apTrdaas 0, Jacoby. 
dvtjp piTTTei (piWet) Sintenis : dvappiim 
vser. 



* dvrip piTTTel (piWet) Sintenis : dvappinTet, AB, wv avappiTTTet 
Kayser. 

397 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

drravra rrjs Trepl rov TapKvviov iraipeias, ratv 8' 
avTov ^iXiov TToXXrjv iprjixiav, aTrrjei arevcov, 
Kparovvroiv /cat TrapaTreixTTOVTOiv avrov oXlycov, 
alfian ttoXXco peo/xevos ^ Kal KaKcbs oXov iavrov 
€K rov TTTWfJLaTOs ex^ov. 

XXXIX. Td /Lterd ravra 8eim fxev olkov- 
adijvai, davfiaara 8e Kal aTTiara vpaxdrjvat,,^ 
rrjs avoaia's avrov dvyarpos epya TrapaStSorai. 
TTeTTvafxevrj yap rrjv eis ro ^ovXevrr^piov rov 
Ttarpos etaohov /cat airovhriv e^ovaa fxaOeZv 
olov ri X'qiftcrai ra Trpdyfiara riXos, IttI rrjg 
aTTTjVTjs Kadel,opL€vri Traprjv els rrjv ayopdv. 
fJLadovaa 8e to. yev6p.eva /cat rov TapKvviov iirl 
rijs KprjTTtSos ecrrwra Trpo ^ rov PovXevrrjpiov 
deaaajxevrj ^aaiXea r avrov TjaTrdoaro rrpcorr] 
fjLeydXj] rfj (fycjvij /cat rot? deols ev^aro eVt rep 
avp,(f)€povrt, rrjs rroXews rrjs 'Piofxaicov rrjv dp^rjv 

2 avrov Karaax^tv. darraaapiivoyv Se /cat ribv 
aXXoiv avrov ths ^aaiXea rwv crvyKaraaKevaadvrojv 
rrjv dpx'^v, Xa^ovaa fxovov avrov " To. p.(V 
rrpcbra, ^(f>f]> " TTerrpaKrai crot, TapKvvte, Kara. 
ro Seov ^e^aLOJS 8e rrjv ^aaiXeiav ex^i'V TvXXiov 
rrepiovros ovk eveari aoi. iKBrjaayojyncrei yap 
avUis em aoi rov ox^ov, eav /cat ottoctovovv 
ravrr]s rrjs rjp.€pas rrepiyevr^rai xp^^^^' ^rriaraaai 
8' CO? eijvovv earlv avrto ro S-qfj-oriKov drrav 
dXXd Kal ^ rrplv els rrjv oIkLov avrov elaeXdeZv, 
arrocrrelXas roijs SiaxprjaopLevovs eKTToBojv rroirj- 

3 aov. ' radr elrrovaa Kal KadeCofxevrj TraAij/ 
€771 rrjs drrqvrjs t^x^ro' TapKvvios 8c Kal ravra 

^ ptofievos B : nepippfofifvos R. 

* OavyMOTo. . , . iTpaxOrjvat, BC, Lapus : om. R. 



BOOK IV. 38, 6-39, 3 

neighbourhood crowded with the followers of Tarquin- 
ius and noting a great dearth of his own friends, he set 
out for home lamenting, only a few persons supporting 
and escorting him, and as he went he dripped much 
blood and his entire body was in a wretched plight 
from his fall. 

XXXIX. What happened next, terrible to hear 
yet astonishing and incredible to have been done — 
the deeds of his impious daughter — have been 
handed down to us. She, having been informed that 
her father had gone to the senate-house, and being 
in haste to know what would be the outcome of the 
affair, entered her carriage and rode to the Forum; 
and there, hearing what had passed and seeing 
Tarquinius standing upon the steps before the senate- 
house, she was the first person to salute him as king, 
which she did in a loud voice, and prayed to the 
gods that his seizing of the sovereignty might 
redound to the advantage of the Roman state. And 
after all the rest who had assisted him in gaining the 
sovereignty had also saluted him as king, she took 
him aside and said to him: "The first steps, Tar- 
quinius, you have taken in the manner that was 
fitting; but it is impossible for you to hold the 
kingship securely so long as Tullius survives. For by 
his harangues he will again stir up the populace 
against you if he remains alive but the least part of 
this day; and you know how attached the whole 
body of the plebeians is to him. But come, even 
before he gets home, send some men and put him out 
of the way." Having said this, she again entered 
her carriage and departed. Tarquinius upon this 

' ttpo B : om. R. * kox B : om. R. 

399 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

opdihs Sofa? TTiv a.voaiojTdry]v yvvaiKa vtto- 
TideaOai 7re/Li7ret rivas tG)v OepaTTom-iov ctt' avrov 
exovras ilff^t]' ol rdx€i ttoXXo) ttjv jxera^v 8i- 
avvaavres oSov iyyvs ovra rrjs ot/cta? "qSrj top 
TvXXiov KaraXa^ovres Kari(T<f>a^av . eri, he 

V€oa(f)ayovs ippiyi^^ievov rod aaijxaros kol axrat- 

4 povros 17 dvydrrjp Traprjv. arevov 8' ovros trdw 
rov arevcxiTTov, Si' ov rrjv a.TT'qvrjv eSet SieXdelv, 
at TjixiovoL TO TTTOJfxa IBovaai 8ieTapd)(6r]arav, /cat 
o TTporiyovpievog avrcjv opeoKopbos Tra^coi/ ri Trpos 
TO rrjs b\jj€cos iXccivov eTrdcrTr] Kal rrpos ttjv 
SeaTTOLvav aTre^Xeipe. 7TvvdavopL€VT]s S' eK^ivrjs 
Tt TTadcov ovK dyei to ^evyos' " Oi);^ opas" 

€t,7T€V, " O) TvXXia, TOP TTaTCpa GOV V€Kp6v K€t- 

fievop /cat TrdpoBov ovk ovaav dXX-qv, et /xt) Sta 

5 rov 7Trcop,aros ; rj 8 iKiriKpavdeZaa Kal drro 
ra>v TTohcbv ro ^ddpov dprrdaaaa ^dXXei rov 
opeoKopLov /cat (f)r]aLv " Ovk d^ets, aAtn^pie, 
Kat Sta rov vcKpov ; " Ka/cetfos" em rat Trddei 
fidXXov 7] rfj TrXrjyfj arevd^as dyei ^ta rds 7)p.i6vovs 
Kara rov Tmopiaros. ovros 6 arrevojTTOs op^ios 
KaXovnevos vporepov i^ eKeivov rov Seivov Kal 
pivcrapov rrdOovs dcre^rjs vtto 'PcopLaicDV Kara 
rr]v irarpLov yXuirrav /caAetrai. 

XL. TotauTT^? reAenTT^s" erv^^ TuAAto? errj 
rerrapa Kal rerrapdKovra ^ rrjv ^aaiXeiav Kara- 
oxojv. rovrov rov dvSpa Xeyovai 'Pco/Ltatot TrptS- 
rov ra irarpia edrj Kal v6p,ip.a Kivrjaai, rrjv 
o.pXW Xafiovra ov Trapd rijg PovXrjg Kal rov 

^ rerrapa koX rerrapaKovra Golenius (in translation), rerrapd- 
Kovra Kfti rerrapa Jacoby : rerrapaKovra 0. 

49Q 



BOOK IV. 39, 3-40, 1 

occasion also approved of the advice of his most impious 
wife, and sent some of his servants against TuUius 
armed with swords ; and they, swiftly covering the 
interval, overtook Tullius when he was already near 
his house and slew him. While his body lay freshly 
slain and quivering where it had been flung, his 
daughter arrived; and, the street through which 
her carriage was obliged to pass being very narrow, 
the mules became fractious at the sight of the body, 
and the groom who was leading them, moved by the 
piteous spectacle, stopped short and looked at his 
mistress. Upon her asking what possessed him not to 
lead the team on, he said: " Do you not see your 
father lying dead, Tullia, and that there is no other 
way but over his body? " This angered her to such 
a degree that she snatched up the stool from under 
her feet and hurled it at the groom, saying " Will 
you not lead on, accursed wretch, even over the 
body ? " Thereupon the groom, with lamentations 
caused more by the shocking deed than by the 
blow, led the mules forcibly over the body. This 
street, which before was called Orbian^ Street, is, 
from this horrid and detestable incident, called by 
the Romans in their own language Impious Street, 
that is, vicus Sceleratus. 

XL. Such 2 was the death which fell to the lot of 
Tullius after he had reigned forty-four years. The 
Romans say that this man was the first who altered 
the ancestral customs and laws by receiving the 
sovereignty, not from the senate and the people 

^ Or Urbian (opjStos may represent either form). The clivua 
Orbius (or Urhius) led up the Carinae to the top of the 
Mons Oppius, a spur of the Esquiline. It was on the 
Esquihne that Tullius had his residence (chap. 13, 2). 

' Cf. Livy i. 48, 8 f. 

401 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

SijfJiov, KadaTTep ot npo avrov navTes, oAAa Trapa 
[xovov rod hrjixov, SeKaa/xols Se ^ /cat ctAAat? 
TToAAat? KoXaKeiais eKdeparrevaavra rovs ajTopovs' 

2 Kal ej(ei rdXrjOes ovrojs. iu yap rols Trporcpov 
Xpovois, oTTore ^acrtAeu? aTToddvoi, ttjv fxkv 
i^ovaiav 6 SrjiJios eSi'Sou T(p avvehpicp rrjs PovXijs 
oiav TTpoeXoiTo KaraariqcTaadai TToXireiav rj 
8e ^ovXr] ixeao^aaiXels aTreSei/ci'uei'- €K^lvoi he 
rov dpiarov dvhpa, elr e/c rcjjv €TTL)(a)pioiv,^ 
etr €K Tcdv ^evtov, ^acriXea Kadiaraaav. el 
fxev ovv 7] re ^ovXr) rov alpeOevra vtt^ avrcjv 
eSoKijxaae Kal 6 Stj/jlos eTTeijjrj<f>iae Kal rd jiavrev- 
fiara eTreKvpoyae, -napeXdyi^avev ovros rrjv dp-)(rjv 
eXXeLTTOvros Se rivos rovrotv erepov wv6fiat,ov, 
Kal rpirov, el firj avfi^alrj fjL-qSe rw hevrepco rd 
re Trap' dvdpcoTrcov Kal rd napd rwv dedjv dv- 

3 eiriXrjTTra. 6 Se TvXXios einrpoTTOV ^aaiXiKov 
ax'fjiJia Kar dp^d? AajSojv, o)? eiprjrai pLoi npo- 
repov, eTTeira ^iXavd poiTriais rial rov Srjfiov oiKeioj- 
adfievos V'n eKeivov ^aaiXevs dTTeheL-)(dr] (xovov. 
emeiKrjs Se Kal fierptos dvrjp yevofievos eXvae 
rds eVi ra> fir) irdvra rd ^ Kard rovs vofxovg 
•npd^ai Sia^oXds rols fierd ravra epyois, TTapea^G 
re TToXXots VTToXrjiptv ojs, el fxrj ddrrov dvrjpedrj, 
fxeraorijacov ro ax'^jp-a rrjs rroXireias els Si7/Lto- 

4 K par lav. /cat eVt ravrrj [idXiara rfj air la 
Xeyerai rdv TtarpiKLOiv avr<p rivas avvem- 
^ovXevaai,- dSvvdrovs 8' ovras 8i' erepov rporrov 

^ Be B : , oni. A, T€ Kiessling ; koX Sw/joSoKtai? after S«- 
Kaofiols 8e deleted by Cobet. 
* eW c/c Ttof noXiTuiv after imx<^pt<uv deleted by Reiske. 



BOOK IV. 40, 1-4 

jointly, like all the former kings, but from the 
people alone, the poorer sort of whom he had won 
over by bribery and many other ways of courting 
popular favour ; and this is true. For before his 
time, upon the death of a king it was the custom for 
the people to grant to the senate authority to es- 
tablish such a form of government as they should 
think fit; and the senate created interreges, who 
appointed the best man king, whether he was a 
native Roman or a foreigner. And if the senate 
approved of the one so chosen and the people by 
their votes confirmed the choice, and if the auguries 
also gave their sanction to it, he assumed the 
sovereignty ; but if any one of these formalities was 
lacking, they named a second, and then a third, if it 
so happened that the second was likewise not found 
unobjectionable by both men and gods. Tullius, on 
the contrary, at first assumed the guise of royal 
guardian, as I said before,^ after which he gained the 
affections of the people by certain ingratiating acts 
and was appointed king by them alone. But as he 
proved to be a man of mildness and moderation, by 
his subsequent actions he put an end to the complaints 
caused by his not having observed the laws in all 
respects, and gave occasion for many to believe that, if 
he had not been made away with too soon, he would 
have changed the form of government to a democracy. 
And they say it was for this reason chiefly that some 
of the patricians joined in the conspiracy against him ; 
that, being unable by any other means to overthrow 

1 See chap. 5, 2 ; 8, 1. 



TCI added by Kiessling. 

403 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rfiv i^ovaiav avrov KaraXvaai TapKvviov ^ ctti 
ra irpayixara TrapaXa^eZv koX avyKaraaKevdaai 
rrji' apxV ^xeivo), KaKwaat re ^BovXoixevovs to 
BrjjjiOTiKov la^vos ov [xiKpds iTTiLXrjixjjLevov ck rrjs 
TuAAtou TToXirelas, Kal rrjv ihiav a^iwaiv, rjv 
nporepov elxov, dvaXa^elv. 

5 Qopv^ov 8e yei'Ofidvov ttoXXov Kara, ttjv ttoXlv 
oXrjv Kal olfMOjyrjs ^ttI to) TvXXlov davdrcp Seiaas 
o TapKvvios, €L 8ta rrjs dyopds 6 veKpos <j>ipoLro, 
CDS" eart PcDjU-atoi? edos, rov re ^aaiXeiov Koapbov 
exojv /cat rdXX oaa vopLOS eVt ra^atj jSaatAi/cai?,^ 
pLifi Tig i(f>^ iavrov ^ oppir] yevrjTaL rov 8r]p,orLKov 
TTptv 7] ^e^aLcos Kparvvaadai rrjv dp-)(riv, ovk 
etacre rcov vopLipiOiv ovhkv avro) yeviadai' aXX 
7] yvvTj rov TvXXiov avv oAtyoi? ticti ratv <j)iXo)v,'^ 
TapKvvtov dvydrrjp ovaa rov nporepov ^aaiXiajs, 
vvKTOs cKKopLi^ei TO acu/xa rrjs TToXecos, ws 
rojv eTTLTV^ovroiv tlvos' koX ttoXXo, pikv rov 
eavrrjs Kal €K€lvov Satpiova KaroSvpapievTj/* 
pLvpias 8e Kardpas rep re yapi^po) Kal rfj dvyarpl 

6 Karapaaapievr] KpvTTret yjj ro aiopLa, aTTcXdov- 
aa 8' aTTO rov ai]pLaros ot/caSe Kal piiav rjpLepav 
eTTL^Lcoaao'a pierd rrjv ra(f)7)v rfj Karoiriv vvKrl 
aTTodpTfjcTKei. rov davdrov 8' o rponos, oaris '^v, 
rjyuoeZro rols ttoXXols' eXeyov 8' oi p,kv vtto 
XvTTTjs avro)(€LpLa ro (,rju TrpoepLevrjv avrrjv diro- 
^aveti'' ol 8' VTTO rov yapc^pov /cat rr^? dvyarpos 
dvatpeOrjvai r-ffs ei? rov dvhpa avpLTradelag re 
Kal evvoias eveKa. ra<f)ijs piev ovv ^aaiXiK-qs 

^ TapKwtov Kiessling : Koi rapuwiov 0, Jacoby. 

" PaaiXiKals Kiessling : xal B, om. A. 

* €<f>' iavrov Kiessling : ety avrov AB, «is iavrov Jaooby. 
404 



BOOK IV. 40, 4-6 

his power, they took Tarquinius as an ally in their 
undertaking and aided him in gaining the sovereignty, 
it being their wish not only to weaken the power of 
the plebeians, which had received no small addition 
from the political measures of TuUius, but also to 
recover their own former dignity. 

The death of Tullius having occasioned a great 
tumult and lamentation throughout the whole city, 
Tarquinius was afraid lest, if the body should be 
carried through the Forum, according to the custom of 
the Romans, adorned with the royal robes and the 
other marks of honour usual in royal funerals, 
some attack might be made against him by the 
populace before he had firmly established his 
authority ; and accordingly he would not permit 
any of the usual ceremonies to be performed in his 
honour. But the wife of TulHus, who was daughter to 
Tarquinius, the former king, with a few of her friends 
carried the body out of the city at night as if it had 
been that of some ordinary person ; and after uttering 
many lamentations over the fate both of herself and of 
her husband and heaping countless imprecations 
upon her son-in-law and her daughter, she buried 
the body in the ground. Then, returning home from 
the sepulchre, she lived but one day after the burial, 
dying the following night. The manner of her death 
was not generally known. Some said that in her 
grief she lost all desire to live and died by her own 
hand ; others, that she was put to death by her son- 
in-law and her daughter because of her compassion 
and affection for her husband. For the reasons 

* Schnelle wished to place the phrase avv oXiyois rial r&v 
<j>iX(Dv after PaoiXecog. 

* Cobot : KaToSvpofJidvrj O. 

405 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/cat (xvrjfxaTos €7n(f)avovs Sta ravrag ras atVias" 
ovK i^eyevero rvxelv rip TvXXiov acoixari, fxjrq- 
firjs S' alcoviov tols epyois avrov napa irdvra rov 

7 xpovov VTTapxet rvyxdveiv. iS-qXcoae Se tl /cai 
a'AAo Saifjiovtov epyov on d€0(f>iX'r]s ■^v di^p,^ 
e^ ov /cat 17 TTepl rijs yevdaecos avrov fivdiK-^ 
/cat avLOTOS viroX-qi/jis, (Lairep etprjrai fjx)L -npo- 
Tepov, dXrjdrjs elvaL vno tto?<Xo)v emaTevdr]. iv 
yap Tip vau) rrjs Tvxrjs, ov avros KareaKevaaev, 
eiKcov avTov Keiixevrj ^vXtvr) Kardxpvaos ifXTTp-n- 
aeojs yevopiivrjs /cat riov aXXtov dnavrcj^v Sta- 
(ftdapevTOJV p,6v7) Siefxeivev ovSev XcofirjOeLaa vtto rov 
TTvpos. /cat ert vvv 6 pikv vecbg /cat ra eV avT<x> 
TTavra, oaa {xerd Trjv efjLTrprjaiv els rov dpxalov 
Koafxov eTTereXeadrj , (f)av€pd on rrjs Kaivfjs icm 
T€xvr)s, 71 8' eiKcov, ota rrporepov -^v, dpxa'CKT} 
TTjv KaraaKevrjv' Siafidvei yap ert crePaufiov 
rvyxdvovaa vtto 'Pcoixaiajv. /cat irepl fxev TuAAtou 
roaavra TrapeXd^ofxev. 

XLI. Merd Se rovrov TrapaXajx^dvet AevKios 
TapKvvLos rrjv 'Vwpiaioiv Bvvaareiav, ov Kara 
vojjLovs, aAAa Sta rcov ovXcov Karaaxiov, Kara rov 
reraprov eviavrov rrjs e^rjKocrr-ns /cat Trpcorrjs oAu/Lt- 
mdSos, rjv eviKa ardBiov ^Aydoapxos KepKvpalos,^ 

2 dpxovros 'Ad-qvTjai, QrjpLKXeovs.^ ovros vrrepiScbv 
fxev rov SrjfxonKov rrXijOovs, vrreptScbv Se rcov Tra- 

^ avrjp Jacoby : d avrw A, av^p B. 

* KepKvpalos B : om. R. 

' d-qpinXeovs B : ■^paKXeovs R. 

^ In chap. 2. 

* As this statue was muffled up in a couple of robes, there 
was considerable difiFerence of opinion as to whom it repte- 



BOOK IV. 40, 6-41, 2 

mentioned, then, the body of TuUius could not be 
given a royal funeral and a stately monument ; but 
his achievements have won lasting remembrance for 
all time. And it was made clear by another prodigy 
that this man was dear to the gods ; in consequence 
of which that fabulous and incredible opinion I have 
already mentioned ^ concerning his birth also came to 
be regarded by many as true. For in the temple of 
Fortune which he hiniself had built there stood a 
gilded wooden statue of Tullius,^ and when a con- 
flagration occurred and everything else was destroyed, 
this statue alone remained uninjured by the flames. 
And even to this day, although the temple itself and 
all the objects in it, which were restored to their 
former condition after the fire, are obviously the 
products of modern art, the statue, as aforetime, 
is of ancient workmanship ;• for it still remains an 
object of veneration by the Romans. Concerning 
TuUius these are all the facts that have been handed 
down to us. 

XLI. He ^ was succeeded in the sovereignty over 
the Romans by Lucius Tarquinius, who obtained it, not 
in accordance with the laws, but by arms, in the fourth 
year of the sixty-first Olympiad * (the one in which 
Agatharchus of Corey ra won the foot-race), Thericles 
being archon at Athens. This man, despising not 
only the populace, but the patricians as well, by 

sented. Ovid {Fasti vi. 570 ff.) took it to be TuUius himself, 
but Pliny (N.H. viii. 194, 197) believed it was the goddess 
Fortune, while Livy (x. 23, 3) apparently regarded it as 
Chastity (Pudicitia). The temple, which stood in the Forum 
Boarium, has already been mentioned (chap. 27, 7) ; it wap 
destroyed in the great fire of 213 B.C. 

» For chaps. 41 f . cf. Livy i. 49, 1-7. 

♦ 532 B.C. 

407 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rpiKUiiv, v<f> (Lv iiTL rrfv Swaareiav iraptj^drj ,^ eOrj 
re /cai vofiovs Kat. Trdvra rov cttlxc^plov Koafxov, (o 
rr)v TToXiv eKocrix-qaav ol irporepoL ^aatAet?, avyx^as 
/cat oia^deipas els ofioXoyovpiemjv rvpavviha 
I p-erearrjae ttjv dpxTJv. /cat irpcorov fiev (f)vXaKr]v 
Karcarrjaaro rrepi, eavTov dvOpconcov dpaavrdrajv 
iicfiT] /cat Xoyxo-s (f>ep6vrcx)v iTTi-xojpLcov re /cat 
aXXoSaTTOJV, ot vvktos re irepl rrjv ^ ^aaiXetov 
avXit,6pLevoL avXr]v /cat /ze^' r)[X€pav e^Louri irap- 
aKoXovdovvres otttj iropevoiro, ttoXXtjv ttjv drro 
roiv empovXevaovrcov da(f>dXeiav Trapeixovro . CTret- 
ra ras i^oSovs ovre avvevels ovre rerayuevas, 
aAAa OTTavLovs Kat aTrpocrooKrjrovs enoLecro, exprj- 
fxaTL^e re ^ rrepl ra>v kolvwv /car' oXkov fiev rd 
TToAAa /cat avrcov rcov dvayKaiordrojv avp,- 
TTapovrcov, oXiya 8' ^ dyopd. TTpoaeXdeiv S* 
ovhevl rcjv ^ovXofievojv eTrerperrev, el p/q nva 
KoXeaeiev avros' ovSe * rot? irpoaiovaiv evpLevqg 
ovSe ■* TTpaos "^v, aAA' oia 8rj rvpavvos, ^apvg re 
Kai xo-XeTTOS opyrjv /cat ^o^epog p.dXXov -q ^athpos 
o(f)67Jvaf /cat rds Ttepl rdJv dp.cf)L(j^r]r'qro}v ^ 
avp^oXaiojv Kpiaeis ^ ovk eVi rd 8t/cata /cat rovs 
vopLOVs, oAA em rovs eavrov rpo-novs dva(j>€piiiv 
enoieiro. 8id ravr* eTTtovvp.iav riOevrai avrco 
Pw/xaiot rov ^ovTrep^ov, rovro 8e BrjXovv ^ovXerai 
Kara rrjv 7]p,erepav yXdJrrav rov vTTeprj(j)avov' 
rov oe TTaTTTTOv avrov YipioKov eKoXovv, cos 

*• irapinxOr) Kicssling : rrpoTJx^V ^• 

* T'^v K : TO B, omitting aiXfjv. 

' ivfynfiaTi^f tc B : ;(pij/iaTtJ«Tat A, ixp'rificiTi^er6 Tt Jacoby. 

* ovSe . . . ovSi Hertlein : ovre . . . ovSe B, Jacoby, ovrt 
. . . ovre A. 

408 



BOOK IV. 41, 2-4 

whom he had been brought to power, confounded and 
abolished the customs, the laws, and the whole 
native form of government, by which the former 
kings had ordered the commonwealth, and trans- 
formed his rule into an avowed tyranny. And first 
he placed about his person a guard of very daring 
men, both natives and foreigners, armed with swords 
and spears, who camped round the palace at night 
and attended him in the daytime wherever he went, 
effectually securing him from the attempts of con- 
spirators. Secondly, he did not appear in public 
often or at stated times, but only rarely and unex- 
pectedly; and he transacted the public business at 
home, for the most part, and in the presence of none 
but his most intimate friends, and only occasionally in 
the Forum." To none who sought an audience would he 
grant it unless he himself had sent for them ; and 
even to those who did gain access to him he was not 
gracious or mild, but, as is the way with tyrants, 
harsh and irascible, and his aspect was terrifying 
rather than genial. His decisions in controversies 
relating to contracts he rendered, not with regard 
to justice and law, but according to his own moods. 
For these reasons the Romans gave him the surname 
of Superbus, which in our language means " the 
haughty"; and his grandfather they called Priscus, 

* afi<f>iaP7p-qT(iiv Jacoby : afitf>iaPr)Tr]fj.dTwv AB, diKfua^TjTQV- 
fievcDv Steph. 

* Koiaeis Kiessling : iiriKpiaeis 0. For the entire phrase 
Kiessung proposed koI tols rStv o/t^tajSijTij/xaTwv -nepi tcDk 
avfiPoXaiatv Kpicreis. 

409 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

S Tjfjiels a.v eLTTOifxev, irpoyeviarepov 6fxa)W[xos 
yap rjv tco vetorepo) Kar ap,^(D to. ovopxvra. 

XLII. Ettci 8 iyKparcos rjSrj Kare^^iv VTreXajj.- 
pave Trjv dpx'^v, irapaaKeudaas eK rcjv iraipcjv 
Tovs TTOvrjpordTOVs 8t' eKeivuyv "qyev els iyKX-qnara 
Kai davdrov SiKas -noXXovs rcov €7n(f)ava)v 
TTpcoTovs fiev TOVS €;^^pco? Sta/cet/LteVou? Trpos 
avTov, ols ovK -qv ^ouXofievois TuAAtoj^ cV rijs 
dpx'yjs i.KTTeaelv eVeira Koi rcov dXXcov 
ovs VTTeXdfi^ave ^apelav ryyeiadai ttjv fiera- 

2 ^oXrjv Kal ols ttoXvs ttXoOtos "^v. ol S' vtt- 
dyovres avroiis vtto rds Si/caj aXXovs ctt' oAAai? 
ipevhlaLv alriats, fidXiara S' eTn^ovXeveiv alrcw- 
[levoi Ta> ^aaiXel, Karrjyopovv k-n avro) 8i/ca- 
OT^. o 8e TCx)v fX€v Odvarov KarehlKal,^, rcov 
8e <j>vy'qv, /cat rd p^pT^/iara rovs r dvaipov- 
fievovs Kal rovs ^ i^eXavvofJuevovs d^aipovp-evos 
Tols p-ev KarrjyopoLs puKpdv riva p.oZpav drrevepiv,^ 

3 avros Se rd TrAeto* KaT€LX€v. cp-cXXov 8* dpa 
TToXXol Tcov Swarcbv, irplv aXcovat rds €TTayop,€- 
va? a(j)laL SiKas, elSores cov evcKev iire^ovXevovro , 
KaraXeiipeLv ra> rvpdvvcp ttjv ttoXlv ckovtcs, Kal 
TToXXcp TrXeioves eyivovro tcjv erepojv. ■^aav 
8e rtves ot Kal Kpv(f)a 8(.€(f>ddpr)aav v-n avrov Kar 
oLKias re Kai eir* dypcov dvapTTat,6p.evoi, Xoyov 

4 afioi dvhpes, (xiv ovhe rd aiLpara €<f)dvq. eTrel 
86 hie^deipe ro Kpdriarov rrjs ^ovXrjs pepos 
davdroLs re Kal dei(f>vyiais , erepav ^ovXrjv avros 
Karean^aaro irapayayuiv ctti rds rojv ckXittov- 



^ rovs added by Sylburg. 

* airevefifv Sylburg : airtdvev 0, Jacoby. 



4X0 



r. ; BOOK IV. 41, 4-42, 4 

or, as we should say, " the elder," since both his 
names ^ were the same as those of the younger 
man. 

XLII. When he thought he was now in secure 
possession of the sovereignty, he suborned the 
basest of his friends to bring charges against many of 
the prominent men and place them on trial for their 
lives. He began with such as were hostile to him 
and resented his driving of Tullius from power ; and 
next he accused all those whom he thought to be 
aggrieved by the change and those who had great 
riches. When the accusers brought these men to 
trial, charging them with various fictitious crimes but 
chiefly with conspiring against the king, it was by 
Tarquinius himself, sitting as judge, that the charges 
were heard. Some of the accused he condemned 
to death and others to banishment, and seizing the 
property of both the slain and the exiled, he as- 
signed some small part to the accusers but retained 
the largest part for himself. The result was therefore 
bound to be that many influential men, knowing 
the motives underlying the plot against them, 
voluntarily, before they could be convicted of the 
charges brought against them, left the city to the 
tyrant, and the number of these was much greater 
than of the others. There were some who were 
even seized in their homes or in the country and 
secretly murdered by him, men of note, and not 
even their bodies were seen again. After he had 
destroyed the best part of the senate by death or by 
exile for life, he constituted another senate himself 
by working his own followers into the honours of the 

^ Both had the praenomen Lucius. 

VOL. II. •. O 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

royv Tinas rovs ISiovs iraipovs. Kal ouSe 
rovroLs [JLevroi rots dvSpdaiv ovre Trpdrreiv 
eTTerpenev ovSev ovre \iyeiv 6 ri /X17 KeXevaeiev 
5 avTos. a>are ottoooi KareXei^dr^aav iv ro) 
avvehpiip PovXevral rcbv iirl TuAAtou KaraXeyivrojv , 
Sid(f)opot, rols SrjfxoTLKols reojs ovres koL rrjv 
[xera^oXrjv rrjs TroAireia? eVt tco a<l>er€p(x) vopii- 
t,ovres dyado) yevqaeadai {roiavras yap avrolg 
VTrireivev 6 TapKvvios V7Tocr)(€aeis e^anarcov Kal 
(/)€vaKil,cx)v), t6t€ fxadovres on rwv koivojv 
ovoevos eri, fxereLxov, dXXd Kal avrol rrjv Trapprjacav 
ajLia rois Srjp,OTiKOLS d(f)rjpidri(Tav , (LSvpovro fiev 
/cat ra [xeXXovra tojv Trapovrcov SeivoTepa vtt- 
WTTrevov, arepyeiv Se ra irapovra rjvayKd^ovTo 

SvvaflLV OVK €)(OVT€S KCoXvClV TO. TTpaTTOfieva. 

XLIII. Tavra 8' opcovres ol Stj/jlotlkoI SiKaia 

TTaaxeiv avrovs VTreXdyb^avov Kal irri-x^aLpov vrt' 

evrjdelas, cos eKeivois (xovols rrjs rvpai'viSos 

^apetas icrofievrjs, a(f)iaL 8' avrols dKLvhvvov. 

TjKe 8e KdKeivoLs ov fxerd ttoXvv xP^^^^ cti 

TrXeLO) ra ;)^aAe7ra. rovs re yap vonovs tovs 

vrro TfAAtou ypa<f)€VTas, Kad^ ovs i^ laov ra 

oiKaia Trap* dXX-^Xojv iXdpi^avov Kal ovhkv vno 

TCJV TTaTpLKlCOV (hs TTpoTcpov e^XdiTTOvro TTepl 

rd avjjL^oXaia, Trdvras dvelXe- Kal ovSe rds 

aaviSas eV ats ^aav yeypafxpLevoi KareXiTrev, 

aXXd Kal ravras Kadaipedrjvai KcXevaas €k rrjs 
412 



BOOK IV. 42, 4-43, 1 

men who had disappeared;^ nevertheless, not even 
these men were permitted by him to do or say any- 
thing but what he himself commanded. Conse- 
quently, when the senators who were left of those who 
had been enrolled in the senate under Tullius and 
who had hitherto been at odds with the plebeians 
and had expected the change in the form of govern- 
ment to turn out to their advantage (for Tarquinius 
had held out such promises to them with a view of 
deluding and tricking them) now found that they had 
no longer any share in the government, but that they 
too, as well as the plebeians, had been deprived of 
their freedom of speech, although they lamented 
their fate and suspected that things would be still 
more terrible in the future than they were at the 
moment, yet, having no power to prevent what was 
going on, they were forced to acquiesce in the existing 
state of affairs. 

XLIII. The plebeians, seeing this, looked upon 
them as justly punished and in their simplicity 
rejoiced at their discomforture, imagining that the 
tyranny would be burdensome to the senators alone 
and would involve no danger to themselves. Never- 
theless, to them also came even more hardships 
not long afterwards. For the laws drawn up by 
Tullius, by which they all received justice alike from 
each other and by which they were secured from 
being injured by the patricians, as before, in their 
contracts with them, were all abolished by Tarquinius, 
who did not leave even the tables on which the laws 
were written, but ordered these also to be removed 

^ Livy (i. 49, 6), on the contrary, states that Tarquinius 
determined to appoint no new members to the senate, in order 
that its small numbers might cause it to be scorned. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 ayopds Siecfideipev. eTrecra KareXvae ras oltto 
TU)v Tifji'qfidrcov ela^opas koI els ^ rov i^ o-px^js 
rpoTTOv OLTTOKaTecrrrjae' /cai OTrore Sei^creier avTcb 
p^prjjLtaTcuv, TO lgov 8ia,(f)opov 6 Treviararos rcS 
TrXovcncordrcp Kari<j)epe. tovto to TToXirevfia 
TToXv rod Sr][xoTiKov ttXt^Oovs OLTTav^Xajaev cttI 
TTJs 7Tpa)T7)s evdvs €Lcr(f)opds dvayKa^ofjievov Kara 
K€(f>aX7jv eKaarov Spa;)(/i.a.? 8e/ca €la<j>epew. avv- 
oSovs re avpLTrdaas, oaai Trporepov eyivovro 
KtvfirjTcbv 7] <f)parpLaaru)v ■^ yetrovoiv ev re rfj ttoXci 
Kai irri tG)v dypdv ecf) lepd /cat dvaias aTraai^ 
KOLvds 7Tpo€L7T€ fjLrjKeTt uvvTeXelv, Lva fxr) avviovres 
CLS ravTo ttoXXoI ^ovXds aTTopp'qTOVs fxer dXX'qXcDV 

3 TTOLcJVTai TTepl KaraXvaecos rrjs apx^jS' ■^aav 
8 avrip TToXXa^fj diecrTrapfievoi KaroTrrai riveg 
Kat Siepevvrjral rcbv Xeyoyiiviov re /cat Trparro- 
[xevcov XeXT]d6r€s rovs ttoXXovs, ot crvyKadievres 
els 6[J,tXiav Tots" rreXas /cat eartv ore Kara rov 
rvpdwov Xeyovres avroi, TreXpav rrjs eKdarov 
yvcofiTjs eXdfi^avov eneira ovs aXadoivro rois 
KadearrjKooL Trpdyfiacriv d)(dop,evovs Karcjxrjvvov 
rrpos rov rvpawov al 8e riynxipiai Kara, rcbv 
eXey)(Bevrojv eyivovro iriKpal /cat dTrapalr-qroi . 

XLIV. Kat ovK aTTexp'f) ravra fjiovov els 
Toiis S'qfioriKovs avrcp Trapavopielv , dAA' einXe^as 
6/c rov TrX'qOovs oaov rjv marov iavra> /cat els 
rds TToXepLLKCLS j^i/aeta? eTrtTTjSetoj', ro Xoittov 
rjvdyKaaev epyd^eaOac rds Kara ttoXiv epyaaias, 
fxeyiarrov olofxevos etvai kIvSvvov rols fMoydp^ois 



* «V added by Kiessling. 

* dnaai Kiessling, ndai Sylburg : irdaas 0. 



414 



BOOK IV. 43, 2-44:, 1 

from the Forum and destroyed. After this he 
abolished the taxes based on the census and revived 
the original form of taxation ; and whenever he 
required money, the poorest citizen contributed 
the same amount as the richest. This measure 
ruined a large part of the plebeians, since every man 
w^as obliged to pay ten drachmae as his individual 
share of the very first tax. He also forbade the hold- 
ing in future of any of the assemblies to vv^hich 
hitherto the inhabitants of the villages, the members 
of the curiae, or the residents of a neighbourhood, 
both in the city and in the country, had resorted 
in order to perform religious ceremonies and sac- 
rifices in common,^ lest large numbers of people, 
meeting together, should form secret conspiracies to 
overthrove his povi^er. He had spies scattered about 
in many places who secretly inquired into everything 
that was said and done, while remaining undis- 
covered by most persons ; and by insinuating them- 
selves into the conversation of their neighbours and 
sometimes by reviling the tyrant themselves they 
sounded every man's sentiments. Afterwards they 
informed the tyrant of all who were dissatisfied with 
the existing state of affairs ; and the punishments of 
those who were found guilty were severe and relent- 
less. 

