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The delay in the issue of No. 1 of the Extra-Series texts for 1867 
is due to the Series itself not having been started till the latter half 
of that year, to the addition to William of Palerne of the fragment 
of the Alliterative Eomance of Alexander, and to the very great care 
with which the Glossarial Index to these poems has been compiled 
and verified.' 

The copy of the MS. of CJtame/s Prose Works^ Pts. 1-2, has long 
been made, biit it cannot go to press till the MS. of the translation of 
BoethiuB, with which it must be collated, has been received from the 
University of Cambridge. That MS., long since applied for, is promised 
this month, and on its receipt the work will be got on with as quickly 
as possible. There can be little doubt that the whole of the Boethiua 
— ^Parts 1 and 2 of CTiattcer's Prose Works — ^will be completed this 
year, as well as Havdok the Dane^ on which Mr Skeat is already 
at work. Gaxton's Book of Curtesy, Havdok^ and CliauceT^s Prose 
Works, Pt. 2, comprise the Society's issue for 1868. 

Mr Alexander J. Ellis's Treatise on The Pronunciation of Chaucer 
and Shakspere, which was- announced as part of Chaucer's Prose 
Works, will probably form a separate volume of five or six hundred 
pages, and will be included in the 1867 issue. This volume is nearly 
ready for press, and will be published in conjunction with the Philo- 
logical and Chaucer Societies. The-Editor and printer will endeavour 
to complete it in 1868, but may not be able to do so till early in 1869. 

Jo ' Note by Mr Skeat. " Eyeti now I am conscious of a slip. Nory, explained 

to mean nurae (as in the fonner edition), should rather be a nuraeUng or foster-child. 
See HaUiwell.'' 

May, 1868. 

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William uf |akm: 







ABOUT A.D. 1340 ; 





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The paper in this volume is brittle or the 
inner margins are extremdy narrow. 

We have bound or rebound the volume 
utilizing the best means possible. 




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Wiillmm of ^nhxu: 

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ABOUT A.D. 1340 ; 









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Introduction to "William op Palbrnb:" 

§ 1. The " Extra Series "" of the E. E. T. S. § 2. 
"William and the Werwolf;" edition of 1832. § 3. 
Missing portions supplied firom the French. § 4. The 
story. §5. Description of the MS. ... ... i 

Preface to the edition of 1832 ; by Sir F. Madden. (Re- 
printed.) ... ... ... vii 

Note on the word " Werwolf;" by Sir F. Madden ... xxv 

Intboduction to " Alibaundbb : " 

§ 1. Alliterative Eomances of Alexander, § 2. The 
Alisaunder in MS. Greaves 60, by the author of WiUiam 
of Faleme. § 3. Description of MS. Greaves 60. § 4. 
The Story. § 5. Its origin. § 6. On the dialect of the 
poems. § 7. On the distinction between " thou " and 
"ye." ... ... ... ... ... xxix 

WiLLLiM OF PaLBBNB ... ... ... ... 1 


BAT7NDBR OF MaOEDOINB ... ... ... 177 

Notes to "WiUiam of Paleme" ... ... ... 219 

Notes to "Alisaunder" ... ... ... ... 236 

Glossariallndex ... ... ... ... ... 250 

Index of Names ... ... ... ... ... 324 

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§ 1. Thb ''Extra Series " of the publications of the Earlj Engliah 
Text Society, of which this is the first volume, is intended to be sup- 
plementaiy to the oidinaiy series in such a waj as to expedite the 
printing of the whole quantity of work to be printed. It has been 
proposed that it shall be reserved entirely for reprints and re-editions, 
and this rule will in general be adhered to. At the same time, a 
little laxity of definition must be allowed as to what constitutes a 
reprird. Thus, the editions of ^'Piers Plowman" (Text A) and of 
''Pierce the Ploughmans Crede," being entirely new, and from 
entirely new sources, have been issued with the ordinary Series, 
though both have been edited before more than once ; whilst^ on the 
other hand, more than a thousand lines, never before printed, have 
purposely been included in the present volume, as belonging to the 
same date, and as having been written by the same author as the rest. 

§ 2. Of the two poems here printed, it is the former that has been 
edited before, in a volume of which the title is — "The Ancient English 
Bomance of Williaic and the Webwolf ; edited fiK>m an unique copy 
in Sling's College Library, Cambridge; with an introduction and 
glossary. By Frederick Madden, Esq., F.RS., F.S.A., MRS.L,, 
Assistant-Keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum. London : 
printed by William Mcol, Shakspeare-Press. mdoooxxxii." It forms 
one of the "Boxbuighe Club" series, and only a limited number 
of copies were printed. 

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'The thorougli excellence of both the text and glossary of this 
edition is known to all who have had the opportunity of access to it, 
and it has always ranked as a contribution of great importance to our 
knowledge of Early English literature. Sir F. Madden justly claims 
to have been one of the first editors who insisted on the necessity of 
strict and literal accuracy, and it is impossible to say how much we 
owe to him, directly and indirectly. His edition is, in fact, almost a 
facsimile of the MS., being printed in black-letter, and with all the 
contractions of the original, a table of these being added to explain 
them to the reader. A copy of it having been provided for my use, 
it was sent to the printer, after I had expanded all the contractions 
by the use of italic letters, numbered the lines, inserted marks of 
punctuation, and added side-notes. Had the proof-sheets been cor- 
rected by this only, the volume would have contained no error of im- 
portance ; but I judged it to be due to Sir F. Madden and to sub- 
scribers to make it absolutely correct (as I hope it now is, in the 
text at least,) by reading the proof-sheets with the MS. itself, to 
which I had ready access through the kindness of Mr Bradshaw, 
Fellow of King's College, and our University librariaa.^ I have also 
added a few words within square brackets ^diere there are obvious 
omissions ; they are chiefly taken. &om Sir F. Madden's notes. As 
his glossary contained references to the pagee^ and our object is to 
have references to the lines of the poem, I have re-written it entirely, 
incOTporating with it the more difficult words in the fragment of 
** Alisaunder." For the sidenotea, most of the notes at the end, and 
indeed for the whole volume in its present state, I am alogether re- 
sponsible ; but I consider it as no little gain that Sir F. Madden, 
with veiy great kindness^ has looked over the revises of the whole work, 
and I am much indebted to him for his suggestions. The glossary is, 
of course, copied &om his almost wholly ; but to some illustrative 
notes that are lefb entirely in* his own words I have drawn special 
attention by attaching to them the letter " — AL" He has also per- 

> May not some of the alleged diffienlty of the study of Old English be fairly 
attributeid to the st^ameful inaccuracy of some of the texts ? The portion of 
"William and the Werwolf" printed by Hartshome is^in places, simply inex- 

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mitted the reprinting of his preface to the former edition, and of his 
note on the word " Werwolf " (with fresh additions). 

§ 3. We are also under great obligations to M. Michelant, oi the 
Biblioth^ue Imp^riale at Paris. To him we owe the transcript of a con- 
siderable portion of the beginning of the French version of the poem, 
enabling me to supply the missing portions of the English version at 
pp. 1 — 6 and 19 — 23, and further to compare the French with the 
English throughout the first 500 lines ; some of the results of which 
comparison wiU be found in the " Notes." He even did more ; for 
he secured for us the accuracy of the portions printed by comparing 
the proof-sheets with the MS. BibL de L' Arsenal, Belles Lettres^ 178, 
fiom which his transcript was made. 

§ 4. THB STORY. 

Most of the details of the story can be gathered from the ^ Index 
of Names " at the end of the volume, and from the head-lines and 
side-notes, but a brief sketch of it may be acceptable. 

EmbrouB, King of Apulia, by his wife Felice, daughter of the Em- 
peror of Greece, had a fair son named William. The brother of Embrons, 
wishing to be heir to the throne, bribed two ladies, Gloriande and 
Acelone, to marder the child. But at this very time, as the child was 
at play (at Palermo), a wild wolf caught him up, ran off with him, swam 
the Straits of Messina, and carried him away to a forest near Rome, not 
injuring, but taking great care of him. But while the wolf went to get 
some food for him, the child was found by a cowherd, who took him 
home and adopted him. (Now you must know that the wolf was not a 
true wol(^ but a werwoff or man-vjolf; he had once been Alphouns, eldest 
son of the King of Spain, and heir to the crown of Spain. His step- 
mother Braunde, wishing her son Braundinis to be thb heir, enchanted 
him so that he became a werwolfl) One day the Emperor of Rome, 
going out a-hunting, lost his way, and met with the boy William, with 
whom he was much pleased, and took the child from the cowherd behind 
him on his horse to Rome, and committed him to the care of his own 
daughter Melior, to be her page. William, growing up beloved by 
everybody, attracted, as might have been expected, the love of Melior in 
particular; who, in a long but amusing soliloquy, concludes that, thoagh 
she is degrading herself to think upon a foundling, she finds it harder 
still not to think of him, and seeks the advice of her dear friend Ali- 
sanndrine, a daughter of the Duke of Lombardy. This young damsel 
bids lier be at ease, and, having some slight knowledge of witchcraft, 
causes William to dream of Melior, and to fall in love with her hope*- 

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lessly. All his consolation is to sit in Melior's garden, and he considert 
himself sufficiently fed by gazing at her window the whole day. Worn 
out by this, he falls asleep there, and is found by the two ladies, and, by 
Alisaundrine*8 devices, the young couple are soon betrothed ; but it has 
to be kept a great secret, lest the emperor should come to hear of it 
About this time the emperor*s lands are invaded by the Duke of Saxony. 
William, knighted for the occasion, is, by his prowess, the chief instru- 
ment of the invader*s defeat ; a defeat which the duke takes so much to 
heart that he shortly dies of grief. The emperor thanks and praises 
William greatly, very much to his daughter's delight. But the next 
circumstance is untoward enough. The Emperor of Greece (who be 
it remembered, is William *s grandfather) sends an embassy, headed by 
Lord Roachas, to ask the hand of Melior for his son Partenedon. The 
emperor at once accepts the proposal, and the Emperor of Greece and 
Prince Partenedon set out for Rome. William falls ill at the news, but is 
soon recovered by the expressions of devoted constancy which he r&< 
ceives from Melior. The Greeks arrive at Rome, and great preparations 
are made ; what is to be done ? Melior and William consult their un- 
failing friend Alisaundrine, who, not knowing what else to do, steals the 
skins of two white bears from the royal kitchen, sews her friends Up in 
them, and lets them out by a postern-gate from Melior's garden, and 
bids them a sad farewell. But they had been observed ; for a Greek, 
walking in this garden, had seen, to his great astonishment, two bears 
walking off on their hind legs, and tells his companions of his adventure, 
for which he is well laughed at, nothing more being thought of it at the 
time. The lovers hurry away till they find a den, wherein they conceal 
themselves, but fear to die of hunger. In this strait the werwolf finds 
them, and brings them sodden beef and two flasks of wine, having 
robbed two men whom he met carrying thenu Meanwhile, great are the 
preparations for the wedding, which is to take place at St Peter's church. 
But at the last moment, where is the bride f The Emperor of Rome, 
frantic with rage, questions Alisaundrine, who evades his questions, but 
at last avows her conviction that, if William cannot be found, neither will 
Melior, William is indeed missing, and the Greek^s story about the two 
white bears is at once understood, and a hue and cry is raised after them. 
They are not found, and the Greeks return to their own country. The 
lovers, still disguised as bears, and guided and fed by the werwolf, flee to 
Benevento, where they are nearly caught, but escape by the werwolf s help. 
Finding their disguise is known, they dress up as a hart and hind, and at 
last, after a strange adventure at Reggio, cross the Straits of Messina to 
Palermo, the werwolf still guiding them. Palermo is in a state of siege. 
Ring Embrons is dead, and Felice is queen, but is hard pressed by the 
Spaniards, as the King of Spain has asked the hand of her daughter Florence 
(William *s sister) for his son Braundinis, and, on her refusal, has come 
to enforce his claim. Queen Felice has a dream of happy omen, and, 
perceiving the hart and hind, dresses herself also in a hind's skin, and 
goes to meet them, welcoming them and offering them protection, if 

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William will deliver her from the Spaniards. Rejoiced at this, William, 
on Embrons' horse, and with a werwolf painted on his shield, performs 
marvels, and takes both the King and Prince of Spain prisoners, never to 
be released till the wicked Qaeen Brannde shall disenchant the werwolf. 
She is setit for, and arrives, and reverses the charm, restoring Alphouns 
to his right shape, for which she is pardoned ; and the Prince Alphoans 
receives great praises for his kindness to William, it being now seen 
that he did bat steal him away to save his life from the plots of King 
Embrons' brother. By way of further reward, he is to marry Florence, 
and William is, of oourse, to marry Melior. William sends a message 
to this effoct to Melior's fiftther, who, for joy to hear that she is alive, 
promises to come to the wedding, and to bring Alisaandrine with him. 
At the same time the Emperor of Qreece, Queen Felice's father, sends 
Partenedon his son to Palermo to help the queen against the Spaniards ; 
but the prince is not a little chagrined at finding that he has come to see 
Melior, whom he once wooed, and whom he lost at the last moment, 
married to the husband of her own choice. Seeing no help for it, however, 
he submits as well as he can. But there is another disappointed suitor, 
Prince Braundinis; can nothing be done for him ? It is at once arranged 
that he can marry Alisaundrine, and the triple wedding of William 
and Melior, Alphouns and Florence, Braundinis and Alisaundrine, is 
celebrated in one day ; after which, Partenedon returns to Greece, and 
the Spaniards return to Spain. The Emperor of Rome dying, William 
is elected to succeed him as emperor, and is crowned at Rome ; and 
Alphouns, his steadfast friend, who has become King of Spain on his 
father's death, is present at the joyful ceremony. And thus the Queen of 
Palermo lived to see her dream come true, that her right arm reached 
over Rome and her left arm lay over Spain ; for her son was the 
emperor of the former country, and her daughter queen of Hie latter ; 
nor was the kind cowherd forgotten, for his adopted son gave him an 
earldom, and brought him out of his care and poverty. 

/ It ought to be remarked that the curious fmcies about the enchantr 
ment of Alphouns into a werwolf, and the dressing up of William and 
Melior, firstly in the skins of two white bears and afterwards in the 
skins of a hart and a hind, as also the wearing of a hind's skin by 
the Queen of Palermo, form the true groundwork of the story, and no 
doubt, at the time, attracted most attention. To a modem reader 
this part of the narrative becomes tedious, and one wonders why the 
disguises were kept on so long. But as a whole, the story is well 
told, and the translator must have been a man of much poetic power^ 
as he has considerably improved upon his original For further re- 
marks upon him, see Sir F, Madden's pi'eface, and the ^^Intro- 
duction to AUsaunder.** 

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In addition to Sir F. Madden's remarks, I may obserre that the 
size of the pages of the volume is about 12 inches by 8, and the class- 
mark is No. 13. The folios have been renumbered, it being ascertained 
that the missing leaves are the first three and the tentL Thus foL 1 
of the former edition is now called fol, 4, and fol, 7 is now fol, 11. 
With this slight change, the numbering of the folios in the margin 
famishes a ready way of comparing the two editions.^ 

The volume consists of two MSS, : — 

L William of Paleme, here printed ; containing 86 leaves (of 
which three are lost) ; 

II. An imperfect copy of the lives of the Saints, &c., attributed 
to Robert of Gloucester, and containing — 

1. A description of bible-subjects for Lent, with the passion of 
Christ, &c. : Begins (foL 1) — 

** SEint marie dai in Lointe • among oJ}er dales gode " — 

ends, " Now ihe^u for J}e swete crois • J)at fou were on ydo 

Bring [vs] to J)e blisse of h[e]uene • J)at J}0u vs bou3te8t to. 

2. Judas, Begins (foL 32) — " Ivdas was a lujjer brid • J}at IhesM 
solde to fe rode ; " ends — " f er we wenej} Jjat he be." 

3. Pilate, (foL 34). " Pilatus was a luf er man • and come of 
» lu^er more ; " ends — " fram so deolfol cas." 

4. Seint Marie Egiptiaky (fol. 37 6). " SEint Marie Egipciake • 
in egipte was y-bore ; " ends — " foru penauwce fat heo gan lede." 

6. Seint Alphe, (foL 40 h). "SEint alphe fe martir • fat good 
man was ynow ; " ends — ** to fe blisse of heuene wende. AMEN." 

6. Seint George, (foL 43). " SEint George fe holi man • as we 
findef of him y-write ;" ends — "lete vs alle fider wende. AMEN." 

7. Seint Dunston, (fol. 44 h), " SEint Dunston was in Engelonde • 
icome of gode more ; " ends — " fat aungles f i soule to here. AMEN." 

8. Seint Aldelme, (foL 4G 6). " SEint Aldelme f e confessoz^r 
was man of good liue ; " ends — " fat he is on ido. AMEN." 

^ See also the Note at the end of the Glossarial Index. 

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9. Seird AustyUy (foL 47 h). " Ssint Austyn ]>at "broujte • cristenr 
dom to Engelonde ; *' ends — " 3if we were wel vnderstonde." 

The last poem is imperfect, but has lost only four Unea^ which I 
venture here to transcribe firom MS. Laud. 108, foL 31 6, to complete 

'* His day is toward )>e ende of May * for in ]7at day he wende 
Out of ^is l\jf to ihefu cnfl * ])at after him ]k) sende 
Bidde we jeome feint Auftin " ]}at cnftindom so broujte 
))at we moten to ])ulke loye come * to 3 wan ore louerd uf boi^te.'* 
The lives of JudaSy FUate, and Seint Dunston have been printed 
for the Philological Society, ed. F. J. Fumivall, M.A. 1862. 

Of the names scribbled on the margins of the MS., the one which 
occurs most frequently is that of Nicholas Williams, to whom it 
must have belonged in the sixteenth century. We find, on fol. 45, 
the entry, ** Nicholas Williams was poysond, but by God's grace 
escaped it. Gloria patri, Amen, by lacon in Salop." Lacon is a 
township in the parish of Wem, some ten miles due N. of Shrewsbury. 
For remarks upon the dialect of the poems, see the end of th« 
** Introduction to Alisaunder," p. xxxvii. 



The Romance of " William and the Werwolf," contained in the 
present volume, is printed from an unique MS. preserved in the 
Library of King's College, Cambridge, and its literary history renders 
it of more than common interast to the poetical antiquary. It is 
to the memorable Rowleian controversy we are indebted for the 
first notice of this poem in its English dress. ^ In that singular dis- 
pute, in which Jacob Bryant, Fellow of King's College, and the Rev. 
Jeremiah Milles, D.D., Dean of Exeter, so notably distinguished 
themselves in defence of the pseudo-Rowley and his writings, the 
former, by a piece of good fortune, stumbled on the Romance, and, 
still more fortimately for us, resolved to force it into his service 

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in support of ^ the antiquity of Chatterton's foigeries. Accordingly, 
in his "Observations," 8vo. Lond. 1781, pp. 14 — 23, he gives a 
short account of the poem^ with a few extracts from it. His argu- 
ment tends to prove it written in a provincial dialect, and for this pur- 
pose he produces a list of words, which he pronounces of a local 
nature. But however profound Btyant may have been as a classic 
scholar, he possessed very little, or rather, no knowledge of the form- 
ation or genius of the old English language. Indeed, his attempt to 
prove Chatterton's poetry the production of the 15th century, is quite 
sufficient to acquit him of any such pretensions. The consequence 
is naturaL Nearly all the words considered by him provincial, are 
to be met with in every other writer of the period, and even those of 
rarer occurrence are, for the most part, found in the Scottish alliter- 
ative Komances of the same century.^ But the citations made by 
Bryant from this MS. were sufficient at a somewhat later period to 
attract the attention of the kennel of * black-letter hounds ' then in 
full cry after the pothooks of Shakspeare's prompter's book, and 
George Steevens, T believe, applied for permission to inspect it The 
volume was then in the hands of Dr Glynne, Senior Fellow of King's 
College, who, like Biyant, was a sturdy Rowleian,^ and he, fancying 

1 Bryanfs blunders in explaining these words are marvellous. A few instances, 
which may be compared with the Glossarj at the end of this Tolume, will serve to 
show how little he understood the subject. Thus, he interprets amd^ around j bourde^ 
a public house or shop; breta^es, bridges; kudf good; Uinns^ can; maidy madam; icelt^ 
h^d; tpardeTf fiirther; boggtityehe^ boyishly ! Many are also copied so incorrectly 
that they can scarcely be recognised, as eni for «», atthu for atehU, gemtyeh for 
gamlyehe^ kevUy for Amm^, komchaunee for konichaun^ wlouke for wlonke^ $atheli 
for teathiiy ntegt for neiie [f*^], henden for hies&dm [hi^eden], fiff^ for feitfid 
[^^i/W], wyeth for wym, Jayie for fayre^ path for pays. And yet this is the man 
who pretended to judge of Ohatterton*s forgeries, and even correct them by his own 
notions of Rowley's fancied originaL We may truly apply to him some of the 
precious lines he wastes his commentary on : 

""Wordes wythoute sense fulle groflfyngelye he twynes, 
Ootteynge his storie off as wythe a sheece ; 
Waytes monthes on nothynge, & hys storie donne, 
Ne moe you from ytte kenne, than gyf you neerebegonne." 
p. 69. £d. I^rwhiit 

* Dr Glynne bequeathed to the British Museum the original parchments fabri- 
cated by Chatterton, which now remain a ' damning proof,' were any wanted, of the 
imposture. They present a series of the most contemptible and dumsy forgeries. 

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that an examination of the book might not assist the claims of Eowley 
to originality, veiy pradently locked the treasure up, and there it 
slumbered till it was once more brought to light by the Rev. C. H. 
Hartshome, about the year 1824.^ By penmssion of the Provost, 
about 560 lines of the commencement were copied, and they form a 
portion of a volume intitled ** Ancient Metrical Tales," published in 
1829, 8vo., pp. 256—287. Of the inaccuracy of this transcript I 
shall say nothing, as it will sufficiently appear by comparison with 
the text now printed. 

Having thus briefly stated the mode in which this MS. became 
known to the public, the next point of inquiry will be the author of 
the poem in its present shape ; and here, I regret to add, no inform- 
ation can be gained. All we know on the subject is derived from 
the writer himself^ who tells us, he translated it firom the French at 
the command of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford. These are 
his words, at the end of the first /^6 or passus : 

Thus passed is the first pas of this pris tale, 
And 3e that loven and lyken to listen ani more, 
Alle wijth on hoi hert to the hei) king of hevene, 
Preieth a pater noster prively this time. 
For the hend Erl of Her/ordf sir Humfray de Bourne, 
The king Edwardes netoe, ai Gloueeter that liggesy 
For he o/Frenache thie.fayre tcdeferst dede trandate, 
Ineeeof Englysch men^ in Englyseh 8peche.— {f6i 3.) 

And at the end of the poem, in similar but in fuller terms : 

In thise wise hath William al his werke ended^ 

AsfvUy as the Frensche fully wold aske^ 

And as his witte him wold serve though it were febul ' . . . . 

But faire frendes, for Groddes love, and for jour owne mensk, 

MSB. ^dd. 5766. A.B.C. Alas, for the shade of Bowley I [For speeimeiii of 
theee poems, and critical remarks upon them, see Warton, Hist English Poetry. 
} xxtL— W. W. 8.] 

* Weber has, indeed, pointed it ont as one of those Romances worthy of public- 
ation, but he ncTer saw the MS. itself. See Metr. Bom. Introd. p. IxriiL 

P Sir F. Madden did not qnote these first three lines in this place (though he 
quoted them &rther on, see p. xxii) ; but it is worth while to obsenre that they tell 
Ma the poet's own Christian name, which (like his hero's) was JrHUam. — ^W.W.S.] 

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Je that liken in love swiche thinges to here, 

Prei^eth for that gode Lord that gart this do make. 

The hende Erl of Hereford^ Humfray de Boune ; 

The gode king Edwardes doubter xoas hie dere moder ; 

He let make this mater in this maner speche. 

For hem thai krunoe no Frensche^ ne never und€r9to\nd'\ : 

Biddith that blisfiil bum that bou;t us on the rode, 

And to his moder Marie, of mercy that is welle, 

3if the Lord god lif, tail he in erthe lenges^ 

And whan he wendes of this worlds wdthe wUhroiUe ende. 

To lenge in that liking joye, that lesteth ever more. — (foL 82.) 

It has been the more necessary to quote these passages at length, in 
order to correct the absurd mistakes of Bryant, who, not understand- 
ing the phrases, " at Glouseter that ligges,"* and " ferst dede trans- 
late," nor the import of the line, " jif the Lord god lif," &c., h'as 
supposed, first, that the Earl himself had made a prior translation to 
the one before us, and secondly, that he was dead and buried at Glou- 
cester, when the second version was undertaken ! It is scarcely 
necessary to point out, that the words " ferst dede translate," only 
mean first caused to be translated, and are strictly synon3rmous with 
" gart this do make," and " Jet make." Then, as to the Earl's lying 
dead at Gloucester, the Poet can have no such meaning, for at the 
conclusion of the Romance he begs his hearers to pray to God and 
the Virgin to give the Earl "good life," and after his decease, 
eternal . felicity. The line simply means, resident or dwelling at 
Gloucester,* and although the term to ligge was in subsequent times 
more often used in the sense understood by Bryant, yet there is no 
reason, in the above instance, to depart from its original and obvious 

1 In the 21 Edw. 3, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, obtained the royal 

license to embattle his Manor-Honses in the Gonntiee of Gloucester, Essex, MidiUe- 

sex, and Wiltshire. In the former of these only one mansion is mentioned, that of 

Whitenhnrst, or Wheatenhnrst, situated about eight miles south from Gloucester, 

and it is Tery probable that this is the spot alluded to in general terms by the Poet 

[ We know, moreover, that the Earl was not buried at Gloucester, but at the Augus- 

i tine Friars, in London, which he had himself re-edified in 1364. See Dogdale^ 

\Baron. i 184 ; Rudder's Gloucest. p. 813; and 8towe*s Surrey, p. 186. 

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The nobleman thus alluded to was the sixth Earl of Heieford of 
the name of Bohun, and third son of Humphrey de Bohun, fourth 
Earl of Hereford, and Elizabeth Plantagenet, seventh daughter of 
King Edward the First ; consequently he was nephew to King Edward 
the Second, as intimated in the poem, and first cousin to King Edward 
the Third He succeeded to the earldom at the age of twenty-four, on 
the death of his brother John without issue, 20th Jan., 1335-6, and 
died, unmarried, 15th Oct., 1361.' We are, therefore, enabled to fix 
the date of the composition of the English Eomance with sufficient 
accuracy, nor shall we greatly err, if we refer it to the year 1350. 
This will agree extremely well with the scanty notices transmitted to* 
us of De Bohnn's life, which, like most of those relating to the 
belted barons of this chivalric period, are chiefly of a military char- 
acter.* Yet it may be doubted whether, as a soldier, the Earl of 
Hereford was at any time distinguished, and whether he may not 
have been confounded by Froissart with his brother, the Earl of 
Northampton. And this conjecture corresponds with the instrument 
preserved in Rymer,' dated 12th June, 1338, by which the King 
ratifies Humphrey de Bohun's resignation of his hereditary office of 
Ck)n8table of England, in favor of his brother, ** tarn oh corporis mi 
inbeeillitatem, quam propter infirmitatem diutumam qua detinetury ad 
officium Constabtdarice exercendum,** &c. We may, therefore, with 

1 Bugd. Baron, i. 184. ; Milles, p. 1072. 

* In 1337, he was entrusted with, the guard of the important garrison of Perth 
in Scotland. (Dugd. Baron, i. 184). Three years afterwards he is said to have taken 
a part, together with his warlike brother, William de Bohun, Earl of Northamp- 
ton, in the battle of the Sluys, fought in the King's presence, (Froissart, by Lord 
Bemers, f. 30. £d. 1625), and commemorated by Laurence Minot, a contemporary 
poet The next year, 1341, we meet with him in the magnificent feast and jousts 
held by the King at London in honor of the Countess of Salisbury — the same to 
whom the noble Order of the Garter is said to owe its origin (Froissart, f. 46). In 
1342, he was ordered to provide forty men of arms and sixty archers for the King's 
serrice in Britanny, and to attend the Council at London, to treat concerning their 
wages. (Dugd. Baron, i. 184). In 1346 he accompanied the King into France to 
relieve the town of Aguillon, then besieged by the French, (Froissart, f. 69 b) ; but 
it is not stated by our historians whether he was present at the famous battle of 
Cressy, fought shortly after. In 1369, he again attended the King on a similar 
expedition, (.Froissart, f. 100), and nothing further is recorded of him till his death, 
which took place two years afterwards. 

» Vol. V. p. 62. 

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great probability conclude, that the Earl's weak state of bodily health 
exempted him from taking an active part in the warfare of the time, 
^though he might have assisted the King with his counsels. To the 
same cause we may doubtless ascribe that love for literature which 
induced him to cause the Komance of William and the Werwolf to 
be translated from the French, — not, as is evident, for his own use, 
since French was then the language of the Court, but for the benefit 
of those persons of the middle class, to whom the French language 
was unknown. By the influence of a similar motive, we possess the 
translations made by Robert of Brunne at the commencement of this 
•century : 

" Not for the lend hot the lewed, 

For tho that in this land wonn, 

Tliat the Latyn no Frankys conn, 

For to haf solace and gamen. 

In felawschip whanne thai sit samen."' 
Higden's testimony to the prevalence of French in the education of 
gentlemen's children at that period is very precise, and it became so 
much the fashion towards the middle of the century, that a proverb 
was made of inferior persons who attempted to imitate the practice 
of the higher classes : " Jack wold be a gentylman yf he coude speke 
Frensshe."* Trevisa adds, that "this was moche used tofore the 
grete deth [1349], but syth it is somdele chaunged ;" which was, 
doubtless, accelerated by the Act passed in 1362, ordering all 
pleadings to be in the English tongue, and much more by the 
popular compositions of Grower, Chaucer, and the author of Piers 
Plouhman. From all these circumstances it would seem most pro- 
bable that the work was executed after the Earl's return from France, 
in 1349, between which year and his second expedition in 1359, he 
appears to have resided on his estates. That this style of composi- 
tion was much admired and encouraged in England during the 14th 
century is apparent from the alliterative Bomances still extant of the 
period. But it is very seldom we are indulged with the names of 
the persons by whom or for whom these poems were written, and, in 

* ProL to Chron. ap. Heame, Pref. p. xcvi. 
2 Descr. of Brit c. 16. Ed. 1616. Jul. Notary, 

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that respect, the present poem becomes more intitled to notice, from 
its introducing us to a nobleman, whose claims to biography are so 
very feeble, and who would never otherwise have been known as a 
patron of literature. 

The history, however, of the Romance does not conclude here. 
We must next trace it in its original form ; and here, also, we shall 
find some circumstances which render it worthy of attention. The 
origin and progress of French poesy, both of the Trouveres and 
Troubadours, have been successfully illustrated by Fauchet, Roque- 
fort,* De la Rue, Raynouard, and others, but, more particularly, by 
the authors of the Histoire Litteraire de la France, From these 
authorities we know that many Romances were composed by the 
Korman poets previous to the year 1200, which subsequently became 
the text-books of the English versifiers of the 1 4th. century. Most 
of these were founded on the two great sources of fiction throughout 
Europe ; the exploits of Charlemagne and his Douze Pairs, and of 
Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, amplified from the 
fictitious histories of Turpin and Geoffry of Monmouth. The chief 
exceptions to this cycle of poetry at the period we are treating of, are 
the Romances of Havelok, Horn, Benoit's Guerre de Troie, Garin le 
Loherain, Alexander, Athys et Porfilias, Florimond, Gerard de 
Rousillon, and, perhaps, some few others composed by Raoul de 
Houdane, and Thiebaut de Mailli, all of which come under the class 

1 When speaking of our English Romances, Roquefort is by no means to be 
relied on. Thus, describing the Englisli Kynff Horn, he says it was composed in 
the 8th or 9th century. He then confounds it with the Prankish fragment of Hilde- 
brand and Hathubrand, published by Eckard, and takes Ritson to task, for 6a3ring 
that the French text was the original ; who would not, he writes, haye committed 
such an error, if he had consulted MS. HarL 2253, where the Romance exists in 
Anglo-Saxon ! ! ! The reply is easy. The copy of Kynff Horn in the Harleian MS. 
was written about the year 1300, and it was from this very MS. Ritson published 
his text The editor of the present volume [i. e. of the edition of 1832] was fortunate 
enough to discover another copy of Kyng Horn in the Bodleian, of the same age, 
which, in many respects, gives preferable readings. M. Roquefort goes on to call 
the Auchinleck MS. a collection of French poetry, &c. See his Dissertation *^ D$ 
r^tat de la Foisie Franqoise dans les xii. et xiii. iieelea." 8vo. Paris, 1816, pp. 48, 
49. [Note. There is a still better copy of Kyng Horn in the Cambridge University 
library, first printed for the Bannatyne Club by Mr T. Wright, and reprinted by 
Mr Lumby in his edition, published for the E. E. T. S. in 1866.— W. W. S.] 


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of Romans mixtea. Among these also we are intitled to place our 
Komance of WilL'am and the Werwolf, the title of which in the 
original, is, Boman de OuUlaume de Palerne. The popularity of this 
singular tale, (which one would suppose was formed on some 
Italian tradition, picked up by the Xorman adventurers in Apulia 
and Sicily), must have been considerable, since in the ancient in- 
ventories of the libraries of the Dukes of Burgundy, taken in 1467 
and 1487, we find no less than three copies of it.* At present, the 
catalogues of MSS. in England have been searched in vain for the 
poem, and in France, on a similar inquiry being made, only one copy 
has been discovered, preserved in the Biblioth^ue de TArsenal, at 
Paris,^ and, to all appearance, is the same MS. which was formerly 
at Bnissels.* By the obliging attentions of M. Van Praet, the dis- 
tinguished Librarian of the Bibliotheque Eoyale, the Editor is 
enabled to give some account of this unique volume. It is a vellum 
MS. of a small folio size, consisting of 157* leaves, and written in 
double columns of 31 lines each, towards the close of the thirteenth 
century. It contains the Roman dH Eacouffle (foL 1 — 77), and the 
Roman du OuUlaume de Faleme. The latter commences thus : 

Nus ne se doit celer ne taire, &c.,* 
and ends in the following manner : 

Del roi GmRiaume et de sa mere, 

De ses enfeuis et de son guerre, (?) 

De son empire et de son regne, 

Trait li estoires ci a fin. 

ClL qui tos iors fu et sans fin 

Sera, et pardoune briement, 

II gart la contesse Yolent^ 

La bonne dame, la Icial, 

Et il descort son cors de inaL 

1 See a carious volame, intitled ** Biblioth^ue Protjpograpluqae." 4to. Paris, 
1830, pp. 199, 302, 323. 

« Marked .B^««w i>«r«», 178. 

* See the work just cited, p. 323. It is there called of the/of<r/Mn^A century. 

[* Here Sir F. Madden quotes the first 24 lines, which I omit, as, by the great 
kindness of M. Michelant, of the Biblioth^ue Imp6riale, I am enabled to give much 
longer extracts; see pp. 1—6, and 19—23, of this book.— W. W. S.] 

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Ced liurefist diter etfodre^ . 

Et de Latin en Boumans traire. 

Proions dieu por la bonne dam[e] 

(^uen bon lepos en mete lame, 

Et il nous doinst ce deseroir, 

Qu& boine fin puissons yenir. Amen. 

Explicit li Boumans de ChnUiaume de Paleme. 

The lady here referred to can be no other than Yoland, eldest daughter 
of Baldwin lY., Count of Hainault, and Alice of Namur. She was 
mamed, first, to Yves, or Yvon, Count of Soissons, sumamed le Vid^ 
who is characterised by an old Chronicler as a nobleman " de grande 
krgesse, et sage sur tous les Barons de France." ^ On his death, 
without issue, which took place in 1177, she married, secondly, Hugh 
Candavene FV., Count of St Paul, by whom she had two daughters, 
the eldest of which carried the title into the family of Chastillon, 
By the union of Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold, with Baldwin 
L, Count of Flanders, the Countess Yoland claimed descent from the 
blood of Charlemagne, and by the marriage of her brother Baldwin 
the Courageous with Margaret of Alsace, . heiress of Flanders and 
Artois^ she became aunt to Baldwin YI., Count of Hainault and 
Flanders, who in 1204 was elected Emperor of Constantinople,^ and 
to Isabel of Hainault, who, in 1180, shared the throne of Philip 
Augustus, King of France. Such was the splendid alliance of the 
lady to whom our poem owes its origin. In accordance with the 
{Availing taste of the age, we find the Counts of Hainault and 
Flanders distinguished patrons of poesy. Chrestien de Troyes is said 
to have dedicated several of his Romances to Philip of Alsace, Count 
of Flanders, who died in 1191,' and Baldwin Y., Count of Hainault, 

1 Ba Chesne ; Hist, de U Maison de Chastillon, foL Par. 1621. Frmwea^ p. 33. 

> The author of the analysis of this Romance, in the Nouv, BibL des Bomant, t iL 
p. 41, who copies from the printed prose yersion, hereafter to he noticed, makes a 
singidar mistake, hy confounding the Countess of St. Paul with Toland, sister of the 
Emperor Baldwin, and wife of Peter de Courteney, who was subsequently, in her 
right, Bmperor of Constantinople, and died in 1221. He says also, that the 
Countess Toland found the Eomanoe among the papers of her nephew after his 
death [1206], but this is a mere inyention of the writer himself^ and contradicted 
by the original text. > Hist. litt. de la France, ziii. 193. 

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having found at Sens, in Burgundy, a MS. of the Life of Charlemagne, 
gave the work at his death [1195] to his sister Yoland (the same 
lady above mentioned), who caused it to be translated into French 
prose.* "We have once more to lament that the author of our original 
(most probably, a native of Artois,) should have concealed his name, 
but the time of its composition may be assigned between 1178, the 
probable date of her marriage with the Count of St. Paul, and the 
year 1200. The Count died at Constantinople before 1206, and 
Yoland did not, in all probability, survive him long. She was, cer- 
tainly, alive in 1202, as appears from an instrument in Du Chesne. 
This Romance may therefore be ranked among the earliest of those 
composed at the close of the 12th century, and it is surprising it should 
have been overlooked by Roquefort and the Benedictines. 

At a much later period, apparently, at the beginning of the 16th 
century, this poem was converted into French prose. Three editions 
of it are known to book-collectors ; the first printed at Paris, by 
Nicolas Bonfons, 4to litt. gofL ;* the second at Lyons, 1552, by 
Olivier Amoult, 4to ;' and a third at the same place (probably a re- 
print) by the widow of Louis Coste, 8, a. about 1634. The *traduc- 
teur,' in a short preface, tells us he obtained the original by gift of a 
friend, and finding the language to be " romant antique rimoy6, en 

1 lb. xiii. 386. Fauchet, Recueil de rOrigine de la Langue Fran^oise, foL 
Par. 1681 ; p. 34. 

' Copies of this exist in the British Masenm, and in Mr Donee's library. In 
the former there is a note in the handwriting of Ritson, who supposes it to have 
proceeded from the press of Nicholas, t]ie father of John Bonfons, whose son Nicholas 
printed from about 1660 to 1690. The title is as follows : '* L*Hittorie du noble 
preux % vaillant ChetuUier GuiUaume de Faleme. Et de la belle Melior, Zequel 
OuiUaume de Faleme Jut fllz du Roy de CeeiUe. Et par fortune % merueilleuse 
auenture deuint vaeher, Etjlnabletneni fut^ Empereur de Home sous la conduiete dun 
Loupgaroux JUz au Roy Ltapagney The text is accompanied with wood-cuts. This 
volume is noticed both by Du Verdier, t. iv. p. 169, Ed. Juvigny, and Bibl. des 
Bomans, t. ii. p. 246, but neither of these writers mention the author. [Notb. 
Besides these three, there is a fourth edition, printed at Rouen by Louys Cost^ 
(about 1620 ?), of which there is now a copy in the British Museum (class-mark 
126130). It is in Roman type, not black-letter, and seems to be merely copied 
from the first edition. A search for a particular passage shewed that both prose 
Torsions omit the portion contained in U. 2449 — 2667. — W. W. S.] 

' See Dr Dibdin*s Tour, yol. ii. p. 337, who describes a copy of this, and the 
later edition, in the Bibliothdque de T Arsenal. 

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sorte non intelligible ne lisible," he turned it into modem French, with 
some additions of his own, for the assistance of those who might wish 
to read it : "Car en ioelle lisant," he adds, "pourra Ton veoir plu- 
sieors faictz d'armes, d'amours, & fortunes innumerables, & choses 
admirables, q' aduindrent au preux & vaillant cheualier Guillaume 
de Paleme, duquel rhistoire port le nom." He afterwards adverts to 
the Countess Yoland, and her nephew Baldwin, Emperor of Constan- 
tinople, who was slain by the iniidels at the siege of Adrianople, in 
1205. And adds : "Pour Thowneur de laquelle & de si haut empereur 
pouuons facillement accroistre les choses au present liure contenues.** 
Whether the story will appear quite so credible at the present day is 
rather questionable. The French bibliographers are silent as to the 
author of this prose version, and Dr Dibdin's sagacity seems to have 
failed him here. But at the end of the volume la an acrostic of 
twelve lines, the first letters of which form the name of Pierre 
Durandy who, no doubt, is the compiler. Any further information 
respecting him I have been unable to obtain, unless he \a the same 
with the Pierre Durand, Bailli of Nogent le Rotrou, en Perche, men- 
tioned by Lacroix du Maine, who adds, that he was an excellent 
Latin poet, and composed many inedited verses both in Latin and 
French.' No notice \& supplied of the period at which he Hved. It 
was, most likely, from this prose translation, that the imperfect analysis 
of the Romance was borrowed, printed in the Nouvelle Bihliotheque 
des Bomans, tom. il pp. 41 — 68, 12mo. Par. an. vi, [1808] where it is 
placed in the class of ** Romans de Feerie," although professedly ex- 
tracted from a MS. of the 14th century. 

By the assistance of Durand's version we are enabled to judge of 
the accuracy of the English versifier, since they both translate from 
the same text, and it in surprising how closely the latter has adhered 
to his original Another advantage gained from it is to supply the 
hiatus which, unfortunately, occur in the English poem. To avoid 
the prolixity of the prose author, the substance of the passages want- 
ing, is here annexed ; * 

1 Bibl. FranQoises, tom. ii. p. 27 i ; ed. 1772. He is said alio to have had an 
anigma or rebus in the front of his house, which seems to indicate the same taste 
which prompted the composition of the acrostic cited above. 

[I These missing passages are supplied in this re-edition from the original rimod 
French version.— W. W. S.] 

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" There was formerlj a King of Sicilj, named Ebron, wlio was 
also Duke of Calabria and Lord of Apulia ; rich and powerful above 
all other princes of his time. He married Felixe, daughter of the 
Emperor of Greece, and not long after their union, they were blessed 
with a son named William, the hero of the present story. The infant 
was intrusted to the care of two sage and prudent ladies, named 
Gloriande and Esglantine, who were chosen to superintend his 
nurture and education. But the brother of King Ebron, foreseeing 
that his succession to the throne would be now impeded, soon formed 
a resolution to destroy the boy, and, by means of promises and bribes 
so wrought on the governesses, that they at length consented to a plan 
by which both the Prince and King were to be put to death. At that 
time the Court was held at the noble city of Paleme [Palermo], ad- 
joining to which was a spacious garden, abounding with flowers and 
fruits, in which the King was often accustomed to take his recreation. 
But one day, when Ebrons was walking here, accompanied by the 
Queen and the Prince (then about four years old), attended by the 
two governesses, an event took place which turned all their joy into 
the deepest consternation and grie£ For, whilst the King's brother 
and the two ladies were holding a secret conference how to carry 
theii^ project into execution, a huge werwolf^ with open jaws and 
bristled mane, suddenly rushed forth from a thicket, at which the 
ladies were so terrified, that they swooned away, and the rest fled, 
leaving the child alone, who was immediately carried ofi^ without 
injury, by the beast. The King ordered pursuit to be made, but in 
vain, for the swiftness of the animal soon enabled him to distance 
his pursuers ; to the great distress of the monarch and his court. The 
werwolf bore the child away to a place of safety, and thence, pursu- 
ing his course night and ds^, at length conveyed him to a forest, not 
far from the city of Rome, where he remained some time, taking care 
to provide what was necessary for his sustenance ; and having dug 
a deep pit, and strewed it with herbs and grass for William to sleep 
on, the beast was accustomed to fondle the boy with his paws in the 
same manner a nurse would have done." 

Here commences the English Eomance, which, with the excep- 
tion of a foHo (or 72 lines) missing between S. 6 — 7, proceeds 
regularly to the end. This second defect occurs at the close of the 
Emperor's speech to his daughter Melior, and the text again begins 
with Melior's reproaches to herself for loving William. What in- 
tervenes may be easily supplied, even from fancy, but in the prose 
Romance we read as follows : 

"The Emperor's daughter received the infant, which proved of so 
gentle a disposition, that it seemed to have been bred at court all its 
life-time. It was soon clothed in dresses of silk and velvety and 

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became the plaything of the fair Melior. * Et alors,' says the writer, 
* le faisoit mout beau veoir : car en toute la court ny auoit si bel en- 
fant que luy, ne si aduenant Sobre estoit en son ma;?ger & boire, 
facilemens fut appnns k seruir les dames k tables ; a tons ieux, & k 
deuiser & k dire ioyeuses sometes a tons propos.' But above all, 
William studied how best to serve his lady and mistress Melior, 
whom he loved above every one else. As he advanced in age he 
began to share in the chivabx)us exercises of the time ; to bear arms, 
ride on the great horse, and practise various feats of strength, all for 
the love of Melior, his * mie * ; and so great a favourite was he with 
all the ladies and demoiselles, that Melior heard of nothing but his 
praises. The Emperor, too, was so fond of William, as to keep him 
constantly by his side. In the mean time, the Princess would often 
withdraw to her chamber to dwell secretly on the personal attrac- 
tions and graceful demeanor of William, and was at length so pierced 
by love's keen arrow, that she could not refrain from sighing, and 
desiring to hold him in her arms. But then again, considering with 
herself, that a lady of her noble birth ought not to bestow her affec- 
tion on any one but a Knight of her own rank, she often vainly 
endeavoured to drive William from her thoughts.^* 

The remaining part pf la helle Melior's soliloquy will be found in 
our poem, and the translation is sufficiently nmve to be interesting 
even to those who may, in general, despise the simple language of 
our old Eomances. 

The tradition developed in this story, and which forms its chief 
feature, namely, the transformation of a human being into a wolf, 
but still retaining many of the attributes of his nature, has been so 
learnedly and ably discussed by the author of the Letter annexed to 
the present remarks,' as to render any additional illustration unneces- 
sary. But it may not be improper here to suggest, that the belief in this 
notion in the southern provinces of Europe may have been partly 
derived through the medium of the Northmen, among whom, as ap- 
pears from various authorities, it was very general. A curious story 
of a were-bear in Eolf Kraka's Saga is quoted by Sir Walter Scott,* 
which has some slight features of resemblance with our werwolf, and 
it is singular, that this metamorphosis should have been accomplished 
by striking the person transformed with a glove of wolfsTcin, In the 

' [In the Edition of 1832, a Letter by the Hon. Algernon Herbert, addressed to 
Lord Cawdor, on the subject of Werewolves, was annexed to the Preface. — W. W. 8.] 

* Border Minstr. ii. 110, ed. 1803. [The story, condensed, is given in 8. 
Baring-Gould'B Book of Werewolves, pp. 21— 27.— W. W. 8.] 

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Volsunga Saga, also, cap. 12, we read of the similar change of Sig- 
mund and Siufroth into wolves.* In general, the transformation was 
supposed to be accomplished, as in our Komance, by the aid of 
certain magical unguents.* With regard to the supposed form of 
these werwolves, and whether they differed from those of natural 
wolves, I have searched many writers, without much success, but 
Boguet informs us, that in 1521, three sorcerers were executed, who 
confessed they had often become Loupsgarovx, and killed many 
persons.^ A painting was made to commemorate the faet, in which 
these werwolves were each represented with a knife in his right paw. 
This picture, we are told, was preserved in the church of the Jaco- 
bins, at Pouligny,* in Burgundy. One distinctive mark, however, of 
a werwolf is said to have been the absence of a tail,** yet this does 
not seem to correspond with the vulgar notions on the subject, since 
in the wooden cut prefixed to the prologue of the prose translation 
of this Eomance, representing the werwolf carrying off the infant 
Prince of Palermo, there certainly appears a tail of due proportions. 
On the style in which this poem is written, and its peculiarities of 
language, it is needless to dwell long. The history of our allitera- 
tive poetry has already been illustrated by Percy, Warton, and Cony- 
beare, and the principle on which it was composed, even to so late a 
date as the middle of the 16th century, is sufficiently known.* The 

1 Biomer*8 Kampa-Deeter, fol. 1737. [See ^. Baring-Gould's Book of Were- 
wolves, p. 18.— W. W. S.] 

* See Diaeourt des Sorcters^ par Henry Boguet, 12mo. Lyon, 1608. 2de ed. pp. 
363, 369; Verstegan's Restitution of Decayed InteUiffeneej 4to. Antv. 1605, p. 237; 
Jamie8on*s Dictionarj, in y. Warwolff and Nynauld's treatise De la Lycanthropie, 
8vo., Par. 1625, where several of these ointments are described. 

[s Another account says two sorcerers, named Pierre Bourgot and Michel Ver- 
dung. See A Book on Werewolves^ by S. Baring-Gould, p. 69.] 

* Boguet, p. 341. Wierus de Prastiffiis, lib. v. c. 10. 

* Boguet, pp. 340, 361. [A little girl described a werwolf as '* resembling a 
wolf, but as being shorter and stouter ; its hair was red, its tail stumpy, and the 
head smaller than that of a genuine wolf." See the story in S. Baring-Gould's 
Book on Werewolves, p. 91.— W. W. S.] 

* See Essay in the Reliques of English Poetry, vol. ii. ; Warton's Hist of 
Engl. Poetry, vol. ii. § 10, 8vo. ed. ; Whitaker's Introductory Discourse to Piers 
Plouhman, and Conybeare's Essay on Anglo-Saxon Metre, prefixed to the Illustra- 
tions of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, 8vo., Lond. 1826. [In the new edition of Bp Percy's 
Folio MS. by Hales and Fumivall, Percy's Essay has been replaced by a filler and 
longer one by myself, to which I beg leave to refer the reader. — W. W. 8.] 

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lines in the poem consist of an indeterminate number of syllables, 
firom eleven to thirteen, but sometimes more or less, which, like Piers 
Plouhman, and other compositions of this class, may be divided into 
distichs, at the csesural pause, so as to give them the Saxonic char- 
acter on which they are all formed. Thus, for instance : 

Hit bi-^el in that /orest, 

there /ast by-side, 
There troned a wel old cherl, 

that tras a couherde. 
That ^le winterres in that /orest 
^yre had kepud, &c. 

It adds, however, to the value of this Eomance, that we have in it 
the earliest specimen of unrimed alliterative metre yet discovered ; 
for of the other pieces of this kind extant, there is not one which 
may not be placed subsequent to Piers Plouhman, composed after . 
the year 1362.* It is also matter of satisfaction to be able to fix the 
date of this work prior to the period which produced such writers 
as Gower and Chaucer. We can now trace the English language 
step by step from the year 1300, since the writings of Kobert of 
Gloucester, Kobert of Brunne, Eobert Davies, William of Shore- 
ham,' Robert EoUe, and Laurence Minot, lead us up to the precise 
period when our poem was composed, and which forms the connect- 
ing link with Langland and the subsequent writers. Without decid- 
ing with Bryant, that our Romance betrays very distinctly a provincial 
dialect, we may accede to his conjecture of its author being, probably, 
a native ofjGloucestershire, or an adjoining county; although the 
orthography by no means betrays that decided western pronunciation 

1 Mr Conybeare is certainly mistaken in assigning the Romances of Sir Gawayn 
and Alexander to the 13th century, as I shall endeavour to show in another place. 
[See Sir F. Madden's notes to Sir Oawayn. See on the other hand my **Intro« 
daotion to AUsannder," (p. xxx), which poem is now found to be somewhat earlier 
than " William of Paleme."— W. W. S.] 

* The poems of this writer, who flourished ^m 1320 to 1340, are presenred in 
an unique MS. belonging to Alexander Henderson, Esq., of Edinburgh, who in- 
tends, at some period or other, giving them to the public. [The Religiou$ Foenu of 
William de Shortham were edited for the Percy Society by T. Wright, M.A., Lon- 
don, 1849. The MS. is now MS. Actional 17376 in the British Museum.^ 
W.W. S.] 

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which characterises the poems ascrihed to Robert of Gloucester. Of 
his ability as a poet we ought on the whole to form a favorable 
judgment ; and when we consider the fetters imposed on him by the 
metxe he adopts, and by the closeness of his translation, we may 
readily forgive the repetitions he abounds in, as well as the somewhat 
tedious minuteness of his narrative. There are some lines, such as 
for instance these : 

And than so throli thoujtes thurlen myn herte, 
That I ne wot in the world where it hi comse ; 

and again, 

So many maner minstracie at that manage were, 

That when thei made here menstracie, eche man wende 

That heven hastili and erthe schuld hurtel to gader ; 

which would seem to mark the author capable of better things. But 

the poet shall plead his own apology, in some lines at the close of the 


In this wise hath William al his werke ended, 

Afl fully as the Frensche fully wold aske. 

And as his witte him wold serve, though it were febul ; 

But thou^ the melur he nou^t mad at eche mannes paye^ 

Wite him noti^t that it wrouyt^ Ite wold have do beter 

iif is witte in eny wei^es wold him have served. 

It would seem from this, as if the alliterative form of alexandrine 
verse had not yet become popular, and was, in fact, but lately intro- 
duced. It is worth observing also, that the number of French words 
here introduced, will serve to exonerate Chaucer from the charge 
made against him of debasing the English language by Grallicisms. 
Such a remark could only have come from one ignorant of what 
early English literature owes to our continental neighbours. 

There are some minuter details respecting the grammatical con- 
struction of the poem, which perhaps deserve notice, such as the use 
of the present tense for the past, as askeSy arise^ here^ aewethy &c., for 
asked, arose^ hore^ setoede, <&c., the use of the singular for the plural 
(if, indeed, it be not a contracted form of the plural, which I am in- 
clined to believe, like childer from childei'en\ in the instances of daie^ 

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dedSy burgeys, here^ &c., for daieSy dedea, hwrgeyses^ hereby &c. ; but 
the fact is, these are not peculiarities, but authorised by usage, and 
many similar forms are retained, eyen at present, in familiar convers- 
ation, particularly among the lower classes. 

It only remains to give a brief description of the MS. from which 
the present poem has been transcribed. It is a moderate-sized folio, 
written on vellum soon afber the middle of the 14th centuiy, and 
consisting of 130 folios, 82 of which are occupied by the Romance. 
A quire is wanting at the commencement, and a single leaf shortly 
after. The text is disposed in single columns, of 36«lines in a page, 
and the writing is in a remarkably distinct, but rather thick and 
inelegant, letter, with small blue and red initials.' .... 

At the conclusion of the Komance, £ 86, is written in a hand of 
the early part of the 16th century as follows : ' " Praye we aU to that 
heaven kinge that made all y^ world off nowght to pardon the solle 
of huwfray boune, that was erlle of herford, for hys grete dylygens 
and pejus takynge to translate thys boke owt off fireynche In to 
englysj to y* entent to kepe youythe from ydellnes, [he] hathe sete 
furthe thys goodly story, wher apon we showld bestow 'oi*r tym apon 
the holy day, & suche other tyme« when we haue lytle or nothynge 
a doyng elW, & In so doynge ye may put awey aU ydell thowghte^ 
& pensyf&ies [of] harte, for the wyche traueyll pray we all to that 
heuyn kynge to graunt hym etemall lyf for hys good wylL" The 
rest of the volume is occupied by a portion of the Metrical lives of 
the Saints, composed in the reign of Edward the First, and written 
in a different and rather earlier hand. The lives are those of JudaSy 
FiUUuSf Seint Marie Egiptiaky Seint Alphe^ Seint George, Seini 
Dunstoriy Seint Aldelme, and Seint Austyn.^ There are several other 

[^ I here omit the words " A fiic-simile of the first sereii lines is sabjoined/' 
which are followed by the fac-simile itself. The marks of abbreyiation are ex- 
^ained farther on ; see p. xxir. A peculiarity of the MS. is that the initial letter of 
every line is separated fr^p the rest by a slight space, as in Sir F. Madden's edition. 
The central metrical pause is nowhere marked by a dot I am responsible for the 
inatrium of these, which will, Ibeliere, be found to assist the reader.— W. W. S.] 

[* These words were clearly suggested by the concluding lines of the poem, 
and it was hence, perhaps, that Bryant adopted the idea that Sir Humphrey trans- 
lated the French himself.— W. W. S.] 

C There is a poem preceding Judae, and belonging to the same series. See the 
first lines, Ac, on p. ri.— W. W. S.] 

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perfect copies of these curious legends in existence. With respect 
to the history of this MS. volume before it was presented to King's 
College Library, I could gain no information, nor even the name of 
the donor. There are several names scribbled on the margins, but 
all of a late period, and of no importance. 

The Eomance has been printed, as nearly as possible, in exact ac- 
cordance with the MS., and not the slightest liberty has been taken, 
either with the punctuation or the orthography. It is, in short, as 
near a fac-simile of the original as could be imitated by typography. 
But for the convenience of those unacquainted with the mode of 
contracting words in old MSS., a list of the abbreviations is placed 
at the end of these remarks. The Glossary has been compiled with 
much care, and rendered as comprehensive as possible, but with all 
due regard to avoid unnecessary prolixity* Only those words are 
illustrated which appeared absolutely to require it : it being deemed 
in other cases sufficient to mark the immediate derivation of the term. 

The Editor, in conclusion, has to express his thanks to the Rev. 
George Thackeray, D.D., Provost of King's College, for his permis- 
sion to copy the MS. ; and also to Martin Thackeray, Esq., MA-, 
Vice Provost; John Heath, Esq., M.A., Dean; and George Crauford 
Heath, Esq., M.A., Bursar of the College, for their very obliging 
attentions during the residence made among them. 

Fredbriok Madden. 

British Museum^ January 6th, 1832. 


Q , con or coin, as Qseil, Qfort — [conseil, comfort], 

V, er, above the line, as fid'e, daung*, man*, s*ue, wint'res, |>'e, 
gou'ne, v'aly — [J)idere, daunger, maner, serue, wimtcrres, Jere, goueme, 
veraly]. After p*, r*, as p'stely — [prestely]. 

ihc, I hems,* 

p, per or par, as pile, ptizes, spe — [perile, partijes, spere]. 

[♦ feee note to L 692. W. W. S.] 

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f, pro, as .pfite, ^ue — [profite, proue]. 

q, quod — [qi^oci]. 

', ri, above the line, as p*nce, c*ft — [pnnce, crist], 

•', ra, above the line, as fm, gee, py — [fram, grace, pray] — some- 
times a, as Willm — [William]. * 

^ ur, above the line, as mpe, tne, 6 — [mwrje, twrne, owr]. 

The simple stroke over a letter denotes the absence of m or ?i, as 
8u, hi, houd — [sum, hiwi, hound]. 


(^Reprinted, tciih additionSy from the edition of 1832.) 


This term has the same meaoing, and is compotinded of the same 
elements, as the XvK-avdpunro^ of the Greeks. From the high antiquity 
of the tradition respecting werewolves, and its having been current 
among the Celtic as well as Gothic nations, we find the expression in 
most of the dialects formed from each of the parent languages, and all 
corresponding to the signification above affixed of man-ioolf i. e. a wolf 
partaking of the nature of man, or, in other words, a man changed, by 
magical art, into the temporary form of a wolf. All the northern lexi- 
cographers agree in this interpretation, as applied to the Su.-G. vxirulf 
Teut. werwolf toahnvoff, Sax. toereumlf Dan. varulf Belg. waer wolf weer 
wolf Scotch, warwolf werwouf Ac, but as the very learned and ingeni- 
ous author of the Letter addressed to Lord Cawdor on the subject of 
Werewolves, prefixed to the present poem, [i. e. in the edition of 1832J 
has called their united opinion in question, it may be worth while to 
discuss more fully the truth of the usual derivation. It is true, that the 
hypothesis of Mr Herbert, which deduces the first part of the phrase 
firom the Teutonic tcer, helium, (whence the French guerre, and the Dutch 
were have been formed) may be, in some measure, countenanced by the 
similar compounds of wcer-hoda, a herald, were-man, a soldier, were-toally 
a defence in war, &o., as well as by the instance of a warlike machine 
made by King Edward the First, called war-wolf, and rightly interpreted 
by Matthew of Westminster luptte belli, p. 449, the Itidgare or loup de 
guerre of Peter Langtoft, vol. ii. 326. But in conceding thus much, it 

[* The mark really is a roughly written a, and means an ahbreviation wberdo 
a occurs, commonly ra or w. — W. W. S.] 

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must be remarked, that all these latter terms are used in a military sense, 
and coald not otherwise be interpreted. They bear no analogy what- 
ever to the ioere-wo^foi oor Poem, which, supposing we receive it in the 
sense contended for by the author of the Letter, viz. a wolfofwar^ con- 
veys no distinct or very intelligible meaning. On the other hand, the 
plain, obvious signification of man- wolf is consonant to the fabulous 
tradition of the phrase, and to the genius of the languages in which it 
has been adopted. Only one example of this word in Anglo-Saxon has 
been found. It occurs in the ecclesiastical laws of King Canute, ap. 
Wilkins, p. 133, § 26, where, after describing the duties of Pastors of 
the Church, the text proceeds : ^ th»t syndon bisceopas and msBsse- 
preostas, the godcunde heorda bewarian and bewerian sceolan, mid 
wislican laran, th»t $e wo^eca were vmJf to swfthe ne slyte, ne to fela 
ne abite of godcundre heorde,** i. e. " Such are the bishops and priests, 
who shall guard and defend the holy flock with their wise doctrine, that 
the furious were-wolf may not too greatly tear or lacerate the members 
of it** Here the term is applied to the Devil, not, as Wachter remarks, 
" quod Diabolus sit lycanihropos^ sed quod homines rapiat et occidat ; " 
and the metaphor is evidently drawn from the story of the metamor- 
phosis of a man into a wolf, and subsequent attacks on his own race. 
The derivation from toer^ or werct, a man, does not, as the author of 
the Letter supposes, rest on slight authority. One glance at Lye, who 
has nearly three columns filled with instances, would satisfy him in this 
respect. It is the Gothic toair (Luke viii. 27, ix. 14), Su.-Goth. wdr^ 
Isl. t>er, Teut. wer, Francic uuara, Celtic (rwr, GW, or Ur, Irish fairj 
fear, Latin rtV, Barb. Lat bar-Oy Span, var-on^ and French bar-on ; all of 
which may be referred to a primitive root, expressive of existence. But 
an unquestionable evidence in the case before us is that of Qervase of 
Tilbury, who wrote in the reign of Henry II., when the Saxon language 
had sufiered no very material change, and who, assuredly, must be allowed 
to know the meaning of his own maternal tongue. He writes thus : 
** Vidimus enim frequenter in Anglia per lunationee homines in lupos 
mutari, quod hominum genus Oeru^oi Qalli nominant, Angli vero 
toerewlf diount ; were enim Anglic^ virum souat, w{fy lupum.** Otia Imp, 
ap. ScripU, Brunav, p. 895. The modem French express the term by 
loupgaroti, concerning which it is truly said by Wachter, " mire nugantur 
eruditi.** The sum of these nug€B may be found collected in Menage, 
and the Dictionnaire de Trevoux ; to which may be added the conjectures 
noticed in the Calum Aetronomico-Poeticum of Ccesius, p. 295. But the 
etymology of the Saxon, Teutonic, and Suio-Qothic phrase will here 
equally well apply. One of the Lays of Marie, an Anglo-Norman 
poetess, who wrote about the middle of the thirteenth century, is 
founded on a Breton fable of a werwolf, and she thus alludes to the ap. 
pellation : 

^ Bi$claueret ad nun en Bretan, 
QoTwafy Tapelent li Norman ; 

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ladis le poeit home oir, 
E soueot Boleit aaenir, 
Humes plusure garual deuindrent, 
E 68 boscages meisun tindrent ; 
Garaa^Q^t beste Balnage,** &o. 

MS, Harl 978. £ 162. b.» 

Koquefbrt (who has taken some liberties in printing this passage) justly 
observes, that the Norman Oarvaif or Oaarvxrf is derived from, and the 
same with, the Saxon and Teutonic term. It may, indeed, have been 
brought by the Normans from Scandinavia, for in Verelius I find 
** Vc^guy'wr, Brett. Str. [BretUiStreinglekr RoberH Ahhatis] BiselaretzlTod, 
Lycantropos. Som loperwarg." Index Scytho^Scand. fol. 1691. Whence 
he has derived the second term, is not clear, nor is it elsewhere ex- 
plained, but it appears the same with the Bisclaveret of Marie (whose 
writings could not have been known to Verelius), which is supposed by 
Ritson, Metr. Rom. iii. 331, to be a corruption of BUiz-garv, loup 
sauvage, for which, in more modem times, the natives of Britanny used 
Dm-hleix^ homme-loup. See Rostrenen and Pelletier. Ghro or Oaro, is 
explained in these writers, apre^ cruel, yet there is great reason to doubt 
whether when coupled with bleiz it has not, like the Norman garou, 
guarouly been borrowed from a Gothic source. That loup is superfluous, 
and that garou of itself expresses man-wolf is evident from the passages 
in Gervase of Tilbury and Marie, and may be confirmed by the follow- 
ing authorities. " Warou, loup-garou." Diet. Roman, Walon, Ac. 4to. 
Bouillon, 1777. " Warou^ toarous^ toarrou, Garou, esp^ce de loup." 
Roquefort. So, in a MS. Life of the Virgin, quoted by Charpentier, in 
his Supplement to Du Gauge, 

^ De culuevre nous font anguile, 
Aignel de Wa/roul & de leu." 
And in the life of St Bernard, 0pp. 2, p. 1288. '* Transiens autem per 
quandam villam audivit ab incolis ejusdem loci, duas feras immanissi- 
mas, qu» uuigo varoUi [appellebantur], in nemore proximo desadvire." 
In the same manner the Scotch have formed their Wurlj Wroul, and 
WorUriy as appears from Jaraieson. Roquefort also gives us the term in 
another shape, ^ Loup-heroux,*^ but this again is nothing more than the 
Tent BcBTwolf homo-lupus, from 2»ar, vir, which is only a dialectical 
variation of Wer, A similar instance of retaining a pleonastic interpret- 
ation is presented in the word luJce-warm, where icarm is an adjunct of 
no real utility, since luke means warm by itself^ and was anciently so 
used. For more minute details respecting the etymology here adopted, 
the philologist is referred to Ihre, Wachter, Kilian, and Jamieson. 

Mr Herbert has remarked, at p. 42 of his letter, that ^ among the 
Erse or Grael of Erin, the notion of lycanthropy was prevalent ; we 

' In Thoms'B "Lays and Lef^ends," 1834, is a translation of this Lai df 

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read of their Toracious caunibalism on the ocular and undeniable tes- 
timony of St Jerome, and another author pretends that a certain 
Abbot in the district of Ossory had obtained from heaven a decree 
that two persons of that district (a married couple) should every 
seven years be compelled to leave the country in the shape of wolves, 
but, at the end of those years, they might if yet living return to 
their homes and native shape, and two other persons were condemned 
in their place to the like penalty for another seven year& J. Brompton, 
Chron. p. 1078." In the Latin Poem '*de rebus Hibemie ad- 
rairandis," oi the 12th or 13th century, preserved in the Cotton MS. 
Titus D. xxiv (and printed in the Reliquice AntiqucBy ii. 103), are 
some lines descriptive of the werwolf, from which we learn that at 
that period there were men in Ireland who could change themselves 
into wolves and worry sheep, leaving their real bodies behind them ; 
and (as in the traditions of other countries), if they happened to be 
woimded, the injury would also appear on their bodies.* 

Allusion is also made to a similar story in Malory's Morte 
d^ArthurCf where mention is made of " Sir Marrok the good knyghte, 
that was bitrayed with his wyf, for she made hym seuen yere a 
werwolf, '^ Morte d'Arthure, lib. xix. c. xi. ; ed. Southey, ii 385. 

In the "Maister of Game," a treatise on Hunting, composed for 
Henry the Fifth, then Prince (I quote from MS. Sloane 60), is the 
following passage. 

1 Sunt homines quidam Scottorum gentis babentes 

Miram naturara, majorum ab origine ductam. 

Qua cito quando volunt ipsos se vertere possunt 

Nequiter in formas lacerantum dente luporum, 

Unde videntur. oves occidere ssepe gementes ; 

Sed cum clamor eos hominum, seu cursus eorum 

Fustibus aut armis terret, fugiendo recurrunt 

Cum tamen hoc faciunt, sua corpora Tcra relinquunt, 

Atque Buis mandant ne quisquam movent ilia. 

81 sic eyeniat, nee ad ilia redire valebunt. 

Si quid eos Isedat, penetrent si vulnera qusequc, 

Yere in corporibus semper cemuntur eorum ; 

Sic caro cruda heerens in veri corporis ore 

Cemitur a sociis, quod nos miram ur et omnes. (Rel. AnL ii. 105.) 
Cf. Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, ed. Todd, p. 622 (Moxon, 1866) ; and 
CBrieny Round Towers of Ireland, p. 468. 

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Speaking of the Wolf— (foL 43)— 

"And somme ther ben . . . that eten children and men, and eten 
non other fleische from that tyme that thei ben acharmed with mannes 
fleisch. For rather thei wolden be deed. And thai ben cleped 
werewolves^ for that men schulden be war of hem.* And thei ben so 
cawtelous, that whenne thei sailen a man, thei haue an holding yppon 
hem or the man se hem. And ^it, if men se hem, thei wol come 
vpon him gjmnonsly, that he ne be take and slayiL For thei can 
wonder wel kepe hem from any hameyse that any man bereth,** &c.* 


§ 1. The fragment of the Bomance of Alisaunder at the end of 
this volume is now printed for the first time from MS. Greaves 60 (in 
the Bodleian Library), where it was discovered by Sir Frederick 
Madden. There are no less than fmir MSS. containing fragments in 

^ An odd etymology ! This sentence is quoted by Halliwell, in his Dictionary 
of Archaisms, s. t. A-eharmedy from MS. Bodley, 546. 

[3 It seems unnecessary to enter into farther details concerning this curions 
superstition ; for the reader may consult Mr Herbert's Letter (which is too diffuse 
to be reprinted here) ; or, if that be not easily accessible, may refer to " The Book 
of Were-wolves," by S. Baring-Gould, M.A., which the author defines as being << a 
monograph on a peculiar form of popular superstition, preralent among all nations, 
and in all ages." The following references to a few of the most interesting pas- 
sages may be useful. Herodotus, bk. iv. c. 105 (in which the Neurians are said to 
change themselres into wolves once a year for a few days) ; VtrgH, Eel. yiil. 95 — 
99 ; Omdy Met. i. 237 (where Lycaon, King of Arcadia, is changed by Jupiter into 
a wolf) ; a story from FeironitUf quoted at length both by Herbert (p. 7), and 
Baring-Gould (p. 11) ; Olatis Magntu, Historia de Gent. Septent. Basil, lib. xviii. 
c 45 ; Geroase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia, Dec. i. c. 15, p. 8d5 ; Camdm, Britan- 
nia, yoL It. p. 293, ed. 1806 ; King James /., Deemonologie, L. iii. p. 125 ; &c. See 
also Thorpe's Northern Mythology. In the present poem, the chief instrument of 
Alphonse's re-transformation is a ring (1. 4424). The following quotation (which 
I render into English from the German) may serre to illustrate this : — << By help of 
a mag^c girdle or ring men could change themselves and others into the forms of 
beasts ; into wolvesj bears, horses, cats, swans, geese, ravens, and crows. The most 
notorious and perhaps the oldest of these changes is that into the Werwolf or loup- 
garou. Even this might be classed amongst the instances of Rune-magic {Sunen* 
taubers), for runic characters may have been scratched upon the girdle or ring, or 
magic formularies may have been repeated whilst putting it on." Karl Sim- 
rodir, Handbuch der Deutschen Mythologie; Bonn, 1855; p. 537. The latter 
method was the one adopted by Queen Braundins (1. 4433).— TV. W. S.] 


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allUerative verse upon this subject, of which two are mepsly diffeient 
copies of the same poem. The four fragments are these : A, that 
contained in MS. Greaves 60; B, that contained in MS. Bodley 264, 
which relates to Alexander's visit to the Gymnosophists ; C, that in 
MS. Ashmole 44 ; and D, a second copy of the mme poem as C, in 
MS. Dublin. D. 4. 12, beginning at a later place, and ending at 
an earlier one. Of these, A, B, and G seem to be distinct from 
each other, and by different authors, the last bearing traces of a 
northern^ the former two of a western dialect. The two latter are 
printed at length in " The Alliterative Komance [1 Romances] of 
Alexander," ed. Rev. J. Stevenson, printed for the Roxburghe Club, 
1849. They are, however, of different dates, for the Ashmolean 
MS. can hardly be older than about a.d. 1450, and '^ there seems 
no reason to conclude that the poem is anterior to the date of the 
MS. from which it is printed," as Mr Stevenson justly observes. 
Fragment B is probably older. It is bound up with the splendid 
French MS. of Alexander, one of the chief treasures of the Bodleian 
library. Sir F. Madden says of it,* that " the writing of this portion 
is of the reign of Henry the Sixth,* nor is there any reason to 
believe the poem itself very much earlier than the year 1400." It 
treats at length of Alexander's visit to the Gymnosophists, and of the 
letters that passed between him and Dindimus, *' lord of Bragmanus 
lond," a subject which is introduced much more briefly in Passus 
xviiL of fragment C. But fragment A, which is now only .found in 
a copy evidently written in the sixteenth century (the original MS. 
having been lost), is not only older than both these, but may fairly 
claim to be the oldest existing specimen of English alliterative verse, 
unmixed with rime, and of the usual type, since the Conquest.' 
This point is, moreover, easily ascertained in the manner following. 

.§ 2. In the first place, it was conjectured by Sir F. Madden, from 
internal evidence, that it was written by the author of William of 
Paleme ; and nothing can be stronger than the internal evidence, if 

* See notes to Sir Oawayiie,ed. Madden ; Bannatyne Glab, 1839 ; p. 304. 

* May it not be even a little earlier ? 

* StkUe Afarherete, written before A.D. 1200 in a more negligent metre, it here 

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it be weighed with sufficient care. The resemblance in the langaage, 
style, and method of versification is extraordinary ; there is the same 
" run " upon certain words and phrases, and we even find (what we 
should hardly have expected to find), lines almost identical in their 
expression in the two poems. If we find in William qf Paleme 
(which poem I shall briefly denote by Weitoolf) the phrase, 

** fat fei nere semli serued * & sette at here ri^ttes ** (L 4906), 

we can match tMs from Alisaunder^ L 980, by the phrase, 

" As soone as J>ei were sett * & serued too-rightes ; " 

and it would be difficult to discover two lines more closely related 
than are these : — 

' " It betid in a time • tidly thereafter " {Alis, 974), and, 
" But |>atme tidde on a time • titly Jjer-after " {Werw. 1416), 
But even such coincidences as these are less convincing than the 
peculiar recurrence of certain phrases, such as to waite at a window 
(see note to Alis. L 760), doluen and ded (see note to Alia , L 1026), 
med fe ni^t (see note to Alia L 817), Utmnd lud (see note to Alia , L 
992), and the like ; and also the curious, yet evidently uninten- 
tional, resemblance in such lines as, 

'* He wend to haue laujt ]7at ladi ' loueli in armes ** 
{Werw. 671) ; and 

"As that Ladie, with loue • too kchen in armes " {Ali$. 199) ; 
or again, in 

" But lete him in his blisse * & his burde alse, 

& touche we ferre • as fis tale forferee " {Werw, 5396) ; and, 
'' But lete hem Hue in Hsse * at oure lordes wille, 
Of J)e rich emperour of rome • redeliche to telle" ( Werw, 5466) ; 

as compared with — 

" Now let wee Jia lued • lengen in bliss. 
And sithe myng wee more • of J)is mery tale " {Alia. 44). 
Indeed, it seems useless to adduce many further proofs ; for, if any 
reader has any lingering doubts upon the subject, he may convince 
himself by trying to rewrite a portion of the glossary ; for, in construct- 

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ing this, the languf^ of the poems is at once found to be identical, as 
far as the subject-matter permits it. It may be noted, too, that the 
dialect is the same ; e. g. one curious characteristic of the " Werwolf" 
is the plural imperative in -e», which reappears in Awre»=care ye (Alia 
563), and in kairus = kaires = go ye (Alia 623) ; also present participles 
both in -and end -dug are found in both poems. ^ Assuming then that 
these poems are by the same author — and, consequently, that our 
poet, known to us only by the name of Williamy has the credit of 
being the earliest writer (as far as we know at present) in the usual 
alliterative metre — the question still remains, which poem did he 
write first ? On this point I have, myself, no doubt, feeling sure that 
the " Alisaunder " is the older poem. It is very curious to remark 
how often it presents fuller inflexions and older forms, and this, too, 
in spite of the fact that we have only a late sixteenth-century copy 
of it, whilst of the other poem we have a MS. two centuries older. 
Most noticeable among these are the infinitives in -en, such as lachen, 
thinkeuy &c., and in many other cases we find -en where in the other 
poem we more commonly find -e." The numerous cases where in the 
" Alisaunder,'* the final -e is omitted, can be accounted for by the fact 
of the MS. being a late copy. And this is the right account to give ; 
for the preservation of the -en ending shews that the final -6*8 should 
have been preserved also. Besides this, the spelling of the MS. pre- 
sents one very curious mark of antiquity, viz., the use of the letter 
D or ^ to represent Th or th ; see note to L 33 on page 236. I know 
of no instance of the use of this letter in a verse composition 

1 A comparison of the metre of the poeras affords a test of much subtlety, and re- 
quiring much care and patience. The details are tedious : I can only say here that 
I have considered this, and believe their general structure of versification to be 
identical, and to have, at the same time, some peculiarities that are not common to 
all alliterative poems. They differ, e. g., from ISera Flotpman, though that too was 
written by a William, and not long afterwards. 

Hence also the reason for printing the two poems together, viz. because of 
their common authorship, is at once apparent ; and both poems gain by it. The 
language of the " Werwolf" is often well illustrated by that of the ** Alisaunder," 
whilst, on the other hand, an editor can never be so well fitted to edit the latter 
poem accurately as at a time when he happens to know hundreds of lines of the 
former by heart. 

' The only instance of t- used as a prefix to a verb in the infinitive, occurs in 
AUs. 1. 607. 

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(excepting here) later than about a.d. 1300, in MS. C.C.C. 444, 
containing the " Story of Genesis and Exodus," edited by Mr Morris 
for the E. E. T. S. in 1865. There is yet another point which may 
have some weight, viz., that our author must surely have produced 
something of importance before he was selected by the Earl of Hereford 
to translate a poem of such length as '* Guillaume de Paleme ; " and 
that something was reaUy expected of him, from his known reputa- 
tion, seems to be implied by his apology for himself and his versifi- 
cation at the end of the latter work {Werwolf, IL 6521—5526). If 
this be thought likely, if his skill in translation was f^ liiiown fact, it 
may have been that his reputation was due to his "Aliaaunder," as to 
the length of which, in its original condition, w^hftrw nothing more 
than this, viz., that the 1249 lines still prese^d represent but a 
ven; small fraction of the whole story. 

§ 3. It is necessary to describe the MS. Greaves 60 somewhat 
further. It is a small and shabby-looking MS., about 8 in. by 6, 
apparently bought to be used as a note-book or exercise-book, as it 
contains notes upon Yirgil's u^eid, Terence's Andria, &c, ; and the 
English romance was afterwards copied out wherever there was a 
blank space for it, which accounts for there being only three lines of the 
text on foL 7. The English occupies foL 1 6—6 a, part of foL 7, foL 
76— 86,fol. 11a, part of foL 116,foL 12a— 16a,fol. 166— 20a (which 
portion is scored at the side, as being out of place), and foL 21 a — 24 6. 
The last two portions require to be transposed, and then 20 a comes 
last, foL 206 being blank. Even when this is done, a portion is lost 
between foL 24 6 and fol. 16 6 (which I have supplied from a French 
prose text), and another portion (probably a large one) is lost at the 
end. On the fly-leaf is, besides other things, " Ye schoole of Rhetorik, 
or Ye skyll too speake well : deuised and made by H. G." This and 
a title about a ** compendium of Yirgil's .^Eneid,"* are scratched 
through, and the following written below in the same hand — 
'^Radulpht^ de Sto Albano eiusdem fani Albani monacht^ et Abbas ex 
pompeio, Trogo, Origine, Josepho, Isidoro,Beda, et alijs banc historiam 
de Bebt<« gestis Alexandri Maccedonis edidit; obijt auno domini 
MCLi, in eodem coenobio sepulte/^, sub stephano Anglorum rege. 
Bahew/f." Assuming, for convenience, that H. G. are the scribe's own 

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initials, we see that H. G. has merely copied the above title from Bale, 
and that there is not any necessary connection between it and the poem 
which he partly copied out. Nevertheless, the clue was worth fol- 
lowing up, and I found that a MS. in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, No. 219, has for its title — ** Incipit hysteria regis Macedonunit 
Philippi ^hique eius Alexandri Magni excepta (mc) de libriiB 
pompeiif trogi, orosii, iosephi, ieronimi, solini, augustini, bede, & 
ysodorL" It is a Latin MS., beautifully written in a hand of the 
fourteenth century, containing the history of Alexander in four books, 
and followed by the letters of Alexander to Dindimus, and of Dindimus 
to Alexander. That our poet made use of this compilation is veiy 
probable ; he says (Alts, 1. 458) that he translates from Latin booksy 
and the principal of these seem to have been, (1) the compilation of 
Eadulphus ; (2) the history of Orosius ; and (3) the " Histona Alex- 
andri de proeliis," The two former supplied him with the more his- 
torical part of his story, such as the particulars about Eurydice, 
Philip, Byzantium, &c. ; the latter supplied him with the legendary 
portion. He seems to have considered them all equally veritable, 
and to have turned from one to the other at pleasure, as I have 
pointed out in the notes. Of the various Latin forms of the legend, 
the ** Historia de prceliis^^^ as it may conveniently be called for dis- 
tinctness,' is evidently the one he has most closely followed. It is 
also evident that the writer of the poem preserved in MS. Ashmole 
44 followed the very same original, and it is interesting to com- 
pare the two translations, and to observe how far the exigencies of 
the metre have caused them to vary. Ketuming to " BL G." after 
this digression, a few remarks must be made upon his method of 
copying the poem. He seems to have done it upon the whole very 
carefully, though he has sometimes misread his original (writing 
Mpen for ki^en, ferkerd for ferked^ and the like), and, in particular, 
has left out a large number of the final -6*«, besides occasionally omit- 
ting whole lines. In several cases, he has modernized or modified 
the spelling, and in many instances has given us both the forms, as, 
e. g. in L 767, where we have liche with ke over the che^ thus rightly 

> It may be known by the initial words — ** Sapientissimi eg:iptii sdeniet 
meiMuram terre," &c. I have used the printed copy of 1490. 

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explaining Uche as meaning like. All the variations of importance 
are noticed in the foot-notes. The handwriting is peculiar, but not 
tmcertain, though he at times used a straight horizontal stroke like a 
hyphen to denote an m or an n, joining it on to the letter following. 
Over many of the long vowels he has made a circumflex, writing 
"s^ule" in L 41, "fdne" in L 83, "g6se" in L 409. As this seemed 
to be a mere freak of his own (for it is sometimes wrongly introduced), 
I have not noticed it. The only other point of interest is that he 
marked all the harder words by underscoring them, evidently with 
the view of finding out their meaning. The hst of these has some 
importance, for we may conclude that such words were so far obsolete 
about the time of James I. as to be unintelligible to a man interested 
in our older literature. It is on this account that I subjoin the hst^ 
in alphabetical order, referring the reader to the Glossarial Index for 
further information. It is as follows, omitting a few which seem to 
have been marked for some other reason. Alosed, Bed, Bern (L 219), 
Bewrdey Chees^ Cofly, Deraine^ Derie, Fdey Fode, Forule, FrotttSy 
Gamus (read Gainus,) Gist^ Oomey OraWies, Chrathly, Orem^ey Hendcy 
Hendelyy Hotey Eifey Kithy Lackey Laught or Lavhty Lelichy Memk- 
fuUy OfsouMey Prisy Purlichy Quemey Rigge, Rink or Renky Rodey 
SeggeSy Spedly, Stightlichy Smfey Trie, To-nhteSy \ynMichey prolicfiey 
Ungome^ Walter WoweSy Wus, Teeme. Nearly ail of these were cer- 
tainly as unintelligible to most men two hundred and fifty years ago 
as they are now, though some may exist in provincial dialects. 
Several of them may have been unintelligible even a century earlier. 


The contents of the fragment may be briefly described thus. It 
commences with a mention of Amyntas, and his sons Alexander and 
Philip. Philip ascends the throne of Macedonia, conquers Larissa 
and Thessalonica, weds Olympias, sister of the King of Molossis, 
takes Methone, and helps the Thebans against the Phocians ; all of 
which is from Hadulphus, Orosius, and like sources. This portion 
includes 11, 1 — 451. Then begins the legend, from the " Historiade 
preHis," occupying the portion in 11. 452 — 899 ; and telling how 
Nectanabus, King of Egypt, fled in disguise from his own country 

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for fear of the Persians, and, coming to Macedonia, beguiled Queen 
Oljmpias by his magic arts, and, personating the god Ammon,' be- 
came the fjEtther of Alexander. He also appeared before Philip's 
army in the guise of a dragon, and, fighting for him, greatly discom- 
fited the Lacedaemonians and Phocians. Next, after an historical 
account (IL 900 — 954) of the occupation of the Pass of Thennopyl» 
by the Athenians, and of Philip's treachery and cruelty towards the 
Thebans, we return to the legend (IL 955 — 1201) and learn how 
Philip greeted Olympias, how Nectanabus appeared once more as a 
dragon at a feast given by Philip, and how Philip was one day sur- 
prised to find that a bird had laid an egg in 'his lap, out of whicli 
issued a serpent which, after awhile, tried to re-enter the egg-shell, 
but died before it could do so ; an omen that Alexander wouldi die 
before he could return to his own land. Next Alexander is born, 
and carefully educated. One evening he goes out with Nectanabus to 
view the stars, and, hearing the magician say that he feared he would 
die by the hand of his own son, drowns him in a ditch to prove him 
a liar ; but the drowning man cries out that he has told the indh. 
Next follows the story of the taming of Bucephalus, which bears 
some points of resemblance to the story of the taming of Xing 
Ebrouns' horse by William of Paleme (see p. 107). In the last 
paragraph the poet returns to historical details, and begins to narrate 
the siege of Byzantium by Philip, at which point the poem abruptly 

§ 5. This is not the place to discuss the long and difficult ques- 
tion of the " Alexander Romances." Roughly speaking, the form of 
the story here adopted — I speak of the legendary portion — ^is derived 
from the Greek text known as the Pseudo-cattistheiieSy of which the 
l)est MS. is the one now numbered 1711 in the Imperial Library at 
Paris, beginning — ** O* ero<l>u>TaTOi Alyvimoi dtwv dvoyoyoi, ic.r.X. " ; 
but I have referred in the notes to another MS. (Supplem. No. 113) 
in the same collection, as a portion of this latter one has been printed.* 

> ** A dragon's fiery form belied the god ; 
Sublime on radiant spires he rode, 
When he to fair Olympia prest," &c. 

Dryden ; Alexander's Utast, 
> See notice on p. 236. 

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The three principal Latin yersions hence derived are (1) that by 
Julias Valerius ; (2) the " Itinerarium Alexandri " (relating to Alex- 
ander's wars) ; and (3) that by the Archpresbyter Leo, which is also 
known as the " Historia de preliis." With the second of these we 
have /tere nothing to do. The first begins — " .^Igypti sapientes, sati 
genere divino," &c. ; the third b^ins — " Sapientissimi Egyptii, 
scientes mensuram terras/' &c. The portion supplied to complete the 
story at p. 209 is from a French version, as contained in MS. 7517 
in the Imperial library. I have already said that our text follows 
the third rather than the first of these Latin versions. 

For further information, see Zacher, Fseudo-ecUlisthenes^ Halle, 
1867 ; the editions of Julius Valerius by Angelo Mai (Milan, 1817), 
and Karl Miiller (Paris, 1846) ; the Old High German version edited 
by H. "Weisn^nn (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1850), the second volume 
of which, in particular, contains much information ; the introduction 
to Kyng Alisaunder in Weber's Metrical Eomances, &c. The edition 
called ** Li Eomans d'Alixandre, par Lambert 11 Tors et Alixandre 
de Bemay," ed. H. Michelant, and published by the Literary Society 
of Stuttgart in 1846, has not much to do with our present poem, as 
it declares ITectanabus not to have been Alexander's father. I have 
already enumerated the alliterative romances extant in English. 
Besides these there are, in rimed metre, the " Kyng Alysaunder" 
printed by Weber, and other poems referring, not to the infancy of 
Alexander, but to his acts and death, such as, e. g., '' The Bulk of 
the most noble and vailzeand Conquerour Alexander the Great," 
printed at Edinburgh for the Bannatyne Club in 1831, being a reprint 
from The Eomaunce of Alexander, containing the Forray of Grad- 
deris, first printed at the same place by A. Arbuthnot in 1580. 
There ia also a fragment about the death of Alexander in *' Ancient 
Metrical Eomances from the Auchinleck MS."; Abbotsford Club, 
1836 ; and there may be others, for I have not thought it necessary 
to make further search. 


The spelling of the " Alisaunder " being uncertain owing to the 
lateness of the MS., it is not necessary to say more about its dialect 

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than has been said already. The following remarks refer, therefore, 
to the "Werwolf."' 

The plurals of nouns generally end in -es, but there are several 
plurals in -us, such as dedua; in -t9, as hesHa (L 181), and talis ; in 
-y«, as huschys (21) ; in -en, as stepchUderen, ei^yeti (eyne, eyes) ; and 
even in -e«w, as bodiesse, lordesse (4539), hei^resse (4778), with 
which should be compared the curious spelling antresse for antrea or 
aunferes r= she ventures. The plural of hora is the same as the sin- 
gular ; the plural of fo is both /on (or /one) and fos. Also A^cn, kin, 
and kyn occur for kine. The genitive singular ends commonly in -es, 
but sometimes in -iff, as in godis (266), goddia (254) ; c£ goddea 
(340). We also find the genitive forms fader, moder, doubter, 
William, Marie, aonne. 

As regards adjectives, we may note the comparatives Jierre, nerre 
(higher, nearer), and the superlatives frdokest and mardokeat, the 
former of which is used adverbially. The endings -ly and 4iche are 
used both for adverbs and adjectives, and without any distinction. 
Echs a is used for each; adue sometimes has the sense of very 
(1149) ; whilst vnche a answers to the German waafur, what sort of 
a, as in L 3354. }>e and pa are used sometimes for pcH ; pia na well 
as piae is used to mean theae ; pa to mean thoae ; pilke is used in the 
plural, and aii^iche is used to mean attch. For /, the forms are i, y, 
ich ; for thou, we have pou, paw, pou^ ; pL 3d in the nominative^ 
^mo, ^ou^, <m (L 106) in the dafc. and accusative. The third personal 
pronoun is he, gen. hia, ia, or hiae ; dat. and ace. hym, him : feminine, 
ache, che, ^he (and hue in the " Alisaunder ") ; gen. dat and ace. h>er, 
Mr, here, hire ; neuter, hit, it ; ace. hit, it. Plural nom. pei, fat, 
p^ f g®i^' here, her ; dat. hem (and once pairn) ; ace. hem. Min is a 
possessive pronoun, as min hert, min avowe. The pronoun of the 
second person is often joined on to the verb, as in artow, knoweatow, 
heatow, aeideatow, achaltow or achalatow, findeatow, mtow or mttow ; 

' I apologize for the slip-shod name here given to the poem, and which is here, 
and elsewhere throughout the volume, used for hrevity's sake, and because it cannot 
be mistaken. It is an abbreviation of " William and the Werwolf/' the title used 
by Sir F. Madden in the former edition. Strictly, however, the true title is — 
William of FaUme. 

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and often also to the woid pai, as paiou or pataw. Ho is osed for 
who, ho-eo for whaso, whos for whose, wJiam for whom. 

But the most noticeable and distinctive endings are found amongst 
the verbs, and I pass on to them as being of more interest. The in- 
finitive ends in -en or -e, but occasionally also in -y or -ye, as deaeuy^ 
wanye; of. derie in Alls, 1240. In the present tense, 2nd person, we 
find both-«^ and-eff / the former occurring frequently, as in ku^est (603), 
homed (330) ; examples of the latter are trestes (970), knowea (1174). 
They seem to be used indifferently, for tellest and trestes occur in the 
same line, and ^a«^ in 1. 604 is followed by pow has two lines lower. 
In the same way, we find grettes and menskfTiUes written for grettest 
and menskfullest, showing that the pronunciation of the t was very 
slight. Besides which, the vowel may have been pronounced thickly 
or indistinctly, thus accounting for such a form as depus (249). In 
the 3rd person singular, we find -e«, as in lenges (961) ; -is, as in Jientis 
(907) ; and -tts, as in sittus (446) ; as well as -«]), as in hnotoef (559). 
In the 3rd person pL we have -wn, as in depun ; -en, as in furlen ; -e, 
as in singe; -us, as in teHiw (198) ; -e^, as in calles (239), longes 
(360). The following are examples of the past tense singular ; strong 
verbs, gaf, ^d!d, founds, sei^e, lad, dede, horn, rod, lep, aros, &c. ; 
weak verbs, grette, lerde, pleide, dipte, praide, clepud, &c. The 
plural generally ends ia -en ot -e, but the -e is occasionally dropped. 
Examples are hlesseden, gretten, sewede^ come, told (1366). But we 
should especially observe the endings of the imperative mood plural, 
which besides the ending -eth, as in preieth (164), sende]^ (2068), 
witep (2069), trowep (2112), frequently takes the ending -e9, as in 
listenes, gretes, momes, standee, awakes, fodes, leses, leues, &c. It is 
worth notice, further, that the very same word takes both forms ; for 
we find both preieth and prei^es (which, however, is written prei^ed, 
5529), listenes and Ittstenep, and gretes in 1. 355 is followed by gretep 
in L 359.* We should also especially note the forms of the present 
participle, which ends in -and, as ddand, wepand, glimerand, liand^ 
ligand, lourande, litmnd ; in -end, as totidiend, heriend, lastend, slepend, 
hotend, hraundissende ; occasionally in 4nde, as lorkinde, eikinde, 

^ So also len^pet, 4348 ; leng\>e]f, 4353. 

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gapind ; and sometimes in -^ng. Here again, the same word takes all 
the forms ; for we find sikande, 9ikand, sikende, sikindey and siking. 
The more usual form seems to be in -andy but the pronunciation of 
the a seems to have been obscure, and we may consider the usual 
ending to be ^nd ; for if we throw the accent on the first syllable, it 
is not easy to enunciate the unaccented vowel very clearly. Examples 
of past participles are dawey sleicy slayn, schapeuy hirholdy portreidey 
gladedy maked, take, arise (1297), lore (1360), bore, aeie, sei^en, 
y-chargedy y-chpud. The ending -e in the infinitive is sometimes 
dropped. For the forms of the auxiliary and anomalous verbs, see 
the glossary; s.v. Ben, Can, Dary Mot, MoWy Out, Schal, Thort, 
Wite, Wol. Here "also numerous forms occur; e. g. the present 
plural of to he is heriy bene, hup, am, and aren. 

The word ne often coalesces with the verb following ; hence nis 
(ne is), nas (ne was), nere (ne were), nath (ne hath), ruidde (ne 
hadde), nel (ne wil), nold (ne wold), not (ne wot), nist (ne wist). 

A few peculiarities of spelling may be noted. The sh sound is 
denoted both by sch and ch ; hence charrilyy chold, chortlyy are put 
for scJiarrdyy scJwld, schortly. Also schechs is written for seche. G 
sometimes takes the place of 9, as in piece, sece, wice. Wh is written 
for t(7, as in whar (wei-e), and widens. Th is sometimes used where 
we should expect t, as in the Romans of Partenay ; thus m^tthJi is 
put for wiytli, miyth is used to mean (/) might. V is sometimes 
found for a final u, as in novy Zww, inov, H occurs at the beginning 
of words where it should not, as in horderey hende (end), held (eld, 
old age). N is prefixed to ei^, aaesy o\er, &c., thus forming nei^y itofiesy 
nopery in places where it really belongs to the word preceding, pe is 
joined sometimes to the word following, as in pemperour, ferpSy pende. 
For the careful and exact manner (exact, probably, because the scribe 
did it without thinking and as a matter of course), in which n^y is 
distinguished from noy and 30 from jw, see the Glossarial Index. For 
the distinction between pou and 33, see p. xli. 

In what part of England, then, was the poem written 1 The 
forms seem to be mainly West Midland, with admixture both of 
Northern and of Southern ones. The frequency of the imperatives 
iu -es, and other indications, lead Mr Morris to call it a specimen of 

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Sliropsliire dialect,* whilst Sir F. Madden subscribes to the opinion of 
Bryant, that it may belong to Gloucestershire ; and, indeed, Gloucester 
is the only place which is mentioned in it. There is also, perhaps, 
some significance in the fact that the MS. contains, besides '* William 
of Paleme," some poems that have been attributed to Robert of 
Glottcester. In either case, we are sure of the locality within the 
compass of a county or two, and may, I think, call it West Midland 
without error, though the exact border between the West Midland and 
Southern cannot be expected to be very clearly defined. It may be 
remarked that both Gloucester and Wheatenhurst (where Sir Hum- 
phrey de Bohun's mansion was situated) lie close to the important 
river Severn, and it is possible that the dialect of that part of 
Gloucestershire may have been affected by that circiunstance, just as 
we often trace the influence of the Danish element near our sea-coasts. 
The real difficulty consists in this, that it is hard to accoimt for the 
use of the Northumbrian plural-ending -es at sl place situated so far 
to the South. A comparison of the vocabulary with the glossary of 
Shropshire words in Hartshome's Scdopia Antigua shewed less re- 
semblance than I had expected to find ; yet it may be useful to men- 
tion that his list contains (and sometimes illustrates) the following 
words in particular, viz. : — Belt (vb.), Chall (= Chavl), Clip, Clout, 
Cratch, Ddue, DeveVy Earn (Erne), Gain (cf. Gaynest), HawSy 
Heps {Hepu8)y Hye (to hasten). Lap (vb.), Learn (to teach), 
Litherly (Luperly), Mase, PiU (vb.), Rin, Shaws, Bike, Stive, Thirty 
Twinne, War. 


The distinction between the use of thou and ye (with their ac- 
companying singvlar and plural verbs) is so well kept up throughout 

^ Compare Andelay's poems (in the Sbropsbire dialect), ed. J. 0. HaUiwell, for 
the Percy Society. It may be said that, if the scribe of " "WiUiam of Paleme" 
Hred in Glonceetershire, he may yet have been a Shropshire man ; but this argu- 
ment loses in force if it has to be often appealed to in oases of difficulty. We must 
first try to reconcile the oTidence we possess, before rejecting any portion of it. In 
the present instance, the MS. is a very good one. It may be confidently expected, 
howeyer, that something tolerably definite may be known about English dialects at 
no Tery distant period, and the present question may be then more easily decided. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


these poems that it would not be well to lose so good an opportnnitj 
of pointing it oat. It was one of those niceties of speech which it 
was the poet's especial business to observe. The clearest way of 
pointing out the distinction is to tabulate the best examples of it. 

P. 13. The child, addressing the emperor, uses ye, you, &c, 
P. 14. Emperor to child — t?iou ; child to his (supposed) father — ye ; 
emperor to cowherd — thou, P. 16. Cowherd to child — thou. P. 29. 
Alexandrine to Melior — ye; Melior to Alexandrine — thou, P. 30. 
Melior to William — thou. Pp. 37 — 39. Alexandrine to William, 
and William to Alexandrine — thou, P. 43. William to emperor, and 
lords to emperor — ye, P. 50. Messengers to Melior — ye. P. 57. 
Melior to William, after betrothal — ye, P. 73. One emperor to 
another — t?iou, P. 80. Melior to William, in excitement — tJiou, P. 
81. Melior to William, in subtmssion — ye. P. 92. Melior to 
William, after escaping peril — tJwu. P. 96. Priest to queen — ye. 
P. 104. Queen to her handmaid — thou; handmaid to queen — ye, 
P. 105. Queen to William, b^ins with ye in the conventional phrase 
" je me saye," but otherwise uses tTiou, until she has yirtually abdi- 
cated in William's favour, after which she uses ye, p. 113, and espe- 
cially note IL 3954, 3955. P. 126. William, now of high rank, to 
his prisoner, a king — thou, P. 129. The captive king to the queen 
— ye. P. 134. King to William (asking) — ye ; William to the kilig 
(granting) — tJwu. P. 1 36. Messengers to the Queen of Spain — ye ; 
but in relating WUlianCs message, containing rebukes and violent 
threats, they change to thou. P. 142. Queen to her step-son — thou; 
but in putting a polite question — ^e (L 4460). P. 144. Alphouns 
to William, uses the conventional phrase " crist mot 30W saue " — but 
otherwise uses thou. He is answered by William with ye, expressing 
the utmost deference, and asking him who he is. This is sufficient to 
show that thou\a the language of a lord to a servant, of an equal to 
an equal, and expresses also companionship, love, permission, defi- 
ance, scorn, threatening ; whilst ye is the language of a servant to a 
lord, and of compliment, and further expresses honour, submission, 
entreaty. Thou is used with singular verbs, and the possessive 
pronoun thine ; but ye requires plural verbs, and the possessive your. 
In the *' Alisaunder " we find the same usages. The Prince of Persia 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


calls the King of Egypt — ye ; the king scornfully replies with ihou. 
The same NiBctanabus, who " speaks lordly," and is too proud to call 
Queen Olympias Madam^ and will only call her Ladyy audaciously 
addresses her as thoUy but there are in one or iwo places exceptions 
which shew a corruptness in the text She replies with thofiiy as a 
lady should who would preserve her dignity. As for Alexander, he 
coolly uses thov, to everybody, and especially to his father, L 1198, 
and his mother, L 1103. Besides the insight we thus get into our 
forefathers' ways of speech, this investigation may serve to remind us 
editors that we are not to mistake you for Jxni, as in some MSS. is 
easily done, and that the frequent interchange of the forms is the re- 
sult, not of confusion, but of design and orderly use. 

In the present edition, every variation of spelling has had its 
own references assigned to it in the Glossary, at the cost of no small 
amount of labour ; I hope this may prove of use to the student of 
our old English orthoepy. 


The only misprints of importance (of which I am aware) are 
these three : 

William of Paleme, 1. 2160. For ^ifter-neue read 3ister-neue. 
,9 99 „ L 4054. For Kar))e read Karpe. 
9i 99 »> 1- 4827. For Jjempour read femperour. 

A few misprints occur of a more trivial nature, of which the 
principal are these : 

WUliam of Faleme, L 46. For a baye read a-baye. L. 143. 
Insert a hyphen in " man-kynne.'' 219. The metrical dot should 
precede " mi^t," instead of foUowing it 225. Insert a comma 
after "fair." 787. FoL 16 begins with this line, not with the next 
1004. Insert a hyphen in " middeUrJ?e." 1418. The MS. has 
"sofou," not "sofou." 1576. No comma at the end of this line. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1597. The metrical dot should precede "reken." 1624. There 
should be a fall stop at the end of the line. 1860. Insert a comma 
at the end of the line. 2100. For on-liue read on Hue. 2204. This 
is correctly printed, according to the MS. But I propose to read, 
^'hut the witti werwolf &c." 2430, 2560. Insert a hyphen in 
"bere-felles." 2580. Insert a comma after "crist" 3116. The 
metrical dot should precede "ri3t." 3995. Insert a hyphen in 
'* ))er-tille." 4068. Insert quotation-marks at the end of the line. 
4263 {note). For 3622 read 3623. Page 220, L 6. Far Altera 
read altera. 

lines 5346, 5347, 5348 of William of Paleme rime together. 
This was, no doubt, unintentional 

In L 396 of Alisaundery the reading ?iem is necessary to the 

In the Glossary, the word Hastely is said to occur in L 233. This 
should be corrected to 323. 

By an unfortunate mistake on my part, the following notes by 
Sir F. Madden reached me too late for insertion in the Glossaiy. 

^^ Nones. See Glossarial Kemarks on La^amon, v. 17304, vol iiL 
p. 492 ; and the Glossary to Syr Gawapne, in v. Nonez. 

" Peter. See the Glossary to Syr GatoaynCy in v. PeteVy where 
other instances are given." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Wmim of Islenu ; 


mmm anir % WuxMi 

[Three leaves being loet at the beginning of the MS., their place is here sup- 
plied fifom the French Text.] 

[Nus ne se doit celer ne tairo, 
ail set chose qui doie plaire, 
kil ne le desponde en apert ; 
car bien repont son sens et pert, 
qui nel despont apertement 
en la presence de la gent, 
por ce ne voel mon sens repondre, 
que tot li mauvaia puissent fondre ; 
et cil qui me vaurront entendre, 
i puissent sens et bien aprendre. 
car sens celes qui nest ois, 
est autresi, ce mest avis, 
com maint tresoir enferme sont, 
qui Bului bien ne preu ne font ; 
tant comme il soient si endos, 
autresi est de sens repos ; 
por ce ne voel le mien celer. 
ancois me plaist a raconter 
selonc mon sens et mon memoire, 
le fait dune anciene estoire, 

[No one should keep it to himself or be 

If he knows something that will plsase. 

Bat shonld deeUre it openly; 

For he hides and loses his knowledge 

Who does not dedare it openly. 

In the presence (^people 

Wherefore I will not hide my knowledge 

That all the wicked may come to naoght: 

And that those who would tain hear me 

10 May be able to learn knowledge and what 
is good. 
For knowledge hidden and unheard 

Is Jost like, in my opinion. 
Many treasnres that are shnt op. 
Which do good or adrantage to no one; 
Jost as they are when thus enclosed. 
So Is it with concealed knowledge ; 
Whereforel will not conceal mine. 
Thns it pleases me to recount 
According to my knowledge and memory* 
20 The erent of an ancient story. 

Digitized by 



qui en Puille jadis avint 

a .i. roi qui la terre tint. 

T i roLs embrons fu apeles ; 

■^ mult par fu grans sa poestes ; 

bien tint em pais sa region, 

et mult par fu de grant renon. 

moilher avoit gente roine, 

gentix dame de franche orine ; 

et fiUe a riche empereor, 

qui de Gresse tenoit lounor. 30 

FeHse avoit a non la dame ; 

mult fu amee en son roiame. 

navoient cun tot seul enfant, 

petit tousel, ne gaires grant. 

de .iiii ans ert li damoisiax, 

qui a merveilles estoit biax. 

Guilliaumes ot lenfes a non, 

mais la roine tout par non 

lot a .ii. dames commande, 

quele amena de son regno. 40 

Glonande est lune noumee, 

Acelone ert lautre apelee. 

celes le commande a garder, 

a enseignier et doctriner, 

moustrer et enseignier la loi, 

comme on doit faire fil a roL 

en eles sest asseuree, 

mais traie est et enganee, 

et deceue laidement ; 

mult porres bien oir comment. 60 

Li rois Embrons .i firere avoit, 
a cui H regnes escaoit ; 
et cil douna tant et promist, 
et tant porcbaca et tant fist 
as gardes qui lenfant gardoient, 
que dit li ont quil locirroient. 

Th«t hai^wned ODoe in ApoIU 

To a king who ralod the land. 

The klnff wm named Embrona ; 

Verj exceeding great waa hia power; 

He gorerned well hia country in peace. 

And waa of exceeding great renown. 

He had to wife a beanteooi qneen, 

A gradooa dame of noble origin : 

And who waa daughter to a rich emperor. 

Who ruled the dominion of Greece. 

Felice was the lady*! name : 

She waa much loved in her kingdom. 

They had but cme only child, 


The prince wat four years old. 

And wat manrellously hit. 

William was the child's name. 

But the qneen rery tpedally (?) 

Has entrusted him to two ladies 

Whom she brought fhnn her own country. 

One is named Gloriande, 

The other was called Acelone. 

To these she entrusts him. to keep him. 

To teach and instruct him, 

To shew and instruct him the law. 

As one ought to teach a king's son. 

In them she confided. 

But waa betrayed and defrauded 

And decelTed shamefully; 

Tou shall Tory soon hear how. 

King Embrona had one brother, 

To whom the kingdom would fkU ; 

And he bribed and promised so much. 

And so contrived and managed 

With the guardians who kept the child. 

That they have told him they would UU it. 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 


et le roi meisme ensement. 

ja ont porquis lenherbement 

dont il andoi mort recevront, 

se Diex nel fait^ li rois del mont. eo 

"Tin Paleme orent sejome, 

-^ un mois entier en la cite, 

entre le roi et la poine. 

desous le maistre tor marbrine, 

ot .L vei^er meryeilles gent, 

tot clos de mur et de cyment ; 

8i ot mainte sauvage beste. 

.i jor par one haute feste 

i vint esbanoier li rois, 

si chevalier et si borjois ; 70 

et maint baron i ot venu, 

la rouie meisme i fiL 

celes qui lenfant ont en garde, 

(cui male flambe et mans fus arde !) 

lont mene avoec lautre gent ; 

mala por ce ne le font noient 

que sel seussent la dolour, 

qid de lenfant avint le jor. 

Par le vergier li rois ombroie, 
et la roine, a mult grant joie. so 
mais ne sevent com lor grans dex 
lor est presens derant lor ex. 
lenfes florietes ya cuellant, 
de lune a lautie va jouant. 
atant esgardent la ramee, 
saut un grans leus, goule baee, 
a fendant vient comme tempeste ; 
tuit se destoment por la beste ; 
devant le roi, demainement, 
son fil travers sa goule prent, 9o 

atant sen ya ; mais la criee 
fa apres lui mult tost levee. 

And the king hlmielf at the same time. 

They haT» alrrady provided the poiw>ii 

From whieb they will both reoeire death. 

If God. klttf of the worid. perndts It. 

In Palermo th^ have dwelt^ 

A whole month in the d^. 

With the king and the qneen. 

Beneash the chief marUe tower 

Waa an orchard wondrously Ikdr, 

All enclowd with walls and mortar ; 

There was many a wild beast there. 

One day, on a high festiTal. 

The king came there to divert himself. 

His oheraliers and his b urg esse s ; 

And many a baron had come there» 

The qneen herself was there. 

.Those who have the child in cbaige, 

(Whom evil flame and eril fire ban !) 

Hare brought him along with the nst : 

Bnt they would have done nothing of the 

Hsd they but known the sorrow 

That happened that day beeanse of the 

In the orchard the king shades himself. 

And the qneen. with very great Joy. 

But they know not how their great grief 

Is present to them, before their eyes. 

The child goes gathering flowers. 

And playing from one to the other. 

Just then they look at the b^ahe^ 

A huge wolf, with month open, leaps in. 

Comes in at the opening like a tempest; 

All turn aside to avoid the beast : 

Before the king, noiselessly. 

He takes his son across his month. 

And then makes ofl"; bat the cry ^ , 

Was very soon raised after him. 


Digitized by 



lieve li dels, lieve li cris 
del fil le roi qui est tiais. 
la roine souvent sescrie, 
'' aidies, aidies, Sainte Marie 1 
maisnie an roi, que faites vos 1 
ja me morrai sil nest lescous ! " 

Li rois demande ses chevax, 
et fait monter tons ses vassax. lOO 
toute la vile si esmuet, 
cascuns i keurt plus tost quil puet. 
li rois le slut a esperon, 
le gart acaingnent enyiron ; 
mais H leus ert fors saillis, 
a la campaigne sestoit mis ; 
lenfes souvent sescrie et brait^ 
li rois lentent qui apres vait 
garde sel voit monter .L mont^ 
de tost aler sa gent semont, no 

donques se par efforcent tuit, 
li leus a tout lenfant sen fuit. 
fuit sen li leus, et cil apres, 
qui del ataindre sont engres, 
desi au far le vont chacant, 
il saut en leve a tout lenfant. 
le far trespasse, perdus lont 
li rois et cil qui o lui sont ; 
ensi sen va en tel maniere 
a tout lenfant la beste fiere, iso 

li rois arriere sen retome, 
mult a le cuer et triste et momo, 
de son enfant qua si perdu ; 
a la cite sont revenu. 

La roine maine tel duel, 
morte voudroit estre, son vuel ; 
pleure soyent, et crie, et brait, 
a la beste son fil retrait. 

The plaint tatam, th* 07 axtoes 

Of the son of the Ung that ia bonie avar 

The queen oftentlmaa eTfilahna, 

" Aid me, aid me, H0I7 Mary I 

Te honaehold of the klnc, what do ye 7 

Now I ahaU die if he be not racned ! * 

Tlie king oaUi for hi> hones. 

And makea all his Taseals mount. 

All the town is in commotion, 

Breiy one runs as qniddy as he can. 

The Ung foOows the w<^ on the spar. 

Watches him, endrdlng (hhn) aroond. 

Bat the wdU had leapt fkr away. 

And betaken himself to the plain ; 

The child oft cries oat and wails; 

The Ung, who goes after him, hears him. 

He looks and sees him mount a hill, 

Sommons hli men to oome qoiokly. 

Then all hasten on rery tuA, 

The wolf flees away with the child. 

The wolf flees away, *nd they after him. 

Who are Ttrj desiroas of reaching him. 

Unto the Far GStralts of Kessinalthey chase 

him, • 
He leaps into the water with the child. 

He crosses the Fkr, they hare lost him. 

The Ung and they who are with him; 

Thos in soch a manner, flees away 

The wild beast with the child. 

The king retams back, 

Yeiy sorrowftil and sad at heart. 

For his child whom he has "^ st ; 

To the dty have all retomed. 

The qoeen makessaoh a moaning. 

She would fkin be dead, had she her wffl ; 

She weeps often, and cries and wails, 

And demands back ber child firan the beast 

Digitized by 



" fix, dons amis," Mt la loine, 

'* tendre boache, coulor rosine, i3o 

chose devine, espiritex, 

qui coidast que beste ne lens 

T08 devoiast ! dix^ quel eur ! 

lasse ! por coi vif tant ne dur? 

fix, ou sont ore ti bel oel, 

li bel, li simple, sans orguelf 

tes frons li gens, et ti bel crin, 

qui tuit sambloient £ut dor fin ? 

ta tendre face, et tes cleis vis ) 

ha cueis ! por coi ne me partis? 140 

quest devenue ta biautes, 

et tes gens cois, et ta clartes ? 

tes nes, ta bouche, et tes mentons, 

et ta figure, et ta fiicons, 

et ti bel brae, et tes mains blanches, 

tes rains beles, et tes hanches, 

tes beles jambes, et ti pie ; 

lasse ! quel duel et quel pechie ! 

ja devoies tu estre fais 

por devises et por sonrhais ! iso 

or es a leu-garoul peuture, 

li miens enfes, quele aventure ! 

mais je ne cuit> por nule chose, 

beste sauvage soit si ose, 

qui ton gent cors ost adamer, 

plaier, sane feire, ne navrer; 

ne cuit que ja dame dieu place, 

ne que tel cruaute en face ! " 

'Flnsi la dame se demente, 

-■--• ensi por son fil se gaimente, ico 

ensi le ploure, ensi le plaint. 

maiB tant le castoie et constraint 

li rois, que tout laissier li fait 

la dolor quele maine et fait ; 

** Son, tweet lore," nith the queen, 

" Tmder moath, roey colour. 

Thing dlTtne and spiritnal. 

Who oonld belleTe that beast or wolf 

Ooold devour joal God ! what fortune f 

Alat! wherefore live I or last so long! 

Son, where are now thj beaatlftil eyes. 

So beantlftU. «o innocent, without pride ? 

Th7 fldr forehead, and thj lorely hair. 

Which seemed all nude offline gold? 

Th7 tender fsoe. and thy clear looks? 

Oh heart I wherefore hast thounot left me ? 

What is become of thy beauty. 

Thy sweet body, and thy fkimess ? 

Thy nose, thy mouth, and thy chin. 

And thy form and fiuhlon. 

And thy fUr arm, and thy white hands. 

Thy fidr reins and thy thigba; 

Thy fair legs, and thy feet; 

Alas I what sorrow and what fault ! 

Thou ougfatest only to have been made 

For pleasures and for desires I 

Now art thou food for the werwolf. 

My child ! what a mischance I 

But I cannot believe, on any aoconut. 

A wild beast would be so daring 

As to hurt thy tender body. 

To wound it. make it bleed, or tear it: 

I cannot believe that it would please our 

Lord God. 
Or that He would do such cruelty to it." 

Thus the lady is in despair. 

Thus she laments for her son. 

Thus she weeps, thus she complains for him. 

But tiie king so corrects and restrains her. 

That he makes her altogether leave off 

The grief which she was nnntiwi^tng and 

Digitized by 




ensi la dame se rapaie. 

mais or est drois que voe retraie 

del leu qui o lenfant senfuit ; 

tant la poite et jor et nuit, 

et tante terre tiespassee, 

que pres de Bourne en la contree 1 70 TU»t in the oountry n«ar Rome, 

en une grant forest saiTeste, 

ou ot mainte sauvage beste. 

la se repose .viiL jors entiers ; 

lenfant de quanques fu mestiers 

li a porquis la beste franche, 

conques de rien not mesestance. 

en terre a une fosse faite, 

et dedens herbe mise et traite, 

et la feucbiere et la libue, 

que par dedens a espandue. iso 

la nuit le couche joste soi ; 

li leus-garous le fil le roi 

lacole de ses .iuL pies. 

si est de lui apnyoisies, 

li fix le roi, que tot li plaist 

ce que la beste de lui fait ;] 

ibtM to^ ^^^ ^* apertly was apayed * for profite fat be fold, 
^KdJto"** ^ [wrou^t] * buxurwly by pe bestes wille * in wise as it 


Thus the lady becomes tnnqnlUzed. 
But now It 1b right fcMrme to tell yon 
Abont the wolf that fled with the child ; 
SoCtf he caniet It both day and nigh^ 
And traTcnee so much groond. 

In a great forest, he ttope; 
Where was many a wild beaat. 
There he rests for eight whole days ; 
Whaterer the child had need ot 
The noble beast ivovided for H. 
So that it had discomfort in nothing. 
In the ground he has made a trench. 
And in it placed and pat grass, 
And also iem and herbs 0) 
Which within U he 1ms spread. 
At nightk he Ues down near him : 
The werwolf embraces the king's son 
With his fonrfoet 
And so fkmiUsr with him 
Is the king's son, that aU pleases him, 
Whaterer the beast does for him ; J 

dJJeul^tt!^*** TT^* ^^'^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^* ' ^^^ ^^ ^ by-side, 

forest, •*"*' fer woned a wel old cherl • ^t was a couhorde, 4 

who kept men's j>at fele wintcrres in fat forest • fayre had kepud 

Mennes ken of J>e cuntre * as a comen berde ; 

A J)us it bitide )>at time • as tellen oure bokes, 
He came by bis cowberd comes on a time • to kepen is bestes 8 

chance to the _, , . _ 

barrow where the -tast by-side fe borw3 ' fere J>e bam was inne. 
f e herd had wif him an hound * his hert to li3t, 

^ A verb Ib evidently wanting to complete tbe sense. Perbape 
we sbould read, "And tcrouet buxumly by the bestes wille, &c.*'— M. 

Digitized by 



forto bayte on his bestes • wanne fax to brode went 
pe herd sat )>an wi^ hocmd * ajene pe hote simne, 12 
Nou^t fully a forlong • fro J)at feyre child, 
clonjtand kyndely his sehon - as to ' here craft fallea 
yskt while was pe werwolf * went a-boate his praye, 
what behoued to fe bam * to bring as he mijt. 16 

])e child ]>an darked in Ms den ' demly him one, 
& was a big bold bam * & breme of his age, 
For spakly speke it coa]>e tho • & spedeliche to-wawe. 
Louely lay it a-lung * in his lonely denne, 20 

& boskede him out of ^ bnschys * ]>at were blowed 

& lenod ful louely * ))at lent grete schade, 
& briddes ful bremely * on ]>e bowes singe, 
what for melodye ^t ^i made * in pe mey sesoun, 24 
pai litel child listely * lorked out of his cane, 
Faiie floures forto fecche * ^t he bi-fore him seye, 
A to gadere of ])e grases • fat grene were & fayre. 
& wban it was out went * so wel hit him liked, 28 

pQ sauor of pe swete sesoun * & song of )>e briddes, 
poi [he]^ ferde fast a-boute * flonres to gadere, 
& layked him long while * to lesten fat merfe. 
pe couherdes hound fat time • as happe by-tidde, 32 
feld foute of fe child • and fast f ider fulwes ; 
& sone as he it 8ei3 * sofe forto telle, 
he gan to berke on fat bam * and to baie it hold, 
fat it wax neij of his witt * wod for fere, 36 

and comsed fan to crye ' so kenly and schille, 
A wepte so wonder fast wite f ou for sothe, 
fat f e son of f e cry com • to f e cowherde euene, 
fat he wist witerly it was • fe voys of a childe.. 40 
fan ros he vp radely • & ran f ider swif e, 
& drow him toward fe den • bi his dogges noyce. 
hi fat time was f e bam • for here of fat houTwie, 

He Mt with his 
dog. and clouted 

The child U^ hid 

Lared bj the 
birds and bj the 
fair flowers. 

he came out and 
gathered flowers, 
and played 

The dog tracked 
iiiin, and began to 

[Pol. 4 &.] 
The child was 
frightened, and 
cried out. 

The cowherd 
followed the diUd 
to the den. 


2 Read, '» that it ferde," or** he ferde."— M. 

Digitized by 




diawe liiiu in to his den * & darked J^er stille, 
& wept euere as it wolde • a-wede for fere ; 
<& eu^re ]>e dogge at ))e hole * held it at a baye. 
& whan Jje kouherd com Jjid[er]e * • he koured lowe 

He Mw th« obnd 
lying than in 

He rebuked his 
dog, and enticed 
the child to come 
to him. 

The child came 
out, and he took 
it in hii anna, 

and took It home 
to hit wife. 

She asked the 
chfld its I 
and it said, 

[Pol. 6.] 

They had no 
ohUdren of their 

•0 agreed to 
adopt It. 



to bi-hold in at fe hole • whi his hoiuid berkyd. 

Jeanne ofnsaw he ful sone * J^at semliche child, 

fat so loueliche lay A wep • in ))at lofli caue, 

cloj^ed fid komly * for ani kud kinges sone, 

In gode clo]>es of gold * a-gre]>ed ful riche, 52 

wijj perrey <& pellure • pertelyche to ])e ri^ttes. 

J>e cherl wondred of )>at chaunce * & chastised his dogge, 

bad him blinne of his berking * & to ]ye bam talked, 

acoyed it to come to him • & clepud hit oft, 56 

& foded it wij) floures • & wij) faire by-hest, 

<& hijt it hastely to haue * what it wold jeme, 

appeles & alle finges • Jjat childern after wilnen. 

so, forto sei^ al ]>e sofe • so faire fe cherl glosed, 60 

fat J>e child com of f e caue • & his criynge stint. 

f e cherl ful cherli fat child • tok in his armes, 

& kest hit & clipped * and oft crist f onkes, 

fat hade him sent fo sonde • swiche prey to findo. 64 

wijtliche wif f e child • he went to his house, 

and bi-tok it to his wif • ti^tly to kepe. 

a gladere wommon vnder god • no mi^t go on erfe, 

fan was f e wif wif fe child • vitow for sof e. 68 

sche kolled it ful kindly • and askes is name, 

& it answered ful sone * & seide, " william y hi3t." 

fan was fe godwif glad • and gan it faire kepe, 

fat it wanted noujt • fat it wold haue, 72 

fat f ei ne fond him as faire * as for here state longed, 

& fe beter, be ye sure * for bam ne had f ei none 

broujt forf of here bodies ; • here bale was fe more. 

but sof ly f ai seide f e child * schuld weld al here godis, 

Londes & ludes as eyer • after here lif dawes. 77 

but from f e cherl & f e child • nov chaunge we oure tale, 

1 Bead " thidere."— M. 

Digitized by 



For i wol of pe werwolf • a wile nov speke. 

lirkanne J^is werwolf was come * to his wolnk' denne, wh«n th« 
' ' & hade bioajt bilfoder * for J>e bames mete, 81 hl'tanad^St^ 
fat lie hade wonne with wo • wide wher a-boute, but no w« in u. 

])an fond he nest & no nei^ * for noi:^t nas per lened. 
& whan pe best pe bam missed ' so balfally he g[r]inne)),^ 
J^at alle men ypoTi molde * no mijt telle his sorwe. 85 
For reuliche gan he rore • & rente al his hide, flt rowed, rent 

^ ^ hi* hide, and 

& fret oft of pe erj)e • & fel doun on swowe, BwoonM. 

& made pe most dool * ]>at man mi^t diuise. 88 

Aeiape best in his bale * )>er a-bonte wente, 

he fond be feute al £resh • where forb be herde 8«>n im foond um 

, ,, , _ , .. , ' cowh«rd't Irftck, 

hadde bore p&n bam ' beter it to 3eme. 

wijtly pe werwolf • Jan went bi nose 92 

euene to j^e herdes house * & hastelj was J^are. and went u> bu 

]>ere walked he a-boute pe walles * to winne in si3t ; 

<& at ]>e last lelly * a litel hole he findes. 

bere pried he in priuely • and pertiliche bi-holdes 96 Looking through 

a hole^ he law 

hov hertily pe herdes wif • hules fat child, haw weu the 

A hov fayre it fedde * & fetisliche it bafede, tended, 

A wrou^t wij) it as wel • as 3if it were hire owne. 

fanne was Jje best hlipe i-nov • for Jje bames sake, 100 

For he wist it schold be warded • wel fanne at pe best. 

& hertily for bat hap • to-heuene-ward he loked- "»<* thanked Ood, 

J r tr ^ and went hla way. 

A froliche Jwnked god • mani fousand sijjes, 

& QeppGD. went on is way * whider as him liked ; 104 

but whiderward wot i neuer • witow for sofe. 

ak nowJ>e 3e fat am hende ' haldes ow stiUe, Listen and hear 

& how fat best ferwe bale • was broi:^t out of kLnde, wwwoit 

I wol 30U telle as swif e • trewly fe sofe. 108 

Werwolf was he non • wox of kinde, [Foi. 5 6.] 

t ii.1 .11 -ii-i^* ^^^ **' ****** 

ac komen was he of kun * fat kud was nil nobul ; wnh. for ws 

For fe kud king of spayne • was kindely his fader. of spaLoT* 

1 Sie in MS. ; read wlonk ? Cf. U. 468, 1634. * See note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




This king's first 
wife died, 

and he married 
the daogfater of 
the prince of 

a lady skiOed in 
witchcraft, named 

She, seeing her 
stepson's bsaiUj, 

feared that her 
own son would 
never be king. 

She therefore 
studied how to 
harm her stepson. 

and made a strong 
ointment, and 
auointed him 
with it. 

He became a 
werwolf, but still 
bad his wit. 

Uol. OJ 

ho gat him, as god ^af grace • on his ferst wjne, 112 
& at ])e burj of fat barn • pe bold lady deyde. 
8iJ)))en J)at kud king so • bi his conseyl wrout, 
another wif fat he wedded • a worchipfnl ladi, 
J)e princes doujter of portingale * to proue fe sofe. 116 
but lelliche fat ladi in 30u)>e * hadde lemed miche 

For al fe werk of wicchecraft • wel y-nou3 che coujfe, 
nede nadde 3he namore * of nigramauncy to lere. 
of coninge of wicche-crafb • wel y-nouj ^he cou^de, 1 20 
& brauwde was fat bold quene • of bnmes y-clepud. 
f e kinges furst child was fostered * fayre as it ou3t, 
& had lordes & ladies * it louely to kepe, 
& fast gan fat frely bam • fayre forto wexe. 124 

f e quene his moder on a time • as a mix f ou3t, 
how faire & how fetis it was * & freliche schapen. 
& f is fanne fou3t sche f roly * fat it no schuld neu^r 
kuuere to be king fer • as fe kinde eyre, 128 

whille f e kinges ferst sone * were fer a-liue. 
fan studied sche stifly • as stepmoderes wol alle, 
^o do demly a despit * to here stepchilderen ; 
Fef li a-mong foure schore • vnnef e findestow on gode. 
but truly ti3t hadde fat quene • take hire to rede 133 
to bring fat bam in bale • botles for euer, 
fat he ne schuld wi3tli in f is world • neuer weld reaume. 
a noyneme?At anon sche made • of so grete strengfe, 136 
bi enchauwmens of charmes * f at euel chaunche hire tide, 
fat whan fat wommaw f er-wi3t • hadde fat worli child 
ones .wel an-oynted f e child • wel al a-bowte, 
he wex to a werwolf • wi3tly f er-after, 1 40 

al f e making of man ' so mysse hadde 3he schaped. 
ac his witt welt he after • as wel as to-fore, 
but lelly of er likenes ' fat longef to ma/i kynne, 
but a wilde werwoK * ne wait he neuer after. 144 

& whanne f is witty werWoK • wisto liim so schaped, 
he knew it was bi fe craft • of his kursed stepmoder, 

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A ^onjt or he went a-way • he wold ^if he m^t He •ought to 

wayte hire sum wicked torn * what bi-tidde after. 148 

1& as bliue> boute bod * he biaydes to )>e qnene, 
& hent hire so hetterly ' to haue hire a-strangeled, mmi tried to 

strangle her. 

^t hiie deth was nei) di3t * to deme pe so)>e. 

but carfuli gan sche crie • so kenely and lowde, 152 f***-^** **"***"* 
pot maydenes & mijthi men * manliche to hire come^ 
& wolden brusten J>e best • nad he be ]>e li3ttere, 
& fled arway pe faster * in-to fene londes, 
so J)at pertely in-to poyle • he passed psi time, 156 »nd wentto 
as p'la f9rtiine bi-fel * pai i told of bi-fore ; 
p\iB was pia witty best * werwolf ferst maked. 
^. but now wol i stint a stounde • of bis steme best, wenowretnm lu 

' the child. 

& tale of J» tidy child • fat y of told ere. 160 

• ■ 
J)us passed is f e first pas • of f is pris tale, Hew enoi the 

& ^e ]>at louen A lyken ' to listen a-ni more, 
alle wi3th on hoi herfc • to pe hei^ king of heuene 
. preieth a pater noster • priuely fis time 1 64 

for fe hend erl of berford • sir humfray de bowne, SSphr^de 

pe king edwardes newe • at glouseter J)at ligges. S^Trt^^h*' 

For he of frensche bis feyre tale • ferst dede translate, caused thu taie 

to be tranahtted. 

In ese of englysch men • in englysch speche ; 168 

& god graunt hem his blis ' )>at godly so prayen ! 

Leue lordes, now listenes • of J)is litel bam, xiie cowherd's 

_,_- - , .«, 1 <. wife took care of 

fat J>e kinde kowherde-wif • keped so fayn!. wnuam, 

^he wist it as wel or bet ' as 3if it were hire owne, 172 

til hit big was & bold • to buschen on felde, 

& couJ>e ful craftily • kepe alle here bestes, whogrewupasa 

& bring hem in pe best lese * whan hem bi-stode nede, 

& wited hem so wisly • fat wanted him neuer one. 176 

a bowe al-so fat bold bam * bi-gat him fat time, . 

A 80 to schote vnder be schawes * scharplyche he lemed, Heieamtto 

'^ *^ *^ shoot well, 

fat briddes & smalo bestes • wif his bow he quelles 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


80 plenteousliche in his play * ])at, pertly to telle, 180 
[FdL • ft.] wbanne he went horn eche nijt • wij) is droae of bestis, 
MdM^ha!ra!,* he com him-self y-charged • wiJ conyng <fc hares, 

wi^ fesanns & feldfares * and o])er foules grete ; 

|)at J)e herde & his hende wif • & al his hole meyne 184 

))at bold bam wijy his bowe ' by fat time fedde. 
He had many & jit hadde fele felawes • in be forest eche day, 

yooiig ooomdat, # v 

jong bold bames * ))at bestes al-so keped. 
& hlipe was eche a bam * ho best mi^t him plese, 188 
& folwe him for his fredom • & for his faire J^ewes. 
Hl^T'iSwd ' ^^^ what J)ing willam wan • a-day wiJ his bowe, 
whai jm ihot. — -^ere it fefered foul • or foure-foted best, 

ne wold fiB william neuer on • wif-hold to him-selue, 
til alle his felawes were ferst • feflfed to here paie. 193 
so kynde & so corteys • comsed he Jere, 
fai alle ledes him louede * ]>at loked on him ones ; 
& blesseden ^at him bare * & brou^t in-to ])is worlde, 
so moche manhed & miirj>e • schewed fat child euere. 

oiM daj, um Tjit tidde after on a time • as tellus oure bokes, ^ 198 

emperw Of Boom |~l 

rod«oufctohQiit» XJ. Qg j,i3 ][^i^j ^am his bostes • blyjjeliche keped, 
pe riche empcrour of rom© • rod out for to hunte 
In pat faire forest * fei]>ely for to telle, 
wiJ) alle his menskful meyne • Jjat moche was & nobuL 
tnd found a fan fel it hap fat fei founde • ful sone a grete bor, 

& huntyng wif hound & horn * harde alle sewede. 204 
fe emperowr entred in a wey • euene to attele 
to haue brattenet fat bor • & f e abaie sef f en ; 
The emperor lost but missely marked he is way • & so manly he rides, 
ibreet. fat alle his wies were went • ne wist he neuer whider. 

so ferforf fram his men • fef ly for to telle, 209 

fat of horn ne of houTtd • ne mijt he here sowne, 
&, boute eny lining lud • left was he one. 
Riding along, be f emp^TOUT OH his stif stode * a sty forf f anne takes 212 
chadngabart to hcrken after his houndes * ofer horn schille ; 
so komes per a werwolf • rijt bi fat way f enne, 

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grimly after a gret hcrt * as pai god wold, 

& chased htm ])urth chaunce * )^re pe child pleide, 216 

fat kept J)e kowherdes hestes • i carped of hi-fore. CoL 70 

Jwrnparour Jeanne hastelj • fat huge hest f olwed He MUmtd 

. . 1 . t thtw, but lost 

as stinuly as is stede mijt * strecche on to renne ; siKhtofbotiu 

but by-Jmn he com by fat bam • & a-boute loked, 220 

fe werwolf & fe wilde hert • were a-weye bofe, 

fat he ne wist in f is world • were f ei were bi-come, 

ne whiderward he schuld seche * to se of hem more. 

but fanne bi-held he a-boute * & fat bam of-seye, 224 Thm he beheld 

hov fair how fetys it was • & freliche schapen ; wondered u hie 

so fair a sijt of seg • ne sawe he neuer are, fcimeee, 

of lere ne of lykame * lik him nas none, 

ne of so sad a semblant * fat eu^ he say wif ei^yen. 228 

femperour wend witerly • for wonder of fat child, , twnkinghimof 

fat fei3fely it were of feyrye • for fairenes fat it welt, 

Ss for fe curteys cuntenaunce * fat it kudde fere. 


ijtly fenne fempcrour • wendes him euene tille, 232 wniiam greets 

1-1 -I t • o Til* ^^ emperor, 

f e child comes him agayn * & curteshche mm gretes. 
In hast f emperour hendely ' his gretyng him jeldes, 
and a-non rigttes after • askes his name, ^^^ aski him hte 

neme end 

& of what kin he were kome * komanded him telle. 236 undred. 

f e child fanne soberliche seide • " sir, at 3oure wille 

I wol 30W telle as tyt • trewely alle f e sof e. 

William, sire, wel y wot * wi3es me calles ; " wuiiMn is my 

I was bore here fast hi * by f is wodos side. 240 

a kowherde, sire, of f is kontrey • is my kynde fader, , ^ cowherd is my 

( uither. 

and my menskf ul moder * is his meke wiue. 

fei han me fostered & fed * faire to f is time, 

& here i kepe is kyn *. as y kan on dayes ; 244 

but, sure, by crtst, of my kin • know i no more." L*^**\todSS? 

whan f emperour ' hade herd • holly his wordes, 

he wondered of his wis speche * as he wel mi^ty 

A seide, " fow bold bam • biliue i f e praye, 248 

^ Read " themperonr.*' The bar across the p ii deficient — ^M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


"Go.ciditht Go calle to me J)e cowherde ' J)OW clepus fi federe, 
tiM emperor. Por J wold talk [wif] him ' • ti Jinges to fifayne.'* 
"Nay.tir.itnmj " joav, sire, bi god," quab be bam, "be ie ri^t sure, 

tarn to his hurt." . . ' o ' ^ x x — ' 7 ^ ? 

bi crist, fat is krowned • heye king of heuen, 252 

IPoL 7 n For me now harm schal he haue • neuer in his line ! " 
"Rather, it may " ac perauentuTo fiirth goddis [grace] * • to gode may it 

tarn to hie 

profit/* tume, 

5or-Ji bring him hider • faire barn, y proye." 255 

"I will trait " I schal, sire," seide Je child * " for saufliche y hope • 

your word tor i ...,.« i ,. 

that." I may worche on jour word • to wite him fro harm." 

