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Gift of 



















From 1871 to 1876. 



Editor of the Comprehensive Dictionary of the Bible. 





Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871. 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



Cor. Pearl and Trumbull Street*, 


" ANOTHER book ' Romanism as it is !' I don't want to see it ! 
I've heard about Romanism ever since I was a child ; and the book- 
stores have more books on this subject now than are needed." 

Stop a minute, friend ! Just read the title-page through ; look at this 
preface, if you please ; study the table of contents ; examine the en- 
gravings and the reading-matter ; and then think, if you can, what 
there is, that can fill the place of this present volume. It is true that 
there are many books on some particular part or parts of the subject 
here presented ; and not a few, whose statements and arguments are, 
for one reason or another, received by many gcod people with great 
suspicion and multiform allowance ; but there is no book which can 
properly claim to be so comprehensive and complete in all its parts, 
and so full of the most recent and authentic and valuable information 
on all the living questions connected with this great subject as this book. 

The subject certainly ought to command attention from all Amer- 
icans. The Roman Catholics constitute a large and increasing part 
of our population ; is it a matter of no concern to us who and what our 
neighbors are ? Do you not care, friend, who has the balance of 
power, or the whole power, in our country, provided you can make 
money, or enjoy yourself for the time being ? If there is any subject 
upon which every person in the United States of America should be 
well informed, it is the subject of Romanism. 

This is not a sensation-book, which aims especially to tell big stories, 
and to please those who delight to read only the thrilling, the horrible, 
the unnatural, and the improbable. It is not a romance or a novel 
with fact and fiction mixed together in inextricable confusion. No ! 
It has a higher aim to make its readers wiser and better to give 
them a more correct understanding of matters and questions that are 
of present and lasting importance, and to fit them for the right dis- 
charge of those responsible duties which the great and glorious Ruler 
over all has placed on us as a people and as individuals. In order to 


make every thing plain to ordinary readers, the author has translated 
the foreign and learned terms which necessarily abound in such a 
volume, and has endeavored to simplify and explain what seemed ob- 
scure, and, by means of the table of contents, the frequent references, 
the general index, and other aids^ to avoid needless repetitions, to 
bring the whole into a complete and symmetrical form, and to place 
all its stores of information at the reader's immediate command. 

This book is not a partisan book, but a book of knowledge and of 
truth. It has cost much hard work to gather its materials and to put 
them in proper shape ; but what is here contained is believed to be 
honestly worth what it has cost the author and publishers, or will cost 
the reader. The most authentic sources of information have been 
consulted and used ; the exact truth has been diligently sought and 
carefully presented to view that it may be seen and known just as it 
is. Whatever is wise and honorable and reputable and right and true 
in Rome itself or in the system which there has its origin and seat, 
has been brought out and exhibited without inquiring solicitously who 
would be pleased or displeased by the procedure. And, on the other 
hand, that which is unwise, dishonorable, disgraceful, unrighteous and 
false, has likewise been spoken of with the same attempt at impartiality 
and usefulness. Misapprehensions, prejudices, and misrepresentations 
ought to be corrected, whether they are found in the Roman Catholic 
or in the Protestant. If what is held or maintained as truth cannot 
bear the light and cannot stand with God's help, then it is not God's 
truth ; and no Catholic or Protestant should cling to it. 

While the author of this book is a thorough Protestant, ances- 
trally and personally, by position and feeling and undoubting convic- 
tion, he has allowed Roman Catholics and Roman Catholic authorities 
to speak for themselves on all points, to tell their own story, to present 
their own side in all its strength ; and he has likewise endeavored to 
let Protestantism have an equally fair chance to speak freely and for- 
cibly. The main part of the book is from Roman Catholic sources ; 
much of it is translated from their standard Latin works which are 
altogether beyond the reach of people in general. Hence Roman 
Catholics themselves may learn more of their own church and system 
from this volume than they could in a century from all the sources of 
information to which they have access. The " Canones et Decreta 
Sacrosancti (Ecjimenict Concilii Tridentini" (= Canons and Decrees 
of the Holy Ecumenical Council of Trent) j the " Concilii Plenarii 


BaUimorensis IL, in Ecclesia Metropolitana Baltimorensi, a die vii. ad 
diem xxi. Octobris, A. D., MDCCCLXVL, habiti, et a Sede Apostolica 
recogniti, Acta et Decreta " (= Acts and Decrees of the 2d Plenary 
Council of Baltimore, held in the Metropolitan Church of Baltimore 
from the 7th to the 21st day of October, 1866, and authenticated by 
the Apostolic See) ; the " Mtssale Romanum " ( Roman Missal) ; the 
" Breviarium Romanum " (== Roman Breviary) ; the " Rituale Roma- 
num ") = Roman Ritual) ; the " Pontificate Romanum " (= Roman 
Pontifical) ; " The Primacy of the Apostolic See Vindicated, by Francis 
Patrick Kendrick, Bp. of Philadelphia ; " " The Garden of the Soul ; " 
The Catechism of the Council of Trent (Latin and English) ; Collot's 
" Doctrinal and Scriptural Catechism ; " Ambrose St. John's " Rac- 
colta, or Collection of Indulgenced Prayers ; " " The Golden Book of 
the Confraternities;" "St. John's Manual;" St. Alphonsus Liguori's 
<' Glories of Mary ; " Brandes's " Rome and the Popes ; " The " Cere- 
monial," published by authority of the Baltimore Council and with the 
approbation oi the Holy See, for the use of the R. C. Churches in the 
U. S. ; " The Vickers and Purcell Controversy," published by Abp. 
Purcell; Cardinal Wiseman's Essays ; " The Catholic World ;" "The 
Catholic Family Almanac ; " " Sadliers' Catholic Directory, Alma- 
nac, and Ordo ; " and other standard and approved Roman Catholic 
publications ; Gieseler's and Murdock's Mosheim's Ecclesiastical His- 
tories; " The Penny Cyclopedia of the [British] Society for the Dif- 
fusion of Useful Knowledge," edited by Prof. George Long of Univer- 
sity College, London, with the cooperation of more than 200 contrib- 
utors ; Appletons' "New American Cyclopedia;" Murray's Hand- 
book of Rome and its Environs ; Vasi & Nibby's " Guide of Rome ; " 
Harper's Hand-book for Travelers in Europe and the East ; and nu- 
merous other volumes, pamphlets, and documents of authority and 
value, have all contributed their share to make the present volume A 
STANDARD WORK in its department a work which may be appealed 
to with confidence by every one who prizes truth and loves his country, 
as containing facts and views and arguments which he needs to know 
a reliable and faithful " Exposition of the Roman Catholic System 
for the Use of the American People." 



PREFACE, ---..---*... 3-5 

TABLE OF CONTEKTS, ' - - - * t5_15 


CHAPTER I., 19-89 


Its comparative Antiquity. Dates of its Foundation. Romulus and his Succes- 
sors ; King, Senate, and People ; Patricians and Clients. The Roman Repub- 
lic : Consuls, Senate, and People ; Tribunes ; Twelve Tables ; Patricians, Ple- 
beians, and Knights ; Popular Assemblies ; Slaves ; Soldiers and Wars ; Tem- 
ple of Janus ; Invasions by the Gauls who burn Rome ; Romans become mas- 
ters of Italy ; 3 Punic Wars, and Destruction of Carthage ; Romans conquer 
the known world; Internal Dissensions, Dictators, Insurrections, Social and 
Civil and Servile Wars, and Conspiracies ; First Triumvirate, Julius Cesar, 
Pompey, and Crassus ; Cesar's Dictatorship and Death ; Second Triumvirate, 
Octavius (or Octavian), Antony, and Lepidus ; End of the Roman Republic. 
Augustus and the other Roman Emperors ; their Chronology and Succession. 
Varying Limits of Roman Territory. Roman Religion ; its Gods and Heathen 
Institutions ; 10 Persecutions of Christians ; Christianity afterwards Dominant. 
Decline of the Empire ; Luxury, Licentiousness, and Division ; Rome burnt 
by the Goths under Alaric ; Other enemies, Huns, Vandals, and Heruli ; End 
of the Roman Empire of the West. Kingdom of Italy under the Goths and 
Lombards. Rome and the exarchs of Ravenna. Charlemagne and his succes- 
sors. The Roman Senator. The Popes as Temporal Princes from 1278 to 
1870. Rome again the Capital of Italy. Its Situation and General Features; 
its Climate, Hills, River, Ports, Bridges, Military Roads, Railroads, Walls, 
Gates ; Panorama of Rome. Principal Churches : St. Peter's Basilica, with a 
notice of the Chair of St. Peter ; Basilicas of St. John Lateran, St. Mary Ma- 
jor, St. Paul, San Lorenzo or St. Lawrence, Holy Cross in Jerusalem, St. 
Agnes beyond the Walls ; 11 other Churches Described. Palaces : the Vatican, 
with its Paulino and Sistine Chapels, Museum, Library, &c. ; Quirinal ; Lat- 
eran ; Capitol ; Private Palaces ; Palace of the Inquisition ; Palazso delta Can- 
odleria. Villas. Colleges. Schools and Periodicals. Hospitals. Work- 


house. Squares. Obelisks. Fountains. Aqueducts, modern and ancient. 
Castle of St. Angelo. Antiquities : Tomb of Cecilia Metella ; the Coliseum ; 
Circus of Romulus and Circus Maxima; Palace of the Cesars; Monte Tes- 
taccio ; Baths of Caracalla, of Diocletian, and of Titus ; the Pantheon ; Roman 
Forum; Mamertine Prison; Arches of Titus and of Constantine; Trajan's 
Column and Antonine Column ; Pretorian Camp ; Campus Martius ; Catacombs 
and Columbaria ; Cloaca Maxima. The Modern City : its Industry, Popula- 
tion, Districts, Government and Condition under the Papal Rule. 

CHAPTER II., 90-118 


The terms " Roman Catholic," " Romanism," " Romish," " Papacy," &c. Prot- 
estant Analysis of the System, with Historical Memoranda of Church Rites, 
Ceremonies, Practices, Doctrines, Titles, &c. Cardinal Wiseman's Account of 
the R. C. Church ; its Government, Laws (including the Creed of Pope Pius 
IV.), Constitutive Principle, and Extent of Dominion, with notes giving the 
"Nicene Creed," the Tridentine Doctrines of Original Sin and Justification, 
&c The " Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary," as pronounced 
and denned, Dec. 8, 1854. Vatican Decree of July 18, 1870, establishing the 
Primacy and Infallibility of the Pope. 

CHAPTER III., 119-164 


The titles " Pope," " Roman Pontiff," " Holy See," &c. The Pope's Spiritual 
Sovereignty or Supremacy: Argument from Mat. 16 : 18, 19 ; Question about 
Peter's being Bishop of the Church of Rome ; Historical View of the 
Pope's Spiritual Sovereignty. History of the Pope's Temporal Authority : 
Peter not a Sovereign ; Privileges granted to the Clergy and Bishops by the 
Roman Emperors ; Political Importance of the Bishop of Rome from the 7th 
century onward ; Grants from Pepin and Charlemagne ; " Isidorian Decretals " ; 
John XII. and the A Troubles of the 10th century ; Gregory VTI. enforces the 
Celibacy of the Clergy, destroys the Independence of the National Churches, and 
humbles the Emperor Henry IV.; Donation of the Countess Matilda; The 
Crusades and the Canon Law; Innocent III. forms a Papal State; Removal 
to Avignon ; Great Schism of the West ; Deposition of Pope John XXIIL, 
&c., by the Council of Constance ; Decline of Power after Boniface VIII. ; 
Eugene IV. and the Council of Basle ; the Papal State from Alexander VI. 
to the present time. Notices of some Popes : Alexander VI. ; Julius II. ; 
Leo X. ; Pius VII. ; Leo XII. ; Pius VIII. ; Gregory XVI. ; Pius IX. The 
Pope's Private Life. His Swiss Guards and State-carriage. A Papal Proces- 
sion. Mass at the Pope's Chapel. The Papal Government. Occupation of 
Rome by the Italians in 1870: Language of " The Catholic World "; Excom- 
munication of the King of Italy, &c. ; Address of New York Catholics to the 
Pope, December, 1870 ; Resolutions and Address to the Government and People 
of Italy, from the Meeting at the N. Y. Academy of Music, Jan. 13, 1871. 
Names and Chronology of the Popes. 



CHAPTER IV., 165-186 


"Allocution" defined; Allocution Maxima qw'dem, of June 9, 1862. "Bull" 
defined. Bulls, In Ccena Domini, Unigenitvs, and ^Eternus ille. "Brief" ; Defi- 
nition and Example. " Encyclical Letter " defined ; Encyclical Letter of Pope 
Gregory XVI., May 8, 1844, and its bearings. "Rescript"; Definition and 
Example. " Constitution " defined and exemplified. 

CHAPTER V., 187-201 


"Cardinal" defined; Development of the Office; Number, Rank, Salary, Dress, 
and Mode of Appointment ; Personal Appearance ; List. Secretary of State ; 
Antonelli described. "Consistory" defined. "Conclave" described. "Pre- 
lates " described. " Congregations " ; their origin, composition, and special 

CHAPTER VI., - - . -202-253 


" Ecumenical " and other Councils defined. The Catholic Almanac's List of Ecu- 
menical Councils. Councils accepted by the Greeks, &c. Notices of Ecumen- 
ical Councils : (I.) First of Nice, 325 ; (II.) First of Constantinople, 381 ; (III.) 
of Ephesus, 431 ; (IV.) of Chalcedon, 451 ; (V.) Second of Constantinople, 
553; (VI.) Third of Constantinople, 680; (VII.) Second of Nice, 787 ; (VIII.) 
Fourth of Constantinople, 869; (IX.) First Lateran, 1123; (X.) Second Lat- 
eran, 1139; (XI.) Third Lateran, 1179; (XII.) Fourth Lateran, 1215; (XIII.) 
First of Lyons, 1245; (XIV.) Second of Lyons, 1274; (XV.) of Vienne, 
1311. Council of Pisa, 1409, summoned by Cardinals to end the Great West- 
ern Schism.' Council of Constance, 1414-18 ; its Deposition of Pope John 
XXIII. ; Election of Martin V. ; Burning of John Huss and of Jerome of 
Prague ; Decrees respecting the Supremacy of the Council, &c. Council of 
Basle, 1431, &c. ; its Contests with Pope Eugene IV. Council at Ferrara and 
Florence, 1438, &c., for Union with the Greek Church. Fifth Lateran Council, 
1512-17; its Sanction of Papal Supremacy. Council of Trent, 1545-63 ; The 
Catholic World's Synopsis of its Work ; Notices by Hallam and Mosheim. 
Vatican Council, 1869-70; Bull of Convocation, 1868; Letters Apostolic to 
the Eastern Churches and to Protestants, &c., with the Answer of American 
Presbyterians; Syllabus of 1864 ; Protestant Anticipations of the Council; 
Preparatory Committees ; Apostolical Letter of Regulations, and Assembly of 
Dec. 2d ; Council-hall ; Opening of the Council, Dec. 8th, from " The Catholic 
World"; Committees chosen; Discussion on the 1st schema; 2d Public Ses- 
sion, and Profession of Faith by the Pope and Members of the Council, Jan. 6, 
1870; Additional Regulations; 3d Public Session, and Dogmatic Decree on 


Catholic Faith, April 24th ; Schema on the Little Catechism voted on, May- 4th ; 
Discussion, Parties, and Vote on the Dogma of the Pope's Primacy and Infal- 
libility ; Address of the Minority, declining to attend the Promulgation of the 
Dogma; 4th General Session, July 18th, and Promulgation of the Decrees and 
Canons respecting the Pope's Primacy and Infallibility, as described in " The 
Catholic World " and " The New York Tribune " ; The Tribune's Synopsis of 
the Council's Work ; Adjournment and Indefinite Suspension of the Council. 

CHAPTER VII., .... 254-282 


" Priest " ; Different Meanings ; Protestant and R. C. Views. Sacrament of Or- 
ders, from the Catechism of the Council of Trent : 7 Orders, viz., Tonsure, Por- 
ter, Reader or Lector, Exorcist, Acolyte, Subdeacon, Deacon, Priest ; Degrees 
of the Priesthood, viz., Priest simply, Bishop or Pontiff, Archbishop, Patri- 
arch, Sovereign Pontiff. Clerical Dress : its Various Articles alphabetically 
described, with their Emblematic Significations ; Different Colors for Different 
Days ; Bishop's Dress ; Dress of Minor Orders ; Materials and Cost. Ecclesi- 
astical Education and Seminaries ; Decrees, Course, &c. ; Dr. Mattison on R. C. 
Clergy in the United States. Celibacy, except among the Oriental priests ; 
cases of St. Peter and St. Patrick. Beneficed Priests, Professors, and Bishops 
take Oath of Conformity and Obedience. Priests assignable and removable by 
the Bishop. Co-pastors not allowed. Bishops ; how nominated and appointed 
in the United States ; Consecration of 3 Bishops in New York, Oct. 30, 1 853 ; 
Bishop's Oath. Statistics of Priests, Ecclesiastical Seminaries and Students by 
Dioceses in the United States, 1870 and 1871 ; Present Number in the Country. 
Names of Archbishops, Bishops, and Vicars Apostolic in the United States, 
1870-1. Bishops and Priests in the World ; Number and Efficiency. 

CHAPTER VIH., .... 283-347 


Early History of Monasticism : Paul of Thebes, Anthony, and Simeon the Stylite ; 
Pachomius, Basil and the Basilians (at Cleveland, O.); Development down to 
St. Benedict. Historical, Characteristic, and Statistical Descriptions of the Re- 

i ligious Orders and Congregations, especially of those in the United States, in- 
cluding their Names and Sorts, Rules, Habits, Divisions, Establishments, Dis- 
tinguished Members, &c. I. MONKS proper. Basilians (see above). Benedic- 
tine Monks and Nuns. Trappists. II. CANONS. Augustinian Canons. Pre- 
monstrants. HI. FRIARS, or Mendicant Orders. Franciscans ; Conventuals, 
Observants, Recollects, Monks, Nuns, Pius IX. and other Tertiarians, &c. 
Capuchins. Dominicans, Monks, Nuns, Tertiarians, Inquisitors, &c. Carmel- 
ites, " Calced ," and " Discalced," Monks, Nuns, Tertiarians, &c. Augustinian 
Eremites. Servites. " Sisters of Charity of the Order of St. Augustine." 
Sisters of Mercy. Visitation Nuns. Ursuline Nuns. Alexian Brothers. IV. 
REGULAB CLERKS. Jesuits (see Chap. IX.). Order of St. Viateur. V. CON- 


GREGATIONS. Oratorians : Italian and English; French. Passionists. Laz- 
arists. Sisters of Charity, and their Mother-Houses at Emmettsburg, Yonkers, 
and Madison ; " Sisters of Charity, commonly called Gray Nuns " ; " Sisters 
of Charity, commonly called Sisters of Providence " ; " Sisters of Charity of 
the B. V. M." ; " Sisters of Charity of Nazareth." Sulpicians. Redemptorists. 
Paulists. Oblate Fathers. " Fathers of the Society of Mary." " Society of 
the Fathers of Mercy." " Brethren of the Christian Schools," and " Christian 
Brothers." " Brothers of the Christian Instruction of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 
and Mary," and " Brothers of Christian Instruction." " Congregation of the 
Holy Cross." Xavierian Brothers. " Brothers of the Sacred Heart." " Chris- 
tian Brothers of the Society of Mary." " Congregation of the Most Precious 
Blood." "Ladies of the Sacred Heart." "Sisters of St. Joseph." "Sisters 
of the Congregation of our Lady," or "of Notre Dame," and " School-Sisters of 
Notre Dame." " Sisters of Loretto." " Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and 
Mary." " Sisters of St. Ann." " Community of the Poor Handmaids of Jesus 
Christ." " Sisters of our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd," and " 3d 
Order of St. Teresa." " Little Sisters of the Poor." " Sister-Servants of the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary," and " Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart 
of Mary." " Sisters of the Humility of Mary." " Sisters of St. Mary.'' 
" Daughters of the Cross." " Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus." " Sisters of 
the Incarnate Word." " Oblate Sisters of Providence." " Sisters of the Holy 
Family." " Sisters of Providence." " St. Agnes Community." " Sceurs Hos- 
pitalieres." " Presentation Convents." Statistics of Eeligious Orders and Con- 
gregations in the United States and in the World. Extinct Orders. Present 
Monastic Constitution. Terms Defined. Suppression of Monasteries and Mo- 
nastic Orders in Various European Countries Detention of Persons in Con- 
vents, and Proposals for Legislation. Dr. De Sanctis on the 3 Classes of Per- 
sons who become Nuns, and on the Character and Health of Roman Convents. 
Leo XII. compels a Nun to see her Mother. Edith O'Gorman, &c. Hull 
Convent Trial. Rev. Dr. Bonar's Lines, " This is no heaven ! " Reformatory 
Decree of the Council of Trent. Bp. Ricci's and Pius IX.'s Attempts at Re- 
form. Regulations of Plenary Council of Baltimore. Form for the Benedic- 
tion and Consecration of Virgins. Ceremony of Reception, among the Sisters 
of Mercy. 

CHAPTER LX., 348-360 


Their Founder, Ignatius Loyola. Origin, Objects, and Constitutions. Mosheim 
on their Influence. History and Suppression in France and other European 
Countries. Character by Hallam, Penny Cyclopedia, and De Sanctis. Number 
at different times. History and Generals since 1814. Jesuits hi the United 
States : Early Efforts ; Statistics in 1860 and 1870. 

CHAPTER X., - - - ; - - 361-373 


Early Christian Missionaries. New Impulse of the 13th Century. Columbus, 


Cortez, &c. R. C. Mission in Congo. Xavier and Missions in the East Indies, 
Japan, China, &c. Jesuit Missions in America. Colleges of the Propaganda, 
&c., for Educating Missionaries. Association for the Propagation of the Faith, 
Leopold Association, &c. Differences between R. C. and Protestant Missions. 
Statistics of R. C. Missions. Comparative Success of Protestant and R. C. 

CHAPTER XL, - 374-390 


Establishment in the 13th Century. Mode of Procedure, from Friar Nicholas 
Eymeric Modern or Spanish Inquisition. Case of Abp. Carranza. Congre- 
gation of the Holy Office. Inquisition in Italy. Inquisition at Borne in 1849, 
from Dr. De Sanctis. 3 kinds of Torture. Auto da Fe. Spanish Inquisition 
Suppressed and its Building near Madrid Destroyed in 1809. Statistics. Inqui- 
sition Defended by R. C. Prelates, &c. " The Catholic World " on Cardinal 
Ximenes and the Spanish Inquisition. Estimate of the Inquisition, from the 
Penny Cyclopedia. Inquisition at Borne down to 1870. 

CHAPTER XH., 391-407 


Canon of the 4th Lateran Council. The Albigenses, and the Crusade against 
them. The Waldenses or Vaudois : Names and Origin ; Missionary Efforts ; 
Persecution in 1400; Crusades of 1487, &c. ; Massacre of 1655; Milton's 
Lines; English Intervention and Subscription; War and Expulsion in 1686; 
Return in 1689; Subsequent Trials up to 1848. In France: Martyrdom of 
Leclerc and Chatelain ; Massacre of St. Bartholomew, the Papal Medal, &c. ; 
Subsequent Persecutions. In Bohemia and England. Statistics. In Madeira 
in 1843, &c. Responsibility of the B. C. Church. Prof. Fisher on the Differ- 
ences between Roman Catholics and Protestants in respect to Persecutions. 
Official Declarations of Protestant Churches. Infallibility and Persecution. 
Quotation from the London Times. 

CHAPTER Xm., .... 408-421 


Ths Bible the Religion of Protestants. Creed of Pius IV. on Tradition and 
Scripture. Council of Trent on the Canonical Scriptures, the Vulgate, Censor, 
ship, &c. Decree of the 2d Plenary Council of Baltimore. The Latin Vul- 
gate, Douay Bible, and Bhemish Testament. Parallel Passages of the Douay 
and English Bibles. Prof. Lewis on their Likeness. Opposition to the "Prot- 
estant Bible " : Wickliffe Condemned ; Tyndale Strangled and Burnt ; Rules re- 
specting Prohibited Books and Versions ; Bible-burning in the U. S., &c. Ex- 
pensiveness of Douay and other Bibles with Notes, and Scarcity of them in 


R. C. countries. Challenge to Abp. Hughes and others in respect to Approved 
Translations." Is it honest ? " 

CHAPTER XIV., .... 422-482 


The Mass, Missal, and Liturgy ; Kinds of Mass ; Order of the Mass, with 35 Illus- 
trations. The Breviary and Canonical Hours. Seven Sacraments Described : 
Baptism ; Confirmation ; Eucharist ; Penance ; Extreme Unction ; Orders : 
Matrimony, with its Regulations and Form. Litanies. Confraternities. As- 
sociation for Prayer Described. " Missions " of the Oblates, &c. Procession 
with the Host. Church Terms and Articles alphabetically explained and illus- 

CHAPTER XV., .... 483-494 


Decree of the Council of Trent. Devotions to Mary : " Litany of our Lady of 
Loretto " ; the Rosary described and illustrated ; Living Rosary; other Offices 
and Devotions to Mary; Liguori's " Glories of Mary"; Statue of Mary and 
Infant Jesus. St. Joseph : Novena ; Banner. Protestant View, from Cramp. 

CHAPTER XVI., .... 495-502 


1st and 2d Commandments of the Church. Movable Feasts, Holydays of Obliga- 
tion, Fasting-days, Days of Abstinence, and Ember-days. Other Festivals. 
Lent : the Carnival ; Passion-Sunday ; Palm-Sunday and Holy Week ; Easter- 
Sunday. Protestant View. 

CHAPTER XVII., .... 503-516 


Definition and Doctrine. Secrecy. The Confessional Illustrated. Method of 
Confession and Form of Absolution. Catechism of the Council of Trent on 
the Advantages of Confession, and Reply by Cramp. Lasteyrie, Gavin, and 
Blanco White on Auricular Confession. Abp. Kenrick on Papal Legislation re- 
specting Seduction at or through Confession. Protestant View. 

CHAPTER XVm., .... 517-528 


" Penance," " Satisfaction," " Mortal " and " Venial " Sins. Commandments of 
the Church. Catalogues of Sins. Bp. of Toronto on Mortal Sins, &c. " Re- 
served Cases." Excommunication, Minor, Major, and Anathema ; Forms, &c., 
from the Roman Pontifical. Purgatory ; the Doctrine, Proof, Variety of Opin- 
ions, &c. Protestant View and Illustrative Note. 



CHAPTER XEX., .... 529-540 


Decree of the Council of Trent. The Doctrine explained hy Leo X., Challoner, 
Butler, and Collot. 4 Specimens of Indulgences. Indulgences attached to 
Scapulars. " Is it honest ? " Inconsistency between Theory and Practice on 
Indulgences, by Wm. H. Goodrich, D. D. 

CHAPTER XX., 541-551 


Church-edifices in Early Times and on the Continent of Europe. Cathedrals of 
Cologne and Seville. American Churches : Notre Dame, Montreal ; Cathedral, 
Baltimore ; Church of Immaculate Conception, and Cathedral, Boston ; 
Churches in Connecticut ; St. Patrick's Cathedral (new), St. Ann's, and St. 
Alphonsus's churches, New York ; Churches in Trenton, Philadelphia, Bald- 
more, Washington, New Orleans, St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati, San Francisco. 
Lists of Corner-stones laid and Churches dedicated, Sept., 1869 Aug., 18"0. 
Shrewdness in the Location, &c. Rev. Dr. Gumming on R. C. Use of the 
Fine Arts. 

CHAPTER XXI., .... 552-567 


" Trustee-system " changed to Ownership and Control by the Bishops : Acts of 
Councils connected with the Change ; Abp. Hughes ; the St. Louis Church, 
Buffalo ; Father Chiuiquy ; New York Legislation ; Petition and Report in 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1866. Revenues of the R. C. Church: Sources 
and Modes of Raising; Masses; Burial-expenses; Matrimonial Anecdote; 
Salaries of Priests ; Papal Revenue from Indulgences, Peter-pence, &c. 

CHAPTER XXIL, .... 568-575 


Roman Catholic Authorities on this subject. Examples : Rev. Thomas Farrell ; 
Galileo ; Lamennais, Lacordaire, and Montalembert ; Father Hyacinthe. Prot- 
estant View of the Right of Private Judgment. 

CHAPTER XXHL, --.. 576-587 


Different Opinions on the Extent and Limits of the Pope's Temporal Power : 
Quotations from " The Catholic World," the " Syllabus " of 1862, 4th Lateran 
Council, Abp. Kenrick of Baltimore, Hon. Joseph R. Chandler, &c. Gallican- 
ism condemned by Popes. Pius VII. 's Instructions to his Nuncio at Vienna.-' 


Brownson's Quarterly Review on the Pope's Divine Right to Temporal Power. 
Power assumed and exercised by Pope Pius IX., Abp. Hughes, Bp. Charbon- 
nel, Priests, &c. 

CHAPTER XXIV. .... 588-609 


Acts and Decrees of the 2d Plenary Council of Baltimore. Extracts from R. C. 
Periodicals, &c. New York Controversy, 1823, &c. : N. Y. Public School Soci- 
ety ; Abp. Hughes ; Appropriations to R. C. Institutions ; N. Y. " Tax-levy " 
of 1869 and Repeal. Cincinnati Controversy, 1842, &c. : Acts of the School 
Board; Suit of 1869 and Decision. Massachusetts Law on reading Bible in 
Schools, and Boston Controversy. Connecticut Law, and R. C. Public Schools 
in New Haven, New Britain, and Waterbury. Schools in Manchester, N. H. 
Demand for State-aid in 1853 and subsequently. Rev. B. G. Northrop on an 
Unsectarian School-system. Rev. H. W. Beecher on the R. C. Plan. 

CHAPTER XXV. .... 610-621 


Our Public-School System of Protestant Origin. " The Catholic World " and 
Brownson's Quarterly Review on Education and General Intelligence, with 
Notes. Protestant View. Condition of Italy, Spain, Protestant and Catholic 
Switzerland, Protestant and Catholic Ireland, and other Protestant and Cath- 
olic countries. R. C. Periodicals, Bookstores, and Publications in the United 
States. Conclusions unfavorable to the R. C. Church. 

CHAPTER XXVI.,- - - - 622-636 


Protestant Concession as to Individuals. Council of Baltimore on Idle and Vicious 
Youth. Comparative Statistics of European Countries in respect to Murder, 
Illegitimacy, &c. Police and Prison Statistics of New York City. Immorality 
of Rome. General Character of Irish Catholic Laborers. Suppression of the 
2d Commandment. Miracles : from " Glories of Mary " ; Blood of St. Janu- 
arius at Naples ; Holy Coat of Treves ; Sacred Thorn of Bari, &c., dropping 
blood ; Apparition of the Virgin at La Salette ; Frauds. Protestant View. 

CHAPTER XXVH., .... 637-661 


R. C. Denial of Hostility to Liberty. Origin of Religious Liberty : Maryland and 
Lord Baltimore ; Roger Williams and Providence ; Menno, &c. ; the Independ- 
ents of England ; John Robinson. Barclay's Definition and Argument R. C t 
Position: Pope's Encyclicals and Syllabus of 1864; Cardinal An tonelli ; Cat- 
echisms of Pen-one ; The Catholic World and other R. C. Periodicals. Rome 
under the Popes, by Consul Stillman, &c. ; Proclamation to the Jews of Ancona 


in 1843; Mortara Case. Tuscany and other Parts of Italy; Cases of Count 
Guicciardini, of the Madiai, &c. France. Spain ; Case of Matamoros, &c. 
Portugal; Law of 1852. Austria; Concordat of 1855, abrogated in 1867; 
Pope's Allocution. Castelar's Declaration. New Granada and Pope's Allocu- 
tion of 1852. Peru. Ecuador and its Concordat with the Pope. Mexico and 
its Struggles for Liberty. Cuba ; Stealing a Grave. Canada ; Excommunica- 
tions ; Guibord Case ; Beating of Colporteurs ; Gavazzi Mobs. United States ; 
Tompkins Square Meetings Stopped ; Attempt to Assassinate Miss O'Gorman ; 
Mob at Columbus, 0. Protestant Views of the System and Argument. 

CHAPTER XXVIH., .... 662-692 


In the United States: Statistics and Estimates of R. C. Population, 1790-1870; 
Increase by Immigration, Annexation, Multiplication of Children, and Conver- 
sions of Protestants, with Statistical and Illustrative Details, Comparisons with 
Conversions to Protestantism and other Losses ; Dr. Mattison's Enumeration 
of New Expedients Adopted by the Roman Catholics of this Country for Advanc- 
ing their Power. In England ; Statistics of the R. C. Population at Different 
Times, Conversions, Converts, &c. ; Cardinal Wiseman, &c., on R. C. Progress, 
Modes of Influence, &c. In Great Britain ; Gains in England and Scotland 
Compared with Losses in Ireland. On the Continent of Europe ; Losses in It- 
aly, Spain, Portugal, Austria, France, Belgium, Germany ; Great Change in 
the Comparative Power of Protestant and R. C. Nations. In America ; Losses 
in Mexico, Canada, &c. In the World : Loss of Power on the Whole ; Con- 
fession and Boast of " The Catholic World " ; Complete Statistics from R. C. 
and Protestant Authorities, with an Estimate of their Comparative Value, and 
a Prophecy. 

CHAPTER XXIX., - - - - 693 to 712 


" We have heard both sides." Elements of R. C. Strength and Weakness. Du- 
ties and Encouragements of American Protestants. 





GENERAL INDEX, .... 798-838 
INDEX TO THE APPENDIX, - - 839 to end. 



The figures on it indicate 

1. Porta del Popolo [ = Gate of the People], at the N. extremity of the city. 

2. Piazza [= Place] del Popolo, with an Obelisk in the center. 

3. Church of Santa Maria [= St. Mary] del Popolo. 

4. 5. Churches of Santa Maria di Monte Santo and Santa Maria de' Miracdi. 

6. Via del Corso [ Way (or, Street) of the Course, i. e., race-course]. 

7. Castle of St. Angelo. 

8. Basilica di San Pietro [= St. Peter's]. 

9. Vatican Palace. 

10. Piazza di San Pietro [= St. Peter's Place], with its Obelisk, Colonnade, &c. 

11. Church of San Pietro in Monlorio [= St. Peter's on Montorio, or on the Ja- 


12. Porta San Paolo [= St. Paul's Gate], on the way to Ostia. 

13. Porta San Sebastiano [= St. Sebastian's Gate], on the old Appian Way, at 

the S. extremity of the city. 

14. Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano [= of St. John Lateran], 

15. Porta San Giovanni [= St. John's Gate], on the way to Naples by Albano. 

16. Lateran Palace (not numbered in the engraving, but N. of and apparently 

joined with 14). 

17. Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme [= of Holy Cross in Jerusalem]. 

18. Church of San Stefano [= St. Stephen] Rotondo [ round, or a rotunda], 

19. Coliseum or Colosseum, also called Flavian Amphitheatre or Amphitheatre 

of Vespasian. 

20. Ruins of the Roman Forum. 

21. Piazza del Campidoglio [ Capitol Place, or the Capitol Palaces round the 

Place on the Capitoline Hill]. 

22. Pantheon. 

23. Quirinal Palace, and Obelisk in the Quirinal Place, West of the Palace. '. 

24. Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore [= of St. Mary Major]. 

U. INTERIOR or ST. PETER'S, - page 56 

At the base of the great dome is the Latin inscription " Tu es Petrus et . . . . 



ccdorum" [= Thou art Peter and ... of heaven] taken from Matt. 16 : 18, 19. 
The other inscription, " Pius Sextus P. M. Pontificatus " = Pitts Sixth, Sovereign 
Pontiff, Pontificate. The engraving is copied from a larger Roman engraving 
belonging to Rev. S. D. Phelps, D. D. 







page 119 
" 274 
" 347 
" 384 
" 417 















Chair of St. Peter, 57 

The Pope in his Pontifical Dress, 119 
The Pope's Tiara and Keys, 120 
Arms of Pope Pius IX., 138 

Signature of Pope Pius IX., 138 
The Pope in his State-carriage, 142 
The Pope borne in his Chair, 146 
A Cardinal in Full Dress, 189 

Bishop's Crosier, 262 

Arms of the Abp. of Baltimore, 262 
Arms of the Abp. of New York, 262 
Benedictine Monk, 287 

Angustinian Canon, 290 

Premonstrant, 290 

Franciscan or Gray Friar, 294 

Dominican Nun, 300 

Augustinian Eremite, 303 

Wheeling Female Academy, 307 
St. iMichael's Retreat, W. Hobo- 
ken, 311 
Academy of Mt. St. Vincent, 315 
University of Notre Dame, Ind., 322 
Waldensian Women Buried 

Alive, 396 

Heads of Waldenses Blown off, 397 
St. Bartholomew Medal, 403 

High Mass Elevation of the 

Host, 422 

The Priest goes to the Altar, 424 

The Priest begins Mass, 425 



28. At the Con/iteor, 426 

29. The Priest kisses the Altar, 426 

30. Priest goes to the Epistle-side, 427 

31. At the Introit, 427 

32. At the Kyrie Eleison, 428 

33. At the Dominus Vobiscum, 428 

34. At the Epistle, 429 

35. At Munda Cor Mewn, 430 
3ft. At the Gospel, 431 

37. At the Offertory, 432 

38. At the Unveiling of the Chalice, 432 

39. At the Covering cf the Chalice, 433 

40. The Priest washeth his lingers, 434 

41. At the Orate Fratrts, 435 

42. At the Preface, 435 

43. At the Memento for the Living, 436 

44. The Priest holds his hands over 

the Chalice, 437 

45. The Priest signs the Oblation, 437 

46. The Elevation of the Host, 438 

47. At the Elevation of the Chalice, 438 

48. At the Memento for the Dead, 439 

49. At Nobis quoqut PeoctUoribu^ 440 

50. At the Pater Noster, 440 

51. At the Breaking of the Host, 441 

52. The Priest puts part of the Host 

into the Chalice, 442 

53. At the Agnus Dei, 442 

54. At the Communion, 444 

55. At the Ablution, 444 




56. After Communion, 445 

57. At Dominiis Vobiscum, 445 

58. At the last Collect, 446 

59. At the last Dominus Vobiscum, 446 

60. At the Gospel of St. John, 447 

61. Altar-bell, 461 

62. Antependium, 461 

63. Candelabrum, 463 

64. Bishop's Candlestick, 463 

65. Candlestick for Altar, 463 

66. Canopy used in Procession of 

the Sacrament, 464 

67. 68. Censer and Incense-boat, 465 

69. Chalice, 465 

70. Chime of 3 little Bells, 466 

71. Ciborium, 466 

72. Processional Cross and Staff, 468 

73. Cruets with Plate, 468 

74. Baptismal Font, 469 

75. Holy- Water Pot, 472 

76. Kneeling-desk, 472 

77. Oil-stock, 473 

78. Ostensory, 474 
7t. Pyx for Holy Bread, 476 

80. Pyx for Holy Oils, 476 

81. Triangle, or Triangular Candle- 
stick, 481 

82. Umbrellino for Transporting 

Sacrament, 451 

83. Rosary, 435 

84. Coronation of the Blessed Vir- 

gin, 487 

85. Statue of Mary, Queen of Heav- 

en, with Infant Jesus, 490 

86. Banner representing St. Joseph 

with the Infant Jesus, 491 

87. Image of Christ on St. Vero- 

nica's Handkerchief, 492 

88. 89. Reliquaries, or Relic-cases, 492 

90. Confessional, 505 

91. Apostles Peter and Paul on In- 

dulgence, 533 

92. Arms of Gregory XVI., 533 

93. Seal, 534 

94. Arms of Card. Abp. of Paler- 

mo, 534 

95. Scapular of Mount Cannel, 537 


CARDINAL H. E. MANNING, from " Harpers' Weekly," 
PRINCE BISHABCK, engraved from a Photograph, ' - ) 
KT. HON. WM. E. GLADSTONE, engraved from a Photograph, ^ 
JOSEPH GUIDOBD, from "Harpers' Weekly," .... ... 
RBV. CHARLES CHINIQUT, from the "N. T. Witness," ) 

CARDINAL JOHN McCLOSKBT, engraved from a Photograph, ) 




A THOROUGH acquaintance with the Roman Catholic system 
of religion demands a knowledge of what Rome itself has been 
and is. The present chapter, therefore, sketches the origin, 
history, institutions, and leading features of Rome ; traces the 
rise and fall of the kingdom, republic, and empire, of which 
Rome has been the foundation and center, together with the 
more recent fortunes of the city and its dependent territory ; 
and describes for stay-at-home travelers whatever is now most 
noticeable in this interesting locality. 

The city of Rome is of so great antiquity, that one of its 
common titles is " the Eternal City." Compared with it, i 
deed, most of the cities, both of Europe and America, have but 
a recent origin. St. Augustine in Florida, the oldest town in $4. *** 
the United States, is more than two thousand three hundred UJw 
years younger than Rome. Jamestown in Virginia, long noted<2w/ P*** 
as the first permanent English settlement in America, grew old' 
and went to ruin years ago; but its age, even now, would be 
hardly one-tenth of the age of Rome. New York, the largest 
as well as the most ancient of our great cities, can trace back 
its origin to a fort and a few rude huts erected by the Dutch, 
somewhat more than two hundred and fifty years ago, on the 
southern part of the island of Manhattan ; but Rome is still 
ten times as old as New York. It is more than ten times as 
old as Plymouth in Massachusetts, which celebrated its two 
hundred and fiftieth a miversary in 1870, and is counted the 
oldest town in New England. Chicago, the young giant of the 
west, would need to have its age multiplied by sixty-five, before 


it could be placed on an equality with Rome in regard to its 
years. And if we cross the Atlantic, we shall find Rome main- 
taining its proud pre-eminence in age over all the great capitals 
of Europe. Its equal in this respect cannot be found in Lon- 
don or Paris, St. Petersburg or Berlin, Amsterdam or Vienna, 
Madrid or Constantinople. None of these can show a history 
till more than five hundred years after Rome was built ; and 
some of them were of no importance till long after the settle- 
ment of America. 

Yet Rome is by no means the oldest city in the world. 
^ Athens, the present capital of Greece, and the renowned seat 
ancient Grecian art and learning and liberty, is reputed to 
have been founded eight centuries earlier than Rome. Jerusa- 
lem became "the holy city" and the residence of Israel's 
kings 250 years before the currently received date of the foun- 
dation of Rome; it had been even then a stronghold of the 
Jebusites for five centuries ; and if, as is probable, it was the 
"Salem" of Melchizedek (Gen. 14: 18), it follows that Jeru- 
salem was a place of importance more than a thousand years 
before Rome existed. Certainly Hebron, which "was built 
seven years before Zoan in Egypt" (Num. 13: 22), and Da- 
mascus also, both of which were well known places when 
Abram first entered the land of Canaan (Gen. 13: 18; 14: 15; 
15: 2, &c.), have, in their known duration of almost 4,000 
years, a claim to antiquity, by the side of which not only cities 
in America, but even Rome itself, must bow with deferential 

The origin and early days of Rome lie beyond the domain of 
sober and veritable history in that airy realm where legends 
and fables find no effectual corrective, except, on the one hand, 
in that stubborn unbelief which leaves nothing but a blank, or, 
on the other, in that critical conjecture, which is sometimes 
plausible and sometimes extravagant, but is never a satisfactory 
substitute for known truth. The twenty-five different legends 
which are reported to exist respecting the foundation of Rome, 
may all be grouped under three leading theories, namely : (I.) 


That Rome was founded in the age before the Trojan "War, 1 
which is assigned to the ten years beginning B. c. 1194, and 
ending B. c. 1184. Some who advocate this theory ascribe 
the building of Rome to the Pelasgi ; others, to the Arcadian 
Evander. (II.) That the Trojan Eneas (=JEueas), or others 
(Trojans, Trojans and Aborigines, or Greeks), founded it a little 
after the fall of Troy, that is, after B. c. 11 84. (III.) That Romu- 
lus, grandson of Numitor, king of Alba Longa (a city about 15 
miles S.E. of Rome), founded Rome several centuries after 
the Trojan War. Romulus and Remus were reputed to 
twin_sons of the war-god Mars and of Numitor' s daughter Sil- 
via, and were said to be suckled by a she wolf. Romulus was 
deified, aftjr his death, by the name of Quirinus. That Rom- 
ulus was the founder of Rome was the tradition almost uni- 
versally received among the Romans, and has been for ages 
the current account of the origin of the city. The city of Rome, 
it is added, was built by Romulus on the Palatine hill or mount; 
and its very beginning was marked with bloodshed, Remus, the 
twin brother of Romulus, being slain for ridiculing the slender 
walls of the new city. The date for the foundation of the city, 
which is given by Yarro and generally adopted, places the 
event in the year B. c. 753. The 21st of April was kept as a$ C- . 
festival in memory of the event. 

Romulus is said to have been the first of the seven kings of 
Rome, and to have disappeared suddenly after a reign of 37 
years. In the early part of his reign the Sabines were united 
with the Romans ; but their king, Titus Tatius, who was joinfr- 
ruler with Romulus, was soon slain, leaving Romulus sole king 
of the united nation. The names of the kings, and the dura- 
tion of their reigns, are thus given : 

Romulus, B. c. 753-716 ; Numa Pompilius, 715-673 ; Tul- 
lus Hostilius, 673-641 ; Ancus Martins, 641-616 ; Tarquinius 
Prisons (= Tarquin the elder), B. c. 616-578 ; Servius Tullius, 
578-534 ; Tarquinius Superbus (= Tarquin the Proud), 

The Roman kings were not hereditary, but limited and elect/- 

.'C '" 


ive. The king had no legislative authority, and could make 
neither war nor peace without the concurrence of the senate 
and people ; but he was the military leader, the supreme judge 
in all matters of life and death, and also a priest and the chief 
director of sacred things. The senate, composed originally of 
100 members, afterwards increased to 200, subsequently to 
300, 400, 900, 1000 (after the death of Julius Cesar), and 
then reduced to 600 by Augustus, deliberated at first as the 
king's council on such public affairs as the king proposed to 
them ; but, after the abolition of the kingly office, everything 
was done by the authority of the senate, though this almost 
unlimited control was afterwards much abridged in various 
ways. The supreme power in Rome belonged to those who 
were called " the people," who were assembled to elect magis- 
trates, to pass laws, particularly in respect to declaring war 
and making peace, and to try persons guilty of certain crimes. 
Romulus divided the whole population of Rome into two classes, 
the burgesses or citizens (who took the name of Patres or Pa- 
tricii, i. e., fathers or patricians), and their clients or depend- 
ents. Each one of the latter class was the client of some par- 
ticular one of the former class, who was called his patron, the 
relation being somewhat similar, in dependency and closeness 
of union, to that of child and parent, or lord and vassal. The 
clients were bound to render certain services to their patrons, 
and the patrons were to defend their clients from all wrong or 
oppression by others. The patricians or members of the first 
class made up at this time what was called "the Roman peo- 
ple," their clients or dependents, though freemen, having no 
share in the government. The plebeians came in afterwards 
and constituted a third class of freemen, who were neither pat- 
rons nor clients, but entirely free and independent, yet, like 
clients, without political rights. Such were the early social 
and political institutions of Rome. 

Rome had its kings for nearly 250 years. The seventh 'and 
last of these kings, Tarquin the Proud, was dethroned (B. c. 
510) in consequence of his cruel tyranny and the violence of- 


fered by his son Sextus to the virtuous and beautiful Lucretia, 
the wife of Collatinus. 

The Roman Republic, which now succeeded, continued nearly 
500 years, when it gave place, under Augustus Cesar, to the 
Roman Empire. In the Republic the two consuls, who were 
elected annually, took the place of the king as the chief officers 
of the government. The senators, who were styled " Fathers," 
and had been appointed, usually for life, by the kings, were, 
for half a century or more after the republic began, chosen by 
the consuls and by the military tribunes, who were command- 
ers of thousands, but afterwards by the censors, who not only 
took the census of persons and property, but had a supervision 
over the rank and moral character of all the people. The pa- 
tricians, who constituted the nobility, at first not only filled all 
the offices, but monopolized all the political rights in the state. 
The senators, consuls, censors, and other officers, were patri- 
cians ; and under the name of " the senate and people of Rome" 
the patricians enacted all the laws. The early Roman law 
placed the poor debtor completely at the mercy of his creditor, i 
who might imprison the debtor, bind him with chains, 
him on bread and water, sell him as a slave, or even put him '7>vA** 
to death. As the senators and patricians- possessed most of 
the wealth, monopolized the power, and often cruelly oppressed 
the plebeians or common people, the latter were led to take 
up arms in their own defense, and to institute the office of trib- 
unes of the people, which the aristocracy were compelled to 
sanction B. c. 493. These tribunes, whose persons were held 
sacred, and who had the power to place even consuls under 
arrest, defended the oppressed plebeians, and in process of 
time greatly diminished the authority of the senate and the 
privileges of the patricians, especially by exercising their right 
to pronounce the word Veto, that is, I forbid, which was suffi- 
cient to make void any law or decree of the senate. The 
Twelve Tables, which were arranged and ratified B. c. 451, and-' > 
were regarded as the foundation of all law, tended, on the-^-C-4 
whole, to introduce equal rights in law and government. In- 


termarriages between the patricians and plebeians were for a 
time prohibited, but were legalized in the year 445 B. c. By 
the Licinian law, passed B. c. 367, it was ordained that one of 
the consuls must be a plebeian. Nearly 200 years afterwards 
(B. c. 172) both consulships were opened to the plebeians. By 
these and other steps, taken from time to time, the exclusive 
privileges of the patricians were abolished, and the Roman 
government became more liberal and democratic, though the 
patricians and plebeians kept up their dissensions from age to 

In the course of time the equestrian order, or the knights, 
became very prominent. The knights were originally those 
300 rich and accomplished young patricians, who, under Ro- 
mulus, served as soldiers on horseback and attended the king 
as his body-guard. As the city grew, their number was largely 
increased, especially by additions from the best plebeian fam- 
ilies. Under king Servius Tullius, they amounted to 3,600, 
and were the wealthiest men in Rome. Each was furnished 
with a horse at the public expense, and each wore a gold ring. 
About B. c. 400, many began to serve as horse-soldiers at their 
own expense, and a distinction was made between these and 
the more honored knights whose horses were furnished at the 
public expense. But a still greater change took place when, 
by a law of Caius Gracchus, about B. c. 120, all who possessed a 
certain amount of property were raised to the equestrian order, 
and a body of 300, chosen periodically from this order, was 
vested with the judicial power. Under this law those who had 
grown rich by farming the taxes, and taking contracts for fur- 
nishing supplies to the army and navy, were all brought into 
the equestrian order and vested with important political privi- 
leges. For the next 50 years this order had great contests with 
the senate. 

Romulus divided the people (the patricians) into three tribes, 
and each tribe into ten curias ; and hence only the patricians 
and those plebeians who were afterwards incorporated into 
these tribes, had any place in the assembly of the people which 


was held by curiae. But in the centuriate assembly, instituted 
about 200 years after the foundation of Rome, and held in the 
field of Mars outside of the city, the people voted by centuries 
or companies arranged in classes according to their census or 
ratable landed property. Here the first class, consisting of 100 
centuries, and composed of the richest citizens, presented them- 
selves completely armed, and had a controlling majority, the 
other four classes having but 93 voting centuries and appear- 
ing less completely armed, while all the freemen who had an 
insufficient estate (less than one-ninth of that required for the 
first class) were thrown into one century without a vote. This 
centuriate assembly, in which the more wealthy plebeians could 
vote, became in time the supreme legislative body. 

The 3 tribes into which Romulus divided the patricians, must 
not be confounded with the 20 territorial divisions afterwards 
made by king Servius Tullius, and called by the same name. In 
the tribes of Servius none but plebeians were enrolled, while the 
patricians held their place in the other tribes by virtue of their 
birth and without regard to their residence. Of the plebeian 
or Servian tribes, 4 were in the city and the rest outside, 
the whole number being gradually increased with the exten- 
sion of the Roman territory till B. c. 236, from which time it 
remained stationary at 35. The tribal assembly, in which the 
plebeians gave their votes according to their tribes, was origin- 
ally intended for transacting the business of the plebeian order, 
but it gradually extended its power over the whole state, and 
its ordinances obtained all the force of law. Freedmen or 
emancipated slaves had the right of voting in this assembly ; 
but they must belong to one of the four city tribes, and there- 
fore, however numerous, they could not exercise much political 
power in the assembly. The patricians and their clients, and 
also the freedmen, are supposed to have been first included in 
the plebeian tribes by the laws of the Twelve Tables, B. c. 450. 

Slaves, in distinction from all the above classes, were re- 
garded as having no rights at all. They were esteemed among 
the Romans, not as persons, but as things. Their master had 


an absolute power over them. He might, and frequently did, 
scourge, torture, mutilate, or kill his slaves, for any offense, or 
for no offense ; and sometimes he crucified them from mere 
caprice. He might force them to become prostitutes or gladia- 
tors ; he might separate friends or families (for no slave could 
be lawfully married) at his will ; nor was he considered bound 
to provide for their welfare in sickness or in health. Yet both 
law and custom were favorable to giving slaves their freedom. 
For a long time slaves were not numerous in Rome ; but they 
must have greatly increased before the expulsion of the kings. 
It was the custom to make slaves of conquered enemies. Debt- 
ors and criminals might also be reduced to slavery. In the 
later ages of the Republic the number of slaves in Rome and 
throughout Italy was immense. 

The Romans were warriors from the very beginning of their 
city. From each of the three original tribes Romulus chose 
1000 foot-soldiers and 100 horsemen. The number of soldiers was 
naturally increased with the growth of the city. Every citizen 
from the age of 17 to 46 was obliged to enlist as a soldier, when 
the public service required ; every foot-soldier must serve 20 
campaigns, and every horseman 10 campaigns. In the early 
times no one could hold office who had not served 10 cam- 
paigns. Much of the time under the kings, and nearly all the 
time during the existence of the republic, the Romans were 
engaged in wars. The temple of Janus is said to have been 
built by Nuina Pompilius, the second king of Rome, with two 
brazen gates, which were open in war and shut in peace. From 
the time of Numa to the time of Augustus, a period of about 
640 years, this temple, according to the annals, was closed but 
once, and that only for a short period, after the end of the first 
Punic war, B. c. 235. The Romans, however, were not always 
victorious over their enemies. One terrible invasion occurred 
a little more than a century after the kings were expelled. 
The Gauls, who inhabited the region north and northwest of 
Italy, swept over Italy like a hurricane, crushing and destroy- 
ing. Rome was taken and burnt by them B. c. 390 ; but, while 


one legend says that Camillas, having been appointed dictator, 
drove them out and exterminated their army, another account 
declares that the city was ransomed by the payment of a thou- 
sand pounds of gold to the Gauls, who then marched off to 
their homes unmolested. The city was rebuilt, but with a haste 
and irregularity, the evils of which were never remedied till 
Rome was again rebuilt after its destruction by fire in the time 
of Nero. Two other invasions of the Gauls followed the one 
just mentioned, one thirty years after the first, the other ten 
years later ; but these were resisted with greater courage and 
firmness, and their consequences were less disastrous. 

About 125 years after the burning of Rome by the Gauls, 
B. c. 265 , the Romans became masters of all Italy, leaving some 
of the cities nominally free as allies, and placing the rest in 
a position more or less dependent. They then easily became 
involved in the Punic (that is, Phenician) wars, which were 
waged with the Carthaginians. The renowned city of Car- 
thage, the great rival of Rome, was situated in Northern Africa, 
a few miles from the modern city of Tunis, and was originally 
founded, according to. the legend, by the princess Dido and 
other colonists from the Phenician city of Tyre, B. c. 878. 
The rich island of Sicily was mostly under the dominion of 
Carthage ; and here the first Punic war began in an acceptance 
by the Romans of an invitation from the Mamertines, who had 
established themselves at Messana(now Messina) , to aid them 
against the Carthaginians. This first Punic war lasted 23 
years, from B. c. 264 to 241, and ended, after various successes 
and reverses, in a decisive naval victory gained by the Romans 
over the Carthaginians and a consequent treaty, by which the 
Carthaginians abandoned Sicily and the adjacent small islands, 
gave up all Roman prisoners without ransom, and paid to the 
Romans, within ten years, 3200 talents, afterwards increased 
to 4400 talents, a sum equal to nearly five millions of dollars. 

Sicily now became the first Roman province ; and the peace 
between Rome and Carthage lasted about as long as the pre- 
vious war. But neither Rome nor Carthage was idle during 


this period. Both were engaged in perilous wars with other ene- 
mies ; but both were recruiting their strength, and preparing the 
way for new conquests. Rome gained possession of Sardinia and 
Corsica. Hamilcar, an able Carthaginian general, was sent 
at his own solicitation into Spain to bring that country under 
the dominion of Carthage. There he collected and disciplined 
an excellent army, and gained a great province for Carthage, 
ruling it with vigor and wisdom for eight years. After his 
death in battle, his plans were taken up and carried on suc- 
cessfully, first by his son-in-law Hasdrubal, till his death by 
the assassin's knife, and then by his son Hannibal. The latter, 
who was only nine years old, when he besought his father 
Hamilcar to take him along into Spain, was allowed by his 
father to accompany him only on condition of swearing eternal 
enmity to Rome and the Romans. On taking his father's place 
at the age of 24, B. c. 221, he set himself in earnest to realize 
his father's designs, and at the close of the next year all Spain 
south of the Ebro and Douro, with one exception, was with 
Carthage, either by subjection or alliance. That one excep- 
tion was the city of Saguntuin, an ancient Greek colony then 
in alliance with Rome, situated on the Mediterranean, about 
100 miles south of the Ebro, where is now the modern Murvie- 
dro. A neighboring tribe, with which Saguntum was at war, 
invited Hannibal to destroy Saguntum, and he eagerly accepted 
the invitation. The city was captured after a desperate resist- 
ance of eight months, though the Roman envoys in vain re- 
quired Hannibal to desist from attacking their ally. Another 
embassy, sent to Carthage to demand that Hannibal should be 
delivered up to the Romans, met with a refusal, and then war 
was declared B. c. 218. This second Punic war lasted nearly 
17 years. Hannibal marched over the Alps into Italy ; in 
three great battles he terribly defeated the Romans, of whom 
more than 43,000 died on the bloody field of Cannae ; all South- 
ern Italy, with most of the cities in Campania, and the Gauls 
in the North, declared in his favor ; Capua, the next city to 
Rome in size, and probably its superior in wealth, received him 


and his army ; but the Romans, now taught by experience, fol- 
lowed the leadership of Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus, 
and others, and, avoiding decisive battles for several years, 
kept Hannibal in check, cut off his supplies and detachments 
from the main army, and harassed him in all possible ways ; 
the Carthaginians, through the influence of those who were 
hostile to Hannibal, sent him only scanty reinforcements, and 
left him long without any support; his brother Hasdrubal,who 
had once entirely defeated the Roman army in Spain, entered 
Italy for the purpose of joining Hannibal, but was himself com- 
pletely defeated and slain before he could effect the desired 
junction ; Cornelius Scipio the younger, recovered Spain to 
the Romans, carried the war into Africa, defeated the Cartha- 
ginians by treachery and fire and sword, constrained the Car- 
thaginian government to recall Hannibal and his veterans, who 
for 16 years had sustained themselves in Italy, and at length 
gained a decisive victory over Hannibal and his army on the 
plain of Zama, on account of which he is known in history as 
Scipio Africanus. The conditions of peace, to which the con- 
quered gave their assent, left the Carthaginians independent 
within their own territory in Africa ; but required them, among 
other things, to surrender all prisoners and fugitives, all their 
fleet except ten galleys, and all their elephants ; prohibited 
their making war without consent of Rome ; and bound them 
to pay the Romans 10,000 talents, or more than ten millions of 
dollars, in annual installments for the next fifty years. The 
second Punic war ended in the greatest triumph Rome had 
ever known, B. c. 201. 

The third and last of the Punic wars occurred a little more 
than half a century after the close of the preceding one, and 
lasted three years, till B. c. 146. Carthage was recovering 
rapidly from its depression ; but, forbidden to make war with- 
out the consent of Rome, and unable to obtain from the Ro- 
mans any redress of the wrongs suffered from their ally, 
Masinissa, the Numidian king, who wantonly seized the best 
portion of the Carthaginian territory, the Carthaginians finally 


resorted to war with Masinissa, who defeated them in a bloody 
battle. Then they sent ambassadors to Rome to justify their 
course and beg forgiveness. The ambassadors placed Carthage 
and all her possessions at the disposal of the senate, who an- 
swered that Carthage should be left free, if 300 of the noblest 
youth were sent to the consuls as hostages, and the further 
commands of the senate would be made known through the 
consuls. The hostages were delivered and sent to Rome. 
Then the Carthaginians were required to deliver up all their 
arms and engines of war. This demand was also complied 
with. Then the consuls coolly declared that the Carthaginians 
must remove to some point ten miles from the coast, and 
Carthage must be destroyed. This combination of deception 
and cruelty filled the Carthaginians with horror and rage. 
They prepared at once for a vigorous defense. Men and women 
worked night and day with the energy of despair. Three 
campaigns passed away before the Romans succeeded in forc- 
ing an entrance into the city. And even after Scipio and his 
Roman legions gained possession of the market-place, a terri- 
ble resistance was kept up for several days. The city was then 
set on fire, and for six days and nights the flames continued 
to rage. At length the contest was ended by the surrender of 
the garrison, and the destruction in the flames of most of those 
who would not give themselves up to the mercy of the con- 
querors. According to the decree of the Roman senate, the 
walls of Carthage were destroyed, and every house was lev- 
eled to the ground. The Roman province of Libya was formed 
from a part of the territory of Carthage. 

But Rome was busy in other wars of conquest during the 
period of more than a century which elapsed between the be- 
ginning and the end of these three Punic wars. The Romans 
entered Asia B. c. 190, in prosecuting their war with Anti- 
ochus the Great, king of Syria, defeated him in the decisive 
battle of Magnesia, where he lost 53,000 men, and despoiled 
him of his dominions in Asia Minor. The Macedonian wars, 
begun while the second Punic war was in progress, closed, 


B. c. 168, with the defeat and capture of Perseus, king of 
Macedon, and the subjugation of his country to the Roman 
rule. The conquest of the Dalmatians, B. c. 155, brought the 
whole region bordering on the Adriatic (now the Gulf of Ven- 
ice) into subjection to the Romans. The capture and de- 
struction of Corinth in the same year with the final overthrow 
of Carthage, B. c. 146, marked the extension of the Roman 
power over Greece, which now became a province by name of 
Achaia. Thus the Roman Republic extended its control in 
every direction ; and before the Republic gave place to the Em- 
pire, the Romans had their conquests in Gaul (now France), 
Germany, and Britain, toward the North ; in Armenia, Syria, 
Palestine, <fcc., embracing what is now known as Turkey in 
Asia, toward the East; in Egypt and the rest of Northern 
Africa, toward the South. Rome became the sovereign of the 
civilized or known world before the battle of Actium, B. c. 31. 
But these conquests abroad did not make the Romans at 
home either peaceful or happy. The dissensions between the 
different orders or classes of the people often led to arbitrary 
measures, to armed resistance, and to bloodshed. Six times 
during the first 225 years of the Republic, did the plebeians or 
the poorer part of them withdraw from the city to a camp in 
the neighborhood, and refuse to return till -important conces- 
sions were made to them. Sixty-five times in less than 250 
years after B. c. 450, did the Senate resort to the appoint- 
ment of a Dictator, who could have absolute power for six 
months. Two formidable insurrections of the slaves in Sicily 
(B. c. 135-132, and B. c. 104-99) were quelled by the Roman 
consuls only after protracted and bloody struggles. The slaves 
in Italy also rose several times in insurrections, but were 
more easily put down. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, whose 
mother Cornelia was daughter of the elder Scipio Africanus 
who conquered Hannibal, having been elected tribune of the 
people, proposed and carried an agrarian law, limiting to about 
320 acres the quantity of public land which one head of a family 
might hold ; he proposed also other measures which would 



limit the power of the rich senatorial classes who had greatly 
oppressed the poor ; but he and many of his adherents were 
killed in an assault made on them by the nobles and their par- 
tisans, B. c. 133. Scipio Africanus the younger, the destroyer 
of Carthage, opposed the rash and arbitrary acts of the commis- 
sioners of the agrarian law, and was found dead in his bed, prob- 
ably murdered by his enemies, though the multitude prevented 
an investigation. Caius Sempronius Gracchus, younger brother 
of Tiberius, became also tribune of the people ten years after 
his brother's death, and inaugurated several laws, called the 
Sempronian laws, intended to ameliorate the condition of the 
people and abridge the power of the senate ; but, in the des- 
perate struggle which followed, Caius and many of his partisans 
lost their lives, B. c. 121. The Social war, between Rome 
and the allied states of Italy that were refused the Roman 
franchise, cost in its two campaigns (B. c. 90, 89) the lives 
of 300,000 young men, the Romans being finally victorious, 
but granting to the Italians the rights of Roman citizenship. 
After this followed the civil wars of Marius and Sylla (B. c. 
88-86, and 83, 82), which deluged Rome with blood. Then 
Spartacus with other gladiators, who were kept to fight and 
kill one another for the amusement of the Romans, escaped 
from their training school at Capua, and, joined by slaves, out- 
laws, and other desperate men to the number of more than 
100,000, he took the offensive, defeated her consuls, and put 
Rome itself in danger ; but was finally slain with most of his 
men by the Roman forces under Pompey and Crassus, B. c. 
71. Afterward came the two conspiracies of Catiline (B. c. 
66 and 63), the second and most formidable of which was 
detected by Cicero, then one of the consuls, and Catiline him- 
self, forced to leave Rome, died with many others in the deci- 
sive battle which ensued. 

In the mean time Pompey cleared the Mediterranean Sea of 
the Cilician pirates who had long infested it, B. c. 67 ; con- 
quered Mithridates, king of Pontus, one of the most formida- 
ble enemies of Rome, B. c. 66 ; made Syria a Roman province, 


B. c. 64 ; besieged and captured Jerusalem, B. c. G3. He 
entered Rome in triumph, B. c. 61. 

But Julius Cesar, who had been military tribune about B. c. 
69, and questor or treasurer in Spain the next year, became 
edile (= superintendent of games, public buildings, streets, <fcc.) 
B. c. 65, high-priest B. c. 63, pretor (=mayor or city-judge) 
the next year, and at the beginning of B. c. 61 went to 
Spain, where he signalized his administration by good manage- 
ment of the affairs of the province and two campaigns of suc- 
cessful wars. Returning to Rome in B. c. 60, he formed an 
unofficial alliance with Pompey and Crassus, which is com- 
monly called the First Triumvirate ; and, secretly supported 
by them, he was elected consul by acclamation. By his agra- 
rian law and other measures he increased his power and popu- 
larity ; and he procured for himself the government of Cisal- 
pine Gaul (= Northern Italy) and Illyricum (= Dalmatia, &c.) 
for five years and the command of two legions, to which the 
senate added the province of Transalpine Gaul (== S.E.France) 
and another legion. 

Cesar was at once engaged in wars, by which he greatly ex- 
tended the Roman dominion, not only through all Gaul (or 
France) , but into Germany and Britain. His term of govern- 
ment was afterwards extended for five years more, while Syria 
was assigned for five years to Crassus, and Spain to Pompey for 
a like term. But Crassus was defeated and slain by the Par- 
thians in Mesopotamia, B. c. 53 ; and Pompey, who governed 
Spain by his lieutenants, became virtually dictator at Rome. 
In nine campaigns Cesar finished the conquest of Gaul, hav- 
ing sacrificed in his wars nearly a million of Gauls and Ger- 
mans. But Pompey and Cesar were now rivals ; and January 
6, B. c. 49, the senate, in spite of the veto of the tribunes Mark 
Antony and Quintus Cassius, passed a decree declaring Cesar 
a public enemy unless he laid down his command by a certain 
day, though he had declared his willingness that both Pompey 
and himself should resign their military power. 

Cesar, who was now at Ravenna, at once crossed the Rubi- 


con, a little stream emptying into the Adriatic and forming 
a part of the southern boundary of his province, and the towns 
in that region surrendered to him without a blow. On the 1st 
of April he reached Rome, and became master of Italy as well 
as of Gaul. Pompey and his forces retired to Greece, which 
with Africa and the East espoused their cause. Spain was 
visited by Cesar, and submitted to him. He then followed 
Pompey, and after many delays the battle of Pharsalia was 
fought, in which Cesar gained a complete victory, June 6 (Au- 
gust 9, according to the Roman calendar of that time), B. c. 49. 
Pompey fled, and was assassinated as he attempted to land in 
Egypt. In B. c. 46 Cesar celebrated his triumph ; and having 
been appointed consul, Dictator for ten years and censor for 
three years, and afterwards Dictator and Imperator ( com- 
mander or Emperor) for life, he was absolute master of the 
Empire. He afterwards defeated the sons of Pompey in Spain, 
extended the Roman franchise to cities in Gaul, Spain, <fec., 
increased the number of senators to 900, encouraged mar- 
riage, reformed the old Roman calendar, and made the year 
(called from him the Julian year) consist of 365-^ days, pro- 
cured the establishment of the first public library in Rome, &c. 
The month of July was so named in honor of him. But as 
it was suspected that he aspired after the title of king, a con- 
spiracy of more than 60 persons was formed to kill him, and he 
was assassinated in the Senate-house on the Ides ( fifteenth 
day) of March, B. c. 44, by Marcus Junius Brutus, Caius Cas- 
sius, and others. Julius Cesar was 56 years old when he died, 
" the foremost man of all this world." 

The death of the Dictator was the signal for new troubles in 
Rome. Mark Antony, who was Cesar's colleague in the con- 
sulship, made an oration over the dead body, gained possession 
of Cesar's treasure and of his papers, obtained from the senate 
the confirmation of the Dictator's acts, and became for a 
time the real master of Rome. But Caius Octavius, grand- 
son of Cesar's sister Julia, was declared by Cesar's will his 
heir, and, though now only 18 years old, soon by adroit man- 


agement gained much popularity. He received the name of 
Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was recognized as a leader 
against Antony, and was chosen consul B. c. 43. Marcus 
^milius Lepidus, who had been consul with Cesar B. c. 46, 
and afterwards was governor of Narbonese Gaul, became now 
a colleague with Antony and Octavius or Octavian in the cele- 
brated triumvirate " for settling the affairs of the common- 
wealth," which lasted about seven years. The triumvirs began 
their union by agreeing to put to death for their mutual advan- 
tage 300 senators and 2,000 knights. Among the victims 
were the brother of Lepidus, the uncle of Antony, and the 
orator Cicero. The authority of the triumvirs was legalized ; 
Brutus and Cassius, who had the power in the East, were de- 
feated at Philippi, B. c. 42 ; Lepidus was summarily set aside, 
B. c. 36 ; Octavian and Antony soon quarreled, and in the bat- 
tle of Actium, B. c. 31, Antony was defeated, and the Roman 
Republic ceased to exist. From this battle is dated the begin- 
ning of the Roman Empire. 

Octavius, after the defeat and subsequent death of Antony, 
returned to Rome, celebrated his triumphs, and received the 
title of Emperor for 10 years, B. c. 29. He now closed the 
temple of Janus in token of the universal peace that prevailed. 
It had not been closed in more than 200 years, but was closed 
thrice in his reign, the last time from B. c. 10 to A. D. 2. He 
received from the senate the title of Augustus, by which he is 
commonly known, B. c. 27. He absorbed all the great offices 
of the state in his own person, being not only emperor, but also 
high-priest, with the power of censor, and perpetual tribune. 
He was careful to retain the ancient forms of freedom ; he ex- 
pressed his intention of retiring to private life, but yielded to 
entreaties and took office again and again for limited periods ; 
he refused to be styled dictator, and chose rather the title of 
prince ; consuls were still elected by the people, but Augustus 
both nominated and controlled them ; the senate by their pro- 
consuls had the government of the peaceable provinces, while 
others, which needed the presence of a large military force, 


were governed by legates or deputies of the emperor. The 
provinces were regarded as better governed under the empire 
than under the republic ; the Roman people were certainly too 
corrupt now to maintain a good government themselves ; and, 
while the emperor favored literature and the arts, he placed 
the Roman Empire on a basis which lasted for 500 years. And 
in the universal peace of his time the prince of peace came 
into the world. Jesus Christ, born in Bethlehem of Judea 
during his reign, and crucified outside of the gate of Jerusalem 
in the reign of his successor, is the founder of a kingdom which 
is to last forever. Augustus, whose name has come down to 
us in the month called August, placed at the summit of human 
power, flattered, honored, worshiped as a god, died August 19, 
A. D. 14, in the 76th year of his age, and the 44th of his im- 
perial rule. 

The following is a list of the Roman emperors, with the 
dates when their reigns began and ended : 
Augustus (= Octavian and Octavius), grand-nephew 

of Julius Cesar, reigned from - - B.C. 31 to A.D. 14 

Tiberius, step-son, son-in-law, and adopted son of 

Augustus, from - A.D. 14 " 37 

Caligula, great-grandson of Augustus ; also grand- 
nephew and adopted son of Tiberius, from "37 " 41 
Claudius, uncle of Caligula, from - " 41 " 54 
Nero, last of the family of Augustus Cesar; grand- 
nephew, step-son, and adopted son of Claudius, from " 54 " 68 
Galba (seven months), Otho (three months), Vitel- 

lius (eight months), from - - . 68 " 70 

Vespasian, declared emperor by his army and the 

senate, from - - - " 70 79 

Titus, son of Vespasian, from - - - " 79 " 81 

Domitian, brother of Titus ; last of the so-called "12 

Cesars" (counting Julius Cesar as the first), from " 81 " 96 
Nerva, a native of Crete ; elected emperor by the 

senate, from - - - - " 96 98 

Trajan, adopted successor of Nerva, from - "98 "117 

Hadrian (== Adrian), nephew of Trajan, from - "117 138 
Antoninus Pius, adopted successor of Hadrian, from "138 " 161 


Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, son-in-law of Antoninus 

Pius, from - - < A.D. 161 to A.D. 180 

Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, - " 180 " 192 

Pertinax, proclaimed by the pretorian guards, &c., 

Jan. 1,193, - - - - reigned three months. 

Didius Julianus, buyer of empire from pretorian 

guards, end of March, - reigned two months. 

Septimius Severus, proclaimed by his army, from A.D. 193 to A.D. 211 
Caracalla, son of the last (assassinated his brother 

and colleague-emperor, Geta, A.D. 212), from "211 " 217 
[Emperors were now, for about a century, proclaimed by the army, 
the senate ratifying the choice ; and, in most cases during the third 
century, the successor was not related to the predecessor.] 
Opilius Macrmus, from ... A.D. 217 to A.D. 218 
Elagabalus (= Heliogabalus), from - " 218 " 222 

Alexander Severus, from - " 222 " 235 

Maximin (= Maximinus), from " 235 " 238 

Gordian, from - 238 " 243 

Philip the Arabian, from - - 243 249 

Decius, from - 249 251 

Gallus, from 251 253 

Valerian and his son Gallienus, from - " 253 " 260 

Gallienus alone, then (264-267) with Odenathus, 
30 tyrants at one time aspiring to the imperial 
throne, fiora - 260 " 268 

Aurelius Claudius, from - 268 " 270 

Aurelian, - 270 275 

Claudius Tacitus, from - 275 276 

Florian, brother of Tacitus, from - - " 276, 2 months. 

Aurelius Probus, from ... 276 to A.D. 282 

Carus (his sons, Carinus and Numerian, associated 

with him), from - 282 " 284 

Diocletian (Maximian associated with him as em- 
peror A.D. 285 ; Constantius Chlorus and Gale- 
rius fir^t associated as Cesars A.D. 292), from " 284 " 305 
Constantius Chlorus and Galerius emperors, from " 305 " 306 
Constantine, surnamed the Great, son of Constan- 
tius, proclaimed emperor at York, Eng. (five 


others at first reigning as emperors; but the 

others, Galerius, Maxentius, Licinius, &c., were 

afterwards defeated), reigned from - A.D. 306 to A.D. 337 

[In 330 Constantine transferred the seat of government from Rome 

to Byzantium, called Constantinople (= city of Constantine) from 


Constantius II., Constantine II., and Constans, suc- 
ceeded their father Constantine as colleagues ; 
but Constantine II. was killed in 340, Constans in 
350 by Magnentius, who succeeded him and kill- 
ed himself in 353, and Constantius II. then be- 
came sole emperor, reigning in all from - A.D. 337 to A.D. 361 

Julian, called the Apostate, nephew of Constantine 
the Great, and the last of his family, previously 
proclaimed by the army, reigned alone from " 361 " 363 

Jovian, proclaimed by the army, reigned seven 

months from - " 363 364 

Valentinian I., elected by the army, gave the East 
to his brother Valens, who died in 378, reigning 
himself in the West from - - " 364 375 

Gratian, son of Valentinian, was nominally asso- 
ciated with his father in 367, and succeeded him 
in the West at his death, giving the East, at the 

. death of Valens in 378, to Theodosius the Great, 
who reigned there till 395, his own reign in the 
West lasting from - 375 383 

Valentinian II., younger brother of Gratian, was 
proclaimed emperor with Gratian in 375, but 
really reigned (and that with some interruption) 
only after Gratian's death from - " 383 " 392 

Theodosius the Great, who reigned in the East 
from 378, defeated the usurper Eugenius in the 
West, and was the last sovereign of the whole 
Roman empire, from u j, , - - " 394 " 395 

Theodosius divided the Roman empire between his two sons, Arca- 
dius taking the Eastern or Greek empire, the seat of which was Con- 
stantinople, and Honorius the Western empire. The Eastern empire 
was finally destroyed by the Turks, who took Constantinople, May 29, 


1453. The emperors of the West, some of whom had Rome and 
some Ravenna, for the seat of government, were 
Honorius, son of Theodosius the Great, who reigned 

from .... A.D. 395 to 423 

John the Notary, usurper, who reigned from - - " 424 to 425 

Valentinian III., nephew of Honorius, who reigned from " 425 to 455 
Maximus, murderer of Valentinian, who reigned 3 

months in " 455 

Avitus, proclaimed in Gaul, who reigned from - " 455 to 456 

[Interregnum of 10 months.] 

Majorian, who reigned from - - " 457 to 461 

Libius Severus, who reigned from - - - " 461 to 465 


Anthemius, who reigned from - - " 467 to 472 

Olybrius, who reigned three months in - - " 472 

Glycerins, who reigned from - - " 473 to 474 

Nepos, who reigned from - - - - " 474 to 475 

Romulus Augustulus, who reigned from - - " 475 to 476 

At the beginning of the empire, as has been already noticed, 
Augustus gradually absorbed into himself all the great offices 
of the state. Thus he could raise armies and command them 
all, impose taxes and enforce the payment of them, make peace 
and war ; he, indeed, had the power of life and death over 
every Roman citizen as well as over every other person within 
the Roman empire. Tiberius abolished the popular assemblies, 
and, though he invested the senate with the nominal power of 
appointing magistrates, he swept away the forms of liberty 
which Augustus had preserved to the people. In later times 
the emperor appointed to any office whom he pleased. The 
succession to the empire was not determined by any fixed prin- 
ciple. The first four successors of Augustus were of his family. 
Three of these gained their position by being adopted, each by 
his predecessor ; the other, Claudius, was uncle of his prede- 
cessor, and was proclaimed emperor by the pretorian guards, 
who. afterwards often disposed of the empire according to their 
pleasure. Sometimes the reigning emperor designated his 


successor by bestowing on the person the title of Cesar, or 
making him his colleague as tribune or proconsul. Sometimes 
the senate elected to the vacant office ; and sometimes an army 
in one of the provinces assumed the prerogative of making an 

The Roman territory, which was at first but a little spot on 
the east bank of the Tiber, increased as the ages passed, till, 
at the commencement of the empire, it embraced all Southern 
Europe from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean to the Danube 
and the Rhine, extending eastward to the Euphrates, and in- 
cluding the greater part of what is now Asiatic Turkey, besides 
Egypt and the whole of Northern Africa. The best part of the 
known world was then under the dominion of Rome ; the Med- 
iterranean Sea was surrounded by its possessions, and was 
counted as entirely belonging to it. After the age of Augustus 
few additions were made to the empire. Trajan subdued Mes- 
opotamia and Armenia on the east of the Euphrates ; and like- 
wise Dacia, a region north of the Danube, which corresponds 
to Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, and the eastern part of 
Hungary. Under Claudius and Domitian, the Roman domin- 
ion was extended in Britain as far north as to include the 
present cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow ; but subsequently 
the emperor Severus, A.D. 209-10, unable to subdue the Cale- 
donians who inhabited Scotland, built, as a defense against 
them, a solid wall of stone, 12 feet high, 8 feet thick, and 
more than 68 miles long, strengthened by forts and towers, as 
well as by a rampart and ditch, and extending from Solway 
Frith across the north of England to the mouth of the river 
Tyne near Newcastle. This wall was garrisoned by 10,000 
troops. The Roman empire, however, had its greatest extent 
in the time of Trajan. From the imperfect union of so many 
countries and nations as were then comprised within its limits, 
from the transfer in A.D. 330 of its seat of government from 
Rome to Constantinople, and from the moral corruption that 
prevailed from the time of Augustus and even before, the em- 
pire suffered greatly from internal weakness ; and, especially 



after about A.D. 400, one country after another became a prey 
to the barbarians on the north, the Parthians on the east, and 
other powerful foes. 

From the foundation of the city through all the ages, both 
of the Kingdom and of the Republic, Rome may be described 
as "wholly given to idolatry." The Romans, like most other 
ancient nations, except the Jews, worshiped " gods many and 
lords many." There were, according to their mythology, 12 
great celestial deities, viz., Jupiter, the king of gods and men; 
Juno, Jupiter's sister and wife, the queen of the gods, and god- 
dess of marriage and of child-birth; Minerva or Pallas, Jupi- 
ter's daughter, the goddess of wisdom ; Vesta, the goddess of 
fire, or rather, of the hearth ; Ceres, Jupiter's sister, the god- 
dess of corn and husbandry ; Neptune, Jupiter's brother, the 
god of the sea; Venus, the goddess of love and beauty; Vul- 
can, Jupiter's son, the god of fire and of smiths ; Mars, the 
god of war ; Mercury, Jupiter's son, the messenger of Jupiter 
and of the gods, and the god of eloquence; Apollo, Jupiter's 
son, the god of poetry, music, medicine, augury, and archery ; 
Diana, Apollo's sister, the goddess of the woods and of hunting. 
There were also eight select deities, viz., Saturn, the god of 
time, dethroned by his son Jupiter; Janus, the god of the 
year, porter of heaven, <fec. ; Rhea, wife of Saturn ; Pluto, Ju- 
piter's brother, the king of the infernal regions; Bacchus, Ju- 
piter's son, the god of wine ; Sol ( the sun), usually regarded 
as the same with Apollo, but sometimes distinguished from 
him; Luna (=the moon), usually regarded as the same with 
Diana; Genius, the demon or tutelary god, who was supposed 
to take care of a person from his birth throughout his life. 
There were also household or domestic guardian deities, called 
Lares and Penates, and many other inferior deities ; some of 
them heroes, deified for their virtue and merits, as Hercules, 
Castor and Pollux, ^Eneas, Romulus, deceased Roman emperors, 
&c. ; others occupying an intermediate place between gods and 
men, as Pan (the god of shepherds and inventor of the flute), 
Pomona (the goddess of gardens and fruits), Flora (the god- 


dcss of flowers), Terminus (the god of boundaries), Pales (the 
god or goddess of flocks and herds) , Hymen (the god of mar- 
riage), Mephitis (the goddess of bad smells), Cupid (the son 
of Venus and god of love), ^Esculapius (the god of physic), 
the Nymphs, Muses, Graces, Fates, Furies, Piety, Faith, Hope, 
Fortune, Fame, &c., <fcc. 

"The Romans," says Dr. Adam, "worshiped certain gods 
that they might do them good, and others that they might not 
hurt them." Many of these deities, especially those considered 
of the highest rank, had their temples and altars, their festi- 
vals and priests and sacrifices. The religious and ecclesias- 
tical institutions of the Romans are attributed to Numa Pom- 
pilius, the second king of Rome, who, according to the legend, 
was instructed in all these things by the nymph Egeria. There 
were four (afterwards eight) pontiffs, usually the most distin- 
guished Romans, who formed a kind of ecclesiastical council 
for the regulation of the worship of the gods and the decision 
of all questions of religion. The chief pontiff or high priest, 
called the pontifex maximus, was supreme judge and arbiter in 
all religious matters, and had jurisdiction over magistrates as 
well as over private individuals, an appeal being allowed to 
the people only when a magistrate had been fined or seized. 
The vestal virgins, appointed to keep alive the sacred fire on 
tb.e altar of Vesta, were treated with the highest honor. Noth- 
ing of importance respecting the public was done without con- 
sulting the augurs, whose office it was to foretell future events 
from the flight, chirping, or feeding of birds, and from other ap- 
pearances. The religion of ancient Rome was determined by 
the authority of the state for all the people subject to that au- 
thority. When, therefore, in the time of the emperor Tiberius, 
the apostles and primitive Christians claimed the right to dis- 
regard the mandates of the state in respect to religion, to be- 
lieve and to teach that the gods worshiped by Roman author- 
ity were no gods and that the ordinances and practices estab- 
lished by the same authority were wrong and wicked, opposition 
and conflict were certainly to be expected. Christians were at 


first few and despised ; but their numbers and influence in- 
creased ; instead of being confined to Palestine or Syria or 
Asia, the new religion passed over into Europe and gained ad- 
herents in Athens and in Corinth and in Rome itself; it pro- 
claimed the necessity of a living faith in the crucified Redeemer, 
not merely to the obscure and humble, but also to senators and 
governors and kings ; it invaded the palace of the Cesars, and 
made its voice heard there in its condemnation of all iniquity 
and its inculcation upon every human being of the universal 
law of holiness, righteousness, and love; and the attempt was 
made again and again to put a stop to all this by force, and to 
blot out the very names of Christian and of Christianity. 

Historians generally reckon ten persecutions of Christians 
during the three centuries that elapsed before Christianity as- 
cended the throne of the Cesars. The persecutions were : 
I. A. D. 64, <fcc., under Nero, who, having, as was generally be- 
lieved, set the city of Rome on fire, charged the crime on the 
Christians, and had numbers of them put to death, some being 
dressed up in the skins of wild beasts and then torn to death 
by dogs, others being crucified, and others, still, smeared with 
pitch and other combustible materials, and then burned at night 
to light the imperial gardens ; II. A. D. 93-6, under Domitian, 
40,000 Christians being put to death; III. A. D. 100, <fcc., under 
Trajan, who commanded that Christians should not be sought 
after, but, when regularly accused and convicted, should be 
put to death as bad citizens, if they refused to return to the 
religion of their fathers ; IV. A. D. 118, &c., under Hadrian 
(so some) ; or A. D. 136-156, under Antoninus Pius (sooth- 
ers) ; or A. D. 167-180, under Marcus Aurelius (so others), per- 
secution existing under all these, but being most virulent and 
destructive under the last ; V. A. D. 197-211, under Septimius 
Severus ; VI. A. D. 236-7, under Maximin ; VII. A. D. 249- 
251 , under Decius, more cruel and terrific than any before it, 
governors being required to exterminate all Christians, or to 
bring them back to paganism by pains and tortures ; VIII. A. D. 
257-260, under Valerian ; IX. A. D. 274-5, under Aurelian, 


short and partial (omitted by some) ; X. A. D. 303-312, under 
Diocletian, Galerius, &c., which began with the edict of Diocle- 
tian, instigated by Galerius, ordering churches to be demolished, 
bibles to be burned, Christians to be deprived of all civil rights 
and honors, and extended over all the empire except where 
Constantius ruled. In this last terrible persecution, tortures 
and all other devices were used to compel all Christians, without 
exception, to sacrifice to the gods. " Christians," according to 
Eusebius, " were scourged to death, had their flesh torn off with 
pincers, were cast to lions and tigers, were burned, beheaded, 
crucified, thrown into the sea, torn to pieces by distorted boughs 
of trees, roasted at a gentle fire, or, by holes made on purpose, 
had melted lead poured into their bowels." Godeau estimates 
that in one month of this persecution 17,000 martyrs were killed ; 
and that in Egypt alone, during the ten years, 144,000 died by 
the violence of their persecutors, and 700,000 died through 
the fatigues of banishment or of the public works to which 
they were condemned. It is supposed that in the three cen- 
turies before A. D. 312 three million Christians lost their lives 
through persecutions. But a change now awaited them. Con- 
stantius Chlorus, who as Cesar ruled in Gaul, Spain, and Bri- 
tain, and became joint emperor with Galerius in A. D. 304 on 
the resignation of Diocletian and Maximian, favored the Chris- 
tians. On his death at Eboracum (= York) in Britain in A. D. 
306, his son Constantine was proclaimed emperor at York, 
while Maxentius, son of Maximian, was proclaimed at Rome. 
Six emperors were now reigning at once, Galerius, Maximian 
(who resumed the throne), Maxentius, Constantine, Licinius, 
and Maximin Daza. But Maximian was soon deprived of his 
power, and afterwards was put to death in A. D. 310. Galerius 
retreated before Maxentius, and died in A. D. 311, just after 
issuing a decree giving peace to the Christians ; Maxentius was 
defeated by Constantine, and was drowned in the Tiber, A. D. 
312 ; Maximin Daza was defeated by Licinius, and died of 
poison at Tarsus, A. D. 313. Licinius and Constantine now 
divided the empire between them, the two having already in 


A. D. 312 issued an edict ot universal toleration for all religions, 
and the next year a special edict in favor of the Christians, 
which on the overthrow of Maximin became law throughout 
the Roman Empire. Subsequently, however, Licinius favored 
the pagan religion and persecuted Christians, while Constan- 
tino, who had adopted the cross for his military standard, 
became more closely connected with the Christians. In the war 
which followed between the two emperors, Licinius was totally 
defeated and was put to death A. D. 325. Constantino, now 
sole master of the Roman Empire, extended to the East his 
laws in favor of the Christian religion. A little before his 
death in A. D. 337, he published edicts for pulling down the 
pagan temples and abolishing the sacrifices. Julian the Apos- 
tate, Constantino's nephew, endeavored in his short reign to 
restore idolatry to its former power and splendor ; but his at- 
tempt utterly failed. Henceforward, as long as the Roman 
Empire stood, Christianity was, at least nominally, the domi- 
nant religion in it. 

As has been already hinted, the Romans underwent a great 
change for the worse after the destruction of Carthage and 
Corinth, B. c. 146. " The riches which flowed into the city," 
says Gieseler, "the knowledge of Asiatic luxuries, and the 
mode of instruction followed by Greek masters, led to licen- 
tiousness and excesses ; while the Grecian mythology, incor- 
porated with Grecian art, was diffused by the poets, and entirely 
extinguished the old Roman character with its rigid virtue." 
The bloody contests of gladiators with wild beasts and with 
one another, the public races and games of agility and strength, 
musical and dramatic entertainments, of which obscenity be- 
came a leading characteristic, together with the vices and 
guilty pleasures to which the Apostle Paul refers in the first 
chapter of his epistle to the Romans, amused and busied the 
people, and drew away their attention from higher and nobler 
pursuits. Both labor and poverty were considered disgraceful, 
and marriage lost all its dignity and importance. Very few of 
the Roman emperors afforded examples of virtue. Tiberius, 


Caligula, Nero, Commodus, Caracalla, and many others, were 
monsters of iniquity. Nor was the character of the nominally 
Christian emperors, who began with Constantine, so much im- 
proved over that of their heathern predecessors as was to be 
desired and expected. There was by the fourth century after 
Christ so much of conformity to the world among those who 
were called Christians, that the vital power of Christianity 
was in a great measure neutralized. The salt had lost its 
savor, and was thenceforth good for nothing but to be cast 
out, and to be trodden under foot of men (Mat. 5 : 13). 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the Roman Empire grew 
weaker, and tottered, and fell. The division into the Eastern 
and Western empires contributed to a separation of interests, 
to jealousies and rivalries, and made the Western empire es- 
pecially an easier prey to the northern barbarians. In A. D. 
404 the emperor Honorius left Rome, and made Ravenna his 
capital. Alaric, king of the Goths, invaded Italy several times 
during the reign of Honorius, and in 410 entered Rome with 
his conquering army, massacred many of its inhabitants, 
gave up the city to pillage for six days, and burned a part of it. 
One of the invaders who followed Alaric, Attila the Hun, 
expressively called " the Scourge of God," laid the Romans of 
both the East and West under tribute, and threatened the im- 
mediate destruction of the Western empire ; but his sudden 
death in the midst of his successes, A. D. 453, put an end to the 
power of the Huns, a part of whom settled in Hungary. The 
Vandals in A. D. 410 made themselves masters of Spain, and 
afterwards of the western part of North Africa. Invited by 
the Empress Eudoxia, whose husband Valentinian III. had 
been murdered by Maximus, they crossed over into Italy, took 
and plundered Rome A. D. 455, and returned in triumph to 
Carthage with the empress and her two daughters. A few 
years later, Odoacer, a Gothic chief, commonly called king of 
the Heruli, subdued Italy, captured both Ravenna and Rome, 
deposed Romulus Augustulus, and put an end to the Roman 
Empire of the West, A. D. 476. 


Odoacer had been an officer of the emperor's guards, and 
was chosen leader of the barbarians in the emperor's armies 
who demanded for themselves and their families a third part 
of the lands of Italy. Their demand being refused, they con- 
quered the country, and saluted Odoacer king of Italy. 

The kingdom of Italy lasted, under the Goths and Lombards, 
and with varying dimensions, almost three centuries. The 
dominion of the Heruli ceased in A. D. 493, when Odoacer was 
defeated and slain by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostro- 
goths (= Eastern Goths), who made Ravenna the seat of his 
government, and reigned with ability about 33 years. His suc- 
cessors, seven in number, held the kingdom till A. D. 553, when 
the eunuch Narses, commander of the Eastern emperor Justin- 
ian's army, defeated the Goths and put an end to their king- 
dom. During the 20 years before this Rome had been some 
of the time in the possession of Belisarius, predecessor of 
JX arses, and some of the time in the possession of Vitiges and 
Totila, the Gothic kings. For about fifteen years after the fall 
of the Gothic kingdom, Narses, under the title of Exarch, ad- 
ministered the government of Italy, his residence being at 
Ravenna. Upon his recall to Constantinople, the Longobards 
or Lombards from Germany invaded Italy (A. D. 568) under 
their king Alboin, and established in the northern part of 
Italy (from them called Lombardy) a powerful kingdom, 
which continued, mostly under about twenty elective kings, 
till Charlemagne, in A. D. 774, defeated and captured Deside- 
rius, the Lombard king, and annexed to his empire the ter- 
ritory of the Lombards in Italy. But Rome, though often 
threatened, was never subject to the dominion of the Lombards. 
The exarchs, whose residence was usually at Ravenna, gov- 
erned a part of Italy in the name of the Eastern emperors, 
until the Lombard king, Astolphus, took Ravenna, A. D. 752. 
But three years afterwards, the French king Pepin, father 
of Charlemagne, defeated the Lombard king, and obliged him 
to give up the exarchate of Ravenna and the Pentapolis ( the 
modern march or province of Ancona) to the see of Rome. 


Rome was nominally connected with the exarchate and thus 
with the Eastern or Byzantine empire for nearly 200 years 
after the defeat cf the Goths by Narses ; but the eighth century 
saw a complete and permanent separation between the Romans 
and the Eastern empire. Southern Italy was connected with 
the Eastern empire for two or three centuries longer. 

Charlemagne (= Charles the Great), the French king, having 
assumed the iron crown of the Lombards in A. D. 774, and 
become by degrees master of the best part of Europe, was 
solemnly crowned Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III. in 
Rome on Christmas eve, A. D. 800, his title being Carolus I. 
Caesar Augustus, and his empire including Germany, Hol- 
land, France, the greater part of Italy and Spain to the Ebro. 
Charlemagne, dying in A. D. 814, was succeeded in the empire 
by his son Louis I. le Ddbonnaire (= the Easy) or the 
Pious, and in Italy by his grandson Bernard, who died three 
years after in consequence of his eyes being put out by his 
uncle Louis. The sons of Louis, admitted in A. D. 817 to a 
share in the empire, quarreled among themselves, and then 
attacked their father, who ended his troubled and inglorious 
reign by dying in A. D. 840. His empire was then divided 
among his three surviving sons, viz., Lothaire, who had Italy 
and part of Southern France, with the title of emperor, and died 
in A. D. 855, leaving his title and dominions to his son Louis 
II., who had been crowned king of Italy about A. D. 844, and 
died in A. D. 875 ; Louis the German, who had Germany, and 
died in A. D. 875 ; and Charles the Bald, who had France, and, 
having been crowned emperor after the death of his nephew, 
Louis II. died in A. D. 877. Then Carloman, son of Louis the 
German, was proclaimed king of Italy. After Carloman' s 
death, his brother, Charles the Fat, was crowned emperor of 
Rome A. D. 880, but in A. D. 887 the last was solemnly de- 
posed as unworthy of the crown. 

Thus ended in Italy the rule of the imperial dynasty of 
Charlemagne, called the Carlovingian dynasty. Under the 
weak successors of Charlemagne, the counts, marquises, and 


other great feudatories of the Western Empire became really 
independent. For more than seventy years after the deposi- 
tion of Charles the Fat, the succession to the kingdom of Italy 
was disputed by various contending lords ; at length, Otho the 
Great, who had been elected Emperor of Germany in A. D. 936, 
was crowned King of Italy at Milan in A. D. 961, and Emperor 
of the West at Rome in A. D. 962. From this time till 1278 
the pope, who had become lord of Rome and its duchy, was 
either really or nominally under allegiance to the sovereigns 
of Germany and of Italy. 

During this period (1192) Rome imitated the example of 
other Italian cities by the appointment of an annual foreign 
magistrate to serve as a general, a criminal judge, and a pre- 
server of the peace. For nearly 700 years this magistrate at 
Rome was styled senator ; he was appointed by the pope for 
six years, but his power, though he was still a civil magistrate 
and superintendent of markets, horse-races, <fcc., dwindled to 
almost nothing. 

For a long time the popes were very weak as temporal 
princes, though their ecclesiastical authority was widely ac- 
knowledged ; but in May, 1278, Rudolph of Hapsburg, then 
emperor of Germany, and ancestor of the present emperor 
of Austria, denned by letters patent the States of the Church 
as extending from Radicofani to Ceprano, on the frontiers of 
Naples, and from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic ( Gulf 
of Venice), including the former duchy of Spoleto, the march 
of Ancona, and the Romagna ; and, releasing the people of 
all those places from their oath of allegiance to the empire, 
and giving up all the imperial rights over them, he acknow- 
ledged the sovereignty of the same to belong to the see of 
Rome. For the last six centuries, therefore, the popes have 
been temporal sovereigns, though their prerogatives long con- 
tinued indefinite, and from 1305 to 1376 they resided at 
Avignon in France, in consequence of the factious disturb- 
ances at Rome between the Colonna, Orsini, and other great 


Thrice during this period has there been a short-lived 
Roman republic, viz., in 1347, under Cola di Rienzi ; in 
1797-9, under the French ; and in 1848-9, under Mazzini, 
Garibaldi, and others. From 1809 to 1814 the city and some 
other parts of Italy were incorporated into the French empire 
under Napoleon. By the treaty of Vienna in 1814 the States 
of the Church were restored to the pope as before the French 
occupancy, embracing a territory of about 17,000 square miles, 
extending about 280 miles in its greatest length from the 
mouth of the Po southward to Cape Circello on the Mediter- 
ranean, and about 140 miles in its greatest breadth from 
Ancona southwesterly to Civita Vecchia. 

For ten years after the last Roman republic fell before the 
French army of Napoleon III. in the summer of 1849, the 
pope retained substantially the same territory as from 1814 
onward. But in 1859 the Romagna (== the region on the 
Adriatic for seventy or eighty miles south of the Po) revolted, 
and was in March, 1860, in accordance with a vote of the 
inhabitants, formally annexed to the kingdom of Sardinia. In 
September, 1860, a revolt broke out in the other states on the 
Adriatic and the Apennines, and they likewise were soon 
annexed to Sardinia by the joint action of the Sardinian legis- 
lature and their own popular vote. 

These revolts and connected events left to the pope in 1860 
and the following years only about one-fourth of his former 
territory, while Victor Emanuel II., who ascended the throne 
of Sardinia in 1849, extended his dominions step by step from 
the Alps to the southern extremity of Sicily, and was then pro- 
claimed king of Italy by vote of the Italian parliament, March 
17, 1861. When, in consequence of the war between France 
and Prussia in 1870, the French troops, that for twenty years 
had sustained the temporal authority of the pope, were with- 
drawn from Italy, the troops of Victor Emanuel soon took 
possession of the remainder of the States of the Church, and 
on the 21st of September, 1870, Rome itself was occupied by 
the Italian army amid great rejoicings. A popular vote was 


held on the 2d of October, which was overwhelmingly in favor 
of Italian unity. Rome, therefore, is now to be the capital 
of Italy. 

But the account of the popes and of their government given 
in chapter III., supersedes the necessity of entering into any 
further historical detail at this point. 

We will now notice the geographical position and leading 
features of the city itself. Rome is situated on both sides of the 
river Tiber, about fifteen miles from the Mediterranean Sea. 
The observatory of the Collegia Romano, which is a little north 
of the center of the modern city, is in north latitude 41 53' 
52", and in east longitude from Greenwich 12 28' 40", or from 
"Washington 89 31' 28". Rome is, therefore, in the same 
latitude with Chicago, and about five or ten miles further 
north than the cities of Providence and Hartford ; but in its 
warm climate it more nearly corresponds with our Southern 
States. The olive and the orange are common fruits. The 
Campagna, in the midst of which Rome stands, is an undulat- 
ing plain, now for the most part very unhealthy and desolate, 
extending about ninety miles along the coast, but shut in by 
the Mediterranean on the southwest, and the mountains on the 
northeast, so that in no place is it more than twenty-seven miles 
in breadth. Scanty harvests are gathered from its ridges ; but 
its chief use at present is to afford pasturage to vast herds of 
cattle. Houses and trees are now seen only at wide intervals 
upon its surface, while anciently the neighborhood of Rome 
abounded in cities at first as flourishing as the eternal city her- 
self. Yet the view of Rome from the neighboring heights, as 
well as the view eastward from any of the heights in Rome, 
is of rare beauty and interest. 

The seven hills (some of which are called mounts) of 
ancient Rome, the Aventine, Palatine, Celian, Esquiline, 
Capitol or Capitoline, Viminal, and Quirinal, are all on the 
east of the Tiber, and are, according to Sir George Schukburg, 
from 117 to 154 feet above the level of the Mediterranean, 
the Tiber itself in its passage through the city being thirty- 


three feet above the sea. Besides these seven hills, which are 
all embraced within the modern city, the Pincian mount, 
about 165 feet high, lies within and along the wall on the 
northeast. On the west of the Tiber are the Vatican mount, 
which is ninety-three feet high, and occupies the northwest 
corner of the city ; and the Janiculum, or Janicular mount, 
260 feet high, long counted one of the seven hills, occupies the 
west and southwest part. The apparent elevation of the hills 
of Rome was anciently greater than at present, because the 
valleys are now raised fifteen or twenty feet, and in some 
places much more, above their former level. 

The famous river, called " the yellow Tiber " from the 
color of its muddy waters, is about two hundred miles long, 
and in its winding course of three miles through the city 
averages about twenty rods wide and from twelve to eighteen 
feet deep, sometimes during heavy rains and floods rising 
more than thirty feet above its ordinary level and inundating 
a considerable part of the city. In the winter, vessels of 
nearly 200 tons can ascend the river to Rome ; but in the 
summer, as there is no perceptible tide, only boats of forty or 
fifty tons can pass over the bar at the mouth and reach the 
city. Small steamboats navigate the river as far as Pontefe- 
lice, which is about thirty-five miles in a straight line north- 
west of Rome. There are but two landing places or quays in 
the city, one (the Port of the Ripetta) on the east side between 
the Piazza del Popolo and the Castle of St. Angelo ; the other 
(the Port of the Ripa Grande) on the west side at the custom- 
house, just above the southern wall. Five bridges are now in 
use within the city, viz., Ponte Sant* Angelo, opposite the 
Castle of St. Angelo ; Ponte Sisto, rebuilt by Pope Sixtus IV., 
above the island; Ponte di Quattro Capi ( bridge of four 
heads), and Ponte di San JBartolomeo, connecting the Tiberine 
island ( now Isola di San Bartolomeo = island of St. Bartho- 
lomew) with the east and west banks of the Tiber ; and Ponte 
Rotto (partly ruined and .supplemented by a suspension bridge), 
just below the island. 


The ancient Romans built numerous and excellent military 
roads, of which the Appian way leading from Rome south- 
ward, and the Flaminian way leading northward, were the 
most important to the city itself. The modern roads are 
inferior to those which existed under the republic and empire. 
Within a few years railroads have been built between Rome 
and Civita Vecchia, Florence, Naples, <fec., which greatly in- 
crease the facility of access to the city. 

Rome has been for ages surrounded by a wall. Romulus is 
said to have built one round the Palatine mount, and after- 
wards to have fortified the Capitoline, Celian, and Aventine 
mounts. King Servius Tullius built the first wall round the 
seven hills, the Janiculum having been previously fortified by 
Ancus Martius, who also built the Sublician bridge across the 
Tiber. Though the city had long outgrown the wall of Servius, 
and had been much improved, especially after the great fire in 
the time of Nero, no new wall to protect the city seems to have 
been built till the Emperor Aurelian, A. D. 271, began the wall, 
which was completed under his successor, and repaired by 
Honorius, and which, in the part east of the Tiber, is sub- 
stantially the same with the present wall. The modern walls 
on the west of the Tiber inclose nearly three times the area 
on that side embraced by the Aurelian wall. The whole 
Vatican quarter was inclosed in a separate wall, and added to 
the city by Pope Leo IV., who in A. D. 852 formally named it 
the Leonine city. The walls of Rome are from twelve to 
thirteen miles in circuit, about fifty feet high on the outside, 
but, from the accumulation of soil, not more than thirty feet on 
the inside, built generally of brick, with some patches of 
stonework, without any ditch, but crested with nearly 300 
towers. The modern city has twenty gates, of which seven are 
walled up. The principal entrance into Rome is on the 
north, at the Porta del Popolo, which was built by Vignola in 
1561 after the designs of the celebrated Michael Angelo. It 
is about three miles, in a straight line, from the Porta del 
Popolo on the north to the Porta San Sebasticmo at the 


extreme south ; and a little more than three miles from the 
wall at the extreme west, behind St. Peter's, to that back of 
the ancient Pretorian camp, which lay a mile east of the 
Quirinal palace. Of the large area within the walls all but 
about one-third is desolate. Only a few churches, convents, 
and scattered habitations are found with the ruins, gardens, and 
fields, which occupy the space lying east of a line from the 
Porta del Popolo to the basilica of St. Mary Major, and south 
of a line from the same church to the Tiberine island. The 
panorama of Rome which forms the frontispiece of this volume, 
and which is copied, by the owner's kind 'permission, from a 
rare French engraving belonging to Rev. Wm. Patton, D. D., 
will convey a better idea of the general appearance of the 
modern city than could be given by the most minute and 
labored description without it. But one allowance needs to be 
made. The exigencies of the engraving led the original artist 
to diminish the apparent distance between the Castle of St. 
Angelo and St. Peter's Place, which are really about one-third 
f a mile apart. 

The term " Basilica," which is derived from the Greek, and 
properly signifies " king's house," is applied to St. Peter's and 
twelve other ancient churches of Rome and its immediate vici- 
nity. The precise reason for this application of the term is a 
matter of dispute ; but the Romans gave this name to large 
roofed buildings supported on columns, and used as halls for 
the administration of justice, &c. ; and the term may have been 
applied to the early Christian churches on account of their 
resemblance in form to these roofed and columned halls. 

