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THE ROMANCE OF 
OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



The Romance of 
Old Sandwich Glass 




Wtb 

Dictionary of 
Old Sandwich Patterns 



By Frank WCbtyman 



COPYRK.HT *^: BY SANDWICH PUBLISHING COMPANY INC. 



All right * f 'fieri ed No part of this book, may be reprinted 
in ***y jorm nvthowt permission in writing from the publisher 



Published March, 7932 
BY SANDWICH PUBLISHING COMPANY INC, 



MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATFS OF AMERICA 



CONTENTS 



1. FOREWORD . . - . . . . - 11 

2. FROM. SIDON TO SANDWICH . . . . . 15 

Aqua Homo's Attic The Peg of Service Out 
of the Gullet Heap. 

3. DEMING JARVES GOES SHOOTING .... 23 

The Quest for Sand Magic in That Sandpile 
Sandwich Pockets Were Full No Salesmen 
Wanted Orders from the White House They 
Were Good Cooks The "Glory Hole" The Bull 
Wagons The Horse Railroad World-wide Fame 
Bounty for the Boys The Apprenticeship 
System. 

4* PRESSED WARE DISTINCTIVE .... 43 

The First Piece Made The Earlier Patterns The 
Origin of Oddities And Still It Grew The Old 
Gas House Glass with a Soul. 

5. MEN AND WOMEN WHO WROUGHT . . . 55 

Masters of Their Art Forty Years with Company 
The Fraternal Spirit The Tumbler Count 
Old Turn-Out Bibles and Fists. 

6. THE MOULDS ACME OF SKILL . . . . 65 

Took Months to Make Moulds Designs Carved 
in Wood. 

7. PATTERNS AND TYPES ...... 72 

Standard Patterns Sandwich Salts Finger Bowls 

Threaded Ware The Famous Lion Pattern 



CONTENTS Continued 



Henry Clay Facing Right Marble or Slag Glass 
Patterns by Periods Indulged in Sentiment An 
Original Order How to Tell Old Sandwich 
The Punty Mark The Sandwich Cup Plates 
Snake Skin, Lace and Crackle Engraved and 
Etched Ware Engraved Panes for Doorways 
Decorated Lamps The Danglers. 

8. COLORED SANDWICH Ill 

Glass of Many Colors The Famous Overlay 
Opalescent Glass Stained Glass Windows Vassa- 
marine With Silver Mountings Colored Glass 
Eggs Peach Blow Sandwich Alabaster Silvered 
Sandwich Amberina. 

9. NOTABLE COLLECTIONS 128 



10. LATE SANDWICH 140 

Buried Treasure The Doors Close. 

11. DICTIONARY OF PATTERNS 147 

Description of 158 authenticated patterns and 
types of Old Sandwich glass. 

12. INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 157 




The rarest of Old Sand 
wich Glass specimens the 
Sandwich Glass Bank., 
made in 1831,, with a dime 
of that date inserted* 
There are only eight of 
these banks k.noum to be 
in existence 



TO TI-IE MEMORY OF 
1VIY FATHER. AOSTD MOTHER 



TOOK. PRIDE 
TINT TFIEIR 



FOREWORD 



The passing of a century enhances the value and 
the charm of the products of art and industry which 
have gained world-wide recognition and fame as de 
sirable relics of a period beyond memory. The real 
value of an antique and the extent of its charm depend 
in large measure upon the romance that enlightens us 
concerning the craftsman and his product. 

Old glass has probably interested more people 
than any one creation in the category of antiques, 
No real connoisseur, however, would be satisfied with 
a collection without its history. Old Sandwich Glass 
is rich in history, unique in conception and design. 
The story of its production is replete with human 
interest. 

The son and grandson of Sandwich glassmakers, 
privileged to handle and study the original moulds, 
to enjoy personal intimacy with the craft and its 
craftsmen, and to have access in later years to the 
original Factory records, I submit that my knowledge 
qualifies me to speak with authority on this fascinat 
ing subject. 

I have in my possession the only existent certifi 
cate, issued to a journeyman glassmaker, signed by 
Deming Jarves, founder of the Sandwich Factory. It 
was presented to my grandfather, William Talbot, 
after two years of faithful indented apprenticeship and 
is dated December 1st, 1836. 



My father, Thomas H. Chipman, was a puntier. 
My mother, Annie Talbot Chipman, capped lamps. 
My uncle, George W. H. Chipman, had charge of the 
Mould Room. Another uncle, Charles W. Talbot, was 
an expert etcher. 

Many times I personally observed the oiling and 
cleaning of the moulds, studied the wonderful and in 
tricate designs that real craftsmen had conceived and 
executed, thereby fixing in my mind the patterns that 
give to Old Sandwich Glass its distinction and appeal. 

Given this background, I have written this book. 
At the request of many collectors, I have endeavored 
to make it primarily an informative and authoritative 
guide. Therefore, the detail and descriptive matter 
assembled constitute a considerable proportion of my 
story. However, it would be impossible to write 
about Old Sandwich Glass without entering the realm 
of romance that surrounds its history. The very in 
ception of the Sandwich Glass Factory and its sixty- 
three years of productive existence are replete with 
unique incidents. 

Sandwich Glass is as much a phase of early Amer 
ican life as cranberry sauce or baked beans and brown 
bread. It is associated in mind with the closed best 
room, the ingrain carpet, the chimney closet and the 
handcarved mantelpiece. The men who made it were 
translating the poetry of simple life into a language of 
line and form that was all their own. Under the arch 
ing elms of the Old Jarvesville yard, near the murmur 
ing sea, craftsmen were inspired and there they created. 



In writing this book, I have tried to establish 
something more than the superior quality of Old Sand 
wich Glass or to enumerate and define its various pat 
terns and colors. The impelling motive that prompted 
me to undertake the task was based on an earnest 
desire to interpret, to all who are interested, its real 
significance. 

It is my hope that I have so portrayed the crafts 
manship, the faithfulness and the constancy of Sand 
wich glassmakers, and the spirit of Deming Jarves, his 
associates and successors, as business idealists, that Old 
Sandwich Glass may have a value beyond its material 

or ornamental use. 

FRANK W. CHIPMAN 



A rear view of the Sandwich Factory from an old woodcut 





In this epergne the craftsmanship of Old Sandwich glass- 
makers approached its zenith. This bea^ltif^^l specimen is 
owned by Mrs. Charlotte Hall Chipman of Sandwich 



FROM SIDON TO SANDWICH 



Sandwich glassmakers were apprenticed "to learn 
the art, trade or mystery" of glassmaking. Today 
their art is lost; to most collectors it is a mystery. Vol 
umes have been written about glass, covering the 
marvels and principles of glassmaking, the curiosities, 
methods, designs and colors, but the Romance of Glass, 
has seemed to escape the attention of the numerous 
writers who have contributed to the subject. 

Has nobody discerned the romance? Or thought 
it of moment that this art, having no orderly progress 
of development from one enlightened step to the next, 
should spring "full-orbed" into being? Surely none 
who have pondered -on its rarities but will pronounce 
it good. 

I challenge 'anyone to find, in the entire scope of 
human invention, a more ingenious accomplishment 
than the art of making glass. "Although perfectly 
transparent itself, not one of the materials of which 
glass is made partakes of that quality," points out an 
early illustrator of its history. "A combination," he 
adds, "which aetfie period of its invention may have 
been as astounding as the identity of charcoal and the 
diamond established by the chemical philosopher of 
our time." 

Romance attended the very origin of glassmaking. 
Pliny relates the story thus: "Some Phoenician mari 
ners, who had a cargo of nitrum (salt, or, as some have 
supposed, soda) on board, having landed on the banks 
of the River Belus, a small stream, at the base of Mt. 
Carmel in Palestine, and finding no stones to rest their 
pots on, they placed under them some masses of nitrum, 



THE ROMANCE Of OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

which, being fused by the heat with the sand of the 
river, produced a liquid and transparent stream. Such 
was the origin of glass." Its discovery, over 5,000 
years ago, was an accident! 

Pliny goes on to tell us that the Sidonians, in whose 
vicinity the discovery was made, took it up and car 
ried the art to a high degree of excellence. It was they, 
with sand, and soda of the potash variety, who first 
developed glass. The Egyptians made glass 3,500 years 
ago and their conquerors, the Greeks and the Romans, 
continued and improved the art. The shaping of glass 
in these early days was done, of course, by blowing. 

So, long ago, the blowing-iron designated the 
glassmaker King of Fire and Air. Repressed, restricted, 
her creators penalized, the Spirit of Glass has lived on 
through the ages, appearing in multifold guises, now 
quiescent for centuries, now springing into view in 
some oddly beautiful phase. In the Middle Ages she 
lay dormant perhaps for ten centuries, then gloriously 
arose and greeted the dawn in cathedral windows. 
Whimsical, notional, after her long sleep, in this guise 
she elected to display her artistry. 

It seems that a halo of the unusual always has 
attached to the occupation of the glassmaker. It is 
well known that at one time in Venice a title of nobil 
ity was conferred on the men who made glass. It sug 
gests a glorious Utopia in which toil detracts in no 
measure from social standing, a social community in 
which the laborer sweating before his flaming furnace 
is equal in rank to the highest magnate. 

One wonders why glass is awarded this special 
dispensation from that which generally attaches to ar 
ticles of manufacture. In almost every art the artist 
brings something into objective vision by shaping or 
applying materials already to hand. With glass, the 

u 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

mysterious, the substance itself springs into being to 
gether with its design. So the actual creators of glass, 
even though their toil was menial, were regarded much 
as the artist who brings to life the masterpiece on 
canvas. 

Old Sandwich is the subject of my story. And 
because history will forever associate the name of Sand 
wich with glass, just as she names Pilgrim and Plym 
outh in a single thought, so one more town is added to 
that list which begins triumphantly with Sidon, flames 
to glorious light in Murano, rises to crystal heights in 
Bristol and Water ford, and ends (shall we think it?) 
in the little seaside town of Sandwich, Massachusetts. 

The Sandwich phase is contemporary so we may 
handle the charming subject close at hand, or bring it 
close to hand by delving into attics and corner cup 
boards, climbing on chairs to the dusty top shelf where 
rests the cobwebbed compote of Lincoln Drape and 
by just these methods what a reward was the writer's! 

AQUA HOMO'S ATTIC 

In the old garret of one Charles P. Waterman, 
amidst colonies of spiders building their state roads, 
there were brought to light numerous old account 
books, quite rusty with age, in which were pasted clip 
pings from copies of an old newspaper, THE SAND 
WICH REVIEW. These clippings contained articles on 
the Sandwich Glass Factory and were written under 
the head of Communications. They were signed "Aqua 
Homo", who our meagre knowledge of Latin leads us 
to believe was Waterman himself. 

Together with the account books were several 
lists written in ink and bearing the seal of The 
Boston and Sandwich Glass Company. These lists 
contained the names of articles manufactured, the 

17 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

quantities required, and what was doubtless the whole 
sale price of the manufacturer. Many familiar, some 
strange, patterns were recorded. 

Aqua Homo's Attic. Magic words! From this 
ancient conning tower I saw the great spectacle of 
Glass stretching toward me down the ages. The small- 
paned window, high among the elm branches, was suf 
ficiently elevated for me to look across the town to the 
beach and see the breakers frothing in; but I looked far 
beyond and saw an elastic, shining thread of glass 
stretching across the sea from far distant Phoenicia 
and Sidon to Massachusetts and Sandwich, a crystal 
thread uniting the ages and the understandings of men. 
The dead centuries came together like the bones in 
Ezekiel's prophecy, animated by the Spirit of Glass. 

THE PEG OF SERVICE 

Strange, I thought, that glass, which is capable 
of being at once perfectly adapted to a useful purpose 
and at the same time delightfully ornamental, does not 
seem really suited for purely decorative effects, at least 
when divorced from the semblance of utility. "Verres 
de Parade" and ornamental cups, vases and candlesticks 
are often exquisite pieces of decoration, but it seems 
that there must be this "peg" of service on which to 
hang the ornament or the result is unsatisfactory and 
almost tawdry. 

Glassworkers of an humble type seem to have felt 
this, for we find glass pipes that have never held to 
bacco, glass walking sticks that would smash at the 
least contact with a stone, and glass rolling pins which 
got no further toward the culinary department than 
the kitchen wall. I once saw a rolling pin, made in 
Sandwich, so marvelously ornate that it required a cat- 
alogue to make clear its identity. 



18 




This urn, a superb piece of Sandwich ruby, is treasttred by 

Mrs. Marion Jarves Alger of Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan, 

widow of Russell A. Alger, former Secretary of War. It was 

made especially for the Centennial Exposition in Paris 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

Of course, there was the witch ball, made both 
in England and Sandwich, but after all it also had an 
object of service. It was supposed to ward off disaster. 
It resembled a toy balloon of bright red or blue. 

There came a time, to be sure, when Sandwich 
Glass fell so low in the utilitarian scale that it was even 
used as playthings by the glassworkers' children. I 
have played "Duck-on-the-Rock" with pieces that to 
day would grace any collection. They were common 
then and familiarity bred indifference if not contempt. 

I remember very clearly two paper weights which 
were knocking about our house in Sandwich, years ago. 
They bore the rough mark or pontil on the bottom, the 
top was rounded, and inside, deep down, were what 
looked like little rosettes of colored ribbon which we 
children likened to Christmas candy. We used these 
paper weights as door stops. They had been produced 
in Sandwich, and in a variety of colors. Had we known 
that they were the honorable descendants of the Roman 
Millefiori and the Venetian Ball perhaps we might have 
treated them more decorously. 

OUT OF THE GULLET HEAP 

We are told that women of Phoenicia and Egypt 
ornamented their apparel with gems of glass in the 
form of beads. It is not likely that Hazel Blake French 
of Sandwich had in mind any thought of the women 
of two thousand five hundred years ago on that day a 
few years past when, crossing the yard of the old Bos 
ton and Sandwich Glass Works, she picked up a frag 
ment of glass from the cullet heap or waste pile. What 
she did have in mind was that same instinct that spoke 
in the ancient woman's love of personal adornment. 

The beauty of coloring of the piece of cullet 
amazed Hazel Blake French, and the idea was born that 

20 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



this sort of glass, if treated by a lapidary, could be made 
into beautiful and salable gems. These rough, colored 
pieces when smoothed, polished and shaped have been 
set in gold and silver mountings by Mrs. French who 
has exhibited them to Arts and Crafts Societies as her 
"Interpretative Jewelry". 

Amid the ruins of the Old Sandwich Factory, 
many glass fragments of beautiful colors are still nest 
ling while the waste heaps form a scientific and roman 
tic brotherhood with those of Tell-el-Amarna, Tyre, 
Sidon, Murano, Waterford, Chiddingford and Bristol. 

Sandwich has become co-equal with Venice, but 
instead of saying "This piece came from the Treasury 
of St. Mark's", we say, "This piece came from under 
the Town Hall where Kimball Chipman and his 
brother, William, used to manufacture marble bases 
for lamps", or "This came from Gaffer Lapham's 
house", or "This was found in the old well of the Fac 
tory Yard." 




Opal ^HU^BB.J^H Knobs 



22 



DEMING JARVES GOES SHOOTING 



The old Sandwich Glass Factory, or Boston and 
Sandwich Glass Factory as it was called, was founded 
by Deming Jarves, a pioneer in the glass industry in 
Boston. Mr. Jarves was enjoying his favorite pastime 
of bird shooting on the Sandwich marshes in 1824 
when he visioned and planned the Sandwich Factory 
which was destined to be one of the largest and most 
famous glassmaking establishments in the world. 

At the head of a navigable creek, extending from 
Cape Cod Bay through half a mile of marshland to an 
advantageous upland tract of more than thirty acres, 
Jarves saw the site for his plant. Within easy range of 
his vision, the hills of pine wood promised the desired 
source of fuel for the furnaces. 

It was in April, 1825, just after the inauguration 
of John Quincy Adams as President, that the erection 
of the buildings was begun. Besides the Factory there 
were fourteen or fifteen tenements for the workers, 
which later were sold to them on the installment basis 
of payment. A general store, a butcher shop and a 
barn for the company's teams also were erected. For 
the latter purpose, part of the rope walk that formerly 
stood not far from the old Providence depot in Boston 
was purchased and used as far as it would go. The 
original Factory accommodation was one small furnace 
of eight pots with a capacity of eight hundred pounds 
each. 

On July 4th, 1825, the first pot of glass was made. 
The sand for the purpose was taken from the common 
sand bank opposite the works. The townspeople gath 
ered around and crowded the workmen, who were 
facing experimental difficulties, and at last the man- 



23 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

agement was forced to close the doors. This first 
attempt did not meet with success although glass of a 
sort was obtained. 

The first product was cloudy in color and badly 
flecked, which clearly proved to the mixers of mate 
rials that Cape Cod sand was not at all suitable for 
glassmaking. The hard, fine pebbles failed to flux and 
it was obvious that the soft mealy sand of New Jersey 
or the Berkshires must be obtained. This accomplished, 
the production of quality glassware was no longer 
difficult. 

Many people still have the impression that the 
old Glass Factory was located at Sandwich because of 
the abundance of sand but this was not what Mr. 
Jarves had in mind when he selected the site. What he 
saw was a navigable creek, cheap land, and an abund 
ance of fuel at hand. 

THE QUEST FOR SAND 

The sand, for years, came from Morris River, 
New Jersey. One cargo was obtained from Pensacola 
and subsequently one from France, but neither was 
satisfactory. They later obtained sand from Lanes - 
boro, near the Window Glass Factory, but the small 
specks of fine clay which appeared throughout the 
melted glass again necessitated a change. This entailed 
difficulty, as a Mr. Smith of New York was said to have 
bought up every bed of quartz sand in Berkshire! 

The Company, therefore, sent Charles P. Water 
man to see if this were so and to a great extent it was 
found to be true. The farmers were being paid $50 
for the privilege of digging sand on their farms from 
Cheshire, with a few exceptions, down to Milford, 
Connecticut. Having arrived in Cheshire after dark 
and made a few enquiries, Mr. Waterman gathered a 

24 





V 



s? 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



little company around him as anxious to hear and know 
the object of the stranger's visit as he was to tell it. He 
found that they were not friendly to the speculations 
of Smith, that they were gratified with the knowledge 
of his visit, and with a lantern they conducted him to 
the wheel pit. In that old pit he took a sample of sand 
which, upon assay in Boston, proved to be 97% pure 
quartz sand. An old glass factory had formerly stood 
on the same plot of ground. 

This whole bed might have been purchased for a 
small sum. It was bought, later, by a gentleman from 
Salem, and hundreds of thousands of dollars worth 
were sold from it, some of the sand being shipped to 
England. Almost all the sand for first quality glass 
has been used from it by the Eastern glass factories. 

The cause of its purity, Mr. Waterman reported, 
was its having been washed, beyond the memory of 
man, by the outbreak of a lake back of the northwest 
ern spur of the Hoosac Mountain. In following down 
the western side of the mountain toward Pittsfield, he 
found the outcropping of sand extending to the Dalton 
road where iron ore suddenly appeared. Some of these 
beds of sand gave evidence of having been washed from 
the solid body of quartz rock high up the mountain, 
particularly that bed near the Lanesboro Window Glass 
Factory. Ten acres Waterman purchased for Deming 
Jarves. Larger acreage was acquired for the Sandwich 
Factory in this locality at a later time. 

Lead and potash were the other basic elements of 
high grade glass and to this day no substitutes have 
been found to equal them. These two ingredients gave 
to Sandwich glass its soft, velvety texture, brilliant 
sheen and that bell-like ring. In those days lead and 
potash were easily obtained and inexpensive, so pro 
curing them presented no problem. 



26 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

MAGIC IN THAT SANDPILE! 

Mr. Jarves had intended his factory to be a small 
personal enterprise but his agent had exceeded orders 
in the purchase of land. More capital was imperative. 
Little dreaming, probably, that his purchasing agent's 
over-zeal in the quest for sand was to work indirectly 
a miraculous expansion in his business and, in turn, the 
magic development of the town, he associated himself 
with Edmund Munroe, then treasurer of the New Eng 
land Glass Company, and with Captain William Stet 
son, in order to raise the needed operating funds. With 
these men he carried on the business until the Spring of 
1826, when a company was incorporated under the 
name of The Boston and Sandwich Glass Company. 
Following is an account of the incorporation: 

"Deming Jarves, Henry Rice, Andrew T. Hall, 
and Edmund Munroe were the incorporators with a 
capital of $300,000, the right to hold real estate to the 
amount of $100,000, and personal estate to the amount 
of $200,000. 

