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Roman Hi STORY 

O F 

C Velleius Pater cuius. 

In Two Books. 

Tranflated from the Oxford 
Edition, and collated with 
all the former ones of Note. 

By ir/^O MAS NE IVC MB, M. A. 

Cbaplain to His Grace the Duke o^ 

To which is Prefixed, 

A Charafter of the A U T H O R, 
and his Writings, extrafted from 
yioni. Bajfle^ and others. 



Printed for J oh n P e mb e r t o n, at 
the Golden-Buck againft St. Dunftans 
Chmch ia Fkit'&reet^ 1721. 




. ( 


. • r ■ 






• i 

T O 

Cecil BisHO.p,^/^} 


rSl^f^rj Have long wanted an 
j;T I- n / Opportunity of pub- 

S^i t4l ^''"'"8 ™ '^^ World, 
' ' "^ the many and great 
Obligations I lie under to Your 
honourable Parents,and thought 
I could do it in no Way more 
agreeable, than in paying a 
grateful CompHment to a Son, 
who lives fo dear to, and fo 
,-^'^K A 1 juftly 


iuftlyw^ued by' each of 'ernl 
Were hot Jiiy^fAuthpr's Chaia^ 
"ter confider2ble,4 ihc^uld not 
ave veiitue'd ; to infcribe this 
Tranflation to a Gentleman of 
thepoliteft Tafte-in all valua- 
r ptp^Leaming ; making thofeAc- 
compliflimentS: the Ornaments 
of his Yfflith, which woii'd have 
given Luftre to others, when 
'iidvanced in Years. I w^nt thf 
iftuthor's Talent in fine A^ttfs 
to,rec6ramen4 him, iiiior; e9b' 
iftually in the Etiglifi Tongue. 
The Colours are be^utifol and 
ftrong ii> the Orig^ial, and if 
they appear weak and faded in 
tbe Copy, youiwho l^now too 
well the difficult DifFerences in 
theLanguages,will be the leadier 
- - to 

The Dedication. 
to pardon my Defeats. Yoii who 
have pafs'd with Applaufe thro' 
the moft acdomplim d School of 
Literature, that our own Idand, 
or perhaps any other Country 
of the World can boafl of, will 
be 'ready to favour an Attempt 
to make this excellent Claflick 
fpeak Bnglip7 5 efpecially fincc 
he conveys to us fome of the 
inoft valuable and important 
Parts of the ^mm Story, in 
which you are fo well vers'd, and 
To great a Matter. Horace thou^t 
it no fitiall Accompliflimehc to 
his MMenaSy that he was skill'd 
in the Greek and Latin Tongues 5 
and I have the Pleafure of ap- 
plying his VoEius utriufq-^ LinpiA 
to one much younger, and more 

A V - ^^'^^y 

,*71&e Dedication. 
csbvly ripp iti' all Letters. You 
now, Sir, aie fetting out, to 
take a View of the Scenes of 
thofe greati Anions which my 
Aiithor ddcribes 5 and at your 
PLetum, we may expe^ as many 
fiftc Obfcrvations in Hiftory, in 
as finifii'd a Stile: and indeed, 
'tis Pity that any Gentlemen are ' 
fuffcr'd to yifit the ' Courts of, 
foreign Princes, who are not . 
fuxniflied with> your parts and 
Learning, and have not firfl 
been an Ornament to our own. 
Were the reft of our Youth^ 
vfho are fent Abroad, happy 
in your Accompliibnients, w^ 
fhou'd be no longer the Ridi- 
cule of more Polite Nations, as much admir'd for the 


The Dedication.^ 

Exa^nefs and Delicacy of out 
Manners, as we are dreaded fot 
the Terror of our Arms. Fif^d 
with the Love of Antiquity, you 
leave the Embraces of the moft 
indulgent Parents, and fincereft 
Friends, to bring back the Trca- 
iu'jtts of Learning froni Gretu 
or <!(««?, aiid to render your fclf 
0ill more amiable and ufeful to 
your Family, your Country, and 
the World : Which is the hncer^. 
V^ifli and Prayer of 

tour moft obUgedy 
and moft himUs Servm, 

Tho. Kbwcomb. 


'ry- f\ 

'.:' ' 

[ j ] 


Giving fome Account of the 

|AIUS Velleius Fatercalos, 
a Roman HifioriM, fiourifi^d 
in the Reigns <f AugiiftiU and 
Tiberius Cxfar. 'Tis very 
p^obaBk he vias hrn in ike 
Tear of Rome 73 5. His Antefhrt were tn^ 
ry iBt^iout, eu xoeB fir their Merit, tu tit 
great O^s they held in the State. He viat 
a tribune of the Soldiers, vshen Caias Cv> 
far, a Granifon of Auguftus, had an haer- 
vieis roith the Kin^ of the Farthians in am 
Ifland of Euprates >n 7n* ^ ctmmandtd 
the Cavalry of Tiberius, and aicomfanitd 
fhat Prime nine Tears fuccejjhely in aS hit 
Ej^dttiMSt and Ttuhied vtry btmuraUi 


audjfgnal Rewards from him* He was pre- 
^ find at hfi to the Pratwjbip ; but it does not 
: ^tfftarthat. he arrived to any higher Dignities. 
; !7Ap PtAtfes he teftows oh Sejanas, gyvefome 
: Pi^i^ilftj to the ConjeBttre, that hi was looked 
L $ffM as jpteat^Friend to this new Favourite, 
and confequently that he was iirvolvd in his 
finin. The Remarb tf that imperfeB Hifio-^ 
rj which is left us, are very el^ant and cu- 
rious^ He promised a much larger Account qf 
the. Affairs of his Country, efpecially of the 
Ulytian War, where he was commander, 
which he either ngVer wrote, or is entirely loft. 
To confirm the Nobility of his Defcentj fee 
fDb4t he fays himfelfpf his. Anceflors (Lib. Zf 
Chap.jd,}. Neqi\^£^o Vcrcicundia, dome- 
fiicj (knguinis Glon>^ quicquam detra- 
\fMX9 &c. H^ Md an Unch of tht Senatth- 
%ian Order fVained C^pito, who joined Agvip- 
J^ i». a(c^fi^igC^zfRas, one of the Murderers 
ff^tQefar.. . I{e jfjod alfo a Brother that hore 
fk.fver^ , honpuKaUe . Pofl in the Dalmatian 
ff^, and was afterwards Prator. He gives 
us this. Account of, him (Lib. 2. Cap, 115.^ 
C^ar ad alteram belli Dalmatici molem 
Mimum SLtq;irvf\2L contolit. Iii qua Re* 
gioQe> quali jadjutore, legatoq; &atre meo 
Magto Celeri VeUeiaao ufus fit« iplius 
pAiri)^; e;ju^<pr2(iicatipne t^atiun eft; Sc 
iaaxpliffimorum Honoramj qaibus trihm- 


PR E F A^C E. iij^ 

phans Cafar eum donavit,' (ignat memo ' 
ti2Lz Hi was prefer/ d to the Pratorjhif in. 
the Tear in vibicb Augufius diedy which blf[ 
informs us of very artfully ( Lib» 2. Cap., 
I24^) in tbefe IVords.--'^^ Quo tempore^ 
mihi fratdq; meo candidatis Cafaris, pro^\ 
ximc 4 nobiliflimis ac Sacerdocadbus vi- . 
ris deftinari pra?toribus contigit ^ ut ne- ' 
que pofl: nos quemquam D.\4ugiujlas^ 
neq; ante no^, Cafc^r Commendaref. TiieriuK 
The Advances in his future Fortum he der 
clcfres in fever al Pajfages of his Hifiory\13Mr 
boit in hoc qaoq; bello (fpeaking of the . 
War againfl the Pannonians) Mediocrita$ 
noflra fpecioii miniftri Locum ; finita £- 
queftri militia defignatus quasftor, nee 
ddm Senator, a^quatus Senatoribus; e* 
tiam de%natus tribunus plebis, ab urbe \ 
XrzAvd 9b Augufloj perduxi ad Filiume/us, 

In quasftura deinde remifia forte pxo« ^ 
vind^ Lregatus ejufilem ad eundem mifr-; 
Aim. Sfeakit^ of himfelf in another place^^ 
(Lib. 2. cap. 104.) he tells us. Hoc temr^ 
pnSy me fun^um ante ttibunatu caftro^.^ 
rum Tib. Cafaris militem fecit. Quippe 
protuius ab adopttone milfus cum eo Prae- 
fe&os Eqoitum in/ Gerfnaniam, Suceeflo^^ 
offici j Fatris mei, Cxliftiffimorum ejus o* 

pcmm per aoobs contiiuios 12^^ Prsfe^« 


iv P R E F A C E. 

aot Legttus, Spe&acor^ & pro capm me- 
diocritatis mei adjutor fui. He appear d 
at the famous Triwnpb of Tiberius withve- 
rjf great Marks of Jbmur i which Hankius 
vi^ Scriptoribus Rerum Romanorutn^ 
JW I.^. 90*) places in the Tear 740. which 
tj^ ao Tears or more before it coud pojfibly 
happen. Por Paterculus made his fir ft Cam^ 
pdign in the Tear 7^3. He has been very 
jufily blamed by his Commentators for his Flat- 
ttry {f SejanoSy and thofe exorbitant Praifes 
he befiows on bim: iee Chap. 127, 128.* 
Lib. II. Be is blamed^ fays a very confide^ 
table Author^ (La mothe le Vayer, p*^94'} 
and that with great Reafon, for his ridicu^ 
hus Elogiumsy not only to Tiberius, but his' 
Favourite Sejanus^ whofe Merits ^ twice 
declares ^ as one if the principal dnd mofl 
foirtuous Perfqns in the Roman Common^ 
wealth. What did be do in this (continues 
$be fame Author) but what is commonly pror 
'Bisd by all thofe who write the Hifiory of 
fbeir own Times , and wiBpubliJb it while the 
Perfons be writes of are fiiO alive :. And 
JUpfius has as freely cenfu/d him for his 
great P/srtiaJity ( Epift. Quaeft. Lib. J . ) ex 
antiquisi (fays he ) bilem mihi mover. Vel^ 

fus Paterculus M\ium Sejanum omnibus 
ircutibus acctimulac^ & quafi in Thea- 


P R E F A- C? E. *i 

tro plena manu Laudat. Os HiAorici! 
ac nos etim I'cimus, Natum Sc extin&utn 
in exicium generis humani. Liviam Au-'- 
guftam poi^ multas Laudes, Diis quain 
Hominibus fimiliotem fceminam concW 
dit ; jam de "Tthrio flagicium Ht, A un- 
quam alicer quam ut de Jove immmtiM 
loquacur : Hec, liber Sc ingenuus animus- 

, qui ferat ? Contra, ut Germaaki Cafarit'- 
laudes ubiq; callide difHinuIac ? Ut jf- 
grippittam, & quibus aliis in fenfior Tiif^ 

'■ rius crederetur, oblique premit? Qiii4 
ipulta? Non aliquid, quam Mancipiiiin 

' Aulx agit : Dices intuta, illis temporibus 
Veritas ftiit Fateor ; fed vcre fcribere fi 

■■ non licuit falfa rion debuit. The Begin- 
ning of hit Kftorj, v-'hichsave us amorege' 
neral Account cf antient TirKes, and a great 

■ part tf the Body cf it, from the Rape ^ the 
Sabine ViTgins, to the Coti^uefi of Greece, ft 
entirely kfl ; and the Ohfervation is very juft^ 
fvhich a great Critick makes on this Hiflery, 

'\ X^at the Remembrance of fo many Countries 
the Author had fetn while he was a MilitSiy 

'' iTribuDC, and his travelling t/m fomaitf 

\ Proyincei, aj Thrace, Macedonia, Aciisia, 
the Leflcr Afia, and efpecially about the Coops 

•' cf the &ixinc Sea, and other more Eafi^ 

' ■' ^atioUif M»/3 hav< fmv^i him -witb^Mt- , 
"''•."■" Uria/r 


'^$mriMl$^ far awry, mbkWork^ which he fr9^ 
-mudiiijeveral Parts of this Jhort Hifiory. 

J Ji^wt vihence we may conclude^ that if he 
^ hadi Jmifhf d : tbofe Accounts he defignd^ we 
' fimid have ^ead a confideratk Number of me- 
tfg^eat Albons (flihich are mw kft) as re- 
^iatediyon^'WifiOSDas not only prefem t^ behold 
^•Wy but had:fo hmourabU a Share in their 
' Execution : In that little which fiill remains 
- ^f tbensy p)herein there is nothing reprej^med 
: iett by xvay of Abridgment ; there are r^y 
^ PdriicttUirs obfervdy which are fo much the 
*m$re valuable , as bis Hiftory is. the only Place 
^Anherein they are recorded , or tahn Notice ^f ; 
^ either thro' the Siknce of other Hifioriansy ^or 
' 4kre^ the common Misfortune of having fome 
fart of their Works hft : the Stile of Pater- 
'.CUlus plainly dif covers the Age be wrote, in* 
^Xfif is ^nefir exeeUenty when he blames or com- 
-mends thofehe writes of i which he does in 
I ''Jitfb Terms f and deJkate Exprfffions^ as are 
. '.net to be found Jn any other Hifiorian or O- 
"^ foter* And ind^d we have . nothing more 
\*pttre in any Roman Author^ or mgre worthy 
xt4f the AMguflan jige ! And it f^rns h(frdto 
*-4€ceunt foTy how- fuch an Author^ fo worthy 
ee have been prefenid with Care^ imd of which 
^fi, many Copies y by reafon of their brevity, 
^iiiijbt baveieen fiien, fimldbe lift us thus 


•* i • « I • 4 


imperjeB. 'lis faid indeed j that the MS. from 
v)hich Rhenanus publijh^d the frfi Edition of 
this Author y (at Bafil i$20.) was the only oni 
that was in the IVorld. And *tis remarkaile, 
that no antient Author befide Prifcian, makes 
mention of Pacercalus. ^he Moderns have 
done a great deal more jfuflice to him : Seve^ 
ral rf them have fttUifi*d him with very 
learned Notes^ and Commentaries. Mr. Don- 
jat has tranJUtted him imo the French Lan- 
gftflgefor theJUfe of the Dauphin, iii i6po. 
^dtontflka this Wgrk a continued fii/Mlfj 
hasesideofvott/d to ft^lywhat was wdntif^ 
f If Paterculus. LipfiuS ftttt^'d this Author 
at, Lej^ded^ in 1591. Schegkiiis at Firaitik* 
fort, in i^o2. Getatd Voffios at Ley^en, 
in 16)9 . Tfa^lius at Leyden, iff itf^jB.vtTi-*. 
riortmi Nods. Boederus /i^ Stristow, 
'inid/^2. as motif Others henk dink fitcf.""'^ 
Annates Vdleiani of Mri'DodwtlXyfgi!^ 
fxt ^ the Oxford EOtkn^ puUiJb'd iuJ6^$ , 
(to which we refer the Reader for a fulkr As* 
coum of the Author's Lfe^ are a Piece of 
Learning which difcover a very great Skill in 
Amiquity* Paterculus wrote his Hiftory 'in 
the 982 Tear of Rome, and in the 16th Tear 
of the Reign of Tiberius. 

E R- 

; T 

?^Jt . 


PA G. 3. line .14^ for Mffifi* read Diff^efr. 
p. 13* 1. 19: fyrltih t.'Ritis. p. IS' !• j6. for 
• #• r.iir. p. ^6.1. 11; for tbiir r. tie. p. 33. I* la. 
&ttbi r. r^jtr. p/tt*, 1 x^ dele F^sr^fc p 40. i. 9. 
.after Am add m^ i. p. ^o. 1. 3. for Dracu* r Dru^ 
fif0 ibid i<{..a|ier tUt a3d H^sr.^.6i. h 29. for 
'MxfedMm't: Etefnljim fu 75. 1* 12. after iix add f«. 
p.7<^- 1- 3-ibr P/iMW t.Pj^dsn. P.97.I 8 tot their 
. X. iifr.' ibid a& for Aifftar, Q^tsUm, . r. 5#r/«W c^u 
.yMwb p. 115* 1. »• for wiv r. 3vtfr#. p^ tao^ 1. 4. for 
wj.mih ibid, afiier ^add^i. p. 134. ult. after 
'ili^'addA/w.p. iia*Vi5. for Of// r. Of/, p. 147 
f%iit^ Tm t.f^i^ p.l6S«l*8« frr f^r^et r. 

■ • 1 1 • 


Roman History . 

O F 

Velkius Vater cuius. 

la Two Books. 
Book L 

C H A P. 1. 

D'lvers Cities fiunded ^j the Greeks rtturn' 
img from Troy. Agamemnoii'j Dtath 
■ revtngd by his Son Orcftes. 

^F, was driven from his 
I Commander N(fior in a 
j Storm, and built Meta' 
\ font : Teticer could not ob- 

I tain a Reception from his 

Fai:.^i ieuunottt who refented his Ncgli- 

gcntein profecuting the injuries dor^e to 

bis Brother, and fo failed off to Cyprm,- 

B itvd 

4i . Tb^ Roman Hiflery 

and there built a Cityy which he called 
-after the Name of his Native Countr^y 
.Salami s. Pyrrhm the Son oiAMles, made 
iumfelf Mailer of JEpirm, as did Phidip^ 
^us of ^phyui in Thejprotia : But the King 
oj Kings, 4gamemnoni being drove upon 
^he Ifland of Crete by foul Weather, foiin- 
<led three Cities, two of them had their 
>James from his own Country Mycene 
^nd l^gea ; the third of them, as a Mo- 
«iiimcnt of his Viftories, he ftiled Perga-- 
^us. Soon after this he was murdered 
hy the Treachery of his Wife and Cou- 
sin German*/E^//?A«j", who profecuted that 
Jiereditary Hatred which had long beeni 
^efitertained between the two Families. 
^gifihus feated himfelf upon the Throne, 
4and reign'^d feven Years, ^rejies, by the 
Inftigation of -his Sifter EleElray a Wo- 
man of a Mafcuiine Courage, who had 
a Share in all his Defigns, flays ^gift- 
husy and his own Mother Chfnnmeflra. 
This Faft was acceptable to the Gods, 
as appeared by the fortunate Rtign, 
and long Life which he enjoy *d : for he 
lived ninety, and reigned feventy Years. 
He irkewife revenged himfelf upon Tyr^ 
rhusy the Son of AcbiBeSy and killed him, 

at De^9Sf&x «arryio5 ffnmiimf, Daugh^ 


tff Vellfeius Patcrcuhif, 5^ 

ter to Menelaus and Helena, after fiie had 
been engaged to him. About this time,, 
two Brothers, Lydus znd Tyrrhenus, who^ 
reigned in Lydia, were obliged by Famine 
to caft Lots which of them {hould take 
part of the People, and quit his own 
Country. The Lot fell upon Tyrrhenus^ 
to do this : Me brought them intq Italy y 
where he left an honourable and lafting% 
Name to- the Place, the Inhabitants, and 
adjacent jSea:. After the Beceafe of O* 
refiesy his Sons Penthelus- zwd Tifawenus* 
held the Government three Years. 

C H A P; IL 

lOje Hefaclidae difpoffefes the Race o/Pelop^ 
cf Peloponncfus. The Glorious aad Re* 
markable D^ath oj Codrus, the. laft of^ 
the Athenian Kings. Megara, Gades^. 
and IJticsL fotmded. 

A Bout the eightieth Year from the 
Deftruftion of Troy, and the hun* 
Arcd and twentieth from the Tranflation 
of Hercules to the Gods, the Poftcrity of 
PelopSy who had held the Kingdom of 
Piloponnefiu againft the HeracUda all this 
iimfi, were naw driven out by them The 

B 2 Authoi^s 

j4 • The Roman Wfiory 

Authors of this Refloration were, T'erm- 
nuSy Crefphontes^ and Arr/iodemus, who 
'were ot the third Defcent from Hercules. 
About this Time the Government of 
Kings in Athens was abolifced : The latl 
of them was Codrus, the iSon of Melan- 
ihuSyZ Man of an extraordinary Charafiter. 
For when the Lacedemonians opprefl'ed 
Attica with a very grievous War, the O- 
rack was confulted> and anfwered, That 
jbey Jfiould win the Field, "xhohfl their Gene- 
ral in the Engagement. Upon this he di- 
verted himfelf of his Robes of State, put 
on the Attire of a Shepherd, and went 
into the Enemies Quarters, where not 
being known, he was killed in a Quarrel 
he had purpofcly raifed. Thus did his 
Death purchafe to himfelf immortal Glo- 
ry, and a memorable Viftory to the Athe- 
nians, 'Tis admirable that this great 
^lan fliould feck to lofe his Life by the 
fame means [a Difguife] which others 
of a meaner Spirit ufe to preferve ir. 
His Son Medon was the firft Archon at A- 
thenSy from whom his Pofterity were cal- 
led Medontida. They and the following 
,ArchonSy continued in that Dignity for 
Term of Life, down to the Time ofCha- 
nps. The Peloponnejians retiring fa)m /4{- 


of Velleius Paterculus. 5 

iicay built Megara, at an equal Diftancc 
from Corinth and Athens. About this 
time the Fleet belonging to Tjre, which 
had then the Command of the Seas, buill: 
Gadesj in an Ifland a little off of Sfain^ 
in the moft remote Corner of the World : 
foon afterwards they founded JJnca in A^ 
jric. The Family of Orefiesy ejefted by 
the Heracltday having endured the gceateli 
Hardfhips by Land and Sea for fifteen 
Years, at laft feated themfclvcs upon the 
Ifland of Lesbos. 

CHAP. IIL ; , 

• ■ 

Ci'uilWars and Tumults inGvccct; Theff 

faly conquer d by the^ Pelafgians, ur{4^. 

the ConduSi joj one Theflaius, JYomy^henci^- 

it derived its Name : Ihe City of Corinth. 

founded by Haletes.^ 

THE State o( Gr-eece .w-as^ : 
che utmpflTun^ults and Diiorder^.j^ 
thc^AcbMns being beat fronv Lacomay 
planted themlelves in the Country they, 
now potfefs : The Pelafgians retired to 
Athens ; a gallant young Gentleman of 
Tije^miif, called Theffalus, put himfclf at 
the Head of a confiderable Body of Ci- 

B 3, tizens. 

6 Tht Rtoman fRforf 

tizens^ and iubilued tbe Countty, which. 
now fronL him> is call'd Thefahfj tho' be- 
Cotre 'ewas filled the €its^ cf the Myrmidons.. 

. 2 CiXi\ bar admire,, that they who write 
Accounts of the Times of TV^y, mention 
this Place by the Name of 3^/^. The 
Tragediaias frequently commit this Fault, 
ibo' they have not the ieaft Pretence tOr 
an £xcufie for it ; for they ceprefent no- 
thing under their own Perfea, boc make 
tkofe feeaic who lived in the Age they 
treat of. It can^t be anfwered that this. 
Kame was deriv d from Tbejfahs the Son 
of Skrcuksy becauife th? Pl^e never bore 
this Title tiK the Time of the Thejfalus 
ifyuV of. A little before tb^ AreteSyXh^ 
Sm- -of I§ppmesj a Dtfcendanc the fixth 
ftism Jbrcuhsy built €arinth, before cal<^ 
hi^Efkyref upon an J^hnms. 'Tis no^ 
wonder that X^nm eaUs it by this Name ^ 
for as a Poet he took the Libc;rty to men* 
tkin ^bis^ and fome other Conies in /b- 
liiikfhy- the -Tittes they bote when h^r 
It\ied, ' tho^' thky were foutaiM* ^i^mg after/ 

the iDdlni&iea^ 7»«> 

V . r 

-•f 1 
•■•», _ . wU , ■ - ■ J M tv' 

$f Velfcius Patcrcufus* 7 

C H A P. IV. 

Colonies fettled in ChakisfytAe Athenians :. 
In Magnefla iytbe Lacedemonians r Gu- 
mac and Naples founded : Mn^0 Colonics 
fettled en the CwtineJity md in the adjot 
€em IJles. 

TKE Athenians driving out chelnha>«> 
bitants, fent Colonies to Cbakis ixk 
Eubaa.: The Lacedemonians feizM upoo^ 
Magnefia in Afia. Not long afterwards 
the Chalcidenfis, being (as I have men- 
tioned) defcended from Attica^ built Cn^ 
m<e in baii^ under the Command of Hif- 
focles and JMegafthenes. - The Couf fe o£ 
the Navy, as feme fay, was direfbed by 
a Dove whicb fled before it: others,, 
by a Noife of Inftruments of Brafs, fuch 
as is ufually heard at the Fcafts of Ceres .• 
Some of their Citizens a^ Icmg time aftci^ 
wards built Nafles. The corifta«t Fide- 
Hty of thefe two^ Citt«8 to- the R^mamst. 
renders thent worthy of the Fame and 
beautiful Situation they enjoy : Tho' o- 
thers have been more exaft in obferving* 
the of^inal Cufloms of their Country t 
For the Neighbourhood of Ofca very 
nuch altered tJbe Manners of the CumaanK. 

B 4 The 

8 ' The- Roman Hijlory 

The ancient Grandeur and Strength of 
thefe Cities, \% evident from the Ex- 
tent and Remains of the Walls yet fiarui.- 
ing. In Proccfs of Time Greece was o- 
yer-burthened with the Number of 
its Inhabitants, fo that it discharged a 
great Body of Youth, who feated them- 
ielves in Afia, The loniansy under the 
Conduft of one/o», left Athens j and made 
themfelves Matters of the fined Part of 
the Sea Coaft, which is now called Ionian' 
Here they built Ephefus, Miletus^ Colophony 
Priene^ Lebedpt^y Mjuns, Erythray Claz.o-r 
ntena, Phccaa : They took many Iflands in 
the ^^e^» and /cm/z/i Seas into their Sub- 
jedion ; as SamuSy Chiusy Andrusy Temsf 
Parusy Delusy with many others of lefs 
Repute. Soon after the Cohans quitted 
GreecCy^Vid after they had wandered many 
Years, planted then^fclves in as eminent 
Seats : They built feveratCities,as Sinyma-y 
CyntBy Larijfay Mytimy Mityieney and>ma-f 

py others in the Iflatid Leshs.^ 

...-'■r. ' 

C H^A E 

. ♦ 

1* ■• 

of Velleius Patercurus. 9 


TAe Age and Character of Homer. ' 

A Bout this tim^ the illuftrious Genius 
of H o M E R difcover'd it felf to the 
World, which was unqueftionably the 
grcatefl of all Ages. The Brightnefs and 
Dignity of his Verfe have jullly gained 
him the Pre-eminence in Poetry. What is 
molt admirable in him is, that he had 
no one before him to imitate, or after 
him who could arrive at his Beauties : 
That never any who were the firft Inven- 
tors of ah Art, brought it to its utmoft 
Perfeftion^befides .Homer and A a- 
cHiLocHus 5 He agr'eatev Di- 
fiance than is commonfy b^vcd, from 
the Times of the TrifM^zr^^ ,wtech hie 
wrote. 'Tis now Nine hundred land fif- 
ty Years fince he Flouriihed, and near a 
Thoufand fince he was Bom ; fo that we 
may eafily account £or that Expreffion fo 
iVequent in the IliadfoUipilr fierroi f/^,which 
xlenotes a great Difierence in Time, . as 
well as a Decknfion in the Strength of 
Man. They who imagine he was bom 
Blind, want that Senfethemfelves which 
they vanily conjefture he was deprived of. 


i o The Roman Hijiory 


T7j^ Aflfyrian £wp/V^, that^bad lafied lojo 

YearSf in the Reign of Sardanapalus, the^ 

' lafi King tranjlated to thi Medes 4r Phar- 

- ' naces, in the lime of Lycurgus the great 

Lawgiver cf the Spartans. 

iA Confidcrable Time after this, the 

-^^ Empire o£ jijia,- u^hich: had beea 

iheld by:tiie jiffyriam for a diou&rvd and 

fevcnty Yeai», devolwtdi tothe Medes a- 

bout (even hundred and feventy Years 

iince« Their lall King was Sardanapalusy 

who was the: ^.yi, in a Lineal Succefficm 

fnom Ninusj and Simiramisj the Founders* 

of B^AyJon : He was abandoned to Eafe 

«ukI LuxurjT^ and poffefe'd himfelf of an 

Opinion, ttusitPleaiupe was the only Hap- 

-pinefs he oDuld arrire to, tho' it proved 

liis Ruine, being deprived of his Life 

and Kingdom hyPharnaces a Mede. In 

this Age the Qory of Greece^ Lycurgm^ 

a Man of a royal Defcent, and a niofl 

laudabla Auflerity of Life, eilablifhed 

thofefevcre and honourable Laws, which 

perpetuated his Memory, and contribut- 

td to the Happinefs of Sforta^ (o long as 

k ob&rv'd his In|un^ons. Near this 


of ydkius PatercuJu^. ii 

TTime (t55 Years before 4:he building of 
^ome) EUJfa a Tyrian, who as fome think 
was the fame with JDido, fbutuled the Ci-* 
ty of Canhifge : i^aranus, a Man of an 
Jionourable Lxtradion^ and the itfth in 
Defcent from Hercules, invcfted himfelf in 
the Kingdom of Macedonia. He was fuc- 
ceeded by Kings of his own Race, down 
>to Alexander y who had the Honour to be 
^efcendcd from /B?r«iA?> by his Father's, 
ind AchfUes by his Mothers Side. ^j¥lmh 
lius Sura, in his Annals of Komc, tcl\s us^ 
That the Ajfyrians obtained the firft Uni- 
verfal Monarchy, ^nfd ^ere Matters of 
all Nations ; after«^rds^he Pirflansy and 
then the Mucidmidns. The laft of their 
Kings, Philip md Antiochusy were fubdoed 
^oon after 'Carnage was laid in Ruines ^ 
and then the Empire of the World devol- 
ved to the Romans. From the beginning 
of the Reign of Ninusj King of Affjrin, 
to this TranfVattori of the Macedonian'Eai'^ 
^irc, atc^ckontcli i^P5 Years. ' 


r - 


\ 1 The Roman HifioYy 

# . . •. 

, ' C H A P. VII. 

He{io4:^otfr j/2»^i : ^2p Tears after Yiomtti 
Some DiffftcuUies dearidy relating to the 
"Time of the Building of Capua. 

IN th's Age lived Hefiody about 1 20 
: Years after tbeTTimes oi Homer i .He 
w^s a Kiau of a,. very refined Genius^ ve- 
ry rreqiarkable for the cafy flowing of his 
Verfe, an entire Lover of Indolence and 
Retirement, and was neareft to Horner^ 
both Jn Time and Repiu:ation, tho' his 
Birth ai>d Country are better known ; for 
he mentions JhisParjents ar^ nCountry, 
tho^ he fpeaks ,pf the latter l^^ithfomc 
Refentment, becaufe be had been treated 
very ungratefully by; it. ^ While I am ta- 
ken lip with Matters which happened Ar. 
broad, I rauft take Notice of an Affair 
in my ow^ Goiaitry, vhiofa ftinds very 
dj^rent in the Afcoun($ ef Authors r. 
Some fay,, t^at Capm and: iVi?Ai were- 
built by the Tufcahstoo Years ago* This' 
is my Opinion, tho' M Cato diflents ve- 
ry much from it : He aflerts, that Capuct 
yras built by the Tufcans, and afterwards 
Nola ; and that Capua had flood about 
1160 Years before it was taken by the Ro- 


of Vellems Patercolus. 1 9 

mam ; fo that, being 'cis no more than 
240 Years fince it was taken, it can be 
but 500 fince ^cwas built. I muft ask Car 
tos Pardon, if I cannot believe that fo 
great a City could rife, £louri(b, be de- 
Aroyed, and arife to its original Great* 
nefs again in fo fhort a '*^' 

CHAP. vin. 

The InftitutiOH ofthefamms Olympick Games i 
by Iphitus the Elean, before the Confulfiyif 
of Vinicius (904 Tears. Rome founded 
ij RomuluSj in the 6tb Olympiad. 

A FterthiSjthe celebrated Games for the 
*^ Exercifes both of the Body and Mind^ 
(I mean the Olympicks) were inftituted 
by Iphitus the Ekanj ^04 Years before 
you. Great Sirj entred upon the Conful- 
Clip : 'Tis thought by fome, that Atreus^ 
1250 Years ago, performed the Funeral 
Rite to his Father Pehfs in this Place, 
where Hercules bore away the Prizes in 
every Exercife at thefe Games. About 
this time the Archons at Athens ceafed to 
hold that Dignity for their Life : (The laft 
that did was Ahnaon) and were elefted 
every tenth Year. This Inflitution con- 

C tinued 

m4 '^ Rdman "Hijlory 

^tinned 70 JTears^ 4nd thca the Adsam- 
Juration was commicced'to\;li^»i/^ Magi« 

ilrates. The iirft of the J^eamial G5- 
«iremocs was Char ops ; the laft was £r/x. 

The firft of the jbamalvf^ Ciedn. In^tfae 
i^thVlyfffpiad, ^2 Years fipom the begin- 
sdng of that ^ra; R o m t; lvs, thelioA 
^ Mom, (having reveog^'d the^ Wroi:!^ 
^done to his Grandfather) founded the Ci« 
■-xy-. Rome upon Mount Palatine^ in the 
^eifts tof JRA^i^ 782 t^ars before yew 
^Cdinfiilflilp *^ -a^' 43 7 after the Seftru- 
^*on of Ti^y. He v^tjis affiled with Forces 
tfrom* his Grandfather £4i^/M5iflthi!iWoifc. 
1 very willingly embrace this Opinioiif 
^nce I c^Mot think he eould eafily efia^ 
vblifli a new City only with a Compai^ 
^tmdiftiplined, 4nd imexpeiknced %ep- 
%erds^ lying o|>en ro thelnfiilts of the 29* 
'jemes^ EtrurioHSy ^nd «Sbfo'»e/, tho* he had 
'inttcb enlarged it, by erefting an AfjlittHbt^ 
^tween two G*^es. He chofe an Hun- 
^dred Men/ whieh' he <;ailed father s^ and 
^appointed them his <x>ancil of State. 
This is the Original of the N«mc 
'^.mricii. The Rape of the .Sl*/»f Virgins 


(f VellciuR Patcrculufc v% 
C H A P. IX. 

Sb Qvirtbrovx of fexfcs^ King.ef Mace— 
doa». ty P&qlttS iEmilius : O&avius 

Ge&tius^ Kifig ijf Biyriumu 

U^ gained what the Enemy wzsmoOt 
** afwd of : He had carried on tha- 
War with the. Confulsr for two Ycars-^ 
with various Succefs^ ofcencimes came; 
aQB with Vidory^ and had drawn off ^ 
gveat Part oi' Graces into his Alliance* . 
KTaji^ the invincible Fidelity of the iU^ 
dlmK^ wa» now fliaken^ and they began ^ 
to cncltne to the Fortunate Party. King. 
tmrnms^ contraty^ to his firft Behaviour 
ta bis Brother, and the former Courfe 06 
llir own Reign, 616, not dare to efpoufe^ 
die Qaarrd on either Side. In thi» Jun*^ 
ftare the Senate and People of Rome de<- 
puted £. JESnilius Paullus (who had be^ 
Me triumphed whilft Prastor and Con* 
fel> to und^ruke the latter Office again : 
He was a Man who deferved all the Ho^ 
DOors due to a drift and regular Virtue : 
Hciwas Sonto that PautJus, who died as - 
bravely in the unfortunate Battle of Cm-* 
iur,^ he had before unwillingly engag'd 

G ^ ia. 

1 6 Thfi Roman Hifioff 

in it : He overthrew Ferfes, £c^t the City 
Fydna in Macedonia, beat mm out of his 
Campy and entirely ruineid his Forces ; 
and when all Hopes of retrieving his Af- 
fairs were loft» he obliged him to quit 
Macedonia J and retreat to the Ifland Samth' 
t brace, where he fled to a Temple for 
Sanftuary. Cn. OBavius the Prsctor, who 
was Admiral of the Fleet, came thither 
to him, and prevailed upon him rather 
by Perfwafion than Force, to fubmit to 
the Clemency of Rome. Thus Paullu$ 
led this great and noble Prince in Tri-» 
umph. The fame Tear was remarkable 
for the Triumphs of O c t a v i u s. Ad- 
miral of the Fleet,and AniciuSyV/ho drove 
Gemius the King of the JByrians before his 
Chariot. We may here fee how clofely 
great Fortune is purfued by Envy, how 
It always follows the Brave and Great; 
There were none who refleScd upon the 
Triumphs of Anicius or OEiavius ; but 
many would have oppofed that of Paul- 
lusy tho* it exceeded all that ever were 
before it, by the Valour of the Captive 
King Perfesy the Shew of the Statues, 
and the Quantity of Money, which was 
Two Hundred Millions of Sefterces, 
which he brought into the Treafury ; fo 

*t* A«a 

^Velfeius Patercirias; i^' 

iBat it far furpafled all other in Splendor* 
and Magnificence. 

e H A P. X. 

Ahtiochus ohU£dto raife.tbe Siege of Alex* 
andria^ by a noble AEliomof Popilius Le-r 
na ^^^ Roman Embajfador; ^tnilius 
kfeth both his Sons, jufi at the Time of bii 

A T that Time Antioihus Epiphancs, King. 
•^^ of Syria, who had fet up the Olym^ 
ffck Games at Athens, befieged the Infant- 
King Vtolemy in Alexandria: M. PoPiHits 
Lena was detached with an Expreis^ to 
command him to defift : When he had 
delivered >his^ Orders^ and. the King an* 
fwered h€ would confider of ir, he im^ 
mediately drew a Circle round him> witfi> 
a. Rod he-had in his tiand, and required* 
him to give his final Refolution before 
he fiiould ftir out of iti This, gallanc 
Bravery of the Roman, put an end to the. 
King's Deliberation, and obliged him t<x 
comply with the Commands ot Rome. Im^ 
cius Paulliisy who had obtained a very rc- 
inaikable; Viftory, had four Sons ; the 
two eideft he difpofed of m Adoption ; : 

G. 3,. the' 

1 3^ The Rorm» HiJ!ory 

the one to P.ScifiB, Son ot Africmusj wh# 
preferved nothing of the Greatitcfe of his 
Father^ but the Honour of his Name and 
the Force of his Eloquence ; the other to 
Fahius Maxintus. The two youngeft being 
under Age at the Time of his Viftory> 
tit retained at Home : Re made an Ha- 
rangue withottt tht Qty the Day before 
his Triampb, and in givingf the Aiftor/ 
ef his Exploits and Succeffes (a^ was n* 
fual) implored the Gods, That if any^ 
repined at his Aftiott^, Or good Fereune^ 
fhey mi^t tittt their Revenge againft 
btmfelf, rather than tht State. This £x« 
pteffiOil (as if it hH beeA f^en 6y atl^ 
Oracle) octa(tonM the Eflbfiofi of a great: 
4eal <^ the Blood of hli Pro^ny. M« 
Toft one oi his Sons> which he feept ht 
ftts Houie a*fewDays before hisTrltuAph^ 
and the other of thenar not toi!ig after it. 
The fevere Ccnforffiip of fUhhii Flac-^ 
iUsy and fttf^hmHim Alknus, happened irl^ 
this fan&tit^ : For Cm PuihHm^ Brother 
and Partner in all his Dbfigns, with tbdr 
Ctxiiot^ #as by them expelled the Sefiftte;. 






6f VcHciafl Fatcrcurur* rjjh 

C H A P. XI. 

jt Ciumterfek King 9f Macedoa is wer* 
thtyWH kf^ MeceUus. SUs iforimn aud 
ffrnmate Life and Ikmh. 

AFcer the Overthvofr and Taking «£ 
^^ Farfi^Sy wha died witfom fen fcais^ 
in m csHyj Cmfinciiieiic at .^JiShij tfiui^ 
t^^f^tf^y focaUed ftem Mi^ pretending;, 
himrdf of the Bood Roya^ »d ftiling 
kjatifef PbiUffus^ tMk ^ tbe Enfigns cC 
Sovcmgotjr,^ and Swced hi» way te tbe 
Goveifimemof MaceJMia^ but was (boa 
iMronght ta V^nUhaxctic for bif Raf|ffRe£9^ 
and bdd Attempt. Q. MmUm the Pi%- 
Mr^ whofe Valoor purcbt&d him the Ti«- 
rie of MiMMfMmi deftioyed biii^ and bit* 
Forces m a venr remaricabte Battle^ and 
utterly defeated tbe Achaam^ who were 
then fifing mto a Rebellion. This is that 
MikiHlUs ikakedmiau whoereAed the G^ 
iifiis which fiittonnd the two Temples^, 
withoot any Titles of Dedication, and 
ato tio<r endowed by OffaM^s Porches 
Twas he who brought the Row of £- 
fiufftian Statues^ from fftacedoniaj which^ 
l&ok toward the Front of the Temples^ 
^ which^ Authors give this Account. A^ 


ao Th^ Roman Hijiery- 

kxander the Great requefted of Lyfifpus^ » 
curious Workman in Stone, to carve the- 
Images of tbofe who fell out of his own 
Company of Horfe in pafling the River 
Gr aniens ySLtid to place hiaown in the mid- 
dle of them. Metellus was the firft who- 
built an Houfeof Marble out of the Re- 
mains of thofe Monuments; fo that he 
may be accounted the Iiitroducer, either 
of Magnificence or Luxury into Rjume^ 
Tou^ karce meet with, one of any Nar 
tion, Age, or Degree of Men, wfaor-en** 
"joyed fo great a Felicity as Metellus ; for 
befides his Triumphs and Honours, his- 
being promoted to the higheft Office in 
State^ and living to a very great Age ; 
befides the noble Services he had done to 
his Country,, in a vigorous- and honouran 
ble.Profecution of its Enemies, he had 
four Sons, and faw them all grown to 
Mens Eftate,, and left them in-Pofleffion 
of the higheft Dignity and Reputation ; 
His Body was fupported before the R(^t 
fira by his^ Children ; oiie of them was 
of the Confular and Cenfirian Order, the 
other of the Confular j the third was thcnr 
Conful; the fourch was a Candidate fot 
that OiSce> and. afterwards enjoyed it^ 


^Velleius Patcrculus. cri 

His End feemed to be rather a fortunate 
Retreat from Life, than properly to die. 


Corinth rebelling againft the Romans^ r> 
cverthrown by Mummius^ and Carthage 
by Scipio iEmilianus. I£s CharaHety 
and mile Ex f kits. 

