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7> advtcate the use of the Roman Alphabet in Oritntat 



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Vol IV. JANUARY 1881, No. 32. 


In our last number we had the pleasure of recording 
at some length the good work being done in the way of 
transliteration by the Roman-Akshara-SomAj in Bengal. 
We ha»e since received another interesting letter from the 
Secretary, giving further particulars, and informing us that 
the work named Durgeskanattdini, the most popular 
Bengali Novel of the day, is now being printedlio Roman- 
Bengali in the Central Press. A curious, and we may say 
important, fact about this attempt, Is that the Compo- 
sitors are doing the transliteration themselves. They 
are furnished with the copy in the Bengali character, and 
also receive a transliteration key alphabet. Our friends 
here, who take such pains in writing clearly out the Roman- 
Urdii contributions we publish monthly, can im^ne how 
much time and trouble the above arrangement must save. 
It is a plan which may prove equally successful in Urdu, 
Hindi, or Persian. We commend the fact not only to our 
opponents but to Heads of Presses in this Province. 


We must admit— as we admitted in January 1880 — ^that 
ire have little of a startling or sensational character to note 
ia the history of the past twelve months. Our Journal, 

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though published at a loss, maintains its standing as a 
monthly periodical, and the increase — slow but steady — in the 
number of our subscribers, leads us to hopQ that our 
pecuniary position will gradually improve. 

On the other hand the apathy of many of our supporters 
is as muob 4 matter of regret now as it was twelve months 

Th# publication of the lkhwin-u?.?atd and of the 
Lives of the Gurus has been undertaken by the Journal, 
4nd the P^njdbf Newspaper continues to circulate a sheet 
of printed Roman-Urdu with each copy of its Persian 
Lithograph, Of the books published In Roman during tho 
past year, the Royal i)ictlonary, from the Lakhnau Mission 
press, seems to have been the most successful. 

Our June issue contained a reprint of the more im- 
portant papers of earlier numbers, our objeft being to pro- 
vide the public with a concise statement of Qur c^se In a, 
compact form, 

In September we submitted certain proposals to tho 
Punjab Government through the Director of Public In- 
struction, No answer has yet been received to our letter. 

The most encouraging event in tho year's chronicle 
Is the recent foundation of a Society at Calcutta an the same 
basis as our own. Several influential Natives of Bengal 
haye accepted our programme, and the names of Beames 
and Hcernle are a guarantee that the new movement fin(fe 
sympathizers in the ranks of Oriental scholarship. 

We hope to work quietly and persistently in 1881 33 
we did in 1880. If our supporters limit their exertions iq 
out? behalf to last year's standard, the direct and immediate 
outcome of our Society's labor will be similarly limited, but 
we find consolation in the fact that silent and unobserved 

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influences are slowly working in our favdf. The txistehdd 
of our Society and the publication of its Journal keep 
the subjefl before the public, and this is the one thing 
Wanted to secure eventual succeis. 


The discovery of India by Vasco da Gama was followed 
by a series of memorable events. Each year a fresh 
expedition left Lisbon to explore the shores and appropriate 
the commerce of India. Each year was distinguished by 
some achievement of discovery or war worthy of a place 
in History. In the annals of those early days of Portuguese 
conquest the names of Cabrat, ^acheco and Dalmeida have 
acquired a renown almost equal, in the national estimation, 
to that of Da Gama himself. 

It is liot our present obje£t to narrate the achieve- 
ments of all these contemporaries of Da Gama. We propose 
to sketch the life of one only, that of Afonso Dalboquerque^ 
who first gave to Portuguese History in India the chara£ler 
of permanent imperial rule. 

As with Da Gama, so with Dalboquerque, the au- 
thorities for his history are embarrassing from their very 
abundance. We are however justified in selefting for our 
present purpose the " Commentaries :" a narrative compiled 
by Dalboquerquc's own son, and published by him in 
1557 — forty-two years after his father's death. 

This work cannot claim precisely the same historical 
value as the " Roteiro," but its author informs us that it 
was compiled from the original despatches sent by Dalbo- 
querque " in the midst of his adventures " to King Manuel. 
" These Commentaries," adds the writer {in his dedication 

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to King Sebastian) " ought not to have the I«ss credit and 
authority from Your Highness, because I, who am his son, 
have colle£ted them, than that which those of Caesar, writ- 
ing of himself so many years ago, obtain throughout the. 
world, seeing that in this rugged style of mine I narrate the 
truth of what took place." Later authors have recognised 
the value of the Commentaries, and their general tenor is 
such as to justify our accepting them as our guide. It 
must, however, be admitted that there Is one source of 
information regarding Dalboquerque more authentic than 
the Commentaries, though unfortunately difficult of access. 
The Torre do Tombo at Lisbon contains a hundred or more 
of the despatches themselves, sent by Dalboquerque from 
India, and signed I^ his own hand. Whether these are 
the identical despatches from which Dalboquerque's son 
compiled the " Commentaries " we cannot say, nor do we 
know whether they embrace the whole, or only a portion, of 
Dalboquerque's Indian career. Until some Portuguese 
savant transcribes and publishes these valuable records in 
their original form, ordinary readers must be content with 
the " Commentaries." 

Afonso Dalboquerque was born in 1453 — a year 
memorable in history as that in which Constantin^Ie was 
captured by the Turks. He was of noble birth and, like 
many illustrious Portuguese of those days, was educated at 
the King's palace. In the year 1480 he took part in an 
expedition against the Turks at Otranto ; and again in 1489 
he served at the "defence of Graciosa. These are the 
meagre details of Dalboquerque's career prior to his Indian 
exploits, that are recorded by the Portuguese bibliographer 
" Machado." Apparently, Dalboquerque never married. At 
any rate, his only child — the author of the Commentaries — 
was illegitimate. This son was born in the year i joo, and 

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aa Dalboquerque did not take him to India, the father and 
son cannot have seen much of one another ; but the father 
when on his death bed wrote a letter to the King referring 
to the lad in terms of tenderness, and asking the King to 
take him under his own protection. 

We now proceed to sketch the Indian career of the 
great Dalboquerque, founding our narrative partly on the 
original text oE the Commentaries but chiefly on the English 
translation edited by Mr. Walter De Gray Birch, of the 
British Museum, and published by the Hakluyt Society. 

Before commencing our story let us note that Dal- 
boquerque was fifty years of age when he first sailed for India. 
He must have had a constitution of iron to have stood the 
incessant strain of his Indian life so long as he did. 

His first voyage to India was made in the year 1503. 
He and his cousin, Francisco Dalboquerque,— each in 
command of three ships, — left Lisbon in April of that year. 
Their orders were to proceed to Cochin and to build a 
fortress there for the security of Portuguese trade and the 
protection of the R^ja himself from the Zamorin of Calicut. 

Francisco Dalboquerque arrived at Cochin some days 
before Afonso, and found matters there in a critical state. 
The voyage of Cabral and the second voyage of Vasco da 
Gama (which had intervened between Vasco's memorable 
expedition of discovery and the voy^e of the Dalboquer- 
ques] had led to open and bitter hostility with the Zamorin, 
but had established relations of peace and amity between 
the Portuguese on the one hand and the Rijas of Cananor 
and Cochin on the other. 

No sooner however had Vasco da Gama left India {for 
the second time) than the Zamortn, enraged that the Raja 
of Cochin (whom be regarded as a feudatory) should form 

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an alliance with his enemies, sent a powerful anhament 
against Cochin, which occupied the town of that name, and 
reduced the RAja to great straits. It was at this iunftura 
that Francisco Dalboquerque arrived, and he at the Raja's 
request, at once attacked the Zamorin's troops, and drove 
them away from Cochin. Immediately after this Afonso 
Dalboquerque also arrived, and the two cousins found them- 
selves at the head of five hundred able-bodied Portuguese.. 
The R&ja, anxious to avail himself of their aid, begged 
them to follow up Francisco's first success by expelling the 
Zamorin's forces from Repellm — an island in the Cochin 
backwater, not far front the capital itself. The Portuguese 
commanders, wishing to placethe R^ja under an obligatioily 
—in order that he might the more easily consent to theic 
building a fort at Cochin— at once consented. They 
crossed the backwater in boats, and though the enemy 
comprised two thousand Nair soldiers, the Portuguese,, after 
a brief resistance, put them to flight with great slaughter, 
and re-established the legitimate authority <^ the R&ja. 

Before the enthusiasm of vi£tory and the gratitude of 
their ally had time to cool, the Dalboquerques, in accordance 
with their King's orders, asked for permission to build a 
fort at Cochin, The R&ja, though dissuaded by some of 
his Councillors, gave his consent, and the Dalbo<juerques, 
with exemplary zeal for their country's interests, used 
such expedition that the fort was ready before the Rija had 
time to repent of his complacency. They had no means 
of working stone and mortar, but built the walls of palisades 
filled in with earth. This was the first fort buHt by the 
Portuguese in India, and as its construction tn 1503 may be 
said to form the commencement, so its capture by the 
Dutch in 1663 may be considered to mark the terminatioa 
of Portuguese supremacy in the Indian seas. 

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After the construftion of the tort, Afonso Dalboquerque 
parted from his cousin Francisco, with whom he had had 
petty differences of opinion, and sailed for Coulao (or Qui- 
lon) some distance south of Cochin. Here he was well 
received. In spite of the efforts of the Zamorin and of the 
Moors of Calicut to produce a hostile feeling, the peo pie of 
Quilon (who were mostly Hindus) manifested a friendly 
disposition- A cargo of pepper was obtained without diffi- 
culty, and a factory was established with a view to future 
trade. While Dalboquerque was still at Quilon, a fleet of 
thirty-nine trading ships arrived from Calicut. Dalboquerque 
proposed to attack them, but the enemy, after an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to avoid him, took shelter in the port of Quilon 
itself, and placed themselves under the prote6tion of its 
authorities. After some demur Dalboquerque was induced 
to forego his intention of burning the ships, on the under- 
standing that their freight should be discharged, and that 
they should be detained ^,t Quilon until the Portuguese had 

There were many Syrian Christians at Quilon. Dal. 
boquerque had friendly communications with them, and 
secured for their community valuable privileges from the 
Native Government. His Chaplain, Father Rodrigo, of the 
prder of St. Dominic, was left at Quilon to convert the 
heathen, and to instru£l the Syrians in the Catholic faith. 
We may regard this Father Rodrigo as the first of Modern 
Missionaries in India. There were Chaplains with the fleet* 
of the previous three years, but we are not told that any 
of them before Rodrigo remained in the country for mis- 
sionary work. 

Leaving Quilon on the 12th January 1504, Afonso 
Palboquerque returned to Cochin, but found that his cousin 
bad already left for Cananor. At the request of the faftor 

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«t Cochin, he took in a consignment of cloves and cinna- 
mon For Francisco's ships which he overtook at Cananor. 
The spices were duly made over, but the lading of Francis- 
co's ships being still incomplete, Afonso's squadron set 
sail for Portugal, leaving the remainder of the fleet to follow 
at their own convenience. Afonso steered dire£l for Mo- 
zambique, — being the first Portuguese Captain to take this 
instead of a more northerly course, — and after a compara- 
tively unadventurous voyage from Mofimbique onwards, 
he reached Lisbon in safety at the end of July 1504. 

As for Francisco Dalboquerque he and his squadron 
left Cananor on the 5th of February, but were lost on the 
way home. There is no certain information as to the 
circumstances of their shipwreck, but it is supposed to have 
occurred off the coast of Melinde. Thus commenced the 
long list of those whose lives have been lost in the naviga- 
tion of the Indian seas. 

Such were the incidents of Afonso Dalboquerque's first 
voyage. The following year. 1504, is memorable for the 
appointment of Don Francisco Dalmeida as first Governor 
and Viceroy in India. The year after this — in April 1505, 
a formidable fleet, comprising fourteen sail, left Portugal for 
the East. Of this fleet, Trist&o da Cunha was Commodore 
or Chief Captain, and Afonso Dalboquerque was second in 
command. The King's intention was that Dalboquerque 
should be stationed off the coast of Arabia with six ships 
and four hundred men, to assert the supremacy of Portugal 
in that quarter of the Indian Ocean, and to blockade the 
Straits of Babelmandeb ag^nst Muhammadan ships. It 
was also the intention of the King that Dalboquerque, at 
the expiration of three years, should succeed Dalmeida as 
Governor of India. Secret instru£lioas to this effect were 
given to Dalboquerque himself. 

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During the voyage out, not unfrequent bickerings 
occurred between Dalboquerque and Da Cunha. They are 
not worth detailing, but as similar bickerings occurred with 
Francisco Dalboquerque in the first voyage, and again 
with other Captains in the later years of Alfonso's career, 
we note the fa£l as one indicative of Dalboquerque's cha- 
racter. He was a self-willed man, whom it was difficult to 
rule, and almost as difficult to obey, without a quarrel. 
We shall however see, in the course of our history, that 
this unamiable feature was combined with great practical 
sagacity, and that as events turned, it had much to do with 
the unchallenged and widely spread ascendancy which he 
eventually acquired. 

In the course of this voyage the islands in the Southern 
Ocean, which still bear the name of Tristio Da Cunha were 
discovered, and the more important island of Madagascar, 
or San Louren^o, was first explored. 

From Mozambique the Captains sailed to Melindej the 
King of which city still courted the alliance of Portugal, 
and proved his friendship by supplying Dalboquerque with 
three good pilots acquainted with all the harbours on the 
Arabian coast. After leaving Melinde, the Portuguese 
cootinued their course up the African coast, sacking and 
destroying the towns of Angoja and Braboa on their way. 
The "Commentaries," like other Protuguese histories, give 
the full details of these and similar atrocities. We do not 
think it necessary to follow this course. The faft that 
Portuguese conquest in the East, — at any rate during the 
early part of the sixteenth century — was accompanied by 
wanton atrocities, which are not surpassed by those of 
Changez ^h^n and Tamerlane, is too patent to be denied. 
The narrative of almost every voyage describes some wholly 
unjustifiable outrage. The theory which underlay this 

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Une o! condua was OHe which Christian nations would now 
be ashamed to avow. It was assumed that the non-Chris. 
Man populations of the world had no "rights " whatever, 
and as to Muhammadans in particular it was taken (or granted 
that the relations between them and the Christian world 
most necessarily be those o( perpetual warfare. There 
might be eiceptions (as in the case of Melinde), but as a 
general rule the Portuguese considered themselves at liberty 
to sack any Muhammadan town that happened to he in their 
way Sometimes they gave such towns the option of saving 
themselves from destr«aion by paying tribute to Portuga^ 
but at others they did not think it necessary to offer even 
this alternative. 

It must not however be supposed that all the warlike 
operations of Portugal in the Indian Ocean during the first 
fifty years of the sixteenth century stand on the same foot- 
ing Many of them had a definite political objea.- In the 
first place, it was the fixed policy of the Forty"" '» 
blockade he Red Sea, so that the traffic between As,a and 
Europe might be compelled to tak, the Cape route. And 
secondly it was a definite policy of the Portuguese to enforce 
mono oly of navigation throughout the Indian se» them- 
^Ives and with this view to build forts at every command. 
1 position. It may be said that these two pretentions 
were as unjustifiable as the praffice of levying tribute or 
Tackin" towns along the coast ; but if as unjusUfiable they 
were not as objealess, in an historical sense. We consrf« 
ourselves justified in dwelling on those operations which 
tended to definite political objeas, and in passing by. a, 
rapidly as possible, aas of mere brutality -^ » 3 
The cutting of throats, the burning othouses, and the loot- 
ing" of movable property, are very similar in charaSer 
whenever and wherever they occur. 

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Da Cunha and Dalboquerque, having sacked the two 
towns above named, and having threatened Magadoxo, 
proceeded with more serious intent to Socotra. They had 
received distinct orders from King D. Manuel to build a 
fortress on this island. Its position near the Straits of 
Babelmandeb rendered Socotra then — as it rendersitnow — 
a position of some strategic importance. Another reason 
gave to Socotra in those days an. interest which it no longer 
possesses : its indigenous inhabitants were Christians, 
They were indeed Christians of an eccentric and degenerate 
t)'pe — even more eccentric and more degenerate thaii 
their neighbours in Abyssinia, still they bore the name of 
Christian, and one object which the King had in ordering 
the construction of a fortress was to protect them from 
Muhammadan oppression. The Captains, however, on their 
arrival at the principal town of Soco, found that they had 
been forestalled, and that the Fartaquins.a Muhammadan tribe 
from the Arabian coast, had built a small but formidable fort 
to keep the residents in subjection. After some ineffeftual 
attempts to bring about a capitulation, the Portuguese landed 
— Dalboquerque at one place and Da Cunha at another — 
and attacked the enemy. The latter fought with great 
gallantry, but eventually the fortress was stormed, some of 
its defenders being driven to the mountains, and the rest 
put to the sword. In the course of the attack Dalboquer- 
que's nephew, D. Afonso de Noronha, was twice in danger 
of his life ; and Dalboquerque himself was once knocked 
down by a stone, though not disabled from continuing the 

Having disposed of the Moors, Da Cunha collected the 
Christian population and informed them that a Portuguese 
garrison would be left in the island to protect them from 
their Muhammadan oppressors. The Christians appeared to 

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be pleased with the intelligence, and many of them accepted 
the ministrations of Father Antonio, who was appointed 
as their religious instructor. The mosque was turned into 
a church ; a new fortress was built and dedicated to St. 
Michael ; and D. Afonso de Noronha, who had been selected 
by King D. Manuel for the post, was appointed to the 

Having completed these arrangements, Tristfto da 
Cunha made over the six ships which were to serve under 
Dalboquerque's orders in the Arabian Seas, and then left for 
India. Here therefore we part company with Da Cunha, to 
follow the adventures of our hero in his independent charge. 

After some days detention, during which the squadron 
experienced a great storm from the south-west, Dalboquer- 
que left the island of Socotra to cruise in the neighbourhood, 
in the hope of intercepting Muhammadan ships on their pas- 
sage from the Red Sea to India. This was on the loth of 
August 1507. 

Some days passed without the appearance of ships from 
the Red Sea, and as Dalboquerque was in urgent need of 
supplies, he determined to steer without further delay for the 
Arabian city of Kalhat — In Portuguese orthography Calayate. 
On the way the Portuguese gratified their propensity for 
wanton injury by burning the ships of such inoffensive 
fishermen as had the ill-luck to be on the coast. The town 
of Kalhit belonged to the King of Hormuz,* and the autho- 
rities made this an excuse for not immediately accepting the 
terms of vassalage to Portugal which were offered to them. 
They were, however, as obsequious as they possibly could be, 
offering the Portuguese all the supplies that the latter requir- 

• The Fortngiisas, and indeod authors of the ]6tfa and I7th centnrias 
ta "Ormni." The auaa " '- " '"- -'—- 

g«nsr>ilr, vhta >' Ormnz." The nune U propuly UMmw. We *d«pk 

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fsd, and promising to surrender the city when Dalboquerque 
returned, if other terms were not made in the interval by the 
King of Hormui himself. Dalboquerque, anxious to obtain 
supplies, accepted these conditions, and gave the authorities 
a safe-guard, which was to hold good until his arrival at 

The fleet left Kalhit on the 22nd of August, and sailed 
next to Curiate, which the Portuguese sacked and burned, 
without the slightest provocation. Most of the inhabitants 
who were unable to escape were put to the sword, though 
of some it is recorded that the victors cut off their ears and 
noses, and then sent them away to Hormuz " to bear wit- 
ness to their disgrace." 

From Curiate the Portuguese proceeded to the impor- 
tant port of Maskat. The authorities there, having heard 
of the fate of Curiate were, at first, eager to come to terms, 
and offered both to supply Dalboquerque with all supplies 
immediately required, and also to become permanent vassals 
of the Crown of Portugal. 

Unfortunately, however, for the citizens, reinforce- 
ments arrived from the interior while the negotiations with 
Dalboquerque were still in progress, and the Muhammadans, 
trusting to their increased strength, assumed an attitude 
of hostility. Upon this, Dalboquerque at once bombarded 
the defences of the city. On ' the following day the city 
itself was attacked in force ; the Portuguese showed their 
usual courage and impetuosity — four of Dolboquerque's five 
captains being specially mentioned in the account of the 
assault — and the result was, as it had been elsewhere, that 
a large number of the inhabitants — women and children 
as well as men — were put to the sword, while the remain- 
der fled for their lives to the mountains in the neighbour- 
hood. Having taken such precautions as military prudence 

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suggested to prevent a surprise, Dalboquerque gave per- 
mission for the sacking of the town. Special efforts were 
made to re-provision the ships from the booty available, 
and in particular all the wooden tanks that could be found 
were carried on board to meet the requirements of the 
waterless neighbourhood of Hormuz. The sacking oE the 
city was followed by some of the objectless barbarities 
that so frequently attended the Portuguese conquests, and 
then the fleet resumed its voyage towards Hormuz. 

The Commentaries conclude their account of this attack 
on Maskat with the following description* of the city as 
ic then was : — 

" Mascate is a large and very populous city, surrounded 
on the inner side with very large mountains, and on 
the sea-board it is close to the water's edge; behind, 
towards the interior, there is a plain as large as the square 
of Lisbon ; all covered with salt pans, not that the tide 
reaches there, but the water which is produced therein 
is saltish, and converts itself into salt. Hard by 
there are many pools of fresh water, of which the 
inhabitants make use ; and there are orchards, gardens, 
and palm-groves, with pools for watering them by means 
of wooden engines. The harbour is small, shaped like a 
horse-shoe, and sheltered from every wind ; it is the princi- 
pal entrep6t of the kingdom of Hormuz, into which all the 
ships that navigate these parts must of necessity enter, to 
avoid the opposite coast, which contains many shallows. 
It is of old a market for carriage of horses and dates ; is a 
very elegant town, with very fine houses, and supplied 
from the interior with much wheat, maize, barley, and 
dates, for lading as many vessels as came for them." 

* 111. Knlt'i InoilatioD, nL 1, pug* 89. 

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Maskat itself was a part of the kingdom of Hormuz, 
but the interior was under the rule of a king called the Ben- 
jabar and his two brothers. The rule of this family is repre- 
sented as extending over the whole of Southern Arabia, from 
Aden on the one side to the Persian Gulf on the other. They 
had recently taken the island Baharem— famous for its 
pearl fishery — and the island of Catife from the King of 

From Maskat the fleet proceeded to Soar, a city of 
scarcely less importance than the former in other respects, 
and superior to it in Military strength. Daiboquerque was 
preparing to attack it when the authorities accepted terms 
of peace, agreeing to deliver up the fortress and to become 
vassals of the King of Portugal, Formal possession was 
accordingly taken of the fort, the flag of Portugal was 
hoisted on its highest tower, and a aotarial declaration 
of the transfer of allegiance was drawn up in Arabic and 
Portuguese. It was not convenient to Daiboquerque to 
leave a permanent garrison of his own men in the fort, so 
after the formalities of transfer had been gone through, it 
was again entrusted to the local Officers. Moreover, the 
yearly tribute was virtually remitted ; that is to say the 
authorities were informed that it was to go towards the 
payment and sustenance of the men who would be required 
by them to guard the fortress. 

From Soar Daiboquerque proceeded to Orfa9^, and 
this city, not coming to terms, was carried by assault, as 
Curiate and Maskat had been before. During the short 
stay of the Portuguese at Orfaj&o, an incident occurred 
which is of some interest to students of Persian literature. 
At the conclusion of the assault Dalboquerque's orders as to 
captives were, to distribute the young men among the ships 

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to work, while — to use the words of the Commentaries — 
" as for the old Moors who were of no use for work, he had 
their noses and ears cut off, and then let them go, so that 
all who had their lives spared were marked in this manner." 

Among the captives was one very aged man, evidently 
oE honorable rank, — and the officer who had seized him was 
anxious to spare him from outrage He took the old man 
to DaSboquerque, and in the course of enquiry it was ascer- 
tained that he was one of the three Governors of the place. 
The old man, being encouraged to converse, gave 
Dalboquerque much interesting information as to the 
kingdom of Hormuz ; and then proceeded to compliment 
the Portuguese Commander on his brilliant victories, com- 
paring his progress to that of Alexander the Great. 
Dolboquerque, surprised to hear of Alexander the Great 
from such a quarter, made enquiries as to the source of the 
old man's knowledge. "The Moor then drew from his 
pocket a book written in Persian, bound in crimson velvet, 
according to their fashion, and gave it to Afonso Dolboquerque, 
who indeed prized it more than anything else he could have 
givenhim, and accepted it, as it were, as a good omen res- 
pecting the determination he had formed of conquering Hor- 
muz. He then gave orders that the Moor should be presented 
with a scarlet robe and some other Portuguese things, where- 
at he was greatly rejoiced : but much more so to find 
himself free, with his ears and nose entire." Mr, Birch 
concludes from the above account that the book presented 
was the Sikandarnima of Niz&mf. Probably this supposition 
is correct. 

There was a colony of GuzarJitf Hindus at Orfa9io, but 
they had the prudence to leave the city, and to remove their 
households and merchandise befcH-e the attack was made. 

^.y Google 

C 17 ) 
From Oiiiu^o the fleet steered for Hormuz itself. The 
approach of the ships to this island — the famous and wealthy 
entrepot of commerce in this part of the world— is graphi- 
cally described in the Commentaries. The appearance of the 
dty with its crowded shipping and its strong military force 
was such as to inspire most of the Portuguese captains with 
misgivings as to their enterprise. There were sixty larger 
vessels in its harbour, well manned and well provided with 
artillery. And besides these ships there were in the har- 
bour about two hundred galleons, which are long ships with 
many oars, but not very large, and they are armed with two 
large mortars in the prow, and packed with cotton bales, so 
high that the rowers are hidden from sight. There were 
also many " terradas" * (like the barques of Alcouchete), 
full of small guns, and men wearing sword-proof dresses and 
armed from head to foot, most of them being archers. All 
this fleet was rigged out with flags and standards, and colored 
ensigns, and made a very beautiful appearence. The large 
ships were on the outside, and the gallons and " terradas " 
on the land side of the city, alternately arranged, the stem of 
one to the stern of the other ; and in this order they had 
encompassed all our fleet. On shore, too, there were, to all 
appearance along the beach, fifteen or twenty thousand 
men, very brilliant with their arms, many of them on horses 
and blowing their trumpets and " anafis ; " and the shouting 
on land and on the ships was so great that one would think 
the world had come to an end." 

Before proceeding to hostilities against so fcH-midahle 
an enemy, Dalboquerque thought proper to try. the effeft of 
negotiations. He forwarded a message to the King, who at 
once responded, sending a Muhammadan named Khw^ja 
Bairim to ask what the Portuguese wanted. To this enquiry 

P«rlu^ the t«rm '' lighter " it the newest fiiglwh cqiiiviIeiiL 

DigmzecDy Google 

( 18 ) 

Dalboquerque returned the following haughty reply : "Say 
to the King of Hormuz, that the King D. Manuel, King of 
Portugal and Lord of the Indies, desiring greatly his 
friendship, hath sent me to this his port to serve him 
with his fleet, and if the King be willing to become hia 
vassal and pay him tribute, I will make peace with him 
and serve him in everything he shall command me against 
his enemies ; but if he be unwilling, let him know that I 
will surely destroy all this fleet, wherein hfe placeth his 
trust, and take his dty by force of arms." 

To this declaration of the Portuguese terms, the King of 
Hormuz sent a reply that he was "highly delighted" at 
Dalboquerque's coming, though he was unable to explain 
why a commander animated by such friendly motives should 
have " destroyed his places, that he had all along that coast, 
killing ail the people that he found therein." As to the 
matter of tribute, he asked for a few days delay, so that h"e 
might consult " all the Lords of his kingdom " before sending 
8 final reply. According to the Commentaries the reason 
for this procrastinating reply was that the King of Hormuz 
and his principal Councillor, KhwijA *Atar, expected fur- 
ther reinforcements from the mainland, and thought it 
better to await their arrival before bringing matters to a 

Dalboquerque, however, was not to be bamboozled in 
this way, as soon as the negotiations had extended over 
three days, he sent an ultimatum to the effect that if he did 
not receive a satisfactory reply on the morning of the 
following day, he would first destroy the Hormuz fleet, and 
afterwards capture the city by force of arms. 
( To be continued.) 

^.y Google 

{ 19 ) 


Of late years, the conception of historical composition 
has undergone great change. In former times, the king 
was the central figure which writers set before themselves, 
and therefore court intrigues, battles, and such facts com- 
posed the greater part of a historical work. This fatal 
defect exists to a great extent still in most school histories, 
but, in the more scientific treatment of the subject, a wider- 
view is taken of its scope. It is not so much facts that are 
wanted, true though they may be ; but what Herbert Spencer 
calls " organizable " facts ; in other words, facts from which 
conclusions can be drawn. In this respect, even the most 
elaborate histories are deficient more or less, but a percep- 
tible improvement is going on. How much, nevertheless, 
has yet to be done, may be indicated by the thought that 
even after all that has been written on English History, we 
still are very much in the dark as to the life of the lower 
classes during the middle ages, the disappearance of vil- 
lages or the rise of towns. Hallam, Macaulay and Stubbs 
have all done much to aid the elucidation of obscure sub- 
jects ; but many questions rest on pure inference of a doubt< 
ful kind, and cannot now be absolutely cleared up owing 
to want of materials. As Hallam himself remarks in his 
sketch of the Middle Ages : we know the genealogies of 
kings and nobles, their battles, intrigues and amusements, 
bu( of the real history of society we know nearly nothing. 
Of course, now, that history is being more thoroughly 
studied and recorded, our posterity will have advantages 
infinitely greater than ours ; and this therefore is a good 
opportunity for considering what is wanted in a complete 
history, and what should be expected of historical students. 
Instead of stating the former want in our own words, we 

mzecDy Google 

( 20 ) 

ehall quote from an authority whose opinion is worth listen- 
ing to on any subject— Mr. Herbert Spencer. Every one, 
of coarse, will not agree in his summary of what a history 
should contain ; and we do not pretend to say that it is 
perfect, or that it does not err on the side of expecting too 
much : but it is undoubtedly a most complete account of 
jvhat it is useful to know about a people. It must also be 
remembered that he is writing with reference to the prac- 
tical value of history. 

" The thing," he says, " it really concerns us to know is 
the natural history of Society. We want all facts which 
help us to understand how a nation has grown and organ- 
ised itself. Among these, let us of course have an account 
of its government ; with as little as may be oE gossip about 
the men who officered it, and as much as possible about 
the structure, principles, methods, prejudices, corruptions, 
&c., which it exhibited : and let this account include not 
only the nature and actions of the central government, but 
also those of local governments down to their minutest 
ramifications. Let us of course also have a parallel descrip- 
tion of the ecclesiastical government — its organization, 
its conduct, its power, its relations to the state ; and accom- 
panying this, the ceremonial, creed and religious ideas — 
not only those nominally believed, but those really believed 
and acted upon. Let us at the same time be informed of 
the control exercised by class over class, as displayed in 
social observances — In titles salutations and forms of 
address. Let us know, too, what were all the othet 
customs which regulated the popular life out of doors 
and in-doors : including those concerning the relations 
of the sexes, and the relations of parents to children. 
The superstitions, also, from the more important 
myths, down to the charms in common use, should be ia- 

^.y Google 

( !1 ) 

dicated. Next should come a delineation of the industrial 
system : showing to what extent the division of labour was 
carried ; how trades were regulated, whether by caste, 
guilds, or otherwise; what was the connection between 
employers and employed ; what were the agencies for dis- 
tributing commodities ; what were the means of communi- 
cation ; what was the circulating medium. Accompanying 
all which should be given an account of the industrial arts 
technically considered : stating the processes in use, and 
the quality of the products. Further, the intellectual con- 
dition of the nation in its various grades should be depicted ; 
not only with respect to the kind and amount of education, 
but with respect to the progress made in science, and the 
prevailing manner of thinking. The degree of esthetic 
culture, as displayed in architecture, sculpture, painting, 
dress, music, poetry and fiction, should be described. Nor 
should there be omitted a sketch of the daily lives of the 
people — their food, their homes, and their amusements. 
And lastly, to connect the whole, should be exhibited the 
morals, theoretical and practical, of all classes : as indicated 
in their laws, habits, proverbs, deedsi These facts, given 
with as much brevity as consists with clearness and accuracy, 
should be so grouped and arranged that they may be com- 
prehended in there ensemble, and contemplated as mutually 
dependent pa^ts of one great whole." 

Examiners in history must of course make the best of 
available text-books ; but the conviction is unavoidable that 
Educational authorities in India have in many respects 
failed to provide the highest means of acquiring historical 
knowledge. In most cases, a text-book is prescribed out 
of which the questions are supposed to be rigidly taken : 
and as a rule the ground to be covered is much too exten- 
sive for the time allotted to it. The consequence is that 

^.y Google 

( M ) 

an utterly shallow and almost useless knowledge of facta, 
without any real acquaintance with the people of the 
country, is all that can be required. If we take as an 
example Taylor's Ancient History, most of these defects will 
be found. It is impossible for any mortal man to master, 
with any useful result, the histories of about twelve different 
countries in two years, in addition to other studies necessary 
for passing an examination : the matter also of this work 
is exceedingly defective. Too many unimportant facts 
are put in, resulting in the insufficient treatment of 
essential matters, while the difficulty of learning all these 
details prevents students from trying to understand the 
connection of different parts, and compels them to trust 
to their memory alone. 

Again, so long as the examination papers are taken, 
exclusively out of the prescribed text-books, there will be 
no inducement to scholars to gain any wider knowledge 
than is there given. A much better plan, in our opinion, 
would be to give the history of some one country or of a 
limited period, and to mention one or two books which 
might be used as guides ; but at the same time it should be 
distinctly understood that the examination will not neces- 
sarily be confined to them, and that a thorough and intelli- 
gent acquaintance with the country or period is compulsory. 
It is the present system of conducting History exami- 
natioDS in this country which leads to (he common idea 
among both teachers and taught, that History is an easy 
subject to get marks in, and that little or no help is 
needed by the latter from the former. No doubt, if 
all that is wanted is a verbal acquaintance with a certain 
book, the subject is an easy one; but no body of men, 
sincerely interested in the welfare of youth, would be 
satisfied with this. A History paper can and ought to test 

^.y Google 

( 23 ) 

much more than a man's memory. The amount of know-' 
ledge is of course an important point, but it is not nearly all : 
the quality should also be gauged. The mere recollection 
of isolated dates and facts should not be considered sufficient, 
but an appreciatioo of their interdependence and the causes 
of it should be also required. Under the same head would 
come th« accuracy of knowledge. Also general ability may 
be shown in answers to History questions, as well as power 
of expression. In this way, for example, the exaniiner can 
ascertain whether or not the examinee has the habit of 
systematisipg his knowledge. Nothing can be of more 
effect in bringing about this result than constant practice in 
answering questions. This, it may be objected, would dege- 
nerate into cram ; but not necessarily so. On the contrary it 
would tend to create a useful habit of mind, and to a general 
organisation of his knowledge on the part of the student. 

What, then, should be required in answers to History 
examination papers? As above indicated, completeness of 
knowledge should certainly be shown : that is, a man ought 
to be able to answer his questions in such a way as to 
render the subject intelligible to one formaly ignorant of it. 
Elaborate and careful accuracy is another most important 
factor never to be lost sight of. The student should be 
made to recognise that quantity will never weigh against 
defective quality, as even slight inaccuracies are liable to be 
very misleading. A fault we have often noticed in answers 
is a want of concentration on the precise point which the 
question is intended to bring out. This should have particular 
attention, for two or three questions might be set involving 
nearly the same set of facts : but in one would be necessary 
to emphasise certain facts, and in another others. In a 
general way, then, the requisites in an examination in History 
may be summed up in two — what to say and how to say it 

^.y Google 

( 84 ) 

Care should be taken not to say too much and yet to say atl 
that is necessary, while the arrangement and style should be 
the clearest possible. The attainment of this, like every 
other useful acquisition, is possible only by practice, and not 
a little intelligence besides ; and so far as our experience 
goes there is no item of education in which Indian students, 
and, we dare be sworn, English students too, are more 

mzecDy Google 

( 25 > 

Sahitttdmd SikkMi} da. 

YoA, S&tr Pnrfin, Knr&n n!i mnnnil. Pan^nf, PAlIie, 
M[mi, Mnliite Ai knhin^ nnhin mnni)d. Sar^dh, kliiih kftrnm, 
kiridnallin karfiuni, je knr&anf tdn Grantli j[ (ii Mrii nSl 
karfiai^i. Janefi, bodi, mdlfi kantM nahfn rnkkhnf, MiirM 
mnii^rii nalifn pujn{. Sandhii, gdjatrf, pd^h pdja n»fatn knrnf. 
Jajyt, JSpji &Aak Ai, path karni. Sikkliaij te binfi kise nua 
nenndi nalifn chbak.'ian^. Rrahmnn, Sf;id nut} uchcha naliiii 
janija. Sir nnnga kadi ji-Mn karnl Hukke, tamfikli nfiii 
□alilnchhdiini. Sir, d^rhlnun uatiirii naMn \ Paristii 
ar parfie padfirath A& lalach naliln kamS. Vidh, nte 
DiaraD, ar jammaij vikho Ved di lit mujab mantr naMij 
parboe. Gnra te be-tnakh rnhfn hoiji, Panj^g melfEn nan 
naMn m\U&, arthit Dbirmallie, TlSmrfie, Miije, Maannd, 
Sirgamm, inb^g panjin ii£l mel nabin rakklin^. Dbfrmnllio 
ob Iian jo Dbfriaall di alad vicbcbon ban. Bamr^ie ob baa 
jo Ouni Bamr&i pebrcddnw^Ie de aikkb sad^nnde bnn. 
Sfiina ob ban jo Gnrd Hargovind de cb£cbe Pirtbl Mall da 
gbnr^ne Ticbcbon ban, us Pirtbi Mall nai LahaaroQ bbejiag 
hoi^n cbbe cbitthfdn cbbip^ lal^Q sfan. Uoaand ob ban jo 
GniMrt de agge atkkb^n ndn gber ^ber liiunde ar Garu^Q 
de jLnr^vian Ak m^l khanda ban, Sirgnmin ob ban jo 
K^tik lok Sardvap ar Jain sadiinnde ban. Jo koi slkkh 
bbnlekhe n&\ inbdn panjin de sang vartlave tiin sawfi rupaiya 
da kaf^h pars&I karke, karad bbet kare, ar hattb jorke 
ap^ kaslir Parmesur te mfif knriwe. Sandbii, gdj-atri de 
thin rabnris ar irt! enbU, ar japjt, jipji adak bfiiji parbnl. 
Ar vijib de Game anand pafbn^, ate mame da vele Grantb 
jf d^ p^t^ kar£tig&. Gall k^bdf jojo karom kiri& E^trar 
d«s di ift bone so Gianlb ji di b^i;ii mnjab bone. Ar murde 
deastjokoi Gsngdji vicbcb pK sakko t^n acbcbbi, nabig 

mzecDy Google 

( 26 ) 

tS AmmtBar de ilake vichrfi ki(i sitt dewe, Qsmgi do sam^ 
hi hai. Isi tnrfig hor M balint nibitin daaslin, ar thulinriin 
M din&n vichch Iinjarin sikkh [i^liiil laike ts de nfll ral gae. 
P&hul de game jo earbat pal^nnde ban as d& ndai} amrit 
^khde ban. 

Iklc din Govind Siggb nni kM:il k((4 jo Gfranth sahnb d& 
pastak mang& ke as vichcb kncbb Iior bi likbdn, par ns vele 
jouh pothl Kartfirpur da Soplif.'m de gbar si unh&n nai 
Govind Singh ndn ni dittf balak ih Akhia, ki, Govind Singh 
M jo &p Gnru b[ kabdnndii bai nb apnf saknt n&l bor Granth 
j! nami racb lawe. 3&n Gurli nai siinii ki oh potbl nabfn 
dinde i6n tbnbare dinfin bid Gnrn nni j^nii ki Adgranth 
ji de parbne te tS aikkh lok garlbdil jibe ho jdnde ban, maiij 
toi &^t}i valon njili^ Granth bandw&n ki jis de parhne to 
eikkh rfijntt ar sMr viddio ate bor cbatnrafan sikbkejudh 
de lAik bo i&D.. So nai din te ikk Vadii hhS.T& Gronth rnchnii 
Born kiti, ar j^n uh Bammat 1753 Bikramnjitf vichcb bhddon 
Bndi astaml aitwdi- de din puri hoid tfin ua d& nfinn Dasweo 
Pidsdlii Granth e^hab rakkhii. lb Granth bahut ankbi ar 
kaf tarfin do chhandiin ar Hindi bbdkbd vichcb racbii hoifi 
baiaris vichch kalan Ktstrdn de mate arjtidh Jang dfin 
ritan te tiriyi chalitr ar chhal bal ar knchh kncbb bhagtf 
ar gifia d& biin hai. Is te jfinia jindi hai ki Govind Siggh 
koLburi karne vikhe bi bahnt chatnr a&, 

J5n bar pase te is de p6s sangatAo iat} laggiag tin sabh 
jiigo is de name panth diag gallan bon lagg paWg, bnlafc 
Dillide PadsahAn tak bi ih kbabar pahnncbJ ki Govind Singh 
de p& bahnt fanj jama' rahindi hai. Fadsah hames is'de 
ekar vichcb rahinde se. J&n is de eikkh irde girde dbfire 
maran ate lokfin nun kbohan kLichchap lagge tAn Anandpnr 
de npperle pahai-an de It&je bi is nai jnddb karne UiensiiUUi&g 
karde se. 

^.y Google 

( 27 ) 

Htfc din di* Mt hai hi palidrlin riijiSn nni Govind Singh 
de p& ka)i l.Iiejii ke tere pds jo fulani Lathf ao ?adfl'lai 
Ibej Jih. Us lidtlii vichch jo kai Inrdij de g,.y se, ar Gurd 
nfiij babnt pnainj ad, is sabubb Gnrfi nai tia dd IhejnS mnnjar 
ndkitd. Pnliftrifljoiagall to haliut khnfo lioe, bahat adri 
flip^ ndl laike Annndpar nfin ie. Kat din fcik jnddh hnndd 
rilid ittho Ing ki besamir sipdbf dohdn pdsiiri de mdre gno, 
balak Qoviiid Singh de do pair bi ml jnng vicbch, Cbamkaar 
ndme naggar vichch mfirn gn«, ar ntthe ikk ^«hrd ba^ake 
Cliamknnr sdliab niin rnkMiid. Xkhde hnn ki knf h&T t& 
Govind Singh nsi pnharidn nuij mfCrke bhaji dittd, par pher 
jan eb PddsaM Taaj dl ninddat lul Anandpar ral cbarhe tag 
Govind SiQgh nni Anandpur te jand acbchbd samjhiit. Govind 
Singb apni sdri fanj ndn ntthe hi clihn44lte nnhdg pahili&o 
panjan aikkban ar dpnidij dobin bdlakdn ndn sang hiike 
Mdchbtiwd^Q n^me nnggur vicbch ikk sikkb de ghar & rthd, 
Jan fiiuj^n ntthe bf tnagre didn t^n Govind Singh Burtne 
Tichcb dpno kappre rang ke iniiaKltn:iiii bhes nk\ faojdn ds 
'vichchin tiikkal g)d. Unbdn patijdn hi sikkhdn sane dp td 
Mdlwe de dea nfin chalid gia ar dono patr ntthe hi rah gae. 
Jin oh dono bibik fjinjdn de hiitth de tdn fauj nai nnhdn 
nan pliaj-ke Sarand name nuggar vithch bliej ditti. Uttho 
de Wajir Khan ndme aube nai Dilli vikhe Padsdh nfio 
kbabnr bhcji ki Gurfi tiovinJ Sicgh de, ki jia nai Klidlse da 
panth torid h^i, do putr sa^e hatth de ban jo hakm bowe 
80 nnhdn ndl kitd jSwe. Pddsdb Anrangjeb jo nnhdn didg 
|TaUait auni aonke pahildn lii tang raliinda sd sanke dil vichoh 
khusi bold, ar ua de jawdlb vichoh Ukh bhi>jia ki iuhiln bdlakdij 
ndn janon marait^o. Podsdhi farmdn pafhke sube uai unhdn 
b^lakig nfin pbafke ikk niui) de thalle de dittd, ar na de 
oppar ikk kandh asfirke makdn bai^nid. Ua vele nnhan 
b^akdn dt alimi pur dhian kaiko kandhdn niln bl rond anndd 
gd par ua chnn^dl afibe n1jn nnhan bdtnkdn dn i-ond nr bi]krid 
dekhke bi tare ud did. Us din Sarand vichch aabb lok hdi 

DigmzecDy Google 

( 28 ) 

h^i knrdB tr hahake lainde rahe, kise nfti 4hidd Iiharke roti 
nii kliiWi. Miirne de vele jitne mdsnhah pis kliaj-e se sdlto 
de kliftuf te, kiae nai kachli n& kilm pnr ikk IklnlprkotU de 
Fiitli&ri nni etibe ndn bnliut kilid ki inh^Q ntimAQ bfitak.-iij 
n^i tusi^a ki li4 liai ? Par us clian4&l nai ikk n& raani. Jag 
Qurfi Qovind Singh nlin raste viclioh putn-Ig de innrne di 
kliabar palmncliJ tan nnlian panjag cikktian niii sog dial) 
gkWAn kittan. Govind Singh nni tinhin de sog dur kariie 
■wiste pirthf par do lakirag knd^Uke me^ ditiUo nr 6kLii ki 
Hebhfitsikkhodekbojikkur in]i.-in lakirSn de ko^dl.iie ar 
metns dd tabandtj kuchU hirakh »og naMn tial tarfig ill bi jiniji 
cMljiyakiih s&rSjasat K.arti,turakh naUpnt iclidibia nil 
likiln kaddhtan bofin bnn ar jad us dl inarji hnndl hai tad 
metdinddhai, sobiiddhman nun us d& bhd^S manke cluipp 
rabmi cliahiye. Pher Gard Kotukpiire nfime pind de jo 
MaKve vicbcb hai kile de ikk darw^je vichclijd khare lioe. 
Jad nndaron Knpiir^ n^me ja^ jo ^ ki'a da ni61ak b& nik- 
kalia fad Giini nai ipije cbbipije w&te jnggA mangi us uttar 
dittA ki &pne putran n^n t& marnde ^ia, bni^ Pide^^n 
to inni nun bi ph&be duaui^a cb&band^ baio? Guru tiai 
babak4 laiko kibi, acbobbi Farmesur cliabe la tun 
aimo bi ph&be dittfi jawenj^a. Akbda ban ki j&n Gurl uttbon 
turke Mukatsar n^me jaga vikbe jo Farojpur do il&ke vicbcli 
bai jaribatin ub Kiipnra nSme jaUJo Kot.tkpdre dJi nialak e& 
P&dsdbfiri de hakm mdjab pb&be ditt& gia. Pber PdJsahJit] 
nai ar Pabariin Bajiin nni sunla ki Govind Siygb ha^ 
Mnkatsarja riba par ihikk aukbl gall bai ki iismulkb vicbcli 
fdiif tbuhr^ hone de snbnbb fanj^Q babut dukbi hongifEn. 
Bbawe^ ibidn jibidn gallan socbke Padafibin di dil fanj 
bbpjne to babut jhnkdfi s& par Pahiri&Q lUjidn nai uUrd dekn 
Dilli te faiiJBn fiar karike Makatsar nun 6n gherii. Gurfi 
Govind Siiigb jo be-khauf ar nicbint bold baithi s^jinas 
nai faiij^n da nheii dekbid taQ babut hnvin lioi^ pnr plier 
ipne irde girde de sikkbdQ nurj bollikQ la^nfl lai takpe kfta. 

^.y Google 

( 89 > 

Akhde hnn ki os 7cle Govind SiQgh de Ti&\ b! knl Imj&r aikkh 
jojnii de^e nun ti4r se Itntt'ie Iio gne. J£n dohan p& is 
Ut&\ hon logfrl t^n knf Iinjar ^'Imf P&is&hdg di in^ri4 gift. 
BhSwon Govind Singh de \>i Unhnt sikkh mfire gae par iinh^Q 
nni nii chbaddi&. Akhnr Parlsilil faoj td pini dbani nS 
labbbije de snbabb picbchbe biif £! par Guvind Singh utthe 
Lf rnbin Ingg^. 

Jitthe jnddh hoi£ a& us jas& Gorind Singh nai ibk vn<}£ 
bhSr& til lo&ke h!) d& nim Uakatsnr rakkbii, at us f4] de 
hone dfl s.ibabb hf us jag& dit n&n jo piihil^Q cbbot^ jibi 
pind sa [iher Mnkatsat jiai gia. Goviiid Singh nai ip^ian 
sikkban vichch ih parga( kita hi ittbe babut lukan di inckat 
boi hui, so hoi> jo koi itthe prein bbagll nii asn&n kareg£ so 
makii panegd. Hnn barasvven din MagM di sagrdnd ndi} 
n ttbe va^i bhsra inel^ IngK*''^ ^'i- 

Plier jarj PaUsaban di sabh apbarcid pbart mit gal tig 
Govind Pingh bsibnt sari Bnngnt nfin n(U laike Mahve de 
ikk pind vichch & rihfi, nttbe babiit chir viarfiin kiti. Malwe 
des de lok jo aik bhole nr nircbhal hunde bun hnjdr^n lok&n 
nni 19 di mnhabat df sababb pnhul lai lai, Giirli nni nttJis 
ipne rabin waste ikk ba41 sundar jaggi bai>at or as d& nAm 
DamJami rnkkhia. Hun iitthe bn^a bhArA meld laggdS 
hundfi, ar kai lok atthon cbatniai diin pallan sikkhnn lai jSke 
babnt cbir bfe karde ban, kiiinki Gur6 GoTind Sin"h nni qs 
jaggi inin ti^ir karke BAriin Sikkhdg vicboh ih gall pargnt 
kit{ d, ki jo koi ittbe &ke bdsA kareg^ so blifiiven kih4 b£ 
Diilntkh howe boddbmaii bo jaweg&. Hun ntlhe bahut sikkh 
8^b, achchlie achchbe bnddhratin rabindehan, arjo koi Annd 
gharvir cbhod^ke nirf nnhin ie chatnrii sikkban wdste Li utthe 
jarnhe nb kiflnnicbatur hojiwe? Ikk nttbe di ih keM 
aohobbi b*it hai, jo GarmnkM achchharin de iikbSrI attbo 
bahot rahindo ar unbdn jihe snhupe acbchbar nnhdn de hi 
aagirdin te bini lior koi likbdif kite nabin likh sakde. Hup 
«b jaggti Damdama s^ihab korke mas^ar hai. 

Digitizecy Google 

( 30 ) 

Pber ntthoi] tarke Qnr6 jSantnc] nfin A\& ki jittlie tis de 
do putr ndin de liefh ilitte bon sa. J;ii} Quru ns makan jmr 
|<ahiiQclifl ki jitthe bibk dabbe se tnn babat udis hoi& pnr 
giSn de jor n^l man de dnkkh nfin piirj^af ni bon ditti. 
ISikkMc nai arj k(ti ki He Gurn jo bnkm bowe ikn iiafi} is 
fanind snbir ndg )>buk sitVivQ kiimLi ajilie cbandal impgar 
d&, ki jia vicbcli Qardn de l>£lHk begandbe m^re gne, jitj^nt 
vichch [abi?^ acbchli& nablg. Qurd nui kibi Bbii sikklio 
sirenoggar da kuclih gnnib oabfn, ill gnn&b, nim F&Js&li4n 
d& bai BO Kart£r as to ip bt badl& Uwegd. Fber bi jfin 
flikkb^G iiiii nrj kiti ke He sncbcbe P^sdh fdndn is 
uujj^ar ))iir biibiit gused dagd^bai, tdn bokm karen tin asiii 
is nuQ iilon te p.)(tke isda ndun nisaa nie( deije T Gard 
nal sikkban d& batb deklike ih vicb^r kit! ki je nftrrj;i*r ndn 
pbtikije ar paftne d& bnkni dindd b&Q tag Pddailbag da 
sdde ndl name sire pber fusad khard bo jawegd, la te ill 
cbnngi gnll bai jo inbdg ndg kacbb hor bukm dewdn. lag 
fiochke sabhndn ndg pukdrke kibd ki, jo koi mora sikkh 
hoive 80 jiid Sarand vicbobon latigbke Qangd ndg jdwe 
tdn ittbog do iftag pnttke Jamnd vit^hch gi^t dewe, ar jag 
hntke awe tdn do Htdn pattke Satluj vicbcb pawe ; jo koi 
merf ih dg!d nabig mnnegd us dd G.angfl asndn lekbe nahin 
la:;gegd. Ar ih b( akhid ki ajj te is ndg Sarand kn( na 
£kbe Qariimdri is dd ndm bni, so boi; lag lok nttbon ftt<ig 
pattke Jamiid ar ^ntlnj nadi vicbch siftde bnnde ban. Ar 
Bawere ntfbke koi Hindd ns dd ndm naMg luindd. Pber 
sikkbdn ntttie ikk vod^ bbdrf ii-hri bagdid ar »abh sikkh 
nttbe matUid (ekai; nr bbetdg cha^bdng jdnde ban, 

Pbor Gnrd ghommde gbnmmds Anandpar ndg de. 
Ikk din jo babut sangatan knttliidn boidg, tdg Qorfi noi 
kibd Tiirkdn (artbdt llQaalmdndn) nai jagat nan babat dnkkh 
dittd, ar sddidn hi kal plfb^dn nnhdn nai eildfdn, ar babat 
s^re sd^o mdl khnjdne lotte, ar sdde bdlak radre han, so 
bnn to^n aabh Kbdlse kattbe hoke aabdg dd nds karo kianki 

^.y Google 

( 51 ) 

astn Insi nfin isi knmm w^sle snatr phaf^e nr panth 
clinlciiii Liii. I'lintb niii hatih jofke kilii He satgurd seda 
jdn iiidl hijnr ha i, par ikk vichir knriif clialiiye jo Tnrkdn 
diag Faajaa hesnrn^r, nr unban da bnl npummpdr hni, ih 
vichare garfb Sikkh nnban nlJn kikkiir jltf sakkango, so 
ih Rnll adicblif bai ki tnsfn Anrang^jeb Pads&h nfin pahiUg 
)co{ kbat likbkfl nnsibnt kar bhejo blial ub eddb^n snntbiig 
ate gnrib&a nun dukkh n& d\y& kare, jo us nui ih gall 
tnaiinke apn{ buri^ chbaijtj ditti t% acbcbba, naMn i& pber • 
na aal lij-ai kar&nge. Gurii nai is eatab nfin achcbbi 
samnjbke Padsah ral ikk Farsi juban de ebhandan vicbcb 
kbn6 likkke bh^jia. Us kbat dd naui; Jufarnam^ karke 
£khde ban. Bb&wen as e&n kbat de likbne d£ ti itthe 
kachh parojnn nnbfn, par koi kol bit jo naslbat de l&ik hai 
itthe tnaig likbdi ban kianki ns de pafhne te QoTini) iSingh 
df akol ar bab^nri pargat howegf. 


Yih/ufl ^aiwdnoT} ie teakiloq iejama' hone ke bat/dn men. 

§abt ke waqt ki tamSm Ijaiwinon ke wakil bar ek 
mnlk se Aknr jama' hfie, aar jinnon k& b&dahfih qn^iye ke 
infigil ke wAilie dlwiSn i '&m men 4kar baithi; chobdfirog 
ne bamdjib tnkm ke pukir kar kabfi j ke snb iidliah karne 
wdle aur did ke chahne wfile jinpar zulra bii& bai s6iune 
6kAT )^ir hon, B4dsli^ qnziye ke iuli;al kttrne ko baitbi 
bai, aar qiiz!, mufti ^ifit bain. Is bat ke sante bf jitne 
tjaiwaa aur ins4n ki har ek taraf se &kar jama' bde tbe ^ff 
bagdh knr Bfidsbdb ke ige kha^e bde, anr ddib ws taslim&t 
bajA-Iikar du'aen dene lage. Badsbdh ne bar taraf fehayil 
karke dokba to anwi' na nqs&n ki khtlqat nilidyut kasrat se 
Ijijir haij ek si'at muta'ajjib hokar aakit rabgajA, ba'd uske 

DigmzecDy Google 

C 82 ) 
etc h^iktin jinni kf finraf mntawajjih Iioknr knhfi, ki tA is 'ajfb 
wa t^-iHh khilqnt ko dekliti hsi ? nsne 'srz kf iii Ba(Jsli4h 
main inko dfJu i dil -se dekbti nar mnsli^liadu karl£ lidn, 
BhiIsIiAIi inko dekhkar muta'ajjib bot& bai, main us ^ani' 
I>ak{in ki I^ikmat waqndrnt 30 matn'fijjib lifiij ki jisne uiiko 
I'aidd kiy(i anr nnwa' wa aqsim ki abnkl<>n bunAfn ; hampslia 
parwnrish kfirtA anr rixq deld, bar ek bnla se mahrfig rakbta 
hai, bniki ye usko 'nlam i l>nzurl men lifeir Hain, iawfiate ki 
jab Allah Ta'ala alil i ba^irat kl na^ar se imr ke pnrde mpn 
poshIJa hu^, wali;ii) wahm wa fikr k^ bbi tagawnar nnbig 
])abiinclit£ ; ia san'aton ko usne ^abir kiy£ ki Imr ^k ^ahilt i 
biisirat maahabada knre, nur jo knclili nske parda i ghaib men 
Uia usko nrga-gab i 5 diur men livi ki abl i nasor uflko dekh- 
kar iiskt sail "at wa be-bamt&I aor qudrat wa yakU( ka iqr^r 
karen, dalil wa Ijiijjat ke mul^Uj na howen anr ye jlSraten ki 
'alani i ajsim men nazar ait bain ams&l wa asLkal on auraton 
ki bain jo 'ilam i arwfilj men manjiitl bain ; wah ^draten ki is 
'alam mpn liain ntirSiil wa latif bain aur ye tdrik wa knsif bain 
jis!;ani^ ta^niron ko ek 'ujiv men man&sabat boti bai an 
baiwaiion ke eatb ki jinkt we ta^wSren bain, isltarnlj in ^Iraton 
ko bbi munasabnt bai un siiraton se ki 'alam i nrwa^ ^len 
maiijud hain, magar we juraten tat^rfk karne wali bnin aur 
ye mnbbarrak anr jo inso bbi kam rntba bain bo hiss w* 
l^nrakat aur be znbin hain aur ye raahsus bain ; we gfiraten ki 
'^lam i bnqa men bain baqi rabli baii}^ aur ye f^nf wa z^l 
bo jiti bain, ba'd iskeltbare hokar yib khutba pafbd, fllaicd 
bai wdste OS ma'bfid ke jisne apni qodrat i kamila ae t»mdm 
inafeblfiqfit ko zShir kaike arjai kdindt men anwa' wa aqsim 
kf kbilqat piiidi ki, aur tamim ma^oia'it ko jis meii kisf 
mnkhiuq ki 'aql ko ras^i nabin hat inaujud karke bar ek ahl i 
ba$f rat ki nn^sar men tnjalli apni ^an'at ke nur ki dikblcii, arga- 
^ali i dunya ko cbbatarafon se mn^ddd kai-ke khalq "ki ^isiiah 
ke w^j;ezani£n wamak&n LanliyR, nflak kekitoe darje bandkar 

^.y Google 

( 38 ) 

fArisfatoQ kb har ok j& mntn'siyan kiyi, Ijain^nttt ko rang ba- 
rang ki sliaklen aar ^draten bakhsbin, ni'mat kh^na i iljs^n so 
nnwa' wa aqaim kl ni'maten 'aji kin, du'i wa zfiil kame-wilon 
ko 'In4yat i be-ailiayat se tnartaba qnrb k& bakhshi ; jo ki askt 
kunh men 'nqli n^ij ko dakbl dete haiQ anko wddfi ^alfilat 
men hairfin n^sar fTfirdan rnkkh^, jinn^t ko qabl ^am ke 
^tiah i sozSn se paid& karke ^draten 'ajib anr ajsim i ]a£{f 
bakhshe anr tam^m makhldq^t ko nihdn kh^nai 'adam ae zd- 
hir karke khas1at.en 'alaihda 'alaihda aur martabe jude juda 
'ata kiye, ba'^on ko 6,'lk 'alaJyin par mak^n sakfinat kfi bakh- 
sUi, aar ba'zon ko tah khana i aafal-ng-s^GIin men dal£, anr 
kitoon ko in do dxrjon ke darmiy&n rakkbd, aur har ek ko 
shabistan i jab&n men sham' irisalat so Bbtih-rahibidayat par 
palmncbay^ : I^amd wa shnkr hai ^v^t6 uske jisne hamko 
fm^n wa islam ki buzurgi sa aar-fardz karke rue zamin k& 
^alifa kiya aur hamare b&dsfa^ ko ni'mat i 'ilm wa l^ilm se 
na^iba bakbshi. 

Jiswaqt yih biakim khntba parh cbnk^, filldsb&b ne in- 
sanon ki j omi'nt ki taraf dekb^ ; ye sattar Sdmi, f&raten sab 
ki nmkhtalif, libaa tarl; ^rbi ke pahne hue khare the, inmen 
B6 ek shakhf kbub-surat, r^t qdmat, tam^m badan Jc^uah- 
osldb nasar &j& ; wazir se pdchha yib shakb? kab£n rahtii hai ? 
Dsne kaba I'r^n ki labne-w^l^ hai aar zamin i 'Iriq men raht^ 
hai. B^sbih ne kali& iase kaho kuchh b^ten kare. Wazir 
ne nski !;araf isbfiri kiy& Usoe ^ab baj^likai kbn^ba ki 
khala^ Qski yib bai, parbd. 

Sfaakr hai vSiSie Allah ke jisne ham&re rahne ke liye va 
ebahr wa qarye bakhshe jinkl £b-wa-haw^ tamdm rde tamin 
ae bihtar hai anr ahsar bandog par hamko fazflat bakbshi : 
^amd wa aana hai ■w4?);e nske jisne hamko 'aql wa shn'6r, fikr 
wadAnfii, tamiz, ye sabbnzurgiy^n ' nski hiddyat 
Be hamne san'aten n^ir anr 'ulfimi 'ajib ijid kiye; nsi ne 
saljianatwa nubdwat hamko bakbsbi bamdre garoh ae Niab, 

mzecDy Google 

( 34 ) 
Idris, IbrShim, Musi, tai, Muljanimad Mnstafk falUAlUh 

'alai/ii via dlihl wa gallam, itne pais^ambnr paidi kiye, 
hatnarl qaumse bahut ae bidshih 'agim ushsbdn Faraidiin, 
Dar6, Ardsher, Bahrain, Naashenvai) aur kitne Bal^tin il i 
SAsan se paidd kiye, jinboD ue saltauat wa rijasat aar fanj 
wa ra'iyatka band-o-bast liiyii, bamsab insinon ke khul^ 
bain, aur ingfin baiw^koog ke kbula^a bait, ^ar"! bamjtam&m 
jaban men labb i Inb^b bain, w^ta mke abukr bai jisna 
ni'tu^t i kamila bamko bak^sbfn aar tamim manjud&t par 
bnzargiy^D dfij. 

Jabki &Jmi yib k1iD!;l)a pa^-b cbtik£, B^dsli^h ne tamfim 
jinnon ke Ibakimon se kab& ki is ^m! ne jo apni fazllaten 
bayda kin anr inae apD& fakbr kiya tarn iskd janib ky& dete 
bo F sab ne kab& yib sncb kabta bai ; magnr ^hib-ul-'azfmut ki 
kislko npne kalam ke ^ge barhne nabin AeiS, tfa& is idmi kt {araf 
mutawajjib bokar nsne cbcihd ki sab baton kajan^b dewe aar 
insanon k{ zillat wa gumr&M bay&n kare, ^akimoQ se 
mokbatib bokar kab£ : ai liakimo, is ^m! ne apne )<hat;be 
men bahuf, si b^ten cbbo^din aar kitne 'nmda bad-sbibog 
k& zikr na kij£. Badsb^h ne kabi anko td bay£n kar. 
Uane 'arz ki 'Ir^qi ne apne kbnfcbe men yib na kabi ki 
bam^re sabab jahan men t&f&a &yS,, jitne baiw^n ki rtie 
zamln par the sab ^nrq bo gad, bam£r{ qanm men insdnon 
ne babat sd ik^tilAf kiyfi, 'aqlen paresban bo gain, sab 
'uqalii bairan hlie; bam men se NamrtiJ b^sbfib zaiim paidfi 
hua, jisne Ibriblm ^aliUnllnb ko ^g men A&\A, bam&rf 
qaum se Bak^tft-na??ar gihir hfifi, nane Bait-nl-muqaddas 
ko k^arib kiy^, Torait ko jalWiyfi, aulfid i Snlem&n ibn i 
D£ud anr tamdm bani Isr^I ko qatl kiyS,; &\ i 'Adniin ko 
FnrEit ke kin&re se jangal anr pab^i- kE (araf nik&I diya^ 
uibayat g6lim wa saffik tb£, ki bamesba ^dn-reii inei} 
masbg^dt rabt&. B^sbah ne kaba, is a^w£l ko yib idmf 
kydt}kar bay&a karti, yih kahaa se isko i&e>dn na th&, balki 

Digitizecy Google 

( 35 ) 

jib sab iskf mazamtnat hai. Sahib-nl-'a^mat ne kah^ ki 
'adl wa in^^f 96 yih b£t ba'id bni ki tnnn£zare ke waqt sab 
fizflntcn apQi bay^a kare aur 'nibon ko cbhip^we, toba wa 
'nzr na kare. 

Ba'd iske Biidshiili ne pliir ins^non hi jamA'afki (araf 
dekha, in men se ek sbitkS? gnndain rang, dubl^ patIS, 
darhi bari, kainar men 7.aDii&r, surkb dlioti bandlie hlie 
nazar iy4, wazir se pfieblii yil> kaun sUakh? hai ? usne kabi 
yih Hindi jazira i Sarandip men rnbtA biii. Bidsbih ne 
knha iase kabo jib blii kucbh apnfi ab«'^I bayan kare, 
Cbun^nchi nsne bbi Biidsbdb ke ba-mujib bi^^*^ ^^ kaba: 
sbukr bai w&&i,B nske jisne bamfire live mulk wasi' aur 
bibtar 'aji kiya, ki rit anr din waban bftmesba baribar hai, 
sard{, garmi kl ziyidat£ kabh! duMq hot!, ib wa hana 
tnn'tadai, darnkbt achcbhe bare, gbfls wab^n k! sab dawi, 
kbanen jawabir^t; ki be-intib&, aabza wab^g k£ s^g, lakri 
nai-sbakar, sang-rezn wab^n ka yiqut n'a zabarjad, Ijuiw^o 
mo^ taze, cbuoanchi batbi, ki sab baiw&noi} se moXi 
anr j ism men bara Lai;£dam kl bbt ibtid^ wahin se hai, 
istaralii tam^m bai^v^nat ki Eab kl ibtida khii!;!;i istlni ke 
nicbe se hii; bamdre sbahr se anbiy^ aur hakim babat zahir 
hue, AlUb Ta'alk oe sao'aten 'ajib (^itrib hamko 'aJA kfn, 
najuin wa siljr wa kabanat ye sab 'ulum bakfeshe, bamdre 
mulk ke iiisanon ko bar ek san'at wa kbdljl men sab se 
bibtar kiy&. §ahib-al-'aztmat ne kabS agar tii apne kfeotbe 
men yih bbJ da^il kartfi ki pbir bamne jism ko ja%S, 
bulon ki parastiah ki, ziud ki kasrat se aulfid paida hdi, ham 
sab tabab ru-siyib hde, to laiq iusif ke hota. 

Ba'd iske Bidshih ne ek idm( ko dekhl, qadd lanb5, 
Mrd cb^ar orhe hue, bdth men ek kag^az Iikb& bfia, u?k(> 
dekhta anr ag» picbhe hilU hai nur harakat karIA bai. 
Wazlr se plicbhi yih kaon sbafeb? bai ? nsne kab^ vili 
ebftkbj Ibriiai bauE Isr^l ki qaum se Bbfim kd rabne-wald 

mzecDy Google 

( 36 > 

bai ; farm^y^ usse Italio knolih b^tei} kare. Wnxif ne nski 
|araf ish^M kiy£, mne ba-mdjib Ijukm ke kh'itba i Uwil, ki 
^£$11 aur k^nla^a nakd yih hni, parha. " Shukr hai wiuto 
ns Khaliq ke jiSae tam&in aulad i Adam men bani Isriill ko 
martaba faztlat ka bakHsba, aur unki nasal se Miisa, knlini- 
ullahj ko martaba nubawat ka diyfi. IjEamJ wa sbukr hai 
Tv&ste uske jisoe bainko aise nabi ke tib'i' kija, anr bamdro 
■w^te anwa' wa aqsiim ki ni'mateo 'a^a kin." §aljib-nl- 
'agimat 00 kaha, yib kjiiti nahfij kabta b»i kl ham ko 
Khwd^ ne apne j^njab se maalth karke bandar wa rfcbli 
banaj-^, aur bat parasti ko eabab ziUat wa kharibl meij 

^.y Google 

C 37 ) 


Tho following is tlie Pvstein of tiansliterittion wliicli wb 
linvo odopted — provisionnlly — for llie Society's piiblirnliftiwi. 
"Wo by no menns wish to check fnrlber (iirciission, hot it is 
Aecessnry to adopt some system, proviaionHlly, in order tlmt 
the Society's work may progress. nnJ tlmt lliose who oro 
'willing to follow oar lead m-iy ba iihle to do so. 

V b tr § 

V p lA sh 

d d 


i •J 


• J 


f r 


s e 


dl u & 




w orT 







(sftbar or fatija) 



(zer or kaara) 

























. In rapU 

writing— not intended 
ma; Mio be omitted. 


the pnu-th« 

po«tropJi» for 

mzecDy Google 


I. Subject to snch modifications as sra ini!flcat«d b^ 
tbe above key or by aabsequent rules, Forbos' Dictionary is 
recognlEed as tbe stanilard of orthography, and should bs 
consulted in all cases of doubt, llie student must, however, 
remember to substituto " q " where Forbea uses a dotted " k." 

II. The symbol "tasbdid"u expressed by donbling' 
the consonant. 

III. The impercepUbla "h" or t mukhtaH at the end 
of a word is omitted. 

IV. The sign "haniza" is generally omitted. When 
however it may be considered necessary to divide two vowels 
or consonants in order to cnsare their separate pronumia- 
tioii tbis should be done by inserting a comma or dash 
between them. 

y. Words having Ihe fonn ^ or ^i are written as 
fik' dafa' 

Words having the form **•♦ or *«»4 are written as 
Jom'a, dafa. 

VI. Words requiring " Tnnwin " in tbe Teraian are to 
be written with "n, without any distinctive iriark. 

VII. In rapid writin;^ — not intended for the press — all 
diacritical marks may be omitted, witli this exception that the 
loDg vowels & 1 and & should always retain their distin- 
gaisbiog accents. 

VIII. Where foreign words occur, tbe writer may, at 
bis discretion, retain the original ortliogrnpliy or adopt Ibe 
phonetic equivalent. If tlie word lins been n^a ii diluted — 
or tbe writer wishes it to be aaaimiliitpd — as an Urdii word, 
it is better to spell it )>honetLcnlly. If, on the other hand, 
there is no wish to assimilate the work — as, for instance 
witli the names of persons — the original spelling is pre- 
ferable. In this case, tbe word should always be written 
between inverted commas, to iodicute that it is not spelt 

. Note. — A key to pronnnciation will he found in Forbes* 
Grasunar and also in Uolroyd's Xu-bil-ol-kalam, 

itizecy Google 

( 39 ) 


The olijects of tliis Journal, and of tire Society with 
wbicli it is coQiiected, nro expl.'iined by tlie series of Keso- 
lations passed at the Meeting orgatiisinp tLe Society, and 
by the Statement of Iteasons, both of which were (lubliahed 
in the first number of this Journal. 

We ask all who are interested in the moTement to cive 
US their support. Those wlio may wish to join the Society 
are requested *" senii their names, with the Subscriptions for 
the year, Us. 6, to P. t^cott, Esq., Secretary, Moman-Urdu 
Society, Labora. Members will receive a copy of the 
Journal. Friends in England are asked to send their siib- 
BCriptions (and any literary contribntions with which they 
may favor us) to our English Secretary, F. Drew, Esq., ' 
Etoa College, Winiisor. 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Resolutions, 
passed at the Meetin;T on the S5th May XST8 ; and invite 
donations to the " Transliteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
have not yet sent in tieir names and subscription. Wo 
trust that tboy will now do so, and that they wiil aiao help 
ns by canvassing for fresh members, and by circulating our 
Journal among both Europeans and Natives in the stations 
where they reside. 

Contribntions on any of the various fiubjects connect«d 
with transliteration, translation and education geaerallyj ars 
earoeatly soUoited from Members of the Society, 

PBIMTKD BT Ul.ll Da^S AT TUK " C. &. M. GaZEH e" TKKkS. 

DiamzecDyGoOgIc ^ 

mzecDy Google 

Vol IV, MARCH 1881. No. 34. 


The Journal of the National Indian Association for 
January contains an Article by Mr Upendra Krishna Dutt 
regarding the cultivation of "Science" in India. Mr Dutt 
is himself a Bachelor of Science, and this honorable distinc- 
tion—it seems to us one of the most honorable that a 
native of this country can aspire to — entitles him to our 
respeftful attention. After some preliminary remarks Mr 
Dutt tells us that " all sciences are founded primarily on 
the observation of fa£ls" and adds : " But it is impossible for 
man in his life-time to observe all the fafts which are going 
on simultaneously at different parts of the world. Hence 
he has to have recourse to past experience, which is simply 
observation of fafts and deductions therefrom recorded by 
other men who preceded him, and the shortest cut to acquire 
past experience is study of books recording past pheno- 

Then follows a paragraph on the state of science culture 
in India ; " It was, say twenty years ago, almost nil. 
Now there is some sign of a dawning, but even that is not 
very hopeful, and why is it not ? In my opinion, it is be- 
cause the attainment of knowledge in India is only possible 
through the medium of such a highly specialized language 
as the English. This language is not very easily acquired, 
and most of us know, after nine years of schooling in 

^.y Google 

( 2 ) 

EngTish, we can talk or understand comparatively little 
English. We can neither understand a fluent English 
speaker, nor converse in it very fluently. These difficul- 
ties may well deter many, who have their worldly affairs to 
look after, from spending nearly half of their life in pursuit 
of science which they might well employ in seeking for a 

. ^ The few who have iniependent means of their own, 
and the still fewer who have the energy as well to surmount 
these difficulties of learning English, instead of making 
the knowledge of English a means to an end make it the 
sole aim of their study, and when thay have acquired a 
tolerably good knowledge of English stop there, and never 
think of scientific researches." 

Having thus stated his case, Mr Dutt offers the follow- 
ing ten suggestions for the encouragement of scientific 
studies in India- — 

(i). A few persons should berequired to learn the 
sciences and western languages at the same time, 
by making them go through a university career 
either in France or Germany or England. 

{2). That these men be appointed teachers and lec- 
turers in their own country. 

(3). That the lectures be delivered in the vernacular 

(4). That they be encouraged to write, not merely to 
translate, both elementary and advanced works 
of science in their own vernacular or any other 
Indian language with which they are well 

(5). That prizes and scholarships be awarded in these 
classes for the spirit of original research and not 
(or mere acquisition of knowledge. 

Digitizecy Google 

( 3 ) 

(6). That both the teachers and scholars be- 

with money to carry on any useful r< 

which they have already commenced. 

(7). To make the study of languages subservit 

study of sciences, but that at the same 

professors and lecturers be required to 

least as much of three of the follow 

languages as wilt enable them to un 

books and magazines written in th 

guages — namely German, Italian, Frei 

glish and Russian. 

(8). That the scientific discussions and resea 

carried on in magazines written in the vi 

of the place. 

{9). That a Society of scientific research th 

India be established whose transactions 

lated into all the vernacular language 

different members. 

(10). That researches be always valued acco 

their usefulness to the country, and nol 

ing to their ingenuity or abstruse ] 


Mr Dutt's programme is an interesting { 

recognises three important truths for which this Jo 

always contended — firstly, that the present con 

scientific culture among the native community of 

deplorably bad, and that European influence alone c; 

it ; secondly, the counterbalancing truth that the 

English by the natives of this country (in its presi 

lopraent), rarely extends to any department ol 

research. The student is so handicapped by the lab( 

ing the acquisition of a difficult foreign language in 

quial aod every>day form, that he has neither ei 

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time for the arduous studies of which that language is the 
medium ; thirdly, apart from this difficulty— attendant even 
on higher education, — it is evident that the iuli of the 
people can be reached on/y through their own vernacular — 
reformed and enriched for the purpose. 

Takin" these three truths in their combined effeft, it is 
to us utterly inconceivable that any one can admit them 
without at once seeing that the Romaniiation of the Indian 
vernaculars is the only foundation on which Mr Dutt's 
programme, or anything approaching it, can be carried out. 
Given Romanization, we see in Mr Dutt's scheme some- 
thing that we may be enthusiastic about. It may require 
modification, but in its general outline it is a scheme rn 
which our society would lake the greatest interest. 

On the other hand, without Romaniitation, the whole of 
Mr Dutt's programme reads to us as utter nonsense. Does 
any one seriously maintain that the Persian charaaer can 
be fitted tor even a text-imk in the dmpUit of western 
sciences ? 

There is no advantage in argument. In this matter 
of Indian Education-as in many other matters-people 
talk and talk and tolk without seeing the plainest faBs. 
We must wait till time and the failure of their various 
schemes eliea their tardy enlightenment. 

Let us, however, seize the present opportunity to make 
an appeal to those of our native readers who know English 
and who accept the principle on which our Society ia 
founded. Have we not cause of complaint that the Eng- 
lish.reading natives of India in general, and of the Panjab 
in particular, have done but little towards the creation of a 
sub.stantial national literature? They compete with Euro- 
peans in hterary examinations. They write newspaper 
articles with readiness and ability. They are keen in 

DigiiiLOD, Google 

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argument, and full of political ambition. But how many 
literary works o/'M^yf^i/ class have they produced? In 
particular, what have they done for science ? There are 
indeed branches of scientific investigation which require 
elaborate apparatus and machinery. It would be scarcely 
reasonable to expefl native scholars to rival Europeans in 
these. But take the natural sciences which suggest them- 
selves as least dependent on artificial help. Take " Botany " 
and '• Zoology." What a field for literary and scientific 
work is offered by our own Province — the Panjab — in both 
these subje£ls? Can we not induce one of the many hundred 
Panjibis who have received an English education to give 
us — in the Roman chara£ter and the Hindust6n( language— 
a comprehensive work on the " flora" of their native Pro- 
vince? We can scarcely conceive a more tempting 
subje£t. Even the "flora" of our Panjib plains is full of 
interest, and when to it we add the richer vegetation of 
the Himalayas, and the manifold peculiarities of the Salt 
Range and the Afghin frontier, we have a field of research 
as fruitful as it is well defined. Portions of this field have 
been worked by Anglo-Indian amateurs, but none have 
been exhausted ; and no attempt has been made to give 
us a comprehensive view of the PanjAb flora, at once 
scientific and popular. A native author would not expeft 
to rival Dr Hooker in strift botanical discrimination, but 
he would have at his command information which Dr 
Hooker might well envy. He would have the advantages 
of personal observation, the aid of local folk-lore, and 
the resources of vernacular literature on his side. There 
are some books in the Persian charafter (as for instance 
the MaHlzan-ul-Advriya) which treat of Materia Medica 
and similar subjefls from an oriental point of view. In 
their present form they are inaccessible to the European 
savant ; but it would be one of the objefts of a work such 

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as we propose, to add their information also to the worM's 
scientific treasury. 

