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Vol. I. June l8;8. No. i. 


Ta ttdvoeate tftf. ute of the Roman Alphabet in OrienltU 








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No. I. June i8y8. 

The objects of this Journal, and of the Society with 
which it is connected, are explained by the series of Re«olntioii», 
passed at the Meeting organising the Society, and by the 
Statement of Reasons, both of which we publish in this nnm- 
ber of the Joarnal. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
na their snpport. Those who may wish to join tlie Society 
are reqoestod to send their names withasnbscription of Rs. 
5 to R. Dick, Esq., Secretary, Lahore. Members will receive 
a copy of the Joarnal, 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolntions 
passed at the Meeting on the ^.^th ultimo, and invite subs- 
criptions to the " Transliteration Fund." 

All remittances shonld be made by registered letter, 

ProcMdinffa of a Meeting lield on O^e 25fA May 1878 to organise 
a Society for tlie advocacy of the Roman Alphabet in re- 
presenting Oriental Languages. 

Mb. Elsxtb, Judge of the Chief Court, occupied the 

Letters were read from a number of gentlemen who 
sympathise with the movement, and promise their counte- 
nance and snpport 

Mr. Tolbort, Depnly Commissioner of Onjranwala, i}ien 
read a paper explaining the reasons whidi render it dosir- 
able to advocate the ose of the Boman alphabet. 

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Mr. Dick, of the GoTernment College Lahore, next ^ve 
a brief sketch of the progress of the movement fnun its com- 
nwnoement in 1S34 down to the present time. 

The following resolotions were then passed : — 

1. Thatapermanent Association be organised at Lahore, 
with the object of advocating the nae of the Roman alpha- 
bet for the Oriental languages. This association to be desig- 
nated die Boman-Urdit Society, Its operations will extend 
to Persian, Sanskrit and Hindi as well as to Urdii. 

2. That the meetings of this Society beheld regularij 
on the last Saturday of every month. That the place and 
honr of each meeting be duly notified to Members tbroagh 
the Civil and MtUtaty Qazetle. 

3. That a statement be circulated in the name of th« 
Society, explaining its objects, and inviting the ooHjperation 
oF all who are interested in the edacation, the literature, 
and ihe welfare of the people of India. That this statement 
be sent to the leading newspapers of the Punjab and of the 
North-West Provinces, and .that copies be distributed to in- 
dividual Europeans and Natives who are likely to give the 
movement their snpport. Major Holroyd, Mr. Dick, and Mr. 
Tolbort, are authorized to draw np this statement in the 
name of the Society, taking as their basis the paper which 
has been read at the present meeting. 

4. That an application to be admitted to this society 
and the payment of an annual subscription of Rs. 6 be snf- 
ficient to constitute membership of the Society. These terms 
may be changed by the Sodety at its next or any subsequent 
General Annaal Meeting. 

5. That the meeUng on the last Saturday in, Mardi 
shall be considered the General Annual Mooting, at which 
the Officers of the Society will in futare be elected for the 
following flnandal year. The Offioera decked at the present 

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Ifeeting will holdoffioe till the 31st of March nazt, and the 
sabscriptiona which Members now pay will cunstitatd them 
Members till that date, when fresh snbecriptioiu will iitll due. 

6. That an appeal be made to those interested in the 
morement, and who are able to afford it, to aid the Society 
by donations and sabscripUons over and above the annoal 
subscription of membership (which is purposely kept low 
in order thit the Sooiaty may bo as comprehensive as possi- 
ble). Donations and subscriptjons received aader this Be- 
■olation will be termed " Donations and sabacripUons to the 
Transliteration Fand," as the extent to which tiie sodety will 
pnblish tran^atioos and transliterations in Koman-Urdii will 
depend chiefly on this soaroe of income. 

7. ^Hiat a monthly jonmal be published by the socie^ 
tmder the title " Boman-Urdii Journal." In ihia will bepnb- 
lished (1) lists ofMembers aadSnbsorlbers, (2) the Proodadings 
ti the dooiety at its monthly meetings, (3) papers regarding 
the Romanising system and its application, both reprints 
<^ previous pablioations and ori^nol contribntions, (4) such 
Duscellaneous matter of literaiy or educational interest as 
the Editors may consider suitable for the Jonmal. The 
Journal will at first be published in English, but eventn- 
ally a portion, or possibly the whole, will be printed in Roman- 
Urdd. All vernacular ooutribnUons by Native writers will 
be BO printed. 

8. That letters be sent to Sir Chos. IVevelyan, Pro- 
fessor Monier Williams, Mr. Fred. Drew, and other friends 
of the movement in England, informing them of the orga> 
nization of this society, and solidting their oo-operatioQ in 
England itself. 

9. That this Sooiety regards tbe formation of a Roma- 
■ised literature oa one of its most important functions, 
thoagh one neoassorily decadent on the peoaniaiy support 

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wliich it reeeivea. The Society having at its command a 
transliterated copy of tlio " Rusum-i-Hind," and having also 
rftoeivtsd a goarantee of fiinda sufficient to pay for itis publi- 
cation, reBoivea (bat arrangements be at once made for such 
publication, which will be superintended by Mr. Dick. 

10. That Mr. Dick and Mr. Tolbort be elected Joint 
Secretaries to the Society for the remainder of the cur- 
rent year (that is to eay, until the end of March 1879), and 
that the electioo of a President he for the present post- 


The Members of the Roman-Urdti Society, whidi has 
recently been organized at Lahore, wish to call the atten- 
tion of the public to the reasons which lead them to advocate 
the substitution of the Roman Alphabet for those at present 
used in the Oriental languages. 

A- They are of opinion that the education of a people, 
and with it the whole civilization of a country, are depen- 
dent to a very great extent on the mechamcal means by which 
ideas are perpetuated, and transmitted from uian to man. The 
marvellous change which the invention of the printing-presa 
produced in the civilization of Wetitom Europe is, they think, 
evidence of the truth of this opinion, lliey cannot admit 
^t a defective system of writing or printing is merely mat- 
ter of ti'ivial inconvenience. It appears to them a fiital ob- 
stacle to progress in civilization. 

B. They are, secondly, of opinion that the multiplicity 
of the characters used in Asiatic countries is of itself a very 
seriQus obstacle to education and progress, an obstacle in- 
dependent of, and additional to, any def^ta in the individiial 
characters tbemselTea. They see no remedy for this evil but 

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the adoption of the Roman alphabet. That is the alpha- 
bet of cirilized Europe in which all the resnlta of modern 
discovery wid science are preserved. No serious Eeformer 
can suggest the sobstitation of any of the Oriental diarac- 
ters for the Roman in the limguages of Enrt^, so that 
tile only means of bridging over the galf between Enro- 
pean and Asiatic civilizationa is to extend the nse of the Roman 
character to the East. Moreover, even witliin the limits of 
India itself, there is no one Oriental character saffidentiy 
superior to all othei-s to oust them from the position which 
they have hitherto held as rivals. 

O- Apart from the multipHcUy of oriental characters, 
they are all vitiated by numeroui practie<U defects, which 
rnider them nnfit for purposes of record and reference, and 
as a mediam for imparting an advanced education. It is im- 
possible within the limits of this paper to review the de- 
fects of eaek system of writing in detail. A few of the more 
prominent defects may, however, be indicated, and the 
subject will be again discussed in subsequent issue of tlie Jour- 

Ifc is admitted that tiie Devan&garf is the best character 
of paraly Indian origin, and that it is superior in deameas 
and legibility to the Persian, but its dumsiuesa and tedi- 
onsness render it far inferior for practical purposes to the 
Roman, and oven to the Persian itself. It has been sup- 
planted and is atiU being supplanted by other oharuotere, so 
that probably the percentage of the population in Nortiiem 
India who are wdl acquainted with the pure Nigari is smaller 
than the percentage who aro acquainted with the Roman. 

Tnrning then from tiie Nigari to the Persian dianwter 
which is that of vernacular official records, and which alotw 
can bo regarded as generaUy diffused thronghoni the Hin- 
dfiatant speaking provinces of the Empire, we find that it is 

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Titiated by tiia foUowisg seriom defects : — 

1, Ita letters are not clear, distinct nnd prominent lik« 
those of the printed Romaa. Some of the letteni are small 
and obscare, others long and sprawling. Some of them are 
joinedtogether,<ither3are written separately, and this wiUi- 
out regard to the beginning or ending of words, bo that 
it is always diffioott in mannsoripts and lithographs, and 
Dot always easy in print to tell where one word ends and 
another begins. 

S, The short vowels are omitt«d, and can only be sup- 
plied by guessing, a process which canses ancertaiiity in 
the pronancifttion even of familiar words, and renders it 
impossible to express proper names or the terms of science 
with any approach to aocnrocj. 

S. Capital letters are not ased, so that a Persian work 
is one monotonoos level with no landmarks by the aid of 
which the weaned reader can find his place. 

4. In like manner none of tiie minor devices of Roman 
printingareinose— Dostops, no paragraphs, no notes of in- 
terrogation and exclamation, no italics, no variations of type, 
no inverted commas or brackets. It is trae that substi- 
tntes for some of these have been invented, bat a glance at 
any ordinary lithographed Persian book will convince an 
unbiassed wiqairer tliat the nse made of such devices is ex- 
tremely limited. With the art of writing, as with most 
other arts, it ts easier to teach a correct system " de novo" 
than to core inveterate bad habits in a system already 

6. The elasaical and popular Persian oharaoter — the 
Talfq — is not soited for type-prtoting. So long as wo nse 
that eharacter we are restricted to manuscripts and litho- 
graphs which swarm with clerical errors and ambiguitiesl, 
On the oUier band, the Naskh or Arabio (diaraater, which 

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we have sabstitnted for Uie TaHq in Persian books printed 
under Earopean supervision, is one which is neither popular 
nor familiar. 

If then we admit that tj'pe-printing is an essential 
element of national education and progress, we must, to 
introdace it, overrule popular prejudice to some extent ; and 
being compelled to encounter this diffionltj in either case* 
it is better to encounter it in the oaase of the Romaa alphabet 
than in that of the far inferior Naskh. 

The above paragraphs detail some of the reasons which 
induce the members of the Roman-Urdd Society to seek 
the sabs^tntion of the Roman for the Oriental alphabets. 
The subject is one of great importance, luad of many different 
aspects. These cannot all be considered in the present nnm- 
ber of the Journal, but the Society wishes to indicate some 
subdivisions of the subject whicJi will be discussed in 
fntnre issues :— 

1. A history of the Romanizing movement in British 
India, from its commencement to the present day. 

2. A history of the same movement in Cbiaa, Japan, 
and other countries beyond the limits of British India. 

3. A review of the system of transliteration, with sngge»> 
tions in detail. 

4. A fuller eipositaon of the defects and difficnlties of 
all the Oriental characters when nsed for Maps, Dictionaries 
and Snqyclopoadias, for Uathematioal works, and for books 
of Physical Science. 

5. A fuller exposition of the defects and diffiooItieB of. 
the Nigari character. 

6. A fuller exposition of the evils which attend the 
use of the Oriental characters in our Courts of law, and 
for pntposei of official reoord. 

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7. Tho effuct of " Romaaizing " on the studj- of th« 
Oriental laagaagea, and of the Oriental classics, and on the 
formation oFa vigoroos modem literature in the vernacalar. 

8. The comparative merits of '" Roman-Urdii" and of 
" Engliali" as the mediam of national and wide spread edu- 
cation in Kortliem India. 

9. Answers to objections totJie "Romanizing" proposal. 

In addition to the above subdivisions of the subject, there 
is one of yet greater importance — a consideration of the 
practical measures by which the substitution of the Roman 
for the Oriental alphabets may be gradoally effected. This too, 
as far as details are concerned, must be postponed to subse- 
quent issnes of the Journal, but the following is submitted as 
an ontlise of some of the measures which the Society is pre- 
pared to advocate. 

The final object of ihe Society's exertions will be the 
Bubstitntion of Roman-Urdu in the Courts of Law, and in all 
Oovemment Records, where Persian-Urdii is at present in 
vogne. When this object is once permanently secured, the 
Society will regard its victory as complete and its work as 
consummated. There is no wish to extirpate the native 
characters from private use, and it is evident that any 
attempt to do so would be as unsuccessful as it vroald be 

The Society is aware that years mast elapse, and per- 
haps a generation pass away, before it can hope to secure 
this complete substitution of Boman for Persian-Urdil in 
legal and official proceedings, but it proposes various 
measures which will, it believes, gradually lead to the attain- 
ment of its final object. 

Among these are the following : — 

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1. To hold monthly meetings, and to publish a monthljr 
Journal in sdrooacy of the cause. 

2. To advocate the gradual aod prudent, hut energetic 
and cDnatantljr advancing, use of the Romnn character in 
«11 Tonwcnlar achools uader Qovernineut supervision. 

3. To advocate changes in the system of language 
«xaminatioDS, both in India and in England, which may cauaa 
I«M straaa to be laid on the Oriental character, and more oa 
the knowledge of the Oriental languages through the medium 
of the Boman character. 

4. To pnbtiab, on as large a scale as funds may permit, 
tnuutationj and transliterations of standard and classical 
works, that is to say, to transliterate existing standard 
works in Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi and Urdu into the Boman 
character, and to supplement the literature thus obtained 
by transUtioiu in Ronian-lJrd& from the European languages. 

i. To advocate the partial and gradual (and in some 
CMOS optitmal) use of Koman-Urdu in our Conrt« of Law, 
wherever ibe practical diffieulUes attending a change of 
dianuster are not so serious as they are in the case of penna- 
nent reoords, e. g., for petitions, plaints, exhibits, proclama- 
tions, foms, jndgments and reports. 

lu Cftnclusion, the Society would express a hope that 
its proposal will not be regarded or represented as one 
inspired by a want of sympathy with the people of India. 
The wish to find a common ground on which natives and 
Soropeans may co-operate, and the desire to save the langa- 
•ges of India from extinction or neglect in the oversbadow- 
•iog pTMonce of English, are two of the principal motives 
which have led to the formation of this Society ; and its Mem- 
bers believe that the educated classes of the native community, 
when they once perceive the true bearings of the question, 
viU become wtam advocates of the Society's cause. 

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Most of oar raad«ra are acquainted with tlie larjje edi- 
tion of Forbes' Hindustim DictioDaiy, which is partly in 
ilie Persian character, but some of them may not be aware 
that there are two editions of the same Dictionary in the Roman 
character txclntivelff. The larger of these two editions ia 
uniform in size with the edition in the Persian character, 
except that it is much thinner. The smaller of the two 
is a far more convenient and portable volnme. It cont^ias 
all the words of the larger editions that are likely to occur 
ill ordinary use, and the saving in size and expense is con- 
siderable. Like the larger Dictionaries it is published by 
Alessrs. Allen & Co., of Waterloo Place, but it may be 
obtained through any bookseller. 

The smaller Roman-Urdii Dictionary, above referred to, 
hns one serious defect. It has no second part, English and 
Urd^. This defect may be remedied by the purchase of a 
small English and Urdd Dictionary pnblished at the Calcutta 
School-Book Society's Press, and sold at the Central Book- 
Dflpflt, Lahore, price Re, 1-8-0. This English and Urdii 
Dictionary is not quiie uniform with Forbes' small Urdii and 
English Dictionary, but it is snfSciently so to be bound up 
with it, if any one should wigh this to be done. 

We would invite oor readers' attention to the fact that 
a Roman-Urdd newspaper is published at the American 
Mission Press, Lalihnau. It ia called the " Kaukab-i-Hind." 

How many of our readers oonld tell us the story of the 
" Sbahnama ? " The great poems of Europe are the property 
uot of one nation but of the world. Every educated num 

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haa some idea of the Diad, of the Mn»id, of the Divina 
Commedia, tmd of Faast He m&y not be able to decipht^r 
the inacriptioiiB of Mycenoe, but this inability does not pre- 
vent bim from appreciating the beauty of Homer, and he 
probably prefers that edition of his favorite author which 
is most clearly printed. Will any one enrich tlie literature 
of the world by giving us an edition of Firdausi's great poem 
in Komauized Persian? 

It is aometinies said that the Persian character is only 
difBcnlt to Europeans ; that it is a very good one for those 
Vfho are bom and bred to its use ; aod that Persian writers 
themselves will never admit its defects. To those who argue 
thua we commend the following remarks by no less an 
antbority than the Persian Ambassador in London^ Mirza 
Malcolm Kban : — 

" II n'y a pns, Messiears, une question plus impcrtante 
pour I'avenir de 1' Asie que celle dont vous voos ocoupez en 
ce moment. Nons oonoaksons malheorensement trop bifin 
cette prodigiense difference que le progris Europien a mi» 
entre voue et )es peuples de 1' Orient En reoherchaat le» 
causes de cette difference, si accablante pour nous, je snis 
arrive a cette conviction profonde que I'olatacle de notre 
progrAs ne vient ni de nos principes religieux ni de I'inferi- 
oribi de nos races ; I'obstacle vient principalement — je 
I-ourrais dire uftiquement— de notre systfeme d'icriture. 
Ce monstrneux systime qni noua a iti impost par des oircon- 
atitncea exceptionnelles a acquis avec le temps le caractire im- 
in liable de noe institutions sacrees, etaujourd'bni sea innoni- 
br.ibles difBcultes enchainent ei compietement notre deve- 
joppement litt^raire que la regeneration de I'Orient me 
■cirait tout k fait impossiblo avec un pareil systenie 
dV-i'.riture." * 

* Joumftt of ths Society of Arta. 

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GhaiaU-Khmija Bd/U. 
Agar in Turk i Shirizf ba dast Itrad dil i tna ri, 
Ba kh&t i tiindd-ash bakhshsin Samarqand o Bokhiri ri* 
Bi-dih, B&ql, mai i b&qi ! ki dai Jannat na khwihl 7ifit, 
KinAr i db i Rukn&bJid, o gul-gaaht i UusalU ri. 
Figbin ! k-io loltyin i shokh, sblrfn-k&r, abahr-Adiob, 
Cbnn&n burdandMbr az dil, ki Tarkaa khw4n i yagbmJt r», 
Zi ishq i nA-tamim i mijam&I i yir mnstaghnl-st, 
Ba kh o rang kbAl o kbat cbi bfijat ml aebi ri ? 
Man az an hasn i roz-afziin ki Yusuf d&Bht dfiDistfttn, 
KJ ishq az parda i iemat birdn &rad ZoUkhi ri. 
Hadfs az mutrib o mai go, o riz i dahr kam-tsr Jo, 
Ki kas na kusbiid o na kush&yad ba bikmat fa ntnammi ri. 
Nasfbat gosfa knn, jan&n ! ki az j4n dost-tar d&rand, 
JawiD&D i saidat-mand pand i pir i din& ri. 
Bad-Am guftf, o khQrsand-am ; afi-k-alJab, eiko ga(ti ; 
Jawib I talkh mi-zebad lab i UU ahakar^hi ri. 

Gbazal gitftf, o dnr miti ; hi- yi., o kbdsb bi-khwia, Hifis I 
Ki bar naziu i to afsbinad falak iqd i Saraiyi ri. 

l^e following is an extract from an article in the Saukab- 
i-ffind .— 

KAlt Pallan H Rawdnoffi. 

Is akhbir ke ndzirfnon ko maldm hai, ke mih i hil men 
nmt&biq hnkm Sarkar Inglistan ko qarfb das baz&r deaf 
sipibi miilk i Hind se lawanaliokar samundar par gae haio. 
Pable Mttllte jnzlra nn k& maqam hogd. YIli jazlra babr i Rtim 
men ff^qibai, aur Sarkar AngreK kf amaldirf men hai, snr 
ns M Barksr ne na ko <>k aisi mazbdt qila aar barl chhioiif 
^bnn&ya hii, kt goya Malika Victoria ki saltanat ki ek baa- 
yid hai. 

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Fauj i mazliira « b&U jtkb&z par aawArhok« sldLi us 
jisire men jiegi. Agar darmij&a Angrez anr Ktls ke laiai 
bo, toyihlashkar taiy&ranr p&a pie jienge, kyiinki jazira 
MaUte sat shahr i latambol airf chhe din ke saGar ke fisite par 
bai. Agar larii na ho, to malum aahio ke jih sip&hf kahan 
j4enge ; yaqicaii apne des men w&pas iwenge, lekin qabi is 
ke shiyad an U bndlf Sarkiir i Angrez ki chnnd bari hnvi 
cfahAoni men bo jieg(, anr yiin k)i^ Angrezi sipabi anr kam 
anr diisri jagab ke liye manjiidhonge. 

Aglab bai, ki Angrez anr Riis k( takrar bagair kbdnrezi 
ke faisal bogf, tan bhf bam nabin kabte, ke in sip&hion ka 
b&bar j&n4 fnziil yk befaida thi. 

Ham is men cband fawsid dekhie bain i-~ 

1. Is nai b&t ae tam&m Yiirap ke bare bare hakkam 
daryaft karte, ki Ualika Yictoria kfsaltanatekmnttabid anr 
paiirasta amaldiri hai. Agarcbi haft iqlim ke shabr ns men 
■b&mil bain, anr tarah tarah kf qanmen us ke m&taht hatn, fan 
bhlhokdmat ekhl bai,Fauj bhiek hai, kbw&h kali ho, y&gori. 
Is bit ke lih&z se Sarkar i Angrez ke nam men zij&da zot payd 
jiegi. Poahida nahfn, ki b&z anqit ddsri Sark&r ke logon 
ne yib knhi, ki Hulk i Hind kf desi fanjen to Sark4r i Angrez 
ke liye bais mazbiiti k& nabfn bain, magar kamzorf kd ; kia 
w&ste kijab AngrezonkoauF logon Be lam& pare, on k( dosi 
fanj mauqadekhkar balwa par im&da bogi. Lekin ab baraks 
is ke we dekhte bain, ki desi paltanen khud bdhar jiti baiu, 
anr Sarkir i Angrez ka dnsbman ke maqabala kame La 
iaijkr bain. 

2. Agar banoz kisikosbakk tb^, ke desf fanj Sarkdr 
Angrez ke tabi men nabin hai, un ki shakk ab ddr bo jdegii. 
Jitne sip&bl ke babr i Rdm kf taraf gae bain, kbwih ma 
khwAU t&biddr rahenge. Un ke sab gbar ke log Angrezon 
ke b&tb men jaih&n par chbore gae bnin. Yih to goya un ki 
waf&d&rl ke Uye zimin rabe. Pbir cbdnki desi fanj ke c)iaud 

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faaz&r Admi bdhicgae hain, on k« Ui&f buid ki yah&n paltaa 
ftur ris4la wg. men haiD, ziy &datar Sftrkiir AngreZ ke nainak 
halal rahenge. We kyiiulair balwi karenge, jab tak mike 
t>hU band ddr des men koke mntla^ Sarkitr Angroz ke qabze 
men bain. 

3. Yib faDJ jo b&har gm hai, aisi mnsafintt atir jah&a 
didagi men ek tajriba h^il karegi, ke on ke liye sur niz ua 
ke bbai band ke liye mufid aar b4is taroqqf kit bogi. 
AuTral to yib natija hai, ke aabiq taur par yib sipihl zat ke 
paband no honge. Pbir jis waliyat men yib log jiwen, to 
Madrisi, ji PanjAbi, yi Riijpiit, ya Gorkhd ks nkm koi n» 
lega. Garaz yib natija hog4 ke matafarriq qaum kit kain 
kbiyil bogi, sab ke sab apne liye nfim Angrez kifi jinenge, 
anr ub par bbi fakbr karenge. Kyiinki jii qadr ke yib fauj 
Angrezi amaldiri ke beriinl sbahron aur qila ki sail- kareii, us 
hi qadr is amaldirl ke zor ki sbinikht anr fakbr un ki z4t men 
pai jiegi. 

A Gorreapondent sends ns tbe following : — ' 

" 1 cannot neglect to give you an admirable case in point, 
illoatrative of tbe evils of the Persian cbaraoter iu our 
courts of law- In » beavy cbarge of robbery with violence, 
the first Police Report stated that tbe Police had gone to 
the house of the accased, and, finding him absent, waited for 
bim ; but that immediately on bis return home a ^ * *- U. 
took place, and the stolen ring was found. 

The evidence recorded at the trial was nnanimons on 
this point that tbe ring was found on the man's perion, in 
his cloths. 

Now at the preliminary hearing tbe word in tbe ver- 
nacular obaracter was read glibly as Khaua-talishi (hons^ 
search). The learned judge at once noted this grave dis- 
crepancy and admitted the appeal, coming to the conclnsion 

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that the case was one got up by the Police to get rid of tlio 
arcDsed, an old offender. The mnn's conviction was in 
llie greatest danger of being upset, when it was discovered tit 
nmrt that flie word was not *i^ (Khana), bnt **<» (jAma) ; 
»nd that there was thns no contradiction at all, and the 
appeal was dismissed." 

Comment is needless. 

Contributioni on any of the pointa in connection, with the 
application of the Roman character to Oriental Languages are 
earntitly lolie'Ued from Memheri of the Society, and should 
be addressed to either of the joint Secretaries. 


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To advocate tfa ute of the Roman Alphabet in Oriental 







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roman-urd(j journal. 

No. 2 Jtily i8y8. 

Proeeedit^a at the Monthly Meeting of the Iioman-Urd& 
Society, held on the 29f& Jime 1878. 
n4j& Harbnns Singh. 
Pandit Jw4U N&tb. 
Barkat AH Kh&n. 
B&fi Qopal Dia. 
Dfwjia Sbib Rfcm Din. 
Mr. T. W. Tolbott. 
Hr. G. Henderson. 
Hr. R. Dick. 
Mr. P. Scott. 

1. The first namber of the Society's Jonmal was laid 
before the Meeting, 

2. An Urdii tranalaiioQ of Mr. Fred. Drew's lecture 
on the nse of the'Roman alphabet was bronght to the notice 
of liie Meeting. The translation was the work of the 
Anjaman-i-Fanj&b, A resolatioB was carried to purchase 
50 copies of the translation, for distribation by the So<Hety. 
A reprint of the lecture, in English, will appear In the next 
issae of the Journal. An animated discussion followed as 
to the general merits of the scheme, most of the native 
gentiemea present not being yet Members of the Society, 
but showing, by their presence at the Meeting, an enlightened 
desire to consider the arguments that could be addaced in 
faToar of tlie movement 

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3. A resolation was carried to commnnicaU viLh 
Messrs. AU«n Mid Oo., publishers, L(Hidon ; first, toenqaire 
the price of the Boman-Urdd traoBlatioD of the " Arabian 
Kights," wluch they are about to publish ; secondly, to 
suggest to them the expediency of their publishing an 
edition of the " Sakuotali " in Boman-Hindf, Messrs. 
Allen and Co. have recently pnblisbed a Hindi edition of the 
" Saknntali," under tiie Editorship of Mr. Fred. Pincott, and 
it is hoped that the same gentleman may be induced to 
Bomaaise it. In the erent of a Roman- Hindi edition being 
published, this Society engages to pt^rciiase 50 copies. 

4. A proposal to admit a certuin number of Honorary 
Members was reserved for future consideration. 

5. Hieontlineof ascbeme for the publication of a series 
of grammars and text-books, in the Boman character, of the 
chief languages spoken or studied in Northern India, was 
brought to the notice of Members, and will be more fully 
considered at the next monthly Meeting. 


[ 3, 1 

By Frederic Drew. 
Forty yeara ago oar Chairman, Sir Charles Trevelyan, 
in oonjnnction with Toor otliers— Dr. Dd(F, Ur. Yates, Mr. 
Pearce, acd Hr. Thomaa — originated in Catcatta the scheme 
of applying the Roman alphabet to all the Temacalar 
laDgoages of India, and they fonght hard in defence and 
worked bard in prosecation of that scheme. 

Already the transliteration of Eastern writings into 
the Bomaa character for limited purposes — as in quotations 
from books or for proper names— had been practised, 
and so long before as the year 1788 Sir William Jones 
bad established an admirable system for that porpose. But 
the idea of introdnoing oar characters as the general 
alphabet for all the langoages of India, and caosing it to 
replace the varions native alphabets, mitll by gradual steps 
it should become the universal writing throughout the 
country, was not entertained until the year 1834, when 
those five men, of whom Sir Charles (then Mr.) Ttavelyan 
and Dr. DuiF were the niost powerful in advocacy of the 
undertaking, joined together in order seriously and energeti- 
cally to prosecute what they rightly understood to be a 
great cause. 

Their endeavours hare had a not unimportant measure 
of success, and I believe that they hare both shown the 
way and made soma part of the road to the completion of 
tlie task. Still, though a generation baa passed since the 
commencement of this undertaking, far more remains to 
be done even than has been effected. The Roman alphabet 
has not been adopted generally in India or in any one 
portion of India. It has indeed been brought into use 

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smoDg certain sections, chiefly among those wfaoarcinfla- 
enced by the missionaries — a body of men to whoae credit 
I count it that they were the first to perceive the odrantages 
of tbe Roman plan, and who have been the most sacoeaafnl in 
nsmg it. By the missionaries much has been done in writing 
and publishing HindnstAnf books in the Roman character, 
so that now a not inconsiderable literature is att^nable 
by those who will learn to nae onr alphabet in this appli- 
cation of it. But it mnat be remembered that in this 
forty years, daring which the GoTemmeDt of India has 
done ma<A to further general education, the use of natire 
alphabets also has mnch spread ; bo that, although perhaps 
the ratio of Roman to the others has been increasing, yet 
the native obamcters enormously exceed in their nso the 
Roman. That being the case, it cannot bat be connted right 
by those who have at heart this change, wirioh they believe 
will carry great advantages to the people of India, that 
again the sabject sboald be agitated, that the argnments 
which before were brought forward in favour of it (and 
which, as far as I have been able to jadge, have never been 
answered) sbonld be repeated, that stents should be taken, 
that action should be nrged, which shall give a promise of 
the cmnpIetioQ in a not distant fatnre of what was so w^ 

I come forward therefore — myself believing strongly 
in the cans^— to endeavour to enlist in its aid the Society 
of Arts. It will be my dnty to pot before yon the general 
argument in favour of the proposed change. It will be 
your duty to weigh the argnments for and against, and^ 
if the judgment be favonrable, to consider what other steps 
may be taken by the Society towards the proposed end. 

It may seem a startling and too bold assertion, yet 
in the next half-hoar I will endeavoor to justify it, Uiat 

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among all the advantagea whidi our GoTenimeDt of India 
is briDgiDg to many of the millions who inhabit that 
continent, there bare not yet been provided for iheni 
<^>P<M^nnitie9 of acquiring tlie great, thongb mntple, bleninga 
whidi shonid be ths possession of those who con read and 
write. Mnch as has been done by ne towards the educa- 
tion of certain sections <^ the nations whom we there rnle 
over, nrnch as has been attempted by as f<x' the widw spread 
of edocation among the bags nombers there to be dealt 
witii, ws have Intherto neither e&eoted nor attempted the 
introdnotion of goch a ^r»tem as would give to anyone 
who diall leani to read tbe soperiority over the ignorant 
which that degree of learning might natnrally lead him to 
h<^ for, or to Uiose who may acquire the art of writing, 
the advantages which we are aooastomod to asBOoiate with 
. that accomplishment. 

If to those who remember that now for many years 
large soms have been expended, and great efforts have been 
made, I7 the Educational Department in India, the above 
statement seems jMradoxioal and inoomprehenaible, I will 
illustrate my meaning by supposing for a moment tihose 
drcumetancea to be transferred to onr own country which 
in India bring aboat the situation I am regretting. Let us 
imagine a Wiltshire labourer, ignorant of all school learning, 
but, consoiona of his own deficiencies, determined that his 
son shall at all events be tanght to read and write. With 
some sacrifice of tbe help the boy might give towards earning 
the duly bread for the household, and even with some 
misgivings lest his son, in acqoiring too mnch knowledge, 
should become nnfitted for the life of labour he was bom to, 
the man sends his hoy to a school aided by public funds, 
and periodically inspected by Government officers, until, 
afler some years, the child has reached to that degree 

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of edacaUon irMch had been promised bim. Thea oar 
oomttryman, let us sappose, prond of his son's knowledge, 
wishes to niiike a first essay of its pmctical value hj taking 
him on a day's holiday exoorsion to the capital of bis county. 
Secure ia the thought that bis companion can read and 
write, be goes to the nrilway station, and asks him to look 
over the time -tables and find out tbe route aad the fare to 
Salisbury. The boy is nonplussed ; his learning for thia 
purpose at all events proves to be aseless ; for tbe rulway 
bills are all written ont in the Russian character I and in 
Russian, too, is printed tbe superscription on tbe ticket. At 
last arrived at the city, they think to recognise the parts of 
it they had heard tell of by consulting the finger-posts and 
the street-names ; but though those are written in two ways 
for the infonnation of various kinds of people, they are for 
oor friends useless, since they are either in tbe unfamiliar 
Gothic writing, or in the unknown Greek characters I Only 
arrived at the cathedral does tKe boy find himself more at 
home, for tbe prayer and hymn books there are in the sort 
of printing which be has been used to. But this, {he ihther 
thinks, does not counterbalance the practical deficiencies 
before experienced, and he returns home revolving the 
disappointment in bis mind, and concluding that until every 
one writes in tbe same way it is not such a fine thing to be 
able to read after all. 

I firmly believe that I have here represented, without 
exaggeratios, the state of things in most parts of India ; for 
BO various are the characters, the alphabets, there in nse— 
variona those taught in Government schools, and yet more 
numerous those in use among different classes of natives^ 
that vheo tbe pupil leaves school familiar with, let us say, 
two of them (and few become masters of more), be finds tliat 
for ordinary purposes of life his use of letters is greatly 

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[ ' ] 

reatrlctet), that a majority of those able to write, whom lie 
comes in contact with, write in some chanictor different 
from either of the two that he has learnt, and that be and 
they might as well hare remained ignorant for all the good 
their learning can do towards enabling them to commanicate 
by letter. 

Bat now let as, by a detailed examination, see whether 
the impression I have giren is trae or not. I cannot indeed, 
to prove my case, go thiseveningoverthe whole area of India, 
bat I will give a statement of the alphabets and languages 
used in one of onr provinces, which may be taken as n 
sample ; and as to the degree to which onr conclnsions 
concerning this one apply to other provinces, there are 
many here who will ha able te speak with anthority, I take 
for my example the Panj&b, choosing it not that I think the 
case to be stronger for that country than for other parts 
but simply becanae I myself am more familiar with it than 
with other portions of British India, and therefore less likely 
to &U into errors of detail concerning it. 

In the Panjib, then, we find the teaching of the Govern- 
ment schools to be, for the most part, in three different 
characters, the Persian, the Devanfigari (or Sanskrit), and the 
Boman ; the two former, at the option of the learner, for the 
Hindnst&nf langnage, the last, necessarily, for EnglisL But 
here, in the teaching of the Qovemment schools, is not 
iaclnded the mother tongae of the greater part of the people 
of the Panj&b ; one who should wish to learn to read and 
write in this most do so through a fourth character, the 
Qarmnkhi. Nor ia this all ; none of these will enable a 
native to look over his account at a merchant's or at a 
banker's, if perchance be should wish to verify an item ; for 
tiiese purposes one wonld have to learn two more kinds of 
writing, the Baoy& and the Lands. Yet others will one come 

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urou in the Panj&b, thoagh bat occasionally ; etiU some of 
these are used in boBineas by Government officials. Od the 
onrrenoy notes will be aome writjng which anyone who has 
mastered the above six kinds will think he ought to be able to 
understand, yet he will fail to decipher it, for this is in the 
Bang&Il character j while a receipt for money paid into one of 
the Government treasuries will likely, among some writing of 
some of the sorts we have above enamerated, have writing 
not readable except by those whose edacation has taken a 
different line, for this is in the Kaithf character. Nor have 
we yet come to the end of the ennmeration of alphabets in 
tise in the province of the PanJAb. If we go to the hills, to the 
K&Dgr& district, we find yet another form of writing ; and, 
further among the raonntains, in the L&hol valley, we reach 
to where the [Kbetan character is need. Ailer this enamera- 
tion I tiiink yon will be ready to allow that I under-rated 
raUier than exaggerated the confosion of hands. 

That yoa may appreciate at one glance the great nomber 
of characters used in the Fa^j&b, I here show yon a list of 
them, in the left-hand part of the accompanying table : — 
Tablb I.— Cbajuotcb and Lasodasks di um in ths Fahjab. 
Charaot^t. ZamgnagM. 

PeuUn I 

Denndgul, oi Buukiit \ HtndluUat 

Eaitbl ) 
QnrmoUkl I 
BanjA \ Vv^kA. \ 


E&ngiA ^ HtU Dialect. 

Bangui Bang&ll. 

TilMtan Tibetui. 

Boman Bngliah. 

Some of these, it will be noderstood, are mnch confined 
locally ; of some the nse is confined to one class or trade ; 
others, though to some extent osed in the Panjib, belong to 
distant parts of India. Bat all, whether separately important 

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[ » ] 

or o«t, may fwrlj be said to hare a oamulatire effect in ths 

What thoagh some of the effects of saoh a maltiplication 
of kinds of writing can easily be conceived, and require no 
demooatration, yet others do not oconr so readily to the minds 
of those who have never lived in the midst. A result that soon 
forces itself on the notice of any who have to deal with the 
people who use these writings is this, that although a good 
many, even of the poor people, begin to learn to write, yet 
they seldom acquire more than a very imperfect knowledge 
either of reading or writing. The fact is that the practice 
to be obtained in their own parUcuhir character ia small ; 
they have not tlie opportanities of perfecting themselves in 
reading by that incessant use of the faculty which, with us, 
one who has once got over the first difEcnlties can hardly 
help exercising. Hence for the many — setting aside those 
whose profession is letters — the time spent in learning to 
read and write is almost enUrely wasted, first on account of 
the imperfection of the result, secondly, by the contracted 
applioatJou of it. Often do we meet with men who can write 
bat who cannot read what they have written, and to be able 
to readily read a stranger's hand is counted for a high degree 
of clerkly skill Of the other matter — the partiality of the 
use of any one alphabet — it is not uncommon to meet with 
Each an instance as this, that in one's own establishment four 
or fire men can be found to write, and no two of them shall 
write the same character. 

I sbonld not fulfil the task which I conceive to be mine — 
tiiat namely of pntting the meeting in a position to form a 
judgment for itself on the whole question — were I not to 
■bow how &r this curioos multiplicity of writings depends 
apoo the variety of tongues. To show this for the Punjab 
even we most extend oar sorrey of the languages beyond the 

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area of that province, and iuclnde in a general view the whole' 
of Nortbera India. 

In the plain conntry which extends from the Indus to 
the Brabmaputrs, a distance of 1,200 ipiles, are spoken, in 
the first place, by the ma99 of the people, the three languages — 
Panjrtf, Hindi, and Baugali. These have pretty distinct 
territorial boandaries. But there has of late centuries sprung 
up a fourth language, which has spread wide, though as yet 
but superficially, not only over the areas in which these throe 
languages are mninly spoken, but over nearly the whole of 
India. Now, the increase of this fourth language is still 
going on, and since it is, as we shall see, dosely connected 
with the subject of this paper, we must elaoldote the matter 
by going somewhat into the history of it 

The Muhainmadan conquerors of India settled about 
Delhi, where the Hindi language was spoken. Their fol- 
lowers, though of different races, yet had, most of them, a 
kuowlfidge of Persian, and Persian was the conrt language 
and the language of official writings. Hence there sprung 
up a. mixed dialect, of which Hiadi was the foundation, but 
which contnioed very many Persian words, and Arabic words 
as well, which already had their place in the Persian. This 
new language was called Urdd ( from the Turki word for 
camp ), and now is also commonly called Hinduat&nf. It is 
dear that, the foundation and strnctnre of the language being 
always Hindi, there may be any degree of admixture of the 
PersiiiQ words, which are found in it whole and unaltered ; 
and, therefore, there may be said to be a gradual passage from 
the most Persianised Urdii down to the old Hindf. Hinda?- 
t4ni may be taken to denote tiie medinm dialect, tliat which 
now is ocqniriug such a wide extension. 

When the British came to Bengal, they did not at first 
adopt for their purposes this Urdti, or Hindost&ni, nor, pro- 

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bsblj, did thejr come mnch in contact with it Persian waa 
atill the court and ofG<»ai loagnage of the emperora and the 
mwibSf and Bang&U was the vernacalar of the province which 
■we first obtained. Bat in the coarse of years qar power spread 
farther ap the coantry, iind in reaching to what are called tbo 
North-West Provinces, we came to that part where the mixed 
dialect was oommonly spoken. [Qien wa found its ose as a 
general means of oommaaioation, as a lingua franca. We 
found that while its structure was such that it could be 
naderstood over great areas by the illiterate, yet it contained 
within itself those words from the Persian which were neces- 
sary to be retained for the transacting of complicated businesa 
irhich had originally been carried on through that language, 
^e advantage was obviona of fixing on one language which 
all British officers should know, which should enable them to 
eommanicate with almost all of any education, and with 
also many millions of tlieir onedacated subjects in the most 
important part of their possessions. Hence {lie British 
Oovemment has nnrsed and encouraged the Hindnst&nf, and 
introduced it wherever it was possible to displace by its nse 
tiie local dialects. 

I do act know at what period it was that we adopted it for 
oar law-conrts in the North-West Provinces, probably not 
long after our acquisition of them. On oar annexing the 
Panj&b, Persian, which then still prevailed as the laugoage of 
the courts, was continaed by as for a short time, but it was 
soon afterwards changed for the Hindustani. I'herefore in the 
ITortb-West Provinces and the PanjAb we have Hindnst&ni as 
the laugoage of the courts, and as the general communication 
between the Bnglish rulers and the people, and with mnch 
■ulmixtnre of Fauj&bl as the language of the towns. 

This slight historical disqaisition was necessnTy that ths 
Telatioiuhip of the different languages spoken in the Fanj&b 

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might be nnderatood. We are now prepared to coDaider ihe 
list of langnages there more or less in use, ahowa on the right- 
band aide of Table L, and to consider the ways of writing 
fhem, present and possible. 

By a comparison of the two oolnmns of the taHo we per- 
ceive that whereas there are ten kinds of alphabets in use in 
the Fanj&b there are onlj mx. langnages that ihejr are nsed 
for. Three of the alphabets are oaed for (me language — 
Hindnstanf ; other three are need for one other language — 
PanjiW. • 

It is clear from this that four at least of the alphabets 
are redandant ; that even if it were necessary to have a sepa- 
rate alphabet for each dialect, we have fonr too many. Bat 
this is bj no means aeoessary. The Hiad{ part of Hiodos- 
t&nl and the three langoages here bracketed together — ^Fan- 
jaW, the K&ngri ( hill dialect ), and Bang&li — are closely 
allied to one another. I think there is no sound in either of 
these that is not found in the others. From this it follows 
that an alphabet tliat will do for one will do for all ; that 
there is no need of this mnltipUcation of alphabets to write 
these four or five dialects or languages. So far as the nataro 
of the languages as we find them is concerned, one diaraoter 
would suffice for all. Then there is the Persian part of Hin- 
duatAnl. For this these alphabets are by no means very 
snitable ; hence the Persian alphabet ( introduced by the 
Mnbammadans ) has spread ; it snits best for the Persian 
words in Bindnst&nf, and it has been added to so as to do 
pretty well for the Hindi words. But it is applied to no other 

* Id the list I hare pnt nothing to denote that Roman la used for 
HindusU^ for indeed in the F&njAb iU emplojment lor tliat pntpose id very 
limited. And tbere are certain other cross uses of the cl!fieT«nt alphabeta 
which I have not expreBsed, for aimplicity'a lake, and on account of their 
not bein;; of much importance. It Bbonld also lie rcmariced Omt the num- 
ber of ten alphabets and dx laDKoagea could be iuoieased wen we to tnk» 
in acme of leas use. 

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«{ &e langn&ges ihan Hindast&nf , and, as wfl see, it is not tba 
only one applied to that. It hat not proved itself c/ood enough 
to drioe the others out of the field, ^e confa»on sbill remains 
atthoogh, as we saw, tliere is sot a neoeunty for it in the 
natare of Uie droomstances. The ooofosioa has even been 
inoreased by the addition of Fereian. 

We will go on down the list He Tibetan langcage 
has sounds not fonnd in the others enomerated ; their alpha- 
bets are therefore unfit to express it ; the Persian alphabet 
would snffioe as to separate sonnda, bat it is nnable to repre- 
sent the oompoand consonants tltat so prevail in the [Hbetan. 
S^botan has a systematic wnting-t^iaracter of its own ; at the 
same time ilie Soman has been foand well to suit it. And 
tliis brinies as to the last on each list — the Boman character 
and Hie English langoage. The English langoage, it most 
be known, has already a very considerable position in iha 
Faiy6b; it is already in nse to a very important degree. At 
the present day almost every yoang man, ambitions either of 
loaroing or of poUtioal employ, chooses English as his iostm- 
ment. To so great an extent had lately the eagerness for a 
knowledge of English spread, that the young Panj&bia (sap- 
ported in this by thur fathers ) wished to begin it without 
having laid a foundation of knowledge in any native language, 
and Government had to pass an order that none should be 
taoght English in Government schools who were unable to 
read and write the vemaonlar. Donbtless, also, the tendency 
of it is to spread, and a knowledge of English will become a 
necessary mark of a liberal education, unless, indeed, a lata 
movement for the teaofaing of Western learning through the 
oriental langnages should check this tendency. 

Now the English language no one has been bold enough 
to write in any but its own character. To apply either Per- 
Bian or Devan&gari to it would be either to attempt apbone- 

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tio represfiotaUon of the loaoda of oar tongue by signs by iki . 
means specially salted for the attempt, or to make a transli- 
teration of onr irregular spelling that would caose inextrioabls 
confusion. No one who haa thought at all on the subject can 
believe in the possibility of writing English in any of the 
native Indian characters. The reenlts prodnoed by oatires 
in writing onr proper names and reprodacing the sooud from 
the writing are warnings satBcient. 

It follows from this that if one and one only alphabet is 
to be applied to all the languages in use in India (£aglish 
being of them ), that one must be the Roman ; that the only- 
course towards complete uniformity of wiiUng, whether for 
the Ponj&b only or tbronghoat India, is to apply the fingli^ 
OT Boman character to all the languages spoken. 

But it is not enough for me to prove QulI if wa are 
to have a uniform system of writing for India that writ- 
ing must be Boman. I am called upon also to demonstrate 
that uniformity is possible, to show i^t no audi difficuU 
tiea exist for the appUoation of Boman to the Eaatera 
ktuguages as prevent their alphabets from being used for 
English, to show that their sounds can be saffictently ex- 
pressed and distingnished by onr charactera ; not ontil this 
has been done will my case approach completoneas. 

It would be possible for uie to rely, as a proof of this 
proposition, on the results already effected in this direotton. 
Xhere are before you some of the works published by the 
missionaries to which I before alluded. He test of the system 
adopted by them is one whiofa I have often tried, and found 
conclusively to prove its oompletoneas ; one is able from 
these books to read words that one is unfamiliar with, that 
one is ignorant of, and to give thorn their right pronuucia- 
tion. The task of constructing such a systom has been 
ligfatoaed by this &ot that nearly all the oaUve writing is 

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[ 15 ] 

thoroaghly phonetic, bo that a transliteration into Iloinai) at 
the same timo gives a regular representntion of the soands ; 
Hie exception to this is in some of those Persian words which 
were deriTed from Arabic, which Iiave Icept. their original let* 
tera while the soands have been assimilated to others already 
existing in Persian ; the diffioalty arising from this liowever 
has been tatisfactorily got orer. Another evidence of the com- 
pleteness of the Roman system is given by this wliich I hold 
in my hand, takonfrom the prooee<lingsortbe Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. In 1867 that Society decided on enforcing a nni- 
form system for the Romanising of Oriental words in ttieir 
Journal, and they ciroalated this key to the transliteration, by 
which not only every sonnd hut every letter also of the lan- 
guages in nse from Arabia to Orissa finds its representative 
Roman character. 

Bnt I will not ask yon to assent to this proposition solely 
on authority. I will not let it rest even on suoh good 
snpports as those which have been provided. I had rather* 
withoat going too mnoh into detail, explain to tlie meeting 
how many soands have to be expressed for Hindnst&nf, and 
demonstrate in what way the Roman characters can be nssd 
for that parpose. Since Hindnstini includes words both of 
Persian and Hindi origin, we see that a plan which can snffioe 
for Hindostini will inolode both the technical and recondite 
words that come from iha Persiui, and all the sounds in 
the several languages allied to Hindi ; what therefore may 
be proved for Hindastini is proved for nearly all the languages 
we have met with. 

In HinduBt&nf, then, there are this number of sonnds :— 

Tabli n,— Sodndb that oocub in Hindustani. 

Towel wmidi. CoDsonanti. Total, 

In Hindr word* 10 87 47 

In Perrian worda, bat) n a A 

not in Hindi f " ° 

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For this table I have reckoned up the sounds, not the 
letters, the soanda as they are actualljr made in the moaths 
of the natives of India. The tjisk now before oa is to repre- 
seot these 55 soniids with oar 26 letters. 

In the first pkce vre redace tiie number of available 
letters to 25 by dropping oar x, which represents a componnd 
sonnd, and the nse of which creates nnnecessary confusion ; 
we have now but five vowels and twenty consonante where- 
with to represent ten vowel sonnds and forty -five consonanta 1 
Bounds ; thns the problem comes to look yet a little more 
hard, bnt yoa will soon Bee the difficnltiea melt away. The 
next accompanying table will explain the means that are 
nsed : — 


lo Hindustani Bounds. 
Vowel gounda ;— SambtT. 

FivB English vowels <a, e, i, O, n) * 

Three accented ToweU (6, i, li) ' 

Two dipthongs (al, an) » 

Cousonantal aonnds ; — 

Twenty English consonants S" 

Bleren aspirated letters, expressed by combination with h (kh, 

gh, chh, ih, tb, (b, dh, lih, rh, ph, bh> 11 

Two oombinatkme with j^ oonTcntionally to eipieas what are 

not really aipirated sounds (sh, ih) 8 

Six maiked consonants (t, d, r, g, kh, n, with some diacritical 

mark to be attached) 6 

' Apostrophe to represent the Arabic 'ain 1 

Three sounds to be denoted by tie positioa of "tie letter « 

(as oE » in ring) •■ 8 

Two sounds not nparately expressed (a sharp tk and * 
strong k) 2 

We may judge from this, as well as from the examples 
of resnlts before shown, that it is practically possible ■ to 
express, without any great complication, all those sbadoB of 
Bound the representation of which seema to be necessary. By 
the invention of one or two more signs the last dififerenoes 
could be shown ; on the other hand, it might be possible to 
wmplify atill farther, to nse fewer marks. I hare put down 

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Tvltat, in my own jadgmect, is neceasary to fonn a thoroagh 
jet easily-worked system, bat I am qnite prepared to hear 
that, in the opinion of others, more or less of elaboration is 
necessary. For Uiia degree of completeness which I have 
chosen, there is a necessity in die first place for three accented 
Towela ; this system of accents is distinctly simpler than that 
of the French langnage, for here is only one kind of accent 
(whether the long mark or any other form be nsedl to repre- 
sent the long sonad of the three vowels, a, i, and ». Then 
tliere is an anderlining, or some other special mark, to ba 
applied to six oonaonaats, and this, I think, one cannot do 
withoat. In Hindosttlnf, the two t'a, two d't, and two r'« are 
so very distmct that to alar over this difference wonld be a 
great imperfection. Again, the marks for g and kk, to 
represent the sonnd of the Persian letters, gham and khe, are 
necessary if one woald express the sounds as they, come 
from the months of the MahammadaDS ; the nasal n also one 
can hardly dispense with. 

With oU this I do not c<mnt the system as too macli 
complicated j there ard bnt twenty-six forms to learn (inclnd- 
ing the apostrophe) — nine modifications by marks, fifteen 
combinations of letters, and three sounds implied by position. 
If ona contrasts this with the Devanfigarf, where, for Hindi 
words only, there are 47 letters, besides half-a-dozen other 
marks and innomerable combined consonants, of greater or 
less complication, their number reaching to hnudreds, we 
need not be ashamed of our alphabet, especially when wa 
consider that the forms of our letters are more easily recog- 
nisable, are mach simpler, and decidedly more quickly 
written. Comparing it with the Persian we find in that 
alphabet 35 letters and three separate vowel-marks, besides 
other diacriticBl marks more or less in nse ; further, all these 
letters have either two to four different forms, varying 

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icoording to tii«ir position ia the word ; yet for all this com- 
plioation the expression of nansoal words in the Persian 
character is snre to be imperfect. 

After this comparison with the two alphabets, which are 
either the beat or the most widely diffosed in India, are we 
not jostified in maintaining that the Boman is applicable to 
HindnsUnf and to the languages allied to that which forms 
the fonndation of Hindostini ? 

I most here panse to remark that I hare followed the 
Jonesian system of transliterating (which is that in whioh 
the books before yon are written) without diacossing any 
altamatire one. Hy present object is to prove that, accord- 
ing to one syatem or another, the Roman alphabet may bs 
nsefnlly applied to these Eastern langoages. If anyone 
shonld ancoeed in showing any other system to be better for 
the parpoae than that here followed, I shonld, while wonder- 
ing at, welcome the result, inasmnch at it would ahow that 
the Boman was eren more applicable tiian I tbonght. 

Let ns now in a few words review the steps vre hare 
aaoended, and, from the stage now reached, let ns see what 
more is to be done. I hope that I hare convinced yon, first, 
that there e^ata a necessity for change from the present coq- 
fnsed state of things as regards the writings in oae in India ; 
secondly, that the change required is the introdnclion of a 
general alphabet applicable to all the languages there spoken ; 
thirdly, that there is no other way of making an alphabet 
general than by applying the Roman alphabet to the purpose ; 
and, fourthly, that aach an application of Roman is mechaoi- 
cally poasible. 

Now I shall bend my endeavours to show that this 
application of Roman is not only possible from a literary point 
of view, bnt that it ia also politically practicable. And I 
shall add something as to what, in my opinion, are the mea- 

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mres to be taken to gain the proposed end. Let as first ood- 
Hd«r the progress that bos ia tlie last fortj years been made 
ivith Romaii-Hiad nstani ^ and derive from the ooonderation 
what lessons we may. We must remember that id that time 
the sjstem baa beea started, has been brought to a practical 
iorm, aad has been pat to use. This is no small gaia. The 
oae ot it has spread, bat has not spread wide. Aa I said in 
the be^oing ( if I am wrong there are some here who can 
correct me ) it ia used most chiefly, almost entirely, hy those 
who are ooder the infloeooe — not naoessarily the spiritoal 
influence, Uie edooational inflaeooe it may be~of the mis- 
aionaries. I confess X see no prospect of the general spread 
of the Roman system if the effi)rts for it are to be confined to 
the same methods as have hitherto been used. These efforts 
have, at all events fbr many years^ been emended in steady, 
quiet, literary and edocatioQal work on the part of those — not 
yet many — who are interested in the matter. But during 
this time the maltifarioas native alphabets have been receiv- 
ing diatinci aid from (Government. Glovemmeat has nnder- 
takan to edncato India, and — pattizig aude the English lan- 
guage — in all its own sebools, and iu the greater pait of the 
aided sotux^, ita help goes to the teaching of some of the 
many local alphabets;^ or of the more general Deran&gari and 
Persian oharaoterB. This is why Itomanhas not spread farther. 
It has been met by the riung tide of the other alphabets 
enoonraged by Government. And not only does the action of 
Gorenunent lie in teaching these in the schools, but for all 
Goremment purposes until the stage when £agUsh oomea in, 
either Persian or Hindi or Bangili, or some diaraoter allied 
to Ihese last, is made nse of. I maintain that while this goes 
on oar oaoae cannot prosper as we wish ; that the oonrse to 
take most be to convert Government to our views, to convince 
those who hold the runs of the justeees of these views, and to 

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persnade them to glre, at all events, an eqaal ohaace to the 
system ; and even, afler the first measares have borne some 
fruit, to aid yet more actively tlie growth of Bomaa to that 
vride spread state when it would bo of so much advantage both 
to the people and to Government itself. 

But Uiose responsible for the CKiveniment of India, sup- 
posing them to have been convinced of the advisability of the 
plan were it practicable, will at once ask— Can we make this 
change? Dare we do it? Will it not too much shock the pre- 
jndicea of the natives ? 

In answering this qnestion I AuH not be ashamed to 
make use, among others, of the argaments brought forward 
long ago by Sir Charles Ti-erelyan. The people of Northern 
India have recaived a new alphabet from their Muhammadaa 
conquerors ; the Persian alphabet is learnt by many a Htndd ; 
there is nothing to show tiiat the Delhi government over 
forced it, or took other means to encourage the spread of it 
tiian to continae using it for their own purposes ; yet this 
is now among the moat wide-apread of the alphabets. This 
foreign alphabet is the one which our Government, in North- 
Western India, at all events, chiefly favours. You cannot 
then say that the people will not willingly take to any new 
alphabet ; nor can it be said that it would never do for 
Government to favour any but those conneoted in the < minds 
of the people with what they bold most in reverence. If 
Hindiis have taken to Persian, mach more easily under 
corresponding <nroam8tances, will they take to Boman. 

Bat we have a nearer instance of the people of India tak- 
ing to new, to foreign, ways in Uie matter of letters. The 
very great growth of the knowledge of English ; the still 
greater appetite for the knowledge whose acquisition is chiefly 
limited by the time that the children can affiird for school ; 
their eagerness, as told above, to commence the study with- 

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out knowing how to raad or writo their own langiutge in any 
alphabet at all ; ail Hub is surely convindDg that there is no 
obstacle of deep-seated prejudice standing in the way of the 
diange we propose, and that the naliros will certainly learn 
what they see to be to their advantage. If they were once to 
see clearly that Roman writing was to role the future, they 
would not take long to recognise the advantages attaching to a 
eastern which, with the labour of learning bat one set of chamo- 
ters, would enable their children to advance from the 
knowledge of their mother tongue to that of tlie Iti^ua/ranea 
of India, and thence to the English. 

It ia the wont of the general applicability of such know- 
ledge of reading and writing as the poor people can get, that 
makes the aoomaloaa stato of things which is thus depicted 
in one of the Panjdb Education Reports : — 

" The nil* ( Qiat which obligM childTen to learn to read in Uieir oim 
langnAge before conimenciQg English) is (till highly nDpopulftr in tnun j 
lucalitieB, especially bo in lAhore. The truth q>petiTS to be that tbeie [• 
scarcely anyfflieTeBgeiiniite desire lor the itndjof UieTemacoUr. .... 
That irhioh now itande in special need of encouragement ia Ternecnlai 
edncatloa, . , . The great drawback againat which it has to contend, 
ia that it poeaesaea no marlcet Talne,"* 

Yes, it is trae, in the presence of a mnltiplicity of 
alphabets, the learning of any one alphabet is of little use, 
and the natives feel it to be so. 

Can it now be said that the natives are so wedded to 
their own kinds of writing that it would be impossible to 
attempt to replace them ? Ko, the opposition to the change 
proposed w^nld not come from tlie body of the people who will 
be beneficially affected by it ; it will come from certain sec- 
tions of natives with whom I grant it will be thoroughly 
nnpopular. In the Panj&b, and probably in the Korth-West 
Provinces, the opponents of this scheme will be the experts 

* Fanj&b Bdocation Bepoit f oi 18e9-70. C^tain Holrojd, p. 43, , 

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in Peraion imting ; in other proTincea also tbe aoitie f^ nm is 
represented ; tbey are those who, hy tbe koowledge they pos- 
sess of the writing throngh which oar (loventioeQt in the 
districts is worked, are enabled to fvey iq)oa oar more igno 
rant snbjects ; their profits woald diminish as tbe people, 
through some knowledge of letters, became able to take care 
of themselves. For the vested interests of these meo I do 
not feel myself called npon to show how a prorison ooald be 

So much in answer to the doabts whether GoTemment 
conld safely interfere on behalf of the Roman scheme. It 
is now to be considered whether it is likely that, even with 
Goremment aid, the great change ccrald be effected. We 
mnBt remember what a great power of infloenoing is possessed 
by oar Goremment in India. It is the power of a well- 
organised Eastern despotism, combined with Uiat which arises 
from the interested good will of the governed. Some things, 
indeed, there are which our Goremment could not do, even 
if it stretched its arm beyond the limits of what, according 
to oar recognised principles, wonid be legitimate. It oonld 
never, for instance, make the English lanffua^e general. To 
get that strange toagae, which is natire to bat a few tboosands 
in India, adopted by its hnndreds of milUons, is quite 
beyond what a Government can effect. Bnt to institnte a, 
general alphabet, and caose it to spread, so as for all practical 
parposes to displace the old ones, is distinctly within its 
power. For this does not depend, as does die matter of 
language, on imperceptible hourly teaching from the earliest 
times of coQScionsness, but it is a matter of school-learning, 
and the more important schools already depend on Govern- 

With the influence of Government for our motire power 
the iustromeots would, in tbe first place, be that oonsi- 

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denble number of natiTes engaged ia edncalioQ vlio knoTr 
someUung of Engliah. From the facts I have brought for- 
ward, sbowiDg the fadlity with which the letters of oar 
alphabet oao be fitted to the varioas soanda that hare to be 
expressed, it will have become evident to joa that anyone who 
baa at the same time a knowledge of one of the vemacolar 
languages of India and of SngUsh wonld, in a very short 
time, learn to adapt the writing of the latter to his native 
language. We have, tiierefore, almost ready-madej a large 
staff of teachers for the new art ; for observe, for the present 
purpose a good kaowledge of English is not necessary, only 
a familiuity with the forms of the letters ; many second-rate 
English sdiolars — and of these there ore indeed many — might 
be good teachers of Roman. A week or two's iiistmction 
m some central truning college wonld enable these men 
to become instrnctora in their turn. To aid them there 
ironld be required a few simple authoritative books on the 
wyaiani — a band-book of instmctions, say, and a dictionary. 
Wben the way had become by these means prepared, 
Govemmeat might allow nothing to be tanght in its schools, 
or in schools aided by its grants, until the pnpii had learnt to 
read and write either his own vemaonlar or Hindost&nl in 
the Boman character. Also, from those now entering col- 
lege or ihe higher schools for an English coarse this addi- 
tional test might fairly be required. 

But the work most be begna from more sides than one. 
In jodiml proceedings steps should be taken in the desired 
direction. Id the first plaoe all petitions before a court of 
law shonld be allowed to be written either in Boman or in 
whatever character is now in nse, at the option of the suitor. 
Por some time the Boman wonld be used side by side with 
the old character. As the native oiGcers of the court became 
gradually acquainted with the Boman system (either by each 

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learning it or by their replaoement in the natural course of 
things by those who bad acquired it at school or college), so 
might the petitions be absolutely restricted to the Romanised 
form. A similar coarse might be pursaed with regard to 
depositions ; wherever the clerk of the court had qualified 
in Boman, the evidence should be written down in it. Steps 
might be taken to hasten the time when all these officers 
should thus be qualified. The Government of India know 
well how to tetnpt those under them, by advantages distinct 
or implied, to exertions for any strongly wished-for end. In 
every branch of the administralion like meascres should be 
taken. All writings — proclamations, notices, &o., — should 
be given out in the Bomaci character, here also at first side 
by side with the old alphabets, which should gradually be 
disused as the knowledge of them diminished. Agun, many 
things are now published in English which yet ought to ba 
made known to the body of the people ; for these Eoman- 
Hindust&nl would be a good channel, since by this they 
would reach the natives and woold also be understood by 
almost every Englishman in India. 

If more is wanted than what I have said to tempt the 
men who wield the power of the Gtovemment of India on to 
what I am myself convinced is, thongh a long, yet a smooth, 
hut not a slippery, course, I wonld ask them to look at 
some of the direct, immediate, positive benefits that we may 
see would be sure to flow from the measures lately indicated. 

Any improvement in the administrative machinery of our 
Government in India is a tiling to be welcomed equally by 
those engaged in the working -of it and by those on whom it 
operates. Now our proposed change wonld be for (his 
great machine like a fresh turning of the bearings on which 
the various parts of it work ; smoothness of motion, lessen- 
ing of friction, would be the almost immediate result. A few 

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inalaiioes of the present roughaesa in the working will con- 
TiBce yoa tlut some improvement is indeed wanted. 

All here know of the great amount of jadiciat work ' 
done l^ onr <avil servants and onr soldier officers in civil 
employ in India, and all most have heard how much confi- 
dence native litigants have in the integrity of these Bnglish- 
men. Bat only those who have been in India and watched 
proceedings in some District coart are aware to how gi-eat 
a disadvantage the Snglish magistrate is put by ihe evidence 
lieing taken down by the clerk of his court in a mnniug 
native hand. Though the Englishman has passed an examina> 
tion in that very writing, yet practically he is nnable to read 
it, that is to say, he is unable to read it with such facility 
that be ooold take np the record and turn over tbe leaves, 
and get at tbe bit of evidence he wished to look at. The 
following words, quoted from a circular of the Paiyab 
Goremment, which was sent a couple of years ago to all the 
Commissioners and Deputy Commissioners of that province, 
will prove that I am not exaggerating : — 

" The petition and deposition -writers, as a rule, writ* handi tUat ara 
only legible by an expert, and the presiding judge or magiBtiate ia nnabia 
tj detect inteationiJ or accidental errors, or indead to decipher a writing 
which Is more a short hand than an aathorised style" 

This refers to the Persian writing, by means of which 
prooeedings in tbe Panj&b courts are carried on. To how 
|rr«at a degree the magistrate from this cause is dependent 
on tbe writei-s under him the suitors well know ; often they 
find— oftener still they f;incy — that the advantages of 
integrity in the judge are countenicted by the intrigues of 
those about him. 

If we walk from'the Eachahri, the court, across to the 
Post-office, we shall there observe quite as clear proofs of 
the need of some improvement. We there see letters directed 
ia English, in Persian, in Hindi, and in other writings. 

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T^e Fostmaster has a good knowladge of EnglUh ; the sor- 
ter haa a fair knowledge of it, and a knonledge of one other 
alphabot, in thePanjab probably Persian ; the letter-carriers 
usnully know neither of these ttvo bnt some o^er writing 
imperfectly; by means of it they with difiicaity jot down on 
each envelope the names as they are read out to thenr by 
the sorter. The resalts way be expected, or rather they are 
not qaite so bad as might be expected, but Uiey are bad 
enough. The English letters are delivered with fair pnno- 
tuality, especially those addressed to Englishmen ; the native 
letters may or may not reach their destination ; the percent- 
age of miscarriages is very large ; a poor native, when he 
commits his letter to the post, does so without much confi- 
dence tJiat it will he delivered ; often have I known one, 
when simply writing to get news from his home, pay the 
sixpence (equal to two days' pay) to have his letter registered, 
thinking that a simple letter will have tittle chance of 
reaching ; thus the poor are shut out from the blessings of 
cheap postage which the Government intended to provide 
for them. The mere stating of these facts is proof enongh 
that the one remedy is a general alphabet. 

I might follow this subject throagli every department 
of Qovemment, and show bow the action of our administr^. 
tors is crippled by the want of a general means of cammnni- 
eating. But it would take too long for this occasion. I 
must bo content to assure you that the above are merely 
instances of difficulties that are met with in numbers. I 
think that some of those present who have held high otfice in 
India will be ready to confess how glad they would have been 
to possess sach a means of explaining their policy to the 
people and obtaining their co-operation, as would be provided 
by an alphabet readable by all who can read. 

Sir Qeorge Campbell, in his address to this Section, 

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denred the Society of Arta to pay its nttention to the mato* 
rial improvement of lodia. We cannot, I think, be doubtful 
that tonu of the odTButages of the pUn wo are disctissinf; 
trill come nnder the head of material improvement. Sir 
George would ttim education to more oseful and practical 
diannela. May I ask if the establishment t^ a general 
alphabet would not be the very opening of a sluice-gate to 
those channels ? Take for an example the matter of trodo 
between this country and India. I ttiink it has been felt 
that there ia oflen a hitch, or more than one hitch, in the 
ehain of oommnnication between the exporting merchants at 
tlie great ports and the native producers in the interior, or 
between the importer and the ultimate native consumer^ 
The waves of variation in price are too long in transmission ; 
there are weak places in the eable, along whioh informatioD 
does not easily pass. The result has often been a glutting of 
narkete alternating with high profits not fairly diflused, aU 
which ia against a healthy state and a steady increase of 
trade. Among the caases of these phenomena a carefid 
nanunatioa would, I think, show these te have a phuM, namely, 
tiie absence of a ready means of communication between 
European merdiants and native agents or correspondents in 
tlis interior ; and the state of helplessness in which the pea- 
santiy are held by the native produce-dealers, — a state to 
which it is true they are brought partly by their Improvi- 
denoe, but in part it is due to their ignornnoe. A more 
general knowledge and ose of writing in a generally-known 
tengae like Hindnstini would tend to remedy both these 

Another branch of enqniry along which I could have 
wished te ask yon to join me, hod time allowed, is the qaes- 
tiaa of &e fntore of the Hindustilni langoago. I have said 
that HindoaUtni has ia a measure become Uie laogange of 

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ihe towna in a great part of India. Th«rd can be no doabi 
that, now that ccmimanicatiiMi between different parts it 
becoming so comparatively easy and general, snch a comnwn 
tongue — -to aapplement, not neoessarily to displace, the local 
dialeots^-girea immenae fiuiilitiea in transRcUng afFaira. Now 
the adoption for it of the Roman alphabet vronld bare a 
great effect not only on the fiirtberanoe <^ ita spread, but 
also on the development of the language itself. For tho 
HinJastini laagnage ia not fixed. Thera is ctMitinnally 
going on in it a straggle between IcHtg and short words, and 
between Persian and Sanskrit words. As long as the writ- 
ing of it ia in the hands of a few experts, whose natural ten- 
dency is to pedantry, the Itmg words, incomprehensible to 
and almost nnpronosnceable by the masses, have an unfair 
advantage. Again, while the chief writers are thqse who 
have learnt the Persian character, there is always an incli- 
nation towards Persian and Arabic terms, even when thoM 
derived from Sanskrit roota wonid be quite as ex[>reBsive, and 
would come mors naturally to the months of the people. 
The adoption of Roman would have avery direct and weighty 
effect on the growth, or the perfecting, of a comtfton dialect ; 
it woald aid towards a foaiog of Urdii and Hindf, by which 
the best-obosen words from Arabic and Sanskrit sources 
should be brought together; it wonld tend to bring the 
Uterary language into accord with that spoken, that which wo 
saw to be so widely spreading ; for with one only kind of 
writing there wonld be a more general critioJsm, which woald 
bring what was written to a comparison with the general 
standard that would gradually be formed. For another effect 
on the literature, I will quote some words written long ago 
by Sir C. Trevelyan : — 

" There odnnot be a dtrabt that Bn({llih vclentlfic tmni will be macb 
more rekdil; aad ttccaniMly adapted into the Temaoular dialecta, and tliat 

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botli the word* and ipirit of the Sagliih luigattge mil become nach 
more rttpidl^ diffused tbroogb them, after tbe; sball bave been united with 
Buglirii in tbe bond of a common written and printed character." 

Bat I mast now refrain from farter development of my 
ideas c^ the probable and possible effects Id the fatnre of the 
oliange proposed. Only one more prophecy will I ventore. 
I believe that a general diffosion of the power of reading — of 
reading all that is pat fwward by Government — would enable 
the people of India to assert their personal independence of 
all usmned anthority, which now so ofteit oppresses them ; 
it wonld relieve &em from the fearof the lower ministerial 
officers of Qovemment, woald lessen or render impossible die 
indignities and injaries often inflicted by these in their " in- 
solence of office." I have hopes, too, that it woold form the 
link now wanting between tbe Bnglish governors and the 
governed, diat it woald diminish the distance of nnsympathy 
between them. We shoold, in the eSbrt to bridge over tiiis 
apace, be meeting the natives more than half way, we learn- 
ing their langaage, while they shonld leam onr alphabet. 

The reform which I advocate is a sweeping oae — if the 
vord " sweeping '* does not imply a greater suddenness than 
can be expected in tbe carrying out of snob a measure ; a 
thorough change, at all events, it must be if all tbe looked-for 
resotta are to aocme. But it woold be one the action of 
which wonld be spread over long years. During those years 
there wonld be reqaired an active influence, steadily, conti- 
nually, exerted. With tiiis it might, I believe, be carried 
out, without violence to the feelings of natives, almost com- 
pletely within one generation, while its good results woold 
last distinct itnd reoogoisable for cfrntnries. 

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[ 30 ] 

Hatrib i ^iub-4iav& I bi-go, t&za ba t4zn, nan bft nm, 
B&dK i dil-koshi bi-jo, tAza. ba ULza, oau ba naa. 
B& suiame oho Inabate, khoah bi-nasMa ba kbalirato ; 
Boaa 8it4a ba k&m az o, t&za ba t&zs, nan ba nan. 
S&qf i slm s&n i man t nest mai-am, bi-y&r pesb, 
Zdd ki pur knnam sabii, tiia ba t&za, nau ba nan. 
Bar zi hayit kai khnrf, gar na ma(Um mai khnrl ? 
Bdda bi-khar ba j&d i o, tiza ba Hm, nan ba naa 
Bbihad i dil-nibi i mas me-kanad az bar&,e man, 
Kaqsh o nigir o tang o bd, Uza ba tuaa, oaa ba naa. 

Bid i sabi ! cbo bi-gnari bar sar i kd,8 in piW, 
Qiflsa i Hifiz-aah bi-go, t&za ba Uea, oaa ba omi. 

Sw«et-voicfld singer, bliUiery «ng. 

Ever fresb and ever saw ; 
Seek Hie heart-expanding wins, 
JCver fresh and ever new. 
Sit with sweetheart, fresh and fair, 

All alone with no eye near ; 
Kisses snatoh at will ftt>m her, 
£ver fresh and erer new. 


Bearer of onp, with silver limb I 

Where the wine ? before me bring ; 

Fill the goblet to the brim, 
Ever fresh and ever new. 

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Frdt of life how can you taate ? 

If for BjTQ yon qonfftiot wine ; 
Drink, remeuberiDg mistress thine, 
Ey&t fresh and ever nevr. 
Mistress mine I that steal'et tny heart, 

8am of all delights to me ; — 
Beaaty, colours, odonrs sweet, 
Ever fresh und ever new. 
Gentle Zephvr, as yoa pass 

Near to where my Fairy dwelln. 
Sweet the tale of H&fiz hreathe, 
Ever fresh and ever new. 

R. D. 
Lahobe : leih July 1878. 

The objects of this Journal, and of the Society with 
which it is connected, are explained by the series of Beso- 
Intions passed at the Meeting organising the Society, and 
by the statement of reasons, both of which were published 
in lite first noinber of this Jonmal. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
OS tiieir sopport. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are requested to send their names with the subscription for 
the year, Bs. 5, to B. Dick, Esq., Secretary, Lahore. Mem- 
bers will receive a copy of the JoamaL 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolutions passed 
•t the Meeting on the 25tb May, and Invite subscriptions 
to the " Transliteration Fond." 

Sabaequent nnmbers of the Journal, it is hoped, will be 
issued about the 15th of each month. 

Tlie Editors, li. U. Journal. 


Ljlhou -.— Pmmtkd bt B. Lutbib, at tuk C. k H. Qasbttk Pubb. 




TV advocate th use of the Smum MpJiabet Jn (Mental 





QAZETTB press;* 



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No. 3 August x8j8. 

Prveeedingt of the Afonthli/ Meeting of the Soman- Urdi 
Society, held on the 11th July 1878. 

Present : 
B&ji Harbans Singh. 
nu M61 8iDgh. 
Barkat All Kh4a. 
B&i Gopil Dds. 
Hnnsfai Harsukh RU. 
L&h D&a Mai. 
Pandit Bhio Datt 
L&la Shiv R&m Das. 
Shaikh Sandi Ehin. 
Pandit Jowila N&th. 
Ula Sri Rdm 

Manlvi Muhammad Hoeain. 
Babd S. B. Mnkarjf. 
Shaikh NasCraddin. 
Messrs Tolbortj 

„ Scott. 

„ Tarnboll. 

„ Harrey. 
Of the native gentlemen present, fonr had already joined 
the Society. Nine others entered their names at the meeting 
nnder report^ but of these some wished it to be understood 

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[ 2 ] ■ 
lliat they joined becatise they were interested ia the discos* 
sion raised by the Society, and wished to receive the Society's 
Journal, but thnt they did not pledge themselves to advocate 
the Society's programme in its entirety. 

One native gentleman (Shaikh Nasinidd/n) was present 
as a visitor only. 

1. The seoood number of the Society's Journal was 
laid before the meeting ; also several letters and papers con- 
nected with the Society's work. 

2. The discussion in the vernacular on the advantn<;es 
of the Itoman alphabet, and on the general objects of tiie 
Society was continued — most of the Members present taking 
part. It was finally resolved to pablish two papers in 
Boman-Urdii in the Society's Journal. One of these will 
detail the objections and difficulties which were urged by 
some of the Members (and which they were asked to repeat 
in writing) while the other will he a reply on the part of the 
advocates of the measure. 

3. As Mr. Dick is about to leave Lahore, the duties 
of the Lahore Secretaryship will he undertaken by Mr. 
P. Scott. 

Editorial Notes. 

We have great plotisure in calling the attention of 
our readers to Glarkes' Persian Manual which may be 
obtained from Messrs Thacker, Spink &. Co., of Bombay. 

This valuable and well got up book (which is printed 
entirely or nearly so in the Roman character) will give to 
the student of colloquial Persian the help which is given by 
Forbes' Hindustani Manual, and by Holroyd's TashQ-ul-kal&m 
to the student of colloquial Urdil. We shall publish a detailed 
review of Glarkes' Manual in a subsequent issue of the 

An American *vit onco described a certain school of 

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philology in HiiAS which may be applied "mvtalia mH/amlit" 

to the penmanship of our Inilinn courts. 

" The kncliahri shikast is a wild kind of thing, 
Which, from any one word any other can bring ; 
or the consonants, sura, the effect is thought small, 
And the vowels, the voweh are nothing at all ! 

M. LittrfJ has just completed his great French Dictionary, 
which is described as a work of uneqaalled accuracy and 
completeness. In the words of an English contemporary, 
" it is an bononr to the great coontry whose genins for order 
and method and Inminons arrangement, and hriliiant clear* 
ness, it so fitly represents." 

The death of Professor Blochmann is a calamity, n 
9 one, to the causa of oriental learning, and to that of 
Indian Histoty. We do not know who will take the precise 
pUcd which he held as the foremost sdiolar of Arabic and 
Persian Literature. 

There is a Persian newspaper, the " Akhhtr," published 
it Constantinople. Wo have made arrangements to receive 
a copy of this, and hope to pablish occasional extracts in oar 

The last number of the National Bast India Association's 
Journal contains an interesting paper by Florence Kight- 
iagtile on subjects connected with Indian progress. 

The JHfrdf of the Panjib Anjnman dated 2(ith July, 
mntains a long orUcle adverse to the use of the Roman 
Alptuibet. We hope to publish a reply to this in our next 

The Persian Ahktar, dated 25th Jam&df-ul-iikhtra con- 
Ums two letters, one purporting to be from Amf r Sher AU of 

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[ * ] 

Kibnl, to Uie SuUdn of Turkey, tlie other pnrporting to b» 
tlie Sultan's replj. In the former letter, the Amfr write* 
reproaohfally of the English, refers to the presence of a 
Bnstnan emissary at K&bal, and advises the Snlt&D to throw 
over the English alliance and to accept that of Russia. 
Id his reply the tSnlUua expresses a different (^ioion, 4tows 
his own preference for the English, and advises tito Amir 
to seek their friendship. 

" Nosfliatp fammn-at, bi-etinBT o bahUna tna-gfr, ' 

" Ki har«bi aiah i mnoMq U-gojad-M, bi-pulr." 
Hie letters are probably apocryphal, but it is possible 
that they represent the purport of correspondence whidt 
actually did pass between the two sovereigns. 

SeeB. U. J&wmat No 1. 

If that SUrazt charmer gay, 
My heart wonld take and keep nlway ; 
Bokh&ra, Samarkand, I'd tine. 
His Hinda mole to make bnt mine. 

What wine remains pour oot, my b«^, 
In Paradise thou'lt ne'er enjoy 
Masalla's paths with roses glad, 
Kor water-marge of Bukn&b&d. 

O grief, that sirens skilled in wile, 
A city's pest, with fatal smile ; 
Should patience pluck from oat my heart, 
As Turks on trays of plunder dart. 

Of love, my friend, so poor as mine, 
No need hath beauty such as thine ; 

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Of gems, or paint, or mole, or streak, 
What Deed of these hath beauty's cheek ? 

Thy beaoty ripening to its prime, 
Like Joseph's of the olden time ; 
Wonld soon, I knew, Znlaikhi dmvr 
Beyond the veil of modest law. 

Of iong and wine sweet converse hold. 
Nor seek from time its secret old ; 
For all have failed, aad still most fail, 
lime's dark enigma to iinTeil. 

To wise adWoe, my Love, give ear, 
For rich as gold, than life more dear, 
Ingennous yoath doth ever hold 
The prndent oounsel of tlie old. 

Thoa gib'st at me, yet pleased am I ; 
Nay pardon, Ood I meet thy reply ; 
A bitter answer snits tl^ lips, 
Uy niby, sweet as boaey-sips. 


Thy lay is done, thy pearls Strang, 
Now sweetly, H4fiz, sing thy song ; 
And on thy lay may Heaven stoop 
To fling the Pleiads' pearl group. 


Zm July 1878. 

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[ e ] 

which followed Mr. Drew's Ueture before the Society of Art$. 
See Icut tiu»J>er. 
Dr. Lkftkeb said he hnd always had tiie "greatest regnrd 
for the spirit by which Mr. Drew hnd been- actuated durinj; 
his residence in India, but at the same time he felt constrain- 
ed to differ from hiai on many matters of detail, and almost 
entirely from his conclusions. The snbstitution of the 
Roman characters for the various characters which existed 
in India—and the reasons for wbidi bad been very clearly 
pnt forward — had difficulties of its own to enoonnter qnit« 
OS great as the present alphabets had to meet. These were 
looked upon by the natives with tlie reverence which they 
attached to their own learning ; bnt the Roman characters 
came to them in the gaiso of something perfectly strange, 
imposed by the Government, and not apparently answering 
any purpose but the very donbtful one of bridging over the 
dilfionlty of acquiring the vernacniar languages by the 
English. It bad been said that there was a great disinolina- 
Hoa in the Pnajab to study the remaonlara in Government 
sdiools, bnt that was simply because these knguagea were 
already taught incidentally through Arabic and Sanscrit by 
the priests, in whom the people had confidence. After along 
residence, and a somewhat intimate acqoaintanoe with the 
natives of that province, he was prepared to say that the distinguished from instruction which they obtain- 
ed, was not that given by the Government, bnt that which they 
provided for themselves. Whilst there were about 22,000 
pnpils in the Q^vemmeat schools in his district, there wwe 
at least 148,000 studying in the porches of mosqnea and 
near the temples. Very often the learning which they thin 
imbibed proved a powerful mental discipline ; but it was 
strongly connected with the feeling of disappointment 

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[ ' ] 

which WM fo cotnmon amongst tlie natural leaders of the 
people, who fonad themselves unduly igaored under the 
Boglish system. The vernacular edacation we offered was 
not that which the people cared for. In the first place, our 
knowledge of it was bnt slight ; and then, instead of adapt- 
ing oor ideas to thnr wants we had gone on translating 
Baropean ideas, forgetting that words were made intelligible 
only throngh their histories, and that the words of onr 
dviUsation espetnally were made np of oonorete ideas whidi 
nltimately concentrated and crystallised in one term. Unless 
those ossodations and that history could be supplied, the 
approximate translation of mere words wonld never make 
those who learnt tbem better men, or give them more disci- 
plined minds. Ihe people did not consider it necessary to 
learn Urdu, because they learned it throngh the Persian or 
throngh the Arabic, nor Hindi, because they learned it in- 
cidentally through Sanskrit ; but as to the Roman character, 
its diiBcnlties were great, even to an English child learning 
to write and spell its native language. Then, agiun, there 
was the question, what system of Romanisation should be 
nmd ; more than one had been in vogue, bat with due de- 
ferenoe to the great authorities on the subject, he considered 
tiiem all more or less impracticable and unpbilosopbical. For 
instance, in the system pnt forward by Mr. Thomas an 
^Kwtrophe was given for " otn " though it was really a 
consonant which was accompanied by a number of vowels, 
and might be read in, at least, three different ways. \Vhen 
yon came to the phonetic laws of other Oriental lan- 
guages, such as Turkish, you met with sounds peculiar to 
them, and transliterators commonly forgot that the pho- 
netic laws of variona Oriental tongues were not the 
same. If yon applied a law whidi might do pretty well 
for the way in which Europeaus misproaoanced Urdu, 

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[ 8 ] 

it would Dot do at all for Arabic, or PeraiaD, or Uio 
complicated vucalisation of TnrkJsh. It wm quite dear 
diBt to teach the Indian childrfln to spell fta the English 
did woatd never do, because Enj^lishmen in af{»r-Iifo 
had the greatest diificnlty io gettinj; rid of the folm 
aaaociatjona of sound with the Roman alphabet in whiiA 
they Were brought up. It was extremely desirable no 
doubt that Englishman ahonid acquire a knowledge of other 
languages besides their own, but the difficulty of t^r por- 
tion in India was that they had too much power, and might 
easily give a direction to education not really suited to the 
millions of docile people there, who, anfortnnately for them- 
selves and for us, had not yet teamed to speak oat. At the 
present moment India snSered from what was termed the 
stnenjjfic system of transliteration, one of the first resalts of 
which was tjiat every British officer thonght the letter u was 
something to be avoided, that it marked an Eaglishman of 
the old Bcbool, nnaoqnainted with right spelling, and there- 
fore tliey substituted a for u, and, if they wanted to be thought 
very learned, put an accent over it. Even a Uussnlmaa was 
now caUed a Hossalm&n ; JuUuadnr, Jilondar, and, so on. 
In ibi» question, as in every other, liie first requisite was to 
view the matter from the nafire stand-point, to be willing 
to learn from them as well as to impart knowledge to 
them. The first thing which struck him in' table 3 waa 
the altered sound of n, according to its position, and it 
had been said that its sonnd in the words dent and 
rinff was essentially different. The sound of iu)r was the 
French ton nasal, produced by suddenly finishing a long 
vowel, and had nothing to do with the pare sound of n, but 
where there was the sound of n followed by ff, it was atJU^ 
to all intents and purposes, n, and it formed in fact tlie oon- 
necting link between vowels and oonaononta. He did not 

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[ 9 ] 

dunk tlw vr&y in which Table 2 was constrooted was qnite 
fitir to the Paajab. Devanagan was mod bj all classes who 
OMisiderad Sanskrit a sacred langaage, e.g., for JSindi, bnt 
it was sot fair to say that these three alphabets of Per- 
rion, Sanskrit, and Kaethi represeated HindoHani. The 
Persan alphabet no donbt was used in Hindnatani, 
simply beoanse it had worked its own way for utility. 
No doubt the people in the Punjab, as elsewhere, as they 
MW the power of (Government more and more established, 

3:.gradiially learn, not only the character in which the 
|t^ of their mlerswas written, bnt also the language 
to a certain limited extent ; bat if yoa inflicted upon 
tiwm a'diaraoter without consultiDg their natural leaders — 
for whom Mr. Drew made no provisiott whatever — Coilnre 
woold be inevitable. But, to take another side of the qnea- 
ti<Hi, suppose yoo encouraged what the people revered, their 
sacred languages — Arabio and Sanskrit — and that in which 
Iheir most elevated thoughts were expressed, the Persian, 
ihen, by oondliating the leaders yon would affect the mul- 
titude, and identify them with your own interests, and more 
would be dime in one year than by half a century of ill- 
directod, however well meant, supposed reforms. He had 
the greatest respeot fm reformers, but he did hope that for 
soine time to ocme a little peace would be allowed to 
Lidia, and that for at least ten years there should be no 
attempt at anythiug beyond letting things work their 
own way. As he had already shown, the argument for 
the neglect of the Temacular education offered by the 
Goremment was worth nothing, and when you came to 
tranabition the matter was even more difficult. There 
were many tracts pnblished by missionaries in whiob tho 
words used— say, to represent " salvatitw "—conveyed 
qaito a different meaniDg to that which WM intended, 

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t 10 ] 

Tbe proper ivay to get over the difficulties and the mitiTe 
character waa to improve that character itself, nnit 
tliongh this might appear a giguitic task, it was a(A 
greater than had heen achiered in other cases. They 
all knew the difficulty which sometimes attended ihe 
deciphering of tbe scrawls they received from their 
' friends, and he coald well recollect the tabonr he had, 
some t«n or twelve years ago, in making ont the meaniiig 
of the writing in the Rolls and Record-office. Looking 
nearer home, what difficnlty was often found by Englidi- 
men in reading the mnning hand of ft Frenchman^and 
many an Snglish firm would not employ a Oennaa olerk 
becansn of his nnfortnnate habit of making hie flgares 
; ^1 so mnofa alike. The great aim shonld be to try and 
develop the native character from within, and Uiis was qaite 
possible in all the forms derived from the Sanskrit. As re- 
gards tbe Perso-Arabio alphabet, be believed that his Excel- 
lency the Persian Ambassador had, after the labour of twenty 
years, succeeded in achieving this great resalt, and had 
devised an alphabet which would he respected by the natives, 
Iwcanso it was identified with their own sacred learning, and 
yet should be read, without previous instruction, by the 
mullahs, scribes, and others in Constantinople, in lodia, and 
in Bokhara. IF so, he had settled the question, because this 
would be a means of developing education and literatnra 
vrithout upsetting those national prejudices and feelings witli- 
ont which no people was worth anything, but which, if mode 
the basis of an indigenous civilisation, would not only develop 
all that was good in them from within, and thus make it 
permanent, but would also form a vehicle for oonv^ing to 
them all the treasures of Western civilisation, 31ie beauty 
of the Arabic language consisted, in irs perfect form, in the 
tri-litcrai root, by which was attained that wonderfnl derelop- 

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[ 11 ] 

iBent of which Arabic words were ct^ble, aod these thres 
IcUers woold be recognised if written either in Persian, 
Hindvateni, or ubj simiUr native character. If, however, 
yoa eodeavoured to transliterate them on any system, how- 
ever elaborate, and supposing yon conld get everybody to 
agree upon it, which yon never could, yon ntterly lost the 
key to the word. Who could recognise in sadi a word as 
iai^f/A- spelt in Roman character, the word ghnfUr ; yet it 
was the same, and anybody who had only learned the begin- 
ning of Arabic woold at once trace it What wonld English 
eijanology be worth if l^ht and _^ht, &o., were spelled ao- 
oording to the phonetic views of the Claimant? At the same, 
time he was qnite ready to admit that the natives did some- 
tiines preiome apon the little knowledge which, as a role, ~ 
Ettglishmen possessed of their alphabet and language by care- 
less handwriting, bnt that difficulty might be got over. He 
held in his hand two letters received within a week of each 
other, fnHU the same person, ono written in a manner which 
anybody worth his salary in India oould read tlnantly, whilst 
the other had defied all the efforts of the most skilfol de- 
di^rers. They came fronr 'fnmst^x, the Siah Posh Kafir, 
whom the Society entertained aboat a year ago ; one was 
evidently written by a Manslii at Peshawur, before be cross- 
ed the hills, and the other apparently came from Kafirstan 
itself. This showed that the native character might be so 
developed as to be perfectly readable. Complaint had been 
made of the broken hand of the Serishtadars, but it was, in 
his opinion, the dnty of those who had to administer justice 
in India to make themselves acquainted with tbis running 
hand, which might be done by a little application and per- 
severance, and not depend solely on the good faith of their 
native clerks. Unfortanately, the great idea of most of us 
Anglo-Indians was to benefit the natives in our own way, 


[ 18 ] 

instead of looking at matters from tiie standpoint of the peo- 
ple themaelves, and this habit, more tlian anytlung else, 
retarded the progrssa which might be made. It was nafc 
merely the character, however, which was pnzzling, and 
which gave the native clerks opportonities of whidi they 
Bometimes availed tbemsdves, but there was actnally a 
langoage spoken in the very ears of the jadges of the court 
at Peshawar, which was qoite onrecogniaed ontil he had 
drawn ap a roagh oatline of its grammar, and oonstraction. 
His main point was that all attempts at elevating and im- 
proving the people of India must start from the native stand- 
point as a foundation, and to this end he believed the cshar- 
acter which the Persian Ambassador had spent so many- 
years in perfecting, would be far more useful than any 
attempt at the universal introdaction of the Roman alphabet. 
Sib Gsorqb Cahpbkll had listened with much pleasure 
to Hr. Drew's paper, which bad placed the matter in an 
extremely clear and praotioat point of view. So far as 
his plea for uniformity was oonoemed there was nothing 
wanting in his argnment ; hot then came the qaeslacHi 
whether the Roman character was the right one, and on that 
point he hod hardly made up his mind. Tbe truth was, 
most characters were adapted to the lani;nage for wbitdt 
they were originally designed. There were a great variety 
of sounds in different languages, and it was almost always 
found that when a character was applied to a language for 
which it was not originally intended, considerable awkward- 
ness ensaed. A striking example of this was to be foond 
in the application of the Boman character to the English 
langnage, for which it was not originally iotende^, nor for 
any Germanic language ; and the consequence was that 
great anomalies and inoongmities arose between the phone> 
ties of the language and the arbitrary way in which it was 

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[ 13 ] 

apelL He had not quite followed Dr. Leitner's argament,- 
ftnddid not quite naderstand what view be took ; nor whea 
be spoke of the Ternscolar did he quite know what be meROt 
by it, becanse there were a great manjr vemacnlaFS in IndtA< 
He was inclined to fbink if it was a qnestion of osing an 
Arabio character for tbe Arabic language, and the Derana- 
gari for tbe pare Hindi lauftnage, that it wonld be better 
to sacrifice nniformity, and write those langiuges in tbe 
dnracters designed for tbem. Bat, then, both Arabic and 
tbe purdy Hindoo languages had become very mnch mixed, 
and it was a pecaliarify of the natiTC habits that ibey were 
extremely ready to adopt foreign languages idto their own, 
so that tbere was nothing like a pare langnage to be fbnnd. 
There was Hindostani, which was mixed in the same way, 
and tbat being so, it was impossible with tbese mixed langa- 
ages to have any one character altogether snited to these 
hngnages. There was no one alphabet fitted te properly 
express them all, and therefore they mast weigh the advan- 
tages and die-advantages on each side ; and he confessed he 
had not yet folly made np his mind on the sabjecL His 
view, however, was very ma<^ opposed to that of Dr. Leitner, 
with regard to the qnestion of tbe higher education of the 
natives, for it seemed to him monstrous t^at those who came 
to role as foreigners, and teach Western civilization, shonld 
attempt to teao^ the natives a foreign Oriental civilization, 
whidi tbey were mnch less inclined to learn than tbey were 
the English langnage and Western literatnre. Therefore, so 
far as any Foreign improvements were snperadded to the 
Ternaoolar languages, they ought to be Bnglish. It was also 
poUticaUy desirable to encoomge as much as was fair and 
feasible that language, and he believed the natives to be much 
more willing to accept it tban any other foreign languages. 
Seeing that tbese veinacuhur languages were exceedingly 

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[ 14 1 

adaptable, lie tiKmght the rasnlt wonld be a Uogoage in which 
English bore the same proportion to the pare Teraocolar which 
Penian and Arabic now did to Hindastaiu in the upper 
proTiBces. Tina, however, was a strong argnment in favour 
of adopting the Bomaa character as dlatingoished from anj 
other, whilst at tiie same time the Persian character had 
many advantages, being written with extreme &cility. 
Hindi and Devanaeari had eonsiderable advantages, bat, 
npon ibe whole, he shonid say that he was inclined to thiak 
that the Koman character was more fitted than any other 
for nniversal adoption. 

Mr. Rajs Uddin Ahued said he did not tiunk it was 
pecessary to enter into the scientific part of the question, 
bow far it was possible to write the Arabic language in 
lioman characters, bat he woold deal with the Urdu 
which was to aU intents and pnrposes the same as Arabic, 
thongh it had some additional letters adapted into it from 
tile Sanskrit. There were 55 sonnds in this langnage, 
and, as in the ^English alphabet, there were only 26 
letters, out of which w, x, and y, might veiy well be 
taken. There only remained 23 to represent the 55 
sonnds, so Uiat a large somber would have to be repre- 
sented by some conventional signs. Sapposing these 
were devised, it woald be also necessary to keep the 
Arabic or the Hindi in nse, or otherwise in hqise 
of time the proper prononciation of the words was sore to be 
forgotten. As he had said, Urdn was mostly Arabic, and la 
bis view the fate of Arabic had already been secnred by the 
Koran. There were in India abont eigh^ or ninety millions 
of Mohammedans, and tiiese would never give up the Urdu 
character so long as they were followers of the Koran, not 
from prejudice, but because they were enjoined in the Kor&a 
to read it in the Arabic language, aud in no other. It might 

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I 15 ] 

be said that the Urdn and Roman cbarnct«r miglit go band- 
in-hnndj bnt then, instead of affording anj facility to natird 
edncation, there woald only be added one more difficnlty in 
learning, and he did not think those who desired to benefit 
Tnd'i m ^ ironld really like to odd any harden to the present 
inconveniences under which they were labonring. Kiey 
stood in great need of education, and no further iinpedi'* 
nenta shoald be thro^Tn in their way. Urda was more or 
less nnderstood in every part of India, and therefore he 
flionght it the dnty of the Qovemment, if they were inclined 
to anpply the conntry with one universal langnage, to uphold 
•ltd to fovonr it. English was &e dominant language now, 
becanse it was the lan^age of the miers, and it would be 
accepted everywhere ; bnt to substitute the Roman charao- 
fer for the Urdn he believed would be impossible. 

Hb. Htpi Olabkb said the valuable paper, no less than 
Ae able speedi of Dr. Leitner, had chiefly referred to 
the apptioatioD of Bomnn to Hindustani. Although this 
langoage was nsed by many millions, such a test did no 
justice to the importanoe of the subject, which dealt witln 
the deetinies of progress of many nations, some of them 
in the hills of India, reclamed from savagery by us, 
and furnished with a written tongue. He ( Mr. Clarke ) 
therefore wished to bring back the matter to its true rela- 
tions, for he had long felt an interest In it, and what he 
llad written in 1S58 had been embodied in Sir 0. Tre- 
T^yan's work of (hat time. He still entertained the 
aame views, and he concurred with Dr. Leitner in re- 
garding most of the transliterating or scientific alpha- 
bets as nnscientjfic, tested philologioally. The sabject, 
to his mind, was not to be treated as one of abstract 
science, or for the convenience of a few Italians or Qer- 
m«i pMologisis, nor oven for our own men of educa- 

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tJon. At tlie same time it was not one of literary or retigiooi 
prepossesaion. It was most misobievona to represent that 
tbe diacoan^ement of the alien Arabic was aa act of 
oppression on the natives of India who did not accept it, for 
this was a part of the disloyal agitation too prevalent There 
was no intention to employ the force of the Qoveroment to 
compel the nse of English, an Indo-Earopeatt tongne, nor of 
English forms ; least of all was there the slightest jnstifioa- 
tion for representing that the Mnssulmsns of India would be 
prevented by the GoTemment from reading the Koran in 
the Arabic character or in Arabic, whioh was no more the 
native or domestic language of Mnssulmans in India than it 
was in China, in Tarkey, or in Africa. Each man, Hinda, 
Uossnlman, or other, conld read his own Scrlptares, as peo- 
ple did all over the world, in the sacred language applicable 
to them. It was, however, of great moment, on every prac- 
ticable gronnd, that not only the Soman alphabet, bat Eng- 
lish should be enoooraged as muoh as possible. The wonder^ 
fol progress and development of India was dne to the labours 
of Englishmen in every department, and tlie adoption of the 
accepted scientific terms of the world at large was a matter 
of neoessity. With regard to Dr. Leitner's suggestion, that 
the civilian sboold be sacrificed to the Serishtadar, there was 
no justification for it. Judge and suitor were equally inte* 
rested in remedying an abuse, which was prevalent, not ooly 
in India, but in Tarkey, and in the conntry of his distingnish- 
ed friend, tbe Persian Ambassador. The experience o£ Eng- 
land was, however, often i^{Jicable to India, and in England 
we had formerly niuneroas scripts and oonrt-haads, a sepa- 
rate one in each coart or department of it, so that the 
English judge and suitor were as much at the mercy of 
such obstroctives as a clerk of the Hanaper as tJiose in 
India were with the Sheristadar. Here, however, we had 

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got rid of the abase, and in the conris, as elsewliere> 
bad <mly the print and the nuiDmg baDd ; for it most 
be borne in mind that, aimplify as we wiU, there mast 
be always these two forma. The civilian in India was 
too valoable for the advancement of the country to be 
detained by coart-hands, in which no one coald obtain 
the profidency of the specialist. It was necessary that 
the natives of India sbonld have the means Of inter-comma- 
nication and of learoiag each other's languages. It was no 
less material that they should have access to the thonsands 
of Eoropeana sent every year to India — the railway men, 
the soldiers, the workmen — and that all these should be 
able to learn something of the local languages. At present 
impediments were pat in the way. The Sonthal, the Raj- 
poot, or the Punjabi, was taught in an alphabet of a conven- 
tional and exceptional character. When he came to learn 
Eagliflh, as he moat do if he wanted to leam anything prac- 
tical, and even if he wished, being a member of the higher 
races, to extend his literary knowledge, he fonnd he must 
nnleam what he had been taught, as the volnes of the letters 
have been pnrposely made un-English. The more the people 
are taaght the vernacalar the more they will wont to leam 
EngUsh, for the same reason that the Welsh-taagbt Welsh- 
men teach themselves £!agtiah, from the thirst for knowledge 
and the paucity of practical books. There is, too, Uiia con- 
sideration, that with Roman type all the languages can be 
printed, and that in English there is a large store of prioted 
books. When the Englishman, high or low, wishes to learn 
an Indian language, he seldom gets over the alphabet, and 
it he does, like the native, he still finds that he must master 
samerous complicated alphabets to get at the translations of 
the various sections of society. If, however, he resorts to 
Unman TemaculoTs, ho has still to acquire a new fungled 

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alplutbet, n matter of great trouble to the mosa of onr popO' 
latioD. The rtweot idteration of the topographical names 
was an impractical embaras3ment and not an improvement, 
and ao one wonld ooontenance it if applied to onr home 
names. The new nomenclature was of a piece with the sbam 
purism that would admit an Arabic or other law term to be 
worked with a Hindi, but would not allow an Knglish law 
term to be so worked. Then, again, there was the mon- 
stroos delusion that Hindustani could be kept classic with 
Arabic, Persian, and Turkish words, and that English were 
inadmissible. The common sense of the people of India re' 
Volted against these onteDable pretensions, and Bogliah wns 
working its way there as it did in so many languages of 
Europe and of other regions. The whole questJon of Soman 
letters, and consequently of English teaching, was of much 
importance, and Sir Qeorge Campbell had given some prao- 
ticol illostrations. The pi-ogress had been such, and the 
benefits achieved so great, that he trusted Sir Charles Tre- 
velyaa would persevere in the mis^on he bad so long and so 
Buccessfally conducted. 

His Excellency the Persian Ambassador said — Je reg- 
rette de ne pouroir m'exprimer facilement en votre langne; 
Je snis oblige de vous parler dans une langue qui m'eat 
^galement ^trang&re. Mou nom ayant dt^ prononnc^ ici 
d'une moniSre si bienveillant, je tftchem de voaa dire en 
quelqnes mots !e rapport qui peut exister entre moi «t votre 
savante soci^t^. J'ai appris que vous disoutiez en ce moment 
le proj6t d'introduire les caract&res romains dans nos Ungoes 
d'Orient. H n'y a pas, messieurs, uno question pins impor- 
tante pour I'avenir de I'Aaia que cells dont vous vous occitpe* 
en ce moment. Nous oonnaissons malhourensement trop bien 
cette prodigeuse difference que le progrte Europden a mis 
entre vous ot les pouples d'Orient. En recherctuDt las 

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cansea de cettc difference, si accablnnte poar Dons, je 
sais arriv^ k cetto conviction profondo quo I'obstaclo 
de noire progr^ ni vient ni do nos principes religtenx 
ni de rinferioiit^ de nos races ; robatacle vient 
prindpalemenfc — je poorrais dire unique men tr—de notra 
systi^nie d'tScriture. Ce monstrenx eyaikme qni noaa a ii& 
impost par des circonatances esceptionnelles, a acquis avec, 
le temps le caractire immtuible de nos institutions sacr^, et 
anjonrd'hni ses innoinl) rabies difBcult^s enchaineiit si com- 
pldtement notre d^veloppement litt^raire que U regener- 
ation de rOrient me parait tout k fait impossible avec on 
pareil syst^e d'ecriture. Depuis longtemps le changement 
de ee systime est nne de mes preoccupations personnelles; 
Eo Perse, en Georgie et en Turqnie, beaucoup d'esprits dis- 
tingnees ont consacre des longnes onnees k I'etnde de cette 
qnestion. Tons les alpbabete etrangets ont ete soigneose- 
ment examines, et on a longtemps entretenn Tespoir de 
ponvoir adopter les comctires romatns. Mais, en ponrsuivi 
nnt des eesais de ce genre, des considerations intimea et des 
obstacles inherenta k la natnre de noa languea ont pronve 
qoe I'introdnction des caract^res remains n'oSriniit aucune 
(•ossibilite praliqae, Ces obataclea il aerait difficile de de- 
Tolopper ici. Tout ce que je puis dire c'est qne vn la nature 
do nos grammaires, et les relations moltiplea do noa littemturea 
orientates, la difficnlte seroit immense, insnrmontable. Int 
Buule Toie qni nons paroiasoit onverte o'etait de demander it 
notre alphabet m6me les perfectionneinents, qu'on ollatt 
cliercber aillenrs. Le probl^me ctait oeoi : modifier notre 
m]pbabet de mani&re qn'il offrirait tous lea avantages voolus 
iont en oonaervant assez de ses formes octnellea pour que 
eenx qoi ne oonnaissent quo I'ancien alphabet pniaseiit lire 
ie nouveaa aans I'ude d'une etade nouvelle. Le probl^me 
parait iusolnble. Cepeadant & la suite de longs efforts on 

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croit ponvoir s'assnrer qit' anjoDrd'hui le probl^nw est resoln. 
Plosienrs modules ont ^t^ dijk graves, et s'Us n'oot pas H& 
publics c'est parceqae ceiiaina travanx typographiqaes ne 
sont paa encore achev^s. Mais poisqa^im beDrenx hasard 
m'a amen^ anjonrdliai k voaa parler de ces essais, je serais 
heureux de pouroir soumettre des ii present tons ces travanx 
k ceax qai voudraient bien m'apporter le conconrs de lenra 
lumlSres. II ne me reste plas qne de Tons remercier Bin- 
cerement de cette g^n^rense initiative qoi voos porte k toos 
occnper d'one qaestion en apparence si aride, mais qui, selon . 
moi, renferme tout I'avenir de I'Orieiit. 

The Rkv. Jahks Lohq said that soon after he arrived 
in India, he become engaged in the Romanising controversjr 
frhich was then going on, and he mast say that the result 
showed him that so far as the Bengali languages were 
concerned, and they were spoken by more than forty 
millions of people, the Koman character was a &ilure. The 
Government was by no means opposed to it, and he believed 
the experiment was iairiy tried, but only one book of any 
consequence was produced in it, and that was the New 
Testament, which was printed at the expense of the Biblo 
Society. He had, however, never known a native who took 
it, except for nothing, for the valae of the paper, and he 
certainly never met ten who could read it. Dr. Duff, who 
bad been a great advocate for it, had admitted to him thai 
be had come to pretty nearly the same conclosiou, viz., that 
the Roman character was inapphcable to the Sansknt and 
Persian languages of India. With respect to Urdii, it was a 
di^rent question altogether, and there the change would, he 
thought, be desirable, though the condueion come to at a 
missionary conference some years ago was that it had as yet 
made no progress amongst the natives, who did not seem 
inclined to adopt it. He should like, however, to see furthw 

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[ " ] 

flfforts made in this directioii. In speaking of nniformitv- 
tbroaghout ladia, it mast be recollected tbat that country 
was not like England, a little island of 30 millions, but it 
posaessed a population of 250 millions, so tbat it was much like 
talking of uniformity in Europe. Uniformity was practically 
impossible, with so many different races of people. With res- 
pect to the Urddboing a kind oi lingua franca, which was 
known everywhere, he had unfortunately found, in travelling 
in the Madras and Bombay presidencies, that it was nothing 
of the sort, and Dr. Flander, the great Oriental scholar at 
Agra, hod confirmed this view, saying that beyond the 
influence of tlie Mohammedans and in the large towns it 
was practically nnknown. And more than that, the develop- 
ment of edaoation in the north oflndia was leading to « feel- 
ing of aversion for it, so much so, that at Benares and oUier 
pkioes depntatioQS had waited on the Lieutenant-Governor 
asking to have it given np in the Courts, and Hindi substitu- 
ted for it. He considered this language, which had been 
forced on the natives by their Mohammedan conquerors, was 
looked on as a badge of servitude ; and he believed the time 
would come when they would fling it off, and when the Hindi 
wonld resume its rightful place in the north-west; as tho 
Uktaral language of the masses of the people. 

The CHUBMA.N, in proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Drew, referred to the illusti-ation mode use of by the last 
speaker, as to there not being uniformity in Europe, say- 
ing there was practical uniformity in printed and written 
dnraoter, and it was obvious how greatly the difHcnlty of 
learning French, Oerman, Spanish, and Italian would be - 
inoreased if one language were expressed in Persian 
diaracter, another in Bengalee, another in Tamil, and so on. 
With regard to Dr. Leitner's remarks as to the inappli- 
cability of the Bomao letters as tbey are pronounced in Eng- 

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hiD(l, that was on argnmant which told the otber way. The 
Roman character was never properly applied to the Bngliah 
Innguage, as Sir George Campbell had remarked, bat bad 
been, as it were, pitchforked on to it in time of ignoranoe, 
the result beini|; that tlio same sound was represented by 
half a dozen different signs, whilst the same sign represented 
half a dozen different sounds. This was an evil which all 
saccessire generations of English children had to get over 
as best they could, and likewise all foreigners who learned 
English, and he oould not see at present any remedy for it. 
But at the present time he could assure Dr. Leitner that 
there was really no controversy as to the mode of applying 
the Roman letters to the Indian languages. More than a 
generation ago, in the time of Gilchrist, Eoebock, and the 
Asiatic Society, there was a considerable difference of 
opinion about it, but since then the subject had been fully 
considered, and all were agreed as to the snporiority of the 
Jonesian system. He ooald not agree with Dr. Leitner or 
TAr. Raees Uddin Ahmed that it was necessary to retain the 
Arabic character in order to trace the changes of die different 
words from their roots to their most perfect developments. 
The Qerman Orientalists were considered good nntliorities 
on this subject, and to save the great expense of printing 
books in the native characters, they had publislied a whole 
Beries of Oriental classics in the Roman type at a few shil- 
lings each, whereas, in the original character it would have 
cost twenty times as much. 

Mr, Baees Uddin Ahmed said tiie Mohammedans were 
- forbidden to read the Koran in any langoago but Arahio. 

The Chairman said there was no doubt, for religious 
purposes, the Arabic character would be retained ; but, 
happily, all edocatod Uohammedans in India now learned 
more or less English, nud a very slight smattering of it 

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L 23 J 
wonld eosble ibem to read their own langnage printed in 
Roman oharaoter with perfect ettse. Mr. Drew had Dot 
exaggerated the obstacles to iatollectoal, moral, and re< 
ligioos progress arisiog from the diveraity of alphabets in 
India. The English parallel is even more complete than he 
sapposes. Take oar provincial dialects aa they existed fifty 
years ago, before they began to be assimilated by popular 
edncation and rwlways — Somersetshire and Devonshire, 
Dorsetshire and Wiltshire, Sastera Counties, Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, and Northambrian. When conversing to- 
gether these provincials conld with difficnlty anderstand each 
other, bttt, having only one alphabetical system, they met on 
common ground, and all their differences were merged in the 
inexpressible blessing of one comprehensive national alphabet 
and literatnro. But how would it have been if the dialect of 
Somersetshire hod been clothed in one alphabetical system, 
that of Dorsetshire and Wiltshire in another totally different, 
the Eastern Conntiea dialed in a third, and so on 1 But 
tills is not all. To complete the parallel, we must suppose 
tiiatonr general merchants kept their books and carried on 
tiieir correspondence in apecnliar set of characters, our shop- 
keepers and bankers in another, and that our standard English, 
■which occnpies the place of Hindustani as the common 
mediom of oommnnication, was expressed by an alphabetical 
system based upon different principles from all the rest. Then^ 
as to the suitableness of the Koman letters to the high func- 
tion proposed for them of expressing all the different languages 
and dialects of India. The system to which Mr. Drew gives 
ihenameofJonefflaa," is merely a return from the corropt, 
confused modem application of the Roman letters to their 
original use. Nothing can be simpler or, in its way, more 
beautiful. The Boman letters have been proved by recent 
phillogical research to have a common origin with the Eastern 

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[ 2* ] 

alphabetical syatems ; and, as remarked by Mr. Drew;, 
Eflstern writing is sUU thoroughly phoaetia, that is, the due 
rektion of sign and sound is consistently maintained through- 
out, so that a simple transliteration into the Roman diaraoter 
gives a correct representation of the sounds in all the nadva 
langoages. The iuvention of printing found the Bomaa 
letters in possesion of the Western world, and adopted them 
as its principal medium. During more than three hundred 
years their typography has been elaborated with all its 
aocesaories of punctuation, capital letters, italics, and other 
mechanical helps, until the Boman letters have becomo 
infinitely better adapted for expressing the languages of the 
East than the various alphabetical systems in actual use there. 
I am prepared to maintain this against all the world. The 
Boman letters would return to their original Eastern seat^ 
laden with the accumulated improvements of the West, and 
would confer upon the people of the East far greater benefits 
than the letters now in nse among them. There is no one 
in this room who, after au hour's study of the system, oould 
not read off with perfect correctness any sentence in any- 
native language, however ignorant he might be of the 
meaning of the words. Take, as an example, the beautiful 
Hindustani translation, embodying words derived from three 
different sources, Hindi, Persian, and Arabic, of the prayer 
in our Litany : — " In all time of our tribulation ; in all time of 
our wealth ; in the hour of death, and in the day of judgment. 
Good Lord deliver us!" " Satndre harek dukk men; Jtamdra 
bar ek mkh men ; moat ke waqt, aur kidmal ie roz, Khuddwand- 
i-tiidmat hamen backa ! " Nay, natives of India themselves 
can read their own languages in the Homan character with a 
fluency to which they cannot attain through their own alpha- 
betical systems. Its superiority over (he Persian character, in 
which Hindustani is ordinarily expressed, is most marked and 

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[ S5 ] 

dftcided. NotUnj; can bo more inconTenient and perpl«xitig 
than the Persian letters. The forms of ihe oonsonants are 
dongated and sprawling, the reverse of oar compact, symme- 
trical Boraao type ; aad if the rowels are expressed at all, it 
is done by litde dashes above or below the line. Bnt ths 
momeDt ranning hand is attempted the vowels altogether dis- 
appear, and it becomes difficult even for the writer to read 
Ids own writing, still more for others, and above all, of oonrse, 
for Europeans. The Persian rnnnlng hand in which the 
business of onr courts and offices is transacted, is jostl^ 
called ^Ucatla, i. «., scattered or broken. The Arabic and 
Persian character is really nothing more than a syllabic 
system. When this system was originally adopted by 
the (Greeks they added the vowels in the same line, and the 
Bomans, witii tlie wonderful practical talent which always dis- 
tinguished them, perfected what the Greeks had improved. 
Hr. Drew has, I think, oonclnaively shown that the large 
nnmber of inSaential natives in every part of India who hava 
already become funiliar with the Boman letters in their ap- 
plication to English, are prepared to use them in printing, 
reading, and writing their own languages ; that the great 
obstacle is the exclusive manner in which the Qovemment 
has hitherto patronised the old alphabetical systems ; and 
Uiat if they were all regarded with equal favour, the inherent 
advanteges of Hie Boman letters would soon bring tliem 
into general use. One of the earliest objeote to which I 
directed my attention, when Governor of Hadros, was the 
establishment of the new police. This was composed of per- 
sons representing the fonr prevailing languages of the penin- 
Bnla, Tamil, Telugn, Canarese, and Ualayalim, besides the 
Uohammedans, who spoke Hindustani ; and much iacon- 
Tenience arose from the variety of characters in which the 
daUy reports were sent to the diSerent head-qnortere. As the 

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[ 26 I 
ewieat and best solution, it wm arranged that, whtitdTor' 
might be the Isngoage of the reports, they should be written 
in the Roman character. Hannale were prepared, and there 
\taa every prospect that tlie system would come into general 
me throughont the department, when my recall took plaoe, 
and the matter relapsed into its former routine. Another 
work initiated by me ina to prescribe that, except in a 
few familiar cases, in which the oormpted form had practi- 
cally taken the place of the original word, names of places 
and persons in official documents should be correctly ex- 
pressed according to the Jonesian orthography. This great 
improvement was not only carried into practical effect in 
the Madras Presidency, but has since been adopted by the 
Supreme dovemment, and has thns been extended to the 
rest of India, Further progress in the nse of the Bomaa 
letters has been facilitated by this arranjjement, for every 
educated person in India, European and naUve, has thus be- 
come habitoated to the transliteration of native words. Mr. 
Drew says be does not know at what period Hindustani was 
substituted for Fenian as the language of the courts of 
justice and offioes of Qovemm^it. This great change woa 
made between the years 1833 and 1836, under the govem- 
ments of Lord William Bentiook and Lord Auckland, on the 
doable ground that as Persian was not tiie language either 
of rulers or subjects, it aoted as a barrier between tb«a, 
giving undue influence to &e native officers of the courts, 
and that t^e necessity of learning Persian for offidal pnipoaes 
eecupied time which ought to be given to more useful studies. 
Unfortunately, while the Persian language was discarded, 
the Persian character was retained, and the Hindustani used 
in the courts is, tlierefore, so completely Peraianised— so 
latarated with Persian and Arabio words and idioms — that 
it is almost as aaiotelligible to the body of tlie people as the 

:,.ndty Google 

r 27 ] 

original Porsian ; iiiid tbe Dative oiScers (nmk) stilt hold 
their intermediate post of vantage i^aiiut t>otIi ndert and 
people. All this would be changed if free ooarae were given 
to the Bomao letters, not at lirst by any coupnlsory pro- 
ceeding, bnt Oft proposed by Mr. Drew, by nmply permitting 
their nse to those who prefer them. The English aothoritieB 
woald then be brought into direct personal relation with the 
body of the pet^le, and, aft all the Indian languages and 
dialeote woald be con^rdtended in a single al[diabetical sya- 
tera, and it wonld be seen at onoe how iar they agreed or 
-d^red from each other, mntual interconrse wonld be fiunli- 
tated in an extraordinary and most beneficial degree. As re^ 
-gards the langoages themselves, a process lias set in similar 
to that gone through in England after the Norman oonqneei. 
While the official language remains tiie same, the popular hm- 
.gaagehasbeconKpowerfally modified both in idiom and v<h 
eabniary. High pure Hindostani and Bengali are no longer 
in TOgne, and nmnerons English words and phrases have oome 
into popoUr nse, partly soientifia, literary, and ofiScial ; bat 
partly also ezpresnve of moral ideas which have received 
new life from contact with our nation, such a» " family," 
** flharacter," " duty," " grafcitnde," and others. ( I speak 
OD this point from somewhat exceptional a^>erienoe, it 
having happened to me to return to work in India after an 
interval of more than 30 ymrs, so that I saw the actuU 
change in this respect that had come in with a new genera- 
tion.) Even whmi synonyms are in oommon use in both 
languages, tbe English word is preferred if ntoce than nsoal 
emphasis ia intended to be given. For instance, tbe wife 
«f a native clerk will say to her hoaband, " Ai o^ct jane h* 
timehai" "Itis nowlimtf to go to office," the value of 
time according to English ideas being greater than when 
itis spoken of in coooeotian with old native associations. 

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[ 28 3 
So completely are these two dhFerent fanns oftbesatno 
LiDgaage in coocarrfnt nee, <m& t^cial, the other popuhir, 
tbftt English oiBoerg have been known to insist upon native 
pleaders using either entirely Bnglisb or entirety Bengali^ 
and not what they were pleased to call a 'jargon' com- 
poanded of botii. Those who take this line do not reflect 
that the growth of the national mind mast find its expre»- 
lion ta development like this. Hindnstani and Be'igali are 
asserting their composite dtantcter by a free assimilation of 
words from the new world to which they hare been intro- 
duced, just lis Anglo-Snxon was moulded into English nnder 
corresponding Norman inSaences. I must not attempt now 
even a slight sketch of the consequences of the general ap- 
plication of the Roman letters to a state of things like this. 
It wonld be the salvation of the native languages (and I 
would beg partioularly to reoonunend this view to Dr. 
Leitner's consideration), which have a bard struggle in their 
competition with the all-powerful English, freigbted, to 
native apprehension, wiUi so many snbatantinl advantages. 
While it wonld establish praotioal harmony among all the 
Indian langnages, it would combine them in indissoluble con- 
nection with English. Xhey would all derive their inspira- 
tion from our hmgnage and literature, and would in time 
become penetrated with the spirit of our pure religion. Hh 
circumstance allnded to by Mr. Drew — that our missionaries 
have been the consistent, persevering supporters of the 
system, and &ai it has made steady progress in their hands 
notwithstanding every discouragement — is in the highest de- 
gree significant. I think all will agree with me that we are 
mnob indebted to Mr. Drew for the very able way in whiob 
he has brought this subject before us this evening ; and to 
myself it is a matter of peculiar interest and satisfaction to 
&id this qu^tion, on which I spent mnch time and trgnbte 

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[ 29 ] 
in my younger dsya, and wliidi I still feel convinced to hi 
a qnostifH) of great importaooe — of great promise to tJie masse* 
oi oar Indian fellowisabjeoU — and a matter of perfectly prac- 
tical applioation reTived in a manner litely to awaken a fresh 
interest in its bobalf, and to inaugnrate, as I wonld fain hope, 
a practical re-consideration of tbe benefits Uiai wonld follow 
ila adoption. 

^Die vote of thanks was then aoanimonsly passed, and 
having been acknowledged by Mr. Drew, tbe Conference 


AdUtOHl Yiirap ke bare bare molkon ke wakll hanoz 
ahahr i Barlin men masbwara karte hain, aur ahd o paimfia 
par mohr nahfn hiif hai, tibam yaqfn bal ki m&bain Bibs anr 
Angrezon ke tar&f na hogi, kail mnqaddama bag^r fanj- 
hashi fce &isala hoga. Natfja yin hda, ki Turk ke sarkfir kf 
bahat takbfif hii bai ; Riisa ko kam f&ida hii& ; ziyddatar 
f&ida mnlk i Balgarii ko milegi, aor yih ek w£jib aur maqdl 
bit hai, kydnki is hi qanin ke sbabron men lar&i k& zor tbi, 
OS ke g&nw kh&k siy&h ho gae, as ke bishinde aiai pareshiiii 
men &e, ki zarb nl masal ho gae. Riisa ko bahr i Aswad ko 
padicbhim samt par zila i Basarabii k& ek hissa ki daryi o 
Dannbe ke kanire par hai, milegfi ; anr bahr i Aswad ke 
pdrab dakhin ke goshe par shahr i B&tiim ka nmda bandar- 
g&hanr ns mashhiir qila i E&ra par bhi q&biz honge. In 
donon shahron ke lene se mnlk i Arminiya k& darwaza Kqss 
ke b4tb i gay£ bai. Andesba hai, ke aisi hi faiaala hogi : 
pas qabl is ke ki yih bit quir p&{ thf, Angrez anr Tnrkon 
ne &p«B men khofiya ahd bindhi thi, ki agar fiitiUm aoi 

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Kara Bdss ko mile, to K6chitlc Eshti, jane nnilk i Arminiya 

wg. Angreson Be paa&h p&we. Sarkir i Angnz ki yib 
iqrar bai ki malk i mazkiira ko bacli&wenge, ki Rdss nn par 
qadam na rakhen, aar badlo men Angrezon ko wah mashbdr 
jazira i Qapras ki bohr i Rdm ke piirab tanf hai, milegi 
Chnninchi jazira e mazkiira Angrezon ke qabze men i cbqkfr, 
Angrezi b&kim muqarrar bain, aar Angrezi fan) bbf ns men 
ddkhil fadf. Hlhil mnlk i Hind ki diand paltaa anr ristUa 
OS jazfre men mnqlm bun, anr sb&yad kisf qadr kill pattan 
bamesha wab&n rahegf. Mnlk i Rdm ke do bare edbe Bos- 
nia aar Harzigovina mtilki Austria men pan&h pAwenge, 
halanki an men Masalm&n zij&da ihid bain. Mnlk i Monte- 
negro, jiaki jaw&nmardi aur baosila Be yib sab lar&ian shani 
bdfn, apai matlab p&wegi, aar Sark&r i Rdm ke iDtizim sa 
alag bokar kbud-makhtiri ka darja p&wegi. Malk i Ydo&a 
kl bodd nttar taraf bbl Age barh j&egf. 