"The incorporators met at their office, April 19, 
1826, in the Exchange Coffee House in Boston, for a 
choice of officers and the adoption of by-laws for its 
internal government. They chose Samuel Hurst as 
clerk, Samuel P. P. Fay as director and president; 
Edmund Munroe, director and treasurer; Deming 
Jarves, agent; Benjamin Sewall, director; Andrew T. 
Hall, director. (A later and distinguished president of 
the Company was Joseph Howe, brother of Dr. Samuel 
Gridley Howe, the husband of Julia Ward Howe) . 

"Under the act of incorporation and terms of 
sale they received and took possession of all the prop 
erty of the Glass Manufactory established by Deming 
Jarves including the stock in the store conducted for 
the convenience and supply of the workmen, and con- 



27 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

sisting of West Indian, domestic and foreign goods, 
including 10 barrels of flour, 286 Ibs. of cheese, 29 
yards of cosinette, 114 gals, rum, 114 gals, cider. 

"This store from its first establishment proved 
unprofitable and the Company soon sold it to an indi 
vidual who succeeded no better, finally failed, and the 
avails were distributed among the creditors". 

The Corporation, finding its investment a profit 
able one, enlarged the buildings and the facilities for 
the manufacture and embellishment of glass. It im 
proved also conveniences of transportation for fuel 
and materials; developed means of mixing its own lead 
and refining the crude materials, and doing many other 
things which necessity requires and teaches the man 
agers of a glass factory are of vital importance to 
success. 

This was accomplished at an expense of from three 
to four hundred thousand dollars, taken out of actual 
earnings aside from regular dividends, which, with the 
exception of a few years, had been regularly paid. The 
actual expenditure for labor alone amounted to several 
million dollars. The greater part of this was expended 
in the town itself, furnishing means of support to a 
large number and greatly aiding the financial opera 
tions of the place. 

SANDWICH POCKETS WERE FULL 

For more than half a century the industry and the 
community thrived. Sandwich was a trading centre, 
a mecca for visitors, a live and prosperous town. 

The Corporation from the limited beginnings 
of Deming Jarves' personal enterprise, with a small 
eight-pot furnace, each pot of 800 Ibs. capacity; with 
a weekly melt of 7,000 Ibs. and a yearly production 
valued at $75,000; giving employment to 70 work- 



28 







The only journeyman glassmaker's certificate, signed by the 
founder of the Old Sandwich Factory, known to be m ex- 
L. Deninz Jtrves himself j ******. "* 
made my grandfather, William Talbot, a ffffi***** 
maker after he had served two years as a fazthful Rented 
apprentice at two dollars and fifty cents a week. Needless 
to say it is one of my most prized personal possessions The 
signature of Samnel P. P. Fay, at one time present of the 
Boston and Sandwich Glass Company also Pt" no * 
certificate with that of Mr. Jarves, who was at hat time 
the Company's agent and the directing genms of the Works 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

men was expanded in a short time to four large fur 
naces of ten pots each, with a weekly melt of more than 
100,000 Ibs., an annual production valued at $600, 000, 
and an increase from 70 to 500 workers! 

It is estimated that, during the half century the 
plant was operated, over $30,000,000 poured into the 
little town of Sandwich, and in those days a million 
dollars was a colossal sum. Even today the old Boston 
and Sandwich Glassworks would rank as no mean en 
terprise. 

The glassmakers seldom left town in quest of 
pleasure, finding the fishing and gunning of Sandwich 
lakes, streams and woods preferable to the allurements 
of an outside world. With no movies, autos or radios 
and few of the modern devices that furnish the trail 
for nickels and dimes, the workmen and their families 
applied most of their surplus money to the establish 
ment of homes and savings accounts. 

Local merchants were largely favored in the pur 
chase for family needs, and payments were made regu 
larly each Saturday night. Every farmer found a con 
stant market for his products at the homes of the glass- 
makers not only vegetables, butter, eggs and milk, 
but firewood which for years was the principal fuel. 

Hay that was unsuitable for cattle and horses was 
readily sold to the Company for use in packing the 
glass for shipment. 

NO SALESMEN WANTED 

The method used by the Sandwich Factory for 
disposing of its products sounds rather odd these days. 
Its very simplicity was remarkable. The management 
employed no salesmen for the road and did no advertis 
ing. They turned out their goods as fast as the fur 
naces would allow and stored them, having sometimes 

30 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

as many as 17,000 packages of glass in stock. Then, 
twice a year, in the Spring and Fall, the goods were 
shipped to New York and sold to jobbers. Later, sales 
rooms were established in Boston. 

It is recorded that an auction sale of glass on 
April 4th, 1856, at the Boston and Sandwich Factory 3 
amounted to more than $100,000 for that one day. 
The largest purchasers were from New York, San 
Francisco and Montreal 

There was always a ready market for Sandwich 
glass. The Factory ran at full capacity in times of 
low prices so that when prices rose the Company al 
ways had on hand a good supply of glass that had been 
produced as cheaply as that of any competitor. Expe 
rience had taught them that to run at less than capacity 
increased the cost of the product. 

ORDERS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE 

As early as 1840, the Boston and Sandwich Glass 
Company was recognized as the leading concern in 
America in the glass industry. This fact is attested 
by the record of orders for special and elaborate re 
quirements. 

The White House at Washington was supplied 
with its choicest of tableware, lamps and domes. Chan 
deliers, candelabras, vases and other ornamental glass 
creations were especially designed and made for homes 
and institutions. Sandwich exhibits shown at the 1876 
Centennial in Philadelphia were awarded first prize. 

Uninformed writers too frequently have drawn 
upon their imaginations or relied upon false informa 
tion concerning the quality and variety of glass made 
in the Sandwich Factory. Consequently many people 
still are under the impression that only a cheap grade 
and a limited variety were produced. I have often 

31 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



been told by interested visitors that they were surprised 
to learn that colored glass, milk white glass and over 
lay glass were made in Sandwich. Quite the contrary 
is true; in these very lines Sandwich surpassed. 

THEY WERE GOOD COOKS 

The first requisite in the production of quality 
glass, whether old or modern, was and is the selection 
of proper ingredients for making the metal. The next 
step relates to correct proportions for the mixture. 
Extremely important also is the matter of "cooking". 
Sandwich glassmakers excelled at their calling but like 
all good cooks they naturally turned out a cc batch" 
once in a while that was not quite uniform. 

Some years ago I had occasion to ask an old glass- 
maker how he could account for the fact that, among 
a number of Sandwich goblets, all of which were gen 
uine old specimens, some had a brighter sheen and a 
more resounding ring than others. Here is the answer 
he gave me: 

"No doubt in your boyhood days your mother 
made the bread which the family consumed. Now, 
did you ever hear her complain on some occasion that 
the bread did not turn out as well as usual? Did she 
not explain that she used the same brand of flour, the 
same kind of yeast cake and the same cow's milk? Did 
she not guess that the trouble was the oven was too hot 
or that the fire in the stove got low, and therefore the 
bread was not properly cooked? Well, that's just what 
happened to the inferior glass articles you find. The 
ingredients and the mixture were just as usual, but the 
furnace was too hot or too cold." 

So collectors need not be dismayed if some of their 
specimens have greater resonance or brighter lustre 
than others. 



32 



Above An Old Sand 
wich lamp with dan 
glers and engraved shade 
and a Sandwich Glass 
vase in the Grant pat 
tern. The window cur 
tains are held in place 
by a pair of opalescent 
curtain knobs 

At right An Old 
Sandwich whale oil 
lamp, a mby and. flint 
glass pitcher and a pair 
of opalescent picture 
knobs 



OLD SANDWICH 
GLASS IN A FITTING 
SETTING IN THE 
CAPE COD HOME 
OF MR. AND MRS. 
BENJAMIN R. POL 
LOCK AT WEST 
YARMOUTH, MASS. 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

THE "GLORY HOLE" 

Oak wood was used for the liers or ovens, and 
pine wood for the furnaces. The wood was split the 
entire length of the cord stick (three and one-half 
feet) with a thickness of about an inch in diameter. 
It was placed in an oven until it was sufficiently dry to 
ignite from a candle. This drying process is not un 
worthy of note. The wood was piled high on a brick 
floor in an arch with iron doors in front so constructed 
that the flames could play up behind the wood. 

The strange thing about this oven was that the 
wood never became ignited. When the water was all 
drawn out by this process the wood was darted, stick 
by stick, into the eye of the furnace, known as "the 
glory hole". This method was used for years, until 
coal fuel came into use. 

THE BULL -WAGONS 

In those days in Sandwich a common sight on the 
roads was the "bull-wagons", each having two yoke 
of oxen, one horse and a teamster. The Factory kept 
four of these bull wagons in operation. Two loads of 
pine wood were brought to the yards every other day, 
with the exception of Sundays, and on the intervening 
days, one load each, aggregating twenty-four cords 
a day. 

Pine forests were abundant. The "giant branches" 
were doing their bit of service. No government enact 
ments pertaining to deforestation brought distress to 
the hearts of the manufacturers. Note the contrast 
here between this condition in Sandwich and that in 
England when the edict went forth concerning forests. 
In the Seventeenth Century in England was issued "The 
Proclamation Touching Glasses", which read: "Rather 



34 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

than lose the wood (so important to ship building) it 
were the lesser evil to reduce the times into the ancient 
manner of drinking in stone, and lattice windows, than 
to suffer the loss of such treasure." There was no such 
cry in our country to bar wood from utilitarian pur 
poses in order to build men-of-war. 

Later, however, the Company experimented with 
other kinds of fuel for the "glory holes". For instance, 
in 1850 they tried resin and had it on hand in such 
large quantities that at the beginning of the Civil War 
700 barrels were sold to the Federal Government for 
$44 a barrel. As the resin had cost only 62 cents a 
barrel it is reasonable to suppose that the directors had 
an eye to "the main chance". Shortly after the Civil 
War, when the Factory erected its own gas plant for 
illumination, coke was used in the Hers. So far as 
known this was the first time this fuel was employed 
in glassmaking. 

THE HORSE RAILROAD 

Transportation was a big problem in the early 
days of the Factory. There were no railroad facilities 
until 1848. The harbor was choked with sand and 
was situated a half mile from the plant. The channel 
of the creek from the Factory to the harbor, through 
which vessels were reached by scows, was so tortuous 
that it occasioned great inconvenience, particularly 
in winter. This little channel in later years was used 
only by fishermen to go back and forth in their dories 
to their nets or to unload their larger craft at the fish 
houses. 

In 1827, a horse railroad was built across the 
marsh to the water. It cost the Company less than 
$400, for labor and material were cheap in those days. 
This railroad was said to be the first of its kind ever 

35 




Ruby vases 
with spiral 
flint ribbon 



PIECES FROM THE CPIIPMAN FAMILY COLLECTION 



Small 
jug 
in 

Block 

pattern 

and 

cruet 

in 

Raised 

Diamond 

design 




Sapphire 

jugs with 

flint bandies 




MORE PIECES FROM THE CHIPMAN COLLECTION 




Blown 

engraved 

goblets 

from 

a set 

which was 

my father's 

wedding 

present 

to my 

mother 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



built in this country and it excited much curiosity 
and comment throughout the United States. It was 
used for transporting the lighter materials. Heavier 
stuff, which came in big vessels, was trans-shipped by 
lighters via a canal dug through the marsh up to the 
Factory wharf. This channel cost the Company 
something like $12,000, although aided by two days' 
voluntary labor by the citizens of Sandwich. 

In 1848 the steam railroad was built through 
Sandwich but rates were prohibitive, and in 1853 the 
Company built a steamer, The Acorn, which brought 
light supplies and sometimes passengers from Boston. 
Later the railroad came to terms and the valiant Acorn 
was sold to the government and eventually lost off 
the Virginia Capes. 

WORLD-WIDE FAME 

As time went on and the business expanded, the 
plant was enlarged and equipped to handle adequately 
the ever-increasing demand for its products which 
gained world-wide fame as quality glass. 

In 1853, by special act of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, the capital stock of the Company was 
increased to $600,000. Six years later, in February, 
1859, it was decided by the directors to reduce the 
capitalization to $400,000, and legislation was sought 
and obtained to that end. 

The plant ran twenty-four hours a day and the 
hours were divided into shifts. One quota of men 
worked from one in the morning until six in the 
morning, and one in the afternoon until six in the 
evening, while another group worked the intervening 
hours. There was one hour between shifts and a short 
period for meals. But this was for only four days a 



38 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

week. The plant closed on Friday morning and re 
mained closed until Monday morning. 

When the works first started, there were five 
shops. Wages were as follows: The gaffers received 
from $14 to $17, weekly; the servitors, $14; the foot- 
makers, $6; and the boys, $3; for unskilled adult 
work, blacksmiths, wood-driers and laborers, $6. 

During the last twenty years of the Factory's 
existence as an operating plant, these wages were in 
creased about one hundred per cent. 

BOUNTY FOR THE BOYS 

The boys employed worked ten hours a day and 
attended the village school in either the morning or 
afternoon. These boys were allowed to work glass 
in their spare time and so had an opportunity to learn 
the business. If a boy turned out a creditable piece 
of glass, the cutters would cut and present it to him 
by way of encouragement. Every boy received a 
present of fifty cents for firecrackers on the Fourth 
of July. This kindly spirit seems to have prevailed 
throughout the entire organization, due, without 
doubt, to the nature of the man who controlled it. 

In cleaning, smoothing and polishing glassware 
in the Factory, wooden brush wheels with bristles 
several inches long were used. When these bristles 
were worn down, the wheels were discarded and it 
was the privilege of every boy in town to go to the 
Factory Yard and help himself to these wheels. Most 
of us took at least four and, with home-made axles 
and wooden boxes, we made our carts. 

Thornton W. Burgess, the well known author 
of Peter Rabbit and Bedtime Stories, a native of Sand 
wich, while attending the public schools made his 
rounds of the Sandwich Glass Factory twice a week 

39 






. 

4- 

' 



4 - ' 



v-~ 





y of ))% of t 



tl ibo 



wiv it tlw pg f 

jf B tfJiS^ !iw, 4? tenl AnFMttH tfc *iJ 5I*rt* wiU 

t >, at>J his ia*fuf cuitvtnawl* duly &t*'y. H >hll ilo i dawage to hU wU Mmcr, r MtSer It 
fey ltr, wfthoM civiBjr **** DOW iWwoT to M> Ml* HHI Ikf,*}^ mm* 
Mwff. iwr Vrf them MilwrMfjr y- He vluli 
M x.inii aj' jwi of ieo o 
dtnp, ml t H uuw, fa* 
:t;l i unhfu! Appr,n,u- e w*]i 10 Jt>, dun^ aJl tbr term 



1 



n tlw aft, tntJ o 
wa ytnan 

a.id Apprmico be capaWe to Iwn,) (!, Jaritu; itw wtd ttrta, 10 rind and pwvjJc wio iii . 
CUnit 



.0 v 








Indenture certificate signed by John Nokel when he was 
apprenticed to learn the art of flint glass cutting at Sandwich 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

in the early eighties and sold candy, which his mother 
made, to the glassmakers for one cent a stick. Burgess, 
and numerous other boys of his school days, including 
myself, made frequent trips to the old Factory Yard 
in quest of the brushwheels. 

THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM 

The glassmakers of the early days of the Sand 
wich Factory came from England and Ireland where 
glassmaking had been a long established industry, by 
virtue of which these workmen were skilled and ex 
perienced in the art. Later, some came from France, 
Germany and Belgium. 

The servitors, footmakers and boys required to 
assist these skilled artisians were employed from the 
local community. These helpers, who entered the 
Sandwich Factory with the intention of becoming 
competent glassmakers, were required to become in 
dented apprentices to the Company for a period of two 
years. Faithful and earnest application of time and 
talent was exacted as well as correct deportment 
toward the superintendent and fidelity to the Com 
pany. These conditions complied with, the appren 
tice became an accredited journeyman glassmaker at 
the end of two years. 

This system was established and operated with 
out difficulty and as a result the succeeding years de 
veloped the necessary number of finished workmen 
to provide the Sandwich plant with such high grade 
talent as its growth demanded. Probably no one thing 
contributed in greater measure to the success and pres 
tige of the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company. 



41 




Morning Glory compote which is in the Sandwich Historical 
Society collection a very rare piece 

Oval lace glass dish in Shield pattern and stippled sugar bowl 
in Grape pattern. Owned by Mrs. W. Hubert Wood 




PRESSED WARE DISTINCTIVE 



While Mr. Jarves established his Sandwich Fac 
tory, in 1825, as a glass blowing plant, in conformity 
with the universal method of commercial glassmaking 
at that time, it is important to keep in mind the fact 
that the Sandwich Glass which became famous and 
distinctive was the pressed ware. This, in large 
measure, superseded the blown glass after 1830. 

It is sometimes said that the method of pressing 
glass was discovered in this country but Deming 
Jarves, writing in the year 1865, states that "fifty 
years back," he imported from Holland salts made in 
metallic moulds, and from England glass candlesticks 
and table centre bowls. The fact is, however, that 
the Old World glass industry made very limited 
progress in moulding glass and failed to put this 
method on a really productive basis. 

During the first five years of the Sandwich enter 
prise, considerable experimentation was made before 
a workable and productive plan of moulding glass was 
perfected. In 1827 a pressed tumbler was produced 
but it was unsatisfactory due to the faulty mould. 

THE FIRST PIECE MADE 

A pungent or smelling bottle was shortly after 
ward moulded, sufficiently perfect to be accredited 
as the first real pressed article made in the Sandwich 
Factory. It was incidentally the first piece of pressed 
glass made in America. This bottle was presented to 
Charles "Waterman, a purchasing agent of the Com 
pany and the Aqua Homo of our story, who kept and 
cherished it through his life. 



43 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

In the early thirties the moulding process was 
wonderfully perfected and in 1835 a set of glass plates 
of varied size was shipped to England. It is recorded 
that the style and finish of this consignment astonished 
the trade. 

In the Sandwich Factory the glass was pressed in 
metal moulds with the figures cut in the plunger. The 
blown-in-the-mould method was tried with wooden 
moulds and was unsuccessful because the molten glass 
ignited the moulds. It is said that a carpenter origi 
nated this idea of the wooden mould and Mr. Jarves 
gave it a fair trial. Necessity fathered the introduc 
tion later of moulds of steel, iron and brass. These 
were made in sets, the lower dish having a pattern 
traced upon its surface. Into this receptacle was 
poured the molten glass and a second steel dish or 
plunger was pressed down upon it. 

From the beginning there was an ever-present 
spirit and ambition among the Sandwich glassmakers 
to achieve greater things, and this inspiration was 
encouraged and stimulated by the officials to the end 
that rapid progress was made in the construction of 
moulds and the production of high grade glass. 

THE EARLIER PATTERNS 

The earlier patterns were of old Irish and ;Eng~ 
lish designs, as the first workmen came from those 
countries, but, later, designs of a distinctly American 
tendency were originated, equally lovely in beauty of 
sentiment and form. 

Lace glass was originated in the Boston and Sand 
wich Glass Factory about 1835. This lace glass is 
superior to any pressed glass ever made, not only in 
the excellence of -quality of the metal but also in the 
marvelous construction of the moulds. Some com- 



44 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



pound was used in mixing the metal which brought 
a silvery sheen to the glass which was never equalled 
in any other factory. The designs were of extreme 
fineness and very beautiful, giving the pattern a 
frosted, lacy appearance. These lace articles are easily 
the aristocrats of the Glass Kingdom. 

There seemed never to be any monotony of form 
or design in these glass objects; indeed, the imagina 
tion that conceived them was quite as ductile as the 
substance on which it operated. 

Realizing that the moulding process provided the 
opportunity for intricate and exquisite patterns, which 
could not possibly be produced by the blowing process, 
it can readily be understood why the Sandwich Factory 
developed the pressing method and captured the glass 
market ahead of competitors. 

THE ORIGIN OF ODDITIES 

The workmen in the early days were allowed, 
when they had finished a "move" (all glass was made 
in "moves") to make things for themselves during the 
time between that move and the next one, an hour 
or two perhaps. This accounts for the miscellaneous 
quantities of glass bibles, paper weights, boots, shoes, 
pipes, bellows, smugglers, canes, rolling-pins, hats, 
barrels, flatirons, and the like, that are found in Sand 
wich homes. 

In later years, the men were still allowed to make 
things for themselves but they were obliged to pay 
for the glass. For instance, if a man wanted a lamp 
for his home, when it was finished it was sent upstairs 
and weighed and the workman would pay for the 
weight. As glass was about fourteen cents a pound, 
he could even then acquire a lamp very cheaply. So 
in these Sandwich homes men were accumulating little 



46 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

objects of glass made for use as well as amusement 
during spare hours. 

