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Full text of "Rosecrans' campaign with the fourteenth army corps, or the Army of the Cumberland : a narrative of personal observations with ... official reports of the battle of Stone river"

MAJ.J.F. WEYSS. 



dzp ff W Starling, HP Tl 



. ITS. Vol 



(DIVISION 7f Position^ = 
U.3. FORCES ) D |VISION Last Potihofl, = 

REBEL FORCES j CAVA LRY ^ Line, of Works 




Explanatory .-The rebel line of battle and their line of attack on the first d*y (M represent^ In the map), 
do oot correspond. It waa Impossible for the Topographer to represent both. He therefore ohoae the line of battle of the 
rebel* until they moved to the attack. The divisions of Cleborne and HoGown then obliqued to the left, until the left of their 
line projected beyond the right of Johnson s right, flanking him. The reader will bear In mind that the attack first fell 
upon the left of Johnson s division, then his right brigade, then Darto and Sherridan. The position occupied on the flrrt 
day of Jannary , is not folly represented ; the entire line of the Left Wing not appearing in the map. Thii was omitted by 
UM Topographer to avoid confusion in a redaoed map. Otherwise the diagram is very perfect. 



ROSECRANS CAMPAIGN 



WITH THE 



Fourteenth Army Corps, 



ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND: 



A NARRATIVE OF PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS, WITH AN APPENDIX, 
CONSISTING OF OFFICIAL REPORTS OF THE 



BATTLE OF STONE 11IVEB. 



By "W. D. B.," 

CORRESPONDENT OP THE CINCINNATI COMMEBCIAL. 



CINCINNATI: 
MOORE, WILSTACH, KEYS & CO., 

25 WEST FOURTH STREET. 

1863. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1803, 

BY MOORE, WILSTACII, KEYS & 00., 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of Ohio. 



PREFACE. 



THIS volume presents a narrative of the personal observa 
tions of the author during the three months campaign of 
Major General Rosecrans, commanding the original Fourteenth 
Army Corps popularly designated the Army of the Cumber 
land. It embraces a period beginning with the 30th day of 
October, 1862, when General Rosecrans assumed command 
of the Department of the Cumberland, and the Fourteenth 
Army Corps, and concludes with the occupation of Murfrces- 
boro, Tennessee, immediately after the memorable battle of 
Stone River. Doubtless it contains some statements which 
might have been wisely omitted. Certainly many very inter 
esting facts which could have been profitably introduced, were 
excluded. But it is purely narrative. It aspires to nothing 
but to record the truth candidly and clearly. No ill-natured 
flings or ex parte criticisms are indulged. An earnest effort 
is made to deal fairly with all the actors in the great drama 
which culminated in the victory on Stone River. 

The description of the Battle of Stone River, which con 
cludes the narrative, was written partially from personal 
observation, and partially with the assistance of the official 
reports. The successive action of brigades is followed as 
nearly as possible. Biographies of regiments, obviously, could 
not be included without unduly expanding the proportions 
of the volume. The plan adopted by the author, of gen 
erally describing the disaster to the Right Wing, and the 
concurrent preparations of the General-in-Chief to retrieve 
the misfortunes of "Wednesday morning, up to the period of 
the first repulse of the enemy, and then returning to follow 

(iii) 

M126560 



IV PREFACE. 

the tide of battle as it flowed tumultuously from Right to 
Left, until it had involved the entire army, was conceived 
to be the best for the development of the whole series of 
involved engagements. Time and circumstances were elusive. 
Distinct actions were convulsing the field simultaneously, 
and to bring out each clearly, required some sacrifice of the 
important elements of time and continuity. To write a sum 
mary description of the battle, and compensate for omission 
of the special engagements of brigades and divisions by the 
ultimate introduction of rhetoric, would be comparatively 
easy. As the author wrote this volume more particularly for 
the Army of the Cumberland and its friends, he preferred, 
at the sacrifice of some proprieties of descriptive writing, to 
exhibit the action of each division or brigade, as far as pos 
sible. If any are slurred it is the misfortune of the author. 
It certainly was not his purpose to overlook or unjustly dis 
parage any of the worthy soldiers who, by their valor and 
conduct, are entitled to a nation s gratitude. 

The Appendix embraces the Official Eeports of the Com- 
mander-in -Chief of the Army, of the three Corps Commanders, 
of all the Division Commanders, of the Chief of Cavalry and 
some of his subordinates. The author desires to express his 
obligations to Corporal Thomas Worthington, of the One 
Hundred and Sixth Ohio Volunteers a gentleman who 
merits a much higher position in the army than he now 
holds for appreciated services in assisting him to collect the 
official documents in the Appendix. 

The author is also sincerely obliged to the accomplished 
Major J. F. Weyss, of the Topographical Engineers, Depart 
ment of the Cumberland, for the beautiful reduced map of 
the battle-field of Stone River, which precedes the title page. 

WM. D. BICKIIAM. 

Cincinnati, March 20, 1863. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

PREFACE 3 

CHAPTER I. 

THE Army of the Ohio Discontent of the Soldiers Major General 
Buell Retires from Command The Army Countermarches Again 
Assumption of Command by Major General W. S. Rosccrans 
Popular Fallacies Embarrassments of the New Commander 
His Communications Condition of the Army The Cavalry Arm. 9 

CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL Order No. 1 The Temporary Staff Their Qualifications 
Position of the Fourteenth Army Corps Bragg s Movements 
Nashville Invested by Rebel Cavalry Five Millions of Ra 
tions Railroad Annoyances , 15 

CHAPTER III. 

INTRODUCTION of Headquarters to the Female Rebel Element 
Business at Headquarters Improvement of the Cavalry Arm 
Mounted Infantry Pack Mules East Tennessee Discipline.... 21 

CHAPTER IV. 

WORKING Habits of the General Commanding His Fancy for Young 
Men His Searching Inspections His Injunctions to Careless or 
Neglected Soldiers Major General Thomas 28 

CHAPTER V. 

REGIMENTAL Pioneer Corps McCook moves to Nashville Attack 
upon Nashville Morgan s Dishonorable Ruse The Attack 
Foiled Breckinridge The Fifty-First Illinois Volunteers 34 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE Right Wing at Nashville Railway Communications Re 
sumed Organization of the Army Sketches of McCook, Crit- 
tenden, Rousseau, Negley, and other Division Generals 38 

CHAPTER VII. 

SABB\.TII in the Army The Situation The Army Moving Out 
lines of the Campaign Its Relations to Other Departments 
Bragg s Advantages Rosecrans Difficulties 44 

CHAPTER VIII. 

MOUNTED Rebel Ruins Picture of Desolation Fire in the Forest 
Copy of Blue Grass Bivouac Fires and Tattoo 49 

(v) 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

CUNNINGHAM HOUSE Nashville in Military Dress Fort Negley 
Social Tyranny Female Despotism Non-Intercourse with Yan 
kees The Pass System The Ruined Suburbs of Nashville 55 

CHAPTER X. 

ADMINISTRATION of the Department The Provost Marshal General 
Persistence of Rebel Women Female Smugglers The Chief 
of Army Police His Signal Services G2 

CHAPTER XI. 

IN Front of Nashville Changes in Commands Operations of the 
Enemy General Orders The Night-cap Order The Perma 
nent Staff 71 

CHAPTER XII. 

GOVERNOR JOHNSON The Contraband Question The Railroad Re 
paired The Enemy in Front His Cavalry Enterprises Colonel 
John Kennett Strikes Back The Night-cap Battalion 84 

CHAPTER XIII. 

MORAL Influence of Success The Hartsville Disgrace John 
Morgan Captures a Federal Brigade The Fight Vain Gal 
lantry of the Soldiers Imbecility of the Commander 92 

CHAPTER XIV. 

OFFICIAL Intercourse between Generals Rosecrans and Bragg 
Efforts to Meliorate the Severities of War Mutual Reproaches 
Violation of a Flag of Truce Bragg s Apology Repetition of 
the Outrage Correspondence Ended by General Rosecrans 98 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE Hartsville Affair Retrieved Brilliant Repulse of the Enemy 
Successful Foraging Gallantry of the Soldiers Good Conduct 
Approved by the General Cavalry Exploit General Stanley 
Routs the Rebels Spirit of the Men 106 

CHAPTER XVI. 

THE " Grapevine " Telegraph Fabrication of False Intelligence 
Southern Ladies Aid Society Social Life in Nashville Slavery 
and the Proclamation Jubilee Church-Going Army Chap 
lains Their Fidelity and Devotion 112 

CHAPTER XVII. 

PRESSURE upon the Commander He Resents it His Views of 
War His Situation Number of Effectives Organization New 
Regiments Spirit of the Army The Enemy Defiant 120 



CONTENTS. Vli 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

ORDERS to March Excitement in Nashville Christmas Night- 
Consultation of Generals "Fight them! " Plan of Movement 
The Military Household Headquarters Nocturnal Scenes 
Lectures to Young Officers Conversation 132 

CHAPTER XIX. 

THE Army Advances Its Spirit in Gloomy Weather Movements 
The Enemy Driven and Two Guns Captured The Left Wing 
The First Day s Operations A Night s Adventure 147 

CHAPTER XX. 
OPERATIONS on Saturday 164 

CHAPTER XXI. 

OPERATIONS on Sunday and Monday Rosecrans at the Front 
Picket Skirmishing Headquarters at Lavergne Rousseau joins 
the Center McCook s Reconnoissance Hardce Retires to Mur- 
free?boro The Left Wing in front of Murfreesboro Crittenden 
Ordered to Occupy the Town Monday Night 172 

CHAPTER XXII. 

TUESDAY, December 30 The First Shot at the General Command 
ing An Orderly Decapitated Garesche and his Missal The 
Rebel Position Obstinate Resistance of the Enemy Ominous 
Sounds Starkweather s Combat Rebel Cavalry in the Rear 
Rosecrans Orders McCook to Prepare for Battle 181 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE Line of Battle Vigilance of Commanders Position of the 
Enemy McCook s Information from the Enemy The Plan of 
Battle Explanations Address to the Army The Army on the 
Eve of Battle 193 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE 31st of December, 18G2 Prayer before Battle Din of Battle- 
Evil Tidings Panic Anxiety at Headquarters Incredible 
Reports Firmness of General Rosecrans The Plan of Battle 
Defeated The General in Front The Day going Against us 
Ne\v Line Formed Batteries Massed in the Center The Gen 
eral Commanding Leads a Charge The Tide of Battle Turns 
St. Clair Morton and the Pioneer Brigade Night .- 205 

CHAPTER XXV. 

PRAGUE upon Austerlitz The Onset of the Rebels The Columns 
of Attack Edgarton s Battery Willich Unhorsed and Cap 
tured Davis Division Splendid Resistance of Sherridan 
Death of General Sill Repulse of the Enemy Roberts Charges 
and Falls The Missourians at Bay with Empty Muskets 225 



viii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

NEGLKY S Division Gallant StruggleStaunch Fighting of Miller 

arid Stanley "Father" Moody Turchin s Regiment The 

Pennsylvanians Charge Rousseau s Division The Regulars. 248 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

PREPARATIONS Readjustment, of the Lines Grand Battle Scene 
A Spectacle of Dreadful Splendor Destruction of Human Life 
Garesche s Death The Field s our own 270 

CHAPTER XXVIII, 

AFTER the Conflict Headquarters Consultation of Generals 
Decision of the Cominander-in-Chief Our Losses Orders for 
January 1st The Heroism of the Soldiers The Medical Staff... 289 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

JANUARY 1, 18G3 Change of Division and Brigade Commanders 
Position of Divisions Demonstrations by the Enemy The 
Regulars Double-Quick to Stewart s Creek and back Brilliant 
Affair of Colonel Innis and his Michiganders at Lavergne 
A Trying New Year s Day Effect of \Yediiesday s Reverse at 
Nashville 297 

CHAPTER XXX. 

FRIDAY, January 2 Heavy Artillery Battle Movements of the 
Troops Onslaught upon Van Cleve s Division It is Broken 
The Batteries Massed The Center and Right Wing Assisting 
the Left A Banner and a Battery Captured Awful Effect of 
Our Artillery The Rebels Routed 306 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

SATURDAY S Operations The Front Harassed East Tennesseeans 
Charge with a Slogan The Last Hostile Guns in Battle The 
Wounded Rebel Prisoners Eating Parched Corn A General 
Surprised The Rebels Retreat Sunday Mass Official Sum 
mary of Battle 319 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

REVIEW of the Field Self-Reliance of the General Commanding- 
Moral Power Special Mention for Important Services Consoli 
dated Report of Casualties Bragg s Army His Grand Tactics. 328 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

INCIDENTS and Anecdotes Ambulance Corps on the Field The 
Generals, how they Appeared in Battle 359 

APPENDIX. 
OFFICIAL REPORTS of the Battle of Stone River 371 



ROSECJRANS CAMPAIGN 



WITH THE 



FOURTEENTH ARMY COUPS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE Army of the Ohio Discontent of the Soldiers Major General 
Buell Retires from Command The Army Countermarches Again 
Assumption of Command by Major General W. S. Rosecrans Pop 
ular Fallacies Embarrassments of the New Commander His Com 
munications Cumberland River Innavigable, the Louisville and 
Nashville Railroad a Wreck Condition of the Army Its Partial 
Demoralization The Cavalry Arm. 

GENERAL BRAGG and his army had just escaped from 
Kentucky. The federal army was discouraged, and 
the nation profoundly disappointed. A twelve month 
had been spent in fruitless campaigning ; millions of 
money had been lavished without compensation ; and 
the bones of thousands of brave men were moldering 
among the hills and valleys of the South, sad monu 
ments of unrequited toil, and uncomplaining sacrifice. 
It was no fault of the gallant soldiers who carried 
muskets and manned our cannon. They still rallied 
around the old flag, but sternly and bitterly, while 
they clamored for a chieftain to lead theln to victory. 
The powerful Army of the Ohio, which had been 
renowned for discipline and steady valor, was now 

(9) 



THE FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS. 



much, wasted by tedious marches and distressing vicis 
situdes, and partially demoralized by the dissatisfaction 
of .the troops and their officers with their commander. 
Their discontent, and the popular distrust of Major 
General Buell, engendered by his failure to achieve 
results adequate to the means within his control, ren 
dered his removal imperative. "Wheeling his columns 
in the direction which they had so eagerly pursued at 
the heels of the fugitive battalions of Albert Sidney 
Johnson but a few months before, he left them in 
charge of Major General Thomas, and repairing to 
Louisville, met orders requiring him to relinquish his 
command to Major General William S. Rosecrans, 
then freshly crowned with the laurels of brilliant vic 
tories in Mississippi. 

Prior to the assignment of General Rosecrans to 
the command of this army, it had been designated 
the "Army of the Ohio." The War Department, 
which had frequently displayed a knack for cutting 
up the territory of the United States into military 
departments more, it seems, for the purpose of pro 
viding commands for superfluous chieftains, with 
which it had embarrassed itself, than for any other 
appreciable reason now carved out another slice of 
military territory, denominated it the Department of 
the Cumberland, changed the designation of the 
Army to " Fourteenth Army Corps," and nominated 
Major General Rosecraiis to the command. The 
department consisted of all that portion of Tennessee, 
east of the Tennessee River, and so much of the 
States of Alabama and Georgia as General Rosecrans 
might occupy. Fort Henry and Fort Donelson were 
subsequently included, inasmuch as they were essen- 



THE FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS. 11 

tial to the water line of communication with the 
department, and had no intimate relationship with 
the contiguous departments of Major General Grant, 
and Major General Wright. 

General liosecrans assumed command under pecu 
liarly embarrassing circumstances. His uniform suc 
cess as department commander and field officer, had 
inspired the nation with confidence in him, and the 
popular imagination was inflated with visions of vic 
tories which were only probable under the brightest 
auspices. The people, informed that his army was one 
of the largest in the nation, and inaccurately impressed 
that it was perhaps the best disciplined and best 
appointed, and smarting under recent and trying dis 
appointments, were clamorous for achievements which 
would swiftly wipe out the stains upon the national 
escutcheon, and revive their flagging hopes. They 
presumed and assumed that the instruments of suc 
cess were already prepared to the hand of the com 
mander, and that nothing remained for him to do but 

O 

to move upon the enemy and destroy him. 

Strange that the costly lessons of experience should 
have been so quickly forgotten. Strange that the 
disasters of the Peninsula, and the fruitless Siege of 
Corinth, should have so soon escaped their memory. 
It would seem that a people possessing facilities such 
as we enjoy for acquiring information, scarcely needed 
a reminder of the tedious delays and serious obstruc 
tions which must now protract decisive operations. 

To say that General Rosecrans was profoundly 
impressed with the gravity of the responsibilities he 
assumed is almost a pointless phrase. lie encoun 
tered formidable discouragements from the moment 



12 THE FOURTEENTH AKMY CORPS. 

lie assumed command. We can but glance at some 
of the most conspicuous. He had relieved General 
13 u ell at the expiration of a year of almost barren 
campaigning. The army had marched through Ken 
tucky and Tennessee into the borders of Alabama 
and Mississippi, toiled through weary months in the 
mountains and swamps of the South without victory, 
and had vainly countermarched again in pursuit of 
an inferior enemy which had twice eluded their 
commander. Its shattered columns were at right 
about toiling listlessly and dispirited toward the des 
olated and hostile territory which they had twice 
traversed within a single year, and which, ravaged and 
exhausted by war, promised but little forage and no 
subsistence. The season was pressing sharply upon 
winter and winter in Tennessee means cold, and 
snow, and rain, and boundless mud ; and these mean 
hospitals thronged with suffering soldiers, and val 
leys ci^wded with the bodies of the dead. The only 
water line of communication with the seat of hostil 
ities was a thin ribbon which would barely buoy a 
shallop, and the capricious season, now provokingly 
constant, offered no prospect of navigation before the 
dissolution of winter. A single thread of railroad from 
Louisville to Nashville, insufficient without hostile 
interruption even if managed by an enterprising and 
zealous directory to properly meet the requisitions 
of the service, was wrecked and obstructed from 
Green River to Nashville more than three-fifths of 
the length of the line of communication from the 
primary to the immediate base of operations at Nash 
ville. It was evident that it would require a month of 
incessant labor to repair it, and it was liable to contin- 



THE FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS. 13 

uous irruptions of hostile cavalry organized to destroy 
it, requiring the detail of large detachments of the 
effective force of the army for its protection. These, 
among other equally serious and protracting embar 
rassments were to be overcome, before a decisive 
movement could be ventured. 

General Rosecrans was unacquainted with his army 
a matter of no trifling moment but happily his 
previous career had prepared it to confide in him. 
The nation had been taught to consider it a standard 
of discipline. History, when she lingers tearfully at 
the little green graves of Chaplin Hills, will attest the 
valor of its trusty soldiers. But it was no longer the 
proud army which had swept the frightened foe from 
the heart of Kentucky into the far distant cotton fields 
of Mississippi. It had not been bruited that the 
solidity of those once splendid legions had been well 
nigh dissolved by repression of their fiery ardor in 
retreat, by the vicissitudes of painful marches, and 
confidence destroyed. It had not been told by light 
ning tongues that nearly ten thousand of those heroes, 
heart-sick with barren efforts and unrequited trials 
had deserted when the columns countermarched to 
Louisville, nor that it required the highest exercise of 
patriotism on the part of those veterans, and the 
sternest vigilance of their officers to prevent the regi 
ments from melting to skeletons a result almost to 
have been feared had not the spirits of those wearied 
and discouraged troops been revived by the substitu 
tion of a new commander whom they had learned to 
admire, for one, who, by his coldness and apathy had 
alienated the confidence they had reposed in him. 

General Rosecrans hardly dreamed that almost one- 



14 TIIE FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS. 

third of his army was in hospitals ; or scattered over 
the great West, fugitives from duty to the flag. 
Moreover, many of his regiments were raw levies 
without drill or discipline, and were often inefficiently 
commanded. Ages of experience had attested the 
inability of an armed mob to withstand veteran bat 
talions like those of the rebel armies in shock of bat 
tle. Besides, the army was barely half equipped, 
and its cavalry arm was so inadequate in numbers, 
and so deficient in equipment and discipline, as to 
excite astonishment and alarm. A few weeks later 
the General Commanding wrote officially that "the 
enormous superiority of the rebel cavalry, kept our 
little cavalry force almost within the infantry lines, 
and gave the enemy control of the entire country 
around us." 



THE TEMPORARY STAFF. 15 



CHAPTER II. 

POPULAR Expectations General Order No. 1 The Temporary Staff 
Their Qualifications Lieutenant Colonel Ducat The Chief Com 
missary Posi^ou of the Fourteenth Army Corps Bragg s Move 
ments Nashville Invested by Rebel Cavalry Five Millions of 
Rations Railway Annoyances Military Superintendent of Trans 
portation. 

IT is well to consider the degree of success, and 
the period of its accomplishment that a just and 
discriminating people could expect of an officer under 
the circumstances which domineered over General 
Rosecrans. Had the nation guaged its expectations 
by the achievements of commanders of other great 
armies during the war, and upon these demanded but 
moderate improvement, it had more accurately con 
formed to the logic which had been established for 
reflection. ""We shall expect much of you," said 
authority. The people had been so often disappointed 
by results immeasurably inadequate to the instru 
mentalities employed in conducting the war, and had 
grown so restive and impatient, that they were now 
inclined to require too much. Though grateful to 
General Eosecrans for his past and invariable success, 
they were disposed to be more patient with him than 
they would have been with any other commander who 
might have been assigned to the department. 

Nevertheless General Eosecrans assumed his respon 
sibilities cheerfully, and begun his labors with char 
acteristic earnestness and vigor. The summons from 



16 THE TEMPORARY STAFF. 

the "War Department had reached him at the head of 
his command in Mississippi, and he promptly repaired 
to his new department, tarrying but sixty hours with 
his family and friends in Ohio. On the 80th October, 
1862, he relieved General Buell, and assumed com 
mand by virtue of the following order : 

HEADQUARTERS 14TH ARMY CORPS, 

Department of the Cumberland, 
Louisville, Ky., Oct. 30, 18G2. 

GENERAL ORDERS NO. 1. 

I. By direction of the General-in-Chief, the undersigned 
assumes the command of the Department of the Cumberland, 
and the troops under General Buell s command, which will 
hereafter constitute the Fourteenth Army Corps. 

II. The following officers are announced and will act until 
a permanent organization of Staff is effected : 

Lieutenant Colonel ARTHUR C. DUCAT, Twelfth Infantry, 
Illinois Volunteers, Acting Assistant Inspector General and 
Chief of Staff. 

Major C. GODDARD, Senior Aiddecamp, Acting Assistant 
Adjutant General. 

Major W. P. HEPBURN, Second Iowa Cavalry, Acting Judge 
Advocate. 

Captain SAMUEL SIMMONS, A. C. S., Acting Chief Commis 
sary. 

Captain T. G. CHANDLER, A. Q. M., Acting Chief Quarter 
master. 

Captain N. MICHLER, Chief Topographical Engineer. 

Captain J. H. GILMAN, Nineteenth Infantry United States 
Army, Inspector of Artillery. 

Captain J. T. PETERSON, Fifteenth Infantry, United States 
Army, Acting Assistant Inspector General. 

First Lieutenant T. EDSON, Ordnance Corps, Ordnance 
Officer. 



THE TEMPORARY STAFF. 17 

First Lieutenant CIIAS. R. THOMPSON, Engineer Kegiinent 
of the West, Aiddecamp. 

Second Lieutenant BYRON KIRBY, Sixth Infantry United 
States Army, Aiddecamp. 

Surgeon ROBERT MURRAY, U. S. A., Medical Director. 

Surgeon A. H. THURSTON, United States Volunteers, Medi 
cal Inspector. 

Reports will be made and business transacted in accordance 
with existing orders and regulations. 

Official : W. S. ROSECRANS, 

C. GrODDARD, Major General. 

Major and A. A. A. G. 

The majority of the executive members of this 
staff accompanied the General from Mississippi. 
They had proved themselves capable and trust 
worthy, no meaningless phrase with an officer whose 
personal staff are all confidential aids, and who are 
speedily instructed to acquaint themselves with all the 
duties necessary to qualify them to meet the requisi 
tions of a commander who holds that " a staff officer 
should know all that his General does." 

Lieutenant Colonel Ducat, an Irishman by nativity, 
and a soldier by nature and habit, had been detailed 
for Acting Inspector General for qualifications pre 
eminently fitting him for that office. "I regard him 
an extraordinary man," said the General subsequently, 
alluding to the admirable system of inspections which 
had been perfected and put into complete working 
order by himself and his assistants, Captains Peter 
son and Curtis of the regular army. For the present, 
he was Chief of Staff, but it was understood that posi 
tion was reserved for the brilliant Garesche. 

Major Goddard, for zealous and intelligent service 



18 THE TEMPORARY STAFF. 

in the Adjutant General s office of the Army of the 
Mississippi, and for gallantry as Aiddecamp at luka 
and Corinth, had been promoted from a Lieutenancy 
in the Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, to a Major 
ity, and the Senior Aidship.. 

Captain Chas. R. Thompson, Aiddecamp, for gal 
lantry at luka and Corinth, had been promoted from 
a Lieutenancy in the Engineer regiment of the West, 
to a Captaincy on the Staff, a proud position for a 
youth of less than twenty -three years. Lieutenant 
Byron Kirby had faithfully served on the staff in 
Western Virginia, and through the campaign in Ten 
nessee and Mississippi. Major Hepburn had exhib 
ited marked capacity as Judge Advocate, but later in 
the campaign, being promoted to the Lieutenant 
Colonelcy of his regiment, he was announced Inspec 
tor of Cavalry, and was succeeded by Major Ralston 
Skinner, appointed Judge Advocate by the President, 
and assigned to General Rosecran s Staff, at the per 
sonal request of the Commanding General. 

Captain Samuel Simmons, Commissary of Subsist 
ence promoted a few weeks later to Lieutenant Col 
onel, had displayed unusual, it may be justly said, 
extraordinary foresight, comprehensiveness of judg 
ment, and energy, in the administration of the Sub 
sistence Department of the Army of the Mississippi. 
Such qualifications were peculiarly demanded in the 
new field. 

Captain Chandler, an Assistant Quartermaster of 
large experience, had served General Rosecrans in the 
Department of Western Virginia, and had been Chief 
Quartermaster in the Department of the Ohio. His 
present assignment, however, was but temporary 



THE TEMPORARY STAFF. 19 

Lieutenant Colonel J. "\\ r . Taylor, by liis ability in 
Mississippi, having merited the approbation of his 
commander, had been previously designated Chief 
Quartermaster of the Department. The additional 
members of the temporary staff, had been in General 
BuelPs command, and their merits at this time had 
not been demonstrated to the new commander. 

General Rosecrans remained but another day at 
Louisville. The railroad bridge across Green River 
being now reconstructed, he repaired to Bowling 
Green, on the 1st of November, and established head 
quarters temporarily at that point. His army had 
concentrated at Bowling Green and Glasgow, but 
the divisions at the latter post were presently ordered 
forward. Bragg s army was still painfully toiling 
over the rude mountains of East Tennessee, heading 
by a wide detour via Chattanooga, toward Murfrees- 
boro. Information touching his designs was scant. 

O O 

General Breckinridge was posted at Murfreesboro 
with a strong division, and Nashville was invested by 
swarms of active and enterprising rebel cavalry. It 
was held by a splendid division of troops, under Gen 
eral Negley, and although communication between 
the garrison and headquarters of the army was irreg 
ular, it was not in jeopardy. The rebels could not 
now concentrate to assault it before General liose- 
crans could move to its relief, so that it was not a 
subject of embarrassment to him. 

Bowling Green was the present southern terminus 
of the railroad, and the temporary supply depot. 
The army could not profitably advance two marches 
beyond until the railroad was repaired to Mitchells- 
ville, on the northern line of Tennessee, nearly forty 



20 THE TEMPORARY STAFF. 

miles from Nashville, but from which point, after 
arriving at Nashville, it might, with great labor and 
trouble, be subsisted from day to day. The Chief 
Commissary at once displayed his grasp by ordering 
forward the extraordinary supply of five millions of 
rations, to be renewed as rapidly as the tedious oper 
ation of the railroad would permit. Had the energy 
of the Commissary met a fair response from the man 
agers of the railroad, the General Commanding would 
have been relieved of serious vexations. The policy 
of taking entire military control of the line was care 
fully considered, and finally dismissed. In the sense 
of occupation, it was monopolized by the government, 
but it was managed by the corporation which owned it. 
Colonel J. B. Anderson, of Louisville, was announced 
Military Superintendent of Railroad Transportation, 
but eventually his administration was not warmly 
approved. 



BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 21 



CHAPTER III. 

INTRODUCTION of Headquarters to the Female Rebel Element Madam 
applies Soft Soap The Result thereof Business at Headquar 
ters Red-tape Defended Resignations and Furloughs Improve 
ment of the Cavalry Colt s Revolving Rifles Brigadier General 
David S. Stanley Mounted Infantry Pack Mules East Tennes 
see Discipline. 

THE General Commanding had arrived at Bowling 
Green in advance of his camp equipage. Although 
habitually preferring camp, he was constrained to 
appropriate a dwelling for headquarters. It is not 
customary in war to quarter upon friends where viru 
lent enemies are accessible to instruction in the rights 
of arms. Some high caste families in Bowling Green 
had endeavored to indoctrinate loyal men and women 
with the virtues of rebel rights. The General pro 
posed to vindicate his appreciation of the example, 
and required accommodations at the mansion of a 
prominent officer of the bogus goverment of Ken 
tucky. He was enjoying the amenities of a retreat 
with Bragg s army, and his wife remained in posses 
sion of the homestead. She was not cordial accord 
ing to the traditionary style of Kentucky hospitality, 
but submitted frigidly to the " exigencies of the 
service." She requested privilege to retain part of 
the premises for her own occupation, a favor which 
was graciously granted. During some eight or nine 
days, the General and his military household perse- 



22 BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 

veringly squeezed themselves into the parlor and two 
chambers, dining in the hall, for the accommodation 
of her ladyship. But madam was ungrateful. She 
seized the earliest opportunity to exhibit her temper 
and quality by a high-toned act of gentility which 
signally demonstrated privileged breeding, and forti 
fied her claims to federal favor. It was a season of 
drought, and such periods in Bowling Green subject 
the people to inconvenience. They are obliged to 
cart water for family consumption from Barren River. 
In any northern town the citizens would make haste 
to provide themselves with cisterns, but where labor 
is not compensated, the people do not learn to make 
themselves comfortable so easily. But this is irrele 
vant. Madam s chattels had accumulated several 
barrels of water, and headquarter servants inconsid 
erately began to use it. Madam s rights were invaded, 
and she vindicated them by dissolving a quantity of 
soft soap in the barrels. Not long afterward she was 
fretted by the seeming misuse of her parlor carpet, 
and applied to remove it, whereupon the General 
gave her a counter-emollient in the amiable form of 
a disquisition upon soft soap and water. This was 
the introduction of headquarters to the female ele 
ment of rebellion. It was afterward more elaborately 
developed, though not at Bowling Green. The rebel 
women of that city were generally recluse, and did 
not often come in contact with the " Yankees." The 
few Union ladies remaining there, sustained the 
ancient fame of Kentucky hospitality ; but their 
social life was stifled by rebellion. 

General Rosecrans continued to apply himself to 
business unremittingly. ~No member of the staff 



BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 23 

found an idle hour. The vast machinery of the 
department was put in motion. Lines of couriers, 
connecting with Nashville and the various camps, 
were immediately established, Captain Elmer Otis, an 
active, enterprising officer, assuming charge of them. 
Military maps were collected from every source; 
friendly people were required to furnish all possible 
information concerning the topography and geogra 
phy of the country; and business of every character 
affecting the campaign, was rapidly systematized and 
dispatched. The amount of business which had accu 
mulated in the Adjutant General s office was formi 
dable, and it required nearly a regiment of clerks to 
reduce it. Everything touching the organization of 
the army, the hundreds of applications for the accept 
ance of resignations, the almost thousands of appeals 
for discharges from service; pleas for furloughs, or 
relief from duty ; the million and one items of minu 
tiae which no thorough General can safely overlook 
in a volunteer army, formed an almost discouraging 
aggregation of business. How feebly do they who 
read the results of a campaign, comprehend the pro 
digious amount of physical toil that is supported by a 
commanding general, not to consider the incalculable 
intellectual labor and moral exasperations which har- 
rass him. Brief observation would invincibly per 
suade the most inveterate enemy of much calumniated 
red-tape, that no human skill or industry, without 
the aid of system, would be equal to the disposition 
of the mountains of details which roll up in sucessive 
billows at headquarters. 

It was found necessary in the beginning to curb 
the disposition of officers to apply for leave of absence 



24 BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 

or to resign. An invalid might obtain temporary 
respite in the hospitals, or resign. A hale man, unless 
recommended by his superior to resign, " for the good 
of the service," was summarily notified to return to 
duty. The rule was inexorable. But the General 
was swift to relieve the army of incompetents. lie 
declined to listen to personal appeals. " I don t care 
for any individual. Everything for the service ; noth 
ing to individuals." Although an ardent friend, lie 
would not permit the claims of friendship to inter 
pose against the interests of his country. 

"THE EYES or THE ARMY." 

The improvement of his cavalry was a primary con 
sideration in his system of reorganization. " Cav 
alry," he was wont to say, "are the eyes of the army. 
They can be made its hands and feet." It was his 
object to elevate them to that excellence. Lee s Kan 
sas Cavalry in the Army of the Mississippi, under his 
encouragement were renowned in all that country for 
their efficiency. He wanted whole divisions like them. 
When he assumed command of the Fourteenth Army 
Corps, he supposed he had twelve or fifteen thousand 
veteran cavalry troops. He was surprised and cha 
grined that he could not muster half that number. 
A portion of these were chiefly valuable for their 
capacity to evade danger and good service. A troop 
of jockeys with riding whips were quite as effective 
as some of the squadrons. ~No fault of theirs, but of 
neglect, lack of capable officers, and deficiences of 
equipment. 

He applied for Brigadier General David S. Stan 
ley, an officer of great spirit, and superior military 



BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 25 

skill, for Chief of Cavalry, and that General was 
relieved of the command of perhaps the hest division 
of volunteer infantry in the federal army, to regen 
erate the cavalry arm of the Fourteenth Corps. There 
was no reserve from which to draw reinforcements, 
and the General Commanding applied to the War 
Department for five thousand Colt s revolving rifles 
as a substitute for men. About three thousand w^ere 
received, when the arsenals were exhausted. His 
mind was so impressed with the conviction that revolv 
ing arms would give best assurance of success, that if 
he had been offered the option of raw men or 
improved arms, it is probable he would have preferred 
the latter. It needs no argument to satisfy the pub 
lic that five charges are superior to one, but the War 
Department has not yet discovered it. The moral 
ascendency, which such arms impart to troopers who 
know how to use them, is of more value to the serv 
ice than their relative physical strength. They have 
a double force, inspiring with confidence the men who 
are supplied with them, and terrifying the enemy. 

General Rosecrans desired to make the cavalry arm 
perfect by combining with it an organization of 
mounted light infantry with light batteries for rapid 
movement, but the government had no such troops. 
The rebels had adopted it with brilliant success. 
It finally became so indispensable that infantry bri 
gades were mounted and disciplined for the service. 

The physical features of his department also re 
quired a pack mule train to mutually adjust the parts 
of his projected system of warfare. It was almost 
impossible to penetrate the mountains of East Ten 
nessee with ordinary transportation. It was a para- 
3 



26 BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 

mount object with Mm to relieve that Switzerland of 
America from oppression. It was crushed with the 
most accursed tyranny on the face of the earth. Its 
quiet citizens had heen murdered for loyalty to their 
government. Its helpless women and children had 
been driven to the mountain caves, and their dwel 
lings were eaten up by incendiary flames. Thousands 
of its patriotic men were fugitives, or were toiling and 
fighting to reach their homes once more. Their 
hearts were stricken, and they might well exclaim in 
agony of hope deferred : " How long, oh Lord, how 
long ! " It never will cease to be astonishing that the 
deliverance of the mountaineers of Tennessee was so 
long delayed. General Rosecrans from sympathy and 
for important military reasons determined to accom 
plish it. But there was delay here too. A train 
of five thousand pack mules, which were indispensa 
ble to the enterprise was ordered, and months elapsed 
without satisfaction of the requisition. 

DISCIPLINE. 

The discipline of the corps in all its departments 
was an object of unremitting effort. There was no 
sound reason why the discipline of veteran volun 
teers should not be equal to that of regulars. It was 
not ify fault of the soldiers, who exhibited a ready 
acquiescence to orders when officers showed capacity 
and rr<eve. There were a few regiments in the army 
fully eVjual to those in the regular service. These 
had zealous officers of large capacity. There was 
one mode especially by which neglect of duty, care 
lessness and incompetency, would be eliminated and 
the army purified. General Eosecrans solicited 



BUSINESS AT HEADQUARTERS. 27 

authority to dismiss officers from the service for satis 
factory military reasons. The reply of the Secretary of 
War expresses the character of the application, to wit : 

" Washington, Nov. 3, 1862. 
" MAJOR GENERAL KOSECRANS : 

"The authority you ask, promptly to muster out or dismiss 
from the service officers for flagrant misdemeanors and crimes, 
such as pillaging, drunkenness and misbehavior before the 
enemy, or on guard duty is essential to discipline, and you are 
authorized to use it. Report of the facts in each case should 
be immediately forwarded to the War Department, in order to 
prevent improvident restoration. 

" [Signed,] E. M. STANTON, 

Secretary of War." 

A general order (No. 4) embodying the foregoing 
was promptly published, directing that officers dis 
gracefully dismissed, should be divested of the insig 
nia of rank in the presence of their respective com 
mands, and be escorted by soldiers outside of the 
camps. It was severe but it had a most salutary 
influence. 



28 MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

WORKING Habits of the General Commanding His fancy for Young 
Men His Aidesdecamp Reviews His Searching Inspections 
His Injunctions to Careless or Neglected Soldiers Major General 
George H. Thomas His Person and Characteristics His Popularity. 

INDUSTRY was one of the most valuable qualities of 
General llosecrans. Labor was a constitutional neces 
sity with him. And he enjoyed a fine faculty for the 
disposition of military business a faculty which rap 
idly improved with experience. He neither spared 
himself nor his subordinates. He insisted upon being 
surrounded by active, rapid workers. He "liked 
sandy fellows/ because they were so " quick and 
sharp." He rarely found staff officers who could 
endure with him. Ambition prompted all of them 
to remain steadfastly with him until nature would 
sustain no more. Often they confessed with some 
exhibition of selfish reluctance that he was endowed 
with extraordinary vital force, and a persistency which 
defied fatigue. Those who served upon his staff in 
Western Virginia or Mississippi predicted a severe 
future. They were not deceived. He was habitually 
prepared for labor in quarters at ten o clock in the 
morning. On Sundays and Wednesdays he rose early 
and attended Mass. He never retired before two 
o clock in the morning, very often not until four, and 
sometimes not until broad daylight. He often mounted 
in the afternoons and rode out to inspect or review the 



MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 29 

troops. It was not extraordinary that his Aids some 
times dropped asleep in their chairs, while he was 
writing vehemently or glancing eagerly over his maps, 
which he studied almost incessantly. Sometimes he 
glanced at his " youngsters " compassionately, and 
pinching their ears or rubbing their heads paternally 
until he roused them, would send them to bed. Cap 
tain Thompson, and Captain Robert S. Thorns the 
latter a Volunteer Aiddecamp of superior merit 
were favorites, deservedly. They were his amanu 
enses, had custody of all the ciphers, and necessarily 
were confidential Aids. Lieutenant Frank S. Bond 
was attached to the staff subsequently in a similar 
capacity, and soon won the respect of his commander. 
When in the field, General Rosecrans was apt to be 
the first officer in camp to spring from his blankets, 
and the last to dismount at night. 

REVIEWS. 

During the few days he remained at Bowling Green, 
he reviewed most of the divisions which had reached 
that vicinity. Night labor compensated for hours thus 
stolen from his maps, reports, and schemes for the 
improvement of the army. At the reviews, the satis 
faction of the troops with the change of commanders, 
was manifested by their enthusiastic reception of him. 
The manner of his inspections at once engendered a 
cordiality toward him which promised happy results. 
The soldiers w^ere satisfied that their commander took 
an interest in their welfare a moralizing agency 
which no capable General of volunteers can safely 
neglect. He examined the equipments of the men 
with exacting scrutiny. No trifling minutiae escaped 



30 MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 

him. Everything to which, the soldier was entitled was 
important. A private without his canteen instantly 
evoked a volley of searching inquiries. " Where is 
your canteen ? " " How did you lose it when 
where?" ""Why don t you get another?" To 
others, "you need shoes, and you a knapsack." 
Soldiers thus addressed were apt to reply frankly, 
sometimes a whole company laughing at the novelty 
of such keen inquisition. " Can t get shoes," said 
one; "required a canteen and couldn t get it," rejoined 
another. " Why ? " quoth the General. " Go to your 
Captain and demand what you need! Go to him 
every day till you get it. Bore him for it ! Bore 
him in his quarters ! Bore him at meal time ! Bore 
him in bed ! Bore him ; bore him ; bore him ! Don t 
let him rest ! " And to Captains, " You bore your 
Colonels ; let Colonels bore their Brigadiers ; Briga 
diers bore their Division Generals; Division Com 
manders bore their Corps Commanders, and let them 
bore me. I ll see, then, if you don t get what you want. 
Bore, bore, bore! until you get everything you are 
entitled to ; " and so on through an entire division. 

" That s the talk, boys," quoth a brawny fellow. 
"He ll do," said another and the soldiers returned 
t(r their camp-fires and talked about "Rosy," just as 
those who knew him best in Mississippi had talked. 

The confidence which such deportment inspired 
was pregnant with future good. And it was soon 
observed that he was careful to acknowledge a pri 
vate s salute a trifling act of good breeding and 
military etiquette, costing nothing, but too frequently 
neglected by officers who have much rank and little 
generous sympathy with soldiers who win them glory. 



MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 81 

This is a wise " regulation," but it reaches far deeper 
than mere discipline. 

Shortly after headquarters were established at Bowl 
ing Green, Major General George Ii. Thomas reported 
himself. The military family of the Commanding 
General quickly recognized the real Chief of Staff. 
It had been observed that General Rosecrans did not 
"consult" habitually upon the principles and policy 
of the campaign with other commanding officers. 
The keen eyes of those familiar with his customs, 
however, discovered an unusual degree of respect and 
confidence exhibited toward General Thomas. Con 
fidential interviews with him were frequent and pro 
tracted. It soon got to be understood in the camps, 
that "Pap" Thomas was chief counsellor at head 
quarters, and confidence in " Eosy " grew apace. 

General Thomas had been with the army a twelve 
month or more. The veterans knew him, and revered 
him to a man. His old Mill Spring division loved 
him. He had the confidence and esteem of the officers. 
The old troops filially spoke of him as " Pap " Thomas. 
In facetious moods he was " Old Slow Trot." The 
former was a soubriquet of affection; the latter a 
merry nick-name quickened of one of those trifles 
that tickle an idle soldier s fancy. Habitually, a 
veteran acquires a habit of boiling a man down into 
an expression. General Thomas steadiness rather 
attracted the lads. He was as deliberate on the 
march as at quarters. His escort, more impatient than 
their commander, sometimes took advantage of a tem 
porary aberration and pushed him into unusual speed. 
Directly his revery ended, he was apt to order " slow 
trot ! " It caught popular fancy, and the General was 



32 MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 

fixed in a soubriquet. General Rosecrans himself 
expressed an almost reverential respect for him. 
Alluding to him, one day, he said, with a glow of 
enthusiasm, " George H. Thomas is a man of ex 
traordinary character. Years ago, at the Military 
Academy, I conceived there were points of strong 
resemblance between his character and that of "Wash - 
ington. I was in the habit of calling him General 
Washington." His grave aspect, dignified deport 
ment, and imposing presence justified this conceit. 

Most men diminish as you approach them. A 
few magnify, and you feel their greatness. General 
Thomas grows upon you. Even his physique has 
this peculiarity. He has a massive, full rounded, 
powerful form, which seems at first to absorb several 
inches of his six feet of stature, but it gradually 
expands upon you, as a mountain which you approach. 
His features are heavy but well carved, with a strong, 
thin, combative nose, cleanly cut lips, and great 
square jaws and chin, indicating that firmness which 
he develops so grandly in battle. It needs but a 
glance under his bushy brows, set like a luxuriant 
hedge upon the edge of his broad white forehead, to 
discover the strength and warmth of his deep, steady, 
blue eyes, which seem of fathomless depth. A ruddy, 
weather-stippled complexion indicating robust health, 
and light brown, curly hair, impart a glow of cheerful 
ness to his fine countenance which irresistibly inspires 
your confidence. A short, thick-set, sandy beard, 
a little silvered since the war began, and closely 
trimmed habitually, completes an ensemble of unusual 
personal comeliness and vigor in a man struggling 
among the unrelenting fifties. 



MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 33 

He looks like a sanguine man, but the sanguineous 
is balanced by the lymph in his composition. His 
aspect is peculiar, grave but not stern, with a benig 
nant expression which warms your heart while it 
commands respect. He is a close observer, but a 
better thinker, and he matures his opinions deliber 
ately usually reflecting twice before he speaks once, 
in carefully measured language. You can not doubt 
his firmness. He has an appearance of heaviness, 
but it is more corporeal than intellectual. He is alto 
gether a soldier, simple in deportment and unaffected, 
without a soldier s vanity. Without his uniform you 
might easily mistake him for a substantial western 
farmer. He was a Brigadier General some months 
before he thought of permitting the star to supplant 
the eagle which he wore by virtue of his rank in the 
regular cavalry ; and for months after he was pro 
moted to Major General, he continued to shoulder 
the single star. The twin stars were mounted soon 
after the battle of Stone River, but it is suspected 
they found their way to his broad shoulders surrepti 
tiously. No perfect history of the war of the rebel 
lion in which Major General George H. Thomas, 
of Virginia, does not figure conspicuously, can bo 
written. 



34 ATTACK ON NASHVILLE. 



CHAPTER V. 

REGIMENTAL Pioneer Corps General Gilbert General R. S. Granger 
and Colonel S. D. Bruce Major General McCook s Corps moves to 
Nashville Attack upon Nashville Morgan s Dishonorable Ruse 
The Attack Foiled Breckinridge concludes the Mortgage upon 
Nashville can not be Lifted The Fifty-First Illinois Volunteers. 

ADOPTING Napoleon s dictum, that " to command an 
army well a General must think of nothing else," the 
General Commanding applied his restless and vigorous 
mind in studying and correcting the deficiencies of his 
own corps. It needed discipline, and he held the 
officers, not the privates, responsible. The new regi 
ments were relentlessly drilled. Pioneer corps were 
organized in each regiment of the army to repair roads 
and construct bridges, and contraband negroes were 
either organized into gangs of laborers or employed 
as teamsters a service in which they excelled. The 
General was not content with ordinary formal reports ; 
he insisted upon statements of minutiae, and in 
important matters the officers in charge were person 
ally examined and instructed. 

At this period, the guard for the protection of the 
railroad north of Bowling Green was detailed, and 
Brigadier General Gilbert was assigned to command, 
with headquarters at Munfordvillc. Colonel Sanders 
D. Bruce, of the Twentieth Kentucky Volunteers, who 
had recently distinguished himself by zeal and energy, 
was relieved from command of the post of Bowling 



ATTACK ON NASHVILLE. 35 

Green by Brigadier General Robert S. Granger, and 
assigned to command a cavalry force to drive the 
rebels out of South-western Kentucky. Besides these 
arrangements, there were innumerable matters of 
routine necessary to the success of the military 
administration of the Department rapidly disposed of, 
but the details w^ould swell this narrative into a tedi 
ous volume. Allusion is made to them merely to 
convey a feeble intimation of the amount of business 
which necessarily harrasses the mind of the com 
mander of a great department. 

Major General McCook s corps had already arrived 
at Bowling Green. In consequence of information 
that the enemy were menacing Nashville, General 
McCook was directed, on the 4th November, to move 
his corps to that city, pressing forward briskly so as 
to reach there by 10 o clock a. m., on the 7th. He 
marched accordingly at dawn of the 4th. On the 
morning of Thursday, officers at Bowling Green 
reported that they had heard the mutter of heavy 
guns in the direction of Nashville a distance of per 
haps fifty miles, as the crow flies. It was incredible 
that the detonation of artillery could be carried so far 
overland. But the succeeding day the report was 
seemingly verified by the arrival of couriers with 
official dispatches, announcing that the enemy had 
been bafiled in an attempt to destroy the railroad 
bridge which spans the Cumberland river at Nash 
ville. But they had succeeded in unmasking the great 
batteries of Fort Negley, Fort Confiscation, and the 
Casino. Et is barely possible that the mumbling of 
their guns wa& heard at Bowling Green. 

The attack upon Nashville was a mere dash, but the 



36 ATTACK ON NASHVILLE. 

design of the enemy was almost accomplished. It was 
afterward apparent that they had but little confidence 
in the enterprise, otherwise their efforts would have 
been sustained more persistently. They actually 
pushed within easy musket range of the bridge before 
they were driven away. They attacked General ]STeg- 
ley s pickets simultaneously soon after midnight on 
the 6th, while a column of mounted infantry under 
John Morgan forded the Cumberland and moved upon 
Edgefield. A bickering picket fire was sustained on 
the south front of Nashville until daybreak, our pick 
ets falling back gradually to their reserves. As soon 
as it was light enough, the enemy opened a field bat 
tery from the crest of a riclge on the left of the Mur- 
freesboro pike, the only effect of which was to unmask 
our siege batteries in the forts. 

Part of the Fifty-First Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
on picket on that road, were sharply attacked by rebel 
infantry, but they resisted gallantly until the remainder 
of the regiment came up in support, when the enemy 
were handsomely repulsed, with severe loss. Our loss 
was three severely and four slightly wounded, and 
two missing. 

Morgan, meantime, was preparing to dash upon the 
bridge. In order to gain time, it was reported that 
he had resorted to a dishonorable stratagem. A flag of 
truce was sent to our lines, asking an exchange of 
prisoners. The ruse was too flimsy to deceive, but it 
gave Morgan time to form his line advantageously. 
As soon as his flag returned, he swept suddenly 
upon our pickets and skirmishers, and. drove them in 
upon the main body. Taking advantage of hollows 
and the railway embankment, he moved swiftly upon 



ATTACK ON NASHVILLE. 37 

the bridge without exposure, but as the head of his 
column raised to a level with the road, it was met by 
a biting fire from the well-poised rifles of the Sixteenth 
Illinois Infantry, under Colonel Smith. Discovering 
the futility of further effort, Morgan quickly with 
drew with a loss of a half dozen men, and revenged 
himself by destroying an old frame freight house and 
a few platform cars. The Sixteenth Illinois had three 
slightly and three severely wounded, including Cap 
tain Rowe, but the enemy were satisfied to retire. 

General Negley, deceived by the maneuvers of the 
enemy, supposed the main attack would be made in 
the direction of the Franklin pike, because Nashville 
was most vulnerable on that side. Proceeding 

O 

upon that belief, he pushed out that road with an 
escort of forty men from the Seventh Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, Stokes First Tennessee Cavalry, one section 
of Battery G-, Marshall s Fourth Ohio Artillery, and 
one section of Houghtaling s Illinois Battery, sup 
ported by the Fourteenth Michigan, Sixty-Ninth. 
Ohio, and Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania Infantry. 
Quite a warm artillery fight was sustained for several 
hours, and both parties tried to gain advantage by 
maneuvering, but the enemy finally withdrew with 
considerable loss of men and horses. Our loss was 
four wounded. The enemy did not afford our infantry 
an opportunity to take a decisive part in this brush. 
Prisoners reported that Breckinridge in person com 
manded the rebel forces. He fell back that night to 
his position in front of Murfreesboro, satisfied that the 
" Yankee " mortgage on Nashville could not be lifted 
by his command. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE Right Wing at Nashville Railway Communication with Mitch- 
ellsville Resumed Organization of the Army Sketches of McCook, 
Crittenden ; Rousseau, Negley, and other Division Generals. 

BRIGADIER GENERAL SILL S Division, of McCook s 
command, was the first to arrive at ISTashville. The 
General Commanding promptly made acknowledge 
ments to General McCook for his activity and energy 
in arriving two hours in advance of the time desig 
nated. He had opened and secured regular commu 
nication between that city and General Headquarters, 
and it was now safe beyond peradventure. This was 
equally gratifying to its trusty garrison, who had 
been so closely beleagured that they were suffering for 
ration-al comforts. Tidings from the enemy were 
equally reassuring. They were moving around from 
Chattanooga, but with difficulty. The railway bridge 
across the Tennessee River at Bridgeport had been 
destroyed which involved the necessity of tranship 
ment and laborious ferriage of troops and armament 
at that crossing. It was clear they were not ready to 
advance. 

On the 6th railroad communication to Mitchells- 
ville was re-established, and heavy trains of subsist 
ence were forwarded to that depot. General McCook 
was directed to supply himself by wagons thence, and 
the other corps were moved forward. The three 
grand divisions of the army were now designated the 



ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 39 

Right Wing, Center, and Left Wing, although, the 
general order to that effect was not issued until some 
days later. The Right Wing, commanded by Major 
General McCook, consisted of three divisions, under 
Brigadier General J. W. Sill, Brigadier General Philip 
II. Sherridan, and Colonel W. E. Woodruff, who tem 
porarily commanded the old division of Brigadier 
General R. B. Mitchell. Major General Thomas com 
manded the Center, consisting of the divisions of 
Major General Lovell H. Rousseau, Brigadier Gener 
als Dumont, Fry, Palmer, and Negley. Damon t and 
Fry were subsequently relieved, and Palmer was 
transferred to the Left Wing. The Left Wing, com 
manded by Major General Thomas L. Crittenden, 
consisted of the divisions of Brigadier Generals 
Thomas Jefferson Wood, II. P. Van Cleve, and W. S. 
Smith. The Headquarters Staff was increased by the 
announcement of Captain Elmer Otis, commanding 
the Fourth regiment of United States Cavalry, as 
Chief of Courier Lines, and R. S. Thorns, of Cincin 
nati, Volunteer Aiddecamp, with rank of Captain. 

MAJOR GENERAL M COOK. 

Major General McCook was considered a good sol 
dier. He was prompt, energetic, and enterprising, 
with ambition to excel. His command was always in 
fine condition, and, apparently, was attached to him. 
He was fortunate in division commanders of military 
knowledge, experience, and ability, and his brigade 
officers such as Sill, Willich, Kirk, Carlin, Roberts, 
and Shaeffer, and Gibson, later, were of the elite of 
the army. His troops had fought, some of them in 
Missouri, a portion at Pea Ridge, others at Shiloh, 



40 ORGANIZATION OP THE ARMY. 

and all at Chaplin Hills. Three-fourths of them 
were veterans, and the raw levies were required to 
drill incessantly. General McCook himself was in 
the prime of youthful vigor not exceeding thirty- 
three years of age, and free from vicious habits which 
tend to impair the constitution. He had graduated at 
the National Military Academy, in 1851, and entered 
service immediately as Brevet Second Lieutenant of the 
Third United States Infantry. After promotion to a 
First Lieutenancy, he was Professor of Tactics at West 
Point, and was First Lieutenant of the line when the 
rebellion declared itself at Sumter. Governor Denni- 
son at once commissioned him Colonel of the first 
three months regiment organized in his native State, 
and the first organized in the West under the Presi 
dent s requisition for volunteers. After serving three 
months on the Potomac with distinction, as tactician 
and disciplinarian, he was recommissioned by Gov 
ernor Dennison for three years. "While reorganizing 
his regiment, the President promoted him to the posi 
tion of Brigadier General, and he was assigned to the 
Department of the Ohio. At Shiloh he commanded 
a division, and distinguished himself. The President 
promoted him to the grade he now enjoys, and Gen 
eral Buell assigned to him a corps of three divisions, 
with which he fought the sanguinary but indecisive 
battle of Chaplin Hills. General Rosecrans continued 
him in the same command. 

MAJOR GENERAL CRITTENDEN. 

Major General Crittenden was considered, in army 
circles, an officer of popular manners, and an earnest, 
zealous soldier. In his youth he had served as Aid- 



ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 41 

decamp in Mexico, on the staff of General Taylor. 
Otherwise he had no military experience. He never 
vascillated in his devotion to the Union, while his 
most intimate friends in Kentucky were proclaiming 
themselves traitors. Exercising great influence in 
his native State, the President commissioned him a 
Brigadier General. He applied himself to his duties, 
and the division to which he was assigned as com 
mander, soon took rank among the effective forces of 
the Army of the Ohio. He had now served a year or 
more, and for his good conduct and valor at Shiloh 
had been promoted to Major General. Later, three 
divisions, which constituted his present corps, were 
assigned to him. There was no cooler or more thor 
oughly self-possessed soldier in the Fourteenth Army 
Corps. He is the second son of Hon. John J. Crit- 
tend^n his elder brother, George, being in the rebel 
army. He is about forty years old, of medium stat 
ure, spare figure, and straight as a ramrod with 
swarthy complexion, long straight black hair, with 
strong, prominent features, and a proud, stately bear 
ing. He is rather reticent, but "Old Kentucky" 
asserts herself in his deportment. 

He was fortunate in commanding a corps of vete 
rans, some of whom had learned the rudiments of 
grim visaged war in Western Virginia. Only nine 
regiments of them were unseasoned. Two divisions 
had fought at Shiloh, and won laurels with their 
commander. Nelson s famous " man-of-war " division, 
afterward commanded by Palmer, was one of them. 
Brigadier Generals Wood and Van Cleve, regular offi 
cers, ranked high for skill and enterprise Wood 
especially, who was regarded second to none in expe- 
4 



42 ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

rience and cultured intellect. Palmer afterward 
made his mark. These were ably sustained by Brig 
adier Generals Hascall and Cruft, Colonels Hazen, 
Harker, Stanley Matthews, Wagner, Grose, Samuel 
Beatty, and Fyffe, whose testimony is a rubric of rebel 
blood. 

MAJOR GENERAL ROUSSEAU. 

Major General Rousseau, commanding the reserve 
division of the Center, was molded for a hero. Mature 
had infused into him a spirit of fiery enthusiasm, 
which blazed in his features, spouted from his beam 
ing eyes, and declared itself in a voice which rung in 
battle like a clarion. It \vas impossible to resist his 
captivating influence, and no man could so inflame 
the ardor of troops in the shock of conflict. His sol 
diers roared at his presence, hailing his magnificent 
port with joyful acclamations. Towering above the 
heroic stature and swelling out in grand physical pro 
portions, with a countenance glowing with frankness, 
generosity, and courage, and manners irresistibly 
seductive, you perceive in him the representative and 
model of true chivalry. Mounted upon his thorough 
bred chestnut, and careering before his embattled host, 
you recognize your beau ideal of a gallant soldier. 
He is thoroughly a Kentuckian, and thoroughly a 
patriot, who loves his country and the government of 
the people with unconquerable affection. Lovell H. 
Rousseau is one of the true men of Kentucky and of 
the nation, and when the scroll of honor is -complete, 
his name will glow with the noblest. He is a volun 
teer soldier, promoted from the Colonelcy of the 
Louisville Legion the first regiment enlisted in Ken- 



ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 43 

tucky, and by himself first to a Brigadier General, 
and afterward to a Major General, for distinguished 
gallantry and services at Shiloh and Chaplin Hills. 

BRIGADIER GENERAL NEGLEY. 

Brigadier General James S. Negley, of Pennsylva 
nia, commanding the second division of the Center, 
\vas not popular with a certain clique of officers, but 
thoroughly enjoyed the confidence of the General 
Commanding, of his immediate commander, and of 
his splendid division. At this period he was not with 
the main army. He had been left by General Buell 
in command of the garrison at Nashville, where, by 
his energy and activity, and by his patriotic civico- 
military administration he had won the respect of the 
Government. He was yet in command at Nashville, 
and had but recently repulsed an attack of the enemy. 
He was destined to win further honor. He was a vol 
unteer officer, but ever proved himself a trusty sol 
dier. After all the divisions had been reviewed by 
the General Commanding, there was no dispute in the 
staff that his was among the best divisions of the 
Fourteenth Corps. Dumont and Fry soon afterward 
disappeared, and Palmer took a division in the Left 
Wing. After the Hartsville affair, Dumont s Divi 
sion was merged in others, and Brigadier General 
James B. Steadrnan, a soldier and a zealous patriot, 
succeeded General Fry. The brigade commanders of 
the first and second divisions, Scribner, John Beatty, 
Starkweather, " Black Jack" Shepherd, Miller, R. T. 
Stanley, and sturdy old Spears, were all distinguished 
men. The other brigadiers do not fall within the 
scope of this narrative. 



44 OUTLINES OF THE CAMPAIGN. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

SABBATH in the Army Review of Ten Days The Military Situa 
tion The Army Moving Outlines of the Campaign Its Relations 
to Other Departments Bragg s Advantages Rosecrans Difficul 
ties His Numerical Force. 

ON the 8th. it was announced that headquarters 
would be transferred to Nashville on the morrow. 
Subsequently remembering that the succeeding day 
was Sunday, the General Commanding suspended 
the order twenty-four hours. This is worthy of 
notice simply as an indication of the principle by 
which he was governed. He entertained an aversion 
to movements upon the Sabbath, unless they were 
indispensable. The troops soon understood this, and 
they approved it from motives which seemed a curi 
ous combination of superstition and conscientious 
scruples. But the impression that Sunday military 
enterprises could not prosper was fixed in their 
minds, and they commended the example of their 
commander. 

Ten days had now expired since General Rosecrans 
had assumed command. "We may regard this as the 
introductory period of preparation. It will clear the 
record to glance at the situation. Every available 
hour had been devoted to the preparation of his 
forces and the maturation of his plans for future 
operations. The railroad had been repaired to Mitch- 
ellsville. Supply trains were rushing over the road 



OUTLINES OF THE CAMPAIGN. 45 

as rapidly as steam and energy could press them. 
Measures had been taken for the perfection of the 
cavalry; an immense pack-mule train had been 
ordered ; garrisons had been established to protect 
communications: pioneer corps had been organized ; 
the army itself had been reorganized, and was dis- 
playing its old spirit; horses, arms, equipments, 
subsistence, were coming forward, and vast quantities 
of uncatalogued but indispensable routine business 
had been cleaned out of official pigeon holes. 
The army was sweeping like a great torrent toward 
Nashville, overflowing the country with its legions 
and innumerable trains. Intense activity was visible 
in every quarter of the department, and the campaign 
was opening auspiciously. How much labor, how 
many harrassing vexations were in the womb of the 
future ! The season of drought was not yet at its 
zenith. Cumberland River continued a feeble rivulet, 
threading its way limpidly through the clefts of the 
mountains, and the Military Chief of the nation, 
unmindful of the lessons of experience, was disposed 
to exact more than he himself had genius to accom 
plish under far happier conditions. 

The outline of the campaign was part of a 
vast system devised it must be finally confessed 
with great sagacity at "Washington. This system 
extended from the Potomac to the western borders 
of Missouri, and from the Potomac and the Ohio to 
the Gulf of Mexico. The part assigned to General 
Rosecrans was a carving from the general scheme. 
His success depended as much upon that of the com 
manders of other departments as upon his own 
genius. Either one of them failing, jeopardized 



46 OUTLINES OF THE CAMPAIGN. 

him, and would necessarily compel him to suspend 
aggressive operations, if it did not throw him upon 
the defensive. Major General Grant, commanding 
the Department of Western Tennessee, was on his 
right, pressing sharply into Mississippi. If he met 
with disaster, it would uncover Rosecrans right flank, 
and expose him to superior numbers. If Grant held 
his own, Rosecrans right was safe against any project 
from Pemberton s Army of the Mississippi ; and the 
distance from Pemherton to Bragg, and the vital 
necessity to hold the Mississippi Valley for the rebel 
government, insured him against the sudden concen 
tration of any material portion of Pemberton s with 
Bragg s forces against him. 

Major General Wright, commanding the Depart 
ment of the Ohio, which included Kentucky and 
Western Virginia, covered the left and rear of Rose- 
crans. With his formidable army, there was little 
danger to be apprehended on that flank unless there 
was misfortune elsewhere. If the x Army of the Poto 
mac met with disaster, it involved each army of the 
Republic, but the Fourteenth Army Corps most 
directly and seriously. It would enable the rebels 
to detach heavy reinforcements for the relief of other 
departments, and Bragg was likely to receive assist 
ance earliest. Fortunately, the Army of the Potomac 
promised to afford employment for all of Lee s forces, 
If federal operations on the coast were successful, 
they would occupy all the rebel troops in the South- 
Eastern States. If otherwise, Bragg would draw 
accessions thence. But the signs were all hopeful, 
and it seemed morally certain that Bragg could not 
get reinforcements enough to give him a decided 



OUTLINES OF THE CAMPAIGN. 47 

numerical superiority. Still lie enjoyed the formi 
dable advantage of operating upon comparatively 
short interior lines in a friendly mountainous terri 
tory, which afforded him fair supplies of forage and 
subsistence, while Rosecrans waged offensive warfare 
in a hostile and desolated country, in which almost 
every white inhabitant was a spy and bitter enemy 
a country which had been gleaned of supplies, and 
which is remarkable for the defensive military posi 
tions it affords. He, therefore, was compelled to trans 
port his supplies over two hundred miles before he 
could hope to reach the enemy; and his difficulties 
would increase as he progressed, according to the 
length of his line of communication. The feebleness 
of his cavalry secured rebel communications, and the 
superiority of their s constantly endangered his com 
munications, so that each day s march depleted his 
already greatly diminished effective force, which, after 
deducting the sick, and heavy details for garrison 
duty, did not exceed sixty-five thousand men. The 
number of absentees on November 15, as exhibited 
by the consolidated semi-monthly report on file in 
the Adjutant General s Office, exhibits something 
of the condition of affairs when General Ilosecrans 
assumed command, to wit : 

Commissioned Officers absent by authority, 1,188 

Enlisted Men " " " 25,294 

Total absent by authority, 26,482 



Commissioned Officers absent without authority, 123 

Enlisted Men, " " 6,301 



Total, 6,484 

Grand total, thirty -two thousand nine hundred and sixty- 



48 OUTLINES OF THE CAMPAIGN. 

six. Those absent without authority were deserters. 
Those absent by authority embraced details and the 
sick. But nearly one-fourth of the number of soldiers 
belonging to the Department did not muster for duty. 
It is worth while to remember this fact, because it is 
: often inquired, What became of the great Army of 
the Cumberland ? 



ON TO NASHVILLE. 49 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MOUNTED A Sharp Trot through Rebel Ruins Picture of the Abom 
ination of Desolation Fire in the Forest Copy of Blue Grass 
Bivouac Fires and Tattoo To Board and to Blankets. 

BUT to return to narrative. At dawn on the 
morning of November 10, General Rosecrans and the 
staff took passage on a special railway train at Bowl 
ing Green, and were whirled swiftly to Mitchellsville. 
Horses were in waiting, and five minutes after the 
cars stopped, the General, escorted by a squadron of 
the Fourth Begular Cavalry under Captain Otis, 
mounted and trotted briskly to the right upon a 
country road connecting with the old Louisville and 
Nashville turnpike. There was a distance of little 
less than forty miles before him. The country was 
infested by roving bands of hostile guerrillas, and the 
route was rather hazardous, but it was thronged by 
long transportation trains strongly guarded, which 
was deemed sufficient protection. Nevertheless the 
staff were cautioned to remain with the escort. 

The route was interesting as the early highway of 
rebellion. The first camp of instruction of the insur 
gents (Camp Trousdale), was passed a mile or two 
after crossing the Kentucky and Tennessee line. It 
was from this point that South-Western Kentucky 
was impregnated with the virus of active rebellion. 
We were then trifling with Kentucky neutrality, and 
covert treachery, while Simon Bolivar Buckner was 



50 ON TO NASHVILLE. 

sending* the State Guard of Kentucky into this camp, 
and amusing General McClellan and the Administra 
tion with hypocritical professions of loyalty. 

The first acre of Tennessee soil betrayed the ruth 
less track of war. Fallow fields were spread out 
before the vision, and the voice of the planter was 
not needed to prove that the peaceful plowshare had 
been transformed into the biting sword. Fences had 
been absorbed in camp-fires; the click of the old 
mill wheel had ceased ; broken windows and shat 
tered frames stared from deserted homesteads; and 
charred chimneys begrimed with smoke stains, stood 
in stark solitude in the bosom of deflowered gardens 
and blistered groves painful monuments of rebellion 
and grim pictures of its bitter fruits. Ravage and 
desolation everywhere. There were no little children 
gamboling on cabin thresholds. Hardly a dog barked 
at the rattling cavalcade. Now and then a woe- 
stricken woman peered sadly through a shivered 
window-pane. Yonder, a rugged and ragged and 
wretched man in butternut jeans, clinging with the 
resolution of desperation to the last rafter of the 
dear old homestead, scowled ferociously at the pass 
ing strangers in his country s uniform. But, as if 
deliberate purpose had not afflicted the land with fell 
visitation, carelessness and chance were now aggra 
vating havoc. Idle soldiers or heedless teamsters 
kindling bivouac fires among the dry leaves of 
autumn, had communicated flames to the forests, and 
consuming conflagrations were streaming like whirl 
winds through their brittle branches. Fences far 
outside of the beaten war-path, obscure fields of corn 
covered by friendly distance, dwellings, once homes 



ON TO NASHVILLE. 51 

of innocence and rustic joy, but pleasant homes no 
more, farm tenements and standing grain, were now 
licked up by the scathing fury as the sand of the 
desert is swallowed by simoon. A gloomy pall of 
smoke, fit emblem of the mournful pestilence which 
desolated that sad land, hovered over the scotched 
and blistered face of nature in dismal clouds, through 
which the Southern sun, like an angry globe of fire, 
but dimly scattered its enfeebled blaze the abomin 
ation of desolation, but fitting retribution for parri 
cidal war. 

The face of the country pretty much all the way to 
Nashville is rudely rumpled. About midway it is 
intersected with rugged irregular ridges spurring out 
from the Cumberland Mountains, until they sink 
insensibly into the lowlands of Western Tennessee. 
But the surface of the whole territory is diversified 
with cross ridges and bluff hills many of them too 
rude for profitable cultivation, though the intervening 
valleys and the frequent plateaus are fertile and till 
able lands. Compensated labor and a liberal intersper- 
sion of schoolhouses would make it an attractive and 
desirable country. The sword is carving through its 
stingy barbarism toward its industrial millennium. 

Ten or more miles north of Nashville the prospect 
opens into a vista of beauty and high cultivation. 
You fall upon a wide wavy landscape decorated with 
stately and tasteful mansions, seducing sense by pleas 
ant prospects of lofty ceilings and spacious porches. 
They are war-scarred now, but even the wrecks 
report their former comeliness. Neat stone fences 
w r hich circumvallate the rich plantations; substantial 
stock and chattel tenements both empty now ; noble 



52 ON TO NASHVILLE. 

groves of oak and maple, casting their friendly misle- 
toe shadows upon rich carpetings of thick-set turf, 
remind you much of the sumptuous Blue Grass region 
of Central Kentucky; all, the possessions of traitors 
who have rushed to the tumult of war, leaving wives 
and little ones behind them to weather the withering 
storm alone. 

Night had ensabled the prospect long before the 
cavalcade discovered the feeble glimmer of the dis 
tant city. The groves and hill-sides were blazing 
with cheerful bivouac fires. The merry to-bed tattoo 
rataplanned cheerily in the deep valleys of the Cum 
berland, and the good-night taps of great drums 
rolled up their solemn diapason ere the horse-hoof- 
clatter of the coming chief echoed in the dismal 
streets of desolate Nashville. It was a wearisome, 
dusty march, and the smothering smoke of smolder 
ing forest fires had w r ell nigh suffocated jaded steeds 
and their shattered riders. A generous feast at the 
hospitable board of General McCook and the mem 
ories of the day, for the nonce, were soon buried in 
the oblivion of soldiers blankets. 

The recollection of such marchings usually are 
invested with a restricted interest. But the future 
historian will not complain when he searches among 
the dusty pages of these stirring times to find the 
feeblest pictures which may illustrate the character 
of his heroes. Occasions like this disenthralled the 
mind of the Commanding General, and it sought 
recreation in wandering over the field of thought and 
speculation nevertheless pursuing persistently the 
great object of his contemplation as the helm which 
governed his reflections. But he found relaxation 



ON TO NASHVILLE. 53 

from the tread-mill of office. Riding along the 
highway, he was careful to observe the configuration 
of the country and its military characteristics, requir 
ing the inscription upon the note-book of his Topo 
graphical Engineer of intersecting roads, as often as 
such roads rambled off into the forests along the line 
of march. Habitually cheerful, in a remarkable 
degree, on such expeditions the mercury of his spirits 
rises into playfulness, which develops itself in merry 
familiar quips and jests with his subordinates, and 
none laugh more pleasantly than he. Fine scenery 
excites his poetic temperament, and he dwells elo 
quently upon the picturesqueness of nature, exhibit 
ing at once the keenest appreciation of the "kind 
mother of us all," and the niceties of landscape art. 
But the grandeur of nature more frequently car 
ries his mind into the realms of religion, when he 
is wont to burst into adoration of his Maker, or 
launch into vehement and impatient rebuke of scoff 
ers. All of nature to him is admonition of God. 
Such is his abhorrence of infidelity, that he would 
banish his best loved officers from his military house 
hold, should any presume to intrude it upon him. He 
is wont to say he has no security for the morality of 
any man who refuses to recognize the Supreme 
Being. Religion is his favorite theme, and Roman 
Catholicism to him is infallible. In his general dis 
cussions of religion, he betrays surprising acquaint 
ance with the multifarious theologies which have 
vexed the world, and condemns them all as corrup 
tions of the true doctrines of the Mother Church. 
His social conversations of this character are seldom 
indulged with his cherished guest, Rev. Father Trecy, 



54 ON TO NASHVILLE. 

with whom he is always en rapport, hut he is ever 
ready to wage controversy with any other disputant. 
But argument with him on his faith, had as well he 
ended with the beginning, save for the interest with 
which he invests his subject, and the ingenious skill 
with which he supports it. Ambling along the high 
way in a day s journey, unless some single theme of 
business absorbs him, he will range through science, 
art, and literature with happy freedom and ability. 
You do not listen long before you are persuaded that 
you hear one who aspires ambitiously beyond the 
mere soldier. The originality and shrewdness of his 
criticisms, the comprehensiveness of his generaliza 
tions, and his erudition, assures you that you talk 
with no ordinary man. Ten hours trotting with him, 
though a sore trial of flesh, is richly repaid by 
instruction received, and the happy recollections 
which his companions afterward find stored in their 
memories. 



THE RICH AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 55 



CHAPTER IX. 

CUNNINGHAM HOUSE Nashville in Military Dress Fort Negley 
Unhappiness of the Rich Misery of the Poor Heartlessness of 
the Master Class A Picture of Wretchedness The Male Popula 
tion Social Tyranny The Unwritten Law of Female Despotism 
Non-Intercourse with Yankees The Pass System The Ruined 
Suburbs of Nashville. 

HEADQUARTERS were established in the Cunningham 
mansion, a spacious and elegant edifice well adapted 
to the patriotic uses to which it was appropriated. 
The staff enjoyed it, but the elite of rebellious Nash 
ville did not seem to appreciate their comfort. Cun 
ningham was a Quartermaster in the rebel service 
and a Federal Quartermaster was now occupying 
the dwelling of his neighbor, Colonel Stevenson, also 
a rebel Quartermaster. A little later the Provost 
Marshal General was elbowed out of the Cunning 
ham house, and occupied the former residence of 
General Zollicoffer. Many other private and public 
buildings were also appropriated to federal uses, and 
they were found quite convenient. This will interest 
the rebels hereafter, and it is desirable likewise to 
designate objects of historical interest for the future 
entertainment of residents of Nashville who arc now 
involuntarily absent. 

Nashville was now a military city. It exhibited 
many of the features of a conquered city which had 



56 THE RICH AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 

been recently relieved from a long investment. It was 
girdled with a waist of formidable fortifications and 
encircled by a zone of warlike camps. Its proud capi- 
tol, graceful and beautiful, upon the crown of a rocky 
hill which commanded a charming prospect of splen 
did suburbs, and a rich mosaic of forests and fields lin 
ing the shores of the picturesque Cumberland, was a 
castle frowning with great guns on its battlements 
and bristling with glittering bayonets. The streets 
were barricaded with cotton, and earthen parapets. 
St. Cloud Hill, once the cynosure of the Hock City, 
when it was decorated with stately oaks which might 
have excited the pagan fervor of Druid High Priest, 
was a menacing fortress grinning at traitors in the 
rear and scowling at armed rebels in front. The 
Casino and Fort Confiscation beyond, confirmed the 
hopelessness of relief to the prisoned malcontents 
within their range. The tramp of hated soldiery, and 
the ominous rumble of cannon wheels echoed in the 
stony streets. 

THE RICH AND POOR. 

A sad mixture of luxury and desolation excited 
generous commiseration. The dwellings were full of 
rich furniture but the markets were bare and money 
scant. Once opulent families secretly sought charity 
that they might live. Thousands of wretched poor 
women and children existed in squalid want. Labor 
was scarce and the "poor white trash" were often 
too spiritless to work when offered a fact abundantly 
attested. They suffered their children to chatter with 
cold, and shivered through the dreary nights of win 
ter themselves, rather than cut and carry home the 



THE RICH AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 57 

wood in the adjacent forest, which the authorities had 
condemned for their use. And they awaited in 
wretchedness and listless apathy for the tardy collec 
tion and distribution of the charity tax which the 
Governor levied upon the wealthy classes of traitors 
for their relief. The latter were heartless, hut sen 
sible to the strong arm of power. The appeals of 
misery among their own poor was sound to them, and 
nothing but a sound. In November, a miserable ten 
ement in the edge of town was burned. An emacia 
ted woman dying with slow fever, was dragged out of 
the fire by her almost equally wretched sister, and 
laid helpless upon the bed in the commons. Scores 
of citizens passed her with scarce a word and no deed 
of sympathy. The prostrate sick woman lay there 
two days with no canopy but the clouds, and the pen 
niless sister stirring a little pile of smoking chips 
waited for her to die. Nobody took them in. Three 
federal officers dashing across the commons were hor 
ror-stricken at the woe-begotten, and woc-begone 
spectacle, and the sick woman and poverty-stricken 
sister suffered no more. This was one visible picture 
of scores like it. There were hundreds invisible to 
public eyes. 

FEMALE DESPOTISM. 

Most of the able-bodied male population had gone 
to war. Very few fought under "the banner of 
beauty and glory." Scarcely a score of hale young 
men remained in the city. No matter about their 
inclination. They dared not resist rebel power where 
it governed them. The women who governed the 
master class scorned them if they remained at home, 



58 THE RICH AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 

after the army was driven out. The social influence 
of the domineering caste was a more relentless 
tyranny than the sword. Some loyal men remained, 
but for the most part the men were either very poor or 
rich who exceeded the military age. These remained 
to plot treason and communicate tidings to their con 
federates in arms. Many families had removed far 
South, but most of the women and children were left 
in Nashville. The former were cold and unsocial, but 
generally when necessarily thrown in contact with 
federal officers they were courteous. Often, the excep 
tions occupied dubious positions in society. If other 
wise, it was fair to infer that their husbands had gone 
to war for the sake of peace which they were denied 
at home. Occasionally there was pleasant social inter 
course between the women and federal officers, but it 
required unusual daring to violate the unwritten law 
of female despotism. The- front window shutters of 
dwellings which during balmy peace were wont to 
be flung glaringly open habitually were now as 
habitually closed as if there were a funeral in every 
house. There had been mourning in almost every 
leading family, and there was woe in store which 
they had not drawn. 

THE PASS SYSTEM. 

The rebel blockade of Nashville, and the necessity 
of severe military restrictions had kept marketers 
away from the city. Even the few supplies which 
were ventured in from the country were mostly appro 
priated for the military hospitals, so that there was a 
sort of necessity for people to go foraging. But all 
were forbidden to pass the military lines without writ- 



THE ftlCH AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 59 

ten permit. It was hazardous to pass any persons 
because, with an exception now and then, they were 
mostly self-avowed rebels. Nothing was clearer than 
that a majority of them would avail themselves of all 
opportunities to convey information or smuggle arti 
cles contraband of war through the lines to the ene 
my. Experience had taught the authorities to doubt 
the veracity of all, and especially the fair portion of 
community whom men are ever willing enough to 
trust. General Negley, commandant of the post, had 
tested the question thoroughly and although a gal 
lant man himself, he admonished the Provost Marshal 
General to beware of the women a very necessary 
admonition. There was more need of it, however, at 
the outposts, since soldiers all over the world, ever 
susceptible to beauty, insisted that a pretty face is a 
valid countersign. 