Fas agar Sultia i Rdm kf nialiat aaw&I pesb &ve, an ke 
lije yib jaw&b bat ki cb&ron aimt par ns kf amaldarf men farq 
^iy&jiegk. Chandsdba ke Maaalm&a Uaslbf badah&han 
ke m&tabt bonge ; Snltin ki nfim babat kam bogd. 
Sbabr i Istambol to mabfdz rabi bai, ahl i Islim banoz wah&n 
apna rAj ki piodirl aar Snlt&n hi rannaq ki fakbr karen, aur 

Angrezon anr Bdas ke darmiyin fiusala to maqdl aar 
pasandida nahin maldm det& bai, Aglab hai ki ineWilI 
hr&ion k& bij boyi jaUL hiu. Sdrat to yib hia ki Arminiya 
Yd konji Rdas ke hiHi & gaf, magar Angrez log kabte baia, 
ki agar Rdaa ns mnlk men &ga qadam barhienge, to bam nn 
k& mnq&bala karenge. Tarfun ke liye mnshkfl hai, anr nm- 
med nabta ki salh der tak nn ke biofa men rabe. Angrezon 
ke liye ek anr mnebkil bai. Un ki yib iqr&r bai ki Eacbak 
Iisbi& k& bibtar intiz&m bam&re zimn men bai. Lekin vm 
ntrif men qanmen matafarriq, Bunhab iUxUi, kg walnlif 

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khfinnx hain, Bor aglab hu, ki mh&a ftchotthd intizini' 
j&ii kami mobil hai. 

Jazirai Qapnis ke b4re men yih kahn& hai, ki as kf 
lambii 150 mil, aar as kt wasat 45,000 mil morabba shuin&r 
hai. Feahtar na men daa lakh ^mi tio&d the, lekia tin sau 
banu se Tarkon ke qabze men bai, aur is orsa men aisl 
abtwibdi, ki filh&l derh l&kh &dmi as men nabin p&e j&te. 
Ua ke bishinde matafarriq qnam anr maz&hib ke liain ; 
MimlmAn ]uuD haiD, ohand YabiidE wabl'm rahte bain, lekin 
okaar karke Ydnfaii Sariy ini aur Boman K&tbolik Masfbi 
OS men rahte bun. Tih jazira to bare manqa par hai. Malk 
i Hiar aar sbahr i Istambol ke dnrmiy&a hai ; jih to malk 
i Shim ka danriza hai, aar yaqioan ns hi ke sabab se Ang- 
rezoa ki amaldari men taraqqi bdi baL Ab o baw& mawfifiq, 
snr jaqin hai, ki Hindostan se bahat log os men sukunat 
karenge. Zamlo ki paid&w&ri aksar karke angilriBtiQ ki hai, 
lekin kapis, inij aar zaitiia, achchhi tarah se paidi bote 
hain. Sirf pini ki kami hoi, agar &bp&9bi k4 bibtar inUz&m 
bo, to tu kfl b&ihinde sibtq tanr par ith das likh tak shamir 

J. H. M. 


Vat«d Sltt Man 1^71. 

I hara tead with mnch interest the aeooaat of a Meet- 
ing of the " BMnan-Urdd " Sacuetj'. ^>uuIiteration is a 
tabject I have loag been interested in, and have applied the 
principles of the " Hanterian system ** whm dealing with 
the language <^ an Andunanese tribe. 

Until I have seen a statement more fally showing forth 
wliat the objects of Ibe Bociety are, any remarks that I may 

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m permitted to make are perhaps prematare, bnt with yoor 
permission I will hazard one which occurs to me on reading 
yonr nofice. la not the extension of ^onr operations only 
to Persian, Sanskrit and Hindi, besides Urdii, somewhat too 
limited an um for a " Society " or an " Aasociatioa ? " The 
whole of the Draridian alphabets, i. e., the Tamil, Telaga, 
Oonareae and UalajiUm, have precisely the same origin as 
tiie DevanagaH — are in fiict merely variations of it. l^e 
some remark applies to those of the Indian Aryan langoages, 
Oriya, BaagiK, Fanjabf, etc., which do not use the Deva- 
n£gar{ character. The Barmese and Pegoan alphabets are 
adaptalaons of tlie Asoka alphabet ( whence the modem 
Nigari ) to Mongolian langoages, in exactly the same man- 
ner as we Snglish have adapted a Roman alphabet to a 
Teatonio tongae. The Javanese alphabet is directly traceable 
to the same origin, and I believe those ased in Cashmere and 
Thibet are likewise so tntoeable. Side by side with the 
Arabic character are foand older locat alphabets among the 
Malayan people, which are also adaptations nnqnestionably 
of the Asoka. Is not therefore an Oriental Transliteration 
"Society," which leaves all these ont of the scope of its 
operations, voluntarily resigning its most important fnnctaon 
philologically and scientifically P And does not such a Society 
run a very great risk of gptcialiting its system of transli- 
teration, t. «., of intrododng a system which fits Urdii, 
Sanskrit and Hindi, bat can by no means be . made to fit 
Tamil or Burmese or Oriya, all of whioli sboald have equal 
daims to its attention by being as mach lineal descendants of 
the same stock as the modern Devanigarl ? And, farther, 
would not such a So<uety be forced to leave out of the page 
of its Journal the discussion of some of the most importuit 
and interesting phenomena of human speech and its expres- 
aion ? I pat Uirae qoeatiooa as a suggestion wheUier an 

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[ 38 I 

InHaa " Associatitoa/* saoh as 70a ptopOK, woald not do 
more good to science bjr promoting tlie (^soosbiod of tite 
proper method of transliterating the whoU grcnp of Indian 
alphabeta than by ooniiaing itself to that of two or tllree of 
the many great langooges of India. By great I mean in 
point of the nnmbera of those who speak them. 

I have the pleasate to aaoA. herewith, by book-post, 
some notes on tbe bunsliteratioa of tfae Barmese alphabet, 
printed for use by the Local Qovemment in Bnnnah, and 
also some notes on the Soutii Andaman language, wherein 
I adapted the Hunterian Byateni to the langnage of a sarage 
tribe never before reduced to writing. Yon may find them 
of DS9 in the library you are doubtless commencing to 

I am, 
Yoar's faithfaUy, 

21«t nofial SeoU FuaUiers, 

AUachtd Itt Goorkhai. 

Ukssbs. Dice & Tolbokt, 

Joint SecrOarUt, 
BomaH'nrd'it Sociay. 

We have great pleasure in pablishing the above letter. 
It shows that the principle of transliteration may with 
advantage be extended to all the langnages of India and of 
8oath Eastern Asia. We may add that the sabject is one 
of equal importance in Ohiua, Japan and Polynesia, and we 
hope to giro some information iu future issnes of Oiis Journal 
as to the progress which the mavement has made in those 
parts of the world. 

At tiie same time, as a practical body, we wonld at first 

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direct am aitentioD diiefly to the laoj^ges of the Panjib, 
the Noiib*'Weateni.FroTiBoes, and perhaps Bengal, as b«ng 
presnmably tnown to a certain extant to one or other of tbe 
ezpeoted Uemben of oar Rooiety. 

We flbaU be glad to reoeive aaj practical snggestioiu as 
to the improvement and extensioa of the Joneeian system of 
tvanaliteration. So far as we bare enqnired the existing 
system that is generally need by the Missionary body in 
Northern India, ie proved by experience to be practically m 
good one for all the langnage* of India, though it may need 
a few modifications for special pecoliarities of pronanciation. 
7%« Editort, R. U. Journal. 

9th June 1878. 

I have to thank yon for yoor letter of the 18th 
maiant. I nndentoodfnmyoar notice in tha yi|f i Aa^ 
ypn £ct wtoad eadaBivarmg to bare the project taken op 
as widely as possible, bat I qaite agree trith yon in thinkioi; 
that beginning on a small basis is better than tiying too 
mnch or than not beginning at all, and I wish the attempt 
all sncoesa. As soon as I nnderstond exactly what work 
the Society intends to nndertake I shall be very glad to give 
what aid I can. If joxx have any prospectas or scheme 
ready I shall be veiy mnch obliged if yoa will kindly send 
me a copy. I am afraid what help I shall be able to give 
will necensarily be scanty as all my leisure is at present oo- 
copied in compiling with Mr. Mann a Grammar and Diction- 
ary of the Andamanese Languages, a work that has grwwn 
on onr hands beyond all expectation and though promised 
more than two years ago is still unfinished : we hope however 
to make it all the more valaable for the deky. 

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[ 35 J 

Tbare is one pmnt which H may bo te wall that the 
commiUee should take into consideratiOTi alihongh it is some- 
what oatside &e scope of their work as limited in yonr letter : 
whedier it wouM not be as well to admit the Dakhni dialect 
of Hbdostani among the tongnes to be operated on. All 
Hindnstani is not TJrdd and there is a tendency in North 
India to forget Hie dialect spoken in the South, though it 
has a large literature of its own and is spoken by some mil- 
lions of people. A dialect of Hindnstani that does not um 
the agent with ne, that has no /emintM plnral infleottons, 
nominal or verbal, and nses too colloquially the Dravidian 
and not the Aryan method of expressing relative clauses 
jnnsi endently difiFer largely from Urdfi. A glance of the 
edition of Bagb-o-Bahar antborised for the military exami- 
nations in the Madras Presidency will show yon what I mean 
and in whai bad QnAatani, speaking from an Urdii 
^mtkafmw, it is written. The Dakhanis however do not 
adnutthat their Hindnstani is bad nor do they a(^owledge 
the anperior pnrity of tiie Urdd idiom. Colloqnially so many 
more Persian and Arabic form are need in the South for 
common objects and ideas and so many less Hindi than in 
the North that it is qnite diiBcnIt for a man who has lived 
only in the one part to make himself nndeiatood in the other. 
The pronnnciation too differs considerably and how far this 
dionld affect transliteration is an interesting and if I may 
be permitted to say so, an important question. Without wish- 
ing to disparage so important and magnificent a work I 
think Dr. Fallon has made a mistake in not indnding 
the Dakbani dialect as regards proverbs, phrases, and so 
on in his Dictionary. I did wish at one time to have point- 
ed this out, but hie work was too &r advanced when I first 
saw it for such an alteration. 

There is a point io my former letter, which I trust yon 

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will excase me for again pressing. Let too Bpee'ud a syrtem 
of transliieratioc be avoided, for it would be a pity to ran a 
risk evea of having it said hereafter of the Society's system 
what has been troly enough said of Uie situatton of oertain of 
the great cities of the world "ita got where it is somehow, 
and the best had to be made aftern-ards of a bad site." 

I shall have mncb pleasare in beooming a member of 
the Society, and send herewith Bs. 5, which is, as iai ns I 
recollect, the sum required. 

I began some two years ago, in a small way, to try and 
do something for vamaotdar Indian Folk Lore, from a study 
of which, some very important scientific results might be 
obtained. Men of your ocoupatioo, profeasors ef college^, 
principals of High Scboob, men engaged in education of all 
kinds might, I think, do much in this direction. However, 
I will write about thia hereafter ; as I see by my clock that 
the evening is advancing, and the rest of it mnst be devoted 
to Andamanese " Boots." 

I am, 
Yonrs &ithfallj, 


We have to thtok many correspondeats for iDteresting and 
vatunble BuggestloDS, which ire assare them will not be overlocAed, 
althongli the present limited spaoe available la the Jonmal is not 
nQlHcieat to contain mora than ■ mere specimen of the kind of matter 
we should wish to plaoe before our readers. To oat-station corrce- 
poadeats we bog to snggeBt the preparation of short papers on 
Tarioos sabjects connected with transliteration, to be read and 
(tisoitsied at the monthly meetings of the Society ; these will be 
incorporated with the Proceedings, and published. 

L^aoaa :— Pkihtbd bt E. LirnxB, u laa C. * H. Oaertb Pans. 



To advocate the use of ike Roman Alphabet in Oriental 





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No, 4 September i8y8. 

Prooeediitfft oftke Monthly Metting of the Soman- l/rdii 
Society, held on the 31u Ayguet 1878. 

The meetiDg wu held id the Lahore College. It is 
hoped that thu building will in fature be at the Society's 

A work by Lieutenant R. C. Temple and E. H. Ifan, on 
the langtiage of the Anda m an Islands, was laid before the 

An article was read from the Kaukaihi-Siadf a 
Boman-nrdd Newspaper. 

A letter on the subject of Roman-Urdd was read fr Aa 
the Akhbdr^AnjttfMm. 

Editorial Notes. 
The following extract from one of the English papers 
has not, we believe, appeared in many of onr Indian «on- 
temporaries. It contains information regarding' the " sum- 
mary settlement " of Cypras, and on this account may be 
of interest to some of our readers : — 

Sir Garnet Wolseley has proTiiionally settled the leading 
principles of his programme of arrangements. The luia 
question presents the greatest possible complications. It 
is to be dealt with by the nomination of a mixed Commission 
of English and Turkish officials. The president, Mr. Baring, 
and two Enelish officers, will peregrinate the island for the 
purpose of obtaining information of the various tennres and * 
ownerships for the guidance of the Commission. It is 
anticipated that extensive claims will be made with 
respect to the Crown lands, the ownership of which 

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rests in the Sultan, ia oontradistinction to the Stata 
landj, the oimerahip of which passes to English osre. 
Sir Ghtrnet Wobeley himself will mrtke a tonr to inspect the 
oapacitJes of the island and the openings for improvement. 
He means to divide the island into five diatriots — Xjarnaca, 
BafiFo, KrjBokha, Kicosia. and Famngosta — administered 
each by a British Commissioner, in conjunction with a 
British m^istrate. The Commissioners will probably be : 
Larnoa, Watson; Ba£Fo, Laninson; Krysokha, Hobech; Nio- 
ooia, Biddnlph ; Famagosta, Swaine. 'The magistrates wHl 
consist of members of tiie conaolar service, skilled linguists, 
whom Sir Ansten Layard has been asked to despatch from 
Constantinople. Road making will be one of Sir Glamet's 
earliest cares. As soon as the prospect opens of revenne, a 
loan for general purposes will probably be asked for as tlie 
most economic method of developing ihe capabilities of the 
island. The Central News Agency states that her Majesty's 
Oovemmentj in order not to separate the administrative a^ire 
of Asiatic Tarkey and Cvprns, have definitively decided to 
place the latter island nndei- the jarisdif^tion of the Foreiga 
OiBce in preference to the War or Colonial Offices. 

We are glad to see that the War Correspondenee of the 
Daily Newt has been published in book form by Macmillao. 
The detailed telegraphic reports which were sent day by da^r 
to that newspaper by Archibald Forbes and other correa> 
pendente mark an era in jonmalism. Many of them were 
despatched from the field of battle itself. Those of onr readers 
who were in England at the time will remember the grapbio 
power with which the a^isaults on Plevnn, and the Homeric 
Btmggle of tbe Schipka Pass, were described ; and tbe intenso 
interest with which these descriptions were read in England 
within twenty fonr hours, or less, of tlie occurrence of the 
events to which Hiey referred. Would these descriptions 
have been equally intelligible and equally interesting if iih» 
Persian chanuiter had been that of telegraphy ? 

We call the attention of onr readers to tlie following 
paragraph which we extract from the Overland Hail of July 

In Cochin China things are going on much more satis- 
fe'-toriiy. The city of Saigon is increaMUg in prosperity, 
and the people are about to erect a monament to iae late 

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Admiral Bigadlt db Gehouillt, tlie EUleioh of th« Fr«ncli' 
BetUements in that part of the world. In the first qoartor of 
of the present year as manr as 1 1 9 ships entered the port of 
Saij^on, 63 of them Enf^luh. The Colonial Government ia 
trying to bring ahoat a closer connection of the natives with 
Bnrope. The Annamite language may be written either in 
Chinese or in a kind ef Ladn chanicters. The Colonial 
Governor, Rear-Admiral L&font, has lately issued a decree 
by virtue of whidi the Latin writing becomes compnlsory in 
ul official acts on and after Jany. 1, 1882 ; and those land- 
owners who, afler 1886, will be able to ase the Latin letters 
are to pay only half the ordinary taxes. 

We hare to thank Mnhammad-nd-dfn, Head Master of 
the Anitlo-Veniacalar 8<^oel, Qaaiir, for a copy of his rema- 
cttlar " Qaide to TranalitOfatioD." We see is it one among 
many indications that onr Hindd and Mnsalman fellow — ■ 
sabjecta are beginning to appretnate the importance of the 
Bomanising movement. The risAta to whidi we are now 
referring is a lithographed pamphlet of 36 pages. Copies 
may be obtained at 3 annaaeach by application lo tiie anmor 
at Qasiir. We nnderstand that the Inspector of Schools, 
Lahore Circle, has already pnrchased 300 copies. The pam- 
phlet will be extremely usefal to all native stndents as a 
guide to the writUn Boman character in its application to 

This ia the age of Congresses. In Jane last several 
Uterary men from the different nations of Europe organised 
at Pans an International Literary Congress, Victor Hugo 
appears to have been the first Fi-esident. Tlie next of these 
Interostiooal Congresses will be held in London in June 

At the next Social Science Congress the following qnes- 
tjons will come under disonasion in the Educational Depart- 
ment. (1). Is it expedient to increase the namber of Uni- 
Tenities^in England ? (S). Is it desirable to eatabli&h free 
primary sotiooS throngbont the oonntrv ? (3). In what way 
is it desirable to oonneot the system of prim»ry schools with 
the endowed and other schools that snppir secondary educa- 
tioD? Id addition to the above special questions, papors 

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▼olaatMTsd on othar sobjdcts coming within the scope of tii» 
departmeot will be read aod discoBBed. 

The Cwil and Militaty OaeetU of Aagaat 9Ui con- 
tained a letter on the Boman-Urdd aobject, bearing the 
Aignatare J. F. The most important paragraph in thia 
latter is that in which the -writer suggests the ase of English 
as the Isagaage of conrt record. We shall discuss the 
relative cltunu of Eaelish and of Boman-Urdd more folly 
in snbseqnent issues of our Journal ; at present we content 
ourselTcs with saying ( 1 ) that we do not wish to abolish 
bat to strengthen and iDiprove the vernaculars of the conn- 
try ; ( 2 ) that the change from veniacular to Engli^ writing 
could only be effected by the whdesale dismissal of the 
present cmm of native officials in favor of a wholly different 
elatf. It reqoires jfeare of oarefol training for a naUve 
to write the Angliah language with anything like intelligi- 
ble ocoaracy. On the other hand, we maintain that an 
ordinary Mnnshi under forty years of age, who has learot 
the bare elements of Boman writing, can bo taught in a 
few months, or even weeks, to write ^man-Urdi ; ( 3 ) the 
object of a written deposition is to preserve the very words 
of a witness as nearly as they can be recordwL It is tnte, 
as J. P. remarks, that oar present mnnahla rarely take down 
the words of a witness in the patois in wlu<^ they are given, 
but surely this is a defect in our system of record, and one 
which is chiefly, though not entirely, doe to the defects of 
the Persian tmaraoter. A deposition full of local words 
would be illegible in Persian, out in the Roman character 
would be as legible as more polished Hindust^i, 

We republish in the present number of our JonniBl 
three of the letters which appeared in the CivU and MtiU' 
tary regarding the substitadon of Roman for Fersian- 
Urdii in our Government courts and offioes. We are pre- 
pared to defend the whole of our programme, but we think 
that farther discossion of this portion of it may with ad- 
vantage be postponed for a time. We would, moreover, re- 
mark that the introdnotion of Roman-Urdii into oar Courts 
»/ Law does not necessarily involve the disuse of the Peraiu 
ehuaoter in oth«r branobea of Government work. 

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A- dusioKl oorrenMmdant of the Civil and Military 
tDggests as OUT motto toe words. 

" Pereieos odi, pner, apparstos." 

If bo 18 in want of a cUasioal qnotatioD to express the 
■iifiereooe betweoa Persian and Boman writing ho may - 
£nd the following more appropriate. 

" Heo amat ohscnnim ; volet hose snb liioe Tideri," 
" Jndicda argntnm qnoe non formidat aoumea." 

The same correspondent sots that Persian writing is 
quicker than Bomao, becanse the natnral movement of the 
right hand is from right to left and not from left to right. 
We admit that the movement of the arm towards ttie body 
is easier than the movement from it, bnt onr classical critic 
most remember that when he has fiaishid his line of writing, 
whether Persian or Boman, he has to caxry the arm back to 
the aide from which he commenced, and tbat this retnm 
movement (according to his own theory^ will be slower in 
Peraaan writing than in Boman. PracHeaUy, writing is too 
complex and artificial a movement for its speed to depend 
toany appreaabit extent on the consideration which our critic 

Hie same critic says : " Is there any likelihood of a semi- 
barbaroQS people like the natives of India ever adopting the 
change of oiaraoter when we know that an educated, intelli- 
gent, hardheaded and logical people have made themselves 
a naoon of spectaole wearers from their relnctance to give 
v^ titksir black and blinding letters for Roman-German ? " 
Kirely, the less advanced civilizatioa of the people of India 
is a reason /or, not againat, the change. The whole system 
of our Government in India is based on the principle that 
the oondnot of affairs in the East reqnires an itupetns and a 
gnidaace inspired by the higher civilization of the West. 
As onr critio admits the superiority of the Boman to the 
"edocated" German obaraoter, he can scarcely dispute its. 
hx greater snperiority when compared with " temifiarbarmu" 
Persian and Hindi. 

MnnsH Harsdkfa B&i is to be congratnlated on the 
step he bos taken in publishing a portion of the Koh-irN^r 

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[ 6 J 

in English. Wd should however hare prefen«d a tnuislit»- 
ratton in Roman-Urdd, 

The AJidb-i-Panjdb of Angnst I5tli umoanoes that a 
native newspaper will shortly appear in fioman-Urdn nnder 
the tJUe Q<Uid-i-Panj^. "We ask onr readers to note tiiis 
as another indication that the movement in favor of the 
Roman alphabet vrill soon find nnmerons and ardent sap- 
porters among the natives of this Province. We trust that 
the enterprizing Rditor will meet with success, and that his 
example will be followed by others. We remark in con- 
olnsion that this proposal to start a Roman-Urdii newspaper 
is altogether spontaneous. It has not been set on foot ny 
the Boman-Drdd Sooiety. Of oonrse it has originated in 
the discussion to wliich onr Sooiety baa given rise, bat we 
have had no direct communications with the originators, 
and do not even know who they are. 

Oar readers may not be aware ihat there is a nativa 
comic paper, the A%tdk Punch, Many of its jokes uid 
witticisms would be appreciated by our English readers 
were they not disgnised and blunted by the hioeoos Fereiaa 
character in which they are lithographed. We translitenits 
three of its " LatiEu '* for ib& amusement of onr readers. 

Lila Ji ki d&rhi men enfaid b&I sir nik4Ine laee. Ek. 
pnrine raffq mnddat ke bad jo mile, to kahfi — ?' BIUU I 
tnmb&re to sofaid b&l ho ohale " Hazrat farm&te bain — 
" Ji 1 Hn^yaqa nahln, dil to waisa hi siydh hai ! " 


Ek mnnshi ji ne naukar se kabi — " HnmlEri qalnm — 
d&n to l&n4." Khidmatg&r bhi aql ke bnqche, tamlz keputls 
tJbe ; dekh&, to qalam-d&n men nsk k asb&b nahin, khili para haL 
Akar, kahte hain— " KAtbla I Khalam-dan men na Khaliwt 
hsi, na Chokhti, na Khatznn, na KhaincM I " Mnnsfal jf hairin 
hokar bole ki— " Kambakht 1 kahin to "90/" bhl boU 
hoU I " 

Farmfiya " Babnt " j^ '* 

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Ek Uia SAbib khatt liknne baehe, ki— " DHi Omad kl 
fintal bbej do t " — AnsAn jo bigr, to &p Isjk likhte haio ? 
Id—" Uat Chand ki dipnl bhej do 1 " 

Hie Aihbdr-i-Anjunum of tbe SOtb Aagiut cootains 
» BMOod »rUole on the aabjeot of Boman-Urdd. Tbe reply 
to tbese two articlea will appear in oar next nomber, in 
- i-Urdii. 

We reprint tbe following from the Civil and Military 
Gazette of Angost 19th : — 

We bare to acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt, from 
tbe office of the Director- General of Post Office in India, of 
• pamphlet containing specimens of varioaa vernacalar dia- 
raoters employed in adaressing letters passing through the 
post-offioes in India. 

No less then seventy alphabets, all of Eastern tongnes, 
are pressed into this service, and the fact will serve well to 
" [uint the moral and adorn the tale " of the article we re- 
cently pablished oouceming the Boman-Urdii Society. 

Let OS imagine tbe feelings of a " gay yonng sorter " 
eogaged in reading addresses written in seventy different 
alpnabets. Let as pnt ourselves, as Charles Read would say, 
in his plaoe, and say if we should not be staonch sapporters 
of a system whicli should promise to supply all Inoia with 
bat one, an alphabet of-alt-work. 

We should like to ask the diatingoisbed orientalists who 
sire about to assemble at Florence, 'how many of them can 
read this interesting and short pamphlet of seventy piu^ 
through, each page being written in characters osed for let- 
ters passing through the post-offices of this country only. ■ 
Bat this is a pamphlet which, precioos as it is, we have an 
idea would be one of ihose considered by the delegates as ia 
their opinion (whatever Gtovemmentn or Royalties might 
say) ansuited to the bnsinees of their Congress ; and we 
ahoald agree with them, we suspect, after hearing any six t^ 
them of diverse nations reading alood any of the pages which 
they oonld manage to decipher. 

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[ « I 

By &.& wxy, the pronanciation of any langnoge written 
varies with the natiooalitf of the reader, A learam Frendi- 
man, a learned Spaniard, and a learned Ecglishmaa might 
all underatnad an ode of Horace as printed in the booK ; 
bnt, anleas they understood also each ihe other's natire lang- 
uage, thej woud hardly recognise the ode aa spoken by any 
one of them. So that the objection, that Roman- Urdill would 
not teach the correct pronnnciation of Hindaatani, seems 
rather weakened. It is not a fanctios of any alph^Mt to 
teach correct prononcialion ; that can only be acqaired by 
ear. Nevertheless, we should like to see a copy of this most 
aearohing pamphlet sent to the Florenoe Congress. It wonid be 
so rare a t«at of oriental scholarship ; and it would serve to 
grnde the Profeeaora so accurately. This reverend signor 
would be a thirty seven alphabet reader ; that learned dele- 
^te would rank above bim with forty-two characters mas- 
tered ; and so on. We trust the Direotor-Qeneral of Post 
Offices in India will take the hint. 

Bkfbibted rBOK ths " Civil lst> Militibt Gazettb." 


Sib, — I have received a copy of the first number of tho 
Roman -ITrdd journal which has been inatitnted to advooato 
the uae of the Roman alphabet in oriental languages. 

The ulterior object of the journal and of the society which 
bas given it birth is the substitution of Roman-Urdii in the 
Indian iaw courts. As I have had more or less experience 
of auoh courts for the last 22 years, I offer my hnmble opini- 
on on the subject of the innovation contemplated or desired 
by the society. 

To the advantages, whatever Ihoy may be, to be derived 
by the substitution of the Roman for the xTaskh alphabet in 
the print of oriental works I do not refer. I merely give my 
opinion for what it may be worth, that the use of the Roman 
oharaotor in the vernacular of the law oourta would be beset 
with so many and great difScnltiea as to render the change 
impnustioable. It would involve a serious loos of lime, as l£« 
Roman character writing with its erer^recurriag aocentiag 

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oocnpies mon than double the time required for writiDg 
Panuii, aa a fair trial vriU satis&otorily prove. 

If the accents be omitted from the Bomaa characters, 
they caoDot then be written nearly oa quickly as Persian ; 
moreover, the omtssion of the accent would alter the words 
most materially. 

In English manuscript the omission of the dot over the 
letter t, or non-crossing of the letter t. would not practically 
create doabts about the words in which those letters occarea, 

Srovidedthe words wereiu other respects plainly written, but 
leomisslouol'theaccentinoessautlyoccurring in Roman Urdu 
would, ipaofacto, indicate a wrong prouauciation of the 
words, and in many instances change them to other distinct 
words. In short, the accent cannot be dispensed with in writ- 
ing Roman-Urdii, and this requires much time and care with 
a fresh action of the pen on each occasion. For instance, in 
the Ghazab-i-Khw^a Hafiz, printed as an example of Roman- 
TJrdii at page 12 of the journal, numeronsas the accents are, 
and doubtless bestowed with considerable care, they are not 
snfficient to gire an index of the true sounds of the words. 
Tn the twelfm line of the couplets the word '* rue " as it has 
been printed without an accent over the letter u is in reality 
no word at all. Also in the passage " nasibat gosh kun 
jau&n," the last mentioued word requires an accent over the 
first as well as the last syllable : as it has been printed in the 
epecimen, the word is eutirely changed from the original. 

At page 15 an instance is given of the defects in the 
Fersian character in the word khana having been mistiuder- 
atood for jama, bat these words at all fairiy written in Per- 
sian conld not, excepting by defective sight, be mistaken for 
each other, the initial letters of each are alike if their dots be 
omitted, but the niin and mi m letters of the Fersian are not 
similar. lu the Roman-Urdd the omissioa of the acoeut 
which in the despatch of business would frequently occur, 
-would canse great complications ; in changing words, f^r 
instance, if the accent over the simple word bit, " a saying," 
be omitted, it becomes the English bat, and means in I^n- 
dnstaui " a duck." Roman-Urdu woidd never moreover be 
written clearly with the coarse writing materials snpplied to 
the coarta ; it would require careful writing, or painting would 
be nearer Ute word, ob white paper with good peas and ink, 

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[ w 1 

SQcb aa bare never hitb'rtio bo«i sopplied for the TBrnacokr 
work of the Gonrts ; anil I maoh doabt vhother G^ovenuneot 
woald sanction the expense of additional writers to maka up 
for loss of tine and ezpenaive writing materials for the frork 
of the Indian Conrts. I, however, offer my hnmble opinion 
on the sabject, aa occasioaalty experitnenta maj be sanotiooed 
■omewhat hastily which give more trouble than they are 

Gdjkat, 1 J. PARSONS, 

llth July 1878. j Deputy Commiiiiontr. 


Sir, — A letter appeared in vonr issne of the 17th on tlie 
Subject of Roman TJrdii. It calls for some notice from ns i 
bnt in the present reply we do not propose to discass at 
leneth the advantages and disadvantages of Homan-Urdii as a 
kaonahri langnage. The various bearings of that qnestion will 
he adverted to more at our leisure in the columns of the 
Honum-Urdii Journal itself. In Uie present letter we shall 
restrict onrselves to a brief notice of Ute objections raised by 
year correspondent. 

Taking the last of those obieotjons first — that die sabflti- 
tntion of Roman for Fersiui Urdii will necesNtete the use of 
*' white paper with good pens and ink " instead of " the coarse 
writinff materials" at present supplied to the courts, wo con- 
sider tnat this change is of itself much to be desired. Native 
paper is (as Colonel Parsons rightly describes it) a " coarse 
writing material." Not to dwell on its other defects, the fact 
that it is completely spoiled by the slightest exposure to water 
is sofficient to condemn it for purposes of important record. 
As to native ink, the fact that it does not act chemically 
on the paper is an admitted and serious defect, one which fau 
a direct tendency to facilitate acts of forgery. 

Hie extra cost to Government of machine made paper and 
of English ink will not, we think, be serioos. The demand 
will create a snpply, and good paper-mills will take the place 
of the rude and barbarons implements at present used in our 

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[ II ] 

Pa*Btnff from tttis to another remat^ ot' yoor oorreqtond- 
eni, that the Persian letters ^ niin " and " mim" are not 
nmiUr in form, we woold anbinit, on the oontrary, that there 
ua great rimilaritj between them, when hnrriedlv written, at 
tiie oeginniBg or in the middle of a word. Indeed, the un- 
donbtM &ot that the inisnnderfltaBding, to whic^ Onr firat 
pomber referred, did occnr, is of itself evidenoe of this> 

Let OS, howe?er, tarn to the more serious portion (^ vow 
correspondents letter. He nuintains (I) that Boman-Urdil 
ia nnintelligible without the diacritical marks ; (2) that 
Boman-Urdd occupies more than donUe the time reqaired 
for writing Persian. 

We ohaUenge the first of the ohjectioDS. We duudUib 
that Boman-Urdu without the diacritical mark maj he read 
by an expert at least as easily as the ordinary iriukasta can be 
read hj an ordinary mnnshl. This is a matter which may be 
tested by direct experiment, but the experiment to be satisfao' 
tory must be made under fair and eiyi^ conditions. Train 
a natire of ^dia to write in the Boman (diaraotmr the lan- 
guage which he has heard from childhood. Let him ose this 
oharaoter every day of his life for a series of years. Gon^wl 
him to write quickly from dictation. OSai nim tJie induce- 
ment of promodun as a reward for ezpertness, and you will 
find him able to read a Boman-Urdd maaascript, wiuiont the 
aid ofdots or marks, more fluently and more ooriectly than 
onr preeeot monahia read their own shikastn. 

It most not be Bnpposed from the above renmrks that we 
advocate the tunission of all diacritical marks from manuscript 
Roman-Crdii On the cootrary, we think that the vowel 
marks for a and i should be preserved, however rapid the style 
of writing. Bat we maintain that slovenly Boman-Urdu is 
08 legible to on expert in that mode of writing as slovenly 
Persian is to a kaduhri mnnshi. There U always one aJ- 
rantage in the nwst slovenly Bonun-Urdd, the words are 
separated by proper spates, ihey do not run into one another 
as they do in the shikasta. 

The second serions objection which yoar correspondent 
nrgea — that Peniau-Urdii can be written more qnickly than 
Roman-tTrdii— is, we think, a »trc»igcr one Uian the others 
which we have considered ; but here again we must demur 

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to tlie fturaesi of ft comparison between a Conrt mnnshi on 
the one band, and an nnprofesaional writer of Boman-Urdd 
on the other. We have made some, thonsh limited, experi- 
menta as to the comparative rapidity of the two modes of 
writing, and these experiments bare tended to eetabliah the 
foUowing conclosioaB : — 

(a) Sapposing the comparison to be made between 
specimens oiper/ect penmantkip on both sides, that is to b»j, 
between Persian writing on the one band with its thin and 
thick strokes properly developed, with every letter neatly 
formed and properly marked, with two dots under every 
" yi," three dots above every " shin," two strokes foreatm 
*' gaf," &a, &c., &c. ; and Homao-Urdii on the other bsnd 
with ill complete apparatus of diacrilical marks — supposing 
the comparison to be thus made, it will be found that 
Bomaa-Urdd can be written much faster than Persian. 

(b) Again, supposing the comparison to be made, not 
in this elaborate way, but with reasonable accuracy, between 
two turn jiTo/eiaiojial writers who have equal knowledge of 
the spoken langnage, but who have not practised writing 
witb a special view to rapidity, two writers each of whom is 
fairly edncated in his own style of writing, but neither of 
whom has acquired tiie kachari " muh&wara — between two 
such writers the result of a fair comparisen will still prove 
that Roman- Urdi^ is, upon the whole, written faster than 

(c) Snpposinjr, however, that the Persian is written by 
a skilled court munshi in a hurried shikasta, in this case the 
result will be different, the munshi will oatstrip any ordinary 
writer of Roman-lTrdii. The difference, however, wonld not 
be so great between experts on both sides. The Boman-Urda 
expert would be so far handicapped that he would ba 

' obliged to write his short vowels which the Persian wri- 
ter would omit, the latter in fact writing a sort of shorthand ; 
but, on the other, hand f^e Boman-Urdii expert wonld be able 
to employ abbreviations snch as most English officers use 
when the occasion justifies it. To say nothing of of^er 
facilities in this respect, his commnnd of capital letters would 
always give the Boman-Urdii expert a great advautage io 
abbreviating proper oames oi frequent recurrence. 

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L 13 J 

To condnde : if we we may jndge from &6 daisy 
which attends all Persian jiroceedings in our conrts, 
the appareot glibness of ihe mmiebi does not really tend to 
flipediUon. Delays, it is true, oocarin English offices as 
wul, bnt they are due to canses nnconnected with English 
penmanship, and they do not equal the delays woich 
attend prooedure in the Persian vernacular. Misls lie 
QDheeded for weeks ; a mbkar remains unanswered until a 
docket is received as a reminder ; recoids of enormous size 
aconmulate, " kaifiyat " upon " kaiSyat " where one 
legible and unambiguous order in Engmh or Roman-Urdii 
would saffice. Even in the taking of depositions, it is the 
experience of most judges that they can take down the 
evidence of a witness more expeditiously than their munshsi 
wherever the evidence is given in woraa which are equally 
intelligible to both. 

22nd Julr/ 1878. 

Sir, — Since the pnblication of our lastletter in your issne 
ofthe27thJnly,seTeral other correspondents have written to 
Toa on the same subject. We do not intend to reply to fhese 
in your columns, lest we shonld weaiy both you and your 
readers by a prolonged and deanltory discnssion. .[HieTe 
is the less need of our referring to these casual letters now 
that yoQ have given na the valuable support of yoor editorial 

If, however, any letter should appear suggestive of more 
serious arguments, as was the case with Colonel Parson's 
firet letter, we shall be happy to reply to it whenever yon 
may leave this duty to as. 

While declining a desultory discussion, 'we welcome 
criticism of eveir kind from whatever quarter it may come, 
and we hope to nod a place in the notes of the Roman- Urd<i 
Journal itself for the objections which your casual corres- 
poodenta have already raised or may in fntnre bring forward. 

There is, however, one tendency in the discnssion, so 
far as it has gone, which we wish to check, lliere is 
an impiesBio& in many quarters that the introdnotion of 

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BonuQ-Urdu into oar district kachaliiri U the main end and 
object of oar agitattoa. This is a mistake. The Itachahri 
was made for nuui, not man for the katdiahri. Writiag u 
a very important element of eduoatiou ; but reading u still 
more important We do not contempUta any immediate inter- 
ference with the kachabri system of writing ; and if ws did, 
a private society like onrs wonld be poweHeas to effeot siuJt 
a resolution. Sooner or later, the reform will ex'end to the 
kaohahri system of writing ; bnt it is certain that the change 
will only be made gradaally and prodently, with due regard 
to the o*bjeotion8 of district officers, to the sosoeptibilities of 
our native friends, and to the dtfficalties attaching to ths 
change itself. 

Meanwhile, we wonld invite the sttentioQ of roor 
readers to the edacatjooal aspects of the proposed reiorm. 
Many of these are discussed in Mr. Drew's lectare, and are 
referred to in yonr issas of the Sth. Others will receive 
consideration in subse^aent numbers of the Roman-Urdii 

Skcrxtabiss to the Roh<ui-Usi>u Socixtt. 

10th Auffwt, 1878. 

Our readert will recoffnUe in the following pt^t§ ona {jf 
ths moat pleating of Addiatm'a Euayi, "The vinon of 
Mirza " : — 


Ee din main Ehad& kf ib&dat kame ke liye ek pah&r 
per charh gayi, tiki wah&n da& anr khiyU men apne Kh&liq 
KO T&d kar^n. Is yad i Il&hl ke ziman men main ina&n ki 
sindagi ke bahr i tafakkur men par gajiii, anr in paykpaf 
khiyuon kl hUat men msdn ne kahi, ki Fil-haqicjat los&n kf 
hasti ek royh hai, aur oa ki zindagl ek ajlb khwitb ki m&nincl 
hai. Jab main is tarah ke khiy4utt ke khns-noma aar dU fiz^ 
malk ki sair kar rah& thA, ek4ek mnjh par ek bh4ri nind t&rj 
hiii, anr main khw4b dekhne lag&. Main ky& dekht4 h&n, ki 
Ek nt^r&nl siirat firishta sirat mere sJimhae khari hai, aur 
mujh se nih&yat farotanf aar milaoMri ka s&th farm4ti hai, 
ki main us ki pairawf kanin. 

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Chonuu^i main 'ne ns ki poirawl kf, ilar yih ndrinl 
shakhs majbe ek chsUn kf chott par le j6k«i mi^ h se kahne Uga, 
ki Ai shakhs, td piirab k{ tarai nazar karke mujbe batU, ki 
tnpte QB taraf kjk nazar it& )iai ? BamtOarnd is hakm ke 
■uun ne nazar kl, anr main ne dekfai, ki ek bard bhirf aa«beb 
bai, anr as men m ek bar& darji ranr&n bai f Uh ebakbs 
ne mi^h se kabii, ki Yih sasbeb jo td dekbti bai, yib kb&ki 
dunyi bai, jo &£at U nasbeb bbi Kahl&tf bai, aur yib dh&rii jo 
ia w raw4n bai, bamesbagi ke db&ri k4 ek bissa bai. 

Main ne na ndr&nf sbakhs se kah&, ki Ky& sabab bai, 
ki jib dh4r& ek nftdida sbai se nikaltf, pbir rafta rafta ns M 
men giib ho j&ti bai ? XJs no jaw^b diy&, ki Jise td B&mbne 
dekbta bai, woh bamesbagl k^ek bissa bai, jise vaqt kabte 
bain, anr is kl paimfiisb sdraj se boti bai, auryih danyi ke 
sbnni se lekar as ke anj&m takdarjlz rabeei. Pbir td is bam- 
esbagf ke db&ri par nazar kar, aar bati, k{ tnjbe ns par kya 
dikblii deti bai ? Main se iiazat karke batUyi, ki Main is 
dbAre pir ek pal ko dekhti lidn. Tab as ndrunf sbukba ne 
kabi, ki Yih pnl jise td apne simhne dekbti bai, insan ki 
xindagi bai, ba sanr is par lih&z kar. Bare ganr anr 
taammol ke- bad main ne dekbi, ki is piil men 70 
mazbdt mibiib bain, anr kal ek tute bae bhl bain, anr 
fib sab takminaa 100 mihrdb ke mnjbe nazar pare. Jab 
main in mibr&bon ko gin rahi thA, mere rabnomi ne 
mnjh se kabi, ki Aw4il men is pa) men 1000 mihr&b the, 
lekm ek bare bbiri aaiUb ke sabab sab kbim bo gae, anr sirf 
itna jo td dekbti hai, biqi rah gae bain. Anr nazar kar anr 
bati, ki td ns par ky& dekbtkbai? Gbntiinchi main ne 
nazar kl, anr ky& dekbti bdn, ki bahnt se log as par se gnzar 
raba haio, aar ek siy&b bidal as ke ek kin&re par latki bua 

Jab main ne is ko anr ziyfida ganr se dekbi, to mnjbe 
maldm bdA, ki bahat se mnsiiar ns pnl men se as dbire men 
jo oske nfooe bfaat& hai, girte jAtehain ; aur pbir ziy&da ganr 
ke bad mnjbe maldm hda, ki is par kisi tarah ke poshidi kol 
hsfc, jis men log parte ke s&tb bl faaran niche i rabte bain, 
anr g&ib bo jate bain. Fhir main ne maldm kiyi, ki yih 
nidlda kol wg. pnl ke shurd par bahnt bain, ki jyiinhl log as 
bidal men se nikaike is pal par cbalte, we is men gir parte, 
anr giih bo jite hain. Yih n&dida gir y& kol pnl ke bich 
men mbnt bun bain, lekin ns ke ddsre kinire par snb se 
vij&da hain. Uiia ne dekbi, ki anr log in tdt« mihtibon 

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tiar barf be-Ihtiy&ti Be chalto bain, ki anj&m kir oat^a yih 
iota liai, ki we thttke anr miode hokareir parte, anr is dure 
men g&ib ko j&te hain. Anr main ne d^ihi, ki bahat log pnl 
ki bioh o Men pahanchkar apna Biifar se aise &ri ho jdte nam, 
ki we khad be khud apne tain pnl par se niche gir4 dete hain. 
Main kach der tak ia bairat-angeE tamishe ko dekhkar 
sochU rahi. MerA dil yih dekfakar ki bahnt log apnl khusbi 
anr imbiait ke ilatn men nigabin is db&re men eir parte 
hain, nih&yat gam o andob se mamur ho gay^ Main n« 
dekb&, ki babat log kbiy&li khusbnnnia cblzon ke jo nn kf 
Ankhon ke simhne cbamaktfn, anr raqs kard thin, pakame 
ke lije koshisb o aal karte the, magar Jo nagah&n an k& p&nw 
pbiaal j&tA th&, to we is hf dhtire men ^irke gaib bo j&te ^e. 
Base tog asm&n kf taraf dekbte cbale jite tbe, anr ydn apne 
qadamon ke khyil ko farkmosb karke we gir parte, aar ^b 
boj&te tbe. 

Main ne phir pnl ke bich o bicb men dekbi, ki babnt se 
mnsallah log idhar ndbar gasbt kar rabe h^n, aurwe bechira 
musifiron ko Jiabardaatf in nfcdida kolon men dhakel dete 
bain. Anr main ne mali^m kiyd, Id we jo babnton ko in n&- 
dlda kolon men dhakelte hain, apna sfithfon ki nazaron meo 
nih&yat mnazziz anr qadrdin thabarto bain. 

Jab main is bairat afzi tsmfishe par nasar kar rah& th£, 
main ne /l^kbfi, ki bahnt sf chiriy&n is pal par arti aar manr- 
ritl hain, anr babnt si pnl par bahat bhf j&ti bain. Bazi nn 
men mhjtrat: kbiibsiirat cbiriy& tbfn, anr bazf aih6yat bads6rat 
aur napas jaise eidb, kaawe, aur m&hikbor wg. thin. Ia 
b6t ke dary&ft karne ke liye main ne apnt Ankben apne 
b&d!ki taraf nth^in, anr us ne mnjb se kab6, ki Ye chiriyin 
bagz, kina, basad, gnnlr, mababbat n&-nmmedi vrg. bain, jo 
inun ke dil ko waqtan ba waqtau takUf diyi karte hain. 

Main ne yab&n ek sard kh hhtai, anr kabs, Afsos I insin 
be-f&ida kbalq hiia I Kis liye wuh mant anr taklif ke panje 
men mnbtalA no gay& bai, taki apnl zindasf bfaar ifat men 
rabe, anr bad azin maut k& luqma bane. Mere niir&ni rah- 
numi ne meri gamzada hilat ko dekhkar majb par ters 
khiy&, ant mnjb se kah4, ki Ins&n kl shani b&Iat ki taraf jab 
ki wnh hameahagi ke liye apne qadam barhitabai, mat dekb, 
magar ia n&dida sbai ki taraf lihiz kar, jis ki maajon ne 
iasan kfsadhdpusbtonkobab&kar g&ib kardiy£ bai. Mainne 
bidiyat ke muw&Gq apni inkben lipar atb&m, tiki as bare 

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kolnr Id taraf (jis ko »hkjwi mere rmhnttmi na apna fiiaq nl 
ini&oi luunttii m kisi qadr k«m kar diyft thi,) oour ksriia. 
UuD OB dekfai, ki is naBheb k4 p6iii ek bare asmandar ki 
taraf bah nhk hai, anr ek alm&a \i pah&r ns ke bioh o biofa 
uea bai, jo oft ko do tiiaaoa men taqsim karti hai. Is alm&al 
diw&r kf b&tn taraf badll aar t&riki tbf, lekia as kl dihinl 
taraf be-ehomir jazfre the,jiii men khnshnnmi mak&namda 
aar laziz mewaj&t, anr rang 4 rang ki ph^l the. Is so maia 
ne maldm kivA, ki badkltr Tog jab is pal se niche cirto hain, 
we biia taraf t&rikl men bah j4te liain, lekin nek log in ^t- 
afzi, anr khdbadrat jagahon men cbale j&te hain. 

Anr main ne dekbA, ki wah&n ke loe iaI&U posh^k se malab- 
baathfl, nn kestronpar t4j aar h&rraiuie,aarparehQethe,aiir 
we in khnBbnani& b&gon ki sair karte tjieshmoo ke nazdik 
sote, anr pbdlon ki aejon par &r&m karte malum parte ihe. 
Uain ne torhion ki nihayat khnsh iih&m 6w6z ko bUi wahin 
•an4, anr karorh& logon kl khosh-aw&zi se gtlne kl iwfiz bh! 
mere kinon men 8un&l di. Wahan ia hamesbagi ke KfaodA 
ki jaUi bar ek makin man aakanat kart& th4, anr aare log 
fraUn khnah pie jAte the, kydnki Ebadi onke B&th tlii, aar 
kisi tarah k& gam o dakh an ke sbftmil h4I na Qik. 

Heri rdh aisIkhn9h-Bam4aar4sm&iiimanzar ke dekhne 
•e nibiyat khnsh aor big big thi, aar merl yihi &rvk biqi 
thL, ki nt^n kisi tarah is map&rak malk men jidn. Main ne 
kahi ki agar majh men aq&b ke se par hote, to main zarut 
ockar in Aram-bakhsh makanoD men chaltd. Lekla mere hid! 
ne kahd, ki Siw& mant ke darvri»e ke iise td ne is pal fu 
dekhi hai, tu anr kist nan se wah&n nahin ji sakti hai. 

Ye jazire jise td dekhti hai, aar jo oarsabz anr kbubsd' 
rat dikhlii debe hain, aar jo pinion par phaile hde maldm 
dete bun, we be-shamar hain, aar koi uohen gin naUn sakti 
hai. Ye makinit jo in jazlron men maldm parte hadn, kablii 
tabih na honge, we hamesha tak q&im raheage, aor ye darakht 
mar paadhfl kabhi pazbmnrda na honge, anr na ye khdbsurat 
pad! kabh$ sdkbenge, balki hamesha tak aar6al» rahenge. 

Ye ismini maskan sirf nek logon ke liye bain, cbjihe we kisi 
qaam yi millat yi zamine ke kydn na hon, anr ye besbnmar 
jaziir anr makin wahin ke basnewilon ki zardrat aor 
ennjfiish ke bamnjib moaiyiin bain. Sire nek log apoa 
darje ke mawifiq khnsh-biii aor ajr ke mostahaqq bain. 

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[ t! ] 

'Jaise badkAr It^apni badi kenmwafiq aaet p&1« luin, vndM 
ttmhin ti^ibiz )og spue darj* ka mawifiq kfanshl ke litli 
'enzrfo karte hain. Jaus ek iitir& ddsre aittreae rodui! 
jaUI ttien makbtwlifbotaku, n'Risi bi iyanda tiathixou ki 
tAhda men bhi on k£ r^gtb&a aor nek k^Laion ke aabdi 

Mer«'rabnum& ne mujh S6 kab&, K;&liam Ico raatb&zoq 
ke ajr aur.iii&m ke pftno ke li je koabiah iiabin kara& ch&liiye T 
.K/i.maot jobiim ko ekaisi kliuah nani& zindagi k& waris 
bank^ hai, makbuf bai. Muio in farhat-bakb^ jaziron ko 
bad khnsbi aar iabtiyfaq ke skth dekht^ rabli, aur Rabb&nf 
busdri aar jal4l kojo wabto na waqt namdd bik thfc, 
(M^bkar, oifaiyat mahzdz hti£. Is bi kbasM ka aiman men 
merfa rabnumfa majb Be eiib bo gayi, asr frnh khw&b bhi 
mnjbsaj&Ui rabA. Main ab aiidarab gayi, aQr u bar* 
swnandar anr pal aor musifiron ke, jo m par se gQEarte thfi, 
:{waz men, main neapnetaliiapiiikhiiiagljamiatkBdsmujia 
piyi, aar on fismfinl aar dil-afro hit^o kie iwaa main ns 0X}9 
Kf gtaaute kl&irfcz ko soM, jo sine logon koEiiBd& ki bondagi 
kali;e bol&t^ tb4. 

B. M. 

fDie'objecbi of fhjs JoiinisJ, and of the Sodttr wiffi 
'ffitiicb It 19 oonnected, are explained bj tbs series of llesola- 
tioiv'pass^d at tbe MAfiting organising Ae 6o<3ety, and br 
tbe ptatement'of Beasona, bow ofvnioh wen poblisb^ 
in -ihe first number of this Journal. 

We ask al) wbo are interested in ths moTeip^qt fo giv« 
us tbeir enppbrt. Those Irbo ratty uriah to join tin Booie^ 
are re^ues^ to send their names, frith the inbiaHptioQ fbr 
!thejear, Ra. 5, to 1*. Scotr, Esq., Beoretary, iSwiofi-Pntit 
'Society, Lahore. Uembers will receive a copy of ths Joar- 

We also ooll «ttepti<m to No. 6 of the BMolntioti* 
passed ati the Meeting on tbe 251^ May, and invito subWip- 
QoD< to the " Traniliierat{(Hi f'tntd." 

: There are taxDy synapathizers with the movwieiit wh» 
bftv« not vet sent in their nsme^ and aabfloriptions. W» 
tnut that they will bow do. sq, nnd that they will also belji 
tu by canvassing for Iresh Members, and by circulaUng oar 

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.■[ '.13 : 

Jonmsl alnong ha& Earopeans and jJf&tivea in the stalSons 
where tbej reside. 

Contrlbntiona on anv of the vaHoiis snhjects connected 
mill tranalite ration, tranalatioa and education generally, ara 
eunestlj solicited from ManUMrs of the Sodety. 


Continued by Utters to the Society of Aiit Journal. ', 
(1). — Leitbb of Db. LimiiB. 


Bii,— I with to ollei tbe followIiiR additional lemarka on the Impncti- 
faWHlT Ml dangai ot tdapti^ lbs Bonum duuactar to Uw ftlphabels ol 

1. neie we mora xmoili tn Hm lodUs Alphabcta tii« canbemi- 
dsrad "^ Ab Bwub ebNnwteiv Mid It woald mcprel; iMd to omlMlon ta 
fav«Bt wHWAiud «huw>tBn for tbe Bobwo »lptu4b«t, or to Inreat Ha ex- 
wing <lkan>eters Willi addiUoiua nlnea. 

t. ThH* la no dunoe of Oi« Soman olunaotora belitK aocapted b^ t&a 
^MWa la En^ wbo fevsra tlw Pano-Aiabio and the fianikrlt <diaiaiotar^ 
» Ikar aM Ideiitiflsd with their religion, and bacaose all thalf worda 
MUva fit inteUeotaal aod moral life— we derived two, thtae aemnaa. 
Hiaft". Bo^Mi. a«d aaodoit an alao the keyi to all that i* nlaable is 
M asmriva Offairtal lUentuitt, without which the whola national «xiatomM 
gtA»W»l0 of Indifthaa BO meaning. Bomaojaa tl ou la > yaU-maant aB4 
i^liflfffiM Mtempt «f pouitug waiai uitg a nera. 

8. ltodeniOTMk,BMaUB,HdOernuHi hantAanoteN Oat iprfi« 
tam ths aama aonroe, j«t th^ an read dia^reutl^, nor oan vatme, bj 
naretr fcnowlns these abliabets, road their langnaew eoTieotlr. For forlj 
«M<a atienaoaa atteinpts oaTC been made to write Qemiao In tbe Boman 
diancter, jet its Got&o form still keeps ita hold on the neTqia{>er>, letter^ 
Jko.| ot Qie pieeent day. 

4. TItara tn, compMatlrelr veaking, aa maur alpbabeta in Ban^M— 
nUdt ia genwaUy Christian In &ith and Roman in Iawa~«a tliara am 
blodifc Bendei the alphabata abore mentioned, then an tbe al- 
^Hhrti oftlM Anneiiiana at CouatantinopI^ the Hebrew, Talmodical 
and nmning hand of the Jews, two Georgian alphabeta, tbe prrUliQ 
In BerUa, the Arabio cbaraotert of the Turks, ka., nor can a man read 
MsibetlT niTTio, ' HttOffariati, PolUi, 'or W«stdi«, beoaase he Imows the 
BonMB ohmstar, or eren Danldi or ledandie, ko^ becaaae ha knows the 
Ownaa ebaanlar. Kra tere the IiUi ahogethai abandoned iheir alph» 
battumtte^Hton pnblicatioaa. Matioos eli^ to tbeit alphabets, witbwhieh 
Obt Imi« identiftad tbtmaetTaa. Wb; do we not begte oni nfonna by 
witttng IbncTdtdGa in tlM saawcbanrtensaladtoii Wonld sot troMUa 
to iMeA I); iRlttBg Amciant Onek ia Latin : 

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[ JO 1 

B. BamntMHoili ooiiH It gfat ba »nno«rfiil, woald ba tha darih at JM 
TerucnlArB. Could uiTthiDg be more deplorabla Uun tho ipe^men <A 
nlgaon-Engllih rsferrDd to b7 Sir Oharlsa TnveijKi, " Office Jan* Is timft 
Wt" — " It la time to go to offioe'-^irlieii Uie Tanuumlv h»d equUj ex- 
preiBaire wonb I Vo, die TernacnlBn must be dereloped from within to 
Hieir indigenona, not foreign, aoiirces ~ oa Sir George Campbell hoa caUed 
tttem— and bj the joxta-poaitlon, not the anper-poaitiati, oi Hugli^. 

$, BomanlaaUtm, which haa hitherto been a oomplete failiira in bdia, 
■a Mr. Long aa ahowa, ahoold itricUy be limited to a sf^entific and nnifoim 
aTatem of tnuulitaiation of Indian names for the nae of Son]()''aiU. ■ Mnidi 
would be gained bj QoTemment adopting a leally correct sTatem, but 
daviationa bam it wonld constaatlj occur, as moat of ita offloeia hare no 
■ccnnite knowledge of the exact lalnet^aoDndainconaeqiience (dtbetda* 
noUona wbich thej hare Imbibed in eatlf ohildbood Oiioagb ihe i^elSng 

7, The Soman obaraoter might also be taught with advantage In tbo 
•lementaiy achoola side by side the cbaiscter of the Temacnlar of the diatriot. 
M it would awnewfaatleaaen for natiTee the diiflenltj of learning Bn^faii, bat 
to snbatitate a foreign and poor alphabet for any of the rich indigenona <»ea 
would retard the deTelopment d the vemacnlan, and tkna impede fotora 
Indigeiions and laating cinliaatioa of India. 

B. Am little H the worda " gratitnde" and " egottatioal" can ba oalM 
loMign worda in Bngliah, booaoae they are derived ftora I^tin and Om^ 
laipMtiT^, an littte oan Asabio, FtiaiaB, ot Sanskrit wotds be eUniasted 
front any oi tlw TsniaonUn, Mi tha gidud ot their being foreign woida^ 
withoid thiowing them back to that atage oi laiage ptiuitiTeneM whidt ia 
wlHioBt a leligions, eocial, or moral organjaatioii. 

*. Tfaa test of t&e alphabet propoaed by His iKoeUeacy tka Pevatca 
fliiiliaia«iiliii for all the lao^iagea whi^ possess Vtia Ferao-AitMa duoacMr 
(whoae anb^ririona i^ry less from one another than the Qerman doea from 
the Soman) Is, that it shall at onoe be read 1^ any Mohammedan w1m> 
doaa not know Ute new alphabst. This is tme reniRn, lAilat the u » n> fa w 
and Boenrata Sandciit character mi^t perfonn (lie aam« oOoa tea Urn 
dariratlTe elpb(^>eta. Lstnu. howf-vnv, beirin in IndU by inaistlng Ant 
amy one shonld write hia own alphabet oleaily, and that oar oMaaM dull . 
lean the naU*a aj^habets in their diatriot Ihoniii^y. 

10. ^kat Geimana and others hare traasUtemted Oriental texta into tha 
Bonian oharaoter, ia aimply becaose, as a rale, European printing-officea ara 
not copiously proTided with Oriental types. BeaideB, we conid neTei admit 
ft as a principle in gOTcrniog Oriental racea, Uiat onrownccoiTQnlenaelato 
bo the goidein the refomu which we press on their attention. Aaamattei 
of fact, the Oriental cbaractet can be printed or lithographBd lai mora 
Cheafily and elegantly than a book fn the Koman chamet«r. We ibonU 
develop onr printing applianoea for the benefit of bidia, not curtail tbat 
benefit becanse oar Enn^Mao printers find a diOcnl^ In daaling with 
Bastem alphabets, 

ent school* it is beoaas thej etAer wiah to 

__ becaoae th^dealre to att^ Bnglidiaaa 

. nsotranplOTmentinQonmmentofficea. Ibey do notwnnt toati^ Ite 
TOnucnUr at Oorenunent acboolB, beeaon they beliete it to be a waste ol 
their time, aath(7 think tbsyhnTe already leamt tt, incidentally throngfa 
theirHored '""ip'e", at ueii ownieligloaa aohools. By" Twnaenlar" 
I niMB 0» language ^xikea by « wttra ; and as tha aUina ol ladit nwy 

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[ 21 

M Bwsh xnoDK one mother u tbe nwxa of Enrape, so also their Tsnuuralar 
niiea ; bat ultimately all the Temacalars, if spoken b? UnhaiaiitedaiiB, 
derive thefr vitalitir from Ambio and PerBian, and, it spoken bj Hindus, 
from Sanskrit. There ia lealty no need foi them to study their own 
venMColar when Uiey know ite source, bnt the capability of the vemaoulare, 
Ordd and Hindi, when developed by that source, has been prored by the 
het that stodeats, who were only acquainted with Arabic and Sanskrit, 
k**e reeeotly passed the first eKamiaation in arte of the Panjab TMrersity 
College in science throngh the medimn of Urdii and Hindi. 


Priaeipal, BoverKnteut CblUge, Lahore. 

(2).— Reply of Mb. Dekw. 


. Era, — It is m good tbing; that this sQbject — a subject far too larf^ to 
Iw decidsd in one of the Induiu Conferences — is still haing treated of in 

£)Di ■/intrnot. I trost yoa will allow ma to attempt an answer to some oi 
t. Iiaitnar's stricture on the schems which I had the honour of advocating 
before the Society. I will take up some of the numbered paragr^hs in 
Dr. Leitoer's letter, and diacosa the subject of each. 

Dr. Leitner writes (Section 1), "That there are mote sounds in the 
Indian alphabets Uiau caa be rendered by the Roman character." I showed 
in my paper that the somndB of boQi the Semitic and Aryan elements of 
Xndiwi laagnages (which I spoke of as the Arabic and the Hindi) could bo 
expressed by the Boman alphabet, with the addition of an accent (or 
tiie long vowel sounds, and a diacritical mark to he attached to a certain 
nnmbei of consonants, not more than nine at the most, to distinguish difler< 
ing but allied sounds. It is then not enough for Dr. Leitner ta make tha 
•tatemeot above quoted ; ho should give some c^inion for his objection ; 
be should estimate the disadvaatagea that there may ba in the use of tbe 
diacritical marks proposed. Thsae marks are bnt an accenting at the 
TOwel?, which is as simple as the modiiicaUoQ of vowels in Oeiman. and 
mn uadsrscoring of n few consonants, which is distinctly simpler than tha 
Addition of letUirB (in some cases not at aU allied in form), by which tlie 
Oriental alphabeta express those closely-related Dr. Leitner should 
»lso explain how it is that tha Hiadostani longoa^ (containing boUi Uw 
elements spoken of) can be Suently read from ihe Uomaa-printed book) 
irhich Bir Ch«iies Trevelyan showed at the coofetenoe. 

la Scctioa 2 it is writteii, " There is do chanee of the Boman ohano- 
ten being accepted by the masses in India, who reveni the Perso-Aiabic aad 
the Sanskrit oharacters." .... Dr. Leitner here fails to tell the whole 
truth, which ia that those of the natives of India who ruvere Sanskrit do 
not revere Pecso- Arabic, andtho^e who revere Arabic look with contempt on, 
and will have oothing to do with, the Saoskrit chatacters. A great namW of 
tliefonoei MiM Hinln hnTr leaiot feno-Arabic withonl lemiDgit, 

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I M J 

•tn^tl; becMM, fram it« lue by the MahMiwdMi gOTenuaente of fompr 
timM, itwuui advtLDUge to Qui Hindni to know it. In norili-weMem 
India wb hare coatinaed to thia Pereo-Avbio cliaiMt«r Um potitiaa wMeb 
it onl^ dewrrad to hold while it wm tlie writiiig of tht rnkn, and ia 
doing io wa can hardly be said to be treating inpaitlaUr HiodM 
Itnd HahaiomedaDs, H^pUj there Is no rdigiosB feeling •^•last tba 
Boman ; hence tell-intereet will be tne to act on natires of botti fiutiu to 
Wge thsm to follow what, if it waie followed I7 kll, wonld bs of m mnoll 
advantage to all. 

" Bomanisation, coold It eTer be fnoeeBBfal, wonld be Qm death td Um 
TernacnlaiB, &c." C«ee Dr. I>eitner'a Section! 6, 7, and 8). On tliU part ol 
Ote Hubjeot some liglit will be thrown by our considsring what ohangea aM 
now going on in the spoken langnagea 01 Iniaa. Tbese aoem to me to be 
two. First, a tendency for some of the vernacnluB <aa Pan}abi) to merga 
into Hindostani ; secondly, a process of aoqnialtiou of BngliBb words, as 
BnK^>ean ideas sitd tliiags are freshly made known to Uie petals, who mnst 
bare names to call them t^- Thaw changes an a neoessai; growUi bronght 
(M by dreninatonww, the pWmstaaoes <rf ottr rale j weeaunot hindatbon, 
but we nuty accelerate, and possibly direot, tham. Letns see whs^ effect 
Bwiaiilsliig wonld have iqton Ibeli oooise. 

If BtHuan were first adcoited for Hindostanl only, then, I beliere,a« 
qtnad of HiadosULUi woola be helped ; that Imgtiage would, by being 
written in the same charaoter aa in Bnglish, which is the edneaHona) gtJi 
cl ao many in India, f^in an advantage am the Ternacolars still written in 
the old way. But if Roman were adopted Bimnltaneoiuly for idl the 
qkoken langnagee— that is, if efforts weia made in this directlim in eqnal 
proportions for all the remaanlaai then I do not see tiiat tha baUaos 
wonld be altsred. 

nta seoond process now going on, the acquisition of Bnglish wwda^ 
wonld undonbteoly be mooh alleotad by the introdnetlon of the Romaa 
■tohabet, but I hopa to be able to canvinoe Dr. Leitner (hat it wonld be 
stfeotad tor tba better. The roogh polype-like swaltowiag woald give w^ 
to ahaatthy asslmilaHnn Now-a'daya aa English word is oaoght ap bj 
the natiTes and soco mads a mess of ; neither the ipelling nor the pixMnm. 
datlon is preserred. Saw, it wonld be in^osstbla imder any syitom to 
keep bot)i,sedng that in so many Bn^ishwMds Uiereis so little oonnsc- 
tlon between tha two ; bnt with the Boman alphabet the nattm would ba 
able to keep either one cr the other, as tbsy mtKht ohoose. This snrdj 
wonld be someOiing ; it wonld help to accuracy ; it wonld help the Terna- 
onlars, and not, as Dr. Leitner fears, bring death to them. The " rich in- 
digenoiis alphabets," as Dr. Leitner calls them (in truth they are either 
eieeedlngly oomphcated or exceedingly imperfect), oannot represent oiti 
wcrda, while Rmnen oaa represent oar Bngllah, Sanskrit, and Arabic words, 
uid so can serre as the qnlokaUrer to amalganiate these with th» veniacn- 
lan which &ej an to enrich. 

Neither Is it any part of the plan, nor oaa it be ahown that thei* 
wonld oome trtmi it a tendency to eliminate Aiabio and Sanskrit wotda 
Hem the Tcmacatata. Dr. Leltoec's regrets aboat the remits that wooid 
arise from nuA a process are sopeiflsons. An effect fttat mn teallj be 
looked for (beeldsa the natnwU nt i wi of Baglfih words when they an le. 
qnired) la the ssleotira aod adi^tioD into Hie TemncnlaTB of AiaUc w 
Ssn^t words, acooiding as the one or the oUkt of those lanfoagea mar be 
able to n^pl; tite woida meet ttted, At the present tbne theHabaauDe> 
dui BM one set of words aad tb* Hindoe another, eaeb bdng, fioa ite 

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partial He, ia agnat netma* nninteUigibbtolbftdnMthatadwtatltt 
tOtM. Tha adoptioii of u alphabet fltted tat the wonls of the thiea gnat 
lttani]rlaag«a(cca that Hwplj idea* to the natives of India, would eiMhla 
fha vemandan to cntioh HieBuelTW bom «U theaa aomoea— woold fraa 
" * the neoMBiti' now placed bmr them, 1^ the moltlplJai^ of 
It fit fM all kinda (i<vi»d%<rf looking for new aoqaiiritioua to 

38, Jennys-etreet. 

(3). — Sboond lbtikr rEox Db. Leithzb. 


flTB,r-~It ia with the greatest pleaanre that I take up the cbtUengv 
aililiiwwiil to nie b; Hr, Diew, though not lo mnoh with Uie tIcw of cont- 
tat^ ht« opinioni as in order to throw light on the msrlte asd d^eota 
tt hia lehem". Braiything eonneeted with Indian refonaa reqniiea veu- 
'*'«*'""i and M far enooniagenent, bat uowhMe ia tha haaty adoption ot 
RJMttoB of a pn^Maal more to be depieeated than in eooneetion with a 
aonntn whoaa hif^ieat aathoiitfea have Hie most dirergent view* even 
Mgudug tha pramiMa of enry ptditical, edooatioiia], or eommanjfal Indian 
a>ieatloH. Boui Mr. Dnrw ana mrself wish to brii^ enlightenment to 
HM BaMia, bvt whaieaa he oonaiden the introdnotion of the Bconaa 
alphabet aa the moat efleodre meaoa, T attach little impoTtance to it, but 
flnd the pwiacea for tha eziattog evil of iguonujce Id tbe deTelC^ment ot 
the Tem^oilBia throiigh tJtair Intimate sources, the PergJan, Arabic, and 
BaMkrid and in the oo-<»erBtion of Huiae Tery chweea whose (Mental 
laankiflg and ocaueQnrat mfln^nc^ haa been ignored nndat our present 

b the prorlnce (tha Pan}ah) with whioh I am eonneoted, abont 
njOOOp^iila lead In OoremBMnt Institntiona, and abovt 18,000 Inaohoda 
mora or leai aided bj OoTenment. Altogether, about 10,000 read Bng- 
Hrii, and the rest the Temaonlaia. The population of the Fniriab ItneMV 
la Kdlllont, Abmt one in aOO la nnder that kind ti hiatoiietion ot whi^ 
<mt ad nflti o na l department taket anr oogniMuoe. On Uieae 90,000 pnpila 
^ont « l/WO^OOO la cotpeKled per annnm. 

Whilit, howerer, has than 100,000 «te known to come under initne- 
tion, there an maOThuidredthowaadi whom onrij«t«m ignoiea Theaa 
kftm, if Uohammedani, AiaUc and Penian, and, if Hindna, Sanskrit, fin 
nUgkniB porpoaea. Bealdee theae, Oiere are the ttaden, ihawl-wttaTeta, 
^mPTf^ and othera, who learn a peenliar Und ot (^hering baditional 
to their McintatiuL The Bikhi lean Qnnnnkhi, the character in whioh 
tMr sacred books are written, bnt lb. Drew oroiatee the (staat to wbidi 
this character is known, and nndenataa the spread of the Peiao-AraUe oha 
laetar. Of ten persona who can read and write, one may be able to writ* 
■nglUii one Qnrmnkhi, Kaetl, or any of the less important alphabets 
lefRrcd to tijr Vr. Drew, three Hindi or Smskrit, and flve Peno-Arabio, 
wUM <d the nm^mng half, a large percentage knows the l^rsian charac- 
ter in addition tO'its own.' 

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I u J 

If it be Uked, bow it is that in spite of onr expenBive niuditneTT we 
do not reach tbe massca, it is because the mBswB have their awn viem of 
education, in which they are sticn^^ened by tbe prieBthood, and tbe natirR 
nohilitj. Unless, therefore, the wiahea and even prejadiccs of tiie natiuut 
leaden of tbe people are taken inio co-operation, no foreign Tefono can 
snooeed, and onr department of " Popnlat Bdncation" maat remain ■ 

Bapposing, now, that wc introduce thn Roman character into oar 
Bobools ; ttiere will be evei7 nviditj to learn it, because it will be proenincd 
to be-s atep towards the aoqi^ition oE Eagiith. This desire we ahall not be 
able to Batisfy, as we have not enough l«acIiGrs of English. The result. will 
be the spread of diacooteot into the villages which is now chiefly confined 
to towns. Indeed, as it is, everj boy that goes to a GoTeinment school, does 
not do so for tbe sake of educatioD, for that be believes he gets 
elsewhere, but because he thinks that he has laid the authorities under 
some obligation to provide him with an appointment. The class of clerks 
is already getting too numerous, and whereas a avfeydpoth, or one who ha» 
to dress as a gentleman, " in white clothes," can be got tor fourteen shill- 
ings a month, as a vernacular clerk, as much as £1 bos had to be paid 
leoently for a fair carpenter at Lahore. 

If, however, the Roman character is to be leamt in ccmjnnction with 
the vernacular, I would safest tbe plan ehotild be tried without much 
flonrisb of trumpets for the Eltghtest accident may give rise to misrepre- 
sentation, and class it among the insidious attempts to subvert their 
leligion, with which the natives already credit na. I do not snppose that 
the Roman character will ever rise to the dignity of the " greased 
cartridges," but it may faWy inspire the dread of the census, or 
of the last fiMiu, the Indianised form for the word "tax," on whicb, I 
hope, Sir Charles Travclyan does not congratulate his foUoweis. As ■ 
means of education, the Boman character for the vernacular will siioply be 
Isoghed at, for there is nothing to read in it. It has hitherto existed in 
consequence of the books that were written in it being circulated gratui- 
tously, and thus it maj continue to retain a limited public. But no one 
will ever read yfitH-a in the Roman character, or even glsnce ot tbe 
Sag'K-O'bah&r in it, excepting when teaching Hindustaai to an Baglishmaa. 
Drdfl and Hindi vriil continue to be written in their own character am 
hitherto.' The transliteration of the ^Aa^vof into the Persian characters bad 
not tbe faintest inftuence on Hindi literature, or the transmutation (ft tba 
Na^ri character in favour of the characters of Mohammedan con- 
Qaeron. On the other bond, the adaptation of the Bitvpadtta to 
Shemltia teaden makes tbe Xalda-o-Daima almost an Arabic classic, 
thus proving that yon mitst neither translate foreign ideas nor trans- 
literate foieign alphabets, but that, if you wish to nceeed, you moat, 
adapt all tliat is of universal application in your own religion, mora- 
lity, philosophy, and literatore, to the native standpoint. Otherwiea 
joa only conrt failure. The Roman character for the Urdd and Hindi 
will be leomt as a Pigjon-Urdii and Pif^on-Hindi, favoured by the 
English rulers, but no native will take credit to himself in it either as a 
BchoIsT or as wishing \a influence his countrymen by writing in it If, 
however, the Roman character is to be introduced, let it be accompanied by 
the publication of band books enjoining obedience to parents, cleonlioess of 
habits, fto,, so OS to giie something to read in t^t character that the 
people can appreciate. Above all, let there be publications in it telling 
the people how to till their flclds, the best time for sowing, &c., and let there 
be an ead of the present useless instruction as to the latitude of Timbnc- 
too, the politisi of the Jews, oi tbe sport ffith AmaijUis ia Uk ibade. 

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nte nort pncdtsal feature of Hr. Drew's prtipoBftl is fts lecommentU.- 
Cion to coarts Aad saltan. It woald carb the presiiii^>Ooii of acribea wbo 
iM>w know that their depositunu cannot be read, as a role, by tlieir 
Bsn^tean niperian, bat It will not get rid of that clan. Kor is tbat ueoes- 
Mkiy. Tliat clam should be utilised a.s aa agency for good, and not ba 
pwen m torily put uido, when there i» no otliei to ftU ita place, Beddea^ 
R bwlta nwt in the tnditioiiB of the people, 

Ke nnf^ of tba alphabata mferreS to by Mr. Dmw ii too wide to 
1m dealt with within the space of a few colnoins. Having shown that in 
tto piDThm oF which he spealcs, Dindnstanl ia farmoie nnlvenaltluuilie 
" I, and that the other oharaotera are Strictly limited, I wiU confine 

waj objectiona at preaetrt to the fiaws in his system aa regards that Tt_ 
naenlai'. I am glad to perceive that he not only admits, but iaiites, the 

Enbability of Impravements in Ms system of transliteration. I think that 
is scheme sboala be aeriomly and minutely examined by a mb-comioittea 
of the Society, before which ^so the remaikably ingeniotu alphabet of His 
Kieellency the Persian tf inister may be brooght. What we all want is to 
l>t4rtg knowledge within ftK reach of the masses of India —no sensibla 
proposal towards that end shoald be disconraged — and althoagh, as I 
oMn alrexly said, I think little of BomanisaCion, except as a system 
ctf tnnaliteratioa of Indian words for the nse of Knropeans, L think enongh 
ai it, reqMctfiilly, bat earnestly, to urge the oonMderation of the follow- 
big proposal : 

IttookthattkeSocfeb'of Arts wonldbaqBits jnrtiffed, after ouefallr 
tfa« praa n nt fanlty qvtem of tmuutaratioD and arriving at an 


, - , _ that cbaracter. TUa 

irillgiViBa fair trial to the view for which Hr. Drew and Sir Charlei 
Tren By m oontend, and wmH be a pmctlcal oondnnon of a not nniat* 

It anat not be tfaongfat tiist Bommlnttai bu aoIiieTed ananfntltr 
e*eafii the idtool of Bonmean tratuUteratoci. I, for one,-oensider the 
Modering of <l>e letter eto by an apoetfiMbe m rimply absurd. Atn Is s 
oaoaMuntwbkilm^ be ie*d with att lae vowels, whilst to repraent it 
witbaaapoalraphewoalilbatMatamonat to not leading it at all, or leadlnz 
it only in cant ynj. The wtird " ZUa" Is, a f., now written by the Bo- 
manisen w " Zft," which an ordinary reader will rhyme with " drill," 
wtalht Oie apoetrophe will certain] v not render the vinlons vowels in th« 
flfst nllable of " aliitr, iTirr, end ilMat," which, by Mr, Drew's system, 
moU be bensiiterated by '''br,*bar, and 'bTet." Nor does Mr. Drew make 
anr pnni^n for the sonnds of " 0, fli, en, ol " which occnr in some of the 
^tental langnagea; I do not remember what he gives for the letters '• jim " 
pKnaanoed ■im''ionniftl,"or tor "}"aB pronotmeed in French. AU t 

taawijU, aiat inspiteof dotaan Bnglish reader will read a dotted d, t, r. 
muA a ineeiaely as m midotted one, whilst big and small " Eaf " will be 
BrocKMnoed 1^ taint without any gnttaral distinction. Hr. Drew's gravest 
Cult, however, is that be oonfoondg the accent, as in French, which marfcn 
tbe etteaa (rfllievDioe, with Hie miserable accents which we have adopted In 
tmr ayateia, and whloh merely show a more open or close pronunciation of 
the words, whilst tbeir tendency Is to coofoand boHi qoanttty and intona- 
tion with QtB inbereot nalare of Um vowel. Aooent, hoivevcr, is not qnau' 
tlty, noi does'quntity change the natun of a eoiind. 

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[ " 3 

WIhd I Mid HtH. Uie sUMu ia ladia conn Uw Peno-Anbfi; ud Ui» 
Suskilt characteTB, I did not mean that Hindda ievGi«d the Xnblo and 
Mafaanmiedwu Oie Banakrit cfaancUn, On the contrair, I reporiAdly 
kept Ibeee two aatagoniaUo alimeDta in view, and it waa perbaps acaioeW 
fair til Ur. Drew to ctiargi me with the ai^piea^on of the whole tnrih, 
dinpl7 beoaoBe, for the e»k6 of bievl^, I oompratacd an intradnctoir 
atatement, on wtiiuh I sabaoqaenUT enlarged. Eveir^Kidj knows that 
Arabic ia levefad by HahammedanB and Sanskrit by Hindiis, and I think 
J migMlukTe baen truated with the poawrwion of tiiat lafontialioni 

After all, alphabets are oonTentional rendering of aonnds, liable ta 
Ttuions pconuociationa, even when the same slgae are used, as is the caae in 
most conntries of Eoiope, with different DationalltJes, classes, or peiioda of 
Uteratnra. No school of translitemtore wiU eier be abje to impoae Uwic 
ptonnuciatioD on a nation, even when their objects big advanced bj that 

E onerous gratniCons oiicnlation to which I have alluded, and wluch haa 
itherto ensured a limited public for the Bomaniaed pnblicationa in India 
during the last thirtj Tean. Of conne, sboojd GoTemmcnt support lbs 
ajstem, it will have a certain succeae, one of whose most pleasant feAtniO 
will be that the" Bomanlsed" native* will write Bnglish, the language (rf 
Qieir rulera, on the same phonetic plui, to our great ooosternation, ud m^ 
return the compliment, wtdch we now pa/ them, b^ n^ing na to 
"Romanlaa" Buglisb. 

The faot la that Persian and Drdti 

__tliei Utaa plionetto in their ipaltiBK. Thia 

It is l^ dint of pnwtlce that we read '> Ugbt " aa laU, Ji 

ifttbei lltKB plionetto in their ipaltiBK. nJa alao fi 

Bia l^ dint of pnwtlce that we read "Ugbt" aa laU, iaatthjottaUam- 

rae rude "Hahammad" In tho Penrian character, uidnot *■ M ihmadn."' 

The tMf-OMtmUs of * word recalli ita prannnolatka to B^lhbaMn as 
w«ll aa to teaden irf Hindoatani. If onr offlcers practjaed the '"'""fitt* 
mof% they wonld Snd it Jnat at ea^ to lead aa the soiawla of aoniB ct 
^ir oallMgnea and mpericoB. 

I woikder why the Bomanlsers, who have exerted so mnoh li^entdty 
on their dots, hate not thooght of the far more ea^y method of levetaii^ 
the Roman dharaoter whenever they wanted a second valne for aaonnd. 
Our pilnteie oonld hare at onoe used the present type for the new porpoae 
withMt- 4ifiodtT whatever, whilst a' leteraed "a" or "r" wonid have 
Btreated th»att«atioa Ot the reader. fitiU, all these Khemes, Hke that oT 
nslng namben for a nnl venal langnage, are a waste (< talent, for thaylM«« 
the main points nnsettled, which are — " What are the nnaea atlhe pi 

The reason why the Rontao, Greek, Boarian, Geraan, Ameniwii and- 
oUier chanioten are read with comparative ease, is not beoanee there ia any 
Inherent evceHenoe in them, bat ebnply and solely becaose the letter* ai* 
ttfaralA. lUs allows of the introdacUon of vowels in the body of the word, . 
and of a variety <rf artlBoe* In printing calcolaied to arrest atteoticn, Itii' 
thna that one of the poorest alpbabeta, the Roman, has become ons of tba 
moat oaeful, whilst it istheonisCia oombinatiaD, andnotthe natproof tfas, 
letter^ In the tai more enneasive Peraian, that has been in the way <d tlM 
nnlveraal spread of knowledge in the coontriea where that chancter is used. 
Lithograpnj will do much tor Hahammedan Rast, bat a PenorAiaUo ^pe^ 
anch aa Bis Xzoellency the Persian Ambassador baa devised, will develty 
Indlgenona and introdnoe ftaeign literatme In an aooc^lable and cbeM» 
form. Do what we may, onr rafoms, inclnding Uie Bomao cbaract«r, iril| 
be cooatdered by the Duuiea as tut ioddiops attempt to npaet tteir leligiWi 

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I 8' J 

LctRL to conrall the ofttiTse twtd yon will rtrike « nine of Intellect, and a 

inii tliimlnMrt Innfn^ti'tt^ *n ^""T V*""**^ of hnmn tbsB^tt no^acilTitj, 
tMoaitae thmr bad nottbe DMohuioftl ufiptiitaeoe tor pWtiiic tbem ban 
DiMtioa. How, u 9,000 jean ago, Uie Sut m tha beme «f msoM disaipi 
one, cnltore, H»d lepow^ tvhare genius U «8 nniTcrwI aa It ia igoond^ ta 
oooMqaenca chiefly of Uie want of pablicit^ and of enaj commaTiioMitw; 
Wttboot UuM adnutigw ws Bhould now be behind the Oriental* whom 
we (le^iM. nie one intelligent Enropeaa among a thoneand of his doll 
brethien la able to pan ofl bis views and invaitioiiH ae the embodimsftl of 
tbs eiTiUaatirai of m> ccatinent When the Bast will hare a cheap presa 
^td ndlwi9»— piotlded alwarB It doet not laek t« alavlBhly imiUK the 
Waat In tti t aftma i — it moat MBome the podtion which It onoe held, owingT 
to Aa lUtlTS feniiH erf Iti pei^les. To do this it mnst give np conaideiv 
ing witting M an end, bat mnat msrely look on it as a meant, of learning,' 
jLn tnd^enoni alpltabat, aeparata in it*, letters, will be the fint step, and 
will be the fouidation, w His ExaeUencr expects, ctf » great indtgctkona 

I am, lio., 
J'rUutpal, 6f«Mmtitettt Collie, Zahore. 
22, AbeideeD'pIace, N. W. 

<4).—LBtTE& rsoM Hs. pAauoKDun. 

Bib,— I p«('ft8lly agree with lb. nsduloL Di«w In hia opinion Ibat it 
b both deeinble and pncticable to apply tfan Boman chvaoter tothtt 
iMtimJi* id liiilli iijii. and t« all otbr languages too-bnt on one con- 
dil£n aaly, and warn Hiat eondUm satiiAed, Di'. Leitner's ibTCtiires, man " 

of wUah an, mder ezlating oliw ' . ..- . ..- .. .... 

tothagmmtd. Tb»t<ionditi[»ls 
fflvttewodb Batwtdlettoc 
dementMy sonnds of tbefcaauB 

taaowranieM aooenta, or, aooordiDg to Ur, Pitman's ^plaii, by the additlOB 
atmnw lattait, to that each distiaot articnlote sound may hare one inTarl- 
iMaaJgn to represent it, and one only. TbtiB extended, it woold beoome a 
tna tntematlocial alphabet, from which each nation would draw ilA own 
a p a ria l alpbAet, only adopting the characters nhloh it required, and 

H js ati ng ttrase wWcb represented sound not exiEting in iU laD^jago. 
nnalbans^iab^babatwoaldconsiBt of >9 letters, the remaining 9belne 
exoloded ( the French would oonsist of 3S, the Oerman of 37, the Itftllan S 

nnalbana^isb^babatwoaldconsiBt of >9 letters, the remaining 9 

Axdoded " ™ " "'" " '"' -'"* "*■ - "- ■ "" " "■ " 

39, Jcc. 

Vaoh nation would, moreover, be enabled to represent accarately even 
its dialects or vemacnlan, as it would still find in (he International alpha* 
bet tfc« character required, e. g., the Devonshire k, the Scotch ck. &c. 

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t 28 ] 

It Kr. Drew will tiiaefora ban the eoonge to propow m eztautos 
of taiBfavonrite alpliatwt, «o Out it AaB oontain all that !■ neoe^uy for 
the Bocurate and onmistAkBble represcntaUoa of ipoken wniiid^ olewtiif 
it At the nme time of all redondaat formi, mch ae o, o*, ol, jn, gk, for *, 
be may have a good chance of success. Bat while he haa only an imperfoct, 

'ona alphabet, both deficient and rednndant, to iubitltnte taz tke 

moDTed alphabet of India, I fear the opponeate of a i 
will long baTB the beat of Qie ai^ument. 

Sienld a precedent be Teqniied tor Uiia attaudon of the alphabet 
we can, wlthont going back to the old Qreeka, who did not healtate to add 
to thdn Oie new lettm Ihey required, orto Hie Botnana, who themaelvei 
added what were in reali^ new characteie, ■», a, weoan fiadapreaadaot, 
1 ear, intbe introdnction of the letter w. With a precedent erea Coa- 
serratiTe* can more (»i. 




Sin,— Aa Dr. Leitoar and myBelf bare now both had onr ear fa joar 
oolnmns, and aa I feet that there moat be some limit to the naee joao^ 
afford for tlie discnasioii of the details of (ha n^jsct we an uiteeatad fo 
I will DO longer dweU on those branches of it in whioh Dr. T^it^ w OiOm 
Ironnie,batwill]oii^inadvooatinBhl8 dk^kisaI for apnotical, itIiMltcd, 
bial of the Bomao alphabet for Indian ungoagee. ^^ 

That there ihoidd be pressed upon Ooverriment the advisabilitT o( 
fixing (if not once for all, at all eveala with the expectation at aame 
degree of permanencj) a system of trausliteratirai tot the Taiions mUtc 
alphabets to the Boman is, I think, a proposal well worthy ot the ocn- 
aideration <d the Coonoll of the Society. And, without ndne baroBd 
tbelr proper bmoUons asaBodety of Arts, they might also press for the 
- ^pUeaOoi of snoh a qretem as shonld be fixed on, to oertafai dcAnila 
ptnpoaea-thoee to which the pieseot mnltiplid^ of ablu^beto giTa the 
gnatesb hisdraooe. 

For Oie Bodety ihnlf to attempt to determine the beat system of tnns- 
UteradoQ wonld, I think, be a mistake. That they cooM, In inqafrr 
Oamr li^t on the subject there can be no donbt, bnt Oietr deoldMi wonu 
not cany Oie weight that is necessary, It would only add another la 
the diOerent sntems, whereas, what is wanted is a system which, both 
bf U» wwDtial axoellence aad tn»D the aathori^ with whicdi it is no- 
molgated, shall eclipse all others. Kow, for the element o< ''nthor&" 
iB mattui oonseeted with btdls, we mnat go to Ooremment, JheBo- 

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ciety (rf Arts would be justified ia their aetioB by the fact that already 
a^tem exists (pftrtialty tued by Ooreninient departments) that Is goad 
enovgh for the geoerAl ptupose, the quoatioa being irhether it coald be 
tn^iDTed npoD, and that qnestitm might ataod aret for tlie ptesent. 

The fint objects for which the Boman alphabet BhonH be brought 
Lato me, and t^ which the attention of Qovemment should be drawn, 
most oif OS woatd agree aboat. The odrantagea of usjaj; it in the Oonrta 
are obriooa to ereiy Eugllabman who kuows India. For the tele- 
gr^h KTTice ite adoption would do away with the scandal that now 
exiats of a native not Ming aUeto ttlegraph in his own lanf^iage, except 
by paying as for a cipher message. Pioclamationa and notices by QO' 
Temiuent conid wail be given in Kotnon character. Other uses few it 
would be found aa the knowledge of it extended. The more Qovem- 
ment did with it, tbe more quickly wonid their flrst measures be justified ; 
the greatest di^ultiea In the way of its adoption would be in ttie 
betrinnlng, before many had leamt itn use; these difflcultie* would best be 
got over by making a good begiaQing— by taking a bold st«p at Sist 

And not loss importnnt ia the educntional side of this proposal. Dr. 
T>!itncr'a aniEgestiona on the^c points are exaotly suited to the present sta^ 
of the question. That pnpils in permanent schools should be allowed to 
learn to read tbeir owa Ian(ran~e in the [Ionian ehamcter if Ihey wish it, ia 
a thins that might be arranged without either hurting or (righleaing any- 
one. The growth of a litoniture adapted to the same medium would at 
first hare to be encontaged, but would before long Increase of itself. 

Hew measorea are simple : the adoption of them can faardly be gai4 
t« b3 difficult ; a full justification of them Ufa b". found in the present 
inconTeniences. Such measarea b» are now proposed can be joined in by 
many whose nlHmate eipect«tions are not the same, by those who look 
odIj to the partial advantagefi above indicated, as well an by those who, like 
myself, will consider them ns flrst atflps In the journey that will 1^ to 
uniformity of writing In the whole area of India. 

I an, ke., 

(6). — LcTTSR FEOM Ma. E. Thomas. 

Sir.— Aa T gather from the report of your proceedings of the Iflth 
Pebtuary, that there has b^"en some misapprehension of the p«rt I am iop- 
posed to have taken in conjunction with Sir 0. Trevelyan in his early efforts 
at Bomanisation in India, as well as in regard to my opinions on these sub- 
jects, then or now, I beg to submit, for the consideration of the Society of 
Atta, my latest impression on the points iuToIved, which were printed as an 
introduction to the new edition of Marsden'a " Numismata Orientolis," 
before the diacnssion took place in ;our rooms. 

I may mention, in reference to the general controrersy at the meeting 
in question, that I look upon the Drdvidian. or old Indian alphabet, which 
the Banskrit-speahmg Aryans adapted to their own needs on their domea- 
ticatiofi in India, as the most perfect ijphabct tbe world has yet prodnccnl. 

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[ 30 ] 

Rul it i-r a singular compUmeDt to Ibe Bomon ftlpbabut, fillercd as it wu 
lUniugh iiidcpcadcnt media, tbat, with subordinate diacritical modiflcatimis, 
it can reproduce in full fategrity all that is reaU; and tnilj " Aryan " in 
tliG GCTcred toDgves. 

You will also aec in the imc&if cit herewi ih forwarded, tliat, ta my ideac , 
difflcultios of reconciliatiou only commence witli the complicatiaas of Ihc 
Arabic alphabet. 

1 am, &c., 


il, Victoria-road, KcuaingloD. W., April Z, 1S73, 



5iB. — Tliat which appcarcil to Mr. Edward Thomas t« be an inaccuracy 
reported in the procecdiO'-M of the 19th Pobniary, is not so much so ai he 
Ihinks. I Rpoke of Mr. Thomii as ous of Hve af.n who orfranised Ihc 
project of the genaral appliontion oF the Rom^ii Icttem to the laiiKua|;e 
of InAi» ; but tULs wa? lie Rev, J. Thomas a Baptist raiHsionary. I may, 
faawever, say that I wai not quite right in coQntiag this latter gcntlenuta 
with the originators of Che scheme. In tho middle of the year 1834. the 
rollowinit only were friendly to the plan ;— Bet. Dr. Yates, Hev. W. H. 
Poarce, Rct. Dr. DiiIT, and Sir Chariefi Trevclyaa ; at the end of that year 
however, Mr. J. Thomas's name is found ia connection with it. 

The early history of the movement in favour of Roman is to be foauil 
in a book, not known to many, entitled "Original Hipers TUnatrating the 
Hwlory of the Application of the Raman Alphabet to the Languages ot 
India," edited by Monier William* (Longmans, 18.>9). A persual of this 
will enable one to appreciate properly the labours of Sir C. Trevelyan, Dr. 
Duff, and others in the cause : I have been much indebted to it. I am not, 
however, such a plafparint of the argument^ there to be found as might be 
iiiferreid from the coincidence with them of my own. I had independ- 
ently thought out almost all that I had expressed to the Society, without 
being aware of what bad been done forty yeara before. 

In conolUFion I may bi allowed to say that Mr. Edward- Thomas's 
testimony to the adaptatulity of the Roman Alphabet seem; to me of the 
gn^test value. 


26, Jcrmyn-stieel, April Ulh. - 

Lauobl :— I'msTGO inr R. Lvruun, at iuk c. k U. UAzmnris I'ttua. 




To advocate the me of the Rortum Alphabet in Oriental 





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No. s October 1878. 

The Societt was unavoidably prevented from holding 
its ordinary montlily meeting in September. The October 
meeting will be held as usual on the last Saturday of the 

Editorial Notes. 

Wft publish ID this nnmber of onr Journal nn interesting 
letter from Professor Monier Williams, to which we invito 
oar readers attention. 

l%e Paojab Government has offered a prize of five 
bnadred rupees for the best English Sanitary Primer which 
may meet with their approval. We would suggest that a 
work of this kind might, with advantage, be published in 
Boman-Urdi!. If His Honor could be induced to place the 
amount offered at onr disposal, we might be able (with the 
ajwistaoce of some of the medical members of onr Society) to 
compile a work which would satisfy the reqairements of 
QoTeimnent. , 

We leant from the Owrhit^ Mail that the Ber. Isaac 
Taylor is preparing a book on the various alphabets, be- 
ginning with the Aramaic character of the papyri and the 
Phoenician of the lloabite inscription, and coming'down to 
oor current writing, ^ere wilt also be a chapter on the 
liistory of the numerals. 

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[ 2 ] 

We see in ih.6 " List of New Books," pttblished by tin 
same newspaper, it " Sketch of the Uodem Longoages of tlitt 
East Indies " by Mr. B. N. Cast 

The Spectator has opened its oolmnn to as amosing 
discussion as to the expedien<7' of appointing women In- 
spectors for the Board girl-schools. The school-mistresses 
themselree appear to prefer Inspectors of the opporate sex, 
one of them going so far as to say " I feel snre that most 
of my sex wilt agree with me, that if we wonld bare true 
and impartial justice, we mnst seek it — not among oar- 
selves.*' Another argument pat forward by the same lady 
is to the effect that " by no one wonld the efficienoy or mine 
of practical cookery be so well appredlated as by a man." 
On the other hand Miss Cobbe pnts the school-mistresses 
preference for male Inspectors in a different light by qnot- 
ing a remark of the lato Miss Carpenter. " My dear Miss 
Cobbe, depend npon it, there never yet was a man whom 
the matron or mistress of an institution eould not enftrel'y 
bamlootU respecting avy department under litr control" 

Tbe 2%net has published, and the Pioneer has 
copied, a notice of Consul Churchill's report regarding tb» 
trade of Gllin, one of ihe Provinces of Northern Persia 
which adjoin the Caspian Sea. The pictara of Persia givea 
by this report is mndi more fkvorable than those we have 
received from other sources, but it is probable Omt the 
Nortliera Provinces of Persia enjoy some advantages both 
physical and moral which are not shared by those of the 

However this may be, we wonld Invite the attention of 
oar readers to the defects in civilization wiuch are indicated 

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. [ 3 ] 
by tbe following paragraph. It sbonld bo borne in mind, 
Out iba imter'i objeot is to exalt rather than to doprecint« 
our estimate of Persia and the Fersiana. We have italicized 
the word* to which we wonld call special attention, 

" Almost ereiy child in Persia, male or female, is sent 
to school to learn to read and write, or at any rate to learn 
to repeat eertam /avoritt pattagei of the Qurdn; and the 
natnral intelligence of these children is so vastly snperior to 
that of their brethren in Earope, and the derelopment of their 
inteliectoal fecnlties at an early age is so astoanding, that 
small children will hold their own with grown-np persons 
and talk on snbjects that wonld muke our little folk of the 
aame age stare with wonder. Bat, oainff mainly to evtrtf 
book in Periian being a mamacript, and conaeqaently ina(^ 
cessiblfi to the lower classes becanse of its high price, to 
that ftuB nmo books are ever read by the people, the Pertiana 
at a nation are ttill what they u>ere 500 yiart ago. Though 
altogether a olsver and industrious people, capable of imi- 
tating almost everydiing that is prodaoed in Europe, they 
will talk to this day of the four elements beliered in in the 
days of Flato^firo, water, air and earth — and wilt not be 
convinced that all such notions have long been superseded 
by scieatilic discoveries. They stilt cling to the notion that 
the snn and all the stars revolve round the earth, which they 
believe to be motionlesa." 

Here we have the phenomenon which presents itself 
whenever we study an oriental nation. The raw material 
is good ; the individuals are equal to those of Europe— per- 
haps snperior. But the product is bad, because the machi- 
nery which works tip the material, which enlarges, classi- 
fies, and perpetuates the results of individoal clevemesB, is 

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So mach for Parsia. In like mittitier it wottld be euf 
to select a soon of qootstioiia from works on Tarkey, indi- 
eating — to those who have eyes to see — iliat the defects of 
the Tarkiah written character IiaTe • good deal to do widi 
Turkish mis^goTemment, and consequently with the natdonal 
rain to which that mis-governmeat has led. We take the 
following from a review, which appeared in the Timet, of a 
work caJled Turk$ and Oreekt, by the Hon'ble Dudley 
Campbell. " Hr. Campbell thinks the Turk far more con- 
wuentioos and self-denying than tiie majority of ChrisUans, 
and that as the resnlt of this his physical development and 
powers of endarance are far above the average. The Turk 
is never intoxicated. In trnthfalncss and fidelity he is 
generally admitted to be far superior to the other races of the 
conntry. Of the wealthier Turks many are cultivated and 
refined. .Sut they are kopeUasly ignorant of the art of 
gooemment. They are not given to travel, and aa from their 
slowness in learning foreign laugoages, and tftt di^icultt/ of 
reading their own, (it takes twelve years to learn to read 
Turkish) the majority of them are unable to gain know- 
ledge from books ; they substitute for the study of other 
nations a well assured feeling of their own sapetiority," 

Taking the Mahammadan world as a whole — con we 
shut our eyes to the foot that its condition as compared with 
Christendom is one of marked inferiority ? To what is Uiia 
inferiority due? Several answers may be given, each with 
some portion of truth. We may poiut to Christianity 
itself, or to the laws and infinence of Ancient Borne, or to the 
institutiona of Feudalism and Chivalry, as some among the 
causes which have co-operated to moke western civilization 
what it is. But we ask " How is it that the marked superi- 
ority of Christendom oyer Isl&m ia military strength, ia 

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nraterial resources, and in wealth, no lesa than in knowledge 
and in literary activity, dates from the sixteenth centnry 
onlj F " There can be bat one answer to this qnestion. The 
giant strides which western civilization has made daring 
the last four centories are doe to the " Printing-preBS." 
'£b« Uahammadan world will not progress in civilization 
till it too makes use of the Printing-press, and it will not 
make use of the Printing-press till it adopts the Botnan 

During the past month the annual examination of Tah- 
sfld&rs and Naib-Tahs{Id6rs has been held thronghont the 
Province. We would ask those who have an opportunity of 
doing so, to compare the neat appearance of the English 
questions with the untidy and blotchy look of the lithographed 
tranalations. What would candidates at an IlngUsh exami- 
nation say to papers without capitals, stops, or notes o£ 
interrogation, and disfigured by dots and smudges all over 
the page ? 

It would be easy to note in detail other defects in the 
translations which are doe to the use of the Persian charac- 
ter. We draw our readers attention to three of these. 

1. — ^The word " Dattaka," which occurs in the fourth 
question of ihe first paper on Civil Law, is lUtogether nnin- 
telligible in the lithographed vernacular, and yet it is the 
most important word of the question. 

2. — The first question of the first paper on Civil Law 
requires the candidate to define three technical terms, 
"consent" "coercion" and "sale." But it so happens that 
the XJtHl equivalent of "consent" is a compound word, and 
as the Persian character is unaided by any such devices as 
inrerted commas or stops, the Ternacular reads as though 

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the candidate were called apon to define four terms, " razi 
wa raglibat wa jabr wa baia." 

3 — Compare the third qaeetion of the second CitII 
paper as it is arranged (I) \n English and (2) iDtheYemacnlftr. 
In English it is aa follows : — 

IIL How may the following decrees be execnted ? 
For spetsific movables or recovery of wives ; 
For spedfio p«rforma&ce or reatitntioa of 

conJQgnl rights ; 
For execution of conveyances. 
In the Yemacnlar the three divisions of the qaestion 
are jombled together, and it reads (after correction of 
clerical errors) as follows ; — 

(3). Bay&n karo ki digrltlt bosb i ziul kistaruh ijr4 
ho-sakti hain khfiss sbai manqala yi b^iii aarat kh&ss dad 
rasf jk haqqiiq isdiw&j y& Ukfa&ne intiqil nima. 

The Angnst nomber of the Proceedings of the Bengal 
Asiatic Society contains an obituary notice of the late Mr. 
Blochmann. It appears that he was bom at Dresden in 1S38. 
From 1S55 to 1857 he stndied Hebrew and other Oriental 
languages at the University of Leipzig ; he afterwards 
Btndied for a short time in Paris. Be come to India in 
September 1858. At first ho appears, for want of employ- 
ment, to have been reduced to great straits, and he at one 
time enlisted in the army ; but he soon found a friend in 
Onptain Nassan Lees, through whose assistance he was ap- 
pointed to a subordinate post in the Hadrasa College in 
3860. From' 1862 to 1865 he held the Professorship of 
Mafliematics in the Doveton College, but in 1865 he rejoined 
the Madnwa. From that year to his untimely death ho 
was well known to all who take an interest in Oriental 
wsholarship. • ' ■ ' 

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We regret to annoonce the death of another diaUng' 
TiUhed savant— the Trell known f ranch Orientalist M. 
Qarcin de "^eaj. 

We have twice promiied to lay- hrfore onr readera a 
statement in the vemacnlar (from a mnnsbfs point of view) 
of the argnments for and against the introduction of the 
Boman character. We find that onr space will only allow 
ns to carry out half onr promise in the present nnmber of 
the Jonmal. We pnblish a transliteration of the article 
which appeared in the AkhMr-i-Anjuman on the snbject. 
Onr reply will appear in the next nnmber ; also a detailed 
atatemenfc of the argument in onr favor from the pen of a 
native supporter of the movement. 

We regret that onr arnuigenientB fbr transliteration 
are not yet complete. Type however has been ordered from 
England, and wiQ be available in a month or two. Apart 
from the defidenoies of oar type we have to apologize for 
ocsBsional errata in the Boman-TTrdii portion of onr Joanwl. 
These will become more rare as the printers become more 
accastomed to Bomso-T7rdii proofs. 

A " PBA.cncjU. PBtHTEB " who has bad a long experience 
of printing in Oriental type, writes to ask ns to note that 
it is usually estimated by printers that Somsn type lasts three 
times as long as the other. The small dots and fine lines 
break offor soon wear away, rendering tbe type useless for 
distinguishing the letters, accents, Ac. THare is also a great 
difficulty in truning compositors to F&rsl printing, whereaa 
the most ignorant little boy can be taught the Boman in a 
few weeks. 

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^e fine tuls on Qm block letter type are also easily 
Inoken, and iiua is odq of the main reasons why the economi- 
cal Germans are taking to Ae more substantial Roman. 

The Jonmal of the National Indian Association for Sep- 
tember contains an article by a native gentleman — N, J, 
Batnagar — on " Letter-writing in India." 

Having admitted that the Foetal Service is one of the 
(uvilizing institations which India owes to English role, snd 
havini;; also referred to the vast amount of official corre^on- 
dence which passes through the Indian Post Office, the ar- 
ticle proceeds to describe the general features of native 
correspondence — 

" In many cases the letters are written by professional 
writers who are paid a small coin for their labour by th(»e 
who know not how to writer The address may be often 
imperfect, or may contain unnecessary words. One great 
fenlt ia that there is very little space left between one word 
and another, and between one line and another ; the style is 
rude, without grace, and wanting in brevity. A logical or 
natural division into paragraphs of the whole subject matter 
is not to be expected. As many things as are to be said 
are put together, joined by conjunctions, forming a com- 
pound very difficalt to be analysed." 

In another part of his article the writer complains that 
Ids fellow oonntrymen neglect letter-writing and similar de- 
partments of literary composition. 

"The educated natives vmte little. They bare not 
learnt to keep a diary. They do not write their memoirs or 
antobiography— -not necessarily for pnblioation, bat for the 
nao of the fomily, and for the great improvement in morals 

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ud diaractor wbich is believed to be the resnit of snch prac- 
tioa. Hw want of private records ia a great diMcnltj of the 
Indiaa Inatoriao. Tiiey may tbrow ligbt open events snch 
as tite Qovemment records cannot do. They may enable 
bini to oomprehend the past better, and serve as a gmde to 
bis im^nation in the oomposition of his narrative. The 
history of tiie people of Indie is not yet written. . . . 

, So long as India possesses no 

private records, memorials and biographies, memoirs and 
diaries, letters and docaments, from the pen of persons of 
character and strong indivtdaality, to assist the lustoriac in 
his sorvey and study of the past and of the whole of the 
people of the past generation, the history of the kiod we 
want will remain nnwritten, or if written, will not have that 
Talae and that pathos which, from such works as those of 
Pepys and of the excellent wife of Colonel Hatchtoson, b»- 
kmg U> the history of the Iioglish sattoD." 

There is another article in the same Jonmal enlatled. 
" Tie Kindergarten for India." It is by an English Udy who 
was formerly in (diarge of the Qovemment Female Normal 
Sdiool in Madras. She appears to h%ve been much distressed 
by the " stnpifying " mode of taition in vogue in the village 
schools of that Presidency; indeed, she is disposed to attribate 
mnoh of the apathy of the adults to the want of intelligent 
teaching in childhood — 

" I Boppose thai the mass of Hindus who receive any 
teaching at all as children receive it in the " pial sohools." * ■ 
From what I have gathered at these schools the children ara 
in them almost from snnrise to sunset, and hour after hoar 

• ApppMCatl; a Madras sxprenion lor " primary adtoala." 
Editor* R. U. Jeamal. 


[ 1» ] 

diey sU in rows on tbeir mata ohaating m a monotraioiis tone 
tba alphabet, aumbars, lutd so on. Bverything learned ap- 
pears to be learned by rote, and chanted simaltaneonslj, nn- 
varied by qneation or explanation ; and in the few opporto- 
nitiea I bad of examining native schools (erea f^ a higher 
olasB than the " pial schools " } I almost always found ibat 
the reading in the yonnger classes was no reading at all, bat 
repetition from memory." 


Letteb fboh FBorrasoB Moktxb Williahb. 

Ai^st 29th, 1878. 

Dear Sibs, 

Tonr letter of Jnly 15th reaohed me last week, and tho 
1st nnmber of the Roman-UrdiH Journal last Tnesday. 

I need scarcely assure yon that I am most pleased to 
hear that a Society has been formed at Lahore for the pro- 
motion of the scheme I have so long advocated — the appli- 
cation of the Roman alphabet to Oriental languages. 

It ia evident from one of yonr Besolations that yon 
are aware that I have been a persistent sapnorter of tho 
Romanizing movement inangnrated by Sir Charles Trevelyaa 
and others m India. 

I was selected by Sir Charles Trevelyan to edit all the 
papers and letters which illustrate the history of the move- 
ment The resolt of my editorial labonrs was published by 
Messrs. Longman and Co. and is stiiL I believe, procnrable.* 
I also edited a Romanized edition of the S jigh-o-fiah&r, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Longman. To that work (now I tielieve 

! liKve received a copj from ait Charlea 
Mitim S, U, JMnut. 

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•nt of print) * ia prefixed an essay written by me on the 
application of the Soman alphabet to Indian languages. If 
yoa like to reprint it in yonr Journal I shall bo happy to 
Bend it to yon. 

Yon kn07, 1 dare say, that I have made free nse of what 
I call the Indo-Romanio alphabet in my Sanskrit-English 
Diotiosary, pnblished by the University of Oxford (Mao- 
millan and Co.)- In the preface to that Trork yon will find 
a statement of my views on the sobjeot of transliteration, 
and as the book is too expensive for ordinary students 
(£4-14-6) yon might like to reprint that particular aeo- 
tion of the preface, f If so, it is at yoor service. 

Be assured of my warm sympathy, and of my desire 
to aid yon in the important work yon have underlaken to 
the best of my ability. 

I am, 
Dear Sirs, 
Very faithfnlly yonrs, 

P. S. — I may also refer yon to what I have written in 
lelatioa to the Itomanizine of Urdd in the June number 
of the Contemporary Beview. The article is called " Facts 
of Indian Frogress." 

Eton CoLLxaE, WniDSOB, 

August 3Ut, 1878. 

I have received yonr letter of 15th July, forwarding the 
first nnmberof the Boman-Urdu Journal. 

The news of the formation of the Boman-Urdd Booiety 
haa given me the greatest pleasure — the more since I be- 
lieve that I can perceive in your intentions a spirit of deter- 

* Hiere is'aDothei editiaa b; Meears. Alkn and Co., which is still 

Srocorabla. But this does not contain Profesgor Monier WIIliamB' euaj, 
Te bope to reprint the eaaaj as soon as we receire a copj. 
t We hope to do m, 

EdUort S. U, Jeumal. 

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minatioD and perserenuioe foundecl on a trae appiedtijoil 
of the importance of the object of yoar Society. 

It has been a matter of regret to me for the past tbrea 
years that I coald see no way of farthering a cause, the sao- 
oesfl of which, I had no donbt, wonid brinj^ very deddad bene- 
fits to a considerable portion of the people of India. The 
formation of the Boman-Urdil Society is a new step— I hope 
I may connt it a long stride — in the progress of it. If now 
I can in any way co-operate, what time and attention I can 
spare from my daily occupation here will be freely given. 
The buttle of Itoman vernu Persian, K&garl, ana others, 
must be fought oat in India ; bat t^ere may be ways in 
which those at home can help ; to do so they mnst be kept 
aware of every step taken by your Society ; means of ob- 
taining the Roman-Ui-du Joumal (^whether by membersliip 
or otherwise) shonld be supplied in England, and attention 
should be called to it in some of the various ways which are 
at our command in this conntry. For any purpose which, 
in my present position, I could carry ont, the Society may 
command me. Meantime, I shall nope to be able to make 
some aaggestions by way of contribution to tlie Joumal. 

It is hardly necessary for me to say that I approve of 
the reprinting of my paper read before the Society of Arts. 

I remain, dear Sirs, 

Truly years, 
Assistant Haeteb, 

At Eton College. 
The Secretaries of the Romcm-Vrdu Society, Lahore. 

We reprint in this number of onr Joumal an editorial 
which appeared in the Civil and Military Gazette of August 
8th. It nua probably been already read by most of our 
Indian subscribers, but it may he new to some of onr English 
renders. In any case one object of this Joumal is to pre- 
serve everything of value which hears on the Roman-Urdd 
question. We are glad to have secured the support of the 
Pnnjab Press, and trust that other Indian newspapers will 
give their consideration to the important reform we adfo- 

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The second nnmber of the joarnal of the above Society 
contams a lecture by Mr. Fredenck Drew on " the possibility 
of applying the Homaa alphabet generally to the langu- 
ages of India," whicli sets forth in a very lucid and temper- 
ate statement the hopes and objects of those who have 
recently revived a scheme which was originated forty years 
ago in Calcutta by Sir Charles Trevelyan, in conjunction 
with four others. — Dr. Dnfif, Mr. Yates, Mr, Pearce, and Mr. 
Thomas. The subject is one of the highest pablic interest, 
and is one at the same lime peculiarly open to controversy. 
The scheme propoaod, if sncoessfnl, would work little short of 
a revolution in the system of public edncation in this country, 
and would therefore ultimately exercise a decree of inSaence 
on the mindK of the rising generations whicit could not fail 
to modify ina very importAnt degree the condition of the 
people in almost every material respect. For, necessaiilr 
as it would nffect the knowledge, the opinions, and the feel- 
ings of millions, the wave of the new educational impulse 
wonld iissuredly carry with it the weight of an immense 
power either for weal or for woe. We do not then require 
an excose for considering the aabject, and of course the first 
point of such consideration ia whether the scheme, aa now 
revived, is p(»sible. On this point we think Mr. Drew has 
made out a very good case. The transliteration of eastern 
writings for limited purposes, qaotationa from books, proper 
namea, £o.,had naturally been practised from the commence- 
ment of interest in eastern affairs, and Sir William Jones in 
1788 introduced a system to aid writers in such purposes. 
It must be qoite clear that before any individual can learn a 
foreign alphabet the character must be transliterate<l for 
him into forms with which he is familiar, to enable him to 
pronounce them at all ; or else, as in the case of the wholly 
illiterate, the sound of each letter must be pronounced for 
bim by a teacher. To reduce this phonetic teaching to a 
eystem was the aim of Sir W. Jones ; and tJiough it may be 
objected that English letters will not serve to guide a learner 
vnaoqaainted with an eastern language, say Persian, to a 
correct pronunciation, unless his tnition is completed by 
hearing ue words correctly spoken, the same objection applies 
to all teaching of foreign languages. Even when the alpnabet 
is the suae, as when an EnglLuman learns French, h« will 

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nevtr acqoire a correct promuKutioD from boolts aloiM ; nor 
would an Eoglish student of Hindnstani oomcUr pronounce 
that lansuage, onless fae heard it, even llHmgn be dioald 
leam alTthe eastern alphabets in which it is written. And 
it wonld follow Uut if an Englishman learned to read Persian 
transliterated into RomaD-Urtlu, and at the same time had 
the advantage of heariog the Persian words pn^riy pro- 
noonced by a Persian mnnshi, his knowledge of the lanensgo 
to acqnirecl wonld be, eaUri* paribut (the nnmbers of dooks 
read being the same) exactly eqoivalent to that acquired 
through the medinm of the Persian alphabet Now, if this 
argoroent be correct, and we can see no fallacy in it, the 
only practical ditBcnlty the stodent has to contend with,, is^ 
that whereas there are already a great number of books 
printed in the varions eastern characters, whereas, in fact, 
the literature of the East already exists in such characters, 
there are very few books in the Bonum-Urdd. But that ia a 
reason for, and not against, the productioa of books in the 
Boman-Urdd. Let na qaote from Mr. Drew, and we shall 
soon see a practical reason for the endeavour to sabsUtate on* 
alphabet for ten now required in the transactioD of any 
ordinary bosiness in this province : — 

In the Panjib, tlieii, we And the teaching of the aarenmieiit kImoIs 
to 1)e, for the moit part, in lime different eharacteni the Peniaii, the 
Dewanagii, (or Sanskrit), and the Bmwmji ; the two fonnBr, at tbe (»tioD ti 
the learnei, for the HindoatMii Ungate, the lait, neceatrilj, tor bulidu 
But here, in the teachjug of the Oorenunent Schools, ii not irolnded the 
motbcT tongue of the greater part of the pe<^1e of the Panjifa ; one who 
■bonld wish to leam to read and write in this matt do so through a fourth 
character, the Qunnnkhi. Nor it this all ; none of these ml enable a 
nadie to look over his acconnt at a merchant's or at a banker's, if percbanca 
he Bhonid wish to Tcrifj' an item ; for these purposes one ironlti hare to 
leam two mot« kinds of writing, the Banya and tbo Lttnde. Yet others will 
one ctone across in the Paojsb, thongh bat occaaionsllj ; still some of these 
are naed in bosiness bj Oovenment officjals. On the cnirenc? notes will be 
some writing which any one vho bat mastered the above six Unds will think 
he ODght to be able to nnderstand, jet he. will fail lo dacipber it, for this is 
in the Baogalt ohftracter ; while a receipt for money paid into one of the 
GoTemmeot treasuries will likely, among some writing of some of the sorts 
we have above enumeratad, hare writing not readable except by those 
whose education has taken a difierent lioe, for this is in tbe Kaithl charac- 
ter. Nor have we yet come to the end of the enumeration of alphabets in 
the proTince of tbe Panjab. If we go to (he hills, to the Eangia district, we 
find yet another form of writing ; and, further among the mountains, in the 
I^hol valley, we reach to where the Tibetan ohameter is nsed. After this 
ennmeratioD I tiiink you wili be ready to allow that I undei-iated nlher 
than exaggerated tbe confumon of luutds. 

That yon may tqjpredate at one gUnce tbe great nomber of chonetan 
used in the Panjtb, I here show yon a list cd ueai in the IcA-bsnd part ot 
the acoompuiyiug table :— 

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Table I.— Charactbr And Laxigvagkb ni un 

Oaraeter*. Lattguaga. 

Penrian i 

Devuagui, or Sanakrit I HindasUaL 

KAithi ) 

Gnnnnkhl I 

Bany« t Panjihl. 

TibBUn _ Tibetan, 

Bomaa Baglub. 

Some of tbeM, it will be nndantood, are much conflaed locally ■ of 
some the use is conflned to one class or trade ; oihcn, though to some 'ex- 
tend used in the Vanjib, belong to distant parts at India. But all, whether 
•eparately important <w not^ may fairly be said to have a cnmnlative effect 


Snrely a scheme which wonld reduce the number of 
alphabets from ten to one promises a practical piin. Bnt, 
Bay its opponents, there is no literature in any of these eas- 
tern Inngnages written in the Homan-Urdii character ; a long 
period mast necessarily elapse before any suf^h liteiature can 
be created, and, in the meantime, are the students to abandon 
tiie cultivation of the Arabic, Persian and Sanscrit tongues 
until all the bootee in them have been traoBliterated into 
Boman-Urdii characters ? To this we reply, certainly not. 
But let a beginning be made. Let scholars cultivate their 
learning in me perusal of their favorite authors in their ori- 
inal alphabets. Bat let all the rising generation learn tho 
ioman character. Let certain standard works be transliter- 
ated for their use. Let the yonng learii to employ that 
character for purposes of every day use, and the pronuncia- 
tion of the common words so written would speedily teach them 
Uie oorreot equivalent of sound proper to the Roman-Urda 
letters io any book of subsMuent study. There must be a 
beginning to eveiything. we are quite ready to admit that 
some years may ekpse oefore the scheme can be turned to 
(soosiderahle account. But its supporters, and we include 
ourselves in that categoir, believe that infinite facilty for the 
study of all the oriental languages would follow if one simple 
alphabet like the Roman conld be made to supplant the scores 
of varying characters now in use. 

If we take the example of the Spanish or Italian langu- 
age, no one will affirm that an Englishman could leam either 
one or the other with as mncb ease as now if its alphabet 

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were other tban his own. Not maay learned Saropean 
scholars know Hehrew or Chiaese. Bab if we desirea to 
make facilities to stady these tongnes, we cx>uld devise no 
simpler acheme than to transliterate tbem in the BomaD 

As a matter of (act, the Boman character has been 
pressed into the service of languages infinitely more difficolt 
of pronunciation than either Persian or Arabic or Sanskrit. 
The tanguagf* of the Rbasya tribes in Assam is written in it 
alone. And the Gaelic and Welsh tongues are both written 
in it alone. Bat let any one of our readers who have never 
beard Gaelic spoken try to pronounce the word faidheadalre- 
achd (prophecy), oi', who have no knowledge of Welsh, read 
the word/y -nghar (my friend). 

Yet both these langasgea are written and read hj thou- 
Bands in the Boman character. We may fairly assert that all 
the modem oriental languages would be more tractable than 

The Principal of the GU)vemment College, Lahore, has 
recorded his opinion on this subject. He says : " Suppos- 
ing now we introduce the Boman character into oot schools, 
there will bo every avidity to learn it, becanse it will be 
presumed to be a step towards the actiuisition of Enffliih. 
ITiia desire we shall not be able to satisfy as we have not 
enough teachers of English." Bat surely this is only an 
argument for more teachers of English to be provided. Dr. 
Leitner continues : " The result will be me spread of 
discontent into the villages which is now chiefly confined to 
the towns. Indeed, as it is, every boy that goes to a Govern- 
ment school does not do so for the sake of edacadon, for that 
he believes he gets elsewhere, but because he thinks that he 
has laid the authorities under some obligation to provide him 
with an appointment. The class of clerks is already getting 
loo numerous, and whereas a ta/ei/d posh, or ope who has to 
dress as a gentleman in white clothes, can be got for fourteen 
shillings a month as a vernasular clerk, as much has had 
to be paid recently for a fmr carpenter at Lahore. " 

[It may be retnark'-d, en pasiant, that the learned Princi- 
pal has himself pressed the Roman-Urdd into his service to 
explain his meaning in tlie very passage quoted here.] 