St. Peter's basilica, on the Vatican mount (Basilica di 
San Pietro in Vaticano), has been called by the historian 
Gibbon " the most glorious structure that ever has been 
applied to the use of religion." It partly covers the ground 
where the circus and gardens of Nero were ; the scene of early 
Christian martyrdoms, and the reputed burial-place of the 
apostle Peter as well as of other martyrs. It is said that 
Anaclctus, St. Peter's successor in the bishopric of Rome, built 


an oratory over the cemetery. In A. D. 306 the emperor Con- 
stantine built on the spot a basilica, which after more than 
1100 years threatened ruin, but part of which is now a crypt 
or subterranean vault under its successor. A new building 
was begun by Pope Nicholas V. in 1450, but the work was 
interrupted by his death. April 18, 1506, Pope Julius II., 
having adopted the designs of Bramante for a building in the 
shape of a Latin cross with an immense cupola in the center, 
and pulled down a part of the walls erected by his prede- 
cessors, laid the foundation of one of the four colossal piers on 
which the cupola was to rest. After the death of Julius II. 
and of Bramante other popes and architects entered into their 
labors, and the plans were repeatedly modified. The great 
dome in its present shape is due to the renowned Michael 
Angelo, an architect as well as painter, who, before his death 
in 1563, completed the drum or upright part of the dome, 
covered the body of the church, and cased the inside with 
stone. The dome was finished by Giacomo della Porta in 
1590, 30,000 Ibs. of iron having been, it is supposed, used in 
its construction, and 600 workmen employed upon it night and 
day by Pope Sixtus V. The facade, from a balcony in which 
the Pope blesses the people on Holy Thursday and Easter 
Sunday, and the portico, were planned by Carlo Maderno who 
completed them under Paul Y. in 1614, and the stupendous 
edifice was dedicated by Urban VIII., November 18, 1626. 
The magnificent colonnades round St. Peter's Place, 55 feet 
wide, and containing 284 majestic columns each 48 feet high, 
besides 64 pilasters, were begun by Bernini under Alexander 
VII. in 1661, and finished by him in 1667. Finally, Carlo Mar- 
chionni under Pius VI. built the sacristy and chapter-house 
adjoining the church in 1780. In the time of the same pope, 
the roof of the interior was gilded, and the two clocks were 
placed on the facade. The cost of the whole structure up to 
1694 was estimated by Carlo Fontana at $47,000,000. Since 
that time large sums have been spent for repairs, additions, 
and improvements. Here column and pilaster, cornice and 


frieze,altar and throne and tomb, statue and medallion, gilt and 
stucco, mosaic picture and bas-relief, bronze and stained glass, 
granite and porphyry, marble and alabaster, and other mate- 
rials and combinations of materials, in multiform colors and 
shades, are all employed to give dignity and splendor and to 
overwhelm the beholder with astonishment and awe. St. 
Peter's is considered the largest, most beautiful, and most 
imposing church ever erected by man. Its extreme length, as 
marked on the center pavement of the nave, is 862.8 palms 
(= 632 English feet), or 837 palms (= 613 English feet) 
within the walls ; the extreme length of the transepts, or the 
greatest width of the church, is 446 J^ feet; the width of the 
nave and side aisles, including the massive pilasters or piers 
that separate them, is 197| feet ; the height of the nave near 
the door is 152^ feet, and its width here is 87 feet ; the 
height of the dome from the pavement to the base of the 
lantern is 405 feet, and to the top of the cross outside 448 
feet ; the diameter of the cupola is 195 feet, or 139 feet in the 
clear. The baldacchino, or grand canopy covering the high 
altar under the center of the dome, is of bronze, supported by 
four spiral composite columns, and covered with the richest 
ornaments and foliage of gilt, is 95 feet high to the top of the 
globe and cross, and cost about $100,000. Under the high 
altar, where only the pope, or a cardinal specially authorized, 
can celebrate mass, is the tomb of St. Peter, lighted perpetually 
by 112 lamps. At the western end of the nave, in what is 
called the tribune, and about 170 feet beyond the high altar, 
is another majestic altar of fine marbles, and also the famous 
" chair of St. Peter " ' in bronze, inclosing that chair in which, 

1 The following description of St. Peter's chair is from the late Cardinal 
Wiseman, and represents the current Roman Catholic view, in opposition to the 
statements of Lady Morgan in her "Italy," that the French, while they occupied 
Rome, at the beginning of this century, removed the hronze casket and discovered 
this chair to have on it the inscription, " There is but one God, and Mohammed 
is his prophet;" and that the chair was probably among the spoils of the crusaders 
offered to the church. Cardinal Wiseman denies that the relic was inspected by the 
French, and says of it : "A superb shrine of gilt bronze, supported by four gigantic 




according to tradition, he and many of his successors officiated, 
and supported by colossal statues of the four great doctors of 
the church, St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, St. Athauasius (some 
say St. Jerome instead), and St. John Chrysostom. On 
each side of the nave, in the side aisles which are partially 
separated by the piers and the arches between them, are 
chapels which have their own altars. Other altars are placed 
in the transept. There are also, besides the great dome or 

figures of the same materials, representing the four doctors of the church, closes 
the view of the nave of St. Peter's church. . . The shrine is in the form of a throne, 
and contains a chair which the Prince of the Apostles is supposed to have occupied, 


as bishop of Rome. It is a tradition, certainly of great antiquity, that St. Peter 
was received into the house of the senator Pudens, and there laid the foundation 
of the Roman church fsee Chapter III.]. According to the custom of the Jews, 
and of all the early churches, a chair or throne would be occupied by him when 
teaching, or assisting at the divine worship. It is in fact from this circumstance 


cupola, 1 others, four round and six oval, placed over the side 
aisles. The well known bronze statue of St. Peter on a marble 
chair, is placed near the center of the north side of the nave, 
against one of the colossal piers which support the great 
dome. The facade, built entirely of a white limestone called 
travertine, is 379 feet long and 148^ feet high. We consider 
that a large church which holds 2,000 people standing ; but St. 
Peter's has been known to have 100,000 people inside its walls 
at one time, enough to fill 50 of our city churches. The 

that the term sedes [Latin], cathedra [Latin, from Greek kathedra], thrones [Greek], 
seat, chair, or throne, became the ordinary appellation of episcopal jurisdiction. The 
chair of St. Peter is precisely such a one as we should have supposed to be given 
by a wealthy Roman senator to a ruler of the church, which he esteemed and pro- 
tected. It is of wood, almost entirely covered with ivory, so as to be justly con- 
sidered a curule chair. It may be divided into two principal parts ; the square or 
cubic portion which forms the body, and the upright elevation behind, which forms 
the back. The former portion is four Roman palms [= about 33 inches] across the 
front, two and a half [ = nearly 21 inches] at the side, and three and a half [ about 
29 inches] in height. It is formed by four upright posts, united together by transverse 
bars above and below. The sides are filled up by a species of arcade consisting of 
two pilasters of carved wood, supporting, with the corner posts, three little arches. 
The front is extremely rich, being divided into 18 small compartments, disposed in 
three rows. Each contains a basso-rilievo in ivory, of the most exquisite finish, sur- 
rounded by ornaments of the purest gold. These bassi-rilievi represent, not the 
feats of Mohammed, or Ali, or Osman, or any other Paynim chieftain, as the read- 
ers of Lady Morgan might expect, unless they knew that the religion of the prophet 
does not tolerate any graven images at all, but the exploits of the monster- 
quelling Hercules. The custom of adorning curule chairs with sculptured ivory is 
mentioned by the ancients. . . . The back of the chair is formed by a scries of 
pilasters supporting arches, as at the sides ; the pillars here are three in number, 
and the arches four. Above the cornice, which these support, rises a triangular 
pediment, giving to the whole a tasteful and architectural appearance. Besides the 
bassi-rilievi above mentioned, the rest of the front, the moldings of the back, and 
the tympanum of the pediment, are all covered with beautifully wrought ivory. 
The chair, therefore, is manifestly of Roman workmanship, a curule chair, such as 
might be occupied by the head of the church, adorned with ivory and gold, as might 
befit the house of a wealthy Roman senator ; while the exquisite finish of the sculp- 
ture forbids u&,to consider it more modern than the Augustan age, when the arts 
were in their greatest perfection. There is another circumstance, which deserves 
particular mention in the description of this chair, and exactly corresponds to the 
time of St. Peter's first journey to Rome. This event took place in the reign of 
Claudius ; and it is precisely at this period that, as Justus Lipsius has well proved, 
seilce yfstatori(e [ = sedan-chairs] began to be used by men of rank in Rome. For it is 
after this period, that Suetonius, Seneca, Tacitus, Juvenal, and Martial, mention 


illuminations on Easter Sunday and at the festival of St. Peter 
(June 29) are magnificent. All parts of the edifice up to the 
summit of the cross are then lighted up at dusk \vith 5900 
lanterns of white paper ; and at 8 o'clock P. M. on Easter, and 
an hour later on St. Peter's day, 900 lamps (iron cups filled 
with tallow and turpentine) are instantaneously lighted, when 
from these 6800 blazing centers the light streams forth so 
brilliantly upon the surrounding darkness that the whole seems 
a vision of glory. " The wonder, the beauty, of that great 
glowing temple of fiery jewels," says an eye-witness, " no 
words can tell." 

the practice of being borne in chairs. This was done by means of rings placed at 
their sides, through which poles were passed ; and thus the chair was carried by- 
slaves upon their shoulders. At each side of St. Peter's chair are two rings, mani- 
festly intended for this purpose. Thus, while the workmanship of this venerable 
relic necessarily refers its date to an early period of the Roman empire, this pecu- 
liarity fixes it at a period not earlier than the reign of Claudius, in which St. Peter 
arrived at Rome." 

Cardinal Wiseman, whose essay furnishes the engraving here copied, also ad- 
duces as confirmatory of the Roman Catholic tradition passages from ancient eccle- 
siastical writers, especially from Ennodius of Pavia A.D. 503 the festival on the 
18th of January, in honor of the chair and the " demonstrated fact, that the early 
Christians, well knowing that ' an idol is nothing,' made no scruple of turning to 
pious uses, and employing in the worship of the church, objects adorned with the 
symbols of idolatry." He also claims that Lady Morgan's story originated thus : 
The stone chair, called by the vulgar ' the chair of St. Peter,' and long kept in 
the old patriarchal church of St. Peter at Venice as having been used by Peter at 
Antioch, has on it an Arabic inscription composed of several verses from the Koran 
in the Cufic character; this chair has been confounded by some blundering or ma- 
licious person with the ivory throne of the Vatican basilic, which is the chair used 
by St. Peter at Rome, according to the Roman Catholic tradition. 

It should be added, that this tradition is universally discredited by Protestants, 
because it cannot be proved that St. Peter either founded the church at Rome or 
was ever the bishop there (see Chapter III.); because he can not rationally be sup- 
posed to have transgressed, by possessing or occupying such a chair, the Savior's 
express command in Mat. 20 : 25-27 ; because neither could Christians, nor would 
Pagans, have preserved such a chair through the terrible persecutions that followed ; 
because it would have been as easy, after the custom of honoring relics arose in the 
4th century, (see Chapter XV. ), to introduce such a chair as anything else to a posi- 
tion of popular veneration ; and because there is good reason to believe, from what 
has been said by Tillemont, a Roman Catholic historian, by Dr. De Sanctis, who 
was long familiar with matters at Rome, and by others, that different chairs have 
had the honor of representing the chair of St. Peter (see Chapter XXVI.). 


But St. Peter's is by no means the only one among the 365 
churches of modern Rome that is deserving of special notice. 
The basilica of St. John Lateran (Basilica di San Giovanni in 
Laterand), in the S. E. part of the city, is in some important 
respects the first of the Roman churches. The title Lateran, 
or in Laterano, is derived from the former owner of the site, 
Plautius Lateranus, who was put to death by Nero. On this 
Lateran estate, years afterwards, stood an imperial palace, to 
which Constantino annexed a church or chapel. The palace 
was the residence of the bishop of Rome from Constantino's 
day down to the fourteenth century ; and the church, enlarged 
at different times, became, as it is now, the pope's episcopal 
church. Its ecclesiastics take precedence over those of St. 
Peter's. In this church the popes for many centuries have 
been crowned. Here many council's have been held, five of 
them general. The inscription over the door styles this " the 
Mother and Head of all the churches of the city and of the 
world." The old edifice was nearly destroyed by fire in 1308 ; 
but it was restored by Clement V., and has since been enlarged 
and remodeled. Its splendid front, from one of the balconies 
of which the pope gives his benediction to the people on As- 
cension day, its rich carved and gilt ceiling, its pillars and 
statues, paintings and bronzes, medallions and other orna- 
ments, give to this basilica a magnificent and imposing char- 
acter. One of its great attractions is " the Holy Stairs," 
consisting of 28 marble steps, traditionally declared to have 
belonged to Pilate's house, and to have been sanctified by being 
ascended and descended by our Savior at the time of his pas- 
sion ; now kept under a portico on the north side of the basil- 
ica, preserved from further wear by being covered over with 
planks, and allowed to be ascended by penitents only on their 
knees. When Martin Luther was humbly creeping up these 
stairs, he thought he heard a voice of thunder in his heart, cry- 
ing, " The just shall live by faith ;" and in amazement and 
shame he rose from his knees, and fled from the place. 


The basilica of St. Mary Major (Basilica di Santa Maria 
Maggiore), also called the Liberian basilica from its founder, 
and situated on the summit of the Esquiline hill, is said to 
have been founded in A. D. 352 by Pope Liberius and John, a 
Roman patrician, on the spot covered by a miraculous fall of 
snow in August. It has been enlarged, restored, and embel- 
lished by various popes. It is called St. Mary Major from its 
being the principal of more than 20 Roman churches dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary. It has two facades, from a balcony in 
the principal of which the pope pronounces his benediction on 
the Festival of the Assumption. The interior of this basilica 
is richly decorated and considered one of the finest in the 
world. The nave is 280 feet long by about 60 wide ; the roof 
is flat, paneled, elaborately carved, and gilt with the first gold 
brought to Spain from South America and presented by Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella to Pope Alexander VI. The gorgeous chapel 
in the right aisle, built by Pope Sixtus" V., and styled the 
Sixtine chapel or chapel of the Holy Sacrament, is magnifi- 
cently adorned, and has in its center the smaller chapel of the 
Prcesepe (== manger, or crib), where is preserved the sacred 
crib or cradle, consisting of five boards of the manger in which 
the infant Jesus is said to have been deposited at his birth, in- 
closed in an urn of silver and crystal with a fine gilt figure of 
the child on the top. This crib forms the subject of a solemn 
ceremony and procession on Christmas eve. 

The basilica of St. Paul (Basilica di San Paolo), or Ostian 
basilica, situated outside of the wall of Rome, about a mile 
and a quarter south of St. Paul's gate on the road to Ostia, 
also traces back its origin to the emperor Constantino ; but was 
rebuilt in the latter part of the 4th century ; restored in the 
8th century ; burnt July 16, 1823 ; subsequently rebuilt, and 
dedicated by Pius IX. in December, 1854. It is the most gor- 
geous and costly of all the basilicas. It has 80 magnificent 
Corinthian columns of granite, with capitals of white marble, 
between the nave and the aisles. The edifice is grandly rich 
in its carved wood-work and gilding, its alabaster and marble, 


its pictures, statues, altars, &c. Here are, among other elab- 
orate works, frescoes representing the principal events in St. 
Paul's life, and portraits of the popes in mosaic. Here is the 
traditional burial-place of St. Paul, whose body is said to have 
been removed here from the Vatican in A. D. 251. 

The last of the five great basilicas of Rome is that of San 
Lorenzo (=St. Lawrence), about a mile east of the basilica of 
St. Mary Major, half a mile beyond the city wall, and near the 
public cemetery. This also is said to have been founded by 
the emperor Constantine, and subsequently enlarged. It was 
partly rebuilt in A. D. 578 ; and in 1216 a new nave and vesti- 
bule-portico were added at the west end, the old entrance hav- 
ing been at the east. In 1217, Peter de Courtenay, Count of 
Auxerre, was crowned here as emperor of the East on his way 
to Constantinople, which had been taken by the crusaders ; but 
he never reached his destination, though his sons Robert and 
Baldwin were afterwards Latin emperors at Constantinople. 

Besides these five great basilicas, there are eight lesser ba- 
silicas, one of the most remarkable of which is the basilica of 
Santa Croce in Grerusalemme (Holy Cross in Jerusalem), or 
Sessorian basilica, on the site of the ancient Sessorian palace, 
and near the southeast extremity of the modern city. Its name 
is derived from the portion (one-third) of the true cross of our 
Savior said to have been deposited in it by the empress Hel- 
ena, mother of its founder Constantine, and from the earth 
from Jerusalem brought hither and mixed with the founda- 
tions. Frequent alterations and restorations have been made, 
and its present form of about a century's age is due to pope 
Benedict XIV. Here formerly took place the consecration of 
the golden rose, which was sent every year by the popes to 
sovereign princes. Here, too, are large collections of relics. 
Under this basilica is the chapel of St. Helena, which ladies 
are forbidden, on pain of excommunication, to enter, except on 
the 20th of March, the anniversary of its dedication. 

The basilica of Santa Agnese fuori le Mura ( St. Agnes 
beyond the walls), situated about two miles northeast of the 


Quirinal palace, and founded in A.D. 324 by Constantino, is 
remarkable for preserving its ancient form and arrangement 
unchanged, and for the celebration here, on the 21st of January, 
of the festival of St. Agnes, when two lambs are blessed by the 
pope, to be afterwards reared by the nuns of a convent in 
Rome for their wool, of which are made the sacred palls worn 
by the pope and other great dignitaries of the Roman Catholic 

Rome has 54 parish churches, most of which, as well as of 
the great multitude attached to monasteries, <fec., would else- 
where be considered remarkable for their architectural and 
decorative splendor. Only a few of these can be briefly noticed 

The church of San? Andrea delta Valle (= St. Andrew of 
the Valley), built in 1591, and lying in the valley southwest of 
the Pantheon, is one of the best specimens of modern church 
architecture. Its frescoes are celebrated, and its cupola is 

The church Ara Coeli ( altar of heaven), or Santa Maria 
di Ara Coeli, occupying the site of the ancient temple of Jupi- 
ter Capitolinus, on the Capitoline hill, near the modern Capitol, 
is probably as old as the 4th century ; but is specially venerated 
by the Romans on account of the Santissimo Bamlino, or most 
holy baby, a figure of the infant Savior, which is reputed to 
have miraculous powers in curing the sick, and whose festival, 
attended by crowds of Italian peasantry, takes place from 
Christmas day to the Epiphany. 

The church II G-esu ( the Jesus), one of the richest and 
most gorgeous in Rome, belonged to the Jesuits. It was founded 
in 1575, and is situated about midway between the Capitol and 
the Pantheon. Here the body of St. Ignatius, the founder of 
the order, is preserved in a splendid urn of gilt bronze, adorned 
with precious stones, &c. Annexed to the church is an extensive 
building, which was, during their existence in Rome, the head- 
quarters of the Jesuits, and the residence of their general. 

The church of Santa Maria degli Angeli ( St. Mary of the 


Angels), altered by Michael Angelo under pope Pius IY. out of 
one of the halls of Diocletian's baths, and situated about half 
a mile east of the Quirinal palace, is one of the most imposing 
churches of Rome, and contains some fine large paintings. Be- 
hind the church is the Carthusian convent, with its celebrated 
cloister also designed by Michael Angelo. 

The church of Santa Maria del Popolo (= the People's St. 
Mary) was founded about 1099, in order to protect the people 
against ghosts, and occupies the spot at the north extremity 
of the city, where the ashes of Nero are said to have been dis- 
covered and scattered to the winds. Rebuilt by the Roman 
people in 1227 (hence a part of its name), and since restored, 
completed, and embellished, it has in its fine frescoes, mosaics, 
sculptures, &c., features of uncommon interest. 

The twin churches of Santa Maria di Monte Santo (= St. 
Mary of the Sacred Mount), and Santa Maria de' Miracoli 
(=St. Mary of the Miracles), situated on the Piazza del Po- 
polo , on opposite corners of the Corso, are chiefly remarkable 
for being built about 200 years ago in the same style of archi- 
tecture after the designs of Rainaldi. 

The church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva (== St. Mary on 
Minerva), at the southeast of the Pantheon, rebuilt in 1370 on 
the site of a temple of Minerva which Pompey built, is the only 
church in Rome of the pointed Gothic style. It belongs to the 
Dominicans, whose head-quarters are in the adjacent monas- 
tery. It has a full-length statue of Christ, one of Michael 
Angelo's masterpieces. The church was restored in the 17th 
century, and again, at an expense of $125,000, from 15 to 20 
years ago. 

The church of Santa Maria delle Piante (== St. Mary of the 
foot-print), commonly called Domine quo vadis (= Lord, 
whither goest thou?), a small old church about half a milo 
south of the St. Sebastian gate, is so named because it is said 
that St. Peter, fleeing from prison along the Appian way, here 
met our Lord going towards Rome and bearing his cross, and 
in astonishment asked him, " Lord, whither goest thou ?" 


Jesus answering, " I go to Rome to be crucified again," Peter 
immediately returned to Rome, where he was crucified the next 
day ; but our Lord, on disappearing, left the print of his foot 
on a stone of the pavement. The foot-prints, or rather copies 
of them in white marble, are here shown and greatly vene- 

The church of /San Pietro in Montorio (= St. Peter on Monto- 
rio), situated on the highest point of the Janiculum (now called 
Montorio), where the citadel anciently stood, is said to have 
been founded by Constantino near where St. Peter was cruci- 
fied, and was rebuilt at the expense of Ferdinand and Isabella 
qf Spain about the time of the discovery of America, and re- 
stored since its partial destruction during the siege of Rome 
by the French in 1849. On the spot in the adjoining convent 
where St. Peter is supposed to have suffered martyrdom, is 
Bramante's celebrated temple, a small circular building with 
16 Doric columns, universally admired as a gem of architecture. 
From the platform in front of this church an excellent view of 
the city may be obtained. 

The church of San Stefano Rotondo (= St. Stephen Rotun- 
da), on the western part of the Celian hill, is, as the name in- 
dicates, a circular church dedicated to St. Stephen, probably 
once a part of the great meat-market of Nero's time, and is 
said to have been consecrated as a church in A.D. 467. Service 
is held here only early on Sunday morning and on St. Stephen's 
day (Dec. 26).' 

Next to the churches, the palaces of Rome deserve to be no- 
ticed. Close to St. Peter's is the famous Vatican palace, the 
largest in Europe. The date of its foundation is uncertain, 
some ascribing it to one of the early popes, others tracing it 
back to the emperor Constantine. It was the residence of 
Charlemagne at his coronation in A.D. 800 ; it was rebuilt in 
the 12th century ; and, as being near the castle of St. Angelo, 
it was made the pope's permanent residence after the return 
from Avignon in 1377. It now consists of an immense pile of 
buildings, irregular in their plan, and constructed or renewed 


at different times, by different popes and architects, mostly 
since 1450. It is 1151 feet long and 767 feet broad ; it has 
8 grand staircases, 200 smaller ones, 20 courts, and 4422 rooms. 
In the Papal palace, properly so called, we notice first the 
great staircase by Bernini, called the Scala Regia, consisting of 
two flights, the lower decorated with Ionic columns, the upper 
with pilasters. This staircase leads up to the Sola Regia, or 
hall of audience for ambassadors, which is covered with fres- 
coes relating to the history of the popes, as the Absolution of 
the Emperor Henry IY. by Pope Gregory VII., the Massacre 
of St. Bartholomew, &c. The Sola Regia serves as a vestibule 
to the Capella Sistiua (=Sistine chapel, or Sixtine chapel) 
and to the Capella Paolina (= Pauline chapel) . The Sistine 
chapel, named from pope SixtusIV.,who built it in 1473 from 
the designs of Baccio Pintelli, is a lofty oblong hall, about 135 
feet long and 45 feet wide, with a gallery running round three 
of its sides ; and is famous through the world for its frescoes, 
especially for the great fresco of the last judgment, 60 feet high 
and 30 feet broad, which employed Michael Angelo nearly eight 
years, and occupies the end wall opposite the entrance. Mass 
in this chapel by the pope, on the first of January and at cer- 
tain other times, is one of the greatest attractions to foreigners, 
which can be found in Rome. The Pauline chapel, built in 
1540 by pope Paul III. from the designs of Antonio de San- 
gallo, is only used in great ceremonies, and contains two re- 
markable frescoes by Michael Angelo, which, like those in the 
Sistine chapel, have been greatly injured by smoke, damp, and 
neglect. The Loggie is a three-story portico, adorned with 
beautiful frescoes and painted stuccoes, designed by Bramante, 
Raphael, <fec. There are also in the Papal palace other apart- 
ments filled with works of art and curiosities. A corridor or 
gallery, about 1000 feet long, joins the Papal palace to the 
building called Belvedere, which is used as a museum. About 
half way up this corridor is the entrance to the Vatican library, 
which was founded by pope Nicholas V. in 1447, and furnished 
by pope Sixtus V. in 1588 with this building designed by Fon- 


tana. This library has besides a large collection of printed 
books, estimated by some as high as 125,000 the finest col- 
lection known of Greek, Latin, and Oriental manuscripts, num- 
bering 23,580 in 1858, and including, among other rare and 
valuable ones, the celebrated Vatican manuscript of the Bible 
in ancient Greek, a Hebrew Bible for which the Jews of Venice 
offered its weight in gold, a palimpsest of Cicero de Republica^ 
regarded as the oldest Latin manuscript extant, &c. The Vati- 
can museum, contained in the long corridors, in the court and 
palace of the Belvedere, &c., embraces several of the finest 
known collections, as of ancient sepulchral inscriptions and 
monuments, ancient sculptures, pictures, <fcc. The statue of 
the god Apollo, found at the end of the 15th century in ancient 
Antium, called, from its being placed here, the Apollo Belve- 
dere, and the group of Laocoon and his sons crushed by ser- 
pents, also in the court of the Belvedere, are justly considered 
masterpieces of the sculptor's art. Of the pictures here, the 
communion of St. Jerome is the masterpiece of Domenichino ; 
and the Transfiguration, left unfinished by Raphael at his death, 
is commonly regarded as the finest oil-painting in the world. 
The gardens are very extensive, reaching back to the wall of 
the city, and affording room for the pope to take exercise on 
horseback, which court etiquette permits only on his own 

The Quirinal Palace, on the Quirinal hill, which is now 
commonly called Monte Cavallo, was begun by pope Gregory 
XIII. in 1574, but was not completed in its present form till 
the end of the 17th century. It is now the most habitable and 
princely of the papal residences in Rome. It has extensive 
gardens, filled with statues, fountains, and shady walks, and 
containing among other curiosities an organ played by water. 
It has its grand halls the Sola Regia being 190 feet long and 
richly decorated, and two others being each 100 feet long its 
private chapel, called the Pauline chapel, of the same size and 
form as the Sistine chapel at the Vatican its picture-galleries, 
and other sumptuous apartments, &c. The Quirinal has been 


the pope's usual residence during a part of the summer, and 
was for many years the scat of the conclave for the election of 

The Lateran palace, as already mentioned, was the pope's 
residence for 1000 years after the time of Constantino. The 
palace, as well as the basilica adjacent, was nearly destroyed 
by fire in 1308 ; but it was rebuilt in the 16th and 17th centu- 
ries, and was converted into a hospital by Innocent XII. in 
1698, and into a museum by Gregory XVI. in 1843. Here are 
deposited, not only Christian antiquities, but all works of art 
recently discovered or acquired, for which room could not be 
found at the Vatican and the Capitol.* 

The Capitol, or Piazza del Campidoglio, is a square of pala- 
ces covering the summit of the Capitoline hill. In the center 
of this square stands the admirable equestrian statue of the 
emperor Marcus Aurelius, the only ancient bronze equestrian 
statue that has come down to us entire. Of the three palaces 
on the three sides of the square, the central one, facing the 
steps by which the ascent is made from the north, is the palace 
of the Senator, built by Boniface IX. at the end of the 14th 
century as a fortified residence for the Senator of Rome, and 
containing the hall in which the Senator holds his court, the 
museum of ancient architecture, the offices of the municipality, 
the observatory of the Capitol, &c. The great bell, which rings 
only to announce the death of the pope and the beginning of 
the carnival, is suspended in the tower of the Capitol, from the 
summit of which one of the best views of Rome may be obtained. 
On the west side of the square is the palace of the Conserva- 
tors, containing a gallery of the busts of illustrious Italians, a 
picture-gallery, the famous Bronze Wolf suckling Romulus and 
Remus, &c. On the east side of the square is the Capitoline 

* The pope has had also a summer palace healthily and picturesquely located at 
Castel GandoJfo, a village 12 or 14 miles east of Home, where was a medieval strong- 
hold belonging to the Gandolfi family. The papal palace here is a plain building with 
some large and convenient apartments, begun about 1630, subsequently enlarged, 
and completed in its present state in the 18th century. 


museum, or Gallery of Sculptures, in one room of which, called 
the Hall of the Dying Gladiator, are some exquisite statues be- 
sides the celebrated one which gives it its name. 

Besides the public palaces which have been named, Rome 
has 60 or more private palaces, some of which, as the Barbe- 
rini, Borghese, and Doria, are remarkable not only for their 
great size and magnificence, but also for the valuable works of 
art contained in them. The Farnese palace, regarded as archi- 
tecturally the finest in Rome, was built of materials from the 
Coliseum, and belongs to the ex-king of Naples. 

The palace of the Inquisition, a vast edifice built by Pius Y. 
behind St. Peter's, has been of late years occupied as a barrack 
by the French troops in garrison at Home (see Chapter XL). 

The Palazzo della Cancelleria, one of the most magnificent 
palaces in Rome, situated west of the Pantheon, about mid- 
way between it and the Tiber, and built of materials taken from 
the Coliseum and other ancient edifices, is the official residence 
of the Cardinal Yice-Chancellor, the seat of several ecclesiasti- 
cal congregations, and the place where the Roman parliament 
met in June, 1848, and where the pope's minister, Count Rossi, 
was assassinated the next month. 

The villas in Rome and its vicinity deserve to be noticed. 
Among the most noted of these are the Villa Ludovisi, in the N.E. 
part of the city ; the Villa Borghese, a favorite resort both of 
residents and foreigners, just outside the Porta del Popolo ; and 
the Villa Albani, east of the latter. All these have extensive 
grounds, galleries of statues, &c., accessible to the public. "A 
few cardinals," says Forsyth, " created all the great villas of 
Rome. Their riches, their taste, their learning, their leisure, 
their frugality, all conspired in this single object." 

Among the educational institutions of the city, are the Uni- 
versity of Rome ( Collegia della Sapienza = college of wisdom), 
founded by pope Innocent IV. in 1244, but afterwards much 
enlarged in its plan and endowments, and situated about one- 
eighth of a mile west of the Pantheon, towards the large oval 
place called the Piazza Navona. It has about 50 professors 


in its five faculties of theology, law, medicine, natural philoso- 
phy, and philology. Attached to it are a library, a museum, a 
botanic garden, west of the Tiber, and the observatory on the 
Capitol. The lectures are gratuitous, the government paying 
each professor a salary of about $400. The number of students 
in 1870 is said to be 700. This university is one of the oldest 
in Europe. 

-The Collegia Romano ( Roman College), also called the 
Gregorian University, built in 1582 by pope Gregory XIII., and 
situated about one-eighth of a mile nearly east of the Pantheon 
towards the Corso, was exclusively under the control of the 
Jesuits until the capture of Rome in 1870. It has a good 
library and museum, and the best observatory in Italy. 

The Collegio di Propaganda Fide, commonly known as the 
College of the Propaganda, was founded in 1627 by Urban 
VIII. for the purpose of educating young foreigners as Roman 
Catholic missionaries among their own countrymen. It is 
situated at the south extremity of the Piazza di Spagna, about 
two-thirds of the way from the Piazza del Popolo towards the 
Quirinal palace. It has generally about 100 pupils, who come 
from India, Abyssinia, Greece, Armenia, the United States, &c. 
Its celebrated printing office is especially rich in Oriental types. 

Rome has also about 20 other colleges, besides academies of 
the fine arts, of archaeology, of music, of science-, etc. It has 
had, until now, no general system of popular education ; but 
there were some parish schools for gratuitous instruction, and 
other schools under the curates of the parishes, and under 
private teachers. In all the schools of Rome there were said 
to be, in 1870, 16,000 children, or one-fourteenth of the 
entire population. 

The leading periodical has been the Civilta Cattolica, pub- 
lished semi-monthly by the Jesuits. Others were started after 
the capture of Rome in 1870. 

Of the numerous hospitals, which have had an animal 
endowment from lands, from grants, and from the papal 
treasury of more than $250,000, and can accommodate in 


ordinary times about 4000 patients at once, the largest is 
that of Santo Spirito (=Holy Spirit), near St. Peter's. It 
combines an ordinary hospital for males, with a foundling 
hospital, and a lunatic asylum ; and has usually about 600 
in the first, 400 in the second, and 430 in the last. The 
mortality among the nearly 15,000 patients annually received 
into the first has been a little more than 7f per cent. ; but 
of the foundlings 57 per cent, die, the number who died in 
the five years ending with 1846 being 2941 out of the 5382 
received from Rome and other parts of Italy ; while of the 
lunatics the annual mortality is 11 per cent. The hospitals 
are generally clean and well ventilated; but the system of 
management is still far from being good, though the introduc- 
tion into them of the Sisters of Charity by the late Princess 
Doria produced great changes for the better in their internal 
economy. The Roman hospitals are decidedly inferior to 
those of Florence, Milan, <fcc. ; and the medical men of Rome 
have neither periodical nor medical society of their own. In 
all the hospitals, except the small one founded by German Pro- 
testants, the friars and other attendants have been assiduous 
in their endeavors to further the cause of Romanism, especially 
among the patients from Protestant countries. 

The hospital of San Michele (=St. Michael), on the west 
bank of the Tiber, at the Ripa Grande, an immense establish- 
ment, formerly intended as an asylum for poor children and 
infirm persons, and afterwards divided into a house of industry 
for boys and girls, a house of correction for women and 
children, and schools of the industrial and fine arts, was, under 
Pius IX., converted into a prison. It is capable of containing 
2000 prisoners. 

The workhouse of Santa Maria degli Angeli, founded in 
1824 at the Baths of Diocletian, contains nearly 1000 boys 
and girls, selected from the deserving in different parishes of 
the city, and supported here chiefly by the government and by 
the avails of their own industry. The boys are taught trades 
and music ; the girls are fitted for domestic service. 


But, with all its great and richly-endowed institutions for 
dispensing charity, Rome has no alms-house for the aged poor 
no systematic provision for the relief of the suffering poor 
in general, except by a resort to begging. And for ages 
beggars have been very numerous and very importunate in this 
city of wonders. 

The squares or places (in Italian, piazza), obelisks, and 
fountains of Rome are among its distinguishing characteristics. 
There are enumerated 148 squares, 150 fountains, and 12 
obelisks. The Piazza di San Pietro ( St. Peter's place), in 
front of St. Peter's basilica, surrounded by magnificent colon- 
nades with four rows of columns, is of an oval shape, 787 feet 
in its greatest diameter. Its two beautiful fountains throw up 
the water to the height of about 18 feet or 64 feet above the 
pavement, and receive the water, as it falls, into granite basins 
15 feet in diameter, from which running water and spray fall 
into octagonal basins of travertine about 28 feet in diameter. 
The obelisk in the center is a solid mass of red granite, 82 
feet high, or, with its base (which is 8| feet broad) and modern 
ornaments at the top, 132 feet high, and weighing 360 tons. 
It was brought from Heliopolis in Egypt to Rome in the reign 
of Caligula, and was erected on its present site by the architect 
Fontana under Pope Sixtus V. in 1586. 600 men, 140 horses, 
and 46 cranes were employed in moving it a short distance 
and erecting it on its pedestal, at an expense of nearly 

The Piazza del Popolo (==. the people's place) has also its 
fountains, and an interesting obelisk of red granite erected by 
Fontana under Sixtus V. in 1589. It is covered with hiero- 
glyphics , originally stood before the Temple of the Sun at 
Heliopolis, was removed to Rome by Augustus, rededicated to 
the sun, and placed in the Circus Maximus, about a mile and 
a half south of its present position. Its shaft is 78 feet high, 
and the entire height from the ground to the top of the cross 
about 112 feet. On the east of the Piazza del Popolo are the 
Pincian Gardens, beautifully laid out in flower-gardens, drives, 


and "walks, and much frequented. From the Piazza del Popolo 
run the three principal streets, the Via del Corso directly- 
south, with the Via del Babuino on the east of it, and the Via 
delle Ripetta on the west. The Via del Babuino leads to the 
Piazza di Spagna (== place of Spain), on and near which are 
the principal hotels, reading-rooms, <fec., and at the south end 
of which is the College of the Propaganda. The Via delle 
Ripetta leads to the Porto di Ripetta on the Tiber. 

The Piazza Navona, a short distance west of the Pantheon, 
is a fine oval place, one of the largest in Rome, on the site of 
an ancient circus. Of the three fountains in this place, the 
central and largest one, executed by Bernini under pope 
Innocent X., and ornamented with statues, <fcc., consists of a 
round basin about 75 feet in diameter, rising above which, 
from a pedestal placed on a rock, is a red granite obelisk, its 
shaft nearly 53 feet high and covered with hieroglyphics, and 
its whole height from the ground about 115 feet. The Piazza 
Navona is the seat of a weekly market for vegetables, and, at 
certain times in summer, of a lake, formed by artificial inun- 
dation, in which carriages circulate from noon till sunset. 

The Piazza di Pasquino ( place of Pasquin) , a little west 
of the southwest corner of the Piazza Navona, is small, but 
contains the famous " statue of Pasquin," on which satirical 
epigrams or " pasquinades " are posted. The statue is antique, 
representing Menelaus supporting the dead body of Patroclus ; 
and, though mutilated, is of beautiful workmanship. Pasquin 
was a satirical tailor of the 16th or 17th century, whose name 
was given to this statue found near his shop after his death. 
The colossal statue of the Ocean, now at the Capitoline Museum, 
but formerly near the arch of Septimius Severus, at the forum 
of Mars, and hence called Marforio, was long used for replying 
to the attacks of Pasquin. 

The largest obelisk now known is that erected by Fontana 
in 1588 in front of the basilica of St. John Lateran. This 
obelisk brought from Heliopolis to Alexandria in Egypt 
by Constantine the Great, and thence to Rome by his son 


Constantius, is of red granite, carved with hieroglyphics. 
Its shaft is 105 /TJ feet high, and is supposed to weigh 455 
tons ; the whole height, from the ground to the top of the 
cross, is nearly 150 feet. 

Of all the Tloman fountains the Fontana Paollna (= Pauline 
fountain), situated near the church of San Pietro in Montorio, 
and imitating in appearance the fa9ade of a church, is the 
most abundantly supplied with water, which is afterwards used 
to turn most of the city flour-mills on the west side of the Tiber. 

The most celebrated modern fountain in Rome is the 
Fontana di Trevi, erected in 1735 from the designs of Salvi, 
and situated a short distance northwest from the Quirinal 
palace. The fountain itself is large, and is set off with rocks, 
columns, bas-reliefs, statues, &c. 

The city is supplied with water by three large aqueducts, all 
of ancient origin, but more or less modernized. Of these the 
Acqua Paola (= water or aqueduct of Paul) enters the city on 
the west by the Janiculum, and supplies the whole region west 
of the Tiber as well as the part on the east near the Ponte Sisto, 
which it passes by conduits. The Acqua Vergine (the ancient 
Aqua Virgo = water or aqueduct of the Virgin), constructed 
by Augustus, and restored by pope Nicholas V., enters the city 
on the northeast by the Pincian hill, and supplies 13 large 
fountains, including those of the Piazza Navona, the Fontana 
di Trevi ', &c., with the best water in Rome. The Acqua Felice 
comes from the east, supplies a fountain near the Baths of 
Diocletian, called Fontana deW Acqua Felice or Fontana de* 
Termini, and 26 other public fountains in the upper or eastern 
portion of the city. The ancient city had, in the first century 
after Christ, no less than nine principal aqueducts and two 
subsidiary ones ; and to these others were subsequently added, 
for one authority enumerates 19 aqueducts, and Procopius 
relates that the Goths destroyed 14 that were without the 
walls. The long lines of massive arches that belonged to some 
of these great works, even now strike the traveler across the 
Campagna with astonishment. 


The castle of St. Angelo, the celebrated papal fortress of 
Rome, naturally attracts the attention of every visitor to the 
city. This massive edifice was erected for a mausoleum about 
A. D. 130 by the Emperor Hadrian, the now ruined mauso- 
leum of Augustus, on the opposite side of the Tiber, having 
been occupied as an imperial tomb for the ashes of Augustus 
and others down to Nerva. The exterior was built of square 
blocks of Parian marble, the base, which was 253 feet square, 
sustaining a round edifice now reduced to 188 feet in diameter. ' 
There were on the summit admirably wrought statues of men 
and horses, also of Parian marble, which were afterwards 
hurled down on the assaulting Goths. The building was used 
as a mausoleum for Hadrian and other emperors down to 
Septimius Severus. It was afterwards converted into a for- 
tress, probably under Honorius about A. D. 423. It was 
fortified in the 10th century by the consul Crcscenzio, and 
was subsequently strengthened by the popes. All the upper 
part and the outworks are modern. It was named St. 
Angelo from the Archangel Michael whose statue was placed 
on the summit. It communicates with the Vatican palace by 
a covered way nearly half a mile long, constructed by Alex- 
ander YI. During the past 20 years the castle was the head- 
quarters of the French artillery. 

The tomb of Cecilia Metella, wife of Crassus, which stands 
on the Appian way, about two miles south of the gate of St. 
Sebastian, was also used for a fortress about the year 1300, 
and its battlements then erected are in ruins ; but the tomb is 
still one of the most magnificent monuments of ancient Rome. 
It consists of a circular tower nearly 70 feet in diameter, 
constructed of large blocks of the finest travertine fitted 
together with great precision, and resting on a quadrangular 
basement of rubblework cemented together and strengthened 
by square keystones of travertine. It is of this tomb that 
Byron wrote in his Childe Harold : 

" There is a stern round tower of other days, 
Firm as a fortress, with its fence of stone, 


Such as an army's baffled strength delays, 
Standing with half its battlements alone, 
And with two thousand years of ivy grown, 
The garland of eternity, where wave 
The green leaves over all by time o'erthrown ; 
"What was this tower of strength ? within its cave 
What treasure lay so locked, so hid ? A woman's grave. 

" But who was she, the lady of the dead, 

Tomb'd in a palace ? Was she chaste and fair ? 

Worthy a king's or more a Roman's bed? 

What race of chiefs and heroes did she bear ? 

What daughter of her beauties was the heir ? 

How lived how loved how died she 1 Was she not 

So honor'd and conspicuously there, 

Where meaner relics must not dare to rot, 
Placed to commemorate a more than mortal lot ? 

" Perchance she died in youth : it may be, bow'd 
With woes far heavier than the ponderous tomb 
That weigh'd upon her gentle dust, a cloud 
Might gather o'er her beauty, and a gloom 
In her dark eye, prophetic of the doom 
Heaven gives its favorites early death ; yet shed 
A sunset charm around her, and illume 
With hectic light the Hesperus of the dead, 
Of her consuming cheek the autumnal leaf-like red. 

" Perchance she died in age surviving all, 
Charms, kindred, children with the silver gray 
On her long tresses, which might yet recall, 
It may be, still a something of the day 
When they were braided, and her proud array 
And lovely form were envied, praised, and eyed 
By Rome but whither would conjecture stray ? 
Thus much alone we know Metella died, 
The wealthiest Roman's wife : Behold his love or pride ! " 

The well known Coliseum or Colosseum is certainly one of 
the most remarkable edifices in the world. It was originally 
called the Flavian Amphitheatre, Flavius being the family 
name of the emperor Vespasian, who began it in A. D. 72. 
It was dedicated by Titus A. D. 80, but was finished by Domi- 
tian. It is said that the games at the dedication lasted 100 
days, that 5000 wild beasts and several thousand gladiators 


were slain, and that a naval battle was also fought in the 
amphitheatre. The gladiatorial games were abolished by 
Honorius, and those of wild beasts ceased in A. D. 523 during 
the reign of Theodoric, though a bull-fight was here exhibited 
at the expense of the Roman nobles in 1332. It was used as 
a fortress in the llth century, and as a hospital in the latter 
part of the 14th century. Since that time it has furnished 
materials for several of the Roman palaces. Though the 
arena was consecrated by Clement X. in memory of the Chris- 
tian martyrs, yet under Clement XL, a few years later, a 
manufactory of saltpetre was established here, and the out- 
ward galleries were used for rubbish and dung ; arid it was not 
till the beginning of the present century that any attempt was 
made to preserve or restore it. A cross now stands in the 
middle of the arena ; 14 representations of our Lord's passion 
are placed round it ; and a monk preaches in the rude pulpit 
every Friday. About two-thirds of the original building have 
entirely disappeared ; but from what remains a good idea of the 
whole may be obtained. The edifice is elliptical, 584 by 468 
feet in its diameters, built principally of travertine (a white 
limestone or marble),, with large masses of brick-work in the 
interior. The arena is 278 feet long and 177 feet wide ; and 
the entire area is nearly six acres. The outer elevation con- 
sists of four stories, the whole with the entablature rising to 
the height of 157 feet. It is said that there was room on the 
benches for 87,000 spectators, and in the upper porticoes for 
20,000. But the reality far surpasses any description or draw- 
ing. The late N. P. Willis styled the Coliseum " magnificently 
ruined broken in every part, yet showing the brave skeleton 
of what it was its gigantic and triple walls, half encircling 
the silent arena, and its rocky seats lifting one above another 
amid weeds and ivy, and darkening the dens beneath, whence 
issued gladiators, beasts, and Christian martyrs, to be sacrificed 
for the amusement of Rome." 

There are also in Rome rums of several other amphitheatres 
as well as of theatres and circuses. The best preserved of 


these is the circus of Romulus or of Maxentius, erroneously 
called the Circus of Caracalla, situated on the old Appian way, 
about two miles south of the gate of St. Sebastian, and form- 
ing an oblong space for chariot races 1580 feet by 2GO. The 
Circus Maximus (= greatest circus), in the valley between 
the Palatine and Aventine hills, about half a mile south of the 
Capitol, originally founded by the elder Tarquin, rebuilt by 
Julius Cesar, and restored after the fire of Nero by Vespasian 
and Trajan, is said to have been 2187 feet long and 960 feet 
broad, probably capable of seating 200,000 persons ; but its visi- 
ble remains are now only shapeless masses of brick-work. The 
new gas-works of Rome have been erected near the northwest 
extremity of the once splendid Circus Maximus, and still more 
recently a formidable fort has been constructed on the Aventine 
hill which lies west of the ancient circus. 

The palace of the Cesars, built by Augustus, enlarged by 
Tiberius and Caligula, destroyed in the great fire under Nero, 
and rebuilt by him with such splendor as to be called " the 
golden house," formerly covered most of the Palatine hill, 
which is still conspicuous, directly south of the Capitol. This 
hill is now covered with its French nunnery (better known as 
the Villa Palatina)^ its convent of St. Bonaventura, its Farnese 
Gardens, and its vineyards ; but its soil, which in many places 
covers the original surface to a depth of nearly 20 feet, is 
composed of crumbled fragments of masonry from the great 
palace and other buildings, which have been in ruins for 1000 
years or more. Excavations have been made here by order of 
the emperor Napoleon III., who purchased the ground several 
years ago. Southwest of the Aventine hill, and west of the gate 
of St. Paul, but within the city and near the Tiber, is an arti- 
ficial hill, called the Monte Testaccio, formed of broken earth- 
enware and rubbish, the accumulations of ages, now overgrown 
with grass, but used by the modern Romans for wine-cellars 
and as a place of public resort on holidays. 

Of the ancient baths in Rome, the baths of Caracalla, built 
by that emperor in the beginning of the 3d century, and situated 


about half a mile northwest of the gate of St. Sebastian, are the 
best preserved. These baths, filling a rectangular space 720 
feet by 375, in the center of a square inclosure which was nearly 
a mile in circuit, and contained extensive gardens and walks, 
porticoes, places for athletic exercises, &c., could accommodate, 
it is said, 1600 bathers at a time, and are now perhaps the 
most extensive ruins in the city. The main building had in it 
large halls for swimming and bathing, for conversation, for 
athletic exercises, for the lectures of philosophers and the recita- 
tions of poets ; and these halls were lined and paved with marble, 
adorned with costly columns, paintings, and statues, and fur- 
nished with books for the studious who resorted to them. 
Though these baths have been unused since the destruction of 
the aqueducts in the siege of Rome by Vitiges A.D. 537, yet as 
their solid brick-work tempted the spoilers less than the mar- 
ble of the Coliseum, a great part of the walls is still standing. 
An American scholar who visited these ruins in April, 1869, 
thus writes : "As one enters he is lost in astonishment at their 
mighty proportions. One great space after another spreads out 
before you, hall after hall of size like immense churches, and 
lofty walls look down whose broken summits speak of even 
greater heights. Great arches continually open to your view 
new vistas of beauty. An ascent of modern stairs leads 
to the platforms that still remain from the upper story. Here 
you are 50 feet above the ground, and may make your way for 
long distances over soft turf and crumbling mosaic floors. On 
every side isolated masses of wall lift their great heads, crowned 
with a sweet wild growth of tangled vines, thick-clustering yel- 
low flowers, and bushes faintly blushing with a pale spring red. 
In the angles hardier bushes plant themselves, and thrust out 
stalwart arms. Below you may see the floor of one of the halls, 
its mosaics still showing the pattern of triangles in colors once 
bright; huge masses of brick-work fallen from above are scat- 
tered over its surface like solid boulders ; and at the foot of 
one of them you see a strip of the brightest green, from which 
a poppy lifts its scarlet head against the dark rock. Here and 


there the carpeted ledges laugh out in a whole host of poppies. 
On every side of you open arches in the walls frame pictures 
made up of the bluest sky, the far-away hills, and a bright 
fringe of grass and nodding plants. Little green lizards bask 
in the sunshine, or dart like lightning in and out of the crev- 
ices. Many a sweet-voiced bird is singing invisible, and the 
jackdaws fly about and hold great confabulations among them- 
selves. . . The bees and butterflies are banqueting royally 
among the flowers about us, filling the air with their hum. This 
place is haunted by no memories of blood like the Coliseum." 

The baths of Diocletian, situated half a mile east of the Qui- 
rinal palace, also occupied a space nearly a mile in circuit, but 
were capable of accomodating 8200 bathers, or twice as many 
as Caracalla's. One of the buildings is now the church of 
Santa Maria degli Angeli, already noticed ; another is now the 
church of San Bernardo ; while convents and gardens, store- 
houses, barracks for soldiers, schools, orphanages, a reforma- 
tory, and a railway-station, are all connected more or less 
closely with the ruins, and embraced within the ancient in- 
closure of the baths. 

Remains of the baths of Titus and of Trajan exist on the 
Esquiline hill, just east of the Coliseum; and remains of the 
baths of Agrippa, Constantino, <fcc., are also trapeable in other 
parts of the city. 

Some of the ancient heathen temples have been converted 
into churches. Of these by far the most celebrated is the Pan- 
theon (= a temple dedicated to all the gods) , commonly called 
by the modern Romans from its round shape, La Rotonda. The 
portico, and probably the whole edifice, was erected by the 
consul Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus, B. c. 27. It is 
the largest circular structure of ancient times, and has been 
called " the pride of Rome." The portico, 110 feet long and 
44 deep, composed of 16 Corinthian columns of granite, each 
46J- feet in height and 5 in diameter, with capitals and bases 
of white marble, so arranged, 8 in front, and 8 others in 4 lines 
behind them, as to divide the portico into three portions, has 


been the admiration of travelers and critics for almost 19 cen- 
times. The belfries are a modern erection. The interior, a 
domed rotunda, 142 feet in diameter, exclusive of the walls, 
which are said to be 20 feet thick in some places, is also 142 
feet in height from the pavement to the summit, the dome oc- 
cupying half the height, or 71 feet, and seven large recesses 
being placed in the upright wall. The light is supplied through 
a circular opening, 28 feet in diameter, in the center of the 
dome. It was originally covered with bronze, and afterwards 
with lead. The edifice was consecrated as a church in A.D. 
608 under the name of Santa Maria ad Martyres ( St. Mary 
at the Martyrs). Here Raphael and other eminent painters 
have been buried. " Though plundered," says Forsyth, " of 
all its brass, except the ring which was necessary to preserve 
the aperture above ; though exposed to repeated fire ; though 
sometimes flooded by the river, and always open to the rain, no 
monument of equal antiquity is so well preserved as this ro- 
tunda. It passed with little alteration from the pagan into the 
present worship." 

The Roman Forum stood in a narrow valley, the modern 
Campo Vaccino (= cattle-field, or cattle-market), at the foot 
of the Capitoline and Palatine hills. Its general position is 
marked by the massive ancient wall, 240 feet long and 37 feet 
high, which forms the southeastern substruction of the modern 
Capitol ; by the restored portico, west of this, under which 
were the silver statues of the 12 great gods; by the remains of 
three temples between this wall and portico on the one hand 
and the nearest or northwestern end of the Forum on the other, 
viz., of the temple of Vespasian, whose three beautiful white- 
marble Corinthian columns, still standing, were long supposed 
to belong to the temple of Jupiter Tonans ; of the famous tem- 
ple of Concord, with its recently-discovered many-colored mar- 
ble pavement, where Cicero assembled the senate during 
Catiline's conspiracy; and of the temple of Saturn (formerly 
regarded as the temple of Fortune) , whose Ionic portico of eight 
granite columns is still conspicuous; by the solitary white- 


marble Corinthian column (long unidentified) of the emperor 
Phocas, and the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus, both of 
which stand" within the ancient Forum itself; by the ruined 
temple of Antoninus and Faustina (now the church of San L& 
renzo in Miranda), with its magnificent portico of ten large 
marble columns, which stands just outside of the southeastern 
end of the Forum ; and by many other ruins and existing land- 
marks on the spot and in the neighborhood. In this forum the 
ancient Romans met to transact business ; and here in early 
times causes were tried. It was the great political center of 
the city and of all its dependencies throughout the civilized 
world ; and it was richly decorated with statues, columns, tem- 
ples, <fec. ; but now in its ruin it is little more than a memento 
of the past. Of the 18 other forums of importance in the an- 
cient city, very few now present any. considerable traces of the 
splendid edifices with which they were once adorned; none of 
them can be compared in thrilling interest with the old Roman 

Just north of the arch of Septimius Severus is still pointed 
out the Mamertine prison, one of the few existing works of the 
old kingly period. In the horrible dungeon of this prison, Ju- 
gurtha was starved to death, and Catiline's accomplices were 
strangled. Here, too, ecclesiastical tradition has declared that 
the apostle Peter was confined by order of Nero. Here are 
shown the pillar to which he is said to have been bound, and 
a spring reputed to have sprung up miraculously that he might 
baptize his jailors, though the spring is known to have existed 
a century and a half earlier, when Jugurtha was thrown into 
the prison. 

The celebrated arch of Titus, which commemorates his cap- 
ture of Jerusalem, stands between the Forum and the Coliseum 
on the highest point of the Via Sacra (= Sacred way), and 
consists of a single arch of white marble. On one side is finely 
represented in bas-relief a procession bearing the spoils from 
the temple of Jehovah, and on the other the emperor crowned 
by victory and riding in triumph. 


The arch of Constantine, which commemorates the emperor's 
victory over Maxentius, stands just west of the Coliseum. It 
has three archways with columns, bas-reliefs, and statues; and 
is one of the most imposing monuments of Rome. 

The beautiful column of Trajan, which gives a continuous 
history of his military achievements in a spiral series of bas- 
reliefs comprising 2500 human figures, besides many horses, 
fortresses, &c., and is now surmounted by a gilt-bronze statue 
of St. Peter, stands in the ruined forum of Trajan, about J mile 
northeast of the Capitol. The shaft is about 97 feet high, 
and the whole column 127 feet, the statue being 11 feet. 

The column of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, commonly called 
the Antonine column, stands in the Piazza Colonna ( place 
of the column) on the west side of the Corso, midway between 
the Piazza del Popolo and the Capitol. It represents the em- 
peror's conquests over the German tribes. In one scene Jupi- 
ter supplies the thirsty army with water by a shower. On its 
summit is now a statue of St. Paul, 10 feet high. The shaft 
of the column is 97 feet, and the whole 122| feet, exclusive 
of the statue. 

The Pretorian camp, built for the occupancy of the Pretorian 
guards, by Sejanus, their commander under Tiberius, but dis- 
mantled by Constantine, was at the extremity of the city, a mile 
east of the Quirinal palace. 

The ancient Campus Martins ( field of Mars), originally 
set apart for military exercises and contests, afterwards the 
place of meeting for the centuriate and tribal assemblies, and 
then a suburban pleasure-ground for the Roman public, was 
the irregular plain bounded by the Capitoline, Quirinal, and 
Pincian hills and the Tiber. This area, which lay north and 
west of the wall of Servius Tullius, includes the principal por- 
tion of the modern city. 

The catacombs are underground cemeteries, and constitute 
an immense net-work of passages or galleries excavated in 
the tufa, which is a volcanic sand-rock easily wrought. 
The galleries vary in length and height, but are generally 


about eight feet high and three to five feet wide, with roof 
either horizontal or slightly vaulted, and walls or sides perfor- 
ated for sepulchral chambers or cells. These cells or cham- 
bers are usually arranged in tiers one above another, and are 
capable of receiving sometimes only a single corpse, in other 
cases two or three. Some chambers are larger, with an arched 
roof over the grave ; some are still larger, as if for family 
vaults, with smaller chambers or cells in their sides ; and some 
are large enough for places of worship, and were used for this 
purpose during the times of persecution. About 60 of these 
catacombs have been enumerated outside the ancient city-walls, 
most of them having an inconsiderable lateral extent, and sel- 
dom communicating with one another. Father Marchi has 
estimated that each catacomb may contain 100,000 dead, and 
so the whole 60 would at this rate contain 6,000,000 dead ; 
but this is little more than conjecture. It has generally been 
asserted that only Christians were buried in the catacombs ; 
but as Horace speaks of the caverns or abandoned quarries 
under the Esquiline hill as used for a common sepulchre by 
plebeians, there can be little doubt that pagan Romans were 
also buried in the catacombs. In later times oratories and 
churches were erected over the entrances of the principal cata- 
combs, with more convenient means of access in the form of 
stairs. Thus St. Peter's was erected over the cemetery of the 
Vatican ; St. Paul's over that of Santa Lucina ; the church of 
St. Sebastian (two miles south of the gate of that name) over 
that of St. Calixtus, which is supposed to have an extension of 
six miles, and to contain the bodies of 14 popes and 170,000 
martyrs ; and the basilica of St. Agnes beyond the walls is 
built over the catacomb in which that virgin martyr was in- 
terred, and which is remarkable for its good preservation, its 
many paintings, its places of worship, and its connection with 
an extensive sandpit or excavated bed of pozzolana which cov- 
ers part of its extent. 

The Columbaria are pigeon-house-like subterranean sepul- 
chres with niches for the urns or jars in which the ashes of the 


dead were deposited after the bodies were burned. They are 
numerous, and some of them very capacious. 

The Cloaca Maxima or great sewer of Rome, built, accord- 
ing to tradition, by the elder Tarquin, to drain the marshy 
ground between the Palatine and Capitoline hills, empties into 
the Tiber below the Ponte Rotto, and is still firm and useful 
after the lapse of nearly 2500 years. It is most solidly con- 
structed, and bids fair to stand for ages yet to come. The 
archway where it enters the Tiber is at Least 12 feet high, 
and is composed of three concentric courses of large blocks 
of the volcanic rock called peperino, put together without 

Rome has lived, in great measure, on the past ; its chief 
industry is connected with curiosities of antiquity or of art. 
It has some trade and a few manufactures, as of strings for 
musical instruments, mosaics, jewelry, parchment, hats, gloves, 
silk and woolen fabrics, &c. Its population, which in the time 
of the emperor Vespasian amounted to several millions (some 
say 2,000,000 ; other 3,000,000, or more), afterwards greatly 
diminished, until, at about the end of the 8th century, it 
is said to have been only about 13,000 ; but, after this ex- 
treme depression, it again increased. Its population was given 
at 117,900 in 1813, at 180,200 in 1846, and at 215,573 in 
1867. The number of priests and friars in Rome is about 
4500 ; that of nuns about 1900 ; that of Jews nearly 4200. 
The Jews were, even under Pius IX., compelled to live mainly 
in the Ghetto, or Jewish quarter, which is the lowest and filth- 
iest region in Rome, separated by a wall from the rest of the 
city, and situated on the east bank of the Tiber, opposite the 
north end of the island. 

The city is divided into 14 districts or wards called rioni, 
12 of which are on the east side of the river, several of them, 
besides the .Rione Campo Marzo at the N. end of the city, being 
included principally or wholly within the ancient Campus 
Martins (= field of Mars). The two rioni on the west side 
are, the Borgo or Leonine city, which lies on the north and 
includes the Vatican ; and the Traslevere (== over the Tiber), 


which embraces all between the hospital of Santo Spirito and 
the city wall on the S., and is separated from the Borgo by a 
high wall, in which is the gate of Santo Spirito. In the mid- 
dle ages the rioni had their captains, their councils, and their 
trained bands ; but though they have their banners still, and 
carry them in the great processions, their municipal jurisdic- 
tion is merged in the presidents of the rioni, who are magis- 
trates and members of the tribunal of the Capitol, the civil and 
police court over which the senator presides. 

Rome under the popes was characterized by an intelligent 
American traveler, as " the worst governed and filthiest city 
in the world ;" but the last 20 years have wrought some 
changes even in the eternal city. The streets are better paved 
now ; some of them may be styled clean, though those remote 
from the Cor so are still unswept and unwashed, except by the 
rains and the overflow of the Tiber ; the beggars, under the 
influence of stringent regulations, are less numerous and more 
modest ; a few new bookshops have been opened ; gas and 
railroads have come into use ; and the population have ROW a 
more civilized look than formerly. " The Rome of 1851," says 
Dr. Wylie, " was a dunghill of filth, and a lazar-house of dis- 
ease. What is worse, it was a dungeon of terror-stricken, 
cowering beings, about 30,000 of whom were imprisoned in the 
jails, and the rest within the city walls, which they dared not 
quit. A great scandal arcse. Travelers were not slow on 
their return to their own country to proclaim the abominations, 
physical and moral, which they had found in the city of the 
popes. The cardinals saw that the fame of Rome was filling 
Europe. Bishops too, from Paris and other cities, where or- 
dinary attention is paid to health and cleanliness, found Rome, 
doubtless, a very holy city, but its effluvia was somewhat too 
strong to be quite agreeable, and hinted the necessity of doing 
something to abate it. The cardinals submitted, as we have 
said, to have the streets swept ; but nothing could induce 
them to have the jails opened. But while we accord due praise 
to the cardinals, ... we must not be unjust to the French. Their 


presence in Rome has had a good deal to do with the improved 
sanitary condition and embellishment of the eternal city. No 
people in the world have a finer eye for effect than the French ; 
and in a variety of particulars one can trace at Rome the influ- 
ence of that artistic taste which has made their own capital of 
Paris, in this respect, the marvel and the model of continental 

" The peace of the pontifical city," continues Dr. Wylie, 
writing in 1866, " is maintained by some 5000 police and 16000 
French soldiers. This is, as near as may be, a man-at-arms 
for each family. The police are divided into open and secret. 
The former wear uniform, and patrol the streets at all hours of 
the day and night. There is besides a numerous body of 

French soldiers constantly on duty The cardinal-vicar 

has in his service a body of secret police amounting, it is said, 
to between 5000 and 6000. They wear no uniform, and are 
in no way distinguishable from ordinary citizens. They are 
paid from 5 to 6 pauls [= 50 to 60 cents] a day a large sum 
in Rome. Most of these men, before entering this corps, have 
made their acquaintance with the prisons in another capacity. 
In fact, they have been taken from the galleys to serve the gov- 
ernment. Their former chief was the notorious Nardoni, a 
worthy head of a worthy band. . . . They can enter any house 
at any hour. They are not required to tell who sent them, or 
to show warrant from any one. They may apprehend whomso- 
ever they please. Rome may be said to be entirely in their 
hands ; and thus there are large numbers of innocent persons 
in prison. But no one ever sees a prisoner led through the 

streets There is no city in Europe where all that ought 

not to be seen is more studiously kept out of view The 

city, moreover, is full of spies Every family has been given 

in charge to some one who duly reports at head-quarters all that 

is said and done in it The espionage on books and papers 

is even more rigid At the custom-house at Ceprano, com- 
ing from Naples, the papal functionaries carefully fished out 
of my carpet-bag every thing in the shape of print, all pam- 


phlcts, and old Neapolitan newspapers, and, tying them up in 
a bundle, they sent them on before me to the police-office in 
Rome, where doubtless they were duly burned. It is but just 
to the papal government, however, that I should state, and it 
may be useful to other travelers to know, that my Italian New 

Testament was not detained Not a line can be published 

without passing through the censorship. This holds good not 
of books or newspapers only, but also of the placards in the 

streets The people .... are wretchedly poor But 

wonderful, and at the same time deplorable, is it to think of the 
sums which are wrung out of the people by the minute and 
searching tyranny of a government which is itself poor to a 

by-word One of the main engines of fleecing the people 

is the government lottery ; the church taking advantage of the 
passion for gambling, so deplorably prevalent among the Ro- 
mans, to draw a few pitiful scudi [= dollars] into her coffers." 
"Rome," said Dr. J. G. Holland in 1869, " is nothing but a 
show. Its antiquities are a show. The pope and the various 
pageantries in which he takes a part are a show. The public 
museums do not assume to be any thing but a show. The 
churches are a show, and are visited ten times as much in con- 
sequence of their character as show-places as they are for the 
purposes of worship. The private palaces and villas are a 
show. Almost the entire income of Rome is drawn from the 
pockets of those who come to Rome to see its shows. The 
Rome of to-day is indeed nothing but a great museum of curi- 
osities, papal and pagan, living and dead. The lovers of light 
and liberty are pining in her political prisons ; her multitudi- 
nous beggars are licensed like porters and go around the streets 
with brass tickets hung to their necks. The Jews are still 
confined mainly to their dirty quarters, by him who assumes to 
represent the love of God in the Jew Jesus. There is no such 
thing as liberty in Rome civil or religious. The people groan 
under a despotism more intensely hated than those who are 
unacquainted with its spirit and operations can possibly con- 


The state of things here described would certainly justify, 
in the view of most Americans, the rejoicings that in 1870 
attended the transfer of Rome to the kingdom of Italy. Yet 
Roman Catholic periodicals and officials utterly condemn this 
transfer, and, with " The Catholic World " for November, 
1870, " deny altogether that the subjects of the sovereign 
pontiff have had any grievances to be redressed, or any need 
of the interference of any power or of any guarantee for their 
civil or social rights." The controversy in the case respects 
both facts and principles, which come into full view in every 
part of the present volume. 



THE phrase "Roman Catholic" is generally used in this 
volume as more definite and acceptable than most other terms 
which are employed to designate this church or system. " Ro- 
man" and "Catholic" are both accredited terms as used 
separately; though "Roman" is properly a local term, and 
"Catholic" ( universal) as properly includes all Christians. 
On the other hand, there is no more intrinsic objection to the 
use of the terms " Romish," " Romanism," " Papacy," " Papist," 
&c., than to the use of the terms " English," " Irish," " Method- 
ism," "Calvinism," "Episcopacy," "Methodist," "Baptist," 
and the like. Terms of reproach, even, applied to good men or 
things, will become in time titles of honor ; while titles origin- 
ally honorable will, by long association with those who act dis- 
honorably, lose all their good report. Thus the "Puritans," 
originally so designated in derision, are now widely honored ; 
while an "aristocracy" (literally =rule of the best) may be 
spoken of with utter contempt. The term "Christians" 
(= Christ-men, or followers of Christ) was probably first used 
at Antioch (Acts 11 : 26) to ridicule the believers in the Lord 
Jesus ; but, from the character of those who were thus called, 
it has become a name in which multitudes rejoice. If the 
church or the system of which the pope is the acknowledged 
head, shows itself worthy of honor, then " popery" will be by 
and by a word of renown, and the cry of "no popery" will be 
a shame and a disgrace. We are concerned with persons and 
things rather than with names with realities rather than with 


What then is the Roman Catholic system in reality? We 
will first present a Protestant view, based on an able analysis 
of the system by a distinguished Protestant, Rev. Richard S. 
Storrs, Jr., D.D., of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

This system " regards Adam, as at first created, a mere re- 
cipient of impressions, but incapable of holiness until he had 
been supernaturally endowed with the capacity and the exer- 
cise of holiness. By his fall he lost all this, and became a 
merely natural being, in which condition all his posterity are 
born, until again supernaturally endowed with the capacity 
which Adam lost by the fall. And the sacraments are the 
established physical media through which this gift is bestowed." 
Such is the fundamental theory which underlies the whole 
system of Romanism. Let this theory once be admitted as 
true, and you have the system as a natural result. The theory 
is a gratuitous assumption, and such likewise are many of the 
main points in the system. Thus, it is held that the Savior 
endowed his apostles with the power, which they communicated 
to their rightful successors, and these again to others down to 
this time, of bestowing restorative grace through the efficacy 
of baptism, the eucharist, and the other sacraments of the 
church. The pope as the rightful successor of the chief apostle 
Peter, and, as connected with the pope and the church of which 
he is the visible head, the Roman Catholic bishops and priests, 
are the depositaries of that divine grace which saves the soul. 
Every form of the church, every garment, every ceremonial, has 
a symbolical meaning and a reason connected with the alleged 
nature of sin and holiness, and hence has its proper place in 
the church system as helping to infuse holiness into the sinful. 
All the rites and parts of the whole system combine to exalt 
the priest, the pope, the church, as the representative of God 
in the communication of his truth and grace, and the appointed 
channel through which alone God bestows pardon and eternal 
life. While the Roman Catholic church receives as divine and 
authoritative all the truths which are contained in the Bible, 
it makes the commandments and traditions of the church a 


part of the word of God ; it substitutes for the pure truth a 
debased and degrading mixture of truth and error ; it subordin- 
ates the inward and spiritual to the outward and visible ; it 
obscures and stifles the life of faith and love by its absorbing 
attention to the things of sight and show ; instead of relying 
directly upon the Jesus who is the Christ and was offered once 
for all (Heb. 9 : 12, 25, 26. 10 : 10), it makes a new Jesus and 
a new atonement at every mass ; instead of having only one 
mediator between God and man (1 Tim. 2: 5), it makes the 
mother of Jesus both a mediator and a God, and treats like- 
wise its thousands of other canonized (real or unreal) saints 
as mediators to be prayed to and honored for their superhuman 
merit and power ; by its connected doctrines of confession and 
penance and absolution and indulgence, it places the con- 
sciences, persons and property of men, women and children in 
the power of the priest ; it speaks lies in hypocrisy, sears the 
conscience with a hot iron, forbids to marry, and commands to 
abstain from meats (1 Tim. 4: 2, 3) ; it changes, the truth of 
God into a lie, and worships and serves the creature more than 
the Creator, who is blessed forever (Rom. 1 : 25) ; it turns 
the consolations and comforts of religion, the means of grace 
and the hope of glory, into so much merchandise, to be dis- 
posed of according to the temper and skill of the vender and 
the ability or necessity of the purchaser; in fine, as it sets forth 
another gospel than the free gospel of Christ, another standard 
than the perfect law of God, other church ordinances and other 
conditions of salvation than those which the Lord Jesus has 
established, it has its fellowship with darkness rather than with 
light, and its affinity with Satan and his angels rather than 
with Jehovah and the holy ones of his glorious heaven. 

A few historical memoranda may here be inserted. 

The fourth century, which saw Christianity become the rul- 
ing religion of the Roman empire, saw also many corruptions 
introduced into the visible church. Rites and ceremonies were 
greatly multiplied through what Mosheim calls " the indiscreet 
piety of the bishops," who sought thus to make Christianity 


more acceptable to the heathen. The Christians now used in 
their public worship, like the ancient Greeks and Romans, 
" splendid robes, mitres, tiaras, wax tapers, crosiers, proces- 
sions, lustrations, images, gold and silver vases, and number- 
less other things." Each bishop prescribed to his own flock 
such a form of worship or liturgy as he thought best, that of 
the church of Rome afterwards supplanting the others. New 
honors were paid to dead martyrs, the festival of Polycarp, who 
was burned A.D. 167, being the earliest festival of a martyr ; 
fasts were made obligatory, but, instead of observing them as 
previously with total abstinence from food and drink, many 
abstained only from flesh and wine, thus setting the example 
which afterwards was followed by the Roman Catholic church 
generally. Masses in honor of the saints and for the dead 
arose from the custom, which was prevalent in this century, of 
celebrating the Lord's Supper at the sepulchres of the martyrs 
and at funerals. Towards the close of this century the Colly- 
ridians disturbed Arabia and the neighboring countries by their 
worship of the Virgin Mary as a goddess ; but festivals to her 
memory were not generally observed till the 6th century, when 
the festival of her purification, or Candlemas, was instituted. 

Leo the Great, who was bishop of Rome A.D. 440-461, ap- 
pears first to have developed the view that the bishop of Rome 
inherited from Peter the primacy or headship of the church ; 
but the general council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451, decreed the 
equality of the bishops of Rome and of Constantinople. Car- 
dinal Baronius, the Roman Catholic historian of the church, 
who wrote about 275 years ago, says that the emperor Phocas, 
A.D. 606, divested the bishop of Constantinople of the title of 
" ecumenical ( universal) bishop," and conferred this title on 
the bishop of Rome. 

Gregory the Great, who was bishop of Rome A.D. 590-604, 
"was," says Mosheim, " wonderfully dexterous and ingenious 
in devising and recommending new ceremonies." "The canon 
of the mass," which was a new mode of celebrating the Lord's 
Supper in a magnificent style and with a splendid apparatus, 


was prescribed, or altered from the old canon, by him. He 
described the tortures of departed souls and the mitigation of 
these tortures by the sacrifice offered in the Lord's Supper, and 
thus aided to develop the doctrine, which afterwards prevailed, 
respecting the mass and purgatory. He opposed the worship 
of images, but not the use of them in the churches. Through 
his influence the superstitious veneration for relics was greatly 

Retirement from the world to a life of celibacy, self-mortifi- 
cation, and devotion to special exercises for the promotion of 
personal piety, prevailed to some extent in the 4th century; 
but a new form and impulse was given to the monastic life by 
the founding of a convent of Black Friars or Benedictine monks 
at Monte Cassino by St. Benedict about A. D. 529. The order 
of Benedictines, embracing both monks and nuns, was soon 
widely diffused through Western Europe, and has been prom- 
inent in religious and literary matters for more than 1300 
years. In the mean time many other orders of monks and 
nuns have arisen. 

Vitalian, who was bishop of Rome in the 7th century, re- 
quired the universal use of the Latin language in the church 

The edict of the emperor Leo the Isaurian in A. D. 726, 
commanding the removal from the churches of all images of 
saints, except that of Christ on the cross, and the entire dis- 
continuance of the worship of them, led to a long and violent 
conflict between the Eastern emperors and their partisans on 
the one side and the Roman pontiffs and their adherents on 
the other. The 2d Nicene council in A. D. 786 established the 
reverential (not divine) worship of images and of the cross, 
and denounced penalties against those who maintained that 
worship and adoration were to be given only to God. The 
council of 300 bishops assembled by the emperor Charlemagne 
in A. D. 794 at Frankfort on the Maine, forbade the worship 
of images. But gradually the opinion of the Roman pontiff in 
favor of image-worship prevailed through most of France, 


Germany, &c., as well as Italy, during the 9th and 10th centu- 
ries. In A. D. 862 and 866 the bishops of Rome and of Con- 
stantinople excommunicated one another ; and from this time 
the Greek or Eastern church had little or no fellowship with 
the Roman or Western church. The public excommunication 
of the Greek bishop or patriarch of Constantinople and his 
adherents, July 16, 1054, by the legates of the Roman pontiff, 
which was immediately answered with a like anathema by the 
patriarch, made the separation total and irreconcilable. 

The first canonization of a saint by the pope is assigned to 
A. D. 993, when John XV. solemnly enrolled Udalrich, bishop 
of Augsburg, in the number of those to whom Christians might 
lawfully address prayers and worship. 

The institution of the Rosary of the Blessed Virgin, the 
most popular form of prayer among Roman Catholics, is at- 
tributed by Archbishop McHale and others to Dominic de Guz- 
man, the founder of the Dominican order of monks and of the 
Inquisition, about the beginning of the 13th century. Strings 
of beads for prayers had indeed been used for a century or two 

The doctrine of transubstantiation, brought forward A. D. 
831 by the monk Paschasius Radbert, and much opposed for a 
time, was adopted by councils and popes in the llth century, 
and was authoritatively established by the 4th council of the 
Lateran in 1215. The same council also required every one 
to enumerate and confess his sins to a priest. 

In the 12th century the custom of withholding the cup from 
the laity began in different places ; and in 1415 the council of 
Constance decreed that in the Lord's Supper only the bread, 
and not botli elements, should be administered to the laity. 

The sacramental system of the church was brought to its 
consummation by Thomas Aquinas, the so-called " Angelical 
Doctor," in the 13th century ; but it remained for the council 
of Trent to issue its anathema against any who should main- 
tain that the number of sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ 
is either more or less than seven. 


The doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin 
Mary (i. e., that she was perfectly pure or free from original 
sin, when she was conceived in her mother's womb) was much 
debated about A. D. 1140, 1300, &c., was decreed by the coun- 
cil of Basle in 1489 while engaged in a struggle with the pope, 
was favored by subsequent popes, and was finally established 
by Pius IX. in 1854, as may be seen in the latter part of this 
chapter. The infallibility of the pope, claimed by Gregory VII. 
and others, was established in 1870 in the decree cited at the 
close of the chapter. 

By these and other additions to the faith and practice of the 
apostolic churches, the simple and spiritual Christianity of the 
New Testament was changed into a gorgeous mass of formal- 
ism and idolatry. The most important of these additions will 
be exhibited more at length in the subsequent chapters of this 

Having thus taken a general view of this great system of 
error and delusion as the Protestant looks upon it, let us now 
give a fair and candid hearing to the presentation of the sub- 
ject by one of the most eminent Roman Catholic prelates of 
the nineteenth century. The following account of the Roman 
Catholic church and system was drawn up by the late Rev. 
Nicholas "Wiseman, D. D., and published in " The Penny Cyclo- 
pedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge," 
London, 1886. Dr. Wiseman had been a University professor 
in Rome, and was then a celebrated Roman Catholic preacher 
and lecturer in England. He delivered and afterwards pub- 
lished a course of lectures on the principal doctrines and prac- 
tices of the Roman Catholic church, another on science and 
revealed religion, another on the office and ceremonies of Holy 
Week, &c. He was appointed by the pope, September 29, 1850, 
archbishop of Westminster, and the next day a cardinal. 
From this time until his death in 1865, he was the acknowl- 
edged head of the Roman Catholic church in England. We 
present here an exact reprint of the whole of his article in tho 


Penny Cyclopedia as an authentic synopsis, by one of the 
ablest Roman Catholics of our age, of what their system really 
is, according to their view of it. It is, therefore, the most 
favorable and winning presentation of their system that could 
be made. A few notes are added, and numbered, to distinguish 
them moi-e readily from Dr. Wiseman's notes. 

"CATHOLIC CHURCH (Roman). Although in ordinary lan- 
guage this name is often used to designate the ruling authority or 
power in the Catholic religion, as if distinct from the members of 
that communion, yet the definition which Catholics give of the church 
is such as to comprehend the entire body of its members as well as its 
rulers, the flock as much as the shepherds. Thus we hear of Catholics 
being under the dominion of their church, or obliged to obey it, as 
though it were something distinct from themselves, or as if they were 
not a part of their church. This preliminary remark is made to ex- 
plain a certain vagueness of expression, which often leads to misap- 
prehension, and serves as the basis of incorrect ideas regarding the 
peculiar doctrines of that church a vagueness similar to what is 
frequent in writing and speaking on jurisprudence ; as for example, 
where the government of a country is considered as a power distinct 
and almost at variance with the nation which it rules, and not an 
integral part thereof. 

" The Catholic church therefore is defined to be the community of 
the faithful united to their lawful pastors, in communion with the see of 
Rome or with the pope, the successor of St. Peter and vicar of Christ 
on earth. 

" Sihiply developing the terms of this definition, we will give a brief 
sketch of the constitution or fundamental system of this church, under 
the heads of its government, its laws, and its vital or constitutive 

"I. The government of the Catholic church may be considered 
monarchical, inasmuch as the pope is held in it to be the ruler over 
the entire church, and the most distant bishop of the Catholic church 
holds his appointment from him, and receives from him his authority. 
No bishop can be considered lawfully consecrated without his appro- 
bation. The dignity or office of pope is inherent in the occupant of 
the see of Rome, because the supremacy over the church is believed 
to be held in virtue of a commission given to St. Peter, not as his own 


personal prerogative, but as a part of the constitution of the church, 
for its advantage, and therefore intended to descend to his successors ; 
as the episcopal power did from the apostles to those who succeeded 
them in their respective sees. 

"The election of the pope therefore devolves upon the clergy of 
Rome, as being their bishop ; and it is confided to the college of cardi- 
nals, who, bearing the titles of the eldest churches in that city, rep- 
resent its clergy, and form their chapter or electoral body. The 
meeting or chapter formed for this purpose alone is called a conclave. 
The cardinals are in their turn appointed by the pope, and compose 
the executive council of the church. They preside over the various 
departments of ecclesiastical government, and are divided into boards 
or congregations, as they are called, for the transaction of business from 
all parts of the world; but every decision is subject to the pope's re- 
vision, and has no value except from his approbation. 

" On some occasions they are all summoned together to meet the 
pope on affairs of higher importance, as for the nomination of bishops, 
or the admission of new members into their body ; and then the 
assembly is called a consistory. The full number of cardinals is 72, 
but there are always some hats left vacant. 

"The Catholic church being essentially episcopal is governed by 
bishops, who are of two sorts, bishops in ordinary, and vicars apostolic. 
By the first are meant titular bishops, or such as bear the name of the 
see over which they rule ; as the Archbishop of Paris, or of Dublin ; 
the Bishop of Cambray or New Orleans. The manner of appointing 
such bishops varies considerably. Where they are unshackled by the 
government the clergy of the diocese meet in chapter, according to old 
forms, and having selected three names, forward them to the Holy 
See, where one is chosen for promotion. This is the case in Ireland, 
Belgium, and perhaps in the free states of America. In most coun- 
tries, however, the election of bishops is regulated by concordat, that 
is, a special agreement between the pope and the civil government. 
The presentation is generally vested in the crown ; but the appoint- 
ment must necessarily emanate from the pope. 

" The powers of bishops and the manner of exercising their 
authority are regulated by the canon law ; ' their jurisdiction on every 
point is clear and definite, and leaves no room for arbitrary enactments 

i J " The canon law " is explained in Chapter III. 


or oppressive measures. Yet it is of such a character as, generally- 
considered, can perfectly control the inferior orders of clergy, and 
secure them to the discharge of their duty. In most Catholic countries 
there is a certain degree of civil jurisdiction allowed to the bishops 
with judicial powers, in matters of a mixed character ; as in cases 
appertaining to marriages, where a distinction between civil and 
ecclesiastical marriage has not been drawn by the legislature. Some 
offences connected with religion, as blasphemy and domestic immoral- 
ity, are likewise brought under their cognizance. 

" Where the succession of the Catholic hierarchy has been interrupted, 
as in England,* or never been established, as in Australasia or some 
parts of India, the bishops who superintend the Catholic church and 
represent the papal authority, are known by the name of vicars 
apostolic. A vicar apostolic is not necessarily a bishop an instance 
of which we have now at Calcutta where the vicar apostolic is a 
simple priest. Generally, however, he receives episcopal consecra- 
tion ; and, as from local circumstances, it is not thought expedient that 
he should bear the title of the see which he administers, he is ap- 
pointed with the title of an ancient bishopric now in the hands of 
infidels, and thus is called a bishop in partibus infidelium, though the 
last word is often omitted in ordinary language. A vicar apostolic, 
being generally situated where the provisions of the canon law cannot 
be fully observed, is guided by particular instructions, by precedents 
and consuetude, to all which the uniformity of discipline through the 
Catholic church gives stability and security. Thus the vicars apos- 
tolic, who rule over the four episcopal districts of England, have thtir 
cods in the admirable constitution of Pope Benedict XIV., beginning 
with the words Apostolicum ministerium. The powers of a vicar 
apostolic are necessarily more extended than those of ordinary bishops, 
and are ampler in proportion to the difficulty of keeping up a close 
communication with Rome. Thus many cases of dispensation in 
marriage which a continental bishop must send to the Holy See may 
be provided for by an Engli-h or American vicar apostolic; and other 
similar matters, for which these must consult it, could at once be granted 

2 In September, 1850, the Roman hierarchy was reestablished in England, the 
whole country being divided into 12 bishoprics, and Rev. Dr. Nicholas Wiseman 
(author of the above article) placed at the head as Cardinal Archbishop of West- 


by the ecclesiastical superiors of the Mauritius or of China. The 
nomination of vicars apostolic is solely with the pope. 

" The inferior clergy, considered in reference to the government of 
the church, consists mainly of the parochial clergy, or those who supply 
their place. In all countries possessing a hierarchy, the country is 
divided into parishes, each provided with a parochus or curate,* cor- 
responding to the rector or vicar of the English established church. 
The appointment to a parish is vested in the bishop, who has no 
power to remove again at will, or for any cause except a canonical 
offence juridically proved. The right of presentation by lay patrons 
is, however, in particular instances fully respected. In Italy the 
parish priests are generally chosen by competition ; as upon a vacancy* 
a day is appointed on which the testimonials of the different candidates 
are compared, and they themselves personally examined before the 
bishop in theology, the exposition of scripture, and extemporaneous 
preaching ; and whoever is pronounced, by ballot, superior to the rest, 
is chosen. 

" Under an apostolic vicariate, the clergy corresponding to the 
parochial clergy generally bear the title of apostolic missionaries, and 
have missions or local districts with variable limits placed under their 
care ; but are dependent upon the will of their ecclesiastical superiors. 

" Besides the parochial clergy, there is a considerable body of 
ecclesiastics, who do not enter directly into the governing part of the 
church, although they help to discharge some of its most important 
functions. A great number of secular clergy are devoted to the con- 
duct of education, either in universities or seminaries ; many occupy 
themselves exclusively with the pulpit, others with instructing the 
poor, or attending charitable institutions. A certain number also fill 
prebends, or attend to the daily service of cathedrals, &c. ; for in the 
Catholic church, pluralities, where the cure of souls exists, are strictly 
prohibited, and consequently a distinct body of clergy from those 
engaged in parochial duties, or holding rectories, &c., is necessary for 
those duties. Besides this auxiliary force, the regular clergy, or 
monastic orders, take upon them many of these functions. These 
institutions, however closely connected with the church, may require a 

* " To avoid mistakes, we may observe that the parish priest in Ireland cor- 
responds to the curd in France, the curato (or, in the country, arciprete) of Italy, 
and the cura of Spain. The curate in Ireland, as in the church of England, is 
equivalent to the vicaire of France and the sotto-curato of Italy." 


fuller explanation in their proper place. The clergy of the Catholic 
church in the west are bound by a vow of celibacy, not formally 
made, but implied in their ordination as sub-deacons. This obligation 
of celibacy is only reckoned among the disciplinary enactments of the 
church. The clergy of that portion of the Greek and Armenian 
church which is united in communion with the see of Rome, may be 
married ; that is, may receive orders if married, but are not allowed 
to marry after having taken orders. A similar discipline, if thought 
expedient by the church, might be introduced into the west. 

" The only point concerning the government of the Catholic church 
which remains to be mentioned is the manner in which it is exercised. 
The most r-olemn tribunal is a general council, that is, an assembly of 
all the bishops of the church, who may attend either in person or by 
deputy, under the presidency of the pope or his legates. When once 
a dec:e has passed such an assembly, and received the approbation 
of the Holy See, there is no further appeal. Distinction must be 
however made between doctrinal and disciplinary decrees ; for 
example, when in the council of Trent it was decreed to be the 
doctrine of the church that marriage is indissoluble, this decree is con- 
sidered binding in the belief and on the conduct, nor can its accept- 
ance be refused by any one without his being considered rebellious to 
the church. But when it is ordered that marriages must be celebrated 
only in presence of the parish priest, this is a matter of discipline, not 
supposed to rest on the revelation of God, but dictated by prudence ; 
and consequently a degree of toleration is allowed regarding the adop- 
tion of the resolution in particular dioceses. It is only with regard to 
such decrees, and more specifically the one we have mentioned, that 
the council of Trent is said to have been received, or not, in different 

" When a general council cannot be summoned, or when it is not 
deemed necessary, the general government of the church is conducted 
by the pope, whose decisions in matters of discipline are considered 
paramount, though particular sees and countries claim certain special 
privileges and exemptions. In matters of faith it is admitted that if 
he issue a decree, as it is called, ex cathedra, or as head of the church, 
and all the bishops accept it, such definition or decree is binding and 

* " The great difference between the Transalpine and Cisalpine divines, as they 


" The discipline or reformation of smaller divisions is performed by 
provincial or diocesan synods. The first consists of the bishops of a 
province under their metropolitan ; the latter of the parochial and 
other clergy under the superintendence of the bishop. The forms to 
be observed in such assemblies, the subjects which may be discussed, 
and the extent of jurisdiction which may be assumed, are laid down 
at full' in a beautiful work of the learned Benedict XIV., entitled ' De 
Synodo Dioecesana.' The acts and decrees of many such partial 
synods have been published, and are held in high esteem among 
Catholics ; indeed, they may be recommended as beautiful specimens 
of deliberative wisdom. Such are the decrees of the various synods 
held at Milan under the virtuous and amiable St. Charles Borromeo. 8 

" II. The laws of the Catholic church may be divided into two 
classes, those which bind the interior, and those which regulate outward 
conduct. This distinction, which corresponds to that above made, be- 
tween doctrinal and disciplinary decrees, may appear unusual, as the 
term laws seems hardly applicable to forms of thought or belief. Still, 
viewing, as we have done, the Catholic church under the form of an 
organized religious society, and considering that it professes to be di- 
vinely authorized to exact interior assent to all that it teaches, under 
the penalty of being separated from its communion, we think we can 
well classify under the word law those principles and doctrines which 
it commands and expects all its members to profess. 

" Catholics often complain that doctrines are laid to their charge 
which they do not hold, and in their various publications protest against 
their belief being assumed upon any but authoritative documents ; and 
as such works are perfectly accessible, the complaint must appear 
reasonable as well as just. There are several works in which an accu- 
rate account is given of what Catholics are expected to believe, and 
which carefully distinguish between those points on which latitude of 

are termed, is whether such a decree has its force prior to, or independent of, 
the accession of the body of bishops to it, or receives its sanction and binding 
power from their acceptance. Practically there is little or no difference between 
the two opinions ; yet this slight variety forms a principal groundwork of what 
are called the liberties of the Gallican church." 

8 Cardinal Borromeo, archbishop of Milan (1560-1594) and nephew of Pius IV., 
was at the head of the commission which prepared the catechism of the Council of 
Trent; but his earnest zeal for the advancement of his church led him to sanction 
measures for uprooting Protestantism in Italy, which were at least analogous to 
kidnaping and brigandage. 


opinion is allowed, and such as have been fully and decisively decreed 
by the supreme authority of the church. Such are Veron's ' Regula 
Fidei,' or Rule of Faith, a work lately translated into* English, and 
Holden's ' Analysis Fidei.' But there are documents of more author- 
ity than these ; for example, the ' Declaration ' set forth by the vicars 
apostolic or bishops in England, in 1823, often republished; and still 
more the ' Catechism us ad Parochos,' or Catechism of the Council of 
Trent,' translated into English not many years ago, and published in 
Dublin. A perusal of such works as these will satisfy those who are 
desirous of full and accurate information regarding Catholic tenets, of 
their real nature, and show that the popular expositions of their sub- 
'stance and character are generally incorrect. 

" The formulary of faith which persons becoming members of the 
Catholic church are expected to recite, and which is sworn to upon 
taking any degree, or being appointed to a chair in a university, is the 
creed of Piui IV., of which the following is the substance : 

" The preamble runs as follows : ' I, N. N., with a firm faith believe 
and profess all and every one of those things which are contained in 
that creed, which the holy Roman church maketh use of.' Then fol- 
lows the Nicene cre^d. 4 

* This creed, as used in the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Protestant Episco- 
pal churches, is more full than the original Nicene creed, and was in this form set 
forth by the council of Constantinople A. D. 381. The following translation of it, 
copied from the Protestant Episcopal Book of Common Prayer, is added in order to 
complete the formulary of faith given by Dr. Wiseman. 

" I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and 
of all things visible and invisible : 

" And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten by 
his Father before all worlds ; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, 
begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father ; by whom all things 
were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from Heaven, and 
was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man, and 
was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, and 
the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into Heaven, 
and sitteth on the right hand of the Father ; and he shall come again, with glory, 
to judge both the quick and the dead ; whose kingdom shall have no end. 

" And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and giver of life, who proceedeth 
from the Father and the Son ; who with the Father and the Son together is wor- 
shiped and glorified, who spake by the prophets. And I believe in one Catholic 
and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins ; and 
I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen." 


" ' I most steadfastly admit and embrace apostolical and ecclesiastical 
traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same 

" ' I also admit the holy scriptures, according to (hat sense which our 
holy mother the church has held and does hold, to which it belongs to 
judge of the true sense and interpretation of the scriptures : neither 
will I ever take and interpret them otherwise than according to the 
unanimous consent of the fathers. 

" ' I also profess that there are truly and properly seven sacraments 
of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and necessary for 
the salvation of mankind, though not all for every one, to wit : bap- 
tism, confirmation, the eucharist, penance,* extreme unction, holy 
orders.f and matrimony : and that they confer grace ; and that of 
these, baptism, confirmation, and order cannot be reiterated without 
sacrilege. I also receive and admit the received and approved cere- 
monies of the Catholic church, vued in the solemn administration of 
the aforesaid sacraments. 

" * I embrace and receive all and every one of the things which have 
been defined and declared in the holy Council of Trent, concerning 
original sin and justification. 6 

* " Under penance is included confession ; as the Catholic sacrament of penance 
consists of three parts : contrition or sorrow, confession, and satisfaction. 

t " The clerical orders of the Catholic church are divided into two classes, sacred 
and minor orders. The first consists of subdeacons, deacons and priests, who are 
bound to celibacy, and the daily recitation of the .Bra-'iar^ or collection of psalms 
and prayers, occupying a considerable time. The minor orders are four in num- 
ber, and arc preceded by the tonsure, an ecclesiastical ceremony in which the hair 
is shorn, initiatory to the ecclesiastical state." 

6 As the decrees and canons of the Council of Trent concerning original sin 
and justification would occupy about 20 pages of this volume, they cannot be given 
here at length. The following are specimens. 

" Original sin " is described as " this sin of Adam, which originally is one of- 
fense, and being transmitted to all by propagation, not by imitation, becomes the 
sin of all." The decree says, "If any one denies that the guilt of original sin is 
remitted through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is bestowed in bap- 
tism ; or affirms that that which has the true and proper nature of sin is not 
wholly taken away, but is only cut down or not imputed ; let him be accursed. . . . 
Nevertheless, . . . concupiscence, or that which kindles sin, still remains in the bap- 
tized ; which, since it is left to try them, cannot harm those who do not yield, but 
manfully resist, through the grace of Christ Jesus ; yea rather, ' he that striveth law- 
fully, shall be crowned ' (2 Tim. 2 : 5). The holy council declares that the Cath- 


" ' I profess likewise that in the mass there is offered to God a true, 
proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead : and that 
in the most holy sacrament of the eucliarist there is truly, really, and 
substantially, the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity 
of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and that there is made a change of the 
whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance 
of the wine into the blood, which change the Catholic church calls 
transubstantiation. I also confess that under either kind alone Christ 
is received whole and entire, and a true sacrament. 

olic church has never understood this concupiscence, which the apostle sometimes 
calls sin, to be called sin, because there is truly and properly sin in the regenerate, 
but because it is of sin, and inclines to sin. But if any one thinks differently, let 
him be accursed. 

" The holy council nevertheless declares, that it is not its design to include in 
this decree, which treats of original sin, the blessed and immaculate Virgin Mary, 
mothar of God ; but that the constitutions of Pope Sixtus IV., of blessed mem- 
ory, are to be observed, under the penalties contained in the same ; which are 
hereby renewed." 

The " nature and causes of justification of the ungodly " are thus stated in 
chapter VII. of the decree on justification- "Justification .... is not remission 
of sin merely, but also sanctification and renewal of the inner man by the volun- 
tary reception of grace and of gifts, when a man from being unrighteous is made 
righteous, and from being an enemy becomes a friend, so as to be an heir according 
to the hope of eternal life. The causes of this justification are : the final cause, 
the glory of God and of Christ, and life eternal ; the efficient cause, the mer- 
ciful God, who freely cleanses and sanctifies, sealing and anointing with the 
Holy Spirit of promise, which is the pledge of our inheritance; the meritorious 
cause, his well-beloved and only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who, 
through his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were enemies, merited 
justification for us by his own most holy passion on the cross, and made saris- 
faction for us to God the Father ; the instrumental cause, the sacrament of bap- 
tism, which is the sacrament of faith without which no one ever obtains justifica- 
tion ; lastly, the sole formal cause is the righteousness of God, not that by which 
he himself is righteous, but that by which he makes us righteous ; with which 
being endued by him, we are renewed in the spirit of our mind, and are not only 
accounted righteous, but are properly called and are righteous, receiving right- 
eousness in ourselves, each according to his measure, which the Holy Spirit bestows 
upon each as he wills, and according to the particular disposition and cooperation 
of each." 

Concerning " the lapsed and their recovery " the Council teaches in chapter XIV. 
of the same decree : " Those who by sin have fallen from the grace of justification 
received may be justified again, when, divinely moved, they have succeeded in 
recovering their lost grace by the sacrament of penance, through the merits of 
Christ. For this mode of justification is that recovery of the lapsed which the 


w ' I firmly hold that there is a purgatory, and that the souls therein 
d: tained are helped by the suffrages of the faithful. 

M ' Likewise, that the saints reigning with Christ are to be honored 
at d invocated, and that they offer up prayers to God for us ; and that 
tt^ir relics are to be had in veneration. 

"'I most firmly assert that the images of Christ, of the mother of 
Cod, 6 and also of other saints, ought to be had and retained, and that 
due honor and veneration are to be given them. 

*'* I also affirm that the power of indulgences was left by Christ in 
the church, and that the use of them is most wholesome to Christian 

" ' I acknowledge the hojy Catholic Apostolic Roman church for the 
mother and mistress of all churches: and I promise true obedience to 
the bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, prince of the apostles and 
vicar of Jesus Christ.' 

" Then follow clauses condemnatory of all contrary doctrines, and 
expressive of adhesion to all the definitions of the Council of Trent. 7 

boly Fathers have fitly called the ' second plank after shipwreck ' of lost grace. 
Moreover, Christ Jesus instituted the sacrament of penance for those who fall into 
sin after baptism, when he said, ' Receive ye the Holy Ghost : whose sins you shall 
forgive, they are forgiven them ; and whose sins you shall retain, they are re- 
tained ' (John xx. Mat. xvi.). Wherefore we must teach that the penance of a Chris- 
tian man after his fall is very different from baptismal penance, and includes not 
only cessation from sins and hatred of them, or a contrite and humbled heart, but 
also the sacramental confession of these sins, at least in desire, to be performed in 
due time, and priestly absolution ; and also satisfaction, by fasts, alms, prayers, and 
other pious exercises of the spiritual life ; not satisfaction for eternal punishment, 
which together with the offense is remitted by the sacrament, or the desire of the 
sacrament but for the temporal punishment, which, as the Sacred Scriptures 
teach, is not always remitted, as is the case in baptism, to those, who being un- 
grateful for the grace of God which they received, have grieved the Holy Spirit 
and dared to profane the temple of God." 

To this decree on justification are subjoined 33 canons, the last of which is : 
" If any one shall affirm, that this Catholic doctrine of justification, expressed by 
the holy council in this present decree, involves anything derogatory to the glory 
of God or the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord, and does not rather illustrate the 
truth of our faith as well as the glory of God and of Christ Jesus ; let him be 

8 Dr. Wiseman here omits, probably by a slip of the pen, the phrase "Ever 
virgin," which should follow " Mother of God." 

7 The clauses, thus referred to by Dr. Wiseman, read thus : 

" I likewise undoubtedly receive and profess all other things delivered, defined, 


" It is obvious that this form of confession was framed in accordance 
to the decrees of that council, and consequently has chiefly in view the 
opinions of those who followed the Reformation. It would be foreign 
to our, purpose to enter into any explanations of the doctrines here laid 
down, much less into any statement of the grounds on which Catholics 
hold them, as we purposely refrain from all polemical discussion. 

" Such is the doctrinal code of the Catholic church ; of its moral 
doctrines we need not say anything, because no authorized document 
could be well referred to that embodies them all. There are many de- 
crees of popes condemnatory of immoral opinions or propositions, but 
no positive decrees. Suffice it to say, that the moral law, as taught in 
the Catholic church, is mainly the same as other denominations of 
Christians profess to follow. 

" Of the disciplinary or governing code we have already spoken, 
when we observed that it consisted of the Canon Law, which, unlike the 
doctrinal and moral code, may vary with time, place, and accidental 

" III. Our last head was the essential or constitutive principle of 
the Catholic church. By this we mean that principle which gives it 
individuality, distinguishes it from other religions, pervades all its insti- 
tutions, and gives the answer to every query regarding the peculiar 
constitution outward and inward of this church. 

" Now, the fundamental position, the constitutive principle of the 
Catholic church, is the doctrine and belief that God has promised, and 
consequently bestows upon it, a constant and perpetual protection, to 
the extent of guaranteeing it from destruction, from error, or fatal cor- 
ruption. This principle once admitted, everything else follows. 1. 
The infallibility of the church in its decisions on matters concerning 

and declared by the Sacred Canons and General Councils, and particularly by the 
holy Council of Trent ; and I condemn, reject, and anathematize all things con- 
trary thereto, and all heresies which the church has condemned, rejected, and 

" I, N N., do at this present freely profess and truly hold this true Catholic faith, 
without which no one can be saved ; and I promise most constantly to retain and 
confess the same entire and inviolate, with God's assistance, to the end of my life. 
And I will take care ,as far as in me lies, that it shall be held, taught, and preached by 
my subjects, or by those t>,e care of whom shall appertain to me in my office ; this I promise, 
vow, and su*ar so help me God, and these holy Gospels of Gcd." The words in 
Italics are used when the creed is administered to a beneficed priest, professor, or 


faith. 2. The obligation of submitting to all these decisions, independ- 
ently of men's own private judgments or opinions. 3. The authority 
of tradition, or the unalterable character of all the doctrines committed 
to the church ; and hence the persuasion that those of its dogmas, which 
to others appear strange and unscripiural, have been in reality handed 
down, uncorrupted, since the time of the apostles, who received them 
from Christ's teaching. 4. The necessity of religious unity, by perfect 
uniformity of belief: -and thence as a corollary the siiifulness of wilful 
separation or schism, and culpable errors or heresy. 5. Government 
by authority, since they who are aided and supported by such a promise 
must necessarily be considered appointed to direct others, and are held 
as the representatives and vicegerents of Christ in the church. 6. The 
papal supremacy, whether considered as a necessary provision for the 
preservation of this essential unity, or as the principal depository of the 
divine promises. 7. In fine, the authority of councils, the right to en- 
act canons and ceremonies, the duty of repressing all attempts to broach 
new opinions ; in a word, all that system of rule and authoritative teach- 
ing which must strike every one as the leading feature in the constitu- 
tion of the Catholic church. 

" The differences, therefore, between this and other religions, how- 
ever complicated and numerous they may at first S'ght appear, are 
thus in truth narrowed to one question ; for particular doctrines must 
share the fate of the dogmas above cited, as forming the constitutive 
principle of the Catholic religion. This religion claims for itself a 
comple e consistency from its first principle to its last consequence, and 
to its least institution, and finds fault with others, as though they pre- 
served forms, dignities, and doctrines which must have sprung from a 
principle by them rejected, but which are useless and mistaken, the 
moment they are disjoined from it. Be this as it m:iy, the constitution 
of the Catholic church should seem to possess, what is essential to every 
moral organized body, a principle of vitality which accounts for all its 
actions, and determines at once the direction and the intensity of all 
its functions. 

"To conclude our account of the Catholic church, we will give a 
slight view of the extent of its dominions, by enumerating the countries 
which profess its doctrines, or which contain considerable communities 
under its obedience. 8 In Europe, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Bel- 

8 More recent statistics of the Roman Catholic church are given in Chapter 
XXVIII., &c. 


gium, the Austrian empire, including Hungary, Bavaria, PoLmd, and 
the Rhenish provinces of Prussia, which formerly belonged to the ec- 
clesiastical electorates, profess the Catholic religion as that of the state, 
or, according to the expression of the French charte, that of the major- 
ity of the people. In America, all the countries which once formed 
part of the Spanish dominions, both in the southern and northern por- 
tion of the continent, and which are now independent states, profess 
exclusively the same religion. The empire of Brazil is also Catholic. 
Lower Canada and all those islands in the West Indies which belong 


to Spain or France, including the Republic of Hayti, profess the Cath- 
olic faith ; and there are also considerable Catholic communities in the 
United States of North America, especially in Maryland and Louisiana. 
Many Indian tribes, in the Canadas, in the United States, in California, 
and in South America, have embraced the same faith. In Asia there 
is hardly any nation professing Christianity which does not contain 
large communities of Catholic Christians. Thus in Syria the entire 
nation or tribe of the Maronites, dispersed over Mount Libanus, aro 
subjects of the Roman see, governed by a patriarch and bishops ap- 
pointed by it. There are also other Syriac Christians under other 
bishops, united to the same see, who are dispersed all over Palestine 
and Syria. At Constantinople there is a Catholic Armenian patriarch 
who governs the united Armenians as they are called, large communi- 
ties of whom also exist in Armenia proper. The Abbe Dubois, in his 
examination before a committee of the House of Commons in 1832, 
stated the number of Catholics in the Indian peninsula at 600,000, in- 
cluding Ceylon, and this number is perhaps rather underrated than 
otherwise. They are governed by four bishops and four vicars apos- 
tolic with episcopal consecration. A new one has just been added for 
Ceylon. We have not the means of ascertaining the number of Cath- 
olics in China, but in the province of Su-Chuen alone they were re- 
turned, 22d September, 1824, at 47,487 (Annales de la Propag. de la 
Foi, No. xi., p. 257) ; and an official report published at Rome in. the 
same year gives those in the provinces of Fo-kien and Kiansi at 40,000. 
There are seven other provinces containing a considerable number of 
Catholics, of which we have no return. In the united empire of Ton- 
kin and Cochin-China the Catholics of one district were estimated at 
200,000 (Ibid., No. x., p. 194), and, till the late persecution, there was 
a college with 200 students, and convents containing 700 religious. 
Another district gave a return, in 1826, of 2955 infants baptized, which 


would give an estimate of 88,000 adult Christians. A third gave a 
return of 170,000. M. Dubois estimates the number of native Cath- 
olics in the Philippine islands at 2,000,000. In Africa, the i.-lands of 
Mauritius and Bourbon are Catholic, and all the Portuguese settle- 
ments on the coasts, as well as the Azores, Madeira, the Cape Verd, 
and the Canary Islands." 

On the 8th of December, 1854, a new article was added to 
the Roman Catholic faith. Hitherto it had been a question 
among Roman Catholics whether the Virgin Mary was or was 
not conceived free from original sin, that is, without any in- 
herited depravity; St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Cath- 
arine, the Dominicans, &c., had denied the immaculate con- 
ception; but Pope Pius IX., having previously sent a circular 
on the subject to all the bishops of the church throughout the 
world, and obtained the assent of a large majority of them, 
publicly declared the immaculate conception of the Virgin 
Mary to be a doctrine of the church, and accordingly the follow- 
ing is now officially inserted as "Lesson VI." "on the 8th of 
December, at the Festival of the Immaculate Conception of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary." 

" From the Acts of Pope Pius IX. 

" But the victory of the Virgin Mother of God, at her conception, 
over the worst enemy of the human race, which victory divine declara- 
tions, venerable tradition, the constant sentiment of the church, the 
singular unanimity of the bishops and of the faithful, and the remarka- 
ble acts and constitutions of the chief pontiffs were now wonderfully 
illustrating ; Pius IX., chief pontiff, assenting to the wishes of the 
whole church, determined to proclaim with his own supreme and in- 
fallible oracle. Therefore on the sixth day before the ides of Decem- 
ber [= Dec. 8th] of the year 1854 in the Vatican Basilica, in the 
presence of a great assembly of the Cardinal Fathers of the Roman 
church and also of Bishops from remote regions, and with the applause 
of the whole world, solemnly pronounced and defined : That the doc- 
trine which holds the Blessed Virgin Mary to have been at the first 
instant of her being conceived, by a singular divine privilege, preserved 
free from all stain of original sin, was revealed by God and is there- 
fore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful." 


"The First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican," whose 
cessions began on the 8th of December, 1869, has likewise made 
its additions to the authoritative standards of the church in its 
two dogmatic decrees. Of these, the first, " on Catholic faith," 
promulgated April 24, 1870, is divided into four chapters, re- 
affirming, in opposition to rationalism, naturalism, &c., the 
doctrines of the church in respect to God the creator of all 
things, to divine revelation, to faith, and to the relation of 
faith and reason ; and closes with canons corresponding to these 
chapters and anathematizing all who do not receive the views 
therein set forth by the council. The second dogmatic degree, 
in respect to the supremacy and infallibility of the pope, is the 
great work of the council, and, on account of its importance, is 
here given at length, as translated from the original Latin and 
published in "The Catholic World" for September, 1870. 



" Pius, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, with the approbation of 
the Hjty Council, for a perpetual remembrance hereof. 