" 3a, safliche," seide J^emperonr • " so god jif me ioie ! " 
— Je child witly )>anne wende • wif -oute ani more, 
William telle the comes to fe couherdes hows • & clepud him sone; 260 
great lord would For he feijUcho wen[d] * * fat he his fader where ; 
speak with him. ^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ "swcte sir * s[o] ^ou cristo help ! 

GoJ) yond to a gret lord • Jjat gayly is tyred, 
• & on )>e feirest frek * for sofe fat i haue seie ; 2C4 

and he wilnes wi^tli • wif ^ou to speke ; 
For godis loue gof til him swife * lest-he agreued wex." 
" Did y<ra un " what ? sone," seide fe couherde • " seidestow i was 

himlwashereP'' ^^^^„ ^^^ 

" ja, sire, sertes," seide f e child • " but he swop formest 
" He promised fat 10 schuld haue no harm • but hendely for gode 

your «afeC} ." ' ^ 

he praide 30U com speke wif him * & passe a-jein sone." 
f e cherl grocching forf gof • wif f e gode child, 
& euene to femperour • fei etteleden sone. 272 

The emperor aska f emp^TouT a-nou rijt ' as he him of-seie, 

the cowherd if he ^ '^ ' ^ 

has ever seen the clepud to him f couhcrdo * & cuTtcysly scidc ; 

" now telle me, felawe, be f i feijf • for no f ing ne 

sei foil euer femperour • ao fe crist help]" 276 

* The sense and cadence of the line seem to require " with " 
before *» him."— M. 

« Read " thurth g^oddis ^«<»."— M. 

« MS. for y saufliche y hope, where there seems to he a ^ too much, 

* See note. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


"nay, sire, bi crist," quaf Jje couherde • "Jwit king is "Nty.tir.uoo 

of heuew, 
I nas neu^r ^et so hardi * to ne^h him so hende 
pere i schuld haue him seie • so me wel tyme." 279 
" sertes," j>an seide J)emperoiir • " fe 8oJ>e forto knowe, " ^<>^ ^^>^ i 
]Mit y am ]>at ilk wei^h • i wol wel Jou wite ; 
al J>e regal of rome • to ri^tleche y weld. 

berfore, conherde, i be coniure • & comande att alle, •^ i oomnund 
bi vertu of J)ing fat fou most • in Jjis world louest, 284 troth, 
^tow telle me ti^tly • truly J)e sofe, 
wheber bis bold bam ' be lelly bin owne, i» tws ohiid 

yours P** 

oJ)er comen of o^r kin • so ^ crist help ! " 
])e couherd comsed to quako • for kare <fc for drede 288 
— whanne he wist witerly • bat he was his lorde, P^oi- ^^^ 

" ' ' The cowherd 

h, biliue in his hert be-Jout • ^ he him gun lye, hegan to quake. 

he wold prestely perceyue • pertiliche him J)out. 

])er-fore trewly as tyt • he told him J» soJ)e, 292 J^^^^^^ ■" 

how he him fond in J^at forest * ]>ere fast bi-side, 

clothed in comly clofing • for any kinges sone, 

vnder an holw ok ' J)urth help of his dogge, 

& how faire he hade him fed * & fostered v^' winter. 

** bi cmt," seide bemp«*our • " y con be gret bonke, 297 "i thank you for 

r_ i ^ t telling mo true ; 

]7at )}ou hast [seide] * me ])e so)>e * of \\a semly childe, 
<fe tine schalt J)OU nou3t J)i trawayle • y trow, at J)e 

ac wend schal it wib me • witow for sobe, 300 ?i®J*"^.**" ^ 

> ' ' with me." 

Min hert so harde wilnes ' to haue )>is bame, 
Jjat i wol in no wise • fou wite it no lenger." 
whan femperour so sayde • soJ)e forto telle, 

J>e couherde was in care • i can him no-Jing wbite. 304 ^^SjJ^»red 
ac witerly dorst he noujt weme • )>e wille of his lord, "** '*'**"• 
' — but grauwted him goddeli • on godis holy name, 
Forto worchen his wille • as lord wi)) his owne. 
whan William \\& wor]>i child * wist )>e so)>ey 308 

and knew )»t \q. cowherde * nas nou3t his kinde fader, 

1 Bead << thou hast i9ide me the sothe.*'— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^nniam began 
to lament torely, 

"I know not my 
birth nor my 
destiny, and am 
much beholden to 
this man and his 

**Cea8e from thy 
sorroir," said the 

[Fol. 8 6.1 
'* thoa Shalt 

The oowherd then 



to be no teller of 

to take the part 
of poor men. 




a leseon which 
the cowherd had 
learnt from his 

he was wijtliclie a-wondered • & gan to wepe sore, 
& seide saddely to him-self • sone fer-after, 
"a I gracious gode god ! ' fouj grettest of alle ! 312 
Moch is J)i mercy & Ji nu3t • fi menske, & Ji grace ! 
now wot i neuer in J)is world • of wham y am come, 
ne wliat destene me is di3t • but god do his wille ! 
ac wel y wot witcrly • wi]K)ute ani faile, 316 

to J)ifl man & his meke wif • most y am holde ; 
For fe\ ful faire han me fostered * & fed a long time, 
J>at god for his grete mi3t ' al here god hem ^eld. 319 
but not y neuer what to done • to wende fus hem fro, 
])at han al kindenes me kyd * & y ne kan hem jelde ! ** 
" bi stille, bam," qua)) femperour • " blinne of J)i sorwo, 
For y hope fat hal fi kin • hastely here-after, 323 

jif fou wolt 3eue fe to gode • swiche grace may J>e falle, 
fat alle f i frendes fordedes • faire schalstow quite." 
" 3a, sire," quaj) fe couherde> " 3if cnst wol • fat caa 

may tyde, 
& god lene him grace ' to god man to worfe." 
& fan as tit to f e child * he taujt fis lore, 328 

& seide, " fou swete sone ' sef f e f ou schalt hennes 

whanne fou komest to kourt * amo72g f e kete lordes, 
& knowest alle fe kuf fes * fat to kourt langes, 
bere f e boxumly & bonure * fat ich bum f e loue. 
be meke & mesurabul * nou3t of many wordes, 
be no tellere of talis • but trewe to fi lord, , 
& prestely for pore men • profer fe euer, 
For hem to rekene wif f e riche • in ri3t A in skille. 
be fe^tful & fre • & euer of faire speche, 
& semisabul to f e simple * so as to fe riche, 
& felawe in faire manere ' as falles for f i state ; 
so schaltow gete goddes loue • & alle gode mennes. 340 
Leue sone, fis lessoun ' me lerde my fader, 
fat knew of kourt f e f ewes • for kourteour was he lo^ig, 
& hald it in f i hert * now i f e haue it kenned ; 



Digitized by 


William's message to his playmates. 17 

fe bet may pe bi-falle • |)e worse bestow neuere." 344 


,6 child weped al-way • wonderliche fast, 

but J>emperour had god game • of Jjat gomes lore, t»»« emperor teiit 

& comande * be couherde • curteysli and fayre, 347 ••t wuumo on 

, *( ^ » hii horse, 

to heue vp fat hende child * bi-hinde him on his stede. 

& he so dede deliuerly • J)ou3h him del fou^t, 

& bi-kenned him to crist • fat on croice was peyned. 

banne bat bam as biliue • by-ffan for to clade "^ the chud was 

1 , ,,,,f,, plowed to think 

fat he so realy schuld ride * & redeli as swife 352 heehoauride 

Ful curteisle of fe couherde * he cacces his leue, 

& seffen seyde, " swete sire ' i bes[e]che * ^ou nowfe, wmiMn bids the 

For godes loue, gretes ofte • my godelyche moder, *** * 

fat so faire haf me fed * & fostered till nowfe. 356 and eenda a 

& lellyche, jif our lord wol • fat i liif haue, ' ibrter-mother, 

sche ne schal nou^t tyne hire trauayle * treuly for sof e. 

& gode sire, for godes loue • also gretef wel oft 

alle my freyliche felawes • fat to fis forest longes, 360 »ndtohi«oid 

han pertilyche in many places • pleide wif ofbe, [Foi. 9.] 


hugonet, & huet * fat hende litel dwerf ,^ and Huet, Abeiot, 

& abelot, & martynet • hngones gaie sone ; jjaJn^ 

& fe cnsten akarin ' fat was mi kyn fere, 364 

& fe trewe kinnesman ' f e payenes sone, 

& alle ofer frely felawes • fat fou faire knowes, and au the rest. 

fat god mak hem gode men • for his mochel grace." 

of f e names fat he nemned * f emperour nam hede, 368 

& had gaynliche god game * for he so grette alle 

of his cowpers fat he knew • so curteysliche & faire. 

& fan be-kenned he fe kouherde • to cnst & to hal The emperor then 


& busked forf wif fat bam • bliue on his gate. 372 
fe kouherde kayred to his house * karful in hert, The oowhe d goe« 

home, tery 

& nei^ to-barst he for bale • for f e bames sake. torrowfiii, 

& whan his wiif wist • wittow for sof e, 

* In 1. 236 we hare " komanded ;** but see the note. 
» MS. " befche." Read " beseche."— M. ' See note. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



and his wife 
weep« nuMt 

No more of t 

how fat child from here warde • was wente for euer-more, 

fer nis man on f is mold • fat mi^t half telle 377 

J)e wo & fe weping • fat womman made. 

sche wold haue sleie hire-self fere • sof ly, as bliue, 

ne hade fe kind kouherde * conforted here f e betere, 

& pult hire in hope to haue • gret help fer-of after. 381 

hut trewely of hem at f is time • fe tale y lete, 

of f emperour & f e bold bam • to bigynne to speke. 

The emperor 

and the ipoU . 
which they had 

All wondered at 
seeing the ohild« 

whicn, said the 
emperor, ** Ood 
had sent him." 

[FoL 9 6.] 

He rides to Rome, 
and alighU at his 

Now the emperoc^ 
had a dear 

of the same age 

named Melior. 

To her care the 
emperor com- 
mends William, 

T ordes, lustenef her-to • 3if ^ou lef f inkes ! 384 

-" f emperour blif e of fe bam • on his blonk rides 

Fast til fe forest, til he fond • al his f re ferd, 

fat hadde take fat time * moche tiye game, 

bof e bores & beres • fele hors charge, 388 

hertes & hindes ' & of er bestes manye. 

& whan f e loueli ludes * seie here lord come, 

f ei were geinliche glad • & gretten him faire, 

but alle a- wondered fei were ' of f e bam him bi-hinde, 

so faire Ss so fetyse it was * Sc freliche schapen ; 393 

& freyned faire of f emperour • whar he it founde hadde. 

he gaf hem answere argayn *.f at god it him sent, 

of er-wise wist non • where he it founde. 396 

fan rod he forf wif fat rowte • in-to rome euene, 

& euer fat bold bam • by-hinde him sat stille. 

so passed he to f e paleys * and presteliche a-li^t, 399 

& William fat choys child • in-to his chaumber ledde. 

a dere damisele to dou3ter • f is emperour hadde faune, 

of alle fasoun f e fairest • fat euer freke 8ei3e, 

& witerly william & jhe * were of on held, 

as euene as ani wi3t ' schuld attely bi si3t. 404 

& fat menskful maydo * melior was hoten, 

a more curteyse creature • ne cunnyngere of hire age, 

was nou3t fanne in f is world * fat ani wi3t knewe. 

f emperour to fat mayde * mekliche wendef , 408 

& William fat worf i child • wif him he ladde, 

and seide, ** dere dou3ter • y do f c to wite, 

Digitized by 





I haue a pris presant • to plese wif fi hert. 

haue here ]>is bold bam * & be til him meke, 

& do him kepe clenly • for kome he his of gode ; 

1 hent fis at hunting • swiche hap god me sent ;" 

& told here paxme as tit * treweli al J^e 8o])e, 

how he hade missed is roayne * & malskiid a-boute, 416 

& how pe werwolf wan him bi * vnp a wilde hert, 

& how sadly he him sewed • to haue slayn fat dere, 

til yei hadde brou^t him )>ere ' ])at bam bestes kept, 

& how sone of his sei^t • pe bestes seffen ware ; 420 

& how Jfe couherde com him to • & was a-knowe pe sofe, 

how he him fond in fat forest • ferst, fat faire child, 

& how komeliche y-clofed • for ani kinges sone ; 

& how fe kouherde for tare * cumsed to sorwe, 424 

whanne he wold wif fe child • wende him firomme ; 

<fe how boldely fat bam • bad f e couherde f anne 

to grete wel his gode wiif • & gamely fer-after 

alle his fireliche felawes • bi-fom as i told. 

" & fer-fore, my dere doubter " • femperour seide, 

" For mi lof loke him wel • for lelly me f inkes, 

bi his menskful maneres * & his man-hede, 

fat he is kome of god kin • to crist y hope ; 

wyiiig he haa 
brought her a 
rich present; 

relating to her 
the whole nlorj 
about tlkti 

his meeting with 
the child. 


tlie oowherd'8 

and William's 
messages to his 
step-mother and 

" Love him well, 
for I suspect he 
is of noble kin; 


[The next folio {Fol, 10) being lost, 
the French 
[car mult par est et biax, et gens, 
de cors, de vis, et de feiture. 
encor orrons, par aventure, 
de quex gens est estrais et nes. 
ma douce fiUe, or retenes 
lenfant que je vos amain ci." 
" ce soit la vostre grant merci," 
dist meliors, ** biau sire chiers, 
je le retieng mult volentiers." 
puis prent lenfant et si lenmaine, lo 
en la soie chambre demaine. 

its place is here supplied from 

For he b very fkir and handsome 

In body, in Ujob, and in (ksbion. 

We shall yet hear, peradventure. 

Of what kin he is descended and bom. 

My sweet dauj^ter, now take care of 

The child whom I here bring yon." 

" Great thanks are dne to you for this.** 

Said MeUor. " fair father dear ; 

I take care of him very wHlim^." 

Then she takes the child and leads him away. 

Brings him into her chamber. 

Digitized by 




cms dras li a fait apoiter, 
sel fait vester et conreer. 

Quant des dras fu apareillies, 
et a sa guise fu chaucies, 
or fu si gens et si ties biax 
et si apers li damoisiax, 
con ne recourast son pareil, 
desos la clarte du soleil, 
de sa biaute, de sa semblance, 
et meliors, qui tant ert france, 
li a fait par .i. sien sergant 
aporter le mangier devant. 
et cil manga qui fain avoit, 
or revient auques a son droit, 
por cou se il est fix de Eoi, 
nest desonors, si com ie croi, 
sil sert a cort dempereor, 
et pucele dft tel valor 
com meliors estoit la bele. 
ensi remest o la pucele 
GmHiauTnes, com poes oir ; 
mult se paine de li servir 
et des autres tons ensement. 
mult si acointe belement, 
si com li hom qui nestoit mie 
norris en cort nentre maisnie, 
maia auques le prueve nature, 
et il sor tote creature 
sentente et tot son cuer velt metre 40 GiT« »ttenu<Hi and put* w. whole hewri 
a quarique se doit entremetre. 
nus damoisiax de nul service 
a cort si haute ni si ricbe. 

Tant i a lenfes son cuer mis, 
et tant entendu et apris, 
quancois que fust passes li ans, 
fu il si prex ot si sachons. 

Hm a robe brooffht for him. 

And has him clothed and well cared for. 

When he was dressed In the robes. 

And flttlngl7 proTided with shoes, 

So gradouB and so rerj fair 

And so frank was the bo7. 

That his equal could not be met with 

Beneath the light of the sun, 
20 For his beauty, for his i4>pearance. 

And Mellor, who was so bountlAil. 

Caused one of her serrants 

To carry a repast before him. 

And he. being himgry, ate it. 

And returned then to his duty. 

Wherefore if he is a kiug's son 

Tls no dishonour, as I believe. 

If he serres at the emperor's court 

And (serves) a damsel of such worth 
30 As was Mellor the beaatifol. 

Thus remained with the damsel 

IViUiam, as yon may hear ; 

Much pains he takes to serre her 

And all the others likewise. 

Very excellently he demeans himself. 

Like, indeed, a man who had never been 

Nourished In court or household. 

But nature also proves him. 

And he, above every creature. 

To whatever he ought to undertake. 
There was no youth. In any service. 
So high and so rich at court. 
The child so gave his attention there. 
And understood and learnt so much, 
l%at befor* the year was passed. 
He was so prudent and so wise. 

Digitized by 




quil nest horn qui le puist reprendre, 

tant i sache garder, nentendre 

de riens nule que veoir sace, 60 

que riens mesprenge ne mefiface. 

oi aves pieca retraire, 

que li oisiax de gentil aire 

safaite meisme aparlui, 

tot sans chastiement dautrui ; 

comme vos ci oir poes, 

sest si GxaRiauTnes doctrines. 

T^nsi GmHtaumea est a cort, 

-^ a tos desert que on lounort, 

ne fait riens qui doie desplaire. eo 

mult par est frans et debonnaire, 

servicables, cortois, et prous, 

et mult se fait amer a tons, 

et larges de quanquavoir puet 

et sachies bien, pas ne lestuet 

a chastoier de ses paroles, 

queles soient laides ne foles, 

mais asises et delitables. 

si set plus desches et de tables, 

doisiax, de bois, de chacerie, 70 

que nus qui soit en Lombardie, 

nen toute la terre de Eome ; 

nia vallet, fil a haut home, 

na riche prince natural — 

quant Guilltat^me^ siet a cheval, 

lescu au col, el poing la lance — 

tant par soit de fiere semblance, 

si gens, ne si amanevis ; 

ne sai que plus vos en devis ; 

que tuit samblent a lui vilain, so 

et li lombart et li romain. 

bien samble a tos estre lor sire 

en tot le regne nen lempire. 

That no one ooold rsprore him 

(So well can be take care), nor perceive 

For anything that he eoold aee, 

That he mistook or miedid anything. 

Te have long ago heard lay 

That the bird of genUe breed 

Learns e\en by himself, 

Without ctnrection by another ; 

Eren as ye here may hear, 

William thos tanght himselt 

Thos William lires at the court. 

He deserves that all should honour him. 

And does nothing to displease. 

He is very frank and amiable, 

Senrioeable. courteous, and prudent. 

And makes himself mudi loved by all. 

And (he Is) bounteous as far as he Is able. 

And know well, there is no need 

To correct him for his words. 

Which are neither rude nor silly. 

But staid and pleasing. 

He knew more of chess and tables. 

Of hawking, of the woods, of the chase. 

Than any one in Lombardy, 

Or in all the territory of Bome ; 

There Is no lad, son to a great man. 

Nor rich prince by birth 

(When William sits on his horse. 

Shield on his neck, lance in his fist), 

Gan be of such fierce appearance, 

So gracious, nor so dexterous ; 

I know not that I can tell you more about it. 

So that all soem plebeian beside him. 

Both Lombard and Roman. 

He seems to be the lord of them all 

In all the kingdom and empire. 

Digitized by 




ni a .i. seul, ne has ne haut, 
a cui il soit, de ce me vant(1), 
des biens, de lui que la gens conte ; 
chascuns en fabloie et raconte. 
tons li pueples, communement, 
et lempereres ensement 
li porte honor, aime, et tient chier 90 
comme le fil de sa moillier ; 
et quant il va en esbanoi, 
toadis maine Gmlliaume o soi ; 
en grant afaire ou en besoing 
tos jors iva, soit pres ou loing. 
et cil del regne denviron, 
li grant signor et li baron, 
por lamor a lempereor, 
laiment et portent grant honor, 
et plus encor por sa franchise, 100 
dont chascuns tant le loe et prise, 
et ke diroie des puchieles, 
des dames et des damoisieles ? 
certes, et se diex me doinst joie, 
ne cuit que nule qui le voie 
ne qui son los oie retraire, 
tant par i soit de haut afaire, 
bele, cortoise, ne prisie, 
nestraite de haute lignie, 
ne sage, orgeilleuse, ne cointe, no 
qui ne vausist estre sa-cointe ! 
f ult a boin los par la contree, 
par tot en va sa renoumee. 
si fut a cort .iii. ans tos plains 
Grniliaumes entre les Eomains, 
com vos dire maves oi, 
foment crut et bien enbami ; 
et devint gens li damoisiax, 
et fors et aformes et biax ; 

There Is no one, low or high. 

Who poMenes— whereof I boasK?)— 

The Tlrtaes, which people relate of him : 

Ererj one speaks of them and tells them. 

All the people, in common (himoiir him). 

And the emperor, in like manner, 

Hononra. loTea, and holds htu dear 

As the Hon of his own wife ; 

And when he goes oat for amusement. 

He always takes WlUiam with him : 

In great aflUrs. or in case of need. 

Always he goes there, whether near or far. 

And those of the country round about. 

The great lords and barons. 

For love of the emperor, 

LoTe and greatly honour him. 

And stiU more for his bounty, 

For which every one praises and esteems him. 

And what can I say of the m ai d e ng . 

Of the ladies and the damsels ? 

Certes, so Ood give me Joy, 

I belieTe there is none who sees him 

Or bears his praise told. 

Of however great consideration she may be. 

However fair, courteous, and estimable. 

However noble by birth. 

However wise, proud, or clever, 

Itut she wishes to be his love ! 

He has great good praise in the country. 

Everywhere spreads his renown. 

Thus at the court three fVill years 

Was William, among the Romans, 

As ye have heard me tell. 

Well grown and of good stature ; 

And the youth beoune gracious. 

And strong and of fine form andiUr; 

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de la chambre est merveilles bien ; 120 in the chamber he U rery admirable; 

les puceles sur tote rien, 

per sa firanchise et sa valor, 

11 portent mult ires grant honor. 

Quant meliors la debonaire 
ot del vallet le los retraire, 
et les grans biens qui en lui sont, 
et voit quil na si bel el mont> 
ne damoisel de sa valor, 
fil de roi ne dempereor, 
ne de si boine renoumee, 
trestot son cuer et sa pensee 
tot maiiitenant vers lui atome. 
or est si tres pensive et mome 
quele nentent a autre chose, 
son cuer reprent et blasme et chose, 
et dist sovent, " cuers ! que a8 tu ? 
quas tu esgarde ne veu, 
que tout mi oel moustre ne fait, 
qui mas embatue en cest plait 1 
que je ne sai que puisse avoir, 
ne quel error me fait doloir, 
ne plaindre plus que je ne sueL 
Diex ! quex maus est dont tant me ohOodi what evUia it i thus grieve for. 

qui si me fait estendillier ?] That makes me thus move restlen]7? 

& seppe sike i & sing • samen to-gedere, 
& melt nei^h for moumyng • & moche ioie make. 
Min hert hoi i haue now • for al fat hard y fele, 
saue a fers feintise ' folwes me oft, 436 

^ takes me so tenefully • to telle al Jje sof e, 
fat i mase al marred • for moumyng nei^h hondes, 
but redeliche in fat res • f e recuuerere fat me falles, 
as whan i haue ani hap • to here of fat bame, 440 

For wham myn hert is so hampered • & aides so 

The maidens above everything. 

for liis franknen and his valour. 

Accord him very great hononr. 

When Mellor the amiable 

Hears the loaise of the lad told. 

And the great goodness that is In him. 

And sees there is none in the world so fUr. 

No 700th of his worth. 

(Whether) son of king or of emperor. 

1 30 Nor any of such good renown. 

Soon her heart and her tiiooght 

Vary quickly tarns she towards him. 

Then she is so very sad and sorrowful. 

That she minds nothing else. 

She reproves and blames and rebukes her 

And says often. " Heart, what hast thou ? 

What hast thon beheld or seen— 

For mine eye shews or tells me nothing-^ 

That has cast me into this debate? 

1 40 So that I know not what is the matter. 

Nor wtiat fault makes me grlev^ 

Or complain more than I am wont 

[Pol. 11.] 
I sigh and sin^ 

A fkintneiA often 

I recover when I 
hear of that 

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flower of 

I hAV« portrayed 
htm within my 

and would not 
■crape oat his 
portrait for all the 

Since it is lo, I 
am wrong to 
blame my heart. 

I ought rather to 
blame my eyes. 

7et ray «yes are 
my heart's 

CFol. 11 6.] 
My sight can do 
no harm, nnlees 
my heart assent 

My sight only 
doee his duty. 

fat flour is of alle frekea * of fairnes and ini3t. 
prince is now his pere * ne in paradi^s non auwgel, 
as he semes in mi si3t * so faire is ]p&t bume. 444 

I haue him portreide an paynted • in mi hert wij)- 

)^at he sittus in mi 8i3t * me ))inkes euer-more. 
& faire so * his figure * is festened in mi ^out,* 
put wi}> no coyntise ne craft • ne can y it out scrape. 448 
& be marie, Jyou^h i mijt • to mengge al f e 8oJ)e, 
I ne wold nou^t for al pia world • so wel it me likes, 
l^ei^h i winne wif mi werk * pe worse euer-more ! 
so gret liking & loue i haue • fat lud to bi-hold, 452 
]»at i haue leuer ))at loue * )^an lac al mi harmes. 
Nou certes, aeppQ it is so • to seie f e trewf e, 
fann haue y had gret wrong * myn [hert] so to blame, 
For eni werk paX he wrou^t • seffe i wol it hold, 456 
ne wold i it were non oJ)er • al pe world to haue. 
whom schal i it wite • but mi wicked eyi^en, 
Jat lad myn hert f rouj loking • fis langour to drye 1 
nad Jei [ben, i ini3t] * boute * bale haue schaped ; 460 
redeli bi resoun J»erfore * hem rette i mai mi soi*we." 
but f anne J?ou3t che fat frowe * in fis selue wise, 
" Min ei3en sorly aren sogettes • to seme min hert, 
& buxum ben to his bidding * as boie to his master ; 464 
eke wite i al J)e wrong * f e werk of mi ei3en, 
& |»0U3h sertes, so may i nou3t • by no sof e ri3t^; 
For sef f e i knowe fat mi si3t * is seruant to mi hert, 
& alle my nof ^ wolnk wittes * to wirchen his hest. 468 
For f ou3h i sette my si3t • sadly on a fing, 
be hit bri3tter ofer broun • beter of er worse, 
Mi si3t may in no maner • more harme wirche, 
but 3if myn hautoyn hert * f e harde a-sente. . 472 
eke sof ly my si3t • is soget to my hert, 
A dof nou3t but his deuer • as destine wol falle. 

1 BO faire (?) » f out (?) 

* MS. " nad >ei i am a boQte." See note. 

Digitized by 



fan has my hasty hert • holly fe wrong, 

him wol i blame & banne * but he my bales amende, 476 ?J* ^ ™°** ^^ 

*' ' blame my heiurt. 

])at ha]» him so strangly set * in swiche strau/jge burne, 

J)at wot neuer in Jjis world • whennes fat he come, 

but as mi fader him fond * in fe forest an herde, 

keping mennis kin • of fe kuntro a-boute. 480 

what 1 fy ! schold i a fundeling • for his fairenesse tak ^ ^Si^HS^d. 

nay, my wille wol nou3t a-sent • to my wicked hert. ^^ ^^^ *»*• 

wel kud kinges & kaysers * krauen me i-now, 

I nel leie mi loue so low • now at bis time : 454 i wui not uy my 

' ' love so low. * 

desparaged were i disgisili * ^if i dede in fis wise, 
I wol breke out fram fat baret • & blame my hert." 

Sche turned here fan ti3tly • to haue slept a wile, 487 JJ^'**'J^^^'^' 
& seide sadly, of hire hert • sche wold seche ame/idis •igJwi *n<i ^v*. 
For sche so wrongly had wrou3t • but wi^tly f er-after, 
sche seide sikinde to here-self • in f is selue wise. 
" now wittily ich am vn-wis • & wonderliche nyce, bimT n^hSw* 
f us vn-hendly & hard • mi herte to blame. 492 •*• 

to whom mijt i me mene • amendis of him to haue, 
seff e i am his souerayn • mi-self in alle f ing ? i^eleignp* 

nis he holly at my best ' in hard & in nesche ? 
& now, bi crist, i knowe wel * for al my care newe, 496 
4ie wroi^t neuer hot my worchepe • ne wol nou3t, i Leue. 
I se wel he haf set him-self • in so nobul a place, Uf iSSftat*" 

fat perles of aUe puple • is preised ouer alle, ^^^^^ p^*^- 

of fairnesse of facioun • and frely f euwes,* 500 

For kurteysie, vnder krist • is king ne kud duk. 
& f ou^h he as fundeling where founde • in f e forest wilde, 3[5^^^SSI^ 
& kept wif f e kowherde kin • to karp f e sof e, '^^w^Lrth** **' 

eche creature may know • he was kome of gode. 504 
For first whan f e fre was in f e forest * fouwde in his ^^^ 1^1 

In comely clobes was he clad * for any kinges sone. hu oiothee aad 

" ' " hismamiera 

whan he kom first to f is kourt • bi kynde fan he schewde, proved it. 
^ A line lost here ? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



All men boiumr 

Since then he is 
•o peerieas, 

I did wrong to 
blune my heart 

For, in traUi, my 
heart has done 
well ; and could 
not have djne 

I am sorry I 
blamed my 

and wUl work aU 



his maners were so menskful • a-mende hem mi^t none. 

& Bepfe forsof e til f is time • non vn-tetche he*ne wrou^t, 

but haf him bore so buxumly • fat ich bum him preysej), 

& vch a bum of fis world • worchipef him one, 

Kinges & kud dukes • kene kni3tes and other, 512 

f ou3h he were komen of no ken • but of kende cherls, 

as i wot witterly * so was he neuere I 

jut wij) worchepe i wene • i mijt him wel loue. 

A sef f e he so perles is preised * ouer princes & oper, 516 

& eche lord of pis lond • is lef him to piece 

For most souereyn seg • & semlyest of pewes, 

panne haue i wited alle wrong • pe werk of myn herte. 

For he has don his deuere * dignely as he out. 520 

he het me most worpi • of wommen holde in erpe, 

Elindely purth kinrade * of cristen lawe ; 

For-pi myn herte hendely • has wroujt in his dedes 

to sette him-self so sadly * in pe soueraynest bume 524 

pat leuis in ani lond * of alle ludes preised, 

I ne wot neuere in pis world • what wise ho mijt betere 

wirche for me in pis world • my worschipe to saue. 

For jif eny man on mold • more worpi were, 528 

Min hert is so hauteyn • pat herre he wold. 

& for i so wrongely* haue wroujt • to wite him, me 

I giue me holly in his grace * as gilty for pat ilk, 
& to mende my misse • i make myn a-vowe. 532 

I wol here-after witerly * wip-oute more striue, 
wirche holly mi hertes wille • to harde & to nesche, 
& leye my loue on pat lud • lelly for euere. 
to god here i gif a gift * it gete schal neuer oper, 536 
wile him lastep pe liif • my loue i him grante." 

A nd whan sche so was a-sented • sche seide sone after, 
Alas! I fear this "^ sadli sikaud & soro • for sorwe atte here herte, 
noremedj-; *^* " AUas! i trowe pis bitter bale * botlesse wol hende ! 540 

% * MS. " worngely." 

Digitized by 



For i not in fis world * • how fat worJ)i child [PoL iS6.] 

fichal euer wite of my wo • wijK)ute me selue. 

nay ! sertes my-selue • schal him neuer telle : for i wui nerer 

For J>at were swiche a wojh • pa neuer wolde be mended. 

For he mi^t ful wel • for a fol me hold, 545 He might think 

& do him lo])e mi loue * ^it haue y leuer dele I 

nay ! best be]) it noojt so * jif better mi^t bi-&Ue, 

Ich mot worche opev wise • ^if i wol out-spede. 548 

what, i suppose be selue * ;if it so bi-tidde orsnppoee i did 

> rf r y ipeak to him, 

^t i WTOU3t so wodly * A wold to him speke, 

J)at were semlyest to seye * to saue my worchep 1 

jif i told him treuli • my tene and myn anger, 552 *n^ ^^ wm my 

what liif for longyng of loue • i lede for his sake, 

He wold wene i were wod • or witerly schomed, h« wooid think 

me mad, or that 

or ^ot i dede for despit * to do him a schonde ; i mocked him. 

& ysA, were a schamly schenchip • to schende me euer. 

what aif i saide him sadly • bat i sek were, 557 or«nppo««i 

^ '' ' laid 1 am alck j 

& told him al treuly ' pe entecches of myn euele ? 

he knowe]) nou^t of pB,t krafb * bi krist, as i trowe, 

wherfore he ne schold in no wise • wite what i mente : h«woaidnot 

anderstand me. 

but whanne i hade al me mened * no more nold he seie 

but " serteinly, swete damisele • pat me sore rewes." 

paime wold mi wo • wex al newe, 

& doubel is now mi duel • for i ne dar hit schewe. 564 My grief woaid 

alias ! whi ne wist psi wi jh • what wo pat me eyles, **"*^ ^ doubled. 

what sorwes A sikingges • i suffer for his sake ! 

I sayle now in }>e see * as schip boute mast, i sail in the sea 

bonte anker or ore • or ani semlyche sayle ; 568 rtiip*wi3Iolu' 

but hei^h heuene king • to gode hauene me sende, m!'^^' ***'' ^' 

oper laske mi liif daywos * wip-inne a litel terme." 

pus pat maiden meliors * in momyng pa liuede, Thm Meiior 

& hit Tield hire so harde** i hete pe for sope, 572 

& schorttily wip-in seueni3t * al hire slep sche leues, 

here mete & al mcrthe * sche missed in a while, 

& seccleled in a seknesse • be sobe for to telle, »»»« lickened and 

'^ '^ ' pined, 

« MS. " world Hfl ;" instead of " p\B world." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LFoI. U.] 

and her ooloar 

Jat per nas leche in no lond • fat liif Lire bihijt^^ 576 
)it cou)^e non bj no craft * knowen liire sore ; 
but duelfulli sche dwined a-waie * bo))e dajes & nijtes, 
& al hire clere colour • comsed for to fieuie. 

Hellor's fltTonrite 

was Alexandrine, 
danghter of the 

who laid to her, 

I maj be able to 
help you." 

*' Dear cooain," 
aaid Melior, 
** thou apeakeat 
comfort to me. 

I will t«ll you aU 

l^anne hadde J)is menskful melior - maydenes fele 580 

-■ a-s^ned hire to serue • & to seuwe hire arboute ; 

but amo7£g alle pe maidenes * most sche loued one 

fat was a digne damisele • to deme al fe sof e, 

& komen of hire oune kin • h[er]e * kosin ful nere, 584 

of lumbardie a dukes doubter • ful derworf in wede, 

& fat amiabul maide * alisaundrine a-hi3t. 

& from fe time fat melior * gan mome so strong, 

fat buxde was euer hire bi ; busy hire to plese, 588 

More fan ani of er damisele • so moche sche hire louede. 

& whan sche seij here so sek * sche seide on a time, 

" Now for marie, madame • f e milde queue of heuene, 

& for fat loue fat ^e loue • leliest here in erfe, 692 

Sei^th me al 30ur seknesse • A what so sore 30W greuis. 

3e knowen icham ^our kosyn • A bi krist of heuone, 

3ut bi cas of cunsail • fol wel can ich hele, 

& be tristy and trew • to jow for euer-more, 696 

and help jow hasteli at al • joure hele to gete, 

jif je saie me joure sores • & ich se what may gayne." 

whan melior fat meke mayde • herd aUsaundrines 

sche was gretly gladed • of hire gode bi-hest,' 600 

& wif a sad sikyng • seide to hire f anne ; — 
" a ! curteyse cosyne • crist mot f e it jelde 
of f i kynde cumfort • fat fow me kuf est nowf e, 
f ow hast warsched me wel • wif f i mede wordes. 604 
I jiue me al in f i grace ' to gete me sum hele, 
as fow me here has be-hijt • of mi harde peynes ; 
now wol i telle f e my tene • wat so tide after. 

1 Here follows the catchword—*^ jit couf e." » MS. " he." 
* This line and the next are transposed in the MS. 

Digitized by 



serteynly \f\a seknesse * pai so sore me greues 608 

Is feller ]7an any frek * pat euer ^it hadde. 

& of ter fan [ten] * times • hit take]) me a-daye, 

& [ix.] * times on fe ni3t • nou3t ones lesse ; 

and al comes of a froly fon^t • pat pirles min hert ; 612 ^ ^^^ ^J. 

I wold meng al mi mater • jif i mijt for schame. SjJJ^hk'*^ 

ac wond wold ich notijt to \>e • witow for sofe, 

ay whan ich hent pe haches • pat so hard aren. 

It komses of a kene boujt • bat ich hane in hert 616 of « **»«>«*»* 

> ^ * ^ aboafcthat 

of willtom pat bold bam • pat alle bumes praisen ; wmum, whom 

nis no man vpow mold • pat more worchip winnes. 

him so propirli hane i pointed * A portreide in herte, 

pat me semes in my sijt * he sittes eu^r meke. 620 

what man so ich mete wib • or mele wib speche, Bve^ man i 

-' r x- ' speak to ■eoms to 

Me pinkes eumch prowe • pat bam is pat oper ; *» wiuiam. 

& fele times hane ich fonded • to flitte it fro ponjt^ 

but witerly al in wast • pan worche ich euer. 624 

per-for, cnrteise cosynes • for lone of crist in heuene, 

Kipe non^ pi kindenes • & konseyle me pe best ; ^^©^tam 

For btlt ich hane bote of mi bale • bi a schort time, 

I am ded as dore-nail • now do al pi wille ! " 628 

as dead as a 

Alexandrine was 
amazed, and said. 

l^anne alisaundrine a-non • after pat ilk, 
-■ wax gretly a-wondered * A wel hire bi-pou^t, 
what were hire kuddest comfort • hire care to lisse ; 
& seide panne til hire softily • sone per-after ; 632 

"a ! madame, for marie lone • momes no longer ! i^*hIS yiV 

nis it no sekenes bote pat • so sore ^ou^ eiles, 
I schal pnrth crafb pat ich kan • keuer ^ou i hope, 
Mow i geten a grece • pat i gaynli knowe ! 636 

hane 30 sleiliche ' it seie • & a-saide ones, <»" y<*^' 

& feled pe sanor & pe swetnesse • pat sittes in pe rote, 
hit schal veraly purth vertue • do vanisch jour sons 1 " 
oper-wise wold sche noujt • wissen here ladi 640 

bi what maner che ment • last sche were a-grened. 
» See note. » MS. " 30 it fleilicbe it." 

I know of a herb 
whose virtue can 

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MeUor thanked jjan fat melior ful mekeli * fat mayden yanked, 

iwr to get It. & preide hire priueli • wif pitous wordes, 

to gete hire fat gode gras * aa sone as sche mi^t 644 
A alisaundrine a-non • answeres and saide, 

She Mid she " Madame, I wol do mi mi^t * wif-oute more speche." 
[Foi. 14.] fanne fis maiden melior • gan mendon here chere, 

f us was ferst here sad sorwo * sesed fat time. 648 

Alexandrine alisandiine algate ban * after fbatl browe 

pUnnedhowto —or ur j r 

let wuium know bi-f ou3t hire ful busily • howe best were to werche, 
to do William to wite • f e wille of hire lady, 
properly vnparceyued • for reproue after. 652 

Ful conyng was sche A coynt • & couf e fele f inges, 
of charmes A of chau[n]temews • to schewe harde castis ; 

and, bj her crafty So f ui^h fe craft fat sche coufe • to carpp fe sofe, 

aa williom fat worfi child • on a ni^t slept, 656 

boute bum in his hour • but him-self one, 

she made him a f ul selcouf e sweuene • set sche him to mete ; 

dream a dream, , « , i i • <■ 

fat meuor, fat menskful may * mekli al-one 

com ful comliche clad • & kneled him bi-fore, 660 

al bi-weped for wo • wisly him f ou^t ; 

& sikand ful sadli * seide f us him tille — 
that Melior came ** & ! loueliche Icmman ! * loke on me nnwfe ! 
tohim,and»aid. j ^^ Meliors, nei3h marred • man, for fi sake. 664 

I meke me in f i merci • for f ow me mi3t saue ! 
"Oh take me, Leue lord, mi lemman • lacche me in f i narmes, 

lore, in thine - . , . .n . ,. . , 

arms • " & wirche wif me f i wille • or witteru in hast 

— ^Mi liif lelly is lorn * so loue now me hampris." 668 
fus willtam fou^t wittorly * & wi3tly wif fat ilk, 
as a gome ful glad * for fat grace fallen, 

He tried to do bo^ He wend to haue lau^t fat ladi • loueli in annos ; 

puiow, & clipte to him a pulwere • & propirly it gretes, 672 

and welcomes hii worf li • for wisseli him f ou3t 
fat it was f e menskful mayde • melior his ladi ! 

and awoke, fat puluerc clept he curteisly • & kiist it ful 6fte, 

"* * & made f er-wif f e most merf e • fat ani man schold ; 

but fan in his saddest solas * softili he a-waked. 677 

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ak SO liked him his layk * wi^ )>e ladi to pleie, 

]7at after he was a-waked * a ful long )>rowe, 

he wende ful witerly • sche were in is armes : 680 ^^ ™ ^ J " 

*' ' WM only hi« 

ac peter ! it nas but is puluere • to proue ^ sofe. p*uo^- 

hut whan he witterly was a-waked • he wayted a-houte, CFoI. u 60 

to haue bi-hold J?at burde • his blis to encrese. 

f anne pcrceyued he ^ puluere • pertely in his armes, 

ofer w^t was non • wif-inne fat chambur.^ 685 

fan brayde he vp of his bed • as bum nei3h amasod, 

& loked after bat ladi • for lelli he wende He looked for her 

1 1 1 1 1 1 • 1 • •11 . *" every corner in 

fat sche here had bed in sum hume * in fat ilk time, vain, and sighed, 

to greue him in hire game • as f eijh he gyled were. *" 

but whan he wist it was wast • al fat he soujt, 

he gan to sike & sorwe • & seide in f is wise : — 

*' a ! ihem crist, iustise • now iugge f ou^ fe ri3t, 092 

how falsly has fortune * founde me nowf e. 

nas mi menskful ladi • meliors h[0r]e-inne,* "Wasnotmy 

& lowed hire to be mi lemman * & lai in myn armes, 

of er elles sof li, sche seide * fat sche dei schuld ? 696 

319, i-wisse, was It sche • y wot wol f e sof e ; 

Metyng ' mi3t it be ngp • in no maner wise ; w ««id not bavo 

so louely lay fat ladi & ich • layking to-gaderes. 

& sof ly, sof it is • a selcouf e, me f inkes, 700 

whider.fat lady is went • and wold no lenger dwelle." 

f anne lep he vp li3teli • & loked al a-boute, 

but fe3tly al was fanteme * & al was in wast. 

f anne seide he to him-self • sikinde ful soft : — 704 

" For sof e, ich am a mad man * now wel ich may knowe, Yet i mart be 

— ^ , ^ » mad to think it 

Forto wene in f is wise • f is wrong metyng sofe. could be true, 

Min hert is to hauteyn • so hye3 to climbe, 

80 to leu^ fat ladi • wold louwe hire so moche, 708 

fat is an emperours eir • and euene his pere, '**'*^'I?^- 

to come to swiche a caytif • nay, crist it for-bede 

fat ich more of fat matere * so misseliche f enke ! 

«MS. "chanbar." 

« MS. " he inne." Read " here inne,"— M. » MS. " Metynt." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


For fer nys lord in no lond • fat fe liif weldes, 712 
emp^our ne kud king • knowen so riche, 
])at 8o])li nere simple i-nou^ * ))at semly to haue. 
imtutbemadto ek witterli am i wod • to wene swiche a J^ing, 
thing. forth a mys metyng * fat swiche a maide wold 716 

cFoL M.] Leye hire lone so lowe * lemman me to weld. 
1 dare not lay mj nay, ich haue wTou^t al in wast * ac i nel na more 

lov9 80 high. 

Leie mi loue so hei3e • mi ladi for to wilne, 
f 6u3h it nere for nou3[t] elles • but for non in erf e 720 
no wot i neuer wisseli • of whom i am come. 
I know neither Mi-self knowe ich noujt mi ken * ne mi kontre noif er, 

my kin nor my _^ _ 

count*y, For-f i me [bi-Jhones ' • f e buxumlier me here, 

Ofer-wise fan a wi^h * fat were wif his frendes. 724 
For jif ich wrout ofer-wise * & it were parceyued, 
& knowe were in f is kourt • mi kare were fe more, 
and I hare no for feif U, frend hauB ich non • fat [for] * me wold speke, 
for mk." 3if f emperour were wif me wrof * his wraf f e forto slake, 

f er-for mi hauteyn hert • bi-hones me to chast, 729 
& here me debonureli • til better mow bi-tide." 

Yet her image lo T 01 in bis wise willtflm * wende to haue schaped, 

dwelt in hU heart, I i '^ ^ 

■■-' but certes fat semly • sat so in his hert, 732 

for merf e of fat metyng * of melior fat schene, 
fat heng heui in his hert ' & so hard.cleued 
thai tt wonid not fat, to winne al f e world * a-wai wold it neuer. 
''^^' but gan to studie stoundemele • so stifly f er-onne, 736 

fat lelly be a litel while * his langure gan wex,- 
He left hie meat, SO fat he momed neijh mad * & his mete left, 
nSi'C^ *'^*^* ^^ <fe forwandref in wo • & wakef i-wisse on nijtes, 

swiche listes of loue * hadde lapped his hert, 740 

fat he nist what bote • his bale best mijt help.^.,,.-^ 
andaroeein the but in his mochel momlng * on a morwe he rises, 
w^p^'htaiieif For kare fat kom to his hert * & clof ed him sone, 
in his mantle. ^ whan he geiuHche was greif ed • he gript his mantel, 

1 MS. " hoaes ; " bat see 1. 729, and the note. 

2 Road "tKat/or me."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


as a wei^h woful • he wrapped liim ^r-inne, 745 

For no man pai he met • his momyng schuld knowe. 

fat vnglad gom fan gojj • in-to a gardin euene, S^JT* ^^ * 

J)at was a perles place • for ani prince of erpe, 748 

& wynli wij) heie wal * • was closed al a-boute. 

Jat pretii pleyng place • to prone fe so^, 

loyned wel iustly • to meliors chamber, •<yoiningMeUoi-'8 


Jdder* went willtom enene • wittow for so^, 752 cfoL ub.] 

& vnder a tri appeltre • tok him tid * a sete, 

bat was braunched M brode • & bar gret schadne, ?• "^ beiw«th 

' o J Ijg, window under 

& was euen vnder a windowe • of fat worfeis chaumber, » •ppie-trae, 

For pat willtom for wo • was bounde so harde. 756 

J)at tre so fayre was floured • & so fal leued, thi^S'i^dSoi 

J»t no wi^th mi^t william se • but ^if he were fe nere. ^ ■•^ 

ac wiD[i]am to fe window • witterli mijt sene 

jif meliors wif hire maydenes ' in meling Jjere sete. 760 

whan William vnder bat trie tre • hade taken his place, J^" watched he 

' ^ ' from aaorntnff till 

he set his si^t sadli • to fat windowe euene, •ve. 

boute flecchinge or feyntise • from morwe til eue. 

but oft cumsed his c-are * and his colour chaunge[d], 764 

80 sore longed him to se • f a semly burde. 

swiche a sorwe he suffred • a seue-ni^t fuUe, 

bat neuer mawnes mete ne mijt • in his bodi sinke, He »t« nothing; 

^ ' ^ bat wee fcd with 

but held him finliche i-fed • his fille to loke 768 looidnghisflii 

on fe mayde meliors chau7?2ber • for wham he s[o] chamber. 

euer whan it neijed ni^t * noy^ed was he sore, 
fan wold he wend to his chamber • • <fe gret wo make ; 
but no seg bat him serued • mi^t be sobe wite 772 None knew why 

° ' y / M he ifrieved, or 

whi him was f anne so wo • ne where he was on dayes ; whither bo went. 

non durst for drede • him demly a-spie, 

but lett him worche his wille * as wel as him liked. 

ac deliuerly was he ditt • uch day at morwe, 776 He went every 

▼ -^ "^ day to the garden, 

& feifli boute felachipe • fond wold he walke, 
& go iri-to fe gardyn • his greues for to felake, 

» MS. repwta " wal." » See note. » MS. " chanber." 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


looking toward* wevtende to be windowe • & his wo newene, 

Helior's window, -«*— . ' 

& sike fill mani si}>e * and sum time quake ; 780 

swiche drede & dol • drou^ to his hert, 
lest he ne schold neuer in world • winne fat he jemed. 
and saffeped so burth be soFwos bat he sufred ' • sob forto telle, 

that hit oolour ^ '^ ^ ^ ^ 

fcded. al his cler colour • comsed forto fade. 784 

Febul wax he & faynt • for-waked a-ni^tes, 
ac no wi^t of pis world * mi^t wite of his care, 
but )^an tid on a time ' as \\a tale minges, 
[Foi. 18.1 pat willeam went til pis gardin * his wo fort* slake, 788 
watched,*" & vnder his tri appeltre • turned to sitte, 

as wei3h al for-waked * for wo vpon ni^tes. 
and as he a-weited to pe windowe • wi3tly per-after, 
he feU asleep. he slod sUjli a-doun • a-slepe ful harde, 792 

— * as a wo wery* weijh • for-waked to-fore. 

but menge we now of meliors • pat momed panne 
Heiior** grief had as sadli in hire si^t * or sorer yd sche mi^t, 
hu, ** ^ **— pe loue of loueli wilh'am • lay hire so nere. 796 

and she asked pauue asked sche pis of alisau/idrine * as pe hap tidde, 

Alexandrine if Tk* i mi • n i i 

she had found the Ki^t as William woful * SO was wox a-slcpe, 
***'^ wher sche hade gete hire gras • pat schold hire greues 

" nay, madame, nou^t ^ut " • seide pe maide panne, 800 
** pou^h haue i fele times fonded • to finde it ^if i mijt, 
••Notyet.** she but eiier wTouit i in wast • be wors hab me liked. 

■aid. "but let us' .. '^ ... \ 1. V- • J 

go into the ^c Were it jour wille nowe • to worche bi mi rede, 

**'^^' Go we to pe gardyn • to gode may it tume ; 804 

For feire floures schal we finde • of foulen song here, 
& purth cuwifort may cacche • swiche happ mai falle, 
to haue pe better hele • at joure hom-kome." 
parte pis menskful meliors • mekeliche hir graimted, 
Forto worche al hire wille • as sche wold deuise. 809 
So they went panne a-ro8 sche raddely • & romden rijt iTi-fere, 

down the steps « j i. • . 

Into the garden, & gan doun bi a grece * in-to pe gardin euene, 

1 M9. << sofreded." See 1. 1014. 3 See note. 

» Or, " wer>." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


boute burde or bam • but hem-self tweyne. 812 

for alisauTtdrine anon ' atteled p&t time, 
& knewe wel bi hire craft • fat sche hade cast bi-fore, 
fat )>ei witterli f anne schold • wif willat/m mete. 
r& whan pe gaye gerles • were in-to fe gardin come, 816 where were Mr 
Faire flonres J)ei founde • of fele maner hewes, wnils***" *'*'* 

fat swete * were of sauor • & to f e si3t gode ; 
& eche biisch fill of briddes • fat blif cliche song, 
bof e fe f nisch & f e f nistele • bi xxxti of bof e, 820 
Meleden ful merye • in maner of here kinde. 
& alle freliche foules • fat on fat frif songe, t'®*- >« *J 

for merf e of fat may time * fei made moche noyce, foHo"*©? thr'*^^ 
to glade wif uch gome • fat here gle herde. 824 Maytime. 

ac meliors for al fat merf e • momede so stronge, 
so harde hacches of loue ' here hert hadde f irled, 
bat ber nas irle vnder cod • bat hire glade mi?t. But nothing oouid 

'^ r -. ^ r ,o« gUdden Mellor, 

but feif H fo[rj febulnesse • feynt wax sche sone, 828 who sat down i« 

fat vnder a semli sikamour • sche sett hire to reste, ^ycwnore. 

& fat burde hire by • fat al hir bale wiste. 

fan gan Meliors mu72ge * fe meschef fat hir eyled ; 

fat ofer comsede to carp • of cumfort & ioie, 832 

& efer munged of f e mater * fat f ai most louede. 

but alisaundrine ber-after • a^non bi a wile, But AiezMdrine 

'^ a«pled WiUiwn, 

federward as william was • wayted wel 3eme, and Mdd, 

For sche wiste wel y-now • where fat he laye. 836 

& f anne seide sche as swif e * to fat semly mayde, 

" Madame, melior, so dere • be Marie in heuene, "Madame, there 

' ' ' u lODie one asleep 

Me f inkef ich se a seg * a-slepe here bi-side. *»«f^ 
whef er he be kni^t or bachiler • wot i nener for sofe, 

ac he semes bi semblant • in sekenes ful harde. 841 m.^etus'gowid 

fer-for, lady, go we loke • wat seknes him eyles, **^'" 
& what bam fat he be • fa in bale lenges." 

-^ fe menskful mayde meliors • fan mekliche saide, 844 ^;^*2,^'"''' 

" a ! madame, melior • now mendes 30ure chere, Ibftt uT* ^^^^^' 

For y-wisse, jond is willwtm • fat ^e so wel louef, wiiuami" 

1 MS. "swcto." 
3 • 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


sum hard hacche has he had • & hider com to plei^e 
Forto lissen his langour • & lyes here a-elepe, 848 

For Je swete sawour • of pise semly floures ! " 

Si^w*'*" l-%anne was J^at menskful meliors • muchel y-gladed, 
-■ & gon fan to fat gome • a god pas al bof e. 
& as tit as f ei come him to • f e sofe for to telle, 852 
fei sett hem doun softly • ])at semly be-fore. 

hufi!^ ****"*'' & wanne fe mayde meliors • mi3t se his face, 
sche f out froly in herte • fat leuer hire were 
haue welt him at wille • fan of f e world be queue ; 
[FoL 17.] so fair of alle fetures • f e frek was, hire f ou^t. 857 

would &in h»Te & favu sche wold ban in feib • haue fold him in hire 

kissed hlin, but '^ ^ 

was afraid of anueS, 

*** "* to haue him clipped & kest • kenely fat tide, 

ac sche dred it to done • for of er derne a-spyes. 860 
alysauTidrine fan a-non • attlede here f ou3tes, 

Tiieii Aiexandriue & wi^tlv wib here whiles • dede wiUiam to mete 

cauM.1 WUUam ... , , , 

to dream, fat fat time him f oujt • fat melior f e hende 

and alysaumlrine al-one * com him f o tille, 864 

& f e mayde melior • ful mekly him brou3t 

that Melior ^ ful real rose • and redly it him takes. 

brought him a " 

rose, which at & whauue he in bond hit hade • hastely hit semede, 

once oured him. ^ 

fat he was al sauf & souwd • of alle his sor greues. 868 
& for his langor was so lissed • swich likyng he hadde, 
& so gretly was gladed • fat he gan a-wake. 
amw^nt^* It ^ ^^^^ ^^ 8ei3 fat semly • sitte him bi-fore, 
before her, and He was al a-wondred • and wiatly he vp-rises, 872 

greeted her. ^ '^ r -~» 

& kurteyslyche kneling • fat komli he grett, 
& afterward alysauTidrine • as he wel out. 
& fe mayde melior • ful mekly fan saide, 
« our Loni give u j^j i^^eU sweto lemmaw • oure lord aif f e ioye I " 876 

thee Joy, dear ^ ' '' 

love," said Melior. ^ willtam fan vnderstod ; fe word fat sche saide ; 

fat sche him called " leue lemman" * it liked so hie hert, 
iltonuhedto f** witerly he coufe no word • long fer-after spek, 
heartier say but Stared ou here stifly • a-stoneyd for ioye, 880 

Digitized by 


Lore had shot an 
arrow throoi^ 

William's oonfession to albxandrine. 37 

bat he cast al his colour • and bi-com pale, " <*w »o^«»" "»* 

* ^ ^ his ooloar went 

— and eft red as rose • in a litel while. and c*nw. 

so witerlj was J»at word • wounde to hert, 
]»at he ferd ^ a mased man * an marred nei^ honde, 884 
so lonely lone fat time • lent him an arewe 
hetterly Jmrth his hert • for J>at hende mayde wt heart, 

cald him " leue lemman " • he les al his mi3t, 

"Dot alysauwdrine wiste wel • what fat him eyled, 888 

■^ & seide to him soberly • f ise seine words : — 

" swete william, seie me now * what seknes be greues 1 Ai«xandrin« 

' ' ^ naked him what 

bi faire hewe is al fade • for bi moche sore : aicknesa aued 

& ^if ich mi^t in ani manor * J>e amende, y wold." 892 [Foi. it 6.i 

fan willunn wijtly * in fis wise answered, 

sikende ful sadly * for sor at bis hert, 

« Mi dere gode damisele • my def is al ^are, Ta^ir™?"^ 

80 a botteles bale • me byndef so barde, 896 JJU^^*****^^ 

nas nener feller fener • fat euer frek hadde^ 

for merthe & alle metes * it makes me to leve, 

slepe sertes may [i] nou^t ^ * so sore it me greues, 

& al f is mochel meschef • a meting i wite, 900 {^"^.^ ***'"' 

fat me com on a ni^t * a-cursed be fat time ! 

for so hard hacches * bane hold me sef fe, 

fa i not in f e world • what is me to rede." 

"now swete," seide alisaundrine • "seie me in what |i,^*]|^*'«J^ 

wise 904 »>»« P^" "izea 


fat fat bache f e haldes • & how it f e takes ? " 

" I-wisse," seide wiUmm • " i wol it noujt layne, 

suTn-time it hentis me wif bete • as hot as ani fure, "itaometimee 

. 1. 1 1 oo'resonaehot 

but quichche so kene a cold • comes ber-after : 908 »• flre, «nd then 

^. . . , « . . , like a keen chlU." 

sum tmie i si^n & singe * samen to-geder, 
& fan 80 froli f oujtes • furlen myn herte, 
fat i ne wot in f e world • where it bi-comse, 
Por feifli in my-self • y fele it nou^t fanne." 912 

Jmnne alisanTidrine a-non ' f er-after seide, 
1 Head " may t nouzt."— M. 

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•' How WM it au « will/am, i wold pe pray ■ fatow me woldest telle 
dream?" bi what cas al ))i care * comsed bi a sweuene 1 " 

"nai sertes, sweting," he seide • " pai schal i neuer, 916 
"Thatiwui For no meschef on molde • bat me may falle ! 

never tell you,** '^ 

he replied. I haue leuer it layne * & p'lB langour ))ole, 

^^h i for dreeing of ]>is duel * deie at pe last ; 

J»er schal [no] wi3th of f e world * wite whi it comsed ! " 

«*r<mTri<*neesiii i^anne seide alisandrine • " auntrose is bin euel, 921 

perUooB," said '^ ' 

Alexandrine. ful wonderlicho it Je weues • wel i wot fe sofe." 
" ^a i-wisse," seide willtam • " wonderli me greues, 
for my seknes wif my si^tes • sum time slakes, 924 

& mani times dof me moume • mor fan to-fore." 

Then taid MeUor j^elior fat mildc mayde • in fe mene tyme J)0U3t, 
(Foi. 18.] ^ seide softily to hire-self • fise selue wordes, 

" a ! gracious god • grettest of us alle, 928 

"Godbeip 08 tak hede to fin hond-werk • & help now vs tweyne ! 

newwraJuke For sertes, fis same sekenes • mi-self it holdes 

^**' In alle wise as it dof william • & wors, as ich wene. 

& f ouh ich se fat is sekenes • sore hit him haldes, 932 

for pitously he is a-peyred • fat perles was to si3t 

of feimesse and of fasoun • fat ani frek schold haue— 

If he only knew "but weilawey ! fat he ne wist • what wo y drye, 

& haue do lelly for is loue * a wel long while ! 936 

& but he wi^tly wite • y-wisse, y am done ; 
Por y dar nou^t for schame • schewe him mi wille, 
but 3if he wold in ani wise • him-self schewe formest." 

Alexandrine while Mcliors in here maner • mened to hire-selue, 940 

SbS^iTOkBj ^ alysaundrine a-non • attlede alle here fou3tes, 

sche knewe wel bi kuntenaunce • of kastyng of lokes. 

fan wi3tly to wilU'am • f ise wordes sche sede, 

" I see wel be f i semblant • what seknesse f e eyles, 944 

and told wiuiam hele f ou it neuer [so] hard * • al holliche y knowe, 

SJ^ta'i^*** fat it ben lestes of loue • fat f e so hard helden ; 
f ou waltres al in a weih • & wel y vnderstande 
whider fe belaunce bremliest • bouwes al-gate. 948 

> Eead " neuer 8o hard."--M. See the next line. 

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and sef f e y se it is so * sof li y f e wame, 

I wol a litel and litel • laskit in hast." 

J>an willJam wel vnderstod • sche wist what him eilede. Then wm hd son 

& knew al is koueyne • for oujt he kou]»e hide, 952 to her, 

he was a-drad to pe def • last sche him dere wold. 

]»an sette he him on knes * & soft seyde hire tiUe, 

" Mercy, menskful mayde • for Marie lone of heuene ! ^^j,^^^ **" ^ 

I gif me al in f i grace • my greues tp help, 956 

For fou mi^t lengf e mi liif • ^if fe likes sone." 

|>an alysaundrine a-non * answered & saide, 

" how mi^t i fe help 1 • what haue i to pi bote 1 " y<S r'X^ ^^ 

"I-wisse," pan seyde williom • "i wol no lenger hele, 960 *"*«*'«^ 

My lii^ my langor, & my def • lenges in f i warde ; 

but i pe stumer haue socour • of fat swete mayde, "UnkM Tiii© 

pe comliche creature • fat in fi keping dwelles, Hm^^Jweet 

alle the sunrens of salerue • ne schul saue mi line. 964 ™"'*» ^ ''••^* 

® Burdj die.** 

f er-for loueliche ladi * in )>e lis al min hope, 

])ou mi3t me spakly [saue] * ojjer spille • ^if f i-self likes." 

Alysaundrine a^non • banne answered & sayde, "sinoeyoohave 

•^ ' *' ' told me the truth 

"now i-wisse, wilham • witow for sobe, 968 •ndtnwtme, i 

r« . 11- ^ . .^ . ^ . ., were to blame not 

Se)))>e f ou sadli hast me said - pe so)>e of fi cuTwade, to help you. 

& tellest me treuly • fou trestes to my help, 

jif i mi^t in ani maner • mende J)i sorwe, 

but i were busi fer a-boute * to blame i were. 972 

fer-for certes, be fou sur • sef it may be no ofer, mrhSp!"^^* *" 

holliche al min help * fou schalt haue sone." 

fan wiUtam was gretliche glad • & loueliche hire f onked. 

fan alisaundrine a-non • as sche wel couf e, 976 

clepud bat mayde meliors • mekeliche hir tille. ^®" AiexMdrine 

, called Melior to 

& seide, " a mercy, madame • on bis man here, *»«'» ■ayiiig,**Pity 

I , , . this man, who la , 

fat ne^h is driue to fe def * al for youre sake ! " near death for 

" how so for my sake ? " • seide melior f anne ; 980 
" I wraf ed him neuer fat i wot • in word ne in dede." 
** no sertes, madame, fat is sof " • saide fat ofer, 
» Eead « spakly saue other spnie."— M. 

thy sake: 

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who has " ac he has langnred for Jour loue • a ful Ipng while : 

languiihwl for ° ^ . ° 

thy love a long & bxlt je graunt mm 3our grace • him greifh to help, 

& late him he ^our lemman * lelly for ener, 985 

his liif nel nou3t for langour * last til to-morwe. 
J^erfor, comeliche creature * for crist J^at pe made, 
' les nou^t is liif ^ut ' for a litel wille. 988 

Ti^jiimforttij ggjj^ Y^Q QQ i^y j^ iQ^Qg . ^ lemman him Jk)u take." 

)»an meliors ful mekliche * to ])at mayde carped, 

and seide ful sohurli * smyland a litel, 

" nou hi god )>at me gaf * pe gost & pe soule, 992 

MTti^mu^um ^ ^®P® 3^** ^^^ ^^ creature • manquellere he clepud, 
than wii him," fj^ Iqvlqt me wcrc lelly • a manes liif to saue. 

■aid Melior. *' 

BBppe he for me is so marred * & has misfare long, 
ful prestely for fi praire • & for Je perile als, 996 

[FoL !«.] ])at i se him set inne * and to saue his Hue, 
"Toiarehtoiito, h[er]e i grauut him grejli • on godis holi name, 

I will grant hln 

mjioTe.- lelliche mi loue for euer • al mi lif time, 

A gif a gift here to god • & to his gode moder, 1000 
J)at of er lud, whil i Hue • schal i loue neuer ! " 

Thon wmiam whan William herd bise wordes * i hete be forsobe, 

thanked Qod 

beartuy, he knclcd quikH on knes * & oft god fonked, 1003 

& seide, " god ! fat madest man • & al middel erfo, 
a mijti miracle for me • hastow wrou^t noJ>e." 
andheandMeitor fan mckcd he him to meHors * on aUe maner wise, 
each other. as fe gladdest gom * fat euer god wrou^t. 

& sche sertes hi hire side * fe same him graunted, 1008 
to worche wif hire al his wiUe • as he wel liked. 
Then they dasped fan eifcr hcut ofor ' hastely in armes, 
Sher. and told & wif kcuc kosscs * kuffcd hem to-gidere, 1011 

so fat no mwrf e upon mold • no mijt hem het haue lyked. 
& tit f anne told eche til ofer • here tenes & here sorwe, 
fat sadly for eif ers sake • hadden suflfred long. 
Alexandrine banne alLsaundrine anon * attlede be sobe, 

thought the *^ . 

would not be fat hire maistres & fat man * no schuld hire nou^t 
misse, 1016 

f ejh sche walked a while • wide from here sijt^ 

each other of their 

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for sche trowed trewly • to talke fe sofe, Su^ ^^^ 

were sche out of pe weye • j^at willtam wold fonde 
for to pleie in fat place • fe priue loue game, 1020 

& to hete here fan* to layke * here Hkyng fat time, 
"ache gof a-boute in-to fe gardyn • for to gader floiires, Jjj,]^* J^^ 
& to wayte fat no wei^h • walked f er-inne, ^^J^ "^^^^ ^^^ 

for drede of descuueryng • of fat was do fere. 1024 **»«^ 

willtom wel wif meliors • his wille fan dede, 
& layked fere at lyking * al f e long daye, 

til fe sunne was nei^h set • sof li, to reste. ^Tm^Ji^o 

fanne alisaundrine at arst • fan antresse hem tille, 1028 rotumed. 
& mekly to meliors • " madame," fan sche seide, 
" hane je geten f e gras • fat i jou geynliche hi^t ? 
I trowe .trowli be f is time • 30ur sorwe be passed ; 
eifer of 3011, as y leue • is god leche til ofer, 1032 [PoL 196.] 

alle fe surgyens of saleme • so sone ne confen they^S^fST" " 

haue joup lango«*res a-legget • i lene for sofe." ^*' ^^ 

fan willwnn wax wi^tly • wonderli a-schamed, 
& he & meliors mercy • mekly hire criede 1036 They prajcd her 

^ J to keep their 

to kauere wel here cunseile • for cas in bis erbe, eouMei. and 

'^ '^ ' thanked her 

- & froli hire fonked • moni fousand sifes; ©ten. 

" For sche hade bron^t hem of bale • bof e," f ei seide, 
" & i-lengfed here lif • mani long 3ere." 1040 

Alisaundrine anon • after fat ilke she warned 

'^ MeUorthatlt 

bad meliors manly • here merfe fan stinte, waanearnWJt, 

& seide, " it is so nei^h ni^t • fat nedes mote ye parte ; 

I drede me of descuuering • for je haue dwelled long." 

'^ alias ! fis mochel meschef" * saide melior fanne, 1045 

" fis day is schorter to si^t • fan it semed euere ! " TiSJtoSJ ofuie'** 

& williom seide fe same * sof li fat time. 

but alisaundrine anon * answerede & seide, 1048 

** Make 3e no mourning • for 3e may mete eft 

demli hennes-forf eche day • whan 30U dere likes ; "»*«*»* "»**»* •«^* 

for-f i hasteli bofe * heije 30U a-sunder." 

1 Bead *< ic to-gedere fan " (?) Bat see note. 


She reminded 
them that they 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

each other, and 
retained hiqipy, 


psjme sei^ )>ei no socour * but sunder ^anne pei moste ; 

Sd'tSkSSJof ^^ clipping & kessing • fei kau3t here leue, 1053 

& eij>er tok tit is way • to his owne chaumber, 
blisM for J)ei were botned • of here bales strong, 

JStoSwX* 8eJ>J)en hastely were J>ei hoi • & haden alle here wille. 
wij> alle listes of loue * alle longe jeres 1057 

priueli vnperceyued • f ei pleyed to-gedere, 
^t no seg vnder sunne * souched no gile. 

wiiiiMD WM so wel was wilh'am bi-loued • wib riche & wib pore, 1 060 

beloved both bj r r ^^ f 

rich and poor. Mid so fre to foffe alle frekes • wib ful faire wftes, 

eepedallr by the , ' ' ' 

emperor. jat j^emperouT BOpli him-self • soueraynli him loued, 

tFoL ».] & seJ)J>e alle ofer seges • fat sei^en him wij» ei^en; 

thdl^MSei wSu. * *^te alisaundrine • at alle poyntes hemserued 1064 
so slijliche, J^at no seg * souched non euele, 
but alle gaue/i god word • to gomes f&t hem plesede. 

JhTihA^f" "*** Pr^* *^^^® *^' ^^ ^^^ • as fe tale minges, 

SlHn thf* J^ dou3ti duk of saxoyne • drow to fat londe 1068 

emperor of Borne, -^{j, ouer-gret* ost * godmen of armes, 

wrongly forto werre * wif f emperour fat time. 
& wif bobaunce & wif host • brent fele tounes, 

wuhtto^'hta' ^^ strengf e him wif-stod • of sad stonen walles, - 1072 
but bet a-doun burwes • & brutned moche peple,* 
so fat duel was to deme • fe duresse fat he wroujt. 
whanne f ese tyding were told • to f emperour of rome, 
he was gretly a-grcued' • no gome fort him blame, 1076 
fat eni wei^h of f e world * schuld werre on his lond. 

and sent mea- his sondes banne he sente • swibe al a-boute 

— "— m to all his ' ' 


The emperor was 
greatly grieved. 

lords to alle fe lordes of his land * to lasse & to more, 

fat oujten him omage • or ani seute elles, 1080 

& warned hem werfore ' he wijtly hem of-sent, 

tocometotoi & het hem alle hi^e fider • as harde as fei mi3t, 

wel wamished for f e werre • wif clene hors & armes. 
whanne femperours komauwdmewt • was kud al a- 
boute, 1084 

* MS. *'oiwr gart gret;*» see note. 'MS. ** a-greuet.'^ 

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Mani was Jwit bold bam • fat busked fider sone, 

kinges & kud dukes • & knitted ful ffode, ^N{«, dak«^ 

" -^ ° knlffaU, and men 

& ober bold buraes • a-boute sexti bousand, «•">• *« w»». 

•" alle boun to batayle • in fdl brijt armes. 1088 ^Jf~*^'«' 
and ri3t in^to rome * alle f e rinkes drowe, 
to wite J>emperour8 wille • how be wiiche )K)U3t. 


hanne willmm bat worbi cbild • wist of bat fare, when wmiam 
was no glader gom * J^at euer god made, 1092 wMTerygUui. 

be went euen to J^emperour • & enys him sayde, 
knelyng on bis kne • curteysli & faire, 
" Gode sir, for goddis lone • grant me a bone ; ffoi- » M 

and prayed the 

;if me be ordur of kniat * to go to bis dedus, 1096 emperor to grant 

\ '^ -? o r 9 hini a boon. Tiz. 

& i bope to beuene king • mi belp scbal noujt fayle, to knight wm. 

fat i nel manly wif mi mijt • meynte[ne] 30UP rijt." 

femperour was gretly glad ' & graunted bis wille, 

& m^e bim kniat on tbe morwe • & mo for bis sake. ^^ emperor 

^ gladly knighted 

of proude princes sones • dou^ti men toward, 1101 both wm and » 

Fulle foure scbore • for williames lone, wiiuam their 

& ^af hem bors & armes * as an bend lord scbold, 
& made william here wardeyn • as he wel mi3t, 1104 
— to gye & to goueme • f e gay yong kni^tes. 
& wbanne J)empe[r]ours ost • was hoUi a-sembled, 
he told to-fore be grete * bis tene & his barmes, The emperor teUs 

his men what 

how pe duk of saxoyne • dede bim gret wrong, ' 1 108 iiarm the king of 
brent bis nobul burwes • & his bumes quelled, 
^ iu komande hem kendely * here cunseile to jeue, 

In what wise were best * to wreke bim fanne. StIcI?* ^^^ 

& alle seide at sawe • "sire, we jou rede, , 1112 

strecches forf wif jour ost ' stintcf no lenger, 
& fondes to do be duk • what duresse 7e may. They adrtoe bim 

to pursue the 

*^ hampres him so harde * to sum cost fat be drawe, dake tosomedty. 

... •.« ■!•• •ntc and shut him up 

sewes bim to sum cite • & a-sege mm fere, 111b there. 

til je wif fin fors • fe freke baue wonne." 


hanne femperour wist wel • f[e] wille of his cnnr "^ff^J^ 

qqyIq, ^^^ proTl8l<ms. 

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Thej Mon came 
to where the duke 

The duke lends to 

[FoL SL] 

and challenge the 

The emperor telk 
William of this 

William aays he 
hopes they will 
abate Uie duke's 

Both hosts pre- 
pare for the 

he <ii3t him deliuerly • & dede him on gate 

hoUj wij) al his herde • fat he hade a-sembled. 1120 

& wel fei were waraeetured • of vitayles i-now, 

plentiuosly for al peple • to passe where fei wold. 

& so harde pei hi^ed ])aii * i hote pe for soj^e^ 

fat al fe clene cuwpanye • com to fe place 1124 

neij fere as J>e dou^ti duk • duresse so wrou^t. 

to J>e duk was it told tit • trewli f e sof e, 

how femperour wif ost* • fider was come, 

to a-wreke him of pe wrong * fat fan was wroujt fere, 

& swife for bobauTice & host • burnes he sent 1129 

enuiously to f emperour • & egged him swife 

bi a certayne day • bataile to arbide, 

or elles, he sent him to say • schortely he wold 1132 

bruttene aUe hise burnes • & brenne his londes. 

f ise tyding were told • to f emperour sone, 

& wijtly whan he f anne wist * william he caUe[d],' 

fat jong bold bacluler • & bliue him told 1136 

how despitously f e duk • of fat dede him warned, 

to be boun be a certayne day • batayle to holde. 

sir willtam ful wisly • f ise wordes f anne seide, 

" sir, god for his grace • grauwt jou wel to spede, 1140 

to a-bate f e host • of fat breme duke. 

& so hope i wel, sire • we schal atte best." 

ful menskfully to f e messangeres • f empei-our fan seide, 

he wold be boun blef eli • f e bold batayle to hold, 1144 

& fei bliue dude hem forf * & f e duk tolde. 

fan bof e parti3es prestly • a-paraylde hem fat time 

of alle tristy a-tir • fat to batayle longed, 

& made hem aUe merie * in fe mene while, 1148 

til f e selue day fat was set • sof ly was come, 

& bof e partyes here place • pertiliche hade chosen 

In a ful fayre feld \feifly to telle. 

fanne busked fei here batayles • on fe best wise, 1152 

» MS. has a blank apace between "ost" and " |>ider ;** see note. 
« Read " caUed."— M. 

Digitized by 


wojaau'q fibbob onset on thb fob. 45 

& whanne J>e renkes were arayed • redly as J>ei wold, 

bugles & bemes • men gun blowe fast, Thebngi««»nd 

& alle maner menstracie • fere was mad f anne, *>*»^^ 

foito bardien )>e hertes * of here hei^h bomes. 1156 

fanne bi-gan )>e batayle • breme for \>e nones ; '*• ^••**^* '^^"^ 

Mani strok in Htel stoonde * stemely was )>er ^euen, 

& mani a bold bume * sone broujt of line. 

but schortly for to telle • fe schap of J>is tale, 1160 

ye duk hade fe dou^tiere men • to deme fe sofe, Tbeduka'sman 

& mani mo Jan peiaperoui * & )>ei so manly fou^ten, nnmeroiM. 

Jat balfuUy fe ferst batayle • fei brutned to def e, 

& fai fill fast for fere ' gunne fle J^an )»at mi^t ; ' 1164 

but be almauws seweden sadly • & slowe doun riites. (FoL «i 6.i 

, . •• . .11-1 TheAlmajM 

whan bemp^rour say bat sitt • his men so i-queUed, prerftU ngaiJMt 

(he &ODUUU. 

liiTn was wonderli wo * witow for BOpe, 

ful pitousli fan preiede he • to J)e prince of heuene 1168 

forto giif him grace ' his gomes to saue, 

& seide, " heijh king of heuene • for pi holy name, JJi^TtoGad. 

ne fauore noujt so my [fo] * • fat felsly me so marres. jSj^TJ^hta 

for god what *, i na gult him neuer • to gif hiw enche- ******* 

soun ^ 1172 

forto wirch me no wrong • ne werre on my londe. 
& lord ! he is my lege man * lelly f ou knowes, 
for holly fe londes fat he has ' he holdes of mi-selue, 
fer-for fe wronger he wirches • al fe world may knoiy. t Uilf'It^Sj,toCT* 
for-fi a mynde on me, lord • for fi moder loue, 1177 
help me haue f e herre hand • her-afifler in my rijt 1 ** 

yjUUliam f e jong knijt • was so neijh be side, 
' ' fat he herd f e pytous pleint • fat femperour made, 7"**^^***^*^ 
^ & siked for sorwe fer-of • sore wif-alle. 1181 hi«men 

but quicly clepud he • fe ^ong kni3tes alle, 
& seide, '* leue lordinges * lestenes to mi sawe ; 
non3 go we kife oure kni^thod -for cristes loue of ^tethoU™*'** 
heuene, 1184 ^^^^ 

> Bead « mjfoe that falsly."— M. « Sic. Eead " wot." 

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WUlUm's fierce 

Be slaja six of 
the RTMteBt with 

indndlng the 
duke's nephew 
and hlB steward. 

The dnke is mad 
with wrath, and 
points oat 

They rash off to 
attack WUIlam. 

who Is at last 
orerpowered and 

Lo, onre folk ginnej) to falle * for defaute of help, 
lettes noujt for ^oure Hues • joup lord forto socoure, 
hasteli wif god hert nou^ • hijes jou to fe dede, 1187 
& ho-so faile)) for feyntyce • wild fur him for-brenne ! " 
J>an wijtly boute mo wordes • willtam ginnes ride, 
freely toward here fos • as frek out of witte ; 
J)ere J»e pres was perelouste * he priked in formest, 
& blessed so wij his bri^t bront • a-boute in eche side, 
j)at what rink so he raujt • he ros neuer after. 1193 
& sofli forto seie • wij)-inne a schort while, 
willkzm wif his owne bond • so wi3tliche pleide, 
)»at he slow six of ]^ grettes[t] * 6o]» forto telle, 1196 
& psi dou3tiest were of dede * of J>e dukes ost 
{>at on was his neuew * a nobul kni^t of armes, 
fat oper was his stiward • fat sti^tled al his meyne. 
pe oper were lordes of fat lond • lelly of fe best. 1200 
& whanne pe duk was war • how willtam him demeyned, 
- & how balfally he brutned ' his bumes to def e, 
& nameliche for his newe * fat nam he most to herte, 
he wax neij ou3t of his witte * for wraf & for anger, 
& clepud on his kni^tes ' fat kene were & nobul, 1205 
& seide, " lordinges for my loue • no lenger ne stintes, 
but chases fat kene knijt • fat f is kare vs werches. 
Loo, how luferly fat lud • leyes on oure bumes, 1208 
non may is steme strok • wifstande fat he hittes." 
f us despitusly f e duk • drayed him f anne, 
fat his kni^tes swif e swore • what [so] it bi-tidde, 
f ei wold winne william wi jtly • of er quik or dede. 1212 
fan ride to-gedere a gret route • of rinkes ful nobul, 
& went euen to sir willtam * & wonderli him bi-sette ; 
ac he wif doujti dentes • defended him long, 
but, sofliche for to telle * so was he ouer-macched, 1216 
fat fei wif fyn force • for-barred his strokes, 
& wouwdede him wikkedly • & wonne him of his stede, 
& bounden him as bliue • him bale to wirche, 
& drowen him toward fe duk • his dom forto here. 

Digitized by 



but wiUiam whiles • fat wi^tly of-sei^yen, 1221 Batwmuun* 

men otniM to his 

& demened hem dou^tili * dintes te dele, nwiw. 

ye 3ong kene knijtes * so kudden here 8treng)>e, 

fat J>ei wonne hem wi^tly • weyes ful large, 1224 

til fei hadde perced )>e pres * pMily to here maister, 

& rescuede him rediliche • for * rinkes fat him ladden. unuind wm.*"** 

fan f ei him vnbond bliue * & biou3t him his stede, 

& triliche was he a-tired * in ful tristy armee ; 1228 

his scheld on his schulder * a scharp sweid in honda 

& whan f is willtam was jare • he waited him a-beute, wmiLriii!^ 

leferly as a lyoun • he lepes in-to fe prcse, **" atuck. 

prestly fer as fe pres ' of peple was fikkest. 1232 

fanne lente he swiche leuere • to ledes fat he of- 

fat fe lif Bone he les * fat lau^t ani dint, 
& ener ban drow he to be duk • deland swiche paye. t'o*- « >i 

'^ ' *^^ catting hlB way 

& as sone as he him seij • he sesed a spere, 1236 JJ»rou«h totha 

& dressed him to fe duk * presteU to iuste. 

A whan f o duk was war • fat he wold come, ra«)2nJ^ um 

— boute feyntice of feuer* • he festned his spere, *^ 

& grimly wif gret cours • eijfer gerdef ofer. 1240 

& William wif god wille • so wel fe duk hitt, 
fat f urth scheld & scholder * f e scharpe sp^e grint, 
& hetterly bofe hors & man * he .hurled to fa grouTide, wuiiun hurit 
fanne li^tly lep he a-doun * & lau3t out his brond, 1244 ground. 

& deliuerliche to f e duk • deuoteliche he seide, 

«.« Ar. WillUmt 

I thank- 


"sire, fou seidest me 3er-while -fou schuldest me do S?ii*^"^th»*i* 

quelle, fWforhtoown 

A madest f i men me binde • meschef to f ole ; 

but gretly y fonk god • fat gart me a-chape, 1248 

& dede fe wante f i wille • for fou wrong f outest. 

tut, sire, in f e same seute • sett artow nouj, 

& y am prest as f i prisou^i • to paye f e my ransum ! 

jeld fe to me 3eply • or jerne fou schalt deie, 1252 JSiwl^^r'** 

For alle fe men vpon mold • ne mow it now letta" "'"^• 

» Bead "fro." » Read "boute feyntice, on feuter " (?) 

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Tbe duke yields 
ap hit •word, and 
Mk8 for mercy. 

WUUam Ukee hla 
•trord. Mid Ukes 
him to the 

irho embraces 
and klMes WUUam 
for joy. 

Then WilUam 
deHvered the duke 
to the emperor. 


The dnke's men 
fled away as fast 
as they could. 

The Romans 
pursued them, 
slaying and 
taking prisoners. 

BO ttiat very few 
of them got 

Night feU, and It 
grew very daric. 

and 0ome got 
away in tlie 

I^e duk fan was in drede • & wend to deie sone, 
-■ & lelly, jK)U3h him lo)) ))0U3t • no lenger to striue, 
8wi}>e he ^ald vp his swerd * to saue ]»anne his Hue, 1 256 
& seide, " man, for fi mensk * hane mercy on me noa|>e, 
lette me nonjt lese pe liif ^ut * lord, j Je bi-cheche." 
))anne willtam witly • as a wi^h hende, 
receyued of fat riche duk • realy his swerde, 1260 

& euen to |>emperour * wif him fan he hi^ed. 
wanne f emperour 8ei3h willtam come • A wif him fe 

he was on f e gladdest gome ' fat mi^t go on erf e ; 
& willtam f anne to welkome * he wendes him a^eynes, 
& clipte him kindeli ' & kest fele sifes. 1265 

fan William wi^tly • as he wel couf e, 
profered him fat prisoner * prestely at his wille 
to do fan wif fe duk • what him dere fou^t. 1268 

f emp^our fat worf i willtam • wel oft fan fonked 
of f e grete grace fat god * godliche fere schewede, 
& strokes was f er delt na mo ' fram fe duk was taka 
For al his folk fan gunne fle • as fast as fei mijt, 1272 
& he fat hadde best hors ' fan held him best saued. 
but f emperours men manly • made fe chace, 
& slowen doun bi eche side • wham fei of-take mijt, 
but 3if fei manly hem meked • mercy to crie. 1276 

A euer willtam so wi3tly * went hem a-mong 
to pe boldest bumes • as he bi-fore hadde, 
fat sof ly dar y seie * f urth his socour f anne, 
Ri3t fewe went a-wey • vn-woundet or take. 1280 

ac hadde f e day last lenger ' lelli to seye, 
no wi3t a-wei hadde schaped • i wot wel f e sofe. 
but f e ni^t was so nei3h • fat non mi3t sen of er 
fe furfe del of a furlong * from him fat time. 1284 
& in fat dark f e dukes [men] * • wif-drow hem manie, 
& ho-Bo hardest mi3t hi3e * held him nou3t bi-giled. 
femp^'our' wif moche merf e • his men fan meled ; 
» Bead « the dukes mmr -M. \^S. ** f cmpour." 

Digitized by 



& wlianne Jei samen were a-sembled • soj) for to telle, 

]>ei hadde take p&t time * of trie grete lordes 1289 

Fulle fine handered • of ful nobul prisouns, w^* htmdrad hMt 

been taken, and 

wi^ute alle pe bumes * ])at in batayle deide. nutny autn. 

yoxL was JTemperonr greteli glad * & ofbe god {conked, 

& Williams werk • fat be so wel badde spedde. 1293 

& boUiche baiine wib bis bost • bi;ede to bere tentes The Romiuw 

« ,1 « , , retire to tiidr 

<^wi|} merJTO of alle menstracye * & made bem attese, tents. 

& turned to rest at time ' til erlicbe a morwe. 1296 
& wanne bei were a-rise • bei remewed to cbercbe, Nextmomimc. 

' ' ti:e7 go to church 

& beiden boUy bere masse * & afterward sone and hear nuaa. 

femperour al boUicbe • bis cunseyle dede clepe, 

& sone bi bere a-sent ' at J^at selue time, 1300 

E^t as William wold • Jat wisly bim radde, 

alle be dou^tbi lordes • of be dukis were take : The prtamew are 

r 7 r brought, and 

be dede feccbe bem bim bi-fore • & freyned bem swibe, aakedifthey wiu 

lubmit to the 

:^if )>ei wold of bim boUy * balde alle bere londes. 1304 emperor. 
& ))ei graunted godli * ful glad of l^at sawe, ifol 23 h.\ 

& alle anon rijtes * fere omage bim dede, htahf*^ ^'and 

&'I>emp6rour wel louelicbe • deliuered be[m] fenne, awreieaaod. 
& sente wif bem sondes ' to saxoyne fat time, 1308 
& nomen omage in bis name * nou3t forto layne, 
Forto r^tleche fat reaume real • of ricbe & of pore, 
wbanne bat dede was do • demly at wille, am being thua 

'^ ^ ' aettledaa 

and alle lele lawes • in fat lond sette, 1312 regarded Saxony, 

& alle f e peple beld bem payed • pes forto baue ; 

wbanne f emperour it wist • be was wel a-payed, 

& louelicbe wif alle bis lordes ' to lumbardie fares, the emperor 

marched lo 

wif alle f e merf e vpoTi molde * fat man mi^t diuise ; Lombardy. 
— but feifli bis felacbipe • forf wif bim bo badde. 1317 

be domty duk of saxoyne ' be duel bat be made. The duke of 

' ^ "> ^ w T » Saxony felt such 

for bis peple was slayn • & to prison take, irrief forthe 

wrong he had 

& wist fan be bade wrongly • wrou^t f ur3tb bis pride ; done, 
& swicbe duel drow to bert • for bis dedus ille, 1321 
fat be deide on f e fifte day • to talke f e sof e. SS^iiSi*'^.'''' 

wbanne f emperour fat wist • wijtly be comanded, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



He Is burled 

The I 

returns to Rome, 

sendinc mee- 
sengen before 
him to his 


greet Melior, and 

tell their 


[Ful. 24.1 
enemy gave 
them much 

and they sajr, It 
was a Terjr sharp 

The duke's 
numerous host 
would hare 
preTalled. but for 
the succour of a | 
certain knight. • 

i.e. William, the 
one but newly 

to burye him as out to be * swiche a bume nobiil, 

wij) alle worchipe & wele ; • so was he sone.' 1325 

fan remued Jemperour * toward rome euene, 

& wijtly William wif him • fat was wounded sore ; 

but lelly nobul leches • loked to his woundes, 1328 

fat seide he schuld be sauf • & sweteliche heled. 

messangers ful manly. • femp^our fanne sente, 

by-fore to his dere doubter • to do hire to wite 

fat he come wif his companie * as* crist wold, al saf. 

f e messangeres ful manly * to meliors f anne spedde, 

& gretten hire godli • whan fei fat gode seie, 1334 

& mynged here message * to fat mayde hende, 

how hir fader in helf e • horn wold come 

feifli wif-inne f e fourtene-ni^t * wif his frekes bold. 

Gret merf e to f e messangeres • meliors fan made, 1338 

for f e tidy tidmges • fat ti^tly were seide. 

" nou^, faire frendes, be ^our feif * fond ^e ani lette 

of segges of f e of er side • fat sette 30U argeynes ] " 

" madame ! " seide f e messageres • " what mele 30 

nouf e % 
sef f e crist deide on f e croyce • mankinde to saue, 
3e ne herde neuer, y hope * of so hard a cunter, 1344 
ne of so fele bumes • at on batayle slayne ! " 
" telles how 30U tidde " • seide meliors f anne. 
" Madame," seide f e messageres • " be marie in heuen, 
f e duk hadde so gret an host * of gode men of armes, 
fat sofli al oure side * sone slayn hadde bene, 1349 
nadde f e socour of o seg • fat in oure side dwellef , 
fat haf lengf ed al oure [lines] * * leue ^e forsof e, 
furth fe dou^ti dedes * fat he haf do fere." 1352 

" swete sire, what is he ? " • fat seide meliors sone. 
"I-wisse," he seide, "it is willtam • fat is newe knijted, 
he may lelly be hold a lord • & ledere of peples, 
Forto weld al fe world- • to wisse & to rede, 1356 

1 This line and the preceding one are transposed in the MS. 
» MS. " al." « Read " al onre /iV«."— M. Cf. I. 1360. 

Digitized by 



for fer nis king vndor crist • fat he ouer-com nolde. 

I-wisse, nade his werk be • we mow nou3t for-sake, Suuo^wSIS ure 

]>i feder and al his folk • so misfaren hadde, ^>^^ ^^^ 

fat alle here lines in a stounde * hadde be lore." 1360 

fanne told J>ei hire ti^tly * al fe trewe soJ>e, 

at how miche meschef * here men were fonnest, 

& sebbe how wijtly william • went to here foos, But wmiwn 

rr ? J atUcked and took 

& dede deliuerly nym \>e dnk * to talke fns formest ; the duke. 

& seffe fe grettes[t] lordes ' hegarte here liif tine, 1365 

& also bei told trewli * how he was take him-selue, P?^.**"**.. 

' ' taken himself. 

& reddely wib his owne rinkes * rescued after :* but hu men 

^ r y reecuedhUn. 

& seffe what dedes he dede * he tok fe seine duk, 1368 

and bron3t furth is bolde dedes • fe batayle to hende ; 

& seben how bo duk for duel • deyde in here ward, The duke had 

r r J •' died of pure grief. 

& how al saxoyne was set • wij) wel sadde lawes, 

to wirche here faderes wille * fur^th william dedes. 

& whan J)is tale was told • meUprs tyt seide, 137^1 

" leue lordingea, for my loue • lelly me telles, 

comes fat willtam wif my fader • & weldes his hele? " ghe Mki?? *^ 

" ;e sertes, madame," seide fei * " he sewes jour fader ; ^"'/*" ^^^ 

but wel weldes he noujt his hele * for wonded was he ^«>»»wiau»er. 

sore, 1377 

fat greuen him gretly • but god may do bote." 
" For mary loue," seide meliors • " mai he be heled ? " 
" ja certes, madame • he is so sounde nowf e, 1380 They said he was 

fat he may redly ride & rome ' whan fat him* likes." and weii. though 
Meliors to fe messageris * fan made gret ioye, wounded, 

for fe tyding fat f ei told * touchend hire fader, 
but i bote fe, in hert * sche hade swiche blisse, 1384 Meiiorw^verj 

glad to hear of 

fat neuer womman in fis world • mijt weld more, wuiiam'sdoughtj 

for hire louely lemman • hade swiche los wonne, 

to here him best in fat batayle • wif so breme dedus. 

fanne made f ei hem [merie]^ • to make schort tale, 1388 

* The MS. has "rescued him after" j but either «?tf or him 
must be struck out. 

» The alliteration would lead us to supply iMm*.— M. So© 
1. 1400. 

4 • 

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Atler a week, the 
eioperor arriret. 

Mellor goee oat to 
meet him. 

and WUllam 

She whispered to 
William to come 
to her chamber. 

malce great Joy, 
only lamoit for 
their fHends 

[Kol. K.] 
William went to 
Mellor when he 
saw opportonity. 

Alexandrine kept 
tlieir conusel weU. 



8oJ)ly al J)at seueni^t ; • & so, atte last, 

Jemperour & alle peple • to his palays come ; 

Eeceyued was he of romaynes • realy as lord. 

paxme meliors ful mekly * vn\> maydenes fele, 

ferde out a-jens hire fSotder • & faire him gret, 

& hire louely lemman * leUy next after, 

& made hem as moche ioye • as mijt any burde ; 

Kyndeliche clipping * and kessing hire fader, 

& wip a ciirteise cuntenaunce ' wiHiam next after, 

for no seg fat it seye • schuld schoche but gode. 

but pnueli un-perceyued • sche praide william f anne, 

to seche softily to hire chaumber • as sone as he mijt. 

& he hi quinte contenance • to come he granted, 1401 

for he ne durst openly • for ouer-trowe of gile ; 

but wel sche knew ))urth konnyng * at ])at cas his wille. 

to long mater most it be • to myng al ]>e ioye, 1404 

& jm real romayns array * foi here lordes sake, 

& f e mochel momyng • J>ei made for here fendes, 

whanne fei wist witterly • whiche in batayle deyde. 

but confort for fe conquest • Jei caujt sone after, 1408 

& made hem as mery • as ani men coufe.' 

& William went to meliors • whan he seij time, 

& layked him at likyng • wij) fat faire burde 

pleyes of paramowrs • vn-parceyued longe time, 

so sliliche, fat no seg ' scouched non ille. 

but algate alysaundnne * atte wille hem serued, 

fat non knew here cunseile • but f ei f re one. 


One Easier-tide, 
the emperor 
summons all his 
lords and ladies. 

T)ut fanne tidde on a time • titly fei>afber, 1416 

•^ femperour erded stille in rorae • at f e ester tide, 
& for fat solempne sesoun * * dede somoun alle f e grete, 
of lordes & ladies • fat to fat lond partened. 
and alle to his comandemewt • comen ful sone, 1420 
& derly at fat day • wif deynteyes were f ei serued. 
as f ei were meriest at mete • to menge al fe sofe, 

• Catchword-" & wiUtVnn." * MS. « sofou." 

Digitized by 



XXX busy bumes • barounes ful bolde, ^ «»ey feMU^, 

80 man came fhiin 

comen in manly message • fro femperour of grece, 1424 the emperor of 
& bi kinde of kostant-noble • keper was fanne. 
J>e messageres lijt realy • were arayde, for sofe, 
- al in gUmerand gold • grefand * to ri3tes, J^ '^cWy attired 

It were tor for to telle • al here atyr riche. 1428 

but euer to J>emperour * alle fei ^ede in-fere, 
& kurtesliche vpon here knes • Jei komsed him grete 
Godli fix) Jjemp^rour of grece • & fipo his gode sone. 
& bempcrour ful semly • seide to hem banne, 1432 The emperor 

greets them, and 

'' he ]>at made man mest ' ^our Hues mot saue, aeke their 

& alle joure clene companie * crist 3 if hem ioye 

for pe menskfulles[t] messageres * fat euer to me come ! " 

n of ]>e barons bold • bi-guwne to schewe here nedes, 
Jat was a gret lord in grece * roachas he hi3t, 1437 

Ss seide soberly to bemperour • in bis selue wise, Agre«tiord. 

/ ' named Hoa<9MU, 

" Leue lord & ludes • lesten to mi sawes ! repuea 

fe gode emperour of grece * fe grettest of us alle, 1440 

whas messageres we be mad * to muwge 30U his wille, 

83ndes you to seie • he has a sone dere, *^*J the emperor 

'^ ' ofGreeoehata 

on pe triest man to-ward • of alle dou^ti dedes, d«ur eon 

fat any man vpon moldo • may of here, 1444 

J«t schal be emperour after him • of heritage bi kynde. ^^- ^-'^ 
& he haj) oft herde sayd * of ^oure semly doubter, emperor after 


how fair, how fetis sche is • how freli schapen ; 1447 

& for J>e loos on hire is leide • & loue of ^our-selue, 

he prayeth, lord, vowche-sauf * fat his sone hire wedde. 

Gmcche nou3t f er-a-gayn • but godli, i rede, 

Graunte fis faire forward • fulfillen in haste. 

& 3if ye so dof, i dar seie • & sofliche do proue, 1452 

sche schal weld at wille • more gold ban ^e siluer : she i« to have 

' '^ more gold tlian ye 

& haue mo solempne cites * and semliche casteles, havesuver. 

fan je treuly ban smale tonnes • o[r] vntydi houses ^ 
& herof, sire, wi3tly • 30ur wille wold we knowe. 1456 

* W© ought probably to read ffreiihed.—li. 

who wUhes to 
marry Mellor. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


As the emperor'i he Crete lordes of ;our land * beb lenged now here, 

lords are aUUiew, '^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' 

h« «m giro hto ^e Diow wi3tly now wite • jour wiUe & jour rede, 

wuwoT ftt opoe> 

& wijtly do V8 to wite • what answere 30U likes." 1459 
Jemp^rour calde his conseil • for to knowe here wille, 

Heiuidbts lords ^ godli boute grucching • alle graunted sone, 

& setten a serteyne day * fat solempte to holde ; 
& sad seurte was sikered * on bo]>e sides ]>aime, 

The marriage ii bat menskful manage to make * at midesomer After. 14G4 

tobemadeat *^ ^ 

Midaommer. sone wero pB messagers made ' mildli at ese, 

while hem liked lende • & lelly, whan j)ei wente, 
Grete jiftes were giue • & of gold A of seluer, 

ThemeMengtra & JksI wijtly Went hom * wif ioye & wij) merj>e.' 1468 

ivtam to Greeo^ « i « i • i i 

loaded with gifta. pQ answere of here herend * Jemperour pei tolde; 

Gret murpe was mad • for fat message in rome, 
The report of the & j>e word Went wide • how fe mayde was jeue 

marriage la 

apread through rifliche J)urth-out rome • & eche a rynk was blife 1 472 

pat pQ milde meliors * so mariede scholde bene 
to femperours eir of grece • & euerich man wif ioye 
teld it foTp til ofer • tijtli al a-boute. 
William heard of jjut i,e worbi william • ber-of wist he noiwt, 1476 

itaehewaaat. '^ . '^ '^ . 

pUy, For he was atte a bourdes • fer bachilers pleide. 

whanne J)e tiding * was ])er told • witow for8o)>e, 
out of fat faire felachip * ferde he fan sone 
[FoL ae.] as mekeli as he mijt • lest; eni mysse trowede ; 1480 
but whan he was passed fe prcs • he pnkede as swife 

and pode home, as he mi^t hi^e his hors * for hurtyng of spors ; 

foeUng weU-nigh ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ . ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

for he schold lese his lemman • his liif fan he hated. 1484 
wif care was he ouer-come • bi fat he com to his inne, 

He went to bed fat he for bale as bliue * to his bed went, 

& siked fanne so sore • fe sofe forto telle, 1487 

fat uch wijh fat it wist • wend he ne schuld keuei*. 

AU who heard of & whan hit was wist in rome * fat willtom was sek, 

it were modi , ,« a^ i> ^ 

griered. mochel was he mened * of more & of lasse ; 

for a beter bi-loued bam • was neuer bom in erf e, 

MS. "diting*'; cf. 1. 1493. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


pan be was wij) ich wi3t * wil he woned in rome. 1492 

be tiding; ban were ti^tly • to bemperoiir i-told, The emperor 

& he ]>an swoned for sorwe * & swelt nei3honde ; m. and swooqb 

for lorrow. 

but kni3tes him yp cau3t * & comfort him beter. 

& whan he ])urth comfort ' was comen of his care, 1496 

he went wiitli to wiUiam • to wite how he ferde, He goee with five 

or six knl^U to 

& knistes folwed him forb * fine ober sixe. aak him how he 


anon as he com him to • he asked how he ferd. 

"sire!" Jan seide he softly • "certes, so ille. 1500 

bat i leue my lif • last nouat til to morwe. wiiium thanks 

r J ^ him for his 

but god, sire, for his grete mi^t - graunt 30U ioye, kindness. 

for pe worchipe fat ^e • ban wru^t to me ^ore." 

whan femperour hade herd * holly hia wordes, 1504 

& seie him so sekly * bat he ded semed, T***® «™p«'^»' "^ 

*' ' ' he Is almost dead, 

swiche sorwe sank to his hert • pat mi^t he noujt suffre 

per to be, bot he mi^t • his bale haue slaked ; 

of him wi3tly he tok his leue • & went hom a-3eine, 

weping as he wold wide * for wo & for sorwe, 1509 

& deHuerH to his dou3ter • his del fan he made, ^^ Z^m^Z!"* 

how will/am hire worpi nory * was nei3e atte depe. 

& sche hire fader cu?»fort * fast as sche mi3t, 1512 

but worse was neuer woman * for wo at hire herte. When her fctiver 

had left her, she 

as fast as hire fader • was faren of pe weie, wept and waiied. 

sche wept & weiled • as sche wold haue storue, ? Coi. ae b,^ 

& swoned ofte sipe ' her sche sese mi3t. 1516 

but alisandrine anon • pat al hire cu?^seile wist, 

comfort hire as sche coupe • wip aUe kinde speches, Alexandrine 

comforts her, and 

& bad hire wiitly wende • to wite how he ferde. advises to go and 

see WilUum. 

" & sopliche, madame • so may hit bi-tide, 1520 

30ttr comfort mai him keuere * & his sorwe slake." 

ban meliors mekly • hire maydenes dede calle, Meiior, with 

' "^ '^ ' , many of her 

& many of hire meyne • for drede of missespeche, maidens, goe* to 

& went ful wi3tly • to will[i]aras inne, 1524 

as nou3t were bot [to] wite * how pat he ferde. 

& whan sche drow to his chau/wber • sche dede ful 

WUliam's abode. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


here maydenes & o]>er meyne * mekeli a-stente, 
She and al but alisaundrine • alone bei tweyne. 1528 

Alexandrine go 

into hia chamber. pQi Went in-to willtam * wi)K)ute any more, 

She liu 17 hia & busked hem euen to his bed * & bi him gunne sitte, 

him to saj what & seide sone softly • " my swete lemman dere, 

allone but alisaundrine * am i come to j^e 1532 

forto wite of pivro - & what Jat fe eiles. 

Mi perles paramours * * my pleye & my ioye, 

spek to me spakli ' or i spille sone." 

TITilliam ti3tly him turned * & of hire tok hede, 1536 
Hegreeuher " & seide aswibe • " swetinc, wel-come ! 

Ml derwor]>e derling • an my dere hert, 

Mi blis & mi bale ' ])at botelesse wol ende ! . 

but comliche creature • for cristes loue of heuene, 1540 
and aaira wh7 ahe for what maucr misgclt ' hastow me forsake, 

has fimaken him. 

fot lelly haue pe loued ' & wile i Hue J^enke ? 
« fei]>li boute feintyse • f ou me failest noufe, 

Jat haat turned J)in entent • forto take a-nofer. 1544 
Gret wrong hastou wrou3t • & wel gret sinne, 
to do me swiche duresse • to deye for pi sake. 
Tel he thanks her but louelichc lemman * oure lord mot pe ^eld 

jjM»«dng to see ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ . ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ . jg^g 

for jK)w hast lengfed my lif • & my langour schortet 
[Foi. 27.] Jurth pe solas & pe si^t • of f e, my swete hert ! " 
& whan melior hadde herd • holly al his wiUe, 
MeUor sighs sadly Bche siked sadly for sorwe * & wel sore wepte, 1552 
and weeps, ^ seide, " loueliche lemman • leue J)ou for sofe, 

alle men vpon molde * no schuld my liif saue, 
3if fou wendest of pis world • fat i ne wende after ! 
and tman» him ne, lemman, lore hastow me nou3t * leue ])ow forsoj^e, 
lost her, for she for ]K)U3h mi fader folliche ' haue forwardes maked, 1 557 
her toShOT's wiu. wcucstow fat i wold ' his wille now parfourme 1 
nay, bi god fat me gaf * fe gost and fe soule, 
al fat trauaile he has tynt * what euer tyde after ! 1560 

* MS. " paramowTS.*' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Tb«n tbey klaed 
and oomfortod 


for bere nis man vpon molde • bat euer schal me haue ^<«^ ■!»•« wer 

hare bar bat 

bat 30, loueliclie lemman * lene me for trewe, wuiiam. 

In feij J>ei y schold fer-fore • be fordon as swife, uwu^ the ww» 

doluen dep quic on expe * to-drawe or on-honged ! '* 1564 dxmwii,or huigwi. 

" je, wist y fat," seide william • " witterly to speke, 

of alle barmes were icb bol * bastely ri^t non]>e ! '' 

" ais, be marie," seide meliors • " misdrede aow neuer : »»»• ^^ »•▼««• 

^ Uwk lMrpl«dg«. 

I wil folfille alle forwardes * fei])li in dede ! " 1568 

Jan was williom ful glad ' • witow for so]>e, 

& dfer kindeli clipped o]>er * and kest wel ofte, 

& WTOut elles bere wille • wbil bem god Uked. ••<* «**»•'• 

& treuly wban* time com • fat J>ei twynne scbolde, 1572 

Meliors wij) bire meyne • mekelicbe bom wente ; JJ^i^* 

williom a stouTwie stinte stille • at bis owne inne, ^^ 

of alle bis barde bacbes * beled atte best 

alle pe snrgens of saleme * so sone ne co)>en, 1576 

baue lesed bis langour * and.bis liif saued, 

as ]>e maide meliors * in a mile wei dede. 

fe word wide went sone • fat willfam was beled, 

& vcbe gome was glad • and oft god fonked, 1580 "***", 

& willtam on fe morwe • wel bim a-tyred 

Gayli in clof es of gold • • & ofer gode barileis, 

& komes euen to kourt ' as knijt bol & fere, 

beriend beilicbe god * fat bis liif saued. 1584 

& sof li as sone as femperour • say bim wif ei3en, [FoL n 6.] 

Tb6 onpOTor is 

be b^ed bim bastely * & bent bim in bis armes, veij giad, and 

& clapte bim & keste * kyndelicbe ful ofte, 

& fas fei left in likyng * a god wbile after. 1588 

It ia soon known 
that he U bMM, 


ut now more to minge * of f e messagers of grece. 
as tyt as fei bad told • trewli to bere lord, f^ Greece 

bow realy bei were resceyued • in rome be ricbe, return, and report 

'' '^ ^ r ^ how weU they 

& fe gracioas graunt • fei gaten of bere berande, 1592 were receired. 
femperour of grece gretly • was gladed in berte. 
swife sent be sondes * to somoun fat time 

' MS. « gald." • MS. « wahan." » MS. « glod." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



and they Mt off 
to ride to 

The emperor of alle be gtete of grece • and ober gaie pepul, 

Greece luiiiiiiooe 

his lordi, ))at no men ypon mold * mi^t ayme ])e noumber ; 1596 

al ]wtt real aray reken • schold men neuer, 
ne purueaunce ]>at prest was * to peptd a-grei])ed. 
but sof atte ]>e day set * wij) solempne mer))e, 
fis gaye genge of grece • to rome gunne ride, 1600 

& riden in real aray • to-ward rome euene. 
forto reken al pe arai * in rome p&t time, 
alle pe men vpon mold * ne mi^t hit deuice, 
so wel in alle wise • was hit arayed, 1604 

& plente of alle pu^aeau7^ce • puraeyed to rijttes. 
whan Jemperour of grece • neiyed nei3h rome, 
wiJ) alle his bolde bnmes • a-boute fre mile, 
f emperour of rome redeli • romed him ar^ens, 1 608 
wiJ) J)e clennest cumpanye * fat euer king ladde. 
& whan J)e clene cuwpanyes • comen to-gadere, 
fe sijt was ful semly • and lonely for to se, 
whan eifer of femperoures • er fei wold stint, 1612 
eifer ojKsr keste • kindeliche fat time, 
& seffe J)e same wij> fe sone • also he wrou3t ; 
^^e murf e of fat metyng • no man may telle. 

All ride to Rome, liito rome al bat route • riden forb in-fere, 1616 

where they And o ■» •% ■» o ^ • n' 

flowen etreim, & echc a strotc was Striked * & strawed wif noures, 
& realy railled * wif wel riche clofes, 
& alle maner menstracie * maked him a-3ens ; 
and also daunces disgist • redi di3t were, 1620 

& selcouf songes - to solas here hertes ; 
so fat sof li to say • f ei3h i sete euer, 
I schuld nou3t telle fe merf e • fat maked was fere ; 
forf i to miTige of fat matere • no more i ne f enk 1 624 
but alle f e genge of grece • was gayli resseyued, 
& herbarwed hastely * ich hete f e for sof e. 
In a place, f er were pi3t * pauilounns & tentes, 
bi side of f e cite • for swif e moche pepul ; 1 628 

for f ei fat seie it forsofe • saiden f e tmf e, 
f e place of f e pauilons • & of f e price tentes 

When they draw 
near Uome, 

the Roman 
eraiieror comee to 
meet them. 

The empcrora 
embrace and 
greet each other. 

and rich hanging!, 

[Fol. 28.] 
and hear 
miustrela and 

The Greeks are 
harboured In 
tents oatside the 

Digitized by 




Bemede as moche to 8i3t * as pe cite of rome. 
])emp6roar & eneri man * were esed to ri^ttes, 1632 
& haden wi3tly at wille • what J>ei wolde ^eme. 
"but now a while wol i stinte • of pia wlonke mwrje,* 
& munge now of meliors • fat blisfiil burde, 
& of pQ wor])i William ' ^t was here lemman dere, 
& telle fe tale lelly • what hem hitidde after. 1637 

the tents 
oorerlnff u 
much grcmnd am 
did Borne itMlL 

But I matt return 
to Williun and 

ll/han J>ese pepul was inned • wel at here hese, 
' " willmm wel wijtli • wijK>ute any fere, 
■ Momyng out mesure • to melior he wendes, 1640 

& siked ful sadli * and seide to hire sone, 
" a ! worfiliche wi^t * wel wo is me noufe ! 
J^ur^th destine my de]> is di3t ' dere, for ^i sake ! 
I may banne fat i was bom • to a-bide J)is time, 1644 
forto lese J>e lef • fat al mi liif weldes. 
foule Jk)w me fodest • wif f i faire wordes, 
elles had i deide for duel • many dai seffe, 
& so god for his grace • goue y hadde ! " 1648 

Meliors seide mekli • "whi so, mi dere hert 1 
forwardes fat i haue fest * ful wel schal i hold, 
I hope to f e hei^h king • fat al heuen welded, 
fer-for stint of fi striif • & stodie we a-nofer, 1652 
what wise we mow best • buske of f is lond." 
whan he [wist] f ese wordes • wiUiam wel liked, 
seide, *' mi hony, mi hert * al hoi f ou me makest, 
wif fi kinde cumfort * of alle mi kares kold." 1656 
fan studied fei a gret stounde * stifli to-gadere, 
hi what wise fei mijt best • buske of fat f ede, 
priueli vnp^rceyued • for peynes fat hem tidde ; 
al in wast fei wroujt • here witte wold noujt seme. 
aUsauTidrine to cunseile ' fei clepud sone fanne, 1661 
& telden hire trewli • what tent fei were inne, 
jif fei wist in what wise • to wende of fat londe, 
& preyed hire par charite • and for profites loue, 1664 

IMS. "mKrrJ^e." 

WmUm goea to 
Mellor, and 
sighing raya. 

for thy sake ; 

and I woold I 
were dead 

Melior assarea 
him she will keep 
her troth, and 
they must derlse 
apian of escape. 

[Fol. 28 6.] 

They strive In 
▼ain to think of 
some way of 

The7 therefore 
ask Alexandrine 
her advice. 

Digitized by 



to kenne hem sum coyntioe • ^if sche any cou]>e, 
to wisse hem forto wend • a-wey vnperceyued. 
She tnawtn, alisaondrme a-non ' answered ban and seide, 

WMping, that sho 

CM think of no wepand wonderli fast * for ])ei wende wold, 1668 

^■jr »t ; << 1^. ^^^ ijiisful bam • Jat bou3t us on fe rode, 

I kan bi no coyntyse • knowe nou^ fe best, 

how je mowe un-hent • or harmles a-schape. 

for be hit witerly wist • ))at [^e] ' a-went bene, 1672 
tor the cry would eche a kuntre worj) kept • wij kud men i-nouje, 
»nd every pwe echo brug, eche payfe * • eche brode weye, 
' Jat nojjer clerk nor knijt * nor of cuwtre cherle 

schal passe vnperceyued • & pertiliche of-sou3t. 1676 
They would toon & jcf JO Were disgised * & d^t on any wise, 
diegaiMd; the I wot wcl witerli * 30 wold be aspied. 
only way is this, ^^p^ ^q noJ>er nel be • but nedes to wende, 

craftier skil kan i non * J^an i wol ku)>e. 1680 

The men In the In be kochene wel i knowe • am crafti men manye, 


always flaying )»at fast fondeu alday * to flen wilde bestes, 

hyndes Ss hertes • wif hydes wel fayre, 
bukkes and beris * and o)>er bestes wilde, 1684 

of alle fair venorye * fat falles to metes. 
Of all beMt^ ^ j^ bremest best • be beres me semen, 

bearsseemthe ' ' ' 

most grisly. j>e gon most grisli • to eche gomes si^t ; 

Mi3t we by coyntise • com bi tvo skynnes, 1688 

of f e breme beres • & bi-sowe 30U fer-inne, 
[PoL».j ber is no liuand lud • i-liue 50U knowe schold. 

None woold know ' ^ ' 

them If they but hold jou ovLtt of hcio gates • for happes, i rede. 

were wrapped op 

in white bears' rodilichc DO better red • be resun i ne knowe, 1692 

])an to swiche a bold beste * best to be disgised, 
for ))ei be alle maners * am man likkest." 
Th«y thank her J>an willtam fill wijtli ' & his worJ)i burde 
Md b^ her to ful froly hire fonked * many fousand sij)e 1 696 

get the skins. ^^ j^^ crafty cuwsayl • & kindliche hire bi-sou3t, 
wi3tly wij sum wyl • winne hem tvo skinnes 
of po breme bestes • fat beres ben called, 

» Read ** that u a went bene."— M. « Or « paWxj." 

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pryuely vnparceyued * for peril fat may falle. 1700 

& alisauwdrine arnon • as an hende mayde, 8h««jt»he 

seide sche 'wold deliuerly * do j^er-to hire mi^t, 

Forfco saue hem fro sorwe • hirnself forto deye. 

in box's dottiet. 

and helps the men 
tn the kitchen. 

TITi^tly boute mo wordes • sche went fo[r]J) stille, 1704 
" & bliue in a bourde • borwed boi^es clofes, 
& talliche hire a-tyred • tijtli jjer-inne, 
& bogeysliche as a boye • busked to pe kychene, 
per as bomes were busy * bestes to hulde ; 1708 

& manly sche melled hire • po men forto help, 
til sche say tidi time * hire prey for to take, 
sche arwayted wel • fe white here skinnes, 
^t loueli were & large * to lappen inne hire frendes, 
& went wi^tly a-wei • wel vnparceyued, 1713 55jij"SS~^' 

& lepej) fer-wif to hire lady • & hire lemman dere, wlSii^ ?*"*** 

seide softily, "now sej) • how sone i haue speddei " MeUor. 
& ]wi fill glad of J)e gere • gretly here f onked, 1716 
& preiede here ful presteli • to put hem fer-inne, Sr'them^ ^ 

80 semli ])at no seg * mi^t se here clo])es. 
& sche melled hire meliors • ferst to greij)e, 

& festened hire in pat fel • wij) ful gode fonges 1720 op in one with 
aboue hire trie a-tir • to talke J>e sofe, SSLeandlu. 

fat no man vpon mold • mi3t ofer perceyue 
• but sche a here were • to baite at a stake ; 
so iustislich echo lif io}'iied ' hi ihesu of heuen. 1724 
whan sche in fat tyr • was tiffed as sche schold, MeUOTMiuh'or if 

Meliors in here merfe * to hire maiden seide, 
" Leue alisaundrine, for mi loue • how likes fe nowfe 1 
am i nou^t a bold best sa here wel to seme 1 ** 1728 
" 9is, madame/' seide fe mayde * " be marie of heuene^ jonawagriSy 
3e am so grisli a gost • a gom on to loke, f^iSri^-"''* 

fat i nold for al f e god * fat euer god made, 
abide 30U in a brod weie • bi a large mile ; 1732 

so breme a wildo here • je bi-seme nowf e." 
aUsaundrine f anne anon * after fat ilk, 

■he does not make 
a bold beer? 

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wiiSi^i^Sr ^ ^^ ^** ^^^^ bere-skyn • be-wrapped vnHtam Janne, 
other skin: & laced wel eche leme • wij) lastend fonges, 1736 

craftili a-boue Lis clofes • fat comly were & riche. 

& whan he was sowed * as he schold bene, 
who. when iewn will/am ful merili • to meliors ban he seide, 

up. asks Melior ^ 

wh»t she thinks " gei me, loueli lemman • how likes be me nowbe?" 1 740 

(rfhim? ' ' 

** bi marie, sire," seide meliors • " fe milde quen of 

80 breme a here ^e be-seme * a bum on to loke, 
ftih" *!Jd** 1^^^ icham argrise • bi god ]wtt me made, 
hideous »»ight." to SO SO hidous a sijt • of youre semli face !" 1744 

wuiumpropoMB fcan geido willtam wijtli • **my derworbe herte, 

that ther start at ' ? J r » 

once. to heij vs hastily henne • ich hope be J)e best, 

euenly fis euen while • or men to mochel walk." 
& 3he to worche as he wold * wi^tli Jan graunted. 1748 
alisaundrine sone ' as sche saw hem founding, 
wept as sche wold arwede • for wo & for sorwe, 

Alexandrine lets "but uabelos as bUue * scho brouit hem on weie 

them out by a ' '' 

postem-gate. priucly be pe posteme * of fat perles erber, 1752 

fat was to meliors chaumber • choisli a-ioyned, 
& alisauTtdrine as sone * as fei schuld de-parte, 
swoned fele sife • & seffen whan sche mijt. 

She prays that preido fill pituosli * to fe prince of heuene 1756 

preserved from to lokc fro alle laugouT * fo louoly makes, 

fat put hem for paramot/rs * in perriles so grete ; 
& sof li forto say • a-sunder f ann fei went. 
[] alisauwdrine anon • attelede to hire boure, ' 1760 

& momed neijh for mad • for meliors hire ladi. 

I must now tell More to telle of hire bis time • trewly i leue, 

jou about the two '^ '^ ' 

white bean. telle i wil of f beros • what hem tidde after. 

William & fe mayde • fat were white beres, 1764 
^ v«w ..««- gon forf fur3th fe gardin • a wel god spede, 

Rsrden on au Forsly ou here foure fet • as fel for swiche bestes. 


a Greek, who hiA fan 3ede a grom of .grece • in f e gardyn to pleie, 

come there for i.-iii-- o ii p« i«.r/»rt 

amusement. to bi-hold fe estrcs * & fe herberes so faire, 1768 

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&, or he wiste, he was war • of fe white beres, 

bei went a-wai a wallop * as bei wod semed. peroeired tbem 

& nei3 wod of his witt * he wax nei^ for drede, 

& fled as fast homward * as fet mi^t drie, 1772 He fled home in 

for he wend witterly • fei wold him haue sewed, 

to haue mad of him mete • & mt^rfered him to dej>e. 

whaime he his felawes fouYide * of his fare ])ei wondred, His feUows asked 

whi he was in fat wise • wexen so maat, 1776 him. 

& he hem told tijtly • whiche tvo white beres 

hadde gon in be gardyn • & him agast maked, ^e said he had 

seen two white 

for he wende witerli • bei wold him haue slawe, *»<»« in the 

' , garden, 

"but J)ei seie me n()U3t * sofli i hope, 1780 

to me tended bei nou2t * but tok forb here woy ^^ich. fonu- 

'^ , ■' '^ •^ nately.didnot 

wilfulli to sum wildemesse • where as fei bredde." perodre him. 

])anne were his felawes fain • for he was adradde, * 

& lau3eden of fat gode layk ; * of hem ich leve noufe, 

to telle forj) what tidde • of jje beres after. 1785 

nou3 fro fe gardin • J>ei gon a god spede Th« ^-^o ^»*" 

toward a fair forest • fast fer bi-side. '^«>"»t. 

whilum fei went on alle four • as doj) wilde bestes, 

& whan fei wery were • fei went vp-ri3ttes. 1789 

so went bei in bat wildemesse • al bat lone niat, goinjron aii night 

.,.,,, o . o ^^ tiU the sun rose. 

nl it dawed to day • & simne to vp-nse, 

fei drow hem to a dem den • for drede to be sei3en, 

& hedde hem vnder an holw hok • was an huge denne, in the day time 

. ^ , ^ . , . « , theyhidthem- 

as it fel a faire hap • fei fond fer-on to rest. solves in a den. 

Fer it was fro wei3es * & of wode so fikke, CFoi. ao h.\ 

J«t no wi3t of fe world • wold hem fere seche, 1796 

& bei for-waked were weri • wittow for so be. They were very 

' ' weary, and praised 

& hi3liche fei heriede god • of fat hap fallen, Ood for their good 

fat had hem di3t swiche a den • demly on to rest. 

ben seide william goberli • to meliors so hende, 1800 3?®??"^*'..^ , 

' ' William, " God 

" a ! my loueliche lemman • our lord now vs help, preserve ns, and 

•^ '^ teach ns how to 

he fat was in bedleem bom • & bou3t vs on fe rode, get some meat." 

schilde us fram schenchip • & schame in f is erf e, 

& wisse vs in what wise • to winne vs sum mete ; 1804 

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For, dere lef, i drede • we schul deie for hunger." 
MeiiornjatiMy Boburli seide meliore • "sire, leues youre wordes, 

r^n oMily IIto on 

lore, we schul llue bi oure loue * lelli atte best ; 

& Jjurjth J>e grace of god • gete vs sumwat elles, 1808 
ud boUaoM and bolaces & blake-bcries * bat on breres growen, 

SO fat for hunger i hope • hann schul we neuer ; 
Mid haws. hipt. hawes, hepus, & hakemes * & be hasel-notes, 

aoornt, and h*s6l- 

nau. & oJ>er frut to J)e fulle • Jat in forest growen ; 1812 

I seie 30U, sire, bi mi liif • Jis liif so me likes." 
" nay, i-wisse," seid william • " mi worfliche herte, 
better be-houis it to be • or baleful were J)i happes ; 

ulll*r^ to*** ^^' here-to-fore of hardnesse • hadestow neuer, 1816 

■uch hard fkw. |J^^ ^qj^ biou^t forj) in blisse • as swiche a burde ou^t, 
wij) alle manor gode metes ; • & to misse hem nowf e, 
It were a botles bale * but beter haue i ment. 
I wol wend to sum weie • onwhar here nere, 1820 

He had better go & waito jif auv weiih • comes wending alone, 

and see if he can j— ^ ? o / 

find any churl or oJ>er chcil o])er child * fro chepinge or feyre, 
or drink. j)at beris out him arboute • bred ofer drinke, 

<fe redoli i wol it reue * & come a-^ein swi])e, 1824 

ofer coyntyse know i non • to kepe wif our liues." 
" Nay," paid she. " nay, siio," sche seide • " so schul je nou^t worche : 

"fortheloeerwlU ^> » ^ ^ > 

ntoethecnr.and FoT bei bat misscden here mete • wold make gret noyse, 

teUltinRome. ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

& record it redeli * in rome al a-boute, 1828 

so ])at we mi3t Jyurjth hap * haue harm in ))at wise. 
[Foi. SI.) ber-for is fairer we be stille • & bi frut to line, 

Better to Uve '^ ' 

upon ftruit," j)at we finde in wodes • as we wende a-boute." 

& bo)>e ])an as bliue ' a-sented bi a stounde, 1832 

& kindeli eche o]>er clipt * and kessed ful oft, 

dlSJ'authS^ & darkeden fere in fat den • al fat day longe, 
slepten wel swetly • samli to-gadere, 
& wrou3t elles here wille ; — • leef we now here, 1836 

aSufthe^ *®" & a while to J)e werwolf • i wol ar3en tume, 

werwolf. j^t j,Q tale touchej) • as tellef \\a sofe. 

J)e self ni^t fat willtam • went wif his leef dere, 

fe werwolf, as god wold • wist aUe here happes, 1840 

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& be ^rtune bat wold falle • for here dedes after. Heknew»ii their 

' ' fortoDQt, and 

whan bei went in bat wise • wijtli he hem folwee, followed them au 

r f ^ ' thewiy. 

Ful bliue hem bi4iinde • but fei nou^t wist. 

& whan J>e werwolf wist • where pei wold rest, 1844 

he herd how hard • for hunger bei hem pleyned, Knowing their 

* .» ' hunger, he goes to 

& gop him to a gret hei^-waye • a wel god spede, * highway. 

2\i he mi^t mete any man • mete of to winne, '^J**" ^^ "^ » 

^ ^ ^ man with some 

ban fel be chaimce bat a cherl • firo cheping-ward com, bread in a bag 

^ f^ '^ ^^ and some boUed 

& bar bred ^n a bagge • and fair bouf wel sode. 1849 beef. 

fe werwolf ful wi^tli • went to him euene, 

wij? a rude roring • as he him rende wold, Wrn'roMtSTand 

& braid him douw be fe brest • bolstrau^t to pe er)>e.* SSSr***** "**" 

fe cherl wende ful wel • haue went to dej>e, 1853 

& harde wijj herte • to god {marine he prayde, 

to a-schape 8cha]7les * fiam pai schamfiil best. 

he brak vp fro J^at beste • & bi-gan to flene 1856 J^^^^^^^^^ 

as hard has he mi^t • his liif f or to saue. . iife,giad togotoit 

his bag wi)) his bilfodur * wij? pe best he laf(e, 

glad was, he was gon • wif-oute gretter harmes. 

pe werwolf was glad • he hade wonne mete 1860 

& went wi^tli ]w)r-wij) • fer as willi'am rested, JJ^iTttie^iiSSS 

be-fore him & his burde • pe bagge fer he leide, ^ySuSld'*"" 

& busked him bliue a-3ein • boute more wordes, nmsawaj. 

For he wist ful wel • of what fei nede hadde. 1864 


illtam J)o wondred moche • of fat wilde best, cfoI.sim 

what he brou3t in pe bag • & wold nou^t a-bide. 

he braide to him be bagge * & bliue it opened, wmiam opens the 

Imm^ and finds the 

& fond pe bred & pe bouf * bli)>e was he ])anne,^ 1868 bread and beef . 

& mekli to meliors • " mi swete hert," he saide, 

" loo ! whiche a gret grace • god hab vs schewed ! " see what grace 

° •=* Of God has shewn us! 

he wot wel of our werk • & wel is apai^ed, 

fat he sendef fus his send * to socour vs atte nede, 

80 wonder a wilde best • fat weldes no mynde. 1873 

swiche a wonder i-wisse • was i-seie neuer, SS^nerarw^.- 

iMS. "feferfe." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


- to herien god hei3li • alden ar we bo])e." 
1 would Do( that " bi marie," seid meliors • "ae miwgeb be sobe ; 1876 

our work w«re g* % , i i ' i •» i i«« 

undone," ndd for al po world 1 nold • our werk were vndone. 
^' willzam wel mekli • pe mete out. takes, 

seid, " lemman, lef liif • of fat our lord vs sendes, 
Make we vs merie • for mete haue we at wille." 1880 
The7«teiiii*d]7 )>ei eto at here ese * as |>ei mi^t ]7anne, 
orHwoe. boute Salt opQT sauco * or any semli diynk, 

hunger hadde hem hold • f ei held hem a-paied. 
But the werwolf but white wel, ))e werwolf • wist what her?* failed ; 1884 
they wanted. he Went to au hei^ weie * to whay te axim happes. 
fan bi-tid fat time • to telle fe sofe, 
fat a clerk of fe cuntre • com toward rome 
He finds a nun wif tvo flaketos ful * of ful fine wynes, 1888 

of winok. boujt were for a burgeis • of a borwe bi-side. 

fe werwolf him awayted • & went to him euene, 
bellyng as ^ bole • fat bumes wold spille. 
Tiie nutn. wdng whau fe clerk saw him come * for care & for drede,' 
coming, lets them fe flagetes he let falle * & gan to fie ^eme, 1893 

awaj. f e lijtliere to lepe • his liif for to saue. 

f e werwolf of fe clerkes werk • was wonder blif e. 
Hie werwolf & flei to fe flagetes * & swife hem vp hentes, 1896 

[Foi. 32.1 & wendes euen to willtam • a wel god spede, 
wSuam^Mid* & ^ meliors his make • and mildeliche f anne 
***• *^ f e flagetes hem bi-for • faire douw he settes, 

& went wi3tli a-wei • wif -out eni more. 1900 

William and will/am & his worfi wenche • fan were blife 
blithe beeaose of of f e help fat f ei hade ' of f is wild best, ^ 

^*" & preid fei ful pnueli • to f e pnnce of heuene, 

saue f e best fro sorwe • fat so wel hem helped. 1904 
fei made hem fan mine ' on alle maner wise, 
They ate and eten at al here ese * & afterward dronken, 
& solaced hem samew • til hem slepe lust 
fan eif or lapped of er * ful loueli in armes, 1908 

& here drede & here doel • deUuerli for-jeten, 

»MS. "dredre." See L 1909. 

drauk their fill. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



& depten so swetli * in here semly denne, 
til it wax so nei^h ni^t * ]7at nerre it no mi^t. 
Jwm a-waked pei wi^tli • & went on here gate, 
feire on per tvo fet • J^ei ferde vp-on ni^tes, 
but whan it drow to pe dai • fei ferde as bestes, 
ferd on here foure fet • in fourme of tvo beres ; 
and euer pe werwolf * ful wi^tly hem folwed, 
fat will/am ne wist • hendeli hem bi-hinde ; 
but whan f ei were loged • where hem best liked. 
Mete & al maner fing • J)at hem mist«r neded, 
Je werwolf hem wan • & wi3tli hem broujt. 
|)an pel lade |>is liif * a f ul long while, 
cairende ouer cuwtreis • as here cas ferde. 
Leue we now fis lesson • & hero we a-nof er ; 
to hem f^eyn can i tume • whan it time falles. 
I wol minge of a mat«r • i mennede of bi-fore, 
of fe reaute a-rded • in rome for here sake, 
& of )>e worj^i wedding • was bi-fore graunted 
bi-twene pe meyde meliors • & pe prince of grece ; 
now listenes, lef lordes * |>is lessoun pus i ginne. 

and then slept 
till night-time. 

1912 By night th^ 

went on two feet^ 
hot by d«7 ou all 

1916 thewerwolf 

1920 wanted. 


I mart now tell 
of the wedding 
that was to have 
been between 
Melior and the 

laoQ Bflnoo of Greece. 

IV ZQ ^ [FoL32 6.) 

Janly, on pe morwe • fat manage schuld bene, 
. , "pe reel emp^rquis a-nsen • & richeli hem greifed, 

'^ wij) alle worfi wedes • Jwit wishes were schold. 1932 
no man vpon molde * schuld mow deuise 
men richlier a-raid • to rekene alle |>inges, 
^ pen eche rink was in rome * to richesse ))at l^ei hadde ; 
pe grete after here degre * in pe gaiest wise, 1936 

& menere men as fei mijt • to minge pe soj>e. 
— J>e sesoun was semly • pe sunne schined faire ; 
pemperova of grece * & alle his gomes riche 
hi3ed hem to here hors * hastili and sone ; 1940 

but for [to] telle pe a-tirjmg • of J^at child fat time, 
})at al fat real route • were araied fore, 
he fat wende haue be wedded • to meliors fat time, 
It wold le^gej fis lessouw • a ful long while, 1944 

6 • 

Tlie emperore 
pot on their 
riebeat clothes. 

All were arrayed 
in the gayert 

The Greek 
emperor and his 
men rooonted 
th^ horses. 

son would take 
too long to 

Digitized by 



but 8oJ)li for to seie • so wel ' was he greifed, 
))at amendid in no maner ' ne mi^t it hauo bene. 
^ & whan f e gomes of grece • were alle to horse, 
The Roman andod wel Tcdi, of romayns • to rekkene pe nuwibro, 

knights numbfirtd 

20.U00. treuli twenti J)ousand ' a- tired atte best, 1949 

alle on stalworf stedes • stoutliche i-horsed. 
— alle maner of menstracye • maked was sono, 
The minrtreiiy & alle merbe bat any man • euer mijt deuise : 1952 

•ndreveU begin. r r J l 9 

and aUe real reueles • rinkes rif bi-gunne, 
Ridende f urth rome • to rekene fe sofe, 
Ri3t to l^e chef cherch • fat chosen is ^utte, 
All CO to St - & clepud burth cr/stendom * be cherche of seynt petyr. 

Peter's church, r^ i « -T ~~~'~~-^l jx • j. 

where the pope^ J)e p[ope] * wij) many prelates • was purueyd to rijtes, 
buhopswere "wi)) cardcnalcs & bischopus • & abbotes fele, 1958 

'**^" -* alle richeli reuested • fat reaute to holde, 

LFoL 33.) -^j, worchep of fat wedding * fat f ei wende haue. 
fo gryffouns fan gayli • gonne stint att^ cherche, 
They wait for bo briat burdc meliors • to abide bere. 19G2 

Mellor. u f u 1 

f emperour of rome f anne • was rede 3are, 
& alle f e best barounes • & boldest of his reaume. 
TheRomsn femperonT wax a-wondred • wite :e for sofe, 1965 

emperor wnodered ,.,., 

where hit whi his doujter fat day • dwelled so longe, 

ag wti. ^qqJjJjq jjg gomes of grcce • were gob to cherche. 
He send* a baron fan bad he a barou/i • biiske to hire chaumber, 1 968 
to hi3en hire hastily • to him for to come, 
& wi3tli he wendes * wite ^e for sofe. 
whoflndanoooe- he fond fore burde no bam • in fat bonr fanne, 

there, — " — 

for no coyntise fat ho coufe • to carp him ^ens ; 1972 
& he lijtli a^en lepes • & f e lord so telles. 
The emperor, at f empcrour whan he it wist • wod wax he nere, 
goes himself, & Went him-sclf in wraf e • to fat worf ies chaumber, 
drives at the door & driucs in at fat dorc * as a deuel of heUe. 1976 

Bhouts out.* he gan to clepe & crie • & gan to kurse fast ; — 

" where dwelle 30, a deuel wai * 3e damiseles, so long ? " 

» MS. repeats " wel." 

' This word is purpowli/ erased ; part of the p can be traced. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

alexandrine's excuses fob heliob. 69 

alisaundrine as sone • as sche him fere herde, 

-was delfuUi a-drad * pe de|> for to suffre, 1980 Alexandrine b 

ac bi a coynt compacemeTit • caste sche sone, SiJliIboirt (brim 

how bold ^he mi^t hire here • hire best to excuse, ***'"'*• 

jwit Jjemp^rour ne schuld soiiche • fa ^he at sent were, 

fat his doubter wif willzam • was went away f anne. 

boldli wif milde mod • ^he buskes of hire chauwber, 

& kom ketly to fempe^'our • & kiirteisly him gret, 1986 sh©h«rt4»n«to 

& what fat his wille were * wi^tly fan asked, and a»iu bu wui. 