We venture to assure our educated native friends that 
a work such as we have indicated would do more than any 
amount of "tall talk" in the newspapers of Calcutta or 
the "salons" of London to establish their claim to share 
in the higher honors of civilized Government, 


The morning dawned and no answer was received, 
Dalboquerque, who had made all his arrangements for at- 
tack, ordered a broadside to be fired, which sunk two of 
the enemy's larger ships and several of his galleons and 
smaller boats. The " Meri," a ship (rf a thousand toiK 
burden belonging to the King of Cambay, was then 
boarded and captured, sixty of the Mahometans who 
defended her being slain, while the rest threw themselves 
into the sea. The Wazir Khw^ja 'Atar, who had come 
out in a small ship luxuriously fitted up, narrowly escaped 
capture, leaving behind him in the " ship many swords 
adorned with gold and silver, and poniards, and brocaded 
vestments and silk — all the spoil of the nobles " which the 
Portuguese appropriated. 

There was a wooden jetty in front of the castle, from 
which some annoyance was experienced. It was attacked 
by Dalboquerque in person, and it would have been possible 
in the confusion which ensued to have carried the castle 
itself. This however was not a part of the original pr«- 
gramme, and under the circumstances the Portuguese forces 
were too scattered for Dalboquerque to attempt it. In the 
course of the fighting at the jetty, Dalboquerque hlmseK 
and several of his followers were wounded, but from the 

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absence of all rcff-rence to the circumstance afterwards, 
we may conclude that in Dalboqucrque's case the wound 
was trivial. 

" This battle " adds the writer o( the Commentaries, 
" which our men had with the Moors on the sea, lasted from 
seven o'clock in the morning until three in the afternoon, and 
in it there perished an infinite number of Moors ; and the 
gunners so managed that day (for Our Lord was thus pleased 
to help them), that there was not a single shot fired that did 
not send a ship to the bottom and put many men to death." 

After the routing of the fleet many of the empty ships 
were set on fire and a demonstration was made against the 
city, the suburbs of which were destroyed. Hostilities did 
not cease till the King of Hormuz hoisted a white flag on 
his castle, and sent two Mahometans in a boat to ask for 
peace. By this time the sun had gone down, and as his 
men had eaten nothing all the day, Dalboquerque retired 
to his ships, detaining one of the Mahometans, and sending 
back a message by the other that the King must make 
over ten of the principal Moors in the city as hostages 
before he (Dalboquerque) would consent to treat. 

On the morning of the following day, four of the prin- 
cipal Mahometans of the city were sent as hostages, the 
King excusing himself from sending more on the plea that 
all the people of the city had fled or had been slain. At 
the same time the King expressed sorrow for what had 
occurred and surrendered himself and his kingdom to the 
Portuguese commander. 

The factor of the fleet and two others were sent on 
shore to continue the negotiations, and these resulted in a 
treaty by which the King of Hormuz acknowledged himself 
the vassal o( the King ol Portugd, and agreed to pay an 

mzecDy Google 

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annual tribute of fifteen thousand xerafins, * besides an 
immediate war indemnity of five thousand more. Two 
copies of this treaty — one in Arabic and the other in Persian 
— were drafted in appropriate ornamental style, and deliver- 
ed by the King to Dalboquerque who forwarded them in 
silver caskets to his own sovereign. Dalboquerque in 
return delivered a counterpart of the treaty in Portuguese 
to the King, and the latter, with all his officers of State 
swore on the Kurin to keep the terms they had made. 

On the loth of October 1507 a Portuguese flag was 
sent on shore with great pomp and formality. It was re- 
ceived by the King's Chief Councillors — Khwaja' Atar and 
Rats Nuruddfn — and was carried in State through the city 
to the palace. It was there delivered to the King, who 
forthwith ordered it to be hoisted on his loftiest tower. 
As soon as it was seen from the ship a salute was fired 
by all their artillery. 

This incident was followed by a meeting of Dalbo- 
querque and the King, which took place with appropriate 
ceremony on the jetty in front of the palace. The jetty was 
covered with carpets, ond a platform was constructed on 
which were placed two chairs, cushioned and covered with 
silk. On these chairs sat Dalboquerque and the King 
while the fidalgos and captains were provided with car- 
peted benches on their right, and the Mahometan officers of 
rank with similar benches on the left. The King is described 
as being about fifteen years of ^c, " well -fashioned, and of 
good appearance, rather short, dressed in a petticoat of 
crimson satin in the native costume, with a white cap upon 
his head, and a cloth girded around him, and a golden dag- 
ger, and a sceptre of gold in his hand with the head of 
crystal, set in gold. " At the close of the interview the King 
* A xsrmfin wm eqnil to abotit ou ihillisg uid thrM penct. 

DigmzecDy Google 

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offered presents to Dalboquerque and all his suite. From 
this time forward Dalboquerque permitted his officers to 
visit the city at their pleasure, and they were received with 
marked courtesy whenever they did so. 

Having been so far successful, Oalboquerque's next 
obje£l was the construction of a fort. The King suggested 
various places on the neighbouring Islands, or on the main 
land, in preference to Hormuz itself; and these places 
were duly inspected by the Portuguese. Dalboquerque, 
however, decided that the fortress ought to be built on the 
point of Morona on the island of Hormuz itself. The King 
consented, and the work was at once commenced. The 
foundations of the principal tower were laid on the 24th of 
October, and in the portal of this tower were built three 
stone anchors from the ship " Meri " in commemoration 
of the naval victory. The " Commentaries " detail the care- 
ful arrangements that Dalboquerque made to press on the 
work of the fortress, and to maintain discipline among his 
own men, arrangements which justify the conviction that 
Dalboquerque was specially qualified for the command of 
men. In addition to the construction of the fortress he 
took advantage of his unavoidable detention to careen, 
, repair, and refit all the ships of his fleet. He also ordered 
the construction of a galley of eighteen banks of oars, with 
.a special view to the navigation of the Red Sea. 

November and December passed without any occur* 
rence of note : a friendly interchange of courtesies continuing 
between the Portuguese Commander and the King. But, in 
January 1508, certain difficulties which had threatened to 
embarrass Dalboquerque for some months previously, assum- 
ed greater importance, and seriously impeded Dalboquerque'a 
subsequent a£tion. 

The five captains who were under Dalboquerque's 
command'-'Fiancisco de Tavord, Manuel Teles, .Afonso 

mzecDy Google 

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Lopes da Costa, Antonio do Campo and joio da Nova — 
although they had shown the greatest gallantry whenever 
fighting occurred, had from the first manifested some 
disinclination for the Hormuz campaign. As for Joio da 
Nova he had been left with Datboquerque by Trist4s da 
Cuaha, as a temporary arrangement only. It had been 
intended that Ruy Soares should take his place as soon as 
he arrived. Ruy Soares, however, did not arrive, and Joio 
da Nova, whose ship — the " Flor de la Mar " — was one of the 
finest in the Portuguese navy, had shown signs of impa- 
tience even before the attack on Hormuz. The other cap- 
tains had less excuse for impatience than Joio da Nova ; but 
they too were tired of the proceedings in the Persian Gulf, 
and were anxious to sail for India or to look out for prizes 
in the Indian Ocean, Moreover, they disapproved, or pre- 
tended to disapprove, of the construflion of a fortress at 
Hormuz, alleging that it would fall into the hands of the 
Mahometans as soon as the Portuguese fleet left. The dis- 
content simmered for some weeks and then a written 
remonstrance was submitted by the captains to Dalboquer- 
que, which he received with somewhat unseemly contempt 
The captains — if we may believe the "Commentaries" — 
retaliated by a most mutinous and unjustifiable measure. 
They represented to the subordinate officers and to the 
seamen of the fleet, that Dalboquerque had appropriated the 
twenty thousand xerafins received from the King of Hormui 
to his own use, whereas the King of Portugal had intended 
that the first year's tribute from every newly conquered city 
should be divided as prize-money among those engaged in 
the conquest. Datboquerque did his best to counterafl the 
misrepresentations which his captains were making; and 
swore on the Gospels that be had received no such instruc- 
tions from the King for the division of tribute as prize- 
money. He succeeded in temporising with the seamen and 

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{frevented any open outbreak ; but, &s was to be expected, the 
discipline of his force was seriously diaturbede Considering 
that Francisco de Tavora was the most mutinous of the 
Captains, Dalboquerque made an example of htm by sus- 
pending him for a time from the command of his ship, and 
appoiotiag Dlnii Fernandes de Melo in bis place. 

The chief evil resulting from these dissensions wals 
that KhWflja 'Atar, the wazir, received detailed information 
regarding them. Moreover, four men from the Portuguese 
fleet deserted, and spread a report that Dalboquerque's obje£t 
in building the fortress was to establish himself in Hormuz 
as ao independent ruler. Communications between the 
King and the Portuguese Commander became less cordial in 
tone. Dalboquerque insisted on the surrender of the four 
deserters. Khwja 'Atar, on the other hand though he avoided 
a direct refusal in words, would not give the men up. His 
obstinacy was encouraged by intelligence of further dissen- 
sions between Dalboquerque and his captains : but he 
attached too much importance to this element of weakness in 
the Portuguese fleet. The captains were still opposed to the 
war and had submitted another written remonstrance to their 
Commander, threatening not to support him if he proceeded 
to fresh hostilities ; but when they found that he was deter- 
mined to have his own way, and was prepared to replace them 
by less refractory subordinates, they repented and expressed 
their willingness to carry out his wders. 

Upon this Dalboquerque ordered the bombardment of 
the city, and after the bombardment (which extended over 
two days) he enforced a stri£l blockade. Scarcity of water 
had always been a cause of inconvenience to the citizens of 
Hormuz. There were no springs or wells in the city itself, 
but there was a cistern in its immediate neighborhood, ^nd 
there were pools or tanks at a place called Turumbaque at 


f u ) 

one-extremity of the island. Dalboquerque endeavoured to- 
destroy both these sources of water-supply. He attaclted and 
routed the guards that had been posted to defend them, 
damaged the reservoirs themselves, and polluted the water 
by throwing in the dead bodies of men, horses, and camels. 

The Portuguese Succeeded in annoying the enemy bf 
their blockade, but they themselves experienced no little 
difficulty in procuring water. They obtained it from the 
island of Queixome (Kishm), but not without fighting. 

The "disaffeftion of the captains, after a series of 
threatening incidents, at length culminated in an afl that 
compelled Dalboquerque to raise the blockade of Hormui. 
He had received information that a fleet of Mahometan 
ships had been seen near the island of LSrak, and he sent 
three of his captains — Afonso Lopez da Costa, Manuel TeleJ 
and Antonio do Campo — to follow and attack this fleet. 
The three captains put to flight the Moorish fJeet, but they 
did not return to Dalboquerque. They took in a supply erf 
water and provisions at Ldrak, and steered for the Indian 

This desertion changed the course of events. Dalbo- 
querque waited six days before he could make up bis mind 
to raise the blockade ; but after that interval of suspense he 
took the only course open to him as a prudent commander, 
and for a time abandoned his designs in the Persian Gulf. 

From Hormur he proceeded to Socotora, parting 
.company with a fourth ship, that of Jo&oda Nova, on the 
.way. His arrival at Socotora was none too early. The 
men of the garrison which had been left in this island were 
in a state of great destitution. They had nothing to eat but 
■palm leaves and a fruit they found growing wild in the 
woods. Four of them had died and the rest, including tbe 
captain, were ill. 

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He relieved the urgent needs of the garrison, but 
found that the limited resources of the island were not 
suiScient to supply his own commissariat demands. He- 
therefore sent Francisco de Tavora, one of the captains 
still with him, to take in supplies at the friendly port 
«f Melinde ; and he himself during Tavora's absence 
CTuised continuously, from the 15th of January to the 
13th of May 1508, in the neighbourhood of Cape Gnarda-. 
film. Tovora rejoined him at the end of April, bringing a 
welcome reinforcement of two Portuguese ships besides his 
own : these two ships were newly arrived from Lisbon. 
One incident that occurred during Dalboquerque's stay at 
Guardafum deserves a passing notice in the interest of 
geographical research. A Portuguese named FernAo 
Gomes and a Mahometan whose name is not given, were 
tset ashore on the African side of the Straits with instructions 
to find their way to the Portuguese port of Arguin vr'A 
Timbu£too and the valley of the Senegal. There are indi- 
cations that this projeft of an " overland route " across the 
ftothern part of Africa, south of the Barbary States, was a 
favorite one with the Portuguese of Da Gama's and 
Dalboqurque's age, though few of us would like to attempt 
it now. The chief objeft of the enterprise was probably 
to open up communications with Prester John from the 

From Guardafum Dalboquerque returned to Socotora 
and there lingered for some time during the south-west 
nionsoon. He then sailed a second time in the dire£Hoa 
ofHormuz, notwithstanding the renewed remonstrances of 
^e captains that were still with him. 

On his way to Hormui Dalboquerque had to pas* 
Calayate (Kalhit), a city which he had spared on the occasion 
«[ bis previous visit : on this occasion be was less merciful. 

itizecy Google 

( -4 ) 

The MahomeUns were driven out of the city which was 
occupied by the Portuguese for three days. It was thes 
sacked, and although the enemy endeavoured to turn the. 
confusioD that ensued to their own advantage, they were 
unable to save either their moveable property or their- 
habitations. The former was removed to the Portuguese^ 
ships, and the city itself was burnt to the ground ; twenty- 
seven ships that were waiting in the harbour for cargoes 
were also destroyed by fire. The Portuguese then proceeded 
to Hormuz and renewed the blockade of that port. Three 
days after their arrival ^wija 'Atar forwarded to Dalbo- 
querque a letter which had been sent by Don Francisco 
da Almeida, the Viceroy of India : tn which the Viceroy 
expressed very friendly sentiments and apologised for 
Dalboquerque's conduct in resuming hostilities after the 
treaty had been signed. This letter was apparently in. 
Portuguese, but it was accompanied by two others in 
Persian : one direfted to EJwija 'Atar, the other to the King 
of Hormuz. These documents furnished material for a 
somewhat lengthy correspondence between ^wija 'Atar 
and Dalboquerque : the former upbraiding the Portuguese 
General with his condufl, the latter justifying himself and 
adroitly pressing his opponent with some portions of the 
Viceroy's letter in which, notwithstanding his expressions 
of disapproval as to Dalboquerque's later acts, the Viceroy 
requested payment of the annual tribute fixed at the time 
of the original treaty. 

Dalboquerque then made a formal demand for payment' 
of the stipulated tribute and for the surrender of the four 
runaways. He received an unqualified refusal as to the* 
latter request, and an evasive expression of inability as to 
the former. 

The blockade was renewed ; and, as on the previoo* 
occasion, the Portuguese themselves experienced difficulty 

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( 15 ) 

in obtaining water, and bad to fight for a supply from the 
island of L^ak. 

At this junfture Dalboquerque received information 
that two captains of Shekh Ismail's army bad arrived with 
five hundred Persian soldiers at Nabande, a port on the 
main land facing Hormuz. He resolved to attack them 
before they could cross to Hurmui itself : with this objeS: 
a night expedition to Nabande was organized, precautions 
being at the same time taken to prevent the enemy from 
perceiving the deserted state of the ships. These precau- 
tions appear to have been effectual so far as the ship were 
concerned, but the Portuguese were discovered as soon as 
they reached Nabande. This, however, did not prevent 
them from attacking and defeating the enemy. The Per- 
sian captains and most of their men were killed, and the 
Portuguese withdrew to their boats with such spoils as 
their brief stay enabled them to colleft. The expedition 
was not important in itself, but it was brilliantly executed ; 
and while oh the one hand the Portuguese were proud of 
their first viftory over Persian troops, who in those days 
had a better reputation than they have now, on the other 
band Sh^kh Ismail, the Shdh of Persia, experienced from 
this incident a wholesome and permanent feeling of respeft 
for the Portuguese power. 

This successful achievement was followed within a 
few days by a counterbalancing disaster. Diogo de Melo, 
one of Dalboquerque's captains, had been stationed off the 
island of LSrak, partly it would seem to protefl the water- 
supplies of that island and partly to watch the movements 
4f a hostile f!eet which was expefted from Julfir. While 
engaged on this duty he was induced by two Mahometan 
prisoners to seek adventure in a small boat with only nine 
Portuguese to support him. Apparently his Mahometan 
^ides had promised to show him some easy prey, but be 

mzecDy Google 

( 16 ) 
-soon found himself surrounded by the enemy's fleet, ifis 
boat was sunk, and the Portuguese themselves were all 
Jcilled with the exception of one man who was sent as a 
prisoner to g^wija 'Atar. 

This disaster, coupled with the leaky condition of one 
of his ships, and with the warning conveyed by a danger- 
ous storm, decided Dalboquerque for the second time to 
abandon his designs on Hormuz. Leaving the gulf he 
steered straight for India, and after touching at Angediva 
proceeded to Cananor where he found the Viceroy, Don 
Francisco d' Almeida. This was in the beginning of 
December 1508. His arrival in India forms an appropriate 
ending to the first volume of our hero's commentaries. 
He had spent two years and eight months in the Arabian 
■and Persian seas ; and his exploits there, though they 
seemed at first ephemeral, led a few years later to the 
permanent supremacy of Portugal in that quarter of the 
Indian Ocean. 

To be continued. 


The establishment of the Roman Akshara Sabhil at 
Calcutta has led to a controversy on the subjcft in the 
Correspondence columns of the Indian Mirror. The 
advocate of Romanization being a memberof the new Society, 
while its opponentsignshimself " Sunartim." Toreprintthc 
correspondence would be tedious, as our readers are already 
familiar with most of the arguments used. The letters of 
" Sunartim " show that our friends in Bengal in some cases 
encounter the same unreasoning obstinacy of opposition that 
is experienced elsewhere. " Sunartim " in so many words 
flatly refuses our appeal to " experiment." He says " The 
demonstration should precede the experiment. Dean 
Swift somewhere ridicules the experimneDt of converti^ 

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'( ■? ) 

-cobwebs into satin, and the' same ridicule wilt be applied to 
"CTery experiment which cannot, by a priori arguments, 
justify its propriety." The advocate of Romaniiation 
naturally and reasonably lays stress on the fa£l that many 
Beng^lf gentlemen of education who write English with 
their own hand, employ muharrirs whenever they want 
anything written in BengiU. " Sunartim " admits that this 
is sometimes the case, but asserts that the number of 
educated (BengSK) gentlemen who write Bengilf is infi- 
nitely greater than that of those who cannot write it. 

The following paragraph from the Englishman refers 
to the recent change of chara£ler in Behar : — 

Nagri in the Behar Courts.— The change cf Ian- 
guage in the Civil Courts of Behar by the introduftion of 
Hindi came into operation with the re-opening of the 
Courts after the New Year. The Bengal Government has 
san£lioned the following modifications of the original orders 
being introduced for the present : — ( i ) complaints filed 
in Criminal Courts may be written in Urdu only when these 
are not filed through a pleader or mukhtiir ; (2) petitions, 
other than plaints, may, at the option of parties, be filed in 
the Hindi or in the Roman chara^er, but not in Urd£. 
These concessions should satisfy all parties. 

We take the following from the Pionter : — 
The following Post Office statistics for the year 
1879-S0 are interesting as bearing on ttie disputed question 
whether Hindi or Urdd is the more popular and useful 
dialed. In the N. W. Provinces, of official correspondence, 
43 per cent was in English, 50 in Urdii, and 7 in Hindf. Of 
noD-ofiicial communications, 32 per cent were English, 36 per 
cent Urdd, and 32 per cent Hindi. In Oudh, the figures 
wo-e somewhat different, where of official correspondence 

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< ■« ) 

mearly 59 per cent was English, nearly 41 per -cent Urd6, ititb 
the small remainder of 0*24 per cent Hindi ; whilst of aon> 
official communications, there was a percentage of 2$ 
English to 49 Urd£ and 23 Hindi letters. 

The Gaaetieof India iorDecemhet i8th, 1880, -contains 
a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between oar own 
country and Roumania. The Treaty Is printed in Englisli 
and Ronmanian in parallel columns. The typograpliical 
devices of the Roumanian language are peculiar ; we do 
not know how the Gazette managed to produce them all. 
We note that the Roumanian language, like those of India, 
has two " t's " and two " d's ; " but we have no reason to 
suppose that the distinftlon between them is that between 
the dental and cerebral sound. 

More than a year has now elapsed since we "began to 
-publish our provisional TransKteration Key with each 
number of the Journal, Since then we have received a few 
isolated criticisms, but no complete review of the system as 
a whole and no exhaustive argument even in detail. The 
few members who have written to us on the sufcjeft have 
generally contented themselves with a bare expression of 
opmlon that they prefer fliis or that mode of transliter- 
ation to the one adopted. 

One or two correspondents are strongly opposed to the 
use of the apostrophe for 'ain, one of them says " Write 
out " Yaiel," " Ilisua,'" " Yaqub," jamiiat," " Namaun," 
and a hundred others with long ^ ^ ( ^ your way and the 
new Missionary way and see which is the quicker to write 
and the clearer for the native compositor. Then 
count the errors in the two proof sheets." " He proceeds 
to urge that the use of the apostrophe gives words a 
" broken-backed " appearance, and that it frequently 
compels the compositor to take two " dips" instead of one. 

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We ({iscussed the contending craims of the dbt anJ 
the apostrophe as the representatives of " 'ain," in our 
number for April 1879^. The arguments in- favor of tfe 
xpostrophe need not be repeated at length, but we may- 
recall two of them- to the memory of our readers. One 
was the fact that apostrophe already exists in aill coU 
le^oDs of Roman type, while the use of the dot necessi- 
tates the casting^ of six — if sot seven — new letters. The 
other — and more weighty — argument was -based on the 
daims of Arabic Grammar. The use of the apoetrophe- 
i» consistent with strict adherence to the principles of 
Arabic orthogra[^y, the use of the dot is not. 

Another correspondent writes as follows regarding 
Rules III and IV of our Transliteration. Key : — 

(i). — 1 wish especially to pat in a plea for the 
right of he mukhtafi to appear at the end 
of Urdii words when they are «-ritteii iaour 
Roman, just as it is found in its native Per- 
sian character. Ruie III strikes it out of 
existence altogether, niooetically of course 
it has no place, for it is a silent being. But 
we are not dealing with sounds but with 
letters. Humble though this little letter be, 
it belongs as much to the words in which it 
is found as do its stronger fellows. To my 
eye a word in which it occurs when written 
without it has a maimed and decrepit appear- 
ance, and looks like a foreigner, of Hindi 
rather than Persian extraction. This must, 
1 think, prejudice munshis, and aJl those 
whose vulgar tongue and character is Ur^ 
and Persian against your Romao systen. 

itizecDyGOOglc — 

( ao ) 

With the (riend who sent me the copy of your 
Journal 1 have already discussed this question. 
He tells me " a careful student wrote me that 
the final i of Aralnc words is changed into 
Ml or 1 in Persian and Urdu, which of course, 
are represented by •» and short " a " res- 
pectively." 1 always auspect a nan vbn. 
talks about " of course." The rule fw A ratie 
words is that this tae maugif becomes op-- 
tionally te asli or ke aliniyah (perceptible), 
e. g. ayak or ayat. tatimmah or tattmmat. 
But the " careful student " has omitted this, 
very small and insignificant consideration 
that we are not talking about the translitera- 
tion of an Arabic letter but of a Persian, ke 
iHukhtafi belon^ng only to the Persian lan- 
guage. My contention is that except in poe- 
try, which in all languages knocks about 
weak letters, Persian words ending in he 
mukhtafi when transplanted into Urdu, must 
retain it in any complete and accurate sys- 
tem of transliteration, not essentially [Aone- 

(3). — Your earliest Journals or Proceedings may 
have given mere excellent reasons than I 
am aware of for Rule IV also. Why the sign 
hamtak should generally be omitted I cannot 
conceive. " A careful student or writer 
would,^ I should think, never fail to insert this 
useful little " jot." The diaeresis coming into 
general use in these more careful days of 
writii^E English words, like cQ-op^ative, is 
an illustration. 

^.y Google 

( 2. ) 

We shaJI be glad to publish any further criticisms that 
any of our correspondents may offer. We would, however, 
ask them to send us letters which may be printed in 
exUnso with the signature of the writer. 

The Punjab Gazettt of March, the 3rd, contains a list: 
of Stations on the Northern State Railway, beyond Riwal- 
pindf. We note with satisfaction that the names are cor- 
reftly spelt in accordance with the Jonesian system. 

The following notice of Mr. C. J. Lyall's Sketch of the 
Hiudustinf Language is from the Athenaium. Mr. C.J. 
Lyall's admirable Sketch of the Hindusiditi Language 
(Edinburgh, Black) was originally written as an article for. 
the new edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," but hav-. 
ing been found too det^Ied and minute in its treatment of 
the subject, it has been issued separately in book form. It 
gives a capital summary of the whole subjefl, treated pbilo-' 
logically, and in its fifty<five pages the reader will find 
most topics of interest more or less fully discussed : and 
should he require further information, this brochure will 
serve as a first-rate introduction to the more elaborate 
volumes of Mr. Beames and Dr. Hoerule. We have first a 
a short sketch of the different dialeQs of Northern India 
comprised under the vague general appellations of Hindu-, 
stinf and Hindf, and their relation to Sanscrit and Persian ; 
then follows a good summary of the various vowel and 
consonantal changes which characterize the principal two 
of these dt^eCls, Urdu and High Hindf. This is followed 
by a sketch of the grammar, as especially exemplified in the 
indeAion of the noun and pronoun and the conjugation 
of the verb. We may add that all the native words are 
given in a Romanized form, and consequently the book 
demand no knowlet^e of any Oriental alphabet from the 
Rader. This win make the vohime "particularly useful for 


( " ) 

one class (or readers, who would othervise have been deterred 
from attempting to make use of it. One of the great in- 
terests in the comparative study of these living diale£l8 of 
Northern India is to trace the close analogy which can be 
found in their rise and development from the old Sanscrit 
to the history of the Romance languages of Europe iir 
their development from Latin. The student of Diez will 
find in this little treatise a very instru£tive field of illustra- 
tion, as the same laws of phonetic change and the same 
tendency to replace the old system of tnfleftion by analytic 
devices may be dete£led in both families of languages ; and" 
as all the examples are transliterated, there is nothing to 
repel the Romance student from thoroughly enjoying the 

The Graphic of February, the igth, gives us the 
following information : — 

The earliest Printed Bible known was sold on Tuesday 
in London for 790/. It contained the CHd Testament 
only, and was printed at Metz by Gutenburg in 1452, being: 
believed to be the first book ever printed by moveable 

We presume that this is the Bible to which the fol- 
lowing story refers : — 

After some years' residence at Strasburg, Gutenburg 
returned to Mentz, about theyear 1450, with all his mate- 
rials. His partnership had expired ; and at Mentz he became 
acquainted with Herr Faust, or Fust, a rich goldsmith and 
citizen, who was taught the secrets of the art, upon advanc- 
ing the requisite funds. There is a strange story told of 
their work. The first of their produftions was a Latin Bible,-, 
and the letters of this impression were such an exa£t' 
imitation ol the works of the amanuensis, that they passed 

^.y Google 

( '3 ) 
it off u xn exquisite specimen of the copyist's art. Fust 
sold a copy to the King of France for seven hundred 
crowns, and another to the Archbishop of Paris for four 
hundred. The prelate enchanted with his bargain (for the 
usual price was several hundred crowns above what he 
had given), showed it in triumph to the King. The King 
compared the two, and was filled with astonishment. They 
were identical in every stroke and dot. How was it possible 
lor any two scribes, or even for the same scribe, to pro- 
duce so undeniable a facsimile of his work. The capital 
letters of the edition were of red ink. They inquired stilt 
further, and found that many other copies had been 
sold, all precisely alike in form and pressure. They 
came to the conclusion that Fust was a wizard, and that 
the initials were in blood ; he was accordingly appre- 
hended, and to save himself from the flames the unhappy 
Fust had to confess the deceit, and also to reveal the 
secret of the art. The whole mystery consisted in cutting 
letters upon moveable metal types, and after rubbing them 
with ink, when they were correctly set, in printing then* 
apon paper by means of a screw." * 

" Tinti*' Hwtoiy of Wondarfal lamtumi." 

Digitizecy Google 

( 34 ) 


Itthe Mah&r£je Ba^jU Singh d& t^&l liklin^ M jardr tit, 
|<ar ii karke ki Gard QoTind Siggh te piohchhoo Sikkh&g d& 
vfidh£ kikkar hoU, ar kis kia cfig Sard&it mill auin kuohh 
sfikham karke SikkMn di&Q Ur^n mbal^g d& ^a bf Ukhd< 

Jad Oard Govind Singh i& sarfr chhntt gi£ t&n kof dtn 
a m dian kh^s Sikkb&Q viobobos do tinn ddmf sangatAn 
ufiQ dppe hatth&g hefh rakkfade rahe, par pher kol ohir bid 
j&Q sabh sangaUie be-mah&r bo gafin tin tkk bar£g{ s&dh 
nai kid sababb te pdhul hrf, Ub ajihi chatnr ar fanddhmia 
efi ki &pn( bnddh a61 tis nai par&nilin Babhn&n Sikkh^ij ii6i| 
Intt^e karke ikk mai^^'^ rach lai, balak ajihi boi& ki us de 
nti jo kal haj^r Sikkh ral gi^ »k, ia fc&ran nnhdQ noi bahnt 
fosid nuohtie. Is barigi d& ninn pahil&n ti knohh hor a^ 
par pher Eb&Isi ji vichoh tis d& n^nn ikk sababb ta Batkdi 
karke mas&hur ho gii. Us Bandi nime Kkkh ikk hir mis 
diAr kard& hoi& St&lkot de il£ke Tioheh pabonoh^ nttba 
jttke jo Sikkhttn nai Masalm&n^n d& knchh aab&b InU kb&di 
tin pher vadi airA jbngri nUbia. ilf khar kaohh larai karke 
nh Band& ipt>e Sikkhag olig nil laike pahif val obarb gi^ 
Pahi;- vioboh de Rijiig nil bf jo is nai kochh ipi?i sal&k 
nabfg rakkhii hoii ai, oh ia nil tang rahinde se. ilfkhar ikk 
pabifE Bije nai is nan satt saa Sikkb sage kiai chhal bal nil 
phafke DiUi de sube kol bhej ditti. Dili! d! gaddi de lok jo 
OS vele babat kar^a subbin rakkhde ate khis karke Sikkhig 
de pnath te bahat narij rahinde se Bande DfiQ pbarke bahnt 
khosf boe. Us vele Dilli do Fadaibt takhat pnr Farrnkbslar 
nime pidsib baithi hoii b&. Us nai Bande ndn aabbnfui 
Siltkhig samet jo as vele tis de nil se kaUl kar sit^ifi. Ate 
ih bakam ditti ki jitthe koi inbig da panth di idmi mile tis 
niiij pharkg mere pas palittgcbaai>i ckohiye kiiiQbi nuig 

itizecy Google 

( 15 ) 
iahi^ da bfj dliart! te ddr karai chfEhftDda hag. J&q 
Sikkh&Q nai ih gall sn^f ki Baod^ name ai^^ jnakhii&r 
tairii gLit ar Fada&b valon sabhn&s Sikkb^g de pbarne di 
l^nkam hoia bai tan ipo ^pge gharb&r cbhsddke knchh tfi 
jaogal^g vicbch phifan lagga ate knobh &pga b^ baobofae 
niig laike pab^ffg ]& chbipa ar kaJ&g nei ajiff^g Tiohch 
ta^Xt pAke baseri kar lia. Itne viabob Farrakhslar n&ma 
F&ds&h niri do 4hii baras pfids£bf karka mar gi6 ate jis da 
piobcbhog tia de befe Jahindflrs^h nfig takhat mtli&. Sikkh 
lok jo kai baras bhikh mangde ate bare ^&\ phirde rafa« M is 
k&nui onb&n de mat d& tinbin diafn kaofah parbh&n ii4 rifai. 
Ja kite Vui Sikkb rald& kbold^ rabiada bi b& tin afaipp 
chbapke vadl aokhl&i n&I gnjiri kardi t&. Ikk dia kis{ Sikkh 
di katia viohoh ikk Eapdrd n^ms birak jatt jo fippe bharivin 
a&l larke Singbpnre ii£ine pind thin jo Tanmt^ran de ii&ke 
▼iohoh hai A riha. Us Sikkh nai is di garibi par toraa kbike 
koi din tts ntin ipne p&a rakkh lii. Jad kacbh dia gojre tad 
tis Sikkh nai ns ndn kib£ ki t6g p&hul 1m laveg t&g biihat 
achchhi gall bowegi Kapfire nai ih gall snijko pihal lai lai 
aia u» din te Us H u&m K"pur Singli pai gii. Ih Kapdr 
Singh j&n nttha ko! din rabiij laggji, tan is di dharml rahit 
dekhke kai Sikkb is da kot boe, itthe tak ki jo nera 
toye diSn pin^in Tichob ate jangalin vididi rahinde se sabh 
Kap6r Singh nfin ipiji malak manke ns de picbcbbe lagg 
pae. Jin do linn haj^r Sikkb kattba bo gJA t4n Kapdr Siggh 
nai mati kiti, ki je nere tere de pind^ ndg lottke ip^e 
hattb he(h kar laiye tin kol mana karan wili nabin. TJnhin 
dinin vichch jo Pidsih FarrukliBiar de marne bad" pidsAhi 
Tit^ch vad^ ranli pii hoifi, ate koi nje pakki hoke gaddi pnr 
naMs baithi si, Kapfir Singh nai dUthi ki bun male de 
sababb koi sadi Tal bi dbiia nahtn karegi. lag sochke 
pabilin ipge j&nam de pind V^' j° °b ^^'^ Fajjnlipnr n$m 
karke mas&hdr ai i pii. Utthe dei kk Lambard&r ndg mirke 

mzecDy Google 

i a6 ■. 

pin4 ippe kabja richch kar iia. Us piad d£ ninQ pahfll^Q 
NmbOi Psjjal&twe i* n&n ntlft Faj[;nUpar karks nkfaii boii 
ii. Jad Eapar Singh nai m^ lis tad as piD4 H niai Singh 
par4 karke rakkh li& At« nai pind da n^ ttita pher nab^ 
fa^Q misalan Tichchon jo sgg« likhingi ikk misal d« 
Sardiron da n&m Singhpnrie poi g)4 s£. Jan Kap^ir Singh da 
partip kocLh Tadh pii, tan babatian lokan nai u te pibal 
kf. Balak Sard&r Jassj Singh nai U jo ^olowili^ di va^i 
ai isl t« pihril laf ei. Pber jf^ Kapdr Siifgh ui kaUg 
lokiti nnn pahnl dfke ate katan nal piar karka ipne nil rali 
Iia, tin homiin thai-an vichdi bi kai Sikkh ipU Saidir ha? 
haifbe. Jibikn miaalBn viclicb nnh£n de nim parga( bo 
jingejitthe kisn nai chahia nftbe bf tlmbT^ jibi inan4*'f 
kattbl knrke tbinemir ban bnltha. Jan Kapfir Si^gb da 
partip dinodin hor bf taiii. hnndft gii, tin dekbi dekbi bor 
bf kai lok Sardar baiji gae. Jib^ka sabbnai) SudiiKg diig 
birin misalan ban, bbinn-en onhfin »kbhn&g da aorfi Kapfir 
8iggh to likb^i cb&biye, par anbic do nim di wufi honiig 
l« hai, aol likhdi big. 

Sdrd^ mitala^ de nam. 

I. Pabili misal— BhongliQ. 

5. Ddj'f misal — Ramj^afbiaQ. 
8. Tiji misal— Gbaoiin. 

4. Chantbf misal— illtiwilfig. 

6. Panjwig misal — Sakkarcbakklig. 

6. Chhetvin misal — Fajjolipori&Q. 

7. Sattwfn misal— Sabfd&n. 

8. Anbwfn misal— Pbfilk fig. 

9. KaawfQ misal — Nakliig. 

10. Das<riQ iniaal- Pali&IIin. 

11. GiirabwiQ misal — Karoflag. 

12. Bjtrat^wio misal— lUis&aw&lUo. 

itizecy Google 

( >; ) 

JSioM Mualdn da, 
I.— Bhuigfiln di ib \>\&a hai ki inh&n vidicilion aohoLhs 
Sirdar tjas ban. Harf SiQgfa, JhaQ4^ SiQgh ar Qaniji Siggh^ 
ih tiotio j&t de J&K ate rabine-nile Fonjbar n&ms piD4 da 
Inn. lah^ dfl B&l daa bdrfia hajir asn^r sbcU rahindi b4 
ar Labanr, Amratsar ate Gujrfit lah&n. ds kabje vichch rab( 
bu. Is Qusal d« Sardir jo bahat bhang pinde bnode se U 
kukft aobitii iik Dim Bhangf pai gi^ so jo kamm nnbig 
ntoB hande nbe u BbaogffiQ ralon sadiaQde rabe. Bbaagf 
n^ pai jlt^fl di dfiji ih ^anl hai ki ah garibi de \i\ vichoh 
nhike pantfa di t»\k karde bande se, is k&raa pantb nai 
ODliag di n£m Bbang! dbar ditti. 

2. — R&mgarbttn di 1^ ^^uq ikbde ban ki va^i inbig 
a airdir Jassi Siggb nime jit di Takhip si, at« ia di 
kadimi ghar Amratsar de ilike Rimgarb nime pin^ vicbob 
(i. Ia Dai jing ting karke ipne nil do 4bi! bajir aawir 
kattbi kar lii ato sadi limbb chliimbb de pindin viohch 
balle machiugdi ar jor dikbiandi phirdi si, balak is oai 
ipgf akal nil SIrf Har Govindpur ate Kidlag di malakb jo 
Tatale de ilike viobob hai ipge kabje knr lii ate sadimDlakb 
d* TndfaiDQ dl nmaid rakkbdi ribi. Ih Sardir jo kadfmi 
Biaigafb di rabi^-wili si Isi karke osdi misal di nim 
Biiagarhiye pai gii. 

3.— Gbanlin df ih hakfkat hai ki vadi inbin di Saidir 
Jai SiQgh nime jit di Jatt si. Ih Sardir jo rnhii^e-wili 
Kibne nime pind di si is karke is df misal di nim Kabniya 
|Nu gii. Eol kof aion bi ikhda bui ki iobaQ di nim GlmDiytt 
is karke pai gii ki Sardir Jai Singh di sarip bahat sobgi si, 
ikk din nh bahatiig Sikkhag vichcb bai^hi si ki ikk Sikkb 
tai tisotig pachohbii ki Bhii jt tnbide ghar kitthe ban ? TJa 
nai kihi Kibne name piad vikbe ban. Fber as Sikkb nai 
kihi Hig bbii t^^k hai, tin jo Kihne di vaskti] baig is{ 
karka teit a6r«t Kinh vargl (artbit Krisan )f rargf aobglj hai. 

mzecDy Google 

t as ) 

Fher &\LUi ki K£nh j{ di nim GhanEi ji bS &kMdft Iiai so 
te>T& aim bi GhftuU M bat. Us din te s&ri paotb nnbio di 
misal ntit) Qbanfye fcarke £kbaQ lag|; pU. Xb de n&l aadi 
salt at(h hajir asvir rahindi rih&, ate sahir Vat^U ar 
]>{ntlDagar ate Eabn^w^n, Snj^Dpnr, LoIiUn, ate Fattegsrlli 
Eitiaiiaar idak raak^ inh&g de kabje vichoh bo gae. Inb&n 
Ghanf^n vidich Ta4e maB&bdr Burdir itse se jib&kn Jai 
Siggb, Cbaman Siijgb, Gorbakbas Siogh, Haklkat SJsgb, 
Kbajto SiDgb, Fat« Siggh, ih Babha Sarditr GbaDiye bi 
kali^Qde se. 

4. — Kh\6fei,\ii^ d£ bi&a aiknr kabinda ban ki vat}^ inbin 
dft Sardiir Jassa Siijgb oinie j&t d& Kal^l b&, ute ib Sardir jo 
kadfml rabiije'W^U Ahldwdle n&me piD4 d& s^ iai karke 
inh&n dl mleal d& nftai} AbMvr&lije pai f;i£. Isde n^l udi 
ch&raka baj^r oew^r rabindi banda e&. Ar Jagrflmin ate 
Isfd ar Fhagn^fa, Kapurtbala, ¥aliiv&ii, Taranl^ran, 
VairOTJl £dak makan is da adl)in se. Is Sardir d& jo Sikkbi 
dharm por bahnt nibcbi s& is karka kafag Sikkh&Q ata Sar- 
i&tig Dai ia te p&hal M ]ai gi. 

5. — Sukkarcbakkfin di ]^H aiQii aoi^na viclicb ioQda 
bai, ki inbin de Ta4e di nioQ Sardar Ghu^bat Singb karka 
ikbde ban. Ib Sardir jit di JaU got SibanFi si. Isl di 
pirbf te Mabiriji Roi^jit Singb ki jis di ^il agge cballka 
fade vist&r nil likhia jivregi, boii hui. Uh Sardir Gbafbat 
Singb jo vasktn Sahkarcbakk nime pio^ di si, isi karke is 
di misal di nim Sakkarohnkkiye pai gii. Is Cha^bat 
Singb de nil eadi das giirin bajir aswir rahindi si ata 
Sukkarchakk di ilaka sabb isi de adbln si. 

6. — Fajjalipurfin da biin ia tarig hoi ki inbin da va^a 
Sardir di nim Nabab Knpdr Singh si, ib nhi Kapir Siggh 
baiki jUnai Bandete piobchbon kbarab bo! bof Sikkbf nig 
name sire ta pargat klti ate ip pahnl laike pber hajirig 
Sikkbin ndg pibol dittl ar nefa tefe <ie pin^ig odg ipga 

itizecy Google 

( 39 ) 
hftttb beth karke Nub&M d& jhan^i khsf^ ktii li. Ih Sardir 
jst di Jatt te rshipe-wila FajjaUpar u&me pin^ di si. 
F«iJDlipar d« vaskta ho? karke b[ iah&q dt misal di niin 
Fu^nUpsrie pai gii. la de nil fanj tinakn hi^ftr raliiodi al. 

7. — Sahid^n di baklkat lb bai ki ra^s inbir) de SanUr 
Garbftkbai Siggh ate Karam Singh se. Inh&g de n&l guda 
■att attbkn bajAr atnr^r rabioda si ate Satloj de cbapbde pfiso 
^ malakb inh&g de battb heXh t&. Inb^Q de Tndiin 
viobcboQ jo kai lok dbann de viste «nbld boe se, is karke 
inbig d1 misa) d£ nim Sahidag pai gi&, Kot ko! lok aiiig 
bf kabinde ban ki lb dono Sardar ikk bir dhnrm de badle 
iphf sir dege o6g ti&r boe se, is knrke Kh£lse ji nai inbag 
nfig Sahid akbii, so isl podvi karke inbig di misal d^ Dam Li 
misal Sahidig psrg^t l>o g>^ 

8.— Fbfilki&g di bakibat aing sagi jigdl hai ki vaii 
Sard&r iahig dd Ala Siggb j^t 6& Jaft hoi^. lb Sardar 
Taskfg Pntiile H ate cbbe sattka hajir fauj sadi &pne pis 
rakkbiti ai, is X\& SIngb de vade d& njimjo Pbfil si ill karke 
is misal d& aim bi Fbfilki^g-wili pai gi&. 

9. — Nakliag da ]}&\ aiknr ikbde ban ki iobig de rade 
di nam malum nahig ar inbig di misal di n&ug Nakli^g 
is sababb pai gli ki inb&g de Sardir ikk Nakll nime 
pind vichob jo Multin de ilake vichob liai rabiade bnade 
>s 15 knrke n&m misal da Naklidg karke nggh& bo 
£ia. Inbag de nal sada do (Jhdiku b:ijar asw^r dE bbifbbaf 
rahinii bund! si. Ate iobdg di j&t ar kodimi makan pati 
kaobh malfim d aliig. 

10. — Paliili^n da bian is tar£n sngi^ jjgdi bai ki vadi 
inb6g d& Sardir Tari SIggh karke masihdr b&, jit is Sardir 
di Kaggg Ja(t ate snttkn bajar fan] sndi isde nil rabindl sf. 
lb Sardir jo rahine-nili palll nime pind da si jo Riri nime 

itizecy Google 

( 30 ) 
d«ri&i de knnijlip pur hudi hai, ist karke U ii mini dll ti^nl 
puli&ltoQ pai gii. 

11. — Kiirorlin di baklkat sinn sn^Edl hni ki inb&n dA 
vnda Sard&r Qodap Singh nte Bngliel SiQgh si J&t tnb&g di 
JaUt^rihssUgiirinka haj£r fiutj £pi^« oaBg rakkbds te. 
BhiweQ kadfmi rabine-w&le eh kisi hor thag de se, par pich- 
ohhoQ b&s& inh&g da ka^bo Nakodar ata Talvan vikha bo gia 
a^. Je bahnt t^il is di tai^ai bowe tan Gulsan Pai^&b name 
kiUlb viobch dekbo, 

12. — NisAnviUfag d& ainQ bi^ bai ki vade Sard&r iob£a 
de SiiDgat Singh nte Mohar SiQgh n&me boa ban. Jat 
tnbag dt Jutt ar eh rabiQo-w^le kadiinl Sihiwid nime jagi 
de 16. Inh£n de p&s aadi daskn hajar faaj df bbifbkaf 
rabendl rab(. Amb&Ia nto Tbaneaar ata Karoit idak bar 
girde du il&ki iob^n de adhia e&. 

Is tarin eh blir^g misal&g Sikkbig di^g is niDlakb vicbcb 
jnde jude Sardar de n&m te hoke &pas vicbohig ikk dfija nil 
▼air ate lajfai mkkbdfan rabf&r). Kaibfir ikk miaal nai dfijf 
Dtin juddb vikhe jittke as de mnkkb nlig kabja kar lii, ar 
pher ka{ b&r lu! nai &ppa mnlakh khohke agge dbar \ii. Gall 
kfibdl jad t£fn Mab^rije Kanjit Siggb di pratap ode nihf^ 
hoi& 8& tad tifg jhagj-e hi macbde rahe. 

ifuhdrdje Hatyit Singh di ulpatt da liidn. 
Jig Sarddr Mabfi Singh Bas&'nagar de kile ndg rata- 
Icar chnkkft, i£g ns te do baraa bad Noambar df duji tarfk 
snn 1780 Tsv! vichcb tia de ghar ikk patt jammii. Uahi 
Kggb nai vadi khasf n&\ pan^at^n ate p&dhi&n nlin bnltlke tis 
b&lak di num Bai^jit Siggh rakkhia. J^Q Ra^jtt Siggl) 
kacbh si£g& hoii, Ug na nfig aftl^ ajibf karri oikkali ki oa ds 
jEa^e df amaid kite cfiQ nabfg rabf sf, bbiweQ iu sftli ta 

itizecy Google 

( 31 ) 
Pnrmciiiir nai tU de pr^i^jLi] di t& rnchchla hi kitf pnr til' 
df ikkkkkhtftUnfit hf jandi rabf. iSard&r MaliA Sifigh nai 
u bimirf ds rel« bahnt danlst ate mil asliib brahman&n &t« 
parfbt^ ofin Tandi^, ar kal tarin do bastar bhfikha? ut nai 
JiriUHtnokLI ar Kotkingre di devi lai bheje. 

J£g PapjU Singh hor bl sidn^ hoi£ i&n Sad^kor nima 
ikk mnjf Sard£rn! nai ^p^i Pnrt^pkor name dh{ d{ S&df 
nai^jU Singh n&l kar ditlf. Ikk bir j&q san 1792 fsvl vikho 
JUahA Singh bnm&r boi& t^n satiiati baraa^n di umar vicbcfa 
Gnjjar&QW&le n&me sahir vikbe margii. 

J&Q Itapjit Sisgb ns d! kiri£ karam te Lihli hoi£ t<g 
Chet de mahlne pit^ di gaddi pur baifb^. Us rele jo tls di 
nnur b^riQ bars&n di s(, is sababb r&j de kamm k^r de l&ik 
nahig a&, bh&wei] ih riij di gnddi pur t& baifh gia par us 
di ni&ag a6i) l>i ih gall manjur nahiQ si jo ih hn^e rij karan 
lagg jivre. Jig ih satir&n barsag di hot& (£n Farmesor di 
dajjl n&\ £ppa £p bi Babh knohch is de adhln hogi^ jihftka. 
San 1796 Tiohch Stibnjmein n&ms bUa&h jo Taimdrs^h 
de marne b£d tnkhat par bai^b^ b& Khnrimin te turke, 
Panjab ndn 6,ii. Vidi jo kisi Sardir aii sibm^i a.& k!t& 
khnlliig dam^jig LabanrTicbobfia vafii. Lahanr vicboh &ke 
j&D na nai 4>ttb& di kaf&n sababb^g karke tnete Panj&b da 
bandobait nabig ho sakkni tin oh pichchbe ndn mnf 
fl}&. Pber OS nai fipi^e S&bncbi ndme mfr itnsi ndn ikhifc 
kj Mo Sikkhin i& nim nos&n initii ia. Jan nh kaitop-khine 
Uike lUmnagar ral chafhii Ug Kh&lsi j{ nai khdb jaddh 
kit^ balak oai din te Pafhigi dd bhan 8ikkbig de dil to 
•drd ddr ho gil Us rele jo Mahirije Ragjft Siggh AA 
partdp dinodin vadhdi j^d& li, lok dekh dekhke ipge dildg 
violicb vt4i U>£r kfadgde ae, 

Jhanlii nime dariii de kan&re par jo ikk Chatthi n£m« 
kon de lok h&kmn hgtfo bai^he te, Bagjit Siggh dd dnhig 

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( 32 ) 

nil jiiJilh hoitu Ar Haanm takh&n onb^Q d4 Stffd£r ell Ih 
Sarddr pabiU nirl Ra^iit Siggb di lioii si Is de dit riohch 
Bedi tho Ungh rahind! si ki j« kite Ba^jit SiQgh batth 
ftvre t£n j£nog m£r liUfiii. Ikk b£r B^^jU Singh achitnak 
thalirf fanj nil iisde nwlakh vichoh jfi nttarii Ua Patli&n nai 
Raqjft SiQgb nfin salcir kheldi hoifi kalli pike talwir miri 
par us di taln-Ar Hn^ijft Singh nni phnrti a&l rok laf. Pher 
jag gnisi khike Ranjit Siggh dbi qb de ikk talwir mflH tan 
us de sai-fr de do tnkre ho gae. Us de inarne bid ah siri 
mnlakh jo Hasam takhan de il&ke vicbcb b& Bai;ijlt Singh de 
batth igii. 

DdjIInriiMlitji vichchbol nsdiainnlr&lbai ki Raijijit 
Siggh d{ sBss Sadikor nni Rimgafbfig Sardirin d& giU kiti ki 
inban nai mitinfig bahut dukb dittd hai. Ar main jo inbig na] 
lif&t kame di samartli nabfn rakbdt is karke chihndl big jo 
tdn meri madiliit kareg. Banjit Singh ib snijke Allagt de kile 
nfin gii ki jo Jassa Singh Bimga]-Iiie de rabii^e df jigi si. 
Us veletakjo Ranjit Singh de pis nje kile fnte kuran di 
kof samin kattbi nabig hoii ah, is kiran babnt muddat tak 
lafif band! rahl. Itne Tichob Jhanii de darii di ajihi bafb 
cbarb iii ki ns kile vichch bf pi^i bhar gii. Jig Sikkb pir 
jine te lachir rahe tin pichchhe ndn bat is. Ih lafi! Sadikor 
nai is lal karif si ki Jassi SiQgb UaingaTbie nai ia de bharle 
Gurbakhi Singh ndg ikk la^ai viobob mirii f&. 

Sammat 1855 Bikratnijitt vikhe Poh de mabfne Sih»j- 
min Labaar vicbob pber fui, jig kisf Sikkb Sarddr nai kncbh 
rok tok ni kftl tin ravi nvi Lahanr vicboh i vafii. Us vele 
Rapjit Singh Bimnagar nttarii boii si. Sihajmia chir 
maMne Lahanr vikhe rihi t& sabf par kad{ kadi Rn^jlt Singh 
kile vieboh va^ke Sammai^barj de isre knohbka Hagalig D6n 
mir jigdi hnndi si. Ofak Sihajmin pher ip^e tnuUkh ndn 
bat gii. Baste viohcb jig Jlutnii doriii puroQ Ungbon 

itizecy Google 

( 33 ) 
li£}[fi Uq asd^Bi} b^rin topan nadf vichcb 4<il'b gafan. Fdd- 
•ih DM Ranjit Singh nun likb bheji^ ki je tnsfn s&di&rt 
tapin gbatjllke 3&4^ P^ bliej dewon ttin asfn is te badia 
tobjindn Labanr de dew&Qge. RafjU Singh aai vade 
jataa nal a(th topbu ghadika S&h de pis bhcj dittiin. 8&h 
Dai ipi>e takr&r m^jab lAbaur BaqjEt Siggh ndg ditta, ata 
ni oai jhatt iip^a kabji kar \i&. 


3in din achchbe boii.kis! de, 
Sampat phirdf magar tisl de. 

J^n mande din aui.i hhSi, 
Sabh snkh honde ban dukhdiE, 

Maha 8in;rh di suno kab^nl, 
Tacbchb jihi ah ikk par&iii. 

Jis jiB th£n no mattbi l^i^ 

Mnlakh l!& par dnkkbh a^bai^- • 

Par Ba^jlt Singh jad jfii£, 
Farmesar nai ip vadhaili. 

Bin£ dnkh nn aihl paf, 
Biiii jatan pii vadi^> 

Jig nfin Xbut ap vadb^we, 
Din din uh nar yadhd£ j&ve. 

Ti8 D^n ko! na m^ranbara, 
Farmesar jis d& rakkhw^i. 

Pher j&Q Lahaor de sabh Sard^r ar irde girds da kai 
rija ri^e BaQJCt SiQgh da adbin ho gaa tan thulire dinag 
hid sac 1802 fswi vichcb B&j}i lUtjkor de peton Baiyit Siijgh 
deikk patt jonuni^ Ua di aim pandatin di agia aal Kha^kk 
SiDgfa nkbii. 

Us T«lfl jiij Hamanu ate Mahmad or S&bajm£n ats 
S^bsoj^l '&dak Kibal de padsahig vicbcb jhagfa pai j&q de 
■ababb barbadi hoE Ian sua 1804 faw! vichcb Ba^jU Sicgh 

itizecDyGOOglc — 

( 34 ) 

ttai k\A aadf Ae ktn^re de JilU^ val A&xiiii kfH X7ddbar]« 
tabhn&g Sard&tin nuQ jittk« ate MnjafEnr Eh^Q Aiitne UnlULii 
de b&kim te najarilri Uike phsr Lahuir TJohoh ia vap&. At 
pher saa 1805 fawt Tiolioh Sri Qmg& jl d« «Bn4n nfio gii 
«ta aax&u te bfid phei Labaar d&q bat (U^ 

Flierj&QRanjft Bingh anbfin Sard&rtQ nfig tang karatt 
laggi jo Satluj at« Jamoa de Tieh&le mnUkb rukkbde M tin 
Amb£te ike Kalthal ate Nftbhe de Sard&rin ntiQ kncbb &pi>e 
nmUkh viahclion nni ditt& ate pber Tbanesur hil& laiko 
Amratsar &a Tafii. 

Sar Gh&rlas Mafkaf s^hab jo Angraj&Q TaloQ BagjU SiQgh 
pita iii boi& sfi, ns nai &V\a& Sark&r Angreji ii ih ir&di hai, 
jo tiuln Satluj dariti n£g ipge molakh dl hadd tbar&i lavo. 
Ba^jit Siggb nai pahiUEn t& is gall nfig fcabll na k{Ut par 
pber kachh Angrejin ik jor dekhke ipbf kabll kar Hi, ar 
Angrejin nai bi ib likh dittfc, ki a&nfin H anh&n pio^^n 
Ticbchjo Satlaj te nttarral basde ban kaobb dakhal nalilii 
bowegi. Ikk b&r j£n Banjft BiQgh nai Amratsar rikhe 
Aagreji faaj di kabaid ^ifthf t£g babat rdji boii, balak asf 
diD te &p9e fanj ndg bf Angreji kabaid eikbfUiii Bbr6 kar dittl, 
Pber sao 1809 tawi ricbch Hal de mtditae Ba^jit Singh 
dl faaj K^Dgre de kilevsl nfin obafhl kingki as tele jo Amar 
BiQgb nfime gortfe nai nttbe de kile pnr gbem ■p&H e& tin 
ntthe de Baje niu Mab^rlije Raijjit Singh te fap^I maddat 
bangf a. Hn SikkbUg di faaj E^ogre pahnncbi t^n Bija 
Buna&T Gbaad nai ne Ufin kile de ondar si varan dltti. 
Sikkh^Q nai ih b&l dekbke jor&vari kile d£ darw^ tof sittii 
kte aQdar vafke kile nfig maUlia. Ihgallattgkd Amar StQgll 
ipnie mnlakh ndg pattr^ ho gifi. 

Phef j£)] sau 1810 fawf ricbch P^s^b Snj&ol ipt^« hhiS. 
Mnhamniad S£h A& V»^4^\&. hoii K&bal de nmlakhoD 
turkd Lahanr Tal £a, tin Mahl^JJQ Bapjit Bit!gh oai Ta4( 

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( 35 ) 

schchU ta.rin iiji tarfk JanraH nfig as dl mnUkitt Viii, sr 
r«4e prem bb£n oU as nde miU£. Phnr Fids^b t& ipne bhii 
S&bajm&n de milne M R&ulpindi a6i) cLali& gii ar KCahJLrijfi 
Ba9jlt SiQgU Mojafiar KMg te kachh tb&r£ni>e \ai Mnlttb 
nfig gi^. RaQJit Sig^h ns te turn Ukkh mpaiyi mangdfi t& 
par aa nai lach&r hoke ikk lakkt assi hajilr rnpat^A likh ditti, 
plier BapjEt Singh Lahanr nlin 6i& ar dinodin irde girde de 
R^jiin ate SardirAg a&n jitt jittke nnh&a dimiilakb khohodi 
TihA ate jinh^n nat ssd& g^inna kCUi nolifLij u&q kaid karks 
Lahanr btiejd^ rihi. 

Fher san 1818 Iswl d« id viobcii Uahir&je Banjft Singh 
nai ^pi^e Saj&Ie Ebarak Siggh 6&, Jaimal Bingh gbaniye dl 
betS nil, Labaar vikbe biih kft&. lb bi&b ajibi dbfim dh&m 
oal hoi& ki ne^e tef e dian aabbain malakh&Q vichch ngghi 
ho gii. 

Flierj£gE£batd&Path£RS?d^h&I ka°ii^ t>hairfi jih< 
ho gi& t£n RanjU Singh nai babat gib's fanj jam& karks Afak 
ta p4r j^na nig &p jhardf kfff. Utthe j&ke Kbair&Tid Mak 
kafin n^n mfirke Paaaur sahir richcb jjl vari^. Tar Mnbam- 
mad Khin jo nttbe iS. b^kam sa Sikkbai^ di fanj d& sahmna 
n£ kar S(ikki£, balnk chnpp uhap bf Pasaor ndn kbali cbbedd 
ke bhaij in&. Kah&r&jo Ra^jit Singh nai tbubfe din nttbs 
rabike Jaband&d Kbin nun nttbe d& bikim ban^& ar ip La- 
baar ndg kiicb kit£. Runjit Singb de atUoQ bafne hid ubo 
Tir Mabammad Kh^n £pne lokan di maddat laike pher 
Paoaar par &a pi&. Jabjtndid Kb^n de p&s jo ns vele tak 
kncbhfanjatelaT&idjisanii^n&tiirnahEnafi. T&r Mabaminad 
Eb&a d& s^m^a na kar sakkia. 

TAr MabammMd Kh$n nai Jahind^ Kbio ndg Paiauroo 
ka4<}tike iip otthe kabji kar lia. 

itizecDyGooglc — 

( 36 ) 


Ik danian di ajsb kah^n!, 
Mao defce sabh sano paranC 
Partnesar nai kfaal ban&f, 
Babb hario ban is richdi bhfiL 
Pekbo jaK da ajab tnm^ 
Tida ba^ janda hai miai. 
Fher kadf miiA a& jof, 
Toli bo janda bai Boi. 
Kadf dnkbi hnnde ban snkbf, 
KadE mkhi bande ban dakbi. 
Rii ndg nh parbat kara, 
Kf ri de nr ">'''■**■'• dbare. 

Is de jo dnkh snkb ban sire, 

Ikk jihfl nabfn rahineb&re. 

Rije lain kadf kangili. 

Eangle bon jagat da valf. 


Dekb Mobammad Yir Kbin si Pasanr Surdar, 
Jahand&d Khan nai ahi lakhaton ii& uUr. 

Pher jad ki f snr du bbiiA, 
Jahand^ Kh&a dbarat giraia. 
Y4r Mohammad Kbin ai joi, 
H^am pber ban^ soi. 
Hun jo boddhmin jan howe, 
Dukkb pae to kadi oa rowe. 
Apije dd Tichch dbiraj dbare, 
Bhui dakkh bo j&d pare. 
8adi nahin din ikko jehe, 
£ diikkb sad£ na rabiri ajebo. 
Jo Parmeaar dnkkb dikhiwe, 
Xpe sakb odn pber litiwe. 
He jan rakkb nse dl is, 
Vh karml sabb kirajrto. 
Jis n4Q as par oabio ^f>>t 
Uh jan bu mdrakb mathfo. 

Digitizecy Google 



















( 37 ) 

The following is the system of tnuisliteration which we 
hnre adopted — provisioDallr — for the Society's pablicatimis. 
We by no means wish to check farther discossion, but it is 
necpsaary to adopt some system, proTisioDally, in order that 
the Society's work may progress, and that those who are 
trilling to follow our lead may be able to do so. 

i z *S 

J r r 

j z w 

J zh u {j^nna 


Y (zabar or fat^) a 

1 (ser or Icasra) i 

1 (zamnia or pesb) n 

is ^ 

(f (Mhjhfil) e 

(J (ma'rfif) I 

iS (diphthong) al 

f (majhdl) o 

J (mn'nif) li 

f (,(iiphtbaDg) au 

mzecDy Google 

( 38 ) 


I. Subject to each modifications u are iadicated l^ 
thA above kej or by snbseqaent rules, Forbes' Didionarj w 
reoognized as the standftid of orthography, and should hb 
consulted in all cases of doubt. Tb« student must, boweTor, 
remember to substitute " q " where Forbes uses a dotted "k." 

IT. The sjmhd "tasbdid" is expressed by dottbliog 
the consonant. 

III. The imperceptible "h" or I mQ]^tafl at the end 
of a word is omitted. 

IV. The sign '^mza" is generally omitted. When 
however it may be considered necessatr to divide two vowels 
or consonants in order to ensure tbeir separate prooancia- 
tion this should be done by iasertiog a conma or dash 
between them. 

y. Words having the form ^ or (*» are wntten as 
^la' dafa*. 

Words having the form ***^ or **fd are written aa 
Jom'a, dafa. 

VI. Words regniring "Tanwfo" in the Persian ue to 
be written with "n/ without any distinctive mark. 

VII. Id rapid writing — not intended for the press — all 
diacritioiil marks may be omitted, with this ezoeptkia that the 
lonj^ vowels & iand 6 sbonld always retain their distiugusbing 

In rapid writing— not intended for the press — th« 
apostrophe for ^ may also be omitted. 

VIII. Where foreign words occur, the writer may, at 
hia discretion, retain the original orthogntpby or adopt tb« 
phonetie eqaivalent. If the word has been a«sitnilated — 
or the writer wishes it to be assimilated — as an Urd6 word, 
it is better to spell it phoneticsUy. If, on the other hand, 
thnre is no wish to assimilate the work — as, for instanow 
with thf> names of persons — the original sfelling is Jirtftf 
able. In this cose, the words should alvays be written 
botwef'n inverted commas, to indicate that it is not tftlt 

KoTg. — A key to pronnn^attoB will be found io TaAt^ 
Grammar and also in Holioyd'a lu-tail-ol-kalim. 

itizecy Google 

( 39 ) 


The objects of Uiia Jooraal, and of the Sociefy with 
which it ia connected, are explained by the series of Reso- 
IdUods passed at the MeetiDg orgnnisins the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, both of which were published 
to the first namber of this Jonrnat. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
as their sapport. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are requested to send their names, with the Siibsc rip Lions for 
the year, Rs. 6, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman-Urdu, 
SocUty, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of the 
Jonmal. Friends in England are asked to send their snb- 
scriptioDS (and any literary contribntions with which tbey 
may iavor ns) to oar English Secretary, F. Drew, Esq., 
Eton College, Windsor. 

We also call attention to Ko. 6 of the Resolntions, 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th May 1878; and invite 
donations to the "Transliteration Fnnd," 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
have not yei sent in their names and sabscription. We 
trnst that Uiey will now do so, and that they will also help 
as by canvassing for fresh members, and by circulating our 
Jonmal among both Enropeans and Natives in the stations 
where they reside. 

Contribntions on any of the rarioos subjects connected 
with transliteration, translation and edacatJoa generally, are 
earnestly solicited from Meml^ers of the Society. 

ii'BlKIBD BY iUM i>AiiS AT lUS " U. & M. Gaziitk " f BESS. 


,, Google 

Vol IV. APRIL 1881. No. 35. 


The above Report appears to have been submitted by 
the Direflor in September last, but the Government minute 
attached to it is dated 5th January 1881, and the printed 
copy now in our hands did not reach U3 till March. 

The Report begins with a sketch of the system o( 
classifying schools. The Dire£lor then proceeds to vindi- 
cate the expenditure of Government funds on the education 
of college students. This expenditure reckoned per head, 
is enormous, the annual cost of educating each student 
being Rs. 570, of which no less a portion than Rs. 552 is 
paid by Government.* 

The Dire£tor's justification of this expenditure is as 
follows : — 

"College students have not the means to pay the cost 
oLtheir own education, and if their so doing were made a 
condition of the maintenance of a college, the college 
would cease to exist. If the college were closed there would 
be no efficient masters available for English schools, and no 
qualified Superintendents for Primary schools, and the 
measure would be a fatal blow to the Secondary and 
Primary schools of the Province. It is not, however, the 

* InohidiiietdioUnbJptthaocMt of •daMtiiig«Mb a<ill<g« •tadent i* 
Hid to be Ba 617. In tha Hortb-Wert Froriiicai tbe annul owt p«K 
kwdapp«anto beibL 653. 

itizecy Google 

( » ) 

interests of Secondary education and of Primaiy education 
alone that depend on the existence of an efficient college. 
The most important appointments under Government that 
are open to natives, are now generally bestowed on men 
who have received a college education. These must be 
given to men of inferior attainments if no college existed." 

Commenting on this paragraph, the Lieutenant-Govern- 
or remarks that he cannot concur with the view expressed, 
" as he believes that the attractions offered by the public 
service are sufHcient to induce at any time a number of 
candidates to seek the training which is necessary for them, 
in order to obtain employment under the State, and the 
expenditure which the Government incurs most rather be 
jttstiHed by its general effect in bringing about a higher 
standard of cultivation than by any direct return wtuch 
thereby accrues to Goversmeot." 

We have no wish to challenge the Director's argument, 
nor do we deny that our college system has some influence 
in bringing about that higher standard of culture in the 
native generally to which the Lieutenant-Governor's re- 
mark points. But it is impossible to read the Director's 
statement and the Lieutenant-Governor's comment without 
a painful perception of the difTerence between the college 
education of England and that of India. In ninety-nine 
cases out of a hundred the desire of Government service b 
the only motive which renders our system of education 
attractive to the natives of this country. 

The moral would seem to be this — Don't abolish 

your college or adopt any retrograde measure, but be on 

your guard against the further multiplication of scholarships 

and other forms of educational bribery. Divert your eothusi- 

; asm and zeal to those unworked measures of reform which 

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( 3 ) 

promise to raise the level of national culture, wllhout 
increasing the number of applicants for Government 

Skipping someportions of the Direftor's report we come 
to his remarks on the Oriental College. It is evident that the 
Dire£tor does not approve of the mode in which this insti- 
tution is conducted. He complains of the low attainments 
of the students, not merely in such subje£^, as mathema- 
tics, history and geography, but also in Persian literature 
itself. He argues that the students should either be (i) 
men who combine a good vernacular education in tbe ordi- 
nary subjects taught by Government schools with a fgir- 
knowledge of Oriental classics, or (2) men educated on the 
native system, who, though deficient in a knowledge oE 
histOTy, geography, mathematics, &c., have attained to a. 
really high standard in Persian or Arabic, sufficient to 
compensate for a deficiency in other subjefU ; men, in fact, 
representing the hereditary learning of the native com- 

The Direflor adds that " Rs. 7,000 per annum are 
expended by the Panj&b University College on scholarships 
tenable in the Oriental College, but to attraCl men of high 
Oriental attainments it would be necessary probably to. 
raise the value of the scholarships whilst reducing their 

The Direflor's remarks regarding the Oriental College 
are reviewed in a lengthy but colorless paragraph of the 
Government minute. 

We think that most of our readers — so far as their- 
own judgment is concerned — would prefer an Oriental 
CoUt^e such as the Dire£lor suggests to the institution ar 
present existing. But we woirid add that it may tie 

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( 4 ) 

expedient to tolerate modes of education, of which we do Bot 
wholly approve. 

For our own part, we are disposed to accentuate rather 
than to obliterate the distinftion between the Oriental 
College and the Panj^ University. If the Conservative 
Orientalists want more elbow room, let them have it — 
in their own College, — but do not allow them to use the 
University as a means of warping or impeding the educa- 
tion of the whole Province. 

We do not propose to follow the Direftor through the 
remainder of his report. It is sufficient to give the headings 
of his remaining chapters which are as follows: — Second- 
ary Education ; Primary Education ; Schools for special 
and technical training; Scholarships; Employment of 
students in the public service ; and books. 

In this year's report neither the Direaor nor the Ueute- 
n ant-Governor refers to the subjeft of Romanizing. 
This is matter for regret, but it is noteworthy that the 
Direftor's efforts to improve the existing Persian charafter 
receive as little official encouragement as our own exertions 
in the cause of Romanizing. The Direftor, after some 
reference to experiments in lithography and the use of pho- 
tozincographic plates, writes as follows :— 

" I have devoted considerable time to the iotrodoflion 
of an improved system of writing and pi;n€tuation, app)i>' 
cable both to lithography and photozincography. In almost 
all books ordinarily lithographed in this country the words 
are so run together that reading is made an annecessary 
labour to the adult, no less than to the school boy. Under 
the new system, there is a dear space between all the 
words, whilst at the same time special arrangements have 
been made by -which the amount of matter contained in 

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( 5 ) 
eadi page is very much, increased. This' and other measures 
calculated to insure an adequate supply of improved verna- 
CBlar and Persian text books at a cheap rate, will be more 
folly noticed in my next report." 

The Government minute, though lengthy and detailed 
in its review of other paragraphs of the report, does not 
contain one word of recognition of the DlreClor's services in 
this important matter. 


In this issue we have much pleasure in reprinting an 
article extracted from an old number of the Indian Public 
Opinion on the subjeft of Romanisation in India. It will 
be seen from this that our humble efforts are not by any 
means the first is this direftion, and it is with much satis- 
faftion that we quote the opinions of thoughtful writers 
seven years ago on a subjeft of so much importance in 
regard to our relations with our native friends. Another 
extraft of about equal space will follow this in next number 
as we have no room for both in this. We recommend them 
- to the careful perusal of our readers. Although we were 
under the imiH-ession that we had almost exhausted argu- 
ments on the subjeQ, our readers will find many new and 
many others in these extra^ very forcibly put. The 
writer does not go into the scientific argument, but grounds 
bis opinion on plain practical common sense which we are 
certain will conquer in time. The young Disraeli's bold 
prediftion is adopted by us. " The time will come when 
you shall bear us," 

itizecy Google 


{Extract from the Indian Public Opinion of 
September 3rd 18^4^ 

For the title of our article we are indebted to the PbU 
Mall Gaeette, and we hasten to explain that our present 
purpose, like that of the writer of the article in that paper, 
is not to deal with the real or fancied progress of genuine 
or spurious Romanism in India. Our task is of a humbler 
order, and our business is with vowels and consonants, 
not with high questions of doctrine or subtle inquiries into 
the real significance of stoles and boldacchinos. In a 
word, we propose to see whether a further extension of the 
use of transliteration of oriental languages into the Roman 
chara£ler may not be made a powerful means for the diffu- 
sion of knowledge among the peoples of India, and facili- 
tating the acquisition by Europeans of that intimate 
acquaintance with their vernacular and classical languages 
which is an indispensable condition to our obtaining such a 
hold upon their affe£lions, as will enable us to influence 
them for their good, and (which is a lower end) secure th,e 
stability of our own rule. 

Before proceeding to examine somewhat at length the 
reasons for and against the radical changes which we 
would introduce, it may be well to point out two remarkable 
instances of the evils which those changes tfe, in our 
opinion, calculated to lessen or remove. The first of these 
is the deplorable ignorance of the vernaculars (to say 
nothing of the classical languages) of India which is nafor- 
tunately the rule among British officers, civil and military, 
in India, an ignorance which is almost a by.word. As to 
the vernacular languages, we do, it is tree, pick up a 
smattering of a vicious court jargon in our dailjr work, or 

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we " cram up " (or the bigfaer and lower standards, and 
know enough Hindustinf (or what we call by that 
name) to manceuvre a battalion or rate a slovenly syce ; 
but it would be instruftive to know how many civil officers 
in this the " model " Province could write out with their 
own hands a legible and intelligible vernacular order on 
the commonest matter of every-day routine, or a courteous 
answer to a native gentleman's letter. Even in their ordi- 
nary judicial work there is not, we venture to say, a large 
proportion who can examine a witness satisfaftorily to 
themselves without the intervention of the native clerk, 
and in many courts it is notorious that witnesses from the 
interior of the district are so persuaded of the presiding offi- 
cer's inability to understand them, or be understood by them, 
fhat they look to the clerk exclusively during their examina- 
tion. And if this is so with tfie vernaculars, with which a 
judicial ofSceris brought into contact more or less every day, 
what is the extent of the knowledge which he ordinarily 
possesses of the classical languages, — Persian, -Arabic, or 
Sanskrit, whidi he must study (if at all) in bis scanty 
leisure hours ? That, in the Panjib at least, if we may 
judge from a list, appended to a recent notification of the 
Government of India bearing on this subie£l, is almost nil. 

This ignorance every one who has the welfare of 
India at heart must deeply deplore, and we think that one 
great barrier to that more intimate acquaintance with 
Oriental langu^es, which we regard as so important for 
those who are called upon to govern India, would be great- 
ly diminished if it were possible to do away with those 
thorny edges of partition, the Perso-Arabic and Devana- 
gari alphabets. The possibility of doing away with them 
and providing an efficient substitute, we shall consider later, 
and in the meanwhile will merely touch upon another 

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pbenomenoD which miist have struck every one who has to ^ 
any extent made 8 pursuit of OrienUl literature. If you 
examine a teacher on his qualifications, or if you ask an 
educated man as to the extent of his reading, his reply 
will almost certainly be that he has read up to a certain 
book, Abulfazl, it may be, or the Kiratarjimiya, much in 
the same way as a child might tell you he could count as 
far as a hundred, or as if a teacher of English were to 
rest his qualifications on having read Paradise Lost, half a 
dozen Plays of Shakespeare, and Mill's Logic. It is emi- 
nently the school-boy's way of reckoning advancement in 
literary study, and is unworthy of a man. Yet, to show 
that our assertion is stri£Uy within the truth, it is only 
necessary to try a well-qualified teacher with some moderate- 
ly difficult Persian or Sanskrit author, which he has not 
previously read, to find out how superficial is his know- 
ledge of the language ; and this superficiality, on his part, 
no less than our almost total ignorance, we are inclined to 
attribute in no small degree to the vicious system of writ- 
ing, the total absence of punftuation, in which Oriental 
literatures are veiled. This is of course but a subsidiary 
cause, and many other obstacles of equal or greater impor- 
tance might be pointed out ; but when we remember the 
utter hopelessness with which we ourselves first gazed on 
the multifarious forms of the Persian alphabet, all to our 
eyes equally uncouth, we cannot but feel that the charafter 
is a difficulty, the importance of which, standing as it does 
on the very threshold of a language, cannot easily be over- 
estimated. Among European languages we have the 
familiar examples of German and Russian, each increasing 
by its strange alphabet the necessary difficulties in the way 
of its acquisition. In the former the peculiar gothic char- 
after has in quite modern times been to a great extent 
abandoned, both in writing and especially in printing, i'a 

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favour of th« Roman, and it is to a similar change that w^ 
venture to look forward, at least in India, as a powerful 
in^tniment of reform . 

The means by which we should work would be a 
gradual substitution of the Roman for the Oriental charac* 
ters, whether Arabic, Sanskrit or Hindi, and this through 
the agency of the Educational Department and the Press 
we ought to be able gradually to accomplish. 

Something has already been done by the introduAion 
of the much-reviled " modified Jonesian " system of trans- 
literation of Oriental words into Roman character. 

We have seen enough of it already to appreciate some 
of the difficulties, at first either unsuspected or undervalued 
which will for some time retard its adoption ; but still, like 
the leaven ia the three measures of meal, it will work till it 
impr^nates the whole lump, till gradually the system has 
familiarised itself thoroughly to every mind, and then we 
shall hope to see a farther step taken in the path of reform 
by the gradual substitution of the Roman character, with 
its incidental mechanical aids to the eye and mind, punc- 
tuation, italics and the like, for the less cultivated alphabets 
of the East 

In a future article we propose to examine in some 
detail the difficulties which would have to be overcome • to 
compare the respective merits of Eastern and Western 
modes of writing and printing ; to indicate what are in our 
opinion the most salient advantages which would be gained. 
by the change we advocate ; and finally to consider what 
particular system of transliteration it would be most expe- ■ 
dient to adopt, whether it be one of those already before 
the public, or whether some modifications would not be 
desirable in any one of those which have hitherto been ; 

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devised, in order to make itas fit as possible forthe purpose 
to which we destine it 

We have already in the present article indicated our 
line of argument to our readers, and will reserve what 
more we have to aay for another issue. 


f Continued). 
The King of Portugal had sent out orders to Dalmeida 
and to Dalboquerque, appointing the latter Governor of 
India, and direfting the former to resign office in bis favor. 
But it so happened that the mutinous captains who had 
deserted Dalboquerque during his first blockade of Hormuz 
had arrived in India shortly before the receipt of these 
orders. By their representations — or misrepresenta- 
tioDs — they had induced Dalmeida to open a formal enquiry 
as to Dalboquerque's condu£t, and it was through the same 
influence that the Viceroy bad sent to the King of Hormui 
the letters to which reference has already been made. 
When, therefore, the news of his supersession arrived, 
Dalmeida experienced, not merely the ordinary vexation 
which such orders naturally produce, but a further and 
special mortification from the consciousness that he had 
offended and wronged the man who was to succeed him, 

D^boquerque was not a man to allow his own claims 
to lie dormant. He had not been long at Cananor when 
he called on the Viceroy and demanded charge of the 
governorship. The Viceroy refused compliance, and 
continued bis preparations, which were now well advanced 
for an expedition s^inst the Turkish fleet then cruising 
io the Indian seas. The chief Portuguese officials snp- 
ported Dalmeida iq his refusal, and Dalboquerque, finding 

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his portion at Cananor unpleasant, sailed thence to 
Cochin. Both sides sent letters home justifying their 
conduft, and Afonso Lopez DaCosta, one of the captains 
who had deserted Dalboquerque, proceeded to Lisbon 
in person to plead against him. The condu£t of the 
captains, however, was not approved by the King ; Da- 
Costa was imprisoned, and narrowly escaped a severer 

Dalboquerque remained at Cochin until Dalmeida 
returned from his expedition against the Turkish fleet. 
On the 8th of March the Viceroy, flushed with victory, 
arrived at Cochin, and Dalboquerque renewed his applica- 
tion for surrender of the governorship, but Dalmeida, 
still influenced by the evil counsel of those, about him, 
paid no heed to the application, and treated Dalboquerque 
tumself with undisguised rudeness. 