AChaia was ftiU in Arms, tho* the great- 
•^ eft Part of that Infurrcftion was 
quelled by the Conduft and Bravery of 
Metellus : That Country was drawn in 
by the Inftigation of the Corinthians j who 
themfelves had offered the higheft Indigo 
nities and Af&onts to Rmne. The Care 
of that War was committed to the Con* 
ful Mummius. At the fame Time the 
Romansy becaufe they would believe all 
Reports againft the Carthagifiiansj rather 
thaqr what ought to have b^en credited, 
fefblved to demolifti Carthage. At that 
Time P. Scipio jEtnilianus, (who was a- 
dopted by Scipio, Son of AfricanuSy from 
his Father PauOusy as I have mentioned) 
a Man who ei[M| way expreffed the Ver- 
tues of his Giana&ther P. AfrisantiSy and 
his Father L. PauBus, in the greateft En* 


3i> T^Romai} Hijlorj^ 

dowments of Peace and War, and excet 
led in the moft eminent AccomplUhmentSw 
of Learning, beyond any o£ bis Age^ 
who never faid or thought any thing but 
what was greac^ and hoooucable in the 
whole Gourfe of his IMk^ whea he ftood; 
for the Office of MdiU was invefted in 
the G)nfal(hip. He profecuted the War 
againft Carthage with greater Vigour 
than the preceding Coniuls who began 
it; He had before been honoured with 
a> Mural Crown in Sfaiuy and an Obfidfe^ 
nd in ^V ; and tho^ Ive was but oC ^ 
middle Stature himfdif; being^chaUenged 
bjr an £neaiy of a prodigious Size to a fmr 
g|e Fights he encounter^i and ovejxama 
him. He atterlydeftroyed tbeCity of Cor^^ 
thage (which beoime cdions to Aojw^ ra- 
ther from, an Enty of -its ^andettt^ thaa> 
any thiilg x^Iy blameable) and made it 
a Nfonument of his Valour, as it bad 
been before of his Grandfather's Clemen- 
cy. This City was demdilhed 66^ Yiears 
from its Foundation, 177 Years ago, in 
the ConfuKhip of Cn. Cometius Lentulusy 
and L. Mummius, This was the end of 
the Glory of CarthagfJtOnt Anceftors 
firft began a War agaii^lt, when Clau^ 
diuiZXid.Bdvim were QM&fuISt 296 Years 


vf Veflcms Patcrculus. 35 

9>dbce you^ Great Sir, entered tipan 
tharOfficc ; fo that for ri j Yrars, thcfc 
t:wo Niations were cither in cpenHoftiii- 
ties. Preparations for War, or enjoyoi a 
ihort, )cmccrtain P^ace. Thus we fee, 
that Enmigr, tdien once faeigfatned by 
:pdblick D^rent^Gontinues knigerthaii 
<tbe Pear of Danger, and our Hatted ne- 
^t ceafcs treforcthc Ohicft'of it is cn- 


:^2>0^^l»«/JMUrcusCato: ACtmtfarifm 
ktuieen Scipio ami Mununius ; ihi'm^ 
^rmmed the African, the other the Achai* 
an, fmn their 4iJB^ersm C^nj^s. 

^^T^rec Tears before the ©cflrwftion 

^ of Car^/%^ in the Ctfnfulftdp pf 

JL^Onfarimis and M MmIw, died M. 

<:mo9 who ' always vsigoroufly ^ maintjiia- 

ed that it ihc^ be demali&ed. . In 

the fame ¥ear that City was tafed^ Co- 

' Ww* was dcftroyed by L*Mu$Miusy sji 

IPeais after ir wa^fitftis^ttilt by irf/pw the 

^9oa'o{-SBpfo. THefe two Coo^pierors 

««s«EC iioaoaod wath tbe^it;i«s of cheH«* 



^4 The Roman Hifittry 

tions they fubdued ; the one was fimamed 

jifricanus, the other Achaicus. There 

was no one of obfcure Defcent, who pur** 

chafed a Sirname by his Valour, before 

Mummius. Thefe two Generals were of 

very difterent Difpofitions. Scij^o was 

fo great an Admirer and Encourager of 

. Learning, that he retained Volybius and 

. Fanatkis^ two very excellent Men, near 

his Perfon at Home and Abroad. No one 

ever knew fo happily to turn his leifure 

Hours to Advantage, as Scipio. He was 

always improving his Mind in the Arts of 

War or Peace, ever employed in his Li- 

""brary, or his Camp, inuring hi^ Body to 

Danger and Hardship, or enlarging his 

Mind with Knowledge. Mummiusy on 

the other hand, was fo rude and unpo* 

lifhed, that when, upon taking of Corinth^ 

- fie had ordered fome Statues of the moft 

•itxcellent Matters iit that Art to be tranf- 

• -ported into Italy y he charged thofe who 

tvere to take care of them, that if any $j 

them v)ere broke ^ they Jhould find new ones. But 

' I believe. Great Sir,you'll agree with mc, 

that it had been more to the Advantage 

of our State, that the Excellency of Co- 

Ytnthian Statues had never been under- 

' !lieod by the Rmans, and thac our Igno- 

^ ' -^ ranee 

of Velleius Paterculus. a 5 

tancc would Tiave been more beneficial 
to the State, than the moft cxquifitc 
Skill they were Matters of. 


A hrief Account of what Colonies werefint 
from Rome hjore Hannibal^ ecmittg inr* 
to Italy. 

C Tnce a view of divers Aftions brought: 
^ together, and placed in one Account, 
makes a more lafling Impreffion upon the 
Memory, than if they were treated of a- 
part,according to the Difference of Time 
in which they happened : Upon this Ac^ 
count I defign^d to break oflf the Firft Vo- 
lume p{ my Hiftory from the laft, by 
ibme Obfervations, which I (hall caft in<* 
to a very narrow Compafs ,* and have re- 
served to this Place an Hiftory of the 
Colonies, which were planted by Order 
of the Senate, fince Rome was taken by 
the Gauls : For thofe which were c&sir 
blifbM in Expeditions of War, are eminent- 
ly diftinguifbed by their Names, their 
Founders, and Occafions of their being 
planted. In going forward in this Der 
iign, we may obferve how fac this City 

D W4» 

^5 The Roman Hijiory 

was encreafed and extended^ by comnxu* 
nicating its Privileges to Fore ign rs. Se- 
ven Years after the City was taken, a 
Colony was fent to Sutrium, a Year af- 
terwards to Setina, 9 Years after that to 
J!^ep ; aboat ; 2 Year,8 afterwards the Ari^ 
Mni were admitted free of the City ; 350 
Years ago Sf. Poflhumius and Veturius Cat" 
^inus being Confuls, the Camp^niansy and 
p3Xt of the Samnites were granted their 
JFrecdom ; but reArained their Liberty of 
giving their Voices in Eledions. The 
^ame Year a Colony was feated at Caks. 
;Withia 3 Years afterwards the Fundam 
And iTmiTf/aii/ were received into the City, 
-the fame Y^ar in which Alexandria was 
l>uilt. The following Year the Cenfors 
Spurius Pdfihumiusy and Phih Ptthlilms gave 
-the Freedom of the City to the Acerranu 
JThrce Years afterwards a Colony was 
carried to Tarracini ; 4 Years after that 
to Luceria 5 3 Yeats after. Colonies were 
fettled at Suejfa Aurunca, and two Years 
iifterwards at Satkula and Interamna. The 
next 10 Years, no Colonies were fent a- 
broad, which foon afterwards were placed 
at Sora and AWa^ and 2 Years afterwards 
l|t Carfeoli. When Fabius was the fifth 
ariEie^ and Dmus Mus the fourth Time 


of Vellieius Paterculusi af 

Confuls^ the Year that Pynhus began hi> 
Reign, a Body of. Men were carried to- 
Sinuejfa and Minturna ; and 4 Years af^ 
terwards to Venufia. Two Years after 
chat, when M Curim and RufinHs Come-' 
lius were Confuls, the Sabine^ were made 
free of the City, but without Votes. 
Tl^is was 320 Years fince ; but C&fa and 
Pjflum enjoyed the fame Privileges 300 
Years ago. When Fabius Ikrfoy and ClaU" 
dus Camnawtxc Confuls, a Colony was- 
fent to Ariminum and Beneventum^ and 
the Sabine s had the Privilege of Voting 
granted them; 5 Years afterwards, in 
the ConfulQiip of Sempromas Sophus^ and 
^pius Cacus the Son, in the beginning 
of the firft Ptmk War, KrMuivf and Ca^ 
firum were planted, and a Year afterwards 
JEfenfia; 22 Years after that ^fulum, 
and Jljium ; 2 Years afterwards Fr^ella f > 
the next Year, when l^rquatus and Sem^ 
pronius were Confuls, Brfindrfium ; and 
three Years after that Sfoktium ; the fame 
Year in which the Florat Games were in^ 
flituted; 2 Years after fW<p«fi/a was plant- 
ed, and upon Hannibal^s SLttivzl in liafy^^ 
Grmona and Placentia. 

D 2- GUAR 

2d The Roman Htjfory 

C H A P. XV. 

A Catahgue ef fuch other Colonies that were 
planted between the T'ime of Hannibari 
coming to Rome, and the 6th Confuljhif 
of Caius Marius. 

'Tp H E Romans had not Lcifurc to e- 
^ reft Colonies whilft Hannibal was in 
Italy J nor fome Tears after his Retreat 
thence ,• for they were under a greater Ne- 
ceffity of levying Soldiers than difcharg- 
ing them : And after the War, they had 
more need to recruit and rcfreft, than dif- 
mifs their Forces. When Cn. Manlius Volfo^ 
and Fulvius 2VbW//or were Con fuls, Bononia 
was planted about 2 1 7 Tears fince ; 4 Tears 
after, Tifaurum and Potentia ; 3 Tears af- 
ter ihzx^Aquikia and Gravifca ; and with- 
in 4 Tears, Luca. 'Twas near this Time, 
(tho' fothe difpute it) that Colonies were 
fent to Puteoliy Salernumy and Buxentum. 
Auximum in PicenumwsiS planted 187 Tears 
ago, 3 Tears before Cajjius the Cenfor be- 
gan to build a Theatre between the Lu" 
fercal and Mount Palatine. The Aufteri- 
ty of the City, and the Conful Scipio^ join- 
ed to demolifti it, which I reckon as a moft 
noble Inftance of the Zeal and publick Spi- 
rit of thofe Times. Cajjius and Sextius 


of Velleius Patcrculus. 99 

Cahlnns (who conquered the SaUues at the 
Waters^ which from him were called 
Sextian) being Confuls, a Colony was 
fettled at Fahrateriay 157 Years ago*; 
a Year afterwards Scylacium, Mftierviutn, 
Tarentumj Neptuninj and Carthage in A- 
fete (the firft, which was without Italf^ 
were planted. Tbere-s no certain Ac- 
count concerning Deriona. Narbo Mar- 
tins in Gaul J was ereded in the ConfuK- 
Ihip of Tertius and Manliusj 1 5 j Years 
fince. Twenty three Years after that, 
Eporadia among the Vangienni was founc^ 
ed, when Marius (the fixthfTime) and 
Valerius flaccus were Confuls- I can't 
find that any, except Military Colonies, 
vrcre planted fince that Time. 


An Account of feveral great and learned Men 
that floUriJhed in Greece about the fame 
Time ; the mofi renovsned in Tragedy y Co- 
medyy Philofophy, Oratory, 8cc* 

A Ltho* this Account ^ has already ex- 
•^^ ceeded the defign'd Limits of this 
Treatife ; andtho' as I goon, I am hur- 
»edt without ReA, like one falling fromr 

D 3 » 

Qo The Roman Hijtof^ 

» a Precipice^ from one Subjed: to anoth^r^ 
ib that it may feem more neceflary to 
omit fome Things of Moment, than to 
relate others that may appear more fri- 
volous ; yet I cannot refrain from delive- 
ring an Obfervation I have often rnade^ 
and never could clearly account for. It 
ieems furprizing to mc, that the moil ex- 
alted Geniuses of every Profeffion have 
flouriQied and exerted themfelves within 
:a very (hort Period of Time one of ano- 
ther* And as the various Species of Ani- 
mals are ftill diftinguifh'd, tho' {hut toge- 
ther and coofin'd to a very narrow Coop : 
So the illuftrious Authors of every excel- 
lent Performance, living about the fame 
Time, have diftinguifhed themfelves from 
the reft of the World by the fame noble 
Performances. 'Twas one Age, nay a 
fmall Number of Years, which were en- 
riched by the Tragedies of the divine 
^fchylusy Sop hocks y and Euripides. One 
Age produced the ancient and perfeft 
Comedy of Cratinusy AriftophantSy and 
Eupolis. The new comic Vein wasftruck 
by Menander j Phikmon and Diphlim were 
his Equals in Time, rather than Exa£l- 
nefs of Writing, who invented and brought 
10 Perfe&ion in a very fliort Time, that 


of Velleius Paterculus. 9 f 

which could never fince be xmicateiGL The 
Learning of the Philofophers^ * (whom 
we lately mention^) which IbreiMn'd 
from its Founder^ the great Socrates^ how ^ 
fiiort a Space did it furvive the Death of 
Plato and Arifiothi What can we find 
worth our Praife before Iterates ? And 
iafcer the Death of his Scholars, and their 
DifciplcS) what remains deferring our 
Notice in Oratory ? Thus wc fee they 
were confined within narrow Limits of 
Time^ and the Memoty of them all is 
obfcure, but thofe who had converfed 
with, or at leaft had feen one another. 


'^A Cataiogue oj fever al Learned^Kom^j 
that ^ fiourifiid about the Jame Age : 
Some Ree^ons offered why fo many eminent 
Men appear' d at once, in the IVorld. 1 

THIS Obfervation holds pood a« 
niongthe Romans as well as Greeks. 
For unlefs we take in the moft rude and 
barbarous Performances, we fhall be 

D 4 forced 

* T%e Place whtre they are mentioiCd ts hjf, Jtnce 
thirds ng Account •/ thtm in what goes kefere. 

ja The Roman Hijfory^ 

forced to afcribe the Invention and Per- 
feftion in Tragedy, to Acciusy and the 
.Times he lived in. The elegant Turns 
of Wit in the Latin Tongue, broke out in 
the fame Age,in Cacilius^ Terence ^^wd Afra^ 
nius. The Hiftorians (if you add Livy to 
thofe who went before hinx) except C^ 
to and fome other obkure Authors, all 
flourilh'd within the Compafs of Eighty 
¥ears./ The greateft of our Poets too 
wrote within the fame Gompafsof Time. 
But Oratory, and the Praftice of the 
Bar, (laying afide the fame Ccuoy and, I 
muA beg leave not to mention P. Craffup, 
SciptOy the Lain and Gracchi j Fannius and 
Servius Galba) broke out. at once in its^ 
brighteft Glory in Tulljy the Prince of 
E oquencip : fo that you meet with very 
few who* went before him, that could 
pleafe, but you can admire^mone but 
thofe who lived in his Age. The fame 
has happened in Grammar, Statuary, 
Painting and Engraving : If you enquire 
into the Accounts of Things , you^il 
find that every Art had but a (mall Com- 
pafs of Time- toflourifli in. When -I 
confider the Caufes why the Genius's of 
this and the preceding Ages, interefted 
thcmfelvcs entirely in the Promotion of 


^/ Vclleius Paterculiw. 3 J 

a particular Study ; I meet with Tome 
Reafons for it, but fuch as very fcldom 
put. an End to my Enquiry. Emulatioa 
quickens our Endeavours, fonaetimes we 
are fpur'd on by Envy, fometimes by a 
generous Opinion of the Excellence of a 
Work. 'Tis neceffary for us with the 
utmoft Application to endeavour to be 
Excellent, which when we have arrived 
to, we can feldotn long maintain, it be-> 
ing evident in Nature, when Things at- 
tain their highefl Perfedion^ from the 
Moment they decay. 

As we are incenfcd to overtake thofc 
before us, fo when we defpair of our De- 
iigns, and can neither outdo, nor come up 
ta them, out Vigour languiibiss with our 
Hopes ; what we camiot conqtHl,. is no 
longer the End of our Ptirfuit. We re- 
fign the Queft we were upon, and look 
out for a new One. When we have for- 
saken that which we can't excell in, we 
ieek for fomewhat that may give greater 
Encouragements to our Endeavours., 
Thus this changeable Unfteadinefs of 
our Endeavours, becomes the greateft 
Obftaclc to Perfefl:ion in any Science. 


g[4 The Roman Hijfbrjr 

Athens commended^ the only City of Grceco 
fanwtts for Learned Mm, except Tbebes^ 
'VDhicb produced the Inunortai Pmdan 

IMuft now turn my Thoughts from a 
View of former TimeSjto the Account 
of Cities. The City of Athens alone 
was more eftecm'd for Eloquence, and 
produced greater Numbers of Orators- 
than all Greece befidc ; fo that tho* the 
Bodies of the Men were difperfed in o- 
ther Countries, the Spirit and Genius 
of them iTeem^d to live within the Walls 
of Athens alone. 'Tis as ftrange, that 
no one Orator of the ^bans, Argives, 
or Lacedtknians was in any Efteem whilft 
he lived, or Veneration after his Deceafe. 
Thefe, and a great many other Cities,, 
were remarkable for not having produced 
any great Men, except Tiebesj which was 
ennobled with the fublime Genius of /*/«- 
dar. The Laconians falfly pretend, that. 
AkmojL is of their Country. 



Roman History 

O f 

Velkius Pater cuius. 

Inlcribed to M. yinidus the Conful. 
Book II. 


^e Dtclevfim cf the Roman f^Qiue after 
the Overthrow of Carthage. 4teerviliu5 
Cxpio put as md to the IVar heguu iy 
Viriatus : Pompatis aad Manciaus are 
■foYcd to fitbmit to 'hafe Ctiiditimi of Peace 
•with the Numantines. 

I HE Firft of the &i/»'s di'- 
f tended the Power of ^me ; 
I the Laft of them introdoeed 
I its Litstury : For when the 
[ Fear of Carthage was remov- 
«dj and the Riral of the Simtut ■Oxah- 

3 6 Tb^ Roman Hiftory 

dcur deftroyed, flic ruflicd into Vice, hot 
by a gradual Declenfion, but by a vio- 
lent Degeneracy from Virtue. The au- 
. cient Difcipline was neglefted, and a 
new Form was introduced. The City 
was inftantly betrayed from Induftry to 
Sloth, from Ambition in Arms, to love 
of Pleafure ; from Labour and Bufinefs, 
to Eafe and Effeminacy. 'Twas at this 
time that Sciph Nafica built the Galle- 
rits in the Capitol ; that Metellus erefted 
thpfe I have already mentioned ; and 
Cn, OBavius added others, which bear his 
Name, and far exceed the reft in Beau- 
ty. And this publick Magnificence was 
attended with private Luxury. A dan- 
gerous and ignominious War then enfucd 
with S^ijp, under the Command of yiri- 
athusy tro Leader of the Robbers. 'Twas 
carried on with very dubious Succefs, fo 

^ that the Romans had very often the Dif- 
advantage in the Field. But Viriathus 
their General being killed, rather by the 
Treachery than Valour of Servilius Cm- 

' fio I that of Numantia broke out with 
greater Fury. This City could never 
fend more than loooo Men into the 

•Field; but (whether it happened from 

■the rigid Obftinacy of their Temper, the 


of Velleius Paterculu9. 37 

Unexperience pf our Generals, or the In- 
dulgence of Fortune) they obliged many 
of our Commanders^ efpecially Vwnfty^ 
a Man of great Reputation (the firft of 
that Family who had been Conful) and 
Mancinus Hvfiiliusy who was then in that 
Office, to comply with very diihonoura- 
blc Conditions. *Twas Intereft that fe- 
cured Pompey from Punifhment ; Manch 
nuss Subn)iffion procured his Pardon. His 
fcrvile Conceffion to every 7%ing had this 
EffeSi, that he was delivered to the £ne« 
my by the Heralds, with his Hands 
bound behind him. They refufed to re- 
ceive him, giving them the fame Anfwer, 
which the Caudini had done once before ; 
that a , Violation rf thejuUifk Faith would 
not be atton^d by the Efu^n of th^ Blood of 
afinfjie Per fin. 


'A Sedition raised in Rome by Tiberius Grac*^ 
chus, upon the delivering up Mancinus 
to the Enemy ; His CharaBer and ASiions. 

THIS furrendring of Mancinus oc« 
cafioned a terrible Commotion in 
the City. Ttb. 'Gracchus, Son co the fa- 

£ mous 

98 ^^ Roman Hijiory 

mous Tib. Gracchus^ foarch Grandfon td 
Africanus by his Daughter, when he was 
Quxftor, was the chief Inftrument in (ign« 
ing that Treaty. He was very uneafy, 
that any AA in his Adminiftration (hould 
be abrogated , and perhaps under feme 
Apprehenfion of falling under the fame 
Sentence. He was now eleSed Tribuna 
of the People, and was certainly a Man 
of the greateft Integrity, of a generous 
Temper of Mind, and a refolute Juftice 
in all his Undertakings: Infhort, he was 
adorned with all the Accomplifhments 
which perfeft humane Life. But when 
p. Mucins Scavolaj and L. Calpurnim were 
Confals, 1 52 Tears fince, he began to re^* 
cede from Virtue ; promifed Freedom of 
the City^o all Itah ; publifhed Laws for 
the Diftribution of Lands ; difturbedftbe 
Afiairs of particular Perfons^ confound* 
ed the State, and reduced every thing to 
the laft Extremity of Danger : He dif- 
placed his Colleague OShivius from his 
Office, and conftituted himfelf, his Fa- 
thet^in-Law Jffius of the Confular Or- 
der, and his Brother Gracchus, who was 
fcarce of Age then, to take Care of the 
Divi(ion of the L^ndSj and planting x^ 


rf Velleios Paterculus. 99 

Xhe Ruin of 'Gracchus, ty the Valour and 
Refolution of Scipio Naiica : His Death; 
the firji that fell in Rome in any civil 

P Scipio Najicay Grandfon to him who 
^ * was declared the Be(l Man in the Ci- 
ty by the Senate, Son to the Cenfur who 
built the Galleries in the Capitol, Great 
Grandcliild to the illuftrious Cn.Scipio^ 
who was Uncle to P. Africanus ; being a 
private Man, and one of the Gown^ 
cho' he was Coufin-German to Ttb. Grac- 
€busj preferred the Intereft of his Coun- 
try to any Alliance in Blood ; and thought 
that could never confift with his private 
Advantage, which oppofed the Good df 
the Commonwealth : (This worthy Opi- 
nion had before acquired him the Office 
of Pontifex MaximuSf tho* abfent) who 
throwing the Skirt of his Gown over 
his Left Arm, {landing on the Stf^psf of 
the Capitol, defired thofe who wifhed thi: 
Profperity of the State, to follow him. 
The Nobility, Senate, moft of the Eque- 
ftrian Order, and many of the People 
who were not infedcd by pernicious In- 

. E « fiouatttos 

40 The Roman Hijiorj 

finuations againfl the Govern menr, af- 
faulted Gracchus as he flood in the Area 
with his Forces, labouring to draw to^ 
^cther at Concourfe from aU Parts of Ita" 
lyiti his Defence. He endeavoured his 
ETcape over the Precipice at the Gapitol, 
but was ftruck in his Flight by a Piece 
of a Bench. Thus he ended his Life^ 
which might have been with Honour^ 
by an untimely Death. This was the be- 
ginning of the £j9Fuiion of filood in R^me 
in any civil Contention ; the firft Time 
that open Violence was carried on with- 
out Punifliment. Hence Force prevailed 
over Equity : The moil powerful was 
now accounted the moil deferving : The 
Suits of the Citizens, which were ufed 
to be reconciled by Mediation, are now 
determined by the Sword. Wars are no 
longer prepared for honourable Caufes, 
but are reckoned a Part of the Trade of 
the Nation. This is not to be wonder- 
ed at, for Example never refts there where 
it had its Original ; the" at firil it flows 
in a narrow Channel, it foon breaks otu 
and fpreads it felf abroad. When once 
it over-runs its Bounds, it becomes a 
lawlefs Stream. And no one thinks that 
diihonourable in himfelf, which has been 
advantageous to another. CHAP. 

^/Veileius Paterculus. 41 


the Overfbraw rf Ariftonicus, ty Marcus 
Perpema. Pablius Scipio retrieves the 
Roman Ghry in Spain^ ty the entire ^h 
wrfim oj Numantia. His CbaraSter and 

TXTHile Afl&irs are carried on thus in 
V \ the City, Arijhnicus^ upon the 
Death of King Attalusy who had refign- 
ed the Inheritance of Afia to the People 
of Rmie J ' (as Nicomedes did afterwards 
that of Bithynia) pretends himfelf of the 
Royal Line; and enters upon the King* 
doni by Force of Arms. He was fub- 
dued by Af . Perperna^ and carried in Tri- 
umph. At. Aquilius fufiered the lofs of 
his Life for the Murtherof Mutianus Craf- 
fttSi a Man of great Experience in the 
Law, upon his Journey out of Afia in the 
Quality of Proconful. P. Scipio ASmilia^ 
riksj who had rafed Carthage^ after we 
had received fo many Defeats about iNTn- 
mantia, was chofen Conful, and fent in- 
to iS}»a/», (where he anfwered the Repu- 
tation of his Valour in Afiric) and with- 
ih a Year and three Months after his 
Arrivaij furrounded Nnmamia with Bat- 

E 3 tcricf^ 

A2 The Roman Hi/Iity 

teries, and rafed it to the Ground. Ne^ 

ver did any Man leave fo gribat a Chara- 

dcr behind hisn^ for the .Oveithcow cff 

fo many famous Gties ; for by the De- 

ftrudion of Carthage aaid NurngMtia, he 

retrieved us frcon {he Fear of the firft, 

and the Indignities we often .received 

from the latter. When he was asked by 

the Tribune €arh his Opinion of tli6 

Death of Gracchus^ be anfwcred^ that he 

Viae juflly kiUed, if he aimed m the Gevemr 

mem ef the State. And when the Senate 

rune with his Applaufe, De jou tbitik thai 

I (laid he) v.^bo fo iften have ieeu uitm^vt4 

v)ith the Alarms of an antied Emrnj^ am ^ 

oBfurfrifed wfh your Shouts, to whomJtUn 

\y is a Step-Mother. He returned to the 

City, when M. AquiUus^ and C. Setupra^ 

nius wete ConfuU. After he had twice 

overthrown the Terrors of his Counoy^ 

hid beeo twice Conful^ and had beenho* 

noured with two Triumphs, he was tbond 

dead upon his Couch in the Mornings 

There were great Reafons to fufpe&thac 

he was ftrangled, from fome Marlus thju; 

were left upon his Neck. The De^di o£ 

this great Man was not at ajl difpoced-^ 

his l^y was carried to t4ie Funieral with 

a yeilcvecUsHead: Tho'hc w^iffae 

»* Infi'rumenc 

Of Velleius Paterculus. 43 

InAfbmeot of his CouQtfies Soveretgoty 
over aU the World. Whether he di<d by 
the CoarTe of Naturej or as (bme thin V 
by the Treachery of his Enemies \ his 
Life was certainly the moft honourable^ 
and was excell'd by none in that Age, 
ex(3ept jwu'U prefer the Dignity of his 
Grandfather to his. ' He died in the jdtli 
Sidf of 4us A@e^ as ^ill appear, if you 
took back to bis firft CenfuKbip, which 
y92& conferred upop him in the 3 Ah T<;ar 
of his Age. 

I -I 


C H A P. V;' 

'Aulns firutus^f Conduit iotd Succejfes^ in 
'^ Spam. A fivere Cantmaftd of his\ the 
Occafion of (kfignt^ ViBory at Contrebia. 

BEfqre. the Deflrudion of Numantia^ 
there was a very reziiarkable.V/ar 
carried on in Spain, under the Conduft of 
jL£nUtts. He. penetrate|A into the in* 
nwlft.'Parts of the Country, fi^dued Jfc 
gnMt.Nuail>er<)f\For^sand Cities, ^x4. 
Qiaccbed into Nations fciarce heard of be-> 
&re. Thefe Services jjiurchafed hiv^ the 
Xitle of Gdlacus^ ^me Years beforfi 
thij,.,>5rciie,jj9ted; fbrrthg :9^}m. ^^9^. 

44 ' Th^ Komm Hijtorjf 

pline of Q: Macidmitus in thofe Parti 
He befieged the City Ccmrebta in Spain ; 
five Cohorts of his Legions were repulfed 
from a Breach; he ordered them to attack 
it again : They made their Wills as they 
Hood in the Ranks, thinking that they 
Should meet with certain Death. The 
General repeated hisf Orders, ixxA the 
Soldiers returned in Trumph when they 
thought they marched to die. Such is 
the Force or- Shame, fupported by Fear; 
and of Hope fpringing from Defpair. He 
Jbecamcvery famous for the RigoucLcfhis 
Commands i as did Fabius JEmil/anus for 
the Regularity of his Difcipline in Spain* 

■ • - • w „ 

< • 

C H A p. VL 

^A dangerous Sedition raffed by Caius Gracr 
'^ chusi Brother /o Tiberius. ' Hii'Chara^ 
.' Iter and &tierthrow by : 

A Bout ten Years, after this, the famce 
"^ Fiiry which had'- pofleffed Tibe^t^i 
incited his Brother Caius Gracchus to the 
fame Extravagance. He imitated him in 
all his Virtues, as well as this fatal -Br- 
ror of his Life, and excelled him in the 
AccompUfiimcflC ofEloqaence and Know- 
" - * ledge. 

of Velleius Paterculus. 45 

ledge. He might have been the greateft 
Man in the City, with the utmoft Secu- 
rity ; but whether through a Defire of 
revenging the Death of his Brother, or 
of eftablifhing a Sovereign Power, when 
he was invefted in the Tribunediip, he 
purfued the fame Meafures which his 
Brother did, with a greater Vehemence ; 
gave the Freedom or the City to all Itor 
ly^ extended its Privileges as far as the 
Alffs^ made a Partition of Lands, forbad 
any Citizen to have more than 500 Acres, 
(which was before enaded by the Lkim^ 
on Law) impofed new Cuftomsupon the 
Merchants, fent new Colonies into all 
Countries, transferred the Determination 
of Caufes from the Senate to the Eque« 
ilrian Order, commanded Com to be 
difpofed to the People ,- in fhort, he left 
nothing in a calm or quiet Condition, 
and continued himfelf in his Office ano* 
ther Year. M. Oftmius the Conful, who 
had deftroyed Fregellaj oppofed him and 
Fuhius Flaccus, a Man who had tri* 
umphed, and been Conful, but now purfu- 
ed the fame exorbitant Courfes with 
Gracchusj who had fubftituted him one 
of the Triumviri^ in the Place of his Bro* 
ther Tiberius^ and named him his Col^ 


46 The Roman Hijiory 

league in the Sovereignty. *Twas veiy 
dilhonourable in Opimius to propofe a Re- 
ward in Money for the Life of Gracchus^ 
or indeed of any Citizen of Rome. Flac' 
sus, and his eldeft Son were Qain as they 
were muftering their Forces upon Mount 
Aventine ; Gracchus being almoft overta- 
ken in his Flight, by fome that Opimius 
had detached tor that Purpofe, offered his 
Life to his Servant Euporus ; who as rear 
dily (lew himfclf^ as he relieved his Ma* 
fier^ The Fidelity of Pomponius^ a tb* 
man Knight, to Gracchus^ was very re- 
markable : He defended a Bridge agaioft 
his Enemies (like Cocks) as long as be 
could, and then fell upon his own Sword* 
The Body of Caius, as his Brother 7?le« 
rius'i had been before, was by the Cru^ 
elty of the Gmquerors thrown into the 


if VcUcius Patcrculus. 47 

A tforrihle Example of Cruelty in Opimi* 
us^ in facrificing a beautiful Touth tf 
the Family of the Gracchi, who came to 
offer Conditions of Peace : The Barbarity 
condemn d by his ovsn Varty^ and remem^ 
bred by the People at his own Death. 

THIS h the Account of the LiTe 
and Death of the Sons of Tib. 
Gracchusy and Grandfons of P. Scipio Ar 
fricanusyK)\txc Mother Cornelia, the Daugh- 
ter of Ajricanus, being ftill alive. They 
perverted the grcatcft Abilities of Mind 
to a very wrong Ufc. Had they con* 
fined their Ambition to any reafonable De- 
fire of Command^ the State would have 
oflered them what they purfucd by Tu- 
mult and Rebellion. This fevere Perfc- 
cution was attended by one very re- 
markable Inftancc of Barbarity : A ve- 
ry fine young Gentleman, Son to Fuhv" 
us FUttcuSy who was not at all concerned 
in his Father's Crimes, and was no; a* 
bove 18 Years of Age, was fent to pro- 
pofe fome Conditions of a Reconciliation, 
and killed by Opimius : A Tpfcan Soutji- 
(ayer^ his Friend^ feeing hidi catried to 


48 The Roman Hijiory 

his Execution in Irons^ and very forrow"* 
ful. Why (faid he) don't you rather do 
thus ? And inibntly rufhed his Head a^ 
gainft a Stone-Pillar^ at the Prifon-Gate^ 
and dafhing out his Brains, expired. Af- 
ter this, a very rigorous Inquifition was 
made among the Friends and Acquain- 
tance of the Gracchi ; which incenfed the 
Hatred of the People to fo high a Degree, 
that Ofimius^ (tho' otherwife a Man of 
great Honour and Dignity) when he was 
condemned by a publick Sentence, the 
Memory of his Cruelty fuppreifed that 
Companion which ufually attends the Un- 
fortunate. The Envy of the People fub- 
je&ed Rutilius and Popilius^ (who ex-' 
preft the greatefi Severity to the Friends 
of the Gracchi) to the fame Calamity.. I 
muft beg leave to mention a Particular, 
which does hardly relate to any Circum- 
fiance I am now fpeaking of. This is 
that Opimius whofe Confullhip gave a 
Name to the Opimian Wine. There can 
be none left among us, as appears from 
the great Diftance of Time ; fince it is 
j[ 5 f Years (Great Sir) from his Conful-, 
(hip to yours. This Adion of Opimius ' 
had the lefs Authority, fince he profecut- 
jcd a particular Refentment ; and his Re- 


of Velleius Paterculus. 49 

rJMige feemed to be heightned by a pri- 
vate Animofity, rather than an bonou* 
able Concern for the publick Security. 


A Colotrfflanted at Narbo Martius. Cai* 
us Cato condemned of Extortim for a ve* 
ryfmall Sum. The two Metelli Triumph 
in one Day, as does Minutius ever tie 

SOon after, in the Confulibip of Por^ 
€itts and Marciusj the Colony of Nar^- 
be Martius was founded. I (hall lay down 
an Inllance of the great Severity ufed 
in the Sentences of Judgnaent in thofe 
Times. C. CatOj of the Confular Dig^ 
nity, Grandfon to M. Cato, and the Son 
of Africanus^s Sifter^ was condemned of 
Bribery in Macedonia^ tho' he could be 
charged with no more than 4000 Sefter- 
ces. They had a regard to the Intenti- 
on of the Criminal^ more than the Na- 
ture of the Crime, weighing what was 
conmiitted, with the Defign of the Ma* 
lefador ; and considered the Enormity of 
the Fault, more than the Degrees of it. 
About that Time the two A&r<//J,TrK 

F ttinpbed 

f o The Roman HiJIoty 

timphed in the fame Day. 'Tis as m^» 

niorable^ and I think the only Example 

mt' that Kinds that the Sons of Fulviug 

flttccus^ the fame who had taken Capua^ 

were together in the Office of Confuls^ 

cho' one of them had been adopted, into 

the Family of Accidianus Mantius. The 

JMkuUiy who were Cenfors^ were Coufin 

Germans^ not Brothers ; that Honour has 

fiUten to none but the Scifio^s. Then did 

the Cimkri and Tiutmes pafs over the 

JRbim: They were afterwards famous 

lor feveral Lol&s and Overthrows^ both 

4)( the Romans and themfelve.^. This 

Time was remarkable for the fplendid 

Triumph of Minucius over the Scordifci, 

who ereded the Galleries which remain 

in. great Efieem to this Day. 

C H A p. IX. 

wl Catabgue rf the Romans that flourijhed 
about this Time, famous for their Excel- 
knee in Poetry, Hiftory, Oratory, &c. 

T N the iame Age lived the celebrated 

1 Orators, Scifio MmiUanus, lalius, 

&r. Galba^^ the two Gracchi, C. Famtius, 

4pd Carh PsfiriuSf I mufi not pafs by 


cf Vcllckis Patcrculus. 51 

UuUm Numidicus and Scaurus ; and tfaofe 
ho excelled the reft, Cr^us and AJL 
nttmius. They were fucceeded in Time 
well as £lo4uence9 by C. C^Jar Stra* 
> and P; SuhtQius. Q Mucins was mor« 
mark able for his Underftanding in the 
iws, than any great Talent he had in 
ratory. The fame Times were noted fof 
e great Genius's oiAfroHiusin Comedy; 
icuvius and jiccius in Tragedy ; which 
:ter raifed thofe Arts toa Rivalfiiip wftfo 
: Perforufances of the Oredans^ who* 
:€ivtd his Wotks With Honour, and 
y'd them the fame fifteen they did 

thofe of their own Nacton ; fo that 

appeared They indeed wrote with- 

uiter Esaaoeft^bttt He wkh the greats 

Fire. The Name of Lmilius toOr 
ta ferved as a Knight in the NnmaH^ 
* War, nnder f. ^rkami, began w 
in great Repute- Marim and yugur- 

were now very yontig; when they 
med the Military Art in the fani^ 
tnp as Friends^ which, they were af« 
ivards to exert as the gftateft Ent- 
s. Sifeuna the Hiftorian was now 
if young : His wrote the Civil Wari^ 
SaUa^ feveral Tearf after. CsUins 
I of gceatcK^ Antiquity than Sifm- 

51 The Roman Hiftory 

na ; RutiliuSy Claudius Quadrigarius and 
Valerius Amias were his Contemporaries. 
I mud take notice that Pomponius lived 
'about that Time ; he was a Man of grea( 
Senfe, but barbarous Expreffion, remark- 
able for being the firft Author of that 
•fort of Writing." 



T%e Severity of the Cenfors againft Lepidus 
^lius fw his Extrav^ancy tn the Rem 
tf his Houfe. The Viwry of Domitius 
i^ver the Arvemi, and of Fabias ovit 
the Allobroges. 

IMufl; take notice of a very rigoroqs 
Proceeding in the Cenfors Cajjuu Lunr 
ginusy and C^pio^ who about 157 Years 
ago, called Lepidus JElius- the Augur to 
^an Account for hiring an Houfe of tfooo 
AJfes yearly Rent. Whereas now, were 
* a Senator to liv^ in one of no higher Va- 
' lue, he wou'd be thought aDifgrace to his 
Order. So foon do we deviate from 
what's ftria Virtue into Vice, from 
thence we decline into what's difhonout' 
able, and from thence fink into Degene* 
"oracy. In the fame Age .were remarkaUe 


of Vclleius Paterculuf. 55 

the noble Vidories of Domitius orer the 
Aroerniy znd Faiius over the Alhhroges: 
Fabius was Grandfon to PauBusj and fir- 
named AUobrogicus from his Conqueft. I 
hiuft obferve the particular good Fortune 
of the Family of the Domitiiy tho' it was 
confined to a very fmafl Number of Per- 
fons. Before this honourable young Gen- 
tleman, Cn. Domitiusy there were four 
Sons of that Name^ of diflferent Parents ; 
all of them arrived to the ConfuKhip, or 
Priefthood^ and moft of them were ho- 
noured with a Triumpb. 

C H A P. XI. 

T[h€ Jugutthtne War begun by Metellus, and 
ended by Caius Marius. His CharaHer. 
Twelve of the Family (f the Metelii in 

- ttxnty two Tears are ConfulSy or Triumph, 

TH E War againft Ji^urt^wsis ma- 
naged by Qj MeteBus, one^ the 
moft excellent Men in his Time : C /14b- 
rius; whom we have fpoken of before, 
was his Lieutenant, a Man rigid andau* 
ftere, but of great Integrity of Life. His 
great Charader in War, was obfcured by 
tih beingji Stranger to the Arts of Peace : 

F 3 He 

54 The Roman Hf/ofy 

He WIS ambitious of Honour,. mfatiaBfCy 
had no Command over bis PaiSons, but 
was always refilefs, and unfettled« He 
accur€d the Slownefs of Metellu^, who 
bad now drawn on the War for three 
Tears, and charged him with the natural 
Pride of Greatnefs, which deiires nothing, 
more than Continuance in Aathority. 
Thefe were his Expreffions to the Offi- 
cers of the Cuflores, and Merchants in 
Afri€y and by thcfe Means, when be came 
to Rome for Provi/ions, he obtained the 
Conful/hip» and the Command of the 
War, which MeteJlus had almoft brought 
to an end ; for he had twice defeated the 
Forces of Jugurtha in the Field. How^ 
crer, Meiettus had the Honour of a Tri- 
umph as great as his Deferts, and was 
fir named Numidkus, I muft obferve the 
Fortune of the Ctcilian Family, as I late^ 
ly have done of that of the Domitii. For 
in the Space of about 22 Years, ra <sF 
the MefilH were Confuls, Cenfors, or 
triumphed* Thus we fee, that notonTf 
Cities and Kingdoms, but Families have 
their difierent Period, to flourifby to 
dccay^ and at lafi to expire* 


^ Vielteius Fatercul t29i 55^ 

^gartba ddruerid hy Becchus to Marius^ 
and led in Triumph ^o^Rome : Man* 
DS overwBis the Teutones^ and in nvo^ 
Dap kiBs I jfoooo; ki a ficMd Engage- 
ment v)ith the Enemy y kills 1 00000 mere^ 
• and exiirfates the whole Nation. 

T SuBa was then Colleague with Ata^ 
•*^' rius 10 the Qucftorftip, as if the 
Fates had already begvn to bring abouc 
their Deiigns. Mariits^ by employitig 
him at the Court of King JBocchus, be- 
came Mafter of yugurtha^ 138 Years 
(ince, and when he returned to the Cicy» 
fed hira: in Triiimph en the Kalends of 
yanaary^ being the firft Day of his fe* 
cond Confulfhip. A prodigious Nuqh 
bcr of the Geman Nations^ whieh were 
called Cimiri and TeuMnes^ bad difcharg- 
cd tbemfdTes into the Empire, (as I have 
lelatedX. Xbey hgd. overthrown the Con«- 
fals Ci^h and X^flimt ; and before thait^ 
bad pbt Corl^and Si6mus to Flight, driven 
rbem out ot their Camp in Gaut^and had 
killed the Confuls Scaurm and Amnlim^ 
and many other very eminent Men. Tho' 

People qC JMk: : ttui^ no Cfoetdl Jfo 


$6 The Roman Kifloty 

equal to oppofe this powerful Enemy as 
Marius. His Confulfhips were now re- 
peated. The third of them was employed 
in Preparations for the War; which 
Year Cn. Domitius^ Tribune of the Peo- 
ple, ena&ed a Law, that the People 
ihould eled the Priefts which had before 
been created by the College of that Order* 
In the fourth he defeated the Teutones at 
'ji^ua Sextray killed 1 50000 of the Ene- 
my in the firft and fecond Day of the 
Battle, and utterly deftroyed the whole 
Nation. In his fifth Confulihip, he and 
his Proconful jQ. Lmatius Catuks, had a 
very fuccefsful Engagement in the Plains 
of the Raudiiy on this Side the Ai^s.} 
in which were killed and taken Ptifoner^ 
above 1 00000 Men. By this Viftory 
Marius feems to have removed the Gritf 
of his Country for Jiaving bom him, and 
by his good Offices^to hi>ire made amends 
for the Calamities He brought npoti?iCi 
His (ixth Confulfhip was coriferred upon 
him as a Reward for Ills ' pad Services* 
But leaft tlii^ (hould be deprived of its 
Glory, hefuppreflfedthe Fury o( Strvh 
lius Glaucra and Satumimts Apukius (who 
diftrafted iheState, b?|i: conctnuing. themr. 
fidves • in • i^do O^esjsaaflxdif&ariaed ^ 
- ; ^ publick 

of Velleius Patcrculus. 57 

publick AfTemblies with open Violence) 
by deftroying thefe turbulent Men in the 
Hvftilian Court. 