" The eternal Shepherd ami Bishop of our soul?, in order to render 
perpetual the saving work of his redemption, resolved to build the 
holy church, in which, as in the house of the living God, all the faith- 
ful should be united by the bond of the same faith and charity. For 
which reason, before he was glorified, he prayed the Father, not for 
the apostles alone, but also for those who, through their word, would 
believe in him, that they all might be one, as the Son himself and the 
Father are one (John xvii. 1-20). "Wherefore, even as he sent the 
apostles, whom he had chosen to himself from the world as he had 
been sent by the Father, so he willed that there should be pastors and 
teachers in his church even to the consummation of the world. More- 
over, to the end that the episcopal body itself might be one and 
undivided, and that the entire multitude of believers might be pre- 
served in oneness of faith and of communion, through priests cleaving 
mutually together, he placed the blessed Peter before the other apos- 
tles and established in him a perpetual principle of this two-fold unity, 


and a visible foundation on whose strength ' the eternal temple might 
be built, and in whose firm faith the church might rise upward until 
her summit reach the heavens ' (St. Leo the Great, Sermon v. (or 
iii.), chapter 2, on Christmas). Now, seeing that in order to over- 
throw, if possible, the church, the powers of hell on every side, and 
with a hatred which increases day by day, are assailing her foundation 
which was placed by God, we therefore, for the preservation, the 
safety, and the increase of the Catholic flock, and with the approbation 
of the sacred council, have judged it necessary to set forth the 
doctrine which, according to the ancient and constant faith of the 
universal church, all the faithful must believe and hold, touching the 
institution, the perpetuity, and the nature of the sacred aposlolic 
primacy, in which stands the power and strength of the entire church ; 
and to proscribe and condemn the contrary errors so hurtful to the 
flock of the Lord. 


" Of the institution of the apostolic primacy in the blessed Peter. 

" We teach, therefore, and declare that, according to the testimonies 
of the Gospel, the primacy of jurisdiction over the whole church of 
God was promised and given immediately and directly to blessed 
Peter, the apostle, by Christ our Lord. For it was to Simon alone, 
to whom he had already said, ' Thou shalt be called Cephas,' * that, 
after he had professed his faith, ' Thou art Christ, the Son of the 
living God,' our Lord said, ' Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona ; 
because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my Father 
who is in Heaven ; and I say to thee, that thou art Peter, and upon 
this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not pre- 
vail against it ; and I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven ; and whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound 
also in heaven ; and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth, it shall 
be loosed also in heaven.' f And it was to Simon Peter alone that 
Jesus, after his resurrection, gave the jurisdiction of supreme shep- 
herd and ruler over (he whole of his fold, saying, ' Feed my lambs ; ' 
' Feed my sheep.' J To this doctrine So clearly set forth in the sacred 

John 1 : 42. 

t Matthew 16: 16-19. 

| John 21: 15-17. 


Scriptures, as the Catholic church has always understood it, are plainly 
opposed the perverse opinions of those who, distorting the form of 
government established in his church by Christ our Lord, deny that 
Peter alone above the other apostles, whether taken separately one by 
one or all together, was endowed by Clirist with a true and real 
primacy of jurisdiction ; or who assert that this primacy was not given 
immediately and directly to blessed Peter, but to the church, and 
through her to him, as to the agent of the church. 

" If, therefore, any one shall say, that blessed Peter the Apostle 
was not appointed by Christ our Lord, the prince of all the apostles, 
and the visible head of the whole church militant ; or, that he received 
directly and immediately from our' Lord Jesus Christ only the 
primacy of honor, and not that of true and real jurisdiction ; let him- 
be anathema, 


" Of the perpetuity of the primacy of Peter in the Roman pontiffs. 

" What the prince of pastors and the great shepherd of the sheep, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, established in the person of the blessed apostle 
Peter for the perpetual welfare and lasting good of the church, the 
same through his power must needs last for ever in that church, which 
is founded upon the rock, and will stand firm till the end of time. 
And indeed it is well known, as it has been in all ages, that the holy 
and most blessed Peter, prince and head of the apostles, pillar of the 
faith and foundation of the Catholic Church, who received from our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior and Redeemer of mankind, the keys 
of the kingdom of heaven, to this present time and at all times lives 
and presides and pronounces judgment in the person of his successors, 
the bishops of the holy Roman see, which was founded by him, and 
consecrated by his blood.* So that whoever succeeds Peter in this; 
chair, holds, according to Christ's own institution, the primacy of 
Peter over the whole church. What, therefore, was once established 
by him who is the truth, still remains, and blessed Peter, retaining the 
strength of the rock, which has been given to him, ha& never left the 
helm of the church originally intrusted to him.f 

" For this reason it was always necessary for every other church, 
that is, the faithful of all countries, to have recourse to the Roman 

* Council of Eph. seas. iii. St. Peter Chrys. Ep. ad.Eutych,. 
t S. Leo, Scrm. iii. chap. iii. 



Church on account of its superior headship, in order that being joined, 
as members to (heir head, with this see, from which the rights of reli- 
gious communion flow unto all, they might be knitted into the unity of 
one body.* 

" If, therefore, any one shall say, that it is not by the institution of 
Christ our Lord himself, or by divine right, that blessed Peter has per- 
petual successors in the primacy over the whole church ; or, that the 
Roman pontiff is not the successor of blessed Peter in this primacy ; 
let him be anathema. 


" Of the power and nature of the primacy of the Roman pontiff". 

u Wherefore, resting upon the clear testimonies of holy writ, and 
following the full and explicit decrees of our predecessors the Roman 
pontiffs, and of general councils, we renew the definit on of the 
ecumenical council of Florence, according to which all the faiihful of 
Christ must believe that the holy apostolic see and the Roman pontiff 
hold the primacy over the whole world, and that the Roman pontiff is 
the successor of blessed Peter the prince of the apostles, and the true 
vicar of Christ, and is the head of the whole church, and the father 
and teacher of all Christians; and that to him, in the blessed Peter, 
was given by our Lord Jesus Christ full, power of feeding, ruling, and 
governing the universal church ; as is also set forth in the acts of the 
ecumenical councils, and in the sacred canons. 

" Wherefore, we teach and declare that the Roman Church, under 
divine providence, possesses a headship of ordinary power over all 
other churches, and that this power of jurisdiction of the Roman 
pontiff, which is truly episcopal, is immediate, toward which the 
pastors and faithful of whatever rite and dignity, whether singly or all 
together, are bound by the duty of hierarchical subordination and of 
true obedience, not only in things which appertain to faith and morals, 
but likewise in those things which concern the discipline and govern- 
ment of the church spread throughout the world, so that being united 
with the Roman pontiff, both in communion and in profession of the 
same faith, the church of Christ may be one fold under one chief 
ehejiherd. This is the doctrine of Catholic truth, from which no one 
can depart without loss of faith and salvation. 

*St. Irenaeos against Heresies, book iii. chap. 3. Epist. of Council of Aquileia, 
381, to Gratian, chap. 4, of Pius VI. Brief Super Soliditate. 


" So far, nevertheless, is this power of the supreme pontiff from 
trenching on that ordinary power of episcopal jurisdiction by which the 
bishops, who have been instituted by the Holy Ghost and have suc- 
ceeded in the place of the apostles, like true shepherds, feed and rule 
the flocks assigned to them, each one his own ; that, on the contrary, 
this their power is asserted, strengthened, and vindicated by the supreme 
and universal pastor ; as St. Gregory the Great saith : My honor is 
the honor of the universal church ; my honor is the solid strength of 
my brethren ; then am I truly honored when to each one of them the 
honor due is not denied (St. Gregory Great ad Eulogius, Epist. 30). 

"Moreover, from that supreme authority of the Roman pontiff to 
govern the universal church, there follows to him the right, in the ex- 
ercise of this his office, of freely communicating with the pastors and 
flocks of the whole church, that they may be taught and guided by him 
in the way of salvation. 

" Wherefore, we condemn and reprobate the opinions of those, who 
say that this communication of the supreme head with the pastors and 
flocks can be lawfully hindered, or who make it subject to the secular 
power, maintaining that the things which are decreed by the apostolic 
see or under its authority for the government of the church, have no 
force or value unless they are confirmed by the approval of the secular 
power. And since, by the divine right of apostolic primacy, the Ro- 
man pontiff presides over the universal churches, we also teach and 
declare that he is the supreme judge of the faithful (Pius VI. Brief 
Super Soliditate), and that in all causes calling for ecclesiastical trial, 
recourse may be had to his judgment (Second Council of Lyons) ; but 
the decision of the apostolic see, above which there is no higher au- 
thority, cannot be reconsidered by any one, nor is it lawful to any one 
to sit in judgment on his judgment (Nicholas I. epist. ad Michaelem 

" Wherefore, they wander away from the right pa'h of truth who 
assert that it is lawful to appeal from the judgments of the Roman 
pontiffs to an ecumenical council, as if to an authority superior to the 
Roman pontiff. 

"Therefore, if any one shall say that the Roman pontiff holds only 
the charge of inspection or direction, and not full and supreme power 
of jurisdiction over the entire church, not only in things which pertain 
to faith and morals, but also in those which pertain to the discipline and 
government of the church spread throughout the whole world ; or, that 


he possesses only the chief part and not the entire plenitude of this 
supreme power ; or, that this his power is not ordinary and immediate, 
both as regards all and each of the churches, and all and each of the 
pastors and faithful ; let him be anathema. 

" CHAPTER iv. 
" Of the infallible authority of the Roman pontiff in teaching. 

" This holy see has ever held the unbroken custom of the church 
doth prove and the ecumenical councils, those especially in which the 
east joined with the west, in union of faith and of charity, have de- 
clared that in this apostolic primacy, which the Roman pontiff holds 
over the universal church, as successor of Peter the prince of the apos- 
tles, there is also contained the supreme power of authoritative teach- 
ing. Thus the fathers of the fourth council of Constantinople, follow- 
ing in the footsteps of their predecessors, put forth this solemn profes- 
sion : 

" ' The first law of salvation is to keep the rule of true faith. And 
whereas the words of our Lord Jesus Christ cannot be passed by, who 
said : Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church 
(Matt. xvi. 18), these words, which he spake, are proved true by facts ; 
for in the apostolic see, the Catholic religion has ever been preserved 
unspotted, and the holy doctrine has been announced. Therefore 
wishing never to be separated from the faith and teaching of this see, 
we hope to be worthy to abide in that one communion which the apos- 
tolic see preaches, in which is the full and true firmness of the Christian 
religion ' [Formula of St. Ilormisdas Pope, as proposed by Hadrian 
II. to the fathers of the eighth general Council (Constantinop. IV.), 
and subscribed by them]. 

" So too, the Greeks, with the approval of the second council of 
Lyons, professed, that the holy Roman Church holds over the universal 
Catholic Church, a supreme and full primacy and headship, which she 
truthfully and humbly acknowledges that she received, with fullness of 
power, from the Lord himself in blessed Peter, the prince or head of 
the apostles, of whom the Roman pontiff is the successor ; and as she, 
beyond the others, is bound to defend the truth of the faith, so, if any 
questions arise concerning faith, they should be decided by her judg- 
ment. And finally, the council of Florence defined that the Roman 
pontiff is true vicar of Christ, and the head of the whole church, and 


the father and teacher of all Christians, and that to him, in the blessed 
Peter, was given by our Lord Jesus Christ full power of feeding and 
ruling and governing the universal church (John xxi. 15-17). 

" In order to fulfill this pastoral charge, our predecessors have ever 
labored unweariedly to spread the saving doctrine of Christ among all 
the nations of the earth, and with equal care have watched to preserve 
it pure and unchanged where it had been received. Wherefore the 
bishops of the whole world, sometimes singly, sometimes assembled in 
synods, following the long established custom of the churches (S. Cyril. 
Alex, ad S. Coelest. Pap.), and the form of ancient rule (St. Innocent 
I. to councils of Carthage and Milevi), referred to this apostolic see 
those dangers especially which arose in matters of faiih, in order that 
injuries to faith might best be healed there where the faith could never 
fail (St. Bernard ep. 190). And the Roman pontiffs, weighing the 
condition of times and circumstances, sometimes calling together gen- 
eral councils, or asking the judgment of the church scattered through 
the world, sometimes consulting particular synods, sometimes using 
such other aids as divine providence supplied, defined that those doc- 
trines should be held, which, by the aid of God, they knew to be con- 
formable to the holy Scriptures, and the apostolic traditions. For the 
Holy Ghost is not promised to the successors of Peter, that they may 
make known a new doctrine revealed by him, but that, through his 
assistance, they may sacredly guard, and faithfully set forth the revela- 
tion delivered by the apostles, that is, the deposit of faith. And this 
their apostolic teaching, all the venerable fathers have embraced, and 
the holy orthodox doctors have revered and followed, knowing most 
certainly that this see of St. Peter ever remains free from all error, 
according to the divine promise of our Lord and Savior made to the 
prince of the apostles : I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not, 
and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren (Conf. St. 
Agatho, Ep. ad Imp. a Cone. GEcum. VI. approbat.). 

"Therefore, this gift of truth, and of faith which fails not, was 
divinely bestowed on Peter and his successors in this chair, that they 
should exercise their high office for the salvation of all, that through 
them the universal flock of Christ should be turned away from the 
poisonous food of error, and should be nourished with the food of heav- 
enly doctrine, and that, the occasion of schism being removed, the en- 
tire church should be preserved one, and, planted on her foundation, 
should stand firm against the gates of hell. 


" Nevertheless, since in this present age, when the saving efficacy of 
the apostolic office is exceedingly needed, there are not a few who carp 
at its authority ; we judge it altogether necessary to solemnly declare 
the prerogative, which the only-begotten Son of God has deigned to 
unite to the supreme pastoral office. 

" Wherefore, faithfully adhering to the tradition handed down from 
the commencement of the Christian faith, for the glory of God our 
Savior, the exaltation of the Catholic religion, and the salvation of 
Christian peoples, with the approbation of the sacred council, we teach 
and define it to be a doctrine divinely revealed : that when the Roman 
pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is, when, in the exercise of his office of 
pastor and teacher of all Christians, and in virtue of his supreme apos- 
tolical authority, he defines that a doctrine of faith or morals is to be 
held by the universal church, he possesses, through the divine assist- 
ance promised to him in the blessed Peter, that infallibility with which 
the divine Redeemer willed his church to be endowed, in defining a 
doctrine of faith or morals ; and therefore that such definitions of the 
Roman pontiff are irreformable of themselves, and not by force of the 
consent of the church thereto. 

" And if any one shall presume, which God forbid, to contradict this 
our definition ; let him be anathema. 

" Given in Rome, in the Public Session, solemnly celebrated in the 
Vatican Basilica, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy, on the eighteenth day of July ; in the 
twenty-fifth year of our Pontificate. 

"Ita est [= So is it]. 
" Secretary of the Council of the Vatican" 



THE title " pope," now commonly applied to the bishop of 

Rome, as the head of the 
Roman Catholic church, is 
only a different English form 
of the familiar word " papa " 
(== father) a word which is 
found in the Latin and vari- 
ous other languages as well as 
in the English. This title 
" papa " was applied by the 
early ecclesiastical writers to 
any bishop, and is now a com- 
mon designation in the Greek 
church for a priest; but in 
the Roman Catholic church it 
is applied exclusively to the 
bishop of Rome, according to 
an order of Gregory VII., A. 
D. 1075. The pope is often 
styled " holy father," or " his 
holiness," likewise, " Roman 
pontiff," or " sovereign pon- 
tiff' a title borrowed, as the 


catechism of the Council of 

Trent allows, from the pontiffs or chief priests of pagan Rome. 
Gregory I. styled himself " servant of the servants of God," 
and his successors still use this as an official designation ; but 


they do not so much imitate him in his maintaining that the 
title " universal bishop " is " profane, anti-christian, and in- 
fernal." The pope is officially declared to be " the successor 
of the blessed Peter," and " the true vicar of Jesus Christ." 
The " holy see " or the " holy apostolic see " denotes the 
bishopric of Rome or the papacy, and figuratively the pope, 
who is the occupant of this office. 

The pope has been for many ages both a spiritual and a 
temporal sovereign. His spiritual sovereignty or primacy is 
claimed, as already indicated, in virtue 
of his being the rightful successor of 
" St. Peter, the prince of the apostles." 
The constant appeal in support of this 
position is to the words of the Lord 
Jesus in Mat. 16 : 18, 19 : 

<% And I say also unto thee, that thou art 
Peter, and upon this rock I will build my 

POPE'S TIARA AND KEYS.- ^^ ^ ^ Q{ j^j ^j ^ 


THB ROMAN BREVIARY. Val1 a S alI1St * Alld I Wl11 %"'* U " tO the 

the keys of the kingdom of heaven : and 

whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : and 
whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." 

Protestants believe this passage fulfilled in Peter's being the 
first to preach the gospel, or open the kingdom of heaven, to 
both Jews and Gentiles (Acts 2 : 14-40. 10 : 1-11 : 18. 15 : 
7-11, <fec.). They maintain that other apostles are just as 
truly the foundation of the church as is Peter (Eph. 2 : 20. 
Rev. 21: 14), and have just as much authority over the 
church (Mat. 20 : 20-26. 23 : 8. 2 Cor. 11 : 5. Gal. 2 : 11) ; 
that the power of binding and loosing (= of retaining and 
remitting sins, of declaring sentence, of exercising church- 
discipline) is given to the apostles and the disciples in a 
church just as truly as to Peter (Mat. 18 : 1, 15-18. John 
20 : 23) ; that at the election of Matthias to the vacant 
apostleship, which took place at Peter's suggestion, the two 
candidates appear to have been nominated by the whole body 


of the disciples, certainly not by Peter alone, nor probably by 
the apostles alone, while the appointment was "by lot," i. e., 
by divine selection (Acts 1 : 15-26 ; compare Prov. 1C : 33) ; 
that in the ecclesiastical meeting at Jerusalem, where Peter 
was present and took part, it was evidently not Peter, but 
James, who presided and shaped the decision (Acts 15 : G 29) ; 
that no one has the right to be a lord over God's heritage, i. e., 
the church (1 Pet. 5:3); that neither in the epistles of Peter 
(1 Pet. 1: 1. 5: 1. 2 Pet. 1:1), nor in the epistle to the 
Romans, nor in any other scripture given by inspiration of 
God, is the alleged supremacy or authoritative primacy of 
Peter to be found ; that it is nowhere taught by any teacher 
sent of God, that the church of Rome is either better or more 
honorable than other churches, or its bishop more closely con- 
nected either with Peter or with Peter's Divine Master than 
any church which takes the bible alone for an infallible and 
sufficient guide in religious faith and practice. Protestants 
believe that the honorable church the church against which 
" the gates of hell shall not prevail " is one whose members 
search the scriptures daily (Acts 17: 11), and do not teach 
for doctrines the commandments of men (Mat. 15 : 9). In a 
word, Protestants believe that the Roman church of the present 
day neither rests on " the blessed Peter," nor derives a shadow 
of authority from him. 

The question, " was Peter in Rome and bishop of the church 
there ? " must be answered in the affirmative by those who 
support the papacy. Many Protestants also give a general 
answer in the affirmative, while others answer both parts of 
the question decidedly in the negative. A negative answer to 
either part of the question takes away the foundation of the 
Roman Catholic system; but an affirmative answer to both 
parts does not endanger Protestantism, nor involve any renun- 
ciation of its principles. 

The common Roman Catholic account derived from Euse- 
bius, bishop of Cesarea, who lived about A. D. 270-340 makes 
Peter to have been bishop of Antioch seven years, and then 


for 25 years (A. D. 42-67) bishop of Rome. We will here 
use the words of Dr. Brandes's " Rome and the Popes," as 
translated by Rev. W. J. Wiseman, and published by " Ben- 
ziger Brothers, Printers to the Holy Apostolic See, New York 
and Cincinnati, 1868 : " 

" The best authorities that have reached us on the subject of early 
Christian Rome place St. Peter's first arrival in the capiial in the year 

42, or about the early part of the reign of Claudius A 

short time after founding the church in Rome, St. Peter left the city, 
giving charge of the congregation in his absence to Linus and Cletus. 
He did not return till the year 64. Nero was then emperor, and 
during his reign it was that the first storm of persecution burst over 

the Roman church In view of his approaching death, the 

Prince of the Apostles was careful to provide a successor for the high 
offic e of Chief Bishop. Accordingly, in addition to those already con- 
secrated, he elevated Clement, his own disciple, to the episcopal 

dignity Pt-ter was taken to the place of execution, either on the 

Janiculum or on the Vatican hill. Tradition is divided as to which of 
these two spots it was on which he suffered. For the rest both are 

very near each other He was nailed to the cross, and 

according to the most reliable traditions was, at his own request, cruci- 
fied with his head downwards. 1 he generally received authorities say 
that his death took place in the year 67." 

In regard to the correctness of this Roman Catholic tradi- 
tion, Rev. Philip Schaff, D. D., a distinguished Protestant 
historian of the church, and an advocate of Peter's labor and 
martyrdom in Rome, declares, " This view contradicts the 
plainest facts of the New Testament, and cannot stand a 
moment before the bar of criticism." Dr. Schaff maintains 
that the Acts of the Apostles, which fully describe Peter's 
earlier labors, do not allow his departure from Palestine before 
his imprisonment by Herod Agrippa at Jerusalem A. D. 44 
(Acts 12: 3-17), thus cutting off both the whole of his 
assumed bishopric at Antioch, and the beginning of that at 
Rome. So far as the history in the Acts of the Apostles is 
concerned, Peter might have visited Rome after his escape 


from Herod's prison, when he "went into another place " 
(Acts 12: 17), and does not reappear till the consultation of 
the apostles and elders in Jerusalem, which is variously 
assigned to A. D. 50, 51, 52, or 53. But Paul's* utter silence 
respecting him in the epistle to the Romans (written about 
A. D. 58), and Luke's omission of all mention of him in the 
account of Paul's arrival and stay at Rome (Acts 28 : 15-81), 
render it, to say the least, highly improbable that Peter had 
been -in Rome for any length of time up to this last date, 
A. D. 63. Peter, indeed, was rebuked by Paul at Antioch 
after the consultation at Jerusalem (Acts 15: 1-35. Gal. 2: 
1-11) : and he makes no mention of Rome in either of his 
epistles, unless the " Babylon," from which he wrote his first 
epistle (L Pet. 5: 13), is Rome, and not the Babylon on the 
Euphrates, where the Jews, whose apostle he was, were nu- 
merous. It is probable, though the various ancient authorities 
are either not definite, or else not consistent in their particu- 
lars with one another or with the New Testament, that the 
apostle Peter came to Rome after A. D. 63, and after a stay, 
possibly of a year, suffered martyrdom there under Nero be- 
tween A. D. 63 and A. D. 68. But as, according to the Protest- 
ant view, it was essential for one to have seen the Lord Jesus 
in order to be an apostle (Lk. 6 : 13. Acts 1 : 21, 22. 10 : 
39-41. 1 Cor. 9: 1,2. 13: 8-10), neither Peter nor any 

* If the apostle Peter had been the founder of the church in Rome, it is incon- 
ceivable that the apostle Paul, who must have known the fact, and was ever ready 
to give due honor to others, should have made no mention, in his epistle, cither of 
an organized church, or of Peter, its alleged founder. Paul makes special mention, 
in the 16th chapter of his epistle, of the names and labors of Priscilla and Aquila, 
of Mary and Urbane, of Trypheua and Tr\ phosa and Persis, and of " all the saints ;" 
but he says nothing of a church, bishop, deacon, or apostle as having or having had 
up to that time any connection with Rome. He evidently regarded the Romans as 
needing apostolic instruction, and, much as he avoided building on another man's 
foundation (Rom. 15: 20), he had no suspicion that he was offering a slight to 
" the prince of the apostles," or intermeddling with the affairs of his diocese, either 
when he wrote the epistle to the Romans, or when he signified his desire to go and 
labor among them that he might have some fruit among them also, even as among 
other Gentiles (Rom. 1 : 13). 


other apostle could have any series of successors in his pecu- 
liar office. Further, as " bishop" (= "overseer") and "elder" 
(= presbyter) are in the New Testament applied to the same 
persons (Acts 20 : 17, 18, 28. Tit. 1 : 5, 7. 1 Pet. 5 : 1, 2 
[in this last verse " taking the oversight," or literally being 
bishops, is made the duty of the " elders," as of Peter, in verse 
1]), therefore " elders," or ordinary ministers who preach the 
gospel of Christ, are at least as truly successors of the apostles 
as any who are called "bishops" in these days, whether at 
Rome or in any other part of the world. The distinction be- 
tween "bishops" and "elders" belongs to a post-apostolic 
age, as scholars and divines of all religious denominations now 
agree. A presiding elder or bishop naturally gained or as- 
sumed authority over other elders, his equals in office ; and 
the presiding elder or bishop of a leading city-church gained 
the preeminence over other elders or bishops in his neighbor- 
hood or district or province ; and thus by degrees and almost 
imperceptibly a hierarchy arose. Jerusalem, Cesarea, Anti- 
och, Ephesus, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, were great 
centers of Christianity, or great cities of the empire, or both ; 
and hence their bishops became archbishops, metropolitans, 
and patriarchs, and those of Rome and Constantinople became 
universal bishops or popes. Ellendorf, a German scholar 
of the present age, after an elaborate historical examination, 
deduces the conclusion that " there was no mention, in the 
first three centuries after Christ, of a Roman primacy, or 
of a central government of the Catholic church of Rome ; 
that the Roman bishops did not yet exercise a single one 
of those prerogatives which to-day form the primacy ; but 
that gradually those false historical views of the bishopric 
of Peter, of the see of Rome, and of the succession of the 
Roman bishops in Peter's bishopric, came into circulation, 
upon which the primacy finally erected itself." In process 
of time the pope has been authoritatively declared by general 
councils to be not only " the successor of the blessed Peter," 
but also " the true vicar of Jesus Christ, the head of the whole 


church, and the father and teacher of all Christians." " Both 
the name and the works of God have been appropriated to the 
pope," says Rev. Dr. Edgar, " by theologians, canonists, popes, 
and councils." In the 4th session of the 5th Lateran council, 
December 10, 1512, and with the approbation of the council, 
Christopher Marcellus thus publicly addressed the pope in the 
name of the church : " Thou art pastor, thou physician, thou 
governor, thou supporter, thou in fine another God on the 
earth." According to Innocent III., " the pope holds the place 
of the true God." The canon law, in the gloss, denominates 
the pope " our Lord God " ; and the canonists say that " the 
pope is the one God, who has all power in heaven and in 
earth." The canon law also declares that "the pope has the 
plenitude of power and is above right;" "he changes the sub- 
stantial nature of things, for example, by transforming the 
unlawful into lawful." The Protestant is reminded of the an- 
cient words of the inspired prophet, " "Woe unto them that 
call evil good, and good evil ; that put darkness for light, and 
light for darkness " (Is. 5 : 20) ! and of those words which our 
Savior himself pronounced, " If the blind lead the blind, both 
shall fall into the ditch" (Mat. 15 : 14). 

The temporal as well as the spiritual authority of the pope 
has grown up by degrees. Peter, a true disciple of Him who 
had not where to lay his head (Lk. 9: 58), and whose king- 
dom is not of this world (John 18 : 36), traveled about with 
his wife from place to place in his missionary labors (1 Cor. 9 : 
5), and was brought with other apostles before kings and gov- 
ernors for Christ's sake (Mat. 10: 18), but neither had nor 
claimed any temporal power. While the Roman empire con- 
tinued to be heathen and persecuting, Christianity was a dis- 
qualification for office, and Christian bishops, especially, could 
have no preeminence in earthly jurisdiction. But after Chris- 
tianity became the state religion, there was a change. Con- 
stantine (A. D. 312) gave to the Christian clergy the privilege 
which the heathen priests had enjoyed, of exemption from 
burdensome municipal services. Afterwards, the Christian 


emperors confirmed the decisions of the bishops in ecclesiasti- 
cal affairs, and as chosen umpires in civil controversies. Jus- 
tinian gave to the bishops civil jurisdiction over the clergy, 
monks, and nuns ; also the oversight of morals and the care 
of the unfortunate, with a supervision over the character of 

The bishops of Rome increased greatly in political conse- 
quence as the emperors of the East, hard pressed by the Sara- 
cens, left to them in the 7th and 8th centuries the principal 
charge of defending Rome and other parts of Italy against the 
Lombards. The controversy in the 8th century respecting 
image-worship brought the Romans under their bishop into a 
state of rebellion against the emperor of the East, without, 
however, effecting a complete separation at the time. Pepin 
of France, having consulted the Roman pontiff in A. D. 751 
about his assuming the title of king and received a favorable 
answer, which was followed in A. D. 754 by his being anointed 
king, and also constituted by the pope "patrician" (== gov- 
ernor) of Rome, repaid the favor in A. D. 755 by constituting 
the pope " patrician " of the exarchate of Ravenna and the 
Pentapolis, which he had wrested from the Lombards, and 
which, together embracing a territory of about 150 miles in 
length upon the Adriatic south of the Po, with a breadth of 
60 to 80 miles back to the Apennines, he gave " to the Holy 
church of God and the Roman republic." 

Both Pepin and the popes of his time tacitly acknowl- 
edged the supremacy of the Greek emperor at Constantinople. 
Charlemagne, after destroying the Lombard kingdom in A. D. 
774, confirmed and enlarged his father's gift of the exarchate 
and Pentapolis " to the Holy church of God and the Roman 
republic," taking himself the title of " Patrician of the Ro- 
mans," and being crowned by the pope emperor of the West 
at Rome in A. D. 800. In regard to these gifts by Fepin and 
Charlemagne there has been much controversy. Charlemagne 
certainly afterwards exercised in Italy all imperial rights, even 
in ecclesiastical matters; and the popes, who assumed the 


rights of the former exarch and also of the patrician of Rome, 
were obliged to take an oath of fidelity to the emperor as their 
lord and judge. Charlemagne's successors also maintained 
their civil rights as lords over the duchy of Rome and the 
exarchate and the pope, and gave their legal sanction to the 
consecration of the pope, who was elected by the votes of the 
clergy and people of Rome. But in the troubled reigns of 
these weak rulers the pope's power increased, and the opinion 
became established that the imperial dignity was communi- 
cated by the pope. 

About the middle of the 9th century appeared the spurious 
" Isidorian decretals " (professedly decrees of early popes, 
<fec.), on which were founded the pope's pretensions to universal 
sway in the church ; while the pretended " donation of Constan- 
tine," a forgery of earlier date, was also published with these, 
to establish an earlier right of the popes than that derived 
from the gifts of Pepin and Charlemagne, and also to justify 
the right of the popes to crown the emperors. Rome about 
these times was often in a state of anarchy, the government 
fluctuating between a democracy and the power of the great 
feudal families. Some of these families influenced the elec- 
tion of the popes, as in the 10th century, when the licentious 
Theodora, her daughter Marozia, and Marozia's son Alberic, 
controlled Rome, and from A. D. 904 to A. D. 963 placed and 
kept their lovers and children in the holy see. Alberic's son 
Octavian, on becoming pope at the age of 19, took the name 
of John XII., and thus introduced the custom, still prevalent, 
according to which the pope changes his name on his election. 
" In the person of this grandson of Marozia," says the Ro- 
man Catholic Dr. Brandos, " the papacy was reduced to its 
deepest degradation, and Rome to the lowest depth of dishonor 
and humiliation." John XII. was formally deposed by a council 
for his licentiousness and other crimes ; but the papal succes- 
sion became now very unsettled, the appointment of a pontiff 
being made sometimes through or with the influence of the 
emperor of Germany, and sometimes in opposition to it. In 


April, 1059, by the decree of a Roman synod the election of 
pope was committed to the college of cardinals, who are de- 
scribed in Chapter V. 

Though during these troubles the papal power itself had 
been increasing, the pontificate of Gregory VII. (1073-1085) 
marks an era in the history of the popes. From 1049 till his 
death, Hildebrand (for this was his name before he became 
pope) was the mainspring of the Roman hierarchy. He was 
a carpenter's son, born at Soano in Tuscany, educated at Rome, 
then a monk at Cluny in France, and subsequently prior of an 
abbey at Rome, which he soon raised to a high rank. Under his 
guidance were begun in the time of Leo IX. the struggles to 
make the hierarchy independent of the civil power. On being 
elected pope, he waited till his election was ratified by the 
emperor Henry IY. before he entered on his pontificate. 
He at once made new demands on the western kingdoms ; but, 
in order to cut off the dependence of the church on laymen, he 
aimed especially at abolishing the marriage of priests (which 
he classed with fornication) and simony, against both of which 
practices he obtained decrees of a council at Rome in 1074. 
Violent agitations now arose in all countries ; but the decrees 
ordering a vow of celibacy at ordination and forbidding the 
married priests to enter the church, so far prevailed as to be at 
least publicly adopted. At a second council held in 1075, lay 
princes were entirely forbidden to invest with any spiritual 
office, five of the emperor's privy counselors were excommu- 
nicated for simony, and the king of France was threatened with 
the same punishment. The emperor paid no regard to the 
pope's councils and their decrees ; and the pope summoned him 
to Rome to answer the charges made against him by his disaf- 
fected vassals. Henry assembled a convention of bishops and 
others at Worms which deposed Gregory. Gregory assembled 
a council at the Latcran in 1076, in which he excommunicated 
Henry, declared him deposed from the thrones of Germany 
and Italy, and his subjects released from their oath of allegi- 
ance. But the Germans, ready for revolt, assembled a diet 


to elect a new emperor ; and Henry, now frightened, set off 
for Italy in January, 1077 ; and after waiting for three days, 
barefooted and in a penitent's garb, in an outer court of the 
castle of Canossa in Lombardy, he was admitted, on the fourth 
day, into Gregory's presence, and after a humble confession 
received absolution, but not restoration to his kingdom, the 
pope referring him to a general diet. Henry, however, re- 
sumed his regal character, took up arms, and in October, 1080, 
defeated and mortally wounded Rudolph, duke of Suabia, who 
had been elected emperor in his stead, and who was after a 
while supported by Gregory with another sentence of excom- 
munication against Henry. Henry then went into Italy, re- 
peated his deposition of Gregory, caused Guibert, archbishop 
of Ravenna, to be elected pope by the name of Clement III., 
entered Rome in 1084, and took possession of the most impor- 
tant positions, except the castle of St. Angelo where Gregory 
was. Guibert was publicly consecrated pope, and crowned 
Henry in St. Peter's. Gregory afterwards assembled another 
council, again excommunicated Henry and his pope, but died 
in exile at Salerno, May 25, 1085. Gregory destroyed the 
independence of the national churches, though he by no means 
fully accomplished his object during his lifetime. By a consti- 
tution of his, first enacted by Alexander II. , every bishop must 
be confirmed by the pope before exercising his functions ; and 
by the enforced celibacy of all the clergy, he strengthened still 
more the chain which bound every ecclesiastic to the Roman 
see. During Gregory's pontificate, and again in 1102, the 
Countess Matilda, with whom he sustained very intimate rela- 
tions, made the church of Rome the heir of all her estates ; 
and though in 1116, the year after her death, the emperor 
Henry V. took possession of all her property, this donation 
made an important addition to the temporal claims of the 
papacy. The crusades, the first of which was undertaken at 
the close of the llth century, to gain possession of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem for the Chiistians in Europe, and, to 

protect the Christians in the East against the persecutions of 


the Turks, and the seventh and last of which terminated nearly 
two centuries later, contributed greatly to increase the power 
of the popes in Europe. The promulgation of " the canon law," 
which was founded upon the decrees of councils and the re- 
scripts or decretal epistles of popes in answer to questions 
respecting discipline and ecclesiastical economy, and was dur- 
ing the 12th and 13th centuries arranged and digested into a 
regular system of jurisprudence, divided into titles ancl chap- 
ters, aided still further to establish the independence and su- 
periority of the ecclesiastical power. " The noonday of papal 
dominion," says Hallam, " extended from the pontificate of 
Innocent III. inclusively to that of Boniface VIII. , or, in other 
words, through the 13th century. Rome inspired during this 
age all the terror of her ancient name. She was once more 
the mistress of the world, and kings were her vassals." 

Innocent III., who became pope in 1198, was the first pope 
who really formed a papal temporal state, the towns of Spoleto 
and the Marches swearing allegiance to the see of Rome, and 
the magistrates of Rome and its vicinity being likewise brought 
into subjection to the pope. But the Papal State was not con- 
solidated for nearly three centuries after this, though, as already 
related in Chapter I., the emperor Rudolph defined the states 
of the church by letters patent in 1278. The removal of the 
papal see for 70 years (1305-1376) from Rome to Avignon in 
France, which has been called " the captivity in Babylon," 
tended much to weaken the connection between the states of 
the church and their sovereign. Avignon was indeed pur- 
chased by pope Clement VI. in 1348 from the queen of Sicily, 
who was its hereditary sovereign as countess of Provence ; and 
the sovereignty of Avignon henceforward belonged to the popes 
till the French seized it in 1791. But Rome and central Italy 
were a prey to faction and anarchy, while the popes resided at 
Avignon, as well as often previously. After the return of the 
popes from Avignon in 1376, the government of the pontifical 
states was generally more regular. 

But now a new trouble arose. On the death of Gregory 


XI. in 1378, the Roman populace demanded of the cardinals, 
12 out of 16 of whom were French, the election of an Italian 
to the pontificate. The intimidated cardinals accordingly in 
April elected a Neapolitan, Bartolomeo Prignano, who was 
crowned hy the name of Urban VI. ; but his harsh severity and 
haughtiness soon alienated the cardinals, who withdrew from 
Rome, declared the election invalid, and in September elected 
Robert of Geneva, who assumed the name of Clement VII. 
Thus began " the great schism of the West," in which excom- 
munications, maledictions, and plots were freely used on both 
sides. Urban remained at Rome, and was acknowledged by 
Italy generally, Germany, England, Swe'den, Denmark, Poland, 
and Prussia ; Clement, who removed to Avignon, was acknowl- 
edged by France, Spain, Scotland, Sicily, Savoy, and Cyprus. 
Urban, through the votes of the Italian cardinals, was suc- 
ceeded at Rome by Boniface IX. in 1389, by Innocent VII.. in 
1404, and by Gregory XII. in 1406 ; while Clement, through 
the votes of the French cardinals, was succeeded at Avignon 
by Peter de Luna or Benedict XIII. in 1394. All efforts to 
heal the schism were ineffectual ; neither of the rival popes 
would fulfill his promise to resign, though Benedict was kept a 
prisoner in his palace at Avignon for several years ; and at 
length the cardinals of both parties summoned a general 
council, which met at Pisa in 1409, deposed and excommuni- 
cated both Benedict and Gregory, and elected a new pope, 
Peter de Candia or Alexander V., who soon dissolved the 
council. Thus, as Benedict and Gregory both spurned the au- 
thority of the council, there were' three rival popes instead of 
two ; and on the death of Alexander at Bologna the next year, 
the 16 cardinals who were present in that city chose in his 
stead Balthasar Cossa, who took the name of John XXIII. 
John summoned a general council which met at Constance in 
1414, and continued its sessions for four years. - This council in 
1415 deposed John for his notorious and incorrigible simony, 
spoliation of church-rights and property, maladministration, 
detestable immorality, &c. ; obtained the resignation of Gregory 


the same year ; deposed Benedict in 1417, though he claimed 
the rights of a pontiff till his death in 1423, and three cardinals 
chose ^Egidius Mugnos or Clement VIII. to succeed him, who 
did not abdicate till 1429; and November 11, 1417, chose Otto 
Colonna, who assumed the name of Martin V., and who was 
acknowledged by all but the few partisans of Benedict. 

Long before this great schism of the West, however, a great 
change had come over the papacy. The historian Hallam dates 
the sensible decline of the papacy from the pontificate of Boni- 
face VIII., who had strained its authority to a higher pitch 
than any of his predecessors by forbidding the clergy of every 
kingdom to pay any sort of tribute to their government without 
the pope's special permission, and plainly declaring, in his con- 
troversy with the French king, Philip the Fair, that the king 
was subject to him in temporal as well as spiritual matters. 
Philip ordered the pope's bulls to be publicly burned in Paris, 
and summoned representatives from the three orders of his 
kingdom, who united in disclaiming the pope's temporal juris- 
diction. Benedict XI., the successor of Boniface, rescinded 
the bulls of his predecessor, and admitted Philip the Fair to 
communion without any concessions. This was before the re- 
moval of the holy see to Avignon a measure which gave very 
general offense to Europe. The covetousness of temporal 
sway which the popes manifested, their introduction of excom- 
munications and interdicts into the politics of Italy, their impli- 
cation in the dark conspiracies of that bad age, their notorious 
profligacy and patronage of abuses, all aided to undermine the 
veneration with which the popes had been regarded and to 
diminish their high authority. The renewed attention to clas- 
sical learning which is known as " the revival of letters," and 
the invention of printing at Mayence or Mentz, may also be 
mentioned in this connection as events of the 15th century 
which had an important influence in the same direction. 

The pontificate of Eugene IV., who succeeded Martin V., 
was especially stormy. He banished the family of the Colonna 
from Rome, and had a bloody contest with them ; he made war 


upon the various lords of the Romagna, and ultimately recov- 
ered a considerable portion of territory; and, above all, he had 
a protracted struggle with the council of Basle, which, sum- 
moned by his predecessor, kept up its sittings from year to 
year, broached doctrines in opposition to the papal supremacy, 
and was dissolved by him in 1437, but most of the members, 
refusing to submit, deposed him, and he in turn convoked a 
new council at Ferrara, which annulled all the obnoxious de- 
crees of the council of Basle, while he launched a bull of excom- 
munication against its recusant members, who elected a new 
pope called Felix V. Eugene died in 1447, leaving the church 
schismatically divided between himself and his competitor 
Felix, his own states a prey to war, and all Europe alarmed at 
the progress of the Turkish arms. 

By the extirpation, under Alexander VI., about 1500, of the 
petty tyrants of the Marches, and by the conquest, under his 
successor, Julius II., of Romagna, Bologna, and Perugia, the 
Papal State acquired a more compact form. The annexation 
of Ferrara in 1597, of the duchy of Urbino in 1632, and of the 
duchy of Castro and Ronciglione in 1650, gave to the States of 
the Church their largest extent ; and over them the pope ruled 
as an independent temporal sovereign, till the invasion of the 
French under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797, and again from 
1814 onward. The recent territorial changes are briefly de- 
scribed in Chapter I. 

Only a few of the 44 popes who have reigned during the 
last four centuries can here be particularly noticed. 

Alexander VI. began his reign at the age of 61, in 1492, the 
year in which Christopher Columbus discovered America. 
Known previously as the rich Roderic Borgia of Valencia in 
Spain, he had been made cardinal by his uncle Calixtus III. 
He was elected pope by bribery, and had at that time five ille- 
gitimate children, whom he afterwards used every means to 
honor and enrich. Of these, Cesar, the 2d son, early noted 
for his profligacy, ability, and deep cunning, was, while very 
young, made a cardinal by his father and afterwards duke of 


Valentinois or Duke Valentine) oy the king of France. Cesar 
was suspected of the murder of his elder brother, with whom 
he and his father were joined in a war of extermination and 
plunder against the Colonna, Orsini, aud other great Roman 
families. By treachery or open violence, Cesar, now captain- 
general of the Roman church, also put to death most of the 
lords of the Romagna and seized on their extensive possessions, 
aiming, with the pope's countenance, to make himself sovereign 
of Romagna, the Marches, and Umbria. Alexander's only 
daughter, Lucretia, having been divorced from her first hus- 
band, married a second, whose assassination her brother Cesar 
is supposed to have procured, and then a third, Alfonso d'Este, 
son of the duke of Ferrara. The licentiousness of the court of 
Alexander VI. and the general demoralization of that period, 
abundantly certified by both Catholic and Protestant writers, 
almost surpass belief. By the traffic in benefices, by the sale 
of indulgences, by the exercise of the right of spoils, by the 
taxes for the Turkish war, by the murder of rich or trouble- 
some persons, the pope sought to amass money to support the 
luxury and licentiousness of his court and provide treasures 
for his children. But he died in 1503 of fever, or, as most his- 
torians allege, of poison mixed with wine, with which he and 
his son Cesar had planned to destroy a rich cardinal at a ban- 
quet, but which by mistake they had taken themselves. Alex- 
ander VI. was an able but unprincipled man, whom Mosheim 
calls "the Nero of the pontiffs;" -while Gieseler, cold and 
almost unfeeling in his thorough accuracy, simply styles him 
" the most depraved of all the popes." 

Julius II., nephew of Sixtus IV., and successor of Alexander 
VI. after the brief pontificate of Pius III., was a haughty and 
warlike pontiff. He drove out Cesar Borgia from the Romag- 
na; then turned his arms against the Venetians, and joined the 
league of Cambray with the emperor Maximilian, Louis XII. of 
France, and Ferdinand of Aragon; then he united with the Vene- 
tians, Swiss, Spaniards, and English in a " holy league," and 
drove the French out of Italy. The council of Pisa, called in 


1511 by some of the cardinals with the concurrence of Louis 
and Maximilian to take steps towards a general reformation in 
the church, suspended the pope, who had however summoned 
the 5th Lateran council, which met in 1512, condemned the 
Pisan council, sanctioned the unlimited power of the pope, laid 
France under an interdict, <fec. Julius was fond of the fine 
arts, and laid the foundation of St. Peter's ; but he died in the 
midst of his plans in February, 1513. 

The pontificate of Leo X. next followed. Belonging to the 
great Medici family of Florence, made a cardinal at the age 
of 13, and pope at 37, Leo was a great patron of learning and 
the arts, unbounded in his liberality, an accomplished man of 
the world, fond of splendor and luxury, and passionately fond 
of music. He kept Rome and Florence at peace during his 
pontificate, though he endeavored to unite Christendom against 
the Turks, and to expel the French from Italy. In order to 
defray his large expenses, he had recourse to indulgences (see 
Chapter XIX.), the proceeds of which were to be applied to 
the building of St. Peter's. It was the sale of these indulgen- 
ces by the Dominican monk, John Tetzel, apostolic commissary 
in Germany, that roused Martin Luther first to oppose the 
abuses of indulgences by his 95 theses which were nailed to 
the church-door in Wittemberg on the 31st October, 1517. 
The publication of these theses, which were rapidly circulated 
by the printing-press, and the controversy which followed, led 
to the separation of Luther from the church of Rome, and to 
the Reformation in Germany and other countries of Europe. 
Leo at first paid little attention to the controversy which Lu- 
ther had enkindled in Germany ; but, after ineffectual attempts 
to silence him or induce him to retract, which only resulted in 
increasing the number and strength of Luther's friends, eman- 
cipating them from papal influence, and bringing them to take 
the Scriptures as the only rule of faith and duty, the pope, on 
the 20th of June, 1520, formally excommunicated Luther, who, 
in return, on the 10th December following, publicly burned the 
pope's bull with the volumes of the canon law. He was sum- 


moned by Charles V., the newly-elected emperor of Germany, 
before the imperial diet held in Worms in 1521, and was there 
placed under the ban of the empire by the emperor ; but the 
protection of the elector of Saxony and others, and the commo- 
tion of the times, prevented his being harmed or essentially 
hindered in the promulgation of his doctrines. The Reforma- 
tion in Switzerland under Zwingle had begun as early as 1516 
independently of that in Germany; and from these and other 
centers the Reformation spread so that for the last two or three 
centuries a large part of both Europe and America has become 
Protestant. But Leo X., whose pontificate marks a flourishing 
period of literature and the arts as well as the era of the Re- 
formation, died suddenly, not without suspicion of poison, on 
the 1st of December, 1521. 

At the beginning of the present century Pius VII. was the 
reigning pope. His predecessor, Pius VI., having died in 
exile at Valence in France in August, 1799, cardinal Chiara- 
monti was chosen by the conclave at Venice, and crowned 
there by the name of Pius VII. in March, 1800. In July, 
1800, Pius VII. made his public entry into Rome, and resumed 
the government of part of the States of the Church. In Au- 
gust, 1801, he signed a concordat with Napoleon, by which the 
Roman Catholic religion was established as the state religion 
of France. In 1804 he crowned Napoleon at Paris as em- 
peror. In 1805 the French troops took possession of Ancona, 
and afterwards of other places. In February, 1808, Rome 
was seized by the French ; in April part of the Roman states 
were annexed to the kingdom of Italy ; and in May Rome 
with the rest was made a part of the French empire. In June, 
1809, the pope, who was shut up with his guards in the Quirinal 
palace, issued a bull of excommunication against the invaders, 
and the next month he was taken prisoner to France. On 
the 24th of May, 1814, after the abdication of the emperor, 
he returned to Rome. He was again a fugitive for a short 
time in 1815 ; but, after Napoleon's downfall in that year, 
all the States of the Church were restored to the pope by the 


congress of Vienna, and Pius spent the rest of his days in 
Rome. In 1816 lie confirmed the suppression of feudal im- 
posts, monopolies, and privileges, abolished every kind of tor- 
ture, established a new code of civil administration, and made 
other improvements ; but he restored the old system of secret 
proceedings in criminal matters as well as that of the ecclesias- 4 
tical courts. He also took vigorous measures to extirpate the 
banditti of the Campagna. He died in consequence of a fall, 
August 20, 1823, at the age of 81. " Pius VII. stands promi- 
nent among the long series of popes," says the Penny Cyclo- 
pedia, " for his exemplary conduct under adversity, his truly 
Christian virtues, and his general benevolence and charity." 

The next pope, Leo XII., was much more imperious than 
Pius VII. ; reestablished the right of asylum for criminals in 
churches ; reorganized the university of Rome ; exerted himself 
to suppress brigandage, mendicity, and secret societies ; re- 
formed the administration of the Papal State in some respects ; 
and violently denounced Bible societies. He died in February, 
1829, at the age of 69. The short pontificate of his successor, 
Pius VIII., was not distinguished by anything remarkable. 
He died at the close of 1830. 

Gregory XVI., who was chosen pope February 2, 1831, a few 
months after the revolution in Paris, which overthrew the old 
Bourbon dynasty and placed Louis Philippe on the throne of 
France, was troubled from the very beginning of his reign by 
insurrectionary movements, which led him to resort more than 
once to Austrian intervention to suppress them. His pontifi- 
cate was sternly conservative, opposing all innovations in the- 
ology or politics. No railroad or telegraph-line could be con- 
structed in the States of the Church during his pontificate. It 
is said that under him 300 persons were punished capitally, and 
30,000, mostly for political offenses, were imprisoned. It is 
also credibly reported in Kirwan's Letters to Chief Justice 
Taney ( u Romanism at Home," p. 164), that this pope left two 
illegitimate daughters. He died in Rome, June 1, 1846. in 
the 81st year of his_age. 





His successor, the present pope, is Pius IX., originally named 
Giovanni Maria (= John Mary) Mastai Ferretti. He was 
born May 13, 1792, at Sinigaglia, a sea-port on the Adriatic, 
nearly 150 miles N. N. E. of Rome, in that part of the States 
of the Church, which for the last ten 
years has been incorporated with the 
kingdom of Italy. While his predeces- 
sor, Gregory XVI., was the son of a 
poor baker of Belluno and was classed 
as a conservative, Pius IX. was the son 
of an Italian count and was classed as 
a liberal. He was ordained in Decem- 
ber, 1818 ; visited Chili in 1823 with a 
papal delegate, and spent two years in 
preaching and teaching at Santiago ; 
became president of the hospital of St. Michael in Rome in 
1825 ; was made in 1827 archbishop of Spoleto where he 
founded an orphan asylum, induced 4000 insurgent refugees to 
surrender in 1831, and was then temporarily civil administrator 

of two provinces ; 
was transferred in 
1832 to the see of 
Imola, where he 
founded a theolog- 
ical college, or- 
phan asylums, and 
a house for female 
penitents ; was 
made cardinal, reserved in petto, December 22, 1839 ; was 
published cardinal priest of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, 
December 14, 1840 ; was chosen pope June 16, and crowned 
June 21, 1846. He published on the 16th July a general am- 
nesty to political offenders. After this followed reforms in the 
administration, reduction of taxes, concessions to railroads and 
other improvements, the organization of a militia, encourage- 
ment of manufactures and agriculture, &c. In November, 



1847, he summoned a council of state composed of delegates 
from the provinces. Europe and America were now enthusi- 
astic over his liberal course. But a change took place in 1848, 
which was a year of revolutions in Europe, the year in which 
Louis Philippe of France was dethroned, and most of the sov- 
ereigns were compelled to grant or to promise liberal constitu- 
tions. Austria had repeatedly crushed liberalism in Italy, and 
was hated as the impersonation of absolutism and tyranny. 
The Italian provinces of Austria rose in rebellion, and were 
assisted by Sardinia; the Roman people sympathized with 
them, and, dissatisfied already at the pope's moderate reforms, 
they were still more dissatisfied at his unwillingness to join 
in the war against Austria. The pope promised a liberal 
constitution, and appointed Count Rossi minister of the in- 
terior, with the charge of the finances and police ; but Count 
Rossi was assassinated, November 15th, at the door of the coun- 
cil-chamber ; and the pope, besieged in the Quirinal palace and 
forced to accept a radical ministry, escaped thence in the dis- 
guise of a simple priest, on the 24th of November, and fled 
to Gae'ta, the nearest Neapolitan sea-port. There he was 
cordially received ; and there and at Portici near Naples he 
remained a year and a half. In the mean time the Roman 
Republic was proclaimed, and the pope appealed for help to 
the Catholic powers, particularly France, Spain, Austria, and 
Naples ; with their aid the .republic was put down, and the 
pope returned to Rome, April 12, 1850. Since this time he 
has shown no tendency to liberalism. His restoration of the 
Roman Catholic hierarchy in England, in September, 1850, 
provoked much English indignation, and led to a parliamen- 
tary act forbidding his bishops to assume their titles. On the 
8th of December, 1854, he solemnly proclaimed the dogma of 
the immaculate conception, as noticed in Chapter II. His con- 
cordats with Spain in 1851 and with Austria in 1855, have 
since been set aside by the changes in those countries. In 
1859 and 1860 a large portion of the territories of the church 
were, in spite of his protests and excommunication of the in- 


vaders of the papal rights, annexed to the kingdom of Italy ; 
and in 1870 the Italians occupied Rome, and thus put an end 
to his temporal sovereignty, as related in Chapter I. The Vat- 
ican Council, which assembled in 1869, is described in Chapter 
VI ; and the decree of the council affirming the pope's suprem- 
acy and infallibility, is also given in Chapter II. The pontifi- 
cate of Pius IX. has been distinguished both by its great 
length and by its great events. 

Rev. E. E. Hall, who during a protracted residence in Italy 
had special advantages of knowing something of the private 
life of the pope, wrote about him as follows, at the close of 1862 : 

" Though in these days he is a very public character, and his reign 
is likely to mark an epoch in the history of politics and religion in 
Italy, arid though as a public administrator he may have much to vex 
him, yet as an old bachelor at home he evidently enjoys life, and has a 
' good time ' generally. 

" It must be known as preliminary, that the private apartments of 
the Vatican are very beautiful and very rich, overloaded with gold and 
silk. There are, however, occasionally seen a few painted wooden 
chairs, very simple, not to say miserable souvenirs of the apostolic 
plainness of another age. The same may be said of the Quirinal, 
Castel Gandolfo, and all other pontifical residences. 

" The pope usually rises at 6 o'clock in the morning ; about 7 he 
says mass in a chapel which joins his sleeping room. The cardi- 
nals and Roman bishops generally have the same habit. At Rome, 
when a prelate rents a furnished apartment, he places in a closet a 
small portable altar, where he says mass. In many of the apartments 
now rented to strangers, the remains of these temporary altars and 
vestiges of these masses are found. The valet-de-chambre makes the 
responses on these occasions : for the pope, this valet is a prelate, a 
priest or a deacon. 

" In the Vatican there are ten private valets-de-chambre : the most 
intimate are clashed according to age, passing from the eldest to the 
youngest. Monsignors Stella, de Merode, Talbot (an Englishman), and 
Ricci, are the four persons always nenr him. They keep him company, 
and amuse him, and make him laugh ; which is not a difficult 
for in private life Pius IX. is always laughing and happy. 


"At 8 o'clock the 'holy father' takes breakfast, which consists of 
coffee and some very simple accompaniments. At that time Monsignor 
Stella alone is present ; he opens the correspondence, reads it or gives 
a summary of it. It is the most private moment of the day. At 9 
o'clock, breakfast being finished, he reads his private correspondence. 
Then Cardinal Antonelli comes down from his rooms above and enters 
the apartment of the pope ; he is very gentle, very humble, a real 
treasure, he addresses the pope sometimes as ' holy father,' sometimes 

* most blessed father,' he praises the genius of the pope and his won- 
derful knowledge of affairs : he is indeed his very humble servant. 
This political conversation, this labor of the king and the minister, con- 
tinues an hour or two. The valets-de-chambre sometimes interrupt 
them ; but Antonelli is very kind with them. ' 

"About half past ten or eleven, the receptions begin. The pope, 
dressed in white, sits in a large arm-chair with a table before him. 
He addresses you two or three words in the language which you speak, 
if it is French, Italian, or Spanish ; he speaks a little English, but 
German (the language of Luther) he abhors, and an interpreter is 
necessary. During these receptions, he sometimes signs requests for 
indulgences, which are presented to him in writing. Some of these 
requests are conceived in the most consecrated forms, imploring of him 

* indulgence at the moment of death, for themselves, their children, and 
other relatives to the third generation.' The ' holy father ' cheerfully 
complies with these requests ; he writes at the bottom of the petition 
' Fiat, Pio Nona ' [ = Be it so, Pius IX.]. Since the late political 
events some bring him money, and others offer him letters of condolence. 
He writes at the bottom of such letters ; ' Amphat vos Dominus gratia, 
benedicat te Deus et tuam familiam' [ the Lord fill you with grace, 
God bless thee and thy family]. 

"At 2 o'clock the pontifical dinner comes off. The pope always 
dines alone. From 3 till 4 the pope sleeps. Everybody in Rome 
sleeps from 3 till 4. If you ask after a cardinal at that hour, the reply 
is ' His eminence sleeps.' 

' The pope does neither more nor less than other people. At 5 
o'clock he rides out, always with great solemnity, accompanied by the 
noble guard on horseback, by valets and monsignors, and from three 
bare fingers his benedictions fall in great abundance. About 7 the 

1 For an account of the cardinals, see Chapter V. 



pope takes supper, and then takes his turn at the billiard-table. At 10 
o'clock all the lights of the Vatican are extinguished." 


The Swiss guards, armed with spears or long battle-axes of 
an antique pattern, and wearing a peculiar uniform designed 
by Michael Angelo and described as " an astonishing mixture 
of black, white, red, and yellow," have long been conspicu- 
ous attendants on the pope whenever he appeared in public, 
whether in services at St. Peter's, or in processions, or else- 
where. The magnificent state-carriage, in which the pope has 
been accustomed to ride on great occasions, is called by Willis 
" the stage-coach with six long-tailed black horses." A peni- 
tential or devotional procession, in which the pope rode in 1864 


through the streets of Rome to the church of Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva, surrounded by his Swiss halberdiers and French 
zouaves, is thus described by Rev. Dr. Wylie, who was an eye- 
witness : 

" First of all, surrounded by gleaming steel and prancing steeds, rode 
the pope. He was followed by the carriages of his ministers, bedecked, 
like that of their master, with scarlet trappings, and drawn by coal- 
black horses. Then flowed on, in one long, unbroken procession, all 
orders of regulars and seculars, from the purple prelate to the cowled 
monk and the white-veiled nun. The show was enlivened by every 
variety of ecclesiastical costume the black robe of the cure" and the 
white alb of the mass-priest, the brown frock of the Capuchin and the 
white mantle of the Carmelite. Some trod daintily in slippers gar- 
nished with silver buckles, others came onward with naked feet thrust 
into sandals. Some wore gold chains on their breast, others had their 
loins begirt with hempen cords. Some bore candles, others carried 
little crucifixes ; some chanted hymns, others sung a low dirge or wail, 
more in keeping with the penitential character of the procession and 
the enjoined exercises of the day. The Minorites formed one of the 
most striking features of the affair. They wore a mask of black serge, 
which enveloped their persons from head to foot, and left no part of 
them vL-ible but the eyes, which glared out through two holes." 

Protestants who have attended mass when the pope is pres- 
ent, have repeatedly testified that " the whole service was the 
worship, not of God, but of the pope." Thus Hon. Daniel D. 
Barnard, who visited Rome some. 40 years ago in the time of 
Gregory XVI., and attended the service at the Pauline chapel 
in the Quirinal, after describing the entrance of the cardinals 
through the ranks of the Swiss guards, each cardinal having 
two attendant priests to bear his cap and the train of his robes, 
says : 

" "When every thing was ready, the pope entered from the palace by 
a private door. Before him marched one of the household bearing the 
golden tiara, for he wore the mitre. He was followed closely by two 
cardinals, who bore the train of his robes, and he was attended, on en- 
tering, by many priests, prelates and others, alt having their appropri- 
ate office among them were the mace-bearers, and an officer bearing 


the dignified appellation of the Roman senator. At the moment of his 
entering, 12 officers in uniform, all young noblemen, with drawn swords, 
formed a semi-circle around the door-way of the chancel. On passing 
the altar, the pope stopped to kneel ; one attendant taking off and put- 
ting on his mitre, others adjusting his robes, and others assisting to 
ease him down and raise him up. "When the pope was seated on his 
throne, which is erected on the side of the chapel near the altar, the 
cardinals began a procession, and presenting themselves before him in 
succession had the honor of kissing his hand, which his holiness gra- 
ciously extends to each in turn, covered, however, with the golden 
hem of his garment. After this ceremony the religious exercises are 
commenced. The officiating priests always knelt before the pope at 
the commencement and close of every separate service. When the 
pope would condescend to look into a book, it was held before him by 
a canon kneeling. Whenever any of the numerous retinue on service 
had occasion to pass before the pope, as happened almost every instant, 
it was never done without kneeling. Three separate times incense was 
offered before the throne, and to him that sat upon it. A canon who 
was entitled to this inestimable privilege on account of the peculiar part 
which he bore in the ceremonies, prostrated himself [at full length] be- 
fore the Vicegerent, and devoutly kissed his red slipper which was as 
near the holy toe as he could come. The same thing was done by the 
monk who had the honor to preach before him, immediately before 
mounting his pulpit. After the sermon, a priest kneeled before the 
pope and prayed, at the close of which the latter rose and graciously 
bestowed his blessing on the kneeling multitude around him, simply by 
stretching out his right hand and shaking the benedictions off from the 
ends of his fingers. High mass was celebrated, and at the end the 
pope embraced three cardinals with a Paxtecum [= peace with thee] ? 
and through them, by the same form, it was transmitted to the rest of 
the cardinals. The pope then left the throne and the chapel with the 
same circumstance with which he had entered, and immediately made 
his appearance at a balcony of the palace which looks out on the great 
square of Monte Cavallo. Ten thousand persons were assembled in 
this square, including soldiers, and the whole mass dropped instantane- 
ously on their knees, as his holiness presented himself at the window. 
In this position, they received his benediction, shaken off in the same 
manner as before, from the ends of his holy fingers about which^ 
blinded I suppose by heresy, I could discover nothing remarkable, ex- 


cept the flashes of light which shot out from a brilliant diamond which 

he sported on his hand I cannot avoid saying, that the worship 

was most evidently offered vastly more to the pope than to the Deity." 

Rev. Prof. W. S. Tyler, D. D., of Amherst,Mass., wrote thus 
from Rome in March, 1870 : 

" The present pope came into the pontificate a quarter of a century ago 
pledged by his antecedents and bound by circumstances to reform and 
progress. And no one can look at his benignant countenance and winning 
manners, without believing that he is by nature kindly and humane. 
But power, especially ecclesiastical power, corrupts the best of men, and 
the papacy was stronger than all the good intentions of Pius Ninth. . . . 
depression, suppression, and oppression, are the watchwords of his ad- 
ministration. . . . Abandoned in Paris, abandoned in Vienna as a relic 
of medieval barbarism and despotism, the system of espionage still hangs 
over Rome like a pall, and penetrates every street and every house like 
a miasm. The mails are kept in the hands of the government inspect- 
ors hours after their arrival before they are delivered ; and those which 
leave the city are subjected to the same delay for the same inquisitorial 
purpose. The correspondents of the foreign press, and all persons at 
all open to suspicion, are obliged to send their letters by private con- 
veyance to some point beyond the frontier of the Papal States, or they 
never will reach their destination ; and newspapers from abroad which 
contain unfavorable comments upon the government or the council, are 
either confiscated and destroyed, or delivered in a mutilated state. 

" The government of the pontiff," says Rev. Dr. Wylie, " is a theoc- 
racy. Let the reader try to understand what this imports as applied 
to the papal states. The pontifical government is not the government 
of a mere man, or of a human code ; it is the government of God him- 
self God in the person of his vicar. It is, or professes to be, as real a 
theocracy as that which was set up in Judea of old. . . . But while the 
Old Testament, the representative of Jehovah, the real monarch of the 
Jewish kingdom, limited the prerogative of the prince, and defined the 
rights of his subjects, it is otherwise with the ruler of the papal states. 
He 'as God' sitteth in the midst of his kingdom, ruling it according to 
his own irresponsible will. He is the maker of his own law ; and 
that law neither sets limits to his powers nor grants rights to his sub- 
jects. He exercises, in measure altogether absolute and unbounded, 
both the temporal and the spiritual authority. And this idea of theoc- 


racy is most fully carried out into all parts of the government. No one 
can take part in the administration unless he be a member of the cleri- 
cal body. No one can be a member of the state unless he be also a 
member of the church, for there church and state are identical, or rather 
we should say, the state is completely sunk in the church. No one can 
hold property, nay, no one can claim a right to liberty or life, unless he 
be in communion with the church. There church-membership is the 


foundation of all rights, and the tenure on which are held all privileges 
necessarily so under a theocracy. The unhappy man who falls from 
communion with the church, .necessarily falls from his rights of citizen- 
ship, and becomes a civil as well as a spiritual outlaw. In fine, the 
papal states being governed by the church, are necessarily governed 
for the church. Science, letters, mechanical improvements, social 
ameliorations, political reforms everything, in short, opposed to the 


existence of this theocracy are stringently excluded. The non pos- 
sumtis [= we cannot], like the flaming sword at the gate of Eden, 
turns every way to guard the holy soil of Catholicism. Such is the 
theory of the pontifical government." 

But in September, 1870, as already noticed in Chapter L, 
Rome was captured by the army of king Victor Emanuel, and 
the pope's temporal sovereignty again ceased or was suspended. 
Upon this "The Catholic World" for November, 1870, utters 
this language in harmony with the utterances by other Roman 
Catholic periodicals and officials : 

" We cannot, in consistency with our duty as Catholic publicists, 
refrain from making our solemn protest against this most unjust and 
wicked violation of all public law and right, this intolerable outrage 
upon the Catholic people of the whole world. It is the duty of every 
good and true Catholic, and of the Catholic people collectively in every 
country, to make this protest in the most distinct and efficacious man- 
ner possible, and to make use of all lawful means to restore the Sov- 
ereign Pontiff to the possession and peaceful exercise of that royalty 
which belongs to him by the most ! gitimate titles, and which is neces- 
sary to the free and unimpeded jurisdiction of his spiritual supremacy 
over the Catholic church, as well as to the political tranquillity of Chris- 
tendom We deny altogether that the subjects of the Sovereign 

Pontiff have had any grievances to be redressed, or any need of the 
interference of any power or of any guarantee for their civil and social 
rights. The paternal sovereignty of the pope is a far better guarantee 
for them than suffrage or elective legislatures can be for any other peo- 
ple. It is, moreover, just as incompatible with the necessary independ- 
ence of the Vicar of Christ that he should be controlled by a legislative 
assembly as that he should be subject to a king. We do not admit 
the validity of any plebiscitum [= popular vote] against his sovereign 
rights, even if freely and fairly taken, much less as taken under the 

existing circumstances The gallant little band of pontifical 

zouaves .... were to a great extent noblemen and gentlemen of the 
best families in Europe. The remainder were young men of respecta- 
ble character and position ; and there has never yet been seen a mili- 
tary corps which could compare with them for high morality and ex- 
emplary piety, or surpass them in soldierly qualities. . . . They were 
and anxious to lay down their lives in defense of the city and 


the successor of St. Peter. The Holy Father, very rightly, would not 
permit them to do more than make a merely formal resistance to the 
overwhelming force of the Italian army. But, although God has not 
permitted them to be successful, and has apparently allowed the gener- 
ous offerings of treasure and personal service devoted to his cause by 
the loyal children of the holy Roman church to be wasted, they are not 
really thrown away. In some other way, and by other instruments, 
God will rescue and restore the center and capital of Christendom." 

Protestants will, of course, regard these laudations of the 
pontifical zouaves as somewhat extravagant, and will certainly 
disallow the principles here advocated. Further discussion of 
these principles, and facts bearing on these and connected 
matters, may be found in Chapters L, XXII., XXIII., XXVI., 

It may be added, that in November, 1870, pope Pius IX., 
whom the king of Italy proposed to treat as an independent 
sovereign and to protect in his spiritual supremacy, formally 
disclaimed any consent to the loss of his temporal dominions, 
and pronounced the greater excommunication upon all con- 
cerned in wresting the States of the Church from the Holy See. 

Archbishop McCloskey of New York, whose archdiocese 
embraces New England and the states of New York and New 
Jersey, held a consultation with his bishops at Rochester, N. Y., 
as a result of which the following document was drafted by a 
committee of his council, viz., Very Rev. "Wm. Starrs, D. D. 
(Vicar General), Rev. Wm. Quinn (of St. Peter's church, N. 
Y.), Rev. Isaac T. Hecker (Superior of the Paulist Fathers, 
and editor of the Catholic World), and Rev. Thos. S. Preston 
(Chancellor) ; five legal gentlemen (Charles O'Conor, John E. 
Develin, John McKeon, T. James Glover, and Mr. Navarro), 
having been requested to act as a committee of the laity. The 
address was read and unanimously adopted at a meeting held 
on Sunday evening, Dec. 4, 1870, at St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
New York ; and similar action was simultaneously taken at 
other churches. This address is therefore. an authentic expres- 


sion of the views and feelings of Roman Catholics in America. 
It reads thus : 


" MOST HOLY FATHER : The Catholic clergy of the Diocese of New 
York, both secular and regular, together with their faithful people, ap- 
proach the foot of your apostolic throne and offer to your Holiness, in 
the present trying time, this avowal of their homage and obedience to 
the see of Peter, of their filial affection and spiritual allegiance and de- 
votion to your august person, so inexpressibly dear to them, and of 
their sympathy with you in the afflictions and outrages to which you 
and, in you, the Catholic church, as the holy Spouse of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, are at present subjected by faithless and unworthy members of 
that church, whose supreme pastor you are. 

" With the indignation of honest men, who respect no less the obli- 
gation of laws and treaties than the rights of nations and legitimate 
rulers ; with the just and religious abhorrence of Christians who revere 
the sacred sovereignty of the Holy See over its temporal domain, we 
repudiate and condemn the lawless injustice which has invaded your 
legitimate dominion as a sovereign prince. 

" We also denounce the sacrilegious violence which has assaulted 
and brought under captivity the sacred person of your Holiness, the 
Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth, and as such entitled by Divine right to 
complete liberty in the exercise of your sublime office, and by the most 
perfect of human rights to civil princedom, a necessary safeguard and 
bulwark of that liberty. Moreover, as citizens of this Republic, the 
United States of America, whose constitution and laws recognize the 
liberty which the Church has received as an inalienable right from 
Almighty God, we protest against the violation of religious freedom 
and the rights of conscience which has been perpetrated in the dese- 
crated name of liberty. 

" We also protest against the invasion of the liberty of the Church, 
in the person of its head, both as an outrage against the sacred preroga- 
tive of your holiness as Supreme Pontiff, and as the violation of a 
right which we, as Catholics, possess of being governed by a Chief 
completely exempted "from and independent of all civil authority, for in 
no other condition could our intercourse with him be free and unre- 


" In the full sincerity of our loyal and Catholic hearts we promise 
to continue faithful to your Holiness and to the Apostolic See at all 
times ; but especially in periods when distress and trouble like the 
present oppress the Church. We ask your Holiness to accept this as- 
surance that we will not cease from making every effort in our power 
to aid and assist you in the "maintenance of your just rights and the 
fulfillment of your arduous duties ; and that we will continually pray 
to God with a confidence greatly strengthened by the example which 
your Holiness has never failed to set before us, that He will deign to 
give you and the See of Peter another triumph more signal and illus- 
trious than any of the past victories of the Church over the gates of hell 
and the powers of darkness. Finally, we humbly implore the prayers 
of your Holiness for our steadfastness in the faith, and our eternal sal- 
vation, and your Apostolic benediction upon the Diocese of New York, 
and upon each and every one of us, your devoted children." 

In view of the preceding and other similar protests the New 
York Tribune asks these three questions : 

u 1. If it be clear that the pope cannot freely fulfill the functions and 
discharge the duties of his sacred office unless he be a temporal sover- 
eign, unamenable to any civil power, is this not equally true of all the 
Catholic prelates in this and other countries ? 

" 2. Have the people of Rome a right to any voice in determining 
or shaping the government under which they are to live ? 

"3. If they have not, have we, or any other people?" 

As an offset to the protests and addresses of the Roman 
Catholics of this country, an immense gathering at the Acade- 
my of Music, in New York, on the evening of January 13, 1871, 
celebrated the consummation of Italian Unity, and unanimously 
adopted the following resolutions presented by Rev. Joseph P. 
Thompson, D.D., LL.D.: 

" Whereas, The temporal sovereignty of the Popes over the Roman 
people was the growth of the same circumstances and conditions from 
which other absolute Governments arose during the Feudal ages ; and 
whereas, this Government having the same origin, must be subject to 
the same conditions to which any other Government is subject, and the 
same obligations by which any other Government is bound ; and 
whereas, with the growth of intelligence and of the spirit of liberty, the 


Roman people, from age to age, have protested against the government 
of the Pope in civil affairs ; now, by the voice of heroic leaders, and 
again by popular revolutions, which have many times driven out the 
Pope from Rome; and, whereas, in 1849, when the Pope had aban- 
doned Rome, leaving the Government without a head, a Constituent 
Assembly, elected by universal suffrage in the Roman States, declared 
the Secular Government of the Papacy abolished, and < proclaimed 
that portion of Central Italy, which had hitherto been the patrimony 
of Popes, a free and independent Republic] which was only overthrown, 
and the subsequent rule of the Pope restored and maintained, by for- 
eign bayonets ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That in voting to unite themselves to (he Constitutional 
Government of Italy, the people of Rome have been true to the spirit 
of their history as manifested against the Temporal Power of the Popes 
since the beginning of its encroachment upon popular liberties and 

" Whereas, The Temporal Government of the Church of Rome had 
long made itself insupportable to its subjects by a system of policy 
which, in 1815 and 1831, called forth remonstrances from the Powers 
that restored the Pope ; and again, also, repeated and earnest entreaties 
from the late Government of France, and which has been grievously 
deplored by eminent and saintly Roman Catholic clergymen as La- 
cordaire, Rosmini, Gioberti, Dollinger, and many others ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That we congratulate the Roman people upon their de- 
liverance from this oppressive yoke, and that Austria and France, hav- 
ing been led by the course of events to abandon intervention as 
impolitic and wrong, they now find in the Government of Italy a 
pledge of the enjoyment of political and religious liberty under consti- 
tutional forms. 

"Resolved, That we congratulate them al-othat this great revolution 
has been accomplished at so little cost of life, and that they have re- 
frained from any acts of violence toward the representatives of the late 
Government, or the ecclesiastics who were identified with it, and from 
any disrespect or hinderauce whatever to the Pope in his religious 
character and office. 

" Resolved, That the doctrine of the Declaration of Independence, 
that ' Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the 
governed, and are instituted to secure the rights of all to life, liberty, 


and the pursuit of happiness,' can admit of no exception in favor of an 
ecclesiastical Government wielding the civil power. 

"Resolved, That the doctrine of the Declaration of Independence 
that ' whenever any form of government hecomes destructive of these 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to insti- 
tute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and 
organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely 
to effect their safety and happiness,' finds in the rejection of the Papal 
Government by the Roman people, and their choice of the free Consti- 
tutional Government of Italy, an illustration that should receive the 
warm approval and admiration of the American people. 

" Resolved, That, inasmuch as religious liberty is absolutely essential 
to political liberty, and political liberty to religious liberty, and the 
separation of Church and State is necessary to the complete independ- 
ence and the rightful and effective administration of either, we rejoice 
that the example of the United States, in abolishing all religious bur- 
dens and restraints, has been followed in Austria, Italy, and Ireland, 
and now at last in Rome ; that we honor the jealous care with which 
the Government of Italy has guarded the personal liberties and rights 
of the Pope, and are assured that the substitution of freedom for force, 
and of popular rights for princely prerogatives, both State and Church 
will minister to the highest well-being of a now emancipated and united 

" Resolved, That the principle of National Unity which the people 
of the United States have established at the cost of so much treasure 
and blood, which has been the aspiration of the mind of Italy as ex- 
pressed in her literature from Dante to Alfieri and Nicolini, and in the 
policy of her greatest statesmen, from King Arduno to Victor Eman- 
uel a principle necessary to the development of the resources and 
culture of a nation in the higher civilization gives to the Italian nation, 
of which the people of Rome are properly an integral part, the right to 
possess Rome as their capital, with an undivided sovereignty (a meas- 
ure acquiesced in by all the Powers of Europe) ; and that the presence 
in that capital of an essentially hostile power, claiming independent 
sovereignty, would be incompatible with the independence of the nation 
and its position among the free peoples of the world." 

The following Address was read to the meeting and issued 
ID its name : 



" We, citizens of the United States, who have long stood as the van- 
guard of civil and religious freedom, and whose own unity has been 
within a few years so gloriously consummated, hail with a peculiar 
pleasure the advent of Italy to Freedom and Unity. Having watched 
with the keenest sympathy and hope the patient struggle of the Italian 
people for their emancipation, having shared the admiration of the civ- 
ilized world, for the vigor, devotion, and spirit of self-sacrifice by which 
that struggle has been animated, we now rejoice with them in the final 
fulfillment of their noble and patriotic desires. 

" Italy is at last free ! Italy is at last one ! Her Nationality is de- 
clared ; her Government consolidated ; and her ancient Capital, so long 
withheld from her grasp, is once more restored to her possession. The 
City of Eome, so dear to the Italian heart, no longer a rival sover- 
eignty maintained alone by foreign arms, now stands the representative 
of the whole Italian people, upheld and supported by the free choice of 
the Nation. 

" In this great achievement we discern not only a solace for the sor- 
rows of the past, and the fruition of many noble hopes, but the pledge 
of the grandest developments in the future. With the rights and the 
liberties of all men amply secured by the guaranties of a Constitutional 
Government ; with the State forever separated from the Church, as the 
essential guard of all political and religious progress ; with the sovereign 
power to control its own destinies, resting within its own borders, and 
among its own free and equal citizens, we are assured that the people 
of the Peninsula will receive a new and beneficent impulse in all the 
elements of national prosperity. We know, from our own experience, 
how her national resources will be developed, how her industrial ener- 
gies will be stimulated, how her system of popular education will be 
enlarged and perfected ; how, the need of revolutionary ferments being 
removed, order and peace will be everywhere established ; and how a 
fresh life of knowledge, of liberty, and of faith, infused into her mem- 
bers, will work out a glorious redemption. 

In this belief, we again congratulate them on the peaceful triumph 
of the national cause, and bid them a God-speed in the career they have 
so worthily begun. 

The President of the meeting, Major-General John A. Dix, 


formerly United States Senator, and more recently United 
States Minister to France, sent the same evening to the King 
of Italy at Florence this dispatch, which was read at the close 
of the meeting amid great and prolonged applause : 

" More than 1 0,000 American citizens are celebrating to-night the 
union of Rome with Italy, and send congratulations." 

To this dispatch the following answer was returned : 
" CHEVALIER FRED. DE LUCA, Italian Consul-General, New York : 

" His Majesty, King Victor Emanuel, commands you to tender Ida 
sincere thanks to Gen. John A. Dix, President of the meeting to cele- 
brate Italian Unity, for the kindly feelings expressed in his telegram. 
" VISCONTI VENOSTA, Minister of Foreign Affairs." 

We will conclude this chapter with a list of the 258 more 
or less whom the Roman Catholic church counts as its bish- 
ops of Rome or popes. In the preparation of this list, which 
gives the names of the bishops of Rome, their nation, and the 
dates of the beginning and end of their respective bishoprics, 
the lists contained in the five following works have been con- 
sulted and their variations noted when essential ; viz., " The 
Illustrated Catholic Family Almanac for the United States for 
the year of our Lord 1870 ;" Vasi & Nibby's " Guide of Rome ;" 
"The World's Progress," by G. P. Putnam ; " The Penny Cy- 
clopedia" (list chiefly from the Rationarium Temporum of the 
Jesuit chronologer Petau or Petavius) ; Appletons' " New 
American Cyclopedia" (list from the Roman Notizie). Mur- 
dock's Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, and Gieseler's Eccle- 
siastical History, have also been used for verifying and correct- 
ing the dates. The title " St." is inserted or omitted on the 
authority of the Catholic Almanac, Appletons' Cyclopedia dif- 
fering on this point in half a dozen cases. 

St. Peter, from A.I>. 42 to A.D. 67. 

[ " The Guide of Rome " says " A.D. 54, St. Peter established the see of Rome ;" 
but see above, p. 121.] 

St. Linus, a Tuscan. 

St. Anacletus, an Athenian. 

St. Clement I. ( = Clemens Romanus, or Clement of Rome). 
- St. Evaristus, a Greek. 


[The Catholic Almanac marks the above four, "Dates uncertain." Appletons' 
Cyclopedia makes Linns begin A.D. 66 ; Anacletus, A.D. 78 ; Clement I., A.D. 91 ; 
Evaristus, A.D. 100. The "Guide of Rome" makes Linns begin A.D. 65; Ana- 
cletus, 78; Clement, 91; Evaristus, 96. " The World's Progress " has Linus, 
66 ; Clement, 67 ; Cletus, 77 ; Anacletus, 83 ; Evaristus, 96. The Penny Cyclo- 
pedia says that Linus died in 68, and was succeeded by Clemens Romanus who 
died about A.D. 100; that some place Anacletus or Cletus between Linus and 
Clemens, while others place him after Clemens ; and that Evaristus is recorded as 
bishop about A D. 100. Some, as Baronius, Bellarmin, &c., reckon Anacletus and 
Cletns to be two different bishops.] 

St. Alexander I., a Roman, from about A.D. 109 to A.D 119. 

[So the Penny Cyclopedia. Three other authorities give only the beginning 
as A.D. 108; the Catholic Almanac marks only the end as A.D. 119.] 

St. Sixtus I., a Roman, from A.D. 119 to A.D 127. 

[The Catholic Almanac marks only the end as A.D. 127.] 

St. Telesphorns, a Greek, from A.D. 127 to about A.D. 138. 

[" The Guide of Rome " marks the beginning as A.D. 128 ; the Catholic Almanac 
gives the end as A.D. 139.] 

St. Hyginus, an Athenian, from A.D. 139 to A.D. 142. 

St. Pius I., of Aquileia, from A.D. 142 to A.D. 157. 

[The Penny Cyclopedia says Pius was succeeded by Anicetus in A.D. 151 ; " The 
World's Progress " gives this date as A.D. 150.] 

St. Anicetus, Syrian, from A.D. 157 to A.D. 168. 

[" The Guide of Rome " makes him begin in A.D. 158 ; " The World's Progress" 
in A..D. 150; the Penny Cyclopedia makes him begin in A.D. 151 and end in 
A.D. 161.] 

St. Soter, of Campania, from A.D. 168 to A.D. 177. 

[The Penny Cyclopedia makes Soter's time A.D. 161-170; " The World's Pro- 
gress" makes him begin in A.D. 162.] 

St. Eleutherius, Greek, from A.D. 177 to A.D. 192. 

[The Penny Cyclopedia gives his time A.D. 170-185 : " The World's Progress" 
makes him begin in A.D. 171, and Victor in A.D. 185.] 

St. Victor I., African, from A.D. 192 to A.D. 202. 

[" The Guide of Rome " and Appletons' Cyclopedia make Victor's time A.D. 
193-202; " The World's Progress" and Penny Cyclopedia make his time A.D. 

St. Zephyrinus, Roman, from A.D. 202 to A.D. 219. 

["The Guide of Rome" makes his time A.D. 202-218; the Penny Cyclopedia 
and World's Progress A.D. 197-217.] 

St. Calixtus, Roman, from A.D. 219 to A.D. 223. 

[" The Guide of Rome " makes his time A.D. 218-223 ; " The World's Progress " 
JL.D. 217-228; the Penny Cyclopedia A.D. 217-222; Appletons' Cyclopedia A.. 

St. Urban I., Roman, from A.D. 223 to A.D. 230. 

[" The World's Progress " makes his time A.D. 228-234 ; the Penny Cyclopedia 
makes it A.D. 222-230.] 


St. Pontian, Roman, from A.D. 230 to A.D. 235. 

[" The World's Progress " gives his time A.D. 234-235.] 

St. Antcrus, Greek, from A.D. 235 to A.D. 236. 

St. Fabian, Roman, " 236 " 250. 

St. Cornelius, " " 250 " 252. 

St Lucius, of Lucca, in A.D. 253. 

[The Catholic Almanac makes Cornelius's time A.D. 251-252 ; the " Guide of 
Rome " and Appletons' Cyclopedia make Lucius begin in A.D. 252 ; " The World's 
Progress " omits both Fabian and Lucius ; the Penny Cyclopedia makes Cornelius 
begin in A.D. 252, but concurs with Appletons' Cyclopedia in making Novatian 
the first " antipope " or opposition bishop of Rome in A.D. 252.] 

St. Stephen I., Roman, from A.D. 253 to A.D. 257. 

St. Sixtus II., Athenian, " 257 " 259. 

[Stephen I. and Sixtus II are omitted in " The World's Progress."] 

St. Dionysius (= Denis), Greek, from A.D. 259 to A.D. 2G9. 

St. Felix I., Roman, from A.D. 269 to A.D. 274. 

[Appletons' Cyclopedia and the " Guide of Rome " put Felix A.D. 269-275 ; the 
Penny Cyclopedia has A.D. 270-275.] 

St Eutychian, Tuscan, from A.D. 274 to A.D. 283. 

St. Caius, Dalmatian, " 283 " 296. 

St. Marcellinus, Roman, " 296 " 305. 

[The Catholic Almanac gives only his end in A.D. 304 ; the " Guide of Rome" 
only his beginning in A.D. 306 ; the Penny Cyc.. Appletons' Cyc., and Catholic 
Almanac, make a vacancy of three to four years after his death.] 

St Marcellus I., Roman, from A.D. 308 to A.D. 310. 

[Omitted in the " World's Progress."] 

St. Ensebius, Greek, a few months in A.D. 310. 

St. Melchiades, African, from A.D. 310 to A.D. 314. 

St. Sylvester I., Roman, " 314 " 335. 

St. Marcus, Roman, in A.D. 336. 

St. Jul:us I., Roman, from A.D. 337 to A.D. 352. 

Liberius, " " 352 366. 

[Liberius was deposed and banished in A.D. 355 by the emperor Constantius, who 
appointed Felix, a deacon of Rome, bishop ; but Liberius subscribed an Arian 
creed and was restored to his see in A.D. 358, and died in Rome A.D. 366. Liberius 
is omitted in " The World's Progress," which inserts Felix II. as beginning in 
A.D. 356. The " Guide of Rome " also puts Felix II. as pope in A.D. 355 ; Ap- 
pletons' Cyc. inserts " St. Felix II. (sometimes reckoned an antipope), 355." The 
Penny Cyc. says " Felix is considered by most as an intruder." The Catholic 
Almanac omits this Felix entirely. Who is right ?] 

St. Damasus I., Spaniard, from A.D. 366 to A.D. 384. 

[Ursinus or Ursicinus, elected and ordained in opposition to Damasus, after a 
bloody fight, was exiled, and is counted an antipope. Both are omitted in " The 
World's Progress."] 

St. Siricius, Roman, from A.D. 385 to A.D. 398. 
{ St Anastasius, " " 398 " 402. 


St. Innocent I., of Albano, from A.D. 402 to A.D. 417. . 

St. Zosimus I., Greek, " 417 " 418. 

St. Boniface I., Roman, " 418 " 423. 

[Eulalius is here noticed as antipope in Appletons' Cyc.] 

St Celestine I., of Campania, from AD. 423 to A.D. 432. 

St. Sixtus III., Roman, " 432 " 440. 

St Leo I. the Great, Tuscan, " 440 " 461. 

St. Hilary, Sardinian, " 461 " 468. 

St Simplicius, of Tivoli, " 468 " 483. 

[" The World's Progress " makes him begin in A.D. 465.] 

St Felix III., Roman, from A.D. 483 to A.D. 492. 

[The Catholic Almanac calls him " St Felix II." ; the other tour lists number 
him IH.] 

St. Gelasius, African, from A.D. 492 to A.D. 496. 

St. Anastasius II., Roman, " 496 " 497. 

St. Symmachus, Sardinian, " 498 " 514. 

[The two last are omitted in " The World's Progress." Laurentins was chosen 
bishop in A.D. 498 on the same day with Symmachus ; but, after much bloodshed, 
Symmachus was found entitled to the see. Appletons' Cyc. wrongly places Law- 
rence ( = Laurentius) as antipope against Hormisdas below.] 

St Hormisdas, of Frosinone in the Papal States, from A.D. 514 to A.D. 523. 

St. John I., Tuscan, from A.D. 523 to A.D. 525. 

St Felix IV., Samnite, " 526 " 530. 

[The Catholic Almanac styles him " St Felix HL ;" four other lists number 
him IV.]. 

St. Boniface II., Roman, from A.D. 530 to A.D. 532. 

[Dioscorus, here noted as antipope in Appletons' Cyc., lived only 28 days after 
his election.] 

St. John H., Roman, from A.D. 533 to A.T>. 535. 

[The Penny Cyc. and " Guide of Rome " make him begin in A.D. 532.] 

St Agapetus I., Roman, from A.D. 535 to A.D. 536. 

St. Sylverius, of Campania, " 536 " 540. 

Vigil (= Vigilius), Roman, " 540 " 555. 

[Appletons' Cyc. makes him begin in A.D. 537 ; " The World's Progress " and 
" Guide of Rome " in A.D. 538.] 

Pelagius I., Roman, from A.D. 555 to A.D. 560. 

John HI., " " 560 " 573. 

Benedict!., " " 574 " 578. 

Pelagius JL, " " 578 " 590. 

St Gregory I., the Great, Roman, from A.D. 590 to A.D. 604. 

Sabinian, Tuscan, " 604 " 605. 

Boniface III., Roman, in A.D. 606. 

[The Penny Cyc., Appletons' Cyc,, and the " Guide of Rome," put him in 
A D. 607.] 

St Boniface IV., of Abruzzo, from A. D. 607 to A.D. 614. . 


[The Penny Cyc., Appletons' Cyc., and the " Guide of Rome," make him begin 
A.D 608.] 

Deusdedit (= Deodatus) L, Roman, from A.D. 615 to A.D. 618. 

[Omitted in " The World's Progress."] 

Boniface V., Neapolitan, from A.D. 619 to A.D. 625. 

Honorius I., of Campania, " 625 " 638. 

[See of Rome vacant a year and a half.] 

Severinus, Roman, in A.D. 640. 

John IV., Dalmatian, from A.D. 640 to A.D. 642. 

Theodore (= Theodorus), Greek, from A.D. 642 to A.D. 649. 

[The Penny Cyc. and " Guide of Rome" make him begin in A.D. 641.] 

St. Martin I., of Todi in Papal States, from A.D. 649 to A.D. 655. 

[" The World's Progress " makes him begin in A.D. 644.] 

Eugene (= Eugenius) I., Roman, from A. D. 655 to A. D. 657. 

[Appletons' Cyc., Penny Cyc., and " The World's Progress " make him begin 
A. D. 654.] 

St. Vitalian (= Vitalianus), of Segni in Papal States, from A. D. 657 to 
A. D. 672. 

Adeodatus, Roman, from A. D. 672 to A. D. 676. 

[The Penny Cyc. calls him Deusdedit II.] 

Donus or Domnus I., Roman, from A. D. 676 to A. D. 678. 

St. Agatho, Sicilian, " 678 " 682. 

" Leo II., Roman, " 682 " 683. 

" Benedict II., Roman, " 684 " 685. 

John V., Syrian, " 685 " 686. 

Conon, Sicilian, " 686 " 687. 

[Appletons' Cyc. gives Theodoras and Paschal as antipopes.) 

St. Sergius L, Syrian, from A. D. 687 to A. D. 701. 

John VI., Greek, " 701 " 705. 

" VII., " " 705 " 707. 

Sisinnius, Syrian, a month in A. D. 708. 

Constantino, Syrian, from A. D. 708 to A. D. 714. 

St. Gregory II., Roman, from A. D. 715 to A. D. 731. 
" " in., Syrian, " 731 " 741. 
" Zachary (= Zacharias), Greek, from A. D. 741 to A. D. 752. 

Stephen II. (not consecrated), three days in A. D. 752. 

[Omitted in " Guide of Rome," " World's Progress," and Gieseler.] 

St. Stephen III., Roman, from A. D. 752 to A. D. 757. 

[Called " Stephen II." in the " Guide of Rome," Gieseler, and Mosheim.] 

St. Paul I., Roman, from A. D. 757 to A. D. 767. 

[Appletons' Cyc. inserts here Constantino, Thcophylact, and Philip as antipopes.] 

Stephen IV., Sicilian, from A. D. 768 to A. D. 772. 

[Called " Stephen III." in the " Guide of Rome," Gieseler, and Mosheim.] 

Hadrian I. (= Adrian I.), Roman, from A. D. 772 to A. D. 795. 

St. LeoHI., " " 795 " 816. 

Stephen V., " " 816 " 817. 


[Called " Stephen IV." in the " Guide of Rome " and Gieseler.] 

St. Paschal I., Roman, from A. D. 817 to A. D. 824. 

Eugene (= Eugenius) II., Roman, from A. D. 824 to A. D. 827. 

Valentine, Roman, 2 months in A. D. 827. 

Gregory IV., Roman, from A. D. 827 to A. D. 844. 

SergiusIL, " " 844 " 847. 

St. Leo IV., " " 847 " 855. 

[Between Leo IV. and Benedict III. some chroniclers insert John VIII., com- 
monly called " Pope Joan," a female pope ; but her existence is now generally 
regarded as a fiction, though it was widely credited from the 12th century down to 
the Reformation.] 

Benedict III., Roman, from A. D. 855 to A. D. 858. 

[Appletons' Cyc. inserts here Anastasius as antipope.] 

St. Nicholas I., Roman, from A. D. 858 to A. D. 867. 

Hadrian (= Adrian) II., " " 867 " 872. 

John VIII., " " 872 " 882. 

Marinus I., or Martin II., Tuscan, " 882 " 884. 

Hadrian (= Adrian) III., Roman, " 884 " 885. 

Stephen VI., " " 885 " 891. 

[Called " Stephen V." in " Guide of Rome," and Catholic Almanac.] 

Formosus, Roman, from A. D. 891 to A. D. 896. 

[The Penny Cyc. inserts here Sergius as antipope.] 

Boniface VI., Tuscan, about % month in A. i>. 896. 

Stephen VII., Roman, from A. D. 896 to A. D. 897. 

[Called Stephen VI." in Catholic Almanac, and " Guide of Rome."] 

Romanus, Tuscan, 4 months in A. D. 897. 

Theodore (= Theodorus) II., Roman, 20 days in A. D. 898. 

[Appletons' Cyc. inserts here Sergius III. as antipope. Romanus and Theo. 
dore are both omitted in " The World's Progress."] 

John IX., of Tivoli, from A. . 898 to A. D. 900. 

Benedict IV., Roman, . " 900 " 903. 

Leo V., of Ardea, 1 month in A. D. 903 (banished). 

Christopher, Roman, 7 months in A. D. 903 (banished). 

[Omitted in " The World's Progress," and counted antipope in the Penny Cyc.] 

Sergius III., Roman, from A. D. 904 to A. D. 911. 

Anastasius HI., " " 911 " 913. 

Lando (= Landusj, Sabine, " 913 " 914. 

[Anastasius and Lando are omitted in " The World's Progress."] 

John X., of Ravenna, from A. . 914 to A. D. 928. 

Leo VI., Roman, " 928 " 929. 

Stephen VTH., " " 929 " 931. 

[Called " Stephen VII." in the Catholic Almanac, and " Guide of Rome."] 

John XL, Roman, from A. D. 931 to A. D. 936. 

Leo VII., " " 936 " 939. 

Stephen IX., German, " 939 " 942. 

[Called " Stephen VIII." in the Catholic Almanac and " Guide of Rome,"] 

Martin III., or Marinus II., Roman, from A. D. 943 to A. D. 946. 


Agapetus IL, Roman, from A. D. 946 to A. D. 955. 

John Xn. (Ottavio Conti), " " 956 " 963 (deposed; died 


Leo VIII., Roman, in A. D. 963 to A. D. 965. 

[The Catholic Almanac omits Leo; Appletons' Cyc. marks him antipope; 
Penny Cyc. inserts him as beginning in 963, and says " styled antipope by some " ; 
" The World's Progress " inserts him as " elected by Roman citizens in 963 " ; the 
" Guide of Rome " inserts him as regularly beginning in 964.] 

Benedict V., Roman, in A. D. 964 (banished ; died in 965). 

[The " Guide of Rome " omits Benedict ; " The World's Progress " inserts him 
as " elected by a council " ; the Catholic Almanac, Penny Cyc., and Appletons' 
Cyc. insert him as regular ] 

John XIII., Roman, from A. D. 965 to A. D. 972. 

Benedict VI., " " 972 " 974. 

Donus or Domnus II., " " 974 " 975. 

Benedict VII., " " 975 " 983. 

John XIV., Italian, in A. D. 984. 

[Appletons' Cyc. and Penny Cyc. insert here as antipope Boniface VTI. ; " The 
World's Progress " mentions him as pope in A. D. 973, " deposed and banished for 
his crimes." lie possessed the papal dignity in 974 and 985, for a few months 
each, and died in 986.] 

John XV., Roman, a few months in A. D. 985. 

John XVI., " from A. . 985 to A. D. 996. 

[The Catholic Almanac, Gieseler, and Appletons' Cyc omit the short pontifi- 
cate in 985, and make "John XV." pope A. D. 985-996, who is the "John XVI." 
of the " Guide of Rome," Penny Cyc., and " World's Progress."] 

Gregory V., German, from A. D. 996 to A. D. 999. 

[Appletons' Cyc. here inserts as antipope John XVI. "The World's Progress" 
inserts him as pope in 997. He was a Calabrian, bishop of Piacenza, appointed 
pope in 997 in opposition to Gregory, but imprisoned and mutilated by the emperor 
Otho in 998. He is the John XVII. of some.] 

Sylvester II. (Gerbert), French, from A. D. 999 to 1003. 

John XVII., Roman, in A. D. 1003. 

[Omitted in the Penny Cyc. and " World's Progress " ; inserted in Appletons' 
Cyc. as "John XVI. or XVII."] 

John XVIII., Roman, from A. D. 1003 to 1009. 

Sergius IV., " " 1009 to 1012. 

Benedict VIII., " " 1012 to 1024. 

[Appletons' Cyc. places here Gregory VI., antipope.] ' 

John XIX., Roman, from 1024 to 1033. 

[Appletons' Cyc. calls him "John XVIII. or XIX."] 

Benedict IX., Roman, from 1033 to 1044. 

[Appletons' Cyc. inserts here " John XX.," antipope ; the Penny Cyc. inserts 
" Sylvester, bishop of Sabina," as antipope. Probably these are the same, as John, 
bishop of Sabina, took the name of Sylvester III. Benedict was expelled, and 
sold his pontificate to John Gratian, who took the name of Gregory VI. Benedict 
IX., Sylvester III., and Gregory VI., were all deposed in the synod of Sutri, 1046 ; 


but Benedict again held the pontificate for several months after the death of 
Clement II.] 

Gregory VI., Roman, from 1044 to 1046. 

[Appletons' Cyc. inserts here " Sylvester III." as antipope ; but see note above.] 

Clement II., Saxon, from 1046 to 1047. 

Damasus II., Bavarian, 23 days in 1048. 

St. Leo IX., German, from 1049 to 1054. 

Victor II., " " 1055 to 1057. 

Stephen X., of Lorraine, from 1057 to 1058. 

[Called " Stephen IX." in the Catholic Almanac, " World's Progress," Pennj 
Cyc., Gieseler, and Mosheim ; Appletons' Cyc and the Penny Cyc. insert Benedict 
X. as pope between Stephen and Nicholas in 1058 ; but the "World's Progress " 
styles him antipope, and the Catholic Almanac and " Guide of Home " omit him.] 

Nicholas II., of Burgundy, from 1058 to 1061. 

Alexander II., of Milan, from 1061 to 1073. 

[Appletons' Cyc. gives Honorius II. as antipope here.] 

St. Gregory VII. (Hildebrand), Tuscan, from 1073 to 1085. 

[Guibert, antipope, 1080-1100, under the name of Clement HI] 

Victor III., of Benevento, from 1086 to 1087. 

Urban II., French, from 1088 to 1099. 

Paschal II., Tuscan, from 1099 to 1118. 

[The Penny Cyc names here as antipopes, Albert and Theodoric.] 

Gelasius II, of Gae'ta, from 1118 to 1119. 

[Appletons' Cyc. names here Gregory VIII. as antipope.] 

Calixtus II., of Burgundy, from 1119 to 1124. 

Honorius II., of Bologna, from 1124 to 1130. 

[Appletons' Cyc. notes here Celestine II. as antipope.] 

Innocent II., Roman, from 1130 to 1143. 

[Appletons' Cyc. gives here Anacletns II. and Victor IV. as antipopes; th 
Penny Cyc., Mosheim, Gieseler, " The World's Progress," mention only Anaclctus 
here, and Victor IV. in 1159.] 

Celestine II., Tuscan, from 1143 to 1144. 

Lucius II., of Bologna, from 1 144 to 1145. 

Eugene (= Eugenius) III., Pisan, from 1145 to 1153. 

Anastasius IV., Roman, from 1153 to 1154. 

Hadrian (= Adrian) IV., English, from 1154 to 1159. 

[His name was Nicholas Breakspear, and he is the only Englishman ever madt 

Alexander III., of Siena, from 1159 to 1181. 

["The World's Progress" names four antipopes, viz. : Victor IV., 1159; Pas- 
chal III., 1164 ; Calixtus III., 1163; Innocent III., 1178. The Penny Cyc., has 
the first three only, and so Gieseler and Mosheim. Appletons' Cyc. has four, but 
puts " Victor V." for Victor IV. See note under Innocent II., 1130.] 

Lucius III., of Lucca, from 1181 to 1185 

Urban III., of Milan, from 1185 to 1187. 

Gregory VIII., of Benevento, two months in 1187 



Clement III., Roman, from 1187 to 1191. 
Celestine IH., " " 1191 to 1198. 
Innocent III., of Anagni in Papal States, from 1198 to 1216. 
Honorius HI., Roman, from 1216 to 1227. 
Gregory IX., of Anagni, from 1227 to 1241. 
Celestine IV., of Milan, 15 days in 1241. 
[Roman see vacant from October 8, 1241, to June 24, 1243.] 
Innocent IV., of Genoa, from 1243 to 1254. 
[The Catholic Almanac alone makes him begin in 1241.] 
Alexander IV., of Anagni, from 1254 to 1261. 
Urban IV., French, from 1261 to 1264. 
Clement IV., French, from 1265 to 1268. 
[Roman see vacant nearly three years.] 
Gregory X., of Piacenza, from 1271 to 1276. 
Innocent V., of Savoy, five months in 1276. 
Hadrian ( = Adrian) V., of Genoa, a month in 1276. 
John XXL, Portuguese, from 1276 to 1277. 

[Appletons' Cyc. calls him " John XIX. or XX., or XXL ;" the Catholic Al- 
manac, "John XXL (XX.);" the " Guide of Rome," "John XX. or XXI."] 
Nicholas III., Roman, from 1277 to 1280. 
Martin IV., French, from 1281 to 1285. 
Honorius IV., Roman, from 1285 to 1287. 
Nicholas IV , of Ascoli in Papal States, from 1288 to 1292. 
[Roman see vacant 2^ years.] 

Celestine V., Neapolitan, 5 months in 1294 (abdicated). 
Boniface VIII., of Anagni in Papal States, from 1294 to 1303. 
Benedict XL, of Treviso, from 1303 to 1304. 
[Papacy vacant 1 1 months.] 

Clement V., French, from 1305 to 1314. 

[Papacy vacant 2$ years.] 

John XXIL, French, from 1316 to 1334. 

[Appletons' Cyc. and the Penny Cyc. have Nicholas V. as antipope in 
Italy. He was appointed by the German emperor in 1328, and submitted 
to John in 1330.] 

Benedict XII., French, from 1334 to 1342. 


Clement VI., " " 1342 to 1352. 

Innocent VI, 1352 to 1362. 

Urban V., " " 1362 to 1370. 

Gregory XL, " " 1370 to 1378. 
J A ( Urban VI., Neapolitan, from 1378 to 1389. 

~ JL (Boniface IX., " " 1389 to 1404. 

1 12 1 1nnocent VII., " " 1404 to 1406. 

jg "8 | Gregory XII , Venetian, " 1406 to 1415 (abdicated). 

g ( 

| d I Clement VII., French, " 1378 to 1394. 

'> a 1 Benedict XIII., Spanish. " 1394 to 1417 ( deposed : died 1423j. 

< ( 


i g .'Alexander V., Cretan, from 1409 to 1410. 
;~ : John XXIII., Neapolitan, from 1410 to 1415 (deposed). 

[Of the popes 1378-1417, the Catholic Almanac gives the Roman line with their 
dates as above, only making Gregoy's pontificate end in 141 7; it acknowledges 
" 40 years' disputed succession ;" and simply names the popes of the other two 
lines above as " rival popes." The " Guide of Rome," the Penny Cyc., and Ap- 
plctons' Cyc., give the popes of the Roman and Pisan lines in the order of their 
dates without discrimination, and mark Clement and Benedict as antipopcs. 
" The World's Progress " gives the whole eight as popes. See pp. 131-2 above.? 

Martin V., Roman, from 1417 to 1431. 

[Clement VIII., antipope, 1423-1429. See p. 132 above.] 

Eugene (= Eugenius) IV., Venetian, from 1431 to 1447. 

[Felix V., antipope, 1439-1449. See p. 133.] 

Nicholas V., of Sarzana in N. Italy, from 1447 to 1455. 

Calixtus III., Spanish, from 1455 to 1458. 

Pius II., Tuscan, " 1453 to 1464. 

Paul II., Venetian, " 1464 to 1471. 

SixtusIV.,of Savona, " 1471 to 1484. 

Innocent VIII., of Genoa," 1484 to 1492. 

Alexander VI., Spanish, " 1492 to 1503. 

Pius III., Tuscan, a month in 1503. 

Julius II., of Savona, from 1503 to 1513. 

Leo X., of Florence, " 1513 to 1521. 

Hadrian (= Adrian) VI., Dutch, from 1522 to 1523. 

Clement VII., of Florence, from 1523 to 1534. 

Paul III. Roman, from 1534 to 1549. 

Julius III., " " 1550 to 1555. 

M;:r:ellus II., of Fano in Papal States, a month in 1555. 

Paul IV., Neapolitan, from 1555 to 1559. 

Pius IV., of Milan, " 1559 to 1565. 

St. Pius V., of Alessandria in N. Italy, from 1566 to 1572. 

Gregory XIII., of Bologna, from 1572 to 1585. 

Sixtus V , of Ancona, from 1585 to 1590. 

Urban VII., of Genoa, a few days in 1590. 

Gregory XIV., of Cremona, from 1590 to 1591. 

Innocent IX., of Bologna, two months in 1591. 

Clement VIII., of Florence, from 1592 to 1605. 

Leo XI., of Florence, a month in 1605. 

Paul V., Tuscan, from 1605 to 1621. 

Gregory XV., of Bologna, from 1621 to 1623. 

Urban VIII., of Florence, " 1623 to 1644. 

Innocent X., Roman, " 1644 to 1655. 

Alexander VII., Tuscan, " 1655 to 1667. 

Clement IX., " " 1667 to 1669. 

Clement X., Roman, " 1670 to 1676. 

Innocent XL, of Milan, " 1676 to 1689. 


Alexander VIII., Venetian, from 1689 to 1691. 
Innocent XII., Neapolitan, " 1691 to 1700. 
Clement XL, of Papal States, from 1700 to 1721. 
Innocent XIII., Koman, " 1721 to 1724. 

Benedict XIII, " " 1724 to 1730. 

Clement XII., of Florence, " 1730 to 1740. 
Benedict XIV., of Bologna, " 1740 to 1758. 
Clement XIII., Venetian, " 1758 to 1769. 

Clement XIV., of Papal States, " 1769 to 1774. 
Pius VI, " " " 1775 to 1799. 

Pius VII., " " " 1800 to 1821. 

Leo XII., " " " 1823 to 1829. 

Pius VIII., " " " 1829 to 1830. 

Gregory XVI , of Belluno, in N. Italy, from 1831 to 1846. 
Pius IX., of Papal States, from 1846 to . 