XLIV. Nor 2 was he satisfied merely with these 
illegal vexations of the plebeians, but, after selecting 
from among them such as were loyal to himself and 
fit for war, he compelled the rest to labour on the 
public works in the city ; for he believed that monarchs 
are exposed to the greatest danger when the worst 

1 See chap. 14, 3 ; 15, 3. 
* Cf. Livy 1. 56, 1 f. ; 57, 2. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

orav ol TTOvqporaroi, rcov ttoXltcvv /cat airopwraTOi 
axoXrjv dycjocTi, /cat a/xa TTpodvynav e^iov em 
Ti]s tSia? OLpx"^? ra /caraAet^^eWa ruiiepya vtto 
Tov TvaTTTTOV TeAetcScTat /cat ra? ^ p-^v i^aycoyipovs 
rcov vSdrcov rdcfipovs, a? eKelvos opvrreiv -qp^aro, 
pi^xpi- TOV TTora/xoy /carayayetr, tov S' dpL^Ldearpov 
l7T7T6hpop.ov ovhev e^co tojv kptjttlScov ey^ovTa 

2 TTaaTauLv VTToareyoLs TTeptXa^elv. ravra ^ Stj 
TTavres ol Trevrjres eipydl^ovTO alra Trap avrov 
fierpia Xapi^dvovres' ol puev Xarop^ovvres, ol S' ^ 
vXoTopLovvres, ol 8e ray Kopi^ovaas ravd^ dp^d^as 
dyovres, ol 8' em rdjv (vpLcov avroi * ra d^df] 
^epovres' p-eraXXevovres re ra? vnovopLovs 
arjpayyas erepot /cat TrAarrovTe? to.? ev avrals 
Kapdpag /cat rag TraardSas iyeipovres, /cat rot? 
ravra TTpdrrovai ^etpoTe;j^vat? vrr-qperovvres X*^^' 
KorvTTOL re /cat reKroveg /cat Xidovpyol rcov 
ISiojriKcbv epycov dcfiearcores irrl rat? Siqpioaiais 

3 Kareixovro ^^petats". 7re/3t ravra hr] ra kpya 
rpi^op^evos 6 Xecbs ovBep,Lav avdiravaiv iXdp-^avev 
wad* ol TTarpLKioi ra rovrcov /ca/cd /cat ra? 
Xarpeiag ^ opcovres exo.ip6v r iv piepei /cat rd)v 
Ihicjv iTTeXavddvovro dXyeivcov KcoXveiv fiev yap 
ovherepoi ra yLv6p,€va CTrex^ipovv . 

XLV. AoyLt,6pLevog 8' o TapKvviog, on rolg 
puTj Kara vopovg Xa^ovai rag Svvaareiag , dXXd Sid 
rcov ottXcov Krrjaap,€VOig , ov povov eTTLxcopLov 
Bel (JivXaK-fjg, dXXd /cat ^eviKrjg, rov i7n<f)av€ararov 

^ Koi Tas Portus : raj 0, Jacoby. 

* ravra Sintenis : ei's ravra 0. 

* Xarofiovvres, ol 8' added by Sintenis (cf. ch. 81, 2). 

* auTOi B : aura R. 

4x6 



BOOK IV. 44, 1-45, 1 

and the most needy of the citizens live in idleness, 
and at the same time he was eager to complete 
during his own reign the works his grandfather had 
left half finished, namely, to extend to the river the 
drainage canals^ which the other had begun to dig and 
also to surround the Circus ,2 which had been carried 
up no higher than the foundations, with covered 
porticos. At these undertakings all the poor laboured, 
receiving from him but a moderate allowance of 
grain. Some of them were employed in quarrying 
stone, others in hewing timber, some in driving 
the wagons that transported these materials, and 
others in carrying the bul"dens themselves upon their 
shoulders, still others in digging the subterranean 
drains and constructing the arches over them and in 
erecting the porticos and serving the various artisans 
who were thus employed ; and smiths, carpenters and 
masons were taken from their private undertakings 
and kept at work in the service of the public. Thus 
the people, being worn out by these works, had no 
rest; so that the patricians, seeing their hardships 
and servitude, rejoiced in their turn and forgot their 
own miseries. Yet neither of them attempted to 
put a stop to these proceedings. 

XLV. Tarquinius,^ considering that those rulers 
who have not got their power legally but have ob- 
tained it by arms require a body-guard, not of natives 
only, but also of foreigners,* earnestly endeavoured 

^ The underground sewers ; c/. iii. 67, 5. 

* Literally, "the amphitheatrical race-course." 

* For chaps. 45-48 c/. Livy i. 49, 8-52, 5. 

* Cf. Aristotle, Politics 1285 a, 28. 



ras Aarpeias B : tA dWorpia R. 

417 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€/c rov Aarivoiv edpovs /cat TrXeXcrTov aTidvTOiv 
bvvdfievov ecrrrouSa^e ^iXov rronjaaadat, rm ydncv 
avt,€v^as rrjs dvyarpos, os e/caAetro iiev 'Okto- 
omos Maju.iAtos', dvecfjcpe 8e to yevog els TrjXeyovov 
Tov i^ ^OSvaaecos Kal K.LpKrjs, KarwKei 8' ev 
77oAet TvokXco, eSo/cet 8e rd TToXiriKa avveros 
iv oXiyois elvai Kal TroXejxovs arparrjyelv LKavos. 

2 TOVTOV TOV dvSpa ^iXov e-)(Oiv koL 8t avTov 

ToilS dpiGTOVS €V eKdcTTrj TToAet TOJV Ta Koivd 

irpaTTOVTOiv irpoaXa^diV tot rjSr] ^ Kal tcov 
VTTaidpimv eTre^^eipei Treipdardai TToXefjicov Kal 
OTpaTidv inl Ha^lvovs e^dyeiv ov ^ovXofJuevovs 
VTTTjKOOV!) clvaL ToXs eTTLTdypLaaiv , aXX d7Tr]XXd)(9ai 
TCOV ofJioXoyicov olofxevovs, ef ov TvXXlos ereAeu- 
TTjcre, TTpos ov eTTOi-qoravTO Tas opioXoyias. 

3 yvovs Sc TavTa TrpoeiTre hi dyyeXwv rjKeiv els 
TTjv iv ^epevTLvcx) yLvop.€vrjv ^ dyopdv tovs 
elojdoTas VTTep tov kolvov tcov AaTLvcov avv- 
cBpeveLv, rjfiepav Tivd opiaas, co? Trepl kolvcov 
Kal p.eydX(jiV TrpayfxdTCov avv avTois ^ ^ovXevao- 

t fxevos. ol fiev S17 rraprjaav, 6 Se TapKvvLos 
avTos 6 KaXeaas aureus voTepei. ws Se ttoAu? 
iyevcTO Kadrjfxdvois 6 )(p6vos /cat eSo/cet Tolg 
TrXeioaiv v^pis elvai to Trpdyp^a, dv-qp ris" ev TToXei 
IJLev oIkwv Ko/aiAAr^, Sui^aroj 8e /cat ^p-qp.aai 
Kal <f)LXots Kal Ta iroXip^ia ctA/cijuos' TroAirt/cdj/ 
re Xoyov eiTTelv ovk dSvvaTos, Tvpvos * 'KpSwvios 
ovofxa, Ma/xtAt'oj re Std(f)opos dtv Std ttjv npos 

^ TOT€ ■^St; B : t6t€ 8rj R. 
2 Biicheler : yevotiivnv 0. 

* avv avTols B : oin. R. 

* Lapus, Sylburg : rvpSos O (and so regularly). 

418 



BOOK IV. 45, 1-4 

to gain the friendship of the most illustrious and most 
powerful man of the whole Latin nation, by giving his 
daughter to him in marriage. This man was Octavius 
Mamilius, who traced his lineage back to Telegonus, 
the son of Ulysses and Circe ; he lived in the city of 
Tusculum and was looked upon as a man of singular 
sagacity in political matters and a competent mili- 
tary commander. When Tarquinius had gained the 
friendship of this man and through him had won over 
the chief men at the head of affairs in each city, he re- 
solved then at last to try his strength in warfare in 
the open and to lead an expedition against the Sabines, 
who refused to obey his orders and looked upon them- 
selves as released from the terms of their treaty upon 
the death of Tullius, with whom they had made it. 
After he had taken this resolution he sent messengers 
to invite to the council at Ferentinum ^ those who 
were accustomed to meet together there on behalf 
of the Latin nation, and appointed a day, intimating 
that he wished to consult with them concerning some 
important matters of mutual interest. The Latins, 
accordingly, appeared, but Tarquinius, who had 
summoned them, did not come at the time appointed. 
They waited for a long time and the majority of them 
regarded his behaviour as an insult. Among them 
was a certain man, named Turnus Herdonius, who 
lived in the city of Gorilla and was powerful by reason 
both of his riches and of his friends, valiant in war 
and not without ability in political debate; he was 
not only at variance with Mamilius, owing to their 
^ See the note on iii. 34, 3. 

419 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO. KOLVa (f)lXoTllXLaV KOI TapKVVlO) Std TOV 

yiafMiXiov aTrexdofxevos, on KTjSeaTrjv eKelvov 
r)^L(jocr€ Xa^elv dvd^ eavrov, ttoXXt^v eTTOieiTO 
TOV TapKvvLov Karriyopiav rd re aAAa Sie^tcoi/ 
epya rod dvSpos, ots avddSeid ns eSo/cet Trpoaelvai 
/cat ^apvT'r]s, /cat to fir) Trapelvai irpos rov 
avXXoyov avrov rov KeKXrjKOTa tojv dXXiov 
5 aTrdvTOJv Trapovrcjov . dTToXoyovpiivov 8e rov Ma- 
fiiXtov /cat els dvayKcxias rtvds dvacfjepovros atrta? 
TOV rov TapKvviov ■)(^povL(jpi6v dva^aXeadai ^ re 
d^iovvros rov avXXoyov els rrjv iinovaav rjfjiepav, 
TTeiadevres ol irpoehpoi rcov Aarlvcov dve^dXovro 
TTjv ^ovXijv. 

XL VI. T^ 8' e^rjs '^P'^po- TTaprjv 6 TapKvvios 
/cat Gvvaxd^vros rov avXXoyov /u-i/cpa re virep 
rod ;!^pot'tcr//,oy TipoeLTTiov vrrep rrjs rjyep-ovtas 
evdvs eTToielro Xoyovs cos Kara ro St/caiot' avro) 
Trpoa7]Kova7)s, eTreiSrj TapKvvios avrrjv Karea^ev 
6 TrdiTTros avrov TToXepLcp Krr]adp.evos , Kal ras 
avvdrjKas Trapeix^ro rds yevop,evas rats TToXeai 

2 rrpos eKelvov. ttoXvv Be Xoyov virep rov 8i/catou 
Kat rojv opLoXoyicov Ste^eXdcov /cat fieydXa rds 
TToXeLs evepyer'qaetv V7Toaxop,evos, idv ev rfj 
^lXio. Sta/i.etVa»CTt, reXevrcx)v eneidev avrovs em 

3 ro Ha^ivojv edvos avarpareveiv. cos 8' eiravaaro 
XiyuiV, TTapeXdojv 6 Tvpvos 6 /cat rov oipLap-ov 
avrov 8tajSaA6i>t' ovk eta rovs avveSpovs Tra/sa- 
Xcopelv rep dvBpl rrjs dp^rjs, cos ovre Kara ro 
8i/catop' avraj 7rpoarjKovcrr]s oiir cttI rep avp.- 
^epovri rcov Aarivcov ho6rjaop.€vrjs' Kal ttoXXovs 
vrrep dp.(f>or€pa)v Sie^rjXde Xoyovs, rds fiev 

^ dvaPaXeaOai : dva^dXXeadai Steph., Jacoby. 
420 



BOOK IV. 45, 4-46, 3 

rivalry for power in the state, but also, on account of 
Mamilius, an enemy to Tarquinius, because the king 
had seen fit to take the other for his son-in-law in 
preference to himself. This man now inveighed at 
length against Tarquinius, enumerating all the other 
actions of the man which seemed to show evidence of 
arrogance and presumption, and laying particular 
stress upon his not appearing at the assembly which 
he himself had summoned, when all the rest were 
present. But Mamilius attempted to excuse Tar- 
quinius, attributing his delay to some unavoidable 
cause, and asked that the assembly might be ad- 
journed to the next day ; and the presiding officers 
of the Latins were prevailed on to do so. 

XLVI. The next day Tarquinius appeared and, 
the assembly having been called together, he first 
excused his delay in a few words and at once entered 
upon a discussion of the supremacy, which he in- 
sisted belonged to him by right, since Tarquinius, his 
grandfather, had held it, having acquired it by war ; 
and he offered in evidence the treaties made by 
the various cities with Tarquinius. After saying a 
great deal in favour of his claim and concerning the 
treaties, and promising to confer great advan- 
tages on the cities in case they should continue in 
their friendship, he at last endeavoured to persuade 
them to join him in an expedition against the 
Sabines. When he had ceased speaking, Turnus, the 
man who had censured him for his failure to appear 
in time, came forward and sought to dissuade the 
council from yielding to him the supremacy, both on 
the ground that it did not belong to him by right and 
also because it would not be in the interest of the 
Latins to yield it to him; and he dwelt long upon 
both these points. He said that the treaties they 

421 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avvOrjKag, as iiron^aavTO irpos rov ttolttttov avrov 
TTapaSiBovres ttjv vveuoviav, XeXvadai Xdytov 
fxeTCi Tov €K€LVOv Odvarov 8ia ro [ir] Trpoayeypd- 
tf)dai, rals o/xoAoyiais" Tqv avrrjv etvai Scopedv 
KoX roLS TapKVVLov iyyovoLs, rov 8* a^tovvra 
Tojv TOV TTaTTTTOV Scopecbv KXrjpovofietv OLTrdv- 
rixiv dvOpcoTTOJV TTapavoixcorarov d7TO<j>aivoiV /cat 
TTOvy]p6raTov , rds ^ irpd^eis avrov Sie^icuv a? 
CTTt TO) Karaax^lv rrju 'Po)[Maio}V dp)(r]v eTrereAe- 
4 aaro. Sie^eXdojv 8e ttoAAoL? avrov /cat Setm? 
Karrjyopias reXevrcjv iSiSaaKev cos ovSe rrjv 
jSaatAetav etj^e^ Tr]v 'Pojp,aLOJV Kara vofiovs Trap' 
cKovruiV Aa^o/v cooTrep ol rrpo avrov ^aaiXels, 
ottXols Be /cat ^ta Kariaxvoas rvpawiKrjv re 
fiovapx^o-v KaracrrrjadpLevos rovs /xev aTTOKTeivot. 
ra>v TToXircov, rovs 8' i^eXavvoi ri]s rrarpiBos, 
ToJv 8e TTepLKOTTrot rds ovaias, aTrdvrcov 8 
a/xa rr]v Trapprjaiav /cat ttjv iXevdepcav d(j)aipoiro- 
TToXXr]s re fxcoplas ecprj /cat Oeo^Xa^etas etvat 
TTapa TTOvqpov /cat dvoaiov rpoTTOv xprjorov 
Ti /cat ^iXdvdpoiTTOv iXTTt^eiv /cat vofii^etv cos 6 
Tcov avyyeveardrcov re /cat dvay/catoTaro/v pur] 
(j>eiadpLevos rcov dXXorptcov ^eiaerai,' Traprjvei 
re ecus' ^ ovttco rov p^aAtt'ot' elX'q<f>aai rrjs BovXeias 
rrepl rov p,rj Xa^elv avrov Biap,dxeodai, ef cov 
erepot veTrovdaai SeLvcov TeKfiaipopLevovs d avpu- 
^rjaeraL TradeZv avrols. 

XLVII. Toiavrr] KaraSpopiij rov Tvpvov XP1~ 
aapLevov /cat rcov ttoXXcov a(j)6Bpa Kivy^devrcov 
irri rots Xoyois, alrrjcrdpievos els drroXoyiav 6 

* Tttff Kiessling : *coi rds 0, Jacoby. 
' etx€ : e;^o( Kiessling. 
422 



BOOK IV. 46, 3-47, 1 

had made with the grandfather of Tarquinius, when 
they granted to him the supremacy, had been ter- 
minated after his death, no clause having been added 
to those treaties providing that the same grant should 
descend to his posterity ; and he showed that the man 
who claimed the right to inherit the grants made to 
his grandfather was of all men the most lawless and 
most wicked, and he recounted the things he had done 
in order to possess himself of the sovereignty over 
the Romans. After enumerating many terrible 
charges against him, he ended by informing them 
that Tarquinius did not hold even the kingship over 
the Romans in accordance with the laws by taking it 
with their consent, Uke the former kings, but had 
prevailed by arms and violence ; and that, having 
established a tyranny, he was putting some of the 
citizens to death, banishing others, despoiling 
others of their estates, and taking from all of them 
their liberty both of speech and of action. He 
declared it would be an act of great folly and madness 
to hope for anything good and beneficent from a 
wicked and impious nature and to imagine that a 
man who had not spared such as were nearest to him 
both in blood and friendship would spare those who 
were strangers to him ; and he advised them, as long 
as they had not yet accepted the yoke of slavery, to 
fight to the end against accepting it, judging from 
the misfortunes of others what it would be their 
own fate to suffer. 

XLVII. After Turnus had thus inveighed against 
Tarquinius and most of those present had been 
greatly moved by his words, Tarquinius asked that 

' T€ ecus : TC rews Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TapKvvLos TTjv iiTiovaav rj[jL€pav /cat AajScui', (Ls 
6 avXXoyos hieXvdr], TrapaKoXeaas rovs avay- 
KaiOTOLTOvs ecKOTTei fxer e/ceiVojv riva ■)(pr]aT€ov 
roLS TTpaypLaai rpoTTov. ol fiev ovv aAAoi rovs 
Xoyovg ovs '^v avrw XeKriov cttl r^js OLTToXoyLas 
VTrerCdevTO, koX tovs rpoTTOVs otg eSet ro ttXtjOos 
OLTTodepaTTeveiv a-neXoyil^ovTO- avros S' o Tap/cy- 
VLos TovTcov fiev ovSevos e(f)rj helv rois TTpdypiaaiv, 
ISiav Se yvcofirjv OLTreSeiKwro fxrj ra Karrjyo- 
prjdevra Xveiv, aXX avrov rov KaT'qyop-qaavra 

2 avaipelv. eTraiveaavrcDV Se Tr]v yva)p,r]v aTravrajv 
cruvTa^apievos p.eT avTOJv to. ^ Kara t7]v inWeaiv 
TTpdypari i7T€)(€tpr]aev 'qKiara hvvapevip Trecretv 
els TTpovoiav dvdpcoTrLvrjv Kal <j)vXaKrjV. twv 
yap TTapaKopLit,6vTcov rd re vtto l^vy ta Kal rrjv 
aTTOCTKevrjv rov Tvpvov deparrovrcDV rovs TTOvrjpo- 
rdrovs i^evpcbv /cat hLa<j)6eipas ;^p7y/>taaiv CTret^ev 
vrro vvKra $ij>y} rroXXd Trap' avrov ^ Xa^ovras 
etaeveyKelv els rrjv KardXvaiv rov SeCTTroTou 
/cat aTTodeadai Kpvifjavras ev rols aK€VO(j)6poi,S' 

3 rrj S' i^i^s rjpepa crvvaxdeia-qs rijs ^ eKKXrjcrias 
irapeXdiov inrep pL€v rcov Karrjyoprjdevrcov ^pax^lav 
eXcyev elvai rrjv dTToXoyiav /cat BiKaarrjv aTrdvrcjv 
eTTOieZro rcov iyKXrjpidrcov avrov rov Kar- 
r\yopnv. " Ovroal ydp^^ ^^Vy " Tupvoj, at avv- 
tSpot, rovrcov (Lv vvvl p,ov Karr^yopel Trdvrojv 
Si.Kaarrjs yevofxevos avros direXvae pe, ore rr]v 
dvyarepa rrjv ip,7)v i^ovXcro Xa^elv yvvaiKa. 

1 TO Sintenis : tu> ABb, om. Ba. 
* ■nap' avrov B : om. R. 
■ T^j added by Kiessling. 

424 



BOOK IV. 47, 1-3 

the following day might be set for his defence. His 
request was granted, and when the assembly had been 
dismissed, he summoned his most intimate friends and 
consulted with them how he ought to handle the 
situation. These began to suggest to him the argu- 
ments he should use in his defence and to run over 
the means by which he should endeavour to win back 
the favour of the majority; but Tarquinius himself 
declared that the situation did not call for any such 
measures, and gave it as his own opinion that he ought 
not to attempt to refute the accusations, but rather 
to destroy the accuser himself. When all had praised 
this opinion, he arranged with them the details of the 
attack and then set about carrying out a plot that was 
least likely to be foreseen by any man and guarded 
against. Seeking out the most evil among the ser- 
vants of Turnus who conducted his pack animals 
with the baggage and bribing them with money, he 
persuaded them to take from him a large number of 
swords at nightfall and to carry them into the lodging 
of their master and put them away in the baggage- 
chests 1 where they would not be in sight. The next 
day, when the assembly had convened, Tarquinius 
came forward and said that his defence against the 
accusations was a brief one, and he proposed that his 
accuser himself should be the judge of all the charges. 
" For, councillors," he said, " Turnus here, as a judge, 
himself acquitted me of everything of which he now 
accuses me, when he desired my daughter in marriage. 
^ The word used in the text, aK€vo<f>6poLS, ordinarily means 
either " pack-animals " or " porters," neither of which mean- 
ings suits the context. Warmington suggests " baggage- 
chests," cf. olvo^opov "wine- jar" ; Capps would read okcvo- 
(t>opiois, in the sense of " strong-boxes." But possibly the 
compound means simply the baggage itself (so Polybius, vi. 
40.3). 

425 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

iirel 8' aTTTj^icodr) rcov yd^cov Kara to et/cos 
(rt's" yap av rcov vovv exovrcvv Ma/xlXtov rov 
cvyeveararov re /cai Kpariarov Aarivcov oltt- 
ccoaaro, rovrov Se KrjSearrjv ■^^Icoae Xa^eZv, os 
ovS et? rpirov rraTnrov aveveyKelv e;^ei ro yevos ;) 
ayavaKrcJv cttl rovrio vvv i^arei jxav KarrjyopcHv. 
eSei 8' avrov, el fiev rjSei jxe roiovrov ovra 
olov vvv alridrai,, firj Trpodviieladai Xa^elv rore 
7T€v9ep6v el Se XPV^"^^^ ev6pii,t,ev, ore rrjv 
Bvyarepa fj,e fjretro, fir)Se vvv w? TTOvqpov Kar- 
rjyopelv. /cat irepl p-ev epiavrov roaavra Xeyio' 
vpXv 8', cS avveBpoi, klv^vvcov rov pceyiarov 
rpexovaiv ov irepl epiov OKeTrreov earl vvvi, 
TTorepa p^pi^crros' fj TTOvrjpos elpn {rovrl yap 
e^earai /cat pierd ravO* vpuv aKorrelv), aXXd 
irepl rrjs vpuhv avrcbv d(j(^aXeias Kal Trepl rijs 
rcov TTarpihojv eXevdepias. em^ovXeveaQe yap 
ol Kopv^aioraroi rcov ev rats TToXeat Kal rd 
Koivd vpdrrovres vtto rov koXov rovrov Sr]p,ayco- 
yov, OS ^ rrapeoKevaar ai re rovs e7n(f>aveardrovs 
vpucov aTTOKreivas eindeadai rfj Aarlvcov dp^fj 
Kal em rovd* rJKet. ravra 8 ovk etKal^cov, 
dAA' dKpL^cos emardpievos Xeyco pirjvvaecjos p-oi 
yevop,€vrjs ev rfj TrapeXdovcrr) vvKrl vtto rivos 
rd)v pLereayriKorcov rrjs avvcopboaias. rcKpit]- 
piov 8' vpuv TTape^opiai rcov Xoycov epyov dvapi^i- 
XeKrov, edv edeX-qa-qre ^ eXdelv eirl rrjv KardXvaiv 
avrov, rd KeKpvpcpieva ev avrfj Bellas OTrXa." 

XLVIII. 'Q,s Se ravr* elnev, dve^o-qadv re 
Trdvres Kal Trepl rols dvSpdcri SeSiores eXeyxeiv 
ro TTpaypia Kal p,r) (j)evaKLt,eLv tj^lovv. Kal 6 

^ OS added by Reiske. 
4s6 



BOOK IV. 47, 4-48, 1 

But since he was thought unworthy of the marriage, 
as was but natural (for who in his senses would 
have refused Mamilius, the man of highest birth and 
greatest merit among the Latins, and consented to 
take for his son-in-law this man who cannot trace his 
family back even five generations?), in resentment 
for this slight he has now come to accuse me. Where- 
as, if he knew me to be such a man as he now charges, 
he ought not to have desired me then for a father-in- 
law ; and if he thought me a good man when he asked 
me for my daughter in marriage, he ought not now 
to traduce me as a wicked man. So much concerning 
myself. As for you, councillors, who are running the 
greatest of dangers, it is not for you to consider now 
whether I am a good or a bad man (for this you may 
inquire into afterwards) but to provide both for 
your own safety and for the liberty of your respective 
cities. For a plot is being formed by this fine 
demagogue against you who are the chief men of 
your cities and are at the head of affairs ; and he is 
prepared, after he has put the most prominent of 
you to death, to attempt to seize the sovereignty over 
the Latins, and has come here for that purpose. I 
do not say this from conjecture but from my certain 
knowledge, having last night received information 
of it from one of the accomplices in the conspiracy. 
And I will give you an incontestible proof of what I 
say, if you will go to his lodging, by showing you the 
arms that are concealed there." 

XLVin. After he had thus spoken they all cried 
out, and fearing for the men's safety, demanded that 
he prove the matter and not impose upon them. 

* Jacoby : OeXijaere O. 

427 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tvpvog, ola hrj rrjv Ini^ovX-qv ov TrpoeyvcoKcog, 
dafxevos rrjv e^iraatv €(f)7] Se;^ecr^at Kal rous 
TTpoeopovs em rrjv epevvav rrjs KaraXvaecos 
e/caAei Kal Bvelv yeveadai ddrepov €(f)r] Seiv, 7] 
avros aTTodavelv, eav evpcdfj TrapeaKevaapiivos 
OTrXa e^o) rajv ivo^tcov, iq rov Koraxpevadpevov 

2 avTov hiKTjv VTToaxetv. iBoKei ravra' /cat ol 
TTopevOevres cttI ttjv KardXvcrtv avrov KaraXap^d- 
vovaiv ev rols OKevo^opois to. KaraKpvcfjOevTa 
V7TO Tcov QepaTTovTCxiv ^l^''^- p^erd rovro rov 
p,ev Tvpvov ovkItl Xoyov tu)(€Zv edaavreg els 
^dpadpov Tt Kara^dXXovai Kal eTTiKaraaKdifjavres 
en ^wvTog ttjv yrjv hia^Oeipovai Trapaxprjpa. 

3 rov Se TapKvviov eTraiveaavres €ttI rrjs eKKXrjaias 
cos Koivov evepyerrjv rwv TToXecov em ro) aecrcoKevai 
Tovs apicTTOVs dvdpas, rjyepLova Troiovvrai rov 
edvovs €77t rots avroZs St/catot? e^' ols TapKvviov 
re rov TraTnrov avrov Trporepov eTToi'qcravro Kal 
p,erd ravra TvXXiov crvv9i]Kas re ypdipavres iv 
arijXacs Kal irepl (f)vXaKrjs rcov <TvyKeLp,€vcov 
opKia repovres hieXvaav rov avXXoyov. 

XLIX. Tv)(<JOV he rrjs Aarivcuv rjyepLovias 6 
TapKvvLos eTTpea^evcraro Kal npos rds 'FipviKcov 
TToXeis Kal TTpos rds OvoXovokcov irpoKaXovpevos 
KaKeivovs els (f>tXiav re Kal avpipaj^iav. "^pviKes 
pev ovv drravres etprjcfjiaavro rroieXv rrjv avppa)(lav, 
eK Se rov OvoXovokcov edvovs hvo TToXets ehe^avro 
pLovai rds tt poKXrjae is , 'Eix^rpavoi. re Kal ^Avrtdrai,. 
rov Se peveiv els drravra )(p6vov rd avyKeipeva 
rats TToXeai Trpovoiav 6 TapKVVLog XapL^dvcov 
lepov eyvoi koivov arroSeX^aL 'Pcopatcov re /cat 
Aartvcov Kal 'KpviKcov Kal OvoXovctkiqv ribv 
428 



BOOK IV. 48, 1-49, 1 

And Turnus, since he was unaware of the treachery, 
cheerfully offered to submit to the investigation and 
invited the presiding officers to search his lodging, 
saying that one of two things ought to come of it 
— either that he himself should be put to death, if 
he were found to have provided more arms than were 
necessary for his journey, or that the person who had 
accused him falsely should be punished. This offer 
was accepted; and those who went to his lodging 
found the swords which had been hidden in the 
baggage-chests by the servants. After this they 
would not permit Turnus to say anything more in his 
defence, but cast him into a pit and promptly dis- 
patched him by burying him alive. As for Tarquinius, 
they praised him in the assembly as the common bene- 
factor of all their cities for having saved the lives of 
their chief citizens, and they appointed him leader of 
their nation upon the same terms as they had ap- 
pointed Tarquinius, his grandfather, and, after him, 
Tullius; and having engraved the treaty on pillars 
and confirmed it by oaths, they dismissed the 
assembly. 

XLIX. After Tarquinius had obtained the supre- 
macy over the Latins, he sent ambassadors to the 
cities of the Hernicans and to those of the Volscians 
to invite them also to enter into a treaty of friendship 
and alliance with him. The Hernicans unanimously 
voted in favour of the alliance, but of the Volscians 
only two cities, Ecetra and Antium, accepted the 
invitation. And as a means of providing that the 
treaties made with those cities might endure forever, 
Tarquinius resolved to designate a temple for the 
joint use of the Romans, the Latins, the Hernicans 
and such of the Volscians as had entered into the 

429 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

iyypaijjancvcov els rrjv (TVfXfiaxidv, Iva avv- 
epxofJievoL Kad eKaarov ivLavrov et? rov airo- 
hei^devra tottov TTavrjyvpi^ojcn /cat avveaTiajvrai 

2 /cat Koivcov L€pu>v fieToXafjL^dvcoaiv. dyaiTrjTCJS 
8e TToivTOjv TO TTpdypLO. Se^ajxevojv tottov fiev 
aTTeSei^ev evda TrotT^crovrat ttjv avvoSov iv 
jjidcTio jxaXiaTa tojv idvcbv Keifxevov opos vtf/r)X6v, 
o TTJs AX^aviov VTT€pKeLTai TToAeci)?, iv (5 TTavrjyv- 
peis T dvd TT&v eTos dyeaOai /cat e/ce;^etpta? efi^ai 
TTttcri rrpos TrdvTas ivofwdeTrjae dvaias re avv- 
TcXeladat, KOLvds tco KaXovfMevcp AaTiapiip Ad 
/cat ovveaTidaets, Td^as a Set TTapexeiv 4KdaTT]v 
TToXiv els TO. lepct, /cat [xoZpav t]v eKdarqv Sei^aei 
XapL^dveLV. at Se [xeTacrxovcrai Tijs iopTrjs re 
/cat TTJs dvGLas TToAets" TpidJv heovaai TT€VTT]KovTa 

3 eyevovTO. raura? ra? eopTds re /cat to,? dvaias 
fiexpt Tcov /ca^' T^/xa? XP^^^^ €TTiTeXovai *Pa)/u.atoi 
AaTivas KaXovvTCS, /cat (f)€povaiv els avrds at 
fxeTexovaai twv lepcov TroXeis at fxev dpvas, at 8e 
Tvpovs, at Se yaAa/cro? Tt fxeTpov, at Se opxnov rt 
TOUTOtj TTeXavov yevos' ^ evos Se Tavpov kolvcos 
VTTo Ttaawv dvofievov jxepos eKdoTTj to TeTayfxevov 
Xafi^dvei. Ovovai S' vvep aTrdvTcov /cat ttjv 
rjyepiovlav tcov lepcov exovai 'Pco/xatot. 

L. Q.S 8e Kal TavTais eKpaTVvaTO ttjv 

^ irtEXavov yevos is almost certainly corrupt and was deleted 
by Jacoby ; it looks like a gloss, but yevos may have arisen 
from evos by dittography, as Reiske suggested, ou 8e o/xoiov 
Ti TOVTOis olov aKp68pva xal ireXdvovs Reiske, <at 8e irptov,^ 
<u Be oiioiov Tt TOVTOIS (omitting TreXavov yevos) Sintenis. 

* Feriae Latinae. 
A3R 



BOOK IV. 49, 1-50, 1 

alliance, in order that, coming together each year 
at the appointed place, they might celebrate a 
general festival, feast together and share in common 
sacrifices. This proposal being cheerfully accepted 
by all of them, he appointed for their place of assembly 
a high mountain situated almost at the centre of these 
nations and commanding the city of the Albans ; and 
he made a law that upon this mountain an annual 
festival should be celebrated, during which they should 
all abstain from acts of hostility against any of the 
others and should perform common sacrifices to 
Jupiter Latiaris, as he is called, and feast together, 
and he appointed the share each city was to con- 
tribute towards these sacrifices and the portion each 
of them was to receive. The cities that shared in this 
festival and sacrifice were forty-seven. These fes- 
tivals and sacrifices the Romans celebrate to this day, 
calling them the " Latin Festivals" ; ^ and some of the 
cities that take part in them bring lambs, some cheeses, 
others a certain measure of milk, and others something 
of like nature.^ And one bull is sacrificed in common 
by all of them, each city receiving its appointed share 
of the meat. The sacrifices they offer are on behalf 
of all and the Romans have the superintendence of 
them. 

L. When 2 he had strengthened his power by 

2 The MSS. add " a kind of honey-cake." This looks like 
a scribe's comment on some word that has been lost; or the 
word " honey-cake(s) " itself may have stood in the original 
text. Reiske proposed to read : " and others something of 
like nature, such as nuts and honey- cakes." Sintenis 
suggested : " and others an ilrion (a cake made of sesame and 
honey), and others something of like nature," omitting the 
words " a kind of honey-cake." 

3 Cf. Livy i. 53, 1-3, 

431 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

O-PXW '^^^^ crvfXfxaxLaLS, arparov i^dyeiv im 
Ha^Lvovs eyvco 'Pcofiaicov r avroiv imXe^as ovs 
TjKiara vrrcoTTrevev, el Kvpioi rcov ottXojv yevoivro, 
eXevdepicLS fieraTTOLrjaeadai, /cat rrjv Trapa rcov 
avfjifidxojv d(f)Lyfievt]v BvvapiLv TrpoaXa^chv ttoXXco 

2 TrXeiova tt]? TToXLTLK-fjg VTrdp^ovaav. Sjjivaas S' 
avrcov rovs aypovs koI rovs ofioae ;\;a;prjaain-as' 
I^^XV vi'^rjcras cttl tovs KaXov[j,evovs tlcofjievrtvovs 
rjye rrjv SvvafJiLv, ot ttoXlv pckv Hvecraav ^ cokouv, 
evhaipLOvecerarot 8' ehoKovv dTrdvrcov elvat tojv 
77X7)0 ioxiopcj^v Kai 8ta Tr]v voXXrjv evTv^^cLv dnacn 
Xv7T7]pol /cat jSapet?, iyKaXcbv avroZg dprrayds 
Tivas /cat Xrjcrreias, inrep cov alrovp.evoL 8i/ca? 
au^aSei? eBojKav drTOKpLcreis. ol 8' rjcrav eroipLoi 
TTpoahexop-evoi rov TToXep-ov /cctt ev rot? OTrAots'. 

3 auvai/ra? 8 avrolg p^dxrjv Ttepl rd fiedopia /cat 
TToXXovs fiev diTOKTeivas, rovs 8e Xonrovs rpeipd- 
fxevos /cat KaraKXeioas els to TeZ^os^ cos ovkctl 
TTporjeoav e/c ttJ? TToXeoJS, TrapaorparoTrehevoas 
avTols dTTerd(f)peve re kol Tiepiexo.pdKov /cat 
irpoo^oXds eiTOLelro rots reixeoL ovvex^Zs. ol 8' 
evhov recos fiev drrejjidxovro /cat ttoXvv dvreoxov 
rfj raXaLTTCopla XP^^^^' ^S" 8' VTreXeLTtev avrovs 
rd iTnrrjSeia, e^aoQevovvres rd ocofiara /cat ovr^ 
eTTiKOvpiav ovSefiLav TrpooXa^ovres ovB* dva- 
iravoeois rvyxdvovres, aAAo, /cat p,ed' -qixepav /cat 
vvKrcop ol avrol ^ raXanrajpovvres , dXioKovrai 

4 Kara Kpdros. yevojxevos 8e r-qs noXecos eyKpart)? 

^ Kiessling : aowaaav O. 
* ct's TO reiYos B : om. R. 
' 01 avTol Garrer : ainol 0, Jacoby. 