Marcus Livius Drufus, entring ufonhis Trh 
btmejhify is opfofed by the Senate in thofi 
very Particulars he dejigned for their ffc- 
nour and Advantage. His CharaHer. 

A Few Tears after this, M. Livius Dru- 
fus^ a Man of the greateft Honour^ 
. lategrity^ and Eloquence, one whofe For- 
tune was always inferior to the great En- 
dowments of his Mind, entered upon 
the Tribunefliip. He endeavoured to re- 
Aore the ancient Privileges to the Senate^ 
and to transfer the Court of Judgment 
from the Equefirian, to that Order, (for 
the £}»iM were before invefted with that 
Power by the Laws of the Gracchi j and 
ere&ed their rigorous Authority againft 
many of the greateft and moft honoura- 
ble Men ; particularly they impleaded P. 
Rutibus^ who was certainly the beft Man 
of that or any preceding Age, upon the 
Statute of Bribery, and condemned him, 
to the Uoiverfal Grief of the GtyO But 


58 The Roman Hifioiy 

be was oppofcd by the Senate it felf, kk 
what 'he de(igned for their Advantage. 
They did not confider, that whatever be 
did for the Benefit of the People,aiight be 
underftood as a Means to- infinuate him- 
felf into thek Favour, and obtaining for 
them fome fmall Advantages, might in- 
duce them to pare with the greater^ 
But fuch was the Fortune of Drufus^ 
that the Senate approved the Male* Ad- 
miniftration of bis Colleagues^ more 
thaa his own honeft Intentions^ They 
fefiifed the Honours he pr<4>ofeii for 
them, but patiently fiibmitted to the fa- 
dignities omr*d them by others. Ihey 
envied his Oory, but feem'd pleas'd witb 
the moderace ^^ittation of the itft. 

Smfiis, itfief bis Endeavtmrs to gram tit 
Freedom «f the City to all Italy, isftaWS 
dead in the Cottrt if his own Houfe^ to tbt 
Vmverfal Grief ef the CemmmraseM^ 

TyRuJiis, when he Caw that hi> good De« 
''^ (igns could not fiicceed^ altered his 
Miod^ and propofed to grant the Free- 
dom. (^ Amu^O all i!ta^« Hcbadbecfi* 


tf Velleius Paterculuf. 5P 

upon that Atfair ia the ¥wum^ and as he 
returned Home, under the Guard of a 
prodigious Multitude, which atways ac« 
tended him, be was thruft inM the Side 
with a Knife) in the Entry of hisHoufc. 
The Knife was left in the Wound, and 
within a very few Hours he expired : 
fuft as he breath'd his laft^ turning his 
£yes to the Company about him. When 
(faidbe) my Friends and Acquaintance, 
will ye have a Citizen fo well aflefted to 
the Commonwealth as my Self? An £3^- 
preffion which anfwered the great Since- 
rity of his Mind. This w2s the End of 
this gallant Youth, and I muft not oaiie 
an Inllance of the generous Freedom of 
his A&ions. He was building theHou(e 
in the Palatiuntj where Cicero* s once 
fiood, and Toon after CcnJorinus\ which 
now belongs to Statilius Sifenna. The 
Workman promifed him, that he vsmid 
ftikke it fo privatej that no one fhoud be abh 
to look into itf or fee v:hat was done vjithin it. 
Nay J fays Drt^us^ I defire^ if you can coth 
trive itfoj to build my Houfe that every one 
msy look into ity and fee what I do. 


6o The Roman Hifiory 

C H A P. XV. 

Carthage the firfl Colony eftabUjhed out <f 
Italy : 7Ae Italian If^ar commences on the. 
Death of Dracus : Metellus banijh^d by 
Satuminus the Tribune j but reftored by 
the Interejl of bis Son. 

'rr^Was one of the moft pernicious; 
^^ JL Proceedings in the Gracchi^ that 
they planted Colonies farther than halj : 
Our Anceftors, when they faw that Cor 
thage grew more formidable than Tyre^ 
Maffilia than Phocaa, Syracufe than Co- 
rinthy Cyxicum and Byz^antiumy than Mile* 
tuSf their original Countries, declined 
this Praftice, and called the Citizens oE 
Rome into Itafyy to be regiftred. Carthage 
was the firft Colony that was eftablifiied 
beyond ItiUy. The Death of Drufus oc- 
cafioncd a dreadful War in Italy. It was 
firft begun by the Afculans^ who murder* 
ed the Praetor Servius, and Fonteius the 
Lieutenant. The Marfi immediately c- 
fpoufed the Caufe, and then it fpread 
throughout the Country, which took up 
Arms againft the Romans. The Progreui 
of this was as dreadful, as the Reafons 
for it were juft. They demanded no more 
2 thaft 

of Vtllcius Paterculus. 6 1 

than the Privileges of that City, which 
they themfelves defended ; they alledged, 
that they furniflied out a double Nnmbec 
of Horfe and Foot in all their Expeditions ; 
and therefore thought it barbarous, that 
they could not be admitted Members df 
the City, which themfelves raifed to that 
Grandeur which prompted 'em to look up- 
on thofe of their own Nation and Defcent^ 
as Foreigners and Strangers. This War 
deftroyed above 300000 of the haUm 
Youth. The moft eminent Commanders 
on the part of the Romans^ were Cn. Pom^ 
fey. Father to him who wa^ iirnamed the 
Great^ C. Mariusy whom we have often 
mentioned, L. Sulla who had been Frx- 
tot the Year before, Q. Meteffus the Son 
of MacedonUusy who defervedly acquired 
the Sirname of Pius : His Father was 
expelled the City by L. Saturninus^ Tri- 
bune of the People, becaufe he would 
not take the Oaths to fome of the De« 
crees he had enafted. . But the Son re- 
ilored him by his own filial Endeavours, 
with the Command of the Senate, and 
Concurrence of the whole Common- 
wealth. Numidicus his Triumphs and 
Dignities were not more illuflrious thimi 
the CauCes of his Expe4ition9 his Exile, 
aod honourable Return. 


62 The Roman Eifidry 


ithe tiames of the chief Leaders in the la- 
lian Wat* Se^oeraJ Banks fought vriA 
varms Suecefs. The tVar is ended vHth 
Ad'oantagf to the Romans. 

THE chief Leadtrs on the Side of 
the Jtaliansy %7tre SHo Pqfpjedius^ 
'XTerius Afinius^ b^imCHto^ C iPomidiUS, 
Jilejhms Pontius, Marius Egitattus^ aiul An 
fius MutBius. I muft not obey fo far my 
Afodefty, as to detraS: an Jr thing (tOEH 
the Glory of my own Family, fincc I 
?flia11 telate nothing but Matter of ^aft. 
The Memory of my Creat Grandtathet 
Minatius Magius k>( Jfctdtm, (Orai&dfcci 
tb Decius Magius, a very Loyal and £« 
minent Man, and chief of the CampiMr 
ans) oi^ht to be efteem'd for his Fidelia 
ty to the Hof^ans in this Wzt. He levydl 
a Legion himfelf aliiong thb HPffiki, ztA 
arffifted witfi it at rhe taking of Sercuta- 
tsMn, along with T. Didius, and at the 
Siege of Pompeii, atid Sotrender of tV 
fa, *rfth £. SuPa. His Services have been 
tAcn Notice of by feVetM, but partfcu- 
IMy by tL Hmei^us in his Annals ; and 
Very noMy rewarded by the People 


<f Velleius Paterculus; 65- 

d Rqmiy who granted him the Freedotn* 
of the City, and chofe two of his. Sons 
Pr^iptorsj tho' he had aftet that Time 
Children bom to him* The Fortune 
and Succefs of this W^r was fo dubious, 
that 10 the Space of two Years, two of 
the Roman Confuls, Rvtitiusy and Cato 
Poytiiusy were flain by the Enemy. Our 
Armies were often overthrown, and the 
City obliged to go into Mourning, and 
to coQtinue iaXtiS^t Habit for a long Time. 
7hey cbofeCorjSWum for the Seat of their 
IS^ipxre;^ and cal{ed it lialifium. But w6 
norieved o^r Misfortunes by Pegrees, 
(j^y admitting tbofe who had not taken 
ArmS| or at lejkft had quickly laid ^eifi 
down, into the Freedom pf the City; 
Qui^ ruin^s and Iangui£[i4pg QoqpiniQr^- 
wcalth was reftore4 by P9mf$y^ S)l/(ij, and 


77;f Freedom of the City granted to the Itali* 
ans, the Refufal whereof before nvas the 
occafion of the War. Sylla chofen Conftth 

TH E Italian War was now fuppref- 
fed on all Sides, except fome Re- 
mains of it about Nola. (The Romans, 

G a when 

64 The Roman HiJIorjr 

when they had iheathed their Swords, 
being willing to grant the Freedom of 
their City to Men diftretfed and conque^ 
cd, whidi they refufed to do when they 
were in a flourifliing Condition). The 
Confulfhip was now filled by Q: Pomptt' 
usy and I. Cornelius SuBay a Man who 
merited the greateft Efteem beforei 
and the higheft Difgrace after his Vi- 
dories. He was of a ^ry noble Ex- 
traftion, being the 6th from Cornelius jRn- 
finusy one of the chief Commanders io 
the War againft Pjrrbus. The Luftrc d 
his Family had been interrupted for fomfe 
Time : He carried himfelf as if he had 
not the lead Dedgn of being Confal: 
But when he had been diftinguifhed id 
the Italian War, and before that, in bis 
Lieutenancy under Afor/«/ in Gauly where 
he defeated the greateft Generals of the 
Enemy, his Succefs infpired him with 
Refolution^ fo that when he ftood foe 
the Confulfhip, there was fcarce a Maa 
who voted againft him, tho' he was in 
the 49th Year of his Age when he ob- 
tained that Dignity. 


of Vdkius Patcrculus. 5y 

Sylla chofen General in the War againft Mi- 
thridates. His CharoBerandAElions. The 
Fidelity of the Rhodians^ and Perfidicuf" 
nefs $f the Micylenians in the Afiatick 
. War : Sulpicius^ CliaraBer^ and pernio- 
cious PraElices in the Commwiweahh. 

AT that Time Mtithridates King of 
Fontus, one whom we muft not 
Kifs by, but fpeak to with a RviSt 
egard ; a Man of the greateft Con« 
duA and Valour, fome times moft for- 
cnnate> always moft couragions ; a Ge« 
Qeral in the Council, a > common Sol- 
dier in the Field, and an Hannibal in 
his Hatred to Ronui had over-ran Afia 
with his Arms, and difpcrfed Letters- 
throughout the Countiy, proposing great 
Rewards for kilting all the Roman Citi- 
zens in the fame Day and Hour* At 
that Time the Courage of the Rhodians 
againft Mthridittesy and their Fidelity to 
the Raman iwas very, remarkable : The 
[nconftancy o( thtMitylenians was a Foil,to ^ 
fet off the Luftre of the other's unfhakfen 
Loyalty, forthey deliviered Man. Aquiliusy 
and ' fcveval ochersy. in GbaiiiS'ta Mitkri^ 

G 3 datis. 

66 The Roman Hipry 

dates. (However, their Liberties were 
afterwards reftored to them by Pomfej^ 
for the fake of TiiBpbattes.J He fcemed 
to threaten hafy with a dreadful Power, 
when the Province of Afia fell by Lot to 
Sulla ; who when he left the City, made 
an Halt about Nola^ (for that Place very 
obftinately perfeveted in Hoftilitie^ and 
was enclofed by the Roman Army, as if 
it repented the inviolable Fidelity it ex- 
preded to the R^uam in the Punic War) 
and at chat Time, P. Sulpicius^ Tribnne 
of the People, a Man of gteat Eloquence 
and Vigour, the mod: emident of bis 
Time for Intereft and AUtances,a&d jtU the 
different Accompliihments of Wit and 
Underflanding : When he bad acquired 
a Reputation in the City, by a fincere 
and unprejudiced Generofity of Temper» 
as if he was weary of the Courfes of Vir* 
tue and Integrity, and his honeft Defigm 
had been iU-rewarded, attached him^etf 
to C Alarms J who mM then ambitioDs t6 
ieize upon ail the Honours and Camr 
mands of the Cmnmonwealth, tho^ be 
had paCsd the Seventieth Year of his 
Age. He ptopofed a Law to the Peo- 
ple, which ftould abrogate SnBas Po«rer, 
and cecal him.from his Govtnunent. Maey 




Of' Velleius Paterculus. 6y 

other {editions and deteftable Orders he 
ena&ed, which could not be fufifered in 
a free Commonwealth : He alfo marther* 
cd a Son of the Conful P^mpty, who was 
Son«in-Law of SuUa^ by the P^etainers 
CO his Fa&ion. 

< . 


Sylla returns from Nola to Rome^ and ex-» 
fells the Marian FaBion. 7he Danger 
Marius efcafes at Mintumae. Sulpicius'i 

CUUay upon this, unices his Forces, re^ 
^ turns to the City» and poiTefTes him- 
felf of it by Force of Arms. He turned 
the Twelve principal Authors of this per- 
nicious Fadion out of the City, (among 
wbom was Marius and his Son, and Sul-- 
fkius^ and declared them Exiles by a 
Law which he paifled. Some of his 
Horfemen met wich Sidpicius ixithz Fenns 
near Laurentum, and killed him. The 
carrying his Head as an in£amous Speda- 
cle before the Rtfira^ feemed to be an 
Omen of the Profo^ption which foon en- 
fued. Marhis^ when he bad been dx 
Times Confuli.andnrasinthe Seventieth. 

I Year 

68 Ths Roman Hi/Iarjf 

Tear of his Age, was drawn out of the 
Marlh ncsitAhrica (whither he had fled 
for Shelter from the Cavalry of ScyOa^ 
which purfued him, and was funk fo deep 
in the Mire, that nothing could be feea 
of him but his Eyes and Nofe) and was 
commanded to the Prifon of Mintur^ 
n£ by an Order of the Duumviri .- A 
publick Executioner, a Gtrman by Nati- 
on, was fent to difpatch him with a 
Sword. This Fellow had been for- 
merly taken Prifoner by* the General in 
the Cimhian War. When he knew that 
it was Mariusy he difcovered his Indig- 
nation at the Calamities of fo gfeat i 
Man, in a lamentable Sigh ; lays down 
the Sword, and flies out of the Prifon. 
The Citizens began to feel the fame 
Compaffion for the diftrefied Mariusy 
which hisEnemy had before fbewn him : 
they fomiflied him with feme Neceflfa- 
ries, provided him with fome Cloaths, 
and fet him Aboard-a^hip. He met 
with his Son about the Ifland Mnaria y 
and then direfted his Sail toward Aftic^' 
where he fuftained a penurious Life, in 
a Cottage among the; Riiins^f CaVthage ; 
fo that the Diftrefles^ of that once flou- 
rifliing City^ -and this boriouraUe' J^r« 


of Velleius Paterculus. ^9 

Ton, might afford a mli|ial Confolation 
to the Calamities on either Side. 


Pompey tlx Conful murdered by the Artnj : 
Cinna for his feditious PraSiices deposed by 
the People from his Confuljhip. He recals 
Marius md his Party from Banijhment. 

THIS Year was the firft in which the 
Hands of the Soldiers were fiained 
with the Blood of a Roman Conful ; Pomr 
fey. Colleague with SuBa, was murdered 
in a Mutiny of the Army of Cn. Pompeius, 
the Pro-conful, which their General him- 
felf had been the Occafion of. The Con- 

of Marius or Sulfiaus. The Freedom of 
the City was granted to all Jtaly : The 
new Citizens were to be difpofed into 
eight Tribes, leaft their Force and Knm- 
b^ might overthrow the Dignity of the 
ancient Freemen ; and they who were in- 
veiled in the Privileges, might grow more 
powerful than thoie who granted them. 
Cinna (on the contrary) promifed that 
he would difperfe them among the other 
; and upon that Account had 


70 Th^ Roman Hiftorjr 

drawn togetbeurodigious Multitudes itt^ 
CO the City : mt he was l;>aQilhed by (|;ie 
Interefto^ his Colleague, andfome other 
of the N -bles ; and as he was upon his 
}oumey to Awards Campamaj he was turn- 
ed out of the Confuifhip by the Cooir 
mand of the Senate^ and L. Cornelius Mt^ 
tula fubftituted ii\ his room. This In- 
dignity was verv worthy the Man ifirho 
fuftered it, tho it ought not to ferve for 
a precedent. Soon ^ter, by means of 
corrupting the Centurions aod Tribiiftes, 
and feeding the Soldiers with HppQt 9f 
a Donative^ he was veceived by (he hxr 
my which remained about Nobk* Whf » 
the Army bad fworn Obedience tP hiniy 
he retained thp Coofular £nlign9j^ »i 

filtanceof thenewCttiKUs^ outof^c» 
he had muttered above 300 Companies, 
and filled near 30 Legions. 0Mt flill he 
wanted the Proteaion of Intcr^ft, aed 
the Pretence of a good C»)fe ; and j^ 
that Purpofe he recalled AJ^^im and ht5' 
Son, and thofe who fo0«r«d with thev^ 
&Qm Saoiihmcot. 


of Vdleius Patcrculus* 71 


,An EngagejHent letween Cinna and Pom- 
pey> under the uery iPaJls of Rome. 
Cinna enters Rome, and enaSts a Law 
fin' recalling MsLviusfrcm Banijhment. 

^TCTHile Cifma prepares a War againft 

rclierof him who ^&S /imamed the Great 
(who had done tety eminent Services to 
the State, particularly in taking Afcuhim^ 
near which City, tho^ feveral Armiels 
were difperfed into other Parts of the 
'Country, 7$eoo Romans^iixA above tl^oooo 
of the Italians Siigaged in one Day) when 
he had loft all Hopes of continuing in the 
ConfuUhip, carried bimfelf Neuter to ei- 
ther Patty, turned every Accident to hii 
own private Advantage, and Teemed td 
fiand prepared for any Revolution, that 
•he might join his Intereft and Forces to 
whatfoever Side could give him the great- 
eft ExpeAation of Power and Command; 
but at laft he encountered Cinna in a bloody 
and obftmate Fight. The liTue of this 
Engagement, which was determined un- 
der the Walls, and in the Prefenceof the 

City of Jime^ was unexpreflibly calami- 

7 2 The Roman Hijlory 

tous to the A6tors and Beholders. After 
this, the Armies, as if they had not been 
fufficiently reduced by the Sword, were 
feized upon by a Peftilence, by which 
Pompey loft his Life. The Univerfal Joy 
for the Death of this Man, feemed to at- 
tone for the LoTs of ail the Citizens, 
who were deftroyed either by the War, 
or the Infeftion. The People of Rtme 
exerted the Deteftation they always ow*d 
him when alive, upon his Body, when 
deceafed. Whether there were two or 
three, or more Families of the Pompej\ 
\is certain that the firft of that Name 
was Q. Pompeius^ who was Conful with 
Cn. Serviliusy i58 Years fiuce. After rnahy 
bloody Difputes on both Sides, C/wia and 
Marius cntet'd the City. But firft of all,: 
Cima enaded a Law for the Reftorad- 
on of Marius. 



1 *» 


'.■■I'*" If ■ t ■ m - ' • , 

of Velleius Paterculus. 73 

^l^xv\% s jaxal Bxtmn to Rome. 71it fi'fi 
Profcript ion followed with the Death of the 
Conful Odavius, Mid the tnoft eminent 
and illufirims Citizens of Rome. 

THEN did C. Marius make his fatal 
Return into the City. Nothing 
could be more cruel than that Vidory, 
but Sulla% which enfued. Their Rage 
was not confined to Perfons of inferior 
Condition, but Men of the bigheft Re- 
putation and Dignity were deflroyed by 
fev^eral Sorts of Punifliments. Amoqg 
them the Conful OUavius, a Man of the 
moll peaceable Difpofition of Mind , was 
pbc to Death by the Command of Cinna. 
Meruhj who had abdicated the Conful- 
lliip upon the Approach of Cimay open- 
ed his Veins, and fprinkling the Altars 
wtth his Blbod, refigned a Life which 
had defervcd very honourably of his 
Countw. He implored the Vengeance 
of thole Gods upon Cima and hi^ Fa&i« 
on, whom (when he was FUnten Dialis) 
he had ofteti invoked for the Profperity 
of the State. M. Antomus^ a Man of the 
higheft Power, and of the firft Repu::c 

H for 

74 The Roman Hijiory . 

/or Eloquence in the City, was (by the 
Orders of Cinna and Adarius) run tiirough 
by the Swords of the Soldiers, tha' he 
had calm'd their Violence a con(iderable 
Time-by the Force of his Oratory. -jQ. 
-Catulusy a Man -of the higheft Eftcem 
for his other Accomplifhments, but par- 
ticularly for the Glory he merited in the^ 
^Cimbrian War, which he feared with Ma- 
rius^ fhut himfclf up in a Room which 
had been newly Floored with Lime and 
Sand, and having a Fire made there to 
exhale the unwholefome Vapours with a' 
greater Force, his Breaith was ftopt, lb' 
that he<lied rather acccording to the j^e** 
fire, than the Manner his Eneimes bad 
defigned. Thus every thing in the State; 
was conftifed, tho' there was not yt!( 
one that durft give away the Goods of X' 
Roman Citizen, or fo miich as defire tliciiiV 
But afterwards Avarice became a Motive^ 
to Cruelty, iand the Degrees of Ggflt, 
were rated according tb the Eftate of thV 
Criminal: Whoever was Rich, was con-' 
fcquently an Oflfender,- every one was' 
the Price of his own Danger, and no- 
thing feemed bafe which appeared to be 


of Velleius Patcrcullis. 75: 


CHAP. xxm. 

JMarius hii Seventh ConfuWipy and Deatiu 

. I Sylla his ConduB againft Mithridatcs. 

• Ihe Nobility fly to him in great Numbers 
in Afia. He defeats the Enemies Gene- 

^ ral, and a great Part of his Army in 
Greece. Obliges Mithridates to quit 
Afia, and (dl other Roman Prcuinces he 

. had Jfeized on^ 

YPInna now entered upon hfs fecond Coni- 
^ fiilQiip, and Marius, to the Difhonour 
<)f all the former, entered upon his feventh> 
but the beginning of it : He was as 
. dreadful to his Enemies in War, as his 
Countrymen in Peace : He alway hated 
•Reft and Tranquillity. Valerius Flaccus 
^as fubft^tuted in his room, who was 
Author of that di(honourabIe Law, that 
Creditors Jhould be paid a fourth Part of their 
t>ebn; but he received a Reward for that 
bafe A&ion within two Years. While 
Ciuna bore the Sway in Italy ^ the greatcft 
Part of the Nobility fled to SuBa in Achaia'^ 
and thence mtoAfta. SuBa carried on tha 
War againft Mithridates's Generals with 
fuch Succefs in Boeotia and Macedonia^ 
that he made himfelf Mafter of Athens^ 

H 2 bcftawcck 

7 6 The Roman Uiftory 

beftowed a prodigious' Expence of La* 
bour and Time upon the Fortifications 
near the Tiaan Harbour, killed above 
200000, and took almoft as many Prifo- 
ners of the Enemy. They who charge 
the Athenians with a Revolt when SuBa 
befieged their City, are Strangers both 
to Truth and Antiquity : For their Fide- 
lity to ihe Romans was fo remarkable, 
that whatever was obferved withthc moft 
folemn and inviolable Sincerity, was ftiled 
by the Rotrians to be done with Atik 
Faith. But this unfortunate Peopk was 
fuppreffed by the Arms of Mithridates\ 
they were icept under by their £nemies% 
and beiieged by their Friends ; and ttio^, 
their Bodies were inimuf<d within cbe 
City, their Hearts and Affedions wcri 
cvet without the Walis. SuBa a&er thjk 
marched into Afia, and found MiftHdmet 
very fubmiifive, and willing to embrace 
any Conditions. He impofed a great MolA 
upon him, and required him torefigna 
great Part of his Shipping : He obliged 
him to evacuate all the Provinces in AJU 
which he had invaded by Force, and to 
furrender all that he had taken Prifoners j 
and when he had puniflied the Defertcrs 


ofYtM MS Patcrctirus. 77 

dfid 'Other' Qfenders, commatrded fa(m 
H>/Confine'him(elf wichio his lieceditary 
Kingdom of Pontut. 



I^ipbrs^j his Mrsveri and jl^th. Xuci- 
ixfffLS, \%'^\SLkmdty(n Brimdu(mm. The 

/^ flmim Finthm, iwhoAhad heca be- 
^' fofc SjiiBas Arcivol Captain !of ihc 
Horfe^ «miih^4 put Valerius '^lagmi^ of 0» 
Cpnfi^kff Jdigtdttyj «> :Kctth, wfeo pra- 
^'d himfotf rto be ftil-d G^n^val by;^!^ 
Afimyy forrw^'h^ppy Eng^gemefttjtmihie 
Rie)d, >kilted himfe^f at .Sb/Ai^$;ApS>roaich. 
fie was a TimCh v^iio ^igoroufly ecieciit^- 
wi what.^'baf^ly deiign'd. Jn tiie faiw 
JScflft; P.. . L^ms, Tribene of tb# :PeftpH 

CWioe.ftbc !¥ear'befare^-4ov*)^e:25?>]prf-- 
miJUskok. He ih^d appointed phe jE)Ay'i(^ 
rlic T«»l of bis lO^eagues. and w*^ 
Jiay^ed to 41^ iK>, avoid /tbie Stof m» b< 
proclaimed tthcMxi Tniwc$^ tod ^0^4 
stiem.'tbe.Ure.Qf |?ire 4nd >Waiicr. ; . ^a, - 

nh«n he lia4)ra>ipFwfi^d; itbfcj&ifiim^ (bch 

H 3 ' yond 

-'78 • The Roman Hijlory 

r yond Sea, and had the Honour t^ be the 
; firft Roman who received AmbalTadors 
from the Parthians (fome of them being 
. Magiy having told him from particular 
Marks in his Body^ that his Life and Me- 
mory (hould be Fortunate) in his Return 
to Rome ventured an Engagement with 
' no more than 30000 Men, againft 200000 
€>f the Enemy. No part of the Conduft 
of SuHa is more eminent than that when 
the Fadion of Marius and C/«»/i prevailed 
iri Italy for three Years, he neither dtf- 
fembled his Preparations againft them, nor 
negle&ed the other A^irs he^ had upon 
his Hands. He thought it pfop%r tpjap- 
prefs the Enemy, before he 'revenged 
himfelf upon his Countrymen. When 
he had nothing to fear from Abroad, he 
thought he might eaffly fubdue what op* 
pofed him at Home. Before the Return 
of L. SuHa, Cinna was billed in a Muti- 
ny, which was faifed in his own Army. 
H^ deferved to die by the Sentence of a 
Conqueror^ rather than the Rage of the 
Soldiers. It may be faid of hira^ that 
he undertook what no honeft Man cenld 
)uftify, and atchieved what none but the 
moft valiant cbutd perform. He Wa^ralli 
ifl his Petcminatioct^ 4nd v)goroil9 >ifi 

i-^f his 

of Velleius Patcrculus* 79 

. fits Executions. There was no Colleague 
fubftituted in the Office^ fo that C/ir*o^ 
was Conful by bimfelf throughout that 

C H A P. XXV. 

SyUa his Reium int^ Italy. He meets and 
ctnquerSi near Capua, Scipio andVioi- 
batios -the Confuls. His diff^ent Behavi" 
mir before^ and after ViBory, 

YO U would have thought that Sutr 
. la came into Italy with a Defign 
to promote a Peace^ rather than engage 
in a War; fo' regular was his Match 
throufih Calabi^ia and Afulia into CamPa^ 
nia ; Aich a Regard he had to the Prefer- 
ration of the Cities, Villages, and Fruits 
of the Fields. He endeavoured to put 
an End to >the War by fair and honour- 
able Terms : But Peace could never be 
acceptable to Men of unreftrained and 
hiwle^ Defires. His Army wasencreafed 
every Day by the Confluence of all that 
were honeft, ^nd in the Intered of theis 
Country He overthrew the Confuls &/- 
pio and Norhanusy in a fortunate Battle 
Bf ar Capta. Norbanus was flam in the 


8o The Roman Hijbry 

JEagascmeiK) Soifio was abrndoocd ^and 
betrayed by his Arcay. But ^n drfkMf 
ied bim without: the leafl Hurt. So w- 
equal was his Condu& as a Soldier, from 
what he * was whea a Conqueror. He 
was merciful to Excefs in t]ie Field, and 
cruel beyond Example. after the Vidory. 
for (as I faid) ihe difmiiTed the<Cpii£ub 
-and.di£u:med Sertmm i'ffh^t an Jocepdi- 
-ary of War did he .rfterwardp iprpre !) 
and many others he ^ifchargedj witJiout 
receiving any Damage, on purpofe, I be- 
lieve, to difcovtr that the twoimofl; cUf- 
fecent A£R?fihions tof tbe^Mind, mjght'di- 
iliii^Cb themfdmain^e &fiMJkrfo9. 
iAfter the Vi&ory,^ in fais Defeent from 
•the Mountain, i^ata^ ^he^ <be j^i 
it)ught with Nofiantis^ he addrefled tbJ5 
Tbanks to the Goddeis Dhma, who is 
Patrone& of that CDuntry^, .anjd jConfer 
crated the adjacetit Eields^jand the (a- 
mbus Baths .riieceahau^ : :to vh»t 'Deity, 
The Memory of that Ileligious^ Ad is 
|>erpetuated to this Il)ay^r>by;an In&ctp- 
tion on one oof tbbi^dliis t£ the Entrance^ 
and a Brazen Plate within --the Temple. 

» T 

J ' 

.r\ '-'v, *l.o/i .'X.iH AP'^ 

■ ,1 • « *i 

of. Velleiua Paterculas. &i 


Syfla i^^ati Marius the Consul at Sacripouv 
torn ; btfieffi^ hitd in Pr^neite ; Mmdm 
in Rome wnmitud hj the Prator Hoftfr- 
Hus. T[:b€ grem and nible .Death of Cair 
^burma. ^ ; . 

JT^Arbo was now the tiuod Time'Conftii ; 
^ iii& Collcagiui was £. il^iraxf , : Son to 
him who had oorn the Office fevcrrTifloes. 
He refembled his Father in the Difpofi- 
tion of his Mind^ rather than the Num- 
ber of Tears he lived i he m^de a great 
-many noble Attempts^ bat Wing at laft 
<beatett by "SuBdy in an Ki^agement near 
SiiK9:iponum^ ht retimi ^^ bts Forces 
nito JWvi^jfe, AnitleaA My^hfGfg&ould 
lie mzmmgWh donpkM xfte ptlbUckCa** 
lamities, they now tiv^Vl mdrc a^iotber 
in Villainy, in the fame City where Vir- 
tue once inrpired the £mnktion, ^nd 
-every one vilued his Merits by his PrO- 
^reft in Mifdhicf While the Armies 
.were engaged at Sikriferium^ Damnfifpus 
the Pr cfor put to Death ; in *he ^Cnris 
H^llia, ^t HighPrieftxW-yd/tf, a Perfon 
eminent for divine and human Learning; 
C Carb$i who had been Prietorj and was 


82 .72?^ Roman Htjlory 

Brother to the Conjul^ and Antiftius, who 
had been -^ile, under the Pretence of 
their being in the Interefts of SuBa. The 
t^oricHxsAjedonoSCalphurHiaythc Daughter 
-of Befiia, and Wife of Amiftiusy Biuft not 
be . forgotten. > When, her Husband was 
killed (as I mentioned) fhe can het /elf 
through with a Sword, a great Accefli- 
on to her Honour and Reputation ; hqc 
Vertue , ifr fliU admired, tho' her Birth 

... I ' ■ • 

■ I I 

. 1 • 

: cvL A p, xxvii. 

JPontius Xelefinus his Bravery. He encmr 
,. UTS SyllaV Amy at she Gates of Rome;, 
, and piti ,his fw^le Fom in C^nfufim*' 
J; M»riu$ dejfaifing^^Succeff^ ende^vmrs 
- . io : makB\hii J^mfe from Pjrsenelte^ ha, if 

. furfriz,*d and /lain. - : ,» 

IpOntius Tekfinus, General of the Sam^ 
* nitesy a Man of the greateft Spirit 
and Obftinacy. in War, and an irr^con^ 
citable Enemy to the Name of Rontey 
raifcd a*:ove 4pooa ofthe boldeft Soldiers 
in his Country, and on the Caletids of ZVb- 
vember^ in. the Confulfliip of Carbo and 
Mariusy 1 1 x Xe^rs agp^ fought with Sulla 


of Velleius PMcrcuItif. 83 

tbeCo//me Gate,with fuch doubtfiri-Suc- 
(S3 that he reduced SuVa and the Scat(^, 
thelaft Extremity of Danger. Its Con- 
rion was not more diftrcffcd when the 
imp of Hannibal wsls within three Miles 
the City, than that Day when 7J/^- 
r riding among his Troops, cried' oiit^ 
It 'the Glory of Home was at ah end. 
It the City niuft be deftroyed, and 
It 7^/i/jr would never be clear of Wolves, 
10 would infeft its Liberties, till the 
icetrf* their Rend evouz was extirpated. 
It about an Hour ifeer Night,- the Itih 
»'Army recovered- its Spitit, ahd that 
the Enemy gavfe Grbuiid. Tekjfimh 
is found-oWthe Morrow;- juft txpiHhg ; 
s Countenance appearM more like a 
>nqueror's, than a Man^s who" was-at 
r Poiti't^ of Death. Sulfn 6r^ered his 
:ad to be- cut off and carried ibuhiiS 
anifleJ. ''Marttts now defpaiifeg' ^tb/tc* 
eve his Affairs, endeavoured toxfbt^ii 
rough fome PafTages under Ground 
"hich were contrived with wonderful 
t) and was killed by fome difpatched 
'that Purpofe, as he raifed himfelf out 
the Ground. Some fay he died by his 
/n Hand ; others, that when he and his 
unger Brother ?^A?/m/ (who attempted 


84^ ThaKomtin Hi/hrj 

to efeape with him) fp^nd they -could 
not break through the 'Eneiay, which 
had cuclofed c^eipy they tufiied one up-^ 
on the •other, and both of them fell to- 
gethetr But by whac/bever Means he 
died^. his Memory is not at all obfcured 
by the SgdetukMr of .hi^ Father's ^^ioos. 
IrhajD he wi$. a gi^t.Terror tQ Mia, ii 
evidenKy (lAce, Mponi his tkath l^e fftimed 
the Title of JSaffy j a Name he bad* very 
well defeEvedi if his Life had ended with 
his Conqueft^ Tbe Siege oi.Ppatufttf 
whei$ Mifrius laj^f, y^a% iuimmandeid by 
OfiUa li^^tiu^^ whq^wa&^&rft of all in 
the jpa)%ion oJF iMiirittfy hut when he was 
P»tAr« ^Tolted to^^. The; Fortuae 
of that thih i^ which the Samnites^ and 
th^ Army of likfimaviraiQ av^erthrown^ 
ha^ fh^ fionqor. to be^ celebrated in the 
^/^f^^0^c< whi4^ jiw^eAabliihed^ 
z^4 o^re Sail ^bferwd ^n^ Menfpry of hii 

!.-;"■ > ,. - J ^ : .:'-'.' I "■ ■■ 


• • • 1 « • . ■ 

' - - - . •• wl. 7 . . . - 

^f Velleius Paterculus. 8 ; 

tvtral Batths fuccefsfully fought by Sylla^ 
Captains^ Tl)e fecond Profcriftion, The 
Miferies that attended it. 

SOme time before the Battle of SyDa 
at Sacriportum^ many great Men of 
lis Party had overthrown the Enemy in 
livers Engagements ; as the two Servilii 
It Clujmmy Metelhis Pius zt Fanfintia, and 
M. LucuBus at Fidentia. The Calamities 
>f a Civil War Teemed now to be at an 
:nd, when they were enhanced by the 
Cruelty of Sulla. The Ufurpation of the 
Honour of a DiBator^ had now been in* 
xrmitted for no Tears, (for the laft 
Ble&ion into that Office^ was in the Tear 
ifiier ffaimital retired out of Italy) fo that 
it appeared the Romans were not fo fond 
[>f the Continuance of that Authority, 
but rather dreaded a Subjeftion to an ab- 
folute Power, which was never conferred 
upon particular Perfons, but to enable 
them to retrieve the State out of the moft 
imminent Dangers. Sulla V7zs now ad* 
vanced to this high Dignity, which he 
made ufe of both to profecute and ex* 
cufe his exorbitant Cruelty. He was 

I the 

,B6 Th^ Roman Hifvry 

the firft (I could wiih he had been the 
lad) who found out the Precedent of 
Profcripttoity by virtue of which, in the 
fame City, where the Law was open to 
a difcarded Ador on the Stage, for any 
triBing Injury done to him ; a Reward 
was propof ed for the Death of a Citi- 
zen ; he wiio had flain moft was thought 
to merit the greateft Honours ; and the 
Price of the Head of an Enemy, was 
lefs than that of a common Cicizto ; 
'{o that every Man's Eftate was the Re- 
ward for thofe who deprived him of his 
Life. This Rage was not only levelled 
at fuch who had bom Arms againft' Sjlla, 
but extended to many who were inno- 
cent. It was declared, that the EJffBitf 
thofe toho vsere prafcrikd Jhould h fold, thm 
their Children fiould not only he excluded \h 
Right of inheriting their Fafhers Eflates, Mt 
delforrdthe Privilege qf'flandif^jar mty Of' 
fee in the Gevemment ; and what was'nitm 
deteftable, that the Sons of the Skaters 
fiould defray oB tie Exfences of that Orders 
without enjoyir^ any nf its Immunities. 


of Velleius Paterculus** 87 

Cnxus Pompeius hings an Army t0 Sylla ' 
His Defcenty and^gtorious Qhai a^ir. . 

AFter Sulla s ArrivaUn Itafy^ Cn. PotHr 
peius^ (Spa of him who diftinguifhv 

cd him^eii To gallancljf- in his ConfulO^ip, 
at the Time of the Aloffian War^ as I 
have before related) beiog 23 Year$ oi 
Age, about 113 le^rs ago, enterprized 
gre^t Attemptji upoa the Foundation on* 
\f/ of Ilia private Eft^^te and Abilities ; 
and to atchieve his honourable Defigns, 
in reflorinp his Cpuntry to its ancient; 
Digr.ity, m raifcd a regular ^nd well* 
disciplined Army out of the Coiintry oC 
^bc Viceni^ which were for the greateft 
j^arc R^cainer$ to. his, To trace 
his Adions^ j^id the Series of his glori- 
ous Exploits, would alone require the 
Meafure of: a Volume, which would ex* 
ceed the dcfign'd Compafs of this Work. 
His Mother was Luciliay of a S^natwian 
Family.. He had a very agreeable Pre* 
fence ; not the faireft and moft beautiful, . 
but fuch a§ ferved to recommend his 
Conftancy and Grandeur, and accom^ 
panied his Fortune even to his Death. 

I 2 He ' 

88 The Rogoan Hiforjr 

He was of great Innocence and Integrity 
of Life, and indifterently furniflied with 
the Accomplifbments of Eloquence. Hb 
was ambitious of thofe Honours that 
were given him by others^ rather than 
of thoie that were feized on by hknfelf : 
A compleat General in War, and an ho- 
ped and temperate Citizen (except his 
}eak>ufy of having an Equal) in the Times 
of Peace. He was conftant in his Friend- 
fliips, and complying to all Intreaties: 
Faithful in reconciling Differences, and 
one who eafily accepted Satisfa&ion for 
Injuries. He never perverted his Autho- 
rity to proted any one that had a&cd 
unjuftly; andinihort, was fcarcely taint^ 
ed with any Vice, unlefs you'll reckon 
this one, that in a Free City, which had 
the Command of all Nations, and where 
all the Menrf>ers had the fame Frivil^eSj 
He conld not bear any one to rival him 
in his Honours. He had fo improved 
his great Underftanding' in the Arts of 
War, in the Camp of his Father, a noble 
General, that tho' Sertorius gave the grcat- 
cft Commendation to Metellusy 'tis cer- 
tain that Pompey was much more formi- 
dable to him. 


of Vcl Ici us Pa terculus. 8 9 

C H A P. XXX. 

Perpenna ktra^'d, and flain by SertoriusC 
Mecellus and Poitipey trittmph for their 
Viil^ries in Spain. T/v IVar ivith the 
Slaws J andSp^rtSLCUS their Leader^ nvhick 
Marcus fut oh end to. 

ILf Perfennoy of the Prxtorian Quali^ 
ifZ* ty^ and of the Namber of the pro- 
fcrib'd, of a far more noble Defcentt 
than Difpofition of Mind^ (lew Sertorins 
when he was at Supper in Mtofca- Thus 
he purchafed a Vi&ory to the Romans, a 
Defeat to his own Party^ and a difbonou- 
rable Death to hunfelf^ by an egregious 
VilHiny. Mitettus2Lnd Po;9ffe; triumphed 
fer the Conquefis of both Sfains ; Pomfeyi 
tht>' he was then no more than k Roman 
Knight> made his Entry into the City in 
a triumphal Chariot, the Day before he 
began his Confulfhip. How aftonifhihg 
is it, that this Man, tho' he had arrived 
to the greateft Dignity in the State, by 
a fucceffive Gradation through the highefl: 
Honours, refentcd the Favour which the 
Senate and People of Rome fliewed C. Ctt^ 
far, when he flood to be his Colleague 
ia the Condilfhip! So natural is it for 

I I Men 

90 The Komm Hijf or/ 

Men to overlook their own Failings, and 
pardon none in others, to level their Re- 
fentments againft Perfcms, rather thaa 
any real Caufe which they find for their 
Diilafte. In this Confulfhip, Pcmfey re« 
ftored the Power of the Tribunes, which 
&illa had reduced to an infignificant 
Form and Shadow only. While the &r- 
tdrian War is carried on in SfotM^ 5 14 Fta- 
gitivesy who fled from the Company of 
Gladiators in Capua, and provided them- 
felves there with Swords, firft of all re« 
tired to Mount Vefuvms ; and then, up- 
on their Numbers being encreafed, they 
ft>vt\y opprefs'd Itafy with Slaughter and 
Rapine. They grew at laft able to op- 
pofe the Romans with 40000 Men. The 
Honour of their Defeat is owing to 
M. Crajfus, who foon after came u> be 
one of the moft confidorable Men among 
the Rionums. 