The fine old paper weights with their vari-colored 
centres of fruit, floral and conventional designs were 
not a commercial output of the Factory but rather 
fanciful creations of the workmen for ornamental 
purposes. These colorful centres were made at the 
homes of a few skilled artisans during long winter 
evenings by means of an alcohol lamp, a small blow 
pipe and slim rods of colored glass. The finished 
centre was then taken to the Factory, reheated and 
cupped with a gob of plain glass. 

In 1880 a special committee of the Massachusetts 
Legislature visited the Sandwich Factory for the pur 
pose of inspecting the plant and witnessing the actual 
operation of glass making. 

Edward Haines was requested to make a lamp 
with a handle. He gathered a gob of metal, shaped 
the bowl and foot and attached three handles in less 
than two minutes for the edification of the solons 
present. This freak lamp was then presented to the 
chairman of the committee as a souvenir of the 
occasion. 

A favorite whimsy of skilled workmen for home 

A Peach Blow tumbler, a Black Bear match box and a Pansy 
paper weight Old Sandwich specimens 




47 




Glass pens from the Chipman family collection, which illus 
trate a type of the famous threaded ware 

adornment was a colored flask, or as it was called in 
the early days a "smuggler." These were made in 
pint and half pint sizes of flint glass with threaded 
or lineal bands in milk white, pink, ruby or blue shades. 
Two and three colors were often used. 

AND STILL IT GREW 

The first five years of operation convinced 
Deming Jarves and his associates that the Sandwich 
Factory was destined to become a large and remuner 
ative industry so it was planned again to enlarge and 
equip the plant to meet the requirements which their 
vision commanded. 

Not only were more furnaces built and addi- 
ional men employed but facilities were added for fur 
nishing the industry with all of the required acces 
sories. 

A separate building was erected for making the 
barrels and casks that were used in shipping the glass. 



48 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



The staves and hoops were brought to the Factory by 
boat and the casks were assembled by a force of seven 
men in the Cooper's Shop. 

There was also the Blacksmith's Shop where 
another crew turned out the iron and steel plates upon 
which the glass was rolled and shaped by the blowerSc 
Here also moulds were repaired, tools made for the 
glassmakers and all metal work carved. 

The Carpenters' Shop employed a number of 
men who were constantly busy making and repair 
ing benches, racks for the glass, and attending to 
various repair and construction work in wood. 

Another large unit was the Packing House which 
kept a force of workers constantly busy. Large bins 
were constructed for storing the packing-hay, many 
tons of which were secured during the summer and 
fall months from the farmers for packing the glass 

A flint Dolphin set picked up by Mrs. Edna Clark 









49 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



that was shipped to all parts of the civilized world. 

The Pot Room, so called, was established as an 
important factor in the industry. In this department 
the clay was mixed and trodden for days by barefoot 
men until the mixture was ready for heating and 
shaping into pots. Into these clay receptacles the in 
gredients for making glass were poured and heated 
from the furnace until the molten mass was properly 
"cooked" and ready for blowing or pressing into 
various forms or shapes of finished glass. 

The pot makers in the Sandwich Factory were 
always busy, for pots cracked frequently, and new 
ones must always be on hand to replace the damaged 
ones. The approximate expense for each pot was 
reckoned "anywhere between fifty to one hundred 
dollars." The capacity of each pot was fifteen hun 
dred pounds. 

THE OLD GAS HOUSE 

Another early improvement, due to Mr. Jarves' 
foresight, was the erection of a Gas House in the Fac 
tory Yard, where gas was generated and supplied 
to the different departments of the plant and to many 
stores and dwelling houses in the town as well. 

The Old Gas House served another purpose than 
generating light, one quite unique and apart from the 
common use of gas for illuminating. I refer to a 
custom which prevailed for years, that of allowing 
every boy or girl in the town who had whooping 
cough to spend an hour a day in the tar room inhaling 
the fumes. I am unable to furnish information as to 
who was responsible for the adoption of this practice 
nor can I explain the theory, but I am a living example 
of one who survived the ordeal and questioned, then 
as now, the benefit as compared with the torture. 



50 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

GLASS WITH A SOUL 

Deming Jarves, born in Boston, of English par 
ents, possessed an indomitable zeal for an education 
that would enable him to sustain himself in the walks 
of life to which he aspired. With the natural energy 
of a mind that fully developed itself as the busy scenes 
of life opened to his view, he did attain it. 

In the early dawn of manhood he became a part 
ner in the crockery business in Boston under the firm 
name of Jarves & Henshaw, which came suddenly to 
a close during the great business crisis of 1818-19. He 
then became connected with the New England Glass 
Company while it was in its infancy, acting as its 
agent until 1824. 

Endowed with keen business instinct and a re 
markable power for grasping the practical phases of 
production, Mr. Jarves, during his limited experience 
with the New England Co., was able to envision the 
future possibilities of the glass industry. In fact, his 
early venture in Sandwich may well be designated 
as the foundation of that industry in pressed glass- 
making. The rapid growth and development of the 
Sandwich plant was the concept of Deming Jarves. 

There was another and softer side to his nature* 
During the hard times of 1840, the Company gave 
the rents to its tenants. Mr. Jarves himself opened 
a store and furnished all the actual necessities of life 
to those who were not able to supply themselves; and 
for years his annual gift at Christmas time to the 
widows of former workmen was a barrel of flour. 

These humane acts attest in part the very fine 
nature of the man, his deep sensibility, and the senti 
mental turn of mind which his writings portray. 
Jarves himself was a part of the Romance of Glass. 
He saw the poetry in his product. Glass to him 

51 




O 

O 



JA 

<o t*j o 

^ <, 

r4 ^\ 



S^ 

o o 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



meant something more than a manufactured com 
modity, and progress meant triumph in art rather than 
prestige in business. The latter he seemed to subordi 
nate to a certain ideal, the object of which was 
cheaper cost of manufacture that the poor might be 
provided with glass to beautify their homes at prices 
within their means. 

All through Mr. Jarves 5 "Reminiscences" we 
discern that spirit of regard for his fellowman's wel 
fare. His adjectives invariably express beauty. He 
chose his words with a purist's sense of their meaning. 
"Purity of materials" seems to have meant more to 
him than the mere words imply. 

Frank Kern and Joseph Marsh were several times 
rewarded by their employer for perfection attained in 
metal and new color discoveries. These diligent and 
ambitious workmen built and operated miniature fur 
naces in the cellars of their homes for the purpose of 
experimentation. The tests made in this way were 
less expensive than would have been possible in the 
Factory but were none the less valuable and commend 
able. Mr. Kern and Mr. Marsh revelled in their re 
search and contributed in generous measure to the 
Romance of Sandwich Glass. 

There were others, many of them, in the Machine 
Shop designing moulds; at the Furnaces working the 
metal; in the Mixing Room measuring and blending 
the glass ingredients; in the Cutting and Engraving 
departments designing, creating, objectifying their 
ideas. Thus the Factory was operated not merely for 
financial gain but with an everpresent stimulus to 
create glass "with a soul". This I call romance; imagi 
native in concept, fruitful in result blessing the 
toiler with contentment and crowning his achievement 
with merited reward. 



53 




IS 

o 



o 

V. 



g 

e> 



O 
<o 



H^ 

O 



MEN AND WOMEN WHO WROUGHT 



While Deming Jarves was the guiding genius in 
the early days of the Sandwich Factory 3 the success 
of the enterprise and the outstanding quality of its 
products were in generous measure due to expert 
workmen identified with the conduct of the business 
during its sixty-three years of active operation. 

Charles Lapham, my neighbor, a lovable char 
acter, known to many youngsters of his time as 
"Grandpa" Lapham, the man who gathered the first 
piece of glass on July 4th, 1825, was a noted gla ; ss- 
maker. 

William Kern, who died a few years ago in New 
Bedford, at the age of ninety-two, was a recognized 
glass expert and for years general superintendent of 
the Sandwich Factory. 

Others who stood high in the list of glassmakers 
were John Nokel, Theodore Kern, Henry Kern, Hiram 
Dillaway, John Lovett, Robert Matthews, Christopher 
Muldoon, Luther Drake, Henry Lapham, Frank Lap- 
ham, Edward Collins, Edward Haines, Nicholas Lutz, 
Thomas Dean, Patrick and Peter Swansey, Michael 
Grady, Patrick Mahoney, Freeman Swift, Benjamin 
Haines and Adolphe Bonique. 

Following the Civil War there was a glass Cutting 
department established under the supervision of 
Nehemiah Packwood, an expert cutter and designer. 

Then the Etching department was added with 
Frank Lapham, James Corbett and Charles W. Talbbt 
supervising the work of acid production, 

William Kern, George Lafayette Fessenden and 
Henry W. Spurr were the superintendents who 
directed the Factory operations from the end of Jarves' 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

reign until the close of the plant in the year 1888. 
Charles Waterman was a prominent man in the 
Business department and James D. Lloyd was both a 
glass expert and a bookkeeper. In fact, Mr. Lloyd was 
known as a color evolutionist and his famous book of 
recipes was recently sold by his son, Charles S. Lloyd, 
to a New York museum for a substantial sum. 

MASTERS OF THEIR ART 

While Sandwich glassmakers were accustomed 
to, and capable of, producing all the varied types of 
articles made, many of them specialized in certain 
lines. 

John Lovett and Robert Matthews were castor 
place workmen, most of their creations being of the 
heavier type of glass, such as large bowls, lamps and 
goblets. 

Christopher Muldoon was an expert in making 
wine and champagne glasses. Nicholas Lutz was the 
Factory expert in the production of colored glass and 
the premier in producing paper weights. 

James Grady, Michael Grady, William McHugh, 
John T. McArdle and Mr. Lutz excelled in threaded 
ware. 

Charles Lapham, William Kern, Edward and 
Benjamin Haines, Joseph Marsh and the gaffers whose 
names appear in the early shop records were all-round 
glassmakers. 

Luther Drake was an acknowledged genius in 
making the engraved glass window-panels described 
in another chapter. 

Thomas Martin was a wizard in turning out 
colored glass pipes and canes. Colored glass pens were 
also one of Mr. Martin's specialties. 

Margaret Brady officiated as the examiner of cut 



56 




Gaffer Charles W. Lapbam, the man who gathered the first 
piece of glass in the Old Sandwich Factory on July 4, 1825 



glass for many years. It was her function to scrutinize 
carefully every piece of cut ware that was turned out 
and to determine whether the finished article was 
perfect. 

Nellie McArdle tested the stoppers for jugs, 
cruets and bottles. She saw to it that the stoppers 
fitted. 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

FORTY YEARS WITH COMPANY 
Henry K Spurr, general manager from 1880 until 
1888, the closing date of operation, was forty years 
in the employ of the Company. He began his duties 
as a clerk in the Boston warerooms in 1849 when he 
was but seventeen years old and won his way event 
ually to the superintendency of the Factory. 

In 1859, when Mr. Spurr was married, the Com 
pany presented him with a set of glassware which in 
cluded all the articles of tableware to the number of 
one hundred and forty-four pieces. This set was en 
graved in the Curtain pattern and initialed. At a fair 
held in the Town Hall the glassmakers of the Sand 
wich Factory donated a gold-headed cane to be 
awarded the most popular citizen of Sandwich. Mr. 
Spurr received the highest number of votes and won 
the cane. This cane is now the property of Frank 
Spurr, his eldest son. 

The set of glassware given Mr. Spurr as a wedding 
present has been divided between his four children, 
Frank Spurr of Boston, Eliot W. Spurr of Melrose, 
Russell Spurr of Brookline, and Mrs. Frederick Caul- 
kins of Medford. Each also has a special toilet bottle 
of Sandwich Factory creation with a photograph of 
the owner, as a child, placed on the side of the bottle 
beneath a glass medallion. 

The name of Frank Lapham recalls to mind an 
incident which throws light on the spirit of those days 
in Sandwich. The people always met returning long 
distance travelers with a brass band. This incident 
shows that the Factory was very near to the hearts of 
all, that it was a vital interest in their lives. Mr. Lap- 
ham was sent to England to learn the art of etching on 
glass. On his return trip the boat stopped at Queens- 
town and the people of that place came on board with 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

things to sell. Lapham bought a sprig of mistletoe. 
When he arrived at Sandwich, the brass band was at 
the station to meet him. There was a church fair in 
progress and he was escorted to the fair where he gal 
lantly presented the mistletoe to Miss Eliza Murphy, 
who auctioned it off for eighteen dollars. 

THE FRATERNAL SPIRIT 

And here we may insert a testimonial as it was re 
ported in the local newspaper in 1860, which carries 
out this idea of the fraternal spirit that prevailed 
among the Sandwich workers : 

Mr. George L. Fessenden, paymaster of the Bos 
ton & Sandwich Glass Co., in this place, was highly 
complimented by the workmen in that manufactory, 
on Wednesday, by the presentation of an elegant serv 
ice of silverware, as a testimonial of their appreciation 
of the urbanity and gentlemanly courtesy which have 
characterized his demeanor while discharging his duties 
in that capacity, and for his uniformly accommodating 
and manly treatment of the operatives at all times and 
seasons. 

The ware, which is of a very chaste and neat de 
sign, the knob on the cover of the sugar bowl repre 
senting two elegantly carved aerons, comprised three 
pieces, a sugar bowl, cream cup and finger bowl, each 
of them inscribed as follows: 

Presented to 

GEORGE L. FESSENDEN 

By the workmen of the Boston 

and Sandwich Glass Co. as a 

token of respect and esteem. 

February 22nd 1860 

The service was purchased of Messrs. Bigelow 
Brothers & Kennard, Boston, and cost about $110. In 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

making up the sum required to purchase it, the con 
tributors were limited to fifty cents each. During the 
last few days, the ware has been on exhibition at the 
Post Office, attracting the attention of every one by its 
beauty and artistic finish. 

The presentation was a matter of surprise to Mr. 
Fessenden, who on some frivolous pretext was invited 
into the Cutting shop and in the presence of and sur 
rounded by over three hundred of the operatives, was 
addressed by Mr. James Ingraham, in presenting the 
valuable gift, as follows: 

"Mr. Fessenden: Summoned thus unexpectedly 
to yourself into this company, the inquiry naturally 
arises in your mind, 'What is it all about?' 

"But, sir, if you have any apprehension as to your 
personal safety, and if one may speak for the host of 
your wellwishers, I would say, "do thyself no harm', 
for we are not half of us here. 

' c lt is true, as you look around on this company, 
your eye may light upon here and there a 'blower' 
or a 'cutter', yet we assure you there are none here to 
'blow' coldly upon you, or to give you any 'unkind 
cut' nor any disposed at all to 'cut' your acquaintance. 
"But aside from this random talk as I was think 
ing of the occasion that has now brought us together, 
it occurred to me how mutually dependent we are upon 
each other (and how prone to forget that dependence) 
for much of the happiness of life; and how many of 
the rough and thorny places of life's journey may be 
made comparatively smooth and pleasant by the gen 
eral cultivation of the spirit of courtesy and kindness. 
"A kind word the friendly greeting any mani 
festation of fellow feeling will find a response in the 
heart, though that heart beat beneath ever so rough an 
exterior. 



The women of the Lamp Department in the Decorating Shop 



The men of the Lamp Department in the Decorating Shop 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

"We were reminded this morning, by the merry 
tones of the bells, that this is the anniversary of the 
birthday of the Father of his Country. 

"What gives the memory of Washington the place 
in the affections of his countrymen which it occupies 
today? Was he wise in council? Was he humane as 
well as brave in war? These, doubtless, endeared him 
to the hearts of the men of his own day but these were 
but the good tree, while at the root and underlying 
these was the simple fact that the law of truth and 
kindness was written upon his heart." 

THE TUMBLER COUNT 

There was native wit and humor aplenty among 
those early Sandwich glassmakers, many of whom, as 
I have said, came from Ireland. A certain gaffer and 
one of his workmen had a standing joke with which 
they used to regale the shop whenever the gaffer paid 
a visit. 

"How many tumblers have yez there?" the gaffer 
would ask. 

"Well, if figgers don't lie I have so many." 

"How many times have I told yez they're the 
domdest liars in the country if yez dont place thim 
roight," would be the gaffer's invariable rejoinder. 
The shopmen laughed as heartily each time as if they 
never had heard it before. 

OLD TURN-OUT 

John Donovan, who was the grandfather of my 
wife, was night watchman at the Sandwich Factory 
for many years although he managed to carry on a 
farm during the daytime. 

When Mr. Donovan left the plant at six in the 
morning, before going to his home, he made the rounds 

62 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

of the glassmakers' homes, rapped on each door and 
shouted, "Turn out", thus preparing the workmen for 
their seven o'clock appearance at the plant. 

In consequence of this daily performance, Mr. 
Donovan was known about town as "Old Turn Out." 

BIBLES AND FISTS 

It is to be presumed that the language of the Sand 
wich workmen was always held within decorous 
bounds, for two Methodist ministers, Joseph Marsh and 
Benjamin Haines, were among the gaffers employed 
and they carried their Bibles to work each day. 

Those old Sandwich glassmakers were two-fisted 
men, however. They raised their sons, not to seek bat 
tle but never to run from a fight if it were thrust upon 
them and they countenanced no "draw" decisions. 
Witness this incident: 

The son of one respected glassmaker played on 
the town baseball team. Unknown to the youngster, 
his dad used to attend all the games in which the boy 
played. Whether the lad's playing were good or bad, 
no comment ever had come from his father until one 
day something happened that "drew fire". 

It was at a closely fought game; the teams were 
keen rivals* The boy of our story was on second base. 
The man at bat drove a hit over the shortstop's head 
and a score was certain for Sandwich. Losing his head, 
the rival shortstop tripped the runner as he dashed past 
on his way to third. The runner got up and blacked 
the shortstop's eye. Players and spectators rushed on 
the field and parted them. The game went on to its 
ninth inning conclusion. Who won is not material to 
our story. After it was over, the glassmaker's son went 
home to supper. 

None of the family alluded to the scrap as they 

61 




An eight-inch Lace glass plate with Peacock Feather border, 
beaded edge and Thistle centre 



sat down to the evening meal. It was a large family 
and there was much to talk about. Our ballplayer 
thought he was "getting away with it" but, when a 
lull came in the conversation, his father looked up at 
him and asked quietly: 

"That feller hit you today, didn't he, Tommy?" 
"Yes, dad," replied Tom. 
"Why didn't you hit him back?" 
"I did," protested Tom. "I blacked his eye." 
"He kept on playing, didn't he?" pursued his 
father to which there could be no satisfactory answer. 



THE MOULDS-ACME OF SKILL 



Moulds and patterns are inseparable and it is un 
thinkable to admire a beautiful old specimen of Sand 
wich pressed glass and dissociate it from the mould in 
which it was cast. Designing and constructing moulds 
was indeed a very important side of the industry. 

The Machine Shop, as it was referred to by Dem- 
ing Jarves, was operated by men of vision, artistic taste 
and creative ability. In this shop the moulds were de 
signed and constructed. 

One of the early and outstanding men of this de 
partment was Clement Bassett, an early Sandwich set 
tler. Newell Hoxie, of Old Quaker stock, was another 
genius in this phase of the industry. Hiram Dillaway 
was responsible for a number of original patterns. 
James Monnock, James Perry, Thomas Sweeney, John 
Haley and David Turpie were skilled workmen who 
kept this branch of the business on a high standard* 
These artisans were not only skilled in craftsmanship 
but faithful and patient in their very natures. 

TOOK MONTHS TO MAKE MOULDS 

The moulds in which Sandwich Lace Glass and 
other intricate designs were pressed were not made in 
a day or a week. Months were required for a single 
mould, as can be attested with authority. In one in 
stance, as revealed in the letter of Deming Jarves to 
Daniel Webster, the mould that produced the famous 
"Union Bowl" required the constant services of two 
men for a period of six months. 

Right here it seems pertinent to interpose that in 
America today there are few, if any, artisans trained or 



65 




bo 


O 



2 



<J 

I 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

inclined to duplicate this work. There is neither cap 
ital nor desire to produce in this painstaking way. The 
basic ingredients that were used to produce high grade 
glass in those days are too expensive for most of the 
glass made for everyday use in this era. I would offer 
this as my answer to many persons who have asked why 
some factory does not again produce glass like Old 
Sandwich. 

A large section of the front of the Factory was set 
apart for the storage and care of the moulds. It was 
called the Mould Room. Numerous shelves held these 
valuable moulds and here they were oiled, cleaned and 
kept in readiness for glassmaking. For years my uncle, 
George W. H. Chipman, had charge of this department. 
Several women were always employed for this work. 
Elizabeth and Margaret Shields and Ellen Finn were 
long connected with the duties of the Mould Room. 