The " Commentaries " dwell on the details of the 
bickerings that ensued between the two rivals, but these 
details are not calculated to interest our readers, and do 
not deserve repetition. They remind one of the wrangling 
that di^aced our own Indian admioistratioa during a 
portion of Warren Hasting's rule. 

The upshot of the quarrel was that Dalmeida ordered 
the arrest of Dalboquerque, sent him to Cananor and 
detained him there as a State prisoner. 

He had been three months in prison when the aspeft 
of affairs was changed by the arrival of Don Fernando 
Continho, Marshall of Portugal, with a fleet of fifteen sail. 
The Marshall was a relative of Dalboqaerque, and the 
ioBtruaions that he had received from the King at starting: 
distioflly rect^ised Dalboquerque as Governor of India. 

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Ailing on these instni£tioR9, the Mv^h&l released 
Dalboquerque, and took him in his own ship to Cochin 
where he arrived on the 39th of October 1509. 

Dalmeida, finding that his rival was supported by the 
powerful authority of Don Continho, gave up the contest. 
He no longer had the faintest excuse for disobeying the 
clear and repeated orders of his Sovereign, and he embark- 
ed with the least possible delay on the ship that was 
intended to convey him to Portugal. The two governors 
parted wthout a reconciliation, and the more violent 
partisans of Dalmeida, dreading the resentment of his 
successor, took ship for Portugal with their late com- 
mander. -, 

This dispute having been settled, the Marshal sounded 
tiie new Governor as to an enterprise on which he (the 
Marshal) was bent — the destniClioi: of the city of Calicut. 
Dalboquerque at once agreed to co-operate with Continho 
in this hazardous undertaking. The Rija of Cochin was 
taken into the confidence of the two generals, and assisted 
them by sending Brahman spies, who obtained information 
of the state of Calicut, while at the same time chiefs under 
the Rija's influence were instigated to distraft the atten- 
tion of the Zamorin by frontier disturbances. 

When all preparations had been completed, the fleet, 
comprising twenty ships of war— besides boats for disem- 
barkation — set sale from Cochin. This was on the last 
day of December 1509. The force carried by the fleet 
was two thousand strong. 

They anchored in front of Calicut on the third of Janu- 
ary, and on the following day without any attempt at par- 
leying; the whole force prepared to disembark. 

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-The Marshal was anxious that he should have the 
honor of being the first to land. No one intended to deprive 
him of this satiafaftion, but in the course of the disembark- 
ing it happened that the Marshal's boats were carried by 
the current some way down the shore, while men under 
Dalboquerque's immediate command landed more quickly 
higher up. Dalboquerque endeavoured to restrain theip 
until the arrival of the Marshal, but his men, eager to 
meet their enemies, made an impetuous attack on a stockade 
which the Zamonn's troops had constru£led near the 
landing-place. The enemy were driven out and the stockade 
occupied before the Marshal appeared. When at length 
he arrived, oppressed by the heat, and tired by his walk 
along the shore, he was in a furious passion, and in his 
anger insisted on marching at once towards the city. No 
difBcuUy was experienced in the march to the Zamorin's 
palace, except that the Marshal was utterly exhausted when 
he reached it, and had to rest himself on a large stone 
block within the court-yard. ■ Dalboquerque, who had 
followed his brother commander in his hap-hazard enter- 
prise, rested with his men outside the palace gates and 
did his best to keep off the Nairs, who were be^nnisg te 
assemble. It was to be expefted that the enemy, recover- 
ing from their first panic, would be encouraged by the 
exhausted condition of the Portuguese to resume the 
offensive, and in fa£l the Nairs gradually increased in 
number till the aspe£lof affairs became serious. At length 
the Marshal listened to the expostulations of Dalboquerque, 
and gave the order to retreat,— Dalboquerque leading the 
van, while the Marshal himself retained the post of honor 
in the rear. Before the retreat commenced the palace was 
set OD fire, — an afl of hostility which seems to have been of 
donbtful expediency as it exasperated the Nwrs, and made 
them more eager to attack the retreating force. The road 


( 14 ) 

back to the ships was palisaded on either side, and the 
Nairs took advantage of this to harass the exbansted 
foreigners at every step. 

The Marshal himself and many of his suite were killed, 
and Dalboquerque received two wounds, the second of 
which was so serious that he had to be carried by two of 
his men. Fortunately, — through Dalboquerque's foresight, 
a reserve had been left at the ships under the command 
of his nephew, D. Antonio de Noronha, and this reserve, 
unexhausted and undemoralized by the long march to 
Calicut and back, arrived in time to check the advancing 
swarms oE Nairs, and to save the retreating troops from 
complete discomfiture. Dalboquerque — suffering severely 
from his wounds — remained in a caravel, during the night. 
In the morning he returned to his ships and ordered the 
main body of his fleet to set sail for Cochin, — a few caravels 
only remaining to blockade the roadstead of Calicut. 

The total loss of the Portuguese in killed was eighty. 
That of the Indians is said to have been three thousand. 
The Zamorin was absent at the time of the attack, waging 
war with one of the chiefs who had been instigated to attack 
him by the Rdja of Cochin. It was four days after Dalbo- 
querque's dcpartare when be returned and beheld the 
destruction wliich the invaders had caused. 

One of the earliest a£ls of Dalboquerque after his 
return to Cochin was the despatch of a monk,— Fr. Luis 
of the order of St. Francis, — to negotiate a treaty with 
the King of Narsinga. This prince — the sole representa- 
tive of Hindu rule in the Dakhan — was supposed to be 
hostile both to the Zamorin and to the Mohametan King 
of Bljapur, and the obje£l of the embassy was to secure 
his alliance against these two rulers. 

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After this, — on the loth of February 1510, — Dalbo- 
querque set out again from Cochin with a fleet of twenty- 
three sail, his obje6l being first to destroy the Turkish fleet 
(which was supposed to be somewhere in the Red Sea), and 
secondly to complete the long-talkcd-of fortress at Hormuz. 

This proposal was unexpeftedly changed by an inci- 
dent which occurred on the voyage up the coast. As the 
Portuguese fleet approached the island of Anjadlva, from 
which they intended to steer across the Indian Ocean, 
they were met by Timoja, a Hindd pirate whose headquar- 
ters were at the port of Honiwar. This man was atixious 
to expel the Mahometans from the neighbouring port of 
Goa. It is difficult to say whether he was influenced chiefly 
by cupidity or by malice, but in any case he did his best to 
persuade Dalboquerque that the " Rlimis " or "Turks," 
whom the Portuguese proposed to attack in the Red Sea 
could best be vanquished at Goa where — according to Timoja 
— they were forming a settlement. The island and city of 
Goa at this time formed a portion of the territory of Bfjapur, 
one of the Mahometan States which had arisen in the 
Dakbaa from the ruins of the Bihmanf Power. The 
founder, Yusuf 'KiW Shih, — who pretended to trace his 
origin from the reigning dynasty of the Ottoman Turks — 
was generally known (from the city of " Sava" in which he 
had spent his childhood) as " SavfU " — a name which the 
Portuguese historians changed to " Cabais " or " Zabaim." 
Goa appears to have passed under the rule of Yusuf 
'Xdil Shih in the year 148S or soon afterwards, and it 
is said that that prince was specially fond of Goa as a 
residence. He died in A. D. 1510, and at the time of 
Ddboqaerque's interview with Timoja the State of Bijipur 
was distrafled by dissensions between Ismail '^dil Shih, 
the MO and successor of Yusaf 'JCdil Shih, and his turbu- 

mzecDy Google 

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lent chieftains.* Coa itself was held by a captain whose 
name is given in the Commentaries as " Melique Cufer- 
gugi," or Cufegurgij,"t and it was reported to Dalboqoer- 
que by Timoja that this capt^n's troops w«re mutinous 
from want of pay. 

After some hesitation, Dalboquerque accepted Timoja's 
advice and alliance, and resolved to occupy Goa before he 
proceeded on his expedition to the Red Sea. Timoja 
himself, with thirteen boats, joined the Portuguese fleet, 
and a body of Timoja's men — two thousand strong — marched 
up the coast to attack Goa by land. The first success of 
the joint expedition was the capture by Timoja's men of 
the fortress of Cintdcora at the southern extremity of Goa 
territory. Shortly afterwards, on the aSth of February, 
the fleet arrived at the entrance of Goa harbour. As is 
the case with most of the harbours on the western coast 
of India, that of Goa is obstru£ted by a " bar," and Dalbo* 
querque having no certain knowledge of the depth of 
water within the bar, was extremely cautious as to enter* 
ing. He remained outside with the lai^ ships, while his 
nephew, D. Antonio de Noronha, with a number of boats 
and two galleys, and Timoja with his country boats, crossed 
the bar to explore. They were at once fired upon from 
the fort of Pangu or Panjim, but the shot passed over 
their heads and did no harm. As soon as there was a 
lull in the firing, D. Antonio and his men landed and 
made a rush at the fort. They had but little difficulty in 
expelling the enemy, and captured considerable military 

• Tbii IB tb« PortngntM Mwrniit. AMOrding to FiiUhtk, Ynsuf 'AdJl 
Sbab wu itill living. 

t Wb •« donbtW M to the firrt two iyll»bl«« rf thi« mm, tait tbj 
tcmiiMtion "Gnrgij"lra. Onrji) impliMUi»tUwc»pt«inwM»' UMrgiu . 
b7 birth or family. 8«e ■iH'Fuiibta. 

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The following morning two Mahometans arrived with 
an offer of the peaceable surrender of Goa, to which Dalbo^ 
querque agreed on the condition that all " Rfimfs " and 
Tuiks in the city should be given up to him. Without 
waitingfor the conclusion of the negotiations, Dalboquerque 
crossed the bar with the bulk of bis fleet and anchored in 
front of the city. Confusion and panic now prevailed at 
Goa, and the upshot was that 'Kd\\ Sh&h's captain, to avoid 
sorrenderisg the Turks, fled during the night. 

Early the next day the Portuguese took possession of 
the dty. In the Commentaries their entry is thus 
described : — 

" When the captains heard the signal they weighed 
anchor and steered with all their people — about one 
thousand Portuguese and two hundred men of Malabar — 
towards the galley where Afonso Dalboquerque was, and 
from that point commenced their course, and arriving at 
the city when it was clear day, not meeting with any 
resistance they entered in at the gate, with a cross carried 
in front of them ; and there was the great Afonso Dalbo; 
querque kneeling on hia knees ; who letting fall many tears, 
gave thanks to our Lord for that loving kindness which 
He had shewn him, in delivering into his hands so Iarg<j 
and so powerful a city without trouble to or death of any 
one. This cross was borne aloft by a friar of St. Dominic ; 
behind it was carried the royal flag which was made of 
iriiite satin with across of Christus worked in the centre, 
and in this order of procession they all went on up to thri 
gate of the castle where the principal moors of the c!^ and 
the governors thereof, stood in expeftation of their arrival,- 
«nd these men casting themselves at the feet of our parly,' 
delivered up to them the keys of the fortress and begged 

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them earneatly of their kindness that they would respeCt 
the assurance of s^iety that had been given to them." 

"When AfoBso Ddboquerque bad entered into the 
fortress, because he perceived that many men <A the city 
were following up behind him, he commanded Don Antonio 
de Noronha to wait behind with fifty men at the gate, and 
sat suffer any Moor to enter. The Hindoos who were 
inside approached him in their accustomed courteous 
manner, and told him that they wished to become vassals 
of the King of Portugal and to place themselves in obe- 
dience to him. He therefore received them with great 
afteflion and consideration, and ordered proclamation t« 
be made, that under penalty of death for disobedience, ao 
one should touch a single thing belonging either to the 
Moors or Hindoos who were in Goa, but treat them as 
vassals of the King of Portugal his lord." 

" As soon as this was over, be proceeded to iospcft the 
forbess and the palace of the Cabais, which was all made 
with joinery work and had gardens and pools of water 
within it. And dhence he went on to some large arsenals, 
wherein he found maay supplies, a great quanti^ of pow. 
der, and many materials for making it, and many weapons 
for the men, both infantry and cavalry, and a very larg« 
quantity of merchandise, and in some stables of large size 
ORe hundred and sixty horses ; and in divers pa^ts of the 
city there were captnred forty large field guns and fiftyrfivo 
.howi^ers, and of- othi-r lesser kinds of artiUeiy a great 
Quantity, and many other things which I. dp not write of, so 
thjEtt I, may not tire the reader. To the shore there were 
VMwred forty ships, large and smal), and sixteen fastaa; 
and there was also there a great supply of ropes and 
cordage avd boltwoik, and everything else ihat wa« 
iecesaai^ for tii^m." 

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" And there, too, Afonso Dalboquerque found all the 
women and children of the Turks and Rumis, whom they 
could not carry with them, by reason of the haste they 
made in fleeing away with Milique Cufegorglj. For when 
this man arrived at the pass of Gondali, intending to cross 
over to the mainland, so great was tfaft thronging badte, 
that many fugitives Were suffocated in the river, and others 
lost their horses and quantities of clothing which they were 
carrying, because there were no means of passing over the 
ford except by pieces of wood laid across one another. 
As soon as Afonso Dalboquerque had gathered the women 
and children of the Turks together, he ordered that they 
should receive proper attention, and be safely kept ; and 
on the second taking of this city he converted them to 
Christianity and married tbeBt to Portuguese men, as I 
•ball show further on." * 

Thus easily did the Portuguese eSe£t their first capture 
of Goa. The conquerors had more fighting in store for 
them before their conquest was permanently secured, but 
the date of the first capture is that from which we may 
fairly reckon the commencement of European empire in 
India. Forts had been constructed before this, but the 
occupation of Goa was something more than the con- 
stniCUon of a fort. 

We are toM "by the Commentari«a that Goa at the 
time of the Ptrtuguese conquest had been some forty years 
under Mahometan rule. In earlier times it was a Hindu 
state tributary to the kingdom of Narsinga. 
(To be continued.) 

• Biieh'*TrMMlititoi^tlu''CciiiuneiitMl«i," vol U. 

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Much has be«n written about Japan. Its terraced 
fields aod fir^clad bills ; its childlike people and idyllic 
life ; the snow-capped mountain of Fusi and the thousand 
beauties of the Inland Sea ; — with all these our readers 
are probably familiar. But there are parts ol Japan even 
now but little known to the bulk of the English public ; 
we sele6t one of these Kioto or Miako *— the sacred city 
of the empire~-as the subje£t of our present sketch. 

Our modem intercourse with Nagasaki and Yedo dates 
from 1858, but the Treaty Port of Kobe or Thogo, from 
which Kioto is reached, was first opened to the foreigner in 
1868, and Kioto itself was rarely accessible before 1872. 
Hfibner it is true in his " Voyage Round the World " des- 
cribes Kioto and its neighlMurhood, and there ts also a 
local guide book " Stray Notes on Kioto " to which we must 
acknowledge our obligations, but Hfibner's account is in- 
complete, while the " Stray Notes" are too full of local de- 
tails to be generally satisfactory. We are the refore on 
ground that has scarcely been trodden before, and with this 
justif^ation of ourselves we offer the following pages as the 
result of a six weeks' tour. 

Changes of proper names are frequent in Japan. The 
capital, familiar to us all under the name of Yedo, is now 
oflidally described as Tokio ; in like' manner the names 
Kioto and Saikio are merely equivalents for the ancient 
-Miako. We would ask our readers to bear this in mind, for 
the name Miako, though now rarely heard, is that exclu- 

* Th» Towsla in JtpaneM praper lumiM are to ba proDounoad m ia 
BMUia-Drdi with tiiis important dintinctioii that the voweli an amuDad 
to b« bng without the dm of the long vowal mark or accent. 

In • few ezoeptimial initaueei whare it ii tumtutrj to warn the n>te 
ttat th« Towala ate ihac%, &i» bM been indioattd by Uw nnal abort nwal 

DigmzecDy Google 

■ ( ai ) 

sively used in the writings of the Jesuits and of other- 
ancient authors. There are yet other names for the city 
of Kioto, but their complete enumeration would be tedious. 

The coast of Japan is everywhere more or less moun- 
tainous, but at intervals the mountain ridges recede for 
some miles, forming valleys or plains of limited extent, 
through which the rivers of the country find their way to 
the sea. Such a valley is that of the Kamogawa or 
Yodogawa, the river on which Kioto is built. 

Compared with similar trails in other parts of Nipon 
its area is lai^e, although the whole of its circumference 
can be seen at once from almost every point. In fertility 
and population it equals, if it does not e*ceed, the other, 
valleys of the empire, and it is richer than they are in the 
associations of Japanese history. Besides Kioto itself it 
comprises the large and historic cities of Osaka, Hiogo 
and Sakw, together with a crowd of smaller towns of note. 
For the present, however, we devote ourselves to the upper 
portion of the valley only, limiting our description to Kioto 
and its immediate neighbourhood — the Province of 
Yamashiro— with adjacent portions of Umi and Yamato. 

* Leaving the railway at Osaka, the traveller proceeds 
by jinrikisha up the bank of the Yodogawa river. The 
jinrikisha is similar in appearance to the English bathchair, 
but. it is lighter and stronger, and has shafts joined by a 
bar io front. Between these shafts a coolie places himself, 
taking the position and performing the duty of a horse. 
Hb usual pace on good ground is a steady and moderately 
fast run ; at intervals he stops to recruit his strength with 
a bowi of rice or a . drink of water, but bis rate of pro- 

thii and tii« lallowiog putgnph* mte mitten ruIwBjr oom- 
hM been eartsndad to KiotOi m 0>» ronto ftbota dMnibod atill . 

DigmzecDy Google 

( M J 

gress, even after due allowance (or ordinary stoppages, is 
five miles an hour. 

With two men alternating in " tandem " position but 
without relays, the traveller can accomplish thirty English 
miles every day, while with relays (which are everywhere 
obtainable) he can easily do fifty or sixty. The jinrikisha 
is as much a feature of travel in Japan as riulways are in 
Europe, or as coaches vere in the olden time. The cootri' 
vance is a simple one, but so are many of the most osefal 
inventions. Compared with the dooly and sedan chair the 
jinrikisha has many advanta^res, and in a country like 
Japan it affords greater facilities to the traveller than even 
horse transit could offer. 

Instances have been known of jinrikisha men over- 
working themselves ; but upon the whole, notwithstanding 
some statements to the contrary, the athletic training afford- 
ed by the work may be considered beneficial to the indivi- 
duals and the race. 

In such a conveyance the traveller journeys towards 
Kioto. The distance is thirty-three English miles, or id 
Japanese reckoning thirteen " ris." The " ri " is equal to 
two and a-half English miles, and is divided into thirty-six 
" cho," so that each " cbo " is about equal to 125 English 
yards. We note this, because the " cho " is a convenient 
measure of distance within the limits (rf a township, and 
the inhabitants of Kioto speak of its streets and temples as 
so many " cho " distant from the Sanjo bridge. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Osaka the road 
passes throngh rich and well-watered ric«fialda. The pea- 
sants with their blue clothes and broad straw bata are knee- 
deep IB the mud. The road is busy and yet not crowded. 
Pedestrians with sandals of straw, or with clatteri&g woodeo 

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( ^3 ) 
pfttteni ; pack horses, shod like their owners with straw ; 
jinrikishas with Japanese fares — often two in a rikisha— . 
coolies carrying ; goods or pails slung in banghy fashion at 
the ends of poles— pass to and fro. The road, like aU 
frequented roads in Japan, is Kned with tea-houses, at 
which the jinrikisha men halt now and again for breathing 
time and fw a little food. As the traveller approaches a 
tea-lwuse the waitresses address to him the Japanese salu- 
tation " obayu ;" which strikes upon a foreign ear like it9 
English eq»iivalent " how are you," As he stops, they 
huny towards him with a diminutive cup of tea on a dainty 
tray. These tea-girls give interest and prettiness to Ja- 
panese life. They are smaller and fairer than the men, their 
features are pleasing and bright, and they wear a dress 
which is coquettishly becoming. Their carefully arranged 
hair is adorned with colored pins of fanciful device — an 
inseA or a flower that vibrates in the wind. Their waists 
are girdled with the " obi "-7-a sash of watered silk, 
brown for the matrons, crimson for the maids. We would 
fain linger to describe the houses themselves, their matted 
rooms, their sliding screens, their windows, with paper 
panes, their kitchen contrivances and their heated baths ; 
for we may say without fear of contradi£tion that in no 
other eastern country can the traveller find native accoai> 
modatioD and comfort at all approaching those of the 
Japanese tea-house. The bill of fare is limited, but eggs, 
fish and rice, sweetmeats, tea and sake will save even the 
omnivorous European from absolute starvation. 

Many of the towns and villages near the road have an 
interest of their own, though not sufEcient to delay the 
tourist On the left is the town of Takatsuki, the beadr 
quarters of Christianity in Jesuit times. Not far from tt 
uid also on the left is Tennosan, a hill sacred in Japanese 

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( H ) 

story, and from which Kioto and Osaka cui both be seen 
at once. 

A tittle further on the road crosses the Kidzugawa,* 
'one of the feeders of the Yodogawa. Then comes Yodo, 
a town whose castle is often mentioned by ancient writers. 
Then, Fushimi, which bears to Kioto somewhat the relation 
that Westminster does to London. It is a separate City 
but has for centuries been conneded with the capital by 
an unbroken series of houses. 

Fushimi has often played an important part in Japanese 
history, and will he the subje£l of further reference in the 
course of this article. There the Ujigawa contributes the 
drainage of Lake Biwa and the tea distn£l to the river of 
Kioto, and here or just below that river itself changes its 
name from Kamagawa to Yodogawa. Close to Fushimt 
is a small bill called Mumoyama. On this stood formerly 
a castle of considerable size and importance where Hide- 
yoshi or Taiko Sama — the most famous of Japan's 
rulers, held his court The bill commands a view of 
Fushimi and its neighbourhood, but all substantial relics 
of the fort are gone, though the country folk still point 
out traces of the double line of wall ; and stagnant water 
still lies in a part of the ancient moat The fields between 
Fushimi and Mumoyama are now planted with tea and 
other shrubs, but in Hideyoshi's time they were covered 
with streets and Daimio's palaces. 

Between Fushimi and the centre of Kioto are aumerouc 
temples, but the majority of these can best be visited from 
Kioto, We may, however, note three en route. First 
the Inari temple. Inari is one of the chief deities of 
" Shinto" worship. He is the god of rice ; the fox, too, who 
In JapAnose tlw tamiintiwi " gunf' bmm " river"; Out ti "Yum,** 

Digitizecy Google 

( as ) 

IpUys so important a part in Japanese fairy tales is in some 
way associated with his service. Not far from the Inari 
temple is that of Seniuji, where many of the emperors arc 
buried. Then comes Tofukuji, a Buddhist temple, with 
spacious grounds. These grounds are interse£led by n 
pretty ravine, over which a bridge has been thrown. The 
temple is of great antiquity, having been built by the 
Sbi^n Yoritsune in the thirteenth century. 

We have now reached Kioto. 

The visitor wjl probably halt at one of the tea-houses 
in the Nikichaya, the quarter of the city specially devote^ to 
places of entertainment, and that which used to be visited 
in former days by Dutch embassies, when at the Mikado's 
capital. Behind the Nikichaya rises a hill called Maruyama. 
It is merely one of a series but it is the most convenient 
ol access, and it commands a view of the city. It 
is also a prominent landmark, for on its summit is an 
isolated clump of trees, bearing a curious resemblance to a 
ship at sea. laearly summer the slopes of Maruyama are 
gay with the blossom of the Cherry tree ; in later autumn, they 
glow with the reddening foliage of the Maple. Before 
examining the neighbourhood in detail let us ascend this hill 
and view Kioto's general outline, and let us seize the 
opportunity to sketch the history of the city for our readers' 

The "Blossom Capital" — as native authors lovingly 
describe it— lies before us in the centre of a long, receding 
valley. There is a range of mountains to the East, t^e 
Higashiyama — on which we stand ; and another range on 
the West, the NIsbiyama — -towards which we are looking. 
On the South these ranges diverge, as the valley opens out 
towards Osaka and the sea. On the North they unite, clos- 
ing up the valley with a mountain barrier almost impene- 

mzecDy Google 

t * ) 

trable. The'lofty peak which rises high above us at our 
right is sacred Tbesan. The lofty peak in front of us on the 
-opposite side is Atago, The breadth of the valley is about 
five miles, bat the city does not extend so far. On the 
•other hand, its length is three or four times its breadth. 
Two rivers water the valley, the Kamagawa on the East, 
and the Oigawa or Katuragawa on the West. The former, 
which lies nearest to as, flows through the busiest quarter of 
Kioto, and its shingly bed — broad out of aJI proportion to 
the scanty rivulet that meanders through it, — is crossed by 
several bridges whose names are household words to every 
citizen. Of these the Nijio, the Sanjio, the Shijio and the 
Gojio are the chief. Their name's — which appear to be 
compounds of the Chinese numerals — are two, three, four, 
Ave, also applied to the great thoroughfares of the 'city to 
which the bridges lead. The central bridge, the Sinjio, is the 
point from which all distances are measured. The Kama< 
gawa is a pretty sight in July when the citizens hold a festi- 
val in its bed with all the accompaniments of a fair with 
horse racing and sports, and an illumination of lanterns. 

Our American cousins are sometimes supposed to be 
inventors of cities with straight, rectangular streets, but in 
this praticular Miako, with all the halo of its antiquity, may 
be considered the sister city of youthful Philadelphia. 
The frequent fires which in all Japanese cities devastate 
thousands of houses at a time, partly explain this charac- 
teristic. It has, however, been a feature of Kioto for 

Looking down upon the city we see a mass of white, 
gabIe>roofed wooden houses, with neat looking tiles of dark 
burnt clay. There is but little to break the uniformity, 
though in the distance, on the right, we. see the Mikado's 

itizecy Google 

( 27 ( 

palace, and on the left the temples of Honganji, while- 
nore immediately in front of us the Sheen's castle marks thr 
Western limit of the city. Many of the Daimio's ", yashikis" 
•r " baronial mansions" of former days were near the 
Kamagawa somewhat on our right, but they rarely attract 
the speflator's notice. 

The principal sights of Kioto are its numerous temples, 
built beyond the busy thoroughfares of the city, in the " high 
places " and the "groves" of its outskirts. It has been seid 
that when St Francis Xavier visited Miako, these temples 
were over three thousand in number. Now, perhaps, three 
hundred would be a fairer estintate. The Japanese are 
lovers of the pifturesque, and this trait in their charafter 
is pressed into the service of their religion. The moun- 
tain glen is san£tiiied by a shrine, the mountain peak 
becomes a place of pilgrimage. Most of the temples at 
Kioto are thus picturesquely situated, nesting under the 
shadow of the Eastern or the Western hilfs. It is one of 
their chief charms ; the buildings themselves, though some- 
times grand, and often exquisite in taste and workmanship, 
do not compare in general magnificence wtth those of Shib» 
and of Nikko. There is, however, another reason for the 
interest that attaches to the Kioto temples, above those 
of other cities in Japan. The san£tity with which the 
Mikado was shrouded, and the custom of appointing a 
Prince of the Imperial btood to the office of High Priest, 
attracted the leaders of every reRgious body to Miako ; 
so that each seft had its head-quarters there, and many of 
the ■^temples in other parts of Japan are but copies, in 
name and construftion, of their portotypes at the spiritual 
raetaopolis. Thus, to cite an instance, the Inari temple 
already referred to is regarded as the original of thos* 
fousd in every town and distri£t throughout the emjMce. 


{ 18 ) 

Before we descend from Maruyartia let us- take a brief 
pctrospeft of Miako's history, as we have already taken a 
general view of its extetnal appearance. 

The Mikado or Emperor of Japan— the Dairi, to use the 
dtisignation employed by ancient writers, is the representa- 
tive of one of the oldest dynasties in the world, a dynasty, 
the first traditions of which are lost in fable, but which 
even in its historic commencement dates from the year 
667 B. C. The earlier emperors are said to have changed 
their capitals as they succeeded to the throne, and for two 
or three centuries previous to the seleftion of Miako, 
Nara — to which further reference will be made — was the 
Imperial residence ; but in or about A. D. 793 the Em- 
peror Kuwammu Tenno, fiftieth in the line, attrafled by 
ihe beauty of the . locality tljen known as Udamura or 
Heianjo, sele6ted Kioto for his capital. Thenceforward 
it remained the head-quarters of the dynas^ until the 
year 1870, when the present Mikado removed his court to 
Yedo. Through all these centuries the long line of 
Mikados reigned at Miako in religious state, receiving 
from their subje£ts the forms of universal and undisputed 
homage, though the reins of temporal power were ever 
slipping from their hands into those of usurping generals 
and chiefs. Many a tale of romance, of civil strife, of 
heroic adventure, centres in mediaeval Miako; the names 
of Japanese heroes, of " Kiyomori," " Yoritomo," " Yoshti- 
sune," awake no associations in the memory of an English 
reader, but in Japan these names are as full of historical 
interest as those of "Coeur de Lion" and "The Earl of 
Warwick" with ourselves. 

There is, moreover, one period of sixty yeats or so 
durifig which the general unfamiliar course c^ Japanese 
annals is relieved by the appearance - of three ruins of 

Digitizecy Google 

( '9 ) 

genius, whose names are kaown beyond the limits of their 
native country, rulers worthy to be compared with their 
contemporaries in Europe, Elisabeth of England and 
Philip of Spain. These rulers were (i) Nobunanga (a) 
Hideyoshi and (3) lyeyas. Miako was the centre of all 
the great events of their time. Here, Nobunanga received 
and patronized the Jesuit missionaries ; and about the same 
time Mount Thesan was the scene of the battle go 
famous in Japanese history, when Nobunanga massacred 
the " bonzes," and burnt their temples. There, Hideyoshi 
or Taiko Sama held his court, and organised his expedition 
against the dorea. There are still memorials of that expe- 
dition at Kioto. The Honlcokuji temple contains a shrine 
Aamed after Kato Kiyomasa, one of the generals who com- 
manded. In another part of the city, near the temple of 
the Daibutr, is a mound with a small obelisk or pillar called 
the Mimizuka,regardingwhich the foltovnng story is told. 
It had always been the custom in Japan — 'where every 
gentleman prided himself on swordsmanship — for the 
soldier to behead his slain enemy, and to lay the head as 
a trophy of his prowess before his prince or lord. But it 
was impossible to carry the heads of all the Coreans 
who were killed, so great a distance ; to meet this difficulty 
their ears and noses only were cut off and collefted in 
one grave at Miako, over which this monument was erect- 
ed to commemorate the victory. 

Those *ho may wish to trace the history of Kioto 
during the taoderta but sensational period that commaated 
with Commodore Peng's Treaty and ended with the 
downfall of the last Shogun, will find a full account in 
Adam's Histoiy of Japan. Thfe coart of Kioto received 
*he news o* the Foreigti Treatifcs with alarm and dis- 
approval, *ad the ciCy became the scene of numerous 

mzecDy Google 

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a{ts of violence which had their origin in the excitetf 
state of public feeling on the subjeft. In 1863 the Shogun 
lyemochi, following the example of bis predecessors, 
Hidetada and lyemitsu, visited the Mikado at Kioto ; 
but his visit f^Ied to arrest the inevitable course of events. 
In the following year an attack was made on the Imperial 
palace by troops of the Prince of Choshin, some of whom 
advanced upon the capital from Fusfaimi, while others, 
who had rendezvoused at the Tenrinji temple near 
Arashiyama, made their attack from the Western suburbs. 
The assailants were repulsed, but the fighting was severe 
and the city was devastated by a destructive conflagration. 

Four years later, in 1868, the plain between Kioto 
and Osaka — ever the battlefield of Nipon — was again the 
scene oF war; the battle of Fusbimi swept away the 
dynasty of the Shoguns, and inaugurated the era of 
" New Japan." 

(To be continued) , 

We learn from the Pioneer that the fifth International 
Congress of Orientalists will meet at Berlin from the tzth 
to the 17th of September i88t under the presidency of 
Professor Dr. Dillmann. The subscription for members 
entitling them to the publications of the Congress is 10 
Imperial marks. Notices of intention to be present to- 
gether with subscriptions may be sent to Mr. F. A. Brock- 
baus, Leipsic ; or to Messrs Asher and Co., Booksellers, 
Unter den Linden, 5, Berlin W. It is requested that such 
notifications may not be delayed beyond the ist of August. 
All desirous of addressing the Congress, or to lay before it 
.papers «r questions, or to promote its aims in any other 
.way, are urged to communicate with the President or any 

itizecy Google 

( 31 ) 

toember of the committee on or before the same date. 
The President's address is Grossbeerenstrasse, 68, Berlin 5. 

To the above information, the Civil and Military adds 
that an International Spelling Conference will be held at 
Berlin at the same time as the Congress of Orientalists ; 
that the subjects to be considered will be " a common 
alphabet for Europe, another for the East, and finally a 
universal alphabet". 

The Calcutta Review for April contains an article 
headed " a Universal Alphabet and the Transliteration of 
Indian Languages," " By Syamacharan Ganguli." We 
IHTOpose to criticise this in our next number. 

We publish »« extenso an important leader from 
the Pioneer headed. " The Language Difficulty in Bengal." 


The a£lion of the Bengal Government with regard to 
the substitution of the Hindi (or the Urdu chara£ler, has 
throughout been marked with so much vagueness and 
vacillation, arising evidently from imperfect knowledge 
and precipitancy, that the signal failure of the attempted 
reform is not wonderful. Eight years have passed since 
the fiat first went forth, and yet, though reiterated with 
ponderous threats by three successive rulers, the Govern- 
ment has to-day to make the humiliating admission that 
no real advance has been made ; and that, in faCt, its 
orders have remained a dead letter. Let us now see to 
what extent the Government has itself to thank for the 
disregard with which its mandates have been treated. The 

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( 3= ) 

9cheme vras one of many conceived in the reforming mind 
of Sir G. Campbell, with a view to the regeneration of the 
Lower Provinces of Bengal, and had for its obje£l the re- 
lief of the people erf the Hindustani-speaking districts from 
the intoIeraUe hardship of having no medium of written 
communication with the authorities, except a chara6ter 
alien and quite unknown to the great majority of them. 

Accordingly, in 1872, it was ordered that for the future, 
Hindi in the Nagri character should take the place of Urdu, 
in the Patna and Bhaugulpore Divisions, with the excep- 
tions that (i) where anything had to be written in such 
documents as processes, notifications, proclamations, bonds, 
and attestations, it might be written in Kaithi ; and that 
(2) the Persian charafier should be retained for the r^^ 
lar office writing, care being taken that the language nsed 
was simple, and in vernacular use, and not foreign and 
artificial. The order wound up with a warning to all amlas 
and superior native officers of police, that they must within 
six months learn to read with facility the Nagri printed 
character, on pain of dismissal from their posts. The in- 
correft use of the words Hindi and Urdii tn this order natu- 
rally led to His Honor being accredited with a desire to 
change the language of the people ; and it was therefore 
subsequently explained that there was no necessity, and 
would be none, to notify any change in the language in use. 
The only question was whether that language should be 
written and printed in the Persian or in ^e Htndi-Nagri 
-charaAer, His Honor being of opinion that the Govern- 
ment could not all at once exclude the Persian chu-aAer. 
This explanation made it sufficiently dear that what was 
desired was a change of character and not of language ; 
but the substitution of the peculiar phrase Hindi-Nagri for 
the inaccurate Hindi ia the Nagri character, and the omi«<. 

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( 33 ) 

sioa to mention the Kaithi, still left room for mistakes. 
Id December 1873 confusion was rendered worse con- 
founded by a. decree to the ef[e£l that Hindi was to replace 
Hindustiof, not only in the districts of the Patna and 
Bhaugi)Ipore Divisions, but also in the Huuibigh, Lobar- 
dugga, and Singboom Districts of the Chutia Nagpoce Di- 
vision, and on the hill portion of the Darjeeling distridl — ■ 
in Sjhort, everywhere in Bengal except where Bengali and 
Uriya are current. Here fresh terms are imported into the 
controversy, the thing to be got rid of being called Hindus- 
tint and the substitute Hindi- Id the f(^lowtng Aprils 3 
relaxation was found necessary ; and it was conceded 
that whilst certain official registers and papers should be 
written in Hindi, petitions to civil and criminal courts 
might be received at the option of the presenter in the 
Hindi or in the Hindustani charafler. So far Sir George 
Campbell, we now come to the work of his successor. In 
July 1875, in rejecting a petition for the reiastatement of 
the Persian chara£ter in the courts oE Behar, to the exclu- 
»on of the Nagri, Sir Richard Temple declared that he had 
no desire to pass any orders that might countenance the 
idea that Hindi and Urdu are two distinCt languages ; but 
he recognised the tendency of some writers of the Hindi ta 
rcje£l evtiy word which is not Sanskrit in origin, while some 
writers of Urdfi confine themselves strictly to words, of Per- 
sian origin. He wished to encourage the growth of a full, 
harmonious language uniting these two. elements, now sepa- 
rate and ifiscordant ; and for this purpose would re<]uire that 
ail candidates for employment above the lowest should be 
equally familiar with both the Nagri and Persian charaflers. 
The late Ueutenant-Governor was strongly opposed to mak- 
ing Hindi the- exclusive court language at present. Sir 
Richard unfortttiMtely emitted to explain by what occult 
■Mttod ht proposed to encourage a knowledge of the 

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( 34 ) 

Persian charafter, while adhering at the same time to the 
policy of Sir George Campbell, which contemplated its ulti- 
mate exclusion. " It is apparent," Sir Richard went on to 
say, " that there is some amount of passive obstruCtivcness 
to be overcome, although progress is being made in the 
introduction of the reform instituted by Government. 
His Honor trusted that the policy indicated in the orders 
of April 1874 would be steadily persevered in." The 
amount of progress made may be gathered from a repre- 
sentation by the Inspeftor-General of Police in January 
1S76, to the effect that police officers, even after passing 
in Hindi, were unable to read it in the Nagri charadler 
with facility. To this His Honor replied that he did 
not consider it necessary to recall the orders already 
passed on the subjeft. With the institution q{ fatshales, 
year by year the difficulty would gradually diminish, and 
it was only by perseverance that it would be overcome 
at all. His Honor accordingly desired that all police 
officers should be made clearly to understand th^ unless 
they could qualify themselves to read Hindi, as written 
in the Nagri charafter with fluency, they would not be 
retained in the service. In September 1879, the Inspe&or- 
General of Police, nothing daunted, returned to the charge, 
and reported that the police of Behar could make little 
use of the recently established Police Gazette, owing to 
its being printed in the Devanagri character, which they 
could not read with fluency, the orders of Government 
having been either imperfeCtly observed or praCticaily 
ignored almost everywhere, and especially in the various 

The Inspector- General further pointed out that at the- 
departmental examinations, young assistant magistrates 
and superintendents of police were still required to pass 

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(35 ) 

in the Persian character and not in Nagri, and that after 
spending a considerable amount of time in mastering 
Urdd they would be unable to read a word of any of the 
police reports which came before them. Sir S. Bayley, 
who was then temporarily at the head of the Bengal 
Government, admitted the question to be a difHcalt one 
to deal with, and expressed it as his opinion that if the 
order issued by Sir G. Campbell had been property en- 
forced, it would still take many years to complete the 
substitution of the Nagri chara£ler for the Urdd ; but he 
added it was no doubt true that the enforcement of this 
order had not been adequately insisted on ; and in the 
Patna Division, indeed, of which Sir Steuart Bayley was 
for several years during the period in question, himself 
the Commissioner, the order had been to a great extent 
evaded or ignored. "The reform," wrote His Honor, 
" was one which was sure to meet with obstinate resistance 
from the whole amla class, where monopoly of the business 
would be completely swept away by the introdu^ion of 
Nagri and Kaithi charafters. He did not, however, think 
(hat Government would be right in authorizing for courts 
and public offices the use of the Persian charafter when 
every transa6lion, whether of commerce or zamindari busi- 
ness, is condu£led in Nagri or the corresponding written 
character (Kaithi), and the same chara£ter (? Nagri or 
Kaithi) is used for five-sixths of the private correspondence 
in the province of Eehar," His Honor here not only 
begs the question at issue, but is also guilty of at least 
two grave mistakes ; for it is an indisputable faft that a 
large share of the transactions of commerce are condu£ted 
in the Mahajani; and many zamindari, as distinft from 
patwari; accounts are kept in the Persian cbara£ter. 
Further, to call the Kaithi a written character correspond- 
ing to the Nagri, is misleading. It is certainly a modifica- 

^.y Google 

(36 ) 
tion of the Nagri used almost exclusively (or writing, but 
the coniie£tion between the two is altogether different from 
that between the written and printed form of, for instance, 
the Roman character. The N^^l and Kahhi are for the 
most part used for totally different puiposCs by perfeAIy 
distinct classes, who are often acquainted with the one whilst 
ignorant of the other. Sir Steuart Bayley — perhaps wisely — 
disposed of the matter by calling for a report as to the extent 
to which the Government orders had been carried out by 
himself and his subordinates in the Patna Division, and 
thus managed to leave the settlement of the troublesome 
question to Sir Ashley Eden. In April 1880, the Commis- 
sioner of Patna having replied that the orders of Govern- 
ment had remained a dead letter, except in kis own office 
and the Madhubanis sub-division, Sir Ashley Eden came 
to the conclusion that, notwithstanding Sir Richard 
Temple's assurances to the contrary, no real advance had 
been made in giving effeft to the wishes of Government, 
and that the change &o long enjoined would never be 
thoroughly introduced until Nagri (or Kaithi) was made 
the character for exclusive nse in official documents in 
Behar. Accordingly he dlrefted that this cbarafter should 
be exclusively used from the ist of January 1881, through- 
out the Patna Division, and in such distri£l3 of the 
Bhaugulpore Division as might afterwards be notified,, and 
that the issue from the courts of any documents in- the 
Persian charafter except as exhibits should be absolutely 
forbidden. In regard to the CEutia Nagporo Division, the 
principal districts of which were, as we have shown, in- 
cluded in the orders of December 1873, further inquiiy was- 
tobe made, on the principle, itwouldseem, of hanging first 
and trying afterwards. Police officers and amla were 
agiun admonished that If they could not read and write in 

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( 37 ) 

the Nagri charaClcfr by the pr4>9cribed date, they would hivb 
to make room for others who ctnM. It was HiK) tiAtd that 
the Kaithi charafler shouM be substituted fen- the Persian at 
the departmental examinations, a truly admirable arrange- 
ment for testing the ability of magistrates and police su. 
perintendents toread the Nagri reports of their sabordinates^, 
Hardly bad the date f<ff the full execatibn of these orders 
come round, when it was found necessary to modify them. 
At present, tomplajnts filed in criminal courts may be 
written in Urdfi only when they are not filed through a 
pleader or muktiar; and petitions other than plaints may 
at the option of the parties be filed in the Hindf or in the 
Roman charafler^ but not in Urdfi. In reSpeCl to official 
correspondence, registers, &c., no further change has as 
yet been ordered, and n^ may be made of either the Nagri 
or Kaitbi according to the wHl and pleasure of the writer'. 
This' option is, we understand, so much appreciated- that iA 
some distrids both characters are in uSe side by s!de, an 
arrangement hardly calculated to promote simplicify in the 
despatch of bnsinMs. The advantages of one character fot 
general use thronghout the Urdfi-speaking distri£ls ar6 
manifest ; and if by any means such an end can be achieved, 
an inestimable boon w'M be conferred upon the people. 

The merits and demerits of the rival characters- have 
been set forth' and discussed at length in these columns. 
They are briefly these : the Urdu charafter has on its side 
es^blished usage, it is already known by all the a^ia, and 
by most educated m«n, whether Hindus- or Mahotnedaiis'; 
and dianges materially affe£ling the people and hot asked 
for by ttem should' not be made. The Urdfi alphabtt was 
cipresaly devised to siiit the roi«d tongtie resulting froW 
thejiahomedal) invasion, and still the current language of 
tho- country. It is the only alphabet which cati give 

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( s» ) 

corre£l expression, at once to indigenous, or Hindi, words, 
and to the numerous :legal and other technical Arabic aad 
Persian phrases with which the mixed language abounds 
and cannot dispense. The Urdu charafier can be written 
much faster and takes up less space than the rival char- 
acters. On the other hand, it is somewhat difficult to 
learn, and is not in favour with the majority of the people 
who are Hindfis, and prefer the native Hindi. 

The Nagri is the ancieat and honoured charafter <rf 
the Aryan race, the biilk of the population ; and its general 
adoption might give an impulse to education ; in it, or 
modifications of it, are written Hindi, Bengali, Assamese, 
Uryia, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Gujerati, all of which languages 
are allied to each other and derived from a common source, 
the Sanskrit. In its pure and unchanged form is already 
transa^ed in the Central Indian and Rajputana prind- 
palities all business without difficulty or murmur; it is 
known to a vastly greater number of persons in Upper 
India than Urdd. The objefUons to it are that it is an 
angular form not capable of being quickly written, for 
'Wbich reason it is not well ad^ted for business purposes. 
,lt lacks certain letters necessary for correCtly writing 
many of the Persian and Arabic words which have become 
incorporated in the Urdd language. 

The Kaithi character has the merit of being known 
to at least one person in every village, via., the Patwari. 
It \^ also known to most of the numerous caste from which 
it takes its names, and many others. It can be written with 
facility ; but being of broken and irregular form is not 
printed, and is therefore unfit to stand alone. Its form 
varies in different localities, and like Ni^ri, it has no 
letters capable, without modification, of representing 
accurately certain foreign sounds of common occurrence 

^.y Google 

( 39 ) 
in the Urd& langu^c- The Roman ctiara£ler, possessing 
many advocates, and having been recognized by the Bengal 
Government in its latest order as a possible .f4£tor in the 
future of the controversy, must not be passed over without 
mention. Its adoption would be attended with decided 
advantages. Indians would be familiarized with the garb, 
at any rate, of the languages through which alone the 
science and literature of the West can be really brought 
ho^« to them ; the work of Europeans would be simplified 
and they themselves rendered far mcnre independent add less 
likely to be imposed upon ; Mahomedans would more will- 
ingly accept the Roman chara6ter than the charafters of 
their hateful rivals and ^U0»<^<t>n suje^, the Hindfis; the 
reform might gradually be extended to the whole continent 
thus perhaps forming a step towards the realization of that 
splendid dream of philanthropists, the establishment of a 
nniversal language, than which, according to enthusiasts, 
nothing would conduce more dire£tly to bring about a 
golden age of union and harmony among the several nations 
and races of mankind. , The subje^ - is indeed of much- 
importance and demands the attention of the Imperial 

^.y Google 

( 40 ) 

J£o Jah&nd&l Rhflg nfin Mahammad Y&t Ehin mi 
Puanr te ka44h ditU t&Q nb Mahirfije Rapjtt ^iof^b de kol 
pbar Labaar vikbe i r\]iL Ar Mnbammad Y^r Kb&g nai 
b! jig ntthd kacbb pfiri at&m a& 4itt^ t&n Puaarog ia^ka 
Barttt nfig obalii gi4. 

I1l*r WP 181d fs?! nobdi Apral ds mablaa Uab&rty« 
^Qjtt giogfa D3i wlib kiti ki kbt Ur^g l^asmlr nfin itOe 
Jturiy^ lb gall sotdika knobh faaj Uiaa^r DiwJ^a Cbnd do 
nil deka tia a&n paU^iiQ ral bbejti, aar fcaobb &iij osdi 
nuddat i« kf Kaar Efamvh Singb ds adbln kark« Hissar 
Biwia Ohand vml bheji. Ob asbh lek Kaamh de &te baraa 
lai pabfii^Q Tal gaa ar Uahit&ji Banjft Si^gh tiabin df nuMt 
bbeJTjia de baad o bast ate Pasjib dl nigibint T^ste' Fbojib 
Tu^b ribi. SikkbfiQ dl fanj j&a pabirig vicbeb pahoncht 
Ut) Batb&t^ nfil Tadi bbirl krit hoi. Ii la^if viohob haj«r 
ka Sikkb ate poDJ o^ Sardir hi mare gae se. Us dfije pise 
le bl babnt iatij mfirf gaf. Is tai^I df khabar j&g Ajfnt Kbj^ 
niig, pahnnobi Uuf Pafbia babat m&re gae has t&s oh Ka». 
mfrog nikkalke JabtUvid ji varii. 

Pher Ba^jU SiQgh Pasanr ntin gU ate otthe UDhamnud 
Yar Khfig nai bijar faoka arj kflf ki jo Paaaar mainfiQ 
bakhat dero, troa tig main tas&da k&r bbard£ rah^Qgi, bdak 
jo biU &veg& main kaa4{ kaniji Lahaar bhej dii kiringi. 
Ra^jtt SiQgh nai ni df arj kmbfil karke Pasanr usde hawila 
kit* ate <p nada hattb dUg likhtig karike Lahaor ig 

Pher ko( kfl pike AjJm Khdo mar gii ate pber Patht 
1)4? nai n4i ranli piii. Hahir^i Ragjit Siggh nai ip 
3ik9 lu jhagre ndg mifiii ar pbar Labaar vikbe fi ribi. 

itizecy Google 

( 41 ) 

Sun 1823 fsTt vikhe SMak Mabammad Khin iijbi« 
Nftb&b jo BKhfialpur d& m&lak b^ mar gi& ate ns d& befi 
Bafaial Eh&n gaddi par bai(h£, ar jo kaohh lu da pia d£de nai 
Mftbirilje Baiijtt Singh nii nen banbii hoi& sfi, uM pakki 

Fhflr Salad Afaimdf n^me ikk idnA nai pahif de mnlakh 
Tichfih ikk Uabammadi jhaniji khartikarkeUnsalmiDiQ ol3r| 
aiag bfa&he cfaafh^i ki &pne Pakambarfn de bukam miSjab 
kiCfar^ 8ikkh£n nfig m&n& chsfaiye. J6,a Miualm£n£n 
nai jhagti cbnkkii t^n Msli&r^je nai knohh faoj Afak ta 
pir bbojke Salad Mnbammadi de dand kbatte kits. 

Uah^rijfl BanjU SiQgb nai jan sabbn&n pabif^n nfig jiU 
lis t£n Jammfi d& kila Qal&b Singh ate Snjet Siggh niSg da 
ditii. Us vele Jammli de hikamSn d& bhar&n Ohi&n Siggh, 
Ba^jft Singh de p£a ^ea^fai d& darog& si ate Bainjlt Singh, 
jo OS de ptitr HSr& Siggh nuQ bahat cb&hnd^ ei ie karke Hir£ 
Singh ndn ritj^ df padvl dittf, ar Ba^jlt Singh de mao 
Ticbob tadi ih b£t rabtndi si ki Hf r& SiQgh nlig kisi achchi 
jUdilarkI n&l bifthnfiQ. Ikk b&r B&je Sassir Chand da 
patr Anrnddh Ohand Ji.hlt.w&liin de bi&h par bnl&ifi hoi^ 
Kaptirtbale n£g j£gd& sfi, r&h Ticbch jo QS ndn Lahanr rahin& 
{»i tfg HahfirSje Bs^jU Siggfa nai as n^n fip^e kol bul^ka 
jikkor tikkar ih likhfi lifi— " Bbaf main ip^i&Q dohSn bhaig^ 
di B£df Mah&rije Bapjft Singh de kahine m^jab karjing^," 
Jig ih gal is di didl nai saqi tiiQ nh nnb&g doh&g kofl^n nfig 
laike anb^ pabirfi!} val j£ rahi ki jo Angrejfis de tbss Tiohch 
Be. Fber tbohrf der Ud lUji Anrnddh Chand bi fahajj gii, 
ar OS d& r&j Ifahar^je Bagjit SiQgb nai B&rA hi &pne adbfa 
ku lii ate OS de bb&i Fate Chand ntin atthoo ka44h ditt&. 

Ikk hir jo Mab£r&je Banjtt Siggb nai babnt sundar 
pannfne d& va4£ bh£r£ tambA banw^ke p4ds&h H nnjar v&sto 
Angrejin di Walait nlin bbf ji&, i&\\ ADgrejjSn da p^s&h aa 

mzecDy Google 

( 43 ) 

Bug 4ektike bahot kbnsi hoii balak as de sfkHbie Tidied balint 
■andar oh&r ghori^o ftte ikk ghof & UaUrija B«QJit Singh d« 
kfbbejU. Jo vakil luk« £& U Uabttr^je ufti lu di n^ 
kb&tar W. Fher koi din Labanr rabike ob S&bab jo Walait 
te gho^ laike Hi ei Waliam Benfik BAhab dt mnUkit lat 
js Hindlist^a d4 Li^ si Siinl« de pab^r par gi£ ar fip^e aai>a 
di sabbb baUkat Ut S^bab nfis sn?^ Uttbe L&t Sibab 
naiibtatbir kit! ki kiat Ur^ HahA^je Baqjit Siggfa nil 
mun bi mel& k«r^. Lit Sibab nai EapUn Waid Sfliab 
ii6i) Likbka, kijisniig BaQJUBiegbnai Ludebi^e te imliii 
B&, malik&t di 4v)l ba^i tat HahiH^e oai ip^e Dlyt&a Hotf 
lUm ate Sirdir Harf Singb ar Pakir Ajtj Db ndg Lit 
S^bab de pis bbejke ih pargaf klti ki ka«be Bopa; de pis jo 
dariii Satlnj de kandbe par bai mel bowegi. Lit Sibab san 
1831 Aktnbar df bii taHk a&n Bopar vikbe iii ate Uabiriji 
bf nsf mabine d! pacb!bw{n tarik nig Ropar pabogcb gii. 
Us vele Mabirije de nil das bajir ghor-cha]-hi ate cbbeka 
bajar piidi sa. Lit Sibab nu Uabirije di ini^i sn^ke 
ipne vakil ate sikattar nfin iprit salim ikbae laf'Sanjft Singb 
de kol bbejti ar pher Ranjft Singh nai Knar Kbapak Siggh 
ate cbbein sattig vadiin Sardirig nig Lit Sibab de kol 
bbejke Ih pargat kiti ki bbalke euvarfl U asslQ tussive milne 
nun iwinge. Dosre din jin Hahiriji mnlikfit n^Q tiirboifi 
tin ipije tame te pahilii} tin bajir aawir nln babnt saodar 
pnsik nil sajike tor ditt£ ar pber aftb aan gbo^-cbarhA hor 
bhejii ate ns te piohcbbog bitblin ntte bafblika Sardirii 
niin bbejti ate sabboig te piobcbbog ip tnrii. ^mbfi da 
kaobh pis jike dohig dl mnlik&t hof, balak dono jane hitbi 
par baithke tambn tak gas. Lit Sibab nai anek ssgitig attt 
aajarin daije ba-darje Uabir^e ate Kanr sibab ar homig 
^ardiriii nfiQ dittfin, pbar Mahiriji ippe tambfi nl^ cjgalii 
iii. P6ja din Lit ^ibab Jlafairije de tambfi viohoh milne laf 
^ii. Sabhnin Sardirig aai Lit Sibab niHn nig^ig dittfig «t« 

itizecy Google 

( 43 ) 
llahir^« nai kal gbore Ta^ranlle sobe cb&ndE de aab&b 
sane IM Sihah tA'n mgiit ditti. Pher Mah&rije ate Suk&r 
Angreji dl faoj df ksbsid faoi? Isgg^f B«QJlt Singh Angrejl 
faaj d( chatr&i ate cha\Skl dekh ke babnt kbmi boil Usi 
din pher Uk&l&g d« vele piobhl! mol&k&t bol ar nsi din Ut^ 
Sibab nai ikk lobe d& pal Mab<ir&je df najar kiUi b4. Duje 
dio dono Sarktir&s ipi^e ^p^e malakb dt val raw£n& boi&n. 

Pher j^e SBO 1838 favi vicfaoh Angrqin nai Etiutl val 
nfio th«rb<U kitf i£.n Baj^jit Kngb nai &p^ ohhe baj&r fa^j 
maddat Tiste mh&a de nfD kar dittf. J^q faoj E&bal pnr 
pafanQobf Ua aje milbiiiim p6i< bl nahfg bof sf ki Uahir&j£ 
Raiuft Siggb jo pabiU$ to bl bahat mind& s& lan 1839 nug 
patA bo £p<L 


Ta^e rade is jaj^t par baifbe pair pas&r, 
S&re ofak k^ Dai lae gbaff Ticnch mir. 


Jag Bariin Tiohcb jo jan &ve, 

Sad& k&l nahin rabiij^ pttwe. 

Vade vade rije bankirf, 

VidyAw^ gani balk&il 

Ch^rka din sabb kar&n niuji, 

tbm ktidi hu eaUl d& 4Bra. 

8ad£ bajat hai kfiofa nwiri, 

Itthe km na rabii)eb&r£ 

Hon ih gal hai sabb nfin jog, 

Jh^tbe j^ai; jag de bbog. , 

Jh^the dhan eampat Bukh dhto, 

Jfad^e milakh malakb ai n&m. 

So jan itthe rahe nd^, 

Sad& rahii^ di kare na 4b. 

8o sakbia dakh kadi na ptii, 

Dukbl nthe jo prit lag^i. 

^.y Google 

( 44 ) 

Eann kare apn va^'iH, 

Bbai Biikiii main duikkb na r^ 

Je kof din sokh bl howe, 

Optk kill sarab snkh kbofce. 
Ih saDB^r mns^farf achcbbf farin nibb&u, 
Sann robing aobcbbi nahfi) Faruiesar va) &n. 

Bftijjlt Singh de marne picbohhon kai r£nUn sati£g 
hoiin ar PanjAb Ticbch ajih& Bog vadhii ki m^no kandh&n bi 
Tondian diss ^gdf&g ai^n. Us do picbcbbo;; B&je Diaia 
BiQgh nai £pnf cbatrdi oil rij kij vichcb ajibi dab&n kar li£ 
ki (hfk mi o&g r^ d& m^ak ']&d^& obibiye. Ba^jft SiQ^ 
da jfdgdo bf is ndij ajib& ikhti^r a& ki Kanr Kbapak Singh 
Bte,MeT Siggh D^n bi ki jo Mab&r&je Ba^jit 8iggh de pntr 
M kai b&r 4ea4bi pnr rok diad& sfi. Is nai sark&r da dil 
viohoh ih gal bl pi dttti hoi si ki EanrKbai-ak Singh jo bahnt 
mfirakh ate kamlit ramU bai, is k^rsn ih lij de Uik nabig, 
ar Mer Singh d! b^t Mah&rfije de dit vicbch ih bharam p& 
ditt£ lioi& B& ki ih tns&4! ans nabin. Is Dhiin Singh nfin 
jo mabiUi; vichcb bi j&a &a^ di rok tok nahfg sf is karke ig 
te rA^f^n bC babat ^Ardi^^ rahindt&Q elan, ta Dbi&i Singh 
d& putt Eiri Singh jo bar vele sarkj^r de nil hi rabiedft si 
is 4ar te i^ian ttpija dukkh Uab&r&je de p£a bi&n nabfn kar 
sakdian sl^g. Mahflr&je Ra^jit Singh de marne tak is d£ 
kfir b&r ate darb&r Tiobcb ibo jih£ jor rib£, jo is niJg nuuijfir 
n& so! kamm hni^d^ si. 

3&Q Mah&r£j£ Ranjit Singh tnaran lagg& i&a Kanr 
Eharak SiQgb nfin sadd ke vajir Dhif!n Singh d( bltgh 
phar&i ar &kbi& ke Be Dhi&i Singh tdn roer^ sacbcbi vajir 
ate rfij dii rakhw^l^ bain, so maig sirC nioar viohch tare par 
jo jo as&Q ate mihar-b&nf&n kitl&n ban anb^Q de badle tfip is 
mere pntr Ebsfak Singh n^n kbna rakkhfg ate kadi is de 
n&l nimak'har^mt ate bari&f na karin ar is q^s sadi iner« 
ihAQ oamajbde rahin4. 

mzecDy Google 

C 45 ) 
Raifjit Si9$h de ehdl ekiUan d& ^, 
Bai^jU BiQgh parhifi hoi& knchb nabfn U par Uq bt 
dsrb&r ds k^aj sabh &p baithke Bai)d£ hnnd^ sjt ar jo kacbh 
tfalk Banisjhd& as pur ^pM soch B&majh ke hnkam ]ikh&ind& 
B&. Jad hnkam likh chnkkda se tad dfijE h&t pher snnke 
Tichir kftrdi s£ ki dekhin Ua^si lok mere hakam nfig kacbli 
nixtke ti Bshln likh gae. TJh ipiji chhotl nmar vichch M 
snkln bahut e& ate ^prie mns&hab&n ate boriifiii lokdn nfig 
bshat ni^atfin bakhaa i& rabind^ t&. Jo jartirl kamm 
tu ndn ifA de vela j^ innda sa nab&n nfin nti vela 
likhi laindfi 8& bbai bbalke bbuU nn j£n. B4t ndn sadi; laggA 
Db 8ad& ajihe kamm aocbdi s& ki Jinbftn te ns d& r<tj vadbda 
rahe. Us oai dp^f chatr^ di teji nal ate nitt de mnfadbare 
ndl ikk ajibf karjtni&t ntpat kar btl sf ki horniig lokai) di 
dbatr^ ate samratth ate gm^ sabb^a rndgh dekbke bt 
paohhdn lu'ndd s^ lb babut madhrfi ddml ato akkb t« IdmA 
ad, sitifi de dag jo ia de mnkb par se is k&ran ia dl mdrat rati 
^■S>T gal ai par lambf d6rhi de sababb jo is di dbnnni tak 
paigdf si is dd munh bbaria hoid ate sujid hoid diadd s4. 
lb lokdn adl ajibd bass bassko ate niskapat galldn kardd 
ai, ki 08 de prem ricbob dabbe boe lok dpi>e dil de bbet bf 
pargat kar baitbde ae. Ia ndn gbo^a pur obafhoe dd va^li 
aeaijk sd ittha tak ki baijbepe de same ns ndn hor lok obakk- 
ke ghofa par cbafbd dinde se. Is ndg lafdf vicbob obbal bal 
kame babnt jad sa balak dppe vairidQ ndn jitthe tak bo sakdd 
cbhal bal nti mdrdd ad. Jodnt dl nmar vicbob td ih va^d 
balkdr ar takfd sd, par bn^epa vicbch babnt balbln bo ^ 
si. Is di ijanl cbdl va^i siddbf sddi sf par darbdr de sajdono 
lai ^^e masdbabdn odn ih bokam de obba^4<^ sd ^I sabh 
kof hire moti jodhards ndl aajke darbdr viohcb did karen, Ih 
sardb babnt pindd ate eohanidn idratdn de dekbna dd bahnt 
sannk rakkbdd sd. Eai lok dkhde ban ki ih babnt aardb 
pine de sababb bfsatdMbad4bd ate balhfn bo gid sd. Us 

Digitizecy Google 

( 46 ) 

n&n £pne pantli vadhia^A di bshnt ^unmp sf ar tip blif 
Bikkbi dlurm vichch sjili& pakki Bi ki nitt kitnf der tak 
Orantb m^i& nhindi bL Ih diiB&liig ate Idi; di sndigui 
£p kardd bugdfi a&, ate ih kof kamm 4p^ NajdmUQ ar 
JotadaQ de pudiclibe ^3iai nahlg kardA B&. Us te pahilfLe 
terig varih^g di nmar viohch ki jad ih gaddf par baitti& b£ 
ikk ib kamm bahnt bnri bo gii H& ki Lakkhfi niiaw dlwig 
ndg jo is de piti d£ dfw&n bA nankaH te bat& ditti b&, ar 
pher ns afig Kat& dl mnbimm Tiobcb bbeji£ ki jittbe ah 
biobi(r£ mar gii. Lokig nai Bagjil Singh d« p^ ih b&t 
pargat kill hof b1 ki ih dlw^ tas&4^ m^i o^ ralii hoii hai, 
is kiran os nai &p^ mian nfin jahar dn^e m^ ditti ti. 
UahArije Banjit Siiigll te picbchog Ehafok Singh gaddf par 
baithA. Ihjo Vaj{r Dhi&n Bingb de snbhiia ndi} achcb£ 
tariin j&nd£ s& as d& jor gbntt kame do laf pahilan as nfig 
ih gall &hhl ki tasin b&4« jaaine mahiliQ vichch n& jii4 karo> 
Ar ib bi akhi& ki tosf g meri is gall te dit vichch tang d£ 
boni kinnki main tosAdil bor kakam h(t«al kaobh ghatt nabf n 
hoi? dew&ngi. Dhi&n Siggb nai is gall n&n angke dil viobch 
bahnt bar& manii balak nai din t« dob^n te dil Tidied fsrak 
haith gi6 ittbe tak ki ikk dtije Tidich vair ntpat ho gia. 

Thab)« dioiQ pichohhoi) Chet Singh n£me ikk manakkh 
nai jiB ndg kharak Singh pi&r&jtb^dis&Kharak Siggh nfin 
tXMi ki Vajlr Dbifin Siggh ikhd4 hai ki jad tak mainfio 
parM cbil annsir s&rf igi& k&ii oabig milegl tad tak main 
▼ajiri d& kamm achchM tarAg nahCn kariggi, ate aiUftQ 
jibing bor bi kai gall^g karke vajir ralog Eharak Siggh nfig 

J^ Dbiiin Btngfa aai soobiA ki munfig Ebafak ffisgh 
babat dnkh deweg^ t£n oa nai &p^9 baohfiu lai ih tatblr kf tS 
hi labb jagi ih gall pargat kar diili ki Ebafak Siggh at« 
Ohst Siggh aal Angr^&n dA ikk Balth kftf hu ar B&h&g ta 
4ir d« m^ chbe&Dl de^l kabdl kar lai hai to hn^ aiH faaj 

^.y Google 

( 47 ) 
ar wbhn&Q afMrito «U lardacig o&a U) binankar k«r dswegi. 
Ih kbabar Bin liohanr vioholi oggbi bo gai at* £h&Uf di 
pantb Eb8;ak Siegb b^q bare bbale vik kabi^ lagg pU, 
pbar Pbi^ Siogfa nu Eaqr Kaanibil Slygh n6g Pasaar te 
bnlti4 «r iu de d^ bE R^ QuUb Sicgb bi Labaar vicbcb 

\tiU at« us dfl bbii GaUb ^Qgb nai Kaoiiih&l Bi^gh 
ate qs di mia^ ar MabftMje Kbarak Sjngb Blin aib& babikfis 
ki onhiQ te Cbet Siggfa de m&t tittle (U flgi£ lai laE. Kaar 
NaaoMl Singh ar tis di m^og aai ib bf ikb ditU ki Mabirije 
Khafak Biggb v^dg kaid kar lavo atbwi ki^ her tar^n is nfin 
T^ de kamm k&r te qtir6 k»r deiro, 

Unhfig nai Kanr Naanih&l Singb ate tia Ai m&an n^n 
Eharak Si^f^h di mnliar de kai jbufbe kbat likhke, dikb^le 
kid«kbooliih khat bbejke Angrej^n n&l mildi bai. Kanoih^l 
Kogb di m&Q Au(rr<-jS.a 6i niag au«ke ajiM ^rf ki as nai 
fip9e bb»rt» nun kaid rakkh^^ achcbb^ samjbii. 

Jin ib aaUh pakki bo gal Mn Yajfr Dhiin Siggb ipman 
UurAw^B d» niil do ghi^g de ta^ke kile Tidhoh lu jagi par 
jfi pabnnchi ki jitthe Uab&vijfi Kba^k Singh saaodi himdi 
aA. Itthe inb&n nai Cbet Siagh nttg. Va^^hke Sbofak Singh 
afig kaid kar Uindi. Sin eba^bdo hi Eharsk Singh ain kile 
Tiohch kaid karke as de pntr Nannih&l Siggh ndn gaddi par 

Ifmnihdl Sigffh da ^ 
Thuhre diq&g piohohboo Wiii^ Siggh nai Ifannibil 
SittghdfcdUvadbiaga Ui giidhig, BrihmaniQ ar Jotiffio 
^fiQusi^koI bbej^^ibg^tll kahiiki Mabirij hnn tbnV 
( din^tiiQliabaKptclukeDeUiate BaBiraa fak tva&4& M 
74Jboj&9&blW* h tarfioDbiin Sigsb, Eanr de dil ntin 
TadUugdi ato ^rak Singb 4i ?alos dil Tidtch bbaim 

Digitizecy Google 

( 48 ) 
tiaaii handa s&. Ar at da balukj(iin« uasir oh Kbxiak 
K^gh Tklon sjibd gnsse ho rihi si ki jo ns d& oim bi darblr 
vidich kol lave t^n ib bnrtf nti nfim hintU ■&. 

Ffaer thnbre din^ pichchon Dfai^ SiQgb nn ih gtfi 
ptrgst kftf ki Hftb&r&j Ebai«k Siggh bim^r bai, u; it[M H 
de lal ajibe baklm tbari ditto ki iinhin na bfchire d& pakks 
iMj kitf artb&t IMii&D Singb de kab« amuir xxvbin nn Uck 
ajibE jahir dl porf dittf ki san 1S40 fsrf vicbcb Kounber d« 
mabiae nh mar gii(. Us velA Naanib&l Singh jo kifll sababb t« 
I«haDr Ticbch nahfn a& Mab&rije Kha^ak Sicgb nai lii 
nfig jM Ut& ki Nannihil Singb ofin in«re pfa litw, main us 
ndg iq>qa khtin m&f karfingi. Is ta maldm hnndi hai ki ns 
otin ih akin bo gi£ si ki nainug mere pntr Naooibil Singh 
nai bi kaid k{t£ ate m&ri& bai. JaQ Nannihal Singh pin do 
merae pichchhon Labanr vichcli ai& tin pnchcbhii ki B^fi 
borfui nai raarne de vele maintin }6d fciti ■& ki dsHq ? 
Tan Dhi&n Siggh nai kihti ki marne de vele anfa&g ndg 
Bndio ho gi& t&, is sababb jo kndih ns da. mfioboQ nikkaldi at 
ah saij&ni^e l^k naMn kidnki nh tiis&4i bAbat bnrttg bitig 
lnbind4 bL B^ fa£ na pi^ii Dbi^ Siggh nu jingds jl jo 
Namihti Singh nfig Ebafak SiDgb Talon phi^ cbhad^i'l si, 
nh l& ikk val ribi balak na de marne pifihohboii bi ia nfig} pin 
nil gnaae hf rakkhil Ffaer Nanaibjil Bingb nai dp ika jHa 
niig dih ditti ar sabb kamm k£r ipge dharm da pfire kite. 
Jag nttboQ sabb kamm kir pdra kar ke sahir ndn hafo tig 
luA Singh Sardir na de nil se kbis karke UHn ITdham Singh 
jo Biji Qalib Singh di vadi pntr si Naonihil Siggh do nti 
cbalii inndi ai, jig sahir de darrije vicbch pahagdia tii) 
darrija di banui ajibi (nftii ki ITdham Siggh ti nsdi saft 
nil^ttthe hi mar gii »: Kanr Naonihil Singh nfin pfikf' 
▼iohch pika Dhiin Singh kite Tidlich tai gli. Ehitbar 
nabig nb pilkf aUhe pabilig U kiun rakhit chaddi si. Jin 
kile de andor ja rare tin darriji band karke hnkam dilti- ki 

DigmzecDy Google 

( 49 ) 

koi ubHr na im. Bhfiwe h^hij\& Singh Majftbiya ate 
born^ SkrdMg fl»i p^l^ (i« n&l aadar varae d& babat U 
ind& kiti par JMia SJQgh nai ki^ it&n ca vara^ 
4tU4. ]Sor Sardir t& ikk val rabe, b^ilak ns i}i mfian ata 
Uiarto M jin ns d{ khabar lai? ^ Ug darTijo Ticboh 
U «tki£e gae. Us vele darv^je par htii b&i ate ro?^ pittn^ 
bahni hagdi ifi, par halti^e Dbi^ Siogb nai s^£ obibfivaM 
•a^keMkisan^g andar na varan ditt^ Tbabfl der picbcjihoo 
■^h ^ard^ laoh&r biofce jpj^^e gbar&g ntiD bat ga«. Fber j£q 
MMmihil Singb mar gii tin Dbi&D Bingb chor( us dl tniuB 
pip ika fikba^ laggi ki ba^ terft pott t& mar cbukk^ bai p^r 
je hof^e is gall ntig par^t karde bin t& Siggb lok r^j vicboh 
Ta4^ i^^^ P^ <'"9£°> ^° "'^'^ '^ "''^^ ''^ ^' I^ '' S'''^ "^P 
chbapi oba^j^o ar tnsfg gaddi pur baifbo asfn sabb lok tnb^^o 
bakam aoaar kanm k|rkarigge. Gall k&di nb is tar£n ^s 
ndi) sni^ samjbake ipije gbar niSn gia ata sabhn^n mnsdba- 
big nfiQ bal&ke sari bil snnii^ ate vadi bb^ tagid kit! ]^ 
b&l is khabar &£g pargat na honi dewo. 

Ib te piohobboQ lUiian Siggb nai ast vela ikk cbittl>f 
Jikhke MaJlSriije Mer Biggb ntig aabir Vntale te bukiit;ge 1^ 
bbejf ar as vicbcb ib gall likbi ki je dp Lnhanr de pida& 
J109& ch&hade ho tag 24 gbantiig ta andar Lab«ir Ticbch i 
j4o. J4p Mer Siggb Lahaor vicbch & pabngcbi tin pber 
a&re labir Ticbch 2Taantb&l Siggb da maroe df kbabar pargaf 
kftf. Jad (ok Mer Singh Lahaar nabfg vafia a& lad tak 
JUaanib&l Sinnb di bibat ibi pargat karde tahe jo oh sat( 
Jp^gge de sababb m^gdi bai. 

jlTannib^I Singh da name picbohbog jig i^ vicheh 
jbix^r pain Iagg$ t&n Dbiin Singh nai ib gall socbl bbat Je 
Cbandkor gaddi par baitbegi tig Saodbewiiie maintig ar 
mere bbariwin odg ei^e hodde te ieg degge, is karaa sire 
£ard4rig jiSg balitce hor hi pattt jmrbaog lagg pii bbai H« 
Siggho ih gait acbobbi nahfn maldm bandl ki Khilse d« 
panth utte iimi hakam oha)6v«, is lai ih bat jog hai ki riy di 

_,.„ Google 

t 50 ) 
fraddl ptr Hah&r£j« U«r SingTi nfin jo sijC nrlir Vali£r£J« 
lUijjft Singh Ai patr liai battiltf 7«. Ih ikfake thahrf jilil 
haj n£ii £pi)! Tal kar li& nte Mer Singh nfin gadill de^ di tat- 
Mr karan 1af;<;& Ih |^11 anplce Sandhewslie ate Bi)& O-aUtb 
iBiDgfa, M^ Chandkor df kammak la{ H£r faw. Dhlin Bingh 
nsi bakch£( paigd^ dekhka Mer Siggh ntio &khi& ki is vela 
J0Tadibh£r4jagl4otthaB v&Iabui tskiran tubiafig gaddC 
deol kafban hai, So bn^i tnsin YatlUe ntin obals jio, maig 
iraddf de^e d!& pskki np&a karke tab&ndg baKiwingA. Ih 
-Bn^ke kler Siggli Vst&Ie nlig gi& ar tip tfpf a vakti^n ats 
bbetf^n ndn Lahanrchbad^ke Jaramfi n<g dialii gii. Ar 
^pi^e loliln nfig ih bf &kh gi& ki Tasi^ fitnj ii<q Mer SiQgli 
'dl komniak w&U ti& karke nHunfiQ kfaabar bfafj^f. 

Dbi&n Singh de fidmi^Q nai ikk mahlne pichchhog 
Jammd vikhe X>bi£n Singh ntSn khahar bhejf ki aa^Q fanj n Ag 
tas44iTtommak wfote tiir kar chha^di* hai, tnsin Mer Sipgh 
n&n ndl laike Lahanr Tikhe ij&o. Ill snnke Dhiin Singh 
nai Mer Singh val Tattle likh bfaejii ki Tmfn S&lib&gw&le 
darv^je p^ £ke ti£r mho, maig Qtthe faiij laike tafa&nfio 
inil&ni>d. JUg Mer Singh £poa tinkn saa ghof-cbath^ I^ke 
Lahanr S^ldb&g de darr^je par pabnnch^ t&n nttbe Dlii&n 
Siggh nS^ n& d^hke bahot nd^ hoi& 3ui\& Singh ti£me 
is de ikk mns&hab nai tia nfin kib£ ki Tnafn nUa na howo^ 
tnaio bage tiri fanj nlin tas^d^ kammak viate Ui&Q Ulr dl 
-ehbinDt te lefitrndi h&R. Fanj nai pahil^s ^ Dbi&n Siggh 
de hnkatn te bttii Mer Singh df bakam kame niSn kabdl na 
kiU par pber Jnill Siggb de samjhiD^e karke fanj Mer 
Singh df bokom wiste tiArbo gae, jihiko dfije din aavere hi 
faoj de afsarig md Baddhd do five par tike Mahir&je Mer 
~ Biggb nfig Fate bnUf ar i\Al& Mah^rftj aafn sabb taside n£l 
big. lb kahike top&Q d{ salami karan lagg pse, ar sabh lok 
Mer BiQgh d^d Labanr d& Fftdafii £kbke TadhifiQ deq lagg 

Digitizecy Google 

1 51 > 

KaU^J KB BATaH ken ItnaACDAS. 

KxDff Iwi jin ke p£s wuh ahM Taqfn hain, 
Kh&ne ko anks ni'mates boo bihtarf a bain, . 
Eapre bh! ooka tan meg nibiyat mafafn haiQ, 
Samjhen baiQ wah ja is ko bare nakta-chln bainy 

Kaari ke Bab jahlEa men naqebo nsfcin haio, 
Eaaff Da bo, to"kaiiff ke" pbir "UuLtta"*faai9, 

Eanf! baj^k sote th» HhiM zamfh par,. 
Eaaj-f b£i to rabne lage sb&U'tiasbin par, 
Pafke sonabri bandb gayo j^on kl obin pa% 
Moti ke gDcbcbbe lag gaye gborog ke zia par, 

Kanrf ke kA jab&a men naq^b o na^fb haig^ 
Kaari na ho, to "kaar! ka" pbir "tiji tia" liaigi. 

Ktkuxi b{ oh&htf bai snd£ bfldsb^ ko, 
Kanri hi thAm leti bai fanj o aip&h ko, 
Lekar Gbbar{rnmfi> gad& bh( nib^ k*, 
PfairU hat bar dnk&Q pe kauri ki ob^ ko, 

Kanrf ke sab jab^n meg naqsh o iia(t& baii^, 
Ean^ "K ^9 to " ^»^^ ke." plui^ " ^ tin" baiQ, 

Kaoff na bo lo phir yili jhameU kab^ Be bo 1 

Balb'b^&aa, fll-kl^^a, (awela kabia se ho? 

Uqq^w^ 1(0 BJr faqir k& ohelfi kah&g se bo? 

Eaa[i na bo to bHq k& meU kabio se ho ? 

Kac^ ke sab jab&i meo naqsb o nagin baig, 
Kaort na ho, to " kao^ ke' phjr " tin tfa" haiQ. 

E£i}dbe pe tej^ dbarte bain kacf! ke wiat/i, 
Apoa men ^dn karte baig kaa^ ke w&atft, 
Yab&g tak to log marte bain kaof! ke w&ste, 
Jo jia de gazarke baii} kan^I ke v&aipf 

Kaorf ke sab jab^ men naqsh o nagln bainj 
Eanpf DB bo, to " kaaii ke " pbir " tin tin " baiQ. 