Of Velleius Paterculus. 9 1 
CH A ^. XXXI. 

A very ample Ccnmiffim gtanted to Pom- 
pey to fupprifs tb^ Pyratts them infeflii^ 
the witghkouring Seas, tho' agaivfi the lit- 
€liMa$iou ef the Nolrility. 

np H E Repuutipnof Pmfey had drawa 
*** . the Eyes of th^ World upon him : 
He was every Day looked upon with a 
greater Regard. When he was Conful, 
he very generoufly took an Oath^ that be 
would not accept the Government of any 
Province, after the Expiration of bis Of- 
fice. A> Gabinius the Tribune, ena&ed a 
Law, That whereas the Empire was in- 
fefted with Pirates, not by clandeftine 
Expeditions, but formidable Navies, and 
that they had already raofacked fome Ci- 
ties of Italy, Cif. Pomptius (hould be de- 
tached to difperfe them, and that .he 
Ihould have an equal Command with 
that of a Proconful within 50 Miles of 
the Sea. Thus the fole Po>ver of the 
whole Empire was committed to one 
particular Perfon, by a Decree of the Se- 
nate, tho' indeed the fame had been done 
before in the Prartoribip of M.Amomut. 
fiat it fomecimes happens, that the very 


^2 The Komm TUfl&rj 

Perfon of a Man, as it infeAs by Exam* 
pie, fo doth it iacenfe or leffen the Envy 
of the World. Every one acqniefced A 
this Proceeding in Antenius; tor People 
feklom repine at their Promotion who 
don't appear to be formidable : Whereas 
they are very uneafie, when a Power is 
todged in the Hands of Men who feem 
refolved- to retain or refign it at their 
own Pleafure^ and make the Diftate^ of 
their own Mind the Meafure of their 
Conduft. The Nobility oppofed this 
A&, but their prudent Counfel was over- 
powered by Force. 


Pompey futs an end to the Pyratical H^of 
with incredible Bravery, and C(mdu£i. Se* 
veral Inland Cohnies flamed with thofe he 
had conquered. 

TH E Eftecm and Modefiy of ^. Ca- 
tulus in tliis Affair, very well de^ 
ferves our Notice. He alledged in a 
Speech againft this Law, that tho* Co. 
Pompeius waa a^ Man of extraordinary Me^ 
ritf he thought it fomething exorbitant in a 
free State^ to refofe too much, or an entire 


of VclltiM^ Patcrculus. 95 

Authority in one Man. Suppofi (he added^ 
any Mirfortunejhould befaUhim^ v^hom could 
jou eleSi to be his Succejfor ? The Aflfembly 
onanimoufly replied, Tour Self. Q. Catu-^ 
lus was overcome by this univerfai 
Applaufe, and when he had received this 
honourable Teftimony from his Country, 
he withdrew from the Affembly. Here 
we may admire the Modefty of this 
Man, and the Juftice of the People. His^ 
Modefty, in that he proceeded no far- 
ther; and their Juftice, becaufe they 
would not defraud him of the honeft Te« 
ftimony of their good Opinion, tho' he 
then oppofed them. In this Junfture, 
Cotta divided the Adminiftration of Judg- 
ment (which Gracchus had taken from 
the Senate, and feated in the KuightSj 
and Sulla had again transferred from them 
to the Senate) between both thofe Or- 
ders; and Otho Rofcius reftored to the 
Rnights their Places in the Theatre, by 
virtue of a Law which he enafted.'Cii.Pow* 
pelus had taken the braveft Men that could 
be found with him to the War, and had 
difperfed Garrifons of his Fleet in all 
the convenient Harbours about the Seas ; 
fo that in a (hort Tiine he cleared the 
whdc Empire of Piratesr with his invin- 

94 Tb^ Roman Hijlory 

cible Forces. He had routed them in fe* 
veral Engagements before, but utterly 
overthrew an() deftroyed them in an At- 
tack he made upon them with his whole 
Fleet, near Cilicia. And to put a final 
End to this War, which had fpread it 
ielf into all Countries, he got together;^ 
and fettled thofe few that furviv'd the 
laft Battle, in feveral Inland Cities, remote 
from the Sea. Some took Diftafte at 
this Proceeding, but tho' the Charaftec 
ef this great Man m^'ght juflify any A« 
Aion of niSy yet th/s Reafonableneis of 
the Adion gave it a greater Authority : 
For when he put them in a Capacity of 
living without Robbery, be took frost 
them the very Pretence of committing it. 


Manlius enaSls a Lawy to commit the War 
with Mithridates, to Pompey. Lucul- 
lus. bis CharaUer^ and Exploits in Afia. 
A ComfarifoH between LucuUus and Pom- 

np H E War of the Pirates was draw- 

-■■ ing to its Conclufion, and L. Lucuh 

lus^ who had the Province of Afia, after 


of Vellcius Paterculus. 95 

his G)nful(hip, given to him, had done 
very confiderable Services there, had de- 
feated Mithridates in feveral Engagements, 
had raifed the Siege of Cyx^icum by a no- 
bl^ Viftory, had overthrown the power- 
ful King T^igranes in Armenia, and had re- 
duced the War to that IfTue, that he 
feemed rather to want a Will, than Pow- 
er to put an End to it ; a Man every 
way accomplilhed, and one who was in- 
vincible in War, but a Slave to the Love of 
Riches, did ftill continue his Command 
in Afiay until Manliusy Tribune of the 
People, (a mercenary Wretch, and a 
Slave to another's Ambition) enaAed a 
Law, that the Management of the Afi- 
tbridatick War fhould be committed to 
Pompey. The Law was pafled, and oc*- 
caiionedim irreconciieable Difierence be- 
tween the two Generals. Pomfey objeA- 
ed Avarice to LucuUus ; LucuBus charged 
Pmpey with his exorbiunt Affe&afion of 
C&diniand. The Accu&tions were juft 
on both Sides ; for Pompey, bom his firft 
Admiffion to the Government, could ne- 
ver bear an Equal, but deiired the ftB|le 
Cnjoyftient of all Dignities, to which lie 
had indeed the beft Title. Never did 
diiy one StBxt Glory mbre^ itnd look upon 


c 6 The Roman Hiji&ry 

every thing clfc wirh fo flight a Regard 
IS Old Fcwr^Y. He was extravagantly 
axbitous or Promotion to Honours, and 
the s::*;: rcsipcratc Man in the World in 
the i:-.\: o: them. As he entered upon 
:^i:2 '«^-.:'t :rc g.caceft Cheerfulnefs, fo 
*"c r;: TCt'i them w.rh the iiighcQ; Satif- 
rx:i:ci*. He ^ulimed them for his o«m 
FcuLrt* ^c TTis cocrent to part with 
-xm it tJi "A :^*. cc another. LuctiUm^ 
rx* ccccrw/;: a M*s o:' verj- great Me- 
rc, -tr:^ r^i £r,t Luzance oi Luxury io 
?^:Tc;:r5s trc E-rciuincier.ts. He was 
.■cr* "w-ct'y cilcitfcc Ki'^^sx Xerxes^ by 
y^^mi^T 7> ^ «f « ^nc his railing Mounds 
V rri^Sti* ^%i c«r.-r^ Sloiccs throi^h 
Vv^r-^fctr:s. xx ccc'crcc tiic Sea into 

!se« subV^ is wuuk d 
k: IV%w «f Ca- 

wfr:?. *^ h Cicero* 

^V 5!*c r»5. tte Kfcd Crae was 
^^ 'en^^su* ^ffw tiK hmcr af the 

. k had iofclled 


of Velleius Paterculus. 97 

the ttMian Army for three Years, having 
levyed Four and twenty thoufaod Men 
4>f prodigious SwUcnefs, inur'd to the 
hardefl Labours, and moft excellent Ar- 
chers, under the Command of their Ge- 
nerals, Panares and Laftkenes. Cn. Tmit^ 
ftius betrayed his Ambition in envying 
their Succefles, and endeavoured to ob- 
tain a Share in the Glory of this Vifto- 
ry. But the fingular Valour of LucuBus 
and MeteBus received an additional Re- 
fpcSt from the Envy of Vompejy which 
recommended their Triumphs the more 
to the Favour of the People. About 
this Time, MXicero^ one whofe Promo- 
tion was owing entirely to himfelf, s 
Man very illuftrious, tho' of an obfcure 
Birth, as famous for the Integrity of his 
Life, as the firightnefs of his Wit and 
Under/landing, retrieved us from the 
Scandal, that we who had fubdued all Na- 
tions in War, fliould be excelled by them 
in Eloquence and Learning. By his ex- 
traordinary. Prudence, Conftancy, Vigx^ 
lance and Care, he defeated the Con- 
fpiracy of Sergius^ Catiline^ Lentulusy Ce- 
thegus^ and many others of both Ordenr. 
Catiline left the City, being afraid of the 
Fower of the Conful i Lemulus of the 

K Confular 

^8 The Roman Hifiory 

XTonfular Dignity, and one who had' been 
•twice Praetor, with Cethegusy and manj 
-other eminent Men, were put to Death 
in l^rifon, by a Decree of the Senate;, 
:and the DircSion of the Conful. 


Ifhe CharoBer cf Marcus Cato, and the 
great Honours fayi him {tho but a Toutb) 
tj the Senate : The Conffirators adjudgi 
tQ Death : Catiline'j £»^. 

^T* HAT Day when this Decree pa&d 
^ in the Senate, was famous for the 
Virtue of Af. Cato^ which fliined fo bright- 
ly in every Circumftance : (He was 
-Grcit Griandfon to Af. Cato^ the firft of 
the Porcian Family.) He was the very I- 
tnage of Vertue it felf, and feemedto 
refemble the Gods rather than Men in 
the divine Endowments of his Mind. 
He never did a glorious Aftion that it 
might appear fo to the World, but bc- 
caufe he coukl not forbear it ; ' to whom 
nothing ever feemed reafonable but what 
was juft. He was unblemiflied by the 
Vices incident to Men, and always Icept 
Fortune under his Command. He had 
beca dcfigned Tribune of the People, tho* 


^/ Velleius Patercufus, 99^ 

▼ery young. When mod o£ the Senate 
propofed that Lemulnr^ and the reft of 
the.Confpirators (hould be confined-undets 
Guard in ibme free Towns; he being 
asked his Opinioa among the laft, ar- 
raigned the Confpiracy with fuch an ho« 
neft Vehemence of Mind, alledged thar 
the Mildnefs of the Opinions which had^ 
been delivered^ might be fufpeSed to* 
proceed from an Inclination to favour the^ 
Confpirators, (hewed the inevitable Dan- 
gers that would accrue to the State, from^ 
their Attempts to fire the: City, and En- 
deavours* to fubvert its Conftitution : In^ 
ffiort, he fo magnified the Vermes of the 
Conful, that the Senate refolved into his^ 
Opinion, decreed the Punifhment of the 
Oriminals, and the greateft part of their 
Order attended upon C a t o to his Home. 
Catiline now ipxokcvLttd his Villanieswitb* 
the fame Boldnefs he undertook them, 
and valiantly loft that Life in Battle,, 
which he owed to the Sword of Jufticcr 


roo Tbc^ Roxnm Hifiorj^ 


Auguftus Caefar^ff in the Cwftt^bip of O 
cero. A Catalogue rf fever al ghat Mm 
in that Age^ famous for Uanmg^ 

^nr^Was no fmali Addition to the Gk>- 
JL ry of Cicero's G>nful(hip9 that the 
divine Auguftus, whofe Greatnefs was to 
diflfufe a Shade over the Heroes of all Na- 
tions^ was born in it^ eighty two Years 
ago. It may not here feem improper to 
enumerate the moft eminent Ge^us^s for 
Learning in thofe Times. Who can be 
ignorant that C i c b ro^ Hortenfius^ Cr(f 
Jusy CatOi and &ilpicius flourifiied about 
that Time, (tho' they were diftingailhed' 
by a fmall Difference in their Age)^ and" 
foon after, Brutus ^ Calidius, Calius^. and 
Cahus; and C^efar, who came neareft to 
C I c £ K o. They were fucceeded bj tbeif 
Pupils Corvinus and TolUo Ajmiut^ and 
Salufty the Rival ofTHUCYDiDcs. Thff 
Poets VarrOy and Lucretius ; and CatuBuSy 
inferior to none in the kind of Verfe he 
wrote, came after them. It may appear 
trivial to enumerate the Authors we have 
every Day before us: The moft remark - 
al^Ie of them in our Age, are the Prince 


^.Velleius Pjit^ulos. loi 

of Poets VirgiJjaLj^d. f^birms; Livy^ who 
nicceeded Safuji iij. HHlpfy . TiiuBus and 
Nafd, chemouei^i^ia their fort of Wri- 
ting. Thofe wiib.are how living, as 
they are Objcds of our Admiration, fo 
it would be a fort of Prefumpcion to 
pafs any Cenfure upon thetn. 


c H A p; xxxvn. 

Pompcy's IVar vHth Mithridates find Tir 
granes. Tigranes ^rei/^/fr j hiwfilfand 
his Eftate into Pompey'j Hands. 

WHile Afeirs are in this Pofture in /- 
taljy Pw»;<7 carries on a fuccefsfut 
War ^ againft Mithridates ^ who had rein- 
forced his Army with great Numbers, ai-^ 
ter LucuEus's Retreat. But the King,; 
when he had been defeated and overr* 
thrown, and loft all his Army, flies intq; 
Armenia to his FSsither-in-Law Tigrater^. 
who was the moft powerful Prince ot* 
that Age, before his Forces - wcre^ weak-^ 
ened by LucuBus. Tompey purfues them ^ 
both at once into Aiinenia : Tigranes's ■ 
Son, who was then at Difference with - 
his Father, came firft over to Pmpey^ and ^ 
foon after the Father followed him, and ^ 

K 3 prefented 

I02 TBe Kjuan Bl/lmx 

prefented his Kifigdom to be diTpofed d 
at the Pleafure oT cbc Conqiieror ; de- 
claring to hira^ tlUf Hkrewaa no Man rf 
tb$ Roman, or mg mher Nation^ v)bofeAl' 
liance bi would engage in iejide Pompey i 
7hat an; Turn of Fortune would he eafj f ^ 
him, if it wire diffenfed hj bis Commands : 
Ihit 'twas no Difimmr to kefuhhted by «* 
vibo was facred againft any fncb Calamitf 
from fibers ; and that any might fubmit to^ 
bim witbom Difgrace^ xwbo was advanced bj 
the Indulgence y Fortune above the refi ff: 
Mankind. The RiDg was continued in 
his Dignity, but finM an immenre Sam 
of Money, (as it was alway the Cuftom ti 
Tompey) which was tranfinitted to thej^^i^ 
fior, and cegiftred in the publick Accounts 
Syria and other Provinces which had been^ 
under his Command, were taken from 
him ; many others were refiored to the 
Romans^ and fome newly fubdued to their 
Fower ; Syria wsls one of them which was 
now firft of all nude Tributary to JRmm 


^ Vdiicius Patercuius. x 03 

A Lifi of dU the Roman Provinces : The 
Time v)hen, and the Perfins bj whom tb^ 
v)ere fir ft conquered* 

IT does not feem tacontradid the De- 
fign of this Work» to give a (faoct 
Account how every particular Country 
came to be formed into a Province^ and 
under whofe Command it vsras fubdued 
and made Tribuury^ becaufe theyll ap- 
pear in a better Light under a general: 
View, than if they were treated ot apart. 
The Confiil Claudius was the RvR. who 
carried an Army into Sicily ; 5 2 Years af* 
terwardSj MareeBus Clasidius, when he had 
taken Syracuje, formed it into a Province. 
SUgulus £rA of all entered Afric^ in the 
9th Tear of the firft Tunic War ; 204 Years 
after that, about 182 Years ago, P. &/« 
fiO AEmilianus^ when he had defiroyed 
C^/£^^> reduced it into a Province, j'^ir- 
nia acknowleged the Sovereignty oiRome^ 
between the firft and fecond Punic Wars^ 
by the Command of T. ManUus the Con- 
ful. *Tis a great Inflancc of the Warlike- 
Difpofition of this City, that the Tem- 
ple of Janus Geminus was never (hut up 

K 4 (as 

104 -^^ Koimn Hijiorj^ 

(as it always is in Times of Peace) but 
once limier the Kings-; a fecond Time 
when this MmUus was Conful ; and laft 
o£ allj in the Reign of the Emperor Au- 
gujius. Ctt. and P. Scipio^ were the firft 
who marched an Army into Spain in the 
beginning of the fecond Punic War^ a- 
bout 250 Years ago. We fometimes a4- 
ded to obr Conquefts in that Country^ 
and fometimes loft from them ; but the 
whole Nation was made Tributary under 
the Conduft of Augufitis. TauHus fub- 
dued Macedoma^ Mumrniusy AchdiUy Futvi" 
us Nobiliary JStolia : Afia . was recovered 
from Amiochus by Scipio^ ,the .Brother of 
Africanusy but it was a^^fwirds^ by tbe 
Indulgence and Favour of the Senate and 
Pi^ople of Rme^ committed to the Go- 
vernment of Kings of the Race of At- 
tatus ; but at laft it was made Tributary* 
by M. Terpernay when he had made Ari-^ 
/lonicus Prifdner. The Conqueft of Cjr- 
prus can be afcribed to none, (t>v it relap- - 
fed into a Province by an Order of the 
Senate, the Aditainiftration of Ouo, and 
the Death of their King, which he pro- 
cured to himfeTf, from a Confcioufnefs of 
fome Villany he had committed. Crete. 
did at laft lofe the Liberty, which it hitd 


e>/Vclleius Paterculus. ray 

fo long enjoyed by the Condud of Nk- 
t^s. Syria and V^mtu arc Trophies of 
the Vi&ories of Cn. Ftimfeius. 

f^AUL was firfl penetrated by the £o* 
^^ man Army, under Domitius and Fa* 
bius, Grandfon to PauEus^ who was call- 
ed ASobrogicus ; which afterwards we loff 
to our great Difadvantagc. The Con- 
dud of Cafar in that Country is very il- 
luilrious ; it was^t laft fubducd by his ex- 
traordinary Valour, and now fubmits to 
the fame fertile Contributions with the 
reft of the vanqnilhed World. He alfo 
reduced Nitmiiia. Ifimricus conquered Cr« 
liciA^ as did Vulfo Manliusy GaBcgracia. 
ilgfter die vAf^fM^iM War, Bitijma- V99i9 
left Hereditary to us by Ntcmedes. The 
divine Attgufiut mzdcjB^Ptz Tributary 
Province, befide S^fam ana other CouiH 
tnes, whoTe Names are infcribed upon hi9 
Fatrtm^ and^brottghtalmoftas much Mo- 
ney from thence into the pubiick Exche* 
quer, as jfulius Cafar had done before 
him, from Gaul. Tjkriut extorted the 
fame Acknowledgment of 'Sobjedion from 
the nyrioHs and DatmatioKs^ as his Fil- 
ther had obliged die Shards to. He 
added RbaHa, the ViiMkim ind NMei^ 


io6 The^ Roman Hijlorj 

Pamonia, and the Scordifciy with fevcrat 
other Provinces, to the Empire. Thefe 
he fubdued with bis Arms,, but he com- 
pelled Cafpadocia to fubmit to a Tribute, 
by his bare Authority. 

C HA P. XL., 
Ponpey.'i Conqueft over feveral Natkm in 
AHa. Hi$ . feaatablt Return ro Rome:. 
He triumphs. 

NOW followed the Conduft of Pom-^ 
pey, which was attended with asi 
great a Share of. Danger as Glory. He 
vidorioufly made his March through A&f 
dia, Albania, and Ueria^ and then diverted . 
bis Forces towards the Nations which 
inhabit the Inlands of Pemut, the Cekbi^. 
Heniochi and Arcbaam. He bad at lall, 
by his own Valour, and the Treachery 
of Pharnaces^ utterly reduced Mithridatet, 
the laft oE Kings who enjoyed fo large a 
Sovereignty, .except the Panhians. Pompef 
having now vanquifhi^ all Nations that 
he oppofed, . and having advanced him* 
felf beyond his own, pr indeed the De- 
fires of his Country, when he had ex^ 
cecded. the utmo^^Mf^^fiire of humane. 
\ . r^ Fortune> 

^/Vclleius Patcrciilos. 1 07 

fortune, returns into Italy. The Opi- 
mon which was generally entertained of 
•him^ rendered his Reception more ad- 
vantageous ; for moil expeded he woukl 
not have made his Entry into the City 
but with an Army, nor left any other 
•fudge of pnblcck Liberty but his own 
private Will and Ambition: As this Jca- 
loufy prevailed, the peaceful Return of 
•the General was more admired. He dif- 
miflfed his Army at Brundi/hm, retaining 
only the Title of a General, and en ter- 
med the City "with no more than the pri« 
vate Attendants he ufually had with him, 
and was honoured with a magnificent 
Triumph, . which continued two Days, 
over the Rings he had conquered. He 
brought more Money into the Treafury 
from his Spoils, than any General before 
him except VauBus. T. Ampiusy and 7l 
Lahienus ena&ed a Law in his Abfence, 
that he (hould wear a Crown of Laurel, 
and. the other Ornaments of a Triumph 
at the Circean Games ; and that he fhould 
be adorned with Laurel, , and the Pratex- 
-ta at the Diverfions of tlie Play-Houfe. 
He aflumed th?fe Honours no more than 
•once, thb* even that was more than was 
•juHifiable; Fortune had fo far diflinguifh- 

•- . . ■ -i- ^ " * 


*» ^« . ■ ,- 

io8 TbeKomm Hiftcty 

.ed this great Man, that he triumphed 
firft of all out of Africa, then from Eu- 
rofe, and laft of all, from jlfia ; that he 
was honoured with as many Monuments 
^f his Conquefts as there \^ere Parts of 
the World. ButGreatnefs is never Se- 
cured from Envy. LucuUus remembred . 
the Indignities he had received ; MeteUm 
*Creticus had a very jufl; Occafion for Re- 
fentment, fince Pomfey made uk of the 
Prifoocrs he had taken to adorn his owa 
Triomj^: A great Part of the Nobility 
joined with them, (o that Pi^mpey conm 
not grant what he had promifed te the 
C\ty, or re'svard thofe who had recom- 
neoded themfelves to Jiim by their Me- 
txXy at bisown Pleafuce. 

CHAP. 30-1. 

7^ Cwfuf/hippfCzms Ckfar, his Cbars- 
iter and Defctut. 

TH £ ConfuHbip of C Cdfar enfiied; 
he arrefts the Hiftorian^s Speed, 
and forces me to flop a while, to uke 
a View of him. He was defcendoi fvom 
theiUuilrious Family of the7ii//;, which 
accoEdit^to the Accounts m Antiqutty, 

of Velleius Paterculus. 1 09 

liad its Origin from Anchifii and yems. 
His Prefence was the mott agreeable of 
any Citizen's in Rome, he had great Vi- 
vacity of UnderfUnding, and a Soul full 
of Munificence ; in Greatnefs of Mind 
iuperior to all others, and even exceeding 
human Relief. The Vaflnefs of his De- 
signs, his Expedition in War, and Refo- 
lution in Danger, made him equal to A* 
iexander the Great, when he was not in- 
flamed with^ Wine and Faffion : For he 
always made ufe of the Neceffities of 
Food and Sleep,as they tended to the Pre- 
fervation of Lifej not as they adminiilred 
Pleafure to the Senfes. He was nearly 
related to C. Marius by Blood, and was 
Son-in-Law to Cirnia (whofe Daughter 
no Reafons could oblige him to Divorce, 
though M. Pifo, a Man of the Confular 
Dignity, difmifled Annia, who had for- 
merly been Wife to Cinna, ^ that he might 
ingratiate himfelf with Sulla^ and to 
whom he had been married ig Years^ 
when Sulla prevailed in the State) find- 
ing his Life was now in Danger, not fo 
much from S$dla himfelf, as from others 
that were attached to his Tnterefts, he 
put on a Difguife not at all fuited to his 
Fortune, and retired from the City by 

L Nighr: 

?iio The Roinaa Hijlory 

7Night. Afterwards, tho' he was auntie 
iouch when he fell into the Hands of the 
f irates, he carried himfelf with that 
oGrandcur all the while he was in chcir 
«Cuftody, that he was both dreaded aod 
^refpe^ed by them ; and what was moft 
jadmirable, (for why ihould I omit a, 
great A&ion, becaufe itcannot be fet of 
«^ith the Ornament of Style?) He De- 
nver .undrefsM, or fo much as took off his 
Shoes in all the Time, lead if he dif- 
xovered any thing extraordinaiy, he might 
be fufpefted by thofe who guarded bin 
now only with their £yes. 



^C^isLt^ttoiks and overeomes the Tyrates : Be- 
ing denfd by Junius the Proconfulf m 
funijb them as ke intended^ be nails them 
aU to the Crofs, 

^np Would be tedious to give an Ac- 
' JL count of all his Atchievements^ 
br to relate how induftrioufly he po£fe^ 
fed the Magiftracy of Rme with fuch a 
ddread of himTelf, that he prevailed upoa 
them to negle^ the Meafures of him 
who was then Prmrfuhf A£a« Let this 


cf VellciuB PatercuIuJ. i r> 

foffice for an Argument of the GreatneHr 
be was foon to arrive at : The Nighc 
after the Day in which he was redeemed ^ 
at the publick Expence of the Cities, 
^ho' he compelled the Pirates to deliver 
Hofiages over to them) being only a pri- 
vate Man, he furnlihed out a Fleet in 
the greateft Precipitation and Diforder, 
and failed to the Place where the Pirates 
lay; He put part of their Navy to 
&ght, part of it he funk ; fome of the 
Ships, and a great many of the Men he 
took, and then returned in Triumph (for 
kis Night Expedition) to his Company. 
When he had difpofed the Captives jnto ' 
Cuftody, he went ifito Bitbjnia, to the 
Fk'oconfal Junius (who at the fame Time 
had the Government of JJiaj and the 
adjacent Coaft) to requeil of him, that 
be might have Liberty to pnniih the Pri- 
loners* He denied his Suit, and declared 
that the Captives fiiould be fold: (for 
Envy always is the Companion of Cow- 
ardice.) cJfar returns to the Coaft with ' 
prodigious Expedition, and before any 
Orders could arrive from the Proconful, 
Bailed every one of them to the Crofs. 


112 The Roman Eijlory 


Caefar returns into Italy, is ileEled High 
Priefi I rebuilds the Statues of Marius— 
and recals the Children of fucb as had 
been px<Jcribed, from Banijhmeut. 


HE now haftened his Arrival into hir 
lyj that be might enter upon the 
Office o( HJgh'Priefl (for he was clcded 
Pontifex Maximus while he was abfent, 
in the room of CottcL, a Confular Man.) 
He had been created Flamen Dialis 
by Marius and Cinnay whilft he was a 
Boy I but loft that Place, by the Vi- 
ctory of Sulla^ (who repealed all the Afis 
of the contrary Party ;) and to fecure biflt*. 
felf from the Sight of the Pirates, who 
had then the Command of the Seas, and 
bore an inveterate Malice againft him, 
he went aboard a fmall Veffel of four 
Oars, with two of h's Friends, and ten 
Servants, and fo failed over the vail 
Gulph of the Adriatick Sea. Thinking, 
once he efpied the Enemy, he threw off 
ail his Cloaths, and buckled his Sword 
to his Thigh, and fo prepared, himfelf 
for any Change of Fortune ; tho' he after- 
wards was convinced of his Miftake, in 


of" VcUei as Paterculus. 113^ 

fiippofing fom^ Jofty Trees he faw at a * 
great Diftance, to be the Malls of a 
fleet. His Condufi; in the City^ his glo- 
mus Impeachment of DolaMla, the un- 
ufiial Favour of the People to him upon • 
«hat O^fcafion^ his civil and honourable 
EeiUlation ^ith Q^CgMluf, and others - 
of ^tihe greateft Efteem ; his^efeatingthe 
fame Catuluj, who was generally allowed '' 
to be thciirft IMan in the Senate, in the 
iBIediion to the High Priefthood^ before 
he was Pra?tor ; his leftoring the Statues 
of C. Marhis, -while he was Mdiky in 
Oppolkion to the Ndbility ; his reinftat- 
Iflgthe Children of theprofcrib'dintheic 
ancient Dignity ; his admirable Conduct 
^Krhen he was Pr^w and Quaflor in Spain, . 
-(thc'laft of which Offices he bore under 
J/ftm Antifliusy Grandfather to the pre- 
fent Veiusy who has two Sons of the Con- 
fiildr Sind Sac^dotalOtdcVf and is a Man 
<sr all the virtuous Endowments which 
the 'G)ndition of our Nature can arrive • 
to ThefeThings (I fay) fall under every 
ones Notice, and fo^re not necefifary tp^- 
be infertedv 

OH A P. 

1 14 The^ Roman Hifiory 
cn A ^. XLIV. 

A Treaty concluded htween Pompcy, Cae- 
far, and Craflus, which is finngtbentd bj 
Pompcy'/ tnarrjing Julia^ Cxizx*s Daugh- 
ter^ Casfar'/ Conful/hip, and Divijim 0/ 
Lands in Campania. The Government 
of Gaul decreed to CxfsiT for five Tears. 

WH I L E he was Conful, a Treaty 
of Alliance in Power, was con- 
cluded between himfelf, Pompey, zndXraJr 
Jusy which proved of fatal Confequence 
€0 the City, the Empire, and tbo' at de- 
fiant Time, to themfeives equally penur 
cious in different Refpeds. Pm^. wa$ 
induced to come into thefe Meafures^ that 
his Condud 'm the Provinces beyond Sea, 
(which was arraigned by a great many) 
might be ratified by Cafar now he was 
ConfuL The Advantage which Cajarptch 
pofed was, that he (hould enhance bis 
own Reputation, by improving that of 
Pompey, and encreafe his own Intereft>. 
by throwing the Envy of their common 
Greatnefs upon Pompey alone. Crajfus 
finding himfelf unable to fupport his Dig*^ 
nity, thought he could not fail to do it^ 
under the Protedion of Pompey^s Inte- 


Of VeHeius PatcKuIus. i.Ef 

reft, and the Affift an ccs of C^f/ir. Far- 
ther Alliances was cbntraSted between 
Cafar zndPompty, by his Marriage to Ca- 
fa/s Daughter. Cafar, in his Confulfhip, 
cnzGtedy that the Fields ofCamps^nizJhould 
be 'divided. Ptmpey being the chief In- 
firument of this Ikcice,. 20000 Citizens 
were carried thither, and that Country 

• reftor d ta its ancient Ptiviledg4s, 152 
^ Years after Cafua was reduced under the 

Government of a Pr^eB, in the Time of 
the Punic War. Bibulusj Colleague with 
Cafary whep he faw he could not oppofe 
-his Proceedings, as he endeavoured to doj 

• kept himfelf at Home ; by which Means, 
driving to. inceiife the Envy of the Peo- 
ple againft him, he helptonly topromote 
his Power. The Adminiftration of Gatd' 
was now conferred on Cafar for five 


i • 

11!^ The VlJMcM Hi/lorj 
qHAP.. XLV. 

Pablius Cbuliiis his CharaSer. Hi fr^ 

' €ures Ciceco to he banijhed^ who in m^ 

Tbars m freftat'dto UsyCotMry and his Hh 

firam Cypnis rpjRoflie. 

ft - 

A BOUT that Time, P.Ckdiusir 
JTV Man of a noble Eiatraftion, of 
tgreat Eloquence and Boldneis^ one whofe 
Words and Aftions would be conoroukd 
j))r tiotbingbut his.owalWill, 4ind who as^ 
ijpeedily icxecuted what he wickedly do- 
iigned, who was fufpefied to hasvc^de- 
iUed .his own SiKer, and had been con- 
•vi^ed of Inceft, and committing Adul- 
Hery in the midfi of the moft facred Co- 
xemonies among the jRawM People) who 
had always born an inveterate Hat4^ to 
Cicero (for what elfc could be fuppofed be- 
tween two of fo different Tempers ?) and 
had been degraded from the Senate, to 
the Quality of a Pkheiany enafted a Law 
when he was Tribune, that ivhofoever 
kilkd a CittTjen of Rome uncondemned^ 
Jhould te forbidden the Vfe of Fire and Wa- 
ter. Tho* Cicero was not mentioned in 
this Law, yet he was the only Perfon 


of Velleius Patercirius. 117 

aimed at in it. Thus was this honour* 
able Patriot rewarded with Banifhment, 
for having recraeved his Country fronv 
Raine. Cafar and Pomfey were fufpefled 
to have had fome Hand in his Difgrace ; 
for Cicero had incurred their Difpleafure^ 
by refufing to be one of the Twenty 
who were deputed to diftribute the Lands 
mi Campania. Within two Years he was^ 
reftored to his Dignity and Country^ by 
the fincere, tho* tardy Aflfedion of Pow- 
pejy by the Defires of all Itaiy^ by th© 
Decrees of the Senate, by the Friendfhip 
and Order of Annius Miloy Tribune of 
the People. Since the Exile and Return 
of Numidicus^ there never was any one 
expelled with greater Malice, or receiv- 
ed again with greater Acclamations of 
Joy and Satisfadion. His Houfe was 
re-built with as great Munificence by the 
Senate, as it had malicioufly been pulled 
down by Clodius. The fame Chdius dif- 
{>atched M, Cato from the Stare, under 
the Pretence of conferring an honourable 
Employment upon him. He enaded a 
Law, that he Jhould hefent ae Qu^ftor^ witB 
a PratOYtan Power ^ (and another Quafior un- 
der him) to the Ifland Cyprus, to depofe 
Ptolemy frM his Kingdom, ^0 deferved 
. that 

1 18 The Komati Hiftory 

that Indignity by the wious ConduB of hit 
Ifife. But he had put an end to his Life 
before the arrival of CatOy who] brought 
a much greater Treafure back to, Ibnm 
than was expeded*- To pcaife hi^ Inte- 
grity would b^ a Crime, tho' he may be 
charged with Infolence in this AHair. 
When the whole City, with the Confols 
and Senate came to meet huo^ he failed 
by them along the Tiber ^ and would not 
£bt his Foot on Shoar till he came to the 
Slace where the Money was to be landed. 


C^fac'/ n(Jfle.EK^t$ iu G^u) ^ HdWD^i 
Cra0ug chofe Cn^ful v)itb f^mpey, nf^ 
,pwMd General in the FS^tthiao ^ar# 

; His CharnEkr and Ovmhroi. 

t^Mfar had perfbrmied fuch Exploits in 
^ Gauh as would cake up ma^y Vo* 
Lumes to illoftrace. He was not content 
with the innumerable^ and many fortu- 
nate Vii^orieis he had obtained, the ma^- 
ny Thoufands of the £nemy he had {lain 
and taken Prifoner,. bat carries his Army 
over into Britain, as if he refolved to 

ppen ai)ot]H»:,Woi:l4^t wrand hi$ owq 


^ Velleius Paterculus. 1 19 

£mpire. The invincibLs Confuls, Cn^Pom- 
,piiusy and M.Crqffus, entered on thacOffice 
the fecond Time. Their Praftices to ob- 
tain it, were as diihonourable as their Ad- 
miniftration was inglorious. The Govern- 
onent of G^a^/ was prolong^ to Cafar^ foe 
the fame Space he had enjoyed ic before, 
by a Decree which Pomfev propofed to 
»^he People ; Syria was conferred on Crnf- 
/iw, who was then preparing for the Par- 
thian War. He was in other refpe£ls vir- 
tuous^ and moderate in his Plearures ; but 
in the Defire of Kiches and Glory^ he 
neither knew not admitted of any Re- 
ilraint. The Tribunes of the People 
^endeavoured to obftru& his March into 
Syrian wit)» the moft 4blemn Execrations, 
^K^hich if they had prevaird only againft 
liim^ would have rendered the Lois of the 
General an Adrantage to the State, (ince 
then the Army had been preferved. Ring 
i)rodes enclofing him with a prodigious 
Kumber of Borfe, deftroyed him, and the 
greatefi part of the Army, after heiiad paf- 
ied the Eupfjrates^ and was on his March 
towards Seleucia. C. Cajjius, who was then 
^Quaflw^ and afterwards the Author of a 
moft deteftable Villany, took care of the 
legions «i^h were teftj and prefenred 

s Syria 

I.20 The Roman Hijtory. 

Syria in its AlkgUnceto Romey fo that he 
often, with very great . Succefifes^ van- 
quiihed and put to Flight the Parthianty 
. when they m^d^e Invafions of that Coun- 


A farther Account of Caefar'/ A£}iom,.i^ 
Gaul, efpeciaSy about Alexia. Julia, 
the Wife of Pompey, and Sifter to O- 
fac^ dies. Clodius flain by Milo. 

IN this, and the following Frocefs of 
Time, Cafar had' flain above 400000 
of the Enemy, and t^en a$ many Cap- 

^ tive. : He often gave them Battle in the 

' open ticldi and fometimes furprifed them 
by Ambufhes. He twice penetrated 
Britain^ and of nine fucceffivc Years, 

. there did not one Summer pafs. in which 
liis Exploits did .not deferve a Triumph. 
Buthis Atchievements about ^/ex/Vii were 

. fuch as icarce Mortal could attempt, or 
i,ny lefs 'tbaA. sl God perform. He had 
l)cen in Gaul feven Years, when yulia^ 
the Wife of Pomfeyy^ and the only Tye 

.^of jarring,^ ^eak AUis^nce between him 

Fan4.C^O-4cc?^^ (4s 

. » 11 

(f Velleius Paterculus. 1 2 i 

if Fortune had determined to diflblve all 
Obligations between thefe Generals, who 
were ordained to fo fetal a Dil'pute) Vom- 
ftys little Son, which he had by Julia^ 
expired. The Eledions of the Citizens 
were now determined h^ Sword and 
Slaughter^ which raged witli an uncon* 
troule4 Violence. The Confulihip was 
difpofedof to Pomfey alone, by the Con- 
currence of thofe who before envied his 
Greatnefs. This unufual Step to Ho- 
nour, and the Reconciliation of the No- 
bility to him, enlarged the Breach be- 
tween him and Cafar. He exerted thft 
Authority of his Office, in the Suppref- 
fion ofcanvafing foe Voices at £led:ions. 
About this Time, P. Chdius was killed 
by Atilo, who wa^ then Candidate for 
the Confulihip, in a Quarrel which arofe 
upon their meeting near BtfvilU : a Pre- 
cedent very unwarrantable in its felf, tho* 
of great Service to the State. Milo was 
condemned, not fo much for the Heinouf- 
nefsof theFaft,asfor thePleafure of Pomptj. 
Mi Cato, when he delivered his Opinion^ 
declared he was not guilty, which if he had 
done fooner, there would a great many 
have feconded his Opinion, and have 
proved^ that be had killed one of the 

M moft 

1 2^ The Roman Hijlory 

moft pernkious Enemies to the Stated 
and to all good and vertuous Men. . 


T^e beginning of. the Civil War between C«- 
far and Pompcy. Cafar makes very bo* 
murable Offers of Peace y which is prevent*, 
ed by Curio i His CharoBer* 

SOON after this, the Beginnings oi 
the Civil War broke out. Every 
honeft and unprejudiced Man was of O- 
pinion, that both the Armies fhould be 
disbanded. Pontfey^ in his fecond Con- 
fulihip, would have the Governmeut of 
both the' S fains conferred on him : He 
had governed thofe Provinces for three 
Years, while he ftaid at Home to take 
care of the City, by his Lieutenants A- 
f ramus and Petreim , whereof one had 
been Conful, the other Pr«tor. He a- 
greed with thofe who were for Cafar's 
disbanding his Army, but oppofed all 
who were of the fame mind in Relation 
to himfelf Had he died two Years be- 
fore the War began, (when he had cora- 
pleated the building of the Theatre, and 
the Works .about it) in that 4angerou« 


of VcIIeius Paterculus. 123 

Illae/s which feized him in Campania^ 
(rho* at that Time all Italy decreed pub" 
lick Offerings for his Recovery,) it had 
not been in the Power of Fortune to le(- 
fen his Greatnefs ,* and that Glory he had 
enjoyed upon Earthy he might have car- 
ried with him unobfcured to the other 
World. There was not any thing which 
cnflamM the Civil War, and the Calami- 
ties which enfaed for twenty Years, more 
than C. CuriOy Tribune ot the People: 
He was of a noble Extradion, great E* 
loquence, and prodigious Refolution, la-< 
Tifii of hfs own and other Mens Fortune 
and Reputation : His Villanies were 
contrived with great Ingenuity ; his Elo- 
quence alway fucceeded againft the Pub^ 
lick. No Riches, PleafureSi or Sacisfar: 
fiions, were able to fatiate his exorbitanti 
Defires : He firfl gave in with the Side 
of Pomfey (who was then thought the 
Prote&or of the State) but foon after, 
he di(Tembled his Engagement to either 
^ide, tho' his Heart was attached to C#e* 
far. But whether it Vas of his own ac- 
cord, or whether he was bribed with am 
hundred .thoufand Seflerces, is undeter- 
mined. However, he broke the Meafures 
of the cnfuing Treaty, which Ca/ar very, 

M a honour- 

1^4 ^^^ Roman Hijlory 
honourably propofed^ and with which 
Pompey as readily complied, when none 
took care of the publick Tranquillity ex* 
cept Cicero. Others have given an Ac- 
count of the A&irs of this Jiiridure in 
their Writings, and I hope to do the fame 
in fome of mine* 


The Death of Catulus, Metelkis, Horten* 
fius, the two Luculli. Conditions of Peace 
offered ugain by Ccfar^ hn refufed \ the 
Wat begins. 