But the unanimous testimony of the various com 
mandants of the city, had been cast in the balance 
against the women. The burthen of proof touching 
their veracity was laid upon them heavily. "Whatever 
they may have been at the time of the first Yankee 
irruption, there was no disputing now that they were 
generally very courteous. But whether it was frailty 
of memory, or an assurance that they were not in 
honor bound to keep faith with Yankees, too many 
were accustomed to violate their most sacred pledge, 
so that often truthful and excellent women suffered 
the consequences of the turpitude of their friends. 
Many who resided in the suburbs but outside of our 
lines found it necessary to visit the city, and hundreds 
who resided within the lines either had good reasons 
for desiring to pass outside, or feigned them. Couse- 



60 THE RICH AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 

quently there was an incessant clamor for passes until 
General Negley interdicted them entirely. After the 
embargo was raised the demand increased, and the 
General Commanding arrived at Nashville in the 
midst of the pass epidemic. We have had the diag 
nosis of the humor ; we shall hereafter observe the 
treatment of the (im)patients. 

The exquisite suburbs of Nashville, renowned all over 
the Union for their tasteful elegance, were more war- 
stricken than the once fair city. Splendid seats, gar 
nished with all the appliances of wealth, and lustrous 
with the polish of art and graces of munificent 
nature, were now bleak, lonely, and ruined sad 
monuments of rebellion. Their graceful porches were 
scotched by flames, their stately columns carved and 
hewn with rude inscriptions, their noble groves scat 
tered in chips, and broken branches, and ashes, over 
the dark green turf. The rich furniture of lordly 
dwellings, their treasures of art and literature were 
mutilated, scattered, or destroyed, and charming gar 
dens were trampled in the dust. Ruin glared at you 
with baleful visage. Now and then a dwelling was 
dismally tenanted, but there were no external signs 
of animation. You would say " somebody is dead." 
The men were exiles, but lone women remained in 
woeful gloom. Those palaces were more dreary than 
a monastery. The fronts frowned in loneliness ; the 
wide doors were sealed to the frames like the gates 
of a dungeon. Scarce a glimmer of light, a furtive 
gleam perhaps, sometimes flashed through the latticed 
shutters and violated the shrouded sanctity of the 
somber occupants. Those mournful women not long 
ago were gay and graceful queens of brilliant salons. 



THE RICII AND POOR OF NASHVILLE. 61 

shedding their luster upon society whose equal in the 
social art could hardly be found in all the sunny South. 
They mope there now in hopeless solitude, brooding 
bitterly through the weary months upon the miseries 
of war, which was born of their pride, and weeping 
unquenchable tears over the fall of those they loved. 
So let them cherish their self-created sorrow. It is 
the penalty of rebellion. 



62 THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 



CHAPTER X. 

ADMINISTRATION* of the Department Civico-Military Police The 
Provost, Marshal General Female Diplomacy Persistence of Rebel 
Women Female Smugglers The Petticoat System finally Adjust 
ed The Chief of Army Police His Signal Services Trade Mat 
ters The Non-combatant Policy. 

THE concentration of the army at Nashville having 
been ordered, General Kosecrans directed his atten 
tion to the general administration of the department 
while he tediously awaited the accumulation of sup 
plies. The duties of the department of the Provost 
Marshal General were the most vexatious. They 
involved questions of both individual and general 
policy; of trade and of political administration. Cap 
tain "Wm. M. Wiles, of the Twenty-Second Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, a young officer of energy and 
capacity, who had discharged similar functions on the 
staff of the General Commanding in Mississippi, wag 
announced Provost Marshal General. He was at once 
involved in the meshes of rebel female diplomacy. 
He had hardly eaten his first breakfast in Nashville 
before he was enveloped by swarms of bewildering 
beauties some of them not so pretty pleading, 
beseeching, coaxing and plying the seductive arts of 
their sex to secure permits to pass through the mili 
tary lines ; or soliciting guards to protect their prem 
ises against pillagers ; or begging for safe-guards, 
which would secure them against the visitation of 



THE CII1KF OF ARMY POLICE. 63 

foragers. During a little while, Wiles found play 
ful gossip with sprightly women a very nice thing, 
but a dozen, a score, a room full at once, sapped his 
philosophy speedily ; he summarily denied all appli 
cations. The pouting petitioners clamored for the 
General. He was inaccessible. They lingered will 
fully in the hall waiting for him to emerge from his 
apartment. A cordon of pathetic women blockaded 
the staircase, and fired whole volleys of touching 
petitions at him. One "had a baby at home, outside 
the lines. She must have a pass to return. It would 
cry its eyes out. If it did nt, she would." She learned 
that she had no business to come inside the lines. 
Another was obliged to have a pass to go to the coun 
try for provisions. The General excused himself. 
" It s not my business," he said, " to give but to refuse 
passes." A third had a " poor sick uncle," whom she 
" must see. Quoth the General, " I have a sick 
uncle. When my Uncle Sam recovers from his severe 
indisposition, I may consider the propriety of granting 
passes to rebel women." 

CUNNING LADIES. 

This species of vexation did not cease while head 
quarters were in Nashville. A rigid rule governing 
the issue of passes was established, but necessarily 
there were exceptions. Sometimes two hundred 
women applied in a day. A certain class of market 
ers and poor people were liberally indulged. It was 
indiscreet to grant a permit to any of the aspiring 
classes without rigidly catechising each, and requiring 
a moral guarantee against imposition. The artfulness 
of some of the more accomplished women was divert- 



64 THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 

ing. Such were too cunning, if not too well bred, to 
oftend fin officer. If unsuccessful in their application 
to the Provost Marshal, they devised schemes to gain 
an interview with the General. They rarely failed to 
see him, but they often regretted it. Army officers 
interceded for them ; influential loyal citizens, whose 
petitions it was not politic to refuse, became their 
advocates and guarantors. Finally, a number of 
women were permitted to pass to the rebel lines 
under flags of truce, conditioned to return no more 
within federal lines, and solemnly pledged to convey 
neither military information or articles contraband of 
war to the enemy. 

THE PETTICOAT SYSTEM. 

The perfidy which has so prominently characterized 
the rebels from the beginning of the war, was fre 
quently exhibited by ladies whose social position 
should have elevated them above the crimes of perjury 
and larceny. It seemed impossible for them to resist 
temptation. They were often detected in smuggling 
both contraband goods and information, after having 
entered into sacred obligations to respect the conditions 
upon which passes were issued. They were mean 
spirited enough afterward to boast that they had per 
fidiously outwitted the " Yankees." A female detec 
tive entrapped one honorable dame, enveloped in an 
enormous grey cassimere pettyskirt, which was 
intended for a rebel uniform. An immense pocket, 
spacious as a market basket, was crammed with qui 
nine. Another was politely denuded by the female 
detective, and a quantity of letters directed to rebel 
officers was found under her chemise. Another, who 



THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE 65 

had a permit to remove her household goods South, 
was arrested at the outposts, and escorted back to the 
Army Police Office. A prodigious quantity of quinine, 
blue mass, morphine, men s brogans and boots for 
army use, with gre}^ uniforms, clothing, needles, 
threads, buttons, et cetera, were found concealed inside 
of her feather beds. Two pairs of long-legged heavy 
cavalry boots, which madam had attached to her own 
skirts, fell from their delicate hiding place, when she 
sprung from her vehicle at command of the officer 
who arrested her. It was shrewdly suspected that the 
" Southern Ladies Aid Society," which had a flourish 
ing branch at Nashville, was not entirely innocent in 
the premises, and its members finally exhibited anx 
iety to avoid the keen espionage of the Army Yidocq. 

COLONEL WILLIAM TRUESDAIL. 

The adjustment of the petticoat system was finally 
perfected by Colonel William Truesdail, Chief of 
Army Police an officer who has rendered most sig 
nal services to the Government, but whose operations 
can not be described until there shall be peace in all 
our borders. His department, though intimately 
associated with the office of the Provost Marshal, 
rapidly developed into the proportions of a great 
bureau. He gathered about him an army of spies and 
scouts, and for local administration devised a system 
of surveillance, which pursued declared and secret 
enemies into their most secluded haunts. His faculty 
for acquiring satisfactory information from the enemy 
was wonderful. He was accustomed to make daily 
written reports to the General Commanding of the 
forces, location and movements of the rebekanny, and 
6 



66 THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 

subsequent development established the integrity of 
liis information. There was no species of evil affect 
ing the prosperity of the campaign that escaped his 
observation. Mischievous sutlers were watched ; the 
trade in counterfeit confederate notes was broken up; 
smugglers were detected; Knights of the Golden 
Circle in the army and out of it were circumvented ; 
the Southern Ladies Aid Society organized to pro 
mote the comfort of rebel officers was embarrassed, 
compelled to operate more secretly, and was often 
defeated in its enterprises. In short, the system was 
a vast net-work, extending its meshes far and wide, 
and enveloping the shrewdest conspiracies of declared 
enemies or falsely-professing neutrals. 

Colonel .Truesdail is remarkably adapted for this 
peculiar service. He is a gentleman by nature and 
habit, with large experience among men, and a search 
ing, penetrating cast of mind, which, united with 
untiring vigilance, secures him against the deceptions 
which his profession requires him to exercise. He 
first entered the service with General Pope, and it is 
often said that " Truesdail made Pope " the value of 
the creation being a subject not under consideration. 
But there are not a few military men of sound judg 
ment who entertain an opinion that if General Pope 
had taken Truesdail with him to the Potomac, his 
rear never would have been successfully assailed by 
the enemy. In Nashville his first business was to pre 
pare a directory of rebels and loyal people, which was 
a valuable guide in the issue of passes. The list of 
professedly innocuous persons was large. These were 
regarded suspicious characters until they had proved 
their fidelity. The catalogue of thoroughly loyal 



THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 67 

people did not occupy many sheets of foolscap, but 
there was a surprising number of men and women 
who were in favor of the "Union as it ivas" the 
meanest and most treacherous description of traitors, 
since their cowardly energies were secretly directed 
against the Government. The conspicuous rebels were 
too adroit to thrust themselves upon the attention of 
authority. Nevertheless they were dangerous, because 
they shrewdly used the professing non-combatant 
class. After a few days experience in Nashville, 
Truesdail adopted a bitter police maxim, which he 
incessantly enjoined upon the Provost Marshal 
"Don t trust women" a biting commentary upon 
the virtue of high-toned chivalry ; the more severe, 
since Colonel Truesdail himself was a Missourian, who 
comprehended the influence of the "institution." 
There were some, however, to whom the rule was not 
applicable. 

TRADE MATTERS. 

The justification of trade matters was one of the 
most perplexing subjects of internal police. The 
merchants who remained in business were anxious to 
resume trade. Most of them were rebels. It was 
morally certain that all of them, unless deterred by 
sharp restrictions, would sell to all purchasers, regard 
less of the requisitions of patriotism. The malcon 
tents claimed trade privileges on the score of 11011- 
combatancy, but they were unwilling to enter into 
bonds to assure their neutrality. The loyal men 
resisted the applications of this class, and resented 
the encroachment of numerous speculators from 
abroad. Their trade was purely local to the military 
occupation. They could not hope to extend it beyond 



68 THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 

the outposts. After consultation with Governor 
Johnson and prominent loyal citizens, General Ros- 
ecrans ordered all army sutlers out of Nashville, 
requiring them to rejoin their regiments, closed the 
doors against foreign speculative enterprise, and 
announced, in orders, to people of all classes, that 
the government would afford them protection and 
trade privileges, conditioned that they would enter 
into penal bonds, with security, and upon taking an 
oath to remain non-combatants until the close of the 
war. In its simplest form, it said to secessionists, 
who were not disposed to take arms, " If you will 
not hurt us in any way, we will not hurt you ; but 
we require security for your pledges. We have the 
right arid the power to prevent you from injuring us, 
by exiling you. We will not exercise either, if you 
guarantee neutrality, and we will protect you as citi 
zens entitled to certain rights/* A Board of Trade, 
composed of several loyal citizens of Kashville, was 
also appointed, to whom all applications for the 
importation of merchandise was referred ; and upon 
their written approval, permits were granted by the 
Provost Marshal General. 

A form of parole bond for non-combatants, 
secured by two sureties, in an amount according 
to the property ability of each, was issued for the 
subscription of all who desired to accept the terms. 
The subscriber gave his penal bond, and bound him 
self by oath to " keep the peace, and afford neither 
aid nor comfort to the enemies of the Government 
of the United States; that he will be a true and 
steadfast citizen of the United States, and that dur 
ing the present rebellion he will not go beyond the 



THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 69 

lines of the federal armies, nor into any section of 
the country in possession of the enemy, without per 
mission of the authorities of the United States." 
Whereupon he was entitled to the benefits of the 
following 

GUARANTEES OP PROTECTION. 

This is to certify, that the citizen named in the within bond, 
having properly executed the same with approved surety, ho 
is entitled from henceforth, to the full protection and support 
of the Government of the United States, and which is hereby 
pledged to him. All persons, military as well as civil, are 
hereby commanded to respect him as a good and loyal citizen, 
in the full enjoyment of his property, both real and personal. 
All foraging is hereby forbidden upon his premises, unless actu 
ally necessary for the support and well-being of the federal 
armies, in which case all possible care shall be exercised, 
and full receipt be given by the officer in charge, which shall 
be duly recognized, and the property paid for by the United 
States Government. Officers in command of foraging expedi 
tions will be held to the strictest accountability for the pro 
tection herein guaranteed. 

W. S. ROSECRANS, 
Major General Commanding Department of the Cumberland* 

ANDREW JOHNSON, 

Military Governor of the State of Tennessee. 

The execution of these bonds was entrusted to 
Provost Judge Fitch, who had been instrumental in 
adjusting the system, and whose services in the Police 
Department entitle him to honorable recognition. 
The new policy embraced all persons within the mili 
tary lines. Many accepted it with alacrity, especially 
the middle class ; but the master class resented it. 



70 THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 

Daring a few day it excited general discussion, and 
was so variously misinterpreted that General Rose- 
crans finally issued the following explanatory paper, 
viz. : 

HEADQUARTERS FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, ^ 
Department of the Cumberland, 

Nashville, Nov. 30, 18G2. j 

Questions have arisen as to the nature of the Parole Oath, 
why and how far it is binding. In answering them, I shall 
assume that to be true which is not so, viz. : That the South 
ern Confederacy is a lawful established government. Whence 
it would follow that males of Tennessee capable of bearing 
arms, who are within the control of the federal lines, are law 
ful subjects of that [the Confederate] Government, and liable 
to be put into its army. 

According to the laws of war, it is at the option of the Fed 
eral Government to dispose of them and all their effects as it 
sees fit, subject to the laws and usages of civilized nations. 

If, by those laws, an invading army may depopulate a coun 
try, and take captive its inhabitants, with greater reason, as a 
lesser evil, it may take prisoners and confine, whenever and 
wherever it may be necessary to prevent mischief, those of 
them who are liable and likely to bear arms against it. 

When it says to them, " Out of humanity I will not do so ; 
I will allow you now to follow your peaceful avocations, if you 
will pledge me, and keep your promises, that you will do me 
no military mischief," it is a great mitigation of its rights in 
favor of humanity. 

The parole of a soldier not to take up arms until lawfully 
exchanged, overrides all his obligations as a citizen and his 
oath of enlistment, and as a relaxation of the rigors of war is 
held sacred by civilized nations. 

The parole of harmless inhabitants is a still greater mitiga 
tion of the rights of war, because it does more good, and he is 



THE CHIEF OF ARMY POLICE. 71 

under but the single obligation of a citizen. For still stronger 
reasons, it must therefore be held sacred by all who pretend 
to civilization, or even to humanity. 

Its justice is obvious. It is humane, and promotes the wel 
fare of the country, which is for the benefit of the people, as 
well as of whoever ultimately holds it. 

The motto of our Government is not that of the Confed 
erate Revolutionists " Rule or Ruin ; " but " Government is 
instituted for the good of the people." 

The end to be attained, and the justice of the means being 
thus pointed out, I have only to say that the non-combatant s 
oath is justly, and will be held, binding during the war ; and 
those who take it, unless exchanged, like prisoners of war, will 
be absolved from its obligations only when the war is ended. 

W. S. ROSECRANS, 

Major General Commanding. 

Whatever may prove the result of this policy ulti 
mately, it unquestionably had a good effect at that 
time. It imparted a healthy and cheerful tone to 
trade circles, and palliated the discontent of many 
who were sour because they were afflicted, and had 
not intelligence to attribute their grievances to the 
system of social and political tyranny which forced 
Tennessee into the rebellion. 



72 THE PERMANENT STAFF. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE Army in Front of Nashville Changes in Commands Brigadier 
General J. J. Reynolds Operations of the Enemy General 
Orders The Night-cap Ordfcr The Permanent Staff Garesche 
"Uay Old Stanley " St. Clair Morton Other Staff Characters. 

THE garrison of jSTasLville, constituting General 
Negley s command, was reviewed by the General 
Commanding on the llth of November, and the other 
divisions of the army successively, as they arrived in 
front of the city. Major General McCook s corps soon 
took up a line on the south-eastern front of Nashville, 
covering the Murfreesboro turnpike, and extending 
to the right, covering the Nolens ville road. Some 
days later Major General Crittenden s corps arrived, 
when McCook s line withdrew further to the right, 
Crittenden s right flank connecting with his left, and 
covering the Murfreesboro pike, his left extending 
across Stone River, with Millcreek in front, and out 
posts about nine miles from the city. Subsequently 
the divisions of Major General Rousseau, and Briga 
dier General Negley of the Center, moved to the front 
and connected with McCook s right, covering the 
Franklin turnpike. The other divisions of the Center 
remained at Gallatin to protect communications, but 
General Thomas repaired to Nashville. Meantime, 
Colonel "W. E. Woodruff, commanding the first 
division of the Right "Wing, was relieved by Brigadier 



THE PERMANENT STAFF. 73 

General Jeff. C. Davis, and Brigadier General R. W. 
Johnson, senior officer, relieved Brigadier General J. 
W. Sill of the command of the second division. 
General Sill was assigned to command the first bri 
gade of General Sherridan s division, and Colonel 
Woodruff took command of General Davis third 
brigade. Other changes were also made. Brigadier 
General Joseph J. Reynolds, who greatly distin 
guished himself in Western Virginia, and who was 
esteemed one of the ablest officers in the service, 
reported for duty, and a division was organized for 
him. The changes consequent upon the merger of 
Dumont s division threw Reynolds into the Center, 
and he was now at Gallatin. Brigadier General J. 
M. Palmer relieved Brigadier General William S. 
Smith, who was in command of kelson s famous 
division, and Smith was ordered to Bowling Green to 
organize a cavalry command. Brigadier General 
Mansoii relieved Brigadier General Robert S. Granger 
at Bowling Green, and the latter was ordered to 
report at iSTashville. Brigadier General Robert B. 
Mitchell, an officer of fine ability, who had conspicu 
ously distinguished himself in the battles of Wilson 
Creek and Chaplin Hills, relieved General IsTegley, 
commandant of the post of JSTashville, and the latter 
went to the front. 

The line in front of Nashville described a wide 
expanded arc trending in a south-easterly direction, 
girdling the city with a broad zone of fieecy camps, 
which wound over the evergreen and russet hills like 
a belt of snow. Millcreek, a small and sinuous stream, 
with bluffy banks, and skirted with thin canebrakes, 
formed a good natural fosse in front. The troops 
7 



74 THE PERMANENT STAFF. 

rested upon a range of commanding cross ridges and 
bounding hills, which upheaved the surface in great 
round billows,, and culminated in crests of oak and 
cedar forests, which subserved the triple purposes of 
landscape beauty, cover for the army, and powerful 
natural fortifications. 

THE SITUATION. 

The situation was not yet clearly pronounced. The 
enemy masked his operations carefully with a formi 
dable shield of cavalry, which were untiringly vigi 
lant. It was reported that Bragg was reconstructing 
the railroad bridge across the Tennessee River, and 
fortifying the banks of that stream, but the principal 
energies of the enemy seemed to be directed to the 
collection of able-bodied negroes and supplies from 
the surrounding country, and to the enforcement of 
the conscript act. Squads of refugees found their 
way into our camps daily, complaining that they were 
compelled to fly to us for protection or take up arms 
against the government. They reported camps of 
the enemy all the way from the Tennessee River to 
Murfreesboro, and at towns on either side of the 
railroad. Federal spies had not been able to ascer 
tain satisfactorily whether Bragg intended to stand 
north of the Tennessee, or to fall back upon Chatta 
nooga. Rebel residents at Nashville bitterly insisted 
that our advance would be resisted in force in Mid 
dle Tennessee, and that Nashville itself would be 
attacked. But this seemed to be contradicted by the 
wives of rebel officers, who betrayed anxiety to see 
their friends " before they moved further south." 
Altogether the attitude of the enemy was so uncer- 



THE PERMANENT STAFF. 75 

tain that it was concluded they would not stand north 
of the Tennessee River, but would adopt the wiser 
course of drawing General Rosecrans as far as possi 
ble from his base. 

The line which had been taken up by General 
Rosecrans was thin and extended, and rather invited 
the enemy to attempt the left, but they could not be 
induced to try the experiment. It was credibly stated 
that Kirby Smith was moving to Lebanon with a 
view to striking a blow, but with the strong display 
of federal force at Gallatin, it was not a hopeful 
enterprise. The enemy had no foothold whatever on 
the north side of the Cumberland, the cavalry divi 
sion, under Colonel John Kennett, having driven 
them south, while Colonel Bruce was giving Wood 
ward s gangs, in south-western Kentucky, their coup 
de grace. 

BUSINESS. 

Routine business, correspondence, the adjustment 
of a new system of inspections, devised by Lieuten 
ant Colonel Ducat and Captain Peterson, the organ 
ization of a signal corps, by the same officers, and 
innumerable items of official detail now absorbed the 
time of the Commanding General and his rapidly- 
increasing staff. A flood of general orders, correcting 
evils which had fastened themselves upon the army, 
were published and enforced. The performance of 
guard duty more difficult than any other to enforce 
in volunteer armies was rigidly required of officers. 
The abuses of sutlers were corrected. General Order 
"No. 4, threatening disgraceful dismissal from the 
service, was sharply executed upon dozens of drunken, 
incompetent, or deserting officers. Cowardly soldiers 



76 THE PERMANENT STAFF. 

(vho had been disaffected, doubtless, by Knights of 
the Golden Circle, and who were practically deserting 
by willfully surrendering to the enemy in order to be 
paroled, were menaced with an order threatening to 
garnish their heads with night-caps and march them 
through the streets of Northern cities in this humili 
ating disguise. 

THE PERMANENT STAFF. 

The following permanent staff was also announced, 
viz. : 

Lieutenant Colonel JULIUS P. GARESCHE, Assistant 
Adjutant General and Chief of Staff. 

Major "W. H. SIDELL, Fifteenth United States In 
fantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant General and Chief 
Mustering and Disbursing Officer. 

Major C. GODDARD, Senior Aiddecamp, Acting As 
sistant Adjutant General. 

Captain J. BATES DICKSON, Assistant Adjutant 
General. 

First Lieutenant HENRY STONE, First Wisconsin 
Volunteer Infantry, Acting Assistant Adjutant Gen 
eral . 

Major RALSTON SKINNER, Judge Advocate. 

Captain CHARLES E. THOMPSON, Aiddecamp. 

First Lieutenant FRANK S. BOND, Tenth Connecticut 
Volunteers, Aiddecamp. 

Second Lieutenant BYRON KIRBY, Sixth United 
States Infantry, Aiddecamp. 

Captain EGBERT S. THOMS, Volunteer Aiddecamp. 

Captain WILLIAM D. BICKHAM, Volunteer Aidde 
camp. 

Lieutenant Colonel A. C. DUCAT, of Illinois, Assist 
ant Inspector General. 



THE PERMANENT STAFF. 77 

Captain J. C. PETERSON, Fifteenth United States 
Infantry, Acting Assistant Inspector General. 

Captain JAMES CURTIS, Fifteenth United States 
Infantry, Acting Assistant Inspector General. 

Lieutenant Colonel J. W. TAYLOR, Quartermaster s 
Department, Chief Quartermaster. 

Lieutenant Colonel SAMUEL SIMMONS, Commissary 
of Subsistence, Chief Commissary. 

Surgeon EBEN SWIFT, United States Army, Medical 
Director. 

Surgeon WEEDS, Medical Inspector. 

Captain JAMES ST. CLAIR MORTON, Corps of En 
gineers, Chief Engineer. 

Second Lieutenant GEORGE BURROUGHS, Corps of 
Engineers. 

Second Lieutenant II. C. "WHARTON, Corps of En 
gineers. 

Captain T. MICHLER, of Topographical Engineers, 
Chief of Topographical Engineers. 

First Lieutenant T. EDSON, Ordnance Corps, Ordi 
nance Officer. 

Brigadier General D. S. STANLEY, United States 
Volunteers, Chief of Cavalry. 

Colonel JAMES BARNETT, First Ohio Artillery, Chief 
of Artillery. 

Captain J. II. GILMAN, Nineteenth United States 
Infantry, Inspector of Artillery. 

Lieutenant Colonel "W. P. HEPBURN, Second Iowa 
Cavalry, Inspector of Cavalry. 

Captain "W. M. WILES, Twenty-Second Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, Provost Marshal General. 

Captain ELMER OTIS, Fourth United States Cavalry, 
Chief of Courier Lines. 



78 THE PERMANENT STAFF. 

Captain J. H. YOUXG, Fifteenth United States In 
fantry, Assistant Mustering Officer. 

Captain JESSE MERRILL, Volunteers, Signal Officer. 

The gallant and accomplished Lieutenant Colonel 
Garesche reported for duty on the 14th of November, 
and at once assumed position as Chief of Staff. He 
was a man of remarkable character, distinguished for 
the delicacy and strength of his intellect, his moral 
purity, his refined and e xquisitely cultured manners, 
and his systematic business habits and capacity. Such 
qualities, with disinterestedness and entire absence of 
ostentation endeared him to all with whom he was 
associated. He proved a treasure to the Commanding 
General, who had long esteemed and admired him. 
There was hardly a more polished and universally 
respected officer in the regular service. He was 
devoted to his profession, and his military judgment 
carried conviction whenever his advice was sought. 
And that which his countrymen admired most in him 
was his pure and exalted patriotism. It is now 
known that he joined the Fourteenth Army Corps 
with the presentiment firmly fixed in his mind that 
he would fall in his first battle. 

Gareschd was a native of Cuba born of French 
parents. "When quite young he removed to Dela 
ware. He spent a few months at Georgetown College 
in the District of Columbia, where the brilliancy of 
his intellect caused him to be regarded the most 
promising student in his classes. In 1887 he entered 
the Military Academy at West Point, and graduated 
June 30th, 1841, well up in a numerous class, which 
embraced Major Generals Buell, Schuyler Hamilton, 
Reynolds, and Richardson, Brigadier Generals Lyon, 



THE PERMANENT STAFF. 79 

Totten, Plummer, Brannan, and others of the federal 
army, who have distinguished themselves in this war. 
On the 1st of July, of that year, he was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant of the Fourth Artillery, and was 
promoted to a First Lieutenancy, June 18th, 1846. 
lie served in the war with Mexico, on General Tay 
lor s line of operations. After declaration of peace 
he remained on the frontiers of Texas, about a year, 
when he was recalled to Washington and was assigned 
to the Adjutant General s office, with the rank of 
Captain. lie proved so peculiarly competent that 
he was permanently transferred to that department. 
The desertion of officers of this corps to the rebels, 
made room for his promotion, first to a Majority, 
and later to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. The 
business of the office was now enormous, but as 
Chief Assistant he proved himself fully equal to the 
responsibilities which devolved upon him. He car 
ried the same system which had characterized his 
department in Washington into the Department of 
the Cumberland, and he relieved the General Com 
manding of vast labor which otherwise would have 
oppressed him. The general orders of which he was 
the author, were remarkable for their clearness and 
precision. As specimens of military literature they 
were unsurpassed. Until the instant of his fall upon 
the battle field he was the constant and cherished per 
sonal friend and adviser of his General. 

GENERAL D. S. STANLEY. 

The Chief of Cavalry is also a marked man,Vut of 
another stamp. He is an active, enterprising soldier, 
familiar alike with the abstract science, and the prac- 



80 THE PERMANENT STAFF. 

tical art of war. He stood high in the regular army 
before the rebellion, and later, by his skill and cour 
age, won distinction in various severe battles. It was 
his good fortune to be loved by all whom he com 
manded. The soldiers had faith in his zeal and skill, 
and his fiery courage inspired them with confident 
enthusiam. They compared him not inaptly with 
Murat, and airily applied to him the soubriquet of 
" gay old Stanley " singing merrily at festive board 
or cheerful bivouac fire 

" Here s to gay old Stanley 
Pass him round, pass him round." 

His associates in the regular army think there are 
no better field officers than Brigadier General (now 
Major General) David S. Stanley, and many esteem 
him the best cavalry ofiicer in the service. He had 
distinguished himself under the eye of General Rose- 
crans in the brillant battle of Corinth, in command 
of the best division in Major General Grant s Depart 
ment a division which he had disciplined and had 
been invited by Hosccrans to his present distinguished 
position. 

He is a native of Ohio, aged about thirty-six years. 
He entered the Military Academy, at West Point, in 
1848, and graduated with honor 1852 ; entering the 
service as Brevet Second Lieutenant of the Second 
United States Dragoons, on the 1st of July, 1852, and 
at the commencement of the rebellion he ranked as 
Capjain. At that time his sympathies were erron 
eously assumed to be with the rebellion, because he 
had come into the possession of slave property by 
marriage, but he soon and decidedly silenced that 



THE PERMANENT STAFF. 81 

calumny. He first served with, distinction in Mis 
souri, and was appointed Brigadier General of Volun 
teers, in consideration of his services and abilities. 
He is a man of sanguine nervous temperament, of 
vehement and fiery spirit, with blazing blue eyes and 
a lithe figure somewhat above medium stature. Not 
withstanding his disappointment he cheerfully as 
sumed command of his small cavalry command, and 
was not long in promoting it to a state of discipline 
which made it formidable to the enemy. 

JAMES ST. CLAIR MORTON. 

The staff also embraced a military genius. Garesche* 
was a peculiar man, but St. Clair Morton, Chief of 
Engineers, is a most striking character. His fertility 
of resource baffles all obstacles. The mastery of his 
profession was not singular, but his mastery of all 
obstacles which obstruct his designs ; the domineering 
confidence with which he assails difficulties in his 
path, and the success which invariably crowns his 
exertions are remarkable. He never admits that he 
can not accomplish an enterprise intrusted to him, but 
he enters upon it, no matter how difficult, with 
determined and assuring alacrity. Be sure he never 
fails. Fort Negley, a star and bastion work of great 
strength and beauty, which frowns upon Nashville 
from the oval crown of St. Cloud Hill, will lone: 

* o 

remain to illustrate his skill in the legitimate line of 
his profession. The moral influence of his cheerful 
deportment innoculates all with whom he comes in 
contact. It inspires his subordinates with unconquer 
able ardor and inflames a spirit of enterprise which 
defies opposition. His commander and he were soon 



82 THE PERMANENT STAFF. 

cn rapport. The former lias ever delighted in the 
expression of admiration for his Chief of Engineers, 
and the latter though not insensible to the partiality 
of his Chief as modest as he is worthy, betrays his 
appreciation of such distinguishing praise by ever 
increasing zeal for the service he loves. 

Morton s spirit and his person happily accord. As 
one aspires so is the other imposing. The former 
would assert a proud place in any arena, and his com 
manding figure and striking face would win atten 
tion among chosen men. In spite of the few years 
against him (he is thirty-six) his countenance 
recalls the image of 

"A youth, who bore, mid snow and ice 
A banner with the strange device." 

He is a Saxon, with Norman fire gleaming in his strong 
steadfast blue eyes, vivifying his fair, boldly chis 
eled and expressive features. His long, wavy, almost 
fiaxen hair brushed back from his broad, compact 
brows, as if to give his faculties unobstructed play, 
crowns an ensemble which romance might happily bor 
row for a hero. St. Clair Morton, still a Captain of 
Engineers, though promised a Brigadier s commission 
by the President, entered the Military Academy at 
"West Point, in September, 1847. On the 1st of July, 
1851, he entered the service as Brevet Second Lieu 
tenant in the Corps of Engineers having graduated 
second in a numerous and talented class. 

There were no other brilliant names in the staff 
when it was organized, though all subsequently won 
.honorable distinction. Excepting Gareschd and Tay 
lor, all were under fifty years of age young and zeal - 



THE PERMANENT STAFF. 83 

ous patriots, energetic and brainy. Lieutenant 
Colonel Taylor, a native of ~New York, but now a 
citizen of the great West, had established his reputa 
tion as a Quartermaster in the Army of the Mississippi, 
capable to administer a great department. There 
was no more gallant man in the field, or a more grace 
ful gentleman in the army. The superior qualiii ca 
tions of the Chief Commissary have been remarked. 
Colonel Barnet, Chief of Artillery, had acquired 
deserved professional reputation in an active arduous 
career dating from the first operations of the federal 
army in Western Virginia, when at Phillippi, he fired 
the first field piece which had been heard among those 
mountains. He had displayed his coolness and cour 
age in various fields and was regarded one of the best 
volunteer artillerists in the service. Major Skinner 
was a novice in military life, but he entered the 
service with distinguished recommendations for large 
capacity, incorruptible integrity, and enthusiastic zeal 
for his country. Goddard, Wiles, and Thompson, 
had each fought under the eye of the General, and 
were approved good soldiers. The youthfulness 
of the staff was characteristic of the General. He 
ever insisted upon being surrounded by young men. 
"Young men without experience," he said, "are bet 
ter than experienced old men. Young men will learn ; 
old men fixed in their habits and opinions will not 
learn." In short he " liked youngsters. They are 
full of snap, think rapidly and execute quickly. 
They will do what I require of them." 



84 THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 



CHAPTER XII. 

GOVERNOR ANDREW JOHNSON Municipal Affairs of Nashville The 
Contraband Question The Railroad Repaired The Enemy Takes 
up a Line in Front His Cavalry Enterprises Colonel John Ken- 
nett strikes Back Reconnoissances and Skirmishes The Night- 
Cap Battalion. 

HON. ANDREW JOHNSON, the Military Governor of 
Tennessee, appeared, to the eyes of superficial 
observers, to be busy enough, but it was difficult to 
define his functions. His authority could not extend 
beyond the military lines, which were then rather 
contracted. The civil and military administration of 
Tennessee, on the other hand, were so intimately 
blended that it was quite impossible to separate them, 
so that the responsibility of civil government really 
devolved on General Rosecrans. Rebels who had busi 
ness with the government declined generally to hold 
intercourse with the Governor, and loyal men sought 
the attention of the military chief. Excepting the 
issuance of commissions to officers of Tennessee vol 
unteers, and to a magistrate now and then ; the col 
lection and distribution of taxes levied upon wealthy 
rebels for charitable purposes; and correspondence 
with the State Department at Washington, there was 
really nothing else for the Governor to do. Hon. 
Hugh Smith was Mayor of Nashville, but his office 
was almost a sinecure, the municipal government 
being reduced to petty police business and the 
hebdomadal meetings of Aldermen. 



THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 85 

The customary annoyances of the contraband ques 
tion had not involved the Commander of the Depart 
ment. Efforts were made to elicit his views upon 
slavery in the rebel States, but he declined to embar 
rass himself. He had adopted the only wise course 
that an officer could safely pursue. The Proclama 
tion was then a paper promise of the President. 
The General replying to suggestive inquiries upon 
this point was wont to say emphatically, "I am 
bound to obey the orders of the government, not to 
inquire why they are issued. I shall obey." He did 
not hesitate to appropriate the services of the slaves 
of rebels for public purposes, and he was not at all 
squeamish in denouncing slavery as a vital element 
of military strength, of w T hich a wise government was 
bound to take advantage. Numerous gangs of fugi 
tive negroes had been already organized, and were 
constructing fortifications around Nashville and this 
was a competition in the labor market against which 
free white soldiers raised no objections. Indeed, they 
seemed to approve it. The practice of General Rose- 
crans in this connection is illustrated in the following 
extracts from one of his general orders, viz. : 

I. Negroes may be employed and paid, in conformity with 
the Act of Congress, as follows : 

1. As teamsters on Quartermasters trains, provided a suffi 
cient number of white teamsters and wagon-masters are 
retained to preserve order. 

2. As laborers in the Quartermaster and Engineer Depart 
ments. 

3. As cooks, nurses, and attendants in hospital. 

4. As company cooks, two to a company. 



86 THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 

5. As officers servants, according to number allowed by law. 

Commanders of corps, divisions, brigades, and independent 

posts are authorized to procure and employ negroes, as above : 

1. From those found free and roaming at large. 

2. From those belonging to masters serving in the rebel 
army, or who have been employed, in any manner, in the 
rebel service, 

3. From those belonging to persons who, though not now 
serving in the rebel cause, are disloyal, or have children or 
other near relatives in the rebel army, who are benefited or 
maintained by the labor of such slaves. 

Lastly, when it becomes an absolute necessity, from among 
those belonging to loyal men. In this case, a copy of the 
order directing their employment, and a descriptive list of 
persons so employed, shall be given to the owner, duly authen 
ticated- by the commanding officer of the troops in whose 
service they are employed. 

The Commanding General enjoins great caution in the 
employment of women, in any case where it might lead to 
immorality. 

1 1. All persons so employed in each regiment, except those 
employed as officers servants, will be entered on Quartermas 
ters rolls as laborers or teamsters, stating their age, sex, name 
of master or claimant, date of employment, and the length of 
time employed ; and in the column of " remarks " will be 
noted on what duty and by whom employed. Those employed 
by the Engineer, Quartermaster, or Medical departments, will 
be entered on their appropriate rolls. They will be provided 
with clothing, to be deducted from their pay, the balance to 
be paid to the person employed, unless he belongs to a loyal 
master, in which case payment will be made to the master. 

Every negro thus employed will receive a certificate from 
his employer, setting forth the fact and nature of his employ 
ment, and no male or female negro will remain in camp, or be 
subsisted therein, without such certificate. 



THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 87 

A few loyal persons complained of the abduction 
of their slaves by the troops. General Rosecrans 
promptly ordered the ejection of such from camp, 
according to orders from the "War Office, but refused 
to exercise the power of the government to appre 
hend and deliver the fugitives. 

On the 26th of November railroad communication 
with Louisville was resumed. Up to this period the 
army had been subsisted, and two or three days 
rations had accumulated in the public warehouses. 
The railroad managers were urged to push their carry 
ing capacity to the utmost. They had agreed to run 
through one hundred car-loads a day, but they hardly 
averaged one- fourth of that number. There was no 
ilternative. The drought continued, and Cumberland 
River still remained at its lowest ebb. 

The enemy had latterly developed strongly in our 
immediate front, Bragg had taken up a line in the 
rear of Stewart s Creek, nineteen miles from Nash 
ville, extending from the Lebanon pike on his right 
to the Franklin pike on his left. Strong lines of 
cavalry videttes with heavy reserves covered his front 
from Lebanon pike to a point on the left of Nolens- 
ville, intersecting the Murfreesboro pike eleven miles 
in front of Nashville, and separated from our outposts 
about two miles. Strong bodies of cavalry and 
mounted infantry were posted on the flanks, and at 
Lavergne and Nolensville Morgan on the right, For 
rest on the left, General Wheeler at Lavergne, Gen 
eral Wharton at Nolensville. The right wing of the 
enemy was then commanded by Kirby Smith, the left 
by Hardee, the center by Polk. Colonel Truesdail 
estimated their effective infantry force at not exceeding 



THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 

forty thousand men, and not long afterward reported 
the completion of the railroad bridge across the Ten 
nessee River. 

SKIRMISHES. 

In the meantime the enemy s cavalry had been 
constantly harrassing our outposts. Scarcely a day 
elapsed that they did not disturb our pickets with 
spiteful musketry, and occasionally they flung a few 
shells by way of diversion. Innumerable efforts were 
made to punish them, but they uniformly fled from 
attack. Our forage trains, usually guarded by a bri 
gade of infantry and a section of artillery, industri 
ously collected forage from the debatable belt of 
territory between the camps, but they hardly gathered 
a nubbin of corn without fighting for it. Several 
vigorous dashes had been made at our trains from 
Mitchellsville to Nashville, and in the course of a 
fortnight we lost probably one hundred and fifty men 
and a few wagons by capture. 33 ut our own expedi 
tions captured as many from them. On the morning 
of the 13th of November, Lieutenant Beals and his 
command of twenty men from the Fourth Michigan 
Cavalry were sharply picked up on Stone River by a 
superior force of Morgan s troopers. 

The veteran and enterprising Colonel John Kennett, 
acting Chief of Cavalry until General Stanley reported 
for duty, gave the enemy sharp counterstrokes in the 
vicinity of Hartsville, pouncing suddenly upon large 
depots, and capturing large quantities of stores, with 
some men. Following up his success energetically, 
he soon drove Morgan s gangs to the south side of 
the Cumberland, and reported back at Nashville for 



THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 89 

farther orders. Lieutenant Colonel Stewart of the 
Second Indiana Cavalry, also made a spirited dash in 
front with five hundred men, riding down some Texas 
troopers. On the 27th, Colonel Kennett made a 
reconnoissance on our right front and drove a strong 
body of the enemy pell mell some fifteen miles down 
the Franklin pike. The same day Brigadier General 
Kirk, one of the hest soldiers in the volunteer army, 
with part of his brigade consisting of a squadron 
of the Third Indiana Cavalry under Major Kline, 
Seventy-Seventh Pennsylvania, Twenty-Ninth and 
Thirtieth Indiana, Thirty-Fourth and Seventy-Ninth 
Illinois Infantry, made a successful reconnoissance 
against sharp resistance, and drove General Wheeler s 
force out of Lavergne, where he destroyed a few 
public storehouses which had been occupied by the 
rebels. In that brisk little affair we had eleven 
wounded, including Lieutenant Colonel Hurd of the 
Thirtieth Indiana none missing or killed. The ene 
my s loss was not ascertained, but General Wheeler 
was among the wounded. That afternoon Brigadier 
General Sherridan also reconnoitered in front of 
Nolensville, driving the enemy back to that village 
without loss. Colonel Roberts, of the Forty- Second 
Illinois Infantry, commanding brigade, moved out the 
Charlotte pike the same evening, and surprised Cap 
tain Portch and a few men of Morgan s command, 
capturing the whole party with their arms, equip 
ment and horses. 

General Stanley had reported for duty about the 

middle of November, and upon assuming command 

of the cavalry organized it in two divisions, taking 

the first under his own direction, and assigning the 

8 



90 



THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 



second to Colonel John Kennett. The latter organ 
ized his command into brigades, the first consisting 
of the Fourth Michigan regiment, Colonel Minty, 
the Third Kentucky, Colonel Murray, Seventh Penn 
sylvania, Major Wynkoop, and First Tennessee, 
Colonel "W. B. Stokes, which was commanded by 
Colonel Minty. The second brigade, under Colonel 
Lewis Zahn, consisted of the First Ohio, Colonel 
Millikin, Third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel Murray, 
and Fourth Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel Pugh. The 
Fifth Kentucky, Lieutenant Colonel Scott, was posted 
in Nashville ; the Fourth, Colonel Bayless, at Bowl 
ing Green; and the First, Colonel Woolford, was 
detained on scouting service in Kentucky. The 
remaining regiments constituted a reserve under 
General Stanley s immediate direction. General 
Stanley kept the enemy agitated on the right and in 
front, and Kennett was posted on the left, where he 
did excellent service. 

Among the encouraging little affairs of this period, 
a dashing exploit by Major Hill with a squadron of 
the Second Indiana met the approbation of the Chief. 
The enemy had made a sudden dash across the Cum 
berland near Hartsville, capturing a forage train and 
some men. Hill pursued vigorously some eighteen 
miles, recapturing the train and prisoners, besides 
killing seme eighteen or twenty rebels. The General 
Commanding promptly complimented him and his 
command for their " good conduct and energy." He 
regarded " this little affair as very creditable to the 
cavalry." 

The night-cap order of the General Commanding 
had been regarded as a humorous menace. On the 



THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 91 

28th of November, however, all doubts upon the sub 
ject were settled. Fifty straggling 1 cowards who had 
voluntarily surrendered to the enemy without resist 
ance and had been paroled, were crowned with white 
cotton night-caps of a ridiculous pattern and deco 
rated with fiery red trimmings. In this humiliating 
plight they were paraded grotesquely through Nash 
ville with fifes and drums to the tune of Eogue s 
March, and were then forwarded to a camp for paroled 
prisoners in Indiana. The example was severe but 
salutary. 



92 THE IIARTSVILLE DISASTER. 



CHAPTE R XIII. 

MORAL Influence of Success The Hartsville Disgrace Colonel John 
Morgan Surprises and Captures a Federal Brigade The Fight 
Vain Gallantry of the Soldiers Imbecility of the Commander- 
Casualties. 

BRISK and successful skirmishes occurring frequently 
had a happy effect. The cavalry especially, begun to 
exhibit encouraging confidence in themselves. The 
enemy, who had professed contempt for "Yankee 
cavalry," were exhibiting wholesome dread of it. 
General Stanley vainly endeavored to coax an equal 
fight out of them. Their unsleeping vigilance foiled 
him. But they watched their opportunity to strike 
unguarded points. On Sunday morning, the 7th of 
December, they found one, and struck successfully at 
Hartsville. The blow was squarely in the face of the 
army. 

Brigadier General Dumont s division was posted at 
Castillian Springs, in front of Gallatin. Complying 
with orders, he had thrown forward a brigade some 
eight or nine miles to Hartsville, to guard a ford at 
that point, and to observe the Lebanon road. Under 
direction of General Thomas, they took up a strong 
position upon high ground, which, by good manage 
ment and strong fighting, it was presumed they 
could hold against a division. They were at first 
commanded by Colonel J. R. Scott, of the valiant 
Nineteenth Illinois Infantry, but he was subsequently 



THE HARTSVILLE DISASTER. 93 

relieved by Colonel A. B. Moore, of the One Hundred 
and Fourth Illinois Infantry, an officer without experi 
ence, and, it would seem, without moral determination. 
His brigade consisted of raw levies the One Hundred 
and Fourth Illinois, the One Hundred and Sixth and 
One Hundred and Eighth Ohio Volunteers, together 
with a section of Knicklin s Indiana Battery, and three 
hundred men of the Second Indiana Cavalry, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Stewart, constituted a force of 
nineteen hundred and eighty-four men. The second 
brigade, under Colonel Harlan, and the Fortieth, 
under Colonel Miller, were at Castillian Springs, 
within good supporting distance. 

THE WARNING. 

Notwithstanding the repeated injunctions of Gen 
eral Thomas, to look w^ell to his picket guards, the 
rebel Morgan, with a force of about fifteen hundred 
mounted infantry, surprised Moore at sunrise on the 
7th of December, and captured him with fifteen hund 
red and five men, and most of their officers, together 
with their two field pieces, a large portion of their 
arms, equipment, ammunition, and transportation. It 
was a most shameful affair, without palliation. The 
skirmishing, combat, rout, and pursuit occupied less 
than an hour and a half. The cavalry w r as not effi 
cient, the One Hundred and Sixth Ohio did some good 
fighting, and the One Hundred and Fourth Illinois 
acquitted itself gallantly. Knicklin s guns were also w r ell 
handled. There was no reason, but the incompetency 
of the commander, why the rebels were not destroyed 
or captured. It was subsequently ascertained that 
Colonel Moore had been twice warned that he would 



94 THE HARTSVILLE DISASTER. 

be attacked on the 7th. A slave who had overheard 
his master who was a member of Morgan s com 
mand confide to his wife that the attack was con 
templated, waded the Cumberland River after night, 
on the 4th, and notified Captain Lewis and Captain 
Bertassy of the contemplated surprise. They 
reported it to Colonel Moore, who dismissed the 
information with contemptuous indifference. On 
the nifflit of the 6th, the same negro as;ain crossed 

O O O 

the river and notified Captain Lewis that the enemy 
were encamped within four miles of Hartsville, and 
would attack at daybreak next morning. The officer 
of the day and the Colonel Commanding, were 
promptly notified, but the warning was again un 
heeded. 

SURPRISE OF THE GARRISON AT HARTSVILLE. 

At sunrise Sunday morning, notice of the approach 
of the enemy in the rear was suddenly given by one 
of the camp guards, who discovered the gray jackets 
moving down the declivity of an opposite hill. His 
shout, " The rebels are coming ! " was the first admo 
nition the camp received. The posting of pickets on 
that side had been neglected. Captain Good, a brave 
officer, of the One Hundred and Eighth Ohio, swiftly 
moved, upon his own responsibility, to the right front 
with a company of skirmishers, and opened a sharp 
fire. The enemy, surprised at the hitherto quiet 
deportment of the camp, suspected stratagem, and 
were cautious in their approach. Time enough to 
form his line advantageously was thus afforded 
Colonel Moore, but he was too confused to take 
advantage of it. At the suggestion of Colonel Tafel 



THE HARTSVILLE DISASTER. 95 

of the One Hundred and Sixth Ohio, lie occupied the 
crown of a bold bald hill to the right of the camps. 
The troops flung themselves along the crest and stood 
there silently, waiting orders, while the enemy were 
moving deliberately in column of fours down the 
declivity of the opposite hill, to form in the ravine 
which separated the hostile forces. Nobody seemed 
to think of the propriety of sending to Castillian 
Springs for reinforcements, but the enemy having 
approached in the rear, and clouds of mounted skir 
mishers beginning already to harrass Moore s flanks, 
efforts to send for aid probably would have been 
defeated. Nevertheless a prudent officer would have 
tried the experiment. 

After descending into the hollow the rebels dis 
mounted, moved forward in compact line, and under 
a scattering and ineffective fire from Moore s line, 
gained cover behind a fence at the foot of the hill 
below our troops. Moore s line was now thoroughly 
exposed, while the enemy fought with comparative 
security, and so effectively that our men soon begun 
to give way. Moore seemed thoroughly disconcerted, 
and it was clear that unless his troops fought their own 
way through the difficulty they would be hopelessly 
defeated. The Illinois troops and the One Hundred 
and Sixth Ohio stood up to the work fairly, the former 
especially, but the One Hundred and Eighth, indiffer 
ently officered, was the first to break and fall back. The 
field pieces, meantime, had opened from their park 
and were making some noise. One of them was soon 
brought to the center, and at the first fire exploded a 
rebel caisson. Colonel Moore now ordered the whole 
line to fall back to the rear of the gun, leaving it 



96 THE HARTSVILLE DISASTER. 

exposed to the enemy. In a few minutes its horses 
and many of its men were picked off by sharp-shoot 
ers, and it was dragged to the rear of the camps, tak 
ing position on a rocky hill, where the other gun was 
playing upon the rebel reserves on the opposite side 
of the river. 

Moore s line, already badly confused, was ordered to 
fall back to the guns a movement which was exe 
cuted with more haste than skill. Colonel Tafel was 
carrying his regiment off on the right, on a skirt of 
timber, when the enemy made his appearance on his 
flank in strong force. Tafel engaged immediately, 
and a sharp fight ensued. The One Hundred and Sixth 
fought and fell back gradually, while the other regi 
ments reformed on the hill. The rebels, however, 
finally pushed into the camps of the One Hundred and 
Fourth Illinois and One Hundred and Sixth Ohio, which 
compelled Tafel to retire to the main body. Before 
he reached that point, Colonel Moore surrendered. 
Squads of rebels dashed up toward Tafel s regiment 
and were fired on, but discovering that he was nearly 
surrounded, and that three-fourths of the command 
had been surrendered, Tafel at length succumbed. 
Captain Good and his skirmishers were still ignorant 
of the extent of the misfortune, and sustained a lively 
fight in the rear of the right flank, to prevent a 
squadron of cavalry from breaking into the camps. 
When notified of the condition of affairs, his gallant 
company scattered in the forests, and many saved 
themselves. After surrendering his sword, Captain 
Good himself managed to elude his captors and 
escaped. 



THE HARTSVILLE DISASTER. $7 

MORGAN RETREATS. 

Morgan, fully aware that fugitives would soon 
report at Castillian Springs, discovered necessity for 
haste. Gathering the cream of the spoils as rapidly 
as possible, he drove the captives across the river and 
moved swiftly in retreat. Before his rear guard had 
gotten out of the way, Colonel Harlan came up with 
his brigade, and enjoyed the melancholy satisfaction 
of flinging a few shells into the successful fugitives. 
The rebels had a right to be proud of their achieve 
ment, but it would have cost them dearly had Scott 
been in command of the post. 

Our loss in this disgraceful affair, was fifty-five 
killed and one hundred wounded. The casualties of 
the enemy were about equal the Second and Ninth 
Kentucky rebel regiments alone being sixty-four. 
Colonel Moore and the field officers of the three reg 
iments of infantry, and Lieutenant Colonel Stewart, 
of the Second Indiana Cavalry, together with most of 
the line officers of the brigade, were captured. Major 
Hill, of the latter regiment, escaped after receiving a 
severe wound. Lieutenant W. Y. Gholson, Acting 

O 

Assistant Adjutant General of the brigade, a young 
officer of superior merit, was killed while gallantly 
discharging his duty in the heat of conflict. 



98 VIOLATING FLAGS OF TRUCE. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

OFFICIAL Intercourse between General Rosecrans and General Bragg 
An Effort to Meliorate the Severities of War Mutual Reproaches 
Violation of a Flag of Truce and Bragg s Apology A Repetition 
of the Outrage under more Exasperating Circumstances Corre 
spondence finally Ended by General Rosecrans. 

PRIOR to the 20th of !N"ovember, intercourse between 
the Commanding Generals of the respective armies 
had been frequent. A high-toned courtesy generally 
had been observed. Flags of truce were interchanged 
almost daily. An effort was made by both General 
Rosecrans and General Bragg to mollify the asperi 
ties of war, and confine the exercise of martial power 
to its legitimate sphere. General Bragg complained 
of the ill treatment of certain of his cavalry who 
had been captured. After it was understood that he 
refused to acknowledge guerrillas as entitled to the 
rights of war, and upon his explanation that his 
recognized forces had all been mustered into rebel 
service as soldiers, the two leaders endeavored to 
adjust a system for the relief of non-combatants 
from arrest and imprisonment. General Rosecrans 
expressed his abhorrence of the practice of " harass 
ing and arresting non-combatants, who are strictly 
so." He said, " I never authorize or permit the arrest 
of such persons unless there is a prima facie case of a 
forfeiture of their claims to non-combatants, by acts 
bearing the character of military mischief. * * * 



VIOLATING FLAGS OF TRUCE. 99 

Pillage, wanton destruction of private property, is 
strictly prohibited, and rigorously punished whenever 
detected. The burning of houses is only justified 
when they have been used as little fortifications." 
General Bragg concurred, but did not find it conveni 
ent to practice accordingly. 

ROBBING UNION PRISONERS OF WAR. 

The rebels continued to outrage the laws of war so 
grossly that General Rosecrans protested indignantly, 
sometimes provoking harsh replies. But as long as 
intercourse was maintained he continued to reproach 
the enemy with military crimes. Among others, their 
practice of plundering surgeons and other captives 
was most aggravating. A federal surgeon at Harts- 
ville was robbed while he was dressing a wounded 
rebel. The Hartsville prisoners were deprived of part 
of their overcoats on the field of battle, and of the 
remainder by General Wheeler s order at Lavergne. 
The same evening they were marched to our outposts 
without previous notice to General Rosecrans, and 
offered in exchange arriving in our front at night 
fall. 

General Rosecrans indignantly protested against it 
as a violation of the cartel for the exchange of prison 
ers which had been negotiated by the United States 
and rebel authorities. It had been agreed that all 
exchanges should take place at Aikeu s landing, or 
Yicksburg, or some other place " to be previously 
agreed upon." Bragg s policy was transparent. He 
desired to avoid the expense and trouble of forwarding 
the prisoners to either of the foregoing places, and to 
impose corresponding cost and annoyance upon Gen- 



100 VIOLATING FLAGS OF TRUCE. 

eral Rosecrans. The sentiments of the latter were 
sharply expressed in the following note, which was 
forwarded immediately to the rebel general by flag of 
truce : 

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OP THE CUMBERLAND. ) 
Nashville, December 11, 1862. j 

GENERAL BRAXTON BRAGG: 

General Your letter, enclosing list of prisoners captured 
at Hartsville and paroled by you, has been received. It is 
reported to me that the Hag of truce presented itself about 
dark and during a skirmish. As it will be impossible to verify 
the roll of prisoners to-night, or say anything of their con 
dition, I have directed the prisoners to be receipted for, until 
the rolls can be verified, when they will be returned duly 
receipted. We take care of your prisoners, feed them, make 
them comfortable, and conduct them to the proper place of 
exchange. Ours were sufficiently clad, and I think ought to 
have been treated in a similar manner. Sending these prison 
ers here and imposing them on my humanity without a 
previous agreement is a violation of the spirit and letter of the 
cartel. I regret to notice this act of injustice and discourtesy, 
which is aggravated by their not being sent to us at a proper 
hour of the day, when all the business could have been con 
ducted without inconvenience to either party. Paroled prison 
ers hereafter will only be received in accordance with the terms 
of the cartel. 

I have the honor to be, General, 

Yours, respectfully, 

W. S. EOSECEANS, 

Major General Commanding. 

General Bragg attempted to wriggle himself out of 
the responsibility by virtuously assuming that he was 



VIOLATING FLAGS 0$ *TR\Jt&. 101 

moved by sentiments of enlightened humanity con 
veniently forgetting how inhuman it was to rob the 
prisoners of their clothing. General Rosecrans determ 
ining to fix the mean record against him, responded 
to his paltry excuse in the following strain : 

HEADQUARTERS FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, ^ 

Department of the Cumberland, > 

Nashville, December 11, 1862. J 

GENERAL BRAXTON BRAGG: 

General Your letter, enclosing list of prisoners captured 
at Hartsville and paroled by you, has been received. It is 
reported to me that the flag of truce presented itself about 
dark and during a skirmish. 

The officer who conducted them to our lines insisted upon 
our receiving them, as I am informed, ; upon the ground of 
humanity." We take care of your prisoners, feed them, make 
them as comfortable as we can, and conduct them to the proper 
place of exchange. That is our idea of humanity. Our pris 
oners were sufficiently clad when taken, and I think ought to 
have been similarly treated. Whether your idea of humanity 
consists in robbing them of their blankets and overcoats I 
know not, but such, they assure me, was the treatment they 
received from your troops. 

Without entering further into that question, however, I 
must be permitted to observe that to send these prisoners to 
my lines without any previous agreement with me to receive 
them, is a violation both of the letter and spirit of the cartel. 

I regret to notice that this act of injustice and discourtesy, 
which is aggravated by the fact of their not being sent to us 
at a proper hour of the day, when all the business could have 
been transacted without inconvenience to either party. 

Paroled prisoners will hereafter only be received by me in 
accordance with the terms of the cartel. Herewith you will 



10:2 VIOLATING FLAGS OF TRUCE. 

please receive receipts for the prisoners taken at Hartsville, 
conformed to the lists of them forwarded by you. Although 
purporting apparently to be original, these lists are evidently 
mere copies not attested by the signature of any officer of 
either army. As it regards the third list sent by you, inas 
much as it contains the names of persons of whom I know 
nothing, it is impossible for me to say or do anything. 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. S. ROSECRANS, 

Major General Commanding. 

" Upon the ground of humanity " was the identical 
expression used by General Bragg in his letter, hut he 
subsequently said no special grounds for sending them 
to our lines was cited. 

VIOLATION OF FLAGS OF TRUCE. 

Throughout the correspondence Bragg had exhib 
ited exasperating insincerity. And the spirit which 
animated him was illustrated by the evident care 
taken by him to publish his letters to General Rose- 
crans in the rebel newspapers. He was " firing the 
Southern heart," not seeking justice. His communi 
cations breathed that spirit of "high toned" assump 
tion which will cause the Southern character to blaze 
in history with ridiculous glare. The element of 
truth was rarely a constituent. Truth itself crept in 
by mncmonical oversight. The abuse finally cor 
rected itself rather abruptly. A detachment of his 
cavalry one day took advantage of a federal flag of 
truce, which was being entertained at his lines, to 
capture a post of three videttes, on the Murfreesboro 
pike. After a sharp correspondence, in which Bragg 



VIOLATING FLAGS OF TRUCE. 103 

was evasive, he finally surrendered the prisoners, 
together with their horses and equipments except 
ing their overcoats, of which they had heen robbed 
by rebel troops apologizing for the violation of the 
flag, but offering no excuse for pillaging the soldiers 
so wrongfully captured. 

But on the 15th of November the flag of truce 
business received a paralytic shock. Bragg sent a 
flag to our lines, and while a detachment of some 
sixty of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, under Captain 
Able, was entertaining the rebel flag officer at the 
outposts, a detachment of one hundred and fifty rebel 
horsemen suddenly charged upon the federal party, 
killed a half dozen, captured the remainder, and rode 
off with Bragg s flag officer. General Rosecrans 
immediately forwarded a formal demand to Bragg for 
an apology and the restitution of the prisoners, with 
their horses and equipments. He complained to 
Bragg that "another outrage of the grossest charac 
ter has been perpetrated by your troops, in the pres 
ence of your own flag, commanded by a Lieutenant 
Colonel in your service, who was courteously received. 
I can not believe you had authorized, or will permit to 
go unpunished or without prompt reparation such 
barbarous conduct conduct hardly paralleled by 
savages. You can not restore life to my men who 
have been inhumanly murdered, but I shall leave to 
your own head and heart to devise such a reparation 
as is demanded by your own honor, and the honor of 
our common humanity." 

It was a prima facie case, but Bragg evaded and 
finally sought to justify the outrage. General Kose- 
crans at once threatened to suspend further inter- 



104 VIOLATING FLAGS OP TRUCE. 

course, writing that "after your (Bragg s) non-con 
demnation of the behavior of your men on a preced 
ing occasion, under similar circumstances, and the 
return of three men thus captured albeit minus 
overcoats and holsters, I will only most respectfully 
quote your own phrase. l Words will not suffice we 
must have deeds. In short, my dear General^ the 
sine qua non to our future correspondence or official 
intercourse is the prompt return of those men, with 
all their clothes, arms, and equipments. When you 
speak by such deeds of simple justice, I shall be able 
to understand you." Bragg had returned three men 
who had been wrongfully captured. Fifty were too 
great a temptation for his high toned virtue. He 
replied, at length, that having fully investigated the 
matter, he concluded not only that the action was 
fully warranted, but that General Rosecrans owed 
him an apology for the capture and detention of his 
flag twenty-four hours both false pleas. General 
Rosecrans finally closed official intercourse with his 
perfidious enemy, in a sharp and comprehensive 
resume of the transaction. 

He was "utterly amazed" at Bragg s impudent 
assertion that his flag had been detained. The rebel 
flag officer, Lieutenant Ctflonel Hawkins, had 
expressed his satisfaction with the generous cour 
tesy with which he had been entertained. Hawkins 
was borne away by the rebel party who had shame 
fully violated the flag, "and did not," said General 
Rosecrans, "present himself again until next morn 
ing. The only detention of your flag that occurred 
took place the next day, when, having been dismissed, 
Hawkins halted by the way to feed his horse within 



VIOLATING FLAGS OF TRUCE. 105 

two miles of our outposts, and that even this deten 
tion was but about half an hour, and was apologised 
for. It thus appearing that the statements contained 
in your letter, as to the occurrences connected with 
your flag, and the outrages perpetrated in its presence, 
utterly at variance with the actual facts reported to 
me by my officers, of the truth of which I have not 
the shadow of a doubt, have only to say, with pro 
found disappointment and regret, that the sources of 
your information, or your own views, are such that 
until you shall redress that outrage, by returning rny 
men, with everything they had when taken, so far as 
is possible, I shall not be able to hold any further offi 
cial intercourse with you. Indeed, you render it 
impracticable, because I can not trust your messen 
gers, or the statements made by them of occurrences 
patent as the sun. l$o flag will, therefore, be received 
from you, except the one conveying that reparation, 
or the statement that circumstances beyond your con 
trol render it impossible." 

While this controversy was pending, Jeff. Davis, 
President of the Confederate States, arrived at Mur- 
freesboro. It is fair to infer that he approved Bragg s 
perfidy. It is proper to observe, in this connection, 
that after the visit of President Davis in Tennessee, 
Bragg exhibited a more decided determination to 
resist the advance of the federal army. 



106 BRILLIANT EXPLOITS. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE Hartsville Affair Retrieved Brilliant Repulse of the Enemy by 
Matthews Brigade Successful Foraging Gallantry of the Sol 
diersGood Conduct Publicly Approved by the General A Bril 
liant Cavalry Exploit General D. S. Stanley Routs the Rebels and 
Captures Franklin Spirit of the Men. 

ON the 9th of December the Hartsville disgrace was 
partially retrieved. A strong force of mounted rebel 
infantry and cavalry, with artillery, under Brigadier 
General Wheeler, attacked a brigade of infantry 
under Acting Brigadier General Stanley Matthews, of 
the Fifty-First Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and, after 
two sharp combats, were severely repulsed. Colonel 
Matthews moved into the debatable strip between the 
two lines with a large foraging train. His force con 
sisted of the Fifty-First Ohio, Thirty-Fifth Indiana, 
the Eighth and Twenty-First Kentucky Infantry, and 
a section of Swallow s Seventh Indiana Battery. 
Diverging from the Murfreesboro pike, and striking 
to the left, he crossed Millcreek at Dobbin s Ferry, 
leaving a sergeant and ten men of the Twenty-First 
Kentucky to guard the rear. The Kentucky regi 
ments, with skirmishers well out, were formed in 
front, the other two regiments loading the wagons 
and protecting the rear. 

THE COMBAT. 

The train was finally filled, and was about counter 
marching, when a smart rattle of musketry at the ford 



BRILLIANT EXPLOITS. 107 

indicated an attack in the rear. Colonel Matthews 
immediately double-quicked the Fifty-First Ohio and 
Thirty-Fifth Indiana to the ford, arriving to the 
assistance of the gallant little picket guard in time 
to save them. The enemy were already charging 
through the woods. Matthews inferior force was 
quickly deployed, and opened a sharp fire, which at 
once checked the rebels. Following up this success 
promptty, the gallant Buckeyes and Hoosiers speedily 
drove the enemy to cover, and finally compelled them 
to retire out of range. 

The train had moved up during the combat. The 
situation was critical. Colonel Matthews anticipated 
another attack by increased numbers, and it was 
doubtful whether the train could be saved; but he 
determined to make the effort. The Kentucky troops 
were directed to protect the rear, while the Ohio and 
Indiana regiments took the advance, skirmishers 
being thrown out well on all sides. The spirited 
little force, now flushed by success, pushed home 
ward briskly, but anticipating attack. They had 
moved but a short distance when the pickets in the 
rear gave the alarm. The enemy pressed forward 
eagerly, evidently contemplating a charge. Wheeler 
himself was urging them by voice and example. 
The Kentuckians waited patiently until the enemy 
approached within direct range, and then gave them 
a volley which caused them to recoil. 

They recovered in a moment, and again advanced, 
but less eagerly than before. The fight became gen 
eral and sharp. Wheeler tried to press Matthews 
flanks, but was driven back. Another strong effort 
was made to break the line, but being foiled, the 



108 BRILLIANT EXPLOITS. 

rebels slacked fire, and in a short time disappeared 
altogether, leaving Colonel Matthews master of the 
field, though severely bruised by a fall from his 
horse. The brigade marched home triumphantly, 
and received the plaudits of the army for its brilliant 
conduct. Our loss was Adjutant B. II. Muller, of the 
Thirty-Fifth Indiana, and four enlisted men killed; 
two commissioned officers, including Lieutenant Col 
onel Balfe, and thirty-three enlisted men wounded, 
and four missing. The rebel newspapers announced 
that their casualties were one hundred. "We captured 
but one prisoner. The skillful management and 
gallant bearing of Colonel Matthews was generously 
applauded by the General Commanding. 

SPECIAL HONORABLE MENTION. 

The conduct of the troops was scanned with inter 
est because it was the beginning of the campaign, 
and it was desirable to measure the reliability of the 
army. Colonel Matthews reported that every man in 
the command behaved himself handsomely, and upon 
his official recommendation, General Rosecrans pub 
lished a field order, of which the following is a copy, 
commending the heroism of the brave sergeant and 
ten men who held Dobbin s Ford so stoutly, viz. : 

SPECIAL FIELD ORDER. 

The General Commanding takes this method of compli 
menting the following non-commissioned officers and privates 
of the Twenty-First Kentucky Volunteer Infantry, for their 
gallant conduct in the skirmish near Dobbin s Ford, on the 
9th inst. : 

Sergeant J. F. Morton, Co. F, commanding squad. 



BRILLIANT EXPLOITS. 109 

Corporal Henry Stahel, Co. A. 

J. P. Hagan, Co. F. 
Private Geo. P. Montjoy, Co. A. 
" Cassias Kiger, Co. A. 
" Edward Welch, Co. A. 
" Wm. Murphy, Co. A. 
R. B. Clusin, Co. F. 
" AY. W. Oliver, Co. F. 
" Juo. Morion, Co. F. 
" B. S. Jones, Co. F. 
By command of 

MAJOR GENERAL ROSECRANS, 
J. BATES DICKSON, Captain and A. A. General. 

Such prompt recognition of good conduct in battle 
has vast influence upon the morale of an army. It is 
to be regretted that all commanders and the govern 
ment have not yet learned to attach sufficient import 
ance to the value of rewards to the brave soldiers of 
the Republic. 

GENERAL STANLEY^ SPIRITED DASH ON FRANKLIN. 

The revolving rifles were received four or five 
weeks after they were ordered. General Stanley 
distributed them immediately among his most reli 
able cavalry troops. The Fourth Ohio Cavalry, 
which was one of the best regiments in the field, was 
now properly armed for the first time since it had 
entered the army. Other regiments which had been 
neglected were also improved by the new arm. The 
men evinced anxiety to practice their five-shooters on 
the rebels. Stanley, nothing loth, proposed to gratify 
them. Massing a considerable force on the llth of 
December, he pushed down the Franklin road for the 



110 BRILLIANT EXPLOITS. 

purpose of making a reconnoissance and to surprise 
the rebel garrison at Franklin. 

Soon after passing the outposts the twang of a car 
bine advertised the presence of the enemy. The 
advance guard pressed up keenly and evoked a sharp 
volley from a line of horsemen in a thicket. Dashing 
furiously forward a regiment of Wharton s Texas 
riders were driven out of their nests and scurried 
over the hills, our fellows after them at a slashing 
pace. It was an exciting hurdle race, over rocks and 
ridges, hedges and fences, while a merry ping of rifles 
and carbines rang through the woods in every direc 
tion. It was now rifle and spur; on, Stanley, on; 
run, rebels, run; until the last gray-back disappeared 
in the jungle. The bugles sang truce for the nonce, 
and the blue jacket clans gathered in to breathe a 
little. 

Pushing out his scouts right and left, Stanley was 
not long in beating up more game. Again it was 
rifle and spur, and rattle of small arms, but the enemy 
refused to await the shock. The whole day was thus 
galloped away, Stanley losing not a man, the rebels 
keeping clean out of revolver range. At nightfall 
Stanley had chased the enemy beyond Triune, 
destroyed two camps, and had captured some pris 
oners and horses. The men were jaded, but flushed 
with success. 

THE SURPRISE FOILED. 

The command was now about west of, and only seven 
miles from Murfreesboro. There was a strong rebel 
force at Nolensville in front of them, the main body 
of Bragg s army was at Murfreesboro, and Buckner s 



BRILLIANT EXPLOITS. Ill 

division was behind them. Nevertheless Stanley 
determined to make a dash at Franklin. Accord 
ingly the horses were fed, and the men rolled up in 
their blankets for a few hours slumber. Unfor 
tunately an hour or two before the time appointed to 
move a prowling rebel drew an ineffective shot from 
one of Stanley s videttes, a Tennessee sergeant. He 
returned the fire with fatal effect. Not long after 
ward another picket firing alarmed the rebels at 
Franklin so that a surprise was out of the question. 

Determined not to be balked, Stanley prepared to 
move upon Franklin at all hazards, but he now waited 
until broad daylight. Gathering his force in hand, 
he advanced cautiously upon the town, drove in the 
rebel pickets, and then shot out the head of his col 
umn directly at the main street. The rebels fled to 
the houses and opened a brisk fire, but the Seventh 
Pennsylvania Cavalry under Major "Wynkoop, charged 
into them, and drove them pell mell into the country. 
Stanley lost not a man. The enemy left a Captain 
and four privates dead in Franklin, and ten severely 
wounded, besides fifteen or twenty prisoners who 
were cut ofi . General Stanley occupied the town an 
hour or two, destroyed a valuable flouring mill, cap 
tured a considerable number of horses, and returned 
to receive the congratulations of the General Com 
manding for his spirit and enterprise. The conduct 
of the troops, especially that of the Seventh Penn 
sylvania and Fourth Ohio, was spirited and daring. 
The reconnoissance was perfectly successful. It had 
been reported that the enemy was shifting his forces 
to turn our right. General Stanley ascertained that 
no demonstrations of the kind were making. 



112 SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE "Grapevine" Telegraph A Southern Institution Fabrication 
of False Intelligence Southern Ladies Aid Society Its Policy 
Social Life in Nashville The Slaves and the Proclamation The 
Year of Jubilee The Slaveholders Church-Going Army Chap 
lains Their Fidelity and Devotion. 

THE false reports touching rebel movements, which 
incessantly circulated in Nashville, br igs us to the 
consideration of the "grapevine telegraph " a pecu 
liar institution of rebel generation, devised for the 
duplex purpose of "firing the Southern heart," and 
to annoy the "Yankees." It is worthy of attention, 
as one of the signs of the times, expressing the spirit 
of lying which war engenders. But it is no more 
than just to say that there is often so little difference 
between the "grapevine" and the associated press 
telegraph, that they might as well be identical. But 
the "grapevine" was the favorite institution of 
Nashville a purely Southern invention furnishing 
entertainment, it was said slanderously, no doubt 
to gossipy females, who preferred the manipulation 
of this enchanting instrument to the less dainty 
exercise of their sewing machines no, not sewing 
machines ; labor-saving inventions are not apt to 
cross the Mason and Dixie line. 

A PANDORA BOX. 

A daily dish of alarming reports w^as served for 
Yankee entertainment by the inventive newsmongers. 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 113 

Ivirby Smith was moving here to-day; Hardee there 
to-morrow; Bragg had received great reinforcements; 
Grant was defeated, and so on for quantity. Inquiry 
for "grapevine" intelligence was as customary as sun 
set, and the solicitor of exciting reports was seldom 
disappointed. Any thorough-bred rebel was ever 
ready to open his budget on application, and it was 
usually a pandora of tidings evil to federal ears. An 
effort to devise a counter-irritation signally failed. 
The " Yankees," renowned the world over for their 
acuteness, were no match for the rebels in this species 
of invention. But it was extremely diverting to the 
malcontents, whose resources of enjoyment had been 
quite thoroughly excised. 

BACK-PARLOR PROCEEDINGS. 

The fabrication of false intelligence and smuggling 
goods contraband of Avar, was almost an absorbing 
business with the master-class of the Rock City. For 
a considerable period they enjoyed secret facilities of 
communication with the rebel camps, which puzzled 
even the ingenuity of Truesdail to detect. Thej* 
received and forwarded letters constantly, and rebel 
newspapers were circulated by them when even our 
best spies failed to procure them. Meetings of men 
and women were held surreptitiously in dark back- 
parlors, where plans were concocted for the relief of 
their friends in the army. Women took the lead. 
They were best calculated to manage the Yankees. 
They were accomplished and beautiful. The Yan 
kees were courteous and susceptible to women, but 
rough-handed with masculine rebels. This was the 
view the Southern Ladies Aid Society took of it. 
10 



114 SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 

They condemned discourtesy to the federals. It 
was not good policy certainly not lady-like. They 
" hated the Yankees," but it was wise to dissemble. 
These amiable conspiratrices were very adroit, and 
plied their cunning arts seductively. The leaders did 
not demonstrate themselves overtly. Their schemes 
were deeply masked under the innocent prattle of 
pathetic ladies who were " tired of the war," and 
anxious for "peace on any terms." Now and then a 
high-spirited dame of the " blue blood," permitted 
her temper to betray her; but such ebullitions were 
dangerous under the shadow of Truesdail. And yet 
they treated him with distinguished courtesy. He 
" was so kind." 

SOCIAL FEATURES OF NASHVILLE. 

Aside from those nocturnal seances, there w r as but 
little social enjoyment in Nashville. There were not 
gentlemen enough to make society, and truly there 
was a skeleton in every house in every heart. The 
women got together to kiss each other, to cry together, 
to devise schemes to ameliorate the condition of their 
husbands, brothers, and so forth, but their glee was 
more mournful than their sorrow. A patriot could 
admire their constancy and courage, while he pitied 
their folly and condemned their malign influence. 
But God hardened Pharaoh s heart. 

Public entertainment there was none. The theater 
was open, truly, but the drama was public tragedy 
drums, banners, bayonets, cannon, a hearse rumbling 
a dirge over rude streets, at a dead rebel s funeral. 
Female forms on the stage were more attractive than 
the manager s programme. A lady in the proscenium 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 115 

boxes was a better card than a star glimmering at the 
foot-lights. Three-fourths of the audience were sol 
diers and officers staff and commanders in stage- 
boxes, applauding to the echo, because there was now 
and then a spectral similitude of something they had 
seen when there was no popular frenzy. Here and 
there a gambling den, but few gamblers. They were 
mostly fighting under the bars sinister, and the absence 
of the paymaster from the federal army caused stag 
nation in the " chip " market. A few loyal residents, 
and the wives of Union officers, devised trifling schemes 
of enjoyment, but the baleful shadow of war inter 
posed. The next battle might transmute ball costume 
into bombazine. 

THE SLAVES AND THE PROCLAMATION. 

The only jocund people were the negroes, and their s 
was pathetic joy. There was a cloud of doubt shad 
ing their happiness. Would their year of jubilee ever 
dawn? The modified proclamation was a death-war 
rant to them, and hope scarcely promised a reprieve. 
The shadow on the hearts of those creatures was 
darker than the skin which God gave them. More 
than anywhere else in the land of white and black 
bondage, the slaves of Nashville had hugged the 
delusive phantom of freedom to their breasts. To 
them it was " a thing of joy forever." With the 
usual exaggerative disposition of their race, they 
anticipated the dawn of January as if it were to be 
the Star of the East, to glow with stellar splendor. 

Many were prematurely rattling their chains, and 
filing deep into the fibres of the shackles which had 
eaten into their marrows. Already they were inde- 



116 SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 

pendent of mastery, and foolishly boasted that their 
souls were their own. Some had rented shanties, 
which, prospectively, were their castles, and they lin 
gered about the rattling doors with jealous fascina 
tion, waiting with throbbing hearts for the clangor 
of the midnight bell of the old year to proclaim their 
liberty. Never had there been such sounds of revelry 
in the house of bondage balls, little dances, banjo 
ilings in rickety cabins, concerts in which the touch 
ing pathos of the American negro race pealed in wild 
passion upon the resonant strings of homely violins, 
or swelled into melody upon the rich, full voices of 
the slaves. They sang Jo paeans to liberty. They 
talked of the proclamation incessantly; celebrated 
their coming freedom in homely but happy refrains; 
dreamed of emancipation, and related their dreams 
with the eloquence of joy. They had borrowed the 
jewelry of the Egyptians prematurely. The word of 
promise was held to their ears, but broken to their 
hearts. 

THEIR MISTRESSES. 

Their haughty mistresses for their masters were 
mostly self-exiled traitors were as restive as their 
negroes. The proclamation was to them as a cloud 
surcharged with lightnings and thunders. Those 
whose humor was not so hot as to betray them into 
indiscreet bitterness, discussed the subject pitifully, 
but with a refinement of selfishness that stifled the 
sympathy which their sexual pathos had otherwise 
inspired. Invariably, " What will we do, if deprived 
of our servants? They are indispensable to us. We 
can not work. We were never taught to labor. "We 
can not procure white servants. We will not endure 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 117 

to employ our emancipated slaves/ Not a plea for 
the slave ; no, not one, even from women, who, in all 
ages and in all nations, have plead more for liberty, 
sacrificed more for it, and contended more for it than 
men often dare. Now and then a visionary man, pre 
suming on your ignorance, ventured that " the poor 
creatures could not take care of themselves/ but they 
shunned an examination of their logic. Strange that 
a negro can support a whole family of white people 
by the labor of his hands, and yet be unable to subsist 
himself. A dog can do that. 

CHURCH-GOING. 

There was some church-going, but more at a trait 
or s funeral than at worship. A man of God preached 
on the corner, reading his petitions to the Throne of 
Grace from a prayer-book, and his flock echoed him as 
if mocking him, but they did not pray for their coun 
try. The passage was erased in all their missals 
" Forgive them, Father, for they know not what they 
do." Opposite, sometimes, there was a generous, 
heartful voice of prayer which swelled and soared 
upward in grand volume, appealing to the God of 
battles fervently for the brave soldiers of the Republic. 
The preacher wielded the " sword of the Lord and of 
Gideon." He fought as well as prayed for his bleed 
ing country, and his name is written Moody, among 
those of good men and heroes. 