An " allocution " (Latin allocutio = speech to) is a set 
speech or formal address made by the pope in his official 
capacity. An appendix to the pope's encyclical letter of De- 
cember, 1864, cites 17 " consistorial allocutions " of the pres- 
ent pope previous to that time, and gives their dates. These 
allocutions were addressed either to the college of cardinals or 
to a larger assembly of prelates in Rome or Gaeta. One of 
the most elaborate of these appears to be that addressed on 
the 9th of June, 1862, to a convocation, at which at least 245 
bishops, archbishops, patriarchs, <fcc., of the Roman Catholic 
church were present. The convocation or council was sum- 
moned to attend the canonization of 27 Japanese martyrs. 
The canonization took place ; but the allocution (which is 
called " Maxima quidem" from the Latin words with which 
it begins) dwelt much more on what were regarded as the lam- 
entable evils of the present times than upon the martyrs. It 
was a politico-religious speech, not only deploring the panthe- 
istic and rationalistic errors spread by the revolutionary spirit 
of the age against the authority of the Catholic church and the 
laws of God and man, but also mourning over the oppression 
exercised against the church in Italy and the war declared 
against the pope's temporal power (this was two years after 
the annexation of a large part of the States of the Church to 
the kingdom of Italy). The allocution specially condemns 
the ideas that " every man is free to embrace and profess the 
religion he shall believe true, guided by the light of reason," 


that " the ministers of the church and the Roman pontiff ought 
to be absolutely excluded from all charge and dominion over 
temporal affairs," that " the civil power is entitled to prevent 
ministers of religion and the faithful from communicating 
freely and mutually with the Roman pontiff," &c. The " ven- 
erable brethren," as the bishops are styled, are urged to re- 
double their zeal in combating and arresting the diffusion of 
these pestiferous errors. They are exhorted " to remove the 
faithful from the contagion of this plague ; to turn their eyes 
and their hands from the pernicious books and journals ; to 
instruct them in the precepts of our august religion ; to exhort 
and warn them to fly from these teachers of iniquity as from a 
serpent." They are exhorted " to take for mediatrix with God 
the Virgin Mary, who, full of pity and love for all men, has 
always annihilated heresies, and whose patronage with God 
has never been more opportune. Pray also," it continues, 
" for the suffrages of St. Joseph, the spouse of the very holy 
Virgin, of the apostles Peter and Paul, and of all the inhabi- 
tants of heaven, especially those whom we honor and venerate 
as inscribed in the records of sanctity." 

A papal " bull" is a letter, ordinance, or decree of the pope, 
generally written on parchment, with a leaden seal (bulla in 
Latin, whence the name) affixed. The seal bears on the ob- 
verse the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul ; on the reverse the 
name of the pope and the year of his pontificate. If the bull 
has respect to matters of justice, the seal is fixed by a hempen 
cord ; if of grace, by a silken thread. Bulls are granted for 
the consecration of bishops, the promotion to benefices, the 
celebration of jubilees, &c. Bulls are said to be " fulminated," 
when they are published ; and this publication is made by one 
of three commissioners, to whom they are usually addressed. 
The bulls issued by the popes were published at Luxemburg in 
1727, &c., in 19 folio volumes. Of these the two most cele- 
brated are those called " In ccena Domini" and " Unigenitus" 

The bull In caena Domini (= at the supper of the Lord) is 
BO named on account of its being read in Rome annually on the 


anniversary of the institution of the Lord's Supper, i. e., on 
the Thursday before Easter, or Maundy-Thursday. " Toward 
the end of the 13th century it had already become the cus- 
tom," says Dr. Gieseler, " for the popes to repeat annually, 
upon this day, excommunications of special importance." 
A collection of these excommunications is said to have been 
made by pope Gregory XI. in 1370 ; but the earliest one 
published is that by Gregory XII. in 1411, which was re- 
newed with additions by Pius V. in 1566, under the name of 
the bull In ccena Domini. The bull was renewed under the 
same name by Urban VIII. in 1627 ; and finally as a bull of 
excommunication by Pius IX., on the 12th of October, 1869. 
The first article of this bull, as published by Urban VIII. , 
has this curse for all heretics, &c. : 

" We excommunicate and anathematize, in the name of God, Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, and by the authority of the blessed apostles, 
Peter and Paul, and by our own, all "Wickliffites, Hussites, Lutherans, 
Calvinists, Huguenots, Anabaptists, and all other heretics, by whatso- 
ever name they are called, and of whatsoever sect they be ; and also, all 
schismatics, and those who withdraw themselves, or recede obstinately 
from the obedience of the Bishop of Rome ; as also their adherents, 
receivers, favorers, and generally any defenders of them ; together 
with all who, without the authority of the Apostolic see, shall know- 
ingly read, keep, or print, any of their books which treat on religion, 
or by or. for any cause whatever, publicly or privately, on any pretense 
or color, defend them." 

In this bull, as issued by Pius IX. in 1869, the pope solemnly 
excommunicates and anathematizes all apostates and heretics, 
and all who refuse obedience to the Roman pontiff ; and those 
who, without special authority from the Holy see, knowingly 
possess or read any books condemned by the papal court ; all 
who impede directly or indirectly the external or internal juris- 
diction of the church (this includes kings, magistrates, and 
others who favor, receive, or defend heretics or schismatics, as 
well as those who by word or act maintain that the pope is 
subject to a council) ; all who invade or retain the revenues 
of the church or of her ministers ; any dignitary or prelate who 


may dare to grant absolution for them, except when actually 
dying, and with a reservation in case the dying recover ; all 
members of secret societies engaged in open or secret machi- 
nations against legitimate governments, as well as all who 
favor or aid such societies ; all who hold converse with the 
excommunicated, or who farm out masses, or who are guilty 
of simony, or of other specified offenses, mostly clerical. Pius 
V., in reproducing this bull, declared it an eternal law in 
Christendom, and ordered the bull to be read every Thursday 
before Easter in every parish church throughout the world. It 
was accordingly read annually in Rome for more than 200 
years, until Clement XIV. in 1773 suspended the reading. 
But as it threatened with excommunication and anathema all, 
whether the supreme authorities of the state or subordinate 
magistrates or officers, who should, without special permission 
from the pope, impose taxes, exercise judicial authority, or 
punish crimes of the clergy, many sovereigns and states, as 
France, Spain, Germany, Venice, <fcc., forbade the publication 
of the bull, and declared it null and void. The French par- 
liament ordered in 1580 that all bishops and archbishops who 
promulgated the bull should have their goods confiscated and 
be pronounced guilty of high treason. In 1707, pope Clement 
XI. excommunicated the emperor Joseph II. and his adherents, 
according to this bull, for interfering with the pope's claim of 
sovereignty over Parma and Piacenza ; but the emperor re- 
sisted and compelled the pope to yield. 

The bull called " Unigenitus" from its beginning with the 
words " Unigenitus Dei Filius " (== the only-begotten Son of 
God), was issued by Clement XI. in 1713 in condemnation of 
101 propositions of the Jansenist Quesnel in his Moral Reflec- 
tions on the New Testament, or, in other words, supporting 
the Jesuits against the Jansenists, who in many of their senti- 
ments agreed with the Protestants, and especially with the Cal- 
vinists in regard to predestination and divine grace. Among 
the 101 condemned propositions are such as these : 

" Grace is that voice of the Father, which inwardly teacheth men, 
and maketh them come unto Jesus Christ ; and whosoever cometh not 


unto him after he hath heard the outward voice of the Son, is in no 
wise instructed of the Father " (John 6 : 45). " The seed of the 
word, which the hand of God watereth, ever bringeth forth its fruits" 
(Acts 11 : 21). "No graces are given, save through faith" (Lk. 8: 
48). " All whom God willeth to save through Christ, are infallibly 
saved" (John 6: 4')). "The church, or the entire Christ, hath the 
incarnate Word as the head, but all the holy as members " (1 Tim. 3 : 
16). " The reading of Sacred Scripture is for all " ( Acts 8 : 28). " To 
snatch the New Testament out of the hands of Christians, or to keep 
it closed to them, by taking from them that method of understanding 
it, is to shut the mouth of Christ against them " (Mat. 5 : 2). " To 
interdict to Christians the reading of Sacred Scriptures, especially of the 
Gospel, is to interdict the use of light to the sons of light, and to cause 
them to suffer a certain kind of excommunication" (Luke 11: 33). 
" God permits that all powers be opposed to the preachers of the 
truth, to the end that his victory may be attributed only to the Divine 
grace" (Acts 17:8). 

The pope, after quoting these among the other propositions, 
speaks thus in the bull : 

u Having heard, therefore, the suffrages of the above-mentioned 
cardinals and other theologians exhibited to us both by word of mouth 
as well as in writing, and having invoked the protection of the Divine 
light by proclaiming private and public prayers to that end, we, by 
this our constitution, destined to be in effect forever, declare, condemn, 
and reprobate all and each of the previously inserted propositions, as 
false, captious, ill-sounding, offensive to pious ears, scandalous, per- 
nicious, rash, injurious to the church and her practice, and contumelious 
not only to the church, but also to the secular powers ; seditious, impi- 
ous, blasphemous, suspected of heresy, and savoring of heresy itself, 
and also as abetting heretics and heresies, and also schism, erroneous, 
near akin to heresy, several times condemned, and finally heretical, and 
manifestly renewing respectively various heresies, and those particu- 
larly which are contained in the infamous propositions of Jansenius, 
taken, however, in that sense in which they have been condemned. 
We command all the faithful in Christ of both sexes not to presume 
to think of the aforesaid propositions, to teach them, to preach them 
otherwise than is contained in this same our constitution ; so that 
whosoever shall tQach. defend, publish them t or any of them, conjointly 


or separately, or shall treat of them publicly or privately, even by way 
of disputing, unless perhaps for the purpose of impugning them, let 
him, by the very fact, without other declaration, lie under ecclesias- 
tical censures, and other penalties enacted by law against those per- 
petrating such acts." 

The promulgation of this bull created great disturbances, 
especially in France. Many prelates and distinguished men, 
including Cardinal de Noailles, archbishop of Paris, appealed 
from it to a future general council. Father Quesnel and others 
took refuge in Holland and died there ; others were forced into 
submission ; others, stripped of office and honor, removed to 
foreign countries. Rev. Dr. Murray, a Roman Catholic bishop 
of Ireland, was asked in his examination before the Parlia- 
mentary Committee on the state of Ireland 1824-5, " Is the 
bull 'Uhigenitus' in force in Ireland?" and he answered, "It 
is." Of course, it has never been repealed. 

The bull of pope Sixtus V., known as JEternus ille (eternal 
he), dated March 1, 1589, and prefixed to his edition of the 
Latin Vulgate Bible, which was carefully corrected by his own 
hand, printed in the Vatican palace, and published at Rome in 
1590, deserves also to be specially noticed. The bull says : 

" Of our certain knowledge, and by the fullness of apostolic power, 
we determine and declare that that Vulgate Latin edition of the holy 
page, as well of the Old as of the New Testament, which has been 
received as authentic by the Council of Trent, is to be considered, 
without any doubt or controversy, this very one, which we now pub- 
lish in the whole Christian commonwealth, corrected, as might best be 
done, and printed at the Vatican press, and to be read in all the 
churches of the Christian world, decreeing that it ... must be 
received and held as true, legitimate, authentic, and undoubted, in all 
public and private disputations, readings, preachings, and explana- 

The bull further forbids the publication of various readings 
in copies of the Vulgate, and determines that all those read- 
ings in other editions and manuscripts which vary from 
this edition of the pope " shall have for the future no credit 


and no authority." It also enacts that the new revision shall 
be introduced into all missals and service-books ; and threatens 
the greater excommunication against all who in any way con- 
travene this constitution. But, by the death of pope Sixtus V. 
in August, 1590, the enforcement of this bull was hindered ; his 
immediate successor, Urban VII. , chosen the next month, died 
in a few days ; and, in December, Gregory XIV. became pope. 
In the meantime, the Sixtine edition of the Vulgate caused 
great dissatisfaction ; and under the year 1591 Cardinal Bel- 
larmin, the great Roman controversialist, wrote thus in his auto- 
biography (first edition) : 

" When Gregory XIV. was thinking what must be done about the 
bible edited by Sixtus V., in which were very many rash changes, 
there were not wanting grave men who thought that bible should be 
publicly prohibited, but N. (Bellarmin) demonstrated before the pon- 
tiff that that bible should not be prohibited, but should be so corrected 
that, the honor of Pope Sixtus V. being preserved, that bible should go 
forth corrected, which might be done if those bad changes were re- 
moved as speedily as possible, and the bible reprinted under the name 
of the same Sixtus, with the addition of a preface indicating that in the 
first edition of Sixtus some errors had crept in through haste, by the 
carelessness either of the printers or of others, and so N. returned to 
Sixtus good for evil" [this last refers to Sixtus's condemnation of 
Bellarmin 's thesis denying that " the pope is the direct master of the 
whole world]." 

Cardinal Bellarmin was a Jesuit, and proposed to represent 
the deliberate alterations of Sixtus as typographical errors or 
something of the sort. Accordingly, a commission under Car- 
dinal Colonna was appointed to revise the Sixtine text. Their 
labor was hardly finished when pope Gregory died (in Octo- 
ber, 1591). His successor also died before the close of the 
year ; but in January, 1592, Clement VIII. succeeded to the 
papal chair, and by his authority the new edition of the Vul- 
gate was printed before the end of 1592, with, it is said, 2,000 
corrections of errors introduced by Pope Sixtus V. himself. 
The preface of this edition was written by Bellarmin, and 
the following are extracts from it : 


" Sixtus V. ... ordered the work, at length finished, to be printed. 
When it had been struck off, and the same pontiff was bestowing care 
that it might be published [this implies that it was not published, the 
feict being otherwise], observing that not a few errors of the press had 
crept into the Sacred Bible, which seemed to call for renewed dili- 
gence, he determined and decreed that the whole work should be re- 
printed [" of this," says Rev. B. F. Westcott, a learned English schol- 
ar, who has carefully investigated this subject, " there is not the faint- 
est shadow of proof"]. . . . Receive, therefore, Christian reader, 

. . . from the Vatican press, the old and vulgate edition of the 
Sacred Scripture, corrected with all possible diligence ; which indeed, 
though it is difficult in consequence of human infirmity to call it ab- 
solutely perfect, is yet doubtless better corrected and freer from error 
than all others that have gone forth up to this day. . . . Never- 
theless, as some things in the common reading were changed advisedly, 
so other things which seemed to need change were advisedly left un- 
changed, in accordance with St. Jerome's repeated counsel to avoid pop- 
ular offense," &c. 

The doctrine of papal infallibility certainly encounters a very 
serious difficulty in the bull of pope Sixtus V. and the histori- 
cal facts connected with it. The language of Bellarmin to 
pope Clement VIII. was not unmeaning : 

" Your blesssedness knows into what danger Sixtus V. has brought 
himself and the whole church in attacking the correction of the sacred 
books according to the sentiments of true learning ; nor am I sure 
than any graver danger ever happened." 

A papal brief or " apostolical brief " is a letter addressed by 
the pope to an individual or a community in respect to a matter 
of discipline, public affairs, &c. It is usually written on paper, 
sometimes on parchment ; is sealed in red wax with the seal of 
the Fisherman, which is a symbol of St. Peter in a boat, cast- 
ing his net into the sea ; and is signed, not by the pope, but by 
an officer of the papal chancery called the "Secretary of Briefs." 
A " brief " is a less ample and solemn instrument than a 
" bull," and more like a private letter. The following is an 
extract from " the brief of pope Pius IX. to the Roman Cath- 


olic primate in Ireland, given at Rome," August 21, 1850, 
about four months after the pontiff's return from Gaeta : 

" Nobly, indeed, do you provide for your clergy and people when 
you hasten to communicate to them all that devotion wherewith you 
are yourself wonderfully imbued towards the most holy Mother of 
God and most gracious Virgin Mary, by whom every faithful soul is 
said, by Cyril, to be saved. Under the guidance and auspices, above 
all, of her, to whom it is given to destroy all heresies, let us hope, in 
this raging tempest, for the present help of a merciful God, and let us 
expect it with confidence." 

An " encyclical letter" is a circular letter, or a letter ad- 
dressed to a large number, particularly to all bishops and other 
prelates of the Roman Catholic church. The following ency- 
clical letter of Gregory XVI. is of special interest to Americans. 
It was published in the Diario di Roma (the official gazette of 
of the papal government) in Latin and Italian, May 25, 1844, 
and was translated into English by Sir Culling Eardley Smith, 
bart., and published in London with the Latin text and the 
authorized Italian translation appended. As the original Latin 
title is somewhat more full than either of the translations, a 
literal translation of it is here prefixed. The rest of the trans- 
lation is Sir Culling's, with two or three verbal corrections. 


" Venerable Brothers, 

" Greeting and the Apostolic Benediction : 

" Amongst the principal machinations by which in this our age the 
Non-Catholics of various names endeavor to ensnare the adherents of 
Catholic truth, and to turn away their minds from the holiness of the 
Faith, a prominent position is held by the Bible Societies. These socie- 
ties, first instituted in England, and since extended far and wide, we now 
behold in one united phalanx, conspiring for this object, to translate 
the books of the Divine Scriptures into all the vulgar tongues, to 
issue immense numbers of copies, to disseminate them indiscriminately 


among Christians and infidels, and to entice every individual to pe- 
ruse them without any guide. Consequently, as Jerome lamented in 
his time (Epist to Paulinus, sec. 7, which is Epist. liii. tome i., works 
of St. Jerome, Edit of Vallaraius), they make common to the garru- 
lous old woman, the doting old man, the wordy sophist, and to all men 
of every condition, provided only they can read, the art of understand- 
ing the Scriptures without an instructor ; nay, which is absurdest of all, 
and almost unheard of, they do not even exclude unbelieving nations 
from such community of intelligence. 

" But, Venerable Brethren, you are not ignorant of the tendency of 
the proceedings of these societies. For you know full well the ex- 
hortation of Peter, the chief of the apostles, recorded in the sacred 
writings themselves, who, after praising the epistles of Paul, says that 
there are in them some things difficult to be understood, which they 
who are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other Scrip- 
tures, to their own destruction ; and immediately adds, You, therefore* 
my brethren, knowing this beforehand, be on your guard, lest, deceived 
by the error of the foolish, you fall from your own steadfastness (2 
Pet 3 : 16, 17). Hence it is clear to you, that even from the first 
age of the Christian name, this art has been peculiar to heretics, 
that repudiating the traditionary word of God, and rejecting the au- 
thority of the Catholic church, they either interpolate the Scriptures 
by hand, or pervert them in the explanation of their meaning (Tertul- 
lian, book on prescriptions against heretics, ch. 37, 38). Nor, lastly* 
are ye ignorant how great diligence and wisdom are needed, in order 
to transfer faithfully into another language the words of the Lord ; so 
that nothing is more likely to happen than that in the versions of them 
multiplied by the Bible Societies the most grievous errors may be in- 
troduced, by the ignorance or fraud of so many interpreters ; errors 
which the very multitude and variety of the translations long conceal to 
the ruin of many. To those societies, however, it matters little or nothing 
into what errors the persons who read the Bibles translated into the vul- 
gar tongues, may fall, provided they be gradually accustomed to claim 
for themselves a free judgment of the sense of the Scriptures, to con- 
temn the Divine traditions as taught by the Fathers, and preserved in 
the Catholic Church, and even to repudiate the Church's direction. 

' To this end, these members of Bible Societies cease not to calum- 
niate the Church and this Holy See of Peter, as if it had for many ages 
been endeavoring to keep the believing people from the knowledge of 


the sacred Scriptures ; whilst there exist many and most perspicuous 
proofs of the earnest desire which, even in recent times, popes, and 
other Catholic dignitaries under their guidance, have felt, that nations 
of Catholics might be more carefully instructed in the written and tra- 
ditionary words of God. To which head belong, in the first place, 
the decrees of the Council of Trent, in which not only is it enjoined on 
bishops, to provide for the more frequent announcement through each 
diocese of the sacred Scriptures and the Divine Law (Sess. xxiv., ch. 4, 
on Ref.), but, enlarging the enactment of the Lateran Council (Lat. 
Council of the year 1215, under Innocent III., ch. xi., which is referred 
to the body of law, ch. 4, on Teachers), it is moreover provided, that 
in each church, whether cathedral or collegiate, of cities and considera- 
ble towns, there should be a theological prebend, which should be con- 
ferred solely on persons capable of expounding and interpreting the 
sacred Scripture (Trent, session v., ch. 1, on Ref.). Respecting the 
subsequent constitution of the theological prebend on the plan of the 
above Tridentine enactment, and respecting the lectures to be delivered 
by the theological canon to the clergy and even to the people, steps 
were taken in several provincial synods (in the 1st Milan Council, A.D. 
1565, part L, tit. 5, on the Theol. Preb. ; 5th Milan, A.D. 1579, partiii., 
tit. 5, as to Collat. on Benef. ; Aquensian; A. D. 1585, on Canon., &c., 
fec.,) particularly in the Roman Conncil of the year 1725 (Tit. i., 
ch. 6, &c.), to which Benedict XIIL, our predecessor of happy mem- 
ory, had convened not only the sacred dignitaries of the Roman prov- 
ince, but also several of the archbishops, bishops, and other local or- 
dinaries, under the immediate authority of this holy see (in the letter 
for calling the council, Dec. 24, 1724). The same pontiff made sev- 
eral provisions with the same design, in the apostolic letters which he 
issued specifically for Italy and the adjacent islands (Const. Pastoralis 
Officii, May 19, 1725). To you, too, Venerable Brethren, who at 
stated periods have been accustomed to report to the Apostolic See, 
upon the condition of sacred affairs in your respective dioceses (accord- 
ing to the Constit. of Sixtus V., Romanus Pontifex Dec. 20, 1585, and 
Const, of Bened. XIV., quod sancta Sardicensis Synodus, Nov. 23, 
tome i. Bullar. of this Pontiff, and according to the Instruction in App. 
to Diet, tome i.), it is manifest from the replies again and again given by 
our ' Congregation of Council ' to your predecessors, or to yourselves, 
how this holy see is wont to congratulate bishops, if they have theo- 
logical prebendaries ably discharging their duty in the delivery of pub- 


lie lectures on the sacred writings, and never ceases to excite and as- 
sist their pastoral anxieties, if anywhere the matter has not succeeded 
to their wishes. 

"With regard, however, to Bibles translated into the vulgar 
tongues, it was the case even many centuries since, that in various 
places the holy dignitaries were obliged at times to exercise increased 
vigilance, when they discovered that versions of this sort were either 
read in secret conventicles, or were actively distributed by heretics. To 
this refer the admonitions and cautions issued by Innocent III., our 
predecessor of glorious memory, concerning assemblies of laics and 
women secretly held in the diocese of Metz (in three letters to the 
Metensians and their bishop and chapter, also to the abbeys Cister- 
cian, Morimund and de Crista, which are Epist. 141, 142, book ii., and 
Epist. 235, book iii- in Edit. Balutius), under a pretense of piety, for 
reading the Scriptures ; and also the peculiar prohibitions of Bibles 
in the vulgar tongue, which we find to have been issued in France 
soon after (in Council of Toulouse, A. D. 1229, can. 14), and in Spain 
previous to the sixteenth century (on the testimony of Cardinal Pa- 
cecco, at the Council of Trent, in Pallavicino's Hist, of the Council of 
Trent, book vi., ch. 12). But greater precaution was needed after- 
wards, when the Lutheran and Calvinist Anti-Catholics, venturing: to 

7 o 

assail with an almost incredible variety of errors the unchangeable doc- 
trine of the Faith, left no means untried to deceive the minds of the 
faithful by perverted explanations of the Scriptures, and by new trans- 
lations of them into vulgar tongues, edited by their adherents. The 
lately-discovered art of printing assisted them in multiplying and 
speedily spreading copies. Accordingly we read in the rules drawn 
up by the Fathers chosen by the Council of Trent, approved by Pius 
IV., our predecessor of happy memory (in Constit. Dominici Gregt's, 
March 24, 1564), and prefixed to the Index of Prohibited Books, a 
provision of general application that Bibles published in the vulgar 
tongue, should be allowed to no persons but those to whom the read- 
ing of them was judged likely to be productive of an increase of faith 
and piety (in Rules III. and IV. of the Index). To this rule, after- 
wards rendered more stringent, owing to the pertinacious frauds of her- 
etics, a declaration was at last attached by the authority of Benedict 
XIV., that the perusal of such versions may be considered permitted, 
as have been published with the approbation of the apostolic see, or 


with annotations taken from the holy Fathers of the church or from 
learned and Catholic men (in addit. to diet. Rule IV. by Decree of the 
Congregation of the Index, June 17, 1757). 

" Meanwhile there were not wanting new sectaries of the Jansenist 
school, who, in a style borrowed from the Lutherans and Calvinists, scru- 
pled not to reprehend these wise provisions of the church and the apos- 
tolic see, as if the reading of the Scriptures were useful and necessary to 
every class of the faithful, at every time and in every place, and there- 
fore could not be forbidden to any one by any authority whatever. 
This audacity of the Jansenists, however, we find severely reprehended 
in the solemn judgments which, with the applause of the whole Cath- 
olic world, were delivered against their doctrines by two popes of happy 
memory, viz., Clement XL, in the bull Uhigenitus, of the year 1713 (in 
proscription of the Propositions of Quesnel, No. 79-85) ; and Pius 
VI., in the bull Auctorem Fidei, of the year 1794 (hi condemnation of 
the propositions of the pseudo-synod of Pistoja, No. 67). 

" Thus, therefore, before Bible Societies were formed, by means of 
the above decrees of the Church the faithful had been fortified against 
the stratagem of the heretics, which lies concealed under the specious 
plan of spreading the Holy Scriptures for general use. Pius VII., how- 
ever, our predecessor of glorious memory, in whose time those societies 
arose, and who found that they were making great progress, failed not 
to oppose their endeavors, partly through his apostolic nuncios, partly 
by epistles and decrees issued by different congregations of cardinals 
of the holy Roman church (especially by the epistle of the Congrega- 
tion of the Propaganda Fide to the apostolic vicars of Persia, Ar- 
menia, and other regions of the East, dated Aug. 3, 1S1G ; and by the 
decree respecting all versions of this sort, put forth by the Congrega- 
tion of the Index, June 23, 1817), and partly by his two papal briefs 
which he addressed to the Archbishops of Genesna (Jan. 1, 1816) and 
Mohilow (Sept. 4, 1816). Afterwards Leo XII., our predecessor of 
happy memory, assailed those same designs of the Bible Societies in 
his Encyclical Letter addressed to all the dignitaries of the Catholic 
world, on the 5th May, 1824 ; and the same thing was also done by 
our immediate predecessor of equally happy memory, Pius VIII., in his 
Encyclical Letter issued the 24th May, 1829. We, too, who with far 
inferior merit have succeeded to his place, have not omitted to exer- 
cise our apostolical solicitude upon the same object, and among other 
things have taken steps to recall to the memory of the faithful the 


rule formerly enacted concerning translations of the Scripture into the 
vulgar tongues (in the admonition annexed to the Decree of the Con- 
gregation of the Index, Jan. 7, 1836). 

" We have, however, great cause to congratulate you, Venerable 
Brethren, that, at the impulse of your own piety and wisdom, and 
confirmed by the above letters of our predecessors, you have never 
neglected when necessary to admonish the Catholic flock to beware of 
the snares laid for them by the Bible Societies. From these efforts of 
the bishops, in conjunction with the solicitude of this Supreme See of 
Peter, it has resulted, under the Lord's blessing, that certain incau- 
tious Catholics, who were imprudently encouraging Bible Societies, 
seeing through the fraud, immediately withdrew from them ; and the 
remainder of the faithful have continued nearly untouched by the 
contagion which threatened them from that quarter. 

" Meanwhile the Biblical sectaries were possessed with the con- 
fident hope of acquiring great credit, by inducing in any manner un- 
believers to make a profession of the Christian name by means of 
reading the Holy Scriptures published in their own tongue, innumerable 
copies of which they caused to be distributed through their countries, 
and even to be forced on the unwilling, by means of missionaries or 
agents in their employ. But these men, thus endeavoring to propa- 
gate the Christian name contrary to the rules instituted by Christ 
himself, found themselves almost always disappointed, with the excep- 
tion that they were able sometimes to create new impediments to 
Catholic priests, who, proceeding to these nations with a commis- 
sion from this Holy See, spared no exertions to beget new sons to the 
church, by the preaching of the word of God, and the administration 
of the sacraments, prepared even to shed their blood amidst the most 
exquisite torments for the salvation of the heathen, and as a testimony 
to the faith. 

u Amidst these sectaries, thus frustrated in their hopes, and review- 
ing with sorrowful hearts the immense amount of money already spent 
in publishing and fruitlessly distributing their Bibles, some have lately 
appeared, who, proceeding upon a somewhat new plan, have directed 
their machinations towards making their principal assault on the minds 
of the Italians, and of the citizens of our very city. In fact, from 
intelligence and documents lately received, we have ascertained that 
several persons of different sects met last year at New York in Amer- 
ica, and on the 12th of June formed a new society, entitled 'The 


Christian Alliance,' to be increased by new members from every na- 
tion, or by auxiliary societies whose common design shall be to intro- 
duce religious liberty, or rather an insane desire of indifference in 
religion, among the Romans and other Italians. For they acknowl- 
edge that for several centuries, the institutions of the Roman and 
Italian race have had such great and general influence, that there has 
been no great movement in the world, which has not begun from this 
holy city ; a fact which they trace, not to the establishment here, by 
the Divine disposal, of the Supreme See of Peter, but to certain rem- 
nants of the ancient dominion of the Romans, lingering in that power 
which, as they say, our predecessors have usurped. Accordingly, being 
resolved to confer on all the nations liberty of conscience, or rather of 
error, from whence as from its proper source political liberty will also 
flow, with an increase of public prosperity, in their sense of the word, 
they feel they can do nothing unless they make some progress among 
the Italians and citizens of Rome ; intending afterwards to make great 
use among other nations of their authority and assistance. This object 
they feel sure of attaining, from the circumstance that so many Ital- 
ians reside in various places throughout the world, and afterwards 
return in considerable numbers to their own country ; many of whom, 
being influenced already of their own accord with the love of change, 
or being of dissolute habits, or being afflicted with poverty, may with- 
out much trouble be tempted to give their name to the society, or at 
least to sell their services to it. Their whole aim, then, is directed to 
procuring the assistance of such persons in every direction, transmitting 
hither by their means mutilated Italian Bibles, and secretly depositing 
them in the hands of the faithful ; distributing also at the same time 
other mischievous books and tracts, intended to alienate the mind of the 
readers from their allegiance to the church and this holy see, composed by 
the help of these same Italians, or translated by them from other authors 
into the language of the country. Among these they principally name 
the History of the Reformation by Merle d' Aubigne", and the Memoirs 
of the Reformation in Italy by John Cric. 1 The probable character 
of this whole class of books may be inferred from this circumstance, 

1 The Pope or his amanuensis or his printer has evidently made a mistake here 
in the name. The work referred to is undoubtedly the " History of the Progress 
and Suppression of the Reformation in Italy in the Sixteenth Century ; including 
a sketch of the History of the Reformation in the Orisons. By Thomas McCrie, 
D. D." 


that it is a law of the Society, with regard to select committees for the 
choice of books, that there shall never be two individuals of the same 
religious sect upon any one of them. 

"As soon as this news reached us, we could not but be deeply 
pained at the consideration of the danger with which we learned that 
the sectaries menaced the security of our holy religion, not merely in 
places remote from this city, but even at the very center of Catholic 
unity. For though there is not the slightest cause for fear that the 
see of Peter should ever fail, upon which the Lord Jesus Christ has 
built the impregnable foundation of his church, we must not for that 
reason cease from maintaining its authority; nay, our very office of the 
supreme apostolate reminds us of the severe account which our Divine 
Chief Shepherd will require of us for any tares sown by the enemy 
while we slept, which may grow up in the Master's field ; and for 
the blood ot any sheep entrusted to us which by our fault may have 

" Having, therefore, taken into our council several cardinals of the 
holy Roman church, and having gravely and maturely weighed the 
whole matter, with their concurrence we have decided to issue this 
epistle to you, Venerable Brethren, in which, as respects all the afore- 
said Bible Societies, already reprobated by our predecessors, we again 
with apostolical authority condemn them; and by the same authority 
of our Supreme Apostolate, we reprobate by name and condemn the 
aforesaid new society ot the * Christian Alliance,' constituted last year 
in New York, and other associations of the same sort, if any have 
joined it, or shall hereafter join it Hence be it known, that all such 
persons will be guilty of a grave crime before God and the church, 
who shall presume to give their name, or lend their help, or in any 
way to favor any of the said societies. Moreover, we confirm and by 
apostolical authority renew the aforesaid directions already issued 
concerning the publication, distribution, reading, and retention of 
books of the Holy Scripture translated into the vulgar tongues; while 
with respect to other works, of whatever author, we wish to remind 
all persons that the general rules and the decrees of our predecessors, 
prefixed to the Index of Prohibited Books, are to be adhered to ; and 
consequently, not only are those books to be avoided which are by 
name included in the same Index, but those also to which the aforesaid 
general directions refer. 


" Called as you arc, Venerable Brethren, to participate in our solici- 
tude, we urgently bid you in the Lord to announce and explain, as 
place and time permit, to the people entrusted to your pastoral care 
this our apostolic judgment and commands ; and to endeavor to turn 
away the faithful sheep from the above society of the ' Christian Alli- 
ance ' and its auxiliaries, as also from all other Bible societies, and 
from all communication with them. At the same time it will also be 
your duty to seize out of the hands of the faithful, not only Bibles 
translated into the vulgar tongue, published contrary to the above di- 
rections of the Roman pontiffs, but also proscribed or injurious books 
of every sort, and thus to provide that the faithful may be taught by 
your monitions and authority, ' what sort of pasture they should con- 
sider salutary to them, and what noxious and deadly' (mandate of Leo 
XII. set forth with the Decree of the Congregation of the Index, March 
28, 1825). Meanwhile, Venerable Brethren, apply yourselves daily 
more and more to the preaching of the word of God, as weU personally 
as by means of those who have cure of souls in each diocese, and other 
ecclesiastical men suited to that function; and especially pay more 
vigilant attention to those whose office it is to hold public lectures on 
the Sacred Scripture, that they may diligently discharge their duty to 
the comprehension of their hearers ; and may never under any pretext 
venture to interpret or explain the Divine writings contrary to the tra- 
dition of the Fathers, or differently from the sense of the Catholic 
church. Lastly, as it pertains to a good shepherd not only to protect 
and nourish the sheep which adhere to him, but also to seek and bring 
back to the fold tlio.-e which have strayed away, it will therefore be 
both your duty and ours, to apply all the energy of our pastoral en- 
deavors, that if any persons have suffered themselves to be seduced by 
such sectaries and propagators of noxious books, they may by God's 
grace be led to acknowledge the gravity of their sin, and strive to expi- 
ate it by the remedies of a salutary penitence. Neither must we ex- 
clude from the same sacerdotal solicitude the seducers of others, and 
even the chief teachers of impiety ; and though the iniquity of these 
last be greater, yet must we not abstain from the more earnestly seek- 
ing their salvation by all practicable ways and means. 

" Moreover, Venerable Brethren, against the plots and designs of 
the members of the ' Christian Alliance,' we require a peculiar and 
most lively vigilance from those of your order who govern churches 


situated in Italy, or in other places where Italians frequently resort ; 
but especially on the confines of Italy, or wherever emporiums or ports 
exist from whence there is frequent communication with Italy. For 
as the sectaries themselves propose to carry their plans into effect in 
those places, those bishops are especially bound to cooperate with us, 
so as by active and constant exertions, with the Divine help, to defeat 
their machinations. 

" Such endeavors on your and our own part we doubt not will be 
aided by the help of the civil powers, and especially by that of the 
most potent princes of Italy ; as well on account of their distinguished 
zeal for preserving the Catholic religion, as because it cannot have 
escaped their wisdom, that it is highly to the interest of the common 
weal, that the aforesaid designs of the sectaries should fail. For it is 
evident, and proved by the continued experience of past years, that 
there is no readier way to draw nations from their fidelity and obe- 
dience to their princes, than that indifference in the matter of religion, 
which the sectaries propagate under the name of religious liberty. 
Nor is this concealed by the new society of the ' Christian Alliance'; 
who, though they profess themselves averse to exciting civil con- 
tentions, yet confess that from the right of interpreting the Scrip- 
tures, claimed by them for every person of the lowest class, and from 
the universal liberty of conscience, as they term it, which they would 
thus spread among the Italian race, the political liberty of Italy will 
also spontaneously follow. 

" First, however, and chiefest, let us together raise our hands to God, 
Venerable Brethren, and commend to him with all the humility of fer- 
vent prayer of which we are capable, our own cause and that of the 
whole flock and of his own church ; invoking also the most pious dep- 
recation of Peter the chief of the apostles, and of the other saints, and 
especially of the most Blessed Virgin Mary, to whom it is granted to 
exterminate all heresies throughout the entire world. 

" Lastly, as a pledge of our most ardent love, to all of you, Venera- 
ble Brethren, to the clergy entrusted to you, and to the faithful laity, 
with unrestrained and hearty affection we lovingly grant the apostolic 

" Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, the 8th May, 1844, in the fourteenth 
year of our pontificate. 



It is very evident from the foregoing encyclical letter, that 
Gregory XVI. and his confidential counselors were greatly 
troubled in view of the possibility that the Italians should have 
the religious freedom, or liberty of conscience,- which is the in- 
heritance of all Americans. While the Pope and his advisers 
heartily abhorred all Bible Societies, they held the " Christian 
Alliance " in special detestation and dread. Now the simple 
object of Bible Societies is thus stated in the constitution of 
the American Bible Society : " The sole object shall be to en- 
courage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without 
note or comment." The relation of Roman Catholicism to 
the Bible itself is considered in Chapter XIII. As it was the 
Address which the " Christian Alliance " made to the world, 
together with the Proceedings at some of its public meetings, 
which called forth the above Encyclical Letter, the essential 
parts of that address are here inserted : 

" The Christian Alliance, for the promotion of religious free- 
dom, has originated in the attention which gentlemen of various Chris- 
tian denominations, in the city of New York and elsewhere, have re- 
cently given to the present condition of Italy, and the relations between 
that country and the cause of religious freedom throughout the world. 
A door is open for the access of truth to the minds of the Italian peo- 
ple. Notwithstanding the most rigid censorship over the press and the 
importation of books ; notwithstanding every regulation which the genius 
of despotism can devise to shut out knowledge and to suppress inquiry ; 
notwithstanding the terrors of Austrian artillery, and the inconvenien- 
ces of a police swarming in every quarter ; it is ascertained that to 
some extent papers, tracts, books, the Bible itself, can be introduced 
into Italy, and can be placed in the hands of those who will hardly fail 
to read and to profit by the reading. At the same time an ample field 
of effort is presented among the Italians out of Italy, between whom 
and their countrymen at home there is, and notwithstanding every pos- 
sible regulation there must continue to be, a constant intercourse 

" Our great object is the promotion of religious freedom. . . . We 
propose to labor for that object, particularly and chiefly, by the diffu- 
sion of useful and religious knowledge among the Italians 

" Inquiries are to be prosecuted ; facts are to be collected, collated, 


and given (o the world ; agencies and correspondences are to be estab- 
lished ; tracts and books are to be prepared and issued in Italian, and 
perhaps in other languages, setting forth in a clear light, for popular 
apprehension, the great argument for religious freedom. .... 

** With questions properly political our association has nothing to 
do. "We do not undertake to persuade the people of Italy that their 
governments need reformation ; that a republic is happier than a mon- 
archy ; or that an elective magistracy is better than a hereditary aristoc- 
racy. Whatever may be our judgment as individuals, whatever our 
sympathies as American citizen*, we are not political propagandists. 
We only assert the sacred right, the religious duty of every man to 
read the Scriptures for himself, and to worship God, not in blind sub- 
mission to priests or potentates, but in the exercise of his own faculties, 
and according to his own convictions. 

" To us, it is an interesting feature of this enterprise that it has 
brought together, in free and friendly consultation, and in hearty coop- 
eration, Christians of various ecclesiastical connections. We hope that 
our CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE will be another rallying point for that large 
and Catholic feeling which dwells ever in hearts that love the Savior. 
And while we invite our fellow-disciples in all parts of the country, to 
unite with us, either singly or in auxiliary organizations, and thus to 
aid us with their contributions and their personal influence ; we would 
yet more earnestly solicit their continual prayers for us, and for ' them 
that are at Rome also,' making request, if by any means our enterprise 
may be prospered by the will of God, * that we may impart to them 
some spiritual gift ;' and that thus the gospel in which we rejoice, and 
which, as disciples of Christ and members of his universal church, we 
hold forth to the world, ' may have fruit among them also, even as 
amon other Gentiles." 


The names appended to this address as the Corresponding 
Secretaries of the " Christian Alliance," are those of three 
evangelical ministers, the first and third of whom are still liv- 
ing, earnest and eloquent advocates of the claims of truth and 
righteousness as well as of religious freedom. The " Christian 
Alliance," whose mouth-piece they were at this time, was 


merged, in May, 1849, with two other societies, viz., the 
" American Protestant Society," and the " Foreign Evangeli- 
cal Society," in what has ever since been known as the "Amer- 
ican and Foreign Christian Union," the objects of which are 
denned in its constitution to be, " by Missions, Colportage, the 
Press, and other appropriate agencies, to diffuse and pro- 
mote the principles of Religious Liberty and a pure and 
Evangelical Christianity, both at home and abroad wherever a 
corrupted Christianity exists." 

A " rescript " is the official answer, which the pope gives to 
any question in respect to discipline, <fec. " The rescripts or 
decretal epistles of the popes to questions propounded upon 
emergent doubts relative to matters of discipline and ecclesias- 
tical economy," constituted, as Hallam represents, one of the 
foundations of " the canon law," already described in Chap- 
ter III. The following translation of a rescript issued by 
the present pope respecting a translation of the Raccolta or Col- 
lection of Indulgenced Prayers, -may serve as a specimen of their 
manner. Both the original rescript in Latin, and the English 
translation of the rescript are inserted in the book as translated 
and published by authority. 


" In order to promote thereby the piety of the faithful in Eng- 
land, Ambrose St. John, Priest of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, in 
the Diocese of Birmingham, humbly prays for permission to print in 
English, translations of the book entitled Raccolta di Orazioni, fyc., alle 
quali sono annesse le SS. Indulgenze, having first obtained the appro- 
bation of his Eminence, the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster ; and 
also that the faithful who make use of this translation may gain all the 
Indulgences annexed to the original. 

" After an audience of the Holy Father, granted February 3, 1856, 
our most Holy Lord Pius IX., by Divine Providence Pope, on an ap- 
plication made by me, the undersigned Secretary of the Sacred Con- 
gregation for the Propagation of the Faith, has of his goodness an- 
swered by Rescript in favor of the grace, according to the terms of the 
petition, provided the translation be made from the last Roman edi- 


tion, and it being understood that the Decree printed at the end of this 
edition remains in full force. 

" Given at Rome from the House of the same Sacred Congrega- 
tion, on the day and year aforesaid. 

" Gratis, without any payment on any plea whatever. 

AL. BARNABO, Secretary. 

u In the place oft the seal." 

One other term may need, among Americans, a word of de- 
finition and explanation. A papal " constitution " is an au- 
thoritative and formal mandate of the pope. It " constitutes" or 
establishes the law of the case, and may be expressed in 
the form of a bull, letter, &c. Thus Pope Gregory XVI. 
cites as " constitutions " both the bull " Unigenitus " and 
the apostolical letters issued by Benedict XIII. for Italy and 
the adjacent islands. This meaning of " constitution " is de- 
rived from the old Roman application of the term to the de- 
crees and decisions of the Roman emperors. Neither the an- 
cient nor the modern Romans applied this term, as we now do, 
to the fundamental law of the state which defines the great 
rights, privileges, and duties of the citizens and of their govern- 
ment and officers. They have had no formal public document of 
this sort ; and it is therefore certain that in all the long and 
terrible record of the injustice, rapacity, and cruelty of the im- 
perial and pontifical rulers of Rome, there has been no opportu- 
nity for the Romans to complain, like many Americans, that 
their " constitutional rights" have been violated. 



The cardinals hold the highest dignity in the Romaa church 
and court after the pope. The word " cardinal " comes di- 
rectly from the Latin adjective cardindlia, and this again from 
the Latin noun cardo (= a hinge ; hence, figuratively, that upon 
which anything turns ; the chief point, principal circumstance, 
or main one among things). We use the adjective " cardinal " 
in the derivative or figurative sense of the later Latin, when we 
speak ot the " cardinal " points of the compass, of the " cardi- 
nal " numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, <fcc.), of the " cardinal" virtues, &c. 
After the elevation of the bishops, especially of the metropol- 
itan bishops, to a station of preeminent dignity and power, the 
metropolitan churches in Italy, Gaul, &c., were styled " cardi- 
nal " churches, and their ministers were also called " cardi- 
nals." About the 6th and 7th centuries the presbyters and 
deacons of Rome, who, with the concurrence of the magistrates 
and citizens of Rome, elected the bishop, were especially 
known as " cardinal " priests and deacons. The title " car- 
dinal " was afterwards also applied to the seven suffragan 
bishops in the neighborhood of Rome, at Ostia, Porto, Santa 
Rufina, Sabina, Palestrina, Albano, and Frascati. In the llth 
century the " cardinals of Rome " were these seven suffragan 
bishops, and the ministers of the 28 parishes or principal 
churches of the city. In April, 1059, a Roman synod under 
pope Nicholas II. passed a decree concerning the election of 
the Roman pontiff, which committed this to the " cardinal 
bishops " and " cardinal clerks" (that is, to the bishops and 
priests just named), with the assent of the emperor and of the 
clergy and people of Rome. But in consequence of complaints 


and commotions consequent on this change in the mode of elec- 
tion, Alexander III., about a century later, enlarged the col- 
lege of cardinals, by admitting into it other priests of high 
rank in Rome and elsewhere, the seven " palatine judges " as 
they were called, and probably also the cardinal deacons as 
leaders of the inferior clergy. Since the time of Alexander 
III., cardinals have chosen the pope without asking the assent 
or approbation of the clergy or people of Rome. In 1179, Alex- 
ander III. issued a decree requiring the vote of two-thirds of the 
cardinals to make an election valid. The number of cardinals 
having varied at different times from 7 to 65 or 70, Sixtus V., in 
1587, fixed the full number of cardinals at 70, namely, six bishops 
above-named (the sees of Porto and Santa Rufma are now 
united), 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons ; but this 
number is seldom full. Most of the cardinal priests bear the 
title of some church in Rome, and the deacons of some hospital 
or chapel there. The cardinal priests may be bishops or arch- 
bishops of some diocese ; but as cardinals they are only priests, 
and must call themselves such. The cardinal deacons may be 
priests ; but they are looked upon as deacons, and are not to 
officiate publicly as priests. The cardinals are, therefore (in 
appearance), the representatives of the clergy of Rome. Thus 
cardinal Wiseman, who was archbishop of Westminster, and 
the seventh English cardinal, was only a cardinal priest, known 
at Rome as Cardinal St. Pudentiana and deriving his title 
from the Roman church of St. Pudentiana. Yet, although 
cardinals are almost exclusively clergymen, laymen may be and 
have been cardinals. Thus cardinal Albani, who managed the 
elections of popes Pius VIII., Leo XII., and Gregory XVI., 
was a layman unordained. When, about 20 years ago, Pius 
IX. filled up the sacred college by creating eight new cardi- 
nals, 54 of the whole number were Italians, six Frenchmen, 
three Austrians, two Spaniards, two Portuguese, one Belgian, 
one Englishman, one Prussian. This great preponderance of 
Italians still continues, as they constitute about three-fourths 
of the present number. For a long time bishops continued to 



take precedence of cardinals in councils ; but at the Synod of 
Lyons in 1245 the precedence of all cardinals over all bishops 
was finally established. In 1630 Urban VIII. gave to the car- 
dinals the title of "Eminence." 

Most of the cardinals who reside in Rome have ecclesias- 
tical benefices or are employed in the administration either 
spiritual or temporal ; some, members of wealthy families, 
provide for their own support; and those who have not the 
same means receive from the government an annual allowance 
of $4,500 (subject to a deduction of 10 per cent.), besides 
perquisites of office. A cardinal must have a carriage and 
livery-servants. His general dress 
is a clerical suit of black, but his 
stockings are red, and his hat is 
bordered with red. On public oc- 
casions his dress consists of a red 
tunic and mantle, a rochet or sur- 
plice of fine lace, and a red cap, 
or a red three-cornered hat when 
going out. If a cardinal is a mem- 
ber of a religious order, he contin- 
ues to wear his monastic color, and 
never uses silk. Thus pope Greg- 
ory XVI., who was a Camaldolese 
monk, was always, when a cardinal, 
dressed in white. The cardinals 
are appointed by the pope accord- 
ing to his own pleasure. When he 
presents a foreign prelate to the 
cardinalate, he sends him a mes- 
senger bearing the cap ; the hat A CARDINAL IN FULL DRESS, WITH 
must be received from the pope's 

own hand, unless the recipient is a member of a royal house, 
in which case it may be sent. A cardinal sent as ambassador 
to a foreign court is styled the pope's " legate a later e " (=from 
his side). The pope's chief secretary of state, his minister of 


finance, the vicar of Rome, and other leading official persons, 
are chosen from the cardinals. The personal appearance of the 
cardinals assembled in the Sistine chapel, is thus described 
by Dr. Wylie : 

" The cardinals are quite a study. I do not know that I have ever 
seen a finer collection of heads. They were massive and finely formed, 
and the face in each instance bore the corresponding expression. One 
felt as if the creations of the great masters had walked out of the can- 
vas, and stepped down upon the floor of the Sistine. There they sat 
on either side of the chapel, in a long red row, their servants in purple 
at their feet, and their heads bent over their breviaries, unless when they 
lifted them, as they often did, to cast a glance of conscious pleasure upon 
the spectators, or to exchange smiles and bows with another. The 
reflection that must strike the spectator in presence of the assembled 
cardinals is, what vast capacity in this body ! But it is not capacity 
of the highest order, of commanding genius, or grand conception. It 
is the capacity of adroit management, of skillful fetch, of ready re- 
source, which, however, when gathered into a focus, and set working, 
may be a very formidable power indeed. Craft, if one might judge 
from the twinkle in the eye, and the stealthy nimbleness of the frame, 
is the predominating talent of the cardinalate, but a craft of exquisite 
edge and inimitable polish, like ' a sharp razor working deceitfully.' " 

The following list of cardinals is taken from " Sadliers' 
Catholic Directory, Almanac, and Ordo, for the year of our 
Lord 1870." The whole number given here is 58; but only 50 
names are found in the same Directory for 1871, 11 of these 
names having disappeared, and 3 others being added. The 
missing names are de Bonald, Lucciardi, de Reisach, Caulik, 
de la Puente, Fontana, Lambruschini, Mattanin, Gonelia, nine 
priests ; and Roberti and Pautini, two deacons. The additions 
are three priests : " Sisto Riario Sforza ; born in Naples, Dec. 
5, 1810 ; Archbishop of Naples ; appointed and named cardi- 
nal by His Holiness Gregory XVI., Jan. 19, 1846." " Angelo 
Quaglia ; born in Cometo, Aug. 28, 1802 ; appointed and 
named cardinal by His Holiness Pius IX., Sept. 27, 1861." 
" Henry Mary Gaston dc Bonuechose ; born in Paris, May 30, 


1800; Archbishop of Rouen; appointed and named cardinal 
by His Holiness Pius IX., Dec. 21, 1863." Instead of" Dom- 
inick Consolini," among the priests there now appears among the 
deacons "Dominick Consolini ; born at Sinigaglia, June 7, 1806 ; 
apointed June 22, 1866." And finally, three cardinal priests 
are now cardinal bishops ; Paracciani having the titles ' ; Bishop 
of Frascati, Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, Grand Chancellor of 
Pontifical Noble Orders ;" di Pietro being " Bishop of Albano," 
and Ferretti being " Bishop of Sabina." Cardinal de Reisach, 
who was appointed by the pope the first of the five cardinals (de 
Jleisach, de Luca, Bizzarri, Bilio, Capalti) to preside in the 
Vatican Council of 1869-70, died in Switzerland soon after the 
council assembled ; and Cardinal de Angelis was appointed 
as a presiding cardinal in his stead. This list should have 
been headed with the name of Cardinal Mattei (who died in 
October, 1870) : " Marius Mattei ; born at Pergola, Sept. 6, 
1792 ; Bishop of Ostia and Legate of Velletri, Dec. 1860 ; Pre- 
fect of the Congregation for the preservation of St. Peter's ; 
Dean of the Sacred College, &c. ; appointed in 1832.'' 


" 1. Constantino Patrizi ; born at Sienna, Sept. 4, 1798 ; Vicar-Gen- 
eral of His Holiness; Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina, Dec. 17, 
1860 ; second Dean of the Sacred College ; Prefect of the Congrega- 
tion of the Residence of Bishops ; Prefect of the Congregation of 
Rites ; appointed June 11, 1836. 

"2. Louis Amat di S. Filippo e Sorso ; born at Cagliari, June 21, 
1796 ; Bishop of Palestrina, March 15, 1852 ; Vice-Chancellor of the 
Holy Roman Church; appointed May 19, 1837. 


" Philip de Angelis ; born at Ascoli, April 1 6, 1792 ; Archbishop 
of Fermo, Jan. 27, 1842; appointed July 8, 1839. 

" 2. Louis Vanicelli Casoni ; born at Amelia, April 1 6, 1801 ; Arch- 
bishop of Ferrara, May 20, 1850 ; appointed Jan. 24, 1842. 

u 3. Louis James Maurice de Bonald ; born at Milhau, Nov. 30, 
1787; Archbishop of Lyons, April 27, 1840; appointed March 1, 


"4. Frederic John Joseph Celestine, Prince of Schwartzenberg ; 
born at Vienna, April 6, 1809 ; Archbishop of Prague, May 20, 1850 ; 
appointed Jan. 24, 1842. 

"5. Cosmos de Corsi; born at Florence, Jan. 10, 1798; Archbishop 
of Pisa, Dec. 19, 1853 ; appointed Jan. 24, 1842. 

u 6. Fabius Mary Asquini; born at Fagagna, Aug. 14, 1802; 
appointed April 21, 1845. 

" 7. Nicholas Clarelli Paracciani ; born at Rieti, April 12, 1799 ; 
appointed Jan. 22, 1844. 

"8. Dominic Carafa de Traetto; born at Naples, July 12, 1805; 
Archbishop of Benevento, July 22, 1844; appointed July 22, 1844. 

" 9. James Mary Adrian Cesarius Mathieu ; born at Paris, Jan. 20, 
1796; Archbishop of Besa^on, Sept. 30, 1834; appointed Septem- 
ber 30, 1850. 

" 10. Dominic Lucciardi ; born at Sarzana, Dec. 8, 1796 ; Bishop 
of Sinignglia, Sept. 5, 1851 ; appointed March 15, 1852. 

"11. Francis Augustus Ferdinand Donnet ; born at Bourg-Argen- 
tal, Nov. 16, 1795; Archbishop of Bordeaux, May 19, 1837; ap- 
pointed March 15, 1852. 

"12. Charles Louis Morichini; born at Rome, Nov. 21, 1805; 
Bishop of Jesi; appointed March 15, 1852. 

" 13. Camillus de Pietro; born at Rome, Jan. 19, 1806 ; appointed 
June 16, 1856. 

"14. Joachim Pecci ; born at Carpiento, March 2, 1810; Bishop 
of Perugia, Jan. 19, 1846; appointed Dec. 19, 1853. 

" 15. Joseph Othmar, Chevalier de Rauscher; born at Vienna, Oct. 
6, 1797; Archbishop of Vienna, June 27, 1853; appointed Decem- 
ber 17, 1855. 

" 1 6. Charles Augustus, Count de Reisach ; born at Roth, July 6, 
1800; appointed Dec. 17, 1855 [deceased]. 

17. George T. Caulik; born at Turnan, April 28, 1787; Arch- 
bishop of Agram ; appointed June 16, 1856. 

"18. Alexander Barnabo ; born at Foligno, March 2, 1801; Pre- 
fect of the Congregation of the Propaganda; appointed June 16, 1856. 

" 19. Cyril de Alameda y Brea, O. S. F. ; born at Torraien de Va- 
lasso, July 14, 1781; Archbishop of Toledo ; appointed March 15, 

" 20. Anthony Mary Benedict Antonucci ; born at Subiaco, Sept. 


17, 1798; Archbishop and Bishop of Aiicona and Umana; appointed 
March 15, 1858. 

21. Henry Orfei; born at Orvieto, Oct. 23, 1800; Archbishop of 
Ravenna; appointed March 15, 1858. 

"22. Joseph Milesi Pironi Ferretti; born at Ancona, March 9, 
1817; appointed March 15, 1858. 

"23. Peter de Silvestri; born at Rovigo, Feb. 13, 1803; ap- 
pointed March 15, 1858. 

"24. Alexander Billiet; born at Chapel le, Feb. 28, 1783; Arch- 
bishop of Chambery ; appointed Sept. 27, 1861. 

"25. Charles Sacconi; born at Montalto, May 8, 1808; appointed 
Sept. 27, 1861. 

"26. Michael Garcia Cuesta; born at Macotera, Oct. 6, 1803; 
Archbishop of Compostello; appointed Sept. 27, 1861. 

" 27. Ferdinand de la Puente; born at Cadiz, Aug. 28, 1802; ap- 
pointed Sept. 27, 1861. 

" 28. Anthony Mary Panebianco, O. S. F. ; born at Terranova, 
Aug. 14, 1808; appointed Sept. 27, 1861. 

" 29. Joseph Louis Trevisanto ; born at Venice, Feb. 15, 1801 ; Pa- 
triarch of Venice ; appointed March 16, 1863. 

" 30. Anthony de Luca ; born at Bronte, Oct. 28, 1 805 ; appointed 
March 16, 1863. 

"31. Joseph Andrew Bizzarri; born at Paliano, May 11, 1802; 
appointed March 16, 1863. 

" 32. Louis de la Sastra y Cuestra ; born at Cubas, Dec. 1, 1803 ; 
Archbishop of Seville; appointed March 16, 1863. 

" 33. John Baptist Pitra, O. B. ; born at Champorgueil, Aug. 31,. 
1812 ; appointed March 16, 1863. 

" 34. Philip Mary Guidi, O. S. D. ; born at Bologna, July 18, 1815 ; 
appointed March 16, 1863. 

" 35. Paul Cullen ; born in Ireland ; Archbishop of Dublin ; ap- 
pointed June 21, 1866. 

"36. Gustavus Adolphus de Hohenlohe ; born in Germany, Feb. 
23, 1823 ; appointed June 21 r 1866. 

"37. Luigi Biglio; born in Italy, March 25, 1825 ; appointed June 
21, 1866. 

"38. Cardinal Fontana; born m Italy; appointed' June 21, 1866. 

" 39. Cardinal Lambruschini ; born in Italy ; appointed June 24, 



" 40. Dominic Consolini ; born at Sinigaglia, June 7, 1792 ; ap- 
pointed June 21, 1866. 

"41. ( ardinal Mattanin ; born in Italy; appointed June 21, 1866. 

"42. Luoien Bonaparte; born at Rome, Nov. 15, 1828; appointed 
March 13, 1868. 

"43. Innocent Ferrieri ; born at Fano, Italy, Sept. 14, 1810; ap- 
pointed March 13, 1868. 

"41. Eustatio Gonelia; born at Turin, Italy, Sept. 20, 1811; ap- 
pointed March 13, 1868. 

"45. Laurentio Barili; born at Ancona, Italy, Dec. 1, 1801; ap- 
pointed March 13, 1868. 

"40. Joseph Berardi; born at Ceccano, Sept. 28, 1810; appointed 
March 13, Is 68. 

" 47. Giovanni Ignatio Moreno ; born at Gautemala, Nov. 24, 1817 ; 
appointed March 13, 1868. 

" 48. Raphael Monaco la Vallette ; born at Aquila, Feb. 23, 1827 ; 
appointed March 13, 1868. 


"1. James Antonelli; born at Sonnino, April 2, 1806; appointed 
June 11, 1847. 

" 2. Robert Roberti ; born at St. Giusto, Dec. 23, 1788 ; appointed' 
Sept 30, 1 850. 

"3. Prosper Caterini; born at Onano, Oct. 15, 1795; appointed 
March 7, 1853. 

"4. Gaspard Grasselini; born at Palermo, Jan. 19, 1796; appoint- 
ed June 15, 1856. 

"5. Theodolf Mertel; born at Allumiera, Feb. 9, 1806 ; appointed 
March 15, 1858. 

"6. Francis Pantini; born at Rome, Dec. 11, 1797; appointed 
March 16, 1863. 

" 7. Edward Borromeo ; born at Milan, Aug. 3, 1822 ; appointed 
March 13, 1868. 

"8. Annibal Capalti; born at Rome, Jan. 11, 1811; appointed 
March 13, 1868." 

The Secretary of State is the pope's secretary for both tem- 
poral and spiritual affairs. Let us hear Dr. Wylie in respect 
to this officer: 


" Every functionary in the State is subject to his absolute will and 
pleasure. This lucrative post has generally been held by relatives 
of the pope, whose descendants enjoy at this day the harvests of their 
ancestors. It is creditable to the present pope that none of his rela- 
tives are hoarding riches at the expense of the state. Cardinal Au- 
tonelli has long held this high office. Antonelli is sprung from a 
humble family of the Abruzzi ; his grandfather was a brigand, con- 
verted, some will have it, by the missionaries who visit that part of 
the country ; but others say that he turned king's evidence, and be- 
trayed his band. His uncle is still better knovrn to fame ; his exploits 
as a brigand being celebrated in his country's songs. . . . Antonelli 
himself is said to be worth some million or two of scudi (= dollars), 
which he is also said to have judiciously invested in England." 

Dr. Wylie, in describing the cardinals who were present in 
the Sistine chapel on All Saints' Day, 1864, says : 

" There was one among them whom the eye singled out at once as 
markedly different from the rest. The others were obese ; he was 
slim and lithe. Their faces were smirking and elate ; his was 
thoughtful and resolute. He looked a man still in middle life ; his 
hair was dark ; he was not tall, although his slight figure and erect 
posture made him seem above the average hight. He stood at the 
head of the row, fronting the papal chair, his robe folded about him 
in the fashion of an old Roman. His dark, deep-set eye glanced 
out from beneath a defiant brow, gazing into empty space. He was 
the pope's prime minister, Antonelli. He took part in the services 
with the rest, but not as they. With heads erect and beaming faces 
did the other cardinals step down into the floor, their servants bearing 
their long scarlet trains, and gracefully did they sweep round the 
pope, or mar-hal themselves proudly in a row before him, or bow down 
to kiss hi* slipper. This dark mysterious man descended to the floor 
with the rest, but having gone through his part, he returned to his 
place, a:id there, his arms akimbo, and his robe drawn round him, he 
drew hi nself up, and again stood looking away into the far distance. 
Th u re he stood, the animating soul of a spiritual empire whose sub- 
jects are spread from furthest Japan to the remotest West What were 
his thoughts at that moment ? Far away, it might be, from the Sis- 
tine, in those distant regions where toil his emissaries amid barbarous 
tribes, or in the palaces of Europe, where the courtly nuncios bow be- 


fore thrones which they are planning to undermine. Or was he es- 
saying to read the mysterious scroll blazoned on the political walls of 
Europe, the Franco-Italian convention ? One could imagine him the 
great Julius, risen from the dead, and revolving new schemes of con- 
quest ; or, to descend to humbler comparisons, a brigand perched ou 
his mountain-peak, sweeping with keen eye the plain beneath, before 
stooping upon his prey." 

Rev. Wm. Arthur, a distinguished and eloquent English 
"Wesleyan, thus describes Antonelli at St. Peter's on Easter 
Sunday, about 10 years ago : 

" When the deacon cardinals were at the altar, one stood for a con- 
siderable time on one side a tall, smooth, well-looking man. The whis- 
per went round everywhere ' Antonelli, Antonelli ! ' He performed his 
part of the ceremony with more grace and propriety than many of the 
priests, but without any of the apparent interest the old pope seemed 
to take in it. He had in his appearance none of the qualities which 
his reputation would lead one to expect ; neither ferocity nor goodness, 
nor the marks upon his countenance of those struggles with conscience 
through which men go in a long course of heavy misdoing. There he 
stood, looking down from the altar, apparently pleased with it, the sol- 
diers, himself, the ladies, and all the world. He might not have any- 
body suspecting, or hating, or dreading him ; he rather gave you the 
impression of one of those smooth, clear-headed, strong, narrow men, 
just made to ruin governments by force of the ability they have to 
push their own narrow way until they knock against a wall. In 
fact, from the peculiar kind of complacency that seemed hardly to 
smile on his countenance, but rather to underlie it, one could imagine 
that he took pleasure, as some of those narrow men do, in the idea of 
being unpopular, taking it as a tribute to their greatness ; whereas per- 
sonal unpopularity is generally the effect of personal faults, though un- 
popularity for measures may be simply the result of being ahead of your 
day. It was hard to look on that countenance, and think he was so bad 
a man as the public voice represents him. One has strong faith in con- 
science ; and how any one occupying such a place as he does could 
commit all the immoralities, peculations, tyrannies, and betrayals of 
faith which are laid to his door, without his countenance bearing marks 
of internal struggles, was very hard to imagine. Naming this to a 


gentleman occupying a place under the government, I made him 
laugh, * Conscience !' he said ; ' what conscience could you expect An- 
tonelli to have to struggle with ? Do you not know who he was ?' ' Oh ! 
it cannot be that he is the nephew of Gasparoni ?' the Dick Turp ; i 
of Italy. ' No, I do not say he was a nephew of his, but he wr > 
relative. You know very well that he belonged to a brigand 
ily at Sonnino ; and what trouble you are to expect a man brou , 
up as a brigand, and then trained as a priest, to have with conscience, 
I do not know.' * But it cannot be true that he has played false with 
the public money in the way the people say.' ' Where did the money 
come from ?' he replies. ' All the world knows what the Antonelli 
family were. They were brigands. What are they now? There 
are four brothers ; the first is the man we are talking of, in whose 
hands are all the resources of the state ; the second is governor of the 
bank ; the third fattens upon monopolies and taxes ; and what is the 
fourth ? The stock exchange agent for the other three. He is to be 
found in London, Paris, Amsterdam, and so on ; and in all these 
places the investments of the Antonelli family are something fabulous. 
We know that all that is our money.' " 

The " consistory " is the assembly of the cardinals in which 
the pope presides. The pope in this consistory "makes" 
bishops, and " creates " cardinals ; reads a discourse already 
printed, or " allocution" ; but he does not consult any of the 
cardinals in the consistory. Their office here is not to delib- 
erate and vote, but to assent. " The pope" governs, as the 
fountain of infallibility; the cardinals administer, as the or- 
gans of this infallibility. The consistory is now little more 
than a formality, the business which was formerly transacted 
in it being now mostly transferred to the " congregations " 
spoken of below. 

The " conclave " is properly a room or place with a key ; 
and hence the private apartment or set of apartments in which 
the cardinals are locked up at the election of a pope ; and also, 
the assembly of cardinals thus held for the election of a pope. 
On the day after the funeral of a deceased pope the cardinals, 
after hearing the mass of the Holy Ghost, proceed to their 
chosen place, usually either the Vatican or the Quirinal pal- 


ace, enter the chapel where the bulls concerning the election 
are read, and then go to be locked up in their separate rooms 
till the election of a new pope is effected. The keys of the 
palace are placed in the hands of a prelate, previously ap- 
pointed by them, and styled " the governor of the conclave." 
Each cardinal has with him a secretary and two domestics. 
The cardinals are placed strictly under military guard, and all 
communication between them is prevented except in the pres- 
ence of their military guardians and with their authorization. 
They meet once a day in the chapel of the palace, where a 
scrutiny is made of their votes, which are written and placed 
in an urn ; and this is repeated every day till at least two- 
thirds of the votes are in favor of some one candidate, who is 
then considered as elected pope. Every cardinal puts with 
his vote his name in a separate sealed paper, which remains 
unopened till after the election is made. Says the Penny 
Cyclopedia : 

" When the election is strongly contested, and the cardinals grow 
weary of being shut up in conclave, negotiations in writing are carried 
on between the leaders, and a compromise is entered into by which 
two or more parties, not being able singly to carry the election of their 
respective candidates, join in favor of a third person, who is acceptable 
to them all, or at least not obnoxious to any of them. This often 
gives an unexpected turn to the election. During the conclave the 
ambassadors of Austria, France, and Spain have a right to put their 
veto each upon one particular cardinal whose election would not be 
acceptable to their respective courts. The new pope being elected, 
and his assent being given, he proceeds to dress himself in his pontifi- 
cal robes ; after which he gives his blessing to the cardinals, who give 
him the kiss of peace. After this the name of the new pontiff' is pro- 
claimed to the people from the great balcony of the palace, and the 
castle Sant 'Angela fires a salute, and all the bells of the city of Home 
ring with a merry peal one hour." 

After the pope and cardinals in the Roman court come the 
" prelates," who are thus described by the late Dr. De Sanctis, 
who was himself long connected with the court : 


' The prelates are a medley of bishops, priests, clerics, and laics, 
called by the pope to take part in the affairs of the Curia [= court], 
and putting on the episcopal dress, only without the cross and the ring. 
These prelates occupy themselves with diplomacy, administration, 
jurisprudence, and ecclesiastical affairs. A prelate successful in diplo- 
macy, even though he be a laic, is often made archbishop, and sent as 
nuncio to foreign courts. Those who apply themselves to administra- 
tion are sent as governors into the provinces ; those who take to juris- 
prudence are made civil or criminal judges the chief Roman tri- 
bunals being composed of prelates ; and, finally, those who devote 
themselves to ecclesiastical matters become secretaries of one of the 
ecclesiastical ' congregations.' The pope, the cardinals, and the prelates, 
then, form the Curia [= court], which consists of the different ' con- 
gregations,' or ecclesiastical tribunes." 

There are, according to Rev. Dr. Wylie, 23 " congrega- 
tions " (commissions, or committees, we might call them), 
of which 17 are ecclesiastical, and 6 civil, the former direct- 
ing the whole administration of the church, and the latter 
regulating all the branches of the state. The names of 15 
Roman (ecclesiastical) " congregations " are given in the Re- 
vue du, Monde Caiholique, as follows : 

1. The Congregation of the Holy Office, established by Paul ITT. 

2. " " " " Council, established by Pius IV. 

3. " " Index, established by Leo X. 

4, 5. " " " Bishops and Regulars, established by Greg- 

ory XIII. and Sixtus V. 

6. " " " Rites, established by Sixtus V. 

7. " " " Schools, established by Sixtus V. 

8. " " " the Consistory, established by Sixtus V. 

9. " " " " Examination of Bishops, established 

by Clement VIII. 

10. " " " " Propaganda, established by Gregory 


11. " " " Ecclesiastical Immunities, established by 

Urban VIII. 

12. " " " the Residence of Bishops, established by 

Clement VIII. and Benedict XIV. 


13. The Congregation of Indulgences, established by Clement IX. 

14. " " " Extraordinary Affairs, established by Pi- 

us VII. 

15. " " Oriental Rites, established by Pius IX. 

Six other " congregations " named in pope Sixtus V.'s ordi- 
nance of 1587, are thus given by Dr. Murdock : one for sup- 
plying the States of the Church with corn and preventing 
scarcity ; one for providing and regulating a papal fleet ; one 
for relief in cases of oppression in the States of the Church ; 
one on the roads, bridges, and aqueducts in the Roman terri- 
tory ; one for superintending the Vatican printing establish- 
ment ; one on applications from citizens of the States of the 
Church in civil and criminal matters. But the number, du- 
ties, and powers of these " congregations " have been altered 
from time to time. These are however established as per- 
manent, and the 15 named above are the supreme directors of 
ecclesiastical administration in their respective departments ; 
they resolve the doubts which arise upon different points of 
canon law ; and they are the final tribunals for the determina- 
tion ol ecclesiastical causes. The Congregation of the Holy 
Office, or Inquisition, which meets every Monday, and presides 
over all similar congregations throughout Christendom, had, 
in 1864, 12 cardinal-inquisitors, one of whom is secretary, 
with the pope at their head, besides an assessor, a commissary 
with two companions, an advocate of rites, counselors and 
qualificators. Each of the other " congregations " is composed 
of a cardinal-prefect, a certain number of cardinals (usually 5, 
but not less than 3), and a secretary (who must be a prelate of 
the Roman court), together with a number of theologians and 
canonists attached as counselors and assistants, and various offi- 
cers under the secretary. The Congregation of the Council is 
composed of cardinals, prelates and doctors thoroughly versed 
in the canons, and has for its object the authoritative interpreta- 
tion of the decrees of the council of Trent. The Congrega- 
tion of the Index examines books and prohibits those which 


are regarded as false and immoral. The Congregation of 
Bishops and Regulars (the two being united) exercises an 
administrative jurisdiction over, and decides disputes between, 
different churches, bishops, chapters, orders, and religious, and 
whatever other matters of controversy directly concern the 
clergy; and also receives appeals in criminal cases, except where 
the offense is within the peculiar cognizance of the Holy Office. 
The Congregation of Rites was organized for the preserva- 
tion of traditional vestments, liturgies, and worship, and the 
prevention of unauthorized changes. The Congregation of 
Schools corresponds, in some measure, to our boards of edu- 
cation. The Congregation for the Examination of Bishops 
receives testimonials concerning the doctrine and habits of can- 
didates for the Episcopate. Other congregations are, perhaps, 
sufficiently explained by their names, without going into fur- 
ther detail. 

Probably no other European court of the 19th century has 
been so imposing in its state and ceremony as the Roman 
court. Its officers are exceedingly numerous, 108 persons of 
various degrees and titles being, it is said, attached to the 
personal service of the pope. Purple and scarlet are the pre- 
vailing colors in the official dresses and equipage of the Roman 
court. Scarlet especially characterizes the cardinals and other 



AN Ecumenical (^(Ecumenical, from the Greek Oikou- 
mene) Council is properly a council assembled from all parts 
of the inhabited world. 

According to the current Roman Catholic view, a diocesan 
council or synod is composed of the clergy of a particular dio- 
cese (as of the diocese of Hartford, which comprises Connecticut 
and Rhode Island), with the bishop of the diocese at their head ; 
a provincial or metropolitan council is composed of the bishops 
of an ecclesiastical province (as of the province of New York, 
which includes the dioceses of New York, Albany, Boston, Brook- 
lyn, Buffalo, Burlington, Hartford, Newark, Portland, Rochester 
and Springfield ; and comprehends New England, NewYork, and 
New Jersey) with the archbishop at their head ; while the na- 
tional or u plenary" councils of Baltimore held in 1852 and 1866 
were composed of the archbishops and bishops of all the prov- 
inces (now seven) in the United States. 

" The Illustrated Catholic Family Almanac," published by 
" The Catholic Publication Society " in New York, gives, in its 
issue for 1870, the following definitions and rules, which may 
be received as of high authority among Roman Catholics of the 
present day : 

" An Ecclesiastical Council or Synod may be defined as ' a legiti- 
mate assembly of prelates of the church, convened for the regulation of 
its public affairs.' Councils are ecumenical, general, or particular. 

" An Ecumenical Council is one which represents the whole Catholic 
church. For such a council it suffices that the chief part of the Church 
should have assembled, in agreement with the Sovereign Pontiff. 


" A General 1 Council is one which is conspicuous for the number of 
prelates, but which, through its not being confirmed by the Sovereign 
Pontiff, or for some other reason is not held to represent the Universal 

" A Particular Council is one which represents only a portion of 
the Church. Such councils are 1. National, or primatial ; 2. Pro- 
vincial, or metropolitan ; 3. Diocesan, which are called simply synods. 

"Rule I. The definitions of an Ecumenical Council, in matters of 
faith or morals (but not if 'they merely regard discipline), are, when 
approved by the Sovereign Pontiff, certain and infallible. 

" Rule II. Other councils, whether General or Particular, have only 
as much authority as have the churches which they represent. Their 
authority may be great ; but it cannot be infallible, unless it be sol- 
emnly confirmed by the approbation of the Holy See." 

Roman Catholics differ among themselves as to the num- 
ber of ecumenical councils that have been held. Thus 
the " Catholic Almanac " reckons among the number the 
council of Constance held in 1417, saying of it, " This coun- 
cil, schismatic in its commencement, afterwards submitted to 
Pope Gregory XII., and its acts were partially ratified by Pope 
Martin V. ;" while the Catholic World, also published by " The 
Catholic Publication Society," in giving a list of the councils, 
omits this council, but says in a foot-note that some reckon it 
as ecumenical. There is also a division of opinion in regard 
to several other councils, as is noticed in the following account 
of them. The following are the ecumenical councils given in 
the Catholic Almanac with corrections as to dates. 

1. The first council of Nice, A. D. 325. 

2. " " " " Constantinople, A. D. 381. 

3. " council of Ephesus, A. D. 431. 

4. " " Chalcedon, " 451. 

1 This distinction between " ecumenical " and " general " councils is bv no 
means universally observed or accepted. The two terms are often loosely used as 
synonymous ; though, strictly speaking, " ecumenical," like " universal," denotes 
or represents the whole, while "general" might be used if only the greater part 
or a very large part were represented. 


5. The second council of Constantinople, A. D. 553. 

6. " third 680. 

7. second " Nice, 787. 

8. " fourth " Constantinople, " 869. 

9. " first Lateran council, " 1123. 

10. " second 1139. 

11. " third " " w 1179. 

12. " fourth " 1215. 

13. " first council of Lyons, " 1245. 

14. " second " " 1274. 

15. " council of Vienne, " 1311. 

16. " " " Constance (met 1414), 1417. 

17. " " " Florence, 1438-1442. 

18. " fifth Lateran council, " 1512-1517. 

19. " council of Trent, " 1545-1563. 

20. " the Vatican, 1869-1870. 

The Greek and Russian Christians recognize the first 7 of these 
councils ; and consider the Trullan council (so called from its 
assembling in the Trullus, a hall of the imperial palace in Con- 
stantinople, A.D. 692) an appendix to the sixth council. This 
Trullan council consisted of more than 200 bishops, and enact- 
ed 102 canons, which were subscribed by the pope's represent- 
atives at the imperial court, but, though afterwards approved 
by pope Adrian, displeased pope Sergius. The Roman church 
rejects its canons allowing priests to live in wedlock, con- 
demning fasting on Saturdays, and three or four others. 

Says Rev. Philip Schaflf, D. D., of the German Reformed 
church, " The first four of these councils command high the- 
ological regard in the orthodox evangelical churches, while the 
last three are less important, and are far more rarely men- 

The first ecumenical council, held at Nice in Asia Minor, 
A. D. 325, was summoned by the emperor Constantino, who 
presided at the opening of the council and gave to its decrees 
(against Arianism, <fec.) the force of imperial law. The Cath- 
olic Almanac, and Roman Catholic writers generally, on the 
authority of Gelasius of Cyzicus, a worthless witness who wrote 


about 150 years afterwards, claim that Hosius, bishop of Cor- 
duba (now Cordova in Spain) presided as pope Sylvester's 
legate ; but Eusebius represents Constantino as introducing the 
principal matters of business with a solemn discourse and 
taking the place of honor in the assembly, and the Roman 
presbyters as acting for the Roman prelate ; and even pope 
Stephen V., in A. D. 817, wrote that Constantino presided in 
this council. Eusebius gives the number of bishops in this 
council as more than 250 ; others have reckoned the number 
at 318. This council gives its name to the Nicene creed. 

The second ecumenical council, held at Constantinople, A. D. 
381, was summoned by the emperor Theodosius, who did not, 
however, attend it, though, like Constantine, he ratified its de- 
crees. Meletius, bishop of Antioch, presided till his death ; 
then, Gregory Nazianzen, bishop or patriarch of Constantino- 
ple, presided ; and after his resignation, his successor as patri- 
arch, Nektarius, was also his successor in presiding. There 
were present in this council 150 bishops. This council enlarged 
the Nicene creed and gave to it its present form, except that a 
phrase (filioque = and from the Son), which represents the 
Holy Ghost as proceeding from the Son as well as from the 
Father, was subsequently added in the Western churches. 

The third ecumenical council, held at Ephesus in A.D. 431, was 
called by the emperor Theodosius II. Cyril, bishop or patriarch 
of Alexandria, presided, and under his lead (with the assist- 
ance of Celestine of Rome, who was represented in the council, 
though not present) Nestorianism and Pelagianism were both 
condemned, and Nestorius, who was bishop of Constantinople, 
was banished ; but, after the arrival of John, bishop of Antioch, 
and other Eastern prelates, Cyril was also condemned, and a 
violent and protracted controversy ensued. There were, at first, 
160, but afterwards 198, bishops in this council. 

The fourth ecumenical council, held at Chalcedon, A.D. 451, 
was summoned by the emperor Martian, and fixed the doctrine 
respecting Christ's person in opposition to Nestorianism and 
Eutychianism. The legates of Leo, the Roman bishop, were 


very active and influential in this council. " Chalcedon," says 
Gieseler, " was the first general council where they presided ;" 
yet this council decreed, in spite of all Leo's endeavors to pre- 
vent it, that the bishop of Constantinople was on an equality 
with the bishop of Rome. At this council were present 520, 
some say 630, bishops. 

The fifth ecumenical council, held at Constantinople, A. D. 
553, by the authority of the emperor Justinian, in opposition to 
pope Vigilius, consisted of 164 bishops, Eutychius patriarch 
of Constantinople presiding, and approved all the decrees which 
Justinian, in his desire to reunite the Monophysites (who held 
that Christ had but one nature) with the Catholic church, and in 
express condemnation of three articles or "chapters" decreed 
by the council of Chalcedon, had made respecting religion. 
Vigilius approved the decisions of this council the next year ; 
but the approval of them by the popes led to a tedious schism 
between the Roman see and several Western churches. 

The sixth ecumenical council, held at Constantinople A. D. 
680, was summoned by the Eastern emperor Constantino Pogo- 
natus, who presided in it himself. In this council all the great 
patriarchs were present personally or by representatives, pope 
Agatho being represented by legates ; and the number of bish- 
ops, small at first, increased to near 200. This council con- 
demned the Monothelites, who held that Christ had but one 
will, and condemned by name the deceased pope Honorius and 
others as heretics. The emperor confirmed the decrees of the 
council and enforced them with penalties. The condemnation 
of pope Honorius was also approved by pope Agatho, and like- 
wise in express terms by his successor pope Leo II., and still 
later by pope Hadrian II., and was mentioned in all the copies 
of the Roman breviary up to the 16th century. 

The seventh ecumenical council, held at Nice, A. D. 787, was 
called by the empress Irene, in conjunction with Tarasius 
patriarch of Constantinople, who directed the whole proceed- 
ings. The council was summoned to meet in 786 at Constan- 


tinople, for which Nice ana a later time were substituted in 
consequence of iconoclastic tumults at Constantinople. At 
least 350 bishops assembled, with two envoys from the pope, 
two imperial commissioners, and an army of monks. This 
council sanctioned the image-worship of the church, and re- 
peated the condemnation of pope Honorius. 

The eighth ecumenical council, held at Constantinople, A. D. 
869, confirmed the emperor Basil's deposition of Photius from 
the patriarchate of Constantinople in 867, and this emperor's 
reinstatement of Ignatius the former patriarch of the see, who 
had been deposed by the emperor Michael III. in 858. In this 
council the legates of the Roman pontiff Hadrian II. had a 
controlling influence, and the condemnation of pope Honorius 
was repeated. As Photius was restored to his see after the 
death of Ignatius in 878, this council was annulled for the 
Greek church, while the Roman church recognizes its full au- 
thority. The number of prelates in attendance is reckoned as 
more than 200. 

The ninth ecumenical council, according to the Roman Cath- 
olic view, was held in 1123 at the Lateran basilica in Rome 
under pope Calixtus II. As this was about 70 years after the 
final separation of the Greek and Latin churches, this council 
and the subsequent ones in the list have been cofnposed only 
of those who acknowledged the pope as their spiritual head. 
This council, at which 300 bishops were present, solemnly 
confirmed the concordat of Worms, made the year before be- 
tween the pope and the German emperor Henry V., and con- 
tinued in force for centuries afterwards. By this concordat, 
bishops and abbots may be freely and canonically chosen by 
those whose right it is to elect (the laity being henceforth ex- 
cluded) in the presence of the emperor or his representative ; 
the emperor, in case of disagreement among the electors, may, 
with the advice or judgment of the metropolitan and bishops 
of the province, decide who is to be the bishop or abbot ; the 
person elected may be freely consecrated, and may both yield 
to the emperor the homage due and receive from him an inves- 


titure of temporal rights, not by the ring and staff, according 
to the former custom, but by a scepter. 

The tenth ecumenical council of the Roman Catholics, held 
at the Lateran in 1139 under pope Innocent II., and attended 
by about 1000 bishops, condemned the views of the able and 
learned Arnold of Brescia (=Arnaldo da Brescia), who main- 
tained that the clergy should not have secular property or au- 
thority, and wished to restore the old Roman government. 

The eleventh ecumenical council, held at the Lateran in 
1179 under pope Alexander III., and attended by more than 
300 bishops, formally decreed that the Roman pontiff should 
be elected by a two-thirds vote of the cardinals (see Chapter 
V.), and sanctioned a crusade against the "heretics," in the 
South of France and elsewhere, known as Cathari (=pure 
ones), Patarenians, Albigenses, &c. (see Chapter XII.). 

The twelfth ecumenical council, held at the Lateran in 1215 
under pope Innocent III., and attended by more than 400 
bishops, enacted a decree of excommunication and extermina- 
tion against all heretics and their abettors, made it the chief 
business of the episcopal synodal tribunals to search out and 
punish heretics, inculcated the necessity of a new crusade to 
recover the Holy Land, determined several points of doctrine 
and discipline, especially requiring an annual confession of sins 
to the priest, and sanctioned the establishment of the two great 
orders of mendicant monks, the Dominicans, to extirpate 
heresy, and the Franciscans, to preach and assist the paro- 
chial clergy. The Catholic Almanac specifies the object of 
this council as " for general legislation." 

The thirteenth ecumenical council, held at Lyons in France 
in 1245, under pope Innocent IV., and composed of about 140 
bishops, excommunicated the German emperr Frederic II., 
who was deposed by the pope in the presence of the council, 
and decreed a general crusade for the recovery of the Holy 
Land. The French do not recognize this as one of the ecu- 
menical councils, and Frederic's advocate appealed to a more 


general council ; but the pontiff maintained that it was general 
enough, and it is accordingly so classed. 

The fourteenth ecumenical council was held at Lyons in 
1274 under pope Gregory X., for the reestablishment of the 
Christian dominion in the Holy Land and the reunion of the 
Greek and Latin churches ; but the whole result was unsatis- 
factory. About 500 bishops were present ; the council decreed 
the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son, 
and established the regulation still in force by which the car 
dinals are shut up in conclave when a pope is to be elected. 

The fifteenth ecumenical council, held at Vienne in France 
in 1311 under pope Clement Y.,and composed of 300 prelates, 
abolished the order of Knights Templars, and condemned the 
austere monks called Fratricelli (= little brothers) as well as 
the mystical Beghards and Beguins of Germany. 

The council of Pisa, summoned as an ecumenical council by 
the cardinals adhering to both the rival popes (Gregory XII. 
and Benedict XIII.), met at Pisa in Northern Italy, March 25, 
1409, for the purpose of terminating the great Western schism, 
and was largely attended. On the 5th of June it deposed and 
excommunicated both popes for their notorious schism, heresy, 
perjury, and enormous crimes ; and on the 2Gth the 23 cardi- 
nals in conclave elected as pope Peter de Candia, who took the 
name of Alexander V. But all this only added a third rival 
pope, without terminating the schism, or effecting the antici- 
pated reformation of the church. Gregory and Benedict both 
held their councils, which were thinly attended and amounted 
to nothing ; and both spurned the decrees of this council, which 
was dissolved by Alexander on the 7th of August. The French 
party have constantly recognized this council and its popes, 
Alexander V., and his successor John XXIII. ; cardinal Bel- 
larmin considered Alexander and John as the real popes of 
the age ; but the later curialists or adherents of the Roman 
court entirely reject the ecumenicity of this council, disown its 
popes, and recognize Gregory XII. as the rightful pope until 
his resignation at the council of Constance. 


The council of Constance, which met, 5 years after the coun- 
cil of Pisa, at Constance (now a city of Baden in Germany, but 
then a free imperial town), is a stumbling-block to Roman Cath- 
olic historians. Its principal object was to put an end to the 
discord between the rival popes, and this it finally accom- 
plished. The summons for the council, according to Rev. E. H. 
Gillett, D. D., in his carefully prepared " Life and Times of 
John Huss," was issued in October, 1413, by the emperor Sigis- 
mund with the constrained assent of pope John XXIII., and 
the more ready concurrence of the cardinals ; but in December, 
the pope also issued his bull of convocation for the council, 
directing the prelates to be present in person, and the princes 
in person or by deputy. The council was opened, November 5, 
1414, by pope John, neither of his rivals attending it ; and 
was closed April 22, 1418, having held 45 sessions in about 3 
years. Says Dr. Gillett : 

' There came thither to this celebrated council, 30 cardinals, 20 
archbishops, 150 bishops, as many prelates, a multitude of abbots and 
doctors, and 1800 priests. Among the sovereigns who attended in per- 
Bon, could be distinguished the Elector Palatine, the Electors of Mentz 
and of Saxony, and the Dukes of Austria, of Bavaria, and of Silesia. 
There were, besides, a vast number of margraves, counts and barons 
and a great crowd of noblemen and knights. At one time there might 
have been counted, as we are told, 30,000 horses within the circuit of 
the city. Each prince, nobleman, and knight was attended by his 
train, and the number of persons present from abroad is estimated to 
have been not less than 40 or 50,000. Among these were reckoned 
almost every trade and profession, and some whose profession was 
their di-grace, but whose instincts and tastes made them seek the wel- 
come they found among the miscellaneous crowd." 

The emperor Sigismund, John Charlier Gerson (ambassador 
of the French king Charles VI., and chancellor of the church 
and university of Paris), Peter D'Ailly (bishop of Cambray, and 
a cardinal; called "the eagle of France"), William Filastre 
(cardinal of St. Mark), were leading members of this council. 
Under their lead, the council admitted to membership, not only 


the prelates, but the doctors, the ambassadors of kings and 
princes, of republics, cities, universities, and other communi- 
ties, as well as the lower clergy, under conditions. It was also 
resolved, in February, 1415, that the votes of the council should 
be taken by nations Italy, France, Germany, and England, 
being the 4 nations then represented in the constituency of the 
council. According to the order adopted, the deputies of each 
nation assembled by themselves with their own president to 
discuss matters, and then submitted the articles agreed on by 
each nation to the deliberation of the others ; so that thus the 
way was prepared for a public and solemn approval, in the 
following session, of whatever had been agreed on by the 4 
nations. John XXIII. fled secretly from Constance March 21, 
1415, but was afterwards constrained to return ; and the coun- 
cil, on the 29th of May, solemnly deposed John, as noticed in 
Chapter III., for his many notorious crimes ; and he submitted 
to the sentence. The council also decreed that no steps should 
be taken towards the election of a new pope without their 
advice and consent, and that any such steps, unauthorized by 
them, should be null and void. The council of Constance 
both by act and deed maintained the supremacy of the council 
over the papal authority and dignity. The council received 
the resignation of Gregory XII. on the 4th of July, 1415; 
Spain united itself to the council as the 5th nation in October, 
1416 ; Benedict XIII., remaining immovable, though but a 
small faction adhered to him at Peniscola in Spain, was finally 
deposed, July 26, 1417 ; and Otto Colonna, who took the name 
of Martin V., was elected pope, November 11, 1417, by a body 
of 53 electors, namely, the 23 cardinals there present and 6 
prelates or persons of distinction from each of the 5 nations 
represented. The council also anathematized John Wickliffe, 
the English reformer, who had been dead 80 years, condemned 
his memory and doctrines, ordered his books to be buriied, and 
his body and bones, if they could be distinguished from others, 
to be disinterred and cast out from ecclesiastical burial. John 
Huss, the great Bohemian reformer, and a pure and noble- 


minded advocate of the supremacy of the Holy Scriptures, had 
come to the council provided with a safe-conduct from the em- 
peror Sigismund which guarantied his going, staying, and re- 
turning freely ; but he was arrested by the cardinals and pope, 
and tried by the council ; his books were condemned to be pub- 
licly burned, and he was declared to be a heretic, and was, ac- 
cording to the sentence of the council, degraded from the priest- 
hood by the archbishop of Milan and 5 bishops, who directed 
him to be first clothed in priestly robes with a chalice in his 
hand as if about to celebrate mass, and then cursed him as 
these robes were stripped off, and his priestly tonsure was dis- 
figured, and a paper crown covered with pictured fiends placed 
on his head ; then, the council having given him up to the sec- 
ular arm, he was, under the direction of the emperor Sigis- 
mund, delivered first to the Elector Palatine, then to the mayor 
of Constance, and then to the executioners, who were com- 
manded to burn him, with his clothes, knife, purse, and all that 
belonged to him ; and finally, having called God to witness 
that he had never taught nor written those things which on 
false testimony they imputed to him, but his declarations, 
teachings, writings, in fine, all his works, had been intended 
and shaped towards the object of rescuing dying men from the 
tyranny of sin, he was bound to the stake, the flames were 
kindled, and, as the fire and smoke ascended with the sufferer's 
prayer, " Christ, thou Son of the living God, have mercy on 
me," and with the uttered words of the creed, and further in- 
audible prayer, he yielded up his spirit unto God who gave it, 
July 6, 1415, and his ashes were immediately gathered up to 
b& emptied into the Rhine. Jerome of Prague, a disciple of 
Huss, and a man of wonderful learning, eloquence, and argu- 
mentative skill, who had come to Constance to aid Huss, but 
at first through fear recanted his opinions, was likewise ar- 
raigned before this council, and demanding, like Huss, to be 
convinced by the Holy Scriptures, was condemned, and burned 
at the stake, May 30, 1416, exclaiming amid the flames, " Into 
thy hands, Lord, I commit my spirit : Lord God, have 


compassion on me, and forgive my sins : Thou knowest that 
I have ever delighted in thy truth," evidently continuing in 
prayer after his voice failed and until his long protracted agony 
ended in a martyr's death, and leaving his ashes also to be 
gathered up and thrown into the Rhine. The council of Con- 
stance were more united in condemning and burning alleged 
heretics than in reforming the church. The Germans and 
English wanted the reformation of the church to be undertaken 
before a new pope was elected ; but the cardinals, with the 
Italians and French, pressed for the election before the refor- 
mation ; and the latter carried the day by gaining over the 
English and corrupting some German prelates. The pope, 
having thus been elected before any decisive measures for the 
general reformation of the church were passed, " was able," 
says Gieseler, " to adjust the most critical points of reforma- 
tion by concordats with the separate nations ; and thus a 
few general decrees for reform were sufficient to obtain from 
the council an approval of wha*; had been done as being a 
satisfactory reformation." The worst abuses of the ecclesi- 
astical system remained for the most part untouched by the 
concordats or the decrees. The council at its 4th session 
passed an article which was published at the next session by 
cardinal Zabarella with the omission of its final clause, thus 
" The synod of Constance, legitimately assembled in the Holy 
Ghost, forming a general council, and representing the militant 
Catholic church, has its authority immediately from Christ, and 
every one, of whatever state or dignity he may be, even if pope, 
is bound to obey it in what pertains to the faith and to the ex- 
tirpation of the said schism : " and the council at its 5th session, 
by general assent, restored this article to its original form by 
adding the omitted words " and to the general reformation of 
the church of God in its head and in its members," and also 
restored the next article, which had likewise been omitted by 
Zabarella, and which reads " It also declares, that any one, 
of whatever condition, state, or dignity, he may be, even if 
pope, who may contumaciously have disdained to obey the man- 


dates, statutes, regulations, or precepts of this holy synod and 
of any other general council legitimately assembled, made or 
to be made in regard to the aforesaid matters or things pertain- 
ing to them, may, unless he come to himself, be subjected to 
condign penance, and punished as he deserves, even by having 
recourse, if needful, to other legal helps : " pope John XXIII., 
before his deposition, confirmed these articles by repeatedly 
declaring that the council was "holy and could not err : " pope 
Martin V., in his bull against the Hussites, February 22, 1418, 
requires the suspected heretic to tell the bishop or inquisitor 
" whether he believes, holds, and asserts, that any general 
council, and also that of Constance, represents the whole 
church ; also whether he believes that what the Holy Council 
of Constance, representing the whole church, has sanctioned 
and sanctions to promote the faith and save souls, is to be ap- 
proved and held by all Christian believers, and also that what 
the synod has condemned and condemns as contrary to the 
faith and to good morals must be held by the same to deserve 
reprobation : " the same pope publicly declared in the last ses- 
sion of the council, April 22, 1418, " that all and each of the 
things determined and concluded and decreed council-wise in 
matters of faith by the present Holy Council of Constance, he 
wished to hold and inviolably to observe and never to contra- 
vene in any manner whatsoever ; " and subsequently pope Eu- 
gene IV., by his bull of December 15, 1433, gave to these de- 
crees as reaffirmed by the council of Basle his full and unqual- 
ified sanction, and again in a later bull, February 5, 1447, 
expressly declared his acceptance, embrace, and veneration, of 
the decree of the general council of Constance which provides 
for the frequent holding of general councils, " and its other 
decrees ; " yet cardinals Cajetan, Bellarmin, and the cnrial- 
ists generally, have denied the validity of the above articles ; 
and pope Martin V., in a bull of March 10, 1418, pronounced 
all appeals from the pope (i. e. to a general council) inadmis- 
sible ; and, while the extreme curialists or partisans of the 
Roman court entirely deny that this was an ecumenical coun- 


cil, Hefele, one of the most learned of living German Catholic 
theologians and the author of a standard history of councils, 
allows an ecumenical character only to the acts of the last 5 
sessions when the council had pope Martin at its head, and to 
such other acts and decrees as were ratified hy him. Now, of 
course, the doctrine of the councils of Constance and Basle 
respecting the supremacy of ecumenical councils is set aside 
by the decree of the Vatican council in 1870 declaring the in- 
fallibility and supremacy of the pope. It is somewhat difficult, 
however, to reconcile all these things with infallibility of any 
sort, whether of popes or of councils. 

According to a decree of the council of Constance, that an- 
other council should be convoked within 6 years after its own 
close, a general council, convoked by a bull of pope Martin Y., 
met at Pavia in May, 1423 ; but the plague there and the thin 
attendance led to its speedy transfer to Siena, where it met the 
following November. This council was dissolved before effect- 
ing any reforms, " on account of the fewness of those present." 
It had little influence or efficiency, though it published some 
decrees against the followers of Wickliffe and Huss, and re- 
quired another ecumenical council to be held, which was accord- 
ingly convoked by the pope to meet in Basle ( Basil, or Ba- 
sel) in Switzerland in 1431. 

The council of Basle, like that of Constance, has been a 
stumbling-block among Roman Catholics. It is entirely omit- 
ted in the Catholic Almanac's list of ecumenical councils, and 
in the Roman edition of the councils published in 1609. Car- 
dinal Bellarmin and the moderate Gallicans consider it legit- 
imate and ecumenical down to the 26th session, or till its re- 
moval to Ferrara in 1437. The stricter Gallicans consider 
the whole council ecumenical. The [Roman Catholic] author 
of the article on this council in Appletons' New American 
Cyclopedia calls it " one of the ecumenical councils of the 
Roman Catholic church," and further says : 

' Properly speaking, the councils of Ba<le, Ferrara, and Florence 
constitute but one council, of which several sessions were held in each 


of these cities, and which is usually called the council of Florence, 
because the most important questions were definitively settled and the 
council terminated at this latter city. The council, during its sessions 
at Basle, until its transfer to Ferrara in 1437, was acknowledged as 
ecumenical by Eugenius IV., and its decrees were confirmed by him. 
with the exception of those which interfered with the prerogatives of 
the holy see. After the transfer to Ferrara, a certain number of pre- 
lates still continued to hold ses.-ions at Basle, but from tins date the 
council of Basle is regarded as a conciliabulum, or schismatical assem- 

The council of Basle was certainly regularly summoned by 
pope Martin V., who commissioned cardinal Julian, who had 
just led an unsuccessful crusade against the Bohemians, to pre- 
side as papal legate in the council. Martin V. died on the 20th 
of February, 1431, and Eugene IV. was elected his successor 
on the 3d of March, the very day appointed for the council to 
meet. The new pope immediately confirmed his predecessor's 
convocation of the council ; but it is said only one abbot was 
present to constitute the council on the 3d of March, and he 
went through the form of declaring himself assembled in ecu- 
menical council, which ceremony was repeated a few days after 
on the arrival of 4 other deputies. Cardinal Julian arrived in 
September, and held a session on the 26th of that month, at 
which 3 bishops and 7 abbots are said to have been present. 
On the 12th of November, pope Eugene wrote a letter to car- 
dinal Julian, ordering him to dissolve the council and summon 
another to meet at Bologna in 1433 ; and on the 18th of De- 
cember the pope issued a formal bull of dissolution. The coun- 
cil, however, held what is called its first session on the 14th 
of December, 1431 ; and in its second session, February 15, 
1432, renewed the decrees of the council of Constance declar- 
ing the council to be above the pope, and the pope bound to 
obey the council ; and in its third session, April 29, 1432, re- 
quired the pope to revoke the pretended dissolution, and to be 
present in the council within 3 months personally, if able, or 
otherwise by legate or legates, and the cardinals likewise to be 


present in the council within three months, threatening to en- 
force these requirements by the proper penalties in case of non- 
fulfillment. The contest went on, the council issuing its decrees 
and the pontiff his bulls, until the pope, hard pressed on all 
sides, was obliged to yield to the council on all points, and in 
his bull of December 15, 1433, to say expressly : 

" We decree and declare that the aforesaid general council of Basle 
was and is legitimately continued from the time of its aforesaid begin- 
ning .... moreover declaring the above dissolution nu 1 and void, we 
follow the holy general council of Basle itself with purity, simplicity, 
effect, and all devotion and favor. Furthermore, our two letters, . . 
and any others, and whatever has been done or attempted or asserted 
by us or in our name to the prejudice or disparagement of the afore- 
said holy council of Basle, or against its authority, we abrogate, revoke, 
make void, and annul." 

The council required the pope's legates, before admitting 
them to the presidency of the council, to take oath in a general 
congregation on the 8th of April, 1434, to labor faithfully for 
the state and honor of the council of Basle, and to defend and 
maintain its decrees, and especially the decree of the council 
of Constance respecting the council's supremacy under Christ 
and the obligation of all, even the pope, to obey it, <fcc. The 
council had now become very numerous, and began to consider 
in earnest measures for ecclesiastical reform. It abolished 
most of the papal reservations of elective benefices, <fcc. ; pre_ 
scribed regular diocesan and provincial synods ; issued decrees 
against the concubinage of the clergy, against the indiscreet 
use of interdicts, and against frivolous and unjust appeals ; 
abolished the annats (= first fruits, or first year's income of 
a benefice, paid into the papal treasury), which had prevented 
any but the rich from obtaining important preferments ; and 
adopted various other measures of reform during the 3 years 
or more of apparent harmony between the pope and the council. 
The pope during this time repeatedly declared " that he had al- 
ways received and observed the decrees of the council." But in 
1437 there came another conflict between them. The negotia- 


tions for union with the Greeks served as a reason for removing 
the council into Italy ; but the council rejected the pope's pro- 
posals to this end, and on the 31st of July, 1437, impeached the 
pope for disregard of the council's reformatory decrees. Then 
the pope by his bull of September 18, 1437, removed the council 
from Basle to Ferrara, and on the 8th of January, 1438, opened 
a council in the latter city. On the 24th of January, 1438, the 
council suspended Eugene from all administration of the papacy, 
and passed decrees for limiting the number of causes dependent 
on Rome and bettering the occupancy of ecclesiastical offices. 
Thenceforward the energies of the council of Basle were ' ab- 
sorbed by the struggle with the pope. On the 25th of May, 
1439, it pronounced him deposed ; and on the 17th of No- 
vember following, it elected in his stead by commission Ama- 
dous VIII., duke of Savoy, who took the name of Felix V., 
but was recognized as pope only in a few countries. The coun- 
cil of Basle, grown small in numbers and influence, held its 
45th and last session on the 16th of May, 1443 ; but it con- 
tinued to exist in name, and removed to Lausanne in 1448, 
where it was entirely dissolved the next year. Its pope Felix 
also resigned, April 9, 1449. 

The council, which met in Ferrara, January 8, 1438, and, 
on account of the pestilence there, was transferred to Florence 
at the beginning of the next year, had for its great object the 
union of the Greeks and Latins. It was attended by the Greek 
emperor, by the patriarch of Constantinople, by the legates of 
the Greek patriarchs of Antioch, of Alexandria, and of Jeru- 
salem, and by other principal theologians and bishops of the 
Greek church, also by the Italian bishops and by two bishops 
from the duke of Burgundy's dominions. An act of reconcil- 
iation between the Greek and Latin churches was signed by 
141 bishops, the article in respect to the pope's supremacy de- 
claring that " the Roman pontiff holds the primacy over the 
whole world, and is the successor of the blessed Peter the 
prince of the apostles, and the true vicar of Christ, and the 
head of the whole church, and the father and teacher of all 


Christians, and has in the blessed Peter full authority from our 
Lord Jesus Christ to feed, rule, and govern the whole church in 
the manner contained both in the acts of the ecumenical councils 
and in the sacred canons." This article was differently under- 
stood by the two parties, as the Greeks recognized only the first 
7 general councils, and entirely rejected the forgeries and later 
canons which were current in Rome ; and besides, the Greeks, 
on their return to Constantinople, reported that every thing at 
Florence was done by artifice and fraud. So the nominal union 
was of little account. There followed also at Florence, in 1440, 
what Gieseler calls " the empty show of a renewed union with 
the Armenians ; " and subsequently a succession of ambassa- 
dors came from all the other oriental churches to seek a hollow 
reconciliation with the church of Rome by papal decrees. The 
council of Florence came to an end, April 26, 1442. 

The 5th Lateran council was convoked by pope Julius II. to 
offset a general council which had been summoned by some of 
the cardinals, at the instance of imperial and French envoys, 
to be held at Pisa, September 1, 1511, but which, composed 
almost wholly of French prelates, was without influence. This 
Lateran council was opened May 10, 1512, and closed May 16, 
1517. It condemned the council or convention at Pisa and 
annulled its acts ; at first laid France, and especially Lyons, 
under an interdict, but subsequently, by consent of the French 
king, Francis I., pronounced the death-warrant of the Prag- 
matic Sanction of 1438, which had secured in France the free- 
dom of election to bishoprics and abbacies, and the removal 
of various ecclesiastical abuses; sanctioned the unlimited 
power of the pope, maintaining his full authority to summon, 
suspend, or dissolve councils at his pleasure ; and declared 
that '' by divine as well as human law the laity can have no 
jurisdiction over ecclesiastical persons." This council was 
composed almost wholly of Italian bishops, of whom " The 
Pope and the Council, by Janus " says there were only about 
65, while the Catholic Almanac says it was " attended by 140 


bishops." As Julius II. died February 21, 1513, the council 
was held mostly under Leo X. 