T Shall return to my intended Defign,' 
•■• when I have congratulated the Iftippi- 
nefs of O Camlus^ the two LucuUi^ Me^ 
iettus^ and Hortenfius : They lived in the 
greateft Reputation and Honour in the 
State, without Envy; aftd when they had 
enjoyed the higheft Dignities without 
Danger, before the Civil War broke out, 
they died a natural and a fortunate Death. 
The Civil War brolce out in the Conful- 
fiiip of Lemulus and Marcellus^ in the Se* 
ven hundred and third Year from the 
Building of the City, and in the eighty 
eighth before you cntrcd upon your Of* 


of Velleius Paterculus. i a j 

ۥ The Generals feemed, one to have 
I moft plaufible, the other the moil: 
werful Caufe. Vom^q rely'd on the 
ithority of the Senate. Cajar on the 
)urage of his Soldiers. The Confuls 
d Senate had conferred afupreamCom* 
ind^ rather on the Caufe than the Per- 
\ of Twnpey. Cafar made the utmoft 
Ivances towards an Accommodation, 
t nothing was accepted by the Pamfei- 
r ; Then the other Conful was more vi- 
nt than he ought to be : Lemulus could 
>ed nothing from the Repofe of the 
Lte. Af. Cato declared, that he would die 
bre he would accej^t any Conditions r^ 
ingto the State from a private Citizen. 
I honeft and virtuous Man would rather 
ire commended the Defigns of Pomfey^ 
t one who regarded bis own Security, 
»uld have adhered to Cafars; fince 
ife of the one appeared to be moft 
lourable, but the other carried the 
ateft Terror. When he had rejeded 
the Propofals of Cafar, he was con- 
iC only with a Province, and the Com* 
nd of one Legion, to come privately 
o the City, and to fubmit himfelf to 
; Voices of the People when he ftood 
the Confulfliip. Cafar now finding 

M 3 he 

i76 Tht Roman Hijitirf 

he muft maintain a War, paffcd with fiS 
Array over the RuBicon. Fompey^ the Con- 
fuls, and a great part of the Senate, re- 
tired out of Itafyy to Dyrrachium. 

C H A P. L. 

Pompcy retires from Rome and Italy, faih 
to Dyrrachium. Csefar f^^j Domitius, 
and releafes him. He comes to Rome, 
jufiifies his CottduSiy faffes over to Spaifr, 
md there sonfuers Afranius and Petrci-. 

/^JEfar\ when he had Domitius^ and the 
^ Legions of Corfiniusj who were un- 
der him, at his Difpofal, difmiffed him, 
and (bme of his Men who had a Mind 
to ga over with him to Pomfey, and pro- 
ceeded to Brundifium : Whence it appears 
that he had rather have put an end to the 
War on fair Terms, when no Lofles were 
received on either Side, than have op^ 
prefsM thofe who deferred from him. 
When be found that the Confute had palF^ 
fed the Sea, lie returned to the Gity, and* 
pnblickly gave an Account of his Defigns 
to the Senate* He declared the great 
Neceffity he was lander (being forced by 


of Vclleius Patcrcdus. 1 27 

the Violence of his Enemies) to defend 
himfelt by the Sword. He then, deter- 
mined to go for Sfaitiy but the Expedition 
of his Marchwas a little hindered hyMaf- 
filiay a'City which adhered to her Fideli- 
ty, tho* (he forfeited her Prudence, in af- 
fuming the OfEce of a Mediator between 
the two powerful Armies, which became 
lione but thofe who could compel the 
obftinate to Subjedion. The Army un- 
der Afranius^ who was of the Confular, 
and Petreius, of the Pfa?torran Order, 
being amazed at the Bravery and Gran- 
deur of his Arrival, furrendered to Cajau 
Both the Lieutenants, and thofe who Jhad 
a mind to follow them, had^Leave to go 
over to Pompey. 


Catfar /oi?ow/ Pompey into Greece, andhe^ 
fages him in his Comfy hut is often 'xorfiei 
by the Pompeians. 

THE next Year, when Dyrrachitm 
and the adjacent Country was pof- 
fefs'd by the Encampments of Pomfey (who 
having fent for all the Troops of Horfe 
and Foot from the Provinces beyond 


I2S The Roman Hrflofj 

Sea^ and fummoned in the Forces of all 
the Kings^ Tetrarchs, and GovernourSi 
made up a prodigious Army, and difpof- 
ed Garrifons upon all the Coafts of the 
Sea, to prevent the landing of the £ne« 
mies Forces) Cmfar made fo great ufe of 
his wonted Expediticm and Fortune, that 
thefe Difadvantages did not hinder hii 
Arrival with his Army at the Place he 
dedred, fo that he formed his Camp near 
that of Pomfey i and foon after enclofed 
him with Fortifications. But the Be- 
iiegers laboured under the want of Ne- 
ceuaries, more tjian the Befieged. Bah 
his Corneliusy with aii incredible Rafh* 
nefs, entered the Quarters of the Enemy^ 
and had feveral Conferences with the 
Conful Lemulusy who (by fetting a great 
Valtic upon his Intercft) tho* he was no 
Citizen^ but a Spaniard by Birth, by this 
Means might advance himfdf to the Ho* 
nour of a Triumph, and the Prieflhood, 
and arrive to a Confular Dignity fron^ a 
private Perfon. They had now many 
doubtful Engagements, but one more par« 
ticularly, which was very fuccefsful to 
the Pompjeiam^ wherein Cafa/s Forces re- 
ceived a very confidecable Defeat. 


^Velleius Paterculus. 139 


Both Armies meet and engage at Pharfalia ; 

Caefar conquers; his vfonderful Clemency 
to the Conquered after the Battle. 

f^JEfoT now marched his Army to TAe/- 
^ Jdia, the Place dcfigncd by the Fates 
for his Viftory. Vom^ey (again ft the Pcr- 
fwafions of many^ who advifed him lo 
retire into Italy^ which had certainly been 
the moft prudent Courfe ; and others, 
who moved, that the War Jhould be fr(h 
longed^ fince the Honour of his Caufc 
would have procured him continual Ad* 
vant^^e) gave way to his own Paffion, 
and direded his March in the Purfuit cf 
the Enemy. The Battle of Pharfalia ; 
the Event of that fatal Qay to Rtnu ; 
the vaft EflFufion of Blood on both Sides ; 
the clafbing of the two greateft Men in 
Rome^ the Lofs of one of the Glories of 
the State, and many themoft noted Men 
of the Pompeian Faftion, are Subjeds 
too vaft to be confined to the Subftance of 
this Volume. I muft take Notice, that 
as foon zsCafar found Pompey*s Army be- 
gin to retreat, his chief Care was to fe- 
cure his Adverfarics from the Violence of 
his Soldiers, Heavens ! 

136 Tbi^ Roman Hijiory ^ 

Heavens I what a bafe Return to hig 
Clemency did he afterwards meet with 
from Brutus! There -was no Circunair 
fiance in that Viftory more noble, gene- 
rous and great, than that our Country 
loft not one Citizen but thofe who fell 
in the Battle. But the Obftinacy of the 
Vanquiflied overcame theClemency of the 
Conqueror, fince he was more willing to 
grant tKem Life, than they were to re« 
ceive it. 


Pompcy flies into -figypt, and is there tar 
baroufly murdered by ^toktmy yHn- tbt Fif^ 
" tj eighth Tear of his Age. J ■ 

• .■ I « 

T)Ompey flying away with the two Len^ 
* tuli of the Confular Qualify, his Sofr 
Sextusj and Favonius, of cbc Prxtoviztk 
Order, (thefe being all the ?Oompanions 
which Fortuiic coold atford 1j*bp,) fome of 
them perfwaded him to din^ his Flight. 
t» the Parthiansy others \T\tOi Afrisay where 
he would find King Juba a conftanC 
Friend to his Intereft ; but he refolved . 
for ^sypty cxpefting a kind Reception 
there upoji Account of the Services he 

.t.;_ h»A, 

^/Velleius Patercula^. 131 

had done to the Father of the young 
King, who was now upon the Throne 
at Alexandria. . But who retains any Senfc 
of our Services when we are in Di- 
ftrefs I How often do the Revolutions of 
Fortune diflblvc. Mens Fidelity ! The 
King was moved by Theodotus and Achii" 
las, to difpatch fome to advife Powftj 
(who had very lately taken in his Wife 
Cornelia from the ,Mityleniansy to be ^ 
Companion of his Misfortunes) to come 
on board their Veflel, out of his own 
great Ship. When he had yielded to 
their Perlwafions, thel^ Glory of the Ro^ 
man Name was murdered by the Com- 
mand of aa j^^ptian SJ^ve, in the Con- 
fulfliip of C. C^^r, and P. Servilius. This 
was the End of this noble and illuftrious 
Perfon, when he had fubdued the whole 
Univerfe-, and raifed himfelf to that Dc^ 
gree of Honour which could not be fut:^- 
. paflcd, in the 58th Tc^r of his Age, the 
Day before that of his fiirth. Such was' 
the Alteration of his Fbirtune, that tht^ 
Earth, which (not long before) could* 
fcarce contain his Viftories, fliould now" 
deny him a fpace for a Grave. They, 
certainly very n;)uch bufied in o- 
tiicr Affairs, who miflake five Years la: 


132 Tb^ Romnn Hiftor} 

the Age of this eminent Man, and one 
almoft of pur own Time, when they 
might fo eafily have been undeceived, by 
computing from the Confulfhip of C. A^ 
tiliusy and Q. Servilius. This I mention 
not by way of Cenfure upon any one, 
but to obviate Exceptions againft what 
I have related. 


Cxhis Death attempted in ./Egypt, which 
he prevents : Scipio and Juba revive the 
War in Africk, to whom Cato joins bis 


THE Fidelity of the King, and 
thofe whofe Dire£i:ion he fubmit- 
ted to, was not greater to Cafar than it 
had been to Pmpey. They firft of all 
aiTaulted him by Stratagem, but when 
that would npt fucceed, they oppofed him 
in an open War, but were foonmade to 
£ufier the Punifhments they had deferred 
from both the Generals, tho' there did but 
one of them furvive. The Perfon indeed 
of PoMpey was. no where prefent, but his 
Name was every where refpeded. The 
great Efleem and Honour of his Caufe,had 


1^/ Velleius Paterculus. 135 

occaiibned a War in Afikj under the 
Coitimarid of Juba and Scipio, a Man of 
^'e Cohfular Order, and whom Pom^ey 
had defign'd for his Father-in-Law, two 
tears before he died. Their Forces werq 
iugmented by thofe of AL CatOy who 
brought Tome Legions over to them, not- 
withftanding the extreme Difficulties of 
the March, and want of Neceffaries. 
This Man, tho* his Soldiers offered him 
the fupreme Command, chbife /;:atlie£ to 
obey one who was' ia a higher ^ Degree 
of Hohoun 

C H A P. LV, 

C2tizx foUavir the Ppmpeians m Afric, and 
U viiiorious. He fails i/^/o Spain, and in 
a very dangerous and bloody Battle^ over* 
comes Ch. Pompeius, Son of Pompey 
the Great. 

THE Promife I have given to be as 
compendious as f ofllble, obliges 
xne to be very ftiort in my Relations. 
Cafar followed his good Fortune into /4- 
frica, which was now in Pofltffioii of the 
Pompeiansy fince the Death of Curio^ vvho 
commahded the Julian Party, fie firft 

N engaged 

134 ^^ Roman Hijlory 

engaged them with various Succefs^ but 
afterwards^ with that which always at- 
tended him^ and reduced the Forces of 
the Enemy. His Clemency was as great 
to all the vanquiflied, as it had ^ been to 
thofe he fubdued before. When he had 
finilhed die War in Afnc^ he was alarmed 
with another Car more terrible^ from 
^mn ; (for his Conqueft of Phanuues 
was a very fmall Addition to his Glory.) 
It was raifed by Cn. Pomfeius^ Son to 
htm who .was nmamed the Greia^ a 
Youth of prodigious Spirit and Know* 
ledge in War. All who had any Vene« 
ration for the Charader of his Father, 
came into his Afliftance^ from every Part 
of the Empire. The Fortune of Cajat 
attended him into Sfcun^ tho' he never 
engaged in a more dangerous and o')ftinate 
Battle. His Army giving way, he alight^ 
cd from his Horfe, and flood before his 
retiring Troops, and (having firft curfed 
his Fortune, tor refer vin^ him to fo dif- 
craceful an End) told his Soldiers, that 
for his own Part, he would (land his 
Ground, and defired them to confider 
m)hat a Gitieral, and in what unhappy 
Circumftances they were going to de- 
kxXj. Shame^ more than Bravery^ oblig- 

rf VcIIcius Patcrculus. 1 3 5^ 

cd his Army to rally again. The Figbr 
was renewed by the Courage of the Gc" 
neral, rather than that of the Soldiersw 
Cn. PMtfeius forely wounded, was killed 
in a Wood, to which* he had efcaped. 
Labienus and Far us were {Iain in the Fight. 


Cxhts glorious Return to Rome : He tar' 
dons all that had tore Arms againft him : 
He triumphs fivt 'times J andisfiain in the 
Senate hj Brucus^i^ Caflius. 

/^JEfary now he had overcome all hf$ 
^ Enemies, returned to the City, and 
'(what feems to be incredible) freely par- 
doned all who had born Arms againfl 
him. He diverted the Town with a 
magnificent Shew of Gladiators, a Re>- 
preientation of a Battle at Sea, Engage- 
ments of Horfe and Foot, Encounters 
between Elephants, and Feafling, which 
laded for many Days. He had five Tri- 
umphs : The Furniture of that from Gaul^ 
wa& of Citron Wood : that from Pontus, 
of Acanthus: that from Alexandria^ of 
Tortoife : from Afric^ of Ivory, and from 
Sfain, of polilhed Silver. The Money 

N a which 

1^6 The Roman Uijlerj 

which he. made of the Spoils, amountci 
to mX)re than Six hundred ^Mlions of Se- 
fterces. Tho' he had iafrlved to fucb 
Greatncfs, andufedall his ViSories with 
extreme Clemency, yet could not this 
great Man enjoy a perfeft Quiet longer 
than five Months. He returned into the 
City in OHober, and was killed on the 
Ides of March, by the Treacbery of Brth 
tus and Cajjiusy (the firft of who|n he^had 
difobliged, by only promi(l[ng''him the 
Confulfhip ; the other Jie had exafperat'ed^ 
by delaying his Entrance upon that Of- 
fice) thefe formed a Confpiracy, and ad« 
mitted D. Brutus , C. Trebonius, and other 
eminent Men, who owed their Promotir 
oil to the higheft Dignities, to the Soc* 
cefs of his Arms, into th£ir Designs againft 
his Life. M. Antomus, a Man always 
prepared (or bold Adventures, and Col- 
league with Cir/2ir in theX^onfuIfiiip^ ba4 
(drawn a ' great deal of Etivy lipon him; 
by placing the Enfighs of Sovereignty up- 
on his Head, as be fate before the Roflra, 
at the Lupercal Games. C^far indeed did 
refufethe Honour, but in a manner which 
did not cxprefs the leaft Refentment. 


i5^VelIciu8 Paterculus. 137 

Catfar'i fatal ujtSlifig the Advise rf HkA^ 
us and Panfa : He defpifes the Pnfitgesof 
bis Deaib by the Smhfyeru 

THE Advice of Parfa zad Hirtiw 
to Cafar^ was now proved by a 
fad Experience, to have deferved bis 
Regard. They always told him, that 
ae he bad advanced his Pirwer by Foree^ he 
nrnft make ufe of the fame Means to preferve 
t. Cafar replied, that he bad rather die, 
than live a Terror to bU Comtry. While he 
expe&ed the (ame Returns of Clemenc/ 
to himfelf which he had fhewn to others^ 
he was fuddenly circumvented by the Un* 
grateful. The immortal Gods gave fe^ 
veral Prefages and Indications o^ the 
Danger which would enfiie. The Sooth-' 
fayers warned him to take care of the Ides 
of March^ His Wife Qnlfurnia^ being: 
terrified by a Dream^ defired him not ta 
gp abroad that Day ; and .many Libels 
which deteded the Confpiracy were giv» 
en hiai^ but he negteded to read them.. 
Such is the irrefiftible Power of Fate,, 
that k takes fiom Men all Thou^t atvi 


13 ff The Koroan S^^ 

Refleftion^ where it defignsany Revoh»» 
tjon in their Fortune- 

C H A P. LVlil. 

Brutus fiizes and guards the Cafitol ; Po<- 
labella gives hw &iks m Hoftages fir bif 
SajeP/ in coming down from it : Agen^d 
Patdon fropofgd bj CicttX>^ and 'Occegtei 
by the Smote. 

XyRutm and €a^ were Pfatwi the fame 
*^ Year in which they ' comiiiittcid thisr 
Villany, and JD. Bmtus was defigned Con; 
ftjl for the next. They and the reft dJE the 
Cbnfpiracy) under the t&aacrd'of ft Comr 
pany o(l>: Brutus^ s Gladiatcrs^got into the 
Capitol 3 when the Confbl :^fo»/^y fwhom 
Caffius advifed (hould be killed with €i^ 
Jkty but was ofpoftd by iBhf/^j who* 
^id, that a Cidzen wa^ to rerqiiite the Life 
of none hut a Tyraiity for they "Were 
©bilged to give Cafar that Name to pat 
liate their Villany) aflTcfmbled the Se- 
nate. For now DoldeUaj^ (who was 
rfeiigned by Cafar for* his Colleague in 
this Confolffifj)) had feized the Fafces itid 
Confqlar Enffgns, and, as if he had dc- 
%Q^d a Reconciliation.: fciit bis Children 

■ I'. ' ' \ .• 1 . ■«■• '^ • - ^t£ 

0/ Velleius Paterculus. 139 

9f Homages ta the Murderers of Cafarp. 
and promifed that ihe^ fliould have Lii- 
berty of coming out of the Capitol with- 
out any Danger. Cicero (in Imitation of 
the celebrated Decree of the A^enians) 
propofed an A& of general Amnefty^ which, 
was carried by the Confenc of the Father u 

C H A F. LIX. 

t^a^far'/ ff^S is opened ; C. O&avius adopt^ 
edy Grandchild to his Sifter Jiilia ; Oda^ 
vius'j CharaBer and Defcent^ 

THE Win of C^^r was now opened, 
whereby he adopj:ed C. otltwius^ 
Grandfon to his Sifter Jtdia. I Ihall give 
a fliort Account of his Defcent, notwith^ 
fianding the Hafie which pre^sme^ ar^ 
tho' others have fu$fiently related it be^ 
fere. C. OBavius, was not defcended frQia 
Z Patrician Family, but a very illuftrioua 
^e of the. Equoftrian Order. He was 
an honourable, generous, fincere^ and 
wealthy Man : He was firft of all eleded 
Pratorj among many other very eminent 
Perfops : That Dij?\ity procured him Ai^ 
fia, the Daughter bf j^£/i,. For his Wife ^ 
and that .h^nourabje AJljai^^^^ 

140 The Roman Hijfarj 

him in the Province of MUcidonia^ where 
he was ftiled Emperor ; but in his return 
from thence to ftand for the ConfuHhip^ 
he deceafed, kaving his Son fcarcely ar- 
rived to the Years ot Manhood. C Csfar, 
his Great Uncle ^wbile he was under the 
Tuition of his Fathcr*in-Law Philiffus) 
loved hini as his own, and in his eigfar 
teenth Tear took bin^ to be his Com* 
panion in the Spanifi Waxj where he al« 
lowed him the Convenience of his own 
Quarters, and fuflfered him to be carried 
in no Litter but his own ; he conferred 
the Honour of the High-Priefthood up>- 
on him while he was a Child» When 
the Civil Wars were ended, he (ent the 
Touth to Afolbniay where he might im-^ 
prove his Studies, propofing, after that, 
to take him Mrith him to the Getic and 
Parthian War. As foon as he heard of 
his Uncle's Death, fome Centurions of 
the Legions which quartered in that 
Neighbourhood, came to him,' and pro^ 
mifed him their own and their SoTdiers 
Afliftance, which Satvidienus and Agrif^a 
informed him would be very confiderable.^ 
He immediately fets out for the City, 
^d when he came as far as Brundufium^ 
he had aa Account of the Murder, and 


^Velleius Paterculus. 141 

Will of his Uncle. Upon his Arrival at 
Rowf^ a vaft Concoucfe of his Friends 
came to meet him, and as he enteccA 
the City, the Orbit of the Sun appeare4 
circular apd infleded, and of the C6r 
lour of a Hainbovtr, forming a Crowii 
over the Head of him who was afcet-- 
wards to be ei^ted to fb great Dignity* 



O&avius Aegins t$ a£i as Casfar'/ Heir^ 
Diffenjiom tetmiji Inm and l^rcus Aor 

IS Mother A^ia, and Father-io^ 
Law Philipfus^ dJiiUl^ed that he 
lould aiOTume the Name of (the envied 
Fortune of Cafary ^ut th^ fit^s would 
Jtiave him the Eft^blillier of the Empire^ 
aindPreferver or the Romm Glory. There- 
fore his divine Soul difdainM aU humane 
dounfel ; he direfle^ his Punfuit after what 
was great^ thp^ attended with Dangef, 
rather than what wa; mean, cho^it might 
be acquired with the utmoft Safety. He 
choTe to believe his Uncle's Opinion of 
him, rather than bis Father-in- La ws^^ al- 
ledging^ That 'twould be diflionourable 


14^ The Roman Hijlory 

to think himfelf unworthy a Title which 
Ca^far thought be deferved. The Con; 
ful Antonius received him with Difregard^ 
j(tho^ not fa much out of Contempt as 
Fear) and fcarcely admitted him into the 
Pompeiau Gardens to talk with him. 
Soon after, as if he fufpe&ed Danger from 
liim^ he villainoufly accufes him of Trea- 
chery, tbo' he^betrayed his own Falfliood 
thereby in a very Qiameful Manner. The 
violent Defigns of Antonius and DolateOa 
to obtain the Sovereignty, now broke 
out ; Animus feized Seven hundred Mil* 
lions of Scftcrces which Cafar had dc- 
pofited in the Temple of Opis ; altered 
^ublick Records^ and plac'd corrupted 
ones in their Room. Every thing was 
expofed to the higheft Bidder, while the 
Conful proftituted the State He pro- 
pofed to poiTefs himfelf of Gauly the Pro- 
vince which was defigned for Z>. Brutus^ 
while DolabeUa refolved upon thofe which 
iay beyond the Sea. But Diftafte and 
Jealoufy began ta arife between thefe, 
fince both of them ditfembled their De- 
iigns, and had different Profpefts in view. 
From that Time the young C Cafar was 
daily purfued by the Treacheries of ^n* 


of Velleius Paterculus. 143 


O&avius Itvm an Axmj^ and beats An- 
* thony at Mutina, aud^ces him to fiy eut 

0j Italy. — He is bonmred by the ^lenate 

with a Statne. 

TH E City opprcffcd by the Tyran- 
ny of Atttonius^ began to languifh; 
Every one bad Refentment and Indigna- 
tion, but not one had Courage enough to 
refift. C.Cafar being now entered upon 
the nineteenth Year of his Age, when 
he had attempted Things of amazing 
Difficulty, and atchieved the mod ho- 
nourable Undertakings in his own pri- 
vate Condud, difcovered a greater Con* 
cem for the State, than the whole Se- 
nate. He firft of all called in the Vete* 
ran Soldiers of his Father out of Cala^ 
tiay and foon after from CaJUinum. O- 
thers followed their Example, till at laft 
be had formed a regular Army. Soon 
after, when Antonius went to meet his 
Troops, which he had ordered to repair 
to Brundufium^ from the Tranfmarine Pro- 
vinces, the Fourth t and Martial Legion, 
being informed of the Pleafure of the 
Senate, and the excellent Difpofition of 


144 -^^ Roman K'lftory 

fo generous a Youth, took up their En- 
figns^ and refigned themfelves to Cafar. 
The Senate, when they had honoured 
him with an Eqtujlrian Stattie, whicfi 
now ftabds before th6 kcflray and bears 
the Infcription of the Year of his Age, 
(which Dignity had been conferred on 
none for the Spafce of Three hundred 
Years, except £. SuUa^ Cn. Ponipeiits, an4 
C. CafAv) created him Pr^rattfr', and 
gave Command, that he, with Hifiiut 
and Pmfay who Were defigned Confufs, 
fliould carry on the War againft Amoni" 
us. He had admirable Succefs in itJa 
his twentieth Year, near Mutina: And 
having relieved Brutus from a Siege, 
forced A^nomus to leave Itaty^ in a fcan^ 
dalons and dHhonotirabie Flight. One 
of the Confute wais (lain in the Fidd, 
the other died of a Wound within a ve- 
ly few Days. 


of Velleius Paterculus. 145 


ihe Pompeian Party btgin again to revived 
Provinces decreed to Brutus and Caifius. 
A noble laftance of Gratitude in Ocfar'i 
SoldierSj ufon his being dijhonourably treat-* 
ed by the Senate. 

BEfore the Defeat of Antonius, the 
Senate pafTed vety honourable De« 
crees in Favour of Cajar and his Army, 
by the Advice of Cicero. But as foon as 
their Fears were vanifhed, their Inclina* 
tions began to difcover themfelves, and 
the Fad ion of the Pontfeians began to re- 
Vive. The Provinces (which thcv^^had 
before feizcd upon, without any Urdet 
of the Senate) were now decreed to Bru- 
ms and Caffius, and every one was efteem- 
Dd who joined themfelves and their Forces 
to their Party ; and the Command of all 
the Provinces b?yotid Sea was refigncd to 
them : For M. Brutus and CaJJius^ fomc- 
times bat of real Fear of Antonius, and 
(bmecimes pretending they were in dread 
of him, only to fix the Envy of the World 
upon him, declared by their Edifis, that 
they would be content to live in perpetual £x- 
ikf if it would advance the Tranquillity cf 

O the 

tj^6 The Roman Hijiory 

the State ; that they would mt gfve the leqfi 
tOccafion jor Wary fncc they enjoyed abtm-^ 
.dance of Honour Jrom the Confcieme of their 
good Alisons. They retired from the City 
and Jtaly, and with united Application 
,and Force^ made themfelves Mafters of 
the Provinces and the Armies ; declaring, 
that whcre-ever they were, thcfe was 
.the ; Commonwealth, and received the 
Ivlo'ney which the Quaeftors were bring- 
ing from the Foreign Provinces to Rmi^ 
who willingly refigned it to tliem. All. 
<hefe Proceedings were ratified and con- 
iirmed by Decrees of the Senate. A 
Triumph was ordered for D. SrutHSy who 
then lived by the Courtefy of others. 
The, bodies of fftrtius and Panfa were 
honoured with a publick Funeral : But 
fo little Regard was there paid to C^/ir, 
'that the Ambafladors who were fent to 
his Army, were ordered to fpeak to the. 
Soldiers fepar^tdy from him : But they! 
vfere not fo ungrateful as the Senate, for 
vdieh C^r diJtembled his taking Notice 
of this Affront, they declared, that they 
wou*d hearken to no Propofals in his Ab- 
iebce. ' This was the Time when Cken 
/out of his natural Fondnefs of the Vom- 
0eifm Faction)' diclivcx^ his dpiiiion, T'hat' 



of Velleius Paterculus, 147 

G«far ought to be praifed and * extoUed, but 
in another Tone than what that Expref- 
fion commonly bears. 


C H A P. LXIir. 

Anthony paffes the Alps, enters the Camp of 
LepiduSy and leaving him the T'itle^ ob^ 
$ainsthe Command oj General. Plan-; 
cus and Poilio fubmit themfelves to An-' 

A Ntonitu had now pafled the Alps hi 
^TL his Flight ; be was at iirft rejefted^ 
by Lepidus^ in their Conferences, (wha 
bad clandeftinely been made High-IPIriefi; 
in the room otCaJar, ^nd conti^niied iiv 
Gaul, tho' Sp/ii» was decreed foe his Pf^rf 
vince) but oy frequent ezpofiag bimlfetC 
to the Sight of the Soldiers ffince Lepi^ 
ius was the worfl of Generals, Amhmj 
preferable to many when calm and fo- 
ber) he was admitted through a Breajoh 
ih the back Part of the Camp ; he fiib- 
mitted to Lepidus in the Titles of Com- 

O z mand. 

* The Exfrejjton in thi Latin iV, Cacfarem lau* 
dandum & tollendum. tollo /j^)flr/ eg; xakcjouc 
•f the Way, stwe(l 01 to advancci &c.' 

148 The Roman Hijlory 

xnand, tho* the Army was entirely govep- 
xicd by liira. Upon the Reception of An- 
tonius^ Juventius Laterenfis^ a Man' who 
lived agreeably to his Deaths advifed 
Lepidus net to join bimjelf witb Antonius, 
vsho woi declared an Enemy to bis Country by 
the Senate. When he found his Counfcl 
was rejefted^ he ran himfelf through with 
his Sword. Plancus had ftruggled long 
with himfelf, and fcarce knew his own 
Refolution; at laft he refign'd die liftle 
Fidelity he had to D, Brutus ^ who was 
defigned for his Colleague in the Conful- 
fiiip ', He made himfelf a Property to the 
Senate by his Letters, and foon after a 
Traytor to his Party ; for he and Afinius 
PolUoy who conftantly favoured the Fa- 
fiion of C^ar^ and oppofed that of ?m- 
^y furrendered their Armies to Antomuu 


Deems Bhitus, one of the Murderers^ 9/ 
Csfar, // fliiin ty Anthony^ Command* 
The Profcriftion and Death of Cicero. 

T) Brums being deferred by Plancus ^ 
-*^' and not long after attempted Iby his 
l^ccachezy^ and finding that his Amy 


1^ Velleius Paterculas. 14^ ^ 

illy, revolted, was (lain in the Houfe of 
le Cornelius^ (aKoblemati of great Ho^ 
itality, who received him in his Ftight}^ 
f fome who were detached by AntomUs - 
ir that Purpofa Thus did he fu£fer Pu« 
ihmentvforthe bale Returns he made te*^ 
. Cafar, who had always deferved very^ 
dl of him. He had been one of the - 
iief of C^y^r's Friends, and became his - 
[urderer ; he threw the Envy of that 
ortune, from which he reaped fo muth > 
bnour, upon the Author of ic The 
ivours be had received from Cafar, he 
as very willing to retain ; but Coifar, 
ho Kad« conferred* them; he refolved ^ 
ould die.. 'Twas about this Time that 
I TuOius branded the Memory of Ant^ 
%s with everlaftin^ Marks of Infamy bjr 
s repeated ^ Aecufations. He arraigned ^ 
Dtk with Abundance of Eloquence : - 
It tkc Tribune Cmitius attacked hint 
ith Violence and Outrage ; but- theic 
indication of the publick Liberty occa- 
mcd the lofs of both their Lives. The 
ofcription began with the Blood of the ; 
cibune, and (as if Amonms Thirft of ^^ 
evenge was fatiated) ended with the 
mifiiment of' Cicero ; Lefidus was now 

O 3 prooounceid '* 

150 Th^ Romm S^ory 

pconouitccd an EnemV by the Scnat*, w 
'/tntonius had been before. 

■ * 


' J5&f Triumvirate of Anthony, O&ivinSy 
and Lepidus. Venturas tritm^hs in 
Rome, whtfi he had.d little bijme bm 

led Captive. 

THERE wa$ now an Intercourfe 
of Letters between Lepidus^ Amih 
nius^ and Cajar, and fome Qvertnits of a 
Treaty were propofed; Amonius Sik^c^ci 
to Cafar^ how much * fie yras det;efl^ fcjy 
the Fa£bion of the* Pow/^e/^i/j^ and hoV 
Brtnus and Caffiui were advanced by the 
Interefl of Cicero, and protefted. that if 
C^far did dUiregard his Aliiance^ he would 
join his Forces wirh Brutus and CaJj[htSs 
who were now fe^nteen Legipns^Qhg) 
and alledged farthejt, that'C^j^'' crti^ tf^ 
be more concerned for the Reveitg^ of 
his Father than himfelf, who wi^ no 
more th^n a Friend to him^ Upon this 
there was an Union of Power ftnic)^ 
up, and upon the Entrejities of both the 
Armies, an Alliance in Blood* con tra&ed 
between Oefar ai&d Amonius^ by a Mar* 



^ Velleius Paterculus. ijr 

tfage ©rthe Daughter-in-Law of Antonh 
us to Cafar^ who withr his Colleague Q. 
Pediuiy entered the Confulfliip the Day 
before he was twenty Years of Age, 709 
Years aft jjr the Building of the City, and 
72 before you, ^great Sir, were admitted 
into th^t Office. This Year faw yemh 
dittSy join the Coafular Pratexta to the 
Prat9rian Gown in that City, through 
which he had been led in Triumph among 
the Prifoners of the Picentinesy and m 
which .he had afterwards the Honour of a 
Triumph himfeifc . 


: ,■ ' jj w ■ > i u ' I ■ ■ ■ ■ ' . ■ > ■? ■ 


Anthony wijri Lepidns fit up a third Pre^ 
fmptioHy which ii in vain itfofid by Car- 

• ' far. T*f Peaih m^dlBharalfer cf Cicero^ 

' .' ' '• . ■ ■ • " • 

-ANtdntHs and Lepidtts fa|ei;)g both de- 
i" dawiinemies to the State, :as I hati; 
related] and more wiHmg ta rejBcft on 
what they had fufercd, than wl\;at they 
deferved, dio' C/tfar in vajn oppcfed them, 
having but one Voice aiptinft xyfo, fet tip 
that mbfr execrable ^Procdcding-bcgutt bj 
-affii'in'iBotbfer Prorcriptipn . Nothing rc^. 

fle&siriore Difhohotii^nifkinf th^re'TiTi^> 
•** than 

1^5:2. The Reman Hijiorjf, 

tfaan^ that dtfar ihould be compelled to 
profcribe any one^or thztCicero was made 
zxi laftance of that bale Fradice. The 
Voice of the Publick was fiienced by the 
Villainy of Antonius;^ no one took any 
care of his Safety^ who had for many 
Tears defended the publick Security of thfc 
Cicy^. and that of every private Member 
ef it : But thou haft got nothing Anta" 
nius, (for my Indignation^ which will not 
be contained, forces me ta exceed the 
Limits of this Work) I fay^ th6u haft 
got nothing by publifhing a KewaNl 
tor the honourable Life of that divine 
Man; and inviting the Cruelty qf a Ruf- 
fian by the Temptations o£;Gold\ Thou 
haft deprived M. Ckeri^ , indeed,, of an 
anxious Life, and a troublefome old Age; 
of "a Life more fl||iferable under thy Su- 
premacy, than I^ath could be, whiift 
rbou waA. Triunrvir i But £;> little kaft 
thou attained thy Defigns in leflfening the 
Reputationand Glory of his A&ions and 
Eloquence, that thou baft rather enhanced 
*^m : He lives, and will furvjve. in the 
Memory, of all Ages, and as long? as this 
Body of Nature, whether it was formed 
(?y Chancy ^lovidence^ or any. other 
Pbvrcr (wjiiclvic. alone,, of all the . R(^ 

ef Vcllcius Paterculu?* 153 

manSy could fcarch into with his Under- 
ftahding, comprehend by his Knowledge^ 
andilluftrate with his Eloquence 5) I fay, 
as long as that remains entire, the Glory 
of CketQ fhall Accompany its Duratioa 
through diftant Ages, which iball ad« 
mire his Writings againft thee, and deteft 
thy Villainy to him \ and the^ Race of 
Mankind (hall fooner fall, than the. ho« 
nourable mention of his Naaie among 


lie Carriage and Bebavkur of feveral Ro- 
man Cititensy to their Profcrilri' Friends 
and Relations. A Sart^. tf the^ Sol- 
diers itgain/l ?\zncus. 

A S no one can fufflciently lament tfie 
•^^ Fortune of thefe Times, fo I will 
not pretend to exprefs it in Words. But 
I muft take Notice, that the Wives qC 
the Pcofcribed difcovered a conftant Fi- 
delity to their Husbands, the Freed Men? 
and Servants a moderate one to their 
Mafters, but the Children none at all to* 
their Parents; fo difficult is it for Men to 
wait for the IQliie of their Hopes, how 


1 54 ^^^ Roman Hi {lory 
unfairly foe ver conceived. Lcaft any Thing 
facred (hould be left, which might leifen 
and detrad from ttieir Cruelty^ Antoniut 
profcribed his Uncle L. defar, and Le- 
fidus his Btothcv Pauilus ;, Piancus too had 
Intereft enough to obtain that his Bro« 
ther Plotius {hpnldbe profcribed. Thence 
it was that the Solders who followed the 
Chariot of Lepiius and Phncusy made ufe 
of this Expr^flion among the Execrations 
of the Citizens, as a common Jeft. * TAf 
two ConfulSf infiead of triumphing opir thf 

Gauls^ triumph over their Brothers. 

^ « . » . • . . "• 

. * tU Et^PnJpHt in thi Latin i /^ De, GermiiiiSi 
npn lie Cilliit duo trictmphant ConfuTes : 71^* A- 
CWKnttk-iffit €OffillrJn fbi Ambiguity tfthemrd Ger- 
manis, vbick CMntiot vftM h frefsrvtd im umLsn^ 
g«»S*, Germanls not being s prifer IJtme^ ht i> 
tfudtd tofignify BrQChcm. 


cfVdkius Patercultw. 155 

C H A P. LXyill. 

7}}e ABionsand CharaBer of Marcus Cae- 
\iuSy and Mild. The great Lenity and 
Moderation of Caefar, in the Punijbment 
of thofe that had abufed him. 

I Mull now take Notice of what I have 
omitticdjfor the Dignity of the Perfons 
will not fuffer the Fa^ to be • concealed. 
Whilft Cafar fought for the Sovereignty 
in the Battles of Pharfalia and Africa^ 
M. Callus^ a Man extremely like Curio in 
his Eloquence and Temper of Mind, 
tlio' he 'was more.accpfnplifhed in both, 
and full as ingepioufly tuirn'd for Mifchief, 
when he found tbat no fmall Matter 
would redeem his Affairs (whiclj weref 
now as defperate as ttie Difpofition of 
his Mind3 enafted fome new Laws in 
his Pfaetorfliip, and would nbt ' be deter- 
red from his, l^iefolution by ;the Autho-f 
rity of the Senate and.Cqnliils^ but took 
Aff/b Anniusj who was ^xilpfetated a-* 
gaihft the jT^Z/tfii FaSion, t>e(f:aufe the]^ 
had refofed his Recall from Banifliment, 
and raifed a Sedition, or rafhet privately 
intended a. Military Tumult in the City. 
©ut he ' was firft removed from his Of- 

156 Tbff Roman Hijiorf 

dec, and afterwards defeated by the Arms 
of the Confuls^ and Gommandt>f the Se- 
nate in the Country of the Ihirians^ 
Milo^s Enterprize of the fame Nature, 
m^ with the fame Succefs. He befiegcd 
Compfa, a City of the fftrpini, and was 
ftruck with a Stope, and fo fuffered the 
(levenge he owed to Chdius and his Couo* 
try, which he invaded with Arms. He 
was a Man rather rafb than valiant. But 
treating now of Things that are omitted, 
I muft mention here the great Liberty 
which MaruSus Efidius and Flavius C^ 
fetius^ Tribunes olF the People, made ufc 
of againft Cafar ; for whilft they arraign* 
ed him with afpiring it the Sovereignty, 
they had like to have felt the Effe&s of 
that Power they accufed him of aiming 
at : But his Paffion went no higher upoQ 
this Provocation, than to remove them 
from the Government, chuHng rather to 
punifii them as a Cenfor, than corrcft 
them as a Diftator, and protefted, that 
it was his, iteateft MBsfcrtune^ that Jbe muft 
either ie obliged to, exceed the Clemency he vrns 
naturally Jifpofed tb^ or fuffer his Dignity to 
te infringed. But to return to our Hiftory. 


«r * 

tf Vdlcius Paterculus. 15 7 


TOit Death af Trebonius^ and Dolabella t 
Vatinius his CbaraHer. All the Murder^ 
ers of Ofar interJiiied by the Psdiaa 


Ty)lahella had now killed Treboniusy'vrhovBL 
-^ he fucceedcd in the Confulfhip ac 
Smyrna in Afia^ having deluded him by a 
Scracagem. He was one who proved 
very Qn^ratefol to the Obligations Cafar 
had laid upon him, in being one of 
his Murderers^ who had advanced him 
to the Degree of a Conjul. C. Cajftus hav« 
ing received fome brave Legions in Syria^ 
{torn Status MurcuSj and Crifpus Marcius^ 
Men of the Pratorian Dignity, and Ge- 
nerals, beiieged Dolabella in Laodkea, and 
made him his Prifoner upon the Surren- 
der of the Town, (tho* he had valiantly 
reHgned his Ncdc to the Stroke of his 
Servant) and in that Succefs made him- 
felf Matter of Ten Legions ; M. Brut^t 
extorted the Legions Trom C. Antonius^ 
Brother to M. Antoniusj in Macedonia^ and 
from Vatinius, near Djrrachium, which 
were very willing to change their Com- 
mander. He overcame Amtmius by Arms, 

P bac 

158 The Roman Hijlor^ 

but fubdued Vatinius by the Fame of his 
Greatnefs : For Brutus appeared worthy 
to be preferred to any General, and Va- 
itnius came (hort of all upon every ac- 
count. The Deformity of this Man's 
Body Teemed to rival the Bafenefs of his 
Mind, which was (hut up in a Habi- 
tation very agreeable for fuch a Tenant. 
Hb had feven Legions under him. The 
Tsedian Law was pafled by Padiusy Col- 
Ifeagde with Cafar in the Confulfhip, di- 
refting that all who were concerned in 
the Murder of defa/s Father, Ihould be 
forbidden the ufe of Fire and Water. At 
<hat Time my Father's Brother C^/to 
fubfcribed to Agrijfpa zgzintt C. Ci^us. 
While Affairs are in this Pofturc in Italjt 
Cafpus, by a very vigorous and fuccefs- 
fill War had taken the City Rhodes^ an 
Undertaking of prodigious Difficulty; 
Brutus had fubdued the Lycians, and inarch- 
ed his Army from thence into Macedonia. 
Cajjius in all this Condud aded fo far a- 
^ainft his Inclination, that he exceeded 
die Clemency of Brutus. You'll fcarcc 
meet with any who were more kindly 
'favoured by Fortune at firft, or* after* 
wards more Riddenly relinqtiifhed by Her 
(as if (he hadbeeu wearyor them) than 
Bi^sius and CaJJius. " C H A P* 

<7/^ Velleius PatcrcuItB. 159 


Callius takes Rhodes ; Lycia is tonqucred 
by Brucusi ; they both pafs into Macedo- 
nia ; JJb^ Battle of Philippi, where.C^ 

- fiu^ ^uii Brutus being nutei^ are flain. 

f^Mfar and Antonius had now carried 
^ their Annies into Macedonia , wher^ 
ihey engaged Bmtus and Cajjius^ neat 
Philippi. The Wipg which Bmtus com- 
q^nded^ forced the Enemy^ and entered 
he Camp of C^far : For tho* he was very 
Qttch indifpofedj and had been intreated 
)y his Phyfician Artorius^ who had beea 
dSright^d in % Dream, to retire from hie 
^tiarterj^ht did notwitbftanding difcharge 
he Office of a General The Part whera 
}4^i^/.commanded,was very mi)ch diflref-r 
itd,and retreated to higher Ground. Cajjius 
hinking his Colleague bad no bettei? 
iuccefs than himfelf, difpatched a Scout 
o bring Intelligence of the Multitude of 
^en who advanced toward hinx The 
icout was very flow in his return^ and 
he Forces were very near, but could not 
re Cl^arty difcovered by their Faces or 
knfigns, by reafon of the Duft which they 
u(tik^ Caffius thinking they were Ene-* 

Ft miea 

i6o The ^om^n Hiftcfy 

mies who came ta affault hinij bound ^is 
Head in a Napkin, and laid down his 
Neck to his freed Man, with the greateft 
Intrepidity. His Head was fcarce eut 
ofF, when the Scout returned with the 
News, that Brutus was Conqueror : But 
when he faw his General lie dead upon 
the Ground X I'll fellow him (faidbe) 
whom I have ruined by my Slownefs, and 
immediately fell upon his Swerd. A few 
Days afterwards, Brutus renewed the 
Fight with the Enemy^ and being ovei^ 
thrown, he conveyed himfelf to an Eni- 
Bcnce by Night, and defired his freed 
Man StratOy who had always been hmv 
bar with him, to lend him his Affiftance 

. DOW he was going to die. Upon this 
he laid his Left Hand upon his Head, 
and dhreded the Point of his Sword with 

^ the Right, againft his Left Breaft, the 
Place where we feel the Palpitatiion of 
the Heart, and thrufting it forward^ a* 
pired with the firft Stroke* 


9f. Vfttteius Paterculcn; if i 



neflfala and Corviuus furrender themfelws^ 
to Carfar, and are kindly received by trim : . 
Several eminent Romans fiain on hth 
Sides itrihe Fight. 