ARMY CHAPLAINS. 

And now that we talk of the church militant, let 
indignant slander be silent. "Who that has watched 
the man of God with the spirit of Christianity, dares 
libel the noble men who bear the cross of the Akrughty 



118 SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. 

into the field of blood ? "Will the soldiers of the Four 
teenth Army Corps despise the office of the Christian 
chaplain, who was first by his side at the couch of 
suffering, and the last to desert him in his sorrow? 
Will any sneer at the office or curse the memory of 
Black, of John Poacher, of Lay ton, of Lozier, of 
Wilkins, of Gaddis, of Father IIiggins, of Father 
Cooney, of noble and gallant Father Trecy, of Brad- 
shaw, of Decker, and of scores of Christian heroes, 
who ventured health, happiness, life, in the camp and 
on the battle-field, to soothe the agony of the pros 
trate and dying soldier ? The hand that wields the 
pen of calumny against the devoted chaplains of the 
armies of the Republic, should be forever palsied. 
Soldiers of the Union, cherish your worthy chaplains. 
^s"ot many are unworthy. Citizens of the Republic, 
credit not the foul expressions of flippant and mis 
chievous scoffers, who falsely tell you that the 
preachers of the army are recreant to their trust 
Here and there is an apostate ; now and then a hyp- 
pocrite ; but they stand out like blasted trees upon 
some rude mountain, conspicuous because they are few 
in numbers. They are the by- word and the scorn of 
good and of evil men. 

There is an unwritten history of the chaplains of 
your armies, but it is inscribed upon the scroll of the 
blessed. Is exile from the bliss of home nothing? Is 
privation, exposure, danger of sickness, of death by 
disease, or upon the battle-field, nothing? Are the 
trials, the heart-sickness, the toils, the weary marches, 
the night watches in the face of the foe, the hunger, 
the rain, the snow, the cold of winter, of trilling 
moment in the great record of wretched war? The 
preacher of the army writes to friends at home of the 



SOCIAL LIFE IN NASHVILLE. * 110 

sorrows and hardships of the soldier. "When he enjoys 
brief respite from his labors, he harrows your soul, 
from the pulpit, with descriptions of a soldier s trials ; 
at your fireside your heart aches, and your eyes float 
in scalding tears, at his touching pictures of a soldier s 
last agony. He tells you of the soldier; glows with 
enthusiasm in recounting their deeds of heroism; the 
image of the dear old flag, which the preacher loves, 
floats before his vision, and you feel the silent bene 
diction which swells in his heart, when his full, elo 
quent voice rings in enconium of the valor of your 
heroes but the preacher says not one word of him 
self; no, not one word! And yet and yet, the sor 
rows of the soldiers are his ; the trials of the soldiers 
are his; the vigils of the soldiers are his and more, 
for he stands by the wounded soldier s side in battle, 
as woman watches at the couch of those she loves. 

Preachers have wielded the trenchant blade in the 
face of the foe. Preachers have spilled their blood 
on the battle-field under the old flag for which they 
fought and prayed. Preachers have died on the bat 
tle-field doing deeds of mere} and Christian charity. 
Preachers, worn and exhausted by the vicissitudes of 
a soldier s life, have eked their last sigh in soldiers 
hospitals. Dozens of them, feeble and emaciated, 
the fountains of their life sapped by toil and expo 
sure, have finally crawled home to linger out a few 
brief days of suffering, and to die^the victims of the 
scofrer, who never thinks of God, but to profane his 
name. It is their destiny to bear their cross patiently 
and bravely. There are hundreds to-day, in your 
armies, who labor and wait for the crown which com 
pensates for all the bitter injustice of men. 



120 " REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

EXTERIOR. Pressure upon the Commander He resists it. His View 
of War His Situation Number of Effectives Organization 
Muster Roll of the Regiments for an Advance The Pioneer Bri 
gade The Tenth Ohio States Represented in the Army New 
Regiments A Glance at, Commanding Officers Spirit of the 
Army The Enemy Defiant. 



long after the resumption of railroad commu 
nication with ISTashville, General Rosecrans began to 
feel the influence of external pressure urging a for 
ward movement. Said a very distinguished Tennes- 
sean, with some exhibition of bitter impatience, 
""Why does not Ixosecrans move?" Perhaps the 
suggestion was insinuated from Nashville to Wash 
ington. It was believed such interference was 
resented. The General Commanding, concerning 
public impatience, said vehemently, " I will not move 
until I am ready ! I will not move for popular effect! 
War is a business to be conducted systematically. I 
believe I understand my business. If my views are 
not approved, let me be removed. I will not budge 
until I am ready. The next battle in this department 
is likely to be decisive of the war. There must be no 
failure." "Why move? Supplies for five days had 
accumulated about the 5th of December. If the 
army moved from the immediate front of Nashville, 
a halt to await subsistence would be imperatively 
necessary at the expiration of three days. General 



REORGANIZATION OF TIIE ARMY. 121 

Kosecrans subsequently officially explained that under 
such circumstances " the evident difficulties and labors 
of an advance into this country, and against such a 
force, and at such distance from our base of opera 
tions, with which we are connected by a single preca 
rious thread, made it manifest that our policy was to 
induce the enemy to travel over as much as possible 
of the space that separated us ; thus avoiding for us 
the wear and tear and diminution of our forces, and 
subjecting the enemy to all these inconveniences, 
besides increasing for him, and diminishing for us, the 
dangerous consequences of a retreat." 

But by Christmas rations enough had been col 
lected at Nashville to supply the army until the 1st 
of February, by which period it was probable that 
navigation in the Cumberland River would be 
resumed. The army was therefore ready to advance, 
and prospects for the future were altogether favor 
able. The enemy had been induced to believe that 
Rosecrans had gone into winter quarters at Nashville, 
and had prepared his own at Murfreesboro, with some 
boastings of an intention to make them finally at 
Nashville, without, however, making any alarming 
demonstrations looking to that result. 

Bragg having sent a large force of cavalry into 
West Tennessee to annoy General Grant, and another 
large force into Kentucky to break up railroad con 
nection between Louisville and Nashville, it was 
deemed that the opportune moment for movement 
had arrived. Colonel Truesdail had definitely ascer 
tained that Folk s and Kirby Smith s forces were at 
Murfreesboro, and that Hardee s corps was on the 
Shelbyville and Nolensville pike between Triune and 
11 



122 REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

Eaglesville. Oar own movable effective force was 
now collected in front of Nashville, stretching irreg 
ularly some ten miles or more across the country. 
Reynolds and Steadman s divisions were in pur 
suit of Morgan, or guarding the railroad. A strong 
garrison had been detailed for the protection of 
Nashville. Innumerable details and the large num 
ber of sick and deserters had reduced the effective 
offensive force to forty-six thousand nine hundred and 
ten men of all arms. Of these, forty-one thousand 
four hundred and twenty-one were infantry, two 
thousand two hundred and twenty-three artillery, and 
three thousand two hundred and sixty-six cavalry, and 
several regiments of the latter were raw and unreli 
able. The corps were organized as follows, viz. : 

EIGHT WING (Numbering 15,933 men.) 
Major General Alex. McDowell Me Cook, Commanding. 

FIRST DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL JEFF C. DAVIS COMMANDING. 

First Brigade, Colonel P. Sidney Post Commanding. 

Twenty-Second Indiana Regiment, Colonel Gooding. 

Fifty-Ninth Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Frederick. 

Seventy-Fourth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Marsh. 

Seventy-Fifth Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Bennett. 
Second Brigade, Colonel W. P. Carlin Commanding. 

Twenty-First Illinois Regiment, Col. Alexander. 

Thirty-Eighth Illinois Regiment, Major Gilmer. 

Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiment, Colonel H. C. Heg. 

One Hundred and First Ohio Regiment, Colonel Stem. 
Third Brigade, Colonel W. E. Woodruff Commanding. 

Twenty-Fifth Illinois Regiment, Major Norlin. 

Thirty -Fifth Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Chandler. 

Eighty-First Indiana Regiment, Major Woodbury. 
Artillery attached to First Division. 

Fifth Wisconsin Battery, Captain Pinney. 



REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 123 

Eighth Wisconsin Battery, Captain Carpenter. 
Second Minnesota Battery, Captain Hotchkiss. 

SECOND DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL R. W. JOHNSON COMMANDING. 

.First Brigade, Brigadier General A. Willick, Commanding. 

Forty-Ninth Ohio Regiment, Colonel W. II. Gibson. 

Thirty-Ninth Indiana Regiment, Colonel T, J. Itarrison. 

Thirty-Second Indiana Regiment, Colonel Von Trebra. 

Fifteenth Ohio Regiment, Colonel W. H. Wallace. 

Eighty-Ninth Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Hotchkiss. 
Second Brigade, Brigadier General Kirk Commanding. 

Seventy-Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, Colonel Stambaugh. 

Twenty-Ninth Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Dunn. 

Thirtieth Indiana Regiment, Colonel J. B. Dodge. 

Seventy-Ninth Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Reed. 

Thirty-Fourth Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Bristol. 
Third Brigade, Colonel P. P. Baldwin Commanding. 

Sixth Indiana Regiment, Colonel Baldwin^ 

First Ohio Regiment, Colonel Ed. Parrott. 

Ninety-Third Ohio Regiment, Colonel Charles Anderson. 

Fifth Kentucky Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel W. W. Berry. 
Artillery. 

First Ohio Battery, Company , Captain Goodspeed* 

First Ohio Battery, Company E, Captain Edgarton, 

Fifth Indiana Battery, Captain Simonson. 

Four companies of the Third Indiana Regiment of Cavalry, com 
manded by Major Kline, were attached to the Second Division. 

THIRD DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL PHILIP ft. SHERRIDAN COMMANDING. 

First Brigade, Brigadier General J. W. Sill Commanding. 

Thirty-Sixth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Greusel. 

Twenty-Fourth Wisconsin Regiment, Colonel Larrabee. 

Twenty-First Michigan Regiment, Colonel R. R. Stephens. 

Eighty-Eighth Illinois Regiment, Colonel T. T. Sherman. 
Second Brigade, Colonel Shaeffet Commanding. 

Second Missouri Regiment, Colonel Laiboldt. 

Fifteenth Missouri Regiment, Major Webber. 

Forty-Fourth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Reed. 

Seventy-Third Illinois Regiment, Colonel Jacques. 



124 REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

Third Brigade, Colonel Roberts Commanding. 

Twenty-Second Illinois Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Swannick. 

Twenty-Seventh Illinois Regiment, Colonel F. A. Harrington. 

Forty-Second Illinois Regiment, Major N. H. Walworth. 

Fifty-First Illinois Regiment, Colonel L. P. Bradley. 
Artillery. 

First Missouri Battery, Captain G. Hescock. 

Fourteenth Illinois Battery, Captain Houghtaling. 

Fourth Indiana Battery, Captain Bush. 

CENTER (Numbering 13,395 men). 
Major General George H. Thomas Commanding. 

FIRST DIVISION, 

MAJOR GENERAL LOVELL II. ROUSSEAU COMMANDING. 

First Brigade, Colonel B. P. Scribner Commanding. 

Thirty-Eighth Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel D. F. Griffin. 

Thirty-Third Ohio Regiment, Colonel O. F. Moore. 

Second Ohio Regiment, Colonel John Kell. 

Ninety-Fourth Ohio Regiment, Colonel John W. Frizell. 

Tenth Wisconsin Regiment, Colonel A. R. Chapin. 
Second Brigade, Colonel John Beatty Commanding. 

Fifteenth Kentucky Regiment, Colonel Forman. 

Third Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel J. H. Lawson. 

Tenth Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Burke, detached. 

Forty-Second Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Shanklin. 

Eighty-Eighth Indiana Regiment, Colonel Humphreys. 
Third Brigade, Colonel Starkweather Commanding. 

First Wisconsin Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Bingham. 

Twenty-First Wisconsin Regiment, Colonel Hobart. 

Twenty-Fourth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Mihalotzy. 

Seventy-Ninth Pennsylvania Regiment, Colonel Hambright. 
Fourth Brigade (Regulars}, Lieutenant Colonel 0. S. Shepard. 

Fifteenth United States Infantry, Major J. H. King. 

Sixteenth United States Infantry, Major Slemmer. 

Eighteenth United States Infantry, First Battalion, Major Cald- 
well. 

Eighteenth United States Infantry, Second Battalion, Major Fred. 
Townsend. 

Nineteenth United States Infantry, Major Carpenter. 



REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 125 

Artillery. 

First Michigan Battery, Lieutenant Van Pelt (Loomis). 
Fifth United States Artillery, Battery II, Lieutenant Guenther. 
First Kentucky Battery, Captain Stone. 
Colonel 0. A Loomis, Chief of Artillery of the Corps. 

SECOND DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL JAMES S. NEGLEY COMMANDING. 

First Brigade, General J. G. Spears Commanding. 

First East Tennessee Regiment, Colonel R. K. Byrd. 

Second East Tennessee Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Melton. 
Second Brigade, Colonel T. R. Stanley Commanding. 

Eighteenth Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Given. 

Sixty-Ninth Ohio Regiment, Colonel W. B. Cassilly. 

Nineteenth Illinois Regiment, Colonel J. R. Scott. 

Eleventh Michigan Regiment, Colonel Stoughton. 
Third Brigade, Colonel John F. Miller Commanding. 

Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, Colonel Sirwell. 

Twenty-First Ohio Regiment, Colonel J. H. Neibling. 

Seventy-Fourth Ohio Regiment, Colonel Granville Moody. 

Thirty-Seventh Indiana Regiment, Colonel Hull. 
Artillery. 

First Ohio Battery G, Marshall s. 

First Ohio Battery M, Schultz. 

First Kentucky Battery M, Lieutenant Ellsworth. 
Captain John Mendenhall, United States Army, Chief of Artillery 
of the Corps. 

Other Tennessee regiments, which formed part of 
Spears hrigade, do not properly come within the 
scope of this narrative. Colonel Walker s brigade, 
which follows, had been temporarily detached from 
Steadman s division. 

Colonel M. B. Walker s Brigade (Detached.} 

Seventeenth Ohio Regiment, Colonel J. M. Connell. 
Thirty-First Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel P. W. Lister. 
Thirty-Eighth Ohio Regiment, Colonel Phelps. 
Eighty-Second Indiana Regiment, Colonel Hunter. 
Ohio Battery, Captain Church. 



126 * REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

LEFT WIFG (Numbering 13,288 men). 
Major General Thomas L. Crittenden Commanding. 

FIRST DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL THOMAS J. WOOD COMMANDING. 

First Brigade, Brigadier General Miles S. Hascall Commanding. 

Twenty-Sixth Ohio Regiment, Colqnel E. P. Fyffe. 

Fifty-Eighth Indiana Regiment, Colonel Geo. P. Buell. 

Third Kentucky Regiment, Colonel McKee. 

One Hundredth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Bartleson. 
Second Brigade, Colonel George D. Wagner Commanding. 

Fifty-Seventh Indiana Regiment, Colonel C. C. Hines. 

Fortieth Indiana Regiment, Colonel J. W. Blake. 

Fifteenth Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Wood. 

Ninety-Seventh Ohio Regiment, Colonel Lane. 
Third Brigade, Colonel C. G. Harkcr Commanding. 

Fifty-First Indiana Regiment, Colonel Streight. 

Sixty-Fourth Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Mcllvain. 

Thirteenth Michigan Regiment, Colonel Shoemaker. 

Sixty-Fifth Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Cassil. 

Seventy-Third Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Hathaway. 
Artillery. 

Eighth Indiana Battery, Captain Estep. 

Tenth Indiana Battery, Captain Cox. 

Sixth Ohio Battery, Captain Bradley. 

SECOND DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL J. M. PALMER, COMMANDING, 

First Brigade, Brigadier General C. Cruft, Commanding. 

First Kentucky Regiment, Colonel D. A. Enyart. 

Second Kentucky Regiment, Colonel T. D. Sedgwick. 

Thirty-First Indiana Regiment, Colonel John Osborne. 

Ninetieth Ohio Regiment, Colonel Ross. 
Second Brigade, Colonel W. B. Hazen, Commanding. 

Forty-First Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Aquila Wiley. 

Sixth Kentucky Regiment, Colonel W. C. Whittaker. 

Ninth Indiana Regiment, Colonel W. H. Blake. 

One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Thos. S. Casey. 
Third Brigade, Colonel W. Grose Commanding. 

Thirty-Sixth Indiana Regiment, Major Kinley. 

Twenty-Fourth Ohio Regiment, Colonel Fred. Jones. 



REORGANIZATION OP THE ARMY. 127 

Sixth Ohio Regiment, Colonel N. L. Anderson. 
Twenty-Third Kentucky Regiment, Major Hamrick. 
Eighty-Fourth Illinois Regiment, Colonel Waters. 
Artillery. 

Fourth United States Artillery, Battery M, Lieutenant Parsons. 
First Ohio Artillery, Battery B, Captain Standart. 
Indiana Battery, Captain Cockerell 

THIRD DIVISION, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL II. P. VAN CLEVE COMMANDING. 

First Brigade, Colonel Samuel Bealty Commanding, 

Ninth Kentucky Regiment, Colonel Grider. 

Eleventh Kentucky Regiment, Major E. S. Motley. 

Nineteenth Ohio Regiment, Major C. F. Manderson. 

Seventy-Ninth Indiana Regiment, Colonel Fred. Kneffler. 
Second Brigade, Colonel J. P. Fyffe Commanding. 

Forty-Fourth Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Reed. 

Thirteenth Ohio Regiment, Colonel J. G. Hawkins. 

Eighty-Sixth Indiana Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Dick. 

Fifty-Ninth Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Howard. 
Third Brigade, Colonel Stanley Matthews Commanding. 

Fifty-First Ohio Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel McLain. 

Thirty-Fifth Indiana Regiment, Colonel B. R. Mullen. 

Twenty-First Kentucky Regiment, Colonel S. W. Price. 

Eighth Kentucky Regiment, Colonel S. M. Barnes. 

Ninety-Ninth Ohio Regiment, Colonel P. T. Swaine. 
Artillery. 

Seventh Indiana Battery, Captain Swallow. 

Third Wisconsin Battery, Lieutenant Livingston. 

Twenty-Sixth Pennsylvania Battery, Lieutenant Steven.s}, 

CAVALRY, 

BRIGADIER GENERAL DAYI&, S, STANLEY COMMANDING. 

First Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Colonel Minor Millikin. 
Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Lieutenant Colonel Murray. 
Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Lieutenant Colonel J. L. Pugh. 
Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, Majqr W yn^QQp. 
Fourth Michigan Volunteer Cavalry, Co.lqnel Minty. 
Third Kentucky Volunteer Cayalry, Colonel Murray. 
First Middle Tennessee Cayalry, Colonel W. B. Stokes. 
Second East Tennessee Cavalry, Colonel Cook. 
Third Indiana Oavalry (four companies only), Major Kline. 



128 REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

Fifteenth Pennsylvania (three hundred men), Major Rosengarten. 
Fourth United States Cavalry, Captain Elmer Otis. 

Colonel John Kennett, of the Fourth Ohio Cavalry, 
commanded the Second Cavalry Division on the left 
wing. Colonel Zahn, of the Third Ohio Cavalry, 
commanded a cavalry brigade on the right under 
General Stanley. Colonel Minty, of the Fourth 
Michigan, commanded a brigade under Colonel Ken 
nett. 

PIONEER BRIGADE. 

Besides the foregoing, there was a brigade of Pio 
neers, which had been selected by Captain James St. 
Clair Morton, United States Engineers, from forty 
different regiments. It proved invaluable to the serv 
ice. It numbered about seventeen hundred men, and 
was organized in three battalions, commanded respect 
ively by Captain Bridges, of the Nineteenth Illinois ; 
Captain Hood, of the Eleventh Michigan ; and Cap 
tain Clements, of the Sixty-Ninth Ohio Infantry, the 
whole being under Captain Morton s command, and 
organized and disciplined by him. The Chicago 
Board of Trade Battery, Captain Stokes, was attached 
to it. But the members of this organization were 
included in the foregoing muster. The Michigan 
Engineers and Mechanics, Colonel Innis, numbering 
about four hundred men, was on detached duty, and 
it greatly distinguished itself. The immortal Tenth 
Ohio Regiment, Col. J. W. Burke, which had been 
proverbial for its splendid soldierly qualities, and dis 
tinguished for its brilliant gallantry at Carnifex Ferry 
and Chaplin Hills, had been detached from Colonel 
Jobn Beatty s brigade, and as a token of honorable 



REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 129 

distinction was assigned to duty by General Rosecrans 
as General Headquarters Guard. 

Regiments were numerous enough, but many were 
reduced to two hundred and fifty fighting men each. 
The six battalions of regulars numbered only fourteen 
hundred men, and, as has been shown, there were 
only two thousand two hundred and twenty-three 
men to handle one hundred and fifty field pieces. Of 
the infantry regiments, thirty- two (including the First 
and Second Kentucky Infantry, which were enlisted 
and generally officered in Cincinnati), were from 
Ohio; twenty-five from Indiana; twenty-two from 
Illinois ; three from Pennsylvania ; five from "Wiscon 
sin; ten from Kentucky; two from Missouri; three 
from Michigan ; and two from Tennessee. Three of 
the cavalry regiments were from Ohio, two from Ten 
nessee, one from Kentucky, two from Pennsylvania, 
one from Michigan, and a detachment of four small 
companies from Indiana. 

THE GENERALS. 

The Right Wing and Center were commanded by 
educated soldiers of large experience. Major General 
Crittenden had not received a military education. He 
was essentially a volunteer, but was a vigilant and 
zealous officer. Brigadier Generals Johnson, Sherri- 
dan, Van Cleve, and Wood, commanding divisions, 
were graduates of the Military Academy at West 
Point, and were approved, good soldiers of experience. 
Brigadier General Davis was a regular officer of expe 
rience and skill. Major General Rousseau, Brigadier 
Generals E"egley and Palmer, commanding divisions, 
were volunteers. General Kegley, however, had 



130 REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

served in the war with Mexico, and had devoted his 
attention to military matters during many years. 
Excepting Brigadier Generals Sill, Kirk, Willich, 
Cruft, Hascall, and Spears, the brigade commanders 
were Colonels. Sill and Ilascall were graduates of 
West Point. Kirk, Willich, and Cruft were volun 
teers, hut Willich had been a soldier in Europe. 
Lieutenant Colonel Shepherd, commanding the bri 
gade of regular troops, Colonel W. P. Carlin, Colo 
nel W. B. Hazen, and Colonel Charles G. Harker, 
were also graduates. All the remaining brigade 
commanders were volunteers. Excepting Colonel P. 
T. Swainc, commanding the Ninety-Ninth Ohio Regi 
ment, all the regimental, field and line officers, except 
ing those in the brigade of regulars, were purely 
volunteers many of them yet in the " School of the 
Soldier," but some were men of fine military capac 
ity. Excepting the Chief of Cavalry, and the officers 
of the Fourth United States Cavalry, all the field, and 
staff, and line officers of the cavalry were volunteer 
soldiers. Mendenhall, Stokes, Guenther, and Parsons, 
were the only artillery officers, excepting several sub 
ordinates, who were regularly educated in gunnery; 
but fe\v in any service were superior to Loomis, of 
Michigan, and Barnet, of Ohio. Hescock, Bradley, 
Standart, Edgarton, Cox, Swallow, Bush, and Simon- 
son, also ranked high in the art of gunnery, 

THE SITUATION. 

But the army, on December 25th, was generally 

in superb condition -well-appointed, spirited, and 

, confident. They seemed animated with a conviction 

that with a fighting general they could redeem the 



REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 131 

blank record of the past months of barren toil. The 
General Commanding, relying upon Providence and 
trusting in the steadfast valor of his gallant legions, 
was sanguine and hopeful. The enemy were now 
facing us squarely and defiantly separated from o in 
line of outposts by a strip of territory two miles wide 
in our direct front, with a line of videttes posting 
upon an irregular front corresponding with our own, 
extending on their left from the front of Triune to 
Nolensville, thence to Baird s Mills, the line crossing 
the Murfreesboro pike four miles in front of Lavergne. 
It had been .reported that Stevenson s division, of 
Kirby Smith s Corps, had been sent to reinforce Pem- 
berton s Army of the Mississippi, and that Kirby 
Smith himself had gone to assume command of a new 
department. The remainder of his command, it was 
said, had been merged into the corps of Polk and 
Hardee. Hitherto, Kirby Smith had commanded the 
rio-ht, Polk the center, and Hardee the left of the 

O 7 I 

rebel army. Their disposition of cavalry remained 
unchanged, save that Forrest, as already stated, was 
cutting up General Grant s communications, and Mor 
gan was moving into Kentucky to cut railroad con 
nections between Louisville and Nashville General 
Reynolds and General Steadman s forces pursuing 
him Major General Wright, commanding the Depart 
ment of the Ohio, endeavoring to head him off. But 
Morgan accomplished his enterprise broke up the 
railroad at various points, destroyed much public 
property, captured many prisoners, and escaped with 
out serious loss. Meantime, matters of great moment 
were culminating. 



132 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

ORDERS to March Preparation Excitement in Nashville Christmas | 
Night Consultation of Generals Rosecrans, Thomas, McCook, 
Crittenden, Stanley, Johnson, Negley, Sherridan "Fight them !" - 
The Plan of Movement The Commanding General and his Military 
Household Customs of Headquarters Nocturnal Scenes Lectures* 
to Young Officers Conversation Politics, Literature, Science, War 
Good Night. 

THE opportune moment for aggressive movement 
was at hand. Orders for an advance of the Four 
teenth Army Corps were issued Wednesday, the 24th i 
of December. The columns would move at daylight 
Christmas morning. Presently the camps blazed withi 
excitement. The sturdy troops greeted the announce 
ment with shrill clamor, which swelled its cheerful! 
volume far along the ridges and down into the val-> 
leys, as musket volleys roll along a line of battle. 
There was glorious assurance in that manful uproar. 
The populous hills blazed with sparkling fires. 
Thousands were cooking rations for the march. 
The commissariat labored under manifold requisi 
tions. Muskets soon gleamed with fatal luster. Busy 
pens swiftly indited fond adieus, perhaps the last, to< 
loved ones at home, and it was not long before the 
mails groaned under the weight of affectionate testi 
mony from those brave hearts. The horseman care 
fully brushed his equipments, adjusted his last strap, 
looked well to his holsters, and patted his faithful 



ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 133 

charger kindly on Ins shining neck, as if soliciting his 
last proof of endurance and fidelity. The cannonier 
burnished his trusty piece until it glistened, then 
poised it again and again, sighting it at imaginary 
foes, so soon to assume stern substantial form. Aids 
and orderlies thundered over the highways and 
through the bustling camps, swiftly bearing messages. 
Here and there were tableaux of soldiers, earnest and 
animated, standing by the old flag at headquarters, 
talking of battle and of victory. Picturesque groups 
of officers in eager colloquy, clustered about brigade 
and division marquees, now and then one swiftly 
mounting and away with orders. And the surgeon, 
in his tent, drew from his case the glittering blade at 
which the bold heart shrinks in fear which no mortal 
enemy can inspire. The young soldier daintily fin 
gers the probe, and shuddering, asks its use. The 
veteran of battles grimly jests at the knife, and stalks 
away soberly to his comrades. The surgeon, seem 
ingly cold and unfeeling, but with warm and sensitive 
heart, covered, it seems to the soldiers, with a glare of 
ice, carefully wipes the last atom of moisture or dust 
from the gleaming steel, and his cruel preparation is 
done. 

EXCITEMENT IN NASHVILLE. 

The tidings wafted back to Nashville, and revolved 
ipon a thousand busy tongues. Haughty dames of 
she capital stood upon their stately porticoes gossip 
ing sagely with other dames, or hastily flitted from 
house to house wild with excitement which flamed 
in their eyes and burned in their flushing cheeks. 
Had the eye of suspicion enjoyed power to peer into 
:he mysteries of secluded apartments, it might have 



134 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

discovered nervous preparation for secret enterprise, 
that waited for execution only until darkness. Who 
can doubt that trusty messengers fled swiftly that 
night from ladies chambers to the camps of the 
enemy, bearing great news? It was never explained, 
but before the hours of evening waned into midnight, 
other and countermanding orders went out, and the 
camps settled moodily to rest. But it was only a sus 
pension for twenty-four hours. The General Com 
manding devoted Christmas morning to worshiping 
God. 

CONSULTATION AT HEADQUARTERS. 

Christmas night there was an assemblage of com 
manders at headquarters. There was consultation, 
but "council of war" none. The Chief likes them 
not. Decidedly, he indorses the martial maxim 
" councils of war don t fight." Major General 
Thomas was there, certainly "true and prudent, 
distinguished in council, and on many battle fields for 
his courage," could it be otherwise? McCook, 
"brave, faithful, and loyal soldier," standing with his 
elbow on the mantel, merry and confident, and boast 
ful of his gallant corps then heroes of two sanguin 
ary battles ; Crittenden, " whose heart is that of a 
true soldier and patriot," stately and reticent, believ 
ing in the justice of the "old Master" of us all, but 
assuring that "if the rebels stood at all there would 

be d d hard fighting ; " " gay old Stanley," hero 

of five battles, quick and comprehensive in sugges 
tion, moving about restlessly, with saber rattling at 
his heels; Johnson, grave arid saturnine, but earnest 
and thoughtful ; l!Tegley, prompt, decisive, and ready 
upon requisition, come when it might; and quiet 



ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 135 

Phil. Sherridan, keen observer, but silent now, so 
unlike him in battle, where he shows a heart of oak. 
Others may have called between sunset and midnight. 

ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

There was swift interchange of thought, and two 
drew aside. The bed of the Chief occupied the space 
between two doors. The right hand door communi 
cated with the military telegraph office. Between 
the bed and the front window near it was a narrow 
space. The topographical maps were tacked to the 
door and spread upon the bed. The aids table was 
under the window-sill. The Chief sometimes used a 
corner of it, and sometimes a corner of Garesches 
table, which was under the other front window, near 
the grate. When the Chief consulted the "true and 
j prudent," the latter sidled and backed into the niche 
I between the two tables, and his Commander seated 
i himself directly in his front, looking into his eyes. 
i General Thomas backed in there now, you would 
i have said mechanically it was a habit of a month s 
[growth. The Chief was balanced upon the edge of 
a chair, leaning over vis-a-vis, almost in the embrace 
of Thomas. The conversation was animated, almost 
vehement, the consulted listening profoundly, the 
consulter talking rapidly and hotly, with blazing eyes, 
the former nodding now and then, perhaps dropping 
I a curt suggestion. All undertone, but there was des- 
itiny in it. Battle was flashing from the tips of nerv- 
jous fingers which had base upon the edge of the chair. 
i Those who know General Rosecrans can see the plan 
as he was manipulating it in his nervous way. 
The others were chatting a little common-place 



136 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

colloquy, or looking into the grate watching the cedar 
sticks curl into flame. How much of the past and of 
the future one may see in a blaze or a heap of glow 
ing coals. Garesche*, his head bowed over the corner 
of the table, which seemed part of him, until his 
broad, clear brow almost touched the tip of his pen 
for he was near-sighted was flinging oft sheets of 
manuscript in his wonderful way orders, correspond 
ence, instructions suspending now and then to 
respond pleasantly to some interpolated query. You 
supposed he was always sitting at that corner of his 
table and indeed he was, from ten o clock of morn 
ing till long after midnight, when not racing through 
a fresh newspaper, with a sort of impatience which 
indicated a jealousy that it was robbing him of pre 
cious time. Staff officers were tip-toeing in and out 
softly, or lounging about in easy chairs or upon a cot 
near the chimney-jam corner of the chamber, over 
against the back wall. Father Trecy slipped into the 
room in his gentlemanly way everybody greeting 
him kindly let fly his budget of " grapevines " which 
he had a faculty for picking up in the streets and 
then slipped out again as softly. Ducat, a military 
Javert, devoted to duty, which he always discharged 
perfectly, stepped in promptly and stepped out 
promptly with instructions. The " old boy" they 
addressed him so, and lovingly looked in modestly, 
but when Kirby disappeared none could tell. He had 
a cat-like habit of getting away when there was noth 
ing for him to do. Thorns ancF Thompson, at the foot 
of the cot, flanking a little deal table, dimly illumined 
by the feeble glimmer of a stearine dip, industriously 
worried out the pregnant ciphers. Tom fed the 



ROSECRAN3 AND THOMAS. 137 

cheerful fire in the grate; the bright blaze was roar 
ing pleasantly up the chimney; the telegraph fingers 
were clicking merrily in the little room, and Monsieur 
John produced his steaming toddy. 

RESULT OP THE CONSULTATION. 

Strange that nobody ever seemed jealous ot 
Thomas. But he was so modest and unpretentious. 
When the command of the great Army of the Ohio 
was tendered him, you know he declined that glitter 
ing recognition of his worth. Monsieur Vault had 
\nstinctively timed the toddy. When the glasses got 
to the corner, there was an eager sentence or two, an 
acquiescing nod on either side, and history was made. 
The Chief was jocose an instant, but directly a glass 
went down upon Garesch<fs table with a clang. 
Garesch^ looked up, surprised a little, and lounged 
back in his chair. Suddenly the Chief " We move 
to-morrow, gentlemen ! We shall begin to skirmish, 
probably, as soon as we pass the outposts. Press 
them hard! Drive them out of their nests! Make 
them fight or run! Strike hard and fast! Give 
them no rest ! Fight them ! Fight them ! FIGHT, I 
say!" and his glittering blue eyes flashed like a gleam 
of lightning, and the nervous right hand dashed into 
the palm of the scarified left, ringing as if cymbals 
were clanging. Thomas looked up with a grim smile 
of approval ; McCook s sharp eyes twinkled with 
internal enjoyment; and Crittenden straightened up 
his trim figure with a sort of swell, as if he had 
heard the programme exactly, and was prepared to 
execute it. It was then accepted as a probability that 
the enemy would make a stand at Stewart s Creek 
12 



108 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

five miles in the rear of Lavergne, going by the Mur- 
freesboro turnpike. General Rosecrans therefore 
directed the army to move in three columns, accord 
ing to the following instructions, to-wit. : 

PLAN OF MOVEMENT. 

McCook, with three divisions, to advance by the 
l^olensville pike to Triune. 

Thomas, with two divisions (N"egley s and Rous 
seau s), to advance on his right, by the Franklin and 
Wilson pikes, threatening Hardee s right, and then to 
fall in by the cross-roads to Nolensville. 

Crittenden, with Wood s, Palmer s, and Van Cleve s 
divisions, to advance by the Murfreesboro pike to 
Lavergne. 

"With Thomas two divisions at ^Tolensville, 
McCook was to attack Hardee at Triune, and if the 
enemy reinforced Hardee, Thomas was to support 
McCook. 

If McCook beat Hardee, or Hardee retreated, and 
the enemy met us at Stewart s Creek, five miles south 
of Lavergne, Crittenden was to attack him ; Thomas 
was to come in on his left flank, and McCook, after 
detaching a division to pursue or observe Hardee, if 
retreating south, was to move, with the remainder of 
his force, on their rear. 

Brigadier General Stanley was to cover the move 
ment with his cavalry. He divided his corps intc 
three columns, and directed the first brigade, com 
manded by Colonel Minty, of the Fourth Michigan 
Volunteer Cavalry, to move upon the Murfreesboro 
pike, in advance of the Left Wing. The second bri 
gade, commanded by Colonel Zahn, of the Third 



ROSECRAXS AND THOMAS. 139 

Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, was ordered to the Frank 
lin road to dislodge the enemy s cavalry, and to move 
parallel to the .Right Wing, protecting its right flank. 
The reserve cavalry, consisting of the new regiments 
Anderson Troop, or Fifteenth Pennsylvania, the 
First Middle Tennessee, the Second East Tennessee 
Cavalry, and four companies of the Third Indiana 
Cavalry General Stanley was himself to command, 
and precede General McCook s corps on the oSTolens- 
ville turnpike. Colonel John Kennett, of the Fourth 
Ohio Cavalry, was to command the cavalry on the 
Left Wing. The Fourth United States Cavalry, Cap 
tain Elmer Otis, was reserved for escort and courier 
duty. 

General Thomas was the first to say good night. It 
was full midnight hefore all the commanders had dis 
persed. As they rose to depart, the Chief took each 
by the hand, and to all gave his parting admonition : 
"Fight them! Spread out your skirmishers far and 
wide ! Iveep pushing ahead ! Expose their nests ! 
Fight ! Keep fighting! They will not stand it. Good 
night ! " 

SOCIAL LIFE AT HEADQUARTERS. 

This was the night preceding movement. It was, 
therefore, more interesting and exciting than other 
nights. Yet it was only an exaggerated copy of 
many. Ordinarily, officers of all departments, citi 
zens, et id omnia, thronged the General s chamber 
during the day, and every hour was absorbed in busi 
ness. The nights were busy, too, but there were 
pleasant episodes. Commanders were most apt to 
call socially then, and the Chief s military household 



140 ROSECRAXS AND THOMAS. 

assembled about him. Garesche*, always present, was. 
wedded to his papers, but never seemed oppressed. 
His faculty for disposing of business was marvelous. 
He never exhibited impatience or irritability, but was 
ever ready to oblige, and to respond to all questions 
with charming courtesy. On occasion he took cheer 
ful part in conversation, displaying the charms of a 
richly cultivated intellect, and enjoying facetise with 
as keen relish as the most mercurial. Goddard and 
Dickson, for the most part, were swallowed up in the 
freshet which ever threatened to overflow the Adju 
tant General s Bureau. Bond, Thorns, and Thomp 
son, were seldom absent. Thorns and Thompson had 
custody of the ciphers, but all the aids were thor 
oughly inducted into the mysteries and miseries of 
late hours and incessant labor. St. Clair Morton 
would flash in, state case, suggest, and flash out 
again, galloping away always as if everything he had 
to do was urgent until it was accomplished. The 
General usually had a pleasant laugh at Morton after 
he was gone, narrating some happy anecdote illus 
trating his practical executive faculty. After a brief 
facetious episode, the Chief was apt to dictate three 
or four letters or dispatches simultaneously, setting 
Bond, Thompson and Thorns at work, while he 
chatted with somebody aside. Some of his most 
nervous letters and public papers were produced in 
this way. Bruner and Melarky meantime were inces 
santly manipulating the telegraph instrument in the 
adjoining chamber. Father Trecy an exiled priest 
from Huntsville, Alabama, esteemed alike by the 
Commander and Staff for his worth and the special 
guest of the former usually dropped in about ten 



ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 141 

o clock, entertained the circle with collections of 
" grapevine," enjoyed merriment with the gayest, 
talked eruditely with the learned, and then retired to 
his cot. Kirby ever slipped in and slipped out as he 
did Christmas night. The Quartermaster and Com 
missary were wont to report at night. Once in a 
while the army Vidocq surprised the staff hy his mete 
oric hlaze, but his commander usually went to see him. 
Wiles, the Provost Marshal, as admirable for his mod 
esty as for zeal in the public service, ordinarily got in 
at midnight or later ; an hour at which the General 
Commanding was ready to lecture him for following 
his own example by working too hard. But the Gen 
eral had such an affectionate, jovial way of reprimand 
ing him, that the interview usually ended in general 
pleasantry. Ducat was always present when instruc 
tions were desirable. He hardly ever retired that his 
Chief did not say, " I like that man he is a thorough 
soldier." " So say we all of us," ran the merry 
roundelay. Colonel Ducat had perfected a system of 
army inspections, by which the effective strength of 
the army, or any portion of it, could be determined 
in an instant, which, together with his high soldierly 
character, commended him to his Chiefs regard. 
Skinner, high-minded and sympathetic, was keenly 
desirous to build up a system of army jurisprudence 
that would reflect credit upon the department, and 
was apt sometimes, by expressing his notions of equity 
rather generously, to run counter to the General s 
severer ideas of military justice and propriety, thus 
occasionally evoking sharp criticisms, which his sen 
sitiveness caused him to misconstrue into censure his 
staff companions rather enjoying his nervousness 



142 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

because they better understood the animus of their 
sometimes martial Rhadamanthus. Skinner under 
stood it after awhile, and succeeded in so tempering 
justice with mercy that he seemed in a fair way to 
accomplish the object of his honorable ambition. The 
Chief esteemed no officer of his staff more thoroughly. 
Michler, of the " Topogs," often had a time of it. His 
was the nervous department. It was no bed of roses, 
but there were thorns enough. As map maker, he 
naturally touched sensitive points, and evoked search^ 
ing criticisms from a commander who particularly 
insisted in having the exact location, range, direction, 
sinuosities, meanderings, elevations, depressions, and 
proportions of every river, rivulet, road, ridge, ravine, 
hill, hollow, forest, swamp, bridge, cornfield, cotton 
plantation, canebreak, or cedar thicket within the 
scope of the field of operations. He was very apt to 
conclude, after enveloping himself in his blankets at 
bed time, that his bureau was a sort of military 
Tophet. Edson, of the Ordnance Corps, worried 
through a similar experience, since powder and ball 
were as essential to war as maps and hard tack. But 
it was a matter of pride to all. at last, to meet the 
approval of a Chief who pertinaciously insisted upon 
knowing for himself that everything necessary to suc 
cess had been done, and precisely how it was done. 
This course of Lectures to Young Officers interpolated 
in the course of a miscellaneous evening conversazi 
one, was quite a treat to those who escaped fire, or 
had run the gauntlet successfully. 



ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 143 



CONVERSATION. 

When lectures were concluded, orders executed, 
correspondence all disposed of, somewhere about mid 
night an hour earlier or an hour later was altogether 
immaterial dull care was dismissed and pleasure 
assumed supremacy. Nobody then was more facetious 
or happy than the General. The temper of conver 
sation, of course, depended altogether upon the direc 
tion given it in the beginning. If religious, it was 
apt to absorb the hours until they run almost into 
daylight. The Chief took the argument and carried 
it, often into the realms of Mother Church, where the 
vehemence of his intellect and his zealous temper 
developed themselves thoroughly. He had the Fathers 
of the Church at his tongue s end, and exhibited a 
familiarity with controversial theology that made him 
a formidable antagonist to the best read, even of the 
clerical profession. He would admit no fallibility 
whatever in any department of his own church, but 
he did not permit his strong reliance in the Church 
of Rome to warp his judgment in material things, 
especially in military matters. It has been recklessly 
said that he required the attendance of the Roman 
Catholics of his staff, escort, and attendants, at mass 
every Wednesday and Sunday. It is a gross calumny. 
He never interferes with the spiritual affairs of any 
subordinate, regarding those as sacred personal mat 
ters, to be governed by the convictions of each indi 
vidual. Moreover, General Stanley and Garesche* 
were the only Romanists on his staff. 

He had no taste for party politics, having dismissed 
the subject until the rebellion should be crushed a 



144 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

point upon which he expressed no doubts. And, 
indeed, he never had been a politician. Upon the 
general subject of slavery, he held the faith that had 
been proclaimed immemorially by his church and by 
all nations which have pretended to civilization save 
the chivalrous portion of these United States. Touch 
ing slavery and the rebellion he was quite clear that 
there had grown up a necessity to emasculate that 
element of military power. The Proclamation was 
yet a promise. When it became an order he would 
obey. 

Upon belle lettres he opened a mine of rich lore, 
and charmed you, as well by the felicity of his illus 
trations, as by the pungent and comprehensive char 
acter of his criticism. It was not a little amusing to 
the author to read in a leading Eastern journal, that 
in science and literature Rosecrans was probably the 
inferior of McClellan and Buell. Their respective 
mutual classmates, and later associates, are sure that 
either of the latter might learn from him in each 
department. His general knowledge of science is 
extensive. Geology and mineralogy are specialities, 
and in those sciences he ranks among the most accom 
plished in the country. 

It was often a subject of curious speculation by 
members of the staff that a man so full of ideas, and 
who expressed himself so readily and forcibly without 
hesitating for language, and with such striking force, 
in the presence of his military family, should be an 
inferior public speaker. It was nevertheless true that 
he hesitated and stammered upon attempting to 
address even a line of soldiers at review. In those 
nocturnal seances, and indeed habitually, his deport- 



ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 145 

ment toward his staff was extremely affable, often 
almost to affectionate familiarity. General McCook 
carelessly remarking of him to a friend, said, "The 
fact is, Rosecrans is too clever he is too easy of 
access." It was singular that he rarely discussed Jiis 
generals to their disparagement. But if anybody knew 
anything of any commander, there was no relief for 
him until he had detailed the particulars. He was 
incessantly accumulating testimony by which he 
might guage his officers, that he might put them in 
their proper positions. 

In professional matters he was exacting. The end 
of the night, and the lengthening hours of morning, 
often crept upon him and his coterie of the junior 
officers of staff, discoursing the art of war in all its 
practical ramifications, and it was not unfrequently 
suggested, that to a young man proposing to adopt 
the profession of arms, the Military Academy itself 
would hardly be so good a school for practical war, 
as an active position upon the staff of General Rose 
crans. He considered war an exact science, admitting 
no carelessness or slovenliness. He often said and 
when he said it irritably you might see it fly out of 
his eyes and off the ends of his fingers " My staff 
should know everything I know;" "I don t allow 
any staff officer to forget anything." But if an 
unlucky wight knew anything imperfectly and 
attempted to report it, the Chief was apt, as the staff 
said, " to make the fur fly." " How do you know 
this ? " "Who told you? " "How does he know ? " 
" Why didn t you learn all the particulars ? " " What 
are you an officer for?" " It s your business to 
know." " You must know." " War means killing," 
13 



146 ROSECRANS AND THOMAS. 

and so on to an end with a sharp sting in it. To one 
he would say, " You don t observe closely ; " to 
another, " You don t state case clearly ; " to a third, 
" You are deficient in geography you must study." 
He took a great fancy to Thorns on account of his 
skill in mathematics and for his general intelligence. 
Thorns mastered the most difficult ciphers in a few 
hours, which was unusual. Christmas had been gone 
several hours when the General Commanding said 
"goodnight!" 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY 147 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE Army Advances Its Spirit in Gloomy Weather Movements of 
the Center Sharp Combats of the Right Wing The Enemy Driver^ 
and Two Guns Captured The Cavalry Gallant Charges The Left 
Wing The Thirty-First Indiana and First Kentucky Infantry 
Charge and Rout the Enemy Close of the First Day s Opera 
tions The Commanding General Seeks the Right Wing A Night s 
Adventures. 

FRIDAY the 26th of December, dawned drearily. 
Daylight feebly struggled through an unbroken mass 
of black clouds and thick volumes of mist, which 
p uft eel up from the valleys. Rain w r as pouring down 
in streams which gathered into volumes in the gullies, 
and made foaming yellow torrents of the little brooks 
that lately stole so softly around the hills. Yet 
reveille rolled merrily along the line and through the 
drow T sy camps. The stout soldiers sprung up gaily, 
and shook off the shackles of sleep, crowing like 
game-cocks, and roaring joyfully like giants refreshed. 
Yet a little while, and they were rushing along the 
highways in magnificent panoply, horsemen, infantry, 
cannon, cannoniers, and mighty trains. It needed 
but a blaze of sunshine to burnish their steel. The 
steady rain drenched their garments but did not quench 
their ardor. There were but few stragglers that 
exciting day. Strange, that when nature frowns so 
gloomily, soldiers should be so cheery; nevertheless it 
is true, that when the barometer falls the mercury of 
their spirits rises until it culminates in hilarity. The 



148 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

veteran campaigner ever bears such testimony. The 
colossal columns overflowed the roads, and swept 
through the leafless forests like mighty waves. Brave 
hearts beat high, for the march had begun with glad 
augury for the future. There was battle in the breeze 
which now began to rise, but our soldiers felt that 
there was victory in their trusty steel. 

" Gay old Stanley" and gallant John Kennett were 
on the right and left and in front, with their cavalry, 
to start the game and cover the flanks. General 
Thomas moved his column thirteen thousand three 
hundred and ninety-five effective men through the 
rich, rustic villas of the Franklin pike to Brentwood. 
s"egley in front, diverging left to the Wilson pike, 
closely followed by Eousseau and Walker s brigade, 
Zahn s brigade of cavalry on the right. General 
McCook, with Stanley s cavalry reserve in front, 
pushed the first division of his corps, under General 
Davis, upon the Edmonson pike, with orders to 
move to Prim s blacksmith shop, whence it was to 
march direct, by a country road, to Nolensville and 
Triune. The Third Division, General Sherridan, 
moving upon the direct road to 2s"olensville, was fol 
lowed by the reserve division under General Johnson. 
The Left Wing, under General Crittenden, moved in 
column upon the direct turnpike to Murfreesboro. 
General Palmer s division in front, covered by Minty s 
cavalry brigade, and followed by Wood s division, 
with Van Cleve s in reserve. 

The country over which the army was sweeping, 
afforded peculiar advantages to the enemy. A small 
force could retard the advance of greatly superior 
numbers, and almost with impunity to themselves. 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 149 

Considerable tracts of cultivated lands occur at inter 
vals on either side of the turnpikes, but the interven 
ing spaces are heavily wooded and interspersed with 
dense cedar ridges, which thoroughly masked the 
enemy. The country rolls up in great rude billows, 
ranging in successions of parallel cross ridges, now 
and then flanked by transverse crests, which served 
for observatories. Cedar brakes, rugged defiles, and 
intersecting streams with rocky bluff banks, formed 
formidable natural barriers to the march of an 
aggressive army, and the enemy, perfectly familiar 
with the topography and geography of the field of 
operations, availed themselves skillfully of its defen 
sive advantages. To dislodge them from these forti 
fications of nature, required careful, tedious and bold 
skirmishing, but our officers displayed skill and judg 
ment, and the results inspired the army with renewed 
ardor. 

THE CENTER. 

General Thomas had directed his command to 
encamp that night at Owen s store, on the Wilson 
pike, but General Kegley, hearing the sound of con 
flict in the direction of Xolensville, left his train with 
a guard to follow, and pushed forward across the 
country to support General Davis, who had uncovered 
the enemy, and was striking him hard in the face. 
Negley s aid was not needed, and his command 
bivouacked near Nolensville. Rousseau went into 
camp at Owen s store, and Walker s brigade, forming 
the rear guard, rested at Brentwood the Center hav 
ing failed that day to find the enemy. 



150 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 



THE RIGHT WING. 

McCook had barely moved two miles when a sharp 
rattle of musketry, in front of both Davis and Sher- 
ridan warned him of the presence of the enemy. 
Moving laboriously out the Edmonson pike, which 
had been rendered almost impassable by the storm, 
General Davis had sent his escort, consisting of 
Company B, Thirty-Sixth Illinois Infantry, Captain 
Shirer, mounted for escort duty, to the front, direct 
ing them to drive in the enemy s pickets, and attack 
them incessantly on the flanks. The country was 
rude and broken, and embarrassed by cedar brakes, 
but Shiner did his duty so well that the Fifty-Iftnth 
Illinois Infantry, thrown out on either flank of his 
little force, had hardly a chance to pull a trigger. 
The infantry, Post s brigade, in front, and the artil 
lery, moved up, without hostile obstruction, to a point 
within a mile of Nolensville. General Davis now 
ascertained that the enemy occupied the village with 
cavalry and artillery in some force. 

Post s brigade, consisting of the Twenty-Second 
Indiana, Seventy-Fourth, Seventy-Fifth and Fifty- 
Kinth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, with the Fifth 
Wisconsin Battery, Captain Pinney, was immediately 
deployed to advance upon the village, the left resting 
upon the pike, the right upon a hill which commanded 
the town, Pinney s battery posted on a knoll on the 
left of the pike. The enemy made show of resist 
ance, flinging some shells, but Pinney soon made it 
too hot for them, and they evacuated the town. A 
large force of rebel cavalry was now discovered mov 
ing to the left and dismounting, apparently intending 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 151 

to attack our right and rear. The Twenty-Second 
Indiana Infantry moved to the right to repel the 
threatened attack. The Second Brigade, commanded 
by Colonel W. P. Carlin, and consisting of the 
Twenty-First and Thirty-Eighth Illinois, Fifteenth 
Wisconsin and One Hundred and First Ohio Regi 
ments of Infantry, and the Second Minnesota Battery, 
Captain Hotchkiss, by this time had formed in line of 
battle on Post s right. Moving rapidly forward, they 
soon engaged the enemy, the men deporting them 
selves splendidly. The Third Brigade, consisting of 
the Twenty-Fifth and Thirty-Fifth Illinois, and the 
Eighty-First Indiana Infantry, with the Eighth "Wis 
consin Battery, Captain Carpenter, and commanded 
by Colonel W. E. Woodruff, was deployed on the 
extreme right to check any flank movement that 
might be projected. It was now plain that the 
enemy were endeavoring to hold -us in check to give 
their main body time to prepare for battle, but their 
strong exhibition of force, and the great advantage 
of position in their favor, required of General Davis 
the exercise of great caution. But the line was well 
formed, and Carlin pushed forward steadily, sustain 
ing a sharp tire until the enemy were dislodged and 
driven from their position. 

Day was waning, but the troops, although wea 
ried by their heavy march and sharp skirmishing, 
exhibited splendid pluck. General Davis, eager as 
a game-cock, deemed it wise to follow up his advan 
tage. The enemy retreated about two miles to a 
rugged hill, the road passing through a defile known 
as Knob s Gap. Deploying on either side of the 
road, with one section of their artillery in the defile, 



152 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

and other pieces on the crest of the hill, they waited 
another encounter. The line advanced in the order 
of battle of the first collision Post s brigade moving 
up the road and to the left of it, Carlin on the right. 
The enemy opened upon Carlin with their artillery at 
long range. Hotchkiss and Pinney moved up, and 
went into action quickly, while Carlin charged up 
the hill, carried the crest in handsome style, and cap 
tured two bronze field pieces. Post had also carried 
the hights on the left, driving the enemy out of 
position, but they saved their guns. Woodruff on the 
right, had opportunity only to drive in the rebel skirm 
ishers. The conduct of the troops during the entire 
day had been superb. The One Hundred and First 
Ohio, Colonel Stem, was particularly signalized 
because it was a new regiment the men behaving 
like veterans. It had the honor to capture one of 
the guns, which was inscribed " Shiloh," and had 
belonged to Georgia troops. Our loss in the skirm 
ishing and two combats was less than a dozen killed 
and wounded. The day had now closed, and Davis 
gallant division went into bivouac. 

STANLEY S OPERATIONS. 

At the crossing of Mill Creek, soon after leaving 
camp in front of Nashville, General Sherridan s 
division encountered the rebel cavalry, but his skirm 
ishers routed them briskly, killing several and cap 
turing a lieutenant and private. Stanley s cavalry 
reserve stirred up the enemy in considerable force a 
mile north of Bully Jack Pass, charged upon them 
sharply, and drove them at a slashing pace two miles 
to the left and rear of Lavergne, forcing them twice 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 153 

to hand to hand encounters, in which the individual 
as well as organized superiority of our gallant troop 
ers was exhibited. The Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cav 
alry, commanded by Majors Rosengarten and Ward, 
and the four companies of the Third Indiana Cav 
alry, under Major Kline, conspicuously distinguished 
themselves. The Pennsylvanians were raw troops, 
but they displayed a spirit and courage which reflected 
great credit upon them. General Stanley, remarking 
their conduct that evening, said : "They went into 
the fight as if they liked it, and were unwilling to 
stop." Their gallant leader, Rosengarten, in the sec 
ond charge, had an amusing single-handed combat 
with a stout rebel whom he overhauled. His pistol 
missed fire, and the rebel was equally unlucky. Their 
weapons being useless, they brought their fists into 
requisition. The rebel quickly put the Major s eye in 
mourning, but the latter, with a stout right-hander, 
sent his antagonist to grass, and left him a captive 
under guard. Stanley s work was done so neatly and 
effectually, that Sherridan moved up to iSTolensville 
without further obstruction, and supported General 
Davis, while the latter was driving the enemy from 
Knob s Gap. General Johnson s division being in 
reserve, did not come in contact with the enemy. 
Colonel Lewis Zahn, with his cavalry command, 
moving down the Franklin pike, drove in the rebel 
pickets two miles in front of that town, charged gal 
lantly, and drove the enemy two miles beyond town, 
killing four, capturing ten, including a lieutenant of 
General Bragg s escort, and destroyed a camp. Lieu 
tenant Colonel E. II. Murray, with the Third Ohio 
Cavalry, also dismounted several rebels, and captured 



154 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

ten prisoners. The results of this day s operations 
were encouraging, and the impulse was felt all over 
the army. Ten men covered our casualties on the 
right, while the enemy had fifteen or twenty killed, 
many wounded, and lost nearly fifty prisoners. The 
Right Wing, numbering fifteen thousand nine hun- 
deed and thirty-three effectives, went into camp at 
Nolensville and vicinity about dark, wearied, but 
hopeful and sanguine. 

THE LEFT WING. 

The Left Wing, Major General Crittenden, number 
ing thirteen thousand two hundred and eighty-eight 
effectives, moved down the main Nashville and Mur- 
frecsboro turnpike. Brigadier General J. M. Palmer s 
division had the advance, Brigadier General Charles 
Cruft s brigade of twelve hundred and seven effectives, 
comprising the First and Second Kentucky, Thirty- 
First Indiana and Ninetieth Ohio Infantry in front, 
covered by Colonel Minty s brigade of cavalry. 
Minty encountered the rebel videttes in a cedar 
thicket, about two miles from our late front, and 
drove them back upon their reserves. Pursuing 
them sharply under direction of Colonel Kennett, 
he found them constantly covered, but by dint of 
sharp riding and hard pushing, finally drove them 
back upon Lavergne, where they rallied in strong 
force with infantry and artillery. The afternoon 
was waning when General Cruft was directed to 
drive the enemy from the woods on the left, and 
take the village, if possible, before dark. The First 
Kentucky and Thirty-First Indiana Infantry, under 
Colonel I). A. Enyart, and the Third Kentucky Cav- 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 155 

airy, Colonel Murray, covering their left, with a sec 
tion of Stanclart s Ohio Battery, under Lieutenant 
Xcwall, were deployed for that purpose, and moved 
boldly upon the enemy. The Sixth Kentucky and 
Is inth Indiana Infantry, temporarily under the com 
mand of Colonel Walter Whittaker, were thrown out 
upon the right to cover that flank. The enemy 
opened sharply with artillery and musketry, but Col 
onel Enyart advanced steadily, and finally gave the 
order to " charge bayonets ! " The gallant lads obeyed 
with a roar of enthusiasm, and the enemy fled to the 
opposite bank of Stony Creek. They never wait 
for bayonets. Colonel Whittakcr, meantime, had 
suddenly fallen upon a force of the enemy in a 
thicket, and had one man of the !N"inth Indiana 
killed, one wounded, and two of the Sixth Kentucky 
wounded. The enemy, however, declined to wait to 
give Whittakcr revenge, and joined their comrades 
on the opposite side of the creek. In Colonel En- 
yart s affair, Lieutenant bewail gained credit by the 
skillful management of his guns. With one shell he 
killed three horses and dismounted seven men. Mur 
ray s Kentucky Cavalry kept the left flank clear, and 
captured five of the enemy. It was adjudged that 
night, however, that it would have been better policy, 
in that country, to have driven the enemy out of the 
defiles and cedar thickets with infantry Colonel 
Kennett satisfactorily showing that it exhausted men 
and horses without compensatory advantages. 

The division of General Wood followed Palmer in 
close supporting distance, but the work was so well 
done in front that their movements were unob 
structed. But the resistance which the advance met 



156 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

prevented the left wing from gaining possession of the 
commanding bights south of Lavergne, and the 
affair at the village occupied so much time that no 
reconnoissance could he made. The enemy still occu 
pied the hights in considerable force, admonishing 
our commanders to exercise vigilance. The mutual 
losses that day on the left were about equal. The 
troops settled to rest near Lavergne, fatigued but 
hopeful. It is now time to look at the movements 
of the Commander-in-Chief. 

MOVEMENTS OF THE COMMANDED. 

Mounting soon after eleven o clock, in a drenching 
storm, General Rosecrans and the staff, with the 
original Anderson Troop, and a squadron of the 
Fourth United States Cavalry, detailed for escort, 
moved toward the Murfreesboro pike. The caval 
cade was winding about the suburban highways of 
Nashville, when the sullen reverberation of cannon 
rolled up from the south-west. "Only shelling 
skirmishers/ yet the thunder of hostile guns made 
the heart beat and the blood mount. Every rider 
straightened in his saddle, and struck impulsively 
into brisker speed. Mile upon mile was quickly left 
behind. The firing waxed sharper, and the trot of 
the troop stretched into a gallop. The uproar was 
on the right. McCook had started the game, and his 
pack was opening in full cry. But it was too far 
away for eager ears to catch the full swell of the 
sonorous music. A little while, and a whole -tone 
bellowed from the direct front. Crittenden, too, had 
found something. The General spurred "Boney" 
gently, and the escort plunged headlong forward, up 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 157 

hill and down, on the side of the road or through the 
fields, it mattered little. The heavy trains lumbered 
onward, and the stalwart columns, thronging thy 
highway, pushed ahead staunchly. Seven or eight 
miles from Nashville, the quick eye of the General 
caught glimpse of one of Merrill s signals, and called 
a halt. Eiders dismounted, and panting steeds rested. 
There was silence again, now and then a gun boom 
ing far away to the south-west. " McCook must he 
near Nbleusville now," quoth Garesche. " Yes," 
said the General; "he will find the enemy there in 
some force." The signal flag upon the distant ridge 
flared again. "What is it, Merrill?" "All right, 
sir." Somebody suggested, quietly, that the enemy 
might take advantage of the divided columns to 
strike the left. "That would be profitable to them," 
said the caustic General, " with the right swinging 
into their rear." A brisk breeze from the north 
west had began to disperse the mist, and the clouds 
broke away. The sun shone out upon the cheerful 
landscape, and the General resumed the march. 

SEARCHING FOR M COOK S QUARTERS. 

Beyond Hamilton Church, just a half mile from the 
eleven-mile granite post, on the Murfreesboro pike, 
a rude country road, tracing the crest of a ridge, 
debouches into the main pike. The cross road, with 
divaricating branches ruder than itself, cuts a rugged 
country some ten miles across the waist, and after 
vexatious sinuosities, intersects the ISTolensville pike 
several miles north of the village. There is a spacious 
clusty-hued frame house (in happier times it was a 
tavern) on the south-west corner of the Murfreesboro 



158 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

junction, with a cornfield and a pleasant maple grove 
in the rear. Upon arriving at this point, the General 
directed headquarters to be established in the field 
and grove, Kirby taking charge, Garesche dismount 
ing and entering the house to forward orders to 
Crittenden. All was silent on the left, but there was 
uproar on the right, denoting sharp combat. 

Halting but a moment, the General pushed onward 
briskly to reconnoiter and find the commander of the 
Right Wing. After crossing the railroad and exam 
ining the country until sunset, the cannonading on 
the right having now ceased, the Chief retraced his 
steps from the summit of a mountain, and drew up in 
a narrow lane in front of Smith s house. Smith said 
it was about five miles to IsTolensville. Garesche*, who 
had rejoined him. Goddard, Thompson, Barnet, 
Michler, Gilman, and one or two others, were detailed 
by the General to accompany him to McCook s 
headquarters, Lieutenant Royse commanding the 
escort. The rest were dismissed. Twilight, then 
darkness, and with darkness heavy clonds and rain, 
fell upon the cortege as it spurred briskly through 
the rugged narrow lanes and gloomy forests, upon 
unknown paths, which but an hour ago had rattled 
under the hoofs of rebel horsemen. 

Later a barrier intercepted the march. A stone 
wall interfered. There was a dwelling on the left, 
and the tenant, an old woman, did not know the road 
to Nolensville. She "had never been three miles 
away from thar anywhar." There was another house 
on the right, where there was a man. It was quite 
agreeable to hear him announce that he occupied the 
premises of the notorious Dick McOanu, a rebel col- 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 159 

onel of cavalry, who had halted there but an hour or 
so before perhaps he was then not far distant. But 
the fellow knew the way to Nolensville, and a guide 
was necessary. There was no alternative for him. 
Threading their way back through dismal forests 
and rocky roads (it seemed unnatural to find such 
wild country so near Nashville), the General and his 
attendants at last struck the main route. After a 
slashing pace of an hour or more over a highway 
from which the horses iron hoofs struck fire at every 
leap, the Nolensville pike was gained. " General/ 
interposed an officer of escort, "this way of going 
like 1 over rocks will knock up the horses." 
"That s true," replied the General, rousing from his 
absorbing thought " Walk ! " It was dark as Ere 
bus, and recognition without a voice was impossible. 
Directly the General called an orderly. " Go back," 
he said, "and tell that young man that he must not 
be profaue." 

THE BIVOUAC. 

The General and his companions had now been in 
saddle nine hours. The latter were weary and hun 
gry. Eager eyes had descried a vista of cheerful 
camps but a few moments before. As the column 
pushed out of a deep wooded vale, and wound labori 
ously up the curving ridge of a towering crest, a glare 
from innumerable bivouac fires, blazing meteor-like 
upon the opposite slope, partially dispelled the thick 
darkness. All hailed the flush of lights as a welcom 
ing beacon, little dreaming that their indefatigable 
leader would be crashing back over the same dreary 
track before the noon of night. 



1GO COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

As they pressed onward, the humid atmosphere 
became impregnated with pungent odor of burning 
cedar, which shivering soldiers had heaped up in rude 
pyramids, and which now exuded grateful warmth 
and pleasant fragrance. The forests were glinting 
with incessant showers of glittering sparks Hitting 
from the crackling fuel, and it seemed as if their bar 
ren boughs were emitting swarms of fire-flies. Here 
and there were cosy bivouacs under dense masses of 
evergreens, whose shadowy outlines, magnified into 
phantom forms by darkness, resembled vast convex 
thunder clouds hovering to the valleys and clinging 
to the hill sides, and sharp gleams of flame light 
flashing through the interstices of the branches which 
vibrated in the wind, rendered the illusion more per 
fect. Heaps of fragrant timber were glowing inside, 
and volumes of lack-luster smoke flowing up against 
the tangled twigs which formed almost impermeable 
ceilings nature s inimitable groining imparted a 
funereal aspect to those arboreal grottoes that might 
have enchanted the gloomy fancy of the weird s 
women 

" That look not like inhabitants o : the earth." 

A shrill vocal murmuring roar, sounding like falling 
waters in the distance, ran through the camps, and 
now and then a cheery shout echoed afar off. The 
figures of restless soldiers, picturesquely grouped 
around the blazing piles, were eye-sketched through 
the dim crepusculous haze against the black perspect 
ive of darkness behind the fires, and seemed in their 
dusky indistinctness like gigantic specters. But 
gradually the murmuring voices died away as an echo, 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 161 

the army settled softly to the grateful bosom of mother 
earth, and happy soldiers dreaming of home thought 
not of the morrow. 

The escort picked its way carefully through a seem 
ingly tangled mass of mules and wagons, and the 
Chief at last found the commander of the Eight 
Wing at Nolensville, in the heart of a grove, just off 
the highway. The flames of a roaring fire were soar 
ing high, and groups of officers were lounging about 
it, discussing the morrow. General McCook was the 
guest of General Johnson that is to say, partook of 
his rations and enjoyed his cheerful brands. ISTo tents 
were pitched, but the two Generals had established 
their quarters in the grove by the side of a rough 
moss-covered rock, which served for lounges and lire- 
place. A pair of roadmaster s cars, like ambulatory 
daguerreian establishments, were draw r n up in front, 
and quarters for the night were provided within. 



It was evident that McCook expected his Com 
mander. After brief greeting they drew aside with 
Garesche* and Goddard into one of the cars, and 
entered upon the business of the succeeding day. It 
was a curious group; the two Generals squatted upon 
the floor vis-a-vis to Garesche* and Goddard, a feeble 
candle in the socket of a bayonet probed into the 
floor between them furnishing dim twilight. The 
Generals talked earnestly, the Chief of Staff and 
Senior Aid writing orders upon slips resting upon 
their knees. The General Commanding expressed 
his gratification with the gallant conduct of the 
troops, but was especially pleased with the ardor and 
14 



162 COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 

firmness of the One Hundred and First Ohio, a raw 
regiment, under fire on the 26th of December for the 
first time. McCook reported Hardee in his front at 
Triune, some seven miles distant, and expected seri 
ous resistance next day. It was somewhere "between 
ten and eleven o clock when the consultation was 
ended. Many of the staff, overcome by fatigue, 
were drowsing in blankets upon the rocks around the 
fire. McCook was directed to move at daylight, and 
push the enemy hard. " We mount now, gentlemen,* 
and a blast of the bugle rang through the valley. 
McCook followed a little way, and extending his 
hand, said, "Good night, General;" and then im 
pressively, " with the blessing of God, General, I will 
whip my friend Hardee to-morrow ! " " God bless 
.yon," echoed his Chieftain fervently, and a moment 
later he was sweeping rapidly down the pike. The 
darkness was now so dense that horses and riders in 
front would have seemed phantoms but for clattering 
hoofs and clanging scabbards. Occasionally horse 
men were met on the highway. A curt "halt!" 
brought them to a stand. Explanation of business 
was required, and the column moved onward. Two 
aids of General Thomas were thus accosted, and a 
tedious ride was saved. After a trot of an hour or 
more, the column was suddenly checked by a fence 
beyond the edge of a forest. Lost, assuredly. A line 
of couriers had been stretched across the waist of the 
country, but even they were not now accessible. An 
hour or more was spent in retracing the route. The 
General was evidently provoked at the misadventure? 
and charged through the woods impatiently. A 
dozen voices hallooing and the twang of a bugle 



COLLISION WITH THE ENEMY. 163 

increased the confusion, during which the column 
was divided, the General and part of the staff press 
ing instinctively homeward, leaving Barnet, Oilman, 
Michler and the author with the Anderson Troop, to 
make their own way through the gloom. The Chief 
got hack to camp soon after one o clock in the morn 
ing, but the rear rambled obscurely through the for 
ests an hour or more, pushing steadily toward the 
lines of the enemy until Michler advised a halt and 
glanced at his compass. Sure enough it was a haz 
ardous adventure, and nothing remained but retro 
grade movement. The courier line was found at last, 
and a little after three o clock in the morning camp 
was joyfully descried. The General was in saddle 
that day fourteen hours, riding forty-two miles ; the 
deserted portion of bis staff were mounted sixteen 
hours, riding forty-eight miles without partaking of 
food. But all that territory now is terra incognita to 
them. 



164 THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 



CHAPTER XX. 

OPERATIONS ON SATURDAY. 

SUNRISE of Saturday was more dreary than the pre 
vious morning . Off the highways men and horses 
found deep mud. A glare of slush was dissolving 
the hard turnpike. It was very fatiguing to the 
infantry. The clouds which had broken at noon of 
yesterday had again massed heavily, and a dense pall 
of mist shrouded the horizon. Shaking his head 
with an air of disappointment, the Chief said omin 
ously, " Not much progress to-day, I fear." It was 
not raining then, and the maps were spread upon a 
table in the grove. He ran his finger rapidly over 
the lines showing the various routes of march and 
the point of junction of the several columns. Sug 
gesting that the enemy might stand on the south 
bank of Stewart s Creek, he yet expressed strong 
doubts of it, and was uncertain whether they would 
oppose his advance in force north of Duck River. 
The reasoning seemed against it. "Why should Bragg 
fight him so near Nashville when he might do it 
more advantageously nearer his own base. Obviously 
it was Bragg s true policy to draw Rosecrans as far 
as possible from his base. Every mile traveled dimin 
ished the effective force of the latter and opened his 
communications to dangerous attack. And e contra 
the enemy by contracting his own lines concentrated 
his strength and protected his line of retreat in case 



THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 165 

of disaster. However, the General was sanguine and 
discoursed cheerfully of the future. At about nine 
o clock the mist began to rise, and the sun shone out 
feebly. Meantime the Right Wing had been moving 
since daylight, and there was an occasional boom of 
cannon bounding from hill to hill. 

THE CENTER. 

General Negley s division waited at E"olensvil]e 
until ten o clock for his train to cross from the 
Wilson pike, where he left it the day before to move 
up in support of Davis. He now moved to the east 
over a rugged and difficult by-road with instructions 
to connect with Crittenden s right flank near Stew- 
artsboro on the Murfreesboro pike. In consequence 
of the heavy rain of the previous night, Rousseau 
found the cross-roads from the Wilson pike nearly 
impassable, and consequently did not reach j^olens- 
ville with his troops and train until night. Walker s 
brigade, by order of General Thomas, retraced its 
steps from Brentwood and crossed over to the 
Nolensville pike. ISTeglcy s march was successfully 
executed but with great difficulty, though without 
obstruction from the enemy. 

THE RIGHT WING. 

General McCook was prepared to move at daylight. 
The Second Division, Brigadier General Johnson com 
manding, in advance, supported by the Third Division, 
Brigadier General Sherridan commanding; the First 
Division, Brigadier General Davis, in reserve; the 
Fifteenth Pennsylvania and the First and Second 
Tennessee Cavalry in front, under General Stanley. 



166 THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 

The fog was so dense that it was impossible to 
distinguish objects a hundred and fifty yards distant. 
Movement was therefore greatly retarded. About 
two miles from camp, General Johnson s vanguard 
Brigadier General Kirk s brigade in advance encoun 
tered the enemy in strong force of cavalry, infantry, 
and artillery. A sharp fire was opened upon John 
son, but the fog was so dense that it was impossible 
to distinguish friend from foe. Our own flank skirm 
ishers had fired upon Stanley s cavalry, and General 
McCook being unfamiliar with the ground, and 
having ascertained that Hardee had been in line of 
battle all night waiting for him, deemed it prudent to 
delay further operations until the fog lifted. 

At one o clock the mist being partially dissipated 
the columns moved forward, the Thirty-Fourth 
Illinois and Twenty-Ninth Indiana Infantry in ad 
vance as skirmishers, supported by Edgarton s Ohio 
Battery and the Thirtieth Indiana Infantry ; the Sev 
enty-Seventh Pennsylvania and Seventy-Ninth Illinois 
following in line of battle in reserve. Baldwin s 
brigade deployed on the right of the road. Upon 
approaching Triune, General McCook ascertained 
that the main body of rebels had retired, leaving a 
force of cavalry with a full battery to contest the 
crossing of Wilson s Creek on the edge of the vil 
lage, the bridge having been destroyed by the enemy. 
Driving the rebel skirmishers before him, General 
Johnson, by sharp fighting, finally gained the crest 
of an elevation overlooking Triune, and the enemy 
were descried in line of battle, with their center in 
the village. Edgarton s Battery was immediately put 
in position, and opened with such effect that the 



THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 167 

rebels were quickly thrown into confusion, and re 
treated rapidly down the Eaglesville road, Johnson s 
skirmishers following as speedily as possible. It had 
now began to rain, and thick fog again obscured the 
country. The ground was also very heavy and 
movement was seriously retarded. General McCook 
therefore determined to halt. General Johnson 
crossed Wilson s Creek with much labor, rebuilt the 
bridge, and encamped on the opposite side. Through 
out the day the men had displayed the steadiness and 
pluck of veteran soldiers, and notwithstanding the 
stubborn resistance they met, they did not lose a man, 
the enemy losing several. Sherridan s division also 
went into camp near the village, and General Davis 
took position at the junction of the Bully Jack road 
with the Nolensville pike. Thus far all was well, but 
the designs of the enemy were not yet divined. 

THE LEFT WING. 

The troops of the Left Wing had been ordered to 
be roused an hour and a half before dawn of the 
27th, to breakfast as speedily as possible, and form 
under arms in line of battle before daylight. General 
Wood, an officer who enjoys a peculiar reputation in 
the army for his vigor and his vigilance, and his pre 
cision in regulating guard duty, having the lead upon 
this da} 7 , superintended the exact execution of this 
order. An occasional shell from the opposing hights 
shortly after morning dawned, showed that these pre 
cautions were not lost.* The Left Wing being further 
advanced than the Right, the former did not move 
forward until eleven o clock, when Wood s division, 
Brigadier General HascalPs brigade in front, took the 



168 THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 

lead. The entire cavalry on the Left Wing had been 
directed to report to General Wood, and that officer, 
satisfied from the nature of the country that its posi 
tion in front would be injudicious, and retard rather 
than aid the progress of the infantry, directed it to 
take position in the rear of the flanks of the leading 
brigade. 

General Hascall moved forward in two lines with 
skirmishers well out upon the front and flanks. 
.Marker s and Wagner s brigades advanced on either 
side of the turnpike road prepared to sustain the 
advance, and especially to protect its flanks. General 
Wood also directed the supporting brigades to pro 
tect their outward flanks by flankers, so that the 
advance of the column was entirely insured against 
any flanking operation the enemy might project- 
Possession of Lavergne, a mile from our front, was 
the first object to be attained. The approach was 
through open fields over fallow grounds. The enemy 
was strongly posted in the houses of the village, and 
upon the wooded bights in the rear, from whence he 
was enabled to oppose our advance by a direct and 
cross-fire of musketry. Ilascall s brigade advanced 
gallantly across the field under a galling fire, and 
with a line of steel quickly routed the enemy from 
his positions, the two leading regiments, Twenty- 
Sixth Ohio, Major Squires, and Fifty-Eighth Indiana, 
Colonel Buell, losing some twenty men, all of whom 
were wounded, one of them mortally. 

Ilascall s brigade, supported by Estep s Eighth 
Indiana .Battery pressed forward vigorously, encount 
ering the enemy constantly in the numerous cedar 
brakes which afforded them cover, but the enthusi- 



THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 169 

asm of our troops was irresistible. The rebels found 
but little time to rest before they were driven in con 
fusion to new positions. General Wood, constantly 
on the alert, was watching every movement with 
jealous eye, permitting nothing to escape him, and 
the troops, confident in their able leader, pressed on 
rapidly under a drenching storm toward Stewart s 
Creek. It was a matter of cardinal importance to 
save the bridge at the crossing of the Murfreesboro 
road, and General Wood strained every nerve to 
accomplish that object. The creek is narrow and 
deep, flowing between rugged and precipitous banks. 
The destruction of the bridge would retard progress, 
and involve the necessity of constructing a new one. 
The advance pressed so hotly upon the heels of the 
enemy that they saw them cross the stream at double- 
quick, the artillery horses under whip and spur. It 
was afterward ascertained that this rapid maneuver 
was executed by Brigadier General Maney s brigade. 
The enemy, however, took time to kindle a fire upon 
the bridge, expecting from the opposite side to repel 
any effort to extinguish it, but the line of skirmishers 
and Colonel McKee s Third Kentucky Infantry, which 
had now been sent to the front, dashed gallantly for 
ward under a sharp fire of musketry and extinguished 
the flames. While the skirmishers were performing 
this brilliant exploit, HascalPs left flank was attacked 
by cavalry. The line immediately changed front to 
the left, repulsed the attack quickly, and a company 
of the One Hundredth Illinois Infantry succeeded in 
cutting off and capturing twenty-five prisoners with 
their arms, and twelve horses with their accouter- 



15 



170 THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 

ments. The enemy now fell back some distance 
from the creek, leaving strong pickets upon the crest 
of the hill near the bridge. General A\ r ood had 
pressed them so sharply that they left, tents standing 
upon the southern side of the creek, and the encamp 
ment was strewn with arms. 

A STEEPLE CHASE. 

Meantime, after passing Lavergne, the Nineteenth 
Brigade, Colonel "W. B. Hazen commanding, was 
directed to proceed via the Jefferson pike to Stewart s 
Creek to save the bridge at that crossing if possible. 
Ninety cavalry of the Fourth Michigan, under com 
mand of Captain Maxey, reported to Colonel Hazen, 
and they were placed under charge of his Acting 
Assistant Inspector General, Captain James Mc- 
Cleery, Forty-First Ohio Infantry, with directions to 
clap spurs to the troop as soon as the enemy were 
started, and not slack rein until the bridge was 
crossed. The distance did not exceed five miles. 
Flankers were thrown out, and the infantry and artil 
lery were urged forward at a speed that kept them 
within supporting distance of the cavalry. The 
enemy were less than three miles from the bridge. 
McCleery and Maxey, by following Hazen s nervy 
directions to the letter, made an exciting steeple 
chase of the whole affair. The rebels outnumbered 
our gallant little detachment fully five to one, but 
they went over the bridge at a slashing pace, Maxey s 
troopers charging at their heels. After crossing they 
formed upon the opposite side of the creek, but were 
soon dispersed by our artillery. In this brilliant affair 



THE ADVANCE ON SATURDAY. 171 

we lost one trooper killed and two were captured. 
We captured ten prisoners, killed one commissioned 
officer and several men. 

Colonel Kennett had been slashing at the rebel 
cavalry all day, and by a gallant dash succeeded in 
cutting off and capturing a detachment of thirty-six 
men of Colonel John T. Morgan s Alabama regi 
ment. The field was now clear to the line of Stew 
art s Creek on the left. ISTegley s division closed up 
on General Crittenden s right, and General McCook 
was quietly encamped in the mud at Triune. The 
General Commanding remained at his quarters until 
noon receiving reports, and in the evening rode to 
the left front to inspect the position. lie expressed 
great satisfaction with the results of the day s oper 
ations, especially commending the vigor and skill 
exhibited by General Wood and Colonel Hazen. 