DESIGNS CARVED IN WOOD 

The designs were carved in wood and then cast 
in iron or brass moulds. A few were of graphite and 
steel. Presses were made of wood and metal, usually 
iron. The mould was set in the press and a plunger 
forced down into the mould when the molten metal 
was ready for the operation. The molten metal was 
taken from the pot by means of a gathering iron and 
dropped into the mould. In making the smaller arti 
cles, such as "banker's inks" (or inkwells), the metal 
was taken from the pot in ladles. 

When the article was cooled to a sufficient degree 
it was removed from the mould and placed in the Her 
for further heating and cooling. When removed from 
the Her or oven the article was listed. 

In some instances companies which purchased 
their glass from the Sandwich Factory furnished their 

67 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

own moulds. These were shipped to Sandwich and an 
order was given for the making of such quantities as 
might be desired. The moulds were then shipped back. 

When the Factory closed in 1888, the Mould 
Room was stripped of its contents and these wonder 
ful moulds, which represented rare craftsmanship, 
mechanical ability and great financial worth were 
broken up and sold for junk. 

From the original records of the Sandwich Fac 
tory authentic information concerning moulds and 
patterns is furnished in the following lists : 

List of Moulds in the Pot Arch 

1 gallon fluted jar 1 gallon barrel jar All of the Lantern 

Moulds 
2, 2-qt. do 1, 2-qt. All of the jugs & 

Decanters 
2, 1-qt. 1, 1-qt. 

1, 1-pt. All of the bowls & 

dishes of odd pat 
terns 

200 pattern 

Huber pattern 2 calvary candlesticks 

Star & Punty do. Salvers on feet for the same, 3 celerys 

List of Moulds in the large kiln, Cape Cod & Utica 
small one Rose Leaf & Comet, 

List of Moulds in Lear No. 1 

All of the cruets, peppers, Mustards & Molasses jugs, 

pomades, jars & covers for the same 

vases, bird bath & boxes 

lamps blown & pressed, founts, etc. 

Medicine squares & all small bottle moulds 

Nappie feet of odd patterns 

Case or stopper Moulds, Knobs & inks 

List in No. 2 

Mount Washington pattern 
Acorn, Ashburton, Mirror, Zouave, 

68 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



Astor, fluted split, feather diamond, 

French flute, cross diamond, 

Patch diamond, key border, 

Bee & Star, ring, punty, Lawrence, 

Banks, ball & finger, Albany, 

2 hoop & stave beer mugs & one tumbler 

2 pillar beer mugs 1 Edwards beer mug 

5 N. York beer do, 1 short 12 flute do, 

1 patch diamond do, 3 ale glasses 

gen grant cigar holder, edge flute pat. 

bitters bottles 

Shade Moulds 

finger diamond pattern, 

sharp dia 

large do do 

sunk do do 



old colony 

strawberry 

shell nappies 

6 other add. patterns 

Match & all other small 

boxes 



List in No 3 Tumbler Moulds 
2, setts short flute 

2, do balloon 

3, do N. York Bar 

6, sets, plain, wygand albion 
6, do, reverse flute 

1, do, gill fluted 

2, do Worcester 
5 do 8 flute 

2 do 7 flute 

2 do 6 flute 

3 do pillar 

1 do flute & split 

1 do column 

2 do finger ship 
2 do gem 

2 do Charleston 

1 do reeded flute 
1 do edge flute 

3 do flute & reeded, 
1 do gothic Bar 

1 do 5th avenue 
1 do reed bar 



Salts 

1 rope bottom 
1 plain 

1 pair Lincoln 
1 pr. cone 
1 pr. key border 
1 pr. continental 
1 pr. restorater 
1 pr. patch diamond 
1 pr. No. 85 
1 do 300 
1 do 600 
1 do 700 
1 shell 
1 derby 
1 Sandwich 
3 linings for salts 
5 deck lights 
2, 5 ribbed 9 l /z inches 
2, 7 ribbed 10 
1, 8 do 10/2 " 



69 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

10, bowls, nappies & dishes of odd patterns 

2 doz. handles for moulds 

27 plunger holders for creams etc. 

2 setts holders for wines etc. 

3 spoonholders champagnes 

4 sugars nappies etc. 

1 port light, 4 l / 2 x 3% in. square 

1 14 in. round 

1 12 in. 

1 _ _ 10 in. 

3 _ _ 6 in. " 
1 5 l / 2 in. 

1 5 in. 

4 lens moulds 3 in. 
3 21/2 in. 

1 planchette 

Toy Mould as follows: 
Centre bowl 
Pitcher 
Decanter 
Dish & cover 
Nappie & top 
Baisin 
Tureen 
Sugar 
Cream 

Cup & saucer 
Tumbler 
Lemonade 
Salt 
Mustard 

List in No. 4 

2 Boxes of plungers, lifting bolts, follower screws, etc. 
1 of blockings for moulds, spare springs, etc. 

1 of back stops & side stops for presses 

7 crimpers 

1 5 machines for setting feet 

21 wrenches 

52 blowing irons 

56 gathering & punty irons 

70 



One of the Sandwich 
lamps in Henry Ford's 
collection. The stem, 
base, bowl and shade are 
all of glass. The motor 
magnate has shown keen 
interest in Old Sand 
wich. In his book, 
"Early American Light 
ing," he devotes con 
siderable attention to 
Old Sandwich Lamps 




PATTERNS AND TYPES 




This compote is an excellent 
specimen of the Westward 
Ho pattern quite rare, 
from the collection of 
Mrs. William Greig Walker 



Patterns of Old Sandwich Glass were indeed num 
erous and varied. I have been able to authenticate no 
less than 158. It is necessary to study and become fam 
iliar with a wide range of standard designs made in this 
Factory if one is desirous of identifying Old Sandwich, 
In the first place let it be known that not all the de 
signs of Sandwich origin were used on all the different 
glass articles made. 

The cup plate designs of George Washington, 
Bunker Hill, Henry Clay, Cadmus, Constitution, 
Heart, Fort Meigs, Butterfly, Chancellor Livingstone, 
Lafayette, Victoria, Prince of Wales, and Benjamin 
Franklin are not found on other articles. The Eagle 
dated 1831 was confined to cup plates, although an 
Eagle pattern not dated is occasionally found on larger 



72 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

plates and dishes. The Lyre pattern is found in mugs 
and salts as well as in cup plates. Dolphin stems were 
particularly applied to candlesticks but compotes and 
whale oil lamps were sometimes supported by Dolphin 
standards. The Bee Hive and Thistle pattern on glass 
plates is not to be found on goblets or other tableware. 
Old Sandwich goblets exceed all other articles in 
number of patterns and variety of design. There are 
about 150 variations of size and pattern in goblets. 
These are found in fruit, floral, animal, scenic and con 
ventional designs. 

STANDARD PATTERNS 

Standard designations in table ware, which always 
included goblets, are Bell Flower (five variations), 
Chrysanthemum Leaf, Fern, Double Fern, Inverted 
Fern, Daisy, Moss Rose, Ivy, Dewdrop or Pinpoint, 
Tulip, Primrose, Cat-o-Ninetail, Hairpin, Bleeding 
Heart, Acanthus, Morning Glory, Fuchsia, Acorn, 
Pineapple, Holly, Holly and Blue Jay, Peacock, Mul- 



Here is a compote in the 
Raised Diamond or Diamond 
Point pattern. From the col- 
lection of Mrs. William Greig 
Walker 




73 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



berry, Peacock Feather, Grape (five variations) , Black 
berry, Strawberry, Cherry, Oak Leaf, Lion, Deer, Polar 
Bear and Seal, Squirrel, Dog, Cat, Frog, Bear, West 
ward Ho, Owl, Buckle, Loop, Loop and Jewel (stip 
pled), Shell, Fence, Lincoln Drape, Curtain, Raised 
Diamond or Diamond Point, Grant, Thumbprint, 
Block, Waffle, Cable, Bull's Eye or Thousand Eyes, Par 
thenon, Huber, Utica, Hamilton, Hob Nail, Sandwich 
or Cane Seat, Grecian Border, Centennial, Horn of 
Plenty (two varieties), Mitchell, Ashburton, Star and 
Punty or Star and Bull's Eye, Star and Feather, Shield, 
Fleur de Lis, Snake Skin and other conventional designs. 
A number of these patterns were made with stippled 
surface. 

The Hairpin and Fleur de Lis pattern, limited to 
lace cup plates and cake plates, is one of the most 
charming creations in all pressed glass. 

The Factory name for patterns frequently differs 
from modern appellations. The commonly designated 
Thumbprint, Bull's Eye, Panel and Block patterns 
were listed by the Company under the head of fluted 
ware long or short flute identifying these types. 
Hamilton was the Factory name of the pattern fre 
quently called Sunburst nowadays. Star and Bull's 
Eye was known as Star and Punty. Ashburton was 
the name given to that type of goblet with thumb- 
print on the lower part of the bowl and larger fluting 
above. The goblet with plain bowl and fluted stem 
was called Huber. 

SANDWICH SALTS 

Salts were made in shapes, sizes and designs of wide 
range. There was the Lafayette Boat Salt for one. It 
had the name of Lafayette on the stern and Sandwich 
in the bottom. This was the only glass article made in 



74 



f 



9 



I 




8 

O 
3 



1= 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

the Factory that was marked with such identification- 
Some very fine lace-glass salts were produced in 
Boat, Sleigh, Sofa and Cradle types. Heavy plain glass 
Colonial salts in oval and rectangular shape, some 
footed, were early products. Bird salts,. Barrel salts 
with metal tops (some of these in color), salts with 
three faces and acid finish, and the little oval kind with 
small fluting complete the group. Cruets for both 
metal and glass castors, with engraved vinegars, salts 
and peppers were plentifully produced. 

Tumblers, both plain and fluted, were turned out 
in abundance. Some of these were beautifully en 
graved. Cream pitchers, sugar bowls, compotes, but 
ter dishes, spoonholders and celery holders (upright), 
as well as decanters, were constant and standard pro 
ductions in the floral, fruit, animal and conventional 
patterns. Nappies, frequently called sauce dishes, 
many of which were footed, were supplied with every 
set of table ware. 

FINGER BOWLS 

Sandwich finger bowls in beautiful ruby, cobalt 
blue, magenta, purple and canary colors were unsur 
passed. Some of these were richly engraved but most 
of tfyem were without pattern. 

Milk white glass was made in large quantities in 
general table ware. Most of this type was in Basket 
Weave or other conventional design though some was 
made in a berry pattern. A large proportion of milk 
white ware had open-work edges. Black glass, also 
with open-work edges, was produced in smaller 
quantity, most of it confined to cake and bread plates. 

Large flint glass plates were a standard pro 
duction. The Sheaf of Wheat, Liberty Bell, Grant, 
Garfield and the "Give Us This Day Our Daily 



76 



1? 

s 

I 






o 
o 



CD 



r 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

Bread" were the predominating designs in this line. 

Flower vases in flint and colored glass with floral 
decoration were among the easily marketed articles of 
Sandwich make. 

Lace glass dishes with covers, a few cup plates and 
miniature sets of table ware, in purple and sapphire 
blue, were choice articles of Sandwich origin. 

Three-piece toilet sets in jade, blue and pink, orna 
mented with gold bands and hand painting, were pop 
ular articles for many years. 

Lapidary and blown glass stoppers of all sizes and 
shapes were turned out by the thousand. 

THREADED WARE 

Glass pens with their vari-colored threads of glass 
and bird ornaments seemed ever to attract the atten 
tion of glass buyers. Making threaded ware required 
more skill than most of the other methods of produc 
tion. Wines, goblets, bottles and flasks were the arti 
cles selected for this decoration. The article to be 
threaded was attached to a revolving rod and kept 
whirling. The glassmaker gathered a slim rod of col 
ored glass, usually ruby, sometimes blue, shaped it to a 
fine point and at red heat carefully made a contact 
with the revolving piece, thus depositing those tiny 
rings of red or blue around the article. 

Glass bears, usually black, sometimes white, blue, 
or purple, and made for match holders, had a place on 
the kitchen mantel of nearly every Sandwich home. 

Toothpick holders were never omitted from the 
Sandwich stock of glass articles. Pin trays also served 
their purpose in most households at that day. 

Punch bowls, beer tumblers, wines, whiskey 
glasses and egg cups were frequently included in filling 
an order. 

78 



8. 






THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

THE FAMOUS LION PATTERN 

Prominent in the Sandwich list was the Lion pat 
tern. The king of beasts posed on the foot and stem 
and also on the cover of compotes, sugars and butters. 
The Lion was made in acid finish. 

Pickle dishes, honey dishes and ink wells were 
turned out daily by the glassmakers in Sandwich. Mir 
ror knobs in opalescent hue, curtain pulls in amber, 
blue and purple, plain and opalescent knobs for bureau 
and table drawers comprised an important branch of 
the industry. 

Small glass mugs with animal designs and ABC 
plates for youngsters had a fixed place in the regular 
catalogue. 

Sandwich bottles were largely of the perfume, 
wine and smelling salt varieties. Colored and plain, 
the crucifix was another Factory special. Colored pint 
flasks, single and double with both straight and crooked 
necks, were a striking specialty. Cut glass bibles for 
paper weight use supplied many gift orders. 

Beaded edges characterized a large proportion of 
flat ware. 

HENRY CLAY FACING RIGHT 

An oddity and also a rarity in Old Sandwich is 
the Henry Clay cup plate facing right. As most col 
lectors know, the Henry Clay cup plate usually found 
in shops or old houses shows Clay's head facing left. 
It happened on one occasion, when the design of Henry 
Clay was being pressed, that the mould was uninten 
tionally reversed consequently the freak cup plate. 
Only a few of these were turned out before the error 
was discovered; therefore, the specimens of this type 
are seldom to be found. 

80 



It 

**. 

5- 

s 



9 



Ci 

** 
p& 

c^* 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



A sizable fruit dish on small feet, with stippled 
surface and patterned in a series of oak leaves, is a desir 
able addition to any collection. A large tray with oak 
leaf handles is closely related in general design. 

The standard patterns in pressed glassware were 
Horn of Plenty, Thumbprint, Bull's Eye, Hob Nail, 
Buckle, Diamond Point or Raised Diamond, Pineapple, 
Grape, Bleeding Heart, Westward Ho, Eagle, Lion, Log 
Cabin, Bee Hive, Peacock Feather, Grant, Lincoln 
Drape, Loop, Loop and Jewel, Sheaf of Wheat, Star 
and Feather, Star and Bull's Eye, Cadmus, LaFayette, 
Henry Clay, Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Bunker 
Hill, Cable, Daisy, Ivy, Sandwich or Cane Seat, Chrys 
anthemum Leaf, Bell Flower, Hamilton or Sunburst 
and some of the other designs enumerated in this 
chapter. 

MARBLE OR SLAG GLASS 

Studded glass table ware, commonly designated 
as Pin Point pattern, makes strong appeal to the glass 
collector. Marble or slag glass with its irregular color 
ing, and splash glass, also colored in disorderly fashion, 
have a niche in the glass hall of fame of Sandwich 
origin. 

Glass hats in amber, yellow, purple and blue; 
sleighs and stoves were among the novelties of Sand 
wich make. 

A very rare specimen of Old Sandwich is the Pea 
cock plate. This plate was made in four and six-inch 
sizes. The Peacock occupies the centre of the plate 
and its tail, at full spread, covers the rest of the inner 
surface. 

It can readily be understood that during the early 
days of the Factory the variety of patterns, as well as 
the diversity of articles made, was limited. This was 



82 




A fine specimen of Sandwich Marble or Slag glass. Either 
by accident or design the figure of a peacock appears in the 
bottom. Marble or Slag glass was made from a mixture of 
various colors. This dish in basket weave and open work 
border is from the collection of Mrs. Joseph E. Connor of 
North Quincy, Massachusetts 



especially true until after 1830 when the process of 
moulding was discovered and adopted. 

Whale oil lamps, petticoat and squash lamps, can 
dlesticks and some tableware, such as tumblers, goblets, 
salts, nappies, sugar bowls and pitchers, were turned 
out during the first few years and these were more 
varied in shape and size than in design. In fact, all 
early blown glass was somewhat plain. 

When the pressing or moulding method came 
into use it logically opened the way for patterns which 
distinguished Old Sandwich Glass and brought favor 
and fame to this plant. 



83 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

PATTERNS BY PERIODS 

Patterns suggest periods and so in conjunction 
I will outline these topics in order that the collector 
may identify them and compare their outstanding 
characteristics. 

From 1830 to 1840 the articles just mentioned 
were the principal products in pressed ware, with cup 
plates added to the list. 

The predominant patterns for this decade were 
Raised Diamond or Diamond Point, floral designs, Shell 
pattern, Oak Leaf, Bee Hive, Sheaf of Wheat, Heart, 
Horn of Plenty, Dolphin, Bull's Eye, Grape, Star and 
Feather, Dewdrop or Pin Point and the Industrial. The 
Industrial, showing the factory, the log cabin and the 
plowman; the Bee Hive and Thistle, Peacock Feather, 
and Corinthian designs characterized the lace glass of 
this period. 

It would seem that the thoughts of the native 
American glassmaker were concerned with historic 
events of his own country as is shown in designs both 
early and late, including the Log Cabin, Bunker Hill, 
Lincoln Drape, the Eagle, Horn of Plenty, Henry Clay, 
and the Grant pattern made when President Grant was 
in office. Then we have the Ship Constitution, and the 
Cadmus, the ship that brought LaFayette to America, 
The Bull's Eye design may have been inspired by 
the friendly overtures of a bull to some absent-minded 
gaffer risking a stroll on 'Town Neck", the name given 
the rounded elevation of land, overlooking the Bay, 
which was apportioned to the townspeople in the olden 
days as "cow rights". 

The Bee Hive, which was often used, might typify 
industry or perhaps unexpected contact with a neigh 
bor's bees. 

The Heart cup plate, of course, signifies love. The 

84 




Old Sandwich spoonbolders. Left to right Cable, Horn of 
Plenty, Silvered Sandwich, Morning Glory and Moss Rose 



Above a Stippled Jewel goblet, a pink TJyreaded wine, a 
Bellflower goblet, a green barrel salt and a Grape goblet 

Below Fence, Pineapple, and Bull's Eye and Ear goblets 





Group of engraved goblets in the Sandwich Historical 
Society's collection 



thirteen hearts on the border represent the thirteen 
original states. 

I have mentioned the Horn of Plenty. As it was 
used a great deal in pressed glass it may have been in 
spired by the thought of the Pilgrims at Thanksgiving 
time. If inspired by mythology it is one more proof 
that these men were no ordinary workmen but men of 
learning and culture. 

From 1840 to .1850 were added Thumbprint, 
Acanthus, Peacock Feather, Morning Glory, Fuchsia, 
Tulip, Lyre, Bell Flower, Hob Nail, Pineapple, Ivy, and 
Moss Rose. 

From 1850 through Civil War time prevailing 
patterns were Sandwich or Cane-Seat, Grecian Border 
on sanded surface, Cable, Cathedral, Westward Ho, 
Hamilton, Loop and Jewel, Loop and Leaf, Daisy, 
Strawberry, and other floral, fruit and conventional 
designs. 

From 1865 to 1875 the Lincoln Drape, Grant, 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

Lion, Fence, Buckle, Bleeding Heart and Chrysanthe 
mum creations made their appearance. 

From 1875 to 1888, the year the old Sandwich 
Factory was closed, many conventional designs were 
made and standard patterns continued in accordance 
with the demand of trade. Ashburton, Mitchell, 
Huber, Utica and Hamilton pattern goblets were pop 
ular designs in the late years of operation. In this par 
ticular period, the Chrysanthemum Leaf was the pre 
vailing pattern in table ware. 

INDULGED IN SENTIMENT 

The workmen of the early days in Sandwich evi 
dently indulged in visions, for quite a little sentiment 
seems to have entered into the designs for their moulds. 
For instance, we pick up a sugar bowl of grandmother's 
day (now posing as a candy jar in some debutante's 
boudoir) and we find designed the Rose of England, 
the Thistle of Scotland, or the Lily of France. It is 

Sunburst wine, Moss Rose spoonholder. Morning Glory spoon- 
holder and Cable spoonbolder left to right 




87 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



possible that the Jacobite sentiment that had inspired 
the rose and thistle in English glasses was responsible 
for this reappearing in American designs. Other pieces 
show the Shamrock and the Lyre. Sometimes on the 
cover of a compote we find the English Lion resting; or 
again we discover three lions on hind legs supporting 
the bowl of the compote and forming the standard or 
base. The lions are usually of opaque or frosted glass, 
contrasting with the clear flint glass of the piece. 

The design of the Atlantic Cable might bring out 
the thought of connection between the old world and 
new. 