THEN was Mejfalay an illuflnofffii'^ 
Youth, next in Authority to Bru^ 
tus zndCaUius in th& Camp,, deiircd b% 
feverat to undertake the Command of the 
War. But he chofc to refign himfclf to 
the Qeiiiency of Cafary rather than ftand 
to the Iffue of Uncertainty. Cafar did 
not receive any greater Satisfaf^ioa fronv 
his Viffory,., than his having pjreferved 
Ccrvfnus ; nor was there ever any more 
generous Inllance of Gratitude, than that 
of Corvinus to C^/ok afterwards. Nevct' 
was.any War fiained with the Slood or 
more illuftrious Pcrfpns : Therein died* 
the .Son of Cdtfh. The fame Fortune tookl 
off LumEus and Hortenjiui^ Sons of the' 
moft eminent Citizens. Vdrro^ when he. 
was to die for the Diverfion oiAntmius^^ 
declared what was to befal him in relati-^ 
on to his Death, with the greateft. Free- 
dom. Drufus Livius (Father of Jtilia 
A^gtifia} and Varus QHjnSliliHi, without. 

P 3 oflfermg: 

iS2 Th& Roimft Tkffdrj 

offering themfeli^s ta the Mercy @f the 
Enemy ; , the firft of thcni killed him- 
fclf in his Tent; the other compelled 
his freed Man to be his Executioner, 
Telling his Head with the Enfigns of his 


^A Paraltel between Brutus and Gaffiusi 
Cna^us Domitius, and Statius Mar- 
cus, "jjjtb agreatNavyytefairto Sicily,: 
' and pin. Sex. Pompeius.. 

THIS was the End which For- 
tune was pleafed to appoint to the 
Faftion of Brutus, in the Thirty- feventh^ 
Year of his Age. His Mind was never 
corrupted till that Day,, in which one 
ca(h Adion fuUied the Brightnefs of alt 
his Virtues. Cajpus was the more ex- 
pert Commander, Brutus the better Man. 
Brutus you'd efteem as a fincere Friendj^ 
dajpus as a more formidable Enemy. The: 
one had great Abilities, the other a 
ftrifter Virtue, Had their Defigns fuc- 
cceded, Brutus would have been as mucb 
a better Governor of the State than Caf- 
^^. as G/tfar thaa Antonius. Gn. Domi- 



^ VclFcius Piterchrias. i^^ 

msy Father of X. Domitiusy w^o lately 
Jived among us, a Man of a ihoft gene- 
rous and noble Ihtegtity, and Grandfa- 
ther to the prefent illuftrious Cn. Domiti" 
us, feized upon fome Ships/ and with a 
numerous Attendance, which followed 
his Meafures, commhted binlfelf to the 
Fortune of a FKght, being content to be 
the Leader o( a Fzrtyi Status Murdny 
who was Admiral *of the Navy, went 
over with that Part of the Army and 
Shipping which he commanded, to Sex. 
Pompeiusy Son to him who was fimamed 
the Greats who had feized upon Stcih by 
Force of Arms,^ in his return from Spain. 
Many came over to him from Brutus*s 
Gamp, Italy, and other Parts of the Em- 
pire, whofe Fortune had withdrawn them 
from the prefent Danger : For any Gene- 
ral ferved them who had no Habitation^ 
©f their own^^ fince Fortune did not grant 
them the Liberty to choofe^ but only 
pointed out a poorRctreat for them ; even 
a cbmmon Road being a Port to thofe 
who are flying from the dreadful Storm.. 


z6^ The Roman Hijbr^ 

Hie Cbaraiier^ and^^ions of Sextus Pom^ 
pcius ! He infefis the Sear, and mam^ 
tains bin^Jjf md bis Armj by Piracy. 

Tuts. young Maa was unpolifhtd 
with Learning, and barbarous ia< 
his Littguage ; of a very audacious Tern* 
j^, great Adivity of Body, and Preci* 
pitatioQ in his RJefolutions, very unlike 
his Father in his Sincerity. He was a. 
Servancto his freed Men, and a Slave to 
his Servants. He envied Men of any 
Worth and Reputation, that he. might, 
(ubmit ta thofe of none. The Senate, 
which condfted chiefly of the. Pmtpeiait^ 
F^ftion, and thofe who ench'ned to that 
Party, had recall'd him from SpaiUy (where. 
Afinius PolliOy of the Pr^orian Order, 
had oppofed him in a very vigorous War) 
after Antmius*s Retreat from Mutinoy at 
the fame. Time when the Tranfmarine 
Provinces were decreed to Brutus and 
Ca§usy and reftored him to his^Father'ji 
Eftate, arfd gave him the Command^ of 
the Sea-Coaft. When he had poffefsM 
himfclf of Sicily (as I have mentioned) 
he lifledT all the Slaves and Fugitives 


^/ Vcllcius Paterculuf . 1 6 S 

into his Army, and by thofc means filled 
up a very great Number of Legions. He 
tnfefted the Sea with Robbery, by his 
Admirals h/Una and Menecrates ; andmade 
ufe of Rapine for the Support and Main- 
tenance of himfelf and ot his Army, and 
was not aihamed to Ravage the Sea 
with Piracies, which was cleared from' 
it before^ by the Arms and Conduft of 
bis Father. 


Anthony remains in Greece, after tJje J)e^ 

feat of Brutus ; Casfar returns to Rome. 

Lucius Antonius, and Fulvia ftir up nem 

Broils in Italy i Pet^ria hm* 

np H E Faaion of Brutus and Cajjiut. 
^ being now broken, Antonius tarries 
behind to poflfels himfelf of the Provin- 
ces beyond Sea^ while CMfar returns inta 
half J and finds it in a much greater Coa* 
(bfion than he expeded. For the Conful, 
£. Antoniusy who had all the Failings di 
his Brother, but not one of the Virtues 
which fometimes difcovered themfelves 
in him, what by arraigning Cafar to the 
Veteran Troops^ and incenfing thofe to 

' Arms 

i66 The Roman Hifi&ry 

Arms who had loft their Eftates in 
the Divifion of the Fields^ (new Colo- 
nies being fent topoiTefs thern) had raifed 
very conHderable Forces. On the other 
band, Fuhia^ the Wife of Amoniusi who 
had nothing of the Woisiean about her, 
but her P^rfon, filled all Places with Vi- 
olence and Riot^ and chofe Tramfie tfor 
the Seat of her War. Bi^t AntMius be* 
ing every where repulfed by the Fprc^ of 
CafoTy retired to Teruia. Plancus, a Fa; 
vourer of Antonius^s Faftion, gave hini 
Hopes of- Succours, rather than really a(- 
filled him. Cafar making ufe of his Var 
lour and Fortune, alTaulted and carried 
Perujiay apd difchargcd Antomus withoot 
Hurt. The Violence agaihil the Inha- 
bitants of that Place, proceeded from 
the Rage of the Soldier^ rathetf ' tlRjItl 
the Confent of the General* The City 
was burnt by Maeedonicus, the GfH 
vemor of it, who fetting Fire to his 
Houfe, and ^Ul his ££(e&s, rati himfclf 
through with t Sword,; and caft himfel0 
into the Fianie. > • . 


cf Vellcius Patcrculus. 167 


'A War raifedin Campania, iy Tib, Clau- 
dius Nero, but fidn appeafed by Caffar. 
The Chamber and ABions oj Li via, afier^ 
V)ards Wtjt to Auguftus. 

• A T the fame Time there began a 
jr\. War in Campania^ which was en- 
couraged by Tiberius Claudius, a Perfon of 
the Prxtorian Order, a Prieft, and the 
Father of Tiberius Cafar, a Man of great 
Parts and AccOmplifliments ; he profefsM 
himfelf ^a Patron of thofe who had loft 
their Lands : But this Commotion wa^ 
foon difpellM and broken by the arrival 
of Cafar. Who can fufficiently admire 
tfic Revolutions of Fortune ? The vari- 
ous Contingencies in all Human Affairs: 
Who would not fear or hope for any 
thing even difterent from what he poi- 
ifefles, or contrary to what he expcfts? 
Livia, the Daughter' of Drufus Claudia:- 
husy (of the nobleft Drfcent, and the 
greareft Courage) a Lady of the moft il- 
luftrrous Family, of the moft eminent 
Bea\ity and Probity of any in Rome, the 
"Confdrt of Augufius a:fterwards'- arid 
wheb he was admitted atiiori^ th^ Godi, 


i68 The Roman Hffloty 

honoured with being his Prieftefs ; het 
we behold flying from the Arms of that 
C^far (who was once to be her own) 
bearing in her Bofom the young Tiberius^ 
the Reftorer of the Roman Empire, the 
Son afterwards of the fame C^^r, but 
then not two Years old, through the 
mod -obfcure Ways, on purpofe to avoid 
the Swords of the Soldiers, and with one 
i4ttendant, the more eafily to coivceal 
her Flight, canie to the Sea, and with 
her Husband Nero is carried into SUUj. 
■ - - ■ t.. ■ 


^e Death of C^lvis Velleius; Vulvizani 
Plancus retire to Anthony. Anthony 
returns to Italy ; a Peace between him otti 
Caefar concluded at Brundufium. 

'^ H E Teftimony I would in jufticc 
-*■ allow a Stranger, I muft not deny 
to my own Grandfather. C. J/eJkius, 
who was cle&ed by Cn. Pornpeius into a 
very honourable Poft among the Three 
hundred and (ixty Judges, and was Su- 
pervifor of the Artificers to him, to 
Marcus Brutus, ^nd to fiierius Nero, a 

y an inferior to none, when he had ar- 
^ r^ved 

Of VeUeius Patercdus. 169 

afriv'd at a great Agc^and a decayed Con« 
fiituuon^ and could not follow the Train 
of Nero when ht left Ncrples^ whofe Caufe 
he favoured, by reafon of a particular In- 
timacy with him, feU iiimfelf upon his 
own Sword ; Cafar permitted Fuivia to 
depart from 4taljy without any Violence, 
and allow'd Plancus to attend upon her 
in her Right : For PoUio Afiniusy having 
with fcven Legions retained Venetia in the 
Power of Antonius, and performed fomc 
fpecious and gallant Ex:pIoits about Alti* 
mnty and other Cities of that Country, 
being in queft of Antoniusy ntet by Chance 
with Domitiusy who, we faid, had left 
the Camp after the Death of Brtuusy and 
made himfelf Admiral of his own Fleet, 
. whom when he had given him his Faith, he 
brought over to Antonius. By this Adion, 
whoever equally confiders it, wiU confefs,' 
that PoVh had laid as flrong an Obliga*> 
tion upon Antmiusy as Amonius did after 
upon PoUio. The quick arrival of Antth 
hius in Italy y and the Preparations of C^ 
far to oppofe him, gave Occafion to fear 
a War, but a Peace was firuck up at 
Brundufium : Among the{e Trantaftions^ 
the impious Defigns of Rufus SaJvidte^ 
iuis were difeovcr'd, aPerfonof the low- 

^jo Tb^ KommHiJior/ 

<(l pclicent^ who tboaght it too me^ at 
ilonour to enjoy the higheft Poft in the 
Srate^ to be cbofen Conful next to F^nir 
feim and Cafar himfelf, of the Equefiriao 
Order^ unlefs he did arrive to that Height 
/jTQm whence he might have lookM down 
upon C/tfar^ aod upon the Conuaonw^kh 
it felf. 


jA Ptace concluded at Mifenum, with Sextus 
' JPompeius, by v^Uh the Profcrit'd are re- 
fiordy and Sicily and Achaia allotted ti 
' rompey. The Death of Stains Murcus. 

TH £ RE was a Peace at that Time 
concluded by Pompeius at JMUfenum^ 
upon the general SoUicitations of the Pco* 
plCj who wjcre fevcrely opprefs'd by a 
Scarcenefs of Goto, becaufe the Sea was 
dangerous. He very appoiitely exprefs'd 
himielf» when he had Cafar and Antonius 
at an Entertainment on Shipboard, That 
hf would feafi them in his Keel, alluding to 
the Name of the Street where his Fa- 
ther's Houfe ftood/ now in the PoiTefGon 
dl Antonius. By the Articles of this Peace, 
JSkily and Adhaia were ajllotted to Pmfeji^ 


(fVtllcms Paterculus. ryt 

but this was for from giving him Sitisfa- 
aion. The only Bcnefic he broughr to 
his Country b; his arrival, was, that he 
procured a fiiort return to all that were 
'profcrib'd, and others who fled to hita, 
upon any Pfetencc whatfoever: Upon- 
this AiTurance, many eminent Men Were 
rcftorM tothc Commonwealth. Nero Clau- 
dius^ M. Silanusy Sentius Satuminusj AruH" 
eius Attius ; butStaiusMurcuSjVrhohy his-' 
own, and the additional Power of aBne 
Navy, had doubled hii Forces, upon a Sd- 
i)»ioion of Mifdemeatiors, becaufe Mana? 
and Menecrates could not bear fuch a Man 
a Piirttier in Office, was^ flain by the 
Hand of Pmpej in Sicily. 


Anthony*/ Marriage voith Oftavia, the •$?- 
fter (f Caefar ; Labienus harving flctin Ktr 
thony'x Lieutenant in Syria, is overthrovsn 
by the ConduSi of Ventidius. A fever$ 
Example of Juftice in Spain, againfl a^ 

IN this Trad of Time, M Antonius 
mzvricd ^0£lavia, the Sifter of C^- 
far. Pompey returned into Sicily^ and A»^. 

Q 2 tonius 

i^a 31?^ Roman Hijiorf 

tonius into the Provinces beyond the Seas^ 
which were feverely harrau'd by Labienus 
going over from the Camp of Brutus to 
the Parthiausy by carrying his Army in- 
to Syria^ and iaUing the Lieutenant of 
Antmius : But he (with the Power of the 
Parthiauiy and the gallant Pacorusy the 
King's Son) was overthrown by the Va- 
lour and Conduft of Ventidius. Cafar in 
the mean time, leaft Idlenefs (a fatal Ene- 
my to Difcipline), fbould corrupt his Sol- 
diers, hardened bis Army to a Patience of 
Dangers^ and the Experience of War^ by 
frequent Expeditions into lOyricum and 
Dalmatia. At the fame tirne^ Calvinus 
Domitiusy who in his Confullkip had the 
Province of Spain allotted him, gave us 
an Example of greateft Weight, and com- 
parable to the Difciplnie of former Ages : 
For a Centurion of the firfl Rank, one 
VibulUusy who had fled upon the firft En- 
gagement, he commanded to be beat to 
Death with a Qub. 


0f Velleius Patercufus. 1 73 

War declar*i agmiA Sextns Pompeius. Th 
berius Nero Jurfenders his IVife Li via 
to Casfar, viho marries her. Marcus 
Agrippa his CharaSJer. Pompcy ieing 
overthrovm by Cacfar, flies t^ Anthony^ 
and is by bis Command flain. 

1^ HE Fame and- the Rcet of ?om^ 
^ ^ejr daily increafing, C^r refolved' 
to undertake the Weight of that War. 
A/« w^^i^^. was appointed tatake care of' 
the Building of the Shipsy to provide: 
Seamen and. Soldiers t for the Service; to- 
exercife them in Naval Conflids and £n« 
gagementSk He was a Perfon of the: 
moft eminent Virtue, invincible by La- 
bbur, watching all Dangers,- very ready 
to obey one Commander, but ambitious- 
te Rule over othets; above all Things,, 
averfe to Delays, and jointng^ Executtoa^ 
with hiS Refolves : When he had fitted* 
oat a gallant Fleet in the Eakes of Aver*- 
nus and Lucrinum^ by his Dtfcipline and* 
ferquent E'xercijfes, he made the Macineri 
and the Soldier very expert for the Sea 
Of Land Service. With this FTcct, Cafar^ 
(wbcQ he had. by the Confent of Nero^. 

1 74 The- Ramtiir Wjtory 

her Husbanci, married Umia wicb the 
ufual Ceremony) carried the War upoa 
Pompe^y ifkXO Sicily ; Buc Fortune tt that 
Time gave a terrible Blow to a Maa 
who was iDvincible by any luimaa Pow- 
er : For a ftrong Wind from the Somb^ 
Dear VeUn^ and the. Promontory o£ PaU- 
nurus^hxokt and £catter\i the gfcateft 
Part of the Fleet. This occafion*d a De- 
lay in the carrying on of that War^ whkh 
was afterward manag'd with various Sue- 
ccfr ; the Fleet, in the very £une Place, 
v^ again toire. b^ a Tempeft ;: and as by 
the Gonduft of ^iffa^ the . Ecenti was 
pfofperoitfiL neat Mj/ht^Ao^ by; the uoex- 
peded Approach of the Enenues.Kavy, 
there was a great Overthrow near T/swro- 
meniumy under the very Eyes of €^ff/Szr, be 
hardly efcaping himfelf. The Legions 
which were with Corwficius^ the Lieute.- 
nant of Cafary as foon as they were land- 
ed, were almoft all cut off by Pimpej^ : But 
the Misfortune of that Accident was 
foon retrieved by a prudent Conduft ; for 
the Fleet on both Sides being open'd. Pom- 
pty was forfaken by atmoft all his Navy, 
and fled into Afia^ where, by the Cont- 
mand of M. Antonius^ whofe* Alfiftance 
he entreiijted whilfthe aSednow part of. 

a Comr 

of Vcllcius Patcrctrfils. 175 

% Comnunckn, and now of a Suppliant^ 
£conffticnes infixing upon- Mfs Aiichorky, 
and then begging for his L^> he had his 
Thtxxu cut by TiVifi^ ; Upon AntwiuuT the 
Oditmt procured by this- Aflion was fo 
great,, chat he was driven from the Plays 
he celebrated iiv the Theatre of Pompey^ 
hy the; ExecrarCions of the People. 


C^rar tetaU Leptdiu from Africk, to join 
hii PifTces iigainft Pompeias. His Beha^ 
viom and hfohmetB-C^zr^ who deprivif 
him^ofhis Honours andCoinmand^y iurger* 
mroufb/ ffares his L^. 

^MfaYj in his carrying on. of the War 
^ againft Pompey^^ fcnt for Lepidus out of 
Africa^ with twelve Legions which had 
but half their Number r This Man^ a 
Ecrfon of the greatcft Vanity, and no 
way by his Conduft deferviftg^ (b long ah 
indulgence of Fortune, joinM to liimfelf 
the Army of Pompej-, (becaufe he was 
nearer to them) who followed not hJs» 
but the Authority and Faith of C^i** ; 
Proud with the Attendance of more* than 
twenty Legions, be was^ fO' vainly madj 


^j6 The Roman Hijforjt 

that he afcribed the whole Fortune of the 
Succefe to himfelf, tho' he was no mote 
than a fuperfluous Attendant of another's 
Vi&ory, always diflfenting . from Cafar in 
the G>uncil» and declaring himfelf con-* 
trary to the unanimous Refolvesof othen. 
This Man had the Impudence to com- 
mand Cafar to depart from Sicily. Notihe 
Scipio% or the Braveft of the RomMHcr 
roes have attempted or executed any thing 
nobler than Cafar did at that time : for 
be went unacm'd, wrapped in his Cloak,, 
having nothing but his Name with him, 
into the Camp oi Lipidus ; and when he 
hadefcapedthe Darts that were difchai^- 
ed at him, by the command of that intir 
mous Man, when his Cloak had been 
thruft through with a Lance, he feized 
the Eagle ot the Legion. Now you might 
plainlyvfee the Difference between the Ger 
nerals ; the Armed follow the Unarmed,, 
^d the tenth Tear after Ltpidus arrivM. 
at fuch anr Exorbitancy of Power, being 
(orfaken by bis Soldiers and his Fortudey. 
in a poor Cloak, and fculking among the 
laft of thofe who fk>od gazing at Cafo}-^ 
he threw himfelf along at his Ffeet ; his 
Life, and the Poffeffion of his private- 
Eftate was granted him^ but he was do- 


of VcITeius Patcrculus. 1 77 

pri?'d of his Dignity, bccaufe he knew 
BOt how to (upport it. 


A Muti^ of the Soldiers reprefsd by the 
Bounty of Caffar. Agrippa, for his Ser- 
vices in the late IVoTy obtains the Honosfr, 
of a Naval Cnwn, 

nPBE fudden ISfotiny of thr Atniy 
"^ (who refle&ing upon their Numbers^ 
oft revolt from Difciptine^ and becaufe 
they think they can oblige, are impatient 
to ask) was partly quieted by the^ Se- 
verity, and partly by the Liberality of the 
Prince ; there was bellowed on him for 
l»hat time, a fpecious Supplement of the 
Colony of Cawpama ; the Revenues of it 
bqlong'd to the Publick, but twelve hun-* 
dred thoufand Sefterces were paid in the 
room of it, from the IQand ojt Crete^ and 
a Water-Work was promifed, which is z 
great Benefit to the City, and to this Day 
fingularly wholefbme and pleafant. Agri^ 
fa in this War, for his excellent Condnft, 
defervM the honour of a Naval Crown, 
which no one of the Romans had ever yet 
befiowM upon them i Cafar afterward re« 


178 The Roman Hijlary . 

turning a Conqueror into the City, pro* 
fefs'd chat he defignM feveral Houfes^ 
that were purchafed by his AgentSi to 
enlarge his own for the Ufe of the State; 
be promisM to raife a Temple to Af^Oy 
and Galleries about it, which he perform- 
ed with exquifite Munificence. 


Anthony faffes thro^h Armenia, ani mfh 
tbirtuH Uffom invades the Parthians. 
JEfe hfes^ a peM Part af Us Arm}^ aid 
nan&wfy freffrved tb^ rejiy by tke Paitk^ 
fulaefs and JdiHce rf a Romao Slmt. 
He refihes to fyjkt with Csfffar. 

THE time when Cafar was fo profpe^ 

rous againA Lepi^ in Sicily ^ FortQse 
fuccefsfiilly eagag^ in the Eaft for hi» 
Caufe and for the Commonwealth ; fbc 
Amenius, with thirteen Legions entring 
Armenia and Meiia^ and through thofe 
Countries making his Way to the Parthi- 
ansy met with the King: In the firfl; At- 
tack be loft two Legions^ all bis Carri^ 
ages and Artillery, and Statianm his Lieu- 
tenant. Skx>ft after himfelf, with the ba- 
aard of his whole Army, engag'd in thofe 


of Vcllcms Patercuhis. 179 

Difigers, from which he dcfpairM to 
efcapc ; and having loft no lefs than a 
fourth Part of his Men^ he was prefcrv'd 
by ^the Advice and Fidelity of a Ronum 
Captive, who W;as taken in the Defeat of 
the Cr^an Army. This Man (havings 
retain'd his Hotiour, tho' he changM his. 
Fortune) came by Night to the Roman 
Camp, and inform d them that they ihould 
not purfue the Journey they intended, bur 
go another Way tbreugh the Woods* 
This Intelligence was the Prefervation of 
M Antonius and all his Legions; of whom 
notwithftanding, and of his whole Army, 
a fourth Pare at kail of the Soldiers, and 
a third of the Slaves, and thofe who folr 
low'd the Camp, were loft i yet Antomnt^ 
becaufehe efcaped alfve, called this Flight 
of his a Vi^ory. Thc^ third Summer af- 
ter returning into Armenitt, he (xxvprh^it 
Artat^^s^the King of it, by a Strat^mi' 
and laid him in Chains ; but becaa(e life 
would-not decade his Majefty, they were 
^oi Goki. His love to Cleopatra breaking 
out into u Flame, and his Vices (whieft 
are always fomented by Licence, Flatten 
ry and Greatnefs) giowing more impetu- 
ous, be-wfolvcd to carry a War into hi^ 
<jQmttj^ Ikrhen h^ hid before command- 

iBo, The Roman Hijiofy 

ed himfelf to be called the New Liter 
Pater ; and being adorned with Ivy, and 
bound with a Golden Crown, with >the 
Thyrfm in his Hand, and Buskins uqor 
^is Legs, was carried in his Chariot ac 
Akxandria like the God Bacchus. 


Plancus faBs off from Anthony ro Oe(ar. 
His Behaviour and CharaBer after Us 

AMONG all this Provifion of War, 
•" PlancM^ not from a conviftioa of his 
Judgment, or for a love for the Common- 
wealth, or for Cafar {iot thefe he always 
oppofed) but infeded as with a Difeafe, 
became a Villain, after he had been the 
moft fawning Flatterer of the Queen, and 
a Retainer to her, below the meaneft of 
her Servants, when he had been the Se- 
cretary of iJ/^t^fffVu, the Inventer and Pan- 
dec to the obfceneft of his Pleafures, a 
Mercenary Wretch in all his Offices, and 
to all who employ M him ; when he had 
iliewM himfelf naked, and in a Sky Blew, 
his Head being bound with Reeds, and 
drawing a l*ail after himi he {>erfonat«d 


of Velleius Paterculus. 1 8 1 

GJaucus, leaping about upon his Knees. 
Being reproved by Amonius at an Enter- 
tainnnient^ for many plain Inftances of Ex- 
tortion, he fled to Cafar i he afcribedthc 
Clemency of the Conqueror to his own 
Virtue, and would fay, that Cafar would 
have Experience of Perfons before he 
pardoned. Titius {oon imitated this Un- 
cle of his ; Coponius, a Man of the Prae- 
torian. Order, and of a great Charader> 
the Father-in-Law of &7/W, I thinks fpoke 
liandfomely, when Plancus^ upon his De- 
le'rtion^ was upbraiding Jimonius to the 
Senate with many heinous Enormities: 
'Methinks,y fays he, Antonius did very ma- 
ny Things the, Day before you left him. 
« ■ • . « 

_' •' ^ I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ' 


Caefar'i and Pompey*/ Naval Preparations 
againft the Battle that vioa fought at Afti- 
uth/ the' Order and Dijfpofitim of both 
the Navies. ^ 

IN the Confulfliip of Cafar ^ and Mejfa^ 
la Corvinus, was the Fight at A£ii^ 
amy where the Julian Party had the plain 
Prefages of Vidory, long before the En- 
gagement, MDn one Side, the Soldier and 

R the 

1 83 The Roman Hiflofy 

Che Commander were lively ; on the o- 

jhcr^ all Things were faint j the SeameQ 

here were brisk^ and in heart, there they 

were moft Severely oppre&'d with Want i 

Here the Ships were {mailer, and made 

for Speed, there of a larger^ and more 

imweildy Size : Froni this Sidf j^ not a 

Man fleid to Antmius^ from that to C4^ 

they deferred daily ; in (bort, at the very 

Headj and before tJie Face of the Amor 

miem Fleet^ Leucas was ailaulced. by M. 

Agri$$(i^ Patra was taken, Cmnfh if^j/^i^ 

upon, and twice before the UA £|Pig4g^ 

ment, was the FleeMJf the Eoemy hfUr 

ixi : King Amymas followed the moftjafe 

and commodious G>urfe (fot DeHSusviru 

the fame Man as when be iled from D(h 

Jtabella to CaQius) and Cn. Domitu$s^ a moil 

excellent Man, who alone of thf^ Am^qt 

nim Party, neyer faluted the ^i^cn but 

by her Name, with the gceatdt n^i^er 

and Difficahy came over to jC^^^ 


^/ VclkiusPaterctilur. i S^ 

Cztzx triumphs ClcopsLtvSL fiies awaf , and 
Anthony jfiw«yo//owj Btr. Pompcy'j FQrcif 
ij Land Surrender thim/elves to Csfar. 

AN D now came on the Day of tha 
greaceil Importance^ wherein Gr«- 
far and ^tonius, having drawn out their 
Fleets, engaged the one for the Safety, 
the other for the I>eftru6;ioa of the whole 
World. The Right Squadron of the Juli- 
m Kavy was committed to M.Larius ; ta 
Jirumms the Left ^ and to j^r iff a the folc 
Mwagement of the Aftious G^ar was^ 
to be every where^ in every Part where 
Fortune called him -x The Fleet of Amth 
nius was delivered to the Condud of «Sh 
^f ttd tttiik9la : The Land, Forces of 
£4^ were contimanded by Taurus^ oT 
Jjuoniuty by CaniUmk When tte Eogaj^e* 
ment began, on the one (ide> every thing 
was well oi^der'di there was an Admiral, 
Seamen, and Soldiers ; on the other was* 
nothing but Soldfers. CHopatra was the 
firfl that fted ; Antinius chofe rather to^ 
attend the Flightof the Queen, thanftand 
by his own Men, fo bravely engaged ;: 
and of a General who (hould puniih De- 

184 The Rom^n Kiflory 

fetters with a Severity, Hq became a Dc- 
fertcr of his own Armv : The Soldiers 
rcry rcfolutcly maintain d the Fight, and 
died bravely when they defpair^d of the 
Viftory ; Cafar was willing to fparc thofe 
he could have deftroy'd with the Sword : 
He called to 'em, and (hewing them th^t 
Antonius was fled, demanded /or whom, an4 
with whom they would now fight : They, 
when they perceiv'd they had fought 
fomc time for their abfent General, with 
great Reluftancy threw down their Arms, 
and gave up the Viftory, and Cafar af- 
Aired them of Life and Pardon, foonee 
than they could refolve to ask him. It is 
certain the Soldiers afted the Part of the 
^ft Commander, and the Commander of 
the moft cowardly Soldier, fo that you'd 

Jueftion whether he who direfted his 
light by the Will of CkofatrUy would 
not have ufed the Viftory as Ihe had 
pleafed to direft. The Army on Land 
took the fame Courfe, when Cahidius con- 
veyed himfelf by a hafty Flight to Anto- 


Qf Vellcius Paterculug. 185 

Csefar*/ great Moderation and Clemency^ af' 
ter he had obtained the ViSiory. Pollio'i 
remarkable Behaviour, to him, by whofe Far 
vour he obtain d his Life. 

WH O can offer to exprefs, withm 
the Compafs of this (hort ])if* 
courfe, the Advantages the World re« 
ceived on that Day^ and to what a hap- 
py State the pnblick Fortune wasreftor* 
ed ? The ViSpry was managed with 
the greateH Clemency ; nor was any one 
killed, befides a few who would qoc 
cry Quarter : From this Lenity of the 
General^ we may eafily colled what a. 
Moderation he would have usM in his 
Viftories in the beginning of his Triune 
virate, or in the Philippian FieldSj if i& 
bad been within his own Power. But thC: 
Fidelity of Aruntius, a Perfoa of cclc-: 
brated Gravity^ and Cafary when he had 
had a long Conflift with his own Clemen-' 
cyt gave Sofius his Life. I muft not omic. 
the memorable Aiftioo, and worthy Say^)g^ 
oiAJinius PolHo ; for when he had,;^eticf4: 
into Italy, after the Brundufian Peace^j and^, 
neither ha4 fiver Teen the Queen^ or eprji 

R 3 ■ gaged 

iiS6 Tbi Romsm Wtft&ry 

gaged in the Party of jbumm^ after he 
bad debafed his Mind with his Fleafures^ 
Cfifof asking: him to go with, him to the 
jBimi Wac. Bily Merits (fays he} towards^ 
Antonins^ an the gre^iTy Ifut Us Wmxms^ 
wn»airt:bmcr hmjm; t mil tberefwe ke^ 
mif: of thti Fiildj oitdrefervemj filfaPr^^ 
pu^ the Qowjjtitw* 


TlU Diotbof Anthony at Alejomdna) P^i 
f^ Cleopatra fo$M after. ]Nafr mtt ILo- 
maii fM to Death ij CoBfar / CwtmoMi^ 
e£ oM thai tere Arms again fi himi 

ar^ H E. next Tear he pucfued the Qmn^ 
^ and Antenitis to jilexaiidriaj and 
fat ft final End to the Gvii War> Jntth- 
wius wa^ not flow in killing himfelf) fothat 
bis Qeath fecmed to atone for many Mif- 
carriages which were owing to his Inae- 
tivicy. Chffafra deoeiving her Guards 
yrocueed an Afpick, and with an Incre* 
pidity not ufual in her Sex^ died by the 
8ting itf ir. *Twas vwy worthy the For- 
tone and Clemency QiGtffar, that not one 
of thofe who bore Arms againft him wem 
lulled by hifa>oc his^Comiaand r For tJie 


Gfuehy o£ Ant^nms took off O. Brutus^; 
the fame deprived Axmi Pmftius of hii^ 
Life, tho*^ Antmus had fprom^cd that he 
fliould coDCiaue in his tUgnity. Brivnif 
and C^»f deftn>yed themfelves, before 
diey experienced the Qemency csf die 
Gonqtieron €anidim expired with a 
great deal more Fear than was confident 
with his Ghara&er or FroielEon. The 
only one o£ the Murderers of Cic^ which 
remained) was Caffius Panfimfis^ who at 
laft loft his Life for it^ as T^eUnim hid 
done before. 


Lepidtts am/fires againjt Ca^ar ; Je^ns if 
murd$r him' «t his Rpturn to Rome ;.'h§t 
is difcwir*d and memquifiyUl^ Caius Mar- 
ccllus^ Ca^tain^ igf ^e Canard. Ust ChOf, 

T IfT HSLST e^fior is putting an end t0 
V V the ABian and Alexandrian^ ^^ 
M. IfifiduSi a Man of a much more a^* 
gceeaUe jPerfon than Difpofition of Mind^ 
and Son of Lsfidus ^ vha had been one of 
tYi^TYtunmiri in compofing the A&irsof 
die State) and of Junia^ the Sifter of 


1 8 8 The Roman Hifiory 

Brutus, had formed fome Defigns againft 
C^fa/s Life, upon his Return into the 
City. C. Mttcenas at that Time com- 
manded the Guards of the City, a Man 
very a&ive, careful and vigilant, whea 
any Exigency required his Attendance j 
but when he was relieved from Bufinefs^ 
diflblving in Luxury, and more foft and 
effeminate than a Woman. He was as 
dear to Cafar as AgrippUy tho' not fo ho^ 
nourably refpeded. He contented him- 
felf with the Ornaments of the Equeftri- 
an Robes, and rather wanted an Inclina- 
tion than a Power, to attain farther Pro- 
motion. He traced the Defigns of this rafh 
young Man,with the greateft Privacy and 
Qofenefs, and defeated them with admir- 
able Expedition, without the leaf): Con- 
fufion of Perfons or Affairs; and fo ilifled 
the firft Beginnings of a new Civil Wan 
The Incendiary fu£fered Punifhment for bis 
bafe Intentions. Servilia, Lepidus^s Wife, 
may be compared with Calpurnia, Wife 
to Antiftius^ whom we have mentioned ; 
fhe threw her felf into a Funeral Pile, and 
attoned for her hafty Death, by perpetu- 
ating her Memory by that A^ion to Po-* 


of Velleius Paterculus. 1 89 

GaffarV magnificent Return to Rome 5 the 
Manner of his Reception and Triumph ; a 
Plan of his future Government. 

/^JEfa/s Return linto Italy. znd the Ci- 
^ ty ; the Concourfe and Acclamations 
of the People of all Ages and Conditions 
at his Reception, and the Magnificence 
of his Triumphs and Donations, would 
fwell a Work of a 'much larger Compafs, 
and therefore can-t be confined to the 
Meafures of this narrow Undertaking. 
Mankind could defire nothing more from 
tj^e Gods, nor could they grant any thing 
more to Men. Nothing more could be 
hoped ; no farther Felicity conceived; 
than what Auguftus in bis Return be* 
fiowM on the Commonwealth, the Peo- 
ple, and the Empire in general. The Ci<* 
yil War,that had lafted twenty Years, was 
now ended, and Foreign ones extinguifh^ 
ed I Peace was again eftabliflied, and the 
Rage and Violence of Arms fupprefs*d; 
The Force of the Laws, the Authority 
of the Judge, and the Majefly of the Se;* 
nate was reitored. The Command of the 
Magiflracy was reduced to its former Ex- 

190 72^^ Roman Hijiorj 

tent, only there ^were twoPrxtors added 
to the Eight which were before. The 
ancient Model of Government was re^ 
vived. The Lands were now improved, 
the facred Rites adored, Men were fe- 
cure of themftlves, and the Pofleflion ol 
their Eftatcs. The old Laws were ad- 
vantageoufly amended, and new ones en- 
a&ed for the good of the Publick. The 
Senate was chofen without Violence, tho' 
the Ele&ions were .regular and ftrid;. The 
great Men, who had born the Offices of 
State, and had bejea honoured with Tri* 
umphis, Wetc induced by the Esamplc of 
the Ffince, to contribute tpwam tke 
Pimai&eats of the (City* He held tbp 
C*nftt£Qdp no more than elevm Time%* 
dio' iue oftea ilrenuoufly . declined ^hac 
ilonout^ and confiantQr rejefilied tbe Di- 
fi:flM)rfiup, Hurhieh the People as obfti- 
nately forced upon him. ^T would be x 
Labour for an Author who beftowed his 
whole Time upoa this one Subjeft^ to re^^ 
late the Wars he finifhed^ his elkblifiiing^ 
the Peace of the Empire^ and the glori- 
ous Works he compleated at Home and 
Attt-oad. For m?y Part» I am obliged to^ > 
my Promifcj, and fo have oaly ^ced a* 

if Velleius Paterculus* 191 

Ihort Rcprefencation of his Govcmmeat 
before the Eyes of my Reader. 

C H A P. XC 

Spain ani. Dalmatian a^er a RgheUim ^ 
220 Tear 5^ by Ofv md Agrippa fubduei 
andfinkd in Ptace. 

TH E Civil Wvs bjsing expired (m 
I have related) the Forces of the 
Statej which had been diftrafted by € 
continued Series of Arms^ began- to umie 
together. Dabnoiia^ after a Rebellion of 
a 20 Tears, wa& obliged to acknowledge 
a Submi^bn to . his Command. The 
Affs^ famous for bein£ the Seat <!^ matsy 
obfiinate and warlike Nations, were fabl 
dned. Spain W4S at laft reduced to h 
Peace, after a long and doubtful Wai^ 
by the Refidencc of Cafar^ and fome** 
iiintiA^fa^ 31^10 was pfomoted by^life 
Favour of his -Prince^ to. a third GoufoK- 
IBp^ a^d a Participation of the l^ribuni^ 
md'Pbwei*. -Th^ Roman Army was fivft 
fer^t into this Pcoviqc^e, in the ConfuMhip 
of &ffio and Semprqiius Lm^us^ in thefifft 
Tear of the fecond IHtnk w ar, under the 
CojBimand cS^&ipiOi 'Uude of lAfoicanusi 


192 The Roman Hijioiy 

This War was carried on 200 Years, ^i^rith 
the Effufion of much Blood on both Sides : 
We fomctimes loft bur Generals and Ar- 
mies/ometimes came off with Difhonbur, 
and often with great Danger to the Roman 
Empire. This Province deftroyed the 
Scipio\ and reproached our Anceflors 
with that difgraceful War, under their 
General Viriathusy which lafied for twenty 
Ycafs. -Xwas from theni th^t we were 
alarmed wit!;! the 'l^ears of x)^^ Nun^aih 
. tian Rebellion; With tliem the Sedate 
dilTolved the Ihameful Treaty of Pompej^ 
and the more unworthy one of Mancinus, 
by the Difgrace of furrendecingQur Ger 
nerial to their Pleafurc. 'Twais tHerc wc 
loft fo many Commanders of the Confu- 
lat aod Prattorian Order. They were th9 
People who fupported Sertprius witli fuch 
Forces, that for five Years it could not 
be determined, whether the Romms or 
Spaniard^: .^^(e . the , l;)etter . Soldiers^ or 
which 0ffj:hem. were to fubipitito tjie or 
thcr. ' : Tb.efc' Provinces,; of fo jgreiat an 
Extent,- Nuinber of People, and F[orce in 
Jktmiy were brought to io fifin a Peace 
by. Cafar AugufiuSy fifty Years fincc, that 
the Country, which had never been! free 
from W«/.vas WkIci: d^Atuifiiusj and 
* i. * * -" after 

ef Vellcius Paterculus* 195 

after him P. Siiius the Lieutenant, freed 
from the privrate Attempts of Robbers. 

■ ^ . 


TAe Enfigm loft h Craflus and Anthony in 
the Eafly reficr d to CxCslt hf the Parthi- 
ans. Several Conffiracies againft Qefat 
detected, and the Authors rf them punijb^d. 

WHILE the Weftem Part of the 
Empire is compofed, the King of 
the Parthians delivered the Roman £n-» 
iigns which Orodes had taken upon the 
Defeat of Cra/fus^ and thofe his Son Thra^ 
ates had won from Antoniusy to Augufius^ 
which Title was conferred upon him by 
the Motion of Pkmcusy and Concurrence 
of the Senate and People in general. But 
there were many who envied this Happi- 
nefs of the State. £. Muranay and Fm^ 
nius CapiOy Men of very different Difpck 
fitions (for Murana had a very fair Chf* 
rader before, but Capie was always e* 
fteemed a Villain) formed a Confpiracjf 
againft Cafary but were fupprefs'd hf 
publick Authority, and fufiered themJTelv^ 
what they intended to execute upon ano* 
ther. Kot long after^ Rufus Egnatiusy one 

S who 

1^4 The Roman WJioty 

who difcovered morecf a Gladiatorthan 
*.a Senator in every Inftance of his Condu&» 
■ having contrafted the Favour of the Po- 
pulace in his JEJilefiip^ and enlarged it 
by his Vigilance in compofing the Divi- 
(ions of Tome private Families to that 
Degree, that they continued him Prae- 
tor, and fpirlted him up to ftand for the 
Confulfhip : He being under continual A- 
Jarms of Conicjeqce (ot his Villanies, 
jHid the State of his Ciccumftances as de- 
fpcrate as the D^figns of his Mind, pro- 
- cured a wicked Gang of his own Stamp, 
. and refolved to kill C^ar^ being willing 
to die himfelf when he had deftroyed him» 
i ikice he knew his own Security was io- 
confiftent with the Safety of the Emperor. 
: For moil People are of the Mind, to fufier 
^ rather in a common than private Cala- 
mity, becaufe their Misfortunes are then 
th^ lefs taken notice of : But he had no 
better Succefs in covering his Treachery, 
than thofe before him : He was com- 
manded to Prifon, where he fufiered a 
'Beath very agreeable to the Ignominyc^ 
-4is Life. 