■to-baluld otuap-" • 

^.y Google 

( s» ) 

QSii m&T ^ite faatg kanr! ke tri^tfi, 
Sbarm o l^jfA ath&te haitl kanr^ ke wiste, 

Sta malk ohhfin &te hain kanfi ka w&ste, 
Ua^id ko dam men ^h&M baig kauri ke wisjie, 

Kanrf ke sab jab&n meh nnqsh nagfn baig, 
Eanfioaho, to" kaofi ke" pbir "do tin" baig. 

'Bm kanr^ "^ard&iye" ki barfibar bhl pat na tbi, 
KAQfl a! p&a, to ban baivbe " ae(b jf," 

^tce gnmisbton ke kbnli bar (araf habf, 

Fbir trail jo knebh kabe, to nnhf bit bai $abfl>, 

Kanf^ keeab jnb&n meg nnqsh o nafciD baig, 
Kaufi na bo, to " kaofl k« " pbir " tia tia " baig. 

Bin kanr! tbfg jo tel k( basi mangoriyig, 
l^an^i b£i to obbtitQe laglQ Iambi cbaariytin, 

T6n ^alq dauf{, makkhiyfig jug gnr pe dan^Jyitg, 
£bibq ne kyi bi cMz baniin haift kaof iyJiQ, 

Eaurt ke bab jabfin m^ naqsh o nafjfn faain. 
Kau^ na bo, to "kan^t ke" j^ir " do tin " haifl. 

Et^fe mal^t ntb&te baig kaoff ke tot se, 
Pakke ktinweg kbodite baig kauft ke zor se, 

Fnl aar sar& bao&ta baig kb lof ee, 
Bij^ cbaman legate bain kaufi ke zor ae, 

Eaafli ke sab jab&n men naqsfa o nagfn baig, 
Kanfi on ho, to "kanfi ke" phir "tin tin" baig. 

Im moflis anr faqlr se t& gbifa anr waztr. 
Kauri wnb diUmbtLbai ki bai sabke dil-pazfr, 

Dete bnin j^n kauri pe tifl o jaTT&nopfr, 
Eaofl 'ajab U cbfz bai, main ky& kaodQ Kagfrt 

Eanri ke sab jab&n meQ naqsli o nagfn batg, 
Eaar^ na bo, to " kaofi ke " phir " un tin " lukig. 

^.y Google 

( 53 ) 

Fafl mailAiyiys f^ 'ardor k^ a^wdl ffxg. 

Ini£n jia wsqt apne knUm so f^ri^ hdi, Badahib ne 
l^iirinoQ k( t^raf ^ay&l kiy & ; n£|i<ih ek mahfn 6vr&z kia meg 
ptfa&Qchl, dekhi to mabkhfyon k& sard^ Ya'sdb s&oiDe arU 
aar S]?ad& kf tasb^ aar tahlil men na^ma sardi karti hai ; 
p&chMtfi kaan bai ? Usne kahi mun t^asbrat-al-ar; k^ 
Udsh&h b&o ; farmay^ t6 Ap kyun £yd, jlatara^ aur t^aivr^uog 
&B apna q&^id aar wakil bhej?, tdne apni ra'iyat aur fan! 
M kill ko kflSg na bbej^? Usne kabi ma!g tie anke }fi] par 
■ba&qat anr mlbrbdaf ki, t^ki kiai ko kncbb taklif na pabdn- 
cbs. Bidshfih ne kabd yib wa?f aur kisi l^aiwin meo nabtg 
hai, tiyb-men kyanliar bd&, kah& mujb ko All^b Ta'^14 ne 
•pai 'ioSyat wa marbamat ee yib vTn;f aj;i kij£, is ke si?ra 
■nrbbfbahnt si bnzDrgty&Q anr k^6biy£i} bn^ahi haig. 
B&dtb&h Ds kahi kncbb bazurgiy£g apnf ba3'£n kar, ki Lam 
bhi Dta'Mm kareg. Uane kab& Allih Ta'£l& oe majfa ko anr 
mere jadd «a 6b£ ko Imbnt Si oi'matan ba^abin, ktal t^aiwia 
ko ns meg abarik cabin iiy&, obnnincbi malak wa nnblwat 
k£ martaba ham ko bak^ab& anr bam&re jadd wa ihi ko nasi 
dirnaala8k& wirsa pabanch£y£, ye do ni'maten aar kisf 
^iw&n ko nabin din, iake aior^ All&b Ta'<tl& ne bam ko 'ilm! 
Hin^ anr bahnt ai (no'aten sikbdin, ki apne mak^OQ ko 
■U^at ^fibi Be baa&te bain, tamim jnb^ ke pbal aar phtfl 
Wa par lfa\6\ kiye, be-Malish kbto baig, bamire In'&b m 
■habi ]Mud£ kiyfi, ki jia m tam£m insinon ko abiK t^gfil hotf 
kd ; ia foafUbe par ham^rf £jid Qar&ai n^iq baig, anr 
bafirfftirKtwaalrat AIll(bTa'&l&ki ^ao'at m qodrat par 
d^lng ks w&ste d^fl ha!, kyligki l^ikiat b&miii oiUyat 
W^anr fdrafc nipat 'ajfb bai, ia wii^ ki AHib TA'i\i. »« 
1mi^ jikm m«n lio jof nkUrte tii»|} Mob t« jor koumbb'a 

itizecy Google 

( 54 ) 
kfr^ i>t<^e ke dhir ko Umba, tar ko mndtwwBr htniyi, ebfir 
hith p&oQ iti^naiid ^1^'i slulcli mnsaddos ka nih^yat b^db! w 
moD&sib miqd&r ka baii& jtn ke saUb sisliast wa bai^&U karto 
haig anr ghar apne is ^ash nsldbl se ban&ta haig ki bawd ns ' 
meo bargiz nabln ji BHkd, ki jis ke b^'is bHiti ko yi hamftn 
baobchoQ ko taklif patiucobe, b&tb p&>n k( qawtrat sq dnra^t 
ke pbal paEta phtil jo kncbb pite bain apng inak&aon meg 
jama' kar rakbte ham, shinon par cb£r h&z& hanSe jin ke bi'ij 
ofta haig ^ar bam&rs 4^ut meg kucbb zahr bLi pnidi kiy&bai 
ki 09 ke aabab dashmauoQ ke abarr se iQalfidj^ rabte baig, aor 
gardan patlf banil ki dltbne b&en >ar ko ba-kbubt pberte baig 
•or OS ki donoQ taraf do £nkben rosban at£ kl bjUQ ki an Iti 
roahai ae bar ek cbfz ko dekbte bun, aar ingt)b bhC 
ban^yd hai ki )is se kh&ao kt Inzgat j^nte bai», do booth 
bbf d!ye jin ke sebab khine Vi chizeQ jaina^ karto 
aar bamftre pef ineQ qiiwnatt ba^imm aial ba^abf bai 
ki wuh TOtAh&t ko sbabd knr delf hai anr yibt shabd 
ir&sjte bam&re - anr aal&l ke gjtia^ hai ; jis tara^ 
cb&r-p£og ki pisUui meg qawwat dl hai ki ns-ke sabab ^ua 
mastal^il hokardddb hoj£t&bM, jj^ra^klyib ni'maten AWtih 
Ta'ilii oe bam ko *aifi ki baig, as ki sbtikr kah&g tak karen, 
iai wlUjie maig ne ralyat ke Ifil par shafaqat wa mifarb&iE 
karke apne fipar takUf raw& rakkbi oa meQ. M kisi ko na 

Jis waqt Ya'sdb apne kaUm se f&rif^ b&&, BidahSt d» 
!Mb&"^riQ ^ad^jrfn, tdnihflyai fa^Ib wa balij^ bai, sadb 
bu ki teresiwfiiye ni'maten AlMh Ta'&lfc do kisi ^wia 
ko nahio bak&sbig ;" ba'd iske pfiobb& teri ra'ijat wm siptil 
kab&Q bai ? Dans kah& file, pab^p, dara^t par, jab&D SBbbiti 
p&te, rahte baig ; anr ba'ye &dm!yoQ ke mnlk meg j& kar 
na ke gbaroo meg sakdnat i^tijdr karte baiQ. B£dsh£h n» 
pdchfai DD ke b&th ae kytinkar salimat rahtokaie? Kahi 
bealitar im s» dtb^ lur ajnu tain bMlM^ft luis B»8v kabfai 

^.y Google 

( 55 ) 

jom qalifi p£t« bain, taklfF date hain, balki I'kgnr chhattog 
lio to; kar bacbchon ko in£r 4<ilte baii] anr sbabd nik&l kaf 
ipas men kh£ lete hain. B&lsh£h na puchbft phir tam is 
falm pnr on ke kydgkar ^abnrkarta bo? UHnakali^bamjili 
fitlm sab apoe fipar gaiT^r& korta bain anr kabbf '^Jiz bokar 
nn k« mnik se nikal jita baig, aa waqt we ^abl; ke wia%a babafc 
hila pasli karto bain, tarab t^rab kf sao^.^t 'itr wn k^asb-bd 
■wnghMra bhejtc bain, {abl wa daf baj£te bain, gj^araz ki 
tnwjt* waaqiim ke taifte tal^^if dakar ham ko ri^i karte 
faain, ham&re mis^j men sbarr wa fas^ naMn bai, bam bhf nn 
se gulb kar Iet« baig no ke y abin pbir obale ^te hairj tia par 
bbf ham m rfi^f nabfg bun, baghair dalU wa ^QJjat ke da'wjt 
icarte bug ki bam m&lik yib g^aUm baig. 

Faftjinne^ it apnt badikdhoi^ auraarddro^ H 
'itd'at ke bayan meii. 

Ba'd iake Ya'adb ne Biuishdb ae pfiobbi ki jinn apns 
b4dsbih wa raia kf ijti'at kis taral} karta baig ? Is ii,\yn&\ ko 
ba;&n kfjiya. B&dsb^h ne kahi ye aab apae sard&r kf iti'at 
va &rm&n-banl£r{ ba-kji&bl knrte bain, anr li&dshih jo Ijnkm 
karUbai na ko baji liie bain. Ya'adb ne knb^ ns k& 
mnfa^al baj&i kJjije. B&dsh^ ne kaba jinnon kl qsam meQ 
oak wa bad anr mnsalmin wa kifir bote haiQ, jis taral> 
ins&non meQ baig, jo ki nek bain wnb apne rais kl it&'at wa 
fann&g-bardirf ia qndr karte bain ki iilm(jrog se bbi nahfg 
bo aaktf, ts wfuta ki i)4'nt wa farm£n-bardiir{ jinn^t kS migl 
sitirog ke bai, kyfigki Xft&b ia mag ba-manzila i b^sh&h 
ke bat anr sab siUire baj£ fanj wa ra'fyat ke baig, chnn^gobi 
Uirrikb sipib sil&-, Hnihtarf qiizf, Znbl k&az^obf, 'Ut^rad 
wazfr, Zabra barMi> MithUlb wali-'abd bai, anr siUlre gojk 
Eaoj wa ra'ijat hug, ia wfieta ki aab ^EUb ke tibi' baig anr 
oaf ki Ifarakat ae tfarakst karte bug, wob jo (hair rahti bai 
«b mutawaqqif bo j^ baig, apne ms'intil m Ij^add m 

itizecy Google 

( s« ) 

Iflj^waz nahlQ ^arte. 'Yu'afib nft pQcbb^ utarog ne ylb ^^bf 
itd'at wa inUafim k! VaUq se b^il ki ? B^sbab oe kabi vib 
faiz in ko firishtog se Ij^il bai, ki ve sab AllaJi Ta'&l& kl fanj 
haJQ aar ua kf it^'at karto bain. Ya'sdb oe kab£ firisbtOQ 
ki iti'at kis taur par bai ? Kahd jis tnnb i^awjb i lEbunift 
D&ffl i ni^qa ki itji.'*i karte baio, tahEfb wa t^b ke nii4>t&j 
nabfg. Ya'aiib ne kaM ia ko mnfaf^ (uTtaiija. Bidsbih 
ne kiAi ki haw^ i ^amaa naif i n^qa ke w£ste mal^tfiEAt ko 
dary^ft WE ma'lim karne meg mob^^j cmr wa nabl ke naUs 
baig, }is sbai ke darytft karne ke lije wnh maUwajjili hotf 
bai wa be-t««mmal wa bil£-t£kb(r n* ko ddirf sbai ae nmioUtf 
kark« nafe i ii4j;iqa ko p^idgchi dete baig, id taral> firiabta 
^ad& k{ ili^'at wa farm^n-bard&rf men ma^rtif rafate bain, 39 
hnkm botil bat ns ko Blfaiir beja late haig ; anr jinnon meq 
jo ki bad-s& wa kAiir bain barchand ki t^aiir wnqft'i bidsbab 
ki ii^'ai nabin karte, magar we bH bad-z&t ins&noo se bibtar 
haig, ia \ris\a ki ba'ja jinnoQ ne b^wujfid ktifr wa j;aBi-Mbf 
ke Salurolin kf i£A'at Doeg qo^ur nabig kija, barcband ki 
nnbon ne 'amal ke zor &e babnt ranj wa mn^Ebatey 
pabuacbafn, par je nokf farmdn-bardari meg saint qad^m 
rabe anr jo kabbi koi Admi wfritae j& jaag^ meg jinn 
ke ^aaf is kacbb dn'& aiir kal&m pa^btd bai, jab talak us 
mak^n meg raht;4 bai kief tarnt^ h& tanj as ko nabIg dete ; 
agar ha-^asb i ittifaq kol jinn Wsi 'aarat j& mard par mosaUit 
hi& &nr Wd 'iimil n« wab&g u ki rihii k« wfiste jionog ke 
rais ki l^flr&t anr daVat ki, ^anr bbig jite bain ; iske 
aiwi in ke b^so i iji^'ai par yib dalit liai ki ek b&r paijjj^nibar 
(Utir nzsam&a " tail alldi 'aiaiie wa alaki va >«y!iin" kisi 
mak&n meg Qar^n pa^bte tbe, wab^ jinnog kA gn^ar bfi^ 
yaote bi sab k« sab jansalii&a b6e anr apni qaom okq j&ksr 
Intncgi ko iai&n ki da'wat ikarke ni'mat i im&n ae bahra 
aodw ki^ obaDindii cband &y&t i Qan&Bi is oMti^ddaDae p«r 

^.y Google 

( 57 ) 
ihirk Tn n!f«q bbarfi hai, nrjaar mntakabbir ^n mn^rfir 
lloie haig', bealitar akb? i maiifci'at ke -nisffl (arfq i Lid^yat M 
mona^srif bokar muslirik tva incrtldd ho j^te Lain, hamesba 
ifii zaniiii par qit£livajldfil men m.i^rfif raLtehain, bnlki apne 
pu|^aiiibaroQ kf bLi it&'ut naMn karte, ba-wnjud mu'jaze am 
kaxiatta ke ^if mnnkir hoj&i» bain, agar kabbig&liir meg ita'at 
fcartd hain par dil an k& shirk wa nifa^ bo kh^li naLfn hai, 
■z bai^kijahil vagam-rab bain, ktsi bat ko nahin aamiijhte, 
Hm par fib daVi hai ki bam miUilc nor sab bam^re i^ul6m 

Ins&non ne jo dekli& ki B>tdsh6h makkbiyoQ ke rafs u 
bun-kalto ho nib^ hai, kahne lags, nib^yat ta'ojjub hai kl 
BwUhili ke nazdfk Ijashr^t-til-ar; ne mis k& yib ratba hai ki 
kisi (piwia k£ nabin. Jinnog ki qinm se ek l^akim ne kahii 
u bdt fca taai ta'ajjiib na karo, is w&s^b ki Ya'slib makkhfyog 
U sordjtr ngarcht jism met} cfafao(& anr mnnl^anf bai, lekia 
mlKijrat '£qit ira dioA aar tamfim ^shTat-cI-ar; k£ rais wa 
WA^b !»■» j>^e b>>«v&n haig sab ko riydsat wa saltanat ke 
tlfkiin ta'Km karUi hai, anr bjdsh&bon k& yiht ma'mdl bai ki 
apB0 lum-jinson so jo ki saltanat wa riy^t meg sharlk h»g, 
bam-kaJAm bote hun, agarchi we shakl wa q&rat meg mnkb^E 
keweOr yih kll*y^ apne dil meg na ]io ki B&dsh&h kit! gbaray 
wa wt4fab ks wM* onU (uafiUrf wa ri'&yat kuU hai. 

^.y Google 

( 58 ) 

The following is the system of tranalitflrftlion wbich ws 
bare adopted — proTisionallj — far the Society's pablicatiou. 
Ws hj no means wish to cneck farther discussion, but it i$ 
Bsoeuary to adopt some sfstem, provisionally, in order Uiit 
the Society's work may progress, and that thos* wUo ■» 
viUJDj; to follow onr lead may be able to do bo. 












































U gllllQIl 









(zabar or tatha) 
(aer or kur.) 



(zuama or peah) 




















,1,1.0, Google 

( 30 ) 


I. Sobjeetto such modificatioiis as an indicated hy 
Am ibove kejr or by subsequent rules, Forbes' DictioQRry is 
tecognizpd ns the stnndurd of ortliDj;ra;ili}*, mid atiould b4 
consolted in all cases oF doubt. TLie student mast, lion-ever, 
nmember to substituto " q " Wbore Forbes uses n dotted "h." 

It tb« rpabol "taahdid" is sspreued bjr dgabling 
flw MnsoaaBt. 

III. The imp«roeptibIe "b" or i tno^tofi at Urn end 
«f tword is omitted. 

IV. Tbe sign "Iiamsn" is (generally otnittKl. Whfn 
bovever it laaj bo considered necessary to divide ttvo Towelt 
or co&sonanta in order to ensure their separnte prononcia* 
tion tbis sliould be doBo by inserting a coiBina or dash 
botveea them' 

V. Worda hn'mg iha fonn (U or ^» are urittea u 

Words hsfing the torm '«*% or '"'* are vritten at 
Jam's, daTa:. 

VI. "Words reqniring "Tanwtn" in the Persian are to 
be writteD iritb "n," without any distiiictira innriE. 

VII. In rapid irriting— not intended for tbe press— ill 
diacritical marks may l>e omitted, with tliis exception tbiit the 
long Towelfi & loud & should always retaia dteic distiuguihlo^ 

In rapid writing — not intended for the press — tli9 
■poBtropha for ^ may aUo be omitted. 

Vm. Where foreign words occur, the writer may, at 
Ua discretion, retiin the otiginnl orthography or adopt the 
phonetic equivalent. If tbe word has been ossimiliited— 
W ibe writer wubes it to be nsaluiilxted — as an Urdfi word, 
it is better to spell it phonetically. IF, oit tbe otiier band, 
there is no wish tfi assimilate the work — as, for instanoa 
with the names of persons— the originnl 8|ielling is prefer- 
able. In this case, the words should always be written 
between inverted commu, to indicate that it it not spelt 
{ihonatically. ;» 

Kvn. — A. key to fiTonnneiatioa will be fotincl^id ForboiC. 
r ud «Uo ia fiolroyd'i Xas-liU-al-iuUm.- 

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^ Tbe otijeets of fliis Joarntil, and of the Sodety nitli 
wbich it is cciiinecfed,nro explained br the serira of Beso- 
latianB pnassd at the Meeting orgnnising tbe Societr, uid 
by the Statement of ReaKoits, both of which wen p aoliifi&d 
ia the fint nnmber of tLis Joaraftl. 

liVe ask oil who are interested in the movement to piv* 
SB tlieir siifi^ort. Those who may wish to join the Society 
ace reqaested to send their names, with the Subscriptioni for 
the yfur, lis. ti, to P. 8uott, Esq., Secretary, Jioman-UrdA 
Societt/, Labore. Meinbera nill receive a copy of the 
Journal. Friends in England are asked to seed their snb* 
•oripllons (and any literary coBlribntiona with which they 
nay favor tu) to onr Euglisb Secretary, F. Drew, Esq-, 
Eton College, Windsor. 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Reeolntions, 
pasted at tbe Heeting on the S5th May 1878; and invite 
(lonBtioiu to the "Xransliteration Fund." 

Iliere are many symtrathiaers with the nsovement who 
have not yet tent in their naniea and snbscription. We 
trnst that they ivill nowdo to, and that they will also help 
ns by canvassing for fresli memben, and by circniating oar 
Jonroal amongl)oth Europeans and Natives in the etaliooa 
vhere they reude. 

Contribntiong on any of the variooe subjects connected 
with translitentioQ, translatiea and ednoation geDeralljr, an 
MTOMtly KliflUad ttom tfewbcn of Uu fioeiet/. . 

Digitizecy Google 


Vol IV. MAY 1881. No, 36. 


The Calcutta Review for April contains an article by a 
Bengali writer — Mr, Syamacharan Ganguli— entitled "A 
Universal Alphabet and the Translit^ation of Indian. 

We commenced the reading of this article with interest, 
Iioping to find in it a cordial appreciation of the efforts of 
our Romanizing friends in Bengal, and some praflical 
su^estioas for their assistance. 

We have finished the reading with disappointment, 
and are compelled to admit that the article is one of those 
produdions which bring upon Bengali writers the charge 
that they write for the mere sake of writing, without the 
slightest regard to praftical results. 

To judge from the commencement of Mr. Ganguli's 
essay, one would suppose him an enthusiast in our cause. 
He begins by a distinfl recognition of the importance of a 
common alphabetic system for the whole world. Then,— 
disregarding the loud assertions of his brother Bengalis 
that the Bengali alphabet is intrinsically superior to the 
Roman— he tells us without hesitation that " Everything 
points to the Roman alphabet with necessary modifications, 
ultimately superseding all other forms of writing." The 
word " superseding" is stronger than those we are in the 
habit of using. We have no wish to " supersede ' existing 

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forms of Oriental writing. We merely ask OrientalB to 
accept the Roman in addition. 

Mr, Ganguli's apparent " Radicalism " does not stop 
here. He professes to be a staunch advocate of " phonetic" 
writing. The difficulty which troubles most transliterators, 
when they encounter a word, the pronunciation of which is 
not in accordance with the ordinary power of the letters 
forming it, is no difficulty to Mr. Ganguli. He has do 
hesit&tioR in such cases. He considers that phonetic spell- 
ing would be a " blessing to mankind," and he is anxious 
to " sweep away " a " vicious system of orthography." 

Nor is this all, Mr. Ganguli distinctly recognises the 
Jonesian system as substantially the basis on which trans- 
literation should be undertaken. He appears to attach but 
little weight to some of the objeftions that are brought 
agiunst it. For instance, he tells us, with truth, that 
" modification by dots above or below a letter is a thing quite 
familiar to Indian populations," and again that " agreement 
about characters to be newly coined would be harder to 
arrive at than about the employment of dots or other marks." 
It is true that Mr. Ganguli o&ers suggestions — most of them 
frivolous or fantastic— as to the amendment of the ordinary 
Jonesian alphabet, but in its general principles he accepts 
it, — as indeed his way of spelling his own name proves. 

Yet with all this Mr. Ganguli proceeds to the following 
unqualified condemnation of recent efforts to introduce the 
Roman charafler in Bengal : — 

Mr. J. F. Browne has recently come forward as an 
enthusiastic champion of the transliteration of Bengali by 
Roman letters. Mr. Browne wishes our countrymen well, 
and earnestly believes that the change he advocates would 
do them good. We are very thankful to Mr. Browne lor 

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his good intentions. Nevertheless, we must declare our 
belief that his attempt is premature, his system very faulty, 
and his proje£t altogether doomed to inevitable failure. 
His attempt we believe to be premature for the following 
reasons : — If England, France, Germany and Italy, with all 
their culture and progressiveoess cannot be made to adopt 
a commoD system of sound representation, although the 
charaflers these nations use are the same or substantially 
the same, can it be for a moment believed that Indians, wi^ 
all their ignorance and their dogged conservatism, would 
readily give up their traditional systems of writing for one 
wholly different from them ? The fa£l ^ain that the 
movement proceeds from a foreigner, and he of the con- 
quering English race must necessarily evoke a large amount 
of hostile sentiment, and the more so because the English 
abuse of the Roman alphabet is a patent faft. The 
necessary preliminary to inducing Indians and other Oriental 
peoples to adopt a system of writing that would bring them 
into closer communion with the West, must he, we conceive^ 
a "European concert" in the matter of spelling. Tilt 
such concert is attained, enthusiasm about a universal sys- 
tem of spelling should appropriately confine itself to reduc- 
ing to one unifonn standard of writing hitherto unwritten' 
languages. One should first set one's own house in order 
before one seeks to introduce order abroad. Europe, with 
her offshoots in America and elsewhere, must come to a 
mutual understanding in the matter of spelling before any 
attempt is made to change the alphabets of nations out of 
Europe and of non-European origin. 

There is such a jumble of arguments in this paragraph 
that it is difficult to analyse them satisfaftorily. Let us take 
first the assertion that the proposed system of translitera- 
tion is very faulty. In support of this assertion Mr. Ganguli 

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details the following defefls ; " (■) non-pho.ietic conven* 
tions common to Mr. Browne's and the Bengali system of 
writing; (2) non-phonetic symbols peculiar to Mr. Browne's 
system ; (3) capital letters and small letters very materially 
differing for the most part in shape from one another, and 
one set of characters for writing, and another, auteiially 
different, for printing." 

As to the first of these complaints, we may be quite 
sure that Bengali authorities are themselves divided in opin- 
ion. If they have not had sufficient courage to substitute 
phonetic for etymological spelling where their own alphabet 
is concerned they can scarcely complain, because Romanizers 
in the early stages of their own special work sometimes 
hesitate to take this further burden upon themselves. It is 
fairly a question for argument. If Mr. Ganguli and those 
who think with him will join the Akskara Sabka, their influ- 
ence will have due weight in determining the question 
now. Whether they join or not, Romanizing will not weaken 
the claims of phonetic spelling in the future. As soon as 
the Bengalis themselves express a decided opinion in favor 
of the proposed phonetic changes, those who are not Bengalis 
will be willing enough to accept them. 

Under his second head, " non-phonetic symbols, 
peculiar to Mr. Browne's system," Mr, Ganguli seems to have 
brought together all the miscellaneous criticisms that it was 
possible for him to think of, with equal indifference to con- 
sistency of principle on the one side, and to convenience of 
practice on the other. The substance of many of these 
criticisms is this :— that Mr. Browne has shown more regard 
to Mahometan etymology and Mahometan pronunciation in 
words of Mahometan origin than Mr. Ganguli — as a Hindu— is 
prepared to give. There are several millions of Mahometans 
in Bengal, but their claim to exercise some influence on the 

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language and literature of their own province oagbt, H 
seems, to be wholly ignored. 

Whatever we may think <rf Mr. GanguU's first two 
grievances, his third complaint against the transliteratioa 
system of the Akshara Sabha is simply ridiculous. We 
have already stated that Mr. Ganguli, while posing as an 
advocate of the Roman alphabet, suggests some fantastic 
changes in its use. One of these is to the effeft that 
Roman capitals should be assimilated in shape to the 
small letters, — differing from them only in size. Another 
is that we should substitute italics for our ordinary type, 
in order that the difference between Roman print and 
Roman script may be less marked than it is at present. 
Because our Romanizing friends in Bengal have not 
thought proper to adopt these frivolous su^estions, Mr. 
Gangnli refuses his support to the great reform they have 
taken in hand. ! 

Reverting to the paragraph of Mr. Ganguli's euay 
which we have given m extenso, we would invite attention 
to the unfriendly spirit which underlies it, as well as to 
the inconsistency of its logic. 

Mr. Ganguli resents the proposals of our Romanizing 
friends because some of them are Englishmen — or as he 
puts it — "foreigners." At the same time he conceives 
that a "European concert " in the matter of spelling must 
precede any attempt to induce Orientals to adopt a system 
of writing that would bring them into closer communioa 
with the West. He strains at a gnat, but is willing to 
swallow a came). 

Mr. Ganguli appeals to the "ignorance " and "do^ed 
conservatism " of his fellow countrymen as reasons for not 
teaching them the use of the Roman alphabet. To wbaC 

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ctau of Indians do these scornful terms apply? Th^ 
wholly illiterate have no prejudices for or against the 
Roman chara£ter. The pupiht in our Government schools 
evince no "dogged conservatism." They are willing to 
learn anything and everything that the Sarkir may choose 
to teach them— provided that Government bears the cost. 
The obstinacy to which Mr, Ganguli refers has its root in 
the class of which. Mr. Ganguli is himself a representa> 
tive. Natives of India who have received the advantages of 
an English education themselves, bolt and bar the door of 
progress against their less fortunate countrymen, stand 
with their backs against the panels, and then refer us t« 
the "digged conservatism" of the Indians. "Conserva- 
tives " less " dogged " than Mr. Ganguli and his frientfe 
will be willing to give Romanizing a fair trial, though they 
nay avoid committing themselves to premature expres- 
sions of approval, or too sanguine anticipations of success. 
This common-sense view of the question does not sug- 
gest itself to Mr. Ganguli. We must take his article as it 
is — on inconsistent though chara6tcristic combination of 
Radical socialism with Tory obstru6livenes3. Cosmopolitan 
talk on one page ; the narrowest of Bengali prejudices on 
the next. 

Mr. Ganguli has written eighteen pages on a Uni- 
versal alphabet, but we may rest assured that he will never 
lift a finger to secure the praftical success of the Roman 
charafter, or of phonetic reform. 


We congratulate our friends in Bengal on the appear- 
anM of the above named work in the Roman charader. 
We trust it will be followed by a series of similar translitera* 

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tions. In our next number we propose to give the Editor's 
Bfcface, Iff exteKso, with some comments by ourselves. A 
noteworthy feature in the publication is this :— It was 
put into type tn less than one month without the inierven' 
tion of a manuscript transliteration. The transliteration 
was done by the compositors themselves from a printed 
copy in the Bengali chara£ler. 

{From the "India Mirror.") 

The following reply has been received by the Britiib 
Indian Association to its letter to the Government of 
Bengal on the use of the Kaithi or Roman jhara£ters in 
the language of the Courts in Behar : — 
General Department (Miscellaneous), No. 335. 

From— C. S. BavLEV, Esq., Officiating Under-Secretary 
to the Government of Bengal, 

To— The Secretary to the British Indian Association. 
Calcutta, the 31st March i88t. 

Sir,^I am dire6ted to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 28th February, t88t ; and in reply, to say that 
the Lieutenant-Governor does not consider it necessary or 
desirable to discuss the general question of Romanisation 
raised by the British Indian Association ; that is a matter 
upon which many conflifting opinions are held by equally 
competent persons on either side. The orders to which 
the Association take exception are intended to relieve the 
disabilities which would otherwise be imposed under 
recent changes on a small class of Mabomedan Pleaders, 
and their operations may, perhaps, serve to throw some 

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light on tlie praAical working of a system of Romanisa- 
tion, and so be of service ultimately in the settlement of 
the cootroversies now current on that subjefl. 

I have the honor to be, 
Your most obedient servant, 
Offg. Under-Secretary to 
the Government of BengaU 


It is sometimes said by our opponents that lithography 
in Persian is cheaper than type-printing in Roman. The 
following eztra£ls from a letter by the Revd. E. M. Wheiry, 
of the L4idhiana Mission, (who has bad experience in ' pub- 
lishing of both kinds) prove that this statement is 
.erroneous : — 

" I promised to gire you an estimate, shewing you 
the relative coat of publication in Roman and Persian 
character, (t) Let it be noted that all printing must, for 
the present, be done by lith<^^phy so far as the Persian 
cbarafler is concerned. No type has yet been constructed 
that is fit (or printing this charaCt^ . A triend of mine, 
the late Revd. Dr. Warren, who introduced the first Press 
into the North* Western Provinces, and who was apra£UcaI 
printer, told me that five hundred charaflers and combina^ 
tions were required in order to get a perfeCl Persian type \ 

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This is neai\y as bad aa' the Chinese fount (3.) tof 
istinate is for the new Testament. A small sized edition of 
die Bible was published in Roman-Urdu at Mirzap<ure. In 
this edition, the new Testament portion covers 288 p.p. 
i2mo. indoublecolumns, size type, Bourgeois. We publish* 
ed a small edition of the Bible in Persian-Urdu last year 
at Ludiana. The size was the same (i2mo.), but instead' 
of double colunuis with verses printed as separate paragraphs, 
we printed without double columns and without para< 
graphing the verses. This of course enabled us to econo* 
mise space — each verse beginning where the preceding 
verse ended. Nevertheless the New Testament portion 
covered 476 p.p. written in as small a chara£ter as is easily 
l^ble. As it is, it is not as legible to a Persian reader 
as Bourgeois type h for an English reader. The point I 
wish to call especial attention to is the expense and 
the delay of publication. 

(a). As to expense the following estimates fox the 

New Testament ah-eady referred to will speak 

for themselves :— 
A. — Printing 1,000 copies in Persian- 
Urdu by lithography, 476 pages @ 

Re. I per p^ge 
Paper for do., 42 Reams % Rs. 6 ... 


Rs. 476 

» 252 

» 728 

Printing dt. in Bourgeois Roman 
type, there being 288 pages @ 
Re.j.13 per page 

36 Reams paper @ Rs. 6 

Rs. 523 
„ '56 

Total ... 

„ 678 

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h.^— Lithography, 3,000 copies, Penian, 

476 pages @ Re. r-8 per page ... Ra. 714 o a 
84 Reams paper @ Rs. 6 

,. „ 504 
Total ... „ 1,318 o 

Printing 3,000 in Roman, 388 p.p. 

@R8-3-3 ... ), 630 o o 

53 Reams paper ($ Ra. 6 ... „ 313 o o 

Total ... „ 943 o o 

C. — Lithographing 3,000 in Persian, 476 

pages @ Rs. 3 ... Rs. 953 o e 

136 Reams paper @ Rs. 6 «.. „ 756 o o' 

Total ... „ 1,708 o 

Printing 3,000 in Reman, 388 p.p. 

@ Rs. 3-6 ... Rs. 683 S o 

73 Reams paper, @ Rs. 6 ... „ 

o o 

Total ... I, 1,151 80 

Tbe type>priotIng becomes relatively cheaper, the larger 
tbe edition, steam power would reduce the above estimates 
very considerably on large editions. But for lithography 
after 5,000 have been printed, the stones would require 
renewing to do good work — then often these stones break, 
bringing not only loss of capital but also extra expense in 
rewriting the whole form rendered useless by the breaking 
of the stone. Lithography can never compete with ^pe 
in large editions. Again the delay in printing by litho- 
graphy is vexatious. To secure uniformity enetnan should 
write for each book separately, 1*. e., two men, who inva- 
liably write a different hand, should not write bom the same 

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book. It.took tiro men nearly two yean to prepare th« 
Btones for Peraiao-Urdu Bible alone 1 The American News 
Company propose to put the revised English Testament in 
type within 34 hours after the first of the English edition 
copy is issued in America 1 They will no doubt do it. 
Bat such a work for lithography would be well nigh impo9> 
^ble, and when done would lack uniformity in charafler. 
Again the binding of the editions estimated for above 
would be very much more expensive for. the Persian than 
for the Roman, the former being within a little of being 
twice as thick as the latter. 

The increase in the expense of printing, of binding, 
cost of paper, weight for transit by rail or post, not to 
mention the de'ay in publication, alt these seem to me to 
clearly doom the Persian chara£ter as a medium for 
extensive publication, 

I might have given another estimate for a Roman Tes- 
tament in Minion or Nonpareil type, which would stilt be 
perfectly legible, and yet would cost, perhaps, scarcely more 
than half the sum estimated for Bourgeois type. But the 
•bove will sufficiently illustrate my meaning. 



(Continited ffoat " IjtdUrt Pitili: Opinion.") 

In our former article on this subjeft we were barely 

able to do more than suggest some few of the advantages 

which would acTue to India from the substitution of 

the one Roman cbara£ler for ths many diverse alpha- 

bets of India ; we propose now to consider those 

advaot^es more tn detail. It may be said roughly, 

fbat, with the exception of Tamil andTelugu, all tho 

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various languages of India, spoken or literary, spring froid 
two great stocks, Sanskrit and Arabic ; Persian occupying 
an intermediate position, being in its otigia dosely allied to 
Sanskrit, but owing a large part of its vocabulary to Arabic. 
Yet how are the affinities of sister languages reiled and 
obscured by the .multiplicity of characters employed in 
writing, and peoples closely conne£led with one another, 
thereby debarred from communion of thought, cut off and 
isolated in their separate efforts towards higher civilisation 1 
The languages sprung dire6lly from- Sanskrit are written in 
no less than five different literary alphabets, — Devanagri, 
Bengali, Gurmukhi (Panjabi\ Gujarathi and Uriya ; and 
though all these alphabets are merely different varieties of 
the original Devanagrt, they are now so perfeftly distinft, 
that a knowledge of the Devanagri is by no means a mas- 
ter-key to the reading of the rest, nay, it is even at times a 
hindrance, as many a student of the Panjabi must know. 
Beiiides these literary alphabets there are numerous others, 
used principally by particular classes, non-literary alphabets, 
the Kaithi, Mahajani, Landi, &c., every one not rapidly 
Written,' and almost illegible to any but those who have 
written it, a serious obstacle to business. To these, in 
estimating the walb of separation which needlessly sub- 
divide the peoples of India, we must add the Perso-Arabic 
alphabet, which in its printed form is indeed pleasant totbe 
eye, but which in its written shikaiia form is unsightly, 
most difBcult to read, and subje^ to no normal type, but 
varied and twisted at the whim of the writer. What a gain, 
would it not be, if for these many alphabets we coold 
substitute the simple Roman character, that adopted by the 
universal consent of all the foremost nations of the world. 
the only one in use among the nations of Europe^ 
(except Russia, Greece, and to some extent G^rmaoy,) over 

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tbe nhole Aneriean cootinent, and now being gradtfaltf 
introduced amoog the Africao tribes by the Missionaries. 
Tliat tbe substitution is possible, nay easy, may be sbowa 
in theory and has been proved by experiment. The radical 
error of all the alphabets of India is the same, the making 
vowels altogether subsidiary in the scheme, representing 
them by dashes and dots, often not even by those, and 
treating those symbols of sound, without which consonants 
are mute, as of little account ; and a further error akin to 
tbe other, is " the doflrine of the inherent vowd," that it 
to say that each consonant when written in conjunAion 
with another shall have the letter K, sounded after it, unless 
tbe contrary be expressly indicated. The consequence of 
tbis is in the Devanagari alphabet that there are almost 
countless combinations of consonants, all requiring sepa- 
rate forms to show that the inherent vowel is not to 
be sounded, as we have said is the case, when simple 
Consonants are placed In juxtaposition. A complete 
fount of the Devanagari alph&bet requires no less 
than 900 separate types, and it may easily be imagined 
bow large must be the IniCial cost ofit, as also how 
confusing to a compositor must be ' so large' a case,' 
Besides, the smallest size ' in which it has been found 
possible to cut -the 'type is much more bulky than 
bold Roman. Printing is therefore more costly, books 
■re less portable, and finally the character is much 
less easily r^ad, so much so, that Professor-Williams 
gives it as his experience' that students at Hailey* 
bury could seldom read tbe Sanskrit charafter readily 
till after four months, and it is certain that many 
an Indian pandit would not read a Sanskrit book witii 
tiie same fluency as an English school boy would read 
-Krend); If we turn to- the. Persian cbaraCter we fiiM) 

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•ImiUr dif9culties, It is true that, by the use ' of vaHoas 

dtacrittcal marks above and below the letters which are 
alone considered worthy of distinft representation, we 
can indicate the pronunciatioa with absolnte certain^; 
bat at how great a cost of time and apace? Persian so 
printed would probably take up three times the space it 
DOW does, it would perplex and weary the eye, and the 
chances of error would be infinitely multiplied by the 
number of minute signs which would have to be inserted ; 
and so the chief claim of that character to retention, tfa« 
ease and rapidity with which it' can be written, would be 

What then are the obje£tioas to the substitution 
of the Roman for the Oriental alphabets ? It is that the 
Devanagari is a sacred alphabet ? That can scarcely be, 
as in Bengal and Southern India Sanskrit is written in 
the Vernacular chara£ter, and in Upper India the Persian 
alphabet,— the alphabet of the Mughal conquerors, — has 
gupplaated the Aryan typo in spite of its many deficiencies 
in representing native sounds. Is it then that there is a 
itrong .antipathy among the natives against it? We think 
tbat.can scarcely be' the case, for we imagine that the 
Tast unlettered mass of the people can care very little 
about the matter, and we feel certain that a large class 
woul.d be greatly in favour of any system which would 
enable English ma^strates themselves to read their 
petitions, and themselves to go through the items of a 
banker's account without the intervention of a oative 
derlt- la tbe.obje^ott then that the Roman letters are 
inadequate to express the native sounds? Thiswc think 
can hardly be affirmed seriously. The sounds of the 
(OOMfiantSt with a.few exceptions, easily dtstinguiabed by 

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Aacritical marks, ut identical in all, and the vowels uod«r 
Sir W. Jones's system, though originally adapted to the 
Devanagari alphabet only, exa£tly express the sounds of 
those in Persian and Arabic also. For ain {() a separata 
diara£ter might be necessary, but that does not interfere 
materially with the value of the system, as the addi- 
tion of one character to the alphabet could be easily 
made. If it be said that the numerous diacritical mark* 
are a serious impediment to rapidi^ and accurate', 
we answer that pot only are they few indeed as compared 
with those employed io Persian, where nearly every 
consonant has its appropriate dot or dots, but also that 
tiiey can, in printing, be almost entirely dispensed with by 
the use of italics, as indeed Max Muller does. 

Up to this point we have tried to show that, theoretical* 
ly, the change is both devrable and feasible. We shall now 
present oar readers with a very brief sketch of the history 
of the Romanising novement, that they may see what 
has already besn done towards effefting the mighty change. 
The movement was originated in Calcutta by Sir C. £. 
(then Mr.) Trevelyan in 1833, when, in a minute, in tha 
books of the Calcutta School Book Society, he recom* 
mended tbem to print Thomson's Hindustani Dictionary in 
Roman type. At that Ume the munificent patronage of 
Lord Wellesley had raised op a nnmerons body of Oriental 
scholars, and these, one and all, opposed the innovation. 
Still the movement grew ; Dr. Duff, Dr. Yate, Mr. Pearce^ 
anj Mr. Thomas made common cause with Mr. Trevelyan, 
and in 183S a "Roman Letter Propagation Committee " 
was formed. The British and American Missionary 
Societies perceived the manifold advantages of the scheme, 
and having before their eyes no visions of fame aa 

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f I6 ) 

scholars, but only an earnost desire to bsaefit the nations' 

of India, became its zealous pitrtisans, and by their 
numerous publications greatly advanced the cause, somnch 
BO, that in 1857 they could speak of it as "the Ckristiam. 
ekara^tr of the North- Wt^em Provincts." T\it system- 
adopted was the Jonesian, the same, which by a curious 
coincidence had been independently worked out by the 
American Missionaries in Honolulu, to the exclusion o( 
Gilchrist'-s system which at first found some staunch support- 
ers, mainly cm the ground that it had been adopted by 
Qie Government^ which adoption has, we know, been quitv 
recently reversed, after long and patient deliberation. I» 
1856, the qsestion was again brought prominently before the 
public in the newspapers both in England and in India. 
The Times, tiicLeader and other journals pointed out the 
enormous advantages which would be gained by the substi* 
tution of the Roman alphabet It was shown by officers' 
of long Indian experience how the present system cut 
them oK from the people, from the impossibility of reading 
their petitions, &c., for themselves ; how it opened up a 
wide door for perjury and fraud of every description; and 
how all this might be swept away by a simple Government 
order. But the opportunity was let slip^ the Government 
refused to give the necessary order, and the consequence 
is that our Public offices are now once more filled to over< 
flowing with documents in every stage of unintelligifMlity, 
a great part of which we venture to say the writers them- 
selves could not now decipher. Besides the publications 
of the Missionaries, however, we have other weighty 
evidence to the value of the Romanising system. In 
England the system is uniformly used by the Asiatic Society, 
and in Germany, where assuredly nothing unscientific 
would be likely to t&ke firm root a:mong scholars; 

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( -7 ) 

We haVe Weber's admirabte series (chiefly of' Sanskrit 
tuthora) whtcli is entirely printed in Roman type. We 
think then that both theory and pradiice show that it is 
bath desirable and feasible to substitute Roman for the 
Oriental alphabets in India. The latter, even if one of them 
could be adapted to ail the languages, have one and all very 
serious defeat They have no capitalsi no italics, admit of 
no varieties of tjrpe, and cannot readily be pun Auated ; they 
are cumbrous and costly to print; if they be written rapidly 
and without diacritical inarks, they aK most difficult to read, 
and if those marks be inserted, still the writing t« not very 
easy to read, and it is slow and laboured. The very oppOi> 
Bite of these is the Roman chara£ler. What a difference il 
there between an ordinary Persian book or M S., a dreamy 
expanse of writing withoat pause or stop, witfaont variety 
of type to mark prominent passages or capital letters to dis* 
tingnish proper names, and a well printed English book, wi^ 
all the tittle aids to the eye and mind which centuries of 
experience in the printer's art have taught us to Value, and 
great as is the superiority of the Roman printed character, 
that of the vmtten character is still more remarkable. This 
of itself would be sufficient in our eyes to justify the sub4 
stitution of the Roman chara6ier. But far beyond this 
would be its pra£lical results in bringing us nearer to the 
people we govern, in enabling us for ourselves to read the 
petitions of the people, in purifying the courts of justice 
from a mass of fraud and chicanery which is now 
hidden from us by the veil of an unfamiliar charaQer. 
And for the people of India themselves it would be otie of 
the greate&t boons we could bestow on them. What so 
mighty means could be devised of removing many fancied 
and undermining many real barriers to their intercourae 
with one another. Already we have, by our railways and 

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( ■« ) 

telegraphs, to a great extent annihilated time and distance 
for them ; already arc two or three great Vernacular Ian- 
gu^es partly absorbing, partly crushing provincial dtale£ts; 
and already the throbbings of a new national life seem to be 
manifesting themselves in various quarters of our Indian 
empire. Shall we not then recognise that the end and 
aim of British rule in India should be to weld the many 
peoples of India into one great highly civilised nation ? and 
if that be indeed our task, as we believe it to be, bow can we 
advance its accomplishment more eHeftually than by bestow- 
ing on India one langui^e, not a mere lingua Franca, as 
Urdu may be'said to be now, but a richly endowed, flexible 
national tongue, more perfe£t and more apt for the expres- 
sion of noble thought than their boasted Sanskrit ? Such a 
vision is no myth ; the basis of the language is already one, 
and we verily believe that the mere substitution of the 
Roman charaAer for the Sanskrit and Persian varieties 
would do more to advance that end than any other step we 
could take. The opportunity is a great one, and we have in 
the press and our educational machinery the means of gain- 
ing our end ready to our hands, and we need but a states- 
man at the head of the Government, bold enough to take 
the step which would win him immortal fame. 


The Turks orforeign Mahometans having been expelled 
Irom the island of Goa, Dalboqaerque proceeded to orga- 
nize the dvil administration of the conquered territory. It 
was soon evident that Timoja expe£ted to receive possession 
in fuU sovereignty, subje£l to the paymeat of an annoat 

itizecy Google 

( 19 ) 

tribute, and the majority of the Portuguese captains were 
disposed to acquiesce in this arrangement. Dalboquerqne, 
however, would not relinquish his hold on Goa, though 
he gave a portion of the island to Timoja in (arm, and in< 
vested him with supreme judicial authority over both Hindus 
and Moors. 

It happened that an ambassador from Shekh Ismail, the 
Shah of Persia, bad arrived at Goa shortly before the capture. 
His embassy was dire6led to 'Adil Shih, but the turn affairs 
had taken induced him to seek an interview with Dalbo> 
^uerque. After some complimentary speedies, the ambassa- 
dor endeavoured to obtain Dalboquerque's consent to two 
measures of political importance. In the first place he sug- 
gested that Dalboquerque should compel ad Mahometans, 
still resident at Goa, to accept the Shia form of MahometaD- 
ism. Secondly, be asked for an ordw allowing the coinage 
of Shekh Ismail to pass current at Goa. Obviously the 
astute ambassador was seeking to establish a claim to 
Persian supremacy, but his astuteness was not of much avail, 
as both requests were peremptorily refused by the Portuguese 
commander. Finding that there was little to gain on this 
tack, the Persian promptly changed his tone, and the inter* 
view terminated without any abatement of friendliness on 
either side. 

Dalboquerque took advantage of the ambassador's 
return to Persia to send with him an envoy of his own. 
The Portuguese selefled for the duty was one Ruy Gomez. 
He was entrusted with a letter to Shekh Ismail and with 
another to the King of Hormuz (through whose territory he 
would pass), and he received detailed instruAions as to the 
conduft of the embassy. 

Ruy Gomez, however, never reached the Sh&h. The 
authorities at Hormuz obstrufted his progress and Ruy 

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( 20 ) 

Gm»ei himself died-probahlylrom polsoB-whiU sUa U 
Uormuz territory. 

Meanwhile, Dalboquerque continued his arrangementa 
lor the settlement of Goa territory. Naturally, Timoj* 
was the counsellor and middleman through whom many 
of these arrangements Were made. Local officials wcts 
appointed under the designation of " thinadirs." 
They were for the most part Portuguese, but Hindfi 
Bcrlveners,— nominated by Tiraoja,— counselled and assisted 
them in their work. Each thinad^r was allowed an 
establishment of two hundred peons. The staff of " thina- 
iixs," were subordinate to an official whom we may, perhaps, 
describe as the "Financial CommissionOT" of Goa. He was 
allowed two secretaries,— the one a Portuguese, the other a 
Hindfi nominated by Timoja, whose duty it was " to show 
Ae register-books of the lands, how they were held in 
separate occupation, in order that there should be no dts> 
hones^." The immediate result of these measures was satis. 
(aftory. The Hindiis were gratified by the employment oS 
thrir cQ.reUgiQnists in preference to Mahometans, and by the 
vemission of all excess taxes imposed by the Bfjapur govern- 

Daiboquert^ue's next measure was the establishment of 
a mint. Coins were struck in gold, silver, and copper. 
The copper coin of lowest value was called a " dinherio," 
(LAtin, "denarius"). Throe of these made one " leal "— 
also in«q>per. The silver coins were the "espera"or 
" severe" and the " mea espera" or " haU-sphere" — the for- 
mer apparently equivalent to forty, and the latter to twenty 
"leals." The gold coin appears to have been termed a 
" crusado," and to have been equivalent to seventeen " es- 
peras," but we doubt whether this " crusado" was tiie same as 
the coin ordinarily called by that name which was of silver, 

Digitizecy Google 

( 21 ) 

and somewhat less in value than the rupee. The dnta on 
which to argue are not very definite, but we incline to the 
opinion that Dalboquerque's gold coin was somewhat smaller 
than a half ashrafi, and his " espera" somewhat less than an 
eigbt-aona bit in size and weight, The " eapera" wasso tena« 
ed because it bore the device c^BspheFe on one side, wtuLe 
the other bore that of a cross. The istroduftion of the 
new ccunage was proclaimed throughout the city to tho 
sound of trumpets and Iiettle drums, and specimens were 
scattered broadcast among the crowd. The use, and even 
the retention, of the old Bijapor coinage waa prohibited; all 
who possessed such coins were required to exchange them 
at the mint forthwith. 

While these administrative measures were in progress 
Dalboquerque was hurrying on the fortifications of Goa, and 
was laying in stores for the approaching rainy season. 
Many of his captains were displeased at bis determina- 
tion to remain in Goa, and there were some symptoms of 
disaffe^ion among them, but Dalboquerque found means 
to prevent it from extending. 

Matters continued thus till tiim tlurd week in Apri^ 
when news arrived that a powerful army was mardiing 
from Bfjapnr to effeft the recovery of Goa. Soon after., 
wards a small detachment of Portuguese and a large force of 
native peoas, who had been sent to the main laad to 
recosBcntre, were susprised and routed by the advancing 

Dalboquerque took energetic measures to prevent the 
BSjzpur troops from crossing ever to Goa island. He 
stationed detachments at the principal fords, utilizing 
existing watch towers for their defence and supporting 
then by boats from the ieet. 

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( 23 ) 

The Bijapur State had always encour^ed the enter- 
tainment of foreigners in its service. Besides the " Riimts," 
or Turks, to whom the Portuguese historians so frequently 
refer, there were in the anny now marching upon Goa 
several men of undisputed Christian birth. Three of these, - 
a Greek from Crete, an Albanian and a Russian— 'deserted 
to Dalboquerquc, and gave bini information regarding the 
strength and designs of the attacking force. Two others— 
a Portuguese named Joio Machado and a Venetian, both 
of them renegades, — were sent by 'Adil Shah (under the 
protection of a safe>condu£t) to propose terms of surren- 
der. This Joio Machado had come from Portugal as a 
" degredado" or convift in the fleet of Pedralvarez Cabral 
( A. D. 1500}. He had left the fleet at Melinde and had 
found his way from that city to Cambay. He had taken 
service for a time with the King of Gujerat, but not receiv- 
ing pay to his satisfaction had left Cambay for the Dakhan 
and had entered the service of Yusuf 'Adil Shah, 

The visit of Jo&o Machado and the Venetian was \nth. 
out result so far as the immediate surrender of Goa was 
concerned, but Dalboquirque received information from 
Machado that negotiations were going on between 'Adil 
Shah and the leading inhabitants of the city. As a check 
on these intrigues he compelled the principal residents to 
take up their abode with their wives and children within 
the fortress. It was Timoja who su^ested the issue of 
this order, and he was required to set others an example ^y 
himself obeying it. 

For nearly a month the Portuguese were able to 
prevent the enemy from crossing, but the defence of a 
long river line against a superior force is rarely successful 
in the end. After many alarms, and some repulses the Bi'ja- 

itizecy Google 

( 23 ) 

pur troops crossed in sufficient number to render this line 
of defence untenable. There was no intermediate position 
of strength between the river boundary of Goa island and 
the fortress, so the Portuguese — their allies — after an in- 
cffe£lual demonstration in the city, made no further attempt 
to check the enemy's advance. Within the walls of the 
fortress, however, the Portuguese might have made a further 
stand. Its strength was considerable, their European troops 
were a thousand in number, end their fleet still enabled ' 
them to command the river or estuary, and to maintain com- 
munication with the sea. But all the captains, with two 
exceptions, were bent on retiring to the fleet, and Dalbo- 
querque found himself unable to resist the course of events. 
The temporary evacuation of the fortress being resolved 
on, he ordered the removal of tfae artillery to the ships 
together with such stores as cduld be colle£led. He 
also sent on board the women and children who had 
been detained in the fortress. He then ordered the 
execution of a hundred and fifty Mahometan captives 
who had been suspefted of intriguing with the enemy. All 
the horses in the stables were hamstrung, and the public 
arsenals set on fire. When these preparations had 
been completed, tfae captains and their men retired 
to the ships, Dalboquerque himself being the last to 
leave. The embarkation took place during the night 
of the igth of May, and on the morning of the 20th 
the fleet dropped down the river, and took up a posi- 
tion opposite Panjim. Several attempts at negotiation fol- 
lowed, but they led to nothing, and hostilities were resumed. 
Tfae Portuguese made a brilliant and successful attack on 
the fortress of Panjim, and secured themselves from annoy- 
ance on tfaatside. They also made a demonstration against 
tfae fleet that 'Adil Shah was preparing at Coa. This, too, 

itizecy Google 

( '* ) 

was partially successful, though itcost-thelifeof D. Atltotiio 
de Noronha, a nephew (slater's son) of Dalboquerque, who 
had gallatitly supported his uncle id all his wars and 
troubles up to that time. 

Soon after these events an incident occurred which 
caused some Commotion in the fleet at the time and gave 
rise to much discussion and censure afterwards. We have 
noted that there was a large number of Mahometan women 
on board the fleet. It was discovered that a Portuguese of 
some rank, named Ruy Diaz, was in the habit of entering 
their apartments. As soon as Dalboquerque received in- 
formation of this, he ordered the "Ouvidor" or "Judicial 
officer " of the fleet to institute a formal enquiry with a 
view to the punishment of the delinquent. The enquiry 
was made— apparently in private — and the culprit was 
condemned to death. The severity of the sentence caused 
some murmurs of indignation, and when preparations were 
made to carry out the execution, several officers forced 
their way into the ship on which the hanging was about to 
take place, cut the rope and rescued the prisoner. This 
caused a great uproar, but the disturbance was soon quieted. 
Dalboquerque arrested the mutinous officers and put them 
in irons, and the unfortunate Ruy Diaz suffered the penalty 
of his offence. 

This incident, though not of great importance, has 
been the subjeCl of comment by most of the Portuguese 
historians and of censure by Camoens : 

" Parece de selvaticas brutezas," 

" De peitos inhumanos e insolentes," 

" Dar extremo supplicio pela culpa," 

" Que a fraca humandade e Amor desculpa." 

There is a shade of suspicion thatjeahusy may have had 
Bomethtng to do with the severity of Dalhoquerquc'e sen- 

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( 25 ) 

tence, but the probability is that he was merely irritated by 
the occurrence of a breach of discipline of this kind at so 
uDseasonable a time. According to the commentaries he 
naintain'ed that " justice " should be " meted out to a man 
who had committed that crime at a season when it was 
more fitting to be sitting in sackcloth than undertaking 
such gallantries." 

The Portuguese remained in Goa river from the end of 
May to the end of July. The monsoon rendered it dan- 
gerous to cross the " bar" below Panjim, and difficult to find 
shelter elsewhere on the western coast of India. At the 
cad of July a few of the ships were allowed to Jeave the 
river, their orders being to call at Anjadiva and to convey 
the sick to Cochin. At the same time Timoja was sent to 
Honawar to colleft supplies. A fortnight later, — on the 
15th of August 1510 — the remainder of the fleet crossed the 
bar and sailed for Anjadiva. 

As good luck would have it, Dalboquerque had no 
sooner sailed into the open sea, than he received a welcome 
reinforcement of five ships from Portugal under tlie com- 
mand of Dit^o Mendez de Vasconcellos. The combined 
fleet sailed first to Honawar where they were received 
by Timoja, — and thence to Cananor where compliments 
were exchanged with the Raja. While Dalboquerque was 
still at Cananor, an ambassador arrived from the King of 
Cambay, from whom it was ascertained that a Portuguese 
vessel had been wrecked on the shore of Cambay, and 
that the crew — morethan fifty in number — were prisoners 
at Champancl. 

Dalboquerque was bent on the recovery of Goa and 
reinforcements which arrived in India during the months 
of August and September enabled him to prepare for a 

itizecy Google 

( j6 ) 

second attack with reasonable prospe£ls of success. These 
reinforcements comprised no less than fourteen ships 
from Portugal itself — carrying fifteen hundred men. In 
addition to these, Dalboquerqne bad been joined by four 
or five ships from the coast of Arabia, so that the whole 
-fleet was now one of formidable strength. 

In this, however, as in most of his enterprises, Dalbo- 
querque experienced opposition from some of his captains, 
and eventually he found himself compelled to dispense 
with the assistance of many of the ships from Portugal, 
whose commanders had no other obje£t than the receipt 
of a good cargo and a speedy return to their native land. 
(To be coniinuedj. 

itizecy Google 

( 27 ) 


3&n 6er Stnjth cle £nne il kbabar boi t^ Gal&b ^Qgh- 
nu Ghandkor ar Kbas^l Singh jam&iir ate Sard&r T«ji- 
Siggb n&n milke sal^ kiti ki hn^ k! 4'*i^I karnf chSbSje ? 
Pber as nai kaobh thabj-i jih{ fanj &pi>e bb^ Dbi&i Siogli 
dl katthi karke vaiH d& B^hmnfi karan lai bbeji. 3&o ih 
fauj lafan w^to gaf tin pichchhe to &p jike fanj d^q 
Hajfiri B&g de p4s, p£s df mop li&ia ar use faaj di ktunmak 
n&l &]lb kile vidich dab&a kar l\&. Fher B£nf B&ab nfiij 
kah£ bbejift, sa^fb baj&r hnj jo Ml&n Mir vicbcb d oh a&ri 
Ser Singh de n&\ j& rail bai ar s^e p^ nirf doko haj&r 
&iij hai, ia n&I jitt9& Ser Siggb d& kftt^ao luu. OuUb 
Bingh ii6n ih bbaiosi sfi ki jad t^Ug Dhi^n Singh ofi 
fi jiffe tad t^iQ Ser Singh kile viohch nabfc vajegk Par 
Ser Singh ia de bharoee te nlt^ Dbi^n Singh de &ai;;ie te binfi 
a &aj ntin laike kil£ m&ran in pl£. Gal^b Singh nai ih 
irid& kf t4 ki jis tar&n ho sake Dhi^n Singh de in^e tak 
mus kile n£n takf^ rakkh^ kCagki Ser Singh ih gall jindi 
Tshe jo maig Dhi&o Siggh di knmmak nil kil£ m^ri^ hai. 
Fher Qniih Singh tak&l^n ndn h&tbi pnr obarhke sahir da 
darw£ji&n par gi^ ate nnb^n de pabiri&n nlin babnt sire 
rapaiye deke kibfi ki je Ser Siiigb andar Tarn& cbibe tiln 
jitthe tak ho aake varan n& defo. Pher kile vit^ch like fanj 
de afsar^i) 063 bal&ke snganddg ate nem kar&S, ki tasfn 
jifigdej! Ser Siggh nfin kile vichcb dab&n nil karan deni, 
ate pher Chandkor ii valoQ a&ti fanj wan cbaahaD mabini&n 
df talab deke kih& ki lafdf te pidbchhoQ tub&otin babat sfird 
ioAm dew^ngf . 

Dfije din j£ri do gharfin d& tafki ribi t&n Ser Singfa 
Dilll darwije ate Taksilf darwAje do raste hoke fanj samet 
nhir de andar in, varift. Ar sflrl fanj " Satt sirf Akil ar wih 

itizecy Google 

( 2S ) 

Garii j{ U E1i&1s£ SM w£h Onrfi j( kf fate " U sflvad bold! 
hoi kile val aiddhf ho pni. Us vela labia n&l itnfin topin 
sfin ki kile de irde girda chaabfn p^n hirna te bf itnt&n vadh 
raht^n ki anh&g de khnre karne nun bi j&g& nabfn si. 

Pher cb£ro p&fiin te top£n cbnllai} Inggf^n ate ktle 
vicbcli tfanrthalli macb g\a, pher thnhrf der piohchfaon frola 
cbullai^oii hat g'^^ a^^ jo niiil£ pabiUg pat rih^ 8& sabh band 
ho gi^ Pher oh bar&n topnn jo Hajfiri B&g de dnrwSje p£a 
birian faof&n s!in challan laggfin aohfindisattniljan iaTw&\& 
kile d& dhai pi£ t£n do tinn san ak&Ii kila de aiidar Vflfaa 
Bfig hall& karke £n piS. Par andar don top^n ajihlAn 
chalUaij ki san ak^U iinh£n de fair c&l uf gi£. Unh&n hi 
top&Q de fair snnke vaiii bhajj gae ate anhdn didn kaf topan 
bnr&n ho gaUg. Ih h&\ dekhke GnUb Singh da bukam t« 
bin& kile Tichcbon thobr! jihi fanj vairian par hallfi kar attb!, 
ale nnhdn nun Hajilrl Big Ttcbcbon kaddb ditt& Is lartf 
vichch tinn sau Bikh marifi gil J&n itthe d& ih ranU Bar 
Singh na! snni£ tdn chhe top&ii ^pne n&l laike Ussif darwaja 
par balldkiti par kila wiile golam Aij&n dUg snllk^n nai anban 
Hi mfinb pher ditt£. Pher Ser Singh nai ^pnfan sarlan topan 
cbalMunidn Siirfi kitlan. Andarle lokfin nai ajtM cbatnrdi nil 
top^n chnllaUn, ki Ser Singh de bahtit sdro golam-d^j mar gas 
ate kaf topdtj chhndcl ke Ijhajj gae. Pher Ser Sineh ill faaj nai 
galidn diin kandhin ate gharJin vichcb top&ri laf morche 
ban^ke golo m^rne surd k!te. Kile vichch jo cbbek na bona 
de sababb morcbiin 1a{ thaun nah!n e&, andarle lok£i_i nai 
kile dian kandhin vichcb chhek karke morclie banhi;ie chdha 
par oh dppe pSsog mascitd inukk j&ije de sababb is kamm ta 
lach&r rahike kile de andar mi^tl ate k&(h de morche bani 
baithe, ate siihnine diin kandbaQ dhfi sitti^n. Us vela kila 
da andar birdnku saa Sikkh a& ate iinb&n da ih ir&iH f& ki kila 
Tichch raula machike dpne bbariiwan de nul ja inili^o. Isi 

itizecy Google 

( 29 ) 

tarin Ta4) bfaarf UrII hoke har kai kTtEn de dakkh Dtfa£k» 
MkluMje Ser SiQgh niiii orak Dhiin SiQgli di komoiak nti 
hi gaddf mtif . 

Jin GaUb BIngh kiU khilf fcarke S&bdre nfin j^odfi 
i&, tig Ser Siggh da figd Ja£l& Singh nai lis de m&rae lal fanj 
nfig ak£si£ par Dlii^a Singh ar Mcr Singk de kahine te fanj 
is frail te hntf rabf. Dhifia Singh jo Jui\& Singh nfin nilb 
ipni j&o d& vuiri jii^dfl ei is kiron £pi?l chattar^ nSl Ser 
Singh de dil nnn ns valon phaf^ ditt& itthe tak ki ikk bfir jo 
Ja6X& Si^gh chhekn haj^r fanj laike S£bdre uttari& hoi£ ai 
i&a pi<^ohhoi} Dhi&n SiQgh nai Ser Sinijh nfig knohh eikb&lka 
ns de Dili kachh jang j& kar&i& Us jang vichcboQ Ser Singh 
nai JaiUt Singh nfin kaid kar liinda ate pher oh kaid de vichch 
hi mar gi&. Ih oh Jii£l£ Siggh hai ki jia nfig Uah&r£j£ Ser 
Singh att pi&r de flababb £pn$ vajtr bao&agfi ohiingd£ sft par 
p4pf Dfai&a Singh nai &pn{ rajIrE khoh ho jfii^e de ^r ta 
Sfahttr&je nfin ns nlUon a)ih£ pbat^ ki oh ns te marns 
pichchfaon hi darvflt vicbob ns nlin bate bacban&g nfti jod 
kard& bai}d£ sfi. 

B&pf Cbandkor nfin jo Jammd de ilfike vichch gnj£re w£ate 
nanka lakkb mpaiye di jag{r mili boi si as di &g& Gnl&b 
Siggh S&. la jaglr vicfachon nitt de kbarach te bin& ah lUini 
nfig koc^ nabln dindii b&, Pher jo ikk bir Mabir&je Ser 
Siggb nai ch&hi£ ki mun B&i^f Chnndkor ndg cb&dar siftka 
ipn{ Il£i}i ban£ law&n t&n Gnl^b Slngb nai ifa bit pasind d& 
kit! balak B&g! s^ab de man vidicb ka! tar^ de bharm p£ka 
Ser Singh di Tairai> bai^i ditt!. Kingki oh j£nd£ a& je ih 
Ser Siggh di bahut! bai) j&wegE t£g is d& aahh m&\ athih ata 
jagfr mere hatthon cbbnttlce Ser Singh de palle }& pawegf. 
Bbivren Ser Singh nai pher M ikk do b&r Cbandkor nfin bidh 
v&ste kab& bhejii par ns nai n& mannii, saggon knchb ajifafi 
n\\i attar dltUi ki Mabir&j£ na ntig j^non mflran da fiksr 

mzecDy Google 

( 30 ) 

viebch bo gi&, Ofak iho l)oi& ki Ser Siggli nai durabm 
(ahilii9&S n^ knchb j^gir deiil k«rke B£ni Gbaadkor nsv 
ba44hwi ditti, Mab&rftj^ Ser Biggh us d& mami BiiQke 
bahat kkasf hoii. Ar G-al^ Singh nljn'bi lu de marne t» 
ajib^ l&bb hoUi ki ah aa da &&re m&l asbib d£ milsk ho gi£. 

Pber tbabre dinfia pichchhon Mab&raje Ser Singh ate 
Tajfr Dbi&i ^ngh viohob uidarle kh&aion koobh vair ho gii 
Bt« Dbi&n Sicgh nai Saadbew&liiQ d&I jo patiil&Q jagir^Q te 
kad^he boe ate kacbb kaid se bbii B&n SiQgh de Mbfg 
bal&ke ip^f 7firi pfi laf, at« noh^n n^Q kisf ku{ Tele Idq b< 
&khdfi a&, Bhai bbiwen npprog t& Ber Singh tnh&^e 
nil mel rakkhd& bat par andaroQ j^o dft vairl faai, je maiQ 
vichcb ni hov&n t&Q nb tnb&^t^ babst burS h&l kaine n^Q 
tiir hai. 

JitQ is tar^)} Dbi&n Siogb nai nnk^Q de diUQ ntig 
usk&ii Un QDhfn dhiia kiU jo u df ar Mah&rije di apu 
Ticbobfn kacbh gall vigrl h(>i hai. Gobib Singh de Jammfi 
jiii^ t« pichchhon Pbi^ Singb 069 malfim boi& ki 
Ifah&rije Ba^U SiQgb d& panj^n cbhein barasfiQ d£ ikl; 
pott Dalip Singh n&me bor bi bai, 80 maign^n jog bai 
ki jitthe tak bo sake Ser Siggb te gaddi khoke ns nfi^ 
Lahaar di p&is£h baii^w^n, Usf din te Dhi&t Singh us 
ndn bnUke pi&r karda, ate godi Tichch ba^h^lke nsdi salKmi 
ar adab kard$ bandti s^ Ser SiQgb nai ih sa^ke ir&dit kf tiK 
ki ia Tajfr Diln main kial tarin jad& kor dewii), naMn i& Ta44 
dakkb dewegfi. 

Iddbar Ser Singb de dil Ticbcb t& ih gall npj! ar 
Sandbew^i^ de dil Tiohob Dbifin Siggb diiii gall&n sagke 
ih gall ntpat hoi ki a^ n&l andarle kb^nion Uah&T&j& Ser 
Biggb picbble bharam de sababb jartir phafid rabindi ho^dA' 
bai. Pber ih hi b&t dil vichch &i ki Dhi&n Singh jo Hahfi. 
r&je D&l kachb ninj malfim bimd& bai^ 13 kfiron chibad^ bai 

mzecDy Google 

( 3- ) 

&i «si4e battfaoQ as nfin ba^^hwidewe. AliffiQ jibiln gating 
kackh dil Tichob t^iBTike Suidhaw&Ife 8er Sicgli k(d gM 
■is iu nfig htUh jofke &klii& ki Ha SMihche F&ds&b ufg 
jo ohur te ter£ Ifin kH^ft-wile big ia korke je kite' atin teri 
fc(i>Bt hoDdt dekbiye t^Q B&te sah&rf naMn jindt, so bn? 
ufg ikk tnsfl^ vajfr Dki£a Singh di ksrtdt sn^ttnnde btig 
'ki jis ii£q tnefg &pi;e deb piii^ Bamajhde bo. TJh ih gall hai 
ki Dhiio Singh nai siafiQ tQ8A46 jfuion tn&ran Iti is vele 
toi^a pfa bheji& hai ate is de badle s&ndg ns nu sattb faajte 
Topaiye df jaglr de^t kiti hai, ns di ih irfidi hai ki tiu6- 
ntig mitke Dalfp Singh nfin gaddt par ba^Mfiwe ate ip 6:pjfi 
Tajfrf pur k&im raba. lb sa^ke Ser Singh mii onbfin di 
gall nfin ^k ate ntt saobobf j£nj£ klagki Dallp Siggh ntig 
-goddi dene df b&t na nai pabil^n bi tH^i hot si. Ser Siggb 
Dai ns Tele daleli ate ohal^kt ntU &p^I talw&r snAnoQ MUbe 
Sardir Lehii^a Siggb ate Ajft Singh Soodhewfilfe de hatth 
ditti ate £khi^ ki lavo bhar&wo je tnb<i4& iho irii& hai t^ 
meii h£ ialw&r nU mer4 sir vad^bo, par ikk b£t j&d rakkbo 
ki jia ndg toatg hoQi ilpgfi mittar samajbde ho tabi^e nil 
H piobchhog ^'ibi Tair karegi ki ns ta jiogda kadC nabii} 
chhattogge. lb gtdt dakhke Sandhen^lUg da dil Tichch 
aiibi tasfr ho gaf ki unhin nai hatth jo^ke 6kh\&. Sachche 
FodB^h toafg ipbf dbi^ karo ki aafn je ib gall kami bond! f^ 
'toafin^Q ike bbet kitiQ dassde, fip saoh jano ki asin tos^ 
Dilig Sikkbi dharm de hhU, ar pher pargaf gall Ticbcb £pQe 
-m&Iak jibike ib kbabar dttti bai. Asfg tnB&nfig n^rao nablg 
balak bachinna kt ie bin. Par ikk bit &p bf jdd rakkbo 
ki th dbohf vajfr, ajju nahfn, bor dasin din£n niin tahfi^f jan 
d& ]ig&. bai. Astg U tQsd4d '^9 ^^ ^9 manke bhet Sikh 
ditta par ja aspipf nu kisf bor nfig bhajii tig £p jfnnda 
nahig bai^ogge. So sa^i ih iridi hiu ki asin us pipf lug 
har&mf vajir n^Q mir deiye, kianki ah jlonda rabegi tan kof 
(nh&de mime df rft jar&r hi utpat kar UTe;;d. Ser'Singh nai 

^.y Google 

( 32 ) 

ill g»^ niQke pabUin Un pargsf viobcfa kachh nigh jihl kftt, 
ar pher a&F ikh dittt ki acbohhi tasfa j^po ajtlw dhoM di 
marni hi acboUti Iwi. Bandliflv&lfin oat ib gall soohke ki 
[Achcblx)^ kite vajir de mime di kasdr vicbcb i&tifiQ knchh 
daut} •&dewe,'Ser Singh de hatthaQ dt likhat kara lai ki 
tii8!n Dfaiiln Siggh nfin mjr siUo. Ffaer ih 6k.Ui& haif asfg 
B&jeaAgbBle ii£n jinde bfiQ, jo Amntsar de aera hal ata 
attbe j&ke is kantm de lal kachh fanj kattbl kar^Qge, ao tosa- 
Dtio jog faai ki taain ikk dta saii fna} di ginti lavon ate ainfig 
U gi^tl dei^ lai atthoQ balA bbejoQ. Asie jbatt ^ke siijti de- 
w&Bge so tts Tele tasiQ B&ntii} ikk is&r£ karn&, aslg jha^t 
Phi£n Singh ar us de patr Hir& Siggh u^q gherke m&r 
eitt^Qga. Pher nnb&n ani ilibhi kib& ki8&4^ &ane d& tnslg 
kncbh ip^l b&bat bbanun n& karni, aafn toa^i nimak haUl 
rafat vichohon h^Q. 

J&n Sandhew^lfe is tar^g pakki ^»gi karke v!di& boo, 
f&n ib dhobi kapfi Rijesinheie nl^!} j^ne de tbin aiddhe fal 
Dbi£n Singb de gbar &a vara, ar atbe &ke Dhi&n Singh d^q 
aanban sog&gtin deke fiklji^ ki je tnsf g kite pargat n& karoQ 
til} asin tussle I^bb di gall dassde h&Q. Us nai kib& 
main kise p&s nablQ pargat karingi. Unhin kap(!£n Saodhe- 
w^li^n ou nh kftgat ki jis Tichch Dhi&n Singb de m&rna 
lai Ser Singh di mabar laggl bol s! ka^dhke Dhi£n Singh da 
agge rakkh dittdL K^gat ndn dekbke Dhian Singh di nisi 
ho gal ate nnbin nun bo1i£ ki Bhar^vo tnsin mere par vaijji 
asan Htfijo is b£t di kbabar ditti, par buTi ttifitn bf dasso ki 
ki 4*01 karni cb&hije. Unb&Q nai attar ditt&, ki tosig ijara 
ni aali} Ser Si^gb nun m^r sitt^nge kianki oh tas&d« bnra 
viohoh faai. Dbian Singh ih sni^ke big b£g&n bo gi£ ate 
boli£ kijetnain ih kamm kariiwon tfig metoQ jitnika bo 
Bakkd in&m dew^ngl, 

Jo tetbii faoj d! gii^U di inhaij nai Dbian Singh de marna 

itizecy Google 

( 33 ) 

hi S«r Siggh \haxfA rf soi ban is d» nii Ser Singh de niim» 
M fharfii, ki asin gii^U de din as ndn m&rke ksmm ba9& 
Isiriutige. Pher ih bi kih& ki taiEn na dia Mahirije de 
uth^ pnr BJLhi faaj bhej^ Id jo tos^s k&miQ viohofa hall 
joll na kare. Ih gall (har&ka oh obhalie mahil-p&pE Bije- 
lighsie ndtj tKr pae. Jad tak eh Bfijesichsfe Tiolioh 
nhe Ud bik R&j& Dhiin Sinxb darbfir viohah n& g\& kfaijki 
«■ au is 4*1* nil ki kite mainfie Ser SiQgb mix s& «tte>. 
Darbir viohoh ih gall ikb bheji b£ ki meri dU kochh miadi 

Fber tbnbrifii) dinf!n pichchoi} Sandhew&Ite panj chhe 
ha\&t gbor-chafbe bohut acbchhe obnge hoe nil laika Labaor 
Tichchie. Us vele Mab&rij6 Ser SiQgh Lalianr te tinnka 
kob de sannb par ikk S^ab Laar nime asth&n Tichoh b^ 
so SandhewtlUe Sard£r ntthe bi j& pahnnohe. Hor fanj 1169 
h^ar cbha44ke nire panjibko gbof-charhe ^p^e nfU laiks 
andarjirate. Us rele Ser Siggb ikk knral par sirb&^i ]6i 
baifbik hoii a&. AJft Singh Sandhew&K^g batth viobob ikk 
donili banddk laike iia.h6.iiji, de kol 6i& ate hauke bolia ki 
Dekfao Mah£r&j ih bnndfik muQ ohaadag saa mpaije nfig 
mall la! bai, je koi ha^ is d& tinn hajftr rapsija b( dewe tin 
maindg laini manjdr nahtg. Ih aoi^ke Mabirije nai bandbk 
phafne lai hatth pas^rii. U* dhohl Sandhewilie nai nai vele 
banddk di gbofi dabiii ate ikk nili vicboh jo do do golfig 
bhaiiig hoUs ti&a cballke Ser Siggh df obbiti viiihoh 
laggiig ; oaf vele kursi atton allarke dbart! pur 4ig P'^t "-f 
mar gii. Us pipf Sandbewilfe aai tart as di air ra441>'^« 
hatth Tiohcb pbarlii. Us vele jia kisi nai Sandbew&llig di 
i&bmgi kiti nh jfagdi na bacbii, Fher Sandhewilis as 
big ndg gas ki jittbs Ser Singh di va^d pntt parhdi bogdi 
84 Us man^e df tiniar aa Tele terin cbaadig baras df sf. 
Jig tu hibtk itai Labii}i SiQgb afig oangf Ulwir phaff ipi[|f 

^.y Google 

( 34 ) 

Tat iaii<l« diU^A, i&Q 4&r)[e is da pair^o por 4>K p)^ kt bAliak* 
laika kih& ki B&bi jl meri j&a bakhso. Us pjtpf Lohii^fi Si&Eli 
nai kDchk dayfi ni kid ns bedos b&lak d4 sir b«44b aitti&. 
la taring piu putt d& kamm makdke pher a&bir n^g Ae, 
Ajit SiQgb de n&l ns vele tia eaa ghor-ohafhii ate doka 
Ban pi&l& B& ate Lahii>i Singh nil daka saa ghDf-<diafb& 
i&. J&n ih donon agge picbchha ohale jinde ae t&g thahff 
dlir pnr j&ke Baje Dlii&a Singb nttl mela boii. Ajit SiQgh 
nai Dbilln SiQgh D&g ^kbia ki io bon b&har d6q kfag 
jii)de ho jo takrir Ser SiQgh d« nutrae di aefg tosi^e nii 
kiUl e& nb SK^n pfiril kar( &e hAn, Dhi^n SiQgb ns vele &pq9 
dil Ttobcb bahut <Jari& bbat kite mainndn bi n& m£r sittnQ. 
Par QS Tele £pi}i sipfch ii6g tbnbf E dekhke AjEt SiQi;b de nUl 
bo li& J^ ib kile de andar rare t&n Sandbewili&Q dt sip6h 
nai Dbi^Q Singh de sip&htan nlin ddje darw&je pnr rok ditU. 
Ih bit dekbke Dbi&D Singh de mnn vichcb babnt kbufk^ 
hoia. Tbnhri dtir agge j&ke AjEt iSingh nai ikk &pQe up&hi 
noQ minnat kliE ate us nai Dhiin Singb de ptchclibe ike ikk 
kariblii bbarke mirf ar pbdr daje nai ike ikk bor golt mirl, 
ub Qst Tele mar gii. Ikk mosalmin sipibf nai jo Dbiin 
Singb di naukar Bi jin inbin nil kacbh iptje milak di ma rui 
dekbke sihrniji klti, tin us nnij bf mirke Dhiin SiQf(b dl 
loth de nil bi kile di khii Ticbcb eift ditta. 