Si he seide ful sone • " sertes, ich haue wonder 

where my doubter to-day * dwelles f us longe 1 h« "»»*• to 

• for al fe pepul is parayled * & passed to eherche. 1990 daughter it. 
I haue sent hire to seche • sef f e a grot while, 

ac no frek mai hire finde • f er-fore i am tened." 

alisauTzdnne a-non • answered f anne & seide, 

" to blame, sire, ar fo bumes • fat so blefeli gabbe ; siioi»y«Bheb 

For my lady lis jit a-slape • lelly, as i trowe." 1995 tfol as 6.) 

"Go wijtly," seide f emp<?rour • " and a-wake hire jeme, "Wake her. u.en, 

bid hire busk of hire bed * & bliue be a-tyrid." drew." 

" I dar nomt, for so be " • seide alisau/idrine banne : siiesaygshcdorea 

^ ^ '^ not, and he iwks 

" wif me sche is wrof • god wot, for litel gilt 1999 why. 

" whi so 1 " saide f emjjerour • " saie me nouj bliue ! " 

" Ful gladli, sire," sche seide • " bi god fat me made, 

jif je no wold be wrof • whan 30 f e sofe wist." 

" nay, certes," seide f emperour • " f er-fore seie on sone." 

alissaundrine ban anon • after bat ilke, 2004 8heMye,"Meiior 

' ' made me watoh 

seide ful soberli • sore a-drad in herte, "U nJ«»»t with 


" sire, for sofe, i am hold • to saie 30U f e treuf e ; 
Mi ladi made me to-nijt • long wif hire to wake 

• boute burde or bam * hot our selue tweie. 2008 

f anne told sche me a tiding • teld was hire to-fore, "d toid me 

\ ^ . • shehadheardik 

of on fat knew f kostome • of f e cu?itre of grece, was a custom in 

fat eucrich gome of grece • as of grete lordes, 

whan fei wedded a wiif • were jhe neuer so nobul, 2012 

of emp^rours or kinges come • & come into grece, 

flche chold sone be bi-schet • here-selue al-one, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to shot up a bride In a ful tristy touT ' timbred for be nones, 

in ft tovrer by ' 

hmtut & Hue fet in langoor * al hire lif-time, 201 6 

— neuer to weld of worldes merjje • pe worf of a mite, 
fer-fore for Bope • gret sorwe sche made, 
whwefort the & gwor for )>at Sake • to snflFur alle peynes, 

would nerer be to be honget on heij • or wij) horse to-drawe, 2020 
oreok. sche wold neu^ be wedded * to no wi3h of grece. 

hire were leuer be weded • to a wel simplere, 

fere sche mi^t lede hire lif * in liking & mnr)>e. 
sJw^t^dme & also, sire, sertaynly • to seie J^e treuj)e, 2024 

•oreiy grieved me. eche told me a-noJ)er tale • J^at me tened sarre, 

wher-fore i wan hire wraj) • er we departed." 
[FoL 94J it warfore 1 " seide femperour • " seye me now ^eme." 

"For sofe, sire," quaj) alisau7<drine • "to saue ^our 
mensk, 2028 

I wol 30W telle ti^tly • what turn schd as wrou3t. 
She ndd she had sche clepud me to cunseil * whan sche fis case wist 
moSer^who waa )>at sche schold be Wedded ' & seide me Jeanne, 
Tjnr bold and ^^^iq haddo leid hire loue • fer hire beter Hked, 2032 

on on fe boldest bam • Jjat euer bi-strod stede, 

& J» fairest on face • and i freyned is name. 

& sche me seide chortly • pe soj^e to knowe, 
Uiai worthy It wss bat worbi willtam • bat wi^es so louen, 2036 

Willlamwho . / ^ '^ . /. , / . i- , 

fonght ao well & Jutt brou^t 30U out of bale * wi]> his cler 8treng]>e. 
"^ ^***' & whan i wist of fis werk • wite 30 for so|)e. 

It mislikede me mochel • mi^t no man me blame, 
& manly in my maner - missaide hire as i dorst, 2040 
itoMberiahonid & wamed hire wi^tly • wif-oute disseyte, 
I wold alle hire werk * do 30U wite sona 
& whan sche fat wist • for wraf al so ^em, 
sheaentmeont sche dcde me dcliuerly • deuoyde per hire chaumber, 
andrhaveno/' & het me neucr so hardi be • in hire sijt to come. 2045 
seen er 8 nee. ^ . jj^gj^^^ ^f j^|j^ ho\M * sche barred hit sone, 

& sef J)e saw i hire noujt * sire, bi my treufe. 
I dare not go to ^ I ne dar for drede • no more to hire drawe, 2048 

l>er-for, sire, jour-self • softili hire a-wakes. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& fodes hire wip faire wordes • for jour owne menske, 
til p\B manage be mad ' & wij) miir]>e ended. ** 


ban femperour had herd • holly j^ise wordes, 2052 The emperor at 

he wax nei^h out of wit * for wraj) })at time, with gdei; 
& for dol a-dote]> * & do]> him to hire chaumber, 

& busked euene to hire bed • but * nobincr he no fond, and went to 

Melior't bed, but 

wi]>-inne hire comly cortynes • but hire cloJ>es warme. found only the 

wijtly as a wod man * fe windowe he opened, 2057' 

& aovL^t sadli al a-boute * his semliche doubter, 

• but al wrou^t in wast • for went was fat mayde. [Foi. m5.j 

& whanne he mi^t in no manere * meliors )>er finde, pindinK her no- 
where^ hemke 
- he deraied him as a deuel * & dede him out a-^eine, Alexandrine 

& asked of ali8au7^drine • anon after ))anne, 2062 to. * * '^'^ 

" J>ou damisele, deliuerli • do telle me now ^emo, 

whider is mi doajter went • jhe nis noujt in bedde." 

alisaundrine for bat cas • was sorwful in herte, 2065 ••sire,**eheaaje, 

.... ,. ... "Ihavenotaeen 

& seide, '' sire, i sei^ hire nou^t * se)) hie^ midm3t, her aince mid- 

I wene sche went to will/am • for wraj? of my sawe, The u w^ *** 

sendej) swifteH J)edir • to scheche hire at is inne. 2068 

& ^if wiUiam be noujt went • witef ^e forsofe, if he b not gooe^ 

Mi ladi for ani lore * lengef in f is cite jut. ff J. u gon<l^ be 

& jif willtam be went * neuer leue je oJ)er, JSth Wm?^ ** 

Mi ladi lengef him wi|) * for lif or for dede." 2072 

|>emperoiff for treie & tene • as a tyrauwt ferde, 

wax ney wod of his witte • & wrofliche seide, 

" a ! has J)at vntrewe treytour • traysted me noufe, •• Ah i " wid the 

^Por fe welfe & welfare • i haue him wroujt fore, 2076 that tmitor 
& fostered fro a fundeling • to Je worf iest of mi lond 1 **^'*^ °**' 
& for his dedes to-day * i am vndo for euer ; 
eche frek for f is fare • false wol me hold, 

" & ))e grewes for gremfe • ginne)) on me werre, 2080 TheOreekiwin 
& eche weijh schal wite • pskt fe wrong is myne. 
j)er-fore bi grete god • fat gart me be fourmed, 
& bitterly wif his blod • boujt me on j>e rode, 

>M8. "bud." 

make war upon 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



If he U taken, he 
■hftll be hanged 
and drawn in 

Sixty eefgeante 
are eent to look 
ibr William. 


Th^ were glad 
when they ooald 

The emperor 
twooDs fbr sorrow 

emperor of 
Greece the whole 

He does so^ and 
aaka him how he 
can beet arenge 

All mirth 
in the dty. 

The Greek 
emperor, seeing 
how be of Rome 
was grieved, 

alle men vpon molde • ne schuld mak it of er, 2084 

}if pAi traytour mow be take • to-day, er i ete, 

he Bchal be honged heie * & wif horse to-drawe ! " 

J>emperour ful kenely • dede kalle km3tte8 fele, 

and oJ)er semly seriauns • sixti wel armed, 2088 

het hem wi3tli to wende • to williams inne, 

& 3if ]>ei found out fat freke • for out fat bi-tidde, 

to bring him bliue • bounde fast him to-fore, 

fai durste non ofer do * but dede hem on gate, 2092 

& 80U3te him wif sore hertes • so wel f ei him louede. 

fei^fli when fei founde him nou^t • fayn were f ei alle, 

& turned a3ein to pemperoui • & told he was a-weie. 

fan brayde he brayn-wod * & alle hb bakkes rente, ^QS^ 

his berde & his bri3t fax • for bale he to-twi3t ; 

& swowned sixe sife • for sorwe & for schame, 

fat Ma he schold be founde * ful ofte he seide " allaJB,'' 

& banned bitterli fe time * fat he was on-liue. 2100 

fanne kinges & kud dukes * comforted him beter, 

bede him sese of his sorwe • & swiflili wende, 

& telle f emperour of grece • treuli f e sofe, 

& meke him [in] * his merci • for his misse-gilt. 2104 

& he ketly for al kas • after cunseyl wrou3te, 

& gof to femperour of grece • vnglad at his herte, 

knelef to him karfully • & mercy him krief, 

and told him as titly * al fe treufe sone, 2108 

how his dou3ter was went • wif on fat he fostred, 

& preide him par charite * fat he him wold wisse, 

In what wise fat he mi3t • best him a-wrek. 

& whan fis tiding was told • trowef fe sofe, 2112 

In fat cite was sone • many a sori bume, 

for missing of fat manage • al murpe ^ was seced, 

riuedliche f urth rome • & reufe bi-gunne. 

fe gode emperour of grece * was a-greued sore, 2116 

of fat fortune bi-falle • but for he sei fat of er 

so meken in his mercy • for fat misgilt, 

1 MS. omits in. See 1. 2118. * MS. '' murrJHir 

Digitized by 



fe li^tere he let ]>er-of • ac lourand he seide ; 

" sire, be god fat me ga f • Je^st & fe soule, 2120 

wist i now witerli • bis were wromt for rile, My^thiithadit 

\, , ,, , . bwmdoneln 

alle fe men vpon mold * no schxdd make it of er, guue. he woaid 

fat i nold brenne fi borwes • & fi bumes quelle^ towns; 

& sece neuer til fi-self * were chamly destroyed 2124 
but i wene wif f i wille * was neu^ wromt f is gile, but m it u not 

« ,, -I. Ill to, ho will glva 

fere-fore f e cunseil fat y kan * i schal fe kife sone, him bu oooomI 
do qnikliche crie f urth eche cuntre • of f i king-riche, •• Prodaim 
fat barouTis, burgeys, & bonde • & alle ofer burnee, iwnbthat every 
fat mowe wi^tly in any wise • walken a-boute, 2129 ^r^^j!!^^ 
fat fei wende wi^tly • as wide as f i reaume, 

- forth wodes & wastes • & alle maner weies, 

forto seche bat s^ • bat he hab so bitraied : . 2132 unthey find 

& fat mayde him mide * Meliores f i doubter. Meiior. 
& to make eche man * f e more beter wilned, 

bi-hote hoo-so hem findes • to haue so gret mede, whoever Unde 

them to to be 

Biche to be & reale • redly al his line time. 2136 rioWy rewarded, 

& ho-80 hastely nou^t him hiej • f is best to worche, 

do him in hast be honged • & wif horse to-drawe. 

& loke fat hirde-men wel kope • f e komnne passage, J*f«* "I* ,, ^ 

'^ *^ ' ^ *^ ' brldKoa should be 

& eche brugge f er a-boute • fat bumes ouer wende, guardod." 
& to seche eche cite * and alle smale f ropes, 2141 

& vni)arceyued passe fei noi^t * ^if f i puple be treuwe.*' 

- l^e real emperour of rome • fanne redli him thonked 
-» of fat konyng cuwseyl • & his kynde wille. 2144 

& bliue ban bi eche side • bat bode lot he sende : ^he emperor 

' ' - sends the 

as hasty li as men miit hije • his best was wrou^t, meseage every- 

wher0| and all 

& sone was sembled swiche an host * to take hem tweie, men set oat to 

fat neuer burn to no bataile • brou^t swiche a puple. 

fei sou^t alle so serliche • f urh cites & smale townes, 

In wodes & alle weies • fat was fer a-boute, .2160 Theysoaghtin 

fat no s^ for no slei^f e * no schuld haue schapit. path, bat 

.but 3it as god ^af fe grace • no gom mi^t hem finde, not find them. 

fere fei leye lonely a-slepe * lapped in armes. 2163 

remiss to to be 

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but whan fis bode was broujt • to J)emperour[s] bof e, 
When It WM told J)at no wiit in no wise • ne mut willtam finde, 

that thty could 

notbtt foond. ne ]>e maide Meliors * in no maner wise, 2156 

fer stod a gome of grece • J)at god gif him sorwe ! 
he J)at of J>e white beres • so bremli was a-fraied,^ 

Um Greek who he seide sone to bemp^rours • " sires, wol te here ? 

h«l Been the _. , r r i p 

bean told hie I sai a selkouj^e sijt * mi-self ^ifter-neue, 2160 

«dventare» i •, • * , . . ^ 

[Foi. W.J wel wi]>-inne nijt • as i went m the gardyn ; - 

tvo J>e bremest white beres • fat euer bum on loked, 
& semede J)e most to si^t * p&t euer ^ut i sawe. 
I wende deliuerli for drede • |>e def to haue sufficed, 
and how the |)ut treulv be beres • to me tok no hede, 2165 

bean had not •' ' ^ 

noticed him, bat but passeden out priueli • at be posteroe gate, 

went away by the ,._ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

poetern-ffate. ac whiderward J>ei went • wot i no more." 

" be god," quaj) ]>emperour of grece • " fat gart me be 
fourmed, 2168 

The Greek I der love mi lif • hit was be liber treytour 

emperor flayn it . - * 

will be beet to Went a-wej in fat wise • for he ne wold be knowen. 

kitchen and eee if L©te wite swif e at f kichen • wefer fei misse* any 

^l^"" skinnes. 2171 

whan men kome to fe koke • he was b^knowe sone, 

Two white bean* fat suTW bum a-wei had bore • tvo white beres skynnes. 

missing. fan was it kenly komanded * a kri to make newe, 

fat eche bum schuld bisily • tvo white beres seke, 
hia trauayle schold noujt tyne • fat tittest hem founde. 

All eet oat again, fan hastely hi^ed eche wijt • on hors & on fote, 2177 

with hounds, to , .,,,,,. , 

hnnt the bean, tyiintyrig wi^t hoimdes * alle heie wodes, 

til f ei ney^f ed so nei^h • to nymphe fe sof e, 
and aome came fere wiUtain & his worfi lef • were liand i-fere, 2180 

cloee to their '^ ^ ' . 

hidins-piaoe. fat busily were thei a bowe schote * out of fe bumes 8i3t. 

The werwolf but whan fe witthi werwolf • wist hem so nere, 

save them, & s^i^© blod-houndes bold • so busili seche, 

he fou^t, wil his lif last • leton he nolde, 2184 

forto saue and seme • fo tvo semli bores ; 
& prestly fan putte him out • in peril of defe, 

hounds awv. bi-fore f o herty houndes * hauteyn of cryos, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to winne hem alle a-woiwardes • firo pe white l)eres. 

whan pe houndes hadde feute * of ]>e hende hest, 2189 

bei sesed al here eechyng • & sewed him fast, Theboondi 

... _ ^ followed him 

ouer mountaynes & mues ' many myle ]7ennes. many miies orer 

alle men ))at mut heide ' of |>e muri houndes, 2192 mim, 

seweden after ful swife • to se Jmt muiy chase, 

& left fe loiieli white beres • ligge in here rest, »nd withe bean 

f&t wisten no-f ing of J)is werk • fat was hem a-boute. "* 

pe pnple Jeanne porsewed forj) • & of here prey fei fFouaeM 

missed, 2196 

as god gaf pe werwolf grace • to go a-wei so ^eme, 
^t horse ne hounde for non hast * ne mijt him of-take. 
whan bemperour was warned • in wast bat bei lede, The ohwe being 

«... . , , % rsr^r^r^ til In VlOn. .11 

alle geigeis for grame * gonne take here leue, 2200 theQneksRo 

& cayred to faire cimtre • earful and tened. *^*' 

but ward was per set • wide wher a-boute, watches are set 

of bold bumes of armes • pe beres forto seche, ^^"^ 

J)at pe witti werwolf • so wel Jeanne hem helped, 2204 

J)at no wi3t for wile • m^t wite where fei lenged ; 

& hastili whan bei hade nede • halp hem of mete, But the werwolf 

' found them food, 

& wissed hem wel pe wei^es • to wende a-wei bi ni3t ; and was their 
& whan it drou3 to }>e dai * ful demli he hem tau3t^ 
bi contenaunce wel thei kneu • where f ei rest schold 
take. 2209 

& busily him-seK • wold buske in eche side, 
to help hem fro harm • 3if any hap bi-tidde. 
J)U8 l^at witty werwolf • pe weyes hem kenned ; 2212 
lorkinde furth londes bi ni3t • so lumbardie fei passed, Thus they passed 
& comen into pe marches * of pe kingdam of poyle. oame to ApuUa. 

TTit bi-tidde ])at time * )>ei trauailed al a ni3t, 

-*-■- out of forest & fnpea • & alle faire wodes ; 2216 

no couert miit bei kacche • be cuwtre was so playne. They could And 

^ ' '^ ^ '^ no covert there. 

& as it dawed li3t day • to mene pe soJ)e, 

bai hadde a semli si^t • of a cite nobuL They see a 

' *? »-> eastellateddty, 

enclosed comeliche a-boute • wif fyn castel-werk ; 2220 named Benerento, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

There ie nowhere 


bonuewt fat riche borwe • bumes 3ut clepun. 
wiiiiMniiaflpaid whan william ber-of war was * he wax a-drad sore, 

Uiej wiU be Men. '^ ' 

lest eny segges of fat cite • hem of-se schnld, 
& mekly seide to meliors * " myn owne swete herte, 
our lord, ^if his liking be • oure Hues now saue ! 2225 
for i no wot in f is world • where we mowe vs hide, 
fe perles prince of heuew • for his pite & his grace, . 
saue vs for his pite • fat we ne slayn bene ! " 2228 

" amen, sire," seide meliors • " Marie fat vs graunt, ^ 
for fat blessed bames loue • fat in hire bodi rest ! " * 
iFoLsr.i fanne wijtly wib-inne a while * as bei waited a-boute, 

At last tney found ' ' ^ r r ' 

aquMTx under • fei saic a litel hem bi-side • a semliche quarrere, 2232 
vnder an hei^ hel • al holwe newe diked ; 
deliuerli fei hiejed hem f ider • for drede out of doute, 

uid crept into • & crepten in-to a caue • whanne bei beder come, 

cave there, and ^ r r 9 

xxj down there to al wcry for-walked * & wold take here reste. 2236 


In armes lonely eche lau3t of er • & leide hem to slepe, 

al bonden in f e here skynnes • bi-fore as fei 3ede. 
The werwolf kept ^ |,at witty wcTwolf * Went ay bi-side, 

& kouchid him vnder a kragge • to kepe f is tvo beris. 

ac fei ne hadde redly rested • but a litel while, 2241 
Some workmen fat werkmen forto worche * ne wonne f idere sone, 

came there to . 

dig. stifly wif strong tol * ston stifly to digge,* 

& as fei come to fe caue • to comse to wirche, 2244 
One of them saw on of hem sonc of-sei • fo semliche white beres, 
loueli ligand to-gadir • lapped in amies, 
but feif li as fast • to his felawes he seide, 
and bid his " herkeucs nowe, hende sires • je han herd ofle, 2248 

the*cry that had wich a cri has be cried • furth cuntres fele, 
be^niiaed about ^^^^ j^^^ ^^ femperour • fat haf rome to kepe, 

fat what man vpon molde • mi^t onwar finde, 

tvo breme wite beres • fe bane is so maked, 2252 

he schold winne his wareson * to weld for euere, 

1 MS. graut ; but the u has a crooked line oyer it (the contractioa 
for ra or a) instead of a straight one. 

• Catchword—** |>anne wijtly." » Read **ston for to digge**(0« 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


forth fe grete god of gold • fat him bi 3iue schold." »»* ^ow great 
" ;a, foreof e," seide his felawes • " ful wel fat we cOend tot Unding 

. them. 

but wharbi seistow so * so f e god help ? " 2266 

"fe sofe, felawes, ful sone • ^e schol it wite, 
jif ^e tentifly take kepe • & trewe be to-gadcre ; He win shew 

them how to get 

J wol winne our warisun • for i wot where f ei are." the reward. 

" jis, certes," seide fei • "so trewe wol we bene, 2260 

fat no fote schal we fle • for nou^t bi-tides." 

" ek, sires," seide fat ofer • " so 30U3 crist rede, 

standes alle a stounde stille • in bis ilk place. They most wntcu 

' there while he 

I wil busk to boneuent ' of fe bens telle, 2264 goeeto Benevcnto 

to f e prouost & ofer puple • & hem preie in hast ^^ ^ *1 

to come hider & hem cacche • for in caue f ei lyen, pr^voet. 

& slepen samen y-fere • y saw hem ri^t nowe." 
benne were his felawes ful fayn * & fast bad him renne, They w»tch 

. while he rans otL 

& fei wold a-bide boldly • f e beres fere to kepe. 2269 

fat ofer [went]/ wi^tly fenne • to wame f e prouost 

leUiche hou he hade seye • in f e harde quarrer, 

fe tvo white beris • & bad him-self 3eme 2272 

to come wif gret pouwer • & cacche hem in haste. 

" wostou wel," seyede f e prouost • " fat fei are fere h« teiu the 

provoet the boan 
^ete Y are foand, 

" 3e, certes," seide he • " y saw hem ri3t now bof e ; 

& fine of my felawes • ful faste fere hem wayten, 2276 SkJi"^''*' 

fat fei no wende a-way • wil y hider stcrte." ^^^^^^^ "»^- 

l%e prouost fan prastely • fe pepul dede wame, Theprovort 

-« as fei nold lese here lif ' here londes & here godes, people or the 
fat alle hie3den hastily * on hors & on fote, 2280 

& bi-saf sone saddeli * fe quarrer al a-boute, 
ti3tU for to take • f e tvo white beres, wi^S^t^*'''' 

fat f emperour comanded crie • in cuntre al a-boute. 
sone eche man fat mi3t * ful manliche him armed, 2284 
& hejeden hastely to hors • f fat hade any, iJiStJidSJ'toSi, 

^ Perhaps we should read ** That other wMt wiztly." — ^M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


and frekes on fote • hi^ede hem fast after, 
so fat pe cuntre furth fat cri • was al bi-cast sone, 
& quikliche a-boute J)e qnarrer • were kene men of 
armes, 2288 

t2oo men In au. twenty hundered & tvo • trewli in numbre, 

to take as bliue pe beres ' but god now hem help, 

slayn worf fei slepend • ac selcouf now heres. 

as fo bold beres • so nei^h here bale slepten, 2292 

jurt then, MeUor Meliois buTth a metyng • was marred neu for fere, 

hftd A dream* . 

which the teUfl to & f urth fat sorwful sweuene * swife sche a-waked, 
wiuura. ^ wi3tly to william • fese wordes sche sede, 

" a ! louely lemman * lestene now my sawe, 2296 

I am hey marred & mad * fis morwe for a sweuene. 
•« I thought that for me Jjout fat f er com • to fis caue noufe 

[Foi. 88.] wilde beris & apes • bores, boles, and baucynes, 
he8etoaroave.ied a brem numbre of bestes * fat a lyoun ladde, 2300 
on by a lioo. ^^^ j^ ^^^^ komaudmewt • kidden wel to wirche, 

to haue taken vs tvo • to-gader in fis denne. 
The Uon'B cub fan was fer a litel lyoun • of f e lederes bi- jete, 

come wif fat companye * fis case to bi-holde. 2304 
& n^t as fe breme bestes ' vs bofe schuld haue take, 
and our werwolf OUT wurf i werwolf * fat cuer wel vs helpef , 
^"thrmiirimd* coDi ^t » gret kours • & for alle f e kene bestes, 
ran off with It, ^ i^^^^ ^ j,^ ^^^^^ jy^^ . ^^^y ^ j^ moufe, 2308 

& went wif him a-wei • whedir as him liked, 
and th«y left off & alle f breme bestes * fat a-boute vs were, 
JJjJi"i5to?jJSj.. foi^lete vs & folwed him forf • for fe jong lyouns sake ; 
& certes, sire, of fat sweuen • ri^t so y a-waked, 2312 
& am a-drad to fe def • for destine fat wol falle." 

wiuiamsayiitia " XTajy loueli lef,** seide William • "leue al fat sorwe, 
butaikmr. 11 forsofe it is but fanteme • f at je fore-tello ; 

we mowe reste vs.redili * rijt sauf here at wille." 2316 
ac sof li, as che had seide * rijt wif fat ilke. 
But then they fci herd an huge route of horse • fat hel al a-boute, 
many h<m^Ln. & herd fat quarrere vmbe-cast • & al f e cuntre wide. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


-willuun ful wi^tly • wayted out at an hole, 2320 

& seie breme bumes bosi * in ful bri^t annes, 

brandissende wij) gret boat * & of fe beres speke, and wuiiam mm 

In what wise J>ei wold wirche * • wi^tly hem to take. Shears Ithem 

J)e prouost wiJ) al pe puple • presed forf fonnast, 2324 KJl^ **'**** 

& many mi^ti man manliche * medled ]>at time, 

& 8o))liche for to seie * swiche grace god lente, 

^t |>e prouost sone * a semli ^ong bame, The prorcMt't son 

was brout fider wi^ bumes • J>e beres to bi-holde, 2328 J^^y.** 

for pe selcou))e si^t to se * how pei scbuld be take. 

whan willkzm was war * J>ei were so nei^h nome, 

to meliors wif momyng • mekliche he sayde, 

*' alias ! my louelicbe lemman * bat euer y lif hadde. wuiiam umeau 

/ V their hard fkta. 

to be for al our bale * brou^t to swiche an bende ! 2333 [fol ss 5.j 
alias ! lemmaw, fat our loue * Jnis luj)erly schal departe, 
fat we now dulfulli schul deye • ac do now, god, f i 

& late me haue al be harm ' heiaeliche i beseche ; 2336 He says a« ought. 

to have all the 

for i haue wroujt al f is wo • & worfi am f er-tille. harm. 

for meliors, my dere hert • be marie in heuene, 

holly al f is harde • fow hast al for my gelt ; 

fer-fore, ^if godes wille were • i wold haue al fe payne, 

to mede ^e were fro J)is quarrere • quitly a-schaped. 2341 

& dere hert. deliuerli • do as ich be rede, HeadnsM 

^ r » . MellortodoffUer 

dof bliue pis bere-skyn • & be stille in pi elopes, bearskin, and 

& as sone as pou art seie * pou schalt sone be knowe, 

pan woTp pi liif lengeyd * • for loue of pi fader ; 2345 

so mi^tow be saued • for sope, neuer elles ; 

& pouh^ pei murper me panne • i no make no strengpe. No matter if 

-..«,. , A.11-. « «« ^/>- they murder M»; 

but god for his grete grace • gof i hadde now here 2348 yet he wishM he 

horse & alle hameys • pat be-houes to werre, armoarl*"* *" 

I wold wend hem tille • wip-oute ani stint, 

& do what i do ini3t • or ich pe deth sofifred ; 2351 

summe pat here hem now brag • schuld blede or euen. 

»MS. "^srirthe." 

» Or "lengeK" fnittcrittm for lengM (?). Cf. 11. 1040, 1944. 

and ho would do 
what be oonld. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CM5 bptles is now )?i8 bule * but be hit a goddes wille, 

She mart take off & buske JjB of Jjis bere fel • bi-liue, i Jje rede, 
Bave heneii: & wende listlj hennes • & late me worjj after ; 


Melior vows she 
will uot do MO, 

swijje saue Jji-self • for so is Jje best." 
Meliors wepande wonder sore • to will/am fan seide, 
" what 1 leuestow, leue lemmdn * Jjat i Jje leue wold 
for de]7 or for duresse * fat men do me mijt ? 2359 

nay, bi him fat wijj his blod • bou^t vs on Jje rode, 
ye beres fel schal neuer fro my bac • siker be fer-fore. 

haying no wish to al f is world to wiune • i no wold be aliue, 
sof li after i seie 30U * sufltere J)e defe ; 

wif god wille take we Jje grace 

fat god wol us 

The provost 
advances to take 
the bears, 

[FoL 89.] 

bat the werwolf 
attacks them. 

snatches up the 
provost's son, 

and nms off, 
roaring loadly. 

The provost cries 
oat for help. 

All begin to chase 
(he werwolf, 

TTThan fat sawe was seid • sof for to telle, 
» * f e prouost bad bold bumes • f e beres go take, 
& f ei hastily at his best • hi3ed inward atte roche. 
but godli, as god wold • swiche grace bi-tidde, 2368 
f e werwolf was war * & wist of here tene, 
& be-f out how best wore • f e beres to saue ; 
& wi3tly as a wod best • went hem a-3ens, 
Gapand ful grimli • & gof f anne ful euene 2372 

to f e semli prouost sone • & swif e him vp-cau3t 
be f e middel in his mouf e * fat muche was & large, 
& ran * forf for al fat route • wif so rude a noyse, 
as he wold fat barn • bliue haue for-frete. 2376 

whan f e prouost fat perceyued • to f e puple he cried, 
** helpes hastily, hende men • i bote, vp 3our Hues ! 
ho wol winne his wareson • now wi3tly him spede 
forto saue my sone • or for sorwe i deye ! '* 2380 

ful sone after fat sawe * se fere men mi3t 
Many a bold bum • after fat best prike, 
& of or fi'ekes on fote * as fast as f ei mi3t, 
so holliche to fat hunting * i bote fe forsofe, 2381 
fat noif er burde ne bam • bi-laft at f e quarrer, 

> MS. " fan." Both sense and alliteration require ^* ran." 

Digitized by 


and w> lad tbem 
on all daj long. 


but went after J)e werwolf * & wayned from J>e teres, 

hotend out wib homes • & wib huge cries, ^^ ^o™« "od 

' JO loud cries. 

& sewed him sadly • wijj so selkouf noyse, 2388 

J)at alle men vpow molde • mi3t be a-wondred. 

euer when be werwolf • was out to-fore Every tfanath* 

«, ,n , ./. . werwolf WM half 

fe mountaunce of half a myle * or more ^if it were, a mOe awi^r, 

- lest Jje segges wold haue sesed • here seute to folwe, 2392 
he wold abide wib be barn * be bliber hem to make, ?• wnit^ for 

'^ '^ ^ ' "^ themtooomeap. 

In hope pei schuld of him * bent ]}e litel knaue. 

but whan Jjei were ou3t him nei^ • nou3t he nold abide, 

but dede him deliuerli awey • as he dede bi-fore, 2396 

& fna lelly he hem ladde * alle pQ longe dale, 

Jat neuer man vpon molde • mijt him of-take ; 

& schete durst J>ei nou^t, for drede • J)e child to hurte, 

but folwed him so for)) * as fast as ]>ei mi3t. 2400 

whanne be wite beres wist • bat were in be quarrer, _ l^^V » ''•J 

'^ ' X -X > The white bears, 

fat al pQ puple was passed • to pursue f e best^ ^^ *******had 

of J)at witti werwolf • to winne pe child, goneawaj. 

& sei wel for here sake • he suffred po peines 2404 

to socour hem & saue * fram alle sory de])es, 

& bobe bliue for bat best • bi:(ranne to prcie prajed for the 

•*=• -^ . werwolf '• safety^ 

Jjat god for his grete mi3t • schuld gete him fro harm ; 

witterli )>ei wist wel * pot ))ei nere bot dede, 2408 

nere goddes grete mi3t • & pe gode bestes help. 

& whan bei bobe had so bede • bei be-bout after, and beftan to 

^ '^ 1 / think they had 

It were best as bliue * to buske hem of p&t caue. better make o(l 

& williom pese wordes wi3tly * to meliors seide, 2412 

" Mi swete wi3t, sojj to seie • me semeth * it pe best, 

to buske ^ vs of be here felles • to be be lasse knowe. wmiamaaysthey 

' '^ had better take 

for eche wi3h wol more a-weite • after J>e white beres, offtheakuu, 

fan J)ei wol after any wi3t • fat walkef i-clofed, 2416 

berfor wiitly in oure owne wedes • wende we hennes." and go away to 

r y 'f their own cV>the8. 

Mekli seide meliors, " sire • be marie in heuen, 

to do hoUi as 3e han seide * i hope be f e best." 2419 

as bliue be here schinnes • from here bodi bei bent. They rend off the 

' skins, and are 

1 MS. " semekt" » MS. " buskes." 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^ad to Me one 

another onoe 

otit. but cftu Me 
no one near. 

Thej take the 
ekins with them, 
being Ifiath to 
I»art with them 

They were in 
much dread, but 

fFoL 40.) 
happily met with 
no one. 

After going three 
mile*, they And a 

Mellor Ib bo tired, 
■he can go no 

80 they rest in ' 
the forest, and 

his men cliased 
the werwolf tiU 

The werwolf 
ihoui^t there 
was no need to 

& wi^tly wrapped hem to-gadere • wittow for 8o]>e, 

& blijje were J>ei bofe Jeanne * to bi-hold on op&t ; 

for fei])li a fourteiii3t * non hadde seie ojieres face. 

Jjanne clipt Jjei & kest • for al here cares colde, 2424 

& wtU/am ful wi3tly * waited out of J)e caue^ 

& bi-huld fill busili • a-boute on eche a side, 

3if eny wijt were walkende * but he now seie. 2427 

he lau3t loueli Meliors • & ladde hire bi pQ honde ; 

clof ed in here clones • out of J)e caue pQi went, 

wij> hem bof e here felles • fei here in here armes, 

so lojj hem was po to lese • or leue hem bi-hinde ; 

& deden hem deliuerly ' ouer dales and helles, 2432 

ferrest fro alle weies • for any folk walkes. 

dolfulli fei were adrad >dar no mow hem wite, 

last Jjei schiild mete any man • J>at' mi3t hem be-wrie ; 

but fan as god wold • or eny man hem seye, 2436 

J)ei hade walked in fat wise • wel a fre myle, 

& founden fan a fayr forest * floriched ful f ik, 

& f ider wi3tly f ei went • wel vnparceyued. 

what of here hard hei3ing • <fe of f e bote weder, 2440 

Meliors was al mat • sche ne mi3t no fiirfer, 

& prestly in a f icke place • of fat pris wode, 

wel out from aUe weyes • for-weiy fei hem rested, 

& f onked god gretliche • fat so godliche hem saued ; 

& sef f en softli to slepe * samen fei hem leide, 2445 

as fei fat were wery • for-waked to-fore. 

N0U3 leue we of hem a while • & speke we a-nofer ; 

For of f e witti werwoK * a while wol i telle. 2448 

Qo long fat ferli folk * folwed him after, 
'^ to haue be-nom him f e bam • fat he nam fat time, 
huntyng holliche fat day • on hors & on fote, 
till f e semli sunne * was setled to reste. 2452 

& whan it was so nei3 ni3t • to neuen f e sof e, 
f e werwolf wist wel • it was no more nede 
to here fat [bam] no forf er ' • for f e beres sake. 
I Read "to bere that bamr-^U. See 1. 2469. 

Digitized by 



))ei hadde folwod him so fer * ])at forso]^ he wist, 2456 

])at no seg fat hade sewed * no schuld horn winne, 

hi3ed Jjei neuer so hard • of al J>a long ni3t 

& banne as bliue bat bam • be best a-donn sette, ■© *>• pn^ o»e 

r * * proTOft'ison 

wijj-oute eny manor wem • J)e worse it to greue, 2460 ^own, quit* 

for non schold in )>at bames bodi • o brusure finde 

as of ]}at bold best * but bold it was & faiie. 

& as sone as he hade • sette it a<lowne, »»<* yrmtoBu 

' nimbly as If he 

he went wi^tly a-weie • wi})-oute eny more, 2464 h«i *>ut gone 

deliu^rli as he nadde ]>at day * gon half a myle. 

when Jje prouost & J>e pnple * parceyued fai ilk,, 

])at pe best hade left ]>e bam * hlipe were ^i ))anne. 

J>e prouost bi-fore pe puple 'prikod ))ider formest, 2468 Theprovoetridef 

& hent it vp in hast • ful hendli in his armes, "oi 

and clipt it & kest * oft & many sibes : and looka to see 

" ' ' If tie is hftrmcd. 

bi-huld a-boute on his bodi • jif it blenched were ; 

whan he saw it al sound * so glad was he banne, 2472 andisgiMitoflnd 

; , . . Wmwhole. 

fat na gref vnder god • gayned to his loye. 

al ])e puple prestly * )>at him porsewed hadde, 

gretliche J)onked..god • of fat grace bi-falle, 

& t^tU al here tene * was turned in-to ioye, 2476 The peoples 

& as bliue wij) blisse • Jjei busked hem homward, intojoj. 

wif al J)e murfe ypon molde * fat men mi3t diuise. 

but eche man al ni3t * inned him where he mijt. They rested aii 

& whan hit dawed, deliuerli • dede hem homward. 2480 Jiiid.^ *" *^ 

& wi^tli whan f ei hom come • wittow for sofe, 

fe prouost ful prestli • al fat puple wamed, 

to buske bliue to fe quarrer • f e beres to take. and repaired next 

dftj to the qtuuny* 

f ei went wif god wille * but wan f ei f ider come, 2484 

fei founde al awei fare • bi-fore fat fer wore. 

bo ne wist bei in be world • whider hem to seche, Finding nothing 

y r r f there, they 

but hued hem homward • fast as fei miit^ return home. 

& token redli here rest • at here owne wille. 2488 

fe prouost dede pertli • profer al a-boute, StoTTiStSd 

what man vpo» mold • mijt fe beres take, £iil^ "** 

he schuld gete of gold • garissoun for euere. 
6 ♦ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



and many men 
looked for them, 
bat none found 

The werwolf 
returned to 
WUliam and hla 

well charged with 
wine and meats. 

He then goea 
away again, to 
their great 

CFoL 4L] 

They feel sure the 
beast is of man's 

Tie never fails 
them at need. 

They eat and 
drinlc, and rest a 
day and a night. 

Early next 
morning, some 
colliers come near 
their hiding-place. 

The colliers begin 
to tallc. and one 
says if the white 
bears were there. 

nothing should 

Many man by his mi3t • medled him Jjer-after, 2492 

a-boute bi eche side • J)o bestes for to secho. 

but as god ^af f e grace • no gom mi3t hem finde, 

so happiliche Jjei hem hidde • ))ei hadde swiche grace. 

& forto telle what tidde • of fat tide werWolfi 2496 

fat nijt fat hadde • f e prouost sone for-left, 

he wan a-3en to wiUtam • & to his worf make, 

wel i-charged wif wyn • & wif gode metes, 

fat he wan bi fe weie • as he f ider went. 2500 

& bliue fat he bar • be-fore will/am hit leide, 

& went him wi^tly • a-wei fro hem sone. 

f erof was wiU/am a-wondred • & meliors dse, 

why f e best nold abide • fat so wel hem helped, 2504 

& seide eif er til of er • " now sertes, for sof e, 

f is best has marines kynde • it may be non of er. 

se what sorwe he snffres * to saue vs tweine ! 

& namli, when we han nede • neuer he ne faylef, 2508 

fat he ne bringef wher we ben * fat to vs bi-houes. 

he fat sufFred for our sake • sore wondes fine, 

he our buxum best saue • & hald vs his Hue." 

" amen, sire," seide meliors • " marie fat graimt ! 2512 

nade his help hende ben • we hade be ded 3ore." 

f ei made hem fan merye * wif mete fat fei hadde, 

& eten at here ese • for f oi were for-hungred, 

& rested fere redeli • al fat longe day, 2516 

& al f e ni3t next after • to neuen f e sof e, 

for meliors was so wery • fat sche ne walk mi3t. 

& erliche on f e morwe • er f e sunne gan schine, 

choliers fat cayreden col • come fere bi-side, 2520 

& of er wi3es fat were wont * wode forto fecche, 

fast fer william was • & his worf burde. 

f e kolieres bi-komsed to karpe • kenely i-fere ; 

on of hem seide sadli • f ise selue wordes : ' 2524 

" wold god f e white beres • were here now:))e, 

alle f e men on mold • ne schuld here lines saue, 

for wi3tly wold ich wende • and wame f e prtmost, 

Digitized by 



& titliche schuld Jjei he take • & moche tene suf&e ; 

for breme beres Pbel * bei none * as bei be-semen, 2529 tt»t they aw not 

, /. reaUy beari. but 

It IS J)enipf?roiir8 doujter • Jjat so digised wendej), tu© emperor's 

'wif a [comliche] knijt ^ * J)at kaii3t h&f hire loue. knight. 

))er-fore J>e8e cries ben • so kenliche maked, 2532 

what man on molde • mow hem first fynde, 

he mai gete so moche gold * fat pore worjj he neuer. 

wondedi a werwolf * yesterday hem saued, Awenroifhad 

y " ' HiTedthem 

Ja pertly Jje prouost bam • bar a- way frow alle ; 2536 yeeterday. 

while men hunted after hem • fai han a-wai schaped. [Fd. 4i w 

bi him fat me boujt • were f ei bo))e here, 

fei schuld wicche wel • ^if fei a-wei went, Srer^^^^Irtouid 

]K)U3h Jjer were werwolfa • wif hem foure schore 1 " not save them to- 

Jjen was meliors nei3 mad • al-most for fere, 2541 MeUorwuvery 

lest fat foule felfe • schold haue hem fouwde fere, ^qStestm! 

& darked stiUe in hire den ' for drede, boute noyse. 

wi^tly a-nofer werkman • fat was f er be-side 2544 ^^^^"'fi^rt 

gan flite wif fat felf e • fat formest hadde spoke, ^^ 

seide, " do f i deuer • fat f ow hast to done. 

what were fe f e beter nou^ • f ei^h f e beris were here, "hSb^ were 

to do hem any duresse 1 • fei misdede fe neucr. 2548 nothing to ww. 

Man! hard hape * han fei a-schapet, 

& so i hope fei schal jit * for al f i son wille. 

god for his grete mijt • fram greues hem saue, p^^'Semi 

& bring hem bobe wib blis • here bei be wold. 2552 »»^» •• '^'•^» 

" ' ' ' ^ let OB go about our 

do we fat we haue to done • & dijt we vs henne, busineiM." 

sum selucr for our semes' • in fe cite to gete." 

fei hadde bliue here burf enes • & bi-gunne to wende, S* th'e^dly."™*** 

wilHam ne is swete wijt • seie hem na more ; 2556 

but holliche had herd • al here huge speche. 

fan seide william wijtly • fese selue wordes, JSIJSia'^^bJ 

** Meliors, my swete hert • now mow we no more ^^^ "*>'• °®* *® 

' •^ them. 

In f ise breme be!re felles • a-boute here walke, 2560 

* Read ** berea be thei none."— M. 

' Bead '' With a komli knizt," or something similar. — ^M. See 
L 2637. * See note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


MeUor mji ttiiA *^ certes, sire, bat is sob " * seide meliors ban, 

•nj 0O6 who , ^ 

mMU them in '^ jif WB walken in ])es wedes * i wot wel for 60]>e, 

jif we wist in what wise • how to worche beter." 

^toowSSr & al f« cuntre knoweJ> • what cas we ben inne, 2564 

what man so vs metes * may yb sone knowe. 
whrttotobe I ne wot in wat wise • to worche be best." 


" nor ich, i-wisse," sede willtam • "but worje god wif 

TlThile J>e tvo derlinges • talked to-gadere, 2568 

jnttthen, ttM " ])e weiwolf an hoge hert * hade hnnted ri^t ]»ider, 
hogthartanda & T^t bo-fore hem bofe • brou3t hit to dej?e ; 
M^and laA ^ hastilycho J)an hijed • & an hinde broujt, 

LPoL «!] serued it in ]?e same wise * as fe hert bi-fore, 2572 

& went wijtly a-wei • wit-oute any more. 
William pewtiTed ban wist willtam wel • bi be bestes wille, 

that the werwolf *^ ' 

meant them to )>at he ])e hert & fe hinde * hade pere slayne, 
toleave the^ him & his loueliche lemman * to lappe in pe skinnes, 

& bileue )>ere f% beres felles * ])at so busili were a-epied« 
& mekli ])an to meliors * he munged what he Jjou^t, 
& seide, " se wich a selcouj) * ])is semliche best worche]>, 
Th^ pray tiiat foivbi cn'st crouned king • kepe him fro sorwe, 2580 

thewerwolfmaj '^ , . , . . , « 

never oome to & late man neuer haue mi^t * him to misdone. ' 
^^™* " fat graunt god," seide meliors • " for his swete mijt ; 

for nere fe help of heuen king • & Jje hende best, 
oure Hues hadde be lore • many a day seJ)J)e.** 2584 
Said wuiiem, <* la, i-wisse," seide will?am • " my derworj) herte ; 

"Letneflejrtheie ^ . . , , .« i^ • 

bea0te»andarTaj toT-pi at oure bestes wille ' worche we noupe. 
o^vee In the }^qj^^ hulde WO * fe hides of piae bestes, 

Greife we vs in Jat gere • to go ferj)er hennes." 2588 
William flajttha willuzm hent hastili fe hert * & meliors pe hinde, 
the hind. ^ & a[s] smartli as pei cou j>e • fe skinnes of-Jkumed. 

eiber gamliche gan gref e oper • goiliche per-mne, 
Th«7ieweadi pot pQ skinnes sat saddeli * sowed to hem boj^e, 2592 
"^ as hit hade ben • on pe beste fat hit growed. 

& better j>ei semed fan to sijt • semliche hertds, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Jan pei semed be-fore ' beres whan pei were, 2596 

so iustili on eper of hem * were ioyned Je skinnes. 

And whan Jei were greijed • gayli in J)at gere, Atnight-tiix» 

*J?ei sefcen in here solas • til stwne jede to rest. ISS^T**^ 

whan it nei^et ni^t, Jei nold • no lenger a-bide, 2599 
but went forjj on here weie • for wel list he?w gone, 
& here semli werwolf * sewed fast after, fouowing^ 

Jat wittily tau3t hem pe weies • whider J)ei wende ^^o^dS them 

Scholde, toward* SioUy. 

.sechande towarde cisile * Je sotilest weyes. 

& namHche on be morwe • many men hem sougt 2604 Nertd»y ■oom 

r *f y mm foond the 

In wodes & wildemesse • wide where a-boute, beawkin.,andthd 

flajed beasts, 

& as Jei walked in wodes • wij) ful gode honndes^ 

pei fonnde pe beres skinnes * & pe bestes flayne. 

bat it was an hert & an hinde • hastiU bei knewen, '^ ^^^ tt»^ 

' ' they ware now 

& wist wel J>at J>ei went • wrapped in J>e skinnes, 2609 dressed as » hart 

J>ei J)at bi-fore had be • as tvo white beres, 

& wist Jat pal in wast • wroujt per to-fore 

for al pe hard huntyng * pai ]>ei hadde maked. 2612- 

& folwe hew durst bei no ferre • for a gret werre, »«* tiwy ^»n^ 

,-.,,. , , not pursue them, 

pai was wonderu hard * in pe next londe, because of a great 

& J)o pe seute sesed * after pe swete bestes. the next land. 

Muwge mai [i] * no more • of noman fat hem folwed, 
ac of pe hert & pe hinde • herkenes now ferjer. 2617 

l%ei went fSast on here way • pe werwolf hew ladde The werwolf led 

V p X p i» • 1 them over oountiy 

J ouer mures & muntaynes * & many faire ple3me8 ; that was au laid 
but alwei as f ei went • wasted Jjei it founde. 2620 bSUg'bimit.'^™ 

for biqwes & bold tonnes • al for-brent were, 
but ^it were Jjei wi J waUes • warchet a-boute. ^ 
& al was William landes * wittow wel for soJ)e, it was wouam'a 

he Jat Jere was an hert ; * heres Jenchesoun, 2624 

whi pe wer & pat wo • J)o was in Jat londe. 
30 ban herd here bi-fore * as ich vnderstonde, 
^ Bead *< mai t no more." — M. 

own country. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


P6r Ebraom, of ebrouTis be kud Icing • ijat bat kingdom out 

WUliAin'B Cither, '^ '^ 

wu ung of of poyle & of cisile • of pallerne & calabre, 2628 

Apulia Sidly, o mi . « j 

Palermo^ and & was willknns LEider * ))at went Jjere as an hert, 
a^jj/^ ^^ & ded was & doluen • mani a day bi-fore. 

& his comeliche quene • as god wold, ^it liuede, 
winiam'BmoUiOT ))at was Williams moder • & was a menskful lady. 2632 
" [Fd. 43.]' sche had a derwor))e dou3ter • to deme fe sofe, 
on j)e fairest on face • and frelokest i^schapen, 
J)at euere man vpon molde • mijt [on] diuise ; ' 
wiiii«m*8 sistOT. sche was jonger fan will/am * bi fulle fre ^eres. 2636 
himself hy three & J>© kud king of spayne • hade a comliche sone, '' 
^"*^ Jat was a kud kni^t • and kene man of armes ; 

for him, was J)e werwolf * so wickedli for-schaped 
])urth malice of his stepmoder • as ^e mow here after ; 
ac brej>er were pei bo))e * as bi on fader. 2641 

had been Mogfat he kud king of spavne • coueyted for his sone 

In marriage by the ' r> r j j 

king of Spain's ))at wor])i mayden * ))at was willtams suster ; 
half-brother. ac J>e quen for no C€U3 no wold • fat wedding graunt ; 

for-fi fe king & his sone • swiche werre a-rered. 2645 
^ kSJ^fT^'in ^^' ^^^ hadde lujjerli here lond • brend and destrued, 
had Invaded the brent bold borwes, & bumes • bruttened to debe, 

land, '^ ' 

& of-sette hire so harde * \>e sojm for to telle, 2648 
Jjat prestli to hire puple * to paleme sche ferde ; 

"**^*Sf *^* & Jje king bi-seget fe cite * selcoufli harde, 
& mani a sad sau3t * his sone }>er-to made, 
ac dou3ti men deliuerli • defended it wij)-inne ; 2652 
but sertenli on bof e sides • was slayn muche puple, 
* & fat lasted so longe * leue me for sofe, 

ite defenden i^qI of i,at cite * of bo segges al sad were, 

advised the queen ' ' r &o » 

to surrender, & come ofte to fe quen • & cuwseiled hire ^eme 2656 
to acorde wif fe king • & graimte his wille, 
for f ei no lenger in no maner * mi^t meyntene fat sege, 
for moche folk of here fon • fel algate newe, 
& here men flebled * fast • & feileden of here mete, 2660 
fat f ei mijt in no maner • meyntene f e sege. 

1 See 1. 4436. 2 Read " febled »' (?) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Janne bat comliche quen • curteyseliche seide, *«* •»»• •Mboru 

*- " them to bo bniTa, 

"loidinges, 30 ben my lege men • J)at gode ben & wd hold oirt» 

bold bnmes of bodies • batailes big to gye ; 2664 

but fat 30 grettli aren a-greued • gaynli i knowe, 
for Jjise tenfal tranayles • but titli, i hope, 

al it worf wel ame/wied • for J)is 30 witen alle, tFoi a h.i 

pskt i haue sent afbei: socour * to my semly fader, 2668 for Bb« hu sent 

- , 1- 1. jT X p • tor Miooour to h«r 

f&i grece h&f godli to gye * as emperour & sire. fother, th« 

& i wot witterli • mJ)-oute eni faile, o^^ ^ 

]>at aocur he wol me sende * or elles com him-selue. 
It is so fer to bat cuwtre • ^e knows wel be sobe, 2672 who would 

require •omo 

)>at he may noujt saile ' swifbli as he wold. time for the 

for-Ji alle my bolde bumes • i beseche & preie, 

fo[r] loue fat ^e owe to Jje lord • fat let 30U be 

Meyntenes 3it 3oure manchip • manli a while, 2676 soeheprayethem 
til god of his grete mi3t • god tyding vs sende.** little longer. 

& bad fo tvo bold barouTis • bliue forf wende 
to fe king of spayne • & curtesly him seie, 

fat sche preied par charite * in pes to late hire lengfe she asks the king 
fulle a fourt;eni3t ' for-oute alle greues 2681 atmceorifdiiyik 

of sau3tes to f e cite • or 6tny sorwe elles. 
& but hire fader com • bi fe fourteniates hende, «nd if her father 

1 -I . 1. . «/»fti dldnotoome 

or sende hire sum socour * bi f e same time, 2684 then, the woaid 

sche wold wif god wille • wif -oute more Jette * *^ ^ 

Meke hire in his merci • on f ise maner wise, 

to giue him boute grucching • al fat gode, 

so bat sche miat saufli • wib hire semli domter ' 2688 <«» condition that 

'^ . ™ '^ . ^ she and her 

wende wi3tli a-wei • whider hire god liked. daughter might 

. have free pasiage 

femessegores manli * in here weye went, anywhere. 

spacli to f e king of spayne * f is speche fei tolda 

but he swor his of * fat ho a-sent nold, 2692 The king or Spain 

« . refiuee* 

for no man vpon m^e ' but he most haue hire 

dou3t6r ; 
& fei titly turned a3en * & told so f e queue. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The 4«MB rtttrtt 
tohar ohambcr, 
praying to Chriit 


She and her 
daughter are In 
great grief. 

No more of 
the defenders of 
the dty, and the 
••eaulta on it» 

bat hear aboat 
the hart and the 
hind, and the 

& whan sche wist witerli * )>e wille of pe king, 
as a woful womman * sche went to hir chaumber, 
& preyed ful pitoosli • to fe pnnce of heuene, 
for marie his moder loue * to mayntene hire & help^ 
Jwtt hire foos for no cas • wif fors hire c^wquerede, 
to winne ajens hire wille * hire worliche doubter. 2700 
" no madame," ' seide hire dou3ter • " maiio fat graunt^ 
for fe blissful hames lone * pnX hire brestes souked ! " 
pua fei dwelled in duel ' nijtes and dales, 
bofe J)at corteys quen • & hire comliche doubter. 2704 
had pei wist witterli * whiche help god hem sente, 
al hire gref i7»-to game * gaynli schold haue turned, 
now sece we of fe segges * |>at fe sege holden, 
& of pQ selcouj) a-sautes * pskt ))ei samen ^olde^ 2708 
& of J)e dou3thi defens • of wie3s per wi))-inne. 
. & listenes now a litel • of f e tvo leue bestes, 
]>at as an hert & an hinde * holden here weye, 
as Je witty werwolf • wold hem eu^ lede. 2712 

Of ])is hert & J)iB hinde * hende now listenes. 
so long pei caired ouer cuntres * as fai cnst wold, 

on^r dales Ss downes * <& disgesye weyes, 
The werwolf OS pe werwoK hem wissed * pat was here hole fiend, 
S^mme^the p^^ t^^ samen sou^t * to pe riche cite of rise, 2717 

dty of Reggiok j^^ set is ful semH • vpon pe see bonke. 

a gret number of naueye * to fat hauen longet, 
where they would & fere pQ buxum bestes • bi-houed ouer passe. 
rtraUa. & SO brod was pe see * fat suyle hem bihoued 

holHche al a nijt • & vp happe, wel more. 

al day fe bestes darked * in here den stille 
Th«y lay hid near In a racced roche • li^t be be hauen side, 

theharfooortiU ^^ ^ ^ ' 

nifhtfc til it was wif-inne n^t • <fe alle wi3es slepten. 

fan h^ed fei hem to fe hauen * hastily & sone, 



1 MS. " made/' Bead "madame." The word in the text is 
called by Bryant a provincialism, but without reason. — M. The 
same error occurs in L 31S4, but it is corrected in L 8191. 

Digitized by 



as |>e werwolf hem wissed * pat was al here gye, 

& stalkeden fdl stilly • ber stoden fele schippes. 2728 wh«itiii3rw«i 

down to tht ifalpik 

fe werwolf waited wijtly • which schip was jarest^ 

to fare forb at pat flod * & fond on sone, The wenroir 

J)at was gayly greyt • to go to fe seile, mdjtoMU. 

& fei])liche frau^t * ful of fiiie wines. 2732 

fe werwolf went per-to • to wite ho were fere ; 

fe segges were a-slepe fan • pat it schuld jeme, 21!^^**'^ 

al but pe mest maister * to munge pe Bope, [FoL u ».] 

p^ were turned to towne * to pleie per whiles, 2736 

In JDurpe til pe mone arise * arst mi3t fei non^t 'passe. 

& whan J)e werwolf wist • J>at alle slept fast, 

to be hert & be hinde * he tamed l^iTn a^eine, ^i^ wtnroif i«d 

"^ the hart aod hind 

& hi certeyn signes * sone he hem tan^t^ 2740 tothe ship^ 

& fei folwed him &yre ' fayn for fat grace, 
& lie fal Hstli hem ledes * to fat loneli schippe, 
& tanjt bi-hinde tonnes • hem to hude fere. ind they .u wd 

fe maistres, whan fe mone a-ros * manli in come, 2744 behind tone of 
& faire at fe fdUe flod * fei ferden to sayle, 

& hadde wind at wille * to wende whan hem liked. The men ceme <m 
fe werewolf wist wel • fei were nei^ oner, nui. 

& bi-f out how were best • fe bestes to help, 2748 

fat fei mijt scafeles • schape of fat schip. ^^^^ they were 

whan fe lades where neij lond * he leped oa^ horde, the werwou leapt 
sadli in al here sijt * for fei him sew schold — 
whil f e hert & fe hinde scaped — ' to honte him 
a-boute. 2752 

sone as fe schipme;» * seie him oat lepen, ^^ ehipmen. 

hastiLi hent eche man * a spret or an ore, eeixed epriteand 

& laonced luf erly after him * his lif to haue reued. 
on so hetterli him hitte * as he lep in fe water, 2756 and one of them 
fat he for dal of fe dent * dined to fe grounde, that he dived to 

& hade nei^ lost is lif • but, as oar lord wold, "** bottom, 

for al fat steme strok * stifli he yp-keaerede. 
& swam swiftili awei • bat bei se^en alle, 2760 J«t>>eBwam 

* r 7 ^ awiyrtoland. 

& lau3t u}tli fe lond * a litel hem bi-side. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& \ei, as folk ])at were fayn * to forfare ))at best^ 
Themenjnmpel salledeii swij)e to londe * & sewed him after. 
wiowLdhim. J>© werwolf was wily • & went so soft, 2764 

fe schipmen wend wel • at wille him take, 
All went after & him alle seweden * ])at to ])e schip longede, 
legged boy. hut a barlegged bold boie ' ])at to J)e barge ^emed. 

whan J>e schipmen wif ]» wolf • were wel passed, 2768 
CF6L 46.] ])e hert & J)e hinde • fan hoped wel to schape, 
hind oome on & busked hem bo])e sone ' a-boue ]7e hacches. 
The boy eeee hut whan ]» boie of J)e baige • fe bestes of-seie, 

^t^^r ^® ^^ ^®^3 ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ' witow, for fere, 2772 

& be-f ou3t him fere • fe bestes for to quelle, 
hit the hind eo ^ happili to be hinde • he hit banne formest, 

that the ff r r > 

tumbled top over & set hire a sal strok ' so sore in be necke, 

tail over the 

hatchet. fat sche top ouer tail * tombled ouer fe hacches. 2776 

But the hart but be hert fill hastiH * hent hire vp in armes, 

oaugkt her up* 

and carried her . & bare hire forf ou^-bord * on a brod planke, 
plank, & nas bold wif fe boye * no debate make, 

but fayn was a-way to fie • for fere of mo gestes, 2780 

fer away fro fe see • or he stynt wold, 
and, when out of ^ whau he wist bat he was • wel out of si^t, 

■ighl, looked to '^ ^ ' 

ice if the hind he be-hilde jif be hinde • euel hurt were, 

waa hurt ; 

& fond sche nas but a-frijt • for fere of fat dint. 2784 
fan saide f e hert to f e hinde • hendly & faire, 
Sd^fww*'^ " * ' worf ili wi^t • wonder ar fine happes, 
the bMKeioy batow hcutcst al be harm • bat i haue deserued ! 

should Buflbr ' ^ ^ 

death for it. wold god for his grace • <fc his grete mi^t, 2788 

fat i hade here • fat to werre falles, 
f e boye fat f e barge jemes • a-boye schojd sore ; 
for f e dint he fe dalt • his def were marked." 
Mdi^'-'M* **nay, my worfi make " * seide meliors fanne, 2792 
rather thank God « Qreuc f c noujt, for goddes louc * fat gart f e be fourmed, 
fat we so scaf li ar a-schaped • god mowe [we] * f onk, 
& oure worfi werwolf * fat wel him by-tyde ! 
dere god, for deth * he drei3h for vs alle, 2796 

1 Bead ** mowe we thonk."— M. Cf. 1. 2559. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


late no seg mut haue * to sle our gode best ! MayDooneiunn 

. w 81*7 oar 

nere his wit & his werk • we were scbent boJ)e." werwolf i - 

" sertes, sweting, ))at is sof " • seide william Jjanne, 

" Go we on oure gate • for goddes lone, bliue, 2800 

to recuuer suw resset • J)ere we vs rest mi^t." wuiuun propose* 

fill mekli seide meliors • wijH)ute any fare, wek a hiding^ 

" Go we now o^ goddes balue ;" • fan went )>ei god spede, ^ [Poi. iTl.]*' 

cleppende comely dper oJ)6r • to karpe fe so))e. 2804 "^ *'*"**' 

11/ ban J)e bert & pe bind • were of so barde a-cbaped, 

" fe boye Jjat pe barge ^emed • of pe bestes bade Theburio-boj 

wonder, >ee them go first 

on four feet, and 

J»t on bar of pe barge * so boldeli fat ofer, them on two. 

wif so comely contenauwce • clippend in armes, 2808 

& ferden ferst on foure fet • & seffe vp tweyne. 

& wi jtly after be werwolf * was we] a-scbaped, The werwolf, 

^ 'f * • * tuTlng escaped 

from alle be sory cbipmew • bat sewed bim to quelle, "afoiy. went after 

f ^ tr J * ' the hart and 

but treuli now bim take • to tene namore ; 2812 wnd- 

& to Jje bert & pe binde • be3ed bim faste. 

& wban pe bert & Jje binde • bad 8i3t of bere best, 

j>ei were gretli glad • & oft god Jjonked ; 

Jjat be sauf was & sou[n]d ^ • fro J)e men a-scbaped. 2816 

fan ferde fei alle forf i-fere • fayn of bere lines. 

be cbipmen bat be werwolf * so sadly bade cbased. The shipmen 

i^n /i ^ «,-. 1 xn rctnmed to the 

buskeden a^en to bere barge • & pe boye hem tolde barge, and the 

wicbe an bert & an binde • badde fer-out scbaped, 2820 etory, 

wijtli wen f ei went • fe wolf for to sewe ; 

& bow be bitte fe binde * also be told, 

& bow fe bert bire bent • A bijed ouer-borde, how the hart 

& wij) bow coynte cuT^tenauTzce • be cuuerede bire after, und, and hied 

& went wi3tly a-wey • but wbider wist be neuer. 2825 ^^" 

fer-of were fei a-wondred • but wist fei no bote, 

whederward forto fare • to finde fe bestes ; 

but lefte fei in lisse '• now listenes of fes bestes, 2828 

f urtb wildemesse bou f ei went * & wat bew tidde after. 

* Read " sound,** — M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



TIm bart and 
hind found aUtlM 

The werwolf led 
and fklr town, 
named Palenno^ 
[FoL 46.] 

the very plaoe 
whence the 
werwolf took 
away WUllam at 

WllUam'i mother 
Is in a hard strait, 
being besieged b7 
the k[i« of Spain. 

Near her palaoe 

where the hart 
and hind hid 

The werwolf got 
meat and drink 

11/ hiderward as fei wont • al wast ^i it founde, 
^ ' bolde burwes for-brent • a-boute on eche side, 
& ener as Jje witty werwolf • wold hem lede, 2832 
faire yei him folwed * m here &end holde. 
& so longe he hem ladde * as he him-self ))0Q3t^ 
he brou3t hem to a borwj • Jat bold was & riche, 
& faireet of aUe fason * for eny ridie holde, 2836 

yai euer man vpon mold * mi)t on loke. 
perles was ^ paleis • and paleme it hi3t. 
fe werwolf wan willtam * ferst fro fsi place, 
whan he was in childhod * as fe chaunce be-fore told. 
& trenli, ri3t ])at time * to telle al pQ so^, 2841 

willtams moder in meschef ' wij) moche folk ^ere lenged ; 
for pQ king of spayne * bi-eeged hire harde, 
In maner as pe m&ifiiT * was minged bi-fore. 2844 

a pns place was vnder pe paleys * a park as it were, 
|>at whilom wiJ) wilde bestes • was wel restored ; 
but pe segges J^at held pe sege * had it al destruyt. 
])e hert & pe hinde pete * Jeanne hem hed sone, 2848 
as pQ werwolf hem wissed * ])at ay was here gye^, 
vnder a coynte crag • fast bi |>e qnenes chaumber, 
& al pai day in ]>at den * J)ei darked, & pe nijt ; 
pe werwolf went wi^tly • & whan hem mete & drink, 
so ]7at ]>ei mad hem as mnrie * as ])ei mijt ]>at time. 2853 
now of pe buxum bestes * be we a while stille, 
& carpe we of J>e curteys quen * ]>at in ])e castel lenged. 

The battlementa 
of the city were 
broken hy the 
war-engines, and 

of the queen's 

SO hard was sche be-seged • soj for to telle, 2856 • 
& so harde sautes * to pe cite were jeuen, 
Jat pe komli kemeles * were to-clatered wiJ) engines, 
& mani of here mi^thi men * murdred to dej^e. 
ferfor pe quen was earful • & of t to crist preyed, 2860 
to sende hire sum socour • fat sche saued were, 
for marie his moder loue • J)at is of mercy weUe. 
I[n] swiche lif hade sche lined • a long time to-fore, 
& el duel Jat sche drey • was for hire doujter sake. 2864 

Digitized by 



but Beppe on pe seine ni^t * ]>e sojye forto telle, 

f&i fe hert & fe hinde * & here ^ridde fere 

vndep be castol in a crag * camt here rest, wwhtthe hart 

^ . Mid hind ilept, 

]>e quen was wery loi^wept * & went to bedde. 2868 the queen went 

a selco^e sweuen sone * in hire bed sche mette; 

hire ^or^t p&t sche & hire [dou3ter] * on a dai al-one and dreamt th»t 

_ , - . - , she and her 

weren passed pnueli ^ paleys * bi a posteme jate [fol u ».] 

to pleie hem pnueli in Jw pai^ • fat to fe pfideis longed. S?SS^*"*" 
hire f oi^t an hundered M. * were hire a-bonte 2873 
of lebardes & beres • & alle bestes bonte number, ^'»"» *«>.«» 

leopards and 

Gnmli gapande to greue * hire A hire doubter ; bears attacked 

& ri^t as po breme bestes * hem bo^ schold haue take, 

here bomt, a wiat werwolf • & to white beres 2877 but a werwolf 

f ^ ^ ^ and two white 

hie^eden harde hem to help • in fat ilk nede ; bear* came to 


& whanne }k) two white beres * were com hem nere, The bean 
f ei semde to hire si^t * tvo semli hertes ; 2880 harts as they 

& eif er of hem a faire figure • in here for-hed hadde. **"** nearer, 
be huger hert in his bed * had, as hire semede, The larger hart 

'^ had on his fore- 

fe fasoun & fe forme * of a fair kni^t in feld, 2883 head the sgnre of 

& semde hire owne^sone * fat sche long hade missed. own son. 

fat of er hert, as hire f oi^t * fe schap hade of a mayde, The other had 

fairest of alle fetures * fat sche to-for hadde seie, maid. 

& eif er hert on his bed * hadde, as hire font, 

a gret kroune of gold • ful ol gode stones, 2888 Crowns were on 

fat semli was to si^t * & schiued ful wide. 

fan f ou3t hire fe werwolf • & f e maide bi-laft j 

& be huge hert him-self * hastili bat time, The hart bore 

^ down all the 

i^ens alle fe bestes * bliue went al-one, 2892 beasts. 

& bar doun bi eche side • ay fe boldest formast ; 

was non so stef him wif-stod • so stemli he wrou^t. 

f e grettest of fe grim bestes * he gat to pn'son sone ; ta\in? the laiseet 

a lyon & a lybard • fat lederes were of alle, 2896 

hire f oujt, fat huge hert * hastili hade take, 

& putte hem in hire prisoun • to peyne hem at hire 

fe stoutest & fe sternest * he sti^tled sone after, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


fat he ga[r]te * J)e grettest 'to hire prison loi^te ; 2900 
The rat of the & lodli al bo remnant • of be rude bestes 

boMts fled ftway ' '^ 

for few. for fere be-gunne to fle ' as fast as fei mi^t, 

- ouer dales & dounes • for drede of the hert 

sone as ])e hende hert * hire hade deliuored,^ 290*i 

[PoL 47.] & put here firaw alle peril * fro fe perilous bestes, 
Next she dreamt here jwu^t, sche Went wi3tlL • a-3en to Je castel, . 
to^raJtir'*^ ^ turned vp to fe hei^est tour • to bi-hold a-boute.. 
and that her t^^ f^^^ ^^^^f P^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^"*°^ ' ^^ ouer Tome, 2908 
•SJus^over & l®lli l^ire left arm • lai al ouer spayne, 
£n^*ow " <fe bo]>e fo komly kingdomes • komen to hire wille, 
Spain. f^j^ herken al hire hest • & hire wille worche. 

Awaking, ihe here-of was sche al a-wondred * & arwaked sone, 2912 
and i^/weeping ^ ^OT drede of hire drem • deulfulli quaked, 
to the chapeL ^ wepud wonder sore • & wi3tli hire closed, 
& romed pan redli * al redles to hure chapel, 
& godly be-sou3t god • to gode tume hire sweuen. 2916 

y%at comli quen hade a prest * a konyng man of lore, 
She had a priest J^ fat moche coufe of many • & moyses he hi3t, 
to whom Khe told to consaile sche him clepud * & be cas him told, 

her dream. 

sofliche al f e sweuen * fat hire a-n^t mette. 2920 

& as tit as sche had told * f e prest tok his bokes, 
& sey sone of fat sweuen * hou it schuld tume. 
he loked on fat comeli quen * & curtesli seide, 

Henid. "Moom '* Madame, moume ^e namore * ^e mow wel seio 2924 

socoour. fat f e prince of heuen * 30U haf prestH in mynde, 

& socor sendef 90U sone • bi f is sweuen i knowe. 

The beasto that f © bestos fat bi-sett 30U SO * & ^OUT ssmli doubter, 

& duelfulli to def e • wold haue 30U don bof e, 2928 
f ar sof li f segges • fat hard 30U bi-sege, 
& don hard here mi3t • to destruye 30U here. 

ab for the white wite to of fe white beres • fat waxen sef f e hertes, 

bears or liarti . ii« i.«iTnj « 

with crowna, & haue f e fourmo m here hed • of tvo faire chi[ljderen,' 

> MS. "gate." See 1. 1366. « Catchword—" & put hire." 
3 Read " childeren."— M, . 

beaet you are the 
men who besiege 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& gode CTOunes of gold - on here hades grai])ed, 2933 

pe hert )yat 30U helped * so hastili wi^ stieng]>e, 

J>e lyon & fe lebard ■ to 3001 prisoun ladde, 

& alle fe bremest bestes • brou^t [to]* ^onr wille, 2936 

what fat it tokenej • telle wol ich sone. i wm teu yoa »u. 

It is a fal kud kni^t * schal come 30a to help, a knight duui 

& ]ya[r]th^ his dou3thi dedes * destraye fia werre, umi takepriwiMr 

& cacche pe king of spayne * ]>xirth his cler streng]>e, the ung of ' 

& sof ]>e after is sone • fat al fe sorwe is fore, 2941 " **"* 

& pat hem in ^our prison * ])e proddest of hem alle 

schnl be buxnm at jour wille * & blinne al fis fare, 

& meke hem to ^our merci • fat now be misseproude. 

& fat ilke kud kni^t * fat schal f e kome to help, 2945 And whether he 

I not where he schal • 30U to wiue welde, not. he wfuU' 

_, •!. •« n * i* » kingof thlirealni. 

but 1 wot wish he worf • king of f is reaume. 

also fat werwolf * fat wif f e hertes comes, 2948 

he is a kud kni^t * & schal be kud wide, The werwolf b • 

knight too, And 

& furth him, sofli, i se * fe king schal be deliuered, ihau deiirertbe. 

& put out of prisoun * & god pes be maked. 

his sone & alle of er * schul be jour hole frendes, 2952 

& schul restore nuedli * fe reddour fat was maked. 

furth filke werwolf * ^e schul wite of joure sone SSiw^ ^^ 

fat 30 long haue for-lore • leue me for sofe, ■<«. 

& him winne a-jen at wille * wif -inne a schort time. 

& redli, of jour rijt arm • fat ouer rome streyt, 2957 

I se wel f e signifiaunce ' f is schal fer-of falle ; 

fi sone schal wedde swiche a wif • to weld wif al Yonreonihau 

' gorem tiMO all 

rome, Eome. 

as kind keper & king ' i knowe wel fe sofe. 2960 

& lelli, of f 1 lift arm * fat ouer spaine lay, 

fat bi-tokenef treuli * as tellef my bokes, 

fat f i doT:^ti sone • schal fi dere doujter jiuen 2963 ^^if^''*'****" 

fe kinges sone of spayne • when f e a-cord is maked ; 

fat sche be ladi of fat lond * f i left arm bi-tokenef « 

» Read *' broujt to jour wille/'— M. 
» Read " thorth." -M. See next Une. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The queen, on 
bearing thif, 

[Pol. 48.] 
and prajs the 
prieet to say a 
man to make 
her dream oome 

She looks from 
her chamber 
towards the 

and as she 

watdied, she sees 
the hart and hind 
embracing each 
other JoyftiUy. 

She coold not 
hear what they 
said, but she 
watdied them a 
long while, 

till night came on. 

After supper, 
her knights 
bewailed their 

now haue i said of ^our sweuen ' so^li as wol falle, 
& treuly al J>is schal be-falle • wij-inne a schort terme," 

Jat loueli ladi • hade listened his wordes, 2968 
& herd seie fat sche schold * hire sone a-3cn 
wonderli for ioye • sche wept for fo wordes, 
& sprwfuliche sche sijt * last out schold it lett ; 
Lest any fals fortune • for-dede him Jurth siime. 2972 
but buxumli fat bri3t lady • fan busked to hire chapel, 
& praied hire prest par charite * a ipasse to singe, 
of fe trinite in trone, to tume ' hire sweuen to ioye. 
deliuerli he it dede • deuouteliche & faire, 2076 

& sef fen fat comli ladi • cayres to hire chaurwber, 
& weued vp a window • fat was toward f e place 
fere as f e hert & f e hinde * hadde take here reste. 
fere fat semli ladi hire set • out forto loke, 2980 

& strek in-to a styf studie • of hire steme sweuen, 
waytend out at window • while sche so f ou3t.' 
& vnder a louely lorel tre • in a grene place, 
sche saw f e hert & f e hinde * lye coUinge in-fere, 2984 
Makende f e most ioye • fat man mi3t deuise, 
wif alle comli contenamicQ * fat f ei kif e mi3t ; 
haden here piiue pleyes • of paramoures wordes,. 
but sof li, of noujt fat f ei seide • mijt f e quen here, 
but of here selcof e solas ' samen fat f ei made, 2989 
so gret wonder wait f e quen * of f e worf bestes 
but lenede f er f e long day • to lok out at f e windowe, 
to so f e selcouf signes * of f e semli b^tes, 2992 

til fe day him wif -drow ' in-to f e derk ni3t, 
fat f e lady no lenger • mi3t loke on f e bestes. 
fan tiffed sche hire treuli • & turned in-to halle. 
Made armoTig hire meyne • as miiie as sche couf e. 2996 
whan f ei samen hade souped • & sef f e whasche after, 
here * kni3tes & hire cuTiseile * kome hire vntille, 

I " Here " would be more uniform if it were written " hire," 
but this change may be obseryed in a few other passages — M. 

Digitized by 



Munged newe her meedief • how neij fei misferde ; - 
how here walles were broke • wib engynes stronff, 3000 howthamJisMid 
here bretages al a-boate * for-brent & destroyed, i»rokMi. 

))at ]>ei m^t no more * meintene pe aegp. 

l%an pat comli quene * ful cnrteslj saide, BhoaddnMM 

-■ " lordinges, ^e ar my lege men • fe lasse & fe more, SS'tobL toT* 

& dwom eche hi his side ' to saue mi rijt, 3005 

& manliche men ben * beter mow non liue. 

^er-fore, lordinges, for his loue * pB,i let ys be fourmed, [Fot tf »•] 

& for 30ur owne worchipe • witej me fro schafe 3008 

^Tit from fise wicked men • fat wold me spille. 

& bnt god of his grace * sum god help vs sende, Unieei ckxi lends 

■r "I 11 -n •* . • ^ -I help toon, she 

I wol worche al ^our wille * wi)H)iit am MLe, wtu munodn. 

whe))er i merci schul craue • or meyntene Jis werre. 

treidiy jif me bitide * f is tene to arschape, 3013 

wij richesse i wol 3011 reward • forto riche for euer, she promises 

so fat tretdi jonr trauail • nou3t schul ^e tine." nwu^ 

& alle here gomes were gleul * of hire gode speche, 3016 

& seden at sent • " wat so tide wold after, 

fei wold manli bi here mi^t * meyntene hire wille, Herknighte 

so long as here lif lasted * to jelden hem nener." jieid. 

fan fat comly quen • ful curtesli hem f onked, 3020 she thanks them, 

& busked hem fat time • blif e to bedde, 

& redly token here rest • til rijt on f e morwe. 

fan fat comli quen * ketli vp rises, 

biddande bisili hire bedes • buskes to hire chapel, 3024 Next day, she mIw 

Moses to sing 

& made hire prest moyses * sone a masse to smg, another mass, 

& prestli fat while prei^ed * to fe king of heuen, 

& to his milde moder * fat alle men helpef , 

fat f ei hire socour sende • sone bi time. 3028 

whan f e masse was don • sche went to hire chaumber, «n^ afienrards 

' ^ ^ watches from her 

weited at f e windowe • wer sche f e bestes seie, ohamber>wtndow. 

& seie hem in f e same place • f er as [fei]* were ere, 

& hendli eif 6r of er * fan colled in armes. 3032 

1 Bead " Jxjt as \>ei were ere."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The hot son h«d he hote sunne hade so hard • be hides stiued, 

craoked the hi<l6S ^ T ^ 

of the hart and Jat here comli clo]>ing • J)at keuered hem J>er-vnder 

and the queen ^e quen saw as sche sat ' out bi ^e sides sene, 

**** & wex a-wondred Jer-of • wittow for sofe. 3036 

to cunseil sche clepud hir prest • f e comli quen sone, 
She poinu oak & schewod him be siat • of be semli bestes : 

thebeaststo r ^ w ' 

theprieet. & sone SO he hem sey * he seide to ]>e quene, 

" for mary loue, madame • desmaye 30U no lenger, 3040 
[Foi. 49.] for fe mater of fe [metyng] * • mutow here finde, 

He says her 

dream u coming as i descriuM \\& ender day * whan ]>ow \\ drem toldest. 

& je han herd here-bi-fore • how it bi-tidde in rome, 
"You know about bemperouTS doubter was aeue • bemperours* sone of 

the emperor of ^ '^ ^ i r r 

Rome's daughter, grece, 3044 

but no man mi^t here make * ]>at manage to holde ; 
who fell in loTe for sche hade arst leide hure loue • on a better place, 

with a bold •• , •• . i . •■ . . ^ i 

knight» on on f e kuddest kni^t • knowen in f is worlde, 

best of his bodi, boldest • & braggest in armes ; 3048 
and how th^ & bo))e Jei busked of rome ' in tvo beres sklnnes, 
two bears' akins. si]y]ye \%\ hcnt hertes skinnes * but hou, wot i neuer. 

but saufly J)is may [i] • seye • & J)e sojje proue, 
These are th^ fe ^oud is fat semly • and his selue make. 3052 

he schal wi3tli f is werre • wlnne to an honde, 
& bring fe from alle bales • to \\ bote in hast, 
& deliuer \\ londes arjen • in lengf e & in brede. 
YoumMtcontriTe jer-for no more of fis mater ' is to munge nouje, 3056 
here." but bi-fenke how fe best • fo bestes to winne, 

Jat J)e knijt & Jat komli • were kome to jour chauwber." 


ian fa komeli quen * kast in hire hert^ 3059 

sche wold wirche in fis wise • wel to be sewed 
The queen In an hugo hiudcs hide • as be ober were, 

thoughtshetoo « , r r » 

would be sewed & busk out to fc bestes * & vudcr a busk ligge, 

** ■ til sche wist what fei were • jif J>ei wold speke. 3063 

hWeChlr*** pr^stli f© prest fan * proueyed hire swiche an hide, 

1 Read " mater of the mtf/yit^."— M. * MS. femp^rouvrB. 
' Bead " may t seye,**— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& driuew forj fat day to ni^t • Jan drou^ Jei to reste. 

but fe quen er pe day • was di^t wel to rijtes 

hondli in fat hinde-skyn • as swiche bestes were, 

& bi a piiue posteme • passad omt er daie, 3068 Amyodinthit, 

^ Bh« goes to the 

& arbod vnder a busk * fere f e bestes leye, pvk, and tiie 

80 priueli, but fe prest • non parceyue mijt, bower-maiden 

but on of bire burwj-maydenes • fat scbe loued most. ^ ' 

fei stoden stille hire to a-bide • wif-inne a posteme 
^ate, 3072 

& wban fe suTme gan here scbewe ^ * & to scbine bri^t, 
be hende hert & hinde • bi-gunne to arwake, Atsniiriee,thd 

'^ . ,. . hart and hind 

& maden in-fere fe mest murf e • fat man mi3t diuise, [fol 49 &.] 

wif clipping & kessing • and contenaunce fele, 3076 ^abraoa 

& talkeden bi-twene • mani tidy wordes. 

& William fan witerU • f ise wordes seide, 

'* a ! loueli lemman • a lone time me biokib, wuiiam sayi he 

r i-' longs to eee 

sef f en fat i saw * f i semli face bare ; 3080 iceUor'a ftoe. 

sore me longes it to se • ^if it mi^t so worf e." 

" bi marie," seid meliors • " so dos me as sore, 

jour bri3t ble to by-hold • but beter is jut arbide. 

we wol nomt krepe of fese skinnes • lest vs schafe iieiior Mys they 

, .,, ortoi muet not creep 

tldde, 3084 ontoftheekina 

til OUT buxum best • jif vs bof e leue. gt^ea the hint. 

for he be tokene whan time is • wol titli vs wisse, 

what \d8e fat we schal • our owne wedes take." 

" treuli, sweting, fat is sof " • seid will/am f aime, 3088 

" a gret f rowe me f inkes • er fat time come ; wimam wiahea 

■' the queen knew 

but wold god fe quen • wist what we were, who he was, 

& wold hastli me help • of horse & gode armes, and would provide 

^ ® himwlthahowe 

I wold socour hire sone • firam al fis soiy werre, 3092 and a 
& pult hire out of fis peril • in pure litel while ; 
but of vs wot sche nou3t • wo is me f er-fore. 
nere it, swetyng, for f i sake • of my-seK i ne roujt ; 
for moche meschef hastow had • onli for mi sake." 3096 
"Meschef, sire," saide meliors • "nay, muwge fat no more ; '*«"®' "StS* *' 
1 MS. ** schewed." Read " whewe."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


for leuer me is ]>is lif to liaue * to liue wi^ fe here, 
fan to winne al J>e world • & want fe of si^t." 
fan clipt f ei & keste * & of fat k gping left, 3100 

The queen taean & bi a busch lay fe quen * bi here-self one, 
an tbeir tauc. ^ herde hoUi fe wordes • fat fei hade seide. 

& meliors in f e mene time * to willtam mekli saide, 
Meiiorteuea ^'swetyng, sore i was a-drad • of a sweuen ter-while ; 

dreain — how an 

eagle had taken Me fon^t f anne an^ erh * er euer i was ware, 3105 

Liffhumerof the hade vs vp take ' in-to fat hei^e toure ; 

whefer it geyne to gode • or grame, wot i neiwr." 
[FoL BO.] " nay, i-wisse," sede willtam • ** i wot wel fe sofe, 3108 
fat it gaynef but god • for god may vs help." ^ 
& as fei laykeden in here laike * fei lokede a-boute, 
wuiiam and & bleynto bi-hinde f e busch * & sei^en as bliue, 
£?S[»r'**''* ^OYT an huge hinde • held hire fere at rest. 3112 

** bi marie," seide meliors * " me f inkif fat best slepef , 
& semef nou3t a-drad of vs • to deme f e sofe." 
" no, i-wisse," seide willtam • " i ne wot whi it schuld ; 
William tayi it It wenef fat we ben ri3t * swiche as it-silue ; 3116 

tote wharu^Sr* ^OT We be so sotiliche • be-sewed in f ise hides, 
eeam, or tt would jj^^^ y^^ ^^ ^^^ . -^iiiclie bestes we were, 

It wold fle our felaschip • for fere ful sone." 
"Niv*** "^ the '^nay, bi crist," sede fe quen * '^fat al mankinde 

queen,'* I know v j oioA 

who ye are.- Schaped, 3120 

I nel fle ful fer • for fere of 30U3 twejme. 
I wot wel what je ar • & whennes 36 come, 
al f e kas wel i knowe * fat ^e am komen inne." 
William wondeny wiUtam wex a-wondred * whan he fise wordes herd, 
Mghtened. & moHors fe meke * wex nei3h mad for fere. 3125 

but willtam ful hastly • f us to fe hinde sede, 
wmiam oo^]arao " I cowiure fe, f urth crist • fat on croice was peyned, 
whether it laa^ fatou titU me telle ' & tarie nou^ no lenger, 3128 

SS^fiSld?**'* whefer fow be a god gost • in goddis name fat spekist, 
oif er any foule fend • fourmed in fise wise, 
& }if we schul of fe hent • harme ofer gode." 
^ MS. «< Me J^ou^t er|>en ar em, &e." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

and she win 


y%aii ))at comli qiien * ful curtesli saide, 3132 

y **I am swiclie a best as je ben • bihim fat vs wioujt. 

harm for me, i hope • schul je haue neuer ; STi^*" ""^ 

for as gost on goddis name • ich gaynli to 30U speke, >»««» *>«». 

of swiche kinde ar we kome • bi crist, as ^e am. 3136 

but o]>er breme bestes * by maistrye <& streng^ 

han me dulfolli driuen ' fro my kinde lese. 

ber-for i soujt hider • socour of be to haue, «»**• in «Mt, th* 


& praie ]>e par charite * & properliche for reu))e, 3140 aid bar, and b« 

deHuer me of duresse • & do me haue my lese, ^ 

& lelli fow schalt be lotd J>er-of • al ]>i hf time. fFoLMM 

& fat menskfiil maide * fat fere myd f e lies, 

schal be mi lef lady * fis lordchip to weld. 3144 

for fe real emperour of rome • is redeli hif * fader, 

forf i wel i wot sche is worf i • to weld wel more, 

I knowe al f e couyne • of cuntre how ^e went, <!"•"• 

& ^e ben welcom to me * bi crist fat me made. 3148 

& of sorwe i haue suffred • sone wol i telle. 

fe proude king of spayne • wif pride me bi-segef , BDai"*hS"*MLd 

& haf luferU al mi lond • wif his ludes wasted, bwiwid^ 

& al f is duresse he me dof • for my dou3ter sake ; 3152 

asent wold sche nou^t his sone • to wif hire weld, 

fer-for he worchef me wo • A wastef al my londes, 

saue onliche in fis cite * where soioume wot i neu^. 

but help hope i in hast • to haue of be one; 3156 bnttbehop^to 

, : . have WUliam'i 

to amende my meschef * 1 meke me in f 1 grace, beip against him, 

& pleyn power i f e graunt * prestli alse swif e, 

to lede al my lordchip - as fe lef likes ; 

boute eny maner mene * mayster i fe make ; 3160 

wif-fatow winne al my worchip • as i ere wait," 

ban was wiUtam tinetli fflad * & oft (fod bonked, winiam r^oioad 

wnan he wist it was f e quen * & wijth he sayde, the q 

" Madame, by fat menskful lord * fat vs alle made, 

}if i f is time mijt trust • treuli to 30ur sawe, 3165 

80 fat 30 wold lelli my lemman * saue & loke, 

» MS. « his," altered to " hir " by a later hand. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 








Tba bower- 
woman, who WM 

[FoL 61.] 
DMrij nuMl with 

I her, 

doee Dot know 

frightened of Um 

The (laeen tells 
her to keep 

wliil i busilj buske a-boute * ^our bales to bete, 

al my help hoUiche • ^e schul haue at nede ; 

fei))li boute feyntise * 30U faile schal ich nener, 

as long as any lif ' me lastes, for soj^e.'' 

GretU was J)e quen glad • & godli bim Jjonked, 

& loueli him A his lemman * laujt bi fe handes, 

& ferden for)) on here fet * £eip]i to-gadeie 

priueli to pe posteme * & in passed sone. 

& ^it stod fe maide stille * ^e quen to a-bide, 

& whan sche saw po pre bestes * so ]>roli come, 

so hidoos in po hides * as ))ei hertes were, 

sche wex wod of hire wit • wittou, for fere ; 

& rapli gan arway renne * to reken fe aope, 

bnt ^at comli quen * called hire a-^ene, 

& earful [sche] * com • whan sche hire clepe herde. 

" whi carestow," sede fe queue • " knew Jk)w noujt fe 

fat i was tiffed in a-tir • when i wend fro f e 1 " 
" jis, madame "^ sede pe maide • " but, bi marie of heuen, 
but i a-wede neio^ of wit * for ))0 werder bestes, 3185 
]>at folwe jour felachip ' so ferli ]>ei are." 
" }>ei wol do no duresse • bi dere god of heuen ; 
for hem i went in ]>is wise * to win in-to f is place. 3188 
but loke now, bi ])i lif * fat no lud hereof wite, 
how f ei hider come * her-after neuer more." 
** nay, bi marie, madame " * f e maide fan seide, 
" f 18 dede schal i neuer deschuuer * f e deth forto suffer." 





The queen takes VsG comli qucu fan takef * meliors by fe hande, 3193 
^•mtoaoi^mher y ^ bi-fore Went willtom • & after-ward fe queue ; 
broi^t hem to a choys chaumber • vnder fe chef toure, 
f[er]e' were beddes busked • for eny bum riche. 3196 
'^*' ******* Sidy ^ ^^ W®8 were boun • by a litel while, 


» Perhaps better thus, " earful schs com.' 
» MS. " made ;" see U. 2701, 8191. 
» MS. " \>er Read « there."— M. 

Digitized by 



& a-tiied tryli • to trusty trewe lordes. 

sone f e qnen kaujt a knif • & komli hire-eelue 

willmm & his worbi fere • swiftli vn-laced 3200 Th«qiw«with. 

'^ knilii unlAOM the 

out of Je hidous hidus * A in a hime heln cast wdet. 

& whan ]>ei were clo]>ed * wor]>li in here wedes, 

alle men vpon mold • ndjt sen a fair coupel iSf*" "** 

Jan was bi-twene willtom • & f is worji mayde. 3204 ^»^ ooaiot. 

pe quen hire clipt & kest * & gret comfort made, 

& sebben bUue dede hem babe * bobe tvo wel faire, _ [Pol m 5.] 

'^^ '^ ' They batbe, and 

& greibed hem gaili * in gamemens riche, 3207 arericUydrMMd 

and go to DMst. 

& manli made hem atte hese * wi)) alle metes nobul^ 

& vdype de[r]worf est * deintes • of drinkes fat were ; 

to muTzge more nis no ned ' noi^t missed fei Janne. 

whan pei merili at mete * hade made hem at ese, 

bat comli quen to wiUwnn • curtesli saide, 3212 Th«qi»enMk» 

** swete sire, ^e me saye * what signe is ))e leuest oogniBanoe be 

to haue schape in pi scheld * to schene armes f " sueid. 

"bi crist, madame," sede pe kni^t • "i coueyte noujt 

but Jat i haue a god schel[d] ' of gold gndped clene, He ropiiee-" a 
& wel & faire wij)-inne • a werwolf depeynted, 3217 iiueid of gold." 
fai be hidous & huge * to haue alle his ri^tes, 
of pe couenablest colour • to knowe in pe feld ; 
opet armes al my lif * atteli neuer haue/' 3220 

pe quen fan dede comau/wie • to carfti * men i-nowe, SSieforhto! ** 
pekt deuis him were di3t * er pat day eue, 
to wende in-to werre • in world where him liked ; 
fat was paries a-parrayl • to prcrae of alle gode. 3224 

A Iso fat comli quen • as fat crist wold, 
-^ hade on fe stumest stede • in hire stabul teiied, she h«i in her 

' -^ stftbie a very 

Heuer man vpon molde • nmt of heren, spirited hone» 

^ that-bad been her 

& doutiest to alle dedes * fat any horse do schuld. 3228 hosband'e. 
f e king ebrouns it ou3t ' fat was hire lord bi-fore, 
& iro f e day fat he deiede * durst no man him neijhe, 
> Read « derwortheat"— M. • Read " craftL"— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


BinoeBbroiiiiir ne be 80 bold of his bodi • on his bak to come, 3231 

dMth, no one had ' * 

dared to mount but euer stod teied in pe stabul • vrip stef im cheyiies ; 
& queyntliche to his cracche • was corue swiche a weie, 
]>at men mi^t legge him mete * & vateren atte wille, 
fe horse sone hade saaor * of fai hende kni^t^ 
[FdL 61] & wist, as god wold * it was is kinde lord. 3236 

kno^HngWimam, as bliue, al his bondes * he to-brak for ioye, 

banda for Joy, & ^ g^^ ^^^^ ^^ his fot ' & f^licho Recede, 

SitdlJSS? fat men wend he hade be wod • A warned fo quene, 
And thieisuodto how stemli in pe stabul * f e stede ban ferde, 3240 

uie QoeeD* 

& had broke alle his bondes * no bum durst him 
wfliiam hears whan willtam herde bise wordes • he saide to be queue, 

about It, and aaka , r -x ^ 

whateortofa ** Madame,' what stede is ]>at * fat so steme is hold? 
Is he ou3t doujti to dedes • fat men don of armes ? " 
" 3a, certes," saide fe quen • " sof for to telle, 3245 
a worf ier to fat werk • wot i non in erf e, 
jif any man vpon mold • mi^t wif him dele. 

•TtwaeEbroont* he was mi lordes, wil he liuede • fat i so moche louede, 

hone^" the uKfM, 

& for his loue sertenli * i do f is stede 3em&" 3249 

" Mademe," sede will/am • " ^if it were ^our wille, 
I wold preie par charite • & profit fat may folle, 

wiiuamaiki for fat i most haue fat horse * whan i schal haue to done. 
I wol to medis my-self * manliche him dijt, 3253 

sette ypon his sadel * & semli him greife." 

She lagre he maj « certes," sede be quen • " i seie be at onis, 

have whatever — > r ^ r » 

hepieaaes; he holH of al fat i haue * here i make fe maister, 3256 
to do fer-wif bi day & ni^t • as f e god f inkes." 
fer-of was willtam glad • A wi3tli here f onkes, 
fan asked f ei fe win • & went to bedde after, 
for it was forf [to] ni3t * • faren bi fat time. 3260 

TVeliuerU on pe morwe • er f e day gan dawe, 
Next day, the ^ Je stiward of spayne ' fat stem was & bold, 
hadde bi-seged fat cite * selcouf eh hard 

1 MS. " Madama." > See note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wij) J>re M. of men • fat Jnro were to fi3t. 3264 ^^^^ 

A Jo J>e segges of fe cite • sone were jare, 

as don^ti men of dedes * defence for to make, CFoL ss ».] 

jeme schetten here jates * & jemed ]>e walles. 

for of fo wijhinne • non wold hem out aunter, 3268 ^^^^ 

80 fele were of here fon • & so f ewe wi^inne. » •^y* 

fe cry radii a-ros • fat reu})e it was to hure, 

for fei wij>-inne f e tonn • swiche meschef were iwne. 

fat fei witterli wende • haue be wonne fat daye. 3272 

titli was fe tiding * told in f e palejrs, 

how felli here fomen • gun ^^t atte walles. 

whan wiQtam bat wiste • wiatU vp he stirtOj wmiwnjs giad 

'^ ^ at the news, Mid 

as glad as any gome * fat euer god wroujt, 3276 done hie mnnoar, 

fat he m^t his fille fi^t * for fat £re queue. 

anon he was armed * at alle manor poyntes, 

A streijt him in-to the stabul • fere f e stede stod, JtobteT* ^ **** 

& moche folk him folwed • fat ferli to bi-hold, 3280 

how stemli he A fe [stede]* • schold sti^tli to-gadere. 

& as sone as fe kni3t kud * kome to f e stabul, 

fat f e stede him of-saw • sone he vp-leped, 

& faire wib his fore fet • kneled doim to grounde, 3284 The hone kneeto 

' . to him on its 

& made him be most ioye ' bat fman] miat deuise,' foreiefts, and is 

V J t J • quite docUe. 

& alle frekes fat him folwed • gret ferli hade, 
f e stede stod ful stille • f ou3h he steme were, 
while be kniat him sadeled • & clanli him greibed : Th« Jmi^ht 

'^ ^ OX' Baddies him and 

& wan vp wijtli himnself • whan he was jare, 3289 mount* 
& schufb his scheld on is sphulder • a scharp spere on 

A gerd him wif a god swerd • for any man in erfe. 
fe stede Hked wel fe lode • his lord whan he felte, 3292 U^^ "^'^ 
he wist him wi3ht of dedo • A wel coude ride, 
A braundised so bremU * fat alle bumes wondred 
of f e comli cuntenaunce • of f e kni3t fat he bare. 

Read << the stsde schold stiztU."— H. 
Bead '* that man mizt deuiBe." A common phrase.— M. See 
IL 2985, 3075. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[FoL 68.] 
AU are bUthe to 
behold Um 

The qaeen and 
her daughter 
praiae him, and 
Bay it wiU be a 
lookj woman who 

Melior la alarmed 
at this, 

thinking she 
would rather 
have William 
than all the 
world's wealth 
without him. 

80 scliene he was to se • in his semli armes, 3296 

fat alle bumes were blife • to bi-hold him one ; 
for so semli a seg • had fei non^t 3ore seie. 
Jat quen & hire doujt^ • & meliois fe schene 
wajrteden out at a windowe • wilfidli in-feie, 3300 

how that komeli kni^t • kunt63med on his stede. 
J>e quen & here doubter • dems^ hiin bo moche, 
& preisede him perles * for eny prince in erfe, 
& seiden, " wel is fat womman • fat he wold haue ! 
vnder crist, is no kni^t * fat so kud semef I *' 3305 

MeUors al f is mater • what it ment herde, 
& was a-drad to f e deth * f ei deseuy here wold, 
to winne william here fro * fat f ei so wel praysede, 
& seide softili to hire-self * f ese selue wordes, $309 
" Lord, jif f e hade liked • leuer me hade bene 
haue woned in wildemesse * * wif mi lemman swete, 
fan wonye here in al f e welf • of fe world riche, 3312 
to lese mi lemman • f at al mi loue weldes." 
swiche mistrowe had meHors • for f ei so moche him 

Wlllfaun ridea 
through the dty. 

and comes to 
where the 
defenders held 
their ooondir^ 

They r^)oioe at 
his bold bearing. 

[FoL 68 5.] 

VTow willtom on his sterne stede • now stifli forf rides, 
•^^ so serreli furth fe cite • al him-self one, 3316 

fat eche weijh was a-wondred • fat sei^ wif eijen, 
so coraious a contenaurace * fat kud kni^t hadde. 
willtam prestili priked • per fe puple was sembled, 
& aUe fe solempne segges * fat f e cite ^emed, 3320 
bold barounes & kni^tes • & of er segges ^ nobuL 
& whan fei were war of willtam • wilfulli alle, 
f e komynge of f e kuntenaunce • of f e kni^t nobul 
fei bi-helden hertly • & hadden gret ioye, 3324 

fa so manli a man * wold mele in here side. 
fe nobul blonk fat him bar • a[8]^ bliue fei knewe, 

> MS. «* wirderneffe." Read " wildemesse.**— M. 
• MS. "segeges." Read "segges." — M. 
» Read «* as bliue."— M. 

Digitized by 



"but witterli what he was • wist non of alle. They know the 

hone, bat not the 

William streijt went hem to ' & wi3tli saide, 3328 man. 

<* leue lordes, for goddes loue • lestenes my sawe ! winum 

,, , , , banujguee them, 

it semeth ]yat ^e ar segges * selkouj^ely nobul, 

& bold bumes to abide ' in batayles harde, 

& wel armed ^e am * at alle maner poyntes. ^ 3332 

whi lete 30 foulli jonr fon • for-barre 30U her-inne, Mking them why 

& do 30U alle ))e doiesse * fat fei deuise konne, roei bw them in. 

& 3e do no defence • J)at despyt to wreke, 

but couwardli as caitifis • couren here in meuwe 1 3336 

Men, for 30ure manchipe • na more fat suffirej, 

but wendef ou3t wi3tli • & wif 3our fon metef, He exhort* them 

hauej reward to 30ur ri3t • & redli chul 30 spede ; 

& 30 wite fei do wrong • ^ worse schul J>ei happe. 3340 

iif le manli wib hem mete • be maistry worb oure, •»<> their conrego 

^ "' ' / V /^ » will supply their 

)}ei3h Jei be fine so fele • as we in-fere alle. i»ck of nomberfc 

& 30 fat wilne to wynne • worchipe in armes, 

folweb me, for in feib • be ferst wil i bene, 3344 He wiu go urBt. 

•^ ' ' *^ ' • and strike the 

fat smertn schal smite • f e alderfirst dint " : — fl"t wow. 

& 3eme opened f e 3ates • & 3epli out rides. , He ®p«^^ 

whan fe bold kni^tes hade herde • fat bumes wordes, out 

& sey him so fersli forf fare * so bi-fore hem alle, 3348 

fei wist he was a wi3t man • & wold nou3t faile * 

but fat he schuld hem help * fei hoped for sof e. 

& foure hundred fers men • folwed him after, Four hundred 

bold men follow 

of koraious kni3tes ' & ofer kud kempes, 3352 him. 

fat for to liuian or deyen • litel hem roT:^t. 
& whan willtom was war * wiche a route sewede, 
he was gainli glad - no gom f urt him blame, 
& a-bod til fe bumes • arboute him were come. 3356 [Foi. m.] 
f e spaynolnes hem hade a-spiede • & spakli gun ride, TS!5?JJl^ 
wif gret bobauTice & host * blowand here trompes ; 
for fei sei3 so fewe ' out of f e cite come 

a3en8 hem fre .M. • fei ne tok non hede 3360 ^Jj^^**" 

to reule hem of non array • but ri3t> for gret pride, 
» MS. "feUe," Bend "foile."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


eche bum bi-fore of er • on his blonk prikede, 
to asayle pe segges ' fat fro fe cite come, 
wiuiam eidioria wiUtom soide to hiB wMejB ' wittili for sof e, 3364 

weutogether.MMi "Lordinges & leue frendes • listenes to my sawes ! 
of Sound? fejb 3e be ferd of 30111 fon • flef neuer fe stumer; 

fe bolder ou^t we be • J>ei ben out of aiaie. 
stonde we stifli to-gader ' stifly in defens, 3368 

& ne loses no lond * lordinges, god foi-bede ! 
Let each mm ecbe lud fenk on bis lemman * & for hire loue so ^t, 
tunkofhtoiadj- ^ -^urinne woTchip fep-wif • in worlde for euer-more. 

& in feij), fei^h eft as fele • of our fomen were, 3372 
deliuerli furth 30ur dedes • schul fei deie sone." 
Thej MTfty kni3tes wif sire william • kau3t [fanne] ' god hert^ 

themselYes in . _. , . , . -i.^ , i ., 

good order. & lealiche wcTO a-rai3ed ' in a utel while, 

In a f ul styf strengfe • to stonde to fi3t. 3376 

The Spanish f OT kom a kni3t to-fore • fe companye of spayne, 

leMu'tle attock. a stif man & a stem ' fat was fe kinges stiward, 
& cheueteyn was chose * fat eschel to lede. 
& for boldnesse of his bodi • be-fore alle ho went> 3380 
amied at alle poyntes * on a nobul stede. 

wtuiam peroeiveB williom was wi3tly * whai of his come, 
"*™ ' & gamli to his gomes • gan foT to seie, 

" bi crist, 3ond Jmi3t • fat komef here amied, 3384 
dredef litel oure dedes • what-euer he do fink. 
[F6I. M 6.] but bi god fat me gaf * f e gost Ss fe soule, 

and says he wOl ./.ii,. 

be the flrrt to I wol foudo be fo UTst * in feld him to mete ; 

meet him. 

but our on titly tumbel • trowe me neuer after." 3388 
spacli boute speche * his spere f anne he hente, 
wiiium & euen to fat stiward * dede his stede renne, 

enconntors the . ,. . ,. . ... 

■toward. & mami as mi3ti men * eifei mette ofer, 

& spacli f e oferes spare • in speldes fan wente. 3392 
ac Williams was strong inow • wittow forsof e, 
& he so stemli fe stiward * fat ilk time hitte, 

and bean him burth be bold bodi • he bar him to be erbe, 

down to the ^ '^ r r^ 

earth, as dead aa-^as ded as dpmayl * to dome be sobe. 3396 

a doornail. -^ " ' ' 

^ See note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


•* I-wis," fenne seide willtam • " i wot wel to wisso, 

^ow dost TS neiier after * no duresse in armes I " 

ac spacly fe spaynoles • speijed he was slajne, The spanimrds. 

bei were Fwodel * of here witt • wittow for sobe, 3400 bear his bodj to 

tiMir tents. 

hastili hent vp his bodi • & to here tentes here, 

])at it were nou^t in pai &jt * wit here horse troden. 

& as bliue boldli • fe bumes of spayne, J^LTSlr** 

jK)U9t manli make wreche • here lorlde* to qneme, 3404 

for swiche a lorld' of lederes • ne lined noujt, pei held, 

non so don^ti of dedns • j>er-for his deth a-wreke • 

^i poxL^t pToli ])at time * what bi-falle after. 

A fill breme bataile • bi-gan J)at ilk time, 3408 J^^^* 

•^^ whan ei])er sides arsembled • of j)o segges stume. 
Mani a spere spacli * on peces were to-broke, sp««n are 

&« nil 1 111 broken, shields 

many a schene scheld * scheuered al to peces, shivered, and 

Many helmes to-hewe • furth here huge strokes. 3412 through!^" 

<fe rediH for to rekene • al pe rijt sofe, 

wiUunn & his wijes • so wonderli fou3ten, Jht wdi."*" 

fat j>ei felden here fon • M fast to grounde. 

non mijt here strok wi))-8tond • in fat stounde J>an, 341 6 C<^- ^0 

so wel for will^oms werkes • were pei J)an herted. 

J)e stiward had a newe • but of jong age, S^iSw'*^ * 

on ]>e manlokest man * fat men schold of heren, 

& doujtiest of dedes * fat men schuld do in armes. 3420 

as swiftli as he wist • fat his em was slawe, 

he f pujt duelfuUi fa deth • fat day to a-wreke. 

armed at alle poyntes • anon he fider went, hSTnnSe^deaSr 

& presed in a-mang f e pepul * f er it was f ikkest, 3424 

& sone to hem of fe cite * arsembled he fanne, 

& fau^t fan so ferscheli * for his emes sake, 

he dude to dethe deliuerli • fine gode knijtes, JS^'kShto! 

* Read " were wode of here witt."— M. 
» Sic in MS. Sco 1. 8966. 

» MS. " a wrekes." Read " a-wreke," or " a-wreken," in the 
infinitive.— M. Cf. 1. 3422. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



WtnUm threes 
bit way to him. 

The rteward'8 
nephew knows 
WiUiAm b7 the 
werwolf on his 

Their spears 
break, and thej 
light with swords. 

William's sword 
grinds tbrouRh 
helm and head 

and he sends his 
foe's horse and 
the steward's 
horse to Mellor 

Jat bold were in bataile • to a-bide at nede. 3428 

wban william wist of fat werk • wittow forsofe, 

]>er nas man ypo;i molde * fat him mi3t lette, 

fat be ne perced f e pres • prestili fat time, 

til be met wif fat man * fat mijti was bold. 3432 

wban f e stiwardes newe • saw william come, 

bi fe werwolf in bis scbeld • wel be bim knewe, 

fat fe same seg bade slawe ' bis em f er-to-fore. 

& wijtli as a wod man • to will/am be priked, 3436 

wif spere festened in feuter • bim for to spille. 

at f e a-conpyng f e knijtes [speres] * • eifer brak on 

swifbli wif bere swerdes • swinge f ei to-geder, 
& delten duelful dentes • deliuerli fat stounde. 3440 
& William was f e wijtere • & wel sarre smot, 
Ss set so bard a strok * sone after on fat ofer, 
furtb belm & bed bastlLi * to fe brest it grint. 
f e swerd swiftili swenged • furtb fe bode euen, 3444 
fat tit ouer bis bors-tail • be. tumbled ded to grounde. 
fat ilk stoute knijtes stede * & f e stiwardes alse 
willtam sent sone • to bis semli lemman, 
wber-of scbe was geinli glad • & oft god f onked, 3448 
fa be so wel bade wroujt • in werre fat day. 

[Fol. 56 6.] 

The Spaniards 
torn to flight. 

William and his 
men pursue them 
SmUes, taking 
many prisoners. 

TTTiUtam' & bis bumes • fan in bataile were, 
^ ' so felly wif bere fon * foujt fat ilke time, 
bi a stounde was non so stef * fat bem wif-stonde mijt^ 
but were fayn for to fle • ecbe bi-fore ofer, 453 

wel was bim in f e world • fat swifliest mijt bije, 
ofer onjiors ofer on fote • for fere * of f e def e, 
& William & bis wbijes • went after sone, 3456 

& maden manli f e cbas * mo fan fine mile, 

* Read " the kniztes aperes** — M. 

* The capital W Ib absent, but its place is marked by a very 
small w. 

» MS. « fore." Read " fere.*'—M. 

Digitized by 



& grete prisons & gode * goten f ei fat time ; 

]>at meked hem nou^t to mercy * manli ]>ei slowe, 

& whan ]>ei time seie ' turned hem hom a-^ene, 34G0 

heri3eden ^ heili god • fat fei wel had spedde. 

but hoUi willtams werkes • bei wittened it alle, ^^T*'^. 

' ' that It was »11 

nade his dou3thi dedes be • f ei hade be dede alle ; wuiiami doing. 

& louted to [him] as to lord * fe lasse & fe more, 3464 
& eche a gom was gladdest * hoo gaynest him mi3t 

al fe sorwe fei hadde sui&ed * [so] lang to-fore, They forsot au 

fei sett it sofli at nou3t * so glad were fei fan, 3467 raffiBringa. 
for fe dou^thi kni3tes dedus • fat fat day hem helped, 
wif al f e murthe vpon molde • f o mi3thi men in-fere 
passeden to f e paleys • proude of here dedes. 
f e comly quen & here doujter • com him a-iens, The qae«n, her 

_ rniAi !• •. 1 i»i nAttcx daughter, and 

& f e me[n]skful meuors * wif maydenes feJe, 3472 Mfliior meet and 

welcome them* 

& welcomed willtam * as f ei wel ou^te, 

wif clipping & kessing * & alle kinde dedus. 

fe quen him loueli ladde • rijt to h[^]e chauwber, The qneen 

vn-armed him anon * & afterward clof ed 3476 c1oUm» wm. 

clenliche for eny [kni3t] • fat vnder crist liuede. 

fan sete fei f re • to solas hem at f e windowe, 

euen ouer fe ioly place * fat to fat paleis longed, She sita with um 

fere as fe quen fond will^am • & his faire make. 3480 window looking 

o . . , , ., /.I 1 out on the park. 

& as f ex waited a-boute * wil fei of murthe speke, 

willtoms werwolf • was comen f ider f anne, ^« ^'^'^d 

loked vpon be ladies • & his loueli maister, ^ ,.^**^v?*^ 

'^ ^ ' holds up fate 

& held vp his foure-fet • in fourme to craue mercy, 3484 'o" S**,?*^ ^ 

^ *" luppllcation, and 

& louted to hem loueli • and lelly f er-afler, goes uia way. 

he went wi3tly a-wei • whider him god liked. 

fe quen f er-of was a-wondred • & to willtam seide, 

" sire, saw je bis selcoube • of bis semli best ? 3488 The queen asks 

' ' ' ' ^ whathemeani. 

wonder signes he wrou3t • what mai hit tokenel" 
" 3is, certes, madame " • seide will/am f anne, 
" i sei fe signes mi-self • & sof li ich hope, 

* Perhaps miswritten for " heri3ende." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



WUlliun ukj% It b 
agood sign. 

The qaeen telli 
her itorj— how 
■he h«d a boh 
named William, 

who. when 4 yean 
old. was playing 
In the park. 

when a werwt^ 
caught him np 
and ran off with 

The king and 
his men parsned 
him over mlrea 
and mountains, 
bat in vain. 

The werwolf leapt 
into the sea, and 

It bi-toknef gret god • fat greifli schal vs falle." 3492 
" 36, ^if cnst wol," quod pe quen • " [fat] * on croyce 

but, sire, whan i se fat best * fat f o signes made, 
a sorwe sinkef to mi hert • i schal jou telle whi. 
sum time, sire, here-to-fore * a semli sone i hadde, 3496 
fat was hote willtam * i-wisse, as ^e am. 
feif li whan fat fiaire child • was of foure jer eld, 
as my lord and i • and of er ludes many, 
plei3ed vs her in f e park * in place f er i 30U fond, 3500 
for al f e world swiche a wolf * as we here 8ei3en, 
It semeth ri^t fat selue * bi semblant & bi hewe, 
com gapind a gret pace • & cau3t vp mi sone, 
ri3t bi-fore his fader • and of er frakes manye, 
& went awey with him • so wonderli fast 
My lord & many a-nofer • manliche him sewed 
ouer mires & muntaynes * & of er wicked wei3es ; 
at f e last f ei him left • for mi3th fat f ei couf e. 
forf with my sone in-to f e see * fat son best leped, 
so fat i herde hider-to • neuer of him more. 
& certes, sire, for fat sone * i hade gret sorwe, 
whan i fenk on fat sorwe • it firles my hert" 3512 



remembers how 
he was fonnd by 
the cowherd, 

bnt reflects that 
the queen said 
her 8<m was 

He tells her he 
will stand in her 
■on's stead. 

Slie thanks him, 
uid gives him 

VjUUliam was in a wer • fat it were him-selue. 

^' how fe couherd fe king told • it cam him in 

fat he him fond in fe forest • in faire riche clofes. 3515 
but sche seide fat hire sone • was in fe see dronked, 
& f e wolf also • fat him a-wei bare, 
fe f roll f ou3t fat him meued • f er-of fat ilk time 
sone he let ouer-slide * & seide to fe queue, 3519 

fat sche schuld make hire merie * hire meyne to glade, 
& he wold in hire sones stede • stand euer at nede. 
sche fal godli gan him f onke • & gaf him hoi mi3th, 
to meyntene al hire god * as maister in his owne. 
^ Read ** the quen, thai on croyce deied." — M. 

Digitized by 



pan talked |>ei of o]»er tales * til time were to soupe, 

& were serued bi ese -^as hem-self wold, 3525 Th^qrrapand 

mako merxy tUl 

& SO driuen forth pe day . til pe derke ni^t, nigfauUL 

with al pe mirthe vpon mold ' |>at man mi^th denise. 

J)is lessou72 let we of hem • & lesten we a-nofer ; 3528 

of fe spaynolus wol i speke • how spacli fei fled ; JSoSSuSdUie 

J)ilke fat went with pe lif • a-wei fro Jat sthoure, Wngof spdn and 

spakli to pe king of spayne ' |>ei sp«d hem pai time, wim«m'» 

& seide to him & his sone * pe cas J^at was falle, 3532 

which a knijt com hem a-jenis • conquered alle ofer, 

so steme he was & stoute • & swiche st[r]okes lent ; 

was now so stif stelen wede • fat with-stod his wepen ; 

& how he in be stour • be stoute stiward slow, 3536 fPf ^T'^***^ 

' ' ' akin the atoward 

and his nobul neuew • a-non ri^t ber-after : andWanephaw, 

' '^ ' whom the king 

& bede wijtli hem awreke • of pe wicked hanne, ought to arenge. 

or alle men vpon mold ' mi^th hem schame speke ; 

so fele of here &endes * in pe feld were slayne, 3540 

fat it was a sorful sijt * to se how it ferde. 

whan fe king & his conseil * herde of fis cas, 

a selcoub sorwe he made • & his sone als, The Wng'a son 

^ ' hega hia AUhar 

fat was a fill kud f ni^t * & kene man in armes. 3544 that he may lead 

he was wod of his wit • for wraf f e of fat dede, 

& praised prestili f is poynt * anon of his fader, 

fat he most on f e morwe • with a mijthi ost 

wende to a-wrek hem • of fat wicked dede. 3548 

& yi£ he mette with fat kni3t * fat is so mi3thi hold, He awean to 

hare William a 

he SWOT sadli is of * as tit to his fader, head, or to take 

fat he fro f e bodi • [wold] * haue his hed sone, ^ 

of er tit take him a-liue * no ^ain-tom schuld lette. 3552 [FoL 57.] 

f er-of fe king was geynli glad • & graunted his wille, 

bad him worche whan he wold • & wend whan him 


f e kinges sone aswif e • let sembul miche puple, He got* a hoet 

& trijed him to a tidi ost • of fe tide3ist bumes, 3556 

fat he mijth in fe mene time ' in any maner gadere. 

^ Bead *'fro the bodi wold haue.'* — M. 
8 • 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



field on the 

He hu 8,000 1 

He wks bis lords 
how lie is to 
know William. 

A knight sajs he 
mAj know him 
either by his 
deeds, or by tlie 
werwolf on his 

The king's son 
says it will soon 
be seen who is 

WiUiAm's men, 
on the morrow, 
are well arrayed. 

He divides them 
Into 6 companies. 

His horse's name 
was Ebroons* 

[Pol. 57 6.] 
The prince's men 
point out William 

to Mm, 

Manli on fe morwe • he dede his men greife 

Gaili as gomes mi3t be • in alle gode annes ; 

faire fan with his folk • to fe feld he went 3660 

bi-fore boldli him-self * his batailes to araie. 

alle his bumes bliue • in x batailes he sett, 

as redili araijed • as any rink fort wilne. 

& iij. M. fro men • in his eschel were, 3564 

& alle bold bumes.* in batailes strong & bigge. 

f e kinges sone fan seide • to his segges bold, 

" Leue lordinges, for mi loue • leUi me telles, 3567 

}if i encountre with f is kni^t • fat f is kare worchef , 

how schal i him knowe - what konichau72s here he 

" sertes, sere," seide a kni3t • " so me wel time, 
fat kud kni3t is eth to knowe • by his kene dedes, 
& bereth in his blasou/i * of a brit hewe 3572 

a wel huge werwolf • wonderli depeinted ; 
fat man driues a-doun • to dethe, fat pie] hittes." 
" sone it schal be sene " • seide f e kinges sone, 
" whef er of vs be wi3ttere • to winne or to lese." 3576 

VTow wol i a while • of willeam here telle, 

-^^ in what mane?r on f e morwe • is men were araid, 

deliuerli at f e dai • dijt f ei were alle, 

treuli in al atir • fat to werre longed. 3580 

& willmm fill wijtthli • as he wel couf e, 

set alle his segges • as f ei schiild bene, 

In sexe semli batailes • as fei schuld bene ;* 

al be-fore in f e frond • he ferde fan him-selue. 3584 

ebrouns sauwdbruel • so hi^t his blonk nobuL 

& as sone as f e kinges sone • saw him so come, 

fast he freyned at his folk • what freke fat it were, 

& fei seide ful sone • " for sof e, it is fat kni3t, 3588 

fat haf wroujt al f is wo • wel ou3t we him hate ; 

1 The last half of this line is clearly copied from the liaa 

Digitized by 



alle he driiies to f e deth • fat his dint feles." 

fe kinges sone forsofe • ne seide fo na more, The prince rid« 

but gartr his [stede] * goo • and strei^et to him rides 

with his spere on feuter • festened fat time. 3593 

whan will/om was war • & wist of his come, viho u toia it i* 

' tbe prince who 

his men seiden sone • it was f e kinges sone, *• coming. 

& doujthi man & deliuer • in dedes of annes. 3596 

" lat me worb " quab willtam • " bat schal i wite sone ^^^ "y* *• 

'' ^ ' ' will fight him,— 

In feif f oujh he hade fore • of foure swiche of or, 

I wol fond with him fi^t • f ou^h me tide f e woree." 

he dede ben his stef stede • stert a god spede, 3600 "^ ^^^ ^ 

^ o ^ » meet him. 

to f e kene kinges [sone] • • fat was a knijt nobul. 

so kenli f ei a-cuntred • at f e coupyng to-gadere, 

fat fe kni^t spere in speldes • alto^chiuered. S^f""*'""^*^ 

ac willtams spere was stef • wittow for sof e, 3604 but wniiam's 

& matte fat of er man • in f e midde scheld, &iri^huritag™* 

fat hofe him & his hore • he hurles to grouwde ; toJ^r"* ^ 

& neij hade broke his bak * so his blonk him hirt 

wilh'om fan wijtli • be fe auentayle him hent, 3608 J^l?J^ ^^.^^^"^ 

to haue with his swerd • swapped of his hed ; * w» he»d, 

buff e segges of spayne • 80U3t to him * 3erne, 

to haue holpen here lord * hastili 3if f ei mi3t ; J^'to^^"^ 

& willioms wi3es wi3ttli • went hem a-3ens. 3612 

f bi-gan fat batayle • on bof e sides harde, 

feller saw neuer frek • from adam to fis time ; eevere and deadly. 

sone was man! bold bam • brou3t f er to grouTid, 

Mani scheldes schiuered • & mani helmes hewen, 3616 

& many a stif stede • strai3ed in fere blode. 

bold bumes of bodies • fere were on bof e sides, 

fat fayn were forto fi3t • & to fle hated. 

bnt williom so wonder wel • fau3t fat ilke time, 3620 

» Read "gart his siede goo/'— M. 

* Read " the kene kinges 8one that was." — M. 
» The MS. apparently has " heued," altered to ** heade." See 

1. 8B64. 

* MS. '* him to ^erne;" and **to" is altered to **so" 4Jy a 
later hand. 


A genera] battle 
ensaes, very 

[Pol. 68.1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wiiiiMn iighte jjat no man J)at he hit • miith him with-stonde, 
prrraote um & Qusr kept pe kinges * sone * fram al his kene meyne, 
iyrino8» fat non mijt him winne a-wei • for worse ne for beter. 

& were hem lef ofer loj) • william at last 3624 

whom ha drag* keaeied with pe kinges sone * out of pe kene prese, 

& brou3t him out on his blonk • of J)at batayle sterne, 
to & a-signed of citesens * segges i-nowe, 3627 

Ifl to 

keep. to kepe wel pe kinges sone • til Jei come to towne ; 

& pel were blife of J)at bode • & bisilich© fondede 
fast to ferke him forjjward • as Jei fairo mi3t. 
ThaSpMiiards whan pe spajnols ])at arspied * spakli J>ei him folwed, 
r£oue,afr«di* ^^^ deden al pe duresse • ])at J)ei do mijt - 3632 

J^^^^^ a fersche ost hem to help • hastili J>er come, 

Jat was a-buschid fer bi-side • in a brent greue. . 
wnuam kaept up but whan willtam was war * & wist of here come, 
oounge," Manly he demeyned him * to make his men egre, 3636 

bad hem alle be bold * & busiliche fi}t> 
for here fon gun feynte • & felde were manye. 
Je kinde cowfort of pe kni3t • to is folk fat he made,* 
were als firesch forto fi^t * as fei were on morwe. 3640 
hatperMiTM tha* but willzam sav ber ober side * so fers & so breme, 

th« enemlM «r« •/ r # 

J)at his men mijt nou3t • meyntene here owne, 
prestli to hold party • to puple fat hem folwed. 
B he for-J)i he dede hem deliuerli • drawe toward towne, 3644 
JTtt^iowiu**' ^ kepten wel fe kinges [sone]* • for cas fat mi3t 

His mm are for ou3t fat here * enimys • euer worche mi3t. 
bringing the f ©i keuered with clene strengf e • with him to towne, 
prinoe with them. ^ j,^ scgges of f e cite * but f o fat slayn were. 3648 
Teomen ehnt the & 3epli 3ome» fan dede • f e 3ates schette, 
the waiu. "*" & wi3ttili fan went • f e walles forto fende, 
so fat feif li of here fon * no fors fei ne leten. 

1 MS. " kengee/' But see U. 3591, 3601, 3626. 

> A line lost (?) 

s Read " the kinges aone for cas/'— M. See U. 3601, 3625. 

« The MS. rtpeats the Wifrth fat here. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



illiam with his wi^es • is wi))-in pe cite nobol, 
haj> conquered wij) dene strengfe • f e kinges sone wmiam uim the 

of spayne, aon to tho queen's 

& passe]) with him Ss his pnple * to pe paleys euen, [Poi. 58 »j 

with al mirth ypon molde * pat man m^t deuise. 

pe quen him mett mekli • wif maidenes fele, 3656 

Ss meliois & here dere doa3ter ' to deme pe so^ 

wif alle worschip & wele • wiUiam fei receyued, 

vrip clipping & kesseng * & alle cou)}e dedes. 

& willzam ban wiitly • wib-oute eny more, 3660 •"* <wiv«ri um 

** '^ ' ^ over to the qoecn. 

pe kinges sone of spayne * spakli to hire 3alde, 

to putte in hire prisoim • & peyne him as hire liked. 

& cnrtesli to fat kni3t • gan sche knele Jjanne, wmtoh^ShT 

forto ponk him Jroli • of fat faire jeft ; 3664 

for he was man ypon molde * fat sche most hated, 

& hade hir do most duresse • for hire doii^ter sake. 

hastili in-to fe halle * wif hem fan sche went, 

& ladde williom as lord • loueli in londe ; 3668 

& as bliue fe burdes • broujt him to hire chaumber, i^d2^hto[™ 

& vn-armed him anon • & aftei^ward him clofed 

as komly as any kni^t ' vnder cnst fort bene. 

sef en 3edo to sitte same ' to solas & to pleie 3672 

at a wid windowe • fat was in fe chaumber, tog^r In a 

& gonne mekli to mene • of many gode wordes. window, 

& as fei saddest in here solas ' seten fat time, 

fe quen hertli gan bi-hold ' f e kene ^onge kni3t^ 3676 

& here f oujt fat time • f at in fe world was neuer JJl*'™*"^ 

a liuande lud * so lelli liche ofer, 

as fat komli kni3t • to fe king ebrouns, SS*Bbr^ 

fat was lord whil he lined • & fat lor[d]chipe welte. 3680 

& swiche a sorwe to hire sone • sank to herte, Mdiheb^gine 

to weep. 

fat wi^tli gan sche wepe * wonderly sore. 

whan willunn saw hire wepe • wrofli he seide, 3683 

" for seynt mary loue, madame • whi make le bis sorwe ? ViUiwn ••y* she 

J J ^ 7 r ought rather to 

3e schuld now make 30W merie • 30ur mene to glade, i^oioe, 
fat feynt ar for-fouten • in feld & for-wouTided. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Binoe her enemies to 8umme schuld ^e }if now ' ^iftes ful gode,* 

[Fd. 60.] & to summe by-hote • fe blifer hem to make. 3688 
Mater now haue ^e • moche mine to bene ; 
je ban now on in bold * J^urtb bim baue ^e scbolle 
wel jour worcbep a-jein • as je wait euer." 

jnjeqneenexcaaei «"jnorsoJ)e, sire," sede fe quen • " je seyn al pe treufe ; 
"■- je make me mater i-now • mirye to bene. 3693 
I wot for i so wept * i wroujt noujt pe best, 
but i mijt noujt f er-witb • i-wisse, sire, & treufe, 
so Jjroli a sori foujt • Jirled min bert," — 3696 

telling him the & eobli wbi it was • be encbeson bim seide, 

reason of her ' 

sorrow, bow bire f oujt be was licbe • bire lord fe king fanne, 

& bou f e sorwe of hire sone * dede bire so to wepe. 
fan sede willtam wijtli • fese wordes to bire-selue, 3700 

wffliara telle her " Madame, of bat mater • no jnore now binkes : 

to think no more '^ ' 

ofit, since both wbat be ze now be beter • so bitterli to wepe, 

her husband and . . « • 

son are dead, se)jf bofe J)i siTo & fi sone ' am bofe dede ? 

Jjeijb je drijen swicbe duel • al jour lif dawes, 3704 
«nd will never je gete bem neuer a-gayn • late god baue pe saules, 
& make jour-self mine * jour mene forto glade." 
fan wax fe quen ful wo * wittow for sof e, 
fat willtam sede fat bire sone • scbuld be dede, 3708 
suii the queen's for bire bert bar bire euer * fat be bire sone scbuld bene, 
is her eon. — bi knowing of alle kontenaunce * fat f e king welt, 
but of fat mater no more • minged f ei fat time, 
ac turned in-to ofer tales • fat toucbed to mirtb. 3712 
& waitende • out at f e window • as f ei in tales were. 
Looking out» they fan f ei seie f e werwoK • was com bem bi-fore, 
JnSo'faiedsmd Korteslicbe kneHng • as be in wise couf e, 
hSTwsJ^* ^"^ & lo^^ ^^ J>® ^^^^ • & to f e lord alse, 3716 

buxuwili as any best • bi any resoun scbuld, 
& sef f en went bis wei • wbider bim god liked, 
f e quen wijtli to willtam • f ese wordes sede, 

1 Catchword, " & to summe by." 

« MS. " waidende." Read " waitende."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


** sire, a selcou]) si3t it is * of \>\s semli best ; 3720 The qoem hopes 

liOO, how loueli it a-louted • lowe to vs twines, 

It bi-tokenes suTw-what treuli • god turne it to gode 1 " [foi- w b.} 
" ja, i-wisse," seide willunn • " wene ie non ober, wim»m nye it 

7^ ^ y r 9 Is Bare lo bode 

for ))at blessed best * neuer boded but gode. 3724 good. 

he fat heried helle • fram harm him saue ! " 

" amew," seiden alle * fat fere with him seten. 

f us driue pei forJ> f e day • with diuerse mirthe, 

& treuli whan it was time * turned to mete, 3728 They go to meat 

& serued were of semes • as hem-self liked ; 

but speke we of J>e spaynols • what hern tidde after. 


one as f e kinges sone * was to f e cite take, Oreet la the 

fat his mijti men * mijt no more him help, 3732 spaniardfl 

- t , , , , becanee their 

f er was a selcouf sorwe * a-mang fe segges maked, king's son is 

& karfuUi to f e king • f ei kayred a-3ayne, ^^^ 

& told him holli here tene * how his sone was take, 

& how here segges were slayn • a selcouf noumber. 3736 

whan be king wist • as man wod he ferde, The Ung is veiy 

' •Qgry. aad asks 

& wrofli to his wi3es • fat fere were he seide, how they dared 

* whi suffred 30 my sone • so sone to be take ? 

30 schul hastli be honged • & with hors to-drawe !" 3740 threatening to 

hang tiiem. 

& derai3ed him for fat dede * as alle deie schulde. 

but kniates of his cunseil • com til him sone, ^* *»*■ ^'^ 

■^ said it was owing 

& saide him soburli • so mi^t he nomt worche, to a certain 

« ,.,, i,.,i knight's prowess. 

for a kni3t him coTiquerede • al with clone strengfe, 

& hade him out of f e ost • mawgrey hew alle. 3745 

" kni3t," quaf f e king • " what kemp is fat ilke, "What? one 

_ . • v J i.-o>» knighfs?"Baid 

fat wan so on my sone * is he so dou3ti ? the Ung. 

" 30 forsof e," seid on • " sire, with 3our leue, 3748 

fer mai no man vpon mold • a3en8 fat man stond. i^]JJ"tt7one 

he driuef to dethe • who-so his dent cacchef , 

his dou3ti dedes vs dof • more duresse fan alle of cr ; 

he it is fat f e werwolf • weldes in his scheld." 3762 

The king tows he 

*'I mak a vow," quod fe king • " to cnst fat al weldea, wiu prove his 
er i ete more mete • his mi3t wol i a-saie ; jo^^l *" 

with the frerwolf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[Fol. 60.] 

bulged befive tha 

■ad the dUj ihaU 
U burnt." 

Hie men are to 

& 3if any egge tol wol entre • in-to hie bodi, 

I wol do him to Je deth • and more despit ouere ; 3756 

he schal heije be honged ' li^t bi-foifliire jate, 

]>at alle fe segges of |>e cite ' schulle him bi-hold, 

& BeJ)J)en wol i J)at cite • setten al on fure, 

& do braten alle pe bumes • fat be now ]>er-inne ; 3760 

schal no gom vnder god * ofer gate it make." 

fan komau;ided fe king * to do krie as swife, 

fat alle his nnkes schuld be redi * ri3t erli on morwe, 

armed at alle pojntes ' as fei no wold be spilt, 3764 

& hasteli was his hest * fan hendH f ulMed. 

The Spaniard! 
are armed, and 
oorae down to the 

Tbey find there 
600 bodies of 
their oomradaa. 

The bodies are 
borne away to 
the tents, to be 
burled later. 

The king seta hia 
men In three 

of 200011 

T^ul manlich on fe morwe * were his men greifed, 

"■- of bold mennis bodiesse • a ful breme ost 

Grailier greifed • were neuer gomes seie, 3768 

of alle manor armure * fat to werre longed. 

fan passed f e spaynols * in-to a faire plaine, 

fer as fe breme bataile • was on fe day bi-fore. 

fere fan fouTwie fei fele • of here frendes slayne, 3772 

Mo fan fine hundred • of nobul frekes holde, 

f e king fan for fat kas ' was karful in hert, 

& moche sorwe was sone * for fat si3t maked. 

but fan bad f e king bliue • f e bodies take 3776 

of alle fe gomes of gode • & greif li hem here 

til f e tentis, til fei mi^t haue ' tom hem to berie ; 

& deliu^li in dede * was don al his hest. 

f e king fan treuli * in f re batayles sturne 3780 

faire dede sette his folk * fast as he mi3ty 

In as real aray • as rink schold deuise. 

per were in eche bataile • of burnes tvo f ousand, 

armed at alle pointes * and auenantli horsed^ 3784 

In eche eschel stifli set * per fei stonde schold. 

now of willtam & his wijes * a-non wol i ,telle. 

William and his 
men issue out of 

TTTill/am & his wijes • were armed wel sone, 
^ ' as semli to sijt • as any segges f arte, 


Digitized by 



& softli Iced out of ]>e cite ' whan ^ei seie time. 

willwrm went al bi-fore * as wis man & nobul, C^- « W 

& ordeyned anon his ost ' in bie grete parties, ordering us man 

in three 

& sett of ' bolde bnmes * in eche bataile seuene hundred, oompeniee, of 

of clene kni^tes armed * & o])er kete bumes, 3793 

& spak spakli ]>ese wordes * pe spaynols whan he seie : — 

" Lo, lordinges," sede william • " wich a loneli si3t ^« •ddreeeet 

here bi-fore vs of our fon • of ferche men & bold ! 3796 "See whiu » 

lovdj si^t of 

^er is holli al here ost * now beth of hertes gode, oar foee le hen! 

& we schul wel fis day • Jis werre bring to ende ^* SSw****** 

onliche 30urh ' godes grace * & jour gode dede. 

))QU3h per be mani mo )>an je * dismaie ;e noujt |>drforey 

God wol vs ay rescue • & with fe rijt stonde ; 3801 ^JS^"**** 

Go we to hem on godes name * with a god wille. 

& i mow come bi pe king • bi cnst, as ich hope, 

he schal sone ber-after • to his sone wende, 3804 iwuiimprieon 

'^ ' the king with hit 

to soiome in |>e cite * J^at he ha|> seged jore. son. 

per-ioTf frendes & felawes • for him fat jou boujt, 

doj) jour dede to-day • as doujti men schulle, ^ douehty deede 

& gret worchipe schul je winne • whil Jis world lastef." 

In pis wise will/am * his w^es ]>an cumforted, 3809 

))at J)ei hent swiche herte * as hardi men schuld. 

pan. aswij^e ]>ei sembled * [eiper ost]^ to-gader, 

& aUe maner menstracie • maked was sone 3812 Trfwuremd 

tmmpe ere 

of tabours & trumpes * non mijt |>e number telle. eoonded. 