172 THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

OPERATIONS on Sunday and Monday General Rosecrans at the 
Front Picket Skirmishing Prospects for Monday Headquarters 
atLavergne Rousseau joins the Center McCook s Reconnoissnnce 
Willich s Brigade Captures Prisoners Operations on Monday 
Hardee Retires to Murfreesboro Battle Indicated The Left Wing 
in front of Murfreesboro Crittenden Ordered to Occupy the Town 
Exploit of Barker s Brigade Monday Night. 

GENERAL ROSECRANS had frequently expressed his 
opposition to military operations upon the Sabbath, 
unless they were indispensible. It was, therefore, 
a foregone conclusion that Sunday, December 28th, 
would be a day of comparative rest. There was both 
principle and policy in halting. The troops needed 
rest, Rousseau s division was still at Nolensville, and 
it was desirable that he should join the Center; it was 
essential, also, to ascertain the object of Hardee s move 
ments. If he had retired to Shelbyville, it indicated 
a withdrawal of Bragg s army from Murfreesboro. If 
he had merely fallen back to Murfreesboro, it justified 
conclusion that the enemy had determined to meet us 
in a general engagement in that vicinity. 

The General Commanding rose early, as usual, on 
Sunday morning, and devoted an hour to religious 
exercises, Rev. Father Trecy officiating at Mass. 
Garesche*, and a few soldiers of the Tenth Ohio Vol 
unteers, knelt at the same altar. Providence smiled 
that morning, too, for the mist was swept away by a 
strong western breeze, and the sun broke through the 



THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 173 

clouds, shining with genial luster. About noon, Gen 
eral Rosecrans, attended by his entire staff, cantered 
clown the Murfreesboro pike to the extreme front, and 
observed the enemy from the north bank of Stewart s 
creek. A battery, supported by a considerable force 
of mounted rebels, was distinctly visible upon a com 
manding elevation of the road a mile south of the 
stream. The woods on the opposite side of the creek 
were swarming with pickets of the enemy, and noisy 
firing, at long musket range, was going on at various 
points above and below the road, but without casual 
ties of serious consequence on either side a very 
interesting but an unprofitable exercise. There was 
a general concurrence among the numerous officers 
upon the ground that the opposite side of the stream 
was so admirably adapted for defense that the enemy 
would be apt to resist our crossing in force. Many 
supposed that they were then contemplating the great 
battle-ground which was to decide the fate of Middle 
Tennessee. Appropriate dispositions were made to 
meet the anticipated engagement. After a brief visit 
to General Crittenden s quarters, in the forest on the 
right of the road, a mile from the creek, General 
Rosecrans returned to headquarters, which had been 
advanced to Lavergne. 

Meantime Rousseau s division was laboriously wind 
ing through the rude defiles from Nolensville toward 
the Murfreesboro pike to take its proper position in 
column. Js"ight had fallen before his jaded men, and 
weary teams finished their severe march. 

The Right Wing, excepting Brigadier General 
August Willich s brigade, which had been sent in 
pursuit of Hardee s column, remained over Sunday in 



174 THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 

the position in which it halted Saturday night. Gen 
eral Willich followed the enemy to Bigg s cross-roads, 
about seven miles below Triune, capturing forty-one 
rebels of his rear guard, and ascertaining that Hardee 
had withdrawn his corps to Murfreesboro. It was 
therefore certain that Bragg intended to accept battle. 
The troops sunk to rest that night, anticipating a san 
guinary conflict on the morrow. 

THE RIGHT WING ON MONDAY. 

It was expected that sunrise of Monday, the 29th, 
would be saluted by roar of artillery. The troops 
were under arms before daybreak, and as soon as it 
was light, the columns marched toward Murfreesboro 
seven miles from Stewartsboro. General McCook 
detached Baldwin s brigade, of Johnson s division, 
to remain as a corps of observation at Triune, and 
moved toward Murfreesboro on the Bully Jack road, 
Gen. Davis division in advance, Woodruff s brigade 
in front, supported by Sherridan s division, the Sec 
ond Division, General Johnson, in reserve, Stanley s 
cavalry in the front. In consequence of the mud and 
the ruggedness of the road, marching was extremely 
difficult. Upon arriving at Stewart s Creek, it was 
reported that the enemy had shown in strong force on 
the opposite side, but General Stanley soon contra 
dicted it, reporting the road clear; and the column 
moved with but little obstruction to the Wilkinson 
pike, on Overall s Creek, within three and a half miles 
of Murfreesboro, at which point the advance division 
went into bivouac in line of battle, the left brigade 
resting on the Wilkinson pike. 



THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 175 
THE CENTER. 

General Negley s division of the Center crossed 
Stewart s Creek two miles south-west and above the 
bridge on the Murfreesboro pike, supporting the head 
and right flank of Crittenden s corps, i*Iiich moved 
on the turnpike. The cavalry rear guard of the 
enemy contested the advance obstinately, but with 
only trifling casualties on either side. Rousseau 
remained in camp at Stewartsboro, detaching Stark 
weather s brigade, with a section of artillery, to the 
Jefferson pike crossing of Stone River to observe the 
movements of the enemy in that direction. Walker s 
brigade moved over from the JSTolensville pike, and 
encamped at Stewartsboro about dark. 

THE LEFT WING. 

Grose s brigade, of Palmer s division, with a regi 
ment of skirmishers in front, took the advance of the 
Left Wing, on the west side of the Murfreesboro pike, 
Parson s Fourth United States Artillery shelling the 
forests in front ; Wagner s brigade, of Wood s division, 
in front on the eastern side of the pike, with Harker s 
brigade covering his left, Graft s and HascalPs brigades 
in reserve, in column, Van Cleve s division in the 
rear. Hazen s brigade was marching to the front from 
the bridge over Stewart s Creek, at the Jefferson pike 
crossing. The leading brigades moved at ten o clock 
across Stewart s Creek, and advanced in line of battle, 
skirmishing with the enemy, who fell back rapidly, 
but resisting. The Left Wing continued to advance 
steadily in this manner, driving the enemy from cover 
constantly, until at about three o clock in the after- 



176 THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 

noon, it reached Stone River. The enemy were now 
discovered in great force in front of Murfreesboro, in 
line of battle, and it was evident that they were pre 
pared to resist further progress in general engagement. 

THE ENEMY IN FRONT. 

General Roseerans meantime had moved forward to 
Stewartsboro, and established field quarters at Bridge s 
house, where he was joined by Major General Thomas, 
who remained with him nearly all day. Generals 
Wood and Palmer had halted for orders, in conse 
quence of the formidable front of the enemy, the sup 
porting columns being too far in the rear to justify a 
continuous advance. General Crittendeu approved 
the halt, and reported to General Rosecrans. 

Wood s division on the left and Palmer s on the 
right were immediately disposed in order of battle in 
two lines, the front securely guarded by a continuous 
line of skirmishers well out in advance of their 
reserves. Wagner s brigade rested on the pike occu 
pying a piece of wooded ground with an open field 
in front. Harker s brigade in the center occupied 
the same woods and extended toward the left into an 
open field, covered in front by a wave in the surface, 
and Hascall s brigade was posted on the extreme left, 
its left resting upon Stone River the latter running 
obliquely in front of the position, leaving a triangular 
field some hundreds of yards in breadth in front of 
the right, and narrowing almost to a point in front 
of the left. Palmer s brigade was formed in a sim 
ilar manner, Craft s left connecting with Wagner s 
right, with a fallow field in front; Grose on the 
extreme right, E~egley and Van Cleve moving up in 



THE ENEMY IN LINE OP BATTLE. 177 

support some distance in the rear, their movements 
having been retarded by serious natural obstructions. 

MARCH ON MURFREESBORO. 

A signal message about three o clock in the after 
noon from the front from General Palmer, said that 
he was in sight of Murfreesboro, and the enemy were 
running. "Whereon an order was sent by General 
Rosecrans to General Crittenden directing him to send 
a division to occupy Murfreesboro. General Wood, 
and subsequently General Palmer, deemed such a 
movement injudicious under the circumstances, but 
prepared with alacrity to obey, though representing 
its hazards. Barker s brigade took the advance, 
throwing out a strong line of skirmishers in front, 
and directing the Fifty-First and Seventy-Third Indi 
ana, and Thirteenth Michigan regiments to cross the 
river simultaneously, press forward, and seize the 
commanding bights beyond ; the Sixty-Fourth and 
Sixty-Fifth Ohio Infantry and Bradley s Battery to 
follow in support; HascalPs brigade to follow on the 
left. The troops gallantly dashed forward, and as 
the line of skirmishers debouched from the stream 
on the opposite side, they were met by a crash of 
musketry from a regiment in front covered by thick 
ets and a fence. Our lads held their fire until within 
short range, then let drive, and charged enthusi 
astically. The rebels fell back in confusion upon 
their main body about five hundred yards distant, 
which was subsequently ascertained to be Breckin- 
ridge s division. The movement of the entire, bri 
gade was handsomely executed, and Harker gained 
his position. But the enemy, though evidently dis- 



178 THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 

concerted by the boldness and spirit of the att u;k, 
were obviously too strong for the little force in front. 
Harker, therefore, reported for orders. 

In the meantime, General Crittenden consenting to 
suspend further movement in consequence of the 
obvious strength of the enemy until he could report 
to the General Commanding, Colonel Harker was 
recalled in pursuance of orders received by General 
Crittenden countermanding the movement. To obey 
the order to fall back was almost as hazardous as 
to advance, but it was skillfully executed, Colonel 
Harker losing but two men killed and three wounded 
in the whole affair. The order for the occupation of 
Murfreesboro having been based upon erroneous 
information, the General Commanding approved the 
course of General Crittenden in suspending its execu 
tion. The Left "Wing with Negley s division biv 
ouacked in order of battle without fires, seven hundred 
yards distant from the enemy s entrenchments, our 
left extending some five hundred yards down the 
river. 

CAVALRY OPERATIONS. 

Before dark General McCook had also reported 
that his advance was in si^ht of Murfreesboro. The 

O 

enemy were in his front drawn up in line of battle, 
and reinforcements were coming up from Shelbyville 
by railroad. In this day s operations the cavalry 
were signally conspicuous on the right flank. Col 
onel Zahn, with part of his brigade, consisting of the 
First Ohio Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Minor 
Millikin, and part of the Fourth Ohio Cavalry, Lieu 
tenant Colonel Pugh, marched upon Murfreesboro by 
the Franklin road, but coming upon the enemy s 



THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 179 

artillery they thought it advisable to retire, after a 
sharp encounter, in which they captured six prison 
ers. General Stanley moving on the Bully Jack road 
with tho reserve cavalry, encountered the enemy at 
Wilkinson s cross-roads, and after a series of charges 
and running fights drove them across Overall s Creek, 
and to a point within a half mile of the enemy s line 
of battle. The conduct of the Anderson Cavalry 
this day elicited the generous approval of their com 
mander, who reported officially that they " behaved 
most gallantly, pushing at full charge upon the enemy 
for six miles. Unfortunately their advance fronted 
too recklessly ; having dispersed their cavalry, the 
troops fell upon two regiments of rebel infantry in 
ambush, and after a gallant struggle were compelled 
to retire, with the loss of Major Rosengarten and six 
men killed, and the brave Major Ward and five men 
desperately wounded." Unhappily the loss of their 
two gallant Majors demoralized them, and a spirit of 
jealousy and strife, which was subsequently engen 
dered in the regiment, destroyed its usefulness. 

On the left flank, Colonel Minty was skirmishing 
lightly with the enemy all day. The Seventh Penn 
sylvania, Major Wynkoop, on the extreme left, the 
Third Kentucky, Colonel Murray, on the right, the 
Fourth Michigan, Lieutenant Colonel Dickinson, in 
reserve, the Second Indiana Cavalry on courier duty. 

THE GENERAL COMMANDING AT THE FRONT. 

The General Commanding remained at Bridge s 
house during the entire day receiving reports and 
giving orders. His mind was absorbed in his busi 
ness to the exclusion of all other themes. He seemed 



180 THE ENEMY IN LINE OF BATTLE. 

more anxious about the situation on the risrht. and 

O 

was much gratified when General McCook s success 
ful progress was reported. The mutually confirm 
atory reports from the commanders of the Eight and 
Left Wings, removed all shadow of doubt concerning 
the disposition of the enemy. Orders were sent to 
the former to form two of his divisions in two lines, 
with one division in reserve, sending a reconnoitcring 
force down toward Salem on his right. Negley would 
form in two lines in front in the center, Rousseau 
supporting him. Critten den s corps was to form like 
McCook s. Stanley and Kennett were again enjoined 
to guard well the flanks with their cavalry. 

Some time after dark, headquarters were established 
on the south bank of Stewart s Creek. After sup 
per, the General Commanding, attended by Lieuten 
ant Colonel Garesche*, Lieutenant Kirby, Lieutenant 
Bond, Colonel Barnet, Major Skinner, and Father 
Trecy, who never deserted him, proceeded to the 
front, and after observing the situation, he took quar 
ters in a little wood hard by the Murfreesboro pike. 
General Crittenden and the respective staffs of the 
two Generals, enveloped in blankets, squeezed them 
selves into a little ricket}^ log-cabin and lay down 
to sleep. The Pioneer Brigade, under Captain St. 
Clair Morton, had arrived at Stewart s Creek that 
afternoon, and by four o clock next morning, when 
they were ordered to the front, had constructed two 
bridges across the stream. The clangor of their axes 
was heard all night echoing in the dreary forests. 
The darkness seemed to bear upon its wings strange, 
ominous sounds. Thousands thought it the night 
before battle, and put up their prayers to God. 



FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 181 



CHAPTER XXII. 

TUESDAY, December 30 The First Shot at the General Commanding 
An Orderly Decapitated Skirmishing on the Left Field Quar 
ters Established Military Groupings A Growl on the Right 
Music Garesche and his Missal An Old Woman s Dream Stone 
River The Rebel Position Orders to General McCook Reports 
Obstinate Resistance of the Enemy Ominous Sounds on the 
Left Starkweather s Combat Rebel Cavalry in the Rear The 
Tenth Ohio Distinguishing Itself Rosecrans Orders McCook to 
Prepare for Battle Better Prospects Operations of the Day. 

TUESDAY, the 30th of December, dawned drearily. 
It had rained heavily during the night. The surface 
of the earth was a heavy muck such a soil as caused 
Napoleon to delay attack from six o clock until eleven. 
The sun was shut out by heavy masses of clouds, and 
thick mist was floating in the atmosphere, obscuring 
vision and oppressing the senses. The soldiers, who 
had lain all night in the mud without fires, stood to 
their arms shivering in saturated garments long before 
daylight. They had plenty to eat, but that was their 
only comfort. But as they fared, so fared their offi 
cers, save when they slept their officers were vigilant. 

The Leader was among the earliest to start from 
his blankets as he had been among the last who had 
slept at all to seek rest. At half-past three o clock 
that morning, Major General McCook reported to him 
in person, and was instructed to rest the left of his 
line upon the right of General Negley s line, and to 



182 FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

throw his right forward until it was parallel, or nearly 
so, with Stone Elver, the extreme right to rest on or 
near the Franklin road General McCook describing 

f O 

the field which furnished the base for this order. The 
order of the Center and Left Wins: were to remain as 

^s 

already described Negley s two brigades in the cen 
ter, Palmer on his left, Wood on the extreme left, 
Van Cleve on the left in reserve. 

HEADQUARTERS IN THE FIELD. 

About seven o clock, Crittenden s lines moved up 
a little, and the enemy opened a brisk but ineffective 
fire. Negley pushed laboriously forward through 
the heavy cedar thickets, the pioneers cutting roads 
through the timber for the passage of his trains. 
The General Commanding, not yet mounted, stood in 
front of his quarters watching the progress of affairs 
when the fire opened upon Crittenden. Presently an 
officer who had been wounded was borne to the rear 
on a stretcher. Directly the enemy trained a gun at 
headquarters. The first compliment whizzed over a 
little crest and ricochetted in the road. The next 
cannon ball was in better range, striking nearer the 
General. The third whizzed almost in a line with 
him, and carried away the head of McDonald, of the 
Fourth Regular Cavalry, one of the orderlies. It 
was deemed prudent to remove, and the General and 
staff rode up the slope to a less exposed position, 
halting at a solitary panel of fence under three vigor 
ous young trees, perhaps a hundred yards from the 
pike on the left a point from whence movements 
were observed during the day. It had begun to rain 
again, and the prospect was dismal. 



FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 183 

A canopy of rails, supported by a rider upon 
crotchets, was constructed, and several gutta-percha 
blankets spread over them, enabled the staff to write 
orders under shelter. Every member of the staff 
proper was now with the Chief. General Crittenden 
and his staff swelled the group. Colonel John 
Kennett and his Adjutant, Chamberlain, had reported 
in obedience to orders. Otis was there superintend 
ing the transmission of orders by couriers. The 
escorts of Rosecrans and Crittenden, with orderlies, 
were drawn up in the rear holding horses. The 
Fourth Regular Cavalry were in line behind a crest, 
perhaps two or three hundred yards in the rear. 
After a while a petulant bicker of musketry in Neg- 
ley s front, occasionally a growl of cannon away over 
on the right, indicated that the enemy were finding 
cause of quarrel. Thousands of troops, forming the 
second line, were visible as far as the eye could reach, 
stalking about the mucky fallow grounds near their 
posts, or lounging upon their blankets, their bayonets 
fixed and sunk into the soil, with butts of muskets 
uppermost, as if this was a field of fire-arms ripening 
for a harvest. As the muttering in the distance grew 
more ominous, the superb band of the Fourth Cavalry 
soothed the growing discord with noble harmony; 
and as the "Star Spangled Banner" swelled and 
rolled in spirit-stirring volume over the somber 
plains, stout-hearted fellow T s greeted the welcome 
music with joyful clamor. 

A fire had been kindled in front of field quarters, 
and a fence was constructed around it for seats. 
Officers, enveloped in uncouth rubber ponchos, with 
gutta-percha covers on their heads, reminders of chiv- 



184 FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

alrous knights armed cap-a-pie, clustered around the 
roaring flames, and while battle waged in the forest 
they eked comfort from the blaze and waxed jolly. 
Why not? Doubtless they had made their peace 
with God. Perhaps to-day or to-morrow they may 
die. Men learn to toy with the grim majesty of 
death. There is often a gay insousiance in the midst 
of horrors that thrills you when reflection seizes you 
in solitude. "Who of us will go up to-morrow?" 
quoth one. "Not I," "Nor I," say each. When all 
enter the iminent deadly breach, who may survive? 
Yet who thinks it will be himself? 

THE FOLLOWING OF CHRIST. 

There was one in that assemblage who felt not thus. 
He was sitting alone, aside, at the foot of one of the 

O 7 

trees, leaning against it. In his hands, partially con 
cealed by the flowing folds of his overcoat, there was 
a little book a Missal " De Imitations Christi." 
He carried it in his pocket habitually. A few had 
observed his custom. Yet he was as stealthy as a 
woman with a sweet missive from a lover. Had he 
dreamed that he appeared in the least ostentatious, he 
would have blushed to his temples. He bowed meekly 
over his book; his lips muttered inaudibly; the index 
finger of his right hand described the imaginary cross 
with which men of his religion symbolize their faith. 
He was no more conscious that he was observed by 
mortal man than a little child is capable of crime. 
He communed upon the battle-field with God. The 
witness shuddered with indescribable emotion. Gar- 
esche felt that he was a doomed man. On the morrow 
the comrade who shuddered, shuddered the more 



FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 185 

when the scene premonished under that tree became 
a horrible reality. It was very curious. An old 
woman at St. Louis a poor distraught creature, who 
fancied she had inspirations superior to mortal gifts 
dreamed that Garesch^ would be killed in his first 
battle. She warned him, and he smiled with amiable 1 * 
contempt. He was at Washington she on the Mis 
sissippi. A year later, and he was in front of Mur- 
freesboro. But a presentiment had possessed his 
mind. He left Washington to join Kosecrans, fixed 
in the somber belief that he would fall in his first 
battle. This was confided to a near relative. He 
never spoke of it to others. We shall see how cheer 
fully he devoted himself. 

GROUPINGS IN THE FIELD. 

There were various groupings that may yet elicit the 
skill of a graceful limner. The Chief. Garesch^, God- 
dard, Thompson, Thorns, Bond, in the center pen 
cil and paper, orders couriers flying away, couriers 
swiftly approaching, aids galloping over the iield> offi 
cers reporting; the Chief grave, anxious, absorbed. 
Crittenden and his staff waiting orders. Officers with 
glasses scanning the line, which to-morrow will be a 
line of blood. A troop, a squadron, a regiment of 
horse skirring over the plain; columns moving 
through the forest; great trains lumbering in the 
highway; cannon rumbling on the stony road. Cold 
winds blew from the north-west about noon and swept 
the mist and the smoke from camp-fires in the thick 
ets over the enemy, and the cheerful sun gleamed out 
strongly bat fitful through clefts between clouds, 
which looked like gaps separating mountains. The 
16 



186 FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

enemy were visible in front, anxious, and observant 
in groups with glasses, as we were. 

FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

According to descriptions of the geography of the 
* rebel position and of the topography of the country 
in their front, furnished by General McCook, orders 
had been given him which consumed the day in exe 
cution. His extreme right refused to the enemy was 
to rest on or near the Franklin pike, tracing a wooded 
ridge along the front of the enemy until his left con 
nected with the Center. Early in the morning, !N"eg- 
ley had obliqued to the right in order to bring his line 
into position, Stanley s brigade on the right, Miller s 
on the left, joining Cruft s brigade of Palmer s divi 
sion, left wing. Rousseau s three brigades had been 
ordered forward early, and they-got into position in 
reserve about four o clock Starkweather s being on 
the Jefferson pike. 

The reports which reached the General Command 
ing, were not reassuring. The energies of the Center 
and Eight Wing were engaged in fighting for posi 
tion. Negley, under Thomas, was meeting resistance 
which amounted almost to battle. Thunder of can 
non and rattle of musketry swelling upon the right 
was still more ominous. McCook was instructed to 
feel his way cautiously but firmly. Before noon artil 
lery was heard away off on our left. It was unex 
pected, and therefore menacing. Colonel Kennett was 
directed to inquire into it, and the facts were subse 
quently reported. A train of sixty wagons, proceed 
ing toward the bridge on the Jefferson pike, was 
attacked while the head of the train was going into 



FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 187 

park at Starkweather s camp, near the bridge. His 
brigade, numbering seventeen hundred men, was 
quickly deployed, the Twenty-First Wisconsin, Col 
onel Hobart, dividing to the front and rear of the 
train, the First Wisconsin, Lieutenant Colonel Bing- 
ham, on the flanks as skirmishers, the Twenty-Fourth 
Illinois, Colonel Mihalotzy, at the bridge crossing 
with a section of Stone s First Kentucky Battery, the 
Seventy-Ninth Pennsylvania, Colonel Hambright, 
and two sections of Stone s Battery, going to the front 
under Colonel Starkweather. A detachment of fifty 
of the Second Kentucky Cavalry, Captain Craddock, 
was sent to the front to feel the enemy and were at 
once engaged. The enemy, three thousand five hund 
red strong, under Brigadier General Wheeler, and 
Colonel Allen, advanced on foot supported by two 
howitzers. A sharp combat lasting two hours and a 
half ensued. Starkweather s gallant brigade, how 
ever, finally repulsed the enemy with severe loss, hia 
own casualties being one killed, eight wounded, one 
hundred and four missing, and nine captured. Eighty- 
three of the enemy, including a Lieutenant Colonel, 
were killed outright, and eight were captured two 
of whom were mortally wounded. Their wound 
ed were numerous, but the enemy removed them. 
Wheeler, however, succeeded in destroying twenty 
wagons in the rear of the train. The troops of the 
brigade behaved gallantly. 

EXCITING REPORTS. 

At noon, General McCook reported that Colonel 
Zahn had discovered a brigade of rebel cavalry with 
three pieces of artillery on the Franklin pike, evi- 



188 FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

dently menacing our communications. Later in the 
day they made a clash on the Murfreesboro pike, 
directly in our rear, cutting off a train of wagons. 
Rousseau s division having moved to the front. Col 
onel J. W. Burke s Tenth Ohio Infantry, which had 
been left to guard Headquarters camp, at Stewarts- 
bore, immediately moved in pursuit under that gal 
lant officer and recaptured the train. Harrassing 
reports were constantly arriving, indicating a general 
effort on the part of the enemy to cut off our trains 
in the rear, and sever communications with Nashville, 
causing anxiety to the General Commanding. Gen 
eral McCook reported strong resistance, with Hardee 
in his front. At a quarter before four o clcok, Cap 
tain H. !N". Fisher, Volunteer Aid to General McCook, 
reported to the General Commanding that Kirby 
Smith s corps and Breckinridge s division had con 
centrated in front of the Left Wing. " Tell General 
McCook," said the Chief, that "if he is assured that 
such is the fact he may drive Hardee sharply if he is 
ready. At all events tell him to prepare for battle 
to-morrow morning. Tell him to fight as if the fate 
of a great battle depended upon him. While he 
holds Hardee, the Left, under Crittenden, will swing 
round and take Murfreesboro. Let Hardee attack if 
he wants to. It will suit us exactly." " It is looking 
better," said the Chief, moving around to the fire. 

Soon after it was reported that the enemy had cap 
tured Lavergne, with thirty troops and the telegraph 
operator, besides interrupting the line of couriers. 
^Tot much later General Thomas reported successful 
progress in front of the Center, and was directed to 
press the enemy at his discretion. General McCook 



FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 189 

reported Sherridan s division moving steadily into the 
position assigned him ; Davis on his right, fighting 
vigorously but gaining ground. " Things look bright, 
gentlemen brighter than they did this morning," 
said the Chief cheerfully, and for the first time during 
the day he indulged in pleasantry. All this time 
there was an angry chatter of musketry in the cen 
ter and on the right, while great guns roared inces 
santly very much resembling battle. It is now time 
to follow the respective movements of the columns. 

THE LEFT WING 

Was already in position in order of battle in two 
lines, Cruft s, Grose s, Wagner s, and Harker s bri 
gades in front, with Hazen s and Hascall s brigades, 
and Yan Cleve s division, in reserve. The rebel 
sharpshooters kept up a harrassing fire all day, and 
at four o clock in the afternoon General Palmer was 
ordered to advance and make a demonstration with 
all his artillery. The enemy retaliated, and there was 
a grand fusilade, but nothing serious grew out of it. 

THE CENTER. 

Negley had obliqued to the right, and with the Sev 
enty-Eighth Pennsylvania and Nineteenth Illinois in 
front skirmishing, he fought his way into position 
over rugged ground, beset with cedar-brakes, and 
against obstinate resistance. He was also formed in 
two lines, with Rousseau s division in reserve. 

THE RIGHT WING. 

At half past nine o clock in the morning, General 
McCook moved his column down the "Wilkinson pike 



190 FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

toward Murfreesboro. Sherridan s division had the 
lead, Roberts brigade in advance, with a regiment of 
cavalry in front. Not long after crossing Overall s 
Creek, the infantry pickets of the rebels were encoun 
tered. Sherridan had thrown a regiment of skirm 
ishers to the front, but when they reached a point 
within two miles and three-quarters of Murfreesboro, 
the enemy showed so strongly in front that two 
regiments the Twenty-Second and Forty-Second 
Illinois were required to drive them. They resisted 
obstinately, bringing batteries into play occasionally. 
Complying with orders from General McCook, 
General Sherridan now formed in line of battle and 
placed his artillery in position on the right of and 
obliquely to the pike four regiments to the front, 
four in close support, and Shaeffer s brigade in re 
serve in columns of regiments in rear of the center. 
General Davis formed upon his right in similar man 
ner, with Carlin s brigade on the right to direct the 
movements of the division. In consequence of a 
demonstration of the enemy toward Davis right, 
Kirk s brigade, of Johnson s division, was formed 
still further to the right, with his own right refused 
to protect that flank. Edgarton s Battery took posi 
tion upon an elevation on the right flank and opened 
his full battery with splendid effect, driving the ene 
my back in confusion, disabling pieces, killing horses 
and men. A second battery in Post s front was also 
silenced in a few moments. 

The enemy, covered by a heavy belt of timber in 
Sherridan s and Davis front, had succeeded in re 
tarding their progress, but Davis division and Sher 
ridan s right brigade were now ordered to swing by 






FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 191 

the right, so as to face nearly east, but in effecting this 
movement Davis met with severe loss. Carlin found 
his right within one hundred and eighty yards of a 
rebel battery at Smith s house. He had intended to 
halt here for Post s and Woodruff s brigades to come 
up, but Colonel Alexander, commanding the Twenty- 
First Illinois, acting upon his own responsibility, 
charged gallantly at the battery, and upon attaining 
a point within eighty yards of it. the enemy aban 
doned their guns. The regiment continued its career, 
but directly it recoiled before a furious fire opened 
suddenly by infantry concealed behind fences and out 
houses. The battery which Edgarton silenced soon 
after was also harrassing them, and Colonel Alexan 
der, seeing no alternative, was constrained to retire. 
The conduct of his regiment, however, was admirable. 
The two divisions, with one of Johnson s brigades, 
had nowbeen quite sharply engaged, losing about two 
hundred men, and it was verging upon sunset. The 
maneuver which had been directed was successfully 
executed, and McCook soon saw his command in the 
position for which it had struggled so inflexibly. 
Sherridan s left, resting upon the Wilkinson pike, con 
nected with 2s"egley s right, his right resting in the 
timber, his reserve brigade in the rear of his center. 
Davis left was closed in upon Sherridan s right, with 
his own right deflected so that it formed nearly a right 
angle with Sherridan s. Subsequently Brigadier Gen 
eral Kirk s left joined Davis right ; and General Wil- 
lich s brigade, with his right at the Franklin road, 
refused so as to protect the flank, was posted upon the 
extreme right of the entire line of battle. Meantime, 
Baldwin s brigade, which had been ordered forward 



192 FIGHTING FOR POSITION. 

from Triune, had joined General Johnson early in 
the afternoon (of the 30th), and went into camp in 
reserve, about eight hundred yards in the rear. 

The entire cavalry force of the army, excepting 
details for courier and escort duty, were engaged 
protecting the flanks that day, skirmishing a little. 
General Stanley, with a small force, went back to 
Lavergne, to watch the rebel operations in the rear. 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 193 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE Line of Battle Right, Left, and Center The Field Picket 
Guards Vigilance of Commanders Position of the Enemy Head 
quarters of the General Commanding the Night before Battle 
McCook s Information from the Enemy Instructions to McCook 
The Plan of Battle Explanations The Order of Battle by Bri 
gades Address to the Army The Army on the Eve of Battle. 

THERE was now a continuous line of battle in two 
lines, with reserves, in position, describing an irreg 
ular figure about three miles in length, and tracing in 
a general direction north-east and south-west. It was 
nearly parallel with that of the enemy. The left 
rested on Stone River, the right stretching rather 
south-westerly, and resting on high wooded ground, 
south of and near the Franklin pike. The right bri 
gade (Williclr s) flanked in a line nearly perpendicular 
to the main line, forming a crotchet to the rear to 
guard against a flank movement. The Hight Wing 
generally occupied a wooded ridge, with open ground 
in front. A valley, narrowing from right to left, say 
from four hundred to two hundred and fifty yards, 
separated it from the enemy, who were covered by 
dense cedar thickets, oak forests, and, as was subse 
quently discovered, rude breastworks of loose stones, 
rails, and brush. 

The Center was posted on a rolling slope in advance, 
but joining Crittenden s right and McCook s left. In 
front, a heavy growth of oak timber extended toward 
17 



194 PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 

the river, which was about a mile distant. A narrow 
thicket diagonally crossed Negley s left, and skirted 
the base of a cultivated slope, expanding to the width 
of a mile as it approached the Murfreesboro pike. 
The enemy were posted on the crest of this slope, 
behind intrenchmerits, which extended with inter 
vals from the oak timber in JSTegley s front to Stone 
River, on our left, obliquing to our left front, with a 
battery of six guns in position near the woods, about 
eight hundred yards from Negley s front. The ene 
my s columns were massed behind this timber on the 
river bank. 

The right brigade of the Left Wing rested upon a 
wood, the next stretched across an open cotton field 
into a thin grove, and the left brigades were also par 
tially covered by timber, with open ground in front. 
The enemy occupied a commanding crest in the open 
field, perhaps eight hundred yards distant from our 
line. The railroad on high ground, to the left of the 
pike, the turnpike on low ground, intersected the Left 
Wing on Palmer s left, and crossed each other near 
the rebel line in a depression, forming a sharp tri 
angle, the base of which, a half mile in the rear, was 
about five hundred yards wide. About half way 
between the two lines were the scarified walls of a 
brick dwelling, now famous as "Cowan s Burnt 
House," occupying a knoll, with a peach orchard on 
the north side. The great struggle for mastery finally 
took place in this front, behind the apex of the tri 
angle. 

In rear of our line the country was undulating and 
rough, excepting on the left. Behind the Right Wing 
and Center, there were alternate fallow fields, fences, 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 195 

and dense cedar thickets and ridges. The left moved 
into line over an undulating cornfield, which had one 
distinct trace ranging south-westerly from Stone River 
until it gradually fell off into a shallow bluff* on the 
right of the pike on the west, and sloped southerly 
from a crest which fronted the enemy. On the rump 
of this trace there was a small grove of saplings. 
Behind it a hundred yards distant, perhaps, and near 
the railroad, a family cemetery, shaded by a clump of 
stunted cedars. This graveyard is now populous with 
dead patriots. 

On the right of the pike, going south, there was 
an irregular triangular cottonfield swelling to a 
crest, a hundred and fifty yards on the right of the 
pike, when it fell oft into thicket-skirted swamps at 
the northern angle, and sloped almost imperceptibly 
in a southerly direction into an open marsh, skirted 
on its opposite side behind Cruft s brigade, by dense 
cedar-brakes. Its southern base opened clearly in 
front of the enemy s right center. Behind this field, 
on the north side, was an oak forest, with cedar under- 
skirting, verging upon the highway, the ground swell 
ing with a rocky surface in a north-westerly direction. 
All this is historical ground, sacred to the memory of 
thousands of gallant soldiers who fought over it and 
lavished their blood upon it a frank offering to their 
country. Their moldering bones are monuments of 
their sacrifice. 

PRECAUTIONS. 

A strong continuous line of pickets stretched from 
the extreme right to the extreme left in front of the 
entire line of battle, and cavalry was posted on either 
flank. General "Willich, ever vigilant and careful, 



196 PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 

posted his pickets seven hundred yards in his front, 
and patroled six hundred yards beyond. In conse 
quence of the propinquity of his line to the rebel 
front, General Kirk was not able to post his picket 
line so far in advance, but he pushed it to the utmost 
limit ; and he complained that he was obliged to 
extend his line unduly to cover a gap between his left 
and the right of General Davis. The necessary pre 
cautions were taken by all the other commanders. 
General Wood, however, exercising his characteristic 
caution and care, had also caused three days subsist 
ence, and twenty rounds of cartridges additional to be 
issued to his men. His artillery horses were kept 
attached to their pieces, and extraordinary vigilance 
was enjoined upon his commanders and troops, in 
order to be prepared for all emergencies. In these 
respects, as in the field, the soldierly qualities of Gen 
eral Wood shone conspicuously. His vigor and skill 
in pushing the enemy from Lavergne to Stewart s 
Creek and Stone River had before elicited the earnest 
approval of the General Commanding. 

POSITION OF THE ENEMY. 

Stone River, a summer stream a ribbon in dog- 
days, but a wild, torrent in spring-time, sweeping 
bridges and the debris of forests before its volume 
is a cleft between high bluffy banks, tracing in a gen 
eral direction from south to north, with many sinu 
osities. It curves abruptly toward Murfreesboro on 
the western side of the town, and the enemy availed 
themselves of the horse-shoe. Their right intersected 
Stone River, nearly parallel with our left front, and 
rested upon bights on the east side of the river, their 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 197 

extreme right obliqued ixTborrespond with the course 
of the river, toward our left. The left of their Right 
Wing and their Center were posted behind intrench- 
ments on the crest of a cottonfield, which sloped 
gradually toward our front, rather abruptly in their 
rear. Their left was prolonged upon the trace of a 
bluffy, rocky ridge, south of the Franklin road, and 
covered the roads going southward toward Shelby- 
ville. Their Center was an obtuse angle, trending 
north-westerly, their right and left somewhat retired. 
The slopes toward the river covered their columns. 
At this period the river was at its lowest ebb, fordable 
at any point where roads could be cut to it, so that the 
enemy could retire across it without obstruction, if 
necessary, while it formed a natural fosse against us, 
difficult to cross in the face of opposition. 

HEADQUARTERS THE NIGHT BEFORE BATTLE. 

At sunset the marquee of the General Commanding, 
and a few tents for his staff, were pitched on the knoll 
hard by the little graveyard, in the most exposed 
position on the field. The railroad was the toss of a 
penny in the rear. He remained until dark at his 
field quarters under the three trees, when he repaired 
to camp. General Crittenden s quarters were a stone s 
throw to the north; those of General Thomas and 
General Rousseau in a rickety cabin further in the 
rear; and General McCook s near Mr. Harding s house, 
in the rear of the center of his own line. 

Meantime, McCook had sent a captured citizen, 
under guard to General Rosecrarrs, with the informa 
tion that the enemy were massing their forces upon 



198 PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 

his right. The citizen said to McCook, " I was up to 
the enemy s line of battle twice yesterday, and once 
this morning, to get some stock taken from me. The 
enemy s troops are posted in the following manner : 
The right of Cheatham s division rests on the Wil 
kinson pike. Withers is on Cheatham s left, with his 
left resting on the Franklin road. Hardee s corps is 
entirely beyond that road, his right resting on that 
road, and his left extending toward the Salem pike." 
General McCook also reported that his right rested 
directly in front of the rebel Center, which gave him 
some anxiety. He therefore posted Kirk s and Wil- 
lich s brigades on the right of Davis, extending his 
line south of the Franklin road. Upon receiving this 
information, General Ilosecrans directed McCook to 
build large and extensive camp fires beyond his right, 
to induce the enemy to believe he was massing troops 
there, and the order was executed by Major Nodine, 
of McCook s staff. When General McCook informed 
the General Commanding that his corps was facing 
strongly toward the east, the latter told him that 
"such a direction to his line did not appear to him a 
proper one, but that it ought, with the exception of 
his left, to face much more nearly south, with John 
son s division in reserve; but that this matter must 
be confided to him, who knew the ground over which 
he had fought." 

INSTRUCTIONS TO M COOK. 

At about six o clock in the evening, General Ros- 
ecrans dictated the following instructions to General 
McCook for the following day. They were written 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 199 

by Captain R. S. Thorns, Volunteer Aiddecamp, and 
by him the} 7 were forwarded to McCook, to wit: 

" Take strong position. If the enemy attack you, fall back 
slowly, refusing your right, contesting the ground inch by 
inch. If the enemy does not attack you, you will attack 
them, not vigorously, but warmly. The time of attack by you 
to be designated by the General Commanding." 

At nine o clock the corps commanders met at head 
quarters, and the following plan of battle for the 
morrow was presented and explained : 

PLAN OP TIIE BATTLE. 

McCook was to occupy the most advantageous 
position, refusing his right as much as practicable 
and necessary to secure it ; to receive the attack of 
the enemy, or, if that did not come, to attack him 
self, sufficient to hold all the force on his front. 

Thomas and Palmer to open with skirmishing, and 
gain the enemy s center and left as far as the river. 

Crittenden to cross Van Clove s division at the 
lower ford, covered and supported by the Sappers and 
Miners, and to advance on Breckin ridge. 

Wood s division to follow by brigades, crossing at 
the upper ford, and moving on Van Cleve s right, to 
carry everything before them into Murfreesboro. 

" This," said General Rosecrans subsequently in his 
official reports, " would have given us two divisions 
against one, and as soon as Breckinridge had been 
dislodged from his position, the batteries of Wood s 
division, taking position on the bights east of Stone 
River, in advance, would see the enemy s works 
in reverse, would dislodge them, and enable Pal- 



200 PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 

mer s division to press them back and drive them 
westward across the river, or through the woods, 
while Thomas, sustaining the movement on the 
center, would advance on the right of Palmer, crush 
ing their right; and Crittenden s corps, advancing, 
would take Murfreesboro, and then moving westward, 
on the Franklin road, get on their flanks and rear, and 
drive them into the country, toward Salem, with the 
prospect of cutting off their retreat, and probably 
destroying their army. 

" It was explained to them that this combination, 
ensuring us a vast superiority on our left, required for 
its success that General McCook should be able to 
hold his position for three hours; that if necessary 
to recede at all, he should recede as he had advanced 
on the preceding day, slowly, as steadily, refusing his 
right, thereby rendering our success certain." 

Having thus explained the plan, the General Com 
manding addressed General McCook as follows : 

" To-morrow there will be battle. You know the 
ground; you have fought over it ; you know its diffi 
culties. Can you hold your present position for three 
hours?" 

To which General McCook responded : " Yes, I 
think I can." 

The General Commanding then said : " I don t like 
the facing so much to the east, but must confide that to 
you, who know the ground. If you don t think your 
present the best position, change it ; it is only neces 
sary for you to make things sure ; " and the officers 
then returned to their commands. 

THE ORDER OF BATTLE IN BRIGADE FRONTS. 

The order of battle by divisions, as already described, 
remained unchanged, but several of the front brigades 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 201 

were relieved, and fell back in reserve. (To designate 
the transposition of regiments is impossible.) The 
final order of battle, by brigades from right to left, 
was as follows : 

On the extreme right, Second Division (Eight 
Wing), Willich s brigade, and Kirk s in front, Col 
onel Baldwin s in reserve. First Division First 
Brigade, Colonel P. Sydney Post; Second Brigade, 
Colonel W. P. Carlin ; Third Brigade, Colonel W. E. 
Woodruff. Third Division First Brigade, Brigadier 
General Sill; Second Brigade, Colonel F. Shaefer; 
Third Brigade, Colonel G. W. Roberts. 

Center. Second Division Second Brigade, Col 
onel T. R, Stanley; Third Brigade, Colonel J. F. 
Miller. 

Left Wing. Second Division First Brigade, Brig 
adier General Cruft; Second Brigade, Colonel W. B. 
Ilazen ; Third Brigade, Colonel W. Grose (in reserve). 
First Division Second Brigade. Colonel George D. 
Wagner; Third Brigade, Colonel Charles G. Jlarker; 
Fourth Brigade, Brigadier General Miles S. Hascall. 
The First Division, General Van Cleve, in reserve. 
The artillery, generally, was posted upon the brigade 
flanks, with a strong reserve in the Center. Rous 
seau s division was in reserve; Walker s brigade 
was posted at Stewartsboro to protect communica 
tions, and Starkweather s brigade remained on the 
Jefferson pike. The cavalry were posted on cither 
flunk of the army, with a reserve in the rear of the 
Center. The Pioneer Brigade was preparing fords in 
Stone River on the left. 



202 PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 



ADDRESS TO THE ARMY. 

Before seeking repose to prepare him for the great 
duties of the morrow, General Rosecrans directed the 
following address to the soldiers of the Army of the 
Cumberland : 

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, 1 
In Front of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862. j 

ORDERS. 

The General Commanding desires to say to the soldiers of 
the Army of the Cumberland, that he was well pleased with 
their conduct yesterday. It was all that he could have wished 
for. He neither saw nor heard of any skulking. They 
behaved with the coolness and gallantry of veterans. He 
now feels perfectly confident, with God s grace and their help, 
of striking this day a blow for the country the most crushing, 
perhaps, which the rebellion has yet sustained. Soldiers ! the 
eyes of the whole nation are upon you ; the very fate of the 
nation may be said to hang on the issues of this day s battle. 
Be true, then, to yourselves, true to your own manly charac 
ter and soldierly reputation ; true to the love of your dear 
ones at home, whose prayers ascend this day to God for your 
success. Be cool. I need not ask you to be brave. Keep 
ranks. Do not throw away your fire. Fire slowly, deliber 
ately above all, fire low, and be always sure of your aim. 
Close readily in upon the enemy, and when you get within 
charging distance, rush upon him with the bayonet, Do this, 
and victory will certainly be your s. Eecollect that there are 
hardly any troops in the world that will stand a bayonet 
charge, and that those who make it, therefore, are sure to 
win. By command of 

MAJOR GENERAL ROSECRANS. 

J. P. GARESCHE, A A. G. and Chief of Staf. 



PLAN OP THE BATTLE. 203 

But few brigades of that splendid host had oppor 
tunity to hear it. The shock of battle was felt before 
the ink with which it was penned was fairly dry. 

THE EVE OF BATTLE. 

The eve of battle was dreary. It had rained nearly 
all day, and the atmosphere was humid. A blustering 
wind swept coldly from the North, whistling dismally 
through the forests. Our brave soldiers, saturated to 
the skin, lay upon the bleak wet soil enveloped in 
damp blankets, unprotected by canopy save the mot 
tled sky. They were weary with marching, and 
fighting, and standing at arms, and notwithstanding 
their comfortless couches, the multitudes who were 
not on guard fell easily to sleep. But few bivouac 
fires blazed through the darkness, and only a solitary 
bugle broke night s stillness at tattoo. Alas, too 
many slept that night who slumber no more in life. 
The sad soil upon which they reposed was made 
sadder before the morrow night by the warm blood 
which gushed from their bounding hearts. Battle 
would thunder upon that field at sunrise of the last 
day of the departing year. 

The General and staff were crowded into less than 
one-third the usual allowance of tents. All super 
fluous bedding and baggage had been left behind. 
Most of the staff had blankets, and those not on duty 
rolled up in them early, and sought repose. Garesche* 
Goddard, Thompson, Thorns, and Bond remained 
faithfully with the General most of the night. Gar- 
esche* was always at his elbow, faithful as a shadow, 
until death chose him for his own. The General s 
mind active, vigorous, and restless inquired into 



204 PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 

every detail. In the absence of exact information 
from any quarter, couriers were instantly dispatched 
to satisfy inquiry. Each General in command was 
required to observe closely, and report explicitly, the 
most minute information. The deportment of the 
General Commanding, all that day and that night, 
was an absorbing study. 



THE BATTLE OF STONE KIVER. 205 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE 31st of December, 18G2 Prayer before Battle The Left Ordered 
to Swing " It is, it is the Cannon s Opening Roar ! " Din of Bat 
tle on the Right Evil Tidings Panic Anxiety at Headquarters 
Incredible Reports Firmness of General Rosecrans The Plan of 
Battle Defeated The General Mounts and Gallops to the Front 
Batteries Open upon Him They are Silenced by Barnet The 
Field Sherridan Debouches from the Forest The Day going 
against us New Line Formed Batteries Massed in the Center 
The General Commanding leads a Charge The Enemy Repulsed 
The Tide of Battle turns St. Clair Morton and the Pioneer Bri 
gade Night. 

MORNING of the last day of the old year dawned 
brightly. A thin mist floated along the channel of 
Stone River, hut otherwise the horizon was clear. 
When the outlines of a familiar face were but barely 
recognizable in the uncertain haze of early morning, 
the General Commanding, cheerful and refreshed, 
appeared at the eye of each tent and roused the still 
slumbering members of the staff. But long before, 
the soldiers stood at arms and waited the opening of 
battle. Every charger was equipped for mounting. 
Minutes .rolled away and there was yet no uproar. 

PRAYER BEFORE BATTLE. 

A little later the dauntless leader of that army 
knelt at the altar and prayed to the God of battles. 
High Mass was celebrated in a little tent opposite his 
marquee. Rev. Father Cooney, the zealous Chaplain 



206 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

of the Thirty-Fifth regiment of Indiana Volunteers, 
officiated, assisted by Rev. Father Trecy, the constant 
spiritual companion of the General, and whose fidel 
ity to his Chief was second only to his devotion to 
the faith he preached. General Rosecrans knelt 
humbly in the corner of his tent, Garesche", no less 
devout, by his side ; a trio of humble soldiers meekly 
knelt in front of the tent; groups of officers, booted 
and spurred for battle, with heads reverentially 
uncovered, stood outside and mutely muttered their 
prayers. What grave anxieties, what exquisite emo 
tions, what deep thoughts moved the hearts and 
minds of those pious soldiers, into whose keeping 
God and their country had delivered, not merely the 
lives of thousands of men who must die at last, but 
the vitality of a principle the cause of self-govern 
ment and of human liberty ! 

THE LEFT ORDERED TO SWING. 

Breakfast was hurried. General Crittendeu re 
ported in person. The General Commanding walked 
with him to his quarters where General Wood, suffer 
ing from indisposition, was resting briefly before bat 
tle. Wood was really unfit for duty, but refused to 
quit the field. General Van Cl eve s division, in pur 
suance of the plan of battle, was already moving to 
cross Stone River to sweep into Murfreesboro, while 
McCook held the enemy on the left. Part of it had 
already crossed. General Rosecrans directed Wood 
to cross Stone River in front of his position by bri 
gades. Harker was to move in front, Hascall to fol 
low, Wagner s brigade last. Wood himself rode to 
the front to examine the ground. Before him, on 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 207 

the southern and eastern side, there was a long tim 
bered ridge within a few hundred yards of the stream, 
and the enemy seemed posted there in force. Some 
firing had then been heard on the right, but not 
cnoiiffli to indicate battle. 

O 

" IT is, IT is THE CANNON S OPENING ROAR." ^ 

Officers of the staff were grouped about little fires 
in the avenue between the tents. They were clad in 
overcoats, for it was chill. The General Command 
ing, Garesche*, and General Crittenden stood near the 
marquee conversing eagerly. It was nearly seven 
o clock. Suddenly all hearts were thrilled by a sound 
sweeping from the right like a strong wind soughing 
through a forest. Now a deep reverberation like 
thunder rolling in a distant cloud. Directly a pro 
longed, fierce, crepitating noise, like a cane-brake on 
fire. Ears that once hear that appalling sound never 
forget it.- Days afterward the rattle and rumble of a 
wagon will startle and thrill you. 

PANIC. 

The din of battle swelled rapidly. Its volume 
increased, and it seemed sweeping " nearer, clearer, 
deadlier than before." It could not be ! This must 
be hallucination ! It can not be disaster! To tidings 
yet! Wiles and a comrade were sent to the right to 
observe and report. They galloped across the field 
and plunged into the forests. Directly a tide of fugi 
tives poured out of the thickets negroes, teamsters, 
and some soldiers. You have seen cinders from 
burning buildings flying when the conflagration 
was invisible. You could hear the roaring flames 



208 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

and crackling beams. Seeing the cinders you would 
say, "there is a fire." You have observed broken 
twigs and leaves whirling in the air when there was a 
roar of mighty winds in the forests. You had not 
yet felt the blast, but its avant couriers were unmis 
takable. You said, " a tornado is coming." There 
was a conflagration, a tornado, now rushing through 
the forests in front, raging forward with vengeful 
fury. These teamsters, negroes, soldiers, flying before 
it were cinders, twigs, leaves, fugitives from the flames 
and tornado of battle. 

"What is the matter? Why do you run?" Many 
push on heedless of stern questioning. A cocked 
pistol brings a squad to a halt. "We are beaten! 
The Right Wing is broken ! The rebel cavalry is 
charging the rear! The enemy is sweeping every 
thing before them! General Sill is killed! Edgar- 
ton s Battery and part of Goodspeed s are captured!" 
Incredible! But few soldiers, thank God! in that 
panic-stricken mob, and most of them cling to their 
muskets. The negroes, poor souls, had cause for 
fright. The enemy murdered them as if they were 
beasts of prey. Wiles gallops back to report. His 
comrade moves on further, and meets straggling mul 
titudes. The awful uproar increases and stretches 
swiftly now to the left. Bullets are clipping the 
twigs overhead and chipping the bark from trees. 
Heavy drops which precede a thunder storm seem to 
be falling on the dead leaves. 

ANXIETY AT HEADQUARTERS. 

At headquarters the groups have gathered into a 
cluster. They are talking in low, eager tones ; their 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 209 

eves searchingly peering into the mysteries of the 
dreadful forest. The Chief stalks through the ave 
nue, disturbed, obviously. It does not seem to him 
nor to any that McCook is contesting that ground 
"inch by inch." But sound is elusive. Minutes that 
seemed hours rolled away. Suspense was horrible. 
As yet only reports that the woods are swarming with 
fugitives. Who will credit stragglers against the 
reliance men have in good soldiers? McCook is an 
approved good soldier. The army has no better Gen 
erals than his Johnson, Davis, Sherridan, Willich, 
Kirk, Carlin, Sill, Shaeffer, Roberts. The soldiers of 
the Eight Wing are veterans of Shiloh and Chaplin 
Hills; some had met the enemy in Western Virginia, 
some at bloody Pea Ridge, and had never turned their 
faces from foe. 

Garesche had sent Otis to the right to watch rebel 
cavalry, concerning which there had been rumors. 
Lieutenant Baker gallops back from Otis with tidings. 
"The Right Wing is broken, and the enemy is driving 
it back." Incredible! McCook is surely falling back 
with an object. "All right never mind we will 
rectify it," said the General cheerfully. Stragglers 
were overflowing the plain and the Murfreesboro 
pike like a freshet, within an hour oh, horrible 
hour from the opening of battle. A staff officer 
from McCook confirms evil rumors. McCook needs 
assistance. "Tell General McCook," said the Qliief 
vehemently, "to contest every inch of ground. If 
he holds them we will swing into Murfreesboro with 
our left, and cut them off." Then to his staff, "It is 
working right." Alas, it was not " working right." 
" Every inch of ground " was not contested. He was 
18 



210 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

not yet advised of the rout of Willich s and Kirk s 
brigades, nor of the rapid withdrawal of Davis divi 
sion, necessitated thereby. "Moreover," he said, 
" having supposed McCook s Wing posted more com 
pactly and his right more refused than it really was, 
the direction of the noise of battle did not indicate to 
me the true state of affairs." 

The reported death of Sill was confirmed. "We 
can not help it ; brave men must be killed in battle," 
said the General impatiently. " General Kirk is 
wounded and disabled ; Willich killed or captured." 
"Never mind," persisted the inflexible leader, "we 
must win this battle." 

Battle was flowing along the line, communicating 
first with the Center, then the Left. The frightful 
delusion was dissipated. The enemy were pressing 
McCook swiftly and in disorder clean back upon the 
Center. Negley was already engaged. An aid from 
McCook advises that Rousseau had better be held in 
hand. What! Reserves so soon! "Tell General 
McCook I will help him," was the instant reply, and 
Rousseau marched at double-quick into the cedar- 
brakes on Negley s right, to brace up Sherridan, and 
stand as a break-water before the torrent that was 
engulfing the army. It was full time. 

The plan of battle is crippled. The Right Wing 
fails to hold Hardee " three hours " nay, an hour, on 
its right. Therefore the Left Wing can not swing 
into Murfreesboro and cut them off. A third of the 
Left Wing is absolute!} necessary to save the Right 
from annihilation. Van Cleve is already crossing the 
river to swing the left into Murfreesboro. Harker is 
moving in the same direction ; Hascall and Wagner 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 211 

ready to follow. Wood bears an order to halt. Said 
Ilascall, " the most terrible state of suspense pervaded 
the entire Left as it became more and more evident 
that the Right Wing was being driven rapidly back 
upon us." Wagner is on the extreme left of the 
army. Ilarker finds cover on a little crest behind 
some shocks of corn in the open field. Ilascall waits 
developments. Wood directs Wagner to "hold his 
position to the last." Everything depends upon it. 
Wagner is reliable. isTo danger there. An order 
goes to Van Cleve to double-quick a brigade to the 
right. Rich Mountain Beatty thunders across the 
field and forms west of the turnpike. Fyffe follows 
rapidly to form on his right. It is not yet eight 
o clock. The battle is all against us. 

GENERAL ROSECRANS TO THE FIELD. 

The General Commanding comprehended the dire 
extent of the calamity. He gathered about him all his 
faculties, and threw his own weighty sword into the 
scale of battle. Henceforth he consulted no one, 
asked no man s opinion, trusted in God, and relied 
upon* himself. It was now a series of commands too 
often delivered in person to superior or subaltern, it 
mattered not, while his staff galloped at his heels in 
mute anxiety lest he should fall. Dispatching an 
order to McCook, he moved suddenly to horse, and 
curtly commanded, "Mount, gentlemen!" 

A battery had already opened in range with head 
quarters at one of Mendenhall s Batteries, which was 
in position in front of the grove on the cemetery 
knoll. The ordnance train endangered was rumbling 
from right to left, balking upon the railroad. Has- 



212 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

tening its movement, the General pressed through the 
obstruction and leaped across the railroad, halting* 
briefly for observation. The enemy s shells were 
crashing among our own batteries a few feet to the 
right, and they were thundering in reply. Wood was 
discovered on the left of the railroad near a clump of 
trees waiting orders. Harker was descried down in 
the cornfield. 

Just now a flight of bullets pict-pict-pict-pict 
slipped through the staff and escort. A poor orderly 
toppled gently from his saddle, reeled over the side, 
and plunged headlong to the earth. One convulsive 
shudder and he was dead. The General might have 
reached the dead soldier with his sword. The fatal 
missile made no premonitory sign. You simply heard 
"thud," and saw a soldier die. The dead man s bri 
dle fingers still clung to the rein. A comrade dis 
mounted and loosed his grasp rudely with his foot. 
His faithful grey stood quietly waiting for the corpse 
to mount. Another bullet stung Benton s beautiful 
chestnut. The spirited colt, smarting with agony, 
struck violently with his .feet at his invisible tor 
mentor. Ben ton dismounted to see him die, but soon 
remounted and galloped his gay chestnut all through 
that fiery day. Hubbard s horse was struck in the 
neck, and several others of the escort wounded. A 
blue haze of smoke had now spread all over the field. 
The valleys were enveloped in battle clouds, and the 
woods seemed consuming with invisible fire. Indeed, 

"There s a cloud in the sky, 

A cloud in the glen, 
But one is of nature, 
The other s of men." 



THE BATTLE OF STONE EIVER. 213 

A shell struck near and spattered the mud in a 
shower over a dozen horsemen. The Chief dashed 
toward Wood, who rode out eagerly and saluted. He 
was to send Harker across the pike to Beatty s right. 
Seeing Hascall soon, he ordered him to the right of 
Harker to readjust the line of battle. Then he thun 
dered down across Barker s left, and wheeled to the 
right, to ride up the front line of battle. He gave 
Harker orders in person. Harker was already moving 
in column by the right flank at double-quick. There 
was serious business in hand, but the gallant fellow 
really seemed desirous to show the Chief how com 
pactly he could move his noble brigade under fire. 
Every member of the General Staff, a troop of horse, 
and a dozen orderlies, followed the Chief a conspicu 
ous target on such a field. Taylor, Simmons, Skinner, 
Wiles, Father Trecy Chief Quartermaster, Chief 
Commissary, Judge Advocate, Provost Marshal Gen 
eral, and Priest respectively what should they do 
there, galloping madly through the wild revels of a 
battle-field? Did they not seem out of place? But it 
was so all day long. Kniifin, Chief Commissaiy to 
Crittenden, also made a risky dash with them before he 
joined his own Chief. As they galloped across Hark- 
er s late front, a terrific tempest of solid shot and shell 
danced around their heels, whizzed over their heads, 
bounded under their horses, flushed in front of them, 
and a few wicked missiles sped through the midst of 
them. Every man, save the leader, ducked his head 
clean to the saddle bow. One shot gutted a gap 
through Harker s column. The hideous rent was 
visible an instant ; then it was healed; but the column 
was shorn of four men. It was not even shaken. A 



214 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

frantic horse galloped riderless over the field, leaving 
his master mangled. In the rage of conflict the human 
heart expresses little sympathy for human woe. Your 
best friend is lifted from his saddle by the fatal shaft, 
and plunges wildly .to the earth a corpse. One con 
vulsive leap of your heart, you dash onward over the 
stormy field, and the dead is forgotten until the furious 
frenzy of battle is spent. After battle! 0, reader! 
the mind furnishes no language befitting the anguish 
of the soul when we drag from the bloody mass the 
mutilated and disfigured forms of those we love. 
Battle is then frightful delirium a superlative horror ! 
But the tumult raged fiercely. "Baruet," shouted 
the General to his Chief of Artillery, " silence that 
battery." "Yes, sir." Barnet, cool and imperturbable, 
brought up the first battery he found. The commander 
of the pieces was wheeling into an unfavorable posi 
tion. " On the crest ! on the crest ! " shouted the 
General, pointing to the best position in view, and on 
the crest went the guns. Then the General dashed 
along the front of the left under the fire of musketry 
and artillery, until he halted on the turnpike within 
full view of the "Burnt House." A storm of musket 
balls and shells spattered and whizzed about the col 
umn, butmarvelously, not a man was hit. The flocks 
of shells sounded like the flutter of quails wings. A 
round shot flew over the staff, struck a horse a hund 
red yards beyond, and tore him to pieces. It must 
have knocked him a rod. Strange to say, his rider 
escaped. He gathered himself out of the mud and 
limped to cover. A little further onward, a shell 
struck a soldier and splashed him out of battle. The 
rattle of musketry and thunder of cannon was deafen- 



THE BATTLE OP STONE 1UVER. 215 

ing. But the General charged through the deathly 
storm as if it had been no more than hail. It was 
wonderful that he escaped. 

Pursuing his sw T ift career toward the right, and 
directly behind the line of battle, while bullets ana 
artillery charges hurtled in the atmosphere, his eye 
gathered the features of the field rapidly, and his 
mind directed dispositions to stop the torrent which 
was well nigh overwhelming. ~No complaint escaped 
him. That was no moment for reproach. But it was 
obvious that he was profoundly moved. His florid 
face had paled and lost its ruddy luster, but his eyes 
blazed with sullen fire. His lips were firmly com 
pressed, and his stern manner disclosed that his heart 
was undaunted. One moment s hesitation or vascilla- 
tioa no\v, and all were lost. Human tongue nor pen 
can describe the yearning anxiety of those who rode 
with him in that mad maelstrom of death. Thank 
God, he was firm as iron and fixed as fate. Clearly, 
he did not deem the battle lost. Now he was on the 
verge of the forest filled with friends and foes friends 
nnavailingly fighting, foes rushing onward with fierce 
yells of triumph. Gallant and quiet Sherridan 
debouched from the tangled forest at the head of his 
compact column-, out of ammunition, but unbroken. 
Negley was in the thick darkness with the noble 
Eighth Division, beating back the relentless tide. 
Johnson appeared, too, with the remnant of his crum 
bled command. Rousseau was sent into the fiery 
cauldron to extricate his struggling division comrade. 
The Regulars trusty and heroic, were contending 
stoutly, but receding slowly before the infernal tor 
rent, until they could brace themselves upon Guen- 



216 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

thcr s and Loorais guns. Pointing to his solid col 
umn sadly, but with true soldier s pride, said faithful 
Shcrridan, " Here is all that are left, General." The 
General Commanding, himself directed Sherridan 
where to find ammunition. The Second and Fifteenth 
Missouri had already replenished their cartridge-boxes, 
and now they plunged to the front again under brave 
Shaeffer, and fought the enemy with unflinching 
firmness. 

The day was going against us. The enemy were 
streaming through the woods a few hundred yards on 
the right front. They were swarming in savage mul 
titudes at every point. Our batteries were thunder 
ing across the plains with frightful vehemence, 
bounding into position and firing at the populous 
forests with terrific rapidity. The enemy poured shot 
and shell into our receding columns with remorseless 
vigor, and there appeared to be clusters of sharp 
shooters in almost every tree. Racing swiftly back 
now, the General and staff again became a conspic 
uous target. A flight of Minie balls slitted through 
the troop. One of them struck Gareschd s gay 
black in the nose. The spirited filly flung her head 
scornfully at the sting, scattering blood upon her 
rider. "Ah, hit! Garesche*?" quoth the General 
his mind for the first instant, and only that instant, 
relieved from its painful tension. "My horse," 
was the laconic response, and the gallant rider, 
whose proud deportment had excited the admiration 
of the arm}-, spurred onward at the side of his Chief. 
A drop of blood, fiercely flung away by the wounded 
horse, crimsoned the cheek of the General, and an 
hour later it gave rise to exquisite apprehensions. 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 217 

Some who saw it, fancied it was his own blood, and 
spread the report that he was wounded. The rumor 
reached officers of the staff who were away executing 
orders. They ransacked the field and the hospitals to 
find him. After an hour s torment, they discovered 
him, unscathed and inflexible, in the forefront of bat 
tle. Expostulation with him was vain. He sternly 
replied, " This battle must be won. 5 

The Right Wing was broken and driven back. It 
was almost doubled backward upon the left. John 
son s line had crumbled, but his soldiers had fought 

/ O 

desperately. Davis had withdrawn, bearing back his 
banners. Sherridan had swung back, contesting his 
ground " inch by inch," until relieved by Rousseau, 
and until his ammunition was exhausted, then 
marched out in close column, with colors flying. 
Eleven guns of the Second Division of the right 
all of Edgarton s, three of Goodspeed s, and two of 
Simonson s after the horses were killed, had been 
captured, with Hough tali Dg 6 six from the Third 
Division eighty horses of which were killed. Hund 
reds of men were slain or wounded, and nearly two 
thousand were captured. !N"egley, unprotected on his 
right, was fighting an overwhelming enemy on three 
sides of him, and he was holding them stubbornly. 
Rousseau was receding; and still the great Chieftain 
of that battle, with sublime defiance of disaster, said : 
" We shall beat them yet." 

THE BATTERIES ARE MASSED IN THE CENTER. 

Now galloping to the crest of the hill (for there 
was but one elevation like a hill on the left), the Gen 
eral Commanding, still in the flame of conflict (for 
19 



218 THE BATTLE OF STONE EIVEE. 

on that field there was no security "but in God s prov 
idence), massed his batteries on its crown, ar:.d swept 
the forests with an awful volume of shell and can- 
nister. Soldiers of the Eight Wing were streaming 
back through the forests in disorder. The gleaming 
steel of the hotly pursuing foe flashed in the glowing 
sunlight through vistas of the woods. Through a 
gap of timber opening into a cornfield beyond, masses 
of somber-looking foes moving down hill, long lines 
of heads and glittering musket tubes, rising one 
above another in terraces, were rolling onward in 
seemingly resistless force. But a new line had been 
formed to meet them. The right had faced east- 
wardly. Part of the left had been hurled across the 
plain from Stone Elver. Van Cleve s division and 
Harker s brigade, with Eousseau s reserves, had 
formed the new line, which faced westward. It was 
almost " about face" from the original position. 



The new change in the order of battle was executed 
by the General Commanding at incessant personal 
hazard. There was not a private soldier in the army 
so much exposed. There was hardly a point in the 
front of battle which he had not inspected Wood s 
line, perhaps, excepted. Some five or six batteries, 
posted upon the bluff under his personal direction, 
now thundered in direful accord. Solid shot, shell, 
grape, cannister, were crashing through the brittle 
timber in destructive tumult. A thick canopy of 
smoke hovered over the field. Clouds of smoke 
enveloped the gunners. They seemed like demons 
reveling in infernal orgies. With his staff gathered 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 219 

about him, the Chief halted briefly upon the cemetery 
knoll, watching the play of the batteries and the hot 
fury of Sam Beatty s infantry. !Nbw, without a word, 
he plunged headlong into the tempest, his staff and 
orderlies following with wild enthusiasm. The enemy 
had tipped over the crest of the last ridge in front, and 
were bearing down fiercely. Spurring up to the very 
heels of Beatty s men, until his steed almost tram 
pled them, he shouted cheerily, "Now let the whole 
line charge! Shoot low! Be sure! Then charge 
home!" Bitterly whistled the leaden hail. The 
chips and twigs flew from the trees as if thousands 
were hacking them. A soldier falls, with a shudder, 
.under the feet of the General s horse. The staff and 
orderlies fling themselves along the line, hats in hand 
and swords drawn, cheering the men, who respond 
with a shrill clamor that leaps like lightning from 
rank to rank, and thrills along the lines until lost in 
distance. ! it was a wild, passionate moment. 
The troops .spring to their feet and push up the slope; 
the forests are riven with the tempest; bayonets 
gleam ; lurid flames spout from the long line of mus 
kets. Yon savage line of gray and steel, which but a 
moment since plunged so madly over the hill, halts ! 
It wavers ! Another tempest from the blue line in 
front they reel, they stagger "There they go!" 
shouted the gallant leader; "there they go! Tow 
drive them home ! " Away they fly over the hill, 
shattered, disordered, broken, struggling to escape. 
Great God, what tumult in the brain! Sense reels 
with the intoxicating frenzy. Shot and shell pursue 
the frightened fugitives, shrieking through the forests, 
crashing the flimsy branches, scattering death and 



220 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

dismay wherever they strike. There was a line of 
dead blue-coats where that charge was so gallantly 
made, but the forms of mangled foes were thickly 
strewn upon that bloody slope. 

THE SPECTACLE. 

The glory of the shoot that now went up, is a 
recollection to be treasured forever. Hearts that 
thrilled with its rapture, will ever throb tumultuously 
when memory recalls it. And such a spectacle ! 
That gallant leader, dauntless, and upright in saddle, 
with countenance inspired such light of battle in his 
features as fairly blazed unmoved by the death terror 
around him, pursuing, with calm determination, the 
one thought of success. The ardor of that gallant 
line which so splendidly turned the sweeping tide of 
battle ; the lurid, malicious blaze and furious stream 
of sparkling fire viciously emitting from thousands 
of trusty muskets ; the blue haze of smoke eddying in 
circling currents, and spreading an aznre shade among 
the thick branches of those funereal cedars ; the 
fierce rattle of rifle volleys ; the deafening uproar of 
more than fifty cannons working, with awful destruct- 
iveness, in a canopy of smoke which obscured the 
batteries and magnified the gunners into great shad 
ows ! who that was in it can ever forget ? 

When the pale faces which came out of that furious 
storm flushed again, and when hearts had ceased their 
wild flutter, it almost seemed as if men had been born 
again. "Oh, wasn t that glorious, old fellow?" quoth 
gallant Skinner, laying his palm affectionately upon 
the shoulder of his equally youthful friend Kirby as 
brave and staunch a soldier as ever carried bullet and 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 221 

shattered arm from a battle-field. Reader, no human 
language can describe the convulsing charms of a 
charge in battle. It is a frightful ecstaey. 

The fiery valor of Gareschd, in that dread carnival, 
would have inspired a coward with courage. Gay as 
LI youth of twenty, with hat jauntily cocked on his 
line head, he seemed, upon his lithe and spirited black 
mare, a perfect transformation. Usually grave and 
saturnine, with an habitual calmness almost provoking, 
lie looked in the fury of the fray as if his soul had 
broken into a new stream of existence. When he 
dashed into the charge, his sword flew from the scab 
bard and glittered in the sunlight. When the enemy 
fled over the hill, he glanced at them with a smile of 
triumph, and rammed his blade back into its scabbard 
with a force that made the steel ring again. Yester 
day some had felt a thrill of anxiety for him. He 
deported himself like one who had premonition of 
sudden death. Always deeply pious, conscientious 
in attention to religious duties, prayerful, there was 
something peculiarly striking in the absorbing atten 
tion with which he poured himself into his little 
prayer-book, as he sat in "a quiet fence corner on 
Tuesday, awaiting the culmination of martial events. 
All this day of battle, through a hundred death cur 
rents, he had swept gaily over the field. But his 
General s charge was his climax. Alas, an hour or 
two more of life, and he was a victim for the little 
graveyard upon which he had slept but the night 
before. Always by his General s side in life, death 
struck him there at last. 

Further upon the right, too, there was a struggle. 
The shock of collision thrilled along the whole line. 



222 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

Fyffe, then Harker, were standing up stoutly now 
receding, now charging the foe; but at last, when the 
" General Commanding led a charge in person, and 
drove the foe pell-mell into the forest," Fyffe and 
Harker, with mighty effort, rolled back the avalanche 
from their front, and joined in the psean of victory. 

ST. GLAIR MORTON S PIONEERS. 

But the foe was not yet gone. He was advancing 
from the Right to the junction of the Left and Center. 
He was yet driven only from the extreme right. There 
was a valley to the left of Beatty s line, partly open, 
through which one of our broken columns was retir 
ing disordered before the enemy. The new Eight 
was advancing steadily. The batteries were ordered 
forward. Stokes Chicago Board of Trade Battery 
was on a knoll nearest the critical point of danger. 
At a gesture from the General, it thundered down the 
slope and struggled manfully across a heavy field to 
another little crest, from whence another battery had 
been driven. Three mangled horses struggled there 
under a shattered caisson tangled in harness, with 
broken limbs, bleeding, and one of them moaning 
with agony piteous as that of a human being. Bul 
lets were whistling fiercely, but the spirit of that 
battle was pulsating for victory. General Rosecrans 
again plunged into the breach, urging the battery to 
follow, and by his own dauntless example checked 
the disorder of the retiring brigade. Garesche and 
St. Glair Morton were by his side. Morton com 
manded a picked battalion of pioneers. It was nec 
essary to bring even them into the fight, as every 
soldier on that field was carried in that desperate day. 



THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 223 

"Support the batteiy, Morton." "Aye, aye, sir;" 
and the pioneers deployed right and left, and opened 
a vicious fire. Morton s fine face glowed with excite 
ment. The battery got into position, and opened 
with telling effect, but the pioneers had already sent 
the rebels howling back up the valley and into the 
woods. Morton looked as if he was delighted all 
over. "We re doing it about right now, General, 
ain t we? Can t I do something more, General?" 
said he, with a charming simplicity. It was a mys 
tery that all were not torn to pieces. 

During this furious encounter, Colonel Garesche , 
accompanied by Lieutenant Byron Kirby, Aid to 
General Rosecrans, galloped through a withering 
fire to carry an order to General Van Cleve, who, 
though wounded, was resisting a renewed attack. 
While riding across the field, there occurred one of 
those chivalric episodes which are sometimes cele 
brated in romance. A ball disabled Garesch^ s horse. 
Kirby dismounted, and insisted that Gareschd should 
mount his horse. Mutually forgetful of the storm 
of battle, they disputed a point of courtesy. Kirby 
finally prevailed on the score of duty, and walked 
back over the field until he found the staff. Not 
much later a Minie ball struck the brave soldier s 
left arm, and shot him clean out of his saddle. The 
bone was shattered, and he was compelled to quit the 
field. iSTo bolder or more modest soldier ever drew 
bright blade. He nobly earned promotion. But 
Kirby belongs to the Regular Army that step-child 
of the nation, which, though smarting at the injustice 
that pursues it, says, with splendid eloquence, "If 
we can t win honors, we ll do more we ll deserve 



224 THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

them ; " and Kirby remembers that the country some 
times forgets its step-children. 

Rousseau s division had also moved into the woods 
on the left and struggled out. Negley, after Sherri- 
dan had withdrawn, subjected to murderous cross-fire 
of artillery and musketry, had also fallen back, and 
was replenishing his ammunition. Grose was fighting 
vehemently to protect the rear of Palmer from masses 
swarming around his right, while troops in his other 
brigades were falling by hundreds in front. Wagner 
had repelled an assault upon his position, and Hascall 
went to the assistance of devoted Hazen. Crittendeu 
was in front, watching his steady Left. Thomas 
calmly directed the Center, and their omnipresent 
Chief, now directing the Right, then glancing at the 
Left, was gathering together his legions for the trial 
which would determine victory. 

Perhaps it was now eleven o clock a little earlier, a 
little later, no matter when the first act of the san 
guinary drama was concluded. There was a lull in 
the storm. Where would it break next? Certainly 
the enemy were preparing for a new assault. Rose- 
crans could not now take the initiative. The Right 
had not yet recovered from its shock. The enemy 
were feinting away off on the Right. General Rose- 
crans divined that the onset would fall upon the 
Left, and he was preparing for it. 

The reader will now return to the opening of tho 
battle, and follow the disaster through its unbroken 
series, until the rainbow of hope was clearly visible 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 225 



CHAPTER XXV. 

PRAGUE upon Austerlitz The Onset of the Rebels The columns of 
Attack Gallant Kirk Overpowered Edgarton s Battery Swal 
lowed up Willich Unhorsed and Captured His Brigade Pulver 
ized Noble Struggle of General Davis Division Woodruff Retires, 
then Post, and then Carlin Splendid Resistance of Sherridan 
Death of General Sill Reported Repulse of the Enemy Roberts 
Charges and Falls The Missourians at Bay with Empty Muskets 
The Right Wing Reaches Support. 

IT was never said by him, but Kosecrans plan of 
battle was the plan of Austerlitz. Bragg hurled 
Prague upon Austerlitz and defeated it. Rosecrans 
fell upon Prague with his own trusty sword and was 
victorious. But Austerlitz was simple, and should 
have been crushingly successful. Could not fifteen 
thousand veterans resist double their number "three 
hours ?" How was it ? 

"At six o clock and twenty-two minutes on the 
morning of the 31st," said General Johnson, "the 
outposts in front of my division were driven in by an 
overwhelming force of infantry/ "The enemy," 
said General Rosecrans, " advanced in heavy columns, 
regimental front, his left attacking "Willich s and 
Kirk s brigades, of Johnson s division, which, being 
disposed thin and light, without support were, 
after a sharp but fruitless contest, crumbled to pieces 
and driven back, leaving Edgarton s and part of 
Goodspeed s battery in the hands of the enemy. 



226 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 

" The enemy following up, attacked Davis 7 division, 
and speedily dislodged Post s brigade. Carlin s bri 
gade was compelled to follow, as Woodruff s brigade, 
from the weight of testimony, had previously left its 
position on his left. Johnson s brigade, in retiring, 
inclined too far to the west, and were too much scat 
tered to make a combined resistance, though they 
fought bravely at one or two points before reaching 
Wilkinson s pike. The reserve brigade of Johnson s 
division, advancing from its bivouac near Wilkinson s 
pike toward the right, took a good position and made 
a gallant but ineffectual stand, as the whole rebel Left 
was moving up on the ground abandoned by our 
troops. 

" Within an hour from the time of the opening of 
the battle, a staff officer from General McCook ar 
rived, announcing 1 to me that the Riffht Winsr was 

O O O 

heavily pressed, and needed assistance; but I was not 
advised of the rout of Willich s and Kirk s brigades, 
nor of the rapid withdrawal of Davis 7 division, neces 
sitated thereby." 

The Eight Wing was flung back upon the Left 
with a violence which shattered it into fragments. 
Part of it withdrew into the open ground near the 
Murfreesboro pike behind the Center; part escaped 
to the pike a half mile further in the rear; another 
fraction had flared away off to the right, and made a 
wide detour to get back into line. 

KIRK AND WILLICII. 

Kirk first felt the shock. Willich s brigade recoiled 
under it almost immediately, and Baldwin in reserve 
came up under Johnson s own eye to brace the stag- 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 227 

goring- front. Willich was on the extreme right, 
ivfiiscd to protect the flank, and forming a crotchet. 
Kirk s brigade joined Willich s on the left, fronting 
the enemy s line of battle, and facing east. .Bald 
win s reserve brigade was eight hundred yards in 
the rear, near the headquarters of McCook and John 
son. Edgarton s Battery was posted near the angle 
formed by the junction of Kirk s right and. Willieb s 
left, with a narrow cleared field in front. 

Kirk s line covered the Franklin road, which runs 
due east and west, and there was a lane behind him 
tracing north and south, intersecting the road. The 
ground behind him was undulating, open, and ob 
structed by fences. The enemy s left overlapped the 
right division, and was almost oblique to it. Their 
flank was covered by a powerful force of cavalry. 
Willich s brigade had rolling, partially open ground, 
and fences in its rear. 

At three o clock in the morning, by order of Gen 
eral Willich, Colonel Jones, of the Thirty-Ninth Indi 
ana, patroled six hundred yards in front of the picket 
line, and reported that there were no indications of 
movement in front, General Kirk inspected his own 
picket lines at the same hour, and found all quiet in 
front. General Sill, at two o clock in the morning, 
reported to General Sherridan that there was great 
activity immediately in his front. This was the nar 
rowest part of the valley, and General Sherridan, 
fearing an attack at that point, posted two regiments 
of the reserve within short supporting distance of 
Sill. But at five o clock in the morning the whole 
Right Wing was under arms, and were prepared for 
the enemy. They stood there over an hour and dis- 



228 BATTLE OF THE EIGHT WING. 

covered no signs of movement in front. Captain 
Edgarton, however, imprudently permitted some of 
his battery horses to go to water. At dawn the right 
brigade received orders to build fires and make coffee. 
General Willicli soon afterward turned over the com 
mand temporarily to Colonel "W. II. Gibson, of the 
Forty-Ninth Ohio Volunteers, while he repaired to 
General Johnson s headquarters, giving directions 
respecting the troops in case of an attack during his 
temporary absence. He had been gone but a few 
moments when firing was heard in front of Kirk s 
right, at the angle of the crotchet. Willich s brigade 
seized their arms instantly. The enemy appeared in 
enormous masses. Colonel Gibson sent for Willich, 
who galloped back to his command. His horse was 
killed, and he was a captive before he gave an order! 
The calamity was swift. 

THE ATTACK UPON KIRK. 