43« 



BOOK IV. 50, 1-4 

these alliances also, he resolved to lead an army 
against the Sabines, choosing such of the Romans as 
he least suspected of being apt to assert their liberty 
if they became possessed of arms, and adding to 
them the auxiliary forces that had come from his 
allies, which were much more numerous than those 
of the Romans. And having laid waste the enemy's 
country and defeated in battle those who came to 
close quarters with him, he led his forces against the 
people called the Pometini, who lived in the city of 
Suessa ^ and had the reputation of being more pros- 
perous than any of their neighbours and, because of 
their great good fortune, of being troublesome and 
oppressive to them all. He accused them of certain 
acts of brigandage and robbery and of giving haughty 
answers when asked for satisfaction therefor. But 
they were expecting war and were ready and in 
arms. Tarquinius engaged them in battle upon the 
fi-ontiers, and after killing many of them and 
putting the rest to flight, he shut them up within 
their walls ; and when they no longer ventured 
out of the city, he encamped near by, and sur- 
rounding it with a ditch and palisades, made con- 
tinuous assaults upon the walls. The inhabitants 
defended themselves and withstood the hardships of 
the siege for a considerable time; but when their 
provisions began to fail and their strength was spent, 
since they neither received any assistance nor even 
obtained any respite, but the same men had to toil 
both night and day, they were taken by storm. 
Tarquinius, being now master of the city, put to 

^ This ancient Volscian city was often called Suessa 
Pometia. Its name survived in the adjectival forms Pomp- 
tinus and Pontiuus. 

433 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tovs [xev ev toXs ottXois SL€(f>d€Lpe, yvvalKas 8' 
avTOJv Kai reKva koL roiis VTrofxelvavrag al^^fjiaXa)- 
rovs yevcadai /cat to rcov depaTTovroiv TrXrjdos 
ovS dpidfjLrjdrjvaL paScov tols (xrparLcorais eTreV/je- 
ipev OLTrdyecrdaL tt^v r dXXrjv KrijaLv rrjg TToAeo)? 
dyeiv Kal <j>epeLv, et ns eTTirvxoi, rr^v r ivros 
T€i)(ovs Kal Trjv eVt rcov dypdjv i(f)rJK€V' dpyvpov 
oe /cat )(^pv(j6v, oaog evpedr], avvayaywv els ev 
XOjpLov /cat rrjv heKdr-qv i^eXofievos els KaracrKevrjv 
Upov rd XoLTTa XPVH-O.'^o. rois arparLcoTais SielXev. 

5 OVTO) S apa ttoXvs 6 KaraXrjtfidels dpyvpos re 
/cat xpvaos rjv coare rcov fiev arparicoTcov eKaarov 
TT€VT€ fMvds dpyvpLov Xa^elv, to Be Tots deols 
heKaTevdev dpyvpiov TeTpaKoaUav ov pbelov yeveadai 
raXavTcov. 

LI. "Ert 8 ev T7J Yiveacrri hiarpi^ovTos avrov 
irapijv TLS a'^'yeXXcov oti Ha^lvcxiv r} /cpartcrTTy 
veoTTjs e^eX-qXvde /cat SuCTt p-eydXais ^ aTpaTevpLaaiv 
els TTjv 'PojfJiaLcov ifx^aXovaa XerjXaTel tovs 
aypovs, ri jxev 'HpTjrou rrXriaiov Oefxevr) tov 
XapoLKa, 7] he rrepl Ot87^i^v, /cat et fx-q tls avToZs 
Svyajjiis evavTicodiqoeTaLy Trdvra olx'rjoeTai ra/cet. 

2 (Ls 8e raur' rjKovaev, ev fiev rfj Jlvecrar] ^pa^v 
Ti KaraXeiTTei fiepos ttjs arpaTids tu re Xd(f)vpa 
KOL TTjv dTToaKevTjv (j)vXdTTeLv TTapaKeXevadpLevos , 
T7]v 8' dXXrjv hvvapLLv evt,o)vov dvaXa^div rjyev 
€771 TOVS npos Hp'qTcp KareoT paTOTTehevKOTas /cat 
rideTai tov ^^ctpa/ca pcerecopov oXlyov to [xeTa^v 
Xojpiov KaToXnTwv . ho^av 8e ^ toZs 'qyep.oaL rcov 



^ fieydAois B : om. II. 
* Se Kiessling : re 0. 



434 



BOOK IV. 50, 4-51, 2 

death all he found in arms and permitted the soldiers 
to carry off the women and children and such others 
as allowed themselves to be made prisoners, together 
with a multitude of slaves not easy to be numbered ; 
and he also gave them leave to carry away all the 
plunder of the city that they found both inside the 
walls and in the country. As to the silver and gold 
that was found there, he ordered it all to be brought 
to one place, and having reserved a tenth part of it to 
build a temple, he distributed the rest among the 
soldiers. The quantity of silver and gold taken upon 
this occasion was so considerable that every one of the 
soldiers received for his share five minae of silver, 
and the tenth part reserved for the gods amounted 
to no less than four hundred talents.^ 

LI. While he was still tarrying at Suessa a mes- 
senger brought the news that the flower of the 
Sabine youth had set out and made an irruption into 
the territory of the Romans in two large armies and 
were laying waste the country, one of them being 
encamped near Eretum and the other near Fidenae, 
and that unless a strong force should oppose them 
everything there would be lost. When Tarquinius 
heard this he left a small part of his army at Suessa, 
ordering them to guard the spoils and the baggage, 
and leading the rest of his forces in light marching 
order against that body of the Sabines which was 
encamped near Eretum, he pitched camp upon an 
eminence within a short distance of the enemy. And 

1 Livy (i. 55, 8 f. ; cf. 53, 3) favours Fabius Pictor's esti- 
mate of 40 talents as the amount realized from the sale of the 
booty and devoted to the construction of the temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus, as against Piso's statement that the amount was 
40,000 pounds of silver. The 400 talents of Dionysius are 
probably meant to be the equivalent of Piso's figure. 

435 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Ha^Lvcov fJidxrjv ecjdev TideaQai //-eraTre/ij/ra/xeVotj 
TO ev OiS7yn7 arpdrevfjia, [jiadajv ttjv Sidvoiav 
avTcov o TapKVVLos (eaAco yap 6 ra ypafiixara 
KoynL,a}v jrapa tcov avroQev ■hyeiiovoiv ttoos" rovg 
e/cet; aocpca TTpos to avfMpav ano ru^cqs e)(pr}aaTO 
I TOtaoe. veifxas rrjv SvvafXLV Sixfj ^"^^ f^^^ irepav 

V7TO VVKTa TTe/JLTTeL Xadcbv TOVS TToXefJLLOVS em TTjV 

(f)4povaav dno OtSi^i/r^s" 686v, ttjv S' erepav dfxa 
TO) XafiTTpdv Tjixepav yeviadai avvrd^as 7Tporjy£v 
e/c Tov xdpo-Kos cos els P'dx'qv Kol ol llaplvoL 
redapprjKores avreTre^rjecrav tovs re TToXefxiovs ov 
TToXXovg ovras ^ opcovres Kal ttjv iavrajv SvvafiLV r7)v 
avTO (piS-qvTjs oaov ovno) irapeaeaOai vofiL^ovres. 
ovTOL jxev Srj Karaardvreg efxaxovro, /cat rjv 
LGoppoTTOs avroLs €7tI ttoXvv xpovov 6 dydiv ol Se 
TTpoaTToaraXevres vtto tov TapKVviov vvKTCop 
VTToarpetjjavres eK rrjs oSov /cat yev6[/.evoL Kara 
vcorov ru>v Ha^Lvcov eTrrjeaav. tovtovs ISovres 
OL Ha^voL /cat yvcoptaavres e/c rcov ottXcov /cat 
aTTo TCOV arjixeLcov e^eoTr^oav twv Xoyiapicov ^ /cat 
ra oTrAa pltjjavTes irreipcovTO acol^eiv eavTovs. 
7]v o aTTopos r) acorrjpLa toIs ttoXXols rrepiexofievois 
kvkXo) utt' exOpcov, /cat tojv 'Pco/JLaicov rj lttttos 
eTTLKeipievrj iravTaxodev avTovs aTreKXeiev cuar' 
oXlyoL fxev Tcves e^drjoav^ to. Setm WTre/cSuVre?, 
OL 8e TrXeiovs KaTeKOTrrjaav vtto twv. TroXeiximv rj 
TTapeooaav eavTovs. dvTeaxov S' ouS' ol /cara- 
XeL(f)devTes eVi tov xdpoLKos, dXXd /cat to epvfia 
edXu) Tj] TrpcoTT) i(f)6Scp- evda avv tols tStot? 
TCOV Ha^LViov XPVH-^^'' '^"-'^ ''■" 'PcofiaLcov aTtavTa 

' TToAAouj ovraj Naber : ttoAAous 0, Jacoby. 
* Twv Xoyiaiiuiv B : to) Aoytw/iou R. 



BOOK IV. 51, 2-4 

the generals of the Sabines having resolved to send for 
their army that was at Fidenae and to give battle 
at daybreak, Tarquinius learned of their intention 
(for the bearer of the letter from these generals to 
the others had been captured) and availed himself 
of this fortunate incident by employing the following 
stratagem : He divided his army into two bodies and 
sent one of them in the night without the enemy's 
knowledge to occupy the road that led from Fidenae ; 
and drawing up the other division as soon as it was 
fully day, he marched out of his camp as if to give 
battle. The Sabines, seeing the small number of the 
enemy and believing that their other army from 
Fidenae would come up at any moment, boldly 
marched out against them. These armies, there- 
fore, engaged and the battle was for a long time 
doubtful ; then the troops which had been sent out in 
advance i)y Tarquinius during the night turned back 
in their march and prepared to attack the Sabines in 
the rear. The Sabines, upon seeing them and 
recognizing them by their arms and their standards, 
were upset in their calculations, and throwing away 
their arms, sought to save themselves by flight. But 
escape was impossible for most of them, surrounded 
as they were by enemies, and the Roman horse, 
pressing upon them from all sides, hemmed them in ; 
so that only a few were prompt enough to escape 
disaster, but the greater part were either cut down 
by the enemy or surrendered. Nor was there any 
resistance made even by those who were left in the 
camp, but this was taken at the first onset ; and there, 
besides the Sabines' own effects, all the possessions that 
had been stolen from the Romans, together with many 

' e<f>dr)aav B : iau)drjaav R. 

437 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avv TToAAot? alxfJ'O.XcoTOLS ere d/cepata ovra ro is 
CLTToXajXeKocriv dvecrcodr). 

LII. 'Q.S S' 17 TTpd)rrj TTelpa ra> TapKvvico 
Kara vovv e-)(^iopr]aev, dvaXa^cov Tf]i> Svvap,t.v ■^yev ^ 

6771 TOVS €V ^StJvTJ ^ iaTpaTOTTcSeVKOTaS TCOV 

Ha^Lvcov, ols OVTTCO SrjXos rjv 6 rcov a<f>€rip(x)v 
oXedpos. erv)(ov 8e KOLKelvoi Trpoe^eXrjXvdoTes 
CK Tov p^apa/co? /cat rjSrj ovres iv oSip' cos ^rj 
TrXrjcriov eyivovro koX elhov cttI Soparicov dva- 
7T€7Trjyvias rds K€(f>aXds rcbv a(j}eripojv rjyefiovtov 
(rrpovreivov yap avrds oc 'Pcofialoi KaraTrX-^^ecos 
Tcbv TToXefXLiov €V€Ka), fxaOovTes OTi hU(j)daprai ro 
erepov avrcov arpdrevixa, ovBev eri, diTehei^avro 
yevvaZov epyov, dAA' els iKeaias koL heiqaeis 

2 rpaTTOixevoi irapehoaav ^ cavrovs. ovrco 8' ai- 
a^pibs Kol KaKws dfji(f)OT€p(x)v rtov (rrpaTOTrihoiv 
dvapnacxdevTayv els arevas eATn'Sa? ol Ija^lvoi 
/cara/ce/cAeiCT/Aei/oi /cat Trepl rcov TToXecov, fj/q i^ 
€(f)6Sov KaraX'rj(f)6(x)ai, SeStdre? VTrep elprjviqs 
SievpeaPevovTO 7TapaSi,S6vT€S a<f>S.s avTovs vtt- 
rjKoovs elvai TapKvviov /cat <f>6pov ro Xolttov virore- 
Aetj. a7T€LGd[X€vos St) Trpos avrovs top TToXefxov /cat 
CTTt rat? auratj avvd-qKais * TrapaXa^div rds 
TToXeis €771 YiVeaaav a>;)(eTO. eKeldev 8e tt^v re 
KaTaXeL(f)9€Laav SvuafjLLV /cat rd Xd<f>vpa /cat Trjv 
dXXrjv d7TO(7K€vr]v dvaXa^cov els 'Pa)[Jir]v dTrpei 

3 TrXovTovcrau rrjv arTpandv aTrdycov. inonjaaTO 

^ ijyev Kiessling : ^kcv O, Jacoby. 

* iv ^iSi}v7j Steph. : iirt Oi8-qvr)v AB. 

* napeSoaav R : naptBlSooav AB. 

* After Tttiy avrats awdTJKois Sylburg assumed a lacuna and 
supplied the words als Trporepov 6 TTdnvos avrov. Schnolle 
supplied : as npos tov TvAAtov tnon^aavro, Tapicvvios. 

43« 



BOOK IV. 51, 4-52, 3 

captives, were recovered still uninjured and were re- 
stored to those who had lost them. 

LII. After Tarquinius had succeeded in his first 
attempt he marched with his forces against the rest 
of the Sabines who were encamped near Fidenae 
and were not yet aware of the destruction of their 
companions. It happened that these also had set out 
from their camp and were already on the march when, 
coming near to the Roman army, they saw the heads 
of their commanders fixed upon pikes (for the Romans 
held them forward in order to strike the enemy with 
terror), and learning thus that their other army had 
been destroyed, they no longer performed any deed 
of bravery, but turning to supplications and entreaties, 
they surrendered. The Sabines, having had both 
their armies snatched away in so shameful and dis- 
graceful a manner, were reduced to slender hopes, 
and fearing that their cities would be taken by 
assault, they sent ambassadors to treat for peace, 
offering to surrender, become subjects of Tarquinius, 
and pay tribute for the future. He accordingly made 
peace with them and received the submission of their 
cities upon the same terms ,^ and then returned to 
Suessa. Thence he marched with the forces he had 
left there, the spoils he had taken, and the rest of his 
baggage, to Rome, bringing back his array loaded 

^ This may possibly mean " upon the very terms they 
offered ' ' ; but it is more probable that some words have been 
lost from the text. Sylburg (see critical note) proposed; 
" on the same terms on which his grandfather (had done so) " ; 
c/. iii. 66, 3. Schnelle proposed : "on the same terms that 
they had made with Tullius " ; c/. iv. 45, 2. 

439 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8e /cat ixera ravra TToAAd? e^oSou? inl rrjv 
OvoXovGKcov ^copav rore fiev aTrdar) rfj Svvd[X€L,^ 
Tore Be fiepei rivi, Kal Acta? noXXrjs eyivero 
Kvpios. rjBr] Se rcov TrXeiaTwv avro) Kara vovv 
XCopovvTCvv TToXcfios c/c Tcvv opiopojv dviarf] 
Xpovcp T€ [xaKpos {errj yap Ittto. avvexoJS eVoAe- 
jX'qdr] ) Kal Trad-qfiaai, p^aAeTTOts" /cat aTrpoarBoKiJTOLS 
jjidyas.^ dcf)^ a)v 8' alnchv TJp^aro Kal reXevrrjs 
oTTOLas krvx^v, eTreiBrj SoXio) t' dTrdTT) Kal 
arpaTqyripiari. napaBo^co KaTCipydaOr] , 8t' 6XLya>v 
ipcb. 

LIII. noAtj "^v e/c ^ Tov AaTivoiv yivovs 'AA^a- 
vcx)v aTTOKTtais dTTexpvaa ttjs 'PcdpLYjs araBi- 
ovs eKarov cttl rrjs els Ylpaivearov (f)epovcrr}s 
oBov Keifiemrj' Ta^Lovg avrrjv eKoXovv vvv fiev 
ovKeri avvoLKovfxevq irdaa, 7rXr)v oaa fJ-eprj 
TravBoKeverai Kara r'qv BloBov, rore Be ttoXv- 
dvdpcoTTOs et /cat ns aXXr] Kal * [leydXr] . re/c/zT^- 
pairo S' dv ns avrijs ro [xeyeOos Kal rrjv d^lcoaiv 
epeiTTia Oeaadp^evos olklcov TToXXaxfj Kal rei^ovs 
2 kvkXov eri, yap earrjKev avrov rd TrXeZcrra. els 
ravrrjv cruveppv7]aav UcopievrLvajv re rdjv e/c 
Hveaa7]s Biacf^vyovroiv rives, ore rr)v ttoXiv avrojv 
TapKvvLos KareXd^ero^ Kal rcov eK 'Vu)p.ris 
:f)vydB(x)v (TV)(yor ovroi BeopievoL Kal Xnrapovvres 
rLpicoprjcrat. a^iai rovs Va^iovs /cat TroAAa? vmaxyov- 
pbevoL Bcopeds, el KareXdoiev eVt rd a(f>erepa, rr^v 
re KardXvatv rov rvpdvvov Bvvarr)v dTTO(^aLvovres 

^ rore ixev andarj ttj Suva^ei B : om. R. 

* fieyas B : TrepiCTreaev ACD, TTfpknfrtjs Reiske. 
' cK B : om. R. 

* Kol added by Kiessling. 

440 



BOOK IV. 52, 3-53, 2 

with riches. After that he also made many incur- 
sions into the country of the Volscians, sometimes 
with his whole army and sometimes with part of it, 
and captured much booty. But when now most of 
his undertakings were succeeding according to his 
wish, a war broke out on the part of his neighbours 
which proved not only of long duration (for it 
lasted seven years without intermission) but also im- 
portant because of the severe and unexpected mis- 
fortunes with which it was attended. I will relate 
briefly from what causes it sprang and how it ended, 
since it was brought to a conclusion by a clever ruse 
and a novel stratagem. 

LIII. There ^ was a city of the Latins, which had 
been founded by the Albans, distant one hundred stades 
from Rome and standing upon the road that leads 
toPraeneste. The name of this city was Gabii. To-day 
not all parts of it are still inhabited, but only those 
that lie next the highway and are given up to inns ; 
but at that time it was as large and populous as any 
city. One may judge both of its extent and import- 
ance by observing the ruins of the buildings in many 
places and the circuit of the wall, most parts of which 
ai-e still standing. To this city had flocked some of 
the Pometini who had escaped from Suessa when 
Tarquinius took their town and many of the ban- 
ished Romans. These, by begging and imploring 
the Gabini to avenge the injuries they had received 
and by promising great rewards if they should be 
restored to their own possessions, and also by showing 
the overthrow of the tyrant to be not only possible 

1 For chaps. 53-58 c/. Livy i. 53, 4-54, 10. 

' KareXd^ero B : /carc^SoAeTp R. 

441 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kol paStav, (hs Kal ra>v iv rfj ttoXci avXkrjipoiiivoiv , 
€TT€Laav avTovs (JV[j,Trpo9uiXT]d€VTa)u Kal OuoXov- 
OKCxiv {iTTpea^evcravTO yap KOLKelvoL Seofxevot crvp,- 
fiax^as) Tov Kara rod TapKvviov TToXepLov ai'a- 

3 Xa^elv. lyivovro Br) [xera ravra /xeyaAot? crrpa- 
revp.aaiv els ttjp (zAAt^Awi' yrjv etcr^oAat Kal 
Karahpofxal fidxai re, OTrep clkos, rore p,ev 
oXiyotg rrpos oXiyovs, rore Se Trdai Trpos TTovras, 
iu ah TToXXaKig fjcev ol Td^toi rovs 'Pcujuaiou? 
rpeiJjdfxevoL P'^xpt tcov reL-)(cx>v ^ x^^l ttoXXovs 
Kara^aXovres aSecS? rrjv ^copav iiropdovv, ttoX- 
XaKis S' Ol 'Piofialoi, rovs Ta^iovs (had/xevoi Kal 
KaraKXeiaavres elg rrjv ttoXlv avSpdiroSa Kal 
Xeiav avTOJv ttoXXtjv dirriyov? 

LIV. HiVve-)(a}S 8e rovTOJv yivofxevcov rjvayKd- 
^ovTo aix(f)6repoi rrjs X'^P'^^ °^* V^ ipv/xva 
reix^^ovTCS 4>povpdv iu avrols Kadiardvcu Kara- 
<f)uyrjs Tojv yeoipychv evcKa- odev 6pfjLcofjL€vot, rd 
re XycTT-qpLa, Kal et ti aTToanaadev l8oi,€v pbipog 
oXiyov diTo ttoXXov arparov Kal ola ei/co? iv 
TrpovofxaZs davvraKTOV 8td Kara(f>p6vr)ai,v, Kar- 
lovres do pool BUcfideipov Kal rcJov iroXecov oaa -^v 
CTTLfiaxo. Kal paSia Xr](f)drjpai Std KXipuxKOiv 
€^otKo8o[jL€Lv Tc Kal aTTOTa^peveiv SeSoiKOTe? rds 

2 al(f)viSiovs dXXi^Xcov icfjoSovs. /xaAAov 8' o TapKV- 
vios TTcpl ravT ivepyos riv Kal rijs ttoXccos rd 

* reixcov B : rruAcov R. Kiessling wished to place ^f'xpi twv 
reixojv after ;fa>pav, one line below; Cobet after rojStous, two 
lines below. 

* Garrer : diTT^ayov 0. 
44? 



BOOK IV. 53, 2-54, 2 

but easy, since the people in Rome too would aid 
them, prevailed upon them, with the encouragement 
of the Volscians (for these also had sent ambassadors 
to them and desired their alliance) to make war upon 
Tarquinius. After this both the Gabini and the 
Romans made incursions into and laid waste one 
another's territories with large armies and, as was to 
be expected, engaged in battles, now with small 
numbers on each side and now with all their 
forces. In these actions the Gabini often put the 
Romans to flight and pursuing them up to their 
walls,^ slew many and ravaged their country with 
impunity ; and often the Romans drove the Gabini 
back and shutting them up within their city, carried 
off their slaves together with much booty. 

LIV. As these things happened continually, both 
of them were obliged to fortify the strongholds in 
their territories and to garrison them so that they 
might serve as places of refuge for the husbandmen ; 
and sallying out from these strongholds in a body, 
they would fall upon and destroy bands of robbers 
and any small groups they might discover that had 
been detached from a large army and, as would natur- 
ally be expected in forages, were observing no order, 
through contempt of the enemy. And they both were 
obliged in their fear of the sudden assaults of the 
other to raise the walls and dig ditches around 
those parts of their cities that were vulnerable and 
could easily be taken by means of scaling-ladders. 
Tarquinius was particularly active in taking these 

^ Kiessling (see critical note) would place the phrase 
" up to their walls ' ' after ' ' ravaged their country with 
impunity," Cobet after "the Romans drove the Gabini 
back.' ' 

443 

VOL. II. p 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Trpo? Tovs Ta^Lov? ^ ^Xenovra ^ rod -rrepL^oXov 
ma 7roXv)(€LpLas i^coxvpovro Td(f)pov 6pv^dp,€vos 
evpvrcpav /cat reixos iyeipas ^ viprjXorepov /cat 
TJVpyoLS SiaXa^cov to ■)(0}pLov irvKvorepocs' Kara 
rovTO yap eSo/cet fxaXiara ro fiepos 17 ttoXls 
avioxvpos * eft-at, irdvra rov aXXov Trepi^oXov 

3 aa^aXrjs eTrtet/ccD? ovaa /cat SvcnrpoaLros. e/xeAAe 
Se, o Tracrat? ^tAei avfxPaiveiv rats TToXecriv ev 
rols [xaKpoXs 7ToAe/xot? hriovp,ivrjs hid rds cwvex^ts 
roJv TToXefXiojv CLa^oXds r^js yijs /cat pnqKeTi rovs 
Kap'JTOvs iK(l)€povar]g, andvis aTrdarj's Tpo(f)rjs iv 
a/jLcfjorepais eaeadai. /cat Seivrj irepl tov [xeXXovros 
ddvpiia- KdKLov 8e rovs 'Pcofiaiovs eVie^ev rj 
TOVS Ta^Lovs 7) Tcov dvayKaiuiv ivScta, /cat ot 
TrevearaTOi avTOJV fidXiara KdfMvovres ofMoXoyias 
^ovTO Selv TTOi-qaaadai Trpog tovs Ta^iovs /cat 
TOV TToXejxov €(f) ols dv €K€ivoL OcXcoai SiaXvaaadai. 
LV. 'AdrjfiovovvTos S' cTTt rot? crvfi^e^r^Koai 
TOV TapKvviov /cat ovt€ hiaXvaaadai rov TToXefiov 
aiaxpo^S VTrofievovTos ovr dvTex^tv ert hvvap,evov, 
naaas 8e ireipas e7rtTe;i^va)/xeVoi» /cat SoAouj 
TTavTOoaTTOvs avvTidivTOS, 6 TTpea^vTaTOS ainov 
TOiv vlGiv He^ros dvopua Koivojadpievos ttjv yvc6fir)v 
Tip irarpL piovcp /cat Sofa? ToXpLTjpat pukv iTnx^ipeiv 
7Tpayp,aTi /cat p.eyav e^ovTi klvSvvov, ov {mtju 
aSumro) ye, avyxcop'qcravTOs tov Trarpos ttouIv 
oaa ^ovXcTai, a/CT^Trrerat hLa(f>opdv Trpds tov 
Trarepa nepL Trjs /caraAucrecos tov iToXefxov 

2 ixaoTLyojOels S' vtt* avTOV pd^Sois iv dyopa /cat 
raAAa TTepiv^piadeis , cSare TTept^orjTOV yeviadai 

» Ta^ious CD : LajStVous AB. 

' pXenovra Cobet : tfiepovra O, Jacoby, 

444 



BOOK IV. 54, 2-55, 2 

precautions and employed a large number of workmen 
in strengthening those parts of the city walls that 
looked toward Gabii by widening the ditch, raising 
the walls, and placing the towers at shorter intervals ; 
for on this side the city seemed to be the weakest, 
the rest of the circuit being tolerably secure and 
difficult of approach. But, as is apt to happen to all 
cities in the course of long wars, when the country is 
laid waste by the continual incursions of the enemy 
and no longer produces its fruits, both were bound to 
experience a dearth of all provisions and to feel 
terrible discouragement regarding the future ; but 
the want of necessaries was felt more keenly by the 
Romans than by the Gabini and the poorest among 
them, who suffered most, thought a treaty ought to be 
made with the enemy and an end put to the war 
upon any terms they might grant. 

LV. While Tarquinius was dismayed at the situa- 
tion and neither willing to end the war upon dis- 
honourable terms nor able to hold out any longer, but 
was contriving all sorts of schemes and devising ruses 
of every kind, the eldest ^ of his sons, Sextus by name, 
privately communicated to him his own plan; and 
when Tarquinius, who thought the enterprise bold 
and full of danger, yet not impossible after all, had 
given him leave to act as he thought fit, he pretended 
to be at odds with his father about putting an end 
to the war. Then, after being scourged with rods 
in the Forum by his father's order and receiving other 
indignities, so that the aifair became noised abroad, 

^ Livy (i. 53, 6) calls Sextus the youngest son. 

* iyfipas Reudler : dveyfipas 0. 

* Jacoby : avoxvpos A, dviaxvpos R- 

445 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO Trpdyfia, irpcoTOV fjuev e/c tcov iraCpcov rovs 
TTLCTTOTarovs eTTefJLTTev cti? avTOfJioXovs (f)pd<TovTas 
Tols Fa^iois" 8i' aTTopprjTiov on TToXefieXv r(p 
Trarpi BieyvojKev cos avrovs dcfjiKO/xevos, ei Xd^oi 
TTLareis, on (fivXa^ovaiv avrov axJTTep /cat tovs 
dXXovg Tovs €K 'Pcofiris c^vydSag /cat ovk €/c- 
Stocrovai rco Trarpi rds iSta? exdpcts iXTTLoavres 

3 CTTL Tcp a(f)eT€pa) avp,<j>ipovn hiaXvaeaOai.^ dap,i- 
vo}£ he TOJV Ta^icov rov Xoyov aKovadvTOiv /cat 
fxr)Sev etj avrov Trapavofx-qaeiv SLop,oXoyriaap.evcov 
TTaprjv eraipovs re itoXXovs /cat TreAara? eirayo- 
fievos cos avrofxaXos, Iva 8e ^ p,aXXov avr<p 
morevaeiav dXrjdeveiv rrjv (xtto rov irarpos 
aTToaraaiv, dpyvpiov re /cat y^pvaiov ttoXv KOfjiL^ojv 
eTTLcrvveppeov r avrof ttoXXol ixerd ravra raiv 
€K rrjs TToXews <f)evy€iv rr)v rvpavviha OKTjTrrofievoL, 

4 /cat X^^^P V^V '^^P'- o.vr6v rju Kaprepd. So^avres 
8 ol Vd^ioi fjieya TTpoayeyovevai a(f)iat, TrXeov- 
eKrr][xa ttoXXcov cos avrovs d(j>LKoixev(x>v /cat ov 8td 
fjLaKpov rrjv Pco/xr^v V7TO)(€ipLov e^eiv eXTTiaavres 
/cat en pcaXXov i^aTrarrjOevres vcj)' Sv errparrev 6 
rov Trarpos dTToardrrjs avve^cos em rrjv ^^P^^ 
i^LCov /cat TToAAas' TTepL^aXXojjLevos OK^eAeias" 
{rrapeaKevaae yap 6 irarrip auroj, TrpoeiScbs els ovs 
TTapearaL roirovs, rrjv re Xeiav d(f)dovov /cat rd 
Xcopia a(f>vXaKra, /cat Toy? aTToXovp^evovs vtt 
avrov avvexcos eTrefnrev, eTTiXeyopievos e/c ra>v 
TToXircov ovs ev WTTOi/riats' elx^v), i^ dndurcov re 
Tovrcov ho^avres <j>iXov ^ Tnarov elvai a(f)t,crL rov 
dvhpa /cat arparrjXdrrjv dyadov, ttoXXoI 8e /cat 

^ Cobet : hiaXvaojaOw. O. 
446 



BOOK IV. 55, 2-4 

he first sent some of his most intimate friends as 
deserters to inform the Gabini secretly that he had 
resolved to betake himself to them and make war 
against his father, provided he should receive 
pledges that they would protect him as well as the 
rest of the Roman fugitives and not deliver him up 
to his father in the hope of settling their private 
enmities to their own advantage. When the Gabini 
listened to this proposal gladly and agreed not 
to do him any wrong, he went over to them as a 
deserter, taking with him many of his friends and 
clients, and also, in order to increase their belief in the 
genuineness of his revolt from his father, carrying along 
a great deal of silver and gold. And many flocked to 
him afterwards from Rome, pretending to flee from 
the tyranny of Tarquinius, so that he now had a 
strong body of men about him. The Gabini looked 
upon the large numbers who came over to them as a 
great accession of strength and made no doubt of 
reducing Rome in a short time. Their delusion was 
fiu-ther increased by the actions of this rebellious 
son, who continually made incursions into his father's 
territory and captured much booty; for his father, 
knowing beforehand what parts he would visit, took 
care that there should be plenty of plunder there and 
that the places should be unguarded, and he kept 
sending men to be destroyed by his son, selecting 
from among the citizens those whom he held in 
suspicion. In consequence of all this the Gabini, 
beheving the man to be their loyal friend and an 
excellent general — and many of them had also been 



'va Se Portus : 'va 817 0, koI Iva 817 Portus, Jacoby. 
Tc deleted after (f>lXov by Schenkl. 



447. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

)(prjfjLaaiv vn avrov ScKaadeure?, inl ttjv avro- 
Kpdropa TTapayovcriv ap-)(rjv. 

LVI. Toaavrris Srj yevojxevos e^ovaias 6 He^ros 

KVpiOS 8l aTTOLTriS Kol (f)€VaKLa[JLOV TCOU depaiTOVTOiV 

Tiva XaOojv Tovs Ta^Lovg irefXTTei npos rov Traripa 
rrjv T e^ovaiav rjv etArj^o)? -^v Sr^Xaxjovra /cat 
TTevaopievov ri XPV "^oielv. 6 Se TapKvvios, ouSe 
Tov depaTTOvra yivdxTKeiv ^ovXofxevo^ a top vlov 
eKeXevae TTOielv, ayojv tov ayyeXov TrporjXdev els 
TOV TTapaK€ip,evov ^ tols ^aaiXetois ktjttov €tv)(ov 
8e [JirjKioves iv avTcp Tre^vKvlat TrXrjpeLS TJS-q tov 
KapTTOv Koi GvyKOfXLSrjs copav €)(ovcraf Bie^Lojv hrj 
Sia TOVTCOV TTJs VTrepexova-qs aet fX'qKcovos tw 
aK-qTTCDVL iraiiov ttjv K€(f)aXr]v dTrrjpaTTe. raura 
■jTOf^aas aTTeaTeiXe ^ tov dyyeXov ovSev drroKpivd- 
[xevos TToAAa/ci? CTTepajTUiim^ ttjv QpaavfiovXav 
TOV MiAT^aiou Stai'Otai', oi? ejMotye SoK-et, pLipLrj- 
adfxevos' Kal yap eKetvos lie pLavS pep ttotc 
Tip Kopivdicov Tvpdwo) TTwdavopevu) * Std tov 
TTep^devTos dyyeXov ttcDj ai^ iyKpaTecTTaTa tt^v 
dpx'qv KaTdaxot,, Xoyov fiev ovSeva dTreoTeiXev, 
dKoXovdelv Se tov yJKOVTa Trap* avTov KeXevaag, 
rjye St' dpovpas aiToaTTopov koi tovs vrrep- 
expvTas T(x)v OTaxvcov dTTodpavcov eppiTrTei ;^aju.at, 
8tSacr/<ra>P' otl Set Tcbv doToyv tovs SoKifKOTdTovs 
KoXoveiv T€ Kal Sia(f)d€ipeLv. to TrapaTrX-qaiov 
St) /cat TOV TapKvvLov totc TToir^cravTOs avvels 
TTjv Bidvoiav TOV TTOTpos 6 Tid^TOS, OTi KcXcvei 
TOVS VTTepexovTas tcov rajStoir dvaipelv, avv- 
eKoXeaev els eKKX-qaiav to TrXrjdos /cat ttoXvv vnep 

* irapaKeiiievov Sintenis (c/. ch. 63, 2) : trpoKetnevov AB, 
irpoaKeiiievov Reiske. 

448 



BOOK IV. 55, 4-56, 4 

bribed by him — ^promoted him to the supreme 
command. 

LVI. After Sextus had obtained so great power by 
deception and trickery, he sent one of his servants to 
his father, without the knowledge of the Gabini, both 
to inform him of the power he had gained and to 
inquire what he should now do. Tarquinius, who did 
not wish even the servant to learn the instructions 
that he sent his son, led the messenger into the garden 
that lay beside the palace. It happened that in this 
garden there were poppies growing, already full 
of heads and ready to be gathered; and walking 
among these, he kept striking and knocking off the 
heads of all the tallest poppies with his staff. Having 
done this, he sent the messenger away without 
giving any answer to his repeated inquiries. Herein, 
it seems to me, he imitated the thought of Thrasy- 
bulus the Milesian. For Thrasybulus returned no 
verbal answer to Periander, the tyrant of Corinth, by 
the messenger Periander once sent to him to inquire 
how he might most securely establish his power ; but, 
ordering the messenger to follow him into a field of 
wheat and breaking off the ears that stood above the 
rest, he threw them upon the ground, thereby 
intimating that Periander ought to lop off and des- 
troy the most illustrious of the citizens. When, 
therefore, Tarquinius did a Hke thing on this occasion, 
Sextus understood his father's meaning and knew that 
he was ordering him to put to death the most eminent 
of the Gabini. He accordingly called an assembly of 

* aveareiXe R : dneXvae B. 

' TToAAa/rts iiT€pair<JjvTi : tw ttoAAo/cis iirepoiTmvri Jacoby. 

* iTvvdavondvai B : om. R. 

449 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTov Xoyov SiaOcficvos, on KaraTrecfievychs et? 
rrjv eVetVojv TriarLv dfxa rols eraipois KLvSvvevei 
avXXr](f)6eLs vtto tlvcov tco rrarpl TrapaSodrjvai, 
T-qv r apxqv eroLfxos- tjv airodeadai, /cat irplv -^ 
TTadeXv TL heivov aTraipetv e/c tt]£ TToXecos i^ovXero, 
BaKpvcov dfia /cat ttjv eavrov rvx^jv KaroXo^vpo- 
fjievos, waTTep ol /car' dXriOeiav virkp rrjs ^v^'rjs 
dycovicovres . 