& eiper ost as 8wi]>e * fast ascried o]>er, 

& arsembleden swife stemli * eiper ost to-gader, ^« ^<*** 

Gretand oper gWmli * with scharpe grounde speres. 3816 

Mani a bold bum • was sone broujt of dawe, 

& many a stef stede • stiked here to dethe, NimberieiB men 

*' ' ' andhoneeare 

no man vpon mold * mijt ayme pe number * ^^^^ 

of wijes J)at in a while • were slayn on boJ)e side. 3820 
but wilh'om as a wod man • was euer here & Jere, ]Idtt!«»! **"* 

& leide on swiche liuore ' leue me forso])e, 

1 MS. « ob." « Sic. Read " pvah ;" see note, 

s See 1. 8815. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



WUUam's men 

and th^ flght 
better than erer. 

J)at his daies were don • fat of him hent a dent 
]>e king of spaine <& his kni3te8 * so kenli hem here, 
& so fresli gon fi^te * ))at at pQ first a-saute, 3825 

fat fele of willtams frekes • gon to fle 3eme. 
whan willMxm was war • wijtli he hem a-schrijed, 
& cumfort hem craftli ' with his kinde speche, 3828 
fat fei tit a^en turned * to telle f e sofe, 
& here hem wel beter • fen f ei bi-fore hade. 

Th« Mng adra, 
•• Where la he 
that bean the 
wolf onhia 

1 wtU hunt hhn 
aa a hoond hanta 
a wenrdlt 

Whoever brings 
him to me shall 
be mj chief 

The son of Um 
constable of 

named Meliadns, 

barsts into the 
thick of the fight» 

alajlng six lords, 
and woonding a 

enooonters him. 

Their spears Qj 
into splinters, 
and they swing 
their swords. 

l^e king of spayne gan crie • keneli & schille, 

-» " war be he fat f e wolf • weldes in his scheld, 3832 

fat haf murf erod mi men * & swiche harm wroa3t ? 

Mi3t i now haue hap • him ones to sene, 

I wold him hunte as hard • as euer houflde in erthe 

honted eny werwolf • but wel he his ware 3836 

fat i so many hondes • haue on him vn-coupled, 

fat he for alle his dou^ti dedes * dar him nou^t schewo. 

but what man vpon molde * so may him me bring, 

I schal riuedli him rewarde • to be riche for euei\ 3840 

& mak him my chef stiward • to stijtli alle my godes." 

fan was f er a kud knijt • f e cunstables sone of spayne, 

come wel f re daies bi-fore • f e king for to help. 

an .c. kene knijttes • in cumpanie he broujt, 3844 

& him-self a bold bum • f e best of hem alle, 

& meliadus of mi3ti men ' fe kni3t was called. 

whan he fe kinges cry • clenli hadde herde, 

as bliue with his bumes • he braide in-to prese, 3848 

& demened him dou3tili • with dentes ful * rude. 

he slow of fe citejens • in a schort while, 

six grete lordes • and f e seuenf e nere. 

whan willtam was war • of his dou3ti dedes, 3852 

delia^ly as a dou3ti man • he drow to him euen, 

Grimli eif er of er gret • whan f ei gonne mete, 

so spakli here speres * al on speldes went. 

& swifbli sef f e with swerdes • swonge f ei to-gider, 3856 

1 Ower fill (^) erased, fitil is written in a later hand. 

Digitized by 



^at many were a-meraailed * of here (lou3ti dedes. 

& bis miati meliadus • in bat meling while , f^^ ^ ^-^ 

a stume strok set wiUiam * on his stelen hehn, wuiiam in um 


& wounded him wickedli • wittow forsofe. 3860 

whan bis bold willwtm • saw his blod so breme, winiMn. weing 

' his own blood, 

lijt as a lyoun * he leide on al a-bonte, fights uke a uon, 

& marked ])at meliadus * with mayn swiche a dint, 

bat biirth be helm & be hed * hastili to be gurdel 3864 tod dmxem 

. Mdladni throui;h 

his brond his bodi to-cleued ' for alle his bri3t armes ; helm and head 

& he tit oner his hors tayl • tombled ded to ferje. *® ** ^^'^^ 

f er-of Williams wi3e8 • were wonderli gladde, 

& as sori in fe ofer side • fe segges were of spaine, dillh^St^^'*'' 

for in ^t meliadus mi3t * was here most hope, 3869 

to haue conquered will/am * wif clene strengfe of armes. 

but whan pel seie him ded • sone gun f ei tume, and torn to flight, 

and to flen as fast * as ]>ei faire mi3t. 3872 

but willtam & his wi3es • so wrou3ten fat time, ^'^^^^ 

no rink J>ei mi3t of-reche • recuuered neu^ after, 

ne no man vpon mold * ini3t ayme pe number 

of pe freliche folk • fat in J>e feld lay slayn. 3876 

n bis tale was told • to be king of spayne, The wng, hearing 

, . . ,. , !. „ , that Meliadaa iB 

how pe mi^ti meliadus • for alle men was slawe, 

& bi-held how his bumes • bi-gonne to.flene, 

& how will/am & his wi3e8 • wijtli hem folwed, 3880 

& duelfulli driuen doun • to dethe fat f ei of-toke, 

also swif e for sorwe • he swonede for fere. awooni ««• ftar, 

& whan he wijtli a-wok • wodli he ferde,* 

al to-tare his a-tir • bat he to-tere miat, 3884 "^ rworerina 

' ^^ tean his attire^ 

& seide after anon * '^ alas ! what to rede ! 
I se al mi folk fle * for [fat] frekes dedes ; 
was neuer man vpon mold • fat swiche mi3t wait ; 
It is sum deuel degised • fat dof al f is harm." 3888 ^^^^ 
bi fat saw he william • winne him ful nere, 

& 8I0U3 doun in Ids si^t • his segges al a-boute, ^^^^i^ftlea" 

1 MS. •* forde." Read " ferde."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[FoL 61] 

him, and bids 
him yield. 

his man, and 

Wniiam and his 
men soon alay 
100 of them, and 
take 10 score of 

The Ung, eeeing 
•11 ia hopeleai, 

William catches 
him up, and 
■gain bids him 

He must make 

& saw it geyned no grif * to go him no nere ; 

as bliue with his baner ' he gan awei flene. 3892 

whan William was war • howe he a-wei went, 

prestili de-parted he fat pres • & priked him after, 

& ful titli him of-tok ' & stoutli him aschried, 

had him ^epli him ^eld * or jeme he schul deie. 3896 

whan ]>e [king] * saw him com ' he sede to his kni^tes, 

" defende we vs dou^tili • or we dei3en sone ; 

]>er go]y non o])er gri]y * it geine]) nou^t to flene. 

& more mensk it is * manliche to deie, 3900 

]^an for to fle coawar[d]li ' * for on^t )mt mai falle.** 

" certes, sure, fat [is] * sof " • seide his men alle, 

" f er-fore now in-dede • do we what we mowe." 

fan turned fei titli a^en * & trustiU gon fijt, 3904 

a[s] * fersli as fei nade • fou3t noujt bi-fore. 

but willwim & his wi^es * were so breme, 

& so stumli in fat stour * stored hem fat time, 

fat fei hade in a while * a hundred i-slayne, 3908 

& taken of f e tidiest * mo fan ten schore. 

f e king saw his segges * were slawe him bi-fore, 

& non m^t fe werwolf • awquere in no wise, 

& whas duelfulli a-drad * lest he deie schuld, 3912 

& gan to fle fram f e ost * as hard as he m^t ; 

& hise men fat mi^t * manli gon to flene. 

but wUltflon perceyued • what pas fe king went, 

& hastili hi^ed after * & him of-toke, 3916 

& keneli to him kried ' '^ sire king, jeld fe swife, 

of er f i deth is i-dijt • deliuerli ri^t here. 

Meke to make a-mendis * for al f i mis-gilt 

f atow hast reised in f is reaume * & ri^t long meyn- 

& al wrongli wrou^t * as wot al fis reaume." 3921 

^ Read ** whan the king saw him com." — M. 

* The spelling eouwardli occurs in 1. 3336. 
» Read " that w soth."—M. 

* MS. ** a.'* Read " as fersU."— M. 

Digitized by 




iO he seie no better ' bote nede he most him ^eld, 
or al swi)^ be slayn - pan sone he a-li^t, 
& wi3tli to will igm • his wepnn vp to-^elde, 3924 The wng yields 

& forto wirche his wiUe • & wihied his mercy. 
& willkzm, as kinde kni^t ' as kortede it wold, [FoLasfr.] 

Godli graunted him grif • & grucched no more, 
but seide he schuld him meke • in merci to be quene, •'^ wmiMa mjn 

' ^ he must •abmil 

& profer him to prison • prestli at hire wille. 3929 to the qoeen. 

& gaf him to alle hire grace • & with-sede no worde. 

as tit as fe king was take • to telle pe sofe, The Wng being 

eche a seg of his side * sone gan with-drawe, 3932 spuiiardi nOfe 

& faynest was eche a freke ' fsi fastest mi3t hije ; 

A ])as was ^at ferli fi^t * finched ^t time. 

willtam went to be cite • with his wijes bolde, wim«ni bringe 

^ ^ the king to the 

& pe king of spayne * in companye he ladde, 3936 queen's peiaoe. 

with alle pe miirpe vpow mold • fat men mi^t of here ; 

& passeden to pe paleise * prestili alle same[n]. 

pe quen with hire cowpanie • com him a-jens, The qneen 

& resseyued as reali * as swiche rinkes oujt, 3940 

& pe king '^epli dede * ^elde him to hire pnson, 

to wirche with him as sche wold ' at hire oune wille : TheWngMidtoT*' 


& treuli astit after him ' tvo hundered & seuen, rabmit 

pe realest rinkes of pe reaume * dcde ri^t fat ilke. 3944 

be quene to will/om • wi^tli wold haue kneled, Th« v^oea woaid 

'^ ^ ^ ^ h*Te kneeled to 

blife sche was fat bataile * was brou^t to a nende, thank wmiun, 

& f onked willmm fer^for * mani a fousan sif e, 

but William hent Fhirel * vp • & harde hire blamed, bathe cetchee 

■- -• ^ her np, eajing an 

& sede, ** madame, ae misdon * bi marie in heuen, 3949 emperor'e 

dan^ter most 

fat am an emperours [dou3ter] ^ - & a quen jour^selue, not kneel to a 

to swiche a simpul sowdiour • as icham, forto knele ; ^ 

je don a gret deshonour • wif fat to ^ou-selue." 3952 

** nai, sire," sede f e quen • " so me crist help !♦ 

I sette lou for no soudiqnr • but for soucrayn lord, she eaya he u not 

'' '^ a soldier, bnt 

to lede al f is lorldschip * as 30U likes euer ; sovereign lord, 

1 Read " hent hirt rp."— M. 

' Read ** emperoun douzter and a quen."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& blessed be fat burde • fat bar fe in fis erfe. 3956 
•inoe, bat torhimj for nade be grace of god be * A bi code dedes, 

nbe wouW have '^ ° '^ ^ . 

beeo ban of au of blisse i hade be al bare * bi fis ilk time. 

fer i balfulli here-bi-fore • was brout al bi-nef e, 
[PoL «•.] f ou hast me broujt of bale • & bet al myn harmes ; 

fer-for in al wise jonr worschipe* is wel fe more." 3961 


MeUor and tha 
prinoaM lead the 
king of Spain 
between them. 

the king on one 
aide of her, and 
William on the 

The lord! and 
burgeaaee, and the 
peon of Spain, all 
ait down together. 

The king aeke to 

they are in the 

and it Is of no OM 
w^rward woman. 

The prince njf 
it is troe enough, 
and they must 
now take the 

"VTow to touche of fis tale * what tidde after. 
^ alle fe lordes a-non • vn-armed hem sone, 
& with fe worf i quen ' went in-to halle, 3964 

& f e menskful meliors ' & f e qaenes doubter, 
curtesli f e king of spayne • bi-twene hem Jjei ladde, 
& here moke maydenes ' merili fat time 
ladden f e of er lordes • loueli hem bi-twene, 3968 

& alle samen semeli * f ei seten in f e halle. 
f e quen set fe king • curtesli bi here side, 
& willzam on fat of er half * & with him his suster, 
& fe menskfiil meliors - fat made moche ioie 3972 

for fe loueli loos • fat here lemman wanne ; 
& alle f e lordes of fat lond • in fe halle that were, 
& f e best burgejs • & of er bumes fele, 
& f e pers of spayne • fat were to prison take. 3976 
f e king bi-sou^t f e queue • jif it were hire wiUe, 
fat he most se his sone * to solace him f e more, 
A sche ful godli granted • <& gart him do fecche. 
& sof li, as sone as he com * fe king seide him tille, 3980 
" lo I sone ! wich sorwe • we haue vs selue wroujt, 
f urh oure hautene hertes * a gret harm we gete, 
to willne swiche willenyng • fat wol nou^t ansente. 
It is a botles bale * bi god fat me fourmed, 3984 

t[o] willne after a wif • fat is a waywarde euere." 
fan seide his sone * " forsof e, sire, 30 knowe, 
fat we haue wrongli wrou3t • nowe is it wel sene ; 
we mot holde * to oure harmes • it helpes nou^t elles, 
but giue vs geynli in f e grace • of f is gode lady, 3989 
MS. " holdee." Read " holde."— M. 

Digitized by 



& late hire worche with vs * as hire god likes." 

be king for his sones sawe • sore gan sike, The king u 

grieved, and 

to yskt comli quen * M curtesli ))us seide, 3992 sighs, 

" Madame, for man loue • fe milde quen of heuene, 

Graunt me of ^our grace • jif jou god fink, ^^- ^ *-3 

^if 30iire konyng cuwsayl • a-corde wol per tille. queen to auow 

let me make a-mendis * for al my mis-gelt, 3996 amen^ 

^t i so wrongli haue werred * & wasted 30UT londes. 

as moche as any man • mow ordeyne bi riit, promising to 

•^ J J'^ rojitore what is 

I am redi to restore • & redeli, more-ouer, rights 

al fe worchop fat i weld • i wol of 30U hold, 4000 and to hold his 

al ])e londes & ledes - fat long to my reaume ; 

so dede i'neuer til fis dai • bnt of god one. 

& but 30ur cuwseil, madame • a-corde wol f er-tille, 

wisses me at ^onr owne wille * how ^e wol me binde, orofferinKtobe 

bonnd in sny way 

& lelli i wol as 30U likes * ^oure lore fuMlle ; 4005 she liiced. 
ferferforf mai [i] * nou^t profer • for nou3t fat bi-tidea" 

l^e quen & here consail • f er-of were a-pai^ed, 

-* fat he so him profered • to parfourme hire wille, The queen and 

& gonne to mele of fat mater • how it best mijt bene. itlnT^^ ^'^ 

& as f ei were talking • to trete of fat dede, considerauon. 

so hijed in-to f e halle • ri^t to f e heije dese, 

fat ilk witti werwolf • fat william hade holpe, 4012 The werwolf 

& boldli, for alle fe bums • as him nou^t nere, ^"p u> the 

spacli to f e king of spaine • he spedde him on gate, Sd^iSlSetu 

& fel doun to his fot • & faire hem he keste, ^^'' 

& worchiped him in his wise • wonderli with-alle. 4016 

& sef fe sone after ' he saluede f e queue, next he ninu^ 

& after here, william • and his worfi make, theJ^^'ind"^ 

fe queues dou3ter afterward • & dede him on gate h««way. 

out hastili at f e halle dore * as fast as he mi3t, 4020 

& went forf on his wei • whider him god liked. 

but sone sauage men ' fat seten in f e halle sarage men who 

henten hastili in honde • what f ei haue mi3t, up weapcm^*^ 

» Read" mail." -M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



bari the werwolf 

be wlU kiU him 
with his own 

Tet ell wondered 
whet it meant, 

Hie king 
ramembera about 
the eon be onoe 

who had been 
according to hie 
eecond wifo'e 


proclaims that no 
one is to hurt the 

summe axes, summe sweides * some speres long, 4024 

to wende him after • wi^tli to quelle. 

but wan willtam J)at wist • wodli he ferde, 

& swor swiftli his [o|>e] * • bi al fat god wrou^t, 

J if any bum were so bold • fat best forto greue, 4028 . 

were he kni^t of er clerk • knaue of er kempe, 

he wold deliuerli him-self • do him to f e dethe, 

fat no man ypon mold ' schuld of er amendes ^elde. 

fer nas hastHi in fat halle * non so hardi bum, 4032 

fat durst folwe fat best " o fote for drede, 

so f ei were of william • wonderli a-dredde. 

but whi fe werwolf so wrou3t * wondred fei alle, 

& whi more with * f e king • fan with any of er. 4036 

&'fe king more wondred * fan any whijt elles, 

& strek in-to a studie • stifliche fer-fore, 

what it bi-tokenef fat f e be^t * bowed so him tiUe, 

& wrou^t to him more worchipe • fan to any wi^t elles. 

In fat mene while fan * in his minde it com, 4041 

& f oujt on a semli sone * fat sum time he hadde, 

& how him treuli hadde be told * to-fore a long time, 

fat his wif with wichecrafb * to a wolf him schaped. 

but sche of fat sclaunder • excused hire al-gaj/e, 4045 

& seide f e child was in f e see • sunkun ful jore. 

f e king in fat earful f ou3t • was cumbred fu] long. 

but willwim wijtli • as f e wolf was schaped, 4048 

he dede knijtes to comaunde * to do crie in f e cite, 

fat no bum nere so bold • as he nold be honged, 

to waite fe werwolf • no maner schaf e, 

but late him late & erli • where him liked wende ; 4052 

fat best was wel hold * non so hardi was elles. 

The king le In 
great thoo^t and 

T7"arf e we [now] ' how fe king • was kast in gret foujt; 

•*^ he dared as doted man • for f e bestes dedes, 

& was so styf in a^tudie • fat nwe him stint mijt. 4056 

» Read " his othe hi aL"— M. « MS. " wiht.** 

» Peitiaps it should be, " Karpo we now how the king." — M. 

Digitized by 



whan william was war • he went to him sone, wiiiiam oonjortti 

him to t«U hlpi 

seide, " king, i. f e coninre ' in cr?*stes holi name, 

& hi alle pe kud customes * to kinghod ])at longes, 

f attow telle me tit • treuli fat sofe, 4060 

jif f ou knowest bi what cas • in any-skines * wise, 

whi bis buxuTW best ' bowed to be more [FoL w 6.] 

why the besat 

fan to alle fe wi^es • fat were in fe hallel bowed to wm in 

It mai be in no maner • me f inkes, bi f ou^tes, 4064 ^ 

f attow wost in Bwn wise * what it bi-tokenef . 

ferfor tel me tit ' treuli whatow foutes, ••Teiime.orthou 

, ehalt never ooma 

ofer 1 make a vow • to f e mijti king of heuen, out of priaon.- 

f on passest nonjt of pnson • puniched at f e hardest. 

fan sike^f e king sore • & seide f ese wordes, 4069 The king sigha, 

" sire, for drede of duresse • nor of deth in erf e, JJ,^^ 

nel i wonde in no wise • what i f oujt to seie. 

sire, sum time hero-bi-for • in my ^ong age, 4072 «*i once wedded 

\i7^r aWrandgood 

I wedded with al wele • a worschipful lady. My, 

fat burde was of beuaute • bri^test in erf e, 

& greter of alle godnesse • fan any gome mai telle. 

be kinsres doubter of naueme • was bat gode burde, 4076 daughter of the 

r o / X « king of Navarre. 

& in fat seson gete we * samen to-gedere, 

on be fairest fireke • bat euer seg on loked, ^e *»■<> • ^«t 

' ' 1 1 -11 ikireon; botmy 

but mi wif, as god wold • & as we schul alle, wi& died. 

deied at fe deliuerauwce • of mi dere sone. 4080 

& i fostered fat child * faire to f re winter, i fostered it uii 

with alle clene keping • as it ou^t to bene. ©i^. 

bi fat time was fat bam * ful breme of his age, 

& semliest on to se • fat men schuld finde ; 4084 

alphouTis his gode godfaderes • dede him fan calle 

at kyrke for his kinde name • to kif e f e sof e. 

fan bitid fat time • i toke a-nof er wif, 

a ful loueli lady • lettered at fe best, 4088 J married again 

•' ' ' to a lady who waa 

corteys & couenabul • & lettered at f e best,* loveiy, and who 

'' ooald read weU. 

& comen was of gret kin • & koynt hire-selue, 

f urth grace gat i on hire • as god almi^ti wold, 

* See note. ^ This half line is repeated from above. 


Hit name was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Oar ton wm the 
prince who is 
here now. 

[Fol. 06.] 
My wife feftred 
that the elder eon 
would eaoceed me 

and ccmsidered 
bow to get rid of 

She changed him 
by encbantmenta 
Into a werwoU; 

but she awore to 
me that he had 
been drowned. 

I beliered her, 
bat I now think 
this werwolf ia 
my son. 

This is tmly what 
1 mused abuut." 

a sone as 30 mow se • be-for jou selue here, 4092 

wich ^e ban put in pnson • & puniclied at ^our wille. 

f is child was ceput * clenli • as it wel oujt, 

& it wax fetis & fair • & fol mochel loued, 

but )win my wif wickedli • on fise wise fou^t, 4096 

])at myn elder son ' min eritage scbul baue, 

& kepe f e kingdom after me • as kinde skil it wold ; 

& striued stifli with hire-self * as stepmoderes wol alle, 

bi what wise sche mi3t best • fat bold bam spille^ 4100 

to do so fat here sone • after mi dessece, 

Mi3te reioische fat reaume ' as ri3t eir bi kinde. 

& as me haf be told • of trewe men of my reaume, 

with charmes & enchantmens • sche chaunded' my sone 

In-to a wilde werwolf; * & wel now ich it leue, 4105 

fat f is buxum best • be fat ilk selue 

fat my wif with hire wiles • euer dede me leue, 

(whan i hire touched swiche tales * as me told were), 

fat it was fanteme & fals * & for hate saide ; 4109 

& swor grimli gret of es • bi al fat god wrou3t, 

fat mi semli sone * was in f e see sonken, 

as he passe^ out to pleie * priueli him one. 4112 

I leued hire fan lelly ' & lett it ouer-pase, 

but now witerli i wot • f is werwolf is my sone, 

fa sechef after socour * it semef bi hise dedus. 

sire, sofli to seie * fis was my grete font, 4116 

for f e werwolf werkes • so me wel time, 

& 3if i wrong seie any word • wo worf me euer." 

WUliam says it 
seems to be the 

for the werwolf 
has a man's 

William * fan ful wittili • f ese wordes saide, 4119 
** sire, it may ri3t wel be f us • be marie in heuenel 
fat fe best sechef socour * it semef att best, 
for wel i wot witerli * & wel i haue it founde, 
fat he has mannes munde * more fan we bofe. 4123 

* Sie ; another spelling of " kepud.*' 
» Read " chaunged " (?) Cf. I. 4600. 
3 The MS. has a large M instead of W. 

Digitized by 



for many [a day] * hade i be ded • & to dust roted, 

nadde it be goddes grace • & help of fat best ; 

he ha]) me socoured & serued ' in ful gret nede. *<He has often 

for-f i in feif , for al fe world • him nold i faile, ""* 

bat i schal loue him lelli ' as my lece brober : 4128 

'^ , ^ o r ^ Too oaght to be 

&, siie, blife oii3t je [be] ^ * bi him fat vs wrou3t 1 butheto ond him 

fat he f us happili is here ' fat haf so lang be missed. cfol 86 &.] 

& 3if he mijt in maner * be maked man a^eine, 

of al fe welfe of fe world • wilned i no more. 4132 

& sertenli, as it semef * to seie f e truf e, 

^if f i wif of wicchecraft • be witti as f ou seidest^ if joar wift is m 

fat sche him wrou^t a werwolf • rijt wel i hope, wiushcraft, 

sche can with hire connyng • & hire queynt charmes, 

Make him to man a-aen • it may be non ofer. 4137 *• can make wm 

a "»*" again. 

& f erfore, sire, bi cn'st • fat on croyce vs bou3t, 

f ou ne passest neuer of pnson • ne non of [f i] * puple, wherefore, yon 

. , . shall neTer be 

with-oute deliueraunce * of fat derworfe best ; 4140 reieamd tui he u 
for made a-^en to man • mot he nede bene. *"**"* 

sende wittili to f i wif • & wame hire fore, 8«»d »nd teii her 

to oome here. 

fat sche tit come f e to * for fat may falle after, 

fat sche ne lette for no lud ' fat liuef in erfe. 4144 

& jif sche nickes wif nay • & nel noujt com sone, if she wiu not, 

sende hire saddli to sai * fat sone with min ost, her fbrdbiy." 

I wol fat reaume oucr-ride • & rediliche destrue, 

& fecche hire with fin forse • for oujt fat bi-tides. 4148 

for til sche with hire craft • f e werwolf haue holpe, 

alle f e men vpon molde • ne [mai] make 30U deliuered." * 


crtst," sede fe king • "fat on croyce was peyned, "SheshaUba 

fat fe quen be of-sent • sauf wol i fouche. 4152 
3if sche mi^t in any maner * make a-^en mi sone 
to be a man as he was arst • wel were me f anne. 
but serteynli i not * wham i sende mi^t, But i have no one 

to make fe massager * myn erande wel to spede, 4156 ofmy lords, 

^ Read " many a day hade i be ded."— M. 

« Read " ouzt ze be bi him.''— M. 

* Read " of thi puple."— M. * mai seems required. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



if yon will ghre 
them ImTe." 

"I grant It; Wd 
fhem bring the 

[Fol. 66.] 

The king ebooMt 
50 lords. 

giving them a 
letter and a 
message, laying. 

" Tell hermy son 
is found. 

In the shape of a 

Bid her bring 
disenchant him.*' 

but }e wold suffer • suwme of fise lordes, 

Jat ben lederes of my lond • & lele men holde. 

}if jou likes, ^iue hem leue ' & bete hem Jjider wende, 

I hope fei scbul hastlier • fan any ofer spede." 4160 

" fat i wol," seide william • " ches wich f e likes, 

& bote hem bi3e bastili * barde as fei mowe, 

& bring pe quen • for cas fat mai falle." 

ful spacH f e king of spayne * to spede fo nedes, 4164 

as fast cbes bim fifty • of ful grete lordes, 

fat tidi men were told ' & trewest of bis reaume, 

& tid bi-tok bew f e Ictteres • fat told al bere erand, 

& bet bem munge bi moufe • more, & fei coufe, 4168 

wban fei come to f e quen * of fe cas bi-falle — 

" & seif bire f us sadli * sires, i 30U praye, 

for wbat cas scbe mot com • or bi cmt of beuene, 

scbe get neuer gladnesse ' of me, ne of mi sone. 4172 

& seie bire sof li • f is selue encbeson, 

for bire mi sone is founde * fat scbe for 3ore saide 

was sonk i» f e see • so dede scbe me to lei^e ; 

but as a wilde werwolf • be walkef bere a-boute ; 4176 

& bow be sou^t after socour • ^e saw wel alle. 

f er-fore treuli as it tid • telle bere to f e bende, 

& bidde bire bliue with hire bring • fat mai be is bote, 

to make bim man a3en • mi^ti as be was ere, 4180 

ofer al fat lond worf lore • & our Hues alse^ 

fer gof non a3en-tum • 3e mow hire treuli seie." 

fe menskful messangeres * mekeli fan seide, 4183 

" we wol worche 30ur wiUe • as wel as we kunne." 

Next day the 
messengers set 

and went to 

Manli on f e morwe • f e messageres were 3are, 
greifed of alle gere * gaily atte fe best, 
of horse & barneys • & what fei hade nede, 
& went forf on here way • wi3tli & fast ; 4188 

Euer f e geynest gatis • to goo to fe sofe, 
Euer spacli fei hem spedde • til spayne fat fei como, 
& come to a cite • fere soioumed f e queue. 

Digitized by 



tid was hire told • tiding of here come, 4192 

& sche gamsum & glad * go]) hem a-^ens, ^^ 

with loueliche ladies * ])at longed to hire chanmbur, 

<& o]>er menskfiil maidenes * mo ^an foure schore. 

& mekli whan ])ei were met " )>e messageres ]>ei greten 

with c^pmg^^ kessing * kindeli to-gadere. 4197 

but sone fat comli quen ' wel curtesli asked, CPoi. ee m 

'' how fares mi lord ])e king * for crtstes loue in heuen, lord and her md. 

& mi semli sone ' se]y]>e ]>ei out went % 4200 

han fei wonne at here wille • J)at J)ei went fore 1 

what dos mi lord wi]y ]yat lady * & here loueli dou^t^ ) iibetowedtht 

wol sche ^it my sone hire wedde * & to wif haue % " 

" Madame," saide be messang^ • most worbi of alle, "lUdttne^ 

'^ tflUn an qntta 

^* of er-wise fan 30 wene • is al f e werk turned, 4205 duuiged. 

It helpes nou3t for to hele * nou^ herkenes mi sawe. 

sif fe f e king of heuen • on croys for vs deide, 

worse fel it neu<?r to wijes • fan it haf a while. 4208 

for alle be real rinkes • of bis reaume be slayne, oar bert men «» 

'^ '^ ^ ^ ilain and buried 

A doluen depe vnder mold • mani day seffo. — thettewardand 

bla nephew, 

f e stoute stiward of f is lond • & his strong neuew, 

& fe cuwstabul sone • fat kud knijt was proued, 4212 theowwtabie'a 

& out of number nobul men * to nempne fe sofe. nnmberieM 


Mi lord f e king was fer cau^t ' in a kene stoure, 

& 3our sone also • and are prisons bof e, ^ '^^'ISid*!!!! 

& we alle, madame • & many mo of of^r 4216 weiord»,are 


of f e lordes of f is lond • fat ^ut a-liue bene, 

& neuer-more for no man • mowe be deliuered, 

ne pult out [of] ' prison • but purli fourh jour help. 

& fei^h we hade fe quen • furth queintyse & strengfe ^"*™*T5^ 

brou^t ferst at swiche bale • with so breme a-sawtes, 4221 txcept Palermo. 

wasted hire londes • & wonne hire townes, , 

& pult al pertly to our wUle • but paleme alone ; 

sertes, f ei were arseged * so fat atte laste 4224 

Many times in f is maner • mercy sche craned, tokawlMtTe^to* 

fat sche most wende a-wai • with hire doujter one, depart where ahe 

» Read "out 0/ prison."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




mighty knight 
to help her, who 
ooaqoered the 
king tad the 

Next, a werwolf 
came and ftluted 
the king, and 
■eemed to crave 

The knight aeked 
the king what it 

who eald, it moat 
be Alphonee his 

We are sent to 
say that we shall 
never be released 

till yon have 
disenchanted the 
werwolt • 


that mighty 
knight will CO 

boute daunger or duresse ' or any despit elles, 

& late mi lord haue ])at lond * at liking for eu^ ; 4228 

ac my lord in no wise • wold f er-to grauwte, 

& )rdt ha|> Ys hard harmed * for hastili ]>er-after 

J?er kom a kni^t hire to help • fe kuddost of pe worlde, 

& most mi3thi in armes * p&t eaer man of herde. 4232 

he slow of onre s^ges • sof li alle J>e best, 

& c^mquered with clene mijt * pe king & his sone, 

& lelly many oJ)er lordes • ^t jit a-liue are. 

& whan f ei were in pnson • pult at hire wille, 4236 

fer wan in a werwolf • a wonderli huge ; 

with a komli kuntenauTtce * to pe king he went, 

& fel douTZ to his fete * & fedre ho hem kessede, 

& wroujt him gret worchip • & wijes fat it seijen 4240 

saiden, it semed wel • as it socour soujt ; 

but f anne as bliue fat best * busked on his weie. 

& fan fat kud knijt * fat vs conquered alle 

ccwiured mi lord fe king • bi al fat cmt wroujt, 4244 

fat he tyt Behold him telle • treuli al f e sofe, 

jif he wist in any wise • wat fat best were ; 

<& he sof U f us sayde • schortly to telle, 

fat it was alphiouTis his sone * anon rijt he wist, 4248 

fat fou with f i wicchecraft • a werwolf him hadest 

wherfore, menskful madame • bi marie in hfeuen, 
we be made massegeres • to munge jou f is nodes, 
fat neif er f i lord nor f i sone * nor non of vs alle 4252 
worf nener deliuerred of daunger • fat we dwellen 

til fou com to fat kif • & with jour queynt werkes 
haue heled f e werwolf • wel at alle rijtes, 
& maked to man aje - in m&ner as he oujt 4256 

& jif fou grutche a-ny grot * f us greif li to worche, 
alle f e men vpon molde • ne mowe it noujt lette, 
fat fat ilke kud knijt • fat kepuf vs alle, 
nel com to fis kuntre • with a clene strengfe, 4260 

Digitized by 



8s balfulli do Je brenne • in bitter fire, •»<! born yoa, 

& oudr-ride piB leaume * & redili it destrye ; 

&, whefer Jjou wolt or non • winne * J>e with 8treng]>e, MMiwfflpiitjw 

& 8e]>en duelMli to dethe * do ys alle after ; 4264 

& ferfoT do vs wite wijtK • houj f ou wirche J^enkest" 

as bliue as ))is bold qnen * ]yat biaaTtden was bote, [FoL er 5.] 

bade berd al boUi * bow )>at bit feide, queen Bnumdm 

scbe swelt for sorwe * & swoned rit pere, 4268 

& afterward wept * wonder was it none. 

& to ])e menskful messageres * mekli penne sede, 

" now, sires, sef fe it is so • wbat so bi-tyde, sbeoooMntstogo 

I wol wende jou witb • & wel 30U deliuere, 4272 

piath. belp of pe beuene king * bastili & sone." 

banne gart scbe to greibe * gaili alle binges, she gets every- 

-,- 1 11 1 ^. ****"* ready. 

^t hem bi-boued on bond • to haue bi f e weye, 

& a real rou^te * to ride bi hire side, 4276 

of lordes & ladies * of al hire lond ]>e best 

& sof li for soJ>e • • no seg vnder beuene 

ne seiae neuer no route • araiaed more beter, n® ">• •^•^ "^ 

^ ^ ' better emyed 

ne gaylier grei]>ed • to go to J)e sof e, 4280 company, 

of bors & of barneys * & alle o)»er gere. 
]»e quen bade hire witb * al ^t bi-boued, 
to waiyscbe with f e werwolf • wel atte best 

r\ aili were J>ei greifed • wel at te best, 4284 

^ with here menskful me3me • scbe meued on gate, 

& bi^ed on here iumes * fast as pei mi^t, 

til f ei come to paleme • to proue f e sofe. SSrawwhew 

willtam & bise wijes • were warned ' of here come ; 4288 wmum 1 

with a real route • be rod hire a-^ens, 

& worf iU hire he wolcomed • wen he hire mette, 

& hire clone companye ' curtesli & faire ; 

& presteli to pe paleys * witb gret pres hem ladde. 4292 

pe curtes quen of f&t lond * com hem a-jens^ 

> MS. " wenne." Bead " winne.'* -M. See L 8622. 

« MS. *• Bcfe." » MS. •« warnes." Aead " warned." -M. 

Digitized by 




qneen, the king, 
and lh« prinoe. 

The queen of 
Spain is frieved 
%o see them 


Winiam helps 



All are glad to s 

She U led to hall, 
and seated at the 

She and the king 
and prince sit 

and the queen of 
Palermo, the 
princess, and 

The hall Is filled 
with barons and 
knlghte, and the 
Spanish lords. 

There were sptcee 
and wines. 

The werwolf had 
been kept in 

f e king of spayne with his sone • & oper kni^tes gode, 

fat were put in prison • presteli f urth here dedes. 

bof e mMrrJ)e & moumyng • at fat metyng was ; 4296 

whan f e quen of spayne • saw hire lord in hold, 

& hire semli sone * & se]>e alle f e of er 

of grete lordes of hire lond • it liked hire ille. 

fe comly quen of fat lond * willeams owne moder, 4300 

with welf e & gret worchip • welkomed hem alle, 

& willtom curtesli caujt • f e quen of hire palfray, 

& his menskful moder * ful mekli hire kessed, 

& hire lord & hire sone • swetly f er-after. 4304 

hire lord fe king of hire kome • was comforted michel, 

& hire sone als * & sef en alle of er 

of fe lordes of fat lond • fat fere leie in hold, 

f or fei hopeden in hast • to haue help f er-after, 

William. & his menskful moder * mekli & faire 

ful loueli f e quen of spayne • led hem bi-twene, 

& hendeli in-to halle * f anne hire fei broujt, 

& derli on fe hei^e des * fei a-doun seten. 

fe king of spayne & bis wif • seten to-gader, 

& here sone hem bi-side * samen to talke, 

to make hem in fe mene while * as murye as fei coufe. 

f e quen of paleme & hire doubter • fat damysele hende, 

& fe menskful meliors • were macched to-gadere, 4317 

to haue same here solas • & seie what hem liked 

sef en al fat huge halle * was hastili fiilfulled 

al a-boute hi eche side • with barounes & kni3tes, 4320 

f e real rinkes of fe reaume * ri3t on fat o side. 

sof li f e segges of spayne • were set on fat ofer, 

so fat perles paleis • with peple was fulfulled. 

f ann were spacli spices * spended al a-boute, 

fulsumli at fe ful • to eche freke f er-inne, 

& f e wines f er-with • wich hem best liked. 





nd as fei mad hem so mirie • to mi?ige f e sof e, 
e werwolf fat ^e witen of • 1 


in willtams 

Digitized by 



& hade be pere in blis * bi ni3tes and daies, 

8e])en ^e messangeres meuede * after ]>e quene, 

pot was his steme stepmoder ' til ^at stoimde ^anne. * 

but wel wist fe wolf • whanne sche was come, 4332 

& hastili in-to halle • he hi^ed him bat time, Knowing the 

queen WMoom^ 

to do pure] to J>e def e • deliuerli 3if he mijt, [Fol bs &.] 

so wrof * he was hire with • wite je him neuer. her, . 

as bliue as pe best * was broken in-to halle, 4336 

a pase bi-fore al )>e puple * he passe]) him enene, 

& drow him toward be des • bnt doutusli after »d adnnoee to 

the dtSBf ttmiag 

he stared on his stepmoder * stifli a while, tther. 

whan he saw [hire] with his sire • sitte in mwrj^e. 4340 

fid wrof fan fat werwolf • wax of fat si^t, 

& bremly his bristeles * he gan po a-reise, Buiainghit 

,, , brietles and 

& grismche gapande • with a grym noyse, rowing, he 

he queite toward fe quene • to quelle hire as bliue. nuheeither. 

& assone as fe quene * saw him so come, 4345 

sche wax nei^ of hire witt • witow forsofe, . in gmt tau, 

& carfuUi to fe king • cnande, sche saide, . help, ** 

" a ! leue lordes, mi lif • lengf es ^ut a while ! 4348 

socoures me noufe ' or M sone i dei^e, 

for f is ilk breme best • bale wol me wirche, 

ac i wite him no wrong • witef wel alle. 

I haue serued be deb • aif aou dere binkes, 4352 confeedngeh« 

' ' ' ' ' hM deserved 

lengbeb now my lif • for loue of heuene king, death, but begging 

for her l>fa- 

& meke me in jour mercy • i may do nou^t elles." 

fe king of spayne stifli • stert vp sone, 

& his sone al-so ' to saue fe quene. 4356 

William ful wiatli • be werwolf ban hent wmiam catches 

' '^ '^ the werwolf by 

anon in his armes • aboute be necke, \ the neck, and 


& sayde to him soberli * ^' mi swete dere best, 

trust to me as treuH • as to fin owne brofer, . 4360 "Trust me, dear 

or as feif li as falles * fe fader to fe sone, 

& meke f e of f i malencoli • for marring of f i-selue. 

I sent after hire for f i sake * sof li, f ou trowe, 

» MS. « worf .•' Read " wroth."— M. See IL 3221, 4341 

I sent fbr her for 
thy sake. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


to help )>e of pi hele ' hastili, jif sche mi^t. 4364 

& sche has brou^t now ^i bote * bi crist, as i hope, 
Uni6M ihe & but sche haue, be ri^t siker * be god f&t vs wrou^t, 

•iMshaUbtton^ to cold colss scho schal be bient * ^it or come eue ; 

[FoL ».] & |>e aschis of hire body • with Jje wind weue, 4368 
andtiie spukiardt & M siie & his sone * & alle is segges noble 

•haUbekeptin /,, . ^ 7*; 

prison fbr ever; schul be put in pnson * & pejned for euere, 

dolftdli here lif daies * til deth haue hem take. 

for-))i lete me allone ' mi lef swete frende, 4372 

whMvroredohir anoie be na more • ne nede schah bou haue, 

no harm." '^ ' ' 

ne to hire do no duresse * as fou me derli louest." 
The werwolf la 1%e werwolf was ful glad ' of will/ams speche, 

glad, and Usaea Lf 

wiiiiam'a ftet -^ )>at bi-het him in hast • to haue help after, 4376 
& £aire doun to his fete * fel hem to kisse, 
& as he coude, be contenaunce * ful kindeli graunted, 
In alle wise to worche ^ * as willmm wold seie, 
& made no more debat * in no maner wice. 4380 

Queen Braonden as soue as pQ quen * saw how it ferde, 

)>at pe werwolf wold • worche hire no schajje, 

sche was gretli^rlad * & oft god )>onkes, 

& pertili bi-fore alle ]>e puple * passed him tille, 4384 

& bliue bi-fore J>e best • on bojje knes hire sette, 

Mqring, , & mekli in pia maner * mercy sche craued. 

••Sweet AiphooM^ " swcte alphouns," sche seide • " mi semli lorde, 

the people thall 

aoon see th7 I hauo broujt here j)i bote • to bring pe of sorwe ; 4388 
■•""^ sone schal pe puple se • fi semli face. 

In manhede & m minde * as it out to bene. 
I have sfained I hauo pe gretll argelt • to god ich am a-knowe, 

aijainst TOO. 

for redili pe to reue • fi rijt eritage ; 4392 

^at piB man min owne sone * mijt it haue hadde 
fei])li after ])i fader - ich forschop ^e ))anne 
In piae wise to a werwolf • and wend pe to spille ; 
bat God wius not but god wold nou^t * bat bou were lome. 4396 

thatjonshould ^ . . « . . ,^ . , 

be lost. for-])i of mi mis-gelt * mercy ich craue, 

»MS. "worthe." 

is glad. 

and kneds befbrs 
the werwolf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


lene me lif, Jif be likes • alphouns, i be praye, 8pMwmyiiiiB,aad 

'' ' * / * V J ^1 ngvjp harm 

& at fi bidding wol i be * buxuw euer-more, yon more." 

& lelli as my lord • al my lif Je seme, 4400 

& nener agalt ))e wil i liue * in game ne on eraest ; 

& giue me now in pi grace • and godli fe bi-seche, [FoL »6.] 

for his loue ))at mad man * for-giue me pia gelt." 

& ban wiatli to willzam • weping sche seide, 4404 sh© ftirtb«- bags 

'* a ! kurtes kni^t * for cnistes loue of heuene, «ntorc«da for her, 

bidde pia buxu»i best * be merciabul nou]>ey 

for he wol worche at Ji wille • i wot wel forso^ 

More ])an for alle men * pai on mold liuen ; 4408 

& jou, alle hende lordes • helpef me to praye SJeMS^to 

to fis kurtes kni3t • to graunt my bone. ^ ^ ' 

to fis bestes mercy • i bowe me at alle, 

to worche with me is wille ' as him-self likes." 4412 

Of fe quenes profer • pe puple hadde reuj>e, 
for sche fel to-fore pe best * flat to ^e grouwde ; 
f er was weeing & wo • wonderli riue. 
but so kenli ^eling * & pe kni^tes alle 4416 

bi-sou^t william for pe quen * so])li so ^eAie, 

j)at he godli al his gref • for-gaf at pe last, h^'Se^Idu'^ 

so fat sche hastili hijed • to help j)at best ; hedthebewt. 

& ble))eli bout« grutching * j>at graunted sche sone. 4420 
ban stint sche no lenger • but bout stryf went ^^^Jj*"** ^, 

' • ^ "^ with the werwolf 

Into a choys chaumber • pe clerli was peinted, *»*<> • p^^^^ 

]wit non went hire with • but pe werwolf al-one. 

j)an raujt sche forf a ring • a riche & a nobul, 4424 

pe ston fat f eron was sti jt • was of so stif vertu, '^^^ *° ** ***^ 

fat neufir man vpon mold • nmt it him on haue, egminet aii 


ne schuld he with wicchecraft • be wicched neuer-more, 
ne perpjsche * with no poysoun • ne purliche enuene- 
med ; 4428 

ne WTongli schul I he wiue • fat it in wold hadde. 
bat riche ring ful redily • with a red silk brede ®^« ^"J* *^ '^^^ 

'*=*•' '^ a red silk thread 

« MS. "p#r8che." Bead "periache."— M. 

There was much 
weeping snd woe. 

draws forth s 
magic ring, with a 

Digitized by 



pound th« woifi i>e quen bond als bliue • a-boute be wolwes necke. 

neck. ' 

She tekM a book 8e))e fei))li of a forcer * a fair bok sche rau^t, 4432 

and read* In It a & radde ]>er-on redli * ri^t a long while, 

te^Sin^man ^^ \^^ ^^® made liim to man * in j^at mene while, 

***^ as fair as fetys * and als freli schapen, 

[P6L ro.1 as any man vpon mold • mi^t on deuise. 4436 

wmiam onij waa WBS non faine in world * but will^am allone, 

for he of faimesse was flour • of fi^kes Jat liue. 

The werwolf la whau be werwolf wist • bat he was man bi-come, 

veiT ffladf 

fair of alle fasoun * as him fel to bene, 4440 

he was gretli glad * no gum ))urt him blame, 
ful wel him liked |>e lessun • Jat fe lady radde, 
bat is ashamed so))li )>at he was SO naked * sore he was a-schamed, 

of beinff naked. 

whan fe quen Jat of-sey • sone sche seide him tille, 
She tells htm he /' a ! alphouns, leue lord * lat be alle ]k) )>ou3tes, 4445 
for th^ are alone, i SO wel ))ou art a-schamed * & so were it no nede ; 

ne bu)> here in fis hour • but our selue tweyne. 

& on ]>e, sire, se i no si^t * but as it schuld bene, 4448 

ue ]?e faile)) no ))ing * ))at falle)) a man to haue. 
He must now go fare uow forj) to J?i baj) • fat faire is keuered, 

for it is geinli grei))ed * in a god asise." 
Aiphonse goes to ^ alphouTzs auou banuc * after hire sawe, 4452 

the bath, finding 

it "tidily warm.- buskes in to ]>e baf • boute more noyse, 
& fond it treuli a-tired • & tidili warme. 
))e quen him comforted * & curtesli him serued 
as mekkeli as sche mi^t * in alle maner wise ; 4456 
for no bum nas hem bi • but hew^-self tweyne. 

I^an Je curtes quen • ful cunyngU saide, 
She aaks hfan J^^ " swcte Sire, saic me now • so aou cnet help, 

who shall give , , . 

him his oioUiesP what gom wol JO ]>at 30U giue ' 3our gameme/zs noupe Y 
je ne tok neuer as i trowe • of knijthod |)e hordere. 4461 
for-fi fow telle me of whom • je take it f enk, 
for wel je wite [what] whij * wordiest is here." 

He wyrs he will « Madame," ban seide alphouTis • " be marie in heuen, 

take his attire and ' '^ ^ ", 

the order of I wol take myn a-tir • h Jat trie ordere 4465 

The qoeen serves 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



of pe wordiest wei^ • j)at weldes now liue." 
" hoo is )>at,'' seide ]>e quen • ** is it jour fader 1" 
** Nay, bi god," quath alphuns • " j)at gart me be 
founned, * 4468 

It is j>at ilk kud kni3t * j>at ^e alle knowe, 
Jat deliuered pe of fe deth • fis day of mi-selue. 
a worjier wie3li in j)is world • wonejj non noufe, 
king ne knijt as of kin • ne of kud dedes. 4472 

liii tir of him wol ich take • and fat trie order, 
& lone bim as mi lege lord * al mi lif time." 
pe quen after willtom • went in-to halle, 
& tok him sli^li bi pe sleue * & saide in his ere, 4476 
" sire, jif fi wille were * pe werwolf J?e bi-sechef, 
fat tow tit com him to • to tire him in his wedes ; 
he ne wol fat non ofer • fat worchipe him jeue." 
" is fat sof ," saide will/am • " mi swete lady hende ? 
cleymef he after clof es ' for cristes loue in heuen 1 4481 
deceyue me noujt with f i dedes • but seie me f e sof e." 
" jis, bi cmt," quaf f e quen • " clof es he askes ; 
he is as hoi, heri3ed be god * as he was euer jite, 4484 
& manliche in alle maneres * as to man falles ; 
hi3es him hastili him to * & help he were greifed ; 
for i wot fat fis folk • fayn wold him sene. 4487 

but he wol fat no wi3t • to chaumber with f e come, 
but meliors f i menskfal make * & f e queues doubter. 
Dame florence fe faire ' for whom was fis werre. 
hem bof e he biddef bring • & no wijt elles." 
fan will^am fal wi^tli • as man ful of ioye, 4492 

clipte f e quen & kest ' & oft crist f onkes, 
fat his felawe was hoi * fat hade him holp oft. 
as bliue was him broujt • al fat bi-houed 
of alle comli clof ing • fat a kni^t schuld haue ; 449j5 
no man vpOn mold • mi3t richer deuise. 
fan will/am wi3tii • with meliors & his suster, 
& f e comli queue ' spacli forf f ei went 
in-to f e chois chaumber ' f er chau7»ged was fe best 

knighthood from 
the worthiest man 

▼Is. Wffliam, who 
■haU be his liege 

CFoL 70 b.} 

The queen tells 
werwolf wiahee 
hfnx to qloth ft Mm, 

« Is it true," he 
says, " that he 

' Tes," sajs she^ 
' he is as whole 

He will have no 
one bat yoa and 
MeUor and the 

WilUam Idssee 
the queen for 
making his fellow 

WilUam, Mellor, 
Ac, go to the 

Digitized by 



snd tM • bath out of be werwolfe wise • to a worbi kniji 4501 

and • iMd, with '^ '^ ^ 

• man In It ban bi-held bei be bab * <& a bed bi-side, 

whom they knew # # # 

not. <& in ^t bed als bliue * j>at bum ]>ei seien, 

■ )»at non so semli to here sijt • saw fei neu^ ere ; 4504 

Tei th^ KTMi but of bat companie, be cmt * ber ne knew him none. 

him, and 

▲iphonMUMwm, naj^les williom wi^tli ' wor])ili him grette, 
& )>o menskful maidenes ' mekli ^er-after, 
& ))an alphoons a-non ' answeied <& saide, 4508 

<* crist krouned king * sire kni^t, mot 30a saue, 

<« Sir knight, A H faire felachipe * bat folweb be after. 

you glre me a . , . . . . -i . • 

poor we'oome." 8116 km^t, 1 am in ])i ki)> * & comen to \\ owne, 

& ]k)w makes me now * but )>is mene semblant 4512 
to put ]7e of peril * i haue nej pe^isched oft^ 
& many a scharp schoor * for ])i sake ))oled, 
to litel fow ipe knowest • or kinhed me kijes." 
^muSl^tat " eertes, sire, J)at is soj " • seide willtam Janne, 4516 
coixjnre you to "I no wot in bis world • what bat ae are ; 

aej who you are.** - . . - , 

but 1 cowiure jou, be cnst • Jat on croyce was peyned, 
J>at je seie me swij>e so)) * ho-so 30 bene." 
«« I am the *< I am he, be werwolf" • sede alphou/wbanne, 4520 

werwolf, who ' ■» ^ r r i 

have saved you " J>at haue sufEred for J)i sake • many son peynes, 
periia." & pult )>e out of pariles • Jer J)ou perisched * schuldest> 

nade goddes grete.mi^t be * <& mi gode help." 
" certes, sire, fat is sof " • sede willtam Janne, 4524 
wuiiwn emhraoee ^ j^pes li^tli him to ' & lacclus him in armes : 

him with great "^ ^ ' 

Joy- with clipping & kesseng • J?ei kidden gret ioye. 

alle fe men vpon mold * ne mijt half telle 
]>e mir]) fat was maked * in pe mene while. 4528 

& 3if willtom was glad * wittow forsoj^e, 
Meliors was moche more * jif it so mi^t bene ; 
& florence of fat fare * f anne gret ferli hadde. 

Florence grorte ^ gone as sche him saw • loueli sche him crett, 4532 

him, and he o -» 

inrtantiy (uia in & he godli a-gayn ' gret bat gode mayde, 

love with her. 

& for f e beaute fat sche bar * as bliue his hert 
turned to hire treuli • to loue for euer-more, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

him as a knight. 


wHan )>ei in ))at gladnesse * a gret while Iiade sete, 

alphouws asked a-non • a-tdr for to hane, 4637 Then Aiphom* 

^ ' Mktforhii 

to fare oat as fast * with his fader to speke, dothM, to go and 

see hl8 Ikther. 

& with lordesse of fat lond * j>at him long hade missed. CFoi. n b.} 

& will/am wijtli • with-oute any more, 4640 

Grei))ed him as gaili * as any gom pxui bene, 

of alle trie a-tir • ^t to kni^t longed, 

80 fat non mijt a-mend * • a mite worjj, i wene. 

& whan fei were at wille • as J)ei wold be greijjed, 4544 

eche on hent oper bi f e hand • hendli & fidre, 

& hastili in-to fe hei3e halle • hijeden in-fere. toSe^di****** 

whan J?e p^les puple • perceyueden hem * come, 

Many a lord ful loueli * lep hem a^ens, 4648 

as )>o J?at were geinli glad • on J)at gom to loke. 

Gret murrpe at j>at metyng * was mad, be 30a sure. 

fe king of spayne forsoje • knew his sone sone, The Ung of 

& gret him ferst as a glad man * & oft god ))onke8, 4662 us mo. 

)»at he so faire hade foonde * his formest sone. 

sej^en J^e lordes of londe ' loueli him gretten, 

& his bold broJ)er • be-fore alle oj)er ; 

saue be kiiu; him-self • semliest he him crret, 4656 The werwolf la 

' ^ o -> greetedbyhia 

& most ioye for j)at metyng • made fat time. brother. 

no tong mijt telle • treuli pe sofe, 

fe ioye fat was wrou^t • with lasse & with more. 

be comli quen of paleme • offc crist fonked, 4660 The queen of 

Palermo thanlca 

fat hade hire sent of his sond * so moche ioye to hane, chrtat. 

& hade setteled hire sorwe * so sone, fat was huge. 

sone fe semli segges • were sette in halle ; to^Mr prop«r 

f e real rinkes bi reson • at f e heije dese, 4664 p***^ 

& alle of er afterward * on f e side beTiches, 

& sete so in solas * sadli ful fe halle, 

eche dingneli at his d^^re * to deme f e sof e. 

whan f e noyse was slaked * of f e semli bumes, 4568 

f e king of spayne spak • to alphonns his sone, SdrSS htaSS 

» MS. " a-mand." Read " amend."— M. 
a MS. " whan." Read « hem."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& sede, ''semli sone * sore has me longed 
to se j>i &eli face * ^t i folklore hadda 
CFoLTTj for Jis comli quen • )>iirtli jone kni^tes dedes, 4572 
ha)) ys alle in hold * to harm at hire wille. 

njingKhad but swete sono * saide it ha)> ben oft, 

tiMirdtUTennoe ^t OUT deliueraunce * was don on ^ one ; 4575 

ly him o^u Jurth p6 schuld we help haue • or neuer-mor© elles. 
J^r-fore, heuen king * heried mot ^e bene, 
^at hsLp pe lend lif * ts alle to deliuere." 

AJphooMinqtibrM " Rweto siie," seido alphouns • "so lou crist help, 

war. wharfore was al pis fare * formest bi-giinne 9 " 4580 

" bi crist, sone," qna)> pe king • " to carpe pe sofe, 

Thi ung nyt, alle be werre & bis wo * is our wronoe dedes. 

thu dJunMi for 1 dcsired piB damisele * )>at digne is & nobul, 

* to haue hire to )»i hioper * )»at here bi pe sittej> ; 4584 

H«rmo(h«r would ac hire moder in no maner • hire nold me graunte. 

not grant it» and 

I wastwi thdr for-))i wi3tli with werre * i wasted alle hire londes, 

& brou^t hire at swiche bale * ^t sche mercy craued, 
in j>is maner ^at sche * most mekli & faire, 4588 

do hire Srwei with hire doujter * boute more harme ; 
sche wilned nou^t elles * but poi nold i graunt. 
BntthUboid but ])an com fis kene kni^t • & pvath his clene strengfe, 
priflODara." boldli in batajlc * he bar doun vs alle, 4592 

& pult Ys in prison * to payne at his grace ; 
j)us sped we vs out of spayne • to spire after winnyng." 

Aiphonseanfwmrt, A IphouTis pQXi a-non * auswercd & saide, 

-f^ " faire fader, bi mi fei)> • foHli je wroujten, 4596 
"Ton did wrong, to wilne after wedlok • bat wold nou3t a-eente, 

and oan only .. -• . i i .t i 

blame yoorMir. ^at mowe jc wito bi jour werkes * how wropli ■ )e 
spedde ; 
to wicke was jour conseil • & jour wille after ; 
Bn^Thopeaii jif je^ hauc wonuc pe worse • wite it jour-selue. 4600 

oanbomad6to _ - -. .^ i« • 3 

cttdweiL" but i hope to heuen king * jif je wol here mi wordes, 

> Read " wrongli."— M. 
*M8. "he." Reiid"ie."— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 







al fiis bale sclial be brou^t * to bote at pe last." 

to ]>e quen of paleme * alphouns ]7tis saide, 

'^ a ! menskful madame * mekes alle ^our peple, 

)»t non spend no speche * til i speke hane." 

j>an was silens mad ' to seie al pe so)>e. 

" ladis & ofer lordes ' lestenef now my sawe ! 

J>is je witef wel aUe • with-oute any fabtd, 

fai pis lond hade be lore * at pe last ende, 

jif piae werres hade lasted * any while here. 

but god }ou sent swiche grace • of his grete mi3t, 

])at pia kud kni^t * with his clene 5treng])e 

haj) i-bet al joure bale • & bronjt to ^our wille 

alle ^our fon ])at with fors • defoyled ^on long. 

3it wot non wiseli • wennes he come, 

ne what wei^ he is • but wite schal 30 sone. 

3if J?at bum wel him bar • i blame him but litel ; 

for mater i-now ha^ eche man * to mene pe soj^e, 

his moder J?at is in meschef • to meyntene & help ; 

& schal come him bi kinde * 3if he crist loue." 4620 

" what bi-tokenej) j)is tale • tellej, i b^-seche, 

whi seie 30 so 1 " • seide J>e quene fanne. 

" sertes, madame," seid alphou72s • " sofli me leue. 

pw comli kni3t is Ji sone • bi crist J?at me wrou3t ; 4624 

povL bar him of Ji bodi • king ebrouns was his fader. 

al pia lordchip of j^is lond * is lelli his owne. 

& i am J?e werwolf • wite 30 for so))e, 

j)at bi-fore his fader • ful 30Te i 30U bi-ref t, 

& passed with him mi weie • prestli fro 30U alle. 

))e king & hise kni3tes • with kries ful huge, 

f ei jsewed ri3t to fe see • to sle me 3if fei mi3t. 

but bliue boute hot • fe brode water i passed, 

boute hurt oper harm • heri3ed be goddes grace, • 

psi so sauf sent me ouer • wif fi sone sounde. 

& gode ladi, 3if f e like • loue me neuer pe worse, 

fat i pe bam away bar • to blame had i be elle[s], 4636 

for i wist ful wel • wat wo him was toward ^ 
10 • 

Alphonse cniTM 
tUeace while be 
q>eek> flirther. 


lords, this Und 
had been lost if 
the war had 

But thii knight 
hath remedied all 

and yet no one 
knowa who he is. 

He did quite rigltl 


"What means 
this P" said the 

"Tlds knight, 
madame, is THT 
BOK, and king 
Ebroons was his 



I am the werwolf 
who took him 


Then the Mng 
and his knights 
fSur as to the sea 
[Straits of 

which I crossed 
over in saMj. 

Digitized by 



Had I not taken ne liad i 80 do, he hade be ded * many a day passed, 
would MKm haTt pe king ebrouns hrofer * be-)>ou3t j^is oft^ 

[FoLTs.] if ' )»is ilk bold kni^t * had be brou^t out of Hue, 4640 
he schold have entied as eyr * ^is eritage to hold, 
after pe kinges day * bi dessent of blode. 
& sone as a schrewe schuld * pe schrewedest he ])on^t ; 
Foe Bbroona' he coynted him queyntli • with po tvo ladies, 4644 
ladiMwhohad ^t hade )>at time ]» sone * to kepe in warde, 
wmiam in thair ^ i^eded hem so moche • wij alle maner finges, 
& bi-het hem wel more * j>an i 30U telle kan, 
Gret lordchip of londes • & liking at wille, 4648 

so psi )>8i him bi-hi3t * bi a schort terme, 
topoiMm tha |)at ))ei pn'ueli wold enpoysoun * pe king & his sone, 
both. to haue do krouned him king * to kepe j>at reaume. 

When 1 knew It, but whan i knew al here cast • of here wic wille, 4652 

I waa grierad, . . «. « 

and for pity atoia I ne mi^t it sufier ' for sorwe & for reu])e, 
"'^' pai here wicked wille • in plae wise ended. 

& perioT i him tok * now haue i told J?e sofe, 
ihaveevarhaipad & haue him holp herto • wanne he hade nede, 4656 

him at need, and .... 

hare brought him as moche as 1 mi^t * in eny maner wise : 

& hider i brou^t him, be 30U siker • jour bales for to 
and now yield haue him uow bi be hand • i aeld him here to be." 

him to thee ^ ^ ' 


TlThan ' fe comli quen • J)at carping hade herde, 4660 
^ " & saw bat was hire sone •"feobli i-proued, 

When the qneen 

joywaa " & saw poX, was hire sone •"feojli i-proued, 

mibouided. j^^. ^^^ jm^TL vpoTi mold * mijt telle Je ioye 

)>at was mad hem bi-twene * i;i ))e mene wh[i]le, 
betwene J>e dame & )>e doujtcr • & hire dere sone, 4664 
with clipping & kesseng • & oper kinde dede. 
;/ ueiior perhaps & )if any mi^t be most * meliors was gladdest, 

^ waetbegladdeet ; , ,. , , 1 ^ % v * 

ofaii, Uiather ]7at hire Joueuche lemman * was lord of ))at reaume, 
au^aUa^ bi kinde as kinges sone ' & god knijt him-selue. 4668 

MS. " of." Perhaps we should guhetitute »/.— M. 
s MS. <*Mhan." The nibricator has here and elsewhere made 
a mistake, and inserted a capital M for a W.— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Bwiclie murrthe as was mad * at pai metyng {^anne, 

& J>at of al )>at puple * pB,t in fe paleys were, 

tonge mi^t non telle * pe tenj>e ^ del, for so])e. 

& anon, after f&t ' alphouTzs ])anne hem tolde, 4672 [foL ts b.] 

alle pe happes j>at he hadde * al holly to )>e hende, aUtiMdetidL»^ 

firom )>at time ]>at he tok * pe child fro his frendes. 

how j>e fEkder him folwed - fayn him to quelle ; how he bore 

& how he bar forf pe ham • ouer j)e brode water ; 4676 water j ^^" 

& se])en how he sou^t for]> * hi Belcou)> wei3es, how he curled 

Bering ener Jat bam • be ni3te8 and daie, ^aye to^T** 

til he com bi a forest • seuen mile fro rome ; ^^^ ***" "**""' 

& how be cou-herde com him to • <& kept be child how the cowherd 

^ ^ '^ found him, and 

aft^y 4680 then the emperor J 

& se]7en how J^emp^ronr * son^t out to hunte, 

& fond him in pe forest * & faire hade him home, 

& tok him to kepe • to his doubter dere ; 

& how Jje meke mayde & he ' melled of loue, 4684 how he and the 

& hadde here liking in loue * a long time ofte ; daughter loved 

& how pe kinges sone of grece * kom hire to wedde, ' 

& on be morwe bat be manage • schold haue be hc^theWera 

' ' ' ^ fled, dad in two 

maked^ wiate beara* 

how J)ei went a-wai • in wite beres skinnes ; 4688 ' 

" fer-afler, sire, i pe saued • for8oJ)e as J?ow knowest, 
whanne alle pe puple prestili • pursewed after, 
to haue do pe to de);e * & )>i dere make. ' 

A at boneuent i pe broujt • fram Jje breme qnarrer, ^^ *^ escaped 

whan al pe cuntre was umbe-cast • with clene men of 
armes, 4693 

to haue pe take f«r tit • & to dethe hampred ; 
I tok here souerayne sone • so saued i pe fere." 
seben he told hou he dede • here hides ban chaunffe, ^®T ^^^^ ^ . 

' J- -o > exchanged their 

& dede hem haue hertee skinnes • to hiden in h.em wdesforharte* 

1 . ^ ■kins; 

bofe. 4697 

** sejen at a wide water • i wan 30U ouer boje, 
a tokene ^it of Jat time • telle i mai fi burde. 
>MS. "ton|>e." See L 4715* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


and how the a bovc hire ^af a bufifet • with a breme ore, 4700 

bwg^-lxqr hit ' 

Meiior with mi 80 bat hiio lif lelU * nei^ hade ache lore." 


alle here happes holli ' alphouns telle)> j>ere» 
& what he hade suf&ed \to sauen here liues. 

winiam wM v«y Tj|7han william hade herd • holli his wordes, 4704 

glad at finding h« Ww 

was king BtHoans* ^ ^ he was gretli glad * no gom j>urt him wite, 
"*^[FoL 74.] fat al )>e puple in Jje place • a-pertli knewen 

)»at he was kindeli * king ebrouTis sone. 
He embraoea and ]»ui ku^t he alphouns anon * loueli in armes, 4708 

saying. & dipped him & kessed * & kindeli sayde^ 

" a ! faire frend alphouns • ioye J)e bi-tide, 
•'MayOodrequita & god for his grete mi^t * \\ godnesse \^ 3elde, 

, & J)i tenM trauayles • fow hast for me sufixed, ^4712 

& for my loueli lemman * lord it f e quite ! 
Par I know not foj i ne wot in bis world • what wise i mi^t 

how to reqnlte ' ^ ^ 

thae the tenth quite be [be] tenbedel * in al mi lif time. 

bi^it ]»er nis god vnder god * j>at i may gete eu£?', 4716 
Auioandoahan j)at it [uo] schal redoli be fin • at fin owne wille; * 
make au thine. HO HO dede fat i may do * fat ne schal be do sone, 

& loue lelli what f ou louest * al mi lif dawes, 
SrtLl^'h? & hate hei^U in hert • fat f ou hate f enkest, 4720 
«nine. so fat my hert holli • schal hold him at f i wille. 

& f erto hei^eliche am i hold * for holli i knowe 
AUthatthoohaat i,at alle be sawes be sob • bat bou saidest ere : 

aaid la wholly ' ' f w j ^ 

true." sadde sorwes for mi sake * safired astow manye." 4724 

'' sertes, sire, fat is sof " * seide alphouns f anne, 

**^^^ «^ " Me f inkef je mi3t be hold • to quite me mi mede ; 

Aiphonae. & SO i desire fat f ou [do] * • 3if jou dere f inkes. 

"ja ! wold god," seide william • " fat i wist nouf e 4728 

"In what way?- In what mauer bat i miat • mest with be piece, 

anawered ' ^ t a^ * 

William. or fat i wait worldes god • fat f ou woldest ^eme," 

" }is, sire," seide alphouns • " so me crist help, 

> Here follow two lines (ont of place) which occur again below. 
See U. 4722, 4723, and the note. 

> Or insert *^ wole," as Sir F. Madden suggests. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


her nifl god vnder god • )>at i gretli willne^ 4732 ••Tiwre u no 

as o Jnng y&t ]k)u woldest * wilfulli me giaunt" fiv m om thing." 

** jis, i-wiase," seide williom * *' wilne what ]>e likes, 

}ei} )»ou in hast woldest haue * hoUi al mi leaume ; 

I wold nowt wilne a mite worb • but meliors allone." ••i win gnnt joa 

' balf my kingdom 

alphouns a-non • answered banne & seide, 4737 -«:iything i»t 

'^ Melior." 

*^ I kepe noi^t of )>i kingdom * be crist ]7at me bor^t, [FoL 74 b.i 

ne of )>i loueli lemman * lelly but in gode. 

I ne wilne no-Jing but )>i suster • to be samen wedded, JJjt'iwwto*** 

to weld here as my wif • al my lif tyme." 4741 ^'**-" 

" m, jirorbi god," seide willwim • " wel were me banne, "'^^ Tf? ^^ 

r^^ r o ^ r ^ indeed, if thou 

^ i wist fat ^w woldest • here to wiue haue. «Mwt nMny w 

it were a wonderful werk ' jif )>ou woldest euere 4744 

Meke pe in eny man^r * to be maried so lowe." 

"jis beter, sire," seide alphou«s • "i preie )>eof noujt ]^*^^J^^^ 

elles, bat that.*' 

for al pe sorwe ]>at i haue sufi&ed * for )>i sake eu6r. 
but graunte me boute grucching * to haue )>at gaie 
maide." ' ^^' 4748 

** bi god, sire," seide william • " bat gart me be fouimed, "Thou ehait haj* 

her, with hslf o4 

^u schalt [haue] ' hire at )>in best * & with hire al my or«amj 


ofer half witterli • with-out any lette." 
" nay, crist forbede^" seide alphouws * • " for his holi 

blode, 4752 

bat i were so wicked • to wilne ouit of bi gode : "Ney.iaskimt 

f -V X o / that lady only .•• 

I ne bidde noujt a bene worj • but j)at burde one." 

fan wiUiam as a glad man ' godli him f onked, 

& seide, "sertes, nowe [we]* schul be • samew hole ^Ji^J^^^e 

frendes," 4756 ^^J'"'*^^^ 

klli bref eren in lawe * our lord be it )>onked ; 
for al fe weljw of pe world • at wille nouj vs fellej)." 
Jan al Je puple in J)e paleys • prestli, fo[r] ioye, ^^ ^dLd 

Maden al ]>e murpe * Jat men mi^t demse, 4760 gn*^, 

I Bead «< Bohalt kau$ hire."— M. * MS. *< alpbnons." 

* Bead *'nowe we idmL'* 

Digitized by 




& fe comli quen * ful oft crist ])onked, 
fat hade so wi3tli of hire wo * so wel hire coTnforted. 
tid were fe tidinges told • wide where a-boute 
vti^^^"^ of fat ferli fat was fallen fere • fast fan fer-after, 4764 
Gret puple drow to palem • to proue fe sof e, 
to loke on fe lordes • in liking at wille. 


As toon M it WM 
known that the 
two UuUm would 

[FoL 760 
th^ were afridd 
thflj would be 
barnt, drawn, or 

So Olorlande and 
Aoelone pat on 

and pot them- 
William's graoe. 


and hope to be 
allowed to du 

"VTow forto muwge forf er • as fe mater falles. 
-*-^ whan f ise [tidinges] ^ wore told * to lasse <& to 
more, 4768 

fat f tvo trattes fat william • wold haue traysted, 
f o ladyes fat had him to loke • & leren in jouf e, 
fei wisten witterly f anne * with-oute any letto, 
fat fei sohuld be do to defe * deuKuUi in hast, 4772 
brent in bri3t fiur • to-drawe, or an-honged, 
as f ilk fat [were] * worf i • for fere wicked dedes — 
Gloriauris & achillones • fo tvo ladies hi3ten — 
bline fei hem bi-f out • what bote mi^t hem help, 4776 
sef e here treson was kud * & knowe al a-boute. 
hastili fei hent hem on * heijresse ful rowe 
next here bare bodi • & bare f ot fei went, 
& fedre bi-fore william • fei felle on knes bofe, 4780 
& gone hem in his grace * for fat grete gUt, 
& knoulecheden al f e cas * how fei cast hadde, 
to haue sotiliche sleyn * him-self & his fader, 
bi best of f e kinges brof er • fat bale to haue wrou^t. 
" lete vs, sire, haue f e lif • wil our lord wold, 4785 
we meke vs in joure merci • at alle maner poyntes, 
to sle vs or to saue • whef er 30U god likes, 
fat we ar worfi to fe deth • wel we be arknowe, 4788 
but wold je graunt vs jour grace • for goddes loue of 

to put vs to sum place • penaunce to wirche, 
& late vs haue f e lif • whil our lord wold. 

' This word is surely wanted ; cf. 1. 4763. 

« Read « that wfu worthi," or « %cerc worthL"— M. 

Digitized by 



Jat we mi^t a-mende • sum of our mis-gilt, 4792 

& for jour fad[er]e * & for jou • feijfli to preie. "»* ^ P™y *» 

jif 30 worche so ' worchipe mijt je gete, fluher." 

&, dere lord, of J>e deth • may no god dede falle, 

bot a litel wicked wille • per-with. wold be slaked." 

alfe bamage as bliue * baden for hem jeme, 4797 

pB.% pei most in alle maner * j>at trespas amende. 

& william ban wijtli • here wille hab irrauT^ted, wmiMn gnnte 

' ^ r D > them thair llyes, 

80 fat fei wroujt \n fat wise • & wold be gode after. 

sone were f e ladies ' to an hermitage broujt, 4801 

& liueden fere in god lif • wil our lord wold, Ti^i^* *" 

In penannce & in prayeres • priueli & loude, 

til bei went of bis world • whan god wold hem fecche. *ui **»• **«• <>' 

now lete i here of fe ladies • & lestenef a-nofer, 4805 

what bi-tidde of f is tale • as f is store tellef . CFoI. 75 6.] 


illtam fan with-oute more • wijtli f er-after, 

'|.*.^«nade him menskful messageres * to mene fe wmiam tends 

SOfe^ 4808 emperor of 

f e grettest lordes of fat land * fat lellest were hold, ' 

& konyngest of kurtesie ■ & kowden fairest speke. 

to f emperour of rome * redeli he hem sent, 

& with loneli letteres • lelli him binsou^t. 4812 beeeeoWng wm to 

^ come to Palermo 

x\i fat \a wille were • with-oute any lette, to hu daughter'e 


to be fere with his best bumes • bi a certayne time, 

to mensk f e manage * of meliors his doujter. 

and jif alisauwdrine • were banne aliue, 4816 »nd asHng that 

^ ' ' Alexandrine 

fat sche most with him come • curtesli he prayde. might come too. 

fan were f e messangeres • in alle maner wise l^ 
-SO trieliche artired • to telle fe sofe, ^ 
of hors & of barneys • & [what] ^ hem most neded, 
fat no wiejh of f is world * f urt wilne beter ; 4821 

& went forf on here way • wijtly and fast, S^l'^^^JST' 

til f ei redli hade rai^t • to grete rome euene. 
yrhan f e bold baroimes • be-fore f emperour come, 4824 
« Eea4 ** fodere."— M. « See line 4187. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

154 THB BUPEBOR's jot at THB MB88AOB. 

and gnat um fol godli ])ei him gret * gladli, as fei oi^t, 
AipboQM king of feist in alphouns half * j>at king was of spayne, 

for ]>empoui & he * hadde be felawes ^oie^ 
and wdunnUng eepen in worfi williams • feA king was of poyle, 4828 

& Bouerajn of dsile * as schold a king bena 
^^ Maiior'i ^ 8e)»en in meliois name ' fat was hise meiy doujtar. 

Aiafe kinges half of poyle * praiede him fayre^ 
to eome to to be at paleme with his puple * presteli & sone, 4833 

Pal«nnotohla ,. ^ ^ a. 

danghiar's Di a certeyn day * ])at set was sone after, 

"^""^^ to menske pe manage • of meliois his doujter, 

for to wiue he wold heie take * ])at welt yai reanma 
whanne fe messageis hade munged * of meliors p^ 
schene, 4836 

The emperor Mkt Gretteliche wss ho ffladed * & ffan for to seie» 

where hli o o ^ 

dMghter If. ^ loidinges, for jour leute * lelli me telles, 

jif ^e wite in any wise • were be )>at burde 1 " 
[FoL 76.] « Marie, sire," sede fe messageres ' " je mowe ts wel 

dre. Hereishir trowe. 4840 


pe niilde mayde meliors * in paleme now dwelles ; 
Loo here hire owne letteres • to leue it pe beter." 
The king uds a be king komauTided a clerk • keneli & swibe 1 

derk reed the ^ ° f > 

letter* to loke on po letteres * and lelli hem rede, 484^' 

)>at he mi}i wi^tli wite * what fat fei mened. 
and the derk f e clerk pBnuQ deliuerli * yndede f o letteres, 
■a the nieaaengera & fond as pe messageres * hade muTzged be-fore, 
^^ '■'*• how pe king of poyle • prestli hade ordeyned, 484$ 

at swich a certayn day * his semliche dou3ter wedde. 

Then the emperor T^anne wist femperouT wel • fat fei were treuwe, 
uw, y & made fe messagers • fe murrpe fat he coufe, 

realiere nere neuer rinkes * resseiued in place. 4852 
ia5a*tir°*with*' ^^^^^ made femperour • his messageres out-wende, 
him to the alle be lordes of bat lond • lelli to somounne 

wedding. '^ ^ 

to be redili arraied ' in here richest wise, 

to wend with him wi^tH * to f e wedding nobuL 4856 

& wan fei herden his host * fei hiejcden fast, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& certes on pe selue day * bat hem was a-signed, so they au 

BO none a route in rome * was nalicne a-sembled, > appainted day ; 

]>at neu^ seg vnder Bonne ' ne saw swiche arnofer^ 

80 trijliche a-tiied * of al ]>at to hem longed j 4861 

& went wijtli here [way] * • wen Jei were jare, "^ "^^^ ^^^ 

& alisaundrine with hem * as i aist munged. Ai«zandrine with 


& wendin g as pei were * in here way p&t time, 4864 
of ))e menskfal messageres • pemperorxr Janne asked, o° **» ^v. the 
bi what cas his doi^ter * was faiQ to f&t londe, the whole atoiy; 

& how kendeli sche was knowe • Jat king wold hire'**^ 

& ^i titii him told * al pe trewe Bope, 4868 

of alio fortune ]>at was falle ' firom comsing to ])endey 
In alle maner as i munged • in mater here bi- fore. 
& whanne pemperour hade herd * how [))at] hit ferde, 
he was gretteli gladed • and oft crist ))onked 4872 ««aintothe 

of ))e fortune bi-falle ' of so faire an hende, 
& muTiged p&nnQ al po mater • to his meyne son©, ^foL 76 &.] 

as po menskful messagers * hade miuiged be-fore. 4875 
pe murpe ))at fanne was maked • nii3t no tonge telle, ^^^^^^^' 
])at tit was mad for Jo tiding • whan ))ei told were. Palermo. 

& so pQH held J>ei here way * harde & faste, 
til Jei to paleme prestili • with al pat pres come. 

and he was very 
glad, and told U 


Uliam » pmne ful wijtli * with a faire puple 4880 '^^^^^^ 

of crouned kinges • & knijtes many hundred, company goes to 

went a-jen pemperova ' with wel glade chore, 
a gay greting was per gret • wan ])ei to-gedir met. andgmte Wm. 

William & pemperova • went alder-formest, 4884 

& alphouns next after ' & auenauTitH him grette, 
with alle pe murpe vpon mold ' ])at men mijt deuise. 
pQ king of spayne spacli * spedde him next after, Thekingof spohi 

for pemperoMi & he bi-fore • felawes hadde bene, 4888 em^r^ij. 

^ Bead "here iPoy wen they were zare."—- M. See 11. 4864, 

s The capital W is mis-written M: See 1. 4923. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



On nawiiif Um 




Mid the <iaMn of 
Spain oometo 
weloome him. 



No need to toll of 


[PoL 77.] 

meeting of 
Alexandrine Mid 

MeUor tolls her 
fHend all her 

William and 
Melior teU the 
emperor all their 

& kindli kessed eiper oper * whan ]>ei kome to-gadere. 

ye murpe ]>at was mad ' at ))at metyng ]>anney 

no may no tong telle * treuli pe sope, 

se^n went pei alle samen ' swetli to-gadere 4892 

to pe perles paleys ' and prestili peX time, 

with a clene cuTTipanye pe quen * com hem a-jens, 

pai lady was of ^t lond * & ledde in here hondes 

pe menskful mayde meliors ' & here oune doi^ter ; 

& hem sewej) a selcou)>e route * of semli ladies ; 4897 

pe quen of spayne spacli * ))an spedde fast after. 

a mery meting was ))er mett * whan ])ei nei3ed same, 

with clipping & kessing * and coratenauTice hende. 4900 

but Bopli whan pemperoxa sey * his semli doi^t^, 

a glader gome vnder god * mijt non gon on erj>e. 

pe melodie ))at ]>ei made * no man mi3t telle, 

ne neuer nere gestes vnder god • gladliere receyued. 

no))ing wanted pel at wille * ]>at ))ei wold haue, 4905 

]>at ))ei nere semli serued * & sette at here ri^ttes. 

Munge now nel i namore • of here merie fare, 

for beter to be |win it was • mi3t no bum fenko. 4908 

as sone as alisauTzdrine * hade si3t of hire ladi, 

no tunge m^t telle * treuli half pe ioye 

]>at ]>ei made at ]>at metyng * whan ))ei mette same. 

& meliors ful mekli • broujt hire to hire chaumber, 

& told here whan sche sei time * treuli al pe 8o])e, 4913 

al pe sorwe ]>at sche hade sufired * aepe sche hire seie ; 

now of pia mater * no more nel ich munge ; 

& alle murpe was hem mad * among atte fulle. 4916 

willtom & his wor))i make ' whan )>ei sei time, 

told pemperoMi treuli * poi hem tidde hadde,* 

of meschef & of murthe * & ho hem most helped, 

& how J>ei brou^t were of bale • to here bote fere. 4920 

& alle penne of ]>at auenturre * hadde gret ioye, 

& ]>onked god of his grace * pai so godli hem spedde. 

I After "hadde " occurs a Une made up from ibis line and the 
next, and not flniahed, yis. « of mechef & of murpe ptA hem 
tidde h." 

Digitized by 



Fianne ^ time was, to be mete ' bei tnnied sone, aii go to matt, 

_ tn 1 ^. . t iiJAAj »nd are ienrocl 

& serued [were]^ 8elcou))li * n^t as hem woldey 4924 with au dear 

of alle dere deintes * of metes and of drynkes ; 

and as ])ei miuiest at ]>e mete * ]>at time soten, 

ber come menskf ul messageres • bat men were nobul, Some meawnffm 

r o r ' enter, from the 

fro Jemp^ronr of grece • gret wel pe quene, 4928 emperor of 

pskt ladi was of ]>at lond ' & he hire dere fader, queen's brother 


& from hire DTo])er partendo * ))at was hire pert Dro]>er. 

& whan ))ise messageres * hade here greting made, 

]yan ]ye soueraynest seg * saide of hem aUe, 4932 Tbedtiofofthem 

" Madame, makes jou merle • for marie loue in heuen, **^ '^^ 

for jour feijful fader * n&p jou noujt for-jete. joor Auherhatii 

•ent an annj to 

ac he ha)) sent 30U to soconre ' so gnssiliche an host, help 70a. 
fat J)er nis man vpow mold • feX may jon with-stond, 
fat fei nolle bring in bale • at jour bidding sone. 4937 
fei kome sailing in fe see • here souerayn is 30111 

partenedon fe perles ' al fat puple ledes, Portenedonyoar 

& se him schal jour-self * hastli, boute faile, 4940 leader." 

er fis f ridde day be don • doute jon non ofer. ^^ '^ »-3 

& whan fat comli quen • fo tidinges herde, Ny SJl^*^Siid" 
a gladdere womman in world ' * was fer non a-liue,/ «nd welcomed the 

' / menengen. 

to f e menskful messagere • made * gret ioye, ^^944 

& worf ili hem welcomed • je mow wite fe sofe/ 

fe comli quen & fe king • cu/jseiled fan to-gedere, it to agreed to 

fat fe bridhale schuld a-bide • til hire brofer come, tin her brother 

to mensk more fat manage • yd f ei mijt f anne. 4948 

fan on fe fridde day ariued • hire brofer fer^ h^^^^'S^liJh 

with a clone cumpanye • to carp fe sofe, great companj. 

f e grettest lordes of fat lond • fat lined fat time ; 

but his ost fat tida he left * in f e see stille. 4952 

whan fe quen wist of his come • curtesli & sone, 

^1 The large capital letter b nus-written M, as at I. 4880. 
2 See 1. 6064. « MS. " wolrd." 

* The sense would be clearer if the pronoun " sche " were 

supplied, but it is often omitted in similar coses throughout tliis 

poem — M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The qaeen goes GladU with grete lordes • sche gob him wens, 

forth with the , , ^ ^ o , . p ^^ 

mt to gnei him. fe kud emp^Tour of rome * & pe king of spayne, 

& his comli quen * & alle pe kni^tes gode. 4956 

pe worJ)i willtom was f e first • ])at welcomed him feire, 
Ss alphoons after him * & after ]>e kinges. 

She reoeiwi him fe quon of palem pr^steli • fan presed to hire broker, 
& receyued him as reali * as any rink ]>urt bene ; 4960 
Je king of spayne & Je quen • curtesli him gret, 
& J)emperonr of rome • with ri3t gret ioye. 
fei was a solempne si^t * whan ^i samen mette. 

It WM a solemn ^th cHpping & kissing • to ke))))e hem to-gadere. 4964 

slfrht to Me them ^"^ 

•'oUp" andkiM. J>e lady fal loueli • fan lad forf hire broker 

presteli to paleme • to pe paleys riche. 
None ean tell the More mwrbe vpon mold • miat no man deuiseX 

mirth that wae ' _ '' \ .^-_ 

J?an was mad to J>o men • to muTige fe sofe ; \ 4968 

Nq wanted hem no-f ing • fat fei wold haue, 7 
plenteuosli in eche place * fe pnple was serued. / 
The qneen telle & as bei sete in solas • sone be quen told 

her brother how ^ . '^ ^ 

wiuiam waeher buxuwll to hire brof er • what bi-tidde fere ; 4972 

how willtom was hire son * & with his doujti dedes 
hade conquered f e king of spayne • & ended fat werre ; 
CFoL 78.] & in what wise be werwolf • was brouat to his state : . 

and how the J/^ 

werwolf was & holli alle f happes • as je han herd be-fore ; ^76 

ahape; how fci wcut away bofe * in white beres skinnes. 

and of the f ^^ told sche how alphouns * schuld his nece wedde, 

th^^JSwJ!^^ & William worfi meliors • with welfe on fe morwe.' 

He wae rery fan f emp/JToures sone of grece • was a-greued sore, 4980 

ho had wooed whanne he wist on f e morwe * fe manage schuld bene, 

Meiior in Bome. £^^ j^^ wend hire haue wedded • whilom in rome. 

HewoQidhaTo & beiih he wist william • his nobul newe banne, 

liked to wtai • 

Meiiorbyforoe. hade he had his ost * he wold [haue] a-saide fere 4984 

to haue with stoteye & strengfe • stoutli hire wonne. 
Bnt ae he eaw it but soi he sobli • SO miat it noujt bene, 

conldnotbe,he «. , , , . , 

ac suffer he most • f ouh it him sore rewed, 

^ Theso two lines, 4978 and 4979, follow line 4987 in the MS. ; 
but are evidently out of place there, and must be inserted here. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

were seen in thtir 
finest attireb 


& semblant made lie sobnr * so as it him paide, 4988 appewedtobe 
but i bote ]^ in hert * it liked him wel ille. grieved at heart, 

^ann willtam and bis moder * & meliors als, wmiam and the 

& alpboxms anon lijt * of alisaimdnne tocbed, flQdahubandfbr 

to marie bere menskfulli • a-mo«g bem rijt f anne. 4992 "" 
& so bei toucbed bem be-twene • to tele be sobe, /^ and thooght that 

'^ » * ^ ^-^ Braondnla, prince 

]»tt bianndnis alpbotms broj^ar * scbiild be bire make, of Spain, wooid 

J>e kinges sone of spayne ' ))at comsed alio ^ wene. 

& be at bis fader best • bit ))anne gratmted, 4996 Braandnia agwee 

& at ]^ bidding of bis bro]>er * & willtoms best 

fan driue fei forf \^ day • in dednt & in mwrje, ^Si''***'*'^^ 

& baden bolli at wille * wbat bem baue nedede, . bedtime. 

^ se]>])e to bedde ncbe bum * busked bim ]>at time. 

but on fe morwe manli • to mene fe soJ>e, W^ 5001 Next day, an 

Men mijt baue seie of segges • many on grei3ed,* 

In J>e worJ)iest wise • J)at seien were euere, 

sef J)e be Jiat vs boujt • in bemleem was bore, 5004 

alle \^ clerkes Tnder god * couj^e noujt descriue Kotanthederka 

a-redili to ))e rijtes * J)e realte of J)at day, rojaiiy orthat 

fat was in fat cite • for fat solempne fest, ^* 

& of alle men fat manerli * mijt oujt gete 5008 

of any god gaili * to greif e bem midde. [Fol ts ».] 

to muni?e of menstracie • it mi?t nomt be aymed, "O' *^i o'^« 

o ^ ^ J ^ minttrelayatthe 

80 many man^r miTZstracie * at fat mariage were, marriage. 

fat wban fei made bere menstracie * ecbe man wende, 

bat beuen bastili Ss erbe ' scbuld burtel to-gader, 5013 The mfnatreuy 

o ' dinned eo that 

80 desgeli it denede * fat al ferf e quakede. " the earth quaked. 

fe stretis were alle strewed • & stoutli be-bonged, The atreete 

witb gode clofes of gold * of alle gay bewes ; 5016 doth of gold. 

& burghs witb bere burdes * in bere best wise, 

weyteden out at windowes • ecbe weie a-boute, 

to prie on f e puple • fat priked in f e stretes, 

& to loke on bere lord * fat lelli fan scbold 5020 

be krowned king on fat day • to kepe al fat reaume. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



But whan the 
time oune for the 
brides to go to 
church, their 
Attire waa past 

There were Idngt 
and queens and 
lords, with 
horses and 

The emperor of 
Borne led 
William's sister. 

The king of Spain 

Partenedon led 

[Pol. 79.] 
The clergy met 
them in 
procession, and 
gave WiUiam the 
cross to kiss. 

The patriarchs 
and prelates were 
soon apparelled. 

and the couples 
were wedded. 

Towns, countries* 
and casUee are 
given to 

No clerk could 
describe the 

But trewjje now for to telle • whan time come of daye, 
fat Jre blisful brides • schold biiske to cherche, 
of here a-tir for to telle • to badde is my witte, 5024 
for alle ]>e men vpow mold • ne mi^t it descriue 
a-redili to J)e rijtes • so riche it were alle. 
bo))e kinges & quenes • & ofer kud lordes, 
perteli in alle a-paraile • pursewend J)urth-oute, 5028 
of hors & hameys * & J^atlSem haue neded, 
so ]/at non mi^t be amended * a mite worj), for soj^e ; 
as eche gom in his d^re * godliche 0113^ 
for-J)i no more of fat mater • nel ich minge no))^N)032 
but touche forJ> of fe tale • as tellef fe gest. / 
whan fe bumes were boun • to buske to chirche, 
J>emperour of rome • willzams suster ladde, 
filke fat alphouTis • schold to wiue wold. 5036 

& f e kud king of spayne * curtesli & faire, 
ladde meliors menskfulli • a-mong alle fe puple. 
f e quenes brof er of paleme • partenedon fe bold 
alisauTidrine at fat time * auenau/itli ladde. 5040 

al with blisse on here blonkes • f ei busked to chirche, 
with alle f e mwrf e vpo» mold • fat man mi3t of f enk.' 
f e clergie com hem * a-jens • ri^t gailiche a-tyred, 
ful pertliche on procession • prestli as f ei oujt, 5044 
& komen to here king • & dede him f e croyce kesse. 
fan with worchip & wele • went to f e cherche, 
f e patriarkes & of er prelates • prestli were reuested, 
to make f e manage • menskfulli as it ou3t. '^5048 

& after f e lawe of f e lond • lelliche to telle, 
f ei were f er wedded * worchipfiilli and fayre. 
& lelli, for alisauTwirines lord • ne hade non londes, 
f er were tit jif hem to • treuli fele townes, 5052 

comli castelles and couf ' and cuntres wide, 
to line wif worchip & wele • in world al here liue. 
no clerk vnder crist • ne kowf e noujt descriue 
f e murthe for fat manage • fat was maked f anne, 5056 
» Catchword—" \>q clergie." « MS. " hun." Bead " hem."— M. 

Digitized by 



fe richesse ne J)e riaulte • to rekene Jje sojje, 

ne J)e solempne seniise * fat seyn was fat time. 

but whan be seniise was seid • as it scliold bene, The senrtce 

*^ ' endod, 

pat fel to a maiiage • be-maked at cberche, 5060 

fat puple prestli a^en • to f e paleys wente 

wij) al fe mwrf e of menstracye • fat man mi;t on fenfc.^. -^ 

& treidi whan time was * f ei twmed to mete, ti»«y returned to 

* the palaoe, and 

& serued were as selcouf li * as hem-seK wolde 5064 went to me«t. 

desiren of eny deyntes • of metes & drinkes. 

It were toor forto telle • treuli al be sobe, K*- " '* '^e hard to 

•^ ^ ^ * teUaU about the 

& to reherce f e aray ari3t • of fat riche feste, rich ftast. 

for-f i i leue f is lijtli • ac leuef f is for treuf e, 5068 

f er mi3t no mon it amende • a mite worf , i leue. 

whan bordes were bom ardoun * & bumes hade When they had 

• waebed after 

Wascnen, meat, the 

Men mijt haue seie to menstrales • moche god jif, ^u!!^!2»dr^^** 

eteme stcdes & stef • & ful stoute robes, 5072 J^**"*^ "** 

Gret garisun of gold * & greif li gode iuweles. 
f e fest of fat mariage * a monef fulle lasted, The tmi lasted* 

& eche day was gret god • giue al a-boute, 
to more & to lasse • fat at f e mariage were. 5076 

fan lai^t f e lordes here leue • at fe monf es ende ; . [FoL to*.] 

partenedon paHed first • of palerne f e queues brof er ; Pwtenedon was 
for he hade ferrest to fere • formest he went. homej 

& willzam wif his wi^os • went him ynp on gate, 5080 
& semli wif alle solas • to fe see him broujt, 
& his menskful moder * meliors, & his suster. 
p'estili fe quen of palerne • fan preied hire brof er, and the qneen 
to grete hire feif ful fader • fele times & ofbe, 5084 hm &ther. 

*' & fonk him kindli of f e help * fat he to me sent, 
& telle him treuli • as it bi-tidde here." 
fan lau3t fei eche leue at of er • lelli to telle ; 
partenedon passed to schepe ' & his puple after, 5088 Then Partenedon 
& went wi3tli to saile ' f e wind was at f e best, Greece. 

& saileden wif game & gle • to grece til fei come, 
fan told he tyt to his fader • treuli fe sof e, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




all tht erento, 
helped b7 her 

married to Ue 

The emperor 
wondered, bel 
nephew wee eo 

told hie fttther of fortune p9,t wss falle * from comsing to ]>ende. 5092 
how his semli soster * was holpen ))urth hire sone, 
& how fat maide meliors • was wedded fat time, 
to his owne neweu * J)0U3h it him nou3t liked. 5095 
& whan femp^ronr hade herde • [holly] ' po wordes, 
he was a-wondied gretli * as he wel mi^t, 
but glad he was fat his neweu • so nobul was wox, 
& praised so perles * al of ^ fat he passef , 5099 

of alle kni^tes vnder [heuene] ' • fat knowe were f anne. 
& fat his dovqier of here duresse * was so deliuered, 
Gretli he f onked god ' of his grete mi^t ; 
& liued fan in lisse * al his lif after. 5103 

but go we now from fe gregoyse * & ginne of anof er, 
& of fe puple in paleme * how f ei passed, telle. 

and that hte 
4fi^g»>^^ had 

Next, the 
emperor of Boroe 
went homewarde, 

and WnUam and 
the rest escorted 
him for Are 


The emperor 
danghter, saying^ 

all, meek to thy f 
leal to thy lord. '• 

Vye real emperour of rome • remewed next after 

-» redili towardes rome • with al his route nobuL 

willtam & his moder * meliors * & his suster, 5108 

fe king of spayne & his sones * & here semli puple, 

went wif him on gate ' wel an fine myle, 

to conueye him curtesli * as kindnesse it wold, 

wif al fe murp -rpott mold * fat men mijt on fenk. 

& as fei went bi fe weie • wittow for sof e, 5113 

ful mekli to meliors * femperour fus saide, 

" now, dere deleter, i fe preie * do bi mi rede. 

lok fou here fe buxumli * & be god & hende, 5116 

komxyng & kurtes * to komwne & to grete ; 

he meke & mercyabul * to men fat f e serue, 

and be lei to fi lord ' and to fis ladi after, 5119 

fat is his menskf^ moder ' & moche f ow hire loue. 

& alle fe lordes of fis lond * loue wel after, 

i^oke, doujtdr, bi f i lif * as f ow me louest dere^ 

fat neudr fe pore porayle * be piled for fi sake, 

1 See I. 246. 

« Read "mder^oi," or "mder hium$:*—U. 

' MS. repeato <*meUor8." 

Digitized by 



ne taxed to tallage • but tentyfli bow help, 5124 Newrietow 

, . , , , , , . , . poor be robbed oo 

pai si ])is lond be lad * in lawe as it oujt ; thine Mcoont* 

ban wol al pe poie pnple * pme for ye jeme, md the poor win 

A *• 1 . 1 i../» e -. 1 t 1 pnurtorthee. 

to hue long in god liif * & pi lord alse. 

stifli loke bowstMiue 'forrl state of holi cherche, 5128 striTetonuintdn 

\ \^ the church. 

to meyntene it manh * on alle manar wise. 

Gif gretli of pi god * for goddes loue of heuen ; 

be m^ciabul to alle men * pat in mechef am ; Be pitiAU toau 

so schaltow gete god los • & gretU be menskked, 5132 *"*~"**'^ 

as ban al pin aunceteres • or pow were bi-geten, 

do pus, mi dere doujter • & drede pow pe neuer, ^^Jh *^*** 

pat pow ne schalt haue heuen blisse • after pis hue." bii«of heaven.- 

fid mekli seide meliors * wip meling of teres, 5136 

"i hope, sire, to heuen king • jour best so wirche, MeUor, weeping. 

bat no bam bat is bom * schal blame mi dedes."^ none wni ever 

bUme her. 

fnl tyt after po tales * pei token here leue, 

clipping & kesseng * kurtesli eche oper. 5140 

but be mournyTQglbat meliors • made bat time, i* *«• h«^ to 

^ /. ^^ -. , ^, • « ,. tell how MeUor 

for hire faoer sChold fare * from hire so sone, monmed ath«r 

tieuli it were fill tor * to telle pe sope. departoze. 

ac pemperour ful hendeli * held hire in is armes, 5144 
& comforted here kindeli • and be quen preiede But he ooTOtortcd 

* ^ *^ [Fol.80 5.] 

to be meke & merciabule * to meliors his doubter, her.aaidngthe 

'* & cheresche here & chaste * )if pat chaunce falles, to^, and to 
pat sche wold miswerche • wrongli any time." 6148 .he doee wrong!" 
"jis, bi crist, sire," quap pe quen • '^kare noujt per- 

f ore. '^ v^^ 

promlees, Mjing 

i loue hire as miin owne lif * leue bou for sobe, the wm doubtieet 

always do rl^kt. 

wel i wot sche wol worche • al-way pe gode. 5151 

foivpi here wille schal be wroujt • what sche wol jeme 

pat sche ne schal want in no wise * what pe hert likes." 

pemperour hire proli poidced * many pousand sipe, 

& after bat, anon nit * to alisaundrine he seide, 5155 The emperor 

tells Alexandrine 

** God has pe noujt for-gete * my gode hende mayde ; that God has not 
for worchipfiilli artou wedded • to welde a kinges sone. *"***'**° **^- 
fal busili i pe biddo * pat bum euer honoure, 
11 • 

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& wirche him al pe worchip • in world fatou maye ; 
fanne echal eche lud Je loue • & for J?i lif preie." 5160 
MToareamiBUMi " jouT hest, sire, fichal be holde" • sede alisaundiine 

•hallbtkept^- 7^-7 

•berapUad. )>aime, 

** 80 p&t 36 ne Bclml here * of me noi^t but gode^ 
I hope, ]>urth goddes grace ' but gomes on me ly^." 
Then the emperor bempcTOUT ban tijtli ' tok leue of hem alle, 6164 

took hlB leave, f '^ r j 

to & wendes for]) on his way * wijtli to rome, 
& liuede Jiere in liking * a long time after, 
now reste we of romaynes • & reken we ferre, 
We now epeek of & spoko wc of be spaynols • wil we haue space^ 5168 

the Speniarde. % » -, t i • a. 

hou ])ei sped hem to spayne * spach ))er-after. 
moSeMmd* "* \^han f king of paleme • & his perles moder, 


Meiior return to ' ' & be meke meliors • his menskfid queue, 

thepeUoeat '^ ^ f 

were come a-3e to here court • to carpe Je Bope, 5172 
f ei passed in-to paleme • to J>e paleis riche, 
with al pQ murpe vpon mold • pai man mijt of pink, 
but on Jje morwe manli • to mene j)e 8o))e, 
The king of Spain pQ king of spayuo spacH * spac to take leue, 5176 

and hia tone ^or him & alle hls felawchipe - to fare ]>at time, 
^^^ ^ *■** hope him-self & braundine • fat was his bold queue, 
[FoL 81.] ^ i^ eemli sones bo))e • alphouns & his brojjer, 

& here wor))i wiues • Jjat were alle at onis. 5180 

The wng of Spain king willtrtm pQ king • of spayne )>onkes 
William. of al pe faire fordede • Jjat he hade for hem wrou^t,* 

puih pQ grete grace * pai god hade him sent ; . 5183 
for caire wold Jjei to here cuntre • & crwt him bi-teche. 
wuiiam is rery whan pe king was war • ])ei wold nodes wen[d],* 
Gret sorwe for alpl^ouns sake * sank to his herte, 
for he schuld his felawchipe • forgo at Jat time. 5187 
but whan pat he nedes ' most * he nam him bi bond, 
& s^ide, siking sore ' '' now alphouTts, swete broJ>er, 

1 MS. " worujt." 

» MS. « wen nedes." Read "nodes wend."— M. 

• MS. « nedest." 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


aeppe ]K>n cairest in-to ]>i cnntre * to kepe pi reauine, "ir.AiphonM, 
I bidde J>e as buxumli ' as bro])eT schal a-no)>er, troaue. or art 

3if it bi-tide eni time * Jiat ]>ow tene haue, 5192 swaoens,^ 

with werre or ofer wrong • with eny wijt in erj^e, 
or with fe sori RaTazina * schnldest haue to done, 
sende to me ]>i sond * ewife vpon hast, MndmnMsngeto 

& i schal hastili me hi^e * bi him bat me bonat, 5196 come and help 
to venge J>e verali • for oujt fat bi-tidej>." 

" J)e selue, sifcif seie i be J>e " • seide alphouns Jeanne, "i »y the iam« 
" sone to come to ]>i soud * schal ]>er non me lette." Aiphonsa; 
eij^er Jonked oj^er • many jK)ii8and ' sij>e8, 5200 "^*||"* fjj" 

& laujt aepe here leue • fovLsjk hem loJ> were. coming u> the©.- 


,anne mekli will/oms moder * & meliois he kissed. Then Aiphonm 

bi-kenned hem to cnst • on croyce pat was peyned, mother and*"** 

& mekli J>e quen fan • to hire doubter meled, 5204 Md*uiii queen 

& kenned hire curtesli • to kepe wel hire mensk, ***? Florence 

*^ . ' good advice. 

bad hire be buxnm • & wel hire bum loue, 

& hane pite on fe pore • & prcstli hem help, 

& gretliche herie god • & do alle gode dedes. 5208 

& sche, sore siking • seide bat sche wold, ^^^ rfghing 

8<Nre1yi promiied 

sche hoped, fnith goddes grace * & hastli fer-after, to fouow it. 
clipping & kessing • to crist J)ei hem bi-tau3t. 

& spacli fe spaynob t sped hem to schipe ; 5212 The Spaniards 

whan bei were arayde • eche ring,^ as bei wold- ^o^ « &.] 

'^ eailedaway with 

Bwipe pei setten vp sayles • & sou^ten on gate afurwind, 

with al maner murpe • fat man mi3t of fink, 

for wind & gode wederes • hade f ei at wille ; 5216 

& spedden hem spacli ' til spayne fat fei come. 

fan alle fe lordes of fat lond • & ofer lasse & more, The spanieii lords 

' oome ont to meet 

fat were ou^t worf i * of alle fat wide reaxime, them at the 

hi3eden hem to fe hauene • hendoli hem ajens, 5220 
& welcomed him worf ili • as fei wel oigt ; 
& of alphouTW coBpie • alle were glade. 

> MS. « f ousans." 
»"riiik"(?) Seel. 6353. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


▲11 wmt on to & 80 al ^ puple to fe palays* passede sone, 

with al maner mttrpe * ^t men make cou^ 5224 

TheUngpfSptio pe king of spayne spacli • to speke fe 8o))e, 
AipfaoDse M ung^ krouned alphoona to king * to kepe pat leaume, 
w he himMif wM foi him-6elf was febol * & fidlen in elde, 
^•^ to line fer-after in lisae • wil our lord wold. 5228 

pua was alphoufis ^ere king * after )Mkt time, 
& held a-redili to ri^t * J>e riche & ^ pore, 
so p9,t eche bum him blessed - hi nijtes & daie[8]. 
I now rotnmto of him a-while wol i stint ' & of william speke, 5232 
pe kud king of poyle * ]>at i of karped eie. 

William and hii Qpacli as ^ spajnols * sped hem to sayle, 
tiMpaiaoaat ^ willtam with his folk * went wijtli a^ayne 
^*''*™®* to paleys of paleme ; • his pnple him sewed, 6236 / 

with alle murpe of menstiacie * ^at men mi^t on ))ehk> 
yoxi William wijtli * as a wis king schold, 
pes amoTig pe puple * he put to pe leaume, 
H« abolished old a-leido alle Inper lawes * ])at long hadde ben vsed, 5240 . 
topt toTgJod & &^ holde fe gode • and gaf mo newe, 
SSJTJtaf*^"*^ >at profitabul to fe puple • were proued & hold ; 
so pat neuer cnsten king * kau^t more loue 
pan willtam dede in a wile ' wite ^ for so^ 5244 
If he waabriored, & )if he geynli was god * to alle gode werkes. 

& wel bi-loued in his lond * with lasse & wi]) more, 

Melior waa mora 

[FoL St.] ^it ^^ meliors as moche * his meuskf ul queue, 

or more jif sche mi3t * in any maner wise ; 5248 

so prdstli sche wold plese * pe pore & pe riche. 
Jian bi-tid it in ]>at time ' to telle pe so]>e. 
The emperor of pe riche empdTOUT of Fomo * ended his dales, 
waa buried. deide, & wss bo-dolue * as dere god wold. 5252 

& alle pe lordos of ]>at lond * lelli at o sent, 
The Roman lorda seut willuim to seie * SO as was bi-falle ; 

aend to William p . ,. i.. v.. i , 

and Meuor to & to meuors his queue ' bi messageres nobul, 
Home ^ fts to here lege lord • lelli bi ri^t, 5256 

J)urlh meling of J)e mariage • of meliors pi^ scheno. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


hendli al in hast • pei prei^ed him fider hi3e. •• «np«ror ud 

to ynder-fonge in fee * al ))at faire leaume, 

& erden in Jiat empire * as emp^ronr & maister. 5260 

whan be worbi willtam • wist al bat fere, He and MeUoi 

^ ^ J make the 

& tieuli hade ynderston ' * fe tidingee to )>ende, menengengood 

to pe menskfol messageies * he made glad chere^ ' 

& welcomed wor])ili • witow for so|>e. 5264 

nabeles meliois & he • made moche sorwe ««* "• "^^ to 

'^ hearofthe 

for J>emperoTir was for)>-fere • feire to cnst. emperor'e deetii. 

sone pei cau^t cnmfort * for ]>is ^i knewe bo^, 

]>at dep wold come to aUe * pai cnst hade fourmed, 

to emperouis & erles ' to eche J^at lif hadde. 5269 

& god pBXi of his grace * godliche ^i }K>nked, 

& seide pel wold his sondes * sufifer, Ss his wille. 

but wilh'am ful wi^tli • with-oute any more, 5272 wuuam tends 

^ meeaengen to 

sent as swibe hise sondes * sobli in-to spayne, Spain to 


hi messageres milde * p& moche god cou^ 

& hid alphouns his hro^r * schold hliue come, 5275 

& bring wij him his [wif • Jjat]* was his wor))i suster. MWnghtm to 

ahsaoitdrine & hire lord • alphouns he bad hem preie, Fioreroe and 

^' , _ , , . ,. « . ^„ Alexandrine and 

pat he dede hem com wij) him * for cas ]>at mijt falle, her lord and the 
& his fei]>fal feder • jif he a-liue were. 

(ac he was ded & doluen * as dere god wold, 5280 rsot the old king 

& alphouns held in his bond * holli al ])at reamne, buried.) 

as kinde king krowned • puitk cunseil of his peree). ^'^' ^ *'^ 

& whan pe menskfol messangers * here message wisten, ThemeaeenKer 
& hade letteres of here lord * to lelen here sawes, spain. 

j)ei went wijtli in here way • with-oute any more, 5285 
& sped hem inrto spayne * spacli in a while, 
& to ^ kud king alphouns * ki^ed here amd. 


> alphonns witerli * wist of here wille, 5288 when Aiphome 
^at pe riche emperour of rome * was redeli god hi- in-iaw waa to be 

taujt^ emperor of Bom^ 

» See the note-^ « Bead ''Im wif that wai."— M. 

* The capital W is mii-written M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


h« w«a very glad, j>at his buxum brojjer • schuld be lord J^ere-affcer, 
he was gretli glad • and oft god fonked, 
& marie his moder • fat him swiche grace sente ; 5292 

and mnnmoned & swibe lett of-sende ' alle his secges nobuL 

his lords to gee '^ oo ***> 

K«dy. after alle f e lordes of J>at lond • pe lasse & fe more, 

& oJ)er perles puple • him prestili to serae. 
whan fei gaili were greip • as hem god pon^t, 5296 
pel passeden toward palem • as fast as J)ei mi3t, 
Aiphonae and alphou7?8 & his worbi wif ' williams sister, 
Bnuindinu and & braundinis his bold hvoher - & alisaimdrine his wi£ 

Alexandrine ooma ^ ' ^ 

to Palermo. wij) hiiTidredes of kene kni3tes • i knew nou^t pe names. 
& redili whan pel were come • per fei ariue schuld, 
William wij) his wi^es • went hem ajens. 

The great Joy of but no man vpoT* mold • miat telle be ioye 

William and n 

Aiphonae at their )>at pQ bold biej^eren ' bi-tweyne [hem] ^ made, 5304 
"*** "** William & alphouns • whan J)ei mette samen, 

& wi]> his semli sitter * Beppen sone ])er-after, 
& wij) his oper bro Jar • braundinis pe bolde, 
& after wij» alysauTidrine • & alle oJ>er sejjjo ; 5308 
^^^^*"*™** J>at prestili with al Jat puple • to paleme Jei went, 
fbr a week. & made hem pet as merie * as man mi^t deuise, 

wij) alle derworfe deinteyes • of drynkes & metes. 
& fus fat perles puple • in paleme hem rested 5312 
sadli al a seuen nijt ' hem-seluen to ese. 
& bi ))at eche bum • on his best wise 
whm^me ^^ pumeyed prestli • of al Jwtt hem neded, 
ready, William ^ willtam bat worbi Mm? * was ban wi^tli ^are, 5316 

set oat for Rome, ' ^ ° '^ 7 ^ ' 

wij) al his real route * remewed toward rome, 
J?an made he his moder • be menskfully greijjed, 
providing rich Mid him & meliors his quen • in mwrbe to wende, 

apparel for Mellor 

and hia lister and & wij) his semli sister * to solas here hertes.' 5320 

])an wij) al his real route • he rides on gate, 
Redili to-wardes rome J)o • rijtes gates, 
with al maner murpQ ' ])at men mi^t on penk. 
& as pei caired ouer cuntre • & come nei^ rome, 5324 
» Read '* bi tweyne hem made/'— M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


fer com him a-jens • of kinges & opev grete Sim^!iS*ii2SS^ 

be fairest ferde of folk • bat eu^ bi-f ore was seie : «»>• fcrth to 


no man ypon molde * im3t ayme ])e nonmber. 

& woTchipfnlli pei welcomed * will^am bere loide, 5328 

& al bis * freli felawcbip * freli ^i gret, 

& recejued bem as realy * as any linkos mijt ; 

Biden riat in-to rome • with reaulte and mwrbe. An rid« to Bomo, 

' '^ and find tho dty 

ac no tonge ne may fe atir * of pe cite telle, 5332 ricUy daokad oat. 

so ricbeli was al araied * in rome for bis come. 

Je prelates on procession • prestili out comen, Tho praiatai maat 

& alle ))e belles in burw * biisili were range, pTooesdon, and 

for ioye fat bere lege lord • his lordcbip schuld take. *" '°°*' 

]>an passed al )>at puple * to ]ye paleys enene, 5337 

& echo man was esed * euenli at wille, 

wanted bem no pmg * J^at fei bane wold, 

for plente to slpe puple * was purueide at )>e fiiUe. 

& on J)e morw at masse • to murige fe soje, 5341 ^«^ ^Su^ la 

Svnr waa a mora 
royal IbaUval. 

William with al bis worcbip • emperour was maked, crownod emparor, 

^ ^ ' andMeUor 

& meliors bis comli quen * was crouned emp^ce. empnaa. 

pet nis no clerk ynder crist * ]>at cou]ye half descriue 
])e reaulte ])at was araied * in rome for )>at fest, 5345 
,y^e pe tipedel of hire atir • to telle pe ri^t, 
I for al pe men vpon mold • it amende ne mi^t, 
L noujt pat fel to swiche a fest • for8o})e, half a mite. 5348 
' \ for-J>i wende i wol a while • wite je for sojje, ^^ ^ *^ 

I to reherce pe aray • of pe real fest, 
^ & telle forjer of pis tale • what tidde after. 

iHulle fiftene daies • pat fest was bolden, 5352 JJjJ^^ 

^^ •*■ wij) al pe realte of rome • pat euer ' rink of herde. 

no tong mijt telle • pe twentipe parte Thominatrtia 

had juraaanta of 

m pe mode to menstrales * pat mene time was ^eue, ru^ robaa and 
of robes wip riche pane • & oper ricbesse grete, 5356 
steme stedes & strong * & oper stoute jiftes, 

»MS. "hes." 

» MS. « eum ; •» but see L 4232. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The fbMt «nd«l, 
William Mot Ibr 
the cowherd. 




•• Tea, by your 
leare, 70a ware aa 
my aon for Mrao 

Praiaed be God, 
who hath 
from porerty.** 

fostered me, and 
shall loae nothing 

William aendefor 
his steward, and 
gives the cowherd 
afiiir castle 



and bade the 

were obedient to 
the oowherd'a 

BO ])at echo man J^er-mide * mijt hold him a-paied 

& er fe fest folli * was faxe to pe ende, 

willtam femperowt * ))at newe waa erounedy 5360 

as a corteys king * on pe kowheid foQjjty 

))at him hade foster^ * to-foie^ seuen ^ere ; 

& sent sone after him * & his semli wiue. 

& whan pe kowheide kom * )»e king to him saide, 5364 

^siie kowherdoy knowestow me ou^t * so J)e ciist 

pe kowheid kneled sone * & karped J^ese wozdes, 
** 3a I lord, vrip )our leae * M litel i jou knewe. 
I fostered 30U on mi flet * for so^, as me ])inke]), 5368 
& seide ^e were my sone * seaen jer and more. 
))e riche emp^rour of rome * ]»at regned here Jnt time, 
wan }ou fro me a-wei • wo was me J>er-fore. 
hut herijed he )>e hi^e king * 30U yna h&p holpe, 5372 
& pult 30U to ])is pli^t * firam pouert euer-more ! " 
William pe wor^ emparour * fdl wi^tli ])U8 saide, 
** hi cristy sire, pon hast seid * al )>e-so^ enene ; 
])0U me fostredes fdl faire * as fel for pm astate, 5376 
& hi our lord, as i leue * ])at schaltou lose neu^r ! " 
anon ])an het he in hast * do him forto come 
his stiward wijnoute stint * to sti^tli alle his londes, 
& hi-fore kud kni^tes * and o^r kene lordes, 5380 
he jaf to ])e kowherde * a kastel fill nohul, 
pe fairest ypon fold * ]»at euer £reke 'seie, 
& hest set to pe s^t * him-selue to kepe ; 
and al ])at touched ^r * to a tidi erldome, 5384 

to fe kowherd & his wif • fe king jaf Jat time^^, 
as freli as eni freke * for euer cou^ deuHbe. 
& hastili het echo a haili * |>at hade it to kepe, 
to do eche hum he huxum * hi ni3tes & daie[s],' 5388 
to pe cowherdes comauTMiement * aa to here kinde 

as fei louede here Hues ' neuer to lette his wille ; 

1 MS. « daie ;" but « daies '* is better ; see 1. 5400. 

Digitized by 


William's last pabtino with alphonsr 171 

Ss sent his stiward as swij^e * to sese him Jyer-inne. 

& hasidli was his wille wroujt * witow for Bofe^^6392 

bus was be kowheid out of kAe • kindeli holpen. '^o" "^^ *•»• 

'^ '^ ^ ^ ooirherd and his 

he & his wilsum wif • wel to liuen for eu^. wifc Mved ttam 

of ye kinde couheide * now nel i telle no more, poverty, 

but lete him in his blisse * & his buide alse, 5396 

& touche we fene * as pis tale forjyeres. 


M Anil 

bis fidre fest was finischid • at be .xv daies ^"** ?^^. . 

'^ ' ended, eadi lord 

endf ^^^ ^ ^* <>^^ 


echo a lord ful loueli * his leue gan take 

of emp^rour & empence * & oft hem ^nked 5400 

of J>e woichip & wele • fat fei hem wroi^t hadde. 

^mperour to ])e grete god * fed godli hem bi-tau^t ; 

but omage arst of hem alle • hendeli he tok, >«* wimam nwt 

took lumuige of 

Mekli as ])e manor is * his men to bi-come, 5404 them aiu 

to com keneli to his kry * as to here kinde lord. 

& he fill godly hem ]K>nked * & to god bi-tau^t, 

& fan went fei here way • whider faim god liked, 

eche lord to his owne lond * & lenged ))er in blisse. 

& king alphoims Sruon • after alle were went, 5409 Aiphonse and 

® '^ ' Branndinia and 

& his worchipful wif • be-fore will^am comen, their wtvee 

took their leave 

& brauTidyns his brofar * and aUsaundrine his burde ; to fro home. 

at emp^rour & emperice * euareche on at ones 5412 

loueli lau^ten heie leue * to here lond to wend. 

sone J»ii, sofli to seie * fer was sorwe riue, 

whan bat willwnn was war • bat bei wend wold, 7^"° "*^ _^ 

' * ' Melior were modi 

Moche mouniyngjfei made • & meliors also ; 6416 grieved at their 

but seffe it mi^t be no betdr * suffer hem be-houed. [Foi. m 6.] 

willuzm bi be bond • hent alphouns his brober, wiiuam takea 

^ ^ ' ' Alphoneebythe 

& nei} wepande for wo * wijtli fus saide, hand, saying, 

" brofer, jif it be • bi god fat vs wrou3t, 5420 

I wold it were bi wUle • wib vs forto lenge, "'r,?^'**?* 

■^ ' ^^ cooldat stay bera^ 

hit forfinkes me sore - fat we schul de-parte ; 

but sef e it nel be non ofer * nou^t for to striue, 5423 

I bi-kenne jou to krist • fat on croyce was peyned, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


•nd I pray the^ &, brob^, i pQ bidde bi al • fat euer fow louedest, 

li uiy ODO wuv 

■gainst thee, jif destine falle of ani dede * ])at ])ou to done haue, 
Jat eny wijt wij) werre' • wircbe ajens pi paie, 

•end to me md I swibe Send me to say • & sone i -come to be, 6428 

thee." J»at no liuend lud • schal me lette neuere, 

wil me laste]) ^e lif • for loue ne for aWe ; 
til J)ow be wel wroke • wol i neuer stinte." 

"The same iv I " aa, blessed be bow, bold brober" • seide alpbouns ' 

ly thee." replied ^ * '^ * '^ ^ 

Alphonee. fan, 5432 

J)e same sey i be fe • so me wel time ! " 
feiffollere frenchipe • saw neuer frek in erjje, 
fat more plenerli hem profered * to plese ecbe of er, 
& to help ofer in hast * ho-so hade nede. 5436 

^J^JJ^J''^^^^ f emperours moder willtom • and meliors alse, 
*•"• ^^S^^ h ^^^® ^ ^^^ doujter • f e semli quen of spayne, 
lord, 1 « loueli dou3ter, leue lif • loue f i lord euere, 

* v> ^ ^ '^> I & be eu^ busili aboute him • buxumli to serue, 5440 
& lede him euer wif f i lore • his lond to kepe ; 
so schaltow lelK be loued • wif lasse & wif more." 
and ahe promiseJ—Sj gche faieliug ou here knes • curtesH saide, 

oaherkneeato ' — --^-, 

do 80. sche hoped to heuen king • whil here lif lasted, 5444 

to wiiche as f ei here wissed • with-oute any lette. 
They give & to alisaundrine a-non * ri;t bei sayde 

Alexandrine the . . i 

same advice, sadU, in Same wise * sche schold hire lord loue ; 

IL will ibi^. & sche sore sikande * seide fat sche wold. 5448 

& whan f ei samen had seide * what hem-self liked, 
At last Mivj have & time was atto laste • atwinne forto de-parte, 

to take leave, to .1.0 1 . ^ 1 1 

CFoi. 85.] fer was siking & sorwe " on bof e sides sadde, 
of auT* **^"^ weping & wringinge • for wo at here hertes, 5452 

& clippinge and kessing • f ei caujt eche ofer, 
bi-kenned hem to crist * fat on croyce was peyned, 
& soute sef e on-sunder • f oujh it hem sore greued. 
^"^ "^wi^**^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ spayne spacli • spedde him fan to horse, 
horse, and went & went forb in is Way • wib-oute any more : 5457 

home with his ^ ^ r j ? 

oompany. & al his faiie felawchip ' folwed him after, 

1 The MS. has " wiUunn,** an obvious bltrnder ; see U 5198. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& sped hem ])aime spacli • to spayne ^t Jjei come. TiwywereroyaUy 

|)er were pQi reali resceyued * as god ri^t it wold, 5460 retorn. 

with alle man^ murpe * peA man mi^t on fenke ; 

& p&re pei lenged in lisse * al hire line after^ 

& ledden wel pat lond ' to gode lawes euere, 

so ^t eche bnm hem blessed - ])at ener pel bore were. 

of hem of spayne to speke * my speche now i lete, 5465 or the Ungor 

but lete hem line in lisse ' at oure lordes wUle, man. 

of pe riche emperonr of rome * redeliche to telle. 

ll/hanne pe king of spayne * spedli was fetren, 5468 After thi*wmi«m 
' ' williom with him tok • al his worji meyne, throughST^ 

& his menskful moder • & here maydenes alle, empire, 

& rides ])iirth ])empire of rome * richeli & fiEdre, 

to alle solempne cites * & semliche holdes, 5472 
to knows po kuntres • as a king oujt ; ^ im^^ ^ j^^ 

lau jt omage of eche lud * ^t longed to pe reaume. SnS''***!!!! * 

& whan fat dede was don • deliuerli & sone, 

Gode lawes Jurth his lond • lelly he sette, 5476 He eetebUahed 
& held hem so harde • i hete pe for soJ)e, SSb^'S^t'^ 

bat robboures ne reuowres • mi^t route none, ^ *» hanged or 

' '' drawn aeoiuler. 

Jat J)ei nere hastili hange • or with hors to-drawe. ^'"^ 

flatereres & fala men * fram him sone he chased, 5480 Fiatteren he 
Lieres ne losengeres • loued he neuer none, M^^edro iiui. 

but tok to biin tidely • trewe cuwsayl euere, 
J»at al pe puple for him prdde • pe pore & pe riche ; Rich and poor 

so wisli he wrou^t • to sauen his reaume. 5484 ^"^^^^ 
& jif he meke were of maneres * meliors his quene, cFoi.86b!] 

was al swiche on hire side * to telle pe tre[vr]pe, MeUor waa m 

so gracious to goddes mew • & alle gode werkes, Senandtogood* 

so pitevows to pe pore • hem prestiH to help, 5488 ^^^ 
])at eche man fiade ioye * to here of here speke^ that au pnyed 

& busily for hire bede • bi nyjtes and daies. 

& 'also. willMims moder * ])at menskful queue, wmiam'a mother 

. so god was & gracious * to eche gomes paye, 5492 ^'ai uea^ 
80 witty & willeful • to wirche alle gode dedes, **** 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ruuMuterad iMf 
drewn, that her 
right arm laj 
OTcr Rome, and 
her left OTOT 

right arm, and 
Florence her left 


fat eche bum hire blessed • buaili euer-more, 
& hei^li pr^ede to heuen king * to hold here liues. 
fan com here in mynde * at fat mene while, 5496 

fat here swenen was sof * fat sum time hire mette, 
fat here n^i arm redeli * oner rome arteyned, 
& lelli here lift arm * laye oner spayne. 
fan wist sche wi^tli * what it be-tokened, 5500 

here sone fat regned in rome * here rijt arme ment ; . 
fat here der-worf donjtdr • was drawe to spayne, 
here lif time to be fere ladi • here left arm schewed. 
God fanked sche godli * of al his grete mijt, 5504 

& his menskful moder * fe milde qaen of heuen, 
fat out of bale hade hire brou^t * to blisse so faire. 

William and 
Melior had two 

One was emperor 
of Rome after his 
fkther, the other 

to be emperor of 
Rome after all hia 



I^us wiUunn & his worfi quen * winteres fele, 

A Kueden in Jiking & lisse • as our lord wolde, 5508 

& haden tvo sones samen * fnl semliche childeren, 

fat sef f en f urth goddes grace * were grete lordes aftar. 

fat on was emparoux of rome * & regned after his fader, 

fat ofer was a kud king * of calabre & poyle ; 5512 

& mi^ti men & menskful * were fei in here time, 

& feiffnl as here fader * to fre & to f ewe. 

fus f is worfi willtam • was empcrour of rome, 

fat hadde many hard happe * hade f ere-bi-fore, . 5516 

& be in gret baret * and bale sum time ; 

of alle bales was he brou^t * blessed be goddes mijt ! 

& so schal euerich seg * fat sechef to fe gode, 

& giues him in goddes grace * & godliche ay wirchef . 

William ended all 
hli work, 
following the 
French aa well aa 

The metre le the 
beat he could 

In fise wise haf william * al his werke ended, 5521 
as fully as f e &ensche * fully wold aske, 
& as his witte him wold serue * f ou)h it were febul. 
but foi^h fe metur be noujt mad * at eche mannes 
paye, 5524 

wite him noujt fat it wrou^t • he wold haue do beter, 

Digitized by 



^if is witte in hbj wei^es * wold him haue seraed. 

but, faire ftendes, for goddes lone * & for jour owne WairMmnaM, 

je yeA Uken in lone * fwiche binges to heie, 6528 pnjft>rth«good 

prei^es' for fit godft lord * ])at gart ])is do make, this to be dona, 

])e hflode'flri of heteford * hnmfiay de bonne; — Bo^Mdor 

Je godft king edwardes donjter • was his dere moder ; — ^•'•***« 
•he let make kis mater • in bis maner speche, 5532 Hei»ditdon© 

'^ ' x- -^ for those who 

for hem }§i kno we no frensche • ne nen^r vndersto[n].* know no French. 

biddl^ }§X Uisfiil bnm * ])at bon^t ys on )>e rode, 

ft to his moder marie * of meicy feA is welle, 

** jif >e lord god lif • wfl he in erj>e lenges, 5536 ^^^* 

& whan he wendes of bis world • welbe with-onte ende, happiness withoat 

end after dstth. 

to lenge in J>at liking ioye • J>at lestef euer-more." 

& god gif alle god grace • Jwit gladli so biddes, God give gnk» to 

& pertli in paradis * a place for to hane. Amen. 5540 in Pandise. 

*Kead<*Tiider8t<mde."— M. See note to L 5262. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Yee J^t lengen in londe * Lordes, and oojjer, 
Beumes, or bachelers • fat boldely thinken 
Whejjer in werre, or in wo • wiglitly to dwell. 
For to lachen hem loose * in hur lifetime, 
Or dere thinken to doo • deedes of armes, 
To be proued for pm • & prest of hemselue,* 
Tend yee tytely to mee • & take goode heede. 
I shall sigge forsothe * ensaumples ynow 
Of one, fe boldest beum • & best of his deeds, 
That euer steede bestrode • or sterne was holden 1 
Now shall I carp of a King • kid in his time, 
Jat had londes, & leedes ' • & lordships feole ;* 
Amyntas Je mightie • was J)e man hoten : 
Maister of Macedoine ' ])e marches hee aught, 
Bothe feeldes, & tiiihea * faire all aboute ; 
Trie towres, & tonnes • terme of his life, 
And kept pe croune • as a King sholde. 
pen this cumlich King • & keene in his time. 
Had wedde a wife • as hym well thought. 
And long ladden hnr life • in lond togeder. 
Twoo seemlich sonnes • soone they hadden ; 
pe alder * hight Alisannder * as I right tell ; 
And sir Philip forsoothe • his frobroder hight* 

1 MS. hymselae, with e written above the y. 
« MS. "leethes," with rf written abore the th, 
3 MS. " fell," mthfooU written aboye it 
^ MS. alder, with e over a. See note. 
* Here follows the catchword, *' Cas fel, dat dis K." 

[Fd. 1 ft.] 
Te lords and 
others, who seek 
to Mqnire pndse^ 

attend all to me. 

best man that ever 
bestrode steed. 


Amyntas was 
a mighty king (tf 


bj whom he had 
20 two sons j 

Alexander the 
elder son, and 

Digitized by 





AmyntM fell ilck 
Mid died. 

Alexander th« 
tideetson was 
crowned king, 

bat soon died. 

Hie mother 
Eorydioe caoaed 
his death. 

She Insted after 
her own children. 

Alexander reftued, 
and she killed 

Thus he departed 
this life. 


Case fell, Jat this Kyng • as Christe wolde Janne, 24 

Was with siknes of-sought • & soone fer-afber, 

Hee was graythed to grace • & to God went. 

His alder-aldust ^ Sonne ' fat Alisaunde;* hight, 

j)o was crouned King • to keepe |>e reigne. 28 

Well hee ladde J)e londe • wliile hee lyfe hadde, 

But his term was tint • or it tyme were. 

And all J)e cause of |>/s case • I con soone tell ; 

How hee was doolefully ded • & doone of his life. 32 

Dat made his moder )>e Queene * fat moste was 

adouted ; 
Eurydice hue hight • unkinde of her deedes. 
Hue loued so lecherie • & Iwstes of synne, 
Jjat her chylder hue chase • unchastly to haue. 36 

For Alisaunder, hur sonne • assent so ne wolde 
To fulfill so foule • her fleshlych sinnes, 
Hue let kyll fis Kyng • with care at his hert, 
In Je fonnest yere • that hee first reigned. 40 

And ^us lafte hee his life * our Lorde haue his soule ! 
For a feller in fight • found men seelde, 
While him lasted his life • londes to yeeme.* 
Now let wee fis lued • lengen in hliss, 44 

And sithe myng wee more • of J)is mery tale. 

Many years before 
(his, PhiUp was 
fostered and 
brought up 

by Epaminondaa, 

This king 
cherished the 

Fel[e] wintres tofore • in his faders life, 
Than was Philip fe free • to fosteryng take, 
In courte [of an] unkouthe kith • with a King lyche, 48 
That was chuse* of Jje childe • & choicelich hym kept. 
Hee that fostred, & founde * Philip in youthe, 
King of Tebes that time • truly was holden, 
Epaminondas hee hyght • fuU hardy to meete. 52 

So hee cherished J)e childe • cheefe ouer all, 
pat hee was woxen full weele • & wyght of his deede, 

1 An is written aboTO the first a in this word. 
» Catchword—Now let wee dis lued, &c. 
■ A y is written above the u. 

Digitized by 


Philip's lords rebel against him. 


Forto abyde any beum • in battle, or eles.^ 

When his broder with bale • brought was of life, 56 

Eyght was, fat J)is renk • reigned hym after 

To bee crouned a King • in his right riche, 

As maister of Macedoine • amonges pe greate, 

For to leade J>e lond • as hym leefe thought, 60 

Men to holden of hym • fat hed was of all, 

Philip fared him forthe • in a fayre wyse, 

To receiuen his right • <fe reigne on his londes ; 

But when pe Lordes of J)e lond • lelich wysten 64 

Of hur neew cuwmen King • fat his kith asketh, 

With greate werre fat wonne • f ei wemed hym soone. 

That by force of hur fight • ^ei ^ firked hym ^ennes,' 

That hee ne must in his marche * with his menne 

dwell, 68 

Ke beleue in his lond ; • fat liked hym yll. 
Whan Philip felt tho folk * so ferae of hur deeded, 
Ayen to Tebes hee turned • teenid fiill sore. 
To f e Kyng of this case • hee carped soone, 72 

How hee was kept at his coome • with a keene route, 
That hee was faine with his folke * to flee from his owne. 
Epaminondas f e King * was carefull in hert, 
Till hee were wroken of f e wrong • fat f ei wrougr^t 

haddeiL 76 

Hee graythed hym a greate oste • grym to beholde. 
And cheued forthe, with f e * childe • what chaunse so 

So with Philip f e ficee • hee fared on in haste, 
To clayme his Kingdome • & catchen f e shrews, 80 
That beraffcen hym his lyght • wit^ rufull deeded. 
Than, shortly to showe • f ei sharplich went, 
And foughten for Philip • his fone to dustroye, 
Tooke towres, & towne[s] • tamid ^ Knighted, 84 

1 MS. « oreW." . » MS. " dei." 

' MS. " deimes,** vnth thence above it. 
* MS. Don, as if for " «ou ; " but " )>e " is written aboTe it. 
» MS. " tamed," with an e OTcr the a. 

Philip WM now 
the rightAil heir 
to the crown. 

He therefore went 

HiB lords with- 

Philip returned to 

EpaoninondM WM 

and J<^ed Philip 
to punish the 

fooght for Philip, 
and discomfited 
his foes. 

Digitized by 




The lords fled 

The king of 
Thebes attacked 

[Fol.8 6.] 

Mid took it. 

Then vu Philip 
orowiied king, 
400 jean after 
Rome was boUt. 
[B.C. 859; 
A.U.C. 8W.] 

Philip is made 

He defeats the 



They acknowledge 
him as lord. 

Felled pQ falsse folke • ferked * hem hard, 

With skathe were J)ei skoumfyt' • skape fei ne mygJit ; 

Who-so weldes a wrong • J)e worsse hym • betides, 

For hee,* pat reigneth in ryght • reskueth troth. 88 

For fere of sir Philip • fledde they all, 

And turned tit to a towne • pat Attanus hyght, 

A stij) stede, & a strong • & straite for to winne, 

And kept keenely pat cost • fro pe Kyng than, 92 

That hee ne mjght with fo menne • medle no while. 

The King of Tebs for teene • targed no lenge?', 

But sought to pQ Citie * & a-saute made. 

They beseeged it so • on sides aboute, 96 

That they tooke Je towne • & traytoure^ sleew. 

Thus faire Philip, fe free * his fomen awaited, 

And thus sought hee his lond * with lo^elike* dynte*. 

Than pia cumly Knight • was crouned soone, 100 

Of Macedoine made Kyng • maugre them all. 

Fore hundred yere holly • as I here tell. 

Sin pe Citie of Roome • sett was in erth, 

Philip in his freedam • faire gan dwell, 104 

So too reigne on his ryght ' as rink in his owne. ^ 

Now is hoo crouned King • & keeppes his reigne, 

And swij)e hardie is hee • happes too fonde. 

Now fares Thilip pe free • too fonden his myght, 108 

And attles to pQ Assyriens • aunteres too seeche ; 

And nere blynd pQ beum • of battle stem. 

Till hee had fenked |>e folke • too fare at his wyll, 

And wonne pe won • with werre full keene, 112 

Folke to fare wit^ hym • as hee Mne wolde. 

To chescw* hym for cheefe Lordo • & chaunge hym neuer. 

Philip full ferslich • in his fyght spedde, 

And prooued in his powre * as Prince full noble. 116 

Whan hee had so them • hollich ifenked, 

1 MS. seems to have " fcrkerd ;" see 1. 67. » MS. skoumkyt 
' See the note on these two words. * MS. lodclik^. 

» MS. chosen, with e above o. 