The council of Trent (= Tridentine council) was for more 
than 3 centuries, until 1869, the great council of the Roman 
Catholic church. It was closely connected with the Reforma- 
tion in the 16th century. Martin Luther in 3518 appealed to 
a general council ; and from that time efforts were made, espe- 
cially in Germany, to induce the pope to call such a council. 
But wars and other obstacles intervened : and after pope Paul 
III. issued his bull convoking the council to meet at Trent, No- 
vember 1, 1542, war broke out afresh between the emperor and 
the king of France, so that the council was not opened by the 
papal legates till December 13, 1545. The place of meeting was 
the church of Santa Maria Maggiore (= St. Mary the Greater) 
in the city of Trent, which has a population of about 13,000, and 
is situated in that part of modern Austria called the Tyrol, 6T 
miles N. W. of Venice, and about 250 miles N. of Rome. It 
was fixed on for the meeting of the council, because this region 
was then a sort of neutral ground between Germany and Italy. 
At the opening of the council there were present, besides the 
3 papal legates and the cardinal bishop of Trent, only 4 arch- 
bishops, 20 bishops, and 5 general superiors of monastic orders ; 
but other prelates came in gradually, and 8 sessions were held 
up to and including that of March 11, 1547, when the only 
business done was to pass, by a vote of 38 to 18, a decree of 
the papal legate transferring the council to Bologna on account 
of an alleged epidemic in Trent. Two formal sessions were 
held in Bologna ; but, by the pope's order, no decrees except 
of prorogation were there promulgated, as the emperor opposed 
the transfer to this city, and insisted on a return to Trent where 
he detained the 18 German and Spanish bishops. Pope Paul 
III., by his bull of September 17, 1549, indefinitely prorogued 
the council ; but he died in November following, and his suc- 
cessor Julius III., who had presided over the council as Cardi- 
nal del Monte, first papal legate, published a bull the next year, 
by which the council was reopened at Trent on the 1st of May, 


1551. Six sessions of the council were now held in Trent ; 
but in the 16th session, held April 28, 1552, the council was 
again adjourned for two years on account of the civil war in 
Germany between the emperor and Maurice of Saxony, who 
was at the head of a Protestant army and in league with the 
French king. Before it reassembled, 3 popes died, viz., Julius 
III., and his successors, Marcellus II. and Paul IV. At last, 
pope Pius IV. having issued his bull for this purpose, the coun- 
cil was solemnly reopened in the cathedral of Trent, January 
18, 1562, by the papal legates, Cardinal Gonzaga (who died 
the next year) being president. Nine more sessions were then 
held, the 25th and last session on the 3d and 4th of December, 
1563, almost 18 years after the opening session in 1545. At 
this last session, there were present 4 cardinals as papal legates 
(Cardinal Morone presiding in the pope's name), 2 other car- 
dinals (of Trent and Lorraine), 3 patriarchs, 25 archbishops, 
168 bishops, 39 procurators of absent prelates, 7 abbots, and 7 
generals of religious orders in all, 255 prelates, who signed 
the decrees. The acceptance of the decrees by the ambassa- 
dors was then asked and given, except by the Spanish ambas- 
sadors, whose king opposed the closing of the council, and the 
French, who had withdrawn in displeasure. The decrees were 
confirmed by a bull of pope Pius IV. issued January 26, 1564 ; 
and were accepted and promulgated in all the Roman Catholic 
states of Europe, except France. Says the Catholic World, 
" In the name of Gallican liberties and royal privileges, the 
disciplinary portion was not published in France. Most of the 
measures were actually adopted by the bishops in provincial 
councils ; but the seed of great evils was sown." In other 
countries, however, more or less opposition was made to certain 
decrees which interfered with civil or political authority ; and 
king Philip of Spain ordered his viceroys to suspend the 
execution of them in the kingdom of Naples and the duchy of 

The following " accurate synopsis " of the work of the coun- 
cil is from " The Catholic World," for October, 1869, which, 


in turn, derives it from the oration of bishop Jerome Ragaz- 
zoni, orator at the last session. 

" In matters of faith, after the adoption of the venerable creed sanc- 
tioned by antiquity [the so-called Niceiie creed], the council drew up 
a catalogue of the inspired books of the Old and New Testament, and 
approved the old received Latin version of the Hebrew and Greek 
originals. It then passed to decide the questions that had been raised 
concerning the fall of man. Next, with admirable wisdom and order, 
it laid down the true Catholic doctrine of justification. The sacra- 
ments then claimed attention, and their number, their life-giving power 
through grace, and the nature of each one, were accurately defined. 
The great dogma of the blesjed eucharist was fully laid down ; the real 
dignity of the Christian altar and sacrifice was vindicated ; and the 
moot question of communion under one or two kinds settled both in 
theory and practice. Lastly, the false accusations of opponents were 
dispelled, and Catholic consciences gladdened by the enunciations on 
indulgences, purga'ory, the invocation and veneration of saints, and the 
respect to be paid to their relics and images. The decision on so many 
important and difficult questions was no light task, and of the utmost 
importance. A 'hard and fast line' was drawn between heresy and 
truth ; and if the wayward were not all converted, the litt'e ones of 
Christ were saved from the danger of being led astray. In her great- 
er trial the church gave no uncertain sound. Nations might rage, and 
the rulers of the earth meditate rash things ; but the truth of God did 
not abandon her, and she fearlessly proclaimed it in her council. la 
regard to some abuses in practical matters, dependent on dogma, from 
which the innovators had seized a pretext to impugn the true faith, a 
thorough reform was decreed. Measures were taken to prevent any 
impropriety or irreverence in the celebration of the divine sacrifice, 
whether from superstitious observances, greed of filthy lucre, unworthy 
celebrants, profane places, or worldly concomitants. The different or- 
ders of ecclesiastics were accurately .distinguished, and the exclusive 
rights and duties of each one clearly defined ; some impediments of 
matrimony, which had been productive of evil rather than good, were 
removed, and most stringent regulations adopted to prevent the crying 
wrongs to which confiding innocence and virtue had been subjected 
under the pretext of clandestine marriages. All the abuses connected 
with indulgences, the veneration of the saints, and intercession for the 


souls of purgatory, were fully and finally extirpated. Nor was less care 
taken in regard to purely disciplinary matters. Measures were taken 
to insure, as far at least as human frailty would permit, the elevation 
of only worthy persons to ecclesiastical dignities ; and stated times 
were appointed for the frequent and efficient preaching of the word of 
God, too much hitherto neglected, the necessity of which was insisted 
on with earnestness and practical force. The sacred duty of residence 
among their flocks was impressed on bishops and all inferiors having 
the care of souls ; proper-provision was made for the support of needy 
clergymen, and all privileges which might protect heresy or crime were 
swept away. To prevent all suspicion of avarice in the house of God, 
the gratuitous administration of the sacraments was made compulsory ; 
and measures were taken to put an effectual s'op to the career of the 
que^tor [of indulgences and alms], by abo'ishing the office. Young 
men destined for the priesthood were to be trained in ecclesiastical 
seminaries ; provincial synods were restored, and regular diocesan vis- 
itations ordered ; many new and extended faculties were granted to 
the local authorities, for the sake of better order and prompter decision ; 
the sacred duty of hospitality was inculcated in all clerics ; wi>e regu- 
lations were passed to secure proper promotions to ecclesiastical bene- 
fices ; all hereditary possession of God's sanctuary prohibited ; moder- 
ation prescribed in the use of the power of excommunication ; luxury, 
cupidity, and license, as far as possible, exili'd from the sanctuary ; 
most holy and wise provisions adopted for the better regulation of the 
religious of both sexes, who were judiciously shorn of many of their 
privileges, to the proper development of episcopal authority ; the great 
ones of the world were warned of their duties and responsibilities. 
These and many other similar measures, were the salutary, efficient, 
and lasting reforms with which God, at last taking mercy on his people, 
inspired the fathers of Trent, legitimately congregated under the pres- 
idency and guidance of the apostolic see. Such was the great work 
done by the council so great that even this summary review makes 
our wonder at the length of its duration cease. One remark seems 
worthy of special notice. The usual complaint of Protestants against 
the council was, and is, that it was too much under papal influence. 
Now one of the most notable features of its legislation is the great in- 
crease of the power of bishops. Not only was their ordinary authority 
confirmel and extended, but they were made in many cases, some of 
them of no little importance, perpetual delegates of the apostolic see, 


BO that Philip II. of Spain is reported to have said of his bishops, that 
' they went to Trent as parish priests, and returned like so many popes.* 
So groundless is the statement that the papal jealousy of the episcopal 
power prevented any really salutary reforms. Such was the great 

work of the Council of Trent Perhaps the best encomium of 

the council is that the Catholic of to-day reads with astonishment of 
abuses arid measures of reform in the 16th century. . . . We have 
already quoted Hallam ' on the revival of faith and piety in the church 
that was the immediate effect of the council. All historians agree that 
the triumphs of Protestantism closed with the first 50 years of its exist- 
ence. After that it gradually declined." 2 

" The Catholic World " also quotes with approbation these 
Words of Hallam: 

" No general council ever contained so many persons of eminent 
learning and ability as that of Trent ; nor is there ground for believ- 
ing that any other ever investigated the questions before it with so much 
patience, acuteness, temper, and desire of truth. The early councils, 
unless they are greatly belied, would not bear comparison in these 
characteristics. Impartiality and freedom from prejudice, no Protest- 
ant will attribute to the fathers of Trent ; but where will he produce 
these qualities in an ecclesiastical synod?" 3 

1 The following is the quotation from Hallam's Introduction to the Literature 
of Europe, here referred to: " The decrees of the council of Trent were received 
by the spiritual princes of the empire in 156G, 'and from this moment/ says the 
excellent historian [Ranke] who has thrown most light on this subject, ' began a 
new life for the Catholic church in Germany.' . . , . Every method was adopted 
to revive an attaehment to the ancient religion, insuperable by the love of novelty 
or the force of argument. A stricter discipline and subordination was introduced 
among the clergy ; they were early trained in seminaries, apart from the sentiments 
and habits, the vices and the virtues of the world. The monastic orders resumed 
their rigid observances." 

2 For the doctrinal decrees of the council, see further in Chapter II. See also 
the statistics on political and social power in Chapter XXVIII., the account of the 
Jesuits in Chapter IX., and of the Inquisition in Chapter XI., &c. 

8 To the quotations which " The Catholic World" gives from Ilallam's" In- 
troduction to the Literature of Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17thCcnturies," may 
properly Ixj added the following from the same chapter of the same work : 

" The council of Trent, especially in its later sessions, displayed the antagonist 
parties in the Roman church, one struggling for lucrative abuses, one anxious to 


The following estimate of the work of this council is given by 
the learned and candid Mosheim in his ecclesiastical history, 
as translated by Dr. Murdock : 

" The council of Trent, which is said to have been summoned to ex- 
plain, arrange, and reform both the doctrine and the discipline of the 
church, is thought by wise men to have rather produced new enormi- 
ties, than to have removed those that existed. They complain that 
many opinions of the scholastic doctors, concerning which in former 
times men thought and spoke as they pleased, were improperly sanc- 
tioned and placed among the doctrines necessary to be believed, and 
even guarded by anathemas : they complain of the ambiguity of the de- 
crees and decisions of the council, in consequence of which, controverted 

overthrow them. They may be called the Italian and Spanish parties ; the first 
headed by the Pope's legates, dreading above all things both the reforming spirit 
of Constance and Basle, and the independence either of princes or of national 
churches ; the other actuated by much of the spirit of those councils, and tending 
to confirm that independence. The French and German prelates usually sided with 
the Spanish ; and they were together strong enough to establish as a rule, that in 
every session, a decree for reformation should accompany the declaration of doc- 
trine. The council, interrupted in 1547 by the measure that Paul III. found it ne- 
cessary for his own defense against these reformers to adopt, the translation of its 
sittings to Bologna, with which the Imperial prelates refused to comply, was opened 
again by Julius III. in 1552 , and having been once more suspended in the same 
year, resumed its labor for the last time under Pius IV. in 1562. It terminated in 
1564, when the court of Rome, which, with the Italian prelates, had struggled 
hard to obstruct the redress of every grievance, compelled the more upright mem- 
bers of the council to let it close, after having effected such a reformation of disci- 
pline as they could obtain. That court was certainly successful in the contest, so 
far as it might be called one, of prerogative against liberty ; and partially successful 
in the preservation of its lesser interests and means of influence. Yet it seems im- 
possible to deny that the effects of the council of Trent were on the whole highly 

favorable to the church, for whose benefit it was summoned The abolition of 

many long established abuses by the honest zeal of the Spanish and Cisalpine 
fathers in that council took away much of the ground on which the prevalent dis- 
affection rested. ... In its determinations of doctrine, the council was generally 
cautious to avoid extremes, and left, in many momentous questions of the contro- 
versy, such as the invocation of saints, no small latitude for private opinion. . . . 
Transubstantiation had been asserted by a prior council, the 4th Lateran in 1215, 
so positively, that to recede would have surrendered the main principle of the 
Catholic church. And .... if there was a good deal of policy in the decisions of 
the council of Trent, there-was no want also of conscientious sincerity." 



points are not so much explained and settled as perplexed and made 
more difficult; they complain that everything was decided in the council, 
not according to truth and the holy scriptures, but according to the 
prescriptions of the Roman pontiff, and that the Roman legates 
took from the fathers of the council almost all liberty of cor- 
recting existing evils in the church; they complain that the 
few decisions which were wise and correct, were left naked 
and unsupported, and are neglected and disregarded with im- 
punity; in short, they think the council of Trent was more careful to 
subserve the interests of the papal dominion, than the general interests 

of the Christian church Of the multitude of vain and useless 

ceremonies wish which the Romish public worship abounded, the wis- 
dom of the pontiffs would suffer no diminution, notwithstanding the best 
men wished to see the primitive simplicity of the church restored. 
On the other regulations and customs of the people and the priests, 
some of which were superstitious and others absurd, the bishops assem- 
bled at Trent, seem to have wished to impose some restrictions; but 
the state of thing:', or rather I might say, either the policy or the neg- 
ligence of the Romish court and clergy, opposed their designs. Hence 
in those countries where nothing is to be feared from the heretics, as in 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal, such a mass of corrupt superstitions and 
customs and of silly regulations obscures the few and feeble rays of 
Christian truth yet remaining, that those who pass into them from the 
more improved countries feel as if they had got into midnight darkness. 
Nor are the other countries, which from the proximity of the heretics 
or their own good sense are somewhat more enlightened, free from a 
considerable share of corruptions and follies. If to these things, we 
add the pious or rather the impious frauds by which the people in many 
places are deluded with impunity, the extreme ignorance of the mass 
of the people, the devout farces that are acted, and the insipidity and 
the puerilities of their public discourses, we must be sensible, that it is 
sheer impudence to affirm that the Romish religion and ecclesiastical 
discipline have been altogether corrected and reformed, since the time 
of the council of Trent." 

It may be added, that two extended histories of the council 
of Trent have been written ; the first, which has been trans- 
lated into English, written by Father Paul Sarpi. and some- 
times displaying a feeling hostile to the court of Rome ; the 


second, written by Cardinal Sforza Pallavicino, and perfectly 
Submissive to the see of Rome. 

More than three centuries now passed away without another 
ecumenical council ; but on the 29th of June, 1867, when about 
500 prelates were assembled in Rome to celebrate the centenary 
of St. Peter's martyrdom, pope Pius IX. publicly and officially 
announced his intention to convene such a council at as early 
a day as circumstances would allow. On the 29th of June, 
1868, he issued his bull of convocation, the essential part of 
which is as follows : 

" Relying and renting on the authority of Almighty God himself, 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and of the blessed apostles Peter 
and Paul, which we also exercise on earth, we, with the counsel and 
consent of our venerable brethren the Cardinals of the Holy Roman 
church, by these letters proclaim, announce, convoke, and appoint a 
sacred ecumenical and general council to be held in this holy city of 
Rome, in the coming year 1869, in the Vatican basilica; to commence 
on the 8th day of the month of December, sacred to the Immaculate 
Conception of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God ; to be continued, and, 
by the help of God, completed and finished for his glory and for the 
salvation of all Christian people. And we therefore will and command 
that, from every place, all our venerable brethren, the patriarchs, arch- 
bishops, and bishops, also our beloved sons, the abbots, and all others 
to whom by right or by privilege power has been granted to sit in gen- 
eral councils and to declare their opinions in the same, shall come to this 
ecumenical council convoked by us; requiring, exhorting, admonishing, 
and no less enjoining and strictly commanding them, in virtue of the oath 
which they have taken to us and to this Holy See, and of holy obedience, 
and under the penalties commonly enacted and set forth by law or 
custom in the celebration of councils against those who do not come, 
that they be fully bound to be present and to take part in this sacred 
council, unless they chance to be prevented by just impediment, which, 
however, they must prove to the synod through their legitimate proxies." 

The pope also issued, September 8, 1868, " letters apostolic 
to all bishops of churches of the Eastern rite not in communion 
with the apostolic see," beseeching, admonishing, and press- 
ingly exhorting them to come to this ecumenical council as 


their ancestors came to the 2d council of Lyons (1274) and 
to the council of Florence (1438). And on the 13th of Septem- 
ber, 1868, there followed "letters apostolic of his holiness Pope 
Pius IX. to all Protestants and other non-Catholics," addressing 
them as " those who, while they know the same Jesus Christ as 
the Redeemer, and glory in the name of Christian, yet do not 
profess the true faith of Christ, nor hold to and follow the 
communion of the Catholic church," and exhorting them thus : 

" Let all those, then, who do not profess the unity and truth of the 
Catholic church, avail themselves of the opportunity of this council, 
in which the Catholic church, to which their ancestors belonged, affords 
a new proof of her close unity and her unconquerable vitality, and let 
them satisfy the longings of their hearts, and free themselves from that 
state iii which they cannot be assured of their own salvation. Let 
them continually offer fervent prayers to the God of mercy that He 
will throw down the wall of separation, scatter the darkness of error, 
and lead them back to the bosom of our holy mother the church, in 
whom their fathers found the healthful waters of life, in whom alone 
the whole teaching of Jesus Christ is preserved and handed down, and 
the mysteries of heavenly grace dispensed. For ourself, to whom the 
same Christ our Lord has confided the charge of the Supreme Apos- 
tolic ministry, and who must, therefore, fulfill most earnestly all the 
offices of a good pastor, and love with a fatherly love and embrace in 
our charity all men, wherever scattered over the earth, we address 
these letters to all Christians separated from us, and we again and 
again exhort and conjure them speedily to return to the one fold of 

Of course, in these letters the Roman pontiff assumes his own 
infallibility, since formally declared ; the truth and unchangea- 
bleness of the Roman Catholic church as the sole authorized 
depositary of the faith and salvation of the Gospel ; and the 
consequent necessity that all who are not in communion with, 
and submission to, the see of Rome must be regarded and 
treated altogether as errorists and heretics, and must them- 
selves make all the concessions and do all the repenting ante- 
cedent to reconciliation with him who claims to be the vicar of 


Jesus Christ upon the earth, and who, sitting in majesty and 
authority upon his pontifical throne, with outstretched hands 
awaits most eagerly the return of " erring sons to the Catholic 
church." Few Greeks or Protestants appear to have embraced 
this opportunity to become reconciled to the Roman pontiff 
and his Catholic church ; while some ecclesiastical bodies as 
well as individuals among those thus addressed, have given 
formal answers much more argumentative and reprehensive 
and justificatory than submissive or repentant. Thus the com- 
mittee of the Presbyterian General Assemblies in the United 
States, representing 5000 ministers and half a million of church 
members, answered by affirming their positive belief in the 
Apostles' Creed and the doctrinal decisions of the first six gen- 
eral councils ; denying their being either heretics or schismat- 
ics ; refusing to accept the pope's invitation, on account of 
holding the principles for which both the Council of Trent pro- 
nounced our fathers accursed, and the church of Rome still 
utters its anathema, the most important of these principles being 
(1) That the word of God is the only infallible rule of faith 
and practice ; (2) The right of private judgment; (3) The 
universal priesthood of believers ; (4) A denial of the perpe- 
tuity of the apostleship ; referring also to the leading doctrines 
of the Roman Catholic church, " which Protestants believe to 
be not only unscriptural, but contrary to the faith and practice 
of the early Church ;" and closing with these plain and kindly 
words : 

" While loyalty to Christ, obedience to the Holy Scriptures, consist- 
ent respect for the early councils of the Church, and the firm belief 
that ' pure religion is the foundation of all human society,' compel us 
to withdraw from fellowship with the Church of Rome ; we, neverthe- 
less, desire to live in charity with all men. "We love all who love our 
Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. We cordially recognize as Christian 
brethren all who worship, trust and serve Him as their God and Sa- 
vior according to the inspired Word. And we hope to be united in 
heaven with all who unite with us on earth, in saying, ' Unto Him 


who loved us, and washed us from our sins in His blood, and halh made 
us kings and priests unto God ; to Him be glory and dominion forever 
and ever. Amen.'" 

Appended to the encyclical letter issued by pope Pius IX., 
December 8, 1864, in respect to the "wicked errors" of our 
times, is a " Syllabus [= catalogue or list] of the principal 
errors of our time pointed out in the Consistorial Allocutions, 
Encyclical and other Apostolical Letters of pope Pius IX.," and 
enumerating, under 10 general heads or sections, 80 of these 
errors. These 10 sections of errors are entitled, " I. Panthe- 
ism, Naturalism, and Absolute Rationalism ;" " II. Moderate 
Rationalism;" "III. Indifferentism, Toleration ;" "IV. Social- 
ism, Communism, Secret Societies, Bible Societies, Clerico- 
liberal Societies;" "V. Errors respecting the Church and her 
Rights ;" " VI. Errors of Civil Society, as much in themselves 
as considered in their relations to the church ;" "VII. Errors 
in Natural and Christian Morals ;" " VIII. Errors as to Chris- 
tian Marriage ;" '' IX. Errors regarding the Civil Power of 
the Sovereign Pontiff;" "X. Errors referring to Modern Lib- 
eralism." Some of the specifications under these general heads 
have respect to religious freedom, the separation of Church and 
State, the civil contract of marriage, education outside of the 
control of the Roman Catholic church, the conflict between 
civil law and the spiritual authority of the Church, the immuni- 
ties of the clergy, the cessation of the pope's temporal power, &c. 

Said the British " Quarterly Review" of the Vatican coun- 
cil, before it met : 

" Its preface and programme are contained in the Encyclical of 1864. 
. . . The council is simply a coup cFeglise [= church -stroke] of the Ultra- 
montanists. It is a Jesuit plot; and the audacious men who take the lead 
in it reckon before everything to make use of it against the Liberals. 
It is not modern impiety that they trouble themselves about, for they 
know perfectly well that its abettors but mock at their anathemas ; it is the 
liberal tendency in the bosom of their own Church which engrosses their 
energies ; it is this which they hope to crush. Possibly they may suc- 
ceed ; only, that which they thus think to destroy, may perhaps burst 


its bonds, and be marshaled once more outside the narrow limits within 
which they had thought to stifle it. There is their supreme danger." 

" The Press and St. James Chronicle " said about the same 

" What is the moving spring of this catena [= chain] of events ? 
Most assuredly it is the spirit of Ultramontanism prompted, guided, 
and promoted by the order of the Jesuits. If they can only obtain this 
grand object, they, no doubt, consider they are safe, can never be again 
anathematized or suppressed by any pope, and that no ecumenical 
council can again be held to disturb the method of things which they 
will have established. It is plain it was by this order that the declara- 
tion of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was effected. This 
was the first great step, aiming at spiritual supremacy over the con- 
science. The second was the encyclical and syllabus, claiming tempo- 
ral power over kings and nations ; and the third, yet to come, is to 
combine both in one infallible and irresponsible head." 

A Protestant also remarked, that it was a shrewd thing to 
bring all the prelates of the Roman Catholic church together in 
Rome, and there all reporters being excluded, and the bishops 
pledged to secrecy to concert measures for action. Every 
Roman Catholic bishop throughout the world, be it remembered, 
has to report to the central authority the state of his diocese ; 
jurists in Rome, it is whispered, have been busy studying the 
laws of the American states to find and make opportunities for 
the benefit of the Church ; and all may be assured, that what- 
ever keen-sightedness and worldly wisdom and long experience 
would suggest as desirable or expedient, would at such a time 
and in such circumstances be sought out and effectually taught 
to those bishops in America or elsewhere who have both the 
will and the power to subserve the interests of the papal see. 
The professed object of the council may be made very prominent ; 
and yet its actual result may be something very different, which 
Protestants little suspected. 

In addition to the preparations which had been made by the 
pope in former years by encyclicals and other public manifesta- 
tions of his desires and expectations, things were carefully " cut 


and dried" for the council in the following way, according to 
" The Catholic World," for February and March, 1870 : 

" Five Committees, formed of Roman and foreign theologians, each 
under the presidency of a cardinal, have for nearly. a year and a half 
been engaged in an exhaustive study of the subjects most likely to come 
up. Their dissertations and essays on such points have been printed 
for the private use of the bishops, and being up to the day, must be of 
great use, and will naturally aid much in expediting business. 

" On December 2d, the Holy Father delivered to the bishops then 
in Rome [about 500], assembled in the Sixtine Chapel, an allocution 
in preparation for the council : and they received printed copies of an 
apostolical letter, dated November 27th, settling some matters for the 
good order of the council and the dispatch of business .... There 
are 10 chapters in it. ... 

" Chapter i. reiterates the laws of the church, and enjoins on all the 
duty of living piously, and of carefully maintaining an exemplary de- 

" Chapter ii. is as follows : ' Although the right and duty of propos- 
ing the matters to be treated in the Holy Ecumenical Council, and of 
asking the judgments of the fathers on them, belongs only to us and 
this apostolic see, yet we not only desire, but we exhort, that if any 
among the fathers of the council have anything to propose which they 
believe will tend to the general benefit, they shall freely propose it. 
However, as we clearly perceive that this, unless it be done in proper 
time and mode, may seriously disturb the necessary order of the busi- 
ness of the council, we direct that such proposals be offered in this 
mode, to wit: 1. Each one must be put in writing, and be directly de- 
livered to a special congregation [=committee] composed of several car- 
dinals and fathers of the council, to be appointed by us. 2. It must 
regard the general welfare of the church, not the special benefit of only 
this or that diocese. 3. It must set forth the reasons for which it is 
held useful and opportune. 4. It must not run counter to the constant 
belief of the church, and her inviolable traditions. The said special 
congregation shall diligently weigh the propositions delivered to it, and 
shall report to us their recommendation as to the admission or exclu- 
sion of them, in order that, after mature deliberation, we may decide 
whether or not they shall be placed before the council for discussion.' 
We may say here that this special committee has been appo'n ed, and 


is composed of 12 cardinals and 14 prelates. Of the cardinals 5 are 
usually resident in Rome, 3 are from sees in Italy, 1 is French, 1 
Spanish, 1 German, and 1 (Cardinal Cullen) from Ireland. Of the 
prelates, 2 are patriarchs from the East, 1 is French, 2 Spanish, 4 
Italians, 1 South American, 1 (Archbishop Spalding [of Baltimore]) 
from the United States, 1 Mexican, 1 English, 1 Belgian, and 1 Ger- 
man. This committee is thus an admirable synopsis, as it were, of the 
entire council. Their duties may hereafter be delicate and responsi- 
ble. So far, we believe, they have not been called on to act. . . . 

" Chapter iii. charges all to keep silence on the matters under dis- 
cussion. ... i 

" Chapter iv. declares that the seats shall be occupied according to 
grades of the hierarchy, and seniority of promotion. . . . 

" Chapters v. and vii. set forth that, for the rapid furthering of 
business, there shall be six other standing committees, the members of 
all of which shall be elected by ballot in the council: 1. On excuses 
for non-attendance, or for leave of absence, to consist of 5 members. 

2. On grievances and complaints, likewise to consist of 5 members. 

3. On matters of faith, to consist of 24 members. 4. On matters of 
discipline, with 24 members. 5. One on regular orders, with 24 mem- 
bers ; and 6. One on oriental rites and on missions, to consist of 24 
members. These last four committees, or ' deputations/ as they are 
termed, will be presided over each by a cardinal, to be appointed by 
the pope. 

"Chapter vi. appoints the officers and attendants required in the 
council. Prince John Colonna and Prince Dominic Orsini are ser- 
geants -at-arms. . . . The Right Rev. Joseph Fessler, of Germany, is 
named secretary of the council, with an under-secretary and 2 assist- 
ants. 7 notaries are named, and 8 scrutatores or tellers, for receiving 
and counting the votes. Among these last is Monsignor Nardi, well- 
known to the foreign visitors to Rome. The promoters, masters of 
ceremony, and ushers are also named in this chapter. . . . 

** Other chapters . . . make known some points of order to be ob. 
served in the religious exercises of the public sessions and the general 
congregations ; and enjoin on the bishops attending the council to remain 
until the close of it, forbidding any one to depart before such close, save 
with regular leave of absence, duly applied for and obtained. . . . 

" Finally, the sovereign pontiff, who would preside in person only in 
the solemn sessions, designated 5 cardinals who, in his name and by his 


authority, would preside in the general congregations. They were 
cardinals de Reisach, de Luca, Bizzarri, Bilio, and Capalti. [The 
death of cardinal de Reisach and the appointment of cardinal de Angelis 
to fill the vacancy, were announced in the congregation of January 3d, 

" The apostolic letter also set forth how the several committees of 
theologians had prepared schemata, or draughts, as we would term 
them, on various points belonging to the general purposes of the coun- 
cil. The Holy Father declared that he had abstained from giving to 
these draughts any sanction of approval. They would be placed in the 
hands of the bishops for their serious study and for their discussion, 
(integra integre) freely and as to every part." 

The sessions of the council were held in the north transept 
of St. Peter's a part about 175 feet in length and 95 feet in 
breadth being separated from the rest of the church by exquis- 
itely colored, but temporary, partition-walls closing the arches 
on the north aisle and extending across the space between the 
two great pillars which support the north side of the dome. 
The pontiff's throne was placed under a draped canopy and 
above a raised platform in the semicircular apsis which forms 
the very northern extremity of the transept. On each side of 
him, but a little less elevated, were placed the cardinals, on 
seats covered with red damask, with kneeling-stands before 
them capable of being changed into writing-desks. Before the 
cardinals, but a little lower, sat the patriarchs, on seats cov- 
ered with purple. On 14 rows of high-backed benches running 
the remaining length (about f) of the hall and rising as they 
recede, 7 on each side, from the central or front rows, sat the 
bishops, each with his seat numbered and covered with green- 
ish Brussels tapestry, and Jiis table suspended by hinges from 
the back of the bench before him. Seats for secretaries and 
other officials were placed here and there on the floor ; and 30 
or 40 feet from the large entrance-door at the south end of the 
council-hall in the central space between the front rows of 
bishops' seats was a temporary altar for masses. Several 
galleries opening through the wall were for the singers of the 


Sistine choir, sovereigns and members of royal families, am- 
bassadors, and theologians. The hall was ornamented with 
a large painting of the descent of the Holy Ghost, with paint- 
ings of the Apostles' council at Jerusalem, and of the three 
councils of Nice, Ephesus, and Trent, with medallion paintings 
of 22 popes connected with ecumenical councils, and colossal 
figures of the 4 great doctors of the church, Ambrose, Augus- 
tine, Jerome, and Chrysostom. As the large council-hall was 
150 feet high, and was therefore but partially separated from 
the rest of St. Peter's by the partition, 50 feet high, at the 
south end, it was found after the council met in it that only 
the strongest and clearest voices could fill it and be understood, 
so that discussion was altogether impossible. But this diffi- 
culty was remedied for the congregations or meetings for dis- 
cussion, which the pope does not attend, by putting in a new and 
light partition so as to cut off the altar and half of the bishops' 
seats, removing the prelates who occupied these seats to other 
temporary seats in the central space and on the platform, tak- 
ing away the pope's throne and placing a temporary altar for 
mass there, and stretching an awning across the hall. For 
the solemn sessions, in which the pontiff presided, the couiicil- 
hall was restored to its full size. 

The expenses of the council were met by " Peter's pence " 
(see Chap. XXI.) or contributions from the faithful of all 
countries. It is said that 150 or 200 poor bishops were pro- 
vided for gratuitously as guests of the Holy Father. 

This enthusiastic description of the opening of the council 
is also from " The Catholic World," whose editor, Rev. I. T. 
Hecker, was in Rome at the time : 

" The morning of December 8th dawned Although the clouds 

were hanging low and heavy, and the air was filled with mist, and at 

times the rain poured down, by six A. M., tens of thousands were 

wending their way to St. Peter's ; and by seven, every eligible 

portion of the floor of the vast basilica was crowded. At half-past seven, 
the cardinals, archbishops, and bishops began to gather in the Vatican 
Palace, where they robed, putting on white copes and mitres, and then 
passed to the great hall at the front, and immediately over the vestibule 


of St. Peter's. Here the masters of ceremony assigned to each one 
his proper place, and they awaited the coming of the sovereign pontiff. 
" Punctual to the moment, he appeared. All knelt in prayer. In 
a clear and sonorous voice he intoned the Veni Creator Spiritus. 1 The 
choir took up the strain, the bishops arose, and commenced to move in 
procession back to the Vatican Palace, through the ducal hall, down 
the unequalled Scala JRegia, and into the vestibule of St. Peter's. 
Along the line the voice of chanting was heard. Without, the air was 

filled again with the sound of bells and the booming of cannon 

The prelates marched two and two, each one attended by his chaplain. 
It was a procession such as the world has seen but once before, and 
that six hundred years ago, at the Second Council of Lyons. First 
came the cross, surrounded with burning lights and clouds of incense 
from the censers, and a group of ecclesiastics attached to the Vatican 
and to St. Peter's. On came the long white line of mitred abbots, 
bishops, archbishops, primates, patriarchs, and cardinals, slowly moving, 
joining in the chanted hymn, or else with subdued voices reciting 
psalms and prayers. The hall, the grand stairway, and the vestibule 
were packed by thousands who despaired of being able to enter the 
church, and hoped at least to look on the procession. All eyes seemed 
to scrutinize the line of prelates with reverent curiosity. Some in 
the line had not yet lost the smoothness of their cheeks. They had 
not yet closed their eighth lustre.* The great majority had passed 

the half-century of life Many of them, too, far more than the 

younger ones, were aged and venerable prelates, who, like the rest, 

had come at the summons of the chief pastor The spectators, 

of every nation, looked to recognize the bishops each of his own land. 
They pointed out and whispered to each other the names of those who 
had won for themselves a world-wide reputation in the church, and 
looked with special attention on the oriental prelates, scattered here 
and there through the line, robed, not like those of the Latin rite, in 
unadorned white copes and white linen mitres, but in richly ornamented 
chasubles or copes of oriental fashion, glittering with gold and precious 
stones and bright colors, and wearing on their heads tiaras radiant 
with gems. On they passed, Italians, Greeks, Germans, Persians, 

1 Literally, "Come, Creator Spirit," a hymn of invocation to the Holy Spirit, 
which Ixjgins thus. 

2 As a lustrum or lustre is a period of 5 years, the close of the 8th lustre is the 
end ot the 40th year. 


Syrians, Hungarians, Spanish and Copt, Irish and French, Scotch and 
Brazilian, Mexican and English, American and Chinese, Canadian 
and South American and Australian ; abbots, bishops, archbishops, 
primates, and patriarchs. 

" Next came the cardinals the senate of the church. . . . Antonelli, 
Bilio, Bonnechose, Cullen, Schwartzenberg, Hohenlohe, Banabo, Pitra, 
Patrizi every one seemed worthy of, and to receive, special homage 
as they slowly moved on. 

" But even they were forgotten as the Holy Father approached. 
Surrounded by his chaplains and attendants, by Swiss guards in their 
picturesque costume, designed, it is said, with an eye to effect, by 
Michael Angelo himself, and by the Roman noble guard in their rich- 
est uniforms, he came borne, according to the old Roman custom which 
has come down from the times of the republic, in a curule chair, 
such as ediles and senators were borne in ; such as that which 
the convert Senator Pudens appropriated to the Apostle St. 
Peter, which he and many of his successors used, and which is still 
preserved with care and veneration in St. Peter's. [See Chapters I. 
and III.] Pius IX. is, we believe, really eighty-one [78] years of 
age. He is still robust, wonderfully so for that age. His countenance 
beams still with that paternal benevolence which has such power to 
charm . . . All knelt as he was borne by, blessing them on either side. 
In his train followed other attendants and the superiors of religious or- 
ders, who enter the council, but are not privileged to wear mitres. 
Conspicuous among them was the thin, ascetic, fleshless form of the 
superior-general of the Jesuits, in black the little black pope, as they 
call him in Rome. 

" Meanwhile the head of the procession has long since reached the 
grand portals of the Basilica. From the door to the central line of the 
transept is about four hundred feet, and the nave of the church is about 
ninety-five feet wide. All this space is crowded with people standing 
so jammed together that there is not room to kneel, if one wished. Back 
on either side, under the broad arches, and into the side aisles, the vast 
mass of humanity extends. . . . Guards had kept free for the procession 
a passage-way through the crowd, from the door to the main altar. 
Up this lane the bishops walked with uncovered heads, for the blessed 
sacrament was exposed on the altar. Kneeling a moment in adora- 
tion, they arose, and, turning to the right, passed into the space set 
aside and prepared for the council-hall. To each one, as he entered, 
his proper place was assigned by the masters of ceremony. The great- 


er part were so placed, when a fuller burst of the choir told us that the 
Holy Father had reached the portals of the church, had been received 
by the chapter of canons, and was entering. He left the curule chair 
and doflfed his mitre ; for a greater than he is here enthroned, and even 
the pope must walk with uncovered head. He, and the cardinals with 
him, knelt at the main altar as the bishops had done, and waited until 
the last strophe of the hymn, Veni Sancte Spiritus [= Come, Holy 
Spirit], was finished by the choir. He arose, chanted the versicle and 
prayer to the Holy Ghost, and then, preceded by the cardinals, also 
entered the council-hall. They passed each to his proper place, the 
pontiff to a prie Dieu [= 'pray God,' a kneeling-desk], prepared for 
for him in the middle, to await the commencement of the high mass. . . 

" The pontifical high mass should have been celebrated by Cardinal 
Mattei, the dean of the body. But his age and infirmities are too 
great to permit so great an exertion. Accordingly, the next in rank, 
Cardinal Patrizi, took his place, and was the celebrant. The pontiff 
approached the altar with him, recited the Jadica [=' Judge,' i.e., 
Psalm xliii ] and the Confiteor [= 'I confess,' the confession of sin 
to God, to the Virgin Mary, &c.], and then retired to his own seat, 
and the cardinal ascended to the altar, and continued the mass. The 
music was that of Palestrina, executed by the papal choir as they alone 
can sing, and without any instrumental accompaniment. Such voices 
as theirs need none. Just before the last gospel, a portable pulpit was 
brought out near the altar ; Monsignor Passavalli, archbishop of Iconi- 
um, ascended it, wearing cope and mitre, and preached the introductory 
sermon. It was in Latin the language of the council and occupied 
just 40 minutes. It has since been published, and the reader will not 
fail to recognizj and admire the eloquence and fervor of his thoughts 
and the eleganc-e of his Latinity. But no pages can give an idea of the 
clear, ringing voice, the musical Italian intonations, and the dignified 
and impressive, almost impassioned, gesture of the truly eloquent Capu- 
chin. The sermon over, the pope gave the solemn blessing, the Gospel 
of St. John [John 1 : 1 14] was recited, and the mass was over. 

* The altar being now clear, the attendants brought in a rich, throne- 
like stand, and placed it on the altar in the centre. Monsignor Fess- 
ler, secretary of the council, attended by his assistant, brought in pro- 
cession a large book of the Gospels, elegantly bound, and reverently 
placed it on the throne. . . . 

" The Holy Father then assumed his full pontifical robes. The car- 


dinals and all the prelates, in their proper order, then approached, one 
by one, to pay him homage, kissing his hand or the stole he wore. 
Their numbers made it a long ceremony. . . . 

"This over, all knelt while the pontiff chanted the sublime prayer, 
Adsumus, Domine [= We are present, Lord]. Solemn and subdued 
were the chanted amens of the entire assembly. 

* Four chanters next intoned the litany of the saints in the well- 
known varying minor strains of Gregorian chant. Most impressive 
were the responses made by the united Voices of the fathers. But 
when, at the proper time, the pope rose to his feet, and, holding the 
cross of his authority in his left hand, replaced the chanters, and rais- 
ing his streaming eyes to heaven, and in his own majestic and sonorous 
tones, trembling just enough to tell how deeply his great heart was 
moved, thrice prayed our divine Lord to bless, to preserve, to consecrate 
this council, tears flowed from many an eye. All were intensely moved r 
and not bishops alone, but the crowds of clergy outside, and thousands 
of the laity, joined, again and again, in the response, Te Rogamus, audi 
nos [We beseech thee, hear us]. Then, if never before, St. Peter's 
was filled with the mighty volume of sound. . . . 

" The chanters resumed, the litany was terminated, and the pope re- 
cited the prayers that follow it Cardinal Borromeo then, acting as 
deacon, chanted the Gospel taken from Luke x., narrating the mission 
of the disciples. He used the volum3 that had been enthroned on the 
altar. When he concluded, the volume was carried back as before, and 
reverently replaced on the throne. The assembly were* seated, and the 
Holy Father, himself seated and wearing his mitre, delivered a dis- 
course or allocution, full, as all his discourses are, of unction, and re- 
plete with the thoughts and words of divine inspiration. 

" At the conclusion of this discourse all knelt, and the Holy Father 
again intoned the Veni Creator Spiritus. The choir took it up, and 
the members of the council responded in the alternate strophes. The 
pope sang the versicles and prayer that follow it, and all again were 

" The secretary now mounted the pulpit and read aloud the first pro- 
posed decree, " That this Holy Vatican Council be, and is now opened." 
The fathers all answered Placet [= It pleases, i. e., Yes] ; the pope 
gave his sanction ; the formal decree was passed and proclaimed, and 
the notaries instructed to make an official record of it. 
" A second decree was similarly proposed, voted, and sanctioned, fix- 


ing the second public session for the festival of Epiphany, January 6th, 
1870. The first general congregation was announced for Friday, De- 
cember 10th, in the same hall of the council. 

" This closed the proceedings of the first public session, which neces- 
sarily were purely formal. The Holy Father arose and intoned the 
solemn Te Deum or thanksgiving. The choir the unrivalled one of 
the Sixtine chapel took up the strain, intertwining the melody with 
subdued but artistic harmonies. The assembled bishops, the clergy 
without, thousands of the laity, familiar from childhood w'.th the vary- 
ing strains of its Gregorian chant, responded with one accord, in the 
second verse of the grand old Ambrosian hymn. The choir sang the 
third verse as before, the crowd responded with the fourth, and so on 
they alternated to the end. It is impossible to tell in words the thril- 
ling power of such a union of voices. It moved, overcame, subdued 
one. . . . 

"At half-past two, the Te Deum was finished, and the services 
closed. The Holy Father unrobed, and withdrew with his attendants. 
But it was past three ere all the bishops could issue from the hall and 
leave the church. The crowds looked on as they slowly departed, their 
own numbers long remaining seemingly undiminished." 

At the first general congregation, held December 10th, Car- 
dinal de Luca presiding and making an address, the members 
of the council voted by ballot for the two committees on ex- 
cuses and complaints, each consisting of five members. These 
rotes were placed in boxes, and publicly sealed ; and a com- 
mittee, consisting of the senior patriarch, the senior primate, 
the senior archbishop, the senior bishop, and the senior mitred 
abbot, was appointed to superintend the counting of the votes 
the next day, and also to superintend the counting of the votes 
in future elections. Copies of the first schema or draught on 
doctrinal matters were then delivered to the bishops. The 
meeting was opened at 9 o'clock A. M. with the mass of the 
Holy Ghost celebrated by one of the prelates without music, 
and this was followed by the chief cardinal's reading the pray- 
ers prescribed for the occasion. A concluding prayer was said 
before the meeting was adjourned. 

At the second general congregation, December 14th, two 


documents from the pope were distributed to the council ; one 
on the election of pontiff by the cardinals and the immediate 
adjournment of the council, should there be a vacancy in the 
office during the council ; the other, revising the censures and 
penalties of the canon law, &c. (see Chapter IV.). The coun- 
cil balloted for members of the committee on matters of faith, 
721 members voting. Archbishops Spalding of Baltimore, and 
Alemany of San Francisco, were two of the 24 members of this 
important committee. Archbishop Manning of Westminster, 
England, was another member, and Cardinal Bilio was ap- 
pointed chairman. It is conceded that the members of this 
committee almost unanimously favored the decree, subsequently 
passed, affirming the pope's supremacy and infallibility. 

At the third general congregation, December 21st, the com- 
mittee on discipline was chosen. Archbishop McCloskey of 
New York, and Bishop Heiss of La Crosse,-were the members 
chosen from the United States, and Cardinal Caterini was ap- 
pointed chairman. 

At the fourth general congregation, December 28th, the com- 
mittee on the religious orders was chosen. Of this Bishop Ryan 
of Buffalo was the only member chosen from the United States, 
and Cardinal Bizzarri was appointed chairman. After the bal- 
loting, the discussion on the first schema began, and was con- 
tinued on the next day, also on the 3d, 4th, 8th, and llth of 
January. In all 85 speakers addressed the council on this 
schema, all in Latin, the first speaker being Cardinal Rauscher 
of Vienna, the second Archbishop Kenrick of St. Louis, and 
another Bishop Verot of Savannah. All these discourses were 
taken down by the stenographers of the council, written out, 
and then referred with the schema itself to the committee on 
matters of faith to make such amendments in the schema as 
might seem advisable, and again bring it up before the council 
for consideration and ultimate approval or* rejection. In the 
mean time other schemata or draughts on discipline were placed 
in the hands of the members of the council to be studied for 

subsequent discussion and action in a similar way. 


The second public session of the council, in which the pon- 
tiff presided, was held January 6th. There was no procession, 
yet the crowd in St. Peter's, though smaller than at the first 
session, was immense. After the mass, litany, and other pray- 
ers, came the special business of the session to make the 
solemn profession of faith. This ceremony is thus described in 
"The Catholic World" for March, 1870 : 

" The promoters, approaching the holy father, knelt and asked that 
this be now done. He assented, and arose, and put off his mitre. All 
arose, and stood uncovered. In his own clear, ringing voice, in tones 
that filled the hall, and passed out to the multiiude beyond in the 
church so clear that words could be caught far off at the other end of 
the transept he read slowly and solemnly the profession of Catholic 
faith, in the form of Pius IV., and seemed to lay special stress on the 
declaration that in his heart he held and professed this holy faith, and 
would hold it, with God's blessing, until death, and concluded, ' I, Pius, 
Bishop of the Catholic church, so promise, vow, and swear. So help 
me God, and these holy gospels,' and kissed the book of gospels. He 
was then seated. The prelates remained standing as before, while one 
of their number read, in a clear voice, the same profession in their 
name. When he had concluded, the masters of ceremony placed a 
book of the gospels on the knees of the pontiff, and one by one the 
cardinals approached, according to their rank, and confirmed the pro- 
fession, 'I, Cons'antine, Cardinal Patrizi, promise, vow, and swear, 
according to the form just read. So help me God, and these holy gos- 
pels,' and kissed the book. After the cardinals came the patriarchs 
and primates, and then the archbishops and bishops. . . . The prelates 
made the profession each in the liturgical language of his rite ; most, 
of course, in Latin, some in Greek, and Syriac, and Chaldean, and 
Arabic, and Armenian, and Copt, and Slavonic This solemn cere- 
mony lasted for two hours and a half. When it was concluded, the 
Te Deum was intoned, and chanted in the old and venerable style by 
the choir, the bishops, and the assembled thousands, and with it closed 
the second public session of the Vatican council." 

The 29th general congregation was held February 22, 1870, 
when the discussion on the fourth schema on discipline was re- 
ferred, like the three before it, to the committee on matters of 


discipline. Including the 7 speeches of that day, 145 speeches 
had then been delivered before the council on the 5 schemata 
(1 on faith, and 4 on discipline), and nothing satisfactory to 
the council had been matured. Some additional regulations 
were announced in the congregation of the 22d of February, 
according to which the members of the council who desired to 
present their views upon any schema or to amend it in any way, 
were to do this, not publicly in the congregation as before, but 
by writing out their views, amendments, &c., and sending these 
written statements to the secretary, who in turn was, at the 
expiration of the time specified, to deliver them all to the ap* 
propriate committee, who were, as before, to amend the schema, 
if necessary, and report it to the congregation with a summary 
of the remarks made and of the amendments proposed ; and 
then the presiding cardinals were to appoint a day for its 
discussion in general congregation, first by those who might 
previously signify their intention to discuss it as a whole, and 
next by those who might thus signify their intention to discuss 
the 1st, 2d, <fec., portion of it, as each portion should come up 
in its order, the members of the reporting committee being free 
to reply at their discretion during the debate. Provision was 
also made in these regulations for closing the discussion at the 
written request of at least 10 bishops, should a majority of the 
members present so decide ; for taking the vote after the dis- 
cussion of a part of a schema should be finished, first on the 
amendments to that part and then on the part itself; and finally 
for taking the vote on an entire schema by saying placet [=. it 
pleases], or non placet [= it does not please], or placet juxta 
modum [= it pleases after a fashion], those who voted in this 
last way giving a written statement of opinion and reasons. 

Under the new regulations 9 general congregations were 
held in March, and 8 in April ; and then, at the 3d public 
session, held on Low Sunday, April 24th, a dogmatic decree 
on Catholic faith* was read and unanimously approved by the 

* This decree is in 4 chapters, treating (I.) of God the Creator of all things, (II.) 
of Revelation, (III.) of Faith, and (IV.) of Faith and Reason ; with corresponding 


667 members present ; whereupon, after the vote was officially 
declared by the notaries, the pope gave his sanction thus : 

" The canons and decrees contained in this constitution, having been 
approved by all the fathers, without a single dissentient, we, with the 
approbation of this holy council, define them, as they have been read, 
and by our apostolic authority we confirm them." 

After the 3d public session, 3 general congregations were 
held for discussion and action upon the schema on the Little 
Catechism, which was voted on as a whole in the congregation 
of May 4th, and then laid over for the final seal of approbation 
in the public session. 

"With the general congregation of May 13th commenced the 
discussion respecting the primacy and infallibility of the pope, 
which was continued for two months. The preface and the 
first 2 chapters of the proposed decree having been adopted, 
and the discussion on the 3d chapter closed, the debate began 
in the congregation of June 15th on the 4th chapter, which 
embraced the doctrine of the pope's infallibility. While the 
greater part of the council were Ultramontanists, who were 
agreed in maintaining this infallibility, there was opposition 
from three classes : (1.) The Gallicans or French party, headed 
by the archbishop of Paris, who denied the infallibility of the 
pope and regarded him only as a divinely constituted center or 
official representative of the whole church, this whole church 
dispersed through the world being infallible and the pope being 
amenable to it. This class was not very numerous, but grew 
larger during the continuance of the council. (2.) Those who, 
though themselves believing or speculatively favoring the doc- 
trine, yet deemed it incapable of definition, the church tradition 
on this point not being, in their view, clear enough. (3.) Those 
who regarded the definition as possible, but perilous to the 
church, hindering conversions and exasperating governments. 

canons appended, anathematizing atheists, pantheists, rejecters of the Tridentine 
canon of the Scriptures, disbelievers in the inspiration of these Scriptures, or in 
niiraclcs, or in the perpetuity of church-doctrines, &c. 


This last is said to have been the most numerous of the three 
classes of the opposition, and to have included Cardinal 
Schwartzenberg, Bishop Dupanloup of Orleans, most of the 
German and Austrian bishops, and a good number of the 
French and Belgians. There were 65 speakers on this last 
chapter, before the debate was arrested, on the petition of 
150 bishops, by the vote of an overwhelming majority. In 
the general congregation of July llth, the votes were taken on 
the details of the 4th chapter, and 47 members voted against 
the ...definition of infallibility. In the general congregation 
of July 13th the vote was taken on the whole schema, when 
451 voted placet, 62 placet juxta modum, and 88 non placet. 
As some (Spanish bishops, it is said) who voted placet juxta 
modum, recommended the insertion of words to make the de- 
cree clearer and stronger, the schema was altered, and the 
amendments were agreed to in the congregation of July 16th. 
Of the 88 who voted unconditionally against the dogma of 
infallibility in the general congregation of July 13th, 25 were 
Austrian (including the 2 cardinal archbishops Schwartzenberg 
of Prague and Rauscher of Vienna, Archbishop Simor of Grau 
who is primate of Hungary and a member of the committee on 
faith, Archbishop Prince Fiirstenberg of Olmiitz, <fcc.), 25 
were French (including Cardinal Archbishop M atthieu of Be- 
sanc,on., the archbishops of Lyons and Paris, Bishop Dupanloup 
of Orleans, <fcc.), 11 from Germany (including the archbish- 
ops of Munich and Bamberg in Bavaria, c.), 8 from the Brit- 
ish dominions (including Archbishops McHale of Tuam in 
Ireland, Connolly of Halifax, Bishops Rogers of Chatham, 
Bourget ot Montreal, <fcc.), 6 from Italy (the Archbishop of 
Milan, <fcc.), 6 from the Oriental rites in Turkey and Persia, 
and 4 (the Archbishop of St. Louis, and the Bishops of Pitts- 
burg, Little Rock, and Rochester) from the United States. 
Of the 62 who voted conditionally (placet juxta modum) against 
the dogma at that time, about 20 were Italians, including 3 
cardinals (de Silvestri, Trevisanto, and Guidi), 6 from Spain, 
4 from the United States (the Archbishops of Oregon City and 


New York, and the Bishops of Monterey and Savannah), &c. 
Several American prelates were absent at this time, as Arch- 
bishop Purcell of Cincinnati, the Bishops of Burlington and 
Cleveland, &c. ; and Archbishop Odin of New Orleans had 

On the 15th of July, two days after the above vote was 
taken, a deputation of the minority had an interview with the 
pope (according to the Roman correspondent of the Gazette 
de France), to ask him to suppress, in the 3d canon of the 3d 
chapter of the schema, a clause which had been added after 
,the close of the discussion, and to insert in the formula of 
the definition the words ' supported by the testimony of the 
,churches.' The pope received the deputation with great kind- 
ness, but did not, as appeared the next day, accede to their 
.request. Then the bishops of the minority concluded not to 
attend the promulgation of the doctrine, and addressed to the 
pope this letter : 

"Most Holy Father : In the general congregation held on the 13th 
of the present month, we have voted on the schema of the first dog- 
matic constitution, relative to the Church. Your Holiness now knows 
that 88 Fathers, only, listening to their conscience and their love of 
the Church, have voted non placet ; that 62 have voted placet juxta 
modum, and, finally, that about 70 others have not attended the congre- 
gation, and have deemed it best to abstain from voting. It should be 
added that other Fathers, either on account of the condition of their 
health, or from other very grave motives, had already returned to 
<their dioceses. Under such conditions our vote has been presented to 
the eyes of Your Holiness and of the entire world. It is therefore 
now known how large a number of bishops share our sentiments ; as 
regards us, we have by our vote fulfilled a duty which we had to dis- 
charge before God and before the Church. Since then nothing has 
occurred which could have disposed us to vote differently ; on the con- 
trary, certain events of great importance have still more confirmed us 
in our former disposition. And on that account we now hereby declare 
that we renew and confirm the votes previously given by us. 

" Confirming, therefore, these votes by the present declaration, we 
decide, at the same time, that we shall not attend the public session 


which is to take place on the 18th of the present month ; for the filial 
devotion aud the respect which yesterday brought to the feet of Your 
Holiness our deputation do not permit us, in a question which so nearly 
concerns Your Holiness that it may be regarded as being a personal 
affair of Your Holiness, to say publicly and to the face of our Father, 
Non Placet. Moreover, the votes which we intended to give at ih3 
solemn session would only repeat the votes already given by us at the 
general congregation. We therefore return, without further delay, to 
the flocks which are entrusted to us, and to which, after so long an ab- 
sence, amidst these rumors of war and in the urgent necessities of their 
souls, our presence is absolutely necessary, being distressed that in this 
sad junction we should find the consciences and the peace of souls so 
deeply disturbed. 

" We recommend with our whole heart Your Holiness and the Holy 
Church, to which we profess an inviolable devotedness and obedience, 
to the grace and to the protection of our Lord Jesus Christ. And, in 
union with, those of our colleagues who are absent and who should 
have voted as we, we are, most holy Father, 
Of your Holiness' 

Most devoted and obedient sons." 

The 4th general session was held on Monday, July 18th, at 
9 A. M. The following account of it is from " The Catholic 
World," of September, 1870. 

"The 18th of July will henceforth be a memorable day in the his- 
tory of the church At 9 o'clock precisely, his eminence Car- 
dinal Barili began a low mass, without chant. At the end of it, the 
small throne for the gospels was placed on the altar, and upon it a copy 
of the Sacred Scriptures. In a few moments the sovereign pontiff en- 
tered, preceded by the senate and by the officers of his court, and, after 
kneeling a few moments at the prie-dieu, went to his throne in the apsis 
of the aula [= hall]. The customary prayers were recited by him; 
the litany of the saints was chanted, and the Veni Creator Spiritus in- 
toned, the people present taking part ; after which the bishop of Fabri- 
ano ascended the pulpit and read the schema to be voted on, and fin- 
ished with asking the fathers whether it pleased them. Monsignor 
Jacobini next, from the pulpit, called the name of each prelate assisting 
at the council. 534 answered placet, 2 replied non placet, and 106 


were absent, some being sick, the far greater number not wishing to 
vote favorably. As soon as the result was made known officially to Pius 
IX., who awaited it in silence, but with calmness, he arose, and in a 
clear, disiinct, and firm voice announced the fact of all, with the excep- 
tion of 2, having given a favorable vote, ' wherefore,' he continued, ' by 
virtue of our apostolic authori'y, with the approval of the sacred coun- 
cil, we define, confirm, and approve the decrees and canons just road.' 
Immediately there arose murmurs of approbation inside and outside 
the hall, the doors of which wern surrounded by a large crowd, and, 
increasing from the impossibility those present experienced of lepre^s- 
ing their feeling, it swelled into a burst of congratulation, and a Viva 
Pio Nono Papa infallibile [Live Pius IX. Pope infallible]. . . As 
soon as all were quiet, with unfaltering voice and excellent intonation 
the pope began the Te Deum. It was taken up alternately by the Sis- 
tine choir and those present. By an accident at the ' Sanctus, Sane- 
tits, Sanctus [= Holy, Holy, Holy], the people got out, and took up 
the part of the Sistine choir, and kept it to the end, alternately with 
the bishops, and with a volume of sound that completely drowned the 
delicate notes of the papal singers, and which, if not as musical as 
their chant, was far more impressive. The session ended with the 
apostolic benediction from the holy father, accompanied by an indul- 
gence for all assisting, hi accordance with the cu^om of the church." 

The session of the 18th of July was memorable not only for 
its decree on the pope's primacy and infallibility, and for its 
number of vacant seats, but also for its terrible thunder-storm. 
Of this storm, which burst over the church during the voting 
upon the dogma, and of the scenes that followed, the corre- 
spondent in Rome of the New York Tribune wrote the next 

..." The lightning flashed and the thunder pealed as we have not heard 
it this season before. Every placet seemed to be announced by a flash 
and terminated by a clap of thunder. Through the cupolas the light- 
ning entered, licking, as it were, the very columns of the baldachino 
over the tomb of St. Peter, and lighting up large spaces on the pave- 
ment. . . . Thus the roll was called for one hour and a half, with this 
solemn accompaniment, and then the result of the voting was taken to 
the pope. . . . Looking from a distance into the hall, which was ob- 


scured by the tempest, nothing was visible but the golden miter of the 
pope, and so thick was the darkness that a servitor was compelled to 
bring a lighted candle and hold it by his side to enable him to read the 
formula by which he deified himself. And then what is that inde- 
scribable noise ? . . . The fathers had begun with clapping they were 
the fuglemen to the crowd who took up the notes and signs of rejoicing 
until the church of God was converted into a theatre for the exhibition 
of human passions. ' Viva Pio Nona' [= Live, Pius IX.], ' Viva il 
Papa Infattibile ' [= Live the infallible pope], ' Viva il trionfo dei 
Cattolici ' [= Live the triumph of the Catholics], were shouted by this 
priestly assembly ; and again another round they had ; and yet another 
was attempted as soon as the Te Deum had been sung and the benedic- 
tion had been given. It was a morning never to be forgotten by the 
contracts between the absence of almost every effect whicli man could 
have provided, and the presence of those wonderful effects of nature 
which I have attempted to describe. A miserably small assemblage 
in the church ; no decorations, no proud procession ; the hall almost 
closed from the view of the public : one-third of the entire number of 
the bishops, and those the leading members of the hierarchy, absent; 
the Royal box nearly empty ; the Diplomatic box as much so, for 
France, Austria, Prussia, and Bavaria had instructed their ministers 
not to attend, nor to illuminate in the evening such were the external 
circumstances of humiliation which struck the senses. On the other 
hand, the God of Nature, and perhaps, too, of the pope, had entered 
the very church of St. Peter clothed in his sublimes! form. Until 12 
o'clock did this terrific storm continue, and then the council broke up. 
Gradually the sky became serene. ... In the evening there were no 
illuminations worth noticing. The facade of St. Peter's was illumi- 
nated, the ornamental gas lights in the Corso were lit, and a few houses, 
very few, had some paper-covered lamps. . . . The great event of the 
evening was the departure of a host of the fathers, thus retarding the 
time of starting for f of an hour. Almost the entire Diplomatic Body 
went up to take leave of their bishops." 

The work of the council up to this point is thus summarily 
described by the same correspondent : 

" ROME, July 21. Now that the Ecclesiastical season has closed, 
and wearied and half baked bishops are flying in all directions to their 


dioceses, let me cast a rapid retrospective glance at the history of the 
last seven months. Two years have passed away since the council 
was summoned according to the time honored form. The professed 
objects were good ; the real object was to erect the personal infallibilty 
of the pope into a dogma. How has it been done ? In what spirit? 
I shall answer these questions according to the observations \vhich I 
have myself made and the information which I have received during 
the long interval which has elapsed since last November. I may have 
erred in the former, and been misinformed in the latter; but what I 
now write I believe to be true. On the arrival of the Fathers in Home 
they found themselves in the position of boys in a public school. Their 
business was cut out for them what they were to do, how they were 
to do it, and to what limits they might go, was accurately laid down, 
and ' it was so kind and considerate of the Holy Father,' it was ob- 
served, 'thus to smooth the path of their studies.' Some of the Fathers 
told me that the preparation of the schemes should have been left to 
them, by which plan great confusion and much time would have been 
saved. As soon, too, as the ' gentlemen, not young but elderly, met 
for business,' regulations for their conduct were given to them. The 
head master was resolved to keep them well in hand, and though they 
fretted and remonstrated, they were needs bound to submit. Every 
one who was in Rome at the time will remember the feeling almost of 
indignation with which these regulations were received. Now and 
then, too, the Fathers were publicly reproved for telling secrets which 
it was scarcely possible to abstain from betraying, and the imposition 
of which was inconsistent with the freedom which should characterize 
a public and deliberative meeting. Later on in the season new regu- 
lations were issued supplementary to and more binding than the others. 
The gentlemen of the school must no longer be permitted to discuss, 
but give in their thoughts in writing. These created almost a revolu- 
tion among the Fathers. Remonstrances in the form of Postulata 
f_ = demands] were sent in, and some very energetic action was con- 
templated. ' Should they leave Rome ?' ' Should they absent 
themselves from the Council ?' These were questions agitated in the 
International Committees, but they tacitly submitted, and reserved the 
strength of their opposition to the last moment. As regards, too, these 
committees strong efforts were made to put them down the Coun- 
cil Hall, it was said, was the only proper place for deliberation, and 


several Roman houses were closed. It would have been difficult to 
have closed those of foreigners of high consideration, and so the In- 
ternational Committees have continued to meet to the present day, 
greatly to the interest of freedom. It is a proof of the impotency of 
some of the regulations that the oath of secrecy has been violated over 
and over again, and that discussion has been practically insisted upon. 
The Fathers exercised what they claimed as a right, and though the 
cardinal -presidt-nts never abrogated the law, they were compelled to be 
the passive and unwilling auditors of 136 speeches on the fourth schema, 
regarding infallibility alone. From the oath of secrecy, for the viola- 
tion of which several persons were expelled from Rome, most, perhaps 
all, have been released at the last moment. Cardinal Bonnechose told 
the pope at a recent audience that he should have great difficulty in 
observing it, and as he is instructed to demand a special audience of the 
emperor to give a report of the council, His Eminence also has been 
released. I come now to speak of the spirit which has animated the 
infallibilist portion of the council. In theory it was a deliberative as- 
sembly met to investigate and decide what was truth. It has on the 
contrary assumed to be true that which was to have been the subject 
of discussion, and the majority have treated those who differed from 
them with every species of insult. It is possible that the foreign press 
has at times exaggerated these excesses of the disciples of Christ, but 
I depend n>ton them ; I depend rather on the statements which I have 
gathered daily from moderate men devoted to the Church, and who la- 
mented the injury inflicted on her. Gross and unmannerly inter- 
ruptions, hisses and howls, and harsh epithets have greeted the orator 
who ventured to exercise his undoubted right, while the cardinal-presi- 
dents have rung the bell to call the speaker to what was called order 
and, failing to succeed, have gone even to the pulpit to call him down. 
It is with delicacy and hesitation that I now allude to the highest per- 
sonage in these States. The ultra Roman Catholic press maintained 
before the council met that the pope could not and would not be any 
party to a movement which would exalt him above humanity. He 
was, as it were, to repose in complete unconsciousness-almost without 
a will submissive to the ultimate decisions of the Holy Spirit. What 
is the truth ? Pius IX. has been a warm partisan, has been judge hi 
his own case, and has pre-theorized himself. In his briefs and allocu- 
tions he has significantly praised all those who favored the dogma, while 
he has severely reproved those who opposed it. Even on the occasion 


of a recent festival, his benediction displayed his animus, and unless all 
Rome is in error, private laudations or private reproofs have been dealt 
out to those who were supposed to deserve his smiles or to merit his 
anger. In short, the man who ventured to differ from the Roman 
Curia [= court] was regarded almost as a criminal both by a portion 
of the council and by the pope, whom it was permitted to insult. The 
council was summoned, not to discuss, but to obey, and because a por- 
tion of it refused to do so, it has been looked upon with an evil eye. 
Of the ultra Koman Catholic press I shall not say much, for by its rude 
violence it has put itself beyond the pale of notice. All the worst fea- 
tures which have marked the infallibilist bishops have been displayed by 
it in a highly magnified form. The decrees it desired, it has regarded as 
foregone conclusions, and all who opposed them as ' pestilent fellows.' 
Hence, instead of encouraging discussion it has dealt in hard words, 
and has forgotten that when a man handles the pen he should not cease 
to be a gentleman. Heretics, Jews, Galileans, Falsifiers, Protestants, and 
a host of other epithets have been lavished on those who differed from 
it, while those who favored its views have been exalted to the skies. 
Let us pass it by, for such a spirit has been condemned by the sentiment 
of all enlightened Roman Catholics. I have spoken of the mode in 
which the council has been conducted ; let me now very briefly report 
what it has done. The first public session was held on the 8th of De- 
cember, 1869, when the sole ceremony was that of the inauguration of 
the council. The second session was held on the 6th of January, 1870, 
when, in the absence of any decrees to be proclaimed, the bishops were 
called on to make profession of the Faith of Pius IV. On the occasion 
of the third session, which was held on the 24th of April, 1870, some 
decrees were published regarding the existence of God, rationalism, 
pantheism, and several other isms. At the fourth council, which was 
held on Monday last, the primary and infallibility of the Roman pon- 
tiff were decided, and now, according to the saying of the Romans, the 
bishops who came as " Pastori" [= shepherds] leave Rome as " Pe- 
core " [= sheep], and may go and gambol, for having shorn themselves, 
they are as light as lambs. In the intervals between these sessions 
there have been many meetings, called General Congregations, at which 
the canons distributed have been discussed. They have been De Fide 
[=on the Faith] ; de Officio Episcoporum [=on the office of Bishops] ; 
de Vita et Honestate Clericorum [= on the life and reputation of the 
clergy] ; de Parvo Oatechistno [=on the little catechism] ; DeEcclesia 


=on the church] ; De Primatu Romani Pontificis [ = on the primacy 
of the Roman pontiff]. Some only of these subjects have been partial- 
ly discussed. The Canon de Ecclesia was before the council when a 
note of remonstrance from the French government arrived. The an- 
swer was an immediate order to bring forward the primacy of the 
Roman pontiff, which, from being the fourteenth article of the Canon 
de Ecclesia, was promoted to the dignity of the First. I have only to 
add that the bishops have received permission to leave Rome, with or- 
ders to reassemble on the llth of November." 

After the capture of Rome by the Italian troops in Septem- 
ber, 1870, the order for the reassembling of the Vatican coun- 
cil was indefinitely suspended. 



OUR English word " priest " is etymblogically the same with 
" presbyter," both words being traced back to the Greek pre- 
buteros, which signifies " elder," and is thus translated in the 
New Testament (Mat. 15 : 2. Luke 15 : 25. Acts 11 : 30. 
1 Tim. 5 : 1, &c.). " Priest," therefore, is often nearly synon- 
ynums with " presbyter," " elder," " minister," " preacher," 
" pastor," and other terms which denote in general, with vari- 
ous shades of difference, a Christian teacher or spiritual guide. 
But " priest " is also used as the English equivalent of the 
Latin sacerdos and the Greek hiereus, which denote a sacred 
person, particularly one who performs sacred rites, or offers 
sacrifice to God. The latter is the predominant signification 
of "priest" among Roman Catholics, as it would have been 
among the ancient Jews or among the idolatrous Romans and 
Greeks. The " priest " among Roman Catholics is a sacred 
person, who offers sacrifice to God ; the " priests " or clergy 
of the Roman Catholic church belong to a sacred order or caste, 
who are regarded as altogether distinct from, and officially su- 
perior to, the " laity," or common Christian people, and who 
offer sacrifice, especially the mass (see Chapter XIV.). But 
Protestants believe that the one sacrifice which the Lord Jesus 
Christ offered to God for us when he died on the cross, is full 
and complete (Heb. 9 : 28. 10 : 10-14) that no other sacri- 
fice to God is needed, and that no other sacrifice acceptable to 
Him can be made (Heb. 10 : 18, 29) that all true Christians 
now constitute, as the apostle Peter declares, " a holy priest- 
hood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God bv Jesus 


Christ " (1 Peter 2 : 5, 9) ; and that, therefore, the priests, 
clergy, or ministers of the Christian religion are simply the 
religious teachers and guides of the people, not a separate caste 
or a holier class by the mere virtue of their office. Here is a 
fundamental distinction between Protestantism and Roman 
Catholicism. The Protestant goes directly to Christ as his 
High Priest and the one Mediator with God (1 Tim. 2:5); the 
Roman Catholic expects his priest to offer an acceptable sacri- 
fice and procure the pardon of sin for him. The Protestant 
offers prayer and other spiritual sacrifices himself, and takes 
the Lord Jesus Christ at his word as an all-sufficient Savior ; 
he regards the priest who would stand between him and God, 
and professedly repeat the sacrifice of Christ in the mass, as 
an unauthorized interloper, and as one who, like an apostate, 
crucifies the Son of God afresh and puts him to an open shame 
(Heb. 6 : 6). 

Among the 7 sacraments of the Roman Catholics, " the sacra- 
ment of orders " holds a prominent place. Says the Catechism 
of the Council of Trent : 

" In the power of Orders is included not only that of consecrating 
the holy eucharist, but also of preparing the soul for its worthy re- 
ception, and whatever else has reference to the sacred mysteries 

To exercise this power, ministers are appointed and solemnly conse- 
crated, and this solemn consecration is denominated ' Ordination,' or 

' the Sacrament of Orders.' A sacrament is a sensible sign of an 

invisible grace, and with these characters Holy Orders are invested: 
their external forms are a sensible sign of the grace and power which 
they confer on the receiver: Holy Orders, therefore, are really and 
truly a sacrament." 

There are, according to Roman Catholic authorities, 7 " or- 
ders of ministers, intended by their office to serve the priest- 
hood," viz., porter, reader, exorcist, acolyte, subdeacon, dea- 
con, and priest. Of these the first 4 belong to the lesser or 
Minor Orders ; the other 3 to the greater or Holy Orders. Says 
the Catechism of the Council of Trent ; 


" The tonsure ... is a sort of prepare,' ion for receiving orders. 
In tonsure the hair of the head is cut in the form of a crown, and should 
be worn in that form, enlarging the crown according as ihe ecclesiastic 
advances in orders. ' This form of tonsure the Church teaches lo be 
of apostolic origin 

"The order of porter follows tonsure: its duty con-ists in taking 
care of the keys and door of the church, and suffering none to enter 
to whom entrance is prohibited 

" The 2d among the Minor Orders is that of reader [= lector], to 
him it belongs to read to the people, in a clear and distinct voice, the 
Sacred Scriptures, particularly the Nocturnal Psalmody ; and on him 
also devolves the task of instructing the faithful in the rudiments of 
the faith 

" The 3d order is that of exorcist : to him is given power to 
invoke the name of the Lord over persons possessed by unclean 
spirits. 1 

"The 4:h and last among the Minor Orders is that of acolyte : the 
duty of the acolyte is to attend and serve those in Holy Orders, dea- 
cons and subdeacons, in the ministry of the altar. The acolyte also 
attends to the lights used at the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice, par- 
ticularly whilst the Gospel is read 

" Minor Orders are, as it were, the vestibule through which 

we ascend to Holy Orders. Amongst the latter" the 1st is that of sub- 
deacon : to him it belongs to prepare the altar-linen, the sacred 

vessels, the bread and wine necessary for the Holy Sacrifice, to minis- 
ter water to the priest or bishop at the washing of the hands at mass, 
to read the epistle, a function which was formerly discharged by the 
deacon, to assist at mass in the capacity of a witness, and see that the 

priest be not disturbed by any one during its celebration At his 

consecration, the bishop admonishes him that by his ordination 

he assumes the solemn obligation of perpetual continence 

" The 2d amongst the Holy Orders is that of deacon : .... to him 
it belongs constantly to accompany the bishop, to attend him when 
preaching, to assist him and the priest also during the celebration of 
the holy mysteries, and at the administration of the sacraments, and to 
read the gospel at the sacrifice of the mass. In the primitive ages of 

1 " Exorcism is now," says Collet's Catechism, " almost exclusively confined to 
the priests." 


the church, he not unfrequently exhorted the faithful to attend to the 
divine worship, and administered the chalice in those churches in which 
the faithful received the holy eucharist under both kinds. In order to 
administer to the wants of the necessitous, to him was also committed 
the distribution of the goods of the church. To the deacon also, as the 
eye of the bishop, it belongs to inquire and ascertain who within his 
diocese lead lives of piety and edification, and who do not ; who attend 
the holy sacrifice of the mass and the instructions of their pastors, and 
who do not ; that thus the bishop, made acquainted by him with these 
matters, may be enabled to admonish each offender privately, or should 
he deem it more conducive to their reformation, to rebuke and correct 
them publicly. He also calls over the names of catechumens, and pre- 
sents to the bishop those who are to be promoted to orders. In the 
absence of the bishop and priest, he is also authorized to expound the 
Gospel to the people, not however from an elevated place, to make it 
understood that this is not one of his ordinary functions. . . . 

" The 3d and highest degree of all Holy Orders is the Priesthood. 
.... The office of the priest is ... to offer sacrifice to God, and to 
administer the sacraments of the church : the bishop, and after him the 
priests who may be present, impose hands on the candidate for priest- 
hood ; then placing a stole on his shoulders, he adjusts it in form of a 
cross, to signify that the priest receives strength from above, to enable 
him to carry the cross of Jesus Christ, to bear the sweet yoke of his 
divine law, and to enforce this law, not by word only, but also by the 
eloquent example of a holy life. He next anoints his hands with sacred 
oil, reaches him a chalice containing wine and a paten with bread, say- 
ing : ' Receive power to offer sacrifice to God, and to celebrate mass as 
well for the living as for the dead.' By these words and ceremonies he 
is constituted an interpreter and mediator between God and man, the 
principal function of the priesthood. Finally, placing his hands on the 
head of the person to be ordained, the bishop says : ' Receive ye the 
Holy Ghost ; whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them : and 
whose sins you shall retain, they are retained ;' thus investing him with 
that divine power of forgiving and retaining sins which was conferred 
by our Lord on his disciples. These are the principal and peculiar 
functions of the priesthood. 

"The order of priesthood, although essentially one, has different 
degrees of dignity and power. The first is confined to those who are 


simply called priests, and whose functions we have now explained. The 
second is that of bishops, who are placed over their respective sees, to 
govern not only the other ministers of the church, but also the faithful ; 
and, with sleepless vigilance and unwearied care, to watch over and 

promote their salvation Bishops are also called 'pontiffs/ a 

name borrowed from the ancient Romans, and used to designate their 
chief priests. The third degree is that of archbishop : he presides over 
several bishops, and is also called ' metropolitan,' because he is placed 
over the metropolis of the province. Archbishops, therefore (although 
their ordination is the same), enjoy more ample power, and a more 
exalted station than bishops. Patriarchs hold the fourth place, and are, 
as the name implies, the first and supreme fathers in the episcopal or- 
der. Superior to all these is the sovereign pontiff, whom Cyril, arch- 
bishop of Alexandria, denominated in the council of Ephesus, ' the 
Father and Patriarch ot the whole world/ [See Chapter III.]. . . . 
" To the bishop belongs exclusively the administration of this sacra- 
ment Some abbots were occasionally permitted to confer Minor 

Orders : all, however, admit that even this is the proper office of the 
bishop, to whom, and to whom alone, it is lawful to confer the other 
orders : subdeacons, deacons, and priests are ordained by one bishop 
only, but ... he himself is consecrated by 3 bishops." 

The Roman Catholic church regards the clerical dress as of 
great importance, and has its peculiar uniform for each order 
of the clergy. Roman Catholic writers, and most Protestants, 
concur in referring the origin of the peculiar clerical dress to 
the 4th century. The chief articles may be thus described : 

The alb (from Latin albus = white) is a white linen tunic covering 
the whole person down to the feet. It is the toga or loose outer gar- 
ment of the ancient Romans. 

The amice (= amict) is a piece of linen cloth worn on the head 
and round the neck. 

The biretum (= birretus or biretta) is the closely fitting and pointed 
cap, usually black, worn by the clergy, by doctors in universities, &c. ; 
sometimes called simply the cap. 

The calotte is a small cap for covering the crown of the head or the 
part where the clerical tonsure is made. 

The cassock is a long coat, usually black, worn under the surplice. 


The chasuble is an outer garment, open at the sides, with a cross on 
the back and two stripes representing a pillar in front. The chasuble 
is " the vestment," properly so called. 

The chime re is a sort of cape, worn by a bishop under the rochet. 

The cincture is a girdle. 

The cope is a long cloak, with a clasp or band at the neck, and the 
front open below. 

The dalmatic, so named from its imitation of a dress originally worn 
in Dalmatia, is a long white gown with sleeves, worn by a deacon over 
the alb and stole. It is rather shorter than the chasuble. 

The maniple is a sort of scarf that the priest wears on his left arm. 

The mitre (= miter) is the double-peaked cap or crown, worn by a 
bishop or higher dignitary, and in some cases by an abbot. 

The pall (= pallium) is a short white woolen cloak, with a red cross, 
encircling the neck and shoulders, and falling on the back. It is sent 
from Rome to every archbishop of the Roman Catholic church, and to 
the four Latin patriarchs of the East. The cloth of which it is made 
is woven from the wool of two white lambs, blessed by the pope on the 
festival of St. Agnes, and deposited on St. Peter's tomb during the eve 
of his festival. 

The rochet is a linen garment worn by a bishop, and much resem- 
bling a surplice. 

The stole is a narrow band of silk or other stuff, worn on a deacon's 
left shoulder, or across both shoulders of a bishop or priest, and hang- 
ing nearly to the ground ; also called orary. 

The surplice is a long white robe, worn by a priest, &c., and differ- 
ing from the alb in having wider sleeves. 

The tunic is a subdeacon's outer vestment, and is rather narrower 
than the dalmatic. 

The following description of the priest's dress during the 
celebration of the mass, with the emblematic and religious 
significations of the various articles, is carefully abridged from 
the late bishop England's explanation of the mass, mostly in 
his own language : 

The under dress of the priest is a black cassock or gown, which he 
wears to denote his separation from the world and its vanities. Over 
his cassock or gown he first puts on the amict, then the alb, which 


he girds round him with a cincture, then the maniple on his left 
arm, the stole on his neck, crossed on his breast, and the chasuble or 
outer vestment. The vesture of the priest is, with some variations, 
the ancient Roman dress of state. The emblematic object of the vest- 
ments was principally to remind us of the passion of Christ. Thus the 
amict placed on the head, reminds Christians how their Redeemer was 
blindfolded and spit upon for their transgressions ; and it is intended 
to excite in the clergyman and his congregation the sentiment of the 
prayer which is repeated by him when he puts it on : " Place, O Lord, 
on my head, an helmet of salvation, to repel the assaults of the devil." 
At present this vestment is altogether covered by the alb, which is an 
emblem of the white garment in which Herod clad the Savior, when 
mocking him as a fool, he sent him back to Pilate. The alb teaches us 
purity ; and this is expressed in the clergyman's prayer when putting 
on this garment : " Make me white, Lord, and cleanse my heart, that 
being rendered white by the blood of the Lamb, I may partake of 
eternal joys." He girds himself with a cincture, as Christ was bound 
for our crimes ; and the prayer is : " Gird me, Lord, with the cinc- 
ture of purity, and destroy in my loins every seed of lust ; so that 
the virtue of continence and chastity may remain in me." The man- 
iple is an emblem of the weight of our sins laid upon the Savior. The 
prayer at putting on this vestment is, " May I deserve, O Lord, to bear 
the maniple of weeping and grief, that I may with exultation receive 
the reward of labor." The stole, formerly used by public speakers, 
hung loosely down from the shoulders to the front of the person, and 
was generally of linen : hence it is thus worn by preachers. It is also 
the distinctive mark of authority when a number of clergymen are as- 
sembled together, as, except on a few extraordinary occasions, it is then 
worn only by the presiding or principal clergyman, and the person who 
preaches or officiates. It is a sort of yoke laid on the shoulders, and 
therefore an emblem of the obedience and humility of the Son of God, 
who, clothing himself in our flesh, took upon him our punishment, that 
we may be clad in his immortality. When the priest crosses it before 
his breast, it reminds him that he must have before his heart the pro- 
tection of the Savior's cross. At putting it on he prays, " Restore 
unto me, O Lord, the state of immortality, which I have lost in the 
prevarication of my first parent; and although I approach unwor- 
thily to thy sacred mystery, may I deserve everlasting joy." The em- 


broidered cross on the back of the chasuble, and 2 stripes representing 
a pillar in front, teach that the priest and the people should carry their 
cross after Christ, and lean for support upon the church, which St. Paul 
calls the pillar of truth. This chasuble, exhibiting the cross upon the 
priest's back, shows how after the purple garment was thrown upon 
his shoulders, the Redeemer had the cross also laid upon him, bearing 
which he went to Calvary to offer the sacrifice of our redemption. The 
prayer said by the priest when he vests himself therewith is, " Lord, 
who hast said, my yoke is sweet, and my burthen light, grant that I 
may be able so to bear it as to obtain thy grace." 

Of the difference of color of the vestments on different days, 
Bishop England speaks thus : 

"The object of the Church is, thus to inform the faithful at once of 
the sort of office which is performed. Hence, where the means of the 
congregation will allow of the regulation being carried into effect, she 
commands that the vestments and hangings of the temple shall be of 
different colors on different occasions. The colors prescribed are, white, 
red, violet, green, and black. White is used on the great festivals of 
our Redeemer, and on the days when we recall to our minds the vir- 
tues, and entreat the prayers of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of the good 
angels, and of those saints who served God with fidelity in the practice 
of virtue, but did not shed their blood by martyrdom. Red is worn 
on the festivals in honor of the Holy Ghost, who in the form of fiery 
tongues descended on the apostles ; and on the festivals of those saints 
who were martyred, as exhibiting their blood. Violet, in times of pen- 
ance and humiliation ; principally, therefore, in Lent and Advent. 
Green, oh those days when there is no particular festival or observ- 
ance ; and black, in masses for the dead, and on Good Friday, when 
we commemorate the death of the Redeemer." 

The dress of the bishop, <fcc., is thus described by Bishop 
England : 

" That [the cassock] of a bishop is purple, to signify the superiority 
of his order, and his authority to rule in the church of God (Acts 20 : 
28) over which he wears a short white robe called a rochet, to denote 
the purity with which he should be surrounded, and a cross which hangs 

before his breast to teach him to glory in nothing but the cross 

of his Redeemer. He also sometimes wears a short purple cloak with 
a hood, which is called a mozette or cappa ; and his mitre, which is of 



Eastern origin, differs considerably in its shape from that of Aaron and 
Jewish priests. The two pieces which hang from it behind, are the 
lappets or ribbons, which formerly were used to bind it under his chin, 
but which are now seldom, if ever, u-ed for that purpose. He also 
carries a crosier, which has at its top a shepherd's 
crook, to denote that he id one of those pastors 
charged by the Savior with the care of his flock 
and on some very solemn occasions, such as an 
ordination, he wears the dresses of the inferior 
orders with his own, to show that he contains them 
hi himself, and is the source from which their au- 
thority is derived. An archbishop's cross has two 
transverse pieces, and the pope's has three, to de- 
note their gradations of rank or power. And he who 
wears a cross upon his breast, does not bring the 
stole across when he prepares to celebrate the 
mass. . . . l 

"The clergymen in minor orders wear the 
black cassock, over which they wear a surplice or 
white robe, to signify purity and innocence. This 
also is the usual dress of priests, deacons, and sub- 
deacons, except on the more solemn occasions." 
The clerical dress is often of costly material and richly orna- 



1 The inscriptions or mottoes on the arms of the archbishops of Baltimore and 
New York here represented are thus translated : "Auspice Maria " = Mary being 
protector ; " Cluudtt et aperit " = shuts and opens, a reference, of course, to Matt. 
16 : 19, and perhaps to Rev. 3:7. Each cut has a mitre, archbishop's cross, cro- 
sier, and hat ; that of Baltimore has Mary and the infant Jesus ; that of New York 
has the keys and mitre instead. 


mented with embroidery, jewels, &c. Among the " Vestments 
with real gold or silver embroidery and silk lining," advertised 
by Benziger Brothers, are the following : 

" Cross and sides embroidered on real gold-cloth ; and real gold gal- 
loons, from $250 to $500 in gold. 

" Cross and sides embroidered on white moire-antique or watered 
silk ; real gold galloons, from $200 to $300 in gold. 

" Cross embroidered on red, purple, green or black silk velvet ; sides 
of same material, plain ; real gold or silver galloons, from $100 to 
$175 in gold." 

The vestments of this class vary in price from $500 down to $60 
in gold. Tho?e of the next class " Vestments with half-fine embroid- 
ery, and half-fine galloons and fringes ; silk lining " are from $75 
down to $45 in gold. Those of the third class " Vestments inter- 
woven with real gold or silver, with half-fine or silk galloons and 
fringes ; silk lining " are from $90 down to $30 in gold. Those 
of the fourth class "Vestments interwoven with imitation gold or 
silver ; imitation or silk galloons and fringes ; muslin lining" are from 
$40 down to $11 in gold; the cheapest of these having "cross and 
sides of plain, white, red, purple, green or black damask, or plain cot- 
ton velvet," and costing from $11 to $15 in gold. Finally, "Mission- 
ary vestments, without buckram and lining, red cross and white sides 
on one side, and purple cross and green sides on the other, with silk 
galloons, of plain damask or marquisette," cost from $22 to $30 in 
gold ; while those of " plain, first quality silk damask," cost from $40 
to $50 in gold. 

" Copes," also, are arranged in four classes, varying in price from 
$500 down to $20 in gold. 

"Dalmatics, with stole and 2 maniples, to match the different 
qualities of vestments," cost, " per pair, about double the price of a 
vestment of same quality." 

" Complete suits of first quality vestments," embracing "the chasu- 
ble, the 2 dalmatics, and the cope," cost in gold $800, $620, $1000, 
$590, &c. 

" Preaching stoles with tassels " cost from $3.50 up to $75. 

" Stoles for confession (small)," made of " plain damask, one side 
white, the other purple," cost from $1 to $4 in gold. 


" Benediction-veils," of " white moire-antique or watered silk, with 
real gold embroidery, silk lining," are from $45 to $150 in gold; they 
are also of various inferior qualities and prices, down to the " white 
damask, interwoven with imitation gold and flowers, muslin lining," the 
price of which is from $6 to $15 in gold. 

" Cinctures " of " white linen " cost from 50 to 75 cents ; x>f " silk, 
white, red, purple, green, or black," cost $1.25 to $4 in gold. 

" Albs," of " pure linen," are of various prices, those " with French- 
lace skirt and sleeves," from $5 to $12 ; " with plain Bru s sels-lace," 
$13 to $20 ; " with Brussels-lace, very rich," from $25 to $60 in gold. 

" Surplices, all lace, according to quality," are from $5 to $25 in 

" Mitres " are also furnished, " plain, and embroidered on gold-cloth ;" 
but the prices are not given. 

" Benzigcr Brothers," from whose catalogue of vestments, 
&c., the preceding descriptions and prices are taken, are 
" printers to the holy apostolic see, publishers and booksellers, 
manufacturers and importers," in New York and Cincinnati. 
Their authority, therefore, in this department, is the highest 
to be found in our land. 

The various articles of dress worn by the Roman Catholic 
clergy are expected and intended to affect the senses and 
through them the feelings of the people. Their number and 
form, the elaborateness and splendor of their construction and 
ornamentation, the changes in them for different times and oc- 
casions, the mystical and religious meanings attributed to 
them, make a most forcible appeal to the admiration and affec- 
tion of multitudes. The clerical dress unquestionably aids to 
give importance and honor and power to those who wear it as 
a badge of sanctity, and who are openly distinguished by it as 
a separate and privileged class. 

The Council of Trent, as has been already noticed, made 
provision for training young men for the priesthood in ecclesi- 
astical seminaries. The " decree on reformation," passed at 
the 23d session of the council, makes it the duty of every ca- 
thedral, metropolitan, or higher church, to furnish a religious 


and ecclesiastical education for a certain number of boys be- 
longing to its city, diocese, or province. These boys are to be 
at least 12 years old, of legitimate birth, able to read and 
write competently, and selected for this purpose especially 
from the sons of the poor, without however excluding the 
sons of the rich who may desire to serve God and the church 
and pay for their own education ; they are to take the tonsure 
immediately, and always use the clerical dress ; they are to be 
instructed in grammar, singing, ecclesiastical computation, and 
other good arts ; they are to learn the Holy Scripture, ecclesi- 
astical books, homilies of saints, and the forms of sacraments 
and rites and ceremonies. 

Cardinal Wiseman, in answering the charge of ignorance 
brought against the Spanish clergy, gives the course of pre- 
paratory studies for the priesthood in Spain 25 years ago, thus : 
" 3 years' study of philosophy, and 7 years' of theology. Such 
is the course which we found followed in the seminary of Cor- 
dova, and in the university of Seville ; and such, we were as- 
sured, was the course everywhere enjoined, and even required 
by the government. Now this course comprises Scripture, 
moral and dogmatical theology, and ecclesiastical and canon 

Both the plenary councils held in Baltimore in 1852 and 
1866 enjoined observance of this provision of the council of 
Trent. The decrees of the 2d plenary council of Baltimore 
set forth the desirableness of having in every diocese a theo- 
logical seminary properly so called, and also a small or prepar- 
atory seminary, and require one seminary at least of each 
class in every province. In the preparatory seminaries, the 
pupils of which " must be at least 12 years old and of legiti- 
mate birth," the youth study, besides the English language, 
Latin and Greek, and the other things usually taught to Roman 
Catholic boys, also the Gregorian chant, and at least the first 
elements of liturgies, and of biblical and ecclesiastical history. 
In the other or larger seminaries, the best masters to be had 
are to instruct in whatever is needful for the proper discharge 


of the priestly office, especially in theology as related to both 
morals and doctrines, in the rudiments of the canon law, in 
hermeneutics or the interpretation of the sacred books, and in 
the rules of sacred eloquence. One year at least the last of 
philosophy, or the first of theology all must devote to the 
study of Hebrew. German must also be studied in the larger 
or smaller seminaries, sufficiently at least, to enable the pupils 
to grant absolution in case of necessity. 

The pastoral letter of the 2d plenary council of Baltimore 
sets forth the deficiency of youthful aspirants to the ministry, 
notwithstanding the extraordinary inducements held out to 
them in the preparatory and theological seminaries ; expresses 
the fear that the fault lies, in great part, with worldly-minded 
parents ; urges such parents to represent the priesthood to their 
children only as a sublime and holy state, having not only most 
sacred duties and obligations, but also the promise of God's 
grace and blessing ; and continues : 

" And whilst speaking to you upon this subject, we would renew our 
exhortations to the faithful, to contribute to the extent of their means 
to the diocesan fund for the support of ecclesiastical students. Sit- 
uated as the church is in this country, with a Catholic population so 
rapidly increasing from emigration, there is no work of charity that 
can take precedence of it, and none which will bring so rich a reward." 

In respect to the Roman Catholic priesthood in the United 
States, the late Rev. Hiram Mattison, D.D., a well-informed 
leading minister of the Methodist Episcopal church, wrote thus 
in 1868 : 

" A lack of priests, and especially of American born priests, has been a 
sore embarrassment to American Romanism for years ; but they are 
beginning now to get over this difficulty ; and the prospect is, that 
their priesthood will increase hereafter much faster than it has hitherto 
done, and that they will be more Americans and far more efficient than 
the imported priests with which most of their churches have hitherto 
been manned. 

" As to the culture and ability of their priests, they are both greatly 
overrated by Protestants generally. They have generally a kind of 
classical education, but it is usually very defective. They are well 


drilled in Papal church-history and other lore ; can tell you all about 
the saints and their wonderful miracles ; but in science and general 
literature they have but little knowledge. Once in their parishes, with 
little or no preaching to do, and a liturgy for every thing, few sermons 
to prepare, and little occasion for study, and living high, and associa- 
ting little with the world, unless it be with priests, or with the most ig- 
norant classes in the community, the mind stagnates, and loses all its 
love for study, and ability to think and labor. The result is, that not- 
withstanding the college diploma, and a little memorized Latin in the 
services, the Roman priesthood are, intellectually, among the weakest 
men in the nation. How seldom do we hear of one who can make a 
decent speech of ten minutes in public, or write a readable lecture or 
newspaper article ! Upon the platform or in debate they are in no re- 
spect equal to the average of Protestant ministers ; so that if their suc- 
cess was to be inferred from the ability of their priests there would be 
little to fear." 

The rise and progress of celibacy in the church, especially in 
reference to a monastic life, are noticed in Chapters II. and VIII. 
The determined efforts of Gregory VII. to put an end to mar- 
riage among the clergy are also spoken of in the account of 
him in Chapter III. From what has already been said in the 
present Chapter it is evident that all ecclesiastics, or persons 
in orders, whether in the major or minor orders, are bound to 
perpetual celibacy. The council of Trent uttered the follow- 
ing anathema in the 9th canon on matrimony : 

" If any one shall say, that ecclesiastics in holy orders, or regulars, 
having made a solemn profession of chastity, may contract marriage, 
and that the contract is valid, in spite of ecclesiastical law or vow ; and 
that the opposite doctrine is nothing else than a condemnation of mar- 
riage, and that all persons who do not find themselves possessed of the 
gift of chastity, though they may have vowed it, may contract marriage ; 
let him be accursed." 

Celibacy has now been for centuries rigidly enforced among all 
the Roman Catholic clergy, except among the Maronites, Armeni- 
an Catholics, Greek Catholics, and other Oriental Christians in 
connection with the see of Rome, whose clergy marry before or- 
diaation, but not afterwards. In contrast with this present 


practice of the Roman Catholic church, are the examples of 
the apostle Peter himself, whom the New Testament represents 
as a married man (Matt. 8 : 14. 1 Cor. 9 : 5, &c.), and of the 
immediate ancestors of St. Patrick who lived in the 4th cen- 
tury and were married clergymen, as St. Patrick thus informs 
us in his Confession or Letter to the Irish : 

" I, Patrick, a sinner, the rudest and the least of the faithful, and 
despicable among many, had for my father, Calpurnius, a deacon, the 
son of Potitus, formerly a presbyter, who was the son of Odissius, who 
lived in Bonaven, a village of Tabemia " [formerly supposed to be in 
Scotland, but now regarded by high authorities as Boulogne, in the 
north of France]. 

The oath of conformity to the church and obedience to the 
pope, which is found at the end of the creed of pope Pius IV., 
and which all beneficed priests, professors, and bishops are 
obliged to take, is given in Chapter II. ; the special oath of 
bishops is given in a subsequent part of this chapter. 

Among the decrees of the plenary council of Baltimore con- 
firming former decrees of the provincial council of Baltimore 
respecting priests, we have the following : 

" Since it has often been doubted by some, whether the prelates of 
the church in these united provinces had the power of assigning the 
priests to the sacred ministry in any part of their dioceses, and of re- 
calling them thence, according to their judgment in the Lord; we ad- 
monish all priests living in these dioceses, whether ordained in them, 
or received in them, that, mindful of their promise at ordination, they 
may not refuse to devote themselves to any mission designated by the 
bishop, if the bishop judges that sufficient provision can be had there 
for sustaining life decently, and the office agrees with the strength and 
health of the priests themselves. We do not wish, however, by this 
declaration, to make any innovation in respect to those who held paro- 
chial benefices, only one of which, namely in New Orleans, do we yet 
recognize in these provinces ; nor do we intend at all to derogate from 
the privileges which have been granted to the Religious by the Holy 

The council, after decreeing that a church should never 


have several co-ordinate pastors, but one pastor only, with one 
or more assistants, if necessary ; and expressing their desire to 
have the provinces especially in the larger cities, divided into 
districts like parishes, one for each church, and each curate in- 
vested with parochial or quasi-parochial rights, proceed thus : 
" We do not at all intend, by the use of the terms ' parochial right,' 
* parish,' and ' curate,' to attribute to the rector of any church the right, 
so-called, of immovability ; or to take away or in any way diminish the 
power, which, according to the discipline received in these provinces, 
the bishop has of depriving any priest of office or of transferring him 
to another place. But we admonish and exhort the bishops to refrain 
from using this right of theirs except for weighty reasons and just 

The 3d chapter of title III. in the " Decrees of the 2d Ple- 
nary Council of Baltimore " is on the election of bishops, and 
provides that every third year every prelate in the United 
States shall send to the metropolitan of his province and also 
to the Congregation of the Propaganda at Rome a list of the 
names of priests whom he regards as worthy and fit for the 
office of bishop, this list to be prepared with the greatest care 
and secrecy, and with reference to a schedule of 14 " notions 
and questions " respecting the necessary qualifications that 
when any see, metropolitan or episcopal, becomes vacant, all 
the prelates of the province shall assemble in council or special 
convention, and discuss the qualifications of 3 or more candi- 
dates who may have been recommended for this vacancy by the 
deceased prelate in a sealed letter or otherwise by the nearest 
bishop or senior bishop or the archbishop, and shall then vote 
by secret ballot respecting each candidate that the acts of 
the convention shall be sent to the Congregation of the Propa- 
ganda that the opinions of the other archbishops respecting 
the candidates, and, in case any candidate belongs in another 
province, of his bishop or metropolitan, shall also be forwarded 
to Rome and that the Holy See, having full liberty to choose 
bishops, may fill the vacancy by appointing to it one of those 
recommended or some other one. In case a bishop wishes a 


coadjutor, he names 3 candidates, and presents his petition to 
the Congregation of the Propaganda, and the archbishop and 
other bishops send thither their opinion respecting the candi- 
dates before the pope makes any appointment. 

The following account of the consecration of 3 Roman Cath- 
olic bishops in St. Patrick's cathedral, New York city, on Sun- 
day, Oct. 30, 1853, is from the New York Daily Times of the 
next day. 

" The ceremonies were of a most imposing character, and continued 
from 1 1 A. M. to 4 p. M. At 9 A. M. the doors were opened, and in a 
short time every available seat was occupied. Until the procession 
had entered, the main aisle was kept clear, but soon afterwards both 
main and side aisles were crowded. The proceeds ($1 for each admis- 
sion) are to be set apart for the benefit of the ' Brothers of Christian Char- 
ity,' to assist in the erection of their Normal School at Manhattanville. 
The bishops consecrated were Rt. Rev. John Loughlin (Irish), bishop 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley (American) 
bishop of Newark, N. J. ; and Louis de Goesbriand (French), bishop 
of Burlington, Vt. Monsignor 1 Bedini, Papal nuncio, consented to 
perform the ceremony. Outside of the cathedral there was a large 
crowd assembled to witness the procession, which at 1 1 o'clock formed 
at the archbishop's house, in Mulberry St., and marched to the main 
entrance, and through the centre aisle of the cathedral in order of pro- 
cession There were nearly 50 priests robed in vestments of the finest 
material, satin richly wrought in blue, scarlet, and gold ; 6 bishops at- 
tired in full pontificals, with mitre, and cope, and crook. Over his Ex- 
cellency, Monsignor Bedini, was borne a canopy of scarlet velvet. Hav- 
ing reached the front of the altar, each made obeisance and took seats 
inside and around the altar railings. The assistant bishops were: 
Bishops Rappe of Cleveland, and McCloskey of Albany. The pre- 
senters were : Bishops Timon of Buffalo, Fitzpatrick of Boston, and 
O'Reilly of Hartford. 

" Having gone before the altar, Monsignor Bedini was conducted to 

1 Monsiynor (Italian) or Monseigneur (French) signifies " my lord," and is a title 
of archbishops and other prelates. Bedini was an Italian, a Papal nuncio, styled 
Archbishop of Thebes, who spent several months in this country in 1853, having 
been charged, it was said, with an important mission to our government, on his 
way to Brazil. 


the throne on the right, and then vested ; the bishop's clerk, accom- 
panied by the assistant bishops, went to the side chapel to vest. JMon- 
signor then took his seat before the middle of the altar, and the assist- 
ant bishop, wearing the mitre, and clothed in a richly wrought cope, 
presented the bishops elect, who each wore a biretum. 

" The senior assistant bishop said : ' Most reverend father, our holy 
mother, the Catholic Church, requires of you to raise this priest, here 
present, to the burdensome office of a bishop.' 

" Monsiguor Bedini ' Have you the Apostolic commission ? ' 

" Presenting bishops ' We have.' 

" Moasignor Bedini ' Let it be read.' 

" Rev. Mr. McCarron, Notary to the Consecrator, received and read 
the Apostolic mandate, in Latin. At its close, Monsignor Bedini said, 
* Deo gratias ' \_= Thanks to God]. 

" The bishops elect then knelt and severally read the following oath 
[in Latin] : ' Elect of the church of N., I shall, from this hour, hence- 
forward be obedient to blessed Peter, the Apostle, and to the holy Ro- 
man Church, and to the blessed Father, Pope N., and to his successors 
canonically chosen. I shall assist them to retain and defend against 
any man whatever, the Roman pontificate, without prejudice to my 
rank. I shall take care to preserve, defend, and promote the rights, 
honors, privileges, and authority of the holy Roman Church, of the 
Pope, and of his successors, as aforesaid. With my whole strength I 
shall observe, and cause to be observed by others, the rules of the holy 
Fathers, the decrees, ordinances, or dispositions, and mandates of the 
Apostolic see. When called to a synod, I shall come, unless prevented 
by a canonical impediment. I shall perform all the things aforesaid> 
by a certain messenger, specially authorized for this purpose, a priest 
of the diocese, or by some other secular, or regular priest of tried vir- 
tue and piety, well instructed on all the above subjects. I shall not 
sell, nor give away, nor mortgage, enfeoff anew, nor in any way alien- 
ate the possessions belonging to my table, without the leave of the Ro- 
man Pontiff. And should I proceed to any alienation of them, I am 
willing to contract, by the very fact, the penalties specified in the con- 
stitution published on this subject.' The Consecrator held the Gospels 
open on his lap, and received the oath from the bishops elect, who, 
kneeling, also placed both hands upon the book, and said : ' So may 
God help me, and these holy Gospels of God.' 


" The bishop elect and the assistant bishops now took their seats, and 
while the consecrator read aloud the examen [= examination], the 
assistant bishops accompanied his words in a low voice. The con- 
cludino' questions were answered by the bishops elect. ' Ita ex tola 
corde, vo!o in omnibus consentire et obedire' [= Thus from my whole 
heart I desire in all things to consent and to obey]. 

" Among the questions in the examination are the following : 

" Consec. ' Wilt thou teach, both by word and example, the people 
for whom thou art to be ordained, those things which thou understand- 
est from the holy Scriptures ? ' 

Elect' I will.' 

" Ques. ' Wilt thou with veneration receive, teach, and keep the 
traditions of the orthodox fathers, and the decretal constitutions of the 
holy and apostolic see ? ' 

" Ans. ' I will.' 

" Ques. 'Wilt thou exhibit in all things, fidelity, subjection, and 
obedience, according to canonical authority, to the blessed Peter the 
Apostle, to whom was given by God the power of binding and loosing ; 
and to his Vicar our Lord Pope Pius IX., and to his successors the 
Roman Pontiffs ? ' 

"Ans.' I will.' 

" The examination having closed, the bishops elect were led to the 
consecrator before whom they knelt and reverently kissed his hand. 
Monsignor Bedini, laying off his mitre, turned to the altar, and com- 
menced the mass, the bishops elect being at his left hand, and the as- 
sistant bishops at their seats. After the ' confession,' the bishops elect 
went to the small chapel, laid aside the cope, and, opening the stole, 
put on the pastoral crook, girded on the stole without crossing it on the 
breast, were vested with the tunic, dalmatic, and chasuble, and put on 
the sandals, and, returning, continued the ma*s. The litanies and 
masses were continued, varying from the usual forms to admit particu- 
lar ceremonies of the consecration, the bishops elect being part of the 
time prostrate at the left of the consecrator. The litanies concluded, 
the consecrator, aided by the assistant bishops, opened the book of Gos- 
pels, and laid it on the neck and shoulders of the bishops elect severally: 
each of the bishops touching the head of the bishop elect, saving, ' Re- 
ceive thou the Holy Ghost.' 

"After prayer, the heads of the bishops elect were bound with linen, 


and they then approached Monsignor Bedini severally ; he, kneeling 
before the altar, began the hymn [of invocation to the Holy Spirit] 
' Veni, Creator Spiritus ' [= Come, Creator Spirit], which was contin- 
ued by the choir. Madam Steffanone was engaged, and sang some solo 
passages with beautiful effect. When the first verse was performed, 
the consecrator took his seat in front of the altar, put on his mitre, and 
taking off his ring and gloves, again put on the ring, and dipping the 
thumb of his right hand in chrism, he anointed therewith the head 
of the bishop elect, who knelt before him, first making the sign of the 
cross upon the crown, and then anointing it entirely, saying, ' May thy 
head be anointed and consecrated with heavenly blessing in the pontifi- 
cal order.' 

"The 131st Psalm was then sung by the choir. \VhiIedoingso, 
the consecrator anointed the hands of the bishop elect, then blessed 
and handed him the crook or staff of the pastoral office, then blessed 
the episcopal rings, and placed one on the annular finger of each bishop 
elect, saying, ' Take this ring as a token of fidelity, so that being gifted 
with inviolate faith, thou mayst guard the spouse of Christ his holy 

" The consecrator then took the book of the Gospels from the should- 
ers of the consecrated, and, together with the assistant bishops, handed it 
closed to the consecrated, who touched it, the consecrator at the time 
saying, ' Receive the Gospel, go preach to the people committed to thy 
care, for God is powerful, that he may increase his grace in thy behalf; 
who lives and reigns forever.' Amen. 

" The consecrator and the assistant bishops now received the conse- 
crated to the kiss of peace on the right cheek. The consecrated re- 
turned with the assistant bishops to his chapel, where he continued the 
mass to the offertory. The consecrator in like manner continued the 

Archbishop Hughes then preached a sermon from 1 Peter 2 : 
25, extolling the office of a Roman Catholic bishop. The ser- 
mon being finished, 

" Monsignor Bedini took his seat before the altar, and the conse- 
crated bishops, attended by the assistant bishops, presenting themselves, 
knelt before the consecrator, and offered him 2 lighted torches, 2 loaves, 
and 2 little casks of wine, then kissed the consecrator's hand. The 
consecrator and the consecrated bishops then continued the mass at the 


same altar, the latter at the epistle side. The Te Deum was intoned 
by Monsignor Bedini, his mitre being laid aside, in a full, clear voice. 
After it had commenced, the consecrated bishops, each between two 
other bishops, walked down the centre aisle, giving their blessing to 
the people as they passed, who knelt to receive it. After singing the 
4 antiphon ' and some other ceremonies, the consecrated bishops received 
the kiss of peace from their brethren, and the ceremonies concluded." 

The oath which is given above as taken by the bishops is 
considerably shorter than that which has been taken for cen- 
turies in Roman Catholic countries ; but agrees with the form 
given by the late archbishop Kenrick of Baltimore, who says, 
" the present pope, at the solicitation of the bishops of the 6th 
council of Baltimore [1846], consented to the omission of the 
feudal phrases, and sanctioned this simpler formulary, to be 
used by all the bishops in the United States." Yet a gentle- 
man who was present at the ceremonies of Oct. 80, 1853, was 
confident that the longer oath given in the Pontificate Roman- 
um which he held in his hand at the time, was taken by the 
bishops elect, and the Decrees of the Plenary council of Balti- 
more in 1866 contain no modification of the oath. It is believed 
that nothing regarded as essential was omitted then or is omit- 
ted now. The oath, as given above, certainly appears to be 
incomplete. The original oath is thus translated from the Pon- 
tificale Romanum, published by authority of the popes and re- 
published at Rome in 1869 by the Congregation of Rites and 
the Propaganda. 1 

" I, N., elect of the church of N., from this hour henceforward will 
be " faithful and obedient to the blessed Peter the apostle, and to the 
holy Roman church, and to our lord, the lord N. [Pius] pope N. [IX.], 
and to his successors canonically coming in. I will not advise, or con- 
sent, or do anything, that they may lose life or member, or be taken by an 
evil deception, or have hands violently laid upon them in any way, or have 

1 The large cut opposite this page is copied from one in the Pontificale Romanum, 
edition of 1818. 

2 The words in Italics are not in the oath as recorded in the preceding account 
of the consecration of the bishops, Oct. 30, 1853. 


injuries offered to them under any pretense whatsoever. The counsel in- 
deed, which they shall intrust to me, by themselves, or by their messengers, 
or letters, I will not, to their harm, knowingly reveal to any one. The 
Roman papacy and the royalties of St. Peter, I will help them to retain 
and defend, without prejudice to my order, against every man. The legate 
of the apostolic see in his going and returning, I will treat honorably and 
help in his necessities. The rights, honors, privileges, and authority of 
the holy Roman church, of our lord the pope, and of his aforesaid suc- 
cessors, I will take care to preserve, defend, increase, and promote. 
Nor will I be in any counsel, or deed, or working, in which any things 
may be contrived against our lord himself or the said Roman church, to 
the injury or prejudice of their persons, right, honor, state, and power. 
And, if I shall know such things to be taken in hand or managed by any 
whomsoever, I will hinder this as far as I can ; and as soon as I shall 
be able, I will make it known to our said lord, or to some other one, by 
whom it may come to his knowledge. The rules of the holy Fathers, the 
decrees, ordinances, or dispositions, reservations, provisions, and man- 
dates apostolical, I will observe with all my might and cause to be ob- 
served by others. Heretics, schismatics, and rebels against our said 
lord or his aforesaid successors I will, as far as I can, follow after * and 
Jight against. When called to a synod, I will come, unless I shall be 
prevented by a canonical impediment. 1 will myself personally visit 
the thresholds of the apostles [i. e. Rome~\ every three years 2 ; and I will 
render to our lord and his aforesaid successors an account of my whole 
pastoral office and of all things in anywise pertaining to the state of my 
church, to the discipline of the clergy and people, finally to the salvation 
of the souls committed to my trust ; and I will in turn humbly receive 
and with the utmost diligence perform the apostolic commands. But if 
I shall be detained by a lawful impediment, I will perform all the things 
aforesaid by a certain messenger specially authorized for this purpose, 
one of my chapter, or some other one placed in ecclesiastical dignity, 

1 The Latin word here is persequar, from which comes our word " persecute," 
and which literally signifies " follow perseveringly," hence " pursue," " hunt after," 
"prosecute," or "persecute." 