A religious tendency is shown by the making of 
candlesticks in the form of crucifixes, bibles, and bread 
plates with the inscription "Give Us This Day Our 
Daily Bread". The outstanding example of the reli 
gious motif, however, is that marvelous bread plate 
on which is depicted the Last Supper. The figures and 
features of Jesus and each of the Disciples stand out 
in bas-relief, clear and distinguishable. 

AN ORIGINAL ORDER 

Collectors may gain a bit of interesting informa 
tion by scanning an original order for glass made up at 
the Boston and Sandwich Factory in 1840. If they 
find names of patterns with which they are not fam 
iliar, the explanation is this: In some cases the Factory 
names were not the same as those by which certain 
patterns are now commonly known. For example, 
what is known to collectors today as the Diamond 
Point bore the Factory name of Raised Diamond. 
Names of patterns often had no particular significance 
to the design itself. It would seem that patterns often 
were named as we name streets. Oak Street may have 
only maple trees on it and never an oak. So it was 



88 



2 
o 



I"! 



5s-* 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

sometimes with Sandwich Glass. Then, again, special 
orders for glass were sometimes given the names sug 
gested by the buyers, which makes it difficult to trace 
the origin, as in the Utica, Huber, Ashburton and Mit 
chell patterns. We know these were all made in fluted 
ware, varying in the size and shape of fluting. The 
Huber goblet had a fluted stem. But no one living to 
day seems to recall how these patterns acquired their 
names. 

So, in looking over the following exact copy of 
the old 1840 order, do not think it strange if you find 
names with which you are not familiar as a collector; 
nor puzzle over the spelling it, too, is uncommon 
today: 

PREST WARE 

Buttres No. 200, 10, l / 2 size cask 7 in. 

f c ec o 

94 Roseleaf 1C)', " " " 7 

64 Clod 10, " " " 7 

96 Mica 10, " " " 7 

5, " " " 8 

Salts 20 bbl. or Boxes N 87 

20 " " " 200 

10 " " " Cape Cod 

20 Small Boxes Indi 45 on foot 

20 " " " 700 

30 " " " 33 

20 " " " 85 

Plates 20 bbl. Grape P'n 

Candlesticks 10 Cask N 5 size Tall Dolphin 
15 " " " " Short " 

Nappies 20 Boxes 3 in. ang. pat. (meaning Angelo Patri) 
10 do. Butter Nappies 
10 bbl. 4 in. Cape Cod 
10 " " " 200 
10 " " " Comet 

90 



10 
20 
10 
10 
5 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH CLASS 

# 31 vine 
40 
200 

each 6 Wash. 42, 43, 32, 200, 96 
" 7 " 200, 96 



5 " 

cc cc 



FIRE POL. SHANK ARTICLES 

Goblets 20 Cask 96 Utica 

10 " 200 Small size 

10 " Raised Diamond 

10 " Huber in new mould 

Champ. 10 " 96 Utica 
10 " 200 " 
10 " 22 Huber 

Wines 10 bbl. 96 
10 " 200 
10 " 22 Huber 

OPAL WARE 

One move 3 in Match Boxes & Cov. 
10 Small package Bird Founts. 

5 " " or Boxes Bird Baths 

10 Med. size Cask Short Dolphin Candlestick 
10 " " " Tall 
20 N. 200 Butters 20 do. Square Butters 

10 bbls. 7 & 8 in ea. N. 200 Dishes 
.. Utica 

5 Cask # 96 Opal Setts 

5 " 200 " 

10 " 56 " Niol Jugs B.C. 

10 " 58 " Butters 

50 " 200 7 In. Nappies on feet 

tt tt t o " 

Salvers, 10 medium Cask N 200 

10 " " Wash. 

5 " " Mt. Vernon 

5 "5 inch Cape Cod 



91 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH CLASS 

CASTOR PLACE WORK 
Bowls N 200 10 Good size 8 in. 





10 


9 4 




5 


" 10 I 


N 40 


5 


8 in. 


64 


10 


7 in. 


96 


10 


7 in. 




10 


8 in. 




6 


" " 9 in. 


Prest Salvers, 


5 2nd 


size 8 in. Salvers 




5 " 


1Q 




5 " 


" 12 " 


Blown do 


8 2nd 


size 8 in. 




10 " 


" 10 




10 " 


" 12 




5 " 


" 14 


Cake Covers, 


10 " 


8 




10 " 


" 10 




10 " 


" 12 




5 " 


" 14 


Celleries, 


5 " 


N 96 




5 " 


200 


Fish Globes 


10 " 


2 Tall on foot 




10 " 


l l /2 " " " 




10 " 


t ce ec cc 



All Tall Feet 



SETTS (Flint) 

N 96 50 bbl 1 doz Sugar, 1 doz. Cream. 1 doz. S.H. 

1 doz P. 

JO " Same Engraved, Top. Sugar and Butter 
only 

B.O. Light Peppers 4 oz. make 

50 Boxes to hold 15 to 25 doz. 






8= 



a 
to 



O 

o 



3. 

s 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

HOW TO TELL OLD SANDWICH 

In determining the patterns, colors and periods of 
Old Sandwich Glass, I have been guided by, and in 
formed through, the following sources of knowledge: 
Contacts with the glassmakers, handling the moulds, 
watching the operations, searching the early records, 
examining specimens of the glass and the fragments 
that have always been available in the Factory Yard 
and which furnish unimpeachable proof of color and 
design. 

Many pieces of Old Sandwich Glass have a bril 
liant sheen, a bell-like ring and a soft, smooth texture 
but these are contributing features and not determin 
ing. 

Many patterns of Old Sandwich Glass had a 
stippled surface, others a snake skin surface and still 
others were heavily figured on the outside. All three 
types thus described produce no ring. 

THE PUNTY MARK 

Concerning the pontil mark or punty mark, as 
it was termed in the Factory, I would inform my 
readers that while this is usually to be relied upon as 
an evidence of early glass, it must be distinguished 
from the imitation which is to be found in repro 
ductions. 

The footed ware, except goblets, made previous 
to 1850, old paper weights, vases and bottles can be 
identified by a rough uneven pontil, but the reproduc 
tion, if examined with due care, will reveal numerous 
chippings and less bulge. 

My father, Thomas H. Chipman, was a puntier 
and by the use of a revolving emery wheel he smoothed 
the rough pontil and polished the mark with a 



94 



on 

sr 



*>=> 

o 



to 



ta 



a 

o 





The Sandivich Polar Bear and Seal design. Collection of 
Mrs. William Greig Walker 



cork wheel It frequently happened that Sandwich 
people, who owned early glass articles with a rough 
pontil that caused an uneven position on the table or 
mantel, would bring these pieces back to the Factory 
(perhaps twenty years after their manufacture) and 
in spare time my father would grind off the pontil 
and smooth up the article. Thus it can be understood 
that some of the old specimens found in Sandwich, or 
even elsewhere, without pontil, might well be of 
an earlier period than the collector could establish. 

The real problem which confronts the collector 
is the one which prompts the frequent query, "How 
can I tell Sandwich Glass"? 

My answer is "Confine your selections to the 
particular patterns and designs that were moulded and 
made exclusively in the Sandwich Factory." 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

THE SANDWICH CUP PLATES 

Between the years 1828 and 1865, in the Boston 
& Sandwich Glass Works, every significant event, it 
would seem, was commemorated in a specially designed 
cup plate. Likenesses of several public men were in 
like manner reproduced. 

This practice of recording historic events in 
Sandwich Glass, just as in Staffordshire pottery, lends 
added significance to the statement of Mrs. Ellouise 
Baker Larsen, authority on Historic Blue Ware: "As 
a country starts to have a history, ceramic art records 
its events. Early pottery will rank eventually with 
Grecian art in value/' May not the nation's history 
recorded in glass likewise hold artistic value? 

Of these special cup plates, the Presentation 
specimen made for the Prince of Wales (Edward VII 
to be) when he visited this country in the early sixties, 
is representative. The border, in which a coronet is 
incorporated, is especially fine. The centre design 
also shows the coronet. 

Just why some cup plates of this period are so 
unobtainable it would be hard to say. There are, how 
ever, circumstances of manufacture which might 
explain the plentiful supply of others. There are 
Bunker Hill cup plates scattered all over the country, 
for when Bunker Hill Monument was dedicated, 
cup plates of this particular pattern were made with 
the special intent of selling them as souvenirs of that 
memorable occasion. The delay in completing the 
monument after the laying of the corner stone on 
June 17, 1825, brings the date of this cup plate into 
the forties, so it was not one of the very earliest. 

Everyone is familiar with the Henry Clay cup 
plate, which received its advertising through a pro- 



97 




CUP PLATES 

FROM THE 

COLLECTION OF 

MRS. REUBEN HORTON 

READING HIGHLANDS 

MASSACHUSETTS 



Above A conventional lace cup 
plate with Acanthus border 

At right A Benjamin Franklin 
one of the historical cup plates 





An Eagle cup plate, dated 1831 
the only dftted cup plate 



CUP PLATES 

FROM THE 

COLLECTION OF 

MRS. W. HUBERT WOOD 

SANDWICH 
MASSACHUSETTS 





Above The Fort Meigs pattern 
a souvenir of William Henry 
Harmon's campaign for President 
At left The Butterfly design 



Henry Clay facing left ex 
tremely rare when Clay faces right 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



nounced partiality for one profile and the rejection of 
the other. Rather an amazing basis on which to set 
a value but the fact holds today, and many a lament 
goes forth over the fact that Mr. Clay is found looking 
so frequently to the left. The details of this story 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 

The rarest of the Sandwich cup plates are: The 
Chancellor Livingstone, George Washington, Lafay 
ette, Victoria, Cadmus, Benjamin Franklin, the Eagle, 
Log Cabin and, non-historic, the Bee Hive. This last 
is especially beautiful. The beehive stands in relief 
on the clear flint glass. All these were among the early 
products of the plant. "1831" is moulded on the 
Eagle cup plate. The others mentioned but not dated 
were made between 1830 and 1840. 

Among other designs more commonly seen are: 
The Heart pattern, the Thistle, Butterfly, Daisy with 
Leafy Border, Fleur-de-Lis, Hamilton or Sunburst, 
and the State. The last named has a centre design of 
nine stars, and seventeen stars set in scalloped outline 
show in the border. The cup plate known as the 
Sandwich Star might be mentioned also with these. 
Much of the clear flint glass shows in this, thus accent 
uating the central design. 

Occasionally a lace cup plate of conventional 
design, not a well-known specimen, takes the eye. 
Those who have learned patterns and can distinguish 
glass quality by sense of touch, tone and brilliancy of 
sheen know when they have found genuine Sandwich. 
The cup plates are often called by different names. 
It is difficult to trace terms which may have come into 
use, and to adjudge which shall be correct and which 
erroneous. Nomenclature has no lawful board of 
censorship; but the fitting and authentic name to em 
ploy should be that given by the manufacturers. 



100 




Old Sandwich pressed Lace glass jewel casket, fashioned after 
the design of the gem-set caskets of precious metal found in 
the tombs of the ancients. The pattern is a distinctive Sand- 
wich creation of Peacock Feather and Shield. Period 1835. 
This rare and -very beautiful piece is in the collection of 
Warren B. Nash of 410 Park Avenue, New York 

SNAKE SKIN, LACE AND CRACKLE 

Snake Skin and Lace glass are not at all alike yet 
collectors frequently confuse them. Usually the 
confusion arises from the fact that they never have 
compared the two types. Essentially the difference 
is this: Snake Skin glass has a very dull, rough surface. 
It imitates the scaly skin of the snake very realistically 
and the design is always in irregular, roaming lines 
resembling those on the skin of a snake. 

Snake Skin glass is the one striking example of 
Old Sandwich Glass that does not have that clear bell- 
like ring. Glass surfaced in this manner, or stippled, 
will not permit resonance. 



101 



Ml 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

Lace glass, on the other hand, has a brilliant 
silvery sheen, in contrast to the dull rough surface 
of Snake Skin glass. The fine pin-point effect un 
mistakably resembles delicate lace work. 

The method of making Snake Skin glass was 
entirely different from the process used in any other 
type. First the core was gathered and shaped in plain 
flint metal and while still hot the article was immersed 
in cold water. This made the outer surface crackle 
in rough, irregular lines. In some cases, the process 
was stopped here. The product then was what is 
known as crackle glass. If, however, Snake Skin glass 
was desired, the article was re-heated in the "glory 
hole" and while hot the outer surface was rolled in 
pulverized flint glass. This caused the pulverized 
material to fuse and adhere to the crackled surface and 
give it that frosted appearance. 

It is not an uncommon occurrence for me to re 
ceive communications which seek information that 
will enable the enquirer to distinguish the late repro 
ductions of lace glass from the genuine old Sandwich 
lace ware. 

It requires but a moment to determine the differ 
ence. The reproduction is never as bright, plainly 
lacks the texture, depth, and perfection of design, 
and weighs decidedly less than the genuine. The ring 
also is missing. 




specimen 



104 



Engraved 

lantern 

in the 

Deer 

pattern 




Collection 

-Frank D. 

Howard 

Chicopee 

Falls 



ENGRAVED AND ETCHED WARE 

The processes of engraving and etching glass are 
too often confused though the methods are entirely 
different. The engraving of glass was really a process 
of cutting by means of a sharp steel or copper wheel 
disk with which the designs were engraved upon the 
article. Real skill was required in this operation. A 
trained eye and steady hand were the requisites. 

The beautiful old lamp shades and domes, the 
goblets and other table ware that were engraved in 
Sandwich stand unexcelled. The shades and domes 
were treated with an acid or sanded finish while the 
initialed or decorated tableware was usually in plain 
glass. 

Etching was accomplished by a very different 
method: First a steel, glass or copper plate was made 
and then the body part of a design was painted on 



105 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

the plate. Wax, spermaceti, rosin, lavender and 
turpentine were the ingredients used for the inking 
of the plate. 

Next a steel point was used to pick the J&ner lines 
of the design. This accomplished, the edge of the 
plate was waxed in pie-crust fashion in order that the 
acid used would not run off. Then the design was 
etched with hydrofluoric acid and by applying speci 
ally prepared paper, a print was made, placed on the 
lamp shade, rolled and smoothed with a felt pad until 
the pattern adhered to the glass. 

This process was used most extensively on glass 
with a dull finish. When etching was done on plain 
flint glass, wax, acid and ammonia were used. The 
plate etching process was begun about 1878 under the 
direction of James Corbett and continued under the 
supervision of Frank Lapham. 

In etching, as in other processes, the Sandwich 
Factory developed an expert Charles W. Talbot, son 
of William Talbot my mother's brother and father, 
respectively. My uncle, Charles W., later became 
manager of the Etching department. 

ENGRAVED PANES FOR DOORWAYS 

Narrow glass panes, which were installed on 
each side of the front doors in the old wood and brick 
houses of a century ago, were produced extensively 
at Sandwich. These glass panels were of acid finish, 
with scroll engraving. One need only to visit the 
South End of Boston, where the well-to-do of those 
days resided, to find these windows still adorning the 
old doorways. Frequently, too, they may be observed 
in the rural communities of New England where the 
old country * house has not been re-modeled. This 
holds true also in New York and the Middle West. 



106 




Engraved panes either side of the front doorway of Mrs. 
Ella Lapham Mooers in Sandwich 

DECORATED LAMPS 

A department of the Sandwich Factory which 
flourished from 1870 to 1888 was the Decorated 
Lamp Shop. Lamps of all sizes and shapes, most of 
which were equipped with brass fonts and burners for 
holding kerosene, were made and decorated with floral 
and scenic designs. The bases, bowls and shades were 



107 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



made of white or tinted glass in the main plant and 
turned over to the Decorating Shop for embellishment. 

Edward Swan, a noted decorator and designer, 
was at the head of this department for some years. 
Following Mr. Swan came Henry Miller, a German 
artist of reputation, who also maintained the Decorat 
ing department upon a high standard. 

Most of the decorators were girls and women of 
the local community. A number of men also entered 
the department. Under the expert instruction of 
such artists as Mr. Swan and Mr. Miller, fifty skilled 
decorators were trained and employed. The excellence 
of this ware made the Decorated Lamp Shop a leading 
branch of the industry for years. The volume of its 
output also exceeded that of any American plant. 

THE DANGLERS 

Designing and making chandeliers required both 
skill and artistic taste, and here, too, the Sandwich 
Factory established its fame at an early date. Churches 
and public edifices were supplied with special cre 
ations both intricate and ornate. Private houses were 
frequently equipped with this type of lighting fixtures. 
The prisms, or danglers, glass frames and candle 
holders were always made of the finest quality of flint 
glass, exquisitely cut. 




Lvrt ' 



108 




Lamps owned by Mrs. Alice Wing of Sandwich. The en 
graved and frosted globe on the beautiful specimen in the 
centre represents the Sandwich glasses' art at t ts besi 
Even the fine cast bronze stem was made at the Sandwich 
Factory. An excellent bust of George Washington m has 
relief, encircled by a wreath and surmounted by &*'&> 
appears on the stem. Prism danglers of clear flmt gla add 
to the ornamental effect. This lamp was ^eespeaally for 
Mrs. Wing's grandfather, William Eoyden. The other two 
lamps in the picture are fine 'P^*^*,"*^ 
This trio would delight the eye and add charm to the collec- 
tion of any connoisseur 





This fine ruby overlay 
lamp, with triple base 
of marble and bronze, 
is the particular prize of 
Mrs. Charles D. Cook 
of Providence, Rhode 
Island. The engraved 
shade is the original 
dome of this lamp. Mrs. 
Cook has another ex 
quisite specimen in blue 
overlay with shade to 
match 



COLORED SANDWICH 



Golden Ruby! These are magic words when glass 
is mentioned in Sandwich. Why since the method of 
making ruby glass was discovered by Johann Knuckel 
in Berlin in the Seventeenth Century? The answer is 
obvious: Because the perfection attained in ruby 
glass at the Sandwich Factory has never been excelled 
before or since. 

There were initial steps leading to its perfection, 
of course. Men were brought from England to intro 
duce the process of making this and the opal glass, 
brought at great risk to themselves under the English 
penal enactments enactments quite as severe as that 
which restricted England herself when she in former 
days sought instruction from the artists of Venice. 
This, incidentally, proves that men and nations in all 
ages legislate toward one commercial end monopoly. 
It was a penal offense to entice workmen to leave the 
United Kingdom during the early part of the Nine 
teenth Century and perhaps long before. Mr. Jarves 
speaks of the law being in effect as early as 1811. 

Aqua Homo relates the hairbreadth escape of one 
Andrew T. Hall The factory gates were shut upon 
him by the officers but he escaped, helped over the wall 
by his fellow workmen. The men who sustained the 
spirit of glass through the ages were no cowards, it 
seems. Many a tale of daring is told of the Venetian 
rebels enticed to England by Edward VI. 

A word now concerning Johann Knuckel who 
discovered the process of making ruby glass: He had 
the advantage of being an alchemist of the highest 
order and a highly educated man. Knuckel held the 
position of alchemist at the Saxon Court. 



111 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

As a chemist he entered the service of Frederick 
William, the Grosse Churfurst. It was probably a case 
of rediscovering for, according to Dillon, cc lt was at 
Berlin about this time that his researches upon the 
transformation of matter led him to make enquiries 
into the coloring of glass, above all into the mysterious 
process by which glass could be stained of a crimson 
or purple tint by means of gold. That such a color 
could be obtained had long been a tradition among the 
alchemists. In the old books the secret was dangled 
before the eyes of the student without being fully ex 
plained. The Saracens were probably acquainted with 
it; Agricola mentions the Ritzie, the 'Aurum Quo 
Tingitur Vitrum Rubro Colore' and Neri refers to the 
red tint derived from gold." 

And from the same source: "Not a little of the 
mystery that so long surrounded this ruby color had its 
origin, no doubt, in the following facts : ( 1 ) The full 
tint is only obtained when pure gold is present. (2) 
The color is not to be developed until the glass is re 
heated; on the first cooling the metal is nearly color 
less. It is scarcely necessary to point out how both 
these properties of the gold pigment must have ap 
pealed to the imagination of the alchemists, and have 
furnished them with arguments in favor of their trans 
formation theories. Here, then, we have one explana 
tion of the interest taken by these early enquirers in the 
processes of the glassmaker." 

It was on the Pfauen-Insel, near Potsdam, sur 
rounded by the greatest secrecy, that Knuckel first 
made his famous ruby glass. In later years it is said 
that he went into the service of the King of Sweden 
and the title of Baron Lowenstern was conferred upon 
him. He died at Stockholm in 1702. 