LVII. ^HpeOicrfxevov Se rov ttXi^Oovs /cat jLtera 
ttoXXtjs TTpodvjjiLas TTVvdavopLevov rives elalv ol 
fjieXXovTes avTov TrpoStSdvat, ^AvTiartov ^ Ilerpcova 
wvofjiaaev, os iv elp-qvT] re ttoXXo. /cat aTTOvSala 
TToXLTevadpievos /cat arpaTriyias 77oAAd? rereAe- 
Kwg eTntfiavearaTOs aTravrcov iyeyovei' aTToXoyov- 
jxevov Se rov dvdpos /cat 8ta ro fjnqhev eavTcp 
(TuveiSeVai Trdaav e^eraaLv vrropLevovros, e(f)7] ^ov- 
Xeadai rrjv ot/ct'av avrov SiepevvrjcraL 7re//.i/(a? 
erepovs, avTos S' evrt rrjs eKKXiqaias avv e/cetVoj 
reoj? ^ dv ol TTepLt^Qevres eXOcocn [xeveiv. erv^e Se 
Ste^^a/3/ccb? avrov rdjv depaTTOvrcov rwds dpyvplco 
rds €7rt rov oXeOpov rov Uerpojvos KaracrKevaadei- 
aa? iTTLcrroXds aeaiqpLaapLivas ^ rfj rod Trarpos 
a(j)paylhL Xa^ovras evSov aTTodeadai. dis 8' 
Ol 7T€iJL(f)9evr€£ €77t rTjv €p€vvav {ovSev yap avrelirev 
6 Il4rpa)v, dXX i(f)'fJKe rrjv oi/ctav ipevvdv), 
evpovres evda ■^v aTTO/ce/cpu/XjueVa rd ypdfXfxara, 
TTaprjaav et? rrjv eKKXrjaiav d'AAas" re ttoAAo,? 
(f>€povr€s irtiaroXd? eTncrearjixaanevas /cat rrjv 
rrpos rov ^Avrlanov ypa^elaav, eTnyivdjoKeiv 

^ rov int^avfaTaTOv twv Ta^i<x)v deleted before ' AvTiaTt,ov by 
Sintenis. 

46* 



BOOK IV. 56, 4-57, 2 

the people, and after saying a great deal about him- 
self he told them that, having fled to them with his 
friends upon the assurance they had given him, he 
was in danger of being seized by certain persons and 
delivered up to his father and that he was ready to 
resign his power and desired to quit their city before 
any mischief befell him ; and while saying this he wept 
and lamented his fate as those do who are in very 
truth in terror of their lives. 

LVII. When the people became incensed at this 
and were eagerly demanding to know who the men 
were who were intending to betray him, he named 
Antistius Petro, who not only had been the author 
of many excellent measures in time of peace but had 
also often commanded their armies and had thus 
become the most distinguished of all the citizens. 
And when this man endeavoured to clear himself and, 
from the consciousness of his innocence, offered to 
submit to any examination whatever, Sextus said he 
wished to send some others to search Petro 's house, 
but that he himself would stay with him in the as- 
sembly till the persons sent should return. It seems 
that he had bribed some of the servants of Petro to take 
the letters prepared for Petro 's destruction and sealed 
with the seal of Tarquinius and to hide them in their 
master's house. And when the men sent to make the 
search (for Petro made no objection but gave per- 
mission for his house to be searched), having dis- 
covered the letters in the place where they had been 
hidden, appeared in the assembly with many sealed 
letters, among them the one addressed to Antistius, 



^ recos Jacoby : re cuj Ba, e<o? ABb. 
' Cobet : aecrqueicufievas 0, Jacoby. 



m 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

i^-qcras rrjv a^paylha rov Trarpos 6 Tie^ros eXvae, 
/cat TO) y/aa/Li/xarei Sou? eKeXevaev dvayivcoaKeiv. 

3 iyeypaTTTO S' iv avrfj, fxdXiara [xev ^ojvra Trapa- 
Sovvat rov vlov auroi/ edv 8' dSvvaros fj tovto, 
TTjv K€<f)aX-r]v aTTOTefJiovra Trepuftai. ravra 8e 
TTOL'qaavTL avrip re /cat TOt? avXXa^opLevois rod 
epyov x^P^^^ '^^^ aAAcov fjnadojv, ovs Trporepov 
vrr€cr)(r)TO , TroXireiav re rrjv iv 'Pwfirj Scoaeiv 
e<j>ri /cat et? rov rcov TrarpiKioiv dpLdfxov a/navras 
iyypdi/j€iv OLKias re /cat KX-qpovs /cat aAAas" 

4 Swpeds TToXXds CTTLd'qareLV /cat jxeydXas. ecf)' 
ols epediadevres ol FajStot rov fiev ^Avriariov 
eKTTeTrXrjyora eTTt rjj irapaho^o) avpb^opa koX 
ovhe (f)ajv7)V vtto ^ rov /ca/coy p'^^o.i hwdfievov 
dTTOKretvovcTi ^dXXovres XldoLS' rrjv Se Kara rcov 
dXXoJV I^T^TTqaiv re /cat ripnopiav rdv ravrd rep 
HerpojvL ^ovXevcrafievojv eTrerpeifjav ru> Sefro) 
TTOL-qaaaOai. 6 Se rots tStot? eraipoLs rrjV 
(f)vXaKr]v eiTLrpeifjag r6)V TTvXa>v, Iva [mtj 8ta- 
(f>vyot,€v avrov ol iv rats atrtat?, 7Tep,TTOiv irri rds 
OLKias rGiv i7n<f)aveardro)v dvSpojv dneKreive 
TToXXovs rcov Ta^lojv Kal dyadovs. 

LVIII. 'Ev cL Se ravr inpdrrero dopv^ov 
Kara rrjv ttoXlv ovros (hs irrl roaovrcp /ca/coi, 
fjiadcov rd yivofjueva Sid ypapLfidrcov 6 TapKvvios 
TTaprjv dycDV rrjv SiJva^ii/, Kat vrept pbeaas vvKras ^ 
dyxov rijg TToXeios yevopuevos, dvoix^eiacov ru>v 
TTvXcbv VTTO rojv €711 rovro TTapeoKevacrpievajv 
€laeXdd)v Slx(^ ttovov Kvpios iyeyovei rijs voXeojs. 
2 <I)S 8' iyvuxyOr] rd irddos dnavrajv KaroSvpop-evoiv 

^ After avrtu B adds Kal Koiii^eaOai rovs Stou/xoAoyij/ievous 
ixiadovs. • Beiske : diro 0, 



BOOK IV. 57, 2-58, 2 

Sextus declared he recognized his father's seal, and 
breaking open the letter, he gave it to the secretary 
and ordered him to read it. The purport of the letter 
was that Antistius should, if possible, deliver up his 
son to him alive, but if he could not do this, that he 
should cut off his head and send it. In return for 
this service Tarquinius said that, besides the rewards 
he had already promised, he would grant Roman 
citizenship both to him and to those who had assisted 
him in the business, and would admit them all into 
the number of the patricians, and furthermore bestow 
on them houses, allotments of land and many 
other fine gifts. Thereupon the Gabini became so 
incensed against Antistius, who was thunderstruck 
at this unexpected calamity and unable in his grief to 
utter a word, that they stoned him to death and ap- 
pointed Sextus to inquire into and punish the crimes 
of his accomplices. Sextus committed the guarding 
of the gates to his own followers, lest any of the accused 
should escape him ; and sending to the houses of the 
most prominent of the Gabini, he put many good 
men to death. 

LVIII. While these things were going on and the 
city was in an uproar, as was natural in consequence 
of so great a calamity, Tarquinius, having been in- 
formed by letter of all that was passing, marched 
thither with his army, approached the city about the 
middle of the night, and then, when the gates had been 
opened by those appointed for the purpose, entered 
with his forces and made himself master of the city 
without any trouble. When this disaster became 
known, all the citizens bewailed the fate awaiting 

' nepl fjieaas vVKTas Casaubon : nepl fieaov vvktos O, Jacoby, 
TTpo [i€aa)v vvKTcbv Kiessling. 

453 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eavTovs oia TTeiaovTai, a^ayas re /cat dvSpaTTO- 
Sta/xous' Kai TTOLvra oaa KaraXaix^dvet, Seivd 
Tovs VTTo rvpavvoov dXovras npoaSoKcoincov, el 
8e rd Kpanara irpd^eiav, hovXeias re /cat XPV' 
fidrcov dtjiaipiaeis /cat rd ofxoia rovrois /car- 
eijjrjtjiLKOTixJV , ovhev 6 TapKvvios Sv rrpoaeSoKcov re 
Kat iBedoiKccrav, /catVot TTiKpos opyrjv Kal irepl 
rds ripuxipias rCbv ix^pcbv dTrapairrjTos cov, 

3 ehpaaev. ovre ydp aTre/cretvev ovhiva Ta^icov 
OVT i^-qXaae r'qs rroXeajs oiir els aTipiiav iq 
XP'QP^drcov d(f)aLpe(nv e^T^jUtcoCTe, ovyKaXeaas 8' 
ets" e/cKArjCTtW ro TrXrjdos /cat ^aatXiKov e/c rvpav- 
VLKov rpoTTOv jxeraXa^cov, r'qv re ttoXiv avrols 
e(f)Tj Trjv I3iav dTTohiSovat. /cat rds ovarlas a? 
e^ovai avyxcopelv /cat avv tovtols Trjv 'Pcofiaicov 
LaoTToXcreiav diraai, xp-pit^eadai, ov hi evvoiav Trjv 
irpd? TOVS Ta^iovs, dXX' tva ^ rrjv 'Pcofxaiajv 
rjyefiovlav eyKparearepov Karexj) ravra irpdr- 
Tcov Kparicrrr^v rjyovjjLevos eaeaOat <f)vXaKrjv 
eavrov re /cat rcov iraihcov rrjv e/c tcov Trap* 
eATTtSa? aeacoajxevcDV /cat ret tSta Travra KeKopna- 

4 jjievojv 7TLCXTLV. Kal Lva jjLrjdev avrois en Beifjia 
TT€pL TOV jJieXXovros vrrdpxj} xpovov fxrjh^ evSotd- 
^coaiv el jSe^aia ravra a^iai Stafievel, ypdifsas 
ecf)' ols eaovrai SiKalois </>tAot, rd Trepl rovrcov 
opKLa avvereXeaev inl rrjs eKKXrjoias TTapaxprjp.a 
/cat Sicofioaaro Kard rojv acfjaytcov. rovrojv 
icrri tcov opKicov fivr}p,eLOv ev 'PcofMrj Kei/xevov 
ev lepcp Atos" IltaTioy, ov 'Pajjuatot Say/cop' ^ 
KaXovcTiv, acTTri? ^vXlvrj ^vpar) ^oet'a Treplrovos rod 

^ T-r/v 'Pw/ittioiv laonoXiTeiav . . . oAA' lva B : om. R. 
* Castalio : Say/crov AB. 

4^- 



BOOK IV. 58, 2-4 

them ; for they expected slaughter, enslavement and 
all the horrors that usually befall those captured by 
tyrants, and, as the best that could happen to them, 
had already condemned themselves to slavery, the loss 
of their property and like calamities. However, 
Tarquinius did none of the things that they were 
expecting and dreading even though he was harsh of 
temper and inexorable in punishing his enemies. 
For he neither put any of the Gabini to death, nor 
banished any from the city, nor punished any of them 
with disfranchisement or the loss of their property ; 
but calling an assembly of the people and changing to 
the part of a king from that of a tyrant, he told them 
that he not only restored their own city to them and 
allowed them to keep the property they possessed, 
but in addition granted to all of them the rights of 
Roman citizens. It was not, however, out of good- 
will to the Gabini that he adopted this course, but in 
order to establish more securely his mastery over the 
Romans. For he believed that the strongest safe- 
guard both for himself and for his family would be 
the loyalty of those who, contrary to their expectation, 
had been preserved and had recovered all their posses- 
sions. And, in order that they might no longer have 
any fear regarding the future or any doubt of the 
permanence of his concessions, he ordered the terms 
upon which they were to be friends to be set down in 
writing, and then ratified the treaty immediately in 
the assembly and took an oath over the victims to 
observe it. There is a memorial of this treaty at 
Rome in the temple of Jupiter Fidius,^ whom the 
Romans call Sancus ; it is a wooden shield covered with 

1 The full Boman title was Semo Sancus Dius Fidius. For 
Sancus see ii. 49, 2. 

455 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

a<l>ayLaaQevros iirl tcjv opKicov Tore ^oos, ypdfx- 
fiaaiv apxa'CKols iTTiyeypafjip.ein] ras yevofievas 
avTols 6p,oXoyias. ravra irpa^as nal fiaaiXea 
rGiv Ta^LCov tov vlov Hd^rov drroSel^ag d-n-fjye 
rrjv Svvap^Lv. 6 {xev Sr) vpos Ta^iovs TToAe/io? 
TOLovTov reXovs eTV)(€V. 

LIX. TapKvvios 8e fxerd tovto to epyov 
at'ttTraucras' tov Xecov tcov OTpaTeicov /cat TToXeficDV 
TTepL TTjv KaTaaKcvrjv tcov Upojv iyiveTO tcls tov 

TTaTTTTOV 7TpodviXOV[Ji€VOS eVXOLS ilTLTeXeaai. €K€LVOg 

yap €v Tip TeXevTatcp TroXipap piaxop-evos rrpos 
Ha^ivovs €V^aro tco Ad /cat tjj "Hpa /cat rfj 
Adrjva, idv KpaTrjar) ttj P'O-XD, vaovs avTolg 
KaTaaKevdaeiv /cat tov pikv okottcXov, evda 
ISpvaeadaL tovs 6eovs epieXXev, dvaX-qpLpLaai re 
/cat ;^6L>ju.acri p,eydXoig e^eipydaaro , Kaddrrep €(f)rjv 
€v T(p TTpo TOVTOV Xoyo), TTjv 8e TCOV vacov Kara- 
aKexrqv ovk e(f>dir] reXeaai. rovro Stj to epyov 6 
TapKvvios dno rijs SeKdrrjg rcbv €/c YiVeacrqs 
Xa(f>vpu}v eTTLreXeaai irpoaipovpievos d-navras rovs 

2 rexyiras eTrearrjae rals ipyaaiais. evda Brj 
XeyeraL re pas Tt davpuaarov vrroyeiov dpvrro- 
puevoiv re rGiv OepLeXicov /cat tt;? opvyijs els ttoXv 
^dOos TJSr) 7Tpo'Covar]s,^ evprjadat Ke(f)aX'r] ^ veo- 
a(l>ayovs dvdpdoTTov ro re Trpoo-coiTOV exovaa ^ 
roLS epujjvxoLS op-oiov Kal ro Kara^epopevov e/c 
rr]s aTTOTop.rjs * at/xa deppLov en /cat veapov. 

3 TOVTO TO repas tScot" o TapKvvios rod pLev opvy- 
fiaros eVtap^eti' eKeXevae rovs epya^opuevovs' 

^ Sylburg : napovaris 0. 

* Kiessling : K€<f>aXr]v 0. 

* i\ovaa AC : ep^ouaav B. 

4S6 



BOOK IV. 58, 4-59, 3 

the hide of the ox that was sacrificed at the time they 
confirmed the treaty by their oaths, and upon it 
are inscribed in ancient characters the terms of the 
treaty. After Tarquinius had thus settled matters 
and appointed his son Sextus king of the Gabini, 
he led his army home. Such was the outcome of the 
war with the Gabini. 

LIX. After ^ this achievement Tarquinius gave the 
people a respite from military expeditions and wars, 
and being desirous of performing the vows made by 
his grandfather, devoted himself to the building of 
the sanctuaries. For the elder Tarquinius, while he 
was engaged in an action during his last war with the 
Sabines, had made a vow to build temples to Jupiter, 
Juno and Minerva if he should gain the victory ; 
and he had finished off the peak on which he proposed 
to erect the temples to these gods by means of retain- 
ing walls and high banks of earth, as I mentioned 
in the preceding Book ^ ; but he did not live long 
enough to complete the building of the temples. 
Tarquinius, therefore, proposing to erect this structure 
with the tenth part of the spoils taken at Suessa, set 
all the artisans at the work. It was at this time, 
they say, that a wonderful prodigy appeared under 
ground ; for when they were digging the foundations 
and the excavation had been carried down to a 
great depth, there was found the head of a man 
newly slain with the face like that of a living man and 
the blood which flowed from the severed head warm 
and fresh. Tarquinius, seeing this prodigy, ordered 
the workmen to leave off digging, and assembling the 
1 For chaps. 59-61 c/. Livy i. 55. « ill. 69, 1. 

* (XTroTO^'^y B : jce^aA'^s R, a^ay^s Reiske ; KaTa(f>ep6fi€i>ov i^ 
avTTJs Grimm. 

457 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(jvyKoXlaas 8e tov? imxcop^ovs fiavreis invvda- 
vero nap avrcbv tI ^ovXerai arjfxaiveLv to 
repas. ovSev 8 avrcov dTTOcjyaivofjLevoiv, dXXa 
Tvpp-qvolg dTToSiSovrajv ttjv Trepl tcjv tolovtojv 
CTTLcrr'qu'qv, i^erdaas nap* avrcov /cat fjia6<hv tov 
€m(f)aveaTaTOv tcov iv li'vppr^voLS TeparocTKOTTOJv ^ 
ooTig rju, nefiirei rcov darcov tovs SoKLjJbcordTOVs 
npea^eis npos avrov. 

LX. TovTOig rot? dvdpdaiv d(f)LKOfievoLs els ttjv 
OLKiav TOV reparoaKonov TTcpiTvyxdvei, tl fieipdiciov 
e^Lov, J) <j>pdaavTes on 'Pcu/xatcov elal rrpea^eis 
Tip fidvrei ^ovXofievoi ivrvx^lv,^ napeKoXovu dn- 
ayyelXaL npog avrov. Kal 6 veavlas, " iyar7)p 
ifios iarLv," €(f)rja€V, " w xPTI^^re ivrvxclv^ da^o- 
Xeirai 8e Kara ro napov earai 8' vpuv dXiyov 

2 XP^^^^ napeXdeiv npos avrov. iv co 8 CKeivov 
CKSex^crde, npos e/ue SrjXaxjare nepl rivos TJKere. 
Ttepiiarai yap vpuv, et ti fieXXere 8ta rrjv dneLpiav 
acf)dX)\iadat Kara rrjv ipcLrr^aiv, vtt* ipLov 8iSa;^- 
deLOL i^-qSev e^ap.apreZv' piolpa 8' ovk eXaxiorri 
ru>v ev fxavriKjj decoprjpidrcov ipcorrjoL? opB-q. 
iSoKCi, Tols dvSpdoLv ovrco ttol^Iv, Kal Xeyovaiv 
avrtp TO repas. 6 8' u)s rJKovae fxtKpov €7n(jxd)v 
Xpovov, " * h.Kovaar " e^r)(jev, " dvSpes 'Pojfxalof 
TO p.kv ripas vpuv 6 Trarrjp ^LeXeZrai Kal ovSev 
ijjevaerai' pidvrei yap ov Qepn,^- d 8e Xeyovr^s 
vp.€Lg Kal dnoKpLvopievoi npog rds ipojrqaeis 
dvaixapr-qroi re /c*t diftevhels caecrde (8ia<^ep€i 
yap vfiLv npoeyvioKCvai ravra) nap* ifxov fiddere. 

3 orav d(f)r]yqa7]ad€ avTU> ro repas, ovk dKpi^cos 
fiavOdvew <f>'qaas o ri Xeyere Treptypdipei rw 

^ Ileiske : TtparooKO-rtov Bb, TepaToaKoirov R. 



BOOK IV. 59, a-60, 3 

native soothsayers, inquired of them what the 
prodigy meant. And when they could give no 
explanation but conceded to the Tyrrhenians the 
mastery of this science, he inquired of them who was 
the ablest soothsayer among the Tyrrhenians, and 
when he had found out, sent the most distinguished 
of the citizens to him as ambassadors. 

LX. When these men came to the house of the 
soothsayer they met by chance a youth who was just 
coming out, and informing him that they were 
ambassadors sent from Rome who wanted to speak 
with the soothsayer, they asked him to announce them 
to him. The youth replied : " The man you wish to 
speak with is my father. He is busy at present, but 
in a short time you may be admitted to him. And 
while you are waiting for him, acquaint me with the 
reason of your coming. For if, through inexperience, 
you are in danger of committing an error in phrasing 
your question, when you have been informed by me 
you will be able to avoid any mistake ; for the correct 
form of question is not the least important part of 
the art of divination." The ambassadors resolved to 
follow his advice and related the prodigy to him. 
And when the youth had heard it, after a short pause 
he said: " Hear me, Romans. My father will 
interpret this prodigy to you and will tell you no 
untruth, since it is not right for a soothsayer to speak 
falsely ; but, in order that you may be guilty of no 
error or falsehood in what you say or in the answers 
you give to his questions (for it is of importance to you 
to know these things beforehand), be instructed by 
me. After you have related the prodigy to him he 
will tell you that he does not fully understand what 

* Cobet : awrvxelv O, Jacoby. 

459 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(TKT^TTCOVL TTJS yfjs [jiCpOS OCfOV 817 Tf €77610' VyUV 

ipel, ' Tovrl jLtev iariv 6 Tap7T~qiog X6(f)OS, fJ-epos 
8' avrov tovtI p,ev ro Trpos to,? avaroXas jSActtov, 
tovtI 8e TO irpos ra? Suorei?, jSopeiov 8' auTot? 
4 ToSe Kat Toui'ai'Ttov voriov. ^ ravra to) aKrjTTOJVi 
SeiKvvs TTevaerai Trap* vpMV ctti ttolo) tcov 
fjLepcov rovr ojv evpedr} rj Ke<j>a\rj. ri ovv vpXv 
aTTOKpivaaOai Trapaivco ; [jlt] avyxoopelv iv fJi-qSevL 

TOJV rOTTOJV TOVTOJV, OVS O.V eKelvOS rep aKl^TTCOVl 

BcLKvvs TTVvOdvTjTai, TO T€pas evpcdrjvai,, dXX 
iv 'Pa)p,r] (f)dvaL Trap* vjjuv ^ iv Tapirrjlo) X6cf)(x). 
ravras idv ^vXdTTy]re rds dTTOKpuaeis /cat [irjSev 
TTapdyrjaOe vtt* avrov, avyyvovs on ro y^peoiv 
ovK eveari fxeraredrjvai, SieAetrat to repas vjjuv 
o ri ^ovXerat arjpLalveLv Kal ovk aTTOKprjifjerai. 

LXI. Tavra fxadovres ol Trpea^eis, irreiBri 
axoXrjv 6 TTpear^vr-qs ' ^^X^ '^'^^ TrporjXde ris 
avroiis fxerLcLv, elcreXOovres (f>pdt,ov(n rco fidvrei 
ro repas. ao(f)L(,opb€vov 8* avrov /cat htaypd^ov- 
ros CTTt rijs yrjs TT€pi(j)epels re ypap,pidg koX 
irepas aj50ts evdeias Kal Kad' €V CKaarov )(0}piov 
TTOiovfJievov rds vrrep rrjs evpdaecos ipcori^aeis, 
ovSev inLraparrofxevoL rrjv yvcvfirjv ol vpia^eLg 
rrjv avrrjv i(f)vXarrov dTTOKpiaiv, coairep avrols 
6 rov fxdvrecos VTredero vlos, rrjV 'PcoiJL'qv Kal rov 
TapTT'qLov ovofxd^ovres del X6(f)ov Kal rov c^rjyq- 
rr)v d^iovvres fir] a^erepit,eadaL ro aiqixelov, aAA 
drro rov Kpariarov Kal rov hiKaiordrov Xeyeiv. 

^ Tovvavriov vortov Schnelle : Tovvavriov O, toDto votiov 
Sinteais. 

2 vfixv Steph. : rifiiv O, Jacoby. 
' Cobet : npfa^vs O. 

46Q 



BOOK IV. 60, 3-61, 1 

you say and will circumscribe with his staff some piece 
of ground or other ; then he will say to you : ' This 
is the Tarpeian Hill, and this is the part of it that 
faces the east, this the part that faces the west, this 
point is north and the opposite is south.' These 
parts he will point out to you with his staff and then 
ask you in which of these parts the head was found. 
What answer, therefore, do I advise you to make? 
Do not admit that the prodigy was found in any of 
these places he shall inquire about when he points 
them out with his staff, but say that it appeared among 
you at Rome on the Tarpeian Hill. If you stick to 
these answers and do not allow yourselves to be misled 
by him, he, well knowing that fate cannot be changed, 
will interpret to you without concealment what the 
prodigy means." 

LXI. Having received these instructions, the am- 
bassadors, as soon as the old man was at leisure 
and a servant came out to fetch them, went in and 
related the prodigy to the soothsayer. He, craftily 
endeavouring to mislead them, drew circular lines 
upon the ground and then other straight lines, and 
asked them with reference to each place in turn 
whether the head had been found there; but the 
ambassadors, not at all disturbed in mind, stuck to 
the one answer suggested to them by the soothsayer's 
son, always naming Rome and the Tarpeian Hill, and 
asked the interpreter not to appropriate the omen to 
himself,^ but to answer in the most sincere and just 

^ i.e., not to make it apply to the actual spot on Etrurian 
soil to which he was pointing. 

461 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 ov Svvrjdels Se irapaKpovaaadai rovs avhpas 6 
IxdvTLS ovSe a(j)erepiaa(jdat rov oloivov Ae'yei rrpos 
avrovs, " "AvSpes 'PcD/xatot, Aeyere npos rovs 
eavTUiv TToAira? ort Kct^aX-qv etpxtprai yeveaOai 
aviXTTaarjs IraXias rov tottov rovrov iv <L 
Trjv K€(f)aXr)v evpere" i^ CKelvov KaXelrai rov 
Xpovov KaTTiTojAtP'os o X6(f)0S ^ inl rrjg evpedeia-qs 
ev avrcp Ke(f)aXrjs' /caxrira yap ot 'Pot/Aatoi 

3 KaXovai ras Ke(f>aXds. ravra Trapd rcJbv Trpea^ev- 
advrojv aKovaas 6 TapKvvios iTrecrrrjae rols 
epyois rovs re^vLras' Kal rd p,€v ttoXXu e^eipyd- 
aaro rov vaov, reXeidjaai 8' ovk €(f)daaev drrav 
TO epyov eKTreauiv rd-)(^iov e/c rrjs Svvaarelas, 
aXX €.7tI rrjs rpirrjs vnareias rj 'Pcofiaioiv ttoXis 
avrov els avvriXetav e^eipydaaro. iTTOirjQr] S' 
irrl /cpr/mSos' vip-qXrjs ^e^rjKdjs OKrdTrXedpos rrjv 
TTcpioSov, hiaKoaiixiv ttoSojv eyyiara rrjv TrXevpdv 
exojv eKdarrjv oXiyov 8e rt. ro hiaXXdrrov evpoi 
Ti? dv rrjs VTTepoxfjs rov fJL'qKovs Trapd ro irXdros, 

4 ovh oXcov TTevreKaiheKa ttoScov. ettl ydp rots 
avrols 6 efJieXio IS d fJt,€rd rrjv cfirrprjaLv olko- 
SofirjOeis Kard rovs rrarepas rjfjLdjv ISpvdr),^ rfj 
TToXvreXeia rrjs vXr)s fiovov hiaXXdrrajv rov 
dpxO'iov, €K fxkv rov Kard npoacoTTov {xepovs rov 
npos fJLearjfjL^pLav ^Xenovros rpiirXip TrepiXap-^a- 
vofMcvos aroixoi ' kioviov, ck 8e rojv rrXayloiv 
drrXa)- iv 8' avrcti rpels eveiai arjKol TrapdXXrj- 
Xoi KOLvds e^ovres irXevpds, fieaos fiev 6 rov 
Alos, noip €Kdr€pov 8e ro fxepos d re rrjs "Wpas 
KoX 6 rrjs *A9r]vds v<f)^ evos derov Kal fxids 
orrdyrjs KoXvTrrofievot. 

^ Xo^s B : t6vos K* 
46a 



BOOK IV. 61, 2-4 

manner. The soothsayer, accordingly, finding it 
impossible for him either to impose upon the men 
or to appropriate the omen, said to them : " Romans, 
tell your fellow citizens it is ordained by fate that 
the place in which you found the head shall be the 
head of all Italy." Since that time the place is 
called the Capitoline Hill from the head that was 
found there ; for the Romans call heads capita. 
Tarquinius, having heard these things from the 
ambassadors, set the artisans to work and built the 
greater part of the temple, though he was not able 
to complete the whole work, being driven from power 
too soon ; but the Roman people brought it to com- 
pletion in the third consulship. It stood upon a high 
base and was eight hundred feet in circuit, each side 
measuring close to two hundred feet; indeed, one 
would find the excess of the length over the width 
to be but slight, in fact not a full fifteen feet. For 
the temple that was built in the time of our 
fathers after the burning of this one ^ was erected 
upon the same foundations, and diifered from the 
ancient structure in nothing but the costliness of 
the materials, having three rows of columns on the 
front, facing the south, and a single row on each side. 
The temple consists of three parallel shrines, separated 
by party walls; the middle shrine is dedicated to 
Jupiter, while on one side stands that of Juno and on 
the other that of Minerva, all three being under one 
pediment and one roof. 

^ The old temple was burned in 83 B.C. Concerning the 
erection of the new edifice see Vol. I, Introd., p. viii. 

^ ihpvd-q Ambrosch : eipedr] 0, Jacoby. 
^ aroixV Cobet : arix(^ 0. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

LXII. Aeyerai 8e ti Kal erepov em rijs 
TapKVVLOv hwaar^ias irdw davfjLaarov €UTu;^7^/z,a 
rfj *Pct)/Aata>v vnap^at ttoAci etre decov rivos 
etre Baifiovojv evvoia Bcop-qOew orrep ov irpos 
oXiyov Kaipov, dAA' els drravra rov ^iov iroXXaKis 

2 avrrjv eaojcrev €k fieydXcov KaKotv. yvvq rtj d(f)- 
iK€TO 77/30? Tov Tvpovvov ovK e'm-)(Oipia jSyjSAouj ^ 
€wea pLeards St^uAAetcoi^ XPV'^H'^^ dTreiXTToXrjaat 
OeXovaa. ovk d^iovvros Be rov TapKvviov rijs 
alnqOeia-qs ripijs TTpiaadai rds ^v^Xovs dir- 
eXdovaa rpels i^ avrajv KareKavae' /cat /xct' 
ov TToXvv ■)(^p6vov rds XoLnds e^ ^ iveyKaaa rrjs 
avTTJs eTTcoXet ripiijs. Bo^aaa 8' d(f)pa)v tls elvai 
/cat yeXaadeiaa €7tI tu) rrjv avTTjv TLp,r]v atreZv 
rrepi ra>v eXarrovcDV 'r]v ovSe irepl rwv ttXciovcov 
eSvvT^dr] Xa^civ, dneXdovaa TrdXiv rds "^picreias 
Tcov dTToXeiTTopiivoiv KareKavcre Kal rds Xonrds 

3 rpels iveyKaaa rd taov ^rei ■)(pvaiov. davpidcras 817 
TO ^ovXrjpa rrjs yvvacKos 6 TapKvviog rovg 
oiojvoaKOTTovs pLereTTepujjaro /cat SLrjyrjadpevos 
avrois TO Trpdypa, ri XPV "^pdrreiv ijpero. /cd- 
KetvoL Sid aripeicov rivojv paOovres on 6e6- 
TTeprrrov ayaddv d7r€aTpdcf>rj, Kal pLeydXrjv (rvp(f)opdv 
a7TO(f)aLvovr€g to prq irdaas avrdv rds ^v^Xovs 
TTpiaadai, CKeXevaav aTrapiOpirjaai rfj yvvaiKl 
ro ;i(pyo-toi^, oaov rjrei, Kal rovs irepiovras rdv 

4 xPV^f^^^ Xa^elv. rj piev ovv yvvr] rds ^v^Xovs 
oovaa Kal (f)pdaaaa rrjpeiv eTTipeXaJs e^ dvdpcoTTcav 
T]<f)avia6r] , TapKVVios Se rtov darwv dvhpas 
e7Ti(f)aveis Svo Trpox^ipiadpievos Kal hrjpoalovs 
qiiVjol^ Oepdnovras Svo 7Tapat,€v^as eKeivois aTT- 

^ pvpXovs AB : pipXovs R. 
464 



BOOK IV. 62, 1-4 

LXII. It is said that during the i-eign of Tarquinius 
another very wonderful piece of good luck also came 
to the Roman state, conferred upon it by the favour 
of some god or other divinity ; and this good for- 
tune was not of short duration, but throughout the 
whole existence of the state it has often saved it from 
great calamities. A certain woman who was not a 
native of the country came to the tyrant wishing 
to sell him nine books filled with Sibylline oracles; 
but when Tarquinius refused to purchase the books 
at the price she asked, she went away and burned 
three of them. And not long afterwards, bringing 
the remaining six books, she offered to sell them 
for the same price. But when they thought her a fool 
and mocked at her for asking the same price for 
the smaller number of books that she had been unable 
to get for even the larger number, she again went away 
and burned half of those that were left; then, 
bringing the remaining three books, she asked the 
same amount of money for these. Tarquinius, 
wondering at the woman's purpose, sent for the 
augurs and acquainting them with the matter, asked 
them what he should do. These, knowing by certain 
signs that he had rejected a god-sent blessing, and 
declaring it to be a great misfortune that he had not 
purchased all the books, directed him to pay the 
woman all the money she asked and to get the 
oracles that were left. The woman, after delivering 
the books and bidding him take great care of them, 
disappeared from among men. Tarquinius chose 
two men of distinction from among the citizens and 
appointing two public slaves to assist them, entrusted 

* e^ added by Kiessling. 

465 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eScoKG T7]v Tcijv ^L^Xtcov (jivXaKrjv , (ov Tov erepov, 
Map/cov AtlXiov, dSiKelv tl So^avra irepl rrjv 
TTLCTrtv ^ Karajx-qwOevra ^ vcf)^ ivos rajv hrjixoaiaiv, 
cos TTarpoKTovov els daKov evpdipas ^oeiov eppiifjev 

5 et? TO TTeXayos. [xerd Se rrjv eK^oXrjv rcvv 
^acnXeojv rj ttoXls dvaXa^ovaa rrjv rwv y^priap-cov 
TTpoaraatav dvSpas re rovs iTntfiaveaTdTovs drro- 
SeiKwaiv avrcJov (f)vXaKas, ot 8ia jSiou Tavrrjv 
kxovai T7]v eTTipiiXeiav arpareicbv d<j)eLp,evoL Koi 
roL)v dXXiov Tcbv Kara ttoXiv TTpayixareLcov, koX 
orjpioaiovs avrols TrapaKad Larr^aLV, ojv ;^a)pts' 
ovK emrpeTTei rds eTnaKeipeis rcbv XPV^H'^^ 
TOis dvSpdcn TTOieZadai. avveXovri 8' elTrelv 
ovhkv ovTU) 'PiofxaXoL (jivXarTOvaiv ovd^ oaiov 
KTTJfia ovd iepov <l)s Ta SijSuAAeia dearftara. 
Xpcbvrai 8' avrols, orav rj ^ovXr] iprjcjjicrqTai, 
araaeajs KaraXa^ovcr'qs ttjv ttoXlv ■^ Svcrrv^^ias 
TLVos fJieydXrjs avp,7T€aovar]s Kara TToXcfjiov •^ 
repdrwv rivojv /cat ^aj^aa^arcov fxeydXojv /cat 
Svcjevperojv avrols (f)av€vrojv , ola TToXXaKLs crvvi^y]. 
ovroL hieixeivav ol )(^pr]afxoL p^^XP^ '^'^^ Mapai/coO 
KXrjdevros iroXepiov Keipevoi Kara yrjs iv ra> vaa> 
TOV KaTTtTOjAtVou Atos iv Xcdixrri XdpvaKi, vn 

6 avhpiov Se/ca ^vXarrop^evoi. fierd 8e rrjv rpi- 

^ mcmv : nvariv Biicheler, Jacoby. 

* KaTafirjvvdevTa Schnelle : Kai fir]vv9evra O. 

^ Or, adopting Biicheler's emendation (see critical note), 
"to have been guilty of [giving out] information" or "guilty 
in the matter of an inquiry." Atilius, according to Zonaras 
(vii. 11), was accused of accepting a bribe to permit the copy- 
ing of some of the oracles. 

* The etymology ofpor(r)tctiiMm is much disputed, but from 
verv early times the word seems to have meant the murder of 
466 



BOOK IV. 62, 4-6 

to them the guarding of the books ; and when one of 
these men, named Marcus Atilius, seemed to be have 
have been faithless to his trust ^ and was informed 
upon by one of the pubHc slaves, he ordered him to be 
sewed up in a leather bag and thrown into the sea as a 
parricide.2 Since the expulsion of the kings, the com- 
monwealth, taking upon itself the guarding of these 
oracles, entrusts the care of them to persons of the 
greatest distinction, who hold this office for life, being 
exempt from military service and from all civil employ- 
ments, and it assigns public slaves to assist them, in 
whose absence the others are not permitted to inspect 
the oracles. In short, there is no possession of the 
Romans, sacred or profane, which they guard so care- 
fully as they do the Sibylline oracles. They consult 
them, by order of the senate, when the state is in the 
grip of party strife or some great misfortune has hap- 
pened to them in war, or some important prodigies 
and apparitions have been seen which are difficult of 
intei-pretation, as has often happened. These oracles 
till the time of the Marsian War, as it was called,^ 
were kept underground in the temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus in a stone chest under the guard of ten 
men.* But when the temple was burned after the 

a near relative, especially the murder of a parent, which perhaps 
gave rise to the normal form parricidium, as if for patricidium. 
The word also came to be used, as here, of treason — the "murder 
of the fatherland." Those found guilty of this crime were 
punished by being sewed up in a leather bag together with a 
dog, a cock, a viper and an ape and then cast into the sea. 
See J. St rachan- Davidson, Problems of the Roman Criminal 
Law, vol. i., pp. 21-24. 