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t " J 

All tbia howeTer might bs accepted as an argnmeot 
against any education at all, insteaa of aa an argument 
against merely bcilitating education. If a thine be worth 
doing at all, it is worth doing well. The idea BUDseqnentJy 
set forth by Df. Leituer that, in atlApdng the Roman 
cbaracter to eastern languages, " the slightest accident may 
give rise to misrepresentation, and class it among the insidiona 
attempts to subvert their religion with which the natives 
ntready credit us," appears to ns n sheer absurdity. He 
Hindoo who learns me Persian alphabet does not therefore 
credit the subversion of his religion by Persians. The 
Mahammedan who woald learn Sanskrit wonid hardly be 
deterred by tlie fear of being converted to Qindooism by 
the process. 

In bee of snch opposition as this, Mr. Drew and his 
supporters may, we think, fearlessly continue their efforts in a 
very desirable and useful direction. If the Government 
would give oHectual aid in multiplying books printed in the 
Roman-Urdii character, the experiment could soon be put to 
a practini test — the use or disuse of the books themselves. 
But the production of such books must necessarily keep pace 
with the instruction nfForded in the charaoter. Both stops ' 
must be taken simultaneously. 

The argumeni of the literary man which is sometimes 
adduced ngtiinst the Itomiin-Urdii scheme, viz., that the 
introductioif of the Roman-Urdu character and the disuse of 
the vemacalar would tend to injure scholarship and depreciate 
learning, is, we apprehend, of Utile weight against the facilita- 
ting of general edncadon, which is the practical results we 
hope for. The force of a fine passage from Sadi wonid surely 
not be weakened if reiid out to n class of Btudents from a hook 
printed in the Roman character. 

It is the power of the words, and the meaning of them, 
as spoken, which makes the impression on, and elevates, the 
human mind. An eloquent preacher in Gaelic does not 
impress bis Highland hearers less because the words he reads 
to them are written in the LaUn alphabet. 

The philologist and the student of mere etymology 
might miss, perhaps, a branch of their research were the eastern 
alpWbets altogether lost. But for the professors of learning 
these characters would remain available long after, the Bomsn- 

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[ 18 ] 

Urda had beoome flie general medium of edncaUon for the val- 
gar. Dr. Leitner himself remarks very truly, " After all, 
alphabets are conTentioaalrenderings of sounds, liable fo vnri- 
ODS proDonoiafioDi evea when the same signs are osed." lbs 
■ense of words, not the form of letters, enlightens the mind of 
the reader. And any system whioh Sicilitates the study of a 
langnase by the removal of obstacles, is in itself a step in tho 
right direotim, vie., the propagation of knowledge. 

That aimpltfioation which shonld make one alphabet 
tapply the place of many, is snob a removal of obstacles, and 
we i^pUud the attempt to effect it. 


26tA Julif. 

L&hor men ohand Sihib&n i Tdropiyan ki liim4yat men 
•k " Society " is gbaraz so qaim hdf hai, ki bajil hanif i 
firalyi harfif i nastaliq ke, jin men i.} kal zab4n hke Urdi!, 
wa Firsf, waghaira,likDlj(itihain,hanif i Roman, yan( harit 
* i Angrezl, kk istiamkl kiy& j&we ; yanl hardf ansrezi hon, 
anr nn men koi zab&n, Urdu no, khw^h Fdrsf, ya Fanjibf, 
K&gri, wagbaira, likhi jfcwe. Bini&n i " Society " k& 
mnada& yibliai, ki tam&m malk men ammidman, anr ad&lat^ 
hA! Sarkari men khiudsan, hanlf I reman k4 niwAj iiyk jfcwe, 
jis se nnkl d&nist men Babdlat kitr i tabrfr men hisil hogt ; 
anr is ke al&wa nn mngh&lton se naj&t hfasil hogi, jo khatt 
i shikasta ke imm istiamil se ab paiddi bote bain, kydnki onkA 
qanl had ki kbatt i shikasta ki raw&j ab aise beohange taur 
se mnlk men taraqqi kar gayi hai, ki nske mnzirr nation 
kft dafiya siwii iske nabis hosakti, ki hardf i roman ki istia- 

Apnl ghanu ke basdl ke liye, b&nUn i " Society " na 
ek riaala i m&hwArf bhf chhf^ni shnrda kiy& hai, jisk& 
tiahU nambar sbfifa hochnki, Is b&b men, " Major J. 
JPiraona" B&hib Bahidar, '* Depnty Oommissioner," Gqjritj 
ne ek chittbi akhb&r " CteU ^ MUitarv OaxetU," Libor, mafc. 
biUa 17 Jnl&i san i hti men cbhapwi! hai, jis men Sibib i 
mansdf ne apni mnkhtasar wajdn&t adam-istim&l i hardf i 
roman ki di hain. Sbhih i mamddh farm&t« bain, ki main 
tfSM giwuhtii b&it 8&1 ke tajriba i jddlshal se kah-sakti hdn 

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I 19 J 

ki "Boman-Urda Society" kt tajwiz q&bil i anvildr^mad 
nahin nialiim hot{. Apna tahrir men S&hib i mausdf ne is 
bit par uridaUr hawr rakli& bai, ki romaii-ardd men jabtak 
barof ke upar aliinkt i rib&o wa sakiln wa gbimna, aar aar 
mokhtalif iwAzon U na di j&weoge, mamkin naUn ki talaflz 
i hariif sahih aahfh kdi. hosake, y& iblirat sihhat wa darnstf 
ks sith parbi j&sake ; aar agar hh&z ia alim&t ke tahrf r kar- 
D« k& hanif i romait mea rakhi jiwegjt ( jiskil rakhii^ la- 
badd WR Eardri hogk ), to Sibib i maosdf fanuite hain, ki 
liantf i roman ki tahnr men dochand waqt sarf bog&, ba 
nisbat luka jo firal ka likbne men sarf bota. DiisH wajh 
8&bib i mansiif yih tahrir farmfite baiD, ki amia i desf ko ab 
to de^ sijkhl aar deai qalamon par t&l diyk jati hai, ki as- 
men Birf KanWon ke dim its bain ; hardf i roman ke liyo 
kharch ba muqibila luke bahnt zijiida kamA. paregA. Aug- 
rezl likbnew&Ie ke liye mez bhf ch&, knrei Hm cb&biye, 
util jk qnfl pen bhi cb&biye, dawit bhi nsSa darkir bai, 
" blotting " kl bbi zardrat bai ; yih sab akhr^it U-badd 
kame parenge. wama k&r-raw&i na hosakegf. lib farsl to 
oabin, ki baitbe bU likhle, lete bhi qalam m4r-le ; Sdhib 
kani par taihrif rakhte bain, moharrir khara-hai, y& do- 
zind Duthi hai, khare hi khare t& baithe hi baitbe hnkm 
likh-diy& ; gharaz gbarfb tirsi ke fiye, akbr^fct i ghanbina, 
BUT ttnir aiigrezi ke liye mua&raf i amir&na darker bain, aar 
jab yih sdrnt hai to amen nibin hoaaktf, ki sarkir akhr^4i 
1 kaafr ki jo banif i roman ke iatiam&I men biz-zanir &Id 
honge, matahaiamil ho, aar aiikA rav^ ad4Iat-b^ aarki&rf 
men rathe. 

Hamire " Major P&rsons " Sihib Bahidnr ke iimda 
daliS ae bil-kall ittiG'u] i r&e hai. ISixtin i akbbir ko yiA 
hoffi ki kaohh araa hd& " Government " i Fanj&b ne bamirf 
" Bociefy " Be ba lihiz i risAIa i " Mr. Fredrick Drew " 
Bihib Bahidnr, iitafeir farmAyi thL ki ivA " Society " kl 
dioist men hanif i roman ki raw^' bajii nardf i first kf , 
2abbi-hil desf ke likbne ke lire, mooiaib aar qibil i amal- 
daramad bai y& nahln ? Iak& jaw&b " GoTemment" i Pan- 
iih kf khidmat men Anjaman-i-Pat^&b ki taraf se nafl men 
Dhej& gayi thi ; ab yih naf " Society " mnmidd wa mn&win 
i tarw0 i hardf i roman M qiim bdf hai. Hiim&ri kolli itti- 
£&q is maimala men tajnba-kir Bihib 'Dipti Kamiahnar, 
ODJr&t, kl r&e se hai, aur hamirl wajdhit ittif&q kame kl 

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L — HomaD han'if gliair zab&n ke harilf hnin ; wnh 
mun&sib i hi\ sirf nngrezt z.ibitn ke hosnkte bain, jiske liye 
wub manziia hain ; koi mun&sibat i w^lib nakl zabin-bai 
mashraqi se ualiin bosakti. Mauii ki atRmat ke istiamil se 
talafnz i s&bfh ke &dk karne mea kisiqadr sahulat bAsil ho, 
lekin desi zab&ii k& talufuz hardf i angrezi man khwab Ukb 
alamat-on ingio, s.itiib taar so &dd na hoga ; desf zab&nen 
hrilf i rom^n ko aabiib sa bil-kull bigar jawenge. aar kacbb 
desi, kucbh angrezi hoknr, ajfb bai, at ikfatiydr karaoge, jifr- 
ka natija mulk ke lijo aibiyat khar&b bogi. 

II. — Hanif i angrezi Uadid men kam hain jaol Birf 26 
hain, h^l&n-ki f&rai y& nrdii ke 35 hain ; jis zabfin ke haruf 
ba^muq&bala dilsri zab^n ke isqadr kam bon, nnmen qillat i 
baruf kuchb kam zardri wajb adam-iatiam&l i zabftn^if dfgar 
ki nahin bosakti. Yib nuqs i ,aaH y{\ paid&iabl aisa hai, ki 
aaka muBwaza kisf tarah se nahin bo-sakti ; yih m&nh ki 
angrezi men baz do haruf ke mil&ue ae ek aur Aw&z paid4 
hoj&tf hai, maslan " P. H." ke milane se fe ( <-) ) ki 4w&z, 
anr "S. H." ke mil&iie se shin < iji] ki iwkz ; lekin phir 
bbi jib bardf isqadr naqis naio, ki mnmkin nahin ki pur& 
labo labja aor aahih sabih talafuz alfaz i Urdd y& F&rsf yi 
Hindi, wagbaira, k& hariif i roman meD4dahosaki>. 

IIT. — Roman-Urdii ^o Tdrapin hakk&m i ad&lat ke 
liye kisiqadr sahiilat k4 b^is tabrir i 'shabddat \raghaira men 
ho, lekin yih sahulat likkne y& parhne k^ sirf nnben ke liye 
hogi, isliye ki angrezi unkl mfidarz&d zab4n aar hnrufi 
imgrezi unke rat Oiii ke istiam&l men hain. Isko ba wajb i 
masbAqi sbdyad jald likb bbi len, aar parh bhi len i anr 
yib aabiilat, bbi unhen jo hdsil hai, mabz ba wajh nnki 
adam-w&qiRjat yi kifl taur se wiqif na hone desi bardf wa 
desl zab&n se bai, k! wub sirf ek hi hanif anr ek hi zab&n 
acbchhi tarah se jante, anr aamajh-aakte hain, anr is liye ba 
mnq&bala i iviqinyat i hanif wo zab&n i digar, mnghfilta y& 
islitibah men nahin parh sakt«. Batr saf in tam&m faw&id 
ke bbi, jo deslon ke mnqabala men Ydrapin logon ko hdsil 
hain, mnmkin nahin, ki uiida i sahib tsbifuz "^rapin logon 
ko bbi basil bo, aar jo ajnaMyat aur mngbiirat nnhen desi 
muhAwaron aur istilahon se hai, naki muAwiiza hanif i roman 
se miljawe, ki wab talafuz bbi acbchhl, tarah ddd kame 
lagen, aur desi zabanon ke mani bhi qarir wAqii taar se 
samnjhno ke qobil hojixwen. Pas, bara nuqaan Yiirapin 
Sftbiban kl balat meu yih hogi, ki woh roman hanif k« 

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t 21 J 

MthiTO par ihorl bahot wiqifiyat deaf zabAaoa se jo htail 
ku-te tuuD, nski biBiI karnd bhi chhor dense, aar ni-v&tpfi- 
T>t i zahka i mnlk ke sabab se ab agar dahchand ghalatijan 
uzte hain, to phir sad cband kiyi kareoge. 

IV. — Boman-Urdd desi bocb&ron, fyanl amla i ftref — 
khwin) ke liye ek moslbat i Uisa bojawagi. Ba aiirat i 
imw&j i hardf ! mazkdr, ahl i amla ko aagrozl men isqadr 
mahirat paid& karni zardr hofd, ki wnh bariif i romao mea 
deaf zab&D likk saken. Istar^ goji anhen bnrhApe men 
fAlib-oI-ilm banni, aur az sar i nan kit&b dar bagbal hon& 
hogi. Agar jib kahi j6we, ki reman ke likbnew&le nat 
paad ke ftdmf, yanf nan-jaw&odn i talim — jafta, hocge, to 
yih saw61 bai, ki yih biirhe pkir kab&n j4wenge 7 imk& to 

Ehir Kbadi hi h&nz baf. Agar yih kaho, ki yib 4j na bogS, 
b^ ti^baras men jtkar bogi, jab biirhe sadb&r j&wenge, 
am aiukl jagab Dan jawin lenge, to jaw&b yib boe& ki phir 
imtid&d i aamina wa kbwibish wa mail&a i tab&la par M 
kr&n nabin rabne dete ; jaisi molk ki siirat kisl xamiaa men 
jakar bogl, as zamina men kbnd jo bon4 bogA so htqi,vreg& ; 
anr yih sabiit is bit k& biSd, ki banif i roman is zamina ke 
mnniaib i bAl nahln, anr y\h bJtt banoz ghair-maqarrar bai, 
ki kifl zamfaia men monAaib i b&l bonge. 

y. — Firs! banif se yab&o ke log — ky& Hindd anr kyi 
Hnsalnuin — isqadr miniu bogae bain, aar ank& raw^ saikrcm 
a&I se mataw&tir anr al^-l-ittisal iatarab hot& onaI4 iyi 
bai, ki mamkin nabin ki roman bardf nnkf jagab, waisi ni 
aabdIfyiU wa 4s4n£ se q&im bosaken, jo kmitt i nastaliq ko 
b&sil hai. Desi log bargiz mnsbtb&q tabrlr i banU i roman 
ke aar musbth&q nske jud parhne ke nsf tarab nabin bosaki«, 
jaise ki sb&n tabrir i f&rai anr baruf i f&rsl men desi zabfin ke 
parbne ke bain ; iski sabdt yib bai ki ek taraf ek mobarric 
ursi-khw&n ko bitbl& dijeye, anr ddsH j&nib ek angrez 
aDgrezi-khw&n ko, anr koi bay&n i w&bid zaban i Urdd men 
donon le likbw&iye ; vaqin bai ki mnbarrir nisf se bbi kam 
men as bayin ko likh leg&, anr angrez likbti U rab-jaegi. 
I^r jab wah doaon likb ten, to donon se apn& apni likW 
Iidi parbwie, yaqln bai ki TJrdd-kbw&n bil& diqqat £ar far 
parht4 j&weg&, anr angrezl-kbwan na sirf talafoz men gbote 
lagiwegd, balki atak atak kar, aar rab rab kar, parbegA. 

VL — Hardf i roman das martaba ziyada jagab apni 
ialiriT men ba mnqdbabt baruf f&rst ke lenge ; ek. ism i wfchid 

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[ 22 J 

" Bam Cband," jo f&rsf men ek n&khan bar&))ar jagali likhne 
men ch&bta hai, roman men ok satiirrokti hai. Mukht4isar 
yih, ki jitni jugah angrezi ki ek barf rokta hai Urdu k& ek 
kalima yk jumla nahin roktA ; pas ial andaza se samajh \ea& 
chAhiye, ki nngrezi ki tahrlr men bbi banisbat fdrai ke dah 
cband waqt lagegjt. 

YII. — Hariif i roman k& &inm istinm&l na sirf amli tanr 
se diqqatoD se bbarb hua hai, jaisaki hamne sadr men bajan 
kiyi, balki desi logon ko nski rawfij kf mukb&liAit men ck 
qawl hujjat yib bai, ki wuh hadim desi ulum k& bog6. Log 
jo itj kal thori bafaut Arabi, Farsf, Bind!, E^hastri, apna 
qadim, nlum i abai, sikbte bain, aur jin nlum i qadima ki 
nisbat, " Goremment" k& mansha bai, ki desi log Bikhon, 
ba silrat i raw&j i hanif i roman log nnki taraf se bilkull 
rii-gard&n bojawenge, aar jab dekhenge ki busiil i mulaziniat 
i sar.V&r ki aahl zariaa, angrezi se ia darja tak w^qifiyat h&sit 
kamA hai, ki &dnii banif i mazkdr men apn& matliil) ad& kar 
\iyk kare, to firsi, Arabi, Shastrf kit&boii kojuzdfinon men 
lapet kar, Uk par dbar denge, anr angrezi ko hi orhna 
bichbaun& bani lenge. Natija jih bo^&, oesf logon ki b^lat 
badarjab^, us ee bad):ar bojawegi, jo ab bai, aur jo jila baz 
ashkhas men talim i Arabi wa FiirsI waghaira aa bod hai, 
wuh bb( na rabegi, anr yih log sirf tiiti pbiitl Angrezi-khwan 
bongo, jo nlm-tar angrezi bol len aur thori bahnt likb len, 
aur phir talfish i rongar men mare mfire pbiren ; tinkfc hai 
phir anr bhi ziyidatar qibil i rahm bojawegd, kytinki Sbistrf, 
Arabi, waghaira, to iinse mutlaq yA ^nqarib cbhut jiwegl. 
Bahi angrezi, ao nmed naliin ki imm iflas i mnlk (jo nat^a 
desi logon ki bl ghaflat ki hai, aur jisko liye hahut knchh 
wuhi mulzim hain) unben kafi mublat is bit ki de, ki wnh 
takniila zab^n i angrezi k& karen. Mundarja i bili kbiss 
qabtibdt nisbat rawAj i hariif 1 roman hain, jo hamire khiyil 
men is waqt dsakti bain. Hariif i Firsi ki nisbat bari hhkri 
ittiriz yih kiyi Jati hai, ki Sbikasta hariif be-nuqat ko jistarah 
chaho parb-lo, anr is wajh se inuqaddamit i jal paicfi bote 
bain. Ek adoi kami wa besbf karncso bari bbari jaUsizI 
hariif i Firsi ke zariaa se hosakti hai. Hamare nazdfk jis- 
qadr jil-siz(Sn ab hotl hain banif i roman se kuchh kam oa 
hojawengo. Jfil jaise bote bain kam o besb baribar bote 
rabengo, aur bamesha se bote ie bain. Hun, tadibfrl 
mundarja i ztiil ba ikbtirir i sarkir baiii, jo maujiida qabiihat 
ke rokuc ke liye boni cLihiyen, 

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[ 23 ] 

L — Turapfn Itukk&ni kiit tanr se zabaii-h4i desi se wAqif 
nafain bote ; nnkf ni-Traqifijat y& k&fi taur ae wiqif zabkn- 
h&i desf ae na bona ae bare bare fatur anr khar&bidn wdqiit 
hoti bain. Pas, aiae was&il soucbe jdwen jinae Yilrapin huk- 
k&m ko ziy&datar w&qitlyat zab&n-h4{ desi ee bo, yam isqadr 
kifi bOjjis sa wab Urdii kar-rawdion ka biisn wa qubb ko 
apnf iokhon se dekb sakeo, aar kliad unk{ jancb part&l kar 
liyi karen, pesbi ka mabarriron anr Barrisbtodaron ke, ia 
bab men moiitAj na rab& karen. 

ir. — Sirf wob log d&kbil i amia i Farsl huA karen, jo 
p^klza kliatt i naataliq likb sakte hon, jinki imli-snh{b bo, 
anr jo ib&rat i safba muh&vrnra i sabih likbne ke q&bil bon. 
Baz naziren aise dekhe jate haia ' ki ek sfaakhs " E.ttra 
Assistant" bogay& bat, lekin iin\k tak saUh nabfn likh 
aakti, aa nae ibfirat i sabib qibil i fabm likbne k& saliqa bai. 
Jab yib bil nske mddda i ilmi ka bai, to kyii nmed bosakti 
bai ki wnb apaa far&iz i mansabl aisi acbchhf tarab se &dk 
karta boe4 jaiseki kami ch&biya ? go m4n4 ki wab qdnna 
kt tang thon babat torti bai, lekin sirf yibi ekamr to nahfa, 
jia se admi mnstabiqq i taraqqf bosake. 

III. — T^kid kfjawe ki adAlaton ki tam&m kar-rawAi'oo 
men bad-kbatti sa qatal ijtinab kiya jawe, anr jnmla k&gbaz&t 
i sarkaK khatt i abnsta o s&f meq likbe jaen ; Jo k&gbaz 
haruf ! Shikasta wa be nuqat men bo, yak-lakht mnstaradd 
kiyi j&wa, anr nski diisrf naqi bad-kbatt likbne wala ki aarf 
se ku^{ j&we. Jnb aiae t&kidi abkam jlir{ bonge, to mum- 
kin nabln ki sbikiyat i manjiida boaake, y& kol wajb nske 
kiye jAne ki bo. Pichhle zamaiia ke taKm-yofta faraf- 
khw&non baz ab bbi sab se aaU nbdon par mdinilr bain, jo 
ek desi abakbs ko milaakte bain ; unke kbatt nihdyat Biinsta 
vs p&k{za bain, anr nnkd m4dda i ilral wa qibiliyat va 
janbai- i zfitl, dalil unki sabit-qadami ki, unke tam&m kAr- 
o-b&r i zindagt men bai. lake bar-kbi!Af dekba gavA, ki jo 
log nai tahzib ka parcbhAwin apne lipar ddlnA ^bte bain, 
wnb bidiin wkqif none aali kb&bi-bAi tabzib i mazkiir aar 
bilA libiiz is amr ke, ki wub dil se kosbisb ia bit kf karea 
ki na tabzib se wAqil f^da litbAen, takmlla i tabzib isl ko 
Bamajbte bain, ki angrezi par ki qalam aur angrezi dawAfc 
se farsi kA kbiin karen ; unki tabiir na to Urdii hi hot! 
bai, na angrezi, mil milAkar kucbb ajib qism ki hojati bai ; 
kyi kbdbTiotA ki ya to wiib pure angrezi-kbwAn bi bote 
aar angrezi likhtc, ya pure farsi-khwaa bote aur fArsi k& 

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[ 24 J 

haqq Ad& katte I P»s, " (SoTorameat " ko dekhnS ciAhiye, 
ki u qism ke Dim f&rsf-khw&n loe firsi amla men naakar na 
hone p4yA karen, aar airf zi-istitM^ log mal&ziin bn& karen, 
jinkl taHm nmda asAl par hdt ho j phir yaqfn hai ki 
shikdrat jo fkni-hanlif ke istiamil ki nisbat kabia kahin 
kijfttl hai, bilkaU mafqtid bojAwe. Faqat. 

(from th0 Aft^M^PanjUb, and the Audh " Pimc*.") 

Ek Bandar H €^S> kdr^^ravH, 
Ek " J&ri" k4 akbb&r bay&n karU hai ; ki ek Angrazi 
daktar ke p&s ek qadd-6war anr bosby&r bandar bili h&k tha ; 
jia ko wnh apne k^ kame ko kamre men apne haairih 
rakhte the. 

Jab ki wnh mnrdon ko chfr& pbir& karte the ; to tu 
bandar ne bhi, akaar murdon ko cbirte hiie dekhi th& ; anr 
na par bohnt mntawajjih rahi kart& thi. 

Ek roz jab ki wnh apne m&lik ke sitb, komre men 
akela baith& m& tb&, na na z&hir& dil men yih soobA, ki ab 
apne m41ik ko yih dikhini ch^iye, ki n« ne apnA roz kfc 
sabaq khilb y&d kar \iy& hai ; nsne Dfiktar SAhio ko pakar- 
kar, zabardaatl mez par lit&y& ; qarlb th&, ki oUr pbir ke 
hnnar dikblae, ma^ar kbair biil, ki chand log D&ktar SAhib 
. ke ghal o shor se, imd4d ko pahnnch gae ; anr nn ko aahOi 
wa aalimat an ke sb&gird i rashid wa aud ke h&th ae ni^ 

LAHesB :— Pimm ax Eui D^ai^ at tiii " a ft H. Qizim " faam. 

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To advocate the uw <^tJte Roman Atpkahet m Orittdal 


pbuhbd akd published fob thb fbofbibtobb ako 
pi10m0tsb3 at thb "civil and milltabr 




:,.ndty Google 

No* 6 November i8y8. 

Proceediivja of the Monthly Meeting of the Roman- UrM 

Society, held at the Lahore College, on t/i« 

26iA Octofcer 1878. 

Majok Holbotd m the ohaib. 

1. The October ntimber of the Journal was laid before 
the Meeting, also several pablioations leceived from Sir 
Charles Trereljan. 

2. Letters were read from Sir Charles TreTeljan, "Pro- 
feasor Monier Williams and Mr. Fredrick Drew, and also 
from Messrs. Allen and Oo. 

3. The qaestion of admitting honorarj' members was 
bronght forward, and it was de<nded that at present it would 
not he e^cpedient to admit sach members. 

4. A paper entitled "The Edacation of Earopeaos is 
the Oriental Laogoages " was laid before the Meeting. It 
is pabliahed below. 


OuB opponents sometimes meet ns with tiie tannt — 
" Yon wish to change the time-honored alphabets of India, 
merely to Bait the conrenienceof a few thousand Europeans," 

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The taunt U a pi>or ono. la the first place those who 
make it are extremely iDConsiatent ia their own condnct. 
They complain of ns for seeking to establish one legible and 
aniform charcter in the pUce of aerenty or more illegible 
varifitieB of writing ; while &.«y theraselree, withoot the 
slightest somple, cover the conntry with purely English 
institntions, many of which coaM well be dispensed with, 
and they force the nse of the English langnage inhundreds of 
cases where the vernacular of the country expressed iu a 
legible character would be far more suitable. 

But it is not our intention to press this tu guoque 
in the present issue of onr Journal. We prefer to take our 
stand on the stronger and indeed nnaasailable ground tliat 
the education of Europeans in the vemacalars, and even in 
the classical languages of the conntry which they are called 
upon to govern, is a matter of extreme importance to the 
State and to the people of India. As a corollary to this, we 
maintain that a proposal which will facilitate the study of 
oriental languages by Europeans deserves the snpport of 
•very well-wisher of India. 

Do not misrepresent ne. We are not advooating Hm 
nse of ^le Boman alphabet merely to facilitate the learning 
of Eastern languages by Europeans. This is at best but r 
seoondary object of the great work we have set before ns. 
But it is on£ of the advantages, and by no means an anin^ 
portont one, of the reform we advocate. 

Perhaps some of onr opponents, while admitting our 
premisses thus far, will c^lenge our oonclusion by denying 
what we assert to be a fact — the greater &cihty (to 
Europeans) of stndying tlie Eastern hugoages through 
the Roman character. To these we would say : — " Have yoq 
erer made a fur trial of both systems ? If not, yon cannot 

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be ocmsiclered oompel^nt jndgee." There are bondreds of 
Earopeans who ara better oriental scholars titao we pretend 
to be, bnt let any <me of these stand oq one side of a tables 
with a lithogr^hed (or even a printed) copy ofa bookie the 
Persian character, and let as stand on the other side of the 
table with the same book correctly printed ia the Soman 
diaracter ; then let as see which (tf the two can read witli 
greater Baaaey and correctness. 

Learing the controversy at this point, we proceed — 
for this is the object of oor present article — to offer a 
few BQggestions to those Earopeaos who may he willing to 
accept our gnidance without cjudlenging the principles on 
which it is founded. 

Let as, however, remark that we are not ofiering lug- 
gestions to those who may wish to pass particalar examina- 
tions. They are of coarse bound by the practice of the 
examinations themselves. The reform of the examination 
•ystem is indeed (me of the objects which our society has in 
Tiew, but the advice which we give in the following para- 
graphs is not intended for candidates at this examination or 
at that^ hot generally for those Europeans who, from a con- 
flcientions de»re to do thmr work in life well, or from 
a love of the languages themselves, are willing to study them 
without the incentive of examination rewards. 

One fundamental distinction must be accepted at the 
outsat. I^ere is a marked difference between a " Lower 
Standard " and a " Higher Standard " proficiency in all 
oriental languages. Bo far we agree with existing Examina- 
tion Boles. One section of the European community in 
- India may fairly be expected to acquire a thorough and 
scholarly knowledge of one or more of the Lidian laogoqgea. 
From another section all that we can reosooably expect is 

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that ihay ahottld be able to express tbemselves wiili tolerabis 
flaency in matters of everyday life, and that they should be 
able to read with the aid of a Dictionary, The Hij^er 
Standard shonld be the aim of all who are connected with 
tlie Edacational Department, of Missionaries, of Civil and 
Political Officers, and of those who devote themselves to the 
stody <rf the languages from purely literary motives. Tha 
Lower Standard may be the aim of Officers and Men ia 
European Regiments, of Merchants, of Railway Officials, of 
all temporary residents from the highest Officer of the State 
down to the toarist and the sportsman, and of all £aropeaii 

Now, addressing ourselves first to those whom we have 
described b& " Lower Standard " students of HinddBtAoI, we 
woald say emphatically — " Do not waste yonr time in fruit- 
less endeavours to acquire the colloquial through the veroa- 
cular c^mcters. A knowledge of the Persian-Urdii alphabet 
is indeed a help (though not indispeusable) to » correct use 
of the Roman-0rdii diaraoter ; but an elementary knowledge 
is all that you need be anxious to acquire. Do not be misled 
by those who tell yoa that practice will make the Persian 
character as easy as the German or the Qreek. The cases 
are not pftrallel. The German and Qreek alphabets are 
indeed inferior to the Roman, but they share some of its 
advantages, and aro infinitely superior to all varieties of 
oriental writing. Throw in your lot boldly with as. Yoa 
cannot, it is true, acquire the langoages of the East, any more 
than you can acquire Latin or French, without study. Yoa 
cannot learn to read without constant reference to a Diction- 
ary. You cannot learn to speak without daily practice. 
Yon cannot acquire a correct pronunciation without the aid 
of a native teacher. So far Romau-Urdii and Persian-UrdiS 
Me on a level, but by using the Rotnaa alphabet you will get 

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over ten times the groand wbich wonid be possible wiUi tbe 
PermaD obaraoter ; and you will be able to do tbia witb far 
less wasto of mental and bodily energy. Frocnre first 
Eolroyd's Tdsbil-nl-kaUm, Forbe's Manual, Forbe's small 
Soman-Urdu Dictionary, and one of the small Englisb and 
TTrdii Dictionaries vrbicb are sold at tbe GoTemment Depdt 
at Lahore. As yoor reading books, get a copy of the New 
Testament (or if yoa prefer it, of Ihe whole Bible), a copy of 
the B&gh-o-Bahir, and a copy of the Pilgrim's Progress, nil in 
Poman-Urdii. We hope soon to add to tbe list of reading 
books from which a selection may be made, bnt at present 
these snggest tbemselves as the most suitable. The Roman- 
ized editions of the B&gh-o-Bah6r and tbe Pilgrim's Progress 
are oonreoient and portable books, tbe former having a 
TOCabDlary attached to it for the beginner's assistance. There 
is one edition of the New Testament which gives the English 
and Urdu in parallel columns. It may be well to nse this 
at times, though reference to the English ought not to inter- 
fere with the nse of the Dictionary. We may here remark 
that there are many instances on record of men who have 
become accomplished lingoists solely by tbe stady of the 
Sible in the langnages which they were learning. The pre- 
Tions familiarity with its contents, which most Eoropeans 
may be supposed to possess, facilitates the acquisition of 
foreign words, and at the same time does not tond — as tbe 
use of a translation sometimes does — to foster habits of 
indolence and inattontion. 

While suggesting these toxt boolcs and manuals as suffi- 
cient for those who aim only at a Lower Standard of profici- 
ency in Hiudiist^ni, we do not advise them to dispense with 
the oral instmction of a munslil. Here, however, the learner 
may find a difficulty. There are at present very few profes- 
aional monsbis who have been accastomed to teach ilomaa- 


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Urdd. Bnt tbis difficaUy may be ovaroome by a little penover- 
ance. Those whom we are addressing will presmnaUy em- 
ploy tntors who have aomo knowledge of Bnglieh. If they 
will also ioaist oa a knowledge of Romui-Urdii as n iieceaaary 
qnalification, and will torn a deaf ear to the coansel whi<^ 
mnnshfs will give them to study the Persian character, they 
will soon find their demand prodooe a supply. Moreover, it 
is possible to utilize the assistance of a innnshi even though 
he should be ignorant of the^Roman character. The student 
can read his own text-book, while the mnn»h( listens, explains 
the meaning of the passage, and corrects his pupil's pronnnciar 
tioa. At the same time it is obvious that a munshi who has not 
studied Roman-Urdu will have some difficulty in correcting 
his pnpil orthography, unless the latter is familiar with the 
names of the Persiun letters. It is therefore an advantage, 
even for those whom we have designated " Lower Standard" 
students, to acquire a knowledge of the Persian alphabet and 
an elementary acquaintance with the character of Persian 

Now as to pronunciation. It is sometimes asserted 
that the use of the Roman character will vitiate a learners 
proannciation. We deny this. Of course the ehaotie repro- 
Mntation of Indian words in the Roman character doet vitiate 
tiie pronunciation. But these corrupters of the language, 
the men who write Cabool for E&bul, and whose predecessors 
converted Suriijnddaula into " Sir Roger Dowler," are not 
supporters of the Romanizing movement. They are among 
its bitter opponents, and with good reason, for they know 
that they must learn to spell before they can write Bomao- 

Confining oar remarks then to the Jonesian system of 
tnuulitanition, we say that a European who learns Hindtb- 

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Uhil Bole^ or diiefly throngh it, is more likely (other thinjjs 
being eqaa]) to acqaire a correct proDnociation than one who 
leania solelj or obiefly throngh the Peraiao. There are 
come Missionaries who hare atadied chiefly through the 
Pntqnn chuacter, to whose correct prooanciation we might 
appeal in aapport of this asaertion. Those letters which 
bare an nnGuniliar soniid, — ain and ghain, qaf, he and khe, 
tiie cerebrals and the aspirated consonants, — most be distinctly 
printed ; bat if this be done, they are more easily recognised 
in tlie Roman character than in Fereian. Correct spelling 
ia — with most men not bom in the oonntry — an essential to 
correct pronunciation, and the student who learns throngh the 
Boraan character on the Jonesian system is more likely to 
spell correctiy than he who trosts to the indistinct and illegi- 
ble Persian. 

We have hitherto been addressing those who are new to 
file oonnby and its language, and whose object we suppose 
it to be to aoqoire a knowledge of the colloquial sufficient for 
practical purposes, without any pretence to scholarship or 
literary proficiency. 

We now turn to those of our readers who do seek lite- 
raiy profidency in the oriental languages, to those whom we 
^teaignate " Higher Standard " students. In addressing 
these we have no right, and we have no wish to assume an 
"ex cathedra" tone. There are many men in the country, 
and ont of it, ^o were oriental scholars before We knew the 
difference between " (ilif " and " be." There are others who 
are flnshed with recent examination triumphs, and who enjoy 
■U the advantages of the " latest from school." 

Still, to one and all of these we offer a few anggestlons, 
which we trust they will take in good part. 

W« do not pretMvi that a " Higher Standard " stadeiit 

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can master the oriental langoages withoni stadymg the 
characters in which they are written. The time may come- 
indeed we are sure that it wilt come— when stadents of 
Persian and Sanskrit will acquire a scholarly knowledge of 
those langnages withont studying manascripts and lithographs, 
just as a olnsaical scholar becomes proficient in Latin and 
Greek withonf. studying rolls of papyrus or tablets of wax. 
But tlie day when this will be possible is still distant. The 
oriental classics have not yet been transliterated ; the oppo- 
nents of transliteration still control our system of tuition and 
examination ; and the " ehikasta " still reigns in oar 
Government. Conrta. The study of the native characters 
is therefore at present unavoidable where the stndent wishes 
to become a proficient oriental scholar. 

Bat we maintain that the Roman character may with 
advantage be nsed to a much greater extent than it has' been 
hitherto, even by those who devote a portion of their time to 
the atndy of the oriental classics in their present form. The 
advantage of nsing the Koman. character in Dictionaries will 
be partially admitted by all. In a future isane of this 
Journal we hope to point ont the help which Sanskrit 
Bcholarsbip has gained from the extensive nse of the Boman 
character in Monier Williams* Dictionary. As to Urdii and 
Persian, there are net many Earopeans who will pretend that 
the " GbiyAs-ul-Lngh&t " and the " Farhang-i-Rashtdf " are 
as convenient for reference as " Forbes " and " Bicbardson." 

Again, most Europeans will, we imagine, admit that the 
Tloman character is more convenient than the Persian for 
pocket memoranda and manuscript vocabolaries, snch as 
indnstrions students like to keep for their own instntction. 

But there are other nses to which l^e Boman character 
might with advantage be pat We hare often wished for a 

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natiTe tTrdd or Persian Gh-ammar, expressing all the distinc- 
tions and tecbaicaUties of Persian acoidenoe and syntax 
M oriental terrtu^ Such Gmmmars exist in the Persiao 
character, bat the difficulty of referenoe ia so great that they 
are practically useless to ordinary Europeans. There are of 
coarse the Grammars of oriental languages, which haTO been 
prepared by Europeans themselves or from an European 
stand-point, but we are now asking for an elaborate Gram- 
mar from a Native scholars stand-point, and yet we wish it to 
be provided with every conceivable aid which the printer and 
the book-binder can give to facilitate daily reference. 

Would not such a Grammar be appreciated by all who are 
interested in Persian scholarship 7 If the fands of our infant 
Bodety permit it, or if we can get funds for the purpose from 
the Punjab Government, or from the Senate of the Punjab 
University, we shall regard the publication of a series of 
eni^ transliterated Grammars as one of our earliest duties. 

We might easily glide from this point to Uie considera- 
tion of other educational works and of oriental literature 
generally, and might show that in every branch of oriental 
study the use of the Roman character would augment onr 
fodlities for oriental sdiokrahip ten-fold ; but in oar present 
article we must restrioi ourselves to practical adyice such as 
our readers may act npon at once, without waiting for the 
zaalization of dreams. 

We proceed therefore to offer a decidedly prnctical 
suggestion to onr " Higher Standard " strnJents, especially to 
those of them who have youth on their side, and who wish to 
prosecute Uieir oriental studies with zeal. We say to them — 
" Have you ever tried the transliteration or the combined 
translation and transliteration of a book as a means of 
improTing yoar own knowledge of the language ? i£ notj 

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make flie expenmeot, and jon will not regret having dons 
w). Transliterate one of the oriental olassica, or traoalate 
soma Bnit&Ue English work into Roman-lTrdii for the 
1>enefit of the BomaD-Urdii Society. Oar funds will not 
tinffioe to pnblish all snch works for jou, bat we may be 
ible to parchaae a oertwn anmber of copies, where we can- 
not undertake the total coat of pablication?' 

'We Bpenk front experience when we say that there is no 
exercise more nsefnl or more pleasant than this for the 
stadent of an oriental language. If yonr work is merely 
transliteration, we wontd say. — " Do not take the labor of 
preparing the first draft of your transliterated manuscript 
yourself. Why shonld you waste your time, which is worth 
from Bs. EOO to Bs. 1,000 a month, on work which a 
munshl will do for yon at Ra. 15. Select a munshi who 
las some knowledge of the Roman alphabet Deter- 
mine for yonrsfllf certain moot points of detail regarding; 
which the practice of Roman-0rdii writers is not quite nni- 
form. Then explun the system of transliteration to yonr 
munshf. He will learn to write ^rly well in a fortnight. 
Provide him with blank books for the raaaascript. Insist oB 
his writing his words with interrala between them, and bia 
Knes with a wide space for interlinear correction. As the 
manoaoript is intended for the Press, it most be written 
on one side only. Of course the work will require some 
raperrision while in the hands oF the mnnehi, but your sys- 
tematio revision of the whol e manuscript may be deferred till 
the munshi has completed bis transliteration, and till yoa 
yonrself have leisure to spare. 

Then, it is tme, you will have a considerable amount of 
laTjor before you. Ton mast read the Romanised manoacript 
Utrongh leatence by sentence. Unless your mnnsU be an 

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asceptiondly good one^ 70a inll find nnmerons' errors and 
inoonsisteDoiefl in his work. 1^ orthographj, his panctaa- 
tioos, his dirision into seateaoes and paragraphs, his n«a of 
o^iital letters- and of italics, will aU reqaire improremenk 
As yoa proceed with yoor revision yoa may not nnfreqaently 
find it necessary to oonsult the original Persian, to search 
for word»ia some anthoritatire Dictionary, and at times tO' 
take the advice of native scholar;, bnt all this will fie pFeaaant 
and improving work. It will be more diffioiilfc than corrects 
ingan Boglish ntaDosoript (brthe press, bnt it will be woric 
af somewhat the- sann kind. With every sentence thatyow 
revise yonr knowledge of the Ungoage will inoreaas, and! 
at the end of your labor yon will have the satisfaction of 
knowing, that yoa have added something to. the worlda 
literary store. 

NoWy in oonclvsion, let ns add a, word abont the Kaobahrf 
diikasta. It may seem paradoxical to s^ so, bat we main- 
tain that tAe kaehaltri thikatta could beat be studied by a 
young European through the medium of the Roman Alphabets 
The secret of Baocess in reading the shikasta is to know the 
ordinary kachahri langoage, aod especially egressions of 
frequent oocnrrence, Uiorongbly well. Let a book, or a series. 
oS books, be prepared containiDg transliterations of vemaoalar 
records of all kinds aod of every stage. Let there be a civil 
aoit record, a criminal record, a police record, a miscellane- 
ons orpoblio works record, and aseriesgf settlement papers, 
nil in the Roman character. Bet your candidate to work on 
these itntil he has mastered the vocabulary and the mannerism. 
of the venuumlar office, and then give Mm the shikaata 

Oar present paper has grown to snch dimensions that we- 
BBst postpone some remarks which we had proposed to moke- 

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regarding Fanj&bf and Fasbtu to a future issne. It is 
obriona that moet of oar argameats apply witb even greater 
force to languages whiob are porelj colloquial than to tfaoee 
which are literary as well, 

EorroBiAL Notes. 

Our last number contained letters from Professor Monier 
Williams and Mr. Freil. Drew. In our present nnial>er we 
pablish two letters, which one of our Secretaries has received 
from Sir Charles Trevelyan on the subject of the Society's 

It will be seen from the Report of our raontlily Meeting 
that our Society has decided not to elect honorary members 
at present. Some of our members, who were anxious to 
secure the cooperation of the Missionary body, thouglit that 
this might best be done by admitting them as honorary 
members. But the more general opinion appears to be that 
it would not he expedient to admit any section of the com- 
mnnity on exceptional terms. The rate of sabscriptaon has 
purposely been kept low, so that we may secure the support 
of all classes, whether European or Native. The first object 
of oar Socieby is to ronse public interest in the subject of 
transliteration, and to offer in its own list of members an 
index of the extent to wbioh that interest is felt. The small 
gabscription which is required from members is, at any rate, 
a gnarantee that onr list of supporters ia a real, not a fictitious 

Although it has been decided not to elect honorary 
members, we wish it to he understood that we are most 
anxious to secure &e co-operation of the Missionary body on 
the ordinary terms of membership. The Misaionariea lure 

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liitlierto 1>een ihe piintupal aapportera <ff the Boman-nrdd 
novemeot. W© gratefaily aobnowledge oar obligatioas to 
them in thia respect The frreat iDnjorit^ of them, so &t 
u Nortliern India is coDcemed, accept the principle of oqe 
Society, and man/ of them could bring to oar asaietanoe the 
pens of flkilled Roman- Urdii writers. Oar Society does not 
wish to identify itaelf with Christian propagandiem, or to 
ronse th« antagonism of other religions, bat on the other 
hand, we can assure the Missionaries that the Tiews (hey 
hold, and the work in which they are engaged, will always ba 
regarded by us with respect. 

There is a common gromid of morality— expressed in 
tax oat of the ten Commandments — which is accepted by 
Hindus and Mnhammadans as well as by ourselves, and we 
believe that the leaders of the Hindil and Muhammadan 
community would be grateful for any educational reform in 
which more stress could be laid on this brunch of education 
ttian has been done hitherto. Here then we have a common 
platform on which we may invite the cooperation of the 
Missionary body without descending to controTersial topics. 

Generally, the Missionaries have been foremost in 
•very matter connected with the welfare of our Indian 
fellow-subjects. They have given na some of our best 
oriental scholars. They have taken tiie lead in English 
•dncatioo. In times of pestilence and famine they have 
been aa zealous in the relief of Hiadds and Muhammadana 
as in that of their own converts. We may then appeal to 
them to give their support to the Romim-Urdil Society whose 
work they admit to be a good one, though, as we have said. 
Christian propagandism is not a part of its programme. 

Hie " Lawrence Gazette," a vernacular paper pabtished 

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ftt Mem^i (anglice "tfeenit") contains' a Tong notice of 
Kiibol affiun from verbal informstion given hy a K&bali 
frait^eller. The infonmtioD, tiioitgli obvisosly EcUtiona in 
■ome respects, lias in tiie main an air of tntt& aboat it. li 
iroold fao'vraver scarcely be worih onr while to transliterate 
the whole article. A few parficnlar? rmty be noted for tb* 
infomuttion of onr readers. The merohairt: left K&bnl on the 
iOik Romz^, arriving at Pe^traron the Tlnst Friday of that 
month. Before his departure a proclamation had been iasned 
hj the Amir prohibiting the departure of the k&filaa for 
India, bnt the merchant, tlioagfa not allowed to bring his 
k&fila, received permission to go alone torecover items which 
were ontstanding to him in India from last jearr acconnt. 
Be was repeatedly searched on the road lest he ghonld be tbo 
bearer of some secret correspon<Ienoe. The ' movements of 
troops towards All Masjtd had jost commenced when- the 
merchant left. 

According to his statement Hnsaian emissaries have been 
coming to Kibnl for fonr or five years past, thongh this is the 
first time tliat they have remained for any lenglji of time 

The mercbant says that the pay of the Amir's troops 
bad been ten or eleven months in arrear, bnt a partial pay- 
ment was made just before be left 

The people generally are BMd to be dissatisfied' with tlifr 
Amir's poliffy. They had frequently petitioned for the 
release of Yaqiib Kh&n, but up to the time of the merdiants 
departnrehe was still in prison. The hope of the people was 
that political events — whether through tlie agency of the 
Indian Government or throngh that of Russia — ^wonld lead 
to the deposition of ^er Ali in favor of Ys^iib Kixia. 

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The Avdh "" Fanch " of SHi October contains a cartoon 
d^iotiog Eagland, Bosnaand Kibnl. K&bal is repraseDted 
«a s domb fitgore bolding a drawn sword, while Bassia atands 
behind, biddea from view, pnlling ihe ropea which move the 
figures limbs. England is represented as "John Ball," in 
military uniform, reading the report of the Amir's refusal to 
leceive Sir Neville Chamberlain's mission. Uodemeath is 
written a couplet which appears to have been borrowed 
£t>m some Urdu poet — 

" KAth ko kab yih salfqa thi jaf4— k^r[ men ? 
" Col masbilq hai is parda i zangjiri men I 
togeOier with a qaotatioD from one of the English papers — 
" It is Bossio, not Kibnl, with whom we are reallj 

A Tomacnlar comic paper has been started at Labor under 
the title "Akhbiron ke qibla-gih i Libanr" or "Punjab 
Fanch." The former of these titles gives the current 
Sluhammadan year ( 1295 ) by " abjad " reckoning. 

The Constantinople " Akhtar " of 5th September eon- 
tains an article entitled " Sadma i dfgar bar danlat i Usm&nfa " 
in which it condemns the policy of the English Government 
in occupying Cyprus. 

He extent to which En^sh words are forcing their way 
into the Indian vemaoulars is remarkaUe. Every year, nay 
every month and week, their number increases. Yariona in- 
flences, proceeding from different quarters, tend to produce 
this result. One class of words is imported by kaohahri 
mnnshfs and vakils from the phraseology of English law ; 
aooQier class is introdnoed by native doctors and medical 

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atadenta from fhe teobnicalitiea of medical scuenoe j native 
officials on tbe Railway ase a third jargon which is often 
aiiiiil«lligible in the Persian character ; while domestic ser- 
vants, camp-followers, and other sections of the natire oom- 
mnoitj in tbe lower ranks of life add a flaToring of Cockney 
Tolgarity to their own corraptions of HinUi!ist4nI. 

This change in the rernacalars of India cannot bo uvoided. 
In many reapects it is an obvions advantage, for it 
widens the field of native thought and familiarizes orientals 
with the conntJesB prodncts of western civilization. Bat 
al&oagh the change cannot be rpststed and need not in 
itself be regretted, t( requires to be guided. This guidance 
can only be given by the co-operation of educated Enropeans 
and of educated Natives on a common gronnd, and that com- 

■ mon ground is to be found in the Roman character. As it 
is, Europeans — even those who profess to he oriental schoUrs— 
cannot afford the time to trace each foreign word as it 
forces its way into the vernacular writings of tbe day, and 
neither European nor Native scholars can ever get a comprs- 
hentive view of even a small section of tbe written language. 
Give us a vernacular book in tbe Romnn c^racter and wa 

■ will engage to note, amend and ( if necessary ) remove every 
English wordin tbe course of a few minutes. Give us tbe same 
book in the Persian character and this resnlt will only be 
obtained after weeks of exhausting labor and distressing 
donbt. Adopt tbe Roman character, and a healthy criticism 

founded on a general eonaensua of educated opinion and tatte 

a criticism altogether different from the carping and cavilling 
spirit which at present passes for criticism in oriental scholar- 
flhip— will determine for those interested what English words 
are to be accepted, when they may be used, and how far 
tiieir speliing may or may not be modified io soit tlie phone- 

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tic ^vtem Kod tbe geoios of Uie adopiing Iimgtiflge. A» 
Hr. Drew rwiurka, tlie adoption o{ Out B(«naii oliaraoter 
will laitd to this important rAsaU that " tho rongli pt^jpa* 
liko gwRllowiBg " wlu<^ at present obaraotemet tbe aoqaisi* 
tioD of Eogli^ words, will " giTe way to a faealtii7 assimila- 

He remarks whicli we Lave jnat made with reference- to 
the acqaisitioD of foreign words generally, apply with spednl 
force to the ose of " proper names," These oeoeBaarily swarm. 
i 1 the veraacalar papers as they do in all Huropsan news^ 
piq^ers. In most Indian vemacnlar papers an attempt is 
made to represent fhe " proper name," whatever it may be, 
aoGording to the EInglisfa pronanciation. On the other hand, 
m ^ " Akhtar," a Persian newspaper poblished at, Constan- 
tioopla,to which we hare already drawn onr readeis attention-, 
£aropean names generally, thongh not by any means nni- 
Jbnnly, appear in their French dress. It is noteworthy that 
tLe T«maoalar orthography even of oriental names is bnng. 
gradoaUy a^oted by the cormpt spelling of Snglish writers. 
We have instances of this in two namus which are just 
juw in most people's moaUis, " Qaetta " and " Cypma" 
Wa believe we are right in saying that the so-called " Qnetta" 
is properly tiie Persian " Q!ta&" At any rate we have seen 
it written in this -mey. Now, however,, (he Lahore editor» 
more freqaeotiy ^ell it " Kwetta " to flnit the English 
pronanciation. So again the Persian " Akhtar " calls- 
Qrpms ^ Qnbris " or " Qabris," bat o<ir Lahore contempom-^ 
iM« boldly speak of the island as " Saipras- " according to onr 
proonnoiation. It wonld be easy to give oUier instances of 
ehanges <^ this kind in voraaoular orthography. Upon Ae 
whole, Bodi ohaoges may be welcomed rather than condemned. 
In any ease we cannot bUme the vernacnlar editwa 

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[ 18 ] 
for iheir inooDBistoades ia this respect No man, English or 
Kative, can carry a whole Qazetteer ia his head at once. 
There are no Qazetteers, or similar woi^ of Qeograpbical 
referenoe worth menUoniag, in the Temacnlar, and if there 
were it woald be impoaaible to find proper names in them, 
or to read snch names when fonnd. So the editors are com- 
pelled to devise their own spelling as well ns they can from 
the English, and as those English writers who have not 
accepted the Jonesian system of transliteration spell oriental 
names without any regard to oriental orthography, the nn- 
fortnnate Native editor who borrows his information 
from them must make a gness at the spelling most likely to 
convey the ordinary English pronunciation. 

This question of proper names leads us to notice what 
may be considered a defect in Roman- Qrdii writing and 
printing, which ought to be remedied before any exten- 
sive plan of transliteration is carried out It is admits 
ted that European and especially English proper names are 
becoming every day more common in vernacular writing, 
and it will also be admitted by all reasonable men that such 
words, at any rate, can be bettor expressed in the Roman 
character than in the Persian. But then a dilHcalty arises. 
The spelling of many of such words is not phonetic. How 
are these words to be treated F Are they to retain their un- 
phonetio orthograpy, or to change iheir spelling to suit their 
pronunciation ? To this qaestion the answer would seem to 
be, that wherever the names have become thoroughly assimi- 
lated so that the general consensus of educated opinion and 
taste will allow a change of orthograpliy so far as the native 
vemacnlars are concerned, this will be the preferable coarse 
to take. For instance, in a text book of geography intended for 
the nse of Native schools, it might be expedient to spell 

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*• London" " Landan," as it; is already spelt in the Persian 
diaracter. Bat it is obvious tliat proper names of this kind 
most freqnently appear in Roman-Urdii writing in their 
original on-phonetic dress. Especially mnst this be the case 
with the names of living persons. As J. P, remarked in one 
of liis letters to the " Civil and Military," it would scarcely 
be gratifying to " Mosars. Brown, Jones and Snooks" to see 
their names written in Boman-Urdd as " 8&hib&n Briin 
Jnnia anr Isnnkis." 

Well, to meet this diffionlty, all that is necessary is to 
adopt some printers device, some typographical mark to 
pnt the Native reader on his gnard that the word before him 
is a foreign word not governed by the ordinary phonetic rnles. 
What shall this mark be ? We shall be glad if oar readers 
will offer any suggestion that may occnr to them. 

We have two snch devices ready for nse in " italics" and 
"inverted commas," and hitherto Roman-Urdii writers have 
made nse of these devices in this way, though not aniformlr 
or consistently. It would however be better to have somo 
•man dittinetive mark not already appropriated to other 
porposes. At present we are inclined to advocate the use 
of a line over the name in mannscript, and the nse of tmall 
eapiiaU in print. Where necessary the phonetic spelling 
might be added in brackets. Thus, the English nnme 
" Cholmondely" might appear in Boman-Urdii as " Chol- 
KOKDiLY (YAWI Chamli "), the French name " Gamier de 
Oaesagnao" as " GiRMiaa db Ca88AQhac (tani Gabkik 
DA Kassantak) ", the Italian " Guieciardini " as " Guic- 
CUBDUfl" (tani GwiCHABDun). 

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We reprint ftn article whiob appeared in tbe " Pioneer** 
^ Octeber tbe Slat. It will be eeen from this that tlie 
" Pioneer," as well as the " Givll and Military Ghizette,^ givea 
iU support to the movement we hiiTe inaagnrated. We are 
eonfident that the adhesion of Ha whole Anglo-Indian preai 
m only a ([nestion of time. 


The Panjab is evidently (be conntry of edooaiional 
progress. It is only the other day that Lahore began to 
T^oioe in ite Eiatedafodd, where native bards should assemble 
and ring changes on the limited stock of conventional images, 
which make op what is called Eastern poetry. Now we 
have a movement betokening no less intelleotnal activi^, 
thongh hardly in the some direction. Fonr mondis ago, the 
first number of the Roman-Urdu journal issned from one of 
the presses of the old Sikh capital. The journal is the voio* 
of a sooiety bearing the same name, which has undertaken the 
task of sapplanting the Persian and Hindi by the Roman oba- 
racter, in newspapers, in books, and in the oonrts of law. So 
far as one can jndge from tiie Society's proceedings, thil 
revolntion is to be effected by extensive oorrespcKidenoek 
The war cerreipondenoe of the Daily JV<!U« does not appear 
to the ordinary ebserver to have any obvious relation with 
Roman-Urdu ; bat the Society oontrives to make a point by 
asking whether Mr. Forbes's letten would have been eqaallj 
intelligible "if the Penian character had been that of 
telegraphy." Acritic objects that the natural movement of 
the right hand is from right to left, as in Persian writing. 
The Editor gravely reminds him that on reaching the end 
of a line, the writer has to carry hia band back again. It is 
more encouraging to learn that the Punjab has already one 

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Bonum-TTrdit nempiiper, and HuA anotber is aboat to be 
atarted. The Society may &irly be congratalated on tbis 
hat, as well as oa the boldness with which it pablishea 
adTBTse opinions in its own jonrnal. The contents of th« 
September aomber, indeed, are for the moat part hostile 
oriticUm. Bnt with a good oaose, and such ingenaity as ha« 
been ezflmptified above, a conGdentattitndeiasnrely justifiable. 
The opponents of the Roman-Urda method may be 
dirided into two classes. There are the old Indians, who 
are wedded to the present fashion of conducting official bnsi- 
nee». Then tbere are the thorongb-going Orientalists, to 
v^m the languages and civilisation of the East are things 
admirable in themselTea. The former party possess an in- 
Qtlcolable power of obstmctirenesa ; the latter a great 
literary reputation ; and between the two, the Roman-Urdn 
oause seems rather a desperate one. Yet there can be no 
question that it has common sense on its side. Nothing but 
hiexorable oeceaaity can justify a system ander which ninety 
per cent of official records are undecipherable by the Euro- 
pean mlers of the country. There was a time, of course, 
when no other plan was possible. SarTivala from tbis andent 
state of things may be traced oocasionally even in our most 
modem legislation. Kot to apeak of the Board's circulars, 
are not tibe rules of the new Criminal Procedure Code, re- 
gardiog the recording of evidence, based on the assnmptioQ 
HaA the vemacnlar record is the most trnstworthy, and that 
jodicul officers either cannot, or as a rule do not, ioke down 
anyUiing in English except a brief memorandum of each 
witneaa*B story? The logical inference would be that ihe 
superior ooarts should dedde appeals on the vernacular 
record ; a practice which obtains nowhere. No officer who 
sets any valae on his time will consent to have read out to 

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[ 22 ] 

bim what he can read for himaelf. If legible Boman-Urda 
Were to take the place of the ahxkatta to-morrow, one cer- 
tain result would be the saving of a great number of nseleas 
orders, given on mistaken or imperfect apprehension of oases. 
How many an interminable partition case would be settled 
at once, to everybody's satisfaction, if only the assistant col- 
lector could take the mial home and go through it there as 
he would an English file. At present the pergannah olerk 
is master of the situation. The mors he has to read, the 
greater the certninty that the sahib's thoughts will be a 
thoosand leagues away before he gets to the end, so that it 
will naturally devolve upon him, the homble minister, to 
suggest some comfortable routine order which will save the 
trouble of a repetition of the dreary monologue, and wilt 
shelve the ca^e for a month. This style of doing business 
has its charms for those who can reconcile themselves to it, 
like the old sessions judge who liked to lean back in his 
chair, and let the evidence, read out to him in the vemacnlar, 
prodace a general effect upon his mind. But for work that 
shall be at once quick, accurate, and to the pnrpose, the 
present system of illegible shikaata reports is essentiallj 
ill adapted. 

There are only two ways of effecting a remedy short of 
banishing the vemacalar languages entirely from official 
records. One is, to insist upon a thorough aoqoaiatiuioo 
with the shikcuta on the part of English officers ; the other, 
to introduce the Roman character. Experience has long ago 
proved the first alternative to be an impossibility. Hie 
departmental examinations in all branches of the Govern- 
ment service require that the candidate shall be able to spell 
oat ao ordinary petition. Subsequent practice prevents him 
from losing this qualification, but not one man in twenty hu 

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[ »3 1 

the time or ihe apUtmde for carrying it beyond the most 
elementary stage. Ko district officer in India can afford to 
devote ao hour every moruing to perfecting himself in read- 
ing a character esaentially barbarous. If the macb-needed 
change is ever to be effected, it certainly will not be by 
making the European officer stoop to the level of hia 
moonahee. As for the objections raised in hosts against the 
revprse process, many of them are of a purely fantastic 
diaracter. Snch, for instance, ia the difficulty made about 
diacritical marks. In the vast majority of cases, these marks 
would not be needed at all ; and for the rest, a single mark 
would ognallj suffice to make the meaning clear. Less rapid 
penmanship would no doubt be mode under the new system 
in tho beginning ; but practice might confidently be expected 
to remove this disadvantage. The Persian character possesses 
no saperiority over the Sngliah in this respect. An unques- 
tiouable criterion of the relative value of the two characters 
is to be found in the fact that while respectable Oriental 
scholars can rarely write the Persian letter with any grace, 
the verteet tyro of a Baboo cap turn oat page after page of 
penmanship like copy-book headings. Dr. Leitner, however, 
sees in this only the inferiority of the English alphabet Ho 
dreads fatal injury to the vernacular languages, if a " foreign 
and poor" alphabet be snbstitnted for their " rich indigenous 
ones" Ihe Doctor is warranted in speaking with authority; 
but so eminent a philologist might havo remembered that 
vhat has happened to inflexions must surely happen to 
alphabets also. The most extensively spoken language of 
the world is that which is least troubled with inflexions ; and 
the asefninese of any language will always depend largely 
upon the facility of acquiring it. The nice distinction of 
sonnde, which Dr. Leitner regards as suth aa admirable 

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[ " ] 

feature of Urdu, is really bo modi saparflaoos labonr; md if 
Englisbmen persist, and will persist to the end of time, in 
i^oriuj these dis Li net ions altogether, their conversation ia 
nererthelesa safBciently intelligible to natives for all praoUoal 
purposes. Indeed, the best speakers of Urdu unoiij; oar 
coatitrymen are those who have the gift of going on flsentiy, 
in atter disregard of phonetic^ and Teiy often nlso of gnun- 
matioal exigencies. Roman-Urda would simply abridge tlw 
alphabet for the convenienoe of English readers. The Bonuin 
writing nioonshee woald still observe all tlie nice distinctions 
in readinjT over liis record. Bat in troth Dr. Leitoec's 
prepossessions in favonr of the East leave him hardly sjoafc 
jodge on a question like the present The introdnotion of tho 
Roman character, be tells ns, will be considered by the 
masses as an insidious attempt to opset their religion. We 
^<^ we have heard the same thing sud on two or three 
previous occasions. It has been the sto<^ ar^ment against 
reform in India any time these fifty years. If it were worth 
a button, this country should at the present day have no 
Englieh edocation, no vemaoolar edocation on English 
methods, no native medical service, ne vaccination, no me^ 
sores agninst infanticide, no security for the life of the 
Hindu widow, no prohibilaon of self-immi^tion before Jog- 
gemath. The Bast, says Dr. Leitner, is the home now, as 
3,000 years ago, of mental discipline, culture, and repose. 
^Hiere can be no manner of donbt about tiie repose,-— whiob 
ill-mannered people call torpor, — ^but as for mental discipline 
and culture we fear that the East has yet to wait for its Mill 
and its Matthew Arnold. 

The dispute between the thikatta and the Boman oharacter, 
as a mere literary question, is no doubt interesting, hot 
threatens to be rather long. If the Ourientalista will wander 

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•way to His Excellency tbo Persian Ambassador's Perso- 
Arabic type, and to tbe pertinent inquiry wliy we do not 
teach Romanised Qreek in oar schools, there can be no reason 
why &e argument shanld not last till the end of all things. 
Hm practical aspect of the matter is of more importance. 
Local Qovemments have now the management of thoir own 
ooortg of law. Where shall we find one enlightened and 
oossistent enongh to tindertake a reform ontvying that mode 
'bj Lord William Bentinck ? An expression of will on th« 
|>srt of oar mlers is all that is wanted. Let a fair ferm be 
allotted for winding np the wretched old Urdn-Persian 
eoncem, say, ten years or so ; and meanwhile let the aae of 
the BofPflp oharaoter be rationally encouraged. There will 
be no lack of oompetent writers at the end of the period. 
Nor woald the legibility of vemacalar records be the only 
adrantage. An aqnally great blessing, immediately follow- 
tog £rom it, wonld be an eflicioat system of record-keeping. 
Pistriot work wonld be &r more interesting, far less labor- 
ious, and far better and more quickly done, if the droniug 
ftikJcar were superseded everywhere by neat Romanized files, 
bearing tiieir own history on the face of them, written in no 
noknowB dioracter and needing no iaterpteter. 


8. GBoevKSOK Cbescbnt, 
6th September, 1878. 

Dbab Mb. T , 

flunks for yonr tetter— yon have made a good com- 
mencement with yoor Roman- [Jrda Society ; and this time, 
1 think, the object will be attiuned — not, of coarse, quickly, 
but by a gradual nnintemipt«d progression increasing in 
flteengtfa and Tolnme as time goes on. 

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[ 26 1 

On the only point on wliicii yon asked mft for infor- 
mation I wrote to Profesaor Monier Williams and endoBe bis 
answer. Yon and yonr colleague would do well to write on 
bebalf of the Society to Professor Monier Williams, Dr. 
Boat, and every otber person in England or on tiie coniineDt 
of Europe wbo would be likely to furDish yon with such 
information, asking for lists of Books in tbe oriental langu- 
ages and Roman cbaraoter, with detailt of price, pt^lither, 4^., 
80 tbat you nray compile a catalogue to be revised from 
time to time as new works are prioted. Tbe oironUtion 
of Bucli a ooinprebengive list would enoonrajie tbe move- 
ment by shewing at one point of view wliat is being done, 
often in qaite unexpected qnarters, and fumiahing a medium 
of communication between those who bave to sell, and those 
who wish to buy, such pnblications. 

It is interesting to observe that the oldest and purest 
of the Yedos nnd the Hiiidiist&iii Bible bave been among 
the first works transliterated. This will place tbe Bible in 
tbe position it ongbt to bold, of a popular clataical work for 
■all India ; and the less doctrinal and more moral parts of it 
upon which all must agree — the sermon on the Mount for 
instance — onglit to be printed by tbe hundred of thousand. 

Two things may reasonably be expected of tbe Govern- 
ment — tliftt they should all'iw fair play among tbe different 
alphabetical systems by permitting the use of the Roman 
letters in tbe Courts and Offices of Government in common 
with other letters, and by providing for instruction in them 
in the Schools and Colleges subsidised by the Government 
to itie extent to which there it a demand for such intlruction. 
More than this, however, will be done when real attention 
is given to the subject. To give facility and confidence to 
the intercoarse between Europeans and Natives may be said 

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[ 27 ] 
to be t)ie Alpba and Omega of Indian adrerinistration, anct 
notlting wonld more condar>e to this than to enable theuv 
to meet in the half-way house of the native langnage ex< 
pressed in the Earopean charnoter. The simplicity of the 
means are ns remarkable as the grentness of the result. 
Tbo native anbordin^tea in the Revenue, Judioial, Police-, 
Public Works and other departments are, for the most part, 
familiar with the appearance and power of the Roman 
letters, and most of tbem know how to write in them, so 
that all that is really necessary is that they ^onld be exer- 
cised for a few hoars or days in writing- thek own langnage 
according to tbe system of notation which has been already 
prescribed for the names of native places and persons — and 
fntare candidates woidd, of coarse, come prepared. 

I shall be prood to be a member (^yoor Society, and 
will pay mj subscription in advance (I) 100 mpees, £ 10,. 
if yoa will tell me where to pay it. Pray send me yonr pub- 
lications, and, if required, I caa contribate more hereafter.. 

Believe me, 
Sincerely yours,. 
P. 8. — On looking again at yonr letter, I see that there- 
is still another point on which you ask me for information— tbo 
" Phonetic Spelling Society." I advise yon to have nothing 
to say to it. It woold only complicate and perplex your 
flnbject, and wonld raise a mass of prftjudice against it — for, 
however correct they may be in theory, these reformers 
have undertaken an utterly impracticable task. Your busi- 
ness is tramliUraiion, the aiinple snbstitntion of one vocal 
sign for another. Yon have nothing to do with alteration* 
of upellxng. The spelling of the Indian langnages is fur 

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Boperior to ours, and requires do improremuit from as. It 
is alreadt/ perfectly phonetic.* 

C. E. T. 

No. 2. 

8(A Stptember 1B7S. 
Mt Dbab Mr. T , 

I send by book-posta copy of tbe " Bermon oo the Moant" 
in BindiLst&ui and English, with a Qlossary at tbe end, whieh 
I printed for the use of the Earopeaa scJdiers at Madras. 
Among the other advantages of this system, it enables persons 
who hare not been trained to orercome literary dif&cnlties 
to enter at once npon the stndy of the native languages, and 
with the help of s few simple text-books every European tn 
every branch of administration whose dutiea bring Mm into 
eomrmtmeationvnth the people o/'fAa oountry might be required 
to got a popalar practical knowledge of their laogaage. A 
neatly got np edition of tbe " Sermon on the Monnt," however, 
sold at a very low fignre, wonld have a much wider dronla- 
iion than this. X will give ten poands towards it if it dioold 
be nodertaken. 

I am glad to see that attention has been already directed 
to the importance of pnblishing a obeap popular I>icti(Htar7. 
Tbe nudertaking originated in a Dictionary (Mr. Thomson's 
humble £nglish and Urdd Vocabulary), and, in tbe present 
intellectual st^e of India, whoever furnishes sacb a key to 
unlock the langaages of rulers and people, and place them 
in olose relation to each other, will outstrip all competitors. 
The superiority of the Homnn letters in a>mpaoinee$, pertpi- 

* We do not intend to idenH^ out eanae witb that of the Bugliah 
Phonetic Spelling Bocietj. Wo &aked for its address thinking that it might 
•ometinies di^ius aubjecta wtuah wonld be of interest to oar readen, 
Editprt R, O, SooUtj/, 

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[ «9 ] 
euilt/ and MOnomy, U more decided ia the getting Dp of a 
DicUooar; Hum of any other book, which will be at once 
apparent if yon consider what any Dictionary entirely in the 
Roman letters wontd swell to if the nntive portion were io 
the old charaoters— DeBozario's Eiiglisb, Bengali and Hin- 
ddstinf, or Uooier Williams' Sanskrit Dictionaries for 
instance. I asaiated Mr. DeRozario with the HindiSstfinf 
part of his Dictionary as far aa tbn letter F ; and, as I dare 
say tbe completed book is now difficult to be got, I send my 
copy of it. I also send the first part of an English UrdA 
and Hindi Dictionary by Mathnr& Fras&d Misr, bnt whether 
it was carried farther I do not know. 

The Diotionary now wanted is one in English and 
Siitdvslani only. Major Holroyd knows that I mean by 
Hinddat&nl, neither the high Conrt Persianised and Arabi- 
cued dialect, nor pare Prakit with every Persian im' Arabic 
word ezdsed ; bat that language of the everyday life of towns 
which it equally understood in the country parts. To explain 
my meaning more fully I will try to find for yoa the record 
of a disonssion on this point which took place when I was 
President of the Board of Examiners at Calcntta. This is sent 
by book-post, and also other minates and oorrespondence of 
whi(^ great ase might be made now that tbe subject is 
really to the front. To be nsefnl and popnlar, tbe Diction- 
ary should be io two parts — English explained by Hinddst&ni, 
and Hindiist&n( explained by English, bat, above all things, 
it shoald be as brief and -cheap as potsUtU, and should be 
based rather npon the pocket Dictionaries for Continental 
travel than npon Johnson. More elaborate works may be 
produced at leisure after this primary need has been satis- 
fied. (Vheu yoar plan has been matared I will gladly oon- 
tribate towards the expense. 

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[ 30 ] 

Bestdea tho catalogue of Romaa letter irorks to which 
I nlladed ia my last, I woald recommed yonr forming a cot- 
leetUm of the vBorkt themtelvea ai Lahore a$/ara» they can b& 
got. The atody of compnmtive Philology will be facilitated 
in a very practical and interesting manner by redncing all 
the Indian langnages to one standard and regarding them 
from one point of view. I believe I gave you a copy of the 
" Sermon on the Monnt " in tlie four Sonth-India languages. 
The Roman letters have taken root in the Garrow and Khasis 
hills, and I believe also in Upper Assam (Sadiya) wberethey- 
were introdnoed by Mr. Brown, the American Missionary, 
Yon should also eittend yonr inquiries to Java where the 
Dutch applied the llamaa letters to the Mabiy language from 
an early period ; and Ualtcse, which is entirely baaed npoii 
Arabic, has always been so expressed. It would be well to 
have a few elementary books in Pashtii, for, under every 
system of policy, we are certain to have more to do with the 
Afghans. For merely philological pnrposes a short list of 
primary words and two or three selected passages, to be 
rendered into the local native language, suffice. 

I will conclude with an observation which may be 
saperfluoos in the present advanced stage of the undertaking. 
When we began we provided separate equivalents for all the 
Kagari, Persian, and Arabic letters, even if they were identic- 
al in sound, in order to meet the objections of gainsayers-^at 
as time went on it was seen fhat this was nnnecessary. It 
is enoagh that every separate soand shonld have its distinct- 
ive sign, and even so the tendency will be towards simpli- 
ficatioii. Arabic gutturals are already dropped in the popular 
Indian languages, and in writing many distincdte marks 
will be omitted as nnnecessary for onderstanding what is 

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I look forward witli interest to Mr. Dick's Hbtory of 
Oxo QoTornment, and yoar Robinson Crnsoe. I shall also be 
glad to have Ifajor Holrojd's Basdm-i-Hind iu ita Bomaa 

Believe me, 

Sincerely yonrs, 

The olgects of thia Jonmal, and of tbe Society witb 
which it is connected, are explained by the series of Beso- 
lationa passed at the Meeting orgaaising the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which were published 
in the first nomber of this Joamal. 

We ask all who are interested in the morement to give 
as their sopporL Those who may wish to join the Society 
are reqaested to send their names, with the sabscriptions for 
the year, Bs. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman- Urdu 
Society, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of the 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolutions 
passed at tbe Meeting on the 25th May, and invite aabsorip- 
tioQS to the " Transliteration Fond." 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
have not yet sent in their names and sabscriptions. We 
trnst that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
ns by canvassing for fresh numbers, and by circulating oar 
Jonmal among both Enropeans and Natives in the Stations, 
where they reside. 

Contribntions on any of die various subjects connected 
with transliteration, translation and edacation generally, 
are earnestly solicited from Members of the Society. 

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LiHoU i—Pbditxd bx Bah Du, at tbe " C. k U. QAZMm" Phih. 



To adcoeaU the use of the Roman Alphabet in Oriental 







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No. 7 December i8y8. 

The asual Monthly Meeting of our Society yraa held 
at, the Lahore College on Saturday, the 30tli November. The 
Seci-etariea' reply to the Akhbir-i-Aujuman was read to the 

Pandit Bh&D Datt presented a paper in Hindi, entitled 
*' Bbirat Biishan," on the subject of the Roman Alphabet. 
It will be noticed in a sabsequent number of onr Jonrnal. 

A Bill has been introduced Into the Legislative Coancil 
to make better provision for recording evidence in the Centml 
Provinces. The statement of objects and reasons contains 
the following paragrnph i-^ 

"The condition of the Central Provinces is somewhat 
peculiar as regards the languages used in the different local 
Courts. Hindf, Hinddstfint, Mnr&thf, Uriya and Telugn — 
languages widely differing from one another — are all in use 
in different Courts, and the Native Judges of the subordi- 
nate Courts are often unnble to write fluently the language 
of the district in which they are employed." Apparently it 
is the practice in the Central Provinces for the J ndge to 
take a note of the evidence of each witness in his own (the 
Judge's) language or in English, and this note takes the 
place of the double record (Bnglish as well as Yemaoolar) 
which is prepared in our Panjab Courts, 

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Oar readers bavfi probably seen the report of the Pro- 
ceedings of tbe Oovemor General's Cotincil with regard to 
the VernaGoliir Press Act Amendment Bill. The distinction 
which has been drawn by the Yemncalar Press Act is 
fonnded — ^perhaps anconscionsly so far as its originators are 
concerned— on the principle which forms the basis of oar 
Society's work, viz., the principle that the it»e of the Oriental 
vharactere ii incotuietent with the higher phatei of cioilisied 
life. Some have been pnzzled at the apparent inconsistency 
of a policy which has imposed special legislation on the 
vemncnlnr press, while leaving the native editors of English 
newspapers as nnshackled as their Enropean rivab. In 
reality, the distinction, so far from being inconsistent, is one 
. of primary importance. Whether it was expedient to impose 
restrictions on the vernaonlar press is of conrse a question 
regarding which different opinions may be entertained, Bnt 
whatever our opinion may be as to this, we maintain that 
the gnlf between jonrnalism in the Komon character, and 
joumalisa in any of the Oriental characters, is so great that 
oar legislators are justified in taking cognizance of iL The 
contents of an English newspaper are matter of pnblic noto- 
riety. Those of a vernacular newspaper are only known to 
fhe limited cliqne who spell ont its mysterious symbols, and 
to those who receive their information through that limited 
clique without the power of verifying it. The oontenia of 
a newspaper in the printed Roman character are certain. 
!niey can be criti<3zed and argned against^ and if necessary 
the editor can be sited for libel or prosecatad for sedition 
without the possibility of his sheltering himself behind ambi- 
gaities and uncertainties of style. Hie English press is practi- 
cally under a censorship of its own — the best of all censor* 
ships — that of " public opinion." On the other hand, the 

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t 3 J 
grooves in wbioh the veraacalar press mrts are too vftrioas 
and too aarrow for any " pubtio ojiioon " to develope under 
its iofliieace. Let our native friends accept the Romao- 
dumcter, a character which is adapted for type-printings 
and which may be read without the training <^ari "expert." 
We shall then take sides with them, and say that there is n<p 
ftood ground for special legislation in the case of the " Koh-i- 
Ntir " or the " Panjahi " any more than there is in the case of 
the " Hindoo Patriot" and the " Indian Mirror." 

la the course of his speech on the Yemacnlar Press Act 
Dr. Thornton referred to an absurd article which had appeared 
in one of the Delhi newspapers, the " Mihr-i-darakhsh&n."' 

" In the pages of this brilliant periodical there appeared 
in the month of July last an article the object of which is to 
prove the race-identity between the Hindd and the English- 
man. This proposition, my Lord, is supported, is seriously 
supported, by the following arguments r — 

" Argument the first.—' There is a tribe of people in 
Surope called the Datch— Daksha is the name of one of tbo 
sons of Brahma.' 

"Argument the seoond. — ' In the Urdii langnage Khat- 
rin means a woman of the K/uitri caste — one of the wives 
of King Henry the Eighth of England was called 

" Argument the third. — ' Both Englishmen and Hin- 
dus — bathe daily.' 

"Argument tlie fourth. — Both Englishmen and Hindiis— 
eat poik. Birih or the hog b the name of an incarnation 
of Yishnn ; and Bacon is a common name in England.' 

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[ i ] 

" Argument the fifth. — ' EDglisIiwoineii and Hindii 
women — wear petticoats.' 

" And now comes an argument wliicli our anther evi- 
dently cousiders (to use a a familiar phmse) the clincher. 
It is as follows : — ' Some Hindiis wear the Brahmanical 
thread — Englishmen wear braces.' 

Dr. Thornton quoted this abenrd vernacular article "to 
give the public some idea of the stage of mental development 
at which the mass of our population has arrived." 

To appreciate the full importof the preceding paragraphs 
we most remember that the writers and readers of this 
nonsense are necessarily " munshis," tluit ia to say, are 
supposed to be educated men. There are un-edncated mea 
in all conntries, bnt we aak — can a parallel be found to the 
" mental development " ( ? ) which these extracts indicate, 
among the literary claas of any nation which uses the Roman 
alphabet ? 

Native Society at Lahore has suffered a loss in the death 
of Pandit Jowfila Natb, who was probably known to most 
of our readers. Our own acquaintance with him was nr>b 
of many months standing, but that acquaiatance, short though 
it was, justified ns in regarding him as one of the most 
intelligent native gentlemen in the Province. His death was 
remarkably sudden. 

Th% death of another Panj&b celebrity, D{w£n Jow&la 
Sah4I, Prime Minister or £x'Prime Minister of Kashmir, 
has also occurred since our lost issue. 

The Jonmal of the National Indian Assomtion has 
published two articles on the Boman alphabet by Mr. 

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[ 5 ] 

Frederic Fincott. We hope to paUish these with Bome 
notes of our own. 

The subject has also been noticed ( though adversely ) 
hy the Atheineum and by Saunders' Irish Daily News. 

The Overland Mail of November 8tb, under the heading 
"literary, Artistic and Scientific," favors us with the fol- 
lowing information : — ' 

"It is said that Shere AH has some pretensions to be a 
man of letters, as he has translated " Robinson Crusoe" front 
the Urdi into Persian." Evidently the writer in the Over- 
land Mail bag confounded "AmirSher AH" with " Munslii 
6her Ali" &e translator of " Robinson Crusoe," whose work 
has been romanized and edited by a member of our 

The cartoons of the "Audh Panch," though roughly 
executed, show considerable artistic skill. Some npparetitly 
are copied from "Fun" and the "Indian Charivari," but 
others appear to be originnl. In one of these England is 
represented as a Doctor offering medicine to Kfibul ' with 
the words "Well, Amir I turn ko yih ploihogd," to which 
K&hul rephes "Bih&l sdate taammul farmi I " In a second, 
the Czar and the Amir are seateil in olose converse behind ft 
wall, while John Bull is overhearing their conversation — 

Cz&B. — " Shimla ke elchi se turn, y&r I mnUq&t h( na 
karni I" 

Amir. — " Tnm zimmaw4r bote ho ? BhalA, ham-ko 
nipai se madad doge ?" 

CZAB.— " W4h 1 yih kahne ki bit hai ?" 

Enqi^bd. — " Aohohha, hachcha I" 

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[ 6 1 
Id a third cartoon are representations of owr " former '* 
and of our " present " policy towards Kilml. In both cases 
John Bull is riding a donkey, bat in one he is keeping the 
donkey at full speed by means of a " tobra" held in front of 
it and labelled " wazifa," white in the other he ia belaboring 
tiie recalcitrant Neddy with a stick. 

We publish in this number of onr Jonmal onr reply 
(in Romiin-Urdu) to the article which appeared on that 
subject in the Akhbdr-i-Anjuman-i-Punjib, and which we 
republished in the Hoinan character in our iasae for October. 

"We have sent a copy of onr reply in the Persian 
character to the Editor of the Akhbir-i-Anjuman, who will 
donbtlesa give it a place in his own colnmns. 

Khidmat men Sdhib Muhtamtm i AkJtb&r^-Atijuman-UPanjdh. 
MuBATTiB Sahib Salamat, 

Ap ne apne akhbdr men, ba tarfkh 26 mah i JuUi , 
chand wajdhat qalam-band fariii&f, jinkd mazmun yih hai, ki 
banif i Roman waste zab&n-h4e Urdu, wa Fara/, waghaira 
qibil i amal-dar4mad nahin hain. 

lUqim&n kli (jo " Boman-Urdd Society" ke Sikattar 
hain) yih ir&da bai, \i apne chand kalim&t, ba tanr i 
jawab tahrfr karen ; ap az rah i mibrb&n! apne akhbar men 
daij farm&iye. 

Awwal to yih ehlkiyat hm, ki iSp ne,- jaiai ki chiliiye 
thA, hamiiri " Society " ki wajiihat ko nahin mntilaa kiyfi. 
Albatta, itn& qasiir ham&ra hhi hai, ki jo tazkara is mab&hasa 

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[ 1 ] 

ki bam&ri " Society " ke okhbir men ki}'Aj6t& liai, wah 
aksar Angresi zaban men hota hai. I<ekin risala " Mr. 
Frederick Drew " Sahib k& Urdu zab&a men tai-juma kiji 
gayi, balki Pirsl bariif men chhApi gayi. Pas, jih iltimis 
hai, ki £p as tarjama ko khwAh Anjuman-i-Panjab, kbwjih 
Anjoman-i-Roman-Urdu ke daftar se mangwdkar, bahs wa 
hajjats&hib mamddh ke achchbC tarah ae mntdlaa karen. 
Insba-aU&ba-ta61& ham bhf apne akhbftr men nidh ba m&h 
anr anr wajdhat Urdu zaban men chhip& karenge. 
Bany&d ham&re daw£ ke tin hain— 
Awwal yih, ki giinSgiia hunif ki iatiamil honi tamam 
dnnyfc men amdinan aur is mnik i Hind men kbosdsan ilm 
ko aib&yat mozirr bai, balki ek b&b bad-iatiz&mi ki hai 
>i OS se ittib&d wa ittifaq kbalq-oll&h ke kam hote bain. 

Doyam yih, ki akaar katub i ilm wa hikmat jia par i\ 
kal dnnyi k& k&m chalti bai, Roman hnnif men chhapi hdl 
maajtid hain j ba«( to zaban i Angrezi men, bazf zaban i 
FriBseal men, bazf anr aar zabinon men. Pns, hnrufi 
Roman ko manqdf kamA mnmkin nahfn hiii. Anr logon 
ko chibiye, ki Roman bnrdf ko qabul karen. 

Siyum yih, ki hardf i Roman apne ahakl wa waza se 
4mm istiam&l ke wfiste ba nisbat anr burdf ke bahut mnfid 
hain. Agar qalami bnrruf k& muqSbala kijiye, tan bhf 
hordfi Roman men, yih fdida hai, ki ek tifl jo zatra sa 
khw&ndaho, nnko parh-sakt& bai, b&lan ki Farsi-khw&n 
biddn i istiam&l i mnbdwara i diiftar khatt i shikasta ko 
nahfn parb-sakte bain j anr Hiadi-khwin aisi mutafarriq 
tarlk ke hain, ki ek shahr yk ek qanm ke log ddsre shahr 
yi dd9ri qanm ki khatt nahfn parb-aakto hain. Lekin asl 
hoan wa kbiibf Roman bnruf ki qalaml ibirat se nnbin pdi 
j&tibal Bhiri fiida burdf i mazkur ki yih hai, ki nn ke 

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[ 8 ] 

w&std afaanl clili&pe kf riwij maddat ae j&ri bni, nar us par 
amal-dar&mad karna sahl faai, anr agar chhapi hui ib4rat i 
Itoman k4 muqAbala Firsi ibarat ke satli howe, to r^rdr 
ibarat i Roman tneo saliulat wa aafai wa zadi is qadr ha<, 
ki us ke muUlaa men snmm dah-cband h&sil boti bai. 
Yib bam nabin kabto bain ki ngar do Adml ek-bf kitab ek-bf 
waqt ahnrd karen (ok to hui-iif i Fkrsi anr diisr& buruf i 
Boman men) to Roman parimew&la dab-cband jaldi parh- 
sakta bai. Yib bit nahfn bai. Yih bbi ham nabin kabts 
hain, ki ttg&T do admi ek bi mazmda nok i zab&n y&i karen, 
to aisii babat farq bo. Lekin yih bam kahte hain, ki fip do 
&dmi lijiye jin ki nql ausat darja par ho, aar jo donon mibnat 
men mustaidd bon. Fhir ek idnif ko ek bnzar kitab i 
mamdU supnrd kijiye, jinkfe khatt Roman bo anr chbnp& 
dbinl bo, anr diisre £dmi ko eirfeksau kitab i mamuli ba 
baruf i F&rsi baw&la kijiye ; phir in do &dmi ko hukin dijiye, 
ki apni apnl kitab parh Ion, anr ank4 mnzmdn achchhi 
tarab Be samajb-ke, jo bit muffd ho apne^zibn men qdim 
karen, anr jo mufid na ho apne zibn se radd lutren. Natija 
is imtibfin k& yib hogi, ki becb&m F&rsi-kbw&D apni saa 
kitib ke mut&Iaa men bil-knll kbasta anr bair&n boga. 
Umed bai ki parbne se rab-j&ega, anr agar bil-farz wah 
apne kam ko kbatm kare, tibam mnmkin nabin bai, ki "wnh 
in saa kitabon ka mazmun is tarab se q&im-nz-zlha kare, ki 
bar ek Bukban ba mdjib i andiz wawasfke nske zibn men 
Uair kare, — snkbna i mnffd ziyida, snkban i be-f^da kam* 
Bar-aka iske, Boman-khwin ko agar w&jibi fnrsat df- 
jiwe to kuchh mnsbkil nabin bai, ki wob npnt hsaix kitib 
parbe aar nnki mazmiin is tarab se qaim-uz-zilin kare, ki 
bar ek kit^b ki ibarat jo kisi amr men mnfld ho, ba waqt i 
zarurat kirn &we. Yani, yih mumkin nabin hogil, ki ^uh 
apnf haz&r kit£b ki mazmdn bar waqt koIU yad rakhe, lekin 

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[ 9 J 
iiaii ;4d ^ogi, ki jiB waqt &p koi aawi\ m ae karen, to kah- 
degs, ki " faUoi kit&b dekhni cbfiliiye ;" &uraa us kit&b ko 
onwin Be hi pahah&n-ke t&q sb ntdr-leg^, aar nS-U ^oqt 
bib ffa safbft wa Batr ko baramad knr-ka jnw&b deg& H 
" fnUn la& ke manf yih bai ;" yi " foHii)( w&rid&t is iaor par 
Mf ;" waghnira. 

Al-qissa ia haz&r ktUb k& mazmiiB bar waqt na ke kdm 
mon ntk rahegi. 

Gharaz ki mutilaa i ib4rat i Roman ke w&ste bikmat 
jk mubiwara darkar nahia hai, jaisd ki ib&rat i Faral kg 
wiato chdbiye. Jaisft ki kb£ii&, plnfi, baitbni, utbn& bar 
kisi ko ia&n bai, waisi h( cbh&pf hid ibttrat i Koman ko 
parhni iain hai. Chaabfs hnriif ko pabcbaooi cbihiye, 
aor bas. Agar koi ahakha ek dafaa barf-ebin&a ho-j&we, to 
go bia baraa tak parhne ka ittif&q na bowe, tibam bbiil 
Bahfn jawefji. 

Kbair, zijfidB dal&il ba taur i bnaj&d apn( 6ttw& kf is 
waqt darkar nahln bain. Agar fip ziyada dal&il chihen, 
to risila i " Mr. Drew " S4hib parhij^e, wsi q^z Akbbac 
i Boman-Urdii m&h ba m&h mal&baza kijiye. Albatta 
jo Utiraz ap ne apne Akbbir men ba tirikh 26 m&h i Julal . 
dwj farm&e, ank& jaw&b likhii& ia waqt ham par farz hoi. 
Cbaniaobi &p ne s&t intir&z al&bida al&biila darj farmfte. 
Uq k& jaw&b as-hl ailsila men dafna-wir likbi jit,4 bai. Ap 
tuimbar i shum&r par taivajjoh farm4-kar, maqabala kfjiye. 

I. — Ap jo kahte bain, ki " mundsibat " Roman hnnif men 
nahln p6ijat^ hai, nak& jawfib yib hai ki Roman bnriif Hindt 
biton ke wisto Fardi bnrdf se bihtar bain. A1&-h&za-l-qiy&s 
hnrdf i Roman, w&tia alfaz i F&rsi ke Hindi hnnif par faaq 
rakbte bain. Ghan&achi, lafz i " zin " agar Roman men 
rtkhn& chiho to Asin hai, b&lao-ki bechara Hindi-khw&a 
"jfn" likhegft. Ali-liiza-l-qiy&a i^r dp " anaaw&ra " ji 

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[ 10 ] 

" nna i ghnnna" ko likhnA chnhen, to Boman men maabliltr 
hidajat bai ki ek nnqta " q " ke niche Hkhi jiine, lekia 
Fdrsl-khw&n jih tainlz nahfn karte bain. Ylh amr bhi 
qibil i zikr bai, ki imtiy&z i " mardf " wa " majbul " FarsI 
"j " y/A " is" BQ nnhia bot& bai, b&lan-ki Roman mea 
bamesba boti bai. Yib bbi y&d rnkhnd cb&bij'e, ki ead-bi 
balki baz&r-b& olfiz i wiUyatf kbass-o-Jimui k! zaban men 
bole jata bain. Unki aiabat dp kis tarab kab-so^te bain ki 
banif i Roman raun&aib nobia hiiin ? 

II. — Ap jo iatirdz farm&te bain, ki bniiif i Angrezi ba 
nisbat bardfi Fdrsi kam bain, yib bdt bif-kall gbalat bai. 
Asl men, hardf i Farsi (iarab chborke) sirf atbArab yk unnf s 
bain. H&n, nnqta ki kami wa beabf se ziyada ban-jate baiu ; 
cban&ncbi is hikmat se "Ije " wa "pe" wa "to" wa 
"te" wa "as" ek ddsro se sbinakfat bote bain. Lekin 
Boman men bbf naqta kf madad li J^ti bat j agar cbabo, 
nnqbi ke dene se sau hurdf ban-^akte bain. 

III. — Ap jo kbdd qabdl karte bain, ki istinm^l i Boman- 
Urdd ydrapln bukkam ko kislqadr sabulatli^ bdis bogii, to 
dp ki9 tarah yib natfja tabrfr fiirmate bain, kl Yurapin 
Bdbiban Boman hardf ke sahare par desf zabiiion se na-wdqif 
ho-jawengo I Ham kabte bain, ki dab-obaiid ziydda parb- 
lenge, aur dab-cband ziy&da bifz bbi Icar-lenge. Balki kbiiss 
Fdrsi burdf ke parbne men Roman ke istinmdl se itnd fdida 
bogd, ki jo sbakha awwabm ibarat aur miiba^vara so ba khdbl 
wdqifho, wnb FirsI tabrir men bbi aql se kbiydl knr-legd, 
ki fuldn lafz bai yd fulaui ibdi-at bon<S obabiye. 

IV. — Hanj yib nahln cbabte haiu, ki ek mulszim i saikdr 
hamare iotfzam ke baia se mauqdf bo yd tanazzul pdwe. 
Kacbabrf men Farsi-kbwduon ki zarnrat muddat tak rahegf, 
balki yaqln bai, ki juzvl nmal-daramad bnrdf i First pat 
&klur i zamfina tak bogd. Agar amia i daftar donon hurdf so 

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[ 11 ] 

waqif ho-j&Tre, to as mea ky& aib hai ? Ap yili na sanijhen 
Id istiamal i ibArat i Boman mnshkil hai. Albatta ibarat 
i Farsi, ibirat i Sanskrit, aar ibarat i Angrezf, agar kdmil 
iaar par likhi jaweo, to mushkil hain. Lekin apnl madart- 
zaban ko ba iniijib i q&ida i maqarrara Bornan hunif men 
naql karnd mushkil nabia bat. Ap jo ishira fann&te hain, 
ki tazkira i haiiif i Roman dar fa wUi ua kiyi jawe, aiada 
jo hon& hogi 80 kbiid ba kbiid bo-javrega ; yib tajwlzd&kbil 
i tez-fabtai nahln malum botl bai, ddr-aadeabi bihtar bat. 

T, — Darbib'sahuliyatparhneklzikr peshtiir kiy gaya, 
ki agar cbhapi biii ibarat i Roman ki azm&yisb ki jawe, 
to sabdllyat dah-ciiand p6i jae»ti. Imtib&n jo &p chahte bain, 
yib ham ko uibayat paaand bai. Is wAste wajib liai, ki 
ib&>^t i Roman sarkarf mitdrns.-ij£t men sikbldi jaive, t&ki 
imtib&n kb(itir-kb>viib bo-jawe. 

Dar bib aabuHyat likbne kl, wijib bai, ki 4p ua cbittbi 
ko parhlen, jo bamneapne akbbar man, yani mah i Sitam- 
bar ko ris&la men, taba k(. Do-bara likbna fazul bai. 

VI. — Ap farmate bain, ki burAf i Roman daa martaba 
ziy&da jngab lenga ba muqabala i buriif i F&rsf. Agar ap 
cbb&pi bdi ibirat i Roman ka muq6bala karen, to yili 
iatiraz bil-kull gbalat malam hoga. Maslnn, bnyan " Mr. 
Drew " Sftbib kii, jo " Society of Arts " ke 9.-imhne annayA 
gayA, dorion hurif men maiijiid bai, yani Aiigrezi wa Fdrsi. 
Ibirat i Angrezi ke w&ate, ( ibtida se t& sukhan i dkblr " Sir 
Cbarlea Trevelyan " S4hib ki ) 50 safba kbarcb hue ; 
ib&rat i F&rsi ke wdite, 68 safba. H£n agar qalmi ib&rat 
ka muqiltala howo, to zartir Roman ko waste ba nisbat 
Farsi ki kisfqadr, k^gbaz cbdbiyo, kis wiste ki Roman men 
safai aar sihbat par ziyada tawnjjuh boti hai ; iartlb ko 
likho^ partit hai, alfaz anr sntiir k{ darmiyan faaila chbord 
jat& hai. Warna, kucbb aisa fni-q nabfn hai 

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[ 12 ] 
Yih hhl (ip ko wizih bo, ki agar kiaf waqt zi/i<U zfidf 
ki zanlrat ho, yi yih zar&mt ho kf kigbaz kam kfaarob bowe 
to Eomnn-fehwin ke wiste ek hikmat ho-aekti bai, jia ke 
waaila so kitib zaWo ke baribar Ukh-sakta hai, aar kagfaas 
bahnt kam sarf hotA hai. la hikmat ko Angreri neo 
"short-hand" yi " stenogpsphy " kahto hain. 

^l'-~'^n<Jo8ha ip ka ke desf aldm Roman hnritf ke 
ifltiamal ae munhadim honge, bil-kull faziil hai. Ap ko ba 
khiiM moldm haf, ki parfmewfile do tarah ke hain. Baze 
Bhauq se parhte hain, baze tama ae. Paa, jo tama se parhte 
haia, nn ka knchh tbikin£ nahin. Lekin aise logon ke 
parhne se deai nlfim ko kyi fiida hofa hai ? Kyi I is men 
ip dea{ oliim k[ taraqql dekhto hain, ki koi nraedwar imti- 
hin ke wAste Gulistin anr Bostin Firei hanif men parbe, 
phir imtihan ke bad phenk dewe ! na, a&hib I Deai nldm ki 
taraqqE nn logon se hoti hai, jo shnaq se parlite hain, aar jis 
qadr ziyada rbh &p khol den^enge ki kh&s3-o-amm shaaq se 
parhen, nst qadr ziy&da taraqqi hogf. Jab talak amal>darfr< 
njad sirf Farsf bnrdf par howd, tub talak desf nldin ke 
iraste yih nnqs hai, ki nl6m i mazkiir ek madd i nazar men 
naWn He hain. Mnnlvi jndi hotA hai. Pandit jud4 ; aar jo 
log Uanlvf y£ Pandit ban-jate bain, wah bbl apne apne Urn 
ko knlH tanr par nahin jinte hain, sirf ek jaz jAnte hnin. 
Agar ietiamdl i hanif i Roman aar riwij i chhApa-khiina 
i ihanf nnlce wAste j&r[ ho, to nmed hai ki apne ilm ki kali 
satn^n ba taar i zakLira bar waqt apne pAs rakfaenge. 

Is bAb men (yani dar hSh i taraqqi i oldm i deaf), 
mamkin hai ki pachAa, san, bahsen liamirf tarwf se pesh ki 
j&wen, lekin foraat nahin hai. Ap khddghaar karen. — 

latir&zjoap ne ba niabnttajwfz hamArl ki qa1am4wnd 
farmie zer i mizar if. Sirf on tadUron ki ukr nih-gLj&, 

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t 13 ] 
jo ip na khntt i shikasta kf qab&hat ke takhfff ke waste khdd 
prsh kin. Taddbir i mazkiir nibiyat; mntilUib ham, lekin 
natlja unki kaclih nabin liog&. Agar sirf kbdsti-navis oaa- 
kar rakhe janren, to miiijamla i anala i FarsJ n-sadE nawire 
bar-kbist kiye j&weng". Ttijwfz ip kf, ki ko{ sbaklia 
a1& ohda-dftr na ho, ja khijb Farsi-khwan na ho, ek lih&z 
se w^'ib bai, lekin deai mdlaztin&a k& yih h&i blif 
faot& bai, ki baze mansblgavi men boshyar bain, magar 
in'iz&m men njt-Uiq, ant- baze intiz&in men Idiq 
]i»!n, lekin mnnshigari men <ijiz. Boman-khwan k& hM. 
is tanr par nabfn hota bai. Inshi-pard&zi men farq hot4 
hai, lekin bar koi apnf midari-zabin ki kntab parhsakta hni, 
aar bar koi hash i zarirat apni maashigari b6 kir-rawai kar 
sakti bai. 

Ap larmAto hain, ki baze log aise niqis bote bain, kt 
Ba Angrezf ka mobiwara bdsil karte bain na Farsf k&, 
" nn^ tahrir na to Urdii hi boti bai, na Angrezl, mil milikac 
kncbb ajfb qism k( ho-jdti bai." Ap kk iatir&z baj4 biii ; pas, 
alae kam-zor anr zadf logon ke wkate Roman k^ t:ijwiz niha- 
yat mnfid bai. In l>«cb&ron ko ilm ke bus&l ke w^te pali&ri 
anr sangin rib (misl i khatt i Farai ya zdbAn i Angrezi) 
nabin dikblani cbfthiyo, maid&n ke rab se pabunchan& chi- 
biye. Jo log mizbdt anr zor-dwar bain, anke w&ste isan 
bit bai, ki donon r&b se w&qtf hon, yant Roman se w^qit 
lion, vra nfz anr in^bk-pardizi sikb^n, kbwab First bo, 
kbtrali Angrezi, jaiaa ki ankf kbdsbi aar raghl)at ho. — Faqat. 

Ziy&da likbnft is waqt mnnisib naben bai. Ap khud 
hamar^ " Society " k[ tajwiz par aobchhi tarab no ghaur 
karen. Jo nal nal b&ten mail lia mah bamare akhbar mnn 
cbb&pi JRwen, ip an par tawajjuh fann&iye, anr agar bil-£irx 
ham&re akbb&r men tarjnma aa kiyi jawe, dp itnf madad 

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dijiye, ki gfih-be-gAh nakA miimdn waste nazirin i Akhbar-i- 
Anjamaa-i-FaDJib apae parcha raau darj framaiye. 

" Secretaries to tfte Somati'llrdi Society," 
13iA Nevemher 1«78, 



Heforms whicti inTolre a sudden change of habits may 
be good and necessary, bat they cost an effort which is not 
te be desired for iis own sake. 

" Sweet are the nsea of adversity," bat adTersity is not 
' «weet apart from its uses. To substitute Boman-Urdil for 
the varioDs systems of writing which exist in this conntry 
woulil, no doubt, be troablesome to large numbers of persons, 
and would be ruin to the old and middle aged of the Mahar- 
rir class. Indeed, the csnrenience of having a aniversa] 
alphabet, and that one which has been adopted to the wants 
of the highest civilisation, would hardly be contested on the 
ground of pria(»ple, if it were not for the difSoulty of the 

There are, however, cases in which the advantages of 
Boman-Urdd are obvions, but in which, perhaps from want 
of attention to the subject, they have nevertlieless been 
generally overlooked, not in your Journal certainly, but by 
the unthinking pablic ; and it may be useful perhaps for one 
who feels the weiubt of such objections as those brought 
forward by Colonel Parsons to show that there is plenty of 
work for your Soceity, oven if its programme is shorn of its 
more ambitious projects. First, there is the case of learners 
who attempt a stranze language in a strange character, 
lliis uecesaitates spelling oat every letter, instead of taking 

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ia a word at a glance as we do wlion we read our laagnnge^ 
or for the' nutter of that, Latioi and Ereocfa. The only 
noBoas alleged for so absurd a waste of time are that a 
laoguage has a charactor proper to it, and that if tho 
efanracter has to be learnt soooer or later, it is easier to learn 
it from the first. It is tvadj for exnnqjloj that tlie Fersiaoised 
Arabic writkiEr has been modified to-soit the Urdu, languager 
and that tba Roman character has- not yet been thoroughly 
Bdi^>ted to it, but the opinion- that eadi langnage developes- 
its own written character is contrary to fact Writing, liks 
languages, is dereleped no doubt, but, like languages, it can 
be and commonly is acquired. Many nations hare borrowed 
their languages front othei's, but still more have borrowed 
their system, of writing; All Mohomedaa nations- use the 
Arabic character, and most Europeans and Americans the 
Itoman. As for the advantage of learning an oriental 
<^rnct«r simultaneously with the language, I am persuaded 
that it is not supported by expcnence. I should account I'or 
the opinion io this way. When people first learnt oriental 
langnages they had no Romanized hooks of course, and of 
Decessity used what first aimo to hand. The reason no longer 
exists, but as is so often the case in other things, the hal>it 
does. The qitestion, however, is not only one of learning to 
read. Tliose of ns who are tolerably ^miliar with the 
Persian character would take an hoar to master the contents 
of an Urdii newspaper when we could read an English 
newspaper of the same size in ten minutes. A few pages of 
Roman-Urdu would not be disposed of SO rapidly, but there 
would be a gmn of half the time. But it is needless to say 
more on this point. 

Again, take the case of a European Officer, who knows 
TJrdii, transferred from Delhi to Lahore. He has to leani 

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PiinjJibi, and is very nnnecesannly directed to BtuJy books 
iiitlie Gurmukbi cliiinicter. Now tbe Panj&l> Musnbnins 
ulwaya use tiis FerBinn cbAineter for tbe few books wbicli 
8re published in tbe Yeraacular dialect, and (he ottly reason 
why Gurmukbi ia supposed to be tbe orthodox vehiclo of 
Panj&bi i» l>ecaD9e the 8tkb» were of political importaoee 
when SuropMQS first oame into tbe coui^ry. Tbe case is 
paritllel to tbat of Urdii and Hiudi, which was ably ex|>l.iined 
in the last number of the Ualcutta Review by tb^ Borerond 
A. F. R. Hoerule. There is a colloipiial langnage or dialect 
known as Ponjibi which Hindiia write in GnrmnkM with a 
preference for Urdii of Sanskrit origin, toad which Musal* 
mins write in the Persian cbafncter with a preference for 
Persian nnd Arabic termSj whenever the colloquial vocabulary 
is deficient. 

The English Officer^ however, who wants to- leam 
Panjabi for practical purposes, and not merely to pass an 
examination, has need neither of Gai-mukbi nor of tbe 
Pei-sian character. He should have an elementary grammar 
with whidi be rain compare the ITrdii and PanjabI forms, 
n mannal of conversations, and p.ia^ages of easy narrative 
with a vocabulary, all in tbe Roman character. For want 
of a book of 200 pages upon a jJan of this kind many 
Officers never learn Panjabi at all. 

Another way in which the Roman character may be 
applied is, that European Officers shonld use it more 
commonly for writing orders or letters. No one can write 
without constant practice, and it serves little to have passed 
an examination ten years ago. Instead of employing a 
Mubarrir as amanuensis it is often convenient to write n 
momoraadum onosdlf^ and whan Ron:iQ-Urdu ia more 

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generally current tlian it is at present, Enropean Offlcerswill^ 
no doubt, find the advantage of wiitiir^with their own haiid» 
when ilte wordiog of a document iff iu^orlant. 

I am myself in the Iiabit of wrifcing examination qnea- 
tions in Roman-Urdu, Arhen it is not desirable to take a 
Mnharrir into confidence; and I Gin imagine that a Folic© 
Officer might often bo glad tocorrespond with his Inspectors 
without the assistance of his Amlah. 

In short, without in any way displacing Perwan-Urda, 
there arc countless ways of turning lioraan-Ui-dii to account 
at no greater eost tluin Ihat of habituating ourselves to it 
whenever wo find it convenient. 


T. W. H. TOLBERT, Esg., C. S., 



The objects of this Jonmal, anJ of the 8oci<?ty with 
which it is connected, are exphuned by the series of Reso- 
lutions passed nt the Meeting oiganisinff the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which were published 
iu the first number of this Journal. 

We ask all who are interested in tie morement to give 
ns their support. Those wlio may wish to join the Society 
are requested to send their names, witli the subscriptions for 
the year, Rs. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Jtontan- Urdtt 
Society, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of tho 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolutions 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th May, and invite subscrip- 
tions to the*'TniHsliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with Ihe movement who 
have not yet Bent in their names and subscriptions. Wo 

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tmst that they will now do so; and thi»t they will nlao help 
ns Iiy canvassing for fresh nambers, and by ciicalnting: our 
Journal aiuons ooth EacDpeiins and Natives ia the Stution» 
where they reside. 

Contribntions on any of the varions sn'ijects connected 
with trasl iteration, transiiition and educatioi* |;eiieiraliy, are- 
earnestly solicited from Members of the Society, 

LUIOKS :— PsnnED by BAU DAIE^ at tee " C. it M. 0A2BTTS " Pbebb. 

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To advocate the 1M of tin Roman Alphabet in Oriental 


|C a It ore: 





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No. 8 January i^yg. 

The nsQal MoDtbl/ Meeting of the Society was held at 
Uio Lahore College, on Saturday, December, the 28th. 

A paper in the vernacalap, in advocacy of the Society's 
proposals, was read by L4Ia Rishan Gop&l. 

A contribatioQ by Mr. Pearson entitled "The Educated 
Classes and Uaeducntod Masses " was also laid before the 

Mr. Pearson's paper appears in this number of the Jour- 
nal. A portion of Lala Kishan Gopal's is also published ; it 
will be continued in onr next. 

EoiTOBfAL Notes, 

We announced in a previous number of the Journal 
that the Editor of the" Koh I Kur proposed to publish a 
portion of his newspaper in English, and that the editor of 
the " Aftub i Punjab " intended to start a newspaper in 
Roman-Urdd under the title " Qasid i Panjab." These two 
proposals are still hanging fire. Two or three numbers of 
the '' Koh I Nur " appeared with an English translation, but 
for some weeks past the English portion of the 
paper hoa been discontinued. The Editor of the " Aftdb i 
Panjab is waiting for a longer subscription list before ho 
commences his experiment of a weekly newspaper in Roman- 
Urdii. He has already received applications for a good many 
copies, but wishes to be guaranteed the price of more before 
starting his paper. We understand that he has applied to 
Major Holroj-d for support. 

Wo would point out to both these gentlemen that every 
new Qudertaking requires some spirit of enterprise. As to 

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the Ramaa-Urdd ezperimsot, in irMch, as Editors of tliis 
Joarnal, we necessarily take greater interest, it is obvioiis 
itst subscribers canaot be expected id largo nambere, nntil 
the pablio hare Bome eppsrtnaity of seeing whnt the news- 
paper ia like. 

As an organ of purely native opinion a newspaper in 
Boman-Urdii will have this obvious advantage over one in 
Bnglish that the Ternacalar Editor will not be at the mercy 
«f a translator. He will express his own opinions ia his owni 
language, and the work of bis traasUterator will be a mere 
mechanical one which th& Editor himself will be able to 
«verIook withoat a knowledge of English being aecesary. 

While the " Eoh i Nur " and the " Aft&b i Fatgib " are 
still hesitating, the " Paoj&bi " has been more adventaroos. 
It begins the new year with ao " extra " or supplementary 
«beet in Roman-Urdti, and informs its readers that it will 
contiaae to pnblish a porUon of its contents in the Roman 
character. As might have been expected, this first inde- 
pendent attempt at Boman-UrdA writing is not altogether 
faaltlesB. To begin with, the Editor labored nnder the 
iltfiScalty which we also have experienced, that of not having 
proper Rotman-Urdd'type. He has, it is tme, obviated the 
difficalty of the " ain " by using the apostrophe, whereas we 
have been waiting in the hope that dotted vowels wonld 
arrive and be fonad more convenient. Bat besides the 
defects which are attribntable to want of type there are 
many, which are doe to mistakes in transliteration or to the 
carelessness of the printer. Notwithstanding these defoots, 
we congratalate the Editor of the "Panj&bt" on his first 
attempt, and the members of our Society on the progress 
their principles are making. 

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The Editor of the " Fonjabi " ^ve» tlie fbllowiog reasoiui 
for his partial adopUon of die Boioan chiiracter. 

GhAa lu Eamina roz ba roz toraqqi kl tartit mdil ba^ 
wwltste sharik' i aU i hkl se agar ham koi amr i jadfd apn» 
Akbbar ke mata'alliq na karen, to goyt yili zanuuie ke bar- 
*«ka hogi. Sbnrd' i aM i bAl se ham ne ir&da kiyi hai, ki 
ftpne Akhhir ke ba'z maz&mim ko hnruf i Boman men 
likha kareo. Is men ham na barfi faida } ih sochi hai, ki 
hamdre Akhb&r ko mozdinln jo ab arsa i ba'fd ke ba'd b^ 
xarf'a t tarjama i An^rezi hakk&m i zawil-4Ltii^iW k( nazar 
i faiz-osar se gnzarto hajn, filfiior nnke mulahize men & jnyi 
karen. Is tadbfr so hamari rdl kl waq'at ha darja-h& ziy&da 
ho-jiwflgi, aar maqsAd hatn&d tahriron k& jald h&sil hd& 
karegtt. Ab bamen is bdt k& intizar na mbeg^ ki S&hib 
" Government Reporter " ek area i mn' aijana ke ba'd apni 
" Report " mnahtahir karen, anr uske zari'e ham£re mazdrnfn 
Bakkitn k? nazar se gmren ; na bamen yeh kbatri hogi kt 
tarjome ki ma'mulf dikknton se hamfiri tabriron kf bi,rik ; 
khdidy&a cbhipf rahengi ; balki jo koobh Iikh& 
karenge woh waqt par anr ba-jinsihi slihib&n i 
mansdf ka nanvr »e gazar jaj& karegi. Agar ttnin 
rieii par honge, to hamiri tnqrir par 'amal hd& karegft ; 
vama, bamen jold nmnqa' is bit k& milegA, ki woh apno 
khiyalM hnmari &g&iii ke liye waqt par z&bir kar dijk karen. 
"Sih Bnhilat goyi nsi daije ki hogi jo Aii^rezi Editoron ko 
xab4n i Angrezi ke zarfo biU&'l h^il hai. £k rfetf-^i'dr^ 
Akhbar-navfa ke liyo is se ziyatia khuehf ki koi bit na bogf,. 
ki uski r^jis^Taqt ke liye wuh immisib ho qem naqt par 
adni aiH- a'lk ko bil& moz&himat z&)iir ho jay& kare. Bar{ 
khibbf k& maqirn hai, aor han> odziria i ba9{ral><[arin ko- 
bash&rat dete bain, ki ia timam faw4id se ab ham aov 
kam&ra Akhbir mostafid hn& karenge. £c, &o.f &c. 

It vill be observed that in the above extract ve hax» 
followed the example of the " Fbnjdbf^ in usioj^ the apestro^ 

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plio to denote 'ain. Wo intend to adopt this coarse in ibo 
next few numbers of the, until we can elidt a dedded 
expreasioa of opinioa from oar friends as to Ao relatire 
saperioritj of tbe apostrophe or the dotted vovrel, or at any 
rato uotil we cao get dotted vowels to print with. 

The odrantages of using a dotted rowel to denote 'ain 
are as follows t^l), the dot is more easily marked in 
manaacript and la neater in print. It does not break the 
continuity of a word as the apostrophe does. It will bo 
remoniberod that one of our complaints against Pei^ian 
writing is to the effect that it consists of disjoiat«d gronps 
of letters iuatoad of forming whole words properly and dis- 
tinctly spaced. (2), to the ordinary Eurpean ear and 
speech and indeed to those of most Hindus the 'ain represents 
a simple rowel sound. So fur as their pronnaciation is 
concerned" zila"isamare exact representation of ''zil'" than 
either "zil"' zila' or ^-i. Tho^e Hindtis for instance 
who use the N&garf character represent f by a dotted 
vowel, not by a separate sign. These are the advantages of 
nsing the dot. On the other hand, the following advantages 
may bo urged in faror of the apostrophe j — (1), it is more 
in accordance with the principles of Arabia and Persian 
grammar. By the theory of Arabic grammar 
^ is consonant, not a votoel, and it may, sometimes, 
liko other consonants, be used without a rowel to more it, 
just as the consonants r and h are used in the words "sadr " 
and " faith." This is the theory, and occasionally one comes 
across a Persian munslii whose pronunciation of words like 
" zila " and "jama " accords with this theory, and may be 
fairly represented by "zil"' and "jam'." In most men 
howorer, whether Natives or Europeans, pronunciation of 
this kind would be considered affectation. (2), an argnment 
of a different kind in faror of Uie apostrophe may be based 
on the f;ict that all collections of Koman type cootain a 
mark of this kind, whereas dotted rowels hare to be spedallj 

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So far, the adrantages of theso two modes of tmnslikra- 
tion are abont equally balanced. We havo hithprto been 
iDcliaed to favor the use of the dotted vowel for two oilier 
reasons which deserve to be noticed. — (1), the misstooaries 
who are oar moat experienced Boman-Urda writers, and 
with whom we ivish to work in concert, have tried both 
modes of transliteration, and it would appear from tbeir 
rocent pahlications that they have Bnally decided in favor 
of the dotted Towel. (2), w e have onrselves frequently 
experienced diflicalty in ascertaining from educated natives 
whether the Towel accompanying ^ belongs to it or to 
tho preceding consonaat. Tbus, the word jU { supposing 
it to have, not the exceptional pron unciation of zil', but 
the pronunciation whicb an ordinary educated India 
attaches to it ) is given in the Dictionaries as Zila', 
and it may be said that this is the correct mode of 
representing the word in accordance with the analogy of 
the Persian language, which, as a rule, does not admit of a 
short vowel at the end of a word nnlcss followed by the 
silent "h." But on the other h)vnd, the word mat/ be 
Tvritten as " zil'a" and it may be said that this is a more 
correct representation of the actual sound. Now in this 
case by using a dot instead of the apostrophe we evade the 
difficulty, leaving it to our native friends to decide for them- 
selves whether the vowel " a " belongs to the " 1 " or the f . 

We have dwelt npon this point, because we wish to 
elicit some expression of public opinion regarding it, before 
we proceed to the purchase of type or the publication of 
transliterated works on an extensive scale. We trust our 
friends will offer us some snggastions. Wo hopo at any 
rate that Major Holroyd will favor us with a note on the 

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We Toald also call ihe attdDtion of our readers to tbe 
different modes of traosliteniUng g and ^. Soioe represeot 
those letters by " kh " and " gh " witb a stroke underneath ; 
others prefer one letter " k " or " g " ^tth a diacritical work 
to distbgoisli the ^ and ^ from uS and ^S. 

In favor of the single letter it may be said, that a»tli» 
floand is a single one in the vernacular, it ought not to be 
expressed by two letters in Roman, and moreover that the 
nse of the letter "h" is incorrect as the soands are not 
properly speaking aspirates. 

In tivror of the double letter it may be sai<f, that 
although the sonods denoted by ^ and ^ are not exactly 
aspiratfis they are aoinowhat aniilogous to aspirates, that the 
word " Khudft " for instanjo ( without the stroke ) is nearer 
to the correct " Khuda " than " Kuda " would be, suppos- 
ing the diacritical mark to be omitted ; also that " ch " or 
"kh" are already used in Scotch, German and Greek to 
denote a sound identical with or analogous to the Peisian ^. 

For onr owit part we are di^wsed to prefer " kh " and 
'*'gh " to " k " and " g." Id moat lartguagos tho letter 
"h", besides its proper fanction as an aspirate, is called 
npin to do a kind of " general duty " in orthography. For 
instance, in English we are already accustomed to use " ch " 
"ph" and "th" as single sounds to say nothing of tho 
silent "h" in such words as " honour " "plough" 
" thought " and hundreds of others. 

The danger of confounding kb and gh (as equivalents' 
for ^ and ^ ) with kh and gh the true aspirates of k and g 
is lessened by the fact that ^ and ^ only occur in Arabic and 
Persian words and are unknown in Uindf, wbile tlw truo 
aspirates " kh" and " gh" only occur in Hindi words aod aro 
onknown in Arabic and Persian. 

We notice that Major Holroyd uses " kh " with a mark 
to denote ^, but writes "g," not "gh," irithamarkto 

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denote ^. Tliia ia atao tha practice of 96ni3 of tbe Mia- 
sionaries. Perhaps tho reaaon for the distinctioa ta foaad 
IB the fact that the simple " g " already has ( ia German ) a 
Bonnd aoaewhat analogous to that of ^. On the other hand, 
we mar claim the anUiority of Forbes and Blochmaan ia 
■apport of " gh." We hope Major Uolro.rd ■nd others will 
Srror na with their opinion on this point as well as on that 
referred to in the previoos paragraph. 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal, or at any rate their late 
Secretary Mr. Biochmans, osed to separate the " h " of the 
aspirated letters from the preceding consonant by a comma 
«r similar mark. If this were geaerallj done ; if for instance 
we wrote "thnnda"for "t^lianda" "p,hiil" for '• phiil " 
*' k,hainoho " for "khaincho" "g,har" for " ghar," there 
woald be no danger of our confounding the sounds ao indi- 
cated with those marked by the English " th " nnd " ph " or 
the Persian " kh " and " ph." We might then dispense 
with tiie stroke nnder the Persian kh and gh altogether. 
IRie only obj-'o^ons to our acoeptiug this mode of translitera- 
tion are — (1), it ia an innovation which as yet has not found 
acceptance among ordinary writers of Roman-Urdu ; (2), as 
we said with regard to the 'ain, any mark nhtch divides a 
word ia more or less an approximation to one of the vicious 
features of the Persian " sbikasta." The mark might per- 
haps be used in printjng, but discarded as unnecessary in 

One more remark as to one of the details of translitera- 
tion. Wo would invite the attention of our readers to nil 
article by the Rev. A. T. IL Hoerule in the October num- 
ber of the Oalcntt.1 Beviow. In this article, black antique 
letters are used to indicate the cerebrals and anusv&ra. Wa 
would net employ these letters so freely as Mr. Hoerule has 
done, bnt we are disposed to think that their use in printed 

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boots to denote tlis cerebral f, d, and r would be an improTd- 
mant. To a native of India these sonnds are altogether 
different from the dental f, d and r, and the inability of manjr 
Englishmen to diatinguish betiveen these sonnds is not a 
reason for ignoring a distinction so prominent and so certain 
to the native ear. We could not me black antique letters 
in manoscript, but in preparing a manoscript for the press 
it conld easily be established as a rule that a dot nnder tho 
t, d, and r would denote the ase of such letters in print 

We learn from a paragraph in the Times that the Bns- 
sians have introdaced the Russian or Cyrillio character in 
Bulgaria, while the Anatrians hare eatablishod the Roman 
alphabet as the official character of Bosnia and Herzgoriiia. 

We take the following sentence from the Civil Beport 
for 1877, 

" Several officers draw attention to the very nnsatisfao- 
tory way in which issues are framed in the Courts of Native 
Judgps." This is an old complaint. It would be unfair 
to say that the defect is equally prominent in all Vemnoular 
Courts, and ovon admitting its prominence it does not neces- 
sary follow that these Courts are less ofRoiont than those of 
English Officers. A defect in this respect may be compen- 
sated by the greater familiarity with tha language and grejtter 
knowledge of native character which native Courts necessarily 
possess. Still the defect does exist, and it cliaracteristic uf 
Vernacular Courts as a class. To what is it due ? 

So far as oar experience goes, it does not apply to thoso 
Native Judges who have had a good English edacation, 
and who record the pleadings in English. The Native gentle- 
men of the Lahore Bar can draw issues as distinctly and 
logically as any of us. 

Nor does it imply any want of natural shrewdness in 
the Teruacular speaking Judges, It is due in the first place 

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to tLa mnddled and mnddliag features of tlie vornoonlnr 
record. The Jndge cannot take up his Persian record, 
glance through it hurriedly, and " spot " the precise points 
ia dispute. He is obliged to " set forth the whole of the 
pleadings " lest he should lose his clue, or omit Bomething 

This is one reason. Another, undoubtedly, is to bo 
found in tlio general inferiority of Vernacular, compared with 
Knglish, legal training. But why should training in 
the vernacular be inferior to legal training in English ? Latv 
is n subject in whioh the cla!> languages of tlio are 
exceptionally rich. It is moreover a subject which has an 
exceptional hold on the attention of our native friends, and 
which oflFers an exceptional scope to their ambition. Why 
tben is education in ths Vernacular less cETective than 
legal education in English ? 