2 This period applies to those in Italy and its vicinity ; once hi 4 years is the 
rule for those in France, Spain, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, &c. ; once 
in 5 years for those in remoter parts of Europe, in North Africa, &c. ; once in 10 
years for those in Asia, America, &c. Thus the Pontificate Romanian determines. 



or else having a parsonage ; or, if these are lacking to me, by a priest 
of the diocese ; and, if the clergy are altogether lacking, by some other 
secular or regular presbyter, of tried honesty and piety, well-instructed 
in all the above named subjects. In respect to an impediment of this 
sort, however, I will give information by legitimate proofs, to be transmit" 
ted by the aforesaid messenger to the Cardinal proponent of the holy Ro- 
man church in the Congregation of the Sacred Council. Assuredly the 
possessions belonging to my table I will not sell, nor give away, nor 
pledge, nor infeoff anew, or in any way alienate, even with the consent 
of the chapter of my church, without consulting the Roman pontiff. 
And if I shall make any alienation, I desire by that very act to incur 
the penalties set forth in a certain constitution published on this sub- 

" So help me God and these holy Gospels of God." 

The Roman Catholic priests, theological seminaries and ecclesiastical 
institutions, and ecclesiastical, clerical, or theological students in the 
archdioceses and dioceses in the United States are thus reported in 
Sadliers' Catholic Directory for 1870 and 1871 The archdioceses are 
marked "A." ; the dioceses " D." ; and vicariates apostolic " V. A." 

Theol. Stnd. 
1870 1871 


Priests. Theol. Sem. 

1870 1871 1870-1 

Baltimore A. 




Cincinnati " 




New York 




New Orleans " 




St. Louis " 




Oregon City " 




San Francisco " 



. . 

Albany D. 








Boston ) 

1 OO 


. . 

Springfield (established 1870_)D. ] 



Brooklyn D. 




Buffalo " 




Burlington [Vt] " 
Charleston [S. C.]" 



Chicago " 



. . 

Cleveland " 




Columbus [Ohio ] " 


















. . 

Fort Wayne 








Grass Valley [Cal.] 



Green Bay 























'. 11 

















Priests. Theol. Sem. 

1870 1871 1870-1 

Hartford D. 








La Crosse 



. . 

Little Rock 



. . 





Marquette and Sault St. Marie D. 



Milwaukee D. 








Monterey and Los Angeles [Cal.] D. 




Nashville D. 







Natchitoches " 




Nesqualy [Washington Ter.l D 
Newark [N. J.] D. 





Philadelphia " 




Pittsburg " 




Portland [Me.] " 



Richmond [Va.] " 




Rochester [N.Y.J " 



Santa Fe 








Scranton " 




St. Joseph [Mo.] " 




St. Paul 



Vincennes " 








Wilmington [Del.] D. 
Colorado and Utah V. A. 





Florida " \ 



St Augustine D. J 

Kansas V. A. 







N. Carolina " 






Theol. Stud. 
1870 1871 
























. . . 





















These statistics, imperfect, yet the best obtainable, show a gain in 
1 year of 184 priests, and a loss of 134 ecclesiastical students for the 
same period, the number of seminaries remaining the same. Making 
allowance for 3 vicariates apostolic (Arizona, Montana, and the Indian 
Territory Ea^t of the Rocky Mountains) which are not reported in the 
Directory for 1871, we may estimate the present number of Roman Cath- 
olic priests in the United States at just about 4,000. If we suppose the 
ratio of priests and ecclesiastical students to be the same in the dioceses, 
&c., which do not report the latter as in those which report both, we 
shall obtain about 1400 as the whole number of Americans now study- 
ing for the Roman Catholic priesthood. 

The following list of archbishops, bishop-", and vicars apostolic is 
from Sadliers' Catholic Directory for 1870, with notes designating the 
changes made in that for 1871. In the 1st column " A. " stands for 



Archdiocese, " D." for Diocese, and " V. A." for Vicariate Apostolic ; 
the bishops and archbishops follow in the 2d column ; and the dates 
of their consecration (marked " C.") and of translation to their present 
dioceses (marked " tr.") in the 3d column. 



Baltimore, A., 

Most Rev. Martin John Spalding, D.D., C. Sept. 10, 1848 ; tr. May 6, 1864. 
Charleston, D., 

Rt. Rev. Patrick N. Lynch, D.D., 
Erie, D., 

Rt. Rev. Tobias Mullen, D.D., 
Harrisburg, D., 

Rt. Rev. Jeremiah F. Shanahan, D.D., " July 12, 1868. 
Philadelphia, D., 

Rt. Rev. James F. Wood, D.D., 
Pittsburg, D., 

Rt. Rev. Michael Domenec, D.D., 
Richmond, D., 

Rt. Rev. John McGill, D.D., 
Savannah, D., 

Rt. Rev. Augustine Vdrot, 1 D.D., 
Scranton, D., 

Rt. Rev. William O'Hara, D.D., 
Wheeling, D., 

Rt. Rev. Richard V. Whelan, D.D., 
Wilmington, D., 

Rt. Rev. Thomas A. Becker, D.D., 
Florida, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. Augustine Verot, 1 D.D., 
North Carolina, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. James Gibbons, D.D., 

" Mar. 14, 1858. 
" Aug. 12, 1868. 

" April 26, 1857. 

" Dec. 9, 1860. 

" Nov. 10, 1850. 

" April 25, 1858 ; tr. July 14, 1861 

" July 12, 1868. 

" Mar. 21, 1841 ; tr. in 1850. 

" Aug. 23, 1868. 


Administrator Apostolic, 1858 (see 

Cincinnati, A., 

Most Rev. John B. Purcell, D.D., 
Cleveland, 8 D., 

Rt. Rev. Amadeus Rappe, D.D., 

C. Aug. 23, 1868. 

C. Oct. 13, 1833. 
" Oct. 10, 1847. 

1 Bishop V6rot was consecrated April 25, 1858, bishop of Danabe in partibus, 
and made Vicar Apostolic of Florida ; translated to Savannah July 14, 1861 ; to 
St. Augustine, as a new diocese, in 1870. Ignatius Persico, D.D., is now bishop of 
Savannah, C. March 8, 1854; tr. in 1870. The other vicars apostolic are also 
bishops of some diocese in partibus infiddium ("see p. 99). 

2 Bishop Rappe resigned Aug. 22, 1870; and Very Rev. Edward TT<mnjti is 
" Administrator, sede vacante " [= the see being vacant]. 



Columbus, D., 

Rt. Rev. Sylvester H. Rosecrans, D.D., C. Mar. 25, 1862 ; tr. Mar. 3, 1868. 
Covington, 1 D., 

Very Rev. John A. McGill, Administrator; see vacant. 

Detroit, 1 D., 

Very Rev. Peter Hennaert, " " " ' 

Fort Wayne, D., 

Rt. Rev. John H. Luers, D.D., C. Jan. 10, 1858. 

Louisville, D., 

Rt. Rev. William McCloskey, D.D., " April 19, 1868. 

Marquette and Sault-Saintc-Marie, D., 

Rt. Rev. Ignatius Mrak, D.D., " Feb. 7, 1869. 

Vincennes, D., 

Rt. Rev. Maurice de St. Palais, D.D., " Jan. 14, 1849. 

New Orleans, 2 A., 

Most Rev. John M. Odin, D.D., C. Mar. 6, 1842 ; tr. in 1861. ' 

Galveston, D., 

Rt. Rev. Claudius Maria Dubuis, D.D., " Nov. 23, 1862. 
Little Rock, D., 

Rt. Rev. Edward Fitzgerald, D.D., " Feb. 3, 1867. 

Mobile, D., 

Rt. Rev. John Quinlan, D.D., " Dec. 5, 1859; 

Natchez, D., 

Rt. Rev. William H. Elder, D.D., " May 3, 1857. 

Natchitoches, D., 

Rt. Rev. Augustus Martin, D.D., " Nov. 30, 1853. 

New York, A., 

Most Rev. John McCloskey, D.D., C. Mar. 10, 1844 ; tr. May 6, 1864. 

Albany, D., 

Rt. Rev. John J. Conroy, D.D., " Oct. 15, 1865. 

Boston, 8 D., 

Rt. Rev. John J. Williams, D.D., " Mar. 11, 1866. 

Brooklyn, D., 

Rt. Rev. John Loughlin, D.D., " Oct. 30, 1853. 

1 Casper H. Borgess, D.D., was consecrated bishop of Detroit, April 24, 1870; 
Augustus M. Tcebbe, D.D., is bishop of Covington, C. Jan. 9, 1870. 

a Archbishop Odin died near Lyons in France, May 26, 1870; Napoleon J. 
Perch.6, D.D., is his successor, C. May 1, 1870. 

8 The new diocese of Springfield takes from that of Boston the 5 western coun- 
ties of Massachusetts ; and Rev. P. T. O'Reilly, D.D., was consecrated its bishop 
Sept. 25, 1870. 



Buffalo, D., 

Rt. Rev. Stephen V. Ryan, C. M., D.D., C. Nov. 8, 1868. 
Burlington, D., 

Rt. Rev. Louis de Goesbriand, D.D., " Oct. 30, 1863. 
Hartford, D., 

Rt. Rev. Francis P. McFarland, D.D., " Mar. 14, 1858. 
Newark, D., 

Rt. Rev. James R. Bayley, D.D., " Oct. 30, 1853. 

Portland, D., 

Rt. Rev. David W. Bacon, D.D., " April 22, 1855. 

Rochester, D., 

Rt. Rev. Bernard J. McQuaid, D.D., " July 12, 1868. 

Oregon City, A., 

Most Rev. Francis N. Blanchet, D.D., C. July 25, 1845. 
Nesqualy, D., 

Rt. Rev. Augustine M. A. Blanchet, D.D., " Sept. 27, 1846; tr. July 28, '50. 
Vancouver's Island, D., 

Rt. Rev. Modest Demers, D.D.,~ " July 18, 1846. 

Columbia, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. Aloysius J. d'Herbomez, D. D., " Oct. 9, 1864. 
Idaho, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. Louis Lootens, D.D., " Aug. 9, 1868. 


St. Louis, A., 

Most Rev. Peter R. Kenrick, D.D., C. Nov. 30, 1841. 

Alton, 2 D., 

Very Rev. Peter J. Baltes, Administrator ; see vacant. 

Chicago, 8 D., 

Rt. Rev. James Duggan, D.D,, C. May 30, 1850; tr. Jan. 21, 1859. 

Dubuque, D., 

Rt. Rev. John Hennessy, D.D., " Sept. 30, 1866. 

Green Bay, D., 

Rt. Rev. Joseph Melcher, D.D., " July 12, 1868. 

La Crosse, D., 

Rt. Rev. Michael Heiss, D.D., " Sept 6, 1868. 

1 The diocese of Vancouver's Island and the Vicariate Apostolic of Columbia, 
though embraced in the ecclesiastical province of Oregon, are in British America. 

3 Peter J. Baltes, D.D., was consecrated bishop of Alton, January 23, 1870. 

8 Bishop Duggan having retired on account of infirm health, Rt. Rev. Thomas 
Foley, D.D., was appointed coadjutor and administrator, Nov. 19, 1869, and was 
consecrated Bp. of Pergamus in partibus, Feb. 27, 1870. 



Milwaukee, D., 

Rt. Rev. John M. Henni, D.D., C. Mar. 19, 1844. 

Nashville, D , 

Rt Rev. Patrick A. Feehan, D.D., " Oct. 1, 1865. 

Santa Fe, D., 

Rt. Rev. John Lamy, D.D., " Nov. 24, 1850. 

St. Joseph, D., 

Rt Rev. John Hogan, D.D., " Sept. 13, 1868. 

St Paul, D., 

Rt Rev. Thomas L. Grace, D.D., " July 20, 1859. 

Arizona, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. 

Colorado and Utah, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. Joseph P. Machebomf, D.D., " Aug. 16, 1868. 
Indian Territory, E. of Rocky Mts., V. A., 

Rt. Rev. John B. Miege, D.D., " Mar. 25, 1851. 

Montana, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. 

Nebraska, V. A., 

Rt. Rev. James M. O'Gorman, D.D., " May 8, 1859. 

San Francisco, A., 

Most Rev. Jos. S. Alemany, D.D., O.S.D., C. June 10, 1850 ; tr. July 19, 1853. 
Grass Valley, D., 

Rt. Rev. Eugene O'Connell, D.D., " Feb. 3, 1861. 

Monterey and Los Angeles, D., 

Rt. Rev. Thaddeus Amat, D.D., " Mar. 12, 1854. 

There are now 54 Roman Catholic dioceses in this country 
(including the 7 archdioceses and the new dioceses of St. Au- 
gustine and Springfield), 7 vicariates apostolic, and about 4000 
Roman Catholic priests. 

But the number in this country constitutes but a small part 
of the whole Roman Catholic priesthood in the world. The 
number of patriarchates, archbishoprics and bishoprics in 
the Roman Catholic church, including those of the Oriental 
churches in communion with it, amounted to 1100 according 
to the official account in the Annuario Pontificio (= Pontifical 
Annual) for 1870, as reported in the Catholic Almanac for 1871, 
6 having been added since the last annual account, and 157 
sees being vacant at the date of the report. The whole num. 


ber of Roman Catholic priests in the world is probably not less 
than from 100,000 to 150,000. The classes of priests, regu- 
lar, secular, &c., are described in Chapter II. 

The Roman Catholic priesthood constitute a thoroughly dis- 
ciplined and efficient army, bound by vows of strict obedience 
to their superiors, destitute of any family ties to interest them 
in the ordinary affairs of life, or to attach them to any earthly 
home or country, and officered by picked veterans, who are 
not only, like the rest of this army, cut off from ordinary 
human enjoyments, but are bound by a most solemn oath to 
devote their lives and energies to the advancement of their 
church temporally as well as spiritually, and to render faithful 
and undivided obedience to the pontiff whom they are taught 
to regard as the infallible Vicar of Jesus Christ and the un- 
doubted representative of God upon earth. They are surely a 
power in this world. 



ECCLESIASTICAL historians place the rise of monasticism or 
monachism (both derived from the Greek monos = alone) in 
the early part of the 4th century after Christ, during the Decian 
persecution. It began in Egypt with Paul of Thebes and St. 
Anthony, the former of whom died in A.D. 340, and the latter, 
at the age of 105 years, in A.D. 356. There were in the church, 
indeed, at an earlier period, ascetics, who, without forsaking 
all society, sought to mortify the flesh and cultivate an uncom- 
mon degree of piety by retiring from the ordinary business of 
life and devoting themselves especially to spiritual exercises ; 
but Paul of Thebes and Anthony and others like them, taking 
the prophet Elijah and John the Baptist for their models, and 
going beyond them, became hermits or anchorites, secluded 
themselves from all society, dwelt in caves, clothed themselves 
in rough apparel as in the skins of wild beasts, lived on bread 
and water, and gave themselves up to prayer, affliction of the 
body, and conflict with the powers of darkness. * Another step 
or stage in the development of monachism was the bringing to- 
gether into a community those who wished to live apart from 
the world and to devote themselves to spiritual exercises. This 
is the cloister life or monasticism in the usual sense of the 
term, and likewise originated in Egypt in the 4th century with 
one of Anthony's disciples named Pachomius. He founded 

* Among the hermits may be reckoned the pillar-saints or stylites, whose founder, 
Simeon or Simon, a Syrian, is said to have lived 37 years on a pillar 3 feet in di- 
ameter, and elevated from 9 to 60 feet above the ground. 


9 monasteries of men and 1 of women, and established a sys- 
tem of rules requiring the monks or cenobites, as they were 
called, to practice solitariness, manual labor, spiritual exercises, 
restraint of the bodily appetites, and strict obedience to their 
president or abbot. From Egypt the monastic system was 
carried by Hilarion into Palestine, by Athanasius to Rome, by 
Eustathius into Armenia and Paphlagonia, by Basil * into 
Pontus, by Martin into Gaul, <fcc. It spread rapidly over the 
whole Christian world, and was for centuries the chief reposi- 
tory of the Christian life. The last step in the development 
of monasticism was the institution of monastic orders, uniting 
a number of monasteries under one rule of life and one gov- 
ernment ; but this step was not taken till the 6th century under 
St. Benedict, from whom the Benedictines derive their name 
and origin. 

There was at first no particular vow on entering a monastic 
life, and no prohibition of quitting it. The monks were also 
at first all laymen, some of them married and fathers, others 
unmarried ; but soon there were bishops and other clergy who 
adopted a strictly monastic life ; and there were monks, who 
were laymen, but were chosen to be clergymen. " Even at the 
end of the 4th century," says Gieseler, " monastic life was con- 
sidered to be the usual preparation, and monachism the nursery 
for the clergy, especially for bishops." The council of Chalce- 
don (A.D. 451) declared that monks and nuns were not at lib- 

* " The monks of St. Basil," or " Basilian monks," are named from St. Basil, 
bishop of Cesarea in Cappadocia, who retired to the deserts of Pontus in the 4th 
century, and became the spiritual father of, it is said, more than 90,000 monks in 
his life. The order flourished greatly, in both the Greek and Latin churches, and 
most of the present Greek monks are said to belong to it. Those of the order in 
the Latin church were united under one head about 1573 by pope Gregory XIII., 
who revised the rule given by Basil. The order is claimed to have produced 14 
popes, many patriarchs, cardinals, and archbishops, 1805 bishops, and 11,805 mar- 
tyrs, and is still numerous in Southern Europe. The Basilians have a church and 
college at Sandwich in Canada West. The Preparatory (Ecclesiastical) Seminary 
at Louisville, Stark Co., Ohio, is directed by the Basilians, who have there a supe- 
rior and 6 professors, with 28 students. 


erty to marry, but allowed bishops to extend mercy to the of- 
fenders. At the East the irrevocableness of monastic vows 
gradually became an established doctrine, and the monasteries 
were about the middle of the 5th century subjected to a rigor- 
ous discipline and placed under the jurisdiction of the bishops. 
The monasticism of the West was less developed than that of 
the East ; but St. Benedict, in the 6th century, gave it a new 
form and impulse. He was born at Nursia (now Nor da) in 
central Italy about A.D. 480 ; and about the age of 14, having 
been sent to Rome for his education and there been disgusted 
with the prevalent dissipations, he ran away, and hid himself 
for 3 years in a cave at Sublacum (= Subiaco') about 30 miles 
east of Rome. Here he is said to have overcome a Satanic 
temptation to lust by rolling himself among brambles and thus 
lacerating his body. Subsequently the monks of a neighboring 
monastery chose him for their abbot ; but his rigorous disci- 
pline offended them, and they attempted to poison him. Upon 
this he returned to his cave, where many joined him, so that 
he had 12 monasteries under his jurisdiction. About A.D. 529 
he retired to Monte (== mount) Cassino on the coast between 
Rome and Naples, where a temple to Apollo still existed. Hav- 
ing converted the pagan mountaineers to Christianity, he turned 
their temple into a monastery, introduced a new system of 
rules for the government of the monks, and instituted the Ben- 
edictine order. He died about A.D. 543, and the 21st of March 
is celebrated as his festival. Dr. Murdock, in his translation 
of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, gives the following ab- 
stract of the Benedictine system of rules : 

" According to the Rule of Benedict, the monks were to rise at 2 
A. M. in the winter (and in summer, at such hours as the abbot might 
direct) ; repair to the place of worship for vigils ; and then spend the 
remainder of the night in committing psalms, private meditation, and 
reading. At sunrise they assembled for matins ; then spent 4 hours in 
labor ; then 2 hours in reading ; then dined and read in private till 2^ 
p. M., when they met again for worship ; and afterwards labored till 


their vespers. In their vigils and matins 24 psalms were to he chanted 
each day, so as to complete the Psalter every week. Besides their 
social worship, 7 hours each day were devoted to labor, 2 at least to 
private study, 1 to private meditation, and the rest to meals, sleep, and 
refreshment. The labor was agriculture, gardening, and various me- 
chanical trades ; and each one was put to such labor as his superior saw 
fit ; for they all renounced wholly every species of personal liberty. 
They ate twice a day at a common table ; first about noon, and then at 
evening. Both the quantity and the quality of their food were limited. 
To each was allowed 1 pound of bread per day, and a small quantity 
of wine. On the public table no meat was allowed, but always 2 kinds 
of porridge. To the sick, flesh was allowed. While at table, all con- 
versation was prohibited ; and some one read aloud the whole time. 
They all served as cooks and waiters by turns of a week each. Their 
clothing was coarse and simple, and regulated at the discretion of the 
abbot Each was provided with 2 suits, a knife, a needle, and all 
other necessaries. They slept in common dormitories of 10 or 20, in 
separate beds, without undressing, and had a light burning, and an in- 
spector sleeping in each dormitory. They were allowed no conversa- 
tion after they retired, nor at any time were they permitted to jest, or 
to talk for mere amusement. No one could receive a present of any 
kind, not even from a parent ; nor have any correspondence with per- 
sons without the monastery, except by its passing under the inspection 
of the abbot A porter always sat at the gate, which was kept locked 
day and night ; and no stranger was admitted without leave from the 
abbot ; and no monk could go out, unless he had permission from the 
same source. The school for the children of the neighborhood was 
kept without the walls. The whole establishment was under an abbot, 
whose power was despotic. His under officers were, a prior or deputy, 
a steward, a superintendent of the sick and the hospital, an attendant 
on visitors, a porter, &c., with the necessary assistants, and a number 
of deans or inspectors over tens, who attended the monks at all times. 
The abbot was elected by the common suffrage of the brotherhood ; 
and when inaugurated, he appointed and removed his under officers at 
pleasure. On great emergencies, he summoned the whole brotherhood 
to meet in council ; and on more common occasions, only the seniors ; 
but in either case, after hearing what each one was pleased to say, the 
decision rested wholly with himself. For admission to the society, a 


probation of 12 months was required ; during which the applicant was 
fed and clothed, and employed in the meaner offices of the monks, and 
closely watched. At the end of his probation, if approved, he took 
solemn and irrevocable vows of perfect chastity, absolute poverty, and 
implicit obedience to his superiors in every thing. If he had property, 
he must give it all away, either to his friends or the poor, or to the 
monastery ; and never after must possess the least particle of private 
property, nor claim any personal rights or liberties. For lighter of- 
fenses, a reprimand was to be administered by some under officer. For 
greater offenses, after 2 admonitions, a person was debarred his privil- 
eges, not allowed to read in his turn, or to sit at table, or enjoy his 
modicum of comforts. If still refractory, he was expelled from the 
monastery ; yet still might be restored on repentance." 

The cut representing the Benedictine Monk is from Fos- 
broke's British Monachism. 

The Penny Cyclopedia thus describes 
the dress of the Benedictine monks and 
nuns : 

" The habit of the Benedictine monks was 
a black loose coat, or a gown of stuff' reaching 
down to their heels, with a cowl or hood of 
the same, and a scapulary [=a vestment 
without sleeves] ; and under that another 
habit, white, as large as the former, made of 
flannel ; with boots on their leg?. From the 
color of their outward habit the Benedictines 
were generally called Black Monks. . . . 
iStevens,in his Continuation of the Monasticon, 

BENEDICTS MONK. **?*> * fO f * *"** f ^^ m nks W&3 

at first left to the discretion of the abbots, 
and that St. Benedict did not determine the color of it." 

" The habit of the Benedictine nuns consisted of a black robe, with a 
ecapulary of the same, and under that robe a tunic of white and undyed 
wool. "When they went to the choir, they had, over all, a black cowl, 
like that of the monks." 

As has been already intimated, the Benedictine order spread 
over Europe with great rapidity. In the 9th century other 


monastic rules and societies became extinct, and the Benedic- 
tines alone flourished. One writer enumerates 200 cardinals, 
1600 archbishops, 4000 bishops, 15700 abbots and learned men, 
who all belonged to this order ; another reckons among its mem- 
bers 24 popes, 15000 bishops, and 40000 canonized or beatified 
saints, including St. Bernard, St. John of Damascus and others 
of the most illustrious men in the annals of the Roman Catho- 
lic church. Augustine with 40 other Benedictine monks came 
into Britain in A. D. 596, converted the king of Kent and most 
of his subjects from idolatry to Christianity, and laid the foun- 
dation of the modern British church, Augustine being the first 
archbishop of Canterbury. The early Benedictines were un- 
questionably virtuous, upright, and useful ; they tilled the 
ground, reclaimed wastes, raised cattle, preserved and copied 
manuscripts, cultivated the arts and sciences, educated mul- 
titudes in their schools, and were esteemed holy and prevalent 
in prayer. But the order grew powerful and rich ; discipline 
was relaxed ; monasteries became splendid edifices ; voluptuous- 
ness, indolence, pride, vice and wickedness took possession of the 
very cloisters. For centuries, however, the most respectable and 
renowned men of Europe were trained up among the Benedictines. 
The historians of monachism reckon 23 branches or divisions of 
this order, distinguished by local or other specific appellations 
and by slight differences of habit and discipline. The principal of 
these branches are, theClunians (=Cluniacs orCluniacensians), 
Cistercians, Camaldolese, Vallembrosians, Grammontensians 
or Grandimontensians, Carthusians, Fontevraudians, Ber- 
nardines, Guilbertines, Humiliati, Celestines, Feuillants, Trap- 
pists, Olivetans, and Benedictines of St. Maur. The Benedic- 
tine monks of the original stem numbered 1600 in 1858, 
according to Appletons' Cyclopedia, and their chief seat is still 
Monte Cassino. The " Statistical Year Book of the Church," 
as quoted in the CatholicAlmanac for 1870, gives the present 
number of Benedictine monks as 5000. There are monastic 
establishments of this order in this country, in the dioceses of 
Chicago, Covington, Erie, Newark, Pittsburg, St. Paul, Vin- 


cennes, <fcc. " St. Vincent's Abbey of the Benedictine Order,'* 
near Latrobe, Westmoreland Co., Pa., in the diocese of Pitts- 
burg, has the following officers, <fec., as reported in Sadliers' 
Catholic Directory for 1871 : 

Rt. Rev. Boniface Wimmer, O. S. B. [= Order of St. Benedict], Ab- 
bot of St. Vincent's and President of the American Cassinesian Congre- 
gation ; Very Rev. Giles Christoph, O. S. B., Prior and Rector ; 
Rev. Luke "Wimmer, 0. S. B., Sub- Prior and Master of Novices ; Rev. 
Charles Geyerstanger, Q. S. B., Choir Master ; Rev. Chilian Bernetzed, 
O. S. B.; Rev. Francis Cannon, O. S. B. ; Rev. Alphonse Heimler, 0. S. 
B., President of St. Vincent's College ; Rev. Ignatius Trueg, O. S. B., Di- 
rector of the Scholasticate and Professor ; Rev. Edmund Langenfelder, 
O. S. B., Chaplain of St. Xavier's Academy [a female seminary con- 
ducted by the Sisters of Mercy] ; Rev. Andrew Hintenach, 0. S: B., 
Professor ; Rev. Innocent Wolf, D. D., O. S. B., Professor of Moral 
Theology ; Rev. John Sommer, O. S. B., Professor of Philosophy ; 
Rev. Hilary Pfraeugle, D. D., O. S. B., Professor of Dogma ; Rev. 
Mathias Binder, 0. S. B., Assistant Master of Novices ; Rev. Pius 
Preisser, 0. S. B. ; Rev. Aloysrus Gorman, 0. S. B., Procurator and 
Professor ; Rev. Maurus Lynch, 0. S. B. ; Rev. Aurelius McMahon, 
O. S. B., Professor ; Rev. Laurence Schaier, O. S. B., Professors. There 
are also in the Abbey, 12 clerics, 17 novices, 60 scholastics, and 70 lay 

The Benedictines have also a flourishing college for aspir- 
ants to the priesthood and a monastical seminary connected 
with their convent in Spencer Co., Indiana, and there are other 
priests in charge of churches. The priests, lay-brothers, 
novices, &c., in the United States, number 300 or more. The 
Benedictine nuns have a convent in Newark, N. J. ; 2 in North- 
western Pennsylvania ; 2 in Minnesota ; 1 in Chicago, 111. ; 1 
in Dubois Co., Ind. ; 1 in Covington, Ky. ; 1 in Atchison, Kan. ; 
1 priory in Nebraska City, Neb. ; with academies, <fec., in all 
these places ; and probably number in this country 100 nuns, 
novices, and postulants. 

The Trappists, a branch of the Benedictines, and the most 
rigorous of Roman Catholic religious orders, are named from the 
abbey of La Trappe in France, where this order was 

founded in 1666 by the abbe* de Ranee*. They rise at 2 A.. M. ; 



spend 12 hours a day in religious exercises and the rest in hard 
labor, mostly in the field ; live on water and vegetables ; sleep 
on a board, with a pillow of straw, without undressing ; prac- 
tice hospitality ; but are not allowed to indulge in worldly con- 
versation. They have two abbeys in the United States, each 
governed by a mitred abbot ; one, " Abbey of our Lady of La 
Trappe," in Nelson Co.,Ky. ; the other," NewMelleray Abbey," 
12 miles from Dubuque, Iowa. The Trappist monks number 
about 4000. and are found in France, Algeria, Belgium, Italy, 
Ireland, Turkey, and North America. There are also Trappist 
nuns in France, England, and Nova Scotia ; but none are re- 
ported in this country. 

The Basilians (described at the beginning of this chapter), 
and the Benedictines with their branches, are " monks," prop- 
erly so called ; but among the religious orders are *' regular 
canons," " friars " or " mendicant monks," and " regular 
clerks," besides many " congregations." 

As has been said above, the monks were originally laymen ; 
but St. Augustine (bishop of Hippo, A. D. 395-430) and some 



other bishops united with their clergy in adopting a strictly 
monastic life. 'The rule known by the name of St. Augustine 
was widely followed in later times ; and the order of Augustin- 


ian canons, consisting of persons ordained or destined to the 
clerical profession, claims a place among the principal monas- 
tic institutions. From the 8th century onward the canons 
formed an intermediate class between the monks and the secu- 
lar clergy ; but the distinction of regular and secular canons 
first appears in the llth century. The secular canons were 
those who resided in the same house and ate at a common 
table, but had their own perquisites and revenues ; while the 
regular canons, though less strict in their rule than the monks, 
renounced all private property and had all things in common, 
living together under one roof, having a common dormitory and 
refectory, and obliged to observe the statutes of their order, 
which required the singing of psalms, <fcc., at the canonical 
hours, and were principally derived from St. Augustine. The 
regular canons were hence called " regular canons of St. Au- 
gustine," or " canons under the rule of St. Augustine," 
or " Austin [= Augustine] canons." They were numer- 
ous in England before the Reformation. Bishop Tanner 
says he found 175 houses of these canons and canonesses in 
England and Wales. According to Appletons' Cyclopedia they 
are now " attached to the Lateran basilica and a few other 
churches." Their habit is described in the Penny Cyclopedia 
as " a long black cassock, with a white rochet over it, and 
over that a black cloak and hood. The monks were always 
shaved, but these canons wore beards and caps on their heads." 
The canon in the cut, from Fosbroke's British Monachism, 
has the cap (=biretum) on his head. 

The Premonstrants or Premonstratensians were instituted at 
Premontrd [in Latin Premonstratum] in the North of France in 
1120 by St. Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. 
They followed the rule of St. Augustine, as reformed or 
altered by St. Norbert, and were also called " White Canons " 
from their habit, which the Penny Cyclopedia and Bonanni's 
Catalogue of Religious Orders give as a white cassock with a 
rochet over it, a long white cloak, and white cap. The common 
dress, as given in the cut from Fosbroke's British Monachism, 
was " a tunic girt round the waist, a leaf-formed hood, and 


head-part to throw back, and a bonnet in fashion at the end of the 
llth century.'* A female branch of the order was also es- 
tablished, their convents being at first contiguous to those of 
the monks. The order increased rapidly, especially in France, 
Germany, and N. W. Europe, and at the Reformation had about 
2000 convents, about 500 of them for women. They declined 
greatly in and after the 16th century, and the female branch 
became nearly extinct. In 1860 they had, according to Ap- 
pletons' Cyclopedia, 8 convents in Germany (including their chief 
one at Prague), 11 in Hungary, 2 in France, 4 in Belgium and 
Holland, 1 in the United States (at Sac Prairie, Wis.), and 1 
in Cape Colony, South Africa. The female branch in 1860 
had 5 convents in Poland, Switzerland, and Holland. 

The term "friar" (etymologically = " brother," from the 
French frere and Latin frater) is now specially applied to a 
member of one of the 4 mendicant (= begging) orders, viz., 
Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelites, and Augustinians. These 
orders mostly sprang up in the 13th century, and soon sur- 
passed all the older orders of monks, not only in the purity of 
their lives, but in the number of their privileges and the mul- 
titude of their members. Among other uncommon immunities 
granted them by the popes, they had the liberty of traveling 
wherever they pleased, conversing with persons of all ranks, 
instructing the youth and people in general, and hearing con- 
fessions without reserve or restriction. They were the princi- 
pal teachers of theology at Paris, Naples, &c., and had flour- 
ishing monasteries at Oxford and Cambridge. For nearly 3 
centuries they governed the European church and state with 
an almost absolute and universal sway ; they maintained the 
supremacy of the Roman see against the united influence of 
prelates and kings ; but their unbounded ambition and intoler- 
able arrogance joined with other causes to make them at length 
universally odious. 

The Franciscans derive their name and origin from St. 
Francis, a native of Assisi (ancient Assisium) in central Italy. 
He was the son of a rich merchant and was born in 1182. He 
was a dissolute young man ; but after a fit of sickness about 


1206, he passed to the opposite extreme of religious zeal and 
self-mortification, and was generally regarded as deranged. 
Having prevailed on a considerable number of persons to devote 
themselves with him to absolute poverty, he drew up a rule for 
their use which was approved by pope Innocent III. in 1210 
and by the Lateran council in 1215. On the 17th September, 
1224, the 5 wounds of Christ are said to have been impressed on 
his hands and feet and side. He died October 4, 1226, and was 
soon canonized, October 4th being appointed to be his festival. 
The requisites for admission to his order were absolute poverty, 
chastity, and obedience, much fasting and prayer, with con- 
stant efforts to convert sinners. The rules adopted at the first 
general chapter in 1216 allowed members of the order to accept 
a limited amount of food, clothing, and other necessaries ; but 
did not permit them to ride, if they could walk ; required them 
not to receive pay for services, and, if they found money, to 
trample it under their feet ; bound them to renounce all use of 
luxuries, and even of ordinary comforts, to live in common, 
and to consider their very dress as the property of the church ; 
forbade any of them, unless entitled by age and character to 
special privileges, ever to speak to a woman alone, or to speak 
to one at all, except to urge repentance or give spiritual coun- 
sel ; and demanded that the unhesitating obedience to a superior 
should be rendered cheerfully and affectionately. The order 
increased so fast that 5000 friars attended the 2d general chap- 
ter or meeting in 1219, when the conversion of the whole hab- 
itable globe was definitely proposed, and the most prominent 
disciples were sent forth on separate missions to the various 
parts of Europe and to Africa. Five of the missionaries were 
put to death in Morocco in 1220. Francis himself attempted 
to convert the Saracens in the East, but was compelled to re- 
turn to Europe, where he was received and heard with enthu- 
siasm. The members of his order are called from him " Fran- 
ciscans," from their dress " Gray Friars," and from their hu- 
mility " Minor Friars " or "Minorites." In consequence of the 
strife of parties among them, they were divided by Leo X. in 
1517 into two separate organizations, the milder party, called 



the " Conventuals," being authorized to elect a magister-gen- 
eral, whose election must be confirmed by the general, whom 
the " Observants " or stricter party had the right of electing. 
The Recollects or Recollets, attempting to surpass the Observ- 
ants in strictness, are called " Minorites of the stricter observ- 
ance," but are under the same general with the Conventuals 
and Observants, while the Capuchins have become a separate 
order. The habit of the Observants, according to the Jesuit 
Bonannr s " Catalogue of Religious Orders," published at 
Rome, 1706-7, consists of a garment of woolen cloth on the 
naked body, bound with a rope about the loins, a round hood 
with a sort of collar on the arms, a mantle of the same cloth 
extending a little below the knees, the color such as is made 
of 2 parts of black wool of the natural color and 1 of white. 
They go barefooted, using wooden slippers or leather sandals. 
The Conventuals are distinguished from the Observants by 
wearing shoes, a tunic of lighter color, a hood round and nar- 
row, with a round cape hanging from the shoulders, and hav- 
ing on the head in the city an ash-colored hat. The cut, from 
" Fosbroke's British Monachism," represents one of the Ob- 

Among the celebrated Franciscans 
have been St. Anthony of Padua, 
Duns Scotus, Roger Bacon, Cardinal 
Xiinenes, and Popes Nicholas IV., 
Alexander V., Sixtus IV. and V., 
and Clement XIV. The Francis- 
cans, in 1268, had 8000 convents and 
200,000 monks; and in the 18th 
century they still, including the Cap- 
uchins, counted 26,000 convents 
and 200,000 monks. 

Besides the Franciscan monks, 
there are also nuns who follow the 
rule of St. Francis ; and likewise 
" Brothers and Sisters of the 3d Or- 
der of St. Francis," also called " Tertiarians," or " Order of 



Penitence," or " Penitents of the 3d Order of St. Francis." 
The " Nuns of the Order of St. Clare," or "Poor Clares," or 
" Clarists," named from St. Clara of Assist, their first Abbess, 
were instituted about 1212 by St. Francis, and were subjected 
to the same vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, as were 
enjoined on the Franciscan monks ; imitated the males in 
dress, except that they wore a black veil over a white one ; but 
were relieved to some extent from fasting, and required to ob- 
serve long periods of absolute silence. The members of the 
3d order, which was established by St. Francis in 1221, were 
allowed to retain their social positions in the world, but were 
required to wear a dress of a prescribed form and color, to pay 
all debts and restore unfair gains, to avoid all public exhibi- 
tions and extrajudicial oaths, to make their wills on entering 
the order, to be constant in attending church, to refrain from 
bearing arms unless in defense of their church or native land, 
<fcc. Many kings, queens and popes (as Louis IX. of France, 
the mother and wife of Louis XIV., and pope Pius IX.) have 
belonged to the 3d order. New communities, devoted to 
teaching, and independent of the parent Tertiarians, have also 
sprung up. The Elizabethines, called in France " Daughters 
of Charity,'" are one of these independent communities of 

The Franciscans were the first missionaries that came to 
the New World. They crossed the ocean with Columbus on his 
2d voyage in 1493, established themselves in San Domingo in 
1502, and attempted in 1528 to establish themselves in Florida. 
One of them visited California in 1539, and named the country 
San Francisgp. AnoUier founded a successful mission in Texas 
in 1544 ; and subsequently others did the same in Florida, 
California, Canada, <fcc. They are now reported, under one 
name or another, as monks, nuns, or tertiarians, in about 20 
dioceses in the United States. The distinctions of Convent- 
uals, Observants, and Recollects, are not noticed in the Catholic 

1 The " Daughters of Charity," reported in the United States, are noticed in 
connection with the " Sisters of Charity." 


Directory ; but they have in New York City a Gustos (= Guard- 
ian) Provincial (Very Rev. Charles da Nazzano), and two 
Houses, one connected with the German church of St. Francis 
of Assisi, the other with the Italian Church of St. Anthony of 
Padua ; a college and convent, with a president, and 7 other 
priests, 7 professed brothers, 10 tertians, and 120 students, at 
Allegany, N . Y. ; a convent and ecclesiastical college at Teutop- 
olis, 111., with a Commissary Provincial and Rector of the college 
(Very Rev. Mauritius Klostermann, 0. S. F.), and 3 other 
priests ; a convent and college at Santa Barbara, and another 
college at Santa Yne"s, both in California ; a Catholic gymna- 
sium, protectory for boys, and several churches, in and near 
Cincinnati, 0. ; convents or churches or both, in St. Louis Co., 
Mo., Boston, Mass., Winsted, Ct., Brooklyn and Buffalo, N. Y., 
Trenton, N. J., Erie, Pa., Cleveland, 0., Oldenburg, Ind., and 
Louisville, Ky. The Brothers of the 3d order of St. Francis 
are reported as having 2 monasteries with an orphan asylum 
and an academy in Western Pennsylvania, an academy in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and a school in Los Angeles, Cal. A " Con- 
vent of the Sisters of St. Clare " is reported in Cincinnati. 
" The Sisters of St. Francis " have their mother-house and 
Institute (or boarding-school) at Oldenburg, Ind., and 15 other 
schools in the diocese of Vincennes ; a hospital in Cincinnati, 
and a convent, asylum and schools at Delphos, Ohio ; 3 con- 
vents in Pennsylvania ; 8 academies and schools in Kentucky, 
Missouri, and Wisconsin. Under the more formal or different 
designation of " Sisters of St. Francis Assisium," are reported 
11 convents in Illinois with 38 professed sisters, 23 novices, 32 
postulants, and nearly 3000 pupils in schools, and also 20 sisters 
in charge of St. Francis's Hospital at Buffalo, N. Y. The " Sis- 
ters of the Poor of St. Francis " are reported at St. Francis's 
German Hospital in New York, with a convent, superior and 
13 sisters ; at St. Peter's Hospital in Brooklyn, N. Y. (where 
are CO religious and 3 postulants) ; at St. Mary's Hospital in 
Quincy, 111. ; at St. Francis's Hospital in Columbus, 0. ; at a 
Hospital and Foundling Asylum in Covington, Ky. ; also at hos- 


pitals in Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark, N. J. " The Sis- 
ters of the 3d Order of St. Francis " have a convent and acad- 
emy in Winsted, Ct. ; convents in Albany, Utica, Rome, and 
Buffalo, a mother-house and novitiate in Syracuse, schools in the 
above places as well as in Allegany, Schenectady and Oswego, 
and the Hospital of St. Elizabeth in Utica, all in N. Y. ; a hos- 
pital and orphan asylum in Tiffin, 0. ; institutions at Menasha 
and Wequiock, Wis. ; a convent in Philadelphia, with schools 
in that city, Manayunk, and Bridesburg, Pa. ; St. Joseph's 
German Hospital in Baltimore, Md. A convent and parochial 
school in New York city are credited to the " Missionary Sisters 
of the 3d Order of St. Francis.'* " The Sisters of the 3d Order 
of St. Francis Seraph " have their mother-house and novitiate 
near Jefferson, Wis. ; teach 1140 children in 8 parish schools 
in the State, and in an orphan asylum near Milwaukee ; and 
number in their community 105, of whom 52 are professed 
sisters, 37 novices, and 16 postulants. " The Benevolent, 
Charitable, and Religious Society of St. Francis, Cross Village, 
Emmet Co., Mich.," not reported in the Catholic Directory, 
was chartered in 1867, and " consists of 2 separate congrega- 
tions or convents, one for the brethren and one for the sisters, 
of the 3d Order of St. Francis- of Assisi." Its objects are to 
assist sick and suffering persons ; to receive orphan children ; 
to teach school for Indian children (at present employed 
for this by the government), orphans, day-scholars, and board- 
era; and "to work for the salvation of its members in the 
ways above indicated." The Franciscans and those who are 
allied with them in name and affinity are thus widely diffused 
in the United States, numbering probably over 500 males and 
300 females. The Franciscan monks, though much reduced 
in number since the French revolution of 1789, are still by 
far the most numerous of the monastic orders, amounting to 
50,000 at the present time, according to the Statistical Year- 
Book of the Church. 

The Capuchins, so called from their capoche or hood, adopted 
by Matteo (_=. Matthew) Baschi in 1525 from one represented 



in a painting of St. Francis, are a branch of the Franciscans. 
They were allowed by Clement VII. in 1528 to wear a beard. 
Their rule is very strict, requiring them to recite the canonical 
hours without singing, to say matins at midnight, to spend an 
hour every morning and evening in mental prayer and silence, 
to eat the simplest food, to wear a habit of the coarsest kind, 
with no covering for their head, <fcc. The Capuchins have fur- 
nished many missionaries, bishops, cardinals, and distinguished 
writers. They have a house and German church in New York 
city ; also a convent at Milwaukee, Wis., with " Very Rev. P. 
Ivo Prass, 0. M. Cp., Guardian ; " a convent and ecclesiastical 
college at Calvary, Fond du Lac Co., Wis., with a Commissary 
General and Guardian (Very Rev. Francis Haas, 0. M. Cp.), 
7 other priests, and a number of clerics, novices, and lay broth- 
ers. Here also may be noted 2 convents in the diocese of 
Albany, which are thus reported in the Catholic Directory for 
18TO and 1871 : 

" Syracuse, Convent of the Assumption Fathers, 0. M. C. Very Rev. 
Fidelia Dehm, D.D., Commissary General, and Visitor of the Brothers 
and Sisters of the 3d order of St. Francis, and [8 ?] other Fathers 
who have charge of missions. 

" Utica, Convent of St. Joseph. Rev. Alphonsus Zoeller, O. M. C., 
Superior, and 3 Fathers." 

The Dominicans derive their name and origin from Dominic 
de Guzman, a high-born Spanish ecclesiastic, inventor of the 
rosary, a zealous preacher, and generally regarded as the founder 
of the Inquisition. He was born in 1170 ; attempted in 1206 
to convert the Albigenses ; instituted in 1215 the order of 
preaching friars on the rule of St. Augustine modified by that 
of the Premonstratensians, for the purpose of advancing the 
Catholic church and exterminating heresies, especially that of 
the Albigenses, by preaching; enjoined on the order, in its 
first general chapter at Bologna in 1220, absolute poverty and 
contempt for all permanent revenues and possessions ; died at 
Bologna in 1221 ; and was canonized in 1234, August 4th 
being appointed his festival. Miracles were attributed to St. 


Dominic as well as to St. Francis. The Dominicans were styled 
" preaching friars " from their office to preach, and convert 
Jews and heretics ; " black friars," from their dress ; and, in 
France, " Jacobins " from having their first house in Paris in 
the Rue St. Jacques (= St. James [or Jacob] street). Like 
the other mendicant orders, their government is an absolute 
monarchy. The convent is governed by its prior ; the province, 
which is a group of convents, by its provincial ; the whole 
order, by its general, who is elected by the general chapter, 
which meets annually. This order, like the Franciscans, re- 
ceived special privileges from the pope, and spread rapidly. In 
1233 they were placed at the head of the Inquisition (see Chap. 
XL), and in 1425 acquired the right to receive donations. In 
1228 a Dominican professorship of theology was established 
at Paris. They were active in missionary labors and in theo- 
logical discussions. They were long known as opponents of 
the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary. They con- 
trolled the literature of the church through the office of master 
of the sacred palace at Rome and its connected censorship of 
books held by Dominic and his Dominican successors. They 
never had a permanent schism like the Franciscans. They 
have furnished many bishops and archbishops, 66 cardinals, 4 
popes (Innocent V., Benedict XL and XIIL, and Pius V.), 
and many distinguished men, as Albertus Magnus, Thomas 
Aquinas, Savonarola, Las Casas, Lacordaire, &c. Though they 
lost greatly atthe Reformation, and early relaxed their strictness, 
they had more than 1000 convents of monks and nuns in the 18th 
century. They lost again at and after the French revolution of 
1789, and have been suppressed in several European countries. 
Pope Pius IX. undertook and partially accomplished a reform 
in this and other religious orders ; but, meeting with much oppo- 
sition, he suspended the right of the general chapter to appoint 
their general, and appointed a vicar-general from the French 
disciples of Lacordaire who earnestly seconded his efforts. 
Bonanni's Catalogue of Religious Orders gives the Dominican 




habit thus : " The servants of this order are clothed with a 

white woolen garment and scapular 
and hood round and broad, and over 
the tunic when they go out of doors 
they put a black gown shorter than 
the tunic, which habit the blessed Vir- 
gin Mother of God prescribed to the 
venerable father Reginald." St. Dom- 
inic established an order of nuns, the 
first members being mostly Albigensian 
converts. St. Catharine of Sienna, a Do- 
minican nun of the 14th century, was 
one of the most influential persons in all 
Europe. The order at one time num- 
bered 400 convents, but abandoned their 
original strictness even earlier than the monks. Bonanni's Cata- 
logue describes the habit of the Dominican nuns as consisting of 
" a dress and scapular both white, and a black vail on the head, 
under which is hid another white covering. They gird the 
tunic about the loins with a black leather girdle, which is 
everywhere used by the religious of the order of St. Augus- 
tine." Fosbroke's British Monachism, from which is taken 
this cut, says that " the Dominican nun, except the black vail, 
had the same habit" with the monks. "The habit which 
comes up to the chin and covers the bosom," in the cut, is 
called the " wimple," and is sometimes united with the vail, 
or one is substituted for the other. The third order (= ter- 
tiarians) of St. Dominic resembles the 3d order of St. Francis, 
and is also known as " brothers and sisters of penitence of St. 
Dominic." The Dominican monks now number 4000, accord- 
ing to the Statistical Year-Book of the Church. Among them, 
as reported in the Catholic Directory, were the 1st and 2d 
bishops of the diocese of New York (Concanen, who died in 
1810, and Connolly who died in 1825) ; and the present arch- 
bishop of San Francisco (Alemany) is also a Dominican. The 
monks have convents at Benicia, Cal. ; St. Joseph's, Perry Co., 


0. ; Louisville and Springfield, Ky. ; a house in New York 
city ; and churches in all those places, as well as Washington 
city, San Francisco, Nashville, Memphis, and several other 
points. It is impossible to make out any accurate statement 
of the sorts of Dominican nuns in this country. The Domin- 
ican sisters of the 2d order have a mother-house and novitiate 
at Racine, Wis. ; and reported in the Catholic Directory for 
1870, 19 professed sisters, 3 novices, and 5 postulants, wifh an 
academy at Racine, and parish schools there and elsewhere in 
the state, containing in all apparently 500 pupils or more. 2 
" Dominican convents," with schools, are reported in and near 
New Orleans, La. ; " Dominican Sisters " have 5 academies and 
other schools, and 2 orphan asylums in Tennessee ; " Sisters 
of St. Dominic " have academies, schools, and orphan asylums 
in Illinois, Ohio, California, and Kentucky, with a convent at 
Benicia, Cal., and a " central-house " at Springfield, Ky. ; 
" Sisters of the order of St. Dominic " appear also in New 
York city with 2 convents and parish schools ; also a " con- 
vent of the order of St. Dominic " (probably of the 3d order) 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., with a hospital building. " Dominican 
Sisters of the 3d order " have a mother-house and novitiate at 
Benton, Wis. ; and reported in the Directory for 1870, 55 sis- 
ters and 12 novices, with an academy and G other schools and 
1200 pupils in Wisconsin. They appear also to have a con- 
vent, academy, and schools in Minnesota. 

The Carmelites, or " Order of St. Mary of Mount Carmel," 
derive their name from Mount Carmel in Palestine, where the 
order originated about 1156 from Berthold, a crusader from 
Calabria. The Carmelites themselves claim the prophet Elijah 
as their founder, and the Virgin Mary as a Carmelite nun. The 
rule prescribed to them by Albert, patriarch of Jerusalem, re- 
quired them, according to Dr. Murdock, to confine themselves 
to their cells except when at work, and to spend their time in 
prayer ; to have no private property ; to fast from the feast of 
the holy cross till Easter, except on Sundays ; to abstain en- 
tirely from eating flesh; to labor with their hands; and to 


observe total silence from vespers [about 4 P.M. or later] till 
the tierce of the next day [about 9 A.M.]. Their rule was con- 
siderably mitigated by Innocent IV. Having left Syria and 
come to Europe in 1229, they increased greatly in numbers 
and reputation. The reform in the order attempted by St. 
Theresa and St. John of the Cross in the 16th century, pro- 
duced a division into the mitigated or moderate Carmelites, 
and the strict Carmelites, called "discalced" or "barefooted," 
because they go with sandals only, the others wearing shoes 
or being " calced." The present number of Carmelite monks 
is estimated in the Statistical Year-Book of the Church at 4000. 
Rev. Charles Loyson, better known as Father Hyacinthe, the 
eloquent preacher at the church of Notre Dame in Paris, en- 
tered the order of barefooted Carmelites in 1859. The Car- 
melites, according to Bonanni, wear a garment, scapular and 
hood of a brown color, and a white cloak or mantle. A Car- 
melite convent exists at Cumberland, Md. The female branch 
of the order was founded in the 15th century. The nuns had 
a dress like that of the monks, except that the cloak was larger 
and they wore on their heads a black veil with a white one 
under it. There were, in 1858, 90 convents of Carmelite nuns, 
the number in each convent being limited to 21. One of these 
female convents of the strict rule, founded in the latter part of 
the 18th century in one of the lower counties of Maryland, has 
been established in Baltimore for years ; another has been more 
recently established in Missouri ; and there are 2 or 3 convents 
of the "3d order of Mount Carmel" in New Orleans, with 
schools connected. 

The Augustinian eremites (= hermits) or Augustinians or 
Austin friars must be carefully distinguished from the Augus- 
tinian canons already described. The order was formed by 
pope Alexander IV., who about 1256 required various exist- 
ing sorts of eremites to unite in one fraternity as the " Order 
of the Eremites of St. Augustine." Martin Luther was an 
Augustiuian monk. The habit of this order is described in 
Fosbroke's British Monachism thus : " In the house, a white 



tunic, and scapulary over it. In the choir or out of doors, a 
sleeved cowl [= gown with large loose sleeves] and large hood, 
both black; the hood round before, and hanging to the waist in 
a point, girt with a black leather thong." The accompanying 
cut is also from Fosbroke's British Monachism, and agrees with 
that in Bonanni's Catalogue of Religious Orders. There are 
about 100 convents of the order, Rome being the chief seat. 
Several branches, forming the "Discalced [= barefooted] Order 
of Eremites of St. Augustine," have a severer rule than the 
main body, and are under vicars-general, who are subordinate 
to the general of the whole order of the 
eremites of St. Augustine. There are 
several religious orders of females 
under the Augustinian rule. The 
Augustinians are not numerous in the 
United States. Under the " Augus- 
tinian House" in Lansingburg, N. Y., 
"Very Rev. Thomas Galbery, O.S.A.," 
is named in the Directory for 1870 as 
" Commissary-General," but the num- 
ber of monks is not given, though they 
are reported as in charge of 5 church- 
es in Lansingburg and its vicinity. . 
The Augustinians have churches also 
in Andover and Lawrence, Mass., and 
Philadelphia, Pa. The " Augustinian college of St. Thomas 
of Villanova," near Philadelphia, has a president and 17 pro- 
fessors and prefects, 7 of them priests, with 73 students. 

The "Order of Servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary," or "Ser- 
vites," founded in 1233 by 7 rich Florentine merchants, adopt- 
ed the rule of St. Augustine, and obtained from pope Martin 
V. the privileges of the mendicant orders. The order having 
become relaxed, it was re-established in 1593 in its original 
strictness as " Servites-Eremites." Father Paul Sarpi, author of 
the history of the council of Trent, was a Servite. In 1860, 
the male branch had, according to Appletons' Cyclopedia, 17 



houses in Italy, 13 in Germany, 3 in Hungary, and 1 in Swit- 
zerland. The Catholic Directory for 1871 reports also a con- 
vent on Doty Island, Winnebago Co., Wis., with a prior, 2 other 
priests, and a lay-brother ; also the pastor of St. Alphonsus' 
church in Philadelphia. The female branch never became 
numerous ; the tertiarians became numerous in Germany, <fcc. ; 
but neither the nuns nor tertiarians of this order appear to bo 
reported in this country. 

The " Sisters of Charity of the Order of St. Augustine," in 
charge of " St. Vincent's Male Orphan* Asylum," and " Charity 
Hospital," both at Cleveland, 0., have a mother-superior, 25 
religious, 10 novices, and 150 orphan boys. 

The " Order of our Lady of Mercy," commonly called " Sis- 
ters of Mercy," founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Miss 
Catharine McAuley, and approved by pope Pius VIII., after- 
wards adopted the rule of St. Augustine with some modifica- 
tions, which were approved by pope Gregory XVI. in 18C5, 
and formally confirmed by him in 1841. Says Appletons' Cy- 

" The Sisters of Mercy have in view, besides other charities, the 
visitation of the sick and prisoners, the instruction of poor girls, and 
the protection of virtuous women in distress. . . , The Sisters of Mercy 
are subject to the bishops, and have no general superior, each commu- 
nity being independent upon the rest of the order. The sisterhood is 
divided into 2 classes, choir sisters and lay sisters. The choir sisters 
are employed about the ordinary objects of the order, and the lay sis- 
ters about the domestic avocations of the convent and such other duties 
as may be assigned to them. Candidates for membership of either 
class undergo a preliminary ' postulancy for 6 months ; at the end of 
that time they assume the white veil and become novices. The novice- 
ship lasts 2 years. The vows which are taken for life, bind the mem- 
bers to poverty, chastity, obedience, and the service of the poor, sick, 
and ignorant. The habit of the order is a black robe with long loose 
sleeves, a white coif [= cap], and a white or black veil. In the streets 
a bonnet of black crape is woni instead of the coif and veil." 

The Sisters of Mercy spread rapidly from Dublin over Ire- 


land, the British Isles and British Colonies. Their first con- 
vent in the United States was established in 1843 at Pittsburg, 
Pa., where they now have their mother-house and novitiate 
for that diocese, also a hospital, house of mercy, and orphan 
asylum. Their academies in Pennsylvania are at Latrobe, 
Loretto,Harrisburg, Lebanon (?), and Philadelphia ; they num- 
ber about 200 sisters, novices, and postulants in their 13 or 14 
convents and houses in that State ; and teach in the diocese of 
Pittsburg alone 5000 children. In the diocese of Hartford, 
which embraces Connecticut and Rhode Island, they have 128 
sisters, novices, postulants and lay-sisters in 9 convents and 
houses (Providence 2, South Providence, Newport, Pawtucket, 
and Woonsocket, R. I.; Hartford, New Haven 2, Ct.), with 7 
academies undertheir charge, besides free and parochial schools, 
2 orphan asylums at Hartford, and 1 at South Providence, the 
whole containing apparently 6395 pupils. Since February 17, 
1868, the Hamilton School, one of the public schools in New 
Haven, has been conducted entirely by them, 11 now teaching 
nearly 500 children (probably included in the above number 
of pupils) at a cost to the city of $5600 according to the report 
for the year ending Sept. 1, 1870 (see Chap. XXIV.). The Sis- 
ters of Mercy now number probably over 900 in their 80 or more 
convents and houses in 21 different States (Me.,N. H., Mass., 
R. I., Ct., N. Y., Pa., Md., N. C., S. C., Ga., Mpi., La., Ark., 
Mo., Tenn., Ky., 111., Iowa, Neb., Cal.), with 39 academies 
(some of them on a large scale, as at Manchester, N. H., Prov- 
idence, R. I., Yicksburg, Mpi., <fcc.), 12 orphan asylums, and 
over 50 other schools (free, parish, or industrial), under their 
charge, containing in all probably from 20,000 to 25,000 pupils. 
They have hospitals at Worcester, Albany, Pittsburg (had 
2680 patients in 1 year), Chicago (cost $75,000), Louisville, 
Omaha, and San Francisco ; houses of mercy in New York, 
Pittsburg, and San Francisco ; a house of providence in Chi- 
cago; a magdalen asylum apparently near San Francisco. 
Those in Georgia are said in the Catholic Directory to be a 


branch of an order founded (in 1829) by the late Bishop Eng- 
land of Charleston, " where the nuns renew the vows of relig- 
ion every year, and live under a rule approved by the Bishop." 
There are 5 convents in the State, at Savannah, Augusta, Ma- 
con, Columbus, and Atlanta, containing somewhat over 30 sis- 
ters. Whether the 30 or 40 sisters in North and South Caro- 
lina belong to the same branch, or not, is not stated. 

The " Order of Nuns of the Visitation of the Blessed Vir- 
gin " was instituted in 1610 by St. Francis de Sales, bishop of 
Geneva in Switzerland, who is said, according to the Roman 
Breviary, to have converted to Catholicism 72,000 heretics, and, 
in consequence of miracles attributed to his dead body, was 
canonized by pope Alexander VII. His festival is held Jan- 
uary 29th. Madame de Chantal, a rich French widow and 
associate founder of the order, died in 1641, and was likewise 
canonized in 1767. The order was established under the rule 
of St. Augustine with additions by the founder. The Visita- 
tion nuns, according to Bonanni's Catalogue, "use a black 
garment, with a cloth, likewise black, which hangs from the 
head upon the shoulders. A linen veil extending to the breast 
surrounds the face. They carry, bound to the neck, a silver 
image of Christ fixed to the cross." The order increased to 
more than 30 convents before the founder's death in 1622, and 
to 150 with about 6600 members in 1700. Their first academy 
in this country was opened in Georgetown, D. C., in 1799, and 
they have now convents and academies in 9 different states, 
and in the District of Columbia. They are at Washington and 
Georgetown, D. C. ; Baltimore, Frederick, and Catonsville, 
Md. ; St. Louis, Mo. (64 in the community, and 107 boarders 
in the academy) ; Brooklyn (18 professed choir-sisters, 8 do- 
mestic sisters, 1 novice, and 135 pupils), and New Utrecht 
(10 choir-sisters, 7 lay-sisters, 1 novice, 2 postulants, and 40 
pupils), both on Long Island, N. Y. ; Maysville, Ky. (and ap- 
parently a boarding and day school at Frankfort, Ky.) ; Ottum- 
wa, Iowa (18 religious, and 125 pupils) ; Summerville, near 
Mobile, Ala. (80 pupils) ; Mount de Chantal, near Wheeling 



(45 professed sisters, 2 novices, 4 postulants, and 70 pupils), 
also at Parkersburg (8 professed sisters, 2 novices, 1 postulant, 
80 pupils) and Abingdon (6 professed sisters), the two first 
in West Virginia, and the last in S. "W. Virginia ; and at Wil- 
mington, Del. Tho nuns of this order number perhaps 250 in 
the United States ; and their 15 or 16 establishments for the 
education of young ladies are evidently designed to be of the 
first class among the religious orders. That near Wheeling, 
founded in 1848 and connected with the convent known as Mt. 
de Chantal, has a beautiful site. The buildings, represented 
in the cut, have a front of 250 feet, and are fitted to accom- 
modate 200 boarders ; and the grounds embrace 100 acres. 


The " Ursuline Nuns " are named from St. Ursula, said to 
have been a British princess who with 10,000 other virgins 
made a pilgrimage to Rome and on the return was massacred 
with them by the Huns at Cologne ; and were founded in 1537 
by St. Angela Merici at Brescia in Northern Italy. Originally 
they were an association of those who might live at their homes, 
and mixed freely with the world, but devoted themselves to the 
succor of poverty and of sickness and to the education of the 


young; but in 1604 the first house of Ursuline nuns under 
the rule of St. Augustine was founded at Paris by Madame de 
Sainte Beuve, and in 1633 pope Urban VIII. allowed them to 
take the usual monastic vows and to open schools for the gra- 
tuitous instruction of girls. After this they increased, espe- 
cially in France, Germany, and America. The Ursuline con- 
vent at Quebec was founded March 28, 1639. In 1715 there 
were more than 350 Ursuline convents in France. Bonanni 
gives their habit as a black garment girded with a black girdle, 
and for covering the head a very long black veil ; but some 
congregations of Ursulines vary from the regular habit in color 
and shape. According to Appletons' Cyclopedia, "All the Ur- 
suline convents are placed under the jurisdiction of the dio- 
cesan bishop, and their mutual coherence is so loose, that many 
convents do not even know to which of the numerous congre- 
gations they belong. . . . They are now mainly devoted to the 
instruction of girls." The same authority gives the number of 
their houses in 1860 as 534, of which 410 were in France, 2 in 
Canada, 15 in the United States, 7 in the British islands, 37 
in Germany, 21 in Belgium and Holland, 10 in Italy, &c. Ac- 
cording to the Catholic Directory for 1870 and 1871, they 
now have 18 or 19 convents, and academies at most of 
them, in 10 different States of the Union ; but full statistics 
are given for only a small part of them. Their establishments 
are at East Morrisania, N. Y. ; Cleveland, Toledo, Tiffin, and 
St. Martin's in Brown Co., 0. ; Alton and Springfield, 111. ; 
Marquctte, Mich. ; St. Louis, Mo. ; Louisville and Newport, 
Ky. ; Columbia, S. C. ; Tuscaloosa, Ala. ; New Orleans and 
Opelousas, La. ; Galveston, San Antonio, Laredo, and Hous- 
ton, Tex. They report parish or day schools at Morrisania, 
Galveston, San Antonio, Laredo, Louisville (4 parish schools 
with 1174 pupils), Newport (400 pupils), and Marquette ; and 
a hospital in Texas. The largest convents and academies re- 
ported are at Louisville (56 sisters, 150 pupils), Cleveland (48 
sisters, 13 novices, 50 boarders), St. Louis (53 in the commu- 
nity, 5 candidates, 80 boarders), East Morrisania (35 professed, 


15 novices, 2 postulants, and 100 pupils). They probably num- 
ber in this country nearly 500 professed sisters, novices, lay- 
Bisters, and postulants, and may have 4000 pupils under their 
charge. The Ursuline convent in Charlestown (now in Somer- 
ville), Mass., was burned by a mob, Aug. 11, 1834, and has 
never been rebuilt ; though several Protestant churches, which 
have been burned in Somerville by incendiaries, have been re- 
built within a few years, without any appeal for the legislative 
aid which has been repeatedly sought on account of the burn- 
ing of the convent. 

The " Alexian Brothers " should also be noticed here. They 
are named, according to Bonanni's Catalogue of Religious Or- 
ders, from St. Alexius who, leaving his wife the first night 
after his marriage, went abroad and served in a strangers' hos- 
pital at Edessa in Syria. They devoted themselves to burying 
the dead and taking care of the insane and of those who were 
sick with infectious diseases. Having existed without any 
regular rule or religious profession for more than 150 years, 
Pius II. in 1459 provided for their taking vows. They have 
the rule of St. Augustine, wear a black garment with a pallium 
(= cloak) extending a little below their knees, and cover the 
head with a round hood. They are mentioned by Bonanni as 
found in Brussels, Antwerp and elsewhere in Belgium and Ger- 
many. They are reported in the Catholic Directory as in 
charge of hospitals at St. Louis and Chicago. 

The " regular clerks," or regular clergy, constitute another 
branch of the religious orders, in addition to the monks proper, 
the canons, and the friars or mendicant orders. They take the 
vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in connection with 
some recognized order or association of priests, but differ from 
the regular canons in not being under vows of fasting, absti- 
nence, night watches and silence. The " regular clerks " 
aimed to restore the ancient virtue and sanctity of the clerical 
order, and originated in the 16th century, the " Theatins " in 
1524 being the first, the " Regular Clerks of St. Paul," com- 
monly called " Barnabites," following in 1533, the " Society 


of Jesus " or Jesuits (see Chapter IX.) in 1540, the " Piarists" 
or " Fathers of the Pious Schools " about 1597, &c. 

The order of St. Viateur (= St. Viator) is reported in the 
United States only at Bourbonnais Grove, Kankakee Co., 111., 
where the superior has charge of the French church of Notre 
Dame (=our Lady), and where also is St. Viateur's College 
with 200 pupils. The order is of French origin. It has a col- 
lege and novitiate at Joliette, and a college at Rigaud, both in 
the diocese of Montreal, Canada. 

Besides the 4 classes of religious orders, which have now 
been mentioned (monks proper, canons, friars, and regular 
clerks), there are numerous " congregations [= associations, 
or societies] of secular priests," who live in common, but are 
bound only by simple vows or by none at all. The rules of 
most of these, according to Appletons' Cyclopedia, are based 
upon that of the Jesuits, and they are mostly devoted to edu- 
cational or missionary purposes. Among these " congrega- 
tions " are the Oratorians, Passionists, Lazarists, Sulpicians, 
Brethren of the Christian Schools, <fec. 

The " congregations " known as " Oratorians," though not 
found in the United States, deserve a passing notice. The 
congregation known in Italy and England as the " Priests of 
the Oratory " was founded at Rome about the middle of the 
16th century by St. Philip Neri. who also established the sacred 
musical entertainments now known as oratorios, this name as 
well as that of the congregation being derived from the chapel 
(in Italian oratorio= a place of prayer) where they assembled 
for their religious exercises. They have flourished mostly in 
Italy ; but have establishments now in London and Birming- 
ham, England. The most distinguished Italian Oratorians 
have been St. Philip Neri and Cardinal Baronius, who suc- 
ceeded Neri as superior ; while John Henry Newman, D. D., and 
Frederic Wm. Faber, D. D., have been distinguished English 
members of the congregation. The French Oratorians, or the 
" Priests of the Oratory of Jesus," founded at Paris in 1611 
by abbe* (afterwards cardinal) Peter de Be'rulle, spread rapidly 


in France and elsewhere, and became distinguished for their 
many eminent scholars, as Thomassin, Malebranche, the elo- 
quent Massillon, &c. The French Oratorians were really in- 
stituted, it is said, to oppose the Jesuits. The French revolu- 
tion of 1789 put an end to their congregation as to other re- 
ligious associations ; but they were afterwards reorganized, and 
had in 1860 one establishment at Paris. 

The " Congregation of Discalced [= Barefooted] Clerks of 
the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Jesus Christ," usually 
called " Passionists," was instituted in Italy by Paul Francis 
Danei, who was canonized in 1867 as St. Paul of the Cross, 
and their rules were approved by the pope in 1741. They wear 


a black habit, on the left breast of which is the badge a heart 
surmounted by a cross, and inscribed, " Jesu XPi passio " 
( passion of Jesus Christ). The " fathers " or priests, who 
strictly constitute the " congregation," act as missionaries ; 
while the lay-brothers do the house-work, tailoring, shoemak- 
ing, carpenter-work, &c. The Passionists, according to Web- 
ster's Dictionary,'" unite the mortified life of the Trappists with 
the activity and zeal of the Jesuits andLazarists." They were 


introduced into the United States in 1855. They have 4 es- 
tablishments in this country. They have 8 or 9 priests, " with 
25 students, lay-brothers and novices," at " Blessed Paul's 
Monastery," Birmingham (near Pittsburg), Pa., where they 
have 2 churches. They have also at Carrollton (near 
Baltimore) a monastery, 7 priests, 6 students of philosophy, and 
5 lay-brothers, and a church ; a monastery with 9 priests, 6 
clerics, and 3 lay-brothers, and 2 churches at Dunkirk, N. Y. ; 
also a monastery, "St Michael's Retreat," at West Hoboken, 
N. J. (opposite New York City), of which a view, drawn and 
engraved by Mr. John W. Barber, is given in the cut on the 
preceding page. The officers, &c., of St. Michael's Retreat, are 
given in the Catholic Directory for 1871 as follows : 

" Very Rev. Father Albums Magno, Provincial ; Very Rev. Basil 
Keating, Local Superior ; Rev. Victor Carunchio, Vice-Superior ; Rev. 
Liberatus Bonelli, Rev. Thomas Stephanini, Rev. Timothy Pacitti, Rev. 
Vitalian Lilla, Rev. Thomas O'Connor, Rev. Eusebius Sotis, Rev. Vin- 
cent Nagler, Rev. Gabriel Flynn. There are 15 students of theology, 
and 7 lay-brothers. Applications for missions should be made to the 
provincial of the order during spring and summer, for the ensuing 
autumn and winter. The fathers attend 4 missionary stations and the 
Hudson county alms-house." 

The Lazarists, or " Priests of the Congregation of the Mis- 
sion," were founded at Paris in 1625 by St. Vincent de Paul, 
and approved in 1632 by pope Urban VIII. Their office is to 
itinerate through villages and country districts, to instruct ec- 
clesiastics in sacred rites and especially to train them in spirit- 
ual studies. They take some vows ; but their superior can re- 
lease them from these, whenever it may seem expedient to 
them. They are commonly called " Lazarists," because they 
had for their head-quarters the priory of St. Lazarus at Paris. 
They wear the common black dress of priests. Their present 
number is given in the Statistical Year-Book of the Church as 
2000. They are found in various countries of Europe, Asia, 
and America, also in Algeria and the Philippine Islands. They 
were introduced into the United States in 1817, and have occu- 


pied a prominent place among the Roman Catholic clergy. 
Five bishops (Timon and Ryan of Buffalo, Rosati of New Or- 
leans and St. Louis, de Neckere of New Orleans, and Amat of 
Monterey) have belonged to the Congregation of the Mission. 
Priests of this congregation have charge of churches in the 
states of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Louisiana, Miss- 
ouri, and Illinois ; and of the following colleges and seminaries : 
St. Vincent's Theological and Preparatory Seminary, at Cape 
Girardeau, Mo., with Yery Rev. A. Verina, C. M., Superior 
and President of the college, 8 or 9 other priests, and 90 stu- 
dents ; Ecclesiastical Seminary of our Lady of Angels, at Sus- 
pension Bridge, Niagara Co., N. Y., with a superior and 8 
other priests connected with it ; St. Vincent's College, at Los 
Angeles, Cal., with a superior and 4 other priests ; Mount St. 
Vincent's Scholasticate and Novitiate, at Germantown, Pa., 
with Very Rev. John Hayden, C. M., Visitor, 3 other priests, 
27 students and novices, and 4 lay-brothers ; and a new semi- 
nary and college in Brooklyn, N. Y., dedicated Sept. 4, 1870, 
and having a president and 4 other priests. 

Closely allied to the Congregation of the Mission, and likewise 
deriving their origin from St. Vincent de Paul, are the " Sisters of 
Charity," whom Mosheim calls the ** Daughters of Charity " or 
" Virgins of Love." They were founded near Paris about 1633, 
and placed at first under the charge of Madame Louisa le Gras, 
their object being, according to Appletons' Cyclopedia, " the care 
of the poor, especially of the sick, and the education of children. . . 
They make simple vows, which are renewed every year." They 
soon had the charge of prisons, free schools, hospitals, and 
alms-houses in all parts of France, and spread into other lands. 
They continued their work, though secretly, through the French 
revolution, and were placed by Napoleon under his mother's 
protection. In 1848 they numbered throughout the world, ac- 
cording to Appletons' Cyclopedia, more than 600 establish- 
ments and 12000 sisters. They were introduced into the 
United States in 1809 by Mrs. Eliza Ann Seton, who became 
their first mother-superior. In Sadliers' Catholic Directory for 


1870, the original establishment is reported as " St. Joseph's 
Sisterhood (Mother-House of the Sisters of Charity in the U. 
S.), Emmettsburg, Md. Mother Mary Euphemia Blenkinsop, 
Superior." " Very Rev. Francis Burlando, C. M.,"(r= Con- 
gregation of the Mission) is also reported as " Superior of the 
Sisters of Charity, U. S." The " Daughters of Charity, from 
St. Joseph's, Emmettsburg," who are reported in Louisiana 
(archdiocese of New Orleans), are of course " Sisters of Chari- 
ty ; " but whether the " Daughters of Charity," reported in 
the dioceses of Milwaukee and Monterey, are Sisters of Charity 
or Elizabethines (see Franciscans), does not fully appear. The 
Sisters of Charity in the United States seem to belong to 7 or 
8 distinct organizations, and probably number several thousands 
in all. Prof. A. J. Schem's " American Ecclesiastical Year- 
Book," published in 1860, mentions Mother Seton's " distinct 
rule, 1 followed in the dioceses of New York, Brooklyn, Newark, 
and Halifax "; and adds, " In 1850, the Sisters in the dioceses 
of Baltimore, Albany, New Orleans, &c., abandoned Mother Se- 
ton's rule, and united with the order in France." The Catho- 
lic Directory for 1871 gives the following statistics in connec- 
tion with the two Mother-Houses at Yonkers, N. Y., and Madi- 
son, N. J., which apparently embrace all in the United States 
who now follow Mother Seton's rule : 

" Mother- House of the Sisters of Charity, Font Hill, near Yonkers, 
Westchester Co., [N. Y.] Mother M. Jerome Ely, Superior. The 
community numbers at present 419 members, 344 professed, 67 novi- 
ces, 8 postulants. They direct 61 different establishments in New 
York, Jersey City, Brooklyn, New Haven, and Providence." 

Mount St. Vincent's Academy, at Font Hill, which has 280 
pupils, is represented with the Mother-House, &c., in the cut. 

1 Mother Seton's rule prescribes a black woolen habit (brown for novices), with 
a cape covering the waist, a white linen collar turned down over the cape, a black 
cambric cap covering the head and nearly concealing the face, a chaplet of beads 
suspended from the waist nearly to the feet and a large crucifix attached to it. The 
habit worn by those who adhere to St. Vincent's rule is of gray flannel, with a 
white linen " cornet " or horned cap on the head like the_wings of a dove. The 
two roles also differ in other particulars. 



Besides Mount St. Vincent's Academy, the Sisters of Charity 
have under their charge, in the archdiocese of New York alone, 
which embraces New York city, Staten Island, and 7 counties 


north of these, 50 schools of various sorts (academies, 
select and parochial schools, and 5 orphan asylums) containing 
more than 13000 children. In Brooklyn, they have an orphan 
asylum, academies and schools, with about 3500 pupils in all. 
For Jersey City and for New Haven no statistics are given ; but 
those in New Haven have charge of St. Francis' Orphan Asy- 
lum. At Providence, they have an academy with 50 pupils and 
a parochial school with 400. The Sisters of Charity have also 
under their charge, in New York city, St. Vincent's Hospital, 
St. Joseph's Home for Aged Women, and an asylum for found- 
lings ; and in Brooklyn, St. Mary's Female Hospital. 

The diocese of Newark reports a branch of the Sisters of 
Charity, with a mother-house, and 12 or more other houses in 
the state, a hospital, 4 or 5 asylums, 3 or 4 academies, besides 
parish and other schools ; but no general statistics are given, ex- 
cept the following : 


" Mother-House of the Sisters of Charity, Madison, N. J. Mother 
M. Xavier, Superioress. The community numbers about 150 members. 
Chaplain, Monsignor Seton, D. D., Prothonotary Apostolic." 

If now we bring together the Sisters of Charity already 
mentioned and all others that bear this name only without any 
additional title, together with the above-mentioned " Daugh- 
ters of Charity," we arrive at the following result: They 
number probably 1500, and have under their charge probably 
40,000 pupils ; they are established in 23 states and territo- 
ries (Mass., R. I., Ct., N. Y., N. J., Pa., Del., Md., Va., Ala., 
Mpi., La., Mo., 0., Mich., 111., Wis., Iowa, Kan., Col., N. Mex., 
Nev., Cal.), and in the District of Columbia: they have about 
50 asylums for orphans and infants, not far from 60 academies 
and schools, and about 35 hospitals in the various parts of the 
United States. Some of their establishments are on a large 
scale. Thus 3 orphan asylums in New York city contain 918 
inmates ; St. Mary's Orphan Asylum, near Madison, N. J., has 
240 ; St. Joseph's Academy at Emmettsburg, Md., has 32 
teachers, 145 sisters, and 118 pupils ; the Academy of Mt. St. 
Vincent near Yonkers, N. Y., has 280 pupils ; St. Elizabeth's 
Academy at Madison, N. J., has 100 ; St. Bridget's Female 
School in New York city has 961, and St. Mary's in N. Y. 911 
pupils ; the Charity Hospital at Buffalo has had about 1700 
patients in a year, and its average number is 300. 

But besides the " Sisters of Charity," simply so called, there 
are 4 other " congregations " and 1 " order," which have the 
same general objects as these Sisters of Charity ; but are dis- 
tinguished from them by some additions to the name, and by 
differences of connection and organization. They will now be 
briefly noticed. 

A Canadian organization is reported as " Sisters of Charity, 
commonly called Gray Nuns," who have their mother-house 
in Montreal, about 200 sisters belonging to it. Out of their 
24 houses subject to the mother-house, 2 are in the dio- 
cese of Boston, and 1 in that of Cleveland, in which dioceses 
they have 3 asylums for orphans and destitute children, with a 


hospital. " Gray Nuns " also have academies and schools 
with 1494 pupils in Plattsburg, Ogdensburg, Hudson, and 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Another Canadian organization, reported as " Sisters of 
Charity, commonly called Sisters of Providence,"* has its 
mother-house in Montreal, with 22 houses in Canada and the 
United States subject to it. They have 16 sisters in Vermont, 
in charge of an orphan asylum at Burlington, and schools 
there and at Winooski ; and 33 sisters, with a convent, hos- 
pital, academies, 2 orphan asylums, <fec., in Washington Ter- 

The " Sisters of Charity of the order of St. Augustine " 
have been already mentioned under the Augustinians. 

The" Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary" have 
apparently 7 convents in Iowa, one of them established at 
Dubuque in 1833 with a novitiate and mother-superior ; and 
are found also in Chicago, 111. They report in Iowa 118 pro- 
fessed sisters, 41 novices, and 12 postulants ; and have in Iowa 
and Illinois academies and schools with nearly 4000 pupils. 

The " Sisters of Charity of Nazareth " were founded in 
1812, and have their mother-house near Bardstown, Ky., 
number " about 200 members in the Society, with about 25 
novices," and conduct 15 academies and schools in Kentucky, 
one of which is Nazareth Academy, at the mother-house, with 
300 boarders. They have also in Louisville an orphan asylum 
and an infirmary. " Sisters of Nazareth " direct an academy 
and day school at Holly Springs, Mississippi. 

The Sulpicians, or " Priests of the Mission of St. Sulpice," 
are a congregation of priests founded, according to Appletons' 
Cyclopedia, in 1641, by Rev. J. J. Olier, pastor of the church 
of St. Sulpice in Paris, for the education of pious priests. 
They were distinguished for theological learning, and flourished 
in France down to the French revolution of 1789, having at 
that time 5 theological seminaries in Paris, 15 other diocesan 

* Two other American organizations, known as " Sisters of Providence " and 
" Oblate Sisters of Providence," are noticed in a subsequent part of this chapter. 


seminaries, and 12 "little" or preparatory seminaries. In 
1860 they had 19 seminaries in France and 2 in North Amer- 
ica (at Baltimore and Montreal), and numbered about 200 
priests. The " Theological Seminary of St. Sulpice and St. 
Mary's University, conducted by the ' Associated Professors 
of St. Mary's Seminary of Baltimore City,' " traces its origin 
back to 1790, and has now a superior (Very Rev. J. Paul 
Dubreul, D.D.), and 7 other priests, with 60 students. The 
" Great Seminary " in Montreal is under the direction of 6 
Sulpician priests, and has 100 seminarians ; and the College of 
Montreal, also under their charge, has a director and 10 
other priests, with 300 students. 

The Redemptorists, or " Congregation of the Most Holy 
Redeemer," often called " Liguorians," were founded in 1732 
by St. Alfonso (= Alphonsus) de Liguori (= Ligorio), an 
Italian ecclesiastic and theologian, on nearly the same basis 
with the Lazarists. Says Appletons' Cyclopedia : 

" The rule of the Redemptorists prescribes, besides the 3 usual 
monastic vows [of poverty, chastity, and obedience], a fourth, which 
obliges the members to accept outside of the order no dignity, office, 
or benefice, except upon an express order of the pope or the superior 
general, and not to leave the order unless by special permission of 
the pope. The principal sphere of action of this order has been the 
conducting of what is called a ' mission,' lasting 1, 2, and sometimes 
even more weeks, during which time the missionaries endeavor to pre- 
vail upon all the members of a church to devote their time principally 
to religious exercises and a thorough reformation of their lives." 

The Redemptorists are much like the Jesuits in their object 
and course, and have been proscribed with them in some Euro- 
pean countries. Their present number, according to the Sta- 
tistical Year-Book of the Church, is 2000. In 1860 they had, 
according to Appletons' Cyclopedia, 83 houses with about 1300 
members, in Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Holland, Brit- 
ish Isles, and the United States, their labors in this country, 
which began in 1841, being mostly among the Germans. Ac- 


cording to the Catholic Directory of 1871, they number 100 or 
more members in this country, about 90 of them priests, and 
have charge of 20 or more churches, mostly at important cen- 
ters, viz., New York (2), Rochester, Buffalo, and Elmira, N. Y. ; 
Philadelphia and Pittsburg, Pa. ; Baltimore (4), Annapolis, 
Ilchester, &c., Md. ; New Orleans (3), La. ; Chatawa, Pike 
Co., Mpi. ; Detroit, Mich. ; Chicago, 111. ; St. Louis, Mo. 
They are building a church in Boston ; and the corner stone of a 
new one in New York, which is expected to cost over $1,000,- 
000, was laid on Sunday, Sept. 4, 1870. They have 5 convents 
in Maryland, with a novitiate, and a house of studies, 27 or 28 
clerical members (including the provincial, "Very Rev. Joseph 
Helmproecht, C. SS. R."), 5 novices, 36 lay-brothers, and 50 
students, connected with them ; 2 houses in New York city, 
with 14 priests and 2 lay-brothers ; and houses in other cities, 
&c., usually with from 4 to 8 priests, besides lay-brothers, con- 
nected with each. 

The " Congregation of the Missionary Priests of St. Paul the 
Apostle," commonly called "Paulists," was established in New 
York city in 1858 by Rev. Isaac T. Hecker and several other 
priests, whom the pope allowed to leave the Redemptorists for 
the purpose of founding an independent organization for mis- 
sionary purposes, better suited to this country. This congre- 
gation reports now a house and church in New York, a su- 
perior (Very Rev. Isaac T. Hecker), 6 other priests, and 12 
students preparing for the priesthood. "Applications for mis- 
sions should be made to the superior during spring and summer 
for the ensuing autumn and winter." The Paulists are the 
originators of the Catholic Publication Society, of its monthly 
periodical, "The Catholic World," <fec., and occupy a very 
influential position. 

The " Congregation of the Missionary Oblates [= persons 
offered up, or devoted] of Mary Immaculate," usually called 
" Oblate Fathers," originated, according to Webster's Diction- 
ary, at Aix in France in 1815, and was introduced into Canada 
in 1841. They serve as missionaries among lumbermen, fron- 


tier settlers, Indians, the poor, imprisoned, &c. They are con- 
siderably numerous in Canada and other parts of British Amer- 
ica, having among them bishops, vicars-general, directors of 
colleges and theological seminaries, &c. The Catholic Direc- 
tory for 1871 reports about 30 of them in the United States, 
with superiors at Buffalo and Plattsburg, N. Y., a vicar-general 
at Brownsville, Texas, and churches at the above places, also at 
Lowell, Mass., churches or missions at several places in Northern 
New York, at over 30 points in Texas, at several places among 
the Indians in Washington Territory, and at Pembina, &c., in 
Dakota Territory. 

The "Fathers of the Society of Mary" are reported in the 
Catholic Directory for 1871 as having the direction of the Col- 
lege of Jefferson, St. Michael, La., and the charge of a church 
there. There are 11 priests, including the president and the 
pastor, 6 lay-brothers, and 100 boarders. 

The " Society of the Fathers of Mercy" numbers 3 priests 
in New York city, who have charge of St. Vincent de Paul's 
(French) church, and of "St. Louis' Select French Institute" 
with 7 lay-teachers. 

" The Brethren of the Christian Schools" were instituted at 
Rheims by the Abbe* de La Salle in 1679, to provide instruction 
for the poorer classes. They take the 3 monastic vows at first 
for 3 years only, and then, if they choose, for life. They live 
on the simplest fare. Their costume is a coarse black cassock, 
and a small collar or band about the neck for the house ; a 
hooded cloak and wide hat for out-door use. Priests may join 
the order, but no brother is to become a priest or study Latin 
under the age of 30. In some of their schools Latin and the 
higher mathematics are taught ; but elementary instruction is 
the main thing. According to Appletons' Cyclopedia, the order 
had, in 1856, 827 establishments, 6,666 brethren, 1500 schools, 
and 300,315 scholars. Of these France had about ; while 
Canada had 16 establishments, 133 brethren, 29 schools, and 
6449 scholars; and the United States had 12 establishments, 
132 brethren, 30 schools, and 5314 scholars. The " School 


Brethren" are reported in the "Statistical Year Book of the 
Church" as now numbering 16,000. The "Christian Broth- 
ers," who are numerous in Ireland, and have nearly the same 
rule and object as the "Brethren of the Christian Schools," 
form an independent order. Both these names are reported, 
in the Catholic Directory, from various dioceses in the United 
States ; but they are evidently used indiscriminately in some 
cases; and the statistics are eminently incomplete and un- 
satisfactory. Thus, in the archdiocese of Baltimore the 
"Brothers of the Christian Schools" are reported as having at 
Baltimore a community, academy, and parish school, and an 
academy at Ellicott's Mills, for which no numbers are given ; 
also, 6 schools (in Baltimore and Washington) with 1400 pupils, 
and 1 asylum (in Baltimore) with 72 orphans. In Hartford 
they have 8 brothers, an academy with 75 pupils, and a free 
school with 410 pupils. They are mentioned also in the re- 
ports for the dioceses of New Orleans, Chicago (also " Chris- 
tian Brothers" at the same places), Detroit, Newark, &c. The 
" Christian Brothers " have, in New York city, a " community" 
numbering 56, with " Brother Patrick, provincial of the Christian 
Brothers in the United States," a " college " with 250 students, 
an "institute" with 390 pupils, 2 "academies" with 250 pu- 
pils, and 13 parochial schools with 7043 pupils. They have 
colleges in the dioceses of St. Louis, San Francisco, Galveston, 
Philadelphia, Santa F6", and St. Joseph. They report also 
schools in most of these dioceses, as well as in those of Albany 
(12 orphan asylums, academies and other institutions, with 
61 brothers and 2728 pupils), Brooklyn, Buffalo, Rochester, 
Philadelphia (41 brothers and 3000 pupils), &c. Probably 
the number of brothers belonging to the two orders (if there 
are two here) and the number of their pupils in the United 
States are six times the corresponding numbers as given above 
for the "Brothers of the Christian Schools" for 1856. 

The " Brothers of the Christian Instruction of the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus and Mary," from Puy, France, are found in 

charge of an orphan asylum and farm with 150 orphan boys in 



the diocese of Louisville ; the ." Brothers of Christian Instruc- 
tion" are also reported as having establishments at Mobile 
and Indianapolis. These are possibly all the same congrega- 
tion with that founded at Puy in France in 1821 by Abbd Coin- 

The " Congregation of the Holy Cross " have establishments 
for both males and females at Notre Dame, St. Joseph's Co., 


Ind., where are their university, one of their numerous acade- 
mies, &c. The university, incorporated in 1844, has a presi- 
dent (Rev. W. Corby, C.S.C.), vice-president (Rev. A. Lcmon- 
nier, C.S.C.), prefect of discipline (Rev. D. J. Spillard, C.S.C.), 
30 professors and tutors, and 470 pupils, according to the 
Catholic Directory for 1871. In the "congregation" here are 


a Superior General (Very Rev. E. Sorin, C.S.C.), a Provincial 
(Rev. W. Corby, C.S.C., President of the University), and 11 
other priests, " besides 6 scholastics, 91 professed lay-brothers, 
52 novices, and 10 postulants, Josephites." * They have also 
"St. Joseph's Novitiate," with a "Master of Novices" and an- 
other priest as associate ; " St. Aloysius' Novitiate," with a 
"Master of Novices Salvatorists," and 3 others of the above 
priests, respectively styled " Socius (== associate), St. Joseph's 
Novitiate," "Master of Novices Josephites," and " Socim-" 
and the " Community of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, Con- 
vent, and Novitiate at St. Mary's of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion," the community numbering " 200 professed, 31 novices, 6 
postulants, engaged in the education of youth and works of 
mercy," with " Mother Mary Angela, Local and Provincial Su- 
perior." The members of this congregation, male and female, 
have the charge of schools, academies, and asylums, not only 
in the diocese of Fort Wayne, where are their head-quarters, 
but in the archdioceses of Baltimore, Cincinnati, and New Or- 
leans, and in the dioceses of Alton, Chicago, Dubuque, &c. 
Their head-quarters in Canada are at St. Laurent (near Mont- 
real), where are houses for both sexes, a college, academy, c. 

The " Xavierian Brothers," who established themselves in 
Louisville, Ky., in 1854, have 25 professed brothers, 18 novices, 
and 4 postulants, with 10 schools in Louisville, containing 
more than 8000 boys, and an industrial school for boys near 
Baltimore, Md. 

The " Brothers of the Sacred Heart " have academies, orphan 
asylums, and schools, with more than 600 boys under their care 
in Kentucky, Mississippi, and Louisiana. 

The " Christian Brothers of the Society of Mary," founded 
in France in 1816 by Abbe* Chanisnade and others, have a col- 
lege with 12 brothers and 250 pupils at San Antonio, Texas ; 
a boarding-school with 300 pupils at Nazareth, and " several 

1 The congregation is composed of 2 societies ; (I.) that of the priests, called 
" Salvatorists of the Holy Cross "; (2.) that of the brothers, called "Josephites of 
the Holy Cross." 


flourishing schools" at Cleveland, 0. ; and 750 pupils in 2 
schools at Rochester, N. Y. They have a provincial (Rev. J. 
N. Reinbolt) at their boarding-school, Nazareth, 0. The con- 
gregation had, in 1858, 1665 members and 336 houses, mostly 
in France. 

The "Congregation of the most Precious Blood" goes back 
in Ohio to 1844, and embraces, both males and females. " Very 
Rev. Andrew Kunkler, Provincial C.PP.S." resides at Minster, 
Auglaize Co., 0., where is the " Boarding-School of the Visi- 
tation, directed by the Sisters of the Precious Blood." The 
Sisters have 8 or 9 convents in Ohio and 1 in Indiana. The 
Seminary of the Congregation is at Carthagena, Mercer Co., 0., 
directed by 3 priests. 24 priests belonging to the congregation 
are reported at convents, stations, churches, <fec., in Ohio and 
Indiana. At Eureka, Cal., are 10 religious, with a superior 
who is pastor of the church. 

The "Ladies of the Sacred Heart" have about 20 convents 
in the United States, with academies and other schools under 
their direction. Appletons' Cyclopedia said in 1862 that there 
were 3 congregations of them, the oldest founded in 1800 by 
Mademoiselle Barat, with more than 200 establishments, of 
which 19 were in North America. The oldest of their estab- 
lishments in this country appears to be that at St. Charles, Mo., 
which was founded in 1818, and has now 11 teachers, 22 sis- 
ters, and 100 pupils. They have also convents and academies 
at St. Louis and St. Joseph, Mo. ; at St. Michael's, Grand Co- 
teau, and Natchitoches, La.; at New York (2), Albany, Ken- 
wood (near Albany), and Rochester, N. Y. ; Philadelphia and 
Torresdale, Pa. ; Detroit, Mich. ; Chicago, 111. ; also parochial 
schools at several of these places, and an orphan asylum at St. 
Louis. They have likewise a convent at St. Mary's Mission in 
Kansas, where they conduct the female department of the Pota- 
watamie Indian Manual Labor School. At St. Louis, they 
have 52 in their community, with 140 pupils in their academy 
and 140 in the parish school ; at Chicago, also 52, with 135 
pupils in their seminary and 853 girls in a parish school; in 


New York, 420 pupils in their 2 academies and 996 in 3 parish 
schools ; at Kenwood, their provincial (Madame A. Hardy) 
and novitiate, with 38 in the community, 150 pupils in the 
academy; at St. Michael's, La., 45 to 50 religious, 150 board- 
ers, with " some orphans and day-scholars." The " Ladies 
of the Sacred Heart" probably number 400, and have under 
their charge 4000 or 5000 pupils, without including the 30 
"Ladies of the Sacred Heart of Mary" at Cleveland, 0., with 
their orphan asylum and 160 orphans, or others of this name 
with schools at Sandusky City, 0. 

The " Sisters of St. Joseph " also, according to Appletons* 
Cyclopedia, are divided into several congregations, having in 
all 600 establishments and more than 5000 members. They 
are established at from 40 to 50 different places in the United 
States, in charge of numerous academies and schools and or- 
phan asylums ; they must number at least 600 (including novi- 
ces and postulants) in their communities, and direct the educa- 
tion of more than 20,000 children and youth. Their " mother-, 
house and academy," founded at Carondelet, Mo., in 1840, now 
reports 66 in the community and 125 pupils. They are found 
at Carondelet, St. Genevieve, St. Louis, and Hannibal (?), Mo. ; 
at New Orleans, La. ; at Waterloo, Brussels, Bloomington, Peo- 
ria, and Chicago, 111. ; at St. Paul, St. Anthony, Mendota, and 
Minneapolis, Minn.; at Hancock, Sault-Sainte-Marie, and 
L'Anse (Indian), in N. W. Michigan; at Albany, Troy, Co- 
hoes, Salina, Saratoga Springs, Binghamton, Oswego, Dunkirk, 
Cold Springs (in the western part of the State, the seat of a 
convent and novitiate), Buffalo, Rochester, Canandaigua, Brook- 
lyn, and Flushing, N. Y. ; at Erie, Meadville, McSherrystown (?) , 
Philadelphia, Germantown, and Pottsville, Pa. ; at Wheeling 
(mother-house), Charleston, and Grafton, W. Ya. ; at Savan- 
nah, Ga. ; and at St. Augustine, Jacksonville, and Mandarin, 
Fla. They have at St. Louis a deaf and dumb asylum, 2 or- 
phan asylums and a half-orphan asylum, with 575 inmates in 
the 3 last institutions ; a deaf and dumb asylum at Buffalo ; a 
hospital and an orphan asylum at St. Paul, and also at Wheel- 


ing; 2 orphan asylums at Philadelphia, and 2 at Rochester; 
orphan asylums also at Chicago, Brooklyn, Buffalo (in part), 
Dunkirk, Canandaigua, and Erie ; and a widows' asylum at 
Philadelphia. According to the Catholic Directory for 1870 
and 1871, Sisters of St. Joseph, lately obtained from France, 
have opened schools for colored children in Savannah and in 
St. Augustine " with great success, the colored children, boys 
and girls, under their charge giving most satisfactory and en- 
couraging marks of social and moral improvement. The only 
thing to be regretted in this matter is the small number of sis- 
ters with regard to the colored population, and the great ex- 
pense which attends the support of those schools." The Direc- 
tory also mentions 50 pupils "in schools for colored pupils" at 
St. Genevieve. 

The " Sisters of the Congregation of Our Lady " (= Notre 
Dame, in French), who have their head-quarters in Montreal, 
number 431 professed sisters, 80 novices and postulants, and 
13,337 pupils in the boarding schools, academies, and free 
schools, which they direct principally in Canada and British 
America. The only establishments in this country known to 
be connected with that at Montreal are the " Convent and 
Academy of the Ladies of the Congregation of Notre Dame," 
at Portland, Me., which reports 14 religious and 90 pupils, 
also 840 pupils in 2 parochial schools, of which the ladies have 
charge; and St. Joseph's convent at Cambridgeport, Mass., 
with 7 sisters, who have charge of schools with 375 pupils. 
Other establishments, however, as those at Waterbury, Ct., 
and Bourbonnais Grove, 111., may also belong to this congre- 
gation. The Catholic Almanac, under January 12th, says : 
" Margaret Bourgeoys, founder of the Sisters of the Congrega- 
tion, died at Montreal, 1706." 

There are, however, in the United States many others who 
are styled in the Catholic Directory of 1871 " Sisters of Notre 
Dame," or " School-Sisters of Notre Dame," or " Poor School 
Sisters of Notre Dame," possibly all belonging with those who 
are thus reported from Milwaukee : " Convent of the School- 


Sisters of Notre Dame, Mother House and Novitiate, corner of 
Milwaukee and Knapp streets, Sister Mary Caroline, Superior- 
ess. Religious, 65 ; novices, 88 ; postulants, 80 ; mission 
bouses, 78 : with 620 sisters having under their charge, through- 
out the United States, 27,900 parish school children, over 1375 
orphans, 640 boarders." 

The establishments named in the Catholic Directory for 1871 
as belonging to the " School Sisters of Notre Dame " are in 
Baltimore and Annapolis, Md. ; Philadelphia, Tacony, and Al- 
legheny City, Pa. ; Chicago, 111. ; Milwaukee, and Elm Grove, 
and 12 other places, Wis. To these the Directory for 1870 
added Rochester, N. Y., and Pittsburg, Pa. The " Poor School 
Sisters of Notre Dame " are reported only at Quincy and Belle- 
ville in the diocese of Alton ; while the " Sisters of Notre 
Dame" are reported in that diocese at Quincy, Belleville, 
Highland, St. Liborius, Shoal Creek Station, Springfield, and 
Teutopolis, 111. The " Sisters of Notre Dame," or the " Sisters 
of the Congregation," are reported at Boston (including East 
and South Boston and Boston Highlands), Lowell, Salem, Law- 
rence, Chicopee, and Holyoke, Mass. ; Waterbury, Ct. ; New 
York city, Rochester, and Buffalo, N. Y. ; Newark, N. J. ; 
Philadelphia and Pittsburg, Pa. ; Cincinnati, and Columbus, 
0. ; Louisville, Ky. ; Detroit, Mich. ; Green Bay, Wis. ; Man- 
kato and Hokah, Min. ; West Point, Iowa ; Chicago, Henry, 
and Bourbonnais Grove, 111. ; St. Louis, Mo. ; New Orleans, 
La. ; San Francisco, Pueblo of San Jose", and Marysville, Cal. 

The " Sisters of Loretto," or " Daughters of our Lady of 
Sorrows," were founded in Kentucky in 1812. Their mother- 
house is at Loretto, Marion Co., Ky. They have " about 250 
members in the society, with 30 novices." They conduct 
academies and schools at Loretto, Lebanon, Elizabethtown, 
Portland, and Curdsville, Ky. ; Cape Girardeau, Edina, and 
Florissant, Mo. ; Cairo and Chicago, 111. ; Osage Indian Mis- 
sion, Kan.; Santa F6, Taos, Mora, and Albuquerque, New 
Mexico ; and Denver, Colorado ; but the statistics of these 
are given in only a few instances. 


The " Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary," whose 
head-quarters are at Longueil, near Montreal, have in Canada 
14 houses with 2263 pupils, and in the United States 10 houses 
with 1 946 pupils. There are, according to the Catholic Direc- 
tory for 1870 and 1871, 39 sisters of this community at Port- 
land, &c., in Oregon, and others at Oakland, Cal., connected 
with convents, academies, and schools ; but exact statistics are 
wanting. Possibly the establishments at Rome and Scheneo 
tady, N. Y., reported as of " Sisters of Jesus and Mary," be- 
long to this community. 

The " Sisters of St. Ann," whose head-quarters are at La- 
chine, also in Canada, report 127 sisters and 7 novices. They 
have, according to the Catholic Directory, 12 houses in the 
diocese of Montreal with 1480 pupils, and 4 in the United 
States and British America with 350 pupils. They are re- 
ported in the United States only at Oswego, N. Y., where 4 of 
them have charge of " St. Paul's Select and Parochial school." 

A " Community of the Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ " is 
reported at Hesse Cassel, Allen Co., Ind., numbering 16. 
" These sisters come from Dermbach, in Nassau. Their object 
is to teach, take charge of hospitals, orphan asylums, and 
works of charity in general." They have charge of St. Jo- 
seph's Hospital at Fort Wayne, Ind. 

The " Sisters of our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd" 
were instituted and approved by the Holy See in 1835, and in- 
troduced into the United States in 1849. " The Sisters of our 
Lady of the Good Shepherd," and " Sisters of the Good Shep- 
herd," and "Religious of the Good Shepherd," are apparently 
the same " congregation," which, under one or another of these 
names, is reported from 14 establishments in 9 states. These 
are in New York, Buffalo, and Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 2 in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; Baltimore, Md. ; New Orleans, La. ; Cincinnati, 
Cleveland, and Franklin (near Columbus), 0. ; Louisville, Ky; 
St. Louis, Mo. ; Chicago, 111. ; St. Paul, Min. They have mag- 
dalen asylums for women who desire to abandon a vicious life 
reform; industrial schools for reclaiming young truant 


girls ; protectories for young girls ; reformatories for girls ; 
and parochial schools. The " Convent of the Good Shep- 
herd," in New York, reports 40 professed sisters, 33 nov- 
ices, 6 postulants, and 10 lay-sisters ; and the " House of the 
Good Shepherd," under their charge, has 546 penitents. As 8 
or 10 other establishments report 162 in their respective com- 
munities and (apparently) 916 penitents, magdalens, and other 
inmates of their asylums and schools, the whole number of 
those who take or desire to take the vows is probably 350 to 
400, with 2500 or more penitents and girls under their charge. 
The " 3d Order of St. Teresa, composed of reformed penitents, 
who remain for life," and reported in New York and St. Louis, 
appears to be under the supervision and patronage of this com- 
munity, and is probably somewhat analogous to the 3d orders 
of Franciscans, Carmelites, <fec. 

The " Little Sisters of the Poor " have been called the most 
numerous and popular of the congregations that bind them- 
selves to the service of the sick and poor. They have asylums 
for old men and women in New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, and New Orleans ; and their convents or houses are 
also found in Cleveland and Cincinnati ; but their establish- 
ments in this country are of recent origin, and the statistics 
are meager. It may be supposed that they number 60 or 70, 
and have in their asylums from 300 to 400 aged persons. 

The " Sister-servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary " 
have their mother-house and novitiate at Monroe, Mich. Here 
are also a boarding and day school, parish school, and orphan 
asylum under their charge. They have in all their convents 
and houses taken together 61 professed members, 17 novices, 
12 mission-houses, and 2124 pupils. Their establishments are 
at Monroe, Detroit (several), Adrian, Westphalia, Ann Arbor, 
East Saginaw, and Stony Creek, Mich. ; Painesville, 0. ; and 
probably Buffalo, N. Y., where " Ladies of the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary " are reported. 

In Pennsylvania is another congregation called " Sisters, 
Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary," who report 81 


sisters and 1990 pupils at 4 establishments in and near Phila- 
delphia (Reading, Philadelphia, Manayunk, and Frankford), 
and have likewise convents and academies at Pittston and 
Susquehannah Depot, Pa. They probably number in all 100 
sisters and 2200 or 2300 pupils. 

There is a " Convent of the Sisters of the Humility of 
Mary " at New Bedford, Pa., which has 18 sisters, 8 pupils, 
and 20 orphans ; and there are " communities of the same sis- 
ters at Newburg, Louisville, and Harrisburg, 0., for the. di- 
rection of the schools ; " but no further facts respecting them 
are reported in the Catholic Directory. 

Academies at Lockport and Elmira, N. Y., and a parochial 
school at Lockport, are credited in the Catholic Directory to 
the " Sisters of St. Mary," without further explanation. 

" Daughters of the Cross " have been for nearly 20 years in 
the diocese of Natchitoches, La. They have a convent and 
novitiate at Avoyelles ; and academies and other schools at 
Cocoville, Marksville, Fairfield, Shreveport, Monroe, and He 
Brevelle, all in that diocese. 

The " Sisters (or " Society ") of the Holy Child Jesus " 
have a convent and academy at Sharon, Delaware Co., Pa.; 
also 2 academies and parochial schools in Philadelphia, with a 
total of 705 pupils in the 5 institutions. 

The " Sisters of the Incarnate "Word " are reported only in 
Texas. They are established at Brownsville, Victoria, and 
Houston ; number 32 sisters ; and have about 260 pupils at 
Brownsville and Victoria. 

There are 2 religious organizations among the colored peo- 
ple. The " Oblate Sisters of Providence," founded in Balti- 
more, June 5, 1825, have a convent and orphan asylum for col- 
ored girls in Baltimore ; a convent and academy in Philadel- 
phia ; an asylum, academy, boarding and day school in New 
Orleans. They have probably about 200 girls under their 
charge. There are also " Sisters of Providence " in Texas, at 
Castroville, Corpus Christi, Houston, and Austin ; but of what 
color or organization can not be determined from the Catholic 


The " Sisters of the Holy Family," another organization of 
colored people, have a school for colored girls in New Orleans, 
and " also prepare a great number of Catholic colored girls for 
their first communion." 