Digitized by 



Hee sought too a Citie * full seemely too knowe, He next attacks 


Larissea hyght, fat helde • full hardie men in, 

One J)e klenist coste • fat any King aught. 120 

Philip fetches hym folke * & foundes full soone [Foi. *.] 

Too bidden fern battle * & brodes in haste, 

For to lache hym as Lorde • Je lond for to haue, 

Or deraine it 'with dinted • & deedes of armes. 124 

Ferse were bo folke • & foughten in haste, V^ pwpie are . 

' ^ ' fleroe, and fight 

Or J)ei lesen Jjeir lond • their life for too spill. ^^' 

Longe lasted fat strife * but lelli too knowe, ** 

By fin force of his fight • Vhilip it winnes. 128 

Now hath Vhilip in fy^7it • freely wonne 

The Citie of Assyriens * wM selkouthe dintc^; 

And lordship of Larisse * laught too his will ; He takes LaHsaa. 

And intoo Greece hee gose • YfiHi a grim peeplo. 132 

Than hee tumes too a towne * Tessalonio-it hyght ; He attacks 

And assailes it soone • fe Citie to hauo. " ^ 

Too [sese] * onely be towne • or any ober goodes, He did not care to 

rule over the 

Hee ne nyed it nought • but needely too haue 136 town, hut to make 

All fo mightfull mcnne • fat in f e marches dwelt, 

Too bryng at his baner • for bolde f ei were, 

And a-losed in lond • for leeflich Knighted. 

For fis enchesoun hee chused • too chasen hem fere, 

Till fei were at his wyll • as hee wolde ax. 141 

But or hee tooke so their toune • teene gan spring ; it is a honi 

Many a dulfull dint • deled fei there. 

But all fei were unware • wisly too knowe 144 

Of fat sorowfuU asaute • fat they so had ; 

For hadde fei knowe f e kast * of f e Kyng stem, 

They had kept well his cumme • wzt^ carefuU dinte^. 

t)ei see no succour • in no syde aboute, 148 [Poi.4b.] 

That was come to hur koste • be king for to lett : No one comes to 

r ^ > help them. 

And Philip vriih his fresh folke • so fast f em assailes. 
That fei gradden hur grif • his grace to haue, Tiiey capitulate. 

Him to taken feir toune • & trulich to serue, 152 

* MS. holde, with c above o. * See the note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



For to wend at his wyll • whereso hym liked, 
And redy to his retainaimce • ry^At as hee wolde. 

PhuipnowtakM Now is Philip ftill giym • in fyght for to meete, 
And many mightfull menne * may wtt^ hym leade. 
Attene^, pe trie toune • hee tooke too his wyll, 157 
The folke too fare wi\Ji hym * when hee fonde time. 
J)e Citie of Assyrie • is sett too his paye, 
And all pe beume^ in )>e borowe * boune too his heste. 

SoLMinaiihit, The Lordship of Larisse • is lauht too himselue, 161 
Men too cumme too his crie ' & ki]>en ])eir might. 
Tessalonie pe trewe holde • is turned too hym alse, 
With all J)e weies in Je won • his werre too keepe. 164 
Now is fat peeple full prest • & preeued of strength 
For too wirchen his will • & wend at his neede. 
Philip, for h\» ferse folke • in fele ' oper landes, 
Doughtye men douten • for dreedfull hee seemed. 168 
By eueiy koste, Jat hee com • kid was his might, 
For when hee medled him moste * pe maistrie hee had. 

AMyrU ClUyriaj, 

■nd ThMMlontoa. 

PhiMp la dooffhty 
and dreiidftil. 

IiMxtipeak of 

Ue had a sifter, 

[Pol. 6.] 

She had golden 
hair, great gnj 

To profre pia process • prestly too here, 


I karp of a kid king * Arisba was hote ; 172 

The Marques of Molosor * • menskliche hee aught, 

For hee was King of fe kij) • & knight wel a-losed. 

Hee had a suster in sight • seemely to sonde. 

The moste lufsum of life • pat euere lud wyst ; 176 

Olympias pe onorable • ouer all hue hyght. 

Eose red was hur rode * full riall of schape : 

With large forhed & long • loueliche tresses, 

GHsiande as gold wire * growen on length ; 180 

Biyght browse ibent * blisfull of chere ; 

Grete yien, & graie • gracious lippes ; 

Bothe cheeked, & chinne • choice too beholde ; 

» MS. fele. 

' MS. Molosor, unth a'# over the ttoo Jirst o' j ; so in L 204, 
Marqnes thotdd perhaps he marches. 

Digitized by 




Mouth meete J)ertoo * moste for too praise. 184 •uaertmoatu. 

Hut nose namelich faire • Imr necke full scheene ; 

Schuft shuldeis aright • well ischaped annes ; weu-Aaped naa, 

Hondes hendely wrought • helplich, sweete ; 

Faire fyngers unfolde • fetise nailes ; 188 fiorflnge™, 

Sides seemely sett * seemlich long. Meiniy sides, 

Hupes had hue faire • & hih was hue pan ; ftOr Wpe, 

Hut ])ies all ]K)rou-oute * )>ristliche ischape, 

With likand legged • louely too seene ; 192 

And Je fairest feete • pat euer fieke kende, 

With ton * tidily wrou^^t • & tender of hur skinne. 

Liliwhite was hur liche • to Ukne |>e beurde ; 

Where is per lengged in lond • a Lady so sweete ? 196 

Der sprong neuCT spicerie • so speciall in erfe, 2wSB*cc«irbo 

Ne triade in his taste • so trie is too knowe, sweeter. 

As that Ladie, wit^ loue • too lachen in annes ! 

Wherfore I carp of pia case • knowe yee may. 200 
Philip fe free king • that ferae was of myght, Phuip desires to 

For pe beurde so hrygJii was * of blee scheene, 
He had his liking ilaide * pat Ladie too wedde. 
Too Molosor wtHi his menne • hee meeued in haste, 204 
Craued soone at J»e Kyng • pat comelich beurde, 
For too welde too his wife • as hee will hadde. 
^e king was full curtais * & coflich hym grauntea, 
For had hee wemed ' pat wjght ' wo had hee suffred, CPoL s 6.] 

For pat freelich fode • Philip, wolde ele« 209 Hed««inot 

'^ ^' refluePhUlp. 

Haue geten [hire] with grim stroke • of grounden tooles. 

Jat time thought pe Kyng • to targe no lenger ; 

But bring hat bHsfull • to be bem soone. 212 He brings the 

m t V; . . . i»ajU> Philip. 

To kyng rhilip hee co77ime • as curteis of deede, 

And laft h3rm |>e Ladie • to lache at his wylL 

For hee thought on this thing • Jjroliche * in hert, «« *»»«»«»>* ^»*» 

^ MS. toze, with ton above, 

* Oyer this word is tlie gloss — si proWbuisaet. 

3 MS. Jjroliche, unth e over the o. 

•nd craves Jior of 
h«r brother* 

Digitizedby VjOOQIC 



wen Philip hi! 

none would dare 

Bat he made a 


For, after Philip 

hia queen. 




exile, and 
aorrow till hia 

Jif bee had too his help * in his hie neede 216 

Of Macedoine Je King • a mighty man holden, 

To alie him too fat Lorde • & his loue winne, 

|>er shoulde no hydyng hem • so holde bee in erfcb, 

Too teene hym untruly • term of his reigne ; 220 

Ne to greeue J>e gome • for gremfe of his help, 

The while Thilip Jw free • hym frendship kid. 

Hee was bitraide in his trust * for truly J)«r-aftCT, 

When Sir 'Philip was fare • with pe faire beurde, 224 

And wedded Jat wight • with worship & ioye, 

To bee Ladle of his land * & his leeue make, 

Men to queme bur as Queene * & qntklich bur seme, 

Bothe beurde« & bem[e«] • boune * too bur wyll, 228 

To Molosor wiih maine • his menne gan hee bryng. 

Y-armed at all pointer * fei auntred hem ^idf»r ; 

Mani a lud of J>e lond • raid hi to grounde, 

And many a seemeli segge * sorowe they wrought. 232 

})ei lafb for |>o pe lond • Lordshipe« tooke, 

Seseden * J)e cities • and seemelich tonnes, 

Keuered hem castele^ * |)e Kyng too dist9*2e ; 

For his susterc* sake • cease they nolde, 236 

That hee vrith werre ne wan • fe won pat hee aught, 

And pe Kyng of his kij • with care J>ei pinte. 

And ThUip unfaithfully • fe faire coste had, 


Arisba in exile • euer was after, 240 

And neuOT comme too his kij) • but caught was in teene. 
With doole dried hee so • his dayes in sorowe, 
To hee gaf * up his goste • with Grod for too dwelL 

Of pat carefull kyng • carp I no farre, 244 

But leaue hym in languor • & lysten too more, 
Philip aeeka to be How ThUip chases as cheefe • chaunces too fonde,* 

lisared in all Imda* 

Too bee adouted as deth * in diuers londes. 

1 MS. seems to have boane. 

' MS. flefeden, the en bem(^ above the line, 

' MS. gaue, unth t above ue. * MS. fynde, toith o over the j 

Digitized by 



When he had so hem [hampred • he] hendely fetched 

Hifl make too Macedoine • with mirthes ynow. 249 

He laught leue at his wife • & laft hur stiU S^Llf^f^^* 

For too hue in hur londe • in liking of hert, 

That no gome under God • greeuen hur myghi, 252 

Vhilip hie faire folke • ferselich araies, 

Too Greece he grapjbes hym now • with a grete wilL 


Hee comme too Methone • full cumHch a place, Hec 

Of any borowe best buylt • & bolde menne f ere,* 256 

One f e hugest holde • & hard for too wynne. 

That was in Greece o f o grounde • grai|>ed too stond. 

Hee brou(7^t his menne to be borowe ^ • & bliue it asailes. He attacks 

Methone with 

With prese of his power • hee prefers f 6m fyght. 260 his amy. 

Many a cumly Knight • & of er kid peeple 

On euery side was sett • asaute too make. 

]X»ugh * Vhilip fared with folke • ferefuU in fyght, 

Litle gained his greefe • for grim thei, were, 264 He finds them 

To warden feir walles * wit^ weies ynow. 

J)at citie wer sure men • sett for too keepe, 

With mich riall araie • redy too fight. 

With atling of areblast * • & archers ryfe. 268 [PoL e &.] 

Well fe]>ered flon * floungen aboute, wit/arUasto and 

Grim arowes & graie • wit^ grounden hedc* * arrows. 

Wer enforced to flie • her fone for to greeue. 

So bolde were in fe borowe * with balefull strokes, 272 

J)at of Philipe« folke • fele they slew. They slay many 

of his men. 

And many mightfull men * maymed hee fere, 

Jjat f e prent of fat prese • passed neuer. 

And Vhilip f e ferse King • foule was maimed ; 276 

A schaft with a scharp hed • shet * oute his yie, ^ a shaft shoots out 

That neuer siffen forsofe • sawehe therin. own eye. 

J5e gremf e of f o grim folke • glod to his hert, 

* MS. J>er©, loith d {Jor ^) over the \>. See the note on bolde. 

' MS. hoe another o above thejtret o. 

3 MS. Though, tcith \> over the Th. 

^ MS. areblast, toith i over it, betvoeen the a and r. 

^ MS. shet, with o over the e. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



For his eger enemies * his yie to lese. 280 

He makM a voir Hee made a uery uow • auenged too beene 

to be avenged. 

Of fat teenefull toch • fat hee tooke fere, 
And swore swiftlich his othe • aswage hee ne sholde, 
rPd. 7.] "With all fe maine fat hee might • too merken^ hem care. 
For to take f e tonne * f ough hee teene had, 285 

All fe segge* in sight • sorowe too kife. 

[POL7 6.] 

He renews the 
Attack flefoelj. 

His men throw 
■tones at the walls 
from engines, 
and crack the 

Tliej beat down 
the walls. 

The citizens 

Thus was (he 
city won. 

Philip enforceth hym now • his folke for to gie ; 
Hee rydes thorough-oute f e ronk ^ • araies him neew. 
Many mightfuU menne • made hee stryne, 289 

With archers & of er folke • auntred hym nere. 
J>ei lete flie to fe flocke • ferefull sondes,' 
Gaintw* grounden eiTyght • gonne they dryue, 292 

Stones stirred they f o • & stightlich layde 
On hur engines full gist * • to ungome fe walles. 
J)ei craked fe cournal<» • with carefuU dynte^, 
Jjat spedly to-sprong • & spradde beside. 296 

J)e Kyng with his keene ost • coflich fightea, 
And kif es all fat hee can • f e kif for to haue ; 
Jjei [sesen] ® on f e citie • soothe for too tell, 
Hut borowe bet so doune • with balefull strokes, 300 
And hemself in f e saute • sorowfidly wounded ; 
And many a lifeles lud • layed to f e grounde, 
J)at f ei ne stirred of f e stede • strife for to make. 
Hur ^ates ^eede f ei too • & youlden hem soone, 304 
To Philip farde f ei forthe • as fenked ^ wighte^, 
Profred hym f e pris holde * & preies ® in haste 
To deeme what hee doo will • for hur deede ylL 
Due • was f e citie of-sett • & sif f en so wonne ; 308 
But many a balefull beum • bought it full dere, 

• Cf. marked in 1. 932. * MS. rank, with o over the a, 

• MS. soundes or sonndes. * MS. Gamtw. 
» MS. iust, with gist above it ; and gist w marked. 

• See note. ' Over fenked is the gloss, uanquisshed. 
'MS. praiea, with e over the a. • MS. Due, with f over the D. 

Digitized by 




Or kid Methone • too fe Kyng fell. 

In Greece, many a grete toune • grim was of strength, in Greece were 

And ]>e menne of pat marche • mispronde were ; 312 JJJ^ 

Thei were so ding of f eir deede • ded[a]in * fat they had, They wooid let no 

Jjat any gome under God • gonern hem sholde. 

But as they sayden hemseK • and assent made, 

J)ei nere encHne to no King • hur kif for too gye. 316 

They wrought by beir owne will • & wolde nonght Th<qr did as they 

, '^ Ukedbeet. 

To seche fern a Souereine* • fe Citie to jeme. 
Farre fen feir owne folke • fare they nolde, 

What lud liked hem best • fe Lordship hee gat,* 320 They elected what 
And on chees for cheefe • & chaunged lome. 
All swich cities • fat seemelich were, 

Philip fenke^ in fyght • & fayled lyte, Phuip oonquen 

That all Greece hee ne gatt • with his grim werk. 324 
In what maner & how • men may i lere, [Foi. s.] 

Jjat hee withlich * whanne * • f e worship of Greece, 
To bee holden of hym • holly f e raigne, 
For to gye f e gomes * as hym goode thought. 328 

Now tell wee of Tebes • that tristy ^ was holde, i now speak of 

•^ ^ Thebes. 

There as Philip fe firee • to fostring dwelt. 

How fe hides of the land • a-losed for gode, 

Wer enforced to fight • with hur fone hard. 332 

J)er twmed a-^e Tebes • twoo trie places, TheThebans 

are attadced by 

\>e sikerest cities * that any seg wist ; the Laoedcmon- 

pQ Lordship of Lacedemonie • lofed hem than, *° 

And of Phocos fe folke • fast hem assailes. 336 The war between 

J5e werre wox ^ in fat won • wonderly stem, ^era. * ^^^ 

^ MS. dedio, with disdeine over it Cf. 1. 584. 

* MS. Souerelne, ttnth a over ei. 

' MS. hi |jat, tpith ee over i, and g over the \>. 

* MS. wightly, with the older spelling withlich over it. 

» MS. wanne, with wh over the w. See " Werwolf," 1. 2852. 

* MS. trusty, with i over the u, 
T MS. wax, with over the a. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Th«]r fight on 
foot and on 

are vexed at 
their e 

bat are not 

The Thebans get 
the upper hand, 
and put their foea 
to a heavy 

which thej most 
pay or die. 

Not railing the 
■nm, the Phooians 
resume the war. 

Philomelos Is 
chosen their chief. 

[Pol. 8 ft.] 

They know they 
must pay or die. 

And eipev on hur enemies • egerly wrought. 

On a season isett • assembled they boJ)o, 

"With all f e maine pat they might • metten ifere ; 340 

Araide rinke^ aright ' reulich smiten, 

On footo & on faire horsse • fought f ei samme. 

Priken* on a plaine feelde • preeued Knighted, 

Bolde were bore doune • on bothe twoo haluos. 344 

Of Tebes f e trie folke • wer teened in hert, 

For hur ferefull fone * so ferslich spedde, 

"With wrayth of a woode will • wonde * f ei nolde, 

To riden into the route • rappes to deale. ' 348 

Steedes stirred of pe stede * strane men under, 

And oother folke on hur feete • folowed them after. 

The Lacedemonieins • lowe laide were, 

And of Phocus folke • feld they also. 352 

The Tebenieins teenfully • tooke this ofer, 

And to a riche raunson • f e rinkes they putt, 

That amounted [to] more • then they might payo, 

Or dereine with right • with rede of femself, 356 

To profer hem as prisonere* • till they payde had, 

To let lo]?ely pat goode • or hur life tine. 

J5e companie was carofull • & kest ' in hur hert, 

J)at J)ei pat raunson wit^ right • arere ne might, 3(K) 

Jjei wer so sorowfuU hemself • that summe to rere, 

Jjat fei ne spared pat space • to spenen * hur Hues. 

A proude Knight of pe prese • hur Prince f ei made, 

Philomelo * pe fell man • was pe freke bote, 
J)e folke of Phocus too araie * & pe fight jeme, 
With hides of Lacedemonie • to leggen on hard ; 
For they kende pe case • & kneew eche one, 
But thei prestly payde • that precious summe, 
J5ei sholde leesen hur life * pei fern lothe fhongJit, 



* An e over the i. » MS. wonde, with e over the o. 

' MS. kast, tpith e over the a ; also the e is marked. 
^ MS. spend, with nen {marked) over the d. 
' MS. Philomela, with o over the&; seel. 421. 



And zif bei ferde ^ to fight * their fone for to nye, wiieretore th«y 

With skathe to bee skoumfit • & askape neuer, 

J5ei wisten all full well • wisly to knowe, 372 

That more dreede fen deth • drie fei ne might ; 

As goode thought hem go • till they grounde sought, B^twiuithan 

be killed as 

To meete with hur fomen • & maAlich deie,^ oowardi. 

As bee cowardly killd • for cateW want. 376 

Forthe twmed thei tid • hur teene to uenge, 

All to lachen or leese • or hur lyfe tine. 

Full stoutely with stiff will • f ei stirred on hur gate, 

To teene f e Tebenieins • f ei twmed to fight. 380 They attack ths 

J)ei dradden htle hur deth • & doughtily wrought, wckiewV. 

J3ei putt fern in perril • & prikeden aboute, 

J5ei rought lite of hur life ' & laiden on hard ; 

For fere, ne fantasie • faile they nolde. 384 

J)ei were so hardie too harm • happe* to fonde, 

J)at f ei pat stint at hur stroke • stirred no more ; 

So bei felden hur fone • by force of her dinted. They feii their 

foes l^ sheer 

For greefe of hur grim stroke • grunt full many, 388 force. 

J3at hem rued J)e res • fat fei ne rest had, 

Whan fei f e bikering abide • with bostefiill deede*. 

J)US PhoSUs' with fyght • felden this Ofer/ ThoathePhodana 

J)ei tooken hur tresour • & teened hem sore. 392 

J)ei of Tebes with teene • turnede fro thanne 

Euefull & redeles * biraft of hur goodes. The Thebana an 

•! • 1 rocfbl, and seek 

In sorowe bene they of-sett • to siken in hert, revenge. 

Jif J)ei ne haue none help • hem* to auengo. 396 

For ^is * feye folk ^er ^ • so fouli was harmed, 
Till fei were wreken of fat wo • wolde fei nongJit 

To seeche more socour • assented they alL ^^y ^^^^ ^^ 

J3e mightio King of Macedoyne * moste was adouted 
Of any wight in f e worlde ' f ei wist fe soothe. 401 

1 MS. farde, toith e over tJis a. 

2 MS. dye, with deie {marked) above it. ' MS. *08U8. 
^ MS. )>em. ^ MS. dis, der ; and so is written fo. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[FoL 11.] To fetch Philip, be folke • farde in an haste, 

Th«ygoto(iBtdi . 

Phuip,andproAr And comen ryght to fe kith • |>ere fe King dwelt, 
•uegunoe; Besoughten hym of socour • hur Souendne to bene, 404 

To be Lorde of hur land • feir lawes to keepe, 
J)ei "to holden of hym • fe hye & the lowe, 
*With pat hee wolde with hem • wend in an haste, 
Hur enemies egerly ' in emest to meete. 408 

PhiUp mu <mt for Philip grauntetf & gose • graithes his peple, 

Th«befl, ready to * " o o jt i. ^ 

attMk the Til bei to Tebes wer tumd • targe bei nolde. 

With hia ferefull folke • to Phocus hee rides. 
And is wilfull in werk * to wirchen hem care. 412 

Folke of Phocus to fere * or the fight comme, 
Weren ware of hur werk • & went for help, 
^ei armed ^e Atteniens * & aunter hem ^ider. 
Strained in stel ger * * on steedes of might, 416 

With grim graif ed gomes • of Lacedemonie, 
All redie araied * to ryden hem tilL 
Hem lacked a leader ' ])e hides to araie, 
Hur Prince in fe forme prese • was prened to J?e erth, 
Philomelo pe faire Knight • in pe fight died. 421 

When f ei proflfred hem prest • & pe pris wonne, 
For f ei myssed pat man • they made hem a neew. 
Enomant^, an eger "Kajght • in erth to fight, 424 

J)ei made master of hem • J?e menne for too leade. 
And busken to battaile * as bostfull in armes, 
With a leflich lust * lachte togeder. 
Of Phocus pe fell Duke • in pe fight rydes ; 428 

Enomant« pe bolde beum • pe battle araies, 
Hee was chosen for cheefe • in chasing of werre, 
Too bee feir dereworthe Duke • for doughtie hee 

send for help to 

The Laoedamon- 



Philomelue b«d 

[Ononuurohus] Is 
choMD leader. 

He is duke of 

Both eidea are 
ready for battle. 

Now beene pe parties prest • to proflfren hur dinted, , 
With baners brode displaide • busken to meete, 433 
[Pol, 11 6.] Gurden in goode speede • grislich farde, 

> MS. stelger. 

Digitized by 




Bothe blonkerf & beium[es] • bareu to grounde. 

ber was feld many frekes * bat on be feelde lay, 436 *^«^ »« fe"«^ 

^ J r r J» and wounded 

Euery segge for hymself * bisetten hur might, wighu waUow 

Jjat many a wounded wjghi ' walowed f ere. 

But Vhilip witA his wight men * fe werre gan jeme,* pwup and hii 

J)at by strength of her strife • fei straught to foote 440 ywy am re«ch. 

All so many as his menne ' mighten areche. 

Jpus his peple on fe plain * all ]>e pris * wonne, 

)}at none stirred of ]7e stede * ])6re ])ei stroke sett. 

))e ludea of Lacedemonie • lobed in hert, 444 Both i^M^die. 

. . monifuii 

]>at euCT )?ei stinten in strife * to sterue in ])e place. 

Of Phocus f e ferse men • forthoughten hew all, «nd phodani 

])at euCT ])ei farde to fight * wM Philip ])e keene. nahneu. 

J)us })is cumlich Kyng • fat ilche kith wynnes ; 448 

Lorde of Lacedemoine • was be lud banne, ThM phiiip is 

And Phocus by fin strokes • freelich hee walte, 

And hathe all Greece at his graunte * for h^ grete yie. 

Now cease wee ^ sawe * of ]?is seg steme, 452 <r-— 

And of a Kyng wel i-kid • karp wee now, 
bat entred in iEgypt * euer on his liue, ^« ™>^ •!>«* ^ 

a king of Egypt. 

To leng in })at Lordeship • & fe lond aught. 

Of what kinne hee comme • can I nought fynde 456 ^*°* nothing 

^ "^ about his kindred 

In no buke ^ Jjat i bed * • when I beganne here in any book, 
J)e Latine to J)is language • lelliche tume. 

Nectanabus fe noble man • his name was hote, NectonSmTMid 

be nede of Nigremauncie * hee nas nought to lem. 460 *" ''■^ ■""•^ *? 

' o ^^ necnunanoy and 

In art of Astronomie • able hee was holde, aatronomy. 

And cheefe of enchauntment • chaunces to telL 

Hee was [kene] on his crafb • & cunnyng of deede, 

Egipt by eritage • entred hee neuer ; 464 j®*"f^**^ 

Hee wanne it by witchcraft • for y-wis hee was inheritance, bu* 

•^ •^ bywitchcwft. 


^ MS. ^nn or ^em^ ; see 1. 365. 

» MS. prU, vfith ce over th$ s. 

3 MS. booke, with a above the oo. 

* MS. bed, mth had above it, * See the note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


A prince of Perau A proude Prince & a pris • fro Peres ^ was fare, 

^yfflfiW to 

Nectanabof, and )}at helde of ])is hje King * hoUich his londe^. 

'*^' To noble Nectanabw^ • nam he his gate, 468 

And tolde this tydyng • to f e Kyng soone, 
[FoL It.] How hym was care to cuT/wne • by costes aboute. 

** pe Kyng of Perce wit^ prese • of peple full huge 
"Thakingof Graithcs hym grim folke • & OTCue aou thenketh.* 472 

Penia !■ going to ^ o o ^ 

attack 700.'* But yeo cast at his comme * to keepen hym hence, 
Yee shall lose your lond • & your life also." 

Neotanaboa does PoT no care of pis case ' pQ King in his lond 

S^J|J*° Kleped^ no Knighthod ' ne no kid peeple, 476 

Hee ne araide no route * )?e raigne too keepe, 

but aeoretiy fills But passed priuily ' in place full deme. 

fSu^nS-JSLr. ^ P^^^ ^^J'^^ P^*** * ^®® profere* him till ; 

Of rain-water ryght full • fe rink gon it dress ; 480 
A hnght broseyn jerd • brode on his bond. 

By his craft he And by be conning of craft * bat hee kid hadde, 

BOSS ships coming^ ,. , -nr . i 

ftiu of armed Hee sawe saile on ])e sea * seemelich Knighted, 
* '*' Bothe schippca & schoute[s] • with schawe* of myght, 

Well i-armed, iwis * werre too holde, 485 

J)e egerest of Egipt * in emest too meete. 

The prince says, Whan hee had pat happe * hollich awaited, 

the truth. Jjo Prince to pB pris Kyng • prestly saide, 488 

" Sir, I tolde you trouth * trist * yee no noof cr, 

Yee beene greefly bigo • but grace you falle. 
Artaxerxes is ArtasaKcs pQ Kyng • & armed Knighte*, 
SJSS, ° * Oute of Perce beth prest • passing hider, 492 

With nine grete nations • too nye J>ee here. 

Perce is fe principall • & Perthe pat ooJjct, 
parthians. Of Medie full mich folke • murder fee think ; 

^^SSJ* Of Syria [a] siker oste • sechen too fight ; 496 

1 MS. Perss, with ss marl;edf and co above it, 

' MS. yoa thinkoth, icith 3 above the y, and e above the i. 

' MS. Kliped, with e above the i. 

^ MS. trist, with u above the i. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


With menne of Mesopotame " too mark be teene : Meeopotamiana, 

Angml, Arabians, 

Of Augmi & Arabes * armed Princes ; Bosohi. and the 

J>er beene of Bosorij • beumea ynow ; 

Of Arofagi all men • that armes now welde. 600 

Yee bene enforced to fight • with ^ua fell beume^, 

And ooJ?er weies of fe weste * werre too make; 

J^is ilk tydyng of teene • trowe yee mowe/ 503 Tnut thew 

And but yee bett beene araide • bale you springeth." bww n* 

Kectanabus ancnne right * nyed hym tyU, Nectanaboi 



And gleming gainelich * too ])e gome saide — 

" Keepe well thyne owne koste • bat bei no ko?wme CFoL 12 &.] 

, "Take care of 

^Sare,^ yonr own lands. 

J)at is take too pee * truly too jeme. 508 

Jjou kij>es no Knighthod • too karp as a Prince, Yoa do not ipeak 

But as a gome wer agast • fou grende^ thy speeche. 

j>ei ^i * turn such teene * this time hider, Though they iiy 

With all pe might of hur maine * mee too distroie, 512 rictory it not on 

J)e uertue of il uictorie • of unwele peeple, IS^J^' 

Is noght stabled in strength • of no stiff prese. 

Thorou graunte of fe greate God • if him goode thinker, By ood'e help. 

In fight or in fell turn • ^er* as flight is of ddntes, 516 

In battail or bolde stede • bigly too wirch, 

As mich may a meane man * as a more stem, a mean man may 

For f ou seeste well thiself • (saide fe king fan), Jbmnom,^ * 

A lioun in a launde • may lightlych driue 520 a uon can drive a 

Of herte* an hoUe herde • as happen ilome * ; J^ ***^ ^ 

For no strength, ne strife * no sti£ties of members, strength is ftxun 

But as gracious Godde • grauntes too beene." \ 

Anon as Nectanabus • had namned peae wordes, Noctanabus iwes 

Hee passed in his Paleis • too a priuie sell, 525 ****' 

Hee tooke prestly a pott • too preeue yet more. 

^ MS. may, with owe above ay. ' MS. dare, toith p above d. 
' • MS. der, for *er ; but ice mmt read *ei. 

^ MS. der, unih )) above thed. ^ Before and above i is wh. 

Digitized by 



He makei fhipe Hee wraught shipps of wax • & rain-water beiit^^ ; 

of wax, and puts 

rain-water in a HoB putte^ it in fe pott * & a palme braunche 528 

Hee helde hard in his hond • & his art kijjes ; * 
With all f e wyle of his werk • Jje waie gon enchaunte. 

By hii sorcery, be . By segging of sorsery • bat hee sei * bere 

■ees the god of 

Barbary floaUng Fleete in f 6 floode " fane fro fe lond, 532 

D esea, ^^ Barbre fe hryght God * brem too beholde; 

and the god of ^ J>e gaye God of Egipt • glisiande bright, 

Egypt aatHng 

there too. So Sailed in J)e sea • in that same tyme. 

Hee bihelde how J?e God • pat heried was in Barbre 
Gouemed hur goodes • by grace of his myght. 537 

He see* the god of be seg sei ^ Well himself • bat socour him fayles, 

Barbary will not . 

let the people For no grace hur greto Gt)d • graunt ne * might ; 
^ ™* Of hem hoped hee help • too haue at h.U neede, 540 

But hee kneew by that kast • fei kouth noght help. 
He shaves off hair J)e beum for a barboui • bliue let send, 

and beard, doffs 

bis annour, and His herd, heirc, & his hedde • hett hee too schaue. 

Hee cast of his Knightweede • & clofes hym neew, 544 
With white- sendal in syght * seemely too knowe, 
[Foi. 18.] Of gold swith gret won • graithes hee ^anne ; * 

His gold and AH that AstronoHiie • aught too long, 

instruments **'.—.. 

astronomy he With ginncs of Gemctrie * too ioinen his werke*, 548 
Hee let trusse full tid • & takes nomore, 
But fares witA few folke • farre fro pe londe. 

and passes into Hee passes as a Prophet * priuely f anne 

there? **"* ^" Fro Egipt till Ethiope • & eft on his gate. 552 

Jjere hee lenged in fat land • as a lud straunge 
Men kneew hym for no king • kunnyng hee seemes. 

When his men Whan his menskfull menne • might nought fynde 

cannot find him, i -, -rr- .-.,■. /. n • • trtr/» 

th^ pray to their Hup kcd King m Egipt * catefull f ei were. ooo 

^ra^j^ To hur God Seraphin • Je gomes gon aU 

Koure doune on hur knees • [&] karpen fese wordes. 

* MS. kipcp, with oe above the i. ^ p is often {in copies) writtm 
by mistake instead of p. 

• MS. sei, icith aw above ei. 

' An is written above the e. * MS. danne. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


" Seemely Seraphin " ' saido they thanne, "Seraphin, tou us 

newv of 

" Tell us sum tydyng • of our true Prince, 560 NectwuOws! " 

Noble Nectanabus • that now is awaye ! " 

Hut God grathliche spake • & too f e gomes saide, The god repUca, 

" Kares * nought for yowr Kyng • f is kith hath hee lete, away for fear of 

For peril of fe proude Kyng • from Perce fat wended ; 

Hee shall hye hym againe * & help you faire, HewiUoome 


And scliend fem schamelich * fat sholde you greue." 

Of lis swift answer • bei wer swith glad, They wore glad. 

' ' '-' nud carved a god 

And grauedon a greate ston * a God as it were, 668 of atone, 

I-corue after a Kyng • full craftie of werk. 

\)e frekes in that faire ston • at his feete soone at whoee fbet they 

, I'll wrote every word 

Let write euery worde • wisly too knowe, that seraphin had 

That Seraphin pat Soueraine • saide hem till, 572 ****** 

In mynde that more folke • myght it arede. 

Now nolde Kectanabus • no while dwell, soon after, 

Too f e Courte of pe Kyng • till hee comme were, to Phtup'a court 

Too looke on Olympias • fe onorable Queene, 576 ^"^^^^^^ 

Jjat was alosed in lond • of diuera? raignes, 
For one fe brightest of blee " pat bore was in erth. 
Whan J)e seg had scene * that seemely Ladie, He grwu her. 

Too greets that gracious • hee gose in a haste, 580 ^' 

Hee cummes too pat comely • & coflich saide : 
" Haile ! quemfiill Queene • quaintly shape ! [FoL is b.] 

Moste of all Macedoine • menskfull Ladie ! " 583 "Haui gradooa 

Hee was dedaine on his deede * '* Madame " too segge would not say 
Too any Ladie in lond • for lordlich hee karpe^. 
J)e Queene quitt hym his specho * & quikly saide, xiie queen says, 

** Maister, welcome, ywis • will[e] yee sitte 1 " weicome'i 

J)e Ladie laches f 28 lude • & ledes in hand ; 588 

By hur side pat seg * too sitten hue makes. 
J)at worthlych too pta wight • wilsfuJly saide : 
" Fro what kith bee yee comme • kennes mee now ; whence do you 

#»•■-«• • • iiA«« ^/\A owneP From 

Ert J?ou aught of Egipt • in emest too tell ? 592 Egypt r 

1 MS. Kare, with s above the e. 
13 • 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


" Queen, 70a ** Queene," saide hee quikly • " f ou quemest my hert ; 

Jwiw^ I hewr -^ ^^ speciall speecbe • spoken yee haue. 

<rf Egypt. Where euer menne saye * Egipt * • myne eres ar prest. 

For fat wortlich * worde • waketh my bliss. 596 

The men of It is a Knightly kith • & kid men inne, 
di^nu, and the Of any Yflghtes in wonne • wysest i-holde. 
uagoage of birds, j^^^ y^^^ rmkes aright • in reching of sweuene^. 

Too preeue^mich priuie thyng • & pypyng of birde*. 
pe ludene ' of fat language • lelli })ei knowe, 601 

And bothe of burden & bem[e»] • pe burth too tell. 

T am an I am a lude of pat lond • lered therin, 

prophet." Too preche as a Prophet • preeued of witt." 604 

When hee fese tales her till • had tolde soone, 
po face of pat faire thyng * fast hee beholdes. 

•'Tell me what « Lude," saide pe Lady • *' let mee iknowe 607 

thrilled thy ^ r J 

thought at seeing What thing thurludo thy thou^At • })o fou mee biheldel' 
** Forsoothe," saide that seg • ** seemely Queene, 

** A bright god I segge, God sent mee • too saue thee now, 

■avd thee from For too waste thy wo • with willa pat 1 owe. 

«>rrow." Thorou bone ' of a bright God • busked I hider, 612 

Too defend fro doole fee • dereworth Queene." 

[Pol. u.] Whan hee with speede had spoke • his speche to 

pe end, 
He fctdjeeabraas A brem brasen horde • hilnsea hee soone, 

toblet set in ivory, 

and decked with Imped in iuoiy ' too incle pe truthe, 616 

"" ^^' With goode siluer & golde • gailich atired. 
In this blisfull horde • beholde men myght 

Three cirdea were Three circles isett ' seemelich rounde. 

inthe^flrstwere P^ ^^^ ^irklc in himself • seemely was holde, 620 

S'tirS^Si^ J>e twelue signes in sight • sett ferin. 

If any wight in this wonne • wilnes pern knowe, 
KaiTus to pe Kalender • & kenne yee may. 

In the second was Sitheu in pe soconde circle 'soothely too lere, 624 

1 MS. worclich. Cf. 1. 1024. « MS. lude ne. 

3 MS. bone, toith a second above the 0. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


"Was craftely conteined • Jje course of be sonne ; tbeooomof the 


And ])e mark of pe moone * made in )?e third, in the third, thai 

Jjat bliss was for a beum • fat borde too biholde. <»f the moon. 

]?an fetter hee a forcer ' freelich ischape, 628 Then he fetched 
Jjat wraught was of iuory • wonderly faire ; *° ^^*^ ^^^ 

Seuin sterre^ pat stounde * stoutlich imaked, with aeven 

Hee showes forthe scheenely • shynand bright. in^°* 

J)e bem couth peibj • boldely tell, 632 i^ which he knew 
When a gome were igett • by grace of his witt. hour. 

Foure stones in fath > • forthe gon hee bryng, He chose foor 

)?at lay longyng ' too the louelich sterres ; to pUnete. 

Many thing6$ of man • myght hee showe, 636 
By studie ^ of J?e stones • in what state hee were. 
** MaistCT," quath be Queene • " quainte of thy werke*, ** Mwter/' uid 

' ^ ' ^ * *^ ehe, " when wae 

If bee liketh bat I leeue • thy lufsum deedes, my dew lord 


Tell mee tidly f e time • & term of pe jeres, 640 

In what dale my dere Lorde • fat douhti is holde, 

Was ibome of f e burd • fat hee best loued 1 " 

J)e King by his kunnyng • castea it soone ; 

By ginnes of Gemetrie • hee ioifully telle* 644 

Bothe pe date, & pe daie • & f e dere tyme, dISe*t"toeX 

Jjat Philip was forth brou^/it • of his faire mooder. 

Whan this rink had arad • & redely showed, C^**^- ^* *J 

AU f e burth of fe bem • by his art one, 648 

** Ladie," saide hee, " louelyche • liketh fee au^7<t ele«, Heaaktifehe 

J)at I shoolde fee showe * in a short time ? '' Might else ? 

" Maister," saide fat menskfoll • " mee likes too knowe. 

What Philip my free lorde • fat fairest of londe, 652 she adct what 

*^ *' ^ ^ Philip will do to 

Wil wirch by mee ? ' for weies mee tolde, Jwr j 

Hee wyll forsake mee soone • & seeche hym a neew, for she has heard 

__ , . , , , , he will forsake 

Whan hee is cumme too f ts kith • too kithe mee her. 

For yee ne bane nogJd i-herd • holly be wrath, 656 (Aa you have not 

'' ^ , heard Phillp'f 

By what cause f e Kyng • coueted in hert ca«Mfor wrath, 

^Sk, Bead^'feif." ^ US. atvL^Oy withi aiove the n. 

1 tell you noio. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Onoe Philip went 
to the temple of 
Ammoo, and 

"What will 
happen to 
Olympias ? " 

" She wiU have a 
child, the greatest 
man on earth. 

He wlU not he 

Therefore wai 
PhiUp wrathful 
■gainst her.) 


Too lo})e this Ladie • mee list you teU. 

As Philip farde to fight * in a ferce place, 

Hee turned too a temple • atired ioo-nghtesy 

His grete God Amon • grates too ^elde ; 

Hee kneeles coflich adoune • & kries hym till, 

And saide, " Seemely God • send mee too knowe. 

Of onorable Olympias • fat I on think, 664 

What shall hur happe to haue • fat hende is of deedel" 

His God gaue an ansuer • & too J?e gome saide, 

" Hur chaunce is too haue a childe • fat cheefe shall in 

Of any lude* fat Hue * in Lordship wex. 
J)e bem shall not bee ^ine * • bolde fo f ou seeme, 
But geten of a-noof er gome • in fat gaye burde." 
J5en was fe King carefuU • & kest^ for wrath 
For too bring fat beurde • in baQe for euer. 
Menne tolde this tydyng • too f e true Queene, 
)5erfore hur lyked fat lud • his lore too knowe. — 



answers, " It is 

[F<d. 16.] 

When Philip has 
forsaken you, he 
will have to talce 
you back again," 

•« Who will be so 
bold as to make 
him do so ? '* 


" Now," saide Nectanabus • anon too f e Lady, 675 
" J)e sawe fat f ou haste saide * uncertain is founde ; 
But ^ei • f ou ne hap noght yet • too haue fat sorowe, 
J5at fere shall bifall fee • wMin few yeres.* 
Whan Philip in his foule will • hathe fee for-lete, 
Maugre his malice ' or his menne sterne, 680 

Him tides to take fee a3ain * trowe f ou no nooder." 
" Maist-er," quod f e Queene • " queme yde me might, 
Of this unkouth case ' too karp f e soothe. 
When Philip f e ferefull • forsake mee thynke^, 684 
Who durst bee so bolde • fat bides in erth. 
Too make hym, maugre his menne * mee for too take?" 
J?us saide f e sag * *' Such one I knowe ; 
A God fat is gracious • & grete of his myght 688 

1 MS. \njie ; but above the \) is aiS without the cross stroke, 

' Over the e in kest is a. 

'MS. dei, with though above it as a gloss, 

* Catchword— Whan Phelip. 

Digitized by 



Shall busk too thy horde bed • by bee too ligge, conw to thy bed, 

' and thus Shalt 

And fro this harmfull happe • help fee faire." thou have help." 

J)e Ladie full louely • of ))e lud aske«, 

"Which dereworthe dright • desires mee too haue 1" 11^2*^?^ ^^^ 

Jjis King carper anon • & cofly saide, 693 

" Hee is noghX yonge of his yeres • fat yeme^ fee take, **^* ^ neither 

Nofer olde of hw age • but onely too showe, 

In a nieane maner • mightfuU hee seemes. 696 

Hee hath hye on hia bed • homes of syluer, riw^hoJSJ."* 

With golde gailye begonne • glisiing bright, 

With here on \d8 hedde • & his herd also. 

Hee wyll nye [fee] too-night • & neede fee bihooues 700 "« ''"' *» nigh 

Bee full prest too his paie • & profer fee faire." 

" 3if I may trowe thy tale • trulich," hue st^de, i IJlIi*!^*',^^ 

" I shall hilich [fee] herie • witZt hert and wyll, thee aa a prophet, 

No{77tt praise fee as a Prophet • fat passeth in londe, 

But as a gracious Godde • greate I fee thynk, 705 ^^^T* ^ " 

And bileeue on thy lore • all my lifetime," 

ban nolde Nectanabus • no leni^er abide, " Nectanabos goes 

o 7 alone to gather 

But gothe too a greene grounde * fere grascs wer sett ; worte, 

Farre fro f e Paleis • hee fares aU alone, 709 

And laches in a launde • full louely wortes. 

Hee grindes hem grathly • & gripes in honde, 

Hee wringer oute f e wet wus • and went on his gate. C^®*- J** *0 

Hee passed intoo fe Paleis • in a preeuy wyse. 713 them the wet 

When it dreew too f e derk • & f e dale slaked, * ~"* 

J3e burd busked too bedde • & brou^^t was on slepe, Atdu8k,oiympia» 

Jjis King w/tA his conning • kith^* his werke^, 716 

With wiles of witchcraft • & wicked deedes, 

Jjat by fauour of fe fende • & his foule crafted 

Hee grathe^ hym as a God • & gothe too be burde : Nectauabus 

*^ *' o i' 7 arrnys himself aa 

As hue slumbred on slepe • slilich hee wend^?, 720 » v^ 

And lyeth by fat Ladie • fat louely was holde. 

Whan hee his will had wraught • hee wende* in haste, «"id goes to her, 

^ ' and soon returns. 

And straihte oute of f e stede • yfi\h a stiff wylL 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



She awake* in 

She had dreamt 
of Amznon, with 
ailver horns and 
burning ooal. 

god shaped like a 

▲U the land 
worshipped him. 

Oljmpias had 
dreamt that he 
drew near her, 
and said. 

"Now is he 
conceived that 
sliall keep thee 
from care." 

J3an Je burde in her bed ' braide of bur slepe, 724 

And whan shee wakyng was • shee wondred in hert 

Hue mett on f e midnight • of mirth full riue,' 

Jjat grete God Amon • gan f if er wend. 

And had seemelich isett ' siluem homes, 728 

And bright biased his blee * as a brend glede. 

Jjen was Amon y wis • of worship a-losed, 

And igrett for a God • gretest in lond. 

Hee was ishape as a sheepe • shinand bright, 732 

I-painted full prisely • & precious stones 

Wer sticked oi^ fat stock * stoute too beholde. 

All f e lude» of j>e lond • Lordes & eles 

Set hym for soueraine • f eir sokour too beene, 736 

And saide fere sacrifice * in selkouth times. 

J3anne or-trowed Olympias • fe onorable Queene, 

J3at hee neihed fat night • nye too her syde, 

And fonded hur fleshlych • or hee fare wolde. 740 

Whan hee in his lykyng • fat Ladie lauht had. 

Hut seemed in fat same stede • fat hee saide after, 

" Worldly wooman • well may fee lyke, 

For thy keeper of care • is conceiued now." 744 

[Fd. 16.] 

She sends next 
day for 

She tdls him her 
dream, and says. 

•* I know not the 
troth of it, fbr I 
was asleep." 

He answers, *• It 
Is quite true. 

A morowe on f e mine daie • f is menskfhll Queene 
Arises up redely * and a rink sendee 
Anon too Nectanabus • & needely hym praies, 
J)at he cofly comme • too carpen her tylL 748 

Jjan laft f ts lud • no^7it long ther-after, 
But camme too fat louely • too kenne of her lore. 
pe Queene tolde hym till * f e tales too f e ende, 
Of her dereworth dreme • fat draibte hur in slepe, 752 
And hue saide too fat seg • " Soothe of er eles 
3if it were, I ne wott • for wislich I slept, 
Whan I fat sweuen so sweete • swiftly metto»" 
" Nay," saide Nectanabus ' "ne trowe f ou no noof er, 766 
\)ia ilk sawe was soothe • & certain iprooued. 

^ MS. riae, tcith f above uc. 

Digitized by 



Fop tif bou lene mee leue * too leng biside, o*v« me leave to 


for too stand in a stede * of a straite place, 

Too waite at a windowe • & warn pee after, 760 

I shoolde trie be truthe • & tell bee soone, i wiu teu thoe if 

'^ ' U la tnie or false. 

WhejOT i faithfall or falss • founde thy sawe. 

For I wame Jee well • wM worship & ioye, 

Hee wyll ))ee nye too-nyght • in a neew fourme. 764 To-night thoa 

In dreme as a dragoun * dreche hee ]>ee thenka^, new form. 

And sitben shows hym hee shall • a shawe as it were, ^^^^J 

Mich liche ' too mee • by mark of my face." aftemardaaman. 

'' "^ moch like 

" Sir," saide fat seemelich • " f i sawes bee mirye, 768 mywif." 
J)ou shalt stond in a stede • still biside ; "sir, tboo siuut 

3if it bee certain & soothe * fiself shnll i chese, tme, thou ihait 

Too faf er J)e free • that I forth bryng." uS^* 

J)e burd bad hastely • by hur boure side, 772 

J)at swich* a place • were prest • too prooue ]>e truthe.* 

Whan pe leme & f e light • of f e leefe sonne [Foi. 21.] 

Was idrawne adowne • & dym were cloudes, At night, the 

J)e Ladie lay on hur bed • & lysted too slepe, 776 '****^* 

•And this wonderfull weie • waites his place ; 
Hee stoode still on f e stede • & stirred no foote. 
And sleyly, when f e first slepe • slaked on wightes,^ 
Hee chases by. enchauntement • be chamber within, 780 Nectanaboa takea 

the form ofa 

And wit^ a dragon6« drem • dreew too f e bedde. dragon, 

]?an hee meeues too hnr mouthe ' & makes his lidene, 

And kisses fat cnmly • & kithe* his wyll ; «>°«» *<> 

And sithen hee seemed a seg • hymself as it were, 784 

And spake too her speedily • these speciall wordes ; 

" On fee is getten a gome • f e grimmest in erth, and teUa her she 

shall have a 

pat all weies in fe worlde • worship shall." mighty son. 

Jjus quaintely f is Queene • was quemed wit/t gyle, 788 

* MS. liche, ufith ke above che. 

* MS. swicli, ijoith u above the wL 

* MS. place, with is over ce ; perhaps the older copy had plais. 

* Catchword— Whan %q leme of iSe liht of iSe leue sonne. 
^ MS. nights, with w above n. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




The lady wiflM 
and U attired. 

She Bends tot 

and asks what 
PhUip wiU do to 

Ammon will 
protect her. 



And wend gamene witli a Grod • gracious of might, 

Whan a libbing lud • lay in hur armes. 

Jjis rink, or J?e sonne rist • romos a morowe, 

And passes in J?e Paleis • prestlich hym one. 

And far forthe on f e daye * whan f e fairs burde 

Had long \>eTQ layne • & had lyst too ryse, 

Dereworth damsele^ • drowen ' them f ifcr ; 

Too seme ]>at seemely * fei setten hur honde^^. 

Whan hue was redie araid • & riall on sight, 

Hue sendee soone for fe segge • & saide f ese wordes, 

" Menskfull maister * makeles of witt, 

Tell mee now truly • & targo^ no lenger, 800 

What kid King Philip * pat keene is of hert, 

Deemes with mce too doo * mee dreede^ it sore 1 " 

J)e lud too this Lady • full lonely saide, 

" Of Philip haue J)ou no fere • for faitly too knowe, 804 

Amon f e grete God • by graunte of my boone, 

Schall J>ee wisse fro wo • & wreche of his teene." • 

[FoL tl 6.] 
He gathers herbs, 

He takes a sea- 
fowl, and anoints 
it with the Juice 
of herbs. 

J3an farde Nectanabus • forthe fro j>at place, 
Hee wendes too a wildemes • & waites him erbei», 808 
squ^ and dries ^^ tempres hem tidly • & takes hem after. 
And hee drainer in a dish • till pei dry were. 
J3an fetches hee a seafoule * faire of his wyngc/?. 
And sawes of sorsery ' hee saide therouer ; 812 

Of his grounden gras * pe vnxs can hee take, 
J)eron hee brynge^ pe brid * & bathes his pilw^. 
By help of pe Hellfeende • hee haunter his werkca, 
To gille Philip in Greece • whan pe gome slept. 816 
Whan it nied pa night * nedelich & soone, 
Philip fared too bed • & fell on a slepe. 
pe chaunce of cnchauntment • cliased his mynde, 
J3at hee was drailit vriih dreme • thorou deuile« engines. 
J3an met fat man • on his mine slepe, 821 

' MS. drowen, with eew above owen. • Above the ^ itio, 

' Catchword — " Danne fcrd Xect." 

Philip, 1^ hU 

Digitized by 




Jpat hee sawe on his sight • his seemely make, 

How pat louelich lif * laide was a beddo, 

And a gracious God • gripte hur in amies. 

Hee lay by fat Lady • his liking hee WTOught ; 825 

And whan his deede * so deeme * doone was in haste, 

Amidde^ hur membre • too maken it close, 

Hee sawe hyui sowen * a seme • by seeming of sweuen, 

And vrith a gaie golde ring • hee gan it asele ; 829 

A ston stiked ferein • stoutlich igraue ; 

pe cast of J)e sonne course • was corue f erin ; 

A litle lionet hed • louelich ishape, 832 

"With a swith faire swerd • sweetelich imaked, 

Was isett on f e sell * fe seme aU amidde^. 

Whan Philip on f e forthe dale • first gan arise, 

Hee cliped hym his clerke* • full conning of witt, 836 

Full noble Nigremanciens • fan^ [nyed] hee in has te, 

jDat kouth such sweuens • swiftly arede. 

Hee minges his metjmg • amonge^ hem all, 

And what it might bee too meane • \>e menne gan hee ask. 

His enchauntiour cheefe • pat \>e chaunce herde, 841 

Too f e cumly Kyng • kid these wordes, 

And saide, " Sir, forsoothe • thy seemely make 

By a gracious God • shall go with childe. 844 

jDe prent fat was i-putt * on hur priuie mewibre 

With f e gaie golde ring • graue too-righte-*, 

j)Q leue lionet hed • fat laide was amid, 

As mich amounteth too meane • as I may tell, 848 

When hur bam is ibore • bolde shall hee wex. 

And bee kid for a King • kene of his deedes. 

As f e L'oun is Lorde * of lining beastes, 

So f e Indes in f e lond • alouten him shall 852 

J3e Sonne course * of f e seU • sinifieth also, 

Jjat hee shall fare as farre • as any freke dweller, 

^ MS. deene, an obvious error. See note. 

* MS. sowen, with ew above owen. ' Over t/ie J> is d, for iS. 

* MS. coutM; »^ 1.831. 

dreams that he 
sees Olympias 
with Ammon, 

who marked lier 
with a seal. 

On the seal was 
the Zodiac, a 
lion's hmd, and 
a sword. 

He asks what tlie 
dream signifies. 

[Fol. 22.J 
His magi say. 

that the seal-mark 
signifies wlwl lier 
son shall be like. 

He wiU be feared 
like a I<on. 

The zodiac means 
he will conquer all 
to the fiur East. 

Digitized by 



And light too pe sonne rist ' * his raigne shall last. 
J>e swerd sweetlich imade • in sweuen too rede, 856 
Bitokneth full treewly • in times here-after, 
J)at hee shall grow full grim • & gralthlich * winne, 
The $word, thai With stem strokes of swerd • & striuing of dinted, 
in batti0. Bothe bolder & borou[e»] • & bem[es] to his will, 860 

And seemely cities • as soueraine in erth." 
pwup njB, Philip saide, " Forsoofe • mee seemed pat tyme, 

** Ammon Mdd her i--. -. r^ t • i 

•on would be her That I sawe \)e Grod ' go graith too hur bedde. 

comforter. Whan hee his will had vmonght ' * Woman,' he saide, 

* Thy keeper is conceiued • thy comefort too bene, 865 
Jjat fee & Philip pe free • of fone shall auenge.' " 
" Sir,** said f e enchauntiour • " soothely too mene, 
Whan f e God gan speake • too f e gaie beurde, 868 
How hue conceiued had • ]>e help of hur teene, 
Faire Philip & hur • freely too keepe, 

« That meMie, he J3at 18 wisly too witte * hee will you defend 

and hmttJT P^o paiiies (fe peril • fat perce fee ne shall. 872 


Of this mine meting • well may f ou lyke, 

Of swiche ' happes so hende • herde I nere tell." 

[Foi. 22 b.} In f e same sesoun • soothely too showe, 

Philip farde too fight ' as I tofore saide. 87G 

The Thebane J3at time, f e Tebenieus * hee turned too fight 
Pbodana, * A3ain f feref ull folke • of Phocus * f e riche, 
With lude^ of Lacedemoine • lasches too deale. 
A^ain Philip too fare • feele fer* come. 880 

Kectanaboa Nectauabus auou right • with his nice werkc«, 

becomea a dragon, j^^^ ^^^ p^ g^^^^ . gjaithea hym soone, 

Deraide as a dragoun • dreedfull in fight. 

Hee wende* too f e werre * with Philip too holde ; 884 

In sight,^ of f e same shape • hee seemed fan, 

1 MS. rist, with e ad<fve i, making rest, tchich is wrong (I. 791). 
' MS. hat a glost^ greately, which is wrong. 
' MS. Bwiche, with u above wi. 

* MS. hat an s above thee. * Ad above the p. 

• Above sight is written sute. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


As whan hee farde tofore * too pe faire Queene. 
))an hee farde in pat fight ' as hee folke sleew. 
And brutned in that battle • bueme* ynow. 888 •^^ «ghu for 

*' PhlUp. 

For dreede of f zs dragoun • menne dreew fern fence, 

And fell doune in f e feelde • fenked in haste. 

pe dreede of pi a dragoun * pat drof ' men aboute, 

So fought for Vhilip • & feld mo Knighted 892 

]}an all ]) of Macedonie * & more of hU peeple. 

Whan this Kyng had kill[e]d • with carefull strokes ^^^v deftnu Um 

))e Lacedemoniens ' pat life loren^ hadde. 

And Phocus'wit^ ferse dynt • freelich ywonne 896 

Thorou drede of f e dragoun • & drift of his Knighted, 

})e fell folke of Attens ' fledden hym soone, 

And thought to sauen hemself • fi:o sorowe of his wrethe. 

Philip after pes fight • in a foule time, 900 

"Was SLoins too fridel ouer Greece • as a grete Prince.* Phmp't pngnn 

Is oppoead 1^ Um 

pe armed Attenieins • auntred hym till. 

J)ei wem ware of his com^ne • & his waie stoppes. 

pQ King Idpes * his grim • too keuereu him gate, 904 

But all his werk was in waste • fei wemed his 

For hee ne sholde hem shend • & shamelich take CFoL ««.] 

Hut seemely cities • too sorowen hem all. 
Enforced were pe entres • -with egre men fele, 908 The i 

nuuined against 

pBkt hee ne mi^^t in pat marche * no maner wend. Uni. 

Whan pe seg sawe well • no sokour ne speede, 

He was gretely agrise ® • & greeued in hert, 

For hee ne might in J)o men • his malice kith. 912 

To Tebes & Tessalonie * fat truly hym holpe, Tbebw. 

^ MS. drone, mth t above ne. 

* MS. loren, with ne abot?e en. 

* This line Ib cormpt ; see note. 

^ MS. keep«9, tcith i above ee ; the p bein^ obviouili/ mmcritien 
for f , at eltewhere, Cf. 1. 529. 

» Catchword—" For lie ne scholde." 

* MS. agrise, with d above thee to the right. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

His trv^chery. 

He kiUs the 
princes and dake* 
of Thebes. 

He bnnu thrir 

and harroi them 
as mnch as he hid 
helped them. 

Thus did he out 
or spite. 

[Fol. 28 6.] 

He next attacks 
[Olynthus ?J 

The men most 
yield or flght. 


Hee went as a woode man * his wrath too auenge. 

Whan hee comme too fat coste • ]>ei kepten hym faire, 

And gon too hur gates * & grathlich hem opener, 916 

And lete f e rink riden in • with his route steme ; 

And weies hym welcomes • vriifi worship & ioye. 

J3ei trowed no tresoun • untruly too haue ; 

But Fhilip f e ferefuU • faire thei grette, 920 

And lete hym prik with his prese • in hur pns holdes. 

As soone as fe seg • was f e citie within, 

Hee, wrathfull [of] wille • wronglich fare, 

Hee lete catch fe King • & kyllen hym soone, 924 

And his Princes of price • prestlich hee quelde. 

Douhtie Dukes with doole * too deth gon hee bryng, 

And oofer Lordes of lond • liueles hee made. 

Hee bronde holdes & borons • & beurnes therin, 928 

And all went too wo 'pat they with mett. 

As mich as 'Philip tofore ■ hem frendship wroughty 

Whan hee fought for pern ' & Phocus distriede,* • 

As mich maugre <fe more • hee marked hem after, 932 

Too be-traie them untruly • fat trusten hym tilL 

On weies & women • awrak hee his teene, 

And solde them too seruise • in sorowe too liue, 

And robbed of riches • all f e riche tonnes. 936 

J3us hee wrou^^t fat wrong • with wreche of his anger. 

For teene of f e Attenieins • fat turned him too kepe.* 

Whan hee f is cursed case • unkyndely wroxiglit, 

Hee ne laft no leng[er] • in that lond fan. 940 

For too fonde more fight • his folke gan hee leade, 

And fares too a countrie • with Knighta^ ynow, 

Jjere a citie was sett * seemely & noble, 

)?at Cappadoce was cleped • a full kid place. 944 

Many doughtie of deede • dwelt f erin, 

J5at wern fresh too fight • & fell of hur deeded. 

Philip bedes hem biker • & biddes pern yeelde 

^ MS. distroide, with ie abwe oi. 
* Catchword ~" WTian he dis kursede case.'* 

Digitized by 



J3eir faire citie in faith • or fight f ei shall. 948 

J3e segcs in J?e citio • femself so kept> 

Jjat FhtUp lafte fere long • & litle hee spedde. 

But hee ne stint of his strife • noght a stounde while, At but he takee 

Till hee had take f e toune • fat tristy was holde, 952 

And made all f e menne • meeke too hi^ wyll. 

Whan hee had wonne f /s won • <fe wrou^/it more teene, 

With mirth too Macedoine • hee makes his chace. 

Hee priked too h?^ Paleis • with Princes Ss Dukes, 966 He returns home. 

And many a seemely seg • fat sued hym f anne. 

Of hym be Queeno was ware • & wende^ wit^ ioye, ^« ^i'"®®" 

^ t^ ^ •' ' rooeiveshim. 

And romed light too f e rink • receiued him faire. 

Philip kisses his fere • as fell for too doone, 960 

And kneew by hur countenaunce • hue cowceiued had. 

" Dame," saide fat douhtie * " how haste f ou doone nowl ^*^"p **y» *'"> 

Tm 11 • 1 has done oniiaa 

Who hath fee unclene i-kept • sithen I cowme fro fee 1 
J)ou haste medled amis • methynk, by thy chere. 964 
Natheless I not ^it • nai, as I trowe, 
^of f ou haue cheuesed fee a chylde • as f i chaunce 

fallen ; 
For it is ' geten of a God • thy ilt is be lasse. J'®' no great 

^ J i- blame Is hers. 

Of all f e happe fat f ou haste • hollich ifounde, 968 

I had minde on my slepe • by meting of sweuen, for he had leamt 

*• DTI ii^iii ^* dream 

A^&mes mee & all men • fat may thee biholde, au about her. 
Blameles f ou might bee • of thy berem-chaunce. 
No wight of thy werk • wite fee might, 972 [PoI. m.] 
Sithen it is sonde of a God • soothelich i-prooued." 

It betid in a time • tidly therafter, 
bat Philip made of folke • a feaste full ryche. PWUp makes a 

' ^ '' rich tomt. 

All his Princes of price * praied hee thider, 976 

And oof er Lordes of lond • ne laft hee none. 
Whan hee is fare fro fight • his folke for too feaste. 
In Macedoine with his men • this mirth hee made. 
As soone as f ei were sett • & serued too-righte^, 980 
» MS. it it. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



appears Ma 

Ho goes op to Um 
queen and Uaaes 

the dragon who 
helped him. 

The dragon 

Nectanabus by Nigremauncie • neew hym attires, 

And in a dragoune* drem • hee dreew to f e halle. 

Hee comme first too f e King • & too fe kid Queene, 

And sithen hee buskea aboute • pe bordes echone, 984 

Hee drouned as a dragon • dredef till of noyes, 

J)at all fe gomes were agrise • of his grim sight. 

J)an ferde hee forthe • too pe feire Queene, 

And hee holdes his hed * ri^^^t in hur lappe, 

And kisses pst cumly * in knoweing of alL 

Philip saide too his fere • fireely Jjese wordes, 

" Dame, of this dragoun • I doo fee too knowe. 

And euery liuand lud • pat lenge« herin, 

In a brem battail • abrode in fe feelde, 

Whan I was greefly bigo * • wit/t a grim peeple, 

Hee comme flie too feelde • & my fone schende, 

J)at I was holpe by hym • hem too distrie." 

Whan pis tale was tolde • & tended of all, 

pe dragoun dreew him awaie • wiVi drift of his winger. 




Auoiher Um^ 

a bird lays a» 

Philip's lap. 
[Fol. U 6.J 

An adder comes 

In a somer seasoun * soone therafter, 
As Philip satt by hymself • soothe for too teU, 1000 
A faire breeding brid • bremlich went, 
And in fe lappe of pat lud • lonely hee sitter. 
Or pia freelich foule • farde of pe place, 
Hee bredde an ai on his barm * & braider him fan. 
Philip wondred was • of this werk quainte, 1005 

And satte still on fe stede • stirred no foote. 
pe ai fell on pe flore • in the frekes sight. 
And pe shell to-shett • on pe schire grounde. 1008 

WhaD it cofli too-clef ' • fer crep oute an addre. 
And busker full boldely • aboute pe shell 
Whan this worme * had went • wislich aboute, 
Hee wolde haue gliden in againe • graithlich & soone. 

> MS. bigo, with ne above o to the rights 
2 MS. too clef, with eae above f. 

> MS. worme, with wrom above it ; no doubt the older MS. had 

Digitized by 



But or hee had in his hed • hee hastely deide,* 1013 butdiasbefereit 

ouiore^ in 

And dreew nere too his denne • but deide bi-side. »g«in. 

Philip for Jns ferlich * fast gan wende 
To noble Nigremauncieins * pat hym nyh were, 1016 
And asked hem an answer * pi8 aunter too reede, 
For cheef of enchauntment • chosen f ei were. 
" Sir," saide one enchauntiour * " youi seemely make '* means that hii 
Shall here such a bam • in a brem tyde, 1020 gTwtoonqoeror, 

J)at by might of his maine • & maistrie of Kinge«, 
All so wide as pia worlde ' shall welden his raigne.' 
Whan hee aboute hath ibene * abrode in pe londes. 
And iwonne at his will • pe wortlych* places, 1024 
J3e kith pat hee comme fi:o • or hee com till, iwt wm dio 

Hee shall bee doluen & ded * as destenie fallen. hom*. 

As pe addre of pe ai * auntred aboute. 
And wolde haue shoten in pe schell * or hee schent 
were, 1028 

So shall fare by pe freke • pat ferre may bee knowe. 
Whan hee hath reigned a roum • as richest of all. 
Or hee may too his marche • with his maine wende, 
Jjere hee was fostred & fed • him fallen too dye." 1032 

Xow will I cease pts sawe • & segge you more 
Of hym pat hight Alisaunder • holly pe birth.* The birth of 

[A portion of the story being here lost, the omission 
is sttpplied from a French prose text of a similar type!] 

Pie terme de TefEantement la royne approchoit, et 
lui commen^oit le ventre moult a douloir. Si fist 
appellor Nectanebuz et lui dist : " J'ai crant douleur The queen ouis 

for NectuuOmB. 

en mon ventre." Nectanebuz compta Teure et lui 
dist : " Sousleve toy, royne, ung poy de ton siege, car 

1 MS. deide dyed, and deide it marked. 

s Above thesis an e, 

« MS. woitlych, toith worthly above it Cf. 1. 696. 

* Here follows the catchword—" Swiehe fortune fel," buCthe 
next leaf it blank. For an account of the piece here inserted to 
complete the sense, see the note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Alexander is 

EarthqittkM and 
thander, anow 
and sleet. 

Philip peroeivee 
that the child is 

The child is weU 
taken careot 

His hair, oyes, 
and teeth. 

ellemens sont orendroit orribles du soleiL" Et la royne 
80 leva, et la douleur se passa mamtenant. Apres ung 
poy, lui dist : " Siez toy, royne.** Et eUe a* asist, et 
enfanta ung filz. Et quant U enfens cbey sur.terre, ot 
la terra croulla, et foudra tonnoirie, et signes grans 
furent veus par tout le monde. La noif meslee avec 
gresil chey du ciel et ouvry le terre comme des^ pierres. 
La nuit targa h venir, et celle fu plus longuo des autres. 
Dont le roy Philippe fu moult esmayez, et dist a la 
royne : " Fenune, j*ay pensay, en mon cuer que cest 
enfant me feust nourrifl en aucune maniere, pour ce qu*il 
n'est de moy conceus. Mais pour ce que j'entens qu*il 
est conceus de Dieu, et pour ce que je voy les elemens 
changier en sa naissance, vueil-je qu'il soit aussi bien 
nourris en ma memoire, comme s'il feust miens propres. 
Et vueil qu*il ait nom Alexandre, aussi comme avait 
nom mon aultre filz que j*avais de mon aultre femme." 

Maintenant les dames de leans prindrent Tenffant 
et le nourirent par grant diligence. Et sachez qu'il ne- 
ressembloit au pere ne a la mere, mais avoit propre sem- 
blance. Car ses cheveux estoient comme crin de lyon, 
ses yeulx estoient grans et resplendissans, et ne 
resembloit pas Tun a Tautre. Car Tun estoit noir et 
I'autre vair. Ses dens estoient trop agiies et sa re- 
gardence estoit comme du lyon. Et combien que sa 
sestature feust petite, non pour quant aux signes qui se 
demonstroient, sembloit il bien que Alixandre devoit 

Ifow Aristotle 
taught him the 7 

He earpassee his 


Apres, il fu de aage pour mectre k FescoUe. Le 
roy Philippe lui fist mectre et plusieurs autres enffans 
gentilzhommes avec lui, lequel enffant les surmontoit 
tous de toutes choses en lettres et en paroles. Et aussi 
fait il en ysnelette et en vigueur. Dont il advint, 

» MS. deux. 

Digitized by 



quant il eut xii ans, il fa si aprins des sept ars par 

Aristote, le meilleur qui oncques feust, que 11 ne 

treuvoit homme qui tant en seust comme 11 faisoit. 

Quant Alixandre ot xii ans accomplis, on lui bailla ^^*"**°' 

escuieis sages et congnolssans, qui ayoient este par le 

pais et par les terres, et avoient use toute leur vie les 

armes. Et ceux raprindrent et enseignerent si bien de 

toutes choses qui aux armes appartenoient, que 11 en heisuaghtto 

toutes choses seurmontoit ses compaignons. Quant le 

roi Philippe congnut la grant vigueur qui estoit en luy, 

si lui dist : "Filz Alixandre, je ayme moult la ysnellete PUHp't rwnark. 

de ton corps et le soutil engin de ton courage. Mais 

tristre suis que ta semblance ne resemble a la mienne." ' 

Quant ce ouy la royne Olimpias, si se doubta moult, et oiympiM nys to 

appplla Nectanebuz, et lui dit :] "^ 

"Master on molde • what may mee befall ? [Pol i7.] 

Of Thilip sore am I aferd • for his fell speeche, 1036 

For hee sayed too my soonne • in sy^^t of rayne yie, "phiHpcompWn* 

TT 1.1 ii*i>^* 1 ^^^ Alexander is 

Hee was purlich payed • of ms pnse werke*, not like him." 

But hee chaunged his chere • & too Je chylde sayed, 
* That f ow ne art lyke mee, lude • mee lykes full yll ; ' 
Therfore my mynde & my moode • is marred ^ too care, 
For his woorde am I wrought • wofull in hert." 1042 
" Queene," qMoth Nectanabus • [care J>ou no more,'*] "Nevermind 
For the sake of thy soonne * fbat schal saue be at your son wiu help 

The Lude looked on-lofb • late on an eeue, 1045 
And on a starre too stare • hee stynt full lomr. ^~» *^\ . , 

»' ^=>' Nectanaboe looka 

Hee hoped to haue there • of his hertes desyres ; «> ^« 't*"- 

Too catche sum cunnyng • hee kest up his yie. 1048 
When Alisaunder pat sawe • hee sayed full soone, 
" Father, wherfore • is pat farly too tell, 

> MS. moye. » MS. maried, mth r above i. 

• Two lialf-lines are here lost, and are stlpplied from conjecture; 
blank spaces are left for them in the MS. 
14 • 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Atexan<Ur atki 
him to point ooi 
hla Ikvonrite 

He MyB he most 



[Fd. 17 5.] 

knows his own 

"Yee; my son 

That thow lookest on-loft • so long at pia tynie ? ** 
** Soonne," sayed f e segge • " in Bjght I beholde 
A brem sterre & a bry^^t • that mee best lykes." 1053 
" Leeue * fader," qtwth f e freke • ** fonde I, mee tell. 
The sterre fat yee staren on * sticketh it in heuin 1 " 
" Yea, forsoothe, deare soonne " • sayed hee than, 
" It is in heuin full hy • beholde who-so myghi.** 1057 
" And may yee, syr," sayed fe chylde • " by sum maxxer 

Schowe mee schortly in shape • fat schynyng sterre?" 
" Yea, wooste fou see, my soonne • in certeyn tymes. 
The inkest howre of pis nyghi * ny by my syde, 
Withoute J)e citie," he sayed • "in certeyn places, 1062 
So, lo ! myghtst J)ou see • pat seemely sterre ! " 
" That ilk for to see " * hee sayed, " I desyre. 
And I shall wend thee wiili ' when fee well lykes. 
But canst fou by any craft * kenne mee now 1066 

What death dry fou shalt • by destinie shape 1 " 
" Yea," soonne, sayed hee fo • " in certein I knowe, 
That I shall drye f e death • in dreedefull dede« stounde^. 
By encheson of my chylde • such chaunce shall fSall ; 
But whan, wott I not well • ne in what place." 1071 

KeeUnalias goes 
down beside a 

Nectanabus in fat nygJit ' as hym neede ihogJii, 
Passeth forthe priuely • f e Paleis without,^ 
Hee gooth downo by fe dyche • fat deepe was of 
grounde, 1074 

Euyll it is of syght • the waUes besyde. 
[" Sone," sayde Nectanabus • " see ^ond f e sterres,] • 

Hepoinuoutthe JoyfuU Jupiter • Myrthfull Mercurie, 

The leame of his Ijghi ' lykes well my hert ! " 
So hee stynted fat stounde '. & styrred no foote, 
Hee pored on fe planete* * pass ere hee woolde. 



1 MS. Leeae, tcith fe above nc. 

» HerefoUowa a half line out of place, " the walles besyde," ths 
line " Euyll it is of syght '* being left incomplete, 
' A lino is here lost. 

Digitized by 



Hee braider too be bank • of be brode water, Alexander puhe* 

' '^ him into the 

By Jje shouldered hym tooke • & shift hym in mydde*, ditch. 
With a wrathfull wyll • fese woordes hee sayed : 
'"Wretched worldly wyght • why wylst foil knowe 
The priuitie of planetc* • or precious staires, 1085 

Syn ]>ou art erthly thyself 1 • in an yll tyme 
Kaughtst J)ou in J>at craft * cunnyng of happen 
Let them bat in heuin bee • knowe hy thynge*': 1088 "Oniygod* 
That lore longes too Godde • & too no lud ele*, heavenly tunga.' 

Thow pat worldly art wraught • thy wytt J>ou bisett 
On euery erthly thyng • & em pou nomore ! " 
The BQg^'Si sayed this sawe • sonnk or hee wer, 1092 
"Truthe haue I bee tolde * in tymes y passed " — *ibaTeaiwayi 

^ , ., ^ , « , toldjouthe 

And with fat sawe pe some • fro f e seg hee part^'A troth." 

Alisaunder anonne • ryght armed in hert. 

Hee did hym downe too be dyche • as hee no dreede Alexander takee 

•^ r J himoutdead. 

had ; 1096 

Hee sprainde in a sprite • & spradde it aboute, 
[And cau^t vp pe cors • and cayres to pe queene.] * 
** Saye mee, seemely * sunne, what pou bryngst 1 " ^^' ^^^ 

** Ich haue broght," (\uoth pe burn • " a ded body here, 
That noble Nectanabus • too name was bote." 1101 
"Sunne," sayed ]>at seemelich • "my sorowe is pe more !" 
** It is thy foule fowlye • pat this fare wrou^^t, Alexander 

Your carefull conscience ' yee casten so large, oiympias. 

That yee wem no wjghi ' but wyrch as yee lyst" 1105 
The Queene quoth iLOVight againe • but qwickly & soone sheoannotrepij. 
Too burye pat bum • pe beurd gan heate. 
Of this lyueles lud • ne lyst mee tell, 1108 

Of hym I cease my sawe • & seche too more. 

Ther was a Prince full price • of powre y-holde. 
Keeper of Cappadoce • that Kyng Philip aught 
A huge horsse & a hy • hee had that tyme, 1112 a hous. 

The moste seemely in Bjght • pat euer seg wyst. 

* A line is here lost, and supplied from conjecture. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


There WM a 
hone that ftd on 

Hee bore a hedde as a bole • y-brested to-ryght. 
And had bard on his hedde * homes y-grow, 
Meime wem his meate * that hee moste looued ; 1116 
for as many as hee mjghi • muidre hee woolde. 
Hee was bygUch ybownde * on bothe twoo halues, 
He was kept Bothe his chaul & hia chynne * wttA chaynes of yren ; 
Many locked wer lafb • hia leggca aboute, 1120 

That hee n&s loose in no lime * ludes to greeue, 
To byte, ne to braundise * ne to break no wowe». 
for hee so myghty was made * in all maner thyng^^, 
Of such a body as hee bore * ]>e blonke so steme, 1124 
Was neuer steede in no stede • fat stynt upon erth. 


I took Intoo meery Macedoine • be messengerea bei camme, 

him to Philip M a w —o r ^ 

present From what kith pei camme • cofly they tolde, 

Let greete hym witA God • & goode wyll,* 1128 

And their presaimt of price • proffred hym tyll. 

Hee had blyss of fat beaste • & blythely hym thankee. 

phuiphasaeave fA caue he comanded • to coynt men inoua.P 

baiU for him. ^ ^ ■' 

Dupe ' as a dunioun • dyked in erth, 11 32 

All about bygge • wtt/i barren of yeru. 
[FoL 18 b.i Therfore fe Kyng had cast • too keepe fat steede, 
In fat caue craftely * enclosed witA gynne. 

Traitore were ^^^ ^ * traytcr wer y-take • in tyme therafter, 1136 

thrown to him to Qj. ^y thriftles theefe • for thynge* accused. 

They shoolde bee cast in fat caue • too fat kene blonk, 
And bee deuoured wi\h doole • as f e doome woolde. 
Anon as euer fe nyght • nyied on erth, 1140 

phiup dreams, Philip farde too bedde ' & fell on a sleepe. 

tames thThorae Of a myghtfull Groddo ' hee mett fat tyme. 
That on his bedsyde satt * & f is sawe tolde — 
" Who prickes •* on a playne feelde * f e perelous beaste, 

wmtawngof jj^^ gj^ij raigne as a ryng • ryall & noble, 1145 

^ This line occurs in the MS. two lines higher up, clearly out 
of place. 

' A line is here again lost, and supplied from conjecture. 

' MS. Dupe, with ee abov€ u. 

^ MS. Tho pricked, tchieh it unintelligible. 

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And bee Kyng of thy kith • Knyghtes too leade, 
When fou art doone & dedde • & thy daye ende«." 

When Alisaunder was of age • as' I shall tell, 1 148 
Of full fifteene yere • £a.Ten too fe end, Alexander wt» 

Hee was hardye & hende • happen to fond, 
And such wys of his witt • in worldly thynges ; 
Lered on letrure • was pe lud then, 1152 

And of latin pe lore * lellich hee wyst. He knew LaUn. 

In a tyme betyd * as I tell after. 
That many menne of Attenes • wit^ myckle ooper 

Did pern forthe on a day • by pe dupe * caue, 1156 some Athenian* 

There pe steede in stoode * strayned in bond^. lying amid bmo's 

They sawe lygge in theyr looke • legge* & armes, 
Fayre handed & feete • freaten too the bonne, 
Of menne pat myslych wer • murdred therin, 1160 
By iuste* * unioyfull • iugged too death. 
When Alisaunder was ware • of fe wylde b[easte]. 
That was of body so bolde • bremlych yshaped, 
Too hym hee heelde forthe his hand ; • pe horss it ^^^ ^••J 

awaytes. 1164 

Hee layed pe neck oute along • & lycked his handed, ^^dM*"** 
And sythe hee foldes his feete • & fallen too pe grounde, *»»»^^' 
And abowed [to] pe bum • on his best wyse. 
When Alisaunder so sawe • in his sjghi there, 1168 
How pe steede was styll • & no stryfe made. 
Bale thought pai bum * too bynde pa\, steede. 
That so meeke was of moode • & made no noyes. 
Hee unclosed pe caue * unclainte pe barres, 1172 Heententhe 

And straihte into pe stede • stroked hym fayre. °*^** 

Hee raught forthe his right hand * & his rigge frott^. 
And coies hym as he kan • wzt^ his dene handes. 
ban hee loses his lock^^ • his lessjes unbyndes, 1176 He anikstena the 

r ©o J --> iteed'a bonda, 

1 MS. Deepe, icith a abow ee ; ««0 1. 1132. 
' Indistinct and uncertain. 

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That hee nas fast in no foote • bifore ne bihynde. 
Therof fe blonk was blythe • & blainte no furre ' 
But meeke was of manerea * w/tAoute mischaunce.' 

and It it M Was nere lambe in no land ' lower of chore, 1180 

** No hownde to his hous-lorde • • so hende to queme, 

))at was leuer to lyke * ]>e lude ])at hym aught, 
)?en was ]>e blonk to ])e beum * ]>at hym bistint. 
))an wended ]>is weih * ]>e caue withoute, 11 8i 

And ]>e horss wtt^ his hand * hendely bringe^. 

He ridM him Soone hee leapes on-lof t • & lete hym worthe,* 


To fare * as hym lyst f aine • in feelde or in towne. 
The steede strauht on his gate * & stired hym under, 
And wrought no wod res * but his waye holdes. 1 189 

Phntp it When sire Phi'Zip gan see * )>e seg so too ryde, 

And his blonk behelde * abated of wrath, 
Of ])e michel meekenes * marueil hee had, 1192 

That J>e steede so stem • stynt of his fare. 
[FoLi9 6.] He sayde, " Sonne Alisaunder • of \h same chaunce 

and tetia his ton Iche had mynde in my slepe * by metyng fownde. 

A greate glisiande Grod ' grathly mee tolde, 1196 

That fou shalt raigne when I rotte ® • on my lyche 

" FaJ)er," sayde |)e freke • " if J)ou foreknowes 
That I shall leade thy landed • when thy life ende*, 
Let mee be proued as Prince * in pres where I wend. 
And fende mee linliche well • to fonde my strength." 

Of this bounden beaste • blynne [we fe] speche, 
Of King Philip J>e keene • karp wee now. 1203 

PhUipgnefto When Phi'Zip had 'wi\h his folke • faren on Greece, 
And taken tresure ynough • in townes full riche, 
Hee hurd tell of a towne • thriftily walled, 

i An i o^otw iheM. > che ohwt unce. ' tmtM abwt qb. 

* MS. worche, with t ahwe c. * An i ahwe and hetumn a and r. 

* MS. rotte, toUh royte abow itf which may haw been mmorittm 
for rotye in the older copy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


A citie sett by peece • with full siker wardes, 

Byzaunce ]>e bolde sted * was pe bore we bote ; 1208 Brzuminc. 

None better byin aboute • pat any beum wyst 

It was cbosen for cbeefe • to cbeflGctren in, 

And many merchaunte* pet-in ' pat much goode aught. 

All pe Lordes of pe lond * pat large was founde, 1212 

Helde it hur cheefe holde • when happe camme of 

Many menne of pe easte • of merchaunte^ ynow, Many men from 

Wer brought to pe borowe • too biggen & selL and aoid there.' 

No defaute nas founde • in pat faire place, 1216 

On euery syde pe sea • of-souhte ' the walles. 

Pausanias a pns King • none prester ifounde, Pauwuiiasbaiitit. 

While hym lasted his lyfe • on his lond riche, 
Let build pe borowe • too byde theiin, 1220 

When hee was ferkid wt't^ fyght * of his fone grimme. 
That bolde borou Byzance • pat buyld was to-rihte/^, [F0I.80.] 

Was called syn in bat coste • Constantinoble ', it was afterward* 

'^ called Conitan- 

Of Eoome a riche Emperour • pat reigned sythe, 1224 unopie, 

Constantino hee was cleped * a Kny^^t well alosed, tram conatantine. 

The Sonne of saint Elaine • pe seemelich Ladie, 

That weihes • worshipen yet • for hur work hende, 

A neew name too pot borowe • hee named pan, 1228 

And called it Constantinople * pat knowen is wyde. 

For bat stalworthe sted • so strong was founded, since it wa« so 

strong, PltiUp 

"Philip * hoped pat holde • with his help to wynne, wanted it 

For too keepe in that kith • cumlich & riche 1232 

All his tresour ytryed • for, in tresoun or gyle, to keep his 

That none robbed pe rink • of pese riche thyngc^. 

Philip wtt^ his ferefull folke • fast hym arayes. 

For too prouen his pride • at pe pns borowe. 1236 

1 MS. of souhte, with f above the s, and aUo saftie above the 
latter part of souhte. 

* MS. Constantiiiople, with b above ^A« p ; see Werwolf 1. 1425. 
' MS. wigbtM, with weihes {Marked) above it, 

* MS. For Fb. ; but tee must omit thie second For. 

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Forthe rydes J)e Kyng • with his route huge, 
pwiip bedeget It And hath fe citie besett • on sydes aboute ; 

On floode & on faire lond 'his folke gan hee sett, 1239 
Jif hee mjght derie with dint • pat dereworthe place. 
This seg biseeged so * ]>e citie full long, 
With all ]>e maine pat hee myght * made his assautes, 
Hit men ooaid But all pQ liides pat hee ladde * for loue ne for aie,^ 

No TDjght apeire J)e place • of a peny brede. 1244 

For pat freelich freke • as I fore tolde, 
The kid Knight Pausanias * pat King was of Spart, 
It was too Btrong That borowe in his best state ' let build so strong, 

That all pe wightea in pe worlde • it wynne ne myght^ 
But jif fode lacked • too ludea within. 1249 

• • • • 

[The next page is blanks and tJte rest is tDaifti7tg,'\ 

*#♦ For an account of the continuation of the story, see 
the note at the end of the " Notes to Alisaunder/' and consult 
the Preface. 

' MS. awe, with aie abaw it. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



P. 1. The first qaire of the MS. consisted of 12 folios, or 6 pairs of 
leaves. Of these the three outer pairs have been slit np the back, which 
has occasioned the loss of the first three leaves, and of the tenth, which 
was once joined on to the third. The eleventh and twelfth are fastened in 
merely by their edges. The part omitted by the loss of fol. 10 corresponds 
to 144 lines of the French text, whilst the first three missing leaves corre- 
spond only to 186 lines of the same. This is to be accounted for, most pro- 
bably, by the fact that the English translator did very much as he 
pleased, in some places following his original closely, in others condens- 
ing the story, and in others again giving us descriptions and explanations 
' entirely, as it would appear, of his own invention. See note to 1. 3. 

P. 2. Of the later French prose version of the story a short specimen 
may suffice, as it is obviously inferior to the old version in rime. 

The following corresponds to 11. 18 — 32 on pages 1 and 2 : — 

" Et nous signifie Ihistoire an premier Hure que iadis fiit vn Roy de 
Cecille due de Calabre & seigneur de la pouille nomme Ebron riche / puis- 
sant / craint & redoute sur tons princes de son temps / tellement que 
roy : Prince : ne autre neust ose sur luy entrependre ne guerroyer. 
Dequoy aduerty Lempereur de Grece luy donna a femme & espouse sa 
fille : tant belle sage / gente & plaine de vertus : & denote enuers dieu 
que rien plus. Nommee estoit Felixe plaine de toute felicite. Laquelle a 
cause de son bon bruict & religion augmentoit & accroissoit merueil- 
leusement la renommee du roy Ebron son mary tant que toutes gens 
prenoient plaisir a les voir & acquerir leur beneuolence.** — From the 
Paris ecUtion, printed by N. Boitfons, 

A considerable portion of the commencement of the story is repeated 
in the English version near the end — (ll« 4624—4806) — where we 
find Embrons, Qloriande, and Acelone named Ebrouns, Gloriauns, and 
Achillones. A perusal of this repetition of the story gives us a very fair 
idea of the way in which the English translator must have begun his 
poem. Ebrouns died soon after the affair with the Werwolf, and his 
brother too (I suppose), for he is never again spoken of as alive. Queen 
Felice lived to a good old age, ending her days in happiness and peace. 
The Werwolf turns out to be the Prince Alphouns or Alphonse, eldest son 
of the king of Spain. 

P. 4, 1. 115. Far was the local name of the Strait of Messina, called 

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220 NOTES (pages 6 — 9). ^ 

Faro di Messina, or Far de Meschines ; thus we read of " flaviam mag- 
num, qui dicitur Le Far de Meschines ** in Benedict of Peterborough'(ed. 
Stubbs, 1867), vol. 2, p. 125 ; and again, at p. 138 of the same work, wo 
find the following. — " Et est notandum quod in fluvio illo del Far do 
Meschines sunt ilia duo pericula maris maxima, scilicet Silla et Caribdis. 
Quarum una, Silla, est ad introitum del Far prope la Daignare, et Altera, 
scilicet Caribdis, est prope exitum del Far,^^ Two formidable perils 
these, for the Werwolf to encounter on his way ; but he seems to have 
safely avoided them I 

P. 6, 1. 170. The exact distance of this forest from Rome is afterwards 
stated to be seven miles. See 1. 4679. 

L. 1. {English text). The first two extant lines of the poem represent 
the concluding phrase of the extract from the French — que tot Uplaist Ce 
que la bests de luifait. The next line in the French text is, Uns vachiers 
qui vaches gardoit, &c, 

3 — 35, These thirty-three lines are represented in the French text by 
only seven short lines, which run thus : — 

Uns vachiers qui vaches gardoit, 

qui en cele forest manoit, 

el bois estoit avoec ea proie^ 

.1. chien tenoit en sa coroie, 

de pasture la nuit repaire ; 

li chiens senti lenfant et fiaire, 

ferment abaie, et cil le hue, &c. 
Hence it is clear that the excellent lines, 20 — 31, are original ; and they 
shew that our own author was a man of very considerable poetical power. 
So again, the idea in 1. 59 — 

"appeles and alle J)inges * pat childem after wilnen," — 
is entirely his own, and proves that he knew how to add a graceful touch 
to the poem he copied from. 

P. 7, 1. 19. towawe was explained by Sir F. Madden as meaning to (he 
wall; but I fancy it is but one word. See To-wawe in the Glossary. 

P. 9, 11. 80 — 93. Having shewn (note to 1. 3) how the translator has 
there written 33 lines where his original had but 7, it seems right to give 
an extract shewing, on the other hand, that he has here only 14 lines 
where his original has 26, some of them being very curious. 

" or oies 

del leu qui estoit repairies 

de la viande quala enquerre 

par les vilains et par la terre ; 

avoec lenfant tant en avoit 

que a grant paine laportoit. 

et quant lenfant na retrouve, 

onques nus hon, de mere ne, 

ne vist a beste tel duel faire, 

qui li oist uller et braire, 

et les pies ensamble detordre, 

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NOTES (pages 9, lO). 


et la terre engoiiler et mordre, 

esrachier lerbe et esgrater, 

et 8oi couchier et relever ; 

et comme il socit et coofoot, 

et querre aval et querre amont, 

et les larmes fondre des ez, 

bien peust dire, si grans dex 

ne fii par nule beste fais. 

lors ert sailHs ens el markais, 

si met a la terre le nes, 

tout si com lenfes ert ales 

desi ou le mist li vilains. 

le suit li leus de rage plains ; 

tant la sui a esperon, 

que yen as est a la maison." 
P. 9, 1. 80. The letter /, like r, is one that sometimes shifts its place 
in a word. As we find brid for bird, so we find wordle for worlde ; and 
vx)lnh may be intenHonally put for wlonh. Cf. carfU for craJU, 1. 3221. 

83. no nei^ =: non eij, i. e. no egg. So thi narmes for thin armes, thy 
arms, in 1. 666. 

84. grinnep. Tlie MS. has ginnep. Sir F. Madden's note is — " A verb 
is wanting after ginneth. We may, probably, supply it by * so balfnlly 
he ginneth greue^ or by some similar word." But this rather spoils the 
rhythm of the line. Mr Morris says — " it seems probable that girmep =: 
howl, utter, send out, from AS. ginan, to open, yaim." This is some- 
what farfetched. It is simpler to suppose that it is miswritten for 
grinnep, which is not an inappropriate word, and is familiar to us from 
the expression in the Psalms — to grin Ulce a dog, i. e. to grin with rage 
and spite. But it is still more to the point to observe that there is, as it 
were, some authority for the grinning of werwolves, if we compare with 
the text the following quotation — " J>ai grennede for gladschipe enchan 
toward o^er, as wode imtlues pet fainen of hare praie.** Morris : Elarly 
English Homilies, p. 277 (E. E. T. S. to be published shortly). Cf . also 
" The Lyon did both gape and gren,"^ Bp. Percy's Folio MS. Carle of 
Carlile, 213. 

P. 10, 1. 121. Between this line and the next, the translator has missed 
a portion of the original, viz. the lines following : 
" de mult de gens estoit loee ; 
de son signer avoit .i. fil, 
biau damoisel, franc et gentil ; 
Brandins ot non, ce dist lescris." 
" She was praised by many people. She had by her lord one son, a 
fine lad, frank and gentle ; he bore the name of Brandins [or Braundins], 
as says the writing." The name of Brandins being so very like Brande, 
the' translator may easily have lost his place, and omitted the passage 
unintentionally. Braundins is mentioned afterwards, as the reader will 


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NOTES (pages 11 — 16). 

136. a noynement ^ an oynement^ i.e. an ointmeDt, tiDgaent. Cf. nolo 
to 1. 83. See 1. 139. 

141. '' All the form of man so amiss had she shaped (traasforined).** 
— Morris ; note to the line in ** Specimens of Early English." 

143, 144. " But tmly he never after possessed any other resemblance 
that belongs to human nature, but (was) a wild werwolf." The con- 
struction is involved. 

P. 11, 11. 156 — 160. Here the translator, finding a tendency to re- 
petition in his original, cuts matters short, omitting how the werwolf 
lived two years in Apulia, and grew fierce and big and strong ; and how, 
hearing of the treachery of King Embrouns* brother, he resolved to steal 
away William in the manner already described. . It is needless to say 
that 11. 161 — 169 are wholly interpolated. 

P. 12. 1. 206. There is something amiss with this line; it hardly 
makes sense as it stands. In 1. 35 the phrase is *' to hold to baie ; " in 
]. 46 it is " to hold at a baye." So here, if one may be permitted to 
change " & " into " at," we have, 

to haue bruttenet ])at bor * at |>e abaie 8e]>])en, 
i.e. " to have afterwards destroyed the boar, (when held) at bay." 

P. 14, L 251. In the original, William very properly grounds his re- 
fusal on the fact that he does not know who the emperor is, or what he 
wants to do. 

" non ferai, sire, et por coi, 
car je ne sai que vos voles, 
qui vos estes, ne que queres ; 
ne se voles riens, se bien non, 
ja ne me face Dix pardon I " 
261. '^ Read wend,*^ and again elsewhere, in 1. 5185. This elision of 
a final d in such words as Jiond, land, sheld, held, &c. is by no means un- 
common in ancient poetry, and arises simply from pronunciation.*^ — M. 
We find wend in 1. 229. 

267 — 272. Hereabouts the translator condenses his original with 
great judgment. The " churPs " grumbling, as there given, is not very 

P. 15, 11. 293 — 295. The French merely says, 
" en ceste forest le trouvai, 
asses pres dont nous somes ore." — 
The man who- could turn this prosaic statement into 

**how he him fond in ))at forest * pere fast bi-side, 
clothed in comly eloping • for any Idnges sone, 
vnder an hoho ok • purth help of his dogge " — 
had certainly both poetic power and a lively imagination. Indeed, the 
translation is very superior to the original, as far as I have compared the 
two It should be observed that, immediately after writing the two lines 
printed above in italics, the translator boldly omits about 16 lines of the 
cowherd's rather prosy story. 

P. 16, 1. 325. Mr Morris explains/orcforfe* by making it equivalent to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 16—19). 223 

fayrt dedes, kind actions. That this is incorrect appears from tbe fourth 
line on fol. 81 (1. 6182), 

** of al pQ/aire/ordede ' J)at he hade for hem wrou3t." 
The expression "/air /air cfe«i" would be unmeaning tautology. See 
the glossary. 

329 — 343. The translator here follows the original pretty closely, 
giving, however, rather the sense than the exact words. 

P. 17, 1. 347. ** This is not an error of the scribe, as at first supposed, 
but formed by the same analogy, as alizt for aUghted, comfort for comfori- 
edy gerde for girded, &c. It occurs often in the Wycliffite versions of the 
Bible." — M. The very word comaund (= commanded) occurs in 11. 
2557 and 2564 of the alliterative Romance on the Destruction of Troy. 
P. 17, 1. 360—365. Ck)mpare the original text — 
" Salues moi Huet h nam, 
et Hugenet et Aubelot, 
et Martinet le fil Heugot, 
et Akarin et Crestien, 
et Thumassin le fil Paien, 
et tos mes autres coropaignons ;** &c 
In 1. 362, Sir F. Madden printed dvoery^ but he says, ''This word is 
doubtful in the MS. and may either be read owery (as printed by Harts- 
home) or dtoerth. It seems to be intended to represent the F. dru, drue, 
B. Bret, drew, drttd, signifying a loved friend or companion. But if the 
final letter be supposed to take the place of ^, it may then mean dwarf, 
from S. dtoerg,^' 

The excellent suggestion at the end of this notice of the word is now 
seen to be perfectly right ; for dtoerth (dwarf) is simply the translation 
of le ncdn^ Lat. nanus; and just as dwerp is written for dtoerg^ so our 
author continually writes ptirp for pur^ = through. 

For kirmesman in 1. 365, I should propose to read Thomasm or 
Thomtuyn, It would improve the alliteration, of which there is none in 
the line as it stands. 

P. 18, 1. 379. She would have slain herself by rrfaaingfood, according 
to the French text. 

"jamais sa bouche ne mangast, 
se oil ne la reconfortast." 
388, 389. These "boars and bears, many horse loads, harts and hinds, 
and many other beasts " have all grown out of four boars only, like Fal- 
6tafif*8 " men in buckram." The French merely says, 
de iiij senglers querent pris. 
403. held = eld^ age. Compare 

et meisme de tel aage 
com Guilluzme« pooit bien estre. 
P. 19, 1. 423. The translator here misses a very curious statement, 
not perhaps understanding the allusion. Nor do I. 
de riches dras batus a or, 
com sil fust fix roi Alphinor, 

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224 NOTES (pages 19—28). 

qui sire et rois est de boogrie, 
qni si est de tos bieus plentive ; 
ne adonqnes a icel tans 
Davoit mie plus de . iiii . ans 
et norri puis . vii . ans tos plains. 
Here we not only learn, once more, that William was about 11 years old 
when arriving at the emperor's court (see p. 2, L 35, and p. 15, 1. 296), 
but we are told that the child was found in rich apparel adorned with 
beaten go]df as if lie had been eon to the king Alphinor^ who is lord and 
king of Hungary^ (and) who is so abundantly possessed of wealth. 
429 — 432. The French text has 

" li damoisiaz," fait lemperere, 
" je cuit, par le baron saint Pere, 
quil est de mult tres haute gens ; 
car mult par est et biax, et gens," Ac. 
P. 23, 1. 433. The French text continues thus :— 
et souspirer et baaillier, 
et refroidier et reschanfer, 
muer color et tressuer, 
et trambler tot en itel guiae, 
com me se fievre mestoit prise, &c. 
P. 24, 1. 455. Compare 

dont ai je tort qui en blasmoie 
mon cuer, 
460. The French text throws no light on the true reading. The am 
in the MS. is indistinct. Sir F. Madden suggested " nad ])ei ben, i may 
boute bale,** &c., which I have adopted, with the slight change of may 
into miyt. 

470. We should have expected to find hrouner rather than hroun, 
472. There seems something wrong here. I had proposed to read 
— " to the harde asente," i. e. assent to the infliction. Sir F. Madden 
considers that the introduction of to offends the ear, and proposes, 
but with diffidence, ^ the hardere asente,** i. e. assent with difficulty. 
The French does not help one, being much more concise in this pas- 

P. 25. After 1. 500 we should expect some such line as, 

" So heried ouer al • and so hey^ holden.** 
P. 28, 1. 576. The catchwords are written, as usual, at the bottom of 
the last page of each quire. 

584. The MS. has "he kosin ful nere,'* instead of "here kosin." 
This is due to the omission of the small flourish which is used as a oon- 
traction for er. In the same way we find " fide ** instead of " ]>idere " 
in 1. 47, and elsewhere. 

592. For leliest, Sir F. Madden has leuest The two words would be 
exceedingly alike, for the scribe makes his Ts so short that they are very 
little longer than the first stroke of a u. But over the second downstroke 
(which is a Utile shorter than the first) a long fine stroke can be detected, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 28 — 34). 225 

which is his method of dotting an i, Leuest means most dearly^ and 
leliest is most Ually^ so that the sense is much the same. 
^ 600. The MS. has 1. 601 before 600, but the emendation so obvi- 
ously assists the sense, that it hardly requires apology. 

P. 29, 1. 611. For this line and the preceding the MS. has — 
" & ofler fan ix. times * hit take)) me a-daye, 
& ten times on J)e ni^t • nou^t ones lesse." 
I have taken the considerable liberty of changing the places of nine and 
ien^ because the alliteration of both lines is thereby improved. The ten is 
as well suited to the chief-letter in tahe^, as nine is to the initials 
of ni^t and nou^t. I do not suppose that any one will quarrel with the 
alteration of the sense. When we consider that these numbers were 
selected for no other reason than to secure alliteration it must be right to 
place them where they best fulfil that object. 

625. For " cosynes " read " cosyne." — M. This suggestion is sup- 
ported by 11. 594 and 602. But there is no harm in retaining cosynes^ 
as it is used to denote a female cousin, as in Lancelot of the Laiky 11. 1185, 
1270, 2287, and 2802. 

P. 30, 1. 645. I suspect that " answeres " ought to have been " an- 
swered." Cf. note to 1. 1076. 

649. The MS. has merely " after frowe," which makes the line halt. 

P. 31, 1. 692. The MS. having here the letters " ihu " it is difficult to 
write the word otherwise than " ihesu." Otherwise the A is a cor- 
ruption of the Greek H or c, so that "ie«u " would be a truer form. On tlie 
contraction IHC for IHCOYC, out of which i.h.s. has been made (the mark 
of contraction being at the same time turned into a small cross), see 
Hone's Ancient Mysteries Described, p. 282. 

698. The c and t being much alike, Metynt may be meant for Metync, 
but Metyng is better spelling ; see 1. 706. 

P. 32, 11. 712, 713. The construction is — " For there is no lord in 
any land, enjoying life — no emperor nor renowned king known to be so 
rich — that he is not of sufficiently low birth to wed that seemly lady." 

723. The word houes nowhere occurs again in the poem, the usual 
form being bihoues. The alliteration also points out that the initial bi 
is really required. 

P. 33, 1. 753. " Read, tok him til a sete."— M. But I am not sure 
that this ingenious emendation is altogether required ; iid may be here, 
as elsewhere, another spelling of tit = soon, quickly. 

756. Here " For fat" seems to mean " for whom.'' See 1. 769. 

771. The MS. seems to have " chanber" in 685 and here ; but it is 
probably a mere slip for " chauber," the spelling adopted in 11. 755 and 769. 

P. 34, 1. 788. " This is not so much an error as an abbreviation be- 
fore an infinitive, which has occurred to me often in other MSS. It 
should properly be */or to slake.' Bryant places this, very unnecessarily, 
among the list of provincialisms." — M. Forto is very common in tliis 
MS. See 1. 783 just above. Another form ib forte, which occurs in Piers 
Plowman, Text A. vii. 277. 


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226 NOTBB (pages 34 Iff). 

793. Sir F. Madden prints " as a wo werfwei^h," with a reference to 
the common phrase " wo worth." The MS. may also be read " wo wery " 
= wo-weary, weary with wo. The word " worf " is spelt elsewhere in 
the MS. with an o. 

799. wher, whether. 

804. Go we 18 & form of invitation. Cf. " gowe dyne, gowe " in Piers 
Plowman ; A. proL 105. It occurs again in 1. 1184. 

P. 35, 1. 824. ^ to glade with uch gome/* i. e. to gladden each man 
with. See note to 1. 1825. 

843. pa is put for pcU frequently in the present poem. See II. 765 
and 903. 

P. 36, 1. 862. whiles^ wiles. So also we find where for were, 

P. 37, 1. 883. " So completely was that word wound in to his heart." 
But this is rather a forced phrase, and it would have been quite as well 
if the scribe had written — 

so witerly was ))at wi^h * wounded to herte, 
1. e. so completely was that man wounded to the heart. 

909. Repeated, neariy, from 1. 433. 

P. 38, 1. 920. Read " ther ne schal wizth."— M. I copy "no wi3th ** 
from 1. 786. 

P. 39, 1. 964. scUeme. " The city of Salerno was famous from very 
early times for its university and school of medicine, which was pro- 
tected and flourished most under the Norman princes." — English Cydo- 
jkpdia. Cf. Morte Arthure, ed. Perry, 1. 4312. 

P. 41, 1. 1021. " There is some error here, apparently, in the MS." — M. 
If hete is to stand, it may mean to bid, from the A.S. hatan, to bid, pro- 
mise. Then the line means — "and to bid her then to play as she pleased 
in the meanwhile." Here = her. Cf. 1. 1716. 

1028. For antresse we should expect to find " aunteres." 

P. 42, 1. 1069. " Ouer gart gret ost. Gart appears here to be an 
error of the scribe, and should be omitted. Ouer-gret is used by 
Chaucer, Cant. T. 16116."—- M. 

1075. iyding seems to be the plural form. See 1. 1134, and note to 1. 

1076. Read " a-greued." — M. It is worth noting that s is not unfre- 
quently written for dL In " Pierce the Ploughmans Crede," 1. 6, pa^treB 
is written for paired, 

P. 43, 1. 1093. So, too, e is often written for o ; we should expect to 
find onys in this line, for in alliterative lines the vowels used as rime- 
letters are generally different ones. is written for e in 1. 818. 

P. 44, 1. 1127. In a strong light, the word " fider " can be traced as 
having occupied the apparently blank space. It was probably erased 
as having been repeated by mistake. Hence, there is no word to be 
supplied here. 

P. 45, 1. 1163. " J)e ferst batayle" means " the first battalion or com- 
pany." Cf. 1. 1152. 

P. 46, 1. 1190. freely ^fersly, fiercely. This shifting of the letter r 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 46 — 58), 227 

may have been intentional. See " The Horoans of Partenay ; ^ ed. Skeat, 
1866 ; preface, p. xvi. Cf. note to 1. 80. 

1196. "Read ^grettest;' and also in 1. 1365. The t is sirailarl/ 
elided from * menskfullest/ in 1. 1435."— M. 

1211. The word so is required for the alliteration, and it improves 
the sense. What so = howsoever, and occurs elsewhere. 

P. 47, 1. 1222. " For te read to."— M. But perhaps U may stand. See 
notes to 1. 788 and 1093. 

1226. In the ** Romans of Partenay,"/ar is miswritten for fro over 
and over again. See note to 1. 1190. 

P. 48, 1. 1280. The initial tw- belongs to both words, i.e. wnwounded 
or tmtakcn. 

P. 49, 1. 1299. dede clepe^ caused to be summoned. Cf. dedefecche in 
1. 1303. 

1307. We must read hem^ not he. The scribe probably forgot to 
make the stroke over the «. 

P. 50, 11. 1323-4. 1 have ventured to transpose these lines, as they are 
otherwise devoid of sense. The MS. has — 

'* wi]) alle worchipe & wele so was he sone 
to burye him as out to be swiche a bume nobul ; " 
but it is clear that " so was he sone " ( = so was he soon buried) must 
end the sentence. 

1350. The sense seems to require the insertion of he or hen — " nadde 
he J)e socour of o seg," &c. Cf. 1. 1358. 

P. 51, 1. 1358. forsake^ deny. Cf. Germ, versagen, 
P. 52, 1. 1401. The second lie may be miswritten for hire or here, i. e. 
her. Read " to come, here granted." Cf. note to 1. 584. 
1415. hut thei thre one, except they three only. 
P. 53, 1. 1425. "And who, by descent, was then keeper of Constanti- 
nople." But the relative is omitted, probably by an intentional idiom. 

It may be observed here, that it appears by the sequel that the Em- 
peror of Greece was the father of the Queen of Palermo, and William's 
grandfather. Also, the emperor's son was called Partendo or Partenedon, 
and was, of course, William's uncle. 

1427. The ending -and in grethand is doubtless a mere mistake, due 
to the word gUmerand just before. 

P. 54, 1. 1478. Ditmg is simply miswritten for tiding. Such an in- 
version of letters is occasionally found ; thus, in the Romance of Par- 
then ay, aduerOse is written for aduersiie (adversity) more than once. 

1490. mened of bemoaned by ; so in 11. 1491, 1492, we find hiloued 
toip meaning heloved hy, 

P. 55, 1. 1504. We have had this line before. See 1. 246. 
1516. her sche sese mi^t, ere she might cease. 
P. 57, 1. 1576. This line has occurred before. See 1. 1033. 
P. 58, 1. 1627. Compare, 

'* In middes on a mountayne ' at midmorwe tyde 

Was piht vp a pauilon * a proud for J)o nones, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

223 NOTES (PAGBS 59 — 7l). 

And ten ]>ou8end of ten tea * I- tilled besydes," Ac 
^ Pier8 Phvman, Text A. ii. 42. 

'* Tentes and pauilons stregbt and pight freshly." 

Bomcms of PaHenay^ 869. 

P. 69, 1. 1638. hese, ease. Cf. her, ere, 1. 1516 ; and hende. end, 1. 

1640. Momyng out mesure^ mouruiug without measure. 

1644. The line would sound better, if bom and was were to change 
places, as in — 

" Mai banne pat he bom was • to bodi or to soule." 

Piers Plowman, A. i. 60. 

1654. Both alliteration and sense require some such word as loisi, 
which I have inserted. 

1662. tent, intent, purpose, design. See Tent in Halli well's Dic- 

1664. profites hue. This might seem to mean "for love of the pro- 
phet." But this would be quite out of place, and, in fact, the line ex- 
presses the same idea as 1. 3251 does. 

P. 60, 1. 1676. The negative prefix in vnperceyuedsiSQCtA all the words 
following it in the same line. Gf. note to 1. 1280. 

1686. For this story of dressing up in bears* skins, see S. Baring 
Gould's Book of Werewolves, p. 36. Egillson's explanation of the 
O.Norse word beraerkr is, one who wears a beards sark^ or a habit made 
of bear-skin over his armour. 

P. 61, 1. 1723. Tliis mention of bear-baiting at a stake is worth re- 
marking. Cf. Havelok,. 1. 1840. 

P. 62, 1. 1742. "\ou appear so furious a bear for a man to look 

P. 63, 1. 1777. whiche. We should have expected to find hou used here. 

1793. This is William's second experience of a " dern den " under a 
" holw hok." See 11. 17, 295. 

P. 64, 1. 1825. to kepe wip our Uues, to preserve our lives with. Com- 
pare — 

" OJ)er catell, ofer cloj) ' to coveren wij> our bones," 
(i. e. or wealth, or cloth to cover our bones with); Pierce the Ploughmans 
Crede, 1. 116. 

P. 67, 1. 1944. Ungep may also be read lengey. But the true read- 
ing is probably lengpe, i. e. lengthen, as in 1. 1040. Cf. 1. 2345. 

P. 68, 1. 1957. It is not uncommon in MSS. to find the word pope 
erased or struck out. See The Romans of Partenay, p. xviii. 

P. 69, 1. 1983. For at sent Sir F. Madden would read a-s^te, as- 
sented. But I think the MS. reading may stand ; at sent = at assent, 
i. e. that she was an assenting party. Fur sent = assent, see Halliwell. 
See also 1. 3017. 

P. 71, L 2073. treie and tern. " This expression is very ancient, and 
may be found in Csedmon." — M. See Ccedmon; ed. Thorpe, p. 137, 
1. 15. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 73 — 97). 229 

P. 73, 1. 2127. do crie, canae to be proclaimed. So in 1. 2145, let he 
sende = he caused to be sent. See 1. 2174. 

P. 76, 1, 2236. for-toalked, tired out with waking or watching, fatigued 
for want of sleep. 

"It should properly hejor-toahed [as in 1. 790], but this variation be- 
tween waked and walked is to be met with in other MSS." — M. Com- 

" And sone the knycht he be the brydill nom, 
Saying, " Awalk ! It is no tyme to slep.^ 

Lancelot of the Laik, 1. 1048. 

P. 77, 1. 2254. Perhaps bi should be be ; then Ipat him hi ^iue schold 
= that should be given him. 

P. 82, 1. 2432. helles, " Read delle8:'—U, But helles may stand, 
as being the plural of hel, a hill ; see 11. 2233, 2318. 

P. 83, 1. 2463. I think the rhythm, alliteration, and sense would all 
be improved by inserting softeUche : 

And as sone as he hade sofleliche ' sette it adowne. 

2471. Perhaps we should read blemched, i. e. blemished. 

P. 84, 1. 2501. pat Tie bar, that which he bare. 

P. 85, 1. 2554. a&nes. Printed serues in Sir F. Madden*s edition, with 
the note : — ^** This word is doubtful, and looks in the MS. more like seines.'* 
But the word is semes, in which the first stroke of the m is not quite 
joined on to the second. There is no stroke above it to show that it 
is an i / nor do I read the word as selues. Semes means horse-hods. 

P. 87, 1. 2626. Here is a direct allusion to the j^artof the story which 
18 lost in our English MS. It will be found in the French text, on p. 2. 

P. 89, 1. 2680. lengpe. Or it may be read lengye, which would be per- 
haps better in this place. Lengye (the infinitive mood, like wonye in 1. 
3312) is to dwell, remain ; lengpe is to lengthen. 

P. 90, 1. 2707. sece. Printed sde in Sir F. Madden's edition ; but a 
close examination of the MS. shews sece to be the word. The sense is — 
"Now cease we to talk about the besiegers ; ** of which " Now say we " 
is the exact contrary. 

P. 91, 1. 2731. greyt. This may be also read grept; the usual form is 
greyped. Cf. the form a-greped in 1. 62. 

P. 94, 1. 2845. This ^* park *' is the orchard or menagerie already men- 
tioned at p. 3, 1. 65. 

2864. drey. This may also be read dre^, as printed by Sir F. Madden. 
I have printed drey, as coming closer to the form drei^h, in 1. 2796. 

P. 95. 1. 2870. The sense and alliteration both require the word 
doubter to be inserted ; see 1. 2875. 

2890. bilaft^ remained or stayed behind, whilst the hart fought the 

P. 96, 1. 2900. Sir F. Madden prints « fat he gart;* &c.; but the MS. 
has gate. Gart or garte makes better sense, and is perhaps right. If so, 
the wrong spelling gate was copied from 1. 2895. 

P. 97, 1. 2964. J?« kinges sonSj i. c. to the king's son. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

230 NOTES (pages 98 — III). 

P. 98, 1. 2998. So also we have hire fou^t in 1. 2873, and here pou^t 
four lines below it. 

P. 99, 1. 3021. busked hem, i. e. pei busked hem. This omission of 
the nominative is frequent, and no doubt intentional. 

P. 102, 1. 3105. " Probably for er than an em."— M. Er than would 
mean ere then, or sooner then, with reference to the cr following. I 
almost think the first of the three er'a is best omitted. That ar is mis- 
written for an, there can be no doubt. 

3116. Insert the metrical dot after ben. The alliteration follows a 
rule not unusual in old English, that each half-line is alliterative within 
itself. Thus :— 

It tocnej) J)at tod ben • ri^t «wiche as it<*«clue. 

P. 105, 1. 3203. Something seems wrong here. If ne be inserted, 
and fair changed into fairre (= more fair, as in 1. 4437) it Would be 
clearer. Perhaps, then, we should read — 

alle men vpon mold * ne mi^t sen a fairre coupel, &c. 

3220. *^ Something seems wanting to complete the sense, such as 
neuer wol i haue.' "— M. That is, we should read — 

o|)er armes al my lif atteli • neuer wol i haue — 

where atteli is the infinitive mood. If the line is to stand unaltered, atteli 

must be put for attele %; i.e. other arms all my life I design never (to) 

have. Then the alliteration would fall upon the vowels, as thus : — 

ojjer qrmes a\ my lif • atteli neuer haue. 

3221. It is difficult to tell whether or not the spelling carfti was in- 
tentional. Carfty appears also in Tlie Romans of Partenay, 1. 6708 ; and 
kerse is the usual old spelling of cress. 

P. 106, 1. 3260. The word to seems to be required, and the line then 
means, " for it had advanced to night, by that time." To fare forth is 
to proceed, advance, go onward, go forth ; see 11. 2730, 4450. Cf. also 1. 

P. 107, 1. 328?. For knip hud, a better reading would be hud kni^i. 
The sense is the same both ways. 

3290. For is, Sir F. Madden prints his. Both spellings of the word 
occur throughout the poem. The MS. has is in this place. 

P. 108, 1. 3315. One of the now's is redundant 

P. 110, 1. 3374. ** A word seems requisite to eke out the line. Per- 
haps we might read — * Eniztes with sire William tharme kauzt god hert.' " 
— M. Whilst adopting this suggestion, I have ventured slightly to shift 
the inserted word. It now occurs to me, however, that the real error is 
in kau^t. This, being plural, should h^-kau^ten or kau^te, and then the 
flow of the verse would be preserved without any insertion of an extra 
word at all. 

P. Ill, 1. 3399. Perhaps it should be, "ac spacly a« |)e spaynoles," 

3404. lorTde, ** Read hrde, and in the following line lord. The same 
singular mistake (if it be one) occurs in p. 142, I. 24 [1. 3955 of the pre- 
sent edition] for lordschip.^ — M. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages U2 — 125). 231 

P. 112, 1. 3450. " The illuminator has neglected to supply the capital 
letter here." — M. The little to was made, as usual, by the scribe for his 
guidance. Three times the illuminator has mistaken his instructions, 
and made a large M instead of a W ; see 11. 4660, 4880, 4923. 

P. 113, 1. 3477. The word omitted is no doubt km^t, for this word is 
considered as being alliterative to crist; see 1. 3671. 

P. 114, 1. 3509. The werwolf leapt into the sea, and crossed the 
Straits of Messina to the opposite shore. This part of the story gives us 
some idea of what the missing part of the English translation was like.^ 
See p. 4. 

P. 116, 1. 3530. The MS. may be read either sthaure, or schoure (as 
in Sir F. Madden*B edition). Sthoure is, I think, the word meant ; for 
see 1. 3536. The scribe uses ih as equivalent to the sound oit very fre- 
quently ; see mi^thi^ nU^th in 11. 3549, 3557 just below, and wi^tihU in 1. 

3533. We should perhaps read, ** <St conquered." 

P. 117, 1. 3597. lat me toor^^ let me be, let me alone. 

So in Piers Plowman, ed. Wright, p. 12. 

For-thi I counseille al the commune 
To late the cctt toorthe, 
P. 118; 1. 3639. There is a sort of gap in the sense which seems to 
point to the loss of some such line as 
. . Meyntened so his men * ))at manly, ^ei sone. 

3646. " The final words of this and the two preceding lines are partly 
erased, but legible. The later hand has endeavoured to restore them.** 
— M. 

P. 119, 1. 3665. /or he, sc. the king of Spain's son. The change of 
the subject is rather a rapid one. 

P. 120, 1. 3695. " A verb is here wanting to complete the sense." — 
M. It is difficult to guess the missing word ; perhaps the sense may be 
betteced by reading, 

but I mi3t nou^t cnoei J?er-with • i-wisse, sire, & treuj?e. 
3705. pe sanies. Read " there saules." — M. An almost better reading 
would be ** Jiere saules," but is not so like what the scribe has given us. 
P. 121, 1. 3737. man lood. Perhaps an error for wod man, 
P. 122, 1. 3778. torn, opportunity'. Not a very common word. It 
occurs, however, in Piers Plovmum^ A. ii. 160. 

I have no torn to telle * pe tayl pat hem folwe]?. 
P. 123, 1. 3789. Iced. This, if pronounced issed, seems to be equiva- 
lent to the Scottish ysckit, issued, a not uncommon word in Barbour s 

3799. The scribe's spelling ofpurh was clearly influenced by his know- 
ledge that he was about to write the word ^our very soon. 
3803. <& I mowe came bi, if I can get hold cf. 

P. 124, 1. 3825. The word pat should be omitted, but it is in the MS. 
3835. In hounde, there is a (superfluous) stroke over the n. 
P. 125, 1. 3883. Ferde is the reading in the parallel line, 3737. 

Digitized by 


232 NOTES (pages 125 — 145). 

3884. The question has been raised whether in the phrase in Judges 
ix. 53 — " all to-brake his skull " — we ought to join the to to the word all 
or to the verb brake. It seems certain that, originally, the to was a part 
of the verb, and separate from all^ and the present line is an excellent 
evidence of this. It seems equally certain that, in the sixteenth century, 
the prefix to was not very well understood, and the result was that alUto 
was considered as a short way of writing altogether. See "The Bible 
Wordbook," by J. Eastwood and W. Aldis Wright. Those who would 
consider the to as belonging to aZ, and who consider alto as properly only 
one word, must go on to explain what is meant by alfor^ albiy and ala ; 
for we find in this very poem the prefixes /or-, K-, and a- also preceded 
by the word al. See II. 790, 793, 661, 872. 

P. 127, 1. 3925. The first " & " seems redundant. 

P. 130, 1. 4042. d ^ow^t, i. e. and he thought, an example of the omis- 
sion of the pronoun, a license in which the author indulges rather freely. 

4055. daredj became motionless as if stupefied. The word occurs in 

P. 131, 1. 4061. am/'skineSy written any shines in the MS. I have 
preserved this curious spelling, because I have observed it elsewhere, 
viz., in one of the Trinity MSS. of Piers Plowman, See the foot-note to 
P. PL A. ii. 26, in my edition, and also the foot-note to Passus x. 2. In 
the latter place, /oure skcTtis, foure skynnessiTe various readings for foure 
kunne. In fact, any skines is only another way of writing anys kines, 
" Such forms as alUskynnes (all kinds of), noskynnes (no kind of), are in- 
stances of the genitives fl/^ (of all), and nones (of none)." Morris: 
Specimens of Early English, p. xxiv. I would submit, however, that 
alleskynnes, noskynnes, are here wrongly translated ; the former means, 
of every kind, the latter, of no kind, just as anyskines means of any kind^ 
and foure skynnes means of four kinds. The phrase in Piers Plowman, 
" of foure kunne f inges," means, of things of four kinds. 

4065. Probably an error for — " jjattow ne wost" The sense is, " It 
can't be that you don't know.*' 

P. 132, 1. 4104. That chaunged is the right reading is rendered pro- 
bable ^lot only by the recurrence of the word in 1. 4500, but by the use 
of the equivalent word forschop in 1. 4394. 

P. 133, 1. 4150. Probably we should read, " ne may zou deliuere." — M. 
This is a slightly bolder alteration, but a considerable improvement. 

P. 137, 1. 4278. '^Sepe in MS. Read * sothli for sothe.' A pleonasm 
arising from some blunder of the scribe." — M. 

P. 140, 1. 4379. " A slight liberty has been taken here, and also [in 
lines 2323, 3942]. In all three cases tlie word is written in the MS. 
* wirihe ' or * wor/he,* but the correction is so obvious, and the differ- 
ence so small between c and t [in the MS.], as to warrant the altera- 
tion." — M. It may be added that sc is almost always written like sL 

P. 141, 1. 4418. his grrfforgaf gave away, i. e. laid aside his anger. 
Cfrefia sometimes anger caused by vexation, as in AUsaunder, 1. 264. 

P. 145, 1. 4551. knew his sone sone, knew his son soon. 

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KOTES (pages U6 — 152). 233 

P. 146, 1. 4577. " Therefore, King of heaven, praised should you 
be, who have lent thee (Alphonse) thy life, to deliver us all.** It is rather 
an awkward sentence ; but it is usual, in Early English, to find ^ ha)> '* 
put for ** hast " in a sentence thus framed. 

P. 147, 1.4632. houte hot, without a boat? The usual meaning of 
houte hot is " without remedy," but this would be unsuitable here, for we 
have " boute hurt oJ?er harm " in the next line. The werwolf had to 
swim across the Straits of Messina, and doubtless found it a hard task, for 
he took care to secure a boat for the return journey. See 1. 2729. In 
1. 567 we have " boute mast," and in 1. 568 " boute anker or ore." More 
probably, however, houte hot^^^ houte hod, without delay, as in 1. 149. 

P. 148, 1. 4662. ioye. Sir F. Madden prints « fofe," with a note that 
we should read ** ioye." A close inspection of the MS. shews that the 
' first letter is really an », with a blur to the right of it making it loo^ 
like a long s. The letters y and ]? are made alike, throughout the MS. 

4666. most, i. e. most glad. 

P. 150, 1. 4716. god vnder god, wealth under God ; the author Uses 
under God or under Jieuene to signify throughout the world. The expres- 
sion is repeated in 1. 4732, and in 1. 4730 we find " worldes god " for 
worldly wealth. 

4717. Read " it ne schal redilL" — M. After this line occur the lines, 
" & J)«rto hei^eli am i holde * for holliche i knowe, 
fat alle ])i sawes be so}) • fat fou seidest ere." 
These lines are out of place here, and occur in their proper places lower 
down. The repetition of them, however, teaches us somewhat ; for it 
affords a most certain proof of the unsettled state of orthography. We 
here find the same scribe, in re-writing the same lines, altering hei^eli 
and holliche into hei^eliche and holli, so that he considered the endings -li 
and -Uche as perfectly interchangeable, and it was a mere chance which 
of the two he adopted. We also find seidest altered to saidest, shewing 
the equivalence of the ei and ai sounds. There is also a difference of 
reading ; for ** pi sawes " reappears as " pe sawes." Lastly, the change 
of "holde" into "hold" shews the uncertainty attending the use by 
scribes of the final e. 

4730. woldest ^eme, wouldst yearn for, wouldst desire to have. 

P. 151, 1. 4736. a mite worp. Just below, 1. 4754, the phrase used is 
a hene xcorp. Compare 

Schal no deuel at his def-day * deren him worp a myte. 

Piers Plowman, A. viii. 54. 
A straw for alle swevenes signifiaunce ! 
God help me so, I counte hem nought a hene. 

Chaucer, Troil. & Cress, bk. v. st. 52. 
So we find, in the Knightes Tale — the mountance of a tare (1. 712)— 
nought worth a myte (1. 700) ; in the Milleres Tale — nat a hers (1. 
568) ; and in the Pardoneres Tale — the mountance of a com of whete 
(1. 401). 

P. 152, 1. 4785. wil our lord wold, whilst our Lord would (permit us 

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234 NOTES (pages 153 — 159). 

to live). This is repeated in 1. 4802. In the present line, however, wil 
our lord vnllef would be a better reading. 

P. 153, 11. 4797, 4798. " All the nobles immediately prayed for them 
busily, (on the understanding) that they must by all means amend their 
trespass,*^ viz., by a life of penitence. Such an ellipsis is not uncommon ; 
in 1. 4800, however, the introduction of the word so before that makoa 
the sense clearer. 

P. 164, 1. 4827. This line is repeated, slightly varied, atl. 4888. 

P. 155, 1. 4877. tiding. Both this and tidinges are plural forms. Cf. 
1. 1075. 

P. 159, 1. 5004. hemleem ; so in MS. Read " befleem," i. e. Bethlehem. 

5013. hurtel. " This term is used in Chaucer twice, Cant. T. 2618, 4717 
[ed. Tyrwhitt], and in the WycliflBte versions of the Bible is far from 
uncommon. We find it also inserted in the Prompt. Parv. * Hurtelyne, 
as too thynges togedur, impingOj collido ; ' and, at a more recent penod, 
Shakspeare introduces it into his Julius Caasar, Act ii., sc. 2. 

* The noise of battle hurtled in the air, 
Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan.* 
The line in which this word occurs in our Romance is, perhaps, the 
finest of the whole poem, and not surpassed by the more polished diction 
of the Dramatist."— M. 

I would add that hurlest is a reading adopted for hurtUst in later 
editions of Cant. Tales, in 1. 4717. But we find in Chaucer the word in 
another place, ** And hertely they hurtelen al attones." 

Legend of Good Women; Cleopatra, 1. 59. 
It occurs twice in the " Romans of Partenay ; " see the glossary. It 
is used with great effect by Gray — 

Iron sleet of arrowy shower 
Hurtles in the darkened air ; — 
though he obviously copies here from Shakespeare, 

5014. desgeU, I let this word stand, though I believe it should be 
desgesliy or, better still, desgisli, disgisU, or disgisiU, for which latter form 
see 1. 485. It is best explained by a passage from Chaucer's Persones 
Tale — " precious clothing is coupable for . . . his straungeness and dw- 
gisines,^' &c. Hence disgisili means strangely j extraordinarily^ unusually^ 
inordinately, and is equivalent etymologically to disguisedly ; but it 
should be noted that the meaning of the Old French desguiser is i-ather to 
alter than to conceal the outward appearance of a thing, whence desguiser 
is often used in the sense of to trim, deck out, or adorn. In the present 
case, the sense is, that '' there was so strange and unusual a din, that all 
the earth quaked." In 1. 485, Meliors laments that she would, if she 
married beneath her, ** be extraordinarily disgraced." We must not con- 
nect this with the A. S. digelUce^ secretly, for this would contradict the 
sense in both places. The din (1. 5014) was not secret^ but very mani- 
fest; and in 1. 485 Meliors is expressing that it is open and public and 
unusual disgrace that she is afraid of, and that if she could keep the mat- 
ter secret, all would be well. 

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NOTES (pages 160 — 176). 235 

V, 160. 1. 5035. I fail to discover any alliteration in this line. 

P. 167. 1. 5262. vnderaton is probably the provincial pronunciation of 
vnderstonde; thus, and only thus, can we explain the curious reading 
fmdersto in 1. 5533 (which is very clearly written), where the scribe has 
forgotten to make a stroke over the o to denote the n. Cf. note to 1. 261. 

P. 168. 1. 5300. For i knew we should probably read i know. The 
letters e and o are often miswritten, one for the other. 

5322. po. Read "fe." — M. But I do not feel convinced that the 
alteration is needed. As it stands, we may translate it — ** Readily to- 
wards Rome then, by the direct way ; " taking ri^tes gates as an adverbial 
expression. There is some difficulty about titles ; see the glossary. 

P. 170. 1. 5378. "Anon then in haste he bad (men) cause his 
steward to come to him," <fec. Come sometimes means heccmie ; this might 
suggest the sense, that William made the cowherd his steward, but th& 
latter explanation is disposed of by 1. 5391. 

P. 172. 1. 5437. This curious expression, "the emperor's mother 
William," meaning " the emperor William's mother," deserves notice. 
It is the usual old English phrase. Thus, in Chaucer's Squyeres Tale, we 
" Or elles it was the Grehes hors Sinon " (C. T. ed. Tyrwhitt ; 1. 10523). 

That is, " or else it was Sinon the Greek's horse." In my opinion, it 
was very injudicious of later editors to substitute Grehissch for Grekes ; 
for, with the latter reading, the line can only mean — " or else it was the 
Greek horse, Sinon," which makes out Sinon to be the name of the horse I 

P. 174. 1. 5516. " That had had many hard haps theretofore, and (had) 
been once in great trouble and misfortune." The repetition of hoidde is 
quite right. 

P. 175. 1. 5536. ^tf, give ; like gif in 1. 5539 below. It is not the 
conjunction 3(^ (if) in this instance. 

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[N.B. — In tlie following notes, bv tlie Ortek text is meant the text of MS. No. 
113 (du supplement) of the Bibliothec^ue du Roif a Ion? extract from which is given 
in ** Notices des Manoscrits de la Bibhoth^qae da Roi, torn. xiii. p. 219, edited by 
M. Berger de Xivrey. By the French text is meant the text of MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 
7517, quoted in the same volume. By the Latin text ^unless otherwise specified) is 
meant the version contained in *^ Historia Alexandri magni regis Macedonie de 
preUis,*' printed, according to the colophon, in a.d. 1490.] 

P. 177, 1. 9. one^ i.e. Alexander ; though in 1. 11 the poet begins to 
tell first of all about his grandfather Aroyntas. 

21. Twoo aonnes. Rather three, viz. Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip. 
Perdiccas, like Alexander, was put to death by the wiles of Eurydice, 
according to MS. C.C.C. 219. 

22. The variations of spelling are due to the fact that the copyist has 
evidently made alterations of his own in order to make the significationa 
plainer. Thus alder (which occurs again in 1. 27) is explained by elder. 
It is very fortunate that he has been at the pains to preserve the old 
spelling. It must be noted that he sometimes places the old spelling, 
sometimes the modernized spelling, in the text. Thus, in 1. 1132, we find 
Dupe altered to deepe^ but in 1. 1156 he writes deepe, with the old spelling 
dupe above it. I have therefore, in all cases, adopted that spelling 
which seems rightly to belong to the original MS. 

P. 178. 1. 28. LI. 4651 and 5226 of the TferMJoJ^ resemble this^ne. 

30. " Nee mnlto post alexander, insidiis eurydicis matn's appetitfM 
occumbit. Cui amintas, in scelere depr^henssB, propter communes 
liberos, ignarns eisdem quaudoque existiosam fore, pepercerat" MS. 
C.C.C. 219, fol. 2. See also Orosius, ed. Havercamp, 1738, p. 168. 

33. In this line, the cross-stroke to the initial D is made in the MS., 
showing plainly that the letter D was used in the original. In other 
places, the copyist has written the small letter ^ without the cross-stroke, 
as in 1. 41, and elsewhere, and I have not always noticed this ; for the 
omission of the cross-stroke is very common even in a thirteenth century 
MS. ; see Mr Morris's Genesis and Exodus (E. E. T. S., 1865). It may 
be added that the copyist has two ways of making a c2/ one with a long 
up-stroke, i.e. ^ without the cross-stroke, and the other with the up-stroke 
curled round to the left and brought down again. Only the former of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 178 — 182). 237 

these 18 used where 'S is meant. This is a convenient place for observing 
that there is a second copy (inferior and with several omissions) of the 
first 43 lines, at a later page of the MS., viz. on fol. 16 b. The following 
variations may be noted : — In 1. 2, for tkinkerij the second copy has 
thynkefif with an e over the y. No doubt the original had thenkea (the 
right spelling, see Wenmlf^ I. 711), and it was rendered by thinken or 
thynken. In 1. 3, for toheper, another reading is outher. In 1. 4, for loose 
the second copy has lose, which is better; I am convinced that the 
original could not have had so many double vowels as abound in this copy; 
thus yee and oo^er in 1. 1 should rather have been ye and o^er. In 1. 38, 
for her the second copy has the more usual spelling hur, 

44. In the Werwolf^ we find the same method of concluding a para- 
graph, and nearly in the same words ; see 11. 5396, 5466. 

47. " Igitur alexander, inter pnma initia regni, bellum ab illiriis, 
pacta mercede et philippo fro/re dato obside, redemit. Intcriecto quoc^ue 
tempore, per eundem obsidem cum thebanis gra^m pacis reconciliat. 
Quad res philippo maxima incrementa egregisB indolis dedit. Si ({uidenh 
thebis triennio obses habitus, prima puericiaa rudimenta in urbe seueritatis 
antiqusB et in domo epaminondce summi et philosophi et imperatoris de- 
posuit." MS. C.C.C. 219, /o/. 2. And see Orositis^ as above. 

P. 180, 11. 87, 88. hym betides, For hee. The MS. has hee betides, 
for hym, with ee over ym in the latter word. The reading given in the 
text is the only one that can be grammatically correct. 

90. " Primum bellum cum Atheniensibus gessit." — Orosius. 

102. This date is firom Orosius. It is right within a few years. 

109. Assyriens, i. e. Illyrians. " Post hos, hello in illiriis (sic) trans- 
lato, multa milia hostium ccedit ; urbem nobilissimam larisseam capit" 
MS. C.C.C. 219, fol. 2 b, So in Orosiits; and indeed, the Assyrians are 
out of the question. The reader must expect to find the greatest con- 
fusion in the proper names ; in one of the French copies, for instance, 
Artaxerxes is called Arressessers, In 1. 130, we have Larissa called the 
city of the Assyrians. 

P. 181, 11. 119, 131. In both places, the e in Larissea or Larisse has 
a slight tag below it. In Latin MSS., this denotes ce, and we thus have 
another slight indication that our author translated from the Latin. Cf. 
note to L 255. 

124. Over deraine is written, as a gloss, the later spelling deraigne. 
One or two quite unimportant variations of this kind I have omitted to 

133. *' Inde Thessaliam non magis amore victorias, qnam ambitione 
habendorum equitum Thessalornm, quorum robur ut exercitui suo ad- 
misceret, invasit." — Orosius, as above. 

135. The MS. has see, with swee or suja above it, hardly legible. In 
1. 299, there is a similar difiicult word. Considering both passages, the 
word blundered over is probably sese, sesen, Cf. Seseden in 1. 234. 

P. 182, 11. 155 — 170. Orosius simply says, "Igitur victis Atheniensibus, 
subjectisque Thessalis ;" and in MS. C.C.C. 219 we merely find, " Quibus 

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238 NOTES (PAOfiS 183 — 188). 

rebus feliciter prouenientibiw/* That the poet has span'this out into 16 
lines seeras to me highly probable, and it will therefore be but a vain 
search to look for an original that may agree with his translation more 
closely. Just below we have 22 lines, 178 — 199, which seem to mo 
evidently his own, every word of them. 