Jagat tnmisi ch&r dio thir nabii} rahiadi koi, 
Dbirag tinbiQ da jluo^ jbagfe banban joi. 

Ih jo Dbiin Singh Sardir, 
Dbobi pipi ar badkir. 
Is nai bahut dbob se kara, 
Babate is de batthon mare. 
Is de jibi na kapti koi, 
Ifahi chbali ba? umra khof. 

mzecDy Google 

(.35 ) 

Dekho in wti kitne m&r«, 

CHhal bal Iwlca lihA kanira.' 

NaQDih&l Siniib is tisi m&ri, 

Pbir miti richob jbagri 4^i^'t 

Ser Sit!gb d£ niittar hoii, 

Ghet Singb d& ser in khoii. 

Hdq is Ser Siggh de Iaf| 

D&u gh&t kite sa kaf . 

Pbir Sandbewille mire, 

Bbdhe kite in batUro. 

Uoblg JQ Ser SiQgb a&g miri^ 

Ifli daaf di sabh huHrL 

Ib nai babate p&p kamteg 

£iii lok !a mtir gn&e, 

Ofsk is di b&ri if, 

Sirf bhall gal ohatorAf. 

Parmesar te ba<^e oa kof, 

Ua bar pitpi df jaf khoE. 

Jig marne dft veli &i&, 

Tin kacbb bf kahini ni pii£. 

Man df man snkb dl sakb m&nb,. 

A^ msat nai paka^ binb. . . 

Hii bii jag vicbcb par&nf , 

Taddf kard^ bai man bfaai^f. 

Farmesttr te n&bfn <Jard&, 

Ar )b soch oahlQ man dbardA. 

Bbaf sad& main is sansfir, 

Kabii^ nihfn pair pasAr. 

Pbir main kfoQ bahn jhagre karig, 

Efai] maiQ Jag sakb man vit^ch dbart(g. 

Cbir din&n de jlni> laf. 
King, mun lok sit&mig kaf. 

Sarab ankban d& do din mel, 
Pbir sabb ral jawegf kbel. 

Hai> ib ann cbbaijdo S"bh kof, 
Ib dnnfin na kial df hoE. 

mzecDy Google 

t 36 ) 

Jin Ua tisl nu \>iii, 
If&t piti nai nablQ clifau^aii. 
Kstui d& phol hoe jardr, 
K0I naL(g kar sakdi ddr. 
Tin te sahh rabh karnl kBro, 
Fiip tajo fiar l« ^ro. 


AUqiffs BiUiliih ne ins^non ki W^^ mntawtjjih hoku 
kftbil, ki l>aiw&nog na tnmh&ra ijnlm k& jo kncbh sbikwa 
Vmyin kiyft sab tamne aun&, anr tamne jo daVit kiy& aski 
bbf jftw&b nnhoQ ne diya, ab jo kaohh kahnli tam-ko biqi ho 
ai ko bayib karo. 

iidniiyoi} ke wakfl ne kalii ki ham moQ bahat ^^bij^Q 
anr bnznrgiy&n haig ki we hamfire gidq i da'wJi par doIHIat 
kartf haig. B&lsh&b no kab£ nnben bajin karo. Klimf 
tifl kah& bam bahnt se 'aldm anr ^an'ateo jiata haig, d&taSi 
anr tadbfr meQ sab buw£nog so fbtiib bain, dtmyi anr 
iU)irat ke nm6r ba-^dbf Bar-anj&m karte haiQ, ia-ae yih 
ma'ldm h.6(i kt ham' m&lik aor hativ^n ham£re gjinl&a 
haig. B&dsh£h ne ^iw&aoQ se kab£, is ne jo apn( faafUteg 
bayin kfg, tarn is-k& jaw^b ky£ dete ho ? QaiwinoQ kf 
JKn:&'at ne yih b&t «nn-kar sir jbnka ]\y&, kiaf ne knobh jawfib 
na diyi, magar ba'tl ek gha^ I ke makkhiyon ke wakfl ne kah&, 
ki yih fidmi gamia kart& bai ki ham bahnt 'nldn aar tadbf- 
ren janta hain, ji>ke sabab hammfilik sor h^w^n bam^ 
(^nl&m bun, agar t!dml fikr wa ta-ammni karen to ma'ldm ho 
ki ham apne nmlr meg kis (anr par iatis&m wa band-o-bast 
karte haiii, i&a&l wa fikr men inse j^&lib haig, 'ilm i Hindsa 
men yih mah&rat rakfata hain ki ba-gj^air mistar wa parkar 
ke RDwa' wa aqs^m ke d^re anr shakleo mnsallas aur murabba* 

^.y Google 

{ 37 ) 

ItbeQohta haig, apaa ghttrog meg t*n4 t^fol^ lc« z&niy* 
ban&te bun, Bjtltanat w* riy&uit ke qi'iile fidmiyon ne bbf 
bam Be rfkhe, ia v/iat/a ki ham spna ynhin darbia wa cbaaki< 
dar moU'siyan karte baig ki bam^re bsdahiUi ka a&mne ba- 
l^air bttkm ke koi iao nabfg p&ti, darakbtog ke pattog ao 
shahd nikfl-kar janu' karte bwQ, anr &r4fibat se i^tie gbarog 
nen baifbkar hil bachobon ke UQx kbits haio, jo kaohh 
bamAra jh6.\iii bach rabt& bai ye sab 6dmi u-ko nikil kac 
apne ta^arnif meg lite haig ; ye hnnar ham-ka kisl ne ta'Ifni 
naUQ kiyfi, magar Allah Ta'ilJi kl taraf Be ilhicn hoti bai ki 
ha-ghair madad aar i'ioat osUd ke bam itne bnuir jiote 
bain. Agarinsiooo ko yih gbaman4 bai ki ham m&lik ane 
baiwia hamire jj^alim haig to bamiri jhfithi kydg khite 
baig, bidabihog ki yih £ariq nahig hai ki ^nlimog ki jb^tbi 
khAwen ; aor ye akgar ninar meg hamire mo^tij rahte 
bain, bam kisl amr msg in-ae iljtiyij Dabfg rakbie, paa 
yih da'wJi b»-daUl in ko nahfn pahdgcbti hai. Agar 
chtewti ke al^wil par yih idmi nigih kare, ki bi-wnjdd 
dhote jiam ke kydgkar eamfn ke ofohe (aratf tara^ ke makia 
peobdir baoiti bai, ku«i bf aailibt bo p^f no meg bargiz 
nabfg jiti, aar kbine ke Uye i^alla jama* kar rakbtf bai 
agar kabhi tu meg le kaohb bhig-jiti bai nikil kar dhdp meg 
yokhitd hai, jin dinog meg ibtimil jamne ki hoU hai no* 
ke ohhilke ddr karke do fak^e kar 4iltl hai, garmiyog mog 
bahot oblgwtiyin qifile ke qifile jama' hokar qtit ka viajta 
bar ek tar^ jitf haig, agar kisi obfgwtf ko kahfg knchh 
nasar i,y& anr gartof ke aabab n^h oa saki, tbofi os-men sa 
lekar apae majma' meg ikar l^bar kartl bai, an meg jo 
Age bafbtf hai wah ni cbfz se kachb tbofi pabcbia ke wista 
lekar wahig ji pahdgabtl hai, pbir sab jama' hokar kii 
mi^nai wa mashaqqat ae oa-ko Q(bilitl haig; agar kiaf 
cbfgwfi na mi^at meg soit^ ki avko mir kar nikil deti 
bain ; pas agar yih idmf tarammol kare to ma'ldm he, ki 

itizecy Google 

( 38 V 

t^to^T^Q '^uei *ilm w& sh&Mr rakbtf baiQ. Ie{ j^anl^ (iijjf 
j«)> ki fafl i rabr men kh£ pE-kar moti hotf hai, kisf nana 
sntntn meQ ji kar gaf^^ k^io^^ ^i"* b°4^ <^fiti l^'i *QT ns-ko 
mitti se cUiipi kar &p tif j&tf hai, jab nskj maat k£ iraqt iUi 
bu (fUir kbfijite baiQ, y& garmi sard! kf kagrat se fip hal&k 
bo j&tf hu ; dfisr« baraa phir fa;I i rsM' men jia dtnon baw& 
mn'tadil hot! bai us an^e se ek ohhoti bachcfaa kire kE m&- 
nand paidft ho kar zamtn par chalU anr ghiU charts hai, jia 
waqt par na ke nikalte bait; asr kh& pi-kar tnofi hoU hai, 
yih bhi ba-dastfir i sibiq an^i dekar zaniEn men chhipa dettk 
hai. gh&ra| iat tear s&l ba>B&l baobche paid& bote hain. laf 
|;iinih resham ke ki^e, ki peahtar pohirog ke dara^itoo par 
^in^^an t&t ke daraUjt par rahte hain, afy^ i bab^ meo 
jab ki k^ib mofo bot« hain apae In'ib ko dara|^t par tan 
kar ba-&r£ffl i tam&m ns meg Bote baiQ, jia waqt jigts haig 
de( j&l meg an^e de kar £p nikal j&te haig, nnko to t&-ir kh& 
lete haic, y&Ap ^nd ba khad garmi y£ sardi ae marj&ts 
baig aar an^e a&l bbar ba-hifiijat na men rahte haig, ddara 
s&l nn meg ae bacbche paid& bokar darakht par chaltd phirte 
hail], jab yih tize taw&ni is tanr par ande dekar bacbche paid£ 
karte buQ. Anr bhiren bhE dfwiroQ aar daralcbtan par 
chhatte band kar no men an^e bacbche delf hain, magar 
je kh^e ke vt&g%o knchh jama' nahfi) kartf baiQ, roB roz apnf 
qdt 4h<iQ4li t*^ baiQ, anr j&xoQ, ke dinon men ghiroQ yi 
gaf hon mei; ebhip kar mar jtitt bain post unk£ tam&m j£f og 
bhar «ab£n pa;^ rahtfi bai, hargiz sa^ti galt& nablQ, phir 
fa^l i rabr meij ^ad& ki qndrat ee nn men rSify &j£t[ hai, ba- 
dastfir apne apne ghar ban£ kar ande bachcbe pnida kartf 
baig ; g&araz iaf-Iiarah tamam bBBhrfit-nUarz apne bachchog 
ko paid& kar ke parwariah karte hain, faqat abafaqat wa 
mihrbinf ae yih nahfn ki an se koohb kbidmat kE tawaqqa' 
rakhte hug, ba-kbil^if idmlyog ke, ki we apnf aalad se aekf 

mzecDy Google 

. ( M ) 

war iha&n ke nmmed-ir^r rnbte bnin, seliji^wst anr jfid, It 
■hewa baznrgon k& hni, bargiz nn me^ nabln, pfair kis obfx 
M ham par fa^r karte haiQ, anr makkbt, machchlinr^ i&nt 
waehaira, ki an^e dete aar apne bacbchon ki parwansb kartA 
anr ghar bantitfl bain, firf apne fiide ke w^te nabfQ, balki 
is liye ki ba'd nn-ka mame ke anr kffe i kar &T&in p&wpg 
ky^Qki DD-men se bar ek ko apnS maut kfi jaqin i&m'H ^ifU 
half jab ki maut ke din plire bote baio ra^^mandl aor ^uaUi 
we ^ad faiii bo j£te bain ; Allah Ta'41& pbir apnl qndrat se 
daara s&I paid& kartd hai, ^ani^ ki ye kist ifil Eoeg tu ki 
ink&r nabfg karte, jia tara^ ba'^e idmS ba'as wa qajAmat es 
mnnkir haJQ ; agar fidmi in ^wfinoQ k£ b^ ma'lnm karet)' 
ki ye apni tna'aah anr ma'&d men in-se zijfida tadbireg jHuto 
haiQ, yih faMjr Da kareg ki bam milik anr baiw&n bam&rs 
^ol&m haiQ. 

Jis ghayf makkbiyon k& wakil is kaUm se f&rig^ hfiit, 
jinnoi) ke bfidsb^h ne nib&jat k^usb bo-kar as kf tn'iif kf, 
aar instboQ kl jam&'at ki taraf matawajjih bo-kar farm&y&f 
ki is D« jo kab& sab inni tamne, ab tambire nasdlk koi 
jawtib b&qi bat ? nn men se ek sba^; a'ribC ne kab^ barn 
meg babnt b[ fazitateQ anr nek ^aalaten bug Jin se da'w& 
hamir& s&bit boU hai. B&dah&b ne kah& nnbeg bay^n karo, 
kab& ki zindagi bam&rj bahnt 'aisb se gnzard hai, anwi' wa 
aqs&oa ki ni'amateg kh£ne pine ki bam-ka mayassar baiOi 
]t^iwfbIon ko we nasar bbl nabig fitin, mewog k& ma|^z anr 
g6d& hamdre khine men &t& hai, post anr gnthlE ye kb&ta 
bain ; is-ka aiwfi (arab taral) ke kb^iie, Bbir-m&l, bfiqir ^itnf, 
gfio dida, giU> zab&n, kniiche, mntanjan, zir i biry£a,mn2a'- 
iar, sbtr-biranj, kab&b, qormfij hirixd, firnf, dddb, dabi, ghl. 

itizecy Google 

( 40 ) 

qiBm qiBm k{ mi(h£f, Ipilwisobwi, jalebf, Ib^^i^^ V^JO, barfi, 
imtrtf, loziyit iPi(^ira kUta baic ; tafrfl^ taba' ks wift* 
Bioh, nuig, hftnrf, ohohl, qiffe, kah&nf mnjriiasar haiQ, hbia i 
ftkbira anr zevrarAt tunif Iw-tarair ke pahaota haig, maanad, 
qlLUn, ohindaf, jiysm, anr bahut se fanh far^sh biohb&te 
baio, boiwitDOQ ko je aimfia kabJ^Q mnyuaui hai? bamesba 
jaogal ki gh& kbUe haiii, aar ri^t din nang dharanj{ 
^aMmoQ Vi t^mb mil^nat aar maahaqqat meg rahte hoi)], ya 
ohizeg dalil hain ia-par, ki bammilik anr ya ^aUm haig. 
T^iron k& wakfl bu^r-d^gt&a B&mns •b&U) i dara^tt por 
bai(h& tbK, ns ae B^sbAfa sa kabi, ki ylh fulmi jo apna anwi' 
Wa aqaim ke kb&ne pEoe par iftiU)£r karti bai, yih naHg 
jint4 ki IjMiqiqiit meg na-ka yr&stfl yib babal; ranj wa 'as&b bat. 
Sidsbih na kah& yib kytigkar hu F Usa bij&D kar ; kab& ia 
n&stfi ki is £r£tn ka liye babnt tnibnateg aar ranj n^&to baig, 
zamfn kbodni, bal jotn^, pid khecAni, p&ni bbam&, anlij bonA, 
ki.\a&,toln&,piaa&,iaa{ir meg &g jal6n&, pakini, goabt ka 
yr&ttfl qa;£(yon se jbaga^ni, baniyon ae ^ia&b kitdb kami, 
m&l jama' kams ka ]iy6 mi^nateQ othto^ *i1m wa honar 
sikbn^, bndaa ko ranj deu&, dfir dfir moikon ko jiini, do 
paisog ka wiste amfroQ ke s&nne faith b^qdh-kar kbafe boB^ 
gharn^ ia jadd wa kadd ae m& jama* karte baig, ba'd mama 
ka wab ^airog ke fai^fe meg ii& faai, agar wajah )fa\Si m 
patdi kiy£ bu to ns k& ^s£b wa kiUb hu, naUg to 'afSb wa 
*aqib, aar bam is ranj wa 'az£b se maljfds rabte faaig, kyfipki 
ghigj ham&ri faqat gbfa p&t baij jo obit zamin se pnidit btrfi 
bai, be mi^nat wa masbaqqat as ko apse tafarraf meg Utta 
bun, anwi,' wa aqs&m ke pbal aar mewe, ki Allah Ta'iil& ne 
ftpnl qadrat sa bamire wilata paidi klye baig, kbiila baig, aar 
bameBba n»-k£ sbnkr karte hatg, fikr wa taltuh kh&ne pfne k{ 
lum&ra dii meg babbl nabfg atf, jahig ji*» hug fii^ i 1\M 
M Mb knebh nuyasiar bo-j&ti hai, aar ye ^'unifttba qfit k* 

mzecDy Google 

( 4' ) 

fikr meo dl<^U^ ""' P^^" nbto kaiih «r tfmh ffini^ ke khilM 
jo ya kbit* bug woiw fa( nnj w« 'ofib Dtbfite 'b«D, imr&f i . 
iniumiat meQ mfibtaU raUe huQ, bn^ir, datd i ur, hai^a, 
MniiDt t£ii}, laqwR, jnif, khigcil, 'irq^, tap i diqq, pbo^^ 
pbantf, khpjlf, d&d, ItbaD&zfr, pediifll], is bU, ^h^ BOV&k, 
fil-pi, nikwi*^, i^uuf »qs&m aqsto ki bfmArfio w-kv 'ttrif 
kot( bus, dawi d6rd ke liye t^diiboD ke yafa^ imjt plarU 
baig, tis-pw be-^^ w kidite ktuQ ki bam ntUik kv buwto 
ham&ra ghalim balg. loB&Q ne jawib ' diyfi, ki \Am(ii kl 
U^af ^yat kaohb bamirs wfiste nahtg hai, i^wibi bbl buhtar 
mmrif meg mnb^ii bote haio- Us-ne ksihk l^iw&a jo bf vir 
bote b&iOf (iff tamb&tf imeaisb Bar ikbtilf^ be, kqtte, billf, 
IfabtitaTf mnr^, voi^UfS ))aiwfiti&t, ki tnmhiira yab&n giriiUr 
IpaiD 4pn« tajnpax lEhtuM pine Dabfg'p^ haig, i^-w^t* 
Um^ ho j&td' liuQ, a^t jp bu*&i> ki jaogal mev omh^aUt 
bit^iba' phirte bug, bar ek maraf aamaltlfm rabie baig, 
ky^Qk^ kb£pe pfaie ke waqt -oa-ke mnqvmr haio» kamt 
besbf i> m«t qaMg £f, q,i)r ye Hifr^^t jo tnmbire yablg 
girifULT h^Q aime tear par anqit baaar kante nabfe plUe, 
\b&a^ be-wsqt kb&ie, yi mftra bb^b ke tatAiz k liylda kh&* 
jjUe hug, badan k( fiyti^t nabfn karta, iai ubab kabM kahbf 
him&t ho-jllte haio ; tnnib^a la^koQ ke bim&r bona kA bbt 
jifai wbab bai, ki |>£inila 'anrateo anr d£fy£n ^f aa i^liair 
^qn^aib' kh&ne jin pair torn ap&& fa^jir karie bo khij^ 
baig, isf se akbl^ EliAUaa puiU bote baiQ, dlidh bvgat^jiti 
hfti, a»-ke a«ftr aa larka bad-gdrat paidi bote bsio aur bameaba 
^lurif meg janbtaU rabte baiQ, inhig marafog Se M'if 
Miarg i mnfftjit aor shiddat i niza' Kta ^^amm va |^a)|« meg 
IprifUlr rabta haig, f^araf ki tamlim apne 'amd U eb^aiat w 
ip 'ai^bog meg gtrift&r fao, aor ham on-se mabffix haig, kbimi 
Ice oqB^ meg toinb&ra yabig ^afad oailstar aar bibtar hai 
jia ko kb&te aur dawi meg iiti'mi] karte bo, m woh makkbh* 
yo9 kit la'ih hai, tamh&ti ^aa'at le naUg, phir kifl cbii k^ 

itizecy Google 

( 42 ) 

fal^rktrte hoitf^qt phal xar diae on-ke kbflae meg ham 
tarn shartk bain, anr qadim bo faamttre jadd wa ib& sfaarilc 
bote ohale iie hsii} ; jin dinon tnmhire jadd tC\k ha^rat 
Adam wa Hainra high i bihisht men rahtfl tbe, anr 
be-mUjiiiat wa maflbaqqat wabAn ke mewe kb^, kiaE t^ral^ 
kf fikr wa mil^aat aa tfa{, faam^ jadd wa &hi bhi wabin us 
viz wa ni'mat mag nn-ka shank the, jab tamb&re bozargwfo 
apn« doshman ke bahkfaie ae Khndi k{ na^hat bhdl-gae 
aor ek dfioe ke wfbte ipr^ ki, wahan sa nik&le gae, firisbtog 
ne oiuha Ukar aist jag&h 4^ di/£, jah^n pbal patte bbi na 
the, mewog k& to ky& dakhi, ek moddat tak is ^amm meg 
sof & kfye, i,^\T ko loba qnbdl bfil, ^ad£ ne gau&h mn'af 
kiyi, ek firishte ko bhojA, ns-ne yahin ikar zamia khoda£, 
bon^ pisni, pak^nd, lib4s ban&D^ Bikbl£y& ; ^ara; r^t din 
is mit^aat wa moebaqqat men giriftfir rahte tbe ; jab-ki anl&d 
bahnt paidi hl£ anr bar ek jagab jangal wa ibiii men rahna 
lage phir to zamin ke rabae-w^og par bid'at shorn' ki, ghar 
nn-ke cbhfnliye, kiinog ko pakar kar qaid kar lij^ babntera 
bh£g gae, an-ke qaid wa girifUr karne ke w4sj;8 anw&' wa 
aqs&m ke pbande aar j&l bana bani kar dar-pai b^e, &khir ko 
nanbat yab&n-tak pahtigchf, ki ah torn khafe ho-kar fskiir 
wa martaba bay^n karte ho, mnnizare anr mnjidale ke w&st* 
mosta'id bo, anr yih jo tam kabte bo, ki ham ^E^osbi ki majlis 
karta bain, n&ch rang men mashs^til rahte baig, 'aiah wa 
'ishrat men anq&t basar karte bain, libfis i f^kbira anr zewar 
anwfl' wa aqs&m ke pabante hain, in-ke siw& anr faahat Bf 
ehlEOTj jo bam-ko moyassar nahin bain, aach hai lekin in meg 
ae bar ek cbiz ki 'iwaz tnm-ko 'az&b wa 'nq&b bh! hoti hai, ki 
jisae ham mohfd^ bain, kyunki tnm shidi ki majlis ki 'iwa^ 
mJitam-kh&ne men b^thte bo, kbnsbf ke badle i^nmm ntbita 
ho, T^g rang anr bansi ke badle rote anr ranj kbenchte ho, 
nafEs makfinon k! Jagab tarik qabar meg sote bo, zewar ki 
'ivra^ gale meg ^anq, faathog men hath-karf, paon meg zanjir 

itizecy Google 

( 43 ) 

paliaote bo, ta'rif ke bodle bajtr men ginfUr bote bo, {j^rdi^ 
bar fik kbash! ki 'iwaz ^amm bb! nth&te ho, nor bam in ina- 
yf baton )e mabfdg haio, ky^inki yih mibnat aar ranj ghnl4- 
mon anr bad baj^'on ke w&$te cb^hiye ; aar bam-ko tumbiro 
sbabron aur mak^on ke badle yih maid&a wasl* mnyasaar 
bai, zamia se istnin tak jabiln ji ohahUt bai nrte bain, bnt& 
barii sabza be-takalluf dary^ ke kinfire cbarte obngte bain, 
be-mil^n%t wa moshaqqat rizq i haljl kb^te aur p&ni 1a];If pUe 
hain, kot outna' kame w&ld nabfn, mssf, ^o'l tnashk, kfize ka 
mnljtilj nabfn, ye sab cblzen tamb&re vt&stfi cb&biye, ki apns 
k&ndbon par nfb&kar ]& ba-j& liye phirte anr becbte bo, bame- 
aba miboat wa mn^ibat mei} giriftar rabte ho, ye sab uisb^- 
niy&n gfagl^mon ki bail), yib kab^n bo sdbit bot£ bai, ki tnm 
malik aar ham jjbnlfan bain. B&dah^ ne iQs&non ke wakU 
8d pucbh& ki ab tere nazdik koi jaw&b anr b£q! bai ? Usne 
kahi ham man khiibiy&n aar baznrgiy^n babat hain ki ham&re 
da'we par daUUt kartf bain. Bidsb^ ne kahi nDhen 
bayin kar ; aa men se ek shakb; 'Ibrioi ne kaihi ; ki Allah 
Ta'^lii ne ham-ko aawi' wa aqs&m ki bozargiyjin bakbsUg, 
dfn wa nubliwat aar kal&m i maazal ye ni'raaten 'ati kfg, 
^al&l wa Ijar&m aor nek wa bad se ^fih karke, w^e du^ul 
jinnat ke bam-ko ^^?? kiy^, j^asl, tahiirat, namdz, roza, 
sfldqa, zak&t, masjidon men nam^ adi karn^, roinbaron par 
kbatba parhn£ nnr bahot 'ib^daten bam-ko ta'lim kin, ye sab 
bazargiy^ ispar dal^lat karti bain, ki bam mdlik bain aar 
ye i^aUm. 

itizecy Google 

( 44 > 

H« fttlowii^ ifl tin sjrBtem '«f tnmslitsraUaB whi'ofa w* 
hsn adopted — prvTisioiKllT — ^.for the Booiety'a piib)i<»ti»BS. 
We by DO means wisU to cneck further discussioD, but it u 
n«0Mnu^ t« adept BOBi« syBtvib, pronsionalk, in order tlial 
lihfo SooJetJ^s wafk may progress, and th«t thoM vho art 
williDg to follew OQt ImuI may be able to do so, 


¥ b u- • 

♦ p ^ ah 

C ch t 

C ^ J 



r (zabar or latba) 

I (zer or IcHtira) 

1 (zumma or peah) 

i^ (Ufajhfil) 

(^ (mu'i-tit'} 

4f idtpbthon^) 

J (m..rnO 

f ^dipbthang) 

mzecDy Google 

( 45 ) 


1 Sobjapf to such rnodifications 09 itrs indicated I^ 
flw abOT» key tor by snbsequent rales, Forbes' Dictionarj' is 
reoognizsd as &o itandnrd of ortfao^rB|ihy, and should be 
oonsulted in all caaeB of donbt. Tb6 student must, however, 
remember to aabstitnte " 9 " where Forbes nsea d dotted "k." 

IL The Bjabd "tadidtd" is expreteed by doDbliog 

III. Tlie iniperceptiUe "h** or t mnUtaR «t the end 
of a word ia omitted. 

IV. The sign 'Oiama" is geDorally omitted. When 
bowenr it may w oonsidered necessary to divide two vowels 
or oeoscHMUita ib order to ensure their sepsntte proQiinci»- 
titm this doald be done by inserting a oonuna or dash 
between them 

V. Words bating the form ^or^tun written m 

Words bsTing the torm <**^ or *M4 are written ■* 
Jnm's> doTs. 

VI. Words reqnirtng ''Tanwin" in the Fernan are to 
be written with "a," witbDot any diatioctiTe mark. 

VII. In rapid writing — not intended for the press — all 
diaoritioal nurka may be omitted, with this exception that the 
long Towels A £and & shoald always retain their distiugashiug 

la ripid writittg^not intended for the pieaa^tha 
^KMtropbe for ^ may a^o be emitted. 

VIII. Where foreign words occnr, tbe writer may, at 
bis discretion, retain tbe original orthography or adopt tbe 
phonetic eqnivalent. If tbe word has been aaaiiiiilated— 
or the writer wishes it to be assimilated — as an Urdu word, 
it is better to spell it phoDetically. If, on the other hand, 
there is no wish to assimilate tbe work — as, for instance 
with the names of persons — the original 8|ielling is prefer* 
able. In this case, the words sbonid always be written 
between inverted commas, to indicate that it is not spelt 

Note. — A key to pronnndation will be found in ForbeiT 
Gmnmar and also in Holroyd's Xas-hU-Qt-kalim. 

Digii,:^..,, Google 

( '" ) 


Ilo objecU of Uiifl Journml, and of Ute Bociety witb 
wbich it ifl connected, nre explained by th> aoriM of Reso- 
IntioDB paasedaUbe Meeting organising the Eociatr, ind 
by the Statement of ReaJon«, both of which vere pnblia&ed 
ID the fint namber of ibis Journal. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
OS tliflir SDjiport. Those who may wish to join the Society 
AT« requestad to send their names, with the Subscriptiens for 
the year, Re. 6, to F. Scott, Esq., Secretary, HonumrUrii 
Bociely, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of the 
Jonmal. Friends in England are asked to 'send their sab- 
eoriptions (and any literary contributions with which tliey 
may favor ns) to oar English Secretary, F. Drew, Esq., 
Eton College, Windsor. 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the Cesolntions, 
passed at the Meeting on th« 25th Mny 1878; ud invita 
donations to the "Tnuislitwation Fond." 

Tbere an many sympathisen nith the laoTeiMiif who 
have not yet sent in tbeiv names and sabscription. We 
trust that tbey will now do to, and that they will also help 
ns by canvassing for fresh members, and by circalatiig onr 
Josmil among hoth fiaropeans and Sfativea ia the stationa 
vhere tbey reside. 

CoBtribstions on any of the variens tnbjects connected 
with transliteration, transiatien and education geaerally, an 
MFOMtly Bolioitod mm Uemben of Ibe So^ety, 

[ llAM ItADit AI IBB ■• U. & M. UaZBITB " fSJtU- 

DigmzecDy Google 


Vol. 17. JULY 1881. No. 38. 

From the ist of January i88a the annual subscrip- 
tion to tke Roman-UrdiJ Journal will be raised to Rs. 8. 




In our last number we repriated the preface of the 
Durgesha Nandini, and promised to submit some comments 
from our own pen in a future issue. We now fulfil our pro- 

Not having Bengilf letters at our command we are 
unable to publish the transliteration key or "Barnamila " 
attached to &e Durgesha Nandini, but for our present pur- 
pose it is sufEcient to note that there are only two features 
in the key at all inconsistent with our own system of 

The first of these is the use of " c " to denote the 
sound of the English " ch " (as pronounced in " church " ). 
Our readers will remember that this use of the letter " c " has 
been suggested tn more quarters than one. Professor 
Monier Williams has accepted it, but adds an accent, to 
warn his readers that the letter is a£ting an unfamiliar 

Digitizecy "Google 

( ' ) 

The substitution of "c" for the English "ch" is generally 
advocated on two grounds — first, the theoretical one that 
a simple sound should be represented by a simple letter; 
secondly, the practical one that every economy in type is a 
saving of expense and labor. 

To the writer of the present article both these reasons 
appear to be of secondary importance. 

The universal alphabet of the future may possibly be one 
of single letters only as proposed by Mr. Pagliardioi and 
his friends, but we think it as probable that it will recognise 
some arbitrary symbols analagous to the English " cb " 
"sh" and "th." 

As to the typographical gain in dropping a letter it 
can scarcely be deemed considerable ; indeed, if we are 
driven to use an accent — as Monier Williams does— the 
result from a compositor's point of view is perhaps toss 
rather than gain. 

The great obje£lion to the use of " c " for " ch " is 
obviously that it places a new stumbling-block in the way 
of ordinary Anglo<Indians and English>5peaking Natives. 
In regard to vowel sounds we cannot help ourselves, we 
aie compelled to reje£l the confusing usi^es of English 
orthography, but it is a serious obje£lion to the proposed 
use of " c " that it involves an unexpected and defiant inno- 
vation on English practice. 

We note that the editors of the Durgesha Nandtni, 
though they use " c " for " ch " in the body of their work 
give their author's name as " Bankim Chandra Chattop^- 
dhyiya," instead of " Bankim Candra Cattopidhyiya." We 
do not lay stress on this as an inconsistency ; we are 
equally inconsistent in this Journal, each number of which 
bears the name " Lahore " on its title page in defiance of 
our own transliteration rules. But we note the fa£t as 

mzecDy Google 

( 3 ) 

evidence of the difficulty attending the substitution of " c '* 
for "ch." 

We admit Ihat the proposed change is more deserving 
of consideration than many which have been suggested. If 
it should ever be adopted by the general consent of European 
savants we shall not be unwilling to accept it. At present, 
the authorities who sanation this use of the letter " c " are 
few. Missionary praftice, no less than popular prejudice, 
is against it, and we do not consider ourselves justified 
in adding new difficulties to the arduous work we have in 

The second feature in the transliteration scheme of 
our Bengal fdends which suggests comment by ourselves 
is their sparing use of diacritical marks. 

They urge that the simplification of Romanization is 
the main objefl to be kept in view, and express a firm be- 
lief that the omission of redundant diacritical marks is 
essential to the true progress of the cause. 

Many of our supporters in Northern India take the same 
view. We do not deny that there is much to be said on 
their side ; but we submit the following explanation of our 
own transliteration key. We regard the question of dia- 
critical marks as an elastic one. For some purposes and by 
some writers a full equipment of marks is required. On 
the other hand contingencies sometimes arise in which 
the writer or reader of Roman-Urdd is compelled to dis- 
pense with diacritical marks almost entirely. Doubtless 
there is a mean between these extremes, and the principle 
accepted by our Missionary friends — that of using diacriti- 
cal marks to denote differences of pronunciation — and for 
this only has much to commend it as the guide to this mean. 
But it seems to us a mistake not to allow considerable 
elasticity of praSice. 

itizecy Google 

( 4 ) 

For the purpose of our present argument ktus classify 
the uses to which Roman-Urdu may be put under the 
following heads : — ( i ) Missionary work ; (2), lower standard 
education ; (3), higher standard education ; (4), manuscript 

Now so far as the first of these headings is concerned, 
the missionaries themselves are the best judges, and in the 
Hindustani provinces of Northern India they have decided 
the matter by accepting the principle that diacritical marks 
should be used to denote differences of pronunciation and 
then only. 

For the second class of work — lower standard secular 
education — the same principle is all that we need. It is 
sufficient for the majority of Europeans whose only objefl 
is to acquire a practical colloquial knowledge of the language, 
and it will be sufBcient for the education of the masses oE 
our Indian popufatioa when the time comes to take that 
education in hand. We say " when the time comes " for 
we do not see that our existing primary schools have any 
appreciable effect on the mass of the people. 

But when we turn to the third purpose to which the 
Roman character may be put — the progress and develop- 
ment of higher education — we cannot admit that the pho- 
netic rule is the only one to be considered. There is an- 
other principle which we ought to recognise as important — 
facility of transcribing with accuracy from one character 
to the other. We say nothing at present as to the other 
alphabets in use in this country, but we may safely prophesy 
that the Perso-Arabic will be widely used for centuries to 
come. We invite Mahometans to learn and use Roman, but 
we do not wish or expcCt them to negleCt an alternative 
mode of writing to which they are attached by all the 
associations of their own civilization. There is no reasoa 

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( 5 ) 

why the two systems of writing should not co-exist, and as 
a matter of faft whatever encouragement Roman may 
receive in the future the two will co-exist for generations 
to come. 

The discrimination of different Oriental letters is ob- 
viously of philological importance whether their pronuncia- 
tion is distinfl or not. 

In some cases the meaning of a word changes with 
the letter used, though the sound remains the same. Take 
the following words — " safar " a journey and " ^afar " a 
Mahometan month " saffr " an envoy and " jaftr " the chirp- 
ing of a bird ; " sflrat " a chapter of the Quritn and " ?firat " 
appearance. " Zan " a woman and " gan " suspicion. 
Similarly with scores of other words. 

It is well known that some of the letters of the Urdd 
alphabet are common to Arabic, Persian and Hindi, while 
others are exclusively Arabic, The letters " t " and " s '* 
occur in all three languages ; " z " may be Persian ; but 
words with " (," " 9," g," " ; " and " j, " must be Arabic. 

Some of the letters of the Perso-Arabic though not 
distinguished from others in ordinary Indian pronunci- 
ation have a special phonetic function in the reading 
of the Qnx&n, or in the speech of other Muhammadan 
countries. Most mullahs affeft to distinguish " 7 " and 
" %" from simple "z" and, as our readers are aware, 
the Arabic sound of " z " and " 9 " is different from 
the Persian sound of " i." Every Oriental scholar ought 
to be able to explain why the words which we in India 
write " Ram^&n " and " Q^f " are more commonly known 
in Europe as " Ramdin" and " Qjldi." Similarly, every 
" higher standard " student may be expected to learn that 
" s " is the nearest equivalent to the Greek Theta, and 

mzecDy Google 

( 6 ) 

frequently the best representative of that letter in the 
transliteration of Greek derivatives. 

All Persian and Arabic scholars are familiar with the 
numerical alphabet or " abjad," and readei's of historical 
manuscripts knovr how frequently " tirfkljs " based on 
•' abjad " reckoning occur in Persian literature. In " abjad " 
reckoning z, z, f and z are wholly distin6t, " T " is equal 
to 9 but " t " counts for 400. " S" stands for 60, but "%" 
is equivalent to 90. 

The expression " taj n(s-i-khat( is familiar to every 
munshf. The ambiguities of Persifin writing are so great 
that they have become the chief groundwork of Oriental wit. 
What " puns " and " double entendres " are to the English 
wag, " tajnfs-i'khatf " is to the Persian. Indeed to every 
well educated Mahometan the sound of a Persian or Arabic 
word brings before the mind the picture of the word itself 
as spelt in Perso-Arabic characters, and this pi£lure 
awakens a hundred associations which an Englishman cannot 
fully appreciate. We have no wish to destroy or weaken 
these associations. When natives of India — whether Hindus 
or Mohametans — oppose the introduction of Roman as a 
part of their Vernacular school scheme, and refuse their 
sanction to the publication of books in the Roman character, 
their position is one of sheer ignorance and stupidity, but 
when they say "Let us keep alive the associations of our 
old civilization while frankly accepting the improvements of 
European progress " they have our full sympathy. 

The question is not merely one of sentiment or scholar- 
ship. It is frequently a matter of practical utility that those 
who chiefly use the Roman character should be able to 
transliterate into Persian. Take the case of the recent 
massacre at Kabul. During the critical hours that preceded 
the final slaughter repeated efforts were made to commti- 

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( 7 ) 

sicate by letter with Ya'qub Ibb^n. Is it not obvious that 
to a case like this ability to write the Persian chara£ler 
may be of great practical value ? The case to which we 
have referred was an extreme one, but instances are of daily 
occurrence in the experience of most civil oRicers in which it 
is (or would be) convenient to write orders in Persian with- 
out the aid of a munsbf. 

The opponents of the Romanizing movement are 
pleased to represent us as men who are too indolent to 
learn or use the Vernacular chara£ters. This is mere 
slander. If we could carry out the measures we advocate 
we would engage— with Roman as our principal support to 
make every civil officer in Northern India a competent, 
though not perhaps an elegant, writer of the Persian 

Having this as one of our objeCls we are not willing 
to accept the phonetic principle as the only basis on 
which to frame a transliteration key. We would supple- 
ment it by an additional proviso — that diacritical marks 
should be used wherever they are likely to assist a writer 
of ordinary educaUon in re-transliterating from Roman to 

To the above line of argument there is one reply 
which deserves consideration. It may be said that as we 
assume the co-existence of both systems of writing we may 
safely leave the Persian to take care of itself. Granted 
that a " higher standard " student ought to know whether a 
word is spelt with "z," "z," "x" or "g," he may be left to 
learn this from his reading in the Persian character, without 
our complicating the transliteration key. This reply may 
be sufficient so far as those classes of Indian society are 
concerned who are thoroughly grounded in Persian in child- 
hood, and who acquire the special skill of experts in reading 

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and writing that chara£ler, but it is not sufficient in the case 
of the European, the Beng&K, the Sikh, or the Parsf. We 
may leave these classes out of sight altogether, but if we 
accept the "postulate" that it is desirable to give them a 
" higher standard " acquaintance with Mahometan culture, 
we must do it mainly through the Roman character, elaborat- 
ing that charafter sufficiently to express in full the delicacies 
and refinements of the Persian. 

In the above paragraphs we have restrifted our 
remarks to Persian because it is the mode of writing with 
which we are most familiar, and which in this part of India 
has the strongest literary claims, but our readers will see 
that our remarks apply mulatis mutandis to alphabets of 
Sanskrit origin as well. 

We now pass to the fourth heading of our subjefl 
manuscript work. We refer chiefly though not exclusively 
to kachihrt writing. Here we are on entirely different 
ground. The arguments of our preceding paragraphs in 
favor of culture and scholarship are out of place.- "Speed" 
and " legibility" are the requirements, the only requirements, 
—of kachihrf penmanship. We prefer Roman to Persian 
on account of its legibility, but we must remember that 
" speed " in official writing is also of very great importance. 
Now every one knows that the addition of diacritical marks 
is a great impediment to swift writing. Even in English, it 
rarely happens that a writer dots all his " i's " or crosses all 
his "t's." For rapid penmanship simplicity is essential, 
and we have framed No. VII of our transliteration rules 
with this as our objefl. 

The long vowel accents are admittedly the most 
important of diacritical marks, and a dash above a letter 
can be made more rapidly and easily than a stroke or dot 
below it. If a munshl is told that he may omit diacritical 


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muks below the line, but must note tbe long vowel accents' 
he has an easy and praflicat rule to guide him, and con- 
sidering the tendency to carelessness which a munshi's- 
training encourages a distn£l ofBcer may well be satisfied 
when he has secured this minimum oi accuracy. 

We have indicated some of the various considerations 
which affect this discussion as to the greater or less use of 
diacritical marks. It may be well to add two other reasons 
why we should not be in a hurry to proclaim a hard and 
fast rule. The first is this, that we should wait till educat- 
ed natives of India have worked with us in sufficient 
number and for a sufficient time to develop public opinion 
on the subject in their own community. Natives who have 
not learnt the Roman character cannot offer any advice as 
to its use and suggestions emanating from hostile writers, 
such as those who have recently opposed us in the Indian 
Mirror^K Hindu Patriot ^■aS. the Calcutta Review are not 
intended for our good. But the opinion of Pandit Mahesh 
Chandra Ny^yaratna is of value, and our Romanizing friends 
in Bengal will scarcely be able to stereotype their trans- 
lation scheme, until they can ascertain how far liberal 
conservatives of the Pandit's school will be willing to ac- 
company them. 

Lastly, we would remind those who insist on the 
phonetic principle's the only basis of transliteration that 
even their use of diacritical marks is not likely to be defini- 
tive. It is possible, and even probable, that wholly new 
characters will in the course of time take the place of some 
of the dotted letters of the a,rdinary Roman-Urdu alphabet. 

Our position then with regard to diacritical marks is 
this : — 

To some persons and for some purposes a full equipment 
of such marks is useful. To other persons and for other 

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purposes it is a hindrance. To those who desire a guide we 
offer our own transliteration key, but we are not vexed 
when other Romanizers a£t independently. 

An acceptance of the general principles of our vowel 
system is essential toco-operation in Romanizing, but this 
much being granted differences on points of detail do not 
trouble or distress us. 


We have to thank .Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co. for a 
copy of a small 4to. volume just published by them. It is 
entitled " A hand-book to the K&yatM Chara£ier" and 
comprises 30 facsimiles oi various kinds of handwriting 
current in Behar, with corresponding Romanized transcripts 
and English translations. It has been compiled by Mr. G. A, 
Grierson, C.S., who, in a short introduction, explains the 
peculiarities of the Kfiyatb! chara£ter as distin6l from the 
Nagri of which it is a local variety. He does not attempt 
to show jfoorf KdyatM writing as a model for learners of 
handwriting but the cribbed, smudgy, deformed, rapidly* 
written forms produced in the ordinary transa6lions of 
official work. It is but natural that under ordinary cir- 
cumstances K&yatM, like every other handwriting, should 
assume as many forms as there are writers. In no part of the 
civilized world are such individual or local peculiarities 
reckoned as distinCl chara£ters, but under the Imperial 
regime in India and the salutary maxim of divide et empera 
it having been ruled that the province of Behar should he 
cut off from the rest of the Hindi-speaking traCts of 
Hindustan, it is but natural that facilities should b« 
provided for the acquirement by foreigners of a knowledge 
of local varieties of writing, and Mr. Grierson has done 

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well in providing a manual for the purpose. It appears, 
that, individual peculiarities apart, there are three local 
varieties which have the generic name of Kiyathi, The 
first of these is called Tirkute, and is current in the eastern 
parts of the province. The second is Bkojapuri, and It is 
current in the northern and the western parts of the province. 
The third ia Magah, a corruption of Magadhi, and it is current 
in the southern part. There is a fourth, current not only 
dll over the province but throughout northern India among 
merchants and bankers whence its name Mahajani. Mr. 
Grierson has given examples of all these in his book, and as 
far as the convenience of Government officers is concerned, 
this is right and proper. But the question remains which 
of these is it that the Government proposes to insist upon 
the courts of Behar ? Will it have all the four at option, 
or one of them ? The first branch of the alternative will 
necessitate four sets of school books for a single province 
the second will oblige three-fourths to forego their respec._ 
tive charafters for the sake of one-fourth, Mr. Croft some 
time ago announced that he was getting a fount of Kiyathf 
types cast for the Behar schools. Which form is Ibis to 
take ? and which are the forms that are to be suppressed ? 
None of these questions would have arisen had the Govern- 
ment adopted the Nagri, as we suggested, but then the 
prevailing ideas of Imperialism would have been sacrificed. 
The recent orders about Romanization in the Behar courts 
would logically suggest the idea that the profession about 
the language and character of the people is not sincere, 
but we cannot believe the profession of Government is 
really so hollow. 

A recently issued extra number of the Asiatic Journal 
contains an elaborate sketch of the northern Baluchi lan- 
guage by Mr, M. L. Dames. The Roman character is. 
used throughout; italics, instead of diacritical marks, are- 

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employed to distinguish ^ "f^"- c "^"> ^^"^ some other 
letters. At the end of the sketch are some interesting 
specimens of Baluchi poetry with translations. 

The Calcutla Review for July contains several interest- 
ing papers. Among these we may note an account of the 
Sikh religion under Banda and of its present condition by 
Mr. Macauliffe, and an article on "Hindustani poets and 
poetry" by the Revd, T. J. Scott. In the latter paper selec- 
tions are given in Roman. If we could secure the publica- 
tion in Roman of the principal Urdd poets those Europeans 
and Anglicised natives who now see nothing in Urdfi poetry 
but wearisome trash would discover many passages worthy 
of more favorable criticism. 

The following paragraph is from "Nature " :— 

A REPORTING machine was presented on March 1 1 to 
the Society d' Encouragement, meeting under the presidency 
of M. Dumas. It is a small instrument, about i) foot long 
and I foot wide, placed on a stand 2\ feet high on which 
it is easy to play with both hands. The number of element- 
ary signs is only six, which by mutual combination ^ve 
seventy-four phonetic letters. It has been worked with an 
astonishing velocity, reproducing the words pronounced by 
a man reading a passage from a book. The hmit of velocity 
is stated to be 200 words in a minute, which is more than 
sufficient, no speaker having ever uttered more than 180. 
The signs are very neatly printed on a paper band passing 
automatically under the types. They can be read by any 
person conversant with the peculiarities of the system 
which requires the teaching of a very few months. The 
work of the stenographer is more difficult, but in little more 
than a year he can be educated.. Women and persons 
who have an acute and correal hearing can praftise it with 

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surcesfl. Blind people generally having very delicate hear- 
ing will be most useful, the reading and translation being 
done by other people. The same machinery is available 
for every language in existence. The system is so per- 
fe£t that it can be used for reproducing a language that is 
neither spoken nor understood by the operator. But under 
such circumstances the orator must speak slowly and in a. 
very distinfl manner. This machine was worked by a 
young lady belonging to the stenographic stafT of the Italian 
Senate, where the machine is in constant use. 

A stenographic machine may be useful for reporting 
speeches but for the work of our Indian k^chabrls the in- 
vention referred to in the following paragraph is likely to 
be of greater practical importance : — 

The Americans have invented a pencil which will make 
an indelible mark. The lead in the pencil is not plumbago, 
but a composition ; it writes as easily as a pencil, and after 
a few seconds the writing cannot be effaced. There is no 
fluid used, no scraping needed, and the pencil will write on 
for months unchanged. The defe£l of the invention is that 
the composition, as yet, writes in purple, instead of black. 
When that has been removed, which seems easy, the 
American " ink leads " will, we imagine, completely super, 
cede every kind of pen and ink. The power of writing with 
an instrument which needs apparatus, and can be carried 
as easily as any pencil case, is pra£tically invaluable. 

The Atketueum of June 25th contains a detailed review 
of the English, Arabic Lexicon recently published by Dr. 

The following passage is an extraft from "Le£tures 
«n Teaching" delivered in the University of Cambridge 

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( i4 > 

during the last term, 1880, by J. G. Fttch, M. A. The advice 
deserves the consideratton of the friends of education in 
the Punjab. Whether it be for good or for evil whatever 
is done in England is sure to be imitated here. On the 
whole we may hope that- the result is good, but sometimes 
what is wise in the fatherland is out of place under different 
conditions, and sometimes like the Chinese tailor we reprtF- 
duce the patches. 

C. P. 

" Never appeal to the lower form of inducement if you 
can make the higher suffice. But it is notorious that we do 
appeal very much tn England to the hope of reward. Our 
whole educational plans both for boys and for men are per- 
vaded through and through with the prize system. We 
have rewards, exhibitions, money prizes, scholarships, fel- 
lowships — an elaborate system of bribery, by which we try' 
to stimulate ambition and to foster excellence. A recent 
traveller in England, Dr. Wiese, the Direflor of Public In- 
struction in Prussia, a man of keen insight and strongly 
predisposed to admire British institutions, expresses great 
surprise at this. 'Of all the contrasts which the English 
mode of thinking and a£ting shows none has appeared to 
me so striking and contradi£lory as the fa6l that a nation 
which has so great and sacred a sense of duty makes no 
use of that idea in the school education of the young. It 
has rather allowed it to become the custom, and it is an 
evil custom, to regard the prospe£t of reward and honour 
as the chief impulse to industry and exertion.' This is to 
be found, he goes on to say, at all stages of instru£tiorf 
from the University to the Elementary School. Prizes and 
medals are given not only for progress in learning but also 
for good condu£l. If any one in England wishes to beiieiit 
»n institution the first thing always is to found prizes and 

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si^holarships, which in thi^ way' have enormously increased 
in some schools. And he then expresses his amazement 
not only at the large proportion of scholars who at a break* 
ing-up day are found to ^ave been couronnes, or rewarded 
in some way, but at the heap of gift-books which often 
falls to the lot of a single scholar. 

Now Dr. Wiese has here bit an undoubtedly weak 
point in our English education. We use rewards some- 
what lavishly. We rely on them too much, as furnishing 
the motive to excellence, and we thus do not give a fair 
chance to the development of purer and nobler motives 

Then rich people of kindly instinfls who take ao 

interest in a school often know no other way of gratify- 
ing those^^ instin£ls than by establishing a prize It 

is here as with charity to the poor, about which so 
much has been said of late. What we see in both 
cases is pleasure, gratitude, very agreeable things to 
recognize ; but what we do not see is some enervation of 
the character, the silent encouragement of a false and 
lowered estimate of duty. Hence I venture to offer this 
general counsel. Use rewards sparingly. Do not rely on 
their influence too much. Do not give them for ordinary 
obedience, or fair average application ; but let them be felt 
as real distinctions ; reserve them for cases of special ex< 
celtence ; and do not feel bound to accept every gift or 
endowment by which an amiable friend of the school may 
propose to enrich it, unless you see that there is likely to 
be genuine merit to correspond to the gift." 

Thg remarkable feature of the Dorsetshire coast, known 
as {he Chesil Beach, exceeding in magnitude any other for- 
mation of the kind in Europe, conne^s the Island of Port- 
land n'ith the main land at Abbotsbury (a distance of atwui 

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io) miles), from which point it run? along the shore, rapid* 
ly diminishing in CKtent, to Burton Cliff. 

Its breadth at ordinary low tides is about 170 yards 
at Abbotsbury, and at Portland about 200 yards, with an 
average height of about 40 feet. The size of the pebbles 
which form the Beach increases as you go from Abbotsbury 
to Portland, being at Abbotsbury but little larger than 
coarse gravel, and at Portland from one to three inches ia 
diameter, with occasionally some of larger dimensions. 
The larger pebbles seem to be flattened, as though they had 
been worn away by being pushed forward, while the smaller 
ones were rounded by being rolled along the bottom. 

The Chesil Beach is a remarkable example of the sea 
producing a barrier to its own progress, and the destruflion 
of one part of the coast becoming the means of prote£tion 
to another portion. It effectually checks the heavy waves 
of the Atlantic, which would otherwise encroach on the land 
behind, and probably sweep away the bed of shingle on 
which Melcombe is built. The fleet, a narrow arm of the 
sea that separates the Beach from the main land, is the 
necessary result oi a bar thus thrown up, which by prevent- 
ing the escape of land springs from the shore behind, forms 
an inner channel, the level of which with the outer sea is 
preserved by the surplus water percolating into it through 
the shingle. 

Whence is the moss of shingle derived? From the 
bottom of the sea-oFRng. Those who dredge the West 
Bay report it to be singularly free from pebbles. Is it from 
Portland? That would imply that the pebbles travelled 
not only against the prevailing winds, but also in a dire£lion 
contrary to that of the ; moreover the Portland beds 
are calcareous, while the pebbles of the Chesil Beach are 
siliceous. The materials forming shingle beaches which in 

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most cases are derired from the neigh^o^^ing cliffs, travel 
in a given direflion. On both sides of the channel this is 
west to east and is the result oi the force and duration of 
the westerly winds. If a groin or other proje£l!on is 
ere£led on the south or south east-coast, the accumulation 
of shingle is on the west side of such a barrier. To effe£l 
this result it is not necessary that the prevailing winds 
should blow in a dire^ion parallel to the coast ; any wind 
which strikes it, however obliquely, will exert a force tend- 
ing to impel the shingle in the same direflion. 

Of the pebbles composing the Chesil Beach, chall^flints 
are the most numerous. A white semi-transparent quartz 
is the same as the unrolled flints which are abundantly 
found in the valleys of Abbotsbury, Chideocand Charmouth : 
others have been traced to the chalk cliffs between Lyme, 
Rejis and Sidmouth : some of a different chara£ter to 
Budleigh, Saiterton and Aylesbere Hill whence they have 
been brought down to the coast by the river otter. Though 
these data indicate the sources whence certain portions of 
the Beach have been derived, the rate of supply from them 
is not sufficient to account for the formation of a deposit 
of such vast magnitude. The sea produces little effect on 
the older rocks : the chdk which furnishes the flint is of a 
more yielding nature ; but even there the waste of cliff is 
comparatively inconsiderable — scarcely more than sufficient 
to supply Bints enough to make good the loss occasioned 
by attrition and removal. 

If causes now in operation are inadequate >— we must 
"look for other agencies — and the following view seems to be 
feasible, via., " that the dilluvial waters which excavated the 
extensive valleys intersefting the coast at Abbotsbury, 
Cbideoc and Charmouth, swept their materials into the bed 
of the British channel, whence they have been drifted into 

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their present positions by the influence of the prevailing 
winds blowing from the south-west"* 

It has been remarlted that the largest pebbles are towards 
Portland. Had the reverse been the case, possibly the faft 
would not have been discussed as it might be supposed that 
the smallest pebbles would travel farthest, or that those 
which had travelled farthest, would be worn down to the 
smallest size. Some consider this circumstance to be due 
to the tidal a£lion of the sea, others to the velocity of the 
waves, increasing in the direflion of the Beach, and therefore 
that the size of the pebbles thrown up would be largest where 
the force of the sea was greatest. 

I am of opinion that large pebbles from offering a larger 
surface to the power of the water are more easily moved 
than the smaller ones. Their occurrence at the sumroit 
of the bank results from the force of the advancing being 
greater than that of the retiring wave, in the same manner 
as on a sandy-shore the heaviest substances are observed to be 
thrown up the farthest, because the wave by which they were 
lodged, in consequence of being dispersed or divided into 
spray, returns to the sea with diminished force. 

The many and curious relics that have at various times 
been thrown up from the sea, invest the Chesil Beach with 
an antiquarian interest. Coins of gold, silver and copper, 
both of ancient and modern date, are of frequent occurrence. 
Of the former, those of the Roman empire are the most 
numerous. The occasion of their being found is only after 
a continuance of ground-seas when the waves, receding in 
rapid succession, produce a downward current, scouring 
away the shingle and exposing the blue clay beneath. The 
most remarkable ground-sea that has occurred during this 
century, happened in 1841, and continued for several da3rs, 

* I Mn indebted to Dt. BncUud for this iuforaution. 

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when thousands of persons might have been seen searching 
the clay for coins, &c. Besides coins, there have on such 
occasions been found antique rings and seals, with other 
relics which have survived the destruction of vessels wreck- 
ed on the Beach of this much dreaded bay, and offering 
singular evidence that the mariners of ancient as well as 
modern nations have here alike found a watery grave. A 
winter rarely passes without the ChesU Beach being the 
scene of some disaster. 

A change of wind or turn of tide restores the shingle to 
its place, and again covers up this store-house. 

In reading the accompanying transliteration of this 
well known Punjdbf poem one or two points should be 
borne in mind. The language purports to be Punjibf, in 
fa£l it is Punjabi, as after all the Persian and Arabic words 
that occur so frequently are only such as one could expe£l 
to find in a modern poetical work by an educated Musal- 
min. It is not however written in the Gurmukhf charac- 
ter which an orthodox Punjabi writer would employ, but 
in the Urdu. The Gurmukbi charafter and orthography 
are no doubt classical, but I doubt very much if the majority 
of works in the language are written in them. At any rate 
the celebrated work now transliterated is not so written, 
and in it I find that all the Arabic and Persian words retain 
their proper spelling according to Persian ideas, and the 
Persian spelling differs materially from the Gurmukhf 
spelling of borrowed Persian words. This will account 
for the Persian spelling of these words in this transliter- 

With reference to the indigenous Punjibf words, 
themselves. — These when written in the Gurmukhi char- 

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( 20 ) 

a6ler leave no doubt to the transliterator as to their ortho- 
graphy, but when found in Persian character there is con- 
siderable doubt owing to the indefinite character given it 
by the absence of short vmvels and the various readings 
the vowels 3 and ^ are liable to ; e. g., should the Punjabi 
word ^, father, be read piyH, pyi, or pi&? and again 
if}*, she was, if read h6i is Punjabi, if read h6\ is Hindf : 
and is ^^, he was, h6i& or h6y&-? These difficulties, or 
rather this indefiniteness, become at once apparent by set- 
ting a Punjibf munshf, who understands the art, to transli- 
terate his own tongue from Persian into Roman charac- 
tera^he will sometimes write one way, sometimes another, 
the same combination of letters having the same pronoun- 
ciation, thus showing either that doubts as to orthography, 
or rather in this case sound, arise in his own mind, or that 
he is indifferent to the sound of his short vowels. These re- 
marks will account for some of the differences experts will 
find in my transliteration from that of transliterators from 

A third source of variation of spelling lies in the in- 
definiteness of the Persian short vowel. No one can study 
any of the Persianized languages without being aware of 
this indefiniteness — short a and i even » seem to the native 
ear interchangeable. I think the character has helped this 
carelessness of pronounciation ; however, be that as it may, 
it exists and is a source of perpetual worry to the translitera- 
tor. Words the dictionaries agree about, words which 
appear to him well known and whose orthography is ap- 
parently 6xed, suddenly in his munshE's hands assume new 
forms. Something of this is no doubt due to the idiosyn- 
crasies of the munshfs employed, and it is well known that 
every person has peculiarities of pronounciation and some- 
times of spelling which are his own and not national. In 
transliterating this poem, though the MS. was fiaall; 

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prepared by my own hand, it was first transliterated' from 
the Persian hieroglyphs (I use this strong term advisedly 
for no language I know in the Persian dress is so unintelli- 
gible as PuRjibi) by a Punjabi munsht, whose Roman spel- 
ling I have in the main observed. I have only altered it in 
those cases where it seemed advisable to do so. For in- 
stance he always spelt the poet's name H&sham ; this word 
occurs as the first word of every 4th line (8th in the Roman) 
and I have altered it for uniformity's sake to Hdsktm. 
Other instances of his peculiar spelling are— 

juwShar, jewels, for jawihir. 
juwib, answer, for jawib. 
bilag^ of full. age, for bilig^, 
kanire, banks, for kin^re. 
bclhar, outside, for b^hir. 
marid, desire, for mur^d. 
'^ixi.m, treasury, for ^izina.. 
Toret, the Testament, for Tauret. 

The pronounciation of the letter > as a consonant, as found 
in these pages, may be a peculiarity of the munshf, or it may 
be a provincialism in the Kdngri district whence he comes ; 
but whichever it is he always spelt and pronounced it w, 
though the di£lionaries asually, and especially when it is 
initial, spell it v, which spelling as far as my own ear guides 
me is correft as regards the Mdnjhj — Southern Punjab 
generally. This spelling gives some words a peculiar look, 
e^-, ta'mis which is usually ta'vex : jiwe for jive : wichiran 
for vichirna. To make a hard and fast rule that j shall 
be either v or w, and not both, is I think incorrect ; in reality 
in some words it is v and in others w : this munshi, how- 
ever, always has it w. In one word it leads to an extremely 
interesting result. It is of very common occurrence in the 
poem and usually in the root form wekh, to see. Now the 

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original Sanskrit word was prelcsh, the Prikrit pekhaf and 
the Palf peVkhati, while the modern Hindi is pekhni and 
the modern Punjabi vekhni and oow we have found wekbai. 
— R. C. T. 


Adamjdm was king of the city of Bhambor, and was 
great ar.d just aiid generous. To him was born in the city 
of Bhambor a daughter Sassf, and he called the astrologers 
to foretell her fate.. And these said " she will die in a 
lone and sandy desert and bring disgrace and shame to her 
father's house." tiovi although her father and her mother 
loved her much, nevertheless, when they heard she would 
bring shame upon them, they made a plan to put her into a 
wooden chest and throw her into the river, thinking there- 
by to rid themselves of the evil name in store for them. 
So having gotten a wooden chest they put SassI into it and 
threw it into the river. 

Now one Atti, a washerman, was washing clothes by 
the river bank not far from the place where Sassi was thrown 
into the river. Seeing the chest floating down the river he 
jumped in and brought out the chest with Sassf in it, and tak- 
ing Sass! home to his own house he cherished her until she 
became of full age. And to him came the young washermen 
and demanded her in marrif^e, whereupon he went to Sassf 
and said, " choose whom you will," but she would have none 
of them, saying " I am a king's daughter." When they heard 
this the washermen went to ilidamjim the king and told him 
that Atti the washerman had a daughter worthy of marrying 
him. The king thereupon sent for Sassi, but when he saw 
what was written on the paper, which had been in the wooden 
chest, he was greatly ashamed, and sent Sassf back to her 
foster-father the washerman, 

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One day Sassf was wandering in a garden where were 
piflures of many princes and when she saw the piflure of 
Punn6n, Prince of Kecbam, she was greatly p1e.i5ed and 
pined for love of him. But presently there came Belocb 
merchants who told her all the story of PunniJi}. And 
moreover they said that Punnun was their brother. When 
Sassf heard this she cast them all into prison, for she said 
" surely when Punndg hears that his brothers are in prison 
he will come to release them." 

Now with the Beloch merchants had come two camel- 
men, who mounted their camels and rode to the city of 
Kecham and told what had happened to the king, Hot 
'Alf. But the king would do nothing. So they went to 
Punni^Q and told him how Sasst bad fallen in love with 
him and how she bad imprisoned bis brothers, the Beloch 

As soon as be beard this Punntig mounted on a swift 
camel and rode to Bhambor in one night, and coming to 
SassCs garden sent the camels to graze in it. The gardener 
went and told Sassf that camels were grazing in the garden. 
So Sassf went with her slaves to beat the camel-men, but 
wben she saw Punniii} there she gave herself up to him in- 
continently and they lived happily together, so that PunniiQ 
would not return to his home. 

Therefore the Belochts went to Punnug's father and 
told him how bis son had been caught in the toils of Sasst, 
and when the brothers heard of this they went in the 
middle of the night and took away Punniin from Sassf when 
be was drunk with wine. 

Now wben Sasst arose in the morning and found that 
Punnfii} had been taken away she was in very great grief 
and would listen to no one, but started for the city of 

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Kecham to find Punn^Q. But as she was going thcougli 
the deserts she died there. 

Then PunnuQ saw in a dream that SassE had died for 
I ove of him in the lone and sandy desert, and the spirit of 
Sassf appeared to him in the dream and called him. And 
after this he would listen to neither father nor brother but 
went to seek Sassfs grave, and when be had found it, it 
opened and he went in. 

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( 35 ) 


$[FT Bi&i lA'iLA. 

Qikmat 6s Ebnd&wsnd W&H 

U^lik mulk mal»k d^, 
L&kb kardf kuran cfaalariyin, 

Kol pacbb&Q ns sakda : 
Qadrat nil rshe sir-gardtin, 

Diyflin charkh falak da, 
QXsaiH l^vb hot fjnlk^rf, 

Farsb fan&h ^ulaq da. 

Qadrat nil I^akf m-azal de, 

Naqsh nftf;ar baniiyi ; 
Jo arwib aslr 'isliq d& 

Q»id jisam wicb [<£;£, 
Jo makhmq na b&hitr is thfn, 

Ar^ snmti wicb &y£ : 
^iSBlu wekb bukhar 'isbq da, 

fiar ik sbia-o-iuayiL 

^oan kaUm jo sbi'ir ksrde, 

Su^an na s&tbin &y&, 
Jihdkn *aqal sba'ur Bak4^, 

As^ bl dkb aan&y& ; 
Sun Bun hot Sassi dy&n batan, 

K&nil 'isbq kamiya ; 
^^HiH zor talf'at k{ta, 

Wahm it6 wal &)&. 

Dab-ba.tIn $ift BAdsbAb. 

^damjim Bhambor Sbahr da 
^al^ib tak^t kabawe : 

Wa^sh, tayiir, jindyat, idtun. 
Bar ik sU naw^ive, 

JAh>o-ial&l Sikaiidarwali 
Sii^Kir m^' na lydwe. 

^ASHIH &kb, zah&n nu sakdi 
Kaan ta'rlf sao^we. 

mzecDy Google 

( 26 ) 

Sbahr Bhambor mak6n l\6hi 

'Ajab babisfat bftD&;& I 
Faraal), farfiali, chftman, gnl, but*, 

Bar bar z&t lafc^yfi ; 
JUtiij&a, ban;, UI4b, ofaaatarfi 

Ral-mil ^db Buh(iy& ; 
UiflHiM rfih rail! wicti phasyi 

Dtuo fareb wicbbay^ 

Amfr, waair, ^nl4m karot^n, 

Lnshltar, fanj, khizine ,- 
Bairak snrkbj nisb&n haz&r&n, 

Bhim-ghat^iO shamyiine j 
P&wan khair fnqfr, niasafir, 

$&^ib hosb, diwine ; 
JJiUHiM ^s s^aml wich 'fijiz, 

B6s aiil4d na kb^ae. 

Sbw^hish 6s aul&d haraeabe , 

Hr sbabld manfiwe ; 
De libfe piebAIc Iiarahiny^n, 

Bhfikbjfin t'Am kbiliwe i 
Wekb vi&x maeifir k^mo 

TaUb sar&e lawiwa ; 
I^aBHIH karsan jab&n dod'en, 

i^ S^ln wal Uwfl. 
Dorre-yatim ^adaf wich iy&, 

8ani pakir dilin di ; 
Fbirl bahar shagfifewali, 

Hoi timed frul^n df ; 
Cbb^j ma'qdl boi abroaham, 

Jhar! 6hd sakht Bnl&n di, 
]||£bbiu wekb boa ga\ \6\&, 

Hog bith&r plialan df. 

Dar-bat.£n tawallad shvdan SassI. 
8aBsI janam liyi Shab-qadre, 

UUal balal dara^^h&n, 
Wekb be-&b bod nag, moti, 

n^nak, la'l Badakhsb&n ; 
'Ai]al, kbijil, qayiaon b&bar, 

Niigir kare dil naqsban, 
^isaiu akh ta'Hf ]}ria»Ti di, 

ghama mig^l zar-afabiQ. 

itizecy Google 

( 27 ) 

Jnmiil jxlidn h<S.vJt k^^Tl-l^ilf, 

Phiryli nek zain&n£, 
ITaabttt n&oh sbam^ nit koi, 

Dharbat nil tarini ; 
Kar alr-w&r su^an xar, sooi, 

Hor jaw&hir-kbiDii 
Qashih khair k{t& fuqri z&g, 

Malk, ma'&eh, kbi^^i* 

Abl-i-najfim sftde as W6l«, 

Qifz TaarSt zab&n(, 
^^^ib-ynman, karimatwil^, 

Sl^abar dewim iam&ni, 
Wekhan 'omar na^Ib Sassi de, 

Khol Kit^b Rabbin!, 
QisHTH bbir Basai sir 4^h&, 

Hos shit&b isani, 

Wekh kitJib najfim najdm^ 

Ho rahe dbap sire, 
Z&lim hnknm saham salt&nin, 

Kaan koi dam mire? 
B&deb&hdn gach ftkban aakb£, 

Ho£ licbir waobire. 
^ASHiu I ba^t bakbil Sassf de, 

Kaua jit« ? kaun hire ? 

81iih do-b£r kih^ " jhab kahiye, " 

"Kabo jawibl kiiwe?" 
'Ar? k{d, " Darbirtnsfl^o, 

" Saklian na kita-jiwe, 
" B£8 zabin na akban jogf, 

" Jfi^h irnin naiiwe," 
^^HiM ! karan lukao bnteri, 

Far boni kann mat&we? 

Ofak ^finf nUr najumf, 

B&t kaM man bh&nt ; 
'' Eimil 'iahq Sassf n^Q host, 

" Jad hog jawdn st;6nl ; 
" Mast be-hoso thaUi; wich marsf, 

" Dard fartU] na jinf," 
I^^hihI da(fb lap^wag k61 ufijf r 

Jag wich hog kahioi. 

itizecy Google 

( 28 ) 

Snn'taqrfr I107& dil birij^n, 

Atish chnmalc afM bar dil D^n, 

Jvfinkar tel fatil^ ; 
K^nahf kfaar&b hoi wioh ^am AOf 

Zard hoyi ranjj p(14, 
l^iamit ] baithdinS sy^ne, 

Hor widi&ran hfla. 

Be-umed bovA hatTi dliote, 
B&p uitied niuradon, 
Z^lim rdp hoyti dil nsdd, 
Sakht syAh jalidon, 
Knng nfimtia ki hasil bowag, 

"I^XsHiH, kbarch karo," f&rm&ji, 
" F^rs)^ ho fasten. 

Eahji wazir, "li dda Snsal Dug ? 

" Likhyfi lekh Qahdri. 
" Be-taq^ir kahftwati kanyan, 

. " Nasht kare kal efirt. 
"I9 tMn bdp kf bor par^r^? 

" Qanm howe batj-irf ! '* 
^Xshih! p&e ^nndliq rorb&o, 

H6I cbnkf kbar-kbw&H. 

Farsb zamfn te bar ik t^n, 

Mdn pyfi babat piy^Hi ; 
So phir &p rnrb^wan tisiifin, 

Wekn KTtTx&h nik^rfi, 
Dban ob ^SJiib Snrjanhfirfk, 

'Aib Chipiiwaiibir£ t 
IfiSEm I jo Oh kare 'adalat, 

Kann kare nast^ri? 

W^ kiMm na^tb Sassf da 

If^m liv^Q dil ^ard£; 
Tat^ton cb^ Bat! anlj^n^n, 

Sbair pawe dar dar d& ; 
Bail ^ftiib, naqgbil ji)i&, 

Oh&e zamin sir dhnrd£, 
9ISRIH jan nn bolanwlili; 

Jo diahe so kard^ ! 

mzecDy Google 

( 29 ) 

Jia ast&d ^andtiq Snssf di 

Ghaf-yfi n4l qithar de, 
AQii&n AraB^n Jehe, 

Hon gh&gtri bonar de ; ■ 
Zlnat zeb aikban sabh aa thfn 

Dilbar Chin Mt^nr de. 
QisHiH wekb US sh&bflsh karde, 

" $d]>ib 'aqal fikar de." 

Cbannan abAMi mangii kad&hog 

Baith k&rigsr gbnriyti, 
£uti wel sanehrf kite, 

Lfi'al jaw£hir japf£, 
Fa zatijir chaafer pinjar n^n, 

Baifh be-dard&n kn{-ij&. 
^ABHlH wekb tnnalTad bimdE 

^Q dnkb&n lar phsfiyft. 

Kar tadbf r kete tan cbfalnde, 

Gbarkh dita kar n&le I 
TtB de mulk hoyd ik chb&nd& 

Shir pil&wanwAle, 
!}&}& dij-dahej SassI ntin, 

Uor parb&wanw&Ie, 
l^isHlU likh ta'wiz luiaqfqat, 

Qarf Sassi gal ^ile. 

P£ fand£q rofhd Sasai ntin, 

Nub tufdn WDf^indi ; 
E&bak N^g na b&lb liv&wan, 

Dhdl sy&b bagend^; 
FiLr Jir&r balfen phirdv&n, 

D^o d^nw dhR) rehndj, 
I^iSHIU wekb na$!b Sassf di 

Ki kojh bor karenda ? 

TiUT^t tor zanjir ;idnq d&, 

Gbfij&n rizq mnhir&n : 
Gbrdaah falak ba& sir^gardan, 

B&jb nialUh kah&r&n, 
Sfiraj tea bojd jal kbuoi, 

L^n tnsin chaiiikfirdn. 
]j[ashiu wekb Sassf wiob gherf, 

Pnahinan l&kb haz&r^Q. 

mzecDy Google 

( 3» ) 

Xdnm-i^or jan&viir jal de, 

lUkas rdp gar&en, 
M&gar-machh, kachbujalhope, 

Nig, satis&r, balMg, 
Tandae qabr sambfir&tin^le, 

L&wao zor tadl^n, 
^iSBiH 1 marg Saaal wich that de ; 

Miraa kaiui Dtbfi^g ? 

Ghamman-gber cbanfere gb^re, 

Thithin lain kaliwe ; 
Labr^n zor karan bar tarfi^, 

Ik £we ik jiwe ; 
l^&nt shams (aadtiq charfio, 

BijII ohamak dsrflwe, 
^XSBIH I oh£b jfwin Kini'aiil, 

Wekb fandiaq cbhip&we. 

Sbabron htiiU ko pattan dbob& 

Dbond^ nadf kindre; 
Atti& n&m, mig&l fariBbta, 

Bnzrag nek sattire, 
Dt(h& 6s ^anduq dar^di*) 

Oil wich ^lanf ehat&n, 
^ASHiH 1 gayo ras hoeb dim^^oi} 

Wekb yandfiq satire. 

Ears ^ay&l jaw4bir-^£a£; 

J&n p^ in tabib! ; 
Yi kol ifat rurhi pah&rog, 

Y& asrir llibt. 
Ba^t bfl-d&r hoyi tad osdfi, 

Dim lekh gawiibf, 
^iC8H^I t j&Q piyi jal d^ngbe 

Ho dil-6ber sipfibi. 

Utte ^tib kit! .jindb&zf» . 

Liy£ ^andtiq kin&re, 
Sh&b hoyi, dil sb&d. Sl^nd& wal 

Nl'mat sbnkar gnz&re. 
Waryi sba\r mnbirak dewaa 

Bal-mil yir piyire, 
QiSBiH I mil liyi, bor d6ji, 

Hoy& (affftb be-ohfu^e. 

mzecDy Google 

( 31 ) 

Ehnlle An na^fb Atte d» 

Karam bhale din &e; 
Jajat-j»^6A tnal^Ut karke, 
Sfaankat-shdn ban^. 
^idmat-gir DJialjLm Sasal do, 

Nauknr i^r rakh&e. 
^XsHiH ! UA Bakke Rubb chSbi, 

Fal wicnliare kartte. 
Statt bo! jawfin ai^of 

^drat ^fib saw^; 
^ib 'ilm \ay&, balEmf, 

*Aqal, bauar, chatnHlf. 
H&Q-pyd w«kh kirfgar kof, 

Cb£ban kft4 kofmif, 
9^SBIH ! snni Saaei mafl&hat), 

GJiainit hoi siwfU, 
Ban ban pancb panch&;at dbobl, 

P&a Aftfl de &wan; 
Kar tamstl wibir jaj^t cl^ 
Bfit hamesb chal&wan, 
" Dbi^in soban iiahfn gbar m^-py^Q, 

Je lakh r&j kamfiwan." 
ly^Hiu 1 w&ng bujb&rat dbobf. 

Bit Sassf wal Unao. 
Ik din kot Sauf de pyfi ne, 
Bai(h kite gal cbheri; 
A!kfa, " BaclUl, tug b&ligli bofjoQ, 

" W^g ten batb terl 
" Dbobt z&t 1icb« gbar itwan, 
" Phir phir j&n botere," 
IJXsBiH I " kaDU terfl man bh&we t 

" Kkh Bunk suwere I" 

Sassf tn£1 jawib na \iU&, 

N&l pyu ■barm^ndj. 

Dil wicb pher Ingi oh sochan, 

" Wekb likhe karm&ndf, 

" piidndan iak-jhatx5fl mi-pt, 

^ASHiu ! pher oh n£m na lewan, 
Wekb Sosst darm&ndi. 