The English -papers announce the death of Georgo 
Henry Lewes, Most of them comment on the remarkable, 
versatility of his genius. He was a dramatist and a novelist 
as well B9 a mental philosopher, and a student of Physical 

The year which has just closed lias been prolific in 
scientific discoveries. The invention of the telephone and tho 
micropbone, the liquefaction of oxygen and hydrogen, and 
the practical utilisation of the electric light, are scientific 
triumphs of more than ordinary importance. But, if wo 
may believe recent statements, these discoveries are likely to 
be eclipsed by one of a still more startling character. It is 
said that Mr. Norman Lockyer has realised tho alchemist's 
dream — the transmutation of metals. 

The following account of tho Oiiental Congress at 
noreuco will interest many of our readers. It is reprinted 
from the Journal of tho National Indian Association : — 

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The fonrth of the series of Congresses of Oriental 
Scholars was held in September at Florence, under the 
patronage of the Kiog of Ital/, and the presidency of Com- 
mendatore Michel Am4ri, a most distiiignished scholar. 
Deiegntes had been appoihted in the different coantries of 
Europe, chiefly in University towns, and there was a capital 
gathering of scholarB, exceeding one bandrod and twenty. 

It could have been wished tliat some of oar distingnisbeil 
scholars, Einda or MabomedaD, from Calcutta, Bombay, 
Madras, or Upper India had been able to attend, and they 
would have been warmly welcomed, bat unfortunately none 
were able to cross the sea for the purpose. One scholar 
however. Doctor Gerson da Cunbo, of Q-oa, of a Brnhmio 
family, who bad been Ohristians for three centnries, was ablo 
to attend and added mncb by his presence, and the paper 
which he read, to the interest of the Congress. The Viceroy 
of India, recognising the importance of this renaion of 
scholars, specially depnted Dr. Leitner, of the Educational 
Department, to attend at the Congress, and be brought with 
him a remarkable collection of Groeco-Baddhist monuments 
which be bad himself discovered in the Trans-Indos Provinces 
of the Punjab. 

As if to be in harmony with the Oriont, the beat of 
the towa of Florence, and indeed of Italy iu general, during 
the Congress was excessive. Italians remarked that it was 
exceptionally hot. Florence is situated in a valley on the 
banks of the Amo, and is scarcely bearable by residents of 
Northern Europe until the first week of October. The 
Congress commenced on the 12th and ended on the I3tb of 
September, and even old Indians admitted that the heat was 
a ^reat drawback to the comfort of visitors. 

Everything was done by the Managing Committee and 
the Muoicipality to welcome and make much of the strangers 

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who hnd flocked io Florence — Eiigliah, French, Swiss, 
Qermnns, WallachiaDs, Daces, Norwegiaos^ Fin^ RassiaaSf 
Huugarians, besides Italians of every district of Italy. A 
large party was entertained at the Royal Palace at dinner by 
the brother <^ the King of Italy, AuMdeo, Doke of Aosta, 
ex-King of Spain. A still larger party was entertained at 
the ProTiDcial Palace by tbo Ministers of Pablic Instraction. 
Sntertainmeats were given, esODreiona were planned to nota- 
ble places in the vicinity^ and all the galleries and places of 
interest were thrown open free of charge to the Members of 
the Congress and their friendsv 

The bnsiness was divided mto seven sections, two 
only of which will interest the readers of this Jonrnal r — Tha 
Indian and Indo-E>iiropean ; to the latter was attached the 
Tranic In the Indian Section Dr. Rndolf Roth, of Tubingen, 
in Qermany, described the newly discovered monoscripts of 
the fourth or Atharvan Veda which the Gtovemment of India 
hod lately procorel front the valley of Kachnur. It was 
written in the Sarada character, a local variation of the well 
known Indian alphabet, and differs in many essential points 
from the other manoscripts of that Veda. Dr. (Person da 
Cnnba read a paper on the work done by the Portugese of Goa 
for the study of Sanskrit, be enlarged also on the peculiar 
dialect^ or as he called it tlie language of Konkani, * for 
which he claimed a separate linguistic existence. Everybody 
was charmed with the dlgniSed and amiable manner of this 
distinguished India guest, who was a real link between the 
Orient and Occident, as while not ashamed to admit his 
Indian parentage, he had won for himself the reputation of a 
real European scholar, and was so treated by all. 

* We may notu that the KodUdI waS the Sist ladUn dialect t« wbictl 
the Bommi alphabet wu applied. One of the Society's memlien has, in his 
libntr/, a Dictiooarjr oal wrenl other EonUol boob* In the Bom&u 

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Mr. Uoborb Oust read n papor in Itnlian on the Non- 
Aryan Inngaagea of India. Tho famooa Neo-Aryan langiingea 
of India ai-e well known, nnd una spoken by scores ofmiiliom 
over the greater part oflndia, bat atteutiou is not sofficiently 
paid to tbe sis fiimilies of Non-A}Tan langnages spoken 
by many millions over a vast area- These are tbe Dravidian, 
Eolarinn, Ttbeto, Burman, Ehasi, Tai, and Mon-Anain 
fimilies, comprising several bunded varieties of speech. Mr. 
Gust laid on the tjibla a copy of his lately published book, 
" On the Modern Languages of tho EJast Indies," and his tiro 
langtiage-maps of Nearer and Farther India, and in a 
abort Englisb speech enumerated the great scholars, English 
and Continental, to whose great and nnappreciated lahonrs 
we were indebted for onr knowledge of the modern langnages 
of India. 

On the motion of the Itov. James Long, late an Indian 
missionary, a memorial was addressed to the Viceroy of India 
praying him to have the proverbs of tbe Indian people 
systematically collected. 

In the Indo-EIaropoaa section several attbjecbs were dig- 
cnsaed of very great interest. They were extremely technical 
and entered into tho arcana of tho profession of comparative 
philology. Frofo33or B:ilbu Constantinesco gave an account 
of the language of tho Zingilii or Gypsies of Wallacbia ; Mr. 
Ijoland (better known as Hans Breitmanu) spoke abont tbe 
language of the English Gypsy ; Professor Ascoli, of Milan 
one of the greatest of Italian scholars, joined in the discus- 
sion ; there is no doubt that the speech of the Gypsies is a 
dialect of one of the Neo-Aryan langnages of Northern 

Mr. Edward Brandretb, late of tbe Indian Civil Service, 
read a paper of marked interest, in Itali^in, on certain 
reeembbinoes in the inflexion of the Neo-Aryan languages of 
£»liaaad the Romance langnages of Earope. Both of these 

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clusters of modem langnttj^es owe their existence to a common 
mother, the Sanskrit and Latin respectively ; in both coses 
tie langoage of a great people passed from the sjDthetic to 
the analytic stage very mach in the same way, and there are 
points of resemblance in the phonology of iadividoal langnar 
^es in each cltister to each other. This opens oat a most 
interesting sabjoct, which \v-ill be followed oat in detail. 

Dr. Leitner exhibited ani explaiuod his collection of 
O I- 0^30 -Buddhist antiquities : he baaed certain theories upon 
tho evilanco of thesa reiniins, which are too long and deep 
to diajaas hjra. H) finis a coDneotion between the mytho- 
logy of the Indian and Greek people at a period anterior to 
tbo Christian era. 

The above remarks allude to bat one tythe of the 
interesting sobjects discussed. A full report will appear in 
the Italian Inngage. Everyone who attended l^e fourth Con- 
gress returned home well pleased. The fifth Congress wil 
take place at some city in Germany (probably Dresden) 
in 1881. 

No one doobts now of the advantages to science of these 
Congresses. Great scholars meet and exchange ideas and 
get rid of [irojuJices, anl science is advanced. 

Nonemler, 1878. R. N. C. 



Kbabastah I Hua." 

Yib ' nmda ris&la 58 8afb& par, Pandit Lachhmf Ndruia 

Sahib Wakf 1 i " High Court " sikin i Lakhnad, ne taanif 

kija haL 

Is kitah ke, t(n hisse hain. 

Hissa i awwal men, Hindnstanfon ko sarkfir ki t&bi*- 
d&rl ke fawiid anr be samjho bdjhe, d&sri saltaoaton 

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ki taraf matavajjih hone ke qnbdhnt se, b& dal&il Agiii 
Viiji liai. 

Nawaqif aar j&liil &ilatni, jo na-maal-andeshi nar kam- 
fafamf ae aksar dhoki kh4 jite hiun, an ko fureboii se bucLoe 
ki bidayat kf bai. 

Saltanaton ke iaqiUb&t se, jo naqsda mulk ko pobaachte 
ba'iD ; aa ko oiba^t * umda aar dil-paz{r and&z se likU£ 

Sat-baobni mimbar aar abl-ar-r4on k( be-bddagf, aar 
naa-mahazzab, wa naa-ta'lim-y&fta nau-jaw&non ki, aali 
b&Ut i mulk wa abl i malk se na-wiqill, mnkbtosar tahrfr 
ki boi. 

Hagnr ek b&t se mnjhe.oliandtin ittiTiiq i &rE nahin hal ; 
ya*ni HindosUnioD ke aur ealtanatoa kf taraf bbf mator- 
nvajjih hoDe se. 

Main ne, ab tnk jis qadar dekbfi anr san4 ; Hindiyon 
ko, kj-4 ' AmiQ aar kyi kbass sab ke sob, sarkftr i Inglishiya 
ke, dill t&bi'-dar anr khair-khwah w&h wa jkn-nisar ri'&ya 
bain. Aur U&zir-o-gb&ib, ia saltanat kl Aram o Is&iahoQ ka 
sbukr-gaz&r wa mamDAn bain. 

Hissa i duwwum men Bdsi saltanat kf bod-iDtizimi, aar 
nn ke be-intihi wa wabshfana zulm o sitam k& hnyka hat, 
Ilabi I teri panab I yib log kaise ua-khadfr-sbanis wa z&lim 
bain t jin ki harak&t ke aunae se bbi zahra ib bota bat I dil 
o jigar k&mptn bai 1 

Tiara bisse men saltanat i mai^iida ke &rim aar faw&(cl 
faun ; jin kil bay&n, agar-chl tabsU i bleil bi bai, niagai bi 
mauqa' bayin bai. 

Q-baraz, yib ria&Ia aib&yat bf muHd anr 'omda faai ; 
Wi&aa kar ia mauqa' par to is kfi sh&ya' bon& nili&yat hi 
mun&sib bai. Har '&tnm o kb&sa ke w&ste, yib kit&b i 
ibiat-Amez babat M par-iawiid bai. 


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We pnblish below a letter from Mr. J. F. Browne, Judge 
of Bunkipore. It is of interest as eridenco that we bnve 
sjrmiiathisers in other parts of In din, and also as shotving the 
nse which may be made of the Homaa alphabet to facilitate 
the procedure of oar Appellate Coarts. 

Bankipobz, 8th Decemler 1378. 
Mt Dcab Mb. Tolbort, 

I was delighl«d to bear throngh Mi^'or Holroyd 
of the vigorous attempt now being mode in the Fanjab to 
«ncoarage the nse of the Roman character. I hare been 
in favor of its introdnoUon for many years past. I have 
also done more than most officers in actiully patting the 
efficiency of the system to the test. Whilst holdiDg the 
position of Judge at Cnt^ack I traiued two officers of my 
Conrt to transliterate all the LTiiya depositions in every 
Appeal case and went into Conrt with so to speak a trans- 
literated brief of the erideaoe. The resnlt was in every way 
saUsfoctery to every body concerned, for I was able to follow 
tiie comments of tho pleaders with the greatest facility 
and withont the slightest waste of time, the aotoal text being 
before me in an easily legible and most intelligible form. Since 
I have held the post of Judge of Patuah, I have pursued 
precisely the same system and with similar results. I am 
therefore in a position to testify after actual experiment to 
the enormous advantages te be derived from the nse of the 
Boman character. 

Do yon not think that the most practical object to 

which 'the funds of yonr Society could be in the first 

instance applied, would be the publication of a cheap list 

'Vhowinjj the most useful and most generally used Urdu 

irords (by this I mean the words covering tho largest area) 

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boih in Persian and in Roman characters, I think snch a 
list wotild hy showing Urdn words in their Roman dress 
in a cheap and a'ccessiblo form give a great impetus 
to ihs canse which we both have at heart, by enabling many 
to acquire hy their own efforts a fall knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of transliteration. 

Wonld yon kindly send mo a translitemtioa nlpkab3t 
according to yonr views. I am myself opposed to all 
diacritical mirks, esa3pt an acoeat on the long a and per- 
haps tlie nse of 9 for ol». All the others are to my mind 
qnite nnnecessary. 

I am trying to get np a Saciety here to oo-operate 
with your's. la tha maaatitue lahall be glad to join tho 
Panjab Society, I send a chaqne fur 50 rupsaa in aJvaasa, 
oat of which kindly send me the back numbers. 
Years sincerely, 



Aj-kal chiin kE ek n&mwar "Committee" ki Lawnjjn'l 
Roman Urdd ki iirnf p&ijjitl hai ; babat logon ko is kd khay&l 
ho-rah& hai ; anr aksar tohriren is ke mukb&lif bhi hamarf 
Qazar se gnziin. 

Chnnanchi &j bhf ham&re pssh i nazar, Koh i nur ka 
parcha, matbiid i 7 Siptambar, manjiid hai; jia men Mlrza 
Saltan Ahmad S&hib no, is kl makhalifat men, khdina-fa.rs4 
ki, Pas zurdr hai, ki Mirzd Skbib ke daldll par ghaar ho, 

I. — Awwal to, tamhfd men, Mirzd 34hib is k& ijrd ht 
ni-mamkin samajbte bain. Fll-w4qi' ham&rk qa'ida hi ho- 
chnkd hai, ki ham har ek na( bit ke, n&-mamkin- ul-waqu* 
eamajbne anr kohne men zar& bhI taammnl nabfn karto ; aor 

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yibi itmr hamliri taraqqf k& m&iii' rah&. Lekfn afsos bat 
agar ia zamdna i *Hql o tamlz men bhi ham&ri jih behtida 
khnyil dur na bo. 

Agar-cbi main nobin kab sakt& ki is k& )jr& bog& yil 
na-bog& ; roagar bam ko kabbi bimmat na fa4mi cb&biye, 
anr oa kis( zf-hmmai ira bi-baosila idnmi ko matMn karui 
eh&y&a i ah&n bai. 

IL — Diisri fiqra Mirz& BAbib k& mert eamajb men, 
nabin &t& ; juni yib ki "Agar " Society " i mnzkdr, apne irdd- 
on k& yib usdl qiim kare, ki bur^f i Roman ko bils insid^ad 
horuf i F&rsi ke, taroqqi de, to albatta l4iq i tamassuk ■we 
taslim bo-sak-t& bai ; lekin jab ki " Society " i mazkui' apne 
ir&don ko aise nsdl se mazbijt kartl bai, ki jis se zaban i 
Fdrai ko ek babat bar& cbafihm-zakhm pBbnncht& bai &c. &c." 

Main nabfn Bamnjb sakti, ki Mirz& Sahib ne kyi 
samjhd ; anr FarsI zab^ ko, oLasbm-zakbm pabanchne ki, 
kyi^nkar tuned bilif. 

Sb&yad Sibib i rAqim, bnriif i Roman anr nanabi i 
"Society" se, kam^-baqqu-hu &gib nabin biie, war-na, yib 
i'tiriz, oa karte. 

S&bibo I Roman j&ri bone se, T&ni ki jarb nabin k&tf 
j4tf ; balki yib rasm-al-klutt i Roman as Id ziyada-tar ish'at 
k& 'amda wasila biii. 

Ap jfinte bain, ki Yiirtipin men se babat kam log, y4 
alikz o nidir wa mnt'addad Adami, F^rsi j^nte hain, war-na 
:dy&-da-tar Ydrdptn, ip aise dekbenge, ki jinben ITrdti bbf 
e&f bolne k& midda nabfn. 

Fas, jab liam&ri bukm-ran qanm, ia zabfin se, n&-&sbn& i 
mabz, hdl ; to farm&iye, bam&ri F4ris-d&n{ kl qodar kyi 
kbik karenge. 

H£n, agar Roman j&ri bo, to is qamn i fankm-r4n ko 
Firsl-d&ni k& kbw6b makbw&b ek Tvalwala paid4 bog4 ; anr 
Jab qanm i bakm>r&a ia zabdu Id qadar-dan biif, to yaqinan 
is zabia ka 'nriij barbi. 

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Fbir yih lulUa ina&f naUa, ki Boman m F&raf ko 

anqsiii pfthnochflgi. 

(Biq{ pUr) 


Doriog tbe preseot century the importance of noiTersal 
«dacaiioD has commonly been recognised in Eorope and 
America, and it baa been assomed, perhaps too bastily, that 
similar benefits are to be expected from similar measures in 
India. The mistake, if it be one, is dee to the very com- 
plicated nature of the problem, which is not likely to be 
definitely solred withoat much more experience than is to 
be had at present We ore however now far better pre- 
pared for an answer than when Lord Dalhoosie promised to 
give the FsDJ&b popular education among otlier benefits of 
Sritish rule, and it may be worthwhile here to review some 
of the facts which force themselves npon the notice of 

first, however, let ns consider if it is tme that in every 
oondttion of society a school will do for the people some- 
thing resembling the advantages which we onrselvea 
attribute to our own education. Should not the siiool 
rather be regarded as one of the factors of dviliaation, which 
loses its value when any other of the factors is a cipher ? 
A school, I should suppose, is valuable when it prepares the 
boy for the life for whidi he is destined as a man, and if we 
teac^ in a village school a number of lessons which are not 
applied outside its walls, the impression ia likely to be very 
transient. I do not mean that nothing will be retained in 
after-life, but that there will be nothing equivalent to the 
expenditare of money time and labour. 

In Europe this theory of education is on the whole 
carried into practice, even if many of the ideas which are 


( 19 ) 

afloat are nnsoand. The village blacksmith and ploughman 
hare cot moch in the waj of literary Burroimdings, bat of 
late years especiallj they hare formed literary habits of a 
hnmble kind. They read, newspapers and books, write 
letters, and keep their accounts. In ludia it is different. Of 
twenty men that yon meet on the Grand Trunk Bond, or 
who come together in the market place, how many can 
yon suppose to La in any sense literary men ? Scarcely 
one. If a Zamindar wants a letter written twice a year he 
can get it done for two pice. He keeps his simple accounts 
in his bead, and as for books and newspapers they are only 
road when the snbjeets of which they treat are interesting 
to society, apart from the mechanical difficulty of reading, 
which rapidly increases with disuEe. You can no more make 
a Zamiudar read the GMlittan or the At/^ar-i-Anjuman than 
yon could make Urs. Ghmip read Dickens or the Saturday 
review for her own profit and amosement. We do not oar- 
selves read every thing that ia printed, bat one reads Politics 
and another Novels according to our tastes. It is impossi- 
ble to conceive an educated people without a vast variety 
of literature, sndh oa no organisation of schools could create. 

On the same principle we should beware of expecting 
too much from chunges in the subjects of edacation. 

It is not enough to say that the study of Physical 
Science frees the mind from nnsoand ideas. In fact, the 
Science which begins and ends with a few lessons in school 
affords the most unsound education going. This is partly 
because Science is a new subject in education, and pnrtly 
because to many people there is not much science in the 
world in which they live. Of the part which Physical Science 
is destined to play hereafter in all intellectual training, I do 
not speak. Again, a school of art or of Indastry is more 
costly, and equally unprofitable will a school of the old- 
Gtahioned sort be onless there is a demand for the services of 

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tho stilled workmen whom yoa attempt lo train. In Europe 
such scbooU have sprung up to meet the waats of progres- 
sive civilisation, but in India tbey do not soem able to com- 
pete vfiiii tlie time-honoured sj-atem ot upprenticesbip, to 
whicli schools of art and design cau iu any case euly be 
subsidiary. Besides, tha struggle for existence never ceases, 
and tho artisan who is weighted with a costly education wiU 
jaevitafaly full behind in the race unless he can make direct 
use of his advantages. Itis not only that h& learns much, 
which he cannot apply profiUhly in his business, but ha 
has neglected to form those habits of thiift and plodding, 
industry upon which success depends. 

But, to return to the general question, ia large cities 
like Delhi or Lahore where hundreds of boys pay a substan- 
tial fee for their schooling, there is na reason ta doubt that 
they get what they want. There are, however, thoosands- 
who neither want nor get education, and in several Districts- 
of the Panjib the village schools are by no means welL 
attended. In some places- where the schools have flourished 
for a time the peo|>le are complaining that their sons have- 
got nothing by their education and have become unfitted to> 
work in the shop or in the Aelds. 

If you ask them why they send their sons to school, it 
always appears that e:cceptii)g a very few persons in eany 
drcumstances, the motive is some expectation of literary 
employment. Perhaps only half a dozen boys in as many - 
years have bettered their condition by means of the educo. 
tion which they acquired in the village school, and it is of 
course impossible to find places for the scores who enter the^ 
lists, yet they seem to have no object in learning bat ta 
became Fatw&ries, or Moharrirs, or whatever it may be^ 
In fact the greater part on leaving school relapse into th» 
happy ignorance of their forefathers. This does not seem, 
to be a result worth the costly machinery of State education. 
In some cases however the results are so feeble that thejr 

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( !I ) 

represont moroly the direct oallay of pnbltc money. Ii* 
Frontier Districts it is commoa for a teaclier to get aa 
snusiially high salary because of the difEcnlty of keeping up. 
schools at all, and for him to spend what be can spare in 
bribing a few poor boys to supply the material without 
which he would lose the rest of his income. Elsewhere a 
purely agricultural population steadily nefoses to take 
advantng,e of the schools wbToh are fbroed upon them. When 
education was a new thing it was doubtless necessary ta 
encourage it by official pressure, without whtch the experi-. 
inent would never haT& had a fair chance. Now. tho' 
sdrnniages and deBcienciea of the system, are' well uoder-> 
stood by tho peoiile, and it is a mistake to treat them as if 
they did not know their own minds. What is required 
Father at the present time is a cleitrer view, on the part of 
the administration, of the objects and consequences of an; 
establishment of public schools.. Declamation about Progress^ 
Civilisation, and olher abstractions in capital lettcr^s will noi 
suffice. We iuiYe tatrace the career of Atma Sam and 
Kabi Baksh through the Gbilistan, ortlifl school of carpentry, 
wid, if we can, find out how much better he is nt the end ot 
it. We know what we ourselves owe to education. Wo caoi 
see pretty clearly what the PlGaders and Postmasters, 
trained in tlie Government Schools owe to it, and though, 
the fasts may not be so palpable, it is not very difficult ta 
a-scertain what a school in any town or village has dona foc- 
tfae scholars who frecLuented it.. 



The objects of this Journal, and of tho Society witlt 
wliicb it is connected, are explained by the series of Reso- 
lations pnssed at the Mseting orgaaiaing the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which wore paolishect 
in the first number of thia Journal. 

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( 22 ) 

We ask all who are interested in the moveinent to give 
118 their support. Tbosi who may wish to join the Society 
ni-e requeateii to send tlieir names, with the subscriptions for 
the year, Its. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, /{onan- Urdu 
Society, Lahore. Memberd Trill receive a copy of the 

We abo call attentjoQ to No. 6 of the Bcsolations 
passed at the Meeting on the S5th May, and invite subscrip- 
tions to the *' Transliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with the inovemeat who 
have not yet sent in their naineS aod subscriptions. We 
trust that they will now do so, und that they will lUo help 
OS by canvassing for fresh numbers, and by circulating our 
Journal among both Europeans and Natives in the Stutioos 
where they reside. 

Contribuliona oB any (^ the varioos mibjecta connected 
with trnsl iteration, translation and education generally, are 
earnestly sohcited from Members of the Society. 




To advoeate tJu uteo/tlu Roman Alphabet in Oriental 


iBisTiD im rewAmm roK thi PBoniiitroM akd 



ty Google 

No. g February 1^79' 

The Society's Moothl/ Meeting was held as osa&l at the 
Itfthore College, on i^tarday, 25th of Janasiy. 

The Editors of the " Aftab i Fanj&b " and of the " Fan-^ 
j&bi" were both present. The Editor of the "AiUb i 
Fanj&b " declined to start his proposed Eoman-Urdd news- 
paper withoat a gaarantee that two handred copies woald be 
taken. The Editor of the " FuDJ£bi " agreed to pnblish a 
Boman-Urdd "Extra" with bis weekly paper withont any 
BOoh guarantee. Under these circnmstanoes, it was con- 
ridered that the patronage of the Edncational Department 
and of other friends of the movement should be transferred 
to Uie « PanjAbf." The Editor of the "AftAb i Panjib" 
ooucarred, and offered to send a list of tlioso who bad already 
applied to him, to the " FanjAbf." It is hoped that all who 
were willing to sabsoribe to the former paper will transfer 
their names to the latter, and that other friends of the move- 
ment wilt encourage the e^eriment, which is one of great 
interest and promise. The snbjeota printed In Boman-Urdd 
in the "Extra" will appear in the body of the paper in 
Persian. The " Extras " already issned contain among other 
Bnbjeots a readable essay on " History " by Saiyid Muham- 
jnad Hasan Shin, BahAdor, of Patiala. 

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[ 2 ] 
Editobial Notss. 

We woaM invite the attentioa of onr readers to tlie 
edition of the New Testameat wlii<^ has jnat been paUiahed 
by the American Mission Press, Lncknoir, in Roman-Hind f. 

There have been seTerol editions of the New Teatament 
in Roman-Urdd, bnt this ia in pnre Hindi, and will interest 
all who have devoted any portion of their time to that section 
of the langoage or who are fond of philological enqniries. 
By comparing this Hind! edition with those in Urdd, one sees 
at a glance withont any complications of character the well 
marked difFerence of vocabnlary between the two great 
branches of the Hindostunf langoage. 

The Bev. T. Craven, Superintendent of the above 
Press, informs aa that he has ten books in BomaD-UrdUf 
preparing for publication. He adda that be baa greatly 
increased his facilities for printing Roman-Urdii, has added 
to hia stock of type, and ia abont to set np a type fonndry. 
Among the books ander preparation is a " Concordance " 
which will be as detailed and complete as similar works in 
English. Another of these works is an Bnglisband Romnn- 
Urdu Dictionary. Hr. Craven wonid be willing to publish 
an English and Paiijabi Dictionary if he conld get some 
aisistanoe from this Frovinoe. We invite the attention of 
oiir Paoj&b Q-overnmcnt to this offer. Mr. Graven also 
saggesta the preparation of a series of Roni%a*Urdll BeaderSj 
with illastratioDS, on the English plan. 

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Wlule OD the Ba1>jeot of Roman-TTrdA literatafe, va 
may refer to two Bomaa-Urdd books of a. different kind 
Trhich were pablished a year Ago, bat have not been auffi- 
tneatiy bronght to tbe notice of the pablic One of these ia 
the " Hidfcyat-nima i Palis " or " Police Catechiam " com- 
piled by Major-General Hatchisoa, late Inspector-General 
of the Police of this Province. It containa a series of ques- 
tions and answers, first on the definitions of the Penal Codb, 
and secondly on the dnties of a Police Officer. These ques- 
tions and answers are in Dnglish on one side of the page and' 
in Roman-Urdd on the other. Thu little work ought cer> 
tnioly to be in the hands of every Police Officer of the 
Province. It may be obtained from the Inspector-Ganerai's 
Office, Lahore. 

Tiie other Roman-Urdd boot to which we refer ia tta 
" Tab'fy^t ka pahl& riskia " tranalated from Professor Bal- 
fonr Stewart's primer on physics. It may be obtaned from 
the Central Book Dsp6t, Lahore. Tbia Is the first soientifia 
work in Boman-Urdn that has come ondec oar notice. 
We trust that it will be followed by a series of manuals ia 
all tiie branches of soientific instruction. 

We referred in the last number of onr Journal to cer- 
iaia moot' points in transliteration. There are a few others 
to which attention may be directed. To begin with, there 
is the important qnestion — Should diacritical marks be 
employed to denote every distinction of the original charac- 
ter, or shoold snch marks be used only where they are 
needed to denote difierences of pronunciation ? We are 
disposed to suggest as Uie proper reply to this question that 
onr practice may be allowed to vary according to the nature 
and object of the work we have in band. Ia Dictionaries 

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tnd Ghwumars, in trasBliterations of the Orientsl cUnic^ 
in tranalattoDS of stAndard Enropean worka and in Edoo^ 
tional books geneially, vro woald advooatc an aocarate Bjstom 
of transliteration, sign for sign, according to tlie Oriental 
alphabets themaelres. A few of the Oriental signs may 
however be omitted even in transliterations and translation 
of standard works. For instaDoe we would omit the silent 
" h " at the end of Persian words, and we scarcely think it 
neoessary to ose a separate mark for the diBerent varietiea 
of the Sanskrit " □ " with the exception of the " nasal." In 
like manner we would omit " hamza " except where reqninkl 
to prSTont miapronuticiaUon. " Toowfu " too may be omitted 
Vithoat appreciable loss. On the other hand we think 
it desirable to use a distinotiTO mark for l^ and ^ and Sot 
^ different varieties of the Persian " z." 

While adrocatiDg a reasonably striet system of tntnsli' 
ierafion for edaoational and classical works, we do not iliink 
BDch strictness a matter of importance in less scholarly 
publications. For instance, in ordinary newspapers the 
diacritical marks nsed by the " Kaokib i Hind," that is to 
say, marks for every distinction of pronanoiation, are soffi- 

Id manuscripts (not intended for the press) the teodency 
will be still greater to drop the diacritical marks, — those 
which mark distinctions of pronnnciation as well as those 
which do not. Within certun limits, this need not be 
regretted. The Katire Christians who combine a thorough 
knowledge of the language with a knowledge of the Roman- 
TJrdd character are able to read Boman-TJrdii manuscripts 
with fluency without any diacritical marks at all. £nro> 
peans can ecarcelj do this, bat Triih n certaia amoaut of 

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praetiee tb^ irill find eTen anmarked Booutn-nrd6 eari«r 
than the Persian ia its beat mannacript form. 

For (k we recommend the use of " a " with a graro 
accent — thoB " k." 

For u* there is a convenient character in the cedilla o, 
thus";." This is found in most ooUectiona of type, and 
eren if it should be absent the figure 5 turned npside down 
aniwers the same purpose. 

If however the Missionary body or othera should object 
io this Bs awkward and pedantic, we would, as a compro- 
mise, snggest the use of " s." The letter u*, which in tha 
Fenian formt a pur with u*, may be represented hy " z.** 

Where distinctive marks are required for ^ and J>, it is 
usual to represent them by two dots under the " t " and " z " 
respeotivelj. Can any better mark be suggested ? 

For i we prefer " x " with a line under it— "jj'j for 
A " 8 " with a line under it — " s " 

For the Sanskrit Q, Monier Williams uses " s*." Some 
may prefer "flh" with a lino under it, thus, "^■'* The 
sound ia nearer " sb " than " a" but the line unJerneath 
(or some equiTsleot diacritical mark) is reqaired to distilb* 
gaiflh it from the Sanskrit n. 

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In a leotore recently delivered at tbe London losUtotion^ 
Mr. Frederic Harrison oBereJ some thoaghtful romnrks on 
the nse and abuse of books. The general pnrport of these 
remarks was that the thurongh and careful study of a limited 
list of the very best works is more to be commended than a 
diffuse and indiscriminate study of all that are printed. This 
IB the opiuion of most thoughtful adrooates of cdaoalioo. 
It is admitted that the multiplicity of books is (upon the 
whole), an advantage to Western Society in the aggregate, 
but so far as individital mental training is concerned, indis- 
criminate reading is an evil to be guarded against. 

It is well that this view of a nation's EducittioDal te- 
quirements should be insisted upon in these columns. We, 
who advocate the substitution of the Roman for the Oriental 
characters, and the creation of a Bomanized vernacular 
literature as the /r<(and/orewiiM( principle of Indian Edu- 
cation, and who maintain that the accomplishment of this 
great work is as feasible and legitimate an enterprise for the 
expenditure of Government energy mid funds as the con« 
etruction of a Hallway or a Canal, have to engounter tbe 
objections of some who stand aghast at the supposed magni- 
tude of our proposal. Do you seriously propose, they sny, 
that Q-overument should undertake the transliteration of 
every Persian manuscript and the transUtion of every work 
of merit in the languages of Western Europe ? To this 
we reply that it is unnecessary to transliterate or translate 
any but the h^heat repretentatiee works in each branch of 
literature. This being done, there may even be an adoantaga 
in the reitriated Umitt of our Bomamted I3>rary. It is not 
in the power of any (Government to restrain the thoughts 
of its saljects, and we shoold protest agaiiut any approach 

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to a oensonhip, or a perpetaal tntelng« of ladian literafnre ; 
bat it is quite in nocordance with the circnmstancea of on r 
rnle in India, and the object of onr Eilooational oxertioos in 
this conotry, thnt Ooverament should give to ita venMCvAar 
literature a frame-work and an iinpetns at Btarttng, sufficient 
to guide it in the first stages of ita development. It is in 
tiie power of our Indian Governments to select the good, and 
(o eliminate the had features of eastern and of western litera- 
ture, and to create a compact body of vernacular classics, 
which wilt afford a sounder mental training to the rank and 
file of Native Society than the bewildering multiplicity of 
£ng1ish books can give. The inexhanstible soarces from 
which SQch a Romanized literature will be formed, — Oriental 
classics CD the one hand, and English on the other — will not 
be less acceanble than they are at present, to those who bars 
wealth, leuure, and inclination for their stndy, 

A week or two ago a member of onr Society had 
occasion to write on the pnblio service to Messrs. Bonsf Lil 
and n&m Bataa the leading Hindu banking firm at Ali^n 
Hir. He wrote in the Persian character. In a day or two 
be received a reply, the first paragraph of which was as 
follows : — 

« Sir, 

With reference to yoar office vernacular ParwanSh 
Ho. 187 dated 16th instant, we beg you will be good 
enoogh to favor ns with your orders in English language as 
wo have no Vemacnlar " Urdoo " writer in onr firm."— Can 
a character which is repudiated by the whole mercantile 
commoaity of India, be regarded as the national character ? 

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We were oonTetsing the other day with a well known 
Bative genUeman — the aathor of the " GnlzAr i HiodI,"— 
who has recently joiaed onr Society. We dwelt on the 
defects of the Persian ohaiacter in all books of reference. 
" Yea," interposed our friend, " there is a Persian Dio- 
tionary— the Qliiylis ol Lngh&t — you oaiCtfind a word in it,"* 

We ask onr readers tu note this casnal remark. Here 
we have, as the subject of oor criticism, tbe Standard D'uy 
tionary of the Persian language ; we have, as onr oritio, a 
native gentleman who is hiinself an accomplished Persian 
scholar ; and we have as the parport of his criticism the 
snggeative remark — "you can't _fiad a word in it," 

If any of onr readers, whether European or Native, are 
at all doubtful as to the superiority of the Roman to the 
Persian character for purposes of reference, let them at once 
pnt the matter to the test. Let them take two Dictionaries 
or two Encyclopaedias, or two volnminons lists of any kind, 
ono in each character. Let them write down a hundred 
words on one strip of paper and a second hundred words on 
another ; then let them note by the dock tbe time that it 
takes to find ont a hundred words in the two characters 
respestiroly. To say that it will take ten times as long to 
find the buadred words in the Persian as in the Iloman book 
of referencoj is to understate the truth. 

The Pioneer of January Slst, pahtished a long and re- 
markable letter on the relations between Katires and 
Europeans. We do not propose to discuss tbe subject in 
detail, but WQ oordially eodorH tbe following sentonoe whidt 

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we an stire, expreaSes the opinion of eTsry - M«nber «f onr 

" It most cerer be forgotten that erery English o£5cial 
' in the land owea his position and subsistence to the people of 
India ; Uiat amongst that people his lot is cast ; that the 
welfare and happiness of that people is or ought to he, his 
most important cnre ; and that it is bis duty, both to the 
Government he serves and to the people he goveros, to make 
the British rnle popular in the land." 

We republish in this number ofour Joumnl two articles 
hy Mr. Frederic Pincott, the Editor'of Uie Hindi tmnslatios 
of the Sakuntalo. They appeared in the October and 
November numbers of the " National Indian Associattoa 
Journal." It will be seen that Mr. Pincott writes favorably 
vf oar Sodety and its work, and we are extremely glad to 
receive his support. At the same time we think that the 
claims of the Roman al[>habct deserve to be put in a stronger 
light than he has put them. The comparisons and con- 
trasts whidi he draws axe—'Jtrat, between Roman type print- 
ing on the one side and Oriental type printing on the other ; 
and secondly, between Roman manuscripts on the one side^ 
and Oriental manuscripts on the other. But our case is 
mach stronger than this ; in reality, the alternative lies 
between the printed Roman character on the one hand, and 
the written or lithographed Oriental characters on the other. 
We are not speaking of the claims of the Roman diaraoter 
to saperaede the Oriental in our Courts of Law, but of its 
claims in education and literature. Regarding it in this 
light, we may say with certainty that no one ever coutem- 
pUtea the use of manuscript or lithographed books in tha 

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Romnn character. On tbe other hand, how many books or 
newspapers are there in the Persian character that are not 
either manoscripts or lithographs ? There is certainly 
Saiyid Ahmad's press at AUgarhj there are a few Missionary 
presses and Uiere are the Qovemment presses of Lahore and 
Allahab&d. How mnny more tj'pe presses are there in thd 
Urdd-speaking Froviaces of India ? How many are Ihere 
in K&bal ? How many iu Persia ? How many in Central 
Asia ? How many jq Turkey and its outlying dependen- 
cies ? To confine our remarks to Lahore — we have in this 
. city six or seven remacnlar newspapers. All of these are 
in the Persian oharaoter, and all are lithographs. 

We do not pnrsne the argament further, as wo giro 
f oma of oar criticisms on Mr. Pincott's papers in the form of 
no[«a. Whatever difference may exist between ns aa to soma 
points of detail, the general tone of Mr. Pincott's remarks is 
decidedly favorable and eympatbetio towards the Koman- 
Urdil movement. 


The Director of Public Instruction has lately issued a 
Circular accompanied by rules for the next and subsequent 
Middle School Examinations. 

Transliteration, as our readers are awere, is one of the 
subjects of examination, but we would arge the Educational 
Uepatinent to increase the number of marks allotted to it, 
and to make the examination in this respect more searching 
than it ha.t been hitherto. The maximum number of marks 
, in tile compulsory sabjects is 100. Of this total, 75 mark^ 

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an allotted to IJrdd, which are tbas diridad-^Oomposi tioa 
S3, Gnunmar 15, Transliteration 15, Hand-writing 10, 
vtM voce lUading 10. This distribution noald be fair 
ODoagb if Urdii stood alone and if each of the divisioiis of - 
Urdii itaelf were nnoonadcted with the others ; bat mery 
oandidate ia examined in Persian as wdl, and in Uiat snbject ' 
there are no marks for tranriiteration, whilo eren in XJtdA 
the marks for Oomposition, Hand-writiog and Beading are 
awarded to the Persian character onlj. 

A very slight increase in the namber of marks for 
transliteration,— accompanied by more thorongbneas in the 
tests Rpptied, — ^wonld have a marked effect on the Ednoatioa 
of the Province. At present, to jndge from the colmnn 
of instractions, the only test is as follows :^' 5 ' or 6 lines 
of Urdii in the Persian character to be written by the candi- 
date in the Roman character.'* We wonld retain this as one 
of the tests (though 10 or 12 lines would be better than 5 or 
6) ; but would add the following tests as well ; — 

(1). A certificate from the Head-Master of a Middle 
School, or from nn ofBcial of similar standing, that tho 
oandidate had, in his presence, read through some easy 
work — say one of the Histories published by the AllahAbitd - 
Mission Press is the Bomas character. 

(2). Examination of the candidate's knowledge of 
Boman-Unld by hia ability to read paragraphs from the 
" Bigii Bohfr, the "Kaakab i Hind," and the " Panj&bt 
Extras " in the presence of the Examiners tbemselres, 

(3).' Composition in Homan-Urdil (without a Persian 
original to copy from). The subjects selected for Composi- 

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tion might with adrantage be logal atid offioiaJ, police or 
rerenne reports, depoaidons, judgments, Ac. 

^apposing the examination in Roman-Urdii to be thtu 
fhorongb, yre woald advocate an addition of 15 marks to ths 
Bumber already allotted. We -wonld make thia addition 
witboat any dedaotioa from other subjects, that is to aay we 
fronld rniae the total namber of marks for UrdA from 75 to 
90, and the aggregate of marks for the fire compnlaory 
subjects from 400 to 415. 'Diere would thon be 30 marks 
for Urd;i in the Roman character and 6p for Urdd ia the 
Persian, while the whole of the marks in Forsiaa itself woald 
also be awarded to the Persian character. 

Tbia proposal is essentially a moderate one. It rests 
with the Director to adopt it, l>at we are sure that pablic 
opinion will support bim if ba will accept the saggestion 
we offor. The Middle School Examination will be held in 
April, and the change indicated can easily be mode and 
notified before the Bxamination takes place. 

Moot points is TBAsatmiRATios. 

We bare receired the following notes from Major 
Holroyd regarding the points of detail in transliteratim 
Vbich Were discussed in our January number. 

We shall be glad if other Members of the Sowety will 
fvroT m with suggestions. In particular we would ask tbo 
Editor of the Kauk(A i Hind for his opinion regarding the 
letter 'atn. 

After full discQs^on in oar own oolnmns, we propose to 
open commnnications on the subject with the Asiatio Bocie> 
ties of Calcutta and London. 

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Jfotei on jMMtioiu reUuit^ to the details of trantlittratim, 
tkiU were raited m the January natriber of the iZoflMm- 
Urdu Journal. 

L Shoald the letter 'ain {^ bo reproiented by the «pc*- 
tropfae or by a dotted vowel 7 

It appears to me that the use of the dotted vowel is 
liable, even in T7rdd, to give rise to doubt and confasioa, 
and that it ia quite ansnited to Arabic, and conseqtieiitly to 
the expression of qaotationa that often occur in Urdu, and 
of coarse mach more largely in Persian. To take the 
example of a common Urdii word like Wj. If we Trrite 
daf'a there can be no donbt as to the correct orthography ; 
^ is followed by ztAar, and the silent A, (without which we 
eannot have zabar at the end of a word in Urd^). If we 
write (ia/a, it is not apparent whether tbo sahar belongs to 
f or to •-*, and conseqnently, whether there is, or is not, a 
final silent h, or whether indeed the word is theoTettCBlIy 
a monosyllable. No distanotitm can be made between the 
words ^t and 4**^. How again are we to write snch worda 
ai fJ^ 'alim, f^i t'iAn,j4i*i, I'fiMr, *;*• 'ibrat, J*K fa'S, 
fX*^ miitdlimy *i^ ta'id, oijUm ta'ddat, £o., if we ose 
the dotted vowel ? Posubly a mle may be foood to oover 
Bome of these oases, bat I do not see how it can cover all, 
bow it oan be made to shew in every cose the position of » 
and how the presence of alif before the ( is to be indicated ; 
and I certainly oanoot conoeire any rale that wonid ho 
■oitaUe to Arabic. 

It a[^;»ears to toe to be very desirable fm the lako 
of perspicaity, that there should be a distinct symbol Ut 

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npreseot &» letter (, and tfaa bot that tlu J^ostntpbe if 
to bft found in every fonnt of Bodiiq type, aal that it has 
been largely adopted, are strong nrgamsnts in its &voar. 

Taming to a practical objection that is often raised 
I would observe, that shoatd it ba agreed to nse tha 
^wstrophe to represent ^ aia, it does not of course neoesaariiy 
follow, that ihe word ^ shoald be written tU\ Tho qaes- 
tion here is, whetJier we are to recognize the presence of a 
Towel which is theoretically absenL It may be argaed, that 
in tTrdd this word is ordiaarity pronoanoed^ (l^, as if the 
J were nu^iuh, and that we should recogoisa this fact 
and write 2t^. The same ivgameot might be applied to 
f^ fath, which is no doubt ordiaarily prononaoed ^ fatah 
with • muft^ I am myself iaclioed to accept this view, 
though a change of orthography woold be requisite if an 
edjeoUre with the iz&fat were added as in ttil| Ui ^U fath-i- 
numdtfin (not &tha-i-tiiim£yin). 

SooLe people would dispense with a distingaishiag 
mark to represent the ^ altogether. !nie ioooDTenience of 
saoh a coarse howerer may be seen by ooDsideriog the ■ 
effect that it would have on SQoh an expression as '«Tj ^•^'' 
'^Uati via i^ilan, which is very oommoo in Persian, where - 
the presence or absence of the 'am gives an exactly opposite 
signifioation. Saoh common words again aa.r^ ihi'r and 
lLm/'j would be qnlte unrecognizable if written thir and . 
Jil, withoat anything to indicate the presence of the ». 

IL How should ^ and ^ be expressed, i. e., by kh and 
ffi or by i and ff a distingaiahing mark being atjfled ia 
either case ? "^ 

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£h hM bMn so geaerally adopted to repreBent (, that it 
Beflms hardly oeoessarj to disooss tha question. We have 
also the analogy of the Skgrl alphabet where it is represen- 
ted by ^. As regards h, it may be observed, that this letter 
in Nigri is represented by H not by ^ j and other argn- 
ments in its favour have been referred to in the Roman 
Urdu Journal. On the oilier hand gh in Dnglish originally 
represented a gattural soand somewhat onalogoas to that of 
f. It appears also that gh with or without a mark is moro 
generally used to represent ^ ; and the faot that it has been 
adopted to represent this letter in the system of translitera- 
tiag Indian names laid down by the Government of India 
seems to me to be a dedisive argument in its favour. I 
have hiUierto used and promoted &» use of the simple j 
with a distingaishing mark to represent ^ ; bat I agree with 
Hie view expressed in the Journal that gh is preferable. 

IIL Should a oomma be osed to separate the h of 
asjiirated letters from the preceding consonant? 

This appears to me to be veij undesirable. It gives 
the words so written a clumsy broken appearance disagree- 
able to the eye. There can be no danger of confoondtng the 
sound of th in thandd with that of (he Bnglish t/i in ' the ' or 
in ' thin,' since these sounds do not occur ataU in Hiudostiuii. 
As regards g and ^ it may be observed that the occurrence 
of these letters is not so common as that of a consonant 
followed by A ; and it is evidently much simpler to place a 
mark nndor kh and gh, when they are osed to represent ^ 
and ^, than to write a comma after every consooant followed 
by au aspiriU. 

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The only o&er cam where ambigaitj is possible is in 
ft ward like tai-kil where the sh might be mistakot for i^ 
if Hie word were wriUen tatkU, without a hj-pfaen. 8nth • 
case is however extremely rare. Were it oommon, it might 
be advisable to place a line ander th, wheti it is ased to repre- 
sent (Jij bat the exceptioBB are so anoommoa tliat this 
appears nnneccBsary. 

lY. The proposal to use the black aotiqae letters in 
order to distiiigaiah the ceotral or hard t, d, and r from the 
dental letters appears to me to be one that might be adopted 
with advantage in printing. 

W. R. M. HOLKOT0. 


The qnestion of the desirability of largely extending ihs 
use of the Romnn alphabet among the languages of India has 
been recently again brought into prominent notice by tho 
formation of a Roinan-Urda Somety at Lahore, The gentle- 
men who have token this matter up are known for their 
energy and devotjon to the cause of popalar education in 
India ,- and this fact, combined with the sympathy which the 
basis of the movement must always command, and the many 
eminent men who have formerly committed themselves to 
the task, lead to the inference that some practical issue will 
arise from the present effort There is yet another fact 
tending in same direction, and that is the more modest 
and circumscribed programme of the Sodety now called into 
being. The founders do not propose the supwsesaion of all 

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the alphabets of ludia by that of Koine ; bat they hope to 
gam a fair field for the alphabet they advocate, feeling assnred 
that ita practical advantages will aecnre its ready adoption. 
This seems a wise course ; and I would earnestly press upon 
the promoters the desirabili'y of abstaining from attempts at 
sweeping changes before the public mind is prepared for 
them. The first thing to be done is to produce a certain 
number of carefally executed and useful books in the nomau 
cbaracter, and at tlio same time endeavour to obtain have 
for at least, the optional use of such boots in schools, Ac, 
■where the English language is taught, or elsewhere, and in 
other ways proceed gradually. The Society might also offer 
■mall prises to NaUvo children who learnt how lo read their 
Temaculare in the Boman character. Such efforts awaken 
no antagonism, and thus accomplish more than ambitioua 

There are, however, considerations connected with this 
aubject which the Society should take thought of, and perhaps 
endeavour to obviate. It is only by fairly considering both 
sides of the question, and by generously recognising objection 
aial opposition, ..d espmiially intelligent opposition, can bs 
overcome. Those who advocate the application of the Reman 
alphabet to Indian languages, and those who object to it, seem 
both to take too restricted a view of the subject to have much 
chance of converting each other. The argument upon which 
the Society will, no doubt, chiefly rely is the great cheapness 
of the Roman character CD. " Indiiins could be pcrsm«ied 
to use these letten. an imme«. burden which w eighs down 

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popalor edocalioti wonld be instantly removed. Tbonsandl 
of books conld be brought into the market at the cmt noir 
entailed for dozens. This is certainly a potent argmnentf 
and it 19 undeniable ; — it is no argament -n-Lich ahonld and 
will override very many objections ; — ^it is tiie practical 
argament, which is worth more than namberle«a theoretical 
consideralioaa. Nevertheless it is in part connterbalanced by 
considerations which should be allowed their weight. 

In the (ii-st )>lace, although it is tme that the Roman 
chnracter is simple, neat and compact, it yet pays for these 
advantages by its inadequacy to express the soands of any 
langunge to which it has ever been applied. By the side of 
the Roman character there mast always run a current of 
tradition to interprotnrightihe written symbols {2). To get 
over this inadequacy numerous dots and spots have to ba 
added to the letters whose powers in some respect correspond 
with the sounds to be expressed ; and if these dots are 
carefully placed and duly observed they can be made to effect 
their purpose fairly well. It must be observed, however, 
that the addition of u dot to a, letter is by no means so 
marked n distinction of sound as is nn entire change iu the 
ihape of a letter ; thus what the Raman alphabet gains in 
simplicity it loses in clearness. Furthermore, small additions 
such as dots are very liable to breakage in printing, and as a 
fact, every Indian book j-et printed in the Roman character 
abounds in false readings and apparent misspellings. On the 
other hand, the native characters, in despite of slurs in print- 
ing and acciilental damage, is alwf^s legible, for even small 

(2.) The Kama remark applies to the Pcrsinn wbea OMd tot HimU 
woida, aad to the Uiadl uluinuwi nlieausal for i't^aiAn, 

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difierenees in sonnd are marked by ohange in the shape of 
entire letters (3). 

While on the qnestion of legibility it is worth noting 
that jiutioo is not dono on this poiat ; for the a'lvocates of 
the Boman character compare aa ordinary printed Kngliah 
book with the Shikosta form of writing ; and those who 
defend the native character compare nicely printed Neskht 
with the hasty scribbling of an English letter. Both these 
comparisons are anjnst, for they compare one character at its 
beat with another at its worst. It may be taken as a fact 
that every character is snited to the representation of its own 
sonnda and therefore every language can be beat read in ita 
own character. Bnt this goes apon the assumption that the 
writing or printing is good and clear. I do not hesitate to 
say that UrdA hastily written in the Homan character, with 
the diocriUcal marks omitted or misplaced, wonld be more 
difficult to read tban even the Shiknatn. In reading, words 
are not spelled out, bat recognized by their tout emembU, and 
it is because the tout ememhle is destroyed that it becomes 
difficult to read hasty writing. The reader is thrown back 
upon the spelling, and then the comparative merits of 
alphabets become apparent. In such cirumstances the t»*s, 
n's, m's, c's, e's, »'s, o's, r's, »'a, &o., of the Roman running 
hand, slnn-ed into one indistinguishable streak, have no 
advantage whatever over the native characters of India (4.) 

(3) Which has the greateT nnmbeT of dots. — Eomnri-Unlu or Pcrsinn 
TTnlfi I In the 1alt«r, there uc whole gronpa of lettei'a which ua oaXj ba 
diKtiagnished by dots. 

(4.) In the ffor^t Raman writing there ii generally more regard paid to 
the ttiaeing ofmrrdi than in the best PerBian, But let this pnss. We admit 
the difflcnlttea of bud Itomaa manuscripts. What would Ur. Pincott nay 
if our English Newspapers, onr Dictionaries, and oil on: Clnsaical Aulhora 
wcTe obscared bj the defecta which attach more or \<sfis to Hauuacripta of 
Kntj luud ! Yet tiiis ia the actual condition qI aU Oriental c< 

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There ia no necesfiuy imperfection in the Arabic and 
other SQch characters. It ia artificially made imperfect 
hy altogether foolish Qotlona oFoaligraphy . Orientals imagine 
that it looks yerj nice to connect all letters and words into 
one continued series of artistically arranged streaks and 
caris. Practical convenience and qneations of legibility ure 
never allowed a feather's weight. If Orientola were to 
Boparat« their words from each other, and to break np tbeir 
books into paragraphs, iatroducing marks of ponctnatiOD, &&, 
there ia nothing in Eastern alphabets to prevent them from 
being read with the some ease as Roman letters (5). The great 
expense of printing in Sostem characters is an altogether 
different affair. I have already admitted that the Boman 
character has it pretty nearly all its own way in this respect. 
Still the Boman &nd Arabic characters can be pat apon a 
fair level as to cheapness by a little compromise. I have 
devised some Urdft types whoh can now ba porchosed at a 
vety cheap rate from Messrs. Caslon and Co., Chiswell 
Street, and these types with a scarcely appreraable departure 
from the ordinary Keskhl, overcome all the objections nrged 
against the native character. Of course there are other 
alphabets not so readily amenable to treatment. 

The advocates of the Boman character most establish 
nniformily among themslres if they wi^ their symbols to 
become cheap and general (A). As long as every (ransliter^ 
tionist insists on his own special code of signals, so long will 

(S). We Cftuitot admit tbis. Togosofnrther, IheomiEsionof theshort 
TowelB, nnd Ibe absence of capitals are decided iicperfectioiiB fa the hrtt 
jprinttd Pernan, Besides tbis, the letters tbemBelTcs ( aa iiaed in combina. 
tion)are mncb more obgcore thsa tbe priiited Baman, At the best, tbcf 
•eem to na aboat on a par witb good nanvieript Boman. 

(6). This ia one of the objects we bare in Tietr in forming the Boman- 
ITrdti Soclely. 

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expense and antagoiiisnt clog the path of the morement. 
The diacritical marks, whotever they are, ahonld be bold and 
disUaot. The dots hitherto employed are altogether too 
feeble ; and when the important consonant 'ain is reduced 
to ft dot nnder a Towel, it mny be said to hare been practically- 
rejected altogether. For a similar reason I prefer a circnm- 
flox over a Towel (instead of an acnte accent) to mark length 
of Bonnd. The drcnmflex is a big mark, which arrests the 
attention ; — it is less liable to break in printing than the 
acute accent, and this is a strong argument ib its faroor. 
These suggestions are offered merely to indicate that practical 
coDTenienca shonld be etndied rather than nioe questions of 
history as to the probable use to which acceutoal marks 
were pnt by Qreeks, Bomans, Continentals, poets, and 
who not. 

There is one argument in favour of the Boman oharaoter 
which is BuSered to lie dormant, but still it is one which 
eeems to ontweigh all objections. We are asked to consider 
the difficulties of changing an established character, the pre- 
judices we shall have to overcome, and the insidious danger 
which ill-iuformed jealousy might arouse. Now suppose no 
attempt whatever is made to change any character whatever. 
Nine-tenths of the people of India are perfectly ignorant of 
the art of reading in any character (7). These people hare 

(7.) It wonld be nearer the mark to «B7 that, in this ProTliice, onljonein 
Are haadied of the total popnlation has Bnfficient kDowIedge of the Persum 
character to read tho B^li-o-Bah4r or tha Basillil-t-Bind. Ab to th« 
DoTftnagarl character, we may say that not one in Ave thonsand conld 
read the " Prem Sigsr." 

However this may be, we repeat oor pTotert that we baTe no wifh to 
extirpate tlie native cliaracten. In the Oovemment primai? schools we 
would begin by teacblng the Persian character as at present, but would 
IntToduce the Roman dde tiy dde with the f enJan, in the ith ftnd 6th cUtaes 
and in all above them. 

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nothing to Qnleam ; witli tfaem one character will be aa novel 
as another. Should tho Roman-Urdu Society addresa itself 
to the task of teaching the now totally ignorant populace to 
read their own Ternocular in the Roman character they will 
do a large amonut of preseat good besiiles materially facili- 
tating the general adoption of Roman letters. Of conras, it 
will be replied, that little adrantage can result from teaching 
people to read in one character when all the literatare ia in 
another character. But it should be remembered that the 
humbler classes seldom read anything else than the iexi- 
books from which they learn, a few story books, religious 
tmcts, nnd perhaps a newspaper. In this respect the Indian 
TilUger will be found not to differ materially from his Euro- 
pean compeer. To meet their wanta, thereiore, a few reading 
bookswonldbaTetobe prepared, together with some selections 
from till: PremS^ffor ;theordinary pnhlicationsof the Roman- 
Urdu Society, with the periodical now started, would do all the 
resL Each year will increase the number of books available' 
an(f make Uie task easier. 

It will be seen from the foregoing remarks that I am aot 
prejudiced against the extensive introduction of the Roman 
character into India ; indeed when any one reflects on tho 
enormous impetus which a, cheap and compact character 
would give to the dissemiaation of information in the East, 
it is impossible to withhold sympatliy from the movement. 
The objections to it arise from the difficnlty of effecting the 
change, and the disorganization which irill probably continue 
during the transitional period. High scholarship will not bo 

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afiected^for the original ttlphabetd Tritl always be retaiaed for 
tha older literatare and for works of serious study (8),' 

Frbdebio Fihoott. 

Thb Bouah Aphabxt. 


The remarka wbicli I Teotnred to make on this snbjoct 
in the lust number of the Journal have awakened some cri- 
ticism in an unexpected qnarter. It gives me niucli satisfao 
tioQ to find the matter taken up thus promptly by Saunders'* 
Iri$h Daily Newt ,- and I shall show the Binceriiy of my 
sattsfactioD, I hope, by the friendly spirit in whic^ I continue 
the subject 

Tii9 writer is mistaken in supposing that I (arour the 
extensive introduction of the Itomau character. I was carc- 
fnl to state simply that " I am not: prejudiced against the 
extensive introduction " of Roman letters. My paper con- 
tains some weighty objections to the Soman character, and 
all that the writer in the Irith Daily Neiea urges ngninst 
what he thinks to be my views, is summed up iu one sentence 
in p. 410 of my own article : — " Although it is true Uiat the 
Boman character is simple, neat and compact, it yet pays 
for these advantages by U» inadeguaty to exprees Ifie tounda of 
any lanyuage to which it has ever been applied." Surely no 
one will suppose after this that I am mu<^ enamoured 
of the Uoman character. 

<S>. We ara coafldeiit tbnt the general use of tbc Roman chamcter n-ill 
be as gre»t a gaia to " high scbolarthip" as to the practical reqiiirementa of 
lower and «{>cciat instmctioa. An it id, th« best Dictionnticd nml Qrammars 
arc those ia the Komaii character. Oricolal gcholarsbip ii;cnera1l7 tiwen a» 
mnch to Enropeau coinprelicuaivenead aa it does to untiTo kuuwludze 
of dttul. 

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The writer I am now replying to, in common "wiUiinanjr 
otliera, misapprebands the yery gronnds npon which' thet 
adTOcat«8 of the Roman character take their stand. Nobody 
dreams of aappressing or superseding the native characters ; 
nobody wishes scholars to abandon the letters appropriate to 
the languages they study ; nobody desires to interfere 
with tlie ancient, sacred or profane literature of any people 
whatsoever ; — ^but there are hundreds of purposes and occa- 
sions of everydiiy life, of social and domPEtio intercourse, of 
business, of administration, of jnslice, of elementary educa- 
tion, Ac, Ac, which could be enormously facilitated and im- 
proved by the introduction of a cheap aud legible alphabetical 
system. The advantages of the Roman character are mecha- 
nical and economical ; and for purposes in which speed 
and economy are important the Roman character can do 
useful work. 

The writer in the Irtah Daily Netoa points ont that the 
Roman a does not represent the letter Alif, and that there 
are four z\ Ac, to he provided for, and so on and ao fortlu 
It must however be self-evident that the thapes of letters 
have no conneation whatever with their poioerg. It matters 
not whether a letter be round, square, oblong, straight, 
crooked, simple, or complex, provided it be consistently used 
to express a particular sound it would be, to all intents and 
purposes, an exact and perfect ropresentaUve of that sound. 
Thns aU that is required is that a mark should be found for 
every soand to be written. The truth of wbat is here asserted 
has been proved a tbonsand times, and can be demon- 
strated in Eve minutes. Any Urda sentence correctly trans- 
literated into the Roman character according to any of the 
Jonesiaa systems can be, instently and with accuracy. 

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ie>wniUD in the miin character by any 6ne familiar widi tl]« 
■ystem, although he may ueTer have heard the seatence 
before, and may even be ignorant of ita meaning. Such 
being notorioiuly the fact, it IB disUnctty erroneonfl to say 
that the Boman character cannot be made to represent 
£a9tem sonnds. 

Finally, the writer ia scarcely right in saying that the 
■aggestion ia " nncalled For." The mass of ignorance iriih 
nhioh India alone is oppressed calls for any and every agency 
that can be employed to m itiga te it. It is also nnkind to say 
that the snggestion " must have arisen from a few 
individoals too lazy to acqnire a knowledge " of the native 
characters. As a &ct it is not so. Many who favonr the 
BomnD character are excellent lingnists, and periectly 
fimiliar with many atpbabetioal systems. It may even be 
tiiat an intimate knowledge of these native symbols makes 
their nnpractical character more fnlly appreciated. I can 
read with ea«e all the pnocipal alphabetical systems of 
India — Arabic, Sanskritic and Dravidian, — and yet I nm 
not " prejadiced against the extensive introdaotion of the 
Boman character into Indin/' for practical purposes. 

Fbxdxbic Pikcott. 

J%e /oUowittff it a lUt (in Roman-Urdd) of the principal 
Vernaeular Nevupapert <^ Laltore and its immediate 

1, Kohfi-Nur i Liihor. — Bahat pnrini akhbtr hai ; 
khftVaren achohhf hotf hain. 

2. PanjdU Akhhdr.—Y'ih bhi bahnt pnrAna alhbar, 
aar cbaada banu so bar&bar L&bor men jari hai. 

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la U kbat amda, khatwrno tiza, ibimt iiirilt/maMmm: 

saihlb, r&en aksar dsriut, sditu- Uiq, gham ba hum w^Ak 
Otad* puY^a fau. 

3. ^MJanan t i'an;ii&. -~L&l)or kf tnasUidt' Ajanum k& 
akhb£r hfti ; ia k4 edftar, ek bftri Infq nar fidl *daail bki. 

Yih okhblir sab khiibiyon se bhari hal ; kli&s knr ilmt 
nuzimln ismoB zardr darj bote h&Ia. 

4. A/aiab i Panjdb.—^haitHToa ke )Slix 80 io yilt 
altbbir babat ncbbcbbi hai. 

Hafla men do bar cbbapU bat. 

5. JitMir i 'am.— Ek ebfaoU B& akbbSr hai ; aar fi 
(tarcba ek paisa qimat. 

D&are akbbaroQ Be bi khibaran faUkhab kar-ka likh 
dela bai. 

& AkhbJron kd Qlblagdh.—A.VAdh Paneb kf iaqUd pat" 
yib parcba Dtkli. 

7. Wakil i ^(ftil. — Antritsar mea obhapt& bai. 

Kbat, k&gbas nmda. 

Sa/ir i Bind.— Yih bbi Amritsar men cbhaptk bai. 

9. Kh(Ur-Khwah i fan/ofi.— dujraawSbi men ; Uansbl 
Dlw&a Cband kk Akbb&r hai. 

10. Star of India.— Uanahl Salib i maaauf ka Akhbtf 
Sialkot mea aikalti bat. 


Obir 4d ni tba— Babri, LiilS, Andbl, Kangi, Buhrt 

bok— " 'aqab i mak&n se kacbh dbat si ma'l6m boti hw I '; 

Liili— "cbalni cbabiyel" Andhi— « obald, dekhen to I" 

Naagd— **bam to na jaenss, koi kt^re-wapre aUr-Je I " ^ 


f « ] 

Mutate fioM ^" fw^abiBomaa-Urdu Mxtra.'^ 

Pekbo, molk i lUlya ii masLbiSr slifi'ir, Fitr&ii„ jo 
dnndhwia sadl me gasri tiai, jab ki nske ek dost ne nske 
donji se ^k- i ta'alloq karne, anr r&t Hin kitdbon ke 
mnUU* men masnitf rabne par mko mulimat Vi tbt, kin piyire 
anr zt-asar lafzoa mea ' ilm l TSrikb ki kitaboD ke umtili^ 
ke faw&id ae apne doat to maUalT karii bai- 

" Ap danyivi khnsluyon ko sab se barb-kar samajhie 
haiii] anr nnki tark kurni £p ke oazdik mnnisib nabin. 
Tahin mere pAa ek aisA garob eachcbe doston ki bai, jiuU 
anbbat mqjbe gb&yat darjd pasand bai. Wub Juir stmAoa 
a«r bar malk ke rahndwAla bcuo. Bs'a uoi men se Jang metiy 
ba's inti«^ i saUaBafc men ba'x ba's 'ilmon. uen maabbAi 
bain ; na-se milai kucbh dnshir&r nubta bat i vofa bar vaqt 
xMii kbidmat karne koini.iuta*iddntbt6 bain ; jab cbihti bdn, 
wkobnl^-IeUbdn, jak cb4bt4 bus, rakhait kar-^eta Liin ; 
'Wlb. kftbbj majhe ktui tarh k( Izft nahia pabonehUe, bolki iae» 
knH wwUoo. k& jawllb bare iahammnl ae diyi karte bak^ 
Un-mea ae ba'z miy'h se qadim zamAiia ki bdl anr wiqij^ 
Vlf &« kaj:^ hwi, anr ba'« neobiir ke makbfi r&zoa ko. mere 
4&intxe khglte baio, Ba,'z kbmbj hqc &r4ni se auqai-basari ki 
tedjl^ixeo baU&Ui bun ; ba'z. wabi tadbu-eoi Kiba-nnshin korte 
Iwuv jiitaelMai&raam*4inbakbatrbo, aior sulah ke s&Ui Panyi 
tft.^afchsahboA' Ba'% apai dMl)h-inu>di aw basB i baj-dn &» 
dUUkiiUI(nl.-fatonkoddr kaote baia ;.ba'z wub nek aal^heo 
4st$i.haiQ(jinrI«r Amalkaraeqeniiiaibaton k& jlieloi^ JQ waq;- 
tM^fa,wa^l:)uxiiis&nparparikAEUbai[ij sobl bo-jai. Ba'z bari 
jha&hat se batnen (wi^hafe» luiv, ki jabdn tak mm&kin b«^ 
U-jn? apuyl ^awnat i biz]t ke kjsi anr p«r l^iK9(^, m UrtA 

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chfchiye. Btt'z kail faanarDn aar 'ilmoa kf ek 'aj(b gbarib 
iuin&;aBh-£alf meri tokhon ke s&mne khol-d«te hafn. Uoke 
qouloD ppr mujhe pakk& bharoM bai. Anr in l^hidmit ke 
'iwaz wah ba-JQE merljhonpri ke ek goshe ke anr kuchh 
tuhlo cliite, jahan wuh aulh se &ri,m karle luua." 


The Editob of tei 

Soman Urdii Journal, 
Dub Bib, 

I am very macli pleased to see the inoreated prosperity 
of Toar Society, aa ia eridenced by the inoreaaiag iateresfc 
taken in its moremehts. 

As, a MissioMty I owe » great deal to Roman Urdii. 
and while it is true that Missionaries hnve done a great deal 
for Roman-Urdu, how ranch more trae it is that Roman- 
UrJii has done a great deal for Missionaries and Mission 

Thoagh I can read nore or less of the Persian, ffindf, 
Panj&bt, and Thikad ch^racten, yet bnmanly speaking I 
dent thick I coald ever havegot. on bad it not been for th« 
help of the Rooiaa olianicterL Whnt would most Missionr 
ariea do had they to give op th? nse of the Roman obaracters ? 
Z verily beliere that in many places the work wonid almost 
«ome to a stand still ; for whle Misaionariee sB a general 
role can read the characters of the langoages, id which they 
work, Jtumtly, yet there are few Missionaries who con nse 
those characters with any degres of ease and comfort^ to 

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themsslTes or t« their hearers, for bfizAr preaching so as to 
tara qnicklj to any passages to trbich they may wish to 
refer, and at the same time, perhaps, snstaia an argument. 
In my own district, when I came here I found the people 
speaking a "patois" pf which there was no pmCof charac- 
ter, 80 t set to work and got some of tlie (?ospels transposed 
into this patois, copied them oat olearly into Roman for 
myself, and within a few months was reading to the peopl^ 
in their own dialect, and after a little got to preach in it. 
Need I say how much better it was received than it would 
hare been hud I read the same Gospels to them in pure 
Urd& or Hindi, which would have been to them almost 
wiinown toi^uet.l . 

May I suggest the great advisability of onr adopting 
some one system of Romanizing at soon aa poasi&Uf and as 
soon as the matter is fully settled, having the alphabet printed 
in fall in onr Jonmal. I am most decidedly in faror of 
' a ' for ' ain,' * gh ' for ' ghain,' ' kh ' for ' J,' and I think I 
like ' k ' better than ' q ' for ' J ' — altogether I prefer Forbes* 
system to any I have seen. 

I would also suggest that yon print in the Jonmal a 
list of classical books, not already in Roman, that it would 
be well to transliterate, and then any member undertaking 
to transliterate any book could let you know, and notice 
might be glveu of it, so that others would be prevented 
from taking up the same ; namas of oonrse need not be men- 

7** Februm-ff 1879. 

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. s«^ - ■ 

I am glaJ to find that yoa aro ii» favor of transliterating ^ 
by a dotted word raHier tbfin by ap apostrophe. In addition to. 
the reaaooa which yoo have urged in favor of thisj^ I woula . 
add that if yon hare to write a, qaotaUoa in iosertvd ooomutj^ 
irhich begins or ends wUh (, the a^ of an apostrophe is 
wry awkward ; also that in maaasoripts thd Ipng ascent 
vrittea w a vowel it so nmch like a* vpostroph^ tjjai tibej. 
«uty be easily oonfiised. 

With respect to tbe transliteration ^ I shoald like to 
make a sngo^tion which I have not seen before. Why 
sboald not simply e be nsad instead of ch ? Bow very 
awkward the ase of cA is may be seen for example in the 
word ochchfn I The method which I propose vronld write 
acchd — that is a word shorter by two letters and mach 
pleasanter to tbe eye. 

Now the reason why I propose this is that the letter 9 
is not appropriate to any Hindustani letter, oad it seems t^ 
[uty that it should not be utilised, and since in Italia^ and 
in LiUn it somaUmas has the sonnd of cA in eftarch, it would 
not be nnreasonaUo to appropriate to it that sonDd in 5ip- 
409^01, thereby saving a great number of anneoessary h» iit 
oar transliteratioQ. 

When I say that « sometimeft has &» somtA of » ia 
Latin I refer to tbe continental pronanciation, which is 
however, I believe, happily being now introdoced into English 

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Wishing 70a sncoess in yoar attempt to poranade India 
in fixchange the bail-ffaru of FArsl and Ndgarl for the steam- 
oar of Boiaaa. 

Yquv Obodieot Servant, 

S. W. O'lfEILL, 
jS. John's Mission, Indore^ 
Cenlrttl India. 

The objects of ibis Journal, and of the Society with 
wliicb it is ooimected, are explained by the series of Reso- 
laUona passed at the Meeting organisinf; the Society, and 
hj the Statement of Reasons, both of which were pnbli^ed - 
in the first number of this Journal, 

We ask all who ore interested in the morement to gWe 
as their eapport. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are reqaested to send tlieir names, with the subscriptions for 
tlie year, Rs. 5, to P. Soott, Esq., Secretary, Romin-Vrdn 
Soeietif, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of the 

We also call attention to Ko. 6 of the Resolutions 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th May, and invite subscrip- 
tJons to the " Transliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
have not yet seat in their names and snbscriptions. Wo 
trnst that tney will now do so, and that thay will also help 
na by canyassing for fresh members, and by circubiling onr 
Journal among both Europeans and Kaiives in the stations 
where tboy reside. 

Contributions on any of the varions sniijects connected 
with transliteration, tnmslation and education j^enerally, are 
earnestly solicited from Members of the Society, 

IiAfloaa :— raixxKD ai Bah D^tB, at tub " u. k U. OAasTra" racse. 

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To adoocate ttu use of Hit iSotnon Alplwbei in Oriental 


^ahot e: 



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No, 10 March ^^79- 

There WM no Meeting of tie Society in Febraary. 

There will be a Meeting on tbe last Saturday in March, 
at which some tinges in the Bocioty'a armngementa will be 
discossed. We tnut that Members who are able to do ao 
will attend. 

{A SMview). 

The Fortnightly Review for September contains ka ■ 
article eniitled "The prospects of Moral Progreas in 
India," wbicb deserrea the attention of oar readers. It baa 
often occurred to ns that mnch ia said and written about ' 
"Edacation" in India, tvithont an adequate conception of 
first prittciplea on the one band, and of nltimate resnlta on 
the other. For this reason we are thankful to any writer 
who points out the defects of our present system, and who 
askaoa to patMe and conaider — (1) whiat we are doing ? (2) 
what onr reasons are for doing it P and (3J wliat the result of 
onr present policy will be ? 

We would expresa onr accord with the article nQder 
review so far aa this, its main drifts is concerned, but wa 
hold ouraelvea free to oriticlae and dbnilenge some points of 
detail in the writers argmneat. First, hoverer, let aa som- 
varise the arttole itself. 

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(I.)— The writer begiiia bjr referring to the undeniable 
separatioa and even estrangement which exiata between the 
Natire and Eoropean oom m anity in India. " Iiunperable 
obatadee of colour, of pbyaiqae, of race, of religion" — (he 
might have added obetaoles — not inaaperable — of langoage 
and alphabet) — " present Uiemselves at every tarn to fms- 
trate the possibility of a fasion with the iababitanteof the 
oonntry, and even in some oases prevent the eatabliahment 
of friendly relations with tbe people." He is of opinion that 
'' the action of the past twenty years has not inclined to 
solve, bat rather to increase, the diffioaltles of the great pro- 
blem of administration." 

(2.) — He next argues tiiat tlie inflnenoe of onr avstem 
of ednoatioD hitherto, thongh " conspioaous," has been " more 
specioQB than real," ^e Qovemment action affeots only the 
middle strata of sodety ; it does not strike lower than Ihe 

Burfaoe, and neiUier levels np norfilten down" 

" The aggregate of the persona influenced by Western ideas is 
BO small as to form on almost imperceptible proportion of the 
popalatioa of the conntry. 'Bbs members of tiie class affected 
betake themselves to the avenues of law and of the public 
service, and in their sphere of life, as well as in their know- 
ledge oFthe English language, oome prominently to notice. 
They appear to be a larger class than they really are. In 
reality they are very few, and the vast bulk of the people of 
India is atill wholly unmoved by any of tbe moral or tuviliaing 
influenoea ibat contact with Uissionariee, or the efforts of 
the Department of Public Inatraotion, might be expected to 

impart" "There is nothing deep, general or national 

in the present movemeat in India, If the State aid and 

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State employments were witfadrawn, the wlioleiabric woolii 
crombta to pieoas wiUiic a twelremonth." 

(3.) — " Tho action of the system is as little eoDobliog as 

its incidence is snperfidal In the cu^ of both, Go- 

vernment and the Missionaries, the system is destrnctlTe. 
In both cases the system panned destroys respect for the 
old organisation, and the old beliefs are replaced by a super- 
ficial rationalism which demoralises the individual and tends 

to produce disorder in the commnnity..: We have 

created an Anglo-Vemaonlar middle class whose members 
saeka livelihood eidosively in service or abont the Coorta 

of Law "Keithernotionol nor foreign, neither native 

nor Bnropean, neither oriental nor occidental, alien to, and, 
in many cases, jealous of the foreign superstructnre of Go- 
vernment — alien to, and, in many cases, despising the 
leas &voared natives of their own country — this class 
of the so-oalled educated communis discharges no dvilising 
or Qserul fanction in general society, -and internally is torn 
by difloord in the &mily, and by a life of self-contradiction, 
more or less, in almost every individaal instance." 

(4.) — " The narrow sphere in which nione the educated 
natives find it possible to move is dangeron'sly over-crowd- 
ed ;....In India tho' idea ir rooted that labor is 

debasing and degrading, and utterly ontrorthy of a m^n 
who is, in a sooial sense, of respectable parentage, or'of otie 
who althoogh sprung from the lower ranks has penetrated 
by a knowledge of the mystic symbols into the arcana ' of "tbo 
elect Numbers of yoang men yearly, issue fn<m oor insti- 
totions, who find that they can obtain neither practice in the 

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bvconrtB, norplacAsin thepublioBaiTice. Ibey Took badt 
on all the mental toil UieyhtvaandaradfUKl are chagrioed 
in ducove<rin£ tliat ia b^t top. T^a^y. iostaaoes it loaids to 
noth.ii^. This aipoouqta niainly. for the disconteot and resfc- 
le^ness.wliicli are peroaptihle in. the rising generatioo." 
T^e tyriter then qiioteB one of Sir - Eicbard . Temple's reports 
in Bappo;-t o;f tbds statement, 

(5.) — The writer gires as bis oonclnaion from tbe pre- 
mises above detailed. " A polie; of inaotiTity is demanded 

in tbis crisis If tbe Oorernment, as appears most 

probable, can now obtain an adeqoato snpply of serraots 
witbont any edacational action of its own, well and 
good : if it cannot, it is ils duty to train op the nnmber of 
servants it requires, and no more. It seems to the writer 
that with the single exception of the development of primary 
education in the indigenous schools, and possibly of the 
establishment of a few high institutions for special branches. 
Government shonld abstain from any acUve interference. 
All systematio edacation beyond this limit sbonld bo left to 
private enterprise. When the State endeavonrs to impart 
"higher ioqtrnptioQ "and thereby, as is implied, ta^, direct 
and moqlct the . Datitmal . mind, it deviates wholly from its 
p[^oper sphere and infllota - setions . iiyory upon. infaoUfictnal 

apd moral progress. Our true. policy for. some 

time to.0Qaie^h9iild be one of oonservaUsm to restrict our- 
selves to m a i n t aining the ttattu juo, and to .enoonrage as 
mnchiaawe oanaJiyBtemof protecti<Hi." 

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[ 5 ] 
Hariog gires the-Bqb5iuio»of tbt^i arttDles, towhidi ire 
u^ dinctiDg our leaden!' aUtaotioii, ne- proceed to offer > 
few remarksof onr owD'OO the suUjeot. As we bare iati- 
mated, there is mach ib- the articles- with whieb we i^ree, 
but there is a]lo mi^«b a^inst wbioh: we: protei^ We 
acaroalyknow wbat.ii.m«wit bytbe- last BlUitA&oe- we bsTe 
qaoted that " onr policy sboold be one of ooDSerratiaw, to 
Testriot ttarselves to raaintaiaiag the itatut quo, and to 
encoarage as much as we can a system of proteotioa." If 
the writer b«d said in se qia^y words "abolish your edacai 
tional bodget) dischaj-ge. year edocatiooal. oIKoers, close 
yoor GovernmeBt jmIiooLs, and leare the natives of India, tc 
educate t1iem8elTes.a«,best t^ey nmy, tbrongh the agency of 
their own Faodita- a^pdj liftolTb, Mnnshis and Bibas." we 
flhoold dearly anderstond hioa. There are many Indian 
officjara, who (iix. their hearts) approve and desire a policy 
ofthiakiod. Bat it is not a policy which commends itoetf 
i^ u ai'tbe best, or vhidi oar Indian Govenimenta ' are 
prepared to sanction. Kor i? it really the policy which 
lif. Cotton advocates. As he himself says — "It. if certain 
that the rexenerating doctrine, mnst arise in th« West. The 
vangnard of Hnmanity is in the West ; and ttie development 
of the race everywhere being dne to the s^me fvndamental 
laws, mast correspond in its main f^tarea with the earlier 
development of its most advanced portion." 

We an driven thea to attaoh< aaoUier maasiag to 
Jitr Coin's words. Qoes he meap -that we are merely to 
*'<jri/!>,'* withont any edooational policy at all^ to. keep op 
the show of an edncationol eatabUshnjeoi^.. i^th<*at. any 


[ 6 ] 
priao(|tt«s U> gnide lu, or kbj leal to iaspirit tts ? If so, ne 
sn.j that this is «d anworthy poliof , a " huna and impotent 
oonolaHon " to an aitiole, which affoots as its titlo " Ihe 
prospaots of moral progress in India." 

There is, howerer, a' third oOnrse, wfaioh is iodicatod as 
the true one by the faots- on which lir. Cotton lajrs sndi 

It may be thns stated ^"Let oa, at the present 

jonctare, seek to elevato rather than to extond oar edaca> 
tional indueoc). Lat oa remember' thn old adrioe to do a 
little vretl, rather than to do mach badly. We do not ask 
fbrTetrogmdQ measares, lest good shoald be sncrtGced as 
well as eril, bat let us — for a time — abstain from open- 
ing new schools. Let oa- cease to allnre scholnra. Let 
n^ disoonrage remirda and scJIiolarships, and favor the ezton- 
ftion of school fees. Let as recognise the trath that the 
formation of a national litoratare is a matter of prinuiry 
importance, which most precede the development of popular 
edaoatioD. Let as prepare the feast, before we intito oor 
gaests to dinner. If we are dissatisfied with the existing 
material for edaCaUon,^-dt3satisfied with the oriental 
chissics, beoaose they are destitate of the elements of mo* 
darn enlightmeat and progress — dissatisfied with Engliah 
toachiog, because it is foreijja and anarchic in tendency, 
— dissatisfied with the modem vemaonlars, becaase their 
litoratares are poor and vapid— then let as halt nntil we 
Mn find some form of edaoation, in whioh the adrantagoi 
of these conflicting Bystoms can be p'roserred and their 
dafsots eliminatoi]. 

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[ 7 ] 

Snrely, the^a«atiMi of a aatiooal reniBCidar literature, 
■ literature wliich will oombine the cleBraess and legibilitj 
of Eniopean languages willi the familiar idioms of Indian 
domeatio life,— a liteFatore whicli will preaerre while it 
goidea, expanda and enncJ^leB the langnages of the conntrj*, 
pngbt to be the &nt — the pai^woiiDt — object of our edn- 
mtional efforts. 

Here, howerar, *e nm counter to a f ropoiitioa whidi 
Mr, Ootton hae kid down wfA aa air of oertaintj as tbongh 
no WW ooidd dispute it He aays " When the state endea- 
Toors to impart higher instmction and thereby, as is 
implied, to direct and mootd the national mind, it deviates 
wholly from its proper sphere and inflicts ferions injnry 
Qpon intellectnal and moral progress." We challenge this 
dictum. There is indeed one sense ia which we admit that 
it is a mistake for any Qovernment to force open any class 
of Sooiety an ednoation above the lerel, which that class 
— under tibe drenmstwices in which it is likely to be 
placed— enn maintain. To preas thia troth is one of 
the objects of the present pi^ar. Bot we challenge Mr. 
Cotton's dietam, so &r as it implies, that it is necessarily 
beyond the fnnotioas of Gioremment to direct the higher 
development of a nation's literary and intellectnal progress. 

In England and America we may have outgrown the 
stage in which it is expedient for Govemment to guide the 
" higher education " of the people in this sense— but in India 
the people are as much dependent on the state for tiiis, as for 
other elements of civilisation. Ab we have said, it is open 
to Mr. Cotton to maintain, that the British Government in 
India, should have nothing to do with the ednoatioo of the 

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[ 8 3 

people. We^ve t^rewlyoxprAssedWtrpiliioi], that tbU ia 
Ml intelligible poiioy,-:-a poliejr -h-Mch many fiiaiaii 
o^oera tn tbeir Itearts desire. Bat '^s is not Mr. Cotton's 
meaning. He endebtly admits that in shoold d6 lUiiae- 
tbing ^or the ednoaKon of India. Tbik being adijdtted^ 
instead otsayingi lis Hr. Cotton Rppai^Uy does, "Look 
after jour primary eobools and leave the hi^er edi^tioB 
oiftheootmtry to take daretrfitsrff " wfl wmid say "Look 
after tiie higher edvcation «f ^ oomtry and leave yoar 
primaty s^Ktob ( f^r a &ne ) ttt take aa^ of tbemselTA." 

We have Mr. Cotton's own anthority for ^peding to 
western preoedeats. Snrely, in Europe, the Iiigber odnca- 
tion preoeded the tower. The Universities are older than 
the Board Schools. Utasmas and Sit Thomas More ppe- 
ceded Ur. Foster and Mr. Lowe. The changes which char- 
acterised the revival ef letters in the sixteenth century are 
in their MAential featarea analogous to those which we seek 
to derelope in ike East newi As in thOae days Greek and 
Latin aanost^pti were bunted out^ tntRsoiibed and printed, 
so now w« 8e«k to fe^eot^ transEitehite a&d print the manos- 
«riptB and lithographs of India. G^mman and dietioaaries 
had to be written fiieto. Hey hitve to be written how; 
Translating was one of the marked characteristics of Uiat age. 
It is eqaally so, ef Ae edi«aie ef edaostitHi which we are pre- 
pared to advocate. 

% pat it in anorfier way, in fitihJt>S, fediitsatioa did A6i 
ooamence with die "working inan.** It has graddally 
descended to him. In tador times it was the pririlege of 

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Kings and Oonrtiers. In the age of the 'Stuarts it extended 
to the nobility and gentiy. 

In the QeoTgiatt era it fonad ita way to the tradea- 
Bion. In the forty years which elapsed between 1830 
and 1870 it filtered don-n to the mecbanio and the 
artisan, and it is only now that its inflnence is felt to 
any appreciable extent by the agricultural laborer and tha 
" residaam." 

Osr ednoatioBol system in India shonld follow the line 
»f derelopment tbos indicated. First and foremoit shonld 
be onr efforts to improve the written and printed character, 
to extend the ose of the printing-press, to enrich, gaide, and 
consolidate the remacalars and their literatnres. Next ia 
importance comes the education of the native Chiefs and 
Princes. If th^ con be brought to the physical, intelleotoal, 
and moral level of oar Eaglish statesoien and " G^ovemors," 
the result will indeed be a triumph for the educational 
department. They are the class of natives, who shonld be 
taught English thoroughly, who should, if possible, bo 
eduoated, under careful moral discipline, at one of onr western 
nnirersities, and who shonld be encouraged to assimilate 
tlteir thoughts and feelings — though not perhaps their 
formal rorroondings — to our own. It may be easier, 
— «s s matter of fact we know that it is easier — for 
onr educational system to turn out a thousand mediocre 
BiboB than to train one model native prince, but it is none 
ihe less tnie that the latter achievement — so far as it 
OBQ be realised — ia a greater good to the country at large 
than the former. 

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E w ] 

Next b} our feodatory chiefs^ eonia tlie gentry of on* 
own Provinces, and the higher olMsefl of our natiTe officials. 
We mark prominently the tooial statos of these classes by 
tiiwr exoliulve right to a " ohalr" in the preaenoe of GJovem- 
ment Officers. If it la reasonable to make so marked a 
distinction between these wctions of natiTe society and those 
below them, In the oirilities of social interoenrse, it is equally 
leasonahle to make a distinction in oar system of edDoatitm. 

On Qaa gronod, ws maintain that fingliah may 
be, and is, a lit mediam of instraotion for these ohtsse*, 
without being soited to the lower ranks of native society. 
With this section of the native eommonity we would class 
«nT oonntry-hom European and Eurasian community, who 
eertunly hare as strong a clum cm Gtovemment, and as 
good a right to he educated as their more numerona, and, in 
Bome reapeota, more fortunate Hmdd and llohammadan 

Below this class come the subordinate officii, the 
nransMs and clerks who are not, like the classes above them 
admitted to the privilege of a seat in darbfir. Education 
for them is not what it ia — or rather what it ought to be — for 
the classes previously enumerated. It ia duefly, in the 
mqority of instances solely, a means of livelihood. Practically 
Speaking, the members of this class must learn the use of the 
pen or must starve. 

Looking at the subject from this point of view, we may 
admit that members of this class whose fathers have served 
the State are entitled to the assistance of (Jovemment in the 
itodiea whioh are to pr^aro them for the only career before, 

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{hem. Bot this very <Hrci)mataaoe — tli« tutfitDess of a mnnslil 
or a manshi's son. for aoytbiirg bat Qoremment serviofr— 
sboold make ns thi more oaotioiu in <nu edocatioDal system 
not to intaDBify tiie strnggle for Uie is the already crowded 
lanka of the " ahl i qalam ;" and in the immshi dasf itself 
it alionld iodnoe oa to devise some syabsta of ednoatioD wbicA 
may raise the general dbaracter and iotelleotnal qnalifioa- 
tions of the daes, withont destroying the economical habits 
■nd moderate expectations which befit ttte great majorify of 
its members. 

Leaving these special dassea of native sooiety, whose 
Bdacation reqm'res and deserves the care and enoottragement 
of the State, even in the present stage <^ Indian inTilisatioit— 
care and enconragement wluoh sboold be graded in Uie order 
we have noted — ^we come to the great body of the citizens 
and agrionltariats, for whose benefit the majority of on^ 
•obools are open. How far is edncsation a good in tibeir 
«ase 7 To tliis, as it seems to us, there is but one answer* 
So &r «8 oar edncatioa enables tliese classes to live more 
TirtnonSf more intelligent, and more sncoesBfal lives in occn- 
pitions wbioh Gtey can find for tiiemselvos, without depend- 
ence on OoTemment, it is a good. So far as it falls short 
•f tiiis, it is a failnre. And bo far aa it unfits these classgr 
fer careers which woald otherwise be wiUiin their reach, it 
is a positive evil. 

Wliat are the facts ? We leave it to- onr readers tO' 
pve their own reply. We woold he the last to bring sweep- 
»ig diarges against the work of a department in which w* 
We always taken a special iateresi. That department has. 

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t 12 ] 

in many respects, been ettiinently ancceBsfol. Bni we anbinit 
that all tboDghtful stitdentt of ladian phenomeos see a 
fandamental differeaoe between the working of oar national 
achooU in India, and that of similar inatitations io Englans 
and America, There is something wrong tomewhtre, and 
tliose who take an interest in national education as the dtief 
means of national improvement are bound to face tbe difr 
cnlty wMuh oonfronta them. 

If it be admitted that our edaoattonal system, judged 
by the teats we hare given, ia seriously defeotira, let us 
pause before we go farther. Let us oease to moltiplj 
schools and to invite scholars until we can probe and 
remedy the defects we have discovered. We do not expect 
onr opponents to accept hurriedly the remedies which we 
suggest, but we do ask them to weigh the argamenta wbidh 
are put forward in this JoumaJ, and to join na iu asserting 
as a fundamental principle of educational policy that the 
gualiti/ of education imparted and its tendency to some 
good end, are considerations of far greater importaaoe than 
mere numerical success. We ask them to join us in ow 
exertions to raise the vemacnlarfl of the country to a higher 
level than that which they at present occupy. And when 
we assert that we can raise them to a higher level by the nM 
of the Boman character, we ask them to give na an oppor- 
inaity of puttiog onr assertions to the test. 

In fine, if the publication of a well-seleoted series of the 
transliterations and trauslations should necessitate a r^ 
adjustment of the educational budget, and a temporary 
check on the multipUcatioa of schools, we would aak tbs 

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I 18 I 
members of the edacatioBal department asd onr readers 
generally to regard sooh a re-adjostraeDt a» chw in aooord 
with tite troo intere»tB trf edaoation it»elf 

Editorial Notks. 
What has become of the Panj kh Gazetteer ? Ten years 
or more have elapsed since it was first talked about. The 
Gazetteers of individual districts were oiroilated three or 
fijor years ago, and complete Qazettaera of other Piovinoe* 
Lave been pablished. Why should the Panjib, which pro- 
lessea to set the rest of India an example in adminiatratiTO 
energy, be behindhand in this matter ? 

The " Persian " ia the worst of alt the oharaoters in nse 
in Indi<i — BO far as inherent obstacles to legibility are 
eonoemed. Bnt it is more flexible than its Hydra-headed 
rival Uevan&gari, and it has this advantage that the " expert»" 
who de<Hpher it are more numerens and are more generally 
dispersed through the country than those who stnmblft 
ihroagh die eoontlesB corruptions of Hindi. 

The Oovenunent of Kashmir is essentially a HiodiL 
Oovemment, but the inconvemenoe of nsiog any form of 
the Hindi character is so great that the Persian character 
(and with it flte Persian language) have hitherto been used 
in the Kashmir Courts. The Moh&rija, however, dislikes 
-the Persian character as much as we do, and hopes to sub. 
stitute for it Hie " Dogri " which he considers the true 
Ka^unlr alphabet. He has, we nnderstand, published soma 
tnuulatiooa and traoeliieTatiwu in the Dogrl diaraoter. 

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[ U ] 

Axire have Baid we sympatluBe witltSCslffiglmeas biliii 
dislike of Psnian. He, in his turn, takes some interest is ' 
the moToment, whidl onr Bociely bai started. We iriah we 
coald say more, and claim him bb a 8i^port«r of the Boman 
alphabet. He can soaroely expect any pernunuM reaolts 
from bis ODOonragement of " CogrL " 

The OatetU of India of Febroarj, the IStih, pnhliahea 
lisle of ilieatadeDta, who bare passed the B. A. and B, L.. 
EzomiBationa of the Oalootta UniTerBitjr. We netiee witli 
regret that there is not a single Mahammadan name in Ha 
long list of B. A'a There are two Masalm&ns— only two 
among the fortj-seTea stadents, who hare passed the B, L. 

The same Gazette oontaioa a long and important corres- 
pondence between the Indian Qoremment and the Secretary 
of State, regarding the codificaUoa of lodian SabstantiTfr 

The Fanjab Admiaislratinn Report fiir 1877-78, pagee 
174, et teq. gives some information on literary matters con- 
nected with the ProTinoe. It ennmerates 27 Temaonlar New»> 
papers pnblished in British territory, and 3 mors published 
reapectirely in Eadimir, Patiila and Bab&walpar. Hie total 
number of bookfl registered in the Poojab dnring the year 
1877 was SIS * Of these 87 were in Engll^ 5S4 in Modem 

• Wa tear Qiat theM atatistios— like tboM irb\db tiM Uta Oardn te 
Twqr tMed to pabllth In hi* Annnftl Statement— are ealenlatod to mislead. 
Th» ftreat majoiitj of theee ao-called books are men pon^iUeta viUkoM 
an; llteni7 valM, •ran tarn aa Oiiwtal pcd&t ot vlaw. 

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Temaenlar Inngoages, US in Oriental dasnoal langoages 
and 78 io more kngosges tlmii one. 329 wan original workt, 
and tbe remainder traiulations or repnblioationfl. Of tbe 
works in English 15 were on Law and 1 on Katoral Science, 
The foUowtng Table shows the classifieatioa of the Te'r> 
naoalor pnblioationfl aooording to sabjeot aad laogoage :— 

















.. 7 












.. 8 







.. S2 







.. 81 
.. ii 





.. 60 







.. SO 








., 86 







Scnnce (U.tlemiitlc. 

) 87 





BdmM (N.lmal u 









.. 96<r 








The Dromatio works are the six editions of a flaj, named 
Indar Sabha, noticed in the report for tbe previoos year, and 
a Dramatio story of the Lores of Laila and Majnnn, boUi 
acted hj Pirsi Theatrical Companies. Amongst historical 
works may be mentioned the " Tdrikh i Poiyab " ( History 
of the Punjab, ) by lUi Eanhaya Lil Bahidnr, Ezeontive 
Engineer I^ore. This is a paraphrase into Drdd prose of tlis 
" Zafiu Kima i Buylt Singh," by tbe Bame anthor^pablished 
in 1876. 

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C 18 1 

The " Toibliid i Taw&rikh i Hind " is a translation oF 
Ur. Letlibridge's " Easy lotrodactioQ to the History of India." 
TRie " T&rikh i Eusaii " pnrports to be a histoiy of tlu 
Imperial Asewmblftge held at Delhi on the 1st Joanarj 1877> 
The vork baa been badly exeoated, and the author, Uirn 
Unbamniad Akbar Ali Khan, does not possess the knowledge 
essential for the task he undertook. The " Sanfn ol IsUm," 
part 2, by Dr. Q-. W. Leitaer, contains a brief sketch of the 
history and literature of the Hnhammadans in 8pun> 
Egypt, Tnrkey, Persia and India, with maps and a feir 

Among the repnblioations in history, whidi are all edo- 
oational books, may be noticed the second edition of Mr. 
Itethbridge's large work on the " History of India." The 
poetical works are nnmeTOOS, bat the following r^nblications 
need only be mentioned in this place : 

An edition of the "Diw&ni Abdar Bahmin," or poem 
of Abdnr Bahm&n, the national poet of the Afghans, 
edited by the Hov. T. P. Hnghes of Pesb&war, and carefolly 
collated with existing manosoripta by Manlrl Ahmad of Tangi 

The " Diwin i Zafar " or poem by Zafitf, (nom de 
plume of last titular King of Delhi.) 

The " Diw&n i N&zir-poem by N&zir, a poet of Agra. 

We are glad that several Members of the Society have 
taken part in Uie discossion as to moot points ia traosliter- 

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t 17 ] 

Wfl shall offer farther aaggestioas o^ our own in &ii 
ntttk nnmbsr, Meanirhilo, we hope that those who take hi 
tntereat in the subject will continne the discnaaion. Doubt- 
less there will be soma difPerencesof opinion, bat these will bs 
lessened as the sabject is considered from erery point of riev* 

We hare, on prenoos occasions, asked oar readers t6 
.tnggest some priutera* device to denote that a word is not 
tpelt phonetically. Wo anggeated small capitals. We atad 
pointed ont that Inverted comma* and bracketa are frequently 
naei vith this object. The matter is one of importance) 
for if we iotrodnce foreign words into Urdd to any consider- 
ahle extent and rebun their foreign dreas— aa in many coseA 
vemnstdo — we shall rnn the risk either' of vitiating the 
pronanoiation of the words so nsed, or of impairing the 
generally phonetic character of the Oriental languages them- 

For instance, in the orUcIe by L&la Kishen Gop4I, which 
appears in thia month's nnmber, the word " pankchueshan " 
b of freqnent occurrence. If be hod spelt the word aooord* 
log to English orthography " pnnotnation " some distinct- 
ive mark wontd have been necessary to indicate that the 
Word woa not spelt phonetically. 

We reprint the following Beview from the "CiTil> 
and Military Gazette." 


The (indents of Indian history who have often to confosa' 
deep gratitude for very small mercies will reoognisA in tliia ' 

■ The Hilton ot Patifttft : by Khalifa Bjed If abommGd Hasan Eh&a . 
Bahadv, P;{me Miiilat«c ol the Btete. . -- 

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[ 18 1 

Tolnable ooDtribation to tite rabject, an ocouioQ for gntA 
. thankf nlaess. The Yszir of Fatiala hoB added a very impor^ 
act monograpli to aothentio oontemporary history and we pur- 
pose ia this short notioG to introdnoe our readers to Hie more 
important contents of the work before ns. The aathor is 
content to call his well arranged and carefollj digested history 
a compilatioQ of facts from " anthentatiTe works," " the re- 
cords of the State " and " personal information," bnt we are 
not mistaken if we regard the most interesting if not the most 
important, portion of his work to be made np of >n<^ parti- 
onlars as the anthor oontribntea from his own personal know- 
ledge. In a postscript which he has appended to his history, 
Vazlr Uahommed Hasan informs ns that he commenoed this 
labor of love in Febmary 1876 and finished it in October 
1878 ; considering the research which was necessary to pnt 
together such a qoantity of matter in an intelligible and 
aoo^table Form, the nndertaking has been completed in a 
oomparatJTely short time wlthont the sacrifice of matter to 
dispatch. Vazf r Mahommed Hasan expresses bis obligation 
to Mr. Lepel Griffin's two works on the rnling families of tita 
Punjab and to other antborities whose names he does not 
mention, bnt we believe for the period treated in the Hiatory 
of Patiata the author might have confined himself to Hr. 
Qriffin alone. It is a pity that Mr. Griffin's works are not 
80 generally known as they deserve to be, and we are almost 
inclined to believe that their names are terrible enoagh to 
deter students in search otprimtra, front being lauoched into 
a sea of pet^ intrigaes for which we may back the Punjab 
against the world. Under some snch impresuon oUiers 
lieades the casual readers of history ban snffered, bnt an 

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[ 19 ] 
RoqoMDUiioe with Hr. Griffin's two books, .especially witb 
Iiis history of the Pnojab Baj&s, will Berve to elaoidate somo' 
of the most important incidents of the closing history of the 
Hogbal Empire. 'There is mnoh in the history of the Fatials,' 
Jhfnd aod the Sabha families which will furnish explanation 
of the manner in which almost imperceptibly the sacoessea of 
Mahommedan arms in the Fonjab dwindled and perished, 
ftnd how after the last inrasion of the Abdali, between tho 
orambling Delhi Empire and the distracted kingdom of Eabnl, 
a new power come into enstenoe which held the andent and 
historical land of the Fanjab. We are interested in the -ric- 
toiyofthereignof the second Shah Alam and in this dark anct 
■id epoch of Mahommedan mle in India we owe mo<^ light' 
to Mr. Qriffia, to the contribntions of Mr. G. C. B. Willi- 
ams in the Calcutta JieoieWf and lastly to Vazir Mahommed 
Hasan for his Hitiory of Pattala. 

Oor author begins from the advent of lUshdnhll in 
eastern Punjab from the tronbled country of Josalins and his 
eonqnest of the fort of Bhatinda ; from the Rao was descended 
iho Krdor Fhol who gave his name to the present rnliog 
Ikmily of Fatialo. Sirdar Fhnl was snoceeded by Sirdar Bam 
Cfhond, whose son Ala Singh first assamed the title and rank' 
of Baja, and the seventh from Ala Singh is the present 
jofimt Kaja Btyindra Singh who was bom in May IS?^. 

Of the two Sirdars and seven Bajas whose history is 
l^ven in these pages, the reigns of Ala Singh, Karnm Singh' 
and Amar Singh are comparatively - meagre of events, bnt 
of the period in which we are at present most interested 
(t. «., from the year 1772 to the eonqnest of Delhi by Lord 
Idke in 1803) tho accooot given by car author is not over* 

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[ 20 ) 

baiiiened with niiimporiant personal facta, bnt at the sain* 
time it is exhaostive eoongh for oar put^os* and apparent!/ 
as aathentio as tbe looet exacting stadeot of history would 

In some of the foot notes we fiad otatters of nich 
general histwical interest that we wonder why, with a liaie 
ai'tiatic treatment they were not raised to the diguity (rf thai 
text? Among the chiefs, princes and principalities whidi 
the author has been compelled to notice for the fulness of hi» 
work, we remark the Bhadoar family, the Mohommedaa. 
chiefs of MalerKotla,BahawaIpar,Raikot, the Krdars Bam- 
pur, Ladwa and Mamdot, the Bhai of Kenthal and the deposed 
femily of Jhajjur. A very interesting account is given of 
the Knka ^meute of 71, and the narrative of the Patiala 
contingent of 1857 will be read by most of ns as thmga not 
generally known. Kana Rao has also the place of s casoal ii^ 
ihpffittfty (^Patiala and so is an acconnt given of Bbopol 
which is doe to the author's visit to that place. 

The get-op of the book is creditable to the Bevd. Bajab 
Ali of the "Safir-i-Hind Press," who hag pat together the. 
divisions, and subdivisions, of the subjects iu snch distiug- 
niahable type-forms, if we are permitted to nse the phrase in 
connexion with lithography, as to render wferenoes easy. 
The book is illustrated with maps and photographs. Among 
the portraits we notice as the most successfol thai of th« 
author himself. 

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[ 21 1 

Kluur Abid i Awadh men Mnnshl Riyia Ahmad, Biy*» 
iakliallas, mfilik i Riyiz-nl-akUbir ne yih risila, isl m&h i 
Furwarl men jir( kiyi tai. AgArchi ia pahle nambar ko 
mnliliiza Be, yih ma'liim nahia bo-saktfi, ki yih risila 15 
Toxahai, yimihwarijmagarqayiaaama'laia hoti hai, ki 
m&hw&rl bl bogi. 

Ia men zamina i h&\ ke nfizak-khayAl sbi'iron k« kaUm 
k& mtdkhdb, aar niz tatb par ke ash'ir jo Bha'irin i Hind 
kab-kar bhej& kareoge, dar} hai karenge, 

Pahte nambar aa agarcbi &yanda b&lat k& piSri pdri 
andhza nahla ho-sakt&, lekia pbir bbi bahut 'arnda paroba 
ma'ldra hota hai< 

EshiyftI khay&Ut kl shi'irt ko, yaq(n hai, ki yib ris&U 
■ohohhi farogb deg& ; aar n&zIHn i ma'ni-pasand ke dilon ko 
Inbh&ne men, ko( daqfqa bfiqi na chhoreg&. 

Q(mat bbi arzdn, ya'nf tin rnpaya s&Iimt bid. 

Bt Lau Eishah Gofal. 

(Reply to an artide whiob appeared in tbe " Panjibl *■ 
Kewspaper in November Inat.) 

CotUitiued from the J(muaiy number of our Journal, 

Ab Usti i'tir&E yib hai, " ki agar Firal hnnif nA-k&mil 
bun, to huMf i Roman ba b&'is i takli^nf i mokhrij ziyfida- 
tar qabih ma'ldm honge." 

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[ 22 ] 

Hamiri riU men yih i'tirfcz bhi ek wahmf dalil hai, wa 

Uirzi S&hib, yaqtaaiiynijinte bonge, ki bar rasm-uU 
kbatt, ham logon bi kl ij&d-kanJa bai ; ham ne " Alif " ( t ) 
ko 'amiidi hankyi, to " B& " (y) ko ok kbatt i tdUnf khench- 
kar, ntohe ek naqta de-diyft. Warna Khad& ne, jab bamen 
paid& kiya, to kol " alphabet " y& kiai rasm-nl-khatt k& 
qi'ida bam&rf job man nahin rakb-diji thi, ki bam nsi ko 
mostanad aamjheo. 

Fas, jab makbtaH, hamla ham bain, to bar bitmen ek 
q&'ida mujawwaz aar lijaj kar ukte bain ; aor dnsri uiatr&k 
va ni-jiiz. 

Agar jib amr fasllm htU, to main kabti bun, ki mn'ia- 
Ttzia k& i'tiriz niabat tab&mi makbrij ke ntb gaya, 

Meer& yih makbtasar, j& yoa kabo, kt mnbmal jaw^b, 
sbAyad aohhobhi tarb kisl ki samajh men na li-sake ; Ubazi, 
tafsil o taabrtb bbi kiya deU hdn. Makbr^ ki tab&ynn ya 
ikbtil&f Firsianr Angrezihardf menairfyih bai, ki F&nI 
men, t&i fauq&nt bob j&tf bai, AngrezI cabin men, tu ke 
mntar&daf barf ko (TQ*T'kabt« bain ; aisA hf " dil " ko 
(D{) D. Khe (() aar gbain (^) ke w&ste koi ek barf ijU 
AaUn hd&. K,fa, anr g,b, do harfon ka mil&no so ma^nlf 
tanr par kb anr gb ya'ni *f *f k( &vriz nikaiti bai ; jaia& ki' 
*bh' 'pb' 'th' 'th' 'jh' *obb' 'db' 'db' *kb' 'gb* 
ki jagab F&nf men tarkiban do harfon ko b&ham mil&-kar, 
un se pdr& pfir& kAm liy& gayi. Bill, 'Te* 're' (Hindi) 
ke w&ste barf i ' t& ' -b asli barf ya*ni ' dil * ' re ' aar ' taf 
par dii& gayi. 

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t S8 ] 

War^na Sanskrit men in jnmlalinriSfi maz-kdc-as-sadr 
ke w&ete ek ek TihiB ahakl moqarru hai. 

Aisi hf nn hordf i Angrezl ko, jio par makhrij k& ilz&m 
iagti, hai, RomoQ-Urdd men ham ddsr& nam d«ne ke maj&z 
liain ; jaisi ki Boman-navison ne jiUz kiy£. T, ko U, aar D 
ko di hi kahai, airf Angrezl z&hia ke wAste makhaiia hai ; 
Boman men ham iis ko ti anr di yi te anr dil parhenge. 
Agat te wa d&l i Hindi ya'nl & X k& nuiiiqa' bai, to jais& ki 
First men, in hnrAF ke dpar, ek ohhoti el to'o (^) likbf j&ti 
hai, Boman men nn ke niche ek nnqta de dete hain, anr 'alk- 
hiz-el-qayAs * k,h ' ko ' kho ' (f) anr ' g,h ' ko ' ghain ' f J) 
parhne k( khitir, sk klut niche dijh jiwegi. Anr ' sin * 
((^) ko's&d' (u*) anr 'se^&so; 'ti'yi toe (1>^ ko *ta* 
wse j'zid' ((»ko*«ti' O)*""" *«»'(*) anr *m' (j) 
M, alag parfane anr samiyfane ke w&ate anr 'aUmit mnqarrar 
kije gae bain ; jls le kof i'Uriz 'Aid nahin bo Bakt4 : 
magar yib ki " agar kol 'aULmat sabwan na di j&e, to pbir 
kji sdrat ho ? " 

So yih i'tir&t Firsf rasm-nl-khatt men is ae barh-kar 
pkyijiwegL Boman men to 'alimat i mnqerrara ke na 
bona Be, toe (i>) ko te <a> kbaj&l kiyi j&wegi : illi Firaf men 
agar nnqta wa 'alimat i manzii'a na bo, to jfm (^) ko kabhi 
obe £, anr kabM be (^) kabbi kbe (^) parhenge. 

Bab& jib, " ki zi-'ilm 'adami uai ghaUU na karei^a ; " 
to yibi jaw&b Boman ke wdste zijida-tar mnCid anr k&f( bai. 

I^jiye I tamhid ka jaTr&b to khatm biU. Ab Bomao ke 
qnbAbit Ulrzi Sihib ne p&neh tabrfr fannie hain ; anr 
mainmoataidd WK 4mid* bun, ki bar ek kijav&b'ars 

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Awwal yih, " ki tahrlr men wnqt to bahat sarf Bogi, 
aar koi ma'Ud-bihi fiida na niklegi." 

Sihibo I yeh i*tinu jab U tak hai, ki bam aar &p in 
khatt ae iahni nahta hde, aur Roman likhae parbae k4 
malrtka paida nabia biyi j magar jnb bam nsl qadr isti'did 
Is ke likbe parbae men paid4 kar lenge, jia qadr ki Ffiratj 
XTrdd men bai : to jib t'Uriz kalian rafa* bo jaweg4. Jnisd 
ki zam&na i gazasbta ke iriansbion ko, jab pable pabi Urdil 
k& nw&i hii, to sakbt dii]C[at dar-pesb il ; mngar ab anhfa 
logon 86, jo Urdii llkbni parhni sikb-gae bain, pdcbhiye f 
ki wnh diqqat kyi bdi ? Gb&liban, bar ek nabia to aksoT 
yihijawib denge, ki " Bliai I Inahi i Uidbo Itam aav 
ifcltidimi, wa Kb&lifa ke nok-zaban yfid kkrae ae cfabnte ; 
ab jo matlab ItatA bai, ba iab&sbi sldbi sidbi bolt dmq likh^ 
fiarb lete bain. 

Anr laa-faraznfc yib bit na bbi bo, to yib kann knbta 
hai ? ki Firsi kbatt o kitatuit tark karo^ aar FarsI likbna 
parbna qat'on obbor-do- Kyon-ki jab tak Farat men liya- 
qat i ma'tad-bibi na bogi, Roman se ky& bftsil bog& ? 
Boman to Firsi, Urdii ke winte, ek ddarl rasm-aUkbatt bai, 
na yib, ki Firat o Urdd to aikbo nahin, aar Roman ilbfun o 
wab{ ke zaH'a se slkb j&o. I 

Rab4 ddari abaqq> ' ko{ ma*lad-bihi f&ida nazar aahla 
m ; 80 banda kial qadr 'arz kiye det4 bai. 

Ap ne soni, ki F&rsI kl 'ftm tabrfr par ia Sns&itlj aar 
dlgar zawi-l-'nqul k& ky& i'tir4z hai ? 

Ka stiBi ho, to tnajb M aim Ujiye t- 

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[ 25 ] 

Urdii, Fini k£ 'am tahrfr ko, kol kah s&ktfi hai, ki 
libhe ko parhti bai F Kabtn, moLiwira wa rabt i 'ib&rat 
pur likbe biie 36 ziy&da khay&l rahegA. Maia "haln" aur 
** nahio " ko ek hi tarli par likbt& bun ; ab parhne-w&Ia 
mauqa, dbiindti pbiregi, ki aaR k& bai, yk isb&t k& ; pbir 
jaisi us kt snmnjb men liyd, paih diyi. Aiae parbne ko 
bam agar zara sa mab&ligba karen, to ghaib-din( kab-dena 
bari bat na bogfL Itoman mon, agar rfiij bo-jawe, to yih 
diqqat qat'an jia bog! ; jo likboge, be-tab&abi parhi ja'egd. 

Ham&r& yih i'tir&z to roz-marra ki 'im aur sbikaaia 
tabrlr ke liye makbsos bai ; Kaat'aliq aur kbosb-kbntt mea 
pankcbuesban yn'nl *alam&t k& na botii ek sakbt 'aib bai ; 
jab tak 'isU'd&d i 'ilml piiri pdri Da ho, vaqf o sakiln kt 
imtiy£z, nfi-muiukiD ; kam-'ilm no kocbb parb4 bb!, tp lit- 
patiog anr ol-jalol. 

Har ek ddamt 'ftlim nabln bot& ; jab '&1im nabln, to 
hargiz wab F&rai tabtir ko aablh Dabtn parh aakegi ; go 
aliSz miiab se nik&l bi leg& : magar, na to akmi bl ko kaobb 
eotnajb paregi, na q&ri bi samjbega, ki kyi parh rab£ bai 
Maska, 'am KaobabrloQ ke muDsblon ko dekbije I bahnt bl 
kambli-'ilm bote bain ; bar ek zila' bbar men shajad do 
cb&r &laini aise niklen, jo 'ilmiyyat rakbte bon j war-na 
biqf mabz barf-sbanfts bote bain ; rabt se likb parh liyi. 
Yih kof nabln j£iQt&, ki fiqra kab&n kbatmbdi, 'ib&rat kob&a 
se shurd' bul. 

Agar pankcbdesban Fars( men bbi hoti, to kbw&b ma< 
kbwAh waqf sakun kA isti'mal kiyfi jfitA ; aur kam-'ilm 
adjunf bhl m&-kataba-0bi somajb leta. , 

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[ 26 ] 

llomttn men pankclidesbaa k& iati'm&l bar&bar hot& Iwi 
anr pnrbne-ff&le ko l&budan kbatm wa shani i 'ibirat par, 
'aUrnilt ki ta'mll karnl poregl ; anr s£.iiu, matlab ko p& 

Agar yih kah6 jawe, ki " F^rsl men nasta'llq khatt bhf 
jirl kiyd jdwe, shikasta tahrir bhi mauquf ho, aar jajsd ki 
fiaiyad Abmad Kb&n Sahib ne jdri kiyd, aur ba'z TTrdd akb- 
bar6t men muata'mal bai, Ponkcbuesban k4 bbi rivdj bo : 
to Bab i'tirazit jo Fdrsi kbatt par 'did kiyo jafe bain, uth 
jawengo " — to mdnd, ki babnt sahiilat parbne men ho-jawegi. 
Lekin is surat mco pbir bbl Boman ae ek, balki do, martaba 
b&'is i takllf bogd ; aar Roman men do faide is se ziydda 
Bamjhe jdeo-ge, yfi,nl awwal to yib, ki 'am nawlsinde nasta'i- 
liq nahlQ likb sakte ; Kacbabrion ke munsM yd anr log 
agar nasta'llq kbuab-khatt likbad sikben, to farmdiye I kaisi 
diqqat bogf, anr kyd wub sikh saken-ga ? Kabiu I hargiz 
nabin ! 13il-farz, mar-pit kar koi sikhe bbi, to itne 'arsa 
men kt jis se kam 'arsa men Itoman .sikbd ji aaktd bai. 
Lan-farazna, slkbd bbi gayd, aar yib kbaydl kiyd gayd, ki 
F&rsi nasU'Jlqmen, go diqqat anr mibnat ziydda matldb ho, 
to ho : magar na ki aali bai'nt i buriif men to farq na dwegd. 

Mdnd, ki yih kbaydl kiai qadr daroat ho, magar is kit 
kyd jawdb bai ?— ki Roman ki el eif parhal kd feyon-kar 
uialaka paidd boga, jab tak ki pdri pdri fazHat bdsil na ho 1 
Fdrai men ham chand satron likbte hain, aar ek ma'mdn 
kam 'ilm munsbf ke aimne rakb dete bain ; dekben to, kyon- 
kar wab sdf anr darast parh legd ; mnjhill ko ma'nif, aur 
ma'raf ko jnajhiU, maftuh ko mazmdm, aur mazmdm ko 
makadr zardr parheg ; aur kabhi talafioz durost-na hogd. 

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[ 27 ] 

Komftn men jili nnijs hargiz naliln, ma'-aU'ir&b darast 
parhi jfit^ hai. 

la par agar rao'tariz sihib yib kab-den, li Farsl men 
i'rAb ko bbl rivfij diyA jfiwe ; to ham yih kah snkte bain, — 
ki khtisb-kbatt, naata'Hq, pankcbuesban, i'rib, in cbir baton 
k^ lih^z rakbni, ek aiai mnsbkil amr hai, jis ko hat-dliaram 
ddamf ke siwikol pasand nabln kar BaktA, aur in jumla 
madiraj k& pis rakh-k&r likhnli bar ek se mnmkin bf aablii. 

BU-fttrz "is ko bhf m&ni jde, ki manikin ho sakttl bai ; 
to First huruf par i'rib dena phir bh( kuchb ais& babnt 
^da nohln de sakti ; is ke mile hiia lmr6f par i'l-ib deni ek 
ftisi gorakh-dband^ d&lnd bai, jia se kacbb samajb hi na &we 
ki futha kis harf par hai, aur zamm kis par. 

Roman men yib b(it hargiz nabln ; us ke i'rib huriif 
men adi kiye jite hain, aur kachh khalt-malt nahfn hone 

'AUwain sab biton ke, First hnriif men yib bhirl nuqa 
hai, ki in men First zabin ke siwft aur koi znb&n tbtk nahfn 
likht jiti. Hindiistin men Urdii bhi likbte hain, magar ns 
ko wnbi log thik parh sakte bain, jinhen rabt aur muhdwira 
ho : bAUn ki hnrdf aise hone cliihiye, jin ko dekh-kar, likbfi 
li44 fauran parhi jawe. Urdd zaban agar First hnriif men 
likh-kar kisl gliair mnlk &dami (maslan IrAnl) ko simne rakhi 
jAwe, to wnh kabbf us ko na parh sakegi. Agar yih buriif 
kimil bote, to 'IrinI, jo nn hunif se wiqif hai, kabbl Urdd 
ke parhneseqisirnahotJL Roman ke hnrif aise hain, ki 
jo idarni un ko jinii hog*, wuh jo kuohb ki un huriif men 
likhibuihogft, fauran thlk tblk parh lega : khwih matlab 
aor zab&n samajb sake, yi na. 

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[ 28 ] 

Qata'-nflzar in sab diqqaton ke, yih cnqs kitni bari Iiai, 
ki hamlLri f&tili anr hakm-rin qaam, Ydrapln, ko F&rsl se 
pliir wuhi be-nnsl rabegf, jo yaqinaa Fdrsi ki kam-qadri aur 
kam ishi'at pane k& mnsallam-ns-sabiit zari'a haf. Aur 
ham&re khay&Ut hanUrd hnkm-rin qanm par piire pfire zihir 
na ho aakenge ; aar gU&liban ham&rQ, ub ke irtib&t men 
ballot naqs^n bog£. 

(Biql pHi) 

K. G. 

Correiponden ce. 
Letter from Mr. FitBDsnio Dbbw. 

Etoh College, 
3Ut January 1879. 
ruATt Sirs, 

I am in roceipt of yoar favour of 22ad ultimo, and ia 
reply, beg to say that I shall be happy to act as English Secre- 
tary of the Eoraan Urdii Society. I will, at once, take some 
BctioQ in the directions yon Bnggest, and in others that may 
appear promising, towards making the Society and Ha 
objects known here to those at all likely to pay attention to 
the sabject. From time to time I will acquaint yon with 
'what I hare done, and shall hope to receive instructions 
from you as to anything that may be effected for our objects 
in England. 

I will, as yon say, endeavour to get members and eub- 
Kriptions and will remit sams that may come to band. I 

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t 29 J 

ttiok that iliose English members, wliom I m&y recrnit, liad 
better receive the Society's Jonmal throngb me ; if therefore 
you would send some copies — 30 would doubtless be enoagli 
at present — each month, I Would distrlbnte them. With 
regard to those few who Imre till now received their copies 
direct from yon, yoa will arrange in whichever way you 
think best ; if I am to supply them you will fiirnish me with 
tiie list of their addresses. I shall communicate at once 
with Sir 0. Trevelyan and Professor Monier Williams on 
the general subject 

It seems to me very important that the men stodying, 
at Cooper's HOI and at the Universities, for the Ciril Service 
should have their attention drawn to our scheme ; I will find 
out what method may be best for reaching them ; our Jour- 
nal should be useful in giving them specimens of Qiada- 
etani to practise on. 

The transliteration of Books is a most important branch 
of the Society's work ; we must see if we cannot enlist the 
aid of some men towards that end who can spare us more 
than the small subscription. 

The other matters mentioned in your letter shall have 
my attention. At present I beg you to believe me to be 
Your's Sincerely, 


Soman- Vrdv, Society of Lahore, ) 

P. S. — If the carriage be not too expensive, the early 
Bumbers from the beginning might be sent — to be supplied to 
new members who would pay for them. 

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[ 30 ] 

In accordance with the above, Mr. Drew has written 
to the " Times" to bring tho work of oar Sodety before the 
English public We reprint Lis letter to that Journal. 


Sir, — May I ask your aid in -makings known the fact 
that another campaign has begun in tho East ? — this time in 
the land of the Fire Rivers. Though its object is nothing 
lasa than to do away with a state of confusion which e:sist3 in 
that coontrj — and, indeed, more or less throughout India 
— ite coune will, 1 am glad to say, be a bloodless one. Tho 
leaders are some of the community of Lahore, both Euro- 
pean and native, who have formed a society for promoting 
the adoption of the Roman character for Oriental languages. 
Of Utfi years a deep sense of the necessity of some 
change, in order to n^oid the confusion and intellectnal 
darkness canaed by tho ose of various alphabets, has been 
coming over the minds of many of those whose attention 
has been directed to the internal state of India, including 
some now sharing in the task of its government. The 
Roman-Urdii Society of Lahore are addressing themselves to 
the work (which, indeed, was commenced in Calcutta as long 
ago as Lord William Bentinck's time) — first, by transliterab> 
ing varions Hindnstfcnl and Persian books ; secondly, by 
drawing attention to and diffusing a knowledge of the subject, 
with the intention of, in time, urging the Qovernment of 
India to put the Roman-Urdd alphabet in an eqnal position 

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I 31 ] 
with those alphabets the use o£ which it encourages io 
schoolsj and with the hope that nltimately tho Boman 
alphabet will come iato general ose for the langaages 
of ladia. 

It would take too mnch of your space to giye even a 
r4ntmi of the advantngea claimed by us who favor the 
adoption of Homaa-Urdd ; I will onlj say that these would 
be shared with Uie natives of India by every European 
who goes there, who would, through its means, have such 
facilities for learning the language most generally used as 
would render its acqoisilion three or four times as easy as 
at present. 