3 The "Social War," 91-88 B.C. 

* These ten men had replaced the original two ; after SuUa 
there were fifteen (the quindecimviri sacris faciundis). 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTjv €TTt, raXs iBhoiXTjKovTa KOI CKarov oXvfJiTndaiv 
€fj.7Tpr]crd€VTOs Tov vaov, eir' i^ iiri^ovXTJs, cos 
OLovrat Ttves, €lt drro ravrofjidTOV,^ avv toZs 
aXKois dvadrj^aai rod Oeov Kal ovroi 8t€<f>ddprjaav 

VTTO TOV TTVpOS. ol he VVV 6vT€S €K TToAAcDv €1(71 

cwix^op7]Tol TOTTOJV, ol fikv €K Tcov iv 'IraAioi 
rroXecov KopLLadivTes, ol S' e^ ^Y^pvOpcov rcov iv 
Aaia, /caret S6yp,a ^ovXrjs rpicov drroaTaXevTcov 
irpea^evTchv em rr]v dvTiypa(f)T]V' ol S' e| dXXcov 
TToXeiov /cat Trap' dvSpcov ISiojrcov p^eraypa^ivres' 
ev OLs evpiGKOVTat rives ep,7Te7Toir)p,evoi, tols 
^iPvXXeioLs, eXeyxovrai Se rat? KaXovp-evaLS 
aKpoartxloi- Xeyco 8' a Tepevrios Ovdppcov 
iGToprjKev iv Trj deoXoyiKrj TTpayp,aTeia. 

LXIII. Tayra Siarrpa^dp^evos 6 TapKvvios 
iv elp-qvT) re /cat /card 7ToXep,ovs /cat Svo ttoXcis 
aTTOiKiaas, t^v p,ev KaXovpiivrjv Tttyviav ov /card 
TTpoaipeaiv, dXX e/c TavropLdrov, -xeipLaadvTcov iv 
Tip ■)(ojpLcp TOdv aTpaTiuiTOJv /cat KaTaaKeva- 
aap^eviov to OTpaTOTreSov (vs p,r]Sev hia<l)epeiv 
TToXecos' KipKatav Se /card XoyiapLov, otl tov 
UcopievTLVov TreSiov pueyiaTov tG^v irepX rfj AaTLvrj 
/cat TTJs avvaTTTOvarrjs avTut daXdTTrjs e/cetro iv 
KaX(p (ecTTt 8e ;)^epCTOV7]aoetST7? aKOTreXos vijtrjXos 
emeLKWs eVi tov TvpprjviKov rreXdyovs KelpLevos, 
evda Xoyos e^ei KtpKrjv ttjv 'HXiov dvyarepa 
KaToiKTJaai), /cat tols diroiKias dp,<j>0Tepas hval 

* wno ravTOfiOLTov Steph. : air' avTOfidrov A, dnavTofidTov B. 

1 83 B.C.; cf. ch. 61, 4. 

* The oracles were written in Greek hexameters. Those 
regarded as genuine were composed as acrostics, the initial 

468 



BOOK IV. 62, 6-63, 1 

close of the one hundred and seventy-third Olympiad,^ 
either purposely, as some think, or by accident, these 
oracles together with all the offerings consecrated to 
the god were destroyed by the fire. Those which 
are now extant have been scraped together from many 
places, some from the cities of Italy, others from 
Erythrae in Asia (whither three envoys were sent by 
vote of the senate to copy them), and others were 
brought from other cities, transcribed by private 
persons. Some of these are found to be interpola- 
tions among the genuine Sibylline oracles, being 
recognized as such by means of the so-called acrostics.^ 
In all this I am following the account given by 
Terentius Varro in his work on religion.^ 

LXIII. Besides these achievements of Tarquinius 
both in peace and in war, he founded two colonies.* 
One of them, called Signia, was not planned, but was 
due to chance, the soldiers having established their 
winter quarters in the place and built their camp in 
such a manner as not to differ in any respect from a 
city. But it was with deliberate purpose that he 
settled Circeii, because the place was advantageously 
situated in relation both to the Pomptine plain, which 
is the largest of all the plains in the Latin country, 
and to the sea that is contiguous to it. For it is a fairly 
high rock in the nature of a peninsula, situated on 
the Tyrrhenian Sea ; and tradition has it that Circe, 
the daughter of the Sun, lived there. He assigned 

letters of the successive verses spelling out the words of the first 
verse (or first verses, probably, if the oracle was a long one). 
See Cicero, de Div. ii. 54, 111 f. ; also H. Diels, Sibyllinische 
Blatter. 

8 This was the second part of his Antiquities, 

* C/. Livy i. 56, 3. 

469 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tcov TTaihcov olKLaraZs dvadeis, KtpKaiav fiev 
"Appovri, Hiiyviav he Tiroj, Sdos are ^ ovSev en 
776/01 rrjs o.px'fjs e^wr, 8ia yvvaiKos v^piv yafie- 
TTJs,^ ^v 6 TTpea^vraros avrov rcov TTaiho)v 
Yii^ros h(,i(f>deipev, i^eXavverai ttjs t apx^js Kal 
rrjs TToAecos', TrpodeaTTiaavros avra> rov SaifJiovLov 
Trjv fMeXXovaav yevqaeaOai irepl rov oIkov crvfx- 
(f)opav TToAAot? fxev /cat ctAAots oIojvols, reXevraiw 

2 8e TOJSe. alerol cruviovres els rov TrapaKeifievov 
roLs ^aaiXeioLS ktjttov ' eapos a)pa veomav * 
eTrXarrov im Kopv<^fj <j)oivLKog viJjtjXov. tovtcov 
Se TcDf oleTibv dTTTTJvas en rovs veorrovs ixovrcov 
yvTTes ddpooL TtpoaTreraadivres rqv re veomdv 
SL€(f)6pr]aav Kal rovs veorrovs direKreivav koI 
rovs alerovs Trpoaiovras d-no rrjs vop.ris dfMvr- 
rovres re * Kal Traiovres rols rapaoZs d-no rov 

3 <f>oLVt,Kos diT-qXaaav. rovrovs rovs olcvvovs IBojv 6 
TapKVVLos Kal (f>vXarr6ixevos , et ttcjos hvvairo 
SiaKpovcxacrOat rrjv pLolpav, ovk layvoe vLKrjaai, ro 
XP^cov, aAA' eTTidepbivcov avro) rwv rrarpiKiiov 
Kal rov St^/xou av[X(f)pov'qaavros e^eireae rrjs 
hvvaaretas. oirives 8' -^aav ot rrjs errava- 
ardaecos dp^avres Kal 8t' oicov rporrcov -^Xdov 
irrl rd Trpdypiara, 8i' oXiycov TTeipd(Jop.ai, hieXdav. 

LXIV. Trfv *Aphear6jv rroXiv 6 TapKvvios 
erroXiopKeL ® 7Tp6(f>aaiv p-ev rroiovp^evos on rovs 
eK 'Pa)p,rjs ^vydhas vneSexero Kal avverrparrev 

^ Se'os are Bb : 8eoaa Ba, 8eos R. 

* yafi€Tijs Bernays, Sintenis : . . . t^s B, oin. R, avrijs 
Jacoby. 

' KTJTTov Bb : KijTTojv Ba, Tonov R. 

* Biicheler : veornas 0. 

47^^ 



BOOK IV. 63, 1-64, 1 n 

both these colonies to two of his sons as their founders, 
giving Circeii to Arruns and Signia to Titus ; and 
being now no longer in any fear concerning his 
power, he was both driven from power and exiled 
because of the outrageous deed of Sextus, his eldest 
son, who ruined a married woman. Of this calamity 
that was to overtake his house, Heaven had fore- 
warned him by numerous omens ,^ and particularly 
by this final one : Two eagles, coming in the spring 
to the garden near the palace, made their aerie 
upon the top of a tall palm tree. While these eagles 
had their young as yet unfledged, a flock of vultures, 
flying to the aerie, destroyed it and killed the young 
birds ; and when the eagles returned from their 
feeding, the vultures, tearing them^ and striking them 
with the flat of their wings, drove them from the palm 
tree. Tarquinius, seeing these omens, took all 
possible precautions to avert his destiny, but proved 
unable to conquer fate ; for when the patricians 
set themselves against him and the people were of the 
same mind, he was driven from power. Who the 
authors of this insurrection were and by what means 
they came into control of aifairs, I shall endeavour 
to relate briefly. 

LXIV. Tarquinius^ was then laying seige to Ardea, 
alleging as his reason that it was receiving the Roman 
fugitives and assisting them in their endeavours to 

1 For one of these see Livy, i. 56, 4. 

* Perhaps we should follow Reiske in supplying " with their 
beaks." 

* For chaps. 64r-67 c/. Livy i. 57 f. 



^ duvTTOvres re (jols pa^i^eaiy Reiske. 
* eTToAiopKci Portus : eVoAe/ici 0. 



47» 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTOLS 7T€pl KaOoSov d)s Se raXrjdes e^x^^ ^'^^' 
povXevcov avrfj 8ia rov ttXovtov evSaifiovovorr] 
fxaXiara rcov iv 'IraAia ttoXccov. yewaiojs he 
Tcov 'ApSearcov OLTTOfxaxofJievajv /cat TToXvxpoviov 
TTJs TToXiopKias yLvofievrjs of re €7tl rov arparo- 
TTeSov KajJivovres cttl rfj rpt^fj rov TToXepLov /cat 
oi Kara ttoXlv aTTeLprjKores rals ela(j)opals eroiyuoi 

2 TTpos aTToaraaLV rjaav, et ris o.px'^ yevoiro. iv 
rovrcp Srj rep Kaipo) He^ros, 6 Trpea^vraros rcov 
TapKVVLOv TTaihcov, (XTroCTTaAeis' vtto rov irarpos 
els ttoXlv, 7] eKoXelro KoAAarta, XP^^S rivas 
VTTrjperi^acov arparLcoriKas, Trap' avhpl Kari^x^V ^ 
avyyevei AevKLcp TapKvvicp ra> KoAAariVat Trpoa- 

3 ayopevopLevcp. rovrov rov dvSpa ^d^tos fxev 
vlov elvai (f>r)aLV 'Hyeptov, rrepl ov SeSt^XcoKa 
TTporepov on TapKvvico ra> irporepcp ^aaiXev- 
aavri 'Pcop^aicov dSeA^OTrats' ^ '^v /cat KoAAarias' 
rjyeiJicbv a7ro8ei;^0eis" oltto rijs iv iKclvrj rfj rroXei 
BiarpL^rjs avro? re KoAAartt'os' iKXijOr} /cat rols 
iyyovois o.(f)^ eavrov rrjv avrrjv KareXiTrev cTTt- 
KXrjaiv iyo) Se /cat rovrov vlwvov elvai rov 
'Hyeptou TTeidop.ai, et^ ye rrjv avrrjv etx^^ 
Tols TapKVVLOv TTaialv -qXiKtav, ws OajSto? re 
/cat ot, XoiTTol avyypa(f)ets TrapaBeScuKaaiv 6 

4 yap XP^^OS ravrrjv /xot rrjv vttoXt^iJjiv jSe^atot. 6 
fjLev ovv KoAAarti'oj iirl arparoTreSov rore cor 
irvyxoivev, rj he avvoiKovaa avro) yvvrj 'Pcojxaia, 
AovKprjrtov dvydrrip dvhpos iTn(j>avovs , i^evi^ev 
avrov d)s avyyevfj rov dvhpos TToXXfj TTpodvp,ia 
T€ /cat (f)i.Xo(f)poavvr) . ravrr)v rrjv yvvalKa koX- 

^ KaTT^X^V Reiske : KaTrjveyOr) AB. 
^ dScA^oTrat; Bb : dScA^ov nats ASa. 

47» 



BOOK IV. 64, 1-4 

return home. The truth was, however, that he had 
designs against this city on account of its wealth, 
since it was the most flourishing of all the cities in 
Italy. But as the Ardeates bravely defended them- 
selves and the siege was proving a lengthy one, both 
the Romans who were in the camp, being fatigued by 
the length of the war, and those at Rome, who had 
become exhausted by the war taxes, were ready 
to revolt if any occasion offered for making a be- 
ginning. At this time Sextus, the eldest son of 
Tarquinius, being sent by his father to a city 
called Collatia to perform certain military services, 
lodged at the house of his kinsman, Lucius Tar- 
quinius, surnamed Collatinus. This man is said 
by Fabius to have been the son of Egerius, who, as I 
have shown earlier,^ was the nephew of Tarquinius 
the first Roman king of that name, and having been 
appointed governor of Collatia, was not only himself 
called Collatinus from his living there, but also left 
the same surname to his posterity. But, for my part, 
I am persuaded that he too was a grandson of 
Egerius ,2 inasmuch as he was of the same age as 
the sons of Tarquinius, as Fabius and the other 
historians have recorded ; for the chronology con- 
firms me in this opinion. Now ft happened that 
Collatinus was then at the camp, but his wife, who was 
a Roman woman, the daughter of Lucretius, a man 
of distinction, entertained him, as a kinsman of her 
husband, with great cordiality and friendliness. This 

1 iii. 50, 3. 

* That is, aa Tarquinius likewise was a grandson of the elder 
Tarquinius. 

' «' and ftxe B : om. R. 

473 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Xicrrrjv ovaav tojv iv 'Pcujlit^ yvvaiKiov koI aio- 
^poveardrrjv inex^tpi^aev 6 ^d^ros Siacfidelpat, 
TTaXairepov pikv en opeyoixevog ,^ orrore Kar- 
ayoiTO TTapa rep crvyyevel, rore Se Katpov apfxor- 
5 rovTa oto/xevo? ^x^iv. co? Se p^era to SeiTTVOv 
aTTrjXde KOLp,rjcr6pi,€vos eTrtcrp^cav' ttj? vvktos ttoXv 
p.€pos, iTTeiBr] KadevBeLv airavras iv6p,Lt,ev, dvaaras 
rJKev 6776 TO Sa>p,drLov, iv S ttjv AovKp7]TLav 
rjSeL KaOevSovaav, /cat Xadujv rovs Trapd tols 
dvpais rod hajp^ariov KoipLcojJievovs elaepx^Tai 
^L(f)Os excov. 

LXV. 'EtTTtards Se rfj kXIvt), huyepQeiaiqs dfia 
rw cruveivai tov iJjo^ov rrjs yvvaiKos /cat irvvdavo- 
p,evr]s oarLS et?^, (f)paaas rovvop^a aiiOTrdv CKcAeue 
/cat p,€V€iv ev rip hcopLarlcp, a<^d^€tv avrrjv dneiX-q- 
cra?, edv eTTLX^t-pT^crj] (f)evyeiv rj ^odv. rovrcp 
KaTairXxj^dpuevos tw rpoTTcp ttjv dvdpojnov alpeaeis 
avTrj Svo TTpovreivev, (hv orrorepav ^ avTTf rrpo- 
rjpeLTO ^ Xa^elv tj^lov, ddvarov pier alaxvvqs '^ 

2 piov pier €v8aip,ovias . " Et p,€u yap v7Top.€V€is ," 
€(f)r], " ;)^aptcraCT^at /xot, yvvaiKd ae TTOi'qaopaL /cat 
^aaiXevaeis ovv ipuol vvv p,€v •^s' o Trarrip pLOi 
eSco/ce TToAecD?, 'p-erd he rrjv CKeivov reXevTrjv 
'Pa}p,ai(x)v T€ /cat Aartvcov /cat Tvpprjvcbv Kal 
Tcov dXXcov oaoiv eKelvos apx^i. cya> yap ofS' 
OTt 7TapaXrnfiop,ai r-qv rod Tiarpos ^aaiXeiav, cooTrep 
earl St/catov, rtov vlcbv avrov irpea^vraros ojv. 
oaa 6 vrrdpx^f- rot? ^aaiXevaiv ayada, cov dTravrcjv 
ecrr) avv ep/A KvpLa, ri Set ae KaXdJs iTri.arap.evrjv 

3 StSaa/ceii/ ; el 8' dvmrpdrreiv CTTLxeip'qaeis awt^ew 

' Iti 6p€y6ixivos Cobet : ineiyofuvos ABb, €7riyd/x€vos Ba, 
ert TTeipaifievos Kiessling, ert. elfyyoufvos Jacoby. 

474 



BOOK IV. 64, 4-65, 3 

matron, who excelled all the Roman women in 
beauty as well as in virtue, Sextus tried to seduce ; 
he had already long entertained this desire, whenever 
he visited his kinsman, and he thought he now had a 
favourable opportunity. Going, therefore, to bed 
after supper, he waited a great part of the night, and 
then, when he thought all were asleep, he got up 
and came to the room where he knew Lucretia 
slept, and without being discovered by her slaves, 
who lay asleep at the door, he went into the room 
sword in hand. 

LXV. When he paused at the woman's bedside and 
she, hearing the noise, awakened and asked who it 
was, he told her his name and bade her be silent and 
remain in the room, threatening to kill her if she 
attempted either to escape or to cry out. Having 
terrified the woman in this manner, he offered her 
two alternatives, bidding her choose whichever she 
herself preferred — death with dishonour or life with 
happiness. " For," he said, " if you will consent to 
gratify me, I will make you my wife, and with me you 
shall reign, for the present, over the city my father 
has given me, and, after his death, over the Romans, 
the Latins, the Tyrrhenians, and all the other nations 
he rules ; for I know that I shall succeed to my 
father's kingdom, as is right, since I am his eldest 
son. But why need I infoi-m you of the many advan- 
tages which attend royalty, all of which you shall share 
with me, since you are well acquainted with them ? 
If, however, you endeavour to resist from a desire to 



* oiTorepav Casaubon : nordpav 0(?), Jacoby. 

* vpoaipolTo Sylburg. 

475 
VOL. II. " Q 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

povXoixem] to a(x)<j>pov, dvoKTevco ae koI tcjv 
depaTTOvrcov €7nKaraa(f)d^as eva diqarct) rd acofiara 
VfJLOJv afjia Kai (ftrjcrcx) KareiXrjcfxjbs da)(r]fj,ovovadv 
ere fierd tov SovXov rerLfjLcop'fjcrdai rr)v rod 
avyyevov? v^piv fierepxcfjievos, cSctt' ala^pdv koI 
eTTOveiSiGTOV aov yeviadai Tr]v reXevrrjv /cat 
fJLTjBe racfyfjs to atofjid aov rv^^elv firjB^ dXXov tcov 

4 vopLipuxiv [XTjSevos" (Ls 8e ttoAu? rjv dTreiXaJv 
Te d[j,a /cat dvTi^oXihv /cat Siofivvfievos dX7]6€V€tv 
Twv Xeyofievcov eKdrepov, els dvdyKTjv rjXdev -q 
AovKprjTLa <f>oPr]9eZ(7a ttjv Trepc tov Qdvarov 
daxrilioavvrjv et^ai re /cat Trepuhelv avTov d 
7Tpo7]p€LTO BiaTTpa^dpLevov. 

LXVI. 'H/xe/aa? 8e yevofxevrjs 6 fxev inl to 
OTpaTOTTehov dTTTjei TTOvrjpdv /cat oXedpiov eTndvfxUiv 
eKTTeTrXrjpajKws, 7) 8e AovKprjTLa SetvcDs" <f)€povaa 
TO avpi.^e^rjKos ca? ef;^e Ta^ovs CTTi^daa ttjs drr'qvr^g 
els 'IPdofJirjv u>x^TO, fJLeXaivav iadrJTa Trepi^aXo- 
fievq /cat ^i^ihiov tl KpvTrrovcra vtto Tfj OToXfj, 
ovT€ TTpoaayopevovaa Kara Tas avvavT-rjaeis 
ovSeva TCOV dairat^opLdvajv ^ ovt dTroKpu-ofievT] 
ToXs [xadelv ^ovXofJLCvois d ti TreTTOvdev, dXXd 
avvvovs /cat KaTr](f)7js /cat /Ltearou? e^ovaa tovs 

2 6(f>daXiJiovs SaKpvcov. co? 8' els rrjv oIkiov 
elai]Xde tov iraTpos {ervxov 8e axjyyeveis dvTes 
Ti,ves Trap' avTa> ), tcov yovdrajv avrov Xa^op-evrj 
/cat TTepnreaovaa Teojs fiev eKXaie (ficovrjv ovhep.iav 
TTpoCepLevrj, eTretr' dviOTdvTOS avTTjv tov irarpos 
/cat Tt TTCTTOvdev d^iovvTos Xeyeiv " 'Ikctls" 
€<f>r]f " yivojxai crov, Trdrep, Seivrjv Kai dvrjKeaTOv 
VTrop-eivaaa v^piv, rificopTJaaL fioi /cat firj TrepuBelv 
TTjv aeavTov dvyarepa davdrov ^^Ipova Tiadovaav " 
476 



BOOK IV. 65, 3-66, 2 

preserve your virtue, I will kill you and then slay 
one of your slaves, and having laid both your bodies 
together, will state that I had caught you misbe- 
having with the slave and punished you to avenge the 
dishonour of my kinsman ; so that your death will 
be attended with shame and reproach and your body 
will be deprived both of burial and every other 
customary rite." And as he kept urgently repeating 
his threats and entreaties and swearing that he was 
speaking the truth as to each alternative, Lucretia, 
fearing the ignominy of the death he threatened, 
was forced to yield and to allow him to accomplish 
his desire. 

LXVI. When it was day, Sextus, having gratified 
his wicked and baneful passion, returned to the camp. 
But Lucretia, overwhelmed with shame at what had 
happened, got into her carriage in all haste, dressed 
in black raiment under which she had a dagger con- 
cealed, and set out for Rome, without saying a word 
to any person who saluted her when they met or 
making answer to those who wished to know what 
had befallen her, but continued thoughtful and down- 
cast, with her eyes full of tears. When she came to 
her father's house, where some of his relations 
happened to be present, she threw herself at his feet 
and embracing his knees, wept for some time without 
uttering a word, And when he raised her up and 
asked her what had befallen her, she said: " I come 
to you as a suppliant, father, having endured terrible 
and intolerable outrage, and I beg you to avenge me 
and not to overlook your daughter's having suffered 
worse things than death." When her father as well 

aoTTa^onevaiv B : npoaayopevonevojv A, Trpoaayopevovrcov R. 

2 2 .. «' 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 davixdaavTos S' avrov /cat rcbv ctAAcor drrdv- 
TOJV Kttt TLS V^plKeV aVTTjV Kal TTohaTTrjv v^piv 
d^LovvTos Xeyeiv " ^AKovajj rds ifJids" €<^77, 
avfji(f)opa£, CO Trdrep, ovk et? fxaKpdv ■)(dpiaai 
oe /xot TavTTjv Trptorov alrovfjiivr] rrjv )^dpiv' 
KaXeaov oaovs hvvaaai irXcicrTOVs (f>tXovs Te /cat 
avyyevets, iva Trap ifiov rrjs rd heivd TraOovarjs 
aKovcTcocjL Kal jjiTj Trap' irepcov. orav 8e fxddrjg 
ras Karaaxovaa? aia)(^pds /cat Seim? dvdyKas, 
^ovXevaai ^ pLer avrcov ovTLva ripxjjp'qaeis ipLoi 
re /cat aeavro) rponov /cat jLt-n ttoXvv ttoUi ypovoi' 
Tov Ota [xeaov. 

LXVII. Ta;^eta /cat KareaTTOvSacrp^evrj irapa- 
KXrfaei tcov eTTi^aveardTOJv dvBpoJv etj ttjv oIkiov 
avveXdovTcov oiairep -q^iov, Ae'yei Trpos avrovs 
OTTav TO Trpdyfjia i^ ^PXV^ dvaXa^ovaa. /cat 
fiera rovr daTraaafxevrj tov narepa /cat TroAAas' 
AiTaveia? eKeivov re /cat rdyv avv avTW Trapovrcov 
TTOtiqaaplvr] deolg re /cat haipLOOLv ev^apevr] 
rax^lav avrfj Sovvai rrjv dTraXXay-qv tov ^lov 
OTrdrai ro ^i(f)iSiov, o KareKpvTrrev vrro rots 
TTeirXois, /cat jLtt'ai' iveyKaaa 8ta twv arepvcov 

2 TrXrjyrjv ecos rrjs /capStaj ojOel? Kpavyfjs Se /cat 
dpijvov /cat TVTTeTov yvvaLK€Lov Trjv oiKLav oXrjv 
Karaaxovros 6 pLev TraTrjp Trept^vdels Tip awpuaTL 
TTcpte^aXXe /cat ave/caAeiro /cat u)s dvoiaovaav e/c 
TOV Tpavparog iTT]peXeZTO, rj 8' ev rat? dy/coAaiS" 

. avTOv OTTaipovaa /cat ipv^oppayovaa dnodvi^crKei,. 

TOLS 8e Trapovai 'Viopiaioiv ovtco Seivov eho^ev 

etvat /cat eAeeti^oi' to Trddog, cScrre pLiav dTrdvTiov 

yeveardai (fxjjvqv, cog pLvpiaKLS avrols KpetTTOV 

^ Kiessling : fiovXeva . . Ba, ^vXevarj Alih. 

47» 



BOOK IV. 66, 3-67, 2 

as all the others was struck with wonder at hearing this 
and he asked her to tell who had outraged her and in 
what manner, she said : " You will hear of my mis- 
fortunes very soon, father ; but first grant me this 
favour I ask of you. Send for as many of your friends 
and kinsmen as you can, so that they may hear the 
report from me, the victim of terrible wrongs, rather 
than from others. And when you have learned to 
what shameful and dire straits I was reduced, consult 
with them in what manner you will avenge both me 
and yourself. But do not let the time between be 
long." 

LXVII. When, in response to his hasty and urgent 
summons, the most prominent men had come to his 
house as she desired, she began at the beginning and 
told them all that had happened. Then, after em- 
bracing her father and addressing many entreaties 
both to him and to all present and praying to the gods 
and other divinities to grant her a speedy departure 
from life, she drew the dagger she was keeping con- 
cealed under her robes, and plunging it into her 
breast, with a single stroke pierced her heart. Upon 
this the women beat their breasts and filled the house 
with their shrieks and lamentations, but her father, 
enfolding her body in his arms, embraced it, and call- 
ing her by name again and again, ministered to her, 
as though she might recover from her wound, until 
in his arms, gasping and breathing out her life, she 
expired. This dreadful scene struck the Romans who 
were present with so much horror and compassion 
that they all cried out with one voice that they would 
rather die a thousand deaths in defence of their 

* TO ii<f>os after wdei deleted by Schnelle. 

479 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ei>^ reOvdvai rrepl rrjs iXevdepias t] roiavras 
v^peis VTTO tG)v rvpdvvoiv yevofxevas vepiopdv. 

3 -^v 8e Tis iv avrols HottXios OvaXepios, ivos rcou 
dfia Tarto) Trapayevofxevcvv els 'Pwfirjv Ha^ivcov 
OLTToyovos, SpaoTT^pios dvrjp /cat (f>p6vip,os. ovros 
€771 arparoTTeSov vtt avTwv Tre^Trerat rat r' 
dvSpl ri^s AovKp7]TLas rd avjx^e^T^Kora (f>pdaojv 
/cat avv eKeivco Trpd^ojv dTToaraoLV rod arparnoTi- 

4 Kov TrX'qdovs (xtto tcov rvpdwcov. dpri 8' avrip 
rds TTvXas i^eXrjXvOori avvavra /caret Sai/jLova 
TTapaytvofjuevos els rrjv ttoXlv 6 KoXXarlvos aTTO 
arparoTTeSov, rcov Karcaxi^KOTiov rrjv OLKiav avrov 
KaKwv ovSev eiSco? /cat avv avrd) AevKios 'lowtoj, 
w BpouTO? CTTCOvvfjiiov Tjv €L7) 8' dv i^epfxrjveu- 

6pL€VOS 6 BpOVTOS eiS" TTjV 'EiXXrjVtKTjV StdXcKTOV 

rjXidtos' VTTcp ov fiLKpd TTpoenrelv dvayKaZov, 
€776 iSt) tovtov dTTO(f>aLvov(n 'PcojjLaloL rrjs Kara- 
Xvcrecog rcov rvpdwcov alricorarov ycveadai, rls 
r r^v /cat d770 rivcov /cat 8ta rt rijs eTTCowp,ias 
ravr7]s erv^^v ovSev avr(p TrpocrrjKovcrrjs. 

LXVIII . To) at'8pt rovrcp TTarrjp fxev rjv Map/coj 
lovvLog, ivog rcov avv AiVeta rqv dnoiKiav ^ 
areiXavroiv drroyovos, iv rots iin(f)aveardroLg 
'Poj/xatcur dpidfxovfxevo? 8t' dper-qv, P''^Trjp 8e 
TapKvvia rod rrporepov ^aaiXecos TapKvviov dvyd- 
rrjp- avros Se rpo(j>rjs re /cat 77at8eias' tt^s 
€7nx(opLov Trdarjs fJCcreXa^e /cat <f)vaiv efj^e 77^6? 
2 ouSei' rcov KaXwv dvmrpdrrovaav . e77€t 8e 
TvXXiov dTTOKrelvas TapKvvios avv dAAot? dvSpdai 
TToXXols /cat dyaOoLS /cat rov e/ceiVoy rrarepa 
Sicxp't^orcLTO d(^av€L Oavdrio 8i' ouSei' p.kv dhlKr^pxi, 

^ Ti]v diToiKiav B : om. R. 
480 



BOOK IV. 67, 2-68, 2 

liberty than suffer such outrages to be committed by 
the tyrants. There was among them a certain man, 
named Pubhus Valerius, a descendant of one of those 
Sabines who came to Rome with Tatius, and a man of 
action and prudence. This man was sent by them to 
the camp both to acquaint the husband of Lucretia 
with what had happened and with his aid to bring 
about a revolt of the army from the tyrants. He was 
no sooner outside the gates than he chanced to meet 
Collatinus, who was coming to the city from the camp 
and knew nothing of the misfortunes that had be- 
fallen his household. And with him came Lucius 
Junius, surnamed Brutus, which, translated into the 
Greek language, would be elithios or " dullard." 
Concerning this man, since the Romans say that he 
was the prime mover in the expulsion of the tyrants, 
I must say a few words before continuing my account, 
to explain who he was and of what descent and for 
what reason he got this surname, which did not at 
all describe him. 

LXVIII. The^ father of Brutus was Marcus Junius, 
a descendant of one of the colonists in the company of 
Aeneas, and a man who for his merits was ranked 
among the most illustrious of the Romans ; his 
mother was Tarquinia, a daughter of the first King 
Tarquinius. He himself enjoyed the best upbringing 
and education that his country afforded and he had 
a nature not averse to any noble accomplishment. 
Tarquinius, after he had caused Tullius to be slain, 
put Junius' father also to death secretly, together 
with many other worthy men, not for any crime, but 



» For chaps. 68 f. c/. Livy i. 56, 5-12. 

481 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tov 8e ttXovtov Trpoaxd^ls els iTTuOvfJiiav, ov ck 
TraXaids re Kol TrpoyoviKTJs TrapaXa^cov evrvx^as 
iKeKTTjTO, Kal crvv avro) tov TTpecr^vrepov vlov 
evyeves n ^povrjpba hLa<j)aivovra /cat to prj 
Tifjuoprjaai tco OavaTCp tov TraTpos ovk av vtto- 
jxeivavTaj veos u)v 6 BpovTOS ert /cat KOfxiSfj ^orjOei- 
as avyyeviK-qs eprj^ios epyov eTTe-)(eip'q<je TTOifjaai, 
TidvTOiv ^povLpaoTaTOV , inCdeTov iavTOV /cara- 
^evaaaBai jxcopiav /cat Siepueivev dvavTa tov i^ 
€K€LVOV ;\;pofOv, €cos o5 ^ TOV €TTLTrjhei,ov eSo^e 
Kaipov ^X^^^> <f>vXdTTO}v TO TTpoaTToiripia ttjs 
dvoias, i^ ov TavTiqs eTu;^e ttj? i7Tcovvp,Las' tovt 
avTov ippvaaTo p,-r]Sev Seivov vtto tov Tvpdwov 
TTaOeiv TToXXcov /cat dyadcov dvBpcov aTToXXvixevoiV. 
LXIX. KaTa(f)pov7]aas ydp 6 TapKvvios ttjs 
SoKovar]? etvai Trepl avTOv, dAA* ov /car' dXriBeiav 
VTTapxpvaris , p^copias, d^eXopievos diravTa to. 
rraTpcpa, puKpd 8' etV tov /ca^' rjpiepav ^iov 
i7TL)(oprjya)v, cos TTOtSa 6p(f>av6v eTTiTpoTTCov In 
Seopbevov icjivXaTTev u^' davTcp hiaiTdadai re p,€Td 

Tcbv tSt'ojP' TTaiBcOV €7T€Tp€TT€V, OV StO. TljLtTJV, CO? 

eaKT^TTTeTO Trpos tovs TreXas, ota St) ovyyevi^s, 
dAA' iva yeXcuTa Trapexi) tols /xeipa/ciois' Xeycov r 
dv6r]Ta TToXXd Kal TrpdTTOtv op,oia rot? /car' dX-q- 
2 decav rjXi,dL0LS. Kal Br) Kal otc tw AeA^t/co) 
yuuneicp ;^/37]CTo/xeVous' dTreoTcXXe tovs Bvo tcov 
TTalSojv "AppovTa Kal Titov virkp tov XoipLov 
{KaT€(7Krn/j€ ydp tls ctti ttjs e/cctVoy ^acnXetas 
OVK elcodvia voaos els irapdivovs re /cat TratSa?, 
i50' T^? TToAAd Bie(j)ddpr] aco/xara, ;^aAe7ra»TdT7j 8e 
Kal BvaiaTOS els rds Kvovaas yvvalKas avTols 

1 €a>s o5 O : ews Jacoby. 
48a 



BOOK IV. 68, 2-69, 2 

because he was in possession of the inheritance of an 
ancient family enriched by the good fortune of his 
ancestors, the spoils of which Tarquinius coveted; 
and together with the father he slew the elder son, 
who showed indications of a noble spirit unlikely to 
permit the death of his father to go unavenged. 
Thereupon Brutus, being still a youth and entirely 
destitute of all assistance from his family, undertook 
to follow the most prudent of all courses, which was 
to feign a stupidity that was not his ; and he continued 
from that time to maintain this pretence of folly 
from which he acquired his surname, till he thought 
the proper timQ had come to throw it off. This saved 
him from suffering any harm at the hands of the tyrant 
at a time when many good men were perishing, 

LXIX. For Tarqmnius, despising in him this stu- 
pidity, which was only apparent and not real, took 
all his inheritance from him, and allowing him a small 
maintenance for his daily support, kept him under 
his own authority, as an orphan who still stood in 
need of guardians, and permitted him to live with his 
own sons, not by way of honouring him as a kinsman, 
which was the pretence he made to his friends, but 
in order that Brutus, by saying many stupid things and 
by acting the part of a real fool, might amuse the 
lads. And when he sent two of his sons, Arruns 
and Titus, to consult the Delphic oracle concerning 
the plague ^ (for some uncommon malady had in his 
reign descended upon both maids and boys, and many 
died of it, but it fell with the greatest severity 
and without hope of cure upon women with child, 

^ Livy states (i. 56, 4 f.) that the oracle was consulted 
concerning an omen that had appeared in the palace. 

483 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^p€(f)€aiv aTTOKreivovaa ras [xrjTepas iv rals 
yovaXg), rrjv t' alriav TTJg voaov yvcovai irapa rod 
deov /cat rrjv Xvolv ^ovXofMevos avveTTefn/je KOLKelvov 
a/ia ToZs fxeipaKLOis SeTjOelaiv, Iva KaraaKOiTrreiv 

3 re /cat Trepiv^pL^eLV exoiev. cas" Se Trapeyevrjdrjaav 
€7rt TO fjiavreiov ol veaviaKoi /cat rovs ^^prjafzovs 
eXa^ov VTTep ojv €7T€fji,(f)97)aav, dvadTJ[xaat Scop'qad- 
fievoi Tov deov /cat rov l^povrov ttoXXo. /cara- 
yeXdoavTes , on ^aKTrjptav ^vXiv'r]v dvedr]Ke rat 

AttoXXcovl (o Se SiaTp-qaas avTr]v oXrjv oianep 
avXov )(pvarjv pd^Sov evediqKev ovhevos eTnarafxe- 
vov), fxera rovr rjpcorcov tov Oeov tlvi Treirpcorai 
Tr]v Pojixalcov dp)(rjv TrapaXa^elv, 6 8e Oeos 
avToZs avelXe, tco TrpcoTco ttjv fjLrjTepa <j)iXrjaavTL. 