The " Sisters of Providence," different from those already 
mentioned by this name, have an institute and mother-house, 
called " St. Mary's of the Woods," near Terre Haute, Ind. 
Their ecclesiastical superior is Very Rev. J. Corbe, Vicar Gen. 
eral of the diocese of Vincennes ; their " mother superior " is 
" Sister Anastasia." The " Sisters of Providence," says the 
Catholic Directory, " conduct schools of both grades, common 
and high ; they have charge of the orphan asylums of the dio- 
cese, attend invalids in infirmaries, and also visit them at their 
homes." They appear to be established only in the two dioceses 
of the state of Indiana. They have an extensive academic in- 
stitute at their mother-house, other academies or schools at 
Vincennes, Fort Wayne, Lafayette, Indianapolis, Madi- 
son, North Madison, Aurora, Evansville, Washington, New 
Albany, Jasper, Loogootee, Terre Haute, Richmond, and Jef- 
fersonville ; 2 orphan asylums at Vincennes, and an infirmary 
at Indianapolis. No statistics are given of them. The Ameri- 
can Ecclesiastical Year Book, by Prof. A. J. Schem, has this 
notice : " Sisters of Providence of the Holy Childhood of 
Jesus, introduced into the United States in 1839 : in Indiana." 

The " St. Agnes Community " were reported in the Catho- 
lic Directory for 1870 as numbering 57 (sisters, novices and pos- 
tulants), and as having at Barton, Washington Co., Wis., a 
mother-house with an academy and boarding-school ; but the 
Directory for 1871 omits all mention of their establishment at 
Barton ; gives no report of their present condition beyond men- 
tioning the 13 places in Wisconsin where they conduct schools ; 
and removes the community, with their superioress, academy 
and boarding-school, to Fond du Lac, Wis. 

The " Soeurs Hospitalieres " (=Hospital Sisters) have the 
direction of an orphan asylum and of an infirmary, both at 
Galveston t Texas. They appear to number 14 in all. 


There are in San Francisco 2 " Presentation Convents," with 
28 sisters, 11 novices, 12 postulants, and 1800 pupils in their 
schools ; but whether these Sisters belong to the " Congrega- 
tion of the Presentation of the Blessed Mary," or to some other, 
is not stated. 

The lack of completeness and definiteness in titles, state- 
ments, and statistics, renders it impossible to present a syste- 
matic and correct view of the members and operations of the 
religious orders and congregations in our country. Some 
schools and charitable establishments, which are evidently un- 
der the direction of members of a religious organization, either 
cannot be assigned with certainty where they belong, or must 
be altogether omitted iii the attempt to systematize the whole. 
Some dioceses, as, for example, in Ohio, which have more 
than 35000 children in their parish schools, neglect to men- 
tion who conduct these schools, though in other dioceses scarce- 
ly a parish school is named which is not under the charge of 
some religious order or congregation. In some cases a 
particular institution is named twice in the same report, 
perhaps with details which are evidently conjectural, and 
inconsistent with one another or with other statements. 
It is very certain that Roman Catholic statistics in this coun- 
try, and statistics in respect to Roman Catholics, are not 

There are enumerated in this chapter about 30 religious or- 
ders and congregations for men, and about 50 for women, the 
whole numbering in this country, as nearly as can be ascer- 
tained, more than 2500 males (including the Jesuits), and more 
than 8000 females, and having under their care considerably 
more than 200,000 children and youth in the process of edu- 
cation. More than one-half of the males are priests, and more 
than 300 are Jesuits. Little notice has been taken of the many 
religious orders and congregations that have no representatives 
in this country. 

The whole number of monastic institutions in the Roman 
Catholic church throughout the world was estimated in Apple- 


tons' Cyclopedia as follows, for 1860: " Male orders and congrega- 
tions 83, with about 7065 establishments, and 100,000 members ; 
female orders and congregations 94, with 9247 houses, and a 
little more than 100,000 member's." But a later authority, the 
" Statistical Year-Book of the Church," published at Ratisbon, 
in Southern Germany, in 1862 by a Carmelite monk, and quoted 
in the Catholic Almanac for 1870, gives more complete statis- 
tics, and estimates the whole number of male monasteries and 
establishments at 8000 with an aggregate of 117,500 mem- 
bers ; and the whole number of female monasteries and estab- 
lishments at 10,000, with an aggregate membership of 189 r 

Many monastic orders have become extinct ; as, for example, 
the military orders, which originated during the crusades for 
the recovery of the Holy Land from the Mohammedans, and 
filled a large place in the ecclesiastical and political history of 
Europe after the llth century. Among these were the Knights 
Hospitalers, also known as the Knights of St. John, or of Rhodes, 
or of Malta, who held Malta till 1798 ; the Knights Templars, 
who were exterminated after their condemnation by the coun- 
cil of Vienne in 1311 ; and the Teutonic Knights, who ceased 
to exist at the Reformation in the 16th century. 

The monastic constitution, as it now exists, is, in most cases, 
an absolute monarchy. The " general " of the Franciscans, 
Dominicans, &c., resides at Rome, and is subordinate only to 
the pope. Subordinate to the general are the " provincials " 
or heads of the " provinces," which are the large territorial 
divisions of the convents or members of an order. In most 
orders, the " superior " or other head of a convent is elected 
by the members of the convent ; the superiors in a province 
elect the provincial ; and the provincials, assembled in a general 
" chapter " or convention, elect their general. Among the 
Jesuits, however, and some other orders, the general appoints 
the provincials and superiors. A " priory " is a convent whose 
head is styled a " prior " or " prioress," as the Benedictine 
" priory " at Erie, Pa. An " abbey " is a convent whose head 


is styled an " abbot " or " abbess." The head of an abbey 
is a " mitred abbot," when he has the rank of a bishop, as 
the Benedictine abbot at Latrobe, Pa., or the Trappist abbot at 
New Haven, Ky. " St. Vincent's Abbey " at Latrobe, Pa., has 
2 " priories " attached to it (at Carrolltown and Butler), and 
several " houses " (at Pittsburg, Greensburg, Indiana, and 
Johnstown, Pa.). A convent is also sometimes styled a " re- 
treat " or" house of retreat," as " St. Michael's Retreat " (Pas- 
sionist, at West Hoboken, N. J.), and " St. Ignatius' House of 
Retreat" (Jesuit, at Fordham, N. Y.). "Monastery" is 
applied usually to a convent for male recluses, or monks, some- 
times to one for females or nuns, " nunnery " being a more 
definite term for the latter. 

That great evils have been connected with the monastic sys- 
tem is affirmed unanimously by Protestant writers and by most 
Roman Catholics also. It is undeniable that the regulation or 
reformation of convents and monastic orders has largely occu- 
pied the time and attention of general and other councils, and 
that convents and monastic orders have often been suppressed 
in Roman Catholic countries as either useless or injurious. 

In 1490 pope Innocent VIII. issued a bull, setting forth the 
reprobate lives led by all the English monastic orders, direct- 
ing archbishop Morton to admonish the heads of all the con- 
vents in his province to reform themselves and those under 
them^ and giving him authority to enforce his admonitions 
upon them. And archbishop Morton, in a letter to the abbot 
of St. Alban's, describes the monks of that abbey as notoriously 
guilty, not only of libertinism in all its forms, but of almost 
every other kind of enormity. Cardinal Wolsey, who was 
papal legate in England as well as the powerful minister of 
king Henry VIII., obtained from the pope in 1524 bulls sup- 
pressing many convents on the ground of the great wicked- 
ness that prevailed in them, and used their revenues for the 
building and endowment of what is now Christ Church College 
at Oxford. Wolsey was the first who set the example of re- 
forming convents by converting their revenues to different 


purposes. The subsequent suppression of all the smaller con- 
vents in England was authorized by a bull of pope Clement 
VII., November 12, 1528, empowering the legates Wolsey and 
Campeggio to unite to other monasteries all those containing 
less than 12 inmates. Says the impartial Hallam, in his Con- 
stitutional History of England : 

** No one fact can be better supported by current opinion, and that 
general testimony which carries conviction, than the relaxed and vicious 
state of those foundations for many ages before their fall. Ecclesias- 
tical writers had not then learned, as they have since, the trick of sup- 
pressing what might excite odium against their church, but speak out 
boldly and bitterly." 

Other Roman Catholic as well as Protestant countries have 
followed the example of England in the suppression of con- 
vents. The Roman Catholic emperor of Germany, Joseph 
II., in 1781, subjected the monastic fraternities in his domin- 
ions to diocesan jurisdiction, and suppressed all convents not 
employed in education, in pastoral duties, or in nursing the 
sick. The French revolution in 1790 swept away the religious 
orders in France, and endangered their existence throughout 
Europe ; but after 1814 they revived again. Convents were 
almost entirely suppressed in Portugal in 1834 and in Spain- 
in 1835. Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia (except in Polish 
provinces), Greece, Switzerland, and Protestant states of Ger- 
many, have also at different times prohibited the existence of 
monasteries or nunneries in their territories. By a law of 
the Sardinian government, passed in 1855, the property of 
2099 monasteries and nunneries was confiscated and sold, and 
the proceeds were invested for a common school fund ; and by 
a law of the Italian parliament, passed in June, 1866, all the 
convents in Italy were closed, and their property was confis- 
cated for the use of the government. 

That persons who desired to leave convents have been de- 
tained in them, is affirmed by many and is generally believed. 
" Miss Bunkley's Book " narrates the particulars of her escape, 


in November, 1854, from the Mother-house of the Sisters of 
Charity at Einmettsburg, Md. Miss Mary Ann Smith of 
Newark, N. J., a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
but of a Roman Catholic family, was confined by her father's 
authority in St. Mary's Convent, South Orange, N. J., and sub- 
sequently in the House of the Good Shepherd, New York city, 
from which latter institution she escaped in the early part of 
1870. John Evangelist Borzinski, formerly a physician in the 
convent of the Brothers of Mercy at Prague in Bohemia (Aus- 
tria), having left the convent and joined a Protestant church 
in Prussia, in January, 1855, was arrested in March at his 
father's house in Prosnitz, Bohemia, and imprisoned first in a 
convent at Prosnitz, and afterwards in the convent of the 
Brothers of Mercy at Prague, whence he escaped to Prussia in 
October following. Ubaldus Borzinski, brother of this last, 
and a member of the same order, addressed to pope Pius IX., 
in November, 1854, an earnest petition, particularizing 37 in- 
stances of flagrant immorality and crime committed mostly by 
officials of his order during 10 or 12 years previous, and en- 
treating the pope to use his authority for the correction of 
such abuses ; but, for sending this petition, Ubaldus Borzinski 
was long imprisoned in a part of the convent used as a mad- 
house. These, and many other cases that might be mentioned, 
show certainly that convents may be places of imprisonment. 
It has been proposed both in America and in England to subject 
all convents to legislative visitation for the release of those 
unwillingly detained in them and for the prevention or removal 
of other abuses ; but Roman Catholics persistently oppose all 
interference of this sort. 

Dr. De Sanctis, who for many years occupied a high official 
position at Rome, describes 3 classes of those who become 
nuns : (1.) Young girls, who become interested in religion 
and, blindly following the path of piety, believe the priest's 
declamations against conjugal love and domestic affection as 
unholy and tending to eradicate the love of Christ ; (2.) Those 
who, failing to captivate the regard of men, are yet conscious 


of an irresistible need of loving some object, and therefore 
seek to be loved, as they say, by the Lord Jesus Christ, who is 
represented as a young man of marvelous beauty and most 
winning look, with a heart shining with love, and seen trans- 
parent in his breast; (3.) Those who, being educated from 
childhood in the nunnery, remain there, and become nuns 
without knowing why, and give up with alacrity a world which 
they have never seen. Dr. De Sanctis alludes to some cases 
of notorious immorality, and says : 

" As a general thing, however, the convent (so far as Rome is con- 
cerned) is neither, on the one hand, a terrestrial paradise inhabited by 
angels, nor, on the other hand, is it generally a place of open and 
shameless vice." 

In regard to health, Dr. De Sanctis divides the convents of 
Rome into 2 classes : (1.) Those in which the inmates have 
no other occupation besides prayer ; (2.) Those in which 
they are employed in instructing the young. Of nuns in the 
former class of convents Dr. De Sanctis writes : 

" They go without necessary food ; they wear hair-cloth when na- 
ture demands restoratives ; they refuse themselves remedies which 
would arrest disease, and this from a false modesty which forbids the 
communicating of their ailments to the physician. Many have I known 
to die of such procedure. You will call these nuns poor victims of de- 
lusion ; the world will call them mad ; but in the dictionary of the con- 
vent they are termed ' holy martyrs of sacred^odesty.' " 

In this class of convents are some where the rigor of disci- 
pline treads under foot the most sacred laws of nature, as the 
convent of the Vive Sepolte (=buried alive), of which Dr. De 
Sanctis thus speaks : 

" When a youth I resided in the neighborhood of this convent, and I 
remember that one day the pope, Leo XII., made an unexpected visit 
to the institution. It excited much curiosity in the quarter to know 
the occasion of this visit, which was as follows : A woman had an only 
daughter who had taken the veil in that convent Left a widow, she 


came often to the institution, and with a mother's tears besought that 
she might be allowed, if not to see, at least to hear the voice of her 
daughter. What request more just and more sacred from a mother ? 
But what is there of sacredness and justice that fanaticism does not cor- 
rupt ? The daughter sent word by the confessor to her mother that, 
if she did not cease to importune her, she would refuse to speak to her 
even on the day [once a year] when she would be allowed to do so 
That day at length arrived ; the widowed mother was the first to pre- 
sent herself at the door of the convent, and she was told that she could 
not see her daughter. In despair she asked, Why ? No answer. Was 
she sick ? No reply. Was she dead ? Not a word. The miserable 
mother conjectured that her daughter was dead. She ran to the superi- 
ors to obtain at least the privilege of seeing her corpse, but their hearts 
were of iron. She went to the pope : a mother's tears touched the 
breast of Leo XII., and he promised her that on the following morning 
he would be at the convent and ascertain the fact. He did so, unex- 
pectedly to all. Those doors, which were accustomed to open only for 
the admittance of a fresh victim, opened that day to the head of the 
church of Rome. Seeing the wretched mother who was the occasion of 
this visit, he called her to him, and ordered her to follow him into the 
nunnery. The daughter, who, by an excess of barbarous fanaticism, 
thought to please Heaven by a violation of the holiest laws of nature, 
concealed herself upon hearing that her mother had entered the con- 
vent. The pope called together in a hall the entire sisterhood, and 
commanded them to lift the veils from their faces. The mother's heart 
throbbed with vehemence ; she looked anxiously from face to face once 
and again, but her daughter was not there. She believed now that 
she was dead, and, with a piercing ciy, fell down in a swoon. While 
she was reviving, the pope peremptorily asked the Mother Superior 
whether the daughter was dead or alive. She replied, at length, that 
she was yet living, but having vowed to God that she would eradicate 
every carnal affection from her breast, she was unwilling even to see 
her mother again. It was not until the pope ordered her appearance, in 
virtue of the obedience due to him, and upon pain of mortal sin, that 
the nun came forth. This outrage upon human nature [see Rom. 1. 
31 and Mark 7 : 11-13], which might have resulted in parricide, is de- 
nominated in the vocabulary of monasticism ' virtue in heroic de- 
gree ? '" 


The case of Miss Saurin and the Sisters of Mercy at Hull, 
Eng., called the " Hull convent trial," excited much interest 
in England in 1869. Said the London Times on the occasion of 
this trial : 

" The opinion of all Protestant communities that is, the opinion of 
the most enlightened and progressive part of mankind is that conven- 
tual vows and the so-called religious life are evils not sufficiently re- 
deemed by any acts of charity and philanthropy which the persons 
who embrace them may render to the world. The vow, the perpetual 
obligation, the pretense that the conventual life is so ineffably high 
and holy that to abandon it is the most fearful of sins, makes the curse 
of the system. When once the unhappy victim of ignorance or enthu- 
siasm, or it may be of domestic persuasion, has taken that vow, which ? 
judged on any reasonable principles of morality, is a greater sin than 
the breaking of it can be, there is no retreat, and however much the 
character may change, however irksome the life may subsequently be- 
come from causes accidental or natural, there remains only a dull sub- 
mission, to be enforced by penances and even physical compulsion, 
where the nun's own strength of will fails her. Now, let us grant 
what the sisters say that Miss Saurin was unsuited for the religious 
life. What does it come to except that the system was a bad one un- 
der which she could not leave that life except with a shadow on her as 
a nun who had received a formal 'dispensation,' on the ground that she 
was unfit for the highest calling of her sex ? It is plain that this was 
what she thought, and what her relatives, priests and nuns themselves, 
also thought when they bade her keep to the convent until turned out." 

The case of Miss Edith 0' Gorman should here be noticed.. 
She was born in Ireland in 1842 of Roman Catholic parents, 
with whom she came to America in 1850. In October, 
1862, she left her home in Rhode Island with the consent of her 
parents, and entered St. Elizabeth's convent, Madison, N. 
J., belonging to the Sisters of Charity. After 3 months' ex.- 
perience as a candidate, she became a novice under the name 
of Sister Teresa de Chantal, and went to St. Joseph's Orphan 
Asylum, Paterson, N. J., where she was at once installed as 
mother of the orphans. July 25, 1864, after an mmsully short 



novitiate, she took the irrevocable vows of poverty, chastity, and 
obedience, at the mother-house in Madison. The next month 
she was sent with 2 other nuns to Hudson City, N. J., to es- 
tablish the new convent there at St. Joseph's church. Jan. 31, 
1868, she left the convent because a priest who had fallen in 
love with her, attempted in the church to violate her person 
after she had unsuccessfully petitioned the mother-superior to be 
removed from the place of danger to her soul ; and as a conse- 
quence an intense abhorrence both of priests and of convents then 
filled her soul. Her work, " Convent Life Unveiled," publish- 
ed at Hartford in 1871, narrates the story of her trials and ex- 
periences during the 6 years of her being a Sister of Charity, of 
her conversion in 1869, of her lectures on Romanism and other 
labors up to her marriage in 1870 with Mr. Win. Auffray, for- 
merly a Roman Catholic and professor in a French university, 
now an assistant in the French Episcopal church Du St. Es- 
prit (of the Holy Spirit) in New York city. Rev. Henry A. 
Cordo, pastor of the North Baptist church in Jersey City, N. 
J., vouches, in an introductory note, for " her candid story " 
and the " high regard " in which she is held in that city, in 
and near which she has long lived, and where she is well known. 
She gives particulars of the spy-system among the nuns, of 
their cruelty to orphans and to one another, their eating of 
worms, their living death and not unfrequent insanity, their in- 
cessant and reputedly-meritorious warfare against all that is 
sympathetic and kindly and human, which harmonize with the 
picture of the convent-life already drawn in these pages. 

The great fact that the nun does not, as she expected, leave 
the world behind her on the outside of the convent-walls, but 
carries it with her in her own heart into the very cloister is 
versified in these lines by Rev. Horatius Bonar, D.D., of Scot- 

" This is no heaven ! 

And yet they told me that all heaven was here, 
This life the foretaste of a life more dear ; 
That all beyond this convent-cell 
Was but a fairer hell ; 


That all was ecstasy and song within, 
That all without was tempest, gloom and sin. 
Ah me ! it is not so 
This is no heaven, I know ! 

** This is not rest ! 

And yet they told me that all rest was here ; 

Within these walls the medicine and the cheer 

For broken hearts ; that all without 

Was trembling, weariness and doubt ; 

This the sure ark which floats above the wave, 

Strong in life's flood to shelter and to save ; 

This the still mountain-lake, 

Which winds can never shake. 

Ah me ! it is not so 

This. is not rest, I know ! 

" This is not home ! 

And yet for this I left my girlhood's bower, 

Shook the first dew from April's budding flower, 

Cut off my golden hair, 

Forsook the dear and fair, 

And fled, as from a serpent's eyes, 

Home and its holiest charities ; 

Instead of all things beautiful, 

Took this decaying skull, 

Hour after hour to feed my eye, 

As if foul gaze like this could purify ; 

Broke the sweet ties that God had given, 

And sought to win His heaven 

By leaving home-work all undone, 

The home race all unrun, 

The fair home garden all untilled, 

The home affections all unfilled ; 

As if these common rounds of work and love 

Were drags to one whose spirit soared above 

Life's tame and easy circle, and who fain 

Would earn her crown by self-sought toil and pain. 

Led captive by a mystic power, 

Dazzled by visions in the moody hour, 

When, sick of earth, and self, and vanity, 

I longed to be alone or die ; 

Mocked by my own self-brooding heart, 

And plied with every wile and art 

That could seduce a young and yearning soul 

To start for some mysterious goal, 


And seek, in cell or savage waste, 

The cure of blighted hope and love misplaced. 

" Yet, 'tis not the hard bed, nor the lattice small, 
Nor the dull lamp of this cold convent-wall ; 
'Tis not the frost on these thick prison-bars, 
Nor the keen shiver of these wintry stars ; 
Not this coarse raiment, nor this coarser food, 
Nor bloodless lips of withering womanhood ; 
'Tis not all these that make me sigh and fret ; 
'Tis something deeper yet 
The unutterable void within, 
The dark fierce warfare with this heart of sin, 
The inner bondage, fever, storm, and woe, 
The hopeless conflict with my hellish foe, 
'Gainst whom the grated lattice is no shield, 
To whom this cell is victory's chosen field. 

" Here is no balm 
For stricken hearts ; no calm 
For fevered souls ; no cure 
For minds diseased : the impure 
Becomes impurer in this stagnant air; 
My cell becomes my tempter and my snare, 
And vainer dreams than e'er I dreamt before 
Crowd in at its low door. 
And I have fled, my God, from Thee, 
From Thy glad love and liberty ; 
And left the road where blessings fall like light, 
For self-made by-paths shaded o'er with night ! 

lead me back, my God, 
To the forsaken road, 

Life's common beat, that there, 
Even in the midst of toil and care, 

1 may find Thee, 

And in Thy love be free ! " 

But while most Protestants condemn the whole monastic 
system as based on the false principles of the meritoriousness 
of good works and of the superior sanctity of an unmarried 
or ascetic life, and as dangerous to society from the facilities 
which it offers to the commission of oifenses against morality 
and liberty, the Roman Catholic authorities emphatically de- 
clare the usefulness of monasticism, anathematize those who 


oppose it, and endeavor to separate offenses and corruptions 
from the system itself. 

The council of Trent at its 25th and last session passed a 
reformatory decree respecting monks and nuns, containing in 
its 22 chapters the following provisions among others : that 
all regulars, both men and women, should conform their lives 
to the rule of their profession ; that no regular should depart 
from his convent, unless sent or called by his superior, without 
a written permission ; that no professed nun should be allowed 
to go forth from the monastery, even for a short time, on any 
pretext, unless for some lawful cause approved by the bishop, 
and that no one of any sort or condition, sex or age, should be 
allowed to enter the inclosure of the monastery, without the 
bishop's or superior's permission in writing, on pain of excom- 
munication magistrates being enjoined under the same penalty 
to aid the bishops, if necessary, in enforcing this regulation, 
and bishops being urged to their duty by the fear of the judg- 
ment of God and the eternal curse ; that if any public scandal 
should arise from the conduct of a regular not subject to a 
bishop and living in a monastery, the offender should be judged 
and punished by his superior, or, this failing, by the bishop ; 
that no females should take the veil without previous exami- 
nation by the bishop ; that no one, except in cases specified 
by law, should, under pain of excommunication, either compel 
a woman to enter a monastery, or hinder her, if she wished 
to enter ; that any regular, who pretended that he (or she) 
had entered the religious life through force and fear, or claimed 
that his profession was made before the requisite age, or any 
like thing, and wished for any reason to lay aside the habit, 
should not be heard, unless within 5 years from the date of his 
profession, and then only on spreading out the alleged causes 
before his superior and bishop ; but if he had previously laid 
aside his habit of his own accord, he should by no means be 
allowed to allege any cause, but should be compelled to return 
to the monastery, and should be punished as an apostate, and 
in the mean time should have no benefit of any religious priv- 


ilege ; that since many monasteries had suffered no light dam- 
age from maladministration in both spiritual and temporal 
matters, the holy synod desired to bring them back completely 
to the appropriate discipline of the monastic life, but it was 
impossible to apply a remedy immediately to all or a common 
and desirable remedy everywhere, and the synod trusted that 
the most holy Roman pontiff would, in his piety and prudence, 
take care, as far as the times would bear, to have suitable reg- 
ulars appointed to the vacant offices, &c. 

Yet neither the council of Trent nor any other authority has 
effected any complete and lasting reform of monastic institu- 
tions. Scipione de Ricci, the Roman Catholic bishop of Pistqja 
and Prato in Tuscany, earnestly but unsuccessfully attempted 
near the close of the last century to reform the flagrant disor- 
ders existing among the monks and nuns in his diocese. Pope 
Pius IX., at the beginning ot his pontificate, proclaimed it to 
be one of his chief tasks to accomplish a complete reform of the 
monastic orders ; but the needed reform was not completed in 

The 2d Plenary Council of Baltimore, held in 1866, devotes 
9 pages of its decrees to the monks and nuns, attributing to 
them a great influence for good, and yet prescribing numerous 
regulations for the purpose of guarding against evils. Thus 
to prevent conflicts between the authority of bishops and the 
privileges of regulars, it advises the drawing up of a written 
instrument, or contract in regard to both spiritual and temporal 
things, between every superior who establishes a monastery 
and the bishop of the diocese, and declares that regulars as well 
as others are subject to the bishop in whatever has respect to 
the cure of souls and the administration of the sacraments. In 
the chapter respecting nuns is incorporated a decree of the Ro- 
man Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, which enumerates 
5 monasteries (Georgetown, Mobile, Kaskaskia, St. Aloysius, 
and Baltimore), where the Visitation Nuns take solemn vows; 
prescribes that the Visitation Nuns in future, after finishing 
their novitiate, shall take simple vows, and, at the close of 5 


(altered to 10, on the petition of this council) years from their 
profession of simple vows, may take the vows called "solemn," 
after preliminary spiritual exercises for 10 days ; grants to 
those who have taken the simple vows all the graces and spirit- 
ual favors enjoyed by those who have taken the solemn vows ; 
enacts that the vows taken by all other nuns in the United 
States shall be simple, except when they have obtained from 
the holy see a rescript for taking solemn vows ; and altogether 
disapproves of the recent practice of nuns who travel about in 
order to collect money for founding new houses or for freeing 
from debt those already founded. 

The Latin form for the benediction and consecration of vir- 
gins occupies 25 pages in the Pontificale Romanum of 1818. 
The key of the whole is given in these questions which the 
pontiff (= bishop or other mitred dignitary who presides) puts 
to them at the beginning of the service to be answered affirma- 
tively : 

" Do you wish to persevere in the purpose of holy virginity ? 
" Do you promise that you will preserve your virginity forever? 
" Do you wish to be blessed and consecrated and betrothed to our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Supreme God ?" 

After various genuflections and prostrations and chantings 
and prayers and sprinklings with holy water, nuns go up two 
at a time to the pontiff who puts the veil upon each nun's head, 
saying : 

" Receive the sacred veil, by which you may be known to have des- 
pised the world, and to have truly and humbly with all the striving of 
your heart subjected yourself forever as a bride to Jesus Christ ; and 
may he keep you from all evil and bring you through to eternal life." 

After further chantings and prayer, they go up again in pairs, 
and the pontiff puts a ring on the ring-finger of each nun's 
right hand, declaring her espoused to Jesus Christ, upon which 
the two chant, 

" I have been betrothed to him whom angels serve, whose beauty 
sun and moon admire." 


Afterwards each nun has a crown or wreath put on her head 
by the bishop with a similar declaration and chanting. Then 
follow prayers, chanting, and two long nuptial benedictions 
upon the nuns, who first stand humbly inclined and then kneel. 
Then the pontiff, sitting on his seat, and wearing his mitre, 
pronounces the following anathema : 

" By the auihority of Almighty God, and of his blessed apostles 
Peter and Paul, we firmly and under threat of anathema forbid any 
one to lead off these virgins or religious persons from the divine service, 
to which they have been subjected under the banner of chastity, or to 
plunder their goods, but let them possess these in quiet. But if any 
one shall have dared to attempt this, let him be cursed in his house 
and out of his house ; cursed in the city and in the country, cursed in 
watching and sleeping, cursed in eating and drinking, cursed in walking 
and sitting ; cursed be his flesh and bones ; from the sole of his foot to 
the top of his head let him have no soundness. Let there come upon 
him the curse of man, which the Lord through Moses in the law sent 
upon the sons of iniquity. Let his name be blotted from the book of 
the living and not written with the just. Let his part and inheritance 
be with Cain that slew his brother, with Dathan and Abiram, Avith 
Ananias and Sapphira, with Simon the sorceror, and Judas the traitor ; 
and with those who said unto God, ; Depart from us, we desire not the 
path [knowledge ?] ' of thy ways.' Let him perish at the day of judg- 
ment ; let everlasting fire devour him with the devil and his angels, 
unless he shall have made restitution, and come to amendment : let it 
be done, let it be done." 

The remaining services consist principally of the mass, the 
delivery of the breviary to the nuns, and their return to the 
gate of the monastery where the pontiff formally presents them 
to the abbess. The pontiff then returns to the church and 
closes the whole with the beginning of the gospel according to 

The " Ceremony of Reception" takes place, among the Sis- 

1 The Roman Pontifical, apparently by a perpetuated blunder in its various edi- 
tions, has here " semitam " (-=path) instead of "scientiam" (= knowledge), which 
is the correct reading of the Vulgate in Job 21 : 14 



ters of Mercy, &c., when the novice takes the white veil ; the 
"Ceremony of Profession " is when the novice takes the black 
veil and the vows with a promise " to persevere until death." 
Fosbroke's " British Monachism " distinguishes the profession 
from the consecration of a nun thus : 

"That applied to any woman, whether virgin or not, could be done 
by an abbot or visitor of the house, after the year of probation, and 
change of the habit ; but consecration could only be made by the bishop. 
Nuns Avere usually professed at the age of 1 6, but they could not be 
consecrated till 25 ; and this veil could only be given on festivals and 
Sundays." " In the year 446, pope Leo ordered that a nun should 
receive the veil, consecrated by a bishop, only when she was a virgin." 

The opposite plate, copied from one published by the American 
and Foreign Christian Union, gives a sufficiently accurate idea 
of the general appearance of nuns on such occasions. 



The most celebrated of all the religious orders in the Roman 
Catholic church is the " Society of Jesus," more commonly 
called the " Jesuits." The founder of this order was St. Igna- 
tius (=Inigo) Loyola, born in 1491, the youngest son of a Span- 
ish nobleman, and an illiterate, but enthusiastic man. Becoming 
an officer in the Spanish army, he was severely wounded in 1521 
and taken prisoner while defending Pampeluna against the 
French. During his long and tedious confinement, his thoughts 
were turned towards a religious life, and in 1534 he and 6 
(afterwards 9) friends and fellow-students at Paris formed a 
monastic association. Two of these associates, were Francis 
Xavier, the famous missionary and saint, and James Lay- 
nez (or Lainez), who was a papal legate at the council 
of Trent, and Loyola's successor as general of the Jesuits, 
4 objects were proposed in the new order, which was approved 
by pope Paul III., Sept. 27, 1540 : (1.) The education of youth ; 
(2.) The instruction of adults by preaching and other means ; 
(3.) The defense of the Roman Catholic faith against heretics 
and unbelievers ; (4.) The propagation of Christianity among 
heathens and infidels by missionaries. The military principle 
of strict subordination was introduced into the new order, 
which was further distinguished from existing orders by the 
omission of any obligation to keep canonical hours in the choir. 
The constitutions of the Society, first published in 1558, 2 years 
after the death of Loyola, and said by cardinal Richelieu to be 
a model of administrative policy, are divided into 10 parts, 
which are subdivided into chapters. 

The following from the Penny Cyclopedia is a synopsis of these con- 
stitutions. " Part i. treats of admission to probation, and specifies the re- 


quired qualifications, as health, freedom from any grievous physical 
imperfection, certificates of good conduct and temper, natural abilities* 
and the completion of 14 years of age ; also the absolute disqualifications, 
as having been a murderer, apostate, or other grievous offender, having 
been subject to a degrading sentence, having belonged to some monas- 
tic order, being married, insane, or weak-minded, &c. The candidate, 
if approved, is admitted to a first probation, as a sort of guest for a few 
weeks, to become acquainted with the mode of living. Afterwards he 
assumes the dress of the order (black, nearly like that of the secular 
priest<), and undergoes an examination upon points contained in a 
printed form. If now approved, the constitutions and regulations are 
shown to him ; and after confessing and receiving the sacrament, he 
signs a promise to observe the rules and discipline of the Society, and 
is then admitted into one of the houses of 2d probation or novitiate. 
Part ii. directs that those who have been admitted to probation and 
are found to be unfit for the Society shall be privately and kindly dis- 
missed, and that those who leave of their own accord shall not in general 
be sought after. Part iii. treats of the mental, moral and physical 
education of the novices, whose term generally lasts two years. ' Part 
iv. treats of the colleges, schools and universities. In the colleges are 
the scholastics, who, after 2 years' probation, take vows of poverty, chas- 
tity and obedience, and pursue courses of study, the courses taught 
being the humanities ( = polite literature) and rhetoric, logic, natural 
and moral philosophy, metaphysics, theology, and the study of the 
Scriptures. There are also classes and schools for lay and external 
pupils. Every college is under a rector who is appointed by the gen- 
eral or provincial from the class of coadjutors, and is removable at 
pleasure. In the society's universities are faculties of arts, philosophy, 
and theology ; not of law or medicine. Part v. treats of the admis- 
sion of scholars into the body of the Society, as professed or coadjutors. 
The professed must be over 25 years of age and have studied theology 
4 years. 2 The profe-sed vow perpetual chastity, poverty, obedi- 
ence, a peculiar care of the education of youth, and especial obedience 

1 The novices are not allowed to study, but devote their 2 years to prayer and 
profound meditation, the " Spiritual Exercises " of St. Ignatius being their prin- 
cipal guide. 

2 lie will commonly have now spent 15 to 17 years in study and teaching since 
his admission into the Society as a scholastic 


to the pope as to any missions to which he may send them. The coad- 
jutors omit the last of these vows. Part vi. regulates the manner of 
living in the professed houses, which, unlike the colleges, must depend 
on the alms of the faithful. The coadjutors not employed in the col- 
leges and the professed must renounce (but not in favor of the Society) 
all claims to hereditary succession, and live in the professed houses of 
charity. There were also lay or secular coadjutors, who took the sim- 
ple vows, yet continued to enjoy their property and lived in the world. 
Part vii. treats of the various kinds of missionaries sent by the pope 
and by the general of the Society, and gives them directions, &o. Part 
viii. treats of the reports and correspondence of the rectors and pro- 
vincials with the general, and of the missionaries and other detached 
fathers with their provincial or other superior ; and also of the general 
congregations or representative assemblies of the Society. The general 
receives monthly reports from the provincials, and quarterly reports from 
the superiors of professed houses, rectors of colleges, &c. These reports 
contain notes on the disposition, capacities and conduct of individual 
members, and whatever news or events may affect or interest the 
Society or any part of it. Every member is to report to his immediate 
superior any misconduct of a companion. The general congregations 
are considered necessary only for electing a new general or deliberat- 
ing on some very weighty matter, such as the dissolution or transfer of 
its houses and colleges, &c. To one for electing a general, each prov- 
ince sends its provincial and 2 other professed members, who are 
chosen by a special provincial congregation consisting of the professed 
of the province and of those coadjutors who are rectors of colleges. 
To one for deliberation the provincial sends 2 subordinates, and the 
general may add others to make up not more than 5 for each province. 
Part ix. treats of the general, who is chosen for life, resides at Rome 
is attended by a monitor and 5 assistants, and has absolute power. 
From his orders there is no appeal ; all must obey him unhesitatingly ; 
he may expel members, remove them wherever he pleases, inflict pun- 
ishments, issue new regulations, or alter existing ones. Part x. con- 
tains advice to all and each of the various classes and members, reconru 
mending strict discipline, obedience, zealous teaching and preaching ; 
not to seek after dignities or honors, and even to refuse them unless 
obliged by the pope ; strict morality, moderation in bodily and mental 
labor, brotherly charity, &c. 


The Jesuits, from the time of their institution to this hour, 
though with many alternations of success and reverse, have 
been one of the main supports of the pope's authority, and have 
exercised immense influence in the world. Says Mosheim : 

"The Romish church, since the time it lost dominion over so many 
nations, owes more to this single society than to all its other ministers 
and resources. This being spread in a short time over the greater part 
of the world, everywhere confirmed the wavering nations, and restrained 
the progress of sectarians : it gathered into the Romish church a great 
multitude of worshipers among the barbarous and most distant na- 
tions : it boldly took the field against the heretics, and sustained for a 
long time almost alone the brunt of the war, and by its dexterity and 
acuteness in reasoning, entirely eclipsed the glory of the old disputants : 
by personal address, by skill in the sagacious management of worldly 
business, by the knowledge of various arts and sciences, and by other 
means, it conciliated the good will of kings and princes : by an ingen- 
ious accommodation of the principles of morals to the propensities of 
men, it obtained almost the sole direction of the minds of kings and 
magistrates, to th<? exclusion of the Dominicans and other more rigid 
divines : and everywhere, it most studiously guarded the authority of 
the Romish prelate from sustaining further loss. All these things 
procured for the society immense resources and wealth, and the highest 
reputation ; but at the same time they excited vast envy, very numer- 
ous enemies, and frequently exposed the society to the most imminent 
perils. All the religious orders, the leading men, the public schools, 
and the magistrates, united to bear down the Jesuits ; and they demon- 
strated by innumerable books, that nothing could be more ruinous both 
to religion and to the state, than such a society as this. In some coun- 
tries, as France, Poland, &c., they were pronounced to be public ene- 
mies of the country, traitors, and parricides, and were banished with 
ignominy. Yet the prudence, or, if you choose, the cunning of the 
association, quieted all these movements, and even turned them dex- 
terously to the enlargement of their power, and to the fortification of 
it against all future machinations." 

The Jesuits came into France in 1540, but, through the op- 
position of the parliament and university of Paris and of many 
bishops, they had no legal existence in the kingdom till, in 


1562, they were recognized as the " fathers of the college of 
Clermont." But in 1594 they were expelled from France, and 
one of them put to death, on the charge of being implicated 
in the attempt to assassinate king Henry IV. The king, how- 
ever, recalled them in 1603 ; and from that time till their ban- 
ishment again in 1764, they enjoyed their property, multiplied 
their colleges and pupils, and exerted a mighty influence in 
church and state. During this time they had along and bitter 
controversy with the Jansenists, against whom the bull Uni- 
genitus was issued in 1713, as already related in Chapter IV. 
But while Pascal's " Provincial Letters " had long before made 
the Jesuits objects of universal derision, the hostility of Mad- 
ame de Pompadour, mistress of Louis XIV., united with the old 
opposition of the parliament of Paris, and the political and 
personal dislike of them by Choiseul, the king's minister, and 
the disaffection towards them of many others, to take advant- 
age of the Jesuit Lavalette's unfortunate speculations in colo- 
nial produce, and to procure from the king an order suppress- 
ing the society in France and confiscating their property. 

In September, 1759, 5 years previously, the Jesuits were 
hurriedly banished from Portugal and Brazil ; and at the end 
of March, 1767, the Jesuits throughout Spain were roused at 
midnight, made acquainted with the royal decree which ex- 
pelled them from the country, and forthwith sent to the coast 
where they were shipped for Italy. In 1768, they were also 
suppressed in the two Sicilies and the duchy of Parma ; but 
they were continued still in the Sardinian and Papal States. 
The Catholic powers that had suppressed the order now united 
in urging the pope to take decisive measures against the Jes- 
uits ; and on the 21st of July,1773, pope Clement XIV. issued 
a bull, or rather a brief, in which, after stating the laudable 
object of those who founded the Society and the services it had 
rendered to religion, he said that often there had been discord 
between them and the other ecclesiastical authorities, that 
many serious charges had been brought against individual 
members, who seemed to have deviated from the original spirit 


of their institutions, that most Catholic princes had found it 
necessary for the peace of their dominions to expel the Jesuits 
from them, and that now, for the peace of the Christian world, 
and the most weighty considerations, and because the Society 
of Jesus could no longer bring forth those fruits of piety and 
edification for which it was intended, he declared the said 
Society to be suppressed and extinct, its statutes annulled, its 
members who had been ordained priests to be considered as 
secular priests, and the rest entirely released from their vows. 
He allowed the old and infirm professed members to remain as 
guests in the houses of the extinct Society, which were to be 
managed by commissioners. 

The Jesuits were now suppressed in every Roman Catholic 
state, and they received an annuity in all but Portugal ; but 
Russia and Prussia still afforded them an asylum, and a con- 
tinuance of their educational work among the Roman Catholics 
in those countries. Their landing on the English shores had 
been made a capital crime in Elizabeth's reign ; yet they had 
continued, at the risk of their lives, to pass and repass the 
channel, to maintain a correspondence with Rome and the 
enemies of the English government, and to keep Roman Ca- 
tholicism alive in England. In other Protestant countries like- 
wise they had acted as the spies and emissaries of the pope. 
Says Hallam, in his Constitutional History of England : 

" Subtle alike and intrepid, pliant in every direction, unshaken in 
their aim, the sworn, implacable, unscrupulous enemies of Protestant 
governments, the Jesuits were the legitimate object of jealousy and 
restraint. As every member of that society enters into an engagement 
of absolute, unhesitating obedience to its superior, no one could justly 
complain that he was presumed capable at least of committing, any 
crimes that the policy of his monarch might enjoin." 

Says Dr. De Sanctis of their principle of obedience : 

" According to their own expression, a Jesuit should be in the hands- 
of his superior what a corpse is in the hands of a surgeon," 


Of the energetic and successful labors of Jesuits in heathen 
lands some notice is given in Chapter X. 

The Penny Cyclopedia speaks thus eulogistically of their 
career : 

" During two centuries and a quarter [third] which elapsed from 
(heir foundation to their suppression, the Jesuits rendered great services 
to education, literature, and the sciences. Throughout all Roman Cath- 
olic states they may be said to have established the first rational system 
of college education. Other orders, such as the Fathers of the Chris- 
tian Doctrine, instituted in 1571, the Clerici Scholarum Piarum [ = 
Fathers of the Pious Schools], in 1617, and the Brothers of the Chris- 
tian Schools, or Ignorantins, in 1679, applied themselves more espe- 
cially to the elementary education of children, though the Jesuits did 
not altogether neglect this branch. The colleges of the Jesuits were 
equally open to the noble and the plebeian, the wealthy and the poor : 
all were subject to the same discipline, received the same instruction, 
partook of the same plain but wholesome diet, might attain the same 
rewards, and were subject to the same punishments. In the school, the 
refectory, or the play-garden of a Jesuits' college, no one could have 
distinguished the sou of a duke from the son of a peasant. The man- 
ners of the Jesuits were singularly pleasing, urbane, and courteous, 
far removed from pedantry, moroseness, or affectation. Their pupils, 
generally speaking, contracted a lasting attachment for their masters. 
At the time of their suppression the grief of the youths of the various 
colleges at separating from their teachers was universal and truly af- 
fecting. Most of the distinguished men of the 18th century, even 
those who afterwards turned free-thinkers, and railed at the Jesuits as 
a society, had received their first education from them ; and some of 
them have had the frankness to acknowledge the merits of their in- 
structors. The sceptical Lalande paid them an honest tribute of esteem 
and of regret at their fall : even Voltaire spoke in their defense. Ores- 
set addressed to them a most pathetic valedictory poem, ' Les Adieux ' 
[= the farewells]. The bishop de Bausset, in his ' Vie de Fenelon* 
[= Life of Fenelon], has inserted a most eloquent account of the Insti- 
tution of the Jesuits, of their mode of instruction, and of the influence 
which they had, especially in the towns of France, in preserving social 
and domestic peace and harmony. For the Jesuits did not exclusively 
apply themselves to the instruction of youth ; grown-up people volun- 


tarily sought their advice concerning their own affairs and pursuits in 
life, which they always freely bestowed ; they encouraged the timid 
and weak, they directed the disheartened and the forsaken towards new 
paths for which they saw that they were qualified ; and whenever they 
perceived abilities, good will, and honesty, they were sure to lend a 
helping hand. The doors of the cells of the older professed fathers 
were often tapped at by trembling hands, and admittance was never 
refused to the unfortunate. In private life at least, whatever may have 
been the case in courtly politics, their advice was generally most dis- 
interested. It has been said that they excelled in the art of taming 
man, which they effected, not by violence, not by force, but by persua- 
sion, by kindness, and by appealing to the feelings of their pupils. If 
ever mankind could be happy in a state of mental subordination and 
tutelage under kind and considerate guardians, the Jesuits were the 
men to produce this result ; but they ultimately failed. The human 
mind is in its nature aspiring, and cannot be permanently controlled ; 
it cannot be fashioned to one universal measure ; and sooner or later 
it will elude the grasp of any system, whether military or political, ec- 
clesiastical or philosophical, and will seek, at any cost, to gratify its 
instinctive desire for freedom." 

Rev. Dr. De Sanctis, who was for 22 years closely connected 
with the Jesuits, gives the great maxim or fundamental prin- 
ciple of the Jesuits and its consequences thus : 

" ' Man was created to praise and adore his Lord and his God, and 
in serving him he saves his soul.' ... St. Ignatius draws from this 
principle 2 inferences : (1.) that every thing in this world was created 
for the use of man, to serve him as the means of salvation, and to 
serve the Lord through them ; (2.) that man should be indifferent as 
to the choice of the means, inasmuch as the means should not be con- 
sidered according to their real value, good or bad, but only in accord- 
ance with the end proposed ; so that if I perceive that by such or such 
means, which, in the opinion of worldly men, would be bad, I might, 
nevertheless, contribute to the glory of God and the salvation of my 
soul, those are the very ones I ought to choose." l 


1 See also Chapters XXII. and XXVL. 


As has already been intimated, the Jesuits increased with 
unexampled rapidity. At the death of their founder in 1556, 
they numbered over 1000, and had 100 houses in their 12 prov- 
inces in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. About 60 years 
later, in 1618, they numbered 13,000 members in 32 provinces. 
At their expulsion from Portugal in 1759, they reckoned alto- 
gether 22,589 members, one half of whom were priests ; they 
had 24 professed houses, 669 colleges, 176 seminaries or board- 
ing-houses, 61 novitiate-houses, 335 residences, and 273 mis- 
sions in Protestant and heathen countries. Their principal 
professed house, and their general's residence, was a vast 
building attached to the splendid church of II Cresu in Rome.. 
They had also in Rome the Roman college, the church of St. 
Ignatius, a novitiate on the Quirinal, <fcc. All these after the 
suppression of the society were entrusted to secular priests and 
professors, who however usually followed the Jesuit method 
and discipline. 

After the suppression of the Jesuits, some not very success- 
ful attempts were made to restore the order under other names, 
as the " Society of the Sacred Heart" in 1794, and the "So- 
ciety of the Faith of Jesus " in 1798 ; but in 1801 pope Pius 
VII. issued a brief allowing the Jesuits of Russia to live as a 
society with colleges and schools ; and in 1804 he issued an- 
other, allowing them to have colleges and schools in the king- 
dom of the two Sicilies. Finally, he issued his bull, Aug. 7, 
1814, reestablishing the society with all its former privileges, 
to be employed in educating youth in any country where the 
sovereign shall have previously recalled or consented to receive 
them. Their generals, from. 1814 to 1870, have been, Brzo- 
zowski, a Pole, and previously vicar-general in Russia, 1814- 
20 ; Fortis, a Veronese, 1820-29 ; Roothaan, a Hollander, 
1829-53 ; Beckx, a Belgian, the present general, since 1853. 
Since the reestablishment of the order, they have reappeared in 
most civilized countries, and have resumed their missionary 
operations in heathen lands. In some countries, as in Portu- 
gal, Switzerland, Spain, the states of Italy, &c., they have been 


reestablished by law, and once, twice, or more times suppressed ; 
in others, as in France, Germany, England, <fec., they have 
been tolerated temporarily or permanently. The revolution 
of 1848 endangered them throughout Italy, and their general 
found a temporary asylum in England. The prevalence of 
liberal institutions in Italy within the last 20 years has been 
unfavorable to them ; it was said, in November, 1870, that they 
had nearly all left Rome quietly and privately, having disposed 
of all their property, so far as possible, with the privilege of 
repurchasing at any future time for the price paid them, and 
having turned over to the German college that which could not 
be sold. They were suppressed throughout Russia and Poland 
by the imperial decree of March 25, 1820. They have for 
years conducted 3 of the 10 Roman Catholic colleges in Eng- 
land, their principal establishment at Stonyhurst in Lancashire 
having been in their possession since 1799. They have had 
several establishments in Ireland for the last 45 years or less, 
but none in Scotland. 

The Jesuits were sent to Florida in 1566, and soon attempt- 
ed to establish another mission on the banks of the Chesapeake, 
but the latter mission was terminated by the murder of the 
missionaries in 1571 by the Indians, and Florida was then 
abandoned for Mexico. They established their first mission in 
the French (now British) possessions in North America in 1611. 
Quebec became their center for this mission. After Louisiana 
began to be settled, another center was established at New Or- 
leans. Another was established in California in 1683 and 
flourished for many years. Since the reestablishment of the 
order, the Jesuits have labored with great energy in America. 
Said Appletons' Cyclopedia in 1860 : 

"The United States and the British possessions in America are 
among the countries where the order grows most rapidly. They are 
divided into the province of Maryland, having establishments in the 
dioceses of Baltimore, Philadelphia, Portland, and Boston ; the vice- 
province of Missouri, having houses in the dioceses of St. Louis, Louis- 
ville, Cincinnati, Chicago, and Milwaukee ; the mission of Canada and 


New York, having houses in the dioceses of New York, Albany, Buf- 
falo, Quebec, Montreal, London (Canada West), and Hamilton ; the 
mission of Louisiana, with houses in the dioceses of New Orleans and 
Mobile ; and the mission of California. Their colleges in the United 
States are as follows : college of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass. ; 
of St. Francis Xavier, New York ; St. John's, Fordham, N. Y. ; St. 
Joseph's, Philadelphia ; St. John's, Frederic, Md. ; Loyola, Baltimore ; 
Gonzaga, Washington, D. C. ; Georgetown, D. C. ; Spring Hill, near 
Mobile, Ala. ; St. Louis university, St. Louis, Mo. ; college of the Im- 
maculate Conception, New Orleans ; St. Charles's, Grand Coteau, La. ; 
St. Joseph's, Bardstown, Ky. ; St. Xavier's, Cincinnati ; Santa Clara, 
Cal. ; in Canada, St. Mary's college, diocese of Montreal. The num- 
ber of Jesuits in the United States at the present time (1860) is 650. 
In Mexico and the states of Central and South America they have 
sometimes been admitted, sometimes again expelled, their fate being 
often dependent on the success or defeat of the several political par- 

A comparison of the above statistics with those of the Cath- 
olic Directory and of the Catholic Almanac for 1871 shows that 
all the above colleges, except two, with some others, are now 
under the control of the Jesuits. Instead of St. John's college, 
Frederic, Md., a "Novitiate of the Society of Jesus " is now 
reported there, with a rector and 8 other Jesuit priests attached 
to it ; and instead of St. Joseph's, Bardstown, Ky., are reported 
" St. Joseph's Preparatory Seminary " and " St. Thomas' Theo- 
logical Seminary," without any indication that they are con- 
trolled by the Jesuits. On the other hand, there are to be 
added institutions: Canisius' college at Buffalo, N. Y., with 
a prefect, 2 other priests, and an unordained Jesuit ; " Wood- 
stock college Theological Seminary and House of Studies for 
the Scholastics of the Society of Jesus in the United States," 
at Woodstock, Md., with a rector and 19 other priests and 75 
scholastics ; St. Stanislaus' Novitiate," at Florissant, Mo., 
with a rector and 6 other priests ; " St. Ignatius' College," at 
San Francisco, Cal., with a superior and 350 pupils ; " St. Ig- 
natius' College," at Chicago, 111., opened for students in Sep- 


tember, 1870 ; " St. Gall's Academy, Boston College, for day- 
scholars only," at Boston, Mass., with a rector, 7 teachers, and 
115 pupils. 10 of the colleges report about 2450 pupils. There 
are now, therefore, in the United States, 18 Jesuit colleges, and 

1 academy, besides the 2 novitiates, with probably between 
3000 and 4000 pupils in them all. A " Convent of the Jesuit 
Fathers" is reported at Toledo, 0., with a German church, 2 
fathers for the congregation, 3 others for giving missions, and 

2 brothers ; also a " house of retreat " and a church at Ford- 
ham, N. Y. The Jesuits have likewise many other churches, 
including some at the most important points in this country. 
They have 3 churches in Boston (St. Mary's, Holy Trinity, Im- 
maculate Conception ' ), besides 3 chapels ; 2 churches in New 
York city (St. Francis Xavier's and St. Lawrence's), besides 
the spiritual charge of the Roman Catholics in various hospitals 
and public institutions, as on Blackwell's Island, Randall's Is- 
land, &c. ; the church of Our Lady of Mercy at Fordham, St. 
Joseph's church in Troy, 2 German churches in Buffalo, and 1 
church at Ellysville, N. Y. ; St. Joseph's and New St. Joseph's 
churches in Philadelphia, and 10 or 12 other churches, chapels, 
<fec., in that State ; St. Ignatius' and St. Francis Xavier's churches 
(the latter exclusively for colored people) in Baltimore, and 
about 35 other churches and chapels in Maryland; St. Aloy- 
sius' and St. Joseph's churches in Washington, Holy Trinity 
at Georgetown, and 2 or 3 chapels in the District of Columbia; 
St. Mary's at Alexandria, Va. ; St. Joseph's at Mobile, Ala. ; 
Immaculate Conception at New Orleans, and 2 or 3 others in 
Louisiana; 2 churches at St. Louis, 2 at Florissant, and about 
15 other churches and chapels in Missouri ; 3 churches (1 for 
colored people) and 6 or 7 chapels in Cincinnati, 0. ; 2 in 
Chicago, 111?; 1 (St. Gall's) in Milwaukee, Wis. ; 1 at Leav- 
enworth city, and about a dozen in the Osage and Potawatamie 
(Indian) missions in Kansas ; at Lewiston, Idaho, and 5 or more 
Indian missions in Idaho and Washington Territories ; a church 

1 A view of the interior of this is given in Chapter XX. 


at Helena in Montana, with about 20 stations attended from it ; 
a church at Albuquerque in New Mexico, and 7 chapels attend- 
ed from it ; 4 churches in California, at San Francisco, San 
Jos6 Pueblo, Santa Clara, and Mountain View. The Catholic 
Directory for 1871 mentions by name 323 Jesuit priests in the 
United States, as connected with colleges, churches, convents, 
<fec. There are also several hundred scholastics and lay-broth- 
ers ; and if the blanks and omissions were all filled out, the 
present number of members of the order in this country would 
probably be larger than it was 10 years ago, as the number of 
colleges and churches controlled by them has certainly increased 
within that period. Their organization is perfect ; their sub- 
ordination is complete ; they unquestionably have laid their 
plans and are mustering their forces and devoting all their 
powers to possess and to hold this broad land for their master. 



THE apostles were the earliest Christian missionaries, and 
their commission came directly from the Great Head of the 
Church (Matt. 28 : 19, 20). Rome itself was once a field for 
missionary labors (Rom. 1 : 13). Every country that has 
been Christianized at all is indebted for this fact to missionaries 
who came and told the people of Jesus. Many Christian mission- 
aries of early times have been canonized by the Roman Catholic 
church. St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland (see Chap. VII.), 
was a missionary of the 5th century. St. Columba (== Colum- 
bas) was an Irish missionary, who labored with success among 
the Picts and Scots, and died in lona, one of the Hebrides, A.D. 
597. St. Augustine (or Austin) and other Benedictine monks 
(see Chap. VIII.) were sent into Britain by pope Gregory 1. near 
the close of the 6th century and baptized multitudes of the 
Saxons, who had conquered the ancient Britons (the ancestors 
of the Welsh), among whom the gospel was introduced by mis- 
sionaries of the 1st or 2d century. In the 8th century, Wini- 
frid, an English Benedictine, who was afterwards called Boni- 
face, "the apostle of Germany," was commissioned by pope 
Gregory II., and preached the gospel with much success in cen- 
tral and north-western Germany among the pagan Thuringians, 
Frieslanders, and Hessians; but he was murdered in A.D. 755, 
with 50 attendants. Adalbert, bishop of Prague, while on a 
missionary visit to the Prussians, was murdered by a pagan 
priest in A.D. 996. Yet, by the labors of missionaries and by 


other more violent means, Christianity centuries ago became 
the dominant religion throughout Europe. 

The establishment of the mendicant orders in the 13th cen- 
tury gave a new impulse to missionary zeal. Some Dominicans 
and Franciscans were soon sent into Tartary, China, and other 
countries of Asia as well as into various parts of Africa. The 
desire for the conversion of the heathen stimulated the passion 
for maritime discovery which distinguished the 15th century. 
Says the Penny Cyclopedia : 

"About 1430 pope Martin V. granted plenary indulgence to the 
Portuguese who conquered pagan and infidel countries. Columbus 
himself was strongly urged to discovery by the desire of propagating the 
Roman Catholic religion. . . . On the return of Columbus to Spain from 
his first voyage, the results wei-e formally announced to pope Alexan- 
der VI The natives whom Columbus brought to Spain were 

baptized, the king and the prince his son acting as sponsors. In his 
second voyage to the New World, Columbus was accompanied by priests 
with church vessels and ornaments, and they received orders to bring 
the natives within the pale of the church by ' fair means.' 

" The conduct of Cortez in Mexico is an example of the spirit in 
which conversion was attempted in the New World. Having cast 
down and destroyed the altars in one of the Mexican temples, a new 
altar was erected, which was hung with rich mantles and adorned with 
flowers. Cortez then ordered 4 of the native priests to cut off their 
hair and to put on white robes, and placing the cross upon the altar, he 
committed it to their charge. They were taught to make wax-candles, 
and Cortez enjoined them to keep some of the candles always burning 
on the altar. A lame old soldier was left by Cortez to reside in the 
temple, to keep the native priests to their new duties. The church 
thus constituted was called the 1st Christian church in New Spain 
[= Mexico]. Father Almedo, who accompanied Cortez in his expe- 
dition, explained to the Mexicans the ' mystery of the cross.' He then 
showed them an image of the Virgin, and told them to adore it, and to 
put up crosses in their temples instead of their accursed images. When 
the Mexicans began to feel the power of Cortez, some of the chiefs 
conciliated his favor by presents. 20 native women were presented to 
him, who were baptized by one of the ecclesiastics, and Cortez gave 


one to each of his captains. ' These were the first Christian women in 
New Spain.' The natives, both of India and the New World, soon 
perceived that one of the means of conciliating their conquerors was to 
make a profession of Christianity. In Hispaniola [= St. Domingo and 
Hayti], many natives did this in order to oblige and conciliate Colum- 
bus. In 1538, Andrea Galvano, governor of the Molucca islands, sent 
a ship commanded by Francis de Castro towards the north, ' with orders 
to convert as many as he could to the Christian faith.' Castro him- 
self baptized many of the principal chiefs of Amboyna. Many similar 
facts might be adduced to show that at this period true religion made 
little or no progress in newly discovered countries ; and yet during the 
] 6th century not a fleet sailed for India or America without its mis- 

The kingdom of Congo in Western Africa was a missionary 
field of the Roman Catholic church for 2 centuries after its 
discovery by the Portuguese Diego Cam about 1484. Domini- 
can, Franciscan, and other missionaries went to Congo in large 
numbers, and enjoyed there the powerful protection and aid of 
the Portuguese government ; early in their work the king of 
Congo and other high officers embraced the Roman Catholic 
faith ; every public officer in the land was bound, on pain of 
dismission, to assist the priests in obtaining a general observ- 
ance of all the rites and ceremonies of the church ; and in a 
few years, it is said, the whole nation, with only here and there 
a rare exception, had been baptized, and thus become nominally 
Christian. The king of Portugal sustained a Jesuit college and 
a Capuchin monastery at San Salvador, the capital ; there were 
also in that then flourishing city of 40,000 inhabitants a cathe- 
dral and 10 other churches. The people of the land were 
brought to attend mass with great scrupulousness ; they sub- 
mitted to baptism, said the rosary, and wore the crucifix ; they 
scourged themselves cruelly in the churches, and carried great 
logs of wood long distances to the convents, in order to obtain 
the pardon of their sins ; and for several generations they are 
said to have observed with apparent earnestness the Roman 
Catholic rites and ceremonies. Yet there was no real and per- 


manent improvement of the nation. The king and some of the 
chiefs imitated the Portuguese in providing themselves with 
various comforts of living ; but the common people, for the 
most part, continued to live in thoughtless indolence, inhabit- 
ing bamboo huts, eating the fruits that grew without cultiva- 
tion, wearing the scantiest clothing, or going entirely naked ; 
they had no beasts of burden, no carriages, no decent roads, 
and but little, except slaves, to sell. Their moral and religious 
character appears to have been no more improved than was 
their physical condition. Their religion consisted only in out- 
ward observances, Christian in name, and Roman Catholic in 
form, substituted for their former pagan ceremonies, and ap- 
parently performed with the same hopes and from the same 
motives. There was no yearning after a life of purity and holi- 
ness ; and by and by there came a storm. Says Rev. J. L. 
Wilson, D. D., an American Protestant missionary in Western 
Africa : 

" When the missionaries set themselves more earnestly to work to 
root out all the traces of the old religion ; and above all, when they 
determined to abolish polygamy throughout the land, they assailed 
heathenism in its strong hold, and aroused hatred and opposition which 
astounded themselves. In this emergency, when priestly authority 
and miraculous gifts were of no more avail, they had recourse for aid to 
the civil arm The severest penalties were enacted against po- 
lygamy ; the old pagan religion, in all its forms and details, was de- 
clared illegal, and the heaviest penalties denounced against those who 
were known to participate in celebrating its rites ; sorcerers and wiz- 
ards, by whom were meant the priests of the pagan rt ligion, were 
declared outlaws; at first the penalty denounced against them was 
decapitation or the flames, but it was afterwards commuted to foreign 

slavery The slightest deviation from the prescribed rules of the 

church was punished by public flogging, and it was not uncommon for 
females, and even mothers, to be stripped and whipped in public. 
Sometimes these castigations were inflicted by the missionaries them- 

But in the 17th century Portugal, the main dependence of the 


missionaries for protection and assistance, had become unable 
to render them further aid ; and the discovery of this fact 
opened the way for the natives to manifest their hatred to- 
wards the missionaries and their religion by neglect, annoy- 
ance, treachery, and violence. A native prince cruelly perse- 
cuted the missionaries ; guides would desert them in the midst 
of dangerous forests ; the means of relief were denied them 
in sickness ; 6 Capuchins were poisoned at once in one prov- 
ince, and attempts at poisoning became so frequent that the 
brethren had to carry with them continually an antidote 
against poison; one missionary was assassinated and eaten; 
and, finally, in the 18th century, their excessive sufferings and 
dangers compelled the missionaries to give up their work and 
leave the country. Ignorance, superstition, sensuality, and 
the most degraded heathenism took up their abode in Congo. 
The English exploring expedition, sent to the Congo river in 
1816 under Captain Tuckey, found there some " Christians 
after the Portuguese fashion," who are represented as by far 
the worst people they had met with. One of them was a priest, 
who had been ordained by the Capuchin monks of Loando : 
he could just write his name and that of St. Antonio, and read 
the Roman ritual ; but his rosary, his relics and his crosses 
were mixed with his domestic fetishes ; and he not only boasted 
that he had a wife and 5 concubines, but stoutly maintained 
that this kind of polygamy was not at all forbidden in the New 
Testament. In regard to this mission in Congo, Dr. Wilson 

" One thing at least may be affirmed without the fear of contradic- 
tion, that in point of industry, intelligence, and outward comfort, the 
people of Congo, at the present day, can not compare with thousands 
and millions of other nations along the coast of Africa, whose fore- 
fathers never heard even the name of the Christian religion." 

The Jesuits soon after their establishment in 1540 became 
the most active and energetic missionaries to heathen countries. 
Francis Xavier, who was canonized by pope Urban VIII. as 


the " Apostle of the Indies," went in 1542, at the request of the 
king of Portugal, to India, where the Portuguese mission, 
established at the conquest of Goa in 1510, had been making 
slow progress under the Franciscans, Dominicans, &c. Of him 
and his successors the Penny Cyclopedia thus speaks : 

" Xavier was a man of superior genius, and labored with unexam- 
pled energy. Having preached the faith with considerable success at 
Goa, on the coast of Comorin, at Malacca, in the Moluccas, and in 
Japan, he died in 1552, on the frontiers of China. 

'' In Japan, where Xavier was succeeded by missionaries from Por- 
tugal, great numbers made a profession of Christianity: in 1596 the 
converts were estimated at 400,000. The exercise of practical charity, 
which was inculcated by the Christians, is said to have been the main 
cause of this success ; the native priests let the sick and needy die of 
neglect and starvation. After an existence of nearly a century, the 
protection which the Christian religion had received from the rulers of 
Japan was withdrawn, and a cruel and bloody persecution commenced, 
which the native Christians endured with a spirit worthy of the early 
martyrs. 1 This disastrous termination of the mission has been attrib- 
uted to the intrigues of the Dutch, who wished to possess themselves 
of the commercial privileges enjoyed in Japan by the Portuguese. . . . 

*' China was, for a long time, a scene of successful missionary exer- 
tion under the direction of the Jesuits. Father Roger, a missionary 
of this order, first preached the gospel in China, in 1581. Matthew 
Ricci, an Italian Jesuit, was the first missionary who obtained an intro- 
duction to the court, and is justly regarded as the founder of the 
Chinese mission. Ricci proceeded to China in 1583, but he was not 
introduced to the emperor until 1601, when he presented to him a pic- 
ture of Christ, and another of the Virgin, and obtained permission to 

Ricci and other Jesuit missionaries obtained favor in China 
on account of their mathematical and scientific knowledge ; 
one (Schaal) was employed to reform the Chinese calendar 
and astronomy ; 2 churches were erected in Pekin ; and Chris- 

1 Roman Catholic writers estimate the number of Christians put to tieatli in 
Japan at nearly two millions* 


tianity made considerable progress. But in 1665, 3 Domini- 
cans, 1 Franciscan, and 21 Jesuits were banished to Canton, 
leaving only 4 missionaries at court. The missionaries, how- 
ever, afterwards regained the emperor's favor, though the 
erection of new churches was for a time forbidden, and the 
Chinese were warned not to desert their ancient faith. In 
1692 a change occurred, and in 1702 a new church was conse- 
crated and opened within the palace. The building of new 
churches was again forbidden in 1717 ; a few years afterwards 
the missionaries were tolerated only at Pekin and Canton, 
though the churches are said to have now numbered above 300 
and the converts more than 300,000. In 1732 the missiona- 
ries, 30 in number, were banished to Macao. Much of the 
time since then the Roman Catholic missionaries have been 
able to visit the converts only by stealth ; violent persecutions 
have not been unfrequent ; and other unfavorable circumstan- 
ces have occurred ; yet the mission has been kept up for nearly 
300 years, and the missionaries have availed themselves of the 
liberty accorded by recent treaties to push their operations 
with renewed vigor. 

In the 17th century the Jesuits sent many missionaries to 
Hindostan and Tonquin ; and great successes were reported, 
each missionary converting, it was said, 500 to 600 heathen 
yearly and in the Madura mission at least 1000 a year ; but 
the missionaries were accused of corrupting the Christian doc- 
trine, and of favoring the prejudices of the converts in the 
morality taught and the native ceremonies allowed. Both in 
India and China the Jesuits were involved in a controversy 
with the Dominicans respecting the accommodations to native 
customs which the Jesuits allowed ; and the case being decided 
at Rome against the Jesuits, the prosperity of their missions 
declined, and the suppression of the order crippled them still 

Of the missions of the Jesuits in America, the Penny Cyclo- 
pedia, after noticing the conflicting accounts and the difficulty 
of forming a just estimate, proceeds : 


"It may perhaps be said with truth that the Jesuit missions in 
America did little to develop the energy and good qualities of the na- 
tives, although in Paraguay, and in Upper and Lower California, the 
missionaries were in possession of all the resources of the country, and 
enjoyed the extraordinary power which these circumstances conferred. 
. . . Whether from ignorance of human nature or the unfitness of ec- 
clesiastics to superintend the whole social economy of a people, the con- 
verted natives both of North and South America dwindled under their 
care into the most helpless and ignorant of beings. The object of the 
experiment was to bring a wild race to domesticated habits, and the 
Indians were gathered into communities where they worked for a com- 
mon stock ; but their independent character was destroyed, and nothing 
better arose in its place. . . . The Jesuits in the course of about a 
century and a half, converted upwards of a million of the natives of 
both Americas. In Dr. Forbes's ' California,' compiled from original 
sources, the process of conversion is described as consisting of the offer 
of a mess of pottage and holy water ; the acceptance of the latter being 
the condition of the former grant, and its reception a proof of faith. 
Attendance to prayers and meals were the exterior evidence of con- 

The Congregatio de Propaganda Fide [^congregation for pro- 
pagating the faith] , founded at Rome in 1622, for the support and 
direction of foreign missions, is one of the congregations of the 
cardinals (Chap. V.). The celebrated college of the Propaganda 
for educating missionaries, which was added to this congrega- 
tion by Urban VIII. in 1627, is noticed in the account of Rome 
in Chapter I. " Towards the close of the 17th century," says 
the Penny Cyclopedia, " there were not fewer than 80 semina- 
ries in different parts of Europe which prepared and sent out 
missionaries." At various times colleges have been estab- 
lished at Rome and elsewhere for the education of natives of 
particular countries to be missionaries to their countrymen. 
Of this kind were the Greek, German, English, Irish, Scotch, 
Belgian, South American, and American (established in 1859 
for the United States) colleges at Rome ; the English college 
at Rheims and Douay ; the Chinese college at Naples, &c. 
There are also seminaries in various missions for training a 


native clergy ; and some orders (Jesuits, Franciscans, Domini- 
cans, Lazarists, Carmelites, Capuchins, <fcc.) are charged with 
the supply of missionaries to certain missionary dioceses. The 
seminary of foreign missions at Paris has supplied a very large 
number of Roman Catholic missionaries to China and the coun- 
tries south of it. The missionary college of All Hallows, near 
Dublin in Ireland, is of growing importance, and can accommo- 
date 200 pupils. Other sources of missionaries also exist, 
which need not be particularly enumerated. 

The first general society of Roman Catholics for the support 
of missionaries was the " Association for the Propagation of the 
Faith," formed at Lyons in France, May 3, 1822, and since 
gradually extended over nearly all the countries in the world. 
This is the most important of all the Roman Catholic missionary 
societies, and several popes have warmly recommended it and 
granted indulgences to all its members on certain conditions. It 
is a purely voluntary society or association ; it neither appoints 
nor controls any missionaries ; but simply aids those sent out 
by other agencies ; its members contribute each one sou [= 
nearly 1 cent] weekly, and are expected to repeat daily one Pater- 
noster [= Lord's prayer] and one Ave Maria [== Hail Mary], 
adding the invocation, " St. Francis Xavier, pray for us ; " the 
contributors in each diocese are organized in sections, hundreds, 
and divisions, every 10 contributors paying their contributions 
to the chief of their section, every 10 of these chiefs to the 
chief of their hundred, 10 chiefs of hundreds to the chief of 
their division, each chief appointing his 10 subordinate chiefs, 
the chiefs of divisions constituting an administrative council for 
each diocese and making their returns to this council at its 
sittings, and the whole disbursement of funds being made by 
the superior councils at Paris and Lyons. The services of all 
these collectors and managers are gratuitous. The association 
publishes over 200,000 copies of the " Annals of the Propagation 
of the Faith " every 2 months, and makes a yearly report of its 
receipts and disbursements. Its gross receipts were $4,262 in 

1822; $57,650 in 1832; $601,428 in 1842; $891,025 in 1852 . 


$940,045 in 1861; during the first 30 years of its existence 
(1822-51) $8,737,610, of which, just about ($1,753,883) was 
sent to the United States. 

The " Association of the Holy Childhood of Jesus " is a 
children's missionary society, also in France. Its object is to 
rescue pagan children in China and Anam, who are destined 
to death, and to give them a Christian education. Its annual 
receipts have been nearly $200,000. 

The " Association of St. Louis " was established in France in 
1859 to publish and circulate among Mohammedans an Arabic 
paper ("the Eagle of Paris"), Roman Catholic books, <fec. 

The Leopold Association was formed in Austria in 1829 for 
the support of Roman Catholic missions in North America. 
Its annual receipts may have been $50,000. 

Other associations have also been formed in France, Aus- 
tria, Bavaria, and other countries of Europe, for supporting 
Roman Catholic missions in North America, Western Africa, 
Nubia, Asiatic Turkey, Palestine, <fec. 

Some of the differences between Roman Catholics and Prot- 
estants in regard to missions and missionary operations are 
readily understood from what has been already said. The 
direction of Roman Catholic missions belongs, of course, to the 
bishops and vicars apostolic, who are themselves appointed 
by the pope and responsible only to him. And while Protest- 
ant societies send out many married missionaries and support 
families on missionary ground, the Roman Catholics send 
single men or communities of sisters who live on the people. 
Roman Catholic missions are therefore much less expensive 
than Protestant in proportion to the number of missionary 
laborers employed. Another grand difference between Roman 
Catholic and Protestant missionaries is found in the reliance 
of the former on baptism and other sacraments of the Church 
for the Christianization of unbelievers rather than on the study 
and use of the Bible. This point may be illustrated by some 
extracts from missionary letters published in the " Annals of 


the Propagation of the Faith." A Roman Catholic missionary 
in India writes : 

u To show the Scriptures, without long previous preparation, to a pa- 
gan, for the purpose of exciting him to a spirit of inquiry, or even to 
a desire of knowing the truth, is, in my opinion, an absurdity. I have 
under my care from 7 to 8,000 native Christians, and I should be very 
much troubled to find, among them all, 4 persons capable of understand- 
ing the sense of the Bible, or to whom the simple text of the Bible 
could be of any use. I have prepared for the instruction of my numer- 
ous flock a little catechism of 10 or 12 pages, in which are explained 
the principal truths of the gospel. It is prepared in as simple and 
clear a style as possible, and I have explained it many times to my 
assembled people, and yet the great majority do not understand it Of 
what use could the Scriptures be to persons incapable of understanding 
a little catechism of 10 or 12 pages written in the simplest style ?" 

The apostolic vicar of Su-Tchuen in China, after reporting 
the baptism in 6 years of over 112,815 pagan children in dan- 
ger of death and tjie salvation of f of these who actually died 
the same year they were baptized, proceeds : 

" "We pay faithful persons, men and women, who are acquainted 
with the diseases of children, to seek and baptize those who are found 
dangerously ill. It is easy to meet at fairs a crowd of beggars with 
their children in extreme distress. They may be seen everywhere in 
the roads, at the gates of the towns and villages, in the most needy con- 
dition. Our male and female baptizers approach them with soothing, 
compassionate words, and offer pills to the little sufferers, with expres- 
sions of the most lively interest The parents willingly permit our 
people to examine the condition of their children, and to sprinkle on 
their foreheads some drops of water, securing their salvation while 
they pronounce the sacramental words. Our Christian baptizers are 
divided into 2 classes : those who travel about seeking for children- in 
danger of death ; and those who remain at their posts in the towns and 
villages and devote themselves to the same work in their respective 
neighborhoods. I intend to print some rules for their direction, and to 
stimulate them all in their work. . . . 

" The expenses of a traveling baptizer are 150 francs [= $27.90] 
a year, including his medicines and board; 100 francs Q$18.60] are. 


Bufficient for a stationary male baptizer and 80 or 85 francs [$15 or 
$16] for a female; and yet the number of baptizers is so great that 
the whole expenses this year [1847] amount to 10,000 francs" [= 

From the statistics of Canon Joseph Ortalda's work entitled 
" Italian Apostolic Missionaries in the Foreign Missions over 
the Four Parts of the World," published at Turin in 1864, and 
quoted in the Civilta Cattolica and in the Catholic World for 
January, 1866, are derived the following statements. Ortalda 
reckons 2055 Italian foreign missionaries, 529 of them in 
Europe, 610 in Asia, 167 in Africa, 696 in America, and 53 in 
Oceanica ; 41 being bishops, 162 secular priests, 490 Jesuits, 
447 Capuchins, 368 Minor Observants (Franciscans), and the 
rest mostly monastics of nearly 20 different orders. Ortalda's 
table of Roman Catholic Missions in Asia gives for the 22 
apostolic vicariates and 2 apostolic prefectures in the empire 
of China (including Hong-Kong) 297 missionaries and 446,465 
Roman Catholics ; for the 10 apostolic vicariates in Farther 
India, or Indo-China, including Siam, Cochin-China, Tonquin, 
Ac., 325 missionaries and 561,000 Catholics ; for the apostolic 
vicariate of Japan 10 missionaries and 12,000 Roman Cath- 
olics ; for the 20 apostolic vicariates in the East Indies, includ- 
ing Hindostan, Ceylon, Ava and Pegu, 325 missionaries, 409 
native priests, and 994,220 Roman Catholics ; for the French 
colonies in India, 12 missionaries and 7,000 Roman Catholics ; 
for the Dutch colonies in India and Oceanica, 7 missionaries 
and 11,000 Roman Catholics ; for Laboan and its vicinity in 
the Indian Archipelago, 6 missionaries and 3,000 Roman Cath- 
olics ; for 2 apostolic vicariates, 2 apostolic delegations, and 1 
apostolic prefecture in Western Asia (Persia, Turkey and Ara- 
bia) 182 missionaries for 235,286 Roman Catholics under their 
charge. Since the date of Ortalda's statistics, the number of 
Roman Catholic priests in China has been estimated at 500 (in 
1867). The American Year-Book for 1869 gives the Roman 
Catholic population in China and dependencies as 700,000 ; 
in Japan, 100,000 ; in Hindostan, Ceylon, and Indo-China, 


1,600,000; and in the East India islands, 2,000,000. The 
Roman Catholic population of Africa is mostly in the Portu- 
guese, French, and British possessions, and is estimated at 
over 1,100,000. But hardly any of these estimates are thor- 
oughly reliable. 

In regard to the comparative success of Roman Catholic and 
Protestant missions, and their power of changing the national 
thoughts of countries, a recent Protestant reviewer says that 
the Roman Catholics 

" Count very numerous converts in China and Tonquin, but marked 
success nowhere else. The national movements in heathen countries 
are more toward Protestantism than Romanism. The age of Catholic 
colonization has passed ; and Protestant colonies and missions are rap- 
idly supplanting paganism in Southern and Western Africa, New Zeal- 
and, and Australia. The Pacific islands are rapidly becoming Protest- 
ant Hardly one is Catholic. Madagascar is rapidly following their 
example. India never will be Catholic, though 300 years of missions 
have given that faiih every advantage till within 50 years. The re- 
ligion of the Bible is rapidly permeating the native educated mind, 
and with this movement Catholicism has little sympathy." 



THE " Holy Office," says the Penny Cyclopedia, " is the name 
of an ecclesiastical tribunal established in the 13th century 
by popes Honorius III., Gregory IX., and Innocent IV., to 
try heretics, blasphemers, apostates, relapsed Jews or Moham- 
medans, witches and wizards, polygamists, and other persons 
charged with infractions of the canons of the Church. The 
judges of this court were called inquisitors, whence the tribu- 
nal itself has been commonly styled the * Holy Inquisition.' " 
The punishment of heresy and the name of inquisitors were 
not, indeed, new. In A.D. 325, the emperor Constantino ban- 
ished the Arians and threatened death to those who should 
keep and use the books of Arius. Constantius, A.D. 353, for- 
bade heathen sacrifices under pain of death. The first law 
under the Christian emperors for punishing heresy with death 
was set forth by Theodosius I. against the Manicheans, &c., 
A.D. 382, and Priscillian, a Spanish Gnostic, was beheaded for 
heresy A.D. 385. The trial and punishment in all such cases 
were left to the civil magistrate. In process of time, however, 
councils not only condemned certain doctrines as heretical, but 
sometimes specified the punishments for heretics, Jews, and 
apostates ; and bishops, after examining the accused, admon- 
ished them, if guilty, and then handed them over, if obstinate, 
to the secular courts. 

Pope Innocent III., who considered heresy the deadliest of 
sins, sent 2 legates with the title of " inquisitors " into the 
south of France, to extirpate the heresy of the Albigenses (see 


Chap. XII.). These legates, by the pope's authority, held their 
own court, summoned before it suspected heretics, tried, con- 
demned, and punished them even with death. In 1206, Doin- 
inic de Guzman, founder of the Dominicans, was associated 
with them and became one of their most zealous agents. But 
this was only a local and temporary commission. 

In 1215 the 4th council of the Lateran enacted new and 
severe canons against heretics, and made it the chief business 
of the bishops' synodal tribunals to search out and punish here- 
tics. Pope Honorius III. issued new provisions against heretics, 
which were enforced by the emperor Frederic II. in 1224, con- 
demning impenitent heretics to death, and penitent ones to per- 
petual imprisonment. The council of Toulouse, in which a 
papal legate presided, ordered in 1229 the establishment of a 
board of inquisitors in every city, composed of a clergyman and 
3 laymen. But as many bishops were accused of remissness or 
partiality, pope Gregory IX. in 1232 and 1233 altered the in- 
stitution, and established in Germany, Aragon, Southern France, 
Lombardy, &c., inquisitors' courts or "inquisitorial missions,'* 
appointing generally Dominican monks as inquisitors. Says 
the Penny Cyclopedia : 

"The Inquisition was introduced into Rome as well as other parts 
of Italy by Gregory IX., and intrusted to the Dominicans, but it was a 
long time before it was established as a distinct and permanent court. 
Inquisitors were appointed by the pope on particular occasions, who 
visited the various provinces and towns, proclaiming to all persons the 
obligation they were under of informing against those whom they knew 
or suspected of being heretics, under pain of excommunication. At the 
same time they also made it known that all persons guilty of heresy 
who came of themselves before the inquisitor within a certain fixed 
period, and accused themselves and professed repentance, should receive 
absolution and be only subject to a canonical penance. These penan- 
ces were public, humiliating, and very severe, as may be seen by a let- 
ter of St. Dominic concerning a heretic whom he had converted, by the 
acts of the council of Beziers, A.D. 1233, and of the council of Tarra- 
cona in 1242. After the expiration of the period of grace, the inquisitor 


proceeded ex-officio against those who were denounced, the name of 
the informer being kept secret : he examined witnesses privately in 
presence of a notary and 2 priests, and having taken down the evi- 
dence in writing, he read it over to the witnesses, l who were asked 
whether they confirmed what had been read. If there appeared to he 
sufficient grounds for proceeding against the accused, the inquisitor or- 
dered his arrest by the municipal officers, and he was taken to the 
convent of the Dominicans, if there was one in the town, or to the 
prison of the ecclesiastical court. He was then interrogated by the 
inquisitor, and his answers might be used afterwards as evidence 
against him. If the accused denied the charge of heresy, he was sup- 
plied with a copy of the instruction and depositions, but without the 
names of the accuser and witnesses, and with the omission of such cir- 
cumstances as might discover them. The accused having made his 
answer or defense, which was taken down in writing, if he denied the 
charges, the inquisitor, together with the bishop of the diocese or his 
delegate, if they thought proper, ordered him to be put to the torture a 
in order to obtain his confession. The torture might be repeated 3 
times, but it was afterwards ordered to be applied only once ; this regu- 
lation however was often evaded by suspending the torments and then 
resuming them, and considering the whole as one torture. If in the 
end there were not sufficient grounds for the conviction of the prisoner, 
he was declared to be 'suspected of lieresy,' was obliged to make a 
public abjuration of all heresies, and was subject to certain penalties, 
according to the nature of the case. If the accused was convicted of 
heresy, but professed his repentance, he was condemned to prison for 
life, a penalty which however might be mitigated by the inquisitor. 
But if he was a ' relapsed," that is to say, had been tried before, and 
found guilty, or only strongly suspected, there was no mercy for him ; 

1 The councils of B6ziers and Narbonne, and pope Innocent IV., allowed crim- 
inals and infamous persons and accomplices to be witnesses, and conviction of here- 
sy to be effected by their testimony. 

8 According to the Penny Cyclopedia, the first trace of any ecclesiastical sanction 
of the use of torture, even in the case of heresy or apostasy, is found in a decree of 
pope Innocent IV,. in 1252; and this decree does not authorize the inquisitors to 
use it, but calls on civil magistrates to press offenders to confession against them- 
selves and others by torture ; but subsequently the necessity for secrecy in the pro- 
ceedings of the inquisition led to the use of torture by the inquisitors themselves. 


he was ' relaxatus,' that is to say, given over to the lay magistrate, who, 
according to the civil and canon laws, was bound to put him to death 
upon the sentence of the inquisitor which declared him a heretic. The 
only favor shown to the relapsed heretic who confessed and abjured his 
guilt was, to be strangled before he was burnt If the convicted here- 
tic was not relapsed, but impenitent, a respite of the sentence was 
granted in order to effect his conversion, and if he at la<t abjured, his 
life was spared, and he was sentenced to perpetual imprisonment If 
he persisted in his impenitence, he was publicly burned alive. Such 
were the principal characteristics of the old or delegated Inquisition as 
it existed from the 13th century to the latter part of the loth, and the 
regulations of which are found in the ' Dlrectorium Inquisitorum' 
[= Directory of Inquisitors] of Friar Nicholas Eymeric, a native of 
Catalonia, and a Dominican monk of the 1 4th century, who held the 
office of chief inquisitor hi Aragon for 42 years." 

In the 15th century the Inquisition had nearly fallen into 
disuse in Aragon from the extermination of the heretics who 
had occasioned its introduction ; but it had not yet taken 
permanent root in Castile and Leon and Portugal. What 
is called the " Modern or Spanish Inquisition " was intro- 
duced into Spain in 1480. Alfonso de Hodeja, Dominican 
prior in Seville, and Friar Philip de Barberis, inquisitor in 
Sicily, had suggested to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1477 the 
establishment of the Inquisition in Spain for punishing those 
Christians who secretly relapsed to Judaism. Isabella hes- 
itated ; but means were found to alarm her conscience ; and 
she solicited and obtained in 1478 a papal bull authorizing 
Ferdinand and Isabella " to appoint 2 or 3 bishops or other 
dignitaries of the church, aged at least 40 years, of irre- 
proachable character, graduates in theology and the canon 
law, who were to be commissioned to seek after and discover, 
throughout the dominions of the Spanish sovereigns, all apos- 
tates, heretics, and their abettors, with full power to proceed 
against them according to law and custom." After the execu- 
tion of the bull had been suspended for 2 years by Isabella, 
the sovereigns appointed two Dominicans as inquisitors, with 
an assessor and a fiscal attorney. Of the commencement of 


their work the Penny Cyclopedia thus speaks, a principal au- 
thority being the Jesuit Mariana's History of Spain : 

" The inquisitors established their court in the Dominican convent 
of St. Paul of Seville, whence, on the 2d of January, 1481, they is- 
sued their first edict, by which they ordered the arrest of several new 
Christians, as they were styled [= converts from Judaism or their 
children], who were strongly suspected of heresy, and the sequestra- 
tion of their property, denouncing the pain of excommunication against 
those who favored or abetted them. The number of prisoners soon be- 
became *o great, that the Dominican convent not being large enough to 
contain them, the court was removed to the castle of Triana, in a suburb 
of Seville. The inquisitors issued another edict, by which they ordered 
every person, under pain of mortal sin and excommunication, to inform 
against those who had relapsed into the Jewish faith or rites, or who 
gave reason for suspecting them of being relapsed, specifying numer- 
ous indications by which they might be known. Sentences of death 
soon followed; and in the course of that year, 1481, 298 ' new Chris- 
tians * were burnt alive in the city of Seville, 2,000 in other parts of 
Andalusia, and 17,000 were subjected to various penalties. The prop- 
erty of those who were executed, which was considerable, was confis- 

The terror excited by these executions caused a vast number 
of ' new Christians ' to emigrate ; some, condemned as contuma- 
cious, appealed to the pope, who revoked the authority previously 
given to the sovereigns to appoint other inquisitors, recommend- 
ed mildness and moderation, and appointed Thomas de Torque- 
mada inquisitor-general of the kingdoms of Castile and Ara- 
gon, with full jurisdiction over all inquisitors in Spain and its 
dependencies. Torquemada chose 2 jurists as his assessors 
and councilors, and created 4 subordinate courts, at Seville, 
Cordova, Jaen, and Villa Real (afterwards at Toledo). The 
organic laws or " instructions " of the new tribunal were 
framed by Torquemada and his assessors and promulgated in 
1484 ; new articles were added in 1488 and 1498 ; and the 
inquisitor-general Valdez in 1561 compiled a new series of or- 
dinances which regulated ever after the practice and proceed- 


ings of the Spanish Inquisition. Tho Penny Cyclopedia says 
of these : 

" They are substantially the same as those already noticed as being 
in practice by the old Inquisition, but are more minute and rather more 
unfavorable to the accused. By the old practice, for instance, the 
names of the witnesses for the prosecution were in many cases com- 
municated to the accused, to whom they were of great use for his 
defense. Confiscation of the property of those who were condemned 
was not generally enforced under the old practice, and this was more 
particularly the case in the kingdom of Aragon Another im- 
portant characteristic of the new Spanish Inquisition was its compact 
organization and independence of all other authorities. The inquisitor- 
general was appointed for life; he was proposed by the king and ap- 
proved by the pope. He appointed all other inqui-itors under him, as 
well as visitors and other agents. He had full and discretionary power 
by the papal bulls in all matters of heresy. The grand inquisitor, 
being thus placed as a distinct power between the king and the pope, 
was in reality independent of both." 

An instance of this independence is the case of Carranza, 
archbishop of Toledo, who had attended the emperor Charles 
V. in his last moments, and who, in spite of all the influence of 
the pope and of the prelates at the council of Trent, was con- 
fined in the dungeons of the Spanish Inquisition 7 years, and 
finally, after pope Gregory XIII. had been induced reluctantly 
to declare that the archbishop was strongly suspected of be- 
lieving 16 propositions qualified as Lutheran, was sentenced to 
5 years' imprisonment in a Dominican convent and other pen- 
ances. The archbishop soon after died in the convent at 
Rome where he was detained, after solemnly declaring in the 
presence of several witnesses " that he had never fallen into 
the errors with which he had been charged ; that his expressions 
had been distorted into a meaning totally different from his ; 
that he however humbly submitted to the judgment pronounced 
by the sovereign pontiff, and heartily forgave all those who had 
taken part against him in the trial, and would pray for them 
before the throne of grace." In his epitaph pope Gregory 


XIII. had him described as a prelate " illustrious for his birth, 
his life, his doctrine, his preaching, and his charity." 

The " Congregation of the Holy Office" (see Chapter V.), 
founded at Rome in 1543 by pope Paul III., consisted at first of 
6 cardinals, styled " inquisitors-general of the faith," who had 
the superintendence over all other inquisitors, and full author- 
ity to proceed, without the concurrence of the bishops, against 
all heretics or persons suspected of heresy, to punish them, 
confiscate their property, degrade and deliver to the secular 
courts all clerical offenders, call in if necessary the assistance 
of the secular arm, appoint inquisitors and other officials, and 
hear and decide appeals from other inquisitors, but without 
interfering with the privileges of the Spanish Inquisition as 
then established. In 1564 popes Pius IV. and V. confirmed 
and extended the powers of the Roman Inquisition, which 
were however resisted in France. Pope Sixtus V., in 1588, 
made the " Holy Roman and Universal Inquisition " one of his 
15 congregations, to consist of 12 cardinals with several pre- 
lates as assessors, several monks as consultors, and clergymen 
and lawyers styled " qualificators," who prepared the cases. 

The Inquisition as established in Italy in the 16th century, 
was generally very different from the Spanish Inquisition. 
The inquisitors, except in Sicily, were instructed to proceed 
according to the usual form of the ecclesiastical courts ; the 
depositions and names of the witnesses were to be communi- 
cated to the accused ; sentence of condemnation was not ac- 
companied by confiscation, and was subject to the sanction of 
the temporal sovereign. Among the Neapolitans cases of 
heresy were tried, as before, by the bishops' courts. Sicily 
alone, as an old dependency of Aragon, received the Spanish 
Inquisition. Venice had a political state Inquisition, but the 
ecclesiastical Inquisition was subject to many checks and its 
victims were put to death by drowning. 

The Inquisition was abolished in several of the Italian 
states about a century ago : it was abolished by Napoleon in 
1808 throughout Italy ; and was reestablished in the States of 


the Church in 1814, and in Tuscany and Sardinia in 1833 ; and 
it was finally deprived of its power in Sardinia in 1848, and in 
the rest of Italy as the free institutions of Sardinia were ex- 
tended in 1859 and 1870. 

In February, 1849, the Inquisition at Rome, which has been 
styled " the mildest of all tribunals of this nature," was sup- 
pressed under the short-lived Roman Republic ; but in June, 
1849, it was reestablished under Pius IX. in an apartment at 
the Vatican. Dr. De Sanctis, who had been for 10 years a 
qualificator of this Inquisition, has given a description of the 
palace of the Inquisition and of its contents, as these appeared 
when they were thrown open to the public in April, 1849. 
From the description published in his book, " Rome, Christian 
and Papal," the following account is abridged. 

This palace, situated near the Vatican, and entered by iron gates, 
was composed of 2 rectangles united by a trapezium, the first rectangle 
for the use of the inquisitors and other officers, the second for the 
prisoners. In the 1st story, an immense hall led to two large and 
commodious apartments for the father commissary and the assessor; 
then came the hall of the tribunal, with the colossal arms of Pius V. 
(its builder) at one end, a large arm-chair surmounted by a huge cru- 
cifix, for the father commissary, an elliptical table and 20 chairs for 
the consultors, and a picture of St. Dominic ; next were the archives, 
not to be entered, according to an inscription over the door, under pen- 
alty of excommunication. The " chancery," or 1st part of the archives, 
contained tables and writing materials and the records of all the mod- 
ern trials since the middle of the 18th century. The library, or 2d 
part, contained all the correspondence of the Holy Office, all works 
in any language which praised the Inquisition, a complete collection 
of the works of the Italian reformers, and manuscripts found in the 
possession of heretical priests who were imprisoned or deprived of 
their property by the censor. The 3d part contained the ancient pro- 
ceedings from the time of Pius V., as the famous trials of Pasquali, 
of Paleario, of Carnesecchi and of many others burned in Rome, the 
plans for the Valteline massacres (of the Waldenses in 1620), the doc- 
uments of the Gunpowder Plot of England (1605), of the St. Bar- 
tholomew massacre in France, &c. Beyond the Archives, a trap in 


the floor of the room occupied by one of the father " companions " led 
down by a stair-case to a recent opening made in the wall by order of 
the republican government, and this ended in a subterranean cavity 
like a sepulchre, with the earth on its bottom black and spongy, and 
on one side heaped up, covering half-buried human skeletons. In the 
middle of the 2d rectangle, where the prisons were, was a dark and 
damp court-yard, and all around it were small gates with bars of iron, 
showing where were the old dungeons r little, low, damp cells, hardly 
large enough to contain one person. Below these cells were subter- 
ranean passages, fo?med by the ruins of Nero's ancient circus, in one 
of which still existed about 30 steps of a stone stair-case, which those 
whom the Inquisition condemned to die by being walled up had to de- 
scend. These victims, as the skeletons found at the bottom showed, 
had their hands bound behind their backs, and were buried up to their 
shoulders in earth mixed with lime ; then the opening was walled up, 
and they were left to die by starvation. In another small and worse 
court-yard were 60 very small dungeons in 3 stories, each dungeon 
having an enormous iron ring fastened to the wall or to the pavement, 
and used for clasping the prisoner's waist. In the center of one of 
these dungeons was a large stone covering a hole in which many skel- 
etons were seen, but whether they were buried dead or alive was not 
known. Some of the half- effaced inscriptions on these prison-walls 
were : " The Lord is my shepherd ; I shall not want : " " The caprice 
and cruelty of man shall never separate me from thy Church, O Christ, 
my only hope : " " Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteous- 
ness* sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." The modern prisons 
were narrow cells in 2 compartments, separated by a long and narrow 
corridor. On each door was placed a crucifix, but the Savior's face was 
represented as menacing and ferocious. In each dungeon was written 
in large letters a threatening passage from the Bible, as, " Set thou a 
wicked man over him, and let Satan stand at his right hand ; " "Cursed 
shalt thou be when thou comest in, and cursed shalt thou be when thou 
goest out," &c. The ancient hall of torture ' was under ground and 
approached by a narrow stone stair-case. There was still " fastened 
into the wall an iron hook which sustained the axis of the wheel, and 
in the center was a square stone, in which a post was fixed, which 

1 "Pius VII., after his restoration [in 1814], is said to have abolished the use 
of the torture," says the Penny Cyclopedia. 


served for torture by means of a rope. Iron rings fixed in the dome 
showed the means of other tortures. A large chimney-place in one of 
the angles of the room indicated the place of torture by fire. But 
lately this chamber had been converted into the wine cellar of the rev- 
erend father-inquisitor. At the side of this cellar the republican gov- 
ernment had had a wall torn down, which, although painted gray and 
in such a manner as to appear ancient, yet, its mortar having been ex- 
amined by masons, was recognized to be of very recent construction. 
This opening conducted into a high room where there were 2 large 
ovens, made in the form of hives, and these ovens were filled with cal- 
cined bones. When the inquisition could no longer burn its victims in 
public, they were burned secretly in these ovens." 

Shoberl, who draws his materials from Catholic writers, 
gives the following description of the 3 kinds of torture, by 
the rope, by water, and by fire, commonly used by the Inqui- 
sition to extort confessions from an accused or suspected per- 
son : 

" The first, called squassation, consisted in tying back the arms by 
a cord, fastening weights to bis feet, and drawing him up to the full 
height of the place by means of a pulley. Having been kept sus- 
pended for some time, he was suddenly let down with a jerk to within 
a little distance of the floor, and with repeated shocks all his joints 
were dislocated ; for this species of torture was continued for an hour 
and sometimes longer, according to the pleasure of the inquisitors pres- 
ent, and to what the strength of the sufferer seemed capable of enduring. 
If this torture was not sufficient to overcome him, that of water was 
resorted to. He was obliged to swallow a great quantity, and then 
laid in a wooden trough, provided with a lid that might be pressed 
down as tight as the operators pleased. Across the trough was a bar, 
on which the sufferer's back rested, and by which the spine was broken. 
The torture by fire was equally painful. A very brisk fire was made ; 
and, the prisoner being extended on the ground, the soles of his feet 
were rubbed with lard or some other combustible matter, and placed 
close to the fire, till the agony extorted from him such a confession as 
his tormentors required. Not satisfied with their success, the judges 
doomed their miserable victims to the torture a second time, to make 
them own the motive or intention for the actions which they acknowl- 


elged to have committed ; and a third time, to force them to reveal 
their accomplices or abettors." 

The Auto-da-Ft or Auto-de-FS (= Act of Faith) was the 
public and solemn reading of extracts from the trials before 
the court of the Inquisition, and of the sentences pronounced 
by the judges of that tribunal. The Auto da FS properly ended 
with the transfer of the offenders to the secular authority for 
the execution of the sentences ; but it is popularly applied to 
the execution of the sentences, particularly by burning. The 
clearing of the prisons of the Inquisition, which is implied in 
the public and general act, took place in Spain, Portugal, <fec., 
at the accession or marriage of a king, birth of an heir appar- 
ent, &c. Similar solemnities on a smaller scale occurred every 
year on the Friday before Good Friday. The general descrip- 
tion of an Auto da F6 is thus given by Shoberl : 

" By daybreak, the tolling of the great bell of the cathedral summoned 
the faithful to the horrid tragedy. Persons of the highest distinction 
eagerly offered their services to escort the victims ; and grandees were 
often seen assuming the character of familiars [^servants and spies] of 
the Inquisition. The Dominicans, with the standard of the execrable 
tribunal, opened the procession. The condemned walked barefoot, with 
a pointed cap on their heads, and dressed in a san-benito, a yellow frock 
with a cross on the breast and on the back, and covered with painted 
representations of the faces of fiends. The penitents, on whom some 
penance only was imposed, came first, and after the cross, which was 
borne behind them, followed such as were doomed to die. Effigies of 
persons who had escaped, and the remains of the dead that had incur- 
red condemnation, appeared in the fearful procession lying in black 
coffins, on which were painted flames and infernal figures ; and it was 
closed by priests and monks. Passing through the principal streets of 
the city to the cathedral, a sermon was preached, and their sentence 
read to the delinquents, each of them standing meanwhile, with an ex- 
tinguished taper in his hand, before a crucifix. A servant of the Inquis- 
ition then smote them on the breast with his hand, to signify that the 
tribunal had ceased to have any power over them. The condemned 
were then delivered up to an officer of the civil authority, and soon 
afterwards conducted to the place of execution. Each was asked 


in what faith he would die ; if he said, ' in the Catholic,' he was strangled 
before he was burned ; the others, who persisted in their opinions, were 
consigned alive to the flames. These Autos da Fi, of* which the pro- 
fessed historians of the Inquisition give such harrowing details as thrill 
the blood with horror, the people of both sexes and all ages thronged 
to witness with transports of satisfaction and joy surpassing those dis- 
played on any other occasion. Even kings deemed it a meritorious act 
to attend those cruel exhibitions, with their whole court, and to feast 
their eyes on the torments of the wretched sufferers." 

At a general Auto da F6 held at Madrid, on Sunday, June 30, 
1680, by request of king Charles II., and minutely described by 
Olmo, an officer of the Inquisition, who was present, there were 
55 condemned to the fire, of whom 21 were present in person, 
and 34 in effigy. The ceremony, including the procession, 
mass, sermon, reading of extracts from the processes and sen- 
tences of all the condemned, and absolution of those who had 
repented, lasted from 7 A.M. till 9 P.M., while the burning 
lasted from 4 P.M. till 9 1-2 A.M. of Monday. The Autos da 
FS became very rare in Spain in the 18th century. The last 
person burnt by the sentence of the Inquisition in Spain was a 
woman accused of having made a contract with the devil. She 
was burnt at Seville, Nov. 7, 1781. The Spanish Inquisition 
was suppressed by Napoleon's decree in 1808 in the parts occu- 
pied by the French, and in 1813 by the Cortes ; it was reestab- 
lished by Ferdinand VII. in 1814, and again suppressed by the 
Cortes in 1820 ; reestablished under Ferdinand in 1825-6 ; 
again abolished in 1834, and its property confiscated in 1835 
to pay the public debt. Col. Lemanouski and his French 
troops, who destroyed the Inquisition near Madrid in 1809, 
found in its dungeons, notwithstanding the previous disclaimers 
of the holy fathers, not only decaying and decayed bodies still 
chained, but also, as he says, " the living sufferer of every age 
and of both sexes, from the young man and maiden to those 
of threescore and ten years, all as naked as when they were 
born into the world," and " the instruments of torture, of every 
kind which the ingenuity of men or devils could invent." 


The Spanish Inquisition was introduced into Sicily and Sar- 
dinia as well as the Spanish colonies in America, and the tri- 
bunals of Lima, Carthagena, and Mexico in America rivaled 
those of Spain itself in severity. It was established in Portu- 
gal in 1557 with nearly the same organization as in Spain ; but 
its power was broken a century ago, and it was abolished about 
50 years ago in Portugal and its dependencies, including Brazil 
and Goa. The Inquisition of Goa in the East Indies was long 
famous for its power and severity. 

Llorente, who had been secretary-general of the Spanish In- 
quisition, and had at his disposal all its papers, wrote its his- 
tory after it was suppressed in 1808 by the French. Modern 
Catholic writers have contested the accuracy of his citations 
from the documents of the Inquisition ; but Protestant histori- 
ans generally regard his authority in this respect as unshaken. 
He estimated the number burned alive in Spain under Torque- 
mada (inquisitor-general, 1483-98) at 8,800; under Deza (in- 
quisitor-general, 1499-1506) at 1,664 ; under cardinal Ximenes 
(inquisitor-general, 1507-17) at 2,536 ; from 1483 to 1808 
(325 years) at 31,912. He estimated that 17,659 were burned 
in effigy, and 291,450 subjected to rigorous pains and penances, 
as imprisonment, galley-slavery, &c., during those 325 
years in Spain. The number of the victims of the Inquisition 
in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and in Portugal, Sicily, 
Sardinia, and other parts of Europe can not be ascertained. 

The Inquisition is by no means destitute of defenders and 
advocates in the 19th century. A Protestant missionary in 
Italy in 1853 wrote thus ; 

" If I had not seen, with my own eyes, articles from the Tablet [of 
London.], the Univers [of Paris], the Cattolico of Genoa, the Armenia^ 
and Campana of Turin, the Courier des Alpes, and the Echo du Mont 
Blanc of Savoy, and a Roman Catholic Journal of Milan, I could not 
have believed how warm and unanimous the Roman Catholic prelates 
and their supporters are for the formal reestablishment of the Inquisition, 
and how sanguine they are in the gradual attainment of this, their dar- 
ling object, in every country under their control and influence." 


The Catholic World, published in New York, and " heartily 
approved " by the archbishop, pope, <fcc., had for its leading ar- 
ticle in February, 1869, a highly eulogistic account of cardinal 
Ximenes, the 3d Inquisitor-general in Spain, from which the 
following is taken : 

" The council of Toulouse, in 1229, issued various decrees relative 
to the suppression of heresy, and may thus be considered as founding 
the first Inquisition. The Dominicans especially were employed in the 
work of extirpating heresy, and but for the exertions of such men the 
nations of Europe would have been overrun with Manicheism and va- 
rious other forms of pestilent error. The Jews settled in Spain, pene- 
trated in disguise every branch of society, and strove in every age to 
Judaize the people. The Inquisition was directed in a particular 
manner against this subtle influence, and the peculiar nature of the evil 
required peculiar remedies and antidotes. It was Judaism in the 
Church that it labored to extirpate, and not the race of Israel dwelling 
in the Peninsula. 

"The inquisitors of Seville took office in 1481, and were appointed 
by the sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella. Nothing was more natural 
than that they should seek to rid the body politic of a gangrene so 
fatal as secret Judaism. Yet Sixtus IV. had occasion to rebuke the 
royal inquisitors for their needless severity and to take measures for 
the mitigation of their sentences. But the institution was placed 
more and more under the control of the state, and whether clergymen 
or laymen were employed, they were alike subservient to the Spanish 
government. In 1492, when, by a memorable edict, the Jews were 
ordered to quit Spain, unless they submitted to be baptized, the sphere 
of the Inquisition's labors became greatly enlarged in consequence of 
the increased number of Jews who professed Christianity from worldly 
motives alone. The Moriscos also, or baptized Moors, came within 
the sphere of its action ; and it was introduced into Granada by the 
advice of the 2d grand-inquisitor, Deza, in order to prevent their re- 
lapsing into Islamism. 

" The sovereigns of Castile and Aragon promoted the Inquisition 
for other motives besides those here alluded to. They used it as an 
instrument for consolidating their own power and breaking that of the 
clergy and nobles. Piombal, at a later period, did the same in Portur 


gal. Hence it was popular with the lower classes, detested by the 
aristocracy, and often censured by popes. To these facts Ranke and 
Balmez abundantly testify, and their evidence is confirmed by that of 
Henry Leo, Guizot, Havemann, Lenormant, De Maistre, and Spittler. 
The falsehoods of Llorente respecting the Inquisition have been fully 
exposed, and those who sift the matter thoroughly will find that it was 
latterly more a political than a religious institution ; that the cruelties 
it exercised have been enormously exaggerated ; that it was in ac- 
cordance with principles universally recognized in its day ; that its 
punishments, however severe, were in keeping with the ordinary 
penal laws ; that the popes constantly endeavored to mitigate its de- 
crees ; that Gregory XIIL, Paul III., Pius IV., and Innocent XIL, 
in particular, reclaimed against its rigors ; that its institutions were 
good on the whole ; its proceedings tempered with mercy ; and that 
Ximenes, the 3d grand-inquisitor, conducted himself in that office with 
moderation and humanity, provided for the instruction of Jewish and 
Moorish converts, and ' adopted every expedient to diminish the number 
of judicial cases reserved for the tribunal of the Inquisition* (Hefele). 
He caused Lucero, the cruel inquisitor of Cordova, to be arrested, 
tried, and deposed from his high functions. He protected Lebrija, 
Vergara, and other learned men from envious aspersions, and kept a 
strict watch over the officers of the Inquisition, lest they should ex- 
ceed their instructions or abuse their power. He endeavored, but 
without success in Ferdinand's lifetime, to exclude laymen from the 
council, and thus free the tribunal as far as possible from state influence. 
The number of thos.e who suffered punishment under his regime has 
been greatly exaggerated by Llorente ; and if he introduced the In- 
quisition into Oran, America, and the Canary Isles, it must be remem- 
bered that its jurisdiction extended over the old Christians settled 
there, and not over the natives. 