I have been nominated honorary secretary in England 
to the society, and bef;, by means of your columns, to inform 
all interested in the movement that I shall be happy to 
acquaint them with its progress and to learn the names of 
any who may wish to help it on. 

I urn, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Eton, Feb. 10. FREDERIC TEEW. 

A UlssiONART. — Tour interesting letter cannot, we 
regret, be inserted in this issue, as the press has not yet 
got the dotted type required. It has been indented for, but 
we cnnnot aay when it may be available. Before next issue 
we shall try to get some makeshift. Your valuable sugges- 
tions, however, will be laid before the next meeting. 

Ed. R. V. Journal. 

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f 32 I 

The noxt meeting of the Society will tete place dn 
Tuesday next, the Ist of April, io the Matheraatiol Ro<Tm 
of the Lahore College, at 5-30 p. m., whea it is hoped all 
who can, will try to be present. It will be impossible to h(rfd 
regnlar monthly meetings thronghont the hot season, and tho 
Secretaries trost that at the forthcoming meeting some 
arrangement may be come to which will suit the coaTO- 
nience of the members generally. 

Offf. Secretary H. U. Society. 


The objects of this Journal, and of the Sociely with 
which it is connected, are explained by the series of Reso- 
Intioni passed at the Meeting organising the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which were published 
in the first number of this Joarnal. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
OS their support. Those who may wJah to join the Socie^ 
are requested to send their names, with the subscriptions for 
tJie year, Rs. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman-Urdu 
Society, Lahore. Members will receiye a copy of the 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolutions 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th May, and invite subscrip- 
tious to the " Transliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
have not yet sent in their names and subscriptions. "Wo 
trust that thej^ will now do so, and that they will also help 
OS by canvassing for fresh members, and by circulating our 
Journal among both Eoropeons and Natives in the stations 
where they reside. 

Contributions on any of the various subjects connected 
with transliteration, translation and education generally, are 
earnestly solicited from Members of the Society. 


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To adcoeaie the uae o/tfu Roman Alphabet in Oriental 







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No. II April i8yg, 

SOCIETr, l8t APRIL 1879. 

(I.) S<!Teral letters were laid before the meeting, 
inolading one from Sir Chaa.. Trevelyan, io which that 
gentleman preseots the Society with a donation of £100. 

(2.) A paper on the oae of the Roman alphabet was rwd 
in Peruan by Hoji Mirza Husain, a natire of Teheran. 

(3.) Under the Society's rules, as drawn up in June last, 
members paid their subscripttona to the end of March 1879, 
and the annual meeting of the Society was announced for 
the last Saturday in that month. It appears, howoTer, to be 
the wish of members that the Society's year shoald agree 
with the Caleodar year, and as this arnmgemuit is more 
eonrenient for the jonroal, it will be adopted. 

Members who paid their subscriptions before the 1st of 
January lii79, and who reo^ired the jonniat for 1878, are at 
liberty to deduct a fourth from their annual subscription of 
Ba. 5 for 1879. At the same time, the subscription being 
BO small, it ia hoped that members, wilt not avail tbemselyaf 
of their right in this respect, but will send tiie sabscnpttoA 
of Bs. 5 is full to the end of 1879. 

The aooonnts of the Society were audited np to the end of 
March. They show a balance of Bs. 138^6-0 to the Society's 
ondit, besides out-standing subscriptions for the past year 
aggregating Rs'. 140. Printing bills for Febmary and 
March not yet received, — abont Bs. 100. 


( 2 ) • 

It is hoped tbnt members will send in their sobscriptions 
and douations for 1879, withoat delay. 

(4.) Major Holroyd n-as elected Freeident, and Hr 
Tulbort, Mr. Scott, and Lak Sri Bam, were elected Seore-. 
tariea of the Society for the year 1879. 

(5 ) The Society agreed to pay the Editor of the 
Punjabi Ra. 300 for 100 copies of the Paiijabi Extras, 
weekly, to the end of December 1879, on condition of the 
Editor agreeing to circulate other copies of the Extras with 
his vernacular paper, as he has done hitherto. The copies 
taken by the Society will bo circulated to members, but, it 
is hoped thut they will also encourage the Editor by sabscri- 
bing to his paper on their own account. 

(6.) It is understood that transliterations of the 
" Arabian Nights " and the " Rusum-i-H!nd " are in conrss 
of publication in England, but the Society believes that its 
funds will enable it to provide for the publication of a third 
work of moderate length in India. Suggestions are invited 
as to the most suitable book. At the meeting, the " Ikhwan- 
as-safa" and the " Mirat^ul-urus " were proposed as works 
likely to find acceptance with readers of every class. A 
Bomanised hand-book on Fashtu is also a great desi- 

(7.) There will be no meeting of the Society at the 
end of April. The nezf meeting will bo held on the last 
Saturday in May. 

We reprint in this nnmber of our Journal Section 4 of 
the Preface to Monier Williama' Sanskrit Dictionary. We 
would invite our readers' attention to the Dictionary itself 
as a work which bears signal and indisputable testimony 
to the value of the Roman alphabet for the purposes ofOri- 
eDtal scholarship. 


( 3 ) 

In ottr early atndent-days we were driven from the study 
of Sanskrit by two difficnltiea, which obstructed and thwarted 
OS at every step. The first of those was the absence of a 
dictionnry, at oaoe comprehensive and accessible. The 
second was the practice of joialni; words together in 
frronps instend of printing them sepamtely. Professor 
Honier Williams has dooo his best to remove both these 
obstacles to Sanskrit scholarship. A glance at his diction- 
ary will be sufficient to convince any impartial reader that 
the economy of time, space and expense, to say nothing of 
Hie greater distinctness and facility of reference, which re- 
sult from the nse of the Roman alphabet are beyoud all 

The late Dr. Goldatucker was a Sanskrit scholar of the 
very first repatation, but he wasted his great ability on an 
impracticable work. In Uonier Williams' dictionary, on 
the other hand, we have evidence that the highest Oriental 
sotiolarsbip is consistent with a doe appreciation of the 
Talae of time, and with a thoughtful consideration of the 
practtoal requirements of the age. 

I fear the great Indian Pundits, if they deem this diction- 
ary worthy of their notice, will be somewhat surprised that a 
work intended as an aid to the study of their literature 
should exhibit their venerable Sanskrit clothed in a modem 
European dress. Let me then crave leave to remind them that 
the Romanized character employed in theie pages will be 
found, if its history be investigated, to be neither modem 
nor Enropean, and may possibly turn ont to be even more 
ancient than their sacred Nfigari, and even more suited 
to the expression of their sacred Sanskrit. 

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< * > 

After all, we Knglish are not only eBitem in oar 
origin, bat in many of onr most important snrroaodingS' 
First, we ImTe reoeired onr religion and onr Bible throngh an 
eastern people ; next, oar langnage is rertainljr Asiatic in its 
adinities ; thirdly, we are known to have derived onr invalu- 
able decimal notntion, commonly called the ten Arabia 
numerals, from India through the Arabs ; lastly, the written 
symbols wUloh Z am now employing, and by means of which 
this osernl Tomacnlar of onra is, as it were, materialized and 
sent to the ends of the earth, are certainly Aalafao too. 

The East is, we mnat candidly own, the first source of 
all oar light. We cannot, indeed, localise in Asia die precise 
spot whence iasaed the springs of that grand Bow of speech 
which spread in anocessive waves, commencing with the 
Eeltio, over the whole area of Europe ; bnt the local source of 
tile first alphabet^ without which each of these waves of 
speech most have been in the end swallowed up and lost in its 
HCcesaor, is well known to have been Fboenioia. The great 
centre of the oommeroe of antiquity naturally gave birth 
to what was felt to be indispensable to the iDteroommnnion 
of national as well as individual life. By the very necessi- 
ties of trade Fbcenicia invented the first, so to speak, 
locomotive power which enabled langnage, embodied in a 
kind of material fonn, to be in a manner exported to distant 
ooantries and bartered, like any other ooQunodity, for lan> 
guage imported in return. 

Probably the first Phoenician graphic signs were, lik« 
the Chinese, of an ideographic obaraoter, bat of this there is 
•aid to be no certain evidence. However that may be, it 
is tolerably clear that the first Fhosnioian graphic system, 
about which we know anything, bad not advanced beyond 
the second stage of olphabetio progrou. 

It was, in foot, essentially syllahio, atid even to this 
day, the Semitic alpbabeta coining immectiately from it,— 

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( 5 ) 
namely, the Hebrev, STriae, and Arabio-Hue rery liiUe better 
thui ayllebio ayttetoM. SncJi ao alphabet thea, thongh welt 
aoitod to Eastern oaligraphio tastes, was manifeaUy imperfect. 
It proTided chiefly for consonants, as it tliey were the lurda 
of soand, instead of its dependents, and often its impediments. 
The real want for civilized nations, eager for interoommnni- 
oaiion, was a phonetic alphabet^ by which neither ideas nor 
O'ttuooants but rather tmndt shonld be symbolized. An 
therefore Towele are the only real repreaentatJves of sound, 
and indeed the vety life of the word which witboot them 
would be a mere hard and helpless skeleton, it was 
essential to an effective phonetic system of graphic symbols 
that vowels shonld have at least as prominent a position 
in a written word as their attendant consonants. His wns 
very soon felt by the Greeks, who no sooner received ai 
eonsonantal alphabet from Phoenicia than they began to 
remedy its defects, and forthwith invented a system by which- 
the vowel sonnds were properly symboliaed and distributed 
aide by side with their oonsonantal fallows, not as mere 
appendages, bat as close oompanions. The Greek expansion 
of the Phoenician alphabet was itill Airther develc^ed by 
Ae more practical Bomani, and by them spread everywhere 
aboat Enrope. 

Now, although the Semitic origin of Indian alphabets • 
has not yet been satisfactorily proved, it is still probable 
fiiat the eastern branch of the Aryan stock whioh settled 
down in India, derived their first idea of symbolizing 
kngnage by written eoariu Indirectly ftom PhoBnida 
ihrongh some neighbouring conntry whose system was 
borrowed Arom Semitic models. They appear also, like the 
Greeks, to have felt the defiMts of a syllabic or merely 
oonsonantal method, and jost as they worked ont for them- 
■dves their own theory of grunmar, lo they elaborated 
for thomnlrei tiwir ova Toveliied ityttam of writipg. 


f e ) 

Kote, however, how the subUe-mioded Hinddi, working 
ont their own ideas in their own philosophioal way, hare 
produced an alphabet, not only free from the defects of the 
Bemitic, bat so OTordone in its abandance of vowel symbols 
and it.4 theory of ihemotnal relationsbip of Towels and con- 
sonants, that this very elaboration becomes practically a 
serioas hindrance. 

Let me for the benefit of those who may nse this 
dictionary for philological parposea, witbont having acquired 
a complete familiarity with the If^garl letters, briefly 
point out the most conspioaoos merits and demerits of tba 
European and Indian systems. 

From what I have before adranoed, it will,-! think, be 
clear that it oagbt to be a fixed rule in all good alphabets : — ■ 
JSrri/y.— That every vowel, short and long, shoald be 
properly symbolized and admitted to close companionship 
with its consonant, no vowel symbol being ever allowed to 
stand for any other vowel sonnd but its own. For example, 
the "a" sound of "ka" should be properly symbolized; 
it should not be supposed to inhere in " k " ; nor shoald it 
be represented by a mere dot or stroke, above or balow the 
" k " ; as if it were a simple appendage to the consonant, as 
in Semitic alphabets. Nor should the symbol " a " be allowed 
to stand for different vowel sounds short and long aa 
in "tape," ** tap," "tall," "tar," "mortar," in every one 
of which die vowel onght to be variously symbolized. 

fi««>n<i/y.— That every single consonant should have one 
single fixed symbol, and only one and never more than one. 
For example, the symbol " k," should not be interchangeable 
with " o," to express the same consonantal power as in" cap '', 
and in "keep." 

J^irdly. — ^That modifioationfl of any particular simple 
Towel or consonanttl poirer shonld not be represented by two 


r 7 ) 

]«tter8, bntby aonifl modiBcation of a siogle STinboI. For 
example, the long form of the vowels a, i, u, shonld not be 
d«note«] by two letters u in onr word " hoop/' bat by some 
mark or stroke placed over these Towels (so that "hoop'' 
should be written *' hdp,"). Similarly the aspiration of k, t, 
p, ought not to be represented by two letters as id kh, ph> 
th, bnt by some mark attached to k, t, p, thus sach a word 
as phala should be written p'ala, and dharuif ePana ; or yierhnps 
according to the Anglo-Saxon method with a horizontal 
stroke above, as in d, for the dh sound of the. 

Tried by these rales, the KAgari alphabet shows itself in 
many ways superior to the old Roman alphabet, and certainly 
to our use or ahui« of tbe Roman symbols commonly called 
the English alphabet But tried by the some rules, it will be 
found, I believe, inferior to the Indt^-Roinanic system. By 
which name I call the modification of Sir William Jones' 
method of applying the Roman alphwhet to the languages of 
India, adopted in the present dictionary. 

The fact of the matter is, that Hindii grammarians have 
BO over-done the true theory of the necessary vocalizaUon of 
consonants that they declare it impossible for any consonant 
to stand alone without its associated vowel, not only in a 
single word, but in a whole sentence, unless, indeed, the 
oonsoaant come at the end of all, when the maikl called a 
virima or stop, mnst be employed. ,, 

Moreover the dependent position of a consonant is so 
insisted on that every simple consonant must perforce 
possess an inherent vowel by a necessary condition of its own 
existence, so tliat when it is written without vowel or stop 
the vowel "a," must always be pronouuoed after it. 
Hence, snob a word as " bind " would have to be pronounced, 
"binada," unless a oonjnnot symbol be employed, compound-, 
ing n and d into one letter, the use of the virima or stop, 
except at the end of a seoteQCfli being an infraction of 


( 8 ) 

orUiogrflpluo lawa. Thus U arises iliafc aa immensA assort- 
meiti of conjunct coiiBOnants ii needed, more than this, the 
excessive eUboration of their rowel-system by the Hindds 
neoeisitatea the introdaction of two new Towels, rt, and /rt. 
Again, each of the (14) fourteen vowels (except tf^ has two 
s^-mhols, according as it is initial or non-initial, and the 
formofaomeof these ohliges them to be printed before the 
letter after which thej are pronounced and ia Tsrions 
awkward plaoea, thereby exposing them to fraotare, and 
increasing the general complicaUon. So that with nnnsually 
numerous vowel-aymbola, viHi 35 consonants and an almost 
indefinite nnmber of intricate conjunct consonants, the 
number of distinct types necessary to eqnip a perfect Sans- 
krit fount amounts to abont 500. 

Now will any one maintain, that in titese days of 
railroads, electric-telegraphs, cheap prinUng, and the Saoz 
Canal, such an overstraining of al[ihabefical precision can be 
maintained much longer for the expression of any langnage 
belonging to the same family as our own, and in any country 
farming an integral part of the British Empire ? Indeed, 
Sanskrit ought to he made a potent instrument for nniting 
England more closely with India, and a powerful means for 
exciting more real sympathy and fellow-feeling between 
Englishmen and tiieir Indian fellow sobjecta, bnton this very 
account it requires every facility to be Conoeded to its 
aoquisiUon and every contrivance to be adopted for barmonii- 
ing it with those kindred European tongues whose structure 
it is above all capable of illnstiating. 

Be it remembered that we are not expecting dther 
absurdities or imppatibilitiei. We are not so foolidi af to 
vnppOM that the Hindiis will ever abandon tiieir own national 
lorau of flpeacfa. On the contrary, we azpeot that tbcrjr will 
lenaeionflly adhere to them, eren as their brethren of Wale* 
hold to their own separate and diftinot bniQoh of the sua* 


( 9 ) 

speech stem. Bat becanse we cannot obonge the orgnns of 
Bpeecfa, or fuse the 22 langnngcs of India into one common 
tongno, are we therefore not to do what we really can to 
promoto interoonrse and commanion between races nnited 
oiider one GoTomment and descended from the same ances- 
tors? If onr great Indian Pandits are made fiimiliar with 
oor gniphio systems, will they not be more likely to study 
oar langnago and literature, to benefit by our knowledge, and 
to use our nnmerons appliances for economizing time, labor, 
and money ? In short is it fatuous to expect our fellow- 
subjects to imitate as in adopting a common system of 
symbols for a common line of cognate langungea? — A system 
bo it thoroughly nnderstood not to be confounded with tnr 
English " free and easy " abandonment of all system in our 
treatment of the Roman alphabet — bnt a system capable of 
complela adjustment to the expression of Aryan sounds, 
wlietlier Roman, Greek, Welsh, English, or Indian, and pro- 
bably little more different in form from the present Nagnri 
than that Nftgarl is from the characters preralent in India 
when Sanskrit was first committed to wriUng. For since 
the fact is patent, that the further we go back, the more 
plainly do the Indian alphabets point to a foreign orif>in, the 
power of ancient and sacred association cannot certainly be 
pleaded for the maintenance of the present Nagarl. 

Kor can our Indian brethren shelter themselves under 
any plea of impossibility, when all the logic of historical fact 
is agdinst them. Is any nation more tenacious of evcTything 
national than the Jews? And yet have they not abandoned their 
anoiont character for a more modern form ? Have not also 
tlie Arabs and Persians, not to mention the Keltic and Tea- 
tooic races done the same ? Have not the Hindus themselvea 
renounced many of their most ancient usages, and allowed 
the rigidity of caste to relax ander the pressure of steam and 
other European forces? Even in the very matter of 
alphabets the facta of their own history are also ogainst ibemt 


( 10 ) 

for iftbny deny the foreign origin of tbeir venerated N6gari, 
tliey linve confeseedly adopted tbe modern Per.'tinnized Arabic 
alphabet — a consonantal, if not a purely syllabic sjet'in — to 
express Hiodtist&nl ; now, Uinddst&nf, notwithstanding its 
flood of Arabic and Persian words, ia as inncli a form of 
Hindi — the language of ■'Pahka"Hindu9tAn — as English with 
iti flood of Norman-Fronch is of Anglo-Siixon. Surely ticn 
all must admit that Hindustanf, at least, has a far better rjgl.t 
to tbe I lido- Roman ic alphabet derived from kindred British 
rulers, than it has to be saddled with the consonantal system 
of foreign Muslim invaders. For that system be it noted 
is wholly Semitic in its essential features, and therefore quit© 
nnsnitod to the fundamental Aryan structure of a Fcrsianizod 
Aryim dialect. 

If after what I have thus advanced, our great Indian 
Pandits remain, as I am afraid some of them will, uncon- 
vinced, let any ordinary scholar who consults the pages of this 
work say whether they do not derive much of their 
typographical cLuarnf^ from certain appiirently trifling, 
but really important contrivances, possible in our ludo- 
Bomanic, impossible in the usual Nagarl typo ? One of these* 
is, of course the power of leaving spaces between the worda 
of the Sanskrit examp'es given. Will any student say that 
8uch an example as Sddhii-Mitrdny Ak&Bol&d Vara Yaad 
does not gain in clearuess by being properly spaced ? 

Again, the power of using capitals and what are called 
italics (to say nothing of" Egyptian" and other forms of 
Europcin type) is manifestly an advantage to be placed to 
tbe credit of Jndo-Bomanio typography. Who will deny 
the gain in clearness by tbe ability to make a distinction 
between smith and Smitli-brown and Brown-bath and fiatli? 
And will any one examine the pages of tltis dictionary, and 
then compare those of the Sabda- Kalpa-Drama, witboat ad- 


( n ) 

mitting llio odranLige gamed in the power of employing italic 
tj-pe ? Lastly, the power of applying tlie liyplion to separate 
]ong componnds in a language where compoamls prevail 
more than simple words, will surely be appreciated by all. 
I can only say, that without that most Qdeful little mark, 
the present volume must have lost much of its cleaines.^, 
and probably half its compactnesa, for besides the obvious 
advantage of being able tn indicate the dtfForeuce between 
such compoon Is as Su-tapa and Sala-pa, whiuh could not 
be dona in Nagtrl typs, 't is minlfest that even tlie 
simplest coinpounds, like Sad-Aaad-Vioeka, So-Alpa-Kesin, 
would have required without its use an extra Hue to explain 
their analysis. 

Notwithstanding all my advocacy of the Indo-nomanio 
graphic system, it is still my duty to point out that so long 
as the mtives of India continue to use their own alphabets, 
90 long is it incumbent up.>n ns Englishmen who study 
Sanskrit in its bearing upon the Indian vernaculars, to 
master the Nagarl character. Under, nny circamstances, 
there must be a long transition period, during which tha 
Indian and Romanic systems will co-exist, and however the 
straggle between thsin miy terminate, the end is not likely 
to be witnessed by the present generation. For this reosoa 
the Nagari alphabet is by no maans ignored in these page*. 
On the contrary, it is pressed into the service of the Romanic, 
and made to minister to a most useful purpose, being employe 1 
to distinguish the leading word of a group in a manner 
bfs' calculated to strike the eye and arrest the attention. 

Fairness, moreover demands that a few of the obviooa 
defects of the system of transliteration adopted in this 
volume should be speoiflsd. In certain cases it confessedly 
offends against philosophical exactness ; nor does it always 
consistently observe the rules stated in a preceding para- 
graph. The vowels r\ and r< ought to be represented by 
Bome one symbol— snch as that nsed by many Glerman 


( 1! ) 

scholars — though r, r', seem to me somewhsLl; ansnitaVile for 
Towel sounds. So again the aspirated consonants ougtit oot 
to be represented by a second letter attached to them. In 
the case of ch employed by Sir W. Jones for ^ and cJth 
for m the inconTenience appeared to me so great tliat in 
tlie tliird edition of my Siinskrit grammar, I ventared to 
adopt c for ^ the pronnnoiation, however, being the same oa 
ck in " Church" which might therefore be written " cure," 
Hod I dared to innorate further, I Bhouldhave written k, for 
jA, t {or th, p tor ph ;&nd so with the other aspirated conso- 
nants, c being employed for ^, The fact of coarse, is that aa 
aspirated consonant is merely a consonant prononnoed with 
an emphatic emission of the breath, much as an Iriahman 
would prononnce p in petmt/f and to indicate this, a stroke 
pUced on one side, or over the letter seems mere appropriate 
than the mark of the Greek bnrd breathing adopted by Bopp> 
which may well be used alona to utter a vowel, but is 
scarcely suitable t« emphasize a consonant ; I also prefer the 
symbol a for the cerebral sibilant. Should a second editioa 
of this dictionary be ever called for, some of these improve- 
ments may possibly be adopted. With regard to the letter 
to, I hare discarded it^ and retained only v because the 
Nigari only possesses one character for the labial semt-vovrel, 
viz., m and to transliterate this or any other single Oriental 
character by two Boman representatives must certainly lead 
to confusion. As to the German method of using k', k'h, for 
o*, o\ ani g', g'h, for J, jb, the philological advantage gfuned 
by thus exhibiting Uie phonetic truth of the interchange of 
gutturals and palatals, appears to me outweighed by the 
disadvantage of representing sonnda differing so greatly in 
actual pronunciation by similar symbols. 

Kotwithstanding the shortcomings and inconsisteDcies 
th'is fairly acknowledged, I have no hesitation in asserting 
that the Romanic system expanded by the marks and ugns 

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( 13 ) 

now genflr&lly agreed npon and still further to be improred 
herea^r, amy he adapted to the Arjaa languages of India 
qnito as completely and appropriately as to the Aryan 
Languages of Europe. 

Having felt obliged by the form in which this dictionary 
is printed to dwell thus at length on a point of raat import- 
ance both to the general coltivatJon of Sanskrit and the 
diffusion of knowledge in our Eastern Empire, I must now 
beg permission to record my sense of the greut assistance 
this canse h as received from the energetic efforts of one who 
has ever been a true friend to the natives of India, Sir 
Charles E. Trevelyun. He was the first Indian Officer of 
eminence who appreciated the real bearing of this matter 
npon Native Education, and the first writer who in bis able 
minute, dated Calcutta, January 1834, cleared away the 
confusion of ideas with which the subject was then perplexed 
by many prejudiced persons and even by some scholars. 
He also was the first to awaken an interest in the question 
thronghont England about thirteen years ago, aided as ha 
was by the able advocacy of the Timei newspaper. To 
him, and to the Times 1 owe the first impressions which 
corrected my own prejudices. Sinoe then, many Oriental 
books printed on a plan substantially agreeing with Sir W. 
Jones' Indo-Bomanio system have been pnblished, both by 
eminent scholars in Europe and by Missionaries iu India, 
and the form in which the present Sanskrit Dictionary is now 
put forth affords, I trust, another evidence of Uie reality of 
the movement and of its gradual advance. 

Note.— In our next anmber we bapo to publish fnrther cxtnwte ttoai 
llonier Willianu' Preface. 

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( u ) 


In accordance with the intimatioD given in onr last 
niiQiber, we return to the disohssioD regarding certain 
dispnted points in transliteration. 

We wonld first invite the attention of onr readers to 
the syBtem of tniusliteration advocated by Professor Monier 

It will be seen that he suggests (though he has not 
ventured to act on the suggestion) tlie use of an accent in 
lieu of the letter "h"to express the aspirated consonants 
of the Sanskrit alphabet. He writes *' Had I dared to 
innovate further, I should have wriiten k' for kh, t' for 
th, p* for pb, and S9 with the other aspirated consonants." 
The suggestion daserres to he considered, but we are of 
opinion that the balance of advantages is decidedly on the 
side of tlie " b." Having one sign to denote aspiration, 
why should we go out of onr way to invent another ? In 
-English, it is trne, the letter " h " generally indicates the 
aspiration of a vowel, but in words like " when " " what" 
and ■ " why " its use is not unlike that of the " h " in the 
Banskrit aspirates. The use of accented consonants would 
necessitate further additions to onr transliterating type with 
the liabilitj to break or be misplaced which attaches to 
accents generally. 

Besides, we most bear in mind the practice of Persian 
writers, who have always used the Persian " h " to form 
the aspirated consonants of Sanskrit and Hindi words. 
The Boman has a great advantage over the Persian in 
respect to these letters, inasmuch as the Roman "h" is 
ft very distinct letter even in manoscHpts, while the medial 
" h " of the shikasta is oiten imperceptible. 

We referred in onr Jannary number to the practice 
of the Bengal Asiatio Sijcuety ip separating the " h " from 

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( 15 ) 
the consonant to which it belongs by a dash or commti. 
Major Holroyd disapproves of this practice, and wa think 
it probable that a majority of onr readers vill take the same 

So mnch for the use of "h" in the astirated conso- 
nants, fiiit, as we have intimated, -we advocate the use of 
" h " in other coses than those of the aspirated consonants. 
It is well to have some letter of the alphabet available for 
*' general duty " and the use (or misnse) of " h " in all the 
langoages of Europe as well as in moat of the Oriental 
languages (e.g.,the silent "h" in Persian) induces ns to 
suggest as a postulate of oar phonetic system " that the 
letter "h" may be used in combination wi^ other -lefters 
of the Roman alphabet as a mere "rasm-ul-khatt" or 
arbitrary symbol, wherever it is necessary to invent a 
character to represent a pecnliar foreign sound." 

We fear that this "postulate" will offend man^ 
sdiofarly advocates of transliteration, hot we wonid ask 
them to remomber that we cannot hope for theoretical 
perfection in every point of detail. There is no reasonable 
probability of our reforming the English "ch" "th" or 
" sh " so we may ns well avail ourselves of the precedent 
which these combinations afford. On this ground, or partly 
on this ground, we have always defended the use of " kh " 
" gh " and " th " to denote the Persian ^ J and J. We are 
glad to see that Major Holroyd takes the same view. 
Moreover, as he remarks, the Qovemment system of 
transliteration as well as popnlar ( Anglo-Indian ) usage 
pivora " kh " and " gh." Most people write " Dera Qhilzi 
Kh&n " rather than '' Dera G&zl Kin. Oriental scholar- 
' ship, as represented by the Asiatic Society, is on the same 
side, so that we have good reason for asking those who 
have hitherto favored " k" and " g " to accept " kh " and 
" gh " instead, as the equivalents of ^ &nd ^. 

:,.ndty Google 

C 16 ) 

It will be gathered from the above reinarlcs Uiat we 
are not prepared to support the proposal made by one of 
oar correspondents, (in tbe Febrnary nnmber) to nse "o" 
rntber than " ch " as tiie aqnivalent of the Persian j^. Oor 
Correspondent will see from onr present nnmber that liis 
proposal had been anticipated by Monier Williams who 
nsos an accented " o' " to denote " ch " in his dictionary. 
We shall be glad to know the opinion of others on the 
proposal, hot it appears to us that the trifling advantage of 
saving a letter is not aafficient to justify the innovation 

OE course it would be better if all these symbols for 
elementary sounds, in which " h " acts an arbitrary r61e, 
received a dbtinctive mark to denot« that the two letters 
oxpresB a simple sound. For this reason we prefer a long 
stroke nnder the " kh " and " gh " to a dot. It wonld be a 
farther improvement to carry the stroke through the letters 
thus, "kh" and "gh" instead of underneath. Indeed, 
tbe lime may com© when a stroke will be ased in tho same 
way for "ch" "sh" "zh" and the English (or Greek) 
"th" and "ph" as well. Those of onr friends who are 
anxious to remove the inconsistencies of eristiug systems of 
Bpelling, whether in Roman-Urdu or in English, should 
we think, turn their thoughts in this direcUon rather than 
in that of expunging the " h " altogether. 

Meanwhile, as practical reformers, let ns be content at 
prosent wifh a stroke for the « kh " and « gh " ; leaving 
the realization of theoretical consistency till a more con- 
Tenient season. 

The objections which apply to the nse of " c " for 
g do not apply to the nse of q for u». H«" ^^ have a letter 
of frequent occurrence in the Persian alphabet, and we have 
a character of corresponding power in the Itomac, which 
Beems to go begging for employment, "q" as the 
equivalent of (j<> baa bwa occqited by the Asiatic Society of 


( 17 ) 
Calcotta and by most continental Orientalists. We certainlj 
think that onr phonetic nlphabet woald be enriched by- 
its general use. The only objection to it is that certain 
familiar words, saoh as "s&hib" and"sadr," would nt 
first offend the eye in their new dress as " ^hib " and 
*' ^adr." But this woald be merely a temporary strange- 
ness, wherras the nse of c for ^ wonld we fear t«nd to pro- 
dace permanent ambiquity. 

The nse of "q " for J seems to as an obvions impro- 
vement on Forbes' dotted " k." We understood that this 
was generally admitted amon;^ nil advocates of the Roman 
alphabet, bat one of onr correspondents appears to be in 
doalit on tlie point, and we notice (with regret) that the 
dotted k has been used instead of " q " in Clarkes' Persiiiii 
Uanual. There is no ambignity about "q" as there ii 
about "c." The fact that in English it is invariably fol- 
lowed by " u " does not interfere with its independent, 
fonctions in TTrdd and Persian and we know of no other 
reason against it. Sorely we do well to utilize a letter so 
distinct and expressive as " q" is, to denote the Persian i}. 

We now return to the 'ain which is admittedly our 
greatest difficnlty in transliteration. Apparently, onr pre- 
vioas remarks on this point conveyed to our readers the 
impression that we were decidedly in favor of a dotted 
vowel as its eqnivalent.' This however is scarcely the case. 
Probably the chief reason which led us to favor, or to seem 
to fovor, the dotted vowel was the wish to acquiesce id 
(what we considered) the more general usage of Missionary 
writers. But it must be noted that a large proportion even 
of missionary books, including the greatest typographical 
work that has yet appeared In Itomao^Urdu — the largtt 
edition of the Boman-TJrdii Bible— have used the apostrophe. 

Daring the last month or two, onr views have tended 
more towards the apostrophe than they did before, partly 


( 18 ) 
b«caas9 we hare foand by [tractical experience, as editon 
of Uiia Journal, tbat the apostrophe ia more easily obtained 
for printing, and partly because tlie concession indicated 
and accepted by Major Holroyd in such words as (f^ and 
C*^ meets one of the objecUons that we hod to the 

If the advocates of the dotted rowel wish to bold their 
. gronnd they mast, we think, meet and rebut the objections 
urged by Major Holroyd in onr February nomber. It must 
be admitted that the use of the dotted vowel hitherto has 
not been suiBciently certain and accurate to satisfy the 
requirements of Oriental scholarship. 

Before committing onrselTes too decidedly on the one 
side or the other we wish to place before our readers in the 
form of an altematire the Rules which in our opinion are 
tiie best to gaide our transliteration of((6rst), on the 
sapposition that we accept the apostrophe ; and ( secondly ), 
on the supposition that we accept the dotted vowel. 
Rnlesfor the transliteration of ^. 
(1). Supposing the apostrophe to be used — 
Suit I. — ( is to be transliterated by ' and the position 
of * in a word, before or a^r a vowel, or without 
any vowel at all ( subject to tlie exception in 
Bale III ) will be determined by the spelling of 
the original word aocording to its Persian ortiio- 
Rule i/.— The spelling in Forbes' HinduHtdnJ DicUon- 
ary is accepted as the correct spelling nnder 
Rule I. If an objector should urge that Forbes* 
spelling is incorrect the bnrden of proof will be 
upon such objector ; until he can prove his case 
by the uni/omt authority of standard vernacular 
dictionaries, it will be assumed that Forbes is 


( IB ) 

Rule HI. — Id partial modificatioii of the two provions 
rnlea, it is agreed that in books print«d for 
Indian or Anglo-Indian renders, words analogous 
in form to ^^ and ^i shall be spelt ns zila' 
and dafa', rather than as zil' and daf ' — it being 
n matter of fact that sacb words are pronounced 
by sacb readers aa dissjllnbles. 

^le TV. — Words analogoos lo f>a will be written as 

(3). Supposing dotted vowels to be used — 
RuU 1. — liOtters preceding j will be fully expresBed 
with their proper vowels according to Persian 
orthography, as is the case where the apostrophe 
is need. The dot will never be osed nnder % 
Towel prteeditig the (. 
Rule //.^Same us Rule II for the apostrophe. 
Rule in. — t 84kin ( vit., without a vowel at all ) 

will be denoted by " a " with a dot above it. 
Bttle IV. — j/oHoawdby the vowels a, i, n, or blen- 
ded with afollaaing I, ^, orj will be represented 
by n, i, n, i, f, and u, respectively, with a dot 
It will be observed that the above Rules for the use 
of dotted vowels introdnce two innovations into existing 
practice. Hitherto, the distinction between ( sftkin and 
f inaftub has been ignored, and the dot has been applied 
with very little discrimination both to vowels preceding 
and to vowels following that letter. The Rules we now 
Bnggest will necessitate onr writing " baad " with a dot 
o6oe© the second "a" for ba'd or **, so "taamll" for ta'mil, 
« taan " for « ta'n". " TaaqAb " for " Ya'qub," Ac, Again 
words like i'tib&r and ni'mat will appear as "ialjb&r" and 
'niamat" with a dot above the "a" to denote that it is 


( 20 ) 

"sAkiD." On the other hand, irorda like " 'adilat,'* 
" ina'allim, " " 'ibrat, " " id " &c., in which the ^ is iUelf 
accompanied by a vowel, will appear aa *' adfilat " " mnal- 
lim " " ibnit " and "Id," with & dot underneath. In like 
manner fj will be represented by " dafii " with a dot 
above the vowel, and ^d by " dafa " with a dot nndemeatb. 
Some of our readers may think that the above rales 
uvour of orer-rafiuemsnt, hut we consider it essenUal that 
the publications of our Society sbontd combiae scholarly 
accuracy with practical utility. Doubtless these dots, whethar 
above or under the vowels, will be ignored by the m^ority of 
Eaglishmeo and wilt be omitted in most Bomao-Didili 
maQOSoripts not intended for the press, joat as other diacri- 
tical mark are likely to be dropped auder simikr cironmstan- 
ees : bat this need nob prevent as from endeavoaring to 
aeoure accuracy in our printed books. 

After all, are the advantages of the dotted vowel sacb aa 
tojostifyosia adding no less than seven nev type to the 
ordinary fount of an English press, when we have in the 
apostrophe a sign always at baud, which satisfies the reqnire- 
ments of Oriental scholarship, and which has already been 
krgely adopted by Uoman-Urdii writers of every class ? 

Before we come to a decision as to the transliteratioa 
of f we are bonnd to consider the views of a third party, — 
those who prefer a new and distinct character as its equiva- 
lent rather than the apostrophe or the dot. In Johnsou'a 
FersiaD dicUoaary and in some other works the tetter 
^ itself is added to the fount of Roman type so that 
*^ is written " bajd " v>**i " Yaqiib, " Ac, &o. 
We wonld point out that the figure 3 turned the reverse way 
forms a character not noUke ^. It is possible to join the 
letter "g" in maauscript as we do others, but we fear 
that the manuscript letter sojoined wiU have au inconvenient 
reseublaace to " e ". We print a few words with 3 tuEoed 

:,.ndty Google 

( 21 ) 
tlie reversA waj u ^ lo tbitt oar rtmders maj Boe how it 
looki is print — bagd, Yagqtlib, garsa, gimm gitibir, shntilg. 

Editobiai. Notes. 
Tbe cartoon of the " Andb PnDch " for 11th Febrnary 
«xbibits England, and Rnssiaas two men placing a game of 
(•seesaw." E&bnl is the trunk of a tree, on which their 
plans is poised ; the greater weight of England lioists Bawia 
into the air, ^le cartoon is called " Kabnl moD mawftzina 
qawaten. " ■ 

Another cartoon represents England and Bassia aa a 
lion and a bear tearing Eibnl to pieces between them, 
K&bnl itself being represented as some small kind of 
" Shikar." E&bnl exclaims— 

" Ai Sher i falh-mand t ,M pdri mnjhe na kh&I>> 
" Bahne de knchh, ki Richb k& bbl n&abt& obale " t 

It is worthy of note that TJrdO writers if not Urdd 
speakers are beginning to drop the initial " Alif " which they 
nsed to prefix to English words beginning with " sp " " st " 
"sm,"&o., *«■ Formerly tiiey sabstitDted "iamith" for 
** smith " " istation " for " station " " ispeech " for *' speech '• 
and 80 on. 

It is easier to correct a defect of orthography than to 
remove a defect in pronnnciation, and it is probable that onr 
native friends will, for some years to come, find a diffionlty in 
prononndng though not in TfriHng the class of words referred 
to, bat so far as we can judge they will get over this 
difficulty of pronnnciation long before we English learn to 
discriminate between dental and cerebral " t's " and " ds ." 
The Bok&h cbaeaotib in Ab&kait. 
Of course the bill people of Arakan mast be educated. 
Bdocation is the gradual fate of morj net, that comes witb- 
io our sphere of ioflaeoce ; the process sometimes beginning 


( 82 ) 

witb a ' course of mnsketry pntctioe, as with tha Afridis, 
ami at other times coming hand in hand, peaceably, with 
trade, commerce, and Guglish plantations. In the case of 
the Arakan Hill Tracts, education will most likely follow on 
the establishment of tobacco cultivation. There is a splendid 
field for both kinds of good work. To nse the strong 
language of Major Hughes, tiie tribes revel ia ignorance; 
Ignorance is their tradition, and has been handed down from 
their forefatliers frim one generation to another. No system 
of indigenona education exbts, such as obtains in the 
moaastic schools of Burmab, nor hare missionariea broken 
tbe ground as amongst the Karens. Indeed the Arakan Hill 
tribes remind one of the experiment recorded by Herodotas 
of infants brought np in silence to manhood by some royal 
philologist ; who thought he might thereby discover the first 
language of mankind. Major Hughes pretends to doubt 
whether education is really good after all for hill tribes ; 
though be quotes the instance of the Garo, Kassea, and 
Jaintea Hills as amongst the proo& that it may be good. 
But this doubt may be dismissed at once ; there is no reason 
why tbe words wbioh Dante pute into the monUi of Ulysses^ 
and which Matthew Arnold quotes to the British workman, 
may not apply equally to the hillmeu on our frontiers : 
" consider wherennto ye were bom ; ye were not made 
to live like brutes, but to follow virtue and knowledge." The 
first thing, of course, is to teach these hill tribes who have 
no written language, writing, and Major Hughes would 
teach not tha Barmese character but the English. Dr. 
Uaaon, the Cadmus of the Karens, used the Burmese cfaaratv 
ter,bnthfl afterwards considered this a mistake. Miijor Hughes 
Uierefore recommends the. English character. The Commis- 
uoner of Arakan, however, holds qnite different opinions. 
He thinks that education of any kind is for the present im- 
possible ; and he cannot understand what Major Hughes may 
mean by recommending the English character. Yet snreljr 


( 23 ) 
this 13 pl&in fiDongfa ; Major Hnglies simp); Trishes to teach 
his Hillmen how to write their langnage in English letten; . 
Perhaps Ute e:iperinient might answer ; but it should be 
made, if at al), quiet); and cheaply, for fear of failare. — 
(From the Pione(r.) 

Thb Indun Ihstititte. 
The indefatigable eflforis of the'Boden Sanskrit Professor 
to establish an Indian Institute at Oxford, promise soon to 
bearfrnit. Already no less a snm than £13,000 of the 
£20,000 required for the building has been subscribed by 
supporters in England and ladtn, and by far the greater part 
of this sum has been obtained directly through the exertions 
of Professor IConier Williams himself^ It is unlikely that 
either the University or any of the Oolleges will be nble to 
give much pecuniary help, but the list of private subscrip- 
tions already paid and promiied, which is headed by Her 
Majesty the Empress of India and many of Her Chief Indian 
feudatories, has still room for the names of many who may 
be expected to help in such an undertaking. The proposed 
Institute is not to bo a College, but simply a centre of union, 
intercoarse, inquiry and instraction for all engaged in Indian 
studies, and is to be devoted to the concentration and diffu- 
sion of on oocurato knowledge of India, and of all subjects 
Qonneoted with the Indian Empire. It will contain rooms 
for lectures on Indian subjects, a library of Indian books, a 
reading-room supplied with Indian periodicals, and an Indiaa 
Masenm. While subscriptions are gradually coming in for 
the erection of the building, the work has already been 
begun, and the nnolena of a library and museum is now be- 
ing formed. BaUiol College has come forward with its 
usual promptness, and is taking a prominent part in fhe 
advanoement of (he scheme and the anperrision of the 
arrangements. The Master and Fellovra have made a bold bid 
for Selected Candidates ; already boid« Ata «d twenty of 


( 21 ) 
India's fatorft ndmiautrators, are unbibuig the liberal Tiewi 
whioh are inoaloated within the walls of BalHol. — {Ibid.) 

Naxios^l Isdiait Absocijltion. 
The eighth annual meeting of this society was hold 
yesterday evening at the Laogham Hall, Great Port- 
land-street, Lieut-General Kr Henry W. Norman. 
K. 0. B., ooonpying the' chair. Tht mnin objects of the 
association are to enconnige and promote by practical 
means Indian edooational and social progress, and to spread 
knowledge in regnrd tt India anwng English people, and 
thtis to increase mntnal sympathy and good-will between 
the two countries. The chairman, in opening the proceed- 
ings, allnded with great regret to the loss the Society had 
sustained in the death of its patroness, the Princess Alice, 
and said that it would be long before they ceased to mourn 
ber loss, as also|that of their Tice-presideut, Lady Anna Qora 
Langton, who had recently spent a oonsiderable time in In~ 
dia with Ler brother, the Dnke of Baokingham, Qoremor of 
Madras. They would, however, be pleased to hear that the 
Frincesa of Wales had become patroness of the association — a 
foot whioh would no doabt produce a good effect in India. 
Hiss E. Manning, the Honorary Secretary, then read the 
report, which detailed the means taken by the association to 
promotefemale ednoataon in India by grants for scbolarabips, 
&a. It also referred to the various other 8t«ps taken n-iih the 
Tiew of enoonraging social progress, amongst them being the 
publication of a monthly journal, and occasional lectures treat- 
ing of questions affecting the well-being of onr fellow-enhjecta 
in India. The Committee also made a point of estabh'shing 
friendly relations with students in India, and of providing 
them with means of intercoorse with Europeans by arnuig. 
ing soir^ and by visits to public institutions, Ac On th« 
motion of Sir A Hobhonse, seconded by Mr. 8. S. Tagor« 
(an IndisB geotleman), the report was then passed.— Sir W^ 


( 2J ) 

liair then proposed, uicl Mr. GastUv sdconded, " Tliat the 
Aims and work of the National Indian Association are such 
M to deaerye tha support of all who wish for the welfare of 
India and for increased sjmpathj and good nnderatanding 
between her people and the people of Great Britain," and 
the motjon having been sapported by Mr. Hodgson Pratt 
and Mr. FnzzI Abdoor Rahman, was agreed to. — Mr. V. K. 
X>hairyaTan then read b paper " On musical teaching for 
girls' schools in India," which dealt with the imporlnuce, 
from a social point of view, of including the caltiralion of 
Binsio in the education of Indian girls. — (Prom th« 
Z>ailg JHftes.) 

The VEBNACULia in Civil Coubts. 

gir, — ^The subject which forms the heading of this letter) 
has I am aware, been agitated before this ; but not suffict- 
♦ntly so, to have answered the purpose ; I therefore purpose 
bringing it oaoe more before Uie public, entreating your 
■dvOoaoy in the oame. 

I concede, that all rules and regulations io a good coto- 
ttitoted society are made with the main consideration that - 
they should bo for the good of the majority; but this only 
holds good where the society consists of members in the sam6 
social scale. Here, in India, society is composed of the 
■ "ruling" and "subject'* races J iu this case, I maintain, 
that the reverse shonld be the case, and that the convenience 
of the subject shonld give way to that of the ruling, or if 
this iB not feasible some oompromise Iwtween the two should 
be limed at. 

Some little time ago a subpoena, or snmmooB WM 
bronght to a friend of mine, not long in the country, pur- 
porting to be written in the vernacular ; on his asking tb* 
peon what it meant, he was told that he— the peon— did not 


( 26 ) 
know, bejond tlia f act that h« waa to kMp one of tb« bieroglj'* 
pbict and retarn tlis other signed, which ho did, quite fo^ 
getting to ask from whioh ofGoe it had come ; he subseqiientlj 
came to me, who am considered a proficient in both tb« 
Hindust&ni and Hindi eharaoters, for an explanation. I wa« 
fun to confess that I was non-plossed, the fact is that pur- 
porting to be Hindnstfa,ni, it was a mixtare of that and 
Persian, written in the slovenly style in which all doonmenla 
in the rernaoular nanallj emanate from snch ofHoers. I nsk, 
is this fair to the pnblic P are the pablio to look out in tiio 
bazaars for experts, Tersed in deciphering tracings left by 
spiders on paper, whioh absorbs the ink as soon as applied 
to it? 

Where is the use of high education, civilization, and all 
the rest of it if after attaining them one is obliged to have 
recourse to tlie skill of an Indian for an exponent ofs 
document, proceeding from our much vaunted courts of law f 
Are we esteemed the more by the "oi polloi *' or does the 
cause of education gain by it ? 

If I in my official capacity, or the Earopean Magistrate 
himself for the matter of that, were to indulge in snch 
slipshod writing ; I trow it would be returned to him with • 
" wig." Why is his subordinate permitted to glory in it ? 
Why, in fact have we permitted the practice, for so long 
that it has become a habit ? 

" Shikust " as it ia now written is a creation of our 
own — the old writings are very clear and distinct — but to 
our story. My friend started in due time for the sapient 
and overworked moonsiff's conrt, which after having visited 
every court in the station, he fonnd to be the one whioh had 
sent tho summons ; when, lo I and behold, be had been pnt 
to all this trouble and perturbation to no pnrpose. Tlia 
gammons had been for a servant of his. TSoV P0SSIJIIU&— ^ 
(From the Civil and Military GateUe.) 


( 27) 

14 March 1879 ke parcha i Anjuman i Panjib meo, 
•Ic nek-bokbt Hiadust&ai 'aarat ki ek mazmoa dar-bira i 
ta'liiD i Diawftn darj hai. 

Bdltar i Akbblr ko faqln bat, ki maziuaa i mazkdr, fiU 
w&ql, ek 'aarat Da likhb. Anr \mh is amr se apnl bs-iatibi 
baabisbat k{ iz^iir karti hai ; ki Hiadiut&ai 'aaiit mea 
bb(, 'ilm ki aharob4 ho-ohal^ 

Fil-liaqlqat jih amr nibftyaf; hi khnshl ki bai, ki ek 
d«a{ 'aaratne apn& taba'-zild mazmiia akhbir men bheji. 

Ismazmiin men ta'Iim i nlsw&n kl zardrat, hi, dalAyal 
■ibat Id hai, aur ek 'nmda mazmiia bai. 


Akhbir i Banh i 'Am i Si61kot men, F^rsi aar Roman 
ki ek kbay&li mnlftq&t men knchb babs likhl hai. 

Sihib i Akhb&r niebat as fihrist i akfab&rAt ki, jo ki 
hnmftre Roman Joaraal meo daij hdl thi ; bo-taur i taaz 
tabrir karte bain, ki Panj&bl Akhbdr aur Anjaman i 
Panjib kl jo ta'rif ki gai hai ; is wiato hwi, ki wah Roman ke 
mn'fcwio bain. 

War-na ATradh'Faacb, Akhb&r i 'Ali-garh wagbaim 
*amda 'omda oldtb&rit — maslan Rif&b i 'am — ki ta'rif kyon 

Sihib i Akbbir ki yih khayll ba-ji nabin. Awadh. 
Ponob wfighaira 'omda akbbirit k& zikr jo nahia kiyi gayi ; 
tu ki wajh vrah nahia, jo Sibib i akbbir ne samjhi. 
Bamiri mansbi as waqt, knll akbbirit i Htnd kl ism 
nawisi na tbi. Birf Lihor aar ns ke is pis ke Akbbirit ki 
D&m likba gayi ; chanin-ohi ham ne is ki zikr bhi kar-diyA 
thi. War-na Avradh^Fanob, 'Ali-garh Qazat ki khiSbijon sa 
kill ko inkir oahin. 


( 58 ) 

AwKdh-PoDcb ziriltA ki jaisi ki mdjid hai ; waiii H 
ia dluuig ka MukMumil ja'ai kamil ko pahnncbAtM-ntift 

'Ali-guli-GlazBt, desf aklibiron men awwal darja ki 
akhbirhai. Lekin jis hal men, ki ham un k& zikr hi nah/a* 
karte. ; to yih sibit nahfD ho-sakta, ki ham an ko pasand hi 
nahin karto. >' 

Jin akhbiron k4 zikr kiy& gnyk ; wuh baU-tasannn* 
Rpne khajil ke mntAbiq kaf diya. Roman ki koi khaBiisiyat 
nahln. Aojwnan i PanjAb, balkt Roman ki mokhilif 

Latita, makhuz az Awadh Pakch. 
Ek bakimne, ek ehakhs 86 (jia ki jorii ke Ap mn'Alij 
the) pdchbd, " Tnmhin jord kaisi hai I " Ua ne kahi " Jl. 
ip k! 'iofiyat s^, wnh kab ki margai I " 


B7 Lala Kisban Gopal. 

Continued from the last number of out Jawmal. 

I,tirAz i dnwwnm yih hai '* ki silsUa tasnifi katnb i 
FirsI k4 manqala* ho-jftweg4." - 

Haia is amr ko to s&bit kar chuki hun ki Bomaa 
jArf bona ae F&rsi kt qadr barb j&e-gl, aur uao wahi 'nnlij . 
naB,ib ho-ga, jia ki mnsliUq&n i F&rsi ko tamanni hai, aur. 
nmed nah/n. 

Paa jab yih bat a^bit ho chuki, to is par istidlal kt 
kncLb zarurat nahin hai, ki F&rsI tasnif k& siJsila manqat|i 
na hog& ; bnlki yih amr badfhf hai, ki bahnt se 'ol^ s 
fnntin F&rsf Urdd zabAn men i-JiTrengo. Ya'pl jab. 
Tiirapin Farel-dkn honge, to kyon-kar wnh Angrexi ao^ 
jo ia waqt aab zab&aon ae ziyida majma' i 'oiiim o fundn hai, 
Urdii, FAnl men tarjnnm kft sitsila qiim na karenge. Aur. 


( 29.) 

jab vnli ^pdr^Aol kaiwnge; to aar masannifia i mulk kyon- 
kar dil o jio se mutawnjja i tas,nif na hoii-f;e. 

Tiare i'tir&z, ( ya'nf katnb i mndawwana wa mtu^onafk 
i xabin i Finf, roddl kft majmo'a bao-j&ea-gl) kA jaw&b 
tomhid ke ddare jawftb, a>ir ia itlriz,&t i khamsa se i.tirJlz, 
i i&ni k[ tordid men & chnki, ab i'&da ki z^rdrat naUc. 

AU& b( ohaathi i,tirAz, kt Sark&ri daftar men agar 
Boman rdij kiyi gAj&, to bahat diqqaten biH hongi " kial 
barf waq'at k& nabia bai. 

Roman ke bd^iqqat anr f&ida-mand hone k& iz,h&r to 
ba wajb i absan ho-cbnki ; phir diqqat agar bai, to is! qadar, 
ki parfaa munshl be-ob'Lre kjikarange? so is kl bibat 
agar farzaa yib kbay&l ki;& jawe, ki GaTarnmant ne^ 
iDsidid i bad-kbatti ke w&steyib hnkm i 'Am n&fiz farmayft 
bai, .ki Sark&H k&ghaz>&t men 'amilman nasta'-Kq aur 
kbasb-kbatt tabrfr ki jAy& kare ; to wub diqqnt Roman kl 
diqqat sa kaohb kam na ho-gi. 

Roman nawfai ke wliste bbi sirT fanriif wa qawi'id i 
Homan kk slkbnd, b&ia i diqqat bai, j& ua ke likbse, parbna 
kl masbq k'o viste kisi qadr mibnat atbini, wa baa. 

Aisa hi naatOjIiq ma,-a1-i,r&b likbni, anr pankcbtieshan 
k& isti,null karoi b&,i9 i diqqat b^. Agar in donon diqqaton 
ko toli j&we, to sh&jad baribar niklen. Pas jab do um&t 
jodn ae, jo yaksiin mosbkil bain : ek to f^ida-mand bo ; aur 
ddsrfi wai8& na ho, to fonnfiiye I abl i dfaiish kis ko pasand 
karenge ? 

Agar jib kah&-jaw«, ki pnrine mnnsbi Roman nabia 
s{kh9akte,y& va men ziid-navlsf k& malaka paidi nahin 
kar aakte, yi baH]iqq<it kamil yib bit b&ail bo aakti bai, to- 
main farz,Ba is ko tasltm bbi kar leti hdn ; anr yib kahna 
par majbdr boti hdn, ki " Middle" kf qaid jo lag&i gal tbi, 
ns se pnr&nd mnnshioo ko ly& naqs^ln p,baanob& an ki 
taraqql band Dabio bdi ; wab daAaroa >« bi-wnjddi n^ 


( 30 ) 

Ifyiqati bbl nikile niihtn g«e. Akkir yihl kiii, ki nae log 
wnbi naukar rakhe jftwen, jo " Uiddle" ki imtihin pis- 
karda hon, y& kol aur 'Umf imtib&n, ya aUe, yA is se barb kar 
liy^at -mand hon. Jis ki Ulat i ghit yia hai, ki rafta rafks 
Trahl log daflaronraen bojAireago, jo Miq, y& kol 'ibut 
imtihAn pis-karda bonge. 

Aisi hi main kahU biin, ki yib Boman-Dawial bhf 
ibista 4hista r£j ho aakti faai. 

Par&ne &damlon kl qid&mat khod an kt sbafi, aar ^r> 

Fas kial siirat men yih kahni j&is nabln \m, ki Roman 
Snsfutl ke kbay61&t behiida bain ; go Bomtin ka riw&j bo* 
y& na bo, mngar ba-har hal as ko bur& nahfn kaliiji- 

Mirz& S&bib ne agar-cbi yib i'tiriz, naliin kiyi ; 
lekinba'z a&hib&n i Ydrapia aor netiwoa ne likbi hai, ki 
" Agar Roman ki qd'tda jirl kiyA jiwa, to mabarriron ko bU 
mez o karsf deni\ bog&. Angrezf qalam, angrezi siy&U, Asg- 
rezikighazk& sarf Sarkirpar zijtda paregi." Agaivohi yib 
i,tirfcz b&di-anaazar men, ek aisa i,tir^ bid, ki babat Io£ 
nse dnroBt kah-ath«nge, anr, la-jaw&b aamjbenge. Hagar 
gbaur kijivB, to kncbb chiz nahin. 

Mez korsi k4 mnbarriron anr mtKl-khwinon ws 
Suprintindiatoa ko deni, koi ais& gnn&h nabin, jiae kabln 
■amjbi j&e. 

Angrezf daftaron ke kalark anr r^ttar, kyi Fjisl 'amah 
Be ziyida ma'azzaz bote bain, jio-ben mez o kani d( jit{ 
bai ? Kalark to bar-kiafir, nmed-w&r bbi wah&n knrm o 
Aez hi pit« bain, 

Firsi *amala ko bbi agar isi tarab dij&e, to )cy& gon&fa ? 
Cbif Eort ke sar-rishta-d&r ko bar&bar knrs\ miltf bai ; oS 
men hnkk&m ki kasr i »hka nNhfn hotf, ki dusre mniubiyon 
ko korsl deoe men taammnl ho. 


( 31 ) 

Hakkim ke wAate takht anr chabdtarB. psr kani bo; 
•111 i 'amah db takbt ya chabutars u niche baithen, to koi 
be-adabl nabto. BiUfan agar yih be-ndabf bf men d&kbil 
bo, to daak anr obboti mezea, Jin par farsK par bl baitb kar 
likh ji-sake, de-deni to kucbb bhi dftkliil i be-adabi nnblo 
aamjbfi j4e-g& ; balki kachalirlon kl zeb-o-zinat cbaad-b&lft 
tmrh j&e-gi. 

Bahi Angnit kigfaaz o qalam kft sarf ; wiqa'l ziyAda 
ho-ga. Uagar yih bhi to samajhai obiblye, ki kyi hamiri 
Sarkfcr ko in haqir si b&tos kl parwli ho aakU bai 7 Kbarch 
luuHh deorbi, dugn& barb jie ; to barbae do 1 bal& se I 
gaimz faida bai, na bokbt. Agar Roman ke faw&id, anr ia 
kharcti i z4yad ko vazn kiy& j&ne : to Roman k9 faw&id hi 
ki palk bbiri rabegi. 

Ap j&nte bain, ki Tdrapin bakkim ke rd-ba-ni, F&ni 
kir-raw&l bonA, kaise nnqs&n, anr saqm kl b&t bai ? Hi- 
lum jab mial ko kbod nabfn parh aaktA ; to kyi i'Ubir 
bai, ki parhne wfda darust parh rohi hai, y* ghalat ? Kid 
fcriq ki ri'&yat kartA hai, yi kisi se 'adftwat ? YA jo bukm, 
U hikim ne diyft Lai ; wuhi likhi gayi bai, jA ns men 
knchhtahrlf kl gai bai? Sanadan bAkim ke dost khatt 
karAejAtehain,lekin, iiablQma'liim,kikoi kis kAghaz pat 
dast-kbatt karA rahA bai. 

Ja*I zAzi kA koi mnqaddama pesb huA hai ; bAkim FAnl 
Be nA AshnA hAL Akhir mabassiron par madAr AyA ; jis men 
blsion tarah ki gonjAisb baL Har ek Adaml imAn-dar to hai 
binabiu : phirjidbar ohAhA pber-diyA. Kabhi malzam na 
peah-bandl kar-U, to wah baoh gayi. Kabhi mndda'i kA 
dAno chal-gsy'l : to mnlzam nA-haqq mArA gaya. HAkim bo- 
chAra majbur o ma'z&r hai. 

AohhobbA, is ko bhi jAne do ! mAnA, ki ek hAkim aisi 
bk-khabar wa -bedAr-maghz bai, ki nse apne abkAm anr 
jamla kAr>rawAi yAd rah nkti hai. Lekia jab wah ddirl 


( « ) 

>gha UbdU ho : to kyi i'tibAr hai, ki ddsra hWdm ks rnba- 
hi wah Ball alikitm bt posh kiye jAan ]• y& oh&Uk mnnslil ek 
apne matlab ki, diisri bukm bhf likh kar, daat-kbtttt kirA 
rakhe, anr ba'd tnbdill ns bed&r-maghz bikim ke ddsre 
hAkim ke nibard, wah ja'If kighaa pesh kar de> 

Main iiahfn kahM, ki yih Utan baU bain. Aisi haastls 
kiBl ko ho nahln eakti ; aar bochire gWrlb mnnahf maa&a- 
kar-kenpnljinojizzathi baohttte hain. Lekin ni-momkiQ 
to kol bat nahltt hai. Boman agar jiA ho-jkwe ; to ylh sab 
andeshe ra&' ho-aakte hain. Hikim ki jl chifae, to manshl 
«8 kigaz BDD liji, kl chibi khod dekh liy». Htinsbijoa ko 
bill khanf rahi, ki kof barf pas o peah oa bone pAwe. Akkit 
danisU rah{. 

Afse fSiiia i 'nzmik ke aimae, kisl kharoh ki kiat qadar 
^>arh jini kj-i ohiz hai ? 

Mnjh se mere ek mihrbkn ne zimn i gaUfgA men &rmi- 
y^ ki " Agar Bomaa aofahchhl ditz luu, to ba'z hnkkam i 
Tdrapfo kion ua ke makbiiUf hain 7 " 

Wiqa'i, mere mihrbin kk yih anwil, ek 'omda i'tirii 
iba. Magar main kahti hiia, ki Yiinip\n menae jin sihiboa 
' ne Bomaa kf mnkbklifat kl hai ; nnhon ne wnhi wajdhit 
zihir kiye hain, jo lipar bayto bo-ohake, Shiyad koi aahib 
to ia khay&I ae, ki mabarriron ko hamfire bar&bar mex o knral 
milegl, yk Sark&r kk kharch ziykda boga, makhiliiat karto 
honge. Y4 shiid ba'z a&hib ziyAda mihnat aa darte honge. 
Ba'z ko yih khayil ghabr&tA hogi, ki hameii F&rsf, Urdii 
'nae air sesikhnl pareg{. Fas in sdraton men nn sAhtbon k4 
ijtir^, gharaz-&mez Bamjhi j&e-g&. Ham os ko ilh&m wah{ 
kabb! khay&l na karan ge. Jab ins&n Khndfl dq 'aq] o tamU 
di hai, to wah kion kiat b&t ko be^oohe-samjhe, maazur kare. 
Efta hnkm duari shai hai ; agnr hakman hamArt fatih qaam, 
yft ns men ae kot ek, ek amr kahe, to bameo iak&r ki majal 
nahin. Uagar jab &z&d&nagaft-g4 kamaaqa' haij to phir 


( 33 ) 

b« Boclw sasijbe, is kbajAL par, ki fuUn n&m~w«r qaam so 
ek ne y«i kohi hai ; paa, est ko miauA ohtUiiye : kiai bdt ko 
mAn leni, dAkbil i HaU nahio. .. 

Ha,tarittn ko khsjil korni chihiye, ki Urdd ek nai anr 
mofltahdoa utbdn hai, jo CfaaghatUi khiod&a ke PadBhihoa 
UNQ w, SUh-jahAn ke waqt men Ijid bdi. Un luy&m so ab 
tek 6hin ki FAnl haraf ki riw&j faai ; ia k& bhi Firai U mea 
)ikU jiniri^' lid&. Agar ns waqt, jab yih h<ili fjad bui ; 
^irsf ke aiwi, koi anr mam-ul-khatt jixi hot! ; io gb&liban 
uat meo ia ko likhae ki riwij hoU. 

Eo( kah Baku bai, ki Urdd ke wiate, yihl banif i Vitei 
makhsashain? Kahiu. FAral hnrdf Urdd ae peahtar ke 
bain ; agar yihf hnnif is aabin ke w&ete, kb&s bote, to Biodi 
hnnif, le, The, Dil, wagbaiia ke w^ute tarkibi hordf kyoa 
matprrar kije-j&te. Saaskartt men yih hnhif asli hain pns 
vrahin in ke w&ste tarklb kl zanirat nahin ; mufrid barf 
mnqarrai bain. Crdii men tarklb ki aanirat pane k( yiM 
waja hii, ki nai aab^n paidi hone ke waqt, ek parani rasm- 
ut-kUatt j&ri th{. Pas, jab Urdd zabin ke wAste, koi raam- 
nl-khatt khia nahfn ; to aahib-az-za miin kk ikhliyir hai, Ju 
iiari rasm-sl-kbatt as ke w&ate jiri karen. 

Ebair is ko bbl jAne dijiyet aor aar& insif ki naziir ae 
gnzasbttt w^qi'it par ghanr ktjiye I Id jab flinduon ki apni 
xam&oa thfi, to Sanskarit ki riwij tha. Mnsalmin Bidahi- 
bon Be jab Eor piyi, aor Hindustin ko a-dabfcyfi, to nnbon 
ne FAral ki tarwlj men koabish ki. TJa aam&na ko ham ne 
dekhi nahfn ; lekia agar ghanr karen, to ham aamajh aakto 
hain ; ki jab Isl&mt fiidshihon ne.Saaakarit kf tansikb, wax 
Finikltarwtj kihpgi; to Hindibn ke dtl kaise. na jalte 
hoDge. Aor wah ia iatizim se kaiae ni-khnsb ho-kar, apn^ 
Bidafaibon ko bnri bhalA nft. kahte hooge? TJnben ibiidi 
men ddarf zab&n riij kame ke wiste, kyi kyi diqqaten pesb 
na if hongi. Lekin, jab Islitnl saltanaton ki Hind se aitsila 
khatm oa h&&, anr ek hazir banu ttk wohi BidshAb ya k« 


( 3» 1 
bn'd dfgara hots rabe, to rafla Tsftn Farsi zabin ne Hindds- 
Un men aisi riivrij pakrA, lii goj'& hamirl nsif zab&n yih{ 
bai. Ham Hinddst&nioa ne Fars( ko nisa manjlij, ki knf 
ek Hindi naefaid aatiA kbud Irinlon ko ban mnstai»d 
khay&l kije gae. Maaian, HaaUn& Ami'i- Kbnsran DibUwf, 
Abn>l-faxl, Faiif, Naair 'AH Sarhandf, Gliani,' Fi-zamaaana 
Uirzi OhAIib i Dihlani, wa-gbairalinm. 

Ab ki Sarkir i Angnxi ne, is molk ko apQ« qabsa i 
iqtid&r men %k, to purine qJi'ids ke ru se to jitz thi, ki 
An^rezI zab&n hi 'im taur par jftri hotl. Lekio, bamiri^ 
Sark&r ki mibrbiniy&n nihiyat shnkr-gozM kl I^ bain,^ 
U'iq hain, ki none ba-jai ta,nifin Angrezl ke, Urdd se asAn 
zab&n ko riw^j diyi. Jis men liamare jaise kam-liyiqai 
baiki n&-l&iq Uamf bhi likh pnrh sakte bain, anr tamim kar- 
rawil &sdn( se cbaK jiUf hai. Go S&hib&n i Yiirapin ek 
sAid mihnnt w&ste Urdd, Farsf eikhce ke nth&nl parti faai ; 
magnr Qs kk Barkir oe ab tak kuohh kbayil nohia kiyfc. 

Lekln yih kahni mnshkit bai, ki ayanda zom^ne tnon hy^ 
hil ho-gi ? . 

*Ajab nsbin, ki jab Angresi -kfawinon kf ta'dad barh 
jie ;ja)af ki ab taraqqf i r>jz-afzua faai ; nar kol kaansil y& 
SasiiU is amr par zor de, to Angrezi ki tarivij wa ta,mEm k& 
bakm j&rlho-jiwe. , 

Sarkir l;( mibrb&ni bai ki wnh pnrine nankaron bf 
ri,iyat se, ta,mini Angrezi zabin kf o^iln karU. Lekin, 
agar kar-de : to k^ sor aar kyi ohira ? Horda ba dasi t 
zinda, jo diihiye, so kljiy& 

Ham log nankarl ke khwist-gir hain, aor batnfn ronh- 
tij. HnhtAj ko apne Mjat-rawi kl taqtld, anr ta,n]U i 
fermin ch&biye ; oa bijat-rawi ko mabt^j ki. Foa yih 
kaliiyeVki Kbudi-na khwista, agar aisa bakm jM ho, to 
^b Etoman ke mukhilif ky'L koh sakte hain ? aut as waqt 
pnr&ne mooaluoB ki kyi h^t bo-g' ? 


( 85 ) 

Roman Siuifti ki iluau hnmen tsh i dil se . mfimni, anr 
nibAyat sbukr-gnz^rl se its ki t&id karnA cbAbiye, ki wuli 
bamen ek sakbt masbkit se bndiAne men, kosbisb kar rabi 
hai. Y8,n{ tarwtj i AngrezE se. Boman agar j&ti ho-jiwe 
to Aogrezi ke 'abi-l-'omiim j&rf kame kt uirUrat oabio rabU. 
Anr Roman babat iainl se j&rl bo saktl bai. 

Fas, ai sibibin ! ias^f anr gbanr kf jagah bai, ki itji is 
SiuiiU ke iridoa aur koahisbon par hamftn, ta,n kami rawi 
bai ? Nabla I bargia nabiii I Agar bom aisA karen, to luif- 
rin i ni'mat, na-mail-aodeelu, anr bat^barml k& kbiUU> bam 
par bnhnt sobhobbt tarah ae cbaap&n nnr mansdo ho>gi. . 

Akbir men Roman ki ek baiyan anr 'nmda f&tda, main 
anr lubir kiyi ob&bta hdn ; jo mosbUqin i First ke wista 
bill ziyidatar maful bai. Ki Roman men taUffoz ek kom- 
'ilm idaml ki bhl, aisA tbik anr dnrost bo-^akti faai, jusi ' ki 
First men ek bare '&Itm k& bhi honi moshkil hai. 

TalatToz men, aksar 'niami anr fozaU bbi, Ingbit anr 
dikabanri kemuhtij robte bain ; anr obhote obhota anr 'im 
alfia kt bhi tahqtq agar ki jawe : to alf&z i zab&n-zad khia o 
■am, laghat anr dikshanrl se babnt matafl&ffat honge.' la 
kt wiyb yiht hai, ki Firsl khat men mazm<im o maksilr ki 
ba]& i'rib tamiz nahin bo-sakt(. Anr is wiste aksar altiz 
ghalat zab&n par cbarb jite bain. Bonian men yib bb&ri nnqa 
bargiz oa bo-gi ; baiki jis qadr ki peshtsr hai ; wnfa bbi 
ntfa bo jawegs. 

Ab Mirzi Sibib ki tohrfr ki p&ncbwan jntw biql bai. 
Jis ki nuuo knobb jawib nabin da-3akt& ; anr majbe an kl 
tarah yih kabne V& jarat nabln bai, ki Gavarnmant yon kare 
anr yon na kare. 

Rnmdz i mamlikat o mnlk kbnsmwin d&rand t 

Gttd& i gosba-nosbfai to HafisA ma-kbarosh I 
Baqtm hecb-mad&n, 
A Aktobar 1679. JSltQi4<k- • 

II, Google 

( 36 ) 
To the Editor of the Homaa Urdif Journal. 
Dkab Sis, 

Uaay tliaoicB for giving my last leftora pUoe in jaar 
Jonnial. Yoo omitt«d, liowerer, to plnoe ths diaoritioal 
mtakt under ttie equivaleoU iriiioli I gave for the lettere sin 
'ghuo', ( ROd i3. ■ Possibly I may have made tlie omtasion 
mjself, I merely montion the &ot'lo3t my meauing should 

It iq a hopeful «gn to ^ee the questioa of the Boman 
Alphabet being taken up in snoh a procticat manoer. 

It Beema to me that the greatest diffioalty will be to 
oome to a conclnsioa about the letter ' ain', siid I mast say 
that Major Holroyd's arguments in favor of the apostrophe, io 
the lost number of your Joamal, are ivoighty, but still tbaro 
are great dilBoaltiea in tlie way of the apostrophe. 

What are we to do for iostanoe in Boman Urdu, 
Poetry where the apostrophe is used where a letter i» 
left ont ; to take an example, we find in " Zabdr anr Gft ** 
8tb hymn. 

Maaih kl khitir se Allib, 
IT^ karli ten Mb gontii ; 

Here the apostrophe is put for ' pesh ' which is left oat ' 
what then shonid we do for ' ain * in this instance ? 

But there is yet another difficulty — suppose a quota- 
turn ending with a word like jama ' with the apoitro^e ; it 
wonld have to be written jam' would not the apostrophe b» 
awkward with the quotation marks ? 

I scarcely like tbe idea yoo propose of barinji ao- 

tbtng to represent Tanwfn. To take two examples ; 'l^ikb- 

minan ' and ' Ittifikan', how likely tbey wonld be to be mi». 

proDonnced if written Takhmlua and Ittif&ks. Xtfaiak fii'> 



Kitli a dotovfr it (n) might with advaniiige be naed io re- 
present IbU sign.* 

'With regard tothediii^«ntTarietie9oftfaeSanskn't*'a'* 
I think ma well na the nasal we might retsin 1Q to be writ- 
ten ' n ' aa fur m. m'^ (debt) might in Roduid be written 
'fin'. Nasal "n" might be written n. Tba Saoskrit m 
miglit I think be written ' kah.* 

u«and u>otight lihink to be written a. and i, uibey are 
TMi}* generally knomtj and ^ and J> t. and z. 

For A and £> (zH and se) I don't thii^ we can do 
better than z and s. The Sanskrit f| too might be writtea 
with a stroke nnderaeath «w. sh. 

I think it woald be an advantage in th« case of IoD£ 
" i " to leave oat the dot and write it i, with merely theacoent 
over it. 

Finally, with regard to n remark that has hem nude, 
vi;., that the sogge&tion to adopt the Bomoa obaraoter 
moat bare arisen &chu a few individaals too laiy to ao^nire a 
knowledge of the native ohantcter, I wonld jnst sa; that if 
the individaal who first made that remark wonld bat take thft 
trouble to eoqnire into the matter, he wonld find that tb* 
movors in tins mattM- have been, and ore, men v>ell vp in th» 
native ohaiacters, who oan read and write three or foor a^ 
least of those obomcters with ease. Why it is only sooh 
men who oan really appreciate the incaloalable advantages 
to be gained by the Bomnn system r Pom Stephenson was 
looked npon as a mndman for speaking of railways and so 
we too may be looked npon as qnite Utopian im o«r ideal 
about the Bmnan system, bat time will teU. 

Toor obdt. servant, 


■ WedidDotinteDd toaDttthe''n''bDt to write " taUakiu " aoA 
" tlUMqHn" witlioDtBii7muk(i*«rlbe"D''— on tbegKraodtlUrt WMdiot 
tUt ek« wo <Ma\j racogtiiMble wilboat a nxA.- Editor B. D. Jwuiwl, 

II, Google 

( 38 ) 

Hie objects of this Jonmal, And of Uie Soeia'r with 
which if. is connectm], are explained b; the seri«s of Beso* 
ludoni passed at the Meetiaji organising the Society, Knd 
by the StAtement of Reasons, both of which were pDoIiahed 
in the first uamber of this Journal. 

We ask all who are interested in the moTetnent to sits 
us their support. Those who may wish' to jtun the Society 
are requested to send their names, with the sabsoriptions for 
the year, Ba. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Boman-Urdn 
Soeiett/f Labotd. Moabers wilt receive a copy of iba 

We also call attention to Ho. 6 of the Resolutiona 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th May, and invite snbsmp- 
tioDS to the " Transliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with the Hiorement who 
hare not yet sent in their names and sabsoriptiona. We 
trust Uiat tfiey will now do so, and that they will also help 
OS by convaaslng for fresh members, and by drcutatin|f o 
Journal among both Europeans ond Katires in the sta" 
where they reside. 

Contributions on any of the rarions subjects conndctftd 
with transliteratJoD, translation and education generally, kre 
earnestly solicit«d from Members of the Society. 



To adeocate the u*e of the Roman Alphabet in Oriental 
Language t. 







:,.ndty Google 

:,.ndty Google 

No. 12 May 1^79* 

As w6 iaformad our ro^iders iu oar last number, there 
ms no raeatiiig of tha Sjcisty at the ead of April. A meet- 
ing will bo held ou tlie last Satnrday of May, ia the Lahore 
College, at 6 p. u., at which wetrost members will be preaeat. 

Iranslitxbation in the Middle School Ezahikatioh. 

We regret to inform oar readers that an attempt hu 
.been made by some of our oppouents to strike oat the marks 
for trensUtoration from the Middle School Examination Scheme. 
Wesay that ths att<!iupt bec;i made by oar opponenti, 
for it can scar&ily havo on^inated with frieads of the Homaa- 
Unjii moremont, though we are sorry to odd that some who 
are generally sappoaed to favor oar reform voted against Of 
en* the matter in question. 

A Committee of selected officers was recently appointed 
-by tlie Futjab Qevemment to coasider varlooa edaoational 
matten, and we aoderstaud that at the last meeting of thii 
Comnuttee a resolatton was earned that ihe transliteration 
nurlu shoold be omitted from futare examinations. 

We write from mmour only, but we believe that the 
Committee consisted of eight members, of whom fire voted 
agunst the transliteration marks and three in favor of their 

The total nnmber of marks nnder tiie Middle School 
X!ximiiuttio& Si^eme, as it at present stands, is 400. Of this 

:,.ndty Google 

( 2 ) 

total, 300 marks aro allotted to the anbjeoffl which eoer^ boy 
moBt take np in the following proportion : — Urdd 75, 
Persian 75, ^rithmelic 100, History and Geography 50. 

The remoiniiig 100 marks are allotted either to BogUsh 
or to Mathematical occoi'dLng to the School — ADglo-Yema- 
cular or purely Yeraacalar — from which the candidate comet. 

Now, omitting the marks for English, all these marks, 
■with one trivial exception, are awarded to work in the 
Persian character, and in that only. The esoeption is that 
15 marks under Urdii are allotted to " transliteration " — tiiat 
is to aay, 5 or 6 lines are giveB to the candidate in tiio 
Persian character, to be written by bim in Homan according 
to the Jonesian system. These are the marks of whioh oar 
opponents now wish to deprivfl na. 

We are reminded of the parable in whieh the rich man 
who had " exceeding many flocks and herds " deprived his 
poorer noighbonr of the " one little ewe lamb whioh he had 
bronght np and oonriahed." Onr opponents have eveiT' 
ndrantage — except those of argmnent and reason — on thdr 
nde. They bask in the gcnshine of viceregal favor, ^ey 
rejoice in the strengUi of Bismark'i motto " Beati poondoD- 
tes." Their caose is babtreased at one comer by the sap. 
port of nnedaoated native prejndios ; at another by the dead-* 
weight of official ohstraotivenesa ; at a third by the indolenos 
of those Eoropeana who hold aloof from oar movement 
beoaose they do not care two pence for Oriental reform or 
Oriental interests of any kind. With all these advantages 
on their side, is it possible that onr opponents gmdge na th« 
paltry score of 15 marks, which represents, in the Middle 
School Examination scheme, the important and — to us — ^para* 
mount princuple, that the natavea of India shoalct learn io 
"read their mother-tongne, in the printed character of tho 
civilized world ? In bis remarks OQ Uie £da<»tion Bepoit 


( 3 ) 

for 1877-78 — which are printed on another paga of oop 
Jonnud—Hia Honor intimates that he is not altogether ta 
favor of Romanized Urdd ; but there ia nothing in those 
remarks to imply that ha wishes to stamp out the moremont 
we havB inaagnrateJ. On the contrarj, he ndmita tliat — 
" The experiment of the traosliterntion of Urdii into Roman 
character is, no doubt, an interesting one," — Indeed, we 
cnnnot snppoie that ^e Fanj&b Gbvemmont wonid, noder 
any drcnmstances, favor the policy of tlie " Inqaiaition * 
in a matter of Educational interest. 

Bat, on what other gronad oan the proposal to strike 
out these 15 marks be jn&tified? It cannot be said that so 
amall a nnmber of marks will impair the general value of the 
ExaminaUon teat in Persian. It cannot be said that they ara 
aniair to candidates who refuse to learn the Itoman character, 
for snob candidates can get saScieat marks to pass from tb» 
Persian alone. As a matter of fact, all candidates — at ony 
rate all that we have met — do attempt transliteration, and the 
&ct that they do so is of coarse an argument on onr side 
agiunst those who assert that the Natives of India will never 
aooepfc the B<HDaii character. 

Agun ws ask, why should these marks be straolc oat ? 
Tha Committee appears to have sat in secret, and until wo 
See some authoritative statement of their reasona, wa 
are nnable to say what the exact motives of the majority 
may have been. But we understand that cme reason urged 
against the marks was the Mtrtme eaiituM of the snbject 1. 
Barely, those who nrge this ot^eotion put a weapon into oar 
hands which we are justified in taming against them. Can 
they, while urging this argument, muntain with the same 
l>reath that the PeraiaD ia as e»y and legible- a -character as 
the Roman? ^ 


( « ) 

Obviotuly, a dtstiactdoa most be drawn between tiw 
boya from ADglo-Vemacalar aDd those from pnrely Vemft- 
flolar sohoola. To ilie former, who aro already familiar mlh 
Boman in its oonoection with English traaslitflratiou, is very 
Msy. Bnt are oar opponents prepared to take their stand 
on the groand that thn knowledge of the Roman character 
w altofftther useless to the ordinary Yernacular student? 
la many cases the very milestones and sign-posts that are 
to goide him to and from his place of examinHtion ai« in 
Bom an only. If on the other hand, the knowledge of Roman 
be voDsidered a matter of any valae at all to such a stndentj 
tfan it be said that the allowance of 15 marks is an extrava- 
gant one for the accomplishment ? 

In a prerions nnmber of oar Joarnal we expressed 
an opinion that the examination in Roman shoald bo a 
tlioroagh one. We offered some snggestions for making 
U more thorough than it has been hitherto. We now offer 
gtlier suggestions of a similar tend. ncy. It should }fl 
remembered that the mere representation of one letter by 
another is only a part of transliteration. The great vnlne of 
tlie Roman character consists in its use of " paragraph " oi 
" ponctuation " of " italics " of " brackets " of " notes of ex- 
clamation and interrogation " and generally in its platuog in 
A clear light, the dependence or independence of words and 
Bentences. All this should be tested by the examination. 
Borne sentences shoald be easy. Others should be dlGScnlt 
and involved. Hitherto prose only has been given j why 
not give poetry as well P Hitherto Urdu only has been 
transliterated ; why not Persian also ? ^Vo submit that 
ibe correct transliteration of a passage of Persian poetry ia of 
itself no mean t«st of Persian scholarship. 

Again, is there no place in Indian Edncatton for tba 
Hindi character ? Among the eight selected offlceis-^Pn>- 

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< 6 ) 
ieaton, AadioTf, Scholars — ^wlio formed the Commiitefi, was 
there no one to say a word for the Nfigari 7 Has it come to 
this that the Boman-Urdd Journal— of all piiblicati<HiB in the 
world — ^mnst take upon itself the advocacy of the old and 
Teoerated Indian alphabet ? We will not refnse the brief. 
As a general instromeDt of Ednoation the Nigarf has beea 
long ontstripped by its rivals, the Persian and the Bomanf 
bat there is no reason for casting it aside altogether, as 
thongh it were an nnolean thing. For a scholarly apprecia- 
tion of Urdd, and for an intelligent nsa of transliteration 
itself some knowledge of Ifigarl is extremely useful. We 
oannot offer the Hindi character — apart from tht Roman-^ 
any portion of our poor little allotment of 15 marks, hot we 
are prepared to advocate the addition of one or more Hindi 
paregrapha to the transliteration paper with a view to theii 
correct rendering in Boman. 

Will it be said that 15 marks are too many to allot to 
traDsIiteralion, when it is nnderstood that these marks 
embrace — (1) Roman Oaligraphy, ( 2 ) a scholarly analysis 
of Urdd and Feruan composition, and (3) an intelli;;ent 
appredalion of the Hindi ctiaracter, in addition to familiarity 
With the recognised rules of Homan-Urdii Orthography and 
to practical skill in the nse of the Bomon-Urdii din meter 
both printed and written ? 

The Fanj&b Government itself ordered the introdnctioD 
of the Roman character in the Middle School Examination. 
Its orders were issued after due consideration of the subject* 
and nothing has occurred during the last three years to 
make the vnlne of the Roman character less now than it 
Was in 1876. The Director's views on the subject are 
unchanged, and inrely this is a matter in which some 
regard should be had to the personal opinions of the Head of 
the Edncational Department . 

• Bee page 18 of the Diicctai'i Bepeit, 

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We snbmit that the qaeetion is one of sofBoient import-- 
anca for (lovernment to aacertain the beiiring of pnbiio. 
opinion— official and noa-offioial— before it seeks to nndo 
the work which it itoelf commenced some years ago. Trans- 
literation may not be a subject on which it is possible to 
roase popular enthusiasm, bnt there are many who hold oar 
views in their entirety, and there are many more iiot yet 
prepared to support the fall programme of our Society, who 
will admit the unfainiess and impolicy of arresting tho 
important growth of native public opinion which has ensued 
and is likely to ensue from these 15 marks in the Exami- 
nation Scheme. 

We trust that those of our friends who are likely to 
be consnited in the matter, — whether as Members of the 
Oommitteo or as Members of the Senate of the Panjab Uni- 
versity — will have the conrage of their opinions, and will 
do their best to resist Uiis attack on the prindples of oar 

The FimjAfi Sddcatioh Befobts fob 1877-78. 

Probably the majority of our Fanjib readers have seen 
the above report, and do not reqoire os to anrnmarize its con- 
tents. There are, however, many beyond the limits of oar 
Frovinoe for whose information brief notice of its leading 
points will not be out of plaoe. 

The Director reports a slight decrease in the namber 
of schools but an increase in that of students. The fees 
levied in District Schools and their Uraiiches have inoreasod 
greatly. In connezion with female edacatjon the Director 
observes that there is little of interest to record daring the 
year under report. Admittedly, the best schools of this clasa 
are those ander Missionary influence. 

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Tberabjeotof Text-books is refeired to ai soma lengtb, 
'mod in oonneciion iherewitb, we note the following para- 
gntph as one indioatiog the tme Ednca^onal policy wbich 
all Bdnoatiooal refoimera do well to keep constantly before 
ibem: — 

"I oonoeive that the prindpal objects of popnlar 
edncatioD dhonld be so to train the mental fucalties thtit any 
doty undertaken in after life may bo carried on with intelli- 
gence ; to impart infonnaUon that will prove of practical 
nse in years to come ; so to train the eye and the taste 
that the most hamble may derive pleasure from beanfy in 
natnra and in art ; to train the moral feelings so that tha 
schools may torn out good men and good citizens ; and 
lastly by inculcating tlte importance of cleanly habits and 
the necessity of pnre air and water, and the observance of 
elementary prindples of hygiene, to dovelope a healthy 

With reference to the PanjAb University College, it is 
noted, as an event of considerable importance, that the 
Secretary of State has bestowed on that InstitaUon the powers 
ofsUniversity, though at the same time he has saggested 
tiiat the degrees in Arts conferred by the new University 
should bear a different title from those conferred by others in 
EnglaDd and in India. 

The Director's general remarks conclude with some 
animadversions on the standard of English in the Panj^b 
University College Examination and with a qnotation from a 
previous report regarding the manner and bearing of boys 
who receive an English edaoaion in Government Schools. 

Ibe above is aa outline — necessarily a hurried and 
meagre one — of some portions of the Report. We may 
be able to notice others iu sabseqnent Issnes of our Jonmal* 
We would oonolnde by remarking that there are two topics 

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( « ) 

vbioh wa hare pnrpoMlj omitted fnm oar iketoh, tboagit 
ih»Y are topics of conuderable ioterost. Tbp ^nt of theif 
is the discosaion raised by Mr. Pearson. We havfl referred to 
this elsewhere. It ta oaeof rer/ great importance bntoanoot 
be treated satis fao to ril/ in a harried ontline like the present. 
The second is the subjeot of photo-ziaoo-grapbj in which 
the Director takes great interest. We ouut this becaose ne 
hope that the Director will himself furnish ns with a paper 
regarding the process and its advantages. 

The Panjab Educatioit Repobt on Rokak-Ubdc. 

The references of the report to the sabjeot in which thLi 
Jonmal is specially interested require more detailed notio* 
at oar bands. We reprint them in extento. In the body of 
the Report page 12 we read as follows : — 

15. Mr. Alexander writes as follows regarding bow9 

Opinion on the Intro- proposals of Mr. Tolbort, JJepotjr 
action oCiioman-Urdn. Commissioner of Qajrinwalla, regard- 
ing the introduction of the Boman character :— • 

" Hr. Tolbort, Dopntf ComnuMioner of QDJrkiirUl«s sappaTti In rp^ 
•onvt langnoge the opinion that the anbatitatioa ol the Bomaa tot tl)a 
Oriental alphabet! U abaolatelf esHntiol before oar afstem of BdnokUoD ia 
jttdia eon be regarded oi in taj way ■atlatMtoij ; and la iroold pat tUa 
viaiT into pnwtioe bj redooing tlia preeent luimber at ove Tenoonlor mod 
«Yeii(rfoiir.Bi>gli*haalu)olB, tod expending the aaTinga thai effected on Uw 
fntrodaotion of the Roman ohat»Q>>ei in tl>e remaiaing iDhoola, and on tha 
ereation of a Romanized liberatnra. An aonnal report ie hatdlf the pti>p^ 
ploos for tiM dieoimion of fnob a l«ge qneetioo M thi^ Mtd I do not pRV 
pOM to otter any Te^lar^'□Dit ; bat theinbject la one of inoli TOit impor. 
tonoB, and hoi ao ouny enthiuiaetio lapporben, that I oonld not leare Mr. 
Tolbort'i nggeition altogether nnnotioed." 

" An annual report is, as Mr. Alexander obaerres, hardly 
{he proper place for the disonssion of so large a qnestion aa 
the geoeral introduction of the Bomaa oharaoteri bat it may 

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{ 9 ) 

I tbinlc, be iaterestmg to note to what extent the Boman 
(dtaraoter oaa bo aaed with adrantage nnder oar present 
educational system, irithoat any reFarecce to the expediency 
<ir othermse of enoonraging ita general adoption. In the 
first ptaoe, it shoald be observed that there can he no qnes- 
tion oftbesabatitntion of the Romnn character for the Persiaa 
ia primary schools. The new series for primary schools can 
I think he printed almost if not qaite as cheaply hy pboto- 
sinco-grapby as wonM be possible if it were stereotyped in 
the Boman character, and the text of future books of the 
Beries will I hope nearly approach though it is impossible to 
eqoal the Roman character in clearness. Tb!s, however, is 
really beside the qnestion. If the Roman character should 
ever supplant the Persian it must of course be tanght in 
preference to the latter in primary schools. Under existing 
oircnmstances however a knowledge of the Persian charaoter 
is indispensable, and to teach the Roman charncter in addition 
to the Persian in primary schools would involve much in- 
conrenience without any corresponding advantage. Tba 
Boman character therefore cannot be taught at present in 
primary Bohools. Ability to read and write the Roman 
diaracter is faowerer tested in the Dliddle School Examination 
in aocordaaoa with the orders of Qorernment issued after dae 
otHisideiation of the subject. 

The power of reading the Roman character can be acquired 
by the Students of Middle Vernacular Schools without difficulty 
though it is put to little practical nse at present ; and I have 
long considered that the progress of these hoys in mathe- 
matics, history, geography and elementary science would be 
greatly facilitated by the publication of Roman-Urdu Manuals 
on tbese subjects. Works on history and geography 
in which many names occur present the greatest practical 
diffioolties wben lithographed in the Persian character, though 

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< 10. ) 

BTery attention may be bestowed on the accarate transliter- 
ation of the names. The careful elaboration of many years 
also has made it possible to bring out in a form quite unap- 
proachable in the Persian character all works on mathematict 
and other books where different symbols are introdoced and 
a variety of type is used to fix the attention on parlicnkr 
points. As the boys for whom these books are prOTided 
learn in any case the Roman character, and as they have 
ample practice in keeping up a knowledge of the Persian 
character, being required to write a great deal and also to 
read a considerable amount of Persian literature, the com- 
parative merits of the Roraitn character as applied to school 
books in the subjects above indicated is all that has to ba 
considered, and in this respect its advanfages for the reasons 
above specified, and others into ivhiti it seema needless bera 
to enter, are I think incontestable. I may add that the 
translation of the primer of Physics has been already printed 
in the Roman character, though the execution in this case is, 
X regret to say, somewhat inferior. 

Tlie introduction therefore of the Roman character to 
the extent nbove specified will be advantageous, as an educa- 
tional measure, irrespective altogether of its general use ; 
though it is of course evident that such a measure will facili- 
tate its adoption for ordinary pui-posos should Government 
■ see fit horoafier to encourage the practice, or any party 
amongst the natives desire to give it a trial." 

On these remarks by the Director, the comment of His 
Honor the Lie ntnant- Governor is as follows :— 

RoHAKiZBD Ubdu. 
" The observations of the Director on the subject of tba 
introduction of Romauized Urd^ are of much valuo ; but 
the Lieutenant-Governor does not desire to see this system 

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ftt present introducea as regular part of higher edacaaon ; 
for lie believes that it would be anpopalar with the better 
classes of natives, wHIe its advantages are not yet so indis- 
putably proved as to render its adoption by the Goverumont 
justifiable. The experiment of the transliteraUon of Urdii into 
Roman character is, no doubt, an interesting one, and, for 
Europeans, who have not studied the Persian character early 
in life, and whose eye consequently never becomes familiarized 
with the written character, there is an undoubted advantage 
both in the Law Courts and in studying the literature in a 
character easy in itself and familiar. 

But with the native of India the case is different. Taught 
the character as a child, his eye has no difficulty in mastering 
the Persian printed or written character, and not being 
&miliar with the Roman character, the argument in its favor 
is somewhat reversed. Moreover, as Urdu is not treated in 
the Uoman character, nor can be treated phonetically, the 
student is compelled to possess an acourata etymological 
knowledge of Urdil in the Persian character before he can 
xronsliteratd it into the Roman, 

If the scheme deserves success, it will no doubt gradually 
mate its way in India ; but when a highly educated nation 
like the Germans retain their oM and obscure characto r 
Although so large a number of scholars are in favor of the 
Boman alphabet, the Heatenant-Governor cannot but think 
that it will be long before Romanized Urdd beooma popular 
in India. 

To some of oar readers the remarks Avhich we have just 
qnoted may appear unfavorable to our cause. This is not 
the light iu which we regard them. His Honor admits that 
tlie experiment of the transliteration of Urdu into the Roman 
character is an interetting one. This is an important adnus' 

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C 12 ) 

Bion. Kine-Untlis of those who oppose tis do bo from 
mere prejadice, becase they will not devote tea miantes' 
ftttention to our phonetic system. They take np a Bomanr 
Urdd book (if they do even so mucli as that) and at once 
throw it down again saying that they find it more difficolt 
to read than the Persian. We do not profess to work mira- 
cles, and cannot hope to convince an opponent who treats the 
subject ill this cavalier way, but if any one will study it as 
"an interesting experiment" in the spirit indicated by Hi» 
Honor, we are sure he will be led in the oonrse of time to 
accept the principles of our Society. 

There is another admission in His Honor's remarks to 
which we attach some importance. He describes the Qarmnn 
character as an obieure one— that is to say (as we understand 
him) he considers it a character obscure ptr le in compari.- 
Bon with the Koman. This is not the position which soma 
of onr opponents take. They start with an imaginary axiom 
that all characters are equal per »e, the difference between 
them being simply that each is better suited than the rest to. 
the particular language to which it is at present applied. 
This imaginary law of language is a pnre fiction, but it serves 
to blind many of our opponents to every argument on oar 

The real controversy,— so far as Indian popular educa* 
iion is concerned, — is indicated by the following sentence* 
of His Honor's minute : — *' But with the native of India Iha 
the case is different. Tanght the character as a child his oyO 
has no difficulty in mastering the Persian printed or wiitte'^ 
character, Ac. &c." 

Here there is an undoubted difference of opinion between 
His Honor and ourselves. We suspect that this differenoo 
is more apparent than real, bat as His Honor's remark 
stands— taking it in the sense which most readers wil* 

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( 13 ) . 

ntbich to itwthe differonce of opinion is aa wide as it possi- 
bly caa be. 

Before expresBing oar owa opinion on the main iasaa 
we voald oBer two verbal criticisms on His Honor's 

In the first plftce, we would submit that the word- 
" printed" is an ambignons one. Ordinarily, books in- the 
Persian character — those in asa in GoTemment Schools as 
well as those otherwise read — are lithographed, not " prin- 
ted" — In the European sense of the word. 

In the second place, we object to the word " mastering" 
as one which reils the real issue in the case. The difficulty 
of "mastering" the Persian character is trivial compared 
with the diflaculty of " osing " it when it is " mastered. " 

We trust we shall be excused for offering these verbal 
eriticisma. Tbey are necessary to explain our o^vn view of 
the case, which is this — that the native of India, (even thoogti 
taught the character as a child) has very great diJUulty in 
vsing the Persian character, whether printed, litbogrnphed 
or written, 

The issue being thus drawn, wo wonid submit that a 
difference of opinion as to /acts ■ is necessarily one which 
may be removed, if means are taken to test the phenomena 
by direct and cmciul experiment. 

We could saggest a score of ojcperimonia by which enr 
assertion conld be put to the test. We woald only insist oa 
this condition that the experimenls should be made in a wido 
and comprehensive manner. That is to say, we would ask 
for their application to every class of the native population, 
and W8 would insist on the fiict that ns there are many cloura 
of " renders," so there are many different ways of 
''reading" — or as we have put it— "using' a book or 

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( It ) 

manuscript character. There is reading Uy paiil oflicials, 
reading by men of independent fortune, reading by trades- 
men, reading by soldiers and reading by those who follow 
the ploagb. There is reading by men and reading by 
women, reading by the young and reading by the old, read- 
ing in health and reading in sickness, reading with thought 
and reading without it, reading of one boolc and reading 
of a hundred. There is reading as a religions dismplino, 
reading for fashion and reading as a source of intellectual 
pleasure. There is reading of newspapersand novels, readingof 
dictionaries and encyclopaedias, reading of abstruse philoso- 
phy, reading of foreign history, reading of books of science. 

Supposing our score of experiments to be applied in a 
thorough and exhaustive way, we venture to propliesy that 
the conviclJon would be brought home to the mind of every 
impartial enquirer with irresistible force that the natives of 
India have very great di^culti/ in "using" the Persian 
character. The expression " very great difficulty " is of 
coarse a comparative one. We contemplate as an essential 
of the test that our experiments on the use of the Persian 
character (by natives) should be conducted side by side with 
expreriments on the use of Roman. 

But why enumerate a score of experiments when one 
ftmong the score stands oat as preeminently the best It 
is this : — Print 50 Feraian and Hindust&ni books in the 
Boman character, making your selection as complete aa 
possible in every department of literature. Lithograph the 
same works in the Persian. JSmpanel a jury of 50 educated 
native* already familiar with the Persian character. 
Devote 3 months to their systematic instruction in printed 
Boman. Submit the 50 books to them, insisting that they 
shall read them through in sab-oommittee — say 5 booki 
apiece in ^otk characters. Then ask them whether tbo use 

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of the Persian character is or is not a matter of vert/ great 
digieuUy — as compared with the ase of Roman. 

NoTB. — Since we wrote onr article on the anbject, the 
report of the Committee to which we referred has been pab- 
lished (see Sapplement to Panjab Qazelle, May 15th, 1879, 
page 427.) 

The paragraph of the report which indicate b the attach 
on transliteration is as follows :— 

" XXX. — In considering the Urdfi test, the 
qnestions of the position to be assigned to transliteration of 
the Persian character into the ( so-called ) Roman-Urdii, and 
to Caligraphy, became prominent. For transliteration, 15 
marks have been hitherto allotted to the Urdii paper out of 
a maxtmnm of 50. The advantage of encouraging the 
practice at all in our schools is a point on which diametii- 
cally opposite opinions may be held. But whatever may be 
held upon the general question, it was agreed that the mere 
acquisition of the power of transliteration was, to an Anglo- 
Vernacular student especiully, far too easy to allow the 
sabject to assume any prominence in marks for an exami- 
nation. And it was finally resolved to exclude it altogether.'' 
Now with reference to the preceding paragraph, the 
first criticism that we would offer is that through some 
oversight it contains (what appears to os ) a misleading 
statement as to a matter of fact. The total number of 
marks allotted to Urdii is, we believe, 75 not SO. The 
Director's Circular, recently published, distinctly details thfl 
divisioua of the tJrd6 examination thas — 

1st Paper, Composition ... 25 

2nd Paper, Grammar ... 15 

Translation ... 15 

Hand-writing ... 10 

Viva voce Reading ... 10 

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Now, on the face of this, it seems to us searroelj fair to 
t&j that — " For transliteration 15 nmrkB hare been bitbeito 
allotted to theUrdli paper, out of a maximum of fiQ." 

That we are justified in calling this statement mislead- 
ing and inaccurate is clear from the fact that in 1876 and 
1878 (there being no examiontion in 1877) 'the oninher of 
marks allotted was lOout of a total of - 50. The perceniagt 
is the same, 10 out of 50 being the same proportion as 15 
oat of 75, or in other words 20 per cent, so that {he Gazette 
statement as to the number being 13 out of 50 or 30 per 
cent is not correct. 

It appears from the paragraph of the Committee's 
report following the one quoted, that the propose to appro- 
priate the 15 transliteration marks of which they seek to 
deprive ns, to Persian Cnligrapliy. They add that " these 
should be awarded to the hand-writing apparent through the 
language papers of the candidate, and not to any particaiac 
Set of questions." 

'Sim same rule applied previously to the 10 marks Vast, 
allotted to Persian band-writing. 

The long and tiie short of the matter is that UrdA hod 
75 marks previously and will have 75 in future ; the only 
change being that the Committee take the 15 marks for trans- 
literation and add tbem to Persian Ciiligraphy. 

His Honor reviewing the work of the Committee, 
Vrites aa follows regarding the adoption of the charges pro- 
posed by them :— " The report will now bo forwarded to the 
Senate of the University College, with a request that that 
body will consider it carefully, with the recommendation of 
the Hon'ble the Lieutenant-Governor that its proposals be 
accepted. Several of the points dealt with by the Committee 
have more special reference to the departmentid course of 
educatiou than to the procedure of the Unirersity College ; 

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( " ; 

but tbe Lieatonant-Qovernor wonid not vtlsh to withdraw 
mny qaestion discussed by the Committee from the considera- 
tion of the Senate t as, in all matters of popular education, 
he would desire, so far as may be possible, to be favored 
with their adTice." 

So the changes proposed by the Committee are now 
referred to the Senate of the University College. We fear 
that His Honor's " reoommendation" will be construed by 
many as an "order" that proposals of the Committee be 
sooepted. This however is not the spirit of the paragmph if 
we read it to the end. The reference to the Senate is not — 
M we nnderstand it — a formal and nugatory one. The 
responsibility of accepting, or refusing, or modifying tlis 
changes proposed by the Committee will rest with the 

Assamlng Uile to be the case, we appeal to onr friends. 
in the Senate to defend the causa of the Bonutn alphabet ta 
the last. We ask them to keep paragraph XXX of the 
Committee's proposals diatinet from the muItifariooB topics 
whioh anrroond it, and obscure its primary importance. We 
ask ttieni to take such measures as may prevent tbia special 
proposal from being sanctioned by some general vote of (ha 
Senate without due appreciation of its bearing. We ask 
tjiemi V they are outvoted,, to record their objectious In the 
form of a protest, 

For ourselves, though foUy aware that the c^angey 
(ifoairried) will be a temporary oheok ta the progress of 
our principles among the natives of India, we see no reasoii 
to relax our efforts in tbe cause we have undertaken ; we 
•re confident that the fbroe of oiTilizati<Hi will in tbe end be 
ton strong for our oppaneots. however great theic oiScial 
Advantages ouy bo. 

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C 18 ) 

Editoeial NoTSfl. 

His Honor says — " The atiident ia compelled to possess 
an nccnratc etymological knowledge of Urdfi in tlie Persian 
cbnracter, before be cna transliterate it into tbe Itoman.'* 
Are we then right or wrong when we claim 15 marks for 
trungliteratioD in the Middle School Examination Scheme ? 

In oar last nnmber there were several printer's miBtskesi 
We wish to correct one of these, as it ia calcalated to 
mialeud. Page 19, eighth line from top of the page, Bole IV. 
instead of "Words analogous to {»* will be written aa 
dafa" — -read — "Words analogous to •»»j will be writteo as 

Tbe errors in the Roman-UrdiS portion of onr last 
nnmber were chiefly caused by the printer dropping the mark 
for J from itfl proper place above the line to the body of the 
word. We note this beoanse it indicates one danger which 
will always attach to tbe nae of ' for g. 

On tbe other hand, it is well to note one objection to 
the nee of the dotted Towei for ^, on which we have not 
laid much stress before, but which deserves consideration. 
When our phonetic system ia universally applied, we may 
require dotted vowels for another purpose, ri?., to devote 
s\igbt variations of pure vowel sound, not suffituently ex- 
pressed by our present equipment of marks. 

We have received a very interesting paper from Lienle- 
nant Temple on the subject of transliteration. It will appear 
in onr next issue. 

We have also received a letter from Mr. Bead tho 
Consni-Generat of Netherlands India at ^ngapor. This 
too will appear in oar next number. 

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{ 13 ) 

We waald again remind Members of our Society that 
tlieir sabsoriptioas ftre dae for 1879, (sea number for April, 

As oar faoda do not admit of our keeping a paid 
Secretary or even a Clerk for Office work we trost that our 
friends will remit their subscriptions without giving us the 
trouble of writing to each individually. 

We congratulate thePanj&b University Collegn gpoerally, 
find Dr. Leitner in particular, on the ^clat of the College 
Convocation in April last. The speeches were of too great 
length for ns to reproduce them in eztenso, but we 
may be able to give some extracts in our next issue. 

iHDtAH Geoquafhical Kahe8. 
The Boyal Geographical Society are taking energetic 
steps for organising a uniform system for the spelling of 
names of places throughout the globe. 

A commencement has been made with the Indian names 
Ivhich the Government authorities are not yet decided about, 
snd a complete printed list of these has been drawn np and 
prescribed for use in the Society's publications. The names 
in Major St. John's map of Persia, Major Wilson's Afgha- 
nistan, and Lieat. StiHe's (I. N.) charts, of the Persian Gulf 
and Mekran, making np the whole of the Iranian peninsula, 
will then be tabulated and revised by a competent hand, iit 
accordance with a syslem devised recently hy Sir H. 
Bawlinson, under instruotions from tlie India Office. The 
Society then propose to turn their attention to African 
names, and frame on the principle of adopting the lists 
Jonesian vowels, and K for bard 0, except in names of 
European derivation. These steps are preliminary to a more 
univOTsal Mt of rules applicable to nil parts of the globe. 

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( 20 ) 

Sir Joseph Hooker baa recently been traTelliDg in 
Morocco. From bis descripUou it is evident that tti« coadi- 
tioo of that conotry is as deplorable aa that of other 
Mahammadan States. In the course of his tonr he Ti«t«d 
the Spanish Colony of Genta, and the contrast between it 
and the rest of the country compsls him to make the follow- 
ing admission : — 

" Say, whnt we will, there is a rast ^p between tlia 
condition of the least advanced conntries of Earope and 
the barbarism from which no Muhammadan State has yet 
contrived to raise itself." 

The Madras Mail of March Stb contained a reriew, in 
which the subject of Romanizing was favorably considered. 
The Jonesian system of transliteration has been applied to all 
the Dravidian languages, and we gather that the pn^reav 
of our morement in the Madras Presidency is peroeptibis 
though slow. 

The Director General of Telegraphs publishes a Qoar* 
terly Guide with the Rules of his Department for Inland and 
Foreign messages. — Bnle Ko. 7 for Inland messages is as 
follows : — 

" All messages must be le^jibly written in the Bomaa 
character or in Arabic figures ; subject to the above limita- 
tion messages may be sent in the vernacular, or any foragn 
langnage, or in cipher, if written in the Boman character or 
in Arabic Dnmerala. 

At Stations other than the Presidency ToiraB vrtrjr 
assistance possible is afforded to natives in the translation of 
messages into English and vice vertA. 

The Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic Society for April 
1878 contains an article by H. It. St. Borbt on fonoei* 

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( 21 ) 

Transliteration. The Bystein of transtiterAtion advocated ia 
based on tho Joneaian STstem. Apparently the great diffi- 
culty in Bormese transliteration Is the remarkable diver- 
gence between Uie word as spoken and their orthography 
according to the written Btirmese character. 

The following extracts in Roman-TJrdii are (aken from 
nn acoonnt of the HardwAr Fair published by the Kaukab i 
Hind. We have altered the "g" to "gh" to denote 
** gltain," bnt have not thought it necessary to insert the 
apostrophe for "ain "; i. A, we leave the vowels aa they 
stand in original, asking onr readers to sapply the dot from 
their own knowledge of the language. 

Haedwab se Melb ka Batah. 
Yih mel& jo tamdm Hinduafin men mashhnr faai, har s&I' 
Miroh ke Akhir y4 April ke shurii men hoUi hai, anr b&ahwen 
baras ek bhari meU jo ki " Kumhh " kahl&tfi hai, parffi hai, 
chuninchi ims&I is tarah ki meU hiiA, Tih meW Miroh 22wfn 
w April 12wfn tak hiifi, bahut &dmt is men sharik the. Shnrd 
hi men haiza hiifi, anr 1 ashkh&ss mar gae, jis ki khabar akh- 
biron men dl gai, anr bahnt zilaon men log mana kiye gae 
fci Hardwir ko na jien. Bimirijald dnr hiif, lekin is w&ste 
ki khabar phail gal, log kisi qadr mk gae, 

Biqim bhi gay&, aur 8win April ko Wah&n pahunchi. Kir- 
dw&r yane Hari (y& Vishnu) k& Dwir wnh jagah hai, ki jis 
■e Gangiji pah&ron so nikaM, aur samundar ki taraf bahtl 
Lai. Jaisft n&zin'n i KaukcA i Smd ko maldm hai, is kf b&- 
bat bahat se qisse bain, lekin nn ke bay&n knrne se ky& fsida 
hog&? Oang^jiek bahnt masbbftr faido-baUish dary&hai, anr 

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f 22 ) 

Hardw&rekbahatcliliot&gdnw Gang&lcQ kin&reaar "Oan- 
gea Canal" (y& nalir) ke sire par hai. Ua mea kuchli knchli 
diik&nen aar 5 jd 6 mandtr hain, lekia rabnQ\T[tle thore ab^^od 
1000 se kam bain. £k Iambi gall bai, jo k[ ghit ko gal 
hiii, lekin yib gall aial tang faai, ki mele ke diuoD men bare 
kbaire k( jagab b^, aur kucbb ahakk nabia bai, ki gozre 
zam&noD men yaLdn hazdrbd ddmf bblr men dab gae honge. 

Yib jagab beabakk kbnah-numi bai. Donon toraf pahir bain, 
jtn ki ilnchdl qarlb 1000 fat hai, aar in pabdron ke bich men 
daiyi babti bai^ aur is ke kai ek dbdrft bain, jin men aor jin 
ke kindron par babat se gol aur khdbsdrat pattbar bain, jaisi 
■amandar ke kindre par pie jate bain. Babat se bandb bhf 
bain, tdki pdnl nabr men cbale, yd jab babut pdui as men 4 
gay£, in ke kbolno ee pdol kam bo jdwe. Ek kos Hardw&r &e 
dakhan ki taraf do gdnw bain, Kbankal, nnr JawnUpiir ; yih 
babat purine bain, aar an men bare bare Brahman log rabte 
bain, jo ki Hurdwir men pfiji wgh karate bain. Yih log be- 
abakk babat amir bo gae hnin, kjdnki roz roz ail bbar j&tii log 
wah&n iyi karte bain, anr knobh na kucbb in Bralimanon ko 
diyi karte bain. Sonne men iyi, ki ab ae koi aur bbirl melA 
Hardwir men nabin hoga, aur ki Qangiji kl pawitrtki jiU 
rahegi. (Rel aar pal ke wajh ae) lekin yih Bi aliman log kabte 
ki yih bilkoll jhiitbl bit bai, kbair dekbi jiegi. 

Hardwii' ke bfcb men ek ghat bai jo Harl ki pair! kab14U 
bai, aar yahin sab log anin karte, aar ia jozlre par sab jitrl 
log anr saudigar tikto hain. Donon taraf pini h&i, is wiata 
ainmkin hai, ki log tanduruatl ko aath wahdn raben. Anr is 
jazire men bhl bizir anr dukdnen mnnjiid bain, goyd kick 
ehhoti shahr bai. 

Imsil qarlb 8 likh idmi mele men hizir the. Fiohhia 
Knmbb men yane San 1867 law! men 15 likh the, so yih ek 
cbbotimeldtbi, baniabatnake. Tan bb( babat log wabfca 
jamu the. Ear sdbe ke log, Bambal, Sindb, BajpuWnn, Paa- 

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(33 ) 

jib, Garhtvdl, KnmidD, Mashriqi o Magh.nhi, Awadh, o Ban- 
gui 86 ike wah£n jama the. 

Bahut log Hllrw&r se teuton par ie the, babut rel par, anr 
bnfaat pnidtil. Khdssknr tam&ni mnlk ke faqtr log wab&n mao- 
jiid tiie, yane Udkai, Bairdgf, SaDjAsJ, Akali, Jogi, anr babafc 
cbhote obbote iirqe. Ek gnrob jab mele ko j&te the, Rarkt 
men tbaLre, aur Snrk&rl goddin se ek babnt bara " boll " 
(gbanta) mol lijii, jU k& wazao 9 man se ziy&da, nar qf mat 
Bs. 600 tht, we is ko mele ko le gae, ftnr apne b&gh men rakb- 
kar khiib baj&y&, aar barii tamisha ki^-d. Un k& irftda Uia, 
ki mole ke bad as ko apne sang Fanjdb ke kisi sbabr men 
le j&wen. Rabo, kyi 30 baras gazre log aisi ^alajati cbfz mol 
let«tbe? Ek aar gnroh neek dosta bdja bnjdnowiloa k& 
maqarrar kij i, anr yib log waldyati bdje din o r&t bnjdte tbe. 
Yib bbi ek naf bat tbf. 

8arkdr ki mibrbanl se intizdm nib&yat ncbcbbi tha, anr qdbil 
ukr kame ke. Yane ISark&r se qarib Hb. 30,00.0 kbarch bde, pnl 
baD&ne aor aur taiy&rl men ; is w^te logon se mabsiil lij& 
gnjk, 1 dna fl admi. Babnton neinkdrkiya, anr tai^ub nohiu 
ki bahuton se wasAl na biid, lekin akaar aabbon no diyd. 

Bahirnnptir ke Kalnktar sihib ke ikbtiyjlr men yib meli 
snpnrd kiyd gayd, kynnki Hardw&r na ke zUa men bai, lekin 
sinde in ke anr afear Ildbebad o Barkl o Debra Dun, o BiJ- 
nanr se wab&n bbi bdzir tbe. FoHs ke tog babat Uie, aur do 
Kampani risale kl manjiid tbf. Do tin Ddktar s&bib bbi wa- 
bdn Uie, anr ek do sbafd-kbdne, yvk&a tak ki sab bdtoa mea 
baodobast acbohbd tb4. 

« • « • « « 

Ek do Toz mele ke kbatm bone ke pesbFar haizd pbir biifi, anr 
ek din bis Idsben ek jagab tnilin, aur nsf din 45 marls sbafd' 
kbdne men maujAd tbe. Aisi bhiron men yib gbair-mnmkia 
bai, ki bimdri na bowe, nnr afsos ki bdt bai, ki saikron kos 
tak pbail jdtl hat. Jab ham laatte tbe, bam ne suak, ki hoizA 


( 2< ) 

BijoAar o Mar^ibfid men Mi, aar 6.j tak kji janen kitiM 
becbAre log idhar udbar mar gae hongs I Qarfb 30 &dmi bhlr 
men inele ke kh&sa din men dab gae, aar cband fiaqtr log ek 
pul se Qangijl men kudke diib gae i is tarah mele ae baboi 
tmqsan biia. 

The objects of this Jonrnal, and of the SocioFt with 
which it is connected, are explained b; the series of Beso- 
lution pnsaeda at the Meeting organising the Society, and 
by ihe Statement of Reasons, both of which Were published 
in the first number of this Jonmal. 

We ask nil who are interested in tha morement to giro 
OS their support. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are reqnestea to send their names, with the subscriptions for 
the year, Rs. 6, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman-Urda 
SoeiHi/, Lahore, Members wilt rooeire a copy of the 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolntioni 
pnssed at the Meeting oo the S5th May, and invito subscrip- 
tions to the " TntQslite ration Fund." 

There are mnay sympathisers with the movement who 
hare not yet sent in their names and subsoriptions. W« 
trust that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
OS by canvassing for fresh members, and by circqUting our 
Jonmal among both Soropeans and Natives in the Btatimu 
vhero they reside. 

Oontribntions on any of the various subjects oonneoted 
with traoaliteration, translation and education generally, aro 
earnestly solicited from Membara of the Society , 


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romaNtURdu journal. 

To adeoeaU the tue o/tTie Roman Alphabet in Oneittal 
. Languages. 


IE a It tf r c : 





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No* 13 June ^^79' 

MAY 3l3T, 1879. 

1. A pnpor by Mr. R. 0. Temple on tba subject of 
trausUteratioo wua laid before the meetJDg. 

2. Ilis Honot'a remarks oa the anbjeci of Boioanizod 
Urila were read. 

3. A letter from Mr. Rend, CoDsiil-Genervl for HeUier* 
lands India at Sing&pnr, was also read. 

4. The draft of a letter to Goremment, on the snbjecfc 
of the Society's work, was laid before the meeting. It will 
be the sabjeot of farther coDsideratiop. 

5. A resolation was carried to propo$e trawUteration 
as an " optional" subject in the Middle School Examiiution 

It will be seen from the abore roporl of oar Proceedings 
that a resolution was carried at onr meeting of t^'^ ^'^t Mny 
to propose an " optional " examination in Transliteration. 

Before we proceed farther wlib this proposal, vQ wonld 
makealastappeal to tbo Senate of the Punjab Unirersitj 
and to Oovemmeat itself to rdconslder the voU of the Eduoi- 
tional Committee as to the rules at present in force. 

We fail to anderstan<l the reasons which (re urged against 
tiifl marks hitherto sanctioned, and we Qonsidcr it a grieranca 


( 2 ) 

tbat the C!otninitt«e have given bo poor and meoero a atate- 
cifiDt of the motireB by which they were influenced. If tho 
Committee bad gireo those interested, warning of the pro- 
posed change, and hod permitted full and pablio discnssion 
of its bearings before tlieir vote was given wo should hars 
had less canae of disaatisfuotion. As it is we complain that 
a matter which is (from oar point of view) of the highest 
importance has been adjodicated afratiist as in an c^hand 
way by a Oommittee whose chief attention was directed to 
ether sabjects, and who by their own confession evaded th« 
main issae involved. They say " Bat whatever may be held 
upon the general qoestion, it was agreed thattho mere aoqni- 
sition of the power of transliteration was, to an Anglo-Ver- 
nacnlar Student espemally, (hr too easy to allow the subject 
to asanme any prominence in marls for on examination. 
And it was finally resolved to exclnde it altogether." As to 
the sabject assuming " any prominence in luarks" we mar 
r^ly that onr little allotment of 15 can scarcely be said to 
confer " prominence." It is bare recognition, nothing morv. 
To ns the muntwianoe of traosliteration in the Uiddls 
School scheme is not a matter of potty detail or of depart- 
mental convenience. It is a matter on which depend th« 
fature of Oriental Literature and tlie permanenod of Indian 
progress. Sither tlie Boman character (as applied to Uida) 
is better than the Persian character or it is not. Even oar 
opponents flaimot deny the importance of this issne. To 
determiDe it ( so far as naUves of India are concerned ) we 
must teach our Indian fellow sabjocts the rules of transUleia- 
ti<M». How else eon they form any judgment as to the point 
in disputes ? 

During the past three years the inflaenoe of the Exami- 
nation in bringing about this result, (so far as our own Pro- 
vince is concerned) haa been appreciable and sure. Obviooaly 
there hare been obstacles to the full developmeot of thai 

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( 3 ) • 

infloenoe. Ilie EsaminaUon itself bus not been so tboroagb 
as it might have been. The books commonly read by boys in 
the Qovernment Schools and by men of ordinary occnpntjona 
have not been transliterated. Tbe vatae of Roman-Urdd 
in our GoTernment Conrl^ and OfHcoa bos not yet Iwon 
recognised, Xotwithsfanding these drawbacks, it will ba 
fonnd by those who will take the troable to make eaqairiea 
OB the sabject that the percentage of oative lads who can 
lead and write Boman-Urdd now is wry much larger than 
it was in 1876. The inflnence of the examination on the 
book market has been equally noteworthy. In the tenth 
report of the Religions Book Society (1877), page 31, we 
find the following remark in confirmation of this statement. 
" The plan of pabliahing small Roman-Urdd editions of 
these" (books of the A. L. O. E. series) "was also most oppor^ 
tone. For, the Government of the Pynjab having ordered 
that Boman-Urdii should be taught in all Government Mid- 
dle Schools, these Romaa-TJrdii books find a ready sale to 
the boys and teachers in the^w Middle Schools." Again at 
page 39 another writer eays, " The Roman-Urdd books 
are in great demand in Government Middle Schools." The 
Religions Book Society's Report for 1873' does not refer 
epecially to the influence of the Middle School examination, 
but its staUsttcs prove clearly tliat the sale of Rtfman-Urdii 
books is still «n the increase. According to the report for 
1877, the Society daring that year issued 1721 ** books " and 
2427 " tract* " in Roman-Urdd. In 1878, the bsaes recorded 
are 1773 " books " ( not specially classified ), and 9161 
" books" of die A. L. O. E. series. 'As the report for 1877 
did not show the A. L. 0. E. series separately and as that 
for 1878 omits all mention ot " tracts " in Boman-Urdd, we 
are periiaps jnsUfied in asshming that works of the same 
clof 8 are r^erred to, and that the sale of these smaller publi- 
cations rose from 242) in 1877 to 9161 in 1878. Anyhow, 
tiw Aggregate sale of RomaQ-Urdd publicatiooa in 1878, 

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( * ) 

fihedier w6 call tliem TJooks ot tracts la a Tory large one — 
apparently far larger than the Dumber stdd in any preTiona 

Now, of coarse, ilia open to onr adversaries to say that 
tiiey wish to etop tltis grorrtb of the Boiaan-Urdd moTemeDt. 
If so, they are perfectly consistent in their efforts to strike 
out the tmoslitenttion marks. We are not addressing onr 
present' argument to those opponents who take this stand. 
We are appealing to thoscj who regard the Bomon-Unlii 
movement as on "iatore^ag exporiment," who are willing 
to gire it fair play, and who appear to have dedded the ques- 
tion of the marks against ns on secondary considerations, on 
(Jonsidorations which ai-e petty «ad narrow in comparison with 
the main isstie involved. . 

Some of our readers will emile at tfaetenadly with 
which we argue the point. They may say that those who 
have ftused the question hare made up their minds to strike 
out the transliteration marka and out they will go— -orgament 
or no argument. It may be so. In that case having submit- 
ted our own o^inioQ for what it is worthy wo have nothing 
more to Bay. 

Butif ouropponents Btill have ears to bear, we would 
appeal to them to got in the spirit of EogUsb Statesmen— to 
accept some oompromi$e which will meet their own views in 
paH, witboat any attempt or appearance of an attempt- to 
to overwhelm those who think differently. If, for instoncei 
instead of striking oat the transliteration marks altogether the 
Senate will reduce the number by 5, odd the mark so reduoed 
to tliose previonaly allotted to Persian Cali^raphy, and leave 
tis 10 to represent the Roman character— if the Senate will 
do this, our opponents will still have the satisfaction of 
trinmpfa, while we shall not entirely be deprived of the facili- 
ties which we require in order that we may submit the merita 
Ot demerits of the tlomon aliihabet to native public opinioiv 

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( 5 ) 
We publish Mr. TempWa f»aper od transllteratJon in 
ibis nnmbor of ont Joomnl. Pressore of otbar work pre- 
vents OS from reviewing it ia detail now, bat we hupe to do 
so in onr neit. 