172. Arisba or Eruhel. In his edition of Orosius^ Havercamp adopts 
the spelling Arubct, the common reading being Eurueha; we also find 
the spellings Arucha^ Erybba, Arymba, &c. Compare — ** Olimpiadem, 
neoptolemi regis molossorum filiam, uxorem ducit, conciliante nuptias 
fratre patrueli auctore uirginis sarraba rege molossorwrn, qui sororem 
olimpiadis troadam in matrtmonio habebat ; quas causa illi exitium (jnc) 
malorumqwe omnium fuit." MS. C.C.C. 219, foL 3. 

P. 183, 1. 199. Cf. Werwolf, 1. 671. 

P. 184, 1. 234. Sededen begins with a double long «. Wherever I 
have printed 9«,it is to denote a character resembling a German sz. 

240. " (Aruba) privatus in exilio consenuit." — Orosius, 
I P. 185, 1. 248. hampred is doubtless the word wanted. It occurs in 
the Wenoolf, 1. 1116, &c. 

255. Comothonham, Several MSS. of Orosius have " Cu mothonam 
urbem oppuguaret," &c. ; where Cu means Cum. Hence the strange 
word Comothonham, repeated in 1. 310; and hence, also', a clear proof that 
the poet translated from a Latin original, as he himself asserts in 1. 458. 

25G. The MS. has " holde menne |)ere," but the alliteration shows 
that we must read bolde ; holde belongs to the next line, which see. 
V 264. greefe, i.e. vexation, anger ; cf. Werwolf, 4418. 

268. areblaat. Rather, read arblast, which the copyist has turned 
into aireblast, i.e. air-blast! 

P. 186, L 284. merken. Probably not an error for mahen, as might be 
thought ; for the word occurs again in 1. 932. See the Glossary. 

291. fiocke. Possibly an error for folke ; yet flocks makes good 
sense. Sonndes or soundes is no doubt put fur sondes, messengers. 

292. The MS. reading " Gamu« " must be a mistake for GaintM or 
G&nus ; see Gaintis in the Glossary. 

^ 295. coumales; see Werwolf, 1. 2858. 

299. The MS. has scene or seeue, with * over the ee. The right word 
is perhaps sesen, written sesene, and read as seiene by the copyist 

302. Here and elsewhere many a is written " many * " with the a 
above the line, as if it did not belong to the phrase ; but see Wenoolf^ 
11. 3410, 341 1. A large portion of the description of this siege of Methone 
is doubtless of the poet*s own invention. 

P. 187, 1. 329. The outline of the story of these wars is given in Orosius, 

P. 188, 1. 347. wonde is no doubt the right word, wende being au 
ignorant gloss upon it, subversive of the sense. 

349. MS. has strane, or straue. Perhaps it means, 

"Steeds, stirred from the place, strain under men." 
Otherwise, for strane read strongs^ and the sense is, 

** Steeds stirred from the place under strong men.'* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 189 — IflS). 239 

For mm under =: under men, see 1. 1188. 

362. spenen is the right reading, and is put for spendeUy like wen for 
wend, &c, 

P. 189, 1.- 391. The alteration of Phosus into ^osus is a convincing 
proof that the copyist took an occasional liberty with the spelling. He 
could not have had ^osus before him in an Old English MS. of the 14th 

P. 190, 1. 416. The copyist has written stelger, and marked it as 
being a word he did not understand. The words may have been run 
together in the older MS. Stel ger is simply " steel gear." 

421. Here is another proof that the poet probably followed the Latin 
of Orosius. We find there the phrase — " Philomelo duce *' — whence he 
adopted the form Philomelo in 1. 364, and did not alter it here. Yet 
Orosiua afterwards has — ^' sequent! prselio inter immensas utrinsque 
populi strages Philomel us occisus est : in cujus locum Phocenses Ouo- 
marchum ducem creaverunt." 

P. 191, 1. 439. ^eme. The MS. has either "3enn " or " jem«." The 
latter is right ; sec 1. 365. 

445. This line means, " that ever they paused in the strife, (though 
it had caused them) to die upon the field.^ 

451. for his grete yie, in return for his great eye ; a curious way of 
expressing that his vow, mentioned in 1. 281, had been fulfilled. 

452. Here the more historical part of the story ceases, and the 
romance properly begins. From this point, also, the poet translates 
from a different source, as explained in the Preface. LI. 452 — 1092 
should be compared wMb the first 722 lines of Mr Stevenson's edition of 
" The Alliterative Romance of Alexander" (Roxburghe Club, 1849) ; from 
MS. Ashmole 44. See also Qower, Conf. Amant bk. vi. 

457. This shews that the poet used more books than one to translate"" 
from. His regret that he could not trace the lineage of Nectanabus 
shews that his probable object in the preceding part of the poem was to 
trace the lineage of Alexander, and to say something about his father 
and grandfath^. 

459. Nectanahm; called also AnectanahuSy Anec, or Natabus. The 
story of Nectanabus is utterly rejected by Lambert li Tors. See " Li 
Romans d'Alixandre," par Lambert li Tors et Alexandre de Bemay ; 
herausgegeben von Heinrich Michelant : Stuttgart, 1846, p. 5. 

460. This line occurs, slightly altered, in the Wenoolf, 1. 119. 
463. Some such word as kene or kid must be supplied. 

465. Y-wis may mean prudent, Icnomng (A.S. ge-wis), but as it is else- 
where always an adverb in both poems, I prefer to think that the sentence 
is incomplete ; and that this line ought to be followed by some such line 

** For a wel kud clerke • and koynt in his liue." 
P. 192, 1. 473. But, except 

475 — 483. The Latin is — "non movit militiam, neque preparavit 
6xercitum, sed intravit cubiculuw* palatii sui ; et deprendens concham 

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240 NOTES (pages 193, 193). 

eream plenam aqua plouiali, tenensque in manu virgam eream, bic per 
magicos incantationes intelligebat io ipsa concha classes nauiam super 
eum potentissime venieDtes.** 

493. nine grete nations. The number nine may have been selected 
merely for the alliteration. The names of these nations vary greatly in 
the different copies. The " Augrai " or " Augni " (for our MS. may be 
read either way, on account of the m or n being here represented by a 
horizontal line) may perhaps be the A(avol of the Greek, or the ** Argiri " 
of the Latin text By the *^ Bosorii '* the translator would probably mean 
the men of Bussorah or Bassorah ; yet this city was not founded till a.d. 
636. It represents the B6<nropoi of the Greek text, and possibly answers 
to the " Roephariens " of the French text (MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 7517). 
The " Agiofagi " — (** Agiophii " in the Latin text) — are the " Agrio- 
phagi ** mentioned in the Latin MS. No. 8518 of the Bibl. du Roi : 

" Another folk woneth in the west half, 
That eteth never kow no kalf, 
Bote of panteris and lyouns. 
And that they nymeth as venesons. 
Othir fleschy no othir fysch, 
No othir bred, heo no haveth, y-wis. 
Feorne men, and othir therby, 
Clepeth heom Ago/agy" 

Weber 8 Metrical Romances, v. i. p. 261. 

P. 193, 1. 515. The Christian sentiment in this line and in 1. 523, of 
ascribing strength to God only, is the poet^s own. 

I here add, by way of illustration, the speech of Nectanabus as given 
in the various texts. 

2i; fxey, KaXwQ koI InuiKwQ fjy ivi(rrevdr}Q ^povpav ^vK&mav, Koi /i^ 
ravra \iyi, ActXwc yap Ka\ oi trrpaTiwriKWC iifiBiy^uf. Ou yap kv 
©X^y h ^vyafiig, aW* tv vpoOvfiiq. 6 ttoXc/ioc* KaJ yap cic \i(av iroWac 
iKcKpovQ kyiipuxraro, Kal cic \vkoq iroXXac ayiXaQ woifiyiutv eaKvKevtnf. 
"Slffre ovv av vopevd^g &fia roic iy vn-orayp ooi arpariwraiQ r^v i^lay 
vapara^iy i^vXarrt' \6y^ yap kyi rwv fiapfidputy dyapidfiriToy trXfidoQ 
TTcXdyci iirtJcaXvi/zw. — MS, Bibl. du Roi, No. 113 (suppl.); quoted in 
Notices des Monuscrits de la Bibliothdque du Roi ; torn. xiii. p. 223. 

" Custodiam quam tibi condidi bene obserua ; sed non tamen sicut 
princeps militie egisti, sed sicut homo timidus. Uirtus enim non heo 
valet in multitudiTie populi, sed in fortitudine animorum ; an nescis quod 
vnus leo mwltos ceruQS in fugam vertit? " — Historia Alexandria edition 
of 1490, page 1. 

" Va-t-en k la garde que je f ai commandee, et veille curieusement, et 
pense de bien garder ta reccomandise. Car tu n'a pas parle comme prince 
de chevalerie, mais comme homme paoureux. Car il n*afifiert pas k gou- 
verueur de peuple qu*il s*espouvente pour grant quantite de gent ; car 
victoire ne gist pas en multitude de gent, mais en vigueur et force de 
courage. N'as tu pas veu par plusieurs fois que ung [lyon ?] meit k la 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 194 — 106). 241 

fuite grant quantite de serfz [cerfz ?].^ Aussi se peat poy contretenir la 
grant multitade centre lee vigureux." — MS, BihL du Eoi; quoted in the 
above vol., p. 287. See also Aleaxmder, ed. Stevenson ; p. 4, 11. 97 — 110. 
P. 194, 1. 532. FUete certainly means to float here ; yet the Latin has 
'* videbat qualiter egiptii stemebantur impetu classium Barbarorum." Out 
of this the translator has made this curious passage about the ^ god of 
Barbre," the origin of which is to be traced to a misunderstanding of the 
Greek text, which says, ** he sees the gods of the Egyptians steering the 
enemies* boats, and the armies of the Barbarians being guided by them.'' 

545. white aendal ; " linea vestimenta." 

549. let trusge, commanded his men to pack up. 

557. Seraphm; so spelt in the French text. The Latin has Serapis, . 

P. 195, 1. 565. He shall hye hym agame. The response of the oracle must / 
be given in the words of the Qreek text. It runs thus : 6 ^vyutv fiaaiKevQ 
Uti vdXiv iv alyiynTt^j oh yripdaKtav, dXKa vea^oiv, koI tovq i^dpovQ 
iffidv ircpaac vTrorafcc. Here the word friptras is ambiguous, and may 
mean "having destroyed" or "the Persians." M. Berger de Xivrey 
draws special attention to this oracle, which he considers as the basis of 
the whole romance. It was fulfilled, not by the return of the old man 
Nectanabus, but by the visit to Egypt of his son, the young man 
Alexander. It is accordingly alluded to again in the passage where 
Alexander, seeing the great image (mentioned by our author in 1. 568), 
inquires whom it represents. He is told it represents Nectanabus, upon 
hearing which he falls down and kisses the feet of it. Cf. Alexander, ed. i 
Stevenson, 1. 1135 ; Webef's Metr. Bom. vol. i. p. 67. J 

574. Here begins a new paragraph — " Quomodo Anectanabti« 
ascendit palacium ad Olimpiam reginam ; " and in Mr Stevenson's edition 
is the heading — " Secundus passus Alexandri." 

584. " Aue regvna Macedonie ! dedignattM ei dicere domino.** 

P. 196, 1. 594. " Uerbum regale dixisti, quando egiptioe nominasti." 

596.- The MS. has toorclich^ a mere error for worUich^ which is 
another spelling of toorthlich ; cf. 1. 1024. 

601. ktdene of pat language^ the speech (or meaning) of that language. 
"Sum understandis in a stounde * the steven (voice) of the briddis," &o. 

Alexander, ed. Stev. 1. 252. 
Compare also the passage in Chaucer about Canace understanding the 
language of birds. 

— sche understood wel euery thing 
That eny foul may in his lydne sayn. 
And couthe answer him in his lydne again. 

The Squyeres Tale, Pars Secunda ; 11. 88—90. 

613. We should rather read. Too defend pee fro doole. 

616. Imped, set; lit engrafted. "Tabular ereai» et ebnrneawi 

1 The editor has a note—" On recoimait Hi le« id^es provenant de la superiority 
si marquee de la chevalerie, au mojen &ge, sur les serfe et siir les vilaiiiB.' True, 
no douDt ; but serfz probably means stags in thb passage, nevertheless. 


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242 NOTES (pages 196 — 20l). 

mixtam auro et argento." Cf. " His are-table he tok oute sone ; " Weber, 
Metr, Rom., vol. i. p. 17. It was, I suppose, an astrolabe-plaDisphere. 

620. The contents of the circles are wrongly given. They should 
be (1.) The 12 intelligences — " duodecim intelligentias " — " les zii. in- 
telligences, c*e8t assavoir les zii. entendemens ; " (2.) the signs of the 
zodiac, called in MS. Ashmole " a dusan of bestes ; " and (3.) the courses 
of the sun and moon. 

P. 197, 1. 628. forcer, a box ; " une boiste d'ivoire." It contained a 
species of horoscope, in which were the seven planets, to each of which 
was assigned a particular kind of stone. Thus in 1. 634 we should rather 
read, ^^Seuen stones," but the poet has written Foure for the sake of allitera- 
tion, regardless of facts. The seven stones are mentioned in the Latin 
MS. Bibl, du Roi, No. 8518. " Jovem quippe viseres aerino lapide nun- 
cupatura. Solem cristallo, Lunam adamante, Martem dici sub lapide 
hematite, Mercurium smaragdo. Venus autem saphirina erat ; Satumus 
in ophite. At vero horoscopus lygdinus erat." The Greek text has the 

656 — 674. This passage is not in the Greek, Latin, or French texts, 
and was inserted by the translator from another source (see note to I. 
837), to account for Philip*s ilNwill against Olympias. The interpolation 
is needless, as a dream is contrived by Nectanabus expressly for Philip's 
information soon afterwards ; see 11. 807 — 874. The present passage is 
also omitted in MS. Ashmole 44. 

P. 199, 1. 694. *^ Neqt<« iuvenis neque senex, et barbam can is habens 
omatam. Undc si placet, esto illi parata," Ac. The " silver horns,** 
however, are essential, as being the chief characteristic of the god Ammon. 
" With tachid in his for-toppe ' tioa tu/e Jtomes" 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 319. 

698. glisiing is another form of gliaiande, glistening. 

700. Supply the word J)ce. Nye, to draw nigh, occure in 11. 739, 817 ; 
and nye ^ee in 1. 764. 

702. ** Si hec videro, non vt prophetam nee diuinum, sed vt deum 
ipBum adorabo." 

710-744. This passage is much amplified. It is much sliorter in the 
Ashmole MS., and the Latin merely has — ^^ euellit herbas, terensqw^ eas 
et succos illarum tulit, et fecit incantationes per diabolica figmenta ; vt 
in eadem nocte Olimpia deu/n Hamon concumbentem secum videret, 
dicentemqu« ei post concubitum, mulier, concepisti defensorem tuum." 

P. 200, 1. 726. riue. The MS. has riue, with /over the u, rightly 
• explaining riue by the modem word rife, 

738. Or- trowed, lit. over-trowed, and hence, suspected, imagined. 
Compare ouer-trowe in the Glossary. 

756. No noo^er, none other, nothing else. So also J?i narmei for Jwi 
armes (Werwolf, I 666). 

P. 201, 1. 760. Too waite at a window, to watch at a window. A 
favourite phrase of our author's. See Werwolf, 11, 779, 2982, 3030, 3300. 

764. The line would run as well again if fee nye were altered to nye 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 201 — 203). 243 

bee. Compare—" Nam ille deaa in figura draconis ad te veniet ; et exinde 
humanaTn formam accipiens ; ei mea similitudine apparebit." 

770. ** Si veritatem probare valebis, te quasi patrem pueri habebo.** 
But this is sometimes curiously altered, as in the following : 

" Then salle I cherische the with chere * as thou my child were, 
Loute the lovely and love • alle my lyfe days." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 368. 
774, 775. These two fine lines certainly surpass the bald statement — 
" circa autem primam vigiliaTTi noctis.** 

779. slaked on wightes, fell relaxingly upon men. Wightes, not 
mighteSf is the right reading. Compare — 

" Qwen it was metyn to the merke • that menn ware taryst/ 
And follce was on thair firste slope * and it was furtb evyne." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 374. 

781. a dragonea drem, a dragon's droning. Drem or dream is some- 
times a loud, droning sound. The Latin has — ^" et aibiUmdo contra 
cubiculum Olimpie cepit transuolare." The French has " ala svfflant 
entour le lit." Cf. 11. 982, 985. 

782. makes his Udene, i. e. talks softly. Compare ludene above, 
1. 601, 

P. 202, 1. 802. Deemes, i. e. will deem. Philip had been from home 
for some time ; she wonders what he will say when he returns. 

808. " Euellens herbas, triturauit eas et tulit succum illarum, appro- 
hendensque auem marinam, cepit super earn incantare, illam de succo 
herbamm liniens." 
813. Compare— 
"And [with ?] the wose of the wede • hire wengis anoyntes.'* 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 413. 
•^ 817. The phrase nied ^e night occurs in the Werwolf, 1. 770. 
P. 203, 1. 824. The Latin has " deus Hamon; *' and " Amon " is here 
mentioned in MS. Ashmole. 

826. The word deede was miswritten deene owing to confusion with 
cfoeme. Compare — 

" )>at deede deme * do no mon scholde." 

Piers PlovTmany ed. Skeat, A. x. 199. 
In the Latin follows — "quod videret os uulue coTisuere et anni^Io aureo 
consignare et in ip80 anni^lo erat lapis vbi erat sculptum caput leonis 
et currtM solis et gladius peracutus." 

837. nyed, approached (a favourite word with our author), is almost 
certainly the word required here. The following passage is worth 
notice here. 

" Philipe anssi long temps apres ses nopces songea quil seelloit le 
ventre de sa femme dung grant seel auquel estoit graue lymaige dung 
lyon ; par lequel songe, comme plusieurs eussent expose a phellippe quil 

1 Read " ta ryst," i. o. to rest 

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244 NOTES (pages 303 205). 

86 donnast garde de ea femme, Arifltaitder le deuin affermoit quelle aaoit 
chargie denfaDt. Car on ne seelle ^int lea choses Yuydes ; et que elle 
se deliueroit dung enfant, plain de couraige et ayant nature de lyon. 
% Deuant ce on auoit veu vng dragon couchant empres olympie qui lora 
dormit, la quelle chose Refroida tresfort Phelippe enuers elle.** MS. 
Douce 318, chap. iii. The same MS. informs us further that Philip 
avoided Olympias, because he feared magic or poison ; that he sent to 
Delphos, and was told to sacrifice to the god '' Amon," and that he would 
lose an eye as a punishment for having beheld Amon with her; all 
which is related by Plutarch. But Eratosthenes says, his mother only 
told Alexander the secret of his birth on his setting out on his expedition. 
A similar story is told of the mother of Scipio African us. Plutarch explains 
the dragon story by saying that Olympias belonged to a tribe that reli- 
giously cherished serpents of great size. Justin says, Olympias dreamt of 
having conceived a serpent. "Vincent lystorial " (i. e. Vincent of Beau- 
vais, in his "Speculum Historiale") ascribes the engendrure of Alexander 
to Neptanabus, but this is flat against Holy Scripture, since in the book 
of Maccabees [bk. 1. chap. i. v. 1] Alexander is expressly called the 
" son of Philip.** All this, and more, is to be found in the above- 
mentioned MS., chap. iii. 

853. fe Sonne course of )>e sell^ the course of the sun upon the seal. 
MS. Ashmole has " the course one the sonne.'* 

P. 204, 1. 855. sorme rist, rising of the sun, the far East ; " ad orientem, 
ynde sol egreditur." 

860. The MS. has boldes, but we must read holdes ; cf. note to 1 256. 

873. meting^ dream. See the Glossary. 

875. Here begins a new paragraph in the Latin, with the heading, 
"Qualiter Anectanabus in fig^ra dracouis antecedebat Philippum in 
prelio deuincendo et hostes.** 

879. lasches^ lashes, i. e. heavy strokes. Cf. the phrase " to deal 
dints ; ** Werwolf, 3440. 

883. Deraide, acted madly or terribly. It is the past tense, not the 
past participle, but we ought perhaps to supply hym after it. 

P. 205, 1. 895. Here loren is correctly glossed by 2om6, i. e. lost 

900-953. The whole of this passage is an interpolation from another 
source, and belongs rather to history than to the romance. The drift 
of it agrees with the account given by Orosius. 

901. The MS. has — ** Was going too )>e oucr Greece,** Ac. But the 
word " J)e ** must be corrupt, being an article without a substantive, 
and, moreover, a verb is required. I propose ride as very probably being 
the correct reading, as it is the expression used in 1. 5471 of the Werwolf 
in a similar case. If the first two letters of ride were erased, de might 
easily be confused with %e or ^e, 

903. The Athenians stopped him by occupying the pass of Ther- 
mopyln. " Athenienses . . . angustias Thermopylarum . . . occupavere." 
Orosius, ed. Havercamp, 1738, p. 171. 

904. to keueren kirn gate^ to recover (or obtain) for himself a passage. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 206—208). 245 

908. fe entree ; the entries, i. e. the pass. Enforced^ strengthened, 
forcibly occupied. 

909. We must read either Jw) marches^ or ^ctt marche ; for the plural 
form ])o see 1. 912. The MS. has ^at marches, 

911. agrieed is a gloss upon offtise, the form used by our author. 
913. Philip, failing to harm his enemies, cruelly attacks his own 
allies ; ** paratum in hostes bellum vertit in socios.** Oromus. 
P. 206, 1. 923. Besides of^ we almost require to insert toeu. 

** Hee wrathfull of wille taw * wronglich Jare." 

>f 928. Lines 2621, 2647 in the TTeru^oJ/^ resemble this line. 

933. The MS. has traie^ with he written before it above the line ; 
perhaps traie is the right reading, and betrcde the gloss upon it, 

934. ** Conjuges liberosque omnium sub corona vendidit, templa 
quoque universa sub vertit, spoliavitque,*' &c Orosiue, 

940. He ne laft no lenger^ he remained no longer ; cf. 1. 950. 

942. farea^ goes. This makes sense, but I suspect the right word is 

944. ''Post hsec in Gappadociam transiit, ibique bellum pari 
perfidia gessit, captos per dolum finitimos reges interfecit, totamque 
Cappadociam imperio Macedonias subdidit** Oi'oeius, The editor 
(Havercamp) remarks that this is false, and that Cappadodam is a mere 
mistake for Chahidicam or Chalcidem ; and he is doubtless right, as the 
siege of Olyntlius in Chalcidice must be meant 

P. 207, 1. 954. At about this line we drop the histoiy and return to tlie 
romance, taking it up from L 899. 

965. " Nevertheless I know (it) not yet, nay, as I trow." Not = ne 
wot. This is awkward enough. It represents the Latin — " Peccasti, 
inquit, et non peccasti, quia violentiam a deo passa es." 
^ 974. This line occurs in the Werwolf 1. 1416 ; cf. also 1. 5250. It 
should be observed that a new paragraph begins here in the Latin, with 
the heading, ''Quomodo Anectanabus in figuram draconis apparuit 
Philippe in oonuiuio, et osculatus est Olimpiam.** 
^ 980. a Werwolf 1. 4906. 

P. 208, 1. 982. See note to 1. 781, and cf. 1. 985. The Latin has 
" fortiter sibilabat." 
^ 992. Uuand lud, living man ; a favourite phrase of our author's ; see 
L 790, and Wenvoff, IL 1690, 3678, 5429. 

994. greejly higo^ grievously beset ; higo is glossed by higone, 

999. Here begins a new paragraph in the Latin, with the heading, 
''Quomodo auis generavit ouum in gremio philippi, de quo confracto 
exiuit serpens, qui statim mortuut est** 

1004. " He laid an egg in his lap, and then hurries away.** Hee 
might stand for she^ but Mm is always masculine. We should certainly 
have expected to find the feminine, as in the Latin and in MS. Ashmole 44. 

1008. to-shett, i. e. " brast all esoundir,** as Ma Ashmole has it Cf. 
too-dtf in the next line. 

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246 NOTES (pages 209 — ^21l)« 

P. 209, 1. 1013. had in hU Judy got his head in. Deide is the right 
Bpelling, and dyed the gloss. 

1022. Raigne is the old spelling, reigne the gloss. 

1024. tDortlych is found as an occasional spelling of worthlych ; 
worihly is a glosa Of. 1. 596. 

1025. ^ Ere he come unto the country that he came from." 

1026. doluen and ded ; more correctly, ded and doluen, i. e. dead and 
buried. Cf. Wenoolf, 5252, 5280. 

1030. roum may mean room^ space ; and hence, a while* 
1031-2. ^* Ere he may wend with his host to his (own) land where be 
was fostered and fed — it befalls him to die.*' 

1033. Here begins a new paragraph in the Latin, without a heading, 
and in MS. Ashmole 44 iS'the heading ** Tercius Passus Alexandri." 

1034. A portion of the story is here lost. I might have supplied the 
omission from MS. Ashmole 44 (see Stevenson's edition, 11. 525 — 672), 
but the great length of this passage and the consideration that to supply 
the omission from another alliterative poem might lead to confusion be- 
tween the two, were reasons against this. Or it might have been supplied 
from the Latin, beginning at — " Appropinquans autem tem^us pariendi " 
— and ending — " Audiens hec Olimpia terrore p«rterrita vocauit Anec- 
tanabum, et dixit.'* It seemed to me, however, that a quotation from the 
French would be more acceptable, and the omission is supplied therefore 
from MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 7517, as edited in the 13th vol. of " Notices 
des MamMcrita^' &c. ; pp. 297-299. The following words may require 
explanation : — 

chey^ fell ; — croulla^ shook ; — not/, snow (explained by neige by the 
editor of the French text) ; — targa, tarried, delayed ; — me feuet^ perhaps 
we should read nefeust, for the Latin has, "cogitaui qitod infantulti« iste 
nullatenti^ nutriatur," and the Ashmole MS. has, ** That this frute shall 
haue na fostring • ne be fed nouthire ; *' — vair (Lat, ** glaucus '*), gray ; 
MS. Ashmole has " jelow ; " — seatature, stature ; — nonpour quant, never- 
theless ; — ysnellete^ quickness (cf. O.E. snell) ; — douhta moult, feared 

P. 211, 1. 1038. " He was very well pleased with his noble deeds, but 
(then) he changed his demeanour," &c. 

1041. The MS. has maried, with r over the i. Hence, the old word was 
marred^ altered to maried ; for marred is a common word with our author. 
Marred too care, vexed unto great anxiety, is a not very intelligible 
phrase, and therefore liable to alteration. It means much the same as 
wofull in hert in the next line. 

1043, 1044. Blank spaces are left in the MS. for the two half-lines. 
Ck)ropare — 

" Be no3t afri^t," quoth the freke * " ne afrayd nouthir, 
It sail the noy no^t a neg * nane of his tho^tes." 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 675. 
In which passage, a neg is equivalent to an eg. There is nothing lost 
(save a half-line) between II. 1044 and 1045. 

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NOTES (PAG^ 212, 213). 247 


P. 212, 1. 1054./ofkifi /, mee tell, I ask (you to) tell me. 
1055. Of. " Quat stenie is at )e stody oue ' quare stekis it in hevyne.*' 
Alex. I. 683. 

1061. tnA^e, blackest. The MS. is rather indistinct; ihe"kest**iB 
plain, bat the beginning of the word is represented by a straight horizontal 
stroke (elsewhere used for m or n), with a dot over the very commence- 
ment of it. Enke=z ink occurs in "• Meidan Maregrete^^ ed. Cockayne, 
stanza 61 ; and in Wycliffe's version of the Bible. The Latin merely 
has, " Sequere me hora noctis," &c. 

1076-7. Compare the version in MS. Ashmole — 
" Alexander, athill sonne * (quoth Anec his syre), 
Loo yondir, behald over thi hede • and se my hatter werdis {dire 

The evylle steme of Ercules * how egirly it soro^es, 
And how the mode Marcure * makis sa mekill joy, 
Loo jondir, the gentill Jubiter* how jolyle he schynes.'* (11. 701-705.) 
1080-1. Hee pored, i.e. Nectanabus. Hee braides, i.e. Alexander. 
Perhaps there are a few lines lost between these two. Compare — 
" The domes of ray destany • drawis to me swythe, 
Thik and thrathly am I thret * and thole mone I sone 
The Blaster of myne awen son * as me was sett ever." 
Unethis werped he that worde * the writt me recordis, 
Thanne Alexander as sone * was at him behind, 
And on the bake with slike a hire * he bare with his handis 
That doune he drafe to the depest • of the dike bothom. 

Alexander, 11. 706—712. 
The Latin has — **Fata mea mihi propinquam mortem a filio meo 
cowminantur. Taliter eo vidente, accessit ad eum propinquius alex- 
ander,*' &c. 

P. 213, 1. 1092. sounic or hee toer, ere he was sunken. 
1094. This corresponds with 1. 722 of MS. Ashmole 44. Though 
there is not the slightest hint of any omission in Mr Stevenson's edition, 
there must be several pages lost in the Ashmole MS. between this line 
and the next ; for the story leaps at once from the dying words of 
Nectanabus to the duel of Alexander and Nicolas, entirely omitting the 
rest of the story as told in the Greaves MS. Hence from 1. 1094 to the 
end is the only existing copy in alliterative verse of this portion of the story. 
It does not go quite far enough to supply the whole of the lacuna in the 
Ashmole MS., but it nearly does so, contributing 155 lines towards it. 

1094. hee in this line is probably put for hue, i. e. she, the word soule 
being feminine. 

1095. armed, fortified, bold. 

1098. The French has — " et prist maintenant le corps et le porta au 
palais. Quant la royne le vit, si lui dist, * Filz Alixandre, que aportes 

1103 — 1105. These words belong to Alexander, The French has — 
" En ycelle maniere que tu soufiris que il feusse mon pere, k tort, pour ce 
que tu ne le me dels, Pas tu fait occire k tort." 

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246 NOTES (pages 213, 214). 

1107. JieaU^ false spelliDg for hete^ command. 

1110. The initial T of this letter is rather larger than usual, and a 
new paragraph begins here. At this point I should conjecture that the 
Qtiartus Passua of the Ashmole MS. may have commenced. In our 
MS. " A H0R8S " is here written in the margin, to intimate that the story 
of Bucephalus begins here. In the Latin, a new paragraph begins here 
with the heading — ^^ Qualiter quidam princeps de Capadocia aduxit equum 
bucifallum ad philippum regem macedonum.** 

P. 214, 1. 1114. a hedde <i8 a boU^ a heeuA like a bull ; an allusion to 
the etymology of Bucephalus, from /3ovC) aq ox, and ice^Xi), a head. The 
name, however, really means a horse branded with a mark like a buirs 
bead ; see Liddell and Scott^s Greek Lexicon. I here add the description 
of Bucephalus as given in the Old High German poem of Alexander, 
written in the twelfth century by a priest named Lamprecht, as a 
specimen of that version. For the translation I crave indulgence, as it 
may not be quite correct. The letter « (itaUc) is used instead of a letter 
in Weismann's edition which resembles a z with a slight tag to it 

dna ros daz was wunderlich The horse was wonderfully 

irre unde vil stritich, wilful and very full-of-strife, 

snel unde stare von gescafnisse, quick and strong of shape, 

des suit ir sin gwisse. (of it should ye be certain). 

iz h^te unzallfche craft He had unspeakable strength, 

unde umm&slfche macht ; and measureless might ; 

iz irbei« di Idte unde irsMch, he bit people and slew (them), 

iz was freislfch gniich. he was terrible enough. 

ime was sfn munt. To him, was his mouth 

daz wil ih ti tiin kunt, (that will I make known to you) 

alseime esele get&n. just-like an ass^s made. 

di nasen w4ren ime wfte tif getdn. His nostrils were wide opened, 

sine 6ren w4ren ime lane, his ears were to him long, 

daz houbit magir unde slanc. his head meagre and lank. 

sine ougen w&ren ime allirvare his eyes were to him of-all-colours 

gllch eineme fliegendin are. like (those of a) flying eagle. 

Sin hals was ime lockechte. His neck was to him covered-witli- 


ih w^ne iz w^re lewin geslehte. I ween he was of a lion*s kind, 

tif den goffen Mtiz rindis h&r, On his shanks had he heifer's hair, 

an den sften liebarten m&l : on his sides leopards* spots : 

86 sarrazin ioh cristin man like Saracen, so-also Christian man 

nie nihein hezzer ros gwan. never a better horse won. 

Alexander, vom Pfaffen Lamprecht, von Dr H. Weismann, 1850, p. 
16. See also the description of Bucephalus in Weber's Met, Rom^y vol. 
i. p. 33. 

1130. hym may refer to the spokesman of the messengers ; but hem 
would be a better reading. 

1131. The French has — "si dist k ses ministres, Receves ce oheval, 
et le metes en une grant quage de fer, et illeuc Tencloys,** &c. He 
eomanded bpgge, would mean " he commanded (men) to build." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES (pages 215 — 218). 249 

, 1144. Who prickes is surely the right readiDg • compare—" celle 
nuit soDga li roys que une voys li disoit, que cU qui chevaucJieroU se 
cheval regneroit en son rengne apres sa mort" 
P. 215, L 1158. in theyr looke, in their sight 
1159. frecUm^ false spelling fory^6^ eaten. 

1161. The MS. may be read as " iust«»" or " iuysM,** the word being 
indistinct The former, however, is certainly meant 

1162. The line ends with the letter b followed by a space ; beaate is 
the spelling in 1. 1130. 

J 1167. abotoed, like aUmted (for which see Werwolf, 3716, 3721), 
should perhaps be followed by the word to. 

P. 216, 1. 1186. lete hym toorthej let him be, let him do as he liked. 
See note to Wenjoolfy 1. 3597. 

1193. The kS. has atynt, with ed above it to the right. Thus sfyni 
is the old reading, styrUed the gloss. 

1201. We learn from the Latin that Philip grants Alexander's re- 
quest by giving him a royal chariot and a company of knights, and the 
story of the duel between Alexander and Nicolaus or Nicholas follows 
shortly after. But our author again digresses from the romance story 
at this point, and takes up the history of Orosius. 

P. 217, 1. 1226. The story of the Finding of the Cross by Helen, the 
mother of Constantino, is well known, and is here alluded to. 

1231. This line begins with " For Philip," but the For is redundant, 
as it appears in the line above. For ** to wynne " we should probably 
read ** wynne," as the to is inserted above the line by the copyist, who 
may not have known that infinitives are often used without it 

1233, 1234. ^ For that, in treason or guile, none should rob the 
man," ^c. 

P. 218, 1. 1241. The conclusion answers to the passage in Orosius — 
" Philippus vero,postlongam et irritam obsidionem, ut pecuniam quam ob- 
sidendo exhauserat, prasdando repararet, piraticam adgressus est" Orogitis, 
lib. iii., cap. xiii., ed. Havercamp, 1738, p. 174. We may readily imagine 
that the poet, after a description of Philip's fleet and piratical expedi- 
tions, would, on arriving at the passage — " ad Scythiam quoqne cum 
Alexandre filio pr»dandi intentione pertransiit " — revert to Alexander's 
exploits at the mention of his name. No doubt also, instead of giving 
the historical account, he must here have taken up the romance again 
by relating Alexander's duel with Nicolas ; for which see Mr Stevenson's 
edition and Weber's Metrical Romances. 

But it may fairly be observed, that the portion of the Romance ex- 
hibited in this fragment is, in a certain sense, complete. The whole 
Romance may be divided into three parts : (1.) the infancy of Alexander; 
(2.) his acts ; (3.) his death. The first of these is contained in the first 
1201 lines of the fragment, and lines 1202 — 1249 do not properly belong 
to the Romance at all To add a sketch of the remaining two parts is 
inexpedient, on account of the great length of the second part The first 
part is contained in the first 37 pages of Weber, whilst the whole Romance 
occupies 327 pages. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Dan. Danish.— Du. Dutch.— F. French.— G. German.— Lat. Latin.— O.N. Old 
Norse or Icelandic. — ^A.S. or S. Anglo-Saxon. — Su.G. Suio-Qothic (Ihre*8 Glossary). 
— Prompt. Parv. Promptorium Parrulorum (ed. Way, Camden Soc.). — P. PI. Piers 

Plowman Ch. Chancer. — Roq. Roquefort's Glossaire de la Langue Romane. — 

"Wycl. Gloss. Wyclifflte English Glossary. — adj. adjectiye, &c. 

The following are used in a special sense — r. a verb in the infinitive mood ; pr, 
f . present tense, 3rd person singular ; pr. pi. present tense, 3rd person plural ; pt, «. 
past tense, 3rd person singular ; pt, pi, past' tense, 3rd person pluraL Other 
persons are denoted hj \p, and 2 p. Also imp, is used for the imperative mood, 
and pp, for the past or passive participle. 

Note. Numbers with an obelm (f) prefixed, refer to the " Alisaunder." 

The numbers refer to the linea of the two poems. For an account of the method 
of reference in the former edition, see note at the end of this index. 

A-, throughout the poem, is gener- 
ally disjoined from the word of 
which it forms a prefix or part, 
and this is universally the practice 
in MSS. of ancient English poetry. 
In most, if not all, words of Saxon 
origin it represents and is equiva- 
lent to the S. on, an, of, or of, as a- 
boutCj a-doun, a-drad, a-ioyned, a- 
liw, a-ni'^t, a-slepe, a-wey, a-woudred, 
&c. The same rule holds good in 
other branches of the Gothic 
language. See Ihre and Wachter. 

A, int. ah ! 602, 663, 845, 928, 

A^2p, 8, imp, have, 978, 1177. 

15:;520«.)«.r.bay. Atenn 
Baie'IsS, ') borrowed from the 
F. hunting phrase, elre aux abbots, 
to stand at nay. See abbots in Cot- 
grave, and abash in Wedgwood. 

A-bate, v, to abate, 1141. 
A-beye, v, S. to atone for, 2790. 

Cf. abye in Chaucer. 
A-bide, v, S. to wait for, await, 

tarry for, 1131, 1732, 2269, 3072. 
Abowed to, bowed down to, 

A-buschid, pp, F. in ambush, 

Ac, 106, &c. ) 
Ak, 678, I canj, S. but. 
£k, 715, J 

A-chape, 1248, ) « 

A-schape, 1671, 1855,3013, j ^' ^' 

to escape ; pp. a-chaped, 2805 ; a* 

schaped, 2341, 2816; a-schapet, 


Acorde, v. F. to agree, 2657. Clu 

A-cord, n. F. agreement, 2964. Ch. 

A-coupyng, 3438, ] ^ violent 
Coupyng, 3602, j ""' *' ^^^^""^ 

Digitized by 




encounter. 0. F. aeoper, heurter, 
frapper au c6t.^. Boq. 

Acoyed, pt s, enticed, 56. Ch. 

See Coies. 
A-cuntred, pt pi. F. encountered, 

A-day, 190, ) in a day, in the 
A-daye, 610, j day-time. 

A-doteb, pr. s, grows silly, 2054. 

See Doted. 
A-doun, adv. down, 1073, 1244. 

"See Taylor's Note on Tooke's 

Diversions of Parley, v. I. p. ix. 

ed. 8vo."— M. 
Adouted, pp. F. feared, dreaded, 

t 33, 1 247, t 400. 

tS''?;8T'')pi^-S. afraid 
Adradde, 1 783, > terrilied A S 
A-dredde, 4034, ) ^"^^^-A-^- 

A-fraied, pp.. afraid, 2158. 
A-fri3t,pi?.firightened,2784. A.S. 

Agast, pp. aghast, terrified, 1778. 

A-gayn, adv. S. again, 395. See 

towards. See A-^eynes, 
A-gelt See A-gult. 

A-greJ)ed, 52, \ dressed ore- 
A-grei)>ed, 1598, ( P/>-<iressea,pre- 

pared, made ready. See Greif^e. 

A-greued, pp. grieved, 641, 2116. 

[Miswritten a-greues^ in 1. 1076.] 

A-grise, j?2?. afraid, terrified, 1743, 
1 911, 1 986. Ch, Cf. A.S. a- 
grUan, to fear. 

Agnlt, V. to offend, sin against, 
4401 ; pp. a-gelt, 4391. A.S. «- 

A-hi^t, pt. 8. was called, 586. 
See Hi3t. 

Ai, n. S. an egg, t 1004, t 1007. 
Aie, w. S. awe, fear, 1 1243. 

A-ioyned, pp. F. adjoining, near, 

Ak. See Ac. 

A-knowe, pp. S. Always joined 
with the verb ben, to be, as ** teas 
aknowe," 421 ; "ich am aknowe," 
4391; " we ^ aknowe," 4788. 2b 
be aJkfwwe^ to be aware, to ac- 
knowledge, confess. "Been a- 
knowe wyl fully. Confiieor. Be 
a-knowe a-geyne wylie. FcUeor.^ 
Prompt. Parv. Cf. A.S. on-cndwan. 

Al, Alle, adj. S. all. " To write 
correctly al should be used for the 
sing, nom, and alle for the pi. (as 
the S. eal and ealle) but the rule is 
often violated, particularly in MSS. 
of the 14th and subsequent cen- 
turies. This observation might be 
extended to a large class of adjec- 
tives and substantives which have 
now lost their final syllables." — M. 
AU alle, At al, in zUl things, 283, 
597. Al bothe, both of them, where 
a/ is an expletive, 851. Al a ni^t, 
all one nignt, all night, 2215. And 
see Algate, Alway. 

Alday, aU day, 1682. 

Alden, pp. holden, 1875. See 

Alder, elder, t 22. 

Alder-, gen. pi. of alL' Used only 
with an adjective in the superl. 
degree. Alder-aldust, eldest ot all, 
+ 27. Alderfirst, Alder-formest, 
first of all, 3345, 4884. 

Aides, pr. 8. holds, 441. See 

A'leggetypp. F. alleviated, allayed, 

1034. See Allay in Wedgwood. 
A-leide, pt. 8. S. abolished, put 

down, 5240. 
Algate, Al-gate, in all ways, by 

all means, always, 649, 948, 1064. 


A-liue, aHve, 4235, 5279. [A.S. 
on life (Mat. 27. 63), which are two 
separate words.] 

A-lijt,^?^. 8. alighted, 399, 3923. 

Digitized by 




Almaons, Germans, 1165. 
A-losed, pp, F. praised, renowned, 

tl39, tl74, t331, t677. 86e 

L006. Ch. 

Alouten, v, to bow down to, f 852 ; 
pL $. a-louted, bowed down, made 
obeisance, 3721. A.S.kliUan. 

Als, 996,3543, ) , ,, 

as quickly as may be, Tery quickly, 
3158. [A.S.«i//-w<^, whence O.E. 
al-io, alite, and als, now contract- 
ed into as, the words as and also 
being etymolog;ioally identical.] 

Alto-shiuered, broke in pieces, 

3603. See note to L 3884. 
Al-waj, adv, all the while, 345, 

Alwes, n. pi, S. 371. Hal alwea 
=aU hallows, all saints. 

Amased, pp. distracted, con- 
founded, 686. See Mase. 

Amendis, n,pl, amends, 488, 493, 

A-meruailed, pp. F. astonished, 

Amiddes, amidst, f 834. Ch. 
Amonges, amongst, j 59. CL 
An, put for And, 445, 884, 1538. 

An, put for On, in phrase wel an 
fine myle= nearly five miles, 5110. 

And, cmj. if, 3803, 4168. [In 
1. 3803 it is written *' &."] 

Anger, n. anxiety, sorrow, 552. 
A.S. ange. 

An-honged,^j?. S. hung up, 4773. 

A-ni3t,2920, ^ by night, by nights, 
A-ni3tes,785, ) at night Ch. 

Anker, n. anchor, 568. 

A-non, Anon, adv. immediately, 
813, 913. Anon ri^t. Anon riittes, 
immediately, 273, 235. 

Antresse (lAunteres),^.*. adven- 
tureSi ventures, 1028. See Aunter. 

A-paraile, 5028, ) , 


Aparaylde hem, apparelled them- 
selves, 1146. 

A-paied, 1883,5358,1 , 
Apai^ed, 1871, 4007, PPV}^^^ 
A^yed, 1, 1314, ) «>^*^^ted. 

See Paide. 
Apeire, v, F. to impair, ii^juie, 

1 1244 J pp. a-peyred, marred, 933. 

"Appeyrm, or make wore." Prom. 

Parv. CJh. 

Apertly, A-pertli, adv. evidently, 

plainly, 1, 4706. Ch. 
Apes, 2299. 

Arad,pj). divined, explained, 1 647 . 
See Arede. 

Araie, 3367, ) n. F. array, 

Aray, 1597, 1601, j order. 

Araie, v. F. to array, dispose troops 

in order, 3561 ; ftp. a-raied, 1926, 

1942 ; a-raid, 1934; a-raiied, 3375, 

8563 ; arayed, 1153. 

Are, adv. S. ere, before, 226; 

superl. arst, q. v. See Er. 
Are-blast, n. F. arblast, a kind of 

crossbow, 1 268. From Lat. arcus 

and balista. 

Areche, v. S. to reach, f 441. 
Arede, v. to divine, expound, 

1 573; to read, f 838 ; pp. arad, q.v. 

AS. a-rckdian. 

A-redili, adv. S. readily, easily, 

5006, 5026, 5230. 
A-reise, v. S. to raise, 4342. 

Aren,are; 2p.^Z. 2665; Zp.pL 

615. See Am and Ben. 
Arere, v. S. to raise, f 360 ; pt 

pi. a-rered, 2645. See W^cl. Gloss. 
Arewe, n. S. an arrow, 885. 
Arise. See A-ros. 

Armed, pp. fortified, emboldened, 

courageous, 11095. 
Armure, armour, 3769. 
Am, are; 2 p. pi. 106, 3123; 

Digitized by 




3 p. pL 1694, 6131. See Aren and 

Amd, errand, 5287. See Erand. 

A-ros, pt 8, arose, 810, 2744, 
3270 ; arise, 2737 ; pp. arise, 1297. 
TAe form arisen arose occurt in 
both texts q/^La^amon, U 25988. 

Arst, mperl, adv. first, before, 
2737, 3046, 4164, 4863, 5403 ; at 
arst = at first, l e. for the first 
time, 1028. 

As = has, 2029. 

A-saie, v. F. to essay, try, 3754 ; 
pp, a-saide, 637, 4984. 

A-saute, Asaute, n. F. an assault, 
t95, tl45, t262; pL a-sautes, 
2708 ; a-sawtes, 4221. 

A-achamod, pp. ashamed, 1035. 
A-schape. See A-chape. 
Aschis, n. pi. S. ashes, 4368. 
Aschried, pt. s. 3895, ) . , 
A^hmed, pt 8. 3827, 5- ^^,.^ 

Ascried:7^.^Z. 3814, r^"**^' 
called out to. 0. Fr. e$crier, Cf. 
ascry in Gh. 

A-seged, pp. F. besieged, 4224. 

A-s^paed, pp. F. assigned, 581. 
Cf. A-signed in 1. 3627. 

Asele, V. F. to seal, f 829. 

A-sembled, jyp. F. assembled, 
1120, 1288; pt. s. a-sembled to, 
attacked, 3426 ; pt. pi. a-sembled, 
met in a hostile manner, encoun- 
tered, 3409; a-sembleden, 3815. 
Cf. Sembul. 

A-sent, n. F. assent, 1300. 

A-sent, V. F. to assent, 482, 

2692 ; pp. a-sented, 538. 
Asise, n. F. site, situation, 4451. 

A-slepe, S. asleep, 792, 798, 839. 

Spelt a-slape, 1995. 
A-spie, V. F. to spy after, watch 

after, 774 ; pp, a-spied, 2577. 

A-epyes, n. pi. F. spies, 860. 
Assone as, as soon as, 4345. 

Astate, n. F. state, condition, 

5376. O. F. estat. Ch. 
A-stente, t;. S. to stop, 1527. See 

Astit, adv. very soon, 3943. See 

A-atonejd, pp. F. astonished, 880. 
Astow, hast thou, 4724. 

A-strangeled, ^^. strangled, 150. 

0. F. estraindre. 
ABwi])e, as soon as might be, very 

soon, 3555, 3811. See Swi^e. 
A-teyned,^^. «.F. extended, 5498. 
A-tir, ru F. attire, dress, 1721, 

3183 ; equipment for battle, 1147 ; 

— atyr, 1428. 

A-tired, pp. F. equipped, 1228. 
See A-tyred. 

A-tiryng, n. dress, apparel, 1941. 

Atling, n. preparation, a getting 
.ready, 1 268. 

Attele, ) i;. to go towards, ap- 

Attely, ) proach, 205 ; to con- 
jecture, aim at, jud^, 404 ; 1 p. 
pr. atteli (= attele i), I intend, I 
design, 3220 ; ^ attles, goes 
towards, f 109 ; pt, $. atteled, 
guessed, conjectured, 813 ; att- 
lede, 861, 941, 1015; attelede, 
went towards, 1760 ;pt. pi. ettele- 
den, went towards, 272. North E. 
and Sc. ettle^ O. li. tetla, to aim at, 
intend, design. 

Atte, Att, at the ; in thefoUowing. 
Att beet, Atte bestM the best, 1142, 
1676, 4121 (cf. atte best in 1. 4283 
with at te best in the line follow- 
ing) ; atte eherche, at the church, 
1961 ; atte de]>e, 1611 ; atteMle, 
4916; atte last, at the last, 1389 ; 
atte roche, at the rock, 2367 ; in all 
which cases the article seems to be 
comprehended in the second syl- 
lable. But in atte hese, at ease, 3208, 
and atte wille, 1414, atte seems to 

Digitized by 




be no more than the preposition at. 
And it is certain that aite^ and 
no more, in the following : aite 
here herte^ at her heart, 539 ; atte 
\»e day, 1599 ; atte \>e best, 4186 ; 
att aile, in all things, wholly, 2 S3. 
Tlie spelling atte being adopted to 
signify at te or at \>e, it was erro- 
neously used instead of at in other 

Attese, at ease, 1295. 

Atwinne, adv, S. in two, asunder, 
6450. Ch. 

A-tyred hire, pt, s. dressed her- 
self, 1706 ; pp. dressed, 1997, 6043. 

Auenantli, 3784, ) , ^ 

Auenanntli, 4885, 5040, \^^' ^' 
suitably, well, courteously. 

Auentayle, n. F. The movable 
front to a helmet, and through 
which the wearer breathed, 3608. 
•* VentaWey the breathing part of a 
helmet, the sight of the oeaver." 

Anenturre, adventure, 4921. 

Aught, pt. 8. S. possessed, owned, 
1 14, 1 173, 1 237, A.S. dgan, pt. t. 
ic dhte. See Out. 

Aught too long, ought to belong, 

Aunceteres, n. pi. ancestors, 6133. 

Aunter, n. F. adventure, occur- 
rence, tl017; pi. aunteres (ad- 
ventures), 1 109. 

Aunter, v. F. to adventure ; aunter 
hem out=to adventure themselves 
out, 3268 ; pr. s. antresse, 1028 ; 
pt. 8. auntred, ventured, went about 
seeking an entrance, f 1027 j aun- 
tred hym, t290; auntred 
hem, t 230 ; auntred hym till, 
ventured agamst him, t902. 

Auntrose, adj. F. adventurous ; 
hence f dangerous, 921. "Awnte- 
rows, or dowtefuUe. FortunaliSyfor- 
tuitus,** Prompt. Parv. 

A-vowe, n. F. a vow, 532. Ch. 

A-wai, 735, \ 

A-waie, 578, r , ^ 
A.wey;i280, f^^-^-^^y- 
A-weye, 221, J 

A-waked, pt. a, awoke, 677 ; pp, 
a-waked, 679; imp, pL a-wakes, 

Awe, n. S. in "for loue ne for 
awe," 6430. For this expression, 
see also f 1243. "The phrase 
appears at length in Speculum is- 
tius Mundi, MS. Reg. 17, B. xvii. 
Thou shalt not spare for no drede, 
Ne/or loue to God nefor his aice. 
To go out of the right lawe." — M. 

A-wede, v. to lose the senses, 
become mad, 45, 1750 ; 1 p, pr, s, 
a-wede, 3185. A.S. a-toidan, 

A-weite, v. F. to observe sedulous- 
ly* espy, 2415 ; pt, s. a- way ted, 
1711, 1890 J a-weited, 791. Cf. 

A-weiwardes, away, 2188. 
A-went, pp. gone away, 1672. 
A-wondred, 872, 2389, \pp.Bston- 
A-wondered,310,392, ) ished. 

A.S. a'wundrian. 
A-WTek,2111, ) V. S. to 

A-wreke, 1128, 3422, ) avenge ; 

pt, 8. awrak, wreaked, f 934. 

Ax,r. S. to ask,require, f 141. Ch. 

Ay, adv. S. ever, alw&ys, 615, 

2239, 2849. 
Ayme, v. F. to estimate, compute, 

1596, 3819, 3876 ; pp. aymed, 

5010. O.Y.esmer, 

A-3ayne, adv. S. again, 5235 ; a-3e, 
4256, 5172 ;— a-jen, 1837 ;— a- 
aein, 270 ;— a-;eine, 1508 ;— a^eyn, 
1921; — a^en lepes=runs back, re- 
turns quickly, 1973. 

A-jeynes, />r65/?. S. against, towards, 
1264, 1341 ;— a-^enis, 3533;— a- 
jens, 2371 ; — aaene, 12 ; — a-ic, 

A3en-turn, n. retreat^ way of 

Digitized by 




escape, 4182. See ^ain-tom ; and 
cf. A3enturned in Wj/el. Gloss, 

Bacheler, n, F. a bachelor, i. e. a 
novice in arms, 840, 1136 ; pL 
bachilers, 1477. See Bacheler in 

Baden. See Bidde. 

Baie. See Abaie. 

Baili, a, F. a steward, 5387. See 
Bailleul in Boq. 

Baite, 1723, | v. to set on a dog, 
Bayte, 11, ) to bait (a bear). 
O. N. beita. See Jbet m Wedg- 

Bakkes, n, pi, 2096, outer clothes 
(?) A word of doubtful meaning. 
Sir F. Madden conjectured it to 
mean " cheeks, from the Teutonic 
backe, Celt, boe A, yrhich the Romans 
formed into bucca. Vide Wachter 
and Haltaus, in v. and Meusel's 
Wurzel-Worter.^.'il^:' Stratmann 
suggests that it is another form of 
baggesy used for clothes. The con- 
text favours such a rendering ; 
" rent all hb clothes " is more likely 
than *' rent all his cheeks ; " but 
whether we are to connect the word 
with bag or with back is hard to 
tell, yet it may mean no more than 
a cohering for the back, as in Chau- 
cer, Chan. Yem. Prol. 1. 328, where 
another reading for ^oir is ^a^/. Cf. 

— dowell it hatte 
To breke beggeris bred • & bakken 

hem with clo\>is. 
Piers. PL ed. Skeat, A. xi. 184. 
Indeed, the phrase "oure bakkes 
that moth-eten be," as used in P. 
PL Pass. X. of Text B (p. 195 of 
Wright's edition), convinces me 
that this last explanation is right. 
Curiously enougn, as if to remove 
all doubt, the word bakkes, as there 
used, is, in MS. Laud 581, actually 
glossed by the Latin panni. 

Bale, n, S. sorrow, misfortune, 
evil, 107, 134, 460,-741, f 66 ; 

harm, i. e. a pity, 1 1170 ; — bal, 
1819;/^/. bales, 476, 1055. 

Baleful, adj. S. harmful, unfor- 
tunate, 1815 ; — balefuU = harm- 
ful, t 272. 

BalfuUi, adv, miserably, 3959, 
4261 ;— balfully = harmfully, hurt- 
fully, 84, 1202. 

Bane, w. S. a ban, proclamation, 
edict, 2252. 

Banne, v. S. to ban, to curse, 476, 
1644 J pL s. banned, 2100. 

Baret, n. embarrassment, trouble, 
486, 6518. Cf. 0. F. barat, 0. N. 

Barge, n. a ship, 2767, 2807. See 
Glossary to Eomans of Partenay, 

Barm, n, S. the lap, f 1004. Oh. 

Bam, Barne, n. S. a child, 9, 16, 
18, tl020; a man, 812, 1491; 
aen, sina. barnes, 1 00, 2230 ; pi. 
Dames, 187. See Bum. 

Barnage, n, F. baronage, nobles, 

Bataile, 7^. F. a battalion, squad- 
ron, 3783 ; pi. batailes, 3561, 3562 ; 
batayles, 1152. 

Baucynes, n, pL badgers, 2299. 
"The term occurs in Juliana 
Bemers, spelt Bausyn, and in the 
Prompt, rarv. is 'Bawstone, or 
bawsone, or a gray * [see Mr 
Way's note]. It is not uncommon 
in writers of the 16th or 17th 
century, and is still retained in 
Cheshire. See Todd's Johnson, 
Nares, and Wilbraham. The root 
is evidently the Celtic bal or baizhl 
(see Bullet, in v.), whence the F. 
balsan, Ital. baliano, applied to an 
animal with a white streak or spot 
in the face or foot. Hence also is 
derived the Sc. baicsand, brindled. 
See Jamieson." — M. Cf. pie-bald, 
and Baicson in Wedgwood. 

Bayte on, v, to set on a dog at 

anything, 11. See Baite. 
Be, Bi, prep. S. hj,pamm. When 

Digitized by 




oompounded with verbs, the ortho- 
gnpikj is perpeto&lly interchanged. 
Be = been, 4103. See Ben. 

Beaute, n. F. beauty, 4534; — 

beoaute, 4074. 
Bed, Bede. See Bidde. 

Bedes, pr. 8. offers, t 947. Cf. 

t260. k,^.be6dan, Ch. 
Bedes, n, pi S. prayers, beads, 

3024. See Bead in Wedgwood. 
Be-dolue, pp. buried, 5252. See 

Begonne, pp, gone about, L e. 

surrounded, t698. Cf. Bi-go. 

See Begone in Wedgwood. 

Be-hilde, beheld, 2783. 
Behi^t. See Bihote. 
Be-honged, pp, S. hung about, 

Be-houes, 2349, ) behoves, is suit- 
Bo-houis, 1815, ) able for. 
Be-kenned. See Bikenne. 
Be-knowe,^. S. aware, 2172. 
Belaunce, n. F. balance, 948. 

Beleue, v, S. to remain, t 69. A.S. 

Bellyng, part, pres, bellowing, 
1891. '*Daine Juliana Bemers 
confines the term to the noise nuule 
by a deer, in which sense it occurs 
in Qawin Douglas, Virg, ProL 94, 
26. But in the Prompt. Parv. 
we have * J<?//f», or lowyn as nette 
(roryn). Mugio,* wid * iellynge, o( 
rorynge of bestys (bellinge of nete). 
Mugitu$r*^iL SeeJW/inWe^. 

Be-maked, pp, made, 5060. 

Bemes, n. pi. S. trumpets, 1154. 

Ben, Bene, v, S. to be, 464, 1930; 

2 p, s, pr, (with a Jkture significa- 
tion), bestow, shalt thou be, 344 ; 

3 p, 8, pr, be>, 647 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 
ben, 3148, bene, 1672 ; 3 p. pi. pr, 
bene, 4217, ben, 946 ; bu>, 4447 ; 

imp. pi. beth, 3797 j pp. be, 1943> 
3957. iSw Bi, Am, Aren. 
Be-nom, pp, taken away, 2450. 

A.S. be-nitnan. 
Beraften, pt. pi. bereft o^ f ^l* 
Bere, n. a violent noise ; here ap- 
plied to the barking of a hound, 43. 
See Wycliffite Glossary, s. v. hire ; 
La^amon (glossary), s. v. ibere; 
Stratmann, s. v. bere. Jamieson 
refers it to Su-G. boer^ the wind. 
Sir F. Madden and Stratmann 
refer it to A.S. ge-bare, which, 
however, generally means a gesture. 
It may be an imitative word, like 
birr^ buzz, 

Bere-felles, n. pi, S. bear-ekins, 
2430,2560. SeeY^i, 

Berem-chaunce, n. chance of pro- 
geny, conception, 1 971. For the 
neUing, cf. Berem-tem in Qenem 
^Ezodui, ed. Morris, 1. 3903. 

Bern, n. S. a man, 1 212, t 219. 
See Bam, Bum. 

Be-seme, 2 p. pi, pr. seem, appear 
(to be), 1742 ; 3 j9. pi, pr, be-semen, 

Be-sewed. See Bi-sowe. 

Bestow. See Ben. 

Bet, pt, 8, S. he beat, 1073, 1 300. 

Bet, adv. S. better, 172, 344, 

1012 ;— bett, 1 504; cf. the phrase 

more beter, 4279. 

Bete, V, S. to make better, to 
better, repair, 3167 j pi, e. bet, 
3960. A.B.b^taM, 

Be]), it shall be, 547. See Ben. 

Be-J)out, Be-J)0U3t. See Bi-f enke. 

Beurde. See Burde. 

Beume. See Bum. 

Be-wrapped, pt. e, wrapped up, 

Be-wrie, v, 8. to bewray, 2436. 
Bi, Be, prep. S. by, paedm. 
Bi, be thou, 322 ; bi 3iue, be given, 

2264. lAi bi, be (= by) are often 

Digitized by 




interchanged, in both places we should 
rather read be.] 

Bi-cast, pp, beset, 2287. For all bi- 
cast an equicalent phrase is um- 
becast. See 1. 4693. 

Bi-cbeche, 1 p, s, pr, I beseecb, 

Bi-com, pt. 8, became, 881 ; pp, 

bi-come, in phrase were bi-come = 

had gone to, 222 ; it bi-comes = it 

goes to, 911. 

Bidde, 1 p. pr, s. T ask or pray 
for, 4754; ; pr. s. biddes, 5539, 
1 947 ; 1 p. pi. 8. bed, I asked for, 
borrowed, t 4:57 (where the MS. 
gloss " had " is wrong) ; pt. s, bede, 
6490 ; pt, pi. baden, 4797 ; imp. 
pi. bidaib, 5534 ; part, pres, bidd- 
ande, 3024 ; pp. bede, 2410. A.S. 

Bi-faUe, v. S. to befal, 547 ; pp. 

bi-faUe, 2476, 4169. 
Bi-fom, adv. S. before, 428. 
Bi-gat bim, procured for bimself, 

Biggen, v. S. to buy, f 1215. 

Bi-go, pp. S. beset, t 490, t 994. 
Sse fiegonne, and Bi^oo in Ch. 

Bi-gunne, pt. pL began, 2555. 
Bi-best, 600, i ^ 
By-best, 57, \ ^- ®- P^°^^- 
Bi-bet See Bi-hote. 

Bi-bilde, pt. s, S. looked, bebeld, 
2783 ; bi-huld, 2426 ; pp. bi-hold, 

Bi-bote (spelt by-bote), v. S. to 
promise, 3688 ; 2p.s. imp. bi-hote, 
2135; pt. 8. bi-het, 4376, 4647; 
bihi^t, 576; pt. pi. bi-hi3t, 4649; 
pp. be-hi^t, 606. 

Bi-buld. See Bi-bilde. 

Bi-houes, it beboves, 729 (cf. L 

723) ; pt. 8. bi-houed, 2720. 
Bi-kenne, v. S. to commit to tbe 

charge or protection of another; 

1 p. 8. pr. bi-kenne, 5434 ; pt, 8. bi- 

kenned, 350 ; be-kenned, 371 ; pt. 

pi. bi-kenned, 5454. Cf. Bi-teche, 
and Kenne. 
Biker, n. fight, battle ; bedes bem 
biker = offers them battle, t 947. 
'* Bikyr of fy tynge. Pugna." Prom. 
Parv. See Way's note. 

BikeringjW. conflict, attack, t390. 

Bi-komsed, pt, pi. commenced, 

2523. See Conise. 
Bileue, v. transitive, S. to leave 

behind, 2577 ; pt. s. {intrans.) bi- 

laft, stayed behind, remained, 2385; 

pt. pi. bi-laft, 2890. 

Bilfoder, 81, 

Bilfodur, 1858, j^- provisions. 
" Perhaps from the S. bylg, the 
belly, B^ndi fodder, food."— *AL Cf. 
belly-timber, food, in IlalliwelL 

Bi-liue. See Bliue. 

Bi-reft, 1 p. 8. pt. bereaved, de- 
prived of, 4628 ; pp. biraft, f 394. 

Bi-schet, pp. S. shut up, immured, 
2014, Ch. 

Bi-seget, pt. 8. besieged, 2650 ; 
bi-seged, 2843. 

Bi-seme, 2 p. pi. pr. seem, appear 
(to be), 1733. See Be-seme. 

Bi-set, ^f. J9Z. beset, 2281 ; bi-sett, 
2927; bi-sette, 1214; bi-setten, 
set forth, employed, f 437. 

Bi-side, adv. S. 3, 1889. 

Bi-sowe, V. S. to sew up, 1689; 
pp. be-sewed, 3117. 

Bi-stint,^^. 8. made calm, f 1183. 
*''• Styntyri or make a thynge to 
secyn* of his werke or mevynge. 
Obsto. Prom. Parv. 

Bi-stode, pt. 8. S. stood near, ap- 
proached, 175. 

Bi-tecbe, v. S. to commit to tbe 
charge of any one, entrust, recom- 
mend, 6184 ; pt. s. bi-tok, 66. 4167; 
pt. pi. bi-taujt, 5211 ; pp. bi-taujt, 
6289. A.S. be-tdecan. 

Bi-fenke, v. S. to tbink attentive- 
ly, consider ; 2 /?. «. imp. bi->?enke, 
3057; jo^. *. bi-^out, 2748; be-)?out. 


Digitized by 




290, 2370 ; be-^oujt him, 2773 ; bi- 
|K)U3t hire, 630, 650; pt. pi. bi- 
)>out hem, 4776 ; be-)>oat, 2410. 

Bi-tide, v. S. to befal, 730 ; pt s, 
bitid, 4087; bitide, 7j bi-tidde, 
1211 J by-tidde,32. 

Bitraide, pp. betrayed, t 223. 
Bitterly, adv, S. painfuUy, 2083. 
Bi-weped, pp. covered with tears, 

Bi-3ete, n. S. progeny, 2303. 

Blake-l)eries,w.2>'. S. blackberries, 

Ble, n. S. complexion, 3083; — 
blee, 1 202, f 578. 

Blenched, pp. blemished, hurt, 
2471i " Blemschvde, blemysshed. 
Olf/uscatus. Blenschjn, biemysshen, 
Ob/usco.** Prompt. Parv. See 
Blemitk in Wedgwood. 

Blessed, 'pt. 8. 1192. SirF. Mad- 
den explains it by " wounded, in- 
flicted wounds," from the 'F.blesser. 
Or it may mean that he waved or 
dramUsheahis sword, as in Spenser. 
F. Q. I. V. 6, and Fairfax's Tasso, 
ix. 67. 

Blesseden, ^^. pi. blessed, 196. 

Ble|7eli /See Blifeliche. 

Bleynte, pt. pi. looked, 3111. 
ILit. blinked; cf. Du. and G. 
blinken* Sw. blinka. Dan. blinke.'] 

Blinne, v. S. to pause, cause, 
leave off, 55, f 398 ; o/. *. blynd, 
1 110; 2 p. 8. imp. blmne, 322 ; 1 
p. pi. IIWJ9. blynne, f 1202. 

Blisful, adj. S. happy, 1055 ; 

blessed, 1669. 
Blijjeliche, adv. S. merrily, with 

good will, 819 ; ble|>eli, 1144, 1994 ; 

in the latter place it means in sport. 

ly ;— as bliue, as quickly as might 
be, 379; as biliue, 351. 
Blonk, n. a horse, 3326, 3362 ; 
pi. blonkes, 6041, f 435. " In old 

Teutonic, planchaz means a wkiie 
horse, and the root is to be found 
in the Su. O. and Franc blanky still 
preserved in the F. blanc. See Ihre 
and Jamieson." — M. 

Blovsrand, pres, part, blowing, 

Bobaunce, n. F. pride, boasting, 
presumption, always in phr. "bo- 
baunce and host," 1071, 1129, 
3358. See Boban in Roq. 

Bod, n. S. abiding, delay, 149. 

Bode, n. S. a message, tidings, an 

order, 2146, 2154, 3767. 
Bodiesse, n. pi. bodies, 3767. 

{Should be spelt bodies; but cf. 

Antresse, Hayresse.] 

Bogeysliche, adv. S. in a boasting, 
boisterous, or bold manner, 1707. 
"In the Prompt. Parv. is ^Bog^ 
gysehely^ Tumide,' and in Ray*s S. 
and E. Country Words, ' Bogoe^ 
bold, forward, sawcy.* " — M. &e 
also Bagat in Prompt. Parv. and 
Bulge in Wedgwood. 

Boi^es, gen, sing, boy's, 1705. 

Bolaces, n. pi. bullaces, a sort of 

glum or sloe, 1809. Used by 
haucer, Rom. Rose, 1377. See 
Bolleche in Roq. 

Boles, n. pi. S. bulls, 2299. 

Bolstrau3t,jo/?. prostrate, stretched 
on the belly, 1862. From A.S. 
biKlg, the belly, and strecean, to 

Bonde, pi. adj. S. ^put for honde 
men), bondsmen, villains, as opposed 
to the orders of barons and bui^esses, 
2128. Cf, "Barouns and burgeis 
and bonde men also." Fieri Plow^ 
man ; A. prol. 96. 

Bonden, pp. S. bound, 2238 ; pt. 

pi. bounden, 1219. 
Bone, 71. S. boon, prayer, 1095, 

4410; entreaty, t612. 
Bonke, n. S. bank, shore, 2718. 
Bonure, adj. F. courteous, affable, 

332. See DebonurelL 

Digitized by 




Bordes, n. pi S. 5070. 

Bore, pp. S. bom, 240 ; spdt 

borne, 510. 
Borwe, n. S. borough, town, 1889, 

2221; — borowe, f 300; borw;, 

2835; pL borwes, 2123; borous, 

1 928. See Burw. 
Borw^, n. (the same word as the 

above), a place of shelter, 9. A.S. 

beorA, Uf, the term, "a rabbit's 

3oTwed, pt, 8, S. borrowed, 1705. 

Bost, n. boast, pride, 1141. Aiid 
see Bobaunce. 

Bot, coTij. S. but, unless, except, 
497, 2008 ; aho spelt but, 627. But 
3if, unless, 472. Cf. Bout. 

Bot, n. S. a boat (?) 4632. Or else 
boute bot = boute bod, without 
delay, as in 1. 149. 

Bote, n. S. remedy, 627, 741, 
959, &c. ; do bote = provide a 
remedy, 1378. 

Botles, adj, S. without remedy, 
134, 1819 ;— botlesse, 540; botte- 
les, 896; botelesse, 1539. 

Botned, pp. S. bettered, cured, 

1055. Cf. Bete. 
Bouf, n. F. beef, 1849, 1868. 

Boun, adj. ready, 1088, 1138, 

1144 ;— boune, f 160, f 228. 
Bounden. See Bonden. 

Bour, n. S. bower, chamber, 657, 
1971,— boure, 1760, t 772. See 

Bourde, n. F. a jest, 1705. CL 

Bourdes, n. sing. F. a tournament, 
jousting. See Behordeis in Roq. 
The word is probably (like many 
other war terms) of Teutonic 

Boute, ^f?/?. S. without, 149, 211, 

567, 812. 
Bouwes, pr. s. bows, inclines, 948. 
Bowes, n, pi. S. boughs, 23. 

Boxumly, adv. S. courteously, 
332. See BuxumlL 

Brag, adj. or adv. bold, boastful, 
or boastfully, 2352; sup. bravest, 
bravest, 3048. Cf. " Hy scTiulde 
nou^t beren hem so braggP P. PI. 
Crede, 1. 706. See Braguer in Cot. 

Braides, pr. s. moves quickly, 
hurries, 1 1081 ; — braydes, 149 ; 
braides liim, departs quickly, 

S1004 ; pt. s. braid doun, threw 
own or beat down ; braide, awoke, 
started up, 1 724, 686, cf. 1. 2096 ; 
rushed, 3818; drew quickly, 1867. 
O. N. bregma. Cf. Abrayde in Ch. 

Braundise, v. F. to fling about 
(as a horse), f 1122 ; pt. s. 
braundised, 3294 ; pres. part, bran- 
dissende, waving (their weapons), 

Brayn-wod, adj. S. brain-mad, 
i.e. mad, furious, 2096. See P. 
PI. A. X. 61. 

Bredde, pt. pi. S. went hurriedly, 
hurried, 1782. " The sense of ^'W 
is evidently not admissible here. 
Cf. Braides."— M. 

Brede, n, S. breadth, 3055 ; a 
peny brede, a penny's breadth, 
1 1244. 

Brem, Breme, adj. S. {of very 
common occurrence, and toith many 
meanings) notable, bold, strong, 
tierce, &c. ; (applied to men) 3641, 
(bears) 1689, (beasts) 1699, (a 
child) 18, (a battle) 1157, (a host) 
3767, (a duke) 1141, (deeds) 1387, 
(blood) 3861, (an oar) 4700, (a 
time) tl020, (a god) f 533, (a 
tablet) 1 615, &c. ; sup. bremest, 
1686,2936. Ch. 

Bremli, adv. S. fiercely, 3294 ; 
exceedini^ly, 2158 ; — bremely, 
loudly, S3 ; — bremly, fiercely, 
4342 ; — bremlich, boldly, f 1001. 
Sup. bremliest, most decisively, 

Brenne, v. S. to bum, 1133, 
2123, 4261 ; pt. s. brent, 1071, 


Digitized by 




1109; pp. brent. 3634, 4367; 
breed, 2646, t 729. 
Breres, n. ph briars, 1809. 
Bretages, w. pi. F. parapets of a 
waU, ramparts. O. F. ^<»^f*^A<f 
(see Roq.), Low Lat. brestachta. 
Breber, n. j?Z. S. brotbers, 2641. 
[The nom. pi. in A.S. is bro«ra, 
bro^ru, bro«or, or bro«ur.] 
Brid, n. S. a bird, fSU; jol 

briddes, 29, 179, 819. 
Bridbale, n. S. bridal, 4947. 
Brit, brigbt, 3572. 
Brode, adj. S. broad, 754, 1674; 

—bred, 1732. 
Brode, adv, S. in phr. to brode = 

too wide apart, too far, 11. 
Brodes, pr, s. publishes abroad, 

proclaims, f 1^2. 
Brond, 1244, | n. S. a brand, 
Bront, 1192, ) sword. 
Broder, n, S. brother, 1 56. [Pro- 
bably miswritten for broker ; cl. 
Brout, brought, 3959 ; bromt of 
liue = brought out of life, kiUed, 
Brug, 1674, ) „ s. a bridge. 
Brugge, 2140, J 

Brusten, v. to injure severely, 
destroy, 154. Cf. Dan. br'6$t, hurt, 
Brusure, n. F. a bruise, wound, 

Bniten, n. S. to destroy, 3760 ; 
bruttene, 1133 ; pt. s brutned. 
1073, 1202, t888; bruttened, 
2647 • PP' bruttenet, 206. Swed, 
bryla; Dan. bryde; A.S. brylan, 
Bugles, n. pi F. 1154. 

Burd, n. S. a lady, maiden, 
""rmsel, t715;-burde, 683 765, 

812, 830, t 670 ; beurde, t 202, 
+ 265; //. burdes, 3669, 5017; 
beurdes, t228. Burde no bam, 
neither man nor maid, 1971. 

Burgeis, n. F. a burgess, 1889; 

pi. burgeys, 2128, 5017. 
Bum, n. S. a man, 332, 510, 511, 
657, &c. ;— bume, 444, 477 : beum, 
1 9, 1 110; P^- ^^^^^ 617, 1129; 
beurnes, f 2. 
Burfenes, n. pi S. burdens, 2555. 
Burw, n. S. a town, 5335 ; pi 
burwes, 1073, 1109 ; the same as 
Borwe, q. v. 
Burwv"^aidenes, n. pi S. bower- 
maidens, attendants, 3071. See 
Buschen, v. to move about brisk- 
ly, 173. iSftfBuske. 
BusUy, adv. S. industriously, 
eagerly, carefully, 650, 2181, 2210 ; 
-SusiU, 2577. 
Busk, n. F. a bush, 3062, 3069 ; 

busch, 3101, 3111. 
Buske, V. to brush about, hurry 
about, burry, 2210 ; busk to ^r 
buske to, to hurry towards, 1968, 
2264; busk of or buske of, t-o 
hurry from, 1653. 1997 ; pr. pi 
busken, t426, t*33; 1 p. s. pL 
busked, 1 612 ; pi. s. busked, 1085 ; 
(prepared), 3196 ; busked to, 1707, 
2055 ; buskede him or busked him 
(went), 21, 1863 ; pLpl.husked (pre- 
pared), 1152; buskeden (hurried), 
2819 ; busked hem (went quickly), 
1530, 2477, 2770. See Buschen. 
Icel. at buast. See Busk m Wedg- 

But, conj. S. except, unless, 476, 
627,937.972,t368,&c. But3if, 
unless, 758, 939 1276. 5h? Bot. 

Bu>, pr. pi are, 4447. See Ben. 

Buxum, adj. S. tractable, obedient, 
2943 ; meek {applied loj^^^l* 
2720, 2854, 3085, 4062. A.S. 
bocsam. ^^ ^ _ „ 

Buxumli, 3717, 4972, | adv S. 

Buxumly, 2, 510, f meek ; 
boxumly, 332 ; eomp. buxutnber. 

By, prep. S. near ; by fat barn 
= near that child. 220. 

Digitized by 




Bygge, V, S. to build, construct, 
1 1133. Swed. hygga ; Dan. bygge, 
By-hote. See Bi-hote. 

By-|)an, by the time that, 220. 
Cf. A.S. be \dm \e, 

Cacche, v. to catch, take, obtain, 

fet, 806, 2266, 2940 ;— kacche, 
217 ; ft. s. caccheih, 3750 ; pf. s, 
cau;t, 4302 ; pL pi. cau^t, 1053, 
1495, 2867; kau3t, 1053, 3374; 
pp. cao^t, 4214 ; kau^t, 2531. 

Caire, v. S. to return, travel, go, 
5184 ; 2 /). *. pr. cairest, 5190 ; pr, 
9. cayres, 2977 ; pt. s. kayred, 373 ; 
pi. pi. caired, 2714, 5324 ; cayred, 
2201 ; kayred, 3734 ; imp. pi. 
kairus, f 623 ; pres. pari, cairende, 
1922. A.S.eerraH. 

Calles, pr. pi. call, 239 ; pt. 8. 
cald, 887; calde, 1460. 

(Can) can, know, acknowledge ; 
tH the pasi iense^ could, knew, inf. 
kenne, f 623 ; — 1 p, s. pr. kan, 
321, 635 ; con, 297 ; 1 p. pL pr. 
kunne, 4184; pr. pi. konne, 3334; 
pi. 9. cou)>e, 2, 174, 655 ; kowbe, 
5055 ; koube, 952 ; coude, 4378 ; 
couide, 120 ; cou^fe, 118 ; kende, 
t 193 ; coupe, 577; kowden, 
4810; cou>)en, 1033; copen, 1576; 
kende, f 367 ; pp, couf, known, 
famous, 5053. 

Care, n. S. care, grief, sorrow, 
regret, 496 ;— kare, 288, 424, 726, 

Carefull, adj. S. full of care or 
anxiety, anxious, sorrowful, t 75, 
t 244 ; causing care, woful, f 295 ; 
—earful, 2201, 2860, 31bl ;— kar- 
ful, 373. 3774. 

Carestow, carest thou, art thou 
sad, 3182. See Kares. 

Carfti, adj. crafty, skilful, 3221. 
[// should rather be crafti, but this 
form is sometimes found. See Bo- 
mans ofParienay, 1. 5708.] 

Carfulli,a^t;.S. sorrowfully, 4347; 
— carfuli, 152 ;— karfulli, 3734. 

Carpen, v. to speak, tell, talk, 
t748; carpe, 4581; carp, 832, 
T 11 ; karpe, 2523 ; 1 p. s. pr. carp, 
t 200, t 244; karp, f 172; pr. ». 
carpes, t 693 ; karpes, f 585 ; 1 
p. s. pi. karped, 5233 ; carped, 
217 ; pi. s. carped, f 72, 990 ; 1 p. 
pi. imp. carpe, 2855 ; karpe, 4054. 
Phrase— to karp (karpe, carpp) \>e 
soK to tell the truth, 503, 2804, 
655, t 683, " Carpyn or talkyn. 
Fabuior.** Prompt. Farv. 

Carping, n. talking, speech, 4660; 

— karping, 3100. 
Cas, n. F. chance, hap, fortune, 

event, 326, 915, 2919 ;--case, 1 24 ; 

bi cas, 595 ; for cas, 1037. Oh. 
Cast, pt 8. cast away, i. e. lost, 

881; — caste, contrived, 1981. See 

Castel-werk, castellated work, 

Castis, n. pi. events, 654. 
Catel, n. F. wealth, possessions ; 

gen. sing, cateles, f 376. Ch. See 

Caiels in Roq. 

Caytif, n. F. a wretch, person of 

low extraction, 710. Ch. 
Cayreden, pi. pi. carried, 2520. 
Ceput. See Kepe." 

Certes, adv. certainly, verily, in- 
deed, 732, 1380, 1500, &c. Ch. 

Chambur, n. F. chamber, 685. 
[MS. chanbur.] 

Chamly, adv. S. shamefully, 2124. 
Cf. Schamly. 

Charge, n. F. load, 388. 

Chase, chose, f 36. See Chese. 

Chases, 2 p. pi. imp. chase ye, 

Ghast, V. to chasten, chastise, 729; 
2 p. 8. imp, chaste, 5157. P. PI. 

Chaul, n. S. jowl, jaw, f 1 H ^* 
A.S. ceole. Cf. choi in P. PI. 
Crede, and chall in Hartshome\<« 
Salopia Aniiqua. 

Chaunche, //. F. chance, 137. 

Digitized by 




Chaunded, pt. 8. enchanted (]) 
[But we should perhaps read 

Chauntemens, n. pi, F. enchant- 
ments, 654. 

Che, pron, she, 462, 641, 2317. 
Cf. Sche, and Hue. 

Chef, adj, F. chief, 3841 ;— cheefe, 
t 1210. 

Cheffaren, v, to chaffer, bargain, 
buy and sell, 1 1210. 

Chepinge, n. S. market, 1822 ; — 
fro chepinge ward, from towards 
market, on the return from market, 

Chere, w. F. countenance, look, 
appearance, demeanour, 647, 4882, 
5263. Ch. 

Cherl, w. S. churl, countryman, 
54, 60, 62, &c. ;— cherle, 1675 ; pL 
cherls, 513. Ch. 

CherU, adv, F. cheerily, kindly, 

Chese, v. to choose, f 770 ; pt. 8, 
ches, 4165 ; chees, t 321 ; chused, 
1 140 ; imp. s. ches, 4161 ; pp. chuse 
of = chosen by, beloved by, t*^. 

Cheued forth, p^.«. hastened forth, 
f78. Cf. O.F. eschever, and see 
esquiver in Cotgrave. 
Cheuesed, pt 8. obtained, pro- 
cured, 1 966. See Chevir and Che- 
vissance in Roq. and Chevis in Ch. 
Mars and Venus, st. 37. 
Cheueteyn, n, F. chieftain, 3379. 

Child, n. S. child, 1822. " It is 
here used for a person of gentle 
birth, in opposition to cherl*'— Hi. 
In 1. 541 it is used of a person of 
mean birth, but grown up to man- 

Chipmen, n. pi. S. shipmen, 
sailors, 2811, 2818. 

Choisli, adv. F. aptly, 1753;— 
choicelich, choicely, t ^^' 

Chold,i>f. 8. should, 2014. 

Choliers. See KoliereB. 
Chortly, adv. S. shortly, 2035. 
Choys, adj. F. choice, fair, 400. 
Chul, (ye) shall, 3339. 
Chused. See Chese. 
Chylder, n. pi. S. children, f 36. 

[The A.S. pi. is cildra, cildru.] 
Clatered. See To-clatered. 
Clene, adj. S. fair, noble, 1083, 

1124, 1434 ; sup. clennest, 1609. 
Clenli, adv. S. cleanly, fairly, 

clearly, 3847 ;— clenliche, 3477;— 

clanli, 3288. 
Clepe, V. S. to call, 1299, 1977, 

3181 ; 2 p. s. pr. clepus, 249 ; pr.pL 

clepun, 2221 ; pt. s. clepud, 56, 260, 

274, 977, 1182 ; cliped, t 836 ; 

kleped, t 476 ; pp. clepud, 1956 ; 

cleped, t944; y-clepud,121. Ch. 

Cleppende. See Clipped. 

Clere, adj. F. fair, fine (colour), 
579 ;— cler (strength), 2037. 

Clerli, adv. F. finely, 4422. 

Cleued, pt. 8. cleaved, stuck, 734. 

Cleymef, pr. 8. calls out, calls, 
4481. Lat. clamare. 

Clipped, pt 8. S. embraced, 63, 
1570 ; clipte, 672, 1265 ; dipt, 
3205 ; clept, 675 ; clupte, 1587 ? 
pt. pi dipt, 1833, 3100; pr^. 
part dippend, 2808; cleppende, 
2804 ; clipping, 1396 ; pp. cUpped, 

Clipping, n. S. embracing, 1053, 

Clomtand, pres. part. S. mending, 
douting, 14. A.S. clut, a clout, 
" The verb is preserved in Belgic 
klutsen, kluteren, to cobble or 
repair."— M. Cf. Du. kloiseny to 
strike on ; and see Clouted in Ch. 

Cofli. adv. S. quickly, boldly, 
1 1009 j-cofly, t 693, t 748 ;— 
coflich, t207,t297,t581,t662, 

A.S. cqflice. 
Coies,pr. s. soothes, coaxes, 1 1 1 75. 

Digitized by 




Cf. Aooyed. F. cot, from Lat. 

Col, n. coal, 2520; 2??. coles, 4367. 

Colled, pt 8. embraced, 3032 ; — 
kolled, 69 ; pres, pari. coUinge, 
2984. O.F. acoler. See Spenser, 
F. Q. iii. 2, 34. 

Com, pt. 8. came, 39, 47, 61 ; — 
kom, 607 ; pi. pi. come, 151, 3363 ; 
pp. come, 80, 816 ;— kome, 504 ;— 
Komen, 613. Com bi = acquire, 

Comande, Komande, commanded, 
347, 1110. See note to 1. 347. 

Come, n. S. arrival, 4192, 4953, 
5222 ;— kome, 807 ;— coome, t 73 ; 

— cnmme, 1 147. 

Comen, adj. Lat. common, 6. See 

Comfort, pt pL comforted, 1495; 

pL s. cumfort, 1512 ; pp. oonforted, 


Comly, adj. comely, 294 ; — com- 
licbc, 963, 2704;— comelich, 1 205 ; 

— comeliche, 987 ; — komli, 873, 
2858 ; — cumlioh, tl8; — cumly, 

Comliclie,arft7. ina comely manner, 
660 ;— comeliche, 2220 j— komly, 
61 } — komeliche, 423. 

Compacement, n. F. contrivance, 

stratagem, 1981. 
Compere, n. pi. F. companions, 

370. Oh. 

Comse, V. F. to commence, begin, 
2244 ; pr. s. komses, 616 ; pt. s. 
comsed, 37, 194, 288, 679, &c.; 
comsede, 832 ; komsed, 1430 ; 
cumsed, 424, 764. P. Pi. 

Comsing, n. F. commencement ; — 
fram comsing to )^nde, from be- 
ginning to end, 4869, 5092. 

Con. See Can. 

Confort, n. F. comfort, 1408. 

Conforted, pp. comforted, 380. 
See Comfort. 

Coninge, n. F. cnnning, skill, 120; 

— kunning, f 643. 
Conseyl, n. counsel, advice, 114 ; 

— cunsail, 595 ;— cunsaile, 969 ; — 

cunseil, 2126 j— cuubeyl, 2105 ; — 

consayle, 1118. 

Contenaunce, n. F. countenance, 
demeanour, 1401, 3076, 4900; 
— countenaunce, t 961j — cun- 
tenaunce, 1397 j — kuntenaunce, 
942, 3323. 

Conyng, adj. S. cunning, skilful, 
653 ;— cunning, f 463 ; — konyng, 
2917 ; comp. cunnyngere, 406 ; 
sup. konyngest, 4810. 

Cojijng, conies, rabbits, 182. 
ITAe nna. is conyng {Wycl. Gloss.), 
and we should expect to find conjnges 
here, as in P. PI. ed. Wright, p. 12. 
See Conynffe in Halliwell, who calls 
it Anglo-Norman. .It is Teutonic ; 
e/". Du. konijn, G. kaninchen.'] 

Coraious, adj. F. courageous, 3318; 
— koraious, 3352. 

Corteys, adj. F. courteous, 194, 
2704 ; — curteyse, 406, 601; — 
curteise, 1397 ;— kurtfes, 4405 ; — 
curteys, 231 ;— curtais, t 207. 

Cortynes, n. pi. curtains, 2056. 

Corue, pp. carved, cut, 3233. 

Cosynes, n. F. female covisin, 625. 

See the note. 
Coude. See Can. 

Couenabul, adj. F. meet, agree- 
able, suitable, 4089; sup. couen- 
ablest, 3219. Ch. 

Coupyng, n. F. violent encounter, 
3602. See Acoupyng. 

Couren, pr. pi, F. cower, crouch, 
3336 ; pt. s. koured, 47. See Koure. 

Coumales, n. pi. F. battlements, 

t 295. See Kemeles. 
Coufe, adj. S. kind, affable, 3659. 

Coufe, Coujde, Cou^fe, &c. See 

Couwardli, ado. cowardly, 3336. 

Digitized by 




Couyne, n. F. contrivance, plan, 
3147;— koueyne, 952. O. Fr. 
eonvine. See Roq. and Covyne in 

Coynt, adj, F. crafty, artful, skQ- 
ful, 653, 1981 ;— coyntc, 2824 ;— 
koynt, 4090 ; — coynte crag (as we 
say a sly comer), 2850. 

Coynted him, pt. 8, made himself 

acquainted, 4644. 
Coynti6e,w.r. stratagem, art, 448, 

1688, 1972; — coyntice, 1665;— 

coyntyse, 1670, 1825. 

Cracche, n. F. mangor, 3233. 

" Cracche, cratche, siaiiy crib, Job 

vi. 5 ; Lk. ii. 7, 12, &c." Fyd. 

Craft, n. 635 ; — kraft, 559. 
Crafti, adj\ S. skilful, clever, 1681; 

comp, craftier, 1680. Sec Carfti. 
Craftii, adv. S. prudently, 3828. 
Crep, pt. 8. crept, f 1^09 ; pt. pi. 

crepten, 2235. See Krepe. 
Cri, n. F. proclamation, 2249 ; — 

kri, 2174 ;— kry, 5405. 
Criande, jt?r65. 2?ar^. crying, 4347. 
Crie mercy, to beg for mercy, 1 276. 

Croice, n. F. cross, 350, 3127 ;— 
croyce, 1343, 3493. 

Cristen, adj. Christian, 522. 

Cumly, Cumme, Cumsed. See 
Comly, Come, Comsed. 

Cunstabxil, gen. 8mg.y constable's, 

Cunter,n. F. an encounter, 1344. 

Cuntre, n. F. coimtry, 6 ; — 
kontrey, 241;— kuntre, 1673;— 
kontre, 722; pi. cuntreis, 1922; 
kuntres, 5474. 

Cnrtais, Curteise. See Corteys. 

Curtesliche, adv. F. courteously, 
233 ; — curte;^sly, 274 ; — curtesli, 
347 ; — curteisle, 353 ; — kurteys- 
lyche, 873 ;— kurtesliche, 1430 ;— 
kurteisly, 1986 ; — curteyseliche, 

2662; — kortesliche, 1430; &c. 
See Corteys. 

Cuuerede. See Keuer. 

Dalt. See Dele. 

Damisele, n. F. damsel, 401, 562, 
589 ; pi. damiseles, 1978. 

Dar, 1 p. pres. 8. I dare, 564, 
938; der, 2169; \ p. s. pt dorst, 
2040; pl.s. dorst, 305. 

Dar, pr. s. in the phrase " dar no 
moa hem wite," no one need blame 
them, 2434. " It is equivalent here 
to lAarf, from S. bear/an, Teut. 
darfen, to need." — M. See Thort. 

Dared, pt. 8. looked dazed, stared 
as if stupefied, gazed fixedly, 4055. 
See Way's note on '* Daryn " in 
Prompt. Panr. Ch. 

Darked, pt. 8. lay hid, lurked, 1 7, 
44, 2543; pL darkeden, 1834; 
darked, 2851. 

Dawe, n. S. day, in phr. brou^t 
of dawe = bereft of life, 3818 (cf. 
1 56) ; pL dawes, 17, 3704, 4719 ; 
daywes, 570; daies, 5490. [Whe^t 
the pL takes the form, dawes 
(daywes) it is preceded by lif.] 

Dawe, V. S. to dawn, 3261 ; pt. s. 

it dawed, 1791, 2218, 2480. 
Debate, n. F. strife, 2779 ; — 

debat, 4380. 
Debonureli, adv. F. courteously, 

meekly, 730. Cf. Bonure. 
Ded, dead ; in phr. " ded as dore- 

nail," 628, 3396. [In P. PL ed. 

Wright, p. 26, we have " as deed 

as a dore-tree,'* where the earlier 

text has " ded as a dore-nayl.'* 

See P. PL A. i. 161.] 

Dedain, n. F. disdain, t 313. 

O.F. desdaiHff. 
Dedaine, adj. F. disdainful, t584. 

Dede, n. S. deed, 1197; an ac- 
tion, Le. a battle, 1137, 1187; 
pi. dede, 3807 ; dedes, 1368 ; 
dedus, 1096, 3406, 4115. 

Digitized by 




Dede, n, S. death, 2072 ; usually 

deth, as in 151. 
Dede, did. See Do. 
Dedut, n. F. pleasure, 4998. 
Deerne. See Dem. 
Defaute, n. F. default, 1185. 

Defoyled, pt pi, F. trampled on, 

depressed, 4614. 
Degised. See Disgised. 

Deie, v. to die, 546, f 375 ; — dei, 
696 ;— deyen, 3353 ; I p. s. pr, 
debe, 4349 ; deie, 919 ; 1 p. pi. 
pr. deben, 3898 ; pi. *. deide, 1322, 
tlOl3; deyde, U.Z\ pLpl. deyde, 

Del, 71. S. part ; furbe del = fourth 
part, 1284. Cf. Tenfedel. 

Del, n. F. dool, sorrow, 349, 
1510;— del, 781, 2054;— doel, 
1909 ;— dool, 88 ;— doole, f 242, 
t613, t926;— dul, 2757;— duel, 
564, 919, 1318, 1321, 1370, 1647, 

Delfulli,rtc?y. sorrowfully,grievous- 
ly, 1980;— dolfalli, 2434 ;— doole- 
fully, t32;— dulfuUi, 2335,4371; 
— duelfuUi, 578, 3422. See also 

Dele, V. S. to deal, deliver 
(blows), 1222 ; pt. s, dalt, 2791 ; 
pi. pi. delten, 3440 ; pres. pari, 
deland, 1235 ; pp. d(4t, 1271. 

Deliuer, cu^'. F. quick, nimhle, 

Deliuerly, adv. quickly, 349, 776, 
1119, 1702 ;-deliuerIi, 1510,1909 ; 
— deliaerUche, 1245. Ch. 

Deme, v. S. to judge, declare, 
151, 1074; phr. " to deme ]?e sobe,** 
151, 583, 1161, 2633. 

Demeyned him, pt. 8. behaved, 
1201, 3636 \ pi. pi. demened hem, 

Denede, pt. s. diuned, resounded, 

Dent. See Dint. 

Departe, v, F. {intr.) to part 
asunder, sever, 2334, 5422 ; \p. pi. > 
jD^. departed, 2026 ;jb/. #. {Jtrans.^ 
departed, 3894. 

Depeinted, pp. painted, pour- 
trayed, 3573 ;— depeynted, 3217. 

Der. See Dar. 

Deraied him,^^. e. F. acted madly 
(like a man disordered in mind), 
2061 ;— derailed him, 3741 ;— 
drayed {fead derayed ?) him, 1210 ; 
— deraide [hym?], f 883. 0. F. 

. desroyer^ deroyer^ dessarroyer. 

Deraine, v. F. to make good, to 
sustain a refusal {a law iemi), 
1 124 ;— dereine, f 356. " Desrener, 
to dereine ; to justifie, or make 
good, the deniall of an act, or fact." 

Dere, v. S. to harm, injure, 953 ; 
— dene, 1 1240. Ch. 

Dere, adj. S. dear, precious, 401 ; 
phr. " whan lou dere likes," 1050 ; 
" him dere boujt," 1268 ; " lou 
dere )>inkes," 4352, 4727. 

Derk, n. darkness, 1285, t 714. 

Derly, adv. S. dearly, sumptu- 
ously, 1421;— derli, 4312, 4374. 

Derling, n. S. a darling, 1538 ; 

pi. derlinges, 2568. 
Dem, adj. S. secret, 1792 ; — 

derne, 1 478 ;— deeme, f 826 ; pi. 

deme, f 860. Ch. 
Demly, adv. S. secretly, 17, 131, 

1311, 1799 ;— demli, 1050, 2208. 

Derworf, adj. S. precious, dear, 
585, 2585 ;-derwor))b, 1745, 2633, 
4140, 5311 ;— dereworth, t613 ;— 
dereworthe, f 431, t692, tl240j 
sup. de[r]wor|?est, 3209. P. PI. 

Des, n. F. The dais, or seat of 
honour, 4312, 4338 ;— dese, 4011. 

Descriue, v. F. to describe, 5005, 
5025 \\p.s. pi. descriued, 3042. 

Deschuuer, v. F. to discover, 
reveal, 3192. 

Digitized by 




Descuuering, n. discovery, 1043 ; 

^ — discuueryng, 1024. 
Deseuy, r. F. to deceive, 3306. 

Desgeli. See Disgisili, an^f the note 

on 1. 5014. 
Desmaye 30U, imp. be dismayed, 

Desparaged, pp, disparaged, 485. 

Despit, n. F. mischief, injury, 
555, 4227 ;— despyt, 3335. 

Despitously, adv, mischievously, 
maliciously, 1137 ; — despituslv, 

Dessece, n, F. decease, 4101. 
Destene, n. F. destiny, 315. 

Destruye, t?. F to destroy, 2930 
— destrue, 4147 ;— destrye. 4262 
pp. destruyt, 2847; destrued, 2646 
destruyed, 2124. 

Deuel, w. S. devil, 1976; phr, 
"adeuelwai," 1978. Ch. 

Deuer. n. F. duty, 474, 2546 ;— 
deuere, 520. Ch. 

Deuis, n. F. device, 3222. 

Deuise, v, F. to describe, talk 
about, tell of, 2985 ;— diuise, 1316, 
2635 ; deuice, 1603 ; pi. pi. deuised, 

Deuouteliche, adv, devoutly, ear- 
nestly, 2976 ;— deuoteliche, 1245. 

Deuoyde, v. F. to quit, leave, 

Digised. 8ee Disgised. 

Digne, adj, F. worthy, 583, 4583 ; 

—ding. 1 313. Ch. 
Dignely, adv, worthily, 520 ; — 

dingneli, 4567. 
Diked, pp. dug out, 2233. 

Dint, n. a stroke, blow, 1234, 
2784, t343;-dent, 2757, 3750; 
pi. dintes, 1222, tl24, tl30;— 
dentes, 1216, 3440 ; — dyntes, 

Disgised, jd»;e?. disguised, 1677; — 
degised, 3888 ;~ digised, 2530. 

Disgisi, adj. F. in disguise, 
masked, mummerwise, 1620 ;— dis- 
gesye, secret, 2715. 

Disgisili, adv. strangely, extra- 
ordinarily, 485 ;— desgeli, 5014, on 
which line see the Note. 

Diting, an error for Tiding, 1478. 

Diuise. See Deuise. 

Di^t, V. S. to dispose, get ready, 
prepare, 3253 ; pt. 8. (with him), 
1119; (tcith hem), 1799; 
pp. dijt, i. e. dressed, prepared, 
ready, destined (irith reference to 
death), 151, 315, 776, 1620, 1643, 
1677, 3222 ; 1 p. imp. pi. " di^t 
we vs henne," let us readily go 
hence, 2553. Ch. 

Done, V. S. to do, to cause, 320, 
860 ; also to fight (metaphorically), 
3252 ; I p.jyr. 8. do, 3249 ; 3 p. 
pr. 8. dof, 925 ; dos, 4202 ; 2 p. 
pr. pi. dob, 1452 ; ^ p. pr. pi. don, 
3244; 1 8. dede, 555; 3/>. 
pt. 8. dede, 862, 1025 ; dude, 3427 ; 
pt. plT dede, 2092 ; dude, 1145 ; 
imp. 8. do, 2127 ; imp. pi. do|), 
3807; pp. don, 2928; do, 936, 
1024. Fhr. dude to deihe = did 
to death, killed, 3427 ; dude hem 
forf = went forth, 1145 ; dede 
hem on gate = went on their way, 
2092; cf 1119; dede him out, 
went out, 2061 ; done (pp.) = 
dead, 937. "When followed by 
another verb, the latter is always 
in the infinitive mood (as in tne 
case after all the other auxiliaries) 
and [often] receives a passive sig- 
nification.*'— M. E. g. dede calUy 
caused to be called, 1522; dede 
clepe, 1299; do crie, cause to be 
proclaimed, 2127, 4049 ; do kepe^ 
cause to be kept, 413, dede feeche, 
1303 ; do quelle, cause to be killed, 
1246 ; dede translate^ caused to be 
translated, 167- The exception to 
this is whon the verb following is 
neuter. E.g. d^de astevte, made 
to stop, 1526 ; d^'d^ to mete., caused 
to dream, 862 ; iL<le renne^ caused 
to run, 3390 ; do ranisch, 639. 

Digitized by 




Another exception is when do is 
followed by him (used reflexively), 
as in do him lope mi hue, cause 
himself to loathe my love, 546. An- 
other jd^oj^ is do to toiie (651, 1331, 
1459) = to cause to know, which 
is still in use, and in which to toite 
takes the place of the A.S. gerund. 

Doel, Del, DooL See Del 

Dof, imp. s, dotf thou, do thou 

off, 2342. 
Doluen, pp. {from delve), buried, 

4210; doluen quic, buried alive. 

1564; ded and doluen, dead and 

buried, 2630, 5280, f 1026. Ch. 
Dom, 72. S. judgment, doom, 1220. 

Ch. . 
Domayl, DorenaiL See Ded. 
Dorst See Dar. 

Doted, pp. F. foolish, idiotic, 

4055. &efA-dote|). Ch. 
Dounes, n. pi. S. downs, 2903. 
Doun rijtes. See Ri3tes. 

Douten, pr. pi. fear, are afraid qf^ 

tl68. O.Y.douter. Cf. Adouted. 
Dou3ter, gen, sing, daughter's, 

Doutusli, orft?. doubtfully, 4338. 

Cf. Douteous in Ch. 
Dou^ti, adj. S. doughty, brave, 

1101, 1215, 1352 ;— doujthi, 1302, 

2709 ; — dou^ty, 1318 ; comp. 

dou^tiere, 1161 j sup. douatiest, 

Dou^tili, adv. bravely, 1222. 
Draiht. See Dreche. 
Drawe. See Drou^. 
Drayed. See Deraied. 
Dreche, v. S. to disturb, molest, 

t 765 ; pt. 8. draihte, t 752 ; pp. 

draiht, f 820. A.S. dreccan, pt. t. 

drehte, pp. drehty gedriht. Ch. See 

Way's note in Prompt. Parv. 

Di-ede, n. S. dread, fear, 1909; 

miswritten dredre, 1892. 
Dreew. See Drou3. 

Drem, n. S. a droning noise, f^Sl, 
t982. See note to 1. 1 781. 

Dreme, n. S. a dream, 752. 

Dressed him, jp^. a. addressed him- 
self, 1237. 

Dreeing, n S. suffering, 919. Cf. 

Drie, V. S. to endure, suffer, 1772, 
t373;— drye, 459, 1 1069;— dry, 
1 1067 ; \ .?. drye, 459 ; 2 p. 
pr. pi. drijen, 3704 ; pt. s. dried, 
t242; drey, 2864; dreijh, 2796. 
A.S. dreogan. Sc. dree. Cf. Moeso- 
Goth. driugan. 

Drift, n. S. driving-power, f 998 ; 
chasing, onset, f 897. 

Driuen, pr. pi. " driuen forf |)at 
day," drive forth (i. e. pass) the 
day, 3065 ; pt. s. drof (drove), 
1 891 ; pp, driue (driven), 979. 

Dronked, pp. drenched, i. e. 

drowned, 3516. 
Dronken, jp^. ^?. drank, 1906. 

Drouned, pt. 8. droned, made a 
droning noise, f 985. Cf. Moeso- 
Goth. drunjus. 

Drou3, pt. 8. drew, drew near, ap- 
proached, 2208 ; dreew, t 714 ; 
drow, 1068, 1235, 1321, 1526, 1914; 
drew him, 4338 ; /?/. »/. drouj, 781, 
3065; drowe, 1089 ; drowen, 1220; 
drow hem, 1792 ; drowen them, 

t795 J was drawe him = had drawn 
imself, 44. 

Duel, DuL See Del 

Dulfull, adj. doleful, causing dole, 
1 143 ,— duelful, 3440. 
Dupe, adj. S. deep, 11132, +1156. 

Duresse, n. F. hardship, constraint, 
cruelty, 1074, 1114, 1125, 1546, 
&c. Ch. 

Dwelle, V. to delay, tarry, 701 ; 
pr. 8. dwelles, 1989 ; pt. 8. dweUed, 
1966. Dan. dvale, Sw. dvdljas. 

Dwerf, n. S. a dwarf, 362 {see 
Note). A.S. dtceorg, Dan. and Sw. 

Digitized by 




Dwined, pt, s. pined, d\viiidled, 
578. A.S. dfcinan. Ch. 

Eche, each, 517. "It is usual to 
find a (for an, one) used after this 
word, as eche a bam, 188 ; eche a 
rynky 1472; eche a strete, 1617; 
eche a kuntre, 1673; eche a gom, 
3465 ; [eche a Beg, 3932 ;] eche a 
bailiy 5387 ; eche a lord, 5399 ; and 
when combined with it, is written 
both in Old English and Scotch, 

Eft, adv. afterwards, again, 882, 
1049, f 552;— eft as fele, as many 
again, 3372. 

Egge-tol, n. edged tool, sharp in- 
strument, 3755. [It seems to be a 
compound noun ; cf. A.S. ecg-bana, 
ecg-hete, &c.] 

Egged, jpt. 8, S. incited, urged, 
1130. A.S. eggian, O.N. eggia, 
Dan. egge, " ^ggg^t or eutycyn* 
to doon' wel or jvele," Prompt. 

Egre, adj. F. eager, courageous, 

Eiles, pr. 8. ails, afflicts, 634, 
1533;— eyles, 944; pt. t. eilede, 
951 ;— eyled, 831, 888. 

Eir, n. F. heir, 709, 1474, 4102 ; 
— eyr, 4641; — eyer, 77; — eyre, 

Eijjer . . . other, each . . . the 
other, i, e. one another, 1010, 1032, 
1613, 2505, 3032, 4889, 5200. 
EiJ>er (each), 1054 ; spelt e>er, 
833; ^ ei^fer, 1240; gen. sing. 
eiders (each other's), 1014. 

Eijen, n. pi. S. eyes, 463, 465, 
1063, 1585 ;-ei3yen, 228 ;— eyi^en, 

Ek, but, 715. See Ak. 

Eke, adv. also, 473. 

Eld, adj. S. old, 3498. 

Elde, 71. S. old age, 5227. 

Elles, else, otherwise, 1132, 1571, 

2671; — eles, fSS, f 209. A.S. 


Era, n. S. uncle, 3421, 3435; 
gen. sing, emes, 3426. Ch. 

Emperice, n. F. empress, 5343, 
5400. Ch. 

Enchaunmens, n. pi, enchant- 
ments, 137. 

Encheson, n. F. occasion, cause, 
tl070, 3697, 4173 ;— enchesoun, 
1172, 1 140. 

Ender day, by-gone day, day past, 
3042. See P. PI. Crede, 1. 239, 
and hendre in Jamieson. 

Enforced, pp. strengthened, forci- 
bly occupied, f 908. 

Engines, n. pi. warlike engines, 
1294; — engynes, 3000. 

Enpoysoun, v. F. to poison, 4650. 

Ensaumples, F. examples, fS. 

Entecches, n. pi. F. spots, stains 

(metaphorically used), 558. 
Entent, n. F. intention, 1544. 

Entres, n. pi, F. entries, passes, 

Eny, any, 2223 ;— eni, 1077. 
Enys, adv. once, 1093. A.S. dnes^ 
gen. of an, one. ^ [But it is a mere 
expletive in this place.'] 

Er, conj. S. before, ere, 1612, 
2026; — her, 1515; — or, f 310, 
t791. See 'Ere. 

Erande, n. S. an errand, 4156 ; — 
herend, 1469 ;— herande, 1592; — 
amd, 5287. Cf. Mceso-Goth. 
airinon, to go on a message. 

Erber, n. arbour, 1752. 

Erden, v. S. to dwell, 5260 ;jpf. s. 

erded, 1417. 
Ere, adv. S. before, formerly, 1 60, 

3031, 4180, 5233. €/. Are. 
Eritage, n. F. heritage, 4097, 1464. 

Erliche, adv. S. early, 1296,2519. 
Em, n. S. an eagle, 3105. Ch. 
Ern = 3eme, 11091. See Jeme. 
Ert, art thou, f o92. Ch. 

Digitized by 




Eschel, n. F. troop, company, "bat- 
talion, 3379, 3564, 3785. O.E. 

Esed, pp, made at ease, accom- 
modated, 1632, 5338. 

Estres, w. pi, F. retreats, recesses 
(of a garden), 1768. Applied in 
Ch. to the inward parts or a house, 
&c. See O.F. estre in Roq. 
"Like to the estrea of the grisly 

That bight the gret tempul of Mars 

in Trace."-Ch. Kn. Ta. 1113. 
Cf. Rom. of the Rose, 1448, 3626. 

Eten,^^.i>Z. ate, 1906, 2616. 

Eth, adj, S. easy, 3571. Ch. A.S. 

Efer, either, each, 833. See EiJ)er. 

Etteleden, pt. pi, hurried, 272. 

See Attele. 
Euele, n, S. evil, mischief, 668, 

Euen, adv, straight, exactly, hard 

by, 755, 1093;— euene, 747, 762, 


Euenly, adv. straightway, 1747. 

Euen-while, n. even-time, even- 
tide, 1747. 

Euerich, every, 622, 1474; — 
euereche on, every one, 5412. 

Facioiin. See Fasoun. 
Fade,i?p. faded, 891. 

Fader, n. S. father, 241, &c. ; gen, 
sing, fader, 4996. 

Faileden, pit. pi. failed, 2660. 

Fain. See Fayn. 

Fairre, comp. adj. fairer, 4437. 

Falle, V, S. to.hefall, happen, 324, 
806, 1700 ; pr, s. falles me (happens 
to me), 439 ; falles (suits, appertains, 
belongs), 14, 339, 1685, 2789; pt. 
s. fel (befell), 903 ; fel for (suited), 
1766 ; him fel (behoved him), 4440. 

Fantasie, n. F. fancy, apprehen- 
sion (of evil), f 384. Ch. 

Fanteme, n. F. a phantom, a fancy, 
703, 2315, 4109. 

Fare, v. S. to go, 6079, 5U2;pr, 
8. fares, 1315 ; pt. s. ferd or ferde, 
30, 1479, 2649, (behaved) 884, 
2073, (fared, did) 1497, 1499. 
(befeU) 1922;, ferden, 2745, 
2809 ; ferde, 1913 ; ferd, 1915 ; 
farde, f 305 ; pp. faren, 1 514, 
5468 ; fare, 2485, f 224 ; faren 
forf) = proceeded, advanced, 3260 ; 
c/. 2730, 4450. 

Fare, n. S. journey ; hence^ busi- 
ness, "goings-on," affair (esp. a 
troublesome business), 1091, 2079, 
2802, 2943, 4580, &c. 

Farre, comp. adv. farther, f 244. 

Farly. See Ferli 

Fasoun, n. F. fashion, shape, make, 
402, 934, 4440;— fason, 2836;— 
facioun, 500. 

Fau^t,^?^. s. fought, 3426; pi, pi. 

fou^ten, 3414. 
Fax, n. S. hair, 2097. 

Fayn, adj. S. glad, 2817 ; — fain, 
1783; syp. faynest, 3933; (ado.) 
fayn (gladly), 858. 

Fayre, adv. fairly, kindly, 347. 

Feele, Feole. See Fele. 

Feffe, V. F. to enfeoff, provide for, 
give presents to, 1061 ; pp. feffed, 
193. Ch. 

Feintise, n. F. faintness, 436 ; — 
feyntyce (cowardice), 1188 ;— feyn- 
tise (flinching), 763 ; phrase, 
"feiHi boute feintyse," verily, 
without flinching (or hesitation), 
1543, 3169. Ch. 

Feif, n, S. faith, 858 ;— fei^b, 

Feifli, adv. in faith, truly, 777, 
828, 912, 1317;-fei^ely, 201;— 
fei^licbe, 2732 ^eia^i, 4793 ;— 
feijNly, 230 ;-feHi, 132 ;-feMy, 
209 ;— fei^liche [? fei3Hicbe], 261 ; 
— faitly, t 804;-fe3tly, 703. 

Fei3tful, adj. faithful, 337 ; comp, 
feiKuUere, 5434. 

Digitized by 




FeL See Falla 

fei, n. S. skin, 1720, 2361 ; pi 

bere-felles (bear-skins), 2414, 2430, 

Felachipe, n. S. fellowship, 777, 

1317, 4510; — felachip, 1479. 
Felawe, n. S. fellow, companion, 

275, 339; pL felawes, 186,. 193, 

360, &c, 

Feld, pr, s. felt, 1 ; feld foute = 

perceived the scent, 33 ; pp. feled, 

Feldfares, n. pi, fieldfares, 183. 

Fele, adj, S. many, 5, 186, 388, 

801, &c ;— fel, t 46 ;— feele, 1 880 : 

— feole, t 12. 
Fell, adj. S. fierce, cruel, f 364, 

t 946. Comp. feller (of a fever), 

897 ; (of a sickness), 609; (of a 

battle), 3614 ; (of a man), t 42. Ch. 
Felled, pt 8. felled, killed, f 85 ; 

pt. pi. 1 387, 3415 ; feld, t 352 ; 

pp. telde, 3638. 

Felli, adv. fiercely, 3274 ;~-felly, 

Felfe, n. S. filth ; Tience (by 

metaphor) a low fellow, a wretch, 

2542, 2545. 

Fend, n, S. a fiend, 3130. 

Fende, v. to defend, 3650 ; fende 
mee= defend myself, fight, f 1201. 

Fenkes, pr. s, vanquishes, con- 
quers, t 323 ; pp. fenked, t HI, 
t 305, t 890; ifenked, t 117. 
Probably a modification of F. vain- 
ere, as the spelling venkud occurs 
in The Seuen Sages, 2024. Cf 
" For haddest thou fenked the fon 
(foes)," «&c. Alexander, ed. Steven- 
son, p. 208, 1. 339. 

Fer, adv. far, 2546, 2781 ; cnmp, 
ferre, 2613, 5167, 5397; sup. 
ferrest, 2433, 5079. 

Ferche. See Fers. 

Ferd,2?p. afraid, 3366. 

Ferd, n, S. a troop, company, 
386, 5326. A.8.fyrd. 

Ferden. See Fare. 

Fere, n. S. a companion, 364, 

1639, 2866; (a spouse), t 960. 

(f. I-fere. 
Fere, adj. entire, sound, 1583. Cf. 

Icel.yJ«T, Su.-Go. yb^. Dan. and 


Fere, f 413. I can only suggest 
that to fere may mean for fear 
(which seems a forced construction), 
or that we should read to-fore, be- 
forehand. ^.To-fore. Lmet415 
also seems to be corrupt, and for 
\>ei we might read \fen. 

Ferefull, adj. S. terrible, 1291, 

FerforJ), adv, far away, 209. 

Ferke, v. to drive, drive onwards 
by beating, to press hard upon, 
3630 ; pt. s. ferked, 1 85, 1 1221 ; 
pt. pi. firked, t 67. " Firk, to 
whip, to beat." Halliwell. 

FerH,aJ;'. S. terrible, fearful, 2449, 
3186, 3934. A.S.f^rlic. 

FerU, sh. a wonder, 3280, 4531 ; 
— ferlich, 1 1015 ;-farly, 1 1050. 
See preceding word. 

Ferliche, adv. terribly, wonder- 
fully, 3238. 

Fers, adj. F. fierce, severe, 436, 
3351, 3641 ;— ferse, 1 70, 1 276 ;— 
ferche, 3796. 

Fersche, adj. fresh, 3633. A.S. 
fersc. See Eresch. 

Fersly, adj. fiercely, 1766; — 
fersli, 3348 ;— ferslich, 1 115 ;-— 
ferseUch, t 253 ;-ferscheli, 3426. 
AUo spelt fresly, 1190. 

Ferst, adv. first, 648; adj. 1163. 

Fesauns, n. pi. pheasants, 183. 

Festened, pt. s. fastened, 1720 ; 

festned, 1239; pp. festened, 447, 

3437,3593; fest, 1650. 

Fet, n. pi S. feet, 1766. 
Fetis, adj. F. well made, lovely, 
pretty, genteel, 126, 1447, 4095 ; 

Digitized by 




— fetys, 225, 4435 ; fetyse, 393 ; 

— fetise, 1 188. O. Y./etis. Low 
JMm^factitius, Ch. 

Fetisliche, adv. fairly, neatly, pro- 
perly, 98. 

Fettes, pr. s. fetches, f 628. 

Fetures, n,ph features, 857, 2886. 

Feuer, n. F. fever, 897. In L 
1239, for of feaer (as in MS.) read 
on feater. See Feuter. 

Feute, n. scent, trace, 90, 2189 ; 
— foute,33. "Fewte. Vestigium." 
Prompt. Parv. ' " Fetot, trace of a 
fox or beast of chase by the odour." 
— Morris. 

Feuter, n, F. the rest for the spear, 
3437, 3593. From Lat. fulcrum. 
Cf. /autre in Roq., and see Morte 
Arthure, 1. 1366. Sir F. Madden 
points out that this is obviously the 
meaning in Wallace , iii. 168 (where 
Jamieson renders fewtir by rage^ 
from the Ioel./«<^rflf, efflagro !) 

Feye, adj. fated to die, unlucky, 
t397. k.%.f(kge. Ci. Morte Jrlh. 
121, 4253. 

Feyntice (1239), Feyntise, Feyn- 

tyce. f^e Feintise. 
Feyre, n. F. a fair, 1822. 

Feyrye, n. F. race of fairies, 230. 
" See Keightley's Fairy Mythology^ 

Fe3tly, Fefli. Boe FeiflL 
Fifte, fifth, 1322. 

Fin, adj. fine, great (appKed to 
force), 1117, 1 128 J — fyn, 1217. 
Finched, pp. finished, 3934. 
Finde8tow=findest thou, 132. 
FinUche, adv. finely, 768, f 1201. 
Firked, See Ferke. 

Flagetes, n. pi. F. flagons, 1893 j 

— flaketes, 1888. 

Flebled, pt. pL became feeble, 
2660, IBut we should rather read 
febled. Cf./^^«/ in 1. 5227.] 

Flecchinge, n. F. flinching, turn- 
ing aside. Seef^chir in Cotgrave. 

Fleete, v. S. to float, t532. Ch. 

Flen, V. S. to flay, 1682 j pp. 
flayne, 2607, 

Flen, V. S. to flee, to fly, 3872 ; 

— flene, 1856, 3879, 3892 ; pt. s. 
flei, 1896 ; imp. pi. fleK 3366. 

Flet, n. S. floor of a cottage; 
hejice, on mi flet = in my cottage, 
5368. A.S.fett. ^^^ Mgrk^s In- 
structions for Parish Priests, ed. 
Peacock; 1. 273, «o/<f. 

FHte, V. S. to chide, debate, 2545. 

Flitte, V. S. to drive away, banish, 

Flon, n. pi. S. arrows, f 269. 

Floriched, pp. flourished, clothed 

with verdure, 2438. 
Floungen, pt. pi. flew as if flung, 

were thrown, 1 269. 
Fode, n. a man, f 209. Cf. Sw. 

fbda, to bring forth. 
Fodest, 2 p. pr. s. thou feedest, 

i. e. suppfiest, 1646 ; pt. s. foded, 

57; fodes, 2050. Cf. Moeso- 

Goih. fodjan. 
Fold, n. S. earth, ground, 5382. 
Yold, pp. folded,- 858. 

FolUi, adv. foolishly, 4596; — 

folliche, 1557. 
Folwe, V. S. to follow, 189 ; pr.s. 

folwes, 436 ; fulwes, 33 ; pt. pi. 

folwed, 3351, 3631; folwe^ 

Fomen, n. pi. S. foemen, foes, 

3274, 3372, t 98. 
Fon, n. pi. S. foes, 3269, 3338 ; 

— fone, t 271, t 332, t 866. 
Fonden, v. S. to try, seek, at- 
tempt, t 108 J — fonde, 1019, 
8387, t246, t385; fond, 777, 
3599 ; 1 p pr. s. fonde (I seek, 
ask), 1 1054 ; ^ p. pr. s. foundes 
(goes), 1 121 , fonden (are 
busy), 1682 ; pt. s. fonded, 1 740 ; 
pt.pL iondede (busied themselves). 

Digitized by 




3629; imp. pi. fondes, 1114; pp. 
fouded, 623, 801 ; jrres.part, found- 
ing (going), 1749. K.o. fandian. 

Foiid,i?^.«. found, 293, 422, 2730, 
4847 ; pi' fond him = found for 
him, 73. 

Fogs. See Eos. 

For, prep, on account of, 1691 ; 

as suited for, 294, 506 ; in spite 

of (?), 1226. IBut we should, in 

the last place, read fro.] 
For, conj. in order that, 746, 2751; 

because, 1319, 1668. 
For — , an intensive prefix. A.S. 

for — . Moeso-Goth. fra — . G. 

ver — . See below. 

For-barre, v. to bar up, enclose 

forcibly, 3333; pt. pi. for-barred 

(parried), 1217. 
For-brenne, v. S. to bum up, 1 1 88 ; 

pp. for-brent, 2621, 2831, 3001. 
Forcer, n. F. a casket, coflfer, 4432, 

1 628. SeeWhfs note on Foorcere 

in Prompt. Parv. 

For-dede, pt. s, killed, destroyed 
(= should kill), 2972 ; pp, fordon, 

Fordedes, n. pi. previous deeds, 
325 ; — fordede, 5182. See note 
to 1. 325, and cf. 1. 2076. 

Fore, adv. beforehand, 2076, 

4142. Q^ To-fore. 
Fore, prep, for, 2941. 
Forfare, v. S. to kiU, 2762. 

For-fouten, pp, exhausted with 
fighting, 3686. See Jamieson. 

For-frete, ^^. eaten up, 2376. See 

For-gaf, ^^. 8, gave up, 4418. 

For-gete, jc>p. forgotten, 6156. 

For-go, V, to forego, lose, 5187. 

For-hungred, ^. exhausted with 

hunger, 2515. 
For-left, pp, left, 2497. 

ToT-lete^ left,forsook, 2311; 
pp. for-lete, 679. 

For-lore, pp. wholly lost, 2955, 

Formest,o^*. first, foremost, 1191, 
5079, t 40 ; — formast, 2324 ; adv, 
(at first, first of all), 939, 1362, 
. 2324. 

Fot-oute, prep, without, 2681. 

Fors, n, force, 1117. See Fin, 
Phrase, "no fors \>ei ne leten," they 
little cared for, 3651. Cf. I do ho 
/or*, I don't care, in Chaucer (Aldine 
edition), vol. vi. p. 305. 

Forschop, 8. 1 transformed, 
misshaped, 4394*; pp, for-schaped, 
2639. Ch. 

For-sake, v, to deny, 1358. A.S. 

Fort,2>w//(wForto,788. /See note. 

Forjjeres, pr, 8, proceeds, 5397. 

For)>-fare, J92^. departed, 5266. 

Forfi, For-fi, conj, S. on that 
account, therefore, 723, 1051, 1624, 

Forfinkes me, pr, 8, impers. it 
mislikes me, grieves me, 5422 ; pt. 
pi. refl. forthoughten hem, repent- 
ed, t 446. Ch. 

Forjjward, adv. S. forward, 3630. 

For-waked, pp. exhausted with 
waking, worn out for want of 
sleep, 785, 793, 1797 ;—al for- 
waked, 790;— al for- walked, 2236. 
" Chaucer uses it, Cant. Ta. 5016, 
and Wyntoun, viii. 16. 141."— M. 

Forwandref, pr, 8. wanders long, 
739. "In Chaucer is the pp, for- 
wandred, Rom, Rose, 3336." — M. 
See also P. PI. A. prol. 7. 

Forward, n. S. a compact, 1451 ; 
pi. forwardes, 1557, 1568, 1650. 

For-wept, jip, worn out with, 
weeping, 2868. " In Chaucer's 
Dreme,i%ZZf and King's Quair, ii. 
64."— M. Cf. Bi-wept. 

For-wery, adj. exceeding weary, 
2443. "In Chaucer, Rom. Rose, 
\ 3336."— M. Cf. Dan. langvang. 

Digitized by 




For-woiinded,jpp. much wounded, 

3686. "In Chaucer, Bx}m. Rose, 

1830."— M. 
For-;eten, pt pi forgot, 1909; 

pp. for-jete, 4934. See For-gete. 
Fos, n. pi foes, 1190;— foos, 

2699. SeeYon. 
Fostredes, 2 p. pt. 8. didst foster, 


Fote, 72. S. a foot (used as a 
measure), 4033. 

Fouche, in phrase, " sauf wol I 
fouche," I will vouch-safe or gua- 
rantee, 4153. 

Foule, adv. fully, 1646. 

Foules, n. pi S. birds, 822 ; geiu 

foulen, 805. 
Foundes, Founding. See Fonden. 

Fourteni3t, n. S. a fortnight, 2681 ; 
— fourteneni^t, 1337 ; — forteni3t, 
2423 J gen. fourteuijtes, 2683. 

Foute. See Feute. 

Fou3ten. See Faujt. 

Fowlye, n. folly, f 1103. 

Frakes. See Freke. 

Fram. See Fro. 

Frau3t, pp. freighted, 2732. 

Frayne, v. S. to ask, inquire, 250 ; 
1 p. pt 8. freyned, 2034 ; pt. s. 
freyned, 1303, 3587 ;i?/.>?/. freyned, 
394. ''Somner says that in his 
time this word still prevailed in 
Lancashire.'* — M. 

Fre, adj. 8. liberal, generous, 
noble, 337, 386, 1061, 3277 ; wed 
as tb. 505 ; opposed to bewe, 5514. 
See Sir F. Madden's Reply to Mr 
Singer^ 8 Remarks on Uavelok, p. 15. 

Fredom, n. S. liberal disposition, 

Freke, n. S. a man, 402, 1117, 
1 193, &c. ;-frek, 264, 897, 934, 
&c. ; gen. frekes, 3886 ; pi frekes, 
442, 2286 ;— frakes, 3504. Applied 
to a young boy in 1. 4078. The 
A.Q./rec is chiefly used '* in a bad 

sense, but the root exists in the 
Su.-G. /rack, Isl. /rek, strenuus, 
ferox."— M. Cf. Sw. /rack, Dan. 

Freliche, adj. S. noble, genteel, 
428, 822, 3876;— freli, 5329;— 
frely, 124, 366, 600 ;— freyliche, 
360 ; — freelich, f 209, f 1003, 
t 1245. 

Freli, adv. S. nobly, honourably, 
5329. Generally in phr. " freliche 
schapen,** finely shaped, 126, 225, 
393 ; " freli schapen," 1447 ^ sup. 
" frelokest i-schapen," 2634. " In 
the Isl. frdligr is alacer, celer, 
strenuus. Orkneyinga Saga** — M. 

Fresly. See Fersly. 

Fresch, adj. fresh, 3640. See 

Fret, pt 8. gnawed, 87 ; pp. 

freaten (rather read freten), f 1 159. 

X.S./retan. G.fressen. Cf. For- 


Frif, n. a thicket, wood, forest, 
822; pi frizes, 2216, flS. W. 
fridd. Cf. O. YT./raitis in Roq. 

Fro, prep, from, 13, &c. ; — • 
fromme, 425 ;— fram, 5373. 

Frobroder, n. younger brother 
(apparently contr. from from- 
brother), f 23. [/ cannot find the 
word elsewhere.'] 

Frond, n. F. front, 3584. 

Frotu8,2>r.5. rubs, strokes, 1 1174, 

Ful, adv. very, 983. 

Fulfillen, V. to fulfil, 1451 ; pp. 

fulfuUed, 4319. 
Fulsumli, adv. S. plenteously, 

Fulwes. See Folwe. 

Fundeling, n. foundling, 481, 
502, 2077. 

Fur, n. S. fire, 1188, 4773; — 
fure, 907, 3759. 

Furfe del, fourth part, 1284. 

Fy, tVer;. fie! 481. 


Digitized by 




GQ,hhe,pr,pl S. talk idly, 1994. I 
Ch. I 

Gadere, v. S. to gather, 30 ; — 

gader, 1022. 
Gaf. JSee Gif. 

Gailiche,a</r. gaily, 2591 ; — gayli, 
1625, 2597 ;-gayly. 2731. 

Gainli See Gaynli. 

Gainelich, adv, f 506. It is doubt- 
Uss an error for eamelich : the 
parallel passaae in MS. Ashm. 44 
M, "A lowde latter he loje." See 

Gainus, n. pi. javelins, f 292. Cf. 
" Gani/e^ Gainye^ Geni^e^ Ganyhe, an 
arrow, javelin." Janneson. Cf. Ir. 
gaUi an arrow ; W. aaing, a chisel 
or wedge. \In MS. muwritten 

Gamely, adv. playfully, joyfully, 
laughingly, 427 ; — gamelich, 1 506 ; 
— gamli, 3383; — gameliche, 2591. 

Gamsum, adj. S. joyful, 4193. 

Gran, Ganne. See Gin. 

Gan, pr. pi, they go, 811. 

Gapand,^e«. part, gaping, 2372 ; 

— gapande, 2875 j — gapind, 3503. 
Garisun, n, F. provision, reward, 

5073 ; — garissoun, 2491. Cf. 

Gamemens, n. pi. gannents, 3207, 

4460. P. PL Crede, \%% foot-note. 
Gart, pt. 8. caused, made, 1248, 

2082, 2168, &c. j— garte, 1305 ;— 

" gart H* do make," caused this to 

be done, 5529. See also 2900. 

Gat. See Gete. 

Gate, n. S. road, way ; on gate, 
on his way, on their way, 1119, 
2092, 4014 ; on his gate, 372 ; on 
here gate^ 1912 ; on oure gate, 
2800 ; on hurgaie, f 379 ; pi. gatis, 

fates ; heie gates, high-roads, 
691 ; gegnest gatis, nearest ways, 
4189; o'fer-gate, otherwise, 3761. 

Gayne, v. impers. to avail, help, 
profit, 698 J pr. s. gayne)?, 3109 ; 

geine>, 3899 ; pt. s. geyned, 3891 ; 
pr. 8. subj. geyne, 3107. Dan. 
gatne. Sw. gagna. 

Gayned, J?/, s. in " na gref gayned 
to his ioye," no grief accrued to 
his joy, 2473. Cf. 0. F. gaagner, 
A.S. gynan. 

Gajrnest, adj. sup. nearest, readiest, 
3465 ;- geynest, 41 89. Cf Gayne ; 
and Gane in Jamieson. 

Gaynli, adv. readily, well, 
thoroughly, 636, 2665, 2706, 3135 j 
— gaynlicte, 369 ;-geinii, 3448 ;— 
geiiiliche, 744 ;— geynliche, 1030 5 
— geynli, 3553, &c. Cf. Gay nest. 

Gelt, n. S. guilt, 2339, 4403. 

Gemetrie, ru gcometr}-, f 548, 
t 644. P. PL A. xi. 153. 

Genge, n. S. gang, assemblage, 
1600, 1625. 

Grerd him, pt. 8. girt himself, 

Grerdeb,^. «. strikes, 1240. See 
Girae in Ch. "But perhaps we 
should read, gretep." — M. 

Gere, w. S. gear, clothing, 1716, 
2588 ; stelger, steel armour, t 416. 

Gergeis, Greeks, 2200. 

Gerles, girls, 816. 

Gost, 71. F. geste, romance, 5033 ; 
pi. deeds, adventures, 2780. Cf. 
Spenser, F. Q. ii. 2, 16. 

Gestes, n. pi. S. guests, 4904. 

Crete, 71. S. to get, obtain, 644 ; 

1 p. pt. 8. gat (begat), 4191 ; pt. s. 

gat, 2895 J I p. pt. pi gete, 4077 ; 

pt. pi. gaten, 1592 ; pp. geten, 

1030; gete, 799. 
Gie. See Gye. 
Gif, V. S. to give, 5539 ;— giif, 

1169? 1 p. pr. s. giue, 531, gif, 

636, 1000 ; pt. s. gaf, 395,- 992, 

1559 ; goue, 4781 ; pp. giue, 

5075. God gif (God grant), 2157 ; 

God aoue, 1648 ; God gof 2348. 

See also under Jeue. 

Digitized by 




Ginne, 1 p, pr, s, begin, 1929; 
pr.pL gmneK 1185. 2080; pL s. 
gan, 691, 736 ; pt. pi. gonne, 4009 ; 
1 p, imp. pi. ginne, 5104!. ALso, as 
an auxiliary verb; pr, s. ginues 
ride (doth ride), 1189 ; pi. s. gan, 
71, 647, 831, &c. ; pt. s. tmbj. gun, 
290 ; pi. pL gonne, 1961, 2200, 
t 292 ; gun, 1154, 3274 ; gunne, 
1164, 1272, 1530, 1600 ; gon, 3825. 

Ginnes. See Gynne. 

Gist, adv. (?) justly (placed), 

exactly (set), f 294. The gloss iust 

seems correct 

Glade, v. S. to gladden, 824, 827 ; 

inlr. to rejoice, 351 ; m. gladed, 

600,870,1593. Ch. 
Gle, n. S. melody, 824. 

Glede, n, S. a burning coal, 1 729. 

Gleming, pres, part, looking a- 
skance, f 506. See Glime in Jamie- 

Glimerand, pi^ea. pt shining, 

Glisiande, pres. pt. glistening, 
shining, f 180, t534, f 1196;— 
glisiing, 1 698. 

Glod, pt 8. glided, f 279. 

Glosed, pt 8. spoke coaxingly, 
persuaded, 60. 

Go we, let us go, used for let us, 
1184. Cf, "gowe dyne, gowe." 
P. PI. A. prol. 105. 

Grod, n. S. goods, riches, possess- 
ions, 1731, 3523, 5071. 

God, Gode, adj. S. good, 1765, 

. &c. ** Used substantively t 504, 
1334, 3777. In the first and 
instances parentage or birth is 
understoocf, and lady in the 
second." — M. 

Godli, adv. S. goodly, well, fairly, 
1305, 1450, 1461 ; -god liche, 1270, 
2444, 5031 ; —godly, 169, 2916 ; 
— goddeli, 306. 

Godelyche, adj, S. goodly, fair, 


Godmen, n. pi. good men, strong 
men, 1069. 

Gof. See Gif. 

Gome, n. S. a man, 670, 824, 851, 
t 221, t 252, &c. ; — gom, 747, 
1007, 1092, &c. ;— gum, 4441 ; gen, 
sing, gomes, 346, 1687 ; pt gomes, 
1169, 1939. 

Gon, V. S. to go, 4902 ; — ^gone, 
2600 ; pr. s. gob, 271, 747, &c. ; gon, 1687; gan, 811; imp. 
pt goK 263. 

Gon, Gonne. See Ginne. 

Gost, n. S. spirit, breath of life, 
992, 1559, 2120 ; a phantom, 1730. 
Gone. See Gif. 

Gradden, pt. pt cried out ; grad- 
den hur gri\>y cried out for peace, 
made a treaty, f 151. P. rl A. 
ii. 59. 

Graitli, adv. straight, at once, 
1 863. Cy. Grei|>. 

Graifed. See Greife. 

Graithlich. See Grei])lL 

Grame, w. S. anger, wrath, 2200. 

Gras, n. S. grass, herb, 644, 799, 

1030 ; pt grases, 27. 
Grathly. See Greifli. 
Greate, v. to greet, f 705. 
Grece, n. S. grass, 636. See Gras. 

Grece, n. F. a flight of steps, 
stairs, 811. See Way's note in 
Prompt. Parv. 

Gref, n. F. grief, 2473 ; vexation, 
anger, 4418 ; — greefe, f 264 ; pt 
greues, 778, 868, 956, &c. 