(^To be cotUinued.) 

itizecy Google 

( 33 ) 

Jin ih kila vichch jS, baitba tin dbiia IciU, ki je DhUn 
BiQgb de patt Hir& SiQgb ate tia de bh^I Sachet Singb dod is 
de mamfl d[ khabar howegi t£n ob haiU karke S&s nun m&ran 
Aa^ge is IbI knobb tatblr karnl cbabije. Unb&n pipfig nai 
nsi vele Dhi^n Singh di vallon Hira Singb ata Sucbet Siggb 
ndn ib obittbl likhf, ki asfn Saudben&lfag n&l kile vichch 
baithe hoe knchh salab kar rahe h&n, taslQ bl ia chit^bi ndn 
paj-hde hf kile vichcb &]&o, Einnki SandhewfiJUn di ib naarjf 
si, ki j&i} oh doQo kile viohch a vai'aage t£n nnh&n ndg aefn 
kalle p&ke mir sitf^nge. Jin ohitth! Baddbd de &we par 
tinbin de pia pahnnohl, tin niihin de aalibfio nai is vichch 
knchh chbal sainajh ke ih attar likh bbejia, ki aindn iuija 
viohch tA knchh njar nabln par je Riji Dbiaa Siggh de 
IiattUQ likhl bof chitt)i[ side pia pabnnohe, tig aafn i Jiwiggs. 
Jig aDhin nai 4>tthi, ki sidf cbitflil ndn nh samajh gae, tin 
panj Ban gbof-oha;'he ndn Biri Siggb ate Sqcbet Singh da 
pakar leia^e lai bhejii, par ih aawir Dohig ndg pakar na 
sakke. Ar ia te ikk ghnnti piohohbon ib khabar aire pargnt 
ho gaf, ki Sandhewiliin niu Mahirije Ser Siogh ate Vnjir 
Dhiin Siggh ndn mir sittii hai. Is khabar de snndiin hi 
Bfri Siggh be-hil he gii, ate Hii hii kahike dharti par 
tafaphai^ lag gii. Us di bilakig vanngd ropi ate chlllini^i 
dekhka Bai Kesri Singh nai ikhii, ki tnsln niigiig vanggd 
ih karde ho, jo knchh hoii ao hoii, agge lai jatan karni cbi- 
hije, na jii^ije jo oh pipi Saadhewille hor kl kf npaddar 
karange. [7h ia dl gall sunke hoa vichcb iii ate BabhniQ 
Sardirin ndn nil laike faiij vichcb gii ki ub. fanj de waslla 
BandhewiliaQ te badii Utre. filri Singh nai aabhnig Sanlir 
lin sage fanj da sifamge ipgf talwir rakkhe ib gall ikhi, ki 
Be Ebiisi jf dekho Mahirije Banjf t Singh nai nii^pnga te 
laike maindn ipge patrin te vadhlk pilii b& ar main sir! 
nmar ajihi snkh piii si, ki kot dokkh Dahii} ^itt^ii P" ^'"9 

itizecy Google 

( 33 ) 

SandheTT&linn nni mori b&t& sakh dur kar ditU, dekbo nnh£g 
nai B&4^ pfids&h Ser Singh nlin ar mere piti ndn mirke 
ga& ditUt, so jo tiisin is gull dH biujla Ui dewo, Un main sari 
Dinar tuhada denddr rnbunga. Uoban du ih sirit kamm is 
w&ste kft& liai, ki is mulkh vichoh Anfjrejig n^g \eiko Kh&lse 
d« panLh d& u&s kar duwe, kiunki jad oli Hiadd^U^n vicbch 
raliinde se, tail nnli&n nai Angrejdn nil ib nein kit& s&, ki asfg 
tus&ndn Panjib vichcb bnliw^nge. Hnn inb^n nai Ludebana 
ar Farojpar niin kai cbiftbian likbke bliejidn ban, ki asfn 
Lahaar di gaddi kb^li kar cbfaaddi Iini, Furangf &ke &pi}n 
aaila kar laig. So dekho He Kfails^ jf hui;i tus£4^ dfaarm 
gny£, ar Angrej &ke tub&^B hathi^r khoH Inigge, ate tas&ji^i; 
ijjatag big^r''^ kbetl karfin^ lagg japge. So jo hnn kachh 
toaln ap&a nabig knroge tin Kbilsa ji d& kite pat£ hi nohig 
dis&ligfii Hug panj£ hojlir fan} Angrej&n d! Satltij de dariia 
n4i) nagjibko tubtinSn m&ran w&ste & phirlii^e, ar phtr 
lnh& te kachh np&a nabig ho sakn&. Angrej tah^iJn ajihj 
dakkh denge, ki dhnrm de bigirne le vadbik tusida naun 
pat4 bi ddr karange, bhaUije tnsln Angrej^n de fi j&g nun 
kachh bnri nabln j&nde, t&n mere pin val dekho, nandg 
Shndhew&liig nai kis cbbal n&l m&ria. Dekho mnin ek bor 
b&t &kbd& hflg, ki tnsfn j^gdo bo mere pin de p^ kilnfka 
m^ya ar va^e Maharajo di kbiijan^ kitii&kn vnda hatj je main 
saa baras tak kbarcfain t&n bi tot nalifn d saktigC, go merl hng 
ih salab hai, ki bor sabb kamm cbbaddke main nirt fauj di 
pjlind karuggi, dekho main njj te baran rnpaiye mahind sipdbi 
ar tfb rnpaiye mahind ghor-cbnrhe dd (bard ditld. Je tuhandg 
stbdr nubin' tdg maig sangand kbdke akbdd bdn ki main iipije 
chftche ate pin dd sdr^ dhan tnba^a sirdn par bdr sittdggd. 
Merit bor kof malbol nahin, nird iho cbdbnda bdn, ki inbdn 
Sandhevraliin nng mdrke ate Aggrejig ndn Satluj pur hi rokke 
£pge mulkh ndn amnn ohnin vicbch rakkbiye. Je asln ib 
iatMr nd kardnge tdn sdndg :;te tabdndg sdr{ iimar di bad- 
sdmi rahugi. Ib cbete rakkho, ki Sandhewdlie dpne mnlakh 

itizecy Google 

( M ) 

ar Hinddig do dharm aie SikkM raaf de vairi ban, je iuhift 
nfii} nabfQ m&r&Qga I&q dharm d<i kaohb tliik&i>i nablQ. 

Fanj is gall nun sni^ke krodb vicbcb & gal, ate a^ vele 
kh&n& pl^i. ar bb^nde tfnde chbuddke Iflj-af waste tidr bo gni. 
Fbir fauj nai II{r& Singh a^Q kih&, tasfg praaiantiU n&l £piie 
kanpd kol Budilbu de kva pur j&wo nsfn tas^t» in.tgare ftugda 
h^Q, ban aab&g pSpI&n te sabb badio aohohhl taran la j^nge, 
E(ra Singb nai ia taran iymi cb%turi{ nftl oh&li btyar fanj ippe 
Hill kar la(. Jan ib kile pur halU karne d{ tiarf kar nb& s^ 
t&Q Sandbe<r411an nai kile ar sahir viohcb hi tbahf! jebi fanj 
nuQ kuchb rnpaiye deke &pi^( knmmu^ w&ste ti&r kar \\&. 
Dbian Singh d& marn&cbhip£iii> Iiti inb£n nai bh&weg sabir 
vicbob ih b&t bf pargaf kftf, ki Mah&r&ja DaUp Singh P^sah 
ate DbifEn Singh ns d& Vajir ho gay& hai, par neggar vicbcb 
Dbidn BiQgbd4 marnft gnjh& nS ribi. Jag tak£!&n d& ve]& 
hoia, H£r4 Siggb Eh&lse di fauj odg n&l luike aahir val nfiij 
siddhi hoi&. 

Ih gall aankfl 8andbe\r£l!£n nui Sikkh£n di goBsi bafinij^e 
lai Dhi&n Biogb di loth par du9&I£ pake aar gul&b ohbirakke 
OS mnaalciin eip&bf dl loth aana jo nai Li ia&ri4 s£ fanj vicbob 
bbej dttti ar &kbi&, ki Hai H^i ia omsalman sipabf ndi} 
a&^Q hukam biii& Vi>j{r sihab ndn raddb ditUl ar aaia vacje 
BOgriiia b£g. Is Idt^'barimf detban asin is nug bt ust vols 
Tad^b ditti baL Inhan g^l^n teb! Kb&ls4ji da gas3& ddr 
ji& hoi£ balak va^E aobchi awaj n&l Wab Gnra ji ki fate bolde 
hoe aahir riohcb ag vafe ar &ake kile nun gher 11^ Hir& 
Siggb nai goiumdftjag ndn buUke &kbi^ ki je tusin d'i^ke kil« 
viobob mori kar dewon tan sir! fauj kile de andar vaf laiye. 
Ar ib M kiba, ki main ts'^ li ia mibaat di bibat babnt rnpuya 
dedgga. Mere dil vicbcb hai, ki jad t&in maig SundbevraHiB 
de sir rad^bo boe n& dekban tod tain ann pigl aahig vartliggi. 
Fbir aa nai as fauj ndg ki jin snbtr vicbob lutt maoh^ si, 
6kbi& ki je tusin mere vatriau di sir kafke li&won l&^ ami 

itizecy Google 

( 35 ) 
tos&n&g kiU la%XaB d& I^nkain bf deiiggi. Zb gall angles 
faaj iiai kili ^haa^^ e la! goIanid4j£n d! babut khaaimat kiti, ki 
oh top£n n&l kile vichoh gali karden. QoUmd^j'tn nai top£g 
cbal&ke sawere tapke hi kile vicboh ikk mogh kar ditt4. Ar 
faaj nai ai de raste kile Tlohoh vaf no da uddam kft^. J£g fanj 
gasSB nil hall& karke kila da aadar ja rari t£n andarii faaj oai 
kacbh Hfthmrii ai klt£. Ar jioh^n Sikkh&n nai aadarii faaj 
ncbohon kuohh Hir& Sig^b di s&hmnS bi kU4 ob bolfairi hoi^s 
d« sababb B&b[ng& n& kar sake. Jin H(r^ Singb di fanj d|t 
bahatjor sor dekbii, tfiij Ajft SiQgb 8aadben£lU apnl jiif. 
bacbiaije la! kile di kaadh nppron (app pi^. Faaj de lok^g 
nai ttsa&D pncbb^gke pakar lt£ ar jKatt ns d& sar va^^^ka 
Hiri Singh a&n lU ditti. Hlr£ Singb nai anh£n n&n bahat 
a&ri&n jagfrin ate dhaa bakbake r^jt kit£ ar &khi& ki jo 
Sandhewiili&n de btj ndn mere jii^nde jE ddr kar dewe maig 
mpar &pj).i \6,a bi bir sitt^Gg^ 

Pher oa sir a£g Hir& Siggb oiu laike apn! m^t^ de pair£a 
\iobcb Mi rakkbi^. Usd! mitg aa nfig dekbka babat kbas£ 
bof, ar &kbi£, ki ban merl praainnl^ ho ga! ar maii} darg&h 
vioboh teri uek-n&m! karfiogf, ki ia nai ^pi^e pit& d& kbfip 
had\& lt&. Abi^n jiHEin gallon karke oh sat! bo^enfin tiir 
bof, ar chi.t& par bai^bke ib gall £kli!, ki mere pichchhon bahat 
B£r&panakar!oate hakkddr^n dshakk pnrsadfi dhifia rakkh- 
do rahfo. Pher horn^n 8ard£ran ndn &khi&, ki H!rs Siggb do 
sir parr&j d! kalgi dhar doo. Sirdardn nai ns de air par j&a 
fcalgt rakkhl, t6n na df m<it£ nai kih&, Baa ban mun r£j! hfEn, 
xner! ohiti ndn ag ^& deo. Lokin nai sai vele ag l& ditU. 
Us vale terfcg t!in!£n bor b! ns de n£l sati&g hoUtj. 

Ik bit likh^e de jog liai, ki nohfin teriio timUi; vicboh 
ik (ahilai^ jo Hir& Singh di m&e di fabil kardi haodf 
at na d( amar niri daadn bara&n d! r! j^n ob b! R&i}i de n£l h( 
jalan laggi, t£n R^t^i nai as ndu ai&ni knrke £kbii, ki tfig 
mere nfil sati n£ ho, kianki tnindn maii} Hir£ Singh de battb 
sompdi b&g nh taiafis aabh tar&n r^j! rakkbdgi. Ih gatl 

DigmzecDv Google 

( 36 ) 

an^'io nti kart ro^ liiggf ar dkbia, ki mainlinbor kisf cbfj df 
lor iwMn par jitthe tusfn sabhe cballi^ bo, nuiodn bi nal 
lii lai chatlo. Ar pher ib bi akhia, ki jo tn^in maindn sati 
naliig hoi^ denongi^n, t&n main kis! hor tarsn mar j&Sngi. 
TaQ Rjlril nai ar born^n lok&n nai as d& balmt ba(b dekhi^ 
tin iU tl'ik j^ti je ih bi salt bo jawe. Uai vele ab Li unb^n 
de n&l bi jalke Baib ho gni. 

#dQ lafAi pfiri bo gni Un Hir& Singb nai bnkam dilU 
je kite viobcb lot n4 pai j&vre. Pher kile vichcb LabiTii& ^njgb 
di to' l><>9 lag<;i. JaQ nb phattar^n vicbcb ar kist bor jaga u& 
tabbhi t&n ikk bbore vichcli is d& paUl lagg<i. la di (ang bi 
tat gai hoi ai ; ns relo is de nil ikk naakars&jopanjibaras&n 
de amar vicbch bi vatji balwnnt b&. Is nai dpiji Bimak 
balili Ds Tele ajebi pargat kitl hoi si, ki Labii^& Singh df 
racbcbbia vf&*to ua bh'ore de bube vicbch lakk banbl kbari 3&. 
Jig Sikkb£g nai us n^n diftba tig ikhii, ki tag ittbon challi^ 
jib s^di tare ndl kachh wasti naliin, par as nai inhin d£ 
kabi^£ ni inannii, balak ikliia, ki muin dpne milak de thin 
sir deuijgi. lb gall sunke Singb gnsae vicbcb ie. J£n Sinj^b- 
in nai us de baddkin mdrDlan cbahlin, tin ns nai kihi baduk 
niirijL ocbcbbi nahin, main us ndg babidur samjhiggi jo 
mere nil talwir pharks la^e. Singhig uai ill gall sunke ba- 
ddkag ti ni mirldn par das barig idini talwirig pbarke as 
kile pur bulla karke ji pae. Par siibse as di deleli de ki ub 
kalla hi terin iJmiin nun mirke mar gii. Is nai mame d« 
Tole ikhii, ki He Sikkbo meri milak pabilag bi pbatfar boiA 
liai, liu^ tnsig us nun vaddh ni si'ttto. Unbin nai is di gall 
nun manjdr ni karkp, ikk SLkkb nai picbobboQ ajebi badfilc 
miri jo as di sntt d^ Labiui Siggb mar gii. 

Pher fanj nai is bit par eka kiti, ki je Hiri Singh tidf- 
ig itnfig gallin mnnn lave, tig isig is di adbtntii Ticbch 
rahiQge, uaMg ti jo Eartir oug bbiwe so howega. 

mzecDy Google 

( 37 ) 
Oh galldn eh Airp :— 

1. — Pasnnrfi Siggb ate KasmEri Singli nun dukkli ni, 
ditU jdwe ate ub LuLiiur vikbe bul4e jdij, ar fanj Si^lkot te 
muf lui jawe. 

2. — Pandat JaJbi darb&r vichcboQ kaddliia jiwe ytl s^o 
hatib pakafiii jawe. 

3. — Misaar Belf Ram jo purai>n khaj&acM 9& nh pber 
£pi>{ biidde pur {bariid jiwe. 

4. — Bbal Garmakb Sin^b buliiia j£n^p. 

5. — Sard&r Ju^har SiQgb jo Batip JSiQgh d& m&,m& bai 
nb kaid te cbba^dii jaVe. 

Pahilf gall mannke Si&tko( nlin H(r£ Singb nai cLittbi 
bbeji, ki nttbon fuuj bafe awe. Diiji gall vJcbob ns nai kih&, 
ki Pandat Jalhi mor& naukar bai je as te koi bhul havti^if 
i&Q maig as nfin 4»ti4 <ieutijr£, ar tnstn ns di piuhbll bbnl 
mdfkaro. Ate pber ih bl&kb ditts, ki aclicbbd nb bn^ te 
nil \& darb^r vichoh kdgk ar n& r^j kaj dn kammin Ticbch 
nh salibkdr ho^^k. Tiji gall viclicb £khi&, ki Uissar Bell 
Jlim ata Bh&i Garmnkb Singh faiij dl salfih n^l hi dbolilpnna 
6e sababb nt&re gae se, par acbcbh^ tusin j£ 

Panjwln gnll dt b^bat u»! vele latMr ho gn!, ki Jo^bar 
Singh kaid vichchon chhaddke do bnjar rupaijA ns de lai 
ate das hajir rapaiyi fauj do kbarcb la! de dittS. 

Fauj ne jo Hird Sinfrb te eh panj gall&n snn&ane Li{ 
bathkll^B^. Is te Sucbet Singh nai jatS, ki fanj df Rfra 
Bingb de n^l hi kncbh anbnn jelii ho raM bai. Pher us nai 
jba(t Labanr vicbch fi.y&, ii.n is nai knchb hor b&l dekbi&. 
Pher is nai £pne 4une da bil ns fanj niJn likh bfaejtlt, ki jis 
naiia odn Jainmd Tikhe nnbannt di kbabnr karke baliy^ s&. 
Us fanj nai £khiti, Hun Uir<l Singh nni sidiitn sabhe gnllaij 
Binnn lai&n bar?. Hun as^iy us de nil h4t bigirnl nabin 
chibaQde. So ho? tuhiadn iho jog hai, ki tnsln ait&bi pichblft 

itizecy Google 

( 38 ) 

pi(Mn JatnnXi nun mnf j&vo, kiogki je tnafn itthe Ffthongr, 
Un tali&di baliut auks^n hog&. Ub is bflt nlin enpke haliDt 
snrmindi ho'iA ate gnsse nit bbarke ib ir^& klLi, ki Hn^ 
main ^pne pr&i} de dednfi^. Bh&wen Hir£ Slngb nai &p U 
Sachet SiQgb nlig &p bhfji<l s£, ki je tdn Janimd ndg batt nfi 
j£weDg&, tin Ta4i aakba howegg£, par ti bi us nai kaobh 
bit n& niann(, batnk ib bllt &kbf, ki main marne ar lafne te 
bin& piobhfl pair n& p6dgg&. 

Flier Hlr&SiDghpnndriQka hfljirfnnj n&l laike Sachet 
Singh de pichhe pi£, us vela Uucbet Singh ikk masit vichch 
Titari& boi& a&, ar us de sabh nil de lok as Tele Granth S&hab 
Bim rabe se. Hfri Singh d! fanj nai nsi vels gole mirne surd 
knr ditte, pnr Sachet Singh nai Qrantb di snnni band ni kil-o. 
Jin mire topin de maalt di£n kandliin dhai gniiq, tin Suchet 
Bingh nai hath vicbcb tnlwir phafi at« vadf bb£r! larii kiU. 
TJa rele Sachet Singh de nil niri doka sau idmi si. Us vele 
Sachet Singh dt thahri jibf hi funj nai ajehl laril dikh&lt, ki 
fipne m^Iak da tbin sabh mire gaa. Is lafii vichch ikk sna 
snth manakb mire gM. Lari! de pichohbon j£n Hiri Siggh 
Infif di jaggi viobch iii ate Rii Kessri Singh ndn ghiil pii 
hoii dekbii, tin nsndn bahut (hatthe kfte. Pber nb Kesari 
Singh pint te tihiii hi mar gii. Hiri SiQgh jan ghiilig dian 
lothin dekhan laggi, tin unhin vichch uh ipne chacbe di loth 
dekhke bihat rori laggi. Fher ns ndn pilki Tichch pike as 
jaggi leiii, ki jittha Galib Singh de vade befe ITdham Singh 
di snmidh s!, ar utthe ike as nun bi dih ditti, 

Jac I«baar vichch ih npaddar banda se, tin Paaaari 
Singh ate Kasmiri Singh lakde chhipda phirda se. Inhin nai 
ipi>e bachia lii lachir hoke Bhil Bir SiQgh di ot laL Hi 
Bbi! Bir Singh Magjhe de des viuhch jbafawfl aU 
bbefan najarin laindi phirdi ate va^^ bbirl daalat- 
mand ho gii si. Itthe tak, ki is de nil birin saa piidi 
ftr tinnkn sau ghof^cbarUi ar do toptin aadi rahiadiig siig. 

itizecy Google 

( 39 ) 
Jitne Sa'rdsr Labanr de darb&r vitibchon kadijhe j^tJJe m oh 
■abh is dd p&s bi fin kabiuitd bunde ee. Htrfi Siggh nai ih 
bi pargat kitasi, ki B\\6i Bfr Siggb jo babat latij rakkbai;! 
lag^ pi& bai, is d& iriidi Iiabanr di gaddi lei^e i& hoi, par 
H!ra Singh s&re 4arde Bh£i B!r Sin^b de n&I lor&l karan d& 
niug nabin lai sakkd^ b&, kiugki Sikkh lok ns pur ajih£ 
Bibcba rakkbde ae, ki je bbalks bi BirS, Singh m da mdrne 
a nfiun lai baifbda, tAq uh asndri asi Tele vad^b si^fde. 
Bii^i Blr Singh de langar vichob Ditt pandr&Q saa manukh 
de lai bhoj'ai^ bai^di hnndi e&. 

Bir£ Singb ate as de mitr Pandaf; Jalhe oat ih taibfr kiti, 
ki kiai tar^n t)ir Singh niiii njih£ luiriye, ki faiij n^n khabar 
ii4 bowe. Ate ih li soobi^, ki ds de marne di bad-n&m! bi 
ti4^ jamme n& awe. Sochde soohde, ih gall samajh viohcb 6i, 
ki nsudn pahili ikk eai'dk di chitthi bhejiye. Fher jo kncbb 
hodga so dabbia j^dgi. Inhin dahdn nai Blr SiQgh ndn likh 
bbejid, ki Mttb&rty tusin b64^ ^ bo^ achchh! ard& knro ; ar 
bahut sirfan sng^Utg nil bhojke tb bi &kb bheji^, ki jad £p 
likhog tig DUUB ko! tusfi4o 1>^ j'gi'' tbabr& deiT^n, kiuQki dp 
de Unjiar vichcb kbaroh babnC haad& rahiad^ bat. Matbal 
inb&n sabbD&n gallfiQ i& ih sd, ki B&b£ Bir Siggh ia vel9 
kachb bbarm a& rakkbe. Hnri Bird Siggh nai Mnt&b Siggh 
Hajitble ndn dpt>& salfibk&r kiUl, ate har taran ns di 
kbiitarddri karan laggd, ar nsnon bahat s^re rupaiye dltte. 
Fber as nai Hat&b Singh odn kibd, ki maindn Hiudnst^n te 
fcbabar ii bai, jo Sardar Atar Singh Bandhew^lie nat Aggre- 
jfio n^ kachb ntel karke Sikkhdn n&\ larni chflbid hai, balak 
ih bi aagii bai, ki na nai Satluj te p&rle Sarddrdg ndg bi &pQ9 
n&l hi ral& Ita bai. So hni^ malQ tasfindg dpi^e mitr jdnke 
■aUb paohbd^ h&g, ki ki karni chihiye. Maindcj nmaid bai, 
bt je tasis meri is mdinle Ticboh kacbb kammak karoQ t^Q 
eabb kamm pdM ho jidgd. Uatdb Sipgb nai ail de piar 
Tichch olajbka uttar ditti, ki main sabfa tariy tasd^e sa^g hdn. 

itizecy Google 

( 40 ) 

B(rfi Sii}g!i nni ua n6n £pi^£ kDininnkf Bfiinnjbke kib&, bi 
tosln &pnf paltun laikeAmratsar n£n j&o ale utthe to ikk 
obitt'il Atar Singh ndn is tariin dl likh bbejo,ki siHdn fnnj&n 
ate araaf tuside miir hnn, anr ib bi jugat karo, ki cbi(tbi do 
pAfbdUn sar bf ub Bh&l BfrSingh da dere vichi-b & j&ire, kinnkt 
Bb^ s&bab de r&Mn meii ua de d^ mulakit ho jidgl. lb gall 
eujrike Mut&b Singh janiait rfji boia, ar ii±tf vele Amratsar nfig 
cbulii gi&. Us nai turno de vele ib bf kibi, ki maig tnbdndn 
niri is kamm de w&ste hi oabin bhpjd&, halak mera ih bi ir&dA 
hai, ki je Gudliar di lar^i Ticbeh Angrej&ij dl bir bojiwe, tao 
main s&^i fanj laike Satlaj de dariau ta pir boke Aegrt^Jtin df 
badd pur hall& karuQga. 

BEri Singh de knhine ands&r jiin Mnt&b Singh nai Atnr 
Singh ndn likbii, Un nh Bli&i BIr Singb ndn fikb blicji^, ki 
tusfn jo bun babiit s^iiiin Sikkb&n odn fipne p&s rakkbde j&nda 
ho, ib gall acbchbi nahln. So aclicbbi boi&n Sard^r^ ndg 
tfi main kacbb nabln £khda, par ikk Atar Singh ndn ipqe 
4erion ka4d!i deo. Bir Singh nai kah bbejid, ki asin pakbfr 
b&n, ia ndg jawab naMQ diude ate jande nag rokde nabin. 
Bir& Singh ih sunke gnsse viobch bbarii, ate balint sariii) 
faojan bhejke Babbndn Sarddr£g sane Bhfii Bir Siggfa de ^er« 
&un gber ]'i&, ntthe jake Singbin nai ajihe gole mire, ki 
Bbdf Bir Singh di ikk f^ng vioboh golA Iagg£. Ufa os d« 
laggria n&l mar gia ar as di loth ndn dariiu viohoh rnrba ditti. 

Fher Hiri Singh aman cbaia nil Lahaar Ticboh r&j 
karnn laggi- Pber koi din pichho ikk b£r Hir& Singh kisi 
Bababb te £pne mnlakh ndn chalii s&, ai vele Sikkhan ndn 
ih bbarm hoi&, ki Labnur da khij^a ka(,ldhke Jammd ndn 
lai cbftli^ hai. Sikkh^g nai bahut siri Taoj n&l laike dari&a 
to pir nsndg j& gherid. Pber va^i larai '8 piobhog SardAr 
Juabar Singh nai jo Dftlip Singh di Minid si. Hiri Singh 
ate Pandat Jalbe ndn mir sitti*^. Pber Juahar Siggli Wajirl 
karan laggi. lb manakh babat bikari ate kiini sd. Sikkli^e 

^.y Google 

( «■ ) 

Bai a8A&g'bar& j^pfce ikk din iialiati£k MiiQ Mir te madiia 
viobch mtlr aiXtfli. Vb da pichhpo pher R&ji LdL Singh 
Wajfr btiyA. Us de amale-pbaile vichob fanj^g be-moli&r ho 
£ai&g, ar Lahaor vichdh bahal laft&n inaohan lagg gai&a. 
0a Tele Lahanr vidioh ajihi viptlt psi, ki kot idmi ar^m nAl 
iiind karke nahii} satigd£ s&. Pher jo koi facy ntig rokai^ 
w&U a£ riha, ar apbadarf&u gall&} bo^ lagg gaf^g, tig s&rf 
fWnj kaftU hoke Angrej&Q n£L lar&l karan j& pa{, ar bin& 
ktsi jhagre ar m&mile te Ladeb&ae di obfadoiii nlin phdk 
rit(t&. la de piohobbon Angrej&n nai ajib& jor m&ri&, ki 
8ikkh6n n6g plcbcbhe bhaj& dittfL Fher kafag laf^iag te 
piohohbog j£g Sikkb&g df b&r bi hand! rahf, t£g B£je Gulib 
8iQgb nai j^e kaobh de^i leifit knrke Angrej^ u&l pber 
kacbh tbappchand kar l&L 

3&a QrHih Siggb aje nttlie ht 8& Ud iitbe Labanr vicbcb 
H^ Jindig nai kbi^ kitd, ki Sikkb jo bag babnt bb6recba{-be 
hoe ate ipmnb^rQ ho rabo ban, oe j^give Aggrej&g valon 
tiatko kncbh maindn dakkh &g deg or inh^n d& bug sirkop 
nafaiU' Is te maldm bnndi hu, ki ih bbfit mandnli jo mere 
Diilip Siggb Ettl bi big&r '^^b ^^ kncbh dttr nahfg. AMtig 
jibi&n kal gall&n socbke ih ttttiifr kill jo main Lahanr df 
gAddi di raobcbbifi ate Dalip Singh df kummak vriata 
Angrej£n nfig &pge kol bnU lav^g, Eiunki nnb&n te bini 
ajja bnrchbiin n^ s&bmgi karanwil^ ko( nabfn. Unb&n de 
ij&n te bh^wfig pargnf vicbcb t& mere kai nuksfin ban par 
asal viohch mundn unb&n d& bobat drim howeg& Ifin 
socbke San^al^n n&me &pnf t&bilnn niin kib^ ki Tdn Dalip 
Biegb Q^Q ^1 ^''B Aggrejig pds jfi ate merf valog ill Akh, ki 
jad te Mab&r&ja Ser Singb d& sorgb&s boi£ bai, tad te 
Iiuhanr vikbe va^e bb^fe dboh boi; lagg pae ban, ktnnki 
Sikkbig di fanj d& kof.milak nabfn rih&. Jo Sarddr inbig 
nun kacbb dhan padiratb de dind& hai, aef dl val hoke hom&n 
n&n minio lagg painde.baa. Dekho inhag nai kaf Sard&r 

itizecy Google 

( 42 ) 

•jefae m&re han, ki jo Laliaar cK gaddl d( richchhii w^ta 
fip^e pr^n dene u&n tiar se. Ai pher inli^n nai mere bhar^a 
sdn naliakk va&r sitti4 ar ttu^e d&I matth& &jf ^&hifi. 
Uai;} inh^n te bohat ^ardl h&n, jo khabar nabfn, ki hniji k{ 
kf karoDge. Eh dono Angrejiln da kol gae ar Jind^o de ksbo 
anns&r sabh kaohh pargat kit&, ki Mab£r&n{ Jindkor £piif 
sah^iUl wfata tab&ndii Lahaar vichcli bnliundi hai. Ih gatt 
sapke Angrej^n nai sochi^, ki is gall viohcb kachh hor matbal 
H oahin ? Pher j^n adiohhl tar&n maldni hoi£, ki MahfirJi^ 
jarlir Sikkh^n Talon dakhf hoi hoE hat, ar hni> jo ns d& »&• 
ilfin boUw^ hai, ih bi sachohh^ hai, tin ds( vele kncbh soch 
B&majhke anhin nai Lahanr nfin ti&ri kill. Is jaggi d& a4kr& 
hdl likb^a knchh Ubh nahin kard6, kinnkt hornin pothfin 
vichch bahut kiicbh likbiA hoia hai, par itn& j&n lain& jardr 
oh&b£di hai, jo U^ JiDdin te baUa^e anns^r Angraj bahddar 
BaiDoiat 1902 Phaggan de mahine Lahaur vichch £11 yare. 
Fher haall banll iah^r} parUp ajih& vadhia, ki aabh kaohb 
IiDkam h^il Lahaur vicbch t& k! ?, balak s&re Fanjab vikbe 
inb^ d& h{ ho gifl. Parmesnr nai inhin ndn dinon dia 
parUip ate vadi&i bakhsl ar Sikkh dinon din ht gbatde gae. 
Fher tbuhre din&Q pichchhon M^ Jind^g te jo Acgrejd^ dl 
faaj apije pha^ke n41 ral^npo di bhall ho gai, ar Mahir^je 
Dal!p Sisgh aie Jiod&n ndn jo us mulakh vichcb kai tarin de 
jhagfA m£malit^ dl6n tatbfrdn snjjbdi^n sfin, is sababb 
Bark&r Angrej nai laike tinhfin dohdn jai}i&n nun laike va^l 
richchbii ual ipi^i Wal^t vichch pnoh& ditti. 

Sad& jagat vidiiib fuke thir nahin rabindi ko^ 
Do din lammt i&i^ke sabh ko rabiad& soi. 

Dekho is jagat dl khel, 
Cb&r diniu sabb jng d£ mel 
R&je, parje, dbani, garib, 
Birdili pakMi?, j»nt at j!b. 

mzecDy Google 

( 43 ) 

Jo jo es jagnt pnr &i&, 
* 60 ssdip cabin rabip& pdi&. 
Ih jag rah s&rak d& bbiti, 
Saoghdi j&ndi sablii laklU. 

Jo kacbb ajj bai nb pber, 
ifajar a& &v/e sanjh sawer. 
Jinh&n a6,\ ei faoj aaaot, 
Ar jo paD^at B&dbu sant. 

80 sabh g»G nici Dabin j&d, 
Pir patambar snbb barbtid. 
Jo jan itUie rabe tid^a, 
So sukb pdwe dakh d& nfis. 

Jo chhotft so VadS hai, va^i jo cbhoti hot, 
Dbaoi bof kaog^l, pber lumgal&paD vicbc^ B<n. 


Jo jan so pabil&i} kangfil, 
Pber bbare ohdhan de n^l. 
Phec hoe oh dban te bin, 
Gba^n vadban Bbagwflii adbSn. 

Jinb^Q chaise hu^i^in ghanere, 
PargaJ hoe gird chnphere 
O dekhe ban pber bhik&rl, 
FarmesDT di gati niari. 

Jis ndn cb&he ah Kart&r^ 
Ua nfin koS na Bake mar. 
Jib nfin &p m&rnfi oh£ho, 
Ub na ~bacb&i& bachi& raite, 

Dekbo Mahfi Singb Sard&r, 
Tbubr& B& ns iidn adbikttr. 
Par lianjU Singh jad bhii, 
Oliub^ dio^n viobcb vadb gi^ 


Babul molkh vc milakh dban bowe as d» Mug, 
Bahnt saUbi Prablifi aai kl dikh^ raog. 

Dig'tizecDy Google 

< 44 t 


Tfibe hois sabhi Panjib, 
Jo arid BO Uiayd kbarfib, 
£hint bb&nt ke Hte kij, 
Ap^Q hattb! pSi& r&j. 

Kine na as df ditthi plfh, 
SabhDf desfn gae wa^fth, 
Hakam cbbl&i^ Ds nai khar^ 
Par ofak nfin uh bf inar4 

Tis te picbcbon baha 8ard&r, 
Kar cbnkke baba mad hauk&r. 
Far tie nargd dfiii kcl, 
Jor o^ n& saki& boS. 

.. So ih Batt b&t hai bh&f, 

Jia nliD Prabhd dewe vatj!^ 

Tis saindn a& kof howe, 

Jo howe tis ndn Frabbfi khowe. 

Parmceor.di rarti kadi lakhi nabin iii, 
Lakkh baroa do racbe ntin pal Ticboh dai tnitdi. 


galib qSq ai ib vad^ akin, 
Sikkbf rftj na host bin. 
Rsnjit Singh dft jo partip. 
Bin din vadhdi Lai jo &p. 

So hap kadi na hos( d6r, 
Iri tai^n ib rabi jarfir. 
Par jie Parmesar nfie bb&"4, 
Ikk ghari vichcb aarb mit:;&t&. 

Bo Hfl pnatak pafbneli&re. 
Is gall n^g soch ban Are. 
Vadhan gha(an hai jag di riib, 
Parmesar par rakkb DJg&h, 


DigmzecDy Google 

( ^5 ) 

Tik fafl intdn aur tote ke mundzare nteg. 

^aba^ ke waqt tam£ni ins^n wn ^nivr^n d&r-nl-'ad&Iat 
jneg l^&^r tifie. BfUlsh&h ne bstion se furm&j-fi, ki agar tttm 
ko apne da'we par kc^ dalU nar bhi baySm knrai ho use bftj^a 
ksro. Insfia i FirUt ne kshfi, kt ham meg bahat aa^f i 
I^mida haig, jinee daVJi hian&r& a6hii hoU bai. B6dab6h 
ne kab& utthen h»jin karo. Ua ne kab& bam&re garoh meg 
b£dsh&h, wazir, amir, mnnsb:!, dlirtin, *6m\i, foajd£r, naqJb, 
oboI>d£r, ^fUim, yfir, madadg&r hain ; in ke siwfi aar 
bhI bahat firfq daal^ttaand, aahrif, gil^ibi marawat, 
alil i 'ilm, t&hid, '&bid, parhezg&r, kb^^b, sh&'ir, '&Iiia, 
ii^ii, qaif, martf, $arff, mifwi, maaliqt, l^kim, mnhandi^ 
nnjfiiaf, k^hin mTi'albir, kim{;£gar, i6i}\T baig, aar ahl i 
ifitf* mrmfH", jallSho, dbanye, karsb-doi, darz! waghnira 
liabat Be Grqe anr in sab firqon meg bar ek ke jade ak^I^ 
wa anf&f i bamlda aar mazhab wa $an&i' pasandlda hain ; ye 
tab l^^biyfin aor aofif ham^ w&ste ^&n baig, ^iwinog 
i:o ia se bahra mihig, is se yib lua'ldm hdi, ki ham m4lik aur 
^iw4n ham&re g^cl&m bain, Ins&n jis waqt yih kah ohak£, 
tote ne B&dsh&h ae kah&, ki yih ddrnt apne firqon kf aiyidali 
par iflik£&- karU hai, agar t&in>n kf aqs&m ko darvftft kare, 
to ma'lfim bo, ki ia ke maq&bals men ye nib&yat kam haig, 
lekin maig bar ek in ke nek firqe ke mnq^bil dfisrfi firqa bad, 
aor bar ek ^tli^ kf jagah ek shaqi bay to kartfi bfig, ki in ki 
qaom meg Namr6d wa f^r'ann, kifir, Cisiq, mnahrik, moDifiq, 
iDidi^, bad 'abd, s^lim, rab-zan, chotfe, 'afy^i jeb-katr», 
' athakka.j}i6.^makkit, da^^b&Zjmnkhannag, tiai, ma^^Hm, 
j&bil, afrmag, baltbU, in ke siiri aar bhf bahat ae £rqe ki jio 
ke qanl wa fil qibil bayto ke nahfg bote haig, aar ham in so 
bari baig, magar beshiar kbaffi-il-l^amida aor akbl'Eq i 
famaiiin meg ihuik, is wfi^e ki boiniire gnroh meg bhf 

mzecDy Google 

( 46 ) 

Sard&r aar rtAs anr.y&r wa madadgir bote bain, balki bam&v 
B&rd&r siy&aat wa rij&sat meQ ius&non ke badsh^hon se bihUr 
bain, kydgki we faqat apni i^aray aar manfa'at ke liya 
ra'iyat wa faaj k( parwariab karta bain, jabki maqfad on ki 
tiifil bo j6t& bai as waqi fanj wa n'&j& ke )}SX par knchh 
^iy&l naMn karte, ^fLUnki y ib (arfqa rafson k£ Dabfn bai ; 
riy&Bat wa sardir! ke winffi l£ziin bai ki b^hlth apni faoj m 
ra'fyat par bameeha shafaqai wa mihr-b&ai rakkbe, jis Un^ 
Alkh Ta'41Jt apna bandon par bamesba ra^mat kart& bai, id 
(aral^ bar %k b&dshSh ko chihijre, ki apni ri'&y& par Dajar 
flbafaqat ki rakkbe ; aur It^aiw&ion ke sard&r fiiqj wa rafyat 
ke b^l par bamesba sbabqat wa mibMiiiif rakbte baig, ill 
taral; chinwtiyon anr j;&tron ke fsfs bM apni ra'fyat ki 
damsti aar intis&m meo ma^rtif rabte bun, aar jo kndili 
iaaj wa ri'iy& se sallik wa i^a karta baig as k4 badli anr 
'iwa^ nabin cb£bte, aar apni aul&d se bbi parwarisb ki 'iwa; 
neki ki tawaqqo* nabin rakbte, jis ifiiaif idtai anlfid ko par- 
wariab kar ke pbir an se kbidmat lete bain, ^aiw^ 
baobohoQ ko piud& kar ke parwarisb kar dete baig, phir on w 
tacbh ^ara; nabin rakbte, faqat sba&qat wa mibr-biai n 
pfilte Bar kbil&te bain, ^nd& ki rib par s&bit qadarn baig^ 
kydnki wob bandon ko paidi kar ke rizq pab^noh^ bai aar 
nn se ahokr ki tawaqqo' nabin rakbti. lasfknog meg agar 
ye fi'l bad aa bote to Allah Ta'&l& on se kyfi^ farmiti, ki 
sbokr baro bam&r& anr apne mi b<^ kfi ; ban&ri anlid par 
yib bakm nabin kiy&, kyllnki ye knfi wa ni-farmini nabif 
karte. To)4 j>8 ^kI^ is kalfim tak pabdoobi, jinn&t ke baki- 
mon ne bbi kabit, yib saob kabt£ bai ; insioog ne eharmiiidi 
bo kar sir jbokfi ]iy£, kis! no kncbb jawib na diy&. Itoa m«Q 
' B^sb&h ne ek ^kim se pliohb£, ki jia bfidabibog k& waff 
bayin kiy& ki apni ra'iyat aar faoj par oibiyat sba&qat wa 
mibr-binl karte baig we kaon bfidshib haifi ? Qaklrn ns 
kab& mnrfid in b&dsbibon se maltik baig, is -wiaifi ki jitif 
l^w&n&t kl aJBfts v« «nw&* v« atbU^ haig m^ ko w<^ 

mzecDy Google 

( 47 ) 

AlUh l(f taraf Be mal^k mnqarrnr faain, fci bar ek kl bif^'^t 
anr ri'fiyat karte bain, aar mal^kon ke gnroli men bhi rals 
wa aanUr bote bain, ki apna apne garoh par ahafaqat vra 
taihr-hiai rakhte bain. B^dsb&b he pfichhA ki firishton mei} 
yih shafaqat wa mibr-bioi kah^n se h^ ? Us ne kab&, ki 
vnfaos ne Allab Ta^Ak kf ral^mat se yib ftida Ij^tl kiji bai, 
J^yfinki jia tprfy wnh apne bandon par sbafaqat karU bai, 
tlnii7& men kisf kt sfaafaqat ns ko l&kbwen bi^^e ko nabig 
|iab^cbtf, ifl -wiaffl ki Allah Ta'&lii ne jab apne bandon'ko 
paidi kiji, bar ek ki ^\(i^t ke lije firUbte mnqarrar kiye, 
abakl wa ;drat nib&yai jsb^bi anr latifai se ban&i, ^wfis i 
mndrika bak^sbe, nafa* wa naq;&n se sab ko kbabar-di^ 
kijrA, anr nnbin ke ^&ni ke w&te £fUb wa m&ht&b aar bnrtSj 
wa ait&re paidi kiye, darakbtoQ ke pbal patton se rizq pab6g- 
isb&yif ^araf anw&' wa aqs&m ki ni'mateg paid& kfn, yih 
■ab nski sbafaqat wa maraljmat par dalil hai. B&dghih na 
p6obb& idmiyon ki ^if^t ka w&ste jo mal&ik mnqarrar haii^ 
an kflaardfirkaDn bai? Qakim ne kahi wuh nafs i n£j;iq8 bat, 
ki jia waqt se ifdam pud& hfi6, nri waqt se yih nskejism k£ 
i^rik hai, jin Brbbtog ne, ki ba-mtijib l^nkm i lUht ke Xdani 
ko «jda kiyi no ko nafs i baiw^oi kahte bain, ki nafs i n^iqa 
kft t^i' bain, anr jisne ki eijda na kiyA wnb qnwwat i 
(^layabiya wa nafa i amm^ra bai, Iblls bbi nsi ko kabte bain ; 
nafs i n&j^qa Adam kt anl^ men ab tak h&rjl bai, jis tara^ 
ffirat i jismiya Adam ki 'ab tak wobf b&ql bai, isi ^drat par 
paidfi bote anr rabte hain, anr ia{ f drat se qiy&mat ke din 
banf Xdam ntb kar bibiaht meg dd^il bowenge. B&lsb£h 
ne pdchhd ia k& kj& aabahf ki mal&ik anr noTda nasar nabig 
Ate. ^akftn ne kab^ is w&ste ki we ndr^f anr sbaffdf biun, 
IrawiEs i jismdnf se mabsda nabfn bote, magar anbi;^ aur 
anliy&qalb ki oaf&I ke sabab nn ko dekbte faun, kydnki 
nnfds nn ka t&tiki i jab&lat se p&k bain, k^wdb i g^afiat se 
bed&r rabte bain, nofds anr maldik sa nn ko mnn^bat 
bai, is wdatfi on ko dekhte anr oa k& kaldm bod kar 

itizecy Google 

( 48 ) 
apne ftbntiijias ko khabar karte baiQ. Bidshib ne yfh 
tl^wiU snn karbakfm se tntmiyit, ** jata^ta Altahu ■'* ba*4 
is ke tfltfi kl tnraf dekh kar kah^, tfi apoe kal&m ko tamim 
kar ; us oe kah£ yib iAmi jo da'v& karU hai, ki ham&ri qaoia 
mflo babnt kirfgar anr ahliVrfa bote baiQ, so jih m&jib 
fafilit k£ tubfn hu, kyfinki ham mm bht Wja 1)^wia ia 
aaii'atog msQ nn ko riurik bain, cbaninobi shahd kf makkhS 
nn ke mi'm&r aar mabaadisog se ta'mir anr tarmlm men 
aij^da salfqa rakbti hai, apne f;kar ko bng^air mittf aar {□( 
aar chdne aar gaoh ke ban&ti hai, ^att aar daira khegc^a 
men mistar aar park£r ki il^tiyij nahfn rakhH, aar ye asbib 
wa 6iii ke molfUtj bote \wq ; iai t«ra^ makff, ki sab klfon m 
^'(f hai, magar tasne baoiie men iakejal&hon se ziyiUa 
hosby^ hai, pahle to In'^ so iAr kbainohti hai, ba*d 
is ke mill kbii);tifi ke bao& kar pbir dpar se na ko 
doniat kartl bai, aar Mob meg kaohh tfaoffi makkbiyon ka 
sbik&r ke vtiatfi kbaM rakbU bai, aar is banar mea ma^t&j 
kisf asb&b H nahfn, aar jnlfUie bag^ir asli&b ke baa nabfn 
sakte ; is! |;arah reflham ke kfre, ki oibftyat ^'ff baiQ magar an 
ke k&rfgaron se *ilm wa hanar zij&da j&nte bain, jts waqt kht 
kar &sdda bote bun apne rahne kf jagah par & kar pabl« 
la'&b Be migl kh^t^t barlk ke taote bain, ba'd iske fipar m 
phir OS kodnrnataar mozbdj karte bain, ki baw&anr p£nf 
ki OS men dakhl nabin boUt, ear isf meg apoe ma'mdl k« 
maw&fiq so rahte bain, ye sab banar baj^air ta'lim mi b£p 
aar ast4d ke j£nte bain.sfif t&ge ke mnhtfij nahfn bote, 
jis tarah inke darzf aar raM-gar be^ur is ke koohh hani 
BahfQ sakte, aar ab&bfl apne gbar ko chhatoQ ke nlohs 
ma'ailaq baw£ men banitf bai, Strbi waj^aira k( mn^UEj 
aahtg, ki jis par chsfii kar irabin tak pah6gobe, isf tarat^ 
dfmak, ki ba^ur mitti anr pfinf ke gbar baaiti bai, kiaf chii 
kf mal^tij nabfn Iiai ; (^araz sab ifiir anr ^w&a gbar aar 
<8by£ne ban&te anr aal&d kf parwarish karte bain, ins&non se 
xiyida shu'dr ira hanar j&nle barn, cban&gohi sfaatar-marg^ 

mzecDy Google 

( 49 ) 

li t&ir anr babfiim se mnrakkab hai, kis kh^bf se Apnfl 
baohchog kl parwarisb karUt liai, jis waqt ki hU y& tlia 
an^e jaiQn' bote bain, lia b'??^ ' ^^i* ^^^ ba'zon ko mitti 
meQ band kart^ bai, aar ba'zog ko &(t&b ki gariuf meg 
anr ba'zon ko apne par ke niobe rakbt& hai; jab ki babut 
se bacbcbe paidi bote bain nn kl parwarisb ke liye zainia 
kbod kar kifon ko niliaU^ aar bacbcboQ ko kbildU bai ; 
&dmijoQ men koi 'anrat is j;ara!^ apae lafke ko parwarisb 
nabln kartf, d&l jfta&i ^abar let{ bai, naqt janne ke pet 
86 Dikal kar nabl^lf dbaUti bai, aur dudb piMU, dtidh pil&kar 
gabw&re men salati hai, eab kucbh we kartf bain, lafke ki 
m& ko knehb k]iabar hi nahin hot! aur lafke bbl un ke 
nipat abmaq bote bain, nafa' wa niiq;&a a^l^ nahlg samajbte, 
pandra bla baras ke ba'd san i tnmiz ko pabiinobte haiQ, 
phir bh! mu'allitn wa adib ke mul^tfij rabte hnin, zindag! 
bbar likbne pa^bne meo anq&t baaar karte bain, tia par 
al^maq ke abmaq rahte bain, aar bam4re bacbcbe jia wnqt 
paid£ bote bain nsi waqt bar ek nek wa bad so vr&qii ho jits 
hain ; chaninobi mar^, titar, bater, ki aade ae nikalte bl 
be-ta'lim m& b&p ke cbngte pbirte bain, jo koi pakarne k& 
qa^d kart& bai aa se bb&g jite haig, yih 'aql wa sbn'dr on ko 
AllUh Ta'&l& ki l^raf ae ilbaoi botd hai, ki sab nek wa bod 
j4ate bain, sabab is k& ;ib bai, ki ye t&ir bacbcbon ke p&Ine 
men nar aar mida donon abarik nabig bote, jis jiarah aar j^ir 
kabdtar waghaira ki nar aar mdda mil kar bacbi^og ki 
parwarisb karte baig, isi viaifi ^udd ne in ke bacbchon ko 
jih 'aql 'a££ ki bai, ki m4 bip ki parwarisb ke mnl^t&j nabfn 
baig, &p se obar cbag kb&te baig, jis (arab anr b^i^^n wa 
t&ir ke bacbcbe dddh piline aar d&ai kbildne ki ibtiySj rakhte 
bain waise yih nabin baig, paa Allah Ta,'£lk ke nazdfk kis 
k£ rntbiba^&baiF Ham rit din 6S ki taabib wa tablil men 
masb^lil rahte bain, is w^);et)8 nefaam&reh£tl par yih kacbh 
mibr-b&ni ki bai, anr yib jo tarn kahte bo, ki bam&ri qanm 
nien ebi'ir wa kbafcib aur sha(^il wa z4kir bote bain, agac 

DigmzecDv Google 

( 50 ) 
t&iroo kl znbin sftmjho aur bo^brit-nl-'ar; ki tasbU^, ktrog 
kf takbir, bah&Lm ki tahlil, jbin^ar k& zikr, mendak kf da'a, 
balbnl k& wa's, sangk^ware k^ k^l^aba, marj^ ki azin, 
kabitar k& f^a{aku&, kawwe k& gfaaib se khabar denft, ab^ 
b!l k& wa^f karD&, alld k& k^anfi ^nd£ se darn&, in ka 
Biw& chinwU, makkhl wiij^aira kl 'ib&dat k& .al^wdl j^do, to 
ma'l&m ho, ki in men bbi fa^ll?, balij^, sb^'ir, k^a^ib, sb&j^il, 
^kir bote bain ; cbnn&nchi Allah Ta'alk farmfit^ hai i "v>a in 
mtn ehai-in ilia yutahbi^u hi-hamdihi via lakinrlat-afqahuna ; '* 
\}&^\\ y\h hai, ki her ek shai !^iid£ kl harad men tasbib kartt 
hai, lekia tarn DaMn j&aie bo, pas Khada De tam ko jibl ki 
jiaraf niabat ki hai, ja'ni turn dq ki taabl^ nahin samajhte boj 
aar ham ko 'ilm ki };araf mananb kiy& aar kah^ hai ; "kaUunqad 
*alima faldlahuu>atashi^aku";ya!TAh«r ek ^iw&D do'£ wa 
tasbib j&nt& hai, pas jfibil wa 'i^.^m bar^bar nahin facte, ham 
ko turn par fanqiyat hai, phir kis cbiz se fa^r karta anr makr 
wa babt^Q se kahte ho, ki ham m^Iik aar b^iw&n j^ol^m 
bain ; anr mnnajjimon k&zikr jo karte ho, 80 jib 'amal jftb- 
ilon par cbalt& hai, 'aaraten aar la^ke iia ke mu'taqid hoto 
bain, 'aqali ke nazdik kachh na k& martaba oahin hai, ba'M 
nDJdml b>iniaq4 ke babk&ne ko w^ge k>hte bain, ki fal&Q« 
8bahr men dus ja bis baras ke ba'd yib ^&disa dar-pesh hogi, 
b&l&nki apne abw&l se khnbar nahin ki us par kji Kosregd ; 
aar as ki aul&d kd kj& i}&\ hogfi ; cband maddat ke qabl dij&r 
i ba'ld k& abwal baydn kart& hai, ta^ki 'aw&m annis ns ko 
flacb jinen aurmu'taqid hoiren ; nnjdmiyon ke kafane k& wnbi 
logi'tabtirkarte baiD jo gamrah wa bdj^i hain ; jis t»ralr 
idmiyonke b&lahfih s^iim na jibir/iqibatke monkir haig ; 
qaz& wa qadar ko nabtn j&nte, m'sl i Namrdd aar Fir'aon, ki 
Dujumiyon ke kabne ee eiukron lapke, baiki hazflron, qatl 
karw£ d<Ue, yib j£ntfi the, ki dnny4 k& intis&in s&t sit&ron 
anr b6ra barjon par maaqdf hai, yib na ma'lnm tb& ki ba^air 
Ifukm Il^hi ke jia ne buruj anr aitarog ko pnida kiy& hai 
liacIiU nabig bota ; sach hat mifr'a " taqdir ke ligQ kadih 

DigmzecDy Google 

( S' ) 
tadHrn&liin cfanltf": ^kbirSbad^ ne jocbdli^ th£ wabi bli& ; 
baj^^D ns k£ ;ih bai, ki Nnrar^d ko DDJumiyon ne ^abar it, 
ki «k Ufki tninhfire 'abd men paid& hog&, ba'd parwsrisb bone 
k« martaba 'a;^m b£;il kar ke bat-paraston ke din ko barham 
darham karegtt jftb-ki un se plchhS kis jagab aar kana si 
qanm men paidil bog&? Anr kab&n parwariab p^wegi? Tih 
na batI4 sake. Badab^ se kabi JUne la^ke is B&l paid& 
boweo sab ko tjinkm qati k& k^jiye, yib gumfin kiy£, ki wah 
la^kA bhi an meg qatl ho jaweg&. A^bir Allah Ta'i1& ne 
Qazrat Ibribtm Khalil-nl-lafa ko paid^ kty& aar k&firoii 
ka sbarr se mal^f^g rakbbi, Yihl mu'fimala Fir'aun no 
Bani Ier£-fl se kij£, yah&ij bbi ^ad& no Qa^rat Mu3& ko 
QD k{ badi se panfib men rakbb^ ; gljaray nujumiyon k& 
kabo^ faqat ^ur^f&t bai, moqaddar nabin taiti aar torn an se 
apnfl fakhr karteanr kahte ho, ki ham&r! qanm men nnjdmi 
aur hakim hote bain, ye log gam-r&faon ke bahkfine ke w^te 
hain, jo log ki motawakkil 'al& Allah baiQ we un kt biiton ko 
nabig m&ate. 

mzecDy Google 


The foIIoiTing is the system of transliteration which we 
have adopted — previiionaUy — for the Society's pabiications. 
We by no means wish to oheck further disciiasion, but it is 
necesHary to adept tone system, provisionally, in order Uiat 
itbe Society's werk nay progress, and that those who are 
villisg to follow oar lead nay be able to do so. 

P t> 




(zabar or tatba) 
(zer or kasra) 
(zamma or pesh) 







mzecDy Google 


I. Sabject; to sncli modificHtions as are indioalwl by 
th* shove key or by subapqaent rnlea, Forbes' Dictionarv Ja 
recognized ns the atandurd of orthogra]iby, and tiLoald be 
CODSulted in all cases of doabt. The Btndent must, however, 
remember to aubstitate "q" where Forbes uses a dotted "k." 

IL The Bymbol "tashdid" is expressed by doubling 
the coDsoDant. 

III. The imperceptible "h" or t mn^taf! at the end 
of a word is omitted. 

IV. The sigu "bamza" is generally omitted. When 
however it may be considered necessary to divide two vowels 
or consonants in order to ensure tbeir Beparat« pronancia- 
tion this should be done by inserting a comma or dash 
between them 

V". Words having the form ^ or ^i are written as 
^a' dafa' 

Words having the lorm *■«*■ or **»» are written as 
Jnm'a, daf'a. 

VI. Words reqniring "Tanwfn" in the Persian are to 
be written with "n," without any distinctive mark. 

VII. In rapid writing — not intended for the press — %\l 
diacritical marks may be omitted, with tbiii exception thut the 
long vowels & (and d should always retain their diatiuguahing 

In rapid writing— not intended for the press — the 
apostrophe for ^ may also be omitted. 

VIII. Where foreign words occnr, the writer may, at 
his discretion, retain the original orthography or adopt the 
phonetic eqnivalent. If the word bus been assimilated — 
or the writer wishes it to be assimilnted — as an Urdd word, 
it is better to spell it phonetically. If, on the other baud, 
there is no wish to assimilate the work — as, for instanoo 
with the names of persons — the original spelling is prefer- 
able. In this case, the words should always be written 
between inverted commas, to indicate that it is not spelt 

Note. — A key to nronnnoiation will be found ia ITorbut 
Qrammar and also is Holroyd'a Xas-liU-al-fcalam* 

: ., „CiOOgle 

( 54 ) 


The objects of this Journal, and of Ihe Society wilh 
«'hiob it is connected, ore explain'-d hv fh* pprifn of Reso- 
Inlians passed 8t the Meet,in(j orgorising tbe Socidv, find 
by the Stat«ment of Reasons, both of wbicb were iJublisBeJ 
in the first number of this Jonrnal. 

TVe ask all who are interested in Ibe movement to pits 
US tlieir support. Tliose who njiiy wish to join the Society 
are reqnestetl to send their nninea, with the Subscriptions for 
tha year, Rs. 6, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, Roman-Vrdi, 
Society, Lahore. JUcmbers will receive a copy of the 
Journal. JTriends in England are nsked to send their snb- 
gcriptions (and any literary contributions niUi which they 
may favor us) to oar EugliBh Secretary, F. Drew, Esq., 
£ton College, Wiudsor. 

We, also call attention to No. 6 of the Itesolntions, 
passed at the Meeting on the S5<h &lny 1878; mnd invite 
douatioQS to the "IVaosliteration Fuud." 

There are many sympathisers with the nsoTement »ho 
have not yet sent in tlieir names oud subscription. Wo 
trust that they T( ill now do so, and that they will also hrlp 
ns by canvassing for fresh members, and by circulatiDfc our 
Journal among both ISuiopeans and Natives in the stations 
where they reside. 

Contributions on any of the various sn'ijects connected 
with transliteration, translation and educiitinn geaeially, art 
esraestly solicited from Members of the ^uiety. 

DigmzecDy Google 

Vol IV, AUGUST 1881 No. 39, 


From the ist of January zSSa the annual subscrip- 
tion to the Roman-Urdu Journal will be raised from 
Us. 6 to Rs. 8. 


Bv George A. Grierson, 6.C.S., published by 
Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

The following are extra£ls from the '* Introduftion " 
of Mr. Grierson's receoUy published book on the KayatU 
character : — 

*' By a recent order of the Bengal Government, the 
Urdi] charafter has been abolished from all ofGcial docu- 
ments, and the Deva>Ndgarf character has faeen substituted 
for it in printing, and the KayatM charafler in papers writ- 
ten by hand. The Deva-N^ar( alphabet has in fa6l taken 
a place corresponding to that of the Roman character in 
English printed books, while the Kayathi corresponds to 
our ordinary English runnir.g hand. 

As it is not improbable that the great mass of Euro* 
peans are quite unable to read the new written charafler, 
this book is compiled as an easy introduction to it." 

"The Deva-Njgar!, although an admirable alphabet in 

Digitizecijy Google 

( s ) 

some respe£ls, was long ago found to be too cumbrous (or 
the common affairs of life. The pen in each letter has to 
be lifted three times, once for the horizontal line, once (or 
the perpendicular and at least once for the essential part 
o( the letter. In short, it was not sufficiently cursive. 
There were two ways of giving it a cursive charaCler, one 
of which was to preserve the frame work, and alter the 
shape of the letter so that the whole could be written with- 
out lifting the pen (rom the paper. This was the course 
adopted in the Bengali and Uriy£ written hands. The 
other course was to discard as much as possible the hori> 
zontal and perpendicular lines leaving only the essential 
part of the letter, and as much of them as could be com- 
bined with one stroke of the pen, without materially alter- 
ing the shape of the original. This was the course adopt- 
ed in the Modh, Gujriti, and Kayathf alphabets. All the 
alphabets of this latter class possess a great similarity of 
chara6ter. Gujrit!, the most western, differs little from 
Kayathf the most eastern, and a TirbutiA patw^rf finds 
little difficulty in reading a Gujrtitf book.* 

A still further corruption, for cursive purposes, is the 
Mahiijanf, or character of the merchants. It is, howevo', 
more a species of shorthand, and (the vowels being usually 
omitted) is read with considerable difficulty. Such is not 
the case with Kayathf, which is, — all that its opponents 
can say to the contrary, — a perfeflly legible charafter. 

The accompanying table shows sufficiently the forms 
of Deva-N^arf, Kayathf and Mahijanf script letters. 
(Plate I). 

Kayathf is written sometimes on plain unruled paper 
but it is equally often written on ruled paper. In the latter 

■ Note by Editora, Bomtui-UrdA Joonul.— Wo thonld Lke to ttA 
tiiu uurtion. 

,, Google 

( 3 ) 

case, a line is drawn across the pages, and the letters as it 
were suspended from it, instead of being written on it as 
in English. The ruled line thus forms a rude substitute for 
the top horizontal line in Deva-N^gari : it is however of 
little praftical use, and apt to increase the difficulty in read- 
ing. In many documents it is customary to rule only the 
first line, for show, and to leave the rest unruled, for com- 
fort. As written by natives, Kayathf has no stops except 
the full period : moreover, amongst natives it is not custom- 
ary to leave any space between the words, which are left 
to be divided by the reader, a faft which sometimes gives 
rise to ludicrous mistakes. The standard Kayathf, how- 
ever, used in Government offices, does separate its words. 

Kayatht differs slightly according to locality. It may 
roughly be divided into three classes. Tirbutf, which is 
said to be the most elegant, Bhojpilrf (of Sdran and Sh&hd- 
b5d) which is said to be most legible, and the Magah (or 
that of Patna and Gayd) which is a mean between the two. 
Illustrations of all these styles of writing will be found io 
the following pages : — 

These differences are, however, but slight, and any one 
acquainted with one kind, can easily read the other two. 
Kayathf also, of course, differs according to the person who 
writes it. As in English, there are good and bad, dashing 
and careful, neat and straggling writers. 

Many, in fafl the majority of Kayathf writers, in 
writing make no distin^ion between T t, and ") C, writing 
both as !»'. This is an incorrefl custom, and should be 
avoided. In this work, wherever "^ t is incorreflly written 
for f" I, it will be transliterated i, as it should be and not 

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By the majority of writers of Kayathf, the letter M S 
h not used, — II S' being used instead. In short, with 

them, the character V represents all sibilants ; when this 
is the case in the following pages, the correfl sibilants will 
be transliterated. Thus ^Wl erroneously written for ^^ 
or ?W, will be transliterated iasla and not 6as'iu. 

It is hoped that with the aid of the foregoing hints, 
it will not be found difficult to read the following 
pages :— 

• We are not able to reproduce Mr. Grierson's speci- 
mens of Kayathf, nor would there be much praAical utility 
in our doing so. Those of our readers who may wish to 
form an independent judgment can consult the hand-book 

Our present obje£l in referring to Mr. Grierson's wwk 
is chiefly to comment on the following paragraph from his 
Introduction : — 

" These differences are, however but slight, and any 
one acquainted with one kind, can easily read the other 
two. Kayathf also, of course, differs according to the 
person who writes it. As in English there are good and 
bad, dashing and careful, neat and straggling writers." 

We submit that the preceding paragraph suggests a 
false analogy. The differences among KayatTit writers are 
not analogous to the differences among Writers of Roman 
and Persian. 

In Roman there is one fixed and recognised standard 
for purposes of printing. 

There is another fixed and recognised standard for 

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purposes of writing. It differs from the printed standard 
and is inferior to it in legibility. But it is superior in 
legibility to all other kinds of cursive penmanship. This 
style of writing — sometimes described as " copperplate- 
is the only one that an English solicitor will tolerate in his 

Persian too, though unfit for printing, has a recc^nised 
standard of caligraphy. This is known as the " nasta'Uq," 
and whatever its defe£ts, it has a certain recognised uni- 

But tlie Hindu alphabets have no general standard of 
cursive writing in any way analogous to " copperplate " or 
to " nasta'Iiq." The letters of printed Niigarf and of some 
of its derivative alphabets are distinQly formed, but they 
are not cursive. As soon as cursive writing is attempted 
all uniformity is lost. 

Our Hindd friends and others may think the bad 
writing of individual English ofHcers a fair point for criti- 
cism and retort, but it is a partial and misleading state- 
ment to represent the varieties of Kayatht and other pro- 
vincial chara£ters as nothing more than the differences 
between "good and bad, dashing and careful, neat and 
straggling" English writers. 

The absence of a recognised standard for Kayathl 
penmanship is indire6l]y admitted by Mr. Grierson. He 
writes ; — 

'' I now take advantage of the preface to point out 
that this Manual pretends only to show the a£lual hand- 
writing in current use in Bihdr. In no way does it attempt 
to show good KayathE writing as a model for iearners of 

Why not ? Surely the ordinary, the natural, course for 
any one publishing divergent specimens of penmanship is 

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to preRx a. specimen oF the standard from which they 

Mr. Grierson adds " At the same time, for the informa- 
tion of those curious in such matters, I would point out 
Plate X as exhibiting a specimen of peculiarly neat and 
clear Tirbutfa caligraphy. We turn to Plate X, and we see 
at once why Mr. Grierson recommends it. Every European 
who may look through the hand-book will endorse Mr. 
Grierson's verdift that the writing in this Plate is the neatest 
and clearest in the volume. The reason is simply that this 
specimen of wriUng makes no pretence to be cursive. 
Each letter is distinftly formed and is separated from the 
adjacent letters by spaces almost equal in breadth to the 
letters themselves. But although this may be a sufficient 
reason in the eyes of Europeans for preferring this speci- 
men of Kayath! caligraphy, Mr. Grierson is careful not to 
descril>e it as in any sense a standard. If we may judge 
from our experience of court experts in other parts of India, 
the comparative clearness of this form of Kayath! writing 
is likely in praftice to discredit it in the eyes of the large 
majority of Kachahrt writers. We venture on the surmise 
that Mr. Grierson's thirty Plates by no means exhaust the 
varieties of Kayathi. They are so many divergent types of 
fairly ^oorf penmanship, but if the editor thought it neces- 
sary to give us specimens of 6ad writing as well, he woukl 
find material for sixty plates more. 

Most forms of Kayathf writing — including even that in . 
Plate X — ignore the use of word spaces. That is to say, 
they offer no device by which a word can be recognised at 
a glance. The reader must spell his way, letter by letter, 
and if he loses his place must flounder about till accident 
enables him to find it again. Mr. Grierson, it is true, tells 
us that the " Standard Kayathf used in Government offices 
does separate, its words," but it is noteworthy that only 

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{ 7 ) 
(bur or five of Mr. Grierson's thirty specimens observe this 
essential requirement of good penmanship. 

It is difficult, without a full knowledge of local circum- 
stances, to foretell the immediate future of official education 
and official penmanship in Bihir, but we may rest assured 
that the confusion resulting from the present trial of Kaya- 
th[ will tend in time to the general acceptance of Roman. 

In our May number we published the reply of the 
Bengal Government to a letter from the British Indian 
Association regarding the optional use of the Roman 
alphabet in Bihdr, The following extraft from the last 
(half-yearly) report of the Association gives fuller details 
of the correspondence : — 

Letter to Government.— The orders of Govern- 
ment relative to the substitution of Kaethi for Urdu in the 
proceedings of Courts and the records of the Police having 
undergone some modifications, one of which was the option 
given to parties to file petitions in the Roman character, 
the Committee deemed it desirable to represent to Govern- 
ment the objeftions which this modification was open to. 
After reviewing the several orders issued and measures 
taken by Government from time to time commencing from 
the year 1838 to enforce the policy of using the language 
and charafler current in each province for the proceedings 
of the law courts thereof, the Committee referred to the 
resolution of 1880 by which, it was direfled that Nagri or 
Kiethi charaSer shall be exclusively used from the ist 
January 1881 throughout the Patna division, and in such 

mzecDy Google 

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districts o( the Bhaugulpore division as may hereafter be 
notified, and that the issue from the Courts, or the recep* 
tion by the Courts of any document in the Persian charac- 
ter, except as exhibits is absolutely forbidden. It was also 
ordered that the lithographed manuscripts issued by the 
Central Examination Committee, should be, from January i, 
1881, in the Kaethi charafler and officers were expefted by 
that date to acquire fluency in reading that character. The 
Committee, while expressing their appreciation of the 
soundness, propriety and importance of the principles 
underlying the orders above-mentioned could not but regret 
that to some extent a departure has been made from those 
principles in, the modifications subsequently made in the 
orders of 1880. The modification to which exception was 
taken is that by which option is given to parties to file peti^ 
tions other than plaints in the Hindi or Roman chara£ter. 
The faCl being admitted that no portion of the people of 
Bebar use the Roman, or correCtly speaking the English 
letters in writing Hindi or Hindustani in the ordinary affairs 
of life, the option given will not in tiie least benefit the 
masses, while U will open a wide door to the evils which 
the Lieutenant-Governor baa so strongly denounced in his 
remarks in the representations submitted to him. The 
suitors will be entirely in the hands of their law-advisers, 
who will look more to the good will of the Judge than to 
the interests of their client. A word or two of encourage- 
ment from the presiding officers, and the muktear In order 
to ingratuate himself with the Hakira will advise that peti- 
tions in the Romaji charaSer will be read by the Hakim 
himself, the suitors will naturally place themselves in the 
hands of their advisers and thus defeat the professed objeCt 
of Government and the policy which has been so strenu- 
jously advocated during the last fifty years. The reasons 
iiave been urged from time to time by the advocates of 

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Romaniution are, — 1st unity of the written chara£ler all 
over India, 2nd,* convenience of European officers o( 
Government, 3rd, easy reading of the .records by beads of 
Courts, i|th, facility of writing and 5th economy in printing. 
The Committee endeavoured to shew that the first reason 
was visionary, the second could secure no substantial 
advantages, the third was futile, the fourth was a delusion, 
and as to the fifth the fa£t was quite on the other side. 
English types cost mwe, take more time in composing^ 
cover more space in printing and wear out faster than . 
Indian types. The Committee further submitted that there 
being several systems of Romanization mwe or less cur- 
rent among European Orientalists, Government has not yet 
decided which should be adopted in Behar. Though the 
Government has no wish, the Committee feel assured, to 
revolutionise the language of the Courts, the introduction 
of the English letters in writing Indian languages could not 
but produce a frightful revolution in the phooolt^y of those 
languages. Taking these and other circumstances into 
consideration the Committee solicited that His Honor would 
be pleased to reconsider the subject and issue such further 
orders as to htm might seem fit. 

Reply of Government.— The Government in reply 
s»d that without entering into a discussion of the general 
question of Romanization raised by this Association, the 
reasons which led to the issue of the orders objected to 
may be given. They were intended to relieve the disabili- 
ties which would otherwise be imposed, under recent 
changes, on a small class of Mahomedan pleaders and the 
operation, may perhaps serve to throw some light on the 
practical working of a system of Romanization and so be 
of service ultimately in the settlement of the controversies 
now current on that subjefl. 

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In the course o( his speech as President of the Asso* 
ciation Dr. Rnjendralala Mitra made the following re- 
marks : — 

The question of Romanizatton was also one of prin- 
ciple. The orders passed by Government were by Aem- 
selves of little moment, but tiiey involved a principle which 
the Committee could not allow to leave unnoticed. From 
the beginning of this century the Gov^'oment, with charac- 
teristic liberality, had evinced considerable earnestness to 
Tender the proceedings of the law Courts easily intelligible 
to the people. And in 1836 orders were issued suppressing 
the use of the Persian chara£ter and the Urdu language ia 
the Courts of Bengal in favor of the Bengali language and 
chara£ler which were best known by the community. Soon 
aft«- Persian was replaced by Urdu in the Courts of Bdiar 
and the North-Westera Provin<»s and some laws were 
ena£led to legalise the changes. In 1872 Sir George 
Campbell noticed that the Urdu as it existed in the Bebar 
Courts was not the language of the people, and therefore 
recommended the use of the Hindi langu^e and the Kay- 
thi charafier. The orders under this head were bubs»< 
quently repeated several times, but to no effe£t ; the old 
Urdu continued everywhere and Hindi was left uncared for. 
In the middle of laHt year peremptory orders were issned 
prohibiting the use of the Urdu language and the Pernan 
character from the ist day of this year. Two contradic- 
tory movements were thereupon set in motion. The 
Hindus from the different districts affefted, poured in ad- 
dresses conveying their grateful acknowie<^neDt5 to His 
Honor the Lieutenant-Governor for making the language of 
the Courts intelligible to the masses, while some of the 
Mahomedans who felt that the orders meant the sweeping 
away of tlie last emblem of the former supremacy of their 
co-rcligionists in this country, protested against their Ian- 

itizecy Google 

( 11 ) 

giage and diara£ter being placed under the ban. The 
Mahomedan Vakeels of Patna, who took the lead in the 
latter movement, based their argument on the hardship of 
b«ng obliged to learn and use the language o{ the Kafirs, 
the Hindus, in the dtschai^e of their duties. The argu< 
ment was baseless, for they all spoke the language of the 
Kafirs and most of them had their ordinary business trans- 
acted in Kafir writing. But the agitation offered a good 
opportunity to such of the officers of Government as were 
interested in the Romanization scheme to benefit by it, and 
some of them suggested that the way to solve the difficulty 
would be to give them the option oi using the Roman let- 
ters in writing flindi. The Government accepted this sug- 
gestion, and ordered that in petitions other than plaints the 
Roman charafter may be used in the Courts of Behar. 
This involved a very smalt question by itself, but knowing 
how some influential officers of Government — Distri£t 
Judges and others— were anxious to make a beginning 
somehow with the ultimate obje^ of suppressing all the 
vernacular alphabets, your Committee thought fit to make 
the representation under notice. The reply of Govern- 
ment to your representation has placed the subjeft in a new 
light. It has been said that the orders were intended to 
relieve the disabilities which would otherwise be imposed on 
a. small class of Mahomedan pleaders, and the operation 
may perhaps serve to throw some light on the praftical 
working of a* system of Romanization, and so be of service 
ultimately in the settlement of the controversies now cur> 
rent on the subjeft. The first reason is not tenable. No 
class of pleaders can carry on their profession by writing 
petitions other than plaints. The plaint is the cornerstone 
of all legal proceedings, and if that must invariably be in 
the language of the Kafirs, the pleaders can gain but little 
by writing "petitions other than plaints" in Roman let- 

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( >2 ) 

ters. The obje£lion if any thing is a religious one and it 
cannot be met, by making the infra£t)on of a religioos duty 
compulsory in some cases and optional in others. The 
second reason would logically surest the idea of there 
being a desire on the part of Government to supplant the 
vernacular charafters, and experiments are being tried with 
a view to find out the easiest way of effefling that obje£t. 
But the speaker did not believe that there was really any 
such desire on the part of Government. He had the 
highest confidence in the justice, liberality and wisdom of 
Government, and could not for a moment harbour tbe idea 
that the liberal British Government would ever tolerate the 
impdicy which had been tbe cause of so much national 
irrit^on in Hungary, Poland, Cappadocia and elsewhere. 
The distinguished statesman who was at the head of the 
Bengal Government was well known for his sympathy for 
the people, and he would not on any account lend himself 
to so obje^onable a policy." 

Our readers will not require us to criticise the precede 
ing quotations in detail. Whatever the British Indian 
Association may say to the contrary, printing in Roman is 
far cheaper than printing in any Indian type. 

The statement that Romanizers wish to "suppress" 
the vernacular alphabets is simply a statement at variance 
with truth. 

The "nervousness" evinced by our opponents is 
amusing. The truth is that we Romanizers have more faith 
in the vitality of tbe vernacular alphabets than they have. 

With reference to Dr. Mitra's glowing peroration, we 
shall be delighted to join him in inviting Mr. Gladstone's 
attention to the subje£t, but we hope we may be allowed to 
state our case without going to " Cappadocia " for a pre- 

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( 13 ) 


After a short stay at Cochin, during which some poli> 
tical disturbances in that neighbourhood were put down, 
Datboquerque set sail from Canannore for Goa, with a fleet 
of twenty-three vessels and X force of nearly two thousand 

At Honawar a visit was received from Timoja and the 
Rija of Gar9opa at which those chieftains promised to co- 
operate by land. There were, however, reasons for doubt- 
ing the good faith of these allies ; Dalboquerque on his 
arrival in Goa river waited seven days to give them time to 
appear, but as no signs of their troops were reported he 
determined to attack the city without them. 

The attack was made at dawn on the 35th of Novem- 
ber 1510 — 

" Na lux que sempre celebrada, e dina 
Sera de Egyptia Sancta Cathartna." 

The enemy had constructed stockades outside the fortress. 
These were the first object of attack ; they were soon made 
untenable by a demonstration in flank, and the Mahometans 
retreated from them to the fortress, closely pursued by the 
Portuguese. At the g^e of the fortress a further stand 
was made, and the fighting was for a time severe ; even- 
tually the enemy again gave way, and the viftors entering 
the fortress pell mell with their opponents continued their 
successful advance until they had driven them into the city. 
The gates of the fortress were then closed to prevent the 
Portuguese from scattering their force and yielding to the 
temptation of plunder. The precaution was a prudent one, 
but as events turned it was scarcely necessary. The Bija- 
pur troops made no attempt to hold the city, but fled belter, 
skelter across the river to the mainland. 

mzecDy Google 

( H ) 

The events immediately following this great viflory are 
best described in the words of the Commentaries them' 
selves. We make no. attempt to apologixe for the atrocious 
cruelty of the conquerors : — 

"After having commanded the capbuns to take up 
their positions and guard the fortress, Afonso Dalboquerque 
gave permission to the soldiers to sack the city, and free 
right to keep everything they took ; but as for his own 
share, he cared for nothing more than the contentment 
derived from having been enabled to keep his word, which 
he had given to the Hidalcad when he was in Goa, as has 
already been related. 

In the city were captured a hundred lai^e guns (^w. 
iardas) and a lai^ quantity of smaller artillery, and two 
hundred horses, and many supplies and munitions of war. 
All these were ordered to be delivered to the fa£tor for the 
king. And after the city had been pillaged, Afonso Dalbo- 
querque told the captains to reconnoitre the whole of the 
island and to put to the sword all the Moors, men, women, 
and children, that should be found, and give no quarter to 
any of them ; for his determination was to leave no seed <rf 
this race throughout the whole of the island. And he did 
this, not only because it was necessary for the security of 
the land that there should be none but Hindoos within it 
but also as a punishment (or the treachery of which the 
Moors had been guilty when he took the city for the first 
time. And for four days continuously they poured out the 
blood of the Moors who were found therein ; and it was 
ascertained that of men, women,.and children, the number 
exceeded six thousand. 

The Hindoos, also for their part, by reason of the 
hatred in which they held the Turks, because they had been 
deprived there of the lands, whereon they lived, as soon as 

mzecDy Google 

( 15 ) 
they heard the news of the fall of Goa (the principal men, 
vrith their dependents, having fled up into the mountain - 
country), descended, and cut off the Moors' retreat through 
the passes, as they were flying from the fury of the Porta* 
guese. And when they had taken from them all they car> 
ried, they put them all to the sword, without saving any 
lives. Now in the company of these Turks they killed one 
who' was the treasurer and paymaster of the Hidalcad's 
forces ; and from him they took all the money he had. 
And Afonso Dalboquerque ordered that a certain mosque 
should be filled with some Moors whom the Hindoos had 
taken prisoners, and then set on fire, and In this body of 
people was a renegade Christian who deserted to the 
Hidalcad when Goa was taken for the first time. 