We also pnbliab an intereating contribntion by a mem- 
ber of onr Society on the subject of Kormal Schoob. If 
other members shoald take a different view from the writer, 
we sball be bap^y to open oar colamQB--oii tbia as on all 
£dacatioiial t<^ica — to free diflcnssion on erery side. 

We commend, to onr readers the follofring remarks by 
the late Professor Blochnmnn, on the difBcmiUes tiirown in th« 
way of the Historical Stndeci by causes arising from, or 
Connected with, defects of the Persiim character. 

" Hm first and greatest difficulty connected with Ihd 
Andy of the sources lies is the cornipt state of historical mann- 
script. The copyists of Indian manuscript as a rule, scarcely 
nnderatand, or care to anderstaad, the t»^ts they copy, a 
fact which has made Indian mannscrfpt n byword with Oriental 
sch<Jars. Withoat possessing three or foar good manuscripts 
of a work, it is impossible to prepare a tranalatitffl. Eren onr 
printed texts are little better thafl saperior manuscript and 
those who undertake to translate the histories ( we speak 
from experience) cannot dispense with manuscript in addition 
to the printed or lithographed works. 

Ibe next difficulty lies in the deficiency of onr know- 
ledge of Indinn Qeegraphy. Tlien exut no wrrks of refer- 
enc€. Ihe beantifol maps of the Topographical Barrey ara 
issued without indexes of names, and tbe existing Gazettetrif 
and perhaps those in course of preparation, do not gire the 
native spelling of places, and are, besides ao meagre and 
unaDtbeatioated as to be useless. Moreoyer, old towns hare 
become uaimportoQt villages, or hayo tinged names, or 

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( ff- ) 

luiTe left their original site, or have altogether vanished from 
the surface of India ; others again have two namea, one 
IKkDctioned by centaries, the other given by the Mnalim ruler* 
The character also of the maonsoript aboanding in small 
diacritical marks, the lenat shilling of which altera the pro- 
DanciadoD of a word, only inereasea the difficulties, and makes 
it a daty to jndge charitably the labors of editors, and per- 
haps — the " snperintendents " of their editions. 

It may be nsefid to give an ezamplo of the geographical 
cottfasion of Indian manosoript and printed historical texts. 
Without going to another periud of Indian History, let oa 
take, as an example, the geographical names which ooeor in 
the printed and written records of the events of the three 
months' intwregnom between the death of Jah&nglr and the 
accession of ShihjabiD. The place near Bajor wfaero 
JahJwgir died, is called — 

Chakkarbatti, in the Taznk, 

Jangazhatti, in the Iqbfiln&mah, 


ChatkarhatU in the M&sir-nl-Umari (mannscript), 
and is left ont in the F&dishahn&mah and KbiR Khin. 

^nie place in the Dakhin between the T£ptt and Karbadda 
where the ooorier Banirasl found ShUijabdu is called,— 

Khtubar, in the Tuznk, 

Jantr, in the Iqbilnimah, 

Khair, in the Pidisbahn&mah, 
Eb&fl Ehfui leaves ont the name and merely calls it "% 

Again, the iovfn on the right bank of the Karbadda, 
Vrhich Sh&hjah&D reached after crossing it, is called — 
Sanb&r, in the Tnznk, 
Sanilr, in the Iqb&lnioiah and KhiSl Khia 
3enur, in the Fodisbahnimah, 

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( 7 > 

wliitflt the opponte place on the lefl bank of the 5arbaddn U 

Bibi Piy&rah in the Pidtsh&hDamah and Iqb&Infr- 
mah. Bdbd Fiy iri in Eh&fi Kh&n : sod the Tnznk, whose 
editor could not read the word in hia monnscript makes a 

clever conjecfnre, and pats in his text biydihydri 

Shibjahin reached the opposite bank hy iwimming I 

Ijastlf , on the 4tb JnoiJida, I, Shihjali&n reached the 
territor7 of Itana Earan of Gogundah ( F&diehihn&nmh ) for 
which all other printed and inanascript texts read Gvleondah I 
We BBBore the readers that the examples, which we have 
siren do not present an extraordinary amount of confusion ; 
for, in all caaes we know the probable sitoation of the places 
Inferred to, and in ux oases out of ten, the sheets of the 
Topographical Surrey will tuggeit the correct spelling, 
thongh their mode of spelling names is by no means satisfac- 
tory or uniform. But when the position of a place is not 
even appronmately known, which is more frequently Uie 
case, we may indeed say hie htgret aqua. Conjoctnres are 
then of no avail, unless one should be inclined to imitate the 
example of a gentleman at home, who, on reading of an event 
which happened at Sahfiranpnr, remarked that he never, dur- 
ing hiaatsy of fiveyearsin India, heard of BQcha place, and 
that it was a palpable mistake for Serampore, a well-known 
town in the ndghbourhood of Calcutta I 

We see from as advertisement by Messrs. Kewman and 
Go. that tbey have in the press a Bomanized edition of the 
selections prescribed for the Lower Standard Examination. 

We ought long ago to have called our readers' atten- 
tion to the Uakhzan i Maaihi, a monthly periodical io 
jSomon-Urdii, pttbUshed at Allabibikl, Ihe following advei- 

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tiaement, (which w« tak« from the Cieil and MUitar^ 
QattlU shows the cluracter of the ma^!iziiie, 

Makhsan i Maaihi, or the Chrutian Treamtry, an illiutrated 
FamUt/ Magazine in Roman- UrdH. 
Somewhat on Uie model of the Leiiure Sour and Sunday 
at JTame, this Magazine was started io 1868, and has already. 
famished a considerable part of the most useful and attractive 
Cbriatiaa Literatnre which is accessible to Urdd readers, 
The Tolames already issued are a treasuro house of instrDO- 
tivematter.setforthindearandidloinaticniiidlistiDl. They 
contain many articles of sterling worUi on Theological, Doro- 
Uonal, Espository, Historical, Scientific, and other subjects, 
many originnl and vell-selooted Stories, and a number of 
valuable works published serially. It is issued in monthly 
numbers of 40 pages each, and the subscription price is 
Ba. S-&4 per annum, postage indnded. It can be confidently 
recommended to the KaUve Christian community, to alt those 
who ore interested in the circulation of a pure literature in 
tins land, and to those who in their study of the VemaoalaT 
•re in search of reading matter that is neither impure not 

We take the liberty to reprint a story from one of the 
back numbers of the Hakhzan i Matihi, In tlie EomanrUrdd 
port of oar Journal. 

We would again invite the attention of members io the 
fact that their BUlacriptions are due for 1879, and would as^ 
those who have not yet done so to sepd in their subacription 
without delay. 

Iho neil Heeling of the Soeielj will be held on tha 
iMl Snlurdny in Beptembop. 

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With reference to the remarks on the transliteration of 
certain letters ia the Jonnuits of Febraary and March last, I 
would ask fonr pennisaioa to make the following retnarka. 

It seems to me that a daal system of tntnsliteraUon ia 
snaToidoble, viz., one for ordioar/ practice and for books 
ia irhich philological ooasidemtioa are a matter of no impor- 
tance, and one for scientific and educational works ia which 
philological distiaotions are a matter of first importance- 
Having bo divided my sabject, I propose first to deal with the 
Hmpler and more practicable system, though I hope to show 
that to be soand it should be dependent on, and spring from 
the more complicated and scientific system. For, na a mat" 
ter of fact, it matters little what system Is adopted in daily 
iaterconrso so long as it is easy and generally recognised, and 
its sonndness will be dependent not on the praoticul men who 
Qse it, but on the scientifia men who frame it. And this is a 
point X woalJ ask those who undertake the constrnction of a 
transliteration alphabet always to bear in mind ; on the framers 
must lie the responsibility of soandness of principio — the 
users will employ any system, sound or auaound, that they 
sre taaght, or, that is in common pracUce. 

Bcrvertlng then to a simple practical system, — at any 
rate as a nseful expedient nnUl some bettor mqthod shall have 
been denaed, — it seems to me that many of the dlfHcnlties wo 
Englishmen at present find in transliterating foreign sounds 
can be orereome by the simple expedient of using italic letters 
freely. I do not know that there is any objection to be urged 
agajnst their use except that the presence of a quantity of 
itslio letters on a printed page has a tendency to disfigure it. 
As an easy expedient for mannsmpt I know of non better, 
■or the dashing under of words and letters in minascript to 
be italicised in print is a widely ostabU^ed custom and one 

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that leada to very Few mistakes, gires bat litUe troable to Hie 
writer and has the advantage of being clear, llie use of 
italics bos also the advaotage ; — nil presses possess them, and 
their use is understood by printers of all descriptions.* Aj^tn 
most langoages hare not more than two sets of analogous 
sonnds, i «., there are not nsnally more than two seta of t's 
d'fl, fee, in onj giTon language, so tiiat if one set, vit., thak 
most nearly allied to the English oorresponding sonnds, be 
represented by the ordinary roman type and tlie other by 
italics, it seems to me that a main difBoulty is tided orer. At 
nil events for all parposae other than scientific, the nse of 
roman type for soand, corresponding to those in English, and 
of italics for analogous sounds not foand in English woald be 
enfficient, and would have the additional advantage of being 
clear and practicable anywhere, no specially cnt type being 
necessary in the presses at which the transliterations might 
be printed. For ordinary practice, therefore,! would saggeat 
the nse of roman type for sounds identical with the corres. 
ponding English ones, and of italics, or what is the same 
thing, of under-dashed letters in mannscrlpts for all analogous 
Bounds without refereuco to their number. Then, I would 
represent j by a roman z, and i, (j*, ', by an italic z ; sinoa 
tiie main object sought for is not to show the exact spelling 
of the original, bat to show that where an italic t ocoors in 
a word the sound or letter in the original is analogoot to the 
English z but does not exactly oorrespond to it ; or shortly, 
the object soaght for ia to put the reader on bis guard not 
exoot scientific representation. I do not, howerer, wish it to 
be supposed that I wonid therefore prevent the nse of special 
devices for 8pd(»al letters or sound, as of q to represent J. 

Bat it may be urged, if the above system be adopted, 
bow is the diHionlfy of three seta of analogous sonnds to be 

• In the Doie ot irorda TcqaiTed to be printed In it»1ioB the letten 
which would ordinarilr bo it^iciied wonM be printed in ronun tfpa 
vbich la indeed the ezialiog cmtom. 

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Met in works nob strictly staentific, bat yet in which the 
distinctions of the origioal letters most, to a certain extent, be 
Qbterred ; taking Hiiiddat&ni as an example with its 
4 z\ 3 t'a, 3 s's and so on ? Here the qaestion becomea 
divided as to the reprasentalioD of soaods related to eooh 
otber and of those that are analogons, but not r^ated. Tbos 
is Hiaddstioi I woald consider * and & as related eoands 
and ^ as analogons, bat not related to the other two. To 
meet some of the difEoalty here, I woald employ the leaded or 
■Qtiqae type so saooeasfally used by some anthors, but I 
think care should be taken in the lue of antique letters, for 
reasoDS I will give hereafter. Thus I woald transliterate tha 
letter corresponding to the English letter by the ordinary 
romoD type, its related sound by the corresponding italic and 
the andlogoos letter by the corresponding antique. Thus, * 
by t, tb by t and <l> by t. There are, however, oriental 
languages so intractable as to have foar or even more letters 
representing analogous sounds, and here I think the use of 
dotted letters might be resorted to. And if certain presses 
i for (lie minute difierences now required to be represented 
in roman character would be nanecessaT^ for any bat scientific 
or ipeoial works) kapt dotted letters of the three kinds 
above menUoned ; the romnn, the itelic, and the antique ; it 
seems to me that one great difficulty is fairly met, for six 
kinds of analogous sonnds coald be then represented if neces- 
sary. Thus taking the 4 z's of Hinildstuni, i might =z, <.!> 
-=5, * =>, and i =z, and we should have two dotted 
letters still left. Some printer's device would have to be hit 
upon for representing antique letters in manuscript sach as 
doable dasliing ; but a consaltation with any large press 
should easily settle that point.* 

* Otulerdoahei] Utters woald, or coarse, anairBr Bcientificall; kit tha 

rrpoaaa ol unSerdotted ones, bat my objectioas to aiiderd»shiiig are that 
interferea ia inftDOgcript with tha recogaiied method of priotiog imdei* 
duhed tetten, riz., in italics, *na that it is clamar ia practice. 

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Witb regard to toTrela it aeems to me that the system 
eboTo proposed for the oonsonants conld be ntftde eqaallj 
Applicable to tbem, except that I wonid employ the circnraflo: 
accent to represent long voxels for reasons which will be 
given below^. As regards the transliteration of Binddstinf, 
Ibe main difficulty vonld lie in transliterating f in its rari- 
ons Bonnds. It is perhaps philologioally correct to treat t 
as a coosonant, bnt in Fersiao and Hindiistinl where it 
sTowedly in no way diSers from * in prennn<nation it seem 
to me to be pedantio to so treat iL Woald it not do to 
represent it in ordinary practice by italic vovels P I do not 
think it can be well ignored, considering the important pari 
it plays in the orthography of the Ungnage, and the present 
Bystem of representing it by on apostrophe seems to be a litUa 
danuy, and bowerer correct ba'ad may be for Mj bftd 
aeems to me to be the proonnciation in HindUstAnL 

As regards the nse of the above system in mannsoript^ tb?T8 
«re two kinds of mannscript writing : the carefnlly written 
manuscript where every t is crossed and eveiy i dotted, and the 
zapidly written manuscript meant by fho writer who is 
Iboroughly acquainted with the language employed either for 
his own use or for that of persons similarly placed. This last 
we may almost leave out of conBiderationj as any received 
form of spelling would anit the purpose of the writer and reader, 
nnd the absence of dots and italics or other diaoritical marka 
would mislead neither any more than would the absence of 
dots to the i's cross to the t's or the running of one letter or 
Word into another. And as regards the other kind of manuscript 
the underdashing of the letters requiring it would gire no 
more trouble than woaM the general careful writing of tho 
mannscript. Indeed la mannscript for sciantific journals ot 
presses written from a distance all foreign or unknown words 
are usually printt^ by hand in capitals, so as ^ BToid all 
chance of misprint. 

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Before proceeding fiirther or to discnsa tba qaeatioQ of 
Ibe rapresentaUons Qf the aapirnted coosonniits, I would agaJn 
urge • point X bave before raiaed in this Joamal, viz., tbnt a 
general view of the questions be tokou before a eystem of 
transliteration for anj one language be Soally adopted. The 
fhunert of a system of transliteration for any one Indian 
liingnage sboold always beat in mind that many other im- 
portant Ungnsges exbt in India, — all of which reqnire trans* 
IKeration for the very same reason for which they labour at 
tbeir particniar langoage. And the more I read the Jonmal 
of thb Souety the more I see there is a danger of its setting 
ap a special system applicable only to the langanges it deals 
with, withoat reference to those beyond its immediate scopoj 
and that this is to be regretted, I hope now to show. 

Custom in the representation of foreign sonnds in 
English has considerable sway, t. e., certain sonnds and 
letters assume in time as it were a vested right to be repra- 
sented to a certain way, and in men's mind a certain combi- 
nation of letters, rightly or wrongly presomo a certain 
Boaad in oriental words. Cases in point are — the tmnsU- 
teration of tlie oriental dental by t nnd d of the 
eerebnil by a dotted or otherwise diacritically marked 
t and d, wbereas as a matter of fact the BngUsh 
t and d represent more nearly the oriental cerebrals than 
the dentals. This feet has long been recognised and com- 
mented on, bnt so strong has the present custom become 
that I donbt if the converse and more correct practice conld 
ever bo established. The old system of representing # or 
. the long a by aw obtained for many years, and Elphinatons 
wrote the well known name of the Afgbdn tribe which we 
now write KAkar as Cawker. Again it 13 almost nniver- 
Bolly nnderstood now that the he after a consonant in an 
oriental word merely implies the aspiration of the consonant 

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fiioDgb pec^le ttill talk of fftl for J,*j and of fir fop jtf 
and so on, and yet Barraeae and Tamil, two Inngnagea 
largely studied by Earopmns Mid widely naad in onr Coorts 
luiTe the Bound of th in thing and tlie as distinctly and 
oonslantly as does English its^f. Lastly iu the oiRdal 
introductioD of system in the spelling of place names in 
India it has been found necessary to allow the wrong spell- 
ing of oerbun well known names to remain as it was, 
Tbos, such words as Lahore, Cawnpore, Calcutta, Luckno* 
Ac., have so fixed themselves in m'^n's minds that it wonid 
be impolitio on the whole to try and introduoe Lihnr, KU&n- 
p6r, Kalkata, Lakhnan, &o. Now supposing the priaoiples 
of the Bomaa-Urdd Society to be generally adopted and the 
Soman character to become that of our Courts and our Pri- 
mary Schools, what would be the first result; ? Systems of 
transliteration would have to be deriaed for each of the gteat 
languages of India ; — for Hinddatia (Urdu ani Dokhani), 
Persian, Arabic, — Hindi, Beng&li, Ptnjibi, Maratbi, Sindhi. 
Oriya,— Tamil, Telngu, Canareae, Malayalim— BnrmesK. 
Snppoaiog the persona deputed to devise these syatema to act 
each SB if there were no other language or aet of langoages 
in India, what mnat inevitably be the resnlt ? Sonnd^ 
especially vowels, exactly similar in different groups would bq 
wpresented by different romau or diaoritioally marked 
letters, or what is as bad, the same roman or diacritioallr 
marked letter would come to have a vested right to be 
pronounced differently in different languages, with the result 
that it would, aa now, be impoaaible for a person knowing 
bnt one or one group of Indian languages to proootmoe a 
name, or a legal or other technical word belonging to 
another group when written in Roman character. In abort 
a habit of confusion wonld be estahliahed. Would not such 
be a deplorable resnlt? And can it bo avoided unless the 
framers of transliteration systems take a more general view of 
their work thaa tbey seem at present inclined to do ? I 

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flo Dot mean to wy Uiat a ajatem to sqU ezaotlj nil tbe 
faiDgaages of India ia ever likely to be devised, bat at any rate 
ibe error of naiog different symbols to represent the same 
tooods coald be avoided. To those who woald nae the systems 
adopted, — the baboo, the school-boy, the jadge absorbed in his 
daily work,— the partioalar roman letters used to represent car* 
tiun oriental soQuds woald be a matter of no movement. They 
would ose a dotted or italic r or t simply from cottom with- 
oat a tlionght as to why' they were taught to do so. Bat 
to the framers oftlio alphabet the representation of a parti- 
calar Boand by a particularly marked roman letter sbonld 
be a matter of great importance^— « thing to be carefnlly 
iboagfat over and discnssed. 

- To return for a moment to oriental sounds and their 
representation from a general point of view, Tbere are 
in Tamil three r'a, — the liquid r of Eu^ish, Uie roogh 
rolled r heard in the Scotch pronunciation of Bnglish ; 
and the '* burred" r of provincial English. The English, 
Bootch and Provincial English pronundation of the word 
*' bird " would roughly represent respectively the three 
Tamil r's. Now Bishop Caldwell in his comparative Qram- 
niar of tlte Dravidian languages represents the last or " bar- 
red " r by the antique r so well-known and widely read in 
bis book, that in all probability the " barred " Tamil r will 
always be associated in the minds of oriantial philologists 
with the antique r. It would, therefore, I think be a mis- 
take to represent the Aryan cerebral r by r. Now it will 
have been observed that of the three Tamil r's only one is 
common to the Indian Aryan languages, viz., the rough or 
rolled r, so that in a system of transliteration embracing us 
fiu- as possible both the Indian, Aryan and Dravidian groaps 
4 r's woald have to be provided for ? If, as I propose, roman, 
italics and antique letters, with dotted letters of each kind, be 
employedj 6 kinds of r's could be provided, and supposing 
this Domber to be inst^cient, accentofited letters of each 

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kind 8nch as Professor Max Uliller uses coald be also 
employed : so that wo might if necesury, go forth armed with 
9 alphabets, all distinct yet all identical, to do battle with 
the oriental rounds. The difficalty in the case of the Aiyan 
and Dravidian t^s wonld be tfaos eaaily mat, if they wet« 
truditerated aa foUowa : — 

tS^**°* } rolled r, by a roman r. 

Hiiidiist4ni, CereEhilr, by an italic r. 

Tamil Liquid, r, by a dotted ronian r. 

Tamil " barred " r, by an antiqie r. 

And as regards nse those writing in Tamil and those in' 
Hinddstini woald respecdrely employ the ahove r"* or their 
eqairalent in mannscript Without a thought as to the reason, 
bat woald nerertheless be oaing a clear and not a confused 
system, which they would assuredly be doing if each set 
of transliterators worked independen%. For the result of 
audi independence wonld be aa follows, supposing the roman, 
italic and antique system of representation to be in vogne : — 

HindustAnf, rolled r, 1 ' u_ . „„.„ „ 

Tamil. Liqaid, r / ^J' » «"°" '* 

HiiidustAni Cerebral r, » , , ., ,. _ 

Tamil rolled r. 7 by an italic r. 

Tamil " burred " r, by an antique r. 

So that we should have the same English letter repra-. 
sentiug quite different sounds in different languages, and this 
is what is being practically done at the present day. 

Now in order to meet our difficulty fuirly in the fao4 
and to proventa confusion of transliteration systems, I woald 
like to see estoblisUsd a general Transliteration Bocuety deal- 
ing with the modern Indian languages — Aryan, Non-Aryan, 
Dravidian,— with sab-societios or associatioas working under 
it dealing with special langaagea or groups of langoages. And 
aa the resolt of the deliberatiom aod iatercoauQimicaUoa o£ 

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( " ) 

the experts ctunposiag the general and sob-societiesj t w-oatcl 
like to see established a general BonwD Transliteratioa 
alphabet comprising in ita wide grasp all the written modern 
Indian langaages osed in Conrts and Schools, and under it 
Bomnn-Urdii, I{omnn> Hindi, nomaa*Tamil, lIomftQ-Bamics<>, 
and so on ; all independent but Interdependent and all iude- 
pendent of, bat yet dependent on the parent alphabet. Be- 
cause I think that thus identical sounds in the diffi-'rent 
langnages would be identically represented, the confusion of 
systems which mast otlierwise inevitably ensno bs avoided, 
and sound principles of the representation of oriental sounds 
established. And it mast be borne in mind that the arguments 
which go to prove the necessity of a Boman-Urdt!t alphabet' 
fell equally in favour of a Boman-Burmese or a Boman- 

Bat in default of tins I woald propose some such sohemo 
as follows t — Suppose the Secretaries of the Roman-Urdd 
Society to frame a Ronian-Urdd alphabet according to their 
present views : suppose the alphabet to be printed ( litho- 
graphed if necessary) and circakted to the members who 
would be invited to state their views within a given time 
giving full reasons for any disagreement : suppose the 
resuUs to be carefully considered by the Secretaries or by a 
meeting and a reconstructed alphabet to be framed ■ 
snppose this reconstructed alphabet to be circulated among 
Philologists and Scholars of other languages, — and there are 
many in India who would gladly explain their views, — with 
B request to explain how far it would interfere with tlio 
repieaentation of their languages, presuming it to bo finally 
adopted : snppose finally, on the receipt of their replies the 
reconstructed alphabet to bo ngain reframed with the view 
of avoiding confusion as far as possible, would not in all 
probability their reframed alphabet be more sound and so be 
more likely to latl than any that might be devised by per- 

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( 18 ) 

s6nB having regard only to Uie langnngo or groops immedi' 
ately under consideration ? 

Hartog thus explained my view as to the importance of 
taking a general view of the subject while framing a system 
of transliterations I will now revert to some points before 
raised bnt not disoaased. I eaid above I thought the best 
plan for marking long von-els was by a cironmflez accent.* 
Hero are in ooismoa ase three ways of making long vowels,— 
the grave accent, the oircsmflex accent, and the long mark 
of prosody. Of these that in most common use is the grave 
aooenL Now it should be remembered that trnnsliterators 
1^11 have to devise an alphabet to reprodace all kinds of 
literature, and that poetical works will have to be provided 
for as well as prose. And the measures of Sanskrit and the 
allied languages depend as much on scanning as did those 
of Greek and Latin, so that the long mark of prosody would 
have in practice to be kept for prosody. Again io all grain- 
matioal works, and in many of a scientific nature, some signs 
would have to be retained to show accentuated syllables, and 
the most widely known sign for this purpose is the grave 
aocent. Thirdly, it will be found in some languages that the 
acute accent would be extremely nsefnl in representing 
certain vowel sounds. So that we are reduced to the 
droumflex accent, which was originally invested to mark 

And if the long prosody mark be kept for prosodial pur- 
poses, the grave accent for accentuation, and the acute for 
marking certain peculiarities, it seems to me that' the best 
way of marking long vowels would be by the circomflex* 

* I agree with Mr. Brown that in ordiiuiy writing tlie long aiilka 
odIv vowel requirini; to be distingulBbed, but it wDnl4 be tsi; naocaair ■ 
to distiiigulth all the kinds lO. long lOffolt in aconnte work. 

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{ 19 ) 

As a matter of practjoa it is as eas^ to write a rapid circnm* 
flex as to write a grave accent.* 

Begarding ihe osa of anUqae letters. Lookinj; at Uie 
■nbject geoerall/ it seems to me, as I have ^wve said, 
that considerable caaUoa shoald be exercised ia their 
employment, so tliat different sonods in different langaages 
shoald not be represented by the same letter. Aotiqne letters 
in print would always be remarkable and catdi the eye. 
And wonld be more likely than others to become idenUfied 
with certain sounds. And it is for this very reason that I 
wonld hesitate, snpposing the system of employing roman^ 
italic and antique letters to be adopted, to advocate the nse 
of antique vowels to represent ^ in its varioQS forms before 
the sabject of the representation of the oriental vocables 
had been well disonsaed. The same remark applies to the 
representation of the aspirated consonants. The " apos- 
trophied " letters seem rather (dumsy, but I would hesitate 
to advocate withoat due discnssioa the addition of h. 
Speaking from a general point of view the Tamil dentals 
and the Burmese s present an almost hopeless difficulty. 
The Tamil transllterators have got out of their diffioolt^ 
by transliterating their dentals by t and d, but these convey 
an erroneous idea of the sonnds, whereas in Burmese tho 
difficulty was fonud to be so great that the aspirated t and d 
have been represented by ht and hd and the aspirated s and 
z by th and dh. And this mode of placing the aspirating b 
has been extended to the other consonants : thus, bp, hb and 
» on. But the expedient is to say, the least of it, awkward. 
The pwnt <^ the pr<^r representation of ^ and ^ has 
been raised in this Journal; ch will not do for the latter as so 
many languages have both ^ and ^ sounds and cb "Wonld 

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( 80 ) 

Conseqnenlly inisleod. But c for tlie sound of j^ and ch 
fur tbat of *^ hnve been very successfully used by Professor 
Cliilders in the Pali Texts and Dictionary. To reoapitulate^ 
I would advocate the adoption of two methods of transliteis 
alion : one for dally practioe and one for special or stnentifia 
books. For the daily practice systom I would limit the 
expedient for reproducing oriental sounds to the me of roman 
nud italic letters Iq type and to running hand -or nndashed 
letters In mnnuscript. For scientific works and those in 
which nccnmcy of repreeentation is rpquired, I would adro* 
oate the use of Qoman, italic and antique letters with dotted 
varieties of each, and if necessary, with aooentuated varieties 
of each, but these last I would not adopt nnless obliged, 
I would advocate the oonstruction of a general Tmnslitera- 
iioD alphabet applicable, as i^r as possible, to all tho modem 
Indian languages used In Coarts and Schools, and would 
deprecate the formal adoption of any scheme suited to a 
particular language that had no reference to the general 
alphabet. Andlytly, I would subordinate the practical to 
the scientific alphabet as far as Its constmctioa is concerned. 

It may be urged as ah argument against the soheine 
of a general transliteration alphabet that the lenjiili of time 
that would be necessary for its elaboration would prohibit 
the attempt It would nndoubtedly take a long time ia 
coostruct such an alphabet, and it may be necessary in the 
meantime to A-ame a provisional one, hat I would point out 
to the Members of the Boman-Urdu Society that, if their 
principles are to succeed, we must inevitably come to one 
evenfaally, and that they must be prepared to give up any 
scheme Uiey may have meanwhile devised. That is, all. 
iiolatod schemes devised now must be looked upon as tem- 
porary. It appears to me that it ia merely a question of 
time, and that the adoption of some snoh scheme as that, 
I have herein advocated, is simply meeting oar difflcnltiea 
bofore they gouid npon us of their own acaard. 


( 21 ) 

Before <!onoIud[ng, I would point oat tlie ndvisabiliiy 
of inaerting m ail translitentted books a sheet showing tho 
method of representiDg the letters of the original knguage 
and the power giren to each voirel and coDaouaat used ia 
the tmnsIiterotioD. 

Finally, I would oonclade with what I have befora 
urged, and have ngain herein attempted to impress upon 
the Uembera of the Roman-UidA Sodety, Uiat the best 
praoUcal system of tmnstitAnttioii and the most likely to bo 
lasting will be fonnd to be that wliioh has the widest scope, 
and is scientifioiilly the soandest, provided it be constructed 
by men hnviog an equal regard to practice and to theory. 

n. 0. TEMPLE. 
lahw, April 1879. 

As it is likely that before the end of the year a Central 
Training College for teaohors will be in operation at Lahore, 
it may be worth while to offer here a few remarks upon th9 
flnbject, espeoially as some wild notions have got afloat 
regarding the nature of the benefits to be expected from 
the introduction of a new system. It is objected that 
tlie old Normal Schools are mere Vemacnlar Schools 
of Ilia ordinary type attended by young men instead 
of boys, and that in consequence they have failed fo 
■npply competent teachers, and it is snpposed that the 
buuness of the new Training College will be to teach men, 
who luLve completed Uieir education already, the theory 
and practioe of the Schoolmaster's Art. Now, snch ideas 
as these are not founded npon experience, and may lead 
to misdirected energy and dliappolotmont. Of conrse it is 
8 great tiling to have at the head of snch an institntion an 
intelligent £nropeaD OiQcer of soitablfl qaalifloations, and 


( 22 ) 

if the ordiAaiy course of promotions and farloaghs allow bim 
to remain at his post for a few years in succession, he naj 
be trusted to achieve a success in one way or another ; fof 
a man with his wits abont him is &\waya guided by oircnm- 
Btanoes, and in experiments of this Iiind it may be safely 
predicted that the ultimate resnlt will difFar widely from 
the original scheme. Bat half the mistakes which are 
made in snob oases may be avoided by proper attention 
to fitcts already within our knowledge, and oa this point a 
word of warning may not be out of place. 

It is a common error to suppose that the stadeots of 
Training Colleges in England are wholly occupied with 
criticism lessons, and lectures or Poedagogios. As a 
matter of fact in these Colleges a general education is given, 
differing only from that of older institutions is being of m 
more modem type, and specially adnpted to the scheme 
of study in Normal Schools. Only a fraction of the 
UmO] perhaps on an average one hoar a day, is spent 
in learning the art of teaching otherwise than by adding to 
the stock of knowledge, and forming habits whidi are 
insOnctively acquired ia the atmosphere of a good school 
Practice of coarse is moat essential in the training of a 
schoolmaster, but the practice-lesson of the model-school 
is a mere critical exercise, and is of itself qnite inanfficient. 
Thns ony one who has a tolerably wide eitperienoe of Schools 
and Oollegea of the old-fashioned sort, and who visits for fiie 
first time a famous Training College in England, will be 
likely to find himself in the position of Molifere'a hero when 
he became aware that he had been, speaking proso all his 
life without knowing it. The Training Cdlege is only a 
good school after all. It is magnificent, hat from the point 
of view of Poedagogios it is somairhat disappointing except 
that tbey do rather mora drawing and less Latin, they seem 

:,.ndty Google 

( !3 ) 

to go on in mnch the same way as we did thirty yeara ago 
at Saint Boniface nnder old Twigshy. Then as to the 
idea of enlisting men who have completed their ednontJon. 
If snch rartB aea are forthcoming, pfobably the best thing 
to do with them will be to complete their education a 
little more, bat it is oertain that all candidates for teacher- 
sliifis will have mnch of their knowledge in a very nnsoantl 
slate, whatever may he the standard of qnnlifications for 
admission. Students who hare passed the Entrance or 
Middle School Examinations are rarely very perfect in Die 
snbjects of the examination which they have passed. They 
have obtained probably not more ttian hnlf of the marks 
allotted to qnestioos which one who professes to be a 
teacher ought to be able to answer in full. It has been 
suggested that the existing Normal Schools in the Punjab 
bave failed from want of attention to the technical side of 
their work, whereas their defects are mainly das to circnm- 
gtancea which might equally influence a Normal School 
conducted on tlie most approved principles. The old 
Normal Schools have probably been invaluable to the canse 
of Qovemment edacation, but at the same time it most be 
admitted that they have tamed out a great many 
inefficient tea<diers. The reason is that the professors have 
often been incompetent, and their pupils dall and idle. 
Whenever it has been possible to get the present system 
properly worked, Uiere has been no ground for dissatis&e* 
tion with the results. la the Vernacular Normal Schools, 
of course, attention is paid to the method of teaching, but 
actually the best teachers in the Department are those who 
have been trained in the Qovemment Colleges without any 
special regard to their profession, but who have learnt their 
method by onconscions imitation of their Professors. 

No sensible person would ander-rate the value of a 
special study of the Schoolmaster's business, bnt tbo 

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( 24 ) 

fanatical advocates of the Kormal School system seem to 
tiiink that before Ihey arose, notlnng naa known atx>at the 
proper maaageineiit of achooli, whereas such snocesa, as they 
can boast of, depends less npoa their own inventions tlian 
npon imitating their forefathers. Yoa may find illostni- 
tions of the same thing in every department of life. 
Catena par^m, a course of lessons in a riding school, will 
improve any body's horsemansbip. Bat it is folly to fancy 
that a man who baa followod the hounds from a child cannot 
ride because he disregards some of tho rnles. To a soldier 
an essay on tacties or a sfaam-6ght may afford some valuable 
anggeations, but they will not instract a civilian ho^v to 
figbt a battle. 

To become an efficient schooImosUr a man mnst acquire 
a certain amount of general knowledge, and thoroughly 
nndorstand what he has to teach. He must be familiar with 
tJie ways of a good school, and be must learn by actual work 
in his profession a great deal that he will nevor learn in 
any other way. If in addition to all this lie has the advan- 
tage of going through a course of Pocdngogics, so much the 
better. But the drill-book of any profession is soon 
Cohans ted. 

0. P. 


Letter from Mr. Read, Consul' General /or Netherlands- India, 
at Satffopur. 

SlKOAnTB, I9th Afbii, 1879. 

In reply io yonr letter of the 23rd ultimo, I can only 
say that I shall be happy to do my best to assist yon, 
though it is very little, £ can do here. I will however, 

:,.ndty Google 

( 25 ) 

write to Java by the first opportnnity and «ndearonr to obtaia 
the informatioQ you require. I am awarethat the Roman 
duracter boa long beeo ased ia Java, and I frequently 
reoeire letters from chiefs and others ia Malay spelled ia 
that way, aod I reply in the same as phonetically as possible, 
bot yon require more particulars than I can giro. Wben 
the reply is reoeired from Bataria I will forward it to yon 

Oould the Romnn-TTrdn Journal be forwarded to the 
Society of Arts and Seience at Bataria, or as they call it the 
** Wetenschappelyke Instellingen." The Members would, I 
am conTioood gladly aSordj'ou every information and assist- 

Alwayi at yonr service, 

I remiun, 
Tonrs iiiitbfully. 
W. H. READ. 

T. W. H.T0LB0aT,B3QR., 

Seeretan/ Roman-Vrdu SoeUti/, Lahore. 

ZMler/rpm the Secretariea R, U. Society, to tlu Editor 
of " Civil and Military Gazette" 
Yonr iasne of the 26Ui ultimo, cont^os an article on 
f FopnUr Education in the Panjab," in which the writer 
criticiaea, and. to some extent challenges, tbo opinions 
expressed by Mr. Pearson in the recently published Ednca- 
tional Beport. 

Th« writer quoting a sentence from Mr. Pearson's 
remarks to the eETeot " that in India the idea of popular 
ednoation is out of place," says : — " If the conclusion ia 
really a well-founded one it indicates a condition of back- 
vardaess, and an abaencQ of intellectual Titality and pro- 

:,.ndty Google 

( 26 ) 

gresa among (lie people at large of tbU coaatry tliat is 
coDtrary to all that ooe Las been acoaatomed to belieTfl in, 
Ac, Ac." 

At the same time, the writer appears to agree with Mr. 
Pearson to a certain extent, for in another part of the article 
ha writes : — " It is, however, when we come to the qaestioii 
of how the cost of this popalar edaoation ia defrayed, ihat a 
doabt arises whether there ia really so great a desire for 
iostroctioQ amougst the bulk of the populatioa as the 
Director'a report would make uA believe." 

He then adds some remarks (in advocacy of school fees) 
with which many of as concur. 

We do Dot intend to discnsa the anbjact at length, bat 
ire submit that the substance of Mr. Pearaou's complaint 
*' that in nearly nil caaes the boys who attend Government 
Schools have in view some idea of getting a living by their 
edneation" is admitted and lamented fay moat men who have 
inmed their attention to the subject. 

Criticism is easier than reform, and we do not pieteod 
tiiat the changes which the Roman-Urdu Society advocates 
■would immodiitely raise " popular education" in India to 
the level of " popnUr education" in Europe or America ; 
more than this, we readily admit that the hasty sabstitntioo 
of the Roman for the Feraiau character in our Courts of I*w 
teithout the prior development of a Romanized literature, and 
viithout regard to tlie interests of oriental echolarekip would 
aggravaie the evil of which wo all complain. 

But it is onr duty, as Secretaries of Uie " Boman-TJrd4 
Society, to lay stress on a view of the matter whidl has not 
been touched npon in your article of the 26th. 

We maintain, /m(, that " Beading" with a view to tii» 
reception of ideaa, and " Reference" with « view fa th« 


( 2' ) 

preservation of tho8« ideaa lie at the very basia of all trae 
«daoRtioD. Yarions kinds of cnlturo may ba added to this 
basis, bat fadlitiea of " B«adiag " and " Reference " are 
matters of paramoant importaooe which have first to be 

We nuiotain, aecondly, that "Heading" and "Bo- 
ferenoe" ia the lithographed Ferrian character are to " Bead- 
iog" and " Reference " in the printed Roman as "hopping 
on one leg "is to " walking on two." We maintain that this 
comparison U ja8t,not merely where Earopebns are concerned^ 
bat also for the great mass of the popalatioa to whom onr 
Indian OoTemments wish to extend their system of " popular 

Now " hopping on one leg " may be valoable as an 
exercise, or it may be practised as aa amosement. It ia 
possible (if we are driven to it) to accomplish a good deal 
of locomotion in this way, and those unfortunates who only 
have one leg most necessarily do the best they can with 
that one. Still, aa a general rule, we may say withoat fear 
of contradicUon, that people who can avoid it do not oare to 
"hop on one leg." Fay them to do it and yon will get can- 
didates by the hundred — not otherwise. 

We may be wrong in onr estimate of the relative value 
of the Persian and Roman chnmcters. But supponng toe are 
right, can it be dented that this is a consideration which is 
all important to the fatnre of '* popular edacation" in 

All that we ask is to bring the matter to the test. To 
do this, two things are requisite. — (I), The Roman character 
moat be taught in the Government Schools, — taaght thorongbly 
and exteoaively, though teith mety care to prevent the 
frematttre dUuae of P«rnan. (2). Books must be published 

:,.ndty Google 

( 28 ) 

]Q Um prioted Bomao dianctdr, id Boffidmkt ntmiber imcl of 
a nriUble dinncter, to attnct ntdets (^ eT»rj clasa. 

Th«ii let tho iMtiras of India — havittff feoraf both — deddo 
for thenaelrea vhethsr our estimate of the Peisian and Bofnui 
duracter is correct or noL 

'Will pnUic <^>iiu(Mi support i^ and mil GorerBmant 
^ n^ in maldDg the ezpenmeat ? 

Z,etter r^rinledfrom the " CivU and HUitaiy GautU " 
efJtau, the 7lh. 


Bi vHis Honor the Liontenant-QoTaraw ia reported 
lo luTe argued against the snbstitotion of the Bomao 
character for the Persian in India from the action of the 
« enunently practical " German nation in retaining their 
own peculiar fmo. Iliree remarEB snggast themaelTes r— 

lit, — ^It is notqmtc the case that they faare done so, for 
nearly all sdeotiSc and all philolo^cal works are printed io 
Boman character, and I know that some <^ the great poblic 
oiBoes in Vienna at all events reqaire all the corresptrndenoe 
to be in that diaracter. 

Snd, — The Qerman duracter is jost as- well off as Qw 
Boman in regard to socb important points as the inaertioD of 
Towelfl, lue of capitals, pnnctnation, Jkc 

Lastly, io regard to Sanskrit the Qermaoa have ranged 
themselves decidedly with as, as witness Weba-*^ series — one 
of which is the first complete text ofthe Big Veda, ^e great 
St. Petersbnrgh Sanskrit Dictionary also nses the Busan, 
not the Qerman character. 

J). H. 

:,.ndty Google 

( 2? ) 
Alim&ni waUjat men aia& woqb Lui thii, ki ins&f aisA 
ih(k wajb Be nalifn hoU th&, juisd ab faot& hai, aar h&zi ais! bastf 
anr sbabr jo dir-ns-saltaoat Be ddr the, jin men log aksar 
Bpni marzi par chalte the, aar r&stf, anr ins4f ki taraf kam 
Ichiy&t karte the. Hikim mnrjarntr htSe the, Ifkin aksar- 
beparir& hote the, aar log bhi na ke hakm ko kam minte 
the. Aar snnne men (ti bai, ki kabhl kabh! ais& hota, ki jab 
koi zabardaat kisl xolm ke eabab pakari }iik thi, to Jaj risUwai 
kbike as ko chbor det& tb^ 

Us samAne men nia& Mk, ki kist shabr men ek D&nhii 
raht& thfi jis ne rott ban&ae men ek bhed h&sil kiy&, jis 
ke waslle se as ne bahat f&ida nth&yii ; klyiinki as kl roti£n 
idsf omda nor scbdiht tbia, ki sbahr ke log anr kigl se na 
kbarldte tha Jis oe as ki roti ki maza (^kbi aar kisi kf 
nabia khate. 

N&Dbii k& k&m ziy^da ho gay&, jahin tak ki as ko 
makht&r bhi rakhnft pari, Lokin as ne apni airk bhed as 
ko na bat&74 ; slrf itoi jitoi darkfir UU, ki woh apQl mnkh- 
t&ri w&jib taor se kare. 

Thore diaon ke b'^ voh ninbii bahat bim&r boke mame 
ke nazdik hii&. Ua ne apae makht&r ko p&s baUy^ ; vrah 
tiyk. Bibi aar larke na ke pabng ke pds khare hile rote the. 
Kinbdi ne mukht&r se kahi, Tii j&nUi hai, ki jo khidmat tfi- 
ne mere w&ste kf, main ne ns ke badle men achcUii tan- 
khwah di ; anr tajh se aiai saldk kiyii, jais^ apne beta se, 
«ar ia ke siwi main ne tnjb ko itn& apne raz se sikhiyd, jis 
M bi acbchhi tarah roti bnn&a&j4at&. Is peshe men tere 
baidbar sbahr men koi nahfn, mngar jis bdlat men, ki ab 
jniu^ wnqt apnA aitk bhed kisl aar par ffish na karan ; agar 
«ihir kanio, albatta teri pesha bigar jiti. Yib bit sankar 
makbt&r oihiyat fikrmand, aiir dilgir hiii. Xliir Nanbit 
hoU, agarchi meri imadaoi acbchhi hiii, tan bbf maia 

:,.ndty Google 

( 80 ) 

daolstmaiid niJi(D h&a. Tnjh ko rnaldin hai, ki main Elmdi 
ke n&m par anr gliartboii ko hamesha diji karU Uii, anr 
ab main marU, anr apnl bibi aur chba larkon ko pichba 
chhorti bdn. Chba Larkou ko p&ln& jnari b(lf ke \iye, 
nihiiyat mtisbkiL hogi. Is wiste mata abbt baodobost lu 
ke liye kiy4 ch&bt& hia, jis 0e itol naqdi h&ail ho, ki wah 
izzat aar harmat ke Bith apao larkon ko pble. Agar tA 
mnjhe pachas ssharflan de, io main tajb ko apni riz bilkoll 
z^ir karun. Lekin agar td is bat se rizi nabia 1mU| to 
tnujhe ek anr abakhs ko bnland paregi, jo kbosbf se qab^ 
karegi ; kiyiinki ns ne mujb se kah& th6, ki Mala pochii 
luharnan &p ke r&z kn w4ste ddogi. Makhtir ne shnkr 
karke kabfi, ki Main khnshi ae pachAs asharfi&n ddngi, anr 
phir kahfi, ki ap apni bIbi anr Urkon ke wista fikr na karo, 
kyunki main nn kf kbabar leiingi, anr &p ki mihrbin! anr 
ibsanmandi kabbi nabln bbfililngi. Kdnb&f ne kabA, Kyi 
khdb! tan bhi asharfl&n mnjhe abh( de, tAki mun apni r^ 
tajh ko baULun kyiinki men j&n nikli oh4hti hat Uakbtir 
ne afsos karke nzr karn& shurd kiyi, ki K.yk karun, mojh 
kambakht ki qismat aisi hoi, ki main, panch asbarflin bhl 
nobfn rakbt4 hno, to pach&s k& kyi zikr. Lekia mun 
iqr£r-nima tikbknr ip ko ddngi ; anr maia iqr4r kardngs, 
ki cbba mahlne gozarne se peslitur muiii kanri kauri adi 
Imrdngfi. Mnjhe yaqfn hai, ki &p ke t&z ke wasila se main 
jald itni paidi kaningi, anr jab tak jih qarz na ad& ho, to 
rdkhf rotl khiungi, 

Nanb^ B&Ia dil tha, aar ns ke qiyia m»n nahb 4lys 
ki yih shakbs mnjh se dagbfi kareg^ so rizi hna, anr 
ek tamassnk taiy£r kiy£ gayfi, jis men wi faqat paohfi 
aaharfUn dene k& iqrit Gti, balki p&nt^ asharfiin anc 
bbt biyaj ke taar chba mablae thahame ko ^iste tf nkh- 
tir oe khad by^ ki sikr tamassnk men kiyi; yabia 
tik wah fiknnand tbi, ki jo rist nor baqq bai> bo U 
bflwi w kardn. Uukhtir gawihoa ks «imhae apnft 

:,.ndty Google 

( 31 ) 
daatkbatt kiyi «iu bevi ke wiate iqr&i'D^una ITiabil ko 

Tbore nno ke bad Kinbit is jahia-i-filni se rnkhsst 
biU, snr morte waqt oa oe wuh iqr&r-nima npol blbf ko 
jQt knfakar dijA, ki Merl ammed hoi, ki tnm ko na &qat 
naqdi milegl balki meri UokhUv hiqiql dost rahega. 
Lakiii iignr Trnh apna qaal anr iqrilr se hategA, jamere 
nazdlk mnh&I hai, Khiid& ter& ins&f karegi. Apni bharos& 
Ehndipar qiim rakhna, aar insao par itii& itiq^ na 
rakbai ; kbndi ae daro> wnh ti^h ko mahfdz rakhegfi. Yib 
kahke waftt p&l. 

Gham ks sabab kucbfa araa gozHi, pbir bew& se ns 
iqriiHiimo ko yiid Viyh, aar larkon ke rozine anr faide 
ki khitir, gham aar n&la ko maaqdf kiy^ aar m4l anr 
asbib ki taraf kfaiyil kame lagi. Jab dary&ft kiyi, to 
mal&m bdfi, ki MakhUr ne duk&a k& jbdtb&hiab rafcb& 
bai, anr s&m&a ki asU qltnat bo bewA ko boliat bi kam 
diyi. yik jankar bewli aDdeshamand bo gui ; jab anr 
bU tiktd kt, fo maliim h&&, ki wab do gawab iqrir- 
Dfcme ke Inchcbe the. Bew& gham-zada aur paresbin- 
kh&tlrhdf. Aar cbha mabine tak sabr kiy&, tab UukhtSr ss 
spDl asbarfi&o mingin. Us ne bab&na karke apni tain 
n&w^if b&Dayi anr kahi ki Main knobh nabta jinti 
bdn, iqr&r nama jhutbi hai aur meri dastkhatt aar 
gawihon ke daatkbatt bhi jhdthe hain, gnvrtih kbad is 
hkt ko qasam kbike aabit karenge. Aisi ahir&rat se 
bewi bair&n aar pareabin thi anr kah&, 'Kji tnjbe yftd 
nabia jis waqt mere khiiwind ke palang ke pda kbari 
tbft, aar iqrir bbl Viy& ? Wab boli, Tii divi&ai bai, ta 
majh ko tbaga& oh&hti ba( ; aar apne naakaron se kahi 
ki is aorat ko dnkJio se oikalo, aar dam&za band koro. 
Bewi ne kab& Achb& tii atai saliik majh se kart& bai> 
'Jaj S&hib tbore arse ba bad yahfa &iveg&, main us ke 

:,.ndty Google 

( 32 ) 

bnzAr men farydd karAngf, anr Ehadi meri itukt karegi* 
HakhUr hansi kytinki wob jftnUl tfai ki kia Jaj keliye. 
■hafar ke h&kim inUzdr the; anr u ko . rizf kar deni 
kncbh mosbkil nahm thjL Bfiql yih ns ki jiiqtn na tlii 
ki Khndi kachh is intizim mea khalal d&legi. Bbarir anr b»- 
insflf zallm ko kyuakar rasb anr ios&f karaew&Ia Khtidi 
kadar bo ? Beiri apae gbar ko gal aar ■ dna m&ngi 
anr roL 

Wub din Ay& joJaj Sihib keiaeke w&ste mnqamr biai. 
Sab log us b{ Jaj ki intiz&r Uie, jo kaf banis se &jk karUl tbi^ 
anr UakbUr bbl yib sainjb& thi, ki wnbi is. Sbabr ke 
pbitak par babat log jama biie the, t&ki Jaj Stiiib ko 
dekhen, aar eab aa pabile MakhUr bhl wabin thi. Us 
k{ gbabrihftt badd aa b&har thf, jab jia& ki wob Jaj 
nahfn, balki aar kof iyi. Va ne apnf gbabr&hat aur bainlQl 
men bblr ke bicb gazarkar bar kisi 86 pDcbb£, ki Ayi td 
kncbb ia Jaj Sahib ke baqq men j&ntb hai ? Ya na ke bAl se 
wAqif bai ? Wub kaisA hai ? Wah kyiin kyi ? Lekia kiai na 
DB ke aawkl ka jawib nahf a diyi. , Haqfqat yih thf, ki 
wnh Jat jo palila A.y& karti ihi, r&ste man blmar bo gftji, 
anr ek aur Jaj, jo rial anr Khnd^ se darti th&, aa ka badte 
men mnqnrrar bii&. 

Mnkht&r Jaj S&hib ke gbnr ko giy& anr naokaron 
Be jo d&Ua man the, pncbhne hgi, ki tamh&re 8&hib 
ki kho aar khaalab kaisi hain ? Jab wob dary&ft kar 
rah£ th& to Jaj Sihib sida kapre pahine hda khud Ungh gse 
koiniahtonathifjiase wubpabchinij&ti. UnkbtAr no kial 
nankar se plichha, ki kyi TTiUi jo linghejitahai, Jaj Sibib 
kimnharrir bai? Jawib dene se peshtar, Jaj &Uub ne kbodt 
na aa piobbi, ki ky& turn moharrir ko dhiiadhto tio ? Jaj 
Sihib ki Snkh men aisi kucbh tezi thl, kl HukhUr ahnbfa 
men pari, ki iy&main ttfoi bhedfasb kariin ki oahio ? Jurat 
h&sil karke bol&, ki H^a, kuchh kirn hai. Jiy Sihib ns 
farmiyi; mero sitb io, main hi Jiy StUub ki moharrir h6n. 

:,.ndty Google 

C 83 ) 

Anr yth \Ai saoh bht thf, kyankf as ne apii« mnliarrir ko 
kachh k&m ke liy6 pichhe chlior diy4, apne skih \&y& 
□allin; aar irnh &p hi maharrir ka k&in kart& thi. Mnkht&r 
diler hoke na ke pfohhe ho liyi. Wuh donoD- ek kamare men 
gae, anr Mokhtdr ne ek dabal-roti mez par rakbf. Jaj Sihib 
ne piichhA, yih kid ke liya hai ? Nazrhai, apne Jaj S&hib 
ke liye. Jaj 8&hib ne sawal kiyi, Tum is ko kydn dele ho ? 
la liye ki main cbdhti hdo, ki wuh aise mihrb&n bon^jaise 
pable Jaj bote the. Jaj ne pdchbi, wnh haiao mihrbin 
the ? MakhUr ne kahi, aise mifarbin the, ki vnb kabhf 
apne dostoa ko taklif men nabfn hone dete the. Kyi 
mujhe yih roU Jaj Sahib ko deai pari ? Mokht&r ne 
kahi, agar kachh andesha na ho, lekin ip ko rnaldm 
ho, ki bhiri roti bar kiai so bazm nahin hot(. Jaj. 
Sabib ne lanuiyi, besbakk, lekin Jaj S&hib bfaari rot! ko 
hazm kar sakte bain. Makht&r ne kahi, ah&b&sb, main 
jftnta bdn, ki merl yih sonabri roti an ko aar mnjh ko bbl 
faida bakhshegf. Jaj ne jawab men kahd, is men kachh 
shakk nabin, lekin &p mnjh ko bhi ek ohhoti roU nabfn 
denge ? Beshatk ham denge, agar ip meri madad karog^e, 
kyuaki ek bewa hai, jo apne taq&ze se mere dim&gh ko 
kbili karti hai. Wab mujh se paob&a aaharflan cbhin lens 
cbihU bai. Jaj ne kab6, cbboti roU mnjba iniyat karo. 
Mukbt&r ne cbhoU rotI di. Kyi yih bhi sonabri roU bai ? 
Jaj ne piichhi, kyiinki meri bhl hazm aohohba hai, jaisa 
mere S&hib ki bu. Makhtfir ne kahi, Hfu), wuh aonahrf 
roti hai, pUr pilcbba, kyi ip ko yaqin hiu, ki ab merit kiin 
banegi ? Jaisfi main ip k{ kbidmat baji li&ngi, waisi meri 
iqi bUf karenge. Lekin apni raz majb ko achcbhi tarah 
kbolo, tiki main apne Sihib ko samjhi ddn. 

Ddsre roz Jaj Sihib kachabri kar rabi thi, aar kai 
maqaddame ki faisala bo cbnki thi. Mnkbtir apni mamdii 
rotf&n banikar zari der le kaohahri men iyi tbi,.kyuDki as 
ko malum hi&, ki apni muqaddama shim ke waqt hogi, as 

uy Google 

( s« ) 

HA bawa IcehiUi-mea-kfighaz, aaroskeobhA Urke Jmh&a 
^bsn hi&e dekfa&. Jaj ta gawan aoi ,ek ajib qiam ki topi 
pahiae Me, kwai par faaitho hiis the. li^tiB jabin Mokbiir 
khar& thfi. Jig ae koohh £bil« ibi, aot lu i» na ko oafalo 
pahohini. Woh der tak kbari laM, ftUiirkir us ki nim 
aar bewa ki n&m pak<ri gaj-a. Mnklitdr t» delerf ae 
kahi, hJuiir kda khod&wand. Bewa oe kamzor twbz se 
kahii, Hizir hdn kbadiwand. Jaj ns farm&yi, ki peshtar vfi 
Tte, ki main ia mociaddame ki faisala kardn, mnn&sib faai, ki 
wah abarah am qiniln annAiia, jo ka( aid. se log kahte bain, 
nabin moiyi gayi. Phir wah parhae lag&, w^ih ho, ki 
•gar kol sbakba kidi Jaj ko riabimt de, anr wnh s&bit ho, to 
na ke Ija ek baraa qaid, aor aakbt jarim&aa bogli. Makbtir 
yih ha Bookar bairAa htU, aar Jaj ki taraf gbanr se dekbne 
Ugj. Jaj B£hib ne goyfi as ko nahfn dekbA, lektn bewi kt 
b&t anni ; aar jab as k& bay&n bo cbuki, aar as no iqiir- 
dtma peah Iriya ; snr' jab Hakbt&r as qasam kbff, ki yik 
meri dfastkhatt'oaUn bai, aar do gawAhoBne bhi aisi hi kjii 
tab Jaj Sihib ne &tw& gawabdD ke bamiijib Uokhtirke 
haqq mea dij^ Lekin bewa kl taraf matawajjth boke kabi 
ki kol dalll nabfit hat, jis ae s&bit ho, ki yih gaw&b jbnth bolte 
hain ; tnais ip ke haqq men aftos karU Mn ; tekin batto, 
kyiipbhirfroUkhisaklifho? Ejdnki agar ip UU aakti be, 
to jah&n ek dabal-totf hid, jo as rist roU-w&Ie ne kal mojhe 
di, aor ek obhoU roti bbl faai, jo as ne andeshsmandt ae mere 
mnharrir ko bhi df. Ap ns ko apne larkon ko do. Tib 
kahte bde, ns ne dabal rotf aor chbotf roti donon z&fair kin. 
phir kahi, is so bh&rl qfmatw&U rishirat main qabdl nahfn 
kar sakti tbi, kj^^nki us hilat men, ns ribtb&z anr diyinat- 
dir ahakhs ko qaidkhEina men aarnr dilna pari, lakin roti 
k& ittkbx karna mab&l thft. 

Makbtir Qs kam41 iztir&bi anr ghabr£hat ae pnkfiri, Ai 
Ebadawand, merl do rot(&a mnjb ko wipaa karo, aar main 
ek asbrafl bewft ko duogi. Jaj S&hib oe as par tea nig&k 

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( 35 > 

barkd, babA, ki mtia apa{ dorotfin ek askrafi -k« liye 
nahiD beoh sakt&biia, bihtar hfti ki beva ko ddo. M&kbtir 
nibftjat dari,. kjiinki wnh j4ntR tbi, ki bewa ke ikhtiy&r 
man tbahre, ki lu kl badi ko zibir kare^^ aar ns h&Iat Sd 
marni bihtar th£; kydnki jelkh&aa men jani, aar aakhb 
jarim&na deni, ,aar aiire logon ka tbattba bard&sbt karai : ant 
al&wa in ke dak^ k& barbid boQ&, ;ih sab bardiaht sa b&bar 
bat. So ns ne J^ S&hib se kabi, Ai Sabib donoa roti mujb 
ko w&ps karo, anr jo ip ki marzf, un ki qimat thabr&o. So 
Jflj S&lub ne ki^i, aobohbi, marl marzC yib bai, ki td mera 
pis pacbpaQ asbarfiin bari roti ke liya, anr das aabarfi&n 
cbbott roti'.ke lije U, phir we dootsi tnjh ko w&ps tengi. 
' MakbULr apnl qismat par afsos sad afsos kabte bde apne ghai 
ko bhAg gayi, aar asbarfldti \iyk. Pbir J»j Sibib ne bewa 
ko bnldke eab aabarfi*n na ko din, anr kaba, ki yih sharfiin 
U3 tbag kl bbArl roH bo aohcbbi bain. Main ne 4p k& sabr 
aur bardAsbt Ban& hai ; aar ab Ap dekWit ho, ki is ki anjam 
achcbhi hiia. Pbir wnb MnkbUr ki t»raf mntawajjib boke 
bolfc, agra tnjb ko is se ziyida qimat apni sonahri totioa Jte 
wiate deni partA, to rist anr w^ib boti ; lekia main ommed 
mkbtdbdajkituiyandahmeniBbatko jidkareg** ^^ "^ 
bit bai, jo gnnib kl sab hilabazi anr j&iaial 86 qdwatwar hai. 
WnbbbarosAjoyib DewA apne Kbnd4 par rakhti hai, as 
ke kim man 4yi ; aar tare s&re jbitb, anr thagl, aar hUabAzt 
ne tnjb ko majbdr ohbor diyA. Yih bit santa hi s&ra log 
qAil ho gae ; anr nnhon ne Jaj ki riati anr inaif kl tirlf ki. 
Agardii gnnabgir san bir bnrif kare, anr nn kl ntnt 
dariw ho, tadbhl main yaqln jAntA ban, ki nn bl ki bhalA 
hogA, jo KhndA se darte bain, aar na ke hazdr kimpta haiu. 

He sab logo, jo parishram karta aur bojhae dabe ho, mere 
pis Ao main tnmhen biahrAm dedngA. MerajdA apno dpar 
leo, anr mujb se slkho! kydnki main namr, aur man men din 

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( 36 ) 

hun, anr tnm apne manon men bisbr&m pioge. Kyunki 
raeHi ji& aahaj, anr merji bojh halki bai. Uatl zii. 28 — 30. 

Agar kof mannkli dil ae pildibe, ki "Hain kis tanr 
iian p&i^ng& F" to oa ke w&ate yih bahnt achohh& attar hai, ki 
Agar td sacb much apne tr&D ko dhiindhti hai, to jo ch&ht£ so 
pa snkti. Prabha Yisha kt or dekbo, vah tojh ko badia aakti, 
wnh tujb ko bacb&ne ke wdste is dhartf par kyL Wah ib 
bum ko apne p6s bnUt&, anr kabti : — " Mere p&a &o, maia 
ttimhen bisbrim dedngi.'* 

Wnb babnt ch&bt4 bai, ki hamen bacbfiwe, anr apne 
swargb&si Fita Be miUwe. Samjbo ki jib kof manukh nahjn 
jo bum ko bol&tfl, mannkb ham&re w&ste kjA kar sakti F Kja 
wiibhamko bacbfSaakt&F Ham ko &rilin de saktd F Nahin! 
Yih ababd jobam snatebain— swarg k& hai, ik&shbani bai 
— ^jai3& ki bum Mati ki Sosamacliar, tfare parb Bolahwf n aur 
"atrabwfo iyat men pariile hain, ki jab " Yfsba baptiamA " leke 
turantjal se iSpariyA, Us keliyeawarg klmlgayi, anr jib 
''aktebb&nl hiii, ki Yibmer&priya Putr hai,jis8e main ati 
prnsann "hfin." 

Nabln I Manukh bamire liye sew& nabin kartA, is 
pritbifri ke mauukfaya haul ko madad oabin de sakte, ham ko 
swarg men nabia pabnnch& sakte. Yib " Bij&on ka Baja, 
»ar Prabbnon ka Prabfan " hai. 

Prabhn Yisbu — Parmeshwar ka santin. 

Aur Prabha Ylsbn kyi kabti bai P Prabbn Yiaba k^ta. 
t:ii. — "AoMoI Swarg kddwSrkbaUhai-bhItar &ol Jis ko 
diikb hat," main as ko sakh d&ngft, Jis ke dil men udAsi bai 
innin ns ko sadi k& " magan ddngi. Mere hnkm m&no, mnjh 
»9 prem karo— abr miun "turn ko anaat jfwan ddng^.'* 

Yad karnfi oh&hiye ki wnb jo bam ko yih kaht& bai 
Yisha— Prabha Yisha Kbrfsht bai, Jis ke admne firiahte sijda 
karte baio, Jis k& sab log jo &kaah men rabte bain, d&rshau 
kart<>, &dmi nahin— is prithint ki maaakh nahlQ'-is dfaarti ka 

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C 37 ) 

hUtim nahln. ISahin I bam&re SwargbisI Piti ki Patr hai 
Parmesbwar ka sant£n I Parmeshwar k& ** Atin£ kghti 
hai, A I jo fjiai bo so 4we, anr jo cb&be so jtwan ki jal sent 
metlewe." (Prak&shit Bakya zxii. 17,) Prabbn Yisba 
kfthta bai, Ao mere pis — pSml aor roti main ttun ko de sakUj 
BdkM roU aor kb&ra pftni nabm — anant kl tnkar, jiwan kk 
jal— amrit— ianr swargja bbojan— bhojan jo sa<U t&za rabeg& 
jat jo kabhi gaiida nabia hogk. 

Tlsba bam ko baliU h&i, ky& bam oa ko nttar na denge ? 
Yisba bam ko kabti bai, Ao I ky & bam ns kf lu simeD ? Ham 
dboro naUn bain, bam gAnge nahfo hain. 

Ham achcbbi tarab so lonta bain, diftbije, ki bam jald 
nttat dewoD, " Ai Yi Aa I Ai Frabho I ham ito bain, ham p4p{ 
haio, paracta bom Tujh par bithw4a karte hain, ham ne bars 
bnre k£m kiya, paraDta ham paehchitU^ karte hain." Agar 
ham aisi kah sakte hain, to Wnh ham ko prasann karegi, atir 
bam ko attar degd. " He mere Pit& ke dtianya logo, &a I jo 
^i j^g^^ ^^ atpatti so tomb&re iiyo taiy&r kiji gaj-i hai, as 
keadbik&ri bo." (Matl zxt. 34.) Khtish hdl, khosh hil, 
«^chh& aohchbti b&l hamiri. Is Dharmm Fnstak men libhi 
hai, aar jo is Dharmm Pnstak men likbi, each bai, ki Agar 
bam Yishn, Prabha Yfsha par biahwis, yaqin, Imin, bharosi 
rakhen, Wnh ham ko manziir karegi ; fa Dharmm Postak 
men likhft hai, "Dhanya wejin ke man ahaddh haio, kyiinki 
welshwarkodekhenge." (Mati v. 8.) "Aoanditanr ihlAdit 
bo; kj^loki tmn swarg men bahat phal pAoge." (Mat! t. 12.) 
Parantn agar bam Ua ke shabd na sonen, agar hun dhoro 
rahen, agar ham apne man men kahen, " Abhf nahin, knchh 
kim bai, there din pfdihe bam fiweo, is aamai men naWn, ab 
forsat nahln ;" to hamir& h&l bahat bnri bogi. Is Dharmm 
Postak ae ham sikbte bain, ki agar ham Prabha Tisha k{ 
agy4 mAnen, annen, to ham anant jiiran p& Bakt« hain * 
panuLta ham is Dharmm Pnatak bo yih bhi sikhte bain, ki 

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( 38 ) 

agar ham Us k( itgyi &a in&nen, agar ham prithiw! par is 
mklien, aar Farbhu Yishu par bishwis na karen, to Wuh hnm 
ko uttor degi, " Ab tarn 6a ho I jab Main no tarn ko bnUyi 
tarn Qahtn &e, Main turn ko nahfa jAata^ he kaknrmm karnehfiro; 
Mujh Be diir ho." Ab samu hai, ch&hiye kl ham ab sirarg ki 
deorhl par danren, ab khuU hai, agar ham derf karen, band 
hog6, ham wah&n jake, pnkdren. " He Frnbhn, he Frabhn 
ham&re liye kholiye," anr Wuh attar degS. " Main tnm se 
saoh babii hdn, Main tnm ko nahin j&nti hijn." (Half xxr 
12.) " Mun tarn par ab day& nahla' kardnga." Ch&hije ki 
ham ab daaren, ab Wuh kahUt hai, " He sab logo, jo parfshram 
karte, aur bojh se daba ho, mere pas llo/' ohbhiye ki ham ab 
Us ko attar devron. " Ho ! Prabhu — Prabhn Yiaho Khrfaht — 
Swargb^Bt Pit& ka sanlia — Parmeshwar ka Putr, ham ite. 
hiio, ham ken 1 " 


Ahd I y& H&hl snbh&n teri qndrat Ek inib din thj, 
ki jab ham jang Afgh&nistdn ke &ghkz k( babat likht« the^ 
ek wnh din hai jab ham iske ikhtltam kf khabar snnite hain. 
Jang Afgh&aUt&n khatm hogaj& aar fatnhyabf se kbatm 
biii. Yih khabar to ham peshtar ht bat& cbake hain, magar 
ham &j nnko aa &hdn4md se fig4h karte hun, jo Sark£r 
Angrezi aar Ameer Yaqdb Kh&n men fakhar k&r q&im ha& 
hai. Is ihdntimo men das sharten hain, jo yih hain : — 

l._Gflvemment Angrezf aor Ameer. Cabul ka dar- 
miyAn dostJtna mohabbat q&im rahegl. 

2.— Amoer Sdhib ek ishtih&r is mazmdn ki apna 
malk men muahtahir karenge ki GoTernment 
Afghanistan apne rid'yi ke bar ek ddm! ko 
ikhtiyar is btit kk deti hai, ki beshak agar 

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( 30 ) 

cb&lie to Sarkfir Angr«zi se rdh-o-rasm jdri 
rakhkhe, Governinent Afgli^DuUm osko aisa 
karne ae kaUil naiaa rokegi. 

3. — Siw&e marzi aur ijizat Sark&r Angrezi, Ameer 
Afghiniat&n kiai ghair Snltnat se kiaf qism ki 
tft'allnq&t nahfa rakhkhenge, anr Ameer S&hib 
ko kisf ghanim - se kbatra na boga, agar ais& 
vraqh men iwQ to Sarkfir Angreet as khatra 
ko dur kami apD& farz samjliegf. 

4. — Sarkfir Angrozf ka ek Kezident Cfibul mea 
rahegfi, anr Qsko s&tb ok iskfirt bhi ba abamul 
cliida Jawanon ke rabogfi, anr Sark^r Angrez( 
ko ilchtiyfir bogfi ki agar zarurat bo to Sarbod 
Afgbfiniatfin ke aar ilfiqon mea bhi apnfi Agent 
qAim kare. Aur Ameer Sabib ko ikhtlj&r hai 
ki wub bhi jahaii chaben apnlL Agent rakb 
Bakte bain. 

5. — Angrezf wakU aar Agent jo Afgbdniat&a mea 
rabenge anki biffizat jfin aar tanqtr sbfin ke 
ba bar aurat Ameer Cabnl znmmeivfir bonge. 

G. — 7.— TijArat ke mntalUq bain, jis kl biibat e&I ke 
andar b( ek fibdn^ma muqqarrar hogi. 

8. — Bardb Kurram Cabul tak t£rbarq{ qaim kiyi 

0, — Dili mubabbat z&bir karne ki gbarz se Sark&r 
Angrezi wub tamfim mulk Ameer Sfihib ko 
vapia deti bai, jo nsne bazor Sbamshir is jang 
men f&teb kiyd bai — ^illd— -Kurram, Pesbfa 
anr Sibi jo azU mabriiaa kbijdl kiye jfiwenge. 
Id azld ki kul amdani bfid minbde ikhr^jfit 
intazfim i malki Ameer Cdbnl ko degf. Sar- 
kfir AngrezC ko darah lifie Ebaibar wa Uicbnf 

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( « ) 

per piir6 ikhtiy&r hoga, anr ia kbad mnkbtfir 

qanmoD se jo in daron ae muUlliq hon Sark&r 

Angrezl r&ho rosm rakhns ki maj'&z bogi. 

10. — Chhe I&kb nipae B&l&na Ameer S&bib ko bataor 

imd^ mili karegi, basbarte ki wob knl.ahariit 

ke pabaod rahen, anr ek cometi jismen donon 

torf ke ma'atbir shAmil bonge yrSuAe qar&rden« 

boddd molkl ko inaqarrir bog(. ■ • • 

T^ih hi Sulahn&ma bai. N&zarla Sahibo I Zara glianr 

86 parho, aar pbir dekho ki Sarkir Angrezi kaiei a'lishiin aor 

doBtparwar hai — bam&rl diniat men to dnnyfi men agar koi 

bad qismat tb& to Ameer Sber AH Kb&n tixk agar kol koi 

kbnabqismai t]i& ta Ameer Y&'qnb Ebaa ibL Bad qismat 

ne Amoer Sher Al( ko Sarkar Angregi ka dashman bandjA 

aurdushman aejamilijjis ki natljAakbarkoyih dikhftyi ki 

Ameer Sber AU ko A'lam jawdant ko phannchiji. Kboah 

qismat\ ne Ameer Yaqiib Kh&a ki yawn ke qaidkbdne se 

nik&l nako aaltanat df, Angrezi abafqat nazar nsne pai aar 

Barfaar biii uski bbalSi. Paa baqiqat pdcbcbo to Jang 

Afgbinbt&n ajib qiam k& Jang bda bai ki nsmen donon 

taraf ue ek diiare se barb kar faida hisil kiyd. Yaqub Khia 

kojofaida hiia bw azbar min-al-ahama bai. la Jang se 

SarkAr Angrezi kl mubabbat, Ameer aor as ko Sarkit 

Angrezi ke dil men pnkbtl so baitb gal bu is pnkhtagi se 

baithgal hid ki usne khnd qabul kar liyi hai ki Yfiqub Khia 

^Adushman Satkdr Angrezi ka dushman hai. Nafaqt Y4qib 

Kbin hi ko faida biU hai, bai ki knl riiyi Afghiniatin ko 

bW. Agar yih jang na botA to ba'd wafAt Ameer Bber Ali 

namkliim kis qadr faaid barpi bote, yih fasAd kitne azia' ko 

tabAh karto, kitne khAndAnon ko barbAd karte, kitno Admion 

kA gala gb'ontto, ab wob baten bil kul nabln, fasAd to ek taif 

abjofAidaSaltnat Angrezi ko U se hasil hiiA h«i wob Am 

fabm hai. la ae SarkAr Angrezt kt babAdrl-jawAn-mardl aor 

. rahmdiU basafal tamAm kol dunyi men maahhur hognl. Is 


( " ) 

jang ko dekh kar Snrkar Angrezi k& dashman bo yi dost 
nsko yih bdt zarr^ kabni parogf ki Angrezoo no ok an mea 
Jellalab&d anr Qnndb&r mariiye as ne na ki bah4dri men kuch 
ahafck na rakka bawajdd is fatah ke as ne jo Y&qvit Khdn 
ki darkhw£at ae as ko mnkd bakhahi. Is se m&ldm hiU ki 
iroh mnnsif sur raknidil bat, aur ua laaiSi ke sath hi os oe 
jo kal maft&bi malk us ko wapas kardiyi isee w&zali hiii 
ki vroh mnlk ki bliiiki nah(n aur hid az&n qbdI jo Y&qdb 
Khio se aisi timdi aliart«ii kin nnse z&liir bogaya ki wah 
kbndgbarz nabla l>a1ki maliiin aur gbarib banda^nawaz hai. 
HindosUa ka darwiza AfghiabtiQ bai, agar Afg&uist&D maa 
kisf gbair t&qat k& khaof bota to wah tiqat Bi^s th{ poa 
jab wub khanf hi na raha taa ab kliatki kis k& aur Jab sar-Iiad 
Hind pnkbto hogaye to Ims anr kiyi chahye th& shnkr 
EhudA ki ki ham^rl Sark&r k4niay&b uikli ham lb kimy£b{ 
ko-taht dil se mub&rakb&di dete hain. Amen^ 

Camp Umballa. 

ApkA ta'bader wfi khair-khwib, 
Baboo Qhulah Rascl Bsq, 

ISth Bengal Cavalry School. 


The objects of Ihia Journal, and of the Society with 
■which it is connected, are explained by the series of Reso- 
lutions piissed at the Meeting organising tbo Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both ol which were published 
in the first number of this Journal. 

We aak all who are interested in the movement to giro 
Tti their support. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are requested to send their names, with the tjubscriptions for 
the year, Us. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman- Urdu 
Sodetif, Lahore. Member^ will recwTO a copy of tb« 

:,.ndty Google — 

( « ) 

We also call att«ntioD to "So. 6 of tiie BesoloUoa 
pnssed at the Aleeting on the S5tli May, and iuvite subacrip- 
tious to tbe " Transliteralion Fund." 

There are many sympatliisera with the movement who 
have not yet seat ia their names and subscription. We 
tmat that they will now da so, and that they will also help 
us by ooDTassin^ for fresh members, and by drcnlating oar 
Journal among both Buropeans and Naiires in the atadoos 
where they side. 

Contribntions on any of tbe various subjects connected, 
with transliteratioD, translation and education generaUyj we 
earnestly solicited from Members of the Society. 


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To advocate the lueoftke Roman Alphabet in OricRtal 


|Ca hott: 





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No^ 14 July ^S/g, 


07 TUI 




Every Panjibi knows or onght to know tbe name of Mr. 
Cost, and a work by that geatleman deservea to be read with 
more than ordinary interest in the Province with which ha 
was for man} years so prominently connected. It is partly 
for this reason, thoagh chiefly from the value of the book 
itself, that we snbmit a review of Mr. Cast's recent work to 
the readers of the Koman-Urdd Jonmal. We may add that 
Mr, Cast has dedicated his " Sketch " to another well-known 
PanjAb Official, Mr. E. L. Brandreth, for many yean Com- 
missioner of the Rawalpindi Division. Indeed, these two 
gentlemen since their retirement from the service appear to 
have strengthened the ties of old Indian fellowBhip by the 
pleasing and profitable bond of literary oo-operaUon. 

Mr. Cost, who left India in 1867 (before his fall tenn 
of service had expired), felt, as many old Indiana feel, that 
in idle life at home Is not a happy one. The habit of honest 
steady work which attaches to thelife of every conscieotioas 

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( 2 ) 
Official in India eonid not be throvm aside, ao Hr. Cusi 
began to lootc about bim for aometbing to do. To qh his 
own words — " Some of my contempornrias had taken to brew- 
ing beer ; anoUier bad patented a machine for blacking shoes 
with a rotatory bmsb ; a third was oat in Egjpt managing 
'be private estates of tbe Khedive ; a fonrtb was Director of 
a Bank and Treasnrer to a hospital ; a 6fth waa being yelled 
at in tbe Honse of Oommonti ; a sixth was trying petty coses 
as a JustioD of the Peace. Ait old Indians mast do some- 
tbing. So I tamed back to my old love, before I went to 
India, and took up the skein, where I dropped it in 1842, 
of Ijangnage. 

My stock-in-trade was a good knowledge of twelve lan- 
guages, six EaropeaO] six Asiatic, a good memory, and a 
great passion for the stady." 

Ulna eqaipped for tbe nndertaking, Mr. Cast proceeded 
to survey the whole field of Eastern Linguistic Scienoe and 
after several years' labor be gives us a summary of the infor- 
mation be has collected, in the book now before na. 

Tbe geographical limits of Mr. Coat's summary embrace 
tbe whole of the East Indies — in which term Mr. Cost 
incladea India Proper, Further India and tbe Malay Archipe- 
lago, — while he excludes from it the Mahometan States of 
Western Asia on the one side, and the Empires of China and 
Japan on the other. 

The numerous languages within these limits are arranged 
in eight great classes. Tbe Aryan, Dravidian, Kolarian, 
.Tibeto-Bnrman, Khasi, Tiu, Mon-Anam and Malayan. In 
his Introduction Mr. Cnst gives a general acconnt of some 
of tbe features of tbu languages under review, adding — " The 
plan of my work is as follows :— I propose to notice briefly 
each family oollectively, and then each language in thai 
family separately. In dealing with tbe great and renowned 

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( 3 ) 

TenuieQlars, it woqU be mere nsste of time and imper tiBeBcc 
to sajr mach, as a reference to Beames and Caldwell is Baffi- 
cient. On the other hand, some of the savage langnages ar» 
but liogQigtio expressions, represented b; a brief though 
gennine, vocabulary, and a tolerably aooarate ttpproximat» 
localisation. Under these circumstances, maoh cannot b« 
nid of them. Between these two extremes there is oppor- 
tunity to throw together all that is known of the bonndariea, 
the number, and religion of the population, the number of 
dialects, the (Aanicter, the nature of Literature, if any, thft 
lingalstio provision made for the study of the language tiai 
the (dianoe of its survival in the straggle for existence." 

Beginning with the Aryan family, our author devotes 
» couple of pages to the " Iranic Branch" coii^ri«Dg Pushtu 
and Baldchf. He tiien passes to the " Indie Branch " it» 
which he enumOTates fourteen sub-divisions sarficiently difl- 
iinet and important to rank as languages rather than as- 
mere dialects. These fourteen languages are K^&ri, Diriai, 
Kashmin, Panj^f, Brahui, Sindhi, Hindi, Kepili, Baog^ 
Asamese, Uriya, MartUM Glajr^tt and Sinhalese. Witb 
referenoe to several of these (and among them to. PanjibI) it 
is obvioDsly a matter of doobt whether they are properly 
otassi&ed as lat^uoges rather than as dialects. Probably th» 
existmioe of a separate Qarmnkhi character, and of a distinct 
religion connected widi the Panj^, are the chief reasons for 
regarding I^nj^i as a distinct language. In its construe- 
tioB and vooabnlary it may be regarded as the Westenv 
branch of Hindi, and there are indications which our reader* 
liare donbtless noticed that it will in time he altof^ether 
absorbed in the more important and more convenient Utt^ua 
frtmea of Northern India 

Hindi is admittedly the most Important language of 
Suukrit origin. Its Ungate field u stated to eompris« 


( ♦ .) 

248,000 square miles, and the number of people sptakiog 
it cannot fall Hhort of eiglity millions. It compriaes no leu 
than 58 local dialects in addition to the book language de«- 
cnbed as " Khari Boli " or " High Hindi " and in addition 
also to Urdii, Ha polished and Persianised form, which is 
understood over a larger area than any other Indian toojiue, 
though it can soarcely be said to have a loeal habitatioa in 
an^ one district in partioalar. Man^ of the Hindi dialeota 
are hybrids with admixtures from languagea of the Drati- 
dian, Kolarioa and libeto-Bnrman families. 

Next in importance to 'Hindi and its varieties comes 
Bang&Ii, spoken hy a popuUtion of 37 millions. This too 
baa several dialects, and it is noteworthj that one of these is 
of If uhammadau origin, "though this Hnhammadan Ban^i, 
has not vindicated to itself the aaiae literary- status as the 
Hioddstdul of Northern India. It is composed of analogotu 
elements, and ia the language of millions, bat th«a 
Mohammadan were not of tbe npper, learned and ruling 
classes, nor were they of tiie conquering races from the West, 
bot debased ignorant non-Aryans from the East." 

Omitting languages of less importance, weoome to'Qnj- 
r&ti and Mar^thi the two great Aryan langnagee of the Bom- 
bay Presidency. The latter of these two languages, which is 
spoken by a population of about ten milliouB, brings ns to 
the territorial limit of the Dravidiaa family. It is however 
a remarkable cironmstanoe that Sinhalese, the language of 
Southern Ceylon, is essentially an Aryan tongue, though 
separated from its oongeuers by the entire field of the 
Dravidian family. On the other hand, the Brilbui, a language 
spoken by a part of the population of Baldchist^, and 
enbedded in the Aryan language field, is considered by maaj 
ft Draridian tongue. 

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Our anthor passes from the Aryan to the Dravidian 
family. Id tluB, too, fonrteen Inagaagea are enumerated, 
of which the fbar principal are Tamil, Telagu, Kanarese and 

The term Kolarian is applied to a small family of Ian gnogea 
in Central India, irhiah are neither Aryan, nor Dravidian. 
Of this fiunily the " SontluUf " may be token as the represen- 

Hie Tibeto-Burman family is one of great importaaoe 
extending tbroagh Tibet, Kepal, Sikhim, Assam, Mnnipar, and 
Banna and even into China itself. In many of these coantritg 
though the Hbeto-Barman languages remain, Uiey are now 
Bobordinate to langaages of the Aryan family or have other. 
wise yielded to Aryan inflaenoe. 

Our anthor's accoont of the next three families — the 
Khasi, the Tai, (Siam) and Mon-Anam (Cochin-Chiaa)— may 
be passed over, as it is not likely that onr readers will take 
. Biadi interest in it. Indeed we gather from Mr. Gust's 
aoooont that bis classification of these Ungnages is rather 
provisional than final. French scholftrship has done some- 
thing for Coohin-Obina, but apart from this onr knowledge of 
these languages is as yet extremely meagre. 

It is somewhat different with the great Malayan fami^. 
The part of the world in which these langongea are 
Spoken has been well explored by the Datcb, and for reasooi 
too namerons to detail, oar own coontrymen would do well to 
give it more attention than they haVe hitherto done. W« 
wonld refer onr readers to Wallace's interesting description 
of the innnmerable islands which atnd the Eastern Seas. " To 
the ordinary Englishman " says Wallace, " this is perhaps 
^e least known part of the globe • • • • Hie travellen 
bowever, soon acquires different ideas. He aula for days or even 
for weeks along Uie iborea of one of these great idands, often 


( e ) 

*o great that ita inhibitanta baliftre it to be a vast oontiiMnt. 
He finds that voyages unong these islands are oommonly 
reokoned by ireeks and months, and that their sevenl inbabil* 
ants are o^o as little known to each other as are t)ie native 
races of the Northern to those of tlie Sontkem contioeot of 
America. He soon oomes to look npon this region as one 
apart from the restof the world, with its own ideas, feelinni^ 
customs and modes of speech, and with a climate, T^etatiow 
and animated life altogether peoaliarto itself. 

The langoages are very nnmeroos ; Ur. Cost enameiw 
ates flighty-eight, which he arranges in ten groups. 0^ 
these, the best known are, (1) the " Malay " the lingua 
Jrimea of Netherlands-India — bearing to the other lao- 
gaages of the Ardiipelago a relaUou similar to that bone 
by Hindiistibi to the rival languages of British ladia, (2) 
the Javanese, (3) the Bdgl of Celebes, (4) and (5) die 
TtigtA and Bis&yan of tbe Philippine Islands, and (6) the 
Ualag&sy of Madagascar — an island which belmtgs geogra- 
phically to Africa, bat is eUinologioally an ontwork of th« 
Ualsyan race. 

Here wo oondade our abstract of Mr. Cust's work, so 
far as its main purpose is ooticemed. We mnst add a 
paragrapl) or two as to its bearing on tbe principles of oar 

Mr. Cost gires a partial adherence to the Boman Alpha- 
bet. He is not a convert after our own heart. At page 2V 
of his book he thus defines his position.— 

"While on the one hand, I deprecate, as injudictoiM 
and impracticable, any attempt to sapersade the established 
characters of oaUivated languages by the introdactioa ot 
the alien Roman Character, on the other hoad, in the case 
of langoacea, which have hitherto been unwritten, it it 
very nndesirable to adopt a new Character, irhioh ia oat 

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aUe to (Kprow with aooaracy ever^ SQDnd, and on that 
•aooant Lepsius' Btandard Alphabet appears to be tbe tu)8t 
euDTenMat in every respect." 

Again at the ooaolusion of his book (page 149) be 
writee thus regarding the kngoages of India Proper — 
** The Oharacters in vhioh these languages will appear in 
the future are ODoertain, * and there will probabljr exist, as 
now, two Korthem varieties, the N^garf and Bangtill. and 
two Bontbem, tlie Tamil and Telagn, while the adopted 
Arabio ud the adopted Roman Ob&raoters will be largely 
tued by the State, the Miauoaaries, the Foreign CommaDities^ 
and all who stand outside the great Brahmanioal religion. 
If we are wise in time, all those teeming millions who are 
nady to pass from Paganism and savagery into some form 
of Book-Religion and Mvilisation, will be led gently into 
Christianity and the nse of the Roman Character: Uieir 
langoago most depend npon ihe innate strength of tlieir 
own nim-Aryan form of speech in the death- straggle 
vfaioh must take place with the great Aryan vernaculars." 

Tbeo follow some remarks as to English, remarks the 
precise tendency of which we scarcely approve, though in 
their oonclnaion — that English can never take the place of 
the vemacalnra— we cordially concur. 

These are Mr. Cast's own opinion*. Bat there is evi- 
denoe enough in his own book, that the Roman Alphabet 
is entitled to warmer advocacy than Mr. Cast has given it. 
Let OS see what this evidence is — 

(1), la the first place Mr. Cast himself has accepted 
the Jonesian system of transliteration. It was not always 
so. In the glossary prefixed to his revenue manual (published 
in 1866J he followed the Gilchristiaa spelling. There are 
one or two " survivals " of this in the book under review, 

* Imapsa my one wying thi* of Elijah French or Spaniih t 

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bot speaking generally the " eo's " and " oo'a " of the reronnB 
manual glossary are oonspioDoas by th«ir abseooa. W« 
regard this as eTidence Out the Jonesian Bysteni (witboafc 
which the Roman Alphabet cannot be onirersdlly adopted) 
is steadily saperseding its riral. 

(i). Secondly — How comSB it that Mr. Ctiat, knowing' 
six Asiatic languages, and familiar, by long residence in 
India with varioos fields of Oriental Literature, bases his 
work on the langnages of the Bast Indies Mcluncety on 
European iciiolarsMp ? He takes np his sabjeot with energy 
Itnd seal ; he devotes years to the collection of material ; he 
inrveys the whole languages " from Chinese to Anglo-Saxon, 
from Assyrian and Aooadian to Finnic and Basqne." He, 
visits Holland, he corresponds with Bangkok and Batayia. 
When all this has been done, how mnch of his information 
isderired from works in the Arabic, the Hindi, the Ban- 
gui! or the Tamil Character? How many natire anthors 
are so mnch as named in bis book? One ojily. At page 54 
there is a passing reference (in connection with Bang£l( to 
" an esteemed grammarian" named Sluuna Cham. We believe 
tJiat Shama Churn's work is in English. If so, the refarenoe 
to him is not an exception at all. If, however, we are mis- 
taken in this snpposilion, it is stilt a significant fact that 
ons majority only, of tlie hundreds oonsnited by Hr. Cnst» 
should be in an Oriental Character. If Oriental Authors 
do not exist, or oannot be consulted, when their ovm linguor 
gtt are under disonssion what are the snbjeots on vrhioh Wft 
may consult them ? 

(3). There is evidence throaghont the book that the 
Bible and other pablicaUons have already been published 
in the Boman obaraoter in almost every quarter of the Eatt 
Indies. True, this has been done chiefly by Missionariei. 
Bat, presumably, the Missionaries do not transliterate for 
mere amosemeat. The books they publish are read by 

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tome one. — ^^e following are soma of Mr. Oust's references 
illnstratJng this renuirk&ble extension of the Roman 

Page 50. — *' The Bible has been translated • •■ • 

* * in the Ilindustanl dialect ia N&garf, Arabic asd 
Roman Cbamcters." 

Page 54. — " Another marked dialect is that known aa 
Uuhammadan Bcngfilf, iu which the Bible is translated into 
Bengiill in Roman Characters." 

Page 60.— Language of Goa. " A form of the Roman 
Character is usod introduced by the Jesuits, but inferior to 
the Standard Alphabet by Lepsius." 

Page 74. — Khond. " There is neither Character nor 
Literatare, and it is to be regretted that the political domina- 
tion of the Uriya poopio has led to some Khond hooka 
being published in the Uriya Character. Others have been 
published in the Roman Character." 

Page 77. — Oraon. " It has neither Character nor 
Literature, and the Roman Character is used." 

Page 81. — Sonth&l. " The htnguage is unwritten, and 
ia now rendered in Roman and Beng&ti Characters. • • *• 

* * Portions of the Bible have been translated into this 
Ijang;uage in the Roman Character, and many odncational 
works poblishod." 

Page 103. — Manipiirl. " An English-Manipurl Dic- 
tionary has been published, and the Now Testament has 
been translated into thii Language, in the Boman 

Pt^e 107. — Kar6n "There are at least twenty-five 
thousand Christians among the Kar^a ; the Bible has been 
translated into the Roman Character : linguistic books are 
in abnndance ; they had no pecnliar Character, and were 
qnite illit«rato, bat had many oral legends." 

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Fage 138. — Annamitfl or Cochia-CbineBe. " The BoniidB 
are easy enoagh to aoqaire, and the Homaa CalboUc Hiasion, 
which has existed more than a ceotniy, has by ingeniotu 
additiona adopted the Soman Chatacter to these aoanda, 
which makes the study of the language independent o£ tha 
acqoiaition of the peculiar Character, which is oompoaed qP 
a selection of Qhtnese Ideographs, used phonetically as a 
Syllabary, with upwards of nine hondred Tarietiea." 

Page 133.— Malay, "the Bible has beeo translated 
both into Standard and -Law Ualay in both Arabic and 
Boman Characters." 

Page 136. — Sumatra. ''We hare a translatioQ of s por- 
tion of the New Testament into the Language of Nias, in 
tile Boman Character." 

Page 138.— Sondanese, " Hie Bible his been translated 
into Sandanese in the Boman Charaotor." 

Page 140. — Bomea " The Bible has been trftosUted in. 
tiie Bomon Character." 

Page 142.— MoIocoasL "IhereisnopeonliarCbanotM'; 
the Bpman and Arabic are used." 

Page 145. — Madagascar. " Gramioars hare been puh* 
lished, and: a tronsUUoD of tbo Hew Zesiomeat in th« 
Roaum Character." 

We hare now completed oar Beview of Mr. Cust'i 
work. He and his fellow-laborers are laying the fonndatioa 
of a Sdeace of Languages. They are doing a work simitar 
to that previously acoompUsbed by the pioneers of Botany, 
Chemistry and Gteology. Facts must be ascertained before 
they can be classified, and must be classified before they can be 
viewed scientificatly. l^e first attempts at such classificatioo 
are always defective, but every attempt to bring together and 
arrange lingnistic information deserves onr thanks. Old 
Indiaoa may learn from Mr. Cnat*s example that there Is woifc 


( n ) 

for tbem to do — if they cbooae to do it— after tliey have com- 
pleted their career of ofSoioI toil in India. 


Ur, B. C. Temple's paper on transliteration, vthidx 
appeared in oar last number, is one of considerable interest- 
We wish thnt other Members of the Socuely woald assist 
ns with similar expressions of tbei^ views. A discnssion 
of this kind, though in the first instance it brings oa 
numerous divergencies of opinion, will tend in the long ran 
to form an edacated public opinion, bj wbi<^ all will permit 
themselves to be guided. 

The prindples on which Mr. Temple's paper professes to 
be based will oommend themselves to most of as. He says — 
"The bestpracticalsystamoftmnsliteration and the most likely 
to be lasting will be found to be that wbioh bos the widest scope 
and is acuentificolly the soaudest, provided it be constructed 
by men having on equal regard to practice and to theory." 
Again " It seems to me that a dual system of transliteration 
is anavoidable, viz., one for ordinary practice and for books 
in which philological consideration are a matter of no im- 
portance, and one for sdentific and educational works in 
which philological distinoUoos are a matter of first im- 
portance." ' 

Pasung from theoretical principles to practictll sng- 
gestisns we must admit that Mr, Temple's proposal — to nse 
ordinary Roman letters in the first rank, italics in the second, 
antique letters in the third and dotted letters in the fourth — 
has the merit of symmetry, and that it provides a store-honae 
of chitracters as ample as any one can deSird. Bat thero are 
two serious objections which wiU, we think, prevent the 

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acceptance of Mr. Temple's proposals in tlieir entirety 
tUongti Uiey need not deU-ii- us from acceptiug tbem in part. 
TLe first of these ol'jectioaa is cursorily referred to l>y Mr. 
Temple himself. I'he presence of a number of ittlic lettere, 
interspersed with ordinary type, disfigares the page. The 
addition of a dot or other amnll mark does not interfere with 
tlie general uniforxity of Koinan printing, but the introduo 
tion of letters of a wholly different class will, we are sore, 
offend ordinary readers no less than the whole class of pro- 
fessional printers. The objection is intensified by the proposal 
(which neoessiirily acOompanies Mr. Temple's adieme) to 
replace the italic letter by its Roman equivalent nherever 
.occasion arises to print a whole word in it.ilics. Mr. Temple 
looks forward, as we do, to the time when an uniform system 
of phoneme spelling will be adopt«d by the whole civilized 
world, but it can scarcely bo expected that tbo system then 
adopted will admit isolated italic letters as a permanent supple- 
meiit to the ordinary Roman alphabeL Italics bavo a 
traditional use as mch, which we cannot take from them, but 
Mr. Temple's scheme, from ils very fleiibility, will fail to 
create a sufficiently definite tradition for individual italic 
letters to take their stand, side by side with the Roman, w 
permanent symbols of particular sounds. 

Secondly, Mr. Temple has not made sufficient allowance 
for the hold which the existing system of translileratiou has 
on public usage. It may have some defects— so has every 
institution under fhesuo— , but we cannot ignore the fact that 
the main features of the actu.-il Jonesian system have received 
tlie approval of most Oriental schokrs, while Ihrongh the 
agency of Missionary presses tiiey have acquired, and are likely 
to retain a considerable number of adherents among ttie 
natives of India. If we cat ourselves adrift from the support 
thus given to out cause, our difficaltics will be iocreased 

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tenfold. Mr, Temple says — " the more I rend the Jaurnal of 
tbia Society the more I see there is a danger of its setting up 
a special sj'stero applicable only to the languages it deals 
with, without reference to those beyond its immediate scope." 
On the other hand, a lUissionary supporter of the moTement, 
whose letter we have recently received, writes aa follows — 
*' from my point of view yon make n mistake in not taking 
the established Itoman eharactec and basing your fight 
on that. There is all the difference between using a 
character ttiat boa been developed ont of somebody's idea of 
a perfect system of transliteration, and nsiug one that has 
gradually assumed its present shape through the experience of 
some 40 years of steady use. It seems to me that the style of 
Roman character as used for example in the Mission presses 
of Allahabad, Mirzapore, Loodiann and Lucknow has passed 
beyond the stage of esperimeut, 1 was much disappointed, 
therefore, ott looking over the extracts yon give, to see so 
much of an appearance of yosr having begun de novo ; for even 
snppo»ng that yoDr style of trausliteratioQ was an improve- 
ment on the old one — it to some extent loses you the sympathy 
of those — and they number thoosanda — who would naturally 
be on yonr side. " 

It will be seen that we are between two fires. But the 
policy, to be followed is, we think, clear. We must ttart by 
accepting existing usage. Where that usage is not uniform— 
R9 with the j^and ^— we may exercise a certain discretion. 
Otherwise, we shall not act wisely in introducing innovatioua, 
unless we are lurt that we can carry the public (as represented 
by writers on Oriental subjects, by the Asiatic Societies, and 
by the Missionaiy body) wiUt us. 

On the other hand, we welcome discussion. There 
cannot be too much of iL And while we would ask writers 
like Mr. Temple, not io press radical innovations in opposi- 
tion to existing usage, we i^'ould also ask the Missionary 

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Writers not to take too narrow a view of tlie subject, and not 
to be unwilling to accept a change, if it can be dearly shcvm 
to be a decided iinproveiimU. 

Now, reverting to Mr. Temple's saggesUon as to italic 
letters, cap we make any nse of the suggestioD witbont vio- 
lent inDOvation on Srinly established usage ? We believe 
that we can — in this way, Mr. Temple, arranges his alpha* 
betical forces thus — first rank, ordinary ^Boman letters ; 
sacond rank, italics ; third rank, antique letters ; fourth rank, 
dotted letters. lust^ad of this, aoppose we arrange our for- 
ces in this way — first rank, Roman letters ; second rank, dot- 
ted or otherwise marked letters having a fixed and tinrary- 
vy pBwer ; third rank, italics (to be used or omitted as occa- 
sion may require) to denote minor diSerencea of orthography 
or pronunciation. 

It appears to as that this proposal has several advan- 
tages. It will not npset existing usage. On the other 
band, it will at once enrich and economise oor stock of type;. 
Tbe limited nnmber of marked letters in the second rank will 
assume a stronger individuality day by day, thus fitting themr 
sdves for their eventual position in the world's general 
ftlpbabet. On tbe other band, the use of italics for letters of 
the third chiss will provide ample material for those who 
require greater detail and minuteness in tbeir transliter- 
aUiig type. 

To illustrate our meaning. We would advocate the 
use of dbtjnct diacritioal marks ' wherever such are naed by 
the Missionary body. We are also inclined to advocate so(Ji 
mnrks for u* ao*^ u° ^ oQ^ ■'*■ ^^^ ^^ think italic letters 
might be nsed ( at tbe option of the individual writer) for 
" tanwin ", for ^, for the silent j for varieties of the Sanskrit 
'' n " ( otber than tbe nasal ), fw one of ibe Sanskrit equiva- 
lents of sh, and possibly for the Persian letters a* and 
i "se" and "zal," Ac,. &c. 

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We ctminietid this proposal to Uf. Temple and 
Uembers of the Society generally. 

Editorul Notes. 

Onr Jonroal bos now been in existence for more tlian 
twelve months. We hare <]iscna8ed many of the snbjpcts 
vhicb were Qatlined in onr nnmber for Jooe 187S, bat 
otJiers have scarcely been toacbed apon. For inatnnce 
we have not yet discnssed the bearing of- BomanrUrdii in 
its relations to Englisb. Kor have we laid before oor readers 
onr scheme for introdncing it into Government Conrta and 
Offices, ^ese and other aspects of the reform will all be 
oonudered in good timsj but the sabject istoo vast- and 
important for concentration in one, or even in two yeara^ 
writing. If any of oar readers are impatient to have our 
whole plan before them, their best policy will be to aid ns 
by contributions to the Journal on sndi snb-divisions of the 
snbject as they may wish to bring more fally or more 
promptly forward. 

We again invite the attention of Members to. the fact 
that their sabecriptions for 1879 are due. Some have paid, 
bat the majority have not yet done so ; there are a few 
Babscriptions still ootsiiinding for 1878 as well. 

Babseribers at Lahore can have no difficulty in sending 
tbeir Rs. 5 by a messenger, and those at oat^stations have 
merely to post a money-order to tbeaddresa of our Lahore 
Secretaiy. We trust that our Subscribers will savo as 
farther trouble in this matter. 

We wonld alio pant out that oar Society cannot under- 
take publishing work on even a moderate scale without an 
ample addition to its funds. Our Journal will continue to 
appear ; our principles will be advocated in tlie Tress, the 

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Fnnjttbi icill continue Us pnblicaiioa of & weekly sheet in 
Roman-Urdd. But if our supporters wish for more than 
this, they most be more liberal aa well as more prompt in 
iheir payments. At present, Sir Charles Trevelyan's is 
the ooly large donation we have received ; this will en^le 
ns to pnblish one work, but not more. We have abstained 
from all personal appeals to lUjas and Chiefs to aid our 
cause. The time has not come for this, aai each appeals, if 
made unadvisedly, are compromising and liable to abuse. 
Bnt those who have already joiued our Society — whether 
Natives of India or Europeans — may fairly be asked to con- 
tribute according to their means. 

In our April Number we published extracts from the 
Preface of Honier Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary, in 
advocacy of the Roman alphabeL The Professor's latest 
Qtterances on the sabjaot will be found in the Contemporary 
RevUa for June 1878. They are as follows:— 

" If then the Government of India were true to ils own 
principles, it would give more enconragement to Uie onltivs- 
tjon of the vemacnlar dialects. It wonld not expose tliem to 
the danger of degenerating into jargons — of becommg 
on&t to be converted into vehiolea of European science. It 
wonld not appoint any one to superintead educaiional work 
asaDirector of Public Instruction, or as a Principal or Head 
llaster, without requiring him to give evidence of complete 
familiarity with at leaat two spoken languages — HindAst^i 
and one other. It wonld not mike proficiency in English 
an indispensable condition at matrioulation examinations. It 
would be satisBed with proficiency in general knowledge dis- 
played through the medium of any one or two of the princi- 
pal Vernaculars, Hindfistini, Hindi, BangiHf, Telnga anJ 
Tamil — especially throagh Hindtistftni which should be 
encouraged to become tho common medium of < 

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tion for the tower classes thronglioat all India, jast aa 
Saiukrit is for Hie learned. 

And here I moBt adrert to a point which, in my opinion 
has an important bearing on the spread of European 
knowledge among (he masaeB of onr Indian snbjects, I moan 
the application of the plain and practical Roman alphabet to 
the Indian vemacuUra, especially to Hindustani. 

I have elsewhere •striven to show that the Indo-Aryans 
probably dertTed their alphabets from foreign sources. The 
first Indian idea of grammar was not that of a collection of 
written rales ( yp&fifia ). It consisted simply in the aoalysia 
( vtf&karana ) of language and the solution of etymologica] 
problems by means of brief memorial aphorisms so contrived 
as to ho transmitted orally. In time, however, a growing 
literatare defied even the prodigions memories of indefati- 
gable Brfibnaan Pundits. Suitable graphic symbols bad to le 
employed, and in all probability particnlar symbols were 
introduced into India by those trading nations whoso 
commercial necessities led to the invention of writing. The 
first notion of representing ideas and language by pictorial 
signs seems to have originated in Egypt. Thence it pass0(i 
into Phoenicia whero a syllabic system was developed. This 
led to ttie phonetic alphabet aitorwards adopted by the Qreehs, 
and subsequently improved upon by the ftomans. Doubtless 
some forms of writing found their way into India, bnt, liko 
the acute Greeks, the sobUe-minded Hindfis folt the imperfec- 
tjonofthaoonsonantalsyatemscurrentamong Semitic peoples. 
If they received some symbols from foreign sonrces, they 
altered their forms and developed them in their own way. 
Moreover, they invented for themselves their own system of 
TocalizaUonjustaa they worked oot their own theory of 

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Nor did any ordiaaiy stand&rd of completeness eaUsfy 
tlie rcijuireiiients of Indian scholars. With their asual love 
of elaboration they excogitated a philosophically exact sy»- 
tein. But they overloaded it with symbols. They overdid 
ihe trne theory of the neceisary vocalization of consonantB. 
they declared it impossible for any single consonant to 
stand alone withont its inherent or associated vowel. Hence, 
we have tin immense assortment of simple and conjunct 
letters, necessitatio):; the employment of five hundred distinct 
types in the printing of the most ordinary Sanskrit book. 
Such an overstraining of alphabetical precision was to the 
learned Hindis a great recommendation. The perfection of 
its structure made the Deva-nfigarl alphabet a Bt medium 
for the visible embodiment of their divine Sanskrit. Even 
the very letters themselves came to be regarded aa divine. 

Now this superstitions adoration and qaasi-deification 
of an intricate alphabet as the medium for the expression of 
a sacred language like Sanskrit, was perhaps natural and 
excusable. But when it led to the employnient of complicated 
aymbola for the ordinary work-day spoken diiilects, it placed 
a serious obstruction in the path of advancing edncation. 
And what is the actual fact at present in India ? The process 
of learning to read is surrounded by n kind of thorn fence, 
bristling with a dense array of crooked strokes and tortuous 
lines. DilBcultics unknown to nn English child have to ha 
surmounted at the very outset, and mako every step painful. 
I am only now speaking of the Indian printed alphabets. 
■\Vhat shall be snid of the written characters? The worst 
Endish hand-writings are no measure of their legibility. 
The difficulty of deciphering them increases in a kind of 
compound ratio ? Who, except grey-bearded scholars, can 
penetrate the mysteries of the inscmtable Shikasta ? Who 
but veteran experts can unravel the intricacies of the Eliithf, 
or Hindi runmng-Laud employed by the >Yritor caste? of 

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tiia Modi, or written gcratches in use nraong iho Mtir^tbas ? 
of the liopelessly illegible M.'Srwilri and eqaalty indecipher- 
able hand-writing jireTnlent in Sindh ? of the twista, twirls, 
and conToIutions corrent in Southern India ? 

For this reason many eminent Indian administrators 
and scholars— at the bead of whom mast be placed Sir 
Charles E. Trevelyan, a trao friend to Indian educational 
progress— have long felt that tho application of the aimplo 
Boman alphabet to the Indian remoculars wonld greatly 
facilitate the diffusion of knowledge among the unlettercii 
millions of onr Indian Empire. The recent auecesafal en^ 
ployraent of what maybe termed an Indo-Romanic alphabet — 
that is, the Roman letters adapted to Indian reqnirementst 
by the nee of dots and accents — in the printing of Sanskrit 
books, is an evidence of its nppncubility to the Aryan 
languages of India, with as mnch suitability as to tho Aryai» 
langnages of Europe. But inveterate cnstom, early associ- 
ation, and inherited bias, are force» too strong to be easily 
overcome by the moet beneficent and energetic of reformers^ 
Changes, hmvever manifestly advantageous, bnvo no hope o£ 
general acceptance. Here in England we continne to resiab 
the introduction of a decimal system ; we adhere with obsti- 
nacy to all cnr worst spelling-anomalies, and we ridionla 
such cMivemeBt astronomical expressions as thirteen and 
fonrteen o'clock, which corre'jtiy mark the rotation of out 
earth, and which, if adopted, would he an invaluable boon to 
ihe students of Bradshaw. In the same manner, withoot 
doabt, many generations mnst pass away before the supersti- 
tions veneration for existing alphabetical symbols is aban- 
doned tn India, and the simple Homan alphabet adopted 
i^r the expression of more ancient Ary^ vernaculars-, 
Hindi, Har^thf, and Bengali. With regard to the mor» 
modern Hinddstfinf, which ought to be taught as a Ivt/jua 
franca in every school of India, the cose ia diSerent. It 

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boa really no alpfaabei; of its own, and the Direoton of Public 
Instruction might reasonably, la my opinion, insist on 
its being expressed by the Indo-Bomanic letters." 

The following extract from the same article is interesting, 
as it illostrates ilie remarkable progress effected in India 
during the last forty years in the means of locomotioB, 
Our readers will observe that the " bogey " argnmentf 
broughai forirard in oar time against the priaciplea of the 
Koman-Urdd Society, vma nsed thirty years ago by no lesl 
an -anthority than Horaoe Hayman Wilson against the 
introduction of Railways, 

" One of my oontemporaries at Haileybnry, Mr. Cast, 
has favored me with a few notes of his joamey from 
Oalcntta to Dolht in 1843. He hired a pohinciuin in 
Calcutta, and set out in the cool of a January evening. Borne 
on the shoulders of coolies and traTelling all night and 
for a greater part of each day, he was Ave days in reaching 
Benares. The jonrney thence to AUah^b&d took another 
Trbole day. A.t AlUh^bid his palanquin was placed on a 
track, and drawn by horses to Cawnpore, Thence to 
Agm and Delhi the palanqnin was boroe in the naoal way by 
coolies. Travelling in this manner withont a single day's 
rest, he was a month in reaching Delhi fh>ra Calcutta, 
The only line of oarriagertoad was between Allah^bM and 
Cawnpore, and in no other part of the route were the 
streams bridged. 

The year 1845, witnessed the introdncUon of what 
was called an eqnirotal oarriage. A palanquin was fitt«d f) 
four eqoal wheels and pushed by coolies. This was a proof 
of a great advance in (he metalling of roods. Tbe^ 
followed the oomparatire laxury of the D^ g&ri. IlieM 

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carringes were drawn by relayi of GoTernment poBl- 
liorses on what became at last the great trunk road 
traversing the entire country between Calcutta and Delhi. 
The jaded and dnat-smothered traveller emerged, half-stnpeiied 
attheend of bis joamey, with the rattle ofa ten days' conti- 
nuoos roll concentrated in the orifice of his ears. The D&k 
■yetem of travelling waa not perfected till abont the year 185?. 

The turning of the first sod of the first Bailway line in 
India took plaoe in 1851. In that year the East India RaiU 
way was commenced, and in September 1854, « distance of 
thirty seven miles was opened for traffic. In Febraary 1855 
the line was opened as far as Delhi. The line between 
Bombay and Madras was completed on the 1st of May 1871* 
Hie total mil cage open on all Indian Railways in 1866 was 
8,473, and the number of passengers carried in the year was 
nearly thirteen millions. Ten years later, in 1875, the 
mileage open was 6,352, andfhe number of passengers carrivd 
nearly twenty seven millions. 

Lord Lawrence informs me ihat when he first went ont 
to India be was allowed ax months to find his way from 
GolcDtta to Delhi. The journey may now be easily performed 
in forty-fonr hours. One of the most remarkable sights in 
India is afforded by the throng of natives of all sorts, castes 
and conditions at the principal ^Railway stations. The 
popularity of this mode of travelling with people who are 
supposed to dread indisoriminate contact; with eadi other, is 
astonishing. About tbir^ years ago,' when the expediency of 
iatrodndng rail-roads into India was first talked about, a great 
Bothority, Professor H. H. Wilson, expressed an opinion 
that they were quite nnsuited to the habits of the natives, and 
that the rales of caste would prevent their being mnch n sed* 
What is the fact? To every solitary European rolling at fnU 
length amid rngs and oastuoosiD^a first^^oss compartment! 

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handi-edi of natives will be foandjammod together ia tbe third 
class carritigas. Crowds alight at erery small town, and 
crowds are ready to take their place. No one can donbt that 
Itaitwaya are among the greatest boons oar rale has conferred 
on the country." 

^e Madras Athnumim finds fanlt with the natives for 
their want of ambitioD. It says : — 

To tho peoples of the West ono of the strangest traits of 
moderate Eastern eharacter is the ntter absence from it of 
anything Iik« a. pnre ambi^on to excel. All observant men 
in India notice this and very few have been silent concerning 
it : directly or indirectly the majority of wnters on Indian 
affairs assert it or allow it to be inferred. Any good effect of 
saoh constant notice of the fault is scarcely appreciable > 
indeed it woald Besm as if in this case tho old adage, " a con- 
stant dropping will wear away a stone," will not be realised. 
In art, science, literature, mechanics, trade, what will "just 
do" to gain a folly known result is the very highest aim 
perceptible. To improve, to invent, to advance, to elevate, to 
surpass a present standard, appears so seldom to occur to tha 
Native mind, that instances of the contrary, if they take place 
at all, most be regarded as exceptions to a very general and 
irrevocable rule. Ambition, — ^just enough for passing the 
highest examinations set by alien rulers, for getting the best 
rewards for strictly defined work offered by foreign masters — 
may be admitted as existing ; but for going beyond the chalk- 
line, for the love of leaminij alone, for patriotism, or for fame, 
its birlh, has yet to be chronicled. These remarks cannot he 
confined to Natives, Even Earasians, who inherit a nature in 
great part European, and a birthright fully of the soil, have, 
iritb exception few enough merely to prove the rule, failed to 

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mddthelosterof progress to the land of their birth. To thia 
radical defect the failare of very many excellent schemes 
iaangurated by Enropeana is attributable, A hopeful degree 
of success is attained ; by assiduous labour the interest of the 
people 13 stimulated and sustained for a short term. When 
time calls the original promoters to retire from the scene, the 
whole collapses, the old level is rstQrned to with a meloncbotr 

(From the Overland Mail.) 
The prominence which Turkish subjects have for some 
time enjoyed, and the certainty that the Protectorate of Asia 
Minor will occasion the presence of many Englishmen in 
countries speaking the Turkish language, have induced Capt. 
Mackenzie to compile a manual specially intended to teac{j 
the colloquial form of Turkish. The Captain was, in Crimean 
■ days, one of the Turkish Contingent, and has since resided for 
years among Turks, so that he must know well the forms of 
speech most in use. The book consists of a short grammar* 
seta of dialogues, and a kind of dictionary of common phrases, 
much in the style of that most successful book, " Forbes' 
Hindiisf^ai Manual." The Captain, in the course of his 
dialogues, seeks to impart some notion of life in Turkey ; for 
which purpose he has included a long dialogue between a 
Jew broker, a Mussulman grocer, and a Frank merchant, 
which illnstratas in a highly amusing manner the roguery 
and venality of some classes of society in the dominions of the 
8ublime Porte. But the Captain is scarcely warranted in 
the wholesale coudemnation he passes upon the Turkish 
people ; neither is a grammar the proper place for such 

* A TurkiBh Mamtkl ; compdnng & Condensed Granunar, with Idio- 
matic PhraaeB, Exeroi«M, and DUIognes, and Vocabnlary. By Capt C. P. 
Mack.cnd«, l»to of U. M.'b Coiwiilar Service. 

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The book is printed in the Bomtm chamcter, 6a iti 
objects are purely practical ; and this leads to the remark 
that the observations on letters, Towel-accent, and orthographi- 
cal signs are qmte useless in a book which doea not employ 
the native character. The space thos occapied Would have 
been better employed in a more detailed explanatioa of the 
pronunciation of the Boman letters actually brought into 
Qse. The book will be of the greatest assistance to any one 
about to reside in the Levaot, and when the student is 
familiar with its contents he will find little difficulty in 
enlarging his information by intercourse with the Sultan' s 

(From the Daily News) 
A Meeting of the Conndl of the Spelling Beform 
Association was held at Mr. Fagliardini's, 75, Upper Berkeley- 
street, on Wednesday evenmg, May 7 ; Dr. J. H. Gladstone, . 
F. B. S., in die chair. Among those present were Mr, 
A. J. Ellis, Mr. J. Westlake, Dr. B. G. Latbnn, Dr. L. 
Schmitz, Dr. Norman Kerr, Mr. Latimer Claire, Mr. 
James Spedding, the Bev. Preh. Wood, the Bev. F. G. 
Heay, and others. In reporting tbe progress of the Society, 
it was annomiced that the Bight Bon. B. Lowe, M. F^ 
Professor Max Miiller, Professor Skeat, Professor Sayce, 
Dr. Angos, and Mr. Edwin Chad wick had consented to become 
Tice-Presidents. Mr. J, Westlake was elected Treasurer, an 
Szecntive Committee wasappointed,aiiditwa8dedded to take 
iteps to obtun an Assistant Secretary. It was also resolved to 
appoint a Committee to report on the varions systema of spell- 
ing reform that have been proposed, and that the Societj 
shoold pot themselves in communication with the Americi ■ 
I^Uing Beform Association. The next meeting will tak« 
{dace on May 26,at7-30-r. M, 

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We are glad to note fliat the Bombay Government bas 
Moendy pablisbad a list of places in the Bombay Presidency, and 
of oommon official words naed in tiiat part of India. The list 
is correctly transliterated on the Jonesian system. 


(I) — The deaf gardewr and his Matter. 

Awardar-and Id b£glib£ne gdsb-aBb kar bdd. Waqte 
sbanid ki arbdb i &a bfmilivast. 'Ayfidat i arbib t& lizim 
dibiist, wa Ukin ba kbiy^ i in ki arb^b ba sabab i za'f i 
bim&ri ibosta Bokhan khwfiliad farmud, wa &a ba b&'ia i karf 
a& kbwfliad ahanid, wa mujib i kiiijlatrash khwfihad slradj 
dar babr i ta£akkur fnrii raft. 

Bil-akbira b^ khud guft ki dar 'ayAlat i blmir gnftogiil 
i bisyfa zariir niat, magar chand snkhanin i mnqarrar k 
jawib i har yak nlz ma'Imn ast.— Mial i In, ki awwal, ba'd 
az saUbn, biyad bi-pdrsam, ki " Arbiib ! ahwfl i sbnmfi 
dutenraat?" Jaw6b khw«had did ki « Alhamd-ul-ill^ I 
Irihtar hastam." Man b«yad bi-gdyam, ki " Shnkr i 
Khodd I " Siinlyan khwfliam parsid, ki " Arbiib I Hakim 
iflhami klat?" Zardr jawllb khwtfhad goft, fci masalan 
" HiQwi Sflub."* Man niz b&yad bi-gdyam, ki " Qadam i 
in mnbfcik b&had I " SiUisan khwiham pnrsld ki " Arbfib t 
abab wa rfiz ghaz4 da ml-khnrld ?" Masalan jawib 
khwfliad did, ki " shir wa nfin." Lazim aat ki, man bi- 
gdyam " nish i j&a biUhad ! " 

Kliul&a, hamin tanr sowiU wa jaw«b-hfi r& h& khud 
moqarrar kard. Wa nlz bariU i izhir i khidmat i khnd dar 
nazar i arbib chand d&ia khiyfc i sabz i qalami i bisyir 
khfi b ham ax biigh i arb&b chJda dar d&miJn i khud bast, wa 

* Not* Tlw fwne of ProfeMor H<illow»y luu rwched even Pew» 

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ikwSm i khidmftt i arbib shnd. lUa£&q& dar hfQate ki uhBo 
i bl-«liira dar 'ain i inqaUb i maz&j giriftar hid^ wArid 
ebad, wa ba'd az aal£m maw^q i &n chi h& kbnd maqaim 
karda biid, gnft, H " Axbiit I ahw^l i shnmi chi taor ast?" 
ArbfLb i bi-ch&ra ba jnaqtaz&l i inqalib i maz&j jaewSa 
da, ki " Ahw^ i marg." B&ghb&a ba mdjib i khijil i 
khod goft ki " Shakr i Ebad£ t " Sinljao porsid ki " Arb£bl 
baklm i shami kfst ? " Arb£b jaw£b d£d ki " malik nl tnanL" 
B^ghbi^ jawab d^ ki " Qadam i &n mtib^rik b^ahad I " 
S^lisan pnraid ki " Arb£b I shab wa nlz gbaifi dii mail mi- 
farmlUd ? " Arbj(b i &Iak-zada az nil i gbdz goft, ki 
" Zahr i m&r mt-khuram." Bighb&n bidilb i takballof i 
maqarrara gnffc ki " niiafa i j&a b^bad I " 

Arbib r£ liqat t^ sbnda bukm dfid, t& li r£ ai mqlis 
birdn kardand. 

(2). — The hungry traveller and the tick man. 

Saiy^e t& ittaf&qan cbond t6x dar hiySh&a qdi 
mnyassar na shud ; bim i bol^kat kard. Az dardibe i& dfd ; 
ba khiyil i ^ ki tadblr i qiite kuaad, rd ba dih nih^. Nazdik 
i dib dfd cband na&r mnztaribclaa az airSS ml-dawand ; ai 
yak i £ii-b<l sdrat i hSi porsid. Jaw^ d6d ki " kad-kbo- 
di( i dih ba ehiddat Um^r ost, wa barit i awardan i tu^me 
ba dibit i digar mi-rawam." Saiyih barSi huail i qfit hila, 
i ba fchitir-ash rastd ; guft ki '* sbnghl i man ntz Hknut 
ast, va iaak az foUn dib m]-£yBm." An kaa naldm i 
saiyib t& ghantmat abamorda, dlgar^ r& nlz sadfi zad ; hani* 
^adond, wa ba ittafiq i aaiy^h rd ba kbina i kad-khndi 
nihfclaiid. Bain i rtlh aaiyih yate az ^n-bi x& gaft ki 
" plah bi-4^a, wa cbaad ditna i niii i garm h& qadra 'asal 
wa raaghau nazd i kad-kbuda bizir koo, ti man az 'aqSi fai- 
nuam. An shakbs ba ta^jfl rail, wa &a chi soiyA gnfla bdd 
h^irkard. Dar ia hil saiyib bam rosid, wa rafl, nazdik 

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i hHia i kad-khodi nishast. Mata'alliq^ i kad-]diad& tiar 
jak ba zab£ae ta.*zlm va takrim wa shnkifina i qadam i 
BaijSh T&hsk ji, ivatdand, wa Utim& dar tawaj[jtilt i 'ilfij 
mi-namiidand. Saiyfli dar &a h£I n&a wa 'asal wa rangha n 
li pish kashlda wa dar-ham Amikht, wa Inqma Inqma bar- 
d^ta daar i sar i kad-khnd^ mi-gardind w£ mt-kliard, wa. 
bjizirin nazar i ta'ajjub&ia ba kaiflyat i 'ilij mf-kardandi 
wa az sflda-lanhi haml i bar hikmat i jadlde mi-namiidond. 

Qaz£ T& (diiia Inqma i Bftij£h ba ikhar rastd, j jn i 
kad-khadi ham az badan parid. H^ria &^&z i sburisli 
namiidand ki " /n cki hikmate biid, ki nattja i in mardaa 
shad ? " Saiyah gnft " asl i hikmat bamfn biid, chiri ki man 
ham agar In n&n t& na khnrda bddam, misl i d mi-mnrdam. 


The objecta of this Journal, and of the Society with 
which it ia connected, are explained by the aeries of Bea»- 
Intions passed at the Meeting organising the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which were pablished 
in the first nomber of tliis Journal. 