"In reviewing Ximenes's conduct in such matters, we must never 
lose sight of the fact that absolute unity of religion was then the aim of 
all Catholic governments, whereas circumstances are now altered, and 
the question of religious liberty, though the same in the abstract, is 
wholly changed in its practical application." 

A brief answer to this defense of the Inquisition may be 
found in the words of the Penny Cyclopedia respecting it : 

" The general opinion of Europe, not merely of Protestant but of 


Roman Catholic Europe, has reprobated and rejected its practice 

It was only in the 13th century that the Inquisition set about discov- 
ering private and silent heretics, and having once established the 
principle that it was necessary to ferret out, as it were, all individuals 
who dissented in their minds from the orthodox church, all kinds of 

means were thought lawful for that purpose It was the horror 

of this terrific code which made nations revolt against this tribunal, 
which excited the war in the Netherlands that lasted nearly half a 
ceniury and ended in the separation of one-half of the country from 
the crown of Spain, which caused rebellions in Aragon, Sicily, Sar- 
dinia, and Naples, and embittered the religious feuds and wars of the 
16th and 17th centuries. And yet with all the ingenuity displayed 
for the discovery and conviction of heretics, it is averred that a great 
number of individuals put to death by the Inquisition were orthodox 
Catholics. Among the proofs of this are the letters of Pietro Martire 
d'Angleria, councilor of the Indies (quoted by Llorente, ch. X.), the 
trials of Carranza and many other bishops, and even of persons who 
have been since canonized by the iloman church, such as St. Francis 
de Borja [ Borgia, 3d general of the Jesuits], St. Ignatius Loyola 
[founder of the Jesuits], St. Theresa, St. Juan de la Cruz [= St. 
John of the Cross ; like Theresa, a Carmelite reformer], &c. Even 
popes have not escaped the attacks of the Inquisition. Sixtus V. 
having published an Italian translation of the Bible, the Spanish In- 
quisition placed it upon its index of forbidden books. The same 
Inquisition condemned the works of Cardinal Noris, a friend of Bene- 
dict XIV., who wrote in a strong manner to the Inquisitor-general on 
the subject. These and other disputes of the Spanish Inquisition 
with Pius V., Clement VIII., and other popes, amply prove the little 
deference which it paid to the papal authority whenever it came in 
opposition to its own assumed supremacy. It is an error to suppose 
that intolerance is peculiar to the Roman Catholic church ; all churches 
and religions Jews, Mohammedans, and heathens, Arians and ortho- 
dox, Greeks and Latins, Protestants and Catholics all have persecuted 
in turn ; but no other church or sect ever invented or enforced for cen- 
turies a permanent system of persecution that can be in any respect 
compared with that of the Inquisition." 

The Inquisition was never permanently established in Eng- 
land, Denmark, Norway, or Sweden; it was established in 


Poland only for a short time ; its power in Germany was de- 
stroyed by the Reformation, though in some parts attempts 
were made to restore it, and it was wholly abolished by Maria 
Theresa more than 100 years ago ; in France it was limited by 
several kings, weakened by various influences, and wholly abol- 
ished by Henry IV. at the end of the 16th century. In Rome 
it continued, with interruptions, until 1870. It has now no 
legal existence in any country, though its decrees are still re- 
garded as law by the Roman Catholic prelates and clergy. 
The rescript of the " General Congregation of the Holy Roman 
and Universal Inquisition," dated August 21, 1850, by which 
the Odd Fellows, Sons of Temperance and all other secret so- 
cieties (^Fenians and all) are included with the Freemasons in 
one general condemnation by the Apostolic See, and in conse- 
quence their members are deprived of the sacraments, unless 
they promise never more to belong to those societies, is pub- 
lished with the decrees of the Baltimore council of 1866. 



It were easy to fill a long chapter with accounts of dreadful 
persecutions set on foot or sanctioned by the authorities of the 
Roman Catholic church. 

The 4th Lateran council, held in 1215, under pope Innocent 
III., is one of the great ecumenical councils ; and, in its 3d 
canon (see Chapter XXIII.), still unrepealed and undisclaimed, 
it not only excommunicates and anathematizes every heresy, 
and decrees that the condemned are to be given up to the sec- 
ular powers to be punished and to have their goods confiscated ; 
but directs the secular powers, under pain of excommunication, 
to endeavor to exterminate all heretics from their countries ; 
and grants to Catholics who take the cross and arm themselves 
to exterminate heretics, the same indulgence and holy privilege 
as to those who joined the crusades for the holy land. This 
canon was enacted with direct reference to the crusade against 
the Albigenses, and it sanctioned and held up as a model for all 
time the principles of procedure which had been adopted in 
regard to them and their country. The responsibility of the 
course pursued was assumed for the Roman Catholic church 
in this language of the council : 

" How much the church has labored by preachers and crusaders to 
exterminate heretics and injurious persons from the province of Nar- 
bonne and the parts near it, almost the whole world knows." 

The Albigenses (in French, Albigeoii), so named from Albi 
or Alby (in Latin, Albiga), a town in Southern France, where 


was held in 1176 a council condemning their opinions, were 
properly a sect said to be connected with the ancient Mani- 
cheans and to hold that human bodies were the production of 
an evil being who arranged according to his own fancy the 
matter which the one supreme and eternal God had created ; 
but the name was used in the 12th and 13th centuries, in a 
more extended sense, for all the sects in the South of France 
who regarded the papal authority and the Roman Catholic dis- 
cipline and ceremonies as unlawful and erroneous, and thus in- 
cluded Waldenses and others who had no taint of Manichean 
doctrine. The history of the crusade against those who were 
thus grouped together as Albigenses, and who were in some 
parts more powerful than the church, is thus given in the 
Penny Cyclopedia : 

" Pope Innocent III. sent two legates, Peter of Castelnau and one 
Rainier or Raoul, both Cistercian or Bernardine monks, as his legates 
to France, in order to extirpate all the. c e heresies. Dominic, a Span- 
iard, and the founder of the order of Preachers [= Dominicans], re- 
turning from Rome in 1206, fell in with the legates, and volunteered 
his services in the same cause. These champions, who, without ask- 
ing for the advice or the concurrence of the local bishops, and upon the 
sole authority of the pope, inflicted capital punishment on those here- 
tics whom they could not convert by argument, were called, in common 
discourse, Inquisitors : but the famous tribunal of that name was not 
established until 1233 by Gregory IX., who entrusted it to the Domi- 
nicans. In 1208, Castelnau, one of the legates, who had become 
odious by his severities, was murdered near Toulouse ; and Innocent 
III. on this proclaimed a regular cru-ade against the Albigenses, and 
aga'nst Raymond VI., Count of Toulouse, who supported them. All 
the French barons were summoned to take the field ; and Simon, Count 
of Montfort, was appointed chief of the expedition, under the direction 
however, of Arnald, abbot of the Cistercians, and the pope's new legate. 
The war began in 1209, and lasted many years, attended by circurn~ 
stances of the greatest ferocity. At the taking of Beziers, a general 
massacre of the inhabitants began. The legate being asked by some 
of the military leaders how they were to distinguish the Albigenses 
from the orthodox Catholics, of whom there were many in the town, 
4 Kill them all,' was the reply : ' God will find out his own.' Montfort 


lost his life at the siege of Toulouse in 1218, and Raymond, his adver- 
sary, died in 1222. The war, however, was resumed by the sons of 
the two antagonists ; until pope Honorius III., alarmed at the successes 
of Raymond VII., induced Louis VI II., king of France, to take the field 
in person. At last the Count of Toulou>e, pressed on all side-s made 
peace with the king in 1229. This was a mortal blow to the Albigen- 
ses. The Inquisition was now permanently established at Toulouse to 
try those heretics who had escaped the sword. Raymond himself died 
some years after; and in him the house of the Counts of Toulouse be- 
came extinct, and its territories reverted to the French crown. The 
extermination of the Albigenses in the South of France was complete ; 
the country was devastated.". 

The people commonly called the " Waldenses " or the " Yaw- 
dois " [pronounced vo-dwaw] , who live in the Alpine Valleys 
of Piedmont in Northern Italy, have been persecuted for cen- 
turies by the Roman Catholics. The name " Waldenses " 
(= Waldensians) is derived from Peter Waldo, a rich mer- 
chant of Lyons, who became a reformer in the 12th century, 
and whose disciples were also styled " poor men of Lyons," 
" Leonists," &c. The French name " Vaudou " (in Latin 
" Vallenses"*) signifies "men (or "people") of the valleys." 
These Waldenses or Vaudois claim that their ancestors have 
inhabited the same country and held the same faith ever 
since the days of the apostles ; but Mosheim and other eccle- 
siastical historians disallow this claim of antiquity as a dis- 
tinct sect, " though," says Mosheim, " it has long been admit- 
ted that for centuries there had existed in the valleys of Pied- 
mont various sorts of people, who were not in communion with 
the church of Rome," and that persons had long lived there 
" who agreed in many things with the Waldensians." In 
the middle ages the Waldenses and others of the same faith 
sent out many missionaries to visit their brethren scattered 
through France, the north of Spain, Flanders (now in Bel- 
gium), England, Germany, Poland, Bohemia and other parts 
of modern Austria, Italy, <fcc. Not only did preachers go 
On such errands, but many pious peddlers with silks and 


other merchandise carried tracts and Bibles or portions of the 
Bible, which they distributed privately, as they had opportuni- 
ty, and thus aided to keep alive and to propagate the religion 
of the Gospel. These proceedings were offensive to the priests 
and authorities of the ruling Church. Pope Lucius III. in 1184 
placed all such heretics under a perpetual anathema ; but still 
they spread rapidly, especially in Southern France and North- 
ern Italy. All authorities agree that many Waldenses and Albi- 
genses, persecuted in France, found a refuge in the valleys of 
Piedmont. But the inquisitors kept an eye upon them here 
also, and seized them wherever they went out from these moun- 
tain fastnesses. On Christmas, 1400, an armed force, furnished 
by the duke of Savoy at the demand of the pope's legate, unex- 
pectedly invaded one of the valleys, and killed many Waldenses 
on the spot, while all that were able fled to a neighboring moun- 
tain where the morning found 80 infants dead in their cradles from 
the cold, and their mothers dying by their side. The regular 
crusades against them, however, date from 1487, when pope 
Innocent VIII. issued a bull for their extermination ; but the 
Waldenses defeated the army that then came against them, 
and the duke of Savoy soon made peace with them. Though the 
Inquisition continued to seize, imprison and burn its victims as 
opportunity offered, it was not until 1560 that a new crusade 
against them was actually begun. In that year the duke of 
Savoy, after being repeatedly urged by the inquisitor Giacom- 
ello, sent by pope Paul IV., ordered the Waldenses to attend 
the Roman Catholic service and forbade them to exercise their 
own form of worship. They sent the duke a humble supplica- 
tion with an apology for their faith ; the duke proposed a con- 
ference between the Roman Catholic divines and theirs, but 
the pope disapproved of this ; and at last, the duke, importuned 
by the inquisitor and nuncio and the Spanish court, resorted to 
arms to enforce obedience. Many atrocities were committed ; 
some prisoners were burned alive ; and women and children 
were not spared. The Waldenses defended themselves bravely, 
and once signally defeated the duke's troops at Pra del Tor, a 
small basin-like plain among the mountains, with only a nar- 


row entrance. In 1561 the duke granted them peace and an 
amnesty, with the exercise of their religion within certain limits 
and on condition that the Roman Catholic worship should also 
be performed simultaneously in churches in their villages ; but 
the court of Rome and the monks m Piedmont declaimed 
loudly against these concessions, and the Inquisition continued 
to trouble the Waldenses. Charles I. of England twice (1623 
and 1629) sent an embassy to the duke to intercede for them. 
But a fiercer storm than any before it was now coming. The 
duke extirpated the Waldenses from the neighboring marqui- 
sate of Saluzzo ; though he issued an edict to protect those 
in the valleys of Pinerolo (= Pignerol) and to check the pre- 
vailing practice among the Roman Catholic priests and laity 
of kidnaping the Waldensian children in order to bring them 
up in the Roman faith. About this time, the Waldensian 
schools and colleges were suppressed, while Roman Catholic 
convents were opened in the valleys, and the people were for- 
bidden, under severe penalties, to send their children abroad 
for education. 

In 1653 the Capuchins were driven away from their convent 
in one of the valleys by some Waldenses in a transport of 
imprudent zeal, and the convent was burned. Peace, however, 
was reestablished ; but the new duke found that the Waldenses 
had purchased property and established schools and houses of 
worship beyond the limits fixed by former edicts ; and in Jan- 
uary, 1655, he ordered the Waldensian families in the 8 lower 
communes or districts to sell out their property within 20 days 
and remove to the 5 communes in the higher part of the valley, 
or else to embrace the Roman Catholic faith. This order ne- 
cessitated the hurried removal of more than 1000 families, it 
is said, in the depth of an uncommonly severe winter. On 
the 17th of April an army of Piedmontese, French, German 
and Irish troops, under the Marquis of Pianessa, entered the 
valleys, and soon gained possession by stratagem of all except 
the highest parts of the country. At a signal given April 
24th, a massacre of the Waldenses began, of which the follow- 



ing condensed account is taken from Rev. Dr. Robert Baird's 
" Sketches of Protestantism in Italy." 

" Houses and churches were burned to the ground. Infants were 
remorselessly torn from the breasts of their mothers, and dashed against 
the walls or the rocks, or had their brains dashed out against each 
other ; or two soldiers, taking each a leg, rent them asunder, or cut 
them in two with their swords. The sick were either burned alive, 


cut in pieces, or thrown down the precipices with their heads tied be- 
tween their legs. Mothers and daughters were violated in each other's 
presence, impaled, and either carried naked as ensigns upon pikes at the 
head of the regiments, or left upon poles by the road-side. Others had 
their arms and breasts cut off. Men, after being indecently and bar- 
barously mutilated, were cut up limb by limb, as butchers cut up meat 
in the shambles ; they had gunpowder thrust into their mouths and 



other parts of their bodies, and then were blown up. Multitudes 
had their noses, fingers, and toes amputated, and then left to perish in 
the snow. Some, both men and women, were buried alive. Some 
were dragged by the hair on the ground at the tail of a mule. Num- 
bers were cast into a burning furnace. Young women fled from their 
pursuers, and leaped down precipices, and were killed, rather than sub- 
mit to their brutal violence. That these things occurred, we have in 
proof the depositions of more than 150 witnesses, taken in the pres- 


ence of notaries-public, and of the consistories of the different locali- 
ties. Morland 1 and Leger* give all the details, with the names of 

1 Sir Samuel Morland, Cromwell's envoy to the duke of Savoy, and author 
of " History of the Evangelical Churches of Piedmont," published in 1658. 

8 Rev. Jean [= John] Leger, moderator of the Waldcnsian Synod, and author 
of " General History of the Vaudois Churches," published in French in 1669. 
From this history are taken the 2 cuts which illustrate the persecution of 1655 


the men and women who suffered the greatest cruelty, as well as the 
depositions of the witnesses." 

As soon as practicable after this massacre, Leger called 
together the principal persons who had escaped, drew up a 
statement, and sent it to all the Protestant states of Europe. 
The indignation and horror were instant and tremendous. The 
Protestant cantons of Switzerland, Cromwell (then Protector 
of England), and the States of Holland sent envoys with re- 
monstrances to the duke of Savoy. On this occasion, Milton, 
who was Cromwell's secretary, wrote his celebrated sonnet : 

"Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughter'd saints, whose bones 
Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold ; 
Even them who kept the truth so pure of old, 
When all our fathers worship'd stocks and stones, 
Forget not : in thy book record their groans, 
Who were thy sheep, and in their ancient fold, 
Slain by the bloody Piedmontese, that roll'd 
Mother with infant down the rocks. Their moans 
The vales redoubled to the hills, and they 
To Heaven. Their martyr'd blood and ashes sow 
O'er all the Italian fields, where still doth sway 
The triple tyrant ; that from these may grow 
A hundred fold, who, having learn'd thy way, 
Early may fly the Babylonian wo." 

Through the mediation of Louis XIV. of France, a conven- 
tion or treaty was concluded in August, 1665, which Cromwell 
in a letter to Louis XIV. in 1658 described as " a more con- 
cealed course of hostility under the name of peace." By it a 
general amnesty was granted, and the Vaudois were allowed to 
remain within certain limits, considerably smaller than they 
occupied before the ducal order of the previous January, and to 
have the exercise of their religion ; but the Roman Catholic 
worship was to be performed in the same villages, and Roman 
Catholic missionaries were to be sent to preach there ; and it 
was agreed that no Vaudois should be constrained to become 
a Roman Catholic, and no girls under 10 years, and no boys un- 
der 12, should be taken from their parents. Large subscrip- 


tions were made for the relief of the Waldenses ; in 2 years 
nearly $100,000 were sent them from England, Scotland, and 
Ireland ; but Cromwell died Sept. 3, 1658, and Charles II. of 
England squandered on his mistresses a large part (above $70,- 
000) of the subscription which had been invested for the future 
aid of the Waldenses.* A new invasion of the valleys with the 
usual atrocities came in 1663-64 ; and it was both preceded 
and followed by oppression and suffering. But this was not 
all. Urged on by Louis XIV. of Prance, duke Victor Amadeus 
II. of Savoy published, Jan. 31, 1686, an edict ordering the 
Waldenses to demolish their churches, send away their pas- 
tors, and either abjure their religion within 15 days or leave 
the country. Remonstrance was vain ; resistance was success- 
fully begun, but the Waldenses soon surrendered uncondition- 
ally ; their lands and goods were confiscated and given up to 
Roman Catholics ; 2000 children were carried off to be brought 
up in the Roman Catholic faith ; out of 14000 who were thrown 
into prisons, 11000 died in a few months, and the 3000 sur- 
vivors were sent in December across the Alps into Switzerland, 
where they and those who had already escaped thither were 
kindly received. Some of the exiles went to Germany,. Hol- 
land, England, and even America. But in August, 1689, a 
body of 800, led by Henry Arnaud, secretly recrossed the Alps, 
forced their passage over a bridge guarded by 2500 French 
troops, and made what is called " their glorious return to their 
valleys," where they maintained themselves against the forces 
of their enemies till April, 1690, when, an open rupture having 
taken place with Louis XIV., the duke of Savoy issued an 
edict of amnesty, giving the exiled Waldenses full leave to re- 
turn to their homes and exercise their religion as before. The 
Waldenses fought bravely against the French in the war that 
followed, afforded the duke himself a place ot refuge in 1706, 

* Queen Mary, consort of Win. III., gave the Waldenses 425 a year for several 
years ; then, after an interval, Queen Anne increased the amount to 500 ( = $2400), 
which continued to be issued to them by the British government down to 1797. The 
allowance was then discontinued until 1827, when an annuity of 277 was granted. 


and received a public acknowledgment of their services to 
him. The bloody persecutions of the Waldenses came now to 
an end, though they suffered many disabilities and trials, and 
were mostly confined to their 3 valleys (except under Napoleon, 
1796-1814) ; but in 1848 they also received from the Sardin- 
ian government full religious and ecclesiastical liberty, and 
were placed on a footing of civil and political equality with 
the Roman Catholics. 

The persecutions of the Protestants in France began with 
the Reformation itself, and formed only a continuation of the 
treatment previously bestowed on the Albigenses, Waldenses, 
and other dissenters from the Roman Catholic church. The 
first Protestant martyr was John Leclerc, a wool-carder, who 
became minister of the evangelical church at Meaux, and was 
there publicly whipped thrice through the city, and branded 
on his forehead as a heretic. He was afterwards preaching 
the Gospel at Mctz, and in his imprudent zeal broke in pieces 
as idolatrous the images of the Virgin and other celebrated 
saints in a chapel near Metz. Upon this he was seized, sen- 
tenced to be burnt alive, and taken to the place of execution. 
Of the tortures which his persecutors inflicted upon him before 
his death D'Aubigne* writes : 

" Near the scaffold men were heating pincers that were to serve as 
the instruments of their rage. Leclerc, firm and calm, heard unmoved 
the wild yells of the monks and people. They began by cutting off 
his right hand ; then taking up the burning pincers, they fore off his 
no.e ; after this, they lacerated his arms, and when they had thus man- 
gled him in several places, they concluded by burning his breasts." 

While the persecutors were thus torturing his body, Leclerc 
solemnly and with a loud voice recited Psalm 115 : 4-9 ; 
" Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men's hands," 
&c. : and after the preliminary tortures were completed, the 
martyr was burnt by a slow fire, according to his sentence. 
About the same time (1524) John Chatelain, D. D., an Augus- 
tine monk, who was associated with Leclerc as an evangelical 
preacher at Metz, was apprehended, degraded from the priest- 


hood, and likewise burnt alive. Many other " heretics " were 
burned alive at Paris, and other places. No efforts were spared 
to extirpate the reformed doctrine from France. Inquisitors 
and priests were active and energetic in detecting and punish- 
ing those who dissented from the established church. Two 
whole towns in the south of France, Cabridres and Merindol, 
were destroyed, and their inhabitants were butchered in the 
streets for being Protestants. Yet the " Huguenots," as they 
were contemptuously called, increased rapidly amid all their 
persecutions, and became a formidable party in the realm, 
with the king of Navarre, the prince of Conde", and many of 
the nobility and gentry as their friends and supporters. 

But on St. Bartholomew's day, August 24, 1572, occurred 
the dreadful slaughter of the Huguenots, which is commonly 
known as the " massacre of St. Bartholomew," or the " Bar- 
tholomew massacre." In 1570 a treaty was made between 
king Charles IX. and his Huguenot subjects, on the basis of 
amnesty, free toleration of the Protestants, &c. Two other 
treaties had been made and violated since the beginning of 
1562. But Admiral .Coligny, the leader of the Protestants, 
lent all his influence to sustain this new treaty, and with most 
of the Protestant nobility and gentry came to Paris to attend 
the marriage of Henry, the young king of Navarre, with Mar- 
garet, sister of Charles IX. The marriage was celebrated 
with great pomp on Monday, August 18th, and several days 
were passed in festivities. But on Friday, Admiral Coligny, 
as he was slowly walking home from a council at the Louvre 
and engaged in reading a paper, was wounded in his hand and 
arm by balls discharged by Maurevel, a hired assassin, from a 
house occupied by a dependent of the duke of Guise, a Cath- 
olic leader. At 2 o'clock on Sunday morning, a church-bell 
was tolled to give the appointed signal ; the assassins, with 
white crosses on their hats and white handkerchiefs on their 
left arms, sallied forth, guided by torches at the windows of 
the Catholics, to the houses of the Huguenots, which were 

marked with two white stripes crossed on the door. The- 


slaughter had been already begun with the murder of the 
wounded admiral in his bed-chamber. His bleeding body was 
thrown out of the window into the court below, and joyfully 
recognized by the duke of Guise, who was there waiting for 
the murder to be effected. His head was subsequently cut off 
and presented to the king's mother. Before 5 A. M. other Hu- 
guenot chiefs had also been murdered in cold blood, and their 
remains, like his, were treated with brutal indignity. The 
tocsin was sounded from the parliament-house, and the popu- 
lace of Paris were called on to join in the carnage and protect 
their religion and their king against Huguenot treason. " Death 
to the Huguenots treason courage our game is in the toils 
kill every man of them it is the king's orders," shouted the 
court leaders, as they galloped through the streets, and cheered 
the armed citizens to the slaughter. The Huguenots were 
butchered in their beds, or as they attempted to escape, without 
regard to sex, age, or condition. Many Catholics also were 
now the victims of secret revenge and personal hatred, and 
died by the hands of Catholic assassins. The slaughter con- 
tinued partially for 3 days ; though a check was given to it in 
the latter part of the first day by the king's order, trumpeted 
through the city, commanding all but officials to go home un- 
der penalty of death ; and by his proclamation, on the 2d day, 
forbidding unauthorized persons to kill or plunder, under a like 
penalty. The king of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France, 
and the prince of Cond^ were in the palace of the Louvre 
during the massacre, and escaped death by pretending to be- 
come Catholics. The massacre was not confined to Paris, but 
spread through France. It is credibly estimated that 30,000 
were assassinated at this time. The charges of conspiracy and 
treason made by king Charles and the court party against Co- 
ligny and the Huguenots have never been substantiated or be- 
lieved ; Charles himself, after a short and miserable life, filled 
with remorse, died in 1574 ; his mother, Catharine de' Medici 
(de Medicis, in French), who was grandniece of Pope Clem- 
ent VII, , and the ruler of France during the reigns of her 



sons, Charles IX. and Henry ILL, died in 1589, universally 
detested in France ; yet the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
which she contrived, and which filled England and all Prot- 
estant countries with indignation and horror, was the occasion 
of unbounded rejoicing at Rome. A Te Deum was sung by 
order of pope Gregory XIII. ; a salute was fired from the 
castle of St. Angelo ; the bells rang ; bonfires blazed ; a medal 
was struck ; and a painting by Vasari, representing the massa- 
cre, and bearing in Latin the inscription, " The Pontiff ap- 
proves the killing of Coligny," was placed in the Vatican, and 
is still to be seen (Chapter I.X The medal, which is repre- 
sented in the accompanying cut, bears on one side the portrait 
of the Pope with the inscription " Gregorius XIII., Pont. Max. 
An. I." (= Gregory XIII., Chief Pontiff, Year 1) ; on the 
reverse is the destroying angel, with a cross in one hand and 


a sword in the other, slaying the Protestants, the inscription 
being " Hugonotorum Strages [Slaughter of the Hugue- 
nots], 1572." The medal, from which the cut was executed, 
was purchased at the pontifical mint in Rome a little more 
than 25 years ago for Sir Culling Eardley Smith. The painting 
and the medal both testify that in the 19th century the author- 
ities of the Roman Catholic Church approve the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew. 

After the king of Navarre ascended the throne of France by 
the name of Henry IV., he issued, April 15, 1598, the cele- 
brated edic^, of Nantes, which gave to Protestants free tolera- 
tion and equal privileges with the Catholics. But Henry was 


assassinated in 1610 by Ravaillac, and the privileges obtained 
by the Protestants were soon curtailed. In 1685, Louis XIV. 
revoked the edict of Nantes and proscribed Protestantism. 
Soldiers had been previously sent into all the provinces to 
compel the Protestants to abandon their religion ; their public 
worship was strictly forbidden, and their meetings were broken 
up by force ; yet Protestants were deprived of their property 
and made galley-slaves, if they attempted to sell their posses- 
sions and to emigrate ; and the frontiers were carefully guarded 
to prevent their escape from the country. Half a million, 
however, escaped to Switzerland, Holland, Prussia, Denmark, 
England, and America. These persecuting acts of the French 
king were applauded by the Roman Catholic prelates and 
clergy in general as well as by the Roman pontiff, Innocent 
,XI. ; and for more than a century not a Protestant place of 
worship, or public religious service, was allowed in France. 

Only an allusion can here be made to the long and bloody 
persecutions of the Hussites and others in Bohemia, and of the 
Protestants in the Netherlands, in which last country, during 
the reign of the emperor Charles V., it is computed that not 
less than 50,000 persons lost their lives in consequence of their 
dissent from the Roman Catholic church. During the short 
reign of Queen Mary in England (1553-8) about 288 persons 
suffered death for the same reason, while others died in prison, 
and multitudes were constrained to flee from the country. 
Says John Rogers, an English member of the Society of 
Friends, " Millions, many millions, some declare that fifty mil- 
lions, and some declare that even nearly seventy millions have 
.gone to the grave through papal persecution." 

But Roman Catholic persecutions have taken place in the 
19th century as well as in previous ages. Dr. Kalley, a pious 
Scotchman, went to the island of Madeira in 1838, for his 
wife's health. There he studied the Portuguese language, es- 
tablished a hospital and dispensary for the poor, and schools 
for their children and for adults, imported and circulated hun- 
dreds of copies of the Scriptures, and held meetings for read- 


ing and expounding the Scriptures and for prayer. This be- 
came known to the priests, and persecution broke out. Dr. 
Kalley was imprisoned for months in 1843, and compelled to 
quit the island in 1846. Many of the converts were impris- 
oned or otherwise persecuted ; and in consequence of mob- 
violence, encouraged by Roman Catholic priests, about 1000 
people, who had become Protestants, were compelled to abandon 
their property and flee from the island. They took refuge in 
Trinidad and other West India islands ; and the larger part 
of the exiles subsequently came to the United States, and set- 
tled in the State of Illinois, at Springfield, Jacksonville, &c. 

The relation of the Roman Catholic church to civil and re- 
ligious liberty is the subject of Chapter XXVII. Its denial of 
the right of private judgment is considered in Chapter XXII. ; 
its assumption and exercise of temporal power, in Chapter 
XXIII. ; its burning of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, in 
Chapter VI ; and the bulls In ccena Domini and Unigenitus are 
noticed in Chapter IV. j 

The whole history of the Inquisition (Chapter XI.) is a his- 
tory of persecution ; the oath taken by the bishops (Chapter 
VII.) binds them to persecute heretics ; the Catechism of the 
Council of Trent claims that heretics and schismatics are still 
subject to the jurisdiction of the church, " as those who may 
be summoned by it to judgment, punished, 1 and condemned 
with an anathema : " the Council of Trent anathematizes those 
who affirm that baptized infants, who, when grown up, will not 
confirm the promises made by their godfathers at their baptism, 
" should be left to their own choice, and not be compelled, in 
the mean time, to a Christian life by any other punishment 
than exclusion from the eucharist and other sacraments, until 

1 Prof. Donovan's translation of this catechism, republished by the Catholic Pub- 
lication Society, interpolates the word " spiritual " in this passage, which it thus 
loosely renders ; " inasmuch as they are liable to have judgment passed on their 
opinions, to be visited with spiritual punishments, and denounced with anathema." 
The original refers to persons rather than opinions, and to temporal as much as to 
spiritual punishments. 


they repent" and the creed of Pius IV., in repeating which 
every Roman Catholic declares, "I likewise undoubtedly re- 
ceive and profess all other things delivered, defined, and de- 
clared by the Sacred Canons and General Councils," <fec., con- 
firms the authority of the persecuting canon enacted by the 4th 
Lateran council and recited at the beginning of the present 

In reverting to the fact, already admitted, that Protestants 
have been guilty of persecution, we may use the language of 
Rev. Prof. G. P. Fisher of Yale College, contained in the New 
Englander for April, 1870 : 

" There are two important differences between Protestants and Ro- 
man Catholic*, in regard to this subject. The first is, that the amount 
of persecution of which Protestants have been guilty is far less than 
that for which Catholics, in the same period of time, are accountable. 
Thus, Protestants have never perpetrated such cruelties as were per- 
petrated in the Netherlands by the Roman Catholics under Philip of 
Spain and through the Inquisition. This difference is not an unimport- 
ant one ; since it shows that the misgivings which spring from humane 
Christian feeling have had far more practical influence in neutralizing 
the power of wrong principles, among Protestants than among Roman 
Catholics. It took some time for Protestants to emancipate themselves 
from the theory of persecution, which was an heir-loom from the mid- 
dle ages and the Catholic hierarchy ; but even before this happy result 
was consummated, it was manifest that the old principle of suppressing 
error by force had relaxed its hold upon the Protestant mind. The 
main difference between Protestants and Catholics on this subject, how- 
ever, is that while we disown the theory of persecution, and lament 
that Protestants should have been so mistaken as to be guilty of it ; 
while, in short, we heartily repent, so far as one generation can repent 
of the errors of another, of all the instances of religious persecution 
in which Protestants bore a part, the Catholic Church makes no such 
confession and exercises no such compunction." 

That Protestantism is not as a system responsible for perse- 
secution is evident from the express declarations of Protestant 
churches. That " the civil magistrate hath no authority in 
things purely spiritual," and " may not interfere in matters of 


faith," that " excommunication being a spiritual punishment, 
it doth not prejudice the excommunicate in, nor deprive him 
of his civil rights," and that " God alone is Lord of the con- 
science, and hath left it free from the doctrines and command- 
ments of men, which are in any thing contrary to His word, 
or not contained in it," are doctrines officially set forth by the 
Protestant Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Congregational church- 
es, and accepted by Protestant churches generally, both in 
Europe and America. 

There is this difficulty in the way of removing from the Ho- 
man Catholic church of the 19th century the responsibility for 
the theory and practice of persecution : the Church, whose au- 
thorities have so explicitly taught it and whose history is so 
full of it, must be different from what it was that is, must be 
neither infallible nor unchangeable or else the Church now 
must sanction and defend what the Church has openly and 
undeniably taught and practiced for centuries ; in other words, 
the Roman Catholic Church is distinctively and preeminently a 
persecuting church. 

Said the London Times of January 14, 1853, in perfect cor- 
respondence with some Roman Catholic utterances : 

" The vengeance of Rome against heretics is measured only by her 
power to punish them." 



" THE BIBLE," said Chillingworth more than two centuries 
ago, ' the Bible only, is the religion of Protestants." The 
confessions of all Protestant churches echo this sentiment. 
" Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation," 
say the Church of England, the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States, the Methodist Episcopal Church (in sub- 
stance), &c. The Westminster Catechism declares, " The holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament are the word of God, 
the only rule of faith and obedience." " The supreme stand- 
ard by which all human conduct, creeds, and opinions should 
be tried " ; " the only rule of faith and practice " ; and other 
varying forms, to the same effect, are used to characterize 
the Bible in the creed and covenants of different Protestant 
churches. They all agree in taking the Bible as the one suffi- 
cient guide to heaven. 

But Roman Catholics express themselves differently from 
Protestants in this matter. They receive the Bible indeed ; 
but they want something more than the Bible for their guide. 
Thus the creed of pope Pius IV. declares, after repeating the 
Nicene creed as held by the church : 

" I most steadfastly admit and embrace apostolic and ecclesiastical 
traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same 

" I do also admit the holy scriptures, according to that sense which 
our holy mother the church has held and does hold, to which it belongs 
to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the scriptures : neither 
will I ever take and interpret them otherwise than according to the 
unanimous consent of the fathers." 


The council of Trent passed a decree " respecting the ca- 
nonical scriptures," and another " respecting the edition and 
use of the sacred books." These two decrees, occupying about 
3 pages, are in substance as follows : 

The first places a the unwritten traditions, which, received from the 
mouth of Christ himself by the apostles, or from the apostles them- 
selves, the Holy Spirit dictating, have come down to us, as if delivered 
from hand to hand," on an equality, as to pious affection and venera- 
tion, with the books of the Old and New Testament ; gives a list of 
these canonical books, including in the Old Testament ' all the " Apoc- 
rypha," except I. and II. Esdras and the prayer of Manasses ; and 
anathematizes any one who may not " receive as sacred and canonical 
all those books and every part of them, as they are commonly read in 
the Catholic church, or are contained in the old Vulgate Latin edition, 
or who may knowingly and deliberately despise the aforesaid tradi- 
tions." The 2d of these decrees " ordains and declares that this same 
old and Vulgate edition, which has been approved in the church by 
the long use of so many ages, shall be held as authentic in public lec- 
tures, disputations, sermons, and expositions ; and that no one, on any 
pretext whatever, may dare or presume to reject it :" it likewise forbids 

1 The books which this decree includes in the Old Testament are here given, 
with their names as printed in the Doaay Bible, and the corresponding book or 
part [in brackets] of the Old Testament or Apocrypha in the English Bible, 
wherever the two versions differ : "Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deu- 
teronomy ; Josue [= Joshua] ; Judges ; Ruth; I. Kings, alias I. Samuel ; II. Kings, 
alias II. Samuel ; III. Kings [= I. Kings] ; IV. Kings [= II. Kings] ; I. Para- 
lipomenon, alias I. Chronicles ; II. Paralipomenon, alias II. Chronicles ; I. Esdras 
[= Ezra] ; II. Esdras, alias N (.-hernias [= Nehemiah] ; Tobias [= Tobit, in 
Apoc.] ; Judith [in Apoc.] ; Esther [10 chapters in O. T., and nearly 7 chapters 
in Apoc.] ; Job; Psalms; Proverbs; Ecclesiastes ; Canticle of Canticles [= Song 
of Solomon] ; Wisdom [in Apoc.] ; Ecclesiasticus [in Apoc.] ; Isaias [= Isaiah] ; 
Jeremias [= Jeremiah] ; Lamentations ; Baruch [in Apoc.] ; Ezechiel [= Ezekiel] > 
Daniel [= Daniel in O. T. ; and in Apoc., the Song of the 3 Children, the Story 
of Susanna, and the Idol Bel and the Dragon] ; Osee [= Hosea] ; Joel; Amos; 
Abdias [= Ohadiah] ; Jonas [Jonah]; Micheas [= Micah] ; Nahnm; Habacuc 
[= Habakkuk] ; Sophonias [= Zephaniah] ; Aggeus [= Haggai] ; Zacharias 
[=Zechariah] ; Malachias [= Malachi] ; I. Machabees [= I. Maccabees, in Apoc.] ; 
II Machabees [= II. Maccabees, in Apoc.]. The New Testament of the two ver- 
ions is substantially the same, " the Apocalypse " of the Douay being " the Reve- 
lation of St John the Divine" in the English version. 


any interpretation of the scriptures " contrary to that sense which "holy 
mother church has held and holds, or contrary to the unanimous con- 
sent of the fathers," the offenders to be " denounced by the ordina- 
ries [= bishops], and punished with the penalties determined by law" 
["a jure" = by legal right or justice] ; it provides for a censorship 
of Bibles and religious books, under penalty of excommunication and 
fine for those who print, publish, circulate, or have them wiihout the 
examination and approval of the ordinary ; and it provides punishment 
by the bishops for those who pervert the language of holy scripture to 
profane uses. 

The 2d Plenary Council of Baltimore, held in 1866, after 
repeating some of the leading parts of the Tridentine decrees, 
adds another decree, which is thus translated : 

" Since the faithful keeping of the deposit of the Holy Scriptures, 
committed by the Lord to the Church, requires of the bL-hops to strive 
with all their strength, lest the word of God, adulterated through the 
fraud or carelessness of men, be furnished to the faithful, we vehe- 
mently urge all the pastors of souls of this region, to keep continually 
before their eyes all those things which have been decreed in the matter 
of so great moment by the holy council of Trent, commended by the 
supreme pontiffs, especially by Leo XII. and by Pius VIII. of happy 
memory, in their encyclical letters, and determined by the most 
Illustrious and Reverend, John Carroll, Archbishop of Baltimore, in 
conjunction with the other bishops of this region, at the meeting held 
in the year 1810 : that they keep away from their own flocks the bibles 
corrupted by non-Catholics, and permit them to pick out the uncor- 
rupted food of the word of God only from approved versions and 
editions. We therefore determine that the Douay version, which has 
been received in all the churches whose faithful [i. e., whose members] 
speak English, and deservedly set forth by our predecessors for the 
use of the faithful, bo retained entirely. But the bishops will take 
care that for ihe future all editions, both of the New and of the Old 
Testament of the Douay version, be most faultlessly made [i. e., 
printed], according to the most approved copy to be designated by 
them, with annotations which may be selected only from the holy fa- 
thers of the church, or from learned and Catholic men." 


By the " old Vulgate Latin edition " the council of Trent 
meant the Latin version of the Bible which has long passed as 
Jerome's. He was one of the most learned and celebrated of 
the Latin fathers, a monk and priest, born in Dalmatia about 
A. D. 330, and dying at Bethlehem about A. D. 420. About 
A. D. 383 he began, at the request of pope Damasus, to revise 
the old Latin version of the Bible ; and about A. D. 390-404 
he made a new translation of the Old Testament from the 
Hebrew. The Latin Bible, which is called by his name, is 
in some parts a very valuable translation, but is of very une- 
qual merit, and is thus described by an able English critic and 
scholar, Rev. B. F. Westcott, in Smith's Dictionary of the 
Bible : 

" The books of the Old Testament, with one exception, were cer- 
tainly taken from his [Jerome's] version from the Hebrew ; but this 
had not only been variously corrupted, but was itself in many particu- 
lars (especially in the Pentateuch) at variance with his later judg- 
ment The Psalter [= P.-alms] .... was retained from the Old 

Version, as Jerome had corrected it from the Septuagint [= the an- 
cient Greek version of the Old Testament]. Of the Apocryphal books 
Jerome hastily revised or translated two only, Judith and Tobit. The 
remainder were retained from the Old Version against his judgment ; 
and the Apocryphal additions to Daniel and Esther, which he had 
carefully marked as apocryphal in his own version, were treated as 

integral parts of the books In the New Testament the 

text of the Gospels was in the main Jerome's revised edition ; that 
of the remaining books his very incomplete revision of the old Latin." 

In regard to the editions of the Vulgate published by popes 
Sixtus V. and Clement VII., see the account of the bull JEter- 
nus Hie, in Chapter IV. 

The Roman Catholic church, as appears above, accepts and 
defends the Latin Vulgate Bible as its standard, and anathe- 
matizes all who appeal from it to any other version, or even to 
the Hebrew and Greek originals. Moreover, every translation 
of the Bible into English or any other language must be made 


from the Vulgate, and accompanied with notes ; or it can not 
be acceptable to that church. Thus the title page of a Douay 
Bible in the author's possession reads : 

" The Holy Bible, translated from the Latin Vulgate : diligently 
compared with the Hebrew, Greek and other editions, in various lan- 
guages. With annotations by the Rev. Dr. Challoner ; together with 
references and an historical and chronological index. With the appro- 
bation of the provincial council. Baltimore : published by Fielding 
Lucas, Jr. 138 Market Street." 

The New Testament, translated into English from the Latin 
Vulgate, and approved by the University of Rheims in France, 
was published at Rheims in 1582 ; and is hence called the 
" Rhemish Testament." The Old Testament, translated into 
English from the Vulgate, and approved by the University of 
Douay in France in 1609, completed the Roman Catholic ver- 
sion of the Bible into English, which is therefore called the 
" Douay Bible." The annotations by Rev. Dr. Challoner, now 
published in the Douay Bibles of this country, differ much 
from the notes by the translators in the early editions ; and the 
version itself, as now published, has been considerably modified 
in its language* from that which was used by the translators, 
and is more like the English version of 1611, which is often 
called king James's Bible, or the authorized version, and is 
familiar to all English-speaking Protestants as their common 


A few comparisons between the Douay (with its notes) and 
the common English Bible will be of interest. The edition 
used of the former is that of which the title page is given 

* Thus " arch-synagogue " in Mk. 5 : 35, is now " ruler of the synagogue " ; 
" longanimity " in Rom. 2:4, is " long-suffering " ; "a new paste, as yon are 
azymes," in 1 Cor. 5 : 7, is now " a new mass, as you are unleavened " ; " obdurate 
with the fellatio of sin," in Heb. 3 : 13, is " hardened by the deceitfulness of 
in," &c. 



DOUAY VERSION. Gen. 1 : 1-3. 

" In the beginning God created heaven 
and earth. 

"2 And the earth was void and empty, 
and darkness was upon the face of the 
deep : and the Spirit of God moved over 
the waters. 

"3 And God said: Be light made. 

And light was made. 

" 4 And God saw the light that it was 
good : and he divided the light from the 

" 5 And he called the light Day, and 
the darkness Night: and there was eve- 
ning and morning one day. 

" 6 And God said Lot there be a 
firmament* made amidst the waters : and 
let it divide the waters from the waters. 

" 7 And God made a firmament, and 
divided the waters that were under the 
firmament, from those that were above 
the firmament. And it was so. 

" 8 And God called the firmament, 
Heaven : and the evening and morning 
were the second day." 

PSALM cxvi. 

" Alleluia. 

" O praise the Lord, all ye nations : 
praise him, all ye people. 

" 2 For his mercy is confirmed upon 
us : and the truth of the Lord remaineth 
for ever." 

ST. MATTHEW 3 : 1-12. 

" Now in those days came John the 
Baptist preaching in the desert of Ju- 

" 2 And saying : Do penancef : for 
the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 

ENGLISH VERSION. Gen. 1 : 1-8. 

" In the beginning God created the 
heaven and the earth. 

" 2 And the earth was without form, 
and void ; and darkness was upon the 
face of the deep : and the Spirit of God 
moved upon the face of the waters. 

" 3 And God said, Let there be light 
and there was light. 

" 4 And God saw the light that it was 
good : and God divideth the light from 
the darkness. 

" 5 And God called the light day, and 
the darkness he called Night : and the eve- 
ning and the morn ing were the first day. 

" 6 And God said, Let there be a fir- 
mament in the midst of the waters : and 
let it divide the waters from the waters. 

" 7 And God made the firmament, and 
divided the waters which were under the 
firmament from the waters which were 
above the firmament : and it was so. 

" 8 And God called the firmament 
Heaven : and the evening and the morn- 
ing were the second day." 

PSALM cxvu. 

" praise the Lord, all ye nations ; 
praise him, all ye people. 

" 2 For his merciful kindness ic great 
toward us : and the truth of the Lord 
endureth for ever. Praise ye the Lord." 

ST. MATTHEW 3 : 1-12. 

" In those days came John the Cap. 
tist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, 

" 2 And saying, Repent ye ; for the 
kingdom of heaven is at hand. 

" * A firmament. By this name is here understood the whole space between 
the earth and the highest stars. The lower part of which divideth the waters 
that are upon the earth, from those that are above in the clouds." 

t " Do penance. Pcenitentiam agite, ptravotirt. Which word, according to 
the use of the scriptures and the holy fathers, does not only signify repentance and 
amendment of life, but also punishing past sins by fasting, and such like peniten- 
tial exercises." 



"3 For this is he, who was spoken 
of by Isaias the prophet, saying : A voice 
of one crying in the desert : Prepare ye 
the way of the Lord ; make straight his 

"4 And John himself had his gar- 
ment of camel's hair, and a leathern 
girdle about his loins ; and his food was 
locusts and wild honey. 

" 5 Then went out to him Jerusalem 
and all Judea, and all the country about 
Jordan : 

" 6 And they were baptized by him 
in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 

" 7 And seeing many of the Pharisees 
and Sadducees * coming to his baptisnv 
he said to them : Ye brood of vipers, 
who hath showed you to flee from the 
wrath to come ? 

" 8 Bring forth, therefore, fruit wor. 
thy of penance : 

" 9 And think not to say within your- 
selves : We have Abraham for our father : 
for I tell you, that God is able of these 
stones to raise up children to Abraham. 

" 10 For now the axe is laid to the 
root of the trees. Every tree, therefore, 
that yieldcth not good fruit, shall be cut 
down, and cast into the fire. 

"11 I, indeed, baptize you with water 
unto penance : bnt he who is to come 
after me, is stronger than I, whose shoes 
I am not worthy to carry : he shall bap- 
tize you with the Holy Ghost and with 

"12 Whose fan is in his hand : and 
he will thoroughly cleanse his floor, and 
gather his wheat into the barn ; but the 
chaff he will burn with unquenchable 

" 3 For this is he that was spoken of 
by tho prophet Esaias, saying, The voice 
of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare 
ye the way of the Lord, make his paths 

"4 And the same John had his rai- 
ment of camel's hair, and a leathern gir- 
dle about his loins ; and his meat was 
locusts and and wild honey. 

" 5 Then went out to him Jerusalem, 
and all Judea, and all the region round 
about Jordan, 

" 6 And were baptized of him in Jor- 
dan, confessing their sins. 

" 7 But when he saw many of the 
Pharisees and Sadducees come to his 
baptism, he said unto them, O genera- 
tion of vipers, who hath warned you to 
flee from the wrath to come ? 

" 8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet 
for repentance : 

" 9 And think not to say within your- 
selves, We have Abraham to our father : 
for I say unto you, that God is able of 
these stones to raise up children unto 

"10 And now also the axe is laid 
unto the root of the trees : therefore 
every tree which bringeth not forth good 
fruit is hewn down, and cast into the 

"11 I indeed baptize you with water 
unto repentance : but he that cometh 
after me is mightier than I, whose shoes 
I am not worthy to bear : he shall bap- 
tize you with the Holy Ghost, and with 

"12 Whoso fan is in his hand, and 
he will thoroughly purge his floor, and 
gather his wheat into the garner ; but 
he will burn up the chaffwith unquench- 
able fire." 

" * Pharisee* and Sadducees. These were two sects among the Jews, of which 
the former were for the most part notorious hypocrites; the latter a kind of free- 
thinkers in matters of religion. " 



ST. MATTHEW 6 : 9-13. 

" 9 You, therefore, shall pray in this 
manner : Our Father, who art in heaven, 
hallo ved be thy name. 

"10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will 
be done on earth as it is in heaven. 

"11 Give us this day our supersub- 
stanti; 1 .! bread.* 

" 1-2 And forgive us our debts, as we 
forgive our debtors. 

" 13 And lead us not into tempta- 
tion.f But deliver us from evil. Amen." 

ST. JAMES 5 : 14-20. 

" 14 Is any sick among you ? Let Kim 
bring in J the priests of the church, and 
let them pray over him, anointing him 
with oil, in the name of the Lord : 

"15 And the prayer of faith shall 
save the sick man : and the Lord shall 
raise him up : and if he be in sins, they 
shall be forgiven him. 

" 1 6 Confess, therefore, your sins one 
to another ; || and pray for one another, 
that you may be saved ; for the continual 
prayer of a just man availeth much. 

"17 Elias was a man passible like 
unto us : and with prayer he prayed 
that it might not rain upon the earth ; 
and it rained not for three years and six 

ST. MATTHEW 6 : 9-13. 

' 9 After this manner therefore pray 
ye : Our Father which art in heaven, 
Hallowed be thy name. 

" 10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will 
be done in earth as it is in heaven. 

" 1 1 Give us thia day our daily bread. 

"12 And forgive us oar debts, as we 
forgive our debtors. 

" 13 And lead us not into temptation, 
but deliver us from evil. For thine is 
the kingdom, and the power, and the 
glory, for ever. Amen." 

ST. JAMES 5 14-20. 

"14 Is any sick among you ? let him 
call for the elders of the church ; and let 
them pray over him, anointing him with 
oil in the name of the Lord : 

'15 And the prayer of faith shall 
save the sick, and the Lord shall raise 
him up ; and if he have committed sins, 
they shall be forgiven him. 

"16 Confess your faults one to another, 
and pray one for another, that ye may 
be healed. The effectual fervent prayer 
of a righteous man availeth much. 

"17 Elias was a man subject to like 
passions as we are, and he prayed ear- 
nestly that it might not rain : and it 
rained not on the earth by the space of 
three years and six months. 

" * Stipersitbstantial bread. In St. Luke the same word is rendered daily brtad. 
It is understood of the bread of life, which we receive in the Blessed Sacrament." 

" t Lead us not into temptation. That is, suffer us not to be overcome by temp- 

" J Let him bring in, $~c. See here a plain warrant of Scripture for the sacrament 
of extreme unction, that any controversy against its institution would be against 
the express words of the sacred text in the plainest terms." 

" || Confess your tins one to another. That is, to the priests of the church, 
whom, vcr. 14, he had ordered to be called for, and brought in to the sick : more- 
over, to confess to persons who had no power to forgive sins would be useless. 
Hence the precept here means, that we must confess to men whom God hath ap- 
pointed, and who, by their ordination and jurisdiction, have received the power of 
remitting sins in his name." 



"18 And he prayed again: and the 
heaven gave rain, and the earth yield- 
ed her fruit 

"19 My brethren, if any of you shall 
err from the truth, and any one convert 
him : 

" 20 He must know, that he who caus- 
eth a sinner to be converted from the er- 
ror of his way, shall save his soul from 
death, and shall cover a multitude of 

1 JOHN 2 : 1-4. 

" My little children, these things I 
write to you, that you may not sin. But 
if any man sin, we have an advocate with 
the Father, Jesus Christ the just: 

" 2 And he is the propitiation for our 
sins ; and not for ours only, but also for 
those of the whole world. 

" 3 And in this we do know that we 
have known him, if we keep his com 

"4 He that saith he knoweth him, 
and keepeth not his commandments, is 
a liar ; and the truth is not in him." 

"18 And he prayed again, and the 
heaven gave rain, and the earth brought 
forth her fruit. 

"19 Brethren, if any of you do err 
from the truth, and one convert him ; 

"20 Let him know, that he which 
converteth the sinner from the error of 
his way shall save a soul from death, 
and shall hide a multitude of sins." 

1 JOHN 2: 1-4. 

"My little children, these things write 
I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any 
man sin, we have an advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous : 

" 2 And he is the propitiation for our 
sins : and not for ours only, but also for 
the sins of the whole world. 

" 3 And hereby we do know that we 
know him, if we keep his commandments. 

" 4 He that saith, I know him, and 
keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, 
and the truth is not in him." 

To a Protestant, the notes in the Douay Bible are altogether 
the most objectionable part of it. No Protestant, of course, 
accepts or reverences as inspired truth the additions to the 
books of Esther and of Daniel, or any of the books which are 
found in the Douay Old Testament, but not in the Hebrew 
Bible. But there is much truth in a recent utterance by Prof. 
Tayler Lewis of Union College : 

" We venture the assertion that a candid man of good education, and 
whose mind had never been prejudiced on the question, might read 
chapter after chapter of the Old and New Testament, in the common 
English version, in the Douay, in the Rheims, in the German of Luther, 
the Latin Vulgate, &c., without discovering any difference that would 

"* We have known him, if we keep his commandments. He speaks of that prac- 
tical knowledge by love and affection, which can only be proved by our keeping 
his commandments ; and without which we cannot be said to know God, as wo 
should do." 


arrest his attention. He might, in this way, read through the whole 
Scriptures without finding anything that could bear the name of a dog- 
matic contradiction." 

Yet the opposition of the Roman Catholic church to the 
common English Bible, or, as they call it, the " Protestant 
Bible," is well known as no new thing. John Wickliffe (= 
Wycliffe),the herald of the Reformation, and the earliest transla- 
tor of the Bible into English, made his translation from the Vul- 
gate ; but the council of Constance in 1415, more than 30 years 
after his death, anathematized him as a notorious and scandalous 
heretic, and ordered his body and bones to be disinterred and 
cast out from ecclesiastical burial. William Tyndale (= Tyn- 
dal or Tindal), another English reformer and a translator of 
the Bible from the Hebrew and Greek originals into clear and 
simple English, was, through the efforts and influence of 
Henry VIII. and others, arrested at his retreat on the continent, 
imprisoned a year and a half in a strong castle, condemned as 
a heretic, and finally, after uttering his last prayer, " Lord, 
open the king of England's eyes," was strangled and then 
burned at the stake, at Vilvoorden (now in Belgium), Oct. 6, 
1536. Some of the early English versions of the Bible gave 
much offense to the Roman Catholics by their notes in opposi- 
tion to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic church ; but Cran- 
mer's Bible (1540, &c.) and the authorized or Common English 
Version (published "by authority" of king James I. of Eng- 
land) omit all controversial or doctrinal notes, without satisfy- 
ing the Roman Catholic demand at all. The council of Balti- 
more, giving law to the Roman Catholics in this country, only 
echo the prevalent and authoritative sentiment of their church 
when they speak of all but their own versions as " the bibles 
corrupted by non-Catholics." The Encyclical Letter of pope 
Gregory XVI. against Bible Societies, <fec., is given in Chapter 
IV. The 4th of the " 10 rules respecting prohibited books pre- 
pared by the fathers chosen by the council of Trent, and ap- 
proved by pope Pius IV.," allowed bibles in the vulgar tongue 

only on the written permission of a bishop or inquisitor, and 


to those persons who, in the bishop's or inquisitor's judgment, 
with the advice of the parish-priest or confessor, might thus 
have their faith and piety increased and not injured, the offen- 
der to be refused absolution till he should give up his bible to 
the bishop, the bookseller who sold him a copy being also sub- 
ject to a fine equal to the value of the bible and to further pun- 
ishment. But this rule, made more stringent by Clement VIII., 
was so modified by Benedict XIV. " that the perusal of such 
versions may be considered permitted, as have been published 
with the approbation of the apostolic see, or with annotations 
taken from the holy fathers of the church or from learned 
and Catholic men." 

Bible-burning has been practiced by Roman Catholic priests 
both in this and in other countries. In November, 1842, Father 
Telmon, an Oblate missionary from Canada, who held a pro- 
tracted meeting in the town of Champlain, N. Y., publicly 
burned 42 (Dr. Cote said, more than 100) Bibles given to the 
Catholics by Protestant agents of the Bible Society ; but the 
resident priest, Father Dugas, disapproved of the burning, and 
the bishop of Montreal, who visited the place 5 days afterwards, 
expressed disapprobation in strong terms, though it does not 
appear that any penalty was inflicted on the Oblate father. 
Bibles were also burned in York, Pa., in 1852 and 1854. 
Another Bible, loaned to a poor sick Roman Catholic, was 
taken by the priest (an Austrian immigrant), and returned to 
the treasurer of the York County Bible Society, with the follow- 
ing letter (printed as it was written) : 

YORK, March 19th, 1854. 

" SIR, I send yon back the Bible you loaned to Gregory Berger. 
The reason I do so is, because that book is against Christianity itself. 
I pray, You shall not judge me as opposed to the reading of Bible, 
sopposed that, what pretends to be the bible, is realy the bible. But 
that book which I send to You is party adulterated, partly interpolated, 
partly mutilated in those parts of it, which you and your fellows and 
masters can not and could not onderstand, or which are opposed to 
what you call faith. 


" I ask you therefore that you would spare Yourself the trouble 
of loaning books of that kind to people of my congregation. If I 
should find more such bibles I would not send them back, but I would 
burn them for they are worth it. " Respectfully 

"Pastor of St. Mary's Rom. Catholic Church." 

Bibles and Testaments, even if translated from the Vulgate, 
have been classed among the prohibited books, and burned, un- 
less they had the prescribed notes or approbation. Thus in 
Chili, South America, the agent of the American Bible Society 
in 1834-5 saw New Testaments of an approved version, but 
without the notes, publicly and ceremoniously burned by a 
priest in the public square of one of the cities. Another Bible- 
burning took place in Chili about 4 years ago. Bibles translated 
from the Yulgate, and furnished by the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, were likewise burned in Brazil a few years since. 
Numerous other cases might be mentioned, in Spain, France, 
Italy, Syria, &c., were it necessary. 

Bibles published with notes are necessarily more expensive 
than those without note or comment. The Douay Bible is 
easily obtained in the United States or in England at prices 
varying from $1.25 or $1.50 up to $35. But in Roman Catho- 
lic countries Bibles in the language of the people have usually 
been costly and scarce, if obtainable at all. Said Kirwan (Rev. 
Nicholas Murray, D.D.), in his Letters to Chief Justice Taney, 
published in 1852 under the title " Romanism at Home " ; 
" The Bible as a rule is unknown in Italy." A correspondent 
of the New York Commercial Advertiser writing from Aosta 
in Piedmont about 20 years ago, says : 

" I have traveled from Mount -ZEtna, in Sicily, through the different 
capitals of the Italian kingdom to the vale of Aosta ; and in all my 
wanderings I have only seen 3 copies of the "Word of God in the 
Italian language, namely, one at Pompeii, one at a bookstall in Milan, 
which had been put in circulation by some English Bible agent, and 
another at a library in Milan, a very elaborate edition in 1 2 volumes, 
with copious notes by the archbishoo of Florence price $10." 


Another traveler, writing at a dfferent time, speaks of copies 
of Martini's Bible openly exposed for sale in Rome. Martini's 
Italian Bible, which is here referred to, was published in the 
latter part of the 18th century, the translator, Anthony Martini, 
archbishop of Florence, receiving the benediction and acknow- 
ledgments of pope Pius VI. in 1778. 

The Anglican bishops, in answering the invitation of pope 
Pius IX. to attend the Ecumenical Council of 1869-70, said, 
among other things : 

" Let us humbly ask Thee, canst Thou show us even a single copy 
of the original Hebrew Old Testament printed in Thine own city, 
Home, ' The Mother and Mistress of all churches ?' No, not one. 
One edition of the New Testament in Greek, printed there the other 
day about 400 years after the invention of printing from the cele- 
brated Vatican manuscript, we have now gratefully hailed ; after long 
and anxious delay. But we apprehend that the flock committed to Thy 
pastoral care has still to wait for an edition from the Roman press, in 
their own tongue, of the Old or New Testament" 

Spain, Portugal, Austria, and other exclusively Roman 
Catholic countries, were all in the same position as- Italy in re- 
gard to Bibles a few years ago. Archbishop Hughes of New 
York having said that " the art of printing facilitates the dif- 
fusion ot the Holy Scriptures, and that the Church avails her- 
self with eagerness of that art for the purpose of multiplying 
copies of them," Anson G. Phelps, Jr., Esq., of New York, 
published a letter to the archbishop, asking him u which trans- 
lation of the Holy Scriptures into the Italian language is ac- 
ceptable to the Church, and sure to meet the ' patronage of 
popes, cardinals, and bishops,' " and giving a pledge " to print 
a large edition of this translation, and send it to Italy for gra- 
tuitous distribution." The offer appears never to have been 
accepted, and both Archbishop Hughes and Mr. Phelps died a 
few years afterwards. The offer has also been repeatedly made 
by Protestants, both in England and in this country, to print the 
Douay Bible for free circulation, without the notes, provided 
the Roman Catholic ecclesiastics would authorize its use among 


their people ; but this offer has always been promptly rejected. 
Yet the Catholic Publication Society of New York has pub- 
lished and widely circulated a tract entitled " Is it honest ?" the 
first question of which is 

" Is IT HOXEST to say that the Catholic Church prohibits the use of 
the Bible when any body who chooses can buy as many as he likes at any 
Catholic bookstore, and can see on the first page of any one of them the 
approbation of the bishops of the Catholic church with the Pope at 
their head, encouraging Catholics to read the Bible, in these words : 
' The faithful should be excited to the reading of the Holy Scriptures,' 
and that not only for the Catholics of the United States, but also for 
those of the whole world besides ?" 

Those who have attentively and candidly read the preceding 
part of this chapter, will be able to answer this question without 
any special assistance. 



THE mass is the one great public service of the Roman 
Catholic Church, in which the offering and consecration of the 
sacramental bread and wine and the communion or Lord's 
Supper itself are the essential parts, with a preparation or in- 
troduction, and a post-communion or conclusion of the service. 


The mass is closely connected with the doctrine of transub- 
stantiation (see Chap. II.), and is regarded as a repetition of 
the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The late bishop England, in his 
" Explanation of the Mass," has this definition : 


" The Mass is the principal office of the new law, in which, under 
the appearance of bread and wine, the Redeemer of the world is 
offered up in an unbloody manner upon our altars, as a true, proper, 
and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead." 

The name " mass " (missa, in Latin) is generally derived 
from the phrase " /te, missa est " (= Go, it [the assembly] is 
dismissed), anciently used when the catechumens, or candi- 
dates for admission to the church, who attended the service up 
to this point, were notified to withdraw, that the church might 
be by itself at the Lord's Supper; and hence "missa" or 
" mass" was used to denote this part of the service itself. 

The liturgy used in the mass by the Roman Catholic Church 
in most parts of Europe and Africa, and throughout America, is 
contained in the " Roman Missal," or mass-book, and is entirely 
in Latin.* The name " liturgy " and the principal shaping of 
the mass are due to pope Gregory I. in the 6th century ; the 
Roman missal has been revised and published under Pius Y. 
in 1570, under Clement VIII. in 1604, under Urban VIII. in 
1634. Certain parts of the mass are invariable, and make up 
the " Ordinary of the Mass ; " other parts (the Introit, Col- 
lects, Epistle with its accompaniments, Gospel, Offertory, Se- 
crets, Preface, Communion, and Post-Communion) vary for the 
different Sundays of the year, and for the festivals of particular 
saints or classes of saints, for the dead, for particular objects 
or occasions or places, &c. The Ambrosian liturgy, still used 
in the churches of Milan in Italy, differs but little from the 
Roman ; but the Greek or Eastern church and the Greek Cath- 
olics have their liturgy in ancient Greek ; the Maronites and 
Jacobites have theirs in ancient Syriac ; the Armenians and 
Armeno-Catholics in ancient Armenian, <fec. 

* The council of Trent's 9th canon on the sacrifice of the mass is, " If any one 
say, that the rite of the Roman Church, in which part of the canon and the words 
of consecration are uttered in a low voice, is to be condemned ; or that the mass 
ought to be celebrated only in the vulgar tongue ; or that water is not to be mixed 
with the wine in offering the chalice, because it is contrary to Christ's institution; 
let him be anathema." 



"Low mass " or " private mass " is the ordinary mass, last- 
ing from 20 to 30 minutes, and read without music. " High 
mass " is the service in which the responses and some other 
parts are chanted by the choir. A " solemn high mass," or 
" solemn mass," is a long and pompous service, used on great 
festivals and other solemn occasions, in which the deacon and 
subdeacon officiate, and chanting, singing by a choir, instru- 
mental music and incense are introduced. 

A " solemn pontifical mass " is a solemn mass celebrated by 
a bishop. A mass for the dead may be low, high, solemn, or 
solemn pontifical. A "conventual mass" is one celebrated in 
a convent. A " votive mass " * is one celebrated for the priest's 
own devotion, or at the wish of some of the faithful, and dif- 
ferent from the prescribed mass or masses for the day. Masses 
for the dead, and votive masses generally, are prohibited on 
great festivals, <&c., and are subject to special rules as to the 

hours. Private mass may 
be said, at least after mat- 
ins and lauds, at any hour 
from dawn to noon. No 
sacrifice is offered on Good 

The 35 illustrations 
which follow, represent the 
35 parts of the mass, with 
the emblematic significa- 
tion of each in the upper 
part and named above it, 
and are copied from those 
published in " The Garden 
of the Soul," but Avith much 
improvement in the en- 

Jcsus enters the Garden. 



* Among the votive masses are those of the holy Trinity, of Angels, of the Apos- 
tles Peter and Paul, of the Holy Ghost, of St. Mary, for any necessity, &c. The 
mass of the Holy Ghost, often celebrated on great occasions, has a reading of Acts 
8 : 14-17 ; its gospel from John 14 : 23-31 ; its communion from Acts 2: 2,4; with 
everal prayers for and invocations of the Holy Ghost. 



The priest, having put on the prescribed vestments (see 
Chap. VII.), and made due preparation, takes the cup in his 
hand, and bears it elevated before his breast. He goes with 
downcast eyes, grave step, and upright body. An attendant 
carries the missal and other things necessary for the celebra- 
tion, unless they have been made ready previously. On arriv- 
ing at the altar, the priest bows low with uncovered head to 
the altar, or to the crucifix on it. He places the cup on the 
altar, and afterwards makes the sign of the cross by putting 
his right hand to his forehead, then below his breast, then to 

Jesus prays in the Garden. 

his left and right shoul- 
ders, and says in a distinct 
voice (in Latin), " In the 
name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost." Then joining his 
hands before his breast, he 
begins the antiphony from 
Ps. 42 : 4 (= Ps. 43 : 4) 
"Introibo ad altare Dei [== 
I will go in to the altar of 
God] ; " and the attendant 
responds (also in Latin), 
" To God who makes joyful 
my youth." Afterwards the 
priest and the attendant or attendants alternately say the 42d 
Psalin* in the Vulgate (=Ps. xliii. in Hebrew and English), 
with the G-loria Patri (= " Glory be to the Father and to the 
Son and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning," &c.), 
and the above antiphony repeated, with the addition, " Our 
help is in the name of the Lord." " Who made heaven and 
earth." The Conftteor [== I confess] or Confession by the 
priest, bowing low, now follows thus : 


* In masses for the dead, and daring Passion-week, this Psalm and the Gloria 
Patri are omitted. 


" I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary ever Virgin, to blessed 
Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apos- 
tles Peter and Paul, to all the 
Jesus falls on his Face. 

saints, and to you, brethren : 
because I have sinned too 
much in thought, word, and 
deed, (thrice he strikes his 
breast while he says) my fault, 
my fault, my very great fault. 
Therefore I beseech blessed 
Mary ever Virgin, blessed Mi- 
chael the Archangel, blessed 
John the Baptist, the holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, all 
the saints, and you, brethren, 
to pray for me to the Lord our 
God." The attendants answer, 
" Almighty God pity thce, and, 
thy sins being taken away, bring thee through unto eternal life." The 
priest says, " Amen." Then the attendants repeat the confession, and 
say "thee, father," where the priest said " you, brethren." 


Jesus is betrayed with a Kiss. 



deign to pardon all my sins." 

Upon this the priest joins 
his hands, makes absolu- 
tion, crosses himself, en- 
gages with the attendants 
in responsive prayer, and 
prays in secret at the altar 
for the pardon of sins. 
Then joining his hands 
above the altar, and bow- 
ing, he says : 

"We pray thee, Lord, by 
the merits of thy saints, (he 
kisses the altar in the middle) 
whose relics are here, and of 
all the saints, that thou wilt 



Jesus is led Captive. 

At high mass, the celebrant, before saying the introit, blesses 
the incense, saying, " By him be thou blessed (here he makes 
the sign of the cross over it), in whose honor thou shalt be 
burned. Amen." Then, without speaking, he perfumes with 
it the cross, the relics and 
images of the saints (if 
there are any), and the al- 
tar on all sides. The dea- 
con then perfumes the priest 
with it. 

After kissing the altar, 
the officiating priest goes to 
its left horn, that is, to the 
Epistle side of the altar. 
There, standing before the 
altar, and making the sign 
of the cross from his fore- 
head to his breast, accord- 
ing to the usual form, he THE PHIE8T GOE3 T0 THE EPI8TLB 8IDB op 


begins with a distinct voice 

the introit (= entrance, or introduction) of the mass, and 

goes through it with his 

hands joined before his 

breast. The 

introit is one 
of the variable parts of the 
mass, and is composed usu- 
ally of 2 short passages of 
Scripture, the 2d being a 
verse or two of a psalm, 
and the 1st being repeated 
after the Gloria Patri. 
Thus the introit for the 1st 
Sunday of Advent is com- 
posed of the 1st 2 verses 
of Psalm xxiv. (= Psalm 
xxv. in the English ver- 

Jesus is struck on the Face. 




Jesus is denied by Peter. 

sion) with the 4th verse, and then the Gloria Patri, and a 
repetition of the first 2 verses ; the introit for the 2d Sunday 
of Advent is marked as taken from Is. xxx. and Ps. Ixxix., 

with the Gloria Patri, &c. 
After finishing the introit, 
the officiating priest repeats 
alternately with the attend- 
ants, with hands joined upon 
the breast, the Kyrie eleison, 
which consists of 9 Latin- 
ized Greek phrases, namely, 
" Kyrie, eleison " [= " Lord, 
have mercy"], thrice ut- 
tered ; then " Christe, eld- 
son " [= " Christ, have mer- 
cy"], thrice; then "Kyrie, 
eleison" thrice again. 

Afterwards the priest at the 
middle of the altar, extend- 
ing and joining his hands, 
and inclining his head some- 
what, intones, if it is to be 
said, the hymn, " Gloria in 
excelsis Deo " ' [=" Glory to 
God on high "], bowing as 
he utters the phrases signi- 
fying, " We worship thee," 
" We give thanks to thee," 
" Jesus Christ," and " Re- 
ceive our prayer," and cross- 
ing himself as he says, 
"With the Holy Ghost." 


Peter converted by a look of Jesus. 

AT THE DOMINIC voBiscoM. After the celebrant has in- 

i This hymn or chant, as translated into English, is found in the Episcopal Book 
of Common Prayer. 



toned or sung the first words, lie is joined by the attendants 
or choir. The Crloria in excelsis is omitted on occasions of 
grief, penance, supplication for the dead, &c. 

Then the priest kisses the middle of the altar, and turning 
to the people says, "Dominus vobiscum " * [ The Lord be with 
you], to which the response is, " Et cum spiritu tuo" [= And 
with thy spirit]. Afterwards he says, " Oremus " [= Let us 
pray] , and offers the collects or prayers, one or more (up to 
5 or 7] , as the order for the day demands. At the end of the 
collect, the people answer, " Amen." On occasions of penance 
and humiliation, the celebrant says, " Flectamus genua " [= 
Let us bend our knees] , when he and the people kneel, and at 
the word "Levate " [= Rise] they rise to the prayer which 

After the collects comes the Epistle, so called because it is 
generally a passage from one of the Epistles in the New Tes- 
tament, though it is some- 
times taken from one of tho 
Prophets or from some other 
part of the Old Testament. 
Bishop England says : 

" At a so'emn mass, the 
epistle is chanted by the sub- 
deacon, standing with his face 
towards the nltar, on the lower 
platform or floor of the Sanc- 
tuary, at the south side, or that 
on his right hand, which is 
thence called the epistle side 
of the chancel, of the sanctu- 
ary, and of the altar. After 
he concludes, he makes his AT THE EPISTLE. 

reverence to the altar, which represents Christ, by going to the center 
of the chancel and bending his knee ; then he goes to the celebrant 
who has continued at the book, reading in a low voice, and kneeling 

Jesus is led to Pilate. 

The Dominm vobiscum is repeated 7 times daring the mass. 



obtains his blessing ; he then delivers the book which he has used to 
the deacon, who remained standing near the celebrant, and removes the 
book which the celebrant has used to the other side of the altar, while 
the deacon lays the book which he has received upon the altar. . . . 
After the Epistle, the Choir performs, and the celebrant reads a few 
verses, which are called, the Responsory, the Gradual [formerly sung 
on the steps, in Latin gradus], the Alleluia [= Hallelujah ; omitted 
on days of penance, as in Lent, &c., and repeated in times of great joy, 
as at Easter, &c.], the tract [Latin tracttis =drawn out, as in a melan- 
choly note ; omitted in times of great joy], the sequence or the prose 
[a sort of hymn, used on the most solemn occasions of Easter, Pente- 
cost, &c.], the verses are differently called according to their nature or 
the occasion on which they are sung." 

After the Epistle and its accompaniments the celebrant, 
bowing down before the altar, repeats the prayer beginning 

Jesus is brought to Herod. 

"Munda cor meum, ac labia 
mea, Omnipotent Deus [== 
Cleanse my heart and my 
lips, Almighty God] ." We 
quote again from bishop 
England : 

" He then reads the gospel 
at the north side, or that at 
his left hand side, when he 
faces the altar. 

" In a solemn mass, the dea- 
con kneels on the lower step 
of the platform, and prays, 
" Cleanse," &c. ; then goes to 
the celebrant for his blessing^ 
which he asks on his knees, at 
the Epistle side ; the celebrant bestows it, in the following words : 
May the Lord be in thy heart and on thy lips, that thou mayst an- 
nounce his gospel in a worthy and competent manner, in the name of 
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.' Then rising, the 
deacon descends, and after having made his reverence to the altar, he 
goes, preceded by the incense-bearer and 2 acolyths with lighted tapers, 




Jesus is sent back to Pilate. 

and the subdeacon, to the Gospel side ; and having saluted the people, 
with his face turned towards the north, in the words Dominus vobiscum 
f_= the Lord be with you], he proclaims the portion of the gospel 
which he is to publish ; and having marked his forehead, mouth, and 
breast, with the sign of the cross, he perfumes the book with incense, 
sings the gospel, points out to the subdeacon the portion which he has 

sung, saying, ffcec sunt verba 
Christi (= these are the words 
of Christ).' The subdeacon 
carries the book open to the 
celebrant, repeats the same 
words as he points that portion 
out, and the celebrant kisses 
the book, saying ' Credo ' and 
' Confiteor* (= I believe and 
confess). The deacon incense? 
[= perfumes with incense] 
the celebrant, and having bowed 
to him, they resume their 
places. . . . The people alJ 
stand during the reading or 

singing of the gospel 

After the gospel the creed is 
properly introduced, as the profession of that faith, which the gospel 
has promulgated. That now recited is the creed of Constantinople 
[= the Nicene creed modified at Constantinople in A. D. 381 ; see 
Chapter II.] ... It is begun by the celebrant, and taken up by the 
choir, to show that faith springs from Christ, and through him is estab- 
lished amongst the people. ... It is said or sung only on Sundays 
and great festivals. After the celebrant and his attendants repeat it, 
they sit until the choir has concluded. This is the end of what is called 
the Mass of Catechumens. . . . 

" The first part of the mass of the faithful is the Offertory. This is 
a small portion of the Scriptures applicable to the mystery or fact 
which is commemorated, and of course varies every day. This is 
called the offertory, because it was sung by the choir whilst the faith- 
ful made their offerings. . . . But the custom of receiving these 
contributions has long since gradually ceased. Where there is no 
choir, the celebrant reads it in a loud voice. After the offertory, at 



Jesus is spoiled of his garments. 


Jesus is Scourged. a solemn mass, or indeed dur- 

ing its performance, the dea- 
con and sub-deacon go up to 
the altar, both at the Epistle 
side ; should the chalice not be 
on the altar, but placed at the 
credence-table below, the sub- 
dencon carries it up. ... In 
plain masses the celebrant does 
everything himself. 

"The deacon being on the 
right hand of the celebrant, 
uncovers the chalice, which has 
on its mouth a linen cloth call- 
ed a purificatory, for 
wiping the chalice and paten ; 
the paten is a small plate on 
which the bread for consecra- 
tion is placed; (his is laid on 
the chalice. If the deacon have 
not spread the corporal upon 
the altar during the creed, he 
now takes it from the burse or 
case in which it is kept, and 
spreads it on the altar. The 
corporal is a cloth neatly fold- 
ed, except when spread upon 
the altar during the sacrifice, 
and the bread which afterwards 
becomes the body (= corpus 
[in Latin]) and the chalice are 
AT THE UNVEILING OF THE CHALICE, placed upon it. Taking the 
paten with the bread on it from the chalice, the deacon gives it to the 
celebrant, who lifting it up offers it, repeating the prayer, 1 ' Accept,' 

1 This prayer is in full : "Accept, holy Father, Almighty and eternal God, this im- 
maculate host, which I thy unworthy servant offer to thec my living and true God, for 
my innumerable sins and offenses and negligences, and for all standing round, but 
also for all faithful Christians living and dead : that it may profit me and them for 
salvation unto eternal life. Amen." All the prayers between the offertory and the 
end of the canon, except the preface uud Lord's prayer, are said in a low voice. 



Jesus is Crowned with Thorns. 

&c., as in the ordinary of the mass. After which, having made 
therewith the sign of the cross, he lays it on the altar. Meantime 
the deacon cleanses the chalice, and having put wine into it, the sub- 
deacon places the water before the celebrant, which he blesses with 
the sign of the cross, and the prayer, ' O God, who ha creating,' &c. 
[a prayer to be partakers of Christ's divinity]. The sub-deacon then 
puts a small quantity of water into the chalice, and the deacon having 
wiped it carefully, gives it to the celebrant, who being assisted by the 
deacon, also repeating the prayer, offers it, saying, 'We offer unto thee,' 
&c. then having made the sign of the cross therewith, he lays hi on 
the altar, and the deacon covers it with the pall, which is a piece of 
linen, sometimes ornamented, but always made so stiff, by the sewing 
it on pasteboard or otherwise, as to rest steadily on the chalice and pre- 
serve its contents from anything which might defile them. . . . The 
celebrant then bowing down 
says the prayer, 'Accept us, O 
Lord,' &c. [for acceptance of 
the offerers and their sacrifice] 
after which, rising he says 
'Come, O Almighty,' 1 &c. 
and at the word 'bless,' he 
makes the sign of the cross 
over the host and chalice 
then blesses the incense by the 
sign of the cross and the prayer, 2 
'May the Lord,' &c. and per- 
fumes the bread and wine, and 
the altar, repeating the prayers 
which follow. 3 After which 
he washes his hands, saying the AT THB COVERING OF THE CHALICB. 

i This prayer is-" Come, Sanctifier, almighty and eternal God, bless this sacri- 
fice prepared to thy holy name." 

* This prayer is-" By the intercession of blessed Michael the archangel stand- 
ing at the right of the altar of incense, and of all his own elect,may the Lord dei<m 
to bless [the sign of the cross here] that incense, and receive it as sweet odor. 
Through Christ our Lord. Amen." 

8 These prayers are that the blessed incense may ascend to God and his pity 
descend to us that the prayer may be directed as incense, &c. (Ps. HO: 2-4 in 
Vulgate = Ps. 141 : 2-4 in the English version) and for the kindling in us of a 
name of love and charity. 



Pilate Washet his Hands. 

prayer, 1 1 will wash,'i &c and then returns to the middle of the 

altar, where bowing down he 
repeats his request of sacri- 
fice, saying, ' Receive, O holy 
Trinity,' a &c., then kissing 
the altar, he turns round, and 
expanding his hands, says, 
'Orate Fratres' 3 [= Pray, 
brethren] &c. during this 
and the secret prayer, and the 
preface, * until just before the 
Sanctus 5 [= Holy], the dea- 
con and subdeacon stand in 
their proper places behind the 
celebrant, but go up to the al- 
THB PRIEST WASHETH HIS FINGERS. tar, the deacon on the right 

1 Psalm 25 : 6 12 in Vulgate (=Ps. 26: 6 10 in the Eng version) with the 
Gloria Patri. The Gloria Patri is omitted in the masses for tdc dead and in 
Passion week. 

2 This prayer is " Receive, holy Trinity, this oblation, which we offer to thee in 
commemoration of the sufferinjr, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ our Lord 
and to the honor of blessed M:iry ever Virgin, and of blessed John the Baptist, and 
of holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and not only of those, but also of'all saints ; that 
it may profit thorn unto honor, but us unto salvation : and that they may deign to 
intercede for us in heaven, whose memory we celebrate on the earth. Through the 
same Christ o ir Lord. Amen." 

3 The ce!el>rants.iys these first words "Orate Fratres "( = Pray brethren) with his 
voice a little elevated ; but the remainder [" that my and your sacrifice may be ac- 
ceptable with God the Almighty Father" J is said inaudibly, or " in a perfectly un- 
der tone." Then the priest turns round to the altar and joins his hands before his 
breast ; and the attendant, or bystanders answer, or otherwise the priest himself 
" May the Lord receive the sacrifice from thy (or, my) hands, to the praise and 
glory of his name, to our profit also, and that of all his own holy church." The 
priest with a loud voice says, " Amen." The secret prayer or prayers which fol- 
low are variable, and correspond with the collects for the day or occasion. At the 
conclusion of these the priest says in a distinct voice or sings, " Per omnia secufa 
stculonun " (=through all the ages of ages, i. e., world without end) ; the choir an- 
swers, " Amen ;" the priest follows,"Z>owt/ius vobiscum " ( = The Lord be with you) ; 
the response is, " Et cum spiritutuo" ( = And with thy spirit) ; the priest says, 
" Sursum cort/u,( = Lift up your hearts) ; and is answered. "Hubemus aa Dominum" 
( = We have, unto the Lord); then the priest, "Grottos ayanuts Domino Deo 
nostro" (=Lct us give thanks to the Lord our God) ; and the choir, " Dignum ft 
justum est" (=lt is proper and right) ; after which he says or sings the preface. 
* The "preface" is so called, because it immediately precedes and introduces the canon 
of the mass. There are 11 different prefaces, namely, the common preface, and those 
ot Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, the Trinity, the Apos- 
tles, the Cross, and the Virgin Mary. They declare the propriety of gfving thanks 
to God through Christ, pray to be permitted to worship God with the inhabitants 
of heaven, and introduce the Sanctus. Some of them refer also to the special occa- 
sions when they are used. 
6 The Sanctus, taken from Is. 6 : 3, &c., aud uttered by the celebrant, with the 



and the subdeacoa on the left, 
to join in the words * Holy, 
Holy, Holy,' &c. after which 
the subdeacon having made 
his reverence tothe altar, des- 
cends to his former place* 
and the deacon comes to 
the left hand side, to 
assist in turning the leaves of 
the book, during the canon 
which immediately follows." 

The "Canon of the 
Mass," which is said to 
have been unchanged for 
nearly 1800 years, includes 
the consecration of the bread 
and wine, and the com- 
munion, and is read in a 
low voice. 

The canon begins by in- 
voking the Father of mer- 
cies, through Jesus Christ 
his Son, to accept these 
sacrifices for the holy Cath- 
olic church, for the pope 
and bishop and all the 
orthodox, and professors 
of the catholic and apostol- 
ic faith. Then follows 
the " memento" or " com- 
memoration of the living," 
which is thus translated : 

Pilate says, "Behold the Man." 


Jesus is Condemned to Die. 


choir and the people, is thus translated : " Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth 
[=hosts]. The heavens and the earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the 
highest. Blessed is he that comcth in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the 



" Remember, Lord, thy servants and handmaids, N. and N., ( he 
joins his hands ; prays a little for those for whom he intends to pray* 
then with extended hands proceeds :) and all the bystanders, whose 
faith and devotion are known to thee, for whom we offer to thee, or who 
offer to thee this sacrifice of praise for themselves and all that belong 
to them, for the redemption of their souls, for the hope of their wel- 
fare and safety ; and to thee, the eternal, living and true God, they 
pay their vows." 

Jesus Bears His Cross. 

To this is added a com- 
memoration " of the glori- 
ous ever-virgin Mary," and 
of the blessed apostles and 
martyrs, and of all the 
saints, " to whose merits 
and prayers thou mayst 
grant, that we may be de- 
fended in all things by the 
aid of thy protection." 

The celebrant now 
spreads his hands over the 
bread and wine to be con- 
secrated, and beseeches the 
Lord " graciously to ac- 
cept this oblation of his servitude " in the ministry, " as also 
of his whole family*' (the congregation), to dispose their 
days in peace, to preserve them from eternal damnation, 
and number them in the flock of the elect, "through Christ 
our Lord." 

Now follows a prayer claimed to have come down from 


highest." The assistant rings the bell at the Sanctus, for the congregation to 
join in it. The celebrant crosses himself at the sentence, " Blessed is he that 



Veronica offers Jesus a Towel. 


Jesus is nailed on the Cross. 

the apostles, which, with 
the rubrics (in parenthesis) 
and other prayers, is trans- 
lated from the Missal: 

* * Which oblation webeseech 
that thou, God, wilt deign to 
make in all things blessed 
(thrice he makes the sign of 
the cross over the oblation), ap- 
proved, sure, rational, and accep- 
table ; (he makes the sign of 
the cross once over the host and 
once over the chalice) that it 
may become to us the body and 

blood of thy dearest Son our THB PRIE8T HOLDS HIS HANDS OVEB 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

" * Who the day before he suf- 
fered (he takes the host) took 
bread into his own sacred and 
venerable hands ; (he raises his 
eyes to heaven) and raising his 
eyes to heaven to thee, Al- 
nvghty God, his Father giving 
thanks to thee, (he makes the 
sign of the cross over the host) 
he blessed, brake and gave to 
his disciples, saying : Take, 
and eat all ye of this.' 

" Holding the host in both 
hands between the fore-fingers 
and thumbs, he utters the words 
of consecration secretly, distinct- 
ly, and attentively over the host, 

and at the same time over them all, if more than one are to be conse- 
crated : 

" ' For this is my body.' 

" Having uttered the words of consecration, immediately he 





Jctus is exalted on the Cross. 

kneels and adores 

the consecrated host ; he 
rises, shows it to the people, 
places it back upon the cor- 
poral, again adores it ; and 
does not disjoin his thumbs 
and fingers, except when the 
host is to be handled, down to 
the washing of his fingers. 

" Then, having uncovered 
the chalice, he says: 'In 
like manner after supper, (he 
takes the chalice in both 
hands) taking also this noble 
chalice into his holy and ven- 
erable hands, giving thanks 
likewise to thee, (holding the chalice in his left hand, he makes the 
sign of the cross over it with his right) he blessed and gave to his dis- 
ciples, saying : Take and drink all ye of this.' 

"He utters the words of 
consecration over the chalice, 
attentively, continuously, and 
secretly, holding it a little 

u ' For this is the chalice 
of my blood, of the new and 
eternal testament : the mys- 
tery of faith : which shall be 
shed for you and for many 
for the remission of sins.' 

" Having uttered the words 
of consecration, he replaces the 
chalice upon the corporal, and 
saying secretly, ' as oft as ye 
do this, ye shall do it for a 


memorial of me. 

u He kneels and adores, rises, shows it to the people, puts it down, 
covers, and again adores. Then disjoining his hands he says : 

Blood flows from Jesus' wounds. 



u ' Whence also, Lord, we thy servants, but also thy holy people, 
mindful of the so blessed suffering of the same Christ thy Son our 
Lord, also of his resurrection from the dead, but also of his glorious 
ascension into the heavene,offer to thy excellent majesty of thy gifts and 
presents, (he joins hands and makes the sign of the cross thrice over 
the host and the chalice at the same time) a pure host, a holy host, an 
unspotted host, (lie makes the sign of the cross once over the host and 
once over the chalice) the holy bread of eternal life, and the chalice of 
perpetual salvation.' 

" "With extended hands he proceeds : 

" ' Upon which mayst thou deign to look with a propitious and serene 
countenance, and to hold it accepted, as thou didst deign to hold ac- 
cepted the gifts of thy just boy Abel, and the sacrifice of our patri- 
arch Abraham, and what thy high priest Melchizedek offered to thee, 
a holy sacrifice, an immaculate offering.' 

"Bowing low, joiaing his haads and placing them upon the altar, he 

Jesus prays for the World. 

" ' We as suppliants beseech thee, Almighty God ; order these to be 
borne by the hands of thy holy angel to thy altar on high, hi sight of 
thy divine majesty ; that as 
many of us as (he kisses the 
altar) at this altar shall par- 
take of thy Son's most sacred 
(he joins his hands, and makes 
the sign of the cross once 
over the body and once over 
the blood) body and blood, 
(he crosses himself) may be 
filled with every heavenly 
blessing and grace. (He joins 
his hands.) Through the same 
Christ our Lord. Amen.' 



" ' Remember also, Lord, 
thy servants and handmaids, 
N. and N., who have gone before us with the sign of faith, and sleep 
in the sleep of peace. (He joins his hands, prays a little for those 
dead, for whom he intends to pray, then with extended hands proceeds) 




The conversion of the thief. 

To them Lord and to all who rest in Christ, we pray thee to grant a 
place of refreshment, of light and peace. (He joins his hands and bows 
bis head.) Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.' 

" He strikes his breast with 
his right hand, saying with his 
voice a little raised [the prayer 
beginning] ' Nobis quoque pec- 
catoribus, [which is thus trans- 
lated :] 

"'To us also sinners, hop. 
ing from (he multitude of thy 
compassions, mayst thou deign 
to give some part and fellow- 
ship with thy holy apostles 
and martyrs ; with John, Ste- 
phen, Matthias, Barnabas, 
Ignatius, Alexander, Marcel- 
linus, Peter, Fdicitas, Perpe- 
tua, Agatha, Lucia, Agnes, 
Cecilia, Anastasia, and all 
thy saints : into whose so- 
ciety, we beseech thee, not as 
an appraiser of merit, but as a 
bestower of pardon, do thou 
admit us. (lie joins his 
hands.) Through Christ our 

" ' Through whom, Lord, 
thou dost always create, (he 
now makes the sign of the 
cross thrice over the host and 
the chalice at the same time, 
saying,) sanctify, vivify, bless, 
and give to us all these good 
things. (He uncovers the 
chalice, kneels, takes the host 

AT THB PATEB HOSIER. ^ ^ r j gbt j^ j^j^ 

the chalice with his left : thrice he makes the sign of the cross with the 
host from one lip of the chalice to the other, saying,) Through him, 
and with him, and in him, (twice he makes the sign of the 


Seven words ofjesus on the Cross. 



between the chalice and his breast) there is to thee, Almighty Father, 
in the unity of the Holy Ghost, (he raises the chalice a little with the 
host, and says,) all honor and glory. (He replaces the host, [wipes 
his fingers, if necessary,] covers the chalice, kneels, rises, chants or 
reads,) World without end. (Answer.) Amen. (He joins his hands.) 
Let us pray : admonished by salutary precepts, and directed by divine 
instruction, we dare to say.' " 

The celebrant then extends his hands, and says or sings the 
Lord's prayer, and is answered at the end with a repetition of 
the last petition, " But deliver us from evil." The "canon of 
the mass," properly so called, ends with the prayer preceding 
the Lord's prayer ; but the next part, which is the preparation 
for and receiving of the communion, is now also included in 
the canon. 

In a solemn mass, the deacon, who stands behind the cele- 
brant during the first part of the Lord's prayer, goes up before 
the conclusion of it to the celebrant's right, and the subdeacon 
now also carries up the paten, which he gives to the deacon, 
and then returns to his 
place below ; the deacon 
having wiped the paten, 
places it in the right hand 
of the celebrant, who, hav- 
ing said the " amen " to 
the Lord's prayer, con- 
tinues in a low voice the 
next prayer : 

" Deliver us, we beseech 
thee, Lord, from all evils 
past, present, and future ; 
and the blessed and glorious 
ever Virgin Mary Mother of 
God interceding, with thy blessed apostles, Peter and Paul, and 
Andrew, and all the saints, (he crosses himself with the paten from fore- 
head to breast, and kisses it) graciously give us peace in our days, that, 
supported by the help of thy compassion, we may be always both free 

Jesus dies on the Cross. 




The Soul of Jesus descends into Hell. f rO m sin, and secure from 

every disturbance^ (lie 
places the paten under the 
host, uncovers the chalice, 
kneels, rises, takes the host, 
breaks it through the middle 
over the chalice, saying,) 
Through our same Lord Jesus 
Christ thy Son. (The part 
which is in his right hand he 
places upon the paten. Then 
from the part which remains 
in his left hand he breaks a 
small piece, saying,) Who 
with thee, in the unity of the 
CHALICE. eth God. (The other middle 

part with his left hand itself he places on the paten, and holding in his 
right hand the little piece over the chalice, in his left the chalice, he 

The Conversion of many at the Cross. 

says in a distinct voice) World 
without end. (Answer.) 
Amen. (With the little piece 
itself he thrice makes the sign 
of the cross over the chalice, 
saying,) The peace of the 
Lord be ever with you. (Ans.) 
And with thy spirit. (He 
puts the little piece into the 
chalice, saying secretly,) May 
this mixture and consecration 
of the body and blood of our 
Lord Jesus Christ be made to 
us who receive it unto 
eternal life. Amen. (He 
covers the chalice, kneels, ri- 
ses, and bowing to the sacra- 
ment, joining his hands, and thrice striking his breast, he says [" in an 
intelligible voice," the " Agnus Dei, " thus] :) Lamb of God, who 



takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, 
who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of 
God, who takest away the sins of the world, grant us peace.' " 

In masses for the dead, the celebrant does not strike his 
breast at the Agnus Dei ; instead of the " have mercy on us " 
is twice said " grant them rest ; " and instead of " grant us 
peace " is said " grant them eternal rest ; " the prayer for the 
peace of the church is omitted, as well as the " Peace be with 
thee, And with thy spirit," which follow it. 

After the Agnus Dei, in ordinary and high masses, the cele- 
brant offers in secret 3 short prayers ; the first for the peace 
and unity of the whole church ; the second, that he himself 
may be freed from his sins and from all evils and may always 
adhere to Christ's commands and never be separated from him ; 
the third, that his reception of Christ's body may not be to his 
condemnation, but to his mental and bodily protection and 
healing. In high masses, the deacon kneels at the celebrant's 
right during this first prayer for peace ; then rises ; they both 
kiss the altar ; and after embracing each other, the celebrant 
kisses the deacon, saying, "Pax tecum" ( Peace be with 
thee) ; to which the deacon answers, " Et cum spiritu tuo " 
(=: And with thy spirit) ; then the deacon, having adored the 
sacrament on the altar, gives the " peace " in like manner to the 
subdeacon in his place below ; after which they come up to assist 
at the altar, while the celebrant continues the two other prayers. 

After these prayers, the celebrant " kneels, rises, and says 
in secret : 

" ' I will take the heavenly bread, and I will call on the name of the 
Lord. (Then bowing a little, he takes both parts of the host between 
the thumb and forefinger of his left hand, and the paten between the 
same forefinger and the middle finger ; and striking his breast with his 
right hand, and raising his voice a little, he thrice says, devoutly and 
humbly,) Lord, I am not worthy [then he goes on secretly] that thou 
shouldst enter under my roof; but speak by a word only, and my soul 
shall be healed. (After this, crossing himself with the host over the 
paten, he says,) May the body of our Lord Jesus Christ keep my soul 
unto eternal life. Amen. (He reverently takes both parts of the 




host, joins his hands, and rests a little in meditation on the most holy 
Jesus is buried. sacrament. Then he uncovers 

the chalice, kneels, collects the 
fragments, if there are any, wipes 
the paten over the chalice ["care- 
fully with the thumb and fore- 
finger of his right hand, and the 
fingers themselves,"] saying in 
the mean time,) "What shalll ren- 
der to the Lord for all the things 
that he hath rendered to me ? I 
will take the chalice of salvation, 
and I will call upon the name of 
the Lord. I will call upon the 
Lord with praises, and I shall be 
safe from my enemies. ( He takes 
the cup in his right hand, and 
crossing himself with it, says,) May the blood of our Lord Jesus 
Christ keep my soul unto eternal life. Amen. (He takes all the 
blood with the small piece [of the host put in the chalice]. Having 
taken this, if there be any to take the communion, he administers it to 
them, before he purifies himself. Afterwards he says [" secretly "]) 
What we have taken with our mouth, Lord, may we take with a pure 

mind; and from the temporal 
gift may there be made to 
us an eternal remedy. (In the 
mean time he reaches out the 
chalice to the attendant, who 
pours out in it a little wine, with 
which he purifies himself; then 
he proceeds:) May thy body, 
Lord, which I have taken, and 
blood, which I have drank, ad- 
here to my bowels : and grant 
that the stain of wickedness 
may not remain in me whom 
the pure and holy sacraments 
have renewed. Who livest and 
AT THE ABumoir. rcigncst for ever. Amen. "(He 

Jesus is anointed. 



Jesus' Resurrection. 

washes his fingers, wipes, and drinks the ablution, wipes his mouth and 
the chalice, and folding the corporal, places it on the altar as before : 
then he goes on with the mass.) " 

Bishop England says : 

" If communion were to be 
given, it was usually done af- 
ter the celebrant had commu- 
nicated himself, and then the 

choir sung some Psalms 

The Psalm usually performed 
on this occasion in the early 
days of Christianity, was the 
33d [=rPs. xxxiv.], 'I will 
bless the Lord at all times.' 
The 9th verse [= Ps. 34 : 8], 
' O taste and see that the Lord 
is sweet,' &c., was sometimes 
chosen as the antiphon. Other 
Psalms were sometimes taken, 

, ., , ~ -r> i AFTER COMMUNION. 

and then only part of a Psalm, 

and at present but 1 or 2 verses, which is called the ' communion,' 
though at present the communion is frequently given after mass, and 
not at this tune." 

The passage of Scrip- 
ture called" communion " 
is one of the variable parts 
of the service, and is read 
by the celebrant from the 
missal at the epistle side 
of the altar. He then 
goes to the middle of the 
altar, and, after kissing 
it, turns to the people and 
says, " Dominus vobis- 
cum" (:=the Lord be 
with you) ; and is an- 

Jesus appears to his disciples. 




swered, "Et cum spiritu tuo " 

Jesus 40 days with His disciples. 


And with thy spirit). Ho 
then returns to the book, 
and says or sings the post- 
communion prayers, which 
are also variable, and cor- 
respond particularly to the 
collects. After these are 
finished, he closes the book, 
joins his hands before his 
breast, returns to the mid- 
dle of the altar, and kisses 
it. Then. he turns to the 
people, and says, " Dom- 
inus vobiscum" to which 
the response is given as 
before. After this is said, 
he stands with his hands 
joined before his breast, and facing the people, says, if it is to 
be said, " Ite missa est " (= Go, the mass is over), adding two 
alleluias in Easter-week ; and then, after the response, " Deo 
gr alias " (= Thanks to God), returns to the altar. On days 

of penance, when the Ita 
missa est is not said, ho 
returns, after the Dominus 
vobiscum, to the middle of 
the altar, where, facing 
that, and joining his hands 
before his breast, he says, 
" Benedicamus Domino " 
(= Let us bless the Lord) ; 
and is answered, "Deo 
gratias " (= Thanks to 
God). But in masses for 
the dead, he stands in the 
same way facing the altar 
and says, " Jlequiescant in 

Jesus ascends into heaven. 




pace " (= Let them rest in peace) ; and is answered, " Amen." 
In the solemn mass, the deacon, instead of the celebrant, says 
or sings the ltd missa est, Benedicamus Domino, and Requiescant 
in pace. Before the Dominus vobiscum, there comes in Lent a 
"prayer over the people" (==oratio super populum), read 
at the book, and preceded by a call from the celebrant or dea- 
con " Humiliate capita vestra Deo " (= Bow down your heads 
to God). 

After the Ite missa est or Senedicamus Domino has been said, 
the celebrant bows before the middle of the altar and with his 
hands joined over it, utters a secret prayer to the Trinity for 
the acceptance of his homage and sacrifice. Then he kisses 
the altar, stands upright, lifts up his eyes, extends, raises and 
joins his hands, and bows to the cross as he says, in an intel- 
ligible voice, " May Almighty God bless you," and turning to 
the people, he proceeds," Father, and Son, (he makes the sign 
of. the cross) and Holy Ghost." Ans. " Amen." The cele- 
brant then goes to the gospel side, and says the last Dominus 
vobiscum, to which the response is given, as above. 

In masses for the dead the benediction and Dominus volis- 

cum are omitted. The cele- 
brant then reads John 1 : 
1-14, he and the congrega- 
tion kneeling at the words 
in verse 14 " Hi verbum cartf 
facium est 9 ' (= And the 
Word was made flesh), and 
the whole service being con- 
cluded with the response 
" Deo gratias " (= Thanks 
to God). Instead of this 
gospel, another is sometimes 
substituted, as when a fes- 
tival is celebrated on a Sun- 
day or holyday, which has a 
proper gospel of its own. 

The descent of the Holy Ghost. 



Besides the Missal, which contains the ritual and rubrics 
(= directions printed in red letters) pertaining to the various 
masses, there is also the Breviary or book containing the offices 
of daily prayer, or the " canonical hours." The name " Bre- 
viary " (Latin breviarium = abridgment) is traced back to the 
llth century, and was probably adopted because the offices 
which it contained had been revised and contracted from the 
longer forms previously in use. The canonical hours are 
named " matin " or commonly " matins " (Latin matutinum = 
morning), " lauds " (laudes = praises), " prime " (prima ~ 
first), "tierce" (tertia = third), "sext" (sexta =. sixth) 
"none "or "nones" (nona = ninth), "vespers" (vesper or 
vespera evening) " complin " or " compline " (completorium 
= that which completes or fills up the daily service). The 
canonical hours originated among the ancient monks. Says 
Fosbroke's British Monachism : 

"Because the Jews separated the day into 4 quarters or greater 
hours, each containing 3 lesser or common hours, so each canonical 
hour was presumed to consist of 3 smaller; and the whole 'night and 
day was then divided into the 8 services of matins, lauds, prune, tierce, 
sext, nones, vespers, and completorium or complin." 

Matins and lauds thus came between midnight and 6 A. M., 
then " prime," &c. Says Appletons' Cyclopedia : 

" According to the original custom, still preserved in some- strict 
monastic orders, matins and lauds should be recited soon after mid- 
night, prime early in the morning, tierce, sext, and none at 9, 12, and 3, 
vespers late in the afternoon, and compline in the evening. The usual 
custom is, however, at present, both in the public singing or recita- 
tion of the office in choir, and in the private reading of it, to say 
matins and lauds on the preceding evening, the little hours at some 
convenient time in the morning, and vespers and compline at any time 
in the afternoon. The office is obligatory on clergymen in the major 
orders, the members of monastic communities, and those who hold bene- 
fices. It is chiefly composed of the psalter, and lessons from the scriptures 
and the acts of the saints and martyrs, with hymns, versicles, and prayers 
interspersed. A great variety of offices have been and are in use. The 


one most generally used in the Catholic church of the "West ia the 
Roman breviary." 

This breviary bears the title : 

" The Roman Breviary restored according to the decree of the most 
holy council of Trent, edited by order of the holy supreme pontiff Pius 
V., revised by the authority of Clement VIII. and Urban VIIL, with 
the offices of the saints most recently granted by the supreme pontiffs 
unto this day." 

The vignettes of the missal and breviary are both given in 
Chapter III. 

According to the rubrics in the Roman breviary, the Pater 
nosier (= Lord's prayer) and Ave Maria (== Hail Mary ; see 
Chap. XV.) are " said in secret before matins and all the 
hours, except at complin. . . At the beginning of matins and 
prime, and at the end of complin, is said also the apostles' 
creed." For this and the history of various rites and practices in 
the Roman Catholic church, see Chapter II. 

The 7 sacraments, as already mentioned in Chapter II., are 
baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, penance, extreme unction, 
holy orders, and matrimony. 

According to the catechism of the Council of Trent, baptism 
is "the sacrament of regeneration by water in the word ; " its 
matter, or element, is " any sort of natural water ; " and its 
true and essential form, " I baptize thee in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." " Baptism 
may be administered by dipping, pouring or sprinkling." Bish- 
ops and priests, by right of office ; deacons, by permission of 
the bishop or priest ; or " in case of necessity, but without its 
solemn ceremonies, . . . all, even the laity, men and women, to 
whatever sect they may belong," may administer baptism. 
" This power extends, in case of necessity, even to Jews, infi- 
dels, and heretics ; provided, however, they intend to do what 
the Catholic church does in that act of her ministry." Spon- 
sors are required at the solemn ceremonies ; and are to watch 

constantly over their spiritual children, and carefully instruct 


them in the maxims of the Christian life. The baptized person 
should have only 1 sponsor, or, at most, 1 male (= god-father) 
and 1 female (= god-mother) ; and cannot lawfully contract 
marriage with these sponsors or with the baptizer. " Infants, 
unless baptized, cannot enter heaven." Unbaptized adults are 
to be invited and prepared to receive baptism. Insane persons, 
who have no lucid intervals, or who in lucid intervals express a 
wish to be baptized, may be baptized. Baptism is on no ac- 
count to be repeated ; but a conditional form may be used when 
there are reasonable doubts of the validity of the previous 
baptism. The water to be used in baptism should be conse- 
crated on the vigils of Easter and Pentecost ; the person to be 
baptized is brought or conducted to the door of the church and 
is forbidden to enter until Satan's yoke is cast off, and certain 
questions in respect to Christian doctrine are answered by the 
person or the sponsor ; exorcism is used to expel the devil ; 
salt is put into the person's mouth ; the sign of the cross is 
marked on his forehead, eyes, breast, shoulders, and ears ; spittle 
is put on his nostrils and ears ; at the baptismal font, the per- 
son or his sponsor renounces Satan, and all his works, and all 
his pomps ; he is anointed with the oil of catechumens on the 
breast and between the shoulders ; the person or his sponsor 
makes a profession of all the articles of the creed ; then 
the question if he will be baptized having been answered affir- 
matively, the priest administers the baptism* in the name of 
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost ; then the 
priest anoints with chrism the crown of the baptized person's 
head, puts on him a white garment or kerchief, and puts a burn- 
ing light into his hand. The name given to the baptized 
should be taken from some saint. 

He baptizes by pouring water on the head 3 times in the form of a cross ("or by 
dipping thrice, where this is the custom), the pourings coinciding with the pro- 
nouncing of the 3 names of the Trinity. The anointing the head with chrism is 
also in the form of a cross. The service ends with the address : " N. go in peace, 
and the Lord be with thee." Ans. " Amen." The 2d Plenary Council of 
Baltimore decreed that priests should never administer baptism outside of the 
church, except in imminent danger of death, or for some weighty reason. 


The catechism of the council of Trent teaches that confirma- 
tion is so called, 

"because, if no obstacle is opposed to its efficacy, the person who re- 
ceives it, when anointed with the sacred chrism by the hand of the bish- 
op, who accompanies the unction with these words, ' I sign thee with 
the sign of the cross, and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,' is con- 
firmed in strength by receiving new virtue, and becomes a perfect sol- 
dier in Christ. . . . The matter of confirmation is chrism . . .= oint- 
ment composed of oil and balsam . . . consecrated with solemn cere- 
monies by the bishop. ... In confirmation, as in baptism, a sponsor 
is required. l . . . Confirmation may be administered to all, as 
soon as they have been baptized ; but, until children shall have 
reached the use of reason, its administration is inexpedient. If not 
postponed to the age of 1 2, it should therefore be deferred until at least 
that of 7. ... The forehead of the person to be confirmed is anointed 
with sacred chrism. . . . When confirmed, he receives a gentle slap on 
the cheek from the hand of the bishop. . . . Finally, he receives the 
kiss of peace." 

The imposition of hands in confirmation is made by the bish- 
op's extending his hands towards the person or persons to be 
confirmed ; the anointing by his dipping his right thumb in 
the chrism and making the sign of the cross with it on the fore- 
head of each ; and he accompanies the slap on the cheek with 
the words " Pax tecum " (= Peace be with thee). 

The " eucharist " is also called the " sacrifice," " commun- 
ion," " sacrament of peace and charity," " viaticum" (= pro- 
vision for a journey ; a name used when administered to one 
about to depart this life), " supper." It must be consecrated 
and received only by one who is fasting. The sacramental bread 
should be of wheat flour and natural water, fresh, without spots, 
not easily flying to pieces, and unleavened. The wine should 
be Sauterne, Bordeaux, Catawba, Isabella, or other undoubtedly 
genuine sort, not Port, Madeira, Sherry, Malaga, &c. The cup 

i The 2d Plenary council of Baltimore passed a decree that " this custom, alrea