The enemy were descried in the fields by General 
Kirk a half mile from his front. They advanced in 
four columns, regimental front, with powerful reserves 
in mass. "They moved up steadily," said Kirk, "in 
good order, without music or noise of any kind. 
They had no artillery in sight." They poured across 
the valley in mighty force, swept away the strong 
lines of skirmishers as if they had been cobwebs, and 
fell upon Kirk s lines like wild beasts. The Thirty- 
Fourth Illinois, which had been sent forward to check 
them, closed with a crash in almost hand to hand 
conflict with them, fighting with magnificent fury. 

"Alas, in vain, ye gallant few, 
From rank to rank your vollicd thunder flew." 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 229 

The contest was hopeless ; the gallant regiment 
sternly resisting, fell away, and the storm struck the 
line and shook it from center to its flanks. The rehels 
recoiled under the first terrific volley, but gathering 
head, they rolled onward again with resistless momen 
tum. Edgarton s Battery was swallowed up ; he down 
under his guns wounded, his men fighting with their 
swabs until they were bayoneted or captured. Brave 
Edgarton had fired but three rounds, says one report; 
eight guns says another. 

It matters not which brigade first gave way. Both 
were soon broken. Lightning struck the crotchet 
they formed, ran along both fronts, and involved them 
in common ruin. Kirk was soon flanked. His four 
brave regiments were well nigh cut to pieces. He 
had sent to Willich for support. "Willich was gone. 
His brigade was struggling for self-preservation. The 
rebel cavalry was careering and surging upon their 
right. Servants and teamsters were flying over the 
field. Colonel Baldwin had quickly taken arms, and 
General Johnson threw the regiments into line of 
battle supporting the struggling front. Tbe First 
Ohio, commanded by Major Stafford, Sixth Indiana, 
Lieutenant Colonel Tripp, Thirtieth Indiana, Colonel 
Dodge and Lieutenant Colonel Hurd, and the Louis 
ville Legion, Colonel Berry, made a good, strong, 
bracing front. The Ninety-Third Ohio, Colonel 
Charles Anderson, was retained in reserve in a wood. 
As Kirk and Willich were driven back they flared off 
to the right, and left Davis right exposed. Baldwin s 
reserve felt the shock speedily. Goodspeed s remain 
ing four guns for two had been taken under Lieu 
tenant Belding, and Simonson s Battery, fired sharply 



230 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 

and quickly into the advancing masses. Baldwin 
opened a biting tire which eat deeply into the front 
rank of the undaunted rebels. But they spread over 
the field like a freshet, and gathered in clouds on the 
front and flanks. A minute more and Baldwin s 
command will be captives. They, too, withdraw, 
catching their heels a moment on a crest, turn to 
resist. The pursuit is too vigorous, and they again 
recede until they brace upon Rousseau, where they 
make another stand all that remains of them. 

McCook is cool but distressed. There is no hope 
for him now but to save all he can. ! that his line 
had been shorter and heavier. With Davis and Sher- 
ridan in front, and Johnson s heroes of Shiloh to sup 
port them, he could have " whipped my friend 
Hardee." Davis is now enveloped, but Kirk, wounded 
almost at the first fire, and dismounted twice, is yet in 
the field. He forms a new line in a skirt of woods at 
right angles with his original position. Gallant Reed 
races up from the wagon train with his Seventy-2s"inth 
Illinois, and adds new vigor to Kirk s now almost 
nerveless arm. Kirk sinks at last, and is borne from 
the field. Colonel Dodge assumes command. Then 
Reed nobly falls, cheering his heroes. Houssam, of 
the Pennsylvania Seventy-Seventh, charges splendidly, 
recaptured Edgarton s guns, then, alas ! he goes clown, 
too, mortally hurt, and the enemy recovers the battery, 
and keep it. Van Tassel, Major of the splendid Illi 
nois Thirty-Fourth, is sorely wounded. Captain Rose 
there is no field officer remaining now fights the 
Pennsylvania Seventy-Seventh most gallantly, but in 
vain. Soldiers and officers fighting desperately, fall 
by scores. A colonel commands a regiment at one 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 231 

instant, now a captain, at last an adjutant. Sergeants 
and corporals lead companies, until companies melt 
away with passing bullets. The brigadier is gone ; 
two colonels are dead ; other field officers are bleeding 
and exhausted; Dodge remains to command. Ten 
guns are gone now, another soon follows. The right 
division is routed. Melancholy satisfaction to know 
that the rebel General Rains was killed, and that more 
than man for man had fallen on the other side. Kirk 
was disabled, "Willich a prisoner; that proud division 
is " scattered and peeled." The sting of defeat was 
more terrible than wounds and death. "When Dodge 
retired the remnant to the Murfreesboro pike, he had 
" in all," he said, " about five hundred men." But the 
right brigade ! 

Gibson, twice dismounted, sees disorder on all sides ; 
gathers the battalions of captured Willich ; flings 
them in pieces at the foe; falls back; careers again 
with all the fury of desperate courage, wards off the 
blow of circling cavalry striving to swoop upon him 
at every instant; gains brief respite; retires, and, 
Parthian-like, fights as he flies. Drake, Lieutenant 
Colonel commanding, and Porter, Major of the thrice 
approved Forty-Ninth Ohio, are prone on the field. 
The live regiments are almost orphaned scarcely 
officers enough left to carry them to the rear the 
regiments indeed are all fighting and flying together, 
with hardly a nominal distinction. Bel ding, by efforts 
of almost sublime energy, drags his four guns into 
position, with wounded and limping horses his own 
gallant gunners placing their shoulders to the wheels. 
There is heroism worthy of history even in the midst 



232 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 

of that dreadful carnival of carnage and defeat. At 
last Gibson and his little host reach a little creek in 
the rear, and make a final stand. The rebel infantry 
are beaten back, but Wheeler s cavalry sweep around 
their flanks. Barely three hundred are left. Destruc 
tion stares them in the face. The enemy, horse and 
foot, are in their midst. Gibson s sword is fiercely 
demanded. His rank is not apparent. His uniform 
is war-worn and tattered. But lo ! a shout on the 
flank. With the shout there is a shock with the 
shock, rescue. Gallant Otis and his cavalry has saved 
them. 

THE RESCUE. 

Early in the morning there were reports of cavalry 
demonstrations on our right. Garesche* had said, 
" Otis, there is cavalry on our flank go and look after 
them." Otis needed no second order. He was pant 
ing to show the mettle of his superb fellows the 
Fourth Regulars. Gathering six companies in hand, 
he was soon thundering through the forest, and 
debouched upon a field. From the start he had been 
running across the track of straggling fugitives, and 
at length sent Lieutenant Baker to headquarters with 
the first confirmation of evil rumors from the Right. 
Forming his command in column by fours, led by 
their company commanders, the companies on parallel 
lines, company distance apart, himself leading the 
center, Otis looked about like a pugnacious Irishman 
for a head to hit. Directly, discovering a cloud of 
mounted gray-backs in the distance, he quickly 
directed his command to charge, pistol in hand. But 
said Otis, " Don t you fire a shot until you take each 
your man by the scalp. Forward trot!" Away 



BATTLE OF THE 1UQIIT WING. 233 

they go gallantly, the ground trembling beneath them. 
There is a heavy column of gray before them, but. 
no cheek blanches. Each rider gathers his reins 
firmly. Their eyes flash lightning. The trot bears 
them swiftly; Otis rises in his saddle and thunders, 
" Charge !" Now they gallop away they fly ! It is 
an avalanche. The rebels vainly strive to disperse it 
by shot and shell. A storm of grape is scattered 
among those wild riders, but in vain. Their shock 
fed Is upon the enemy with terrific momentum. " Horse, 
rider, and all, in one red burial blent," go down 
together. Our gallant Long and some of his fellows 
went down in the tumult, but the glory of the charge 
made the noble fellows forget their pain. It was a 
thunderbolt, which rove the enemy from center to 
flank. A hundred threw up their arms in submission. 
Many had been killed. Gibson and his three hundred 
moved swiftly to the rear to fight another day. The 
gallant Fourth Regulars prepared to charge the bat 
tery which had fired upon them, but an order from 
superior authority called them to another field. 

It requires hours to describe battle spasms of a 
minute s duration. A scattering clatter of musketry, 
a crash, the thunder of artillery, and it is done. The 
assault upon and pulverization of the Second Division 
was a paroxysm. It shocked the army and paralyzed 
the plan of battle. The tremor thrilled through the 
whole system, but thank God, it did not paralyze its 
heart. Return now to 

GENERAL DAVIS. 

The conflagration ran along Kirk s front, commu 
nicated with that of Davis, streamed along Sherridan s, 
20 



234 BATTLE OF THE EIGHT WING. 

enveloped Negley s, blazed in the face of Rousseau, 
rolled against Craft and Hazen, and one of its forked 
tongues swooped around Cruft, and blistered the 
broad breast of stubborn Grose. The enemy advanced 
with four charging columns in echelon, in close sup 
porting distance, Cleburne and McCown falling first 
upon Johnson, and then enveloping Davis flank, 
while Cheatham and Withers made the onset in 
front, precipitating their powerful divisions headlong 
upon the light commands of Davis, Sherridan, and 
Negley, Hardee simultaneously turning their flanks 
successively, the right of Withers furiously engaging 
Palmer. Their columns moving over the field to 
attack, appeared like the diagonal squares of a chess 
board, each in succession shouldering upon the 
advance column. It was a martial spectacle of terri 
ble grandeur. 

The enemy pushed forward utterly contemptu 
ous of Davis skirmishers, paying no more attention 
to them than an elephant would to a swarm of hor 
nets. But his line of battle was a different thing. 
Davis, fully expecting an attack, waited in confidence, 
and was sanguine that he would hold his ground until 
he saw Kirk give way. This exposed his flank imme 
diately. The enemy had been severely punished in 
front, and had recoiled; but with victorious hosts on 
his right flank, Davis had no alternative. The enemy 
saw their advantage, and rushed upon the obstinate 
iii vision with savage ferocity. The men stood until 
the battle had almost become a tumult of personal 
encounters. Pinney, Hotchkiss, and Carpenter 
worked their guns with telling effect, but the enemy 
refused to be balked. Post s right, now in jeopardy, 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 235 

was withdrawn by Davis. Carlin, by a splendid 
burst, drove the enemy from his front, but they were 
surging back again. Both Pinney and Carpenter fall, 
the latter dead. Half the artillery horses are killed. 
The whole line retires, part of the guns being dragged 
back by the men. Several are abandoned. It is im 
possible to move all of them through the timber. 
The loss of the division is distressing. Stem and 
Wooster, Colonel and Lieutenant Colonel of the One 
Hundred and First Ohio, are weltering in their life- 
blood. Alexander, of the Twenty-First Illinois, still 
commands, with a boot full of blood; Lieutenant 
Colonel McKee, of the Fifteenth "Wisconsin, is dead; 
Tanner, of the Twenty-Second Indiana, is a bleeding 
captive; Litson, of the same regiment, fighting hero 
ically, is hurt, and falls into the hands of the enemy. 
Companies are without officers; regiments hold to 
gether by force of discipline. Davis watches with 
jealous eye to keep them together. Carlin J s color 
guards are nearly all dead or dying, but when his 
noble remnant retires from the struggle, his banners 
are still flying. Heroic Williams, Colonel of the 
Twenty-Fifth Illinois, heart-sick at impending disas 
ter, seizes the standard of the regiment from the 
nerveless grasp of its dying guardian, and shouting, 
" We will plant it here, boys, and rally the old Twen 
ty-Fifth around it, and here we will die," the brave 
martyr falls under the flag. It was a hard struggle, 
but Davis finally worked through the woods, and 
gathered up his remnants to fight another battle. 
Carlin had seven hundred men left. 



236 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 



When Davis was fully engaged, the enemy moved 
through an open cottonfield down across the valley, 
and spread up the face of the slope in front of Sill 
like a conflagration. Bush s Battery had a direct 
fire, and Hescock and Houghtaling thundered an 
oblique fire upon them, tearing fearful gaps in their 
front and flanks, and shaking the mass to the center, 
but the disciplined legions of Bragg with mighty 
effort shook off the shock, and struggled forward 
with admirable daring. 

Sill, firm and patient, waits the onslaught. His 
men are covered. The enemy move toward them like 
a great gray cloud. Their muskets gleam like tubes 
of silver. They appear almost even with the crest. 
~Now is the moment. Sill s trusty line seems to spring 
out of the ground. A long line of fire blazes in his 
front. It strikes full in the face of the foe. There are 
great gaps in his ranks. For an instant, they make 
manful efforts to close their ragged front. Sill s mus 
ketry is remorseless. Flesh and blood can not endure 
it. They stagger, recoil, catch a momentary foothold, 
slip backward, and at last plunge headlong into flight. 
Quick as thought, Sill orders a charge, leads it him 
self, and his gallant men shout with triumph. Alas ! 
brave, noble Sill ! That glorious charge was his last. 
The brightest and purest spirit among all the youth 
of that splendid army, beloved for his gentle manli 
ness, admired for his lofty intellect, for his skill and 
dashing courage, thus to be cut clown in victorious 
career, was most cruel sacrifice. A bullet struck him 
fairly in his handsome face, and he fell lifeless and 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 237 

disfigured upon the field. It was hideous that barba 
rians should have abused his remains. His body was 
plundered by the foe. 

The enemy rallied again, and renewed the attack 
with increased vehemence. Unhappily, the brigade 
on the right gave way. The enemy discovered it, 
and dashed forward impetuously to seize their advan 
tage. One of the supporting regiments had also 
fallen back in disorder. It was soon rallied, but Sher- 
ridan s vigilant eye saw the mishap, and substituted a 
reserve regiment. But the retreat of the brigade on 
the flank was incorrigible. Hosts from the rebel 
divisions on the right, pressing in pursuit of the two 
retiring divisions of the Right Wing, flowed upon 
the right of Sill s brigade, and was about to envelop 
it. Sherridan instantly ordered Colonel Greusel, who 
succeeded Sill, to withdraw it. To relieve it of press 
ure, Eoberts, on the left, fixed bayonets. Taking the 
Forty-Second and Fifty-First Illinois, the Twenty- 
Second supporting, he plunged into the woods. The 
enemy gave way before his glittering steel, and fled 
rapidly to the rear, abandoning one gun, which in 
turn was abandoned by Roberts. 

This effective charge relieves the right until they 
are reformed in rear of the batteries upon a good 
position. Roberts retires from the woods and forms 
on the left. Sherridan vainty strives to rally retiring 
troops on his right, when, upon order from General 
McCook, he advances again and forms upon Hegley s 
right, Roberts brigade at right angles with !N"egley s 
right, and facing south, Shaefl er s and Greusel s bri 
gades in the rear at right angles with Roberts, facing 
west, covering ISTegley s rear. Houghtaling s Battery, 



238 BATTLE OP THE RIGHT WING. 

with a section of Hescock s under Lieutenant Tallia- 
i erro, and a section of Bush s Battery take position 
at the angle of these lines, the remainder of Hescock s 
and Bush s Batteries going to the angle formed by 
Negley s and Roberts lines. 

This maneuver for it was a complete change of 
front under fire is hardly perfected when the enemy 
strikes again with redoubled fury. None of Sherri- 
dan s regiments had broken, save one, and it had 
rallied under fire, and was now emulating its com 
panions. Cheatham, enraged, seemed to have con 
centrated all his energies in the new attack. He 
appeared infuriated at his successive repulses. Sill 
had driven him back with cruel slaughter. Shaeffer, 
and his Missourians and Illinoisans, had caused his 
battalions to recoil under their galling fire, and gal 
lant Roberts had repulsed him with steel. A rebel 
writer, whose history of the battle was published all 
over the South, said that "Cheatham stormed about 
the field gnashing his teeth at the slaughter of his 
braves." He was now reinforced by victorious hordes, 
flush in pursuit of the other broken brigades, and 
who gathered in clouds about Sherridan. 

It was a final, but a gallant resistance. The enemy 
were coming at two hundred yards distant. Not a 
sign of faltering. The foe seemed concentrating 
a whole division on Roberts, but his men stood 
firmly as a mountain, and the rebels again recoiled. 
Again they advanced, and three times in succession 
they were compelled to give way under Sherridan s 
terrific infantry and artillery. But gallant Roberts 
was killed, and Harrington fell desperately wounded. 
It was a noble struggle, but the heroic fellows were 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 239 

compelled to retire. Shaeffer s ammunition was all 
expended. Already lie liad ilrcd sixty rounds per 
man. He only remained of Sherridan s original com 
manders of brigade. The cartridge-boxes of Roberts 
brigade were nearly empty, and Sill s staunch fellows 
were clamoring loudly for ammunition. Houghtal- 
ing had exhausted all of his, and there was no more 
accessible. The enemy had cut off the train ! At 
Sherridan s command, Shaeffer s men grimly fixed 
bayonets, and waited their fate, holding the enemy in 
check with empty guns, while their comrades fell 
back. Roberts brigade, now commanded by Colonel 
Bradley, and Greusel s, retired fighting. Hough tal- 
ing s Battery horses were nearly all dead. He strove 
manfully to drag away his pieces by hand, but the 
thickets were insurmoiintable, and the brave fellow 
reluctantly left them. Poor Taliiaferro fell at his 
guns, and they were brought off by his sergeant. 
Two of Bush s guns were also left in consequence of 
the loss of horses, and the impossibility of dragging 
them by hand through the cedar-brakes. 

The last division of the Right Wing, armed with 
empty muskets, fought at bay. They still preserved 
their compact order, with banners flying. The 
enemy, in awe of them, followed at a more respect 
ful distance, but still galling them with heavy lire. 
Going through the woods, Shaeffer s Missourians 
Germans found a wagon with ammunition, and 
quickly swarming around it, gobbled up the precious 
cartridges and fell into line, manifesting bitter satis 
faction. Sherridan instantly sent them to the front 
to beat back the enemy. At length Rousseau s divi 
sion, having opportunely formed in his rear, in support 



240 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 

of the struggling heroes, gallant Sherridan and the 
remnant of his command debouched from the thicket 
into the open field near the Murfreeshoro pike. 

But there was more work for Shaeffer and his 
sturdy Germans. Under the direction of General 
Koseerans, Sherridan led them immediately to the 
front, on the right of Palmer s division, where they 
at once engaged, drove the enemy from the cedars 
and beyond, four of Hescock s guns going into action 
at the same time. These momentous conflicts, which 
require so much space for cold description, were the 
paroxysms of hardly three hours of horrific battle. 
The* battle was not ended then, nor that day, nor the 
next, nor the next, but Sherridan s division, though 
losing elsewhere, did not afterward meet with seri 
ous loss. After the battle was over " My loss, Gen 
eral," said Sherridan to his commander, "is seventeen 
hundred and ninety-six" my three brigade com 
manders killed, and sixty-nine other officers; in all, 
seventy-two officers killed and wounded." "Was it 
not Illiad of battle? seventeen hundred and ninety- 
six brave soldiers out of an effective force of six 
thousand four hundred and ninety-five. Hearts of 
rock would melt in the presence of such touching 
tragedy. But these heroes repeat, with glow of hon 
est pride, " We came out of the battle with compact 
ranks and empty cartridge-boxes!" That immortal 
boast should be inscribed on all their banners. 

REMARKS. 

For days after the battle, there was a wide-spread 
impression that the Eight Wing was surprised. 
Such was the tenor of information which was con- 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 241 

stantly reported on the field. The swift capture of 
Edgarton s Battery, the sudden overwhelming of the 
Right Wing, the vehemence with which it was driven 
back to the Murfreesboro pike, where it, together 
with the whole army, was saved by the skill of the 
General Commanding, directing the valor of his trusty 
troops from the Left Wing and Center, seemed to 
confirm the erroneous statement. Such was the 
belief of the General Commanding, who, in his offi 
cial report by telegraph to the General in Chief, 
denominated the misfortune a "surprise." 

Subsequently upon sifting all the testimony, he 
decided that injustice had been done. It was adjudged 
that General Willich s picket lines were properly 
adjusted and diligently patrolled; that Kirk s were in 
front as far as they could be posted, and were inspected 
by the ever-vigilant Kirk himself, and that every 
regiment was under arms in line of battle before day 
light. General Johnson, therefore, stands vindicated. 
The only point, it seems, in which there was remis 
sion of vigilance, was significantly reproached by 
Major General McCook, who, in his official report of 
the battle, said that u Captain Edgarton, commanding 
battery of Kirk s brigade, certainly was guilty of a 
great error, in taking even a part of his horses to 
water at such an hour." Edgarton was imprudent, 
but he desired that his horses should be well prepared 
for action. 

The extent of the line, and its consequent thin 
ness and lightness, together with the fact that it 
was attacked by superior numbers, was the chief 
cause of disaster. There is, of course, some contro- 
rersy whether the General Commanding or Major 
21 



242 BATTLE OF THE BIGHT WING. 

General McCook was responsible. The respective 
official reports afford data for a clear decision. The 
official report of General Kirk, by omission, seems to 
imply that General Johnson was not on the field. It 
is not likely that General Kirk intended to insinuate 
that idea. General Johnson was there constantly, 
and exposed himself fearlessly debouching from the 
forest with the remains of his reserve brigade, after 
his other brigades had been scattered. It has been 
said, likewise, that Willich s brigade was unprepared. 
The various commanders of the brigade dispute it 
staunchly, and the character of Willich, who is one 
of the most restlessly vigilant officers in the service, 
would go far to establish the claims of his subor 
dinates. 

The troops certainly fought with great obstinacy, 
but they were carried off their feet by simple mo 
mentum, and were kept rolling so rapidly by the 
swift-fighting enemy, that there was no opportunity 
for them to recover their equilibrium. " They were 
not whipped," said General Rosecrans ; "they were 
routed." That they were not beaten, is attested by 
the fact that two-thirds of the survivors rallied, and 
subsequently redeemed themselves to the extent of 
the opportunities afforded. Had the line of battle on 
the Right been rolled up to half its length, McCook 
would have held Hardee "three hours." The firm 
ness and steadiness of the men proves that conclu 
sively. IsTo troops ever displayed greater firmness 
and valor, and no officers ever devoted themselves 
more thoroughly. The conduct of General McCook 
was that of a cool, brave soldier. He exposed his 
person incessantly, and his horse was killed under 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 243 

him. His staff, in every way, showed themselves 
brave, faithful officers. But with his command shat 
tered to pieces almost hy the first shock, no opportu 
nity to do otherwise than save all he could was afforded. 
It is not the purpose of this volume to criticise 
or to censure any officer. The official reports may 
furnish sufficient data to critics. Yet it may be said 
of them, as of all official reports, that it is often diffi 
cult to sift true testimony from the abundance in 
official reports of that which is calculated to mislead. 
Ko officer will censure himself. All strive to tell the 
truth, but very few can avoid self-praise. And so 
many are apt to disparage or blame other officers, that 
it often requires information which the official reports 
do not embody, to adjust the truth of history. There 
is one point which no soldier can dispute. The Gen 
eral Commanding retrieved the fortunes of that day 
by his own skill and conduct, as he did the opening 
misfortune upon a subsequent day ; and, in short, 
with his valiant soldiers, won the victory. It is now 
time to glance at the morning operations of 

THE CAVALRY. 

The rebel cavalry was swarming on the Right, on 
the Left, and in the rear. On the Left they attacked 
a train and slaughtered -some stragglers. On the 
Eight they charged upon McCook s ordnance train, 
but it was twice rescued through the gallantry and 
address of his Ordnance Officer, Captain Gates P. 
Thruston, who subsequently, for his good conduct in 
that sanguinary battle, was promoted to the conspicu 
ous position of Chief of Staff of the Twentieth Army 
Corps, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Directly 



244 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 

in the rear, within two miles of the left front of bat 
tle, Wheeler and Wharton charged upon the General 
Hospital, and captured a large amount of stores, 
besides prisoners. Still further in the rear, they cut oft 
and destroyed several subsistence trains. Once they 
impudently charged a battery in the pike, which, 
however, was unsupported, but they were quickly 
driven from their trophy by Colonel Kennett. The 
latter officer had been detained at headquarters by 
General Rosccrans, but when the flood-gates of evil 
opened that morning, he was directed to collect all 
the cavalry at his command, rally the Eight Wing, 
and drive the rebel cavalry away. He found Colonel 
Murray, of the Third Kentucky Cavalry, with eighty 
men. Directing them to move to Wilkinson s cross 
roads, be proceeded to collect more of his com 
mand. The woods were filled with stragglers. Mur 
ray soon found the enemy in possession of one of our 
trains, and two hundred and fifty federal prisoners. 
He sounded the "charge." In a moment the gallant 
little squadron were riding the rebels down in every 
direction. The prisoners were rescued and the train 
recaptured, together with portions of two batteries. 
The enemy also had possession of General Palmer s 
.Division Hospital. Charging them with forty men, 
the rebel force fled, but Murray captured so many 
prisoners that almost his whole command was 
engaged guarding them. Twice more his little 
squadron overturned the enemy, and once dispersed 
Wharton s brigade. Altogether, they captured about 
sixty prisoners, rescued about eight hundred of our 
own men who had been captured, and saved a large 
part of the army train. 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 245 

The Third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel D. II. Murray, 
when the Eight broke, also made a handsome dash, 
and drove the enemy from MeCook s ammunition 
train. Subsequently they charged, saved the train of 
the Center, drove off the rebels, recaptured a hospital, 
and captured many prisoners under Colonel Kennett s 
eye. Two companies of this regiment were rallied 
by Colonel Kennett, who carried them into action, 
driving the enemy from the pike, recapturing a gun 
by a dashing charge, saving a train, and rescuing 
many of our men. Lieutenant Murray distinguished 
himself in this affair. Colonel Kennett himself had 
a hand to hand encounter with a rebel horseman. 
The result was doubtful. The rebel had poised his 
carbine, the Colonel had his pistol leveled, and both 
were about to fire, when Farrish, an orderly of Ken 
nett, threw his revolving rifle into the scale. The 
rebel delivered his arms and himself. In the charge 
of the Third Ohio, Farrish killed two rebels, and 
Jaggcrs, another orderly, rode down two gray- 
jackets, and released two of the Fourth Ohio Cav 
alry who had surrendered. 

Colonel Zahn, of the Third Ohio Cavalry, com 
manding brigade, had been fighting incessantly from 
the beginning of the disaster up to this period. lie 
was compelled to retire before the rebel infantry, but 
a charge of rebel cavalry was handsomely repulsed 
by the First Ohio Cavalry, Colonel Minor Millikin, 
and the Third Ohio Cavalry. Major A. B. Moore, of 
the former regiment, fell mortally wounded in this 
charge. The enemy charged Zahn twice in succes 
sion, and were again and again repelled. Zahn now 
went to the rescue of MeCook s ammunition train, 



246 BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING-. 

which was again in jeopardy. The enemy appeared 
in heavy force. After a gallant stand "by the First, 
Third, and Fourth Ohio Cavalry, Zahn was compelled 
to retire, the dashing Colonel Millikin and his Adju 
tant, Lieutenant Condit, heing fatally hurt. Millikin 
had been surrounded, but by his courage and his 
prowess with his saber, he cut his way through, and 
was escaping, when a rebel sharpshooter brought 
him down. There was no more gallant rider in that 
field. His sorrowing soldiers bore him to the rear, 
where he soon breathed his last, lamented by hosts 
of friends. 

Later in the clay, General Stanley moved up from 
Lavergne with the First Middle Tennessee, and a de 
tachment of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and 
assembled the rest of his available command to resist 
a movement of a strong force of rebel cavalry, under 
Brigadier Generals Wheeler, "Wharton, and Buford, 
on the extreme right, north of Overall s Creek. 
Colonel Minty s brigade of nine hundred and fifty 
men, constituted by far the larger part of Stanley s 
command. After forming, a line of dismounted cav 
alry was thrown forward to skirmish. The enemy 
outnumbering our little force nearly three to one, of 
mounted and dismounted men and artillery, advanced 
rapidly, drove in the skirmishers and attacked the 
Seventh Pennsylvania. The Fifteenth Pennsylvania 
gave way and retreated rapidly, leaving the dis 
mounted skirmishers and the Seventh Pennsylvania 
unsupported. They made a gallant resistance, but 
were forced to retire. Minty retreated across two 
fields, and formed again under cover of the enemy s 
artillery. The enemy followed sharply and con- 



BATTLE OF THE RIGHT WING. 247 

fronted our line with three lines, one opposite the left 
flank, with skirmishers threatening- the right. Gen- 
oral Stanley ordered a charge, and in person at the 
head of two companies of the Fourth Michigan, and 
fifty men of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania, supported 
by the Seventh Pennsylvania, he dashed headlong 
into the rebels, scattered the line threatening his 
flank, and captured one stand of colors, which a ser 
geant of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania wrenched from 
the hands of its color- bearer. At the same time, 
Minty charged the first line in front with the remain 
ing companies of the Fourth Michigan and the First 
Middle Tennessee, and drove the enemy from the 
field. The third line was formed on the opposite side 
of a lane with, a partially-destroyed fence on each 
side. Minty now charged upon it, and put it to rout. 
The enemy disappeared from that vicinity. This 
affair concluded operations on the Right. The reader 
will now be carried back to the Center. 



248 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

NEGLEY S Division in the Cedar-brakes Gallant Struggle of the 
"Old Eighth "Staunch Fighting of Miller and Stanley The 
"Twenty-Onesters " " Father " Moody Turchin s Regiment The 
Pennsylvanians Cutting their way out Van Cleve, Beatty, Fyffe, 
Harker The Charge "They fly ! They fly ! "Rousseau s Divi 
sion The Regulars. 

IT was hardly ten o clock when the Right Wing 
had been flung with such startling violence from a 
right line into an acute angle with the left, and in its 
rear. Exactness in the record of time in the tumult 
of conflict is impossible. In the midst of a hurricane 
when the good ship has sprung a leak, and the waves 
are breaking over her bulwarks, when all hands are 
piped to the pumps to save the sinking vessel, drown 
ing men are not apt to be critical in marking minutes 
as the dial records them. All that has been described 
and much more, occurred in marvellous swiftness of 
succession before eleven o clock. The blood of 
thousands of men had saturated the field of Stone 
River. 

General Rosecrans had hurled part of the Left 
across the field to save the Right; the lines had been 
readjusted, Rousseau had formed on Negley s right in 
his r&ir; St. Clair Morton s Pioneer Brigade had been 
flung into the gap between Rousseau s right and Vun 
Cleve s left, Harker had fought victoriously on the 
extreme Right of the new line, Sherridan,^cgley, and 
Rousseau had been driven out of the forest, Cruft, 
Hazen, and Grose had been fighting tremendously, 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 249 

"Wagner had repelled an assault, MendenhalPs and 
Loomis various Latteries had been distributed over 
the field, massed in the center, distributed again; 
Van Cleve, Harker, and the Pioneers had repulsed the 
enemy from the Right by eleven o clock at latest. By 
that hour the enemy were rolling back again upon the 
new line of the Right. It seemed late. It was a day 
of almost endless extension. Some hours have a dura 
tion of years. They seem to embody the aggregate 
of a life-time of mortal agony. Every moment was 
a death-struggle. Every second was a period to a 
brave man s existence. The battle raged ten hours 
thirty-six thousand seconds. Did not fresh blood flow 
every second? But to resume. 

THE SECOND DIVISION OF THE CENTER. 

While Sherridan was working out to the Murfrees- 
boro pike, face to face, the storm of battle rushed 
across the front of JSTegley s division the Second Di 
vision of the Center, but immortal as "the Eighth." 
When Sherridan carried his butchered column with 
his empty cartridge-boxes to the rear, it left ]STegloy 
exposed to the swarms on his right. Sherridan 
held the key to the Center until he had nothing to 
hold it with but cold steel. 

K~egley was deep in the forest with two valiant bri 
gades, almost surrounded by foes stern old Stan 
ley s and inflexible John F. Miller s. The one was 
proud to command Turchin s unconquerable $"iiic- 
teenth Illinois, now gallant Scott s, Given s Eigh 
teenth Ohio, Stoughton s Eleventh Michigan, and the 
Sixty-ISTinth Ohio ; the other to lead Sirwell s Seven 
ty-Eighth Pennsylvania, Granville Moody s Seventy- 



250 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

Fourth Ohio. Neibling s Twenty-First Ohio (" Twen- 
ty-Onesters"), and Hull s Thirty-Seventh Indiana 
with Shultz s, Ellsworth s, and Marshall s batteries. 
Rough- handed Spear, with his East Tennesseeans, 
was then chafing in the rear, guarding trains. 

JSTegley s troops, like all the rest, had shivered 
through the gloomy night without fires, cheerfully 
awaiting battle. With the onslaught upon the Eight 
Wing, the enemy began to feint upon the Center and 
Left Wing. But the wave of battle soon flowed upon 
them. Again the rebels advanced, in strong, deep 
lines. This was the fourth thunderbolt which had 
been hurled. The batteries open upon them when 
they fall in range. They waver a little, but beat back 
the resistance. Stanley s and Miller s men are under 
cover waiting. Caustic Neibling s " Twenty-One- 
sters" (Twenty-First Ohio) had cuddled under a 
friendly fence. "Keep cool, boys! steady now ! wait! 
When you fight, fight all over. Here they come ! 
!N"ow, Twenty-Onesters, give em hell by the acre ! " 
So, too, " Father " Moody, who wields " the sword of 
the Lord and of Gideon," glancing along his trusty 
Seventy-Fourth Ohio, shouted, in voice of thunder, 
" Now, my boys, fight for your country and your 
God aim low!" So Hull, and Sirwell, and Scott, 
and Stoughton, and Given, each with stern encour 
agement, poised their regiments, and drove the yelling 
foe clean back to their cover. Moody, as enthusiastic 
as a lad, sets his line to shouting. They roar lustily 
for the Union. The old hero is wounded, and his 
clothes riddled with balls, but he will not leave his 
"boys." A drafted soldier in ISTeibling s regiment 
raised a whole battalion in laughter by shouting to a 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 251 

few drafted comrades, "Let s give em hell, boys 
we ve only nine months to serve anyhow !" 

The enemy gather again. A furious conflict en 
sues. Negley keeps them at hay. They arc loth to 
charge again. Cannon and musketry is doing the 
work at square stand-up lighting. The rebels do not 
like this. The Yankees will stand longer under it 
than they can. Rebels excel in onslaught. Sherridan 
now uncovers the right of the Center. The enemy 
flow r upon it. A cruel cross-fire of musketry and 
artillery tears Negley s ranks to pieces. An aid 
reports that the enemy are in his rear. Veteran 
Thomas, who vigilantly watches and orders the battle 
in the Center, looks up surprised. Negley is alarmed, 
and cruelly disappointed. His soldierly pride revolts 
at a retrograde movement. There is no help for it. 
Thomas bitterly says, " Cut your way out." Negley 
desperately directs "Men, we must cut our way 
out!" The men clutch their weapons with fatal 
determination. John Miller is wounded painfully, 
but he w^ill cut his brigade through the foe. Stern 
Stanley gathers his stalwart battalions and prepares 
for desperate work. The enemy is advancing again 
in front. They are howling on the right and in the 
rear. Staunch Stoughton and young Scott clash out 
with the bayonets of the Eleventh Michigan and 
Nineteenth Illinois. The enemy fly from steel. The 
division is moving out of the woods. The foe roll 
back swiftly again. The " Twenty-Onesters " fix 
bayonets, the Nineteenth Illinois joins them on the 
right, and together they again clear the rear. 

This relieved the whole division of serious embar 
rassment. It forced its way out steadily, and carried 



252 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

its batteries, save five guns, safely from the front. 
Moody s clothing had been riddled by balls, and his 
right leg and breast were bleeding with wounds. 
Colonel Miller received a shot in the neck, but, bleed 
ing and smarting as he was, he remained at his post. 
Hull was badly hurt. Stanley (T. R.), though in the 
thickest of the fight from the opening until the close, 
was unhurt. The division lost heavily. The regi 
ments composing it robed themselves with honor. 
"When s"egley came out the enemy followed him 
fiercely, but he turned at bay, and-, together with 
Rousseau, gave them a bitter repulse. This was one 
of the most tremendous conflicts of the day, although 
where the whole field w r as so stubbornly and desper 
ately contested, it is hard to determine which was the 
most appalling struggle. When the glorious Eighth 
retired from the forest, its ammunition was expended, 
a third of its original force were hors du combat, and 
most of the artillery horses were killed. Every inch 
of ground over which it retreated was strewn with 
the dead and mangled. Like Sherridan s, this divi 
sion waded through the fire without breaking, and 
marched proudly among their companions-in-arn s to 
take new position. " My men," said brave MJler, 
" did not run, but marched to the pike, carrying nuany 
of our wounded." 

VAN CLEVE BEATTY FYFFE IIARKER. 

When llarker went across from the left to the right 
and formed west of the Murfreesboro pike, and when 
staunch Van Cleve double-quicked with Sam. Beat~y s 
and Fyffe s brigades to succor McCook, Price s bri acle 
remained on the extreme left guarding the ford t of 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 253 

Stone River, and was not fairly engaged that day. 
Rousseau, almost simultaneously, was sent into the 
forest under the eye of Thomas, on the right of Keg- 
ley. Leaving Harker on the crest of a hill, Wood, 
now guarding the left flank with his vigilant eye, held 
Ilascall in hand to support Wagner, who, in the grove 
on the left, withstood a vigorous battering from the 
hisrhts on the eastern bank of the river. 

T> 

Beatty, with Fyffe and Harker on his right, was 
hardly in position, when the masses of the enemy in 
their gray surtouts, resembling a fog-bank in the dis 
tance, appeared,rolling across the fields and through the 
timber in front a throng of fugitives from the Right 
Wing flying before them. The lines opened for the 
passage of the retiring troops, and upon closing, a 
withering fire was opened upon the enemy, whose 
advance was suddenly checked. The latter availed 
themselves of the trees and ridges for cover, and 
during some twenty minutes a murderous fire was 
sustained. During this conflict, the General Com 
manding, having returned from the front, massed his 
batteries in the Center upon the cemetery knoll. 
While watching the cataract of shells and shot that 
was hurled into the forest, his eagle eye descried the 
mass of gray tipping over the hill in front of Beatty. 
"It was at this juncture," said brave Van Cleve, then 
suffering from his wound, "that the Commanding 
General led a charge in person, which drove the 
enemy pell-mell to their rear." 

The terrific fire of the rebels had been sustained by 
the Xinth Kentucky and Nineteenth Ohio until their 
ammunition was almost expended. Beatty, unmoved 
by the tumult, effected a passage of lines, the Sev- 



254 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

enty-lSrinth Indiana and Eleventh Kentucky going to 
the front, the former regiments retiring and forming 
the second line, in support. It was they who, under 
the eye, and at the command of the Chief, had the 
honor to make that glorious charge. It was along 
their lines that Gareschd flamed like a meteor. It was 
here that Oilman, with drawn sword, Michler in top- 
hoots, Taylor on his superb hay, Skinner, and truly 
brave Thorns, the first time in battle, devoted and gal 
lant Father Trecy, Goddard, Simmons, Wiles, Kirby, 
Bond, Thompson, young Willie Porter, and Reynolds, 
Hubbard, Curtis, cool Barnet, and the brave orderlies 
of headquarters, first saw the backs of the enemy on 
that woeful morning. 

As the gray-backs went over the hill, a streaming 
line of steel, reaching from Beatty s left to Fyffe and 
Ilarker, gleamed in swift pursuit, and dead men 
marked the progress of slaughter. The chase ended 
only when the fugitive rebels reached reinforcements, 
a mile in their rear. 

While Beatty was holding the rebels in check on 
the left, FyfFe had taken position on his right on a 
ridge, and was making a vigorous fight against the 
obstinate efforts of the enemy to turn his own right. 
Ilarker already had his hands full, and his gallant 
fellows were almost staggering under the swift blows 
of the enemy. Fyffe looked anxiously for Harker s 
Sixty-Fifth Ohio to help him on his right, but Harker 
had enough work cut out for them. Fyffe s Fifty- 
Ninth Ohio and Forty-Fourth Indiana, meantime, 
were struggling against heavy odds with batteries in 
position playing upon them effectively, and there was 
no opening for a charge. There was no alternative 



BATTLE OP THE CENTER. 255 

but to stand and take the destructive storm. The 
enemy finally succeeded in getting upon Fyffe s flank, 
and he withdrew a short distance, under cover of 
Swallow s Battery. The Thirteenth Ohio, meantime, 
had been subjected to a fearful raking of musketry 
and artillery. Its gallant leader, Colonel Hawkins, 
had fallen, and it was now only a remnant, but was 
still fighting bitterly under Major Jarvis. At an order 
from Fyife to move forward they responded with rous 
ing cheers, and charged in glorious style, driving the 
enemy pell-mell through the woods. The noble fel 
lows had first smelled powder at Oarnifex Ferry. 
Their early training under " Old Rosy " was not now 
dishonored. They pressed the enemy home, almost 
side by side with their gallant Western Virginia com 
rades of old Sam. Beatty s Nineteenth Ohio. Fyffe s 
entire line dashed gallantly forward with shouts which 
soared above the uproar of battle. The enemy fled 
up the ridge, down the slope, across the fields, and 
halted only when secure behind their heavy reserves. 
Colonel Fyffe, in his official report commending the 
gallantry of the soldiers, said: " One of the skirmish 
ers, William Brown, of Company B, Fifty-Ninth Ohio 
Infantry, met me on the crest of the ridge, marching 
back through the line at the head of twenty-eight 
prisoners, besides two lieutenants, he had captured." 
This responsibility-taking fellow, like Paddy, had 
" surrounded " the knaves. 

Harker. like Fyffe and other gallant Brigadiers on 
that terrible morning, sometimes feared he was 
neglected. The Fifty-First Indiana, under Colonel 
Streight ; the Sixty-Fourth Ohio, Barker s own 
admirable regiment, under Lieutenant Colonel Mcll- 



256 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

vaine ; then the Thirteenth Michigan, under brave 
Shoemaker; and Hathaway s Seventy-Third Indiana 
regiment, in sharp succession, with Bradley s Battery 
covering all of them, withstood the shattering shock 
with the firmness of veterans. Each in turn was at 
front, but just before Beatty s charge they were con 
strained to fall back with the line on the left to cover 
their flank. Bradley s Battery had now lost so many 
horses that he was compelled to leave two of his guns 
in possession of the enemy. But Shoemaker, seeing 
the rebels waver under the hot musketry of the line, 
charged at the head of his Michiganders, and brought 
back fifty-eight prisoners and the guns in triumph. 
Meantime, Beatty and Fyffe had pursued the enemy 
too far. The latter rallied on their reserves behind 
some hastily-constructed breastworks, and rolled back 
again with increased numbers, but they had been so 
thoroughly whipped that they halted presently, and 
contented themselves by taking up position on a 
ridge, a half mile or more from the Murfreesboro 
pike. 

ROUSSEAU AND THE REGULARS. 

Rousseau s division had formed in the cedar-thick 
ets as soon as the extent of the disaster to the Eight 
Wing was ascertained. He was needed on E"egley s 
right to protect that officer s flank, and to relieve the 
retiring divisions of the Right. The Regular Brigade, 
Lieutenant Colonel Shepherd, at the head of the col 
umn, moved steadily into the thickets, and formed 
with Colonel John Beatty s brigade on the left, Scrib- 
ner s in close support. Directly a dropping fire, like 
the big drops which precede a storm, indicated the 
proximity of the euenry. Fugitives had embarrassed 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 257 

the formation of the line, and the throng increased. 
Johnson s reserve brigade, and the debris of several 
regiments, drifted back against his front, and Johnson 
forming in line, fought until his ammunition was 
expended. Sherridan, too, was relieved from imme 
diate pressure. But the enemy pushed hard. The 
gallant Regulars resisted with the staunchness of their 
professional esprit, and refused to yield an inch. 
Rousseau had vainly attempted to get his artillery 
into position. Loomis and Griienther, after vehement 
effort, found it impossible to plant a battery where it 
would be serviceable. The enemy were falling upon 
him in swift tumult. The hordes who were flooding 
the forests in front of St. Glair Morton awd Van 
Cleve, also swarmed around his right flank. The 
Regulars were suffering frightfully. Captain Bell, of 
the Fifteenth United States Infantry, as noble a sol 
dier as ever wielded blade, was killed; Captain York 
and Lieutenant Occleston, of the same regiment, fell 
severely wounded while fighting bravely with their 
commands, and scores of brave privates were sinking 
at every volley. 

Rousseau, discovering the unprofitableness of wast 
ing life in the thickets, at once gave orders to fail 
back to the open ground where the batteries could 
operate. The movement was hazardous, but neces 
sary. The conflict was raging upon all sides. ISTeg- 
ley was falling back. The enemy had flowed in 
behind Palmer, and Grose s superb brigade was beat 
ing them back, preventing them from crossing a 
swamp, which, from the sanguinary combats that 
were fought over it, gave it the title of " Hell s Half- 
acre." The Sixth and Twenty-Foiuth Ohio, under 
22 



258 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

young Anderson and Jones, here appeared fighting 
heroically. The enemy were plunging through the 
timber, evidently to break off the Center and repeat 
the battle of Prague, which they had so well begun. 
Rousseau himself, sword and hat in hand, blazed like 
a meteor along the lines, inspiring his men. Loomis 
and Guenther, with young Ludlovv, who for his hero 
ism was kissed in the heat of battle by gallant 
Charles Anderson, had rushed their splendid batteries 
to a crest on the open ground commanding "Hell s 
Half-Acre," and retained their souls impatiently until 
the infantiy escaped from the murderous cedar-brakes. 
But the Regulars, followed swiftly by the eager and 
ferocious enemy, who filled the forests with their 
infernal slogan, were compelled to fall back, loading 
while retiring, and turning to fire at their remorseless 
pursuers. 

There was scarcely time to seek an available posi 
tion for the entire division, but the Second Ohio, Col 
onel Kell, and the Thirty-Third Ohio, commanded by 
Captain Ellis, having been in the rear in support, had 
taken position in support of the batteries, and afforded 
good cover for the retiring troops. Thomas and 
Rousseau, by the exercise of skill, and through the 
steadiness of the men, finally posted them in a depres 
sion which commanded the debouch from the forest, 
and from which, after ferocious fighting, they were 
finally enabled to drive back the enemy with a loss 
which exceeded even their own horrible casualties. 
"In the execution of this last movement," said Gen 
eral Thomas, " the Regular Brigade, under Lieuten 
ant Colonel Shepherd, came under a most murderous 
fire, losing twenty-two officers and five hundred and 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 259 

eight men in killed and wounded, but with the co-op 
eration of Scribner s and John Beatty s brigades, and 
Guenther s and Loomis batteries, gallantly held its 
ground against overwhelming odds." It was here 
that chivalrous Rousseau sent word to Rosecrans that 
he had taken his stand. " Tell him," he said, " that 
I will stay right here. I won t budge an inch !" 

The rebels had spread through the forest and down 
the slight slope toward the depression in which Rous 
seau was formed, shouting like devils, and dashed 
forward as if the key of the position was at last in 
their grasp. But the batteries of Loomis and Guen- 
ther, vomiting double-shotted cannister into their 
masses with frightful rapidity, and the infantry aim 
ing low and deliberately, literally consumed their bat 
talions. The file firing of the Regulars at this point 
was fearfully destructive. The enemy fte\v back to 
the woods in haste. But new legions collected, and 
directly the enemy shot a column clean out into the 
open space in front. At this instant the battle was 
raging along the whole line. The rebels were yelling 
hideously in the thickets, our musketry was rolling in 
front in terrific volume, and the roar of artillery vied 
with the majesty of tropical thunder. It seemed as if 
the very elements were convulsed. Now the splendid 
charge, led by Rosecrans in person, was made. Our 
fellows raised a shrill clamor, which leaped from rank 
to rank, and thrilled along the lines in spirit-stirring 
harmony. Word was carried to Rousseau that the 
enemy were flying, and soliciting permission to 
charge, he, too, took the head of his valiant column, 
and led it, roaring with victorious rage, straight at 
the front of the enemy, drivng them wildly to the 



260 BATTLE OP THE CENTER. 

fastnesses of the cedars. His own gallant staff and 
orderlies captured seventeen prisoners, with a captain 
and lieutenant at their head, the remnant of the Thir 
tieth Arkansas Infantry, which had been blown to 
pieces by Loomis, Van Pelt, Guenther, and Ludlow. 
The desperadoes were taken within one hundred and 
thirty yards of the batteries. Loomis here lost twelve 
men killed and wounded, and thirteen horses. Here, 
too, the gallant Major Carpenter, of the Nineteenth 
Regulars, with six mortal wounds in his body, fell 
dead on the field; Major John H. King, of the Fif 
teenth, and Slemmer, of the Sixteenth, were disabled. 
Captain Dennison, of the Eighteenth, and George F. 
White, a heroic sergeant of the Third Battalion, lost 
their lives. Gallant Kell, Lieutenant Colonel com 
manding the Second Ohio, was also killed. The 
staunch Second Ohio, which at Chaplin Hills had 
won honorable fame, here had the good fortune to 
capture the colors of the regiment which the batteries 
tore to pieces. Among the heroic efforts of that san 
guinary day none surpassed in grandeur the valorous 
deeds which immortalized the splendid regiments of 
the Center. They came up out of that awful struggle 
wrenched and shattered, but even the tattered remains 
were an unconquerable host. 

THE LEFT WING. 

From the moment of the order from the General 
Commanding to suspend the execution of the plan of 
battle, when General Crittenden under his direction, 
sent Van Cleve to the Eight, General Crittenden had 
been constantly in the field, vigilantly watching the 
progress of battle on his own front. He exhibited 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. ^ 261 

perfect sang froid, and displayed just soldierly pride 
in the gallantry of his splendid corps. There had 
been a constant play of batteries on his wing", and 
Palmer s division was soon heavily engaged, Wag 
ner and Hascall, of "Wood s division, being assailed in 
rapid succession. The havoc among men and horses 
from small arms and artillery, and among officers 
from the murderous fire of sharp-shooters, was har 
rowing. 

PALMER S DIVISION. 

Palmer s division had retained its original forma 
tion Graft s brigade on the right, joining the left of 
Negley, braced and covered by a piece of timbered 
land, his left stretching to the eastward, toward the 
Murfreesboro pike. His front line was composed of 
the Second Kentucky and the Thirty-First Indiana 
Infantry, under Colonel Thomas D. Sedgwick, sup 
ported by the First Kentucky and the Ninetieth Ohio, 
under Colonel David A. Enyart, with Standart s Ohio 
Battery in half battery on either flank. 

Colonel W. B. Ilazeu, commanding Palmer s Sec 
ond Brigade, with the Sixth Kentucky Infantry and 
Forty-First Ohio in front, and on the right and left 
of the road respectively, joined Cruft on the left, the 
Ninth Indiana and One Hundred and Tenth Illinois 
Infantry in the second line, on the right and left of 
the road respectively. Hazen occupied a cottonfield 
in front of Cowan s "Burnt House" the Stone lliver 
Hngomout a point 6f most furious conflict in the 
successive struggles of the day. His right rested 
against a skirt of woods, the left lying behind the 
crest of a wave in the surface, which offered very 
doubtful cover, though the best the plain afforded. 



262 ^ BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

The enemy fought for the triangle which he defended, 
and which he was conscious should be held at all 
hazards. 

Colonel Grose s brigade was in reserve in rear of 
the interval between Cruft and Hazen ; the Sixth 
Ohio and Thirty-Sixth Indiana in front, the Eighty- 
Fourth Illinois, Twenty-Third Kentucky and Twenty- 
Fourth Ohio forming the second line, with Parsons 
Battery of the Fourth United States Artillery, and 
Cockerell s Battery, in support of the lines near the 
Center. 

CRUFT HAZEN GROSE. 

Soon after eight o clock General Palmer, receiving 
information that^egley was about to advance, ordered 
Cruft to move up, and Hazen to seize some command 
ing positions in his front, together with the "Burnt 
House." Before the order was executed the enemy 
had moved upon ISTegley, after driving back the 
Right Wing, and compelled him to retire his right, 
so that it was now oblique to Crnft s front. The 
panic on the Right had also cropped out in the tim 
ber skirting the Murfreesboro pike, so that the order 
for Palmer to advance was quickly countermanded. 
Hazen had not advanced over twenty yards, when, 
in obedience to orders, he fell back. The enemy 
having appeared in the rear of the Left, the necessity 
for a retrogade movement was apparent. Hazeii 
had barely got his two right regiments into position 
in the wood, when he begun o engage the enemy, 
who had broken cover over the crest in front in two 
lines, and dashed swiftly down to the "Burnt House." 
The two left regiments were retired about fifty yards, 
to a thinly-timbered elevation near the railroad. Tho 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 263 

enemy evinced great desperation in their efforts to 
cross the cottonfield and break Hazen s front, but 
the splendid firmness of his regiments repeatedly 
foiled them. The fighting was sharp and decisive, 
Haze u firmly holding his post of honor. 

General Crufthad hardly advanced a hundred yards 
when he was halted, and Palmer, riding toward the 
pike, discovered a mass of rebels swarming in the 
rear of his right. Grose skillfully changed front to 
rear, and was instantly engaged with the enemy in 
a bitter contest, and, after great mutual slaughter, 
drove them back. 

Meanwhile Cruft s skirmishers spread out, engaged 
the rebel skirmishers with fine spirit, and drove them, 
while his line gained a fence in his front. Directly a 
massive charging column of the enemy bore down 
upon him, and a tremendous combat ensued. The 
rebels charged with desperate abandon, but were con 
stantly hurled backward. The infantry fire of cm- 
line was awful, while the battery play of Standart 
seemed to swallow up whole ranks of the foe. Flesh 
and blood could not endure it. The enemy fell back 
rapidly to cover. Before Cruft s line was fairly 
readjusted for an advance, he discovered indications 
of another onset. Ordering his men to hold their 
fire, he waited until the enemy moved up within 
point blank range, and poured a terrific volley into 
their masses. The blow was staggering, but the fero 
cious rebels were determined to carry their point. 
Our own battalions had been hurled into other weak 
points with such masterly skill that they saw no hope 
of victory, unless they could break each line success 
ively. At this hour they were flushed with success 



264 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

on the Right, and were driving in the Center. Bragg, 
sanguine of victory, had recalled some of his victo 
rious legions from his extreme left, and was pre 
cipitating them, together with Breckinridge s large 
division, and portions of reserve commands, upon 
our Left. 

After a terrible engagement of nearly a half hour, 
the enemy were again rolled back upon their own 
position. The two gallant regiments in front, after 
a second display of almost unparalleled heroism, were 
relieved. General Cruft took advantage of a brief 
respite to effect a passage of his lines the First 
Kentucky, Colonel Enyart, and Ninetieth Ohio, Col 
onel Ross, going to the front. These two gallant 
regiments, under Enyart, advanced to charge, but 
the Ninetieth Ohio, was recalled, and the First Ken 
tucky charged alone, routing the enemy, and pursu 
ing them clean beyond the "Burnt House," and to a 
point within fifty yards of their line of intrench- 
ments. It was the most daring charge of the day, 
and but for the general conflict which raged all over 
that sanguinary h eld, would have been conspicuously 
distinguished. Enyart gathered up his little com 
mand, and began to fall back to his position. But 
the enemy, reinforcing from his reserves in the 
woods, burst upon the regiment and beat it back, 
with severe loss, to its position in line. The remain 
der of the line, with Standards, Parsons , and Cock 
erel 1 s admirably- worked batteries, and the heavy 
infantry fire from the line, checked the enemy in their 
career. 

But the capricious changes of battle had left Craft s 
right flank exposed to a cross-fire from the enemy in 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 265 

the woods. To retire was obviously a necessity. Re 
treat was impeded by confusion, caused by repulsion of 
brigades from other lines back upon his line of reced- 
ence, and artillery carriages retiring from his right 
obstructed the Held. Standards ammunition was 
decreased to an alarmingly short supply, and he was 
compelled to shift position to tight off the enemy. 
The men also had almost expended their ammunition. 
They had fired an average of fifty rounds each, or 
more. Cruft needed reinforcements, but did not 
receive them. They could not then be spared from 
other points. The enemy s fire seemed to envelop his 
whole line. Still he fought stubbornly, and held his 
ground long against fearful odds, but finally withdrew 
fighting. The Second Kentucky brought off three 
pieces, and the Thirty-First Indiana, one piece of 
artillery, of another division, by hand, which the 
gunners had been compelled to abandon, their horses 
having been killed. Miller s infantry, although their 
ammunition had about failed, had brought off two 
pieces of the same battery, so that none of it was sac 
rificed to the enemy. Standart saved his battery, with 
a loss of three men and seven horses, coming out with 
only sixteen rounds of ammunition. Cruft fell back 
to the pike, which he reached with about five hund 
red men, the First Kentucky, in falling back, hav 
ing been ordered to take a position on the left of the 
new line on the Right. After replenishing his cart 
ridge-boxes, Cruft took a position in support of a 
battery on the left of the pike. 

Meantime, the enemy persisted in his efforts to 
advance from the " Burnt House " across the cottonfield 
which Hazen had vacated. Wagner had shifted so 
23 



266 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

far over to the left to guard the ford, that a gap was 
open between the two brigades, and Hazen, until 
Hascall filled the interval, was practically on the 
extreme left of the army. The lighting here had 
been so incessant that the cartridge-boxes of the 
Forty-First Ohio had been emptied. Hazen dared 
not withdraw a regiment from his front, and had 
fruitlessly endeavored to procure ammunition. He 
sent for relief. The One Hundred and Tenth Illinois 
fixed bayonets, and the Forty-First Ohio defiantly 
clubbed their muskets in desperate determination to 
hold their ground at all hazards until reinforcements 
should arrive. The Ninth Indiana, commanded by 
gallant W. H. Blake, dashed over from the right with 
a shout, to relieve the Forty-First Ohio. In ad 
vancing to this position," said Colonel Hazen, " under 
a galling fire, a cannon shot passed through the ranks 
of the Ninth Indiana, carrying death with it, and the 
ranks were closed without checking a step." Again : 
"The Forty-First Ohio now retired with its thinned 
ranks in as perfect order as on parade, cheering for 
the cause, and crying for ammunition." A few well- 
directed volleys from the Ninth Indiana drove the 
rebels back to their cover, and the soldiers had a brief 
respite. 

A half hour later the enemy renewed their attack 
with increased vigor and bitterness, and succeeded in 
pushing a column in front of the " Burnt House" to 
the right in front of Cruft, whose brigade was then 
withdrawn. In this attack, it was the fortune of the 
Sixth Kentucky Union regiment to meet the Sixth 
Kentucky rebel regiment, and demolish them in the 
open field. Meantime, when Grose, in reserve, had 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 267 

changed front to rear to clear Palmer s right flank, 
his front line pushed forward about two hundred and 
fifty yards, and met an almost overpowering mass of 
the enemy. Both sides had opened fire upon observ 
ing each other, and were suffering dreadfully. Major 
Kinley, commanding Thirty-Sixth Indiana, soon fell 
badly wounded, and Captain Shultz, of the same regi 
ment, was killed, while dozens of men had fallen 
around them. Captain Woodbury immediately as 
sumed command of the regiment, and fought it skill 
fully thereafter. Colonel i^ick Anderson received a 
wound in his thigh, but did not leave his regiment 
until after the enemy retreated from Murfrcesboro. 
His Adjutant, Lieutenant Williams, and Lieutenant- 
Foster, of the same regiment, were soon stricken to 
rise no more, and it seemed that none of the brave 
Sixth would survive to bury its dead. The Thirty- 
Sixth Indiana, fighting stubbornly by its side, was 
bleeding at every pore. After a resistance of the 
most obstinate character, the gallant fellows were 
compelled to recede from the cedars. Parsons, Hunt- 
ingtoii, and Gushing, with their big battery and the 
supports, now took a leading part in the tragedy. 
After a terrible contest, they broke the enemy s 
ranks, and drove him, in confusion, to cover. A half 
or three-quarters of an hour later the rebels renewed 
their assault, but were driven back with severe pun 
ishment. 

The fighting at this point was frightful. The 
enemy were more numerous than the trees of the 
dense forest which covered them, and it did not seem 
possible to check their fierce advance. But our troops 
fought firmly, and were so effectually sustained by 



268 BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 

Parsons Battery that the masses of the enemy, 
unable to stand such slaughter, resentfully gave 
way and retired to cover. 

The withdrawal of Crnft intensified the assault 
upon Hazen, and in compliance with General Palmer s 
orders, Grose s brigade, which had beaten the enemy 
in their own front, changed front to rear again, and 
moved over to assist Hazen near the railroad. The 
Twenty-Fourth Ohio, Colonel Fred. Jones, and the 
Thirty-Sixth Indiana, Captain Woodbury, with the 
Forty-First Ohio, were posted on the left of the Ninth 
Indiana. The enemy rushed to this point ferociously, 
and a sanguinary conflict ensued. The mettle of 
Nelson s "man-of-war" division never shone more 
conspicuously. The lines refused to budge an inch. 
The men aimed low and fired deliberately. Gallant 
Fred. Jones soon fell, cheering his men, and was 
borne from the field gasping his last sigh. A little 
later and his brave successor, Major Terry, received a 
fatal wound. Captain Enoch "VVeller assumed com 
mand of the Twenty -Fourth. Parsons Battery again 
settled the fray. The enemy fell back to cover in a 
wood, but kept up such a sharp fire that Hazen was 
compelled to swing his right behind the railroad 
embankment. From this time onward until the par 
tial lull near noon, this staunch brigade was con 
stantly engaged, the enemy fighting from the wood 
in which they had taken refuge. 

HASCALL AND WAGNER. 

General Hascall s brigade was ordered from the Left 
to the Right by General Rosecrans in person, soon 
after Harker started, but owing to obstructions caused 



BATTLE OF THE CENTER. 269 

by the panic on the Right, which overflowed the road 
and the camp on the east side of it, he was compelled 
to halt. His brigade was moved from point to point, 
to render assistance, until General Palmer appealed 
to him for aid. Responding promptly, he sent down 
the Third Kentucky Infantry, and not ten minutes 
later, its gallant commander, Colonel McKee, was 
killed, and the regiment was badly cut up. They, 
however, maintained their ground unflinchingly. 
General TIascall moved at once, and took position 
on Hazeri s left, on the east side of the Murfreesboro 
pike. Wagner had occupied that position early in 
the morning, but when the Left was transferred to 
the Right, General Wood caused him to shift to the 
Left, to cover a ford of Stone River. Cox s Tenth 
Indiana Battery was posted in half battery on either 
flank. The brigade was in front of Breckinridge s 
main position, where it was vigorously assaulted, but 
the enemy were promptly repulsed. 



270 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

PREPARATIONS for Decisive Battle Readjustment of the Lines The 
Grand Battle Scene "Battle s Magnificently Stern Array" A 
Spectacle of Dreadful Splendor Destruction of Human Life Gar- 
esche s Death Hazen in the Trial Battle Hascall and Wagner 
The Field s our own. 

IN the middle of the day there was a comparative 
cessation of firing. The batteries ceased their thun 
der, and the sharp crepitating thrill of musketry was 
stilled, excepting the harassing bicker of the rebel 
sharpshooters, who, posted in trees with their long- 
range rifles, maintained a deadly fire. The enemy 
made a strong demonstration upon the Eight, but it 
was a feint. They had developed numbers superior 
to our own "five or six thousand," said plain-spoken 
Thomas. It seemed, from the latest developments of 
battle, that unless they exceeded us numerically in a 
much greater proportion, their next attack would be 
directed at the Left, General Rosecrans adjusted his 
forces for the shock which was to determine the fate 
of the day. We again retrace our steps a little to 
discover the situation. 

Rousseau and Van Cleve s advance having relieved 
Sherridan s division from the pressure, ^Tegley s divi 
sion and Craft s brigade from Palmer s division, with 
drew from their original position in front of the 
cedars, and crossed the open field to the east of the 
Murfreesboro pike, about four hundred yards in rear 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 271 

of our front line, where !N"ogley was ordered to replen 
ish his ammunition and form in close column in 
reserve. 

The Eight and Center of our line now extended 
from Hazen to the Murfreesboro pike, in a north 
westerly direction, Hascall supporting Hazen, Rous 
seau filling the interval to the Pioneer Brigade. 

^segley in reserve, Van Cleve west of the Pioneer 
Brigade; McCook s corps refused on his right, and 
slightly to the rear on the Murfreeshoro pike; the 
cavalry being still further to the rear, on the Mur 
freesboro pike and beyond Overall s Creek. 

Walker s brigade of the Center, consisting of the 
Seventeenth, Thirty-First and Thirty-Eighth Ohio, 
and Eighty-Second Indiana, which had been protect 
ing the rear at Stewartsboro until they were ordered 
to the front, came up about eleven o clock, and were 
temporarily assigned to General Sherridan, who posted 
them on the left of McCook s new line, in the forest 
which had been occupied by Van Cleve. Rude bar 
ricades were constructed on the right. Excepting 
sharp skirmishing, nothing more of importance 
occurred on that front, although batteries of the 
enemy interfered with communication on the pike 
south of Overall s Creek. The enemy also contented 
himself, during the afternoon, in making his Left 
secure by throwing up counter-defenses. Kirk s 
brigade, under Colonel Dodge, was moved down the 
river during the afternoon, to check an attempt of 
the enemy s cavalry to cut up our trains. 

After these dispositions were made, General Ros- 
ecrans was fully prepared for another assault. He 
waited not long. Bragg had withdrawn the heaviest 



272 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

portion of his Left "Wing, and, together with his 
reserves, now rolled them with mighty momentum 
upon the staunch Left Wing of Crittenden. 

THE GRAND BATTLE SCENE. 

Several heavy assaults made by the enemy to feel 
our lines, were successively repulsed; but about the 
middle of the afternoon a storm of appalling fury 
burst upon the Left. The majesty of great battle 
was in it. Disciplined hosts rolled upon disciplined 
hosts with hideous momentum. The crash was like 
the collision of two planets fire and smake visible, 
and crushing systems frightfully audible a spectacle 
of dreadful splendor. Each feature was sharply 
traced and clearly defined. The day was surpass 
ingly beautiful. Occasionally a shallow cloud soared 
away softly over the convulsion below, but the blazing- 
sun glared through the vapory smoke which expanded 
over the shocking field like a thin gauze, wafting 
lazily toward the South. The pomp of battalions 
in "battle s magnificently stern array," would have 
compelled the severe enthusiasm of J^apoleon. Long, 
deep lines of soldiers in blue uniforms, ranks piled 
upon ranks in dense masses, prostrate upon the undu 
lating field and in the woods, intersected and divers 
ified the surface in martial mosaic of matchless 
pageantry. From the funereal cedars on the Right, 
to the swelling brink of Stone River, it seemed as if 
the acres had been ruled out in long blue parallels. 
The "banner of beauty and glory," marking the 
place of regiments far as vision could stretch, waved 
proudly and defiantly above them, not a star dimmed 
or a stripe erased. Hardly had it soared so grandly 



THE BATTLE OF THE LEFT. 273 

before, and every great patriot heart that throbbed 
under it was " ever mindful what it cost." At inter 
vals bold figures of solitary horsemen, who now seemed 
magnified to heroic proportions, stood grimly and 
silent at tactical distance in the rear of their com 
mands faithful guardians of the soldiers resisting 
the shock unmoved. Shining targets, they, for the 
ruthless marksmen of the foe ! ! vain, sad sacrifice ! 
It thrills the soul with anguish to scan the record of 
that gory day. Garesche*, and Sill, and Roberts, and 
Shaeffer, Drake, and Williams, Forman, and McKee, 
Harrington, Hawkins, Kell, Stem, Wooster, Millikin, 
Cotton, the two Carpenters, gallant Fred. Jones, 
Terry, Pinney, brave Richmond, and so many name 
less heroes where are they all? The fallow fields 
and gloomy thickets of Stone River swallowed up 
their lives. 

" There shall weep for those who bled 

Many a loving heart and dear; 
For every drop of blood that s shed, 
There shall fall a Nation s tear!" 

Behind this magnificent panoply, our batteries, 
grouped in mass in the Center upon the crest of the 
knoll, or distributed over the field in unstudied pic- 
turesqueness, were enveloped in wreaths of smoke 
and spouting flames. Here and there striking clus 
ters of Generals and their staffs stood steadily under 
the withering battle blast. For a little while, Ros- 
ecrans and his staff, Thomas and his staff, McCook 
and his staff, Crittenden and his staff, met in splendid 
grouping the four commanders together, their field 
escorts radiating in semi-circle behind them a pre 
cious target for the enemy upon a wave in the field, 



274 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

in easy range of riflemen and shells. McCook discov 
ered the imprudence, and rather sharply ejaculated, 
" This is a nice mark for shells. They will come in 
here and kill half of us. Can t you thin out, men ?" 
Directly a flight of bullets, and a whizzing shell, 
chirruping like a gigantic cricket, impressed the 
admonition upon them all. Thomas glanced upon 
either side, and then turning to the front, solilo 
quized, with a sort of fine scorn, "I guess it s about 
as safe one place as another." Thomas and his alter 
ec/Oj phlegmatic and soldierly Yon Schroder, Flint, 
Mackay, Landrum, and others of his staff; Critten- 
den, with veteran Lyne Starling, Buford, Knox, Case, 
Brown, and Kniffin, took post on the flow of the 
ridge to the right of the pike, obliquely to the rear 
of the batteries of Guenther and Loomis. McCook, 
with Campbell, Langdon, iodine, Bates, Williams, 
Fisher, and Blake, were in the rear of the left flank 
of the Right Wing, behind Thomas and Crittenden 
Palmer and Wood careering over the field in the 
flame of conflict the latter sick and wounded, but 
sternly at his post. 

The hostile array in front imparted awful sublimity 
to the pageant. But for its tragedy, that gory field 
would have been wonderfully magnificent. It was a 
wild, tumultuous tournament a spectacle of martial 
art, as of carnage, whose lineaments were marvel- 
ously regular and perfect, as if it had been a pageant 
prepared for the eye of happy beauty and chivalry. 
But it was a fierce delirium, which swept thousands 
of human souls into eternity. 

The legions of the enemy poured out upon the 
plain in countless multitudes, firm, compact, and pow- 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 275 

erf ill. They resembled a mass of dense gray clouds 
moving along the surface, as you may see great banks 
of mist rolling through the valleys, or upon moun 
tain declivities. Their polished muskets gleamed 
like burnished brass, and their parti-colored battle- 
flags fluttered haughtily in the breeze. Their bat 
teries wheeled swiftly into position, and the gunners 
plied their hellish art. It seemed as if a wall of iron 
could hardly resist those somber columns. They 
marched to slaughter with magnificent daring, and 
met a wall of brave hearts that iron, and lead, and 
steel could not move. 

A hundred cannon now belched forth their thunder. 
The atmosphere was tremulous with the terrific 
vibration. The roar of artillery and the treble rattle 
of musketry, thrilling along the lines as if innumera 
ble keys of some harsh instrument trembled under 
the agency of terrible power; crash of solid shot and 
shell, whirl of grape and cannister, thick volumes of 
smoke which enveloped the combatants, and dispersed 
in a thin canopy of bluish vapor; dying men and 
mangled horses, dismounted cannon and shattered 
caissons, disabled in shocking diversity over the field; 
the frantic career of riderless steeds; the splendid 
sweep of Generals and their staff officers over the 
fearful plain, conspired to create a scene of indescriba 
ble and horrific sublimity. No human language is 
fit to depict it. It was all under the scope of vision 
the marching hosts, the magnificent tactical display, 
the dreadful panoply, the appalling destruction of 
human beings. 

The rattle of musketry tearing along the lines 
sounded like the noise of ripping canvas, when the 



276 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

black squall suddenly strikes the unprepared ship. 
In our own lines there was no voice but the voice of 
command. Men went down with fearful wounds, but 
made no outcry for men do not shriek on the field 
of battle. Dumb brutes neighed in their agony. A 
horse with leg torn away moaned with more than 
human pathos. Solid shot crashed through the bones 
of men and horses, and it seemed as if glass was 
being shivered. Steeds, riderless, frantic with anguish, 
wild with the furious tumult, were bounding over the 
field with desperate energy, seeking to fly from peril. 
Hundreds were torn to shreds. A single shell crushed 
through three noble beasts, and piled them in dread 
ful confusion under a shattered limber. A solid shot 
rebounded from a gun with a clang like a brazen bell, 
and carried away the head of a charger. Eighty 
horses were killed at a single battery. 

Excepting in the front line, where the men stood 
up with almost superhuman firmness, the troops were 
hugging the soil, prone upon their bellies. But even 
here the round shot of the enemy plowed through the 
ranks, tearing one to shreds here, another there ; 
yonder a man riven and scattered by six pounds of 
iron, so that scarce a bone was left to testify that 
there had been a man some blood, some gory strips 
of flesh, a few patches of sky-blue cloth ! Twenty 
men in a single brigade were thus annihilated. But 
scarce a man stirred from his position. Our heroic 
soldiers, steadfast and true, clung to their posts with 
almost unequalled fortitude and devotion. 

The slaughter of the foe was still more frightful. 
Hideous gaps were rent in their massive columns. 
You could track the course of a shell or round shot 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 277 

in the withering ranks. Still they careered to the 
front with a determination only matched by our own. 
A line of lurid flame incessantly leaped from their 
terrible front, and carried destruction before it. On 
the skirt of the thicket on the right they swarmed 
like legions of fiends. ~Now a column shot to the 
edge of the cedars on the right. Volumes of can- 
nister and musketry were poured into them. Then 
plunging back into cover, they rallied and surged 
again like great billows, vainly striving to reach our 
lines, until it seemed none would be left to charge. 
It was as if they were meeting the consuming flames 
of hell. In the cause of liberty and right, the daring 
courage of those desperadoes would have won immor 
tal fame. The brunt of this horrible assault fell upon 
Palmer and Wood. Hazen held the center of this 
front, and its key. Thorns, Thompson, and Bond 
were sent down repeatedly by the General to encour 
age those heroic soldiers in that destroying conflict. 

GARESCIIE S DEATH. 

In the midst of the horrid carnival, the General 
himself galloped to the left of the railroad to rein 
force a struggling line by the moral power of his own 
splendid example. Garesche, who had never left him 
since they had mounted in the morning, save to exe 
cute orders, was at his side. They were galloping 
through a tumult of iron missiles. An unexploded 
shell whizzed close by his leader, and the head of 
Garesch vanished with it. Sickening gouts of his 
brains were spattered upon his comrades, who turned 
in horror from the ghastly spectacle. The mutilated 



278 THE BATTLE OX THE LEFT. 

form of the hero careened gently over the saddle, and 
fell upon the field. The little prayer-book was in his 
pocket. Men would have imagined that this, at least, 
would have touched the mind of the Chief. He did 
not seem to observe it. His whole mind was intensely 
absorbed with the thought of conquering. Almost 
simultaneously another shell exploded in the midst of 
the staff, and brave Richmond, sergeant of the Fourth 
Regular Cavalry, fell. Then two of the escort. Then 
a fragment of a shell ripped across the side of youth 
ful Willie Porter. The General, totally unmoved by 
danger, still careered through the field. Garesch 
had been blown away from his elbow ; Kirby had 
been shot; Benton s horse was smarting with a 
wound ; Hubbard s snorted \vith the sting of a ball in 
his neck ; Taylor s was killed ; Porter s horse and then 
himself were struck; poor Richmond was mortally 
hurt; four or five of his escort and orderlies were 
stretched upon the field. Xo wonder Bond said to 
him, "General, do you think it right to expose your 
self so much? And the response! A regiment was 
lying down upon the field before him waiting to be 
called into action. Shot and shell were whizzing furi 
ously over them. The Chief dashed up to the line and 
addressed them : "Men, do you wish to know how to 
be safe? Shoot low. Give them a blizzard at their 
shins! But do you wish to know how to be safest 
of all ? Give them a blizzard, and then charge with 
cold steel ! Forward, now, and show what you are 
made of!" Bond had announced Garesche* s death. 
It seemed to occur to the General as a half- remem 
bered dream. "I am very sorry," he said; "we can 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 279 

not help it." A report that McCook was killed was 
communicated to him. He said, "We can not help 
it this battle must be won." 

Apparently unconscious of personal hazard and 
the shocking havoc around him, General liosecrans 
moved about unscathed, calm, and absorbed by the 
intensity of his own thought, with inflexible fixed 
ness of purpose deeply graven in his firm lips and 
brow. The field of battle where he rode that day is 
thickly sprinkled with the useless and exhausted 
implements of slaughter which vainly cluttered 
around him. Men can not look upon that plain to 
day without a shudder at his fearful escapes. 

Lessons in the art of battle were learned by vet 
erans on that field. The troops were handled with 
matchless skill. Lines upon lines were piled upon 
each other so compactly that even the awful momen 
tum and the ferocity of the rebel onslaughts did not 
shake them. Columns were hurled in solid ranks 
from one side of the field to the other extreme as if 
they were toys; or were flung into the face of the 
enemy as if it were a game playing. It is no grasp 
at rhetoric to describe the swift and steady evolutions 
of our brigades as perfect as the movements of a 
grand review. Thousands acquired an idea of the 
art of "handling masses," of which they never had 
dreamed before. It was a masterpiece of mental 
manipulation. 

HAZEN IN THE TRIAL BATTLE. 

To resume the thread of battle narrative. Hazen, 
Grose, ShaeiFer, Hascall, and Wagner s brigades con 
stituted the real battle front in the afternoon. Hazen 



280 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

had the key of the position. Shaeffer s brigade, by 
order of General Rosecrans, was put into action by 
General Sherridan on the right of General Wood s 
and left of Palmer s divisions, on Hazen s left. The 
Second and Fifteenth Missouri in the front line. The 
One Hundredth Illinois, Colonel Bartleson, had been 
sent to Hazen by General Rosecrans, and was posted 
in line with the One Hundred and Tenth Illinois and 
Ninth Indiana to the front, with the right resting on 
the railroad; the Second Missouri in the same line, 
with the remainder of Shaeffer s and Hascall s bri 
gades immediately on the left. 

"At about four o clock in the afternoon," said 
Hazen with graphic eloquence, " the enemy again 
advanced upon my front in two lines. The battle 
had hushed, and the dreadful splendor of this advance 
can only be conceived, as all description must fall 
vastly short. His right was even with my left, and 
his left was lost in distance. He advanced steadily, 
and as it seemed, to certain victory. I sent back all 
of my remaining staff, successively, to ask for sup 
port, and braced up my own lines as perfectly as pos 
sible. The Sixth Kentucky had joined me from the 
other side some time previously, and was posted just 
over the embankment of the railroad. They were 
strengthened by such fragments of troops as I could 
pick up, until a good line was formed along the track. 
* * * * rp} ie re o f ] ie troops was held until 
the enemy s right flank came in close range, when a 
single fire from my men was sufficient to disperse this 
portion of his lines, his left passing far around to our 
right." At the termination of that terrible fight, 
Hazen s brigade "rested where it had fought not a 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 281 

stone s throw from where it was posted in the morn 
ing-." Gallant brigade! and gallant leader! the 
"Old Guard" would have been proud to hail you 
comrades ! " Such heroic service rendered their coun 
try this day," said eloquent Hazen, "such heroic and 
daring valor, justly entitles these men to the profound 
respect of the people and of the country." The regi 
ments of that proud brigade, let it be not forgotten, 
are the Indiana Ninth, the Illinois One Hundred and 
Tenth, the Kentucky Sixth, and Ohio Forty-First. 
And side by side with them, Grose s unfaltering regi 
ments Nick Anderson s Sixth Ohio, gallant Fred. 
Jones Ohio Twenty-Fourth, Kinley s ^Thirty-Sixth 
Indiana, Hamrick s Twenty-Third Kentucky, Waters 
Eighty-Fourth Illinois an aggregate of one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-eight men when they 
marched from Nashville a thousand now. The rest 
bled upon the field. Over on the left the gallant 
Missourians fought until their cartridge-boxes were 
emptied again. Gallant Shaefter fell at their head 
the last of the brilliant trio of which dauntless Phil. 
Sherridan that frightful morning had been so justly 
proud. 

HASCALL AND WAGNER. 

Wood, with the solicitude of a gallant leader who 
knows his troops, had watched his brigade with the 
keen eye of a soldier from morning s dawn. Suf 
fering from illness, and smarting with a wound, he 
yet firmly kept his saddle, and proudly witnessed the 
effects of his own sharp discipline. Harker had been 
posted on the right, but that gallant and skillful offi 
cer was now resting in comparative security. He had 
assisted in repelling the enemy repeatedly, and his 
24 " 



282 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

shattered ranks rested while they watched the vigilant 
foe. Wagner had held his position "at all hazards," 
and Cox, with his battery, supported by the Fifty- 
Seventh Indiana, had emptied his caissons, and was 
making a second draft upon them. Hascall had 
moved down upon his right after he had repelled the 
enemy early in the morning, and was sustaining an 
almost overpowering shock when Wagner sent Lane s 
oSTinety-Seventh Ohio to his assistance. Breekin- 
ridge s troops, meantime, had crossed the river and 
advanced in masses upon Wagner. They were charg 
ing in full career, when Wagner, relying upon the 
pluck of his noble fellows, sent the Fifteenth Indiana, 
supported by the Seventeenth Indiana, to meet them 
in counter-charge. Meantime Cox s Battery, sup 
ported by the Fortieth Indiana, opened upon them 
with cannister. The steel of the Hoosiers and the 
iron hail of Cox was too much for the rebels. They 
fell back in confusion. 