One hundred and fifty years had elapsed since the 



112 



jug in ruby 
and flint. A special 
creation presented by 
the Company to Wil 
liam Eoyden. It is now 
in the possession of Ms 
grand - daughter, Mrs. 
Alice Wing of Sand 
wich 







passing of Baron Lowenstern, and workmen in Sand 
wich, though not acknowledged alchemists, were lur 
ing the secret of color from the mystery called glass, 
To learn just how successful they were we need but 
to look at any specimen of their workmanship. 

The Sandwich Ruby Glass is like solidified flame. 
It has the indescribable character of a red and gold sun 
set. There is an elusiveness of tone in its living red that 
not even the opal glass of Sandwich, with its lovely 
changing colors, possesses. It causes one to add men 
tally those touches of changing blue and purple, of 
sulphur yellow, that characterize a November sky at 
daylight's end. One wonders why, because to actual 
vision there is nothing observable but shifting depths 
of ruby red. Therein lies the marvel of this glass that 
Sandwich workmen created it lures the fancy of the 
beholder, even as it tempted and fired the imagination 
of its creators. 



113 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

GLASS OF MANY COLORS 

During the later years of the Factory's operation 
milk white glass, plain, with openwork edges, figured 
and in basket weave, was turned out in abundance. 
While the information contained in other chapters re 
lates to flint glass there was, all through these years, 
from 1831 on, an abundance of beautiful colored glass 
made and sold. 

Here again the Sandwich Factory led all rivals. 
It is freely admitted that the Golden Ruby, Sapphire 
Blue, Opalescent, Jade, Amber, Purple, Magenta, Yel 
low, Salmon, Pink and Green shades evolved in Sand 
wich were not paralleled in the glass industry. . 

The beautiful overlay lamps, ruby perfume bot 
tles, jade salts, tinted toilet sets, vases and vari-colored 
tableware manufactured in Sandwich were unequalled 
in the pressed glass field. In no other factory was the 
overlay work done in three colors. 

The outstanding discovery in color production 
made by James D. Lloyd, the color evolutionist of the 
Sandwich Factory, was the use of oxide of antimony. 
This ingredient was particularly effective in achieving 
clearness and brilliancy of coloring. This discovery 
by Mr. Lloyd has been widely acknowledged as a very 
important one. 

THE FAMOUS OVERLAY 

No phase of glassmaking has aroused more 
interest than that of overlay made so much of in 
late years by the connoisseur. The skill displayed 
in these overlay pieces as well as the clarity and 
magnificence of the color tones has made them objects 
of rare value to collectors. 

Although the initial steps of making glass have 



114 




Four Sandwich overlay lamps with the old engraved shade. 

These treasures belong to Mrs. Walter P. Wright of Brooklme, 

Massachusetts 



Three Old Sandwich overlay lamps. The green and white 
one in the centre was -made by Gaffer Lapham. It is now in 
the collection of Charles O. Dexter of New Bedford and 

Sandwich 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



been frequently described, perhaps those interested in 
the making of overlay may find the starting point in 
structive. There seems to be in many minds a con 
fusion as to just which process was used in overlay 
making, many believing the Sandwich overlay lamps 
were constructed in moulds, which was not the case. 
The overlay, sometimes called "coated ware", was a 
blown process, quite distinct from that of pressed glass. 

A lamp bowl was first blown as the inner vessel 
or layer, which was usually of clear flint glass, some 
times white glass, sometimes colored. It should be 
noted here that white glass and flint glass are not the 
same. Flint glass is the clear, transparent glass, pure 
potash silicate, and the Sandwich product always had 
lead in its composition, a fact to which is attributed 
its clear metallic ring. White glass is opaque. 

In the overlay process, two or three "cups" con 
forming to the number of colors used, were blown, 
shaped and fused, one over the other, while the metal 
was heated to a workable degree. 

In order that the different coatings should temper 
uniformly to avoid separation or cracking when fin 
ished, it was essential to use the same basic quality of 
material. While firing methods are generally under 
stood, I will trace the operation from the molten glass 
in the pots. 

These great clay pots were made by an infinitely 
painstaking process, the soft clay undergoing a tread 
ing process by men in their bare feet, after which the 
pots were shaped and annealed, the entire process cov 
ering a period of months. 

Into these pots, which stood over thirty inches 
high, and which were over forty inches wide, the mix 
ture which was to become molten glass was placed. 
Fifteen hundred pounds, or thereabout, was the capa- 



116 




A trio of Sandwich lamps from the collection of Mrs. B. D. 

Webber of Sandwich. Tlw one on the left is in ruby overlay 

and the one at the right in blue overlay 



This group of Sand^vich lamps is in the possession of the 

descendants of Edmund Freeman, one of the founders of the 

Town of Sandwich 




THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



city of each pot. There was a "master melter" on the 
job whose duty it was to know when the substance or 
"metal" was ready for "working". 

The glassmaker engaged in making an overlay 
lamp, say of three colors, gathered the molten glass for 
the first, or inner, cup from the pot by means of a 
blow pipe, which was an iron tube with a flattened end. 
The process of gathering was a skilled one. Great care 
had to be exercised in order that the glass should be 
free of bubbles or other defects. When sufficient glass 
for his purpose was gathered on the pipe end, he passed 
the pipe to the blower, who blew the bubble to the size 
required. Frequent recourse to the "glory hole" kept 
the glass at the right heat. 

The alertness, calculation of temper of the metal, 
the precision with which each step was taken, mark 
these workers as men of surpassing skill. 

The bubble of glass now had to be separated from 
the blowing iron. This was done by means of another 
workman and a "punty rod", or "punty iron" as it was 
commonly called, which was a bar of iron about four 
feet in length. A piece of molten glass was placed on 
the end of this rod and held against the top of the glass 
bubble on the blowing iron. Then the connection be 
tween the glass bubble and the blow pipe at the opposite 
end of the bubble from the punty iron was severed by 
means of cutting through the glass at this point with a 
sharp blade-like implement, together with a quick 
blow and the glass bubble was left on the punty iron 
with an opening at the point at which it was severed 
from the blow pipe. Reheated at the "glory hole", it 
was then placed on the marver (the work table of the 
glassmaker) and worked into the required shape with 
trowel or other tools. Each cup went through the same 
process of blowing, reheating, shaping and gauging for 



118 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



size and form. The second molten cup was placed out 
side the first, the third outside the second, each tem 
pered to the necessary point. 

The next step was the annealing process. Articles 
to be annealed were placed on trays or carriers joined 
together and drawn through the Hers or ovens by means 
of a chain and windlass. 

The huge ovens were open at each end, the heat 
decreasing gradually toward the rear so that at this end 
the annealed article was taken out cold. The trays 
were drawn slowly during this process. 

DESIGN CUT THROUGH 

The design on the overlay lamps was obtained by 
cutting through the outer layer or layers to the flint 
bowl first blown. 

It can be seen readily how, by this method, a lamp 
of many colors was wrought. That which in its day 
seemed to pass as a product of ordinary skill now finds 
itself an object for signal distinction by art appreci- 
ators. That it is a just distinction goes without saying, 
for no one could make a study of overlay specimens 
without finding enthusiasm for the subject, and admi 
ration for the workers. 

These beautiful bowls were of ruby, blue, green, 
white and flint. Both glass and metal stems (usually 
brass or bronze) were used to support the overlay 
lamp; and marble, glass or bronze bases formed the 
foot. 

Overlay fruit bowls and bottles were made by the 
same method. 

This description of handling the molten glass ap 
plies in general to glass creation by the blowing process. 



119 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

OPALESCENT GLASS 

The opalescent ware made at the Sandwich Fac 
tory always has been accorded first place in that partic 
ular color among American glass products. In fact, 
the Boston and Sandwich Company was the first of 
American glass producers to make opalescent. My 
authority for this claim to distinction is the late Wil 
liam E. Kern, who was general superintendent of the 
Factory for many years. 

Opalescent glass was made in England in the early 
part of the Nineteenth Century and the Sandwich 
Company secured the services of Rice Harris of Eng 
land, an expert in this line, to come to its plant about 
1838 and teach the process. Harris remained six 
months at Sandwich and received $5000 and expenses. 

Here again the enterprising, intelligent and pro 
gressive spirit of Sandwich workmen asserted itself. 
The men who were taught to make opalescent applied 
their skill and originality to the improvement of the 
formula of Harris. The result was not only a more 
brilliant opalescent shade but a combination of opal 
with other colors, namely milk white, light blue, pale 
green, and yellow. 




Creamer in ^^K^^B ' i Owned by 

Opalescent ^^^^ Mrs - Hubert 

Ware Wood 



120 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

STAINED GLASS WINDOWS 

Beautiful colored glass windows, for churches and 
institutional orders, were executed in the Sandwich 
Factory, although not to a large extent, it is true. As 
evidence, however, that the work of this nature was 
superior in craftsmanship and design, I offer the fol 
lowing communication which appeared 100 years ago 
in the BOSTON TRAVELER of July 29, 1831, "for the 
enlightenment of American travellers" in that day: 

Mr. Editor: While on a journey to the Cape re 
cently, I visited the Glass Works at Sandwich, and was 
much pleased with the great improvement evinced in 
this important branch of manufacture. The work of 
this establishment is said to equal anything of the kind 
imported; and, to judge from the specimens afforded, 
one would think the assertion abundantly sustained. 
Pressed glass is made here in large quantities and is now 
brought to much greater perfection than formerly; 
still, it seems to me susceptible of some further im 
provement in one respect the selection of the pat 
terns or designs. But what most attracted my atten 
tion was a window, stained and painted in the manner 
of the ancients: an art hitherto supposed to be lost. 
Here, however, is proof of its existence in this country; 
and the coloring is magnificent, the design chaste, and 
the whole beautiful. In the centre is the head of 
Christ, after Guido; the coloring of which is equal to 
any oil painting of that master; though it has always 
been thought impossible to produce the effect of an 
oil painting on glass in this manner. I think this win 
dow has only to be seen to induce the rich and influen 
tial to avail themselves of one of the most brilliant and 
durable means of decorating churches and other public 
buildings. When we have such talent amongst us, why 
not avail ourselves of it, and remove the impression 

121 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

that the Americans have no taste for the arts? I made 
some few enquiries, respecting this splendid specimen 
and was informed that it was executed by a young man 
lately from England, who was engaged by this Com 
pany to stain cut glass, etc.; and that he understands 
the making of all sorts of colors on glass, or on the 
metal in the furnace; but that he was about returning 
to England. Surely, the spirited agent of this respect 
able Company will give the Bostonians an opportunity 
of seeing what can be accomplished at this Manufac 
tory. I recollect seeing, not long since, a statement of 
the purchase of the picture of Washington, painted by 
Stuart. Would it not be an honor to the city to have 
that copied for some of the public buildings in this 
imperishable style of painting? It would be as durable 
as marble, and remain after an oil picture is destroyed 
by time. When the specimen alluded to is once seen 
in Boston it is hoped that some friend to the arts and 
the memory of Washington will not let this suggestion 
pass unimproved. 

A TRAVELLER 

The testimony of this Bostonian reveals the fact 
that exquisite color work was achieved in the Sandwich 
Factory more than a century ago, and should suffice 
to dispel the doubt that has frequently been expressed. 

VASSAMARINE 

Vassamarine or Gold glass, very beautiful and 
somewhat resembling the Venetian in color, was not 
made in the Old Boston and Sandwich Factory. This 
was a late product of the Cape Cod Glass Works which 
was established by the son of Deming Jarves in Sand 
wich. This explanation is offered in consequence of 
many inquiries recently received. 



122 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

WITH SILVER MOUNTINGS 

Leading silversmiths of the early days purchased 
from Sandwich the glass dishes, salts and bottles which 
were ornamented in their factories with silver mount 
ings. These articles were in ruby and sapphire blue. 
The old Reed and Barton Company of Taunton and 
Roswell Gleason of Dorchester were large buyers 
from the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company. 

Recently there were found in the attic of the Old 
Gleason Home, several beautiful Sandwich ruby bowls 
that had not been mounted. Letters were also discov 
ered, the contents of which revealed correspondnce be 
tween Mr. Gleason and the Sandwich Factory. 

COLORED GLASS EGGS 

Within the memory of the present generation 
it was a common custom in rural communities, 
wherever hens were kept, to place a glass egg in each 
nest of the poultry house. I am told that the glass 
egg served a double purpose. It was supposed not 
only to encourage the hen to lay a real egg, but kept 
her from seeking some hidden place outside the 
hennery when she decided to contribute her daily 
offering. 

Whether or not the theory was correct, the prac 
tise was very general. Therefore glass eggs were made 
in abundance and the Sandwich Factory had its full 
share of this branch of glass production. These eggs 
were of milk white glass. 

The making of glass eggs, however, was not con 
fined to the kind referred to for hennery use. Sand 
wich also made colored glass eggs of the toy variety, 
and many of them were placed in the tops of vases to 
keep out the dust and to serve, too, as an ornamenta 
tion. 

123 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



PEACH BLOW 

Whether or not Sandwich made 'Teach Blow" 
glass has long been a controversial question. I can fur 
nish positive evidence that Peach Blow glass was made 
in Sandwich in 1875, though not extensively. 

c< Ted" Collins, as he was familiarly known, spe 
cialized in this type of glass. In the year mentioned 
Collins made an eight-inch plate with imitation fruit 
attached to it and presented this creation to my friend 
arid neighbor, Minerva Pope Green, as a birthday gift. 
This glass was produced in various tableware articles 
in both a rough and polished finish. 

The Peach Blow glass, when first formed from the 
metal, was distinctly yellow in color but by means of 
extreme heat, gradually reached in the Her, the yellow 
tint was softened and transformed into the Peach Blow 
shade. It can readily be understood that this was a 
costly process; the output was limited. 

Practically the same story that describes Peach 
Blow Glass applies to "Bermise" Glass which varied in 
color and was also a limited product of the Sandwich 
Factory made in the late years. Bermise ranged in 
color from mahogany to dull yellow. 



Old Whale oil lamps at Sandivich Historical Society 









THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

SANDWICH ALABASTER 

In 1 8 8 a large chemical company, engaged in the 
manufacture of a certain salve, ordered a large 
number of glass receptacles with covers. In placing 
the order it was explicitly required that these salve 
holders should not be of milk white glass as had long 
been the custom. Neither was the opal or opalescent 
shade desired. No particular color was stipulated but 
something "different" was demanded. 

Superintendent George Lafayette Fessenden set 
himself to the task of evolving the proper color for a 
glass salve box. He realized that neither sapphire blue 
nor golden ruby would fill the bill. Canary was too 
close to the shades that had been eliminated. Lavender 
or jade were not suitable. 

Remembering the words of Charles Lapham, who 
made the first piece of glass in the Sandwich Factory, 
"If it's glass we make it'*, Mr. Fessenden conferred with 
his color specialists and the result was an alabaster 
which proved most satisfactory. This alabaster be 
came a popular shade and alabaster lamps, made with 
gold leaf trimming, were very attractive. 

SILVERED SANDWICH 

Probably no type of Old Glass has puzzled more 
people than the "Silvered Sandwich." Many collec 
tors with whom I have talked expressed surprise to 
learn that the Boston and Sandwich Factory produced 
a very fine grade of silvered ware. Many find it diffi 
cult to distinguish between Silvered Glass and Silver 
Lustre china. 

The difference between this glass and china prod 
ucts is appreciable indeed* In making this kind of 
china, a silver deposit is applied to the exterior of a very 

125 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

dark colored ware. It is exceedingly durable, espe 
cially the early English make, though not as bright as 
the silver sheen of Sandwich Glass. 

Silvered Sandwich Glass is entirely different in its 
composite nature and will retain its lustre indefinitely 
if proper care is taken to preserve it. 

This particular type of glass was made in this 
manner: First a thin blown flint glass vase, bowl, salt, 
or whatever article was desired, was formed from the 
heated metal; then a mercurial silver substance was 
used to coat the glass; next another thin layer of glass 
was cupped over the silver surface. Thus Sandwich 
Silvered Ware consists of flint glass inside and outside 
with the silver between. 

This formation is deceptive to the eye as to all 
appearance the silver coating seems to be an outside 
application. Frequently the silvery mixture was 
poured into the space between the glass layers through 
a hole where the pontil is located. Upon examination 
it will be found that the hole was afterward plugged 
with cork or other substance. 

Now, to refer again to the necessity for care in 
preservation of Silvered Glass: The seal which closes 
the aperture alluded to must be kept closed for, once 
the air is allowed to enter, the silver coating deteriorates 
and gradually disappears. 

AMBERINA 

Amberina glass was another type peculiar to Sand 
wich. This color effect was accomplished in the same 
way that Peach Blow was evolved. The Amberina 
metal was a clear amber color when taken from the 
pots and moulded into form. Then the article was re 
heated in the lier until that bright mahogany hue, 
which was called amberina, appeared. 



126 




Old Sandwich Dolphin candlesticks. The pair belongs to 

the Misses Eliza and Laura Wing of Sandwich. The centre 

one is owned by Mrs. Martha Barry of Sandwich 



Grecian type of Old Sandwich candlesticks with acid finish* 

This pair is owned by Miss Grace Irwin of Sandwich, whose 

father was a skilled Sandwich glasscutter 




NOTABLE COLLECTIONS 



There is a goodly number of valuable and inter 
esting collections of Old Sandwich Glass in all parts of 
America. In fact, a creditable display can be seen in 
some home or institution in every State of the Union 
and parts of Canada. I say this of my own knowledge 
gained by the contacts made with nearly ten thousand 
collectors who visited the exhibition which I was privi 
leged to manage in 1925 for the Sandwich Historical 
Society in commemoration of the One Hundredth An 
niversary of the founding of the Sandwich Factory. 

The largest, most varied and rare collection of 
Sandwich Glass in the world is owned by Mrs. Helen 
Julia Hutchins of Worcester, Massachusetts. 

Mrs. William Greig Walker of New York City 
has collected and exhibited many marvelous specimens 
of Old Sandwich Glass which include nearly every rare 
and desirable pattern. Her lace pieces and complete 
sets of Bell Flower, Lion, Pineapple, Thumbprint, 
Westward Ho, Loop, Rose and other standard designs 
are exquisite. Mrs. Walker has done much more than 
collect. She has arranged. Her interpretation of Old 
Sandwich Glass in artistic and effective modernistic 
settings has enhanced its charm. Her skill in assem 
bling has assured a permanent place in the modern 
home for old Sandwich Glass. 

In his Museum at Dearborn, Mr. Henry Ford has 
a large and valuable collection of Old Sandwich, 
widely varied in design and including a large number 
of rare specimens. Early lamps and candlesticks are 
favorite acquirements of Mr. Ford. Industrial and 
Bee Hive plates of lace are feature pieces in the motor 
magnate's display. It was my privilege to supply a 



128 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



considerable portion of this collection to Mr. Ford. 

The first upright engine used in the Sandwich 
Factory and the old office safe are choice possessions of 
Mr. Ford. These relics I obtained- for him from Sand 
wich homes. Thousands of the old hard bricks from 
the Factory ruins have been preserved in an interesting 
fireplace by Mr. Ford and the old cutting shop frames, 
too, are set up at Dearborn. These also were acquired 
through me. 

Mrs. George W. Mitton of Brookline and Cape 
Cod is a discriminating collector and a pioneer in pro 
moting interest in Sandwich Glass. 

The most complete collection of Old Sandwich 
amber glass is owned by Mr. R. J. Healey, Worcester, 

Mrs. A. W. Childs of Cambridge, daughter of 
Nathaniel J. Bradlee, a director of the Company at the 
time the Factory closed, has a typical collection which 
came to her from her father. 

Mr. C. W. Brown, Ashland, Mass., has a very 
large and choice collection of glass salts, including 
nearly every type and design of Sandwich salts. 

Mr. Gustav W. Goerner, Boston, Mass., has a var 
ied and select assortment of Old Sandwich picked up 
in all parts of New England. 

The Sandwich Historical Society has in its rooms 
some very fine specimens donated by the families of old 
glassworkers and the exhibition is open for public in 
spection during the summer months. 

An outstanding article in the Society's treasure 
group is an old ruby glass lantern made for the Lincoln 
presidential campaign. This square beacon bears the 
engraved name of the martyred President and was car 
ried through the streets of Sandwich by the Lincoln 
paraders. The inscription reads "Lincoln and Hamhn". 

Splendid specimens of overlay lamps, whale oil 



129 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



lamps and lace glass pieces are included in the Histor 
ical Society collection. Installed there also is the old 
Factory bell which called the men to work; a crude old 
iron mould reposes in a corner. Probably the choicest 
and rarest article of Sandwich Glass in the Historical 
Society collection is the Sandwich Glass Bank made in 
1831 and illustrated on another page. 

In the homes of Sandwich families of old-time 
lineage there are rare heirlooms of special creations of 
Old Sandwich Glass, many of which were never of the 
commercial type. 