Greefly, adv. grievously ; greefly 
bigo, grievously beset, 1 490, 1 994. 

Gregoyse, n. pt Greeks, 5104. 

Greif, adj. ready, 5296 ; — greyt, 
2731. [These seem to be adjectives 
rather than from Greife.] 

Greife, v. to dress, prepare, make 
ready, array, 1719, 3558, 4274; 

Digitized by 




ftr. 8. graipes, f 254 ; pt. s, greij>ed, , 
3288 ; gravthed, f 77 > pt, pi. 
greibed, 1931, '6207 ; pp. grei|)ed, 
1945, 3766, .3768 ; graytbed, f 26 ; 
graiM, t 258, 2933 ; grei^ed 
(? ffreiNd) 5002 ; greyt, 2731 ; 
greij), 5296 {6ui see Greij)) ; 1 p. 
imp. pi. grei|je we us, 2588. 0. N. 
grei^a. [For gre\>and, 1427, read 
gre)>ed.'] Cf. A-grefed. 

Greifli, adv. readily, quickly, 984, 
3492, 4257 ;— gre|'li, 998;— graith- 
lich. + 858 ;— grathliche, f 562 ;— 
grathly, f 711. 

Grem|>e, n. S. anger, fierceness, 
20«0, t 221, t 279. " In Isl. 
grimd ; see Gautrek's Sctga, p. 251." 
— M. Cf. Grame. 

Grendes, thou griudest, 

Gresli. See Grisli. 

Grete, adj. great; used (in pi.) 
substantively (as at present) for 
persons of rank, 1107, 1595, 1936 ; 
comp. gretter. 1859 ; sup. grettest, 
928 ; miswritten gretles, 1196. 

Grete, v, S. to greet, accost, 1430 ; 
pr. s. gretes, 233 ; pt. s. gret, 1393, 
1986;grett, 873, 4532; grette, 
369 ; pt. pi. gretten, 1334 ; grette, 
t 920 ; imp. pi. gretes, 355 ; gretef, 
359 J pres. part, gretand, 8816. 

Greteli, adv. greatly, 1292 ; — 

gretliche, 975, 2444 ; — gretly, 
600; — grettii, 2665 ; — gretteli, 

Gretyng, n. S. salutation, 234. 
Greue, n. S. a grove, 3634. 
Greue, v. F. to vex, injure, 689, 

2875, 4028 ; pr. s. greues, 530, 

608, 889, 899; greuen (sub. 

wounds), 1378 ; imp. s. greue, 

Greues. See Gref. 
Grewes, Greeks, 2080. 
Grim, n. S. anger, fury, f ^04. 

A.S. grim, fury. 
Grint, pt. 8. S. ground, pierced 
, through, 1242, 3443. 

Gript, pt. 8. S. gripped, seized, 744. 

GrL4i, adj. S. formidable, fright- 
ful, 1730;— grisiiiche, 4343; — 
grissiliche, 4935 ;— grislich, 1434; 
— gresli, 1687. 

GriJ>, TL S. peace, security, 3891, 
3899 ; gradden hur gri\>, sued for 
peace, tl5I; graunted him gri\y 
granted him peace, 3927. 

Grocching. See Grucching. 

Grom, n. S. groom, man, 1767. 
"Evidently the representative of 
gome and formed from it, as bride- 
groom is from l^rid-guma." — M. 

Grot, n. groat, 4257. "It may 
also mean a thing of no value, from 
8. greot, pulvis."— M. 

Growen, pr. pi. grow^, 1812. 

Gnicche, v. F. to murmur, be un- 
willing ; 2 p. pr. subj. grutche, 
4257 ; imp. *. grucche, 1450; pt. s. 
grucched, 3927 ; pres. part, grocch- 
ing, 271. Oh. 

Grucching, n. S. murmuring, 1461, 

Gnint, pt. pi. groaned, t 388. 

Gryffouns, Greeks, 1961. ' Cf. 
Griffouns in Halliwell. 

Gult, 1 8. injured, 1172. 
See A-gult. 

Gum. See Gome. 

Gun, Gunne. See Ginne. 
Gye, V. F. to guide, lead, govern, 
1105, 2664, t316, t328;— gie, 
t287. Ch. 
Gye, n. F. guide, 2727, 2849. 
Gyled, pp. beguiled, cheated, 689. 

Gynne, n. a contrivance, art, 
1 1135 ; pi ginnes, f 548, f 6^^- 

Hache, n. S. ache, pain, 905 ; — 
hacche, 847 ; pi. baches, 615, 
1575 ; — hacches, 826, 902. " Still 
pronounced aitch in Cheshire. Fide 
Wilbrahaiu's Glossary." — M, 

Digitized by 




Hacches, n. pi, hatches (of a ship), 

2770,2776. Ch. 
Hadden, Hadestow. See Haue. 
Hakemes, n, pi, S. acorns, 1811. 
Hal, adj, all, 323, 371. 

Halde, v. S. to hold, 1304 ; pr, s, 
haldes, 905, 932 ; pr. pi. holden, 
2711 ; pL pi. helden, 946 ; pp. 
holde (bound, beholden), 317 ; 
hold, 4722 ; holde (considered as, 
esteemed), 2833, 3773, 4158 ; hold, 
1355 ; imp. s. hald, 343 ; imp. pL 
haldes, 106. 

Half, n. side, 3971 ; on goddes 
halve, on Gfod's side, in God's name, 

Halp. See Helpes. 

Hampris, pr, a. hampers, impedes, 
troubles, 668 ; pp. hampered, 441 ; 
hampred, 4694 ; imp. pi. hampres, 
1115. Cf. Su.'Groth. ktenma, Dan. 
hemme, to hem in. 

Han. See Haue. 

Hange, pp, hung, 5479. [Better 
hanged. Cf. Honget.] 

Hap, n. chance, fortune, 414, 
440, 1794, 1798;— happ, 806 j 
— happe, 32 ; pt. happes, 1815, 
1840, 1885, &c.;— vp happe (per- 
haps), 2722. Icel. happ. W. hap. 

Happe, V. F. to get, receive, light 
on, 3340. Cf. f . happer, to seize. 

Happili, adv. haply, by chance, 
2774, 4130 ;-happiliche (luckUy), 

Hard, adj. used substantively to 
denote danger or hardship, 435 ; — 
harde, 472, 2339 ; — as harde as 
(as fast as), 1082, 1857; cf. 1286. 

Hardien, vh, to make hard, 

embolden, 1156. 
Hardnesse,^. hardship, 1816. Ch. 
Harmes, n. pi. sorrows, 453. 
Hannles, adj, unharmed, 1671. 
Harneis, n, harness, body-armour, 

horse - trappings, 1582 ; — barneys, 
2349,4187,4281. Ch. 

Has, /or As, 1857. 

Has, /or Hast, 606. 

Haselnotes, n. pi, hazel-nuts, 181 1. 

Hastely, adv, quickly, soon, 58, 
233, 1566 ; — hasteli, 597, 1051 ; 

— hastilyche, 2571; comp. hastlier 
(sooner), 4160. 

Hastou, Hastow, hast thou. See 

Haue, V. to have, 72 ; \ p, pr. s. 

haue, 519 ; 2 ». pr. s. hastou (hast 

thou). 1545; hastow. 1005, 1556; 

has, 606 ; 3 p. pr. s. haf , 477, &c. ; 

has, 475; 2 p. pr. pL ban, 4093; 

haue, 1030; ban, 361 ; 2 p. 

pt. s. hadestow (nadst thou), 1816; 

pt. s. had, 369 ; pt. pi. hadden, 

1014; hadde, 1289; imp. t. a, 

1177; imp. pi. haueb, 3339; 2/». 

pr. 8. subj, haue, 4255. 

Hautene, adj, F. haughty, proud, 
3982; — hautevn, 472, 529, 707, 
729 ; (loud), 2187. 

Hawes, n. pi. haws, berries, 1811. 

Hed, pt. pi, hid, 2848 ; — hedde, 
1793 ; pp. hed, 688. 

Heie, adj. high, 749 ; — hei^, 
103; — heijh, 569, 1156; — hcye, 
252; — hi^e, 5372; adv, hye^, 
707 ; comp. herre, 529, 1178 ; superL 
hei^est, 2907. Heie gates, high- 
ways, 1691 ; heiywaye, 1846. On 
hei}^, 2020. liie^ midniU, 2066. 
Hei^e dese, high dais, 4011. 

Heili, adv, highly, greatly, often 
joined to the pL herie, as, herbe- 
den lieili, 3461 ; — heriend heilicne, 
1584 ; -* heriede bi^liclie, 1798 ; 

— to herien bei^li, 1875; — bilich 
herie, 1 703 ; — heijli (earnestly), 
5495 ;— heijeliche, 2336 ; — beiieli, 

Hei^ vs, vh. refl. See Hije. 

Hei^ing, n, hurrying, fast travel- 
ling, 2440. 
Hei^resse, n. pi, S. hairs, i. e. hair- 

Digitized by 




cloths (by way of penance), 4778. 

Cf. P. PI. A. V. 48. The spelling 

heitresae for heiyes b like that of 

bodiesse for bodies, 3767, and lordesse 

for lordes^ 4539. A.S. hanra, a 

hair- doth. 
Hel, n. S. a hill, 2233, 2318; pi. 

helles, 2432. 
Held, n.^.(pui for Eld), age, 

Helden. See Halde. 
Hele, V. S. to hide, conceal, 960, 

4206 J 2 /?. #. pr. subj, hele |jou, 

945. Ch. 
Hcle,t?. S. to heal, 595 ; pp. heled, 

1329, 1575. 
Hele, n. S. health, 597, 1375. Ch. 
Helpes, imp. pi S. help ye, 2378; 

helped 4409 ; pi. 9. halp, 2206 ; 

pp. holpen, 3611; holpe, 4012, 

4149 ; holp, 4494. 
HelpHch, adj. helpful, f 187. 
Hem, pron. dat. to them, 169 ; 

ace. them, passim. Hemself (them- 
selves), 812, &c. 
Hendo, v. to end, 540. 
Hende, w. end, 2333, 4178. 
Hende, adj. courteous, gentle, 1 06, 

184, 348, 362, t 665, &c. ;--hend, 

165, 1103. O.N. hendt, adapted ; 

Dan. and Sw. hdndig. 
Hende, adv. at hand, near, 278, 

Hendeli, adv. courteously, gently, 

1917, 4311 ; — hendely. 269, 523, 

1 187, 1 248 ;-hendli, 2469, 3032; 

— hendly, 2785. 
Heng, pi. 8, hung, 734. 
Henne, adw hence, 1746, 2553 ; 

hennes, 329. Ch. 
Hennes-forJ), henceforth, 1050. 
Hent, V. S. to take, catch, get, 
2394; 1 s. hent, 414; 2^. 
or. 8. hentest, 2787 ; pr. s. hentes, 
1 527 ; hentis, 907 ; 1 p- pt* «• bent, 
615 ; pt. 8. hent, 150, 1010, 2754, 
&c.; pt. pi. hcnten, 4023; hent, 

2420. Hentes vp (catches up), 

1896 ; hent vp (caught up), 3948. 
Hepus, n. pi. hips, berries, 1811. 
Her, conj. ere, 1516. See Er. 
Herande, Herend. See Erand. 
Herberwed, pp. harboured, lodged, 

1626. Ch. 
Herberes, n. pi. garden-plots, 

1768. See P. PI. Crede, 166. 
Herde, n. S. host, army, 1120. 
Revden, pt. pi. heard, 1298. 
B-ere, 2)er8. pron. her, 1716, &c.; 

— hire, 150, &c ; — hir, 673, &c. ; 

— hure, 2915. The spelling hire w 
the commonest ; hure occurs btU 
once : here is used ofi\\t sun, 3073. 

Here, Hire, pass. pron. her. See 
page 95. 

Here,^stf. pron. their, 14, 73, &c 

Here-bi-fore, heretofore, 3043, 

Herende. See Erande. 

Heres, 2 p. imp. pi. hear ye, 
2291, 2624. Cf. Ilerden. 

Herien, v. S. to praise, 1875 ; 
herie, 5208, 1 703 ; pt. pi heriede, 
1798; herijeden, 3461; pp. be- 
rimed, 4484, 5372; heried, 4577, 
t 536 ; pres. part, heriend, 1584. 
Ch. See Heili. 

Heried, p#. s. S. harried, harrowed, 
3725. An allusion to "The Har- 
rowing of Hell." 

Herken, v. S. to hearken, 213; 2 p. 
imp. pi herkenes, 2248, 2617. 

Hert, n. S. a hart, 2569. 

Herted, pp. encouraged, 3417. 

Herre. See Heie. 

Hertily, adv. heartily, 97, 102 ;— 
hertly, 3324. 

Herto, adv. hitherto, 4656. 

Hese, n. ease, 1638, 3208. 

Hest, n. S. command, 468, 495, 
2137, 2146, &c. ;— heste, 1 160. 
A.S. hJs. 

Digitized by 




Hete,v. S. to bid, tell, 1021 ; Ip, 

pr. t. hete, 572, 1002, 1626 ; pt. s. 

1082, 2016, 2089; hett, t543; 

imp.pL hete, 4159. Sm also Hote, 

Hetterly, adv, violently, angrily, 

150, 886, 1243j-hetterli, 2756. 

Cf. A.S. AJiol, hot, furious ; Sw. 

Aelta, heat ; O.N. heiir, hot, angry. 

See Gawayne and the Qrene Knhf* 
Heue vp, r. to heave up, 348. 
Hewe, n, S. hue, 3502, 3572. 
Hewen,j9/?. hewn, 3616. 
Hi, they, f 231. 
Hideu, 17. S. to hide, 4697 ; — hude, 

2743. And see Hed. 
Hider, adv, hither, 2277. 

Hider-to, hitherto, up to the pre- 
sent time, 3510. 

Hidous, adj, hideous, 3177, 3201, 

Hidus, w. pi. hides, 3201. 

Hight iSeeHijt. 

Him, referring to day, 2993. 

Hir, Hire. See Here. 

Hirne, n, S. a corner, 3201 ; — 
hume, 688. Ch. 

Hirt, pt, 8. hurt, 3607. 

niB, put for la, 3836. 

Hise, po83, pron. pi. liis, 4115. 

Hit, it, 198, 470, &c. 

Hije, V. S. to hasten, haste, 1082, 
1286, 2146, 3454, 4162, 5258; 
hei3 us, 1746 ; hi^e hire, 1969 ; hi;e 
me, 5196; used as transit, v6. to 
make to haste, 1482 ; pt. s. hised, 
1261, 2177; pt. pL hi^ed, 1123; 
hi^ed hem, 1940; hei3den, 2280; 
he3eden, 2285 ; hie^eden, 2878 ; 
hi^eden. 4546; imp. pi. hi^es, 
4486 J hiaes 20u, 1187 ; heije jou, 

Hi3t, 1 p. pr, 8. am called, 70 ; pt. 
s. hijt (was called), 2838, 2918; 
high?, t23,t34; hyght,t52,tll9, 
1 133 ; pt. pi. hijten, 4775 ; jap. 
hote, hoteu. See Hote. Cf, A-hi^t. 

Hi^t, promised. See Hote. 

Ho, pron, who, 188, 4919 ; pH. 

ho, 2733. Ho-so (whoso), 1286, 

4519 ; hoo-so, 2135. 

Hok, n. S. oak, 1793. See Ok. 

Hoi, adj, S. whole, sound, 1056, 

1566, 1655,3522. 
Holde, n, S. a fortress, place of 

strength, 2836, f 257 ; — hold 

(prison), 4573; pi. holdes, 5472, 


Holde, Holden. See Halde. 

Holde, adj. S. faithful, true, 2833, 

Holle, adj. whole, complete, "f521. 
Holli, adv. wholly, 1106; — hol- 

lich, +117;— holiiche, 945, 974; 

— holly, 495, 531, 534, f 327. 
Holpe, Holpen. See Helpes. 
Holw, adj. hollow, 1793. 
Hom-kome, n. home-coming, 807. 
Homward, homeward, 2477, 2487. 

Hond-werk, n. handiwork, crea- 
tures, 929. 

Honget, pp. hung, 2020 ; — thong- 
ed, 2086. 

Hony, n. S. honey (as a term of 
endearment), 1655. 

Hope, 1 p. pr. 8. I believe, think, 
1344, m^',pt.pL hopeden, 4308. 

Hordere, n. order, 4461. 

Hors, n. pi. horses, 1940, 4187, 

4281, 4820. Hors charge (horses' 

load), 388. 
Hote, 1 p, pr. 8. I tell, 1123, 

1384, 4989 ; imp. s. hote, 4162 ; 1 

p. pt. s. hi^t (promised), 1030 ; pt. s. 

nnt (promised), 58; het (called), 

621 ; pp, hoten (called), 405, f 13 ; 

hote, 3497, 1 172, f 364. See also 

Hete, Hijt. 
Hotend, pre8. part, hooting, 

shouting, 2387. See Hoot in 

H0U3, adv. how, 4265 ; — hov, 

97, 98, 225. 

Digitized by 




Houes, 723. See the note. 

Hade, v, S. to hide, 2743. Cf. 
Hiden, Hed. , - 

Hue, she, t34/t36, t39. 

Hulde, r. to flay, take oflf the 
covering or hide, 1708 ; 1 p. pi 
imp. hulde, 2587. "From the 
same root proceeds the modern 
yerb io hull, to take off the hull or 
husk. It corresponds to the Goth. 
and'huljan, Lu. x. 22. Hence also 
A.S. hyldere, a butcher.** — M. 

Hules, j9r. 8. fondles, lulls, hushes, 

97. See Hull in Wedgwood. 
Hupes, w. pi, hips, f 190. 

Hur, her, f 185; (their), f 4, t65. 

See Here. 
Hure, V, S. to hear, 3270. 
Hume. See Hime. 
Hurtel, V. F. to strike together, 

meet t^ogether with a shock, 5013. 

See the note. Ch. 

Hyej. See Heie. 

I-, Y-, a prefix, used (in these 
poems) chiefly in past participles, 
where it represents the A.S. ge- ; 
or as an aboreviation for t», as in 
i'/ere^ y-fere, i-liue, 

\The past participles are here collected 
for convenience,'] 

I-armed, armed, f 485. 

Ihene, been, f 1023. 

I-bent, bent, f 181. 

I-bet, bettered, remedied, 4613. 

Ibore, bom, 1 849. 

Ibome, bora, f 642. 

Ichaped. See I-schapen. 

I-charged, loaded, 2499. 

I-clofed, clothed, 2416. 

I-come, carved, t ^69. 

I-di^t, prepared, 3918. 

I-fed, fed, 768. 

Ifenked, vanquished, f 117. 

Igett, begotten (or, perhaps^ 

bom), t 633. 
Igraue, graven, f 830. 
Igrett, greeted, worshipped, f 731. 
I-herd, heard, f 656. 
I-holde, held, f 598. 
I-horsed, mounted, 1950. 
I-kid, known, renowned, f 453. 
Haide, laid, f 203. 
I-leng|>ed, lengthened, 1040. 
Imaked, made, f 630. 
I-pai^ted, painted, 1 733. 
I-proued, proved, 4661. 
I-putt, put, t 845. 
I-quelled, killed, 1166. 
I-schapen, shaped, 2634 ; — i- 

schape, f 191» t 628 ; — ischaped, 

tl86; — ishape, t732. 
I-seie, seen, 1874. 
I-sett, set, t 339, f 618, f 728. 
I-slayne, slain, 3908. 

I-told, told, 1493. 
\^See also under Y-.] 

Iced, pt, pi, issued, 3789. See 
Isch in Jamieson. 

Ich, I, 548, 698, 624, &c. 

Icham, {for Ich am), I am, 594, 
1743, 3951. 

Ich, each, 332, 510. See Eche. 

I-fere, together, 2180, 2523, t340. 
See Infere. 

Iknowe, r. to know, f 607. [The 
only instance of an infinitive pre- 
ceded by i-.] 

Ilkjjprow. S. same ; dlmod always 
preceded by )>at. Hence, Jbat ilk = 
that same, that very, 281, 688. 

2878 ; used absolutely (that verr 
thing, that very time), 631, 629, 
1041, &c. Also, J»is ilk, 2263; 

fat ilk selue (that ?eiT same), 4106. 
Spelt bat ilke, 1041; bat ilche, 
t448. Ch. 

Digitized by 




I-liue, in life, L e. alive, 1690. 
Imped, set, lit engrafted, f 616. 
Incle, V, to give an inkling of, to 

hint, 1 616. 
In-fere, together, 2984-, 3300, 

3342. C/. I-fere, Y-fere, Fere. 
Inkest, sup, adj, darkest, blackest, 

1 1061. ITAe ward is a Utile doubt- 

Inne, n. an inn, lodging, 1485, 

1624, 1574, &c. 
Inned, pf. s. lodged, 2479; pp, 

1638. Wycl. Gloss, 
I-now, adv, enongh, 483, 1121 ; 

i-nov, 100; i-nou^, 714; i-nouie, 

1673; y-now, 836; y-noo^, 118. 

Toly, adj, F. jolly, i e. pleasant, 

pretty, 3479. 
loyned, pp, adjoined, adjoining, 

Im, adj, iron, 3232. Cf. Yren. 

Is, put for His, 8, 69, 181, &c. 

Both spellings occur in 1. 4369. 
It-selue, itself, 3116. 
luste, V. to joust, 1237. P. PI. 

lustislich, adv. justly, exactly, 
closely, 1724; — iustili, 2596 ; — 
iustly, 751. 

lumes, n,pl, journeys, 4286. 

I-wisse, adv, verily, truly, 697, 

739, 960, &c. ; — i-wis, 3397. See 

Y-wisse. Ch. 

\Tor some words beginning with ka, 

ko, ku, see under C.] 
Kairus, go ye, 1 623. See Caire. 
Kan. See Can. 
Kares, imp, pi, be ye sad, be 

anxious, f 563. Cf. Carestow. 
Karp, Karpes. See Carpen. 
Kast, sb, design, 1 1^6. Ch. 
Kastyng, ah, casting, 942. 
Kau^t. See Cacche. 

Kaysere, n, pi, Caesars, emperors, 

Kechene. See Kichen. 

Ked, adj, renowned, famous, 
t556. SeeKx^. [In P. PL A. xi. 
56, MS. U has kedde where MS. 

Kempe, n. S. knight, champion, 
4029 ; — kerap, 3746 ; pi, kempes, 
3352. A.S. cempa. Icel. kempa. 

Ken, n, kindred. See Kin. 

Ken, n, pi, kine. See Kin. 

Kende. See Kenne, v, intr. 

Kende, adj. natural. See Kinde. 

Kendely. See KindelL 

Kene, adj, keen, eager (eaid of 
thought), 616 ; (cold), 908 ; 
(kisses), 1011 j (knights), 1205. 

Keneli, adv, sharply, eagerly, 
shrilly, 4843 ; — kencly, 152, 859 ; 
— kenly, 37, ?174 ; — kenliche, 
2532. / 

Kenne, r. m to inform, shew, in- 
struct, charge, 1665 ; pt. s. kenned, 
2212, 5205; pt. pi. kenned, 343; 
imp, pi. kennes, 591. " Kenne, or 
teche. Doceo." Prompt. Parv. 

Kenne, v. intr. to know, t 623 ; 
pt. 8, kende, 1 193 ; pt, pi, kende, 
1 367. Ch. " Kennyn, or knowyn. 
Agnosco." Prompt. Parv. 

Kepen, v, S. to keep, take care 
of, 8 ; — kepe, 66, 123 ; 1 ». #. pr. 
kepe = I care, intend, wisn, 993 ; 
kepe = I tend, 244 ; kepe = I re- 
gard, desire, 4738 ; pt. s. keped, 
171; pt. pi. keped, 187; kepten, 
3645 ; pp. kepua, 5 ; ceput, 4094. 

Kemeles, n. pi. battlements, 
2858 ; — coumales, f 295. Ch. 
Rom. Rose, 4195. P. PI. A. vL 
78. 0. F. crenels, 

Kesse, v. S. to kiss, 5045 ; pt. a, 
kest, 63, 1265, 1570, 3205 ; keste, 
1587, 1613, 4015; kessed, 1833; 
kessede, 4239 ; kust, 675 ; pt. pi. 
keste, 3100; kest, 2424 ; pp. kest, 
859 ; pres.part, kessing, 1396. Ch. 

Kessing, n, kissing, 1053, 3076, 

Digitized by 




3474;— kessen^, 3fi59. [Always 
joined with clipping.] 
Kete, adj. bold, fierce (?), or quick, 
smart (P), 330, 3793. A rare word, 
of which the following are instances. 
We find, *Sn a poem of the 13th 
century : — 
Pikede beth the shete, 
And wormes ther beth kete 
To don the soule tene. 

Sawe ofSeint Bede, MS. 
Digby 8G, f. 127 A."— M. 
We also find mention of " a king 
kete** Rel. Ant. ii. 9 ; and the 
beams of the sun are called "kete** 
in Wright's Popular Treatises on 
Science, p. 138, 1. 262 of the Eng- 
lish fragment. Cf. also " Clerkes 
and kete men," P. PI. A. xi. 56, 
where kid and kedde are other read- 
ings. '* In our text, the most 
obvious etymology seems to be 
the Teut. kut, Belg. kuyt, audax, 
ferox." — M. Coleridge suggested 
O. N. katr^ glad ; and the Sw. 
katiffhedt boldness, may also be 
worth considering. Or again, as 
we find the forms moulder and 
smoulder^ knap and snap^ we may 
connect it with the O. E. skeet, 
O.N. skjottr, sharp, quick, which 
is connected with to shoot and to 
skate. This would give the sense 
sharp, quick, or smarts which seems 
not inappropriate. See KeUi. 
Ketli, ado, quickly, smartly (?), 
3023; — ketly, 1986, 2105. See 

Keffe. See Kijjen. 

Keuer, v. tr. F. to make to recover, 
to heal, 635; — keuere, 1621; — 
kuuere,to attain to, 128;— keueren 
him gate = to procure or make for 
himself a passage, f 904 ; pt. s. 
cuuerede (recovered), 2824 ; pt. pi. 
keuered hem = obtained for them- 
selves, t 235 ; also (2) keuer, v. 
intr. to recover, become whole, 
1488 ; pt, s. keuered, made good 
his retreat, retreated, 3625 ; pt. pi. 
keuered, 3647 ; cf. vp-keuerede, 
2759 ; pp, keuered, procured, made 

ready (unless it weans covered), 
4460. [Connected with F. re- 
couvrer, Lat. recuperare.'] 

Keuered^ pt. 8. covered, 3034 ; 
pp. keuered {unless it is from the 
preceding), 4450. [Connected with 
F. couvrir, Lat. cooperire.'] See 

Kichen, n. kitchen, 2171 ; — 
kychene, 1707 ; — kechene, 1681. 

Kid, pt. t. and pp. of Kifen, q. v. 
Also, as adj. renowned, famous, far- 
known, til, tl72, t310, t597; 
— kud, 51, 111, 114, 501, 512, 
713, &c. ; ked, 1 556 ; sup. kuddest, 
631, 3047, 4231 ; in the first of 
which it simply means best. " It is 
very evident, that the adj. and pp. 
of kibe are one and the same 
word.^'— M. 

Elin, n. S. kindred, 684 ; — ken, 
513, 722;— kun, 110. 

Kin, n. pi. kine, 480, 503; — 
ken, 6;— kyn, 244. 

Kinde, adj. natural, related, 
spoken of that which is conferred 
by kindred or acquired by birth, 
128, 3138, 3474, 4098 ; — kynde, 
241 ; — kende, 513 ; — kyn, 364. 

Kinde, w. S. nature, kindred, 
birth, 107, 109, 821, 3136 ; — 
kynde, 1445, 2506 ; bi kinde = by 
birth, 1425 ; bi kynde, 507. 

Kindeli, adv. by nature, kindly, 
in an accustomed manner, 1265, 
1570; — kindely. 111, 522; — 
kindliche, 1697 ; — kindeliche, 
1613; — kyndely, 14; — kynde- 
liche, 1396; — kendeli, 4867; — 
kendely, 1110. 

Kinghod, n. S. kingly office, 4059. 

King-riche, w. S. kingdom, 2127. 

Kinhed, n. S. kindness, such as 

one relation shews to another, 

Kinnesman, n. S. kinsman, 365. 

[Probably an error for Thomasin ; 

see note.] 

Kinrade, n. S. kindred, 522. 

Digitized by 




KiJ), n, S. country, 4254, 4511, 
t241, t298; —kith, f^S, f 65, 

Kifen, v. S. to cause to know, to 
make known, shew, declare, t ^ 62 ; 
— kife, 1184, 2126, 2986, 4086, 
t286; — kithe, t655 ; — kufe, 
1680 ; — ke|>J>e, 4964 ; 2 p. s. pr. 
ku|>est, 603; kifes, 4515, t509; 
pr s. ki|>es, t 298, f 529 ; kithes, 
t716, t783; pt. #. kudde, 231; 
kid, t222, t842; pL pi. kidden, 
2301, 4526 ; kudden, 1223 ; ki|)ed, 
5287 ; kubbed, 1011 ; imp, s. kibe, 
626 ; pp. kid, 1 169 ; kyd, 321, 
A.S. cy%an. [In I. 2301, kidden 
= shewed how to ratAer than knew 
how to.] 

Kleped. See Clepe. 

Knaue, n. S. a boy, 2394. Ch. 

Knightweede, n, S. knight's cloth- 
ing, armour, f 544. 

Knoulecheden, pt ^pl. acknow- 
ledged, 4782. 

Knowen, v. S. to know, 577 ; 2 
p. s. pr. knowes, 1174 ; knowestow 
(knowest thou), 5365 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 
knowen, 594 ; 2 p. *. pt. knew, 
3182 ; pt. pi. kneu, 2209 ; pp, 
knowe, 726. Ch. 

Kolieres, n. pi. colliers, 2523 ; 

— choliers, 2520. 
Komaundment, n. commandment, 

Kome. See Com. 

Konichauns, n. F. cognisance, 

badge, 3569. P. PI Crede, 185. 
Konyng. See Conyng. 
Kontre, Kontrey. See Cuntre. 
Koraious. See Coraious. 

Kortesie, n. F. courtesy, 3926 ; 

— kurtejsie, 501. 
Kortesliche. See Curtesliche. 
Kosses, n. pi. kisses, 1011. 

Kouchid him, laid him down, 

Koueyne. See Couyne. 

Koure, v. to cower, crouch down, 
kneel, 1 6 5 8 . See Couren. 

Kowden. See Can. 

Krepe of, creep out of, 3084. See 

Kud. See Kid, Kifen. 

Kun. See Kin. 

Kunne. See Can. 

Kuntenaunce. See Contenaunce. 

Kunteyned, ^f. a. demeaned him- 
self, 3301. Seie Contenaunce. 
Kurteyslyche. See Curtesliche. 
Kust. ^^See Kesse. 

Kube, Ku))e8t, Ku)>)>ed. See 

Kuffes, n. pi. S. manners, habits, 

Kuuere, (1) v. F. to cover, 1037 ; 

pt. 8. and pp. keuered, q. v. 
Kuuere, (2) v. F. to attain to, 

succeed, 128. See Keuer. 
Kyrke, w. church, 4086. 

Lac, V. S. to lack, be without, 453. 
[Sir F. Madden suggests to read 
lal, dismiss : I think lac may stand.] 

Laced, 2?f. 8. laced up, 1736. 

Lachen, v., S. to catch, receive, 
take, acquire, embrace, t 4, f 199 ; 
lache, 1 123, f 214 ; pr. s. lacchis, 
4525 ; imp. s, lacche, 666 ; pt. s. 
Iau3t, 1234, 2237, 4708; lau;t 
lond (landed), 2761 ; laugbt leue 
(took leave), t250; lau3t vp 
(caught up), 2308 ; lau^t out (drew 
out), 1244; pt. pL laujten leue, 
5413; laujt leue, 5087, 5201; 
lachte (they embraced, greeted, i.e. 
the Phocians and their allies), 
1 427 ; pp. Iau3t, 671 ; lauht, f 161. 
A.S. laccaUf ffelaccan, whence E. 

Ladde, pt. 8. led, 1609, 2618 ; pt 
pi. ladden, 1226, t 20 ; ladde, 
4292; lad, 459 ; ledden (governed), 

Digitized by 




Lafte. See Leue (2). 

Laike. See Layk. 

Lang, long, 4130. 

Langes. See Long. 

Langour, n, F. languishing, faint- 
ness, pain, 918, 986, f 245 ; — 
langor, 869 ; — lanffure, 737 ; pL 
langoures, 1034. Ch. 

Langured, pp, F. pined, lan- 

■ guished, 983. 

Lappen, v. S. to lap, wrap, 1712; 

lappe, 2576 ; pi. 8. lapped, 1908 ; 

pp, lapped, 740, 2153, 2246. 

Laske, v, F. to relax, slacken; 
kence, to shorten, 670 ; lask it ( = 
lask it, relax it, assuage it), 950. 
Cr. O.F. lascher; So. lascAe (lazy); 
E. lajTi slack; Sw. Idska-diyck 
(cooling-draught); Sw. sloka^ to 
droop, «c. uf. Lask, sb. in HalU- 

Lasse, adj. comp. lees, 1079, 1490, 
2414, &c. Ch. 

Last, conj. lest, 641, 953, 297L 

Last, pp. lasted, endured, 1281 ; 
pres. pari, lastend (enduring, 
strong), 1736. 

Late, V. S. to let, permit, 2680 ; 
2 p. s, imp. late, 2336, 2355 ;Zp.s. 
pr. 8ubj. late, 2581; 2 />. pi. pr, 
8ubj. late, 985 ; — late me wor|;, 
2355, 3597; cf. tll86. See Lete. 

Lau^eden, pt. pi. laughed, 1784. 

Lau^t. See Lachen. 

Launced, pt. 8. launched, i e. 
leapt, 2755. Cj: F. se lancer, and 
see Lafu in Jamieson. 

Launde, w. a lawn, or open space 
in a wood, f 520, f 710. Ch. 

Layk, sb. a " lark," a game, play, 
678, 1784;-.laike, 3110. Sw. lek. 

Layke, v. to play, 1021 ; pt. a. 
layked, 1026 ; layked him, 31, 
1411; pi. pi. laykeden, 3110; 
pres. part, layking, 699. 

Layne, v. to conceal, act falsely, 
906, 918, 1309. O. N. leyna. 

Leame. See Leme. 

Lebard, n. F. leopard, 2935 ; — 

lybard, 2896 ; pi. lebardes, 2874, 
Leche, n. S. a physician, 576, 

1032 ; pi. leches, 1328. Ch. 
Ledden. See Ladde. 
Ledes. See Lud. 

Lederes, geii. sing, leader's, pro- 
vost's, 2303. 

Leef, Leefe, adj. See Leue. 

Leef, leave we, 1836. See Leue. 

Leese, Leeue. See Lese, Leue. 

Lef; adj. lief, dear, 1879, 4372 ; 
(glad), 517 ; as sb. (dear one, the 
dear one), 2314, 1645 ; lef pinkes 
(seems dear, i. e. pleases), 384 ; 
c/. leefe thought (pleased), t60; 
— leefe, f 774; — leef, 1839;^ 
leue, 341, 666, 887, 1183, 1 847 ;— 
leeue, f 226 ; sup. leuest, 3213. Ch. 

Leflich, adj. trustful, t 427 ; — 

leeflich (trusty), t 139. A. S. 

leq/ltc, lovely, faithful. C/: Leue. 
Lege, adj. F. liege, 1174, 2663, 

Legge, 17. S. to lay, 3234; pp. 

leide, 1448. Ch. 
Leie, j^t. pi. See Ligge. 

Lei, adj. F. loyal, leal, true, just, 
5119; pL lele, 1312, 4158; sup. 
Idlest, 4809. 

Lelen, v. to make leal, sanction, 

authorize, 5284. 
Lelli, adv. F. loyally, leally, truly, 

687, 1281, 1807 ; — lelly, 985. 

989;— lelUche, 117, 999;— lellyche, 

357;— lelich, f 64 ; sup. leliest, 592. 

[/if occurs more than 30 times.'] 
Leme, n. a limb, 1736. 
Leme, n. gleam, light, 1 774 ; — 

leame, f 1078. Ch. 
Lemman, n. S. (lief-man), love, 

sweetheart, 663, 666, 695, 717, 

&c. [Used of both sexes."] Ch. 

Lende, v. to tarry, stay, 1466. 
See Leind in Jamieson. Cf. Lengen. 

Digitized by 




Lene, 3 p, s. imp. grant, impart, 
give, bestow, afford, 327 ; 2 «. *. 
i/np, 4398 ; pt. s. lente, 1233 ; lent, 
885; pt. pi. lent, 22; pp. lend, 
4578. Ch. 

Leugen, v, S. to tarry, stay, re- 
main lone, dwell, t 4r4 ; lenge, 
5421, 5538; leng, f 455, f 758; 
pr, s. lenges, 843, 5536; lengef, 
2070 ; 2 o. pL pr. lengen, fl;pt. 
s. lenged, 2t$42; pL pL lengedi 
2205, 5408, 5462; pp. (be))) 
lenged, 1457 ; (is) lengged, t 196. 
A.S. Ungiaity to prolong. [In 1. 
2680, the MS. can be read leng]/e 
or lengye; read lengye, another form 
of the injinitive.'] 

Lenger, longer, 633, 1113, &c. 

Lengfe, v. S. to lengthen, 957 ; 

mijtwritten lengeK 19 1:4 ; imp. pi. 

leng|?es, 4348 ; ieng|?e>>, 4353 ; pp. 

lengged, 1351, 1549 ; miswritten 

lenge^d or lengeyd, 2315. 
Lep, pt. 8 leapt, 702, 2756. 

Lere, n. S. countenance, features, 

227. k.^.hleor. P. PL 
Leren, v. S. to teach, 4770 ; 1 p. 

pr. lere, 1 325 ; pt. s. lerde, 341 ; 

pp. lered (taught, learaed), "I- 603, 

tll52. A.S.l(^an. 
Lere, v. S. to learn, 119. Ch. 

Lese, n. S. a pasture, 175, 3138, 
3141. See Lease, Leasow, in Halli- 
well ; cf. A.S. Idsu. It is not the 
plural of lea. 

Lese, V. S. to lose, 1258, 1484, 
1645. t 280 ; leeae, f 378 ; pr. pi. 
lesen, f 126 ; imp. s. les, 988 ; imp. 
pi. leses, 3369 ; pt. s. les, 887, 
1234. Ch. 

Lesed, pp. See Lissen. 

Lesten, v. to listen to, 31 ; I p. 
imp. pi. lesten, 3528 ; 2 p. imp. pi. 
lestenes, 1183, 3329 ; listenes, 170, 
1929; lusteneK 384; lesteneK 
4607; lesten, 1439. Ch. 

Lestes. See Listes. 

Lcstej), pr. s. lasts, 5538. 

Leten, v. to forego, let go, leave, 
forsake, 2184 ; Ip.s. pr. lete, 382, 
5465 ; pt. s. let (li^tere of, i. e. 
thought the less of), 2119 ; 1 p. pi. 
imp. let, 3528 ; lettes, 1186 ; 
3 p. pr. tubj. lette, 4144 ; pp. lete 
(left), f 563. As a simple aux- 
iliary vb. it is spelt late, q. v. // 
is common with infinitives in the 
sense to cause ; aw, he let sende, 
2145 ; lete wite, 2171 ; let make, 
5532. See Do. For the phrase, 
lete him worJ>e, f 1186, see note to 
" Werwolf," 3597. 

Leferly, adv. wickedly, evilly, 
1231;— luMi, 2646, 3151; — 
luMy, 2334, 2775. See Li|>er. 

Letrure, n. F. letters, reading, 
tll52. Ch. 

Lette, n. S. stay, hindrance, 1340, 
2685, 475L Ch. 

Lette, V. S. to prevent, hinder, 
1253, 3552, 4258 ; — lett, 2971. 
tl49. Cf. Late, Lete. [It is 
worth noting that this verb^ in the 
sense to permit, is usually spelt 
late ; in the sense to forego, it is 
lete ; in the sense to prevent, it is 
lette.] C/. A.S. ketan, lettan. 

Lettered, pp. learned, instructed, 

Letteres, n. pi. {in sing, signifi' 

cation), a letter, 4842, 4844. 
Leue, V. S. to believe, 708, 4175 ; 

1 p. s. pr. leue, 497, 1032, 4105 ; 

leeue, f 639 ; 2 p. s. pr. leuestow 

(believest thou), 2358; imp. s. 

leue, 1553 ; imp. pi. leue, 1361, 

2071 ; leueth, 6068. Ch. 
Leue, V. S. to leave, 2358 ; jjt. a. 

lafte, 1858 ; pp. leued, 83 ; 1 o. pi. 

imp. leef, 1836 ; 2 p. pi. imp. leues, 

1806. In neuter sense, to remain, 

dwell, left, 1588 ; c/. Lewis. 
Leue, culj. dear. See Lef. 
Leued, pp. leaved, covered with 

leaves, 22, 757. 
Leuer, comp. adv. liefer, rather, 

453, 546, 865, 918, &c. Cf. Lef. 


Digitized by 




Leuere, See liuere. 

Louis, pr. 8. lives, dwells, 525 ; cf, 

left in 1. 1588. See Liuen. 
Leute, n. F. loyalty, fealty, 4838. 

Leye, v. S. to lay ; " leye mi lif," 

2169 J pr. 8. leyes on (lays on), 

Liand, Ligand. See Ligge. 

Libbing. See Liuen. 

Liche, adj, like, 3678, 3698, 

Liche, n. S. body, 1 195. 

Lidene, n. S. speech, f 782 ; — 
ludene, feOl. A,S, lyden. Ch. 

Lift, adj. left (ann), 2961, 5499. 

Ligge, r. to lie, dwell, 2194, 
3062, 1 689 ; lygge, f 1158 ; pr. #. 
ligges, 166 ; lis, 965 ; pr, pi. lyen, 
2266 ; pt. pi. leie, 4:^07; part. pren. 
liand, 2180 ; ligand, 2246. Ck 

Liif, n. life, 957, 961, 994. 

Liken, v. like, 2 p. pi. pr, 5529 ; 
lyken, 162 ; as impers. vb. ( = 
pleases), likes me wel, 450 ; likes 
fe, 957, 1727 ; likes ^ou dere, 
1050 ; pt, liked bim, 28, 678 ; liked 
hire, 2032 ; pres. part, likand 
(pleasing), 1 192 j pp, lyked, 1012. 

Liking, n. S. pleasure, 452, 2023 ; 

— likyng, 869, 1021. Ch. 
Lime, n, S. limb, 1 1121. Ch. 

Lisse, n, S. comfort, happiness, 
631,2828,5228. A.S./m. Dan. 
Use. Ch. 

Lissen, v, to loosen, assuage, 
mitigate, heal, 848 ; — lisse, 631 ; 
pp. hssed, 869 ; lesed, 1577. A.S. 

List, V. impers. pt. a. it pleases, 
1 658 ; pt, s. lust, 1907 ; list, 2600. 
A.S. fystan. 

Listenes. See Lesten. 

Listes, n. ph lists (in the phrase, 

lists of love), 740, 1057 j — lestes, 


Listli, adv. S. sHly, 2742; — 
listl:^, 2355;--hstely, 25. A.a 
listlice, artfully. 

Litel and litel, 950. 

Lif, n. S. a joint, 1724. [It also 
meafu a limb. Ch.] 

Lifer, adj. S. wicked, evil, bad, 
2169 ; — lu|>er, 6240. A.S. /j^r. 

Liuen, v. to live, 5394 ; pr. s. 
leuis, 525 ; pt, pi, liueden, 4803, 
5508 ; pres. part, liuande, 3678 ; 
Uuand, 1690 ; libbing, f 790. 

Liuere, 7i. F. delivery (of blows), 
3822 ;— leuere, 1233. 

List, V. S. to lighten, gladden, 
10. Ch. 

Lijtere, comp, adv. lighter, less, 
2119 ; — liittere, adj, (nimbler, 
lighter), 154. 

Li^teli, adv, lightly, 702 ; — 
liitly, 1244; — li:tli, 1973; coap, 
li3tliere, 1894. 

Lo, lo! 731;— loo, 1208. 

Lof, n. S. love, 430. 

Loged, pp. F. lodged, 1918. 

Loke, V. S. to keep, guard, take 

care of, 1757, 3166, 4770 j imp. #. 

Lome, adv. frequently, often, 

t 321 ; — ilome, f 521. A. S. 

Londe, n, S. land, 2763 ; — lond, 

2761; pi. londes, 1175, 3055. 

Long, v. S. to belong, f 547 ; pr. 

9, longe>, 143 ; longes, 360 ; langes, 

331 ; pt. s. longed, 73, 1147 ; longet, 

2719; ;)/.^/. longede, 2766; pre*. 

part, longyng, f 635. 

Loos. See Los. 

Lorchipe {read lordchipe^, it, S. 
lordship, 3680 ;— lorldschip, 3955. 
iOf. Lorld, Lorlde {_for Lord), 
3404, 3405.] Lordship = lords, 

Digitized by 




Lordesse, n. pi. lords, 4539. Cf, 

Lordinges, n. pi, lords, 1183, 

1206, 3004. 
Lore, w. S. lore, learning, teaching, 

advice, 328, 346, 2070, 2917. Ch. 
Lore, pp, lost, 1360, 1556, 2584 j 

—lorn, 668 ;-lome, 4396. Ch. 
Lorel, n, F. laurel, 2983. 
Lorked, pt 8, lurked, slunk along, 

25 ; pres. paH. lorkinde, 2213. 

Los, 77. F. praise, 1386, 5132 ; — 
loos, 1448, 3973 ; — loose, f 4. 
Lat. laus. Ch. 

Losengeres, n, F. flatterers, 5482. 

LoJ), adj. S. loath ; him lo]) 
l^ouit ( := it seemed loalh to him), 
1255 ; hem \o\> were, 5201. Ch. 

Lojjed, pt pi. loathed, t 335. 

Lojjli, adj. S. loathly, 60 ; — 
loiSelike, t99. Ch. 

Loueliche, adj. S. lovely, 965 ; 
adv. in a lovely mannner, excel- 
lently, 975, 1315. 

Louen, 2 p. pi. pr. love, 162. 

Lourand, pres. part, louring, 2119. 
Do. loeren. P. PI. 

Louwe (hire), v. S. to lower her- 
self, condescend, 708 ; pt. a. lowed, 

Lou^te, V. S. to "bow, make obeis- 
ance, submit, 2900 ; pi. s. louted, 
3485; pt. pi. louted, 3464. A.S. 
AlulaB. Cf, A-louted. Ch. 

Lowed. See Louwe. 

Lud, n. S. a man, 452, 535, 
1001, t231, &c.;— lude, t588; 
— lued, t44; pi. ludes, 390, 525, 
t331; ledes, 195, 1233. Londesand 
lede^y 4001 ; londes and leedes (where 
the MS. has leethes^ with a d^ or 
a is, above it), f 12. On this difficult 
phrase see Sir F. Madden's reply 
to Mr Singer's remarks on Havelok. 

. Cf. also Wedgwood on Lease^ Leet. 
It seems to mean ''lands and 

Uases^^ or ** lands and tenements,** 
as Robert of Brunne uses it fre- 
quently to mean tenements^ renU^ 
or fees. The older form of the 
word is lethe or lithey and it may, 
after all, not be connected in any 
way with ledes^ the plural of lud. 
In 1. 1 12, we surely ought to read 
le^ei or letes. 

Lufsum, adj. S. lovesome, lov- 
able, f 176. 

Lust Bee List. 

Lusteneth. Bee Lesten. 

Luf erli. Bee Leferly. 

Lybard. Bee Lebard. 

Lykame, n. S. body, 227. P. PL 

Lyked. Bee Liken. 

Lyst, n. S. desire, inclination, 

t794. Cb. 
Lysted, j?^. s. desired, f 776. Cf. 

Lyte, adv. S. little, 1 323. 

Maat. Bee Mat. 

Maister,n. F. master, 2735, 1 682 ; 

pi. maistres, 2744. 
Maistres, n. F. mistress, 1016. 

Maistrie, n. F. mastery, victory, 

t 170 ; — maistry, 3341 j — 

maistrye, 3137. Ch. 
Make, n. S. mate, companion, 

1898, 2498, f 249, f 843, &c. ; pi. 

makes, 1757. Ch. 
Makeles, adj. matchless, 1 799. 

Makes, imp. pi. make ye, 4933 ; 
pp. maked, 1951, 4131, 4933 ; mad, 
4876; pres. part, makende, 2985. ^ 

Malencoli, n. F. anger, 4362. 

Malskrid, pt. s. wandered, 416. 
Probably with the sense of be- 
ioilderment ; cf. Maskede in Halli- 
well. Mask in Coleridge's Gloss- 
arial Index, and masquer m Burguy. 
Malskred seems •=- bewildered, 
Alia. Poems t ed. Morris. C. 255. 

Manchipe, n. S. manhood, courage, 
3337 ;-manchip, 2676. 

Digitized by 




Maner, n. manner, kind 

mnoui of /olloicifM), 698, 1155, 

Manerli, adv. in a mannerly way, 

Manbede, n. S. manhood, 431 ; 

— man-hede, 4390 ; — manbed, 

197. Ch. 
Mankynne, n. S. mankind, 143. 

Manly, adv, S. manly, herice, 
fittingly, suitably, 1042,2040; — 
manli, 2690, 3341 ; — manliche, 
2325, 3253; — manlich, f 375. 
"This adverb b often used as a mere 
expletive, merely to fill up the al- 
literation, as maalw hem meJked, 
1276."- M. 

Manly, adj, S. manly, 1424 ; sup. 
manlokest, 3419. 

Manquellere, n, S. mankiller, 
murderer, 993. 

Marche, n, S. boundary, limit of 
territory, territory, f 312, f 1031 ; 
fil. marches, 2214, fU, tl37; ^ 
dou6t marques is written for^ or is 
equivalent to, marches, f 173 ; of. 

Mark, v, F. to inflict by way of 
reprisal, f 497 ; — merken, +284 ; 
pt. 8. marked, t 932. 0. F. 
" marquer, user de repr^sailles.** 
Roq. Cf. the phrase, letters of 

Marques. See Marcbe, 

Marres, jpr. 8. mars, harms, 1 171 ; 
pp. marred (bitterly vexed, mad- 
dened with ohagrm), 438, 664, 
884, 995, 1 1041. 

Marring, n. a harming, injuring, 

Mase, 1 p. pr. 8. am confounded, 
am at a loss, 438 ; pp. mased 
(stupefied), 884. (y. A-mased. 

Massager, n. F. a messenger, 4156 ; 
— messanger, 4204 ; pi. massegeres, 
4251 ; — messageres, 1441 ; — 
messageris, 1382 ; — messagers, 
1465 ; — messangers, 1330 ; — 
messangeres, 1143. 

Mat, acU. F. dejected, faint, 
almost dead, 2441;— maat, 1776. 
DvL.mat. Tr.mat. Q. matt. Cf. 
Span, matar, to kill. Ch. 

Maugre, n. F. ill-will, spite, barm, 
f 932 ; used as an adv. in spite of, 
+ 101, t 680 ; — mawgrey, 3745. 
F. malgre. Ch. 

May, n. S. maiden, 659. Mojso- 
Goth. mawi. Ch. 

Mayne, n. S. a company, host of 
attendants, 416 ; — meyne, 184, 
202, 1199, 1573. G. menge. Moeao- 
(]k)th. managei. 

Mayntene, v. F. to maintain, 
^98 ; — meintene, 3002 ; — mejn- 
tene, 3642 ; imp. pi. meyntenes, 
2676. [i/wimV^Ji meynte, 1098 ] 

Meche£ See Mescbef. 

Mede, n. S. reward, 2135, 4726, 
5355 ; to mede (= by way of re- 
turn, by way of security), 2341 ; to 
medis (=by way of requital on 
«fy part), 3253, P. PI. Ch. 

Mede, adj. meet, fitting, 604. Cf. 
A.S. medeme, 

Meded,^. «. bribed, 4646. 

Medle, v. F. to mingle (in fight), 
1 93 ; pt. s. medled him (was busy), 
2492, 1 170 ; medled, 2326 j pp. 
medled (meddled), f 964. Ch. 
[// occurs also in the shorter for m 
mele (2) q. v.] 

Meken, v. to humble oneself, to 
submit, 2118 ; — meke him, 2104, 
3928 ; 1 p. s. or. meke me, 665 ; 
pt. pi. meked hem, 1276 ; imp. #. 
meke, 3919 ; imp. pi. mekes (quiet, 
silence), 4604. 

Mekeli, adv. S. meekly, 642, 659, 
1480; — mekkeli, 4456; — mek- 
liche, 408 ; — mekeliche, 808. 

Mele (1), V. S. to talk, speak, 
discuss, 621, 4009 ; 2 p. pi. pr. 
mele, 1342 ; pt. s. meled, 4684, 
5204 ; pt. pi. meleden (twittered), 
821. A.S. median, to speak, con- 
verse. {^Observe the distinction be* 
tween this word and the next.'] 

Digitized by 




Mele {2),v, F. to mingle in fight, to 
fiffht.3325; pt.s.meled (assembled), 
1287 ; melled hire (busied herself), 
1709, 1719. O.F. mesler, to meddle, 
mingle, mell. [TAis verb U a 
shortened form ^medle, q. v.] 

Meling, n. S. conversation, 760. 
See Mele (1). 

Meling, n, mingling, 5257 ; hence, 
meiing-while (hour of combat), 
3858. iSfetfMele(2). 

Menden, v, F. to mend, 647 ; 
imp. pL mendes, 845. 

Mene, y. S. to mean, intend, sig- 
nify, tell, 4808 ; \p. s. pt. mente, 
560 ; mennede, 1925 ; pt. s. meut, 
641 ; pL pL mened, 4845 ; pp, 
ment (intended, designed), 1819. 
A.8, manan. Ch. 

Mene, v, S. to bemoan oneself, 
mourn, 493 ; pt. s. mened, 940 ; pp. 
mened, 561, 1490. A.S. mdenan, 

Menge, v. S. to tell, speak, men- 
tion, 1422; — mengge, 449; — 
meng, 613 ; — minge, 1624, 1925, 
1937, 4327, 5032, &c. ; — munge, 
831, 1441, 1635, 2616, 2735,4767 ; 
— myng, 1404 ; pr, s, minges, 
1067, t 839 ; 2 p. pi, pr. mingeb, 
1876 i I p.s. pt. munged, 4863 ; 
pt. 8. munged, 833 ; pt. pi. munged, 
2999 ; minged, 3711 ; m.vnged, 
1335 ; pp. munged, 4847 ; minged, 
2844 ; 1 p. pi. imp. munge, 3097 ; 
menge, 794 ; myng, f 45. A.S. 

Mennes, gen. pi. men's, 6 ; — 

mennis, 480. 
Mensk, n. S. honour, worship 

{lit. humanity), 1257, 2t)28, 3900, 

5527; — menske, 313, 2050. Cf. 

F. PI. Crede, SI. O.S. menniski. 
Mensk, v. to honour, 4815 ; — 

menske, 4834 ; jd^. menskked, 5132. 

Menskful, adj. honourable, wor- 
shipful, 202, 242, 405, 431, 508, 
*c. ; — menskfull, f 555 ; gup. 
menskfulles[t], 1435. 

Menskfully, adv. honourably, woi^ 


shfpfully, 1142 ; — menskfulli. 
4992, 5048. 

Menskliche, adv. honourably, 
with worship, -|-173. Cf the pre- 

Menstracie, n. F. minstrelsy, 
1155, 1619, 3812;— menstracye, 
1951; — minstracie, 5011. 

Merciabul, adj. F. merciful, 4406, 
5131; — merciabule, 6146 ; — 
mercyabul, 5118. 

Merie, adj. S. pi 1148, 1880 ; — 
mcrye, 821 ; — miric, 1905, f 821 ; 
— murie, 2853 ; — muri (houndes), 
2192 ; sup. muriest, 4926. 

Merken. See Mark. 

Merfe, n. S. mirth, 823, 2017 ; 
— murK 1634. 

Meschef, n. F. mischief, misfor- 
tune, sorrow, 1044, 1247, 1362, 
3096; — mechef, 5131. 

Mest, sup. adj. most, chief, 2735; 
adv. cliiefly, above all, 1433, 4729. 

Mesurabul, adj. F. moderate, 333. 
P. PL 

Mete, V. S. to meet, 815 ; iinp. 
pi. mete|>, 3338. 

Mete, V. S. to dream, 658, 862 ; 
pt. s. mette, 2869; mett, f 726, 
tll42 ; met, t821 ; used re/exively, 
hire mette, 2920, 5497. Ch. 

Meting, n. S. a dream, 900 ; — 
metyne, 698, 706, 716, 733, t 839, 
&c. Ch. 

Meued, pi. 8. moved, 4285; — 
meeued, f 204 ; pt. pi. meuede. 
4330. Ch. 

Meuwe, n. F. a mew, i. e. a cage, 

prison, 3336. Ch. 
Miche, a^?/. S. great, much, 117, 

1362, 3555 ; — mich, f 600, f 932 ; 

— moch, 313 ; — moche, 202, 891, 

1073 ; — muche, 2374. Cf. Mo. 

Michel, adv. S. greatly, very, very 
much, 4305 ; — mochel, 367, 900, 
1044, 1406, 1490, 2039 ; — 
muchel, 850. Ful mochel (very 

Digitized by 




much), 4095; to mochel «(too 

much), 1747. See Mo. 
Midde,2^ep. with, 5009; — mide, 

2133 ;-myd, 3143. A,S.mid, 
Midesomer, n. midsummer, 1464. 

Middel-erbe,n. S. the earth, world, 

Mildoliche, adv, S. mildly, 1898. 

Mile-wei, n, a mile-way, used fo 
denote a very short space of time, 
1678. Cf. Ch. Shipm. Ta. 276. 

Minge, Mingea, Minged. See 

^lires, n. ph miry places, 3507 ; 

ef. 2619. 
Mine. See Merie. 
Misdone, v, tr, S. to wrong, harm, 

2581 ; pt. pL misdede, 2548 ; intr. 

2 p. pi. pr. roisdon (do amiss), 

Misdrede 30W, imp, pi. fear, 1567. 

Misferde, pt. pi. fared amiss, 
2999 ; pp. misfaren, 1359 ; misfare, 

Mis-gilt, n. S. offence, fault, 2118, 
3919, 4792 ; — mis-gelt, 3996, 
4397 ; — mis-gelt, 1541 ; — misse- 
gilt, 2104. 

Mislikede me, pt. s. impers. mis- 
liked me, 2039. 

Misproude, adj. S. pi. haughty, 
1 312 ; — misseproude, 2944. 

Missaide, 1 p. pt. a. reproved, 

Misse, n. S. a fault, error, offence, 
532; hence mysse, adv. amiss, 
wrongly, 141, 1480. Perhaps in 1. 
1480 myssetrowed is one word; 
cf. Mistrowe. 

Misse, V. S. to miss, \Q\Q] 
misseden, 1827. 

Misseliche, adv. S. wrongly, 711 ; 
— mitoely (mistakenly), 207. 

Misseproude. See Misproud 

Missespeche, n. S. evil report, 
defamation, 1523. "In the same 

manner is formed the Isl. mixma*li, 
from mis and ma*fi, loquela." — M. 

Mister, n. F. need, want, 1919. 

O.F. mester ; Roq. 
Mistrowe, n. S. mistrust, 3314. 

Miswerche, v. S. to act amiss, 

Mite; in phrase a mite worJ> 

(the worth of a mite), 4543. 

Mix, n. S. a vile wretch, 125. Cf. 

Felt>e, ichich is similarly used. A.S. 

meox. O.E. mire^ filth. Hence the 

pp. mixed = filthy. 

"That fule traytour, that wtised 
cherl." Havefok, 2533. 
Mi3t. See Mow. 
Mi^th, n. S. might, 350a 
Mi3thi, adj. S. mighty, 2859. 

Mi^tow, thou mightest, 3041. 
See Mow. 

Mo, comp. adj. S. more, 1162, 
1189, 1454, 2780, 5241;— more 
(greater), 3464. 

Mo, adv. more, 1271, 3457. More 

beter, 2134. 
Moche, MocheL See Miche, 

Mod, n. S. mood, mind, 1985. 

Moder, n. S. mother, 242 ; gen. 

sing, moder, 1177- 
Molde, n. S. mould, i. e. earth, 

85; — mold, 377, 528, 618. Men 

vpon molde is a common phrase, 

both here and in P. PI. 

Momes, imp. pi. mourn ye, 633 ; 

pt. s. momed, 1761; pres^ part. 

momyng, 1640. 
Morning, n. S. mourning, sorrow, 

742 ; — momyng, 746. 
Morwe, n. S. morning, 763, 776. 

A morwe (on the morrow), 1296. 
Most, Moste. See Mot 
Mot, 1 p. 8. pr. I am ohliged, I 

must, I ought, 548 ; pr. s. mot, 

4141, 4171 ; 1 /). pi. pr. mot, 3988 ; 

Digitized by 




2, mote, 1043 ;j5/. *. most, 
5188; pi, pi, moste, 1052; pr, s, 
9ut^. mot (expressing a wish\ 602, 
1433, 1547, 4509 ; \p. pt. subj. most 
(= might, woald), 3252 ; pi. s. 
subj. most, 3547, 3978, 4226, 4817; 
must, t68 \pLpl.subj. most, 4798. 
Mot nede,pr. s, 4141 ; most nedes, 
pi, 8. 5188. A.S. ic m6l, pt. t. ic 

Mountance, n, F. amount, 2391. 

Mow, 1 p. 8, pr. I may, I can, I 
am able, 636, 3802 ; pr. s, 730, 
2085, 3998; 1;?. pi, pr. mowe, 
2794, 3903 ; 2p, mow, 1458, 
4092 ; pr. pi. mowe, 4162 ; 1 p. s. 
pi. mi^t (could), 2351 ; pi. s, mi3t, 
3623 ; mijth, 3621 ; pi. pi. mijth, 
3539 ; mk, 3632. Mutow (= 
mightest tnou), 3041. A.S. magan, 
pr. t. ie mc^g^ pt. t. ic mihte. Moeso- 
Goth. magan, pr. t. ik mag^ pt. t. ik 

Muche. See Micbe. 

Muchel. See MicheL 

Munde, n. S. mind, 4123. 

Munge, Monged. See Menge. 

Muntaynes, n. pi. F. mountains, 

2619, 3507. 
Mures, n, pi, moors, 2619. Cf. 

Mires i«L 3507. 
Murdred ^to depe), pp, 2859 ; — 

murf^rea (to de)>e), 1774, 
Muri, Murie. See Merie. 

Mut, n. F. cry of hounds, 2192. 
O. F. esmeule ; Cotgrave. 

Mys, adj. false, 716. [But mys 
is generally a substantive, or a pre- 
fix, and I should prefer to read 
mys-melgng.'] See Misse. 

Myslych, adj. S. various, of aU 
kinds, 1 1160. MoBSO-Goth. mma- 

N. " This letter, by a species of 
prosthesis, is often taken from the 
end of an article or pronoun, and 
prefixed to the substantive which 


follows. Examples of this occur in 
no nei^i for tMti ei^, 83 ; a noyne- 
menl, for am oynemenl, 136; my 
nolher^ for myn olher, 468; Ihi 
fiarmes, for Ihin amtes^ 666 ; -^isler 
neue, for pglern eue, 2160, &c See 
Tyrwhitt's Gloss, m v. nale. The 
practice existed in familiar writing 
so late as the reign of Q. Elizabeth, 
and, perhaps, later stilL" — M. Cf. 
note on Nones. 

Na, adv. not, 1172. See Ne. 
Namore, no more, 2812, 2924, 
4907 ; lorillen na more, 2556 ; na 
mo, 1271. 

Nad {contr, from ne had), pt, a. 
had not, 154 ; — nade, 1358 ; — 
nadde, 119, 1350, 2465 ; pi. pi. 
nad, 460. 

Nam. See Nym. 

Nameliche, adv. S. namely, espe- 
cially, 1203; — namliche, 2604; — 
namli, 2508. 

Namned. See Nempne. 

Narmes. See under N. 

Nas {contr. from ne was), was not> 
278, 2784, f 460, &c 

Naf {contr. from ne haj>), hath 
not, 4934. 

Nafeles, adv. nevertheless, 1751, 
4506, 5265. Ch. 

Naueye, n. navy, collection of 
ships, 2719. Ch. 

Nay, adv. no, 251, 482, 543, 547, 
1559, 1814, 1826, 2003, 2314, 
&c; — nai, 916, 965. There is 
a clear disllHclion between no and 
nay. No signifies assent to Ike pre- 
vious speaker; nay implies strong 
denial, and is aenerallv followed by 
an oaik. See No, and Nickes. 

Ne, adv. not, nor, 315, 450, 457, 
&c. Hence, nad for ne kad; nis 
for neis ; nas for ne was; natk for 
ne kalk; net for ne toil ; nere for 
ne were; nolde for ne wolde ; not 
for ne wot / nist for ne wist. 

Ned, n. S. need, 3210; — nede, 
119 ; pi, nedes, 1436, 4164, 425L 

Digitized by 




Neded,2>^. 8, needed, 1919. 

Nedes, ado, of necessity, ne- 
cessarily, 1042, 1679, 5185, 5188 j 

— nede, 3922, 4141. A.S. nedde^, 

Needely, adv, S. urgently, f 747 ; 
— ^nedelich (necessarily), 1 817. Ch. 

Kei^. See Nest. 

Nei3h, adv, nigh, nearly, 434, 
664, 686 ; — nei^, 151 ; — neiie, 
1511 J— neiej, 3185 ;— ne^h, 979 j 

— ney, 2074. Comp. nerre, 1911 ; 
|>e nere, 758. Nei^honde (JU. ni^h 
hand), nearly, 1494 j— nei3 lionde, 
884;— nei^hhondes, 438. 

Neiahe, v, S. to approach, draw 
nigh, 3230, 3241 ; — ne3h, 278 ; — 
nye, 1 493, t700, t764; pt. s, 
nei3ed, 770 ; neijet, 2599 ; neiyed, 
1606; neihed, t 739; nyed, tl36, 
1 505 ; pL pL neijed, 4899 ; neyj- 
M, 2179. [In 1. t 493 it may 
mean, to annotf ; cf, Noy^ed.] 

Nei3ede, pt. s. S. neighed, 3238. 

Nel (/or ne wil), 1 p, s. pr, I will 
not, 484, 718, 1098, 4907 ; pr. s. 
nel, 986, 4260; i?r. pL neile, 4937. 

Nempne, v, S. to name, tell, 4213; 

— nymphe, 2179; pt. ». nemned, 
368 ; pp. namned, f 524, Ch. 

Nende ; here, a nende = an ende, 

Nere (contr. from ne were), pr. 8. 

subj, were not, 714, 2409. Cf, 

Nere, Nerre. See Neijh. 

Nere, never, t ^1^ > ^^^^ usual 
form is neuer, 735, &c. 

Nesche, adj. S. soft. In hard 
and in nesche, 495 ; to harde and 
to nesche, 534. Ch. 

Nest, n. 83. " Nest and no neij 
(= nest and non ei^, i. e. nest and 
no egg), evidently a proverbial 
phrase." — M. 

Neuen, v. S. to name, tell, 2463, 
2517. Ch. 

Neuew, n. F. nephew, 1198, 3537, 

4211; — newe, 1023, 3418, 4983 ; 
— neweu, 5095, 5098 (iJi which 
last line it seemt to mean great- 

Newe, adv. S. newly, lately, 1 354 ; 
(anew), 2999. 

Newene, v, S. to renew, 779. 

Nickes with nay, refuses with a 
"no," 4145. "A proverbial phrase 
familiar to our old poets. See 
Gawayne and the Orene Kni^t, 706 ; 
Pistill of Susan, st xii. ap. Laing ; 
Amis 8f Amiloun, 2176, ap. Weber ; 
Kina Estmere, 47, ap. rercy, and 
Pinkerton's Scotish Poems, vol. iiL 
pp. 15, 72, 82."— M. Cf. Swed. 

Nigramauncy, necromancy, 119; 

— nigremauncie, f 460, f 981. 
Nigremaunciens, necromancers, 

Nis {contr. from ne is), is not, 

377,1357, 3210 ;-ny8, 712. 
Nist See Not 

No, adv. no, 2701, 3115; — ne, 

1556. See note on Nay. 
No, put for Ne, not, 67, 85, &c 

Conversely, we find ne for no ; tee 

the preceding. 

Nobul, adj. noble, 1109, 1198. 
Noifer. See Nofer. 

Nold (for ne wold), would not, 
1 p. s. pt, 1731, 1877 ; pt. s. 561, 
2692 ; nolde, 2184 ; pt. pU nolde, 

Nome, Nomen. See Nym. 

Non, pron. no one, 396, 443, 
2461 ; (neither of them) 2423 ; adj. 
(= no) 509 ; — no, 275, 1282 ; — 
none, 74 ; ade. no, 2455. 

Nones, for ))e, 1157, 2015. In 
the note to 1. 7160 of Dr White's 
Ormulum, vol. ii. p. 642, we find — 
** Forr \e naness, for the purpose. 
This phrase is so written in the 
MS., but its grammatical structure, 
as admitted on the authority of the 
hte Mr Price and of Sir F. Madden, 

Digitized by 




requires the form forr \en aness^ 
. being a slight variation of the A.S. 
for ban anes^ literally /or the once. 
In Ls^amon we have to \>an anes, 
to \>an ane, for that only." For 
further information, see the rest of 
the note, and of. the remark under 
Nory, n. F. nurse, 1511. 

Not (for ne wot), know not, 1 p, 
s, pr 320, 541, 903, 4155 ; pt. s. 
nist (for ne wist), 741. 

Nojjer, conj. neither, 1675 ; — 
noi^er, 722, 2385. "This broad 
pronunciation is not peculiar to 
the English provinces, but has also 
been remarked in France, in such 
Words as chandoile for ehandelle, 
&C. A writer on the subject says, 
" En general, quand, dans le Fran- 
9ai8, se trouve un e ouvert, le 
rustique y substitue oi." Melanges 
8ur Us langues^ p. 71. 8vo. Paris, 
1831."— M. 

Nofer ; we find my nober (= myn 
o)>er), my other, 468 j no noJ>er 
(= non of>er), no other thing, no- 
thing else, 1679 ; spelt no nool'cr, 
1489, t 756. 

Nov, adv, now, 78, 79 ; — nou, 
454 ; — nou)>e, 1543 ; — ^now)>e, 354, 
356, 603; — no)>e, 1005, 5032; 
— nou3, 626. 

Nou^t, adv. not, 13, 299, 358, 
450, &c. ; n. nothing, naught, 72, 
83 ; miswritlen nou^, 720. 

Noyce, n. noise, 823. 

Noynement, 136. A noynement 
= an oynement, an ointment, un- 

Noy3ed, pp, annoyed, grieved, 
770. See note to Nei^he. 

Nyce, adj. foolish, 491. Cli. 

Nym, V, to take (take prisoner), 
1364; pt, 8. nam, 1203, 2450, 
1 468 ; nam hede (took heed), 368 ; 
pt. pi. nomen (the nom. case being 
sondes), 1309 ; pp. nome, 2330. 
MoBSO-Goth. niman, pt. t. ik nam, 
pi. iceie nemum, pp. numans. 

Nymphe. See Nempne. 

0, art, and adj. one, a, 1112, 
1350, 1628, 2461, 3017, 4033, 
4321, 4733 ; — on, 192, 403, 1345 ; 
\>dX on (the one), 1198. 

0, miamritten for Or, 1455. 

O, pi^ep. on, f 258. 

Of, prep, of, passim; (out of), 
1039, 3084, 3141 ; (off), 1218 ; 
(for), 442, 500. Brou^t of Hue, 
broujt of dawe (brought out of 
life, brought out of oay), killed, 
1159, 3817 ; as opposed to on Hue. 
As a verbal prehx, it is the A.S. 
of' or a-. MoBSo-Goth., Du., Dan., 
Swed., Isl. af. It occurs in Of- 
reche, Of-se, Of-sende, Of-sette, 
Of-sou^t, Of-take ; see below. 

Of-reche, v. to reach to, 3874; 
pt. 8. of-raujte, 1233. A.S. a- 
rfkcan. Cf. Rob. Glouc. 285,6. 

Of-se, V. S. to perceive, 2223 ; 
pt. 8. of-sei, 2245 ; of-seie, 273, 
2771; of-sey. 4444; of-seve, 224; 
of-saw, 49, 3283 ; pt. pi. of-seisyen, 
1221. A.S. of sedn. 

Of-sende, v. S. to send after, send 
for, 5293 ; pt. s. of-sent, 1081. See 
of-sended in Ls^amon. 

Of-sette, pt. pi. beset, 2648 ; pp. 
of-sett, t 308, t 395. A.S. of 

Of-souhte, pt. s. searched out, 
hence approached, 11^17; pp. of- 
sou^t (sought after), 1676 ; of- 
sought (attacked), f 25. A.S. tf- 

Of-take, V. to overtake, 1275, 
2198, 2398, 2590 ; pt. s. of-tok, 
3895 5 of-toke, 3916 ; pt. pi. of. 
toke, 3881. See oflake, atake, in 
Wycl. Gloss., and oftake in La^a- 

Of-tumed, pt. pi. turned ofif, 
stripped off, 2590. \_Perhaps the 
words of and turned should be 

Ofte, adv. S. oft, often, 1570; 
eomp. ofter, 610. 

Digitized by 




Oi^r, conj, or, 3130. See Oj>er. 
Ok, n. S. an oak, 295. 

Omage, n. F. homage, 1306, 
5403, 5474. 

On, prep, in ; often represented 
in modern language by «-; aee 
Acta xiii. 36. On dayes, bj day, 
244, 773. On face, in face, 2634. 
On felde, afield!, 173. On gate, on 
their way, 2092 ; see Gate. Fpon 
katit hastily, 5195. On heii, on 
high, 2020. On line, alive, 2100 
rcf. Lliue, 1690). On-lo/f, aloft, 
J 1186. On monce, in the morn- 
ing, 3640. On nhles, by night, 
739 ; on a ni^i, 65o. On peces, in 
pieces, 3410. On-sundety asunder, 
6455 (cf. a-iunder, 1759). On 
twovfe, in a swoon, 87. On tceie, 
on their way, 1751. 

On, adj, one. See 0. 

One, adj. S. alone, 211, 511, 
3156. Jl himself one, 3316 ; Aim- 
self one, 657 ; bi here-self one, 3101. 
Him one, 17, 4112 j Aym one, 1 792. 
p<fi \>re one, 1415. Jl-one, 659, 864; 
allone but, 1532. God one, 4002. 
On pe one (by thee alone), 4575. 
Cf. Alane in Jamieson. 

Ones, adv. S. once, 195, 611, 637. 
At ones (at once), 5412 ; at onis 
(to-gether), 5180; (once for all), 

On-honged, pp. S. hanged, 1564. 

Onliche, adv. S. only, 3155, 3799. 

Onwhar, adv. anywhere, some- 
where, 1820 ; — onwar, 2251. 

Or, adv. S. before, 147, 1747, 
2351, t 30, 1 142, 1 310. 

Or-trowed, pt. s. supposed, ima- 
gined, t 738. See or-troweden in 
WycL C}loss., and cf. Ouer-trowe. 

Ost, n. F. host, 1127, 1197, 3767. 

' Ch. 

Oj>er, cxmj. or, 696, 966, 1498, 
1823 ; (or else), 4067. 0|»er— or 
(either— or), 1212, 1822. Ch. 

Ojjer, adj, other ; hence, bat ofer 
* = the second, the next, 1199 ; pi. 

o|>er (others), 52X3. O^-gate 
(otherwise), 3761 ; a$td hence, 
elUpticallv, o)>er = otherwise, 2071f 

Ouer-borde, oyerboard, 2823 ; — 
ouer-bord, 2778. 

Ooer-gret, adj. over-great, very 
great, 1069. The MS. has ouer- 
gart gret ost, probably by mistake. 
** Ouer-gret is used by Chaucer, 
Cant. T. 16116 (Chan. Yem. 
Prol.)."— M. 

Ouer-macched, pp. over-matclied, 

Ouer-pase, v. to pass by, pass un- 
noticed, 4113. 

Ouer-ride, v. to ride over, harry, 
4147,4262. Ch. 

Ouer-slide, v. to pass away with- 
out effort to retain it, to slip away, 

Ouer-trowe, n. S. mistrust, suspi- 
cion, 1402. Cf Or-trowed. 

Our, adv, over. But our on titly 
tumbely except one (of us) soon 
tumble OTer, 3388. 

Our, pos8. pron. our, 4223 ; pi. 
oure, 3385. 

Out, prep, out of^ 1640 ; — oujt 
(out), 3068 ; — oujt of (out oQi 
1204, 1691. 

Out-wende, v. S. to go out, 4853. 

Ou3t, n. S. anything, aught, 952 ; 
— out, 1823^ 2090, 2971 ; ado. 
oujt (at aU), 2395, 3244, 5219. 

Out, pt. 8. possessed, 2627 ; ou^t, 
3229; aught, 1 14, 1 173, t237; 
pt. pi. ou^ten (owed), 1080. As 
auril. vb. out; pt. s. ought, 520, 
874, 1323; aught, t 547; 1 p. pL 
pr. OMit, 3589 ; 2 p. pi. pr. ouat, 
4129 ; pr. pi. on^U 5221. 

Ow, you, 106. See Jou. 

Paide, pt. s. pleased, 4988 ; pp. 

payed, 1313. 1 1038. ' From Lat. 

pacare. Ch. 
Paie, n. F pleasure, 193, 5427, 

1 701 ; — paye, 5492, 5524, f 169. 

Digitized by 




Paleis, w. F. palace, 2838; — 
paleys, 2845. 

Pane, n. F. cloth, or fur, 5356. 
*• See Sir Tristrem, p. 37."— M. See 
also Fane in Wedgwood and Ho- 

Paradi^s, Paradise, 443. 

Paramours, n. F. mistress, lover, 
1534 ; gen. pL paramoures, lovers', 
2987 ; for pai-amours, for love, 
1758 ; of paramours, of love, 1412. 

Parayled, pp, apparelled, 1990. 

Park, n, a park, 2845. F. pare. 

A.S. pearroc. 
Taitenody pt, pi. belonged, 1419. 

Party, n. F. to hold party to = 

to maintain the battle against, 

3643 ; pi. parti3es, sides, 1146 ; 

partyes, 1150. 
Pas, n. F. course, 3915 ; a "pas- 

sus," canto, 161 ; — pase, pace, 

Passed, pt. a. passed, went, 4112 ; 

passaid, 3068 ; pt. pi. passeden, 

2166, 3938. 
Patriarkes, n. pi. patriarchs, 5047. 

Pauilons, n. pi. pavilions, tents, 
1630 ; — pauilounns, 1627. 

Payenes, gen. sing, pagan's, 365. 

PayJ)e, or Paffe, n. path, 1674. 

Pellure, n. F. costly fur, 53. " See 
BxK). and Jamieson's examples, 
which might be greatly augmented,** 
— M. ^ P. Pi. A. ii. 9. 

Peple, n. F. people, 1122; — 

puple, 499, 4139, 5061. 
Perauenture, peradventure, 254. 
Perced, ^/?. pierced, 1225. 

Pere, n. F. peer, equal, 443, 709 ; 

p/. pers, 3976. Ch. 
Perelouste, sitp. adj. F. most 

perilous, 1191. 
f erles, adj. F. peerless, 499, 516, 

740, 933, &c. 
Perrey, n. F. precious stones, 

jewels, 53. Cf. P. PL A. il 12, 

Pert, adj. F. true, lit. evident, 

4930. Lat. apertm. 
Pertly, adv. F. openly, cloarly, 

plainly, 180, 2536; — pertli, 2489 ; 

— pertely, 156, 684 ; — pertily, 
1225;— pertili, 4384;— pertliche, 
5044, — pertelyche, 5,3; — perti- 
lyche, 361 ; — pertiliche, 96, 291. 
Cf Apertli. 

Pes, n. F. peace, 2951. 

Peter, hy saint Peter ! 681. The 
line means — " Bu!, by saint Peter ! 
it was only his pillow,*' &c. Cf. 
P. PL A. vi. 28 ; Ch. House of 
Fame, ii. 526; Morte Arth. (ed. 
Perry), 2884. 

Peyne, r. S. to punish, 2898, 
3662 ; pt. pi. pinte, f 238 ; pp. 
peyned, in phr. |:at on croyce was 
peyned, that was put to a painful 
death on the cross, 350, 3127, 

Piled, pp. F. robbed, plundered, 
5123. Ch. 

Pilus, n. pi. feathers, down, 1 814. 
" Foil folety the first down or soft 
feathers of a young bird.'* Cot- 

Pitous, adj. F. piteous, 643 ; — 
pytoos, 1180; — pitevows, 5488. 

Pitousli, adv. F. piteously, 1168 ; 

— pitously, 933; pituosli, 1756. 
Yi^i^pp. S. pitched, 1627. Ch. 

Piece, V. F. to please, 4729; — 

plese, 5435. 
Pleie, V. to play, 678, 1020, 2736 ; 

pt. 8. pleide, 216, 1195; pt. pi. 

pleide, 1477; pleyed, 1058. 

Pleint, n. F. complaint, 1180. Ch. 

Plenerli, adv. F. fully, 5435. 

Plenteousliche, adv. F. plenteous- 
ly, 180; — plenteousli, 4970; — 
plentiuosly, 1122. 

Pleyn, adv. F. fuU, 3158. Ch. 

Digitized by 




Pleyned hem, pt, pi. complained, 

Pli3t,n. S. plight, condition, 5373. 
Pope, 1957. See the note. 
Porayle, n. F. the poor, the lower 

order of people, 5123. Ch. 
Porsewed, ^^. ^/. pursued, 2196; 

pp, porsewed, 2474. 
Portingale, Portugal, 116. 

Portreide, pp. pourtrayed, 445, 

Posteme, n. F. postern-gate, 1752, 

3068 ; posteme-gate, 2166 ; pos- 

terne-jate, 2871. 
Pouert, n. F. poverty, 5373. Ch. 
Praide, pt. s. ho prayed, 270; 

prai3ed, 3546 ; preiede, 1168 ; 

preide, 643 ; pt. pi. preid, 1903 ; 

imp. pi. preietn, 164 ; prei^es, 5529. 

Praire, n. prayer, 996. 
Praisen, pr. pi. praise, 617. 

Preeued, pp. proved, approved, 

Prened, pp. pinned, f 420. See 
Prein in Jamieson. A.S. preon, 
Dan. pree/tf a bodkin. We still 
use the phrase, "pinned to the 

Prent, n. F. print, f 845. 

Pros, n. F. press, throng, crowd, 

1191, 1225, 1481, 3431; — prese, 

3848. Ch. 

Presed, pt. s. pressed forward, 
3424, 4959. 

Preat, adj. F. ready, prepared, 
1598, 1 6, 1 165, t 422, 1 595, &c. 

Prestly, adv. F. readily, quickly, 
soon, 1146, 1232, f 171, t 368 ; — 
prestli, 2649 ;— prestely, 291, 335, 
996 ; — presteli, 1237, 1717; — 
prestih, 3319, 3431; — presteliche, 
399 ;— prestlich, 1 792. [It occurs 
more than 20 times.] 

Prie, V. to pry, look, 5019; pt. s. 

pried, 96. 
Prike, v, S. to spur, ride fast, 

2382;/»/. *. priked, 1191, 3319; 
prikede, 1481, 3362 ; pt. pi. prike- 
den, t 382. 

Pris, adj. F. worthy, choice, rich, 
noble, 161, 411, 2442. 1 306, t466 ; 
pi. pris, t 6 ; prise, 1 1038 ; price, 

Prisely, adv. choicely, well, t733. 

Prisoun, n. F. a prisoner, 1251 ; 

pi. prisouns, 1290 ; prisons, 3458, 

4215. P. PI. 

Proddest, sup. adj. proudest, 2942. 
Properly, adv. F. properly, truly, 

652 ; — propirli, 619 j — propirly, 


Proueyed hire, pt. s. provided 
for herself, procured, 3064. 

Prouost, n. provost, 2265, 2270. 

Pult, V. to put, 3093 ; pt. s. pult, 
4593 J pp. pult, 381, 4219, 4223, 
4236, 4522, 5373. " In O.E. the 
word put was frequently written 
with an intrusive I, pult, analogous 
to the / in falter, halt, jolt:*— 
Wedgwood; who derives it from 
F. bouter. In 1. 2951 we find PuL 

Puluere, tu F. a pillow, 676, 681, 
684 ;— pulwere, 672. 

Puple. See Peple. 

Pure litel, very little, 3093. 

Purli, adv. purely, wholly, 4219 ; 
— purliche, 4428 ;— purlich, 1 1038. 

Pursewend, pres. part. F. pur- 
suant, suitable, 5028. 

Purueaunce, n. F. provision, 1598, 

Purueyed, pp. provided, 1605. 

Quarrere, n. F. quarry, 2232, 2319; 
— quarrer, 2281, 4692. 

Quajj,^?^. 8. quoth, said, 251, 2028, 
2168, 1638; quod, 3753, t 682. 

Queite, pt. s. whisked, darted, 
moved swiftly, 4344. Sir F. Mad- 
den su^ested a derivation from the 
A.S. cwehte, moved (which is, how- 
ever, transitive), or that it might 

Digitized by 




mean crept^ from the F. guatir, 
explained bj Koquefort to mean se 
tapir, i. e. to squat. But it is 
rather from the W. chmdoy to move 
nimbly, and is familiar to as io 
Lowland Scotch in the forms ^uhid 
and whid. See quhid in Jamieson. 

Qiieintyse, n. F. cunning, skill, 

Quelle, V, S. to kiU, 1246, 2123, 

2773, 2811, &c. ; or. *. quelles, 

179; pt. #. quelled, 1109. Cf, 

kyllen in 1. 1 924. 
Queme, v. S. to please, delight, 

satisfy, 3404, f 227, 1 682, 1 1181 ; 

2 p, s, pr. quemest, t593; pp. 

quemed, t 788. Ch. 
Quemfull, adv, S. pleasing, giving 

delight, 1 582. 
Queynt, adj. F. quaint ; i e. cun- 

ninpf, skilful, 4136, 4254 ; — quinte, 

1401. Ch. 

QuejTitli, adv, F. quaintly, i. e. 

cunningly, 4644 ; — queyntliche, 

3233. Ch. 
Quic, adj. S. alive, 1564 ; — quik, 

1212. Ch. 
Quicliche, adv. S. quickly, soon, 

908; — quikliche, 2127. 
Quinte. 8ee Queynt. 

Quite, V. F. to repay, requite, 325, 
4726 ; pr. s. subj. quite, 4713. Ch. 

Quitly, adv. freely, entirely, 2341. 

"Used by Ch. Cant. T. 1794 

(Knightes T. 934)."— M. 
Quod. See Quaf. 

Eadde. See Rede, v. 

Eaddely, Radely, RaflL See 

Rau3t, pt. 8. S. reached, 1193, 

4424 J raught, f 1174 ; pp. rauat, 


Rallied, ^^. striped, decked, 1618. 
See Bail in "Wedgwood, JUole in 
Cotgrave, and cf. Norman Bailer, 
to score, draw lines, streak. 

Rapli, adv. very quickly, hastily, 
3179. Du. rap, nimble. P. PL 
A. V. 176. 

Real, adv. F. royal, splendid, 866, 
1310, 1405, 1597, 1601;— riall, 
tl78, t267; sup. realest, 3944. 

Realy, adv. F. royaUy, 352, 1260, 
1391, 1426, 1618 ; — reali, 5460; 
— rialiche, 4859; comp. realiere, 
4852. Ch. 

Realte, w. F. royalty, splendour, 
5006 ; — reaute, 1926, 1959 ; — re- 
aulte, 5331, 5345 ;— riaulte, 5057. 

Reaume, n. F. realm, 1310, 1964, 

3920, 4102. 
Reching, n. explanation, t 599. 

A.S. recaftf to say, explain. 

Recuuor, n. F. to recover, i. e. to 
gain, 2801; pt. s. intr. recuuered 
(recovered), 3874. 

Recuuerere, n, F. recovery, revival, 

Reddour, n. F. violence, iiyury, 
2953. [The words reddour = 
violence (O.F. roideur), and reddour 
= fear (Suio-Goth. reedde), are 
often mistaken for each other.] 

Rede, adj. ready, 1963. 

Rede, n. S. advice, counsel, 803, 
1458, 1692, 5115, f 356. What is 
me to rede^ what is advisable for me, 
903 ; shortened into what to rede^ 
3885 ; take hire to rede, considered 
as advisable for herself, 133. Cf. 
A.S. to r€Bdey s.v. reed in Bosworth. 

Rede, y. S. to advise, counsel, 
1356 ; 1 p. pr. pi. rede, 1112; pt. s. 
radde, 1301 ; (= read), 4433 ; pr. 
8. Bttbj. rede, 2262. Too rede, to 
read, to explain, t 856. Ch. 

Redeles, adj. S. without counsel, 
at a loss what to do, 1394; — 
redles, 2915. 

Redeli, adv. S. readQy, quickly, 
soon, 461, 1824, 1828, 2516; — 
redeliche, 439, 5467 ; — redili, 
3563 ; — rediliche, 1226 ; — redli. 

Digitized by 




2143, 2488; — redly. 866, 1153; 
— reddely, 1367 ;— radely, 41 ♦ — 
raddely, 810. [It occurs nearly 30 
times. In 1. 3179 Sir F. Madden 
explains rapli by guie^fy, but we 
should read rapU, <u in the MS.] 

Regal, n. F. regality, 282. 

Reioische, v. F. to enjoy, 4102. 
Cf. Reioske in Coleridge's Gloss. 

Reken, r. S. to reckon, tell, 1597, 
3179; — rekene, 336, 1934, 1958. 

Reraued, ^yt. s. intr, removed, 
went, 1325 ; remewed, 5106, 5317; 
pL pi. remewed, 1297. Ch. 

Renkes. See Rink. 

Renne, v. S. to run, 219, 2268, 

3179. Ch. 
Reproue, n. F. reproof, 652. 

Res, n. S.riish of emotion, conflict 
of mind, 439 ; attack, onset, 1 389; 
violence, f 1189. A.S. ra^*, rush, 
onset, violence. Ch. 

Resset, n. F. a place of shelter or 
refuge, 2801. See Recei in Cole- 
ridge's Gloss. Index. 

Restored, pp, stored, 2846. 

Rt»tte, V, to impute, ascribe, 461. 

** Rectyn, or rettyn, or wytyn. 

Impuio, repuio, axcribo" Prom. 

Parv. Used by Ch. O.N. retta. 

Reue, V. S. to rob, bereave, 1824, 

4392 ; reued, 2755. Ch. 
Reueles, w. pi, F. revels, 1953. 
Reuested, /?p. dressed, 1959,6047. 

Reuliche, adv, ruefully, pitiably, 

Reuowres, n. ph S. robbers, 5478. 

Reu))e, n. S. ruth, pity, 2115, 

Reward, ru F. regard, 3339. 
Rewes me, pr, a. grieves me, 562; 

pi. s. rewed him, grieved him, 4987. 


Rialiclie. See Reali. 

Riaulte. See Realte. 

Riche, V. F. to enrich, or more 

probably^ to be rich, 3014. 
Riche, n. S. a kingdom, f ^S« 

Richesse, w, F. riches, 1935, 
3014, 5057. [It is in the sing, 
number.] Ch. 

Richlier, adv. more richly, 1934. 

Ridende, Twe*. part, 1954. 

Rif, Rifliche. See RiuedlL 

Rigge, w. S. back, 11174. Ch. 

Rink, n. S. a man, hero, warrior, 
1193, 1935, 3563, tl05, t*80; 

— rynk, 1472; — ring, 6213; — 
ryng, t 1145 ; pi. rmkes, 1213, 
1226, 1 341, t 354; renkes, 1153. 

Rise, n, Reggio, in Calabria, 2717. 
"See Paniz2i*s Life of Bojardo, 
vol. ii. p. Ixxxi. n. The same 
change seems to have taken place 
in regard to Riez in Provence, as 
remarked by Mr Nicol, to whom I 
am indebted for a reference to 
Martiniere*s Dictionary, sub. v. 

Rist, n. S. rising ; sonne rist = 
rising of the sun, f 791 ; hence^ the 
East, t 855. 

Rit, adv. right, 4268 ;— ri^t, 273. 

Riue, adj. S. rife, abundant, fuU, 
4415, 5414, t 726; — ryfe, f 268. 

Riuedli, adv. abundantly, widely, 
2953, 3840 ;— riuedliche, 2116 ;— 
rifliche, 1472;— rif, 1953. 

Ri3t, adv. See Rit. 

Ri3tes, n. pi. rights, 3218. At 
here rijttes, exactly, rightly, suit- 
ably, 4906 ; — at alle ri^tes, 4255 ; 

— to )>e ri3tes, 5006, 5026; — to 
\>e ri^ttes, 53 ; — to ri^tes, 1957 ; — 
to ri^ttes, 1605, 1632;— too rightes, 
+ 660, t 846, t 980 ; to rightus, 
f 1222. Anon rijtes, straightway, 
immediately, 130o; — anon ri^ttes, 
235. Vp-fi^ttes (upright), 1789; 
doun-ri^tes, 1165. Kutes gates, 
by the right way, 5322. [Iii Ai 

Digitized by 




all rifles, to rifles, &c., I suppose 
ri^ies to be the pi. of ny, sb. ; in 
anon rifles, vp'ri^ttety doun-rv^teSy it 
is the gen. case sin^^. used adver- 
bially ; of. rihtety adv. in La^amon. 
In ri^ies gates^ I think ri^te^ b the 
gen. sing, of ny, adj. agreeing 
with ^flr^^*, gen. ot gale ; the whole 
expression being used adverbially.] 

Ri^ileche, v. S. to govern, 282, 

1310. A.S. rihtlacan. 
Ei3tly, adv. directly, straiglitway, 

232. Cf. Rit. 
Roche, n. F. rock, 2367. Cli. 

Bode, n, S. rood, cross, 1669, 

1802,2083,2360. Ch. 
Rode, n, complexion, f 1 78. O.N. 

rodi. Cf, A.S. rudu, redness. 
Romed, pt s, roamed, 1608 ; pU 

pi. romden, 810. Ch. 
Rote, n. S. root, 638. Ch. 
Roted, pp. rotted, 4124. 
Route, v, F. to trouble, harass, 

Route, 7L F. a rout, company, 

troop, 1213, 1616, 1942, 3354; — 

rou3te, 4276 ; — rowte, 397. Ch. 
Roum, n, a room, L e. a space, 

while,! 1030. 
Rou^t hem, it recked them, i. e. 

they cared, 3353; pi. rought 

(recked), 1383.- 

Rowe, adj. S. rough, 4778. Ch. 
Rudli, ado. rudely, 3270. 

SadjOJ/. firm, steadfast, in various 
jtenxes; as, discreet, steady, sober, 
228 ; firm, massive, 1072 ; firm, 
sure, 1463 ; severe, grievous, 
2775; — sadde, firm, sure, 1371; 
sup. saddest, chiefest, 677 ; in 
ichich last instance it is very nearlif 
equivalent to most joyous; cf. 1. 
3675. "In the sense of heavy, 
hard, or solid, it is used in the Wyc- 
liffite Bible, in the Prompt. Parv. 
(a.d. 1440), and in Stanbridge's 
Vocab. (a.d. 1513). In the North, 

this signification is not yet obso- 
lete ; see Brockett, and Hunter." — 
M, Cf. Welsh, sad, firm, steady, 
discreet. Ch. 
Sadly, adv. firmly, 1014 ; serious- 
ly, 488, 557 ; steadfastly, 469, 
524 ; earnestly, 418, 1165, 2388 ; 

— sadli, fixedly, 762 ; discreetly, 
969 ; earnestly, 2524 ; seriously, 
4146, 4170 ; purposely, 2750 ; 
heavily, 539 ; — saddeli, closely, 
2281, 2592 ; — saddely, quietly, in 
a low tone, 311; sup. sadclest, most 
earnestly, 3675 ; cf. L 677. Ch. 

Saf. See Sau£ 

Sai, Sale. See Se. 

Saile, V. to sail, 2673 ; — sayle, 
2721 ; saileden, 2763. 

Sake, n, S. cause ; hencSy for fat 
sake = on that account, 2019. A.S. 
sacu, a dispute, suit at law, cause. 

Saluede, ^^. s. saluted, 4017. 

Samen, adv. S. together, 433, 
909, 1288, 1907, 2267, 2445, &c. ; 

— same, 4318, 4899 ; — samme, 
t342. It occurs 19 times. The 
expressions samen to-geder (909), 
and samen y^fere (2267) are pleon- 
astic. It is found in Spenser. 

Samli, adv. together, 1835 ; cf. 11. 
433, 909. A.S. samodlice. 

Sarre, comp, adv. more sorely, 

2025, 3441. 
Sauf, adv. F. safe, sound, whole, 

868, 1329, 2816, 4634 ; — saf, 

1332. Sauf and sound, 868, 2816. 

See Fouche. 
Saufly, adv. safely, 3061 ; — 

saufli, 2688 ; — saufliche, 256 ; 

— safliche, 258. Ch. 

Saules, n. pi. souls, 3705. 

Sanndbniel ; the name of a horse, 
3585. " So named from its colour." 
— M. 

Sauor, n. F. scent, perfume, 638, 
818;— sawour, 849. 

Sau3t, n. F. assault, 2651 ; — 

Digitized by 




saute, fSOli pL saujtes, 2682; 
sautes, 2857. Ch. 
Sawe, n. S. saying, word, 1112, 
1305, 1483, t 757 j pi. sawes, 

Say. See Se. 
Sayle. See Saile. 

Schal, pr. s, shall, 2938, 2945, 
&c. ; 1 p. pL pr, schul, 5422 ; 2 p, scbul, 5162; schulle, 3690; 
chul, 3339 ; pr. pL schul, 964, 
2943, 2952 ; schulle (ouffht), 3807 ; 
2 p. s. pt, schuldest, 5194 ; pi. s, 
schold, 2969, 2971 ; chold, 2014 ; 
2 p, pi. pt. schuld, 3685 ; pL pi. 
scnuld, 3810. Sec next word. 

Schaltow, Shalt thou, 340, 6132 ; 
— schalstow, 325. 

Schamful, adj, S. harmful, 1855. 

Schamly, adj, S. shameful, 556. 

Schap, n. S. shape, 2885. 

Schape, v. F. to escape, 2749 ; 
pt. pi. schaped, 2752 ; pp, scbaped, 
460, 731, 1282; schapit, 2151. 

Schapen, pj). shapen, shaped, 
126, 225, 1447 ; —schape, 3214. 

Scharplyche, adv. S. sharply, 178. 

Schafe, n, S. scathe, harm, dis- 
grace, 3008, 3084, 4051. 

Schabeles, adv. S. scatheless, 
witnout injury, 1855 ; — sca^eles, 

Schafli, adv, harmfidly, hardly, 
2794. [But it may be a mistake 
for scAa]>el€sli.'] 

Schawes, n. pi. groves, 178. Ch. 

Schawes, n. pL men, f 484. The 
sing, shawe, f 766, should rather be 
spelt schawe. A.S. scealc, a servant, 

Sche, pron. she, 836, 837, &c. ; 
— hue, t34, t35, t36; —die, 
462, 641. A.S. heo, 

Scheche, v. S. to seek, 2068. 

Scheld, n. S. shield, 3214 ; — 
schcl, 3216. 

Schenchip, n.S. shame, dishonour, 
556, 1803. Ch. 

Schende, v, S. to shame, dis^ 
honour, disgrace, 556, f 995 ; — 
schend, + 566 ; pp. schent (de- 
stroyed, dead), 2798, f 1028. Ch. 

Schene, adj. S. fair, beautiful, 
bright, 3214, 3296 ; — scheene, 
+ 202. Used as sb., ladv being 
understood, 733, 3299. Ch. 

Scheenely, adv. S. brightly, t631. 

Schepe, n. S. ship, 5088 ; — 
schipe, 5212 ; — schip, 2729 ; pL 
schippes, 2728. 

Schete, v. S. to shoot, 2399 ; — 

schote, 178 ; pt. $. shet {fead 

schet), 1277". 
Schette, V. S. to shut, fasten, 

3649 ; schetten, 3267. (y. 

Bi-schet, 2014. 

Scheuered, ^2^. shivered, 3411. 
Schilde, 3 p. b. imp. shield, 1803. 

Schille, adj. shrill, 213 ; adv. 

(shrilly), 37, 3831. Du. sehel. 
Schinnes, w. pi. skins, 2420. 

Schipmen, n. pi. sailors, 2768; 

— chipmen, 2811, 2818. 
Schire, adj. clean, f 1008. See 

Sheer in Wedgwood. 
Schoche, v. F. to suspect, 1398, 

— souche, 1983 ; pi. s. soouched, 
1413 ; souched, 1059. 0. F. 
souche^ souci. Roq. 

Schon, n. ph shoon, shoes, 14. 

Schonde, n. S. shame, dishonour, 

Schore, n. S. a score ; foure 

schore, 1102, 2540 ; ten schore, 


Schorned, pp. scorned, 554. 

Schortely, adv. shortly, 1132 ; 

— chortly, 2035. 

Schortet, pp. shortened, 1549. 

Schote. See Schete. 

Schour, n. S. shower ; scharp 

Digitized by 




Bcbour = shower of darts or blows, 
4614; cf, I 2756. CI Jana 
tcuras, saowers of arrows, in the 
A.S. fragment of Judith. 

Schoute[s], w. pi. flat-bottomed 
boats of li^ht draught, f 484. See 
Shout in Ualliwell. Du. ichuit, 

Scbrewe, n, a wicked person, 
4643 ; ©/. shrews, 1 80. See Shrew 
in Wedgwood. Cli. 

Schrewedest, sup, adj. most 
wicked, 4643. See Wycl. Gloss. 

Schuft, pt 8. either shifted, from 
A.S. scjftan, or shoved, from A.S. 
scufan, 3290. See Shijt in Wedg- 

Schuft, pp. well -shaped, f 186. 

A.S. scea/t, adj., formed, made. 
SchuL See Schal. 
Sclauiider,w.F. slander, 4045. Ch. 

Se, V. S. to see, 766 ; — sen, 
1283, 3203; sene, 759, 3834, 
4487 il p.s. pt. sai, 2160 ; 2 p. s, 
pt, sei, 2/6; pt. s. sei, 2117; sey, 
4901; sei^, 34, 590, 871, &c.; say, 
228, 1585 ; seie, 1505 ; sei^e, 402, 
2183 ; seye, 26 ; Ip. pi. pt. seijen, 
3501 ; pt. pi. sei^n, 1063 ; seien, 
4503; sejen, 2760; saie, 2232; 
pp. seie, 279, 2344, 2886; seien, 
6003; seijeu, 1792; seyn, 5058; 
imp, pi. se)>, 1715. 

Seccleled, pt 8, sickened, 575. 

A.S. saclian, 
Sece, V, to cease, 2124 ; pp. seced, 

2114; 1 p. pi, imp. sece, 2707 ; pt, 

pi. sesed, 2190. See Sese. 
Seche, v, S. to seek, 223, 2203 ; 

pr. s. sechef, 4121, 5520; 

sechande, 2603. See Sou;t. 

Sechyng, n, S. a seeking, search- 
ing, 2190. 

Sede, Seide, &c. See Seie. 

Seemeli, Seemlich. See Semli. 

Seg, n, S. a man, 226, 518, 772, 
839, &c. ; — segge, f 232 ; pi. 
segges, 1341, 2223, 1286; seges, 
1063. P. PI. 

Seged, pp, F. besieged, 3805. 

Segging, n, S. a saying, a repeti- 
tion of words of incantation, f 531. 

Seie,t?. S. to say, 1 279 ; — seij, 60 ; 
seye, 1281 ; segge, f 584, f 1033 ; 
sigge, f 8 ; 2jB. 8,pr. seistow, 2256 ; 
pt, 8, seide, 70, 3191 ; seyde, 954; 
sede, 943 ; seyede, 2274 -, 2 p. s. 
pt. seidestow (= seidest j^ow), 267; 
imp. pi. seie, 4173 ; sei)>, 4170 ; 
8ei3th, 593. 

Seile, n, S. 2731 ; where pe seile 
= sailing, voyage ; we find sayle ^ 
a sail, 563. 

Sei^t, of his =: out of his sight, 
420. {Probably miswritten for 
sijt.] See Si3t. 

Sek, adj. S. sick, 557, 590, 1489. 

Sekly, adj, S. sick, 1505. [We 
still use sickly as an adj.'] 

Seknes, n. S. sickness, 842 ; — 
sekenes, 841 ; — seknesse, 593. 

SelcouJ), adj, S. strange, wonder- 
ful, admirable, 1621, 2708 ; — sel- 
couK 658, 700, 2329; — selco^e, 
2869, 2989; -- selkouthe, t 130. 
Used as sb., thing bein^ understood, 
selcouf, 2291, 2579 ; selcou>e, 700, 

Selcoubli, Oflv, S. strangely, 
wonderfully, 2650, 4924, 5064; — 
selcou^eli, 3263 ; — selkou|?ely, 

Sell, n. F. a seal, 1 834, f 853. 

Sell, n, F. a ceU, f 525. Ch. 

Seine, S. self, same, very, 1149, 
1300, &c. ; — self, 1839 ; pi. selue, 
727, 889, &c. Selue wise, very 
way, same way, 462, 490, 1438. 
pat selue, the very same, 3502. pe 
selue duk, the duke himself, 1368. 
What I suppose >e selue, what if I 
suppose that very thing, 549. 

Seluer, n, S. silver, 2554. 

Semblant, n, F. outward sem- 
blance, appearance, show, 228, 841, 
3502, 4512. 

Sembul, v, F. to assemble, gather. 

Digitized by 




3555 ; pp. 2U7, 3319. In 1. 3811, 
we have pi. pi. sembled, which pro- 
bably means encountered ; cf. 1. 
3815. Semblyn^ = encountering 
oceura in Lancelot of the Laik, 

Semes, me = it seems to me, 
620 ; pi. me semen, seem to me, 
1686 ; pt. pL semde, 2880. 

Semes, n. pi. S. horse-loads, 
2554. " A sack of eight bushels 
is now called a seanii which was a 
horse-load — hence generally a load, 
a burden.^* Bos worth, in v. seam. 
Cf. Q. saumy a burden. F. sommier, 
a sumpier or pack-horse, &c. [Sir 
F. Madden suggests that the word 
(which is somewhat indistinct) 
may, however, be selues,"] 

Semli, adj\ S. seemly, comely, 
fair, 829, 1882 ; "— semly, 298, 
765, 837, 849; — semliche, 49, 
1454, 2232 ; — semlyche, 568 ; — 
seemelich, f 322 ; — seemeli, f 232. 
bat semly ^ that seemly person or 
lady, 732, 853, 871, &c. Sup. 
semlyest, 518, 551. 

Semly, adv. in a seemly manner, 
courteously, 1432 ; — seemlich, 
becomingly, 1 189. 

Sendeth, imp. pi. send ye, 2068. 

Sene, 3035. This can hardly 
mean seen, and I have no doubt 
that it is simply miswritten for 
80He^= soon, which ends 1. 3037 
below. It is an instance of the 
common confusion between e and 
0, like swelo for swete in 1. 818. 

Sent, n. assent, agreement ; in 
the phr. at o sent = with one 
asseut, 3017, 5253; at sent = in 
agreement, well aware, 1983. 
Halliwell quotes 
" Many armys were tynt, 
That were never at the sent 
To come to that tournament." 
MS. Lincoln, A. i. 17. f. 134. 

Sere, put for Sire, sir, 3570. See 

Serliche, 2149, \ adv. explained 

Serreli, 3316, ) by Sir F. Mad- 

den to mean "surely." But I 
would suggest difiPerent explana- 
tions in both places, and I take 
them to be distinct words : (1) ser- 
liche, closely ; cf. " Serre, to join 
closely" (Halliwell), from F. 
serrer ; also " Sarreliche, closely " 
(Halliwell). (2) serreli, lordly, in a 
sir-like manner, as explained by 
Wedgwood, s. v. Surltf : cf. " Sike 
sirly shepherds lian we none,** 
Spenser, Sheph. Cal. July, 1. 203, 
where the "Glosse'* has *' Surly, 
stately and prowde." 

Serte-s, adv. F. certainly, 268, 
280, 543, 899, &c. 

Serued, pp. deserved, 4352. 

Semes, n. F. service, 3729. 

Sese, V. to cease, 1516; — sece, 
2124 ; pt. pL sesed, 2190 ; pp. 
sesed, 648; seced, 2114; 1 p. pL 
imp. sece, 2707. 

Sese, V. to seize, f ^^^ > W- P^* 
t299; pt. s. sesed, 1236; pt, pt. 
seseden, t234. See notes to IL 
tl35, t299. In 1. 5391, »«* is 
explained by Sir F. Madden to 
mean to take, attain ; it is rather 
the regular law term, to seize a 
person of a thing, i. e. to put him 
mto legal possession of it. Cf. Ch. 
Trail, and Ores. (Aldine ed.), bk. 
iii. St. 57. 

Sejjfe, (1) adv. S. since, after- 
wards, then, 433, 902, 2047;— 
seffen, 104, 206, 420; — se|>en, 
1 370, 3672 ;— si|)|>e, 3050 ;— sipfen, 
+ 308 ; — sithen, f 624 ; — sithe, 
T 45 ; also in the sense ago, 1647, 
4210 ; sebj>e a gret while = since 
a great while, 1991; (2) coni. since, 
seeing that, after that, 329, 454, 
456, 616, 4207; — sef, 973. 

Set, pt. 8, dealt (a blow), 2775;— 
sette (set), 2459 ; pt. pi. setten, 
appointed, 1462. 

Sete, 1 p. 8. pt did sit, sat, 1622. 
[It implies that the reciter of the 
story did not stand, but sat.] See 

Digitized by 




Seiled, pp, S. settled, sunk, 2452 ; 

— setteled, settled, composed, 4562. 
Seue-ni3t, n, seven-night, a week, 

766 ; — seueni^t, 573. 
Seurte, n. F. surety, 1463. Ch. 
Seute, n, F. suit, case, 1080, 1250. 
Seute, n. F. pursuit, chase, 2392, 

Sewe, v. F. to follow, pursue, 

2821;— sew, 2751;— seuwe, 581; 

pr. 8. sewes, 1376 ; sewef, 4897 ; 

fii. s. sewede, 3354; sewed, 418; 

sued, f 957 ; pt. pi. seweden, 2193, 

2766 ; sewede, 204 ; sewed, 2190, 

2388, 3506 ; pp. sewed, 1773 ; imp. 

pi. sewes, 1116. Ch. 

Sexti, num. sixty, 1087. 
Sigge, V, to say, f S« ^^^ Seie. 
Signifiaunce, n. F. significance, 

2958. Ch. 
Sikamour, w. a sycamore, 829. 

Siken, v. S. to sigh, t 395; — sike, 

691, 780; 1 p. s. pr. sike, 433 ; 

si^h, 909 ; pi. s. siked, 1487, 1641, 

4069 ; siat, 2971 ; pre&. pi. sikande, 

5448; sikand, 539, 662 ; sikende, 

894 ; sikinde, 490 ; siking, 5189, 

5209. Ch. 
Siker, adj. S. secure, sure, 2361, 

4366, 4657 ; sup. sikerest, surest, 

strongest, f 334. Ch. 
Sikered, pp. secured, assured, 

Siking, n. S. a sighing, lament, 

5451 ;— sikyng, 601 ; pi. sikingges, 

Simple, adj, F. of low degree, 

Sin, conj. since, f 103. 
Sinifieth, pr. 8. signifieth, f 853. 

Cf. Signifiaunce. 
Sire, n. F. sir, 326, 1250 ; — sir, 

1095 ;— sere, 3570 ; pi. sires, 2248. 
Sijje, n. S. only in pi. 780, 1755 ; 

(^ousand) 1696, 5154 ; (six) 2098; 

also in form sibes, 103, 1038, 

1265, 2470, 5200. Ch. \Theform 

8i|>es = A.S. si^^as ; sij'ft = A.S. 

sft^on or si\>\xm^/orms which often 

follow numerals.'] 
Sittus, pr. 8. sits, 446 ; — sittes, 

620 ; 1 p. s. pt. sete, 1622. 
Si^t, n. S. sight, 933, 1687, &c. 

Sittes, n. pi. S. 924. "Sights, 
used for the singular." — M. But 
may it not mean sighs^ which suits 
the context better, and requires no 
forcing ? Cf. Du. zucht, a sigh ; 
A.S. siccet. See sihten in Strat- 

Skil, n. S. reason, 1680, 4098 ; 

— skille, 336. Ch. 
Skoumfit, pp. F. discomfited, de- 
feated, t 371 ; — skoumfjt (ww- 
written skoumkyt), f 86. 

Slake, V. (1) trans, to slacken, 
relax, assuage, abate, 728, 17^^ 
788, 1521 ; pt. s. slaked on = fell 
relaxingly upon, t 779 ; pp. slaked, 
1507, 4796 ; (2) intr. pr. s. slakes, 
becomes less, 924; pt. s. slaked, 
died out, faded away, f 714. Icel. 
sl'dkvay to extinguish, O.N. slokna^ 
to die out. Suio-Goth. sldcka (v. 
Ihre) ; Sw. slakna^ to become 
slack, A.S. slacian. Ch. 

Sle, V. S. to slay, 2797 ; pt. 8. 
slow, 1196 ; SI0U3, 3890 ; pt. pi. 
slowen, 1275 ; slowe, 1165, 3459 ; 
pp. slawe, 1779, 3421, 3435; sleie, 
379. Ch. 

Slei3j)e, n. S. sleight^ 2151. 

Slepend, pres. pt. sleeping, 2291 ; 
pt, s. slept, 656 ; pt. pi. slepten, 

Sli^li, adv. slily, secretly, in- 
sensibly, 792 ; — slijliche, 1065 ; 

— sliliche, 1413 ; — sleiliche, 637. 

Slod, pt. 8. S. slid, slipped, 792. 

Smyland,^e«. ^r^. smiling, 991. 

So, adv. S. so ; hence^ wat so = 
whatsoever, 607 ; what so = what- 
soever, 621 ; who-so = whosoever, 
t87. See Uo. So as = in like 
manner as, 338. 

Digitized by 




Soberliche, adv. soberly, i. e. 
seriously, prudently, 237 ; — so- 
burli, 991. Ch. 

Socoures, imp. pi. succour ye, 

Sode,^i?. S. sodden, 1849. 

Softili, ado. softly, gently, 632, 

Soget, n. F. subject, 473; pi. 
sogettes, 463. Ch. 

Solas, n. F. solace, comfort, en- 
joyment, 677, 1550. Ch. 

Solas, V. F. to solace, delight, 

Solempne, adj. F. lit. solemn ; 
suitable to a great occasion, 1599 ; 
^rand, famous, 1454. See Solempne 
m Eoq. 

Solempte, n. F. solemnity, solem- 
nization of marriage, 1462. 

Son. See Sowne. 

Sond, n. S. lit. that which is 
sent/msi as Kjind is that which is 
found ; hence (1) a messenger, 
1872; pi. sondes, 1078, 1308, 
1594, 5271. t 291 ; (2) a message, 
5195, 5199; (3) a GodVsend; a 
gift, that which is sent us by God's 
grace, 4561 ; — sonde, 64, f 973 ; 
and hence we may explain the 
difficult phrase " seemely to sonde *' 
in f 175 as meaning "a comely 
creature for a man to acquire j " cf. 
1. 64 of the Werwolf. 

Sonken, pp, sunk, 4111 ; — 
sounk, 1 1092. 

Soothelich. See SoflL 

Sor, n. S. sorrow, 894 ; — sore, 
891 ; pi. sores, 598 ; soris, 639. 
Cf. sorwe in 1. 3543. 

Sore, adv. 8. sorely, 593 ; comp. 
sorer, 634. 

Sorful, adj. S. sorrowful, 3541. 

Sori, adj. worthless, 3509 : pain- 
ful, 3696. 

Sorly, adv. 463. "Surely (?) ; 
see Serlicher—HL. Probably mis- 

written for serlyy as Sir F. Madden 
suge^ests, in which case I would 
explain it by straightly^ strictly, 
closely ; see note on Serliche. The 
French has, ** sont il a lui oil por 
voir, et font du tot a son voloir." 

Sorwfuliche, adv. sorrowfully, 

Sobe, n. S. truth, 108, 116, 238, 
772, &c. Ch. 

SoJ), adj. S. true, 2799; so))ly 
so|), verily true, true indeed, 700. 

Sobli, adv. truly, verily, 949, 
1194;— so)>lj, 76, 379, 473; — 
soHiche, 1452 ; —soothelich, t973. 

Sotilest, sup. adj. most subtle, 
most secret, 2603. 

Sotiliche, adv. subtly, 3117, 4783. 

Souche, V. to suspect, 1983 ; pi. 
s. souched, 1059, 1065. See 

Soudiour, n. Low Lat soldier, 
3954 ; — sowdiour, 3951. Ch. 

Souerayn, n. F. chief, leader, 
4938 ;y^;i. sinff. souerayne,provost*s, 
4695. "The title is still retained 
in some towns in Ireland." — M. 

Soueraynest, siip. adj. most 
sovereign, chiefest, above all others, 
524, 4932 ; cf. most souereyn, 518. 

Soueraynli, adv. above all, chiefly, 
supremely, 1062. 

Souked, pt. 8. sucked, 2702. Ch. 

Soupe, V. F. to sup, 3524. Ch. 

Sou3t, pt. 8. of to sechcy but used 
in a peculiar manner ; thus, sou^t 
forb = found out his way onward, 
46/7; sou3t out = ventured out, 
went out, 4681 ; sought to = made 
for, reached, f 95 ; pi. soujt to =: 
reached, 2717; soute on- sunder = 
parted, 5455 ; soujten on gate =: 
went on their way, 5214. Cf 

Sowdiour. See Soudiour. 

Sowne, n. F. sound, 210 ; — son, 
39. [It is vulgar to say gownd for 

Digitized by 




gown^ but custom has sanctioned 
sound for $oun. Ch. has souuy bat 
soumde is the form in the Prompt. 
Parv. A.D. 1440.] 

Spakly, adv. wisely, knowingly, 
excellently, well, 19 ; but more 
generally it u an expletive, meaning 
quickly, soon, as in 966 ; — spakli, 
3357, 3631 ; — spacly, 3399 ; — 
spacli, 3389, 3392, 3529, 4499, 
4887, 5212. " The root is, appar- 
ently, to be sought in the Su-Goth. 
8pak, Icel. ipakfy sapiens^ See Ihre." 
— M. The same root probably is 
that of Sc. spae, and of 0. H. Ger. 
spahi, prudent ; Dan. tpaae, to pre- 
aict; and probably also of Ger. 
spdhen, Eng. spif, &o. The -word 
occurs in the form spakely in Morte 
Arthur, ed. Perry, L 2063. 

Spaynols, n. pi, Spaniards, 3631, 
3730, 3770, 5168, 5212; — spay- 
noles, 3399.; — spaynolus, 3529 ; 
— spaynolnes, 3357. 

Spede, V, (in oiUspede or out 
spede) to succeed, 548 ; pp, spedde, 
1293, 1715 ; (2) trans, to help, 
succour, in pt, s, spedde, 4922. 

Spedeliche, adv, speedily, 19 ; 
— spedly, 5468, t 296. 

Spei3ed, pt. pi, spied, saw, 3399. 
C/, A-spie. 

Speldes, n. pi. S. splinters, 3392, 
3603, 3855. Cf. E. spell or spill, 
originally a chip of wood for light- 
ing a candle. See Spall, Spelk, 
Spell in Wedgwood. ** In the 
Prompt. Parv. we have Spalle, or 
ohyppe. Quisquilia, assula. The 
latter term is still used in the 
North; V. Brockett."— M. See 
also Spawlt Speall, Speel, Spelder, 
Spelk, S^elt, in Halliwell, all mean- 
ins a cAip; and cf. G. spalten, to 

Spenen, v, S. to spend, f 362 ; 
pp. spended, distributed, 4324. 

Spille, V, trans, to destroy, con- 
found, overthrow, 966, 1891, 3009, 
3437i 4100, 4395 ; pp, spilt, 3764; 


(2) intrans. to die, 1 p. s, pr, spille, 
1535. Ch. 

Spire, V, S. to inqilire, seek, 
4594. Sc. speir. 

Spors, n, pi, spurs, 1482. Ch. 

Spret, n. S. a boatman's pole, 
2754 ; — sprite, a pole, 1 1097. 
See i%v/ in Halliwell. ** It is still 
preserved in the term bow-jpn/." 
— M. A sprit'SaJX has its name 
from the pole that traverses it 

Stabled, pp, established, f 514. 

Stalkeden, pt, pi, S. walked 
cautiously, one step at a time, 
2728. "Dan. stalke, to «) with 
high uplifted feet, with long 
steps ; " Wedgwood. Ch. 

Stalworb, adj, S. strong, stout, 

Standes, imp, pi. stand ye, 2263 ; 
pt. pi, stoden, 2728. 

Stede, n. S. place, stead, 3521, 
1 303, 1 769. Ch. 

Stef, adj, a stiff, strong, 2894, 
3600, 3604 ; — styf = deep, pro- 
found, 4056 ;— stif, 3535. 

Stolen, adj, of steel, 3535, 3859 ; 

— 8tel,t416. 
Stepchilderen, n, pi, 131. 

Stepmoder, n, stepmother, 2640 ; 
pi, stepmoderes, 130, 4099. 

Steme, adj, S. stem, fierce, brave, 
159, 2981, 3243 ; — stume, 3409, 
3780 ; sup, stumest, 3226. 

Stemely, adv, S. sternly, fiercely, 
bravely, boldly, 1158 ; — stemli, 
2894, 3240; — stumli, 3907. Ch. 

Stert, V, S. to start off, gallop, 
3600 \ \p. s. pt, sterte, I started 
off, I ran, 2277 ; pt. s. stert vp, 
started up, 4355 ; stirte vp, 3275. 

Sterue, v. S. to die, f ^45 ; pp. 

storue, died, 1515. Ch. 
Stif. See Stef 
Stifly, adv, S. earnestly, eagerly, 

Digitized by 




736, 880 ; — stifli, 
1657; — stiffuly, 219. 

Stiked, j7/?. pierced, 3818. 

Stint, n. S. stop, delay, 2350, 

Stint, V. S. to stop, dwell, cease, 
pause, leave off, 159, 1612, 1961, 
5232; — stinte, 1042; — stynt, 
2781 ; in transitive tense, to make 
to leave off, 4056; pt. t. stint, 61, 
1 951 ; stinte, 1574 ; stinten, 
1 445 ; stint, f 386 ; imp, t. stint, 
1652 ; imp. pL stintes, 1206 ; 
stinteK 1113. "It is inserted in 
the Prompt. Parv. * Styntyn'. 
Fau$o,desisto,submio.*'*—li. Ch. 

Stirte vp. See Stert 

StiJ), ddj. S. strong, f 91. 

Stiued, pp. baked liard, 3033. 

Sw. stu/va, Dan. stuve, Eng. stew. 

See Stew in Wedgwood, and cf. F. 

Stiward, n. S. a steward, 3378, 

4211 ; ffen. sing, stiwardes, 3446. 

Sti3t, pp. S. set, fixed, 4425. 

Sti3tli, V. S. to dispose, arrange, 
manage, 3841, 6379 ; sti^tli to- 
gadere = arrange matters between 
them, 3281 ; pt. s. stMed, 1199 ; 
(disposed oO, 2899. Cf. P. PL 
Crede, 316. 

Sti^htlich, adv. disposedly, in 
nght order, in their proper place, 

Stoden, pt. pi. stood, waited, 
2728. Cf. Standes. 

Stonen, adj. of stone, 1072. 

Store, n. F. story, 4806. 

Storue. See Sterue. 

Stoteye, n. cunning, stratagem, 
4985. Lat. astutia, O.F. astuce. 

Stounde, n. S. a space of time, a 
while, 159, 1360, 1574, 1657, 2263, 
t630; bi a stounde, for a short 
while, 1832; a stounde while, a 
moment, f 951. Ger. stunde. Ch. 

Stoundemele, adv. = A.S. gtvndr 
m^lum, by little times, by degrees, 
736. Cf. stownd-meel in Wycl. 
Gloss., and see Ch. 

Stour, n. F. battle, conflict, 3536, 
3907 ; — stoure, 4214 ; — sthonre, 
3530. O.F. estour ; cf. IceL styrr, 
a battle. Ch. 

Stoutliche, adv. stoutly, 1950. 

Strane, pr. pi. strain, t 349. See 

the note. 
Strawed,/>p. strewn, 1617. 
Strecche, v. S. to stretch, 219 ; 

pt. s. streyt, 2957 ; streijt him = 

went, 3279 ;/)p. straljed, 3617; 

imp. pi. strecches, 11131 
Streijt, adv. straight^ 3328; — 

strei^et {probably miswrilten /or 

strei^te), 3592. Ch. 

Strek into a studie = fell into 
deep thought, 2981, 4038. A.8. 
strican, to pass on. Cf. G. streicken, 
to strike, to fly, &c. It is even 
applied to the flowing onward of a 
stream — "Ase strem that striketh 
stille : " Lyric Poetry ; ed. T. 
Wright. Percy Soc. 1842, p. 44. 

Striked, pp. streaked, strewnf 

Striued, pt. 8. strove, 4099. 

Stume, StumlL See Sterne, 

Studie, n. F. deep thought, 4038, 
4056. Cf. 1. 130. 

Sty, n. S. a path, 212. 

Sued, pt. 8. followed, f 957. See 

Sufreded, pt. 8. suffered {miswrit- 
ten for Sufred), 783; pp. suffred, 
1014 ; imp. pi. suffref, permit ye, 

Sunder, v. intr. to part, 1052. 

Sunner, comp. adv. sooner, 962, 

Surgens of saleme = surgeons of 
Salerno, 964, 1576 ; spelt surgyens, 
1033. Of. ♦• A surgyne of Salenie 

Digitized by 




enserches his wondes." Morte 

Arthure; ed. Perry, L 4312. 
Suster, n. S. siater, 2643, 5093, 

1 175 ; ffen, sing, susteres, f 236. 

Swapped, 'pp. struck off with a 

sweeping blow, 3609. Cf. A.8. 

swapan, to sweep ; sicipe, a whip. 

Swelt, pt. 8. S. fainted, 4268. 

"Swalteryn for hete, or febylnesse, 

or other cawsys. Exalo, sincopizo" 

Prompt. Parv. A.S. sweUan, to 

die, perish. 
Swenged. See Swinge. 
Sweteliche, adv. sweetly, 1329. 

Sweting, n. S. sweetheart, a term 
' of endearment, 916, 1537, 2799, 

Sweuen, ». S. a dream, 2312, 

2869, 2916, &c.; — sweuene, 658, 

916, 2294; pL sweuenes, t599. 

Swiche, such, 414, 544, 710, 766, 

781, &c. ; — swich, 869. A.S. 

twile. Ch. 
Swifliest, €up. adv. swiftliest, 
• 3454. 
SMringe,^r. pi. they strike, 3439 ; 

pt. 8. swenged, 3444; pt.pL swonge, 

3856. A.S. swingan, to beat. 

Swibe, adv. S. quickly, 41, 266, 
1078, 1129, 1256, 1303, 1824, 
4843, 5214; before an adj. swi|»e 
= very, as in 1628, 1 107 ; and as 
in t 546, t 567, t.833, where ii is 
spelt swith. As swi^e = as qaickly 
as may be, 108, 352, 837; alse 
swi|>e, 3158. Swi)?e vpon hast, 
very fast, very soon, 5195. [It 
was by his criticisms upon this 
word as occurring in Havelok that 
Mr Singer demonstrated his singu- 
lar ignorance. He interprets sm]>e 
to mean a sword / At this rate " a 
sioith faire stoerd** in Alisaunder, 
1. 833, would be tautological in- 

Swowe, n. S. swoon, 87. Ch. 

labours, n. pi. 3813. 

Tach, n. F. spot, blemish, dis- 
grace, f 282. Ch. 

Takes, pr, 8. bestows, gives, 866 ; 
pt. s. tok, delivered, gave, 4683; 
pp. take, 1271, 12S9 ; put for xm- 
take, 1280. 

Tale. See Telle. 

Tallage, ti. F. a tax, impost, 5124. 
0.h\ taillage. 

Talke, v. to tell, 1018, 1322, &c. 

Talliche, adv. in a seemly manner, 
1706. '* This obsolete and unusual 
word, from the S. tela, bene, is 
preserved in the Prompt. Parv. 
Tally, or semely and in semelv 
wyse. Decenter, eleganter." — M. 
Cf. Welsh telaid, graceful. The 
Fr. iaille sometimes means well 

Tamid, pt. pi. tamed, subdued, 

Targe, v. to tarry, f 211, f ^^^ ; 
pt. 8. targed, t 94. 0. F, larger , 
whence targa^ which occurs at p. 
210, 1. 8 of this volume. 

Te, put for To, 1222. Cf. fort«= 
for to, note to 1. 788. 

Tei^ed, j9p. S. tied, 3226;— teied, 

Telle, V. to tell, 34 ;— tele, 4993 ; 

—tale, 160; pr. pi. tellus, 198; 

pt. s. teld, 1475; told, 2009;/?^./?/. 

telden, 1662; tolde, 1469; pp. 

teld, 2009; told, 1478; i-told, 

1493; telles, 1346; telleh 


Tended,^^ pi. attended, regarded, 
1781 ; pp. tended of all, heard by 
all with attention, t 997 ; imp. pi, 
lend, 1 7. 

Tene, n. S. i\) sorrow, trouble, 
grief, 607, 1107, 2369, 2476, 3013, 
3735, 6192 ; — teene, f 142, f 241, 
1285; pi. tenes, 1013; also (2) 
teene = anger, wrath, 1 94, f 806 ; 
treie and tene, vexation and anger, 
2073. Ch. 


Digitized by 




Tene, v. S. to vex, 2812 ;— teene, 
+380: pL 8. tened. 2025 ; pp. tened, 
1992, 2201; teenid, t^lj teened, 
t345. Ch. 
Tenful, adj. S. vexatious, griev- 
ous, painfol, 2666, 4712 ;- teene- 
fuU, t 282. 
Tenefully, adv. grievously, 437 ; 

— teenfolly, harmfully, 1 353. 
Tent, n. intent, purpose, 1662. 

See TefU in Halliwell. 
Tentifly, adv. attentively, dili- 
gently, 2258 ;-tentyai, 5124. Cf. 
ienixf in Ch. 
Tenbedel, n. S. tenth part, 4715 ; 
— tiMel,6346. C{.iicenti]>e parte, 
ha, prm. that, the, 765, 2458, 
3059, 3422 ; rel. pron. who, which, 
843,2536, 4115 ;/>/. 5274;-- t>e 
(rel. pron.) 1687, 4422 ; eo?0' that, 
ba, put for })o, then, 571. See 
po. [Or else miswriiten for pa».J 
J?ai,tliey, ll,&c.;-)>ei,24^&c.; 

pi. )»aim, them, 5407. See Hem. 
Jjan, the, ace. sing, ofdef. art., 91. 
ban, then, 83, 92, &c. ; — fanne, 

100, &c.;— Nn,t73<^- 
Jjan, than, 589 ;— )>en, 1 319. 
Jjarto, thereto, 808. 
bat, " when prefixed to a verh in 
the present tense, [sometimes] 
eives it a suhjunctive or optative 
figniftcation, as in 319, 2795, &c." 
— M. pat, those who, 3459. 
patou, that thou, 3128, 5159; — 
fatow, 285, 914, 2787 ; — )>attow, 
be, rel pron. which, 4422 ; pi J)e, 
1687. A.S. K which is often a 
relative pronoun, and is indeclin- 
J5ede, n. S. land, country, 1658. 
J)eder, adv. thither, 2235 ; — 

J>ider, 33. 
pederward, adv. thitherward, 835. 

pei, they. See ))aL 
bei;h, conj. S. though, 451, 689, 
3342»->>cih, 919, 1017; -1^1, 
1563 ; — >>ou3h, 349 ; — ]k>u1^ 
2347; — *ei, t 677. pei «ei = 
though they, 1 611- Ch. 
pemperour, put for fe emperour, 
212, 218, &c.; but written )>e 
emperowr, 205. The pi. temper- 
oures also occurs, 1612. 
pen, than, t 319. See ))an. 
penchesoun = fe enchesoun, the 
occasion, the cause, 2624. Ch. 
See Encheson. 
pende = be ende, the end, 4869, 

5092. Ch. 
benke, v. S. to think, 4908 ; 1 p. 
,. pr. >»enke, 711; N^k, 1624; 2 
«. pi, pr. thinken, 1 2 ;. pr. *. «j^. 
^nk, 3370; imp. pi hnkes, 3/01. 
Impersonal, seems, « f» me I'lnK^. 
430, 446, 622 ; me J»inke>>, 839 ; 
lou dere l)inkes, 4727 ; jou lef 
>inkes, 384. Ch. 
bennes, adv. thence, 2191; 

«enne8,t67. Ch 
Per, adv. S. where, 1627, 3319, 

per as, there where, 1232, 1708 ; 

— )>ere as, 3480. 
per a-houte, ahout it, 972. 
per-a-gayn, against it, 1450. 
per-mide, therewith, 5358. 
per-out, thence, 2820. 
per-tille, thereto, thereof, 2337. 
per-to-fore, before that time, until 

then, 3435,2611. 
per-vnder, under it, 3034. 
per-wi3t, therewith, 138. 
perbe, put for J)C er\e, the earth, 

the ground, 3866, 5014. Ch. 
Perwe, through, 107. See prouj. 
pewe, n. S. slave, bondman, 5514. 

A.S. }peoio. 
pewes, w.;)?. S. manners, customs, 

Digitized by 




189, 342, 500, 518. A.S. l>edio. 

i)ider, adv, thither, 33, 752, 

1082}— >eder, 2235. 
J^ilke, the same, 2954 : pi. those, 

3530. Ch. 
J^inkes. See ]?enke* 
i)irles, pr. *. S. pierces, thrills 

through, 612, 3512 ; jjurlen, 

910 J pL s. girled, 3696 ; thurlude. 

t608;jt?p. girled, 826. Ch. 
l)iea, S. thighs, f 191. 
J?is, used in pi these, 2240, 4251 ; 

— I'ise, 849, 889. Ch. 

pQ. adt), S. then, 1865, 3265, 

3591, 4342, &c;-K 571. A.S. 
pa, Ch. 

po, pi. pron. those, them, 1757, 
2285, 3648, tl25, fW, t233. 
A.S. pd. 

J)o, probably mmDritten far be, 

Dof, though, 1 966. See Jjeijh. 

J)ole, V. S. to suffer, 918, 1247 ; 
pp. foled, 4514. Ch. 

J?onges, n. ^Z. thongs, 1720, 1736. 

Jjonke, n. alng. S. thanks, 297. 

J)onke, V, S. to thank, 3522; — 
|K)nk, 2794 ; 1 p. s. pr. 1248 ; pr. 
8. >onkes, 63 ; pL s. >onked, 1003, 
1038, 1269 J thonked, 2143: «^.p/. 
|K)nked, 1716, 2444. Ch. 

J?orou-oute, throughout, 1 191. 

J)ort> pt 8. need, might, ought, 
1076, 3563, 3671;->>urt, 3355, 
4441, 4541, 4705, 4821, 4960; pt. 
f>l. )?urte, 3788. "It is derived 
immediately from 8. tharf-an, 
thearf-an, thurf-an, thorf-ian, mak- 
iuff m pt. t. thorfie, and is allied to 
a lar^ class of words in the re- 
maining Gothic dialects. Thus, 
* dar (= ihar) no mon hem wite,* 
[1. 2434] in the pr, t. corresponcb 
precisely to * no gora thurt him 
wite,' [1. 4705] in the pi, t. Hence 
may be corrected the explanation 
of the word in tlavelok, vv. 9, 10. 

He was the wicteste man at nede. 
That thurte riden on ani stede. 
* A few more instances may not be 
out of place. In Robert of Brunne's 
translation of the Manuel des 
Peches, completed in 1303, we 
have : 

He wax so mylde and so meke, 
A mylder man thurt no man seke. 
MS. Harl. 1701, foL 39. 

So also, in the Romance of the 

Seven Sages : 

He toke a chamber nere that stede. 
Him thurt noght care than for his 


MS. Cott. Galb. E. ix. fol. 30 b. 
In Barbour's Bruce, according to 
Jamieson [p. 407] is written: 
For scho wes synethe best lady. 
And the fayrest, that men thunt se. 
But we evidently ought to read 
thurt se."— M, The verb occurs 
even in M<Bso-Gothic, as, " land 
bauhta jah tharf galeithan jah 
saihwan thata" — "! have bought 
land, and 1 need to go and see it," 
Luke xiv. 18; and in the past 
tense, " hwa gatawida Daweid, than 
thaurftamh gredags was"— «< how 
David did. when he needed and was 
hungry," Mark ii. 26. 