After Hascall had sent the Third Kentucky to 
Palmer s assistance, the Twenty-Sixth Ohio, under 
Major Squires, was also sent forward, and took posi 
tion on the right in support of the former, Estep s 
Eighth Indiana Battery coming up soon after. The 
Third Kentucky had already lost its gallant Colonel, 
and the Twenty-Sixth Ohio was almost instantly 
brought into violent collision with the enemy. The 
Third Kentucky was reduced one-half, and its brave 
Major, D. R. Collier, soon received two severe wounds, 
but refused to quit the field. Adjutant Bullitt s horse 
was killed, and ten out of fourteen of the remaining 
officers of the gallant Third Kentucky were wounded. 
The Twenty-Sixth Ohio, fighting stubbornly, was also 



THE CATTLE ON THE LEFT. 283 

losing heavily. The enemy disregarded our artillery, 
and having pushed np in range of the small arms, 
their superior numbers proved destructive. But they 
were unable to advance further, and after nearly an 
hour of sanguinary combat, Hascall had the satisfac 
tion to see the enemy recoil, and almost simultane 
ously they staggered from Wagner s front. Colonel 
Buell, at the head of the Fifty-Eighth Indiana, mean 
time, had been sent by Wood to Palmer s assistance, 
where they materially aided in repelling the enemy, 
and subsequently relieved the Third Kentucky. lias- 
call now threw forward the risrht of the Sixth Ohio 

O 

regiment, which was on the right of the Twenty- 
Sixth, so that its fire would sweep the front of the 
Twenty-Sixth Ohio and Fifty-Eighth Indiana, and 
brought up Lane s Ninety- Seventh Ohio to strengthen 
the right still more ; Estep s Battery supporting the 
Sixth Ohio. 

Hascall galloped back and called the attention of 
General Rosecrans to the importance of his position, 
and the necessity of keeping it well supported. "He 
rode to the front with me," said Hascall, "approved 
the dispositions I had made, spoke a few words of 
encouragement to the men, cautioning them to hold 
their fire until the enemy got well up, and had no 
sooner retired than the enemy emerged from the 
woods and over the hill, and were moving upon us in 
splendid style and immense force. As soon as they 
came in sight the Sixth and Twenty-Sixth Ohio, and 
Estop s Battery opened upon them, and did splendid 
execution, but on they came until within one hundred 
yards of our line, and Colonel Buell, of the Fifty- 
Eighth Indiana, who had lost three men but had not 



284 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

fired a shot, ordered his men to fire. The effect was 
indescribable. The enemy fell in winrowa, and went 
staggering back from the effect of this unexpected 
volley. Soon, however, they came up again, and 
assaulted furiously for about an hour and a half, but 
the men all stood their ground nobly, and at the end 
of that time compelled the enemy to retire. * * * 
The regiments all behaved splendidly again, and the 
Fifty-Eighth Indiana won immortal honors. * * * 
The Sixth, Twenty-Fourth, and Ninety-Seventh Ohio 
did noble service. * * * The One Hundredth 
Illinois fought splendidly in all the actions which took 
place on the left of the railroad." This last advance 
ended the third assault upon Hascall, and left him 
master of the position. "To the fearless spirits who 
hazarded and lost their lives upon this consecrated 
spot, the country owes a deep debt of gratitude." 

While the third assault upon Hascall was progress 
ing, the enenry s skirmishers were discovered slipping 
down the opposite slope of Stone River, and working 
their way down stream for the purpose of gaining 
Wood s left flank and rear. Cox s cannister soon 
drove them back, but a brigade of the enemy crossed 
the river under cover of the woods three hundred 
yards from Wagner s front. He had onl}^ the Fif 
teenth and Fifty-Seventh Indiana with which to resist 
them, the Fortieth being hotly engaged near the rail 
road the Nintey-Seventh Ohio supporting Unseal!. 
Cox s artillery ammunition was nearly exhausted, and 
it was impossible to replenish. The enemy had cut 
up the trains in the rear, so that the situation was 
somewhat alarming. Wagner, relying on his infantry, 
determined to attack the enemv first. The stalwart 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 285 

Fifteenth Indiana again in the lead, the Fifty-Seventh 
supporting, moved boldly onward and engaged the 
enemy in a hitter contest. Colonel Hines and Lieu 
tenant Colonel Lennard, of the Fifty-Seventh, now 
went down, and were carried from the field severely 
wounded. Lieutenant Colonel "Wood fixed bayonets, 
and the Fifteenth rushed forward with a yell. The 
enemy broke, but the brave -Hoosiers killed scores of 
them, drove two other regiments in disorder from the 
field, and captured one hundred and seventy-five men 
of the Twentieth Louisiana regiment. Captain Cox 
sent the last shot in his locker into the routed foe. 
After the disabling of their field oificers, the Fifty- 
Seventh continued to fight without their officers, and 
participated in the glory of the brilliant combat. 
The Fifteenth lost thirty men killed and one hundred 
wounded in this single conflict. The enemy, dissatis 
fied with their effort, rallied and made a second dash, 
but Cox had found ammunition by this time. "Wag 
ner s line fell back slowly, fighting, until the enemy 
had advanced within cannister range of the battery, 
when both Cox and Estep let drive. It was a dose 
too much. The enemy, repeatedly repulsed on all 
their positions, resentfully retired, leaving Hazen, 
Hascall, and Wagner in possession of the position for 
which they had so heroically fought. Wagner, in 
closing the record of the day, congratulates himself 
proudly that he found his command, at the termina 
tion of the battle, " as far to the front as they were in 
the morning, and the noble dead of this brigade Iny 
nearer the enemy s position than that of any other." 
Had Wagner heard of the charge of Enyart s regi 
ment, he might have made one honorable exception. 



286 THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 



THE BATTLE DIES OUT. 

The afternoon was now far advanced. The last 
bitter assaults obviously had shaken the confidence of 
the enemy. Still they exhibited a sullen, resentful 
aspect. Heavy masses were again assembled in front 
of the center with a view to renew the onslaught. 
But our artillery played upon them so effectively that 
only a small force pushed to the range of our musketry, 
and they were speedily hurled back. A last expiring 
effort was made by their artillery, which opened upon 
our lines terrifically, but at sunset, with now and then 
a roar and a brazen sigh from howitzers, and the 
vicious crack of rebel rifles, the sound of battle died 
away into the silence of evening. 

"The day closed," said General Rosecrans, "leav 
ing us masters of the original ground on our left, 
and our new line advantageously posted, with open 
ground in front, swept at all points by our artillery. 
We had lost heavily in killed and wounded, and a 
considerable number in stragglers and prisoners ; also, 
twenty-eight pieces of artillery, the horses having 
been slain, and our troops being unable to withdraw 
them, by hand, over the rough ground; but the ene 
my had been thoroughly handled, and badly damaged 
at all points, having had no success where we had 
open ground, and our troops were properly posted, 
none, which did not depend on the original crushing 
of our Right and the superior masses which were, in 
consequence, brought to bear upon the narrow front 
of Sherridan s and JSTegley s divisions, and a part of 
Palmer s, coupled with the scarcity of ammunition, 
caused by the circuitous road which the train had 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 287 

taken, and the inconvenience of getting it from a 
remote distance through the cedars." 

Excepting the tranposition of regiments which had 
fought three and four hours each in the front line 
without intermission, there was little change in the 
positions of the troops that night. The noble fellows 
were too weary to be tortured by unnecessary labor. 
The battle which had begun at "six twenty-two 
o clock in the morning," was suspended at about five 
o clock in the evening. 

The dauntless deportment of the troops and the 
fidelity of their officers was beyond all praise. The 
men exhibited unconquerable spirit, obeyed orders 
with alacrity and precision, withstood the appalling 
assaults of heavy masses of the enemy, and the fury 
of their destructive artillery with unflinching plucki- 
ness and determination. When ordered to charge, 
they moved to obey with wild, cheerful clamor; 
when forced to recede, they gave ground slowly, and 
bitterly contested it inch by inch. But for the mis 
fortune that befell the Right Wing which was in no 
sense the fault of the soldiers, for they were as stub 
born, as firm, and as thoroughly disciplined as those 
of the Center and Left Wing Bragg s army would 
have been crushed as if between the upper and the 
nether mill-stones. The raw troops that day proved 
themselves worthy comrades of the veterans. They 
fought with a vehemence and staunchness that aston 
ished the best soldiers. Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Wis 
consin, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Pennsylvania, and the Regulars, vied w r ith each other 
in deeds of noblest heroism. The fair fame of no 
State, no division, no brigade, no regiment, no com- 



THE BATTLE ON THE LEFT. 

pany, distinctively, as such, was tarnished by dis 
graceful conduct. 

True, there were cowards; but in such numbers there 
must be some who lack moral firmness to endure, 
more than they lack physical courage to fight. Many 
straggled to the rear because their officers were killed. 
Others in the rout of the Eight lost sight of their 
regiments and officers, and after being thus separated 
were too much discouraged to seek them again. Per 
haps three thousand straggled and went to the rear. 
Colonel Burke, with the noble Tenth Ohio, stretched 
a line of bayonets across the country at Stewart s 
Creek and intercepted the retreat of hundreds. But 
three thousand stragglers from a volunteer army of 
forty-three thousand men, one third of which were 
new troops, is not a large proportion. But when men 
lose sight of their officers involuntarily, straggling is 
a necessary and inevitable consequence, and they are 
hardly culpable for going to the rear. 



"WE FIGHT OR DIE HERE." 289 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

AFTER the Conflict Headquarters Consultation of Generals A 
Gloomy Night Decision of the Commander-in-Chief Our Losses 
The Personal Influence of General Rosecrans in Battle Orders 
for January 1st The Heroism of the Soldiers The Medical Staff. 

" Come one, come all, this rock shall fly 
From its firm base as soon as I." 

WHILE the battle was raging, the General Com 
manding, constantly followed by his faithful staff, was 
galloping to every part of the field. So when it had 
subsided, when his escort were almost ready to drop 
from their saddles with fatigue, he again rode over 
the ground to make his observations for future dispo 
sitions. There were no indications going to impress 
his mind that Bragg contemplated withdrawal. On 
the contrary the partial success he had met during the 
day confirmed a general impression that the enemy 
would renew their efforts on the morrow. The 
advantage was with them. They had driven the 
Right and Center, and part of the Left from their 
positions, captured many guns and prisoners, and as 
it subsequently appeared, they inferred from this and 
from the equally important fact that they had cut off 
our trains and communication, that Rosecrans would 
endeavor to fall back upon Nashville. How little 
they comprehended the man! 

Headquarters were finally established in a little 
25 



290 

cabin on the right of the road, within six-pounder 
range of the rebel front. The Generals of the army 
assembled at night to confer with the General Com 
manding. Many of them were despondent. Some 
advised a withdrawal. " Communication is cut off, 
they said ; " some of the troops have no subsistence." 
The General Commanding, looking up sharply, said 
caustically, "We may all have to eat parched corn 
before we get out of this." The views of each officer 
were not recorded. General Thomas did not advise 
retreat. General Crittenden pluckily insisted that 
" we can whip them," and desired to go on with 
the Left Wing movement into Murfreesboro. After 
learning the opinions of his Generals, the Chief 
mounted and rode to the rear. 

After diligent examination of the country he con 
cluded that if forced to fall back he could make a 
firm stand on the high south bank of Overall s Creek. 
But he entertained no thought of retiring. His con 
stancy was unshaken. He was immovably firm. He 
put his trust in God, relied upon his stubborn bat 
talions and resolved to conquer. Hiding back to 
headquarters, he said, with startling emphasis: "Gen 
tlemen, we fight or die right here." 

To appreciate the dramatic effect of this grave con 
sultation of heroes, the reader must enter deepty into 
the spirit of the occasion. No pen can portray the 
situation. The day had begun in dreadful disaster, and 
the sun declined upon a spectacle of dreadful splen 
dor. Seven thousand gallant men had fallen during 
ten hours. Regiments had lost, some their Colonels, 
some all their field officers, and half or more of their 
company commanders. Some had lost three-fourths 



" WE FIGHT OR DIE HERE." 291 

of their officers. Johnson s two best Brigadiers were 
gone, Sherridan s three were dead. Able Wood was 
disabled. So was skillful Van Cleve. Ten Colonels, 
ten Lieutenant Colonels, and six Majors were either 
dead, captured, or wounded. Sherridan alone had 
lost seventy-two officers. The Regular Brigade, four 
teen hundred strong the morning of that frightful 
day, had lost twenty-two most valuable officers and 
five hundred and eight disciplined, valiant, trusty 
soldiers. Almost two-thirds of the battle-field, almost 
one-fifth of our artillery, were in the hands of the 
enemy. Communication was in a measure cut off 
from Nashville. Some of the subsistence trains had 
been destroyed, and the weary, hungry soldiers, who 
marched and fought on Friday, Saturday, Monday, 
Tuesday, bloody Wednesday, and who had slept or 
watched shivering in the bleak November atmos 
phere Monday and Tuesday nights without fires, 
were now without food, sleeping again without fires. 
Artillery ammunition was scant, and it was extremely 
doubtful if more could be forced through the clouds 
of rebel cavalry that hovered upon the single thread 
of communication with the base of supplies. 

No wonder the hearts of men sunk under the op 
pressive weight of adverse fortune. It required sub 
lime trust in Providence and in his own unconquera 
ble will, for the inflexible Leader of that shattered 
army to say, with the self-reliant eloquence which 
only they who realized the gloom of that dreary night 
can appreciate, " we found that we had ammunition 
enough for another battle the only question being 
where that battle was to be fought." There was 
magnificence in the response which flowed from his 



292 " WE FIGHT OH DIE HERE." 

Generals. "When he pronounced, " "We fight or die 
right here," "every one of my officers," said he and 
he raised upon his elhow in a "bed of sickness, his eyes 
flashing and his pointed finger tremulous with the 
enthusiasm which roused his soul, " I will say this of 
all my officers that however advisable some of them 
regarded retreat every one of them expressed the 
greatest alacrity to carry out my purposes, and they 
obeyed my orders cheerfully not a man of them 
objected or hesitated." " General," said one of them, 
alter the decision had been pronounced, " I did not 
know you were so game a man." The soldiers had 
discovered it, and with quick instinct put their trust 
in him. "We saw you," they said; "We ll fight 
with you!" 

It seems superfluous to record the judgment here, 
but the point may be justly made. The great indis 
putable feature of this day s battle, standing out 
clearly as the sun in the heavens, was that General 
Rosecrans, by his masterly skill, by his dauntless per 
sonal courage, by his perfect self-possession under the 
most trying circumstances, by his persistent and tena 
cious efforts, and finally, by the greatness of his moral 
example, saved the army from ruin, and converted 
disaster into final triumph. 

The history of this memorable day is a historj 7 of 
his incessant exertions, personal example, and self- 
reliance. Men can not forget the great valor of the 
forty odd thousand nameless braves who stood man 
fully, with more than manly fortitude, shoulder to 
shoulder, through ten dreadful hours of havoc and 
death, but they can not be identified. But to him to 
whom defeat would have been endless misfortune, and 



293 

who was imminently in danger of being victimized 
by want of skill in others, whom he was compelled 
to trust, men are in justice bound to pay fair tribute. 
There is not a soldier in his great army who does not 
bear testimony that he personally retrieved the for 
tunes of that disastrous day. Without his directing 
mind, without his personal example, without his 
inflexible persistence and tenacity, overwhelming 
catastrophe was inevitable. The lines had been 
broken at every point on the Right. The Center, 
under ISTegley, struggling fiercely, must be swallowed 
up, the Left and all would be gone, unless the 
destroying tide could be stayed. I^o man could do 
it save he, though all were fighting manfully. His 
tory will indorse this record, let the heroism and sol 
dierly character of Thomas, McCook, Crittenden, 
Wood, Sherridan, Davis, Keglcy, Van Gleve, John 
son, Rousseau, Palmer, Hazen, Hascall, and the dead 
Sill, and Sbaeffer, Roberts, and other brilliant names, 
shine with such glowing luster as they should, let 
their services be valued as highly as they ought. 

This tribute of justice detracts not an iota from 
any of his commanders. Thomas is not diminished, 
in the estimation of his countrymen, who proudly 
revere him as the "true and prudent, distinguished in 
council, and on many battle-fields." McCook is none 
the loss esteemed because Rosecrans excels; Critten- 
den s fame is not tarnished because that of the Chief 
tain of the army is more conspicuous. Wood, and 
Sherridan, and Davis, and Johnson, and ^N"egley, and 
Palmer, and Rousseau, and Van Cleve, are none the 
less skillful, not less admired, because the soldiers of 



294 "WE FIGHT OR DIE HERE." 

the army, who decide for themselves, adjudge that 
Rosecrans is more than master of his profession. 

ORDERS FOR JANUARY FIRST. 

But that night s consultation resulted in arrange 
ments for the morrow. "Orders were given," said 
the General, "for the issue of all the spare ammuni 
tion, and we found that we had enough for another 
battle, the only question being where that battle was 
to be fought. 

"It was decided, in order to complete our present 
lines, that the Left should be retired some two hund 
red and fifty yards, to more advantageous ground, the 
extreme left resting on Stone River, above the lower 
ford, and extending to Stokes Battery. Stark 
weather s brigade, arriving near the close of the 
evening, bivouacked in close column, in reserve, in 
the rear of Me Cook s left. 

"After careful examination, and free consultation 
with corps commanders, followed by a personal exam 
ination of the ground in the rear, as far as Overall s 
Creek, it was determined to await the enemy s attack 
in that position, to send for the provision train, and 
order up fresh supplies of ammunition, on the arrival 
of which, should the enemy not attack, offensive oper 
ations should be resumed." 

McCook s corps was already disposed Davis on 
the right, Sherridan joining him on the left, Johnson 
in reserve; Walker s brigade constituting Sherridairs 
left, and ordered to relieve Van Cleve in the morning. 
Thomas was to remain in statu quo. Crittendeii 
reunited his command, bringing them all together on 



295 

the left of the turnpike, and took up a new line of 
battle, about five hundred yards to the rear of the 
former line; Ilascall s division rested their right on 
the position occupied by Stokes Battery, and his left 
on General Palmer s right; General Palmer rested his 
left on the ford, his right extending toward the rail 
road, and perpendicular to it, thus bringing the line 
at right angles to the railroad and turnpike, and 
extending from Stokes Battery to the ford. 

THE SOLDIERS. 

The jaded troops lay down upon their arms that 
night, many of them where they had fought. It was 
cold and dreary, and no fires were permitted in front, 
but there was no murmur of discontent. The moral 
aspect of that cheerless bivouac was sublime. " When 
I witnessed the uncomplaining soldiers in their dreary 
bivouac ; when I saw them parch corn over a few 
little coals into which they were permitted to blow a 
spark of life; when they carved steaks from the loins 
of a horse which had been killed in battle, and ate, 
not simply without murmuring, but made merry over 
their distress, tears," said heroic Rousseau, " involun 
tarily rolled from my eyes." Subsequently said Rous 
seau, "Day and night in the cold, wet, and mud, iny 
men suffered severely ; but during the whole time I did 
not hear one single murmur at their hardships, but all 
were cheerful, and ever ready to stand by their arms 
and fight. Such endurance I never saw elsewhere." 
This eloquent testimony applied to the whole army. 
Some of the divisions, however, were fully supplied; 
Wood s certainly, for that true soldier took care to 



296 

replenish the haversacks of the men on the eve of 
battle. 

THE MEDICAL STAFF. 

The battle-field was strewn with the wounded. 
Doctor Swift, the able Medical Director of the army, 
most efficiently aided by Doctor Beebe, Doctor Phelps, 
Doctor McDermot, and Doctor James, his Chiefs of 
Corps, together with the noble division, brigade, and 
regimental Surgeons, exerted their utmost power to 
remove all the sufferers as quickly as possible from 
the field to the hospitals. Doctor Swift was often 
in the flame of battle. Doctor James was in the very 
forefront when the enemy bore down upon Stokes 
Battery. But few flinched from duty three in the 
entire staff of surgeons, who shall be nameless now. 
Said General Rosecrans officially : 

"The ability, order, and method exhibited in the 
management of the wounded, elicited the warmest 
commendation from all our general officers, in which 
I most cordially join. Notwithstanding the numbers 
to be cared for, through the energy of Doctor Swift, 
Medical Director, ably assisted by Doctor Weeds and 
the senior Surgeons of the various commands, there 
was less suffering from delay than I have ever before 
witnessed." 

There is not one word of exaggeration in this, and 
if the enemy had not destroyed the General Hospital, 
both our wounded and their s who fell into onr hands, 
would have been still more comfortably provided. 
God knows there was great suffering. Let this suf 
fice. " It is not needful to sound the stream oi blood 
in all its horrid depths." 



NEW YEAR S DAT. 297 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE First Day of January, 1863 Rain Change of Division and Bri 
gade Commanders Position of Divisions Van Cleve s Division 
Crosses Stone River Demonstrations by the Enemy The Regulars 
Doublc-Quick to Stewart s Creek and back The Brilliant Affair of 
Colonel Innis and his Michiganders at Lavcrgne Colonel J. W. 
Burke and the "Bloody Tenth" A Trying New Year s Day Effect 
of Wednesday s Reverse at Nashville A Rebel Woman on the 
House-Top. 

AFTER midnight it rained upon the soldiers. They 
were thoroughly saturated, and in a few hours the 
bivouacs were masses of mud. Fortunately the army 
was not harassed by serious alarms on the picket 
lines. Long before daylight the new line was ad 
justed, and the troops stood at arms. General Rose- 
crans waited developments. It was not his policy to 
force a renewal of the engagement until his stores 
wore replenished. 

Generals Wood and Van Cleve, though wounded 
early in the battle of Wednesday, remained in the 
field until its close. They Avere now unfit for duty, 
and repaired to Nashville. Brigadier General Has- 
call succeeded the former, and Colonel Samuel Beatty 
relieved the latter; Colonel George P. Buell taking 
Hascall s brigade, Colonel Ben. C. Grider, of the 
ISTinth Kentucky, assuming command of Beatty s bri 
gade. Walker s brigade relieved Van Cleve s division, 
Starkweather s subsequently taking position on the 
left of the latter. General Crittenden, in pursuance 



298 

of orders, sent Beatty across Stone River at three 
o clock in the morning, to hold the hill overlooking 
the river at the upper ford, a mile below the railroad 
bridge in front of Murfreesboro ; Colonel Price, com 
manding the Third Brigade, crossed in advance, fol 
lowed by the Second Brigade, Colonel Fyfie command 
ing. The brigades formed in two lines, the right 
resting on high ground near the river, east of the 
ford, the left thrown forward. Grider s brigade was 
formed near the hospitals, to protect the left flank. 
Lieutenant Livingston s Third Wisconsin Battery 
crossed the river and took up position on the rising 
ground in front of Fyffe. The infantry were con 
cealed by lying down. The enemy s skirmishers 
appeared in front, but Livingston dispersed them by 
flinging a few shells at them. Grose s brigade, how 
ever, crossed to support Beatty, but subsequently, 
with Livingston s Battery, was withdrawn. 

Wood s division was withdrawn by Hascall to a line 
about five hundred yards in rear of the position occu 
pied the previous clay. The line was now nearly at 
right angles with the railroad, Buell s brigade on the 
right, Harker in the center, Wagner on the left. 
Excepting some sharp skirmishing on Harker s and 
Wagner s fronts, which was finally ended by Bradley 
and Cox freely using shell and spherical case shot, 
Hascall s division was comparatively quiet during the 
day. Palmer s division also rested in battle-order, 
excepting Grose s brigade, which was sent across the 
river to support Beatty s division. Repeated attempts 
were made by the enemy to advance upon the Center, 
but the3 r were foiled by Guenther s and Yan Pelt s 
Batteries. Morton s Pioneer Brigade once repulsed 



NEW YEAR S DAY. 299 

them severely. The Regular Brigade was ordered up 
to meet an attack on McCook s front, and subse 
quently was sent to Stewart s Creek. When nearly 
there it was ordered back at double-quick time, but 
upon its return it went into bivouac near headquar 
ters. Scribner s brigade was withdrawn to the rear 
early in the morning to prepare their rations. Before 
the famishing fellows got ready, an alarm caused a 
stampede among some teamsters near their camp, and 
a skirmishing flurry on Stone River compelled them to 
take arms. A little later the disappointed troops were 
marched up to the front again to meet a threatened 
attack. s"egley s division was hurried off to McCook s 
right in the afternoon to meet a strong demonstration 
on that front. His troops bivouacked there that night. 
Bradley s brigade made a dash and captured eighty- 
five prisoners. Walker s brigade was constantly har 
assed by pickets, and the enemy incessantly menaced 
his front. Church s Battery signalized itself by its 
effective gunnery, but the gallant veteran brigade, 
which had been at many combats and several battles, 
did not have the fortune which it craved, of showing 
its mettle in a grand battle. At eight o clock that 
evening they made a successful reconnoissance, exhib 
iting great gallantry. At about two o clock a strong 
demonstration was made by the enemy at the extrem 
ity of a field, a mile and a half from the Murfreesboro 
pike, but the presence of Gibson s brigade with a bat 
tery, occupying the woods near Overall s Creek, and 
Xegley s division, and a portion of Rousseau s, pre 
vented a serious collision. The harassments of the 
day ended with a demonstration upon Walker s front. 
The casualties this day were not numerous. 



300 NEW YE All s DAY. 



BRILLIANT AFFAIR AT LAVERGNE. 

The Michigan Regiment of Mechanics and Engi 
neers, Colonel Innis commanding three hundred 
and ninety-one officers and men had been posted at 
Lavergne, midway between Nashville and Murfrees- 
boro, to protect communication. Colonel Innis took 
position on the hights in rear of the hamlet, and con 
structed a flimsy barricade of cedar brush for the 
protection of his little garrison. "Wheelers rebel 
cavalry, after destroying several trains upon the road, 
appeared in front of Innis at two o clock with a force 
of three thousand men and two pieces of artillery. 
A iiag of truce was sent in, demanding a surrender. 
Innis replied with more vehemence than piety, "Tell 
General Yv r heeler I ll see him d d first. We don t 
surrender much ! Let him take us." W 7 hereon the 
rebels essayed. A daring officer, galloping at full 
speed in front of the first column of attack, called 
upon the garrison to surrender. A bullet pierced his 
breast. His command charged gallantly. Wheeler 
opened his artillery. The little garrison defended 
themselves manfully. The rebel horsemen dashed 
against the flimsy barricades with admirable spirit. 
The trusty rifles of the Michiganders destroyed them. 
The column recoiled into the adjacent thickets. Their 
commander sent another flag of truce, demanding 
surrender. a See him d d first," said Innis, curtly. 
The desperadoes rolled up again with thundering 
force. The steady Michiganders hurled them back 
again. A third assault was foiled; then a fourth; 
then a fifth. The rebel General sent another flag of 
truce, explaining that his numbers were overwhelm- 



NEW YEAR S DAY. 301 

ing, and demanding surrender to spare useless effusion 
of blood. Innis lost liis temper, told the flag officer 
to "go to the d 1," and requested him to warn Gen 
eral Wheeler to send no more flags. He "would fire 
upon them if he did." The enemy charged more 
vehemently than before, and were again beaten off". 
They organized a seventh attack in heavy force, and 
thundered up the hill in a fury of passion. The gallant 
little garrison sent them reeling back again. Wheeler 
withdrew out of musket range, and sent in his flag 
asking permission to collect his dead and wounded. 
"Tell General Wheeler," said Innis, "that he is wel 
come to everything he can take beyond the range of 
my muskets. We ll take care of the wounded and 
dead who are under our guns." 

THE " BLOODY TENTH." 

Meantime, Innis had sent a swift messenger to 
Colonel Burke at Stewartsboro, five miles south, to 
come and help him. Gallant Burke gathered part of 
his sturdy Irishmen the "bloody Tenth" and raced 
up the road with all the speed of eager soldiers. The 
fighting fellows whose wild clamor had startled the 
echoes of the Gauley Mountains at Caruifex, and 
whose comrades were thickly strewn over the green 
hills of Perry ville, stretched out their brawny legs, and 
stalked along the pike with eager energy. They had 
held their own post defiantly, rescued captured trains, 
drove the enemy from their front, but could get no 
fight. They were after one now, swiftly and hotly. 
"I never," said the gallant Burke, "saw fellows so 
disappointed. When we got to Lavergne, Innis had 
whipped the enemy, and we had no fight ! " The 



302 

General Commanding did not forget their spirit. 
Subsequently in his official report, he said : " The 
Tenth Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, at Stewart s 
Creek, Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Burke commanding, 
deserves especial praise for the ability and spirit with 
which they held their post, defended our trains, 
secured the rear, chased away Wheeler s rebel cav 
alry, saving a large wagon train, and arrested and 
retained in service some two thousand stragglers from 
the battle-field." So of the valiant Michiganders he 
said: a The First Regiment of Michigan Engineers 
and Mechanics, at Lavergne, under command of Col 
onel Innis, fighting behind a slight protection of 
wagons and brush, gallantly repulsed a charge from 
more than ten times their number, of Wheeler s 
Cavalry. 7 Not the least pleasing feature of these 
developments of soldierly spirit, was the generous 
enthusiasm with which Innis expressed his admiring 
obligations to Burke and the "Bloody Tenth." 



The rebels, however, succeeded in harassing our 
rear to an embarrassing extent, destroying trains, 
capturing squads of troops whom they paroled and 
released, being unable to escort them to their own 
lines. Several wounded officers who were retiring to 
Nashville for surgical attention, were disgracefully 
maltreated. Major Slemmer, of the Sixteenth United 
States Infantry, was ejected from his ambulance, and 
other officers were compelled to give their parole, and 
halt by the highway until they were relieved by pass 
ing trains. 

New Year s Day was trying upon the army, but its 



303 

constancy was unshaken. The troops went into biv 
ouac as they had the previous nights, sleeping upon 
their arms without fires, and somewhat annoyed by 
picket flurries along the lines. The General Com 
manding was constantly in the field waiting develop 
ments, and making dispositions for future operations. 
The quiet of the enemy assured him that they had 
been worried by Wednesday s battle, and it gave him 
time to replenish his ammunition and subsistence 
stores. His headquarters that night and thereafter 
were in a little dilapidated log-cabin, within shell range 
of the enemy on either front, on the right of the 
Murfreesboro pike. He slept an hour or two in his 
tent at the gable end of the cabin, and his staff 
squeezed together as thick as figs in a drum on the 
dirty floor of the tenement. All misgivings had been 
dismissed from the minds of officers and soldiers. 
All men felt with the General "we shall beat them!" 

WOMEN ON THE HOUSE-TOPS. 

But there was another feature of " Happy New 
Year " worthy of observation. Tidings of Wednes 
day s reverse had been carried to Nashville on the 
swift wings of cowardice. The few patriot residents 
of the city and the garrison were profoundly afflicted. 
They apprehended that a dreadful calamity was about 
to fall upon them. Stragglers, officers, private sol 
diers, camp followers, poured up the Murfreesboro 
pike toward the city in streams. The wife of a rebel 
officer clambered to the roof of her mansion, and look 
ing southward, beheld the shameless messengers of 
evil. Cushi was running with evil tidings. There 
was no prudent Ahimaaz to run by the way of the 



304 NEW YEAR S DAY. 

plain to circumvent him. The woman clapped her 
hands with sudden joy, shouting triumphantly, 
" they are beaten back." Her friends of either sex 
.took no care to repress their exultation. Some were 
overbearing and impudent. Officers and soldiers 
silenced them savagely. Yet they poured forth into 
the streets in numbers, and with a gayety that had 
not been witnessed since the Union armies had occu 
pied the city. 

The stragglers were roughly handled by General 
Mitchell. He denounced them vigorously as infa 
mous cowards, swore their stories of disaster were 
lies, directed Lieutenant Colonel Calrill to organize 
them and form them in front of the city. He 
laughed to scorn the notion that " Rosecrans was 
whipped," and then with menacing vehemence swore 
that "if Rosecrans should be driven back, not one 
stone of Nashville should be left upon another. I 11 
blow the d d town to fragments," said he, " if I am 
compelled to leave it." All this rebel joy, and all 
this patriot gloom grew out of the exaggerations of 
cowardly officers, fugitive soldiers, and teamsters who 
fled from battle. A mal adroit incident happened to 
confirm the untoward rumors. The extreme front 
was an improper place for the important official 
papers of the department. The numerical superi 
ority of the rebel cavalry rendered it dangerous to 
keep them with headquarters camp at an intermediate 
point, and they were accordingly sent back to Nash 
ville. The malcontents of the Rock City accepted 
the incident as confirmation of disaster to the fed 
erals. Later in the evening they became restive and 
somber. It was impossible to explain it, but the 



NEW YEAR S DAY. 305 

mystery no doubt was revealed in the back parlors of 
Nashville. But it was vciy clear that there was "a 
plague on all your houses." General Rains was killed, 
and Moody s men had destroyed the " Rock City 
Guards." And the women who ascended to the 
house-tops were much moved, and went up to their 
chambers and wept. New Year s Day of 1863 was 
not a " Happy New Year." 



26 



CHAPTER XXX. 

FRIDAY, January 2 Heavy Artillery Battle Movements of the 
Troops Van Cleve s Division Across Stone River Grose Supports 
Him Onslaught upon Van Cleve s Division It is Broken The 
Batteries Massed The Center and Right Wing Assisting the Left 
Negley, Davis and Morton to the Rescue A Banner and a Battery 
Captured Awful Effect of Our Artillery The Rebels Routed 
Brigadier General Hanson Killed. 

FRIDAY morning was raw and chilly, but the clouds 
soon dispersed, and the sun glowed pleasantly. The 
troops were cheerful. Some subsistence and ammuni 
tion had arrived during the night. At dawn the 
sharpshooters of the enemy introduced the exercises 
of the morning with the sharp firing of their rifles. 
Commanders were at their posts, expecting an attack 
from the enemy. The "eyes of the army" were on 
its flanks, and skirting the Mtirfreesboro pike, gallop 
ing over the hills after rebel marauders. McCook 
and Thomas remained in static quo, part of their 
respective forces in reserve. 

Somewhere about eight o clock, while Morton s 
Pioneer Brigade were making crossings at the rail 
road, the enemy opened a furious cannonade from 
four batteries on the east side of Stone River. They 
ranged chiefly upon Harkers position. His men were 
subject to sore trial, but they hugged the ground 
closely, and escaped with one man killed and eleven 
wounded. Estep s battery, upon which the enemy 



SLAUGHTER OP BRECKINRIDGE s DIVISION. 307 

had exact range, was forced to yield its position. 
Bradley worked his guns with visible effect, until one 
of our own batteries undertook to throw grape over 
his head. Whereon he was reluctantly compelled to 
withdraw to a safer position. Stokes , Loomis , Guen- 
ther s, and several other batteries, took part in the 
duello, and in a short time silenced the enemy. "While 
this was going on, an infantry demonstration was 
made upon Wagner s skirmishers, but the enemy 
were easily driven back. The rebels also gave Walk 
er s brigade a salute, but Church soon satisfied them. 

DISPOSITIONS ON THE LEFT. 

General Rosecrans still persisted in his scheme of 
wheeling into Murfreesboro with his Left, and with 
that view, directed his attention chiefly to the posi 
tion occupied by Van Cleve. Livingston s Battery 
recrossed the river, and took up its position on the 
left, leaving Lieutenant Hubbard, with a section of 
the battery, on the eminence at the right of Price s 
brigade. Price was on the right of the line, with the 
Fifty-First Ohio, Eighth Kentucky, and Thirty-Fifth 
Indiana Regiments in front, the Twenty-First Ken 
tucky and Ninety-i^inth Ohio Regiments forming 
the second line in reserve. Fyffe s brigade was on 
the left, and the Seventy-Eighth Indiana was posted 
in the front line to fill a gap. 

A sharp clatter of musketry in front, early in the 
morning, increased at eleven o clock to the propor 
tions of a severe fight. The enemy seemed to be 
creeping up. Crittenden, therefore, sent Grose s 
brigade across the river to strengthen Beatty s left. 
About eight hundred yards below the right of 



308 SLAUGHTER OF BRECKINRIDGE s DIVISION. 

Beatty s division line, the river makes a detour of 
perhaps a half mile to the rear, and courses nearly 
parallel with the line taken up by Beatty. Grose 
formed his regiments in echelon in support of the 
left of Beatty; the Twenty-Third Kentucky about 
two hundred yards to the left and rear of Beatty s 
left, the Twenty-Fourth Ohio, Thirty-Sixth Indiana, 
Eighty-Fourth Illinois, and Sixth Ohio Eegiments, 
forming respectively, from right to left, the right of 
the Eighty-Fourth Illinois resting upon a bluff at the 
river, with the Third Wisconsin Battery near its left. 
The brigade immediately collected logs, brush, rails, 
and stones, making a good barricade, and waited 
developments. Cruft was posted on the west side 
of the river, supporting a battery. 

SYMPTOMS. 

Meantime, Beatty s skirmishers reported the move 
ment of artillery toward his left, and that sixteen 
regiments of infantry had appeared in his front. At 
about noon the enemy flung a few shells at Hubbard s 
guns. Directly a battery opens upon him. The 
angry rattle of musketry increases in front. Rebel 
skirmishers gradually approach, until it becomes too 
hot for Livingston s gunners, and they retire to a 
more secure position. Shells, now and then a solid 
shot, knock the dirt over Beatty s men, but they lie 
flat on their bellies. The enemy shoots blindly. 
Soon our skirmishers are so strongly pressed that 
two companies are sent to strengthen them. Men 
are hurt on either side. 

At half-past two o clock four more rebel guns are 
discovered moving to the left. At three o clock 



309 

rebel skirmishers are seen throwing down the fences 
in their front. Battle menacing, certainly! All these 
conditions are noted. "When the fences go down, 
Beatty orders Price to retire his brigade behind the 
crest of the hill. The enemy are seen moving up in 
the distance. They advance in powerful masses 
battalion front, three ranks, or six men deep, in 
mass, in the attacking column a column of equal 
strength in support, and another mass, not at all infe 
rior, in reserve. Splendid display of martial pageant 
ry. Their banners are flying haughtily; their steel 
is dazzling. They march with superb solidity. Those 
three powerful columns seem to be three monstrous 
machines. Breckinridge is launching them at three 
little brigades, and one Wisconsin battery. Perhaps ! 

THE ONSET. 

The head of that frowning mass suddenly shoots 
clean out from the timber into the front. Fearfully 
splendid. Their batteries have opened in stunning 
accord. Shot and shell, whizzing, whirring, shriek 
ing, as if they were winged fiends. The firm sod 
flies into clouds of dust ; trunks of trees are shivered 
into atoms ; splintered boughs rain upon the hills, as 
if awkward and careless woodsmen were topping the 
forests; the flesh and bones of horses crush as if they 
were brittle ice ; a man is suddenly tripped up his 
leg flies from its base ; a soldier s head vanishes and 
you do not even sigh, until you bury what remains. 

The machine called a column of attack in mass a 
thousand men in front, six men deep, with two other 
machines just like it, pushing behind to sustain its 
momentum, emits a blaze and a fume with a crashing 



310 SLAUGHTER OP BRECKINBIDGE s DIVISION. 

and thr-r-r-r-upping sound as if Titans were tearing 
strong canvas. Then a counter-crash, quickly per 
haps two or three, from as many lines. Volley for 
volley then symmetry of sound is lost. File firing 
ensues that is, every man loads and fires for himself 
with all his might, mostly shooting high, so that the 
lead flies overhead, and twigs flutter many shooting 
so low that the dirt is chipped up at the toes of men. 
If the heaviest battalion is disciplined, and well 
handled, it shoots most bullets and weight of lead 
decides, unless cold steel is thrust into the scale. 
Then lead loses momentum. Price did not fire until 
the enemy were within a hundred yards of him. 
His volley shatters the head of the mass. Why 
didn t he " give them a blizzard, and then at em 
with the steel?" His little brigade fights hard, 
struggle to keep their feet. Good soldiers! they 
had proved it before. Too many bullets for them. 
A gray cloud suddenly sweeps toward their flank. 
They brace up an instant, but are doomed to break. 
Pity ! On the 10th of December they won honest 
fame. Fyfte flings in a flank fire, which stings, but 
does not destroy. Price goes back, breaks, confuses 
the second line, so that it can not recover to resist the 
overpowering billow. Fyffe is forced to fall oft to 
the rear. 

The veteran Nineteenth Ohio, which settled the 
Rich Mountain affair under "Old(?) Rosey," and 
the Ninth and Eleventh Kentucky, march up. They 
advance eagerly, and meet the machine, whose head 
is tattered and torn, and it falls away to let the other 
machine, that pushed it forward, roll upon the three 
regiments. Six regiments to three are heavy. Mean- 



311 

time " Old Rosey" had appeared on the field. Fifty- 
eight iron and brazen battering rams had been 
gathered in a mass on the nether side of the river. 
He was holding them in hand like a cocked pistol. 
Mendenhall had gathered them, and was directing 
them truly. The immortal Eighth Division, under 
soldierly Negley, was moving up. Gallant Davis, 
eager to make a new exhibit of the mettle of his 
salamanders, solicits the favor to advance his division, 
and it is rushing across from Right to Left to get in 
first. Johnson sends over Gibson, with the thirteen 
hundred soldiers who remained of two thousand four 
hundred and fifty-eight, who had begun the slaughter 
of Wednesday. Pioneer Morton, who wants to be 
"doing it about right/ whenever and wherever he 
can, rushes up in that "Excelsior" way of his, with 
his "general utility" men who diversify soldiers 
life by building bridges or fighting, and do either 
admirably. Remember, they represent forty regi 
ments Michigan, Missouri, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ireland, Germany the 
Union. 

REVERSE. 

Pity the noble Left Wing should meet with reverse 
at all it resisted so victoriously Wednesday ; but it 
can afford it. Nothing but fair that the Right should 
enjoy reciprocation of favors. The Left assisted the 
Right; the Right can now help the Left only the 
Center is most lucky and crowds in first. The Nine 
teenth Buckeyes, and the gallant Ninth and Eleventh 
Kentucky fight staunchly, and the Indiana Thirty- 
Fifth, on the left, talk of the bayonet, but it won t do 
now. That gray bank, with a steel crest, lifting upon 



312 SLAUGHTER OP BRECKINRLDGE S DIVISION. 

the right flank, is too much hone and metal. The 
regiments go back, slowly at first, and at length they 
take Avater, as the first and the second line did. The 
billow behind them rolls on fast, and a crest breaks 
oil into the river. 

VICTORY. 

~Now the power of cannon is cast into the balance. 
The shock of fifty-eight brazen and iron monsters 
shake the earth, and a tempest tears through the 
forest. Legions of devils seem riving the timber 
where the Left s Third Division was fighting. The 
Eighth leaps into the stream. The Second Division 
of the Right is coming " Carlin, " said the Captain 
of the host, " take your brigade to the left; form it in 
two lines, and should you find our forces repulsed, 
allow them to pass through your lines, and on the 
approach of the enemy, give a whoop and a yell and 
go at em! " Carlin s brigade was dreadfully reduced. 
lie felt some apprehensions lest they should not 
respond properly. "Tell them," said the General 
Commanding, " tell them they must do it for us, and 
the country ! " Gallant Carlin announced the appeal 
of their Chieftain. They yell like Stcntors and 
plunge into the stream. Gibson s thirteen hundred 
charge, shouting like the clangor of trumpets. 

Strange that } T OU forget the noise of cannon in bat 
tle frenzy. The ear is deaf to its uproar. You hear 
shells flutter and you dodge. You hear bullets pict, 
pict, pict, pict, pict, and a sheet of them thr-r-r-up; 
but unless you deliberately look upon battle as a spec 
tacle to enchant vision, and listen to thunderous 
artillery to admire the majesty of wonderful arti 
ficial sound, the eye is unaffected by pageantiy, and 



313 

the ear waxes insensible to brazen detonation. Heart 
and mind in unison, say, "we shall beat them!" 
That absorbs sights and sound. Lo ! the mystery of 
war s callousness. Thus, you -see your best friend 
vanish from your elbow with scarce an emotion. The 
first gun booms, as if it were a doom. The first crash 
of musketry thrills to the very marrow of your bones. 
Then the mighty effort! Then blood in your veins 
becomes lightning. Then you mutely cry, " we shall 
beat them ! " 

There were fifty-eight guns en masse in the Center, 
others on the river bank, and Livingston s across the 
stream. MendenhalPs, and Loomis , of which were 
Parson s, and Swallow s, and Bradley s, and Shultz s, 
and Estep s, and Yan Pelt s, Standart s, Stevens , 
Nell s, Marshall s, Cox s and Stokes Batteries hurl 
ing solid shot, shell, grape, spherical case and cannis- 
ter; and the forests seemed bursting with agony. 
All hell had broken loose. Then the machines which 
are called columns, in mass, three lines deep, without 
intervals, six men thick, w r ere torn to fragments. 
Grose was on the left of them. The Ohio Sixth and 
Twenty-Fourth, the Indiana Thirty-Sixth, the Ken 
tucky Twenty-Third, and the Illinois Eighty-Fourth, 
raise with crazy clamor and rip into them. Scott s 
Illinois Nineteenth, S tough ton s Michigan Eleventh, 
Given with the Eighteenth, and Elliott and Bingham 
with the Sixty-Ninth Ohio; Sirwell with the Penn 
sylvania Seventy-Eighth, Moody with his " boys," of 
the trusty Ohio Seventy-Fourth, Neibling s "Twenty- 
Onesters," the Thirty-Seventh Hoosiers, under "Ward 
and Ivimball, stalk across the stream and pour in vol 
leys from the right and left. Hazen is rushing in 
27 



314 SLAUGHTER OF BRECKINRIDGE s DIVISION. 

with his veterans ; Davis, Carlin, and Morton follow 
swiftly, eager for laurels. The " Twenty-Onesters " 
are sent off to the left. The Seventy-Eighth Penn- 
sylvanians, the Nineteenth Illinoisans, the Seventy- 
Fourth Ohioans rushed upon a hattery, and the 
" Twenty-Onesters ," on the left, swoop upon it. A 
rebel color-bearer, probed with a bayonet, sinks in a 
pool of blood. A Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvanian 
seizes the banner of the rebel Tennessee Twenty- 
Sixth ; the Nineteenth, the Twenty-First, the Seven 
ty-Fourth, the Seventy-Eighth no matter which 
State swallow up the guns, four of them for tro 
phies, and a mass of prisoners gallant Scott is down, 
yet he shouts. Davis thunders in pursuit of the fugi 
tives, while the Eighth Division gathers again. The 
fifty-eight pieces of iron and bronze, in mass, roar 
with frightful concussion, and sweep the forests in 
flank, in front, in reverse. Hazen sharply follows the 
fugitives ; Davis is onward ; Hascall is coming ; the 
enemy, torn to pieces, are flying in wild dismay over 
the riven forests, and through the cotton fields. 
Horsemen, frantic with delight, race far over the 
field, trailing the captured banner along the regi 
ments. Now the cannon and the infantry are all 
plunging forward. Twilight, and the thin blue pow 
der fumes dispersing in haze, intermingle. Joyful 
shouts swell in shrill harmony on the far bank of the 
river leap across the stream, roll along the front, 
spring from rank to rank, stretch from left to right, 
until their magnificently triumphant volume dies 
away in pleasant echoes among the distant hills. 
Such overwhelming ecstacy of victory ! 

" We shall beat them ! " The figure of the Com- 



SLAUGHTER OF BRECKINRIDGE ? S DIVISION. 315 

mander-in-Chief was again conspicuous, when the 
might of his own good sword was needed. He hurled 
his batteries and his battalions together, at the mon 
strous machines of Breckinridge, and destroyed them 
in forty minutes. Two thousand men or more, who 
had marched upon that field in haughty defiance, at 
three o clock and fifty minutes, were dead or man 
gled at four o clock and thirty minutes. Breckin 
ridge was a fugitive; General Hanson mortally hurt; 
General Adams crippled; Colonel Pres. Cunningham 
killed ; Colonel McGeggor fatally struck ; and scores 
more of the master class, who fell in parricidal con 
flict. It was an appalling calamity to rebel arms. 
Our loss was about one hundred killed; perhaps four 
hundred wounded five hundred in all. 

Beatty was in it with his own brigade under Col 
onel Grider, Fyffe s brigade, and the brigade of Stan 
ley Matthews, then commanded by Colonel Samuel 
"VV. Price. The latter bore the brunt of the disaster, 
losing seventy-eight men killed, three hundred and 
eleven wounded. The colors of the Eighth Ken 
tucky Regiment were torn into fragments by a shell. 
Fyffe, on the left, was not violently assaulted, and 
was compelled to retire when Price gave way. Fyffe 
himself was hurt by a fall from his horse. Grider 
received the same shock, and it was too severe for 
him. There was much confusion, and a few eager 
rebels pursued our fugitives into the stream. On the 
other side some of the broken regiments rallied 
quickly. The Nineteenth Ohio, Ninth Kentucky, 
and Fifty-First Ohio, were among the first to cross in 
pursuit of the flying foe. 

The enemy hardly expected a flank fire from Grose. 



316 

It was very bitter. The wild scream of his valiant 
regiments was as effective as their musketry. The 
Twenty-Fourth Ohio was again robbed of a jewel. 
Colonel Fred. Jones and Major Terry had fallen on 
Wednesday. Captain Enoch Weller, commanding 
the regiment after Terry s death, was killed this day. 
Among its many dauntless officers, Adjutant Henry 
Y. Graham shone conspicuously. Gibson s brigade 
was called upon to assist General Palmer in driving a 
strong force of the rebels out of the woods on the 
flanks. The Thirty-Second Indiana Willich s Ger 
mans charged and drove two rebel regiments clean 
across the river. 

]STegley s division and the Pioneer Brigade had 
been ordered up to meet the onset, while Crittenden 
directed Mendenhall to dispose the batteries on the 
hill on the west side of the river. Hazen s brigade 
also crossed, and the Forty-First Ohio Eegiment was 
among the advanced pursuers of the rebels. General 
Davis crossed the river at a ford below to attack the 
left flank of the enemy, but they retreated too rap 
idly. Darkness put an end to pursuit. Davis, with 
Hascall s division on his left, Palmer in support, 
begun at once .to throw up breastworks upon the Hue 
conquered from the enemy. The battle on Friday 
evening was an awful paroxysm. General Rosecrans 
most graphically said : " The firing was terrific, and 
the havoc terrible. The enemy retreated more rap 
idly than they had advanced. In forty minutes they 
lost two thousand men." 

While this conflict was raging, Walker advanced 
in his front with his brigade the Seventeenth Ohio, 
Colonel J. W. Connel^and Thirty-first Ohio, Lieu- 



SLAUGHTER OF BRECKINRIDGE S DIVISION. 317 

tenant Colonel Lister, in front, supported by the 
Thirty-Eighth Ohio, Colonel Phelps, and the Eighty- 
Second Indiana, Colonel Hunter. The enemy opened 
upon them sharply, hut the brigade advanced firmly 
to a point within eighty yards of them. The front 
line then delivered a volley deliberately, and dropped 
upon their bellies to reload, the second line following 
suit. Bayonets were fixed, but the rebels fled to their 
in trench ments. 

Several howitzers, in front and center of the line, 
continued to howl until after night fell, echoing 

O O 

most dismally ; and at nearly eight o clock, Lieuten 
ant Colonel Choate, Lieutenant Colonel Davis, of the 
Eighty-Second Indiana, and Captain J. W. Stinch- 
comb, of Colonel Walker s brigade, with a detach 
ment of that command, made a successful reconnois- 
sancc in front of the Ixight Wing, driving in the 
enemy s outposts. The firing, during a few moments, 
was as passionate as opening battle. Bullets flew 
about headquarters thickly, but the flurry was soon 
over. Somewhat later, Colonel Dodge, with eight 
companies of the Second and Third Brigades, John 
son s division, made a reconnoissance on the extreme 
right, and disturbed a large force of the enemy. 

Somewhat later, General Rosecrans, deeming it 
possible that the enemy might again attack our 
Iviifht and Center, "made a demonstration on our 
Juight by a heavy division of camp fires, and by lay 
ing out a line of battle with torches, which answered 
the purpose." Lieutenant Colonel Bassett Langdon, 
and Captain Fisher, of McCook s Staff, and Captain 
Charles II. Thompson, Aid to the General Command 
ing, were selected, on account of their superior vocal 



318 SLAUGHTER OF BRECKINRIDGE S DIVISION. 

powers, to marshal the division. A troop of order 
lies escorted them, and constructed blazing fires along 
the extreme Ilight, while the commanders of the 
Light Division moved their forces by the right and 
left flanks with sonorous clamor. JSTot long after 
ward, the General Commanding supervised the new 
line of battle laid out with flambeaux, and left it for 
the serious contemplation of the enemy. 

It was raining at dark, but the gallant soldiers 
were jocund. Their bivouac fires blazed like bon 
fires. Cedars were piled upon cedars, until the black 
clouds above seemed canopies of lambent flame. 
The warriors, inspired with the enthusiasm of vic 
tory, shouted in their wild joy till sleep overcame 
them. The future was opening into a glowing vista. 
No more talk now of retreat. But hundreds labored 
through the dreary night, intrenching the front of 
the army. General Ivosecrans, standing near his 
"cabined, crib d, confined" quarters, in mud half way 
to his boot-tops, rubbed his hands complacently, and 
repeated, "We shall beat them!" 



SATURDAY S OPERATIONS. 319 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

SATURDAY S Operations Too Much Raiii The Front Harassed 
Rousseau Annoyed He Seeks Revenge John Beatty and Rough- 
Handed Spears East Tennesseeans Charge with a Slogan The 
Last Hostile Guns in Battle The Wounded Rebel Prisoners Eat 
ing Parched Corn A General Surprised The Rebels Retreat Sun 
day Mass Official Summary of the Battle. 

SATURDAY morning dawned inauspiciously. The 
rain fell in torrents. The field of battle was a morass. 
The camps were wretched muck of water and slop. 
Military operations upon an important scale were 
impracticable. Quite early in the morning a brigade 
of the enemy, under cover of the woods, suddenly 
pounced upon the Indiana Forty-Second, Lieutenant 
Colonel Shanklin commanding. After a sharp fight, 
the brave Hoosiers were cut up severely, and many 
captured, including their commander. The plowed 
fields being impassable by artillery, no advance could 
be made profitably ; besides, the ammunition train did 
not arrive until ten o clock. Batteries were put in 
position on the left, by which the ground could be 
swept, and even Murfreesboro reached by the Parrott 
guns. 

The enemy harassed the front on the Right and 
Center, extending to the Left. It finally became so 
annoying that General Rosecrans ordered the corps 
commanders to clear their fronts, which was done 
speedily. The sharpshooters in the woods on the left 
of the Murfreesboro pike and the "Burnt House," 



320 

however, annoyed Rousseau s front all day, killing 
and wounding some men. General Thomas and he 
obtained permission to dislodge them and their sup 
ports which covered a ford. Four batteries, including 
Guenther s and Van Pelt s, were opened, under the 
direction of Colonel Loomis, and the "Burnt House" 
and adjacent woods were soon battered to fragments. 

EAST TENNESSEEANS. 

At dark Rousseau sent Colonel John Beatty, with 
the Third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel Lawson com 
manding, and the Eighty-Eighth Indiana, under Col 
onel Humphreys, to drive the enemy from his cover. 
Brigadier General Spears, who had arrived from 
Nashville that day with a subsistence train, solicited 
and obtained permission to participate in the affair. 
Beatty advanced on the right with the Eirst East 
Tennessee Volunteers, Colonel Byrd, the Second East 
Tennessee, Lieutenant Colonel Melton, three hund 
red of the Fourteenth Michigan, commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel Phillips, of the Eirst East Ten 
nessee Infantry, and three hundred of the Eighty- 
Fifth Illinois, winch were held in reserve. 

The line advanced gallantly, the skirmishers meet 
ing with heavy resistance at the start. A column in 
support appeared on the left of the enemy, upon 
which Loomis opened his batteries, and they disap 
peared. Our troops forced their way steadily under a 
heavy fire, until within charging distance. Then the 
Tennesseeans raised a wild slogai^ and the whole line 
dashed upon the enemy with the bayonet. The effect 
was magical. The rebels fled in dismay. Many were 
killed. The onslaught upon their intrenchments was 



SATURDAY S OPERATIONS. 321 

so swift and sudden that thirty of them were cap 
tured. The Colonel of the famous First Louisiana 
regiment was killed, and his command was almost 
destroyed. Colonel Humphreys, of the Eighty- 
Eighth Indiana, was wounded in the hand by a bay 
onet thrust, and Captain Bell, of the Third Ohio, was 
severely hurt by a musket ball. This brilliant affair 
reflected great credit on the officers and troops 
engaged. The East Tennesseeans were especially 
gratified. They had proved themselves trusty sol 
diers. General Rousseau reported the results in per 
son to General Rosecrans, who congratulated him, 
but said, " Don t you let them drive you out." " I m 
blessed if I do," w T as Rousseau s emphatic response. 
Rousseau s and Spears troops fired the last shots that 
were directed at the enemy in the memorable Battle 
of Stone River. 

THE WOUNDED. 

The inclemency of this miserable clay afflicted the 
wounded intolerably. Scores were shivering in the 
rain and mud. The rebel cavalry had destroyed so 
many hospital tents that it was impossible to shelter 
all the sufferers. Every possible effort that ingenuity 
and generous sympathy could devise was exerted to 
mitigate their condition. Our own gallant soldiers 
submitted uncomplainingly, regretting their wounds 
because they could not continue in the ranks. The 
rebel wounded sometimes growled savagely at Yan 
kee inhumanity. To silence them it was necessary to 
point to patient victims of their murderous malice 
our own mutilated men spread all over the areas 
outside of the hospitals, chattering with cold in satu 
rated garments and suffering torment, and to reproach 



322 

them with the destruction of our hospitals by their 
own companions. The zeal and devoted efforts of 
our Surgeons to discharge their entire duty, was 
beyond all praise. 

Near General Crittenden s hospital, Captain Wiles, 
Provost Marshal General, assembled about a thousand 
prisoners, and organized them into companies for 
their own benefit. Some of them were jovial, but 
many were depressed and discouraged. By Saturday 
morning they were half famished, having fasted 
nearly forty-eight hours. Our trains having been cut 
off by rebel cavalry, there was no subsistence for 
them. Wiles sent them a load of corn, which they 
ate voraciously, jocosely denouncing "our fellers" 
Wheeler s Cavalry for " cutting off their rations." 
At this time some of Rousseau s men were eating 
porter house steaks carved from the loins of Colonel 
Starkweather s horse, which had been shot in the 
battle together with parched corn for dessert. Every 
State engaged in the rebellion was represented in that 
motley collection of gray-backs. 

SATURDAY NIGHT. 

Saturday night was equally cheerless. It rained 
incessantly. The General Commanding, apprehend 
ing a freshet in Stone River, ordered the withdrawal 
of the troops from the east bank of Stone River. 
Notwithstanding the wretched discomfort of a biv 
ouac in the mud, the troops were even hilarious. A 
cheerful tone prevailed at headquarters, which was 
increased by the arrival of Colonel Dan MeCook with 
a large supply train, after having repulsed a sharp 
attack of the enemy below Stewartsboro. 



SATURDAY S OPERATIONS. 323 

That evening while General Rosecrans was dicta 
ting- his official telegraphic report of the battle, to be 
forwarded to General Halleck, General Crittenden 
called at his marquee and casually remarked that he 
supposed there would be no offensive operations on 
Sunday. He " did not believe Old Master would 
smile upon any unnecessary violation of his laws." 
General Rosecrans replied, "I am just telegraphing 
to General Halleck that we shall probably be quiet on 
Sunday." It was not then known that the battle was 
ended. Conversation ran back to the advance from 
JsTashville. General Crittenden, with his customary 
frankness, now disapproved of it in strong language. 
He thought it had been extremely imprudent to ad 
vance when so inadequately supplied. " How many 
rations do you suppose there are at Nashville?" said 
Rosecrans. "Well," said Crittenden, " I suppose you 
had seven or eight days ahead." General Rosecrans 
eyes twinkled sharply. He then said, " I supposed I 
had informed you. I had Thomas, and probably 
McCook. I have rations at Nashville to last until 
the 25th of January, and they can be made to last to 
the 1st of February." General Crittenden was sur 
prised. He regretted that all the Generals had not 
known it, because it would have relieved their minds 
of many misgivings. General Rosecrans is apt to be 
reticent in matters of vital moment. 

SUNDAY. 

At about midnight there were indications of a 
freshet in Stone River. Before daylight the Left 
"Wing was withdrawn to the east side of Stone Ri^er. 
Sunday morning the sun rose clearly. A little later 



324 SATURDAY S OPERATIONS. 

tidings were received that the enemy had fled. The 
General Commanding devoted himself an hour to 
High Mass that morning, his faithful and brave com 
panion. Father Trecy, officiating. Who shall say 
that God did not hear his prayer: " Non nobis ! 
Dominie non nobis ! Sednominetiti da Gloriam!" 

Burial parties were sent out to inter the dead, and 
General Stanley followed the enemy to reconnoiter. 
Headquarters were removed to the east side of the 
pike, and for the first time since the 2 Jtli of Decem 
ber nine full days the General Commanding and 
his staff, and the noble soldiers of the Fourteenth 
Army Corps, enjoyed respite from fatigue, hunger, 
exposure, and battle. An officer said to General 
Ilosecrans, " The army is enthusiastic in its approval 
of your tenacity." His eyes sparkled an instant, then 
he said sharply, a I suppose they have learned that 
Bragg is a good dog, but Holdfast is better." 

The enemy left several thousand of their own 
wounded in the town, and four hundred and four of 
our wounded soldiers, but we found no hospital stores 
there for the use of the rebel wounded. 

OFFICIAL SUMMARY. 

" Of the operations and results of the series of 
skirmishes, closing with the battle of Stone River 
and the occupation of Murfreesboro," said General 
Rosecrans, " we moved on the enemy with the follow 
ing forces : 

Infantry .41,421 

Cavalry , 8.206 

Artillery 



Total..., 46,940 



SATURDAY S OPERATIONS. 325 

We fought the battle with the following forces : 

Infantry 37,977 

Cavalry 3,200 

Artillery 2,223 

Total 43,400 

We lost in killed : 

Officers 92 

Enlisted men 1,441 



Total ._ 1,533 

We lost in wounded : 

Officers 384 

Enlisted men 6,861 

Total 7,245 

Total killed and wounded 8,778 

Being 20.03 per cent, of the entire force in action. 

"If there are any more bloody battles on record, 
considering the newness and inexperience of the 
troops, both officers and men; or if there have been 
better fighting qualities displayed by any people, I 
should be pleased to know it. 

"As to the condition of the fight, we may say that 
we operated over an unknown country, against a posi 
tion which was fifteen per cent, better than our own, 
every foot of ground and approaches being well 
known to the enemy, and that these disadvantages 
were fatally exhumed by the faulty position of our 
Eight Wing. 

" The force we fought is estimated as follows : We 
have prisoners from one hundred and thirty-two regi 
ments of infantry (consolidations counted as one), 



326 SATURDAY S OPERATIONS. 

averaging from those in General Bush rod Johnson s 
division, four hundred and eleven each say, for cer 
tain, three hundred and fifty men each, will give, 

No. men, 

132 Regiments infantry, say 350 men each 40,200 

12 Battalions sharpshooters, say 100 men each 1,200 

23 Battalions of artillery, say 80 men each 1,840 

29 Regiments cavalry, men each 400 ~) 

And 24 organizations of cavalry, men each 70 j "* 

220 02,520 

" Their average loss, taken from the statistics of 
Cleborne, Breekin ridge, and Withers divisions, was 
about two thousand and eighty each. This, for six 
divisions of infantry and one of cavalry, will amount 
to fourteen thousand five hundred and sixty men : or 
to ours nearly as one hundred and sixty-five to one 
hundred. 

" Of fourteen thousand five hundred and sixty reb 
els struck by our missiles, it is estimated that twenty 
thousand rounds of artillery hit seven hundred and 
twenty-eight men; two million rounds of musketry 
hit thirteen thousand eight hundred and thirty-two 
men ; averaging twenty-seven cannon shots to hit 
one man; one hundred and forty-five musket shots to 
hit one man. 

" Our relative loss was as follows : 

Per cent. 

Right Wing , 15,933. Musketry and artillery loss 20.72 

Center 10,800. " " * " 18.4 

Left Wing 13,288. " " " 24.0 

" On the whole, it is evident that we fought supe 
rior numbers on unknown ground, inflicting much 



327 

more injury than we suffered. We were always 
superior on equal grounds with equal numbers, and 
only failed of a most crushing victory on Wednesday 
by the extension and direction of our Right Wing." 

Early on Monday morning, General Thomas ad 
vanced into Murfreesboro, ITegley s division in front, 
driving the enemy s rear guard of cavalry before 
them. Spears brigade of East Tennesseeans and 
General Stanley with the Fourth Regular Cavalry, 
Captain Otis, and other cavalry regiments, came up 
with the rear guard of the enemy at Lytle s Creek, 
on the Manchester pike, three miles and a half from 
Murfreesboro, and after sharp fighting in the cedar- 
brakes, drove them at sunset from their last position. 
Zahn s brigade of cavalry reconnoitered six miles on 
the Shelbyville pike, but found no opposition. 

McCook s and Crittenden s corps, following Thomas, 
took position in front of the town, occupying Mur 
freesboro. It was ascertained that the enemy s in 
fantry had reached Shelbyville by 12 M. on Sunday, 
but owing to the impracticability of bringing up sup 
plies, and the loss of five hundred and fifty-seven 
artillery horses, further pursuit was deemed inad 
visable. 



328 MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

REVIEW of the Field The Self-R.eliance of the General Commanding 
His Influence in the Battle Moral Power The Staff Field Officers 
Special Mention for Important Services Addenda Enlisted 
Men Distinguished Consolidated Report of Casualties Uragg s 
Army and his Grand Tactics. 

PROSTRATION always follows the fatigue and exhaus 
tive passion of battle. Our gallant troops sorely 
needed rest; their officers needed it still more. The 
subsequent irritability of those in command, and of 
all in executive office, sufficiently indicated that nature 
had been outraged. The patient endurance and lofty 
spirit of the troops had been wonderful and most 
admirable. isTo suffering or privation had evoked 
complaint. They were ever ready to spring to arms 
and fight. This was attributable in very large 
measure to the moral influence and example of the 
General Commanding, and the spirited officers of his 
command. He was incessantly employed. At night 
he was riding over the field preparing for the morrow. 
In battle he was everywhere. The troops saw him 
and had confidence in him. They would stand as 
long as he stood. 

An old soldier, remarking upon the battle of Wed 
nesday, said that he could not doubt that " everybody 
but Rosecrans was whipped that day." Just where 
others would have begun to retreat he begun to fight. 



MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 329 

Instead of looking around for gunboats or intrench- 
ments behind which to shelter what remained of his 
army, he commenced at once to make new disposi 
tions for the reception of the triumphant, advancing 
host. He had but a few minutes at his disposal ; but 
he improved them to the utmost. "With calm, cheer 
ful, confident, assuring presence, he rode through his 
anxious, troubled, apprehensive ranks, the light of 
battle in his eye rekindling valor in their souls, post 
ing his remaining cannon so as to sweep with deadly 
aim the field over which the exulting rebels were so 
soon to advance, placing his infantry so as to support 
the artillery with the least exposure possible; and 
making every one feel that retreat was not to be 
thought of that there was no choice but to conquer 
or die. Hardly were the most necessary dispositions 
completed when the rebel columns came rushing on, 
with shouts that shook the earth, undoubting that 
they would repeat in a few minutes the lesson they 
had just given McCook s routed command. But a 
sheet of flame leaped to meet them, a roar of cannon 
and rattle of musketry drowned their frantic } 7 ells, a 
pall of smoke shrouded the field of conflict from view, 
and there was no cessation until silence on the other 
side suggested the inutility of further firing on ours. 
Soon the cloud lifted; the sun shone out bright and 
warm ; our grim battalions stood to their arms in 
readiness for the word of command ; but there was 
no foe within sight nothing but a plain heaped with 
the writhing and the dead. Such was the first taste 
of his quality given to Bragg s bullies by Rosecrans; 
and, though often thereafter impelled to repeat the 
dash of Wednesday morning, they never did it so 
28 



330 MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 

recklessly, nor with anything like the success of their 
first attempt. Battles had been well fought before ; 
some in which the General Commanding did his work 
fairly; many in which our soldiers behaved nobly; 
but the Stone Elver fight was saved, and Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana with it. by William S. 
Rosecrans. That he exposed himself recklessly, con 
stantly, and influenced his officers to do likewise, 
was no idle bravado, but a stern necessity. After 
McCook s discomfiture, the fight was lost but for this. 
Rarely pushing an advantage too far giving his 
routed men time to recover from their first panic 
before sending them into action again cool, patient, 
steady, yet resolute, sanguine and watchful General 
Rosecrans proved himself more than fortunate, and 
won a high place in the confidence and the affections 
of his countrymen. He will not be forgotten. 

Men who knew General Rosecrans at home, socially, 
before he became a warrior, had inferred from his 
temperament some proneness to hasty judgment, defi 
ciency in executive skill, and lack of coolness and 
deliberation. No doubt his military mind has devel 
oped with experience, but it is plain the original esti 
mate of his character was incorrect. There can be 
no mistake that in coolness, readiness, fertility of 
resource, celerity of thought, rapid decision, and com 
prehensive grasp of mind in the midst of the most 
trying situations of peril, personal and military, he 
proved himself perfectly equal to the tremendous 
responsibility which devolved upon him. Practical 
skill, profound strategy, and executive faculty with a 
mind which grasps general principles, and eagerly 
inquires into, and handles minute details, are rarely 



MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 331 

embodied in one character, and yet General Rosecrans 
demonstrated that he combines all. 

When his Right Wing was so astounding! y flung 
back into his face with frightful rapidity and violence, 
it was enough to have shaken any ordinary mind. It 
must have touched him exquisitely. His plans were 
so thoroughly prepared and digested, and so well 
approved by his best Generals he relied so earnestly 
upon the staunchness of the trust} 7 Right Wing, that 
the pang of disappointment, when it gave way, must 
have been almost crushing for the instant. A little 
color, perhaps, faded from his face, but he dashed 
away emotion with a gesture of impatience, and vehe 
mently said, "Nevermind never mind we will rec 
tify it we will make it all right ! " From that instant 
no man discerned a glimmer of despondency, uncer 
tainty, or vacillation in his deportment, but he bent 
the whole force of his will, and directed all the powers 
of his mind into that field, with an obvious determ 
ination to make it his own. These were the observ 
ations of many who watched him all day long, with 
the keenest and most painful solicitude. The faintest 
relaxation of his constancy would have unmanned all 
his army. 

THE STAFF. 

The gallantry and unflinching fidelity of the Staff 
was worthy of /highest admiration. They were in 
the midst of the conflict constantly and discharged 
their duties with unsparing zeal. It was not surpris 
ing that there should have been so many casualties in 
the Staff and escort, but it was marvellous that most 
of them were not killed. The conduct of the Aids, 
Captain Thompson, Captain Thorns, Lieutenant Byron 



332 MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 

Kirby, and Lieutenant Bond, who were incessantly 
carrying orders to all parts of the field, was conspicu 
ously brilliant. But Barnet, Goddard, Wiles, Skinner, 
Curtis, Oilman, Mickler, Hub bard, Merrill, Xewbeny, 
Quartermaster Taylor, Commissary Simmons, Royse, 
youthful Porter, and Reynolds, and gallant Father 
Trecy exhibited constancy, coolness, and courage in 
the highest soldierly degree. The General Command 
ing has publicly expressed his and the country s obli 
gations to them. 

HONORABLE MENTION. 

Without an exception, the Commanders of Corps, 
Divisions and Brigades, behaved with distinguished 
bravery. Each officer was constantly in his place. 
General Thomas did not seem to be any more dis 
turbed by the tempest of battle than if it had been 
a summer shower always calm, cool, imperturbable, 
but vigilant and watchful of his command. Rousseau 
was fiery and enthusiastic. "Battle s magnificently 
stern array," had a splendid effect upon him. He 
rode through the storm erect, with radiant counte 
nance and flashing eyes, seeming to enjoy the infer 
nal carnival. Loomis, of the famous Michigan Bat- 
teiT, is not unlike him in battle. A more superb 
couple of heroes never fought together on any field. 
l^egley was eager, clear, vigilant, and self-possessed. 
McCook was as brave as any soldier need be, and 
was with his troops in their deepest trouble. Braver 
men, and cooler than Davis and Johnson, do not live. 
Sherridan, fighting on the left of the Right Wing, 
proved himself a soldier of a high order of courage and 
skill. 



MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 333 

Crittenden was perfectly calm, but an vnmsnal 
statcliness in his deportment seemed to indicate that 
he was gravely conscious of the glories and horrors 
of a great battle. He displayed, conspicuously, one 
of the distinguishing qualities of a true soldier a 
will to obey orders implicitly. He was fortunate in 
having such Generals as Wood, Van Cleve, Hazen, 
Ilascall, Harker, Cruft, Grose, "Wagner, Beatty and 
Fyffe. The general estimate of the army, touching 
division commanders, placed General Wood in the 
very front rank and his dispositions on the day of his 
advance from Lavergne and until his wound com 
pelled him to relinquish his command, justified that 
verdict. His official report is a model of soldierly 
composition technical, severe in style and yet elo 
quently descriptive, while it breathes the spirit of a 
thorough soldier throughout. General Palmer, by 
his constancy, fidelity, and unflinching courage, won 
the applause of the army. It is doing no injustice to 
the remainder of the army to describe the battle of 
Wednesday afternoon, fought by Hazen and Grose, 
of the Second Division of the Left Wing, with lias- 
call, Shaefer and Wagner on his left, as one of the 
most splendid efforts in martial history. True the 
Left was grandly supported by the Center, but the 
dreadful fighting of that frightful afternoon was 
chiefly done by the brigades which have been desig 
nated. The skill and firmness of Hazen, when the 
tide was turning on the Eight, holding the key of his 
position sternly; the desperate heroism of his two im 
mortal regiments the One Hundredth Illinois fixing 
bayonets, and the Forty-First Ohio without bayonets, 
grimly clubbing their muskets to hold their position 



334 MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 

until relief should arrive to enable them to retire for 
ammunition, and shouting with wild vehemence; the 
splendid spirit of the glorious Ninth Indiana, march 
ing across that horrid front, swept as it was by can 
non and awful volleys of musketry, cheering with 
grand defiance of death, was one of the most sublime 
examples of tragic devotion in the annals of warfare. 
No wonder the General Commanding said that 
"Hazen ought to be a Major General." Bnt it was 
the dramatic situation of Hazen s noble regiments 
which made them stand out in such comparative con- 
spicuity. Where every regiment on the field dis 
played the devotion and courage of veterans, it seems 
almost invidious to individualize any. Who are the 
cowards and traitors who can despair of the country 
while the God of Battles gives us such soldiers to 
fight in defense of the Republic? 

Let the Republic rejoice that few field officers in all 
that great army were recreants. The Fourteenth 
Army Corps was a host of heroes led by heroes. 
Each took his life in his sword-hand and flung it with 
magnificent devotion upon the altar of his country. 
The soul swells with lofty pride in contemplating the 
great deeds of our countrymen upon that dreadful 
field and it thrills with anguish when it bends over 
the graves of the noble dead oh ! such multitudes 
of the brightest spirits in all this wide land ! It 
seemed as if the demon of destruction reveled with 
infernal joy among our most gallant officers. Death 
singled out too many shining marks, and made them all 
his own. The nation "mourns for her children and 
will not be comforted, because they are not." Was 
that noble sacrifice in vain ? " Words of m} 7 own," 



MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 335 

said General Rosecrans, with eloquent and touching 
pathos, " can not add to the renown of our brave and 
patriotic officers and soldiers who fell on the Held of 
honor, nor increase respect for their memory in the 
hearts of our countrymen. The names of such men as 
Lieutenant Colonel J. P. Garesche*, the pure and nohle 
Christian gentleman and chivalric officer, who gave 
his life an early offering on the altar of his country s 
freedom ; the gentle, true and accomplished General 
Sill ; the brave, ingenious, and able Colonels Roberts, 
MiHikin, Shaeffer, McKee, Reed, Forman, Fred. 
Jones, Hawkins, Kell, Harrington, Williams, Stem, 
and the gallant and faithful Major Carpenter, of the 
Nineteenth Regulars, and many other field officers, 
will live in our country s history, as well as those of 
many others of inferior rank, whose soldierly deeds 
on this memorable battle-field won for them the ad 
miration of their companions, and will dwell in our 
memories in long future years after God, in his 
mercy, shall have given us peace and restored us to 
the bosom of our homes and families." 

Of the surviving brigade commanders, no word 
was heard on the field or after battle but of praise. 
Each seemed to have established himself so thor 
oughly in the confidence of his special command that 
the troops of the respective brigades proudly boasted 
that their own was the truest and best commander in 
the army. Hazen, Carliu, James St. Clair Morton, 
Miller, Samuel Beatty, and John Beatty, Gibson, 
Grose, Barker, Wagner, Starkweather, and Stanley, 
are officers, said the General Commanding, in whom 
the " Government may well confide. They are the 
men from whom our troops should be at once sup- 



336 MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 

plied with Brigadier Generals; and justice to the 
brave men and officers of the regiments, equally 
demands their promotion, to give them and their reg 
iments their proper leaders. And then," said Gen 
eral Rosecrans, with the cnthusiam of a Chieftian, 
who appreciates and loves the good soldiers who 
have fought so well, " many captains and subalterns 
also showed great gallantry, and capacity for supe 
rior commands. But above all, the steady rank and 
file showed invincible fighting courage and stamina 
worthy of a great and free nation, requiring only 
good officers, discipline and instruction, to make them 
equal if not superior to any troops in ancient or mod 
ern times." 

St. Clair Morton, Hazen, Carlin, and Miller the 
latter, at the especial request of General Thomas, 
were at once recommended for promotion to Briga 
dier Generals. Hazen exhibited consummate skill, 
demonstrating his fitness for a large command. There 
was a spirit and gallantry about young ITarkcr in the 
midst of action that excited the liveliest admiration. 
Beatty (Samuel) was as cool and pleasant as an Octo 
ber morning. He deported himself as if he had 
taken a responsibility which he must execute under 
all circumstances, and he proceeded in a methodical 
business sort of way that suggested anything but bul 
lets and blood. Rousseau, Wood, St. Clair Morton, 
Colonel Loomis, were the splendid figures of the bat 
tle-field. They were no braver nor more devoted 
than others, but there was a sort of gloriousness in 
their deportment on the field that excited enthusiasm 
in all who saw them. "Quiet Phil. Sherridan " pre 
served his sobriquet under all conditions, but the 



MORAL POWER IN BATTLE. 337 

nervy curtness of bis orders showed that his spirit 
\vas moved. The President did a wise thing when he 
made Sherridan a Major General. He did not do so 
wisely when he overlooked Wood. But it is proba 
ble that his honesty and desire to do right are com 
pelled to play the coquette in endeavoring to strike 
an even balance, numerically, between candidates 
from the volunteer and regular armies respectively. 
Perhaps it is well to maintain the principle of com 
pensation by appointing two Major Generals who 
have not proved that they know their business, to 
adjust a mistake made in appointing two others who 
understand it thoroughly. But soldiers who have 
fought do not appreciate it. 

The tribute paid by General Rosecrans to General 
Stanley (since promoted), was warmly approved by 
the army. Brigadier General Stanley, he said, "al 
ready distinguished for four successful battles, Island 
iN~o. 10, May 27, before Corinth, luka, and the battle 
of Corinth, at this time in command of our ten regi 
ments of cavalry, fought the enemy s forty regiments 
of cavalry, and held them at bay, and beat them 
wherever he could meet them. He ought to be made 
a Major General for his services, and also for the 
good of the service." 

The gallantry and the fidelity of the staff officers 
of all the commanders was never surpassed. Among 
those of subordinate rank, Captain Gates P. Thrus- 
ton, of McCook s Staff, attracted most attention, being 
complimented in the official reports of six General 
officers including that of General McCook, and finally 
by General Rosecrans. The official lists of " special 
mentions," which include some of those who were 
29 



338 SPECIAL MENTION. 

conspicuously distinguished for gallantry and good 
conduct, embrace the following names, viz. : 

NAMES SPECIALLY MENTIONED OFFICIALLY FOR IMPORTANT 
SERVICES IN THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

By Major General Me Cook. Brigadier Generals R.W.Johnson, P. H. 
Sherridan, and Jeff. C. Davis, commanding divisions in the Right Wing; 
for gallant conduct during the battles, and for prompt and conscien 
tious attention to duty during their service with the Right Wing. 

Brigadier General D. S. Stanley, Chief of Cavalry, commanded 
advance of Right Wing during its advance from Nolensville; is espe 
cially mentioned for energy and skill. 

Division Commander Wood Brigadier General M. T. Hascall, com 
manding First Brigade ; deserves commendation and gratitude of his 
country. 