As soon as the despoiling of the land had been accom- 
plished, Afonso Dalboquerque turned his attention without 
delay to the fortifications of the dty, and ordered that a 
great quantity of cement should be prepared, and all the 
sepulcjires of the Moors thrown down, in order to obtain 
plenty of stone for the works, and to all the captains and 
fidalgos be appointed a regular turn of duty, and so made 
great haste to complete the work ; for he was fearful of the 
arrival of the HidalcaA, and would not that he should find 
him in an unprepared state. And, as he hoped to establish 
in Goa the principle seat of the governors of India, he so 
arranged the plan, that the palace of the Cabuo remained 
within the boundary, because the edifices of it were very 
nobly designed, a work of great beauty and finely built. 
And by reason of this great diligence, in a very short time 
he completed the fortress where it now stands with its 
■ towers and ditches, with their breast works, for the defence 
of the harbour and anchorage of the ships. 

At this time some men were progressing with the 
destruction o! some old walb, in order to get stones for the 

itizecy Google 

( 16 ) 

works of defence, when they discovered in the foundations 
- an image of the crucifix in copper. When the news of 
(his ran through the city, Afonso Dalboquerque came down 
at once with all the people and clergy who were with him, 
and they carried the crucifix, with great devotion and many 
tears, to the church. Great wonder was there that then 
seised upon ^1 beholders ; for within the memory of man 
there was no record of any Christians ever having been at 
that place, and they believed that our L6rd had sent down 
that sign from Heaven, in order to shew that it was his will 
that the kingdom should belong to the King of Portugal 
and not to the HidalcaA. and that their mosques should 
become houses of prayer, wherein his name should be 
worshipped. For whereas the city was very strongly gar- 
risoned and provided with artillery and arms, and all other 
things necessary for its defence, our people had not been 
sufficient — being so few in number — to take it, had there 
not been within it this signal of the cross whereon our 
Lord suffered, which called upon them as it were, and gave 
them the power to attack the city ; had it not been also for 
the Apostle Sanctiago, who helped them, whereof the very 
Moors bore good testimony, to the effefl that after the fait 
of the city they inquired of our men what manner of man 
was that captain with shinii^ armour and a red cross, who 
marched with the Christians, striking and killing the Moors, 
for it wa3 he alone that had taken their city from them. 

And Afonso Dalboquerque, not only from the great 
devotion which he had for this saint, but because he was a 
knight of the order of the saint, did not forget this favour 
which he had received from him and he sent to the Con- 
vent of Palmela* a staff of the length of six palms and of 
the thickness of a lance, all overlaid with gold, with in- 

* A town in partngtl, tenth of Luboa. 

Digitizecy Google 

( " ) 

laid work, and the hand o[ the staff covered with pearls 
and rubies, and a penitential scourge of very large beads 
of gold, and a shell of gold of good size, with many pre- 
cious stones in it, placed upon a hat of crimson satin ; and 
at his death he bequeathed to the Apostle Santiago of 
Galiza a very large lampstand of silver, and a hundred 
thousand reii in cash for oil."* 

News of the Portuguese conquest spread like wildfire 
through all the countries of southern Asia, Those Anglo- 
Indian politicians who attach special importance to the 
word "prestige" may note in the immediate consequences 
of Dalboquerque's victory a remarkable instance of general 
political ascendancy following in the wake of particular 
military success. No sooner did the news reach Cambay 
than the King released the shipwrecked Portuguese whom 
he had held captive for some months past, and- despatched 
fresh embassies to Goa to court an alliance and to offer the 
bland of Diu as a site for a Portuguese fort. Mir Husain, 
one of the few commanders who had survived the defeat 
inflicted on the Turkish armada by Dalmeida, abandoning 
all hope of further success in India, made his way as best 
as he could to Suez, and the Sultan on his report desisted 
from building ships for another expedition. The King of 
Narsinga also sent ambassadors to Goa, through whom 
Dalboquerque heard from Fr. Luiz, who had been deputed 
to the Bijiyanagar court some months before. It was the 
last communication that passed between Fr. Luiz and his 
countrymen, as the unfortunate priest was assassinated a 
few weeks afterwards, before the negotiations with Nar- 
singa had led to any practical result. 

The effects of Dalboquerque's victory were not limited 
to Cambay or to the up-country of the Dakhan. The 

* Birch't TruiUtioQ of the CommentMiM, rot. 3, p»gB 15, at wq. 

DigmzecDy Google 

( 18 ) 

Zamorin was induced to open negotiations with a view to 
peace. The King of Hormuz found means to pay the tri- 
bute which had been so long promised. And the King of 
Malaca who held a number of Portuguese prisoners deemed 
it expedient to lighten the severity of their captivity. 

Meanwhile, Dalboquerque resumed the measures of 
administrative polity which had been interrupted by the 
events of the previous summer. The Hindus were en- 
couraged to settle in the island of Goa. The land revenue 
was leased to Merlao, — a disinherited brother of the King 
of Honiwar — for forty thousand pardaos* a year, payable 
in four instalments. The Mintwas re-established. Special 
exertions were made to attract commerce and in particular 
to make Goa the place of import for horses from the Per- 
sian Gulf. Some of the measures adopted are thus detailed 
by the Commentaries :—t 

"In consequence of the diligence which Afonso Dal- 
boquerque set about this matter, and because he had ordered 
that houses in the city should be given to the principal 
merchants for the better arrangement of their merchandise, 
merchant ships began immediately to flock from many 
quarters to the harbour of Goa, some coming from Hormus 
with horses. And with a view to improving this state of 
business, he gave orders for the construction of some great 
stables, and organised a. service of three hundred peons of 
the district, whose duty it was to transport grass, hay and 
supplies for horses. And with the object of providing 
return cargoes for the merchants, so that they should not be 
compelled to seek a cargo in any other port, he commanded 
the Factor and ofRcials to take care always to have in the 
Factory, pepper, cloves and ginger, and all the other kinds 
of merchandise which the merchants were likely to require, 

•Abont £3,000. 

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( 19 ) 

■nd in the clearing papers which they delivered with the 
cargoes whenever the merchants desired to set sail it was 
to be set forth that the ships were to be bound for Hormux 
and to no other port, for it was Afonso Dalboquerque's 
desire to destroy the commerce of the Straits."* i f 2. 

Not content with regulations for the encouragement of 
commerce, Dalboquerque endeavoured to people his new 
colony with a mixed race Christian in religion and Portu- 
guese in sympathy. Apparently, the majority of the 
women who had been detained as prisoners since the first 
capture of Goa were induced or compelled to accept Chris- 
tianity, and were given in marriage to those of Dalboquer- 
que's force who were matrimonially inclined. Further 
details of the Governor's policy in this respect are thus 
detailed in the Commentaries : — 

" Alvaro Godinho, a married householder of Goa, was 
appointed Treasurer of the Mint, and all the other offices 
were filled up with chief men who were married, with a 
view to encouraging the people to marry and people the 
land. For already at this time there were in Goa about 
four hundred and fifty married men, all servants of the 
King and of the Queen and of the Lords of Portugal : and 
those who desired to marry were so numerous that Afonso 
Dalboquerque could hardly grant their requests, for he did 
not give permission except for the men of proved character 
to marry. But in order to favour this work, as it was 
entirely of his own idea, and also because they were men of 
good character, and had deserved by their good services 
that this privilege should be granted to them, he extended 
the permission to marry far beyond the powers which had 
been assigned by the King D. Manuel, for the women with 

* 1 " 0( BkbdDuwdflb." 

i 2 Biicb'a Truuslalioa, voL 3, pige 30. 

itizecy Google 

( 20 ) 

whom they married were tbe daughters of the principal men 
of the land. 

And be granted this favour, among other reasons, in 
order that when the Hindus observed what he did for tbeir 
daughters and nieces and sisters, they might with better 
willingness turn Christians ; and for this reason he would 
not suffer any of the women to be enslaved, but ordered 
that they should all be taken away from the masters who 
had possession of them ; and he divided among all the 
married ones the lands, houses, and cattle and everything 
else that there was, to give them a start in life ; and if the 
women whom he thus gave in marriage asked for the houses 
which had been in possession of their fathers or their hus- 
bands he ordered that these should be so given, and therein 
they found many jewels and gold pieces which had been 
hidden under ground and abandoned when the city was 
captured." * 

Dalboquerque's matrimonial experiments afforded some 
amusement to the wags of the day. The grave historian 
De Barros lends his authority to an edifying story that on 
one occasion a large number of weddings took place at 
once, and as the bridal parties were going home at night 
the crowd was so great and the night so dark that the 
brides became hopelessly mixed; the next day, however, the 
ladies succeeded in finding their rightful lords, and it was 
agreed that all were quits on the score of honor. 

Tbe Europeans whom Dalboquerque induced to settle 
at Goa as married men were for the most part of low binh 
and position, but De Barros considers that the greatest 
nations have had a similar origin. He refers us to Ancient 
Rome, and draws a parallel between Dalboquerque's wed- 
dings and the " Rape of the Sablnes," laying stress on the 

* Bireli'i Tniulktiai, vol 3, p«s« 41. 

DigmzlcDy Google 

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fact that the Canarese ladies unlike the Sabines — were 
willing brides, and that they received from their husbands 
instruction in the Catholic Faith. 

The Portuguese experiments in " miscegenation " have 
not been continued as measures of statesmanship, by later 
rulers of India, and we do not think that many of ourreaders 
would advocate a return to Dalboquerque's policy. At the 
same time the fact can scarcely be disputed that this is the 
only thorough policy for forming a new nation from elements 
previously discordant. Equality of rights and even equality 
of education under a common Government effect but little 
without the full "connubium." 

While these administrative measures were in pr<^ess 
Dalboquerque was again troubled by mutinous demonstra- 
tioDS on the part of some of his captains, but vigorous action 
on his part against the offenders speedily vindicated the 
cause of order and authority. 

(To be continued). 

Thus far our description of the city. But no visit to 
Kioto would be satisfactory without an excursion to the 
picturesque neighbourhood beyond its immediate outskirts, 
on the east and south-east side of the valley. Hiesan, famous 
in History ; Biwa largest of Japanese lakes ; Uji, centre of 
Japan tea cultivation ; Nara, hallowed by antiquity and by 
the beauty of its sacred park ; all deserve a visit. We 
will take them \a the order given. The foot of mount 
Hiesan can be reached by an hour's jinrikCsha ride from the 
Nikichaya, and a climb ol two or three hours more takes a 
pedestrian to the top. The road is well wooded, and the 

itizecy Google 

( 22 ) 
green of the forest trees is relieved by the tints of Azalin 
and of other flowers. The road over the hill skirts the 
actual peak, passing in front of the few temples that have 
survived the persecution of Nobunanga's time and the des- 
tructive fires of later years. There is a little difficulty in 
climbing the unfrequented part of the mountain, beyond 
the temples, but wh^n the summit is reached the view 
abundantly repays one for the trouble. Indeed we look 
back to the ascent of Hiesan as the most pleasing incident 
of our visit to Kioto. The peak commands a beautiful 
view on every side, and the picture it presents may be satd 
to consist of three distinct and independent landscapes. 
In thej!rst of these we have, on the west, a distant but more 
extensive, panorama of the country already seen from the 
crest of Maruyama ; the valley of Kioto, with the widely 
extended city of the Mikado in its centre. Surrounding the 
city are rich, well-watered fields. On the north of these 
separated from them by a humble ridge of hilts, is another 
valley, small and picturesque, and dotted with peaceful 
villages. Beyond both valleys, on the west, is the second 
mountain range of Kioto, the Nishiyama, and prominent 
among its heights rises the lofty peak of Atago with a crest- 
like elevation on its ridge. In altitude it seems to rival 
Hiesan itself, hi this same picture, to the south of the 
spectator, lie the tea district of Uji, the lake or marsh of 
Oike, and the mountain ridge that separates the jurisdic* 
tions of Nara and Kioto ; while far away to the south-west 
the valley opens out to the open plain of Osaka and Kobe 
and the faintly outlined shores of the InUnd Sea. 

Turning our faces to the rising, instead of to the setting 
sun, we have a second, a very different tableau. From 
north to south the whole field of vision is Riled by the peace- 
ful waters of Lake Biwa, by the fringe of cultivated and 
inhabited land that lines its shores, and by the mountains 

mzecDy Google 

( 23 ; 

which rise above them, on every side. On the further — that 
is the eastern shore — from which the waters of the lake are 
fed.; the mountains have a bare, weird look, the trees 
in their ravines and gorges forming so many patches of 
black on a ground of whitish red. The shape of the lake is 
indicated by its name, which is that of a musical instru- 
ment well known in Japan. There is a broad expanse in 
the north, and a narrow limb or prolongation towards the 
toivR of Otsu in the south. At one point, about eight 
miles north of Otsu, the opposite banks appear almost to 
meet. In the broader .portion of the lake are several 
islands some of them remarkable for pleasing scenery. 
We must not forget to notice one curious feature in the 
scene. The shores are everywhere lined with weirs to 
catch the carp and salmon, for which the lake is famed. 
These fish weirs look like sheep pens in the water. 

Turning from this pleasing prospect of lake and town 
and distant hills, we have on the north of us a third dis- 
tinctive picture. The northern horizon is filled with 
mountains. Ridge beyond ridge, a jagged pathless wilder- 
ness of hill and forest. Had there been but one small gap 
in this mountain zone we might have hoped to see the 
shores of Tsuniga Bay. There would have been a singu- 
lar satisfaction in contemplating both shores of the great 
island of Japan at once. As it is, this cannot be done. 
The highest of the mountains before us is Hira. It adjoioB 
Hiesan and rises like it from the Biwa lake. In winter and 
spring it is covered with snow ; now its top is hidden by a 

Descending from Hiesan towards the lake the traveller 
arrives at the village of Karasaki, where he finds a curious 
fir tree, trained in an eccentric way to grow horizontally 
over the water ; its spreading branches are supported by 

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( 84 ) 

props, which give it the appearance of a banyan rather 
than a fir. 

From Karasaki a short ride or walk takes as to Otsu, 
a large and important town. It's name signifies the " Big 
Fery " and in accordance with its name Otsu is the start- 
ing place of numerous steamers which cross the lake daily 
in every direction, absorbing the whole traffic of its shores. 
These steamers are small, but their appearance in these 
inland waters is a remarkable indication of Japanese pro- 
gress and skill. 

From Otsu we proceed to Ishiyama, the outlet of the 
lake, where the river Ujigawa takes its source. Here the 
Tokaido, or grand trunk road of Japan, having skirted the 
city of Kioto, crosses the stream by the two bridges of 
Sheta. The bridges are much as they were in Kxmpfer's 
time, and are well described by him. 

On his return from Ishiyama the tourist will probably 
visit Uji, the great tea district of Japan. There is a road 
from Otsu, and another from Kioto. We took the more 
frequented road from Kioto, but Hiibner in 1870 took that 
from Otsu. On his way he visited the temple of Owaku 
where he found statues of Buddha, and of his disciples 
Anan and Koshu, together with other accessory figures. 
These statues are of gilt wood, but Hubner describes them 
as models of Japanese art exemplifying in perfection the 
qualities which that art developes — a peculiar beauty of 
expression and of detail, mingled with grotesqueness in 
execution. Further on he describes Owaku as " the pearl 
of the sacred woods and temples in the districts east of 
Kioto, between the Lake of Biwa and the north of the 
Yodogawa valley." 

Whichever route may be taken to reach Uji, the tea 
shrub will be one of the features of the road. It is planted 

Dy Google 

( 28 ) 

la rows as in China, but is apparently somewhat smaller 
than the China plant while both are; inferior to the tall tea 
shrub of Assam. The best Japan tea is grown under mats, 
and is kept constantly moist. The infusion has a more 
ddicate flavor than ordinary China tea, but less color and 
body. The Americans are the only foreign consumers-- 
scarcely any of the tea finding its way to our market. 

Passing from Uji across the Kidsugawa, and then- over 
a billy spur which separates the Departmeqt of Kioto Irom 
that of Nara, we reach Nara itself. Nara preceded Kioto 
as the capital of Japan. At any rate, from the sixth to the 
nintb century of our era it was the chief residence of the 
Court. This same period is memorable in the annals of 
Japan as that in which the religion of Buddha . was intro- 
daced into the country, and some of the earliest relics of 
that reli^on are still to be found at Nara. Kzmpfer tells 
us that " in the eighth year of FibUzu (about 580 A. D.) 
the first image of Siaka was brought over from beyond sea, 
and carried to Nara into the temple of Kobusi where it is 
stiU kept to great veneration, possessed of the chief and 
most eminent place in that temple." 

In former days the palace and the great temples of 
Kobufuji and Todaiji appear to have divided between them 
the sacred interest of Nara. At present the magnificent 
park which leads up to, and surrounds the Shinto shrine of 
Kasunga Hiya deserves our first consideration. A broad 
avenue of trees, crowded with rows of " toros " or stone 
lanterns, leads to the court of the shrine. The buildings 
themselves are arranged in a quadrangle and like those of 
most Shinto temples are colored red. Both shrine and 
park must have a fairy look when lit up by the lanterns. 
Beyond the Shinto temple, the park loses itself in a forest 
which covers the slope and summit of a lofty hill. Close 
to this forest-clad summit, more immediately overlooking 

itizecy Google 

( S6 ) 

tbc town of Nara, is another bill, the Mukasiyama whose 
grassy sward reminds one of an English sheep-down ; from 
this a striking view of town and neighbourhood can be had. 
Spotted deer, the pets of the townspeople, roam without 
molestation and without fear through the park) and over 
the slopes of Mukasiyama. 

The temple of Todaiji is about half a mile to the north 
or north-west of the park. It was built in the eighth century 
of our era. The lofty facade of the main building (that 
which contains the gigantic statue of the Daibutz) is a fine 
specimen of Japanese art. This building is 393 feet long, 
170 broad and 156 high ; the roof is supported by numer- 
ous pillars. The Daibutz itself is an edormous bronze 
figure sorrounded by a gilded halo. Steps of wood lead 
to the base of the im^e, — a bronze imitation of lotus 
flowers,— OD whidi the perfected Siunt sits, cross le^^e^ 
with one of his hands raised in the attitude of admonition. 
There is an altar in front, with a vase of artificial flowers 
on either side. On the halo surrounding the Daibutz are 
sixteen smaller figures of Buddha in gilt. Two othet ' 
images smaller than the Daibutz, but still gigantic, stand 
by its side in the same temple. A writer in the transactions 
of the Japan Asiatic Society, to whom we are indebted for 
the dimensions of the temple as given above, states that the 
total weight of metal in the Daibutz is about 450 tons, and 
that it consists chiefly of copper with rather more than 
one and a half per cent, of tin, and a smaller admixtur* 
of gold and mercury. He adds— 

" This is the largest bronze Buddha in Japan and was first 
erected in 743 A. D. but was twice destroyed in the course 
of the wars that desolated Japan about that time, and the 
present image was set up in the course of the twelfth cen* 
tury. Six times in succession the casting failed, and it was 
only at the seventh essay that a successful result wu 

mzecDy Google 

( 27 ) 

obtaioed. The head is said to be much more mordern 
thao the rest oi the figure." 

The height of the Nara Daibutz, compared with those 
at Kioto and Kamakura, is as follows : — 

Feet Inches. 
Kioto ... ... 69 

Nara ... ... 53 6 

Kamakura ... 50 ..• 

But as the Kioto Daibutz is merely a hideous structure 
of wood, the only legitimate comparison that can be made, 
is between the bronze statues at Nara and Kamakura. Both 
are the/s d'aeuvre of Japanese art. The Daibutz at Kama- 
kura has an expression of calm repose — the orthodox ele- 
ment of beauty in all Buddha's statues, — which in our opi- 
nion is not equalled by the Daibutz of Nara, and its posi- 
tion in a garden, with the open sky overhead, gives it an 
imposing, sphinx-like look. On the other hand the Nara 
O^butz is more elaborate in execution and pose, and has 
the magnificence of its temple in addition to its own merits. 
Judged by the European standard of art alone, neither 
can be considered equal to the bronze statue of Bavaria at 
Munich, but the Daibutzes of Japan are hallowed by anti- 
quity and by religious associations. 

At the time of our visit to Nara, the buildings in the 
quadrangle of the Todaiji temple were utilized for the local 
exhibition or museum, which contained many antiquities 
and curios of great interest. 

We have now concluded our description of Kioto and 
its neighbourhood so far as scenery and architecture are 
concerned. A few words may be added regarding some of 
its institutions. It has always had considerable repute as 
a manufacturing town, Kxmpfer describing it as " the great' 
magazine of all Japanese manufactures and commodities." 

mzecDy Google 

( is ) 

Besides the Kiyotnedzu*ware already refored to, it ia 
noted for other loads of porcekun, anong them the " Sbippo" 
or " cloisonn^oware." Its sUks and bronzes; its Ucquer 
work, swords and dolls have a special reputation. 

The amusements of Kioto are numerous. The Niki- 
chaya or Hotel Quarter is in the immediate neighbourbood 
of the principal places of entertainment. The street lead- 
ing from the Gion temple and known as the GioD Madii 
swarms with dancing girls. Kxmf^cr visited this locality 
and describes the girls in uncomplimentary language, adding 
that the landlords are " not allowed to keep more than two 
wenches a piece, lest any of them should grow too rich 
by this trade." This judgment is too severe. As a class, 
these young women are well-behaved and respectable, la 
Japan (as in England) most girls receive instructioa in 
music and similar accomplishments, and in Japan it appears 
to be a national custom for those of certain classes to pass 
some years of their lives as public performers. The number 
of these girls at Kioto as dancers, and tea-house waitresses, 
and in other capacities is remarkable. 

The theatres, " shibai," of Kioto are numerous, and 
seem to be crowded in one neighbourbood. We were mudi 
interesteu in these institutions. Though inferior to " Druiy 
Lane " and the " Haymarket," they are infinitely soperior 
to anything of the kind in other Oriental countries. Japan-. 
ese theatres have been frequently described, but our readers, 
will uot be wearied by a brief repetition of their general 

The exterior is often adorned with lanterns, paintings 
and other devices. The general appearance of the interior 
is not unlike that of a provincial theatre in England, but the 
details are somewhat different. The floor of the house is 
(Uvided into compartments like the squares of a chess-board,. 

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( S9 ) 
The scenes are changed by a simple tiirn>table on the stage, 
A platform extends from the foot-Iigbts through the bo^y 
of the theatre and is utilized for stage processions, &c. 
The " prompter " Is not concealed from the spectators, but 
appears without scruple among the actors. At night the 
stage is imperfectly Ht up by lar^e candles stack on pMUted 
sticks. These candles burn with a smoky light and require 
constant snuffing. The performance lasts all day and 
through the evening too ; we were never able to see a 
piece begun or ended, but more devoted play -goers take their 
food into the theatre with them and while away the time 
with toy-like pipes and Lilliputian cups of tea. 

For the subjects of the drama we must refer our readers 
to that delightful book " Mitford's Tales of Old Japan." 
The story of " the for^-seven Ronins," and othera of 
similar character are worked into various forms. The trials 
of love ; the escapades of samurais ; the incidents of tea- 
house life ; above all the tragic details of '* hara kiri," or 
Japanese suicide, supply the dramatist's favourite materiaL 
The procedure of the "hara kiri " is rehearsed with puncti- 
lious and prolonged formality. Monologue and dialogue alter- 
nate to tediousness. The budcet, the pail of water, the short 
sword or dirk are brought upon the stage, the dirk is bandied 
and sharpened, the dress adjusted and re-adjusted, and at 
last the weapon is thrust in stage pantomime into the body 
and drawn slowly across it from side to side. * 

* ^10 folLnrinK dsaeriptlon of mil ** lui«.Uri " U tak«n froa aspn- 
to A o£ Mitfori'tWe. ! 

" After HI intorrtl of ft tew miiiiitM of Hiziou nupeoMiTkld Zganbor^ 
ft itftlmrt man, thir^-two jatn of aga, with ft noble air, walked into the 
halt attirad in hia diea of Mranony, with Um peonliar baspm-doth wim 
whioli are worn on neat ocoaaione. He waa aeconpaoied b7 ft bMiaht 
and three oOeen, into ware the j^ai&oeri or ww enreeat with'yJd-tiaiBe 
fiwii^s. The word iaiti^lM, it ahonld be obeerred, ia one to whieh ««r 
word agteittioMr ia no eqairalent term. The ofBee la that of a gantteman : 
in viMaj tatem it ii pertormsd by a kinaman or friend of the ooDdenned, 
•nd the relation between them ia rather that of principal and aeoMtd Uml 

mzecDy Google 

( 30 ) 

A peculiar iatonatioD is affected b; the actors in these 
tr^c sceoes, and their faces assume the drawn espression 
whidi we are accustomed to see in Japanese sketdies. 
The attention of the audience is stinmlated by professional* 
woo at intervals rap two pieces of wood on a board. 

Many of the theatres at Kioto deserve a visit for siune 
^tdaiity in the pafonoance. F<v instance we visited one 
at whidi aU the parts were taken by girls dressed in diarac- 
ter who went through every movement, and assumed 

In thii ioatuiop tiie JEaitiaiht ma ft pnpil 
ot Tiki ZoBEabnro, and wm velectod by tbe friaida of tlie biter ttaai, 

With the IcaAtKahi on hii left hand, Taki Zeimbnn) ftdnnoed slow^ 
It t«wKrd] the Japanese witDeasei, and the two bowod before thrsm, then 
ttBwin^ new to the foraignen they lalated na in the aame way, periwu 
■*en with more drfveooe : b) each cfMO the Mlntatii>o wm cemBMuondy 
retnmed. Slowly, and with great dignity, the ooodenuwd man monntad 
mtothandaedflwr, pHatnted hiiuaelf before the bigfa altar twic«, and 
seated* himaelf on Uh fflt carpet with hia twok to the bigh altar tfa* 
fctwAdia oroaohtng on bi* left band elde. One <d the tbies attendant 
aficanthen same forward, bearing a ataad of the kind naed in temple* for 
offeringt, on which, vrtpped ia paper, lay tiie vottaaiAt, the ihort eword 
«r dirk c^ the JapaoeM, nine iocliee aod-a-baU in iMigtb, with a point aad 
tw edge ai ihant aa a rtaor'i. Thii he handed, |>ro*trating hineett. 
to tlw eoMdanuMd man, who mjeirad it rererently, raiaing it to hia bead 
with botk hands, and placed it io 'b-out oF himsiJf 

After another jirofoand obeisance Taki Zenzabwo, in a tcooo whieh 
betnyadjastao maob emotion and heaitatioii aa might be i - ■- 

faoe or Banner, spoke a* fol 

" I, and I alona. nQwarrantably gare Um Older to fire on ttie foreigti* 
I* they tried to eacape. for tbia orime I dMn- 
„ yon who are present to do me the honour of 
yitoeesing the act." 

Bowing onoe more, the ipeaker allowed hia npper garmenta fa> (Up 
down to hii girdle, and remained naked to the wust. CareFnlly, aooordiag 
to custom, he t&cked bis sleevea nnder his kiiees to prevent himaelf froB 
falling bsickwards; for a noble Japanese gentleman shoi^ die Uling 
forwarda. Deliberately, with a steady band, he took the dirk that L^ 
before bin ; he looked at it wistfully almost affectiooataly ; for a moment 
he seemed to Mdleat his tbooght* for the last time, and then stahbtag 
fiimself deeply below the waist on the left hand aide, he drew the dirk 
slowly aoroia to tiie right side, ud, tnming it ia the wonnd, gave a slight 
out upwards. DnriitK this siakeningly painfnl operation be neTer mored a 
TOtoIe of hti faoe. When he dr«w out the dirk, he leaned forward and 

• Suted liln«lf-(liit li, In ifag Ispaowa tkahlm, tli \wm laA (aa taMUx Ifca 
I Minimi IIS II I bkdM^ 

itizecy Google 

( 31 ) 

every pose and expression that the play required, without 
uttering a sound, meanwhile, the parts were read with 
appropriate emphasis by a professional reader, who sat at 
the side of the stage. The " Odori " is another spedality 
of some of the theatres at certain times. We did not see 
it, as it is sometimes danced, by a full corps-de-ballet, but 
Were present at a private entertainment of four performers, 
of these, two played, while the other two, dressed, in their 
gala attire of rich colored silks, crapes and sashes exhibited 
a series of graceful dances and pantomimic postnrings. 
The spectators were not fatigued by the monotony which 
characterizes an Indian nautch. At times the performers 
retired to vary their costume, sometimes they appeared 
together, sometimes singly, and there was, throughout, a 
meaning in their pantomime. 

We close our account of Kioto with a passing refer* 
ence to its Exhibition. Industrial exhibitions are among 
the many features of modem civilization which the Japanese 
have imported from the western world. It would seem from 
the number held in various parts of the country that they 
exercise the fascination of a new toy. The exhibitions at 
Kioto are acknowledged to be the largest and best The 

■tntali«d ont bis neob ; U elqiresiidn of pain far ttie tint timeorowod hii 
fuje, bnt he uttered no aomid. At th&t moment the luv^iaiv, who, atill 
•rtaoUng by hia mde, had ba^ kaanlf wntohipg hi* eveiy movsmaDt, 
■pnng to his feet, poiMd hU (word [or a second in the air ; there wa* a 
Hib, k heai^, ugly thud, a onahing f^ ; with inu blow the hMd had 
iMen severed from the body. 

A dead tilenoa followed, broken only by the hide ana ninse of the blood 
Ihrobbing ont uf the inert heap before ni, which bat a moment baton had 
been a braw and chiralrona nuu). It was horrible. 

The hoMhaku made a low bow, wiped Mi swtwd wfth a [Hece dt 
paper which he had ready for the pnrnoae, and retttwl from the raiaad 
Boor ; and the stainad dirk waa aolenuuy borne away, a bloody proof of 
the execution. 

The two representatiTei of the Mikado then lefli their placee, aod, 
enwnng over to where the foreign witnesaee aat, called n* to witoeaa 
that the aentenoe of death npon lUi Zensabsro had been taitbfnllf 
earned ont TUB ceremony beuig at an end, we left thu temple," 

mzecDy Google 

( >2 ) 
Erst was held in 1872 in the temples of Honganji, Kenninji 
and Chion ; and every subsequent year, during the months 
of April, May and June the show has been repetUed. Since 
1873 i( has been held in the Gosho, and it is this that has 
opened the sacred and jealously guarded portals of the 
palace to the foreigner. The goods are placed in the 
buildings surrounding the court-yards. They lie on benches 
or tables, neatly classified and labelled open to the view, 
but separated front the spectators by a bar of wood. 
Among the articles exhibited we saw every variety of por- 
celain, bronze and ^Ik manufacture, lacquered work of all 
kinds, coats of armour, masks, ancient weapons, swords, 
musical instruments, screens, raw produces, chemicals, 
specimens of timber and coal, and all the commodities 
of domestic use. One series of antiquities was arranged 
chronologically according to the reigns to which they were 
supposed to belong. Another collection of exhibits was 
marked as "Imperial Possessions " of the reigning Mikado. 
Two paintings attracted our special attention. One of them^ 
represented the death or nirvana of Buddba. The other 
on two screens, depicted a battle on Mount Hiesan. This 
looked like the engagement of Nobunanga's time. We have 
however seen a statement by another visitor that it repie- 
seoted an earlier battle on the same mountain. 

There were one or two European exhibitors, but the 
complicated machinery which occupies so large a portion of 
umilar shows in Europe was conspicuous by its absence. 

Wewerepresent at the distribution of prizes which 
preceded the closing of the exhibition for the year 1876. 
"Hie gateway of the palace was adorned with an arch of 
chrysanthemum flowers. A procession of the dancing girls 
of the capita], dressed in their best, and riding two and 
two in jinrikishas, thronged the ^proaches. The governor 

itizecy Google 

( 3S > 
-M. Makamura presided in tke Grand Hall of the Palace, 
surrounded by all his officials including a party of foreigners. 
All or nearly all the Japanese officials, and many of the 
prize receivers were diwsed i» European eTcning costume. 
After the distribution of prizes, or rathtr of tickets entitling 
the holders to receive their prizes, the Governor made a 
speech in Japanese. Seven or eight of the other officials 
followed. All these speeches were read from a manuscript 
held in the hand, and all were delivered with an affected 
intmation of the voice. After the speeches the bandsmen,— 
who were sitting on a bench behind the Governor, and 
who wore their old ceremonial dress,— concluded the pro- 
ceedings with Japanese music. 

In topography and in many featnr«s of its population 
Kioto is as it was in the days of Kaempfer. Its bridges 
and shrines, its lively streets, its theatres and its dancing 
girls are as he saw them. But the heaven-born Mikado 
has left ; the Kuges and Daimios with their eccentric dresses 
and their court intrigues have vanished from the scene ; 
the two>sworded samurai's and the hara-kiri loving Ronins 
are gone for ever. 

fn lieu of these we have a School of Chemistry, a 
Cattle Farm, an American Mission ; and within the last 
lew years the arrival of the locomotive has clinched the 
victory of western civilization, and opened Kioto to the 

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( 34 ) 

BXdshXh JiDAMliu. 

Sharkat aG sharik Atte d«. 

Bore, ba^jl, fasadi. 
Pas Bhambor Bhahr de wait 

J£ Ua faryddi. 
" Hof JBw&Q Atte £har be^f 

** l^nrat ahakal Bhah-tAfdi," 
QiSHIHl kilui pak^r babbO&n. 

" L^q oh tns^f." 

Bhejy^ nafar ^alfim AUe DiSg, 

^Ldnrnj^m buldyi : 
Sass! khol ta'wiz gale d&, 

8h&he l^aznr pahnnchay^ : 
K&^az w6ch pacQb&ti Sh& ne, 

Jo pae (anddq mrli&yi, 
QisHiH wekh hoy^ sharmiQda 

Adamjim siway&. 

IJohu garm hoy&, dil biriy£n, 

Fber aniid piyiiri : 
llin pyd nil Sasai de chaban, 

Bdt kUi akwaH. 
" Bassf §if jawab dito n! ! 

" Khol Ijiaqfqat s^rl I 
l^isHlM ! " milao t^r&m tmandQ 

" Bobr did akwari .' " 

U^gw firaq Sassi de mare 

Nind ^r^m na awe : 
Bar dam wang Ya'qtib Paghttmbar, 

Bo ro l^al dio jawe. 
Kan swil, " (iire gbar kharya, 

Boz SassE wal &we." 
^iSBiH I . " y&d ^nddq Sass! nfig 

Sb^<r mdl Da Uyawe." 

itizecy Google 

( 35 ) 

Jal thai, nutshriq nta^^nh, bar aba! 

Jig dtt n&ro dhiT&we, 
i^^iib qadrat apntpii^ 

KiB tnlinb iko ann&we ? 
Ant na p&r ur&r hu tis d&, 

Ky& kajh hor san&we 7 
yUaniU pfaer Raasi nun niils&n 

S^^ir tndl na ]iyiwe 

Shahr Bbambor BRad&gar-z&d& 

^azni aim sadiwe ; 
^&b>b shauq, 'imfirat tizi, 

B£^ bAineah ban&we ; 
'Ba wich liar B&dghih mnlak d» 

Kar tagwir lag&we. 
]|ieniH bar ik ^ mnfawwir 

Jftbarll kah^we. 

SassI Bnnf U'rif hBineBhe, 

L&iq nosbk ^^atan df. 
Ik din nil a&iykn a\h dauri 

^^tir Hair chamRn di : 
Wekbi naqsh-ni(;&r kbiloti 

§urat bIiu badan df. 
lf.iaBiM wekh hoi dil gb&ral, 

W£ngi!in kob sbikan di. 


SassI kib& " bn1£o laD^atrwir^ 

" Sh&h&sh wfr-bbar^ I 
" Jib ;drat d! mdrat kftf 

" Main ndn £kb aoD^. 
"KehraBh'abrhai? kann sh^-z&d& ? 

Tliilc patta das j&>." 
I^a'shih I pher SobbI bath jo{-e, 

Th&on makdn bat^." 
" Eecham Shahr, Wil&Tat Thai df ^ 

JJB d& pnt Pnnndn sb&h-zid^ 

" 'Aib-snn^bon ^ilf, 
^drat oa Iji^&bon bdhir, 

" 9ift g^ndiwand-wilf.'* 
Q^SHIH t 'arz kftf nstidoi;, 

"Chfnag kakh^n wich 4iU." 

itizecy Google 

( ae ) 

ITo dil gh&ys), oAl Mit^ d« 

Plwr &AMf ffhar ill. 
Niddar bhtikh, Zal«^^ wingdi;, 

Pahli nunz iw jii. 
Wekh a^w&l hoS damUlndf 

Pachhri ua n^Q nitf . 
QaSBIU ! bijh kutbi tAlwiron 

liE^ira 'ifhq qaiti ! 

I^I irid) soz fir&i Pininfin d& 

Roz nlnmbi D&t6, 
Birhon tnlil krim na dmdit, 

Wting chikbti nit j&le, 
Xtish ap ipe bhat7&r6, 

Xp .ial« nit j&lft. 
"^iSBiu I phar kih& sukhRomn 

Jad pite pram py&Io ? 


De dil di^h Saaii kar d&niih 

Ik tadbir banii. 
Fattan ghi^ l&i aabb pyi tUo 

Chnunki chae bab&i ; 
Fagdf rih mus&fir ko! 

Xwe en nan^I^. 
QXsHiH I par nrjlr na j&e 

Main bin khabar pahunch^ 

Bars boT^ jad pher Sasrf nUe 

Mi^nM Jsand ufb&e. 
Eech wnlon rol-m&I wahfijaa 

Vth Hand&i'ar &e. 
^firat n&z niy&z Bulochi^, 

Wekb pari pbnl jie. 
^iaa\u I wekb Baloch, Zule^i&Q, 

Ya»af ch&e bbni&e. 

itizecy Google 

( 87 ) 


Kahiv^ &a f^aMta 9akI ntin, 

K&l zabAn ptyirf, 
" &bi% ntte ik r&h mns&fir, 

" Utre &a bep&ri. 
'• Kech wftlog ral 6kbaii &e ; 

" I7t'> be-ant sfanm^rf " 
QISHiH ! tnnr, lib^B, bhriwi, 

Bftr bsr cb&l niy firi. 

Bftssl sal^t f^aml viob ihf, 

Dard fir&q na j&iie, 
K& kujh sort aiT&z na dendf, 

Ka kajb hosb (ik^ne, - 
Rah rah&n wich phiri 8amf di, 

UaJik-nl-mBnt nitUae. 
I^j(bhih I mel Balodt SaasI nfig, 

Pber did zindg&ie. 

DaR-BATXN bosh iXDASt Sk9Si ti. 

Soul iw£s Sassf ntb baHhi, 

Sart sartr sambfa&lf, 
Uisal an&r bo^ ni^ B&n, 

' Pber phirJ lab-ldlt. 
Hir sin2&r Inge man bhinan, 

' IQt^l hoi ^nsb-^1f, 
];[A'8HtH ! £kb ta'ilf Baloch£g, 
Xb-bAyJSt pijrfili. 

Sbabr ntilr Balooli Saarf n«, 
El^idmat kb<ib kaHif ; 

^ haqiqat PannfiQwltH 
' Pita baith&l pnohblU ; 

'Siitfr wflkb, hahyo. " n{. Mt4i 
"Hot PanoSn hu bh&i." 

HisHiH w«kh, Bnioch&n •b&mai 
DittI in dikha 

itizecy Google 

( 38 ) 

Bawf * nmjfa bhtri PnnnfiQ d« ' 

<^id Baloch kar^. 
Eon kit>l^ mnlfil boy6, nl, 

Hot Panntin bin &&. 
Bol wifrlir picbbe paohbtinan, 

Hb^mat &a pab£e, 
I^^BiH 1 b&jb wskllon It&niil 

Phaay&i} k&an cbbnftia. 

Do nrw&a She karwini 

Haft bax&r abntar de, 
Balkan nim Bambbaiyi, dtSgw^n 

Baifh andesha karde, 
" Fannin b^jb nnbln cbbntk&rlt 

" Je haoz diiye bbar zar da.** 
QaSHIH [ " 2or kifi& par-mnlklg 7 

" Zor howe wicli gbar de.'* 

U4ai)'kathoI& i)£m grhore dfi 

Nlll klt& hamr&M, 
Jjdn jyln bahut p6ne wich manzil 

"TyfiQ tyfin chil siwiii : 
Ho ]&obir cbalfl karn^i 

Kecb baniban &e, 
l^tiBBiH I oh Fannnn pab i» 

'Ashaq shaaq akbaf. 

Kediain Shabr gae fenr Ahie 

Hot 'AH darb^re, 
Bowan kfib snn&wan ^jat 

J&e Bnlocb pnk£re, 
" Sbnhr Bbambor Baloch Saaaf ne 

" Qaid kltn dal s&re." 
^XSBIH I " b£jh Ftinnlin nabin chaddf, 

" Qaid rahen jog Bare. 

Hot 'All snn b^l Saui d& 

Pnchhjll hai(b dfw&n^g, 
" Na knjh penb b^kfimat j^, 

" Na knjh V&t ^Kt&o&n" 
Faobban " hi,] maliAl hoyo nf, 

" Hnlk bid^ begftnin." 
QXsHiH ! katiQ sh&b-tjdyiq tor«, 

Akb puchhe, " kattr^uliD 1''' 

itizecy Google 

( 30 ) 

Bahnt be-zar bof f;a1 sonks 

Hot Panndii d( mai, 
" Kaan koi tan l^e bajbfa 

" Atisb chAe parii ? 
" Kttnn Bitlooh Panndn de §ir toQ 

I^aSHIH ! " bijii PuDDUQ wich dnaya 
" flor mur^ mkii," 

$4f JRwib \iy& IcATvt&nig 

Pber Ponntin wa) &e, 
^nmt naqah-nigar Saaai di 

Ear ta'rif snn^ 
" Gb^il 'iahq tiui^e andar 

" Ear dam niDd na lae." 
J^ASBIH I " ^&Jiir milan taai^i 

Qaid saud&gar p4e," 

Sqd ta'r[f faoyA dil bmy&n, 

Wagi w&e pram d!. 
KaoB koi dil raha (ik&oa 

Dflhsbat te^ alam d£ ? 
Bbahr Bhambor Pannun dil wasjd 

Wiari aart Kecbam di. 
TJ-iBEUt t w& laffi, nfh cbamke ~ 

JCtiah jarin KanuQ dL . 

BbntivBwtlr Panndo °th (nry^ 

Prero jar! sir pie. 
Bit idiab&r Iay& Pannfin nni}, 

Chor chale kar db£e : 
Fabik irita na, w&qs be-sabrin, 

Zarq mnbar ntb&e. 
JpiSEiH wekh naijfb Baloch^Q 

Bar pal bary^. 

Rat dioE phar r&b layti, tS, 

Paik na tfaayoQ mandoi 
Sa^t mizAj Balochinw^ls, 

Bare na^fb jinban de. 
Yuaaf Nabf Ifi^r, karwani 

Wekb darb&r lai jii}de. 
^ASHiH ! wekb BbAfatin dakh pwinde, 

tjajdit zanjir dil^ d«. 

mzecDy Google 

( «• ) 

Bbahr Bhitnbor Panndn di nun 

Kyk wMt sawara. 
m\ piTltr kito, ni, kebr;&Q, 

Gbnai, diilik wndbere. 
Nal biq^t b^ Saial de, 

Xn Idto iM dsro. 
Qashi^ I chliot} diti wiob shntfin, 

Chan 'itiq obofsrs. 

Bahnt 'aiAyab s«rw kb&lot* 

Bi^^ obaofer din-iriln ; 
Farsh zanilD samtirrad tiik, 

§&bit naqsb-nifr^rAn : 
Mabillri bor nar^nf baraan, 

Har bar cbank bob&rat). 
]j|j(8a[i[ ! ibor jan&war karde, 

Mor, ofaabor baz&ri^. 

Ofa&il Hibq kare giiI-UI&, 

6eb, angfir bbare ru n&la 

CboQJ na l&wan |;ote ; 
Qamrf k6k kar« hxyiAin 

Sarw &ziU khalote ; 
"^iamit I wekb babitr cjuntan H 

Biri> nhl widi id^ot* I ■ 

EHJh Bat^dadf Bal|£f nrfitar, 

Knjb bn^tf Kini'nf, 
Dwakb posbt, m ffurdan diaflff, 

'AziiUl nisbiaf: 
Cbturua bij^, tofaMniR ahikhig, 

Eanm Baloch l^atwtoi, 
QisBtM ! D&l gamOi Fonndn d* 

ml gan 

Cbbe cbafbe barwinf. 

Ji kuke darbir Saaai d« 

8hor kiti b^-biDiln, 
** BiiA werte boyd knl uir^ 

*' Cbir layi karwanig : 
'' Na ob ^lanf ^wiiyoq d«rd«> 

" Kb^wan m&l begia&n." 
9XBBI1I I " Shafar Bbatnbor~bt>i«)a ; 

itizecy Google 

( « ) 

Bnn fiirvM E^hhsI nich dil d« 

'Aqal ^)nj&1 ohil^. 
" Kann kamnie nil} diteri 

" Karn Bnloch wicMre ? 
" Sbiid Hot Pnnn6n wioh hoaf, 

" Tfilg kam pasdre." 
^isHlv I " ch&wan aii} Ta^lf 

" Kaan gj^arll) aikire." 

SassI ii£l s^y&ii kar maall^at 

EU^ Un{ obflt &i, 
Hsr hirde, hatli sh&kb ^ibtufirf, 

Tp^ misit snf&;, 
'ITmr Rw&val, niin ^nraii di, 

Jlie p£i_van knr dh£e 
^iSRIM I in'&r pai karw&nfiQ, 

Den Baloch dahdf, 

Babfl taiyir hamesh cliaman wich 

Khif^iin palfln({ rnwcl c^a^lbel{ 

UiUhu j;6iid vicbb&l : 
lit par Hot PanndQ wich nindar 

Kyi sej sah^!, 
^iBBiH I is tniir&d Sasaf di 

Qidq pidihe war ^. 

Batsf &D difhd wich nfndar 

Hot bd-hosh jo kbw^boQ, 
Sdroi wfing ahnli' btisan d& 

B&bar posh niq&bon ; 
Je lahb pie fnnduq chhipao 

^wo mtisbk Rnl&bon. 
0X8HIK I ^n^n pnrft na chbip df, 

TArak hon b»j&boii ! 

San turyiA Bnlochin-wjif. 

T&'fndb Hot saixbbilf. 
Wekh bsi'in >*''vi .liih-zidi 

Pfttij mab''wt'i5-"'iW. 
BosbnTi ihami' Jamil Sa<*( di 

Ghamnk pawe bar ij^f. 
l^^snni 1 dig^ i>nvi jrnl-tila 

Wekli Sassi Ub^ftli 

mzecDy Google 

( 42 ) 

Wekb didar boe tan donwen 

'Ashaq dard ca jftne : 
pithy&Q bijh na mjjan mula 

Main adas ay&ne. 
Snkh diy&n ;&r mile, jia dil nnn 

Qtmat qadr pachli&ie. 
I^isHlH I 'isbq aqll kamiwan ; 

Hor gagw&r ki jane ? 

Bh^r nth& ohalle karwanf, 

Tor dito, ni dere, 
Akli rahe, " dial ! " Hot Pannfia nug 

JoTan bath batere. 
Ho l&Mr cbalfl karw&ni 

Eecbun d&e snwere. 
JJasbim 1 'isbq jinbfiD tan waayfi 

£ann nnbaQ dil fere ? 


Eecbam An kib^ karwto£n 

B4t jinwen knjh &i, 
«' Hot asir Saa^ dil kSti ; 

" Zalf kundal ghat ph^. 
" ^Qwan j&h na y^ Pannun 06^1 

" 'Ishq diU bad-rfihi." 
'iJ.iSBTVi 1 \}6i san& Balochii} 

Tej^ piyu tan I6i. 
Hot 'Ali din ron wahiive, 

Palk ir&m na tisnun. 
Uant pahle marj&n chaDger& 

An bane dokh jisnun. 
Kecbam a£r JahanDam koloii 

Tes boy£ tap tisndn. 
Q^SHIU 1 vtiog Ya'qfib Pai|^ambar 

l^a snn&we kisnnn ? 
Keobam lo|; firfiq Pnnn6g da 

Bo ro hon diw&iie. 
Yusaf wech i» karw&ni 

Ear ik dard zab^no, 
Fat P^t ^^l Bitan wich galiyiii 

Mablin ehor zan&ne. 
HjfsBlu ! pber FaDn-dn Rabb Iriwe 

^a]ii Ml&mat ^ine ! 

mzecDy Google 

( « ) 

8haU-sw£r bfaar& Pannfin de 

Pher Puunun vrol dL4e, 
Tez balae shr&b ;iir&lji 

N«l niUl )e&e. 
Ofak pesh na.}6si k(^ 

Mul dharoh kam&e. 
QXSHW akb, " kih£ sukb sowan 

Shahr Bhambor bbar£ PaoDiin da 

Nil gie rang raa de : 
Dil wich kfaot, zab^n wich shfrfn 

;3lii mile gal hasde. 
Watnt log jo bunde mal^ram 

Hargiz bbet na dasde. 
J^^BHiH I karan Iuk& bater& : 

Uirg bbali kad pfaasde ? 
San kanv^n Sassl te Pannfin 

Ubafhy^ cband dopabre. 
Bal mil n^l s&iyin de 6khe, 

" Bb&g bhale din mere." 
Ik, doQ, cfair hoe ^ioh kbidmat 

Mafar j^ul&m chofere, 
]^jfSHiu I pber na aaiujben bhfif 

F&p k&rende je;^. 
Kit pnt, baith p^ Fiiiindg de, 

Jfbb mifhi, dil k^Ie. 
Hot Fanndn ndn, maat Sassf dl 

Bhar bbar den prile. 

ki i6ni 

b chHr&waii-n'61e? 
I;Ja3H1H I dos nabin karw^AQ ? 

'Isbq kul ghar g&le t 
Afasi be-bosb boya Ebab-zad&, 

bibi saw^l jawJihon, 
Ik nindar gal b^b Bassi da, 

Dtija most sfaar&bog. 
*Xsbaq lioivaD te snkb Bowan, 

Eh gal dur his&bon. 
^ASHIK ! jis kis r^h 'ishaq d& pbarji 

K^j gatvi}^ ^wabog. 


mzecDy Google 

( 44 ) 


Jit mqt Tot& is kai&m Uk pabdnohi, B^dshfli oe tu m 
p6ohb^ agar nnjfim se bft)iy£t ki d*P honfi mumkin nahl^ 
phir DQJfimf ose k;tin sikhte anr dsIHon so g&bit karte buQ 
anr os se ^nf kjfig karte haig ? Ub ae kah& albatta ns n baU 
kit dafa' boni mamkin bai, lekia na jia tfitaUt ki najfimf 
kahte hug ; balki Allah Ta'tiJt k! isti'&oat se, ki wnh paicU 
karaa-wti£ onjfim k£ hai, B&dih&h ne pfichhi, ki iati'fiiiat 
na kl Allah se kydgkar kare ? Kali& ki al^flm i ahara'i par 
'amal kare, ^rya wa z&ri kami, Qam£z parhni, rosa rakhnfi, 
ladqa wa {ak£t d6n£, ^alti; i dil se *ib&dat kami, yihf ia& 
'inat bai. Jia waqt Allah Ta'&llk se ns ke dafa' hone ke wisfea 
aawfl kare, albatta !S^ad& mal^ffis rakht^ hat, ia wi^ 
ki nnjfimi anr k&hin qabt i iruql' i ^wfidig ke ^bar dete 
bain, ki Allah Ta*<t]& yih ^idiia s&hir kareg^ ob ke v6slfi 
bihtar yih hoi nal Allah se ns ke dafa' ke wiate du'i mfiQg*, 
na yih ki qaw&'id i nnjfim par 'amal kare. B&lsh^ ne kahi, 
jis waqt a^ik&n i ahara'i par 'amal kij& anr bal& na se dafa* 
blii, na se yih I&sim &Ut hai, kl mnqaddar i IMhi \al j£we ; na 
ne kahtk mnqaddar ns kj noblQ t^ti, magar jo log ki na ke da£a* 
ke irtstfi ^Lndfi se mnn&j&t karte haig, nn ko is ^^i^ as 
mal^f^S rakfat& hai, chna^ofai mnnajjimog ne jii vaqt Namrfid 
ko ^i&bar di, ki ek la^k& bnt-paraatoQ ke din k& mnkb^lif 
paidi hokar tamfallrl ra'Ejat anr fanj ko barham darham 
karegA, anr mnr^ ni se Ibrahim Sbalfl-nllah tbi, anr Allah 
Ta'ilJi ne nnko paidi karke Kamrdd anr nekf fianj ko unke 
b&thog ae salfl wa ^arib kiy&; agar Nnmrfid na waqt Ebodi 
ae apai bifatarf ke wistfi dn'£ in&ngt&, Allah Ta'tik apni Unfiq 
■e nsko IbrjUif m ke din men d&^il karti, wnh anr nakf fanj 
Ipltat wa kl^r^ se nu^fd;; rabte, lal farst^ Kiak ke paidd bona 
ki jab Fira'aan ko nnjdmiyoQ ne t^abar di ; agar Q^ndi as 
apni bihtari ke vistfi da'i n]&Qgt6 nako bhi ^ad£ nnke dfn 
meg diU)il karke sillat ae mat^fdc rakhtd, jis ^ral> nakf 

itizecy Google 

( « ) 

'aunt ko Allab Ta'^ ne hid^ykt ki uar Di'miit tmia kl 
biUiaht, qaam i Ydnaa ne jia waqt 'nz&b men mnbtal^ hokar 
Kkada ae d*i'& m&ggi, Allah ne anko na 'as&b ne p^aOi ni«g 
nikkhi. B4dsb&h ne ktibi aaoh bai, ftb najtim kfc slkhn& 
aor qabi i wnq^' i Ij^liga kn kbtbar deni, anr S&udi m 
nske dafa' karne ke lije du'& miQgn&, in Bab cbliOQ ki 
tiid» nu'lliin h&&, isi n&ste l^af nt Mtiti ne Bonf Iir&fl ko 
nafQ^t ki tU, k[ jia waqt tam kisl bal& se kbnof karo, 
tia waqt Sl^adi se io'i miqgQ, aar tafarni' wa siil karo, 
kyfinki wuh tarn ko fidq i da'fl ke Babab as l^ige Be mal^fdn 
rakkhegtl, Xdam se lekar Mn^animad Uaf);afl fall-<illahil 
*alaih wa s<^am tak }'ib Jjarfqa jM tb&, ki bar ek ^^ige k* 
waqt apnf amtnat ko yib{ l^ukm knrte the, pas libim hai, ki 
a^k&m i niijtini ke wiste is taar par 'amal kare, na jis (Bn^i ^i 
iammttne kennjomi^a]qkobabk&tehaig, iQ^Rdikoobhofm 
fiardisb i falak kl (araf daufte bain, marf^og ki fif^t ke wAate 
bbi pable ^ait. ki {araf nijli' kare ; k^dgki sh)f£ i knlli naf 
kf 'in£yat anr mibr-b&ni se l^^il boti hai, yib na oh&faiye, ki 
b&rg&h i abaf! i l^qiqi se pbirkar {abihOQ ke jab^ rnj6' kare; 
ba'^ lulnii ki ibtidi i marsf meQ (abiboQ ae rnjfi' knrte baig, 
an ke 'ildj ae fcnobh fSida nabln hoUi, pbir waluii} ae nfi-DmmId 
kokar &ud4 kf taraf rojo' kartebaJQ, balki beshtar ar^^OQ 
par a^w&l apn& nih&yat il)^ wa a&ri ae likfakar mnsjidog ki 
diff^e y& sat6non par lafka date haiQ, ^ad£ shifi bakbsbU 
bai, iaf taral^ ob^biye ki Ugirit i iinjfiin ke w<bte nst i^od^ a« 
mjfi' Uwe, nnjdmiyog ke bahk&ne par 'amal na kore ; (^nn&Q- 
obi ek b&diihib tb^ aako nnjdmiyoQ ne k^abar di, ki is sbahr 
men ek b^>!<^ bog&, jisse afaabr ke nibne-wilog ko babat Uiaaf 
bai. BidabiUi ne plicbb&, kia {ara^ hog&? t»f%il nski na 
batla aakis magar itn& k«b£, ki faUne niabfn« falini tiri^i 
jib b&liga wnq6' meg &vb(^ 'Bid»biik ne logog se pdobbi, 
ki is kf dafa' ke w£>te kj& tadbtr kiyii ob&biye ; jo log ki abl i 
shara' tbe unbog ne ka)i4 bihtar yih hai, ki as ros B^lsb^b anr 
tam&m ahobr ke raboe-w^le obhofe ba^e baati ae bfUiir nikal kar 

mzecDy Google 

( M ) 

miiid&ii mpi} rahen, aar i^ndji se nakf Aatk' ke liyti itmUj ws 
ti,ti karen, sh&rad Kbnd£ as bsia se ma^fn^ nkkbe, ba-mlijib 
on ke kahnfl ke BUib^ ns din shabr so bibir ji-nb& aar 
bahot ae ^ml B^ab&b ke satb babir nikle, i^odi k do'A 
tniiigne lsg<«, ki is ba1& ae malfF&s raben, aar iam&m rit wshin 
jigtfl rahe, magar ba'fe admiyoQ ne onjumt ke kahne se kachh 
kbinf na kij&, osi ahabr tnei} rabgaye ; t&t ko nibi/at 
abid<]at u pAoi barg^ wnb shahr zamin i nasbeb men w&qi' ibi, 
oh&rog inrat se pitif khenob kar iihahr men bhar fpiji, jitn* 
£d[n[ bastt men rahgaye the sab baUk bo gave, anr jo log 
ki ahabr ke bihir da'A wa x&ri men masbg^dl tbe saltimat rahe; 
jii t&rat^ i^t&n se Nu)^ aar we log ki fm&n l&ye tbe maljf^ 
mhe, anr b&qi sab gfaarq bo gaye, jaisfi ki Allab Ta'iUk fiar- 
taii& bai, " /a-anjaindhu toallazina ma'afm Jil-fuUn va a^A- 
raqnd allazina kazMbi bi-dydtind inttahnm tdnu gaumatt 
*amina"; ya'ot nijat di bam ne ^dl^ ko anr nn logog kojo 
ns ke iiib kasbtl par baifhe tbe, atzr jinbog m hatn&rf dyaton 
ko jlilith jan£ tb& DQ ko i^arq kar diyi, kydnki woh qnnm 
gamrab tlif. Fal^fl anr man);iq{ par jo tnm fakbr karte bo, 
so we tnnib&re fude ke Vf&stfi nabig baig, baiki tnmben unmrA 
karte baig ; ttdml tie kfth& yih kydnkar bai, issa bay^n kar ; 
kabi, is v&aifi ki we r£b i sbarfat se pher deta baiQ, kajrat t 
ikbtil^f se abk&m din ke n(b£ dete baig, snb ki rlfeg anr 
ma^bab makbtalif. ba'fe to '&hm ko qadim kabte haig, ba'fs 
haydla ko qadimj&ate baig, ba'^ ^lirat; ke qidam par dalil 
l&te baig, ba'^ kabte bain ki 'illotein do bain, ba'?e tin 'illateg 
l&bit karte hnin, ba'^e cb£r ke qCiil bain, ba'^e panob kabte 
hug, ba'fe abba se s&t tnlak tamqq! karte bain, ba'^ ^ni' anr 
niBfnd' kl ma' iyat ke q&il baig, ba'^ zam&ne ko g^air mnt- 
ndbf kabte baig, ba'^e tnnibi par dalil lite baig, ba'^e ma'ad 
ke mnqirr bain, ba'^e mnnkir, ba'^e risdUt anr wa^i ki iqrir 
karte bain, ba'^ inkir, ba'^ sbakk men ^airilg sar-ganl&g baip, 
bn'ye 'aql wa dalil ke moqirr bug. ha'^e taqlid par q^im bain, 
in ke sini anr bhi bobut se ma^ihib i mnkbhiiifa bain, ki jia 

itizecy Google 

( " ) 

m^ J* Mb girifUr hug, aar hBro4r& din wti tarfq ek hal, 
£]fDdA ko wAl^id la-sharik jrate baiQ, Mt dio ns ki tasbit) ws 
talilil meg mashs^fil baig; kisS bu)d» par ns ke apn^ fabbr 
ubfg bajin karte, jo kuobh ham^rl qismat men mnqaddar 
kiyfi hai, lu par ebilkir liain, on ke ^ukm se b&hir nabln haig, 
jih naLfg kahte^ki yih kyng aar kis wAste bai, jis taral^ Alini 
u ke dl^kam aar musbtyat wa (an'at mag i'tir^^ karte bain. 

llnhandisog anr tnau^on par jo tam apn& fakhr karte 
ho, 80 wah dalilog ke Skr men rit din gbabria hfierabtebain, 
jo cMzeg ki wahm wa tn^awwar se babir baig, nn k^ da*w4 
karte hain aur dp nabtg jinte, jo 'alfim ki nn par w^jib bain 
nn ki taraf mail oabfg karte, kJbnr^Mt ki' ];araf jisae knchh 
ihtiy&j mnta'aliiq nahig qa^ karte bain, bn'^e ajrim wa ab'^d 
kf maalUiat ke Hkr men rabte bain, ba'^ pab^r anr abr ki 
bntandi daryift karne ke w&te I^air&n bain, kitne dary& aar 
jangal n&pte phirte bain, ba'^e efl&k k! tarkib aur zamfo ke 
markaz ma'I^in kame ke w&|;e fikr wata-ammnl karte bai'g, 
apne badan ki tarkJb wa mas&bat se ^abar nabin, yib nabfn 
jinte, ki agtpy&n aur rode kitne bain, jaaf i sine men kis qadr 
wos'at hai, dil wa dim£^ kA kyi hk\ bai, mi'da kis tanr par 
hai, mt^win ki Vj& f drat bai, badan ke jnf kis waza' par 
witqt' baig, ye ohizeg ki jin k& j^nna aabl anr pahch^nj 
v&jib bai, bargiz Dabfnj&nte, l^dlinki un 86 Allah Ta'ili k[ 
san'at wa qadraima'ltim hott hai, jais^ ki Paighambar fol- 
nUah 'alaVii wa tallam no farm£ya hai " man ^arafa na/sahu 
faqad 'ara/a Rabbahu" ya'nl jiane apne tain j^nA as ne £^nd& 
ko pahcb£D& ; s^th is jibt wa oadtiof ke beshtar kalam i 
lUU oaMn pafbte, fiir; wa sannat ke al^kim nahig j^nte. 

Anr (abibon par jo tnm fa^tr karte ho, on se tarn ko 
jabhi talak Jbtiyij bai, ki hir? va shahnat ee mnkhtalif khina 
kh&kar binutr ho j£te ho, aor nn ke darw&zon par q&rdra lekar 
|)A(ir bote ; ];abib wa 'att^r ke darw^e par wnb{ j£t£ bai, jo 
bimir howe, jis tarb nnjdmiyog ke dartr&e par man^ds aar 
bad-bakiltog k& majma' rabti hai, IjjUagki nake yahsn jaoe se 

^.y Google 

C *8 ) 

siytbl* Bfit^t bott bai, is irMe ki M'd w» Dsb> s^'^t hi taq- 
dfm wa UkJlir imd Q3 ko iUttiy 4r nahlg hai, tiipar bhf ba'f» 
nnjdml atir ratnmil ek ktigiiif l«kar kachh mnzkliarrtt 
abniaqtq ke bakh^ne ke wiatfi likb dets faaiQ, yifaf {^ (abfbt^ 
k& hai, ki nn ke jahig iltiji lejine se Mmirf rnida boll bai, 
j{b (Alzot) u ki marfy beshtar sbitt piU hai nnfaig oMsog n 
parbez batUte haiQ, agar tabi'ai par ohbor deweg to bim&r ko 
■bift hswe, pas UbCboQ anr Dsjliiiiiyog par tambArA fakir ' 
kami oiab? b^^iat] bai, ham nn ko mnb^'ij nabin haig, kytig- 
ki i^i^ haiatu-t ek wa^a' par bu, ial w£«(e ham blm&r nabin 
bote, tablboQ ke yab&g iltijd nah{Q lejite, kisf sharbat aar 
V)a^j6n 86 fl^nraf nabig rakbtfi, sbewa ^sfidoQ ki yibi hai, ki 
kisf M ibl^7^j t)« rakkbeo, }ih tariqa ^nldmog ki bai, ki bar 
•k ke yahig daa^te pbirte baio. 

Anr Baadigar wami'mir anr xirii'at kam»-wil« jin par 
tnm apD& fa^^r karte h/o, so we ghnl^'QOt! se bh{ badtar haig, 
£K(tr wa mobtij ae bltf t.lj6d% lalfl baio, r&t din mibnat wa 
Biasbaqqat meg girifUr rabtehaig,6k»&'atir&ra nabfg kam» 
pits baiQ, hamesha makin&t ban£ta haiQ, b^lieki ip an .meg 
BablQ labne p&te, lamfn kbod kar dare^it bi(hlite haig, pbal 
aor mewaas kA naUc Icbite, in se ziyida abmaq koi oatiio liiu^ 
fci mil wa msti' jama' karke w&rigon ke liye ohbor j&te baig* 
aar &p hamesba fiqa-kasbi msQ raht« haig ; saodigar bbi 
bamesha mil i barim jama* kams ka 6kr meg rahle haig, 
garinl ki nmmfd par i^alla mol lekar rakbte haiQ, qabt ks 
dinog msQ gar&g qimat beobts bain, faqf r aar ^arfb ko 
knchb nabiy date, ek bir sab mil maddat ki jama' kiyi hii 
^irat ho jaU bai, daryi meg ^Ab jiti j& ohor lej^ti bai, yi 
kof )|ilim bidsbih chMn leti hu, phir to k^arib wa salil 
bo kar dar ba dar mnbtij phirte baig, tamim 'amr apni bam 
gardi men ^' karte bain, w« to yibjinte haig, ki bam no 
fitida ntbiyi, yih oabEg ma'ltSm, ki naqd i *aalz, ki IbArat 
rindsgi se bai, mnft b£th se diyi, ikfairat ko donyi ke wisjo 
beebi, dooy4^ bU b^U oa fail dia barbad gayi ; "dobdbi hm» 

itizecy Google 

( « ) 

doti j^nye mij& milE na rim"; agar is ^biri f^ide par tom 
iftikhar karte bo to bam is par la'oat karte bain, .inr yib jo 
kabte ho, ki hamiri qaam men ;&^ib mnranwat bain, so 
gfaalat hai : 'aziz aqrabd aur bains^ ud ke faqfr vf:x muht&j 
nange bbukba gall gali snwal karte phirte bain, ye va ke ]}i.[ 
par nig&h nabfn karte, isf ko mnrawwat kabte bain, ki &p far^ 
ghat se npne gharon men 'aish karei], 'azis wa aqrab^ oat 
bamsae gaddf karen. 

Anr yih jo kabte bo, ki bam&r! qanm men mnnshf aur 
diw&D bote bain, in par bbl tnm ko fakhr karnd Uiq nabin 
bai, an se ziy&da sbarir wa bad-z4t duoyi men ko! nabii) 
bai, fi^rat wa din^i anr znbftn-darazi vra khasb taqrlri se bar 
ek ham-cbaBbm ki bekb-kanf men rabte bain, ^ir meg babnt 
'ib^mt ira! anr raoglol se khatut dostina likbte bain, p:ir 
batia men an ki bekb ^a bnoj'^d kbodne ke fikr men ma^r^f 
rabte bail}, x6,i din yihl ^ajSkrahii bai, ki fut^ne sba^^ ko 
is kim se manquf karke kisi anr sbakh^ ko kacbb nazr^na 
lekgr muqarrar kijiye, j^araz kisi makr -wa bile se ns ko 
ma'ztil bi kar date bain. Anr z&hidoQ 'ibidon ko jo turn apne 
xn'm mei} nek j^nte ho aar yib gnmin karte bo, ki dti'i aar 
shafa'at un ki ^ndi ke nazdlk qab^l boli bai, unbon ne bbt 
tnm ko apn& zuhd anr taqwi dikbl^ knr fareb diy& hai, 
fcylinki z£hir men yih nn k& 'ibddat karni, d^Tl>t ba^b^D^, 
labon ke bil lenfi, pair&ban pahann^, mofo kapre par iktif£ 
karna, paiwand par paiwand lag^ni, cbnpke rabn^, ki^ se nft 
bolni, kam kh^ni, logon se ikhlfiq kamJi, ahkim shari'at ke 
sikblio^, der tak namiz parhn^, ki pesh^ni per d^^ psrgaye 
bain, khini kam kfaine se bonth lafak-aye bain, dimig^ 
^Bshk badan dubli rang mntagbiafyar ho gayi hai, yih 
iar6sar makr wa ztir bai, dil men bu^z wa kfoa itoA bbar£ 
bai, ki kisi ko manjud mibin samsjbte, bamesha !^ndi par 
t'tir&z karte bain, ki Iblis shailjin ko kynn paidi kiyi ; yib bat 
ghair-mtinfisib hai, aise waswis i 3hail,£ii{ an ke diloQ men 
bbare bain, torn ko to we nek ma'ldm bote hain, magar 

itizecy Google 

( so ) 

^iid£ ke cazdik tmm zij&dn bad kot iinMn hai, an par ky& 
fafehr kahte ho ? Tamhfira yr&sifi to ye log '^r wa naog hoin. 

Aur 'ilim wa fiiqlh tamhfire, we hhl danya ke yf&stfi kabbl 
Iiar^m ko halil karta bain anr kabbi ^\Al ko harfim batlat« 
bain, Sj"dA ke ka1£in men be-ma'iii lawSien karte bain, a;1i 
matlab ko akb? i maofa'st ke w&ste pber Aihe hnin, znhd wii 
taqw& k& ky& imk&n, doza^ inhin logon ke viists bnt, jin 
per tain fakbr karte bo. 

Anr qdzi mnfti tambjlra jab talak kabin nankar nahin 
bote ^abh wa Bbam masjid men jikar oam&z pa^bte aar logOQ 
ko wa ^ wa naaf^at karte bain ; jabki q&^ y& mnflE bus phir 
to j^aribon anr yatimon ba mil leker i^lilim bidsb^bon ko 
kbnabimad se pab^ncbite bain, rishwat lekar l^qq-talafE 
karte baiij, jo riL^ nabfn hot& ns ko ^anf anr chashm-nnmaf 
Be lisfA karte bain, ^araz yih log aa^t mafsid bain ki ^aqq 
ko n^bsqq aur n^b^qq ko ^aqq kardete bain, Kbud& k& 
^aaf mntlaq naliin karte, anLin logon ke w&sffi 'azab wa 
'uq&b bat. 

Aor apne ^aHfoQ aar b&dab^boQ k£ jo timi zikr karfo 
ho, ki ye paigjbambaron ke w£ria bain, inke »n^( i Etttafma 
g&bir bain, ki ye bb{ i;nrlq i nabawi chbor kar paij^ambaron kf 
anUd ko qatl karte haie, bameeba sbar&b p!te anr ^tndfi ke 
bandon se apn! Ichidmat lete bain, sab &dmiyon se apne taig 
bihtar j&nte bain, dnnj£ ko &kbirat par tarji^ dete bain, jab 
ki in men ko! sbakb^ l;i£kim bota bai jis ne ki qadfm se in kft 
jadd wa 6b& ki kbidmat ki bai, osi ko pable qaid karto haig, 
^qq i kbidmat na ki bilkuU dil se bhnlit dete hain, apne 
'a2izoQ anr bb^yog ko (ama' i dnny& ke was];e m& 4^Ite bain, 
yib ^a^lat bnznrgon ki nahin bai, in b&lsbfUion anr aminn 
par fakbr kami tumhire w&ste zarar bai, anr ham par da'wfc 
milkiyat ki ba-ghair dalil aar t?njjat ke sarfisar makr wa ^idr. 

itizecy Google 

( 51 ) 


Th8 foIlovriDg ia the system of transliteration which wa 
bave adopted — prvrisionally — for the Society's pablications. 
I^e by no means wish to cbeclc farther discussion, hot it ia 
necessary to adopt sooie system, provisionally, in order lliat 
the Society's werit may progress, and that those who arft 
Drilling to ibllair oar Itad may be able to do so. 




f (zabar or latha) 

1 (zer or kasra) 

1 (samma or pcsh) 


y - (Mhjhfil) 

if (ma'rdf) 

(^ (dipbtboDg) 

J (majbfil) 

J {ma'niO 


itizecy Google 

( 62 ) 


I. Sabject to sach modi Bcati one as are indicaUd hj 
the above key or by aubseqaent rules, Forbas' Dictionary is 
recognized as the slandiird of orthograjiby, and sfaould bo 
consulted in all cases of donbt. The atadent must, however, 
iflniember to substitute "q" where Forbes uses a dotted "k." 

!L The Bymbol "tashdld" is expreased by donbling 
the ooDBODant. 

III. Tho imperoeptibla "h" or > mnkhtafE at tlie end 
of a word is omitted. 

IV. The sign "hamza" is generally omitted. When 
Iiowever it may be considered necessary to divide two vowels 
or consonants in order t^i ensure their separate proDUOcia- 
tioa this ahoold bs dooe by inaertiDg a comma or dash 
between them 

V. Words having tbe form gl- or 5^* are written u 
^la' dafa' 

Words having the torm *»*^ or **»» are written •■ 
Jnm'a, daTa. 

VI. Worda requiring "Tanwln" in the Persian are to 
be written with "a," without any distinctive mark. 

VII. In rapid writing — not intended for the press— all 
diacritical marks may be omitted, with this exception that the 
long vowcla i tand d should always retain their diatiugusbiug 

In rapid writing— not intended for tbe press — ths 
apostrophe for ^ may also be omitted. 

VIII. Where foreign words oocnr, the writer may, at 
his discretion, retiin tbe original orthography or adopt the 
phonetic eqaivalent. IF the word has been aasimilated— 
or the writer wishes it to be assimilated — as an Urdd word, 
it is better to spell it phonetically. If, on tbe other hand, 
there is no wiah to assimilate the work — as, for instance 
with the names of persons — the origiDat spelling is prefer- 
able. In this case, the words should always be written 
between inverted commas, to indicate that it is not spelt 

Note. — A key to prannooiation will be fonnd in Foibe^ 
Gnuouuu- and alto in liokoyd'i iH-Mi-nl-Utuu. 

itizecy Google 

( 53 ) 


TheobjeotBof this Joun.«I, »nd of the Gocialr with 
TnH. n" '^A^Tlt^' ^? «pl«n.d by th. B«rie. of Reflo- 
W.h«l*T^V^'T>^"'''"« "g'^i""*: the Society, and 
m the firit nnmber of Uiis Journal. 

We isk all who are interested in tho moTement to giye 
M Uieir Bojiport. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are requested to send their names, with the Subscriptiena for 
«ie year, H8. 6, to P. Scott, Esq., Secretary, licman-Urdi 
^Kiety, Lahore. Mpmbers will receive a copy of the 
Jonroal. Friends in England a,re asked to send their sah- 
Bonptions (and any literary contribationB with which they 
may favor os) to our English SecreUry, F. Drew, Esq.. 
Burn College, Windsor. j i » 

We also call attention to No. 6 of the ResolnUons, 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th M«y 1878; and invito 
donations to the "Transliteration Fnad." 

There are many sympathisers with the BiOTement who 
have not yet sent in their names and snbscription. We 
trnst that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
ns by canvaasing for fresh members, and by circulating our 
Journal among both Europeans and Natives in the etatioos 
where they reside. 

Contribntions on any of the Ttriens subjects connected 
with transliteration, translatiea and edncation gSKerftllj, are 
earaesliy solicited from Uembers of ihej^ety. 

ii'MUlAU BY ItAU ilAUS Al TB£ " (J. & Al. UaZETTI " tRiSB- 

Digitizecy Google 

Dy Google 


wish of the editors to be impartial between them, but in 
spite of these empty platitudes every issue of the papers 
we have named bears a distinctly Hindi! bias, and indi- 
cates that these Anglo-Bengdlt editors — whatever their 
knowledge of English and Sanskrit — have far less acquain- 
tance with Urdd and Persian literature than the ordinary 

mzecDy Google 

,1,1.0, Google 

Vol. IV, September 1881. No. 40, 

From the tst of January 1882 the annual subscription 
to tkt RoMAN.URDif Journal wi// be raised to Rs. 8. 


The above is the beading of an article which appeared 
in the Indian Mirror of September, the 6th. The general 
purport of the article is indicated by its opening sentence :— 
"Our readers cannot imagine what a serious amount of 
harm is done by the fact of Beng^s not acquiring a com- 
petent knowledge of the Hindustfinl language." — We for 
our part can well imagine it. We are constant readers of 
the Anglo-Bcngili newspapers— the Mirror, the Hindi 
Patriot and our Panjib contemporary, the Tribune— 
and one of the features in these newspapers which strikes 
us most forcibly is their utter want of sympathy with 
Mahometan literature and Mahometan philology. Occa- 
sionally a few common places appear as to the necessity of 
union between Hindis and Mahometans, and as to the 
wish of the editors to be impartial between them, but in 
spite of these empty platitudes every issue of the papers 
we have named bears a distinctly Hindu bias, and indi- 
cates that these Anglo-Bengilf editors — whatever their 
knowledge of English and Sanskrit — have far less acquain- 
tance witb Urdfi and Persian literature than the ordinary 

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( 2 ) 

run of European ofGcials. Even the article before us 
speaks of " Hindustint" as though it were necessarily 
equivalent to " Hindi, " ignoring the existence of the wide- 
spread Mahometan element in the language of Northern 

The Indian Mirror continues to describe the short* 
comings of his brother BengiUs in the following out> 
spoken manner : — 

" They very seldom speak the language of the Hindus- 
tints with any facility : nay they are always caught in the 
most disreputable blunders of grammar and idiom. In fact, 
theirs is merely the BengiK language interspersed here and 
there with a few words of HindustJnf most oddly pro- 
nounced. They cannot venture to converse with decent 
Hindis and Mahomedans, who expect of them a fair share 
of knowledge of their own Vernacular tn men who live in 
their midst. By this defect, superficially not serious, but 
in reality very serious indeed, Beng&li Pleaders, we know, 
have spoilt their practice, thmgh their knowledge of Eng- 
lish be very superior. Medical men become unpopular : 
Schoolmasters become incompet>;nt to teach ; the young 
engineers cannot properly make their men work under 
them, and Deputy Mc^lstrates find their work a vanity and 
vexation of spirit. Gradually the European authorities 
have come to take note of the deficiency, and it seriously 
affects the action of Government in the matter of making 
appointments to the Public Service. Added to the fact of 
the imperfect knowledge of the language, there is the 
further fact that many Bengalis in the Upper Provinces 
keep themselves socially very far from the local community. 
And worse than this, they look down upon the Hindustints 
as naturally their inferiors, saying and doing things which 
tend to bring about a permanent altenatioQ of feeling be* 

mzecDy Google 

( 3 ) 

twetn themselv£& and their neighbours. Now apart from 
the ridiculous folly of such a course, let those Bengilfs who 
are determined to play the aristocrat among a simple and 
manly people, take note that their airs of superiority do not 
harm the HindustinE community at all, but only confirm the 
impression in the minds of ruling authorities that in the 
prospects of the Public Service, the Bengilfs are but inter- 
lopers, and that the natural cl^m belongs to the children of 
the soil whom the Bengalis want to set aside. This im- 
pression, in itself wrong and unfounded, it is for the 
Bengilfs to remove by making such concessions and corn* 
mon cause with the people as circumstances favor and 
point out to be most natural. The first step in that line is 
to learn the language of Upper India. Nothing prevents 
cordiality so much as an imperfect knowledge of language. 
The soul of the speaker shrinks within itself in conscious 
guilt when he knowingly murders the orthography and 
idiom of the person he talks to, and from hating the lan- 
gu^re he cannot speak with correctness, he comes to hate 
the people who speak that language. There is no beauty 
for him in the jargon which he imitates with difficulty. 
He cannot persuade himself that nice feelings or respects 
able things can be conveyed through its medium, and in 
despair he not only takes to his own vernacular, but dis- 
likes any attempt to master the language of the people 
around him. Gradually a social separation springs up, 
good fellowship becomes impossible, and a community 
essentially one is split up into sections. The Beniglf 
ridicules the Hindustinf, and the Hindustinf ridicules the 
Bengilf. Now, the difficulty of this separation is aggravat- 
ed by another circumstance. The Bengill is an adept in a 
third language, namely, the language of the ruler. And 
every thing, high, great, and profitable, is attainable 
through that alone. Jealousy comes in to do its work. 

itizecy Google 

( 4 ) 

And what was mere alienation before now becomes positive 
enmity. Tales about the Bengili are carried to the 
European official by the Hindustani, and when the Bengili 
has the upper hand, he does not spare his rival. The 
result is that neither the Bengali nor the Behari gets the 
loaves and fishes of the service ; but these are given away 
to men who are neither the one nor the other, namely, to 
Eurasians and poor Whites who profit by this internecine 
hostility. What we have to do just now is to point oat the 
danger of this unnatural alienation. It is tor the real 
benefit of both that the present differences between the 
Bengalis and Hindustanis should be made up. The first 
step towards the recondliation must be taken by the 
Bengalis. To them much is given and from them much is 
expected. They should begin by paying attention to learn 
the language of Upper India, a langfuage which is under- 
stood and honored throughout the land." 