4 Ol iiev ovv veavioKoi tov xRV^H-^^ "^^ SidvoLav 
ayvorjcravTes avvedevTO rrpos dXX-qXovs dfxa (^LXrjaai 
TTjV fir^repa j3ouAd/xeroi Koivfj ttjv ^aaiXeiav 
Karacrp^eii/, o he Bpoyro? avvels o ^ovXerai 
SrjXovv 6 deos, eTreiSr] Td)(LaTa tyjs 'IraAias" 
eTTe^T], TTpocTKVifjas KaTe(f}iXrioe ttjv yrjv, Tavrrjv 
oio/xevos aTrdvTOJv dvOpwTTCjov elvat, [xrjTepa. to. 
fxev ovv TTpoyevofieva raJ dvSpl tovtu) TOiavr^ rjv. 

LXX. Tore 8' d)S rjKovae tov OvaXepiov tol 
avjjL^dvTa ttj AovKprjTia /cat ttjv dvaipeatv avrrjs 
hi-qyovpievov ra? x^^P^^ dvareivas els tov ovpavov 
elrrev " ^Q. Zeu /cat deol TrdvTes, oaoi tov 
avdpojTnvov eTTiaKOTrelTe ^lov, dpd y 6 Kaipos 
CKelvos yJKei vvv, ov eycb nepiixevcov TavTTjv tov 
Piov TTjv TrpoairoLTjULv e<f)vXaTTOV ; dpa TreTrpcoTai, 
'PajjLtai'oi? yrr' ep-ov /cat St' ep,e ttjs d(f)oprjTov 
2 Tvpavv{2>os dnaXXayrjvai ; " TavT^ elTTwv €X(jopei 

484 



BOOK IV. 69, 2-70, 2 

destroying the mothers in travail together with their 
infants), desiring to learn from the god both the cause 
of this distemper and the remedy for it, he sent 
Brutus along with the lads, at their request, so 
that they might have somebody to laugh at and 
abuse. When the youths had come to the oracle and 
had received answers concerning the matter upon 
which they were sent, they made their offerings to 
the god and laughed much at Brutus for offering a 
wooden staff to Apollo ; in reality he had secretly 
hollowed the whole length of it like a tube and 
inserted a rod of gold. After this they inquired of the 
god which of them was destined to succeed to the 
sovereignty of Rome ; and the god answered, " the 
one who should first kiss his mother." The youths, 
therefore, not knowing the meaning of the oracle, 
agreed together to kiss their mother at the same time, 
desiring to possess the kingship jointly; but Brutus, 
understanding what the god meant, as soon as he 
landed in Italy, stooped to the earth and kissed it, 
looking upon that as the common mother of all 
mankind. Such, then, were the earlier events in 
the life of this man. 

LXX. On ^ the occasion in question, when Brutus 
had heard Valerius relate all that had befallen 
Lucretia and describe her violent death, he Hfted up 
his hands to Heaven and said : " O Jupiter and all 
ye gods who keep watch over the lives of men, has 
that time now come in expectation of which I have 
been keeping up this pretence in my manner of life ? 
Has fate ordained that the Romans shall by me and 
through me be delivered from this intolerable 
tyranny ? " Having said this, he went in all haste 

1 For chaps. 70 f. c/. Livy i. 59, 1 f., 7. 

485 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kara GTTOvSrjv im Trjv olKtav afia rep KoAAartVo; 
re Kal OvaXepicp. cos 8' elarjXQov ^ o fxkv 
KoAAartro? IhoiV rrjv AovKprjriav iv ra> [xeacp 
KeLfjLevqv Kal rov rtarepa vepLKelp-evov avrfj p,iya 
dvoifico^as Kal TrepiXa^cov rr)v vcKpav /care^tAei 
Kal dveKaXelro Kal SieAeyero irpos avrrjv 
ojCTTrep t,cbaav, e^co rov <j)poveZv yeyovu)s vtto rod 

3 KaKov. TToXXd 8' avrov KaroXo<^vpoyi,ivov koX 
rov TTarpos iv {xepei Kol rrjs oLKias oXtjs KXavdjxip 
Kal dpTjvoLs Karexopievqs ^Xeijjas els avroiis 6 
Bpovros Xeyei,' " M.vpLovs e^ere Kaipovs, cS 
KovKprjrie /cat Y^oXXarZve Kal Trdvres vp.€LS ol r^ 
yvvaLKl TrpoarjKovres, iv ols avrrjv KXavcrere, 
wvl 8' oTTcos ^ ri[Jiojpi]crofjL€v avrfj aKOTTCOfiev 

4 rovro yap 6 TTapd)v Kaipos aTrairel." iSoKCL 
ravra eiKora ^ Xeyeiv, Kal Kadet,6p.€Voi Kad 
iavrovs rov t' oiKeriKov Kal drjriKov oyXov 
iKTToScbv (xeraarriaavres i^ovXevovro ri XP^ Trpdr- 
reiv. TTpaJros 8' o BpouTO? dp^dfievos vrrep 
iavrov Xiyeiv, on rrjv SoKovaav rols ttoXXoIs 
fiajplav ovK €l)(€V dXrjdLvi^v, dAA' iniderov, Kal 
rds alrias elvcbv 8i' as ro TrpoaTToirjpxi rovro 
VTr€fjL€LV€, Kal 8d^a? aTrdvrwv dvOpcoTTcov elvat 
<f)povLfX(x)raros , jxerd rovr* eVei^ev avrovs rrjv 
avrrjv yvcopirjv drravTas Xa^ovras i^eXdaai Tap/cu- 
VLov re Kal rovs rralSas iK rrjs rroXeaJS, voXXd /cat 
irraycoyd els rovro 8taAe;^^ets'. irrel 8e rrdvras 
elSev irrl rrjs avrrjs yvcofxrjs ovras, ov Xoyojv eefyq 
Betv ovS' VTToa)(€a€0)v, dAA' epyojv, eX ri rcov 
Beovrcov /xeAAei yevqaeaOai' dp^eiv he rovrcov 

6 avros €07^. ravr* elrrcov Kal Xa^div ro ^i<f>iBiov 
^ etoijXBov R : eloTjXBev B. 

486 



BOOK IV. 70, 2-5 

to the house together with CoUatinus and Valerius. 
When they came in CoUatinus, seeing Lucretia lying 
in the midst and her father embracing her, uttered a 
loud cry and, throwing his arms about his wife's 
body, kept kissing her and calling her name and 
talking to her as if she had been aUve ; for he was out 
of his mind by reason of his calamity. While he and 
her father were pouring forth their lamentations in 
turn and the whole house was filled with wailing and 
mourning, Brutus, looking at them, said: " You will 
have countless opportunities, Lucretius, CoUatinus, 
and all of you who are kinsmen of this woman, to 
bewail her fate ; but now let us consider how to 
avenge her, for that is what the present moment 
calls for." His advice seemed good ; and sitting down 
by themselves and ordering the slaves and atten- 
dants to withdraw, they consulted together what they 
ought to do. And first Brutus began to speak about 
himself, telling them that what was generally believed 
to be his stupidity was not real, but only assumed, 
and informing them of the reasons which had induced 
him to submit to this pretence ; whereupon they 
regarded him as the wisest of all men. Next he 
endeavoured to persuade them all to be of one mind 
in expelling both Tarquinius and his sons from Rome ; 
and he used many alluring arguments to this end. 
When he found they were all of the same mind, he 
told them that what was needed was neither words 
nor promises, but deeds, if any of the needful things 
were to be accomplished; and he declared that he 
himself would take the lead in such deeds. Having 
said this, he took the dagger with which Lucretia had 

^ oTTws Cobet : ws 0. 

' ravra eiKora A : to. et/fdra R. 

487 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o) SiexpiTjoaTO iavrriv rj yvvrj, /cat rep TTTcofJiart 
TTpoaeXdwv avrrjs (ert yap ckclto iv ^aveput 
deafia olkticttov), copuoae rov t "Apr) /cat rovs 
dXXovs deovs TTov oaov hvvarai Trpd^eiv inl 
KaraXvaeL Trjs TapKvvLcov Swacrreias, /cat ovt* 
avros StaAAayT^CTecr^at -npos rovs TVpavvovs ovre 
roLS SiaXXaTTOfievois eTnTpeifjetv, dAA' l)(6p6v 
rjyqaeadai rov firj ravra ^ovXopievov /cat p-^xpt 
davdrov rfj rvpavvlSt /cat rots avvaycovi^oixevoLS 
avrij hi€-)(dp^vaeiv. el 8e Trapa^airj rov opKov, 
roiavrrjv avrcv reXevrrjv rjpdaaro rov ^iov 
yeveadai /cat rot? avrov rraiaiv oias €rv)(€v rj yvvr]. 
LXXI. Tavr' eiTTcbv e/caAet /cat rovs dXXovs 
dvavras errl rov avrov opKOv ot 8' ovBev en 
evSoidaavreg dviaravro /cat ro $i(f>os Sexofievot 
Trap' dXXijXojv copbvvov. yevofxevcov be rojv opKco- 
fjiocricvv fierd rovr evdvg el,r]rovv ris 6 rrjs 
€7TLxeip'qcrea)9 earai rpoTTog. /cat o Bpouro? 
avroLS VTToriOerat rotaSe* " Wpihrov p,ev 8td 
<f>vXaKrjs rds vvXas excofjuev, ti^a fjirjBev rcov ev rfj 
TToXet XeyofjLevwv re /cat TrparrofievcDV Kara rrjs 
rvpawiSos ataOrjrai TapKVvios, nplv r) ra -nap 

2 r]p.ci}v evrpeirrj yeveodai. eneira Ko/xiaavres ro 
awfjLa rrjs yvvaiKOS cos eariv alpiari, Trec^vp/xevov 
els Trjv dyopdv /cat rrpodevres ev (f>avepa) avy- 
KaXajfjLev rov Srj^jiov els eKKXrjoiav. orav 8e avv- 
eXOrj /cat TrX-qdovarav 'ibojpLev rrjv ayopdv, npoeXdoJV 
AovKpi^rios re /cat KoAAartt'os' airohvpaadcoaav 
rds eavrcov rvx^s diravra rd yevofieva cf)pdoavres . 

3 erreira rcov dXXcov eKaaros Trapitiiv Karrjyopeirco 
rrjs rvpavvihos /cat rovs -noXiras evl rrjv eXev- 
depiav TTapaKaXeirco. ear at Se Trdai 'Pcofiaiois 



BOOK IV. 70, 5-71, 3 

slain herself, and going to the body (for it still lay in 
view, a most piteous spectacle), he swore by Mars and 
all the other gods that he would do everything in his 
power to overthrow the dominion of the Tarquinii 
and that he would neither be reconciled to the tyrants 
himself nor tolerate any who should be reconciled to 
them, but would look upon every man who thought 
otherwise as an enemy and till his death would 
pursue with unrelenting hatred both the tyranny and 
its abettors ; and if he should violate his oath, he 
prayed that he and his children might meet with the 
same end as Lucretia. 

LXXI. Having said this, he called upon all the rest 
also to take the same oath; and they, no longer 
hesitating, rose up, and receiving the dagger from 
one another, swore. After they had taken the oath 
they at once considered in what manner they should 
go about their undertaking. And Brutus advised 
them as follows : " First, let us keep the gates under 
guard, so that Tarquinius may have no intelligence 
of what is being said and done in the city against the 
tyranny till everything on our side is in readiness. 
After that, let us carry the body of this woman, 
stained as it is with blood, into the Forum, and exposing 
it to the pubUc view, call an assembly of the people. 
When they are assembled and we see the Forum 
crowded, let Lucretius and Collatinus come forward 
and bewail their misfortunes, after first relating 
everything that has happened. Next, let each of the 
others come forward, inveigh against the tyranny, 
and summon the citizens to Uberty. It will be what 

489 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fcar' ivxriv, €av iBcoatv rjiids roifs TrarpiKLovs 
apxovras rrjg iXevdepias' TroAAa yap /cat Seiva 
7T€7r6v6aatv vtto rod rvpdvvov /cat fiLKpas d<f)opp.'fjs 
Seovrai. orav 8e Xd^cofxev ro nXfjOos (hpixrjfxevov 
KaraXvaai rrjv fjuovapxiav, ifjrj(f)6v r avrols 
avaSajjjiev vnep rov jLtT^/cert 'Pcofiaicov TapKvviov 
dp^eiv ^ Kal TO rrepl tovtcdv Sdy/xa rrpos roiis 

4 em arparoTTeSov SiaTrefupdofieda ev rd)(eL. /cat 
yap OL ra oirXa exovres, et fxdOoiev on rd ev rfj 
TToAet Trdvra rols Tvpdwois icrrlv dXXorpia, 
TTpodvpLOL TTepl TTjv T-fjs TTarpiSos iXcvdepCav 
yevT^aovrai ovre Soipeats' ert Karexdixevoi <hs 
TTporepov ovre rds v^peis rcov TapKvviov TraiScoi' 

5 re /cat KoXaKcov ^epeiv Sym/xerot." ravra Xe^av- 
ros avrov, 7TapaXa^u)V rov Xoyov OvaXepios, " Ta 
fiev dXXa," ecfi-qaev, " opdcbs iTnXoyil,eaQai p,oL 
So/cet?, 'lowte- TTcpl 8e rijs eKKXriaias ert ^ovXo- 
fiai fjuadeXv, ris 6 KaXeaojv earai avrrjv Kara 
vofJLOvs Kal rrjV iJji](f)ov dvaScoacov Tat? (f>pdrpais. 
apxovri yap aTToBeBorai rovro Trpdrreiv riixajv 

6 oe ovoeLS ovoepnav apx'f]v exei. o o vtto- 
rvxdov,^ " 'Eyc6," (f)rjaiv, " c5 OvaXepie. rcov yap 
KcXepLiov dpxoiv elfxi, Kal diTohehorai fioi Kara 
vofjLovs iKKXrjGLav, ore * ^ouAot/x.ijt', crvyKaXeiv. 
eocoKe oe fxoi rrjv dpx^v ravrrjv 6 rvpavvos 
ixeyiarrjv ovaav co? rjXidLw Kal ovr* elaofxevcp rrjv 
BvvafiLv avrrjs ovr , el yvolr^v, ;^p7jCTo/LteVa)- /cat 
rov Kara rov rvpdwov Xoyov irpojros eya> Sta- 
drjoopiai" 

LXXII. *Q.s Se rovr rJKovaav aTravres eTT^ve- 

1 apxiiv Hertloin. * 8^ Sylburg : re 0. 

490 



BOOK IV. 71, 3-72, 1 

all Romans have devoutly wished if they see us, the 
patricians, making the first move on behalf of liberty. 
For they have suffered many dreadful wrongs at the 
hands of the tyrant and need but sUght encourage- 
ment. And when we find the people eager to over- 
throw the monarchy, let us give them an opportunity 
to vote that Tarquinius shall no longer rule over the 
Romans, and let us send their decree to this effect 
to the soldiers in the camp in all haste. For when 
those who have arms in their hands hear that the 
whole city is alienated from the tyrant they will 
become zealous for the liberty of their country and 
will no longer, as hitherto, be restrained by bribes or 
able to bear the insolent acts of the sons and flatterers 
of Tarquinius." After he had spoken thus, Valerius 
took up the discussion and said : "In other respects 
you seem to me to reason well, Junius; but con- 
cerning the assembly of the people, I wish to know 
further who is to summon it according to law and 
propose the vote to the curiae. For this is the business 
of a magistrate and none of us holds a magistracy." 
To this Brutus answered : " I will, Valerius ; for I 
am commander of the celeres and I have the power 
by law of calling an assembly of the people when I 
please.^ The tyrant gave me this most important 
magistracy in the belief that I was a fool and either 
would not be aware of the power attaching to it or, 
if I did recognize it, would not use it. And I 
myself will deliver the first speech against the 
tyrant." 

LXXII. Upon hearing this they all applauded him 

1 Cf. ii. 13 and Livy i. 59, 7. 

' VTT0TV)(U)V B : i577oAa)3a»i' R. * 6tt6t€ Cobet, 

491 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

adv re /cat cos o.7t6 koXtjs VTvoBeaeois dp^dfxevov 
Kal vo[xt[j.ov rd Xonrd Xeyeiv avrov rj^iovv, 
KaKelvos eiTrev " ETreiSii) ravra ovrco Trpdrreiv 
vyitv So/cet, aKOTTconeda TrdXiv ris rj ^ rrjv ttoXlv 
imrpoTTevaovaa dpxrj yevqaerai fxerd rrjv Kard- 
XvcTLv T(x)v ^aaiXecov Kal vtto rivos dTTohef)(Qeiaa 
dvhpos, KOL en rrporepov, octtls ecrrat TToXireLas 
Koa/jLos ov dTTaXXarTOjjievot rov rvpdwov Karaary]- 
aopueda. ^e^ovXevadai yap drravTa ^eXriov Txplv 
eTTLxeipeZv €pycp TTyAt/cojSe, /cat firjSev dve^eraarov 
a<f>eladai, fxrjhk dirpo^ovXevrov . dTro(f>aLviadoj Srj 

2 TTepi Tovrcov e/cacrros' v/xcov d ij>poveiy fjuerd 
TOVT eX4.-)(driaav ttoXXoX koi Trapd ttoXXojv Xoyot. 
iSoKci Be Tot's fxev ^acriXiKriv avdis KaraarijaacrOai 
TToXireiav , e^apid/jiovfievoLS daa rrjv ttoXiv eTTOL-qaav 
dyadd Trdvres ol Trporepoi ^aaiXels' rols 8e 
firjKeri, TTOielv €(f)' ivl Bwdarrj rd Koivd, rds 
rvpavvLKds Ste^Lovai TrapavofjiLas at? aAAot re 
TToXXol Kara rcbv ISicov iroXirayv exp-qaavro /cat 
TapKvvios reXevTCov, dXXd to crvveSpiov rijs 
^ovXrjs dTrdvTOJv aTToSel^at. Kvpiov d)S ev ttoXXoIs 

3 TcDr 'EAAt^i'iScoi' TToAecDv ol he tovtcov fxev 
ovherepav TrporjpovvTO rd)v TToXiTeicov, SrjfxoKparLav 
he avve^ovXevov woTtep ^Ad'qmjcn Karaarrjaai, rds 
v^peis Kal rds nXeove^ias rcHv oXiyoiv TTpo(f>ep6{X€- 
voL /cat rds arrdaets rds yivofxevas rols raiTeivois 
rrpos rovs virepexovras, iXevdepa re TToXei rr)v 
LaovopLiav aTTO(f)aivovres dacfyaXeardrriv ovaav Kal 
TTpe7rcoheardrr)v rdjv TToXireicjv . 

LXXIII. XaAeTT'^s" he Kal hvoKpirov rijs atpe- 
aecDS aTraat (f)aivoiJ.€inr)s hid rds rrapaKoXov- 

^ -fj added by Reiske. 
492 



BOOK IV. 72, 1-73, 1 

for beginning with an honourable and lawful principle, 
and they asked him to tell the rest of his plans. 
And he continued : " Since you have resolved to 
follow this course, let us further consider what magis- 
tracy shall govern the commonwealth after the ex- 
pulsion of the kings, and by what man it shall be 
created, and, even before that, what form of govern- 
ment we shall establish as we get rid of the tyrant. 
For it is better to have considered everything before 
attempting so important an undertaking and to have 
left nothing unexamined or unconsidered. Let each 
one of you, accordingly, declare his opinion con- 
cerning these matters." After this many speeches 
were made by many different men. Some were of 
the opinion that they ought to establish a monarchical 
government again, and they recounted the great 
benefits the state had received from all the former 
kings. Others believed that they ought no longer 
to entrust the government to a single ruler, and they 
enumerated the tyrannical excesses which many 
other kings and Tarquinius, last of all, had committed 
against their own people ; but they thought they 
ought to make the senate supreme in all matters, 
according to the practice of many Greek cities. 
And still others liked neither of these forms of 
government, but advised them to establish a de- 
mocracy like that at Athens ; they pointed to the 
insolence and avarice of the few and to the seditions 
usually stirred up by the lower classes against their 
supei-iors, and they declared that for a free common- 
wealth the equahty of the citizens was of all forms of 
government the safest and the most becoming. 

LXXIII. The choice appearing to all of them 
difficult and hard to decide upon by reason of the 

493 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

dovaas eKdarr) rtov ttoXitcliov KaKias TeXevraios 
irapaXa^oiv rov Xoyov 6 Bpovros elTrev " 'Eya> 
he, c5 AovKp'qrLe Kal KoAAartre Kal Trdvres vfjicls 
ot irapovres dvSpes dyadol koI ef dyadcov, 
Katvrjv fjiev ovhepiiav oto/xai heiv rjixds Kadiaraadat 
TToXireiav Kara to rtapov o re yap Kaipos, els ov 
avvqyixeOa vtto tcov TTpayfxdTOJV, ^pa^vs, iv <S 
fiedapixocraaOaL ttoXccos Koaybov ov pdhiov, rj re 
TTelpa rrjs fxera^oXrjs , Kav rd KpaTiara TV)(co[Jt,ev 
TTepl avTTJs ^ovXevadfievoL, a(f)aXepd Kal ovk 
aKLvSvvos, e^ecrrat 6^ rjpZv varepov orav a7T- 
aXXaycbpiev rrjs rvpawiSos [xerd rrXeLovos e^ovaias 
Kal Kard a-)(oX7]v ^oyAeuo/xevois" Tr]v KpetTTOva 
TToXtreiav dvrl ttjs x^^P^^^^ eXeadai, el brj ris 
dpa eari Kpeirrajv •^j 'PcoixvXos re koI Uo/xttlXlos 
Kal TrdvTes ot peer eKeivovs ^aaiXels Karaarrjad- 
fievoi rrapehoaav "qpuv, e^ ■^s pLeydXrj Kal evhalfxayv 
Kal TToXXwv dpxovaa dvdpwTTCOv t) ttoXis rjfjidjv 

2 SiereXeaev. a 8e TrapaKoXovdelv eloyde rals jxov- 
apxiais X'^^^'"'^' ^^ ^^ ^^^ TvpawiKTjv (hp^oTqra 
TTepdaravrai Kal 8i' a Svax^paivovatv aTrai^ej 
avrds, ravd* vplv eTravopdcoaaadai re vvv ^ Kai 
tva /x-T^S' i^ varepov yevrjrai irore <f}vXd^aadai 

3 Trapaivd). riva 8' eurl ravra; TrpdJrov /xev 
€7761817 rd ovopuara rojv irpayp-droyv 01 ttoXXoi 
OKOTTOvai Kal (XTTO rovroiv t] irpoaievrai riva rdiv 
pXa^epd)v ■^ (fievyovai rdJv (hcfteXlpioiv , ev of? koI 
rr]v pLovapxlcv elvai avp-^e^rjKe, pueradeadai rov- 
vopia rrjs TToXireias vpuv Tiapaivd) Kal rovs 
fieXXovras e^eiv rrjv dTravrcxiv e^ovaiav pi'qre 
^aaiXeis en pL-^re piovdpxovs KaXelv, oAAa pcerpio)' 

^ T£ VVV Sylburg : re koi vvv 0, Jacoby, r« rd vvv Reiake. 

494 



BOOK IV. 73, 1-3 

evils attendant upon each form of government, 
Brutus took up the discussion as the final speaker 
and said: " It is my opinion, Lucretius, Collatinus, 
and all of you here present, good men yourselves 
and descended from good men, that we ought not 
in the present situation to establish any new 
form of government. For the time to which we 
are limited by the circumstances is short, so that 
it is not easy to reform the constitution of 
the state, and the very attempt to change it, 
even though we should happen to be guided 
by the very best counsels, is precarious and not 
without danger. And besides, it will be possible 
later, when we are rid of the tyranny, to deliberate 
with greater freedom and at leisure and thus choose 
a better form of government in place of a poorer 
one — if, indeed, there is any constitution better than 
the one which Romulus, Pompilius and all the suc- 
ceeding kings instituted and handed down to us, by 
means of which our commonwealth has continued to 
be great and prosperous and to rule over many 
subjects. But as for the evils which generally attend 
monarchies and because of which they degenerate 
into a tyrannical cruelty and are abhorred by all 
mankind, I advise you to correct these now and at the 
same time to take precautions that they shall never 
again occur hereafter. And what are these evils? 
In the first place, since most people look at the names 
of things and, influenced by them, either admit 
some that are hurtful or shrink from others that are 
useful, of which monarchy happens to be one, I advise 
you to change the name of the government and no 
longer to call those who shall have the supreme 
power either kings or monarchs, but to give them a 

495 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rdpav TLva /cat (f)iXavdpa}7TOTepav en avrols 
4 diadai 7Tpoai)yopiav. eneLra fxr) iroielv fxiav ^ 
yvwpirjv anavTOiv Kvpiav, aAAct hvaiv eTTLTpcTreiv 
avSpdcTL TY]v ^aatXiKrjv apx^^v, cog AaKeSaijxovLOVs 
TTwddvofiaL TTOieiv cttl TroAAa? TJ^r) yeveds /cat 8ia 
rovTO TO cr;^7y/xa rov iroXirevp.aTOS arravTcov 
/xaAtcrra rwv 'KXXt^vcov evvopieZadai re /cat euSat- 
fjLOvelv rJTTOV yap v^piaral /cat ^apels eaovrai 
hLaipedetarjs rrjs i^ovaias S^X?? '^'^^ "^^ avrrjv 
exovTOS la^yv eKarepov atSoj? t' uAAt^Acuv' /cat 
KcoXvoLs Tov Kad' rjBovTjv i,rjv ^iXoripila re -npos 
dperijs SoK-qaiv e/c ravrrjs yivoiT dv eKdarcp ^ 
TTJg laoTLixov BvvaoTcias /AaAtara. 

LXXIV. " Toil' T€ rrapaarjixoiv d rols ^aaiXev- 
aw aTToSeSoTat TToX\a)v ovrcov, el riva XvTrrjpds 
oi/fet? /cat eTTi(j)d6vovs rols ttoXXols Trapex^raL, ra 
fiev [xeLcbaai, rd 8' d<j)€.Xelv rjiJids oto/itat Setr — ra 
CT/c^TTTpa rayrt Xeyco /cat tows' xP^^^^^ arecfydvovs 
/cat ra? dXovpyels /cat XP^^^^IP'^^^ dpLirexdvas — 
-nXriv et /xt) Kara Kaipovs rivas iopraLOVs /cat ev 
TTOjjiTTals dpidix^cov, ore avrd rifirjs decov ev€Ka 
X-qifjovrai,- Xurr-qaei, ydp ovheva^ idv yevrjraL ^ 
OTrdvLa' dpovov Se rot? dvSpdatv eXecj^avriuov, ev 
a* Kade^ojxevoL St/caaouat, Kat XevKrjv eadrjra Trepi- 
TT6p(f)vpov Kol Toifs TTporjyovfJievovs ev rats e^oSoig 
2 ScuSe/ca ireXeKeig KaraXirreiv . en rrpos rovrois, 
o Tfdvrojv olop-ai rcbv elp-qixevojv XPV^'-I^^'''^'^^^ 
eaeadai /cat rov pur] iroXXd e^ap^aprdveiv rovs 
TrapaXrjiftofxevovs rr}v dpxr)v alrnorarov, p,r] Std 

^ fuav BC : ora. R. * eKarefx^ Readier. 

* Reiske : ovhkv 0. 

* Kiessling : yivoivrai O. 

496 



BOOK IV. 73, 3-74, 2 

more modest and humane title. In the next place, 
I advise you not to make one man's judgment the 
supreme authority over all, but to entrust the royal 
power to two men, as I am informed the Lacedae- 
monians have been doing now for many generations, 
in consequence of which form of government they are 
said to be the best governed and the most prosperous 
people among the Greeks. For the rulers will be 
less arrogant and vexatious when the power is divided 
between two and each has the same authority; 
moreover, mutual respect, the ability of each to 
prevent the other from living as suits his pleasure, 
and a rivalry between them for the attainment of a 
reputation for virtue would be most likely to result 
from such equality of power and honour, 

LXXIV. " And inasmuch as the insignia which 
have been granted to the kings are numerous, I 
believe that if any of these are grievous and invidious 
in the eyes of the multitude we ought to modify 
some of them and abolish others — I mean these 
sceptres and golden crowns, the purple and gold- 
embroidered robes — unless it be upon certain festal 
occasions and in triumphal processions, when the 
rulers will assume them in honour of the gods ; for 
they will offend no one if they are seldom used. But 
I think we ought to leave to the men the ivory chair, 
in which they will sit in judgment, and also the white 
robe bordered with purple, together with the twelve 
axes to be carried before them when they appear in 
public. There is one thing more which in my opinion 
will be of greater advantage than all that I have 
mentioned and the most effectual means of preventing 
those who shall receive this magistracy from com- 
mitting many errors, and that is, not to permit 

497 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

j8tou Tovs avTOvs idv apx^iv ^ {xoiXeTTrj yap arraaiv 
dopiaros o-p^r) Kal iirfhepiiav i^eraaiv StSoucra 
ribv TTparTopiivcjv, i^ ■^g (^uerai rvpawis), aAA' 
els eviavaiov xpovov, cos Trap" ^Ad-qvaiois yiverai, 

3 TO Kparos rrjs o.p)(rjg crvvdyew. to yap iv [lepcL 
Tov avTov dp)(€Lv re /cat apx^adat Kal irpo tov Sia- 
<l)6aprjvai ttjv Bidvoiav d(f>iaTaadai ttjs e^ovaias 
CTuarcAAet Tag avddheis (f)vaeLs koX ovk ia fiedv- 
aKeaOai rat? i^ovcrtais Ta rjOr). Tav9^ rjfxtv 
KaTaaTTjaafJievois VTrdp^ei Ta jxkv dyadd Kaprrov- 
adai TTJs PaaiXiKTJs iroXiTeias , tCSv 8e TrapaKoXov- 

4 dovvTOJV avTTJ KaKcbv dTTTiXXd^dai. Iva 8e koX 
Tovvofia TTJs ^aaLXiKrjs i^ovaias TraTpiov VTrdp^ov 
rjijuv Kat critv oloyvols alaiois decov eTTiKvpojadvTOiv 
TrapeXrjXvOog els ttjv ttoXiv avTrjs eveKa ttjs oaias 
^vXdTTTjTai, lepcov dTToSeiKvvada) tls del ^aaiXevs, 
6 Trjv TLfi-^v TavTTjv e^cov 8id ^iov, Trdarjs diro- 
XeXufxevos 7ToXep,LK7Js Kal ttoXltlktjs ^ daxoXtas, ev 
TOVTO fxovov e^iov epyov, uiairep 6 ^AO-qvrjai ^ jSacri- 
Xevs, Tr]v rjyep.oviav tcov Ovt^ttoXlcjov, dXXo 8' ovSev. 

LXXV. " "Ot" Se TpoTTOV eoTai tovtcov eKaoTov, 
dKovaari p-ov avvd^o) fxev eyd> ttjv eKKX-qalav, 
oicjTTep €(f>rjv, eTTeiSrj crvyK€X(Jopr]TaL fiot /caret 
vofxov, Kal yycojji'qv elarjyrjaofiaL- (f>evyeLv TapKvviov 
a/xa TOLs TTaiat Kal tt] yvvaiKl noXecos re Kal 
XO)pas TTJs 'VcDpaioiv elpyopievovs tov del xpovou 
Kal yevos to e^ avTiov otov 8' €7n,^r](f)L(TOj(n Tr]v 

^ ddv dpxftv Reiske : aiev dpxeiv A, ivdpxeiv B. 
* Kal noXLTiKrjs added by Sintenis. 
' 'AOiqvrjai added by Reiske. 

^ The rex sacrorum, sometimes styled rex aacrificulus. 
498 



BOOK IV. 74, 2-75, 1 

the same persons to hold office for hfe (for a magis- 
tracy unlimited in time and not obliged to give any 
account of its actions is grievous to all and productive 
of tyranny), but to limit the power of the magistracy 
to a year, as the Athenians do. For this principle, by 
which the same person both rules and is ruled in 
turn and surrenders his authority before his mind has 
been corrupted, restrains arrogant dispositions and 
does not permit men's natures to grow intoxicated 
with power. If we establish these regulations we 
shall be able to enjoy all the benefits that flow from 
monarchy and at the same time to be rid of the evils 
that attend it. But to the end that the name, too, 
of the kingly power, which is traditional with us and 
made its way into oiu- commonwealth with favourable 
auguries that manifested the approbation of the gods, 
may be preserved for form's sake, let there always be 
appointed a king of sacred rites, ^ who shall enjoy 
this honour for life exempt from all military and 
civil duties and, like the "king" at Athens,^ exer- 
cising this single function, the superintendence of 
the sacrifices, and no other. 

LXXV. " In what manner each of these measures 
shall be effected I will now tell you. I will summon 
the assembly, as I said, since this power is accorded 
me by law, and will propose this resolution: That 
Tarquinius be banished with his wife and children, 
and that they and their posterity as well be forever 
debarred both from the city and from the Roman 
territory. After the citizens have passed this vote 

* This, the reading of Reiske (see critical note), seems 
necessary to give an intelligible meaning to the explanatory 
clause. The second of the nine archons at Athens was called 
jSoatAev's, but his term of office was limited to a single year. 

499 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yvwjJLrjv OL TToXirai, SrjXiLaag avrols rjv Siavoovfieda 
Karaar'qcFaadai TToXirelav fiecrofSaaiXda cXovfJuai 
Tov aTToSel^ovra rovs TrapaXrjil)o[X€vovs ra Koiva, 
/cat avTOs aTToO-qaofxai, rrjv rcov KeXepiajv dp^'^^v- 

2 o 8e Karaaradeis utt' e/xou [leao^acnXevs crvv- 
ayaycov rrjv Xox^tiv eKKXr^alav ovofxaadroi re 
rovs fieXXovras e^eiv rrjv Iviavaiov riyepLOviav Kal 
tfjrj(f)ov VTrep avrojv roZs TToXiraig Sdroc edv 8e 
Tols TrXetoai ^o^rj Xoxols Kvpiav elvai rrjv rcov 
avBpojv atpecnv Kal rd fjuavrevixara yevrjTai Trepl 
avTOJv KaXa, rovs TreXeKcis ovroi irapaXa^ovres 
Kai ra Aoitto. rrjs ^a(Ti,XiKrjs i^ovatas avp,^oXa 
TTparrermaav ottojs eXevdepav oiKrjaopLev rrjv 
irarpiha Kal fxrjKeri, KadoSov e^ovcrLv elg avrr]v 
TapKvvLOL- TTeipdaovrai ydp, ev tare, Kal Treidol 
Kai jSta Kal SoAoj /cat Travrl dXXo) rporrcp TrapeXdelv 
TrdXtv 6771 7-17^ hvvaareiav, edv p^rj <j)vXarr(Lp.€Oa 
avrovs. 

3 " TauTi pikv ovv iari rd pbiyiara /cat Kvpicorara 
d>v vp.Lv €v ro) TTapovrt, XeyeLV €xco Kal Trapaivexv 
ra 8e /caret p.epos ttoAAo, ovra Kal ov paSta vvv 8t* 
aKpL^eias i^eraadrjuai {avvrjyp,eda ydp els Kaipov 
o^vv) 677 avrols o'iop.at helv TTOLrjcrai roXs rrapa- 

4 Xrjifjop.evoLS rrjV dp)(i]u. aKorreladaL pLevroi (firipl 
Xprj^ai rovs dvSpas diravra /zero, rov avvehpiov 
rrjs ^ovXrjs, oja-nep ol ^aaiXels €7tolovv, Kal p.rjSev 
TTpdrreiv 8t;;^a vpidju, Kal rd So^avra rfj ^ovXfj 
<j>epei.v els rov Brjpiov, (Ls rots npoyovois rjpicbv ^ 
TTOielv eOos rjV, p,-qSev6s d(f>aLpovp.evovs avrov atv 
€v rols TTporepov KaipoZs Kvpios rjv. ovra> ydp 
avrols aa(f)aXearara Kal KaXXiara e^et rd rrjs 
dpxfjs" 

500 



BOOK IV. 75, 1-4 

I will explain to them the form of government we 
propose to establish ; next, I will choose an interrex 
to appoint the magistrates who are to take over the 
administration of public affairs, and I will then resign 
the command of the celeres. Let the interrex appointed 
by me call together the centuriate assembly, and 
having nominated the persons who are to hold the 
annual magistracy, let him permit the citizens to 
vote upon them ; and if the majority of the centuries 
are in favour of ratifying his choice of men and 
the auguries concerning them are favourable, let 
these men assume the axes and the other insignia of 
royalty and see to it that our country shall enjoy 
its liberty and that the Tarquinii shall nevermore 
return. For they will endeavour, be assured, by 
persuasion, violence, fraud and every other means 
to get back into power unless we are upon our guard 
against them. 