Division Commander Palmer. Brigadier General C. Cruft, First 
Brigade ; for holding an important position, and for extricating his 
command from the mass of confusion around him, caused by repulse 
of Right Wing. 

Division Commander D. S. Stanley. Colonel Minty, Fourth Michigan 
Cavalry, deserves credit for the management of his command on the 
march and in several engagements. 

Colonel Murray, Third Kentucky Cavalry ; rendered important and 
distinguished service, gallantly charging and dispersing the enemy s 
cavalry in their attack on our train, Wednesday, December 31st. 

Colonel Zahn, Third Ohio Cavalry ; contributed greatly, by his per 
sonal example, to the restoration of order and confidence in that por 
tion of the Second Brigade stampeded by the enemy s attack on 
Wednesday, 31st. 

Division Commander Johnson. Colonel W. H. Gibson, Forty-Ninth 
Ohio ; commanded Willich s brigade after the capture of Willich ; has 
been several times heretofore recommended for promotion, and is 
again earnestly recommended by Major General McCook, and by Gen 
eral Johnson, for meritorious conduct. 

Colonel Charles Anderson, Ninety-Third Ohio ; honorable mention 
by Major General Rousseau, for gallant conduct. 

Colonel Wallace, Fifteenth Ohio ; Colonel Dodge, Thirtieth Indiana ; 
Colonel P. C. Baldwin ; recommended for promotion for coolness and 
courage on the field of battle. 

Division Commander Wood. Colonel George D. Wagner, Fifteenth 
Indiana, commanding brigade ; has commanded brigade for a year ; is 



SPECIAL MENTION. 339 

recommended for promotion, for brave and skillful conduct during the 
late battles. 

Colonel C. G. Harker, Sixty-Fifth Ohio ; has commanded brigade for 
a year ; is recommended for promotion, for brave and skillful conduct. 
He is also specially mentioned by Major General Me Cook, for valuable 
services on the Right Wing. 

Division Commander Palmer. Colonel W. B. Hazen, Forty-First Ohio, 
commanding brigade; commanded brigade, and is especially men 
tioned for courage and skill in handling his troops, and for maintain 
ing an imro-tant position. 

Colonel W. Grose, Thirty-Sixth Indiana, commanding brigade ; com 
manded brigade, and is recommended for coolness and bravery, in 
fighting his troops against a superior force. 

Division Commander Palmer. Colonel Sedgwick, Second Kentucky; 
Colonel D. A. Enyart, First Kentucky ; Colonel Ross, Ninety-Fourth 
Ohio ; Colonel Osborne, Thirty-First Indiana ; displaj cd marked gal 
lantry on the field, and handled their respective commands with 
skill and judgment. 

Division Commander Van Clcve. Colonel Samuel Beatty, Ninteenth 
Ohio, commanding brigade ; commanding brigade, for coolness, intre 
pidity and skill. 

Colonel J. P. FyflTe, Fifty-Ninth Ohio, commanding brigade; is 
recommended for coolness, intrepidity and skill. Is also especially 
mentioned by Major General McCook, for valuable services with the 
Right Wing. 

Colonel Grider, Ninth Kentucky ; commanded brigade, and is 
especially mentioned for gallantry and coolness under trying circum 
stances. 

Division Commander Rousseau. Colonel 0. A Loomis, First Michigan 
Artillery ; rendered most important services throughout the battle. 

Colonel John Starkweather, First Wisconsin, commanding brigade; 
especially mentioned for coolness, skill and courage. 

Division Commander Neylcif. Colonel William Sirwell, Seventy- 
Eighth Pennsylvania ; Colonel Granville Moody, Seventy-Fourth Ohio ; 
Colonel Hull, Thirty-Seventh Indiana ; for the skill and ability with 
which they handled their respective commands. 

Division Commander Sherridan. Colonel Greusel, Thirty-Sixth Illinois; 
Colonel Bradley, Fifty-First Illinois; are specially commended for 
skill and courage. 

Colonel Sherman, Eighty-Eighth Illinois; honorably mentioned for 
distinguished service. 

Division Commander Johnson. Lieutenant Colonel Hotchkiss, Eighty- 



340 SPECIAL MENTION. 

Ninth Illinois ; Lieutenant Colonel Jones, Thirty-Ninth Indiana ; 
recommended for promotion for meritorious conduct. Lieutenant Col 
onel W. W. Berry, Louisville Legion; specially mentioned for gallant 
and meritorious conduct; is also specially mentioned by Major Gen 
eral Rousseau for retreating in good order before an overwhelming 
force, and drawing off by hand a section of artillerjfc he had been 
ordered to support. 

Division Commander Negley. Lieutenant Colonel Neibling, Twenty- 
First Ohio ; for skill and ability during the battles. 

Division Commander Sherridan. Lieutenant Colonel Laibolt, Second 
Missouri; specially mentioned for skill and courage. Lieutenant 
Colonel McCreary, Second Michigan ; honorably mentioned for distin 
guished service. 

Division Commander D. S. Stanley. Major Kline, Third Indiana Cav 
alry ; on the 27th engaged the enemy on the Nolensville pike, and put 
them to flight. Captain E. Otis, Fourth United States Cavalry ; with 
his regiment rendered important and distinguished service, gallantly 
charging and dispersing the enen^ s cavalry in their attack upon our 
train, on Wednesday, December 31st, capturing seventy prisoners, and 
rescuing three hundred of our own men. 

Staff of Major General Critlcnden. Major Lyne Starling, Assistant 
Adjutant General; specially mentioned by Major General Crittenden 
for gallantry in the battles, general efficiency, and eighteen months 
faithful service. 

Division Commander Rousseau. Major John King, Fifteenth United 
States Infantry, Major Carpenter, Nineteenth United States Infantry, 
Major Slemmer, Sixteenth United States Infantry, Major CaldAvell, 
Eighteenth United States Infantry, Major Fred. Townsend, Eighteenth 
United States Infantry, commanding their respective regiments, are 
specially mentioned for distinguished gallantry and ability. Major 
Carpenter was killed, and Majors King and Slemmer wounded. 

Division Commander Sherridan Major Miller, Thirty-Sixth Illinois, 
Major Chandler, Eighty-Eighth Illinois, Major Hibbard, Twentj -Fourth 
Wisconsin; honorably mentioned. Captain John Mendenhall, Fourth 
United States Artillery, Chief of Artillery and Topographical Engi 
neer on Major General Crittenden s staff; recommended for promotion 
for general efficiency and personal bravery and good conduct in battle. 

Division Commander Wood. Captain Chambers, Fifty-First Indiana, 
Captain Gladwin, Seventy-Third Ohio ; these brave officers, with one 
hundred and twenty men, drove a large force of the enemy from a cov 
ered position, and unmasked his battery. 

Division Commander Palmer. Captain Standart, Company F, First 



SPECIAL MENTION. 341 

Ohio Artillery ; for the gallant manner in which he handled his guns, 
and brought them off the field. 

Staff of Major General Me Cook. Captain Gates P. Thruston, First 
Ohio; specially mentioned by Major General McCook, and others, for 
particular acts of gallantry, skill and good conduct. He is mentioned 
by Generals Negley, Johnson, Davis, Sherridan, and Carlin. 

Division Commander Davis. Captain Hale, Seventy-Fifth Illinois ; 
Captain J. H. Litson, Twentj -Second Illinois; specially mentioned for 
gallant conduct in skirmishing. 

Division Commander Rousseau. Captain Crofton, Sixteenth United 
States Infantry ; Captain Fulmer, Fifteenth United States Infantry ; 
Captain Mulligan, Nineteenth United States Infantry; these three 
infantry Captains commanded their respective battalions after their 
Majors had beeu^iisabled, and behaved with great gallantry, although 
opposed by overwhelming numbers. Captain Guenther, Fifth United 
States Infantry, Company II; deserves great credit and special men 
tion. 

Division Commander Sherridan. Captain Hescock, First Missouri 
Battery; specially mentioned for bravery and skill in the battles, 
and for general efficiency. 

Pioneer Brigade. Captain Bridges, Nineteenth Illinois ; continued in 
command of his regiment after receiving a painful wound. 

Division Commander Johnson. Lieutenant Belding, First Ohio Artil 
lery, Company A ; recommended for promotion for saving three of his 
guns by his personal exertions. 

Division Commander Sherridan. Lieutenant Lambessard, Nineteenth 
Illinois ; Lieutenant Wvman Murphy, Twenty-First Wisconsin, Inspect 
ors of Pioneer Brigade ; are specially mentioned in two reports for 
gallant conduct and energy. 

Surgeon McDermot, Medical Director Right Wing; for gallant con 
duct in the field, and great care and consideration for the wounded. 
Surgeon G. D. Beebe, Medical Director Center ; for zeal, energy and 
efficiency. Surgeon A. J. Phelps, Medical Director Left Wing ; for 
prompt attention to the wounded, great energy and efficiency in the 
discharge of his duties. 

By Major General Rosecrans. Major General G. H. Thomas, true and 
prudent, distinguished in council and on many battle-fields for his 
courage ; Major General McCook, a tried, faithful and loyal soldier, 
who bravely breasted battle at Shiloh and at Perryville, and as bravely 
on the bloody field of Stone River; and Major General Thomas L. 
Crittenden, whose heart is that of a true soldier and patriot, and whose 
gallantry, often attested by his companions in arms in other fields, 



342 SPECIAL MENTION. 

witnessed many times by this army never more conspicuously than 
in this combat ; and the gallant, ever ready Major General Rousseau, 
maintained their high character throughout this action. 

Brigadier Generals Negley, Jefferson C. Davis, Stanley, Johnson, 
Palmer, Hascall, Van Cleve, Wood, Mitchell, Cruft and Sherridan ; 
ought to be made Major Generals in our service. Brigade command 
ers, Colonels Carlin, Miller, Hazen, Samuel Beatty, of the Nineteenth 
Ohio, Gibson, Grose, Wagner, John Beatty, of the Third Ohio, Harker, 
Starkweather, Stanley ; recommended for promotion. 

And the Staff, viz.: The noble and lamented Lieutenant Colonel 
Garesche, Chief of Staff; Lieutenant Colonel Taylor, Chief Quarter 
master ; Lieutenant Colonel Simmons, Chief Commissary ; Major C. 
Goddard, senior Aiddecarnp ; Major Ralston Skinner, Judge Advocate 
General ; Lieutenant Frank S. Bond, Aiddecamp of General Tyler ; 
Captain Charles R. Thompson, my Aiddecamp ; Lieutenant Byron 
Kirby, Sixth United States Infantry, Aiddecamp, who was wounded 
on the 31st; R. S. Thorns, Esq., a member of the Cincinnati Bar, who 
acted as Volunteer Aiddecamp, and behaved with distinguished gal 
lantry; Captain Wm. D. Bickham, Volunteer Aiddecamp, rendered 
efficient services on the field ; Colonel Barnet, Chief of Artillery and 
Ordnance ; Captain J. PI. Gilman, Nineteenth United States Infantry, 
Inspector of Artillery ; Captain James Curtis, Fifteenth United States 
Infantry, Assistant Inspector General; Captain Wiles, Twenty-Second 
Indiana, Provost Marshal General ; Captain Michler, Topographical 
Engineer ; Captain Jesse Merrill, Signal Corps, whose corps behaved 
well ; Captain Elmer Otis, Fourth Regular Cavalry, who commanded 
the Courier Line, connecting the various headquarters most success 
fully, and who made a most successful, opportune, and brilliant charge 
on Wheeler s Cavalry, routing the brigade, and recapturing three hund 
red of our prisoners; Lieutenant Edson, United States Ordnance Offi 
cer, who, during the battle of Wednesday, distributed ammunition 
under the fire of the enemy s batteries, and behaved bravely. Captain 
Hubbard and Lieutenant Newberry, who joined the staff on the field, 
acting as aids, rendered valuable service in carrying orders on the 
field; Lieutenant Royse, Fourth United States Cavalry, commanded 
the escort of the headquarters train, and distinguished himself with 
gallantry and efficiency. All performed their appropriate duties to the 
entire satisfaction of the General Commanding "accompanying me 
everywhere," said the General, " carrying orders through the thickest 
of the fight, watching while others slept, and never weary when duty 
called, deserve my public thanks- and the respect and gratitude of the 
army." 



SPECIAL MENTION. 343 



ADDENDA. 

Lieutenant Colonel Houssam, Seventy-Seventh Pennsylvania Vol 
unteers. 

Captain Bingham, Sixty-Ninth Ohio Volunteers. 

Captain Cox, Tenth Indiana Battery. 

Captain James P. Meade, Thirty-Eighth Illinois Volunteers. 

Lieutenant John L. Dillon, Thirty-Eighth Illinois Volunteers. 

Lieutenant Jones, Post s Brigade. 

Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers captured a rebel flag from 
Twenty-Sixth Tennessee, assisted by other regiments of Negicy s 
division. 

Lieutenant Guenther, United States Battery, and the Second Ohio 
Volunteers, captured the flag of the Thirtieth Arkansas Regiment. 

The Fifteenth Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, Lieutenant Colonel 
Wood commanding, charged and captured one hundred and seventy- 
three prisoners from the Twentieth Louisiana Regiment. 

The Thirteenth Michigan Volunteers gallantly recaptured two guns 
belonging to Captain Bradley s Battery. 

Carlin s brigade lost half its field officers in killed and wounded. 

The Fifth Kentucky Volunteers dragged from the field, by hand, a 
section of artillery, through deep mud and under heavy fire. 

Four color-bearers of the Twenty-First Illinois were shot down, yet 
the colors were borne safely through the fight. 

SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROMOTION. 

Brigadier General David S. Stanley, senior Brigadier General at the 
battle of Stone River. He commanded the force that did the fighting 
at New Madrid. On the 27th of May, 1862, he commanded division 
before Corinth, and repulsed a vigorous sortie of the enemy. At the 
battle of luka his division fought well, supporting General Hamilton s 
division, and pursuing the enemy. His troops bore a conspicuous part 
in the battle of Corinth charged the enemy, routed Maury s division 
at the point of the bayonet, and followed the advance guard in the 
pursuit. As Chief of Cavalry, in the Department of the Cumberland, 
he organized an effective force out of our almost disorganized Cav 
alry, and successfully operated against the enemy double in numbers. 
At. the bnttlc of Stone River he won universal admiration for himself 
by acts of personal daring and skillful uanagement of his troops. 
Distinguished in five great battles, he is entitled to rank commensurate 
with the command so long intrusted to him. 



344 SPECIAL MENTION. 

Brigadier General James S. Negley has commanded a division nearly 
a year, always maintaining strict discipline, and keeping his com 
mand in excellent condition. As commander of the post at Nashville, 
he fortified and protected the city in a most judicious manner, while 
cut off from communication, without support from our forces in Ken 
tucky, and surrounded by a vigilant enemy, he subsisted upon their 
country, made several successful sorties against them, at one time 
routing a large force at Lavergne, Tennessee. At the battle of Stone 
River he fought his troops obstinately, and handled them with con 
summate skill, winning a high reputation for courage and generalship, 
and contributing largely to the success of our arms. 

Brigadier General Thomas J. Wood, a thoroughly loyal soldier from 
Kentucky. When the war broke out, he assisted the Governor of 
Indiana in organizing the troops in that State, and, through his energy 
and experience, was instrumental in creating and systematizing the 
military department for which that State is so justly celebrated. He 
made a forced march to be present at the battle of Shiloh, reaching 
there with his command in time to join in the pursuit. He com 
manded a division before Corinth. At the battle of Stone River his 
division repulsed the repeated assaiilts of the enemy in a most bril 
liant manner, and the night of the 31st December found it occupying 
the same ground it held in the morning. Early that day he was 
severely wounded while nobly discharging his duty, but he did not 
leave the field till night ended the conflict. 

Brif/adicr General Jefferson C, Davis won distinction at the commence 
ment of the rebellion, for gallant service at Fort Sumter. After 
ward conspicuous in the sanguinary struggle in South-Western 
Missouri. He captured nine hundred prisoners at Blackwatcr, and by 
the splendid fighting of his troops, and his skillful management, con 
tributed largely to the success of our arms at Pea Ridge. His services 
at Shiloh and before Corinth deserve honorable mention. At Stone 
River he sustained his high reputation. His division was compelled 
to retire by being flanked, not by being driven. On the 2d of. Jan 
uary, he crossed Stone River with a single brigade of his division, 
and gallantty led them against the enemy, and assisted in routing and 
pursuing the corps of General Breckinridge. 

Brigadier General John M. Palmer has long held a responsible com 
mand with credit to himself and honor to his country. The official 
report of Major General Crittenden pays him a well-deserved compli 
ment for important services performed at the battle of Stone River. 
His troops were posted in the extreme front of the line of battle in an 
exposed position, when they successfully resisted the massed assaults 



SPECIAL MENTION. 345 

of a foe flushed with anticipated victory, and held their ground during 
the whole of that fearful conflict. He exposed himself freely to heavy 
fire, and in the heat of battle maneuvered his command with prudence 
and ability. 

Brigadier General II. P. Van Cleve first achieved distinction at Mill 
Springs, Kentucky, where his command charged and routed the enemy 
with the bayonet, and did a large part of the splendid fighting that 
resulted in that most important and brilliant victory. He has always 
borne the character of an able, conscientious, and brave officer. At 
the battle of Stone River he managed his command with skill and 
vigor. When McCook s corps was driven back after his (Van Cleve s) 
division had crossed the river to advance on Murfreesboro, General 
Van Cleve hastened with a large part of his command to the Right of 
the army, and in an open field assisted in checking the advance of the 
enemy. Though wounded early in the action of the 31st, he remained 
on the field all day, animating, and obstinately and prudently fighting 
his well-disciplined troops. 

Brigadier General Phil. If. Sherridan is a model officer, and possesses 
in an eminent degree qualities that promise for him a brilliant and 
useful career in the profession of arms. As commander of a large 
force of cavalry at Corinth, he proved himself enterprising, capable, 
and more than a match in generalship for the enemy s most noted 
officers. At Stone River he won universal admiration. He held his 
troops in hand, and fought them several hours, repulsing the enemy in 
his front with great slaughter. Upon being flanked and compelled to 
retire, he withdrew his command more than a mile under a terrible 
fire in remarkable order, at the same time inflicting the severest pun 
ishment upon the foe. The constancy and steadfastness of his troops 
on the 31st of December enabled the reserve to reach the Right of our 
army in time to turn the tide of battle, and changed a threatened rout 
into a victory. He has fairly Avon promotion. 

Colonel John Beatti/, Third Ohio. Early in the war he participated 
in the important military operations in Western Virginia, and was 
present at Rich Mountain and Elkwater. He bore an honorable part 
tinder General Mitchell in the engagement at Bridgeport, Tennessee. 
He commanded the regiment on the extreme right of McCook s corps 
at the battle of Chaplin Hills, and displayed coolness and courage in 
that exposed and fatal position. At Stone River, Colonel Bcatty s bri 
gade was in reserve, and when the Right of our army was driven 
back, was gallantly led to the rescue, and through such splendid fight 
ing as it and others did, the army was saved. On January 3d, Colonel 
Beatty ; s brigade, under his skillful management, assisted in storming 



346 SPECIAL MENTION. 

the enemy s rifle pits, and achieving the success that led the enemy to 
abandon the position before Murfreesboro. 

Colonel Wm. 1L Gibson, Forty-Ninth Ohio Volunteers, entered the 
service July 3, 1801, as Colonel of the Forty-Ninth Ohio Volunteers, a 
regiment, while under his charge, second to no other in drill, disci 
pline, and efficiency. He long commanded a brigade, and at one time 
a division at Shiloh, before Corinth, and at Stone River ; he has proved 
himself a working, wide-awake, determined, and able officer. During 
the latter engagement he moved his brigade under ciders to various 
parts of the field with admirable promptness and ability. 

Colonel Wm. B. Hazen, Forty-First Ohio Volunteers, has been intrusted 
with the responsibility of commanding a brigade perhaps as long as 
any officer in the service of similar rank. At Shiloh he displayed 
marked ability. At Stone River he proved himself a brave and able 
soldier by the courage and skill displayed in forming and sheltering 
his troops, and in organizing and fighting all the material around him, 
in order to hold his important position. 

Colonel W. P. Carlin, Thirty-Eighth Illinois Volunteers. This thor 
oughly educated and efficient officer has attained honorable distinction 
at Pea Ridge, Corinth, Chaplin Hills, and Stone River, as well as by 
the perfect state of discipline in which he always kept his command. 
At Chaplin Hills he pushed his brigade into Perryville, threatened the 
enemy s rear, and captured an ammunition train, several caissons, and 
a considerable number of the enemy. In the advance on Murfrees 
boro, through his daring and skill, the brigade routed a rebel force and 
captured a cannon. At Stone River, December 80, he drove in the 
rebc-1 skirmishers and advance guard in admirable style. December 
31st he held- his troops in hand, fighting desperately against fearful odds 
until the supports on both sides were driven back, and the fact that he lost 
half his field officers in killed and wounded, and thirty-four and three- 
fourths per cent, of his command, testifies to his stubborn fighting. 

Colonel Samuel 13eatt>/, Nineteenth Ohio Volunteers, distinguished him 
self early in the war by gallant conduct in Western Virginia, particu 
larly at Rich Mountain. At Shiloh he again did good service. On 
the morning of the 31st of December, at Stone River, when our Right had 
been turned, he assisted by steady and unflinching fighting in check 
ing the advance of the enemy. January 3d he commanded the Third 
Division, Left Wing, in the sanguinary conflict east of Stone River, 
and though forced to retire before overwhelming numbers, he rallied 
his troops, and aided in the brilliant repulse and pursuit that soon fol 
lowed. The official report of his commanding officer commended him 
for his coolness, intrepidity, and skill on the field of battle. 



SPECIAL MENTION. 347 

Colonel George D. Wagner, Fifteenth Indiana Volunteers, served as 
Colonel of the Fifteenth Indiana on Cheat Mountain in Western Vir 
ginia, and aided effectually in repulsing the attack of the rebel Gen 
eral Lee at Elk water. Distinguished for energy and efficiency as a 
regimental commander, he has commanded successfully and efficiently 
a brigade, and at the battle of Stone River his conduct was heroic. 
He is respectfully recommended for promotion to Brigadier General. 

Colonel William Grose, Thirty-Sixth Indiana Volunteers, has long 
commanded a brigade with ability that would make his promotion but 
a simple act of justice to him and his command. At the battle of 
Stone River his troops, posted in the extreme front, fought against 
great odds, and the commander of his division reports that he con 
ducted himself with great coolness and bravery, and managed his 
troops in such a manner that he could suggest no improvement. He 
is respectfully recommended for promotion to the rank of Brigadier 
General. 

Lieutenant Colonel 0. L. Shepherd, commanding Regular Brigade ; 
commanded the brigade with bravery and skill at the battle of Stone 
River, and is specially mentioned in the reports of Major General 
Rousseau and of Major General Thomas, his division and corps com 
manders. The fearful loss of the brigade, being upward of thirty- 
five per cent., attests the obstinacy of the fighting. lie is respectfully 
recommended for a "brevet," 

Major Fred. Townsend, of the Eighteenth United States Infantry, com 
manding a battalion of Regulars in the battle of Stone River, behaved 
with great gallantry, and is especially mentioned in the report of his 
division comutander. He is respectfully recommended for a "brevet." 

Major Slemmer, commanding battalion of Sixteenth Regulars, fought 
bravely, was badly wounded, and fell into the hands of the enemy. 
While in a little cabin with six other wounded officers, the lire of our 
batteries struck the house, and some of them prepared to put out a 
white flag, but Major Slemmer sent his boy to say that there was no 
one but six desperately wounded officers who would probably die any 
way, and that if it was necessary to hold the ground to blaze away 
and knock the house to pieces. 

Major Caldwell, commanding battalion of Regulars .at the battle of 
Stone River, has been in service twenty years is honorably mentioned 
by his brigade commander for gallantry. He is respectfully recom 
mended for a "brevet." 

Major John H. King, Fifteenth United States Infantry, has com 
manded a battalion of Regulars for more than a year in active service, 
and always praised by his superiors for order and efficiency. Was in 



348 SPECIAL MENTION. 

i.he battle of Sliiloh, where he had a horse shot from under him ; and 
was second in command in the battle of Stone River, where he fought 
bravely. He is respectfully recommended for " brevet." 

Captain Crofton commanded a battalion of the Sixteenth United 
States Infantry after Major Slemmer was wounded, in the battle of 
Stone River, where he fought bravely. He is respectfully recommended 
for " brevet." 

Captain Mulligan, who succeeded Major Carpenter in command of 
the Nineteenth Infantry Battalion in the battle of Stone River, is men 
tioned by his commander for gallantry. He is respectfully recom 
mended for a "brevet." 

Captain Fulmer, Fifteenth Regular Infantry, succceeded to the com 
mand of that battalion at the battle of Stone River, after Major King 
was wounded, and behaved with great bravery during the whole 
action. 

First Lieutenant J. L. Guenther, JSattery II, Fifth United States 
Artillery. Too much can not be said in praise of this brave and 
accomplished officer. His services in Western Virginia especially at 
the battle of Greenbriar, deserves the most honorable mention. At 
Shiloh his heroic conduct and skill in managing his guns won univer 
sal admiration, and Captain W. Terrill, his senior officer, was made 
Brigadier General for like brilliant services. At the engagement at 
Dog Walk he behaved with coolness and intrepidity. For his magnifi 
cent conduct at Stone River he fairly earned the "brevet" of Major. 
His battery almost annihilated the Thirty-Fifth Arkansas rebel regi 
ment and cut down and captured its colors. His splendid Napoleons, 
double-shotted with grape, defended themselves frequently unaided by 
infanti y, and gained for them the thanks and admiration of the army. 
Served in Western Virginia with great credit. 

Lieutenant Parsons commanding Companies H and M, Fourth United 
States Artillery, in the battle of Stone River, has always managed to 
get under the heaviest fire. He was in the affair at Cotton Hill, in 
Western Virginia, and at Shiloh in Mendenhall s Battery, which was 
specially mentioned in General Crittenden s report. At Perryville he 
behaved like a hero. His battery was specially distinguished in the 
battle of Stone River on the day of the 31st of December, and on the 
morning of the 2d of January. He is respectfully recommended for a 
Major " brevet." 

Colonel John Kennett, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, who com 
manded the Second Cavalry Division, accompanying General Crit 
tenden s Corps, behaved with great gallantry and efficiency through 
out the entire engagement, commencing on the 26th of Decem- 



SPECIAL MENTION. 349 

ber and terminating on the 3d of January last. His cavalry drove the 
rebel cavalry from near Lavergne arid followed them during our 
advance. On the 30th, during all the day, the cavalry of his brigade 
was scattered, but with those parts he could command, from time to 
time during the battle, he behaved with distinguished gallantly, 
charging the rebel cavalry in person. He rallied some of our cavalry 
and stopped stragglers in the rear, and captured a number of rebel 
prisoners. His unwearied labors and conspicuous courage on former 
occasions, as well as during the battle of Stone River, have endeared 
him to the army, and it is a matter of deep regret that a functional 
disease compelled him to quit the service. He well deserves to be a 
Brigadier General in the cavalry service. 

ENLISTED MEN SPECIALLY MENTIONED FOR GALLANT CON 
DUCT IN THE BATTLE OF STONE RIVER. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Colburn, Thirty-Third Ohio. 

Sergeant Ferguson, Co. G, Fifty-Ninth Illinois. 

First Sergeant German, Eighth Wisconsin Battery. 

Privates A. F. Freeman and Abijah Lee (Orderlies with Brigadier 
General Davis). 

Private James Gray, Co. E, Thirty-Ninth Indiana. 

Sergeant Holan, Co. G, Sixty-Fourth Ohio. 

Corporal James Slater and Private William Hayman, Second Indi 
ana Cavalry (escort General Palmer). 

Sergeant McKay, Co. E, Forty-First Ohio; Sergeant McMnhon, Co. 
II, Forty-First Ohio, and Corporal J. B. Patterson, Co. G, Forty-First 
Ohio (commanded their respective companies in the battle and 
behaved with great gallantry, recommended for promotion). 

Sergeant R. B. Rhodes, First Ohio Cavalry (commanded escort of 
Brigadier General Van Cleve). 

Sergeant Jason Hurd, Nineteenth Ohio. 

Private William Brown, Fifty-Seventh Ohio (captured thirty pris 
oners). 

Private Nelson Shields, Thirteenth Ohio (preserving regimental 
flag). 

Private J. F. Mitchell, Co. B. Thirty-Third Ohio. 

Sergeant H. A. Millar, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania. 

Sergeant A.R. Weaver, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania. 

Sergeant F. Mechlin, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania. 

Corporal W. Hughes, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania. 

Sergeant P. A. Weaver, Seventy-Fourth Ohio. 

Orderlies Jaggers and Parish, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. 



350 



CASUALTIES. 



CASUALTIES. 

Our losses in the service of operations, beginning 
with the 26th day of December and ending with the 
battle of Stone River, were as follows : 

EIGHT WING, MAJOR GENERAL McCOOK. 

FIRST DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL JEFF. C. DAVIS. 

First Brigade, Colonel P. Sidney Post Commanding. 



REGIMENTS. 


Killed 


Wounded Missing. 


Aggregate 


Officers.. 


P 


Officers. 


<T> 


Officers. 


o 


Officers. 


a 














22d Indiana Volunteers* 




7 
7 


5 


34 
43 
34 
19 

5 

] 35 


... 
~~ 


18 
30 
42 
59 
6 


5 

i 

2 
1 

"1 


59 
80 
84 
80 
12 

3 ir> 


59th Illinois Volunteers 




74th Illinois Volunteers 




8 
2 
1 


9 


75th Illinois Volunteers 




5th Wisconsin Battery 




Total First BnVade..., 






Second Brigade, Colonel W. P. Carlin Commanding. 


2lst Illinois Volunteers 


2 
2 

4 
2 


55 
13 
19 
32 

3 


7 
5 
2 

5 

1 


180 
05 
121 
104 

5 


"i 


59 
33 
66 
34 
1 


5 

6 
7 
1 


294. 
Ill 
206 
170 
9 

790 


15th Wisconsin Volunteers 


101st Ohio Volunteers 


38th Illinois Volunteers 


2d Minnesota Battery ..- 


Total Second Brigade 


!() 


122 


20 


475 


1 


193 


31 





Third Brigade, Colonel W. E. Woodruff Commanding. 



35th Illinois Volunteers 


1 


10 


1 


49 




25 





84 


81st Indiana Volunteers 


9 


4 


1 


46 


1 


15 


4 


65 


8th Wisconsin Battery 


1 






4 




1 


1 


5 


Co B 2d Indiana Cavalry 








2 








2 


2d Kentucky Cavalry Co G 


1 






2 




6 


1 


8 


Total Third Brigade 


6 


9q 


5 


175 


1 


52 


19 


256 




















Total First Division 


in 


176 


84 


785 


9 


400 


59 


1361 





















CASUALTIES. 



351 



SECOND DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL R. W. JOHNSON. 

First Brigade, Brigadier General A. Willich, succeeded by Colonel W. H. 
Gibson Commanding. 



REGIMENTS. 


Killed Wounded 


Missing. 


Aggregate 


Officers.. 


g 


Officers.. 


| 


Officers. 


a 

3 


C 

m 

o> 


g 

p 




















1 




ii : 


15th Ohio Volunteers ... 




17 

18 


2 
6 


68 
88 
40 
116 
45 
4 


1 
"2 


127 
108 
115 
229 
94 


to en : CD co 


212 
214 
167 
375 
148 
29 

1145 


49th Ohio Volunteers 


2 


32d Indiana Volunteers 


39th Indiana Volunteers 


1 
1 


30 
9 
1 


2 
1 


89th Illinois Volunteers 


Battery A, 1st Ohio.... 


Total First Brigade 


1 


87 


11 


361 


4 


697 


19 





Second Brigade, Brigadier General E. N. Kirk Commanding. 









1 








1 




34th Illinois Volunteers 


2 


... 

19 


o 


98 


2 


72 


5 


189 


79th Illinois Volunteers . ... 


1 


9^ 


g 


68 


3 


121 


7 


212 


29th Indiana Volunteers 


1 


14 


I 


86 


] 


51 


| 


131 


30th Indiana Volunteers 


1 


80 


2 


108 


9 


70 


5 


208 


77th Pennsylvania Volunteers 
Battery E 1st Ohio . . .. 


1 


4 
10 


1 


28 
5 


2 

9 


28 


4 

9 


60 
15 




6 


100 


11 


373 


9 


349 


9f) 


815 





















Third Brigade, Colonel P. P. Baldwin Commanding. 



1st Ohio Volunteers 1 


8 
12 
17 
18 
3 
4 


1 
1 

7 
1 


46 
45 
50 
73 
18 
6 


... 

"i 

i 

17 


81 
64 
36 
26 
1 
15 


1 
1 
1 

8 

1 


135 
121 
103 
117 
22 
25 


93d Ohio Volunteers 




6th Indiana Volunteers 

5th Kentucky Volunteers .. 


*1 








Total Third Brigade 








1 
11 


62 
249 


10 

32 


238 
972 


223 


12 

60 


523 
2483 


Total Second Division 


1262 





352 



CASUALTIES. 



THIRD DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL PHIL. H. SHERRIDAN. 
First Brigade, Brigadier General J. W. Sill Commanding. 



REGIMENTS. 


Killed 


Wounded 


Missing. | Aggregate 


Officers.. 


ft) 


Officers.. 


5* 
O 
P 


Officers. 


Z 

o 

3 


Officers. 


^ 

o 














\ 




1 








2 




3iitli Illinois Volunteers 


1 
1 
1 


45 
13 
19 
18 
6 


3 
2 
1 

7 


144 

48 
55 
82 
17 


6 


13 

48 
98 
3G 
3 


10 
3 

2 
7 


202 
109 
172 
130 
20 

045 


88t]i Illinois Volunteers 


24th Wisconsin Volunteers 
21^1 Michigan Volunteers . 


4 li Indiana Battery. . . 




Total First Brigade.... 








i 


101 


14 


340 


61 198 


24 



Second Brigade, Colonel F. Shaeffer Commanding. 



2d Brigade officers . ... 


j 












] 




2d Missouri Volunteers 
15th Missouri Volunteers 


g 


q 


4 


40 
51 


1 


14 
5 


1 
,7 


61 
65 


44th Illinois Volunteers 


1 


98 


4 


104 




17 


5 


149 


73d Illinois Volunteers 


1 


15 


8 


61 


1 


7 


5 


83 


1st Missouri Battery 


1 


5 




18 




1 


1 


19 




















Total Second Brigade 


7 


64 


11 


269 


9 


44 


*>0 


377 





















Third Brigade, Colonel G. W. Roberts Commanding. 



3d Brigade officers 


1 












1 




22d Illinois Volunteers 




21 
8 
18 
6 
5 


5 
2 

4 

2 

13 
38 
104 


109 
67 
96 
37 
19 

328 
943 
2700 


2 

"i 


54 
25 

45 
9 
25 


7 
3 
2 
5 
2 


184 
100 
159 
52 
49 

544 
1566 
5410 


27th Illinois Volunteers 


1 
1 
1 


42d Illinois Volunteers 
51st Illinois Volunteers . 


1st Illinois Battery . 


Total Third Brigade 




4 

] r ) 


58 
223 

648 


3 
11 


158 
400 


20 
64 


Total Third Division 


Grand Total 


42 


30 


2062 


176 





CASUALTIES. 



353 



CENTER, MAJOR GENERAL GEO. H. THOMAS. 
FIRST DIVISION, MAJOR GENERAL ROUSSEAU. 



REGIMENTS. 


Offi rs 


JNon- 
(, om. 
Officers 


Enlisted 
Men. 


Total. 


H 

5T 




3 
o 

a 

^ 

(6 


w 

fl>* 
CU 


^ 

5 


Su 


w 

o 

F 1 


3* 
o 
(3 
D 

C- 
CD 

cL 


s 

o"* 


o 
B 


1 








17 
15 
22 
15 
65 
3 
1 
2 






33d Ohio Volunteers 






4 

7 
7 


2 
2 
5 
3 
10 


2 
2 
8 
3 
14 


21 
24 
33 
15 

86 
8 
2 
4 
8 
4 
29 
48 
67 
87 
71 
133 
216 
47 
5 

908 


94th Ohio Volunteers 




2 




2d Ohio Volunteers 


1 


4 


2 


10th Wisconsin Volunteers 


38th Indiana Volunteers 


1 


2 
1 


3 


19 
4 
















2d Kentucky Cavalry 








2 




79th Pennsylvania Volunteers 






3 


2 


5 

24 
34 

53 
68 
54 
104 
173 
35 
4 

698 


2 

"8 
8 
17 
17 
11 
16 
55 
7 

170 


24th Illinois Volunteers 








15th Kentucky Volunteers .. . . 


2 


3 
1 

6 
4 

7 

1 1 

* 


1! 4 
21 11 
4| 13 
3i 13 
1 13 
1 22 
10! 32 
... 11 
... 1 


5 
6 
13 
14 
9 
15 
43 
6 


88th Indiana Volunteers 


3d Ohio Volunteers 




42d Indiana Volunteers 




15th United States Infantry 


1 


16th United States Infantry 


18th United States Infantry .. . 


2 
1 


19th United States Infantry . . . 


Company H, 5th United States Artillery 
Total ... 


8 


44 


27 166 


135 



SECOND DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL NEGLEY. 


18th Ohio Volunteers 


1 
1 
2 
1 
1 


8 
7 
6, 
6 
4 
B 
5 
6 


8 
4 
6 
3 
7 
4 
4 
3 


21 
21 
12 
15 
14 
21 
27 
17 
2 
I 
2 


17 

9 
23 
1 
16 

r 

19 
13 

"2 

"i 

106 


86 
55 
66 
32 
85 
66 
74 
103 
9 
3 
7 

"2 
588 


26 
14 
30 
5 
24 
9 

25 
16 

"t 

1 

_I 

154 


115 
83 
84 
53 
103 
92 
106 
125 
11 
5 
9 
1 

_! 

790 


19th Illinois Volunteers 


llth Michigan Volunteers 


69th Ohio Volunteer" 


21st Ohio Volunteers 


74th Ohio Volunteer^ 


37th Indiana Volunteers 


2 


78th Pennsylvania Volunteers 


1st East Tennessee Volunteers 




2cl East Tennessee Volunteers 




1 




Battery G 1st Ohio 






1 
1 


Battery M 1st Ohio 




1 
1 


Battery M, 1st Kentucky 




Total . 


8 


49 


46 


1571 





80 



354 



CASUALTIES. 



RECAPITULATION. 



COMMANDS. 


Offi rs 


Non- 
Coin. 

Officers 


& 


CM). 


Total. 


Killed 


Wounded.. 


59 


Wounded.. 


1 


O 

C 

a, 


Killed 


Wounded.. 


First Division . .. . 


8 
8 


4427 

49J40 


1661135 
153106 

2 


698 
588 
12 


170 
154 


908 
790 
15 


Second Division . 


Walker s Brigade 


Aggregate 


16 


94 


I M 










321241 12983241713 



Total killed and wounded, 



.2,037 



LEFT WING, MAJOR GENERAL T. L. CRITTENDEN. 
FIRST DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL T. J. WOOD. 



CASUALTIES. 


Officers. 


> 

o 

p 


g 

QD 


Killed 


11 


200 


211 




56 


859 


915 






in 7 


107 










Total 


67 


1220 


1293 



SECOND DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL J. M. PALMER. 



COMMANDS. 


Killed. || Wounded. 


Officers. 


g 

o 
ft 


H 
o 




O 
33 

a 


g 

to 

d 


g 

S" 


44 

41 
97 
5 
2 
2 


44 
46 

10 ^ 

o 

2 


^ 

QD 


17 

22 

L 

i 

49 


218 
318 
456 
12 
14 
43 

1001 




1st Brigade Cruft s 




227 

oo,-^ 

478 
12 
14 
44 

1110 




& 

10 


3d Brigade Grose s 


St ind irt s Ohio Battery 


Persons 4th United States Artillery 




Cockcrell s Indiana Battery 




Total... 


16 


191 


206 



CASUALTIES. 



355 



Second Division Continued. 



COMMANDS. 


Missing. 


Officers.... 


t> 

<e 


H 
o 
5" 


Aggregate 


1st Brigade Cruft g 


6 


120 
52 
74 
3 
G 
2 

257 


1*>fi 


307 
433 
G59 
20 
22 

^ 
1579 


2d Brio-ad e, Hazen s 


52 
7-1 
3 

G 
o 

203 


3d Brio-.idc Grose s 




Standard s Ohio Battery .... 




Parsons 4th United States Artillery 


Cockcrell s Indiana. Battery 




Total 


6 





THIRD DIVISION, BRIGADIER GENERAL VAN CLEVE. 



COMMANDS. 


Killed. 


Wounded. Missing. 


o 
p_ 
? 


Oilicers. | 


o 

3 


H 
o 

EL 


~ 
A 


O 

a 


o" 
p 


K 


g 

C- 

B 


o 


1 




"1 

319 
239 

328 
1 9 

906 


9 

! 

4 




Brigadier General Van Cleve 






81 
160 

140 

387 


81 
162 

MS 

391 


460 
481 
557 
25 

1530 


1st Brigade .. 


7 
6 


59 
70 
75 
G 

210 


06 
80 
81 

G 



233 


14 

I 


303 
225 
307 
19 

854 


2d Brigade 


3d Brigade 


Artillery 


Total 


17 





GRAND AGGREGATE. 



Officers killed 92 Men killed 1441 Total killed 1,533 

Officers wounded. ..384 Men wounded. ...G8G1 Total wounded.. 7.2-15 



Total 476 Total 8302 Total 8,778 

Prisoners 3,000 



Grand aggregate of killed, wounded, and prisoners 11,778 



356 BRAGG s TACTICS. 

Incongruous official reports make exactness in 
aggregates impossible; but it was finally discovered 
upon examination of all the data that the actual 
numerical casualties of the Left Wing exceeded those 
of the Right "Wing. Its per cent-age of losses was 
correspondingly greater. We lost about three thou 
sand prisoners. 

The dead were buried in trenches, excepting in a 
few instances where regiments, with honorable esprit 
du corps 9 sought tenderly for their comrades and 
interred them carefully, distinguishing their places 
of burial with head-boards. The body of Colonel 
Garesche was interred in the little cemetery on the 
knoll where headquarters were established on the 
night of the 30th of December, but it was subsequently 
exhumed by his brother and conveyed to the North. 

BRAGG S ARMY AND ins GRAND TACTICS. 

In the absence of positive data it is necessary to 
rely upon circumstantial evidence in order to establish 
the numerical force of Bragg s army in that battle. 
The estimates of General Rosecrans are not only 
plausible but fair. The testimony of the rebels them 
selves confirms the general affirmation that Bragg s 
army was at least equal, numerically, in infantry and 
artillery to Rosecrans force, while his cavalry and 
mounted infantry exceeded that of General Stanley, 
at least four to one. Colonel Truesdail s reports, 
touching the strength of Bragg s infantry force, were 
generally verified, but reinforcements joined his forces 
after Rosecrans moved from Nashville. 

It appeared subsequently that Bragg, confident in the 
superb discipline of his army, had misconceived the 



BRAGG s TACTICS. 357 

fighting qualities of our men. He assumed that at 
least half of Rosecrans forces were raw, and therefore 
unreliable, lie, therefore, not only concluded to give 
battle at Stone River, but it is asserted that he was 
preparing to fall suddenly upon the divisions at Gal- 
latin, menacing Nashville with a sufficient force to 
prevent Rosecrans from sending succor to the forces 
at the former points. 

It is certain that he was sanguine of success, and 
his defeat, although compensated in some degree by 
his success of Wednesday, was a sore disappointment. 
Had he been satisfied to withdraw from Murfreesboro 
Wednesday night, the prestige of victory would have 
remained with him for a little while, though he would 
have been bitterly pursued and at all- hazards. 
Bragg s mode of fighting was characteristic of the 
Southern people. It was all dash, and the admirable 
discipline of his troops told fearfully at every onset. 
They charged with splendid daring. But it was evi 
dent that they were best in onset. They did not at 
any time display the staunch stand-up fighting pluck- 
iness which distinguished our troops. Where two 
lines were confronted in the field, man for man, the 
superiority of our troops was at once made manifest. 
Northern phlegm was too much for Southern fire. 
Their troops fought ferociously, ours with bitter de 
termination. Now and then some of our regiments 
galled to death by their marksmen, would rush infu- 
riately forward and drive everything before them. 
The rebels never attempted to resist a charge, though 
our troops resisted mad charges by them repeatedly. 
They overwhelmed the Right Wing and the Third 
Division of the Left by avoirdupois not by fighting. 



358 BRAGG S TACTICS. 

Their grand tactics were conspicuous in this battle as 
they were at Games Mills, where they defeated Fitz 
John Porter, who, if he had possessed the skill of 
Rosecrans, would have utterly defeated the enemy, 
though vastly outnumbered by them. The rebel artil 
lery practice was very fine. They had exact range all 
over our position. It was often remarked in the 
midst of battle that their gunners were very skillful. 
Nevertheless the superiority of our artillery was 
established. Their sharpshooters were their most 
formidable arm. They swarmed in the forests, and 
during Wednesday there was not a point on the bat 
tle-field that was not within their range. Half our 
officers who were wounded were struck by them. In 
McCook s front they had constructed platforms among 
the branches of the trees, from which to practice their 
devilish arts. Their mounted infantry were also sig 
nally serviceable to them. Without them their cav 
alry would not have been able to cut our communica 
tions so successfully. In fine, the rebels again 
illustrated in this battle, the fact that they had thor 
oughly devoted themselves to war that they had 
rejected all theories ; that they had adopted the wisest 
maxims of warfare, and had accepted the admonitions 
of experience. It was curious, however, that Bragg, 
whose reputation as an artillery officer stood highest 
in that branch of the service, should have been so 
thoroughly beaten with his favorite arm. 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 359 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

INCIDENTS and Anecdotes Comedy of Battle An Irish Rebel A Brace 
of Wounded Soldiers Colonel Granville Moody His "Boys" His 
Piety and Pugnacity Singular Incidents Distracted Birds and 
Ptabbits "All the Dinner s Gone Ambulance Corps on the Field 
The Generals, how they Appeared in Battle. 

RARE comedy was intermingled with the tragedy of 
battle. The humorism of battle saturates you after 
carnage is ended, and when the dead are buried. The 
richest of the fun and drollery is not printable. But 
soldiers roar over awkward adventures of their com 
rades when they assemble in their bivouacs. There 
were some good things, however, that the reader can 
enjoy. One was of Irish parentage, of course. A 
Milesian member of the First Louisiana rebel regi 
ment, who had been captured, was strolling around a 
hospital with a broken arm, which had been dressed 
by one of our surgeons. Said an officer. " Why, Pat, 
you an Irishman and a rebel? How s that? What 
are you fighting us for?" "An sure, yer honor," 
retorted Pat quickly, "an* did yees iver hear of the 
likes of an army an there wasn t Irishmen in it?" 
"But, Pat," interposed Father Trecy, "you were 
forced into the service, were you not?" "Yer river- 
encc," replied the incorrigible fellow, with a respect 
ful salute, " I wint into it wid good will ; the boys 
was all agoin ; there was a fight, an sure Patrick 



360 INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

wasn t the man to lit inny man go forninst him." 
Pat was decidedly obdurate, and no more inquisitive 
rhetoric was wasted upon him. 

A group of mangled soldiers were sauntering around 
a, field hospital, waiting for temporary bandages to be 
applied to their wounds. The surgeon was fully 
occupied, and some delay was unavoidable. A brawny 
trooper, with a bullet in his left leg and a ball in his 
right arm, hobbled up to the surgeon, holding his 
wounded arm with his left hand. Projecting his 
mutilated leg he said, with laughable grimace, 
" Well, doctor, the d d rebs come pretty near hittin 
me." Another fellow, who had lost the end of his 
nose, elbowed his way into the circle, spouting blood 
as a whale spouts water, and convulsed the group : 
" The d d rascals " sputter u doctor " sputter 
"came d d near" sputter "missin me." 

Colonel Granville Moody, commanding the Seventy- 
Fourth Ohio Volunteers, is a famous Methodist 
preacher. He relinquished the altar for the sword. 
Malicious people insinuated that the Gospel had lost 
the services of a good advocate, and that the army 
was not promoted by its accession from the pulpit. 
But the Colonel proved that he was a tremendous 
fighter as well as a good preacher. He is fifty, or 
more, perhaps, but well preserved, with magnificent 
port, and six feet two or three inches of stature. He 
has a fine genial face, fiery dark eyes, and vocal range 
that would have excited the envy of Roaring Ralph 
Stackpole. He carried into battle a spirit of enthu 
siasm which inflamed his "boys" to the highest 
pitch of daring, and won for him the admiration 
of thousands. Lieutenant Colonel Yon Schrader 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 361 

(Inspector General on the staff of General Thomas), 
than whom a braver or better soldier never resisted 
storm of battle, had not been on friendly terms with 
Moody for some months, but admiring his splendid 
gallantry, he approached him in the heat of despqrate 
conflict, extended his hand, expressed his earnest 
approbation of the Colonel s heroism, and begged that 
ever after peace might exist between them. 

A little later Moody s " boys," as he paternally 
addressed them, were obliged to withstand a terrific 
fire without enjoying opportunity to return it. Moody 
galloped to GeneraHSTegley and protested. " This fire, 
General, is positively murderous ; it will kill all my 
boys." But there was no help for it. His martial 
flock, imposing upon his benevolent nature, sometimes 
indulged a little sly humor at his expense. In the 
midst of battle, an Irishman in the regiment shouted, 
" His riverence, the Colonel, has bin fightin Satan all 
his life ; I reckon he thinks hell s broke loose now." 
"Not long after the battle, General IsTegley merrily 
accused him of having indulged heterodox expletives 
in the ardor of engagement. " Is it a fact, Colonel," 
inquired the General, " that you told the boys to give 
em hell ? " " Now," replied the Colonel reproach 
fully, " there s some more of the boys mischief. I 
told them to give the rebels Hail Columbia, and they 
have wickedly perverted my language." The fighting 
parson, however, explained with a sly twinkle in the 
corner of his eye, which had something of a tendency 
to cast a doubt upon the subject. 

But there was no doubt that one of his injunctions 
to his regiment sounded marvelously like a fervent 
ejaculation swelling up from the depths of the "Amen 
31 



362 INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

corner" in an old fashioned Methodist Church. This 
fact must be imagined that the anecdote may he 
appreciated. The Colonel s mind was saturated with 
piety and pugnacity. He praised God and pitched 
into the rebels alternately. He had been struck by 
bullets four times already. He had given the enemy 
"Hail Columbia" once, and they had reeled back to 
cover. Now they were swarming back to renew the 
contest. Moody s regiment were lying on their bellies 
waiting for them to corne up. He had a moment to 
spare, and thought he would exhort them. The 
rebels were advancing swiftly, and probably cut him 
short. But as they approached he said quietly, 
" Now, boys, fight for your country and your God" 
" and," said one of his boys, " we all surely thought 
he was going to say Amen, but at that instant the 
rebels let fly, and the old hero roared with the voice 
of a Stentor, AIM LOW! " Weeks afterward, when 
the Colonel passed through his camp, the mischievous 
rascals would shout behind him, " Fight for your 
country and your God AIM LOW ! " 

A singular incident occurred among the " Twenty- 
Onesters" (Twenty-First Ohio). Battle was raging 
with terrific fury on the Right, but had not yet 
involved ISTegley s line. The men were lying behind 
a crest waiting. A brace of frantic wild turkeys, so 
paralyzed with fright that they were incapable of 
flying, ran between the lines and endeavored to hide 
among the men. One of the " Twenty-Onesters " 
caught one, and cutting off its head began to strip it 
of feathers, boasting complacently that he would have 
fresh fowl after the fight. The wave of battle had 
surged alarmingly near the front of the " Twenty- 



INCIDENTS Atf J ANECDOTES. 863 

Onesters" before the soldier had plucked his game. 
But while he was inserting it in his haversack, an 
officer riding through the lines espied him and offered 
him a dollar for it. The soldier hesitated a moment, 
but accepted. The officer bagged the turkey, but 
neither he nor the soldier could make change. The 
" Twenty-Onesters " were ordered forward, and the 
soldier shouted, "Never mind. Take it along. I ll 
collect after the fight ! " 

But the frenzy of the turkeys was not so touching 
as the exquisite fright of the birds and rabbits. 
When the roar of battle rushed through the cedar- 
thickets, flocks of little birds fluttered and circled 
above the field in a state of utter bewilderment, and 
scores of rabbits fled for protection to our men lying 
down in line on the left, nestling under their coats 
and creeping under their legs in a state of utter 
distraction. They hopped over the field like toads, 
and as perfectly tamed by fright as household pets. 
Many officers witnessed it, remarking it as one of the 
most curious spectacles ever seen upon a battle-field. 

An Irish soldier was hit by a bullet, and turned to 
his commander. "Captain," said Pat, "shure an 
I m hit!" "What the d 1 are you doing there, 
then-?" roared the Captain; "get out of that and give 
a better man your place." "Bejabers," retorted Pat, 
"I ll do no such thing. I want revinge, an be dad 
I ll get it." 

Lieutenant Willie Porter, detailed to the Adjutant 
G-cneraPs office, and ex qfficio member of the staff, 
afforded a laugh in the midst of a shower of shells. 
Willie, a staunch youth of some eighteen or nineteen 
summers, had been weathering the storm all day at 



364 INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

the heels of the General s horse. When he mounted 
111 the morning he prudently filled the General s hav 
ersack with luncheon, and slung it over his shoulder. 
Daring the afternoon a fragment of a shell tore away 
part of his pantaloons near his waist, lacerated his 
body, and cut away the side of his haversack, letting 
the bread and meat fall to the ground. " There, 
now !" said Willie with admirable sang froid, a ludi 
crous grimace expanding his countenance, " all the 
dinner s gone." Lieutenant Willie Porter and Lieu 
tenant James Reynolds, his companion, about the 
same age, deserved honorable official mention for 
their gallantry. 

Another member of the staff had a narrow escape 
from a shell which whizzed very closely to a portion 
of his body that is ordinarily protected by coat tails. 
He objected decidedly "it would be so d d ridicu 
lous to be killed in that manner." The staff fairly 
roared over it, but the Captain " couldn t see it." 

The operations of ambulance corps on the field 
during the fight furnished a curious battle picture. 
Dozens of those somber-looking vehicles were visible 
in the woods and on the plain streaming incessantly 
between the front and the hospitals, and often under 
fire. When the vail of smoke lifted occasionally, 
squads of men, in fours, with stretchers, were descried 
between the lines when the conflict was partially 
suspended at one point, although it was raging to the 
right or left bearing the wounded to the rear. Late 
in the evening of Wednesday an ambulance party on 
the right was fiercely hailed by the rebel pickets. 
" What the h 1 are you doing here? " " Picking up 
wounded men ! " " Well pick em up quick and get 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 365 

out of this?" Our men replied, " Send over and get 
your wounded." u All right ! " 

HOW THE GENERALS APPEARED IN BATTLE. 

The rebel sharpshooters were sorely annoying. 
They picked off scores of our soldiers and officers. 
One of them permanently disabled Colonel Frizelle 
of the Ninety-Fourth Ohio. General Rosecrans 
probably owed his escape from them to the fact that 
his rank was not distinguishable. His uniform was 
mostly covered by an ample cavalry overcoat fastened 
by a single button under his chin, so that only a few 
buttons on the breast of his uniform were visible. 
This was merely the accident of weather. It was a 
chill morning, and overcoats were essential to com 
fort. It was fortunate also that " Toby," his gray 
charger, had not been brought to the front. It is 
altogether probable he would have mounted him that 
day to spare "Boney," his magnificent bay a steed 
of unusual size and spirit, whose fire, symmetry, and 
proud style fully realized youthful imagination s con 
ception of a war horse with "neck clothed in thun 
der, and smelling battle." 

The General is an inveterate smoker. When he 
mounted in the morning he had a cigar in his mouth. 
The absorption of battle caused him to forget it, and 
the light expired, but the force of habit was triumph 
ant. He retained the stump in his mouth during 
hours, removing it mechanically when he gave orders. 
The cigar, the sky-blue cavalry overcoat with stand 
ing collar, a low-crowned black felt hat pushed back 
upon his head until the back rim tipped down upon 
his neck at a sharp angle, concealing the coat collar, 



366 INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

and his chin elevated more than ordinarily, "Boney " 
prancing gently and bowing his head with stately 
pride, was a picture of the General Commanding 
which his staff will readily recognize in this plain 
sketch. 

Rousseau, in full uniform, rode a superb thorough 
bred chestnut. He met a friend on the field just after 
his division had driven the enemy back into the 
woods. He was just about to send after Starkweath 
er s brigade. At that moment his countenance was 
aglow with the enthusiasm of triumph such a face 
as men love to meet in battle, for it was inspiriting. 
Drawing rein he accosted his friend cheerily, and 
shook a canteen at him. "You look dry and 
exhausted let me refresh you." It was manna in the 
wilderness, said his friend, subsequently. The latter 
admired the chestnut. Ixousscau, turning in his 
saddle, pointed to an ugly bullet laceration on the 
rump of his charger. "I wouldn t mind it," he said, 

" but it -s a fine hoss a Kentucky hoss." A shell 

whizzing in close proximity concluded the colloquy. 

Crittenden rode a fine bay horse, and was clad in a 
dark overcoat, with a regulation cap covered with oil 
cloth. Crittenden at review is more moved than Crit 
tenden in battle. McCook s fine chestnut was killed 
in the morning, and he rode a "plug" in the after 
noon. Major Bates, of his staff, had also lost his 
horse, but compensated himself by "jayhawking," as 
he said, "somebody s big yaller stud hoss." This was 
while the aw ful battle of the Left Wing was going on 
Wednesday afternoon. McCook and his staff were in 
a shallow basin at the left of his line. He looked a 
little flushed and worried by fatigue, but did not seem 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. ot) 7 

in the least disturbed by battle. The misfortune of 
the Right probably affected him. The infantry fought 
in their overcoats, but the cannoniers stripped to the 
buff. It was interesting to observe that horses which 
at review are generally wild and rampant, were not at 
all difficult to manage in the midst of the stunning 
uproar of battle. They exhibited splendid spirit, but 
ordinarily they were perfectly tractable and gentle. 
You would have said they appreciated the spirit of 
the occasion. But when their riders were dismounted 
they were seized with frenzy, and plunged across the 
field in uncontrollable agony of fright. 

After the battle, Major Goddard, for his services 
and gallantry, was promoted to the office of Adjutant 
General and Chief of Staff, with rank of Lieutenant 
Colonel. Lieutenant Bond was promoted to the 
Senior Aidship, with rank of Major. Lieutenant 
Kirby was recommended for promotion to a Cap 
taincy, and for a brevet as Major. The gallant offi 
cers of staff of the Corps Generals were also promoted, 
Thomas, McCook, and Crittenden being designated 
commanders of the Fourteenth, Twentieth, and 
Twenty-First Army Corps, respectively, thus increas 
ing the numerical force of their staffs, and elevating 
the grades of rank of officers. 

CONGRATULATORY. 

Upon the reception at "Washington of the tidings of 
the success of Major General Rosecrans, the Presi 
dent of the United States sent him the following tele 
graphic acknowledgment of his personal and official 
gratitude. 



368 INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

WASHINGTON, January 5th. 
To Major General Rosccrans : 

Your dispatch, announcing the retreat of the enemy, has 
just reached here. God bless you and all with you. Please 
tender to all, and accept for yourself, the nation s gratitude for 
your and their skill, endurance, and dauntless courage. 

A. LINCOLN. 

The Secretary of War forwarded a similar congrat 
ulation, and Major General Halleck also sent a tele 
gram, of which the following is a copy, viz.: 

WASHINGTON, January 9, 1863. 
Major General Rosecram^ Commanding Army of the Cam- 

berland: 

GENERAL Rebel telegrams fully confirm your telegrams 
from the battle-field. The victory was well earned, and one of 
the most brilliant of the war. You and your brave army have 
won the gratitude of your country, and the admiration of the 
world. The field of Murfreesboro is made historical, and 
future generations will point out the place where so many 
heroes fell gloriously in defense of the Constitution and the 
Union. All honor to the Army of the Cumberland. Thanks 
to the living, and tears for the lamented dead. 

H. W. HALLECK. 

The victory electrified the nation, and the people 
heaped their grateful thanks upon the General and 
his splendid army. It was the most momentous battle 
of the war up to that period. It saved Tennessee 
and Kentucky, and there can be little doubt that Ohio 
arid Indiana owe their present exemption from inva 
sion to it. 

AT MURFREESBORO. 

General headquarters were established in Murfrees 
boro on Monday the 5th of January. The army took 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 369 

np a line in front and settled down to rest. Captain 
Morton and the Pioneer Brigade at once proceeded to 
reconstruct the railroad bridge across Stone River, 
and to fortify the town in order to make it an inter 
mediate magazine of supplies. Details were dis 
patched to the surrounding country to collect all the 
forage and stock that could be found. The grist mill 
at the post was put into operation and the troops 
were supplied with meal. The rainy season now inter 
posed to obstruct offensive operations upon an exten 
sive scale, though preparations were vigorously pressed. 
Bad weather was compensated for by a freshet in the 
Cumberland, which reopened navigation and gave 
assurance of supplies. The War Department caused 
the army to be remodeled, by constituting its three 
grand divisions Corps de Armee the Fourteenth, 
Twentieth, and Twenty-First, under Thomas, Mc- 
Cook, and Crittenden, Major General Rosecrans 
commanding the grand army, and thus concluded 
the history of the original Fourteenth Army Corps. 



APPENDIX. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS 



BATTLE OF STONE RIVER, 



GENERAL ROSECRAFS OFFICIAL REPORT. 

LAND, "| 

is. j 



HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, 

MURFREESBORO, TENNESSEE, 

February 12, 1SG3. 



GENERAL As the sub-reports are now nearly all in. I have the 
honor to submit, for the information of the General-in-Chief, the sub 
joined report, with accompanying sub-reports, maps, and statistical 
rolls of the battle of Stone River. 

To a proper understanding of this battle, it will be necessary to 
state the 

PRELIMINARY MOVEMENTS AND PREPARATIONS. 

Assuming command of the army, at Louisville, on the 27th day of 
October, it was found concentrated at Bowling Green and Glasgow, 
distant about one hundred and thirty miles from Louisville ; from 
whence, after replenishing with ammunition, supplies, and clothing, 
they moved on to Nashville, the advance corps reaching that place on 
the morning of the 7th of November, a distance of one hundred and 
eighty-three miles from Louisville. 

At this distance from my base of supplies, the first thing to be done 
was to provide for the subsistence of the troops, and open the Louisville 
and Nashville Hailroad. The cars commenced running through on 
the 26th of November, previous to which time our supplies had been 
brought by rail to Mitchelville, thirty-live miles north of Nashville, 
and from thence, by constant labor, we had been able to haul enough 
to replenish the exhausted stores for the garrison at Nashville, and 
subsist the troops of the moving army. 

(371) 



372 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

From the 26th of November to the 26th of December, every effort 
was bent to complete the clothing of the army, to provide it with 
ammunition, and replenish the depot at Nashville with needful sup 
plies to insure us against want from the largest possible detention 
likely to occur by the breaking of the Louisville and Nashville Rail 
road ; and to insure this work, the road was guarded by a heavy force 
posted at Gallatin. 

The enormous superiority in numbers of the rebel cavalry, kept our 
little cavalry force almost within the infantry lines, and gave the 
enemy control of the entire country around us. It was obvious, from 
the beginning, that we should be confronted by Bragg s army, recruited 
by an inexorable conscription, and aided by clouds of mounted men, 
formed into a guei-rilla-like cavalry, to avoid the hardships of conscrip 
tion and infant.ry service. The evident difficulties and labors of an 
advance into this country, and against such a force, and at such dis 
tance from our base of operations, with which we connected by a sin 
gle precarious thread, made it manifest that our policy was to induce 
the enemy to travel over as much as possible of the space that sep 
arated us -thus avoiding for us the wear and tear, and diminution of 
our forces, and subjecting the enemy to all these inconveniences, 
beside increasing for him, and diminishing for us, the daugerous con 
sequences of a defeat. 

The means taken to obtain this end were eminentlv successful. The 
enemy, expecting us to go into winter quarters at Nashville, had pre 
pared his own winter quarters at Murfreesboro, with the hope of pos 
sibly making them at Nashville, and had sent a large cavalry force 
into West Tennessee to annoy Grant, and another large force into 
Kentucky to break up the railroad. In the absence of these forces, 
and with adequate supplies in Nashville, the movement Avas judged 
opportune for an advance on the rebels. Folk s and Kirby Smith s 
forces were at Murfreesboro, and Hardee s corps on the Shelby ville and 
Nolensville pike, between Triune and Eaglesville, with an advance 
guard at Nolensvi le, while our troops lay in front of Nashville, on the 
Franklin, Nolensville, and Murfreesboro turnpikes. 

THE PLAN OF THE MOVEMENTS 
Was as follows : 

McCook, with three divisions, to advance by the Nolensville pike to 
Triune. 

Thomas, with two divisions (Negley s and Rousseau s), to advance 
on his right, by the Franklin and Wilson pikes, threatening Hardee s 
right, and then to fall in by the cross-roads to Nolensville. 

Crittenden, with Wood *, Palmer s, and Van Clove s divisions, to 
advance by the Murfreesboro pike to Lavergne. 

With Thomas two divisions at Nolensville, McCook was to attack 
Ilardee at Triune, and if the enemy reinforced Hardee, Thomas was 
to support McCook. 

If McCook beat Hardee, or Ilardee retreated, and the enemy met us 
at Stewart s Creek, five miles south of Lavergne, Crittenden was to 
attack him ; Thomas was to come in on his left flank, and McCook, 
after detaching a division to pursue or observe Hardee, if retreating 
south, was to move, with the remainder of his force, on their rear. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 373 



THE MOVEMENT 

Began on the morning of the 2Gth of December. Me Cook advanced 
on the Nolensville pike, skirmishing his way all day, meeting with 
stiff resistance from cavalry and artillery, and closing the day by a 
brisk fight, which gave him possession of Nolensville and the hills one 
nnd a half miles in front, capturing one gun, by the One Hundred arid 
First Ohio and Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiments, his loss this day being 
about seventy-five killed and wounded. 

Thomas followed on the right, and closed Negley s division on Nolcns- 
ville pike, leaving the other (Rousseau s) division on the right flank. 

Crittenderi advanced to Lavergne, skirmishing heavily on his front, 
over a rough country, intersected by forests and cedar-brakes, with 
but slight loss. 

On the 2(Jth, General Me Cook advanced on Triune, but his movement 
was retarded by a dense fog. 

Crittendcn had orders to delay his movements until McCook had 
reached Triune, and developed the intentions of the enemy at that 
point, so that it could be determined which Thomas was to support. 

McCook arrived at Triune, and reported that Hardee had retreated, 
and that he had sent a division in pursuit. 

Crittenden bejran his advance about eleven o clock A. M., driving 
before him a brigade of cavalry, supported by Maney s brigade of 
rebel infantry, and reached Stewart s Creek, the Third Kentucky gal 
lantly charging the rear guard of the enemy, and saving the bridge, 
on which had been placed a pile of rails that had been set on fire. 
This was Saturday night. 

McCook having settled the fact of Hardee s retroat, Thomas moved 
Negley s division on to join Crittenden at Stewart s Creek, and moved 
Rousseau s to Nolensville. 

On Sunday the troops rested, except Rousseau s division, which was 
ordered to move on to Stewartsboro; and Willich s brigade, which had 
pursued Hardee as far as Rigg-j Cross-roads, and had determined the 
fact that Hardee had gone to Murfreesboro, when they returned to 
Triune. 

On Monday morning McCook was ordered to move from Triune to 
Wilkinson s Cross-roads, six miles from Murfreesboro, leaving a brigade 
at Triune. 

Crittenden crossed Stewart s Creek by the Smyrna bridge, on the 
main Murfreesboro pike, and Negley by the ford, two miles above ; 
their whole force to advance on Murfreesboro, distant eleven miles. 

Rousseau was to remain at Stewart s Creek until his train came up, 
and prepare himself to follow. 

McCook reached Wilkinson s Cross-roads by evening, with an 
advance brigade at Overall s Creek, saving and holding the bridge, 
meeting with but little resistance. 

Crittenden s corps advanced, Palmer leading, on the Murfreesboro 
pike, followed by Negley, of Thomas corps, to within three miles of 
Murfreesboro, having had several brisk skirmishes, driving the enemy 
rapidly, saving two bridges on the route, and forcing the enemy back 
to his intrenchments. 



374 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

About three o clock P. M., a signal message coming from the front, 
from General Palmer, said that he was in sight of Murfreesboro, and 
the enemy were running. An order was sent to General Crittenden to 
send a division to occupy Murfreesboro. 

This led General Crittenden, on reaching the enemy s front, to order 
Ilavker s brigade to cross the river at a ford on his left, where he sur 
prised a regiment of Breckinridge s division, and drove it back on its 
main lines, not more than five hundred yards distant, in considerable 
confusion ; and he held this position until General Crittenden was 
advised, by prisoners captured by Harker s brigade, that Breckinridge 
was in force on his front, when, it being dark, he ordered the brigade 
back across the river, and reported the circumstances to the Command 
ing General, on his arrival, to whom he apologized for not having car 
ried out the order to occupy Murfreesboro. The General approved of 
his action, of course, the order to occupy Murfreesboro having been 
based on the information received from General Crittenden s advance 
division, that the enemy were retreating from Murfreesboro. 

Crittenden s corps, with Negley s division, bivouacked in order of 
battle, distant seven hundred yards from the enemy s intrcnchments, 
our left extending down the river some five hundred yards. The Pio 
neer Brigade, bivouacking still lower down, prepared three fords, and 
covered one of them, while Wood s division covered the other two. 

Van Cleve s division being in reserve, on the morning of the 30th 
Rousseau, with two brigades, was ordered down early from Stewart s 
Creek, leaving one brigade there, and sending another to Smyrna to 
cover our left and rear, and took his place in reserve in rear of Pal 
mer s right, while General Negley moved on through the cedar-brakes 
until his right rested on the Wilkinson pike. The Pioneer Corps cut 
roads through the cedars for his ambulances and ammunition wagons. 

The Commanding General remained with the Left and Center, exam 
ining the ground, while General McCook moved forward from Wilkin 
son s Cross-roads, slowly and steadily, meeting with heavy resist 
ance, fighting his way from Overall s Creek until he got into position, 
with a loss of one hundred and thirty-five killed and wounded. 

Our small division of cavalry, say three thousand men, had been 
divided into three parts, of which General Stanley took two, and 
accompanied General McCook, fighting his way across from the Wil 
kinson to the Franklin pike, and below it, Colonel Zahn s brigade 
leading gallantly, and meeting with such heavy resistance that McCook 
sent two brigades from Johnson s division, which succeeded in fighting 
their way into position, while the Third Brigade, which had been 
left at Triune, moved forward from that place, and arrived at night 
fall near General McCook s headquarters. Thus on the close of the 
30th, the troops had all got into position. 

At four o clock in the afternoon, General McCook had reported his 
arrival on the Wilkinson pike, joining Thomas the result of the com 
bat in the afternoon, near Grieson s house, and the fact that Sherridan 
was in position there, that his right was advancing to support the cav 
alry ; also, that Hardee s corps, with two divisions of Polk s, was on. 
his front, extending down toward the Salem pike. 

Without any map of the ground, which was to us terra incognita, 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 375 

when General McCook informed the General Commanding that his 
corps was facing strongly to the east, the General Commanding iold 
him that such a direction to his line did not appear to him a proper 
one, but that it ought, with the exception of his left, to face much more 
nearly south, with Johnson s division in reserve ; but that this matter 
must be confided to him, who knew the ground over which he had 
fought. 

At nine o clock P. M., the corps commanders met at the headquar 
ters of the General Commanding, who explained to them the following 



PLAN OF THE BATTLE. 

McCook was to occupy the most advantageous position, refusing his 
right as much as practicable and necessary to secure it ; to receive the 
attack of the enemy, or, if that did not come, to attack himself, suffi 
cient to hold all the force on his front. 

Thomas and Palmer to open with skirmishing, and gain the enemy s 
center and left as far as the river. 

Crittenden to cross Van Cleve s division at the lower ford, covered 
and supported by the Sappers and Miners, and to advance on Breck- 
inridge. 

Wood s division to follow by brigades, crossing at the upper ford, 
and moving on Van Cleve s right, to carry everything before them into 
Murfrcesboro. 

This would have given us two divisions against one, and as soon as 
Brecldnridge had been dislodged from his position, the batteries of 
Wood s division, taking position on the bights east of Stone River, in 
advance, would see the enemy s works in reverse, would dislodge 
them, and enable Palmer s division to press them back, and drive them 
westward across the river, or through the woods, while Thomas, sus 
taining the movement on the Center, would advance on the right of 
Palmer, crushing their right; and Crittenden s corps, advancing, 
would take Murfreesboro, and then moving westward on the Franklin 
road, get in their flank and rear, and drive them into the country, 
toward Salem, with the prospect of cutting off their retreat, and prob 
ably destroying their army. 

It was explained to them that this combination, ensuring us a vast 
superiority on our left, required for its success, that General McCook 
should be able to hold his position for three hours ; that if necessary 
to recede at all, he should recede as he had advanced on the preceding 
day, slowly, as steadily, refusing his right, thereby rendering our suc 
cess certain. 

Having thus explained the plan, the General Commanding addressed 
General McCook as follows : 

"You know the ground you have fought over it; you know its 
difficulties. Can you hold your present position for three hours ?" 

To which General McCook responded : 

"Yes, I think I can." 

The General Commanding then said : 

" I don t like the facing so much to the east, but must confide that to 



376 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

you, who know the ground. If you don t think your present the best 
position, change it. It is only necessary for you to make things sure. 

The officers then returned to their commands. 

At daylight on the morning of the 31st, the troops breakfasted, and 
stood to their arms, and by seven o clock were preparing for the 



BATTLE. 

The movement began on the left by Van Cleve, who covered the 
crossing at the lower fords. Wood prepared to sustain and follow him. 
The enemy meanwhile had prepared to attack General McCook, and by 
six and a half o clock advanced in heavy columns regimental front, his 
left attacking Willich s and Kirk s brigades, of Johnson s division, 
and were, after a sharp, but fruitless contest, crumbled to pieces and 
driven back, leaving Edgarton s and part of Goodspeed s Batteries in 
the hands of the enemy. 

The enemy following up, attacked Davis division, and speedily dis 
lodged Post s brigade. Carlin s brigade was compelled to follow, as 
Woodruff s brigade, from the weight of testimony, had previously left 
its position on his left. Johnson s brigades, in retiring, inclined too 
fur to the west, and were too much scattered to make a combined 
resistance, though they fought bravely at one or two points before 
reaching Wilkinson s pike. The reserve brigade of Johnson s divi 
sion, advancing from its bivouac near Wilkinson s pike toward the 
Right, took a good position, and made a gallant but ineffectual stand, 
as the whole rebel left was moving up on the ground abandoned by 
our troops. 

Within an hour from the time of the opening of the battle, a staff 
officer from General McCook arrived, announcing to me that the Right 
Wing was heavily pressed, and needed assistance ; but I was not 
advised of the rout of Willich s and Kirby s brigades, nor of the 
rapid withdrawal of Davis division, necessitated thereby. Moreover, 
having supposed his wing posted more compactly, and his right more 
refused than it really was, the direction of the noise of battle did not 
indicate to me the true state of affairs. I consequently directed him 
to return and direct General McCook to dispose his troops to the best 
advantage, and to hold his ground obstinately. Soon after, a second 
officer from General McCook arrived, and stated that the Right Wing 
was being driven a fact that was but too manifest, by the rapid 
movement of the noise of battle toward the north. 

General Thomas was immediately dispatched to order Rousseau then 
in reserve into the cedar-brakes to the right and rear of Sherridan. 
General Crittenden was ordered to suspend Van Cleve s movement 
across the river on the left, and to cover the crossing with one brigade 
and move the other two brigades westward, across the fields toward 
the railroad, for a reserve. Wood was also directed to suspend his 
preparations for crossing and to hold Hascall in reserve. 

At this moment fugitives and stragglers from McCook s corps began 
to make their appearance through the cedar-brakes in such numbers 
that I became satisfied that McCook s corps was routed. I therefore 
directed General Crittenden to send Van Cleve in to the right of Rous- 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 377 

scan, Wood to send Colonel Barker s brigade further down the Mur- 
frecsboro pike, to go in and attack the enemy on the right of Van Cleve, 
the Pioneer Brigade meanwhile occupying the knoll of ground west 
of the Murfreesboro pike, and about four hundred or five hundred 
yards in the rear of Palmer s center, supporting Stokes Battery (see 
accompanying drawing). Sherridan, after sustaining four successive 
attacks, gradually swung his right round south-easterly to a north 
western direction, repulsing the enemy four times, losing the gallant 
General Sill, of his right, and Colonel Roberts, of his left brigade, 
when, having exhausted his ammunition, Negley s division being in. 
the same predicament, and heavily pressed, after desperate fighting 
they fell back from the position held at the commencement, through 
the cedar woods in which Rousseau s division, with a portion of Neg 
ley s and Sherridan s met the advancing enemy, and checked his 
movements. 

The ammunition train of the Right Wing, endangered by its sudden 
discomfiture, was taken charge of by Captain Thruston, of the First 
Ohio Regiment ; an ordnance officer, who, by his energy and gal 
lantry, aided by a charge of cavalry, and such troops as he could pick 
up, carried it through the woods to the Murfreesboro pike, around to 
the rear of the Left Wing; thus enabling the troops of Sherridan s divi 
sion to replenish their empty cartridge-boxes. During all this time, 
Palmer s front had likewise been in action, the enemy having made 
several attempts to advance upon it. At this stage, it became neces 
sary to readjust the line of battle to the new state of affairs. Rousseau 
and Van Cleve s advance having relieved Sherridaivs division from 
the pressure, Negley s division and Cruft s brigade from Palmer s divi 
sion, withdrew from their original position in front of the cedars, and 
crossed the open field to the east of the Murfreesboro pike, about four 
hundred yards in rear of our front line, where Neglcy was ordered 
to replenish his ammunition and form in close column in reserve. 

The Right and Center of our line, now extended from Hazen to 
Murfreesboro pike, in a north-westerly direction, Hascall supporting 
Irtizen, Rousseau filling the interval to the Pioneer Brigade. 

Negley in reserve, Van Cleve west of the Pioneer Brigade ; McCook s 
corps refused on his right, and slightly to the rear, on Murfreesboro 
pike; the cavalry being still further to the rear on Murfreesboro pike 
and beyond Overall s Creek. 

The enemy s infantry and cavalry attack on our extreme Right, was 
repulsed by Van Cleve s division, with Marker s brigade and the cav 
alry. After several attempts of the enemy to advance on this new 
line, which were thoroughly repulsed, as were also the attempts on the 
Left, the day closed leaving us masters of the original ground on our 
Left, and our line advantageously posted, with open ground, in front, 
swept at all points by our artillery. We had lost heavily in killed and 
wounded, and a considerable number in stragglers and prisoners ; 
also, twenty-eight pieces of artillery, the horses having been slain, 
and our troops being unable to withdraw them, by hand, over the 
rough ground; but the enemy had been roughly handled, and badly 
damaged at all points, having had no success where we had open 
ground, and our troops properly posted, none, which did not depend 

32 



378 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

on the original crushing of our Right and the superior ma?ses which 
were, in consequence, brought to bear upon the navrow front of Sher- 
ridan s and Negley s divisions, and a part of Palmer s coupled with 
the scarcity of ammunition, caused by the circuitous road which the 
train had taken, and the inconvenience of getting it from a remote 
distance through the cedars. Orders were given for the issue of all 
the spare ammunition, and we found that we had enough for another 
battle, the only question being where that battle was to be fought. 

It was decided, in order to complete our present lines, that the Left 
should be retired some two hundred and fifty yards, to more advantageous 
ground the extreme Left resting on Stone Iliver, above the lower ford, 
and extending to Stokes Battery. Starkweather s and Walker s bri 
gades arriving near the close of the evening, the former bivouacked in 
close column, in reserve, in the rear of McCock s left, and the latter 
was posted on the left of Sherridan, near the Murfreesboro pike, and, 
next morning, relieved Van Cleve, who returned to his position in the 
Left Wing. 

DISPOSITION FOR JANUARY 1, 1863. 

After careful examination, and free consultation with corps com 
manders, followed by a personal examination of the ground in the 
rear, as far as Overall s Creek, it was determined to await the enemy s 
attack in that position, to send for the provision train, and order up 
fresh supplies of ammunition, on the arrival of which, should the ene 
my not attack, offensive operations should be resumed. 

No demonstration on the morning of the 1st of January; Crittenden 
was ordered to occupy the points opposite the ford on his left, with a 
brigade. 