Noteworthy collections on Cape Cod are those of 
Col. Charles L. Ay ling at Centerville; ex- Congressman 
Thomas C. Thacher at Yarmouth; Mr. Thomas Nick- 
erson and Mr. Kenneth D. Steere at Harwich; Mrs. 
George Baker at West Dennis; Mrs. John C. Spoor at 
Osterville; Mrs. R. M. Roloson, Cotuit; Mr. Joseph C. 
Lincoln, Chatham; Mr. F. W. Fabyn, Buzzards Bay; 
Mrs. Alice N. Judd, East Dennis; Mrs. W. G. McRee ? 
Yarmouth; Mrs. Walter P. Wright, Hyannisport; Mr. 
and Mrs. H. E. Howe, Woods Hole; Mrs. Howard C. 
Rand, Osterville; Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy, Hyannis 
port. 

In her New York home and at "Blue Blinds", the 
Barnstable summer estate of Mrs. Harry Jaqueline, a 
collection that would do justice to a museum has been 
acquired. Mrs. Jaqueline has a set of old whale oil 
lamps with dolphin stems which I do not believe can be 
duplicated. Dolphin candlesticks and a variety of 
overlay lamps are among her choice possessions. An 
other gem is a tall, plain glass peg lamp of beautiful 
proportions, the best specimen of its kind I have seen. 

Charles O. Dexter, of New Bedford, has acquired 
an extensive collection of Old Sandwich pieces, many 
of which are kept at his Sandwich estate, "Shawme". 



130 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

A pair of Sapphire blue candlesticks in lacy effect, for 
merly owned by the Gen. Warren family of Boston, 
stands out in Mr. Dexter's collection. 

George F. Dennis, of Sandwich, has a blown sugar 
bowl made by Samuel Kern, one of his ancestors, in 
1829. 

Col. and Mrs. Joseph Cecil, of Falmouth, have a 
valuable collection. Their Peach Blow set is probably 
the largest and finest in existence. A ruby epergne 
features the Cecil display. 

In the Academy of Fine Arts at New Haven, 
Connecticut, reposes a large punch bowl of "Sandwich 
Pattern" indexed "Made by Deming Jarves at the 
Sandwich Glass Factory". Other fine specimens are 
included in the collection displayed by the same insti 
tution. The Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts in 
New York City also has a collection of rare pieces. 

Worthy of mention in unique design, also, are: 

A tall, gracefully-shaped glass goblet with a tiny 
china doll inserted in the stem and richly engraved 
with this inscription: "To Rebecca Newcomb, our be 
loved teacher, from her pupils of the Class of I860". 
This memento, in all its original beauty, is now owned 
by Miss Martha Newcomb, of Sandwich, niece of the 
deceased recipient. 

A shapely, well proportioned lamp with a china 
doll standing erect in the stem is the property of Miss 
Ella Briggs. 

An overlay ruby jug intricately cut, with stopper 
to match, and the designations "Whiskey" and "Rum" 
engraved on the sides; *a marvelous lamp with frosted 
and engraved dome, prism danglers, bronze stem in 
Corinthian style with bust of Washington in bas-re 
lief encircled by a wreath and surmounted by a spread 
Eagle these prize pieces are owned by Mrs. George S- 

131 




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c 

s 



8 



's 

o 



S 

1 



o 

+A 
^> 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

Wing, of Sandwich, and were the gifts from the Com 
pany to her grandfather, William Boyden. Initialed 
wines and a glass bell are included in Mrs. Wing's col 
lection. 

An exquisite pair of paper weights with floral de 
sign and rich in color, to which are affixed metal screws, 
adorn the wall and support an old mirror in the home 
of Mrs* William Smith. These were made by her 
brother, Nicholas Lutz, the expert in paper weights and 
color work. 

A tall, blown-glass flower vase of graceful pro 
portions, made in 1 8 57, is still the property of the First 
Church Society of Sandwich. This special creation 
bears the engraved inscription: ''Presented to The First 
Church, Sandwich, by the Female Benevolent Society, 
1857". 

The Dickinson family of Ligonier, Pa., has a com 
plete set of one dozen drinking tumblers, made to 
order more than half a century ago,, of a size and shape 
different from any of the stock patterns of that period. 

Some fifty years back, Augustus R. Pope, the 
local ice dealer, when delivering ice in the vicinity of 
the Glass Factory, was occasionally asked to leave a cake 
on the window sill of the Packing Room. A package 
of glass was usually left on the same sill which Mr. 
Pope accepted as his recompense for the ice. Most of 
this uniquely-acquired collection is still in Mr. Pope's 
possession. 

An epergne of charming lines, a colored perfume 
bottle, lamps and vases of unusual pattern, are 
the keepsakes of Mrs. Charlotte Chipman, grand 
daughter of Charles Lapham, the Old Sandwich gaffer, 
whose handiwork is so well exemplified in these partic 
ular creations. 

A blue top Dolphin candlestick made by Michael 

133 




Part of a group of Sandwich glass candlesticks mvned by 
Mrs. Edna Clark, New Bedford 

Grady has first place in the collection treasured by his 
daughter, Mrs. Louise Lambert. 

A blue overlay lamp, Eagle cup plates and a lace 
dish are highly prized by Miss Mary Fish as relics of 
the Factory days brought home by her father, Nath 
aniel Fish, the carpenter of the plant. 

Albert Govoni, proprietor of the Daniel Webster 
Inn, is the proud possessor of a large pair of decanters 
in Pineapple pattern found in the attic of his hostelry. 

Mrs. Lillian Tangney cherishes a dainty set of sil 
vered glassware made especially for and presented to 
her father, Edward Haines, more than half a century 
ago. 

The largest and most valuable lot of richly cut 
glassware in the town is owned by Mrs. Lena Clayton. 
The patterns were designed by her father, Nehemiah 
Packwood, the expert of the Cutting department. The 
cutting was done by Mr. Packwood, his son, Nehe 
miah, and John Jones. 

Jonathan Leonard, of Sandwich, has several inter 
esting heirlooms in glass creations. The most unique 



134 




The rest of the group of Old Sandwich glass candlesticks 
owned by Mrs. Clark 

specimens are a pair of salts made in experimentation 
and without duplicate, so far as known. These salts 
are of the silvered ware variety in ruby color with sil 
vered ovals between ruby squares. They were made 
by John Jarves, son of Deming Jarves, and first hus 
band of Mr. Leonard's mother. A cut ruby cream 
pitcher and a graceful vase, in Venetian style, engraved 
and given as a wedding present to Jonathan Leonard's 
mother, are other choice pieces in this collection. 

Charles S. Lloyd, of Sandwich, has some most un 
usual specimens, among which are pieces turned out 
for the purpose of objectifying the ideas of his father, 
James D. Lloyd, the color evolutionist of the Factory. 
An outstanding creation is a beautiful hanging lamp 
which adorns the lower hall of Mr. Lloyd's home. This 
gem is a six-sided light set in exquisite brass mounting. 
The glass panels are of ruby color, each pane richly 
engraved in different design. There are three floral 
patterns besides a stork, a knight and "Elaine". This 
is an early product. In the upper hall hangs a smaller 
light, the dome of which is Sandwich Bermise, one of 



135 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

the last color effects evolved in the Sandwich Factory. 
Three beautifully cut ruby bowls, a lavender wine 
glass and plain, thin, blown tumblers, with a fish en 
graved on the side, are other choice possessions of Mr. 
Lloyd. 

Unique and authentic articles are also abiding in 
the cabinets and on the shelves at the homes of Mr. 
William L. Nye, Mrs. Melissa Ellis, Miss Abbie Nye, 
Mrs. Edgar H. Moody, Mrs. Edward Swan, Miss Louise 
Brady, John Maley, Mrs. Martha Barry, Miss Caroline 
Pope, Mrs. Asa Wing, and the Misses Caroline and 
Sarah Crocker. 

William Kern, of New Bedford, son of the late 
William Kern, has some of the most valuable and 
authentic pieces of Old Sandwich Glass in existence. 
Included is a set bequeathed to the son by the elder 
Kern, a special creation presented by the Company to 
William Kern, deceased, upon his retirement as super 
intendent of the Factory in 1864. This set comprises 
fifty-four articles of blown flint glass engraved with a 
vine pattern and initialed K. There are goblets, wines, 
nappies, compote, berry dish, spoonholder, sugar bowl, 
pair of decanters, butter dish and pitchers. With the 
exception of a few wines and goblets the set is in per 
fect condition. 

A single gem which Mr. Kern prizes as an heir 
loom is a cut ruby jug which is artistically engraved 
with fruit and flowers and bears the inscription, tc Eng. 
March 27, 1 867, by G. F. Lapham". Another treasure 
is a purple glass vase which the elder Kern made as 
a replica of an Old Roman vase owned by Corpus 
Christi Church, of Sandwich. 

While these possessions of Mr. Kern are outstand 
ing as things of glass, he owns the original record 
book, called "Sloar Book", of the Old Sandwich 

136 






A group of Old Sandwich spirit lamps 

Factory. This heavily-bound volume contains the 
names of the gaffers and assistants of the four original 
shops with the weekly wage paid each individual and 
the output of each shop daily itemized. Beginning 
with the very opening of the Factory as a producing 
plant in July, 1825, the daily records are dated and 
detailed. 

The four original shops were manned as follows: 
SHOP No. 1 



John Snowdon 
Joseph Crosby 

Benjamin Haines 
Benjamin Jewkes 

John Doyle 
John Scott 

Thomas Lloyd 
Samuel Lloyd 



SHOP No. 2 



SHOP No. 3 



SHOP No. 4 



Samuel Kern 
Two Boys 

Alfred Green 
Two Boys 

I. Fessenden 
Two Boys 

Charles Lapham 
Two Boys 



137 



THE ROMANCE Of OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

In 1828 two more shops were added as follows: 

SHOP No. 5 

M. Doyle William Lapham 
Arratt Two Boys 

SHOP No. 6 

S. Barnes Thomas Marsh 

G. Scobie Two Boys 

During these first few years the articles made and 
entered in this Sloar Book were: Petticoat lamps, 
squash lamps, tall lamps (referring presumably to 
whale oil lamps), cup plates, salts, nappies, candle 
sticks, dishes. 

THE DANIEL WEBSTER SET 

In 1841 a special set of Sandwich Glass table 
ware was made and sent to Daniel Webster, then a 
member of the United States Senate. The following 
acknowledgment in Webster's own handwriting was 
received by Deming Jarves: 

Washington, July 10, 1841. 
My dear Sir: 

I have to thank you for your very handsome 
present of glass which arrived yesterday. All the 
pieces came safe and are exceedingly elegant. 

They have substance as well as beauty and I shall 
have much pleasure in exhibiting them as specimens 
of the skill and industry of Massachusetts. 

I please myself with the hope that I may find 
leisure before autumn to visit Sandwich once more, 
a spot in which I have spent so much agreeable time 
in years past. 

With renewed thanks for your kind remem 
brance, I am, dear sir, 

Yours truly, 
Deming Jarves, Esq. DANIEL WEBSTER. 



138 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

In 1850, a glass bowl made in the Sandwich 
establishment was presented to Mr. Webster, of which, 
Deming Jarves in an accompanying letter said: "It 
claims the merit of being much the largest piece of 
flint glass made by machinery in any part of the world. 
Two machinists were employed six months in forming 
this mould. This bowl is the first made in it, and is 
called the Union Bowl. The name will not render it 
less valuable." 



Old Sandwich in its very latest phase the glass modernized 
in Mrs. Hazel Blake French's interpretative jewelry 




139 



LATE SANDWICH 



It is now forty-three years since the Sandwich 
Factory ceased to manufacture. I speak with 
authority when I state that during its later years this 
Factory made just as large a proportion of beautiful 
shapes and designs in glassware and used just as high 
grade materials as characterized any period of its 
existence. The so-called ugly pieces were made in all 
things at all times and are typical of no particular 
period. 

Many pieces of what has been called "late Sand 
wich" are close to the half century mark in age and 
are becoming rare and desirable. In this connection 
I have noted that there are collectors who take pleasure 
in the use of their Sandwich Glass, as well as those 
who place it in cabinets for display. The former type 
of collector undoubtedly has a disposition toward 
beauty and color suitability. Goblets, sugar bowls, 
creamers, sauce dishes, all must fit into the scheme of 
some color or pattern arrangement in the home, that 
the whole may follow some special personal design 
the homemaker has in mind. Many products of the 
eighties have answered to these color and utility 
demands, and objects scorned perhaps by one collector 
become the means of pleasure and service to another. 
There is a fitting place for everything, but this 
is never entirely dependent on the particular year of 
its production. Vases and toilet sets made in Sand 
wich not over fifty years ago have lent themselves to 
this idea of color; many glass lamps, colored in bowl 
and stem, artistic in design and of fine quality, were 
late products. 

I would call attention to the engraved and 



140 



S 



o 
o 



Q 



iiHi 



if : -:::.:> 



Hfel 









THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

etched products of the later manufacturing years in 
the Sandwich plant. Even the collector who gauges 
the value of his "find" by its age must admit that this 
was a period in which much rare beauty was expressed. 
A large proportion of the most beautifully engraved 
and artistically designed goblets, decanters', wines and 
lamp globes ever produced in glass were made in the 
Sandwich Factory as late as the eighties. The undis 
puted craftsmanship of early Sandwich Glass was 
equalled if not surpassed in artistic accomplishment 
during the last fifteen years of the plant's existence. 
Many lovers of glass have discovered this fact. 

BURIED TREASURE 

The privilege of making glass articles for home 
use or ornament at the mere cost of the metal was 
not only extended to journeymen glassmakers but 
apprentices occasionally were allowed the same 
indulgence. 

It seemed to be a common ambition to make a 
paper weight and sooner or later every boy tried his 
hand at this feat. Usually Nicholas Lutz was induced 
to make the colored centre and then the tyro tested 
his skill at dropping the cup of flint glass over the 
colored centre. 

It frequently happened that the novice failed to 
balance his cup or perhaps erred in properly heating 
the two parts. Determined that the gaffer or an 
official of the Company should not discover his 
blunder, the young fellow would make a hasty trip 
to the Factory Yard and deposit his imperfect creation 
in the open well. 

In recent years many a paper weight or other 
defective glass article has been "fished" from that 
well. Colored glass curtain pulls and jade salts, slightly 



142 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 

' ' in color and shape, buried in the Yard a half 
century or more ago, have been resurrected by the 
youngsters of today who live near the ruins and dig up 
its hidden treasures. 

Considerable revenue has been realized during the 
past five years by digging in the old Factory Yard or 
raking over the cullet heaps of colored fragments. 
That more finds are yet to be unearthed there is no 
doubt. 

THE DOORS CLOSE 

The end of the old Sandwich Glass Factory was 
as tragic as its beginning was romantic. Confusion 
prevails to a considerable extent in regard to the 
circumstances and conditions which resulted in its 
closing. The facts were these: 

The glassmakers' union was one of the first labor 
unions formed in America. The glassmakers of all 
the other factories in this country organized their 
respective bodies long before Sandwich workers took 
the step. In fact, it was only after much influence 
was exerted from outside that the local union was 
formed. 

This was in the late eighties. Deming Jarves was 
no longer the guiding genius of the Boston and Sand 
wich Factory. New directors and other workmen 
were carrying on. Competition in the glass industry 
was having its effect there. New York, Ohio and 
Pennsylvania factories were forging ahead as their loca 
tions were more favorable on account of natural re 
sources. 

The Sandwich union was formed just previous 
to 1888. The time was not auspicious; business was 
waning and the management in no mood to tolerate 
anything that seemed to them to threaten dictation. 

143 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



In justice to the workmen it should be said that the 
Sandwich union was not formed for the purpose of 
protesting wages or working conditions. 

It never has been disputed that the Boston and 
Sandwich Glass Factory was, in a physical sense, the 
best equipped plant in the country for comfortable 
working conditions. Pay in general was satisfactory* 
The directors of the Company posted notices in 
the Watch House, stating that they would reserve 
and exercise the right to employ whom they pleased, 
whether union or non-union men. A few minor dis 
putes arose which seemed to be kindling some real 
trouble. 

One man finally was docked. The amount was 
trivial, less than one dollar, but a crisis had arisen. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, of Boston, leading director 
of the business, was notified and he prepared to come 
to Sandwich to iron out the difficulty. Mr. Bradlee 
was a man of sound business acumen and it is known 
that he had prepared careful and exhaustive plans for 
a just and friendly settlement of existing troubles. 

Mr. Bradlee was suddenly taken ill and died 
before he was able to save the situation. There was 
no one who was inclined or fitted to step into the 
breach. The workmen stood by their member; the 
management refused to recognize his claim as justifi 
able and peremptorily proceeded to close the Factory. 
The moulds were destroyed, the stock on hand 
was gradually disposed of; a great industry ceased. 

During the sixty-three years that the Sandwich 
Factory was in operation, the glassmakers daily 
entered the plant, performed the day's work and re 
turned home at noon and night with never a time 
clock or other device for recording their attendance. 
At six forty-five every week day morning the 



144 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



old Factory bell was rung as a reminder that the glass- 
makers were expected at seven, in the same manner 
that church bells reminded the good people of each 
parish of the hour of worship at hand. 

It is not disputed that the employes kept faith 
with the Company and merited the trust that the 
officials placed in them. 

While the closing of the Factory in 1888 marked 
the end of the Boston and Sandwich Glass Co. regime, 
there were other interested parties who attempted to 
re-open the plant and carry on a glass making business. 

The old Company had destroyed its moulds and 
disposed of most of the glass on hand but the Factory 
otherwise remained equipped; the furnaces were in 
fairly good condition and some of the pots were 
available. 

This resumption of glassmaking a few years later 
was under the direction of a man named Shirley who 
succeeded in getting Charles W. Lapham, then a very 
aged man, to gather the first piece of glass on the day 
of re-opening just as he had done on July 4th, 1825, 
in the original plant. 

Lamp shades, domes and some tableware, princi 
pally goblets and tumblers, were turned out but the 
enterprise was short-lived due to the lack of sufficient 
capital. 

Many of the younger Sandwich glassmakers went 
to other glass centres and in Somerville, Mass., Monaca, 
Pa., Fostoria, Ohio, and Corning, N. Y., continued the 
pursuit of their trade. 

Gradually the old furnaces and giant smoke 
stacks fell, the roofs of the buildings rotted away and 
the brick buildings were dismantled. The only build 
ing left standing today is the old brick Store. Al 
though remodelled inside and occupied as a dwelling, 



145 



THE ROMANCE OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS 



its exterior remains as it was built. The staunch old 
iron S braces, a curiosity in themselves, still hold the 
building together. 

More than twenty acres of ruins now remain 
where once stood a thriving industry. Thousands of 
the old hard bricks, twisted iron pipes and girders, 
granite foundations and fragments of glass tell the 
tragic tale of a lost art and bear mute testimony to 
the memory of an institution of world-wide fame. 
# * * * * 

As a descendant of Sandwich glassmakers who 
witnessed the transition from triumph to ruin, I can 
readily understand the feeling of personal loss ex 
pressed by Maud Howe Elliott, daughter of Julia 
Ward Howe, when in her book "Three Generations", 
she recalls to memory the old Factory of which her 
uncle, Joseph Howe, was at one time president. 
Picturing Thanksgiving dinner in her uncle's fine old 
home at 4 Ashburton Place, Boston, she writes: 

"The table was decorated with glass flagons and 
goblets, rose, ruby, pale and dark green, some covered 
with gold arabesques triumphs of the Sandwich 
Glass Factory. With dessert came the thin, pink 
finger-bowls; the children dipped their fingers and 
rubbed them round and round the rims producing a 
faint elfin music I never hear without a vision of the 
Ashburton Place dining room. 

"A few years ago, motoring on Cape Cod, the 
way led through a fine old town, full of Colonial 
houses and wide streets lined by magnificent elms. 
'What's this place? 5 I asked. 'Sandwich/ the name 
blew back from the lips of our host. Soon we passed 
a huge brick factory with broken windows, smokeless 
chimneys, deserted, forlorn, yet with something that 
spoke of past greatness." 



146 



CHIPMAN'S 
DICTIONARY 

OF OLD 

SANDWICH GLASS 
PATTERNS 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



A. B. C. An alphabetical border 
on child's plates. 

ACANTHUS A Corinthian de 
sign of Acanthus Leaf with varied 
conventional scroll. Found on cup 
plates and lace glass dishes. 

ACORN Appears with the leaf of 
the oak as a design, or the acorn 
may be found on the top of the 
cover to a bowl or dish. 

ALBANY Plain blown goblet 
with bulging bowl. 