" These are the most important and essential 
measures that I have to propose to you at present and 
to advise you to adopt. As for the details, which 
are many and not easy to examine with precision at 
the present time (for we are brought to an acute 
crisis), I think we ought to leave them to the men 
themselves who are to take over the magistracy. 
But I do say that these magistrates ought to consult 
with the senate in everything, as the kings formerly 
did, and to do nothing without your advice, and that 
they ought to lay before the people the decrees of the 
senate, according to the practice of our ancestors, 
depriving them of none of the privileges which they 
possessed in earlier times. For thus their magis- 
tracy will be most secure and most excellent." 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

LXXVI. TavT7]V OLTToheL^aaivov ttiv yvcoar)v 
yovviov tipovTov Travres eTrfjueaav Kai avriKa 
TrepL rcov 7TapaXr]ipofjievojv ras rjyepLOvias avSpcov 
^ovXevofxevoi /xeoro^ao-iAea /xev CKpivav anoSei^dTJ- 
vaL ^TTopiov AovKprjTiov TOP TTarepa rrjs Sia)(pT]- 
aafiemjs eavT-qv utt' CKelvov 8e tovs e^ovras ttjv rcov 
^aaiXeojv i^ovaiav ovoixaadrjvai AevKiov ^lovviov 
^povTOV /cat AevKLov TapKvviov KoAAarti/oi/. 
I Tovs 8' ap)(ovras rovTovs €Ta|av KaXeladai /caret 
•7-17^ iavTcov StaAe/CTOi/ KcovaovXas' ^ rovro fxed- 
epjjLTjveuoixevov els r-qv 'EAAaSa yXaJxrav rovvopia 
avp.^ovXovs rj Trpo^ovXovs Swarai hrjXovv kcovol- 
Ata yap ol 'Pco/iatot ra? crvp^^ovXas KoXovaiv 
VTTaroi o v(f> EAAt^i^cuv dva xpovov <I}vop,da9'qa'av 
cttI rod fxeyedovs rrjs i^ovacas, art Trdvrcou r 
ap)^ovai /cat rrjv auiorarco ■)(^cx)pav e^oyat. to ydp 
VTrepe^ov /cat aKpov virarov eKaXovv ol TraAatot. 

TaiJra ^ovXevadpLevoi re /cat Karaarr]crdp,evoL 
/cat rovs deovs evxoZs Xiravevaavres avXXa^eaOai 
a(f)Latv oaioiv Kal SiKalcov epycov e^te/xeVot? 
e^rjecrav els rrjv dyopdv. rjKoXov6ovv 8' avrols ol 
depdrrovres cttl kXIvtjs p-eXacriv dpL(j)Lois icrrpcop-eirqs 
Kopiit,ovres ddepdirevrov re /cat Tre(f>vpp,evqv aLp,art 
rrjv veKpdv rjv -npo rod ^ovXevr-qplov redrjvat. 
KeXevaavres viprjX-qv /cat 7TepL(f)avr] avveKdXovv rov 
hrjpiov els eKKXr]Giav. oxXov 8e avvaxdevros ov 
p-ovov rov Kar dyopdv ror ovros, dAAa /cat rov 
Kara rrjv ttoXlv oXnv {hie^-neaav ydp ol K-npvKes 
ta rojv arevojTTCOv rov orjp.ov eis rqv ayopav 
KaXovvres), avapds o Bpovros evda rols cruvdyovai 

* KU>vaovXas (or KcovaoiXas) Portus, KOJvaovXas B : KwvmXiovs 
R. 

5M^ 



BOOK IV. 76, 1-4 

LXXVI. After Juniiis Brutus had delivered this 
opinion they all approved it, and straightway con- 
sulting about the persons who were to take over the 
magistracies, they decided that Spurius Lucretius, 
the father of the woman who had killed herself, 
should be appointed interrex, and that Lucius Junius 
Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus should be 
nominated by him to exercise the power of the kings. 
And they ordered that these magistrates should be 
called in their language consules ; this, translated into 
the Greek language, may signify symbouloi ("coun- 
sellors ") or probouloi (" pre-counsellors "), for the 
Romans call our symboulai (" counsels") consilia. But 
in the course of time they came to be called by 
the Greeks kypatoi ("supreme") from the greatness 
of their power, because they command all the citizens 
and have the highest rank; for the ancients called 
that which was outstanding and superlative hypaton. 

Having discussed and settled these matters, they 
besought the gods to assist them in the pursuit of 
their holy and just aims, and then went to the Forum.^ 
They were followed by their slaves, who carried upon a 
bier spread with black cloth the body of Lucretia, un- 
prepared for burial and stained with blood ; and direct- 
ing them to place it in a high and conspicuous position 
before the senate-house, they called an assembly of 
the people. When a crowd had gathered, not only 
of those who were in the Forum at the time but also 
of those who came from all parts of the city (for the 
heralds had gone through all the streets to summon 
the people thither), Brutus ascended the tribunal 

^ Cf. Livy (i. 69, 3-7), who describes scenes in the Forum 
at Collatia as well as in the Roman Forum. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO.? e/c/cAi^ata? hr^fjbrjyopeLV eOos rjv, koI roiig 
rrarpLKLovs 7rapaarr]aa}ievos eXe^e rotaSe* 

LXXVII. " 'Yirep avayKaicov KOi kolvcov ^ 
TTpayfidrwv rovs Xoyovs fieXXcvv Trpos vfxds 
TToieladat,, dvBpes TToAtrai, Trepl ifxavrov vpcoTOV 
oXlya ^ovXo [xat TTpoenreiv' tacos yap riaiv vfjucov, 
fjidXXov 8' (XKpi^aJg otS' on ttoXXols, rerapd^^dai 
So^o) rrjv StdvoLav, dvrip ov (f)pev'qprjg Trepl rcbv 
jjicyiarcDv €Tn)(€Lpa)v Xiyeiv, S K-qSejxovcov ws ^ 

2 ovx vyiaivovrL Set. iWe 817 ttjv kolvtjv VTroXr^ifiiv, 
rjv Trepl ifxov TravTe? et;!(eT€ <x)s i^At^t'ou, iftevSij 
yevojjLevrjv /cat oi);^ vtt dXXov rivog KaraaKeva- 
adelcrav, dXX' vtt ifXov. 6 8' dvayKaaag fie fX'J^d* 
<1>S Tj (fivaig rj^iov [jltJO^ cu? TJpjJiOTre jxol t,riv, dAA' 
fo? TapKvvicp r rjv ^ovXopievcp KafjLol avvoiaeiv 

3 eho^ev, 6 Trepl rrj^ ^^XV^ (f>6^og rjv. Trarepa yap 
fiov TapKvvLOs OLTTOKreivas ajxa rw TrapaXa^eZv 
Trjv dp)cqv, iva rrjv ovoLav avrou Karda)(OL ttoXXtjp 
acfiohpa ovoav, /cat dheX(j)ov irpeo^vrepov, o? 
efxeXXe rifxcop-^aeLv rep davdrcp rov Trarpos, el firj 
yevoLTO eKTTohcLv, d<j)aveZ davdrcp hia-x^prjadpLevos , 
ouS' epuov Steads' tjv <j)eLa6pLevog ipt^jjiov rcov 
dvayKaiordrojv yeyovoros, el pirj rrjv eTriderov 

4 iaKrjilidfxrjv [xajpiav. rovro fie ro TrXda-fia Tnarev- 
6ev VTTO rod rvpavvov fjnr] ravra Tradelv eKCLVOLS 
eppvaaro /cat p-^XP^ '^'^^ Trapovros hiaaeaiOKe 
Xpovov vvv 8 avro rrpcbrov, rjKei yap 6 Kaipos ov 
evxopLrjv re /cat rrpoaehexopLrjv, Trep-Trrov rjhy] 
rovro Kal eiKoarov eros (f)vXd^as aTroriOep^ai. 
/cat TCI piev Trepl ep-ov roaavra. 

* Koivwv yintenis : KaXStv 0. 

* (is added by Naber. 



BOOK IV. 76, 4-77, 4 

from which it was the custom for those who assembled 
the people to address them, and having placed 
the patricians near him, spoke as follows : 

LXXVII. " Citizens,^ as I am going to speak to 
you upon urgent matters of general interest, I desire 
first to say a few words about myself. For by some, 
perhaps, or more accurately, as I know, by many of 
you, I shall be thought to be disordered in my 
intellect when I, a man of unsound mind, attempt to 
speak upon matters of the greatest importance — • 
a man who, as being not mentally sound, has need 
of guardians. Know, then, that the general opinion 
you all entertained of me as of a fool was false and 
contrived by me and by me alone. That which com- 
pelled me to live, not as my nature demanded or as 
beseemed me, but as was agreeable to Tarquinius and 
seemed likely to be to my own advantage, was the 
fear I felt for my life. For my father was put to death 
by Tarquinius upon his accession to the sovereignty, 
in order that he might possess himself of his property, 
which was very considerable, and my elder brother, 
who would have avenged his father's death if he had 
not been put out of the way, was secretly murdered 
by the tyrant ; nor was it clear that he would spare 
me, either, now left destitute of my nearest relations, 
if I had not pretended a folly that was not genuine. 
This fiction, finding credit with the tyrant, saved me 
from the same treatment that they had experienced 
and has preserved me to this day ; but since the time 
has come at last which I have prayed for and looked 
forward to, I am now laying it aside for the first 
time, after maintaining it for twenty-five years. So 
much concerning myself. 

1 For chaps. 77-84 cj. Livy i. 59, 8-11. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

LXXVIII. " Td 8e Koivd, vrrep &v vjjids els 
iKKX-qaiav avveKaXecra, ravr iarL. TapKvviov 
ovre Kara rovs irarpiovs rjfubv iOLajJiovs Kal 
vofjiovs rrjv hvvaareiav Karaaxovra ovr , iiTeihr) 
Kareax^v ottojs St^ttotc Xa^cov, KaXcbs avrij /cat 
jSao'tAt/ccos' ;;^pai/xevov, dAA' vnep^epXrjKOTa ttolv- 
ras v^pei re /cat Trapavopiia rovs ottov SrJTTore 
yevop,€vovs rvpdvvovs, d(f)€X€adai rrjv i^ovaiav 
jSe^ouAeu/xe^a avveXdovres ol TTarpiKiot, irdXai 
fiev 8eov, ev Kaipw Se vvv avro iroiovvres imnqSeio), 
vpds re, J) 877/xoTai, avveKaXearafiev, tva rrjv 
TTpoaipeaiv aTTohei^dp,evoi Tqv eavrcov avvayoivi- 
aras a^icoaiofiev rjpXv yeveadat, irpdrrovras * 
eXevdeptav rfj rrarpl^L, rjs ovre rrporepov Tjfuv 
e^eyevero pberaXa^elvy e^ o5 TapKvvios rr)v dpxrjv 
Kareax^v, ov9^ varepov, edv vvv putXaKtadcoixev, 
2 e^earai. el fxev ovv ^povov el^ov oaov e^ovXofxrjv, 
T) TTpos dyvoovvras efieXXov Xeyeiv, dndaas 
hie^rjXOov dv rds rov rvpdwov irapavopias, €(f)' 
at? ovx drra^ dXXd iroXXdKLs aTraaiv etrj St/cato? ^ 
ttTToAcoAeVaf eTTeiBrj 8' o re Kaipos, ov rd rrpdyfjuard 
not 8t8a)crt, Ppaxvs, iv & Xeyeiv fxev oXiya Set, 
TTparreLv 8e 77oAAd, /cat Trpos elSoras ol Xoyoi, rd 
fieycara /cat (j)avepd>rara rd)v epycov avrov /cat 
ov8 dTToXoylas ovBefJiLas Svvdfjieva rvx^lv, ravd^ 
Vfids VTTOfxv^ao). 

LXXIX. " OTTOS' eariv, dvSpes TToXlrai, 6 
TapKvvLos 6 TTpo rov TTapaXa^eXv rrjv dpxrjv 
Appovra rov yv^jat-ov dSeX<f)6v, ort TTOvr^pos ovk 
€^ovXero yeveadai, <j>app,dKois 8iaxp'rj(Tdp,evos, 

^ Trpdrrovras Steph. : nparTovres AB. 
506 



BOOK IV. 78, 1-79, 1 

LXXVIII. " The state of public affairs, because of 
which I have called you together, is this : Inasmuch as 
Tarquinius neither obtained the sovereignty in 
accordance with our ancestral customs and laws, nor, 
since he obtained it — in whatever manner he got it — 
has he been exercising it in an honoiu-able or kingly 
manner, but has surpassed in insolence and lawless- 
ness all the tyrants the world ever saw, we patri- 
cians met together and resolved to deprive him of his 
power, a thing we ought to have done long ago, 
but are doing now when a favourable opportunity 
has offered. And we have called you together, 
plebeians, in order to declare our own decision and 
then ask for yowr assistance in achieving liberty for 
our country, a blessing which we neither have hitherto 
been able to enjoy since Tarquinius obtained the sover- 
eignty, nor shall hereafter be able to enjoy if we show 
weakness now. Had I as much time as I could wish, 
or were I about to speak to men unacquainted vidth 
the facts, I should have enumerated all the lawless 
deeds of the tyrant for which he deserves to die, not 
once, but many times, at the hands of all. But since 
the time permitted me by the circumstances is short, 
and in this brief time there is little that needs to be 
said but much to be done, and since I am speaking 
to those who are acquainted with the facts, I shall 
remind you merely of those of his deeds that are the 
most heinous and the most conspicuous and do not 
admit of any excuse. 

LXXIX. " This is that Tarquinius, citizens, who, 
before he took over the sovereignty, destroyed his 
own brother Arruns by poison because he would not 
consent to become wicked, in which abominable crime 

* aTTaaiv eirj SiVatps A : anam. StVaios B, BiKaios Cobet. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avvepyov els rovro ro fxvaos Xa^cbv rrjv iKcivov 
yvvoLKa, T-fjs 8 avTio avvoLKovcrqg d8eA<^^i', rjv 

2 ifxoix^vev 6 deols exOpos ert /cat TTciAat- ovtos 6 
Trjv yafxerrjv yvvaiKa, adt^pova Kal reKvcov 
Koivojvov yeyovvlav, iv rat? avrals i^/zepat? Kal 
8ta Twv avTcHv ^apjuaKcuv aTTOKreivas ouS' d(f)oaL- 
coaaadat ra)v <j>appL,aKeLix)v aiX(j>OT€.poiv ras Sia^oXas, 
ws ovx vcf) iavTov yevoixevcov, rj^icoaev iXceivat 
Xprjcrdixevos axTJlJ^arL koI fxiKpa TTpoa-noL'^aeL 
irevdovsy aAA' evdv's a/xa rw avrd hiaTrpd^aaOai 
Ttt davixaard epya, TTplv r] piapavdrjvai rag 
inToSe^ajxevas rd Svarrjva adofjuara TTvpds, <j)iXovs 
eicTTta /cat yajxovs eVereAet /cat rrjv dv8pocf)6vov 
vviJL(f)r]v €7tI tov rrjs d8eX<f)TJs ddXapbov TJyero ra? 
aTTopprjTovs ejjLTTeSdJv Trpos avrrjv opboXoyias, dvoaia 
/cat e^dyiara /cat ovd* 'EAAaSo? ovre ^ap^dpov 
yijg ovSafioOi yevofxeva ^ Trpdrros eiV ttjv 'Pco/xaiwp' 

3 TToXiv elaayayojv ^ Kal [xovo?. ota 8' e^eipydaaro, 
a) Srjpiorai, rd Trept^oT^ra /cat 8etra nepl rov? 
Krjbeards dpi(^OT4povs eVtp^eipT^/xara eVi rat? 
Sua^at? ovras rjSr] rov ^iov ; Hepoviov [xev 
TuAAtor TOV €7Ti,€LK€GTaTov Tcov ^aaiXicjv Kal 
TrXelara vfxds ev TTOiriaavra ^avepcDj dTToa<f)d^as 
/cat ovr eKKOjjLLSrjs ^ ovre racjiijs idaas vopi,ipov 

4 TO aajfjia rup^ett'- TapKvviav he Trjv eKeivov 
yvvaiKa, t]v TrpoarJKev avToj TLfxav (Lavep pL-qrepa, 
TTaTpos aSeXcfiTjv ovaav Kal o-novhaiav irepl avTOv 
yevoyL€vr]v, rrpiv t) 7T€v6rj(TaL Kal ra vo filled [xeva 
to) * /card yrjs dvSpl TTOirjcrat,, ttjv ddXiav dyxovrj 

* Roudler : yivofieva 0. * elaayayajv R : eladyiov AB. 
' OUT* €KKoiiihrjs Schnello : ovts KOfubijs 0. 

* Tw added by Reiske. 

So8 



BOOK IV. 79, 1-4 

he was assisted by his brother's wife, the sister of his 
own wife, whom this enemy of the gods had even long 
before debauched. This is the man who on the same 
days and with the same poisons killed his wedded 
wife, a virtuous woman who had also been the mother 
of children by him, and did not even deign to clear 
himself of the blame for both of these poisonings and 
make it appear that they were not his work, by 
assuming a mourning garb and some slight pretence 
of grief; nay, close upon the heels of his committing 
those monstrous deeds and before the funeral-pyre 
which had received those miserable bodies had died 
away, he gave a banquet to his friends, celebrated his 
nuptials, and led the murderess of her husband as a 
bride to the bed of her sister, thus fulfilling the 
abominable contract he had made with her and being 
the first and the only man who ever introduced into 
the city of Rome such impious and execrable crimes 
unknown to any nation in the world, either Greek 
or barbarian. And how infamous and dreadful, 
plebeians, were the crimes he committed against both 
his parents-in-law when they were already in the 
sunset of their lives ! Servius Tullius, the most 
excellent of your kings and your greatest bene- 
factor, he openly murdered and would not permit his 
body to be honoured with either the funeral or the 
burial that were customary ; and Tarquinia, the wife 
of Tullius, whom, as she was the sister of his father 
and had always shown great kindness to him, it was 
fitting that he should honour as a mother, he 
destroyed, unhappy woman, by the noose, without 
allowing her time to mourn her husband under the 
sod and to perform the customary sacrifices for him. 



509 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

hiaxp't'jcrdnevos , V(j> wv iacod-q koI Trap olg iTpd<f)r) 
Kal ovs SiaSe^eadai jxerd rrjv TeXevrrjv ep-eXXev 
oXiyov dvafxeivaSt ecu? o Kara, (fivaiv avrois 
7Tapayev7]raL Odvaros. 

LXXX. " 'AAAo. Ti TOVTOLs eTTiTt/Lto) ToaavTas 
e^oiv avrov 7Tapavop,Las Karrjyopelv e^o) twv els 
jovs avyyeveZs /cat /o^Searas' yevojJLevcov, rd? els 
TTjv TTorpiha /cat navras rjfids eTTireXeadeiaas , el 
Brj /cat TTapavofiLas Set KoXeXv avrds, aXX ovk 
dvarpoirds /cat d^avLap,ovs aTravrcov row re 
voyLifxoiv /cat rwv edcov ;^ avriKa ttju rfyefJiovLav, 
iv' (XTTO TavT7)s dp^cofiai, ttcos TTapeXa^ev ; dpd y 
Ois ol TTpo avrov yevoyievoi jSacrtAet?; TTodev ; 

2 TToXXov ye /cat Set. e/cetrot fxevroi Trdvres ^ v(f) 
u/ncDv eTTt rds Svvaareias Traprjyovro Kara rovs 
TTarplovs ediafxovs /cat vofxovs' TTpcbrov fxev 
^^iapLaros vtto rijs ^ovXfjs ypa^evros, fj Trept 
Trdvrojv aTToSeSoTat rcov Koiva>v rrpo^ovXeveiv 
eireira pLeao^aaiXeoov alpedevrcav, ois inirpeTTei. 
TO avvehpiov e/c rojv d^ioiv rrjs dpx'fjs SLayvcovai 
rov eTTLrrjhetorarov p.erd ravra ifjrj(f)OV eirevey- 
Kovros ev dp^o-ipeaiaLs rov hr^JLov, p-ed rjs 
aTTOvra eTiiKvpovadai jSouAerat rd p^eyiara o 
vopos' ecf)' cLTTaai he rovrois oia>v6}u /cat a(f)ayi.iov 
Kal rcov dXXoiv arjp-etojv KaXcov yevop,eviov, (hv 
"Xcopls ovhev dv yevoiro ri]s dvdpcoTTivrjg aTTOVorjs 

3 /cat TTpovoias 6(j>eXos. 4'^P^ ^V ''"'■ Tovroiv oloe 
ns vpuov ^ yev6p,evov ore rr)p dpxrjv TapKvvtos 

^ ra>v re vofiificov (vo/itov Cobet) /cat rcov idwv Kiessling, 
Cobet : TtSp yevutv Kal tcuv edviov A, tcDv yevo/xeVtov Kai tkDv 
i0va>v B, Tcov idwv Kal rutv vSfiwv Reiske. 

' fxevTOi TTavTfs Jacoby : fidvrot. airavres A, fidvye anavres B. 



BOOK IV. 79, 4r-80, 3 

Thus he treated those by whom he had been 
preserved, by whom he had been reared, and whom 
after their death he was to have succeeded if he had 
waited but a short time till death came to them in 
the course of nature. 

LXXX. " But why do I censure these crimes 
committed against his relations and his kin by 
marriage when, apart from them, I have so many 
other unlawful acts of which to accuse him, which he 
has committed against his country and against us 
all — if, indeed, they ought to be called merely un- 
lawful acts and not rather the subversion and ex- 
tinction of all that is sanctioned by our laws and 
customs ? Take, for instance, the sovereignty — to 
begin with that. How did he obtain it? Did he 
follow the example of the former kings ? Far from 
it! The others were all advanced to the sovereignty 
by you according to our ancestral customs and laws, 
first, by a decree of the senate, which body has been 
given the right to deliberate first concerning all public 
affairs ; next, by the appointment of interreges, whom 
the senate entrusts with the selection of the most 
suitable man from among those who are worthy of 
the sovereignty ; after that, by a vote of the people 
in the comitia, by which vote the law requires that all 
matters of the greatest moment shall be ratified; 
and, last of all, by the approbation of the auguries, 
sacrificial victims and other signs, without which 
human diligence and foresight would be of no avail. 
Well, then, which of these things does any one of 
you know to have been done when Tarquinius was 

* Ti TovToiv ol8e Ti? v/juHv Jacoby : tovtcdv ol8e. ris vfuov B, 
Tis vfubv n TOvTwv oiSe Kr. 

R 5" 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eXdfx^ave ; ttolov Trpo^ovXevfJia avveSpiov ; riva 
IxeaopaaiXecDV Sidyvcocnv ; TToiav St^/xou ipr)(f>o- 
(f>opLav ; TTOiovs olojvovg alaiovs ; ov Xeyco ravra 
-ndvra, Kairoi hiov, el yovv efxeXXev e^ew 
KaXcos, fi-qBev rcov iv edei /caret, rovs vofiovs 
TTapaX€XeZ<j)dai, dXX edv ns ev fiovov exij tovtcov 
imdel^aL yeyovos, ovk d^LOJ rd TrapaXei^deina 
avKO(j>avrelv. ttws ovv TraprjXdev iul rrjv Svvaarei- 
av ; ottXols /cat j8ta /cat rroviqpcov dvOpcorrcov 
avvcxypLoaiaLS y coj rvpdwoLs edos, aKovrcov vpxbv 

4 /cat BvaxepaivovTcov. (f)€p€, aAA' eTreiS?) Karea^e 
Trjv SwaareCav ottojs St^ttotc ^ Xa^cov, dpa ^aai- 
Xlkcos avrfj Ke-)(pr]rat t,'qXa>v roys irporepovs 
TjyefJiovas, ot Xdyovres re /cat Trpdrrovres roiavra 
hLeriXovv i^ Sv evSaLfiovearepav re /cat /xet'^co 
rrjv TToXiv rols eTTtytvojLteVot? TrapeBoaav ^? aurot 
TrapeXa^ov ; /cat ris dv vyiaivcov ravra ^i^cretef, 
opcov (OS OLKrpcos /cat KaKcos a/navres vtt* avrov 
SiareOeifxeda ; 

LiAAAi. la? fiev ovv rj/Jierepas rmv irarpi- 
kLwv avfJi<f)opds, a? /cat rcov TToXefiicov dv ns 
fiadcjv SaKpuaete, ata>7ra>, et^ y' oAtyot pLcv e/c 
TToXXcbv AeAei/AjLte^a, raTreivol S' e/c /xcyoAoiv 
yeyovafjiev, els Treviav 8e /cat Seii^t' aTTOpiav 
7]KO[jiev €K TToXXcbv /cai [xaKaploiV eKrreaovres 
dyadwv. ol Xafxrrpol 8' eKelvoi /cat Seii'ot /cat 
/LteyaAot, 8t' ou? eTn<j)avris r) rroXis rjpubv TTore -^v, 
ol fiev aTToXcoXaaLV, ol 8e (f>evyovaL rrjv rrarptBa. 

2 oAAd TCI v/xerepa TTpdyfjuara, c5 SrjfioraL, ttws 
e\ei; ovk d(f)rip-rjrai. fxev vfiwv rovs vojxovs, 
d(f>T^pr)rai 8e Taj e^' tepa /cat dvaias avvohovs, 
^ Kiessling : onws ttork 0. * ei B : o' R. 

5" 



BOOK IV. 80, 3-81, 2 

obtaining the sovereignty ? What preliminary decree 
of the senate was there ? What decision on the part 
of the interreges ? What vote of the people ? What 
favourable auguries ? I do not ask whether all these 
formalities were observed, though it was necessary, if 
all was to be well, that nothing founded either in cus- 
tom or in law should have been omitted ; but if it can 
be shown that any one of them was observed, I am 
content not to quibble about those that were omitted. 
How, then, did he come to the sovereignty? By 
arms, by violence, and by the conspiracies of wicked 
men, according to the custom of tyrants, in spite of 
your disapproval and indignation. Well, but after 
he had obtained the sovereignty — in whatever 
manner he got it — did he use it in a fashion becoming 
a king, in imitation of his predecessors, whose words 
and actions were invariably such that they handed 
down the city to their successors more prosperous 
and greater than they themselves had received it? 
What man in his senses could say so, when he sees 
to what a pitiable and wretched state we all have been 
brought by him ? 

LXXXI. " I shall say nothing of the calamities we 
who are patricians have suffered, of which no one 
even of our enemies could hear without tears, since 
we are left but few out of many, have been brought 
low from having been exalted, and have come to 
poverty and dire want after being stripped of many 
enviable possessions. Of all those illustrious men, 
those great and able leaders because of whom our city 
was once distinguished, some have been put to death 
and others banished. But what is your condition, 
plebeians ? Has not Tarquinius taken away your 
laws? Has he not abolished your assemblages for 

513 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

veTTavKe he rovs apxo-ip€auxt,ovras kol iffr)(f)o- 
<f)opovvras /cai Trept rcbv kolvcov eKKXyjaid^^ovras , 
avay/ca^ct 8' ocra hovXovs dpyvpcovrjrovs alaxvv7]s 
d^ta ^ raXaLTTOipelv Xarofjiovvras vXoTO[iovvTas 
dxdo(f>opovvras , iv raprdpoig Kal ^apddpois Bana- 
vcofievovs, avdrravaiv rcbv KaKoJv ouSe rrjv eAa;(i- 
arrjv Xap^^dvovrag ; ti? ovv opos ecrrai rdiv 
avpi(f)opa)v, Kal /xe^pt rivos XP^^^^ ravra irdaxov- 
res VTrofxevovfjiev, Kal rrore t7]v Trdrpiov eXevdeplav 
dvaKTTjaofieda ; orav aTTodavr] TapKvvios ; vrj 
Ata. Kal ri ttXcov 'qpZv earai Tore ; tl 8 ov 
Xelpov ; TpeXs yap e^ evos TapKvviovs e^ofxev 
TToXXo) fJLLapajrepovs rov irarpo?. ottov yap o 
yevofxevos e^ Ihtdorov rvpavvog koI oipe dp^ajxevos 
TTOvrjpos etvat Trdaav dKpt^ol ^ ttjv TvpavvLKi]v 
KaKtav, TToSaTTOu? XPl vopill^eLv eaeaQai rovs i^ 
eKeivov <f)vvTas, ols TTOvrjpov [xev yevos, Trovrjpai 
8e Tpo(f}aL, ttoXltlkov Be /cat pLerpiov ovBev ovr 
IBeZv e^eyevero 7TU)7tot€ TTpaTTopievov ovre fxadeXv; 
Iva Be fxr) pbavrevrjade rds Karapdrovs avrcov 
<f)vaeLs dXX dKpL^cos fxdOrjre olovs aKvXaKag vp.Lv 
7] TapKvvlov rvpawls VTTorpe^ei,, Oedaaade epyov 
evos avrdjv rov irpea^vrdrov. 

LXXXII. " AuTi7 YiTTopLov p,€V earl KovKpnq- 
riov dvydTTjp, ov dneBei^e ttjs TToXecos errapxov a 
Tvpawos e^tcbv errl rov TToXefiov, TapKvvlov Be 
KoAAariVou yvvTj rov avyyevovs rcov rvpdwoiv Kal 
TToXXd virkp avrcov KaKovadrjoavros . avrr) fievTOi 

^ alaxvvT]s a^ia B : d^ia R ; both words deleted by Jacoby. 
* aKpi^oZ B : dKpipws Bie^^Xaae R. 

1 Cf. Livy i. 59, 12. 



BOOK IV. 81, 2-82, 1 

the performance of religious rites and sacrifices? 
Has he not put an end to your electing of magistrates, 
to your voting, and to your meeting in assembly to 
discuss public affairs ? Does he not force you, 
like slaves purchased with money, to endure shame- 
ful hardships in quarrying stone, hewing timber, 
carrying burdens, and wasting your strength in deep 
pits and caverns, without allowing you the least 
respite from your miseries ? What, then, will be the 
limit of our calamities? How long shall we submit 
to this treatment? And when shall we recover the 
hberty our fathers enjoyed ? When Tarquinius dies ? 
To be sure ! And how shall we be in a better con- 
dition then? Why should it not be a worse? For 
we shall have three Tarquinii sprung from the one, 
all far more abominable than their sire. For when 
one who from a private station has become a tyrant and 
has begun late to be wicked, is an expert in all 
tyrannical mischief, what kind of men may we expect 
those to be who are sprung from him, whose 
parentage has been depraved, whose nurture has 
been depraved, and who never had an opportunity 
of seeing or hearing of anything done with the 
moderation befitting free citizens ? In order, there- 
fore, that you may not merely guess at their accursed 
natures, but may know with certainty what kind of 
whelps the tyranny of Tarquinius is secretly rearing 
up for your destruction, behold the deed of one of 
them, the eldest of the three. 

LXXXII. " This woman is the daughter of Spurius 
Lucretius, whom the tyrant, when he went to the war, 
appointed prefect of the city,i and the wife of 
Tarquinius Collatinus, a kinsman of the tyrant who has 
undergone many hardships for their sake. Yet this 

515 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aco<f>povelv ^ovXoixevr) /cat rov avhpa tov iavrrjs 
<f>iXov<7a, woTTep ayadfj Trpoa-qKei yvvaiKi, ^€vit,o- 
fievov Trap avrrj He^rov 8ta rrjv avyyeveiav rfj 
TTapeXdovarj vvkti, KoAAariVou Se ror^ a-noh-qp^ovv- 
ros em OTparoTreSov, rrjv OLKoXaarrov v^piv ttjs 
TvpavvlSos ovK ihvvrjdrj Sta^uyetv, dAA' (Lairep 
alxpdXcoTOS vv dvayK-qs KparrjOeXaa VTrepieivev 

2 baa p,rj depis iXevddpa yvvaiKi Tradelv. icf)^ ols 
dyavaKTOvaa /cat d(f>6p7]Tov 'qyovfjuevq ttjv v^pi,v, 
eTTetBrj irpos tov rrarepa /cat rows' aAXovs avyyevels 
rds Koraa-xovaas avrr)v dvdyKas Sie^rjXOe,^ 
TToXXds 7TOi,r]aap,€vr] ScT^crets' /cat dpds, Iva TLficopot 
rols KaKols avTTJs ydvoivro, /cat to KeKpvp,p,€vov 
VTTo Tois koXttols ^i(f>os OTTaaapevr) tov TraTpos 
opcjvTOS, & Si^/xorat, 8ta tcov iavTrjs cnrXdyxvcov 

3 e^aifjc TOV aihripov. (L OavpaaTTj av /cat ttoXXwv 
eTiaivcov d^ia ttjs evyevovs Trpoaipiaecos, ot^j] 
/cat drroXoiXas ovx VTTop,eivaaa TvpawiKrjv v^piv, 
aTrdaas virepihovaa ray iv toj tfqv '^Bovds, iva aoi 
fiTj^ev €TL TOiovTOV ovpL^fi TTadelv. eVetra crv 
p,€v, (L AovKprjTia, yvvaiKcias Tvxpvaa. <j)vae(jos 
dvhpos evyevovs (f)p6v7]p.a eax^s, rjp^els S' dvBpes 
yev6p,evoi yvvaiKcov x^^P^^S dpeTJ] yevqaopeda; 
Kal aol p,€V, oTt piiav eTvpawridrjs vvKTa Tr)V 
dpLiavTov dj>aipedel(ja atScD peTa ^ias, rjSicov /cat 
p,aKapi(x)T€pos eho^ev 6 ddvaros elvai tov ^lov, 
rjpxv 8 dp ov TTapaaT'qaeTaL Vo avTO tovto 
V7ToXa^€LV, ojv TapKvvLog ov piav rjpepav, oAAa 
TrepTTTOV /cat eiKoaTOV €tos 'qS-q Tvpavvwv, Trdcras 
d(f)rjpr}Tai Tas iv Tto l^rjv -qSovds ^ eXevdepiav 

4 d(f)€X6p,€VOS ; OVK ecTiv 'qpiv, c5 SrjpoTat, ^icoTOV 

*• avayKas Sit^ijXde B : Sie^^A^e TV)^as R. 



BOOK IV. 82, 1-4 

woman, who desired to preserve her virtue and loved 
her husband as becomes a good wife, could not, when 
Sextus was entertained last night at her house as a 
kinsman and CoUatinus was absent at the time in 
camp, escape the unbridled insolence of tyranny, 
but like a captive constrained by necessity, had to 
submit to indignities that it is not right any woman 
of free condition should suffer. Resenting this 
treatment and looking upon the outrage as in- 
tolerable, she related to her father and the rest of her 
kinsmen the straits to which she had been reduced, 
and after earnestly entreating and adjuring them to 
avenge the wrongs she had suffered, she drew out the 
dagger she had concealed under the folds of her 
dress and before her father's very eyes, plebeians, 
plunged the steel into her vitals. O admirable 
woman and worthy of great praise for your noble 
resolution ! You are gone, you are dead, being unable 
to bear the tyrant's insolence and despising all the 
pleasiu-es of life in order to avoid suffering any such 
indignity again. After this example, Lucretia, when 
you, who were given a woman's nature, have shown 
the resolution of a brave man, shall we, who were born 
men, show ourselves inferior 'to women in courage ? 
To you, because you had been deprived by force of 
your spotless chastity by submission to a tyrant 
during one night, death appeared sweeter and more 
blessed than life ; and shall not the same feelings sway 
us, whom Tarquinius, by a tyranny, not of one day 
only, but of twenty-five years, has deprived of all the 
pleasures of life in depriving us of our Hberty ? Life 
is intolerable to us, plebeians, while we wallow amid 

* ras iv T(J) Cv^ ^Soms B : om. A, rds iXniBas CD. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ev roLovrois KoXivBovfjievoLs KaKoZs, eKeivojv tG}v 
av^pGiv ovaiv airoyovois , ol ra hiKaia rarrGW 
rj^tovv roLS dXXois Kal ttoXXovs virep o.px'rjs /cat 
So^-qs -qpavTO Kivhvvovs' dXXa Svelv ddrepov 
aTTaaiv alpereov, •^ ^iov iXevdepov t] ddvarov 
evSo^ov. rjKeL 8e Kaipos olov evxofieda, fxedearr}- 
KOTOS /xet* e/c Tr\s TToXecos TapKvviov, rjyovixevcov 
8e TTJs CTTLX^ip-qaecDS rcbv TTarpiKLOiv, ovhevog 8* 
-qplv iXXeii/jovTOs, idv e/c TrpoQvpiias x^PW^H'^^ 
CTTi ra cpya, ov acoixdrcjov, ov xP^l^drcov, ovx 
ottXcvv, ov arpar7]ya)v, ov rrjs dXXrjg ttjs els rd 
TToXefjLLa TTapaaKevTJs (ixecrrr] yap aTravrcov -fj 
TToXts), alaxpov re ^ OvoXov(jKa)v puev ^ /cat SajSt- 
vojj/ /cat fivplcov dXXcov dpx^i'V d^iovv, avrovs 
8e hovXevovras irepois V7to{X€V€Lv, Kal irepl jxev 
rrjg TapKvviov TrXeove^las ttoXXovs dvaipeXadai 
TToXefxovs, Tvepl 8e rijs iavrcov eXevdepias purjhiva. 
LXXXIII. " Ttatv ovv d(f)opixaLs els ra 
7Tpdyp,ara ;(/)7^cro/A€^a Kat iroiais av[X[xaxlais ; 
rovro yap Xolttov elTreiv. TrpJjrais fJiev raXs 
irapd rGiv deojv eXTrioiv, cSv lepd /cat repbevq /cat 
^cofxovs jtxtatVet TapKwios' rat? al[xo(f)vproLs X^P^'' 
/cat TTavros CjU^uAtou yepxtvaais dyovs 6vat,d)v Kat 
OTTovbaJv KarapxofMevos' eneira rals e^ 'q^dJv 
avrcov ovr oXiyojv ovrcov ovr direipoiv TToXeixov 
irpos 8e rovroLs rals Trapd rcop avfxpidxcov ein- 
Kovplais, ol fjirj KaXovvrcov fxev rjnojv ovSev 
a^iojaovai TToXvTrpaypLovelv, idv 8' dperrjs opcocrt, 
fxeranoiovpevovs dap,evoi avvapovvrai rov TToXepLov 
rv pawls ydp diraoLV ixdpd rols ^ovXofievois 

* T€ B : ye «' A, ye elr] Keiske. 