We have quoted this article at length because it seems 
to us a singular inconsistency that writers who see — or 
profess that they see — the evils of linguistic disunion, 
refuse to assist us when we offer them an effective means 
by which that disunion can be lessened. 

We propose to them a common platform on which all 
the sections of the Indian community can meet,— each 
retaining its individuality so far as individuality is consis* 
tent with the common good, but each making some con- 
cession for the sake of rational union. 

The Bengilis say they prefer to read their own lan- 
guage in the Bengili character. Well and good, let them 
so read it. But is it desirable to exclude the Northern 
Hindd, the Mahometan, and the European from the study of 
Bengili literature ? If these classes can read Bengili widi 

mzecDy Google 

( 5 ) 
greater facility in Roman, why should they not be en- 
couraged to do so ? 

Every Sikh reads his Granth in Gurmulcht. Is that a 
reason why the Brahmos of Calcutta should be debarred 
from studying the theism of the Panj£b in a character with 
which they are more familiar? 

Similarly with Urdd and Persian. If Mahometans 
prefer the Persian character, t^ all means let them have 
it. Is that a reason for prohibiting the use of Roman- 
Urdd and Romaa>Persian by the Sikh, the Englishman and 
the Bengili ? Let the Beng^fs tell the whole tmth in this 
matter. Is not the reading of Persian lithographs as trying 
and irksome to them as it is to us 7 We understand that 
the BengiUs resident at Simla recently petitioned that 
their children at the Government School might be exempted 
from the study of Persian. The petition was granted 
notwithstanding the fact that the Panjib Educational 
Department ordinarily bases its Vernacular instruction on the 
Persian character alone. No Romanizer wishes to extir- 
pate the indigenous alphabets of India. We simply 
insist on the supplementary use of Roman as the only 
possible bond of union among the innumerable races to 
whom India is a dwelling place for a time or a home for 


While we were on a visit to some friends at Bath, it 
was proposed that we should have a week's outing, and 
after sundry discussions as to what the excursion should 
be, it was decided that we should take train to Bridport and 
th«nce foot it to Sydmouth. 

itizecy Google 

(6 ) 

Well, three of us left Bath on a britliaat morniog in 
the month of July for the cluster of lovely, and secluded 
seaside place on the western half of the Dorsetshire coast, 
and in that part of Devon which ties east of the Exe. 

Once in the train we were soon flying through valleys 
and along-side of clear streams, admiring the slopes of the 
hills and their various forms. The valley of the Avon is 
pre-eminently sweet and beautiful. It is narrow ; but the 
eye is thus enabled to embrace every object distinctly ; and 
there is a feeling of home and comfort, which wider scenes 
fail to impart. 

Out of the Avondale our way lay through the wider 
scenes of North Wilts, past dreary Trowbridge, and then in 
sight of the Chalk hills and downs of Westbury, with the 
famous " White Horse " on one of them. Thence we again 
entered Somerset, its woods and orchards marking the 
whole course until we emerged into the bare and chalky 
districts of Dorset. A chalky country always has a dry, 
and wholesome appearance, and Dorset has its beauties as 
well as rich, populous, and woodland Somerset. Let us 
acknowledge nature's fair varieties. There is certiunly a 
sternness in the aspect of Dorset arising from the absence 
of timber, but there is nevertheless, a charm about it which 
many prefer to the smiling countenance of Somerset. 

But now we are arrived at Bridport, where ends our 
Railway journey. Bridport seated as it is among beautiful 
bills, and swept by all the ocean breezes ought to be an 
extremely salubrious place, but for some reason this is not 
the case. The town though small has some reputation for 
its manufacture of twine, rope, shoe-thread, etc. 

A wide street runs from the town-hall in the direction 
of the Quay, where there is a double pier of rather primi- 
tive appearance. The harbour thus formed is of coase* 

mzecDy Google 

( 7 ) 

quence to Bridport, but useless as a ^lace of refuge, tho . 
entrance being narrow and obstructed by sand. There 
being little of interest here, we commenced our pedestrian 
tour and strode away up the long hill which leads out of Brid< 
port towards Lyme Regis; at thetop of this hill we caught 
our first glimpse of the sea through a gap in the downs ; it 
was of the deepest blue such as is seen in the Mediterranean. 
We read of/»r//e seas, but this seems an exaggeration 
it might be darkly blue but hardly purple ; however, be this 
as it may — we believe that no human eye could look up- 
on a more exquisite dark blue sea than the one we saw 
along the coast of Dorset; we had no cause to regret that 
we were gazing on an English Bay instead of on the 
waters of the Bay of Naples. The sight of the sea was so 
tempting that we were compelled to seek the nearest 
contact with it, which we did near the little village of St. 
Gabriel's. A short walk brought us to the beach where we 
spent a pleasant few minutes, charmed with the sea and 
amused by the quaint tales of an old coast-guard. This old 
fellow who evidently knew the best places from which to 
command a good view led us to the top of a hill known as 
"golden cap" — so called from the yellow gorse which 
covers the summit. 

This is a towering cliff, the most prominent feature 
for miles round. Gaining the top by a most break-neck- 
path we found ourselves commanding a magnificent view 
from Portland in the east to Beer Head in the west. 

Returning from "golden cap "we made towards the 
village of Charmouth. The Char, a clear little streamlet 
dances along its bed to the sea at the foot of the hill on 
which Charmouth is built. Charmouth is more than half 
a mile from the shore which is not visible from it, as some 
bigb grounds intercept the view ; thos the inhabitants are 

itizecy Google 

( « ) 

close to the sea, but not on it Its murmur is in their ears, 
and the breeses fan their cheeks. Crossing three or four 
meadows we are on the beach, where there is the finest 
bathing — the beach being mostly sand. 

The village or rather we should say town of Char- 
mouth — for while in conversation with a man on the beach 
we were told that Charmouth had been a village "but 
Lor Zur" said he " now it be a perfic Tirkt " (Torquay) — 
seemed to take our fancy more than any other place we 
had yet seen. 

The main street extends to the top of the hill while 
the villas are dotted about on the neighbouring slopes, 
altogether presenting a charming view. Charmouth is an 
ancient place and still preserves the memory of two 
battles between the Danes and Saxons. In the first the 
Saxons were commanded by Egbert, in the second by 
Ethelwolf. In both battles the Danes were victorious. At 
Charmouth, too, when Charles II was seeking means of escape 
to France after the battle of Worcester, occured an incident 
which nearly led to his capture. It had been concerted 
with the captain of a merchantman that a boat should be 
sent, at a particular hour of the night, to the beach at 
Charmouth. Charles rode hither under the guidance of 
Lord Wilmot and Col. Wyndham, and rested at the little 
inn to await the appointed time. The vessel, however, 
from unforeseen circumstances, was unable to kave the 
harbour, and the fugitive was obliged to give up the 
enterprise and to pass the night in the village. Next 
morning it was found that his horse had cast a shoe, 
whereupon the viiU^e blacksmith was sent for, who being 
a curious fellow, became suspicious on observing that the 
old shoes were put on in a manner peculiar to the North 
of England. The hostler who was a republican soldier, 

DigmzecDy Google 

( 9 ) 

carried Uiis information to the Puritan Minister, from 
the Minister it went to the Magistrate and from the Magis- 
trate to the Captain of a troop of horse, who soon galloped 
with his men in pursuit. Fortunately for the King they 
took the wrong road and he escaped. The " King's bed- 
room " in a part of the old inn now inhabited as a cottage 
is pointed out to the visitor. * 

Reluctant as we were to leave Charmouth we set off for 
Lyme Regis; our way was up a steep ascent until we 
gained the crest of the hill commonly called the " Devil's 
bellows," and then down a long winding descent into Lyme ; 
this was a pleasant walk, though rather fatiguing on account 
of the loose stones that cover the road. We were rather 
disappointed with Lyme, after hearing so much in its favour 
as a sea-side place, it has a dull appearance, as though the 
inhabitants had been asleep for years past, and had quite 
given up contesting with Other watering places. 

As a port it has a history attached to it. It furnished 
ships to Edward III during the siege of Calais, and in the 
reigns of Henry IV and V it was twice plundered and burnt 
by the French ; in the reign of Richard II it was nearly 
swept from the earth by a violent gale. During the 
Rebellion it withstood a siege which was one of the most 
important of the time. In 1644 Prince Maurice invested 
it, establishing his head quarters at ' Old Colways ' and 
" Hay House " and his troops along the neighbouring hills. 
Day after day the assault continued, more than once by 
storming parties ; but the gallant Governor, Coi, Ceeley, 
assisted by Blake, most courageously repulsed every attack, 
and after a siege of nearly seven weeks was relieved by the 
Earl of Essex. In 1685 the town was again enlivened 
with arms when the Duke of Munmouth landed here, with 
■ "Uamy'^Hudbook." 

DigmzecDy Google 

( ■» ) 

about eighty Companions, after running the gauntlet 
through a storm and a fleet of English cruisers in his passage 
from Amsterdam. He remained here a few days, and 
having collected enough troops, be set forward on his 
disastrous expedition, f 

In spite of all these historical facts connected with Lyme, 
there was nothing to keep us there long. Our next point 
was to visit the celebrated landslip on our way to Seaton. 
The landslip is ahoiit 4 miles out of Lyme and our way lay 
through some fields from which we had a beautiful view- 
arriving at a Farm house we obtained tickets, sixpence each, 
to view the scene. Crossing a few more fields wf came to the 
edge of a precipice whence we saw, at a depth of about 
^00 feet ; the whole of the land, — some 40 acres — which had 
slipped away from the height on which we now stood, and 
been deposited on a lower level. This landslip happened on 
Christmas Eve, 1839. A coast guardsman going his nightly 
rounds suddenly found that some fields, an orchard, and 
cottages were missing — but where they had gone he could 
not tell^however he waited till the next morning, when 
coming to the edge of a precipice he could see the fields, 
the orchard and cottages down below, at a depth of nearly 
300 feet the whole appeared one mass of confusion and 
ruin ; and yet upon some of the fields the crops were 
growing as they had been, and trees in the orchard were 
standing upright — to this day they bring forth fruit. Dame 
Nature has covered the whole with her green rc^, and it 
now forms a miniature mountain region. Nothing can be 
more various than the shape which the subsided 40 acres 
have assumed. The wildness and variety of the grandest 
mountain districts are here on a diminutive scale. 

t 3m " Marny " aUo ■■ figberta' MoMnooUt.' 

Digitizecy Google 

( '< ) 

After watching the thousands of rabbits playing about 
and having taken a few sketches we wended our way through 
green lanes and over a hill down to the Axe. Crossing the 
Axe we at once came on the beach in front of Seatoit. Seaton 
is a small place, but has a good beach and an inn where 
one can procure a good supper and comfortable bed. The 
town is built in streets at right angles to the sea instead of 
lengthways to it. There is no opon view as it is shut in on 
one side by Beer Head and on the other by Axmoutb Head. 
The land scenery might be called fair. From Seaton we 
posted on towards Sydmootb. There being no path aloag 
the cliffs, we were obliged to take the turnpike road, about 
10 miles, leading quite away from the sea. On reaching 
Salcombe Hill we had a view of the whole vale of Sydmouth— 
indeed a charming vale — Iwunded by two ranges of hitts 
facing each other east and west, and covered with green 
woods. These hilts give spirit and grandeur to tbe land- 
scape. The town tx>asts of a noble cricket ground and a 
public i^omenade called the " Port Field "in front of the 
sea : it is also well known for its good biithtng andcontfort- 
able lodging houses. Sydmouth is decidedly the Queen of 
Wateringptaces on this coast, and it was here that we 
ended our short but pleasant outing of sevett days. — ^W. 

^.y Google 

{ 12 ) 


Dab-bat^ BOBDiM BELOCniH Vumrim iJi Az bIob-i-SassI. 

Knrb^n tnnp; knsio, 
Hajimal p& be bosh Funnon n&n 

8habr Bbautboron db&«. 
Gbund Baloch bo-tBrs jo kyfigkur 

Y£r wichhor lij^. 
(I^ashim) rownn te knrl&traDW&la 

Phet Sassi din ae. 

Kb^liir karan kabfib Saasi ds 

Mar jad&i k&nf ; 
Ad bane jisnfin so j&ne, 

Kf gal kare zabdnl ? 
Gazri rdt, hoy& din roshan, 

An chsrhi cbicbliinl 
(I^XsHiM) sura j 6kb Dabfii eh roshan I 

Hai ohikbi (ismtuii. 

Nain ngbfir Sassf jad wekhe 

iiig gai sadh &i ; 
W^hid j^n pai, oh nablQ 

m\ autl jis^, 
N£ oh ^i,h, na litb^n-w&le, 

N£ oh j^m (Qr^hi. 
^isBlu! tof sangir Sassf na 

@&k lai sir p&e. 

Jis din Hot Sassf chhai} (ntyi, 

Akb wekh&n din kihd ? 
Doza^ sg na eajyi hosf 

Tappy£ QB din jih& ! 
Dil d& kbun, akhin pbnt fEyi^ 

Z^lim 'ishq awini, 
I^XsHiH ! m&r-rulio galif £q : 

Ban 'ishq di ihit I 

itizecy Google 

( '3 ) 

Tor snn^r Sags! nth imji, 

Kbol tatan gbarharon ; 
Cbarhv^ an knrodh Sftsei iilin, 

Chnnd cbbut& parw&ron, 
Danff s&th Pnnngg di tnkdi, 

" Tej^ hijar de mfirdii. 
QashIhI sobaii mul^&l jad^Al 

Sak^t bai^ talw^ron. 

Pboban m^Qon Da;{^t kardf, 
" X dhiy£ pan riUiin I" 

Dboban nit knmtni karke 
Ohbor rM tad r^fn : 

Bhaj bbaj pher nssl wal dsDfig ; 
Lfij aje tndh n^hin ? " 

^XsHiH I " wekh dnkbks wo] pdke 

Ghnnd Belocb bal£ei}. 
Tof jaw&b mil ndn ditU, 

Knr dakb wain annfie ; 
"Mast be-bosb Fncnlig wich mal^mal 

" P&e Beloch aidb^. 
"Je knjb bosh bnndi Bfa^2£d6 

9&Hni 1 " lekb likby& gal p£y&. 

Cbbof mer£ lap in£e." 
" Ob mar j&e nnhin je tndb wal, 

*' Mast be-bosb na rnbsf mfite 

" Ant 8ain^ sndb laisi. 
" Ape wekh libin wnl teri 

" Jig lai mnrwesi. " 
I^XSHIH I bjjh dowen tan mUy&n 

"Chitlagi tankaisJ?" 

" ULii, salE^t zanjir Be1oeh&nw£1« 

" Qot Pnnnfin nun p&e; 
" Ead oh mnran pachb&b&n denda 

"Ai4 kudharml &e? 
"Sb&la raban kljarab hameshe, 

"Dnkhije &n dakbie I " 
^isBltt I " kedku b&t Sasai ndn 

" Je Rabb yar tuil&e. 

itizecy Google 

( H ) 

H£giv liiibe phir sBDijh Saul tx^a 

" Ear knjh hoab t'k^e. 
" Zori kiiran lunl^ badesag, 

'' J^nan b&l ay^e." 
B&jb payir fidie ns bunda 

Adam kb^b say^ne, 
^isHiH I samjb wichar Belocbig 

.Klsirdos beg^e? 

" HtU, je dil kbwibah na hut 

" Os mere dil-bar df, 
''Dil-bar be>parw&h hamesha 

" Kujb parw&h na dhardf. 
*' Webb pata^g, ehikor wiohiira 

" Maft Boami je) mardi, 
^ASHiM 1 mof rabe, nahfi) moT it 

Obar da log aliabar de ? 

H£f pher Sossf t)£g ikhe, 

" X. tax, "^ diw£nf t 
" Kis din j& Belo«h&Q milaf^ ? 

" PaMn turan be|tine. 
" Sdli B^r age tbal m&rii ; 

" Tan inareg bin p^f ," 
^isHiwI " j&i mubil akele, 

" Wi(^ jaagal biyi-bfiai ?" 

" Mars^ ; m-&\ i» mnrs&Q tihoq 

" 3&a tale par dbars^o, 
** Jab ink j&n rabe wich tan de 

" HarnoQ m£l nn tJ^rsiQ. 
" Ja Babb itdk Saasf di sand 

*' J&e pall& na pbafs^Q," 
|j[jCsBnf 1 " nabin Btaab&i&n hok« 

" Tbal m&r6 wioh ntarattQ." 

Fhaf-yi riEb, boi pardesnn 

Tnt g"^ 4w potaogog ; 
Sasaf ob na dbardi 6iA 

Pair bat^^D palaogoQ. 
DU ton kbauf at<u- aidbii 

WfitoQ aher palanKoi}, 
QIsHiK ! je dil ch&be kbnl£f{ 

Bos! qaid Faranggg. 

itizecy Google 

( 15 ) 

Ear asb&b chaU ehnli-zidl 
P&of kb^D, kbui&lt lEulpj& 

Gb&ynl BhamR qninnr d& : 
Gal wicb «&], M\lq wicb snryif 

Sfirnj chamak qnhar di. 
QiBHiH ! wekh nbw^ kaleji 


ChamVI fin dopahrfg wele 

Qarnif gnnn bahare ; 
Tap dl -win wafii aein&noQ 

Piinolilif m&T utfire ; 
Atish da daryd khiloti 

Tbal in^rd wich ni^re, 
l^isBTU pher piohfaig ni nuifdf ; 

L6q IAq Hot pnkire. 

K&nik pair i^Ub SaBif ds 

HabndE nil sinji&re, 
Bila ret tap! wicb Uiid de 

JiwPQ jog bbnnan bbotyfire. 
Siimj bbaj wn^yfl wich biidti 

Pnrda lielik nn mfire. 
^isHiH wekli rnqin Bassi di 

^idqon mfil aa hire. 

Bil wicb tapasb, tbaUg df gartnf, 

Xa fir&q ranjini, 
Eacbrak nnic, kamo diUbirij&D 

J&n lahin wicb piai. 
Pbir phir ^adh kare ha^ dil i& 

Par jad balmt dab&nl, 
]Q[i<iiiiK I yid Bbatnbor piy& na : 

Tut Rayi min nam^De. 

" Je j^nig cbbad j4n Saaaf d^q 

" Ik pal, ikb n& jhamkiti, 
" Zarri boke wicb tbalag da 

*' W^Qg JBwAhir chamktiQ." 
Jal w&njttin ral den dikbAi 

liiHt mki^ djig chbamk^g, 
QXbbih kaan ShsbI bin wekbe 

Aia 'iabq dijig dunqig. 

Digitizecy Google 

( -6 ) 

Thftl mirfi tap Dozakh hoyi 

Xtitb soz hijftr di, 
Uafan muhal, waleknn ankhi 

$drat Kecb shahar d(. 
Jab tak aknt niris ni hi'snn 

Dil wich t^nz Mi^nr til, 
0A3H1H ! sakht Beloch kamfn* 

Be-iti(&(' be-dardf I 

Knjh hahndi, kajh 4^%6i thaindi 

Uthdi tfl dam laindf, 
J^finkar \v% shnrabon awe 

Pher nte wal dhaindl. 
Pban^e khoj Fbutar da pbirke 

Eitwal bbal n& ptimdl, 
l^iSHtH I jafpit na kvlink>ir given 

Pit sap^ran jinliert di ? 

Qodnt n£ Snsst bath &yi, 

Pbirdyin khoj shntar d&, 
Jan pivi na khoj sbutar da 

Y& oh nar nniiar d& knbi^e 

D&rti dard jijijtir d&, 
'^.iaBTK ] paik Sassi bath &y& 

Q^d Kecb shahar da. 

^irke wekfa rabi hor ddji 

Khoj na nazre &we ; 
D&rfi dard ji^ar da karka 

Khoj pal kaflawe. 
Pber bhali na aakdf mdle 

Hnt eh bbf jbal jawe, 
QXaBiK I pher wia&h na kardf 

Wing Pannfin cbbal jawe. 

Ua jangal wicb cbbard&I 
Ainchal clihor nishinl kiirke 

Phai^IIrili ndbarda; 
(>itbi oh Saspt ne duron 

Thai mird wich phirdi, 
pianist I kuk kare phir us nun 

" Parja, dae dit gbar da 1 " 

mzecDy Google 

( "7 ) 

^drat wehh aySH ^nryi 

iffat m&r na jawe, 
^ilHtn rtip zaninf gdrat 

Thai m&T^ kad £we ? 
Jyun jydn sunl &w^ Saasi tl{ 

Ghhip obhip j&a bscli&we, 
^jEshih jin howaa dio olte 

Sabh knjh olt^ boj&we. 

S&k pnk^r, nir^ SassI Iio 

Khoj banp mnr daufe, 
Dil nfi^i B&rj UialiQ dj gariul 

Rtil; ranj&nt hanre. 
Ficbbttdnchalishali-z^di . 

Jin Iaj;l pbir kaarl, 
Qashih I kaua faiak par pahngohe 

J& charhB dbar pauff. 

ManzaKg lakb jaUa kar pabnQcba 
Eboj bane hatb dharke : 

^igdivfig hofy£n, kitiyinibeQ 
Yad Belocb^n karke. 

" Sbila rahan qj&mnt Uitrj 

^l£sH[U I " maran kamot badesf 
'' LuD wiggdQ kbar-kbarke I " 

Ol^k WBqt qabr divio k&kis 

Sun patthar (jhal jae, 
" Jis 4acbl merd Potin^n kbafv^ 

" Sbila, ob Dam^ wal j&e I 
" Ya UB nibon Inge wicli birbon 

" WSnjj Saasi Jul jiwe ! " 
QXSHIH ! " mBut pawe karw^D^Q 

" Xukbam zaoiinog j6we I " 

Pbir mnx samjh kare lakb fol>Jt 

" MaithoQ bnhut be-adbl hof ; 
" Jig par j&r knre asw&ii 

" Tis de jetj d& koE. 
*' Enjb inaig waQg nakarmnn nalilQ^ 

" Eitvral mile na ^boi," 
^ashih! " kauntciila buQ jian&n 

" Jaa saLdgun sol." 

itizecy Google 

( IS ) 

Bir dhar klioj banf ghash &yi 

Maat Saeei d£ 6i ! 
" Q^Dsh raho, j4r asin tndh kfiraa 

Thai wich jan gawjii." 
X)igdijftii sAr ^ay£ dam nikkal 

Tan tbin j^d sidbil, 
^isBiH kaho lakh lakh shnkr&aQ 

'Ishq naloQ rdh 6,L 

Ear tajwlz ayili dil wich 

Eare wich^r i« gal dl, 
" Mat eh nar rabe mar py&d 

" B&b badalon cbaldl. 
" Kyi asr^r ? kvi wekheweg ? 

" Pher nahin mnr hildS, 
^^SHix 1 " chal wekb&n I kl ^arni^ ? 

" Howao-h&r na taldl." 

Aijar cbbod Sass! wal (aryi 

Pardi r&h pakardi ; 
^lirat wekh abwil SaasI d& 

Charbya joah qnbar di. 
Dil ton sbanq gay& ti(b 8ar4, 

JA&l, 'aorat, put, ghard&. 
^iSHiM I j&n dilon jag fau{ d£ 

Yib faqlri phafdi. 

Thai wich gor Sassf di karke 

Baith^ gor sirhfine. 
Gal kafil, sir pd brahni 

W&ng vatim nam^ne. 
Ik gal i&u M jag fdn! 

Eor kaldin na j^ne, 
^ASBTU I khi; fnqfrE eh& 

Pur koi wirld jane. 

V^ji bhaur Saasi de tan thin, 

Pher Punndn Tral &yA : 
Haemal mnst be-hosh PudqIii} nfin 

flurne &n jagsyi. 
*'Le bun, y&r a*&g sang tere, 

" Qanl qirtir nibhiyi " 
QaEBih ! " rahi Sassi wich thai de ; 

" MaiQ riilj ra^^t le iyi." 

itizecy Google 

( "9 ) 

XJghfi n^ed Ponntin nth bait^ii 

Jaldi wich kajawe. 
Na oh ahahr Uhainbor piy£r&, 

Na oh mnljial ^ub&we. 
Acbttnak chamak lagl sli^b-ztide, 

Kujh sir pair na iwe. 
][^ASS1M j&K if jit wele 

Fhir kyU chain wihawe ? 

Qsdam motic gfaare n£n Xaij6f 

Pljer Sassi wal mnrvfi, 
Xnwan pber bh&Me na dende, 

Uth muh&roo pbaryi, 
" Tadh bin bSp nnbind hoyil ; '* 

Kiike "sarvd, saryi" 
^iSHlH mahal Kecham de ntte 

Prem pj'6U pharyi 

Hijron ag Fannfig ndn bbafk! 

Tof jaw&b Ban & we, 
"Jaisi nil aside kill 

" Ffsh toside &we. 
" KainiJi minw ? Pannfin pnt kalndi ? 

"Ni! mdy^n mar jfiwe." 
'^.isBJxt b&jb Sa«si nahlg ddj£ : 

" Ja Babb pber mil&we f " 

Ghagd Beloch k^ay&l na obbadde, 

Wal wal pber khilonde. 
K&le zor wikb^lan apn^, 

Pber gsiis lag ronde. 
** Jad tak j&n, na m6jne des&n," 

Ap Fnnn'dn a&n kabnde. 
QaSBIH 'ishaq b&jh m&hdq&Q 

Qaid kite kad. rabnde, 

Bahnt Idch&r hoy£ ab&h-z£d& 

Eliicbche paka^ katirl, 
Jisde chamak lag! jind j^we, 

Qimat be^hnmirf ; 
Chhod inxth&r dttti tad bb%l!n 

jpardiyin jind piyfirl. 
J^iSHlKl kaun phnfe jind-biadg 

Jdn 'ishq wich hiri ? 

itizecy Google 

( 20 ) 

Sntti Hai tnahdr, " Sasfl wal 

" Chal bh«, dnkh jiwe ; 
" Milsati maig akwir Sassf ndn 

*' Je EUbb & pucbiwe." 
Jhab sut pbei Sassi mil knrh&g, 

Waqt eho man bb&L 
l^ASHiM ! " d&dh malfdi desiij. 

" Karsftc tabl aiwil." 

Bh&bash oa ahDtnr d& (iru^f 

Tez tnro tat tfron. 
Pabnt& &a Sasaf di gore, 

'Aqal shntar wazfron. 
TAzf por di(M ahab-zido" 

Puchhy^ 06 faqiron. 
9^SBiH I " kaun, baxurg, 8Bin&j'&? 

" Wfiqif kar is pIroQ !'* 

^kbi OS faqlr Pnanfin a^g, 

Kbol $HqJqat a&A ; 
" JkbE n^l pari di ;firat 

*' Ganiii mfir nt4rl ; 
'* Jnpdi ndm Pnnnfin di (iii, 

" Dard 'ishq dS raM." 
I^asBIH I " n&in mak&ii na j^&g, 

" Abf kaoD wic^^ri; " 

Qal snn Hot zamft; te dig& j 

Kb^ kalfija k&nt 
Ehal gaj gor, pyi wich qabre. 

Pb«r mil! d'il-jdni. 
Khfitir 'ishq gii ml mittbl, 

$ural ^uaan jan&ni. 
:^ASBIH I 'iabq bain^l Sassi <\& 

Jag wich rabe kahfUii ! 


( Concluded. ) 

mzecDy Google 

( 21 ) 




Sfistr de kalii^e nsm&r Hind Ticbch Btth pu-k^r dfin 
jit^ awflUifiT has, nnhfa) viclioh oh&r, (arUifit) Brihma^, 
Cblwttrf, Vkis, S6dar. lb Bam? kab&agdf&n. At ebir, 
(aiihtt) Oiriat, Bramob&r, Binprast, Sanoifa. Ih isram 
kafa&QQde ban. Infaig atthiiQ de Tichchon hor jo ka! park&r 
df&Q jAUiQ aite bbekh bai;; gae, so Panj^b dee vikbe babot 
ban. Hni} BrAhtBB? d& ain^ bi&a hai, kiis n&g Brabm&di 
aalid Akhdo ban. Sabh Brtlbman dai park£r de bandQ ban. 
'CDb&g viobohoQ S&not, Kanknbaj, Ganr, Utkal, Maitbal. 
Eb panj i£ Fanohganr kabftonde. Ar Dr&b«r, lUlang, 
Uab&riatar, Goijar, KarnAfak. Eb pandi Di&bar kaUnsda 
ban. Inb&Q dasJQ vicbchon la Panj^b des vikbe Sirsnt 
Br^ma? babnt baade ban. Bh&wen S&rsnt Br&bina^ 
9M» ikko ban, par jnds joda got bo^e de sababb ikpaa 
f ichohi s&k-nite nabfg karde. Siri^o got^Q di likb^A ti 
ittbe babnt kafbai^ bai, par ikk do gtll&a dk likhni jar^ri hoi, 
kingki je ob n& likfa&n, tig bidb nr tnangane dl tU inaMin 
Dablo bonegi. Bribma^dg Tichcfaog kal lok, jo B&bii 
sadiagde ban, ao b&rin gfaaHig vicboh bi bi&h karde kar&ugd« 
-ban, «r jo Boj^hf knbfUinde ban, so babinji ghar£n (arUiiit 
jrot&Q) viohcdi knftAn d£ de^ lai? karde ban. Is de b^ar 
anh&B d4 Ui^ de^ nafafg bai. B&hri^Q de b^&n got ar 
BdjibUo de babinja got ittbe likbne te viflUir hot*eg& 
Far ikk tartEg de Sirsnt Br&hnun;!, jo A^bwana kab&nndo 
baa, nnbig de attbo got eh ban. Joei, Knral, Sand, F^k, 
Bb&rdiUjf, 8aii, Zibi^L Eb aRbo got Apas TidieM kn|i^ 
diode kigde bu. Hor kisa vH bnb£r nabfn rakkhde. Jost 
do taiio de bnnde ban. Ikk Mar^r. dfije MnUmme is prakfe 
«h sabh Athwana Badjni}de ban. Hornig Br&hmag&g H . 
kaf m&I koras n6S, atkwi paroLat jigdi bai, par inhJ^ de tik 

Digitizecy Google 

( 2' ) 

n&te jo tlutHre got hooe do sababb Panj^b de sabbo^n Athnn- 
s^Q D6n j&^de ban, ^pas vicbobi kbabars£r bhej ke lif 
karm^f kar laipde hao. Panj&b vichoh kQ)*")^ di ih rit bai. 
Jo db(-w£l<i ipna n6i de batth satt obbnire ar ikk rnpaiy^ 
deke innii<}&-w&le de gbar bbejdi hai. 3&n nii pntatte ghar 
pabngobe, t^ gbar-n&le ftp^e bdbe di&n dobdn mnkkhig por 
tel oboke, nii iifig andar lai jf^ide bao, ss di kb&tar-d&rl te 
picbohbog naggar da panob ar bb&i-ch&re de lok kaffhs 
boke ghar de pfidbe te ife d& chan^k par&nnde baa. 
3&Q p&lbe Ved di rft aDnsfir b^lak te cbangk di pfij& kar& 
chakkdi bai, t&n n^ oh cbbn&re ate rnpaiji mtm^e di 
jholi p^ke mattbe tiki \& dindi bai, ar mnkb te ih baohan 
muDi}e de pid niin &klid& bai, ki vadbiilin mah&rtij. Fher 
mon^e d& pit! ^p^i sardhi anos&r Br^man^ ate niSin D^g 
mpaiye paise, ate bh^-cbiire ndg sakkar van^dfi bv. Pber 
aabb lok mna^e de pid nin vadbiifig deke &pe &p^ ghari^ 
ndn ohale j&nde ban. la rit da n^nn Sagan 4kbde ban. Pber 
j^ bi&h d& diD iie;^ innd^ bai, t^n dbibatte iok nii de hattt 
ikk cbittb! bbejke patattiig nun khabar dinde ban. Us 
ohittbi d£ o&ng S&he-cbitthi dicbde, ar nsl tar&n bbif-diarA 
ar paDch katffae boke nb cbitthi munde de palie pingde ban. 
Us cbittbt te hi maldm bo i&nd& hai, ki dbibatte nng janet 
vicbob kitnian ga4di^Q or kitae mannkh saddearkiadindi 
hiSb hai. J&Q Batt din biib viohdi rahi^, t^ mon^e kn^i de 
m&td piti man4e kn^i ndg vaXa&, ki jis ndn m&iiig bi ikhde ban, 
Uugde hBQ. Pber jdn mon^K apge s&barilin de gbar paboD- 
cho, i&n OS ntig babut swidar bhdkbai^ Tastar pahinike air pnr 
oUud! sone i& mnkat ar matthe pnr tille i& sebri baobde baa. 
Phor jo TeU biih dd Ved di rit annsdr PaniJaKg nai tbahr«i£ 
howe, na Tichcb agg bdike ar p6j([ karke man^e knyi ndg 
■gU de girdo cbir biri ghnminnde ban. Inhin ghamet^iIiB 
i& n^QQ Lok Lim&Q karke Akhda ban. Jin kanni£ nfig agg 
de glide pher Iain, lAgnsnfig pber dfiji b&r koi nahig biOi 
nkkdi. Phet ddje din dbihatts lok janetl^i) afig boUh* 

itizecy Google 

( 23 ) 

bMot bh^Qt a mithiil khnlSogde ar git ginpde han. la 
din di miim&nf d& D&uo Mitha-bhatt, ate jo is te dttje dio 
bondi hai, xu ii nitiQ Ehatt^l>^"tt dkhde ban. Jo JVtbwans 
lok pichchhe likhe bc, bor t& sahh k4raj biib vichch tinhiQ 
de bornaD BtiUimav&o de bariibar L[ Imnde ban, par Mifbe- 
bhatfl dfl din oh lok mi(hi£f oabfQ kbnl&ande, niri bb&gt 
bbfiQt d& m«wi ohfUlar par parol de ate dnddh de katora 
pal&OQde ban. Fber &pi}i sardh& anns&r kappe, bh&iide ate 
rupaif e pntatU&g nfin deke cbauthe din jaaet ndn -riiiA karde 
baa, Ib prak&r bi&b te do tin s&l piohcbbog pher jo mnnda 
ApijI babot^ ntig Ui^e lai sab&rian de gbar jigdi hai. la 
rit d4 n&as MaklawA hai. MtikUne viohcb bi as! tar^o 
F&dhe n^o bal&ke chaugk par£ane nte kofl d6q tome de vele 
■ardhi annsir bb&nde, kapf-e ropaiye dei^e di dastdr bu. 
Bitii Uukliwe viohcb jo kapT«, bhinde pntatti^g ntiu ditta 
jttnde ban. Us <1£ n&ag Khat &khde ban. J6n dhi-wil& 
pahil&i kise de gbar knfm&t bhejd^ bai, tin pabil&ij mande 
ii^ ch&r galUn pacbbttund^ hai. Je nnhin cbanbtin vichchog 
koi m&rf howe, i&n karmii noHn kard& Ob ch&t gall£g eb 
ban. Unnde dfi got, ar mande piti de n&aki&n d& got at« 
mnn^B de n&nkifln di got, ar innn4e di mi de niDkif^) d& 
got. Jo inbig chaohiig galUn vicbob khof howe, athw& 
knf i de got n&l inhin viohcbon koi got mil j^we, t&Q s&k 
nahiQ bo sakdi. Afhwana Br&hman jo bahnt thobfe hi got 
han, oh maa4e kapf d& knohb got mil j&ge te bi s^k kar 
laigdfl ban. 

Fher j£n koi b£lek jamme, t&Q piti nsi din Pan^at ndn 
-pnchohbkejanam-patri likhjiand^ bai. Br&bmag lok janam 
te laike gi£rdn dm tak £p nfin Sfitaki mande ban. Sfitak 
apavitrt^ d& n£ug hai, jia de ghar Sdtak hiind£ hai, gi&r&a 
din tak koi ns de n&\ kb£i^ p^? nabig kardfi. Pber chalf 
din piobchboi; timi aendg kardi ar bb£i-cb&re de lok F£dha 
n6i) bolake mnn4e d£ aatin rakkh&nnde ban. Is rit d& uing 

Digitizecy Google 

( H ) 
Namkaran karks masilidr bai. Plier psnj baras, k«f tioB 
bans, UIq raniufe dflur de bdl nahtc maaiagd^ J&g Ta4i<ift 
H thahr&i^ boii dia Awe, tig kise tfratb, atbn& Ja&\i Mukbi 
varge cbhetr pur jika bal ntirde, ar ia rft d£ ii&ag Bbadda^ 
ikhde ban. Pher jdg bilak attliBQ baras&o d& bonre, tig us da 
air maanke ar Sastr rit anus^ Bmbmcb&rf d& soag bnUk« 
Qutd (e janell pUfLagde baa. 

Fber j£q ko{ Br&htnag mar j&we, Uq ua ds pntt pota 
Tatji Buadar £pn{ sardbi anasir bimitji ba^ike ar tnnrde Dd|i 
appar pike dasjile, athwi kol bor resinf knpfe baij^uQdo bao. 
Ar bbftwEQ sir tig siri katamb muningdi bai, par Ta4i patr 
sir manike Sistr rft anusir karam kirii karin^e lai kosi 
(ttrtbit dibbb) do paviire jo Ted Ht annsir ba^ie jigde ban, 
hattliin vicbcb pabinke Unn idml bor ip^e nil laike mords 
ndg cbakkdi bai. Bor gbar de lok murde nppar pbull, 
patise ate paise rapaiye lufiunde ar "Srf Rim nim salt bai," ih 
baclian bolde boe cbikbi dl jagi tak chale jinde ban, Cbikbi 
t« ure ikk jagi murde Din rakkbke pin^dig diode ar cbaroQ 
pise murde de piijl dl dbir cbba4dke ikk bbiD4i bbannd* 
ban. Pher jig cbikbi pur pabngcke, tin kof dnsiliig samet 
ar ko! ntirke murde nig cbikbi vicboh rakkh dinde ban, 
Fber ohanthe din us de Ast (artbat ba44^^D) obngk* 
Gnngi jl nig bbej dinde ban. Us same giirig din 
jo Brihma^ Yed rIt annsir karam kirii karingdi ate d^ 
Uigdi bai, ns nin Acbiraj Bribnie^ ikbde ban. Is Acbiraj 
de nil ko{ khii; pig ar sik niti nahln kardi. Eb sabh lok 
ipi^ijadi jat rakkbde ban. Jis de ghar mnrdi ntare oh 
giarig din ip ndn pitak[, (arthit apavitr) manndi ar bor lok 
tjs de nil kbi^ pii; nabig karde. Giiraweg din bahat air* 
bbinija, kap^e rnpaiye Acbiraj nig deke kirii kariogde at 
pher jin mnrdi mare ndn cbir' bams ho jig, tig bar sil u< 
de ninn di sridb karde ban. Biilimagig nig bbigt bbigt 
de bbojan cbbakiaQde ban. 

mzecDy Google 

( 'S ) 

ChhaUridii dd virtaiit aiu^ hai .— 
BSatx vikbe joJChhattrf likbe ban, so Khatrf \okin dihi 
nian faai. S&tr viclioh Chhattrl, cbhsttar-db^ri (artb&t rajf) 
nan ikhdo liaa, so aiT& jagatjo t&j& naMn ho sakij&is sabiibb 
oil lok bah&r bapir jo anal vicboh Yuia (artbit Baijiye) <)& 
kaiQin »6., ip^e Dpjiwak£ w&ste knran lagj; pae. Fanj&b dea 
vichcli aukbdla boipe de sababb Chfaattrl nun bi Kbatrf ikhaiji 
l^SE S<^ ban. Unb^n KbatriaQ df jn jiLimna^, marno ata 
ka^mal, bhaddai^ &dak ate bUb df^Q riUn rasam&n bor t4 
sabh Br&hmantln he bar^bttr hi ban, par itnfi bhet bai, ki ih 
s&tak p&kak terig din mannde ban. Inb^Q vichcb bi bihart 
ar bnjafal lok bnnde ar ^pas Ticbcbi eik aito karde ban. 
Jikknr Brafaninn&Q Ticbcbi s^k n&te karde ban. Jikkar 
Bribmaij&Q vicbflb Afbwans ban, usi tarfiQ Kbatrli!^ vicholi 
Pbdiye ban. Oh pbdfan gbai&g vikbe s&k nite karde ar 
ipQe o&DBki&Q df kurf lai luiiie nfiQ M \iat& nabin manu'Je. 

Vais.-— Btlniye nfii} &kbde ban, par bnn S&atr te u\%\i^ jo 
Eiit ar 8od ar Bb£bai-e idak j&t&Q ban, oh M tl[>i?e jina 
TbU h( bane bnithe ban, jo tbik Tichire jin, i&a oh sabh 
BlidrAn violichon ban. Bipiy&i de goi t& kal ban parsabbbo 
do t»T&q di dbnrm rakkhde ban. Ikh Vnisno te dfijA Sariiigf. 
Jo Vaiano Baijiye ban, oh jamman, maran, janed, biih dlAg 
ritSn tSk flabb Kbatrf, Brihrnnpfio Targi&n bi kai-de ban, par 
bUb de mitthe-l>hatt arbor khin khaldap di rit TJcboh knohh 
jnde ban. Siringl Biniye Ved ar Sfi-tr, ar tinbdg de kab© 
hoe derf devatiin ar dliarman karmSg ndn nahin mannde ar 
maran de same jo kiriS karam karne cbibiye ob kochb 
naMo karde. Is£ aababb Vaiano Biijiye piibilin t& nnhAg 
n&l sik nate bi nahin karde ae, par bn^ tbubre cbir te kat 
lok sfik nite karan lagg M pae ban. Jikknr Khatrf lok 
Sirsot Brihmaiji nfio Probat karke mannde ar dan dinde ban, 
tikkar bi eb B&jiye lok Ganr Bribman n6o Prohat karke 
mannde ban. Khatii lok t& bfije Mje mfia madrA bi kbi U 

mzecDy Google 

( 26 ) 

laigde han, par B£niye inb&Q oMj&g da nfiaij laiij nfig U p£p 
jit^de ban. Ikk j&t jo B&nij*^ vichrhoQ Jphfisar karke 
maa^tirhai, bbiweQ karam dharm ti nnhin da bi Bii^iy^ 
dfi baMbar hi bande ban, par Biniye lok auhciQ n^l s&k nits 
nabfn karde. Ih Jpb&sar lak bahat Hindustlo vichch hi 
r&hiade ban, hn^ tak Fanj&b vichcb iab&g da kite ikk ghax 
bl nabin bu. 

Sl}DAB.— N6i, Cbhfmbe, Eat^l, Qham^r, Tarkbii? Oak 
cbhoflfig j&t&n ndn £kbde ban. Inh^g lok^n da jamma^ 
maran, ate biab d& dastdr bar t& aabb picbbli^ tinbig 
Targ& bai, par kb£i^ kbulian ar sdtab p^tak Ticbcb babnt 
bbet bai. Inb^ de sdtak palitk saw& maligna rahindfc ar eb 
lok janed nabin rakkhde. Isi sababb Ebatri Brahman lok 
inb&Q de gbar di rofl kfa&i^f i& ikk ra] rahf , balak piijf eirkhi 
bi nabin pfnde. Bh&wen Ja(t lok bi Siidarin vichchog ban, 
par inh^g de battbon pani sabb Kliatri Brahma^ pi hiijde 
han. Jbinr bf bhiwen Sddar h! bai, par pti^i is de baitb d& 
bf sabb koi pi laindi hai. Jikkar Ebatrf Brahman aaiif lok 
dbi^n d& mall Iaii;i, ar dlii de sahuri&n ndr) milan gilan ar 
karebi kame ndn att bQr£ j&^de ban, Siidar lok tis nfig bnri 
nabin balak naaan^ parga( faoke, inb^n gall&n ndg kar laigde 
ban. Ar jokoi istri kite prapat bo j^we, tin Yed di rit te 
Tiradh oh&Jar sittke bi ipija ghar ba8& lainde ban. Sddarin 
Tiobcbon N^i, Cbhirobe &dak ka! jiitdn ip^&n vad>iQ te bin& 
jo Parmesnr de piire gujra ban, hor kise ndg nahig ptijde. 
Jibika Nai lok Sain bbagat, ar Cbbimbe Bibe IS&m Deo niSi} 
pdjde ar nnb&g te bioi bor kise ndo acbcbbd nabig jiqde. 
Bajpdtt lok bb&vren ba;i Panjib ricbcb Jatt&n wdngd kbetl 
hi karde ban, par eb asal vichcb Sddar nabin, batak (heth 
Cbhatri ban, kiunki iub&n di na!>al Sdraj-wansE Chhatri^ 
Tic^cbon bai,jo Sri Rdtn Gband ji di jdt eadfingde ban. 
Inbin da bnbdr jamma^, maran, biab ddak Yed dE rit anns&r 
hai. Eh lok janeu rakkbde u aandbii g&yatri bi japde ban. 

itizecy Google 

( =7 ) 

^un <Atmha^ Atramo)} da hidn aiuii hat .'— 
1. — Qiruti lok sablinf^} dani&d^rig di D&nn baL Kp^ 
fip^i jit de dburm anosdr jo dani& Tiohoh rahiode han, Ved 
nob&n ndg Oiristli 6khd& hai. 

2. — Brahmcliiri ikk bbekh A& n&aii bai, pabilin t& sabli 
lok b&lakpni^e viohch riddii pa^bne de vete Brahmch&r kab^ 
karde ar pfaer biib karike, girist bbogde se, par bnn Brabm- 
ch&ri mat dl ikk pakbirf tar pni hai. Eb lok sir m&nh mnoi 
ke pakbir ho JAgde ar Janefi Bodi rakkbdo ban. Brahmchiri 
cb&r prak&r de bunde ban. Inh&a sabbn^n de njiiin de ant 
Tichch Nand at« Pargis idak pad iunde ban. Jikknr K&ini- 
nand, Si&minand, Sakhprag6s bai, inh&n de marne piobohhoQ 
sabb kirii karam Yed rit annsir bande ban, tnorde nfig agg 
.Tichcb phlkke samid bani dinde ban, ar Gnrd de marne 
picbcbbon ni& cbeli gaddl pnr baifbdi haL 

3.— B^qparast ikk prak&r di pakblrl d& a&aQ hiu. Eh 
lok gbarw&r cbhad^ke bai> riobchb j&ke tap karde ar kat 
prakiir di bbak dnkkh air par dharde ban. 

4. — Sanniia, eh bi ikk prakir di pakbirf 6& n&ng bai, ki 
jis d& babnt pbailio Suimi Sankr^barsj ate Datt^trei to bai. 
Sanniisf das prak&r de bnnde ban, artbit Bun, Bh^rti, Aran, 
Giri, Puri, Parbat, Sarassuti, TIratb, 8igar, Aaram. Iqb&g 
daaiQ prakirin ndn DasD^m kaike sadd-de ban. 

Eb s£re pad Sanni&sian de n£an de ant viobcb laggde 
han, jihika R&mban, Giip&l Bbirti, SibSrann, Devgiri idak 
nian prosiddb ban. Jo Sanoi^f jis n^ i& bnndi hai soi 
lis de n&nn de agge laggdi bai. Eh lok pabilin t& gabh 
Ved ar Vedfint nfin mannde se, par baij ParambaiiB lokfin te 
bin& bor sabb Sanni^i, jo Gusifn sadannde ban, Bili- 
sondari nime devl de mat nfin mannan lagg pae ban. Is mat, 
ar bSm mArag Tiobcb, ki jis nfiij S4kat dharm bl kabinde hai^ 
knohh babnt pbarak nabio, niri itni hi pbarak hai, ki &4ktak 

Digitizecy Google 

( 28 ) 

log Slttr lit anr^T m&ntr ar slok paftike pfijfl p4th liarde, ftr 
eh df>s bbakhd richcb biiQ&e hoe Barad «t» mactr pafbke devi 
n^Q [>djde ban. Hor ja mis, madr^, mittbii maithnn, miidr& 
eh pnnj man me Saktak vartde han, »of eh yartde ban, kaebh 
[ibarak nabfn. Inb&Q gnsifin de sang karke bor lok bf 
babat is mat vichch 6. gae baa. Is mat di niay E^n^^paath 
karke fikbde ban. Inli&n ftnsiian da ib dasttir bai, ki eh 
janel, bodl aabig rokkbde, ar sr&dh, khiiih, kirii karam, 
giriaili w&ggd kucbh nabig karde. Bndr&obb df m&M ar 
bhagwen kapfn, ar bbablit maliif inb&n dl na m&ni bai. Elh 
murde »6n pbdkde oabln, balak ikk vodle d^nghe to* vichch 
\^iy bbarke murde d^q us ricbob dabb dinde ban, pher db pur 
Bam&]h bai^ake nitt na di pfiji karde rahinde ban. Inb^Q 
vicbcboQ kai t& n&gge, ar kaf gharbirf, ate kai viddijpafhkc 
Furambans bo j&nde ban, par eh sabh do sabh Sani^ 
kab^ugde ban. 

Jikkor Sani&Bf£i} de das ntuo kahe se, tikknr Jogi£n de 
b£r£n pantb ban. Eh sabbe panth Natb karke kab^ande ban. 
Jog m^rag jo Patanjul Sfatr Ticbeh likbi^ bai, ds nfin td hai;t 
kof nabln vartdi, par EfindA-panth jo gns^&n vichch tari& 
Iioii hai, babut karke ban de Jogt ml mat par ohallde ha^. 
Eh lok Bbairon ar E&Il utin bi babat mannde ban. Inh<nd& 
ib daatfir bai, ki kann pij-ke mtmdarin ate gal Tiohcb singnl 
ate ikk nnn A& jnnefi rakkbde ban. Jad kol Jogl mar j^we^ 
t&n gnslii^Q w^ggfi is n^Q bi dabb dinde ban. £h lok SMr 
Yed kucbh naMn parbde, niri Oorakb N&tb de vele de ncb- 
cbare boe sabbdan nln pafh pafb hi khusi bunde ban. Inb^ 
Tiolicbog jo koi kann parake mundar&n pahindi bai, so Dan^f, 
ar jo kana nabiQ par^ondi, so Angbaf kab&und& bat. ]nb6g 
-ndn Gorakh N^th nai jo ia panlh de torne-w&U ai, ^p^e opdes 
n4l biih kariaije ate gbarb&ri bapnete mane k!t& boi& bai, 
nirii nirifltiin de man^it^ ntig chele mnnnke £pni nasi (oide 
ar orak cbele d6q gaddi deks aur jfi^de ban. 

itizecy Google 

( 29 ) 

It mulaik viikejo Uardpi tddk han, nnhas da ami} bUn 
hm : — Jo infain A6, panth, R&m& Nnnd nai, ki jia nUij SAstr 
vichch Rimfk NnJ karke ikLde ban Utnik bai. Ih lok jacefi 
bodt rakkhde ar arUh, kbiib, kirii karatn idak Ted de 
BablmJQ dhann&Q nfii] mannde ban. Jo koi Bar&gi mar jflire, 
tin tu ntifi giristf&Q w&ngd aj^nn vicbcb d&h karde ar pher 
cbant'ie din Aat cbngke Oangft Dfin bbejde ban. Inbin d6 
ib dast^r bai, ki eh Yiann Bhagwdn ar lia de B&m Kisn ^ak 
antirig ntig mannde ar tia te bind boro&n ilerf deTaliig pnr 
titif bi priti oablQ rakkbde ban. Oal Ticlioli Tnlsf df miii, 
\>}i ar ncbchi fikki \kat^ ar saphaid kapp^e rakkbpe ih 
nob&n dib&p&hai. Jad takkoiBarigi DnirkijMe tno^bifit} 
pnr tape hoe aankh obakr d& dig n& du& iwe, tad tak hor 
barigf tis ndn ohaanke Ttcbch naliin varan dinde. £h lok hor 
kise de botth df pakki hof rofi nahin kb^Qde. Ar parhejgirf 
ate SQchcham Tichch ajihe pakke ban, ki kisf de n&i cbhnb^e 
iak ndg b[ bnr& mannde han. £h lokpabilig t& biih nabfQ 
kariunde se, par bni;i babnt gharb&rl ba^de jinde han. lohii} 
de girisli lok bt babat cbele bnnke Yisnn &k dbi&n karde han. 
Barigi lok jo Viana de bhagat ar tia te bini hor kiae stig 
Dahfn mnnnde han, isi karke is panth di n&nn Yaiano-dharin 
pai gii bat. Eh lok mis, madri, idak knbbakkb chf jin te 
ajihl gbig karde ban, ki snpne viobch bf ninn nahin laigde. 

Su^ Udanam dd hal aiu^ hai : — Ki eh lok ip^e tifp 
Kinak-paotb! mannde ar oae df rit nuam pur cbalde ban. 
Bab& Siri Gband jo Gnni Kiaak AS. vaija pntt si, ns nai ih 
panth torii sr picbhle Joglan, Satiiigiin te vakkhrfin riUtQ 
Bnrfi kitiig ban. Bbiweg inbfiQ de dhui^e ti cbir han, par 
aabbe milke Udiai b{ sadfionde ban. Inhin lokig di ih dostdr 
bai, ki jdn girist Ticbcbon nikknl ke sidh bo jinde han, pber 
biib nabin kariugde. Kot inbiQ vichcbon airparkesrakkhdi, 
ar kol bamrUn, ar kiae ntig jarin rakkbi^e dl bin, ate koi air 
mtioh mnnianenlinhE acbchhi janda hai. £)b lok bor jamman, 
nuran, kbiih, aridb ti sabb kncfafa Ved rft anosir karde ban. 

itizecy Google 

( 30 ) 

par janeii, bodf nahfn ntkkbde. EimucU richob nag» boe 
kapp rakkhije, ate mattbe pnr nclicfa& (ikkA 1^^^ ate Granft 
Sahab d& pa)-bn£ inb&Q i& cbihaa hai. Bbiiree morde n&c 
t£ ih ptiak bf dindo ban, par JoglJiQ, SanUafag n&ggu, apar 
samfldh jariir hfa}i diode baa. Bh&vreg pabil&Q ta eh log Pai^ 
mesar df bhngatf viobob h{ lin rafainde ae, par hijt bija bn^ 
dnni&dfiriiQ te bi vadbfk khed patti ar gaddUi} ate 4^^ <ur 
kb^UQ jamin&n de jbagf e m&mle karda rabtnde ban. Albatti 
kisi kisf jaf;^ inb&n Tichohon uttam s&db M bahofe ban, par oh 
4eredfiT nabfg ; Bibangam lok madhdkri mangke gnjr&n torao- 
wile ban. 0d&sl de marne piobcbog bi gaddl va^e cbele nlig 
hattb &iindi hai, bor kol cheM iiwi nabiQ kar aakkdi. Kof koi 
lok inh&n vichcb ajibe kar^e Li ban, ki ip^l indri viohcb chbek 
karke ya4& bb^rf lobe, atbw& pittal da kar& p£ obha44do han, 
bbat asfi) bibhcli&r te baobe rahiye. Eh lok £pas vic^ohfg 
BbAij! eadiagde nrsarereaanjbe Barandi&n ate ntb^b^Q ndg 
bajiUce Farmesar d& bbajan ktratan giogde han, 

N&oak-pantbi&n de, jo kn{ pantb ban, nnbig vichohog 
ikk pantb de lok&g d& n^un Sathr& hai. Eh lok pabil&n t& 
' acbche hnade bonge, par ban i&, jo maniikkb sar^bi kab&bi, 
jdeb&j ate luchobe laogwire, gharin viohcb kbaraoh-pat(he ta 
taog rafainde han, oh giiarb&r cbha^dke Sutfari&g de panth 
Ticbcb }& raldn ban. Is pakbirl de lok bbajan bandagf t& 
kncbb nabfn j&i^de pur oliafas, bhang pfn, ar aib kanie nfig 
va^e enchet ban. Pabil&n jo inb^g di Ta4i kof achohhi 
pakhfr ate eatpnrkh hoi& hai, ns nai pichble p&tsib^Q te ih 
likh& li& B&, ki mwi pikhir jia batt! pnr j&we battl-wilf! as nog 
ikk paia^ najar kare, so eh lok hames baj&r&g vichch 4>n4a 
bajdke bar ek lia(ti te pai»& paisi mangde ar £piie aib pare 
kardo ban. Inhfin de sir ar gal Ticbcb ikk kklt ann di gelt or 
mattbe pnr k^lak d& fikki ar do 4Bn4e hattb vichob hande ban. 
Eh lok Siiatrrft annairjalkeopparsam&dh hag& dinde, ar 
aat chngke Qangi nchcb p(u Aagde biiD. Eb >abh lok Sah 

itizecy Google 

( 3» ) 

Icali&OQi]^, ale &piie ninn de agge S&h pad jarfir jof^e ban, 
jihikn Bawelsih, Oliabelis^h ate Sirnfs&b ar Paui-is&h haL 
Eh lok N&nak d{ b&nl ar devt diuBtattebin&IiorkacbhDabfii 
pafhde, ar jitthe N&nak te Inike das&g Oarlian de aatbin at« 
4ehre luui] ntthe jike bhet pljs jhaf iiande ate darsan karde ban. 
Eb lok bur ek bnrf bbsl! gall ii6q besarmtin w£gg£ pargaf 
Akh de;ie nfin sacbiil ate sapbti j^^de ban. Jo koi inb^ di 
aangat kard&haiofabe-biyif arlnchcbpa^eTicbcb kb^bpakki 
bo jindi bai. Panjlib vicbch ajibi sabir koi nabfn, ki jittbe 
Sothriin A& dwi nah{n. Inbfln dl day6 te sahir&g de tnnD<Je 
babat kharib ho j&nde baa. Inb&n vichch bh&wen Oarfi, 
cbele d& darj& bf bai. par dobin Tioboh adab be-adabf d& kncbh 
khi£l naMg. QajA &pi}e cbele de s&hmirie baitbke kancbH^g 
n&l hassdi at« cbe1& ftppe Omr& de agse baitbke sarfib pfgd4 
hai. Gall kahdt FanjAbt jnbjn vicbob Suthr& acbchbe d& 
n^ni) hai, eh lok as t« nl(e tan man t« bnre bai^e rahinde ban. 
Kbabar naMn piohhie p&ta^h^i; nai I'Dbig d{ ki achhidf dekh 
ke lok&Q par iDh&Q d& karaj tharA dittjt bL Mer{ samajh 
Tichch jeinbin ndn paJs&haUt de^A bat jaire, ar ih mihDnt 
karke jfihorn&Q pakb!r£n w6ngu 6tt^ roti inangke gajar&n 
' toran laeg paio, t£n bhale m&jBJin de mnn^e kad! is pakbiri 
ntin kabtil na karan. 

Is mnUkh Tichcb jo ikk divr£ne s^b rahinde ban, oh U 
Ninak-panthf M sadinnde ban. Iiih&n vichch ko! kol pakhfr 
achch& bnadi ate pRrmesnr di bhajan bi kardi hai. Eh lok 
horn&n Sikkbin wdngd sir pur kes rakkhde ar gat vikhe 
sankh df m6\& dhirde ban. Bahnt karke is panth nfin jntt 
ar cbam&r kabdl karda ban. Inbin de sir par ikk va^i b&j& 
kalyi bnnd&, ar &pas vicbchfn Satt n^m d& savad boltte ban. 
lobig vichch babat lok ' t& biahe hoe, ar kol koE chbafe bf 
bnnde ban. lob&g de sabb bnhir Sikkbin ar UdisUi] vargs 
bnnde ar eh Granth S&Lab ndn manode ban. 

mzecDy Google 

( 32 ) 

Fafl dimah ke a^wdi meg. 
Jii g-hfifi (Ota is knlfrn se Mrigfe hU, BSdahih ne jinii 
«ar M k! jnma'at Id tnraf dekb kar kabi. ki dfmak bA-WajdJ 
b ke, ki Mth ption knchh nahfn rakbti mitfi kylSnkar oth^ 
anr spne badan par mak&n apa& ma^ribdir ban&tC hHi F 
Isk£ a^w&I ham se hny&a karo. 'Ibr&niyon kf jami'at u 
fk shakh; ne kahi, ki is kirn Vo jinn mitt! n(b£ date bain, 
ii w6aie ki as ne un se yib ihsin kiyi tfa&, ki Qiipntt Sulaimt^ 
H 'a;4 kbJi iiy& we gir pa^e, jinnan na j6,a& ki anhog ha 
«af£t p&(, wahdg se bb&ge aar mil^nat wa 'asib se nnkv 
tnak^lofl hfil. D&ishil) ne jinnog ke 'ilimog se pdcbbi, ki 
yih sliakb; jo kahti bai torn bt<f kni^ti is iiit se w£qif fao? 
Sab ne kabft ham kj'^nkar kahon, ki jinn^t mittl aar panf 
us ko n^h^ kar dute haii!,'is ^i^tfi ki ajar jinnonse ns neyibi 
flnl6k kij& ^&,jv ki iBshnkh^ne bajr&n kij'& to ab bM we 
is mi^nat wa masbaqqat men ^trifUir faain, ma^al;! na huf, 
kjdnki Qazrat Snlaiin&n bbt an se Diitt! p^nl ntfaw& kar 
makinfit banw£te the aar kisi taorkt taklff nnko aahln dete 
the. ^nk{m Yi^n&nf ne bltdsb&h se knha ek wajah is ki 
Binjh ko ma'Idm bal Badshflh ne kafai bay^n kar. Us ne 
kali& dtmak ki kjjilqat 'ajib wa g^iirib faai, fabi'at ns ki 
vibiy&t harid, tamani boiiaa men tak}}nlk^n1, aar masim 
hatnesha kbuie rafate haig ; faaw& jo andar jism ke j^tl hai 
kagrat i borlidat se mjanjamid p^ni ho j&tf hai, ^ir badan 
par wahf t»pakt& hai, aar i^nbfu- jo a« ke badan par pafU 
hai mail ho kar jam j£t£ bat, ns ko yih jam' karke badan 
par apne pan^h ke waste mak&n banati hai, ki har ek Afat 
set tnahrdg ralie aar do hogth bhi as ke Dihiyat tez bote h>ig 
ki nn «e pbal patte lakpi kifti hai, aar inf pattbar meg 
snrdk^ karti hai. B^dshlih ne jhingar se kabi, ki dimak 
kirug ki qism se hai aar td klfog ka wakil hai i& batli yih 

mzecDy Google 

( 33 ) 

ihnUin Ydnflnf ky& knliU'hai? Jbfnj^r ne 1ch1i& j-ih Btteh 
Jcaht& )i»i, titagar tamiin wa^roska na baj&n kiy4, kacbh 
hAqi nth gaj&, Bidsb&b ne kah^ tli Dse tamim kar ; ns ne 
JcaU Allah Ta'ilii ne jabki tam&tn ^iw^a^t ko paidi ki;& 
•or har ek ko apof Di'mstoD 't^ Ug, l^ikmat wa 'adl se sab 
Ico bsriLhar takkbi, ba'f OQ ko jifm anr ^l ^aol bsfa aor 
bbiri bak^sh^ nugar naft in ki Dih^yat snlil wa kbar&b 
HjA BQr ba'^Q ko jism ohhoti anr yatf diyi, lekin nafs nu k6 
nib&yat 'Slim wa 'Aqil ki;&, ztytUati idhar ndhar Id bar&bar 
bo gai, chnn^obt hitU ba-woj&d befs jisiB ke itn& salfl 
nnnaft hai, ki ek la^ ki tSbV ho jiUfi hai, kfiodhe pa« 
obarfake jiddar chihe lej&we ; ^q\ ba-w»^ ie ke ki gardan 
nr -jism nibfyat t^l ];awil hai, Biagar alMoaq itai b«i, ki ;^i 
Be mab&r pakaflf nske piohbe cbal& j&ti hai, agar ohobA bU 
oh^e to lu ko tiye pbire, anr bicfaofabd agnrobi jism moQ 
obhot& bai par jia waqt b&tbi ko 4>nk mirti hai to osko UiS 
haiik karUt bai, iai tanih 7ili kir4 jise diuuk kabte baig, 
agai-cbi jism dkq nipat ciUwt& anr kaauor kai, nagar ■Ib&jtti 
qairi nuoafs hu ; g^ra; jitne kife ki jisn n^ obho^ bain 
we sab 'itqil anr hosbj'&r hote hai|. B^shiib ■« pAohbi 
is itt kyS sabab hu ? Ki ba^ jism wfie a^nq aar chhote 
jism ke 'aqil hote baiQ, is me$ k;& t^iknat i llidii hai F £ah&. 
Sib^iq ne jab ki spnf qndrat i k&mita se na'lim kiyfi, kijin 
])aiw&]oo ke jism bafa haie we ranj aar nasbaqqat ke qibil 
baJQ, pas agar on ko fials qawi' '«(A karti, bargiz kisi ke tibi' 
oa hote, aar obhote jism wile agar 'Aqil wa '6,\iin na hote to 
hamesba ranj anr taklffont>Q rabti, itti wJste nnko nafs zaIS 
aor ia ko nafs i '^il 'ati kiy&. BAdsh^ ne kah& neko mnAif- 
fal bay^ kar, ns ne kafa& bar ek q-tn'at meQ khtiU yih liai 
ki 9&ai' ki ^an'at kisi par ma'ldm na ho ki kis (ara^ baniti 
bai ; jis tara]> sbahd kl tnakkU bai^air nijstar anr psrk&r ke 
apne ghar men anwA' wa aqB&n ke z&wiye anr d&ire kaniti 
hai, koohh dary&ft naiiio faot^ ki kyaokar banfiti hai anr yih 
mom anr shabd kab&Q se Uti bui, agar is k& jism bsi-i 

mzecDy Google 

< 34 ) 

liotA to jib ^an'at is kl.s&hir bo j&tf, id tanh rv^m ke kt|B 
ki tinb& bhf Unaft banntl kisl ko ina'lfitn naUn boti, yihf 
^1 dinuk k6 bai ki nako mak&i banioe kf b^t]^^ kachb 
nsbfg fcbiiltf, ytb nnhiQ dary&ft boti bxi, ki kis ! ^ra|^ 
mittf nthiti aar ban^ti bai, Ijakami i falsafi iaka mnitkir bain 
ki waj6d 'Uun ki bag^air baydla ke lunmkiii bai, Allnb 
Ta'&IJi ne sbiihd kf makkbi k{ san'ali ko ii par dalil kiv& bai, 
kjagki wnb bag^air hayfili ke mom ke gbar ban&d aoc 
shahdse q6t apn&jiiiiia' kartf bai ; agar an ko yib gamin 
bai, ki wuh phdl nnr patUi se ns ko jama' karU bai ye bbi 
nsko jama' karke kaohh bao^te kydg nabfg, aar agar pint 
nr bawi be datmty&n n jama' karti bai, agar &p baf&rat 
lakhte baig ns ko dekhte kyfig nabin ki kis (arat^ jamit* kanf 
•ar gbar apn& Imn&li bai ; isi tarab ifallin bAdsbibon ke w&^ta 
ki big^f anr gumr&h baig naki ni'mat ki shnkr naUn karl«, 
obhote jiem ke b^tiwinon ko apoi qadrat wa fan'at par dalfl 
kiyi bai, obanioobi Namrfid ko paslisbe ne qatt kiyi b4< 
woj^d is ke, kisab tuubrit-ul-ory se ohhoti bai, aar Eira'ann 
ne jiB waqt gnmriUii il^tiy&r ki aur Qadrat Ufiaii se blis^ 
ho gayi. Allab Ta'alJi ne faaj malakb ki bbejl, ki nnbog ne 
jikar us ko zer va zabar kiyi ; isi t^rab Atlab Ta'ilk ne 
jab Qadrat Snlaiman ko saltmiat wa nnbdwat bak^bi anr 
tomim jinn wa ins ko nnke tibi' kiyi ak§ar gnmribon ko on 
ke martaba i nnb^wat men shakk bdi, ki anboQ no yib salj^- 
nat makr wa ]}i\6 se babam pafannchii bai, bar-cbnnd ki we 
kabte tbe, k! mnjb ko Allab Ta'ilk ne apne f«^l wa it^s&a sa 
' jib martaba bH^I)sh& bai tja par bbi nnke dil ae jifa ahakk 
nabiQ guya, yabin-tak ki Allab Ta'iU ne ise dimak ko bbejj, 
OS ne £kar I^a^rat SulaimAa ki 'a^i kh£ Hyi, ye to ma^^ib 
mei) gir pare, mngar kial jinn ws ins ko yib tiqat na bni ki 
is par jnrat kar sake, yib qndrat Allah Ta'AlJk kf gnmrib<v 
ke wiste DBfibat bai, ki apne ^tl wa d^al anr dabdabe par 
fakbrkartebairjiJiar-oband ki sab san'afen aarqadimteg ns kf 
dekbte haig, tispar bbi 'ibrat nabfg paka^t^i >n bfUsbion ke 

mzecDy Google 

( 35 ) 
niNibjohamihvadn&klroa w 'ijiz luiQ apn& fa^r kirto 
hug, aar (ndaf ki jis m«Q inotf pai<U boU hai, sab darjil 
jiQwaroo se jism meg cfahotE aar ;«'{ fhai, magar 'ilm anr (Un&l 
meQ sabsedini aarhosby^ bai, qa'r i dat7&meQ apnJl riiq 
wa q&t paid& karkfl rahtl bai, p&tl barasne ke din tab ke 
■ndar w nikal kar piai ke fipar (bairti bat, do k&n is ko 
njh&yat bare bote baig, nn ko khol defi bai, jis waqt tnigb k& 
p6ni iDk« andar jil& bai, fit fanr band kar I«t! hai, ki darjtf 
■bor k& p&ai as meg aa milne piwe, bs'd is ke pbir iarji. kf 
tab rofo cball jiH bai, mnddat tak iu do efpijog ko band 
rakhtf hoi, yah^-tak ki wob p^ni pnl^ta ho kar nHotf ho 
j£t& bai, bbat&aisi 'ihn kief inttio meg k&bpko bai, i^odi 
ne ios&nog ke dJlog men debi anr l^arfr wa abresbam kl 
tnnbabbat babnt dt bai, so wnb in cbhote kSron ke lu'&b so 
bote bain, kbine meg sbabd Eiyiida IbsIk jinte bain, so wnh 
toakkhi h paid^ IioU bai, majlison meo mom kl battiyAn 
msban karte baig wah bhf isi k! banlaalat bai ; bihtar se 
bibtar ink! zin&t ke wast;e moti bai so is cbbote kffe kf 
^ikmat sepaid&bot^bai jis k& main ne abbf ma^kfir kijfi. 
AU&b Ta'llit ns in kifOQ ae aisi nafis chizen is w^j^ paidi kfn 
haig, ki ye <uJmi onko dekh kar ns kt ^an'at wa qodrat ik 
iqr^ kareo ; bii^WDJad is ke, ki sab qndraten wa ^an'aten 
dekhte faaig tia par ^afil bain, gnmrihl aar knfr men anq^ 
f6i' karte haifi, ns kl ni'mat k& abnkr nahig karte, j^rfb 
anr 'ijiz bandoQ par nske jnbr anr salm karte baiQ. Jis 
waqt jbiQgar is kalAm se f^rijj^ hi^. B£dsb4b ne insinoQ 
Be kabi ab kncbb aar bhf tarn ko kahni b&qf bai ? Unbog 
ne kab& abbi babnt fsf flateq bam men biql baig, jis se §ibit 
bot& bai, ki ham m&lik anr je bainire i^ul&m bain. BAdsh&h 
ne ksbi nnbtg bay^n karo ; nn meg se ek idmi ne kabi, ;6ra- 
teg bam^rl w^id baig anr nn k! fdrateg sbakleg mnl^talifj 
is se ma'ldm h&& ki bam mlilik anr ye jj^al^m bain, la 
viatfi ki riytot wa m&likiyat ke viaifi wabdat mnn£eib bai , 
aar kagrst ko 'ab(idtyat se musbababat bai. B^sbah ns 1^- 

itizecy Google 

(36- ) 

winon se 1ca1i4 tun h k& )tyik j»wSb dete ho ? Sab tMti*''>'><'9 

□e ek gbB^i matafakkir lio kar sar jhnki liyi, ba'd ek dam ke 
kaz&r disUn, };&iroR ke wakll ne kabi, yih Uia[ sach kabU hu, 
lekia a{^rohi ^raten ^niwAnon kf makktalif faaig paronf^ 
sab ke mnttal^dd hain, aar ins&ion ki fdrateg go ki wil^id 
bain magar nafaa nn ke jade jnde haig. Bidsb&h ne kabi 
daltl is par ky4 hsi? Eah^, ikhtilif dlD aar ma^b k£ is par 
daUIat karti hai, ky&likim mei} haziroQ hi finje bain, Yab6d' 
wa Nigira Ibqii, Masbrik, E^r, bat-parast, £tisb- paraaV 
ikbtar-paraat, Uke siwi ek dfri men bahnt se tariqe bote baiQi 
jiataralf agle {jtukanii men sab kf rtieg jiidf jadi tbin, chan&n- 
obi TabddiyfHa men S&mri, 'Ab&lf, J&lati; Na^r^nijo^ meg 
Nafttirf, Yiqii'l, Maik^;MajdeiyDgmen Zaridasbd, Zarw&ni, 
Qaraml, Mnzkf, Babrimi, Mtlawi ; Unsalminon men Sbi'a, 
8annf, ^^riji, R&axi, Ka^iM Harj{,Qadrf,Jabmf,MR'taxil^ 
Asb'arf, wet^ira kitne M firqe bote baiQ ki sab ke dia m 
madiab mnl^talif, ekddsre ko k^r jiat&anrla'natkartAbai, 
anr bam sab i^tilif se bari baig, mazbab aor i'ti<)&l bam&ni 
wfl1}id hai, |^ra; sab ^iw^ mnwa^id aor momin faain, 
shirk wa nifaq aar fisq wa fajdr nabin j&nte, as ki qndrat anr 
vabd<uiiyat men afl£ shakk wa sbnbab nabig karte, ^aliq 
wa Raaiq bar-baqq jdnle baig, nei ko rit din yid karte aar 
tasbih wa takMr meg masbgjial rabte haig, magar ye ^mf 
Jundtfi tatbilf se w^if naMg bain. 

itizecy Google 

( 37 ) 


The following is the system of transliteration which we 
have adopted — provisionally — for the Society's publications. 
We by no means wish to check further discussion, but it is 
necessary to adopt some system, provisionally, in order that 
the Society's work may progress, and that those who are 
willing to follow our lead may be able to do so. 






















































V. A'^ 






f (ziJiar or fatba) s 

I (zer or kasm) i 

? (zsmma or peril] d 

T *^ ' « 

-- (Majhfll) « 

J (ma'rfif) I 

^^ (diphthong) al 

J (msjhni ) o 

J (mn'r^F) 6 

> (diphthong) m 

mzecDy Google 

( 30 ) 


I: Subject to such modifications as are in<licated hj 
the above key or by Eub<tequent rules, Forbes' Dictionary is 
recognized aa the standard of ttrthography, and should be 
consulted in all cases of doubt. The student must, however, 
remember to substitute "q" where Porbes uses a dotted "k," 

II. The symbol " tashdtd " is expressed by doubling 
the consonant. 

III. The imperceptible "h" or i mukJttaf! at tbe end 
of a word is omitted. 

IV. The sign "hnmza" is generally omitted. When 
however it may be considered necessary to divide two vowels 
or consonants in order to ensure their separate pronuncia- 
tion this should be done by inserting a comma or dash 
between them. 

v.. Words having the form jf^ or {"a are written as 
Sila' dafa' 

Words having the form '**^ or *»*i are written as 
Jum'a, daPa. 

VI, , Words requiring "Tanwfn" in the Pereian are to 
be written with "u," without any distinctive mark. 

VII. In rapid writing — not intended for the press — all 
diacritical marks may be omitted, with this exception that 
the long vowels & { and 6 should always retain their distin- 
guishing accents. 

In rapid writing — not intended for the press — the 
apostrophe for ^ may also be omitted. 

VIII. Where foreign words occur, the writer may, at 
his discretion, retain the original orthography or adopt the 
phonetic equivalent. If the word has been assimilated^ 
or the writer wishes it to be assimilated — as an Urdn word, 
it is better to spetl it phonetically. If, on the other hand, 
there is no wish to assimilate the word — as, for instance 
with the names of persons — the original spelling is prefer- 
able. In this case, the words should always be written 
between inverted commas, to indicate that it is not spelt 

Note. — A key to pronunciation will be found in Forbeif 
Grammar and-also in- Holroyd's Tas-hU-uUkal&m. 

itizecy Google 

( 31 ) 

Tbe objects of Uus Jonmal, and of the Society with 
which it is connected, are explained by the series oE Reso- 
lutions passed at the Meeting organising the Society, and 
by the Statement of Reasons, boUi (A which were published 
in the first number ol this Jonraa]. 

We ask all who are interested in the movement to give 
OS their support. Those who may wish to join the Society 
are requested to send their names, with the Subscriptions 
for the year, Rs. 6, to R- Dick,' Esq., Secretary, Roman- 
Urdu Society, Lahore. Members will receive a copy of 
the Journal. Friends in England are asked to send their 
subscriptions ( and any literary contributioDS with which 
tiiey may favor us) to our English Secretary, F. Drew, Esq.* 
Eton College, Windsor. 

We aba call attentioa to No. 6 of the Resolutions, 
passed at the Meeting on the 25th May 1878 ; and invite 
donations to the " Trao si iteration Fund." 

There are many sympathisers with the movement who 
Hhave not yet sent in their names and subscription. We 
trust that they will now do so, and that they will also help 
us by canvassing for fresh members, and by circulating our 
Joornal among both Europeans and Natives in the stations 
where they reside. 

Contributions on any of the varions subjects connected 
with transliteration, translation and education generally, 
are earnestly solicited from Members <rf the Society, 

Printed by Rah Das at the " C. ft M. GAznra ^' Pitcsi, 


Dijiiiieo, Google 

Dy Google 

:i>y Google 

:i>y Google 

,1,1.0, Google