ALBION A short, heavy, taper 
ing design of tumbler. 

APPLE This design is found in 
the colored centre of a paper weight 
or engraved in a fruit pattern. 

ASHBURTON A goblet pattern 
with thumb print or short fluting on 
lower part of bowl. The name un 
doubtedly was derived from Ash- 
burton Place, Boston, where lived 
Joseph Howe, one of the Company's 
presidents. 

ASTOR A tall, graceful, plain- 
surfaced tumbler or goblet for bar 
use. Has an oval stem bulging 
near the foot. 

BANK A rare creation, made in 
1831, with a dime dated 1831 in 
side. A rooster is poised on top 
of handle and there is a coin slot 
in the bowl. 

BANKS The head and bust of 
Governor Nathaniel Banks of Mas 
sachusetts (1858-1860) in the cen 
tre of a plate. 

BARREL A salt pattern with 
metallic top or a candy jar of 



quart, pint or half-pint size; with 
hoops. 

BASKET- WEAVE Made in plain 
flint, acid finish and milk white 
table ware. 

BEAR Bruin himself on haunches 
a match safe in black, purple, 
blue and white colors. 

BEE HIVE This pattern char 
acterizes the famous lace plate of 
that name; also found on cup 
plates. The thistle often appears 
with it. 

BELL FLOWER A standard Sand 
wich pattern in ribbed glass; five 
variations, shows flower, stem and 
leaf. Made in all table ware. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN A cup 
plate design. Shows full-rigged 
ship in centre around which is in 
scribed "Benjamin Franklin." 

BIRD The form of a bird in sit 
ting posture. In the centre of the 
back is a circular depression for 
holding salt. Known as bird salt. 
Plain flint and in colors. 

BIRD AND BUTTERFLY Two 

birds and two butterflies in a plate. 

BLACKBERRY Showing berry 
cluster, leaf and stem. 

BLEEDING HEART (Bikukulla 
Spectabilis) Much desired pattern. 
Easily identified by the floral desig 
nation. Table ware pattern in dull 
flint and lacking resonance. 

BLOCK The surface laid out in 
blocks or squares. 

BLUE JAY AND HOLLY The 
bird and the shrub on goblets. 



149 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



BOAT This pattern found in salts, 
the outstanding one being the Laf 
ayette boat salt. "Lafayette" in 
scribed on the stern and "Sand 
wich" in the bottom. The only 
Sandwich creation with name of 
Town or Factory thus designated. 
The Boat pattern in varied size and 
shape, without inscription, is found 
in pickle dishes and pin trays. 
BUCKLE A well known pattern 
in table pieces. 

BUCKLE AND GRAPE Showing 
the buckle and bunch of grapes. 

BULL'S EYE Sometimes called 
Thousand Eyes. General table 
ware. The pattern varies in size 
of the orb. 

BULL'S EYE AND BAR A 
group of perpendicular bars with a 
bull's eye between groups. 
BULL'S EYE AND STAR Popu 
lar pattern, sometimes called Moon 
and Star. Factory name "Star and 
Punty." The surface is a series of 
orbs with a star in each circle. 
BUNKER HILL The familiar cup 
plate with design of monument. 
BUTTERFLY Another cup plate 
design. The butterfly, with spread 
wings, occupies centre of cup plate, 
CABLE A popular Sandwich pat 
tern evolved in recognition of lay 
ing of the French cable. Varies in 
size of strand and cable. Frequently 
forms handles of trays or edges of 
dishes. In table ware. 
CADMUS Replica of the famous 
ship that brought Lafayette to 
America a cup plate design. 
CANE SEAT Weave like the 
chair seat. Factory name Sandwich. 

CAPE COD A plain, blown gob 
let with star bottom. 



CAT Found in various poses on 
children's mugs. 

CAT-0-NINE-TAIL In sheaf 
motif a goblet pattern. 

CATHEDRAL A design found 
on a few whale oil lamps, particu 
larly the alabaster type. 

CENTENNIAL Shows the Lib 
erty Bell made and inscribed in 
honor of the 1876 Exposition at 
Philadelphia. 

CHANCELLOR LIVINGSTONE 

A rare pattern found only on 
cup plates. 

CHERRY Shows cluster of fruit 
and leaves in dull flint. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM A popular 
design of general table ware made 
1880 to 1888. The leaf only 
shown. Another dull flint prod 
uct. 

CLAXTON, KATE Her face on 
a goblet or plate. 

CLAY, HENRY This pattern 
confined to cup plates with head 
of the statesman and name in 
scribed. 

COLONIAL The generic term 
applied to salts, lamps, vases, 
tumblers and compotes which have 
no surface figure but general Co 
lonial form. 

CONSTITUTION Another cup 
plate pattern, showing the famous 
old frigate in full rig. 
CORD Sometimes called Rib; a 
surface pattern of corded effect as 
appears on Bell Flower or Ivy glass. 

COW The animal occupies the in 
side bottom of a dish, rarely found 
except in butter dish. 

CRABTREE, LOTTA G o b 1 e t 
pattern with face of the actress. 



150 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



CRACKLE A surface pattern in 
irregular mode. 

CRADLE Salts and novelty pieces 
were made in this pattern. The 
salt is minus the hood. 

CROSSED SWORDS The swords 
are crossed in centre of cup plates, 
nappies and lace dishes. 

CRUCIFIX- An ornamental cross 
in flint or color. The figure of 
Christ on the Cross. This also ap 
pears on candle sticks. 

CUPID'S DART The arrow 
pierces the heart; sometimes two 
hearts. Another cup plate pat 
tern. 
CURRANT The berry design. 

CURTAIN A drape effect with 
conventional background. This 
pattern much used on engraved 
glass. 

DAILY BREAD A Sandwich 
plate bearing the inscription "Give 
us this day our daily bread." 
Usually a sheaf of wheat occupies 
centre of plate. Sometimes the 
figure of an ancient character ap 
pears also. Occasionally the plate 
has rope or beaded edge. 

DAISY The flower and stem 
found in table ware in flint, blue, 
purple, yellow and amber glass. 
DEER The buck and doe, found 
on pressed glass and commonly the 
design on etched and engraved 
ware. 

DEW DROP A choice Sandwich 
pattern; sometimes called Pin Point. 
Shows a series of tiny drops, with 
silvery sheen. 

DIAMOND-POINT Factory 
name "Raised Diamond." An early 
table ware pattern, frequently but 
erroneously called Pineapple. Heav 



ily pointed with facet of the dia 
mond. 

DOG The animal as the adorn 
ment of a child's mug. 

DOLPHIN A famous Sandwich 
creation; the fish serving as the 
stem of candle sticks and compotes. 
A few whale oil lamps are found 
with Dolphin stems. 

EAGLE A cup plate design dated 
1831. The eagle also appears on 
lace plates and dishes. 

ELAINE The figure of Tenny 
son's flower girl plucking flowers, 
in acid finish, occupies centre of a 
plate. This plate frequently has 
series of bars and ovals as its bor 
der. 

EMPIRE A heavy tapering plain- 
surfaced tumbler of the empire 
period. 

FIFTH AVENUE Pattern of a 
tall bar tumbler with long flute, 

FROG Another pattern common 
on child's mugs. 

FUCHSIA Rare floral pattern in 
raised cluster on table pieces. 

GARFIELD The face and bust of 
the martyred President on late 
Sandwich plates. 

GOTHIC BAR A Gothic design 
of bar tumbler with thick bot 
tom. 

GRANT A reduced size of 
"Raised Diamond"; made during 
that President's term of office; 
brilliant in sheen and very reson 
ant. A plate bearing the face of 
Grant also was made in Sandwich. 
GRAPE A standard Sandwich 
pattern in five varieties. 
GRECIAN BORDER Found on 
table ware, circling the article 



151 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



about one inch from top edge. A 
female Grecian figure in acid finish 
serves as the stem of some Sandwich 
vases and candle sticks. 

HAIRPIN Found on goblets and 
dishes. The pin alternates with a 
punty or small bull's eye. 

HAMILTON Commonly called 
"Sunburst." Derived from Old 
Irish Waterford design. A desir 
able and standard table ware pat 
tern. 

HAND The human hand in 
single and double types. Fingers 
and nails clearly defined. Made for 
pin trays. Usually in lavender 
color. 

HAT The form of a silk hat. 
Made for match or toothpick 
holder in nearly all colors. The 
surface is in "Sandwich pattern." 

HEART Several varieties. Found 
principally upon cup plate borders 
and centres. Twelve or thirteen 
hearts as a border ornament. A 
large plain heart is found on one 
table ware creation. 

HEN The form of a hen as a 
cover for an egg dish. 

HOB NAIL Distinctly patterned 
after the nail of that type. Many 
times confused with "Raised Dia 
mond/' The pattern has a rounded 
point, not sharp like the diamond. 

HOLLY Branch and berries of 
the shrub. 

HORN OF PLENTY An old 
standard Sandwich pattern in sev 
eral varieties. The horn in one is 
perpendicular; in another horizon 
tal. In general table ware the 
pieces are stippled on the lower 
half. Also found in lace pieces in 
more graceful position and shape. 



HUBER A goblet pattern with 
plain bowl and long fluted stem. 
Fluting often called panel. 

INDUSTRIAL An old and rare 
pattern on lace plates. Shows Log 
Cabin in center. Around the bor 
der are the factory, the full rigged 
ship and the ploughman. 

IVY Table ware pattern, ribbed 
or corded in same manner as the 
Bell Flower ware. 

LAFAYETTE The name is in 
scribed on the stern of a boat salt. 
Sandwich is inscribed on inside bot 
tom of boat. 

LAST SUPPER A rare old pat 
tern on a plate, showing the forms 
of Jesus and his disciples, in bas 
relief, at the table. 

LAWRENCE A tumbler and 
goblet design of small round orbs 
or eyes. Plain flint and in colors. 
LIBERTY BELL Special Centen 
nial pattern of the Bell. 

LILY OF THE VALLEY The 
flower and leaf. 

LINCOLN DRAPE A popular 
pattern in corded drape, adopted 
in honor of the Emancipator. 
LION In table ware sets. The 
King of Beasts in acid finish on top 
of covers of dishes, reclining at the 
base of articles, his face on stems 
and forming the handles of glass 
trays. 

LOG CABIN An early cup plate 
design, infrequently found on 
larger plates. 

LOOP A graceful table ware pat 
tern surfaced with a series of long, 
plain loops. 

LOOP AND LEAF On stippled 
surface with ring of small stars on 
lower part of bowl. 



152 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



LOOP AND JEWEL This pat 
tern is found on stippled surface 
glass with the loop and the jewel in 
alternate order around the bowl of 
the article. 

LYRE The instrument in center 
of cup plates and larger flat pieces; 
also found on lace salts in sofa 
type. 

MARBLE Sometimes called Slag. 
This is a jumble of colors made 
from a mixture of various colors 
of metal. 

MITCHELL Strictly a goblet pat 
tern of plain bowl and drawn 
stem. 

MORNING GLORY A very rare 
Sandwich pattern with profusion of 
the flowers, leaves and stems pro 
truding on outside of pieces. 

MOSS ROSE Sometimes called 
Rose in Snow. The rose on a stip 
pled, dull surface. 

MOTHER AND CHILD Stand 
ing in acid finish on plates. 

MOUNT VERNON A goblet of 
panelled sides; on the Colonial or 
der. 

MOUNT WASHINGTON An 
other goblet of Colonial type with 
panelled sides no figure. 

MULBERRY Another fruit de 
sign. 

NEW YORK BAR A tumbler in 
tall Colonial design with panelled 
sides. Made for beer tumbler. 

OAK LEAF In varied types. A 
series of leaves forming the border 
of a dish; also found as the pro 
nounced decoration with Buckle 
and Conventional designs. 

OAK LEAF AND ACORN This 
pattern appears in a narow band of 



acid finish around bowls. A pair 
of doves often is found on top of 
covers. 

OLD COLONY Name given to 
a heavy bar goblet in plain sur 
face and egg-shaped bowl; made 
for steamship lines. 

OWL Replica of the bird in the 
form of a pitcher. Often in amber 
color. Also as an ornament on 
small mugs. 

PANEL A Colonial type of gob 
let or dish. Sides in varied size 
panels. One of the long flute de 
signs. 

PANSY The flower found in col 
ored centres of paper weights and 
in flint table ware. 

PARTHENON The Temple in 
ruins, showing broken columns, 
pyramid and the camel. 
PEACOCK A rare pattern on 
small plates. The bird occupies 
centre of plate, the full-spread tail 
extending to the border. 
PEACOCK FEATHER The tail 
feather of a peacock. Found on 
lace plates and dishes. 
PEAR This fruit pattern appears 
in colored centre of paper weights 
and on engraved glass. Does not 
include the fruit pattern on flint 
table ware. The latter is a Balti 
more glass pattern. 
PETTICOAT Strictly a lamp de 
sign. 

PINEAPPLE Well-known stand 
ard Sandwich pattern, showing sec 
tion of the fruit. In all table ware 
pieces. 

POLAR BEAR AND SEAL The 
animals and iceberg are shown in 
frosted or acid finish with relief of 
clear flint. 



153 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



POP CORN A late table ware 
pattern. 

POTTED PLANT Made in table 
sets. The potted plant sets in a 
background of dew drop. Bowls 
have two handles. 

PRIMROSE Another floral pat 
tern. 

PRINCE OF WALES The feather 
on cup plates only. 

RING Three varieties a series of 
single rings, or frequently a series 
of double rings; one ring passing 
through the arc of another. A 
beaded edge sometimes features the 
single ring variety. 

ROPE A border or handle de 
sign; with other conventional pat 
terns. 

ROSE LEAF AND COMET The 
leaf of the rose and the celestial 
body. A goblet pattern. 

SANDWICH A late pattern, 
commonly called Cane Seat. Made 
in colors and plain flint. 

SHAMROCK The flower on 
otherwise plain flint. 

SHEAF OF WHEAT A central 
design on bread plates and trays. 

SHELL A standard pattern of the 
Scallop Shell variety. The shell is 
often found forming the mouth of 
a pitcher. Stippled and Snake 
Skin type of nappies and dishes 
were frequently cast in the form of 
a shell. 

SHIELD One of the charming 
patterns in lace glass sets of table 
ware. 

SHOE OR SLIPPER Another 
novelty design of those articles. 

SLEIGH Salts in this pattern, 
also a novelty creation in the form 



of a sleigh; usually amber or 
yellow. 

SNAKE SKIN A Sandwich prod 
uct evolved by dipping hot glass 
article in cold water and, after re 
heating, rolling the crackled sur 
face in pulverized flint glass. 
Roaming and irregular lines, with 
dull cast to the glass, usually char 
acterize Sandwich Snake Skin. 

SOFA A salt pattern having shape 
and feet of the old-fashioned sofa. 

SPLASH More a type than a pat 
tern. Bits of colored metal spat 
tered irregularly over the surface 
of vases and dishes. 

SQUASH Another early lamp 
design. 

SQUIRREL A mug pattern. The 
animal forms the handle of a salt in 
another type. 

STAR A pattern found in numer 
ous modes; frequently inserted in 
various conventional designs. A 
standard ornament on cut and en 
graved ware. 

STAR AND ACORN A choice 
old Sandwich plate pattern. 

STAR AND FEATHER A cov 
eted pattern of Sandwich with 
silvery sheen. 

STATE A cup plate pattern. 
Nine stars in the center; seventeen 
stars on scalloped border. 

STORK AND CAT-O-NINE- 
TAIL The bird and the plant. 

STOVE A novelty pattern or 
type. Replica of the cooking range. 

STRAWBERRY The berry and 
leaf. 

THISTLE A common Sandwich 
pattern in table ware. 



154 



CHIPMAN'S DICTIONARY 
OF OLD SANDWICH GLASS PATTERNS 



THREE FACES The three faces 
of a woman on small salts of acid 
finish; also found on the stems of 
some dishes. 

THUMB PRINT Familiar pat 
tern; called short flute in the fac 
tory. Collectors refer to it as 
Honey Comb or Thousand Eyes. 

TULIP Another floral pattern. 

UTICA A goblet design of plain 
bowl, fluted stem and star on 
bottom of foot. This pattern also 
has three knobs (called Maries in 
the Factory) on the middle of stem. 

VICTORIA The Queen on a cup 
plate. 

WAFFLE A late pattern in the 
old waffle-iron design. 

WASHINGTON The face of the 
first President on an early and rare 
cup plate. 

WASHINGTON ROSE An early 
floral design on table ware. 



WORCESTER A short tumbler 
in heavy Colonial panel type. 

WYGAND Pattern of tumbler 
of half pint size; plain, blown, 
tapering bowl. 

ZOUAVE A French flute pattern 
of tumblers and goblets. 

NOTE Bar tumblers -were made 
in great abundance and the fluting 
or paneling, as it is often called, 
-varied with the following Factory 
designations: French flute, reverse 
flute, gill flute, pillar, flute and 
split, column, reeded flute, edge 
flute, and, reed bar. Some have a 
relief of knobs on stem. Salts were 
designated as follows: Rope bottom, 
cone, key border, Continental res- 
torator, patch diamond, steamboat, 
shell, derby and Sandwich. In gob 
lets and late table ware there are 
many conventional patterns simi 
lar to other Factory productions of 
the same period. These are difficult 
to distinguish. 



155 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



Acanthus design cup plate 98 
Acid finish 72, 81, 127 
Apprentice's certificate 40 

B 
Bank Sandwich Glass Bank rarest of 

specimens 7 
Barrel salt green 85 
Bellflower goblet 85 
Bell flower table ware 93 
Benjamin Franklin cup plate 98 
Black Bear match box 47 
Black glass plates and candlesticks 77 
Block pattern jug 36 
Bull's Eye and Bar goblet 85 
Butterfly cup plate 99 



Candlesticks many types and patterns 

134, 135 

Certificate signed by Deming Jarves 29 
Compotes 72, 73 
Cruet 36 

Cullet heap ruins of 21 
Cup plates six patterns 98, 99 
Curtain knobs opalescen* 33 
Cut glass jug 113 

D 

Danglers on lamps 33, 109 
Deer pattern engraved lantern 105 
Dolphin candlesticks 127 
Dolphin set candlesticks and centre bowl 
49 



Goblets 37, 85, 86 
Grant pattern vase 33 
Grape pattern goblet 85 
Grape pattern sugar bowl 42 
Grecian candlesticks 127 

H 

Henry Clay cup plate 99 



Jewel goblet stippled 85 

Jewelry Old Sandwich modernized 139 



Lace dish Star pattern 102 

Lace jewel casket Peacock Feather and 

Shield design 101 
Lace table ware 54, 66, 132 
Lace tray Heart pattern 103 
Lamps 33, 71, 89, 109, 110, 115, 117, 

124, 137 

Late Sandwich ware 141 
Lion pattern table ware 81 
Loop pattern table ware 79 
Lyre design on sofa salt 108 

M 

Marble or Slag glass dish 83 
Morning Glory compote 42 



Opal knobs 22 

Opale cent creamer 120 

Overlay lamps 109, 110, 115, 117 



Eagle cup plate 98 
Eagle pattern plates 52 
Engraved goblets 86 
Engraved lamp shades 115 
Engraved panes for doorways 107 
Epergne 14 



Factory first unit of original plant 25 
Factory from an old woodcut 13 
Fence pattern goblet 85 
Fort Meigs cup plate 99 



Gaffer Lapham who "gathered" 
piece of glass in Sandwich 57 



first 



Paper weight Pansy design 47 

Peach Blow tumbler 47 

Peacock Feather dishes 52 

Peacock Feather plate Thistle centre 64 

Pens threaded glass 48 

Picture knobs opalescent 3 3 

Pineapple pattern goblet 85 

Pitcher flint and ruby 33 

Polar Bear and Ssal pattern 96 



Raised Diamond compote 73 
Raised Diamond cruet 36 
Ruby and flint jug 113 
Ruby overlay lamp 110 



157 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



Sapphire jugs with flint handles 37 

Shield pattern lace tray with Fan cor 
ners 45 

Shield pattern lace dish 42 

Snakeskin bowl 104 

Sofa salt Lyre design 108 

Spirit lamps 117, 124, 137 

Spoonholders Cable, Horn of Plenty, Sil 
vered Sandwich, Morning Glory and 
Moss Rose patterns 8 5 

Star and Punty table ware 95 

Stippled surface Grape sugar bowl 42; 
Grape goblet 85 

Sunburst wine 87 



Threaded glass pens 48 
Threaded wine pink 85 
Thumbprint pattern table ware 75 

U 
Urn Sandwich ruby 19 



Vases ruby with spiral flint ribbon 36 

W 

Westward Ho compote 72 
Whale oil lamps 124 
Workers group of employees 61 



158 



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