BOOK IV. 82, 4-83, 1 

such wretchedness — to us who are the descendants 
of those men who thought themselves worthy to 
give laws to others and exposed themselves to many 
dangers for the sake of power and fame. Nay, 
but we must all choose one of two things — Hfe with 
liberty or death with glory. An opportunity has 
come such as we have been praying for. Tarquinius is 
absent from the city, the patricians are the leaders 
of the enterprise, and naught will be lacking to us 
if we enter upon the undertaking with zeal — neither 
men, money, arms, generals, nor any other equip- 
ment of warfare, for the city is full of all these; 
and it would be disgraceful if we, who aspire to 
rule the Volscians, the Sabines and countless other 
peoples, should ourselves submit to be slaves of 
others, and should undertake many wars to gratify 
the ambition of Tarquinius but not one to recover 
our own liberty. 

LXXXIII. " What resources, therefore, what assist- 
ance shall we have for our undertaking? For 
this remains to be discussed. First there are the 
hopes we place in the gods, whose rites, temples and 
altars Tarquinius pollutes with hands stained with 
blood and defiled with every kind of crime against his 
own people every time he begins the sacrifices and 
libations. Next, there are the hopes that we place 
in ourselves, who are neither few in number nor 
unskilled in war. Besides these advantages there 
are the forces of our allies, who, so long as they are 
not called upon by us, will not presume to busy them- 
selves with our affairs, but if they see us acting the 
part of brave men, will gladly assist us in the war ; 
for tyranny is odious to all who desire to be free. 

* fifv Sylburg : oin. 0, Jacoby. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALIGARNASSUS 

2 iXcvdepoLs etvai. el 8e tlvcs vfjuov trovs itrl 
arparoTTeSov avvovras oifxa TapKvviip TToXiras 
SeSoiKaaiv, cos €K€LVco jxev avvaycoviovfievovs, 
rjfuv 8e TToXcfMT^arovras, ovk opdaJs SeSot/caat. 
^apeXa yap KaKeivois rj rvpawls /cat eyi^vros 
aTTaaiv avdpojTTOis 6 rrjs iXevdeplas ttoOos, koI 
TTctcra ixera^oXrjs Trpocpaais rots Si' dvdyKrjv 
raXaiTTcopovaiv iKavrj' ovs, et i/rT^^tetcr^e ^ rfj 
TTarpihi ^orjdelv, ov j)6^os 6 Kade^ojv earat Trapd 
TOLS TvpdvvoLS, ov xa/3ts, ovx erepov ri tojv 
^La^op,evcov ^ Treidovrcjov dvOpcLiTOVs to. firj StVata 

3 TTpdrretv. el he tlolv avrojv dpa 8ia KaK-rjv 
^vaiv T] TTOvrjpds rpo(j)ds to ^iXorvpawov €fjL7Te(f)V- 
Kev, ov TToAAots" ovat, p,d Ata, fxeydXais /cat 
Tovrovs dvdyKats ivl,ev^o[xev,^ oxtt* e/c TTOUTjpaJv 
yevecrdat )(prj(TTOvs' ofJLrjpa yap avrcov e^oixev ev 
TTJ TToXei TCKva /cat yvvalKas /cat yoveis, a rijLtt- 
corepa rfjs tSia? earlv eKdaro) ifjv)(rjs. ravrd t 
ovv avrols aTTohcvaeLv, edv diToaroJai rojv rvpdv- 
vctiv, VTTLaxvovp,evoi /cat aSetav c5v -qfiapTOV 

4 tfjrj(f>i^6ijLevoL paStcos" TTelcrofMev. axrre dappovvres, 
CO SrjiJLoraL, /cat aya^a? exovres virep twv jxeX- 
XovTcov eXTTiSas ;)^a)petT6 Trpos rov dya>va, /caAAtcrrov 
cbv TTOJTTore Tjpaade TToXefxcov rovSe VTroarTjaofxevoL. 
rjjjieis fiev oSv, cS deol irarpcpoi, (f)vXaKes dyadoi 
TTJaSe Trjs yi]9, /cat SaifjLoves, ot tovs Trare'/Da? 
'qjxcbv XeXoyxo-re, /cat ttoXls deo^LXeardrr] noXecov, 
ev fj yeveaecos re /cat rpocfirjs eruxofxev, dfivvovfxev 
vpXv /cat ^ yvcjixais "* /cat Adyot? /cat x^P^'' '^**' 

^ Cobet : tlnj<j>icrr]<j9€ A, iJnjtfiiaeaOe Bb, ili7)<f>iaaad(u Ba. 

* Reiske : ^ev^oixev 0. 

' Kai Steph. : at(?) Ba, ol Bb, oi A. 

520 



BOOK IV. 83, 2-4 

But if any of you are afraid that the citizens who are 
in the camp with Tarquinius will assist him and make 
war upon us, their fears are groundless. For the 
tyranny is grievous to them also and the desire of 
liberty is implanted by Nature in the minds of all 
men, and every excuse for a change is sufficient for 
those who are compelled to bear hardships ; and if you 
by your votes order them to come to the aid of their 
country, neither fear nor favour, nor any of the 
other motives that compel or persuade men to commit 
injustice, will keep them with the tyrants. But 
if by reason of an evil nature or a bad upbringing the 
love of tyranny is, after all, rooted in some of them 
— though surely there are not many such — we will 
bring strong compulsion to bear upon these men too, 
so that they will become good citizens instead of bad. 
For we have, as hostages for them in the city, their 
children, wives and parents, who are dearer to every 
man than his own life. By promising to restore these 
to them if they will desert the tyrants, and by passing 
a vote of amnesty for the mistakes they have made, 
we shall easily prevail upon them to join us. Ad- 
vance to the struggle, therefore, plebeians, with con- 
fidence and with good hopes for the future ; for this 
war which you are about to undertake is the most 
glorious of all the wars you have ever waged. Ye 
gods of our ancestors, kindly guardians of this land, 
and ye other divinities, to whom the care of our 
fathers was allotted, and thou City, dearest to the 
gods of all cities, the city in which we received our 
birth and nurture, we shall defend you with our 
counsels, our words, our hands and our lives, and we 

* yvcjfiais B : yvcoiij) A, 

531 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

tffvxcus, Kal TTaax^LV eroifju)!, ttov o tl av 6 BaijJLCJV 
5 Kal TO y^pecbv (f^eprj. ixavrevofxai 8e KaAots' eyx^eiprj- 
fjLaGLv €vrv)(€? aKoXoudi^aeLv reXos. evr) 8e tovtoi's 
drraaL ravro Xa^ovai ddpaos Kal jxia yvdofxr] ■)(pr](Ta- 
ixevois, ad)t,eLv 6^ ly/xa? Kal a(Lt,ea6ai vc^ Tjfxcov" 

LXXXIV. ToLavra tov IBpovrov hr]p/r]yopovv- 
ros ava^oTjoeis re (7vv€-)(els i(f>* iKaarcp rcov 
Xeyofxevcov e/c tov ttXtjOovs eyivovro Biaarjixai- 
vovaai ro ^ovXopLevov re /cat eTTLKeXevofxevov, tols 
Be irXeioaiv avrcJbv koI haKpva vcf)^ rjSovrjs eppei 
6avjjiaara)v Kal air poaSoKt^rcov aKovovoL Xoycov 
-TTadrj re rroLKiXa rrjv eKaarov iftv)(rjv KareXajx^avev 
ovSev dXX'qXois eoiKora' AuTrai re yap rjSovals 
cKeKpavro, at fiev cttI rols Trpoyeyovoai heivol'S, 
at S' em rols TrpocrSo/cajjUeVots" aya^ots', /cat 
dvfJLol avve^€7TL7Trov (f)6^otg, ol piev €7tI rat /ca/cco? 
hpdaai rd p^ioovpieva rrjg da^aXeias vrrepopdv 
e-n-aipovres, ol 8e /caret Xoyiapiov rod pLrj pahiav 
elvai TTjv KaOalpeaiv rrjs rvpawihos okvov rat? 

2 im^oXats e7n(f)€povres . eirel S' eTravaaro Xeycov, 
wairep e^ evos aropiaros aTravres rrjv avrrjv 
(jja)V7]v aveKpayov, dyetv at^ds em rd OTrXa. Kal 
6 BpouTO? rjadeis, " Edv ye Trporepov" ^^i]> 

' rd ho^avra rep avvehpitp p.ad6vres eTTLKVpcocrrjre .^ 
heSoKrai ydp rjpuv ^evyeiv TapKvviovs ttoXlv re 
Trjv 'Pcjjpbaicjv Kal jj^copai' oarjs dp^ovai 'Pcopatoi,, 
Kal yevos to e^ avrcbv aTrav /cat pi-qSevl e^elvai 
rrepl Kadohov TapKVvioiV pu-qre irpdrreiv p,r]Sev 
pLrqre Xeyeiv, edv 8e ns" Trapa ravra ttolcov evpiaKT]- 

3 rat reOvdvai. ravrrjv el ^ovXopevois vpuv eart, 
rrjv yvwpLTjv elvai KVpiav, Biaardvres /card rds 

^ TO hoxOev (or rax^ev) after iitiKvpdxnjrc deleted by Cobet. 
522 



BOOK IV. 83, 5-84, 3 

are ready to suffer everything that Heaven and Fate 
shall bring. And I predict that our glorious en- 
deavours will be crowned with success. May all here 
present, emboldened by the same confidence and 
united in the same sentiments, both preserve us and 
and be preserved by us ! " 

LXXXIV. While Brutus was thus addressing the 
people everything he said was received by them 
with continual acclamations signifying both their 
approval and their encouragement. Most of them 
even wept with pleasure at hearing these wonderful 
and unexpected words, and various emotions, in no 
wise resembling one another, affected the mind 
of each of his hearers. For pain was mingled with 
pleasure, the former arising from the terrible ex- 
periences that were past and the latter from the 
blessings that were anticipated; and anger went 
hand in hand with fear, the former encouraging 
them to despise their own safety in order to injure 
the objects of their hatred, while the latter, occasioned 
by the thought of the difficulty of overthrowing the 
tyranny, inspired them with reluctance toward the 
enterprise. But when he had done speaking, they 
all cried out, as from a single mouth, to lead them to 
arms. Then Brutus, pleased at this, said: " On this 
condition, that you first hear the resolution of the 
senate and confirm it. For we have resolved that 
the Tarquinii and all their posterity shall be banished 
both from the city of Rome and from all the territory 
ruled by the Romans; that no one shall be permitted to 
say or do anything about their restoration ; and that if 
anyone shall be found to be working contrary to these 
decisions he shall be put to death. If it is your pleasure 
that this resolution be confirmed, divide yourselves into 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^pdrpas i/jrj<f)Ov eTreveyKare, /cat rov6* vjjuv 7Tp(x}Tov 
ap^drco to SiKatco/x-a ttjs iXevdeptas" iyivero 
ravra' kul eTretSi] Trdaai (f)vyrjv ^ tcov rvpdvvcov 
at (f>pdTpat Kar€ifjr](f)iaavro, irapeXdaiv irdXiv 6 
BpouTO? Aeyet- " 'E7retSi7 to. irpchra r^plv KCKvpco- 
rat Kara to Seov, aKovaare Kal rd AotTTO, 

4 oCTa ^e^ovXevixeOa irepl rrjs TroAtTeta?. 'qfuv 
aKOTTOvfjievoLs tls dpxrj yevT^aerai rdJv kolvcov 
Kvpia, jSaoiAeiW pikv ovkctl KaraaTTjcraadat iSoKei,^ 
dpxovras Se Svo Kad* eKacrrov iviavrov 0.770- 
SeiKvvvai ^aaLXiKrjV e^ovras i^ovaiav, ovs dv vfiels 
€v apxctipecnaLs dTToSeL^rjre ifjrj(f)ov eTn^epovr€.s 
Kara X6)(ovs. el 8rj /cat ravra ^ovXofxdvois iarlv 
Vfjiiv, iTTujjr]^iaare." eTri^vet /cat ravTqv rrjv 
yv(x)ixrjv 6 B-qfjios, /cat ip'rj(f)og ovSefila eyevero 

5 crai^ta. ixerd rovro rrapeXdwv 6 BpouTO? dno- 
SetKvvai [X€<yo^aaiXea rov iTTLfieXrjaoiJLevov tcov 
apxaipecndjv Kara rovs narpiovs vofiovs TiTTopiov 
AovKpi^riov KaKCivos dTToXvaas rrjv iKKXrjoLav 
cKeXevaev drravras rJKeiv els ro TreSlov, evda 
(Tvvqdes avroXs rjv dpxaipeai,dt,eiv , e)(ovras rd 
OTrXa ev rdx^i. d<f)LKOfxev(x)v 8' avrdju dvSpag 
aipelrai hvo rovs irpd^ovras oaa rols ^aaiXevaiv 
e^rjv, Bpovrov re Kal KoAAaTtroi'' /cat o Srjfios 
KaXoviJLevos Kara Xo^ovs eTreKvpojae rols dvSpdai, 
rrjv dpx^qv. Kal rd p,ev Kard ttoXiv ev rip rore 
Xpovo) TTpaxOevra roiavra "^v. 

LXXXV. BacriAeu? 8e TapKvvLos d)s iJKovae 
TTapa rcbv avo rrjs noXews dyyeXcov, ols e^eyevero 
TTpcoroLs TTpiv Tj KXeLadrjvai rds TwXas hiaSpdvat,, 
roaovro fxovov aTrayyeXXovriov, on Kare^ei rrjV 

^ T-qv before <f>vY^v deleted by Cobet. 
524 



BOOK IV. 84, a-85, 1 

your curiae and give your votes ; and let the enjoy- 
ment of this right be the beginning of your hberty." 
This was done ; and all the curiae having given their 
votes for the banishment of the tyrants, Brutus again 
came forward and said : " Now that oiur first measures 
have been confirmed in the manner required, 
hear also what we have further resolved concerning 
the form of our government. It was our decision, 
upon considering what magistracy should be in con- 
trol of affairs, not to establish the kingship again, but 
to appoint two annual magistrates to hold the royal 
power, these men to be whomever you yourselves 
shall choose in the comitia, voting by centuries. If, 
therefore, this also is your pleasure, give your votes 
to that effect." The people approved of this resolu- 
tion likewise, not a single vote being given against it. 
After that, Brutus, coming forward, appointed 
Spurius Lucretius as interrex to preside over the 
comitia for the election of magistrates, according to 
ancestral custom. And he, dismissing the assembly, 
ordered all the people to go promptly in arms to the 
field 1 where it was their custom to elect their 
magistrates. When they were come thither, he 
chose two men to perform the functions which had 
belonged to the kings — Brutus and Collatinus ; and 
the people, being called by centuries, confirmed their 
appointment.2 Such were the measures taken in the 
city at that time. 

LXXXV. As 3 soon as King Tarquinius heard by the 
first messengers who had found means to escape from 
the city before the gates were shut that Brutus was hold- 

^ The Campus Martius. 
* Cf. Livy i . 60, 4. » Cf. Livy i. 60, 1-3. 

* e'SoKct Cobet : SoKet O, Jacoby. 

S.»5 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eKKXrjGLav Bpovros BrjiULycoyaJv /cat rovs TToXtras 
€7TL Tr)v iXevdepiav TrapaKaXcbv, ovSevl ra>v 
dXXcov <j)paaag rjTTeiyeTo rovs vlovs avaXa^oiv /cat 
roiv eratpojv rovs TTiarordrovs , eAawojv rovs 
L7T7TOVS (X7TO pvrrjpos, CO? cf)6aact)V rrjv diroaraaiv. 
evpojv 8e KCKXeLafievas rds TTvXas /cat [xeards ottXojv 
rds eTrdX^eLs a>;(6TO TrciAtv im ro arparortehov d)S 

2 €LX€ rd^ovs ol[M(x)^(jov /cat BeivoTradiov. ervx^ 8e 
/cat ra/cet Trpdyfiara rjSr] Biecfjdappieva. oi yap 
VTTaroi ra-)(€xav avrov rqv Trapovaiav ctti Tr]v 
ttoXlv TTpoopcojjievoi TTepLTTovai ypdpLfxara Ka6* 
erepas oSovs irpos rovs ctti rov arparoneSov 
TTapaKoXovvres avroiis dTToarrjvai rov rvpdvvov 
Kai rd ho^avra rols iv darei TTOtovvres (f>av€pd. 

3 ravra rd ypdpLp,ara Xa^ovres ol KaraXei^devres 
VTTO rov jSacrtAeo)? vrrap^oi ^ Tiros 'Ep/xtVio? /cat 
Ma/3/co? OpdrLos dveyvcvaav iv iKKXrjalq,' /cat 
yvcofjias SL^^pcorrjaavres /caret Xoxovs, d n ^PV 
TToielv, iTTeiSrj Trdcriv i<f)dvr) Kvpia rjyeladai. rd 
Kpidevra vtto rrjs TToXecos, ovKen TrpocrSexovrai 

4 TTapayeviqdevra rov TapKvviov. dTTwadeis 817 /cat 
ravrqs 6 ^aariXevs rrjs iXmSos <f)€vy€i, avv oXiyois 
els Ta^Lcov TToXiv, -^s jSaaiAea rov Trpea^vrepov 
aTTeSei^e rdjv vidJv Yti^rov, cos /cat Trporepov 
€(f)r]v, riXiKiav [xev rjSr] ttoXlos (^v, errj 8e Trevre 
/cat etKoai rrjv ^aaiXeiav Karaa^cov. ol 8e 7T€pl rov 

Ep/xti^tor re /cat rov Opdriov dvo^ds rov TToXefxov 
Karaorrjadjxevoi irpos rovs ^ApSedras TrevrcKai- 
Se/cacrei? du-qyayov evr' ot/cou rds Swdpueis.^ 

^ virapxoi B : om. R. 

« There follow in the MSS. the first five lines of Book V 
(^ fifv . . . TtDv avSpcbv), which are then repeated at the 
beginning of the new book. Kiessling deleted them here. 
526 



BOOK IV. 85, 1-4 

ing the assembled people enthralled, haranguing them 
and summoning the citizens to liberty, which was all 
the information they could give him, he took with 
him his sons and the most trustworthy of his friends, 
and without communicating his design to any others, 
rode at full gallop in hopes of forestalling the revolt. 
But finding the gates shut and the battlements full 
of armed men, he returned to the camp as speedily 
as possible, bewailing and complaining of his mis- 
fortune. But his cause there also was now lost. For 
the consuls, foreseeing that he would quickly come 
to the city, had sent letters ^ by other roads to those 
in the camp, in which they exhorted them to revolt 
from the tyrant and acquainted them with the 
resolutions passed by those in the city. Titus 
Herminius and Marcus Horatius, who had been left 
by the king to command in his absence, having re- 
ceived these letters, read them in an assembly of the 
soldiers; and asking them by their centuries what 
they thought should be done, when it was their 
unanimous opinion to regard the decisions reached 
by those in the city as valid, they no longer would 
admit Tarquinius when he returned. After the king 
found himself disappointed of this hope also, he fled 
with a few companions to the city of Gabii, over which, 
as I said before, he had appointed Sextus, the eldest 
of his sons, to be king. He was now grown grey with 
age and had reigned twenty-five years. In the mean- 
time Herminius and Horatius, having made a truce 
with the Ardeates for fifteen years, led their forces 
home.^ 

^ Livy (i. 59, 12; 60, 1) says that Brutus himself went to 
the camp before Ardea. 
* See the critical aote. 

527 



INDEX 



ACILIUS, 0., annalist, 241. 

Aeneas, 137, 481. 

AgatharchuF, Olympic victor, 407. 

Agylla, earlier name of Caere, 217. 

Alba, 11, 43, 95, 119, 121, 137, 147, 

431. 
Albans, 3, 7-79, 87, 96-137, 147 t., 

441. 
Amphictyon, founder of AmpMctyonic 

League, 353. 
Aiicliises, 137. 
Ancus Marcius. See Marcius. 

Publicius, 149. 

Anio, 97, 209, 227, 231. 

Antemnae, 271. 

Antistius Petro, 451 f. 

Antium, 429. 

Apemiines, 177. 

Apiolae, 189 f. 

Apiolani, 189 f. 

Apollo, 353, 485. 

Archestratides, archon, 265. 

Ardea, 287, 471 f., 527 n. 

Ardeates, 287, 471 f., 527. 

Arretium, 199. 

Arruns, son of Demaratus, 183, 193 f . 

Arruns Tarquinius. See under 

Tarquinius. 
Ascanius, 137. 
Asia, 469. 

Athenians, 297 n., 499. 
Athens, 47, 311, 493, 499 ; archons at, 

5, 165, 181, 265, 407. 
Atilius, M., 467. 
Aventine hill, 175, 241, 367. 

Babylon, 361. 
Bacchiadae, 181 f. 
Bacchis, 183 n. 
Basilica Aemilia, 93, n. 2. 

Julia, 93, n. 2. 

Brutus, M. Junius, 481 f., 505. 
L. Junius, 481-527. 



Caelian hill, 7. 

Caere, 217, 359 f. 

Oaeretani, 217, 359 f. 

Oameria, 199. 

Campus Martius, 337 f., 525, 

Capitoline hill, 245 f ., 463 ; of. 467, 461. 

Caria, 353. 

Carinae, 93. 

Cato, M. Porcius, historian, 317. 

Circe, 419, 469. 

Circeii, 469 f. 

Circus maximus, 241 f., 417. 

Cleondas, Olympic victor, 181, 

Oloelli, Alban gens, 131. 

Cluiliae fossae, 15. 

Cluilius, 7-19, 35. 

Clusium, 199. 

Collatia, 193 f., 473, 503 n. 

Collatinus, name given to Arruns 

Tarquinius, 195, 473. 
Lucius Tarquinius. See under 

Tarquinius. 
Oolline region, 313. 
Compitalia, 315. 
Cora, 149. 
Corilla, 419. 
Corinth, 183, 367, 449. 
Cornlculans, 195 f. 
Comiculum, 195, 265 L 
Oreusa, 137. 
Crustumerians, 191 f. 
Crustumerium, 191 f. 
Cuprius (Cyprius) vicus, 93. 
Curiatii, Alban gens, 131. 

Alban triplets, 67-79, 93. 

Curiatius, father of preceding, 57. 
Cypselus, 183. 

Damasias, archon, 155. 
Delphic oracle, 483 f. 
Demaratus, 181 f., 195. 
Diana, 353, 357. 
Dorians, 46, 353. 



INDEX 



ECETRA, 429. 

Egerius, name given to Arruns 

Tarquinius, 195, 473. 
Egypt, 351. 
Ephesus, 353. 

Bpitelides, Olympic victor, 265. 
Eretum, 143, 219, 271, 435. 
Brythrae, 469. 
Esquiline, hill, 309 f., 401 n. 

region, 313. 

Ethiopians, 289, n. 1. 

Euripides, 371 n. 

Europe, 353. 

Burybates, Olympic victor, 5. 

Fabius Pictor, Q., Roman annalist, 

281 f., 317, 371f., 435n., 473. 
Perentinum, 149, 199, 419. 
Eeriae Latinae, 431. 
Peronia, 139. 
Picana, 163. 
Picanenses, 163. 
Piculea, 199. 
Pidenae, 21-25, 29, 95 f., 113, 119, 

165-69, 197, 209, 213-17, 435-39. 
Fidenates, 21-25, 29, 33, 95-117, 121, 

139, 165 t., 217 f. 
Portuna, 363, 407. 

Pors, 363, n. 1. 

Virilis, 363. 

Porum boarium, 363, 407, n. 2. 
Komanum, 5, 239, 253, 259 f., 

299, 307, 393, 395-99, 405, 409, 

413 f., 489, 503. 
Pufetius, Mettius, 19 f., 25-71, 87, 

95-135. 

O-ABII, 441-57, 527. 
Oabini, 441-57. 
Gegania, 289. 
Gleganii, Alban gens, 131. 
Gellius, On., Roman annalist, 283. 
Gorgias, 289, n. 1. 
Greece, 183, 357. 

Greeks, 41, 43, 45, 47, 51, 107, 223 
289 n., 353, 357 n., 375, 493, 497. 

HELLEN, 353. 
Heniochides, archon, 181. 
Hercules, 367. 
Herdonius, Tumus, 419-29. 
Herminius, T., 527. 
Hernicans, 429 1. 
Hersilia, 3. 
Hersilius 3. 

53° 



Horatia pila, 93. 

Horatii, Roman triplets, 57-79, 93. 

Horatius, M., survivor of the triplets, 

57-93, 119, 135 f. 
father of the triplets, 57, 67 f., 

85-89. 

M., 527. 

Hostilius, grandfather of TuUus 

Hostilius, 3 f . 

father of the King, 5. 

TuUus, 3-155, 157, 161, 167. 

ILITHTIA, 319. 

lonians, 353. 

Italy, 39, 141, 181, 463, 469, 473, 485. 

JANICUIiUM, 179, 185. 

Janus Ouriatius, 91 and note. 

Julii, Alban gens, 131. 

Juno, 243, 457, 463; J. Lucina, 319; 

J. Sororia, 91 and note. 
Jupiter, 485; J. Capitolinus, 243, 

249, 457, 463, 467; J. Fidius, 465; 

J. Latiaris, 431. 
Juventas, 247, 319. 

Lacedaemonians, 497. 

Latins, 41, 47-51, 81, 137, 139, 145-51, 
159-65, 189-207, 215, 235, 265 f., 
271, 285, 293, 355 f., 419-31, 441, 
475. 

Lauretum, 175. 

Lavinians, 45. 

Lavinium, 149. 

Leostrutus, archon, 5. 

Libitina, 319. 

Licinius Macer, C, annalist, 283. 

Lucretia, 473-79, 485-89, 503, 616 f. 

Lucretius, Sp., 473, 477 f., 487 f., 
495, 503, 515, 525. 

Lucumo, original name of L. Tarqui- 
nius Priscus (q.v.), 183-87. 

Lydia, 223. 

MamUjIUS, Octavius, 419 f., 427. 
Marcius, Ancus, 151-81, 187 f., 

283 f., 383; sons of, 181, 267-63, 

273-81, 291, 305, 383. 
Mars, 339, 489. 
Marsian War, 467. 
Masinissa, 289, n. 2. 
Medullia, 3, 151, 161 1. 
Memphis, 351. 
Metilii, Alban gens, 131. 



INDEX 



Mettius Fufetius. See Pufetius. 
Minerva, 243, 247, 457, 463. 

NEAPOLIS, 357 n. 
Nevius (Navius), 249-57. 
Nomentans, 193. 

Numa Pompilius, 3 f., 21, 153-57, 
273, 301, 495. 

OCRISIA, 267 f., 275, 303. 
Oppius mons, 93, n. 1, 401, n. 1. 
Ops, 143. 

Orbins (Urbius), clivus, 401. 
Ostia, 179. 

PAGANAUA, 319. 
Palatine hill, 175, 241. 

region, 313. 

Papirius, 0., 159. 

Pelasgians, 217. 

Periander, 183 n., 449. 

Persia, 223. 

Petro, Antistius, 451 f. 

Pinaria, 239. 

[Pinariusl, P., 239. 

Piao Frugi, L. Oalpumius, annalist, 

289, 319, 435 n. 
Politorini, 161. 
Politorium, 161, 175. 
Pometians, 433 f., 441. 
Pompilius. See Numa. 
Pomptine plain, 469. 
Pons sublicius, 179 and n. 4. 
Praeneste, 441. 
Priam, 137. 
Publicius, Ancus, 149. 

QUINTILIl, A-lban gens, 131. 
Quirinal hill, 309, n. 2. 

BOMANS, passim. 

Rome, passim. 

Bomulus, 3 f., 11, 95, 151 171, 225, 

253, 301, 495. 
Eusellae, 199. 

Sabines, 3 f., 37, 41, 123, 139-47, 
167 f., 173, 199 f., 207-13, 219, 227- 
37, 245, 271, 293, 419, 421, 433-39, 
457, 481, 519. 

Salii, 143. 

Sancus, 455. 

Saturn, 143. 

Saturnalia, 315. 

Sceleratiis vicus, 401. 



Semlramis, 351 and n. 
Seres, 289, n. 1. 
Servilii, Alban gens, 131. 
Servius TulliuS. See TuUius. 
Sibylline books, 465-69. 

oracles, 239, 465-69. 

Sicinius, an Alban, 57. 

Signia, 469 f. 

Silva malitiosa, 147 and n. 

Social War, 467, n. 3. 

Solon, 297, n. 1, 367 n. 

Sororium tigillum, 93 and n. 2. 

Sparta, 45. 

Sphaenis, Olympic victor, 155. 

Sublicius pons, 179 and n. 4. 

Suburan region, 313. 

Suessa Pometia, 433 f., 439 f., 457. 

Sun, as god, 469. 

Syracuse, 73 n. 



Tanaquil, 185, 267 f., 273-85, 289, 

303, 371 f. 
Tarpeian hill, 245 f., 461 f. 
Tarquinia, wife of Ser. Tullius, 259, 

265, 275, 277, 293, 363, 373, 377, 

405, 509. 

mother of Brutus, 481. 

Tarquinii, Etruscan city, 183, 359-61. 
Tarquinius, Arruns, nephew of 

Tarquinius Priscus, 193 f., 215, 

233 f., 473. 
Arruns, brother of Tarquinius 

Superbus, 281-95, 363 f., 369-73, 

507; see also 265, 275-79, 303-07. 
Arruns, son of Tarquinius 

Superbus, 471, 483 f., 515. 

Lucius (Priscus), originally 

named Lucumo, 165, 169 f., 181- 
295, 305 f., 359, 367, 371, 383, 393, 
409 f., 429, 457, 473, 481. 

Lucius (Superbus), 281-95, 309, 

n. 1, 363-401, 405, 407-527; see 
also, 265, 275-79, 303-07. 

Lucius, Collatinus, 473, 481, 

487 f., 495, 503, 515 f., 525. 

Sextus, 445-57, 473-77, 515 f., 

527 

Titus, 471, 483 f., 515. 

Telegonus, 419. 
Tellenae, 163, 175. 
Terminus, 247. 
Thericles, archon, 407. 
Thucydides, 73 n. 
Triopium. 353. 



531 



INDEX 



Tullla, elder daughter of Ser. TuUius, 

363 f., 371, 509. 
younger daughter of Tullius, 363- 

73, 395, 399 f., 50S. 
TulUus, Servius, 235, 259 f., 265-407, 

411f., 419,429,481, 509. 
TuUus Hostilius. See Hostilius. 
Tumus Herdonius, 419-29. 
Tusculum, 419. 

Tyrrhenia, 185, 217, 283, 359, 367. 
Tyrrhenians, 37, 41, 117, 123, 179- 

83, 187, 199, 203, 209, 213-27, 233, 

235, 251, 271, 293, 309, 359, 459,475. 
Tyrrhenian Sea, 177, 469. 

ULYSSES, 419. 



Valeriu?, p., 481, 485 f., 491. 
Varro, M. Terentius, 469. 
Vecilius, Spusius, 149. 
Veientes, 21-25, 29, 33, 95, 99-117 

121, 169 f., 215 f., 359 f. 
Velitrae, 171 f. 

Vennonius, Roman annalist, 317. 
Venus, 319. 
Vesta, 239. 
Vetulonia, 199. 
Viminal hill, 309. 
Volaterrae, 199. 

Volscians, 171 f., 429 f., 441 f., 519. 
Vulcan, 269. 



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Martial. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. 
Minor Latin Poets: from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Grattius, Calpurnius Siculus, 

Nemesianus, Avianus, and others with " Aetna " and the 

" Phoenix." J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. 
Ovid: The Art or Love and Other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 
2 



Ovid: Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. 

Ovid: Heboides and Amores. Grant Showerman. 

Ovid: Metamorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

Ovid : Tristia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. 

Peb-sius. Cf. Juvenal. 

Petbonius. M. Heseltine; Seneca; Apocolocyntosis. 

W. H. D. Rouse. 
Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. 
Pliny: Letters. Melmoth's Translation revised by W. M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 
Pliny: Natubal Histoby. H. Rackham and W. H. S. Jones. 

10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vols. VI. and 

VII. VV. H. S. Jones. 
Pbopebtius. H. E. Butler. 
Pbudentius. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 
QuiNTiLiAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. 
Remains of Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 Vols. Vol. I. 

(Ennius and Caecilius.) Vol. II. (Livius, Naevius, 

Pacuvius, Accius.) Vol. III. (Lucilius and Laws of XII 

Tables.) (Abchaic Inscbiptions.) 
Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. 

ScRiPTOBES HiSTOBiAE AuGUSTAB. D. Magie. 3 Vols. 
Seneca: Apocolocyntosis. Cf. Petbonius. 
Seneca: Epistulae Morales. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 
Seneca: Mobal Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. 
Seneca: Tragedies. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 
Sidonius: Poems and Lettebs. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 
SiLius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. 
Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. 
Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
Tacitus: Dialogues. Sir Wm. Peterson. Agricola and 

Germania. Maurice Hutton. 
Tacitus : Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. Jackson. 

4 Vols. 
Tebence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. 
Tebtullian: Apologia and Db Spectaculis. T. R. Glover. 

MiNUCius Felix. G. H. Rendall. 
Valebius Flaccus. J. H. Mozley. 
Varro : De Lingua Latina. R. G. Kent. 2 Vols. 
Velleius Paterculus and Res Gestae Divi Augusti. F. VV. 

Shipley. 
Virgil. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. 
ViTRUVius: De Abchitectura. F. Granger. 2 Vols. 

8- 



Greek Authors 

Achilles Tattos. S. Gaselee. 

Aelian: On the Nature of Animals. A. F. Scholfield. 3 
Vols. 

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasandeb. The 

Illinois Greek Club. 
Aeschines. C. D. Adams. 
Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. 
Alciphron, Aelian, Philostratus : Letters. A. R. Benner 

and F. H. Fobes. 
Andocides, Antiphon, Cf. Minor Attic Orators. 
Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 
Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. 
The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. 
Appian: Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. 
Aratus. Cf. Callimachus. 
Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 

trans. 
Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. 
Aristotle: Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. 
Aristotle: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. 
Aristotle: Meterologica. H. D. P. Lee. 
Aristotle: Minor Works. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 

Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 

and Gorgias. 
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. 
Aristotle: Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. G. C. Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). 
Aristotle: On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. 
Aristotle: On the Soul. Pabva Naturalia. On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. 
Aristotle: Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 

Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. 
Aristotle: Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tredennick 

and E. S. Forstor. 
Aristotle: On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. S. 

Forster and D. J. Furley. 
Aristotle: Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck; Motion and 

Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. 
4 



Aristotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

2 Vols. 
Abistotle: Poetics and Longinits. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. 
Abistotle: Politics. H. Rackham. 
Abistotle: Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. 
Abistotle: Rhetobica Ad Alexandbum (with Problems. 

Vol. II.) H. Rackham. 
Arbian: History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. Iliffe 

Robson. 2 Vols. 
Athenaeus: Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. 
Callimachus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. A. W. 

Mair; Abatus. G. R. Mair. 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. 
Colluthus. Of. Oppian. 
Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J.M.Edmonds; and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. 
Demosthenes I.: Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora- 
tions. I.-XVII. and XX. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes II.: De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes III.: Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

TiMOCRATEs and Aristogeiton, I. and II. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes IV .-VI.: Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. 
Demosthenes VII. : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius: Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. 
Dio Chrysostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 
DiODORUs SicuLUS. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

Vol. XI. F. Walton. 
Diogenes Laeritius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 
DioNYSius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 
EusEBius: Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
Galen: On the Natubal Faculties. A. J. Brock. 
The Gbeek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 
Gbbek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. 

6 



The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
Homer: Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Homer: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Isaeus. E. W. Forster. 

IsocRATES. George Norlin and Lallue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
JosEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 
Lucian. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. A. M. Harmon. Vol. VI. K. 

Kilburn. 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. 
Menandeb. F. G. Allinson. 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurous, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypereides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. 
NoNNOs: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L. 

Page. 
Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 
Pausanias: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 4 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. 
PniLO: two supplementary Vols. {Trannlation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Phtlostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus : Imagines; Callistratus : Descriptions. A. 

Fairbanks. 



Philostbatus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. Wilmer 

Cave Wright. 
PiNDAB. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato: Chabmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, 

Theages, Minos and Epinomis. \V. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Cbatylus, Paemenides, Greatee Hippias, Lesser 

Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Euthyphbo, Apology, Cbito, Phaedo, Phaedbus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Etjthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. VV. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Timaeus, Cbitias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plutarch: Moralia. 15 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 

B. Einarson. Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Chemiss and W. C. Helmbold. 

Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

Polybius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Pbocopius : History of the Waes. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy: Tetbabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

QuiNTUS Smybnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Stbabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. 
Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols, 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon: Cybopaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 
Xenophon: Scbipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Abistotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus: a. H. Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

Babbius akd Phaedbus. Ben E. Perry. 

DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATION 



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