We ask all who are interested in ihe movement to give 
ns their snpport. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are reqaested to send their names, with the Subscriptions for 
the year, Es. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Soman^Urdti 
Society, Lahore, Members will reoeive a copy of the 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolntiou 
passed at the Ueeting on the 25th May, and invite anbacrip- 
tions to the " Tranaliteration Food." 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
have not yet sent in their names and subscription. We 
trnst tliat they will now do so, and that they will also help 
ns by convasaim; for fresh members, and by oircnlating our 
J<«nuU BOKMtgWh Eofopeani and ^ativea in tiae statiotia 
where they reside. 

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Contribntiona od any of tJie variotu anbjeois oonnooted. 
with tnuulitoraUon, translation wi,dedo(»tioa ceQenillj are 
earnestly solicited from Memberg of the fiooiety. 

raraisD by iuu dab, ax thb"o,ahi) h. oAarra" psxn. 



To advocate the use ^thtSomaa Alphabet in Oriental 







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No* /J* August ^^79- 


( From Profesior Whitneti's " Language and the Study of 


Bat once more, loAy do we spenk ? whnt ia the final 
cause of the gift of language to man P in what way ia the 
possession of such a power of advantage to us? Theso 
enqniriea open a great and wido-reacbing sabjeot ; one far 
too great, indeed, for us to attempt dealing with it, in the 
contracted space at our command, otherwise than in the 
briefest and most superficial manner. A detailed reply caa 
be the more easily dispensed wilb, inasmuch as, on the ono 
band, the worth of speech is too present to the mind of every 
ono to need to be colled ap otherwise than by a simple allu- 
sion ; and as, on the other hiind, onr previous discnssioDS have 
brought more or less distinctly to view the chief points 
Teqoiring notice. 

The general answer, in which is summed np .nearly tho 
whole array of advantages derived from language, is this : 
that it enables, men to be, as they are intended to be, social, 
and not merely gregarious beings. As it is the product, «o 
it is also the means and instrument, of community. It con- 
verts the bnman race from a bare aggregate of individuals 
into a unity, having a joint life, a common development, to 
which each individnal contributes his mito, receiving an 
nntold treasnre in return. It alone makes history possible. 
Alt that man possesses more than the brute is so intimately 
boaud np with language that the two are hardly sepantbls 


( 2 ) 

from'one aaother ; ani, as we have already Been, are regarded 
by some erroneously, bat naturally and excusably, as 
actnally identical. Oar eodowmentSj so infinitely bigber 
than the brute's, need also, as being so much freer and less 
instinotire, to be brought to our knowledge, to be drawn out 
and educated. Tbe spnecbless man is a being 6! undeveloped 
oapatuUes, having within him the seeds of everything 
great and good, but seeds which only language caa fertilize 
and bring to fruit ; he ia potentially the Lord of nature, tbe 
image of his Creator ; bat in present reality be ia only a 
more cunning brute among brutes. There is hardly to be 
found in the whole animal creation any being more ignoble 
and shocking than those wild and savage solitary men, of 
whom history affords as now and then a specimen ; but what 
we are above them has been gained throngh tbe instramen- 
tality of language, and is the product of a slow progressive 
accumuhttion and transmission. If each hnmau being had 
to begin for himself the career of education and improvement, 
all the energies of the race woald be absorbed in taking, over 
and over again, the first simple steps. Language enables 
each generation to ky op securely, and to hand over to iU 
successors, its own collected wisdom, its stores of experience, 
deduction, and inventioo, so that each starts from the point 
whidi its predecessor had reached, and every individual com. 
mences his career, heir to the gathered wealth of an immea- 
surable past. 

• »««•* 

One thing more we have to note in connection herewith. 
The style in which we shall do our thinking, the framework 
of onr reasonings, tbe matters of our subjective apprefaen* 
^on, the distinctions and relations to which we shall direct 
our chief attention, are determined in the main for as, not 
by us. lu leomiag to speak with those about us, we leant 

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( s ) 

also to tliink with them : tbeir traditional habits of mind 
become onra. la this gaidnnce ^ere is therefore something of 
coDstnunt, althongb we are little apt to realize it. Stady of 
a foreign language brings it in some metsare to oar sense. 
He who begins to learn a tongno not bis own is at first hardly 
aware of any incommensorability between its signs for idoas 
and those to which he has been accnstomed. Bat the more 
intimately he cdmes to know it, and the more natnral and 
familiar its use becomes to him, so mtich the mora clearly 
does ho see that the dress it pats apoa his thoughts modifies 
their aspect, the more impossible does it grow to him to 
translate its phrases with satisfactory accuracy into his native 
speech. The individnal is thos unable to enter into a com- 
manity of langnage-osers without 8«ne abridgment of bis 
personal freedom — even though the penalty be wholly insig- 
nificant as compared with the acorning benefit. Thus, too 
each generation feels always the leading hand, not only of 
the generation that iinmedTately instracted it, hut of all who 
have gone before, and token a part in moulding the common 
apeedi ; and, not least, of those distant communities, hiJdea 
from our view in the darkness of the earliest ages, whose 
action determined the grand stractaral features of each tongne 
now spoken. Erery race is, indeed, as a whole, the artificer of 
its own speech, and herein is manifested the sum and general 
effect of its capacities in this special direction of action ; 
but many a one has fett through all the later periods of its 
history the constraining and laming force of a langnage 
nnhappily developed in the first stages of furmation ; which it 
might have made better, hod the work been to do over again, 
but which now weighs upon its powers with all the force of 
disabling inbred habit. Both tlie itttellectoal and the histo- 
rical career of a race is thus in no small degree affeoted by 
its speech. Upon this great subject, however, of the infla- 
ence reflected back from language apoa the tboaght aud 

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( t ) 

mind of those who le«rn and use it, we can here only tonch ; 
to treat it with uny fulness woald reqnire deep and detailed 
inveatigntions, both linguistic anil psydiological, for which 
oar enquiries hitherto have only laid the necessary foundation* 
The extent to which the different races of men bare 
availed tfaemsetTes of language, to secore the advantages 
placed within their reach by it, is, natnrally and necessarily, 
as various as are the endowments of the races. With some, 
it has served only the low purposes of an esislence raised by 
its aid to a certain height above that of the brntes, and 
remaining stationary there. There whole native capacity of 
mental development seems to hare exhausted itaelf in tli* 
acquisition of an amount of language even less than is learned 
by the young child of many another race, as the first stage 
upon which his after-education shall be bailt op. Their life 
is absorbed in satisfyiog the demands of tiie hoar ; past and 
future are nothing to them ; the world is merely a hunting- 
ground, where means ftf gratifying physical desires, and of 
len-irthening out a miserable existence, may be songbt and 
found ; its wonders do not even awaken in their minds a 
eense of a higher power ; the barest social intercourse, per- 
petuation by instruction of the petty arts of living, and the 
scantiest adaptation to the changes of external circamstances, 
are all they ask of the divine gift of speech. Tbroogh such « 
condition as this we may suppose that all hnoua langnage 
lias passed ; but while in parts of the world it still stays there 
and gives no prospect of a higher development except through 
the influence and aid of races of better gifts and richer 
acquisitions, it shows elsewhere every degree of progression, 
up even to the satisfaction of the wants of an advanced and 
advancing cnltura like oar own, where the knowledge of the 
past, aiding the understanding of the present and preparing 
for tho future, is laid up in such abundant store, that be 
irho stadies longest and deepest, and with most appredatira 

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( 5 ) 
and inqnisitive indoslry, hardly does more than realize better 
than hia fellows bow litUe he can know of that which is 
known ; how short ia life, compared with the almost infinite 
extent of that series of truths, the infinite varietj of that 
complication of cognitions, i^hich life pnts within oar rencl^ 
und whose apprehension constitntea one of the highest and 
noblest pleasures of life. 

Bnch fall development as this, however, of the nses and 
advantages of speech would be impossible by the instrnmen^ 
ality of spoken speedi alone ; it demands a farther auxiliary, 
in the possession of written s)ieeoh. The art of writing ia so 
natural a connterpart and complement of the art of speaking) 
it so notably takes up and carriea farUier the work which 
langtuge has nndertaken on behalf of mankind, that some 
consideration of it is well-nigh forced npon ns here : oar 
view of the history and office of language would otherwise 
lack a part essential to its completeness. Speech and writing 
are equally necessary elements in human history, equnlly 
growing out of man'a capacity and wants as a social and an 
indefinitely perfectible being. He would be, without language, 
hardly man at all, a creature little laised above the brutes ; 
without the art of record, his elevation wonid soon find its 
limits ; he could never become the being he was meant to be, 
the possessor of enlightenment, the trae lord of nature and 
discoverer of her secrets. Language makes each communityi 
each race,' a unit ; writing tends to bind together all races 
and all ages, forcing the whole of mankind to contribute to 
the education and endowment of every individual. Moreover, 
there is in many respects so close a parallelism and analogy 
between the histories of those two sister arts, that, werS it 
only for the value of the illustration, we should be justified in 
taming aside for a time to follow out the growth of letters. 


( 6 ) 

As in the case of language, it may be remarked, so sIm 
in that of writing, we hardly realize, antil we begin lo 
investigate thesnbject, that the art has hod n history at alU 
It seema to na hanlly less " nataral " to write oar UioDgbt* 
thnn to apeak them : scoh ia the power of edacsted babtt 
that we take both alike as things of coarse. But what vre 
have above shown to be trne of spoken language is still more 
palpably and demonstrably tnie of written ; it was a slow 
and laborious task for men to arrive at tht idea and its 
realization : more than one nice has b»en engaged in the 
work of elaborating for our nse tha simple and convenient 
means of record of which we are the fortunate possessor! ; 
many have been the failures or only partial sacoessea «kidi 
Lave attended the efforts of portions of mankind to provide 
themselves with soch means. Aa it ia imposaible to trace the 
history of onr own alphabet back to its very beginning, sonw 
review of those efEiirts will be our best means of inferring 
what its earliest stages of growth mast have been, and will 
prepare ns to understand what it is, and what are its advan- 

We have first to notice that tbd force which impels to 
tha inronUon of writing, which leads men to represent 
thought by visible instead of audible signs, is the desire to 
commonicate to a distance, to cut expression loose from its 
natural limitation to the personal presence of him whose 
thought is expressed, and make it apprehensible by persons 
far away. Even the intention of record, of conveying the 
thought to a distance in time also, making it apprehensible by 
generatJona to come, shows itself only secondarily, as experi- 
ence suggests such use ; and as for the advantage which the 
individual himself derives from recording his thoaght, so as to 
be able to con it over, to approheud it and its relations more 
diatiDCtly, aa well as that other incalculable advantage whidi 

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tbe individaaUad th4 race derive from the transmission and 
accnmnlatlon ef knowledge by tbia means — these are matters 
vhicb nre stitl farther from the minds of the earliest inventors, 
Bere is a first moat notable analogy between the histories of 
spoken and written speech : tfae satisfaction of a simple social 
impolse arising out of the ordinary needs of intercourse 
between man and man, brings forth by degrees an instrnmen- 
tolity of aapreme importance to the progress of the whole 
human race, l^e earliest writers, like the earliest speakers, 
wrought far more wisely than they knew. 

Agiun, the couTeyanoe of thought by means of writing 
was not primarily conceived of as a conveyance of the spoken 
language in which the thought would be expressed ; it dealt 
immediately with the conoeption itself, striving to place this 
hy direct means before the apprehension of the person addres- 
sed. Speech and writing were two independent ways of 
arriving at the same end. V^e may add that so long as it 
remains in this stage, writing ia a tedious and bungling instru* 
mentality ; the great step towards iba perfection is taken when 
it accepts a subordinate part, as consort and helpmate of speech. 

A first feeble efibrt towards the realization of .the funda- 
mental object of writing is to be seen in the custom — not iufre- 
qnent at a cerbun period of culture, and even retained in 
oecaaional ose among peoples of every grade of civilization— 
of Bending along with a messenger some visible object, 
symboUoal of his errand, and helping both to authenticate 
and to render it impressive. Thus, the prophet Jeremiah 
(Jeremiah, ch. xix) is directed to take an earthen bottle and 
break it before the ancients of bis people, to signify the sud- 
den and irremediable destruction with which he is to threaten 
them. Thus ambassadors and heralds in anoient times were 
charged with the delivery of something typical of the peace 
or war they were sent to proclaim. And the knight's glove, 
ibrowD down in defiance and taken np by him who accepts 


( 8 ) 

tlie challenge, and the staff still broken in Germany over tbe 
head of the contlemaed crituSnal, are inslancea of the same 
f;enerft1 style of iastrnmentality for expressing meaning. 
Objects, too, are nsed in a more arbitrary and conventional 
\raj, oa reminders, helps to the recollection of that nhich is 
communicated orally. So the North American Indian, on 
solemn occasions, had Iiia strips of ffampuoi, correapondioj; 
to the heads of the discoorse he bad prepared ; and banded 
tbes: over, one after another, as each nnnonacement was mnde 
or each argnment finbhed, to the person addressed. We 
should hardly need to take any notice of a method of iotima- 
tion so rude and indefinite as this, but for the developmeot 
which we know it to ha?e attained, as a practical means of 
communication and record, in the usage of one or two nations. 
It received its greatest elaboration ia the system of the 
guippoa, or knotted cords, employed in Peru at the time 
of its discovery and conquest. With these cords the state 
messengers were provided, and by their numbers, their 
colours, their groupings, their style of knotting, they were 
made conrentioQally sijraificaut of each one's message, even 
to partial independence of his own oral esplanatioD. !nie 
accounts, and, to a certain extent, the anuals also, of the 
empire of the Incas are claimed to hare boon intelligibly kept 
by means of tbe qaippot, The Peruvians doubtless made oat 
of this coarse instrumentality all that it was capable of becom- 
ing ; but the essentially low grade of their capacity and cul- 
ture ia indicated by the fact tiint they had risen to the inven- 
tion of nothing better. The Chinese, too, curiously enough 
have preserved the tradidon that their earliest ancestors 
wrote by means of knotted cords, until the mythical emperor 
Fo-fai devised the beginnings of the better system of which 
we shall have presently to Bpeak. 

A higher degree of ingenuity, and a greatly superior 
capacity of progression and development, are to be seen in 


{ 9 ) 

ihe ooatriranoe of a piotare-writing. Tiiis, iQ its simplest 
form, is foanil all over the world, amoog peoples of a certain 
degree of civilization. Let as loolc at an example famisbed 
by the aborij^ines of onr own coantry. 

Two banters bare gone np the river on an expedition, and 
have killed a bear and taken many fish. They endeavour to 
commemorate tlieir success, and make it known to whosoever 
ehttll pass that way after them, by a monument raised upon 
the spot. On a piece of wood they draw two boats, and over 
each the totem, or Bymbolic animal, indicating the family to 
which eaoh banter respeoUvely belong— his surname, as it 
were. The 6(mres of a bear and of half-a-dozen fish loll the 
rest of the simple story. There is here no idea of a narrative 
of aa orderly setting forth of the successive incidents making 
op aa act or occnrrence : the whole compleK is put before the 
eye at once, onanalyzed, ia the form in which we might 
aapposeittolieinthemindofabrnte— or, more properly, 
as it would lie ia the mind of a man destitute of language, 
and biokiag that education in progressive thought which the 
possession and use of language give ; it abnegates, in short, 
the advantages conferred by language, and is confusedly 
Byntbetio, like tbe conceptions of an untaught human being. 
It offers but one element implying a possibility of something 
higher— namely, the totems, which are signs, not for things, 
but for tbe conventional and communicable names of tilings : 
bare is contained in embryo the idea of a written language 
representing speech, and such might bo made to jgrow out of 
it, if tbe picture-writers bad but Uie acuteneas to perceive it, 
and tbe ingenuity to make the conversion. 

The pictorial mode of writing is analogona with that pri- 
nutive stage of language in which all signs are still onomato- 
poetic, immedintely suggestive of the conceptions tbey deaig- 
jiate, and therefore, with due allowance for the habits and 

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( 10 J 

knbwlddge of tho39 who use tbem, talelligible wiAootinstro^ 
tion. To the most prominent and important differeDce 
between tb« two allnsion wns made in tlie last leotare : in 
virtue of the character of the mediam throagh which com- 
mnnicatioQ is made, the earliest written signs denote concrete 
objects, while the earliest spoken signs denote the acts and 
qualities of objects. 

One of the American nations, the Mexican, had broaght 
the art of pictare-writing to a high state of pecfection, making 
it serye the needs of a far from despicable civilization. The 
germ of a saperior development which we saw in the totem- 
figares of the Indian depiction was in their use made to a 
certain extent fruitful. Every Mexican name, irbether of 
place or person, was composed of significaat words, and 
could in most cases be signified hieroglyphically — jnst as we, 
for instance, might sigtiify ' Mr. Arrowamtth, of £fu//,* by an 
arrow and a haman fignre holding a hammer, placed within 
or above the hull of a Tossel. So also, the periods, of greater 
or less length, which made tip their intricate and skilful!/- 
constrnoted calendar, all derived their appellations from 
natural objects, and were intimated in writing hj the figures 
pf those objecte. Thus the Mezican annals were full ofnamea 
and dates composed of figures designating the spoken signs 
of things ; and the idea of a hieroglyi'hic method of writing, 
which should fonnd itself on spoken language, following the 
progress of oral narration and attempting to signifj this 
alone, lay apparently within their easy reach ; and woold, 
possibly, hare been reached in due time, had the Mexican 
culture been allowed to continue il^ career of progress nninter> 
fered with. Authorities are somewhat at variance, indeed, as 
to wh&t was the real condition and character of the Mexican 
picture-writing at the time of the Conqnest, some holding 
that it had already become a representation of continuous 

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( 11 ) 

spoken texts. That there ima a qnlfe eTtensire Mexican 
literatore ia certain ; but the ignorant fanaticism and super- 
atition of the Spanish conqnerors almost swept it oot of 
existenoe, destroyins; nt the same time the key to its compre- 
beosion, whioh has not yet been fally recovered. 

In Egj'pt, the same beginnings have grown into an 
inatitation of qnite a diSorent character. The EgypUan 
hieroglyphs, in even the very earliest monaiiieats preserved 
to ns, form a completely elaborated system, of intricate 
constitation and high development ; it nudergoes hardly a 
perceptible change daring all the long period covered by the 
monamental records : yetits transparency of stracture is snch 
that it exhibits in no small degree, like the grammatical 
structure of the Sanskrit language, its own history. In its 
origin and application it is pecaliarly a commemorative and 
mounmental mode of writing, and it retains to the last strictly 
its pictorial form ; every one of its separate signs is the 
representation of some visible object, however far it may be 
removed in use from being a designation of that object. It is 
in this respect like a langaage which has never forgotten 
the derivation of ita words, or corrupted their etymological 
form, however much it may have altered their meaning. On 
tlio Egyptnin monnmenta are found, accompained and 
described by the hieroglyphics, many and various pictorial 
scenes — sach as kings besieging cities or loading trains of 
captives, individuiils making oS^erings to divinities, sotila 
undergoing judgement and retribntion, and other the like— all 
of which are cast in conveutional fonn, and often contain 
Bymbolic elements : their intent is much more didactic thaa 
artistic ; they are n^eant to inform rather than to illustrate ■ 
these, then, are with evident plausibility assamed still to 
represent the earliest, purely pictorial, stnge of Egyptian writ- 
ing, corresponding with that illustrated above by an example 
funusbed by oar own aborigines ; while the hieroglyphs grew 

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C 12 ) 

oat of the attempt — alao fiodiaj^ ita analogtio in the totttif 
figarea of that example, and still more faWy ia the Mexican 
delineationa — to designate and explain the persona and 
actions depicted. The ways in which this end iraa attained) 
and figared signs made indicative of names and abstract ideasi 
-were Tarions ; bomonymj and symholism were both fertile of 
characters : thus, ^e name of the god Osiris, Henri, was 
written by the two figures of a kind of seat (?), het, and an 
eye, in ; the figure of a basket, neb, signified also neb, ' a 
lord:' a band ponring libations from a vase meant 'offer in 
sacrifice ; * an extended hand bearing some object meant Ut 
'give,* Uie wallowiog hippopotamus denoted 'filth, inde* 
cenoy i' and so on. Bat the Egyptians showed in this part 
of the development of their system a much higher aptitude 
than the Mexicans for analytic representation, for parallel- 
ing, and then indentifying, the process of writing with that 
of speaking. In the first place, tbey came to be able to write 
symbolically such a sentence as " Toung I old I God bates 
indecency, " by the five figures of a child, an old man, a hawk^ 
n fisb, a hippopotamus, placed one after the other, while the 
Mexican woold have given a synthetic symbolic representa- 
tion of the action by a piotare of the Great Spirit chastising 
an evil-doer, or in some other like way. fiut, in the second 
place, the Egyptian system had token the yet more important 
Btep — one which, if followed up, would have brought it to 
the condition of a real alphabet — of indicating simple sounds, 
phonetic elements, by a part of its figures. That such a step 
lies not far off from the homonymio designation of a thing by 
Bomething nbich called to the mind the sounds of which ita 
name was composed, is evident enough ; still, no little insight 
and tract was needed in order to bridge over and cross the 
interval, and we do not apprehend so fully as we could desire 
the details of the movement It appears, however, that th« 
figure of an object was first made to designate some othw 

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conception whose name ajpwd nitb iU own in the conso- 
nantal element), to the exclasioa of the more variable vowels ; 
and then, by a farther abstraction, instead of designating 
thns a part of tlie phonetio elements of its own name, it 
eama to signify the initial element only, whether consonant 
or TOwel. For example, the figure of a lion, labo, is ased to 
represent I; that of an eagle, ahom, to represent a. Proper 
names are written almost exclasively in this style of charao- 
ters, and the decipherment of the names Ptolemy and 
Geopaira on the inscription of the famous Rossetta stone, as 
Bet down distinctly in pnre phonetic signs, was the first step 
in oar recovery of the key to the hieroglyphs. In ordinary 
texts, Qm phonetic, homonymiCf and sybolical characters ore 
intricately mingled, Tarionsly aiding, explaining, and sub- 
plementing one another's meaning. Thos, the signs for 
Osiris {Besiri), already given, are always accompanied by 
the figure of a peculiar hammer or hatchet, which some 
unknown reason has made one of the standard symbols of 
divinity; the verb It, 'give,' having been once written pho- 
netically, has the symbolic outstretched arm with gift added 
by way of farther ezphuiation ; and so on. 

In monumental, and to some extent also in literary nse^ 
the hieroglyphs maintained, as already remarked, their picto- 
rial form unaltered, as long as the kingdom and civilization 
of Sgypt hod an existence : reverence for ancient custom, as 
well as tiieir peculiar adaptedness to the purposes of archi- 
tectural decoration, to which they were so largely applied, 
preserved them from corrupting change. But how easily, 
under the exigencies of familiar practical nse, a true alphabet 
might have grown ont of tiiis cumbrona, long-winded, and 
intricate mode of writing, is shown in the history of its two 
derivative forms, the hieratic, sod the demotic or enchorial. 
The former, the hieratic, is simply an abbreviated and cursive 
•tyle of hieroglyphic, in Trhioh «ach figure is represented by 

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( 14 ) 

a part of its onUlne, or otherwise so altered na to be hartllj- 
reoogDizable. It was the ooinmoo written cbarncter of tba 
priesta and sacred scribes, froia a very early period. Ilia 
demotic wajs a still later adaptation of the same, and has lost 
all relics of a pictorial character, being composed of a limited, 
though large and unwieldy, number of arbitrary aign:t, chiefly 
phonetic. What farther improvement and redaction toward 
a true alphabetic form the demotic might in time have nnder- 
gone, we cannot tell. For Greek influence and Christianity 
came in to interrnpt the regular coarse of development ; 
the Christian Coptic literature, casting aside the native 
modes of writing, adopted a new alphabet, founded upon iha 

The history of writing in China, although its final prodncla 
are in appearance bo different from the Egyptian hieroglyphs, 
goes hack to a very similar origin. The Chinese themselves, 
with that love for historical research and record and ths 
explanation of suhBlsUng institutions which has always dis- 
tinguished them, have set down for our benefit all the steps 
of the process by which their immense and unique system of 
signs has been elaborated out of its scanty beginnings ; and 
both prodnct and process present more numerous and strik- 
ing analogies with spoken language and its growth than are 
to be found anywhere else in the whole history of written 
characters. We have already noticed the Chinese tradition 
that their earliest ancestors used knotted cords as a means of 
communication and record. Their first written signs were 
no development out of tliese, but a substitution for them. 
They were, like the Egyptian hieroglyphs, simple pictnrea of 
the objects represented ; such are, in fact, the beginnings of 
every system of written signs for thought, not less necessarily 
than onomatopoetic utterances, designating acts and qualities, 
are the beginnings of every system of spoken ugns. Thus, 

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ilw Bim was denoted by a circle with ft point witltin, the 
moon by a crescent, a mountain by a triple peak, a tree and 
R man liy rnde figares repreaenting their forma, and go on, 
Bigna were provided tlins for a considerable number of 
natDral objects; those, namely, which are most familiarly 
Doted and most easily depicted. Bat aach cannot supply 
otherwise than ia smalt part the needs of a written language, 
any more than onomatopoetia signs thoM of a spokea 
langnage. Their store was notably iaoreased by the com« 
pounding of two or more simple signs ; as the vocabatary of a 
langnage by the composition of spoken elements. For 
example, the signs for ' moantain ' and ' man,' pnt together, 
signified 'hermit;' those for 'eye' and 'water' aignified 
'tear;' those for 'woman,' 'band,' and 'broom,' meant 
' honse-keeper.' A simple symbolism often came in to aid, 
both in the case of single and of compoand signs. A banner 
pointing one way signified 'left;' the other way, 'right;' 
an ear between two doors gave the meaning of ' listen ; * 
'sun' and 'moon,* taken together, indicated 'light ;' 'month' 
and ' bird ' made np ' song,' and so on. This is equivalent 
to the transfer of meaning of a word, effixited through a 
simple asaooiation. But the most abundant means of multi- 
plication of the resonroes of Chinese expression waa found in 
the introdnctioo of a phonetic principle, and the <K}mbiaatioa 
of phonetic and ideographic elements into a compound sign. 
The langnage, as we saw in the ninth leotnre, ia full of 
homonyms, worda identical in phonetic form but of different 
meaning : a sign being found for a word in one of its many 
sensea, either by direct repreaentation or by symbolism, the 
device waa very naturally suggested of making the same sign 
•Qswer for some of its other meanings also, by the aid of an 
appended diacritical sign. It was quite as if we, for instance, 
bad learned to signify lound in " safe and tound " symboli- 
oally bj a turole (as being pecoUarly the complete, onbiokeD 

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( 16 ) 

figare), and bad then suffered it to represent ihe saoH 
phoaelio compoaad in its oilier sensea, distingaiabing eadi 
by some suggestive mitrk : tbns, adding an ear on eitber side 
migbt make it signify ' Bound, aadible noise ; ' a sign for 
* water' written within it would intimate the me«nbig of 
*«oun(2, an arm of the sea;' a depending line and plammet, 
that of 'sound, to try the depth of anything.* Forexample, 
there is in China a certain simple sign having the pronamaa- 
tion p0, and meaning 'white' (what the object represented 
is, and in virtne of what property it was chosen to signify 
this conception, is now no longer known) ; then, with the 
Hgn for 'tree' prefixed, it means ' jw, a kind of cypress;* 
with the sign for 'man,' it means *p^ elder brotfaer ;* viSx 
the sign for ' manes,' it means 'pe, ihe vital prindple in its 
existence after death;' and .so forth. Some signs are thns 
very extensively nsed to form oomponnd characters. In con- 
nection with various others that bear a phonetic valne in the 
componnd ; two of those already instanced are among the 
most common of tbem : the sign for 'man* enters intoneariy 
tix hundred combinations, all denoting something that has « 
special relation to mtin ; that for * tree ' enters into mor« 
than nine hundred, which denote kinds of trees, wood and 
things made of wood, and sncb like matters. Their analogy 
with the formative elements of spoken language is veiy 
evident ; they are signs irhich limit the general valne of the 
phonetio radical, patting it in a certain class or category of 

The Chinese mode of writing, unlike the Egyptian, has 
been ready to forget and lose sight of its hieroglyphic origin, 
to convert its characters, when once the needed association 
was formed between them and their significance, into signs 
wholly conventional, bearing no traceable resemblance to the 
objects they originally depicted, and made liable to any 
modifications which practical convenience, or a eense for 

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( 17 1 

tymmetiy, or mera fancy, shoald soggest tcni recommend. 
!■ this, ftgaiu, it offt^rs a maaifest analogy with what we hava 
repeatedly shows to be the legitimate aad laudable tendeacy 
«f spoken liiiigoage. The characters hare passed tJirongh a . 
variety of troHsitioHal forma on their way to that in which 
they are at present ordinarily written, and which was itself 
established more than a thoosaad years since : some of those 
internediate forms ore still presenred in monaments nnd- 
«noient docnnents, aad to a certain extent even bow 
employed for special Rses — as the older pluiaea of many n 
spokea tongne are kept to the knowledge of posterity by like 
Dieons ; and as a Frenchman, for example, of the present day 
may clothe his thoughts, npoa oocosion, in an Old French or 
» Latin dress. Their carrent shape has been determined 
nainly by the customary instrnments of writing and the 
■Manner of their nae — these have exercised all the modifying 
and adapting force which ia a spoken tongue belongs to a 
|»0W4>rfnI euphonic tendency, like that which has mode alt 
Italian words end ia vowels, and has worn off from French 
vocables tJie syllables which fallowed after the accented ' one' 
ID their Latin originals. And so tboronghly bos their hioro^ 
glyphio origin been covered op and concealed by these trans- 
fermatioNS tbat no one, from their present aspect, wonid 
venture even to conjectare that they had started from ouU 
lines of natural objects : nor would the older preserved 
documents safEoe to prove this ; the truth lay only within 
reach of the Chinese themselves, as having access to tradi- 
tional information from yet more ancient times. We bavo 
DO right to be surprised, then, if the oaomatopoetic begin- 
nings of speech, dating from a period compared with which 
the origin of Chinese writing is lint as yesterday, are no 
longer to be diatiuotly traced in the wora and altered facts 
of suoh language as is now accessible to our researches. 

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Another set of catues has powerfnll/ inflnenced Iht 
AerelopmeDt of the Chiaese wriUra expression ; a&meij, Uw 
poTortf «f the epeken tongae, and the felt need of giving it 
an aid and sopport from withonL The system of mgna oom- 
bines a phonetic and ideograpUc nature in a manner 
pecnliarly its own. It is rather an ansiliary hiogaage Hun 
a redaoUon of sp«ch to writing. It supplies the defects 
and removes the ambigaities of the langnaga it represents ; 
it might be leamd and oaed without saj regard pud to ito 
phonetic equivnlenta ; and if the Chinese were but willing to 
forego converse by the tongue and ear, substitiding for them 
the hand and eye, it would answer tiie purposes of their 
communication vastly better, with its forty thousand signs for 
ideas, thoa the spoken means now chiefly employed, with its 
Scant Ihoosand or twa While the uttered vocabulaiy of the 
Chinese is one of the poorest in the world, their written one 
IS eminently rich and abundant. This farther analogy with 
spoken languages it has, that, as was in the first lectnra 
shown to bo true of the latter, only a part of itg 
resources are required for the ordinary uses of life ; not 
more than eight or ten thousand of its characters are other- 
wise than very rare, and all common needs are supplied by 
from three to five thousand. 

One more important mode of writing is said to be dis- 
Unctly traceable to a hieroglyphic origin: namely, the cunei- 
form, the character of the monuments of Mesopotamia and 
the neighbouring countries. Its signs are made up of various 
combinations of wedge-shaped oletueats : hence the name 
*• cuneiform " (from Latin cunei/ormit, *wedge-flhaped*) ; they 
are also «ometimes called " arrow-headed characters, " from 
the same peculiarity. There are several di9er«nt cund- 
form alphabets, the «Ider of them being exceedingly intricate 
and diiEcuIt, made up of phonetic, ideographic, and aymboBc 
si^DS, variously lAtermiDgled ; and sometimes fiirtlier com- 

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( 19 ) 

plicated, it is said, with combinations which were phonetic 
in the Inngnage for which they were originated, and have 
been transferred to the use of another with tbeir old meaning, 
bnt a different apoken ralne (somewhat, as hoa been pointed 
oat, as we write, viz., an abbreriation of Ijatin videlicet, and 
read it "namely"). Mnch that ragarda the history and 
relations of the different system of cuneiform characters is 
and may always remain, obscnre : bat it is confidently 
daimed that ertdencea are fonad which prove their begin- 
nings to have been pictorial ; and the peouliar form of Ulo 
component elgments is fally recognized as a oonseqaenoe 
of the way in which they were originally written— namely 
Ity pressure of the corner of a sqoare^nded instrament apon 
tablets of soft clay ; these being afterwards dried or burned) 
to make the record permanent. That, ibrongh such inter- 
mediate steps even as these, a hieroglyphic system may 
finally pass over into one traly alphabetic, is shown by the 
derivation from the Mesopotamiau cuneiform of the Persian, 
which is by far the simplest and the beet understood of all 
the systems of its class, being parely phonetic and almost 
purely alphabetic. It contains aboat thirty-five signs of 
aimple soonds, some of those for Uie consonants being par- 
tially of a syllabic character — that b to say, being different 
according as the consonant was to bo followed by one or 
another vowel. In this simpler cuneiform are written the 
Acluemenidan inscriptions, of which we have already mord 
than once had occasion to take notice, as preserving to us an 
Indo-£>uropeaa dialect. The history of its formation is 

I have called the AchEementdan ouneiibnn a partially 
sylUbtc mode of writing ; and syllabic systems have played bo 
important and {mxninent a part in the general history of 
Trriting — in the main, traceably as derivatives from metbodis 


( so ) 

of a diflferent; clmmcter— tbat it is necessary for as to pay 
them here a little special attention. A pure syllabic alphsbet 
is one irboae letters represent syllables, instead of articnla- 
tioaa ; which makes aD imperfect phonetic unalynB of words^ 
not into the simple soands titat compose them, bat into 
their syllabic elements ; wbidi does not separate the Tonrel 
from lis attendant consonant »■ consonants, bat denotes 
l>otb together by an indivisible sign. Such an analysts is 
more nataral and easy to make than one which distin- 
guishes all the pbonetjo elements — specialty in tb» case of 
langoages of a simple atrnctare, whidi do not Ctvoor difficoU 
consonantal ccnnbi nations, and therefore make op bnt a limited 
Bomber of ^llables. Many times, accordingly, when scnne 
race has made acquaintance, with the art of nritJoj; as prao' 
iised by another, and, instmcted and incited by the latter's 
example, has set about representing its own sptJten toi^ne 
ky written signs, it has fallen first npon the syllabic method. 
One of the most noted alphabets of tliis kind is the JapanMO 
iata-kana or irofa (so called from the names of its first 
signs, like alphabet, from alpha, held), to which we ha*» 
already once had occasion to allude (in the ninth lectsre): 
it was made oni of fragments of Chinese i^racters, and con- 
tained forty-seven diSerent signs, one for each of the syl- 
lables of which the Japanese words were made up : f<H- thft 
spoken alphabet of the Inngnnge then iucloded only ten 
consonants and fire rowels, and no syllable contained more 
than one vowel, with a single preceding consonant. A 
similar nI|^habet was devised for the Cherokee language, not 
many years ago, by an ingeniona member of the tribe, Qeorge 
Ouess, who, though he bod never learned to read Eoglisbi 
hod seen and possessed English books, and knew in general 
what was their use : it contained eighty -five signs, mostly 
iiishioned out of English letters, thongh with total disregard 
of their original value. 

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( 21 ) 

Another and a less pnre form of aylkbic flIpLabet is tbnt 
which treats the consonaiit alone as the sTibstnntial pnrt of 
tiie syllable, ttnd looks apon the vowel aa somothing of snb- 
ordinnte consequence — ns it were, a colounng or affection of 
the consonant. In its view, Uien, only tbe consonant has a 
right to be written, or to be written in full ; the aooompany- 
ing rowel, if taken note of at alt, most be indicated by some 
less conspicnons sign, attached to the consonant. Peculiar 
and arbitrary as this mode of oonoeiring of the syllable may 
seem to as, it is historically of the highest importance ; for 
upon it was fonnded the construction of the ancient Semitio 
alphabet, which bos been the parent of the methods of writing 
nsed by the great majority of enlightened naUons, since the 
beginning of history. It is not difficalt to see bow the cha- 
racter of Semitic language should have prompted, or at least 
favored, sach an estimate of the comparative value of vowel 
ond consonant. In Semitic roots and words (as was 
explained in the eighth lecture), the consonants are the princi' 
pally significant, the substantial, element ; the vowels bear a 
anbordinateofiice, that of indicating, as formative elements, 
the mndificatioDS and relations of the radical idea ; the former 
are stable and invariable, tbe latter liable to constant change. 
Perhaps we shitnld not be going tbo far, if we were to say that 
only a language so constructed could have originally suggested 
such an alphabet Be this as it may, the ancient Semitio 
alphabet — of which die Fhenician is the generally accepted 
type, being, whether original or not, its oldest traceable form- 
was a system of twenty-two signs, nil of them possessing 
copBooanta] value ; three, however — namely, the signs for the 
Bemi-rowels y and to, and for wbnt we may call the "smooth 
breathing " — partaking lomewhat of a vowel character, and 
being undfr certain droninBtatioes convertible into representor 
Ures of the vowels, t, u, and a. 

The Phenician alphobet was thus strictly and exclusively 


( 22 ) 

ft phoneUc system, lliongh one of a pecolinr And defectira 
type. We cnnnot possibly rej^nrJ it, therefore, as an imme- 
dinte and originnl invention ; it muat have passed, in the 
Iiands either of the Semites tlieinselves or of some otiior people, 
tliroagli the osaal preliminary Btnges of a pictorial or hioro- 
glyphic mode of tvriting. More probably its elements wero 
bonowed from one or another of the nations, of yet earlier 
civilization, by whom we know the Semitic races to have been 
sarrotmded, before they enteraJ oa their own historic Career, 
^e traditional names of its characters are the recognizable 
appelUtioDS of nutural objects, and each oame has for its 
initial Utter that sonnd which iadtssignatedbyihecharaoter: 
thus, the sign for b is called beth, 'bonse ;* that for ff, girnel, 
'camel; ' that for d, daUtk, 'door ; ' in some cases, moreoveri 
a degree of resemblance is traceable between the form of the 
letter and the figure of the object whose name it bears. This, 
so far OS it goes, would- evidently point toward that npiilica- 
tion of the hieroglyphic prinjCiple which, as we saw abure 
made the figures of the lion and eagle represent in 
Egyptian use the letter I and a. The sabjoct of the ultimate 
history of the Pheniciun alphabet, however, is too ob score and 
too much controverted for us to enter here into its discussion ; 
invostigationa of it have reached hitherto no satbfactory 

The diffusioD which this alphabet and its dorivattves have 
attuued is truly wonderful. From it come, directly or in- 
directly, the three principal Semitic alph^ets, the Hebrewj 
the Syriao, and the Arabic, the last of which has gained cur- 
rency over no iaconsiderable part of the Old World, being 
employed by nations of divene race, Indo-European (Persian* 
Afghan, and Hindustani), Scythian (Turkish), and Polynesian 
(Malay) ; while the Syriac has spread, through the Uigor 
Turkish, Mongol, and Manchn, to the farthest north-eastern 
Asb. The eastern Iranian and the Indian alphabets hard 

:,.ndty Google 

( S3 ) 

bbes inced, thongb more doubtfully, to the same Bodrce ; 
and lodiii, especially, has been a home where it bos developed 
into new asd richer forms, and whence it has been extended 
oyer a vast region, in Asia and the islands lying southward 
from Asia — reaching at last, in its remote derivatives, 
conditions as uultke to the original and to one another, 
OS are the late dialects of a widely disseminated family of 
languages. la nearly all these coantries, through all its 
TarioDS metamorphoses, it has held fust, in the ntain, to 
its primitive character of a consonantal alphabet^ with 
omissioD, or with partial or eabordioated designation of 
tho vowels. But in its progress in the other direction, 
towards Enrope, it fell first into the hands of the Greeks ; 
and from them it received its fin^l perfection, by the 
provision of signs enabling it to represent the vowels nob 
less distjnotly than the consonants. In the Greek alphabet, 
for the first time in all our review of the liiatory of writteu 
speech, we find realized what we cannot but regard as 
the true ideal of ft mode of writing— namely, that it be simply 
a faithful representation of spoken speech, famishing a 
visible sign for every andible sound that the voice utters, 
Dot attempting to distingnish any class of sounds as of more 
of importance than another, nor to set itself np as an inde- 
pendent instrnmentality for the convayanco of thought by 
overpassing the limits of utterance, and assuming to give 
more or other than the voice gives in speaking. 

From the Qreek alphabet have been derived, by modifica- 
tions and adaptations of greater or less conseqaenoe, several 
others, used by peoples of each of the grand divisions of the 
eastern continent — as the Coptic of later Egypt, already 
referred to, and the Armenian ; the mnea of some of the 
Oermanio tribes also, and the early Celtic modes of wriUng, 
trace their origin back to it, mainly throDgh Qa Latin ; as 


( 24 ) 

does Um moderii Raesian, tiie most nngaialy anil Qny^mmetri- 
eal, perbapB, of all its deacxmdants. Bnt tlie Latin al]di^>et 
itself ia beyond all comparison the most important of its 
deriTntive forms. The Greek colonies of soathern Italy 
were the means of bringing Qreek letters to the knowledge 
of the inhabitants of the peninanla, and aerera] of the Italiaic 
nations — the Btrnscans, Umbrians, and Osoans, as well ai 
ih« Latins — provided themselves with alphabets derived from 
the Qreek. All these excepting the last have passed away, 
along with the nationalities and kngaages to which they 
belonged; hat the Latin alphabet has become the comnioa 
property of nearly all the enlightened nations of modnn 
time whose civilisation is derived from that of Greece 
and Borne ; while, under Earopean iafluenoe, its nso has 
also extended and is extended among the races of inferior 
endowments and culture, even crowding on', to some est«it, 
their indigenoos and less ooavenient modes of writing. 

Onr examination of the history of writing might here 
properly enongh be closed ; yet the particular interest which 
we take in onr own alphabet will justify as in delaying a 
UtUo, to note the principal steps of the process by whidi 
it has been derived from the Fbenician— so fur, at least. 
OS it ia possible to do tiiis withoat graphic illnstratioa. 
We shall also thus see more clearly how a borrowed system 
is wont to be modified and expanded, in passing from the 
service of one langaage into that of another. There ia 
never a precise accordance between the phonetto system^ 
the spoken alphabets, of any two languages, so that a written 
alphabet which suits the one can be immediately applied 
to the other's oses ; and hence the history of every scheme of 
diaracters which has won a wide carrency, among Tarioni 
nations, presents a snocession of adaptations, mors or less 
wisely and skillfully made. 

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( S5 ) 

Tho eliief cbango irroaglit upon tlie Fhenician nlpbabet 
by th^ Qrdeks ojiiiUtaJ, as li-ts beoa alreitl/ pointed oat, 
!■ ttiu [irovidion af signs for the vowels. Tbe Seinitio 
tsagnes, as cotnpared with the Greek, were chamoterixed by 
■tn excess of gultariit and sibilant soauds : the snperflaoua 
signs represeating these, then, were pnt to divers new 
■80S ia Qreece ; our A, E, and were to the Fheniciaas 
designations of oertoin guttural breathings, Laving the 
valaeof cousoaaatd I tho seiui'vowoljr being wanting in Greek 
its sigtt w:ii greatly atterei anl slmptifieJ to form oar I ; 
tiiesign for u> was ratiiued by the early Greeks as the 
•ii^ainma (tbongh abLtndone<) later) ; for », they invented 
a wholly now charaoter, V or T (which are by origin only 
varying gra[>hLo farms of the samo letter.) The other Greek 
alterations uad additions may be passed ovar, aa of less 

The Latin alphabet wits takeQ from one of the older 
fomu of the Greek, before the charooterd of the latter had 
•ssnnaed In all points the form and value with which we are 
most familiar — when the H, for example, had still its valao 
as a breathing, and had not been converted into a long ^ 
The system of spoken sounds for whioh tho Latin reqaired 
Written representatives wiis bat a simple one : to the Qfteea 
artionladons which, as we saw in the seventh lectare 
had been the primitive possession of the Indo-Europeaa 
family, it had added bat three, the medial vowels e and a, 
and the labial spirant/ lit had, indee.t, the semi-vowels y and 
to also, bat did not distinguish them in writing from tlie 
vowels t and u, with whioh they are so nearly identical : I and 
i, V and V, are but graphio variations of the same sign). 
Denrly all the Latin letters nre the samo with tho Greek| 
or differ from them only by slight diversities of form : baf 
(tne or two points of discordance need a word of oxplanaUon. 
The Latin system ia most pecaliar in rejecting the K, which 

:,.ndty Google 

T !6 ) 

ma foand m every Greek alpluibot, of wliaterer penocl or 
locality, aad in writing both its k and g BoandB at first by a 
single letter, 0, the anciest alga for the ^-sonnd ODly ; tlwa, 
when it oame to itself^ and felt agoia the seed ef a sei»rele 
desigaatioa for each, it knew no better than to retaia the 
for the i-seaad, and to add a dioorittcvl nark at its lower 
end, mokiog a O, for theporjiose of denotiag the corresponding 
sonant, g. By a soraenhat similar process of transfer, we 
hare come to write the ;>-3oand by the sign, P, which for- 
merly belonged to the r ; when tbe older sign for p, T, bad 
assnmed a shape so nearly agreeing with tbe P that the two 
were not readily JistiDgaished from one another, a tag was 
bang npon tbe crook of the latter as a farther diaoriUcal 
mark, and it was thos made into R. For the /-sonnd, the 
ancient sign Tor to, the Greek digamma, T, waa somewhat 
arbitrarily adopted, its only special reoommendaUoa being 
that both to and / were labials. Tbe Q represents an 
old Pbenicinn letter, a deeper gattnral than k, rejected 
by tbe later Greek alphabets oa saperflaoas — and really no 
better than saperflnoos in th? Iiatin, where the pronim<»ilHHi 
of the it^oand before s did not differ eneagh from its 
pronnnoiaUon before a aad a to call for an indepeadent 
notation. Of the'rematiung three Lnttn letters, the Z is a 
Greek inventioa (ased in some Greek alphabets also with its 
Latin ralne, or representing xi, instead of chi)^ and, aa stand- 
ing for the doable sound it, not less needless than Q; T and 
Z ore later importations ont of the Greek alphabet, and asad 
only in Greek words, to signify pecaliar Greek soonds (the 
Greek upsilon having by this time changed its raise of u for 
that of IJie Frenoli ti, German H). 

The changes which we, is snr tarn, hare iatrodnced int* 
the Latin alphabet, ia adapting it to our parposes, are not 
insignificimt, althoagh far frora being enoagh to make it 
repreaent osr spoken language aa fully and consistently as it 
formerly did that of the Romans, besides the eighteen 

:,.ndty Google 

{ 27 ) 

articnTations of tibe early Uomaos, we hare (as was ebowa 
»bove, in the third lecture) at least foartoeo otiiera which 
0^1 more or lass imperatirely for separate designation; 
There are the a of cat and eare; the a of v^at and all, and 
tbo w of cut and curt ? there are the two seini-vowel 
BOimd^y and ur, the palatal naaat (which we commonly 
write nkh ty, as io singing), the three sibilants, x, tk, and zh 
(tbe s of azani), the two 8oand» of th, in thin and thiM, and 
the V of vaSte ; and, finally, the compoond consonants- ck (in. 
cAiwrA ) and / (in iudg&). Some of these needs we have 
maoaged to- provide for : we hare turned tliQ two formi o-f 
the Latin t, I and J^ into two separate latteis, with very 
different valnea ; we bare done the same thing with tlie two- 
forms of tf, V and U| converting the former Into a sign for 
tbe sonant labial spirant ; by donbling the same- charactev 
we have made one wholly new letter, te, for the labiat 
semi-vowel ; and ^ve have ntilizedyand z, as* semi-vowel 
and sonant sibilant. We have also brought it back into its 
old place — ^yet without perceptible gain, since its introdno- 
Uon makes o snperflaons ; k, e, and a having bat two sonnds 
to designate antong tbem. The new characters wtich the 
Anglo-Saxons had devised for oTpressing the two tA-sonnda 
we have onfortunately snfierod to go ont of use again. And 
f and jr are stUI as useless to us as they were of oM to the 
Bomans. Hence, we have virtuaTIy only t\venty-thrco 
letters wherewith to write at least thirty-two sonnds. In 
the process of phonetic change, whose tendency is always 
towards the increase of tbe spoken alphabet, the filling up of 
the system of articulated sounds by the distinction of slighter 
and more nicely di^rentiated shades of articulation, onr 
spoken alphabet has very notably outgrown the limits of 
our written alphabet 

To this cause are to be attribnted, in part, the anomiire 
of oar orthography. But only ia the lesser part. If an 


( 28 ) 

alpbnbet isbanHyabloteftnlargeitaelfto th« dimensions of 
a growing body of soands, it J9 becnuse nten do not rati ly 
l»ara to write tbeir word^ otherwiss than ns they twva been 
ftoouatomed to d(^ even when they hnvo learned to |iTonoo»ce 
tiiero otherwise — and Ibe enme coase opemtes in oilier way* 
yet more effectually to bring about « discordtince bef.we«n thv 
spoken and the written limgnage. It has been the mis&r- 
tune of the English to pass, during its written period^ 
through the most iinportout crisis in its liistory, Us iitixture 
with the l^ormau French, also a written tongue : uut only 
were the discordant orthogmphic usages of the two thus 
forced together within the limits of the sutne hinguage, but 
a period of both orlhoepic and orthogmphio coufuEiou was 
introduced — and the orthogmphic cvntusiou has been, iu 
great measure, ouly stereotyped, uot temedied, by the usuge 
i)f later limes. 

We of<tbe present age have ihiu been in a measnts 
deprived, not by oar own fiinlt, of the advantafi;ea belonging 
to a phonetic mode of writing— advantages which eeeiued to 
fcave been secured to us by the joint hibors of 'ao many 
races and so many generations. And yet we are not alto- 
gether without fault in the matter, for we are consenting 
unto the deeds of oar fathers and predecessors. As a 
community, we are not content wiUi accepting as inevitable 
oar orthogmpliical loheritanoe, and resolving to make the 
best of it, despite its defects ; we even defend it as being 
better than any other; we strive to persoade ourselves that 
«u etymologioiil or a historioal mode of spelling, as we 
phrase it, is inherently preferable to a phonetio. Now it is 
altogftther natural and praiseworthy that we should be 
Btrongly attached to a time-honored institution, ia 
the possession of which we bare grown up, and whidi we 
bave learned to look vtpon as a purt of the subsisting fabris 
of four speech ; it ia D.itural that we ;^oald lore even it 

:,.ndty Google 

( !? ) 

ttbnses, and sboald feei the present iDconrenience to 
onnelves of Rbandoning it innch more keenly tbaa any pros- 
peclire ntlvantnge wliicli majr result to ns or our saccesson, 
from tncb action ; that we should therefore look with jealoa«jr 
npoD tLOj one who attempts to change it, questiooitig nar- 
rowly his right to set himself ap as its reformer^ and the 
merits^of the reforms he proposes, But this ualnml and 
laudable feeling becomes a mere blind prejudice, and justly 
open to ridicule, when it puts on airs, proclaims itself the 
defenderofagreutpriQciple,regards inherited modes of spelling 
as sacred, and frowns upon the phonetist as one who would 
fuiu mar the oaaeutial beauty and value of the langiuge. Of 
all the forms of linguidtio conserTatism, or purism, othograpbic 
puriam, is the lowest and the easiest; for it deals with tha 
were extrmul shell or dress of language, and many a one can 
make stout fight in behalf of the right spelling of a word 
whose opinion as to its pronunciation eren, and yet more its 
meaning and nice applioation, woald possess no authority or 
Tolne whatever : benee it is also the commonest, the least 
reasonable, and the most bigoted. When it claims to be 
asserting a principle, it is only defending by casuistry a preju- 
dice ; it detennines beforehand to spell in the prevailing mode, 
and then oasts about to see what roasous besides the mode it 
ean find for doing so in each portionlar ease. It overwhelms 
with misapplied etymologic Ieamin]{ bim who presumes to 
write Aoww and /arop for honour nnd /upouj* (as if it were 
highly desirable to retain some reroioiacenoe of the Frenob 
forms, hoiuimr and /aveur, through which we have derived 
t,bem from the Latin honor and favor), and then insists jnst as 
strongly upon neighbour (which is neither French nor Latin), 
.it is not more cencemed to preserve the f of ealm (Latia 
■aUmui) than that of cotUd (Anglo-Saxon cudhe : the / has 
blundered in, from fancied analogy with woald and ihould), 
tlte g of tactrtign (Old-Engtisb ioveraine, French towifrain, 


( 30 ) 

Italivi sovrano) tban tluit o[ veiffn (Latin regnitm), the s of 
itland (Anglo-Sa:can ealand ) thati that of isle (Old-Freneb 
iele, Lutin ituula) ; it upholds such aiiomulies as viomen, which 
offends eqanlly against the phoaetic and the etymological 
principle (it comes from Anglo-Snson w(/-inen). How 
much better were it to confess candidly that we cling to onr 
modes of spelling, and are determined to- perpetuate them, 
simply because they are ours, and we are used to and love 
them, with all their absurdities, rather than try to make tliero 
out inherently desirable I Even if the irregnlaritipa of Engliah 
ortliography were of historical origin throughout — as, ia 
fiict, they are so only in part — it is not the business of 
writing to teach or suggest etymologies. We have already 
Dotdd it as one of the distinguishing excellencieB of the Indo- 
Enropean languages, that they are so ready to forget the 
derivation of a term in favor of the convenience of its 
partical use: he, then, is ready to abnegate a hereditary 
advantage of his mode of speech, who, for the siike of 
occasional gratification to a few curious heads, woald rivet 
for ever upon the millions of writers and readers of English 
the burden of snch an orthography. The real etymologist 
the historic student of language, is wholly independent of any 
Buch paltry assistanco^ nnd would rejoice above measure to 
barter every " historical" item in our spelling during the last 
three hundred years for a strict phonetic picture of the 
language as spoken at that distance in the pasL Nor do we 
gain a straw's weight of advantage in the occasional 
distinotioD to the eye of words which are of different 
signification, though pronounced alike : onr language is not 
so Chinese in its diaraotor as to require aid of this sort ; 
our writing oeeds not to gnard against ambignities whi<^ 
are never felt in onr spoken speeoh ; we shoulJ no more 
miss tile graphic distinction otmeet, meal, and meU, of right^ 
.write, and rtte, than we do now that of the two cUave'a and 

:,.ndty Google 

( 31 ) 

page't, tlie Uiree or foar found's and mmntTe, or the otber 
gronps of honio&jins of tlie fame class. 

It may Trell be the case thai a tboroogh reform of 
English orthography will be found for ever impmoticable ; 
it certainly will bo so, whilo the public temper remains 
what it now is. Bat let as at any rate acknowledge the 
truth that a reformation ia greatly to be desired, and 
perhaps, at some time in the fatare, a way will be foand 
to bring it abont. If we expect and wish that oar tongne 
become one day a world-language, understood and employed 
on every continent and every oUme, (hen it is oar boanden 
duty to help to prei>are the way for taking off its neck this 
heavy millstone. How heavy, we are hardly able to 
realize, having onrselves well nigh or qnite forgotten tho 
toil it once cost ua to lenm to rend and speak correctly; 
yet we cannot help seeing how seriona an obatacle to the 
wide extension of a language is a mode of writing which 
converts it, from one of the easiest in the world, into ono 
of the hardest for a foreigner to acquire and use. 

Editobial Notes. 

Dr. Fallon having nearly completed his Hiuddstinf 
English Dlotionary, proposes to snpplemeat it by a com- 
pauien volume io English-Hindiistiiul 

This second volume wilt be entirely in the Roman 
character, as our readers will see fiom the following notice la 
a recent issue of the CivU and MUilaiy Gazette : — 

" The Hindiist^nt-Engliah Dictionary, which Dr. Fallon 
has now so successfully brought almost to its completion, will 
henceforth ho the standard authority npoa the subject, and 
will therefore be iudispeosable to all to whom a correct know- 

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( 32 ) 

tedga of tbe TdrnacnUr most widely spoken thranghoat tba 
couQtry 19 noooasarjf. That work, howerer, will be more or 
less iaoomplete withont a oortespoDdlag volume, arraDgoi] 
RS an English-Kindtutdni Dictionary, and this deaideraton, 
we are glad to see. Dr. Fallon proposes to supply by issuing 
a oompaaiou volmne to his BlndiiatiiA-Eagltah Diatiooary. 
The new volume la to oooipy fro-.a. nine to twelve qoarterly 
numbers in parts oC 48 pagea, aupsr-royal 8vo. A spedmsn 
|iiige has been seat to us, and we need only any that the 
arrangement of the words is the host that could be chosen* 
white the typs and get up are most creditable to the printer. 
The whole of this volume will be in Roman or ordinary 
English type, no vernacular typos being used, ^e work 
promises to be a most nsefol one." 

We see from the Proceedings of the Uulcntta Asiatic 
Society that Hr. M. L. Dames, of the Punjab Commi3aioa> 
has recently publislied a Baldcli£ vooabulary with an outline 
of Bal6chi Grammar. The Procoadiugs give the following 
abstract of tho work ; — 

" The langanga of BaIdohist4a is divided into two dia- 
lects, the Korthern and the Southern. The latter, which is also 
called the Makr^nf has been Utelydealt with in Major Modeler's 
G-rammar. The present work treats of the Northern dia- 
lect, which is spoken among the Bind Bal&cbfs living in 
tJie neighbourhood of the BohEn Pass in Kadii,. and on th« 
Upper Sindb and South Pasjab Frontiers. The difference 
between the two dialects is so great, that the one is almost 
nnintelligible to the tribes spooking the other. Baldcbf can 
hardly be called a written language. It is only within the 
lost few years that Baliichfs have begun to write it, Persian 
being the ordinary modium of written oommanicaUon, and 
the Buldchb oonsidering their language to be merely a col- 
loquial form of Persiao. As regards vooabolary, it b ft mixed 

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( M ) 

litngnage. The original old Persinn atook baa formed' tlie 
ancleos ronad wbtuh the alien elementa, principnily Sindhi 
and South Fanj^bi, have gathered. The preaent work is the 
first attempt to compile a full and systematical vocabulary of 
the Northern dialect ; and hereby diff<)Ts from the accounts 
of it by Lsech in the Joarnnl B. A. 8. for 1840, Bruce in 
his Manual (Lahore 1869) and Gladstooe iu his Biluchi 
Uiinual ( Lahore 1873 >." 

ITie Civil atid Military Gazelle, Jnly of 25th contain 
an article on " Nationality." With portions of that articia 
we concor. Wo are willing fo admit that it is good for the 
people of India, " that they should not be totally merged in 
one uniform, soul-less multitude, to be reckoned by millionflf 
but not held in account for noble thonghts, pictnresqno 
expressions, or glorious deeds." We also admit that " tho 
mora enlightened members of the Native community will do 
well to praaerve in healthy activity whatever there is of 
good report in the troditious and customs peculiar to each 

But we protest against the doctrine which underlies the 
f jllowing passage. — " Though held in subjection by the same 
Power, no attempt has ever been made to fuse the aucces- 
sively subjugated principality of India into one harmonious 
and homogeneous whole. A more dangerous and oompro- 
mising policy than that wonid prove could not be conceived. 
It would bo an act of political suicide. Were the two hund- 
red millionaof Indian subjects of the British Crown to become 
thoronghly united ns one nation, it would be physloully 
impossible to govern them, except in accordance with their 
own pleasure. For reasons of Impurial polity, therefore, is 
woald be in the highest degree imprudent and anadvisablo 
to break down ethnical barriers and hereditary prejudices." 


( 34 ) 

The doctrine abore eonnciatecl is fair enongb ia a sM* 
of TVar. Bat we protest against its ap|ilication u a par* 
mnnent principle of oar Indian policy. Domeatic dianntoa 
B indeed the oanae— ^ta well as the joatification— «f otir In* 
dian Eimpire, bnt we repndiate the MacchiaTelUan doctrioe 
that we are to keep np " ethnical barriers and hereditar/ 
prejadices" for the sake of oar "Imperial polity," 

Id the matter of edaution, ut any rate, we wonid repeit 
what we bare said in previoos numbers of this Journal. 
" If you don't want to educate the people of India, say so, 
and there's an end of it. Bat if yo^ want an edncatiooal 
system at all, let it be one which will have a permanent 
Influence for good on the national character." We admit 
that the object which onr Society has in view — the intr»* 
dttction of the printing-press and of the Roman Character — 
will in the courge of yecera tend to break down " ethnical 
harriers " and " hereditary prejadicea " and to awiken in 
lien thereof a healthy and ennobling spirit of " nationati^." 
Boubtless, diis will lead to important political changes, but 
sach changes, though they may modify, need not destroy oor 
" Imperial polity." 

Wliatever these political changes may be, they will ensne 
naturally, — in the fitness and fulness of time, Not so Uks 
Worktn; of the existing system, which spreads a thin layer oF 
purely Western ideas over a Society whose main constitnen*! 
are not raised to any appre<uable degree above tfanr previ' 
ous level. 

Changes, we repeat, moat come (under any aystmn of 
fidacation that is not altogether a sham), bnt of the two 
dangers to our " Imperial polity" which is the more uRtni. 
ntni —the growth of a true and widely-felt spirit of nadon' 
ality, or the growth of an enormous class of disappointed 
and disaffected candidates' for Goremment employ ? 

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< 85 ) 

Probacy, tbe difference between Uie writer ia the Civil 
and iliUtarff and oarsolves is leu than it woald seem to be 
from the passaj^ to whiob we hare taken exception. We 
ann, both of ns, quote with approval the following remarks 
from one of George Eliot's worltfl :— 

"The tendency of things is towards the qoicker or 
■lower fosioQ of races. It is impossible to arrest this ten- 
dency : all we can do ia to moderate its course so as to hinder 
it from degrading the moral status of Societies by a too 
rapid effacement of those national traditions and customs 
whiob are the language of the national genius— the deep 
inckera of healthy aenUment, Such moderating and gni> 
dance of inevitable movement is worthy of all efibrt." 

Precisely so, these are the principles of the Boman* 
Urdii Society. 

The Caloatta Review for July lias reoohed ni. Several 
of the articles are very heavy reading, but some of tbem 
contain valuable matter, though it ia difficult to give aa 
analysis of their contents that would be satisfactory to oar< 
selves or to onr readers. We therefore content ourselves 
with a bare enameratioa of titles-«(l), Becent Investiga. 
tions into Archaic forms of Religion ; (2), the Music of 
Hindastio'; (3), on the Study of Pbysloal Science j (4) 
Bavensbaw's Claur ; (5), Monumental InsoripUons in all 
parts of the world s (6), the Law of Basements in th* 
Panjib and the formation of Customary Law ; (7), the 
Wants of Bebir j (8), Afghtnistin and the Afghans (a 
Beview of Dr. Bellew's Work), The volnme conoludes with 
DOtei of the quarter and with several oritioal aotioei. 

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( 86 ) 

A friend has kiotlly placed at oar disposal iP Beview of 
Kaene's " Tarks iu India," — a work which we commeiid io 
iha attention of oar readers. 

We also pnblish a pi^er hy Mr. Pearson entitled 
** Science in Boman-UrdiS." The difBcnlty of representing 
Eoropean names and the terms of modern science in the 
vernaculars of India is a. serioos one. In the obscarity and 
uncertainty of the Persian character snch words are generally 
illegible, and one way of spelling is as good (or as bad)' 
US another. But as soon as we adopt the printed Roman, 
we must faoa and oreroome the difBculty. The principles 
by which we should be guided are, we think, dear, though 
their application is not always easy. We would express 
tiieae principles thus — 

1. Proper names of persons or of places ahonld, as a 
rale, be spelt according to the orthography of the countries 
to which they belong. If it be necessary to give the 
phonetic spelling as well, this can he done by the Use of 

2. Where a scientific term has to be adopted, if u 
equivalent can be fonnd in the vemacolar — or even if it 
can be coined — without a show of pednntry, and without 
violence to the general system of nomenclature, such vOTsacu* 
lar equivalent is preferable to the English term. For in- 
stance, instead of " safety-lamp " we would say " chir^h-i- 

8. Where, however, it is necessary to use a word of 
foreign origin (not the proper name of a person or place), if 
such word has been already assimilated (or if we wish it to 
be assimilated) as a vern'tcukr word, it is netl to give its 
phonetic rather than its foreign spelling. For instance, we 
would spell the names of the months phonetically. 

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( 37 ) 

4. Where, on tbe otber band, tbe use of ancfa a word 
is merely prorisioiuil and occosionnl, It is better to retain 
the original orthograpLy, but to place the word between 
invorted oonunas so that the reader may be warned. 

5. In many cases, especially with scientific terms, a 
compromise may be possible, the general English orthogra- 
phy being retained, with a eliglu change to render it more 

We want an " Acndemy " to settle these points for us. 
The PanjAb University might exercia^ the fnnctions of snch 
•n academy, if it wonid accept the Itoman alphabet. It 
certainly canuot exercise them on any other basis. 

SciiNca k: Homas-Uedu. 

A translation of Balfour Stewart's Physics Primer la 
the first publication of the Edncation Department in further- 
ance of the views of this Society. It wonld be easy to find 
faalt with the translation and iransliteralion of this tittle 
work, but as a first attempt it is not undeserving of com- 
mendation, and will probably be fonnd good enough for 
practical use. As the boolc has been introduced into the 
scheme of studies for Yernacular Middle Schools, we shall 
soon be in a better position than at present to decide what 
improvements may be made in a second edition, but it is not 
too soon to discuss the general qnestion of reproducing 
modern science in an oriental dress. 

One of the first points for consideration is whether 
English names and scientific terms should be translated 
according to the mlea of onr system, or written in the 
ordinary manner. 

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( «s ) 

In the Fbysics Primer the former method has been 
adopted. We have, 

AkBljan g&a Oxygen gas. 

HaidrojCn g&i Hydrogen gas. 

Kirb^nik aisid g^s ,•. ... Oarbonio add gas. 

Eaidro-fld^rik lusid ... Hydro-Snorie add. 

Paiskal Faacai. 

Arkfiuedfs Archimedes. 

Birekynz ... Syracose. 

Uutil the phonetic system -of writjog has boen generally 
adopted, there can be no donbt that English readers will pre* 
fer to have the nsoal apelling, bat something might be said in 
favor of the other system for vemacniar students. It mnst 
be remembered, however, that an UDfamilior expression vill 
require explanation ia any case, and that it will be less easy 
to identify when given phonetically. Followinj; analogy, it 
may be worth while to note that French phrases in Itnglish 
literature always sppear id their French form, and, though it 
may be a daogarons admission to make in these pages, the 
maximnm, ruucUur non Jit, ia ta tme of a written language 
as of a poet. The following sentences exiubtted in bodi 
forms may be more oonvindng than argnment. ^ey will 
be found at page 80, 81 of the Primer. The foreign terms 
■honld l>e printed in italics:— 

" Is£ liye jab ham ch^te hain ki Rel he Atgan ke jis xw 
men p£ni josh hot£ hai, ns men se har^rat na nikle, to as par 
gUmjihat tt&ra ek gilif charhi dete hiun - 

. Thns the Physics Primer. For Engtidi readon tha 
following is certainly preferable :— 

" JA liye jab ham chihte hiua ki BaUioea/ EngiM ka j!a or 
m«n p^ai josh bot^ hai as men se harirat na uikle, to tu par 
^eantrjaekei nim ek gilif charhi dete hain." 

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( 39 ) 
Again :—Har«rat U sirfynt IcanieiiriUi khislyai w 
Sar Hamfti Vewi Sdhib ke Se/li Lamp 5-* aham'-i-nmWfix 
U 'anial bit-khiibl sumajh men & aakti hai, jis ko khin khod- 
Dewale iati'mil karte hain." Compare. 

" flardrat kl sirfijat karnewAli khi^yat se Sir Humphrey 
Oaey S&ib ke Sc^fety Lamp, &o., &o., &o." 

The choice of »cieniifio terma in a traoBlation i« a matter 
of ina<* delioaoy. Whenever an eqniralent exists in the 
Temacalar which is at onoe familUr and exact in itfl mean- 
ing it should be naed rather than a foreign word. Some 
terms not used in common speech have long ago been adopted 
from Arabic Hiilosophy, or have been introdnced in recent 
times through the various vemacolar text books. For 
« solid," " liqnid," and " gas" onr Primer gives " (Aoa," 
" tdiydl" and " g&»" The last by the way appears occa- 
sionally in an inflected form— " ff <f»en," "gdaon ko." It may 
be objected that " that " does not bear the scientific meaning 
of " solid," and tlut " glis" is not Bindiistilnf. Bat after 
all a beginning mast be made, and it is not easy to say which 
■words are likely to live. When Bacon and his contem- 
poraries began to write science in English, many qnaint words 
of Latin origin were minted of which a small proportion 
only ever passed as corrent coin. It will be the same before 
Urdii can boast of a vocabalary of modern science. On the 
whole the translaijon under review is more snccessfnl in its 
invention of terms suitable to the genios of the language. 
The following are a few spedmens : — 

Thermometer ... fila-i-miqy& ul hnrfirat. 

Barometer ... Atn-i-miqy^ nl haw^ 

Oondoction of heat ... siri/at nl harilrat. 

Convection of heat ... ia^lul har£rat. 

Badiation of heat ..< hai^raM-shn'^'f. 

Positive electricity ... kahrnbdi-i-musbntyS znjigi. 

ITegatire electricity ... kahrnb^i-i-mann yi riilnajE. 

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C 40 ) 

ExcepUon might be taken to airdyat, itAl, xtiji^ 
ritianji, wliioU bave an uniiimiliar nppearanoe. Xhe two lari 
might be used in a Hlodi version. 

Lastly, ire may notice a few ezpressioos which are con- 
denmed by their grotesqueuess, e. g.— 

Torrichiliaa nakjuain ... Torricolliao TacDum. 

Hakoq ke zarie se ... By meaas of hooka. 

Beutigred thaimimat^r ... Ceatigmde thermometer. 

Blad-hit ... Blood heaL 

Botal U addiiA ». piot. 

B^riit k^ megzfa ... Powder magasiae. 

HaktmGrowkiBaitriy^l ri « l i... 
morcU«-i-kahrdbai. | Grove » battery. 

I hare said nothJDg of the Buperiority of Roman-Urdd over 

.the Persian character for exhibiting modero science, aa the 

snbject would deserve a separate paper if the advaatages of 

the former system were not too obvious to need discOssioir. 

.It may snIKce to observe here that if Sar Aixak N^tan 

oBends the eye by its strange appearance, the same name in 

^he Persian character would be uuiutelligible as well, 

0. FEAatiON. 

"37« Turks in India" hy HoEr Gboege.Kkbnk, M.n.A.8. 
Judge of Agra., Fellow of t/ie UaioersUy of Calcutta, 
ami Aut/ior of t/ie Mughal Empire. 

The anther of this work bns twice before published a 
sketch of the decline and fall of the Mughal Empire, Now 
he has given us an amplification of the same book. Where- 
as his Mughal Empire commenced with the last days of 
Aurangzeb, his present work begins with B^r, the 
Founder of ^^ Mnghal dynasty. He styles his book " The 
Turks in Indie," and the reasons for this novel title are given 
in the following passage at page 10 : — 

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( " ) 

" Tlie following pages «ra offered as a farther illustra- 
*' tion of the diameter of the TarkUh rule, espsoially as 
" sliowa ia the empire founded in Hinddstila by the Chaghtai 
*' Turks under Bibar nnd bis deaceadants. It is admitted 
" tihitt the house of IMmiir and their followers were chiefly 
" Maghal by descent, but it is important to bear in mind that 
" the charaotflristies of their system were not bloodshed and 
'' pagaabm (as with the early Maglmla), but a high degree 

' of Moslem civilisation ooinbiaed (as among modern 
" Osmanlfs) with elements of great sloth and inattention to 
" business in regard to oonqnests won by the display of 

' eqaally great temporary energy. The Maghols had 
" become Turks. "- 

" It is this cnrions oombioatioQ of refined maaner!^ 
** brave promise and faitiiant fulfilment that has been tlie 
'' infirmity of Turks everywhere, and it is for this reason 
I* that the Uagfaal Empire of Hiuddstaa is here spoken of 
" fts the Turks in India rather than by the name under which 
" it has been nsnally known," 

If quickness to promise nnd slowness to fulfil, added to 
great refinement of manners, be the only characteristics of 
Turks then I am afraid other races can be classed in the 
same category as Bilbar and his descendants. Hare not the 
English great refinement of manners F Did they not among 
other engagements promise many years ago to give high em- 
ployment to the natives of this country, und have they not up to 
tiie presflot moment foiled to fulfil that promise, and for this 
reason ought they not to be also called the Turks in India ? 

Bnt we consider that Mr. Keene's Title to his new book 
ia a misnomer. 

Babar ^vas a Mngbal; his father was descended from 
Chengis Khin and Taimur, who wero Mughals, and his mother 

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< « ) 

Entlag Nigfir 'Eli^oam, was aiuIoabt«cIi7 a SDaglnL 1/ 
B&bar had acquired all the characteristics of a Tnric, it was 
heoauso he and some of bis aoceators were bora ia Gastem 
Turkist^Q and bod imbibed the manaers aad habits of the 
people of Fargbina, yrkt were essentially- Tsrks botli in 
IftDgooge aad mode of Hfe. BtUmr no donbt did flatertaiD a 
fl»eIiDg of Htter oentempt for Mnghnis genetslly, but it shoald 
be remembered that these Magbala were at that time for Ifae 
most port pagans, and men of predatory habits. The/ were 
not, like himself, of cnltivated intellect or refined manners, 
and sarroaaded by «U ihe lozoriea that Sovereigat/ can 

Kevertheless, B&bar was a Magbal, and all his descend- 
ants have not been aabamed to call tiiemselves Mngbals; and 
to this day if yon ask at Delhi any one of the nnmerons 
8aUtins yon meet there, from the sons of the late Hiraa 
Ilihi Bakhsh, the leading man of the class, to Mirza D&i* 
Bakht, the gold-beater ia the Dariba, he will, withont the 
slightest hesitation, declare himself to be a Mngbal and a 
Gurffdni from Amir TaimiSr Gargiinf, Every native historian 
who has written any account of these Kings has dvnjt 
alladed to them as the Pddth&liinri-Mvghlia. 

Even Mr. Keen bimself, notwithstanding the title of 
his book, bus, in aamerous places, coBtlnaod to style thent as 

The object of Mr. Keene's book is, be states— 

" To show in a series of monographs, the character, 
" epochs and incidents in the history of the Srapire eslab- 
" lished in Hinddst^n by the Chnghtai Tartars. Thes^ 
" chapters cover the time from the iuvasioa of Bdbar to the 
" death of Alamglr II, and the campaign of 1760-Sl. An 

■ Pages 147, 162, lOe, 174, 212 (fhriee), 21^ 222, 223, 224, S21^ 

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( 13 > 

** attempt Iim been made to shovr the state of the coontty 
" ander Maghal rale, aud the reasons why, with many goo4 
** qualities, the Hoose of Tainulr ultimately failed to form a 
** durable dotnioioB. The first article is^ devoted to a sam- 
" mary of the Bobjeot of the whole stady. The second gire^ 
" a brief acconnt of the origin of tho family, and the first 
" foundation of Uieir power south of the Him&la Alps. The 
" third displays the ooosolidation ; &» fourth, and fifth bx- 
" bibit the eqoilibjium ; the sixth describes the beginninS 
" of weakness. In the seventh and eighth are- shown the 
" hastening decomposition, of the nawieldy and ill-goTerned 
" Empire, while the account of the Campaign of P^ipat 
** furnishes matter fur the ninth and last. The whole wilt 
" replace the first book of the ' Fall of the Mughal Empire, 
" by the same author, and the rest of that work will serve 
" to complete a popular statement of the History of Hin- 
" duat^a for the three centuries next preoeding British role.'^ 

Mr. Keene's- book is- not a historical work with a coa- 
neoted or sustained narrative of the events in each King's 
reign. It is simply what he calls it "critical chapters on 
the administration of the coantry by B^bar and his 
deacendaots." Indeed it is nothing more than a critique 
whioli, instead of being poblished in the Oaloatta or some 
other Review, is printed and published separately asa volume 
by- itself. It is of octavo size, with about 230 pages of mat- 
ter printed iit large type antt stout paper, and the price 
seems to n? to be high, viz., Rs. 8-H4) in Calcutta. Th6 
stylo is charming and forcible, and the work on the whole 
H very interesting. It displays withal nnicb reading and 
research, bat it must be remembered that it is a third attempt 
at almost the same subject, and we hope Mr. Kaene will 
some of these days favor ns with n complete history ef the 
rise and fall of the Mugjutl Umpire, which wilt repaced 

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( « ) 

Elpbinstone'a History so fur as the Ungfaals are coneeiiMd, 
and which will be s text-book for oar Schools and Libraries. 
It 19 ft pity tbat, as n note id the beginning of the 
Tolame tells us, "this woric ba3 not bnd tb« adrantage 
" of a rarisiw) by its author whilst passing tbrongh flw 
" Press. Mr. Keene ia at' his post in ludia. It has not, 
" therefore, been possiblo to coasal( his wishes in tbe matter 
" of transliteration, nor could thoy be always gathered from 
" the Manoscript which in parts had been transcribed by an 
*' amaiiaensis. In fairly familiar words, where no donbt as 
" to proaanoiations conld arise, popular spelling has be«n 
" adopted, and diacritical pmnts have been omitted." 

The above will account for many mistakes iii tran^itera- 
tioD, but there are, on the other hand, as (Served by ns, a 
few slips of the pen also. 

'We have had no time to verify date^ bat in oar siogla 
hasty perusal of the worK we have obeerved several errors 
among which the following may be noted : — 

Page 11. Kidi~ud-din ASxik — A« from whom th* 
famoat toaer known as tht Kuth-Minir of Delhi U named. 

Tba Kutb^Min^ is not named after Kntb-ud-diu Aihak 
bot after Entb-ad-din Bakhti^ KSki, a celebiated Unham* 
madan Sunt, whose shrine is in its vicinity. Bjr the eommtm 
people the shrine is called " Kutb Sdhib kt Dar^ah" and 
the MinA* " Kutb Sdltib ki Liit*' Two distinct inscripti<HU 
im the latter building show that ^lamas-nd-din Ait^"^^t 
commenced and completed it, and we have no evtdenoa 
whatever, historical or mcmumental, to snppoee that Kntb- 
nd-dtn Aibak had any hand in the constmction of this 
SUzinii or Min^r; 

Page 29. Hasain for Hnsaio. 
Page 31. Hindol for HindU. 

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( 45 ) 

Page 47. Adot Sbah for AJil Shuh. 

Pago 49. Janli Beg for IWdi Beg. . 

Page 53. Hamida Begun for Hamfda B^ii Begun]. 

Pago 53. Maryam Mahalt for Maryam Mnkitnf, and 
the translation of Haryam Mak&nf is not " Lady of the 
Palace,'* bat " Dwelling Trith the Tirpn Mary." 

Page 53. Mahnm Anka for Maham Anaga. 

Page 5G. Maryam Yamini for Maryam-az-Zamfina^ 
or the Virgin Mary of the age. Bhe was not a Chriatiau Lady, 
bnt a Hindii. Her name vas Jodb B^, or Lady of Jodh- 

Page 61. Todar Mai was of the Khalri caale, a tribe 
ef great connderation in the Punjab, where he teat bom. 

Hie Maisir-nl-Mura says — Todar Mai was bom at Lahore; 
but Mr. Perrar {vide proceedings of the Asiatic Society for 
September 1S71) has almost oertainly proved that Todar 
Mai, who was a Chopra Khatri, was bom in L^arpar in 
the District of Sltipnr, in Aadh. There was a second Todar 
Mai, also noticed in the Ma^ir-nl-Umra, who floarished 
in tha time of Shah Jah^. This man was a Tannan 
Khatri, and the Hiadil Bh&ts of the Panj^b atill commonly 
redte satirical verses concerning his parsimonious habits 
in having distribnted " Kaurd ghi ke gaitd/uiure" or sweets 
meats prepared in bitter or raacid ghi at a marriage feast t 

Page 95. " From an account of hit annual teeighing we 
find that at tka time he turned the eeale at twelve stone four 

Jah^Dgir, according to Sir Thomas Roe, weighed 
R). 9,000, whtdi, talring each rupee at 175 grains (the 
average of his coins), gives his weight at 15^ stones. 

Page 131. Khinyrabad for Khiznbid. 

Pig» 189. CbiD KUiah Khan for Chin KOich Khan. 

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( « ) 

Pages 300 and 208. Rafinshan for Rafi-as-di&i. 

Pages 228. " It was here (nt Pinipat) that according 
to traditioDs and poetic aarrativA the KaaravaB met 
tlM PandaTas." It vaa t»t exactly at Fioipat, but 
many mi^ away at KoraUietni. Mr. Keeae migbt hara 
added that in this neighbDnrhooJ at Tiraori, in the Eartiti 
District, Prithi Uij met and was Tan^oisbed by ^ubib-nd- 
din Ghori or Mnhammad bio Sim. 

Page 237. Snrhind for Sirbind 

Puge 237. Sambalka for Samhilka, Ao,, &c 

8toi7 of the FonrUi Darwesh firom the Bagh o Bahar. 

Chanthi Faqfr apni sair ki baqfqat rorokar, is tanh 
ddhr&ne lagtL 

" Qissa faam£r{ be-sar-o-p£ kit ab snno ; 

Tuk apn^ dby^n rakhke, mer£ h&l aab aano. 

Kia w^ta main &j& bda yah&a tak tabih ho, 

8£r£ bay^Q karl^ hdn, is kA aabab sono. " 
"T^ Hnrshid-i-Allih 1 Zar^ matairajuib ho. Tih &q{r, 
jq is kilnt men girift^r hai, Chin ke BiishAli kil betj hat ; 
ji&z o ni'amat se parwarish p>Ci, aar ba khiiM tarbiyat htA. 
Zomiae ke bbale bure se kaobh w^if na th£ ; j&atSk 6A, ki 
ydobin hamesba nibhegf. 'Ais bo^krf men yib b£lisK 
ni-ba-k&: hii^, ki Qtbla-i-'£Iam, jo w^ltd is yatlm ke ttu, 
unbon ae rihlat farm^, J£n-kandsnf ke waqt apne dihote 
bhii ko, jo mere chaohi bain, boliyi, aar farmfiyi, ki " Ham 
ne to sab mil mulk ohhorkar ir&Ia knob k^ kiy& ; lekin yib* 
wasiyat men tain baj£ Uiyo, anr bnzargl ko k^ farm&iyo. 
Jab talak Sbahzida, jo milik is takht o chhattar k& hai. 
jawia ho, aar sha'dr sambbile, aur apni gbar dekhe bbite. 

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liim is kl niyibtti kljo, aar eipih o ralyat ko kfaiiMb na 
hone dijo ; jab wob bfiligb ho, ns ko ssb kncbb «ainjh^ bajb^- 
kar Ukht hawltle karnil, aar Boshas-akhtar, jo tamb£r( bett 
hai, as se sb^di karke, turn aaltanat sa kin^ra pakara^ ; is 
flaliik 86 B^dab^hat bam&A kh^iidita nen qiini rabegf, kachh 
khaUL na iiwegi. " Tib kabkar, &p to jan ba Haqq tasKin 
h&e ; ohacbi B^ab^ hdit, aar bandobast; mnlk k& karne 
]ag^ ; majbe bukm My&, ki " Zta&no mahal men rabfi kare ; 
jabtak jatriia na bo, bihar na nikle. " Yih faqfr chandah 
fjaras ki 'nmr tak Begamit aar kbawisBoa men p&U ga.y&, 
«nr kbeUl kud^ kiyi. ChsuM ki beti se abftdi ki kbabar 
jjnakar sbild tbfl, aar is ammed par befikr raht^ aar dil men 
kahti> ki " ab koi din men Biisbibnt bbl h&th lagegt, anr 
kadkbad^I bh! bogt ; dnnyi ba nmmed q^m bai. " £k 
^bsbi, Mab&rak n£m, ki w£lid-i-marbi!m ki kbidmut men 
tarbijat hu£ th£, aur as k£ bard i'tibtir tii&, anr sibib-i-sbu'dr 
anr namak-balil tb£ ; main akaar na ke nazdik ]& baitbt^; wah 
1)bi mnjbe bahat piy^r kart6, aar merf jawini dekbkar kbiiab 
lioU, anr kabU, ki, '" Al-bamd-uI-ilUH I Ai Sbabi^e I 
J&b tnm jaw^n bue ; insli^ AUabn ta'£l£, 'anqarib tumbAra 
*ammu zill-i-subbini ki nasihat par 'amal kareg^, apni beti 
MMV tumb&re w^id ka takht tambeu deg&. " 

Bk roz yih ittifiq hii&, ki ek adna sahelf ne be-gan&h 
more tain ab& tam^ncha khencb-kar mar£, ki mere gA\ par 
piiiohon anglion ki nishin nkbar &yA; Main rota hu£ Mubirak 
ke pis gayi ; an ne mnjbe gale ae logi liyi, anr inaii iatin se 
9onchhe, aar kah&, ki " Chalo ij tamhen Bidsboh pis le-cba- 
Idn ; Bbiyod. dekhkar mihrbin bo, anr Uiq samajkar,tamhiri 
baqq tumben de." Uai waqt cbachi ke bazar men leitayi ; 
chacbi Qo darbir men nibijat ahafaqat kf, aar pdcbbi, ki 
" Kydn dil-gir ho, anr ij jabin kyunknrie?" Mubirak 
boli, ki " kachh 'arz karne ie bain. " Yih aankar, kbad-bo- 
Uiad kabne lagi, ki "Ab miy&a ka byah kar dete bain. *\ 

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Kubtrakne kftlii, "Bahut innb&rak ha\" Wonlitu Kojdiat 
ftur Itdiimiloa korii-bft-rutaUbkiy^,aarupar{dilBapuclilii, 
ki " Is sal kaua-ai mahini anr kauo-sa din aar gli&rf 
mubiirat mab&rak hai, ki saranj^m abSdi kit kariia ? " Unhoa 
ae inarzi pftkar, gia giaakar *an k(, ki " Qibla-i-'jilain I 
Yih baros s&r& Dabs bat ; kiaf obaad men kot t^rfkh-i-sa'd 
aabia thohartf ; agar yih sal tamim ba kbair-o-'ifiyat kata, 
to iyaada kitr-i>khair ka liye btbtar Lot. " 

Bidsb&b ne Mabtvnk ki tarof dekbji, anr kabi, "Shah- 
t&ie ko mahall mea lej^ ; Khiid<i cb^he to is siil ke gtuamo 
se, OS ki anUtoat us ke hawale kar diiagi ; kb^tir-jama* 
rakba, anr parhe iikbe," Mubarak ue salim ki/fl aor luajbo 
s&tb liy&; mabali men pahnach(ldiy&. Do tlo dio ke ba'd 
mttia Mub^rtik ke p^ gaji ; nii^hd dekbte-U rone ]agi ; 
main haii'&n Uli4 anr piiobbo, ki " Dilil kbair to bai, tiuu- 
b&re rone k^ kyk b&'is bai ? " Tab wub kbmr-khn£b (ki 
mujha dil o jAa se cb^hti tbi^} boli, ki " Main qs roi tamben 
us z^lim ke pits le-gay&, kiisb-ki agar yih jint^ to na 
le-jata 1 Miiia ne ghabftlkar kabi " Mere j&ne men Vji aiai 
qab&bat; biii ? Kaho to sahib. " Tab as ne kabfi, ki "Sab 
Amir, Wa^r, Ark6n-i-daulat, cbhote bare, tombire b£p 
ke waqt ke, tambea dekhkar khash hue, anr Elboda k£ sbakr 
karne-Ioge, ki " Ab bam^i^ Sahibzflda jiiw&n hii, anr salta- 
nat ke laiq biii, ab kol din men baqq baqqd&r ko milegi, tab 
bam&ri qadr-d&af karegi, aur kblbin-z^-i-manrnsion k^ 
qadr'samjhega. Yih kbabar as be-iman ko pahancbi ; ns k 
cbbiti par simp phirgaji, mnjbe kbilwat men bul^ltar kah£, 
"Ai iMnb^rak! Ab ais4 Hm kar ki, Sbahz^e ko kisd 
fiirefa se m&rdil,aar as k(l kliatra mere j[ se nik&l, jo meri 
kbitir-jama* bo." Tub se mala be-bawiss bo rabd h&n, ki 
tera cbacbi terf jan k£ dashmaa M&. " Jon-bfa Mabirak 
se yih kttabar-i-n£-mubirak main ne sanf, baghair ai£ro mar- 
gay£, anr j&a ke dar se ns ke pfinoa par gir paril, ki 
" W^ie Kbadfl ke I Main saltanat se gazi^, kisu tarah mei^ 

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j( baoha !" Us ghnlim-i-bi-wafane imrt air oth^kar; cbhiti 
99 lagi liy^, aarjawiib diyii, ki " kucbh kbatra nahltt ; ek 
^ftdbir mujha siijbi bat :'agar rast &i, to Icucbb parw^ nnbin,; 
^indagE hai, to sab kot^h bai ; agblab bai ki is fikr ae teti 
j^a bhi baebe, anr apae maUab-se kfUi^ib bo." 

Till bharo3» dekitr, mnj'be sdtb lekar, us jagah,? jahfia 
BadsbAh-i-mngbfur (ya'ne w^lid is faqir ke), sote baitbta tbe, 
gnjtt, anr morl babut kliAtir-jama' kl. Wuhan ekkursf'bicbbi 
iM;ek taraf mujba knhaaar-ek taraf ap pakarltar, Bnadnll ko 
sarkayi, aar korm ke tale ki (arsb athay&, atir zainfii ko 
kboJne lagl Ek-birg£ek kbiikr namt'id hiSf; ki zanjiraur 
qufl'us men l)g^ hai. Mujha bulayd ; main apne dil men 
imiqarrar yih samjhi, ki mere zabb karne-, n«f g&r-dene ko 
yib garbit is ne kbod» bai ; maat fLnkhon keage pbir gal ; 
laoh&r, cbupke ohapke,- kalima parlita hii&, cazdlk gayi-*; 
DekbU biia t& as dariche ke aiidar 'imirat hai, aar cbftr 
makinhain ; bar ek dilAn men das das kbamen sone kt. 
zanjiron men jakrfbii! latakti bain, aar bar ek- gall ke manb 
par ek sene kitnt aar ek bandar jarito ka bani bdibaitbi 
bai. VaiA'U golian obiron makiii men gintn, aar ek kham 
ko dekbfi) ki manb-^manh asbrafiin bhari hatn ; ns par na 
maim^n-bai, na khisht bai ; aur ek baas jawdbir S9 lab-^lab 
bbar4 bu& dekhi. M&in ne M'ubfirak se pi!bhbj(, ki " Ai 
Did& I Yih ky& tilism bai, aar kisk^ mnkin bai, aar yih 
kis k&m ke bain? " Bold, ki " re buEne, jo dokbte bo, in 
kiyih mdjar^ bai, ki tnmhare l)4p ne, jawin! ke vraqt se, 
Malik-i-sddiq (jo BAdshah Jinnoa ki hai), na- k« sith' doati 
aur imad-e-raft paidi klthi. 

(Biq£ dirad): 

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Tlie ohjecta of lilts Jonrnnl, anl of tlie Sosinty with 
■which it 13 coniiocted, are e\[ilaitied by tlie aaries of lleso- 
lutioiis p'isseil nt the Sleeting organisinir the Society, and 
\ty the Stntement oi' Iteasoiiii, both ot which were published 
ill tlie iirst uuinber of this Jouiiiii],. 

AVe ask nil who- are interested in- the moTement to gir*. 
u« their s'.i{)))ort. Tho«e who may wish tojoin the Society 
are requested to send tliiiir namos, mth the SiiOs[!ri)itions for 
the year, ILs. 5, to R Scott, E<q., Secretary, lionum- l/rdii 
SoeUlu, Lahore. Members will receive n copy of the 
Journid. Friends iu England are asked to send uieir sub- 
scriptions ( and any literary contributions with which they 
may favor lis ) to our English Secretai^' F. Drew, liisquire, 
Eton College, Windsor. 

We- also call attention t» No. 6 of the Resolationi 
passed at the Meeting un the S5ih Klay 1»78, and iovit« 
donatioQS to the " Xranslitcratifla Fund." 

There are man^i: sympathisers with the moTement who 
have Dot yet sent in their names- and subscription. We 
trust that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
1)9 by c<>nva3«ins for fresh roembers, and by circiilatinj; our 
Juuriial.nmon;; both Europeans- and Natives iu the stations 
where they reside. 

Coatribntions on any of t)ie Tarionii subjects connectod 
with tnin)'literitihn,translnti<)n-ftrKl education generally, ara 
oaniestly eoUcitod from Members- of the Society. 


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To advocaU the vte oftht iZomon Alphabet in Or^tal 


f a h 1 e : 





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No* i6> September ^^79* 


In onr lost nnmber, we pabliahed a Beriew of Eeene'a 
l^mka is India froiu the pan of on occasional cootribator. 
Our own perosol of the work anggests a few additional 
nmarkaiu to Indian History in general By Indian History, 
we mean (for the parposa of the present artiole) the History 
of the Uahammadoa period only ;— ^we are not referriog to 
the ctoady traditions of anoient Hinddiant, or to the modern- 
and Tory diffaiient obain of erenta whi<^ form the History of 
British India. 

The origiiuil natire anthbriUes for Mahamnudaa Ss^ 
iory in India are almost enUrely in Persian langoage. It is 
only of late years that Urdii has been' osed as a literary 
tangiiage, and the native sonroea of history in other tongues 
md oharaoters are too scanty to call for apeoial notice. 

We regard these Persian Historians as in many respedls 
Cbe highest and most useful class of oriental adtbors, as writ- 
ers wiiose works deserve far greater oonsideration and a £ir 
larger share of praise than the verbal quibbles of Persian 
poets or the profitless stories of thoB^gh'o Bah^r and tho 
Gul i Bak^walf . 

In formiDg an estimate ofthbbranoh of oriental titeratare, 
We iliast first note its enormous extent. The naml>er of Per- 
uan Histories scattered tliroagh the length and breadth of 
India is tieyond oompntation. Many of these are local and 
iribol histories, bat works of a larger and more important 

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character are nnmeroos enough to be recltoned bj hmidreds 
if not by thousanils. 

Secondly, we most give to these Persian Hiatoriaos the 
credit of being for the most part — to far at intetdian goet— 
honest and accorate. Their very want of imnginatiou and 
lack of sensitiveness to moral and political criticism— serioos 
defects though these would be in onr estimate of an Earopran 
Historian— tend in many cases to keep these writers to an 
ondistorted and uncolorod uarratire of the fucts which they 
believe to be true. 

Tbirdlj-, the style in which these Histories are written 
is, in the majority of instances, simpler and more natural 
than that affected by works of greater pretentions as Persian 

The above are some of the more favorable features in the 
writing of onr Indian Historians. Now for their laults ; — 
tiiese are many and serioos. The greatest of all their defects 
— tiie lack of dramatic interest in the events they chronicle — 
is one for which neither the Historians themselves nor the 
character in which they write con be held primarily/ emd bnme- 
diatelff responsible. If the reign of an oriental prince consists 
of nothing but a wearisome succession of marches and connter- 
morches, cabals, intrigues, rebellions and murders, what can 
the chronicler do bat record the dreary list? If the couree 
of events is unnurked by any personal heroism, or any poli- 
tical principle, or any symptom of progress, how can we hold 
the narrator responsible if he fails to fix the attention of his 

There are, however, other defects of which the Persian 
character and the absence of the printing press are more 
directly responsible, nnd indirectly these defects affect Uie 
Bubject-matter of the biatories themaeivea. Niuety-aine out 

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of erery bandreJ of these hiatoriea exist in manascript only. 
The only type— printed vernacular hiatorios with which onr 
readers are likely to be ncqaainted— are those pnblisbed by the 
Bengal Asiatic Society— abont sixteen in nnmher,— and tlia 
few whicli have issued from Saijid Ahinad's press nt Aligarh. 
Nor are lithographs much more numerous. There is a good 
lithographed edition of Firiahta, and there are lithographs of 
many modern compilations, but the great innjority of tho 
older works— those which are most valuable for purposes of 
higher historical scholarship— are still in manuscript. There 
is work enough here for the Panjib BducaUonal Depart- 
ment and for the Panjib University, too, if we could only 
induce those organisations to undertake it. 

The bare fact that his anthoritiea are in manascript ia 
but the beginning of the dirUcaltiea which hinder the progress 
of the student of Indian History. Not only are they in 
manuscript, but the maauscripta cannot be found. There nre 
no well-known, well-furnished, and well-managoJ libraries 
' where the songbt-for work can be produced at command. 
There is no oriental " Bmnet," no Indian " Quaritch." 
fiefore the appearand of Sir Henry Elliot's and Professor 
Dowson's great work, the investigator of Indian History was 
completely at sea, and even now any one who wishes to 
collect an historical library must hunt up and down the 
country for years before ho can get one-tenth of the manu- 
scripts that ma^ threw light on his subject. 

Supposing be gets tliem, what then ? The manuscripts 
are not bomid, and cannot be recognised with ease. Many of 
them have fantastic titles which give no clue to their contents. 
Some are too thin to stand up ; others too balky to bo placed 
in any ordinary hook case. It is dilHcult to say whan or 
where the history bej^ins— when or where it ends. The wlfple 

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work most be read before Uie Btadent can form a fuir opiDicni 
wbeiber it is original and TaloaUe, or a nortliless plagiary. 
Let ^1 this pass. Let tbe stodent select bis hiEforian 
— manaacript, lithographed, or printed — and proceed to 
read him thrtHigb. We uy nothiog o! the abeenoe (tf 
paragr»ph«, stops luid capitals. There are greater difficulties 
titan tbeae. The Trords themselves are in huTtdreda and 
thouiaada of instances enToloped in a (doud of ambiguity oad 
doabt They may be this, the'y may be that, they may be 
anything you please. We gave some instances of this 
TezatioaB ambignity in OQr Jane Nnmber, oa the aodiority of 
the late Frofesser Blochmann. If oar readers want other 
instances, let them tarn to pages 51 and S3 of the first 
volume of Sir H. Elliot's irork : or indeed let them examine 
the notes of the eight Tolames, patttm. 

These namerpos difficulties are &tal to Uie derelopment 
of higher historical sohoUrship. They prevent a offlnprehenaiTfl 
fdl-embracing grasp of the subject ; and withoot sach a grasp, 
the writer is noable to dedacQ prindplea wbicfa woald gm 
his history a philosophical value, and equally unable so to 
arrange his narrative, that dull trivialities may be throws 
into Uie haok-groond, and events of dramatic interest 
aiay receive the picturesque prominence to which they are 

Hitherto our remarks have applied to Kative Historians 
only ; 'jut the difficulties of which we complain lead to 
consequences as noteworthy in the works of ihoaa English 
writers who devote their pens to Indian History. It may bo 
laiid down, as a general role, that the nuat 8ucce$s/ul books on 
Indian History are those in which the writer makes the 
greatest use of information from European sources and the 
least direct use of oatire material. We hope we slioll not be 

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mUnnJerstood. We nre not decrymg oriental research. We 
are merely pointing oat as a lamentable circnmatance that 
there is in fa«t a divorce between sach research and the work 
of the professed Historian. Perhaps the most aocoeesfal 
Indian work of recent years is Dr. Hontor's " Boral Bengal*" 
Jt owes its success to the skilful use mode by the author 
of old official records in the English language, and to his 
personal knowledge of load phenomena. It ia not to any 
considerable extent based on Ternacular authorities — though 
one or two chronicles of this kind are given in the appendices. 
The foorth volume of Mr. Talboys Wheeler's History of 
India is devoted to the Mahometan period. We trust wa 
are not dung Mr. Wheeler an injustice, bat the impression 
iva receive from an fxaminaUoo of this volume is tbat^ from 
the beginning to the end of the book, the author has not 
consulted om Periian Hi^ory in Hu original i though he has 
devoured— we can scarcely say digested— every tnnalatioD 
and every book of travri that oame in his way. 

With Mr. Keene's work, it ia somewhat different ; bat 
even with it we would ask our readers to note bow largely 
the author is indebted either to original European anthoriiies 
or to £rofesaoi Dowson's translations of the Native Historioasj 
or to the labor of Mr. Blochmann. 

The nearest approach to the anion of oriental researeh 
with lustorical skill ia afforded by the writings of the lasi- 
uuoed sdiolar— the late Professor Blochmana ; bat the 
fragmentary character of those writings Is itself evideuoe of 
the difficulties which attend that union. Death has taken 
Mr. Blochmann from oa before he could complete au historical 
work worthy of his exceptional ability; otiiers benefit by bis 
labor, withoat sharing his diligence of research. 

Perhaps some of our readers will say that there is not 
much to regret in this, that it is merely au instuice of dlvi- 

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sion of labor. Admittedly, it is better Ibat Indian bistorical 
studies sbonld progress io tbts wny than that th^ sbonld 
not progress at all ; bat it is none the less trao that a better 
History is prodnoed by*the anion of research and of literary 
skill in one aatfaor than by their divided action. We see the 
two anited in most of oar great English Historians. To 
content oorselres with tho nnme of Qihbon — the " Decline 
•nd Fall" is a work foil of learning and research ; yet it is 
as easy and interesting to read as a novel. It is not harried 
and superficial, like the fourth volume of Mr. Wheeler's His- 
tory i nor is it difticnlt and unreadable like Mr. Brskiae's 
BihsiT and Humdyan or Mr. Tbotnoa' Chroaicles of the 
Pathdn Kings. 

No Anglo-Indian Historian can be compared io Gibbon ; 
but we have in SIphinstone a ninsterly writer, who still stands 
*' facile princops" among such Historians as wo daim. 
Elphinstone's History was composed in iho letaare of a tran- 
quil retirement, after thirty years of exceptional Indian 
experience. The author was not a man to shrink from labor, 
,nd bia history does not bear the works of baste which 
characterise later compikUons. Still there is evidence 
enoasb that Elpbinstone as well as weaker men experienced 
the difiicoUies which embarrass the student of Indian History. 
The greater namber of the Native Historians whose works 
have been brought to light by Elliot and Dowson were 
Qukuown to him. His account of the early Mahammadan 
period is chiefly based on Da Guignes, D'Herbelot and 
Frice and on Brigg's Translation of Firishta ; and for later 
reigns, Eskine's translation of Bubar's Memoirs, Gbidnin's 
translation of the Afn i Akbari, Gladnia'a reign of Jah^gir, 
Bermer's Travels, Duff's Mabrattas, Scott's Dakban, tfas 
translatioo of the Sair-ol-Mut^kharfn, and the European 
Acconnts of K^ir Shah's invasion are the anthorities most 
firequenlljr followed. 

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Let OS take one of these works. Why shoald a scholar 
of SIphinstone's ability — a man who had been onr ambassa- 
dor at Kibnl, and who bad spoken Persian all the year of 
his official Ufe~«onsalt Brigg's translation of Firishta rather 
than the Persian original ? The original must have been 
in Blphinstone's own library ; and he most have known what 
every other stodent of Persian history knows that Brigg's 
Translation swarms with errors. Yet, from first to last^ 
Brigg's Translation is the authority followed by Elphinstone. 

Let ns qnote a few of Elphinstone's own admissions re* 
garding tiie difficulties of the Persian character. At page 
509, Volume 1, Edition of 1841, he refers tbos to tlie TfErfkb 
i Hind o Siod : — " It is full of names of places, and would 
throw much light on the geography of that period, if ex- 
amined by any person capable of ascertaining the ancient 
Shanscrit names, so as to remove the corruptions of the origi- 
nal Arab writer and the translator, besides the innnmerable 
errors of the copyist." At page 121, Volume 2, he writes: — 
" Almost all that has been said of Bdbar has been drnwD 
from Mr. Erskine's admirable translation of his Memoirs 
from the TarkE. The notes and supplements which accom- 
pany that work remove the obscurities which, without such 
assistance, would beset ns in every page." At page 341i 
Volume 2, he writes : — " The Akbaniima was brought down 
by Abu) FazI neariy to the time of his own death, in the forty- 
Beventh year of the reign ; and was continued for the remain- 
tog period of upwards of three years by a person named In%at 
UlUh or Muhammad Salia. I could never have availed my- 
self of this work without the aid of a manasoript translation of 
Jjieatenant Chalmers of the Madras Army, in the possession 
of the Royal Asiatio Society." Agoin, at page 345, " The 
Tabakitt-i-Akbart, — written by Nizdm-ud-din Harvi, — is a 
tiiatory of th« Mahometoo kings down to the thirty-seventh 

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oF Akbor, and U said to be a work of great mcrtt ; bnt 
alUioilgh I liaTe nocess to a copy, i am nmble to avail 
myself of ii^, for want of the araistaaca I re<faire to Biake' 
out the character." Again in the same paragrapb — " Besides 
the original of Kh&ti Kh&n. I am Indebted to the kiodaeas of 
Uajor A, GordMi of Uie Bengal Cavalry, for tlw qm of a 
manuscript tmnakitioQ made by him of tb» work ef thai 
hiatorian down to oeai the end of Jah^gf r'a reign." Agaan at 
page 650 — " I have taken the translation ui SootCi " IXeekaD," 
Tot 11, page 8, of the Memturs, thoagb the origioal of it 
moat have differed in aoxm ilight particalara from Ota 
Fwsian copy at the India House." 

Vka above quotations do not OODVict Elphinstone of 
snperficial enquiry. We dto them rather as evidence of 
Bagadty. Bad he given more of bis time than he did to 
the scrutiny of scrawls and dots, he would never have become 
(he Standard Historian of Uubammadan India. 

Kow for the moral of thia long article on Indian Eutory, 
It IS this, — we appeal to the Indian Governments and to the 
FonjA University to aid biHtorical research by the 
pnblicatioa of a series of transliterated Native Bistorians. 
Hie PnDJ&b Educational Department has an annnal bndgrt 
of twelve or thirteen lakhs. The FaiyA Universi^ has a. 
funded capita of three lakhs and a half. Cannot these two 
organizations, out of their abundance^ devote Be. 3^00- 
annnally to the undertaking we have indicated ? 

Perhaps it will be said that the great w«rk comnenoect 
by 8ir H. ElUot and completed by Frofessor Dbwson has 
rendered such a series of transliterated historiea Btq>erflaoa8* 
To this We reply as follows.. — First, the. eight votunes of 
Elliot's and Dowson'a ^ork, though admittedly the most 
valuable contribution that Indian History has recasived mnoe 
the days of Elphinstone^ do not by any meaoa. exbanatr the 

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the available materiHl. There are bandredaofworVsthathare 
not found a place ia tbe call«ctiDD at all, and there aro others - 
from which mere fragmentary extracts hare heea given. 
Professor DowsoQ himself wonld be the last to regard his 
work as the Omega of oriental research (seo pages VI and 
VIH of the Preface to his eighth volume). 

Secondly, tbe very best translation of a Persian 
History is always more or less dcfectiTe and erroneous. 
Hundreds of instances might be given ; bat it is sufHoient 
to refer oar readers to Major llarerty's criticisms on tbe 
transUtioaof tbe Tabakat i K^ri and to Professor Dowaon*s 

We most admit that tbe transliterator no less than lbs 
translator has to face the difficulties of corrnpt and contra- 
diotory manuscripts. But so long as the Persian orthography 
and the Persian context are retained, the reader finds in them 
a valuable due to the correct interpretation of every ambi- 
gooDS word. 

Tliirdly and chiefly, — we are writing as an educational 
journal, and are appealing to authorities who profess to have 
tho education of the people of India at heart 

Now valnable as Professor Dowson's work is to an 
English scholar, of what use ia it to that large and import- 
ant section of the commnnity — tbe Vemacnlar-reading 
natives of Indui ? How many natives of India have seen 
tbe book, or even heard of its existence? Some of the 
Huhamraadan gentry of Northern India and many of oar 
Uahammadan officials of high rank take an interest in 
Unhammadanhistory— asfaras theliteratore to whioh they 
have access enables them to do so. 

Onght we not to enoonrnge an undertaking which will 
enlarge their field of knowledge as well as oar own ? 

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As the first vrork of ttar proposed aeiiea of trenslitenttad 
hiatorifls, we woald suggest Uie^uk i Ji^iagiri the aatoUogn- 
phjT of an Emperor wliose name is intimately assodaied with 
the Panj&b, and whose tomb is still one of the mgbts of 
Lahore. 7be work is of moderate length, and (apart from 
Us historical value) it wonld serve as an admintble text- 
book for foreigners learning Persian. 

We announced a meeting of oar Society for the hst 
Saturday in September; bnt ctrcnmstances wilt prevent it 
from taking place. We troat that a meeting will be held on 
the lifst Saturday is October. It will be duly ooUfied tfarongh 
the English and Vernacalar Press. 

With reference to oar recent review of Mr. Keene's 
Tarks in India, we wonid note that the Pioneer pnUidied ■ 
review of the sums work in its issae of August the 6th. Iben 
is another review in the iSpectator of August the 9th. 

Our Society had not been formed when the arrangenieiita 
for the International Congress of Orientalista of 1878 wo* 
made, and the views of which we hold were not the sabject 
of discussion -on that occasion; but it is worthy of note thai 
at the first Oriental Congress in 1874, the subject of tniiu- 
KteratJon was brought prominently forward by the President, 
Dr. Samuel Birch— the well-known Egyptologist. 

Dr. Birch's remarks (which wa take from the C%iIcotfa 
Review No. CXX) were as foUows :— 

"I tarn to another point for attenUon, and thai is to 
the transliteration of Oriental textti into European character. 
Great j'rogress in this direction has been made of late yoaff, 

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and many scbomes- have been prftpoBed. lu some insltinces, 
tbe learned societies »nd scienUfic journals have insisted od 
ibe adoption of particniar systems for papers admitted into- 
their pages. There are many nieuxbers present of all tho 
Oriental sodetiee and academies of Europe, and it will be 
for them to ctxieider if some mutual agreement can be 
arrived at on this subject ; and for moet oriental kngnagei, a 
decision favorable to one nniversal translUeraCioa would be of 
tile highest importance, as it would, in many instanees, super- 
sede the uecessity of printing, invarioua characters and ditFer- 
ent oriental types^an expenaive and difficult process. It would 
not indeed effect this for languages written with syllabic 
damcter 8, but for those only which have an alphabetic one i 
ftod the some mode of transliteration would be an inratnable 
lud to the simplification and reodaring of words in. these 
langaa{;es, and making them universally loteUigible. This 
subject will be no doubt, submitted tathe consideration of one 
of the sections of the Congress, It is, indeed, one of the sub- 
jects which it should be the especial object of tb» Congress 
to regulate, or at all events to initiate, That some such 
necessity exists and is felt, is proved by tbe constant changes 
mode by individuals in their transliteration of the vowels of 
Oriental tongues, whether living or extinct ; the older 
systems already adopted not answering to- theic special 
notions of the manner in which those languages should be 
transliterated. Should the Congress be able to pt-ononnce 
any opinion on this difficult subject, that opinion would no 
doubt carry with it great weight] even shoald it not finally 
dedde the question, and lead to a further ccmsideration- of 
this pressing want of philological ooity. It is not, per~ 
faapS) necessary for the- Congress to consider how far it 
would be desirable to discuss tbe qnestion of an universal 
alphabet — sudi a one as would supersede for Orientals 
ihemedves the necessity of writing in their own diffiireni 
diaractois- tbe diSerent langooges distriboted over tha 

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East. Could snch be devised, it woald be a great advant- 
age fur the ocqaisitioD of tliose languages by the West, 
monthsand perbapa years being now spent in mastering 
alphabets and syllabaries of complete kinds. Among the 
Polynesian islanders, the Einropeun script baa been aoooees- 
fully introdnoed and adopted ; becanae they nerer had, till 
the appearance of European dvilization among them, a 
mode of writing ; and there was conseqitently no natiunal 
amour-propre to contend with, nor any script already in ose 
to supersede. It is not so in the Sast, attached from Tarions 
causes to their respective characters. But it is evident 
that, clothed in a European alphabet, there would be no great- 
er difficulty iu mastering many of the Aryan and iSemitic 
languages by the western scholars than in acquiring the 
different langcagea spoken in Europe — a taak much fadlita- 
ted by their having one common mode of printing and writ- 
ing the same sounds. It may be considered the first step to 
writing, among the European nations, this adoption ofs 
common alphabet, when 'entirely carried oat ; and nothing 
would more powerfully connect the East and the West than 
the removal of these barriers which prevent an easy acquisi- 
tion of those keys of thoaght necessary for the mutual 
nnderatanding and happiness of mankind," 

Dr. Birch then proceeded to discuss the advantages <X 
"Pasigraphy" a system of universal writing by means of 
cyphers. " Itia a natural transition to pass from this anbject 
to the consideration of the attempts making to introduce nni- 
versal communication by means of Pasigmphy or writing by 
ciphera. This system haa been, for acme time, in Dse in the 
West, and ditferent ways have been proposrtd to arrive at Um 
result. One is the mode of communicating by signals, con^iBt- 
ing of numbers, at sea. Certain sentences of general dm 
are numbered and translated into the different European hu>- 

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gaagea. The flaj; which carries the nnmber ppeaks the snme 
sentence, when hoisted, to vessels of all other astionalitje? ; 
ID fact, the Diimber is an universal mediam of maritime com- 
mnnication. A Rag with a few nambers asks a question ; Rn> 
other with fewer or more gives the answer. Now, this device 
contains the elements of an univeroal language, limited, indeed, 
■to a few stereotyped sentences snch as are generally wanted ia 
maritime intercourse. A modification of this sjsiem has been 
adopted for the parposes of commerce, for the Trans-atlantic 
and other telegraphs, to supersede the necessity of long and 
continuous mossnges, which would take too much time and 
trouble in transmission. But the works compiled for this 
purpose are in the English language only. A modification of 
this principle will be laid before the Ethnographical section, 
consisting principally in the substitution of numbers for words, 
the same number answering to the same equivalent word in 
all languages. It is evident that when dictionaries on this 
principle shall have been compiled, it will be possible for a 
limited communication to be held in writing with Orientals, 
of whose language the European is ignorant, in the same 
manner as by maritime signals. It is a step towards univer- 
sal langnage ; and, although a feeble one, probably the only 
step which will ever be made. Its valoe and defects will, no 
doubt, occupy the attention of the Ethnographical section. 
It is not a lani^uage properly so-called ; hut a means of in- 
terchange of thought, and might prove of the greatest valne 
■where other means were not at hand. Those divided by 
soands will be united by nnmbers." . 

In accordance with the above remarks, PasJgraphical 
dictionaries in the English, German, and French languages 
were distributed to Members of the Congress, who could thus 
communicate with each other without any knowledge of the 
language spoken by either party. 

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Wq shall be glad if any of our readers, wbo may tura 
studied the enbject, caa giro na furtlier iDfomiation as to tlia 
progreBs of Posigrapby since 1874. There is no Ihwt to our 
power of representiDg ideas by oombinatioDS of figmes even 
if it be considered necessary to restrict sach combinations to 
three or four places ; we can angment onr power iodefiuitelT, 
by adding Capital or other letters from the Ronaan Alphabet. 

We are informed that, during the recent Kabol cajnpai;pi, 
some of onr native soldiers were tanght the letters of the 
Boman Alphabet with a view to Heltographtc signalling. 

Wo hare addressed a letter to the Secretary of iho Eng- 
lish Spelling lleform Association, proposing to exchange 
pablications with that Society. 

We have written to the Society of Arts and Science at 
Batavia, and to the Asiatic Society of Japan for detailed in- 
formation aa to the progress of the Koinan Character tn 
Hetherluids India and in Japan. 

We hare written to a well-known American missionary 
at Canton for similar information regarding China. Tbs 
following Bpociinen of Roman-Chinese was given to ns by 
a missionary supporter of our oanse, wbo is (or was till lately) 
at one of the Treaty Ports above Canton. It will interest 
some of onr readers, though we must avow onr inability to 
interpret it for them. It is apparently a hymn : — 

Oyin-k'eng Sing-Lin^ dzing-z kyii6ng-ling, 

Tsiang t'in z6ng ho tsiao-djftb ng& sicg. 

Fo-yiu-ts Ling, yiu ta'ih-bo eng, 

Sdng-s shii-jing, pao gyi en-weng. 

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2 SA fa-go 6ng dzoug t*in Ifib-las. 
Zia-z webfOQuig, en-tsni, jing-se. 
NgSD-tttng wa-dn, mob-ta'uh-di-en ; 
Tsung iioog-yQa kwdng a iigft ming k'en. 

3 Ze-njih djoDg-da, mao-miQ tsih-Ie ; 
S-16h eng-dzeh gyiang ng& n-we. 
Oty'a ngd dsia-dih, pac ngft en-t33a ; 
Sing-Ling ymg-diio, feh-p'o wien-nain. 

4 E^o ngft sih-teh Va, Ts, Hang-we, 
Dong Nyi, Sing-Ling, ih-t'i siang-t« : 
Ja-ta* ngd-meng*, sbu-shU. vn-gyuong, 
Djdng-djdng ko-U' ong 'oh k'eo eiaog-dong : 
Vu, Ts, Sin-Ling, SMn-w&-ih-t'i, 

K» tsiB-ma Oil Uong-yUa teh-ky'i. 

As account of the marriage customs of the Bairalpindl 
District has beon kindly placed at our disposal by a member 
of the Society, and is published io this number of the Journal. 

In this nnmber we conclnde the extract from the B<[gh 
o Bah£r, which was commenced hist month. In our next we 
Bhall publish an extract from Mr. Baness^ Romanized edition 
of the Historical sections prescribed for the Lower Standard 
Examination. We hope also to review and'to give extracts 
fnHn the same gentleman's EUnnanized edition (^ the Prem 
S&gar. We then publish the Ikhw&i as S&ti, by monthly 
iDstalmwts of two or three chapters at a time. 

Wa would invite the attention of oar readers to the 
Classical Dlotionary of Bindd MytJiology recently compiled 
by Professor Dowson. The Pioneer of August the 26th coo. 
tains a review of thft vnn-k fay a critic who is evideotly a 
good Sanskrit scholar. Wo do not profess to rival the said 
critic in this respect; bat we protest against the carping, faalt- 

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finding, liair-spliting spirit of criticism whicli aoitnates bis 
review, as it does so many other critaqoes of oriental works. 
Opinions will differ m to the comparatire Talae of Oowson's 
and of Garett'fi Classical Dictionaries. We do not consider 
Dowson's work so distinotly SDperior as to drive Garrett's ont 
of the field. But there is room for both. Ordinary mortals 
find it impossible to carry the whole system of Hindd mytho- 
logy in their heads at any one time, and are disposed to be 
grateful to any one who will add to Uteir facilities of reference. 
If there be any scholar so immeasurably snperior to hnuian 
weakness as not to require such assistance, we wonld say to 
him, — " Doot waste your powers on ephemeral critiques ; 
write us a Dictionary yourself." 

We publish an interesting letter from a member of tba 
Society, — on Itoman-Urdu, — considered as a st«ppiug stone 
to English, This important view of the subject requires 
special consideration ; we propose in our next, or perhaps in 
our Kovember issue, to detail some of the reasons which lead 
ns to prefer Roraan-Urdil to English as the basis of popaUx 
education in this country. 

We have received a letter from Mr. Browne of Banki- 
pore regarding the progress of onr movement in Bahdr. 
Mr. Browne has published a transliteration key, which has 
been widely distributed. He is also publishing a list of 9,000 
elected Urdd words in Boman type. 

We have also received an enccumging letter from 
Professor Monier Williams, who sends us a donation of £ 5 
and promises ns Aome remarks for our Journal. 

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Marring Ctatomt in the Rdoid Pindi Dittriel. 

The writer of this paper waa 6r8t tnnuferreil to tbs 
Rawitl Pindi District Bixtoen years ago in a Jadioial capacity. 
While there, he was overwhelmed with ao very many 
cases relating to breach of betrothal eontraota, resUtnUoa 
of conjugal rights, and enticing or taking away married 
women with criminal intent, that he was nnder the necessity 
of making himself intimately acquainted with the marriage 
onatoms of the inhabitants of the district, so as to be able 
to examine the parties and their witnesses thoronghly, and to 
arrive at a proper nnderstanding of the facta as set forth 
in each case. With this end in view, tie was diligent in hia 
enquiries and even attended in person one or two betrothals 
and marriages both among the Hindus and Mnhammadans, 
and he made nt the time notes of what he saw and heard. 
These notes are now placed by him at the disposal of the 
Boman-Urdd Society, in the hope that pablication in their 
esteemed Jonninl may prove nseful to his yoanger collea- 
gues in the Pa^j^b Commission. 

He need hardly add that he believes the marriage cus- 
toms of the B^wal Pindi District will be found to be gene- 
rally identical with those prevai'ing in the Upper Panj&b, 
and certainly in all the Districts Trans-B^vL 



{Saih or Kurmai). 

Among Bindds bebxitbals are of three kinds, viz. :— 

1. — Pdntakh, where no valaable consideration is reoeired 

2. — D&dlhi whore an interchange of brides takes place 

between the two families. 
3. — Where money is paid for the bride. 
The last is a custom much reprobated, and doea not 
.usually prerail among very high-caste Hiadds. 

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Hie preliminarios hsviog boon aettlod privately botnreen 
tbe two families, the parents or gnardiana of tbe girl send 
tlieir parohit with some sugar. One rupee (aiah, two \'i<x, 
twQ tolsbs of laffron, &ad a Brahminicnl thread ( Janeo ) to 
tbe house of the parents or goardiana of the boy. On his 
arrival tbe friends imd relatives of the boy assemble wilb 
their paroAit. Adruin (dhol) is beoteq and it is publicly 
notified to Uie members of tlie assembly that sudi a person's 
son has been betrothed to snch a persoix'* daughter. Tba 
boy's paroMt dcaws ii figure with saffron or " sendilir " of 
Gauesh IB the vessel cootaiuing the yan^o, &C., ftod offen up 
prayers to Qanosh. Tbe girl's paro/Ut invests the boy with 
tbe Drahminical thread, and affixes a " tikka " of saffron op 
tbe forehead of the boy. Some sugar, " batishas " (sngat- 
drops) or raisins are distributed to tbo frieqds assembled, 
and the parohUa are dismissed with a proseut. There is 
also for the nest two duys mnsio and singing in the boy's 

In some instances the above ceremonies are not observed* 
Hierfl is a simple annonacement, when tbe girl's parokit is 
sent, that a betrothal has taken place between the parties 
and in cases where tbero is relationship or confidence between 
tbe parties, there is no ceremony of any kind whatever, the 
parties are content with a private verbal engagemenL Th® 
betrothal of a widower takes plaoe without any ceremony. 
( BySi OF Shddi ). 

When a marriage is to be celebrated, two or three months 
before tbe event, tbe friends of tbe bride, witb the assistance of 
tbe family/MroAit or priest, fix npon the auspioioos day, which 
IB known as the"Sihfi.'* Zt is taken down in writing and ibis 
^o^omQut which is called tbe " Panfta S/tddi" is sent by tbo 
bond of the family parofiit or barber to tbe parents of tbe 

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I>riJe;;rooni. On receiving the notice, they dismisa ttie bearer 
with ft presoot, and commence to make preparations- for the 

Fifteen dnya before the muriage the bride a seoluded, 
and is only approached by her fomile compaaioos who stay 
near her, and sing bridal songs. This secloaioa of the bride 
id known as Mdiifda, 

Beren days befora the marriage *omo food ia diatribnted, 
ftnd money given in charity which is called Buz^gdn ki 

On the day the marriage ia to take plane, a new earthem 
veaaal ( kdinb ) containing water, and a lamp (chiritgh ) are 
placed before the bride, and before sunset of that day sbs i» 
bathtid and anointed with oil, and her maternal uncle or her 
fiither's elder brother encircles her right wrist with an ivory 
ehurd or bracelets. 

The friends of the bride are summoned, and her pamhit 
anonnces tho 84M, and pubHshes hor and the bridegroom's 
Gotraehdr ot the names of their Great Qraai Father, 
Qraad Father, and Father. 