\ <>/VeIJeiusPaterculM. i9,r* 

G H A P; XCII.> 

ACt)ar'at1er of Scntius Saturninus ; aniir 
fiance of his Ef'avery in oppofing the Dk" 
Jigns of Egnacius v)hinhe appeared a Cafh 
didate for the Confulihip. 

T Muft not defraud the .Conduft of Sen- 
-^ tins Saturninus^ who was Conful abou^ . 
this Time, of the Honour with which ic- 
ought to be mentioned, Cafar was A"- 
broad, compofing the Affairs of the Eaft, 
and difpenfing the Happinefs of Peace in 
every Part of the Empire, by his Pre- 
fence. Sentius happened to be fole Cori- 
fiil in his Abfence, and prpceeded with 
the Conftancy and Severity of the anci- 
ent Magiftrates. He detefted the frau- 
dulent Pra£i:ices of the Mailers of thi 
Cufioms, puniihed their Avarice, coq.- 
veyed the publick Taxes into the Trca:- 
fury, and aftcd as chief G)nful in the ge- 
neral AfTemblies. Thofe who ftood tot 
the Quseftorihip, he forbad to declare 
themfelves, if he thought them unworthy 
of the Office ; and when they perfiftedj 
threatnedby hisCqi^ftrfarRQwertopunifii 
them, if they cafhe into tfifc Fielcl. He 
ordered Egnatius (who flourifii'd in the 

S z Efteem; 

195 The Roman Hijiory 

Eficem of the People, and thought to 
iiicceed in the Office of Conful, as he 
had been advanced from that of an jE- 
dile to the Praetorfbip) to defift ; and 
when he found his Commands w^c flight- 
cdy he protefted, that tho' the People 
fiiould vote him Conful^ he would net 
return him* This A&ioif, t think, may 
be compared to the Qories of any pre- 
ceding Confuls, only we naturally prefer 
what we hear from Report, to what we 
kty and pay Veneration to what's paft, 
and envy every thing that's done before 
us, thinking the one obfcures us with its 
Luftre, when we regard the other as a 
Subjed: for our Imitation* 


Marcellus, the Son $/ OSavia, the Sfier 
of Caefar, dies. Agrippa'/ return f 
Rome. He marries Julia, the Daughter 
of Caefar, and late fVife of Marcellus. 

npH R E E Years before the Defigns of 
•*■ Egnatius were deteSed, about the 
Time of the Confpiracy of Murana and 
C^epioy 50 Years fince, M. Marcelhts, Son 
of oiiaviai Sifter to Auguflus^ who as it 


^f Vellciu^ Patcrculor. _ t^^' 

was thought by the People, would fuc<« 
cecd Augnfius if any Misfortudc ibould* 
take away his Life,. tlK>' they (uppofcd 
he would be refificd by jiffipfa in bis 
Advances to that Dignity i when he hadr 
very honourably acquitted himfelf of the 
Office of JEdtkj died very young. Hr 
was of a very virtuous DifpoHtion, ot ft* 
chearful and vigorous Temper, and ca- 
pable of the great Fortune he was born 
to. Agfippa had retired into Afia^ under 
Pretence of publick Buiiners of Impor-* 
tance, tho^ 'tis generally thought he re;* 
tired from Rome upon Account of fomc 
private Diftaftes between himfelf and 
Marcellus. When he returned, he mzu 
ried Julia^ Daughter to Cd^fw^ who had 
before been Wife to M^rcellus ; a Womair 
whofe Progeny was neither advantageous 
to her felf or die State. / 

S r C » A RL 

• ■ - ■ * 

r^8« The^ Roman Hijlor^ 


Tfhe Cbaralier 0/ Tiberius Carfar. He ir 

tolled to th§ Aiminifiratim of futlkk Aj^ 

fairs. He isfent imo^ t/je Eaft^ enters At' 

menia^ and reduces it into the Form of a 

Homan Provinjce. ^e Parthian fenit 

^ mfiages to Komc. 

ABOUT this Time, Tilt. Uaudiur 
Nero (who was three Years old 
when Livia, Daughter to Drufus Clnudi- 
amis was married to dfjar^ up'onA^r kf- 
ing refigned to him by her formet fLixC- 
band Nero) a Youth who was intruded 
in aH the Precepts of divine Knowledge^ 
and every way iiluftrious in the feverai^' 
Accomplifhments of Defcent, Perfonage, 
Majeily, Form, Proficiency in Learning, 
and Capacity of Underftanding; one who* 
at firft gave Occafion for the World to 
cxpeft that from him, which he has now 
attained to, and whofe Prefence (poke hiat 
a Prince, was admitted into the Affairs 
of State, in the ipth. Year of his Age,, 
by his bearing the Office of Quaftor. He 
fupply'd us with Com (when there was an 
extreme Want of it in the City, and at 
Qfiia) by his Fatl.erin-Law's Command,. 


of Velleias Patcrculus. 19^ 

with fach f iiccefs, as plainly difcovercd 
the Greatnefs he would one time arrive ta«. 
He was afterwards difpatched by his* 
Grandfather^ with an Army to vilit and 
compofe the Provinces in the Eaft, where 
he gave verv eminent Proofs of the Con- 
duft of a General, entered Armenia ^tAi 
his Legions, reduced it to Subje&ion to 
the People of RonUy and gave the Sove- 
reignty of it to Artavt^dus. The King 
of the Parthians being alarmed with the 
Fame of his Greatnefs^ fent his Children 
as Hoftages to Cafar. 


Tiberius returns from the Eafl^ is fent with 
his Brother Drufus Claudius againfl the 
Rhaetians and Vindclician$> whom thif 

WHEN 'fiberins returned^ Cafar 
refolved to try if he could fu- 
flain the Difficulty of a more important 
War, andgaye him his Brother Drufus 
Claudius (whom Livia bore to Cafar with* 
in his own Palace) to be his Affiftant, di-» 
viding their Forces. They affaulted the 
Rbatians and Vindelicians at different Placef ^^ 


8 CO 71&^ Romnn Hiftory 

carried many Cities and FortrefTes by 
Siege, defeated their Armies in the open 
Field » and fo fubdued chofe Countries of 
the Ilrongeft Situation, mofl difficult Ac- 
cefs, prodigious Number, and favage Bar- 
barity, with greater Danger than Lofs of 
the kiman Army, but the Efiifion of a 
great deal of their Enemies Blood. Not 
long before this, was the difhonourable 
Cenforfhip of Plancus and PauBuSy who 
adminiftred that Office with the gteateft 
Contention, fo that their Conduft was of 
no Service to themfelves or the State, 
one wanting Authority, the other the 
Integrity of Life requifite in a C^nfor. 
FauBus could not fupport the Office 
himfelf, and Fkmcm mud be fenfible that 
he had all the Failings in himfelf, tfao* 
old, which he reproved or could ob/ed to 
thofe that were young. 


of Vclleius Patcrculas. 201 

Julia, hy her Husband AgnppB,'sConfettt^ i^ 
furrende/d to Tiberius, who puts an haf^ 
fy End to the Pannonian JV^r^ for whiob' 
he triumfhs. 

'T^ H E Death of Agrippa^ who had it- 
-*• luftratcd the Obfcurity of hisDc- 
fcent by many noble Anions, and had 
raifed himfelf fo high as to be Father-in- 
Law to NerOy and to have his two Chil- 
dren adopted by their Grandfather Jjfr 
gufiusy by the Names of Caius and iMh 
usy engaged Noro in a nearer Relation to 
Cafar^ (ince he now married Julia, C«- 
fa/s Daughter, who had beCbre been Wife 
to Agrippa, Soon after t|iis, the Pannom^ 
an War (which was begun in the Omftd* 
ihjp of Jgrippa, and yonV Grandfather 
Marcus Vinicius) threatned hcdj with 
imminent Danger, and was committed 
to the Management of I)kro> We fiiall 
give an Account of the Country of die 
PoHnmians and Dalmatians^ the oituaticm 
or their Provinces and Rivers, die Num« 
ber and Power of their Forces, and the 
many (ignal IVidodes which this illuflri- 
ous General gained oyer themi, in anodier 


202 Tbi Romm Hiftory, 

Place. But I muft not exceed the DeHgn 
of this Work. Nero halving obtained this 
Succefs, was honoured with air Ovant 


yU LoUius // benten in Germany, and kfks 
the Eagle tf his .Legion. Xfi^. German 
Wjiir committed to Drufus, ^ and . at ^fif- 
nijhed by Tiberius. Drufus'/ tbaratJer 
and Death, 

WH J L]E Affairs w^re thus happjfjr 
carried on in this Part of the Em:- 
pire, w^ received a. very great Over-* 
throw in Girmany^ under the Lieut; na6t 
M. LoBias, a Man ambitious of Riches; 
much more than of difcharging his Duty, 
and of the moft villainous C!ondud,tho^txc 
endeavoured to diffemble it. He loft the 
Enfign of the fifth Legion, which occa- 
fioned C^far^i Arrival ffbm the City into 
Gqul. The Care and Importance of the 
German War was refigned to Drufus Claw 
dius^ Brother of Nero^ a young Gien tie- 
man, who was pbflefs'd of all the virtti- 
ctus Accomplifliments which hiiman Na- 
ture c^n r^c^ive, or Induftry attain to. 


^'Velleius Patcrcdlus. 20'5 

^Tis difficult to detcriivine whether his A- 
Ixlities were better tornM for the Affairs 
of War or Peace. He had an incompa- 
rable Sweetnefs and Humanity of Tern- 
per^ and elleemed his Friend equal to 
himfelf. The Comelinefs of his Perfoi^ 
came near^il to that of bis Brother. But 
the Malice of the Fates took him off in 
the Thirtieth Year of his Age, whilft he 
was Conful, when he had deferred the 
greateft Share of the Glory of reducing 
Germany ^ and fpillingTo much of the Blood 
of that Nation, The Weight of that War 
was now transferred upon Atro.; H« 
managed it with fogreat valour and Suc- 
ccfs, that he carried his victorious Troops 
throughout Germany^ without the leaft 
Danger or Lofs to the Army (which wais 
always the chief Care of this General 
and fubdued itfo, that he reduced it al«' 
moft into the Form of a Tributary Pro* 
vince. The Honours of a fecond Con- 
fulfliip, and a Triumph, were no^ bc- 
ftow'd on liim. 


304 ^^ Roman Hijlory 


^e Thracian War hafpilj managed, and 
ended by Lucius Pifo : A noble CharaSer 
of him. 

WHILST our Attempts fuccccd 
thus in Panmnia and Germanjiy a 
terrible Wir broke out in Tirdcia. The 
States of that Nation were all in Arms, 
but were fuppre^'d by the Bravery of I. 
Pifo^ who prefides among us, a vigilant 
and mild Guardian, of the Safety of the 
Qty. He commanded againft them as 
Cajars Lieutenant for three Years, re- 
duced thofe powerful Nations by Sieges 
and open Engagements, to their former 
Limits and Subjedion, fecured Afia, and 
compofed Macedonia by his Condud and 
Stuccefs. Every Body muft acknowledge 
this of him, that his Temper, as it was 
aftuated by Aufterity, fo it was foftncd 
with a great deal of Humanity. That 
there never was any one who had greater 
Inclinations to Retirement and Indolence, 
or more fuitable Abilities for Bufinefs, or 
who really difpatchcd greater Afifairs 
with left Appearance of Aftion. 


^f Vellerus Patcrculus. 205 

chap! xcix. 

Tiberius, injhe Height of all hU Greatmefs^ 
Jurrenders it upj and retires to Study at 
. Rhodes, "fhe Behaviour oj the Roman 
Citizens to him at his Departure. 

SOON after this, T'ib. Nera^ when 
he had been honour'd with two Con* 
fullhips, and as many Triumphs, was pro- 
moted to an Equality with Juguftus, in 
being advanced to a Share in the Trilmni^ 
tian Power, when he rofc to be the creat- 
ed of the Citizens, except one (and that 
only becaufe he would not rife above him} 
the moft powerful of all Commanders, 
the moil illuftrious for his Charader and 
Succefs, and efteemed the fecond great 
Light and Support of the Commonwealth ; 
with an incredible Piety and good Na- 
ture (diffembling the Reafons of his Re* 
folution) delired Leave of him who was 
his Wife's Father, and Mo therms Hus- 
band, to retire from the AiFairs of State, 
when C. Cdfar was advanced, and Luci- 
us almoft arrivM to Man's Eftate, fearing 
leaft his Glory and Greatnefs might pre- 
judice* the ri(ing Fame of thofe yout)g 
Men. The mournful State of the City, 

T upon 

■aa4'^ The Roman Hijiory 

.upon this Occafion, the Sorrows of the 
JPeoplc, and Tears (bed by every one at 
their parting from this great Man^ I fhaH 
take notice of in a proper Place. But I 
iinuft obfervc iathis curfory Account, that 
Jie continaed zt. Rhodes feven Years, with 
fuch Reputation, that the Lieutenaotsand 
Jroconfuls who vifitcd him in their Jour- 
ney to the Tratvfmarine Provinces, fub- 
•mitted their Enfigns of Honour to him in 
this private Recefs (if fuch Grandeur may 
ht filled private) and acknowledged that 
;his Retirement tvas ffwre Honmrabk than their 
,j{dmimfirati^n and fttbUck Command. 


<:h A p. c 

m^MXhizand Germany tmhfall tfffrom their 
ABegiame. Thefcandalous Lije, andExik 
v^ Julia, v)ith the Punijhment of her great 
, JFavourites. 

THJE Empire was foon made fen ff- 
bleof i\?S?r©*s Retreat from the Care 
.of the City. For the Parthians difclaim- 
ing their Alliance with Romsy invaded ^r- 
,menia ; and Germany ^ now the Eyes of its 
Conqueror were diverted another Way, 
ri^fcd itfclf into Rebellion. But the fame 


^Velleius Paterculuf. 207^ 

Year in which the Divine Augufius (being 
Gonful with GaUus Camnim about thirty 
Years fince) did entertain the Eyes and- 
©bfervation of the People of Rome with 
a Shew of Gladiators, and a Sea Engage- 
ment, at the Dedication of the Temple 
of Mars^ an ignominious and horrid Piece* 
ef Villany broke out in his own Family t 
His Daughter Julia , forgetting the 
Honour and Reputation of fo illuftri- 
ous a Father, abandoned herfelf to all 
the Extravagancies that a Woman could 
fall into or aft, by the Inftigation of 
Luft or Luxury. She made the Great* 
nefs of her Fortune the Meafure of her 
Infamy, refolving to maintain, that what- 
ever (he defired was lawful. lulus Anto- 
niusy a (ingular Inftance of the Clemency^ 
t)f Cafar, and one whodiflionoured his 
Family, became the Inftriiment himfelf 
of revenging his own Villany. When his 
Father was defeated , C^fnr did nor 
only grant him his Life, but advanced 
him to the Dignity of High-Prieft, Praf- 
tor, and Conful, honoured him with Pro* 
vinces, and received him into an Alliance,. 
by giving him his Sifter's Daughter inp. 
Marriage. QuinSlius Crifpinus (wha co^ 
vered^. hxs Grimes with a diiT^mblcfd Au- 

% 1 ftcritf^ 

2g8 Tbs Kom^n Hijiorjr 

ficrity) j4ppius Claudius, Sempronius Grnc- 
chusy ScipiOy and many others of both Or- 
ders (tho' they had debauched the Daugh* 
ter of Cafar, and Wife of Nero) fuflfer^d 
no greater Punifliment than if they had 
defiled the Wife of an Inferior Perfon. 
yulia was banifb'd to an Ifland far from 
the Sight of her Country and Parents. Bat 
htvMothcr Scribonia accompanied her, and 
continued with her in a voluntary Exile. 

C H A P. CI. 

C. Cflefar isfent with an Arntj into the Eaft, 
has an Interview with the King of Parthia: 
Jhey mutually receive and entertain ^each 

^^TpWAS not long after this, that C 
'*■ Cafar (who had before made an 
Expedition into the other Provinces) was 
fent into Syria^ (having firft had an Inter- 
view with Tib, Nero, whom he honoured 
in every Refpeft as his Superior) where 
his ConduQ: was fo very uncertain, that 
as it afforded great Occafion for Praife, 
^ it gave fome Ground for Refledion 
on his Behaviour. He had a Conference 
.with the King of the Parthiam^ an illu- 


rf Velleius Patercutusr 2C ^ ' 

firious Youch^ in an Ifland in the Bt^ 
fbratesj the Guards- which attended *» 
them being equal. This glorious an^ 
memorable Spe&acle of the Rontan and« 
Parthian Armies ftanding on the oppo- 
fite Bank^of the River, when the Prin- 
ces of. the two moft powerful Empires in 
the World met between them, I-my ftlf^ 
had the Fortune to fee in my lirft Cam- 
paign, being then a Tribune of the Sol- 
diers. I ferved in that Command, firft oT 
all, under your Father (iliuflrious Vmicin^y. 
and P. Silimj in Thracia and Macfdcnia^ 
and foon after in Achat a and Afia. Then-^ 
I made aTowr over the Provinces of the? 
Eafiy and the Coafls on both Sides the 
Pontk^ Sea. ^Tis with the greaceft Satis-^ 
fafiion that I call to mind the Remenoi- 
brance of fo many Adions, Places, Coun- 
tries and Cities. The Parthian^ was firfb 
entcrtainM by Caius on our Side the Ri-^ 
ver, and Caius afterwards was received;^ 
by that King oa the Enemies Shoar. 

T J C H A^P.' 

SLio Tbs Rbman HiJIcrj^ 

G H A P. ClI. 

Ifi LoUius^V Cofiftiracy aiainfiCam difi 
covered. Hekilhhimfelf. Cains tmuU^ 
ei. at a Tnaty mtb the Partibian. Re^ 
turning t0 Rome^ hi fickens and- dies at 
I4myra, as did its Brother three Years 

ABOUT this Time the vilUi^us 
Defigns of Af. laBius^ whosi Au- 
Sfifius conftitutcd Guardian to the yoiuig 
Bcinces^ came toLight, beiag difcovered 
V> Cafar by SLPartbiaM^ The Contrivance 
ef^them betray M the Treacherous and^ 
Crafty Temper of their Author : He died 
foon after, whether by Accident^ or his 
owii Choice, Itan't determine. The pub* 
lick Jby of the City for his Death, was 
interrupted by that of Cenfmnasy in the 
fame Provinces^ He Teemed to be born 
to engage the Affedions of all Mankindj 
whofe Lofs was very much lamented by 
the whole City. Oaius cnicvcd Armenia, 
where at firft his Conduft was fuccefsful. 
But not long after he received a violent 
Woand from one Adduusy in a Conference, 
which he very imprudently engaged him- 
fdf I in> . near '^r/zs^em. Upon this^ as his- 


of Vcllcius PatercurOT. 2 it 

Body was^ weakened, fo his Mind was en- 
feebled, and rendered lefs capable of a^ 
ing fof the publick Good. Neither was^ 
there wanting the Conirerfation of thofc^ 
Men (that txt conftant Attendants of the 
Great) who took Care to flatter andv 
footh him in his Vicc^; by which Means- 
he was brought to that pais, that he chofe 
to grow old in that obfcnre and remote 
Corner of the Empire, rather than return 
to Kime. He oppofed all Reafons that. 
were offered to alter his Opinion, with 
great Obfiinacy, but atlaft yielded to 'em 
with much Uhwillingncfs. He was up- 
on his Journey to Italy when he was ar* 
refted by a Drfeafe, which ended his Life^ 
in a City of Ljtiai called LimjYa •; His Bro- 
ther, L. Cafar^ died one Year before, at 
Ma^ia^ in his Journey to Spain. 

G H A P. cm. 

Tiberius Cxfar is adopted by Anguftur!. 
Tif incndibie Joy of the Roman Citizens 
upon his Adoption* 

OR TUNE, which had juft fop- 

prefs'd the Hopesof a rifing Namci 

I' fudden reftored its^ Security to the ^ 



ata The Roman Hijiory 

State. Before the- Death of either of the 
Princes^ the Retorn of "tibeYtusNeroitora 
Rhodes, filled his Country with univerfal 
Joy, in the Confulfliip of your Father P. 
Vinicius* Cafar Augufius did not day long 
before he determined. He was not to. 
enquire whom he ihould eled, but ta 
ele6b him that was mofl worthy. So that 
be now refolved to execute what he had 
propofed upon the Death of Lucius (tho' 
Caius Cafar was then living), and would 
certainly have then efifededit^had not Nero- 
Carneftly refifted it ; and tho' he flill re^ 
fufed it both at Home- and in the open. 
Senate, Augufius did inveft- him with a 
Partnerfiiip in the TribunHian Power, and 
adopted him, in the Confulfhip of JEJi- 
M Cato and Sentius^ upon the (kalends of 
Jufy, feven hundred fifty and four Years 
aftet the building of the City, and twen- 
ty fcvcn Years ago : The Rejoicings of 
that Diy, the Concourfe of the People, 
who (as* I may fay) did Violence to Hea- 
ven by their Praifes, and the Hopes which 
were conceived, of the lading. Security 
and Glorj^ of the Roman Empire, are Sub- 
jc&s wKkb I couldfcarce relate in a par* 
ticular Work, and (hall not o£fer to ilhi^ 
jKrate them in this. confined Treatife, but. 

. content. 

Of Velleius Patcrculus. 215 

content my felf with declaring, that he 
was dear to every one. The Parents had 
now a joyful Profpeft of the Security of 
thetr Children ; the Husbands of their 
Wives; the Gentrj' of their Eftatcs, and 
all Conditions of Men, of Reft, Peace,, 
and Tranquillity^ fo that as nothing more 
could be hoped for, fo no Defires coutd 
be more happiVy anfwercd. 


Agrippa, the Son cf Julia, is adopted tie 
fame Day w/>A Tiberius, hy Auguftus. 
Tiberius haa the Command given him of 
the German If^ar : He is received by the 
Army with the greatefi Joy. 

1^ Agtipfai whom Jtilia bore fince the 
-^^-*» Death of her Husband, was adop- 
ted the fame Day : But in the Inftrii- 
ment of Atro's Adoption, this Claufe was 
infcrtcd, I do it for the good of the State. Not 
long did his Country fuffer him to abide 
in the City, but difpatched him into Ger- 
many, where a terrible War broke out un- 
der your illuftrious Grandfather M. Pini^ 
cim, who fometimes fuccefsfuUy engaged 
the Enemy, foinetimes<^ as bravely bore 


314 The Roman WJior/ 

their Attacks. Upon which Acconnr,^ 
Triumphal Ornaments^ with Infcriptions 
of his glorious Exploits^ were affigned 
him . ^ was ixi this Jundure that I fer v 'd 
under the Command of Titerim Cafar, 
when I had before been Matter of the: 
Camp. For immediately after his Adop- 
tion, I was fent with him into GermoHjy 
a Captain of Horfe, fucceeding in the 
Pod of my Father ; and either in that 
Quality, or as Lieutenant, I was a Wit- 
nefs, and as far las my fmall Abilities 
would gire me leave, an Affiftant of his 
glorious Exploits for nine fucccffive Years^ 
Nor do I believe it poflible for any Man 
to enjoy a mote pleafing or fortunate 
View than I always had baore me : When 
throughout the nobleft Part of Italy ^ and 
the whole Extent of the Provinces of 
Gaul, every one crouded once more to 
fee their old General, (who was Cafar in 
Merit and Reputation before he received 
the Title) and congratulated themfelves 
for their Happinefs, rather than him for 
the Acceflion of his Honours.The Soldiers 
burft inta Tears for Joy at the Sight of 
him, difcovered an uncommon Pafiion and > 
Alacrity to falute him ; rufhed on with 
Violence to touch his Hand, and could 


^f VcHrius Paterculiw. 21$ 

not contain fuch Exprdfions as thefe : X)^ 
nve again behold mr iBuflrims General f If he 
arrived fafe amor^ hs? And then, / tuoj 
with you (great Sir) in Armenia, / in Rhc- 
tia, (another would fay) / had the Hih 
nour of a Reward from you among the Vin- 
ddici; and I, fays a third, received the 
fame in Pannonia ,• a fourth would aflfert 
his being applauded by him in Germany. 

C H A R CV. 

Several Nations in Germany conquered hj 
Tiberius : He returns fo'Rome, and com^ 
mits the Management of the War to Sa- 
turninus : fl& CharaEier. 

IT can't be cxprcflcd in Words, and 
perhaps it will feem incredible to 
fome, how upon his very Entrance inta 
Germany y the Caninefates, Attuarij\ and 
BruEieri were fubdued ; the Cherufci re- 
ceived into Subjeftion, and the River Vi- 
furgis (I wifli it lefs famous for our De- 
feat near it foon after) was paffed, the 
Countries beyond it penetrated by our 
Armies. Cafar afTum d to himfelf the 
dangerous and difficult Part of the War, 
and employed Sentius Saturninus, who was 

2 then 

21 6 The Roman Hijlorj 

then his Father's LieuteoaDt in Gemumj^ 
in Matters of lefs Importance. He was 
a Man of various Accomplifhments^ vi- 
gorous, adive, and prudent, patient un- 
der, and very skilful in the Execution of 
all Military Duties. His leifure Hours, 
(when he had any) he fpent in Indolence 
and Fleafure ; but fo, that he appeared 
rather magnificent and liberal, than luxu- 
rious and idle. I have already fpoken of 
his illuftrious Confulfhip. The A&ion of 
that Summer, which was protraded even 
to December^ added a noble Encreafe to 
the Roman Viftories. The Piety of C^- 
far ^all'd him to the City, when the Alfs 
were almoft impaflfable with Snow, and 
the Care of the Empire brought him back 
to Germany^ in the beginning of; the Spring. 
He had difpofed his Army in Winter- 
Quartos in the niiddle of that Couptry^ 
at the Head of the River Lufia. 


■ t 

• : \ 

i>f Velleius Paterculus, 217 


T^ibcvms* s fuccefsfuJ Expedition into Germa- 
ny, which is whoBy fubdued by him. The 
Romati Fleet joins the Land-Forces on the 
Banks of the Elbe. 

HEAVENS! what Subjeds for a 
Volume did wc perform in the fol- 
lowing Summer) under the Command of 
Tiberius Cafar ! Wc furvcyed Germany with 
our Arms, fubdued Nations whofe Names 
we never heard of. The Countries of the 
Cauchi we received into Subjedion* The 
Youth of their Country, of a prodigious 
Number, Gigantick Stature, and well 
defended by the natural Strength of their 
Seats, furrounded with a glittering Com- 
pany of our Soldiers in Arms, fell pro- 
flrate before the Tribunal of our Gene- 
ral. The Longohardi were reduced, a Na- 
tion which exceeded the Germans in their 
Cruelty. In fliort, we afted what wis 
never conceived in Imagination, or at- 
tempted before to be performed. The 
Roman Army, with their Enfigns, march'd 
four hundred Miles beyond the Rhiney as 
far as the River Albis^ which flows near 
the Borders oiih^^Semnones zxidHermunduri . 

U The 

!Ri8 Th€ Roman Tttftory 

The Fleet, by the admirable Fortune and 
Care of our General, and his ftri£k Ob« 
lervance of the Seafons, was conduded 
into the River AWiSy by a Sea, whofe 
Kame we never heard or. It joined itfelf 
CO our Army, bringing with it the Spoils 
of many conquered Nations, and a plea-^ 
ciful Qiiantity of Provifion. 

■ ■■ ■ f 

CH A R cvn. 

Agrtta dmfUnnntfayd to Oefar fy a Bar^ 
lariau. He fimes hif Soldiers in their 
tVtnter-QuarterSy and returns to Rome. 

I Can't refrain inferring this Circum- 
Aance, however it be received. Our 
Camp had taken up the nearer Banks of 
the Kiver, theoppoUte Side (bone bright* 
ly with the armed Numbers of the Ene- 
my, who retired upon every Motion of 
our Navy. One of the Barbarians, who 
(eemed to be in Years, of a very comely 
Prefence, and of conHderable Note, as 
appeared from his Habit, put himfelf on 
board a fmall VefTel, hallowed out of the 
Body of a Tree, according to the Cuftom 
of that People, direfting the little Boat 
himfelf. When he had failed into the 



0f Velleius Paterctifuf. 1 1 <f 

middle of the River, he intreated h^ 
might have leave, without Danger, to 
land upon the Bank, which was covered 
with our Camp> and to fee Cd^fast. He 
had leave given him as he defired ; he 
then pulhed up his Boat, and when he 
had a long Time beheld tajar with Si- 
lence : Out Youths faid he, are infatuated^ 
in that ebey adore yottr JMajefiy when abfeut, 
and now ym are arriijed amongfi them, they 
dread your Arms, rather than fubmit to 
them. I have (Caefar) by your Favour and 
Permi(fion^ this Day jeen the Gods I had 
before known only by Report : And therefore / 
account this the happiffi Day 1 rver enjoyed or 
wified fir in my Life. Having obtain d lea ve 
to touch bisHtnd^ he returned to bis Vef* 
fely and conAantly looking back on Co- 
fary he was carried to his own Shoar. 
Caftar being now Conqueror of all the Na« 
lions be approached, without the ieafi; 
Pamage or hoCs of the Army, and no 
more than once by Stratagem attempted 
by the Enemy, ind then to their great 
Difadvantage, brought back bis Legions 
to their Winter^Quarters, and returned 
to the City with the fame Expedition he 
bad ufed io the preceding Tear. 


7'20 ^ The Roimn Hijfory 


jfB Germany fubduedy except the Marco- 
manni. The CharaEler if their Leader^ 
Maroboduus^ tj^ho defigns to opfofs the 

np HERE was now nothing rcmain- 
^ ing in Germany to be conquered, ex- 
cept the Nation of the Marcomanm^ 
which leaving their own Seats, retired in- 
to the inmoft RecdSes of the Country, 
under the ConduA of MaroboJttusy and 
lived in the Plains, furrounded by the 
Henjnian Woods. My hafte cannot eir- 
cufe me, if I omit mentioning this Per- 
fon. He was of an illuftrious Defcent, 
great Strength of Body, and Vigour of 
Mind, barbarous rather by the Place df 
his Birih, than any Cruelty of his Tem- 
per. His Government was not violent^ 
precipitate, or precarious,, but was found- 
ed on a Satisfadion of his Subjeds under 
it. When he had invefted himfelf in the 
Sovereignty, he entrenched his People far 
from the Romans^ that by retiring from a 
more powerful Enemy, he might render 
bis own Army the more formidable. When 
be had put himfelf into Po0ei&on of thefe 


^/ Velleius Patercolus. itt 

Places, he either fubdued all his Neigh- 
bours by Force of Arms, or brought 'em 
to fiibmit to his Authority on more peace- 
able Conditions. 


Maroboduus levies a numerous Army^ feni^ 
AmbaffadoYs to Rome^ and flrtkes a Teir 
ror in the Roman Frontiers. Tiberius 
and Satuminus enter into his Country tvjo 

s Several JV(^Sy in order to attack hint^ 

HI S Body was under the Ptoteftioii 
of a Guard, and his Army, by con- 
tinual Exercife, was advanced towards 
the Form o£ the Roman Difcipline, and 
became very terrible ta us: His Conduft 
to the Romans was fuch, that he neither 
provoked us to War, nor feemed to want 
Forces to oppQfe us, in cafe we fiiould 
urge him to it. The Embaffador he fene 
toCafar, fometimes fpoke of him as a Pe-^ 
titioner, and at other Times as an Equal; 
He was the Refuge of all Nations and 
People which revolted from us, and by 
diflembling his BtMiver, advanced himfelf 
into a Rival of our Empire. His Army, 
which was made up of Seventy thonfand 

U 3 Footi- 

2x2 72^ Roman Hiflory 

toot, and Four tbwbxii Horfey wat 
prepared for greater Adioos than be at 
that Time bad in View, by conftant Ho- 
ftilities againft his NeigUioucs. He was 
the more formidable, by having Germany 
upon his Left Hand and in his Front, 
Pannonia on his Right ; and the Nmci in 
Jus Rear. All thefe Nations ftood in feas 
•f him, leafl he Cbonid march his pMces 
againft any of them. Neither did the 
Grandeur of bdj fecare it from the diead 
of him : For the Confines of liis Empire 
were not above Two hundred Miles di- 
fiant from the top of the AlpSy which ter- 
minate the Extent of baly. Tit. C^Jkr 
deiign^d to attack Um and his Coantry 
from feverat Parts at once ; Seutim Satm^ 
minus was difpofed to carry his Legions 
through the Country of the Cbattij and 
then by cutting down the Hnr(ymMM Woods 
to open a Pafiage for them into Bnoh^ 
mum ; (that was the Name of the Coun^ 
try which Marohoduus poflefifed) he him* 
felf detigned to ailault the Mareomanmi 
from Carnuntum^ the neareft Place to the 
Kingdom of the Noricians on this Side, 
with the Army which ferved in lUyricwm. 


i^Veiieios Patercuftis. 32j 
C H A R ex. 

Tli ReMlion $f Dalmatia futs fim§ St^ 
to thi Refoliai$us rfthi Ginerals. Ttht 
Roman Emfire in ffatigtr 4f ieif^ wif 
thrown iy the Number ej the Enemy. 

F^O&TUN£ fonetimcs defeats; 
often diysercs the Defigns of Men. 
Crfar iiad £xt bis Wintcr-Quartcvs near the 
Dauubey and brought up his Army withm 
five Days Joomey of the foremoft of the 
£nemy : He bad commaaded Semius Set- 
turninus^ who£c Eorce^ wmt at the (hme 
IKflance^ to come up and join him in the 
beforeiKBentioned Place « When fmnmm 
growing infolent upon a long Fruitioo of 
Feace^ and Dalmatia being grown vevjf 
power fui, invited all the ^i^ions in tho^e 
Parts into their ^liance, and^termined 
no pu£ thcmielves in Arms. * The Fro- 
iptQi% of Glory were now f^iperfeded by 
tlie commands of Neceffity. It was not 
thought advifeable, that die Army (hould 
Ije in a diiiant Country 5 and Itaiy be left 
open to an approaching Enemy. The 
Kingdoms and Nations which rebeUed. 
amoisited to more than Eight ' hundred 
thottfand Men* Tbcee. were^ar Two^' 

a hundred 

Q 24 The Roman Hijlory^ 

hundred thoufand Foot in regular Arms] 
and Nine thoufand Horfe. This immenfe 
Multitude wa$ commanded by valiatic 
and experienced Generals ; part of them 
were to invade haly on the Side they lay 
upon, in the Confines of Naufortum and 
Tergeftes j another Body had poured them- 
felves into Mdcedoniu ; a third was left for 
a Defence of their own Country. The 
chief Command was given ta the two 
Bottoms, SkndPinetus the . Generals. The 
Pannonianf were not inftruded only in the 
Difcipline of the Romans^ but were ac- 
quainted with their Langu^e too. A 
great many of them made Learning, and 
die Improvements .of the Mind^^ the ufual 
Employment of. their Time. Never did 
any Nation purfue their Refolutions for 
War, with more fudden Preparations, or 
execute, them with greater Expedition. 
The Roman Citizens were oppceffed ; their 
Merchants killed ; a great Number of 
t-heir Standard-bearers* were maifacred 'm 
that part of the Country which was far- 
theft diftant from their General Mace- 
donia was over-ran with their Arms i eve- 
ry Thing fell a Sacrifice to Fire and 
Sword. So great was the Horror and 
Dread of this War^ that it temfy'd and: 


(Tf Velleius Patercufus. 225 

ffiook the Soul even of Cafar Augufiusy 
which had been inured to Conftancy fay 
the Experience of fo many dangerous 


Great Preparations made hy Auguftus and 
Tiberius, to oppofe the Enemy. Tiberi- 
us, by the common Voice of the People, it 
elected General. His ABions and Behavi" 
cur in the Conduli of the War. 

UPON this. Levies were ordered^ 
the Veteran Soldiers recalled from 
all Parts, Men and Women were obliged 
by a Poll, to fend in a Soldier to the Ser- 
vice of the War. The Prince declared 
in Senate, that, Unlefs Precautions ivere 
ttfed, the Enemy would be in Sight of Rome 
v)ithin 'fen Days. The Roman Knights 
and Senators were required to fend their 
Affiftance, which they promifed to do. 
But all thefe Preparations had been inef- 
feftual, had there been no one to direft 
them. Therefore the Senate requefted 
Tiberius of Auguftufy to be General of 
the War, and as (uch, the great Security 
of the Soldiers. I my felf was honoured 


22$ The Roman JKJft^rj 

with a confiderable Poft in this Wan 
When my Commiffion for the Command 
of Horfe was expired^ I was defigned for 
the Queftorfliip, and advanced to an E- 
quality with the Senators^ when I was 
not admitted into that Order ; and tho^ 
the Tribunes of the People were defign- 
tdy I carried Part of the Army, which 
was delivered to me by At^ujbis^ from 
the City to his Son. I refigned my Pro* 
vince allotted me in my Queflorfhipy and 
was detached as a Lieutenant from the 
Father to the Son. What Forces of the 
Enemy did I behold in the firft Tear I 
What Advantages did we enjoy by the 
Conduft of our General, to ekide and 
fiparate their Forces by our Detachments, 
which united might have proved fo faul ^ 
With what Sedatcn^ft and Wifdom did 
his Authority interpofe for the good of 
the State ? How prudently did he difpofe 
our Winter-Quarters ? How flrongty was 
the Enemy fiirroundcd by us ? How im- 
foffible for him to itnd any Way, except* 
»3g from us ? So that the Rage of their 
Army broke within itfelf, and wanting all 
Things necefiary to their Support, the 
vaft Power at laft dwindled away and 
came to nothii^ 


0f Vclkius Patcrculus. 237 

CHAP. cxn. 

T!he Bravery of MefTalious, v^ with half 
a Legion routed* 20000 of the Enemy ^ and 
hofi triumphal Ornaments ajjignd him. Ti- 
ber ius^i Succefs againfi the Enemy ^ Sitva* 
BUS and Cascina, with five Le^ions^ fur* 
rounded and endmgered by the Enemy, tiu 
recovered by the Bravery of the commod 
Soldiers. Agcippz by his debauched Liff^ 
lofes the Eavmr if Auguftus. 

Hp H E brave and fortunate Aftion of 
* Mejfalinus, deferves tbc^Admiration 
of Pofterity ; the Greatnefs of whofe Soul 
exceeded the Nobility of his Defceiiti 
He was worthy fuch a Father as Corvi^ 
nus, worthy to refign his honourable' 
Name to his Brother Cotta. While he 
was Governour of IByricum, a Rebellion 
was raifed : He was furrounded on everv 
Side, and with no more than one Lesi- 
on, and that broken and imperfed, hede«* 
ftroyed and put to Flight above Twenty 
thoufand of the Enemy, and received the 
Triumphal Enfigns as a Reward for his 
Exploits.The Barbarians had fo littleCon- 
fidence in the Number and Force of their 
Army, that where ever Cafar was, thef 


a^S . Tb^ Roman Hijlory 

clefpaired of Succefs. Part of their Sol- 
diers were kUl'd and . reduced by a cala- 
iDitou^ Famine to the utmoft Diftrefs; 
fo that they durll not bppofe our At- 
tacks, nor fight when we gave them the 
faireft Opportunity. Upon this, they 
poflefled themfelves of Mount Claudi- 
us, and ere&ed Fortifications for their 
Defence. That Body which alTaulted the 
Detachments which A. Caciua and Siha- 
nus Plautius levied firom the foreign Pro- 
vinces, caft themfelves round five of our 
Legions, and the Royal Battalions which 
RJhenmacks, King of Thrace^ brought to 
affifl in this War, which hid like to have 
caufed the general Overthrow of all 
our Army. The King*s Forces were cut 
off, oar Wings difmayed, and the Cohorts 
in great Diforder ; the Standards them- 
felves were endangered : But the Roman 
Valour was retrieved more by the Cou- 
rage of the Soldiers than the Conduft of 
the Generals : For they had broke in up- 
on the Enemy, againft the Orders of their 
General, and began the AfTault, before 
the Scouts had brought word where the 
Enemy lay. When the Legions found 
themfelves in this great Diflrefs, fo that 
fome of their Tribunes, the Makers of 


of Vellei us Patcrculus. 229 

the Camp, ai\d the Cohorts^ and many of 
the Centurions were flain, they encouraged 
one another, fell upon the Enemy with 
the greateft Rage, and did not defift till 
they had broke their Troops, and reco- 
vered the Viftory, About this Time, A^ 
grippa, who was adopted by his Grandfa- 
ther the fame Day with Tiberius^ and had 
'iven evident Proofs of his villanous Di- 
Ipofition, by entring upon the moft dif- 
honourable Meafures, fo thjit he had loft 
the A£fe£iions of the Emperor, received 
an End worthy the Bafenefs of his Mind. 
I — - — — - I I ■ I 1 I 

e H A p. CXIIL 

Tiberius finding it inconvenient to keef 
his vaji Army together^ with great Pru- 
dence dtfperfes it to different Quarters. He 
himfelf returns to Sifcia. 

YO U may here (M. Vmicins) take 
a View of Tiberius^ as great a Ge- 
neral in War, as you liow.perceive him a 
prudent Prince in Peace : All the Forces 
which were under his Command were 
united : He had ten Legions, above fe- 
venty Cohorts, fourteen wings, and above 
ten thoufand Veteran Soldiers, be(ide/a 

X prodigious 

■ \ 

a^o The Roman Hijlory 

prodigious Number who ^rved as Vo 
iuntiers in his Camp, The grcateft Army 
that ever appeared together lincc the Ci- 
vil Wars, rejoicing in their Number, and 
confident oi Viflory over all Oppofition. 
But the General, who was the beft Judge 
of what was requifite to be done, and 
preferred what was really advantageous 
to wh&t appeared only fpedous and ho- 
nourable ; who in all his Condud obferv- 
cd rather what was really approyable, 
than what was by moft commended, 
made foaae Stay for the Refrefhment of 
the Troops which had lately arrived ; 
and coniidering that; they were too nu- 
merous to fubmit to a regular Command, 
he carried them a very difficult March 
(which was fo well difpofcd, that as none 
dared to moleft us when united, fo when 
feparated, we received no Oppofition ; 
iince all Countries were afraid of our at- 
tacking their Borders) and then difcharg- 
cd !em, to return from whence they came. 
The Winter began now to be very violent, 
fo that he returned xoSiJcia] and ordered 
his Lieutenants (amQjng whom I had the 

Honour to ferve) tb take Care of the 




ef Velieius Paterculus. 231 

Ihe mild Government and Admimfiration of 
Tiberius. His great Tendernefs and Carer 
for the fickand vminded SoldieYs. Pan- 
nonia is obliged to ask a Peace, Baro and 
Pinetus, the Generals of the Enemy ^ fur^ 
render themfelves. The Dalmatians onfy 
maintain the fVar. 