Jjourh, through, 4219. See jjrou^. 

J^utest, 2 p, 8. pt, thoughtest, 
1249 ;— foutes, 4066; pt. s, fouat, 
462 ; font, 855 ; impersonal, me 
bout, 2298; him J»ou3t, 673; ^ou^t 
him lojj, 1255 ; hire |>ou2t, 857 ; 
hire font, 2908; him del boujt. 

J?ou3, pers. pron, thou, 312, 692. 

J)ou3h, Jjpuh^. See \>e^h, 

Jjou^t, n, S. thought, 4054;" — 

font, 4116; —^out (read font?), 

447; pL J^ou^tes, 861, 941, 4064. 
Jjridde, adj. S. third, 2866, 4941. 
Jjristliche, adv. S. lit, holdly ; 

hence, beautifully (much as our 

poets use bravely), f 191. 
Jjro, adj. vehement, eager, 3264, 

Digitized by 




3564. Shortened from the icord 

Jjroli, adj. S. vehement, severe, 
3518 ;— My, 612. A.S. ^red-lte, 
severe, dire. Cf. thra in Jamieson. 

Jjroli, adv. vehemently, heartily, 
ea^rly, earnestly, 910, 1038, 3176, 
3407, 3664;— My, 127, 1696; 
— M^clie, 103, t 215. It occurs 
inP. Pl.A.ix. 107. 

Jjropes, n. pi, S. thorpes, small 
villages, 2141. See Halliwell. 

J)rouj, prep. S. through, 459 j — 
furth, 216, 254, 522, 635, Ac. ; — 
fur^th, 1320, 1643}— furb, 2149; 
*— burjh, 655 ; — thorou, f 612, 
1 897. [In 1. 3799 we find y)urh, 
probably raiswritten for ^owrA, 
{cf. 4219), owinff to confusion witb 
tne word y)ur following soon after.] 

Jjrowe, n. S. time, while, a trice, 

462, 622, 649, 679, &c. Cb. 
J3ru8ch, n. a thrush, 820. I There 
J)rustele,n. a throstle, 820. J seems 
to be a distinction here. Pals- 
grave gives grytte (grive) as the 
French for thrush^ and mauhis 
imaums=. So. mavis) as the French 
[for throstle, 

))urlen, Thurlude. See Jjirles. 

Jjurth, Jjurh, Jjur^h, Jjurjth. See 

burth-out, throughout, 1472 ; — 
)>urth-oute, 5028 ; — forou-oute, 

Tid. See Tit. 

Tide, V, S. {often impers.) to befall, 
betide, 30i7;--tyde, 326; pr. s. 
subj. tide, 137,607; tyde, 1560; 
pt. s. tidde, 198, 797, 1067, 1416, 
2496, 3962 ; tid, 787, 4178 ; (fol- 
lowed by an ace, case) pr. s. nim 
tides, 1 681 ; pt. s. hem tidde, 1659, 
1763, 2829 ; 30U tidde, 1346 ; pp, 
tidde, 4918. See also Bi-tide. 

Tide, n. S. time, season, 859, 

Tidi, adj. timely, seasonable ; 
hence i also, fair, brave (lime), 1710 ; 

(host), 3556 ; (men), 4166 ; (earl- 
dom), 5384; — tidy (child), 160; 
(tidings), 1339; (words), 3077 ;— 
tide (werwolf), 2496 ; snp. tidiest, 
3909 ; tide^ist, 3556. A.S. tid-lte. 
Du. tijdig. G. zeitig, 

Tidili, adv, seasonably, suitably, 
fitly, 4454 ;— tidely, 5482 5— tidily, 

Tiding, n. tidings, news, 1478; 
pi. tiding, 1493, 4877; tyding, 
1075, 1134, 2677; tidinges, 4942; 
ti|)inges, 250. \_The use of tiding, 
tyding as pi. forms is worth notice.] 

Tidly. See Tith. 

Tiffed, pt. 8. attired, dressed, 
arrayed, 2995 ; pp. tiffed, 2995, 
3183. Cf. O. N. typpa. See CJole- 
ridge's Gloss. Index. 

Tille, prep. S. unto, to, 232, 662, 
864, 977, 4039 ; — tiU, f 605, 
1 1025 ;— til, 412, 788, 1475. Ch. 

Timbred, pp. S. built, 2015. 

Time, v. to happen, in the plir. so 
me wel time (so may it happen 
well to me, so may good betide 
me), 3570, 5433 ;— so me wel tyme, 
279. A.S. getimian, Sw. tima, 
Dan. times, to happen. See the 
note in Wedgwood on the word 
Beteem, [Mr Wedgwood is of 
opinion that I have wrongly ex- 
plained tymen in P. PI. Crede, 742, 
and that " Y miit tymen** = I could 
find it in my heart to, as in the 
phr. " I comd teeme it," for which 
see Halliwell, s. v. Teem, This 
would connect tymen in the Crede 
with A.S. getimian, to happen, not 
with A. S. tymian, to tame, compel.] 

Tine, v. to lose, 299, 1365, 1 358, 
1 378 ; — tyne, 358, 2176 ; 2 p. pi. 
pr. tine, 3015 ; pp, tint, f 30 ; tynt, 
1560. O.N. //iw. [Marked as 
A.S. by Halliwell, but not given 
by Bosworth.] 

Tire, v. to attire, 4478 ; pp, tyred, 

Tifedel. See TenfedeL 

Tij^inges. See Tiding. 

Digitized by 




Tit, adv, quickly, soon, 1013, 
1054, 3445, 3552, 4066, f^O; — 
tyt, 1373, 4245 ; — tid, 753, 4167, 
4192, 4763, f 377, 1 549 ; — tht, 
133. As tit = as soon as mignt 
be, thereupon, 328, 3550; as tyt, 
238, 292. As tit as, as soon as, 
852, 2921 ; sup. tittest, soonest. 
Icel. titt, from tt^^ time. Sw. tidt, 
from tidf time. Hence the word is 
nearly related to Tidily. Cf. TitH, 
aUo speli Tidly. 

Titli, adv. quickly, soon, 2666; 
— titly, 1416, 2694, 3388 ; — tit- 
liche, 2528 ;— tytely, t 7 ;— tiatli, 
1706, 2282, 2476 j-tijtly, 66, 285, 
487, &c. ; — tidly, t 640, 1809, 
+ 974. As titly, very soon, 2108. 
[In IL 66 and 1706 it is possible 
that ii^tly or ii^ili may mean 
tightly, closely.] 

To, adv. too, 11, 5024. 

To, two, 2877. See Tvo. 

To-, verbal prefix. It does not 
seem to have been hitherto suffi- 
ciently noted, that there are, in 
A.S., two distinct prefixes spelt 
alike. They are (1) to-, 0. Sax. 
te-, Moeso-Goth. dis-t Ger. zer-, 
Lat. dia-, meaning apart, asunder, 
in two pieces; and (2) to-, Du. 
toe-, G. zu; Moeso-Groth. du-, which 
is merely the prep, to in composi- 
tion. Examples of the first are 
common in Early Enff., but of the 
second less so, wnich has led to an 
undue disregard of its force. Of 
the examples below, only the two 
last, To-wawe and To-^elde, belong 
to the latter class ; and in the 
Wycl. Gloss, there is but one, viz, 
to-ne3hen = to approach. The 
verbs with this prefix are here 

To-barst, pt s. S. burst asunder, 
374. G. zerbersten, O. Sax. tebres- 
tan. Gh. 

To-brak, pt. s. S. brake in pieces, 
3237 (see Judges ix. 53) ; pp. to- 
broke, utterly oroken, 3410. G. 
zerbrechen. Ch. 

To-clatered, pp. broken to pieces 
with a loud clatter, 2858. "This 
reading is rendered certain by a 
passage in the Romance of Ferum- 

Ys scheld that was wyth gold y- 
batrid : & eke wyth ire 
Sone thay had hit al to-clatrid : 
the peeces laye on the grounde. 
MS. Ashm. 60 ft fol. 12."— M. 
I add another example. 
" And on the hed he hym batrid 
That hvs hedd all to-clatride." 
Sir Degar6, MS. Camb. Um'v. 
Lib. Ff. ii. 38, fol. 259 A. 
And see HalliwelL 
Too-clef, pt. 8. S. tJitr. broke in 

half, split asunder, 1 1009. 
To-cleued, pt. s. S. trans, clove 

asunder, 3865. 
To-drawe, j9p. S. drawn asunder, 
1564, 2020, 2086, 2138, 3740, 
4773, 5479. 

To-hewe, ^. S. hewn to pieces, 
3412. G. zerhaueu. Ch. 

To-shett, pt. 8. S. brake in half, 
f 1008. Lit. shot asunder ; c/. the 
quotation in Halliwell, **Hys fote 
scAett** = his foot shot aside, 

To-sprong, pt. pi. S. sprang 
asunder, cracked asunder. G. 

To-tere, v. S. to tear in pieces, 
3884 ; pt. 8. to-tare, 3884. Ch. 

To-twi^t, pt. 8. S. twitched 
violently, pulled up by the roots, 
2097. See To-twitch in Coleridge's 
Gloss. Index. 

To-wawe, v. S. move about, 
toddle to and fro like a child, 19. 
Wawc = wag is common ; but it is 
also found in the exact sense used 

" Thanne is the child quic anon ; 
of stren^the naveth hit no^t 
Enes for to waioe : er hit beo 
furthe i-brojt ; 

Digitized by 




Of thulke soule hath ech man: 
that may wavfi and gon/' &c. 

Pop. Treatises on Science, ed. T. 
Wright, p. 139. 

The prefix to- has here nearly 
the force of the Q. zu- in zuwanken. 
The compound verb is Tery rare, 
but it is the same, I believe, as 
occurs in a transitive sense in the 
following — " weder bi* fnger . . . 
beo* woicen to-toegen; ** i. e. "the 
weather is fair, the clouds ar« re- 
moved:* Fhoenixy pt. IIL (1. 2) ; in 
Codex Exoniensis, ed. Thorpe. Cf. 
So. '* wauchle^ to move from side 
to side in walking, like a young 
child;" Jamieson. Cf. G. zuicanJken, 
zugeheHy A. S. To-gewagan, to 
carry to. 

To-jelde, pt 8, yielded to ; vp to- 
^elde = yielded up to, vntA the to 
repeated, 3924. Cf. G. zugehen^ to 
grant, as shovring the force of the 
prefix to-. 

To-fore, prep, S. before, 2091 ; 
dUo adv. before (of time), 142, 793, 
925, 2446, &c.; (of place), 2390; 
— to-for, 2886 j — tofore, t 46, 
t930. Ch. 

To-gaderes, adv, S. together, 699 ; 
— to-geder, 909 ;— to-gidere, 1011. 
Tokene)), pr, 8, betokens, 2937. 

Tol, n. tool ; egge-tol = edged 

tool, weapon, 3755. 
Tom, n. leisure, 3778. Cf. Sc. 

toom, Dan. and Sw. torn, vacant. 

The word occurs in P. PL A. ii. 

160. '*Toom. Spacium,tempu8, opor- 

tunitas" Prompt. Parv. 

Tombled, pt, 8. tumbled, 2776, 

3866. See Tumbel. 
Ton, n. pi, toes, f 194. Ch. 

Too-clef. See the word preceding 

Top ouer tail, head over heels, 
2776. ** A proverbial phrase, used 
also in Lynasay, which I believe is 
not yet obsolete."— M. It occurs 
in Barbour's Brus, ed. Jamieson, 

V. 755. Halliwell gives another 
Tor, adj. difficult, 1428, 5143 ; 
— toor, 5066. "From the Su-G. 
and Isl. tor, difficile. This term, 
spelled tore and teir, occurs also in 
tne three Romances of /SkV Oawaifn^^ 
in the Houlate, pt. 2. st. 9, and in 
Rauf Coilzear, ap. Laing, st. 37.** 
— M. See Oawavne and Greme 
Km^t, ed. Morris, 165, 719. 

To-rijtes, 3066, &c. See Elites. 

Tonche, v, F. to touch upon, 
talk, treat of, 5033 ; 1 p. t, pt, 
touched, 4108 ; pt, s. toched, 
4991 ; pt, pi. touched, 4993 ; pt. t, 
(= belonged to), 5384; pret.part. 
touchend, 1383. 

Tour, n. F. a tower, 2015. Ch. 

Tow, used for fou (thou), after ^ 
preceding, 4478. Cf, Seidestow, 

To-ward, adv, S. forward, forth- 
coming, ready at hand, 1443 ; — 
toward, 1101. CL Toward 'm^9xes. 

To-heuene-ward, towards heaven, 

Trattes, n. pi, old women, spoken 
contemptuously, 4769. " Sec 
Jamieson's notes on this word, and 
Tyrwhitt on Chauc v. 7164. The 
most obvious etvmon is Teut. trot, 
a woman, an old woman, a witch. 
See Wachter, «ii ©."— M. See also 
Trot in Halliwell ; and cf. 
" An aged trot and tough did marie 
with a lad." 

Of a cofUrerie manage^ by G. 
Turberville, ab. a.d. 1567. 

Trauaile, n. F. labour, 1560 ; — 
trauayle, 358, 2176 ; — trawayle, 
299 ; pi, trauayles, 2666, 4712. 

Traysted,pp. F. deceived, betrayed, 
2075, 4769. " See Jamieson, in v. 
Betreyss, and Skinner. From the 
latter Chatterton borrowed the 
word, therefore Bryant might have 
saved himself the trouble of quoting 
passages from the present poem to 
prove the authenticity of the phan- 

Digitized by 




torn Bowley."— M. Cf. O. F. 

traistrct a traitor. 
Treie, w. S. vexation, 2073. See 

the note. 
Trestes, 2 p, 8, pr, trustest, 970. 

Trewe, adj, S. true ; leue me fot 
trewe = believe me to be true, 
1562 ;— trew, 596. 

Triacle, n, treacle, i e. an antidote 
against poisons and diseases, f 198. 
^ Treacle in Prompt. Parv., and 
Way's note. Ch. 

Trie, adj. F. lit, tried, proved; 
hence choice, excellent, noble; 
(tree), 761 ; (attire), 1721, 4542 ; 
(lords), 1289; (order), 4465; 
(towers), f 16 ; (town), + 157 j 
(treacle), 1 198 ; (places), f 333 ; 
(folk), 1 345;— tri (tree), 753, 789; 
— trye (game), 387 ; sup. triest, 
1443. ** The same word occurs 
in the Romance of Richard Coer 
de Lion, 1. 6450, * with fyn syluyr 
and gold f ul trve ; * in the Romance 
of Octavian^ 1. 1467, *of Sarsyns 
stout and trye;* in Chaucer's 
Cant, T. * with suger that is trie ;' 
and in the poems of Friar Michael 
Kyldare, MS. Harl. 913, which 
contain the earliest instances of it 
I have yet met with. It is un- 
doubtedly an abbreviation of the 
jop. triedj as shown hj the various 
readings of the Wycliffite texts of 
the Biole, Exod. c xvi. and Lev. 
c ii., where is the expression trie 
or tried flour." — M. So also 
Irieste, triyst, and tiyest are various 
readings for triedest in P. PI. A. i. 
126, q. V. 

Trieliche, adv, choicely, excellently 
ialicays Joined loith a-tired), 4819; 
— triliche, 1228 ; — tryli, 3198 ; — 
trieliche, 4861. 

Trist, imp, 8, S. trust thou, t489. 

Tristy, adj. trusty, 596, 1228, 
2015, 1 329, 1 952. 

Triced, pi. «. 3556, in "<fe triced 
him to a tidi ost." Explained by 
Sir F. Madden to mean ''drew. 

joined." But I believe that him to 
IS put for to him, (a not uncommon 
usage, ef. IL 662, 864, &c.), and 
then triyed to him = chose out for 
himself, picked out the best men 
he could find, which is the drift of 
the passage. Cotgrave gives 
"Triers to pick, chuse, cull out 
from among others ;" which further 
explains wny the word trie bears 
the sense of choice. See Trie. 

Trompes, ». 2>?. trumpets, 3358; 
— trumpes, 3813. 

Trowe, v, S. to beh'eve, trow, hold^ 
for a truth, 4840 ilp. f, pr, trowe, 
540, 1031, 1995; trow, 299; pt. 
s, trowed, 1018; trowede, 1480;, trowed, f 919 ; imp. s. trowe, 
4363 ; imp, pi. trowef, 2112. Ch. 
[In 1. 1480 perhaps we should read 
mysse-trotoeae as one word ; but 1. 
141 renders this doubtful.] 

Trusse, v, to pack up, f 549. Cf. 
Hatelok, 2017. 

Tnistili, adv, S. courageously, 

Tumbel, pr. 8. suhj. tumble, 3388. 
See Tombled. 

Tunnes, n, pi, S. casks, 2743. 

Tvo, two, 1688, 1698, 1777, 
2162, &c. ;~to, 2877. 

Tweie, two, 2008, 2147 ;— tweine, 
2507; — tweyne, 812, 929, 1528. 
[The distinction between this word 
and tvo is that tweie is used tifter 
the personal pronouns vs, hem, fei, 
&Q. ; whilst tvo precedes a noun.] 

Twentife, twentieth, 5354. 

Twi3es, adv. twice, 3721. 

Twynne, v. S. to part, 1572. Ch. 

Tyr, n. F. attire, 1725. Cf, A-tir. 

XJch, each, every, 776, 884, 1488; 

— uche, 5000;— vch a, 511. 
Venge, v. F. to avenge, 5197 ; cf. 

auenged, pp., f 281. 
Veuorye, n. F. beasts of the chase, 

game, 1685. 

Digitized by 




Verali, adv. verily, 5197 ; — 

veraly, 639. 
Vitayles, n, pi. F. victuals, 1121. 

Vmbe-cast, pp. 8. beset, sur- 

rouuded, 2319, 4693. Cf. Bi-cast. 

[The prefix is the IlS. ymd-, Old 

Saxon umbi't G. urn-, Du. Dan. 

and Sw. om-, Gk. a/A^.'} 

Unclainte, pr. 8. f 1172. This is 
surely miswritten for uttclamf^ = 
undamped, unfastened, from A. 8. 
clamy a clamp. The only difference 
between m and in, in the hand- 
writing of the MS., would consist 
in there being a dot o?er the first 
of the three downstrokes. The 
copyist may have been thinking of 
uMcAatnte = unchained. 

Vndede, pt. 8. undid, unfastened, 
4846 ; pp. vndo, 2078. 

Vnder-fonge, v. S. to take, receive, 

Vndersto {miswritten for vnder- 
8to»), pr. pi. they understand, 
5533; pt. 8. vnderstod, 877; pp* 
vnderston, 5262. 

Vnglad, adj. S. joyless, 2106. 

Ungome, v. S. to unman, to drive 
the men away from, 1 294. [The 
meaning is clear, but 1 know of no 
other instance of the word.] Cf. 

Vn-hendly, adv. S. discourteously, 

492. Cf. Hende. 
Un-hent, pp. S. uncaught, un- 

captured, 1671. Cf Hent. 

Unkinde, adj. S. unnatural, t34. 

Unkoutbe, adj. unknown, un- 
familiar, strange, f 48 ; — unkouth, 
unknown, not understood, t683. 

Vnnebe, adv. S. scarcely, 132. 

Vn-tetcbe, n. disgraceful action, 
509. Tetche is another form of 
Tach^ q. V. The O.F. tache means 

a quality or disposition, either aood 
or bad ; so in the Prompt rarv. 
** Tetche, or maner of condycyone, 
Mo9, eondicio." Hence vn-tetehe 
means an evil habit, or disgraceful 
act. At the same time, as the 
word was most commonly used in 
a had sense, we find tach used 
for a hlemiik. See tache, tachcr^ 
techCy in Roq. ; taeeha in P. PI.; 
tache in Halliwell and Cotgrave. 

Vntille,2>rep. unto, 2998. 

Vntydi, n. pi. mean, poor, 1455. 
QT. Tidi. 

Unwele, adj. S. wicked, \h\.Z. 
Well = good, adj. is given in Cole- 
ridge's Gloss. Index. 

Vn-woundet, pp. unwounded, 

Vowcbe-sauf, imp. «. vouchsafe, 

grant, 1449. Cf Fouche. Ch. 
Vp, :prep. S. upon, 2378, 2809. 

Cf. G. auf 
Vp bappe, perhaps, 2722. 
Vp-keuerede,2?/. 8. recovered, rose 

again, 2759. 
Vp-leped, pt. 8. leapt up, 3283. 
Vp-rise, v. S. to rise up, 1791 ; 

pr. jr, vp-rises, 872. Ch. 
Vp-ri^ttes, upright, 1789. Cf. 


Wahan,Wan,"Wanne. See Whan. 

Waie, miswritten for weie, f 530. 

Waite, V. F. (1) intr. to watch, 
look about, spy about, 1821, 1 760 ; 
— wayte, 1023; /)/.«. waited, 2729 ; 
waited him, 1230; waited out, 
2425 ; wayted, 835 ; wayted 
aboute, 682; weited, 3030; pt. 
pi, wayteden out, 3300; wey- 
teden out, 5018; waited aboute, 
2231; pres. oart. waytend out, 
2982 ; waitende out, 3713 ; wey- 
tende to, 779. (2) tratu. to be on 
the look-out for, watch for, seek 
after, pr. t. waites him = seeks out 

Digitized by 




for himself, t 8^^ J *V- whayte, 
1885; waite, 4051 ; way te, 148. 
[/» the latter sense it generally has 
a double accusativeS] Cf, A-weite. 
O.F. waiter, gaiter. See Wait in 
Wedgwood ; and cf. " Wagtyn or 
done harme, waytyn to harme. 
Ittsidior*' Prompt. Parv. 

Wake, V. S. to watch, keep awake, 

Walken, v, S. to walk, go, 2129 ; 
pres. pt, walkende, 2427. 

Wallop, 7L F. gallop; hence, a 
wallop, on the gallop, 1770. " In 
the Prompt. Parv. we read, 
* Waloppynge of horse. Foluptacio;* 
and * WatoppdHy as horse. Folupto* " 
— M. See Gloss, to Romans of 

Walt, Walte. See Welde. 

Waltres, 2 p. 8, pr. S. waverest, 
roUest about, 947. See Welt and 
Welter in Jamieson, Waltrgnge 
and Welwgnge in Prompt. Parv., 
and Wallow, Welter rnVfedgwood. 
A.S. wealtian, to reel. See Wycl. 

Wan, Wanne (when). See Whan. 

Wan (pt 8, won). See Winne. 

War, adv, where, 3832. See Whar. 

War, adj. S. aware, 1201, 1238, 
1769, 3594, 3635, 3827;— whar, 

Warchet. See Waryshe. 

-Ward ; imphjiiig direction. See 

Cheping-ward, To-ward. 
Ward,7j. F. guard, keeping, 1370, 

2202 ;— warde, 376, 961. Cb. 
Warded, pp, F. guarded, kept, 

Wardeyn,w. F. commander, 1104. 
Ware, pt, pi, = were, 420. 
Warfore, adv, S. wherefore, 

2027 ;— wcrfore, 1081. 
Warison, n. F. reward, 2259 ; — 

wareson, 2253, 2379. O.F. 

warison, garison ; from garir, to 

guard. Of. Garisun. Ch. 

Wamestured, pp. famished, pro- 
vided, 1121. 0. F. wamesture, 
provisions ; Roq. Cf. Wamestore 

Wamished, pp, furnished, 1083. 
O.F. wamir, gamir, Roq. 

Warysche, v, F. to cure, 4283; 
pp, warsched, 604 ; warchet = 
guarded, 2622. O.F. garir, gu^rir, 
preserver, garantir. Roq. " In 
the first sense it occurs [used in- 
transitively] in the Prompt. Parv. 
* Warschgn * oi recurgn of sekenesse. 
Convalesco, convaleo.* " — M. Ch. 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Was, used for had, 538. " This 
is still provincial." — M. 

Waschen, pp, washed, 5070 ; — 
whasche, 2997. 

Wast, in phr, in wast := in waste, 
i.e. in vain, 703, 718, 802, 1660, 

Wat, put for What, 2829, 4246. 
Wat so, whatsoever, 607. 

Wateren, v, S. to water, provide 
with water, 3234. Wycl. Gloss. 

Wawe, n. S. wall, 19. So in Sir 
F. Madden's edition ; but see To- 
wawe, and the note on this line. 

Wax, Waxen. See Wexe. 

Way warde, adj, S. {used as sb.) 
wayward, perverse, averse, 3985. 

Wayned, pt, pi, 2386. Wayned 
from = got away from, departed. 
** The onginal meaning seems to be 
that of gaining, getting. In some 
0.£. works wagne is used like our 
word get. 

Than past up the proude queue in- 
to preve chambre, 
Waynes out at wyndow, and waytes 

Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 944." 
Quoted by Morris, Gloss, to Allit, 
Foems. The context shews that 
Waynes out in this quotation = 
puts out her head. See also P. PI. 
A. vi. 92, where for wynne vp, 
MSS, of B-type have wayne vp. Cf 

Digitized by 




Winne. [Ods. This word is some- 
times comuscd with wayue, O.F. 

Wede, n. S. clothes, armour, 585, 
3535 ; pi. wedes, 1932, 2563, 3087. 

Weder, n. S. weather, 2U0 ; pi 
wederes, 5216. Ch. 

Wei, n. S. a way, road, 1578 ; — 
weie, 1732 ; — wey, 205, 1781 ; — 
weye, 1019 ; pL weies, 2131, 2150; 
weyes, 1224 ; weijes, 2207, 3507, 
4677. In a mile wei = in a short 
space, i.e. in a short time, 1578. 

Weih,n. S.abalance,947. Waltres 
in a weih = waverest in a balance ; 
as we now say, tremblest in the 
balance. A.S.i^^^^, i^^y^f, a weighiftg 
machine, balance. Cf. Weihe^ 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Weilawey, interj. S. alas 1 935. 
A.S. wa, la wa=z wo, lo ! wo ! 
whence wei la wey, of which well- 
away is an unmeaning corruption. 

Welted, Weytende. See Waite. 

Wei3, n. S. a man, 4466 ; — wei3h, 
281, 745, 790, 793, &c ;--weie, 
1 777 ; — weih, f 1184 ; — waie, 
1 530 ; — whi3, 4463 ; — wijh, 565, 
724, 2021, 2415 ; pL weies, 1 164, 
t 653 ; whiles, 1221, 3456 ; whie^s, 
3364 ; wies, 208 ; wi3es, 239, 2036, 
2521 ; wishes, 1932 ; wie^s, 2709 ; 
wie^es, 3652. A.S. wiga, warrior, 
from wig, war. 

Wei^es, n. S. wise, manner, 5526. 
A better spelling it Wice, q. t. 

Wei, adv. S. very ; this, wei old, 
very old, 4 ; wei long, very long, 
936; wei gret, very great, 1545; 
wei sore, very sorely, 1552; wei 
wo, very woful, 1642 ; wei god 
spede, very good pace, 1846. Wei 
is, it is a good tning for (the op- 
posite o/wo is), 3303. 

Welde, V. S. to wield, have power 
over J hence, to possess, enjoy, 
have, 2946, 5157, t206; — wel'd, 
76, 135, 717, 1356, 1385, 1453, 

2017, 2253, 2959. 4741 ; 1 p. 
weld, 282, 4000; pr. s. weldes. 
712, 1651. 1873, 3313,3752,3753, 
3832, 4466; weldes his hele, en- 
joys his health, 1376, 1377 ; weldes 
a wrong, enjoys a possession wrong- 
fully, 1 87; pt. s. wait, 144, 2990, 
3887, 4730; walte, t450; welt. 
142, 230, 3710, 4835 ; welte, 
3680; 2 p. pi. pt, wait, 3691 ; pp. 
welt, 856. [// often has little more 
force than simplu to have*] Cf. 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Wele, n. S. wealth, 1325, 3658, 
4073,5046,5054. [/wjpAr. "wor- 
chip and wele," except in 4073.] 

Wem, n. S. blemish, injuiy, 
2460. Ch. 

Wen. See Whan, 

Wende, v. S. to go, 320, 329, 
425, 2089 ; — wend, 771, 1 727 ; 
— wen[d], 5185 ; wende of, to de- 
part, 1663 ; 1 p. s. or. wende, 
1555 ; 2 p. s. pr. wenaest, 1555 ; 
pr. s. wendes, 232, 1640, 1897; 
wendes of, departs from, 5537 ; 
wendeK 408; pt s, went, 1839, 
2069 ; wende, 259 ; pt. pi. went, 
4201 ; imp. pi. wende>>, 3338 ; 
pres. pt. wendmg, 1821. Phrase : 
DC went = be gone Uiyasin\» went, 
701, 2064 ; was went, 15, 28, 
376, 1984, 2109 i were went, 208, 
5409 ; be went, 2071. We also 
fnd was gon, 1859 ; and haue 
went, 1853. 

Wene, v. S. to ween, think, ex- 
pect, suppose, 554, 706, 715 ; 1 p. 
s. pr. wene, 931 ; 2 p. s. pr. wenes- 
tow=:wenest Jk)u, 1558; />r. *. 
wene)?, 3116; 2 p. pi. pr. wene, 
4205 ; pt. s. wende, 680, 687, 731, 
1853. 1943; wend, 229, 671, 1488, 
1773, 4982, t 789 ; wen[d], 261 ; 
pt. pi. wend. 2765. Ch, 

Wenne, 4263. See Winne. 

Wepe, V. S. to weep, 310 ; ^. «. 
wepte, 38 ; wept, 45 ; wep, 50 ; 
wepud, 2914; part. pres. wepand, 
1668 ; wepande, 2357, 2419. Ch. 

Digitized by 




Wer, n, doubt, perplexity, 3513. 
"Tyrwhitt considers this word, 
and, apparently, with reason, to be 
the Fr. guerre. See Gloss, to 
Chancer, and Jamieson*s examples, 
in v." — M. Perhaps it may be 
better to say. rather, that guerre is 
obviously from a Teutonic source. 
Cf. Du. werre, contention (Kilian) ; 
G. mtre, confused; getoirre^ con- 
fusion. In fact, the word occurs 
in O.Saxon. "The thit giuuer 
frumid, he who makes a sedition^ or 
disturbance^ Heiiand, ed. Schmel- 
ler, p. 148, 1. 1. Cf. Werre. 

Wer, adv, where, 3030 ; — were, 
222, 4839. 

Werche, v, to work, 650 ; — 
wirche, 1173, 1372, 2244, 2323, 
3925, 4790; — wirch, t517;-- 
wirchen, 468, f 412 ; — worche, 
257, 548, 809; pr. t. werches, 
1207 ; wirches, 1176 ; worchef, 
2579 ; imp. t. wirche, 667. And 
see Wrou^t. 

Werder, adj. 3185. Sir F. Mad- 
den suggests "wild," but doubt-* 
fully, fiy a mere guess, I suggest 
werder-bestes = harmful beasts, as 
if from werder^ a harmer, from the 
A.S. wyrdan, to harm, which is 
used in the Ormulum in the forms 
weordenn and werdenn. The word 
is very plain in the MS., or we 
might conjecture it to be an error 
for ioonder = wonderful, as in IL 
1873, 2786. 

Werfore, wherefore, 1081. 

Weme, v. S. to refuse, oppose, 
305; 2 p. pi. pr. wern, tll05j 
pt. pi. wemed, f 66, t 905. Ch. 

Werre, n. S. war, 1083, 2349, 
2613, 2645 ;-wer, 2625. 

Werre, v. S. to war, 1070, 1077, 
1173;/?p. werred, 3997. 

Werwolf, n. S. man-wolf, passim ; 
pi. werwolfs, 2540. Cf. P. PI. 
Crede, 459. 

Wery, adj. S. weary, 2236 ; wo 
wery, weary with woe, 793. See 
the note. 

Weues, pr. s. trans, sways, causes 
to waver, makes to vacillate, causes 
to change from hope to fear and 
from fear to hope, keeps in agita- 
tion, 922 ; infin. intr. weue, waver 
or hover in the air, 4368. \In the 
latter case, Sir F. Madden calls it 
the pp.y but we may translate it, 
" the ashes of her body (shall) 
waver in the wind." The A.S. 
verb is wafiany to waver. Cf. G. 
weben^ (intr.) to float about.] 

Weued, pt. s. raised, lifted, 2978. 
[The word implies a swaying or 
quivering motion in the thing lift- 
ed ; see the preceding word. Cf. 
"toefden up fa castles aate" = 
weighed up the castle-gate ; Layi- 
mon, iii. 373 ; and see Wevynge in 
Prompt. Parv. In P. PL A. vi. 92, 
for To Wynne vp ^e wiket^yU two 
MSS. have To weue out \>e wgket.'] 

Wexe, V. S. to grow, become, 
124 ; — wex, 563, 737, f 668 ; pr. 
s. suhj. wex, 266 ; pt. s. wax, 630, 
785, 828, 1035, 1204, 1911, 2053, 
2222, 4095 ; wex to = became, 
140 ; pt. pi. waxen, 2931 ; pp, 
wox, 109, 798 ; wexen, 17/6 ; 
woxen, 1 54. Ch. 

Whayte. See Waite. 

Wham, pron. S. whom, 314, 441, 
769. 1275, 4156. [In 1. 4340 it is 
spelt whan^ unless we supply hire, 
which is preferable.] 

Whan, pt. 8. procured, 2852. See 

Whan, adv. when, 305, 308, 744, 
&c. ; — whanne, 80, 145, &c. ; — 
wanne, 11, 854, 1262 ;— wan, 2484, 
4026 ; — wen, 2821 ; — wahan, 
(/rflrf whan?), 1572. 

Whar, adv. where, 394 ; — war, 
3832. Wharbi, why, 2256. 

Whar, adj. aware, 3382. See 

Whas, pron. whose, 1441. 

Whas, put for Was, 3912. 

Whasche, pp. washed, 2997. See 
• Waschen. 

Digitized by 




What = what if, 549. 

What rink so, whatsoever man, 

What, put for Wot, knows, 1 1 72. 

See Wite. 
Whatow, pui for What J)ow, 

what thou, 4066. 
Whedir, Whederward. See 

Whennes,flkfy. whence, 478,3122. 

Where, put for Were, 261, 502, 

Where, adv, whether, 2946; — 

wher, 799. Ch. 
Where as, where that, 1782. 
Whiche, used in tJie sense what 

sort of, 1777, 2705, 3118. S(fe 

Whider, adv, whither, 104, 701, 

948, 2689 ;— whedir, 2309. Whider 

sometimes has the sense of where, 

as in 2486. 
Whiderward, adv, whither, in 

what direction, 105, 223, 2167 i — 

whederward, 2827. Whiderward 

as, wherever, 2830. 

While, n. 8. while, time, 15, 574 ; 

—wile, 79, 487 j— wilie, 988. 
While, adv, whilst, 2537 ;— wile, 

537 ; — whille, 129 ; — wil, 1492, 

2277.5228,5536. Ch. 

Whiles, adv, S. meanwhile, 2736. 
"Is formed, Uke nedegy from the 
ffen. ease. Hence our whilst** — M. 
Cf. Whilis, Wycl. Gloss. 

Whiles, n. pi S. wiles, 862. 

Whilum,a^w. sometimes, at times, 
1788 ; — whilom, in former times, 
formerly, 2846. [In f 521 tohilome 
is a gloss for Home, q*v] As 
whiles is the gen. sing, of A.S. 
hwtl^ so whilum is the dai, plural. 

White, v. See Wite (to blame). 

Whij, n. See Wei3. 

Whi^t, n. See Wi3t. 

Wic. See Wicke. 

Wicche, V, S. to practise witch- 
craft, use sorcery, 2539 ; pp, 
wicched, bewitched, 4427. A.S. 

Wicchecraft, n. S. witchcraft, 
118, 120, 4427 ;— wichecraft, 4044. 

Wice, n, S. wise, way, 4380. Cf. 
Wei3es, Wise. 

Wich, pron, ace, eing. what, 
3981 ; ace. ol. mase. whom, 4093, 
4161. Wicne a = what sort of a, 
3354 ; wiche an = what sort of a 
{referring to the hart only, and we 
must suppose wiche repealed be/ore 
an hmde), 2820. 

Wicke, adj, wicked, evil, had, 
4599 ;— wic, 4652 ; — wicked {ap- 
plied to ways), 3507. Ch. 

Wide, V, S. to grow mad, 1509. 
The A.S. is wedan, and wide is 
perhaps miswritten for wede. Cf, A- 

Wide where a-bonte, adv. S. 
abroad, everywhere, 2605, 4763; 
— wide wher a-boute, 82, 2202. 
The word wide went, 1569. " A 
phrase much used in our old 
writers. See notes to Havelok, 1. 
959."— M. Cf, P. PL A. ix. 53, 
and Ch. 

Wie3S, Wie^es. See Weij. 

Wikkedly, adv, S. crnelly, danger- 
ously, 1218. 

Wil, Wile, Wille. See While. 

Willeful, adj. S. willing, desirous, 
bent upon, 5493 ; — wilfull, 1 412. 
Wycl. Gloss. 

Wilfulli, adv, S. willingly, with 
good will, readily, heartily, 1782, 
8300, 3322, 4733 ; — wilsfully, 
1 590. Ch. 

Willenyng, n. S. wish, desire, 
choice, 3983. Cf. A.S. willnung, 

William, geri., case, 1221, 1372. 

Wilne, V. S. to wish for, desire, 
719, 3563, 4597, 4736 ; — willne, 
3983, 3985 ; I p, s, pr, wilne. 

Digitized by 




4732 ; 3 p. pL pr. wilne, 3343 ; pr. 
*. wQnes, 265, 301, t622; pr.pL 
wilnen after, 59 ; Ip. s. pi, wilned, 
4132;;?/. #. wilned, 3925, 4590; 
imp. s, wilne, 4734 j pp, wilned, 
2134. Ch. 

Wilsfully. See Wilfulli 

Wilsuin, adj, S. loved, desirable, 
amiable, 5394. 

Winne, v. S. to win, acquire, 
come iuAed much as we use get 
colloquially); winne in 3131 = get 
in sight, come in sight, 94 ; winne 
horn = ^t home, 2457 ; winne 
him awei = get him away, 3623 j 
winne )>e = get hold of thee, 4263 ; 
winne nere him, get near him, 
3889; \p. wan, 2026; pi. s. 
wan (got), 190, 1920, 2500 ; (came), 
2498; wanne, 3973; whan, 2852; 
wan in (came in), 4237 ; wan bi 
(went by), 417 ; wan vp (got up), 
3289 ; pt pi. wonne, 1224, 2242; 
pp. wonne, 82, 1117. 

Wirch, Wirchen, Wirches. Bee 

Wirdemesse, probably an error 
for wildemesse, 3311. 

Wise, n, S. way, manner, 485, 
490, &c. ;— wice, 4380. Ch. 

Wisli, adv. S. truly, verily, 2947, 
3118 ;— wisly, 661 ;— wiseli, 4615 ; 
— wisseli, 673, 721 ; wislich, 1 754. 

Wisse, V. tr. S. to make to know, 
to teach, instruct, shew, tell, 1356, 
1666, 2110, 3086; (to protect), 
1 806 ; — wissen, 640 ; pr. s. subj. 
wisse, 1804 ; pt s. wissed, 2207, 
2716, 2727 ; wist, 172 ; pt. pL 
wissed, 5445 : imp. s, wisses, 4004. 
P. PL 

Wisse ; phr. i wot wel to wisse, 
I know for certain, 3397. Here 
wisse seems io be an adj, (A.S. 
aewist Old S. uuiss, certain). Cf. 
1. 4114. 

Wit-oute, prep, without, 2573. 

Wite, V. S. to blame, 458, 530, 
4705, t ^72 ; —white, 304 ;lp.s. 

pr. wite, 900 ; pp. wited, 519 ; imp, 
pi. wite)», 2069 ; wite, 4335, 4600, 
5525. Ch. 

Wite, V. to keep, guard, preserve, 
257 ; 2 p. s. pr. subj. 302 ; pt. s. 
wited, 176 ; imp. pi. wite^ 3008. 
See Gloss, to Havelok and La^aroon. 

Wite, V. 8. to know, 542, 560, 
1458, 2081, 2733, &c. ; 1 p. 
wot, 105, 239, 316, 478, 697, &c.; 
wott, t 754 ; 2 p. s. pr. wost, 
4065 ; wostou (= wost >ott), 2274 ; 
pr. s. wot, 314, 1871 ; what, 1172 ; 
2 p. witen, 4328 ; 2p.s. pr. 
subj. wite, 281 ; /w. *. subj. wite, 
937 ; pt. s. wist, 40, 375, 690, 951, 
1118, 1 334, &c.; wiste, 145, 830, 
836;;?/. pi. wisten, 2195, 5283, 
1 372 ; wist, 1 663 ; imp. s. wite, 
38 ; white, 1884 ; witow (= wite 
)?ou) 68, 105, 300, &c. ; wittow, 
375, 752; wittou, 3178; 
wite)», 4351. Lete wite, 2171. Do 
vs to wite, 1459. Ch. 

Witerly, adv. plainly, openly, 
clearly, unmistakably, certainly, 
40, 229, 289, 316, 533. 624, 680 ; 
— witerli, 5288; —witterli, 667, 
815, 2705;— witterly, 491, 514, 
1407. Cf. Dan. mtterlig, publicly 
known. Ch. 

WiJ), prep, with {med in tJie 
sense of by), 1060, 1367, 1492 ; — 
wijt, 2177 ; wiith, 163 ; cf. )>er- 
wi^t in 1. 138. Observe 11. 411, 824. 

Wijnirow him, pt. e. refl. with- 
drew, 2993 ; pt. pL wi>-drow hem, 

Withlich. See Wi3tly. 

Wi}H)ute, ^ep. besides, 1291. 

With-sede, pt. a. gainsaid, con- 
tradicted, opposed, 3930. Ch. 

Wi)>-))atow, on condition that 
thou, 3161. 

Wiftll See Wijtly. 

Witly. See WittUy. 

Witte, n. S. senses, reason, under^ 
standing, 1204, 1483, &c. ; — witt, 
36, 142;p/. wittes, 468. Ch. 

Digitized by 




Wittened, pt. ^l, imputed it to 
be, ascribed it as oeinf, 3462. 
IPlaced under Wite, to £now, by 
Sir F. Madden, but may it not be 
from A.S. wUan, whicn has the 
sense to ascribe (honour) as well as 
to impute (blame) ? If so* it may 
be connected with A.S. witnian^ a 
derived form of the same ioitam, 
Cf. " Witton' or retton*. Impuh." 
Prompt. Parr. 

Wittily, adv. S. wisely, prudently, 
sagaciously, 2602 ; — wittili, 3364, 
4142;— witly, 259, 1259. 

Witty, adj. S. possessed of reason, 
sagacious, wise, skilled, 145, 158, 
2712, 2832;— witthi, 2182; — 
witti, 2204. Wycl. Gloss. 

Wiue, n. S. wife, 242 ; dot. wiue, 

Wi3h, Wi3e8, Wishes. See Wei^. 

Wi^t, Wijth, prep. See WiJ). 

Wi^t, n. S. a wight, person, 407, 
685, 786; — wijth. 758 ; — whijt, 
4037 ;— wight, f 590; pi. wightes, 
t698. Ch. 

Wi3t, adj. nimble, active, agile, 
brave, 2877, 3349 ; — wi^ht, 3293 j 

— wyght, t 64. ; eomp. wiatere, 
3441 ; wiittere, 3576. Sw. vi^. 
See Prompt. Parv. and Ch. 

Wi3tly, adv, nimbly, actively, 
quickly, bravely, 92, 140, 489, 669, 
791.&C.; — wi3tli. 135, 265, 1861, 
4188; — wi3tache, 65, 310, 1195 ; 
— wightly, 1 3 ; — withlich, 1 326 ; 

— wij^tli (or wiytli), 1695 ; — 
wuttli, 3612 ; — wiatthli, 3581 ; — 
wi^ttili, 3640. ITAe spelling wi3th 
in the former edition {in 1. 1861) is 
a misprint for wiytli.] 

Wlonke, adj. S. gay, proud, elate, 
grand (spoken of mirth), 1634 ; (of 
a den), 80; (o/'wite), 468. [/yi the 
two latter f laces it is written wolnk. 
The A.S. IS wlonCf wlane; the Old 
Saxon is uuUrne, arrogant, proud.] 

Wo, n. S. woe, sorrow ; spelt 
wo3h, 544; woo, 1483. Him was 
wo, 1167. Wo is me, 1642. 

Wod, adj. S. mad, 36, 564, 715, 
1483, 1770, &c. Ch. 

Wodly, adv. S. madly, 560 ; — 
wodli, 3883, 4026. Ch. 

Wol, 1 p. 8. pr. I will, 486, 633, 
607, 906, &c. ; 2 /?. *. wolt (wUt), 
324, 4263 ; 3 /?. *. wol, 326, 482, 
5126 ; wol sche = is she willing, 
4203 ; 1 p. pi. pr. wol, 2260 ; 2 p. 
pi. wol, 4004; 1 p. s. pt. wold, 457, 
1558 ipt. s. wold, 529, &c ; pt. pi. 
wold, 6185. Tke form wU also 
occurs, as in 1568. iSekal is more 
often used than wol, Ne wil is 
contracted into net, and ns wold 
into nold.] 

Wold, n. S. power, possession, 
4429. Ii.S.wald. Q.gewalt. 

Wolnk. See Wlonke. 

Won, n. S. quantity, f 646. Ch. 
The A.S. is winn, what is acquired, 
a winning ; in La^amon are the pL 
forms winne and wunneth possess- 

Won, n. S. any dwelling-place; 
hence, a town, a country, a place, 
+ 164, 1 237, t337 ;— wonne, t698, 
4 622. Cf. A.S. wun-stow, a 

Wonde, v. S. to hesitate from fear, 
hesitate to say, 4071, t347; — 
wond, 614; imp. s. wonde, 275. 
A.S. wandian, to fear. JTond^z 
to fear, occurs in Kyn^ Jlisaunder 
(Weber's Metr. Rom.), 1. 6525. 
Of. Ch. Leg. Good Women. Dido, 

Wonded, pp. wounded, 1377. Ch. 

Wonder, adj. S. wonderful, 
strange, 1873, 2786. Ch. 

Wonder, adv. wonderfully, 1895. 

Wonderli, adv. wonderfully, sur- 
prisingly, 1214, 1668, 2535; — 
wonderiiche, 345 ; wonderly, 3682. 

Wonne. See Wume,and Won. 

Wonye, v. S. to dwell, 3312 ; pr. 
s. wonef, 4471; pt. s. woncd, 4, 
1492; pp. woned, 3311. A.S. 
wunian. Ch. 

Digitized by 




Woode, adj. S, mad, f 914. See 

Worche, "Worchef. See Werche. 
Worchep, w. S. worship, honour, 

551, 4000; — worchepe, 497, 515-, 

— worchip, 618 ; — worchipe, 1324, 


Worchipe}), j?r. 8. honoureth,511. 
Worchipfulli, adv. S. honourably, 

"Word, possibly an error for wi^h, 

883. See the note. 
Wore, vmtten for Were, 2370, 

Worli, Worliche. See Worfliche. 

Worf, toritten for Wroj), adj\ 
4335. Cf. 2002. 

Worfi, adj. S. worthy, honoured, 
dear, 2792, 2795; contracted to 
worp (= A.S. touriS), 2498, 2522, 

Worbliche, adj. S. worthy, dear, 
1814 ;-— worthlich, f 596 ; wortljch, 
1 1024 ; worfiliche, 1642 ; worbili, 
2786; worliche, 2700; worli, 138. 

Worbli, adv.^. worthily, honour- 
ably, 673, 3202. 

Worfe, V. S. to be, to become, 
327, 3081 ; 3 p. s. imp, worK 
2567 ; pr, s. worj? {with future 
signification^ will become, will be), 
2534, 2667, 2947, 3341 ; imed as 
an auxiliary verbf will be), 1673, 
4181, 4253 ; pi. wor|), 2291. Wo 
wot\> me, wo oe to me, 4118. Late 
me wor^, let me be, let me alone, 
2355, 3597; lete hyra worthe, 
1 1186. A.S. weor^an. G. werden. 
McBso-Gotb. wairthan. 

Woru3t, written for Wrou^t, 5182. 

Wot, Wost, Wostou. See Wite. 

Wox. See Wexe. [In 1. f 337 
wox should rather hav^ been 

Wo^h. See Wo. 

Wowes, w. pi. S. walls, f 1122. 
A.S.K?a>i. Wycl. Gloss, 

Wrabed, 1 p. 8. pt. made angry, 

Wreche, n. S. revenge, Yengeance, 
3404, 1 937. K.^.u>race. Ch. 

Wreche, v. S. to revenge, avenge, 
wreak vengeance, f 806 ; — wreke, 
1111, 3335; pp. wroke, 5431; 
wroken, f 76. Ch. 

Wrong, adj. false, 706. 

Wronger, comp. adv. more wrong- 
ly, 1176. 

Wrobli, adv, S. angrily, wrath- 
fully, 3683, 3738 ; — wro|)liche, 

Wrou3t, 1 p. 8. pt. I wrought, did, 
369i;— wrout, 725 ; pi. wrou^ten, 
3873 ; wrout, 1571 ; pp^ wrought, 
1 76 ; wrugt, 1503. Cf Werche. 

Wus, n. S. ooze, juice, ^112^ 
t813. A.S.W*. 

Wynli, adv. pleasantly, 749. 
A.S. icynlicf pleasant. [Explained 
as laboriouihjfy carefully^ by Sir F. 
Madden ; as if from A.S. win^ 
labour. See uynne in Allit. Poems, 
ed. Morris, Kdi wynnelych, pleasant, 
in Oawayne ana Orene Kniit, i. 

\_For past participles beginning with I- 
or V-, see below, and also under I-.] 
Y-armed, armed, f 230. 
Y-charged, loaded, 182. 
Y-clepud, called, 121. Ch. 
Y-gladed, gladdened, 850. 

Ytryed, selected, choice, 1233. 
F. trier, to pick, select. 

Yeeme. See Jeme. 

Yern, n. iron, 1 1119, f 1^33. 

Y-fere, together, 2267. See I-fere. 

Yie, n. S. eye, t 277, f 451 ; pi 

yien, f 182. See Ei^en. 
Y-now, enough, 836, t S, t 266. 

See I-now. 


Digitized by 




Yond, adv. yonder, 263 ; — ^^ond, 

846. >S^3ond. Cb. 
Yoiilden, pt pi. yielded, f 304. 

See Jeld. 
Y-wisse, adv. verily, 846, 937 ;-— 

y-wis, 1 465. See 1-wisse. 

5 in these poems is equivalent to y 
at the beginning of a word, as in 3a, 
jate ; to gh in ni^t, biirw3 ; in ^e 
it seems to be a auttural ; cf. hue. 
But it is also found {^perhaps bv 
mistake) in place of\ in the words 
yanked, ^out, ^ourh. 

5a, adv. S. yea, 268, 326, 923, 
1380, 2256, 2585, 3245, 3723. 
4728, 4742, 5367, 5432 j-^e, 2275, 
3493. See Jis. 

Jaf. See Jeue. 

Jain-tom, n. S. way of escape, 
3552. Cf. Ajen-turn. 

Jald, Jalde. See Jelden. 

Ranked, pt. s. thanked, 642. 

Jare, adj. S. quick, nimble, ready, 

895, 1963, 3265, &c. ; sup. aarest, 

Jate, n. S. gate, 3757 ; pi. ^ates, 

3267,3649,1304. Ch. 
Je. See Ja, Jis. Also, see Jou. 
Jede, pt. s. went, 1767 ; pt. pi. 

1429, 2199, 2238 ; ^eede, f 304. Ch. 
?ef, if, 1677. See Jif. 
3eft, n. S. a gift, 3664 ; pi. 3iftes, 

1061,6357. Ch. 
Jelden, v. to yield, requite, 3019; 

jelde, 321, 601, 3941; jeld, 319, 

1547; pr. s. aeldes, 234; pt. s. 

aalde, 3661; 3ald, 1256; pt. pi. 

aolde, 2708; youlden,! 304; imp. 

s. 3eld, 1252, 3917 ; ^ p. s. imp. 

3elde, 4711. Ch. 
Jeme, v. S. to take care of, to take 

charge of, rule, provide for, 91, 

2734, 3249, t 818, t 365, f 439 ; 

yeeme, ^AS; pr. s. 3emes, 2790; 

pt. s. iemed, 2806 ; pt. pi. 3emed, 

3267,3320. Ch. 

Jepli, adv. S. quickly, 3346, 3649, 

3896, 3941 ; — aeply, 1252. A.S. 

g€Bpy shrewd, r. PL 
Jerd, n. S. wand, rod (yard), 

Jere, n. pi. years, 1040; — 3er, 

5369;— 3eres, 1057. P. PI. 
Jeme, v. S. to yeam for, wish for, 

68, 1633, 4730; pt. s. 3cmed, 782. 
Jeme, adv. eagerly, quickly, soon, 

fast, 1893, 2027, 2197, &c. ; al so 

3em (very soon). 2043. P. PI. 

}er-while, adv. erewhile, a short 

time ago, 1246, 3104. 
Jete, adv. yet, 2274 ; — 3it, 186, 

577, 609 ;— •3ut, 515, 800. 993 ;— 

3utte, 1956. 
Jeue, V. S. to give, 1110; 3iuen, 

2963 ; 3if, 6071 ; 3 p. imp. s. jif, 

258, 876. 6536 ; pt. s. 3^, 6381 ; 

pp. 3euen, 2857; 3eue, 1471,5365 ; 

3iue, 2254. Ch. 
Jhe, she, 141, 172, 1983. Cf. 

Hue. //V, i}Ct,^/!lu 11'^'^ /f^r ^, 

Jif, if, 147, 172, 324, &c. ;— 3ef, 
1677. But 3if (except), 472. 

Jis, yes, 697, 1567, 2260, 3184, 
3490, 4731, 4746, 5149. See Ja. 
IThere is certainh a distinction be- 
tween 3a (3e) and^is. 3a = I admit 
that, granted that, that's true, or else 
it simply answers a simple question ; 
but 31s is an affirmative of great 
force = yes, I swear it, by idl 
means, and is often followed by i- 
wisse, certes, bi marie, bi crist, or 
it answers a question involving a 
negative. See Marsh, Lectures, Ist 
Series, p. 579.] 

Jister-neue (= 3istern-eue), yester- 
eve, yesterday evening, 2160. 

Jit See Jete. 

Jolde. See Jelden. 

Jomen, n. pi. yeomen, 3649. 

Jond, adj. yon, 3384; — 3one, 
4572 ; |>e 3ond (the person yonder), 
3052. Cf.XoxiA^adv. Moeso-Goth. 
jains. G.jener. 

Digitized by 




3ore, adv, S. long ago, formerly, 

1503, 2513, 3298 ;— for 3ore, 4174; 

—full 3ore, 4046. 
3ou, you, 262 ; — jow, 238 ; — 

30UJ, 634, 2262, 3121 ; — ow, 106. 

// w the aec, case, the nam, being 

je, 251, 269. 

Jourh {used for Jourgh), through, 

Jout {used for Jout), ru thought, 

?ut, Jutte. See Jete. 

Note. Dr Stratmann (in his Dictionary of Old English) cites examples 
from the poem of " William of Palerne '* thus : "M a hill. Will. Gloss, 
229." The numbers merely refer to the pace of the glossary in which the 
word is found, not to the pages or lines ofthepoent. The references in the 
glossary to the edition by Sir F. Madden are to the pages of the book, and 
the following list is Riven, in order to shew with what line each page of his 
book begin*. Most of his pages contain 28 lines, but page 1 contams only 16 ; 
pag« 16 has 24 lines ; p. 131 has 27 lines; p. 170 has 26 lines; p. 177 has 
27 lines ; p. 196 has 27 lines ; and p. 199 has 17 lines, being the last page 
of the text. 









































To find with what line any one of the succeeding pages begins, we must 
multiply the number of the page by 28, subtracting 43 tor pp. 18—131 ; sub- 
tracting 44 for pp. 132—170; subtracting 46 for pp. 171—177; and sub- 
tractingyi for pp. 178—196. Thus p. 196 begins with line 196X28 — 47 = 
6441. Page 197 begins with 1. 5468 j p. 198 with 1. 5496 ; and p. 199 with l. 

21 ♦ 

Digitized by 



[In this Index, the references under words in large capitals are to the pages of 
the book ; otherwise, the references are to the lines.] 

Abelot, 363. 

Acelone, 1. 42 on p. 2 ; — Achil- 

lones, 4775. 
Akaiin, 364. 

Alisaundrinb, daughter of the 
duke of Lombard^, p. 28 ; advises 
and assists Melior, pp. 28, 29 ; 
causes William to dream, p. 30; 
brings Melior to find William, pp.- 
34 — 41 ; aids the lovers to escape, 
pp. 59—62 ; excuses them to the 
emperor, p. 69 ; meets Melior again, 
p. 156 ; is betrothed to Braundnis, 
p. 159 J is married, p. 160. 

Almauns, Germans of Saxony, 

Alphouns (The Werwolf), steals 
William away, p. 3 ; leaves William 
in the den, p. 7 ; sees AVilliam 
adopted by the cowherd's wife, p. 
9 ; nis fatlier was king of Spain, p. 
10; he is made a werwolf by 
his stepmother, p. 10 ; finds that 
William and Melior are dressed up 
in bear-skins, and guards them, and 
provides them with Ibod, pp. 65 — 
67 ; saves them from the nounds, 
p. 75 ; brings them to Benevento, 
p. 75 ; saves their lives by stealing 

the provost's son, pp. 80—83 ; kills 
a hart and a hind for them, p. 86 ; 
brings them to Reggio, p. 90 ; 
helps them over the Straits, pp. 91 
— 94 ; is seen by the queen of 
Palermo, p. 113 ; salutes the king 
of Spain, p. 129 ; threatens his 
stepmother, pp. 139, 140 ; is dis- 
enchanted, p. 142 ; is embraced by 
William, p. 144 ; he falls in love 
with Florence, p. 144; tells 
William's history, pp. 147 — 150 ; 
is betrothed to Florence, p. 151 ; 
is married, p. 160 ; is made king of 
Spain, p. 167 ; meets William for 
the last time, p. 168; swears 
friendship to William once more, 
p. 172. 
Apulia. See Poyle. 

Bonuent, Benevento, 2221; — 
Boneuent, 4692. 

Braunde, Braunden, or Bradn- 
niNE, is queen of Spain, and 
princess of Portugal; p. 10 ; en- 
chants Alphouns, p. 10 ; receives 
an embassy from her lord, pp. 135, 
136; goes to Palermo, p. 137; is 
attacked by the werwolf, p. 139 ; 
disenchants him, p. 141 ; returns 
to Spain, p. 164. 

Digitized by 




Braundinis, Braundnis, or 
Braundyns, prince of Spain, asks 
Florence in roarria^, p. 88 ; is 
taken prisoner by William, p. 117 ; 
is betrothed to Alisaondrine, p. 
159 ; is married, p. 160 ; comes to 
Palermo, p. 168 ; returns home, 
p. 171. [The name occurs in 11. 
4944, 5299, 5411.] 

Calabre, Calabria, 2628, 5512. 
CisUe, Sicily, 2603, 2628. 

Ebrouns. Bee Embrons. 

Edwardes, (King) Edward's, 166, 
5531. [Sir Humfrey de Bohun's 
mother was a daughter of King 
Edward I.] 

Embrons, or Ebrouns, king of 
Palermo, p. 2 ; loses his son 
William, p. 3 ; pursues the wer- 
wolf without success, pp. 4—6 ; 
dies, p. 88 ; the story of his horse 
Saunabruel, pp. 106, 107; his re- 
semblance to his son William, p. 

Englysch, Englisb, 168. 

Far, a name for the Straits of 
Messina. See page 4, and the note. 

Felice, queen of Palermo, and 
daughter of the emperor of Greece, 
p. 2 ; her grief at losing her son 
William, p. 5 ; is besieged m Palermo 
by the kmg of Spam, p. 94 ; her 
dream, p. 95; the dream expounded, 
pp. 96, 97 ; she encourages her 
Inights, p. 99 ; she puts on a hind's 
skin, p. 100 ; she overhears about 
Melior's dream, p. 102 ; addresses 
William, p. 103 ; takes the hides 
off William and Mclior, p. 105 ; 
sees the werwolf, p. 113 ; perceives 
a likeness between Wiluam and 
King Ebrouns, p. 119; discovers 
that William is her son, p. 147 ; 
her dream comes true, p. 174. 

Florence, daughter to the queen 
of Palermo, and sister to William, is 
soi^ht in marriage by Braundyns, 
p. 94 ; is admitted to see the wer- 

wolf after his disenchantment, p. 
143; marries Alphouns, p. 160. 
[The name occurs in L 4490.] 
Frensche, 167, 5522, 5533. 

Gergeis, w. ;pl. Greeks, 2200. 
Possibly misvuitten for Gregeis. Qf, 

Gloriande, L 41 on p. 2 ; — Glori- 

auns, 4775. 
Glouseter, 166. 
Grece, a grom of, 1767. 

Greece, emperor op, i^ father to 
Queen Felice, p. 2 ; sends an em- 
bassy to Rome, p. 53; comes to 
Rome, p. 58 ; raises a hue and cry 
after William and Melior, p. 73 ; 
sends an embassy to Palermo, p. 

Greece, prince of. Bee Partene- 

Grewes, n, pi. Greeks, 2080. See 

Gryffouns, n, ph Greeks, 1961. 
Roquefort gives the forms Greu, 
QreeuXy GregSois^ Grifons^ &c., as 
equivalent to the Lat. Gracus. 
Hence the forms Gregeis (mis- 
written Gergeis\ Grewes, and Gryf- 
founs in the present poem. 

Hereford, 5530 ;— Herford, 165. 
Huet, 362. 

Hugones, Hugo's, 363. 
Hugonet, 362. 

Humfray de Bowne, 165; — Hum- 
fray de Bonne, 5530. [Sir Walter 
Scott rimes de Boune with soon ; 
Lord of the Isles, Bk VI. c. xiv.] 

Kostantrnoble, Constantinople, 

Krist, Christ, 1315. 

Lnmbardie, 585, 1315. 

Digitized by 




Marie, 838, 2229, 2698, &c 

Martynet, 363. 

Meliadus, 3846, 3858, 3863, 

Melior, or ^Ieliors, daughter of 
the emperor of Rome, p. 19 ; falls 
in love with William, p. 23 ; her 
8olilo(^uy, pp. 23 — 26; ia comforted 
by Alisaundrine, p. 28 ; g^ to 
the garden, p. 34 ; and finds 
William asleep there, p. 35 ; is 
betrothed to William, p. 40; is 
wooed by the prince of Greece, p. 
53 ; escapes with William, dis- 
guised as a bear, pp. 61 — 67 } 
arrives at Benevento, p. 75 ; is 
saved bjr the werwolf, pp. 76 — 81; 
is disguised as a hind, p. 86 ; comes 
to Eeggio, p. 90 ; is nearly killed 
by a barge-boy, p. 92 ; comes to 
Palermo, p. 93 ; her dream, p. 102 ; 
is received by the queen of Palermo, 
p. 105 ; her meeting with her 
father, p. 156 ; b married to 
William, p. 160 ; is crowned em- 
press of Rome, p. 169 j her children, 
p. 174. &<? William. 

Midesomer, Midsummer, 1464. 

Moyses, Moses, the name of a 
priest, 2918, 3025. 

Naueme, Navarre, 4076. 

Paleme, Palermo, 1. 61 on p. 3; 
2838, 4223, 4287 ; spelt Palleme, 

Palbrnb, guEEN OP. See Felice, 

Pabtendo, or Partenedon, son 
of the emperor of Greece, and 
brother of Queen Felice, wooes 
Melior, p. 53 ; waits at church for 
his bride, who does not come, p. 
68; arrives at Palermo, p. 15/; 
returns to Greece, 161. [The 
name occurs in Hues 4930, 4939, 
5039, 5078, 5088.] 

Payenes, Pagan's, 364. 

Petyr, cherche of seynt, 1956. 

Pope, 1957. 

Portingale, Portugal, 116. 

Poyle, Apulia, 156, 2628, 5512. 

Rise, Reggio, 2717. "It is so 
termed by the French and Italian 
Romancers of the middle ages. See 
PaniEzi's Life of Bojardo, vol ii. p. 
Ixxxi. «. The same change seems 
to have taken place in regard to 
Riez in Provence, as remarked by 
Mr Nicol, to whom I am indebted 
for a reference to Martiniere's 
Dictionary, sub v. itt^r."— M. 

Roachas, 1437. 

Romaynes, Romans, 5167. 

Rome, emperob of, finds William 
in a forest, p. 13; talks to the 
cowherd, p. 14; adopts William, 
pp. 15 — 19 ; defeats the duke of 
^ony, pp. 42—49 ; consents that 
his daughter Melior shall marry 
Partenedon, p. 54; loses Melior, 
p. 68; his wrath, pp. 69—71; 
finds his daughter at Palermo, p. 
155 ; his last advice to Melior, p. 
163 ; his death, p. 166. 

Saundbruel (a horse), 3585. 

Saxoyne, duke of, 1068, 1108, 

Spatne, kino of, father of Al- 
phouns the werwolf, p. 9 ; marries 
Braunde, p. 10 ; besieges Palermo, 
p. 88 ; seeks to revenge his son 
Braundinis, p. 121 ; is taken 
prisoner, p. 127 ; is saluted by the 
werwolf, p. 129 ; tells William his 
story, pp. 131, 132 ; escorts Melior 
to church, p. 160; returns to Spain 
p. 165 ; his death, p. 167. 

Spain, prince of. See Braundinis. 

Spaynols, Spaniards, 3631, 3770, 
6168 ;— Spaynoles, 3399 ;— Spay- 
nolus, 3529 ;— Spaynolnea, 3357. 

William (of Palerne), son of 
King Ebrouns and Queen Felice, p. 
2 ; stolen by the werwolf, pp. 3 — 
6 ; found and adopted br a cow- 
herd, pp. 7 — 9 ; found ana adopted 
by the emperor of Rome, pp. 13 — 
2*3 ; is beloved by Melior, p. 23 ; 

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dreams of Melior, p. 30 ; betrothed 
to Melior, p. 40 ; is knighted, p. 
43 ; defeats the duke of Saxon j, 
pp. 45—49 ; his sickness, p. 55 ; 
18 healed, p. 57 ; escapes with 
Melior, disguised as a bear, pp. 
59 —66 ; is saved by the werwolf, 
p. 75 ; hides with Melior in a 
quarry, p. 76; bids Melior save 
herself, p. 79 ; takes off the bear- 
skin, p. 81 ; hides with Melior in a 
forest, p. 82 ; is nearly discovered 
by some colliers, p. 84; disguises 
himself as a hart, and Melior as a 
hind, p. 86 ; comes to Reggio, p. 
90 ; embarks secretly in a ship with 
Melior, p. 91 ; carries her to land, 
p. 92 ; IS found by the queen of 
Palermo, p. 103; undertakes to 

assist her, p. 104 ; has a werwolf 
painted on his shield, p. 105 ; 
mounts King Ebrouns' norse, p. 
107; attacks the Spaniards, pp. 
110 — 112, 117 — 126; takes 
prisoner Prince Braundinis, p. 118 ; 
and the king of Spain, p. 127; 
sends for Queen Braunden to dis- 
enchant the werwolf, p. 134; em- 
braces Alphouns, p. 144 ; his story 
and parentage, pp. 147 — 150; is 
king of Apulia, p. 154 ; marries 
MeBor, p. 160 ; is emperor of 
Home, p. 167 ; creates the cowherd 
an earl, p. 170 ; his wise rule, p. 
173 ; his children, p. 174. 

William (the author's name), 


iEgypt, 454. 

Alisaunder, son of Amyntas, 22, 

27, 37. 
Alisaunder, son of Philip, 1034, 

1049, 1095, 1148, &c. 
Amon, 661, 727, 805. 
Amyntas, 13. 
Arabes, 498. 
Arisba. See Erubel. 
Aristote (Aristotle). /See page 211. 

Arofagi, a corruption of Agrio- 
phagi, i. e. eaters of wild animals, 

Artasarses, 491. 

Assyriens (a mi^a^e /brlUyriens), 

109, 130. 
Assyria (a mistake for Illyrie), 

Attenes, Athens, 157 ; — Attens, 

898 ;— Attanus, 90. 
Atteniens, Athenians, 415 ; — 

Atteniems, 902, 938. 

Augmi or Augni, 498. 

Barbre, Barbary {a mistake for 
Barbarians, Lat. Barbari), 533, 

Bosorij, 499. 

Byzaunce, Byzantium, 1208 ; — ■ 
Byzance, 1222, 

Cappadoce, Cappadocia (a mis- 
take for Cbalcidice), 944, 1111. 

Comothonham (a corrupt name 
for Methone). See Methone. 

Constantino, 1225. 

Constantinoble, 1223 ; — Constan- 
tinople, 1229. 

Egipt, 486, 534, &c. 
Elaine, Helen (mother of Con- 
stantino), 1226. 
Enomanus, 429. 
Epaminondas, 52, 75. 

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Erubel, 172 j—Eruba, 240. 

Ethiope, ^Ethiopia, 652. 

Eurydice, 34. 

Greece, 258, &c. 

Jupiter (the planet), 1077. 

Komothonham (a con-upt spelling 
^Methone). ^^^Methone. 

Lacedemonie, 335, 336, 417, 

444 ; — Lacedemoioe, 449, 879. 
I-iacedemomeins, 351. 
Larissea, 119; — Larisse, 131, 161. 
Latine, 458. 

Macedoine, 14, 59, &c. 

Medie, 495. 

Mercurie (the planet), 1077. 

Mesopotamie, 497. 

Methone, 255, 310 ; corruptly 

speli Comotbonham, 255 ; and 

Komothonham, 310. 

Molosor {also Malasor), a corrup- 
tion e/*Molossis, 173, 204. 


Ndctanabus, 459^ 505, &c 

Olympias, 177, 576, &c. 

Pausanias, 1218, 1246. 

Perce, Persia, 492, 494 ; —Peres, 

462, 471. 
Perthe, Parthia, 494. 
Philip, passim, 
Philomelo, 364, 421. 
Phocus, Phocis, 365, 413, 428, 

446, 878 }— Phocos, 336. 
Phosus,^. Phocians, 391. 

Roome, 103, 1224. 

Seraphin, Serapis, 557, 572. 
Sparte, 1246. 
Syria, 496. 

Tebeniens, Thebans, 877 ; — ^Tebe- 

nieins, 351, 380. 
Tebes, Thebes, 51, 71 ;— Telis, 


Tessalouie, Thessalonica, 913. 


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^km&t\ Mi gmiimm. 

€xtn iieruf. No. xxxi. 

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IBittbimus, Hittfl of tfj^ Btafjmatt», 














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§ 1. The three fingments of the Alexander-romances in 
alliteratiye yerse. § 2. Description of the MS. of Fragment 
B. § 3. The French text of MS. Bodley 264. § 4. The 
apparent break in this text § 5. Account of the meaning 
of this apparent break. § 6. Sources of the alliteratiye 
Alexander-romances. § 7. Fragment G. § 8. Fragments 
A and B by the same author. § 9. Eesemblances between 
the language of the fragments A and B. § 10. The 
alliteration of the same. § 11. Mode of translation. 
§ 12. Additional sources. § 13. Specimens from Julius 
Valerius and the Old High German. § 14. Abstract of 
the contents of fragment B. § 15. Bemarks on the 
composition of it §16. On the name ^'Dindimus.'' §17. 
The pictures in the Bodley MS. § 18. Gonjectural date 
of Fragments A and B. § 19. Edition for the Boxburghe 
Glub, by Mr. Stevenson. § 20. Variations from the MS. 
in that edition discussed. § 21. Mr. Stevenson's Glossary 
(reprinted). § 22 and § 23. On the Dialect of the Poem. 
§ 24. Peculiarities of Alliteration in the Poem. § 25. List 
of French words in the poem i 

Alexandbb (Fraombnt B) 1 

Notes TO "AlbxandbrB" 45 

Index TO THE NoTBS ... 59 

Glossauial Index 61 

Index OF Names 93 

*^* Fragment A (of the same poem) is printed at pp. 177 — 218 
of the Eomance of William of Paleme, &c., ed. by the Eev. Walter 
W. Skeat; E. E. T. S., Extra Series, 1867. 

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§ 1. In An Essay on Alliterative Poetry, written by myself, 
and prefixed to vol. iii of The Percy Folio MS., ed. Hales and 
Pomivall, I have explained that theie are no less than three poems 
(all fiagmentaiy) in alliterative verse on the subject of the Eomance 
of Alexander the Great These I denote by the letters A, B, and 
C ; and they are as f oUows.^ 

A. A fragment preserved in MS. Gi^aves 60, in the Bodleian 
library, beginning — " Yee fat lengen in londe • Lordes and oofer." 
This was edited by me for the E. E, T. S. in 1867, being printed in 
the same volume with William of Paleme, pp. 177 — 218. It has 
never been printed elsewhere. 

B. A fragment preserved in MS. Bodley 264, beginning — " Whan 
\i]B weith at his wU * weduring hadde." This was edited by Mr. 
Stevenson for the Boxburghe Club in 1849, and is now reprinted in 
tiie present volume* 

C. A fragment preserved in MS. Ashmole 44, in the Bodleian 
library, of which a portion is also found in MS. Dublin D. 4. 12. It 
begins — '* When folk ere festid & fed * fayfi wald ]>ai here," and was 
also printed by Mr. Stevenson at the same time and in the same 
volume ; without, however, collation with the Dublin MS., which is 
of later date than the Ashmole MS. 

It will be understood that the remarks I have now to make relate 
to fragment B only, unless the contrary be expressed. 

§ 2. There is but one copy of fragment B, and it is imperfect 
both at the beginning and the end. The portion preserved has been 
handed down to us in rather a curious way. The MS. in which it 
' See also p. zzz of my Preface to William of Paleme, $to. 

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occurs (Bodley 264) is the well-known copy of tihe Fienck Bomans 
d'Alixandie, to which is appended a copy, in another hand, of Marco 
Polo's travels. It is remarkable for the number and beauty of the 
illuminations contained in it, which have been frequently admired. 
Nine similar illustrations (of a later date) refer to the present poem, 
and are described particularly in § 17. 

§ 3. The text of tliis French romance is mainly the same as that 
printed in Li Bomans d'Alixandre par Lambert li Tors et Alixandie 
de Beniay^ edited by H. Michelant, and published by the Literary 
Society of Stuttgart in 1846. The French version of the story varies 
from the English one, and our three English fragments have, I believe, 
little to do with it But the condition of foL 67 of the French MS. 
is very remarkable. The page is divided, as usual, into two columns. 
Of these, the first ends with the line — ** Li veillant lieue sus si 11 vuet 
affier ; " followed by the rubric — " Comment les gens alixandre firunt 
noies pt/r le moure des femmes demorant en le lew." But the second 
column of the page, originally left blank, contains the following note 
in a later hand — ''Here fayle)) a prossesse of fis rommance of 
allxander, fe wheche prossesse pai fayleth je schulie fynde at ))e 
ende of pia bok y-wrete in engelyche ryme; and whanne ^e ban 
radde it to pe ende, tumej) hedur i^en, and tume]^ ouyr ])is lef, and 
bygynnej) at pia reson : Che f u el mois de may que li tans renouele ; 
and so rede for)> J>e rommance to J>e ende why lis ]>e frenche lastej)." ^ 
This note of course only occupies a few lines of the second column of 
the page, the rest being blank. The verso of foL 67 is also blank. 
Fol. 68, coL 1, begins, as the above note states, with the line : ** Che 
f u el mois de may que li tans renouele." 

§ 4. But the really remarkable point is, that, notwithstanding 
the vacant three columns in the MS.; there is not a " failing of a 
process ; " there is nothing omitted whatever. At p. 333 of Michel- 
ant's edition above referred to, we read as follows : — 

** li viollart salent sus, se li vont afier. 
Ge fu ^ I'mois de Mai que li tans renoveie.*' 

' Tiie first half of this note, down to "ryme," is printed in Warton*8 Hist. 
of Bng. Poetry, ii. 108, ed. 1840. The whole note appears, with four errors, in 
Weber's Metrical Bomances, i. xxxi; and again, with the same fourerrois and 
six more, at p. iv of Mr. Stevenson's edition. 

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And this plainly shews that the stoiy runs on without any break, 
as may yet more easily be seen by looking at the context Moreover, 
since nothing is lost, the writer of the English note is clearly in error 
in saying that the English alliterative poem supplies the deficiency. 
It is not quite easy to account for the blank space, but there it is. 
We can hardly suppose it was left for the purpose of introducing an 
illumination, because the shape of the slender column is unsuited for 
this. It is more likely that the scribe of the French romance 
imagined there was a defect in the MS. from which he was copying, 
and that he left a space in case he should be able to supply it. 

§ 5. The truth is, that the English fragment and the French 
romance belong to different versions of the story. And even if the 
English fragment could have been introduced^ it is not introduced 
quite in the best place; neither does it fit properly either at the 
beginning or the end. If the English scribe had before him a long 
English poem, We should have been more obliged to him if he had 
preserved for us more of it ; but,' as it is, we are thankful that he has 
given us a part of it. It is not difl&cult, by a probable conjecture, to 
account for the present state of things. It would appear that the 
English scribe, for some reason or other, set some store by the 
portion of the story which includes the letters of Alexander to 
Dindimus, and of Dindimus to Alexander. Kow he could not find 
these epistles in the French romance, not because a ''process" had 
" failed," but because that particular version does not, in any case, 
include them. Turning to the point where he expected to find 
them, he observed, not a great way from the most fitting place (but 
still not quite at the fittest place), a blank page and a half. From 
this he concluded that the French scribe had omitted the epistles, 
and thought that the best way of supplying the supposed defect was 
by copying out a sufficient portion of the English version which he 
possessed. At the same time, he wished to preserve further a short 
account of the Gymnosophists, because of the similarity between 
these philosophers and those of which Dindimus was the king or 
master. Hence the result which we have in the present poem. It 
contains just the whole account of the Gymnosophists, and the 
whole account of the letters between Alexander and Dindimus, but 

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piupoeelj omita a portion of the narratire which comes between these, 
aa pointed oat in the footnote on p. 5. This is, however, not quite 
alL The scribe was determined not to lose the curious account of 
the trees which grew eyerj day while daylight lasted, hot disappeared 
every night; and, thinking this short account would seem out of 
place if merely added at the end of the Letters, boldly inserted it in 
the middle; at IL 111 — 136. If this be not quite the right history 
of the matter, it is perhaps as nearly so as we can guess, and is 
quite sufficient for the purpose of understanding the present state 
of the text. 

§ 6. I have said that the French romance follows, in the main, 
one form of the story, and the English romances another. The 
French romance is all printed, as explained above, and may now be 
dismissed, as we have nothing more to do with it. The three 
English fragments are all connected, and are founded mainly on the 
same Latin version. Repeating from p. xxxvii of my Litroduction 
to William of Palerne and Alisaunder, I may remind the reader that 
the principal basis of these fragments is the Greek text known as 
the Peevdo-CdllUthenes^ whence three principal Latin versions are 
derived. These are (1) that by Julius Valerius ; (2) the Itinerarium 
Alexandri (relating to Alexander's wars); and (3) that by the 
Archpresbyter Leo, which is also known as the '* Historia de preliis." 
It is with the third of these that the three English fragments have 
most to do. This version begins with the words — '' Sapientissimj 
egiptii sdentee mensuram terre ; " and an edition of it was printed in 
^490, which has been my guide throughout, and from which I have 
given numerous citations. It is from this edition that the Latin 
text is quoted which appears at the foot of pages 1 — 42. 

§ 7. AH three English fragments are founded mainly on this 
Latin version, but the manner of translation is not the same in alL 
Fragment G may be taken first, as it is much the easiest to under- 
stand. This \& a close translation of the Latin, with a brief original 
prologue of 22 lines only. It is of great length, extending to 5680 
lines,^ and is only slightly imperfect at the end.^ As a result^ it 

' Only 5678 lines in Mr. SterenBon's edition, which omits two lines. 
* That is, at first sight. But there is a gap after 1. 722, where some leaves 
of the MS. have been lost 

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contains both of the passages which exist also in fragments A and B. 
Fragment A corresponds to 11. 23 — 722 of C ; and fragment B to IL 
4020— >4067 and 4188—4715 of C. It is dear from this and from 
the manner of translation that G is independent of A and B, in the 
sense that it was made hy a different translator. 

§ 8. The next question is, whether there were two translators 
or three. As fragments A and B do not cover the same ground, but 
are taken, the former from a portion of the stoiy near the beginning 
and the latter from a portion near the end, there is a chance that they 
may belong to the very same translation, and may have come from 
tiie same hand. In my Essay on Alliteratiye Poetry, I have observed 
that '* the language of fragment B approaches that of fragment A, 
though I hardly think they belong to the same poem." In my 
Fre&ce to William of Paleme, I have observed that " fragments A, 
B, and C, seem to be distinct from each other, and by different 
authors, tiie last bearing traces of a northern^ the former two of a 
western dialect." That is to say that, though I had observed a 
similarity, both of language and dialect, between fragments A and B, 
I had not, at that time, made myself so closely acquainted with them 
as to feel sure that they could be definitely pronounced to be from 
the same hand This hesitation gave rise to a paper by Dr. Moritz 
Trautmann, entitled ** Ueber Verfasser und Entstehungszeit einiger 
Alliterirender G^edichte des Altenglischen," ^ in which a great number 
of resemblances between these fragments are insisted upon, and there 
can now be little doubt about the matter. The result is satisfactory, 
as it introduces a simplification, reducing the number of independent 
venions from three to two. It may henceforth be understood that 
fragmente A and B are hy the mme author^ and that they are 
taken, presumably, from one and the same poem, which must, when 
eomplete, have been of very great length. It is, possibly, partly 
owing to this circumstance that only two fragments of it have come 
down tons. 

§ 9. The following are a few of the more striking resemblances 
between fragments A and B, as pointed out by Dr. Trautmann. 

' I have to thank Dr. Trautmann for his oonrtesy in sending me a oopy 
of his paper. 

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Fbaqmeht a. 
|«t.all )76 gomes wore •griae * of his 

grim sight 986 
with skathe wer ^i skoomfyt * skape 

l^ei ne myght 86 
^ l^ei gradden hur grip * his grace to 

haae 161 

how pe Indus of the land * alosed for 

aiosed in lond 189, 677 
with all pe weies in pe won 164 ; if 

any wight in pii wonne 622 
lengen in bliss 44 
yee ^at lengen in londe 1 
teeneful tach 282 

that moete was adonted S3, 400 

or hee fare wolde 740 ; pass ere hee 

woolde 1080 
hee shall grow fall grim 858 
his term was tint 30 
pe dragoun dreew him awaie 998 ; hee 

drouned as a dragon * dredeM of 

noyes 986 
and lordship of Larisse * laught too 

his will 131, 161 
so hee stynted >at stounde 1079 
too mark pe teene 497; as mich 

maugre and more * hee marked 

hem after 932 
for no grace hur grete God ' graunte 

ne might 639 
Olympias ^ onorable queene 676,738 
as hym leefe thought 60 

§ 10. But though these coincidences are striking and of consider- 
able force^ tiie argument from them is less conclusive than the 
argument derived from the peculiarities of alliteration. This point is 
well and carefully worked out by Dr. Trautmann, and we may, I 
think, accept his conclusion, against which there is no antecedent 
probability. I ought to add here that another result of his more 
careful investigatioD is to shew that these two Alexander-fragments are 
not by the author of William of Paleme, as was supposed by Sir F. 
Madden, and as, at one time, belieyed by myself. Dr. Trautmann also 
expresses an opinion that the date of these fragments is later than I 
should put it ; but here I am not convinced. 

§ 11. It appears to me that there is another argument which is 

))ei were a-grisen of his grym 60 

for ska^ of pe soorpfonttf * askapo 

M ne mi^hte 169 
whan ^e greden ^our grace * to graunte 

20ur wille 606 ; whan le hem greden 

of grip 764 
^ |>at ludtf« in oure land * alosed ani 

wise 1112 
alosed in lande 666 
and for ^e, weihuKi, of |«t won * 

wende ne mowe 1092 
lenge)y in hlisse 628 
jif we lengede in ^oure land 872 
tenful taoh 666 ; sohamfole taoohus 

pBi most was adouted 1130 
or he passe wolde 1135 

^t is grimmest igrowe 262 
^ur dales to tine 689 
dredful dragonus * drawen hem )yiddire 

mihte lordsohipe lache 264 

ptLt i mai stinte no stounde 97 
he ba)y marked 30U men * mischef on 

|>ei [your gods] graunte no grace 709 

Olimpias - pe onorable queue 826, 108S 
as him dere )>outo 1183 

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also of weight I have said that fragment C is a close translation 
from one Latin text, but the otheis are not so. In both of them, 
however, the same treatment of the Latin versions is observecL The 
text of the " Alexander de preliis " is taken as a general guide, on 
which account it is here printed at the foot of every page of the English 
text^ with a snmmary of the latter chapters on p. 43. It is, however, 
supplemented from other sources, and the author seems to have aimed 
at telling the stoiy in his own way, plainly with the intention of 
making it more interesting and attractive.^ Even where he follows 
the text '' de preliis," he by no means translates closely, but gives 
rather the general sense of the passage, with poetical interpolations 
ad libitum. Take, for example, a couple of lines from the Latin text 
printed at the foot of p. 6 ; and observe the result 

Latin text, ''Deinde amoto exercitu venit ad fluuium brag- 
manorum magnum, vocatum ga[n]gei ; et castra metata sunt ibi" 

Fragment O, U. 4188, 4189; dose translation. 

" \>en rade he in aray * remowU his ostis, 
To |76 grete flode of gangem ' & graythid l>er his tents.** 

Fragment By II. 137 — 142; free translation. 

** As sone l^e king sal ' |>at it so ferde, 
He dide him for)? to flod * pat phisoft is called, 
)fat writen is in holi wriht * & ?nroaht so to name. 
From perlese poradis ' passe)? pe stronde ; ' 
In cost )?ere pe king was * men called it gena, 
As was pe langage of pe lond * wi)> ]adtc# of inde.'* 

It is evident that our author has here had further access to some 
other text, whence he acquired the notion of identity between the 
rivers Phison and Ganges. The following passage from Palladius de 
Bragmanibus (of which more hereafter) shews the source of his 
knowledge. In speaking of Alexander's approach to the Ganges, the 
remark is made : — *^ Fluvius vero Ganges iste est qui nobis vocatur 
Phison, f erturque in 8. Literis fluviorum quatuor ParadiBO exeuntium 
unus ; " ed. Bisse, p. 2. 

§ 12. This point being perceived, we next proceed to consider tiie 
sujpplemental sources of information possessed by our author. I have 

1 For numerous examples of this in fragment A, see the Notes in my 
edition of it 

' L e. stream ; not strand. 

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alreadj pointed ont tbat, for fhigment A, he nsed a oompilatton by 
Eadulphus of St. Alban's extant in MS. no. 219 in the libiaij of 
Corpus Chriflti College, Cambridge, and also tl^ history of Orosius. 
I now point out that, for fragment C, he made use of certain Latin 
texts, of which three were printed by E. Blase in 1665. These tractSy 
all of which bear more or less npon the matter io hand, are as follows. 

(1) Palladius de Gentibus Indi» et Bragmanibns ; begins — 
*^ 'H ToXX^ ftkowovla aovy col fiXo/iaO/o,'* with a Latin version — *' Tua 
indefatigabili industria." 

(2) S. Ambrosins de Moribus Brachmanorom ; begins — "Desi- 
deriom mentis tvm, Palladi," &c, being a letter to Palladius from 
St. Ambrose. 

(3) Anonymus de Bragmanis ; begins — *^ Ssepius ad aures meas 
fiemdo perv^pit." 

The last gives the text of the letters between Alexander and 
Dindimus, of which there are five, viz. these. 

(a) First letter of Alexander to Dindimus ; see IL 191 — 242 of 
our English poem. 

(6) First answer of Dindimus to Alexander ; see U. 249 — 811. 

(e) Second letter of Alexander; see IL 822—966. 

(d) Second answer of Dindimus; see IL 973 — 1071. 

(e) Third letter of Alexander; see IL 1078—1127. 

There is a MS. copy of these letters in the MS. C. C. C. no. 219, 

just mentioned above ; and there are other MS. copies in the same 

library, viz. in MS. no. 370, at foL 38, back, and in MS. no. 450, p. 

279 ; ^ but these copies are imperfect. As Bisse's printed edition is 

a convenient one for reference, I take the opportunity of recording 

here the contents of a sentence which, owing to the imperfect state 

of the MS. nsed by him, he was unable to give properly. The gap 

occurs in col. 2, of p. 102, as indicated by dots, and may be filled up 

by help of the following. ** Nonnunquam etiam suauitate odoris uol 

gustu dulcedinis aut contactus blanda mollicie lefouemur. Quorum 

omnium suggerunt nobis elements materiarum, que eciam uite 

nostre creduntur esse principia. Quorum permixtione oontraiia 

' Deaoribed in Kasmith's Catalogue, p. 414, as "Epistola Originaniorom 
{He) ad Alexandmm raagnam ; ** certainly an odd rendering of the '* Brag- 
manonun " of the M8. 

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hiunani generis strnctnia conditur/' &c} By help of these tracts, I 
have been able to find, as far as can be found, the original of almost 
every sentence of onr poem, and I have pointed ont the principal 
results of this research in the Notes. 

§ 13. For further information, see Zacher, Pseudo-Cdllisthenes, 
Halle, 1867 ; the editions of Julius Valerius by Angelo Mai (Milan, 
1817), and Earl MiLller (Paris, 1846) ; the Old High-German version 
edited by H. Weismann (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1850)^ the second 
volume of which, in particular, contains much information; the 
introduction to Kyng Alisaunder in Weber's Metrical Eomances; 
the remarks on the Alexander Eomances in CoL Yule's edition of 
Marco Polo, p. cxxxvii ; Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Hist. iv. 66 — 71, 
&c. I give two passages, by way of example, for comparison with 
the English poem. The former, from Julius Valerius^ answers to 
U. 1 — 22. The latter, from the Old High-German Bomance, written 
by Lamprecht in the twelfth century, and edited by Weismann, cor- 
responds to U. 111—136. 

From Julius Valerius, De Bebus G^tis Alexandn, ed. Mai; 

Milan, 1817, Kb. iii cc. xvi— rxxii. 

" xvi. Quare domitis hoetibus avectaque praeda, ad Oxydracontas, 
quae gens exim colit, iter suum dirigit. Kon illam quidem gentem 
hosticam incursatur (neque enim illis studia sunt armorum) sed quod 
celebre esset, Indos, quos gymnosophistas appellant, hisce in partibus 
versari, opum quidem omnium et cuiusque pretii neglegentes, solis 
yero diversoriis sapientissimi, quae humi manu exhauriunt aditibus 
perangusta, enimvero subter capacibus spaciata, quod id genus aedium 
neque pretii scilicet indigens, et ad fla^rantiam solis aestivam aptius 
habeatur. li igitur cum conperissent Alexandrum ad sese contendere, 
primates suos, quos scUioet a sapientiae modo consent, obviare 
adventanti iubent cum litteris huiuscemodL" 

From the Old High-German Bomance, beginning at L 4946. 

^ Do duge wir unze geselt Then we pitched our tent 

uf an ein breit felt Upon a broad field 

gros wonder ih da sah : A great wonder I saw tfaBre ; . 

des morgenes, do nns quam der taoh In the morning, when day came to us, 

do sah ih wassen bonme — I then saw trees grow — 

dee nam ih rehte goume — Of it I took good heed — 

di wohsaen harte scone Which grew very finely 

user erde nns an di none ; Out of the earth until noon ; 

" MS. 0. 0. 0. 870 fol. 47 back ; cf. MS. 0. 0. 0. 219, fol. 70. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



dar iroder blamen ande gm, 

do die none liden was, 

do sanken di bourne nider 

tiefe nnder der erde wider. 

uf den bonmen wobs gut fruht ; 

da begino ih grof unsubt ; 

ih gebot minen knecbten 

daE fi roir dee obecee breobten. 

gn» not in dar rone bequam. 

svilich irre dar oblr nam, 

der wart 00 zebluwen 

da; ime dar moste ruwen 

das er ie geboren wart 

si worden ouh an der vart 

mit geislen eere seslagen. 

sine wisten, uber wen dob olagen, 

wande si ne geaaben niemanne ; 

dob borten si eine sUmme^ 

di gebot unde sagete, 

da;; nieman ne scadete 

dem obiM nob den boumen ; 

da^ si des namen goume 

neweder wafen nob man. 

wurdir ubir das; getan, 

dar umbe solde liden not 

unde den bitteren tot 

Oder Bcaden vil gros. 

der des obeds nie ne geno^. 

Oub sahe wir dar 
cleine fugele, dac ist war, 
dl waren samfte gemuot 
unde ne forbten niwit den tot 
gro0e not er liden solde^ 
sver in scaden wolde, 
den bfante dta bimelfiur, 
dem. wart dai; leben vil sur." 

Tbereunder (were) flowers and grass. 

Wben noon was past 

Tben sank tbe trees down 

Deep under the earth again. 

On tbe trees grew good fruit ; 

Then I did a great evil. 

I ordered my servants 

To break off for me some of tbe fruit 

A great peril came of it 

Whoever rashly took tbe fruit. 

He was so severely beaten 

That it must repent him 

That ever he was bom. 

-They were also upon the way 

With whips severely struck. 

They knew not whom to accuse. 

Since they saw no one. 

But they heard a voice 

Which commanded and said. 

That no one was to harm 

The fruit nor the trees ; 

That they should take heed of it» 

Both as to weapon and man. 

If aught were done against this, 

The man would suffer pain for it 

And bitter death 

Or very great harm. 

And still would not taste the fruit 

We also saw there 
Little birds — it is true— 
Which were of gentle mood. 
And feared death no whit 
He was to suffer great pain 
Whoever should harm them ; 
Heaven*8 fire should bum him ; 
Life should be very bitter for him. 



§ 14. The general contents of fragment B may be briefly described. 
After Alexander had slain Poms, king of India, he came to the 
country of the OxydracsB, the people of which go naked, and are called 
Gymnosophists. Their king sends a letter to Alexander, representing 
that he has nothing to gain by subduing theuL Alexander offers 
them peace, and promises to grant them a boon ; upon which they 
ask him, by way of taunt, to give them everlasting life. He replies 
that he cannot do that, but must still fulfil his destiny. Kext he 
sees the wonderfcd trees which only grew during sunlight^ and at 
sundown disappear. These trees were guarded by birds that spat 

Digitized by 



deadly fire. He next comes to the Ganges, a river impassable except 
in July and August. He sees men on the other side of the river, 
and sends a message by boat to their king, who is called Dindimus. 
The rest of the poem concerns the five letters which pass between 
him and Alexander. 

First letter; Alexander to Dindimus (pp. 8 — 10). Tell me 
some of your customs; it is good to impart knowledge; for a 
torch whence another is lighted loses none of its own brightness 

Second letter ; fix)m Dindimus (pp. 10 — 30). I comply with 
your request We live a simple life; we neither plough, fish, nor 
hunt. We live frugally, and die at a fixed age. We use no fire, 
avoid lusts, eat fruit, drink milk or water, speak truth, and never 
covet nor make war. Our wives neither paint their faces, nor use 
gay appareL We dwell in caves; we dislike mirth. We admire 
the suns, stars, and sea, feed on the scent of flowers, and love the 
woods. But ye are evil ; ye sacrifice your children, and make war. 
Your gods likewise are evil; Jupiter was lecherous; ye have as 
many false gods as the body of man has members. Each one 
presides over some member; thus Mercury is god of the tongue, 
Bacchub of the throat, and so of the rest. Your idols lead you into 
sins, for which ye shall suffer hereafter endless torment. Ye are like 
Cerberus or Hydra, and are bom to sorrow. 

Third letter ; from Alexander (pp. 31 — 36). Why do you bhime 
usi Your account of yourselves is a miserable one, neither to bo 
envied nor imitated. Ye are as beasts, but we as men. We 
intersperse hard work with well-earned pleasure. Ye lose many joys, 
and dishonour the Creator. Your deeds are but foUy. 

Foitrth letter; from Dindimus. We are but pilgrims upon earth. 
Your boastful deeds only make you proud. The gold which you 
prize cannot satisfy thirst, and we are wiser in treading it under foot. 
Ye know not how much ye err, and it is a kindness to tell you. The 
man who lives as if there were no death deserves to be struck down 
by lightning, as was Salmoneus. 

Fifth letter ; from Alexander. Ye are so set in an island, that 
no strangers can come to you ; ye are like wretched prisoners. God 


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has decreed for jovl misery in this life^ and pain hefeafter. Your 
deeds are a woe to you. 

After the letters are ended, Alexander erects a pillar of marble to 
mark the farthest spot which he had succeeded in reaching. His 
men then begin their homeward journey ; and the fragment ends. 

§ 15. It thus appears that the poem is principally concerned with 
the correspondence that passed between Alexander and the king of 
the Brahmans. This correspondence has really nothing to do with 
the story of Alexander's adventures, but is a mere excrescence. It ia 
easy to see that it originated with an ecclesiastic^ and was introduced 
with a moral purpose. There are two leading ideas in it, both of 
them theologicaL The former is, the common and favourite contrast 
between the Active life and tiie Contemplative life, which so often 
meets us in mediasval literature ; and the latter, the contrast between 
-the Christian life and that of the heathen worshippers of idols. The 
arguments are so managed that the bias of one counteracts that of 
the other. We are led, on the one hand, to favour the Active life 
as being more useful than the Contemplative; but, lest the scale 
should preponderate in its favour, it is linked with Heathenism as 
opposed to Christianity. The life of Dindimus, in as far as it ia 
assimilated to that of a Christian, is preferable to that of Alexander. 
The life of Alexander, in its Active aspect, enliBts our sympathies 
rather than that of Dindimus. The author of this ingenious arrange- 
ment strove rather for oratorical effect than sought to inculcate a 
lesson. To regard the various arguments in this light is to regard 
them rightly. It is merely a question of seeing what can be said on 
both sides. There is nothing else to be learnt from the story of it 


§ 16. Though the poem deals with India, and attempts an account 
of the life of the Brahmans, there is little that is eastern about it Bisse 
has pointed out the references to the Gymnosophists that occur in 
Strabo, lib. 15 ; in Plutarch's Life of Alexander ; in Arrian, Be Expe- 
dit. Alexandri, lib. 7 ; in Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, lib. 3 ; in 
Porphyrius, De AbsUnentia, lib. 4 ; in Philostratus, Yita Apollonii 
lib. 3, capp. 4 and 5 ; and in other authors. The chief point of interest 

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is in the name Dindimus,^ given to the supposed king of the Brahmans. 
It should rather be Dandamisy answering to Dandamie in the Latin, 
and Aa^^da/icc in the Greek texts. It is not really a proper name, 
bat a sort of title. It is the Sanskrit dandin, signifying ' bearing a 
staff/ or, as a sb., * mace-bearer.' It occurs iiv the sense of ' warder ' 
or * door-keeper * in the Tale of Nala, iv. 25. It is an adj. formed 
from the sb. danda, a staff, mace, §ceptre of justice ; and this again 
is from the root </and, to chastise. It thi^s has the sense of ' sceptre • 
bearer ' or ' dispenser of justice.' Even in Sanskrit it is used as an 
epithet of Yama, and also as a proper name. The compound 
trirdandin, lii * three-staves-bearing,' was applied in particular to an 
ascetic, as being one who has con^mand oyer the three seats of action, 
viz. mind, speech, and body ; see Benfey*s Diet., p. 386. Hence the 
particular application of i^e epithet to a chief of ascetics is very 
appropriate. However, the simple form dandin was likewise used to 
signify an ascetic ; and Prof. Cowell kindly refers me to a passage 
shewing that it was, in fact, a name for a man in the fourth (and 
highest) stage of Brahmanical life — the religious devotee. ''His 
nails, hair, and beard being clipped, be^iri^ witl^ him a dish, a Haff,, 
and a waterpot, his whole mind being fixed on God, let him wander 
about continually, without giving pain to ^ny Uving thing." — Manu, 
vL 32. 


§ 17. I here attempt an account of the illuminations or coloured 
pictures which occur in the MS. There are nine of these, viz. at 
IL 137, 249, 355, 568, 681, 822, 973, 1078, and 1139, as indicated 
in the text itself. The si^bjects of jbhem are as follows. 

I. King Alexander stands just before his tent. At his feet flows 
a stream, in which swims a laige eel, to represent the ' hound-flsh ' . 
(1. 164), and just on the farther ba^k st^d two dragons (156). A 
man is rowing across the stream in a boat (168) ; two others, both 
naked, stand a little l^ack from the stream, one of them bearing an 
ofifering of fruits (165). 

' Printed Duidimus, in fiv^ places, in Warton*B Hist, of Eng. Poetry, ed. 
1840, p. 104 ; this mis^lliing is not corrected in the edition of 1871. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


n. A tent Alexander receiving a letter from a man who kneels 
he{(m him (248). 

m. Two naked men, of whom one is Bindimus, who hears a 
crown, and sits at the mouth of a cave, writing. The other, half hid 
in the cave, is the messenger to whom he is to entrust his letter. 

lY. King Alexander before his tent. Before him stand four 
naked men, of whom the foremost, bearing a crown, is Dindimus. 

Y. In the middle of the picture is an idol, seated on a pillar or 
pedestal The idol is in a constrained posture, pointing, apparently, 
towards its stomacL It probably represents Cupid (686). On the 
right of the idol stands Alexander. On the left of it stands 
Dindimus, naked but crowned, who is administering a reproofl 

YL Dindimus, naked but crowned, is receiving a letter presented 
to him by Alexander's messenger. 

YIL Alexander is seated before his tent. He receives a letter 
from a naked messenger. 

YTIL Alexander's page is kneeling down and offering a letter to 
Dindimus, behind whom are four men, one of whom is issuing from the 
mouth of the cave. In this picture Dindimus and his men are appar- 
ently naked, but are curiously tattooed or marked all over with some- 
thing that almost gives them the appearance of wearing coats of mail 

IX. Alexander is setting up a large white pillar (1135). 


§ 18. The chief value of the poem is in the language of it It 
is a good specimen of Alliterative English, and contains, in common 
with aU other such poems, a number of curious and characteristic 
words. My original impression was that it might be referred to 
about the year 1340 ; Dr. Trautmann argues that the date should 
rather be about 137.0. It is hardly possible to decide the matter 
either way ; and, if it may be argued on the one hand, that there are 
reasons for putting it earlier than William of Paleme (written about 
1350), it may be said, on the other, that alliterative poems, by their 
retention of archaic forms, have an appearance of antiquity which is 
rather deceptive.^ It is not of much consequence either way ; and it is 

' The Frenoh romance, in MS. Bodley 264, waa written oat in 1338, and 

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quite sufficient to know the date approximately. The dialect^ which 
is moie particularly discussed in § 22, is apparently that of the West 
of England. On account of the usefulness of references to good 
specimens of Middle English, I have attempted, in the Glossarial 
IndeXy to make a list of aU the words in the poem, but omitting 
multiplication of references in the case of every word. See the note 
pre&ced to the Glossarial Index on p. 61. 


§ 19. The poem has been printed before^ as I have said, by Mr 
Stevenson, for the Roxburghe Club, in 1849 ; but the number o£ 
copies printed was limited, and the book is scarce ; for which reason 
it la now reprinted for the Early English Text Society. Mr. Stevenson's 
text is not free from faults; it would seem to have been printed from 
an imperfect transcript without collation of the proofs with the MS. 
itself. The MS. itself has also several faults.^ In the following list 
of the variations from the MS. in Mr. Stevenson's edition, the 
former of the two forms gives the word as it stands in the 
MS. ; the latter the word as it stands in his edition ; the 
numbers referring to the lines. It does not include the editor's 
numerous substitutions of v for u, of th for )>, and of capital 
letters for small ones. 1. MS, wedwring; Stevenson prints 
wedering. 2. rommede — ^roumede. 4. wondurful — ^wonderfuL 31. 
mijht — might 32. wele — weL 39. werrede — wercede. 44. 
sikt^rede — sikured. 61. hiddem — Ynddenhem (evidently an ecUiorial 
correction ; hU no notice ie given). 55. Aflur — ^Af ter. 65. speche 
— speeche. 74. my silf — ^myself e. 81. skile — skilL 82. kinguiM 
— kingus. 88. wrecheli — wrethelie. 100. seruauntM^ — servantus. 
106. Whan — When. 107. enchesoun — enchesonn; ojwr— other; 
kinguu^ — kingus. 108, &c. ouur — over. 109. ojwre — othnr. 
124. & — In. grouuede — grounede. 127. & — in. 136. spilden — 
spildm. 142. ludti^ — ludis. 143. mascedoniti^ — ^Mascedomus; (c/. 
Z. 1073). 146. mascedonit«« — Mastredomus {sic). 148. hem — him. 

Oluminated in 1344. The English copy was written ont perhaps abont a 
century later, but then it was evidently copied from an older original. 

' The chief of these are pointed out in the margin of the present edition ; 
see 11. 51, 69, &c. Some others are discussed in the Notesw 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


150. miche — muche. 151. ouwr — over; romme — roiiime. 152. 
watir— water. 155. aftyr— aftter. 164. per inne— there inne. 176. 
&— In. 177. Ji— the. 179. couaitede — covaited. 180. icA— la 
185. Jeanne whitli — Than whith ; ouur — over; watur^— water. 
187. say — Baye. 193. graciouce — gracious. 194. onurable — onerable. 
200. fram opur — from other. 203. sesoun — sasoun. 207. tyinge 
{error for tyfinge) — tynige. 210. memailouse — marvailouse. 213. 
jour — your. 215. ich — Ic. • 222. finguus — thingus. 230. hit — 
it; opure — other. 236. vn-wastef — onwasteth. 245. write — 
writte, 348; manure — nianner. 250. lond — loud. 251. prinds — 
ptindes. 281. time— tune. 294. forwes — ^forues. 307. moditr — 
moder. 336. mihte — miht. 345. ouurcomen — overcomea. 347. 
nol — ne of; procre — ^prince. 351. keuered — ^koverid. 364. wif 
Cute — ^without. 366. protired — proceed. 395. y punched — ypiniched. 
396. jour — joure. 405. jei — thaL 420. sauiour — Savionie. 
431. coruen— comen. 438. opur — othir. 440. owen — uaen. 442. 
any — ony. 443. wedwres — wederes. 460. luJ)M7-ly — lutherly. 
467. storriw* — stormus. 470. game — gaine. 478. pe skiuttf — 
skurus. 480. & — An. 483. w&wus — wavus. 496. sauotm)n — 
sayeron. 514. maner — manir. 517. lowe— lothe. 521. alle — alL 
533. ouwr — over. 534. mihtest — ^mihhest. 541. quedfuUe — qued 
fulle. 542. souorain — soverain. 543. vnblisful — unbUsafuL 545. 
gret — grett. 547. prouede — proude. 649. miht — might 554. 
lechowrus — lechurous. 565. hole — hoi. 568. aftur — after. 
569. lupur — luther. 570. audunt — avaunte. 573. Miche — 
Swiche. 574. betwre — betere; 675. gedttren — gederen. 678. 
ketwre — keiJere. 580. othwr — other. mirthe — in irthe. 
583. ouwr-comejj — overcometh. 597. leuen — liven. 605. 
For Jei — For thl 609. vndwrstonde — understonde. 612. 
nopur — nothir (twice). 629. & — in ; lupur — luther. 632. 
sinne — synne. 633. oj>wr— othir. 638, 639. No — Ne. 659. 
iaudewin — jandewin; ioiful — ^joyfuL 662. rink — ^renk; wrafjje — 
wraythe. 663. main — manL 664. foundwr — ^founderer. 674. jiue 
— give. 682. fur — full. 685. sof- sothe. 692. elltw — elles. 
698. weihuiw — weihus. 700. opur — othir. 702. minstrolu^ — 
iniustrelus. 717. vn — on. 722. opiir — othir. 729. epraiuM* — 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


sprainuB. 740. fauwre — favere. 742. maistrie — maistire. 763. 
kun not — ^kannot. 764. graunte — grairnt. 769. any — an y. 772. 
wreche — wirche. 775. ar — are. 776. tMrment — tourment. 777. 
"wreche — wrethe. 786. wirchen — worchen. 797. 30ur — jonre. 
799. yydra — Thydra. 810. dindimii^ — ^Dindunus. 816. anon riht 
anied — anonriht amed. 825. onorable — honorable. 834. ne — no 
(which is better). 836. seye — Beth. 840. dedes — dede. 846. tulye 
— tulthe. 855, 865, &c. ojmr— othir. 856. For-fi— Forthei. 863, 
866. hunger — hunger. 866. jou — you. 875. comine — comma. 
881. hungur — hungurua. 884, 887. lechwrie — lecherie. 894. 
chariteut^^ — chariteus. 921. ioie — joio. 928. dimme — duAne. 
929. Biht— riht 930. also— alle. 936. Whan— When. 947. siht 
— riht & BSkVLur — saver. 958. fo — the. 986. kinzw nie — 
kinuflme[n]. 1012. grete — Greca 1017. hnrmis — ^tumus. dede^ 
— dedus. 1030. houngur— hounger. 1036. hit— it. 1037. cofly— 
coflye. 1067. with — what. 1074. aeye— sethe. 1075. bragmanye 
brouht — Bragman ye brouhi 1082. graciose — graciouse. 1091. 
you — thou. 1097. jour — ^oure. 1100. & ekile — in skile. 
1118. iuge, ioie, iugged — juge, joye, jugged. 1121. fouh — ^Though. 
1131. lomme— roume. 1137. ich — Ic. 1138. graie — grie. 

§ 20. In several of these instances the MS. may, no doubt, be read 
either way. In particular, the scribe often makes but little difference 
between y and f, or between c and t, and sometimes none at all 
between u and n, or between m and in or ni. Yet in most cases 
there can be no doubt about the matter, and I think the reader will 
in general be able to tell for himself why the readings in the 
present edition are preferable to those in the former. Thus, in 1. 88, 
we must read wrechdi, i. e. wretchedly, miserably, not tvretheli, i. o. 
wrathfuUy. In L 124, grouuede=growede, i. e. grew; but grounede 
cannot well be explained. In 1. 250, lond ==■ land ; but loitd makes 
no sense. In L 281, we must of course read time, not tune. In 
L 467, the sense is ' to read stories/ not * to read storms.' In 1. 478, 
the sun and stars are visible an \e skiwus, in the skies ; but not on 
Je shurua, which is explained to mean * in the tempests.' In 1. 578, 
keturey not an uncommon word, must be preferred to kecere, which 
does not exist. In 1. 659, iavdewin can be explained, but jandettin 

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cannot. In L 729, spratutis, sprays, is better than sprainus, giving 
no meaning. In L 816, anied means * annoyed ; ' the sense of anted 
we are not told, whilst the alliteration is then lost In L 846^ the 
M. E. word for * to till * is, of course, to tulye, not to tulthe. In 
L 875, comine peple means ' common people/ but comme peple makes 
no sense. In 1. 928, days are dimme, i e. dim, rather than durme or 
brown. In L 1074, eeye means seen, L e. read over; setlie does not 
exist as a past participle^ but means * to boiL' In some cases the 
alliteration is a guide to the right reading, giving us, in L 573, Miehe 
for Swiche; in L 929 and 947, slht for riM; and in 1. 1017, humua 
ioT'turntis. In all four of these places, the MS. is quite right 
Perhaps the most curious variation is in L 347, where the MS. reading 
nol no gome proere (= will procure no man) appears as ne of no gome 
prince. And in L 769 the reading of the former edition an ^ is 
explained in the glossary to mean ' an egg \ ' that is to say, ^' when 
the gods are loath to hear your prayers, the fact that they will not hear 
you hatches^ an egg for you." The reading in the MS. is any, i. e. 
annoyance^ vexation ; and the right sense is " breeds annoyance for 

§ 21. A glossary is appended to Mr. Stevenson's edition, but it 
is not a very full one. The number of words explained in it is 63 ; 
and, for the reader^s convenience, I here reprint it, with the references, 
as given. 

Aldurfadur, an ancestor, 1050. Atlede, attempted to go, 
15. Auhty increased, 936. Bakke, a bat, 723. Bliken, to make 
fair, 411. Boiler, a drunkard, 675. Bourd, a jest, 469. Brigg, 
strife, 393. Cof quickly, 42 ; Cqfli, Cofliche, quickly, 48, 64, 1076. 
Dreche, to drench, 1032. Dreie \dris in the text], to suffer, 857. 
Englaymsy to cloy, 676. Ferk, to go, 300. Fon, foes, 339, 341. 
Fidsum, satisfied, 497. Galfull, lustful, 389. Oaynes its, it avails 
ns, 181, 1028. Giour, a guide, 703. Grithy protection, 764. He, 
she, 654, 698. Here, to honour, 1046. Hery, to praise, 358. 
HMen, to honour, adorn, 406, 408, 418. Hue, she, 656. 

^ The gloBsary to the fonner edition explains noreheth hy painetk not. 
This is hardly fair ; and, even then, the sense comes out just the opposite of 
what it should do. Besides, nor$che\> occurs again, in 1. 309. 

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Jandewin (i), 659. Karre, to tum, 886 [read 986]. Laike, to 
play, 465. Licham, the body, 492 [read 592]. Lileth(^), 474. 
Zftn, to remain, 441, 448. Lisse, to please, 476. Lite, to mock (1), 
732 [reac^ 932]. Lose, praise, 221. Lwt^, a man, 205, 645. Ludene, 
human, 773. Menskliche, honorably, 1073. Minegeth^ mentions, 
573, 614. Munl^e, to teach, 514. Namecouthe, celebrated, 823, 
979. Norcheth, paineth not, 769. Quedfulle, full of wickedness, 541. 
Reke, extended, 594. Sake, contention, 388. Schdlk, a man, 432. 
Sichus, sighs, 1115. Side, long, wide, 481. Skunts, tempests, 478. 
SneHle, keen, 437. Solow, a ploughshare, 295. Sote, sweet, 128, 
496. Spouaehreche, adultery, 885. Tacchus, manners, 463. Taried, 
harmed, 132. Tendeth, infiameth, 684. Tenful, sorrowful, 793. 
Traie, difficult, 710. Whon, a quantity, 353. Wikke, wicked, 537. 
Wilnede, desired, 150. Wan, abundance, 499, 557, 575, 678, 891, 
967. Wond, to depart from, 886, 957, 990. 7, an egg, 769. 

In the leferences heie given three corrections must be made; 
karre occurs in L 986 ; licham in I 592 ; and lite in L 932 ; as noted 
above. And the explanations may, I think, be improved in at least 
13 instances. Dreclie = to afflict. Jandemn should rather hejaude- 
win; see my Glossary. Laik in 1. 465 is a sb., not a verb. For lileth 
(the MS. reading) read liketh, Lisse is a sb., signifying joy. Lite 
means ' little ; ' ille can lite == knows little ill ; or, more strictly, 
knows evil (but a) little. Ludene is not an adj., but the genitive pluraL 
Norcheth = nourishes. Sake is simply sake, Skurus is an error for 
skiuus = akius, skies. Traie is a sb., meaning * a vexation.' Wond 
is rather * to shun, avoid.' T is due to an error ; the word is any. 
The explanation of reke is, besides, hardly satisfactory; if * extended ' 
be meant, the form should rather have been ravht or rauyt. 


§ 22. One difficulty in the way of studying the dialect of an old 
poem is that, when it presents mixed forms, we cannot well tell 
whether some of its peculiarities may not have been due merely to 
the scribe. We want to know which forms are original, and which 
have crept into the poem in course of transcription. Singularly 
enough, we have in the present instance a short sentence by the 

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terihe himself ^ which tells us, at any rate, something. I all ode to 
the note mentioned in § 3, which gives ns the following hints. The 
scribe writes /a j^Ze^y laste^^ in the 3Td person singolar of the present 
tense; tumef, bygt/nnef, but also rede, in the 2nd person plural of 
the imperative mood ; y-wrete and radde appear as past participles of 
strong verbs ; and we have also the phrases 30 achtdU and ^ han. 
These indications are not to be disregarded ; but point to a southern 
dialect^ or to a midland dialect strongly marked by southern forms. 
It seems fair to infer that the numerous western forms found in the 
poem, such as the suffix -ua for the present singular or for the 
imperative plural, are not due to the scribe, but to the original which 
he had before him ; which makes some observations upon the forms 
in the poem all the more necessary and useful, as well as trustworthy. 
The bias of the scribe towards southern forms being ascertained, we 
can see our way more clearly than we could have done otherwise. 

§ 23. For convenience, I consider the various peculiarities of the 
text in much the same order as I have done those found in William 
of Paleme; the present remarks may therefore be compared with 
those in my Preface to that poem, p. xxxviiL For reference* to the 
words cited below, see the Glossarial Index. 

The plurals of nouns generally end in -ue, as ioyntertu, tomenu^ 
Twlus, ansioeruSf Indus, eostomus, &c. ; but this ending is also 
curiously varied to -uus, as in skiuus, kinguus, weUmus, foliuus ; or 
else to -eus, as in seggeus, dedeus; or even to -ous, as in fouhtous 
(767), godous (772). In some cases, we find plurals in -y«, as in 
Jieuys (hues), cauys (caves), stormys; rarely in -««, as in lettres, 
weies, dedes ; very rarely in -m, as in holts (57). Other plurals 
worth notice are oxen (296), Jiotis (434), fan (foes), tren (trees, 
853), erene = eren (ears), eldrene, eldren (elders), breperefi, soulen 
(souls). The pL of 'fish' appears as fihs,fihes, Jiheh, and fUtehes. 
The genitive singular also commonly ends in -t», as in godus (315), 
catelus (370), Ucamus (555). The genitive plural is found ending in 
-ene, as in ha^lene, briddene, bestene, ludene; cf. wommenus (1016). 

As regards adjectives, we find plurals in -6, as meke, pore ; and e 
is commonly added to past participles in the plural, as in ciefie- 
mindede, corsede, bannede ; though it is also wrongly added to past 

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participles of weak verbs in the singular, a mark of the lateness of 
the transcription or of ignorance of spelling. We find the com- 
paratives blipure, schenure, beture, keture, comelokur; as also lasae^ 
werse; and the superlatives kiddesfe, egrest, grymmesty giddiest (see 
975, 976). The endings -ly, 4iy and -liehe are used both for adverbs and 
adjectives without distinction ; thus we have cqflicJie, cofliy and oofly. 

As to pronouns, for / the forms are t, y, and ich (1137) ; for thou^ 
we have fou ; pi. 36 in the nominative, ^ou, ^ow^ in the dative and 
accusative ; see L 540. The third personal pronoun is he, gen. Ai9, 
isy dat. and ace Mm; though in one instance (1. 703) the ace. is 
written hiriy more likely by an error of the scribe than by a preserva- 
tion of the n in the A.S. hine. The feminine of the third person is 
^t^ (as in Alexander A.), but ache occurs once, in L 309 ; ace. hure. 
The neuter is commonly hit. The plural nom. is ^ey or yet; gen. 
hurCy hur ; dat. and ace. hem. "We find euerych a = every (86). 
HuOy used for who, occurs interrogatively (941); huoso or ho-eo 
occurs for whoso (1001, 1060). 

In the case of verbs, the infinitive ends in -en, as reden, maken, 
forleten; in -«, as hereue, Hne ; in 4my as tUien; in -;e, as ^oliey 
or -ye, as tidtje ; very rarely in -yn, as hehjn (320). In the present 
tense, 2nd pers. sing., we find -est, as in hm'esty hringesty letted, 
8ented{e\ wilned; cf. the contracted form wost (516). In the 3rd 
pers. sing., we most often find -Tie, as faruSy kairus, lepus, wendusy 
romvms; but also -es, Bsfondes; and even -ej>, as sesefy askefy with 
which compare tlie contracted forms hiclipth and et (= eteth, 862). 
The plural ends ia -en ot -e; rarely in -in, as wetin (99), worehiny 
361 ; once in -on, as aaiwuron (496), probably by an error of the 
scribe for muouren; see numerous examples in U. 712 — 733. 

The imperative plural (2nd person) ends in -««, as in giuus (972) ; 
in -e^, as in ^emes (67) ; but also in -ep (190), which is possibly due 
to the scribe. Of past tenses, we may note the use sai and sie, in 
the sense of aaWy in the singidar ; and saien and n?ieny in the same 
sense, in the plural; sew (sing.) in the sense of sowed seed; and 
wreten (pi.) in the sense of torote. The 2nd person singular of strong 
verbs ends in -e, as pou hade (511). Examples of weak verbs are, in 
the singular, heldSy wente, hrentCy wistey with the fuller forms askede. 

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biggedey buskede; And, in the plural, fendvle, spatteriy spildetu Of 
past participles, those of strong verbs end properly in -en, as holden 
(16), coren (chosen), doluen, i-boren ; but the final n often drops ofl^ 
as in holde (13), graue, i-^oulde^ schape, i-/ounde, smite (smitten). 
Examples of past participles of weak verbs are listnedy i-eged, ysus- 
taiiwdf ydeined, ending VEL-ed; wastid^ ending in 4d; also i-kidf teiid^ 
tpiUf iset, kildy moody contracted forms. In two cases we actually 
find the ending -ef ; vit in yliofitepy 988, vmcasiep, 236 ; these are 
probably errors. The prefix t- or j^- is by no means uncommon, 
especially in weak verbs, as i-kid, i-said^ ijmt, isety t-eged^ y-kid^ 
y-TYiaad, ysustalned, y-demed; it is even found in strong verbs, as 
i'^aulde, i-baren, tfounde, CI iset (454) with set (481). The present 
participles end in 'inge, as rydinge, llkinge, wastinge. Substantives 
of verbal origin also end in -ingey as wachingey Jiousingey lesinge, 
swaginge, handlingey heringe, quemvige ; see U. 948 — 952. We once 
find -?» for -inge, as in offrttiy L 718. It is, perhaps, worthy of 
remark, that in the plural of the present tense of the verb signifying 
to be, we find both am and ben. Both forms are due to the author, 
as is proved by the alliteration. In IL 333, 423, 904, we find ben^ 
as the alliteration requires; whilst in IL 338, 345, 506, 1007, we 
find am, also as required. A similar peculiarity occurs in Piers the 
Plowman. In U. 446, 634, we have examples of the verb t€orpeny to 
become. Some peculiarities of spelling may be noted. "FoTj/lsh, we 
have the curious forms, Jihcs, JUts, fiJichy fihches. For strength, we 
find strenke ; for streTigthen, strenkfen ; for drinking, drinkinke; for 
nougJU, noukt. In the word world, the I is frequently dropped, 
giving word or worde ; but we also find the curious form wordle, as 
in some MSS. of Piers the Plowman. This form is still found in 
Somersetshire, as in the phrase b^eyoen atd dhu daiz een dhu wuurdl 
(beyond all the days in the world), to quote from the representation 
of Somersetshire speech in glossic spelling, given by Mr. Elworthy in 
his Grammar of the Dialect of West Somerset, p. 103. We may 
also note the loss of d after I, as in gol for gold; as well as the use of 
sd for si, as in sclepe, sclowjte, sclain, all in L 344. Also the use of 
sch for ch, as in scliast for chast (894), suggesting that cJi had 
occasionally the sound of sh. The aspirate is sometimes misused^ as 

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in hdlde for old^ L 327 ; hauler for aliaVy 1. 728. The number of 
curious words in the poem is considerable, not the least remarkable 
being the word done in L 999, on which see the note. We also see 
that to punch is short for punish. 

It hence appears that the dialect is much the same as that of 
William of Paleme, the chief difference being that there are no 
present participles in ^inde as well as in 4nge ; but there are not many 
examples to judge from. I think the dialect is plainly West 
Midland, but not so far north as Lancashire ; rather in the direction 
oi Shropshire or Gloucestershire, as in William of Paleme. 


§ 24. I note here a few peculiarities of alliteration.^ Perhaps the 
most remarkable is the run upon vowels^ which is also a marked 
feature of the Alexander A-fragment ; see IL 22, 27, 230, 240, 268, 
290, 415, 461, 498, 500, &c of that text. So here, we find an 
alliteration of different vowels in IL 3, 15, 24, 157, 251, 338, 343, 
345, 440, 442, 468, 506, 526, 568, 718, 720, 754, 812, 851, 936, 
975, &c We also find alliteration of the saine vowel in many 
instances. Ex : a, a, a; 55, 63, 170, 198, 244, 377, 701, 822, 
1007; 6, e, e; 86, 201, 262, 360, 539, 744, 757, 862, 981, 1008; 
o, 0, o; 327, 533, 711, 743. To these add L 588, in which there 
are but two vowels, both e; also 153, in which we have o, e (in eight 
= viij.), a; also 518, in which a rimes with the diphthongs au and 
ea. The most remarkable instance is in U. 1007, 1008, in which two 
consecutive lines have the vowel-rime. The letter h is also sometimes 
associated with vowels, as in these instances; 155, 219 (where ?Mfel 
is for aJ>cZ), 277 (where hapel is again for a^l), 320 {ha\>elene for 
afelene), 348 {ha]fel for afeZ), 669, 728, 799, 842, 856 (hapel for 
a])eZ), 1137. This is the more remarkable, because h is also found as 
an alliterative letter, as in 1. 16, 51, &c. 

* I may further refer the reader to a careful dissertation entitled Die 
Alliterierende Englische Langzeile im xiv. Jahrhundert, by F. Rosenthal ; 
Halle, 1877. This contains an analysis of the alliterations in the three texts 
of Piers Plowman, a work of great labour. Most of the remarks here made 
were written before I received a copy of this dissertation, which was kindly 
forwarded to me by the author. 

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C of course answers to A:/ as in 13, 26, 29, 38, 42, 48, &c. Also 
ph to/; as in 457, 1070. Also soft c to «; as in the word Ceres^ 
724 ; of. sytCy written for cyte^ i e. city, in L 9 ; see the note. Also 
soft g to t (=y); 656. Scarce rimes are those with t (=/) / 462, 
653, 659, 697, 1118 : with qu; 641, 608, 950, 1047 : and with v; 
671, 693.^ Examples of double rime-letters are numerous; examples 
are hi, 411, 523, 543, 624 ; hr, 134, 287, 393, 430, 503, 521, 686, &c\ 
ch, 107, 110, 417, 727, 894,2 941, 1080 ; cZ, 489, 625, 636, 899, &c.; 
dr, 156, 529, 1032; gl, 676, 790; gr, 7, 87, 124, 133, 252, 254, 447, 
602, &c.; i?Z, 296, 495, 847, 853 ; ^w, 5, 161, 225, 280, 366, 609, 647, 
&c.; 8chy 294, 330, 401, 412, 416, 421, 432, &c., especially the con- 
secutive lines 959 and 960; sd = si, 344; sk, 159, 871, 1020; «n, 
1063; sp, 136, 172, 367, 699; st, 97, 114, 429, 487, 609, 686; «f, 
310, 493, 719, 856, 921 ; tr, 513, 829 ; wr, 139, 660, 777, 814, 1136. 
There are even examples of triple rime-letters, as spr, 123, 729 ; and 
gtr, 756 ; but we must not include amongst these seh and scl, already 
mentioned, since these are merely ways of writing sh and d 
respectively. But it was not thought at all necessary that, if a 
double consonant began one rime-word, the same sound should occur 
throughout the line. We have br riming with b, 175, 683, 714, 
723 ; fr with/, 352 ; gl with g, 391 ; gr with g, 193, 274, 625, 824, 
1025; sp with spr, 623; st with sir, 530; and numerous other 
examples. The strangest example is an apparent rime of br with pr, 
1075 ; but the word^e*^ may be wrong. 

We sometimes find /our rime-letters in the line; as in 499, 544, 
646 ; these lines are not very commoQ, and the fourth letter is not 

Occasionally there is a failure of one of the sub-letters, as in L 11,' 
22 (where it is easy to supply tid) ; 81, where Jc seems to answer (by 
poetical licence) to sk; 290; 302 (where refe should be bruten, see 
note) ; 558 ; 782 (where jou lif should perhaps be ^ou silf) ; 793 
(unless the t in Tricerbenis is counted in); 816. One or other of 

' No example of the rime of v with /, as in Piers Plowman and Richard 
the Bedeles. 

' The writing of seluist for ehatt is a mere freak of the scribe. 

* A bad line ; the y in yenotophutiens is soft, and does not well rime with 

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the sub-letters is often out of place, as in U. 12, 47, 67, 106, &c. ; 
but a certain amount of variation of this character is rather a beauty 
than a blemish, as it prevents the metre from being too painfully 
r^ular. Yet this licence is sometimes carried too far ; in IL 12, 47, 
130, and some others, the accent has to be rather forced to bring out 
the rime. The worst is when the chief-letter fails, as in U. 6, 1046 ; 
in the latter case, there is something wrong. Other unmusical lines 
are those where the chief-letter is ill placed, as in IL 54, 163, 904, 
where the word bi is too weak to bear the whole weight of the verse. 
Similarly, L 363 is bad. In L 73, we may excuse the strong 
emphasis upon not^ by supposing that Alexander meant to express 
his refusal unmistakeably. We may note U. 31, 50, 394, 971, as 
examples in which the chief-letter comes nearer than usual to the 
end of the line. 

As usual, prefixes are commonly neglected in the alliteration; 
thus, in 1. 19, the accent is on the syllable beginning with 8 ia/ar- 
saide, the prefix /cw being neglected. Other examples are : the rime 
with m in Umongua, 28 ; A in hi^iolden, 46 ; and with the italicised 
letters in the following, viz. aioute, 64; bi-reue, 82; a^yn, 83; 
i«dd, 100; a-^re, 104; encAesoun, 107; a^^ored, 114; iotdouy 118; 
a^Aape, 159; a^en, 172; aZowe)), 212; vn^armed, 227; vntrastejy, 
236; ene^itinge, 243; a^sed, 250; rihteudsnesse, 258 (an odd 
instance); aZowe, 259; inpossible, 268; vn/ich, 271; biZeue, 272; 
&c, &c. 

This neglect of the prefix is, of course, right ; as it brings the 
accented syllable into play. But we sometimes find a very objection- 
able variation, viz. cases in which, contrary to the whole spirit of 
alliterative poetry, the rime-letter beguis an U72accented syllable. 
Examples of this occur, not only in the present poem, but (as I have 
before observed) in other alliterative poems also. As this point 
probably presents a difficulty to such as do not clearly apprehend 
the fact, I cite some instances. 

And laide, Mg, to us $\\t * xofisen ]>\% caons ; 61. 

That us deryQ no <2e|> * eZesire we nouf^e ; 71. 

Bigat on (^limpias * ^ onurable quene ; 194. 

That we £liBo6rdea of deAe * in many ^ne f^inguus; 222. 

AUe )ye ifedes |)at 30 don ' </iBc6rden til oure ; 278. 

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Ne o|yir dainieyn den * denre we none ; 306. 
To him )>at sohop us to schap * schtA fare to blisse ; 830. 
And ifeliten in no dede * )>at <to)> men to sinne ; 505. 
Jfiohel bolde ^e of miht ' JTinerua \>e falce ; 653 ; of. 722. 
Diuisede here on his ^y * a <fo8ain of wondrus ; 670. 
That han no reward to riht * but redlese wirchen ; 907. 
pis toude \fAt y #aid haue * «ire alixandre riche ; 967. 

A crucial test is furnished by IL 74, 75. 

Of fM# \>ht mbhteles am * my-silf so to kepe ,* 
I am f ikur oi my-filf * to tuff re min ende. 

Here, in the same word, viz. mysilf, without any change of accent, 
we have a change in the alliterative letter. ^ 

No doubt our pronunciation has changed greatly since the four- 
teenth century, but accent is a much more persistent thing. Ko 
one will be so hardy as to maintain that such accentuations as desire, 
dlimpias, deliten, mlnerva^ diuisede^ riicard could ever have been 
possible; and, for this reason, I refuse to believe in sdJUen, or 
discorden either. And I am prepared to maintain, as always, that 
even the chief-letter in the alliterative poetry of our forefatheis 
sometimes fell on wholly unaccented and unimportant syllables, such 
as schal in L 330, and sire in L 967. So much the worse for the 
poetry, no doubt ; but we must not shut our eyes to plain facta by 
pretending that poets could not err. Besides, it is easy to see tphy 
these unimportant syllables sometimes received the rime-letter. What 
the poet really wanted was a help to tlie memoj'y, and this was 
attained quite as easily (now and then) by help of an unimportant 
syllable as by dose attention to rule. The use of the word achat in 
L 330 (as of sire in L 967) was to give the reciter a start for his 
second half-line. The cue was quite sufficient for this purpose, and 
thus the line, though slip-shod, was allowed to pass. This ia the 
simple explanation of the whole matter. 

§ 25. I add a list (perhaps impeiiect) of the principal words of 
French or Latin origin in the poem ; omitting proper names. The 
list is as follows ; the references to the lines where they occur will be 
found in the Glossarial Index.* Acorde, age, air, alowe, auterus 

' We cannot shift the accent in a word like mysilf, as Chaucer does in 
the case of French words like honour Kud fortune. The case is quite different 

* The order of such words as are still in use is the alphabetical order of 
them in modem English ; the obsolete words follow these, letter by letter. 

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(altars), amende, anied (annoyed), apere, annus, araie, asent, asingned, 
auowen. Obsolete : adouted, alosed, aseled, askape, aspien, astored, 
auaunt, Bal, best (beast), bochours (butchers), Obs% : bourde. Carien, 
cache, catel, caays (caves), sese (cease), sertaine, sertefied, chalis, 
chaonce (chance), changede, chase, chaste, chere, chef (chief), chois^ 
syte (city), daimen, clergie, closef, cost (coast), colour, comaundede, 
comine (common), conquerour, conscience, contre (country), cours, 
cortais (courteous), couaite, couaitous, cocodrillus (crocodiles), corone 
(crown), crye, costom. Obs,: sertua (certes), chariteuus, cheue, 
couaitise. Dainte, damned, degre, deliten, desire, dispit, destene, 
distioie, diuisede, discorden, dismembre, dite (ditty), diuerse, 
doctour, dolfinus, doute, dosain (dozen), dragonus, duk, dure. Obs.: 
defoule, dul (dool), Egre, ese, emperour, endite, endure, enemis, 
enforce^, engendie]), enquere, ensample, enuie (envy), erren, errours, 
echue (eschew), exkused. Obs.: enchesoun, englaymed, enoine 
(anoint), Fablus, face, failede, falce, faute (fault), fauure (favour), 
figure, fin (fine), flourus (flowers), folic, fol (fool), fourme (form), 
frut. Obs.: fenked, foUiche; and cf fai]>. Gay, gentil, gin (a 
trap), glose, glotenye, glotounius, grace, graciouce, graunt, sb., 
graunte, vb., grauntinge, gref (grief), greue (grieve), gruche, gile, 
gise. Obs.: gien, giour, gouemance. Hardy, haste, hastiliche, 
haunte, eritage, ypotamus, onurable, ost, huge. Idolus, inpossible, 
innocent, yle (isle). langle, iargoun, ioie (vdth ioiful, ioiles), iuge, 
sb., iuggen, iuggement. Obs.: iaudewin. Langage, large, lecherie, 
lechour, lechourus, lettres. Obs. : los. Mentaine (maintain), manere, 
marbyl or marbre, meruailous, maistrus, maistrie (mastery), matere, 
maugre, megre, men (mean), mesure (measure), medle, medisine, 
membrys, mercy, message, minstralus, mischef, meven (move). Obs. : 
maumentrie. Nacion, msote (nicety), noble, noblete, norschej). Obs. : 
noy, nien (or nye). Oxian (ocean), ordre. (Add offren, offringus, 
from a Latin root.) Pacen, paine, sb., painede, paradis, part, sb., 
parte, vb., passe, pay, sb., paiej), pes {peace), perles (peerless), pen- 
ance, peple, peril, perichen, philozofrus, pilegrimus, piler, pinchen (?), 
place, plain, plaunte, plente, point, pore, pouerte, poudur, power, 
praisen, praien, praiere, pres, praie (prey), prince, prented, presoun, 
preuey, procre (procure), profre, profit, profitef, proud (]), prove, 


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pulle (?), punched, purcbas, purpre. Obs. : prest, prestly, prow, 
pris or prys. (Add preche, of LcUin origin,) Quainte. Obs. : 
quaintise. Eesoun, regne, remewid, renoun, reproue, reward, riche, 
richesse, rommede (roamed)^ robbed, romauncuH, rout, reule. Sacrifice, 
sane, sauiotir, sauur, sL, sauouren, scole, sience, scorpionus, sel {seal), 
sesoun, seruantis, serue, simple, sengle, soile, solas, solempue, soueraine, 
space, spirit, spouce, stable, stat, stomak, storie, straiten, stidie (studi/\ 
sodainly, sofisen, suffce (soflfre), somme (sum), sur (sure), sustaine 
(sostaine). Obs. : swaginge. Taried, tariginge, tast, tastinge, tem- 
pren, tempest, templus, temted, tende, tendere, tentus, titelid, torche, 
turment, toucbe, touchinge, tribit (tribide), trye, tumen. Obs, : tacbe,