In the interim while the abore ceremonies are beirtg 
inacted in tho bride'a house, olhora are taking place in the 
bridegroom' s. 

Pour or five days hofore the x.^rriage, a woollen chaplet 
Gahna is tied round the wrist of the bridegroom. The 
NivtgircJi and Ganesh are worshipped, and food and 
money are distributed to Brahmins and others, mnsio and 
singing commence from this date. 

A day before the marriage tho bridegroom's clothes, aa 
wellas tboseofhisrelationSjareoolonredyoHow with JTiMum- 
ba and in tlie night hia hands and feet are stained with 
tlenna. On the nest day the fiienda of his family assemble 

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and are fed, and a oontribittion of money called TamM 

Utondro is levied from tltem. Presents are made to tbs 

fiunily jMiroAiV, barber, servaats, and meiidtcanta. 

The jta>j or marriago party then start from the honse 

of tbe bridegroom, who is decorated with a head-dress called, 

the Jl/i>r. 

On approaching tbe bride's residence, tbe members of 

the party dress themaeirea and aoffroD water u sprinkled 

orer their clothes. 
. A little after dost the bridegroom's party enter tbe 

Tillage or town, and are met a short distance off by sdepatAtJoa 

of the bride's Father and friends who salnte them, and the 
bridegroom reoeires a small present from the bride's lather. 

This is called " MUni " or Ptthkara. 

On reaching the bride's residence, tbe bridegroom and 

bis friends have sherbet served ont to them and die comfort 

of tbe gnests is attended to. 

If the omen is favorable for the performance of the 

ceremony, it will take place that very night. If uot^ it 

will take place on the following night. 

When every thing is reaily, tbe bridegroom is taken into 
tbe house of the bride's father and made to open tbe door 
of a room where the bride is seated with ber companions. 
Here he receives another present from the bride's Father. 
The bride's parohit now gives a paper to the tmdegronm's 
parvJtU in which are recorded tlie names of the bride's Great 
Father, Grand Father, and Father, and he measures the 
bridegroom nith a piece of raw cotton thread. Presents of 
ornaments and clothes are made to the bridegroom's Father. 
Four posts are erected at the four angles of a sqaare over 
which is stretched a canopy of red cloth. Under 
this' canopy the bridegroom seats himself on a basket tnmed 
upside down. To the right, and by the side ofitj aumilar 

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Rftt is prepared for tlie bride, who sits on it bat who is sepa- 
rated by ft cloth screen from the bridegroom. The near 
relatirei and iiieparohit approach the enclosure, The Gotra- 
char or aaoestrul list is taken hy the bride's parehit together 
mth 8ef«n Teasels of sweetmeats and placed before the brido- 
gn»m. Aa earthen vessel of water (kilmb) and a lamp 
( obirigh) are also deposited within the enotosnre. 

Figures of tianeA and other divinities are made of wheaten 
flour and placed in the enclosnre and prayers to Ganeth nnd 
the Jiauffirah arc offered ap. The parohit then places the 
ancestral list, the Janeo and one mpee in the boy's lass 
and gives a piece of sweetmeat from each of tlie seven pots to 
the bridegroom to eat Some practical jokes, snch as thamp- 
'ng and pinching by the younger female members of the 
bride's family are nsaally carried on and good natnredly 
submitted to by the bridegroom and bis yonnger relatives up 
to this stage of the proceedings, bnt they cease now and ore no 
longer practiced or attempted. 

The ceremony of the Kanidd&n now takes place. 

The bride's Father places the right hand of the bride 
in the right band of the bridegroom, and takes some water in 
the palm of the right hand and phicing it over their clasped 
bands, gives the g^t awny. The pan^t repeating the words 
of the Shmkaiap as follows : — 

On this day, at snch an lionr, I give my dangfater, 
Bdghharn whose Great Grand Father was Sewak Rdm whose 
Grand Father was Bdlak Bdan whose Father is Atma Rdm to 
Balmdkand whose Great Grand Father was f>'anak Chand 
whose Grand Father, Aa, £c The father of the bride res- 
ponds Soait — Amen I and enquires from the bridegroom 
if he will noorish and cherish the woman, His reply is^ 
" God will do so." 

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( '-i ) 

Hion A corner (>r ttia bridsgrooin*a d^paUa or acaxt is 
tied to a corner of the bride's abeet, nnd the bridegroom 
gets np followed by the bride beliind him, and in this 
manner thay both psrambnlate saven tiinos aroaad th* 
vessel of mter f kiimb ) And the Intnp (ohtr^gh). This 
ift called Liieiaphere, The marriaga is not* deemed 
complote and irrerocnble. 

The panAUi vid otboia are then diamissod with 
presents. The coatribations of the frionda nnd relations 
of the bride are theii made ander the name of Tambol ot 
ffeottdm OS in the hoaaa of the bridegroom. The dowrj 
is given, and after a stay of two days, during which &mo 
(here is basting, singing, and masic, the assembled guests 
departt The serranta, mendicants, and others roceivo 
presents as remuneration or as charity, On the third day 
the bride is carried home in a dola or litter preceded 
by music, and followed by the bridegroom on hors^Mck 
and his friends. The bridegrooia is nhaded by u Large ronod 
red ninbretia called a sirgas/U which is nsaally carried 
by the lUtari or dyer of his native town or village. 

It should be noted here that the Liioii^lurg is 
essential to marrUge, all other rites or oeramoniea can, and 
are on rare ooouions, dispensed with, except the Latoim- 
pktre, but when parties are married by the " LHw^phtre " 
, only, the marriage is called Ckori-kirBi/iK or stolen 

Marriijgt of Widovos, 

Widows are not pernutted to marry by law or cnstom, 
bat among low caste man, anoh ai Sonars, Aroros, Chbitnbes 
and Jats, an obwrraace called Ckaiiar-Datna oconrs com- 
monly. There is no particular ceremony : only a white 
Chadar or sheet is colored at the four ooraers yellow with 
saffron, and the man throws it over the woman's head, and 

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the rite is cptnplote. Jat-Sikhs do ibis in a Dbnrms.'tl, 
and also prepare fuilva' (^karha) whidl they diatriboto 
ftiuong th« sptictaton. 


There are three kiada of betrothals atnoog Uubam- 

I, 'Iwaz Mu'awaza — wliere an interchange of biidea 

takes pkce between the two families. 
S. Where money is paid for tbe bride, 
3. Among respectable and well-to-do people, where 

nothing is {^ven or taken. 

The boy's Futher goes to tiie girl's Fiitber ond asks 
for the f;irl for his son. If the Father be agreeable, the boy'i 
Father sends ghf , sugar and rice for a feast, and on n day fixed 
for the occnaion the Father of the boy, witli some friends, 
Iu8 family barber and mnsidan, proceeds to the honse of the 
girl where the food is prepared and distribnted. The barber 
•od nanstcian of the gril's &mily are also present. 

The contract of betrothal is ratified by tlie boy's Father 
calling ont " Oh I God — vooflhaafe thy mercies, and may all 
end well! — The girPs family barber brings a brass dish 
( tkdl ) and places it before tbe ossembly with ghi and sngnr 
iu iL The boy's people throw some jewelry, and the boy's 
father some clothes into tbe dish, which the barber and ibe 
mnsictan carry to the giri's Father who takes as mnoh as he 
thinks proper, and retarns the rest, Some retnm all. Tbe 
barber and mosician get one or two rnpeea each ont of 
it. Sherbet is served out to the boy's friends by tlie 
barber^ or musjciao. If tbe boy'a Father be rich, he gives 


( !* ) 

a present of a gold mahar to the girl's Father. If he be poor 
a rupee is nsnally given, lliis is called a nithdni or 
token. After the betrothal, on some day not later than the 
eleventh daj, the females of the boy's family pay a visit with 
masio and singing to the girl's hoase, and there get sprinkled 
with haldi water by the relatioDS of the girl, and the 
parents of the boy receives as presents some clothes and a 
ring. The girl conceals herself now from the relations of the 
boy and from the boy himself, and afterwards at the 
ocourrenoe of every grand festival, or nntil the marriage takes 
place clothes are sent for the use of tlie girl by the boy's 

Bat sometimes simnlianeoasly with the betrothal there 
is a rite performed which is as binding as the nikah or 
marriage, and which indeed ia Ihe nikah only that it is not 
followed by consummation. This ceremony, which is called 
the thara' jaioab generally tukes place when the boy's 
Father does not implicitly rely on a vfrbal promise, and 
fears that a breach of contract is likely to take place here- 
after. It is not attended with any fflstivities, and the bride is 
not taken away from her parent's home. She is allowed to 
remain with her parents until she ia grown up, or antil her 
hnsband has the means to bring a janj or " barit " with 
mnsio, and after the naaal festivities to take her away to his 
hooae according to ancient form and custom. 

C NikAh or Shddt. ) 
It should be observed at the ontset that among all the 
Mahammodana, except those of the strictest sort, a great 
many Hindii customs are followed on occasions of the 
SMdi. For instance, the bridegroom has the gaKna tied 
round his wrist His clothes and those of his near relatives 
are colored yellow with /wnaiid 'jtajamia," and the bride- 

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( " ) 

grflom'a lutnils and feet are stained witb lienna. A feast i9 
given hy bis parents, and the Niondra is contributed by 
their friends. 

The brida is also leclnded ia MaiyAn, and there is much 
singinjT by the womeD accompanied by the tom*tom of the 
donmtoT wife of the family mosicion. 

Bat these are not O'senUAl to the vnlidity of a 
Mtihamm:idnn marrinjie. Indeed they are dispensed with in 
families wliioh follow the^Aaraor Mahammodaii Law strictly. 
The ISilcah a perfurmed as follows : — 
1^ parents of the parties settle beforehand a data for 
the ceremony. If the date is 8 days hence, they pitt eight 
knots in apiece of cotton thread which they circulate by the 
hand of the family barber among their friends and lelattves. 
This is called Gandi. 

On the day fixed, the bridegroom's Father goes to the 
bride's Futlier with a janj or hardt. The bridegroom 
riding on horseback witb a tirgaaht or red Timbrella 
carried over his head by the lUldri or dyer, ond on 
nrriral on that same night, if a Shara' Jawab hare not 
already taken place, the Nikah is read but if a Shara* 
Jawab bare already been performed between the parties at 
time of the Iwtrothal there is actually no necessity for a 
second similar ceremony, bat ns a rale and particnlarly if the 
girl have arrived at the age of womanhood since her 
betrothal, a Bocond Nikdh is tisually celebarted by tbo Qiizi 
of the village or Malloh when ajary or bardt comes to fetch 
the bride. Indeed it is held by pions Mnbommadans to ba 
rather a meritorions act than otherwise if the ceremony of 
Ifikdh between man and wife be repeated regularly once 
a week, or on every Friday, and this is not to be won- 
dered at when we consider that according to th^ir creed 
tliere are numberless sins of omission and commission which 

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( i» ) 

are held to be SBCBciently grare to weaken, if Dot to destroy, 
tiie marriage tie altogether. 

The. preliminaries having been nrmnged, and the jiTO- 
Tisiona and money for the feast having been sappUed by the 
bridegroom'a Father, if the bride's father be too poor to 
inoDr the expensoa of a feast, food is cooked and the guestt 
having been fed, and the menials paid, the Ifikdh is cele- 

If the bride is not of age, she is not questioned, bni 
her Father or guardian says that ho has in the name of 
Qoi given her to this man. The bridegroom answers that 
he is willing to take her. Should the girl be fallgrown, still 
the parenta osnatly make the contract, bnt she has tho 
option of refnsing when tho HH^h will not be performed, bafe 
if she remains silent the ceremony will proceed. 

If the woman cannot appear in public, her consent to 
tho marriage is taken by her vnkil and witnesses. The 
bridegroom whose face is covered by the lehra or veil is 
made to repeat the Astaghfdr the foar Q&U the five KdUmtu 
the Sifaf-i-Imdm, and the Dua-Q&ndt. 

The dower is fixed according to the means of the parties 
bnt if it ia not fixed, or omitted, the marriage is still valid. 

After the ceremony the bridegroom and all his people 
receive the congratalations of the assemblage, and the 
QizI who officiates gets a fee according to the position in 
life of the parties, bat it is never less than a rapeo. 

Among Muhommadan B^pnts and other tribes of 
Hindd origin, a Brahmin before tlie Sikdh performs the 
Hindi] rite of "lAwdnphere " bnt this is now falling rapidly 
oat of use owing to the protests and remonstrances (rf'tbe 
MoU&ha, nsTertheless even whon the Brahmin ia oot aam> 

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( 2? ) 
monecl, his fee ia iavftriably seat to tiim OQ tbe occasion of 
every marriage. 

Mo^c and festiTitiea are only signs of marriage. They 
are in no wise essential to it and are often dispensed with. 

After tbe Nihdh the girl is taken to the bridegroom's 
honsa ia a " dota" accompanied by the wife of the barber 
or maffldun, who gets a present on arriral of the bride at 
her bosband's house. 

Marriage of Widowt. 

Widows are free to marry, bnt it is nsaal for her first 
to restrict her choice among the relatives of her deceased 
husband, fuling this, she may marry whomever she likes, 
though it is not considered decoroos for her to marry oat 
of her tribe. 



Romati-Urdi Journal. 

^ere is one point of view from whidi I bare not yet 
seen the Boman-Urdu movement discnssed in your columns 
dad which, if yon will allow mo, I should like to bring before 
yea. It has chiefly been considered as a means of facilitating 
the reading, writing, and general use of the varions Indian 
Teniacular aad classical languages. Even the general adop- 
tion of the RomaU'Urdd alphabet and character, it must ba 
admitted, is a prospect ia the distant fatare, aad may be char- 
acterised 03 a work nadertaken for a coming generation. 
Uoreover, the object apparently aimed at by tbe Society is 
one which concerns every day life, for it cannot be denied 
that those who desire to be great Oriental scholars must be 
acquainted with the native characters. "Sovr, the further view 
which I am about to bring forward^ ia also an eminently practi- 


{ 28 ) 
cal ooe, and most important in these days wheo socitA, as well 
OS physical, pheaomena have began to be treated accordiog to 
scientific principles. On this groond, I consider that Boman- 
Urdaista, from one point of vieir at leaat^ should be coo- 
tompliitod as a ateppin^r stone to the sabstitation of English 
for the Indian vemacalars for all pablic parposes. This dango 
conld not, I admit, be accomplished in the present generation, 
or pcrtiapa for several generations, bat that it is not impossi- 
ble, and that it wonid be beneficial, can, I think, be shown. 
Jost as the British have endeavonred to be and socoeeded 
in bung in India, the^ hare erred at difEtirent times in ooe or 
otiier of two direotiooa. Either they hare adhered too sar- 
Tilely to b«ditiooal modes of goTemmentorthey bare intro. 
dnced ideas too advanced for the Datives. For instance, they 
have, atone time, treated Muhammadans according to the letter 
of their codes, which they themselves did not adhere to, at 
EQotiier, they have applied to India principles which might be 
now snitoUe to the civiiized countries of Earope. But rising 
statesmen cannot fail to see that the soentific mode of mling 
India is to apply to it principles which hare been sacoeasfally 
carried oat in oomitrles similarly sitoated. Now, by comparing 
tliis country with others in this manner, it may be seen that 
the adoption of English as the medium of pubUo oommoi^at- 
tion is quite feasible. The most notable example which occnn 
to me is that of the Roman Empire. It is well-known to «U 
that the Latin language became the oiBcial language of the 
whols Empire, and not only so, but remained the learned and 
ollicial language for oentarles in oonntries as remote and u 
early separated from Rome as Britain, while it became, of 
ooorse in a oorrapt form, the national tongae of France, Spain 
and Portugal. Now the- Roman provinces stood in very mooli 
the sime relation to Borne as British Icdia does to Englondr 
and . the analogy in the case of loDguage seems to me quite 
close enough to be adopted. 

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( S9 ) 

Tbe conservatism of the Orientals ironld no doubt be an 
obetaole, but theirscraples in other respooli have been triumpb- 
antly overcome, as in the oase of trarelling by ruL So mncll 
for the poBsibilty of tbe scheme. 

Its coarenience la obvioas withoat much comment, ubA 
a compamon in this respect oIbo \rith the Boman Empire 
woDid make it still olearer. Nor can it be supposed that the 
natives would be slow to see the advantege of the change. 
Sasides th^ mere &ct of convenienoe, another argument might 
be fonnd by comparing tlie present state of English learning 
among Natives, with that of Oriental learning among Europeans 
Every iacility is givea to Natives to acquire a good 
knowledge of English in Schools and Colleges, and there 
is a very hu-ge number of them who know it remarkably 
well. Among Europeans, on tbe oUier hand, it is tiie excep- 
tion to find an officer with a first rate knowledge even of the 
Temacalar of his province. This does not show any inferiority 
in the European, but arises from the immense difierenoo in the 
utility and interest of the languages. This latter fact fumisheg 
another point in favour of my argument. Tho Orientol liter- 
aturea are of no practical use in the modern science of Qorem- 
meot ; they are useful only as showing tho state of society 
which existed in this country at some former time, and, though 
this doubtless is of some interest, it cannot give mnoh instme- 
tion to modem administrators. 

Finally, Hindastclni itself can only have become thd 
official language of the Fanj&b on the ground of convenience, 
for to a large proportion of the inhabitants of the province, 
it ia ft foreign and to a great extent an unknown tongue. 
Why sbonld not a similar course be followed in favour of 
English ? 

The prospect which I have roughly sketched may seem an 
enormous and perhaps ezoessive expansion of the aims of the 
Socwtyj hot my wish is not tbatita objects sbonkt be eztended 

:,.ndty Google 

( so ) 

ko far ; I bring tbe matter before yoQ merely to show viial 
great oltimiite resnlta mny ensue From Romnn-Urdaism, con- 
Bidered na a stepping atone to the stapendons change I bare 
mentioned above, beyond mere tranalit«nition of venwcalars, 
I trost I have not trespassed too maob on your space, but 
as tbe subject has not been diacossed in this light before in 
your Journal, so fur as I know, yea may perhaps be not nih 
TrilUng to insert this letter. 

8 1 H L A, 1 I am, Sir, &o., 

Slh September 1879. J J. W. D. JOHNSTONE. 


Chnn£achi bar e&l men ek daPa kai tarah kE tuhfa 
kbnshbden, aur is mulk kl saugh^teo le j&te, anr ek mahine 
ke qartb as kf khidmat men robte. Jab rakhsat bote, to 
Malik-i-S^iq ek bandar zamarmd k£ det& ; hamir£ 
Bidsh^Qi ose lakar is tabkb^ne men rakhti. Is b£t set 
t&vr&a mere, kof dilsr^ mnttali' na thfu Ek martaba 
gbuUm na 'arz kE, ki " Jab^n-panih I Likhon riipai ks 
Ubfe le-j^l« hain, aur wahin se ek Bozna patthar k& mnrda 
&p Ie-£te hain, is k£( 4khir f^Ida kyl! hai ? " JawjU) meri if 
Hb ki moskur^ar farmiyS, " Khabardir, knbiu zihir na 
kijo, kbabar shart hai. Yih ek Maimda-i-bojio, jo. tu 
dekht£ bai, bar ek ke haz^r dew-i-zabardast tibi' aot 
farm^n-bard^r bain, lekia jab talak mere p£s chilison 
bandar piire jama' na bowen, tab tak yih sab nikamme 
tun, kuchh k^m na fiwenge." So ek bandar ki tnT i[ thf 
kt osi baras mdsb&h ne wafSt p&f," 

" ItijI mihnat knchb nek na lagf ; tta k£ ^da zShir na 
hiii. AiShahz^el terlyihh^Iat bekasf ki dekhkar ,mujbe 

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( 31 ) 
yid &y&, anr yih ji men thnhrityd, feisii larah lnjh ko Malik- 
i-Siidiq ke p&a le-chaldn, am tere cha>;h£ k£ znlm hay&a 
kardn ; gbdlib bai, ki wah dostf tumb&re blip £f y^ karkor, 
ek bozna, jo Mqi hai, tujhe de ; tab ua kl madad se tertS 
mulk tere b^ &vre, aar cbaia se saltanat tA ba kb^tir-jtunft* 
kara, aar bi-l-fi*l is liarakat « teii j^n bacbti bai ; agar anr 
hacbh na biii, to is EUim ke bdth se eiw^ ia tadUr ke 
anr kol sdrat makhlasi kl nnznr nalfo itV Mnin ne ns kl 
mhkni yih sab kaiftjnt sankar, kaL^ ki '* D&db. j&a 1 ab tii 
meH j^n ^& mukbtar hai ; jo mora baqq men bbpla bo, so 
kar." Meri tasalli karke, ip 'atr aur bnkLur anr jo kncLh 
^ahin ke lejane ki kb&tir man^ib j^n^ kbarld korne h&zix 
men gaytt. 

D&sre diD mere ns kaGr cbacha ke pfis, (jo baji-f-Abd- 
jabl ke tb^) ga-y&j anr kabi, " Jab^o-pandb I Sbahzade ko 
m&rd^lae ki ek surat main ne dil men tbnhr£i bai ; agar 
hokm ho, to 'arz kanin." Wnb kam-bnkht khnsh bokar 
bo1£, " Wnb ky& tadbir bai 7 " Tub Mubllrak ne kabi, kf 
« Is ke In^r-d^lne men sab tarnh fip ki bad-n4mi hai, magar 
main ise b&bar jangal men l^iikar, thik^e logiiin anr gir 
dftbkar chaU iin ; h*rgiz koi mabram na hog&, ki ky^ 
hAi" Tib bandiah Mubarak se snnkar, bolii, ki " Bobnt 
Hub&rak ; main yih chibt^ bdn, ki wnb sal^mat na rahe : 
ns k& daghdagba mere dil men bai j agar mnjbe ia fikr se 
td cbbur^wegJl, to is kliidmatke 'iwaz bahot kncbh p^weg^; 
j«h4n terdjIcJiAhelcjikar khapS de, anr mnjbe yih khnah- 
kbabari \& de." Mubarak ne B^sb^b kt taraf se npnf dil-jam'ai 
karke, mujbe s^th liy4, aur we tabfe lekar, ddbt-rit ko sbabr 
86 kdcb kiy&, aar nttar ki simt <^iala. Ek mabf ne talak paibam 
chaU gay£. Ekroz rit ko cbole j&ta the, joMab^rak bold, ki 
" Shukr Ehndd k£, sb manzil-i-maqsiid ko pabnncbe." Main 
ne annkor kabS, ki " DSM, yih tu ne kyi kabi ? " Kahne lag&, 
" ai 6habziidal Tii Jinnoo kdlashkar kyi nahin dekhti?'! 

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( 3! ) 

Main ne kah^ " Mojhe tere s\vt& nat kaclih nazar nalitn 
UA." ytah&nk na ek snnnadini nik&lkar, Salaimial snrme ki 
■aUUnmerfdonon fLnkhon men pher d{n. Won-liln jinnon 
kl khilqat anr lashkur ke tAmbu qnn:it nnzar &aa lage ; lekin 
•ab khiuh-rd nar khnali-ltb^ ; Unbltrak ko pabobinkar, hw 
ek iabnflf kt rih Be gale milti, anr taai&khen karUL 

Akbir j^te jiti bddsb^bt Bnr^clion ke nazdfk gaa anr birgik 
men d&kbilbAe. DokfaU Iiiln to, rosbni qarfne se rosbao lui, 
anr sandatf^n tarab ba tarab kl do-rdja bicbbf bala, anr 'Alim 
Fazil, Darweab aar Amir, Wozfr, Utr-bakbabf, Vixrin nu 
par baithe bain ; anr Yaa^wal, Gazar-bardir, Ahdf, Chela 
b^th bindhe kbare bain ; anr darmiy^n men ek takht marassa* 
k& bicbb£ bai, na par Malik-i-Sidiq t&i anr cb^rqab motion 
kf pabne b&e, moanad par takiye lag^ye, biri sb&n a h ankat 
Be baitb^ bai. Main tie nazdfq jikar 8aI4m \dy& ; mihrbinagf 
Be baitbne k& bnkm kiyA ; pbir hh&ne ka oharchi hiA. BaM 
farigbat ke daatarkhwdn barb^yJt gaji ; tab Mnbirak U 
taraf mntawnjjih hokar ahw&l mer£ pdobk^ Mabirak no 
kabi, ki " Ab in ke b£p kl jagab par ohacb£ En ki Bddab^hat 
kartiboi, antlnk^daabmaa-ijflnlbdabai ;isliyematn inbao, 
irab&n ae le bhfcgkar, &p ki kbidmat men \&ya b&D, ki yatim 
bain, our saltanat in k& baqq bai ; lekia bagbur mnrabU 
kisd se knchb naliia ho aakUl. Hozdr kf daatgfrf ke bi'ii ii 
mazldm kf parwarish bo't bai ; in ke b&p kf kbidmat k£ haqq 
yid karke, in kt madod fannilijre, anr wnb ch^ltsw^hn bandar 
'in^yat kfjijre, jo cMlfaon pure boa, anr jib apnebaqqko 
pnbnndikar, tnmb^re j^-o-m^l ko dn'i den ; Airio SSinb U 
pou^b kfl, kof tbikani nozar uabfn &t&." 

Yih tam^m kaifij^t snnkar S<idiq no t£mmn1 karka 
kab£, ki " Waqi'i, baq{iq-i-khidmat anr dostf BadabfiM- 
Magbfur kf, bamire dpar bahnt the, anr yih bi-ch£ri tab^ 
hokar, apniaaltanat-i-manriiisiobborkar, jin baobine kew^late 
ysiiia tolak &y& hai ; aor bamire diuian-i-daoUt men 

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( 33 ) 

pftaiUi If liai ; ta maqddr kisd tarfth haia se kam{ nn 
hogi, aar dargazar na kardngfi ; lekin ek kcim ham&r^ 
liai, agar wnh is se ho aak£, aar khiy&uat tut kf, aar 
ba-khdbi aajAm dijrlt, aar is imtih^n men pdri atr£, to maia 
qaal qar£r kartft hdn, ki " ziyada Bdclsli^h se aaliik karilngA, 
•ur jo yih cb&Iieg^, so ddags." 

Uain ne Hth btlodbkar iltimla 'k.iy&, ki " Is fidwf se t& 
ba maqd&r jo khidaiat Sark^r kE ho sakegE, ba aar o obashia 
buj& I^wegi, aar as ko ba khdbE o diy&uat ditrf aar hosfay^rf 
se kareg&, aar apnf sa'^dat doQon jab^n kl Bamjhef;&," 
FanniyS, ki " Td abhl larkS hai, is wiat© bir-blir tiUcid karta 
hiin, marh&d&, khij£nat kare, aor itfat men para." Main ne 
kah£ " Ebad& B^shih ke iqb&l se fU&n kareg^, anr main 
hatta-I-maqddr koshish karungi, aar am&nat hnzdr tak Is 
^ng^" Yih sankar, Malik-i-SiJiq ne mojh ko qarfb 
baliiyi, aar ek kdghaz dastakf senikflkar mere tain dikhUj^, 
aor kabit, "yih jis shakhs ki ahabfh bai, nse jah^a se i&na 
tal&ah karke meri kb&Ur pud£ karke !<!, aar jis ghari td ua 
kit n&n nisb&n p&wo aar s^mhae j&we, merf tarnf se bahat 
isbtiyiq z^hir kijo. Agar yih khidmat tajfa se saranjim bdf, 
to jitnl tawaqqa' tnjho manzdr hai, ns ae ziydda gfaaar- 
pard&kbt klj^gf, waTilla na jaisA karog& waia£ p&wog^" 

Main ne lu k^baz ko jo dekhi, ek tasnir nazar part 
ki gbasb 8& &a9 lag£ ; ba zor mire dar ke apne tafa sambb- 
&\&, aar kaha, " Uabat khdb ; muia rakhsat hoti hun ; 
agar Kbadi ko merit bhal£ karoit hai, to ba mdjib hakm-i- 
hazdr ke, majb se 'omal men iwegk." Yih kahkar, Mabirak 
ko hamr&h lekar jaagal kf rih It. Gftaw.g^v, bastf baatf, 
ahahr shabr, mnlk malk, phirne lagi, aar bar ek se ns k£ 
n^ni nish&n tahqiq karte ; kisd ne oa kahit, ki " Han main 
jantct bda, y& kisi se maxkur snn^ h^." S£t baraa tak 
nsi 'itlam men hair^ai o paresh&ni sahtft hdit ek nagar 
men wind hdi ; *im&ntt-i<'flf aor &bad, lekio wahitn kit 

:,.ndty Google 

< M ) 

ya tk maUnaffii Ism-i-A'wB parhU tli£>. «ir Khadi ki 
'jt^datbandagikartilii. Ek andhi HinddstAni iaqir bhik 
m4DgUt oazar iv&, lekia kisd ne ek kanrl j& ek niwiUa na 
diy4; mujh« ta'ajjnb dyi anr nsk© fipar rshm kbiya* 
j«b men se ek asliraft nikilkar ua ke bfUh di; wob 
lekar bola, ki " Ai dfitA I Khndi ter4 bbalil kare ; tii ehi^ 
mnsifir boijisahahr kfi bishinda nablu?" Uaia ne kabi, 
" Fil-wiqi, • adt baraa se miun tabih hi& hiin ; jia k4m ko 
Hikli biiu, as kit sndigh nabfn milti ; £j is balde men & 
pohanobi bdn." Wnb bdrh^du'aen dekar dmlii ; main os 
ke pfc^e Ug'liyi. B&har ababr ka ek mak&i-i-'il£sb£it 
nazar ky& ; nab as ke aadar g»yk, maio bhl choUL Dekb& 
toj&<ba-j& 'im.4ratgir pari ba(, aar be-marainmat ho rabt 

Hainne dil mea kabi, ki^yib mihnll ]4iq B^bfUion 
ke hu ; jia waqt tnij&ti is kt bog{, ky£ M makda-i-dilcbasp' 
bana hogAlaorab tio wair^nf s9ky& sdrat ban robi bait 
par ma'liim nabfa, ki ujir kjiia pard bai, anr yitt B£-bfn& 
is maball men kyda basU bai." Wah kor litlif tekti biU; 
cba.\& j£t£ tM, ki ek Ait&z £f, jaiae kof kahta bai, ki ** Ai 
\>&'p\ Uhdli to bai, &} saware kyda phire &te ho?" Fir mard 
ae anakar jaw^b diy^ ki " BqU 1 Khadi oe ek jaw^a mvaif 
fir ko mere ahw£t par mittrbiR kiyA ; ua ne ek mnbr majh 
ko dL Bahat dinon se pet bbarkar iiobahbtt kbiod aa kbiiyi 
thi; so goaht, maadlib, gbf, tel, &ti, Ion, mol liys, aar terf 
kbiUr kaprd. jo zardr tha, kbarfd kiya, ab is ko qata'kar 
aar aikar pabin, aar kb4a& pak&, to kb£ pfke, ns sakbi ks 
btqq men da'i den. Agar<^ matiab ua ke dil k& tna'Ium 
nabin, par Kitadi d£n£ biott bai ; ham bekaaon ki da*& 
qabdl kare." Haia ne yih abw^ ns kt fiqa-kosbi kijo 
san^, be-ikhtiy^ ji men i^yA, ki bia asbmfi^ anr is ko d&n, 
lekin iw4z ki tnraf dbyAa jo gayo, to ek 'aarot dekbi, kt 
Ijbik wah taswir nsf ma'sbuq ki thi. ToawSr ko nikfflkar 

:,.ndty Google 

( »5 .) 

liniq&bil kiyi, ur i-nuS UftmA na dekblt ; ek na'radil se trifcli, 
mtir behosh hi&, Hobftrak mere taia bi^hal men lekar baitbA, 
•or poitkbi kame lagi ; majh men sarrii sJi hoah iljrA ; tu hf 
laref t4k rabi tlifl, jo Hab&rak do ptlehbA, ki " Tibd k6 ki7& hi) 
gayi r" AUd nraah se jaTrtU> nabin nikU, ki wnh nAaDin bolf 
ki " Ai jawfca I Khodi ae dar, aoi^ bigiae satr par nigUi mat 
fcar ; hayi attf ^rm aab ko xardr hai." 1» lij&{at M gttft- 
ga kf, ke main as ki adrat aar »ini par mahv ho gayA. 
if abttrdc meti khiltinUrl babnt si Icarne lagi, lekm dU kf 
hilatUni k&kij& khabar UiS? JJub&c bokar, maia na, 
pdc&ri, ki "Ai Kbad^ke baodo, aor ia mabtn ke r^newiUo 1 
Uain gbarib mosifir btio ; agar ttpat pia mqha baUo, aar 
nhna ko jagab do, to barf b^ hai." Us andba Be naadUe 
bnUj^ vox iw^z pahcbllo kar, gale lag&yi, aar jabin wob 
gal-badan baithf thf ua makin men le-gayi, Wob ek kon* 
men dihip gat, ua b&rbe oa mnjb ee ptEdibi^ ki " Apoa 
to&jrik kab, ki kjtia gtiaxh&T chborkar, akd& parfi pbirtf 
bai, anriajhe kb ki taUsh hai ?" Uain b6 UWk-i-SiUii| 
ki Jt&m tA liy^ anr irab£o )A kndih akr mezkur sa kiyi ; 
is taTir Be kah£, ki " ^ib bekas 8hazida Cbfa o Uicbia k» 
hai ; chan^Dohi mere wal(-i-ni'mat i£ haoox B&Ub^ bain. 
Ek Saod^gar se Ukboo rnpai dekar, yib taswir mol If tbi ; 
■9 ke dflkhoe se sab bosb &r&mjtU£ labi; anr faqtr k& 
bhw karkar, tam^ danyft cbb&n m&ti ; ab yab&a mera 
madab milil bai, 8o tomb^ ikhtiyt^ bai," 

Tib stmkar, andbs no ek Sh m&d aor idk, ** Ai 'azk f 
MerSUtkl barf musSbat men giriftir hai ; kisii baahar kimajtf 
MbiD, ki is se nik&h kare, aor phol p&we." Main ne kahi, 
"Uramedwfir hiiuj ki mofMSsal bayin kato." Tab ns mard-i- 
'Ajamf ne apni miyi is taar se zAhir kiya, kt " Son, at B4d- 
aiOk-ziAQ I Main Raia anr Akibir is kam-bakbt shnbt kfe 
bin [ mere bnzurg nftm-iwar anr 'ali-khindAn the. Haq<i 
WiJine jib bets mcjbe'iniyat ki; jab bSligh bii, to IskS 

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( 3« ) 

hl)4lHs£raU atir nAzttat star anlfqe U Aor hU, anr tin anlk 
IDSD muhhdr hAa, ki '* Falfaie ke ghar nun aial ]«rkf faai, kl 
ua ke htua ke mnqUHl hur pari dnrnunda faai ; itudln k& to 
kfi manh hai, ki baribni kare ? " ^h blrif ia shabr ka 
Shaluide ne sani ; ghiibiD* baghair deUw bbfile 'Jtsliiq bdi; 
kb&i4 pfoi dihor diT* ; athwM UuUw&ti lekar pari. 

A*khir, B^fa£h ko yib bit malmn hiU, mere ta£n rit ko 
khilwat men bnUyft, anr yih maxkdr darmifin men liji, anr 
majhe biton men phnsliy^ hatta ki nisbat n&H kanie men ' 
rizi ki;£. Main bM samjbi, ki jab beti gbar men paid£ but 
to kisd na kiad se byihi lii cMldje ; pas is se kyA JHhtar bai, 
ki B&iab&'Z&ie se mans4b kar din ? ia men BAigbOi bbf 
minnatwir bot& faai. Uain qabfil karke rokhsat hi£. Ust 
din se donon taraf taiy^ byfii ki bone UgL Ek n» aobcbU 
■Ji'at men Q^i, Mniti, 'Alim, Fizil, Ak^ir, sab jama* hue ; - 
nikffli bfindb& gay&) anr mabr mn'aijan ha&. , Dulfaan ko 
bari dbam-dh^ se le-gae ; sab rasm rasi^m^ karke fin'gfa 
hde. Ufi T&t ko as mak&i men ek ahor-ghnl ais£ biU, ki 
jo btOiar log cbanki men the, hai rin hue; dsrwiza kothrf ka 
kbolkar ch£b&, dekhen ki yih ky£ &ta.t hai; andar se aisli 
band tb£, ki kiw^r khol na sake, Ek dam men wnh rone 
ki iw^ bbl kam bdl; pat kl chiil nkhirkar, dekhi to 
dnibi sir kati hii& para tarapbti hai, anr dnlhan ke mnnh se 
kaf chal£ jit^hai, anr usi mittilabd men lithrf bdf be-haw& 
pari lott hai. fih qiyimat dekhar sab ke bosh jfite lahe • 
usi khnshi mon yih gbom zHhir h&&. B^shA ko khabsr 
pahnnohi ; sir pitUl Mi daari ; tamjm ark&n saltanat ke 
jama' hue, par kisd ki 'aql k&m nahln karJi, ki is ahwfQ ko 
dary^kare; nihdyat ko B^hshiUine ia qalaq k£ hilatmen 
kukm kiyfi, ki " Is kambakht bhiindpairi dolhan k& bhi air 
kit dilo." Tib bfit Bldshdh kl zabiin se jon-hfn nikS, phir 
waiaa-bi hang&ma barpa bdl Btidah&h dar£^ anr apni j^ 
ke khatre so oikol bh^ anr farmiyA, ki "Ise tni.Kfl H » 

:,.ndty Google 

c sr ) 

bfliu'nibiU4o." Ehawisson ne is larki ko mere gbar iR«n 
pahDDcbi diyii. Yib cbarchi Atmjk men maahlidr bdi; 
jiD ne tani hairln hdi, anr Shili-z^« ke m^re-jliiiR ks 
aabtb M khod B^b^ anr jitue bfUiiode is Bbahr ke hatiij 
mere dashman-i-j&ni hde. 

Jab m£tam-d£ri Be fartLgbat bdi, aor chiblam ho-cbnka, 
BidshlOi ne ark£n-i-dan1at ae saUh pficbbf, ki "Abkyi 
kiy£ obihiya ? " Sabbon ne kah£, " Anr to kacbh ho nahfa 
sakti, par zibir men dil kf tasalli anr sabr ko w£ste ns 
larkiko ns ke b£b samet marvi-d^liye, anr gbarb&r zabt kar 
If jiye." Jab mer! yih sazi maqarrar ki, Eotwtll ko bukm 
hA& i ns ne &kar cb£ron taraf ae meri baTreU ko gher liyA 
anr narsingi darwc^ par baj^y^, anr cb£h£ ki andar gbasen, 
anr B£dsb^ kJi hnkm baj£ Uwen. Qh£ib se it pattbar aise 
barasne lage, ki tamfcm fanj (ctb na 1& sak( ; apn£ sir mnnh 
bacb&kar jidher tidar bb&ge, anr ek flwiz-i-mnbib BlUsbOi 
ne maball men apne k£non sonf, ki "KyuD kambakbU ^1 bai^ 
ky& abait^Q lag£ faai ? Bbal& chfUiU bai to ns niznf n ke abv&l 
kamnt&'arriz nabo;nnhlQ to jo kncbb tere bete ne qb ae 
shddl karkar dekh&, tn bbl ns ki dnsbmani ae dekbegi ; ab 
agar nn ko aatiwegi to Bax& p^wega." B^shfUi ko mitre 
dabsbatke tap obarbf. Won-liinbakm kiyi, ki "In bad-bakhton 
se koi mozftbim na bo kncbh kabo, na snno; baweli men par4 
rabne do, zor zolm in par na karo." Us din se 'imil b&o-batiU 
j^nkar da'£ taViz, anr siyine jantai^mantar karte liain ; anr 
sab bisbinde is shabr ke ism-i-A'zam anr Quran-i-majf d parbte 
bain. Hnddat ao yib tamfisb^ ho rabi bai, lekin ab tak knohb 
iarCr'ma'lum nabfai bot£, anr mnjhe bbl bargiz ittil^' nahfo, 
magar is larkf se ek h&r pdobbft, ki " Tom ne apn£ j^kbon se 
ky& dekhj tb^ ? " Yih boli, ki " Anr to kuchb main nahin 
jltnlf, lekin yih nazar £y^ ki jis waqt mere khfiwind ne qasd 
mnbisbarat V& kiya, cbbat phatkar ek takht mnrasaa' ka 
nikia; ns par ek jaw£n-i-khiib-siirat ab&b&oa libib pahne 
\mtM tha, aor t&^ babat se 6dmi ihtiinfim karte h4« 

:,.ndty Google 

( S8 ) 

unaltin mm il^, aur fituOnftde ke ^'ke masbi^dd Ma 
Wnh sbakbs sardilr mere nazdik £j* asr bolii, " Ey^ jItAt 
•b bun M kab^Q bh£g9ge 7 " Unkf a6ratoB idmi ki si tUb 
lekiap^wbakr{onkeaeiiumr^;nier&k«I^ dbamkae kgi 
•arkhanfse gbtiBli men & gaf ; phir mqjbe kodib aodh iMiUa 
ki ikhir kyfl bt^a." Tab se meri yih abwfl hai, ki is pbflte 
tnak^ men ham donoa j( pare rabte bain ; RfciahlQi ko gboss 
ke ba'is apne raff q sab j iid£ lio gae ; aar main gacUi kanw ^ikal- 
ti hiJn, to koi kaari oabia deti, balki diik^D par kbare rabiM ks 
rawfUi^ nabln. Is kaoibakbt larki ka badoD par lattA nabiOy 
ki ur dibip&ve, aar kb^e ko mayaBBar nabln, jo pet bhar 
kh&we. B^ndfi se jib ob£btB biln, ki mant bamiii awe^ j£ 
xamln pbate, aar yib ni-ebadni mmftwe ; is jine se marai 
bba1£ hai. Ehndft ne diijad bim£re bf vista tajbe bb^ 
bu, jo td ne nbm khiksr, ek todbr df i kb&afi bliS masediJr 
pakikar khiji, anr betf k£ kb£Ur kapri bbf bon&yi ; SbwU 
kidargihmea sbakr kiyi, anr tajbe da'a dL Agar ia par 
<teb Jin yi Fail kinahoti, tarlkbi<laiat men lanndi kf jags6 
deU^ anr apni aa'idat j&atL Tib abw^ is '^ Uthai, tn ■• 
ke darpoi mat bo, aar is qaad se dargozar." 

Yih sab mijri saokar main ne babnt minnat o strf k^ 
" Ui^be apn( farzandi men qabiil kar, jo merf qnaat menbadft 
faogi, so hogi." Wah pir mard bargiz ri^ na h&L Bbto 
jab bii(, OS se mkbaat bokar sarfi men ijri. Mnbtlrak nekaht^ 
" ho Sboh-zade I Mab&rak ho ; Kbndi ne asbib fo damii 
kij& hai, b&re yih mibnat akirat na gat." Uain ne kdri(» 
" Aj kitni kbosbamod ki, par wnh asdhi be-im&n rizS naUa 
boti, Ebndi jAne dewega, y& naUn." Far mere dilki yib 
biUtfU^ki^tbUnimiidikit hiU, k! kab sobb hsy to pUr 
jikar, baair bdn. Eabba yih kfaiyfl llta thi, " Agar wib 
mihrbiB be, anr qabAl kare, to Mabfirak Malik-i-Stfdiq U 
kb&tir lejttega." Phir kaht4, '* Bbal^^ b&tb to ine ; MabAnOC 
ko Bian&minticar, mun sbidf karAag4." Phir jf men yib 
kbatra M, ki " Agar Habfirak Uti qab&l ksre, to Jiown k* t 

ty Google 

( 89 ) 

Utk N wnb 1 naiibst med hogi, jo Bilsb^z&le ki hiii. 
nv a dukr ki Bddah&b kab tMbegk, ki oa k& beti m^ jbe/ 
wir ddn£ khtuU niKii^." Tamim r&t nfod ncb&t ho gaf, 
atir is( maneAbe ke atjhera men IckII. Jub roz rophan MAf 
main chBli ; chauk men se achdihe aohobho th&n-i-posbiU(> 
oar got* kinirf, anr mena-kbasbk-o-tar kbarld karke, na 
bozai^ k( kbidmat men bistir bu&. Nib^yat kbttsb bokar bol^ 
ki " Sab ko apn( jan se zidyfUakncbb 'aziz nabtn, par npa meH 
j^ bbf tere k&m fin-e, to daregb na karfin, aar npnt beti abbf- 
iere baw^le kanJn ; lekin yih i kfaanf M& bni, ki is barkn^ 
M teH ]in ko kbatra na bo, ki yih A&gh la'nat k^ more i!par 
Ui qij-imat rabe." Main ne kab^ " Ab is bast! men bekas 
vr&cfi' biin, anr tarn mere din dunyi ke b^p bo ; main is &tzA 
■tea maddat se kyfi kyi tab^bl anr paresb^f kbencbti hii 
■ar kaiee kaise sadma nlhtltl^ ha&, yab&n tak ay£, anr 
maUab k& bhi mr&gh p^yfL Kbada ne tnmben bbf mibrb^n 
kfya, jo byA dene par riz^mnod bue, lekin mere vrHsto &gi 
ptchbit karte bo, zari^ mnnsif bokar, ghanr farm^, to 'iahq ki 
iaiwir se air bacbina, aar apnf jan ko chhtp&na kis mazhab 
men donut faai ? Harchi bAd£ bid, main ne sab tnrub apne 
tein bar-bid diyA bai, ma'sbuq ke \t'a&l ko main zindag! sam- 
ajbta hnn ; apne roame jine kf mt^be kncbh parwdh nabin/ 
t^ki agar n^ammed biing&, to bio ajal mar-j^ngi, aar 
tnmbiti qiy'mat men d&man-gfr bdnga." Gbaraz, is goflo- 
sbanfd anr ban nAnb men qaifb ek mabine ke kbanf o 
nji men gnzara. Ear roz ns bnzorg ki kbidmat men 
danrit ]&i&, anr kbosb-itnad bar-£mad kiy& VariL IttifAqanwnh 
bdrbll kiUiiU bdi ; main xa Vi blmarnlirl men b&afr roh&^ 
bameshiqinirabokimpis lej&Ut, jo nnskha likb-deti, nae tarklb 
ge banikar ptl&t£, anr sbola anr gbiz£ apne h£tb Be pakAkor 
1t<A niwiUa kbiliti, Ek din mihrb^ bokar kahne Ing4, " Ai 
JAwia 1 Tu bai^ ziddf bai, main ne hnroband B&ri qab^atea 
kali ann^n, anr mana karii bun, ki is kim se biz & ; jf baj' 
tojaliialiaifpar kbwi-ma-khwfkb Ui k(ie meo £iridiilit& 

:,.ndty Google 

< « ) 

hai. Acholib^ &j apodarUse ter^ mnzkiir kardngfi ; dekbdn 
wab ky& kahtf hai." Ya fnqari-i-All&h I Yih khnsh-khabri 
annkar main task phdli, ki kapron men na B»miy&; &dih 
baj£ \iiy&, anr kah&, ki " Ab ip ne mare jioe ki fikr k£.*> 
Bukhsat hokar makio par &yi, anr t^m^ia iliab Mab£nk sa 
yih i zikr mozkdr rah& ; kah^a ki nfad aur kahan ki bfafihk? 
aobh ko ndr ke waqt pbir jikar manjdd hil£ ; saUm kiy^ ; 
fiannine lagi, ki "Lo,apt^ betf ham ne tum ko di, Khodi 
mabirakkare ; tnm donoa ko Khadfi kf hifz o amia men 
Bomp£ ; jab talak mere dam man dam hai, merf inkhon ka 
B^mhnerabo ;jab meri^nkh mdnd j^g{, jo tomb&rejf men 
Aweg£, ao kijo ; mnkhtiir ho." 

Kitae din pfchhe wnh mard i bnznrjf jin ba haqq taaUm 
h&k ; ro'pf t^kar tajbiz takfiD kiy£. B^ tije ke, ns oiznln ko 
Mubarak dolt karkar k&rwdosara men 1&-Ay&, anr mojh ao 
kab£, ki " Yih anUinat Malik>i-S&diq kt hai ; khabardir^ 
khiyflottt na kijo, anr yih mibnat masbaqqat bai^b^ na dijo." 
Main ne kah£, " At kfik£ 1 Ualik-i-S^iq yab£n kahia hai ? 
Dil oabla m£al:£ ? main kiyankar sabr kardn ? Jo knchh bo 
■oho;jidii, yi mardn, ab to sb^t kar Mn." Mnbirak na 
diqq bokar dinUl, ki "Larkapan na karo ; nbbf ek dam men 
kacbb ki koohbho j£t& bai; Malik-S^liq ko ddr j^ate ho, jo 
ns kit farming nahin miiote bo ? as no chalte waqt pahle-M 
dnch nioh Bab Ban]jb& di hai ; agar ns ke kahne par raboge 
anr aabih saUmat us ko wab£n tak le cbaloge, to wnh bht 
B^sbilb hai, sb^yad tnmbflrl mibnat par tawajjuh karke, 
tnmhin ko bakhsh de, to kyS acbcbbi bit howo ; pCl ki pit 
ralie, anr mit ka mit bath logo." Bire, na ke daiAne anr 
9amjb£ne se miun bair&n bokar obiipkS bo rahii ; do s4nd- 
nian kbartd kla, anr kajion par saw5r bokar Malik-i-S4diq 
ke mulk ki riib U. Chalte cbalte, ek maidfin men 4wia gbul 
shor ki &m lagi. Mubarak ne kab4, « Sbnkr Kbad4 ki, 
ham/iri mibnat nek lagi ; yih lashkar jinnon ki i pahnnohi." 
Bire, Mubirak ne on sa ^ jnl kar p&obha ki " Khin ki 

:,.ndty Google 

( « ) 

lr£da kiy4 hai ? " Wb bole, ki " BidsMh ne inmUn isKqbil 
ke wAata faamea talnAt kiyk hai j ab UmhAre fermin-bardar 
haio i agar kaho to ek dam men rd-ba-rd lechalen." Mnbdrak 
Se kah£, " Dekho. kid kis mihnaton se KbadA ne BildsbSh 
ke baziir men bamen snrkbrd k{y& ; ab jaldf ky& zardr 
bai ? agar Ehadi na Khwista, kuchb Khaki hojiivo, to 
bam^rf mihnat akirath ho, anr Jahinpanih ke ghosse men 
paren." Sabhon ne kah^, ki " Is ke tnm makhf^r hoj jia 
tarabjlohilheobalo." Agarchi sab torab ki 4ram thfi, par 
hit din ohalne se k&m tb&. Jab nazdik jk pahoockt, main 
MnbArak ko 8ot£ dekbkar ns n&iala ke qadamon par sir 
rakbkar apne dil ki beqai^rt anr Malik-i-S^iq ke sabab se 
iUch&rf nihay at minoat o z£rl se kahae lagfi, ki "jis roz ae 
tamb&rf toBwfr dekM hai; kbw^ kbariab aar &ram maia 
ne apne iJpar har^m kiyi bai, ab jo Khadi ne yibdin dikhiyi, 
to mahz begina ho raha hiln, Furm^ne lagi, ki " Meril bh£ 
dil tumhiri taraf mfiil bai, ki tam ne merl khitir ky& ky& 
barj maij uth^j^, aur kia kis mashaqqaton ae le &e bo; Kbod^ 
ko y£d karo, aar majhe bh61 na j.'iiyo ; dekbo to parda-i- 
gbaib ao ky£ z^hir hot& bai." Yih kabkar, aiaf be-ikbtiyir 
d£rh mArkar roi, ki bichkl laggai; idhar mer£ yih h&l, odhar 
m V& wab ahw£l. la men Unb^rak kl nind tut gai ; wab 
bam donoD masbtfiqon k& ron& dekbkar, rone lagi, anr bolA, 
" kb^tir jama' lakho; ek ranghan mere pas bai, ns gnl-badan 
ke badan men mal dilngi, ns ki bii se Maiik-i-S^iq k£ jl bab 
jfegi; ghilib hai ki tamhta ko bakhsb de." Mabilrak se yili 
fadbir snnkar, dil ko dh£ras ho-gaf; ns ke galo se lagkar Utr 
kiyk, anr kab&, " Ai dkdi I Ab tfi mere b£p ki jagah bai; 
tere bi'is merf jAn bacbi; ab bbf ai9& kfimkar; jis men merl 
zindagfini bo, nahfn to ia gham men marjidngA I" TJa ne 
dber sf tasalli di. Jab roz roahanhilA, fiw^jinnonk{ma'16m 
bone la^f. Dekh& to koi khan-Ass Malik-i-SAdiq ka &e bain, 
anr do sarep&o bhirl hamAre liye Ue bain, anr ek chandol 
motion ki tor pari biif, nn ke sdtb hai. Mnbirak ne ns 

:,.ndty Google 

( « ) 

n£znin ko wah tel mal diyk, sar poshik pnhni banio kanr£- 
bar Malik-i-S£diq ke p& le-cbola. F^sh&h ne dekhkar 
Tunjhe babnt sarfar&z kiy&, aar 'izzat o barmat sa bith&y^ 
nur farm^na kg&, kt " Tajh se main aisS saldk karfingi, ki 
kisd ne &j tak kisd se na kiy& hog£; b£dfib£bat to tere h&p U 
maajud bai; 'al&tva ab t4 mere bete kl jngab bii^" Y^ 
ta^va^ab kt b^ten kar rab£ Ui£ ; itne men wah n^ttlo bbi 
ru-ba-ri^ &i. Us rangban ki bi^ se ek-ba-ek dimigb parfi- 
gnnda Lu£, anr hSl be-b£l b[>-gny£; t^b as b^ VI na la sak£; 
utbkar b£har cbali gaj^ aar bam donoo ko balw^y&, anr 
Mnlt^rak ki taraf matawajjlh hokar farmdyi, ki "Kyuo 
ji kbiib shart baj£ \&e. Main ne kbabardar kar diy& tbi, ki 
agar kbijitnat karoge, to kbafgi men paro^ ; yih b6 kaisi 
bai 1 Ab dekbo, tomhiri kyfi b&t kart& biln." Balrnt jizbiz 
1 ill-" 

Al-gharaz taish men 4kar, mnab se bnriE bhali bakne 
lagii. Ua xraqt as ke b^t-kah£o se y(in ma'liim hota &&, kj 
ebfiyadj^D se mnjhe tnarw^aleg^. Jab mnin ns ns ka 
basbre ae yih dary^ft kij£, apne ji se b&tb dhokar anr jda 
kbokar, sar-i-gbiUf Mubarak ki kamar se kbenobkar, Malik- 
i-?^iq ki tond men m^ti ; cbbun ke lagte bi nihnri, aar 
jbuomJi ; iiiuin ne bnirin boknr j^ni, ki mnqarrar mar gay^ ; 
]ibir apne dll men kkiylil kiya, ki zakhm to aisi kirf oaMa 
lagji, yih ky£ sabab bu& ? Main kbar& dekbt^ tb^ ki woh 
zamin par lot Ut gend ki siirat bankar, ^uin kl taraf or 
cbala. Aisa buland hu&, ki ^kbir nazaron se gb^ib bo-gay^ 
phir ek pal ke ba'd bijii ki tarah karakt£ anr gbnsse 
men knchh bema'ni bakta \ii& nicbe &yi, anr mnjhe ek 
Ut m£rl, ki main teoMkar cbiiron ah^ne cbit gir pari, 
anr ji diib gny^ Khndli jine kitni der men bosh &yk. 
Anklien kbolkiir jo dekb^ to ck aisa jangal men paHi 
bun, ki jali^n eiw^ kiksraartentfanrjhar-beif kedankblon 
ke kncbb anr nnzar nabin S,t& ; ab ns gbarf *aql knchh 
kdm nabiii kartj, ki ky£ karun anr kab^n jinn ! Ni-nmmedi 
ie ek ih Iharkar ek taraf ki rib It Agar kabfn kof idmt kf 


( « ) 

■drat nozar parti to Halik-US^q kd nim piichhU ; wah 
diw&najin karjaw&bdeU, ki''fiainne to ns ki nim bbf 
naliln son^" 

Ek roz paMr par j&kur maia ne bbf ir^a ki^ ki apne 
tatn gir&kar z£-i' karda. Joa mosbi'idd girae ki hii£, wabi 
Batr^r Sahib-i-za-l-faq£r bnrqVposh & pabanch^ aar boM, 
ki "Kyiin tii apnl j£n kbotd bai ? Admf par dakb-dard sab 
liota bai ; ab tere bure dia gae, aar bhale din &e ; jald Buai 
ko ji : Ha sfaakbs aise-fa£ &g» gae hain ; no bq muUtq^t kar, 
atir wahic ke Salbta aa mil ; tam p&acbon k& matlab ek bi 
jagabmen mitegi." 

Is faqir ki siur k£ yih m&}ta& bai, jo 'an kiytL B£ra, 
baeb&rat se apne Maali Mitabkll-kugb& ki, mursfaidon kt 
baziir men & pahanchi hila, anr Bidshih'i-Zilla-l-lih ki bhi 
iniila'zamat biaii b&i ; ob^ye ki ab >sb ki kbiUr-jama' ho.' 


The objects of this Jonrnal, and of the Society with 
which it is connected, are expluned by the series of Beso- 
lations passed at the Meeting organising the Sodety, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which were pabUshed 
in the Brst nnmber of this Jonmal. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
ns their support. Those who may wish to join the Sodety 
are reqaested to send their names, with the Sabscriptions for 
the year, Rs. 5, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman^UrdA 
Soeuty, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of the 
Journal. Friends in England are asked to send their sub- 
scriptions ( and any literary contributions with which they 
may favor ns ) to oar English Secretary F, Drew, Esquire, 
Etoa C(dlege, Windsor. 

:,.ndty Google ^^ 

( 44 ) 

We also call attdntion to Ko. 6 of the Besolntions 
passed at the Meeting on the 25tli May 1878, and Invite 
donations to the " TransliteralioQ Fand." 

There are many sympathisers with the moTement who 
have not yet sent in their names and sabscription. We 
trust that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
ii3 by convaaaing for fresh members, and by cironlating oar 
Jonrnal among both Europeans and Nativea in the atatioos 
where they reside. 

Contribatioos on any of the rariona sabjecta connected 
with transliteration, translation and edncatioo genetaUy, ar9 
earnoatty solicited from Members of the Society. 

PBuim> Bv RiM Pas, at ibh " Civa akd Uiltubt Qizseai" Pmsk, 



To advocate tkt km ofikt Roman Alphabtt tn Oriental 







:,.ndty Google 

:,.ndty Google 

No. ij. October i8yg, 


Hm Bngliali and Indian Papers of September contain 
Domeroaa obituary noti'-es of the late Sir Rowland Hill. The. 
reform which will for ever be coonected with his nrnne is one 
of the same class as that advocated by oar Society. Be sair, 
n we see, that the spread of kaovrledge and cirilization is 
impeded by eligbt mechanical diGSoaltiea to an extent of 
which saperficial observers bare do conception. The ridton- 
lons postal system that was in force before Sir Rowland Hill's 
reform is thus described by the DaHy Newt. " When a letter 
reached an old-faahioned Post-Offioe its tronbles, ao to speak 
began by inspection and taxing. Weight was, oddly enoo^ 
not accepted as a basis of charge. It was too easy a method 
and that of charging so much per sheet was employed in- 
ptead — a system requiring that in every principal Foat-Office 
there sbonld be a "dark-room" snpplied at-will with 
strong artlficiiJ light, in order that the letters might be 
" candled " like saspicions eggs, to detect whether mora 
than one sheet was covered by the endosare. Then came 
the oalcalation on distance, the snm was worked ont, and 
Uie amonnt of the postage written npon the letter. This ^aa 
freqaently so great as to prevent the delivery of the 
letter at alt. Ooantry folk brought a silver spoon 
or some sach article to leave with the village Post 

:,.ndty Google 

( s ) 

Maat«r till the l«lier oontd be redeemed, and the natanl 
DOQseqoenoe of a de&r postage was a oontrabsnd serrioe 
carried on betweea important places by private iadivida&ls 
at half, or less Uiaa half, the regalatioa prices." 

The Civil and Military Qazette of the 30th of Sep- 
tember nader the hoAding "A fossil Tory" reprodaces some 
of the argnmenta which were urged in 1839 agolost 
Sir Rowland Hill's proposals, by that very weighty authority 
the Quarterly Review. One finds in these arguments 
some points of analogy to those which are urged by ear 
own adversaries, Thna opponents of the Roman-TJrdd 
movement sometimes argne t^at it is against the eternal 
6taesa of things (apart from all practical teats) for a language 
to adopt an alphabet other than that to which it has been 
accustomed. Similarly, the Qaarterltf Seoitto of 1839 : " !■ 
there any man so insane as to say that it is conustent with 
jostioe or commoDsense that a parcel ehoald be delivered it 
SSdinhnrgh for the same rate aa at Barnet ? The propoaitioa 
ia really too absord to be reasoned upon. Those who believe 
in it mnst also believe that a man has a right to have his per* 
son conveyed from place to place, be they Paddington or 
John O' Groat's Hoose, at the same nniforai rate as his paroel 
8od bia letters." 

Then there is the " bogey " argument which our 
opponents sometimes bring forward, that the introduction of 
the Roman alphabet in our Indian Vemacnlar Schools, and 
the printing of Roman-Urdd books at the pnblio expense 
will excite alarm and disaffection. Listen to the Quarterly 
Review ot 1839: — ^" Prepayment by means of a stamp or 
stamped ooVer is nniTersally admitted to be quite tho reverse 
of convenient, foreign to tlie habits of flie people, — and 
likely to exdte some dlseatisfaotioQ among tlie poorer classes, 
Ac. 4c.'- 

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Btii the most delightful argoment of tiie Qwxrterly 
Remew lies iu the foUowiag sentaocea : — " Will clerks 
write only to their Fathers, and girls to their Mothers ? Will 
not letters of roni&ace or lore, intrigne or mischief, increaae 
JD at least eqaal proportions ? " There are many besides the 
Reviea who wonld make the tree of knowledge difficnlt 
of aooess, leet men elionld make a bad use of its frait. They 
are welcome to their own opinions, bnt let them advocate them 
in a straight forward way, frankly avowing that their object 
ifl to check edacation rather than to enconrage iL 

1%e Civil and MilUary Gazette continues. — " The total 
correspoadence of the conntry waa then aboat 88 millions of 
letters per annom. Rowland Hill thonght that the introdac- 
tion of the penny rate wonld increase this nnmber to about 440 
znillions. The Reviea laughs him to scorn. If such a 
quantity of correspondence conld arise, " England," he says, 
wonld become a real Laputa, where no man woald have 
may other possible employment than pen and ink, wMoIi 
would inflict on the country a worse than Egpytian pUgae. 
" Tat to-day the average delivery of letters in the city of 
Iiondoa alone exoeeds four hundred millions annnally 
exdtuHve of those which leave it I " 

So great have been tlie results of a change apparently 
■0 trifling — the mere substitution of a cheap and uniform 
system of prepayment for a denrer and complicated mode of 
obarge.— 'Nor are statistics, however surprinng in them- 
selves, adequate to represent the total gain whit^ baa 
aoorned to edncation and tnvilisatioD from Sir Rowland 
Hill's reform. Even in India, when we enumerate the' rnf 
elements of education which we have conferred on the 
country, we are bound to give the Post Office one of tbo 
fint and highest places in out list. 

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Onr mien will be glad to hear that the CwU and 
Military GaztUe has now racaired a complete foot of 
Roman-Urdd type. Id onr next number we will pablish 
ihe transi iteration key which has been adopted (proTiaionally) 
for the Society's pnblications. The Proprietors of the CitU 
ioid Jifilitary Gazette will now be in a posidon to print any 
Boman-Urdii manuscripts which may be sent to them. Ji 
the Members of onr Society wish to help on the oanse they 
oan do so most effeotaally by transliteratjng and publishing 
in Boman-Urdii type snob works aa they may, — individually — 
take most interest in. The Roman-Urdd extracts in the 
present number of the Journal were written ont before the 
type arrived, and we have not had leisare to add the diaori- 
tical marks. They conseqaently appear with the accent only, 
M bus been the cose in previons nambers. 

Dr. Happer, the Uissionary at Canton, to whom we 
wrote for information regarding the progress of the Roman 
Alphabet in China has sent ns a prompt reply, extracts from 
vhioh are pablished in this naraber of the Jonmal. 

Mr. Tito Pagliordini has also written, in reply to onr 
letter, offering to exohange pablicatiooB with the fingli^ 
Spelling Reform Society in England. His letter affords 
material for abundant and interesting discnssion. 

CsmcAL NoncM of Obiestal Works, 
(From The Overland ifail.) 
This is one of the most complete and aatisfaotory books * 
which has been issned for many years. It is complete, inas- 

Bang^-" Bf John Betmaa, B.C.S., Fellow ol tha TTniTaai^ 
fto, S T<d«. Loudoa : Tr&b&er and Col, 1878 to 1679. 

* " A ComrnratiTB Qrvmnar of the Modem Aryin I^ngniv** *' 
India ; to wit, Hindi, Panjkbi, Siadhi, Onjsratl, Uanthi, <nuw, Md 
Bans^." Bt John Bmums, B.C.S., Fellow ol tha TTniTmih' of CWBtkH 

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mndi as it snbjeots to simaltaneona examination tbe whole 
&mily of Iforth ladiaa laugnages ; and it is Batisfaotorjr 
because of the thoroogh mautier in which it does what it 
proiessea to do, Ihe£rat rolanie is entirely ocoapied with an 
ioTeabgatios of sounds ; and hsre the laws of permatatioa, hy 
which the modern langaages have been evolved from ancient 
Yedio forms, are somewhat exhaastively set forth. Unlike 
former investigators, Mr. Beamea arrives at the conclosion 
that the cerebral Hounda are as truly Aryan as the dental. 
The former he shows to be characteristic of a period ofvigoor 
which accords with their predominanoe in older times and 
among energetic tribes ; the latter result from a weakening 
or indolence which causes these letters to be formed with lese 
effort lower down in the month. 

Of all the languages of the north of India the Hind) is 
of tiw greatest importance, both socially, and pbilologicaUy* 
It is what Mr. Beames calls it, " the English of India." It 
oooapies the district which was, antil the arrival of the En- 
glish, the rnling province of India. Its titeratore extends 
back almost to the time of the Prakrits ; and thns it may be 
regarded as the best living representative of the ancient 
.language of the Yedas. The Hindi, fartbennore, like the 
JlngUsb, has freed itself from ahnoat all the trammels of bq- 
oalled grammar ; and has, in conieqaence, diffused itself 
more widely than any of its compeers ; and it will in all pro- 
bability oontione to extend, from its inherent strength ai^ 
wonderful expressiveness. 

The second volume shows how the nouns and pronomis 
oame by their present forms. The processes are singularly 
interesting, and will be of great nse to philology in general 
by suggesting [the methods in which annlogoos results have 
been broagbt abont in other longnages. One-third of this 
.Tolame is occupied wiUi .a duqaisitiQii on tba foimatioa of 

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fhe stem, and we are here shown not only how words ttien^ 
selves change, bnt how inflezions become welded on to wonh 
giTtsg rifle to secondary bssea. The origin and changes of 
gender 'are nest shoTrn, and then comes declensional diangu 
and the history of those now wnplojed in Korthern India. 

Hie third volnme finds matter enongb in a discassioD of 
verb^ forms, and some of the more remarkable of the in- 
declinable parts of Bpeecb. Mr. Beames fully establishes the 
fact that the modem aoristio tense is the lepresentative of the 
ancient present tense ; bat the origin of the inflexions for the 
first person singular a»d plural is still wrapped in obscurity. 
The development of the modern future from this tense is a 
point of considerable interest, now, for die first time, properly 

Id tile oonne of his remarha Mr, Beames reflects on the 
mistaken policy of Government, " by which artificial woiia 
writt«n to order have been prescribed as examination tesbb 
the gennine native authors " being entirely neglected. Iben 
was, however, good reason for this. Until the present oentnry 
the literatnre of the vemaonWs oonnsted almost entirely <^ 
poems, written in a more or less stndionsly antiqoe dialect. 
When the Coart of Directors wanted prose works as text- 
books they were obliged to pay native scholars to make them 
on .purpose ; and these last, utterly misconceiving their office 
wrote booka complaisantly in fandfnl dialects to snit, what 
tbey conceived to be, the wishes of their employers. ^Diis is, 
sliorUy, the history of the text-books still under Govemmeni 
patronage. Within the last thirty years, however, a gntA 
'change has passed over Indian society. Books are witten in 
tiie vemacnlars and are published as commercial speculations ; 
tiiey compete one with another for popular CiTour, and oota- 
prise origiDal Works and traDslsUotUL Itisnow posnUftto 

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do what could not have been done at the oommencetuent of. 
the oeatnrj, viz., to make a, Belsotton from books spoota- 
neoaaly produced and >vritten in a form approaobing the 
langaage of erer^-day life. There are now Bome admirable 
novels and historical wo rks in Bengali ; there are mnsy tales 
and scientific books in Gujurati and Mnratbi ; and the Hindi 
books of the present generation are legion. A selection from 
these oonid now be made bj competent scholars, and a pro- 
gressive series of texts are fally edited, as has been recently 
done in the case of the Sakuntala in Hindi. This work is 
written in admirably idiomatic Hindi, and is by far the best 
specimen of natural nnaffected writing to be fonnd in any of 
the Ternacnlars of Northern India. It has been accepted as a 
text-book for the examination of candidates for the Civil Ser- 
vice of India ; and ha", therefore, in England at least, happily 
snperseded the cnrions prodactioM of tha last geDeratiotv 
with Mr. Beames very jnstly stigmatisea. 

To state that there are more than 3,000 philological 
themes discussed in the Tolames nnder notice is snfficient tQ 
show that particular criticism is quite beyond oar space, ^ere 
are, however, but few points which we sboald feel inclined to 
contest with the author. The mass of the book baa oar 
nnqnalified approval and commendation ; and we esteem it a 
subject of congratulation that there is still to be fonnd sncb a 
Torthy representative of the old band of Oriental ScholarB as 
Ur. John Beamea. 


The " Perfume Garden " of the poet Sa'adl is a book 
vith a fascinating oame, and one which, in reality, is full of 

■ ■' Tbe Buttu of ShkiUi HiuHhn-d-din Ss'adl Shinui," tmuUted 
for the fint time into proae, vrith explanatorv notes and index. Br C»pt 
H. VTilbdorMOarka, B.S. Loiidin;WvB. Allan .wd Co., 1878. 

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pleftsing anecdote, keen satire, brilliant vit, taxi mnritsl 
poetrj ; naverthelesB, the langnai^e is bo terse, and the mo- 
kiphors w nuneroos and obacnre, that the readioj; of the 
book ia a hard task. To underataad what is read is mndt 
karder ; tbongh Uiis ia a point which is of small imporiaDoe 
to Orientals, who are much gratified hy a mosical flow of 
words, whether those words conrey anj definite meaaing or 
not. Enropeans, however, are men cast in a different moald. 
To them a clear apprehension of the meaning of what is read 
is of the first importance, and hence examinations in books 
like the " fiftat&a " ialls apon them with peculiar severitj. 
Thur only resource ia the help of a native Munsbf who ia 
botka costly helpmate and, for a reason already gireoj 
defective in so essential parttcalar. 

One great pecnliarity of the " BflstAn " ia its sentenlioiu 
and didaotio abyla. The ooaplets are for &o most part di»- 
Oonneoted from each other, so that there is little in the way 
of context to aasisLthe reader In his aearoh for the meanings. 
In order to cram tlie whole idea into a ooaplet, Sa'adI h*B 
bad to resort to a large amount of poetic licence, which makes 
most of tke verses exceedingly pozzlini; to stndenta, and many 
of them equally pnz^Iing to scholars. Much gratitude will, 
iberefore, be the reward of Capt. Clarke for the labour be 
bns taken apon himself in translating the whole of this com- 
plex poem into pimn and literal English. 

Oapt. Clarke is not a tyro. Ha has already achieved 
no mean reputation as an Orientalist, and his " Persian 
Manual" has attained a wide and justly deserved circulation. 
He has in this work, also, exactly met the want of students 
by ginng-the precise meaning ef each separate line, without 
the least addiUon or suppression. We have tested the trans- 
lation in numerous places, and have found it in strict accor- 
dance with the Persian text The only fault that could be 
alleged against it woohl be its too literal agreemant with the 

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original ; bat that, moat certainly, will be held to be its 
greatest merit hy those who use the work for parpoaes of 
stady. Under these circamstanaes it is not ventaresome to 
prognosticate that Capt. Clarke's translation will be largely 
availed of by all those officers who seek to pass the Persian 
examinations in India, and also by stadents in Europe who 
are yet more in want of a trcatworthy guide tbrongh the 
intricaoies of the " Bflst&n" than are their fellow-students 
wbo reside in the land of mnnshla. 

The contributions to periodical literature of so eminent a 
scholnr as Prof. Th. G-oIdstiicker deserve to be reprinted in a 
collected form, especially when they all belong to a single 
dass of ideas. The "Literary Bemains"* before us are 
pc^nlac expositions of numerous Indian themes ; and explain, 
with remarkable simplicity of language, a variety of subjects 
which are not infrequently brooght before even ordinary 
Englishmen, in consequence of the increasing attention be- 
stowed on Indian affairs. 

It is not difficult to nnderstand, after reading these essays^ 
how it was that Goldstiicker became a power in India, and 
was regarded with affectionate reverence by both Hiudlis and 
Mabammadans. Whether dealing with the Vedas, the epic 
poetry, the sacred literature, the law, or the religious 
difficulties of the people, Goldstucker always took the Indian 
point of view, and used arguments which commended them- 
selves to the apprehension anJ assent of Indians. There 
have been few Europeans capable of thua throwing themselves 
into the train of Eastern thou>>ht ; but there have been few, 
also, wbo have laboured with the necessary zeal to fit them- 
selves for so doing. 

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His first Tolnme ooataiaa an exposition of the Yedt, 
ftnd an alpbabetically arranged series of papers od sabjecU 
freqnently spoken of in connootion witli India, thongti bat 
seldom onderstood. As ooir printed tbey form a valnable 
book of referenoe, in wbicb tbe opinions and rewarohea of one 
of the best Sanakritista can bo consulted on siity-eiglit themes 
of general interest. Tbe sooond volnme ie lees namerons in 
topics, bat mach faller in treatment, and contains seren 
eaaays— On the Religions DifiBcnlties of India; on tho Inspired 
Writings of tho Hindfi ;■ on Hind6 Epic Poetry ; three 
essays connected with the administration of Hindfi law ; and 
one paper on the etymology of the word jeew. These papers 
are replete with sound critidam, and suggestions of mncli 
practical value. Tbe main idea which runs tbrongb the whole 
)g that the fnbire of India must be a development from witiiin 
ontwards ; that a nation possessed of anoh a splendid 
literature and snch grand and ancient traditions cannot be 
converted to anything nnnational a& extra. Attempts of this 
latter kind must be more or less irritating and mischievooa in 
proportion to the zeal with which they are prosecuted ; 
whereas friendly assistance in the direction of opening np 
the ftreat intellectual resources of India itself most be highly 
aerviceable and efBcadoos because moving with the cnrrmt 
of public opinion. 

Tha firtt Jetuit Miition to th« Emperor Ahbar (witA tomt 
accotmt of FatheB Aquaviva'b Life and Death). 

The Italian Historian, BartoK, in the ninth volume of 
his great workon the Society of Jeaua, devotes more than* 
hundred pages to the Uission sent by the Jesuits of Oca to 
the Emperor Akbar, and to the life of Bndolph AqunTi} 
its Chief. 

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ErerjrthiD]; that relates to Akbnr is intereating to an 
Indian stndent, and this Mission, which exercised a remark- 
able inflaence on the Emperor's character and policy, is 
especially so. 

IQie ordinary Histories of India give bnt a sketchy 
account of the Missioo, and erea that in Murray's Asia—* 
on which other accounts seem to be foanded — is not so fall 
as we conld wish it to be. 

Barioli'a Yolames are not easily aooesnUd, and bis styl» 
in the original is freqaently difBcolt nod dry. For tbea» 
reasons the writer of the present paper thinks tbafc a con- 
densed translation frtun the Italian History wiU be an accept* 
able oontribation to the Jonrnal of tbta Society. It may 
not add very mnch to onr knowledge of Akbar and bis 
conrt, bnt it certainly adds sonHtbintr. lb will be toteresting 
to compare Bortoli's narratire with tbe aecooot given Id 
Blochmann from Mnhnmmaden authorities. 

In the following pages all of Bartoli'a history that 
relates directly to Akbar baa been translated in /u^/ — at any 
rate substantially so. Tbe rest oi his narrative — relating to 
I^tther Aqnariva's life and death — baa been considerably 
compressed, bat the translator is of opinion that hfs readers 
will pardon a few personal details regarding one who filled 
so important a part at Akbar^ oonrt, and whose martyrdom 
caused some excitement among the Unropeut comnnnity al 

He nnderstands that eEForts have been mod* at Romfr 
with a view to the canonization of Father Aqnavira, and thai 
some relics hare reoently been carried from Qoa to Borne 
and identified as his. 

It will, of oourse, be nnderstood that the sentiments 
ezpreased and the style adopted in the following pages are as 
nearly us possible those of tbe original anther Bartoli. 


("12 ) 
Neither ihe translator nor the Roman-Urdfi Sodety is 
responsible for them. la a few rare instances Uie translator 
has thought it right to tone doira expressions whioh might 
needlessly offend oar Muhammadaa fellow-eabjects. 

At the end of the year 1556, the empire of the Moguls 
descended to Akbar— 7th heir by direct descent from Tamei^ 
htne. This prince was celebrated thronghont the East for 
deeds of arms, exhibited from his yoath upwards, and for the 
conquests that he made of the Kingdoms of Bengal and 
Cambay (with the exception of Dieo and Daman, which 
were held by the crown of Portugal) ; as also for the famoua 
battles— both within and without his dominions — which were 
fought by him during the fifty years he was Emperor^ — and 
in which he came off rictorions. 

King Akbar was good looking for a Tartar, a race the 
greater number of which, thobgh compact and strongly made, 
are below medium stature, bow-legged, and broad shonldered^ 
with large, soft eyes, a large forehead, and an olive com- 

He was of an imposing appearance, and had an exceed- 
ingly serere expression when looking angrily towards any 
one. His natural temperament was extremely melancholy 
■ud irritable, but he was so entirely master of himself that 
he was rarely seen otherwise than oourteoos and cheerfal, and 
his behaviour — generally dignified and self-contained, — be- 
came compassionate and familiar with the lowest, thos exhi- 
biting the most amiable features that could be desired for a 
prince. Hence, Father Jerome Xavier (who knew him 
intimately for many years), gave him the praise, so rarelf 
accorded to princes occupied iu important affairs, of being 
equally accessible to great and small His jadKinent was 
acute (of which the vivacity of his eyes gave prooO ^^ of 


( IS ) 

study he kne\r nothing and was even incapable of reading 
his own name. Nevertheless, he took great delight ia Ijaten- ' 
ing for hours together to discussions between the Mnllahs 
and Brafamias, — die former defending the Qar^n and the latter 
their own ancient writinits ; and they did not perplex and 
troable each other with their contending arguments, half bo 
mncli as be eonfoonded them both, by his ingeniously coa- 
oeived donbte, drawn from the discre]>ancies in their argu- 
ments. The more tbey endeavoured to escape from bis 
objections the more they became entangled in their replies, 
antil, at last, sometimes one set, sometimes the other, wonld 
retire speechless, overthrown and abashed. He never allowed 
it to be known of what faith or religion he was himself ; bnt 
for his own ends kept each party in the hope of winning 
blin, and protested that his only object in sugf^eating tbeso 
doabts vas to discover from their wise replies the simple 
trntb hitherto hidden from him. But as he never found their 
replies satisfactory, the dispntes, and' consequently tlie hopes 
and disappointments of the disputants, never came to an end, 
bat were renewed daily. This peculiarity was visible in all 
his other affairs. Although apparently a man without guile 
or mystery, aa transparent and open as one could possibly 
imagine, he was in reality close nnd reserved, with such a 
difference between his words and his actions, the one gene- 
rally contradictory to the other, that the closest observation 
could never fathom his thoughts : those of to-day often bear- 
ing not the slightest resemblance to those of yesterday, and 
those persons who, from long and close intimacy with him, 
had every opportunity of observing him attentively did not 
know more of bim the last day of their acquaintance than 
the first But tliis peonlarity of his mind, whether it arose 
from the inconstancy of his nature, or was acquired by art, 
will be better understood from its results which will be related 
farther on. 

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There was then living in Fatfapnr (a taty anct royal rest* 
dence bailt hy Akliar liimself) a learned Portagueae, named 
Pedro Tavares, who served the King in the annjr, and was 
Captain of one of the harbonra in Bengal, with whom Akbar 
need to oonverBe Bcotfingly aboat the Moorish religion ; 
which he professed, not because he found anything worthy of 
belief in the Qur^n, but because he had been bom in it, and 
had nerer forsaken it, not having found any other to which 
io attach himself, — for while the argumeota of the Hnllahs 
gave him no satlafaction at all, those of the Biahmina were 
soaroely more satisfactory. 

On one oocaBion, he enquired from Tar&res what trath 
and weight there was in the OhrisUan scriptures, and what 
learned teachers they possessed to defend them. The latter^ 
haring told him all he could abont the Old and Kew Testa- 
ments, and said mach in pruse of the life and learning of 
tlie Fathers of the Company, added that if His Majesty 
would be pleased to send for two of them from (Portuguese) 
India, he hoped Uiat, in a few days, he would arrive at the 
knowledge of the trutli, instead of being continually vexed 
by a fmitless search after it in the argnmenta of the Moors 
and Brahmins. 

Am for the Fathers, for the last three yean Akbar had 
esteemed tliem greatly as men of the strictest integrity ; 
for two of them, having oome to preach in bis territories in 
Bengal and fonnd there that the Christians had been defraud- 
ing the royal treasury of the anma due to it, according to 
previons agreement, for anchorage and annual taxes, obliged 
them to pay np the arrears, and tbos brought in a large 
■amount of money to the King ; who, being informed by hi» 
ministers of the fact, was load in admiration of the inlegri^ 
of the Fathers, and of the rectitude and holiness of th» 
Christian Law, which did not permit its foUowen to dotl 

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m^Qitly or dislojallj even with Btrangen uid flnemieflL 
After this, he hnd aent for Egidio Anes Fereira from Btigion 
(in Bengftl) where be was Vioar, bob this worthy priest was a 
man of greater virtae than learning (while the King 
delighted in snbtle and iageniona qaestionings), and though 
well fitt«d to give the King a good example of the innocency 
of the Christian life (for whioh he was mach esteemed hy 
him and loaded with regal gifts and honors), be whs not 
upablfl of that which the King desired more than anything 
•Ise, namely, of in^traoting him how to defend the tenets of 
the Cbristiao religion against its adversiiries who, at variance 
among thenuelTes on all other subjects, were closely nnited 
in attacking it. 

In oonseqnence, therefore, and by the wise advioe ot 
Fereira, he sent Ebadola (AbdnlU) one of his nobles with an 
honorable suite, and accompanied by an Interpreter (an 
American Christian, named Domenico Perez), with letters to 
the Archbishop, the Viceroy, and the Fathers of Gba. 

Solemn and stately was the reception at Ooa accorded 
to the Ambassador of such a King and for snch a cause, li 
was in September lo7d. The forms and ceremonies were 
those need on tlie arrival of each new Viceroy from Europe. 
Great too was the joy of those filled with zeal for the honor 
of God, the extension of the Faith ; and especially of (he 
Fathers, who, afler having made ceaseless, bnt hitherto fmit- 
less, efforts for years past to carry the Name and Faith of 
Christ into the kingdom of the llognls — now, contrary to 
•11 their expectations, saw the door thereof opened by the 
Sing himself, and themselves not only invited, bnt besonghl 
to enter. All men congratnlated the Fathers, and many 
prophesied that this enterprise wonld end in the acqnisitioni 
to the glwy of the Ghnrch, and for the good of Portngal, 
of a King and a kingdom. Hooh stress waa laid apoa tha 

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. apparent irillingness of the Mognl to become a Christiao, 
which nas confirmed by letten sod hj the teatimcnij of eyt 
witnesses, who declared that he was a Mahometan only by 
ciFoamcision and to some extent by habit ; that he did noi 
observe the Mahometan rites and ceremonies, bat looked 
upon the Qar&n (the gospel of Mnhammad) aa a coUectioa 
t^ fables and romances in which he pot no faidi : that when 
aboat to take a wife, he wialied her to be an idolator rather 
tiian a Sarann ; that he foatad strictly erery Friday, a day 
festive and snmptnons in the Moorish ritaal as Snnday ia 
witli OS, — and Hat on that day he sent the food from his own 
table to cerfaiin poor Christians living in Fatbpdr. That 
being told of a Christian who had denied the fiuth and taken 
the turban, be sent for him and reproved him severely for 
his impiety, saying to him : " What miracle have yoa seen 
M nhamm ad perform, that yon should forsake yonr own for 
bis law ?" and the Apostate having exoosed his fanit on 
the plea that he was driven to it by the necessity of pro- 
viding for hia extreme poverty, the King supplied him amply 
with the means of snbsistenoe, and made him return to the 
profession and dress of a Christian — that he had an image of 
the Queen of Heaven with the child Jesos in her arms, and, 
in the presence of all the fiarons of his Court, bowed down 
and adored it, and that an impious Mnllah, nho had dared 
to blaspheme the perpetual virgiuity of Mary, w&s hauished 
from his Conrt, and only juat escaped losing his tongae and 
hia life, and that finally, the King more than once had 
expressed a nisb to build for the Fathers, either at Agra ex 
at Lahore or at hia otrn FathpiSr, a larger and more magni' 
fioent Chnrch than that of St. Paul at Goa. 

Beeides this proximate readiness to receive from God 
ihe tight of faith and the grace of salvation, other excellent 
□atnral qualities were mocb dwelt, npon: — Ihe vivacity of 

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Ilia mind, his stucty of truth and facility in detecting false* 
hood, and again, moral virtnes that would be valued even io 
A Christian. Tender in hia care for tlie poor, he did good to 
sli who aaked from him. Jost and equal in the administra- 
tion of justice, although a look from him of anger was 
snffident to cause the death of the object of it at the 
hands of bis attendants, he mu yet so considerate of the 
gailly, Uiat be would not put into execution the aentenoe 
of a condemned criminal until hia royal auditor had de- 
manded permiasion from him three times io the same day. 
He was an admirer of all virtne, and ready to honor with 
dignity and richea and to be friendly with any one thongh 
of low birth who, whether in peace or war, gave proof of 
excellence in an extraordinary degree. But in tlua, be 
used a aalatary precaution, ao that thoae, elevated by bim 
to any dignity might not be overtaken by pride aa is so often 
the case with men raised to a higher rank, He therefore 
ordered that to whatever rank or dignity any one might be 
rtused, be should alwaya and before all, carry about with him 
jaame work of hia old calling. Thua, a man who, tiirongh 
deed of valor, obtained great promotion in the Army, thongh 
originally only a tiller of the groand, had a ahield borne before 
him on which waa n golden spade, and which was to remind 
him at once of hia lowly origin, and of the gratitude due 
to him who had tonted the spnde of a peasant into the baton of 
a General, and had from an agricultoriat made him a Com- 
mander, IDiese and many similar aneodotes were related of 

The Ambassador, conducted from Sant lago, two or 
three leagues from Goa, by all the Fortugneae nobility, aome 
ofwhommethim at the landing and some at the Falaoe 
made a most solemn entry into the city. Then with a 
large following of knights, be proceeded to our College of 

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^. Pan), wbere be presented letters from Hw King ioitu 
FroriDoisl together vith written ordeif tbnt thoH fatbera 
who might be sent with tJia Ambssaulor abopld, from tbatc 
entrance tDto the Sing's »t»tfla qnUl their ^uiJ»\ ftt hia Coort 
in Fatahpfir, be welcomed, reoeiTed and if neoosflary defended 
HB his snbjefta by all Viceroys and QorerDors, Uuonglt 
whose territortea they nugbt bare ocpasioa to pass. 

This done, the Amba^^or waf condacted to the Oharch 

on the throahold of which he, and all the Mahometans of 

' hiq escort removed their shoes, — as is done before entering 

ft Mosqae, — and with this sign of respect, ha passed on to 

TJsit the tombs of the Apostle St. F. Xaviar. 

Then, with Perez, as Interpreter, he delievered the 
message with which he had been charged by the King. 
The letter translated into Portngnese ran thos : — ^' In the 
name of Ood — The letter of Jalal~nd-dia Mohammad Akhir, 
King, appointed by Qod — to the Principal Fatbers ot the 
order of St- Panl. Be asiared that I am yernr great friend, 
{ send AbdallAh, my Ambassador and Bomenioo Porei, to 
4>k yoQ to aend me witii them two of yonr learned men, and 
ihfii, t^ey may bring with them the hooka of the Law> and 
«l9pa^lly the G^ospeU, as. I have a great desire to bear dja 
V-iA^h Srom them ; and I entrant therefore that the fiithers 
may ooi^a with thjs my Ambassador, bringing with them 
the^ sabred bop^ for 1, shall hay? magh pomfort from their 
arrir^ a^ th^ sh^U be dear to me. and I will receive them 
with every possible honor. And when I shall have been well 
instmcted in their law, and shall understand its perfection, thfj 
akall be &ee to depart at their pleasure, and I will send them 
back with great honor, and worthily rewarded. And let tfaem 
not fear for themselves, as I take them ooder my protection 
Mad anars them a safe passage. 

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The FroTi&cial of ootfrm seceded to the Kinj];*a rfiqaeat, 
anil looked about to see on rfhora the charge of Ais enlJerprizo 
shoold fall, vhick if well carried out wonld redound to the 
glorjr of God- atid the riwfnlneas of the Charoh. Aild to teR' 
the tmth, how, more than erer, was it by be wished that St. 
F. Xavier were still living r »« n6ae boChis ecjaal woal'd siifBce 
to so great a work. The Provin«iat, therefore, that it might 
He better knowii j'wtioni it was the will of (jbd to elbct, ordered 
for all tlid Fath^ prayers nnd' public penances^, after which 
tile Fafliers wftre each to wn(<e the nainesof two rnnong tliem- 
■elves, whom they Would send, finpposltig Uiat die duty of 
selection feUofion then. There wab not oac of them who did 
not ardently desire to' be himself of ^e ntaittber of the choseii 
ones, and eaoli'bB^d thB favor from God *ilii Oiaiiy prayers 
and olfers of- great penataoo. 

At last, after seVentl days, the choice fell npba' ^atliers 
Bidolfo A'quaviva aod Antonio tfonserrate, to whoni was 
added' a third, who was by birth, origin and' religion a'Mooi*, 
bat who had become first a Christian, then a priest, and a 
" Religioos " of the oompany. His name was FranoiBco 
Enrisbes. He was not made a companion of tho others on 
the ground of his lenrningf for from the first day that liis 
eyes were opened to the light afthe Ftuth, and the know- 
ledge of the trnth; he had studied no book save the cruoifis. 
Bat partly for bis holiness and partly for some knowledge of 
the Persian langnage that he possessed, he was preferred to 
many others of more distinguished mental qualitias. Ridolfo 
AqoaYiva was ajipmnted Soperior of the Mission, and here 
(the order of things requiring that we should give him the 
jilace whidi his merits deserve) we will briefly relate his life, 
so far as is necessary for this history, reserving, for a future 
time, Ihe description of his glorious death, and the virtues 
which accompanied him in that triumph. 

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C 80 ) 
Fallier Ridolfo was bora at Atri on th« 2nd October 
1550. He waa the son of Don Giaa Girolomo Aqnavin, 
Dnke of Atri and of Docoa Margherita Fii, mstar of 
Cardinal Bidolfo de Fii de Carpi, both parents belonging to 
families amongst Uie most illastrions in Italy. Hia life from 
diildhood opxrards was that of one led by the spirit of Qod 
and it obtuned for Lim the title of "Angol/'by whic^ be 
vas more commonly called than by his proper name of 
Bidolfo. When he reached the age of 17 end a half, be vag 
called by God, — who destined him for higher things than 
those of time,— to the religions life, and after having bravely 
overcome the opposition of hia Father, he donned the halut 
of the Company on the Snd April 15C8 ; thus foIlo\Ting in 
the footsteps of his micle Glandia Aqnaviva, who was General 
of the Order for 34 years. Bidolfo etndied first for two yean 
at Macerata, afterwards in Rome, with sncb success in both 
places, that the hopes of his friends were great as to the high 
position be was to fill as a man of letters ; bnt his thonghta 
were bont npon preaching the Gospel in India, and shedding 
bis blood for the Faith — a desire which be hod cherished Gtom 
bis earliest infancy. 

When however his resolve was made pabli<^ many 
were the obstadea pnt in the way of his carrying it ont 
The Fathers and the Rector of the Roman College repre- 
sented to Idercarians, General of the Order, that his health 
was not sufficiently good to stand either the long voyage to 
India or the climate of the East ; bnt the General felt him- 
self divinely impelled to elect Ridolfo for the Indian Uiasioa. 
Some one wrote to Ridolfo's Uncle, Claudia Aqnaviva, their 
Provindal General of the Order at Naples, advising him to 
retain bis nephew, on account of bis delicate health, in a 
more temperate climate ; bnt Bidolfo also wrote asking his 
nude not to interfere} and received a reply coonselliog 

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obeiieom and hnmilitj. Hie General's conricUon that be 
«u acting in aooordanoe with the will of God waa strengUi' 
ened on reoeiTing a letter from Ridolfo, who waa alreadjr in 
Fortagal and on the point of aaitjng for the East, saying :— 
" I find mjaelf, by the grace of God, Tery well, and with 
strength snlHcient to serve Him in India, and all ar« 
aatoniahed to aee how mnoh better I am than when I 
waa at Borne. And I am infinitely obliged to yoo, my 
Father, for enabling me, all unworthy aa I am, to serve God 
in India, while there are so mnny, both in Spain and FortngaJ, 
devoted servanta of God, who desire this favor, and have not 
olitained it, but I believe that God has choaen the weak 
things of the world to show that it is He who does everything." 
Notvvithstanding this remark, the Fathers contribated by Italy 
to this set of Missionaries were men remarkable for their 
merits ; for among them besides Bidolfo, Kicolo Spinola 
and Francesco Pasio, ( afterwards Provincial and Visitor of 
Japan ) were Fathers Uichel Baggieri and Miitteo Bicci, of 
whom the former was the first to open the gate of the Empire 
of China, and the latter was the first who carried die Com- 
pany and ^e Faith ts the extreme limit of that Empire — to 
the coart of Pekin itself. 

BiJoIfo started from Bome towards the end of Novem- 
ber 1577, and beinj; delayed aometime at Toledo, reached 
Lisbon abont the middle of the Fehmary following, where 
he was received with greathonor by King Sebastian. While 
the ship and passengers were preparing for departure, Bidolfo 
was ordained Priest, after a general confession of all that 
be would remember from his childhood upwards. On the 
24th March, twelve days after his ordination, he set sail, 
having first taken leave of hia friend at Bome in letters 
expressive of great happiness, in one of whioh be stated that 
he had celebrated Mass for the first time oo Pope St. 
Gregory Day, and ibat his ship was named SL Gregory. 

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He Atttl &tfl ooAipamom had s nmre' (bra nffitilfy pTx»- 
peroos' aad healthy voy&ge ; though fbey' etidared many 
lAtrdships. On the S4th Jon'e they foadd t&emselTes in a 
calm Bes opposite the terrible Cupe of Good Sope, and on the 
31at of the following month, Aey fonched nt Uozambiqnef 
whence after resting nnfil the Assadiptibii, t6%y ag&in set 
BBtl. Dbring the renfainder of the fantasy, Father ttidoiro 
added to the alnady gcAt labors wbicU be bad nadertakea 
tbroa^fhont (he voyage, ttiei^ bad'been as far aa Moznm- 
biqne 500 persons in dll in tlie ship, towards whom, ^dolfo 
had shewn the kindness and care for body and sonl, which 
was nsttal on the part of the Apostolic men who sailed on 
tills Ibnj; Jonmey ; bat frdm Bfozambiqae to Goa, these 
were redoubled aa the ship iook in from the Island from 
300 to 400 African Kegros for transport to India — all 
tnfidels, some Idolaters,, some few Mnbammadena, bnt the 
greater part Kaffirs withont God or LaW. 

Bidolfo shewed them the greatest kindness, and not 
linderslanding. their verbal language, employed towards them 
the language, nndentood by man and beasts, of good-works 
and love: ^rongh the liberality of the other passengers he 
ministered to their bodily wants, and eventanlly throngh the 
mediam of an interpreter who nnderatood Fortnguese, ha 
bronghtsomeofthemtothetrae Fait-h — the first froitsofhia 
labors. He arrived at Goa on 13th September 1578 fall of 
joy to find himself on the land to which, from hia infancy^ 
God hod promised to lead him, and where he might aacrifioe his 
life to him. A month or two after his arrival the baptism 
of a Mnhammadan girl, a Princess by birth, and niece of Adit 
Bh&h King of Bij&pur was celebrated, and it fell to Fother 
Bidolfo to baptize b part of the family and some others, 
^Totwithstanding this beginning, and Father Btdotfo's own 
• Zeal ia the caose of the Faith, his first employment lay in a 
path, wiudi to boman judgement appeared likely to end 


{ «« ) 

maita ^iSaetai]j from the my in which it really did wd. 

For vhila tfaow who oame oat with him were poetod to 

4i6'ereDt parts of India to learn the kngnajiBS and to 

preach, he was giveQ the hard and diy work of teaching 

philosophy to the yonth of the Society, Great was hia joy 

then when he foond hinueLf elected for the Uission to the 

MognL The day before he set oat, 17th November 1579, 

he wrote thaa to hia Uncle Olglidio. " I am nrnch consoled 

iind delighted at the signal lore of Ood shewn to me, so 

mach above my merits. After many ether benefits, he hna 

bestowed a still greater (in me now in electing me for a 

Idission about to be sent to a Moorish King named Ahbar, of the Mognls, a moat powerfqt sovereign in these 

parts, who resembles the Grand Tarit in oqri^ as all fear him* 

We start tomorrow, ^e dislanoe from tlua being 100 leagoM) 

\tj sea, and 150 by land, always passing throagh thq 

dominions of tbis King — bo exteosiTe is hia territory— Com* 

tnend ns to the Lord, for we have moch need of Him already^ 

U wfl go destined to death, amongst Hoors who so seldtHU 

Iceep their word. Bat in troth we are more than ha|^j 

and consoled, as we shall have an opporttwity of snffering 

fbr tiie Lord ; and if we bare to shed onr blood for Him ( an 

easy thing in that country) happy are we" — Thus wrote 

Btdolfo. Bat as to the martyrdom, God willed to hold it 

before him in the Mogul Court, only to kindle his desire 

for it ; later on when apparently it, waq most distant^ He 

offered it to him in Salaette. 

To be CottUaued, 

Cahtoh> Chisa, 

Septtmhtr 15f& 1879. 
Ttt DUE Bib, 

I have been familiar with the Jonea' system 

ol speUing ia writing Eastern huigaagfls for more than thir^ 

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years. I did not know, hoTrever, that a Soddfy had bera 
formed in India to advocate the substitntlon of the Boman 
alphabet for writing' the variona languages of India. I am 
glad to hear of it, and wish it every snccess in its osefnl work. 
The effecting snch a change will be thn work of time and 
labor, bnt it will greatlj facilitate the dissemination of edn- 
caUoa amongst the millions of India. I am surprised that 
any large number of the English residents in India shoald 
refuse to co-operate with the Society in such an important 
and useful work. It is tme that the substitution of the Roman 
alphabet in print^ig school books and scientific and Christian 
books in the various languages of ludia, would soon leave the 
various books which have hitherto been printed in these 
several languages in their own alphabet to fall into disuse, 
Bnt how few books which have been printed in these variona 
tangnages are worth preserving, and what an incalculable bene- 
fit, it would be to the futnre inhabitants of the land to have 
their books printed in an alphabet common to them all. How 
itwonld increase the separation between the £ngliah Freocb, 
Italian, Spanish and Portugese, if the languages of each 
people was written with a different and distinct alphabet. 

In the attempt to represent dissyllables of the Chinese 
language, there has been great diversity of views as to what 
power shall be given to the letters oftheRomui alphabet. 
Some of the early American Missionaries nnder the leadership 
of the late Bevd. Dr. Bridgeman and Dr. S. W. Williams, 
now Professor of Chinese in Yale College U. S. A., adopted 
the Jones* method or system ; bnt each of tlie several Eng- 
lish sinalogues adopted a system for himself. Hie late Drs. 
Morrison and Medhurst in their respective dictionaries used 
a difibrent ayst«m. Sir Thomas Wade, H. B. M.'s Minister to 
China, who has prepared the best series of books to assist in 
learning the Maodaria language has a system of spdling ths 

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Ohin«M Boimdfl peonliar to himself. Hitherto th« nse of the 
Roman Alphabet in repreaeoiicg Chinese syllables has been 
to assist the foreigner to leam the aoands of the Chinese lai^ 
gnage. There are very few stodents of the langnage who 
think it is possible to Bomanize the language, bo as to do 
•way with the nse of the Chinese characters. The reason of 
Qiis is that there are to many words each one having % 
different meaning, while they have the same soand, for instanoe 
there are seventywords whioh are represented in Roman by 
Chi. Tliere is a different Chinese character for each one of 
fliese sarenty words, bat the Romanized form Chi wonld not 
indicate whicii one of the seventy words was meant, la 
«ome sentences the lense wonii indicate which word waa 
intended, bnt this conld not always be depended npon bene* 
ibe matter 'of iatrodacing th« Roman Alphabet in China 
is a Teiy different thing from what it is in India. W* want 
it here to aasbt in representing tlie Chinese syllables in dic- 
tionaries, in spelling the names of places in China and thf 
flames of Cbiaese Rolers, Statesmen, Ac, &a. It woold be a 
' gtfai advantage if we conld agree npon some nniform system 
of spelling in order to represent Chinese words; bnt no one, 
■o far at I know, adrooafee snperoeding the Chinese chara4> 
ier by tlie snbetltatioo of 4he Roman alphabet in printing 
the (%inese langoage. 

However, yon got a correct impression from Mr. Talen- 
tine, that the Roman alphabet has been nsed In some places 
in printing Christian hooks and tracts. It has been osed for 
this purpose at Amoy and Ningpo, for the dialects which art 
amd in these cities and their vicinity. Tba dialects «f these 
lira plaoM differ widdy in demselva* bat are alike in tiiii, 
4kat they can be Bonaniaed. If yon would writ* to t^ 
-Bord. Dr. Talmage, American Migwon, Amoy, Cfaina or i9 
Bi^btBevd. Sishop BiuueU, Chi^f Hiat. See. Hjagpo, GUh, 

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tt»7 iroold infonn yoa to whAt «ztont ths Boman «lptuilMi 
has been nsed in priatiag, and what peoatkritj in the dialeet 
renden it possible to BomaDise it. All admit tbe great 
faculity this Bomanized systeoi at these two places affords to 
the dissenainatioQ of education and Christianityj 2nd, tbe 
Boman characters has not been oaed by tbe Boman Catholic 
Misuooaries for the instmction of the converts, 3rd, while 
the Boman diaraoters are nsefnl to represent correctly tbe 
Chinese syllables, it isoonsidered most important for every ihw 
who would leam the langnaee correctly that he ahooH give 
spedal attention to the Chinese character, 4th, except at 
Amoy and Mingpo no ose is made of the Boman character by 
Protestant Missionaries in the instmction of Christian ooih 

The nnmber of the periodical which yon kindly sent me 
was also received. 

Wishing every snocess to the Sociefy in its landable and 

I am, yonrs very tmly, 

76 Uppee Babklkt Sram, 

Portnuui Sqnan^ W, 
London, iOth Sq>umber 1879. 

Dsix Sib, 

I was delighted, on my retnrn from &e oonti* 
nent, to find yonr welcome letter and the three nnmben of 
yonr Joopnal for whidi I beg to thank yon. 

Onr Association is still in its infancy bnt promises to be 
of rapid growth, the difGenlties School-Boardshave enoonntered 
in forwarding edacation to the aatasfaction of schotd inqwo- 
ion, parents and rate-payers, thanks to the absnrd, an<ma- 
IvoB, pnzzling spelling so long npheld by the ignonmt and hf 


( 27 ) 

iwdantfl, (to which 'diffioatty, I may add the oqoally arbit- 
rary-'and puzzling weight and meatnres) bare at ]eagth 
opened the ejea of the Public to the destratiility of Bom* 

We have chosen a Secretary and taken an Office next 
door to the Society of Arts and within one minnte's walk of 
the Social Service Asaociation and both these Societiea are 
friendly. We hope to begin oar oarnpaign this aatamn, and 
as soon as possible, to publish a spelling Reform Joamal. 
We shall be most happy to receive your interesting jonmal, 
and send yon ours, (when it appears), and any of oar other 
publications in retam. 

I do not know of any of our members except Dr. Glad- 
stone, Colonel Clinton, M. U. Herold Oox, and James Ball, 
our Secretary and myself who at present favor any refonn 
beyond that of English spelling. For most of them are still 
working (actively, it is true) within the narrow circle of 
what may be called viiloffti-ttuple politics. But they will, I 
liope, now they are all being oonoentrated in one foons, see 
how little this incomplete system agree, enlarge tbeir viewB, 
and work, not f>»r one nation and oar time, bat for all nations. 
I, for nay part, am doing my beat both here and in Fraooe 
to lead them in that direction, yon will find in the volumes 
for 1864i and 1865 of Pitman's " Phonetic Joamal " a trans- 
la^on of the 2ad Chapters of my early " essai sar I'analogie 
des Langnes" published "in La Melange, Bevne de la Soienoe 
Sooiale " and Paris 1847 to 1849, in which I propose a Uni- 
versal alphabet, oootidning a distinct ngn and letter for 
each of the 48 distinct sounds that are produced by the vocal 
organs of man in civilised languages. From this integral 
alphabet I proposed that each language shonid form its own 
ipeoial alphabet, borrowing from it only tlioBe letters of which 

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< M ) 

it oontaidB tb» aoand. Ibiu the Engliih Alphabet wmU 
CDnaiat of 39, i}ie FreDch of Sf> Utters, and so on. I thai 
tried to do awajr with donbte oaes of ihe flame sign, Rnd Utoaa 
intricate illoiiioal digraphs, and awkward, ansightly diacriti- 
cal marks which are the spedal pets of tlio " no-new-iHier " 
Bpelling refonnen, resevving accents to indicate syllahio atrees. 
This fault which I refer to, i» not confined to the English. Z 
have fonnd it among the French, Swiss and German Refor- 
mers, who all conceitedly think their own dialect of snprema 
Importance. Bnt I was bappy to see in mj recent jonmej 
and from letters, that even in Frnnce, Qermany and Swit- 
zerland the most enlightened Are prepared to take tbebroadw 
intemationat view of the subject, and we are trying to font 
«n intematiooal spelling BeuTorm Asaociation. It is m yei 
fmall in nnmbers, but England, France, Germany, and 
( through myself) Italy are already represented. Yoar 
" Society " ought to join ibis new one, as well as oar EDgliah 
Spelling Reform Association. 

Thro>igh tbe inflaenoe of the celebrated Volnej, who waa 
tiie first to propose the subsdtation of an extended Roman 
mlphabet, for the varions Oriental cbaraoters, yon wodM find 
many in France to sympathise witb yonr tabors. Bnt I am, 
myself, in no barry to see tbis necessary reform praetifeaibf 
carried out, nntil all dTilized nations have agreed npon the 
forms, new or old, by which the 48 sonnds of the baman Tocd 
organs are to be invariably represented, otherwise we shaH 
muke confusion worse confonnded. Till these all wff 
attempts to turn our vicions spelling into gewuneoOAo-grafihy 
should be oonsidered as only tentatire. 

I am sorry my Eseai on an International alphabet has 
long been out of print, or I would have bad the pleasure of 
Mudiog you a copy. 

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( 29 ) 
Wiping J^'on ereiy ■aooeas in joar endnTon to break 
dovn one of the moet iinpessnble burrien to the intercoaraa 
of natioai aodthe«preMl ofedncation, 

Dear Sir, 
Yonrs obediently, 
I dined lately ai Pari* with Mr. Tozao (Depnty for 
Ftmtunblean), who haa jost pnblisbed an elaborate book oo 
" L'ecritare Pboneiiqne," He too ia in favor of a UoiTer- 
8r1 alphabet eqnally appUoable to " lea langaes Orientales." 

B^'a B!r Bar Uahesh D^ aim ek Brabman hai, hid* 
broafa, jia ko hindi men bhat kubte bain, aor yih f^irofa ta'rlf 
aar taosif kamewil4 alil-t-daalat k&bai. Yib sba^a agar-chi 
be-baz&*ati aor kam-m&yagi se paresh&ni wa kbasU-hili meQ 
baaar karti tbi, lekin *aql-o-aba'^ kit ek majmti'a tii^ rastf* 
i^drikanr danuti-i-Cabni men apne ham-'asar anr hwn- 
qaam mB^ mamt^ tbi. Jab rabnamdnl 1 iqb&l ae mnlizamat 
i pAdab^ tak pabdocbi, apol ankban-aaoji anr latifa-gof. ae 
l^&s&Q-i-sh&hl men maqarrar hiift, aai tho^e dino^ mej^i aaix 
par fanqiyat legay^ Aksar P&deh^h nako am^-i-aaltaaat 
ki goftagd me? ySd kart& th&. Cbdaki hindi ke sbi'r kh6b 
kafat& tbi. Pable iak& bfeit&b " Kabl B&i " ba iiia'ni malik- 
nsh-ahu'ari ka ha&. Jab atthirbawe? baraa P&dah&h ne Jai 
Oband, Rija-i-Nagar Eot se, nir&s hokar, nako qaid kiyA, anr 
Bidi Ohand aak& be^i jo ohboti 'nmr men th^ apne ^ ko bip 
l(IjagRh q&yant<mnq^ samajb'kar sarkaabl aor tamarrndi 
pw im&da b'di, to wob wal&yat Kabl B^ ko jo oaf naw^} 
men j^r rakbt& ih&, ba^tsbi ; anr Eoaain QuU Kb&n, 
Siiim-i-Paojtib ko farmin gay<k ki ma'a nmarA Of v6ba ke bIl 

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Widiyat ne? j&kar, Nagar Eot ko Bidt Chand ke Ufarraf m 
Bikil-kar EaM U6i ke sapnrd kar-de. Anr nako R^a 
Bir Bar ka )^itSh se, ki shaj&' k« ma'inon men hu, 
ma^idb karke, ns maliimm ka ir£ate raw&ia kij4. Jab 
R&ja Lahor pahliBchn, Soiyad Husain Qali Kh&a ne nu'a 
tamim Sard&ro^ ke Nagar Kot par faaj-kash{ karke nul)^ 
yara kiyfL Ittif^an jab mol^dr tanjf htie, Ibr&Mtn Hosaia 
Ifirzi kl taraf se shorish paidi h^ anr is bidi^ k& tad&rak 
ba^i mnhimmon se tasawwnr hokar qala'a ke fatal^ bono moB 
tawaqqaf h&&. L^fate Ri^a k{ «al^ w pfaofa man soni 
naxr&ni k6 Bidi Oband se lane par, aar baland &w&xa Lon£ 
^atba anr Bikka sh&hi k& anr ta'mir hon& maajid ka pesbi 
darw&u qaU'a Kfuigra ke poaand karke mahfjaara nth&yi. 

Jab tfawen aU, san 994 Hijrf me^ Zain ^&a Koki 
wUtfi tambih qanm Tnaaf zaf ke ( ki ek giroh EobisUnW' 
Bajanr-o-saw^ men thi ) U'ijnn bl!i&, anr ba'd Ifif-kbaxit 
Bajor ke, E(^8t&n-i>Sawid men (jo Peahiwar kn sbimfl 
»nr Bajor ke sbarq men tiil me? cb&Ifs kos aar 'aii 
men p&noh se pandarah kos bai, aar flh&Iis haiir 
ghar as qanm ke fhe ) tbaharA, anr aai^t tambih 
shnr& k{ ; magar fanj pab&toi* P<"^ phime se thak gil 
m, VtAahiil Bfl anr madod obiM. Shek& Abal-razI 
ne khdd-j^arazf »e apne rasiS^ ke wSaie is ^idmat ki }^tii 
U)&vhish ki. P&lah&h ne nske anr Bir Bar ke darmijia 
qar'a iiik. Ittif^an R&ja Ice n&m parfi, F&dsb&b ne nsko 
ta'Iynn ke ba'd fl^tiy&tan Hakim Abnl Fat)> ko bM fanjt 
muta'aqib ke sitb raw&na kij&. Jab donoi^ 8ard&r Eobis* 
tfin men distil hokar Kok& se mile, b&wajdde-ke KokalUd 
anr B&ja ma? ranjish thi, KokA ne jasbn ir&sta kiyi aar 
anko bnl&yi. Baja ne apn& ranj anr kina jftiiir kij^ 
Eokil tnjammil ke s&tb B&ja ke p& gay^ anr jab moshwarb 
ki nanbat pab&nobi, B&ja ko l^akim se awwal bl ;aflti na-ib!^ 
kuf-h&i n&ah&f isU anr sal^t se goiar-kar g^ll-gahinj fV 

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( 31 ) 

BftsUt liahfihobl. Alqi»& donon me^ fasfid bwpfi hU, mi 
l»Mklf«ad»ekd6»n.kirfikobarttkahtAtW, yihin tak 
ki kbfid-»ri anr bc-ittiKqi «, Kntal Matandari ke gufarne 
meo be-tartibi gahdr me^i a. Af^too? ne har-taraf w tir 
aur pattharo? se ^ba piyi, aur Bari-Bimagi ae hitJiI, ghofe 
fidmi &i>as me? milkar giro, ek 'ilam ki jin talaf hfil. Dfiwe 
din be-waqt kficb karke aodhere men daron ke rfata men j4- 
pare i bahat se fidmi mar gae ; BAja BIr Bar bbi uai han- 
gima men kim iy&. Kahte hai? jab ki ikar pahdncke, 
kisi shakbB ne Rija M kahA, Afgiin 6j Bl»bki6n ki irfd« 
taUite hun ; agar is tin cbir koa ke dara i kam-'ar«», »e jo 
hamire simne h«, nikal j«en, to sbab-^fin ki kbatki jAtA 
rabe. lU^a ne, baj^r iskeke2ain Eh&o koitt)l$' de,&Ml(r 
waqt k6oh kiyi, aur tamim laahkar OBke plchhe ho-liy4. 
^Air, johd&8ohd&; ba):i bb&ii shikaft anr nuqaAa i ka«ir 
haj i sbibi ko pahdnchi. A(li baz&r idamlyon ke qarib 
ma'a, kisi-qadar n&mi lidml, jinko Pidsh&h, pabcbioti th& 
ID do din me9, qati aar f&ya' bfie. Harcband Bija ne if 
lungAma raeij b4th p4oo pi^e, mapar na bachi, miri gayi. 
Jlswsqt koi ai-sipisl aar baqq ni-ehiD&ai se sbdkr kl jagah 
ahik&yat se knfr<n-i-nramat kartt hai, jald zamina nske 
pahlfiraennatija'amal ke kint biohhiti bu. Kahta hain, 
ki R&jaia fikr-Hi-taraddad se Eobistfin men bamesha chio-b** 
jabin rabt& th& ; aar apne dam-s&zon se kaht&, ki fil-baqfqai 
bargashta zamina bai, ki Hakim ki hamrflit, aar Kok& ki 
T&wari, anr jangle anr pah&ron ke phime mSQ, dekhiye, 
anj&m ky& hoti bu ? anr yih na-jinti Qx&, ki Utwiata i 
^ad6 anr kbw&hish i Wall ni'amat k& natija nek bot& haij 
agarohi koi wajah mdjib i girfin-^itiif anr 'irgnzini ki bo. 
Zun Kb&n, riz&'i-pesh& hone ki wajah se, lUja se omds 
mansab rakbt& thi, anr i^ir ko manaab i do-hat&ri hisil 
kiyi. Magar (jiardr i mmifaabat aar ^iiBsfisiyai i Fidshib 
ki jo Biji ko (hi, maqtax! tuko is khayil ki thl Eaht* 

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( » ) 

faun, P^ahali ne do din is f^nfoa nuD kliAoa ntr 'Athwtt 1 
ma't^ U ifirtS nuil da iannij^ anr jo tMmSa, ki KUa- 
Kbiaia Hint 'Abd-nr-Rafaim ko lUjm ka mitam inev 
likh£, woh Inahi-i-Bbet^ AbnUFazal qm^ mmajid hu. 
%Mt hoU hai ki 'nnids t^rh m P&daUh ke dil me? jag^ 
ku-ke ^ik nbt Ijliqil ki}r£ tbti. C^onindii, ba'd alqSh anr 
^bAr Tukfl 'aqidat ke yih 'ib&nU marqiim hai. " Atatm I 
haE^ afsos I U mukada kl sbarjb, gadK hai ; anr is 8bak»> 
rifltita kl misri zabr ki ^ali hai 'Xiam ok tirih i tiahn*- 
lar^ anr mantil i far^o-naahab bat. Is bazm ki mastf 
darpai i Uiamir, anr is jaa4a tneQ Ujayti i *&qabat aar k£ 
bnUi^ hai, Ba'w maw^' oahin chborte, jo j&kar apnt 
inUwD so Qski na'ah dekht^ aar jo kncbh mnhabhat awr 
mibrUoi nuijh ko nake e^ thi affair karti " KaUn jigaz^ 
U)to jo Is w^'a BB hai kann-ai dil ? 

Hai kaan dida jo ^dn i n^ba se digar-gon nafafn f 
Alqiwh B^ja Bir Bar jo doatf meq zamioa ma^ sfHiA 
g&al nahlp rakhU lli^ b^jbahiab anr ia*iaa se Afiq vae^ nim 
roshan kiyti th& j 'ilm i mfiafqi me^ ba(i mahimi nikht4 
tb& ; " kabit " aar " dabra " mka ma&bhfir bain, asr nak* 
latifa anr obntkala mard aor anrat me? ina|l[£r faua* 
*• Birflt " nsk& tal^allaa tb^ Uaki bar^ beU, Ula Obn, 
apni liy&jat ke mow&6q ek monsab par aatatria ihtt, nwar 
bad'khdi anr kb6il-gbara^ se ^jiarcb andiza se vj^M 
karke ^v&hisli ko barh&yd. Jab nsk& da!^ na hU 
&ztirdagi wa w&niBtagl i^tij&r ki, anr til i i 
Akbaii inei^ darg&h i sb&hi se dastdrf piL 

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( 33 ) 


The objects of thia Journal, and of tlie Society nritb 
irhich it is conaeoted, are explained by the aeriea of lleso* 
latiooa piiased nt the Meetiog organUiag the Society, and 
by tfae Statement of Reasons, both of which were published 
in the Grat namber of this Joarnal. 

We oak all who are iaterested in the movement (o give 
us their support. Those who may wish to join tlie Society 
are reqaested to send their oaroes, with tfae Subsoriptions for 
the year, Rs. 5, to P. Soott, Esq., Secretary, lioman-UrdU 
SocUtif, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of the 
Joamal. Friends in England are asked to send their sab- 
Eoriptions ( and any literary contributions with which they 
may favor us) to onr English Secretary F. Drew, Esquire, 
Eton College, Windsor. 

We also call attention to Ko. 6 of the Resolutions 
passed at the Meeting on the S5th May 187 S, and invito 
donations to the " Transliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers witli the movement who 
have not yet sent in their names and subscription. Wo 
trust that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
us by convassing for fresh members, and by circulating our 
Journal among both Europeans and Natives in the stations 
ivhere they reside. 

Contribations on any of the various aobjecta connected 
with transliteration, translation and education generally, are 
eamostty solicited from Members of the Society, 

FscrrxD by bah d^Wi ^r thx " C. asd M. UAznra " Psus. 


ty Google 


To advocate tfie ute of tJu Soman Alphas tn OneJital 







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No. i8, November ^^79. 




The September number of oar Joarnal contained a 
letter on Boman-Urd^ism considered aa a etepping-stone to 
the general adoption of Engliab. The remarks of oar corres- 
pondent aSbrd as a good opportaaitj for general discusBioa 
of the relaUve advantages of Romaa-Urdu and English, in 
order that the position of our movement with regard to 
English edncation may be more ctearlj defined. 

Our feelings in taming to this aspect of the controversy 
are not nnlike those which a G^erol might experience, who 
after a campaign against Zulns and Kdki Khels suddenly 
found himself threatened in flank by the army of the German 
Empire with Yon Moltke at its head. A complete change of 
front ifl required^ and we have to face a force whose strength 
— the strength of civilisation itself — is in some respects 
immeasnrsbly superior to oar own. 

Let ns at once admit that we are not prepared to fight 
a pitched battle with the advocates of English edncation ; 
we might as well beat oar heads agunst a stone wall as 
attempt it. So long as there is an English Government in 
India English will be the dominant language from the 
Himalayas to Cape Comorin, and every day will witness an 

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( 8 ) 

extension of ita inSaence. Oor corresposdent Bpnki of 
Bomao-nnldiam as a stepping-stone to English. To aom« 
extent this may be the case, bat so far as the progress of a 
langnafre is to be estimated bj its use in GoTemment 
Otfices or by its popnlarity in Gorernment Schools, English 
has no need of a stepping-stoDe. It is already the sole occn- 
pant of all the higher departments of the State. No corres- 
pondence reaches the Government of India in any other 
anguage, and eren in the Prorincial Govemnients the 
amount of vemacalar irork in offices higher than that of 
the Deputy Commissioner or Collector is extremely snuU, 
Deputy Commissioners and their snbordinates hare enough 
Ternacalar work and to spare, but eren in their case the 
English work is that which presses most nrgently on the 
officers' attention. The influence which directs and guides 
&e machinery of the vernacular establishment is that of 

The vernacular officials have enormoas power in their 
hands, bat it is not a permanently organizing power, it is 
merely that of local and special knowledge, or that which 
every servant has of obeying or thwarting the orders which 
he receives. Whenever the District Officer steps beyond tbt 
threahhold of his own office he is compelled to nse English. 
Communication by rtibk&r leads to nothing but delay and 
misunderstanding. Uany departments have abolished the 
vernacular altogether. The Treasury has turned it out "bag 
and baggage." The Railways and the Telegraph Depart- 
ment will have nothing to do with it. The Department of 
Public Works is gettjng rid of it, and it will be found that it 
is gradaally giving way in the few remaining offices which 
have hitherto allowed it a place. In judicial and revenne 
procedure the Persian character still holds an important 
position, but here, too, it is altogether subordinaU to English* 
English is the langoage of the LegisUtais and the High 


( 3 ) 

Cuorb, and in tlie raoio of the Sessions Coarts and the Bar. 
Unglish too ia the langnage of all our Settlemeot Beparta. 

This preralence of English in all the departments of 
GoTemment work necessarilr renders its stady popalar with 
all who wish to gain a liTelibood as employ^ of the State, 
that is to aay with ninety-nine per cent, of the lada, who 
attend oar Gorernnwnt Schools. There was a time, we 
know, when the ntility of Englbh was not appreciated — 
when it was necessary to entice natives, CT(in of the official 
class, to learn it. But this is changed now. Oar English 
schools and colleges are crowded with indiistrioos and appre- 
<uative atadents, each one of them eager to acqnire so much 
knowledge of ibe language aa may secure him a Govern- 
meot appointment proportionate to his ambition. The com- 
meroial valoe of an Eaglish clerk bis fallen from Rs. 40 or 
50 a month to Rs. 15 or 10; in the course of a year or 
two it will fait still lower, and onr Eurasian clerks who find 
it difficult to make both ends meet, on a pittance like this, 
mnst learn to live like natives or must starve. Instancea have 
often come nnder onr own observation and probably nnder 
that of onr readers where out-of-the-way vernacalar aohoola 
have been closed in consequence of failure of attendance, and 
the people have come forward with the petition " Give us an 
English school ; that wiU not fail, we promise that all oar 
boys will attend." 

Is this rapid extension of English to be regretted 1 
Certainly not. So far as the higher administration of onr 
Indian Empire is concerned, and ao fur as immediate resalta are 
looked to, the advantages of this extension are incalculably 
great, — so great that we scarcely know how to enumerate