THE temler Humaitity and Canx:em 
of T/kriusy is diftinguifbed in this- 
Particular/ which tho' it may not appear 
kk (o great a Luftre, is a convincing Ar^ 
fument of his Experience. In all the 
Time of the German and Panmnian War^^ 
ROC one of a fuperior, or a lower De- 
gree than my felf» had the leaft Sickness : 
Their Health and Security was fo far 
confulted, that tho' he was obliged to^ 
attend other Matters of the greateft Mo- 
ment and Impottance^ yet it feemed that 
this was his greateffi Care. The Wearied 
were al^^ays relieved by a Chariot ; his^ 
ewtt CoMch wa?. i^xpofcd to publick Ufcr 
as I my feif have experienced. We hac^ 
Phylicians, and othei? C^nveniencies, e(pe* 
eiallv that pf a Oiith^ jshich attended the 

X ^ HoiufeS' 

2 3 2 The Roman Kifiory 

Houfes and Servants, and the neceflfary 
Advantages of them were fupply'd. This, 
and whatever elfe I have related, will be 
acknowledged by all who were in that 
Service. The General was carried on 
Horfeback, and in all his Summer Expe- 
ditions, he fupped with tbofe he invited, 
fitting. He pardoned all who did not 
obey Difcipline, if their Crimes were not 
like to prove infeftious by Example. He'd 
frequently reprove, and fometimes ufe jno- 
derate Correction, but never fuffer it to 
proceed to Severity, diflembling the Know- 
ledge of feme Faults, while he forbid the 
•Commiffion of others. This Winter con- 
tributed very much to the Conclufion of 
the War. The following Summer, Vavr 
mnia defired a Peace ; fo that now all the 
Remains of a War were confined to D/i/- 
matia. I intend to relate in another Vo- 
lume, how that fierce and numerous Na- 
tion, which not long before menaced ba- 
ly with Bondage, laid down its Arms ac 
the River Bathims , fubmitted itfelf to 
.the Emperor's Qemency, and funender- 
ed their illuftrious Commanders, B^o and 
Pinetus^ one of them being brought by 
Force, the other willingly refignitlg him- 

fclf. Our vlAorious Army wau diuniflfed 


^ - *- 

t^ Velleius Patercolus. 233: 
to Winter-Quarters in Autumn, "tiber^ 
deputed M. Le^dus to the Charge, of it,, 
a Man of the next Reputation axid Digr 
nity to Cafary who enjoys the greateft 
Share of his ASedions, and is efteemed- 
by him as an Ornameoc ta the guat Ti- 
tles be inherits. 


Tiberius prepares te oppofe the Dalmatianst 
Lepidus vjitbagreat Army emountert ani< 
ctnquers Jtvetal Dificultieij <ad at iafi,- 
•with long, and dangerous Mardie*^ joint 
Tiberius, and Uhenoured by the ^nat» 
•with triumphal Qrnamems. Daltnaci» 

/^^farnow diii&s bis Preparations^ ta 
v* the War in Dabnatia, my Brother Ma* 
gius CelerVelUianus was his Lieutenant io^ 
that Expedition. He received a Tei^ir 
mony of his good Service (rem hira and 
bis Father, b; the Honours he received- 
at his Triumph. la the begimung o£ 
the Summer, ttpidut led his Army, out of; 
their Quarters, and marched it through, 
Kationsof thegreateft Cruelty and Fierce-. 
nclsa which hMnot yet been afieOed by 

234 The Katnm l^fiory 
the Calamity of War, mwatdsjRtrr/jKr ; 
and at laft he brought it (when fae had. 
#TertItfoi7ii the moft powtrfol Oppoliti- 
OD, ravaged the FieMs, and plondered. 
the Towns) laden with Spoils and Vi*- 
Amjf to C^ffmr. Thi^ AStiOn {which had 
ii:^ been pertormed by his own Adminiftra'- 
tion,^ bad deferred a Triomph) was^ 
lewarded mth Tnumphal OraamentSj. 
which wer^ detteed to fiim by the Cout 
ftnt of the Princes and Senate. Thi^ 
Suxmner pnt an £nd to the ^STar. The 
Bipaici and Defiates of Ddlmatia^ Nations 
Imrindble for the fiardihieK bf their Men, 
thei^ great Skin in MSitkry Al&irs, but 
efpcdaHy for the Strehgth of their Cotin* 
try,, and' Difficulty of Accefs to them, 
were fubdued not only by the Condud,, 
bur the Arms and Sword of C^^^y which 
reduced thete to the laft E^tttAities :: 
Nothing was^ more glorious and dlllin- 
guifhhig in this V?ar, Ithan tfc% C^far re- 
jpfted: all Occaiions of ViftOTy which 
would end&nger the Lofs of \iv^ Men^ atid 
preferred their Safety to all the Oppor- 
runitiesof enndbling hteown R'ejjutati^ 
on. The Connfels of the <3en^Ml wera 
liever detertoirted tfy the jUdgmefit of the 

^ . 

^ V^lfcitis Paterculus. 235 

Arwy, bot the Soldiers were governed by 
the Ptadeiict oT .thtir Leader. * 

G H A P. cxvr. 

2t brief Catah^ue of federal Eminem Men^, 
tiat had the greateft Share in the Glorik^ 
fljf ffe f annonian73?Jir: 

GBmanicH^g»vtxtfy g^eat Proofs of his 
Vatonr, being ofren dfctached to dif-^ 
place the £Atm^ «:bm ibiiijy fortified and^ 
imptfrtant PJaces. i^tius Pbjihumus alfbj 
a Man 6( iht €dft'fulVr 'di'der, .i»d Ob- 
vemor of Dafmdtia^w'is hbhoutbd wiili 
the Enfigns of a Tfkinpli. Tiie fetec 
Re>vard^ ^\^ew not long before conferred 
upon Pii$enti5 and Cojfusy Men iHutlrious 
for vcT^ ditferent Accomplifhaients, wlio 
comtQanded in :i^mai but Cojfus refigned 
thie iTdftimcrtiy of his Vi(Storie« to 'his 
Son, a tbatb born for an Exanxple of 
Virttre anci Merit, i* Apronius iliarcd in 
the Succdfe with Pofthumus, and diTcover- 
ed in the hmt War, hb w well he defer?;' 
ed the Honours he afterwards' received. 
I v^iQi we may never meet with a greater 
Ajgument.of the Power of Fortune^ tho* 
in this Inttance (he gives us a notable Ex- 

236 The Komm Hifiofy 

ample of it : For Sejanus^ a Pcrfon of the 
moft regular Conduftj one who tranfcri- 
bed the Virtues of our Anceftors in every 
refped^ who mixed the Severity of the 
Ancients with the Courtefy of the pre* 
fent Age, and who had been employed 
in the higheft Offices in Germany and //- 
fyriay and foon after in Afrioa^ tho' he 
wanted no Merit, never met with an Oc- 
cafion to deferve a Triumph. A. Lidnius 
Nerva Silams^ Son of P. SRus^ a Man 
who was very much admired even t>y thofe 
who did not perfeAly know him Oeaft 
he fhould come (hort of the Praifes of a 
good Citizen, and an honourable Gene- 
ral) was (hatched away by the Violence 
of the Fates, and fo excluded from being 
advanced to the fame Degree of Inti* 
macy and Friendlhip of the Emperor, 
which his Father had enjoyed. It may 
be faid that I had no Occafion to men* 
tion thefe Men. I readily acknowledge it; 
however an honeft, impartial Candor in 
relating the Aftions ot others, is never 
accounted Criminal by the Good and 


of Velleius Paterculus. 237 

The Neixis ofV'ZXyxi 5 Defeafj with the Lofs 
of three Legions y three IViftgs andJix'Ci>' 
horts, arri'ves foon after the Cmclufion'^ 
the Dalmatian War. Varus his Cba- 

raBer. - 


/^jEfar had juft put an End to the Patf 
^ mnian SLndDahiotfM War, when, with- 
in Rv^ Days after the Gonfummation ttf 
fo great a Work, we received News from 
Germany, that Varus was (lain, three L^ 
gions, as many Wings, and fix Cohorts 
ruined and deftroyed. Fortune befriend* 
ing us in this PartiQul^r .only, that our 
General was not empfoyol Abroad at 
that Time. The Importance of this Af- 
fair requires I fliotild £i|ri^cthii^ of the 
Perfon who conduced it. yarns Quin&ir 
lius was rather of ah iltuftrious, than a 
noble Extra&ion. He was indolent and 
fedate in his Temper 'and C^nverfatioty> 
unaAive both in Body and Mind. He 
had been more inured to the Bafe of a 
Camp, than the Toilsof War. His Lo«e 
of Money appears to be exorbitant^ from 
his entring into the wealthy Province of 
Syria in tbe greatefl Poverty^ and return- 

a 3 8 Tbt Roman Hiftorj^ 

ing thence laden with the Riches of the 
Country^ which he had befieged. When 
he commanded the Army in Germanyy. 
he thought that People had nothing but 
the Voice and ^lape of Men,, and that 
they were to be alUred into Subjefkion 
by Laws and Equity, who couM not be 
forced to it by Violence and Arms. Up* 
on this Perfwafion, be advanced into the 
oluddle of Gmwnx, and conceived himfelf 
Moong Men -who delighted to enjoy the 
Swects' 5dl^ Peace, and accordingly ^nt 
the Summer, in determining Caii&s from; 
his TribtmaL - ^ 

tjk Metlkds maJk ufi' of l> AjrmJniuSy » 
; /iduc§ the Komzn, Gemmk TM Cba- 
ra^9r of Arminius. His Defi^ns difco* 
n^md to VflruSj ku iwt crodiod. 

jD IJ^T they ^what q<>ow would bc- 
JLJ Heyie . wl^ is not convinced by Expe- 
.rience) bieing a I^€^e natnrally. mclined 
to Diilifttulationi diguifea counteefeited 
Policy, under the Sbsw of Savagene(s 
and Barbarity : They often pretended 
Suits aoi I>muenCeS:wta& JCliei^ were 
^ _ rtpaily 

i>f Velleitis Paterculuf . 239 

really none, appealing to the Ruman Tri- 
bunal for Juftice ; and returning Thanks 
that they were ended with fo much Eqiii-* 
ty; theyfeemM now to recede from their 
former Cruelty, and fufiered the Law to 
decide thofe Controvcrfies which were 
ufed before to be determined by Arms. 
Thus they brought QuinEiilius to the high- 
eft Opinion of his Safety, fo that he 
feeined rather a Pr«or or the City, fit- 
ting in a Court of Judicature in the fih 
rumy than a General of an Army in the 
middle of Germany. Upon this, one Armi-^ 
niuiy Son to *S>>r7w^m/, a Prince of that Na- 
tioo,a Youth of noble Extra^on,great AAi- 
vity, and wonderful Expedition in hij At- 
tempts, who difcovcred the Ardour and 
Vehemence of his Mind, by his Looks 
and Complexion, and had been confiant- 
ly in our Service in the former War, and 
was adniitted Citizen and iKnight of Rme^ 
was faicited to ViWany by the Negligence 
of our Commander; for he wifely coofi*- 
dered, that none v^rere more open to Af- 
faults than they who thought themfelves 
out of Danger, and that Mens feeming 
Security was often the Occafion of their 
greateft Calamities : He firft revealed his 
Intentions to a few, and then admitted 



240 Th€ Roman Hifiory 

more into his Defigns : He perfvtraded 
them that the Romans might be over^ 
thrown ; and to add Force to his Opini- 
on, he appointed a Time for the Execu- 
tion of his Treachery. Sergeftes, a Man 
of great Honour and Fidelity in that Na- 
tion, informs Icarus of their Preparations : 
But the Fates perplexed his Thoughts, 
and threw a Cloud over his UnderfUnd* 
ing; for it oftea happens, that upon feme 
great Revolution of Fortune, our very 
Thoughts are darkned ; and which is the 
gr^ateft Calamity, whatever befals us, 
is looked upon as worthy for us to fufier ; 
fo that Events of Chance are charged as 
our own Default and Crime. Varus gives 
no Credit to the Intelligence, alledging 
that he was fatisfied of their Good-Wili, 
from a Confcioufnefs of the Good*0(- 
fices he had done them ; and when he 
had thus difregarded the fidd, there was 
no room allowed for a fecond Informa* 


ir/Velleius Patcrculus. 241 

1%e Roman :^rmy entirely defeated by the E* 
* ^ iiiemy% Varus kills himjelj. His Head is 
^ cut off and fern to CxUu 



T ShsM endeavour to give a more par* 
^ ticular Account of this Overthrow, 
which was the greate A to the Romans in 
any Foreign Country, fince the Defeat of 
Craffus among the Parthians (tho' others 
have already done it) in another Work, 
at prefent I (hall only lament it. The 
mou valiant, numerous, and weU-difci« 
plined Army which the Romans ever faw, 
was loft and deftroyed by the Negligence 
of the General, the Treachery of the Ene- 
my, and the Perverfenefe of Fortune : 
They had no Opportunity to make the 
Refiftance they defired to do, Iince many 
of them had been feverely correfted for 
ading with Uie Courage and Spirit o(Ro* 
mans ; they were furrounded ov Woods, 
Morales, and Ambufcades, ana were cut 
oflf by an Enemy which was ufed to: fall 
before them as Sheep, their Life or Death 
being determined according to the Cm- 
eky or Compaffion of the Conqueror* 
The Geoeral was more prepared tp die 

T « 
t ^ . 

:a4a iTlbe Roman Hiji^ry 

thaa to fight, and following the Enpam* 
.pfe of bis Father, and Grandfather^ rai| 
!himfelf through with his Sword, The 
Mafter of the Cwi^^.L.,Eufus^ gave as' 
: noble an Inftance of his Valour^ as his 
Colleague Cemius did of his Cowardicq^ 
vwbo when his Forces were diftreiled, fur- 
rendred them, and fo chofe to die as a 
Malefa&or, rather than a Soldier. Vala 
Nummusy ^ the Lieutenant of Vamsi^ was 
guilty. of a like infamous A&ioo ;. be 
.(drew away the Horfe from the conquered 
Foot, and endeavoured with the Wings to 
.fly to the Rhine : But Fortune revenged his 
Oime and Ferfidioufiiefs, for be did uot 
furvive thofe whom ^ he thus abandoned,F 
but died as a Traitor to them'and bis 
Country. The Body o(Vam$ hal£ burnt, 
was tore in Pieces by the Cmekyof the 
Enemy, bis Head was cut otf • and fehe 
to Maroboduusf which be commanded to 
be. carried toXie/!ir, who very botiourably 
sntert'd it in ^c Tombft Di his AKfri 

W m 

F • 

C U AP. 

of Velleius Paterculds. 245: 


5?fe Command of the German U^dr commtfi- 
fed to Tiberius. He fettles Gallia, pdf^ 
fes the Rhine, encounters the Enemy infe^ 
veral fuccefsful Battles, and returns in 
Safety with his Army to their Winter Sta-^ 
tions. Ttuo gallant ASiions of ASpTznaiS; 
oiri Ceditius. 



'r^Mfary when he heatd this; flics baclr- 
^ to his Father, and as he Was always 
the Patron of his Country, undertook its 
Reveagie,aCaufehe had long been employ* 
edin: He's difpatched iViX,^ Gertimn^ he 
<6Qfitms Gaui in its Allegiance, difoofcs^ 
^he Armies, dod fortifies the Garrifons; 
^nd t'egarding his own Honour dnd Re«. 
putatioa moris than the Confidence of 
the Enemy, who threatned Italy with the 
timhrui and teutonic Forces, he j^afTed the 
jR^/M with his Army ,• AmTntus was dif- 
nciaiycd^ his. Father and Couhtify being^ 
contfedt! with ch^rgitig alt the Blame u]^« 
oh^himj f6:thali: O/^r penetrates fatthei^^ 
forces thQir B6fd^.r)?, rivag;es thefr Fiields, 
burnii tiieir Houfes, overthrows all Op« 
I>&fitti6n, and not having loll a M^n of 
t&pfe bQilicougybt wicl]ytii#j;b<claided hfi' 

^44 ^^ Roman Kijlory 

Army back into Wioter-^Qufttcrs. I can't 
focbear doing JuAice to L. Affrenas ; He 
commanded under his \JxiQ\z Varus ^ and 
by his indefatigable Induftry i>referYed his 
two Legions from any Hurt in that great 
Overthrow, and by a prudent and timely 
Retreat to his Winter-Quarters^ encou- 
raged tiie Fidelity of the Nations on this 
fide the Rhinej which were before ex- 
tremely af&ighted and wavcrin|;» But 
there are fome who aflert, that as he pre- 
ferved the Lives of his own Men, fo he 
(eized upon the Eftates of thofe who died 
under Varus ^ and made himfelf Heic to 
the PoiTeifions of the vaoquiiKed Ansiy* 
We are tiki&wife to obftrve theJShgulit 
Valour of Lucius Caditius, Mailer ot the 
Camp, and thofe who under him were 
befet and furrounded by a vaft Body of 
the Germans ; for tho' the want of Prori^ 
(ions had reduced them to great Extre- 
mity, and the unequal Force of the Ene« 
my almoft to Defpair, yet^ not pufli'd on 
by any rafii Meafures, or improvident to 
turn every Occafion to their Advantage,, 
they fpied an Opportunity, and bravely 
forced their Way through their Enemies 
tp our Army, with their Swords, and 
overcame all Oppofition. From hence ir 


of Vellcius Pafercdtus. z\% 

appears, that Vams^ tho' wcll-raeaniag^* 
was of too floachful and cafy a Tern*- 
perf that it was a defeft in the Conduft^ 
of the General, rather than in tha Valour 
of his SoldierSjto which we owe the Lofs^ 
of fo gallant an Arm^. The Germanp 
were extremely, inhumane- to* the Gap-^ 
tives^ which occaiioned the brave Adtioop 
of Caldus Caliusy a Man very woithy^ tfaci;^ 
Antiquity of his Dercent;.helaid holdoSf 
the Chain with which hb was bouncH sudi 
dafiied. it^gainft his Hea4 To that hcea^-- 
pired b^ the EfFufioo^of hisBrain^i andi 
Lo£s ofl luis Blood*. 

G H ap: cxxi:, 

7J>f great Smcejfes of Tiberius in theney^f^ 
Tears War* He is equal in^ Authority mth^ 
Auguftusi and triumphs over the Paa«^- 
nonians md Dalmatians. • 

TH E Soul of T/imr/rwas^now aaih"^ 
ated with the fame Succefs; andi 
infpired with- the fame Valour which icr 
had difplayed before.. He defeated^- the - 
Enemies Forces by Land and Sba, wheni 
heihad compofed the Afliiirs of Gaul^znd^^ 
the Sedition of the incenfed City: of W-^- 

34^ Tb^ Ronxnr HiJItny 

4MM^more by Ferfwafio&tfaaa Puniftmcnc 
Upon this, the Senate and People ^o£ 
Mme (at the Requeft of hk Father) in- 
vefted him with an equal Bower over 
die Provinces and Armies^ with the Em- 
peror himfelf, by a Decree which they 
pafied ; (for 'twas prepofterous, that he 
jhould not/command what hehimfelf had 
defended ; that he who was always th« 
firft in a£ferting^£hould not receive the Ho- 
SDiir due to the Reftorer of the Rights of 
his Country.) He now returned to the 
City, and what he had long fioce de&rv- 
cd^ but was forced to. defer -itpOQ Ac-> 
COPnt of the Continuance of the War^ he 
triumphed from Pannonia and Dalmatia. 
Who can't. but admire the Magnificence 
cf Cafar^ and the Indulgence of. Fortune 
to him ? For we were not. barely inform- 
ed of the DeAcu&ion of fo many noble 
Commanders of ihe Enemy» but fow them 
led Prifoners at his Triumph, which my 
Brother and I had the Honour to attend, 
among many.otber great Men who receiv- 
ed Rewards for their Service* 

C H A P- 


if Velleius Paterculus. ^4^ 
C H AR CX3ai 

^hegrek Modify of Tibcntts>^ l;i suckling 

three Triumphs, when., he had. deferved^ 
and might have demanded feven^ 

^^HB Moderation ^6f T^ierim Cafar U 
*^ diflioguifbed in. nothing more than 
in thisc Particular, that when he had be- 
yond all Difputc deferv^d feven Tri- 
umphs, he contented himfelf with three 
only : For who can doubt but that he de-. 
fervedan Ovant Triumph for his bring- 
ing Armenia into the. SubjeAion cf^Rme^ 
invefiing a.King with the Grown of that 
Country, (whid^ he pliced: upon HisiHead 
with his own Hand) and compofing tiki 
Afiairs of the£afi. Who cou'd deny Mm; 
a^Right to enter tbcGity in a triumphal^ 
Chariot^ for his. Conqneil Qi tbc JRkfff 
znA Vitulilku . The . fame' Honoar<€iugbe^, 
to: have; been pyrbpofed; to, ^nd^aecep^eidr' 
by him, for hif weaknii^ the Forcci^ oP 
Gemanjihy, 2L War of three fiiccefliv^: 
Years a£ter bis. Adoption. He deferfed^ 
the moftilluftrions Triumph, for deftroji^ 
ing and reducii^ Gernutny^ after the JDey 
feat of Varus i But you can't refolte wKer 
ther youMl admire hinpt mor« k^* his-glo^^ 

a riou9 

9^4^' 7J^^K6mtn Hijtofjt 

lAofas Exploits, and inoft difficult &cce A^ 
ffcsj or tof his- Moderation in tefofingr 
thofe Honours they defisrved. . 

CHAP, cxxra: 

AuguftuSi in^bk Way t^ Campania; fichnr 
at Nola, and dies in the j6tb Tear of bis 
Age. His Bebawwr t$*Ti\Kdus^in 6ir 
lafl Mcmems.^ 

WE' arc now" come ur the- Time- 
when every one was in • the» ut^ 
moft Fean Cafar Augtifius had (ent hist 
Grandfon Germanicusi. into Gemumy^ to^ 
put an End to the Remains of that War.- 
He was' about ^ to difpatch his- Son tibe" 
rius into IHyriOy to fettle that Country 
in Peace, which he had fubdued by Arms,, 
when he defigned fpeedHy to follow, yet^ 
lir|l to - be pnefcnt at the Diverfions of 
Wreftling, which the Neafolitmss inftitut*- 
ed in Hanour of him, upon which he • 
prepares to go into Camfania. He had-" 
already perceived fome Symptoms of an 
Indifpofition, and the declining of' his^: 
Health 5 but the Greatnefs of his Mind 
ftrove agamft -it^.io that he went after 
his Son,: and parting, withhim . at . Bene-^ 
. : : :: ventum. 

(f Velleius Patercuius. 249 

^entum^ be ^in^elf turned from thence t9 
NoJa. His Iflhefs' grew upon him daily* 
upon which he fent for Tiberius ia the 
greateft Haflc (he being the only Per- 
ion whtf could preferve the Security of 
the Empire) who, returned to his Father 
much fooner than he could expeft. Au^ 
gufius now declared himfelf to be int 
the greateft Safety, a,Qd in the deareft 
Embraces p^ Tiberius y refign'd himfett^ 
j^nd ail his Q>ticern$ to hun, affirming^ 
that he refbled not now to die, if the 
Fates had fo Ordained, it. He was enliv- 
ened at the Sight^and with the Difcouric: 
of his . beloved Son t but his Difeafe at 
laft Aveifcadie::^ Bid^eiifbrits^ i6 t\M 
giviQg .Wsly cb Fate^. he re%i'd his Sonlt 
to Heaven iii the Seventy- Incth Year o£ 
his Age^ in the ConfuUIup of Pmiej and 


. ' ;• * 


J '' 

■V • -♦ . 



- a -t 

T**-!- ■'■I"l. 'J(" 

350 The Roman Biftory 

Tiir Fears and Cfmfiemation vf the Peipk id 
the Death of Augufiiis, removed b) Ti- 
berius ; his Bebavkur u the Peofh ^hm 
they offered him the Empire^ which befirfi 
refufes^ but is afterwards frevastdim to ath^ 
. ce^t. 

^HE IJnivcrial Fears, of the City;. 
"^ the Terror of the Senate^ the Coa- 
fufioti of the People^ the Diftrefs of. the 
whole Empire, and the great Cvifis of the 
eternal Safety or Fall of Rme^ is what 
11^ hafte obliges me ta^.byi as toQ 
0pi6us a .SuD|e& for one who has no 
noreLeifuretopjorecate^it. JBiii: this I 
muil cpnfefs in the Kame.op all the Puh^ 
lick> That whereas we were apprehenfive 
of the Deftrudion of the whole Empire, 
we fcarcely perceived it in the leafl Com- 
motion. So great was the Reputation 
of one (ingle Perfon, diat there, was no 
Occafion tor Swords, either to defend 
mod Meo^ or to reftrain the wicked. 
The only Conteft was in the City, when 
the Senate and People prefTed upon Ca- 
fdr^ to accept the Dignities of his Fa- 
ther, who anfwered themj That be had^ 


of Vielleius Paterculuf. 351 

.rather live a private Citizen^ than an il- 
luflrious Prince. At lafl he was prevail- 
ed upon by Reafonj rather than Ambiti* 
on.; foe he confidered^ that every Thing 
would periih which had not the Security 
«£ his Proteftion* Thus he became tn« 
«nly Inftance of refufing the Government 
almofl; as long as others had contended 
for ic with Arois. \Vhen his Father hM 
t^Neen rj^llpred to Heaven, and his Funeral 
Colqtnniaed with all human and ^ivW 
J^noursi hamade it his firft Care i^o ri> 
gulate the JEledions, a Model of whicft 
\iX% Father had left behind him» in his 
bym Hand Writing. In that Jun<^ure, my 
^roth^r ^qd my felf had the Favour pe*. 
ing. Q^M's* Candi^t^>'aftcr many J^| 
tHemen»49d E^^/bns^ of the Sacerdotal Qvr. 
40r> to t>€i^ ^pppinte4 PiMors : We feeipp! 
the laA iirluch were rt^cxnam^ ftfii«; 

f^fiui, and the fitd who were propo(e4' 

•"•■.•.■ •• '■ • ■■,■■, 

'•■-■- w , ft 

953 The Roman Hijtofy 

'A Mutiny in lltyriciim and Germany, ap^ 
feafed by the prudeni Management of Tibc-t 

' rius. ^be Chancer of Junius Bteifus, • » 

.■•*••■ ■ • / I .■'■■'-• ■ 

rr^ H E ConninDionwcalth fooA received 
■ Jl the Rewards of its Councils and 
pefires, for it immedj|ately appeared what 
Cad^Mlties we hadTu&red if we had hot 
prevailed, and what Advantages accrOed 
td us;i>y the Succefs of -onr Wifliesv Thtf 
Army which was in Germany y and undeif 
iHc ] mniediate Command of Germankus^ 
^Ith the Legions which were in JBlyrkum, 
out of Ian exorbitant Ambition^ and ]>> 
fire of putting every thing into ConfuiSon^ 
demanded a new;General, a'litw Sfeue^; 
and a ne,w Coihtnon wealth : They^ had' 
the Confidence to threaten they wou\i' 
impofe Laws upon the Senate ^nd Prin^^ 
«hd endeavoured to makethemfclvesjudges 
what their Salaries (hould be, and boV' 
long tliey were obliged to lerve in the 
War. ^Thqr Fury .proceeded to. Arms 

moft with lawlefs tmpunity,^ wanting ra« 
ther one to head, than otl^rs to fecond 
the Confpiracy* But all this. Confufion 


of Velleius Patercuks. 25 3 

and Difordcr was fuppreffed, and 4>criflicd 
by, liie Experience of their old General,^ 
wlio rfcrtrainfed fomc Proceedings by hrsf 
Authority,* proMifed themfonae Favours 
out 6f.,his f finfcely Generofity, punifli-' 
ed the Authors of the Sedition with 
Severity, and applied moderate Correfti- 
on to the reft» As . GetmankuiS Conduft 
in this AfFair was irery' remrfs, fo D^yJix, 
a Yodth of ptbdigrous Vivacity and SpK 
Tit, who was fent by his Father to allay 
this. Tumult, expofed himfelf to great Dif- 
ficulties and Dangers, (which had like to 
have been deftruftivc to himfelf, as they 
were by adhering too rigoroufly to the 
aiident Difciplrne, and defended himfelf 
againftthe Befieged with their own Wea- 
pons, which firft enclofed him. Junius 
El^jusy ia Man as ufeful in the City as 
the Camp, was a great Inftrument in this 
Succefs. He was a few Years afterwards 
Proconful in Afrky where he obtained Tri- 
umphal Ornaments. He was after this 
made Governour of Sfairiy and the Forces* 
which had fo eminently diftinguiflied them- 
felves in the lllyrian War. Thefe hfe con- 
tinued and prefervcd in the greateft Peace 
and Tranquillity ; for as he had the moft 

Z honeft 

I •' 

2 54 ^^ Roman Hijlory 

honeft Defigns and Intentions^ fa he ne- 
ver wanted Authority to put them in Ex* 
ccution. Dolabellay a Man of a generous 
Sincerity, imitated his Care and Fidelity 
in the greateft part of the War m lUyria. 



Afiort Accmnt of Tiberius^ Government ^ 
the Empire for 16 Tears. 

WH O would give a difiinft Ac- 
count of the Adminiilrarion of 
thefe 16 Years, which is imprinted alrea- 
dy upon every ones Mind» Cafar now 
had confecrated his Father, not by the 
Supremacy of his Power, but from a Mo- 
tive of Religious Duty. He did not on- 
ly name him, bat inftallcd him a God. 
Fidelity is now reftored to the Courts of 
Judicature, Sedition difplaced from the 
JPurum^ Ambitioa from the Canipi and 
Difcord from the Senate; Juflice, Equity, 
and Induilry, which before were unre- . 
garded, and buried in Obfcurity, are re- 
ceived into the City. The Magiftrates 
enjoy their Authority, the Senate its 
Grandeur, the Judges their Gravity ; 
the Diforders of the Theatre are fuppref- 

of VcUeius Patercuiiw* 235 

fed; every one who is not influenced by 
his own. Confci^nce^ is obliged by Ne- 
jceffity to aft with Integrity and Honour. 
Vertuoqs Deeds are efleemed, vicious 
Aftions are punjflied. The Mean ac- 
knowledge their Subjeftion to the Great, 
without fear of them; the Great look 
.'upon thofe beneath thena, without Con- 
tempt. When were our Provifions under 
better Regulation ? When was there a 
more happy Peace ? Which \% diflfcminac- 
ed into the Countries of the Eall and 
Weft,is extended to the utmoft Borders of 
the North and South, and preferves every 
Corner of the Empire from the Molefta- 
tion of Pirates and Rapine. The Muni- 
S^CQ of the Prin<:e, relieves the acci- 
dental Misfortunes not only of private 
Members, but Cities themfelves. The 
Towns of AJia are reftored, the Prc- 
vincers freed from the Oppreffion of the 
M^g^ft^^tes ; Promotions are conferred 
upon the Deferving, and Punifiiment, tho' 
late, is fure to overtake the Guilty. Inte- 
reft is overcome by Equity, fince the 
prince influences the Manners of the Peo« 
pie, by the Luftre of his own Conduft^ 
and as he prefldes over .all in Authority, 
fo he do^f in Example* 


2 $6 Tbg Roman TTtfiorf 

Tiberius, after the Example , of Auguftu* 
^/a^Scipio, takes into his Favour ^iuS 
Sc j anus. His Defcent, and CharaSer. 

IT feldotn happens that Men of great 
Fortune and Dignity do not ufe the 
Affi fiance of others in the Adminiftradon 
of it, as the two Scipio's did that of the 
Lal/jy whom they advanced equal with 
themfeWes, as the Divine Auguftus did 
that of M. Agrippay and next to hiniy 
that of Stat. Taurus, the Obfcurity of 
whofe Families was no Obftacle to their 
being ilUiftrious, in Conful/hips, Triumphs^ 
and the Dignities of many. Priifl^ods \ 
for great and weighty AfiFairs require great, which are not defigned by 
thofe who aft in a lower Sphere in the 
Common wealth. And *tis the Intcreft of 
the State, that the mpft advantageous to 
it (hould be ever adorned With the highefij 
Honours ; and the moft ufeful be guarded 
with Authority. .Tiierius folfews' thefe 
prudent Meafures, and admits Sejanut 
JElius as his chief Affiftant in Affairs 
of State, defcendcd from a noble Family 
^the Eg^ucftrian Order, wha by hti 


(if VelTenjy Patercgfus. 2 57 

JM^ther wM allied to many very honour- 
^4ble and illuflrious Ferfons, having Bro^ 
.thej;s,.Coufip Gerpans^ an4 an Uncle of 
the Conful^r Orcier, himfelf being a^ 
Man of great Fidelity and Expedition ia 
BufineCs (the Conftitution of bis Bodv 
b^ing fuited to the Capacities of hisMindV 
ji Man of a very ple^fuig Sevefity^and a re^ 
gular Cheer(ulnef$ ; who in his Carriage 
was fu(ch^ as he appeared feldom really 
Intent upon a Thing \ but by his Teeming 
iipt over follicitous for any Honour, obJr 
tain'd what would gratify the higheft Am- 
bition, who entertain^ a. much lower 
Opinion of himfelf, than others conceiv^ij 
of him ; eafie in his Behavioi^r and Con- 
verf^tioB, his Mind always fprightly> 
;(dive, ^nd indefatigable. 


Tiberius*y Favour to Sejanus, confirmed tf 
the good Opinion of the People towards hint^ 
fnd the Examples of fever al eminent Per-^ 
fons^ F(iVOurites if fornper Princes. 

TH E Judgment of the City concern- 
ing this Man, vies with the Opi- 
nion the Prince hfts of him ; for ^tis not 

Z J at 

215* TB& Roman Htfifxry 

ac alt' unuftiaU that the Senate and' Feo^ 
fie oi Rome (hould think tiinr the moA^ 
Boble, who is the mdflr ^tfetyin^ ; : Odt 
Anceftors before tht Punic V/kty- 3oorYeats 
fince^ promoted Ti. Coruncanim^ z TAztx 
ef a low Defcent^ through niady. other 
Honours , particularly the 'High-Pricft^ 
Bood, to the higheft D^ity itr the State i . 
i^k €/irvilim, of an Equ^ftrtan Family, 
and not long-- after- MiCntpy and- M^nmi',^ 
MS' Achaicufj were advanced to* be Ctnjuhj 
Cenfors, and to receive - the Honour of 
Triumphs. TJiey who acfmittedC Afari-^ 
usy an oWcuire Perfon, to be feven * times 
Gonful, and' the chief 'Man among the 
Romam^ who raifcd M. Tuttius to that 
Dignity ,• that of- all the great Offices of 
State were difpos^d of by his^ Will ami* 
Approbation, who deny*d nothing to A- 
^ius TolliOy which others could not have, 
obtained without the greateft Difficultx. 
and Danger, did certainly conclude, that 
that Mandeferved the greateftFavoursand 
Preferment^ who approved himfelf to be 
the moft virtuousv A natural Imitation 
of this Cuftom, inclined Cafar to Expe* 
Eience Sej ami ; ztid Sej anus toealb Ca— 
ffzr of the Burthens and Fatigues oPStatc,. 
and dii£oied. the Senate and People oP 

Rgfke,,io^,fPpcz\%o him as^tjije Security jcif 
the' Publickj wjip had always:difting<?iflb- 
iddhifaifelf toVe. the. moil ufeful Man ia 


liberias commended for ^ his 'Behaviour 7o 

' Rhdfcupoli's, Libd/ Mafobodiuis r/j^ 

Getmaiticus* ^ Fanegyruk on fiver al 0^ 

his noble and^'Vertuous ABions inthcbje-a 

gjinning of his Reign. 

I'HaVc alfeadf feprcftntcd''tH'e general^ 
Draught c^; "fiieriuss' Government jj. 
gWcmclc^^to run over the Partis 
cnlars of i^. With what Prudence did he 
comriiand RhafcUpdlis, who kiird Cof)'/ his, 
Brother^s Son, and Colkagqe with hiia' 
in his Kingdom,; to' appear before him^ 
Being afflffed InVthat Affair by ^ Ftaccutx 
Pomfonius.'2L Min. prthe Confular Oi>. 
der, oric Dofn- to.the Pfcrformance of hoT'^ 
nouraWe^Afliiotis, Wh'Q ; always defervedy 
Ptoxnotion by his rntpgri^, before hc-. 
afpired ,toir. Witli what a Serioufriefs and^ 
Gravity docs he attend 'to the hearing o£-\ 
Canfes, as a Judge. and .a Senator^ not as* 
a^Pimcc? Wtthf what Expedition did he- 

26o The Roman Hijlary 

f upprefs the ungraK&l /l/io« whpaim^ 
tc Innovations ip the State 1 How |ene- 
jroufly did he inftruft his Gitrmanfcus^ and 
preparM him with Experience, ^hich \\,^ 
taught htm in his own Camp, and then 
received him the Conqueror of Oermanf ! 
How glorioufly did he load hif Youth with 
Honours I The Ornaments of his TH' 
umph anfwering the Qra;ideur pf his 
Atchievements ! How oft^n 4i4 ^ oblige 
the People with DiftributiQn$ pf Corn, 
and per(e£fc the Regulatipa of the Senate, 
tho' he might have done it without their 
Advice, fo as neither tpgiye any Invitati- 
en to Luxury, or deprive au honed Pover* 
ty of the Dignities it dc^enresi I How 
glorioufly did he difpatch hisGermankm 
into the Provinces beyond $p4 ! How 
powerful were his Counfels, which by the 
Adminiftration of his Son Drufus^ ^nd a 
prudent Application of his Me^ures, o- 
bligcd Marokduus^ who (without Ofience 
to his Majefty) lay fculkiag as a Serpent 
in the Earth, on the Frontiers of his 
Kingdom, to retreat from his Hold I How 
honourably an3 yet fecurely does he ftill 
confine him within his own Reialm i Haw 
fuddenly did he extinguifh that dangerous 
and important Vf ar> which was railed by 


^/Velleius Paterculus. 26^1 

Sacrovir^ a. Prince of the Gauls, and F^- 
rus Julius y To that the Romans knew that 
; they had cpriqiiered^ before they were 
well apprised they were in Arms, and had 
News of the Victory, before they re- 
ceived the leaft Information of Danger I 
The Terror of the African War, which, 
gathered Strength every Day, was pre- 
fently fupprcfs'd by his Direftiouand'Coii- 
diift. • 


Several ntagnifcient StruBures built by Tibe^* 

. rius, yjith fever alfxivate and publickDoi" 

\ ntq^esrfpaiir'dbjfhinii An Exfojlulaiion. 

• why fif giod a Prince Jh.ould meet witB fff 

mfln) RviH and undefsrvd Calamities f > ' 

• ■ • 

WHAT Works has hcerefted up^ 
on his own, and the Acfcbimt of 
his FamiFy ^ Wrth hdw ireligfous a Mu,- 
hificence, almoft beyond . thfe . Belief 6f 
Man, is he building a Temple to '; hii 
Father ? With ; what a generous. Temge^ 
ef Mind did he. repair the Gildings cjf 
Tonipey^ which were deftroyed hy Fjre f 
a^ 'if he thought hrnrfelf obliged .ta ptoi^ 
tpa ^cvery-Tfaing which had*^^i!Wr'^bee!t 
■ ' grcar 


a 62 The Roman Hijiofy 

great and iiluftrious ? With whata libe- 
rality (as upon other Occafions) does he 
relieve the Loflfes fuflfered by FIrej upon 
Mount Cdlius^ out of his own Revenues? 
How calmly and peaceably does he pro- 
vide for Supplies^ without the Fears of a 
Levy, the chief Terror of the People ? 
If our Condition by .Nature, jor our Dc- 
^ pendance on the Gods^ weuld allow us 
to complain; how has he deferv'd, that 
Uto firft, and then Silius aud Pifo, one 
of whom he had advanced to Ho- 
nour, and augmented thofe of the other, 
ihould form Confpiracies againft him ? 
To mention greater Misfortunes, tho^ 
thefe were wliat aiHi^d him the mofl^ 
what was his 0£fcncc> that- he ftould 
lofe both ki^ Sons wheo yom^i and his 

Grandfon by Drujus ? Hitherto we Have 
related Matters of Grief; we are now 
come to thofe of Shame and Reproach. 
How have the lafl three Years (illuftrl'^ 
ous Vtnicius) diftra&ed his Mind with 
Sorrow? How long has he been torment- 
ed by a violent (and what's much more 
lamentable) concealed Ajfiliftion ? Hi^ 
Daughter-in-Law and Nephew, excite 
his Paflion, his Shame^ and Indignatiop. 
Thefe Calam^tie^ wexe«n|umce4 bythe 


of Velleius Paterculus. 1^3 

peath of his Mother^ an honoficable and! 
virtuous Woman, wHo in all her Gondufl: ; 
refembled the Gods rather than any 
thing himmn. Her Power was never ex*- 
erted» but for the Relief of the diftre(Ied» 
or Advancement pf the deferWog. I muiQ; : 
conclude my Work with a f rayer. 


The ConclufioHy a Virayer f^r the Safety of 
the Roman EmperoYy and the Prote£iion 
of the Roman State. 

r\ Jupiter Capitolinus, the Founder and 
^ EJlatli/ber of the Roman Name ; thou 
Father Mars, and Vefta, the Preferver of 
the Eternal Fire ; and whatever other Pet ties 
have advtpiced this prodigious Body of an 
Empire to the Supreme Sovereignity over the 
whole Univerfe ; / do in the Name of the 
whole People f implore and conjure you to Pro-' 
teSiy Guard, and Defend this State, this 
Peace, and this^^i^ljrifke ; and when he has 
furvived to th^ Uafl extent of human Life^ 
appoint him Succeffors, who may be as able to 
fupport the Grandeur of the Efnpire, as nee 

*'*^ are 

a64 ^' Roman Hifiory, 5cc 

are fenfibU he it ~ to promote the hopefi Cottn^ 
fell oftbeCiiiXfttts, (mdjiif^reji tBeii-.'treac&i' 
reus Defigns. * ' , , ' \ ■ 

' The lift Line isii»t|erfed inthe Origiqil, 
imt is Ibpplied by r^w, at it U fcndered. 

F I krs.