About two o clock in the afternoon, the enemy, who had shown signs 
of movement and massing on our Right, appeared at the extremity of a 
field a mile and a half from the Murfreesboro pike, but the presence 
of Gibson s brigade, with a battery, occupying the woods near 
Overall s Creek, and Negley s division and a portion of Rousseau s on 
the Murfreesboro pike, opposite the field, put an end to this dem^n- 
stration, and the day closed with another demonstration by the enemy, 
on Walker s brigade, which ended in the same manner. 

On Friday morning, the enemy opened four heavy batteries on our 
Center, and made a strong demonstration of an attack a little further to 
the right; but a well-directed fire of artillery soon silenced his batteries, 
while the guns of Walker and Sherridan put an end to his effort there. 

About three o clock P. M., while the Commanding General was 
examining the position of Crittenden s Left, across the river, which 
Avas now held by Van Cleve s division, supported by a brigade from 
Palmer s, a double line of skirmishers was seen to emerge from the 
woods in a south-easterly direction, advancing across the fields, and 
were soon followed by heavy columns of infantry, battalion front, 
with three batteries of artillery. 

Our only battery on this side of the river had been withdrawn from 
an eligible point, but the most available spot was pointed out, and it 
soon opened here upon the enemy. The line, however, advanced 
steadily to within one hundred yards of the front of Van Cleve s divi- 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 379 

eion, when a short and fierce contest ensued. Van Glebe s division 
giving way, retired in considerable confusion across the river, fol 
lowed closely by the enemy. 

General Crittenden immediately directed his Chief of Artillery to 
dispose the batteries on the hill, on the west side of the river, so as to 
open on them, while two brigades of Negley s division, from the 
reserve, and the Pioneer Brigade were ordered up to meet the onset. 

The firing was terrific, and the havoc terrible. The enemy retreated 
more rapidly than they had advanced; in forty minutes they lost two 
thousand men. 

General Davis, seeing some stragglers from Van Cleve s division, 
took one of his brigades and crossed at a ford below, to attack the 
enemy on his left flank, and, by General McCook s order, the rest of 
his division was permitted to follow; but when he arrived, two bri 
gades of Negley s division, and Hazen s brigade, of Palmer s division, 
had pursued the flying enemy well across the field, capturing four 
pieces of artillery and a stand of colors. 

It was now after dark, and raining, or we should have pursued the 
enemy into Murfreesboro. As it was, Crittenden s corps passed over, 
and with Davis, occupied the crests, which were intrenched in a few 
hours. 

Deeming it possible that the enemy might again attack our Right 
and Center, thus weakened. I thought it advisable to make a demon 
stration on our Right by a heavy division of camp fires, and by lay 
ing out a line of battle with torches, which answered the purpose. 

SATURDAY, 3D DAY OF JANUARY. 

It rained heavily from three o clock in the morning ; the plowed 
ground over which our Left would be obliged to advance, was impass 
able for artillery. The ammunition train did not arrive until ten 
o clock ; it was, therefore, deemed uuadvisable to advance, but bat 
teries were put in position on the left, by which the ground could be 
swept, and even Murfreesboro reached, by the Parrott shells. 

A heavy and constant picket firing had been kept up on our Right 
and Center, and extending to our Left, which at last became so annoy 
ing, that in the afternoon I directed the corps commanders to clear 
their fronts. 

Occupying the woods to the left of Murfreesboro pike with sharp 
shooters, the enemy had annoyed Rousseau all day, and General 
Thomas and himself requested permission to dislodge them and their 
supports which covered a ford. This was gi-anted, and a sharp fire 
from four batteries was opened for ten or fifteen minutes, when Rous 
seau sent two of his regiments, which, with Spears Tennesseeans and 
the Eighty-Fifth Illinois Volunteers, that had come out with the wagon 
train, charged upon the enemy, and after a sharp contest cleared the 
wood- 1 , and drove the enemy from his trenche?, capturing from seventy 
to eighty prisoners. 

Sunday morning, the 4th of January, it was not deemed advisable 
to commence offensive movements, and news soo i reached us that the 
enemy had fled from Murfreesboro. Burial parties were sent out to 
bury the dead, and the cavalry was sent to reconnoiter. 



380 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

Earl}- Monday morning General Thomas advanced, driving the rear 
guard of the rebel cavalry before him six or seven miles, toward Man 
chester. 

McCook s and Crittcnden s corps following, took position in front of 
the town, occupying Murfrecsboro. 

We learned that the enemy s infantry had reached Shclbyville by 
12 M. on Sunday, but owing to the impracticability of bringing up 
supplies, and the loss of five hundred and fifty-seven artillery horses, 
further pursuit was deemed inadvisable. 

It may be of interest to give the following 

GENERAL SUMMARY 

Of the operations and results of the series of skirmishes, closing with 
the battle of Stone River and the occupation of Murfreesboro. We 
moved on the enemy with the following forces : 

Infantry 41,421 

Cavalry 3,296 

Artillery 2,223 

Total 46,940 

We fought the battle with the following forces : 

Infantry 37,977 

Cavalry 3,200 

Artillery 2,223 



Total 43,400 

We lost in killed : 

Officers 92 

Enlisted men 1,441 



Total 1,533 

We lost in wounded : 

Officers 384 

Enlisted men 6,861 



Total 7,245 

Total killed and wounded 8,778 

Being 20.03 per cent, of the entire force in action. 

OUR LOSS IN PRISONERS 

Is not fully made out ; but the Provost Marshal General says, from 
present information, they will fall short of two thousand eight 
hundred. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 381 

If there are any more bloody battles on record, considering the 
newness and inexperience of the troops, both officers and men, or if 
there have been more fighting qualities displayed by any people, I 
should be pleased to know it. 

AS TO THE CONDITION OF THE FIGHT, 

We may say that we operated over an unknown country, against a 
position which was fifteen per cent, better than our own, every foot of 
ground and approaches being well known to the enemy, and that these 
disadvantages were fatally enhanced by the faulty position of our 
Right Wing. 

The force we fought is estimated as follows: We have prisoners 
from one hundred and thirty-two regiments of infantry (consolida 
tions counted as one), averaging from those in General Bushrod John 
son s division four hundred and eleven each say, for certain, three 
hundred and fifty men each, will give 

No. men. 

132 Regiments infantry, say 350 men each 40,200 

12 Battalions sharpshooters, say 100 men each 1,200 

23 Battalions of artillery, say 80 men each 1,840 

29 Regiments cavalry, men each 400) 13930 

And 24 organizations of cavalry, men each 70 / 



220 62,520 

Their average loss, taken from the statistics of Clebornc, Brcckin- 
ridge and Withers divisions, was about two thousand and eighty each. 
This, for six divisions of infantry and one of cavalry, will amount to 
fourteen thousand five hundred and sixty men; or to ours nearly as 
one hundred and sixty-five to one hundred. 

Of fourteen thousand five hundred and sixty rebels struck by our 
missiles, it is estimated that twenty thousand rounds of artillery hit 
seven hundred and twenty-eight men ; two million rounds of mus 
ketry hit thirteen thousand eight hundred and thirty-two men; aver 
aging twenty-seven cannon shots to hit one man ; one hundred and 
forty-five musket shots to hit one man. 

Our relative loss was as follows : 

Per rent. 

Right Wing , 15.933. Musketry and artillery loss 20.72 

Center 10J8GO. " " " " 18.4 

Left Wing 13.288. " 24.0 

On the whole, it is evident that we fought superior numbers on 
unknown ground, inflicting much more injury than we suffered. We 
were always superior on equal ground with equal numbers, and only 
failed of a most crushing victory on Wednesday by the extension and 
direction of our Right Wing. 

This closes the narrative of the movements and seven days fighting 
which terminated with the occupation of Murfreesboro. For a detailed 



382 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

history of the parts taken in the battles of the different commands, 
their obstinate bravery and patient endurance, in which the new regi 
ments vied with those of more experience, I must refer to the accom 
panying sub-reports of the corps, division, cavalry and artillery 
commanders. 

Besides the mention which has been already made of the service of 
our artillery by the brigade, division, and corps commanders, I deem it 
a duty to say that such a marked evidence of skill in handling the 
batteries, and in firing low with such effect, appears in this battle to 
deserve special commendation. 

Among the lesser commands which deserve special mention for dis 
tinguished service in the battle, is the Pioneer Corps, a body of seven 
teen hundred (1,700) men, composed of details from the companies of 
each infantry regiment, organized and instructed by Captain Jamea 
St. Glair Morton, Corps of Engineers, Chief Engineer of this army, 
which marched as an infantry brigade with the Left Wing, made 
bridges at Stewart s Creek, prepared and guarded the fort at Stone 
River on the nights of the 29th and 30th, supported Stokes Battery, 
and fought with valor and determination on the 31st, holding its posi 
tion until relieved ; on the morning of the 2d advancing with the 
greatest promptitude and gallantry to support Van Cleve s division 
against the attack on our Left ; on the evening of the same day, con 
structing a bridge and batteries between that time and Saturday even 
ing ; and the efficiency and esprit de corps suddenly developed in this 
command, its gallant behavior in action, the eminent, service it is con 
tinually rendering the army, entitle both officers and men to special 
public notice and thanks, while they reflect the highest credit on the 
distinguished ability and capacity of Captain Morton, who will do 
honor to his promotion to a Brigadier General, which the President 
has promised him. 

The ability, order, and method exhibited in the management of the 
wounded, elicited the warmest commendation from all our general offi 
cers, in which I most cordially join. 

Notwithstanding the numbers to be cared for, through the energy of 
Doctor Swift, Medical Director, ably assisted by Doctor Weeds and the 
senior Surgeons of the various commands, there was less suffering 
from delay than I have ever before witnessed. 

The Tenth Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, at Stewart s Creek, Lieu 
tenant Colonel J. W. Burke commanding, deserves especial praise for 
the ability and spirit with which they held their post, defended our 
trains, secured their guards, chased away Wheeler s rebel cavalry, 
saving a large wagon train, and arrested and retained for service 
some two thousand stragglers from the battle- field. 

The First Regiment of Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, at 
Lavergne, under command of Colonel Innis, fighting behind a slight 
protection of wagons and brush, gallantly repulsed a charge from. 
more than ten times their numbers of Wheeler s cavalry. 

For distinguished acts of individual zeal, heroism, gallantry, and 
good conduct, I refer to the accompanying " List of Special Mentions 
and Recommendations for Promotion, wherein are named some of the 
many noble men who have distinguished themselves and done honor 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 383 

lo their country and the starry sj mbol of its unity. But those 
named there are by no means all whose names will be inscribed on 
the rolls of honor we are preparing, and hope to have held in grateful 
remembrance by our countrymen. To say that such men as Major 
General G. IT. Thomas, true and prudent, distinguished in council and 
on many battle-fields, for his courage; or Major General McCook, a 
tried, faithful, and loyal soldier, who bravely breasted battle at 
Shiloh and at Perry ville, and as bravely on the bloody field of Stone 
River; and Major General Thomas L. Crittenden, whose heart is that 
of a true soldier and patriot, and whose gallantry, often attested by 
his companions in arms in other fields, witnessed many times by this 
army long before I had the honor to command it, never more conspic 
uously than in this combat, maintained their high character through 
out this action, but feebly express my feeling of obligation to them for 
counsel and support from the time of my arrival to the present hour. 
I doubly thank them, as well as the gallant, ever-ready Major Gen 
eral Rousseau, for their support in this battle. 

Brigadier General Stanley, already distinguished for four success 
ful battles, Island No. 10. May 27, before Corinth, luka, and the battle 
of Corinth, at this time in command of our ten regiments of cavalry, 
fought the enemy s forty regiments of cavalry, and held them at bay, 
and beat them wherever he could meet them. He ought to be made a 
Major General for his services, and also for the good of the service. 

As for such Brigadiers as Negley, Jefferson C. Davis, Johnson, 
Palmer, Hascall, Van Cleve, Wood, Mitchell, Cruft, and Sherridan, 
they ought to be made Major Generals in our service. In such bri 
gade commanders as Colonels Carlin, Miller, Hazen, Samuel Beatty of 
the Nineteenth Ohio, Gibson, Gross, Wagner, John Beatty of the Third 
Ohio, Marker, Starkweather, Stanley, and others, whose names are 
mentioned in the .accompanying report, the Government may well con 
fide. They are the men from whom our troops should be at once sup 
plied with Brigadier Generals; and justice to the brave men and 
officers of the regiments, equally demands their promotion, to give 
them and their regiments their proper leaders. Many captains and 
subalterns also showed great gallantry and capacity for superior 
commands. But above all, the steady rank and file showed invincible 
fighting courage and stamina worthy of a great and free nation, 
requiring only good officers, discipline, and instruction, to make them 
equal if not superior to any troops in ancient or modern times. To 
them I offer my most heartfelt thanks and good wishes. 

Words of my own can not add to the renown of our brave and 
patriotic officers and soldiers who fell on the field of honor, nor 
increase respect for their memory in the hearts of our countrymen. 
The names of such men as Lieutenant Colonel J. P. Garesche, the 
pure and noble Christian gentleman and chivalric officer, who gave 
his life an early offering on the altar of his country s freedom ; the 
gentle, true, and accomplished General Sill; the bra^e, ingenious, and 
able Colonels Roberts, Millikin, Shaeffer, McKee. Reed, Forman, Fred. 
Jones, Hawkins, Kell, and the gallant and faithful Major Carpenter, 
of the Nineteenth Regulars, and many other field officers, will live in 
our country s history, as well as those of many others of inferior 



384 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

rank, whose soldici ly deeds on this memorable battle-field won for 
them the admiration of their companions, and will dwell in our mem 
ories in long future years after God, in his mercy, shall have given us 
peace and restored us to the bosom of our homes and families. Sim 
ple justice to the officers of my Staff requires their special mention, 
the noble and lamented Lieutenant Colonel Garesche, Chief of Staff; 
Lieutenant Colonel Taylor, Chief Quartermaster; Lieutenant Colonel 
Simmons, Chief Commissary; Major C. Goddard, senior Aiddecamp; 
Major Ralston Skinner, Judge Advocate General; Lieutenant Frank 
S. Bond, Aiddecamp of General Tyler; Captain Charles R. Thompson, 
my Aiddecamp, Lieutenant Byron Kirby, Sixth United States Infan 
try, Aiddecamp, who was wounded on December 31st; R. S. Thorns, 
Esq., a member of the Cincinnati bar, who acted as Volunteer Aidde 
camp. and behaved with distinguished gallantry; Captain William D. 
Bickham, Volunteer Aiddecamp, rendered efficient services on the 
field; Colonel Barnet, Chief of Artillery and Ordnance; Captain J. 
H. Gilman, Nineteenth United States Infantry, Inspector of Artillery ; 
Captain James Curtis, Fifteenth United States Infantry, Assistant 
Inspector General; Captain Wiles, Twenty-Second Indiana, Provost 
Marshal General; Captain Michler, Topographical Engineer; Captain 
Jesse Merrill, Signal Corps, whose corps behaved well; Captain Elmer 
Otis, Fourth Regular Cavalry, who commanded the Courier Line, con 
necting the various headquarters most successfully, and who made a 
most successful, opportune, and brilliant charge on Wheeler s Cavalry, 
routing the brigade, and recapturing three hundred of our prisoners. 
Lieutenant Edson, United States Ordnance officer, who, during the 
battle of Wednesday, distributed ammunition under the fire of the 
enemy s batteries and behaved bravely; Captain Hubbard and Lieu 
tenant Newberry, who joined my staff" on the field, acting as aids, 
rendered valuable service in carrying orders on the field. Lieutenant 
Royse, Fourth United States Cavalry, commanded the escort of the 
headquarters train, and distinguished himself with gallantry and 
efficiency. All performed their appropriate duties to my entire satis 
faction, accompanying me everywhere, and carrying orders through 
the thickest of the fight, watching while others slept, never weary 
when duty called, deserve my public thanks, and the respect and 
gratitude of the army. 

With all the facts of the battle fully before me, the relative num 
bers and positions of our troops and those of the rebels, the gallantry 
and obstinacy of the contest and the final result, I say, from convic 
tion, and as public acknowledgment due to Almighty God, in closing 
this report, u non nobis ! Dominie, non nobis. Sed nomine tui da Gioriam." 

[Signed,] WM. S. ROSECRANS, 

Major General Commanding. 

BRIGADIER GENERAL THOMAS, Adjutant General United States Army. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 385 



MAJ. GEN. McCOOK S OFFICIAL REPORT. 



63. J 



HEADQUARTERS RIGHT WING FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 
IN CAMP 2 MILES SOUTH OF MURFREESBORO, TENNESSEE, 

January 8, 1863. 
Major C. Goddard, Chief of Staff: 

MAJOR In compliance with telegraphic orders from the Gen 
eral Commanding, received at my camp on Mill Creek, five miles south 
of Nashville, at half-past four o clock, A. M., on the morning of the 
26th of December, 1862, I put the Right Wing of the Fourteenth 
Army Corps in motion toward Nolensville, Tennessee. 

The First Division, Brigadier General Jeff. C. Davis commanding, 
marched at six A. M., upon the Edmonson pike, with orders to move 
upon that road to Prim s blacksmith s shop, whence it was to march 
Direct, by a country road, to Nolensville. 

The Third Division, Brigadier General Philip H. Sherridan com 
manding, also marched at six A. M., and upon the direct road 
to Nolensville. 

The Second Division., Brigadier General R. W. Johnson com 
manding (the reserve of the Right Wing), followed the Third Divi 
sion upon the direct road. 

The advance guard of Generals Davis and Sherridan s columns, 
encountered the enemy s cavalry about two miles beyond our 
picket line. There was continuous skirmishing with the enemy until 
the heads of these columns reached Nolensville. 

About, a mile beyond the town, the enemy made a determined stand 
in a defile and upon a range of hills that cross the turnpike at this 
point, lining the slopes with skirmishers and placing a six-gun bat 
tery on a commanding position, endeavoring to repel our advance. 

They were attacked in front and their position handsomely turned, 
by General (Colonel) Carlin s brigade of Davis division, capturing 
one piece of their artillery and several prisoners. After taking pos 
session of the defile and hills, the command was encamped. 

On the night of this day, I was visited by the General Command 
ing, who gave me verbal orders to move forward in the morning to 
Triune, seven miles distant, and attack Hardee s corps, supposed to be 
quartered at that place. At this place I was joined by Brigadier 
General D. S. Stanley, Chief of Cavalry, with the First and Second 
Tennessee Regiments and Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Preparations were made to move forward at daylight, the cavalry 
under General Stanley in advance, followed by the Second Division 
under General Johnson. 

It having rained all the day previous and the entire night, there 
was a deep fog, which prevented our seeing one hundred and fifty 
jards in any direction. 

33 



386 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

The columns having moved about two miles to the front, they again 
encountered the enemy, consisting of cavalry, infantry, and artillery. 
The fog at this time being so thick that friend could not be distin 
guished from foe, and our cavalry being fired upon by our infantry 
skirmishers on the flanks the enemy being conversant with the 
ground, my troops strangers to it, and, from prisoners captured, hav 
ing learned that Hardee s corps had been in line of battle since night 
before, I did not deem it prudent to advance until the fog lifted. I 
ordered the command to halt until the work could be done understand- 
ingly. The fog having lifted at one o clock P. M., an advance w:ts 
immediately ordered, driving the enemy s cavalry before us. 

On nearing Triune, we found that the main portion of the forces 
had retired, leaving a battery of six pieces, supported by cavalry, 
to contest the crossing of Wilson s Creek, which has steep and bluff 
banks. 

The enemy having destroyed the bridge, it was with difficulty that 
it could be crossed. On the approach of our skirmishers, the battery, 
with the cavalry, took flight down the Eaglesville road. It now being 
nearly dark, and a severe and driving rain-storm blowing, they were 
pursued no further. 

Johnson s division crossed, and camped beyond Wilson s Creek, 
repairing the destroyed bridge. 

On the morning of the 28th, I ordered out a strong reconnoissance, 
tinder command of Brigadier General Willich, to learn whether the 
enemy had retired to Shelbyville or Murfreesboro. Pursuing seven 
miles down the Shelbyville road, it was found that the enemy had 
turned to the left, having taken a dirt road which led to the Salem 
pike, thence to Murfreesboro. 

Leaving the Second Brigade of Johnson s division at Triune, I 
marched on the 29th, with my command, on the Balle Jack road, 
toward Murfreesboro, the road being very bad, and the command did 
not reach Wilkinson s Cross-roads (five miles from Murfreesboro) until 
late in the evening. 

My command was encamped in line of battle, Sherridan s on the 
left of Wilkinson s pike, Davis division on the right of the same road, 
Woodruff s brigade guarding the bridge over Overall s Creek, and the 
two brigades of Johnson s division watching the right. 

On that evening, believing that the enemy intended giving our army 
battle at or near Murfreesboro. I ordered the brigade left at Triune to 
join the command without delay, which it did on the 30th. 

At one o clock A. M., on the 30th, I received an order from General 
Rosecrans to report in person at his headquarters, on the Murfrees 
boro pike, and arrived there at three and a half o clock A. M., received 
my instructions, which were that the left of my line should rest on the 
right of General Negley s division, and my right was to be thrown 
forward until it became parallel, or nearly so, with Stone River, the 
extreme right to rest on or near the Franklin road. 

My entire command advanced at nine and a half o clock, and Sher 
ridan s division moving down the Wilkinson turnpike, until its advance 
encountered the enemy s pickets. 

The line of battle was then formed, the left of Shei-ridan s division 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 387 

resting upon the Wilkinson pike, immediately upon General Negley s 
right. The remainder of Sherridan s division war, deployed to the 
right, the iine running in a south-easterly direction. I/avis division, 
which had already been deployed, moved up, his loft resting upon 
Sherridan s right, Johnson s division being held in reserve. Our front 
was covered with a strong line of skirmishers, who soon became 
sharply engaged with the enemy s sharpshooters and skirmishers. 

The line moved forward, but slowly, as the enemy contested stub 
bornly every inch of ground gained by us. The ground was very 
favorable to them. They were under cover of heavy woods and cedar 
thickets. At twelve o clock M. on the 80th, the house of a Mr. Harding 
came within our lines. From that point I ascertained where the 
enemy s line of battle was our skirmishers being then about five 
hundred yards distant from it. 

The right, under General Davis, moved handsomely, but slowly into 
position, as the ground over which he had to march was hotly con 
tested by the enemy s skirmishers. 

At one o clock P. M., word was sent to General D. S. Stanley, Chief 
of Cavalry, that Colonel Zahn, commanding three regiments of cavalry 
on my right flank, was hard pressed by a superior force. I ordered 
one brigade of my reserve division to report to General Stanley, who 
conducted it to the Franklin road. On his approach the enemy press 
ing Colonel Zahn retired, and the brigade was ordered back to its 
former position. 

At two o clock P. M., a citizen, residing on the Franklin road, and 
about half a mile in front of the enemy s line of battle, was put under 
guard by General Stanley. He reported as follows : 

"I was up to the enemy s line of battle twice yesterday, and once 
this morning, to get some stock taken from me. The enemy s troops 
are posted in the following manner: The right of Cheatham s division 
rests on the Wilkinson pike. Withers is on Cheatham s left, with his 
left resting on the Franklin road. Hardee s corps is entirely beyond 
that road, his right resting on that road, and his left extending toward 
the Salem pike." 

This man was immediately sent to the General Commanding, and 
subsequently returned to rne with the report that his information had 
been received. 

I also sent a report to the General Commanding, by my Aiddecamp, 
Horace N. Fisher, that the right of my line rested directly in front of 
the enemy s center. This made me anxious tor my right. All my 
division commanders were immediately informed of this fact, and two 
brigades of the reserve division, commanded respectively by Generals 
Willich and Kirk, two of the best and most experienced Brigadiers in 
the army, were ordered to the right of the line, to protect the right 
flank, and guard against surprise there. 

At six o clock P. M., I received an order from the General Command 
ing to have large and extended camp-fires built on my right, to deceive 
the enemy, making them believe we were massing troops there. This 
order was communicated to General Stanley, commanding cavalry, 
and carried into execution by Major R. H. Nodine, Twenty-Fifth Illi 
nois, Engineer Officer on my staff. 



388 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

On the morning of the 30th, the order of battle waa nearly parallel 
with that of the enemy, my right slightly refused, and my line of battle 
in two lines. 

Two brigades of the reserve reinforced the right of the line, and 
the Third Brigade of the reserve was posted in column about eight 
hundred yards in rear of the right. On the evening of the 30th, 
Sherridan s left rested on the Wilkinson road, and on the right of 
Neglcy s divison, and the line then ran in a south-easterly direction, 
through a cedar thicket, until General Davis right rested near the 
Franklin road. Kirk s brigade was on Davis right. Willich s brigade 
flanked on a line nearly perpendicular to the main line, forming a 
crochet to the rear, to avoid the possibilities of my right being turned 
by anything like an equal force. My line was a strong one, open 
ground in front for a short distance. My instructions for the following 
day were received at about six and a half o clock P. M. on the 30th, 
which were as follows : 

u Take strong position ; if the enemy attack you, fall back slowly, 
refusing your right, contesting the ground inch by inch. If the enemy 
do riot attack you, you will attack them, not vigorously, but warmly. 
The time of attack by you to be designated by the General Command 
ing." 

I was also informed that Crittenden s corps would move, simulta 
neously with my attack, into Murfreesboro. 

Written instructions were sent by me to each division commander, 
on the night of the 30th, explaining to each what would be required 
of them on the 31st. 

At about, six and a half o clock on the 31st, a determined, heavy 
attack was made on Kirk s and Willich s brigades, on the extreme 
right. They were attacked by such an overwhelming force, that they 
were compelled to fall back. 

General Kirk being seriously wounded at the first fire upon his main 
line, General Willich having his horse killed early in the action, and 
he falling into the hands of the enemy, the two brigades were 
deprived of their immediate commanders, and gave way in confusion. 
Colonel Post s brigade, on the right of Davis division, and, in fact, my 
entire line to Sherridan s left, was, almost simultaneously, attacked by 
a heavy force of the enemy. The attack in front of Davis and Sher- 
ridan was repulsed several times; and had not the heavy attacking 
columns of the encmjr on my right succeeded so well, my line could 
have been maintained, and the enemy driven back to his barricade?, 
which extended from the Wilkinson pike, with but a short interval, 
three-fourths of a mile beyond the Franklin road. General Sherri 
dan s division was ably maneuvered by him, under my own eye. 

As soon as it became evident that my lines would be compelled to 
give way, orders were given to re-form my line in the first skirt of 
timber, in the rear of my first position. The enemy advancing so 
rapidly on my right, I found this impossible, and changed the point 
of re-forming my line to the high ground in the rear of the Wilkinson 
pike. 

Moving to the left of my line, and in rear of Sherridan s division, I 
here met General Rousseau in a cedar-wood, posting his division to 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 389 

repel the attack. I then ordered my line to fall still further back, and 
form on the right of Rousseau. I gave General Johnson orders, in per 
son, to form his division in rear of Rousseau ; Rousseau s division 
having been withdrawn to the open ground in rear of the cedar-woods, 
the hist position became untenable, and my troops were retired to the 
Nashville pike, where my wing, except ShaefFer s brigade of Sherri- 
dan s division, was reassembled and replenished with ammunition On 
arriving at the pike, I found Colonel Barker s brigade, of Wood s 
division, retiring before a heavy force of the enemy. I immediately 
ordered Robert s brigade, of Sherridan s division, to advance into a 
cedar-wood, and charge the enemy and drive him back. Although 
this brigade was reduced in numbers, and having but two rounds of 
cartridges, it advanced to the charge, under the gallant Colonel Brad 
ley, driving the enemy back with the bayonet, capturing two guns 
and forty prisoners, and securing our communication on the Mur- 
freesboro pike at, this point. This brigade is composed of the Twenty- 
Second, Forty-Second, Twenty-Seventh, and Fifty-First Illinois. The 
Twenty-Seventh particularly distinguished itself. 

About eleven o clock A. M., Colonel Moses B. Walker s brigade 
arrived upon the field, and reported to me for duty. They were 
assigned to General Sherridan s command, to whose report I refer for 
the good conduct of this brigade. 

On the afternoon of the 31st, the Right Wing assumed a strong posi 
tion ; its left, composed of Walker s brigade, resting near a command 
ing knoll, the line running nearly north-west along the slope of a 
ridge, covered with cedar growth, the right resting on the Murfrees- 
boro pike. On the slope strong barricades were erected, which could 
have been well defended by single lines. The second line, Gibson s 
brigade (late Willich s) Avas used as a reserve. The Right Wing, 
excepting Davis division and Gibson s brigade, did not participate in 
any general engagements after the 31st. There was constant skirm 
ishing in my front till the night of the 3d. 

On the 4th, the enemy left his position in front of the Right, and 
evacuated Murfreesbore the night of the same day. On the Gth the 
Right Wing marched to its present camp, two miles and a half south 
of Murfreesboro, on the Shelbyville pike. 

The reports of Generals Johnson, Davis, and Sherridan, division 
commanders, are herewith enclosed. Accompanying General John 
son s report, you will find the reports of the brigade, regimental and 
battery commanders carefully prepared. 

I have been thus particular on account of the Commanding Gen 
eral s dispatch to the General-in-Chief, and also from erroneous reports 
sent to the public by newspaper correspondents. The attention of the 
General Commanding is particularly called co the reports of Colonels 
Gibson and Dodge ; also, to Lieutenant Colonel Jones report, who 
commanded the pickets in front of Willich s brigade. 

Captain Edgarton, commanding battery of Kirk s brigade, certainly 
was guilty of a great error in taking even a part of his horses to 
water at such an hour. He is in the hands of the enemy, and there 
fore no report can be had from him at present. 

In a strict compliance with my orders, and the knowledge I pos 



390 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

sessed of the position, of the enemy, which was communicated to my 
superior and the Generals under my command, I could not have made 
a better disposition of my troops. 

On subsequent examination of the field, I found the statements of 
the citizen referred to in my report correct, as the barricades extended 
fully three-fourths of a mile beyond the Franklin road. I am well 
satisfied that Hardee s corps, supported by McCown s division (late of 
Kirby Smith s corps), attacked Kirk s and Willich s brigade about the 
same time Withers division attacked Davis, and Cheatham s division 
attacked Sherridan. Cheatham s and Withers divisions compose 
Folk s corps. 

I was in the rear of the center of my line when this attack com 
menced ; therefore I did not see all of the columns that attacked and 
turned my right ; but it may be safely estimated tiiat the rebel force 
outnumbered ours three to one. 

After leaving my line of battle, the ground in the rear was, first, 
open fields; second, woods, then a dense cedar-thicket; and over such 
ground it was almost impossible for troops to retire in good order, par 
ticularly when assailed by superior numbers. 

My ammunition train, under charge of my efficient Ordnance Offi 
cer, Captain Gates P. Thruston, First Ohio, was at an early hour 
ordered to take a position in the rear of the center of my line. It was 
then attacked by the cavalry, which was handsomely repulsed by a 
detachment of cavalry under the direction of Captain H. Pease, of 
General Davis staff, arid Captain G. P. Thruston, Ordnance Officer. 

The train was conducted safely to the Nashville pike by Captain 
Thruston, cutting a road through the cedar-wood for the passage of the 
trnin. 

To Brigadiers R. W. Johnson, Philip I!. Sherridan, and Jeff. C. 
Davis, I return my thanks, for their gallant conduct upon the day of 
the battle, and for their prompt support and conscientious attention to 
duty during their service in the Right Wing. I commend them to 
mv superiors and my country. 

To Brigadier General D. S. Stanley my thanks are particularly due. 
lie commanded my advance from Nolensville, and directed the cavalry 
on my right Hank. A report of the valuable services of our cavalry 
will be furnished by General Stanley. 1. commend him to my superiors 
and my country. 

For the particular instances of good conduct of individuals, I refer 
you to the reports of division commanders. 

I can not refrain from again calling the attention of my superiors to 
the conspicuous gallantry and untiring zeal of Colonel W. H. Gibson, 
of the Forty-Ninth Ohio Volunteers. He succeeded to the command 
of Willich s brigade, and was ever prompt to dash upon the enemy 
with his gallant brigade when opportunity permitted. I have repeat 
edly recommended him for promotion. He has again won additional 
claims to his reward. 

Colonel Marker, commanding a brigade of Wood s division, performed 
gallant service under my supervision, as also did Colonel Fyfi e, of the 
Fifty-Ninth Ohio.. They are commended to my superiors. 

To my staff Lieutenant Colonel E. Bassett Langdon, Inspect* Gen- 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 891 

eral; Major R. H. Nodine, Engineer Officer; Major J. A. Campbell, 
Assistant Adjutant General; Captain Gates P. Thruston, Ordnance Offi 
cer; Captain B. D. Williams, Aiddecamp; Captain J.F.Boyd, Assistant 
Quartermaster; Captain 0. F. Blake, Provost Marshal; Major Caleb 
Bates. Volunteer Aiddecamp; Captain Horace N. Fisher, Volunteer Aid- 
decamp and Topographical Engineer my thanks are due for their con 
spicuous gallantry and intelligence on the field. 

My escort, under command of Lieutenant Huekston, Second Ken 
tucky Cavalry, and my orderlies, behaved gallantly. When my horse 
was shot, Orderly Cook, of the Second Indiana Cavalry, replaced him 
with his own. 

The officers of the Signal Corps were ever ready to perform raiy 
service in their line, or as aids. 

The report of Surgeon C. McDermot, the Medical Director of the 
Right Wing, is also submitted. Surgeon McDermot s gallantry on the 
field, and his great care of the wounded, is worthy of great praise. 
My entire Medical Corps behaved nobly, except Assistant Surgeon W. 
S. Fish, of the Third Indiana Cavalry, who lied to Nashville. He is 
recommended for dismissal. 

The casualties of my wing are 542 killed, and 2,23-1 wounded. 

The nation is again called upon to mourn the loss of gallant spirits 
who fell upon the sanguinary field. 

First of these, Brigadier General J. W. Sill, commanding First Bri 
gade, Third Division. He was noble, conscientious in the discharge of 
every duty, brave to a fault. He had no ambition save to serve his 
country. He died a Christian soldier, and in the act of repulsing the 
enemy. 

Such names as Roberts, Shaeffer, Harrison, Stem, Williams, Reed, 
Houssam, Drake, Wooster, and McKee, all field officers, and many other 
commissioned officers, of the Right Wing, who fell vindicating their 
flag, will never be forgotten by a grateful country. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

A. McD. McCOOK, 

Major General United States Volunteers. 



MAJ. GEST. THOMAS OFFICIAL KEPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS CENTER FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, "J 

DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, > 

MURFBEESBORO, January 15, 1863. J 
Major C. Goddard, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff: 

MAJOR 1 have the honor to submit to the Major General command 
ing the Department of the Cumberland, the following report of the 
operations of that part of my command, which was engaged in the 
battle cf Stone River, in front of Muri reesboro. It is proper to state 



392 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

here, that two brigades of Fry s division, and Reynold s entire division 
were detained near Gallatin and along the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad, to watch the movements of the rebel leader, Morgan, \rho 
had been, for a long time, on the watch for an opportunity to destroy 
the railroad. 

llousseau s, Negley s, and Mitchell s divisions, and Walker s brigade, 
of Fry s division, were concentrated at Nashville; but. Mitchell s divi 
sion being required to garrison Nashville, my only available force was 
llousseau s and Negley s divisions, and Walker s brigade, of Fry s 
division, about thirteen thousand three hundred and ninety-five 
(13,395) effective men. 

December 20. Negley s division, followed by Rousseau s division 
and Walkers brigade, marched by the Franklin pike to Brentwood, at 
that point taking the Wilson pike. Negley and Rousseau were to 
have encamped for the night at Owen s store. On reaching the latter 
place, Negley hearing heavy firing in the direction of Nolensville, left 
his train with a guard to follow, and pushed forward with his troops 
to the support of Brigadier General J. C. Davis command, the advance 
division of McCook s corps, Davis having become hotly engaged with 
the enemy posted in Nolensville and in the pass through the hills south 
of that village. Rousseau encamped, with his division, at Owen s 
store, and Walker, with his brigade, at Brentwood. During the night 
a very heavy rain fell, making the cross-road almost impassable, and 
it was not until the night of the 27th that Rousseau reached Nolens 
ville with his troops and train. Negley remained at Nolensville until 
ten A. M., on the 27th, when having brought his train across from 
"Wilson s pike, he moved to the east, over an exceedingly rough by 
road, to the right of Crittenden, at Stewartsboro, on the Murfrees- 
boro pike. Walker, by my orders, retraced his steps from Brentwood 
and crossed over to the Nolensville pike. 

December 28. Negley remained in camp at Stewartsboro, bringing 
his train from the rear. Rousseau reached Stewartsboro on the night 
of the 28th. His train arrived early next day. 

December 29. Negley s division crossed Stewart s Cw?ek, two miles 
south-west and above the turnpike bridge, and marched in support of 
the head and right flank of Crittenden s corps, which moved, by the 
Murfreesboro pike, to a point within two miles of Murfreesboro. The 
enemy fell back before our advance, contesting the ground obstinately 
with their cavalry rear-guard. 

Rousseau remained in camp at Stewartsboro, detaching Stark 
weather s brigade, with a section of artillery, to the Jefferson pike 
crossing of Stone River, to observe the movements of the enemy in 
that direction. Walker reached Stewartsboro, from the Nolensville 
pike, about dark. 

December 30. A cavalry force of the enemy, something over four 
hundred strong, with two pieces of artillery, attacked Starkweather 
about nine A. M., but were soon driven off. The enemy opened a 
brisk fire on Crittenden s advance, doing but little execution, how 
ever, about seven A. M. During the morning, Negley s division was 
obliqued to the right, and took up a position on the right of Palmer s 
division of Crittenden s corps, and was then advanced through a 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 393 

dense cedar thicket, several hundred yards in width, to the "Wilkin 
son Cross-road, driving the enemy s skirmishers steadily, and with 
considerable loss. Our loss comparatively small. About noon, Sher- 
ridan s division of McCook s corps, approached by the Wilkinson 
Cross-road, joined Negley s right, McCook s two other divisions 
coming up on Sherridari s right, thus forming a continuous line, the 
left resting on Stone River, the right stretching in a westerly direc 
tion, and resting on high wooded ground, a short distance to the south 
of the Wilkinson Cross-road, and has since been ascertained, nearly 
parallel with the enemy s intrenchments, thrown iip on the sloping 
land bordering the north-west bank of Stone River. Rousseau s 
division (with the exception of Starkweather s brigade) being 
ordered up from Stewartsboro, reached the position occupied by the 
army about four P. M., and bivouacked on the Murfreesboro pike, in 
the rear of the center. During the night of the 30th, I sent orders 
to Walker to take up a strong position near the turnpike bridge over 
Stewart s Creek, and defend the position against any attempts of the 
enemy s cavalry to destroy it. Rousseau was ordered to move by six 
A. M., on the 31st, to a position in rear of Negley. This position 
placed his division with its left on the Murfreesboro pike, and its 
right extending into the cedar thicket, through which Negley had 
marched on the 30th. 

In front of Negley s position, bordering a large open field, reaching 
to the Murfreesboro pike, a heavy growth of timber extended in a 
southerly direction toward the river. Across the field, running in an 
easterly direction, the enemy had thrown up rillc-pits at intervals 
from the timber to the river bank to the east side of the turnpike. 
Along this line of intrenchments, on an eminence about eight 
hundred yards from Negley s position, and nearly in front of his 
left, some cannon had been placed, affording the enemy great advant 
age in covering an attack on our center. However, Palmer, Negley, 
and Sherridan held the position their troops had so manfully Avon the 
morning of the 30th. against every attempt to drive them buck, and 
remained in. line of battle during the night. 

December 31. Between six and seven A. M.. the enemy having 
massed a heavy force on McCook s right during the night of the oOth, 
attacked and drove it back, pushing his divisions in pursuit in 
echelon, and in supporting distance, until he had gained sufficient 
ground in our rear to wheel his masses to the right, and throw them 
upon the right flank of the Center, at the same moment attacking 
Negley and Palmer in front with a greatly superior force. To coun 
teract this movement, I had ordered Rousseau to place t\vo brigades, 
with a battery, to the right and rear of Sherridan s division, facing 
toward the west, so as to support Sherridan, should he be able to hold 
his ground, or to cover him, should he be compelled to fall back. 
About eleven o clock, General Sherridan reported to me that his 
ammunition was entirely out, and he would be compelled to fall back 
to get more. As it became necessary for General Sherridan to fall 
back, the enemy pressed on still further to our rear, and soon took up a 
position, which gave them a concentrated cross-fire of musketry and 
cannon, on Negley s and Rousseau s troops, at short range. This com- 



394 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

pellecl me to fall back out of the cedar-woods, and take up a line along 
a depression in the open ground, within good musket range of the 
edge of the woods, while the artillery was retired to the high ground 
to the right of the turnpike. From this last position, we were enabled 
to drive back the enemy, and cover the formation of our troops and 
secure the Center on the high ground. In the execution of this last 
movement, the Regular Brigade, under Lieutenant Colonel Shepard, 
Eighteenth United States Infantry, came under a most murderous fire, 
losing twenty-two officers and five hundred and eight men in killed 
and wounded; but, with the co-operation of Scribner s and Beatty s 
(John) brigades, and Guenther s and Loomis Batteries, gallantly held 
its ground against overwhelming odds. The Center having succeeded 
in driving back the enemy from its front, and our artillery concen 
trating its fire on the cedar-thicket on our right, drove him back far 
under cover, from which, though attempting it, he could not make any 
advance. 

January 1, 1863. Repeated attempts were made by the enemy to 
advance on our position, during the morning, but they were driven 
back before emerging from the woods. Colonel Starkweather s bri 
gade, of Rousseau s division, and Walker s brigade, of Fry s division, 
having reinforced us during the night, took post on the right of Rous 
seau, and left of Sherridan, and bore their share in repelling the 
attempts of the enemy on the morning of the 1st instant. 

Neglcy s division was ordered, early in the day, to the support of 
McCook s right, in which position it, remained during the night. 

January 2. About 7 A. M., the enemy opened a direct and cross 
fire from his batteries in our front, and from a position on the east 
bank of Stone River, to our left and front, at the same time making a 
strong demonstration with infantry, resulting, however, in no serious 
attack. Our artillery, Loomis , Guenther s, Stokes : , and another bat 
tery, the commander s name I can not now recall, soon drove back 
their infantry. Negley was withdrawn from the extreme right, and 
placed in reserve behind Crittenden s right. About 4 P. M., a divi 
sion of Crittenden s command, which had crossed Stone River to 
reeonnoiter, was attacked by an overwhelming force of the enemy, 
and, after a gallant resistance, compelled to fall back. The movements 
of the enemy having been observed and reported by some of my troops 
in the Center, I sent orders to Negley to advance to the support of 
Crittenden s troops, should they want help. This order was obeyed 
in most gallant style, and resulted in the complete annihilation of 
the Twenty-Sixth Tennessee (rebel) Regiment and the capture of 
their flag. Also, in the capture of a battery, which the enemy had 
been forced to abandon at the point of the bayonet. (See Negley r s 
report.) 

January 3. Soon after daylight, the Forty-Second Indiana, on picket 
in a clump of woods about eight hundred yards in front of our lines, 
was attacked by a brigade of the enemy, evidently by superior num 
bers, and driven in, with considerable loss. Lieutenant Colonel 
Shanklin, commanding the regiment, was surrounded and taken 
prisoner, while gallantly endeavoring to draw off his men, under 
the fire of such superior numbers. From these woods, the enemy s 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 395 

sharpshooters continued to firo occasionally during the day, on our 
pickets. 

About P. M., two regiments from Colonel John Beatty s brigade, 
Rousseau s division, co-operating with two regiments of Spears (Ten 
nessee) brigade, of Negley s division, covered by the skillful and \vell- 
diivcted tire of Guenthev s Fifth United States Artillery, and Loomis 1 
First Michigan Battery, advanced on the woods and drove the enemy, 
not only from its cover, but from the intrencliments, a short distance 
beyond. 

The enemy having retreated during the night of the 3d, our troops 
were occupied during the night of the 4th in burying the dead left on 
the field. In the afternoon, one brigade of Negley s division was 
advanced to the crossing of Stone River, with a brigade of Rousseau s 
division in supporting distance, in reserve. 

January 5. My entire command, proceeded by Stanley s cavalry, 
marched into Murfrecsboro and took up the position which we now 
hold. The enemy s rear guard of cavalry was overtaken on the Shcl- 
byville and Manchester roads, about five miles from Murfreesboro, 
and after sharp skirmishing for two or three hours, was driven from 
our immediate front. 

The conduct of my command, from the time the army left Nashville 
to its entry into Murfreesboro. is deserving of the highest praise, both 
for their patient endurance of the fatigues and discomforts of a five 
days battle and for the manly spirit exhibited by them in the various 
phases in this memorable contest. I refer you to the detailed reports 
of division commanders, for special mention of those officers and men of 
their commands whose conduct they thought worthy of particular notice. 

All the members of my staif, Major G. E. Flynt, Assistant Adjutant 
General ; Lieutenant Colonel A. Von Schrader, Seventy-Fourth Ohio ; 
Acting Inspector General, Captain 0. A. Mack, Thirteenth United 
Slates Infantry, Acting Chief Commissary; and Captain A. J. Mackay, 
Chief Quartermaster, were actively employed in carrying orders to 
various parts of my command, and in the execution of the appropriate 
duties of their office. Captain 0. A. Mack was dangerously wounded 
in the right hip and abdomen, while conveying orders from me to 
Major General Rousseau. The officers of the Signal Corps, attached 
to ray headquarters, did excellent service in their appropriate sphere, 
when possible ; and as aidsdecamp, carrying orders. My escort, com 
posed of a select detail from the First Ohio Cavalry, commanded by 
Lieutenant Barker, of the same regiment, have been on duty with me 
for nearly a year, deserve commendation for the faithful performance 
of their appropriate duties. Private Gustcam W.MS killed by a cannon 
shot, on the morning of January 2. Surgeon C. D. Beebe deserves 
special mention, for his efficient, arrangements for moving the wounded 
from the field, and giving them immediate attention. 

The details will be seen in the accompanying reports of division 
commanders. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GEORGE II. THOMAS, 
Major General United States Volunteers. 



896 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



MAJOR GENERAL CEITTENDEN S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS LEFT WING, 

MURFREESBOUO, January 20, 1863. 

Lieutenant Colonel 0. Goddard, Chief of Staff: 

COLONEL In obedience to orders, I left camp near Nashville on the 
26th of December, and reached the point where the battle of Stone 
River wns fought, before dusk on the morning of the 20th. The march 
from Nashville was accompanied by the skirmishing u-ual when an 
army moves toward an enemy, posted near by and in force. The 
gallant and handsome things done by several different portions of my 
Command during this march, have been mentioned in detail by the 
immediate commanders conducting the advance and leading the skirm 
ishers. The seizure of two bridges, one by General Hascall, and the 
other by Colonel Hazen ; the gallant charge of the troops of Hascall s 
brigade, at Lavergne ; arid the counter-charge and capture of twenty- 
five of the enemy by a company of the new regiment, One Hundredth 
Illinois, when charged by the enemy s cavalry, are worthy of special 
notice. 

It was about dusk, and just at the moment when Generals Wood 
and Palmer had halted to gather up their troops, that I reached the 
head of my command. These two Generals had their divisions in line 
of battle. General Wood on the left, and General Palmer on the right, 
the enemy in sight, and evidently in heavier force than we had yet 
encountered them; it was evident they intended to dispute the passage 
of the river and to fight a battle at or near Murfreesboro. 

At this moment I received an order to occupy Murfreesboro with one 
division, camping the other two outside. 

I immediately gave the order to advance, and the movement was 
commenced. General Wood was ordered to occupy the place, General 
Palmer being ordered, at General Wood s suggestion, to keep in line 
with Wood s division, and advance with him, until he had forced the 
passage of the river. At this time it was dark. General Wood had 
declared, when he received the order, that it was hazarding a great 
deal for very little, to move over unknown ground in the night, instead 
of awaiting for daylight, and that I ought to take the responsibility of 
disobeying the order. I thought the movement hazardous, but as the 
success of the whole army might depend on the prompt execution of 
orders by every officer, it was my duty to advance. After General 
Wood had issued the order to advance, and General Palmer had 
received his also, they both came to see me, and insisted that 
the order should not be carried out. I refused to rescind the order, 
but consented to suspend it for one hour, as General Rosecrans could 
be heard from in that time. During the interval the General himself 
came to the front, and approved of what I had done. 

In the meantime, Colonel Harker, after a sharp skirmish, gallantly 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 397 

crossed the river with his brigade and Bradley s Battery, and Hnscall 
was already in the river advancing, when the order to suspend the 
movement was received. As soon as possible I recalled Market*, and, 
to my great satisfaction, this able officer, with consummate address, 
withdrew from the actual presence of a vastly superior force his artil 
lery and troops, and recrossed the river without any serious loss. Dur 
ing the night General McCook came over to see the Commanding 
General, and reported that he was on the Wilkinson pike, about three 
miles in the rear of our line, and that he should advance in the 
morning. 

The next morning (the 30th) early, my line of battle was formed. 
Palmer s division occupied the ground to the right of the turnpike, his 
right resting on Negley s left, Neglcy having advanced into the woods 
and taken a position in the center, to take a position with General 
McCook when he should come into line. General Wood was to occupy 
that part of our front to the left of the turnpike, extending down 
the river. General Van Cleve was held in reserve to the rear and 
left. This position of our forces was, without material change, main 
tained all day, though the skirmishing during part of the day was very 
heavy, particularly on our extreme right, where McCook was coming 
up. Then, when it apparently assumed the proportion of a battle, I 
proposed to cross the river with my corps / and attack Murfreesboro 
from the left, by way of the Lebanon pike, but the General, though 
approving the plan of attack, would not consent that I should move 
until McCook was more seriously engaged. 

On the morning of the 31st. when the battle begun, I occupied the 
front near the turnpike, General Palmer s division on the right, Gen 
eral Wood on the left, General Van Cleve in reserve to the rear and 
left. About 8 o clock, when my troops under Van Cleve were cross 
ing the river, as ordered, and when all was ready for an advance 
movement, it became evident that our Right was being driven back ; 
orders were received and immediately issued recalling Van Cleve and 
stopping the advance; Van Cleve was ordered to leave a brigade to 
guard the ford, Matthews brigade, Colonel Price commanding in 
Colonel Matthews absence, was left, and to hurry with all possible dis 
patch to try and check the enemy to the right and rear. One brigade 
of his division, Colonel Fyffe s, had already been ordered to protect 
the train then threatened near the hospital, and General Van Cleve 
moved at- once and quickly to the right with Beatty s brigade. He 
arrived most opportunely, as his o.wn and Colonel Beatty s reports 
show, and checked the enemy. The confusion of our own troops, who 
were being driven from the woods at this point, hindered him, for 
some time, from forming his men in line of battle. This difficulty, how 
ever, Avas soon overcome, his line rapidly formed, and one small bri 
gade, commanded by the gallant Colonel Beatty, of the Nineteenth 
Ohio, under the direction of General Van Cleve, boldly attacked vastly 
superior forces of the enemy, then advancing in full career, checked 
their advance and drove them back. Being soon reinforced by 
Fyife s brigade and Marker s brigade, of Wood s division, the enemy 
were pressed vigorously, and too far. They came upon the enemy 



398 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

massed to receive them, who, outnumbering them and outflanking 
them, compelled them to fall back in turn. This they did in good 
order, and fighting with such effect that the enemy drew off and left 
them, and they were able to hold their position during the remainder 
of the day. From this time the great object of the enemy seemed to 
be to break our left and front, where, under great disadvantages, my 
two divisions, under Generals Wood and Palmer, maintained their 
ground. 

AVhen the troops composing the Center and Right Wing of our 
army had been driven by the enemy from our original^ line of bat 
tle to a line almost perpendicular to it, the First and Second Divi 
sions of the Left Wing still nobly maintained their position. Though 
several times assaulted by the enemy in great force, it was evident 
that it was vital to us that this position should be held, at least until 
our troops, who had been driven back, could establish themselves on 
their new line. The country is deeply indebted to Generals Wood 
and Palmer for the sound judgment, skill, and courage with which 
they managed their commands at this important crisis in the battle. 
The reports of my Division Commanders show how nobly and how 
ably they were supported by their officers; and the most melancholy 
and convincing proof of the bravery of all who fought in this part of 
the field is their terrible list of killed and wounded, for with them 
was no rout, no confusion; the men who fell, fell fighting in the 
ranks. 

Generals Wood and Van Cleve being wounded on the 31st, their 
commands devolved, of course, on other officers General Hascnll 
taking command of Wood s division, and Colonel Beatty of Van 
Cleve s on the 1st day of January. It was a fortunate thing that 
competent and gallant officers took command of these two noble 
divisions. 

On the night of the 31st, with the consent of the General Command 
ing, I reunited my command, bringing them all together on the left 
of the turnpike, and before daylight, by orders from the General 
Commanding,, we took up a new line of battle, abou.t five hundred 
yards to the rear of our former line; Hascall s division was ordered 
to rest their right on the position occupied by Stokes Battery, and 
his left on General Palmer s right; General Palmer was to rest his 
left on the ford, his right extending toward the railroad, and perpen 
dicular to it, thus bringing the line at right angles to the railroad and 
turnpike, and extending from Stokes Battery to the ford. On the 
morning of the 1st of January, Van Cleve s division again crossed 
the river, and took position on ground the General considered it 
important we should hold, extending from the ford about half a mile 
from the river, the right resting on high ground near the river, and 
the left thrown forward, so that the direction of the line should be 
nearly perpendicular to it. These changes in position having been, 
accomplished, the day parsed quietly, except continued skirmishing 
and occasional artillery firing. The next day (January 2) large 
forces of the enemy s infantry and artillery were seen to pass to the 
right, apparently contemplating an attack. Lieutenant Livingston, 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 399 

with Drury s Battery, was ordered over the river, and Colonel Grose s 
brigade, of Palmer s division, was also crossed over, taking post on 
the hill near the hospital, so as to protect the left and rear of Beatty s 
position. 

About four o clock on the evening of the 2d, a sudden and concen 
trated attack was made on the Third Division, IIOAV commanded by 
Colonel Beatty; several batteries opened at the same time on their 
division. 

The overwhelming numbers of the enemy directed upon two bri 
gades, forced them, after a bloody but short conflict, back to the 
river. The object of the enemy (it is since ascertained) was to take 
the battery which we had on that side of the river. In this attempt 
it is most likely they would have succeeded, but for the sound judg 
ment and wise precaution of Colonel Beatty, in changing the position 
of his battery. It was so late when the attack was made, that the 
enemy, failing in their enterprise to capture our battery, were sure 
of not suffering any great disaster in case of a repulse, because night 
would protect them. They not only failed to capture our battery, but 
lost four of their guns in their repulse and flight. As soon as it 
became evident that the enemy were driving Colonel Beatty, I turned 
to my Chief of Artillery, Captain John Mendenhall, and said, "Now, 
Meridenhall, you must cover my men with your cannon." Without 
any show of excitement or haste, almost as soon as the order Avas 
given, the batteries began to open, so perfectly had he placed them. 
In twenty minutes from the time the order was received, fifty-two 
guns were firing upon the enemy. They can not be said to have been 
checked in their advance; from a rapid advance they broke at once 
into a rapid retreat. Reinforcements soon began to arrive; our 
troops crossed the river and pursued the flying enemy until dark. 

It is a pleasant thing to report that the officers and men from the 
Center and Right Wing hurried to the support, of the Left Wing, 
when it was known to be hard pressed. General J. C. Davis sent a 
brigade at once without orders, then applied for and obtained orders 
to follow immediately with his division. General Negley, from the 
Center, crossed with a part of his division. General McCook, to 
whom I applied for a brigade, not knowing of Davis movement, 
ordered immediately Colonel Gibson to go with his brigade, and the 
Colonel and the brigade passed at doublo-quick in loss than five 
minutes after the request was made. Honor is due to such men. On 
the night of the 2d, General Hascall, with his division, and General 
Davis with his, camped a little in advance of the position which 
Beatty h;id occupied. General Palmer, commanding the Second 
Division, camped with two brigades in reserve to Ilascall and Davis 
divisions, and the remaining brigade on this side of the river. In 
this position these troops remained until Saturday night, when the 
river beginning to rise, and the rain continuing to fall, it was feared 
we might be separated from the rest of the army, and all recrossed 
the river except Palmer s two brigades, which remained, and did not 
come back until it was ascertained the next day (Sunday) that the 
enemy had evacuated Murfreesboro. 

I feel that this report of the part taken by my command in the 



400 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

battle of Stone River is very imperfect. I have only endeavored to 
give a general outline of the most important features of the battle. 
The reports, however, of the division commanders, and the report of 
the Chief of Artillery, give a detailed and good account of the memo 
rable incidents which occurred in this particular fight. 

Reports of the division commanders show how nobly they were 
sustained by their subordinate officers, and all reports show how 
nobly the troops behaved. Generals Wood and Van Clevc, though 
wounded early in the battle of the 31st, remained in the saddle and 
on the field throughout the day, and at night were ordered to the rear; 
General Palmer exposing himself everywhere and freely, escaped 
unhurt, and commanded the Second Division throughout the battle. 
To these division commanders, I return my most earnest and heartfelt 
thanks, for the brave, prompt, and able manner in which they executed 
every order, and I most urgently present their names to the Com 
manding General and to the Government, as having fairly earned 
promotion. 

After the 81st, General Hascall commanded Wood s division, the 
First, and Colonel Beatty the Second, Van Cleve s. To these officers I 
am indebted for the same cheerful and prompt obedience to orders, 
the same brave support which I received from their predecessors in 
command ; and I also respectfully present their names to the Com 
manding General and the Government, as having earned promotion on 
the field of battle. 

There are numerous cases of distinguished conduct in the brigade 
as well as regimental commanders, mentioned by my division com 
manders as meriting promotion. I respectfully refer the General 
Commanding to division, brigade, and regimental reports, and solicit 
for the gallant officers and men who have distinguished themselves for 
conduct and bravery in battle, the honors they have won. We have 
officers who have commanded brigades for almost a year, though the} 
have but the rank of Colonel ; in such cases, and in all like cases, 
as where a Lieutenant commands a company, it seems if the officers 
have capacity for their commands on the field, that they should have 
the rank the command is entitled to. The report of Captain Menden- 
hall, Chief of Artillery to the Left Wing, shows the efficiency, skill, 
and daring with which our artillery officers handled their batteries. 
Division and brigade commanders vie with each other in commenda 
tion upon different batteries. Some of the batteries, fighting as they 
did in all parts of the field, won praises from all. To these officers, 
also, attention is called, with a sincere hope that they may be rewarded 
as their valor and bearing deserves. 

Major Lyne Starling, Assistant Adjutant General to the Left Wing, 
has been, for nearly eighteen months, the most indefatigable officer I 
ever knew, in his department. His services to me arc invaluable. On 
the field here, as at Shiloh, he was distinguished, even among so many 
brave men, for his daring and efficiency. Captain R. Loder, Inspector 
General for the Left Wing, has entitled himself to my lasting grati 
tude, by his constant and able management of his department. It is 
sufficient to say that the gallant and lamented Colonel Garesche told 
him, in my presence, but a short time before the battle, that he had 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 401 

proved himself to be the best Inspector General in the army. On the 
field of battle bravery was added to the same efficiency and activity 
which marked his conduct in the camp. 

Captain John Meudenhall, who has been mentioned already as 
Chief of Artillery to my command, but of whom too much can not be 
said, is also Topographical Engineer on my staff. In this capacity, as 
in all where he works, the work is well arid faithfully done. His 
services at Shiloh, of which I was an eye-witness; his splendid con 
duct as Chief of Artillery to the Left Wing ; his uniform soldierly 
bearing, point him out as eminently qualified for promotion. 

To the Medical Director of the Left Wing, Doctor A. J. Phelps, the 
thanks of the army and the country are due, not only for his prompt 
attention to the wounded, but for his arrangements for their immediate 
accommodation. He took good care not only of the wounded of my 
command, but of more than two thousand wounded from other corps 
and from the enemy. Since the battle, I have visited his hospitals, 
and can bear testimony to the efficiency of the Medical Department 
of the Left Wing. 

Captain Louis M. Buford and Lieutenant George Knox, my Aidsde- 
camp, were brave, active, and efficient helps to me all through the 
battle. Captain Buford was struck just over the heart, fortunately, by 
a ball too far spent to penetrate, and which only bruised. The Cap 
tain and Lieutenant Knox were frequently exposed to the heaviest 
firing, as they fearlessly carried my orders to all parts of the field. 

Captain Case, of the Signal Corps, tendered his services as a volun 
teer aid, and proved himself a bold soldier and an efficient aid. Two 

other officers of the same corps, Lieutenants tendered 

their services as aids, and were placed on my staff during the battle, 
and I thank them sincerely for their services. 

Lieutenant Brown, of the Third Kentucky Cavalry, who com 
manded my escort, was as quietly brave on the battle-field as he is 
mild and gentlemanly in the camp. 

Before concluding this report, it will be proper to add, that when I 
speak of a quiet day, I mean to speak comparatively. We had no 
quiet days ; no rest from the time we reached the battle-field until the 
enemy lied, skirmishing constantly, and sometimes terrible cannon 
ading. On the 2d, which we call a quiet day, until about four o clock 
P. M., the First Division, under Hascall, laid for half an hour, in the 
early part of the day, under the heaviest cannonading we endured. 
Many men were killed, but he and his brave soldiers would not flinch. 
The number of killed and wounded, demonstrates with what fearful 
energy and earnestness the battle was contested in my command. 
Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

T. L. CRITTENDEN, 

Major General Commanding. 

34: 



402 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



THE 



GEN. D. S. STANLEY S OFFICIAL REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, ") 
DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, 

NEAR MURFREESBORO, January 9, 18G3. J 

MAJOR I have the honor to submit for the information of the Gen 
eral commanding the army, the following statement of the part taken 
by the cavalry under my command in the advance upon and battle 
of Mnrfreesboro : 

Upon the 26th day of December I divided the cavalry into three 
column , putting the First Brigade, commanded by Colonel Mintv, 
Fourth Michigan Cavalry, upon the Murfreesboro pike, in .advance of 
General Crirtenden s corps. The Second Brigade, commanded by 
Colonel Zahn. Third Ohio Cavalry, was ordered on Franklin to dis 
lodge the enemy s cavalry, and move parallel to General McCook s 
corps, protecting his right flank. The reserve cavalry, consisting of 
the new regiments, viz. : Anderson Troop, First Middle Tennessee, 
Second East Tennessee Cavalry, and four companies of the Third 
Indiana, I commanded in person, and preceded General McCook s 
corps on the Nolensville pike. 

Colonel John Kennett, commanding cavalry division, commanded 
the cavalry on the Murfreesboro pike. For the operations of this col 
umn and also the movements of Colonel Zahn up to the 31st of Decem 
ber, I would refer you to the inclosed reports of Colonel Kennett, and 
Colonels Zahn and Minty. > 

On the morning of the 26th our cavalry first encountered the enemv 
on the Nolensville pike, one mile in advance of Balle Jack Pass ; their 
cavalry was in large force and accompanied by a battery of artillery, 
the fighting continued from ten o clock until evening, during which 
time we had driven the enemy two miles beyond Lavergne. The Third 
Indiana and Anderson Troop behaved gallantly, charging the enemy 
twice, and bringing them to hand and hand encounters. The conduct 
of Majors Rosengarten and Ward, the former now deceased, was most 
heroic. On the 28th we made a reconnoissance to College Grove, and 
found that Hardee s rebel corps had marched to Murfreesboro. 

On the 29th, Colonel Zahn s brigade having formed, was directed to 
march upon Murfreesboro by the Franklin road. The reserve cavalry 
moving on the Balle Jack road, the column communicating at the 
crossing of Stewart s ( reek. We encountered the enemy s cavalry and 
found them in strong force at Wilkinson s Cross-roads. Our cavalry 
drove them rapidly acioss Overall s Creek, and within one-half rnile 
of the enemy s line of battle. The Anderson Cavalry behaved most 
gallantly this day, pushing at full charge upon the enemy for sis 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 403 

miles ; unfortunately their .advance fronted too recklessly ; having 
dispersed their cavalry, the troops fell upon two regiments of rebel 
infantry in ambush, and after a gallant struggle wtre compelled to 
retire, with the loss of Major Rosengarten and six men killed, and the 
brave Major Ward and five men desperately wounded. With the loss 
of these two most gallant officers the spirit of the " Anderson Troop," 
which gave such full promise, seems to have died out, and I have not 
been able to get any duty out of them since. 

On the 30th the entire cavalry force was engaged in guarding the 
flanks of the army in position. Some small cavalry skirmishing 
occurred, but nothing of importance. At eleven o clock P. M., the 
30th, I marched for Lavergne, with the First Tennessee and the 
Anderson Cavalry. Near that place I was joined by detachments of 
the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. At half- 
past nine o clock on the 31st, I received an order from the General 
Commanding, directing me to hasten to the Right. I made all pos 
sible speed, leaving a strong detachment to protect the trains crossing 
the road at Stewartsboro, and to pick up stragglers. Upon arriving 
upon the right flank of the army, I found order restored, and took 
position on General McCook s right, my right extending toward Wil 
kinson s Cross-roads, occupying the woods about the niceting-house 
and Overall s Creek. In this position we were attacked, about four 
o clock P. M., by a long line of foot-skirmishers. My first impression 
was that these were covered infantry, but I soon learned that they 
were dismounted cavalry. We successfully held them at bay for half 
an hour with the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania dis 
mounted, when, being outflanked, I ordered our line to mount and fall 
back to the open field. The enemy followed here, and, being rein 
forced by detachments of the Anderson and Third Kentucky Cavalry, 
and by the First Tennessee, we charged the enemy and put him to 
rout, The cavalry held the same position this night they had taken 
upon my arrival upon the field. About nine o clock New Year s morn 
ing, the enemy showed a line of skirmishers in the woods to our front, 
and soon after brought a six-gun battery to bear upon mv r cavalry. 
As we could not reach the enemy s skirmishers nor reply to his artil 
lery, I ordered my cavalry to fall back. A part of Zahn s brigade 
marched this day to Nashville, to protect our trains. Colonel Zahn s 
report is inclosed. 

The 2d and 3d of January the cavalry was engaged in watching the 
flanks of our position. On the 4th it became evident that the enemy 
had fled ; the cavalry was collected and moved to the fords of Stone 
River. Upon the 5th we entered Murfreesboro. Zahn s brigade 
marched in pursuit of the enemy on the Shelby ville pike six miles. 
finding no opposition. With the remainder of the cavalry, I marched 
on the Manchester pike, and encountered the enemy in heavy force at 
Lytlc s Creek, three and a half miles from town. We fought with this 
force till near sundown, pushing them from one cedar-brake to another, 
when, being reinforced by General Spears brigade of East Tcnnes- 
seeans, we drove the enemy out of his last stand in disorder. We 
returned after dusk and encamped on Lytle s ("reek. Our troops all 
behaved well. The skirmishing was of a very severe character. 



404 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

The Fourth United States Cavalry, which was this day first under 
my control, behaved very handsomely. Captain Otis command acted 
independently until the oth instant, when they came under my 
command. 

The duty of the cavalry was very arduous. From the 2Gth of 
December till the 4th of January, the saddles were only taken oil to 
groom, and were immediately replaced. 

Respectfully submitted, 

D. S. STANLEY, 
Brigadier General and Chief of Cavalry. 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF COL. JOHN" EENKETT. 

HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, 

CAMP STANLEY, January 8, 1863. 
Cap ain W. II. Sinclair : 

SIR I have the honor to submit to you the reports of the part taken 
in the fighting of the two brigades composing the First Cavalry 
Division from December 26, 1862, up to the night of January f), 1863, 
from Nashville to Murfreesboro, and six miles beyond Murfrcesboro, 
on the Manchester and Shelbyville pikes. 

On leaving Nashville the Second Brigade, under Colonel Zahn, 
took the road to Franklin; Brigadier General D. S. Stanley, with the 
First and Second Tennessee Cavalry and Anderson Troop, taking the 
Nolensville pike. The First Brigade, Colonel Minty commanding; 
under my charge, took the Murfreesboro pike. I reported my com 
mand to General Palmer, who placed us in advance. Our skirmishers 
drove the enemy some five miles. The afternoon was well spent when 
General Palmer relieved us with infantry skirmishers. The oavalrj 
forming the reserve on the right and left flanks, the First Brigade 
marched directly as a reserve to the advance skirmishers of the 
army composing the Left Wino 1 , on their flanks, up to December 30, 
1862. 

On December 31, 1862, we were posted as reserves on the flanks, 
throwing out our skirmishers and vedettes, watching the movements 
of the enemy. We performed a variety of duty as scouts on the dif 
ferent avenues leading to our camp and connecting with the roads 
centering upon Nashville, Tennessee flankers, vedettes, couriers 
engaging the enemy daily on the right flank. 

Some few incidents which could not have fallen under the eye of the 
brigade commanders, having occurred under my immediate notice, I 
beg leave to append. 

When the enemy charged upon our wing, scattering a few regi 
ments, who stampeded to the rear, I received orders from General 






OFFICIAL REPORTS. 405 

Piosecrans in person, to collect all the cavalry at my command, and 
proceed to rally the Right Wing and drive the enemy away. I found 
Colonel Murray, of the Third Kentucky, in command of about a 
squadron of men. With that we made our way to the right. We 
found a complete stampede infantry, cavalry, and nrtilleiy, rushing 
to the rear, and the rebel cavalry charging upon our retiring forces 
on the Murfreesboro pike. Colonel Murray, with great intrepidity, 
engaged the enemy toward the skirts of the wood, and drove them in 
three charges. His men behaved like old veterans. Between his 
command and the field, was filled with rushing rebel cavalry charging 
upon our retreating cavalry and infantry, holding many of our 
soldiers as prisoners. 

I rallied the Third Ohio, some two companies, who "were falling 
back, and formed them in the rear of a fence, where volley after vol 
ley had the effect of driving back the rebels on the run. the Third 
Ohio charging upon them effectually, thereby relieving the pike of 
their presence, saving the train, one piece of artillery, and rescuing 
from their grasp many of our men taken as prisoners. One of my 
staff, Lieutenant Reilly, being a prisoner in their hands was released. 
Lieutenant Murray, of the Third Ohio, displayed energy, courage, 
and coolness upon this occasion, in executing my orders. I also take 
great pride in mentioning the prompt manner with which my staff 
conveyed my orders in all these engagements. 

Two of my orderlies displayed high order of chivalry. Joggers 
charged upon two rebel cavalry, rescuing two men of the Fourth 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, who were being taken off as prisoners. The 
other, Farrish, shot two of the rebels, and came to my rescue in a per 
sonal encounter with a rebel, who was in the act of leveling his pistol 
at my head, but. he found a carbine leveled into his own face, and at 
my order to surrender, he delivered his pistols, carbine, and horse to 
me. They both deserve promotion, and would make good officers. 

The able and undaunted spirit and ability which Colonel Minty has 
displayed whenever coming under my eye, I take great satisfaction 
in noticing. The officers and men all displayed great, self-sacrifice. 
Major Wynkoop, of the Seventh Pennsylvania commanding, and 
Lieutenant Wooley, Adjutant General of the First, Brigade, carried 
out every order with unhesitating energy and will, displaying the 
highest order of gallantry. 

Captain E. Otis, of the Fourth Regular Cavalry, although he does 
not belong to my division, but being posted on the Left Wing of our 
skirmishers on the march on the Manchester road, I feel it my duty 
as well as take great pleasure in stating he is is an able and efficient 
officer. 

Brigadier General D. S. Stanley being in command of the forces 
pursuing the retiring rebels on the march, it fell to my lot to convey 
and see his orders executed. Before closing this report it is my duty 
to make honorable mention of the meritorious conduct of Lieutenant 
Newell, commanding a section of artillery attached to my division. 
During the first day s engagement near Lavcrgne, he placed his two 
pieces on well-selected ground, and did great execution, killing three 
horses, dismounting seven, and scattering the rebel cavalry by his 



406 OiTICIAL REPORTS. 

well and timely aimed shots. Tie lias on several occasions displayed 
talents of iirst order as an artillerist. 

It would not be amiss at this time to state that my entire command 
were short of rations, performing duty, night and day, in the wet 
field without shelter, exposed to the wet, cold, and hunger, without a 
murmur. Major Paransom, of the Third Ohio, displayed great pres 
ence of mind and determination in maintaining his position on the 
right flank with his battalion, to cover an ammunition train, long after 
the cavalry on his right had been driven away by the enemy s shells. 
Your obedient servant, 

JOHN KENNETT, 

Commanding Division. 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF CAPT. ELMER OTIS. 

HEADQUARTERS FOURTH UNITED STATES CAVALRY, 

IN CAMP NEAR MURFREESBORO, TENNESSEE, 

January 7, 1863. 
Major C. Goddard, Acting Assistant Adjutant General: 

SIR I have the honor to make the following report of the opera 
tions of the Fourth United States Cavalry, in the battle in front of 
Murfreesboro: 

On December 30, the Fourth United States Cavab-y left camp at 
Stewart s Creek, leaving the train and baggage under a strong guard, 
commanded by Lieutenant Randlebrook. The regiment proceeded to 
}oin General Rosecrans on the field of battle, and was drawn up in 
"line of battle in rear of the General s headquarters, but took no 
immediate part in the action that day. Company L, commanded by 
Lieutenant Royse, was General Rosecrans immediate escort, and so 
remains at the present time. Company M, strengthened by fifty men 
detailed from Companies B, C, D, G, I, and K, commanded by Lieuten 
ant L Hommedieu, proceeded to establish a courier line from General 
Rosecrans headquarters to Lavergne, and so remained doing good 
service until relieved, January 4, 1863. These details left me with 
only six small companies, numbering in aggregate two hundred and 
sixty men, rank and file. 

On the morning of the 31st, Colonel Garesche informed me that 
rebel cavalry was appearing on the right flank of the line of battle, 
and ordered me to proceed with the Fourth United States Cavalry to 
look after them. This must have been between seven and eight o clock 
in the morning. I crossed the Murfreesboro pike and drew up the six 
companies in line of battle in the following manner : each company 
was in a column of fours led by tht company commanders, the com 
panies on a line parallel to each other, company distance apart, lead- 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 407 

ing the center myself. This was done owing to the wooded country 
and fences that were obstructions to the ordinary line of battle. 

Proceeding to the right of the line, I found our entire right flank 
had given way. Learning from some men of General Davis 1 division 
the position of the enemy s cavalry, I made a turn to the right, 
moving about one-fourth of a mile, and discovered the enemy. I 
came out of a piece of timber I was in, and getting over a fence, rap 
idly charged the enemy with my entire command, completely routing 
them with the exception of two pieces of artillery, supported by about 
one hundred and twenty-five cavalry, stationed between my right and 
the Murfreesboro and Nashville pike, who were not at first discovered. 
I rallied my men again, and while rallying I saw about three hundred 
of volunteer cavalry on my right ; I rode over to them and asked them 
lo charge the artillery with me and the few men I had rallied to take 
the pieces. The officer replied that he was placed there to guard a 
train, and would not charge with me. 1 have no doubt I could have 
taken the artillery. Before I could get my men rallied the artillery 
moved oft . About the time I got my command rallied, I received an 
order from General Rosecrans to proceed to the Nashville and Mur 
freesboro pike as soon as possible. 1 did so immediately. I have 
since thought the General did not know my position, or he would havo 
allowed me to follow up the enemy. I was much nearer the pike than 
I thought I was. I saw no more of the enemy s cavalry on the pike 
that morning. 

In this charge I can not speak in too high terms of the officers and 
men. Every man charged and kept in position, taking over a hundred 
prisoners of the enemy and releasing a large number of our own cap 
tured men. More redounds to their credit, considering that a large 
majority were recruits from volunteer infantry, and only some five 
days drilled mounted. 

Two companies of infantry were released in a body. The train on 
the pike was, I have since learned, in the possession of the encrny 
with a large number of stragglers, who were being disarmed at the 
time. These stragglers did nothing to protect the train, scarcely 
firing a shot. 

From prisoners taken I have learned that the Fourth United 
States Cavalry charged an entire brigade of cavalry, and routed them 
to such a degree that they disappeared from the field at this point 
entirely. Later in the day I sent seventy-nine prisoners in one body 
to the Tenth Ohio Infantry, stationed in our rear at Stewart s Creek. 
Another body of forty men started, but I regret to say were captured. 
Of th"e seventy-nine sent to the rear there was one captain and two 
lieutenants. I have no doubt there were other officers, but did not 
have an opportunity to examine them closely enough to find out. 

Of the officers engaged it is almost impossible to particularize, they 
all did so well. Captain Eli Long led his company with the greatest 
gallantry, and was wounded by a ball through his left arm. Lieuten 
ants Mouck, Kelly, Lee, and Healey could not have done better. 

It was a matter of great surprise to me, considering the ground 
passed over, to find Dr. Comfort*so soon on the field with his ambu 
lance, caring for the wounded. He was in time to capture a prisoner 



408 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

himself. First Sergeant Murphy led Company G, and commanded it 
with great gallantry, the reports having counted eleven dead of the 
enemy on the ground over which his company charged. Sergeant 
Major John G. AVebstcr behaved gallantly, capturing a lieutenant 
mounted on a fine mare. First Sergeant James MeAlpin led Company 
K after Captain Long was wounded, and reports having killed two 
rebels with two successive shots of his pistol. First Sergeant John 
Dolan, Company B, captured a captain and received his sword. ]No 
one could have acted more bravely than First Sergeant McMaster, of 
Company I. First Sergeant Christian Hacfling. in charge of courier 
line near headquarters, proceeded in the thickest of the fight, and 
recovered the effects of Colonel Garesche on his body, killed in this 
day s fight. Our loss in this charge was small, Captain Eli Long and 
six privates wounded. 

Proceeding on the Nashville pike, I was ordered to escort a train to 
the rear. 1 afterward got orders to return and report to General 
Rosecrans ; I returned, and for two hours looked for the General with 
my command, but did not find him, although 1 found several of his 
staff. I proceeded to the right flank and formed my regiment in front 
of some rebel cavalry, who showed themselves in the distance, in 
order to protect our train. 1 returned to General Rosecrans head 
quarters that night, and bivouacked near him. The next morning, 
January 1st, I was ordered to make a reconnoissance on the right 
flank which I did, making my reports frequently to Major Goddard, 
Acting Assistant Adjutant General; ihat night bivouacking near 
Overall s Creek, where my command remained watching the move 
ments of the enemy until the 4th of January, when it, was moved 
to Wilkinson s Cross-roads. On Janunry 5th my command proceeded 
under command of General Stanley to engage the enemy s rear guard, 
on the Manchester pike, driving them some two or three miles. 

1 rivate Snow, of Company L, orderly to General Rosecrans, was 
ordered on January 2d, to pick up fifteen stragglers, march them to 
the front, and turn them over to some commissioned officer. Failing fo 
find one he assumed command, formed them in line, telling them that 
he would shoot the first one that should run. He reports that they 
fought bravely. 

Twelve men were taken prisoners while performing courier duty. 
Lieutenant Randlebrook was exceedingly vigilant guarding the train, 
and of great service in sending forward supplies. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ELMER OTIS, 
Captain Commanding Fourth United States Cavalry in Field. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 409 



REPORT OF COLOKEL R. II. GL MIOTY. 

HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY BRIGADE, \ 

CAMP BEFORE MURFREESBORO, January 7, 1863. f 

Lieutenant Chamberlain, Acting Assistant Adjutant General, First Cavalry 

Division : 

SIR I have the honor to hand you the following report of the part 
taken by the First Brigade, First Division Cavalry Reserve, in the 
operations from the advance of the army from Nashville to, and 
including the battle before, Murfreesboro. 

I marched from Camp Rosecrans, near Nashville, on the morning 
of the 26th ult., with the Third Kentucky, Fourth Michigan, Seventh 
Pennsylvania, and one company of the Second Indiana, and reported 
to General Palmer on the Murfreesboro road. In accordance with 
orders received from him, through the Colonel commanding the divi 
sion, I placed the Third Kentucky on the left, and the Seventh Penn 
sylvania on the right of the road, keeping the Fourth Michigan on the 
pike, with a strong advance guard thrown out. 

Ten miles from Nashville I met the enemy s pickets, who, as they 
fell back before us, were continually reinforced, until arriving at 
Lavcrgne they disputed our progress with a force of two thousand five 
hundred cavalry and mounted infantry, with four pieces of artillery, 
under General Wheeler. After some sharp skirmishing in which we 
suffered some loss, and did the enemy considerable-damage, I moved 
under cover of a slight eminence on which Lieutenant Newell, of Bat 
tery D, First Ohio, had his section planted, leaving two companies of 
the Fourth Michigan dismounted, and in ambush behind a fence, to 
support, the artillery. I must here mention that Lieutenant Newell did 
splendid service with his two three-inch Rodmans. Every shot was 
well planted, and he nobly fought the four guns of the enemy for over 
half an hour, when a battery from General Palmer s division came up 
to his assistance. One of the gunners was killed by a shell from the 
enemy while serving his gun. 

Saturday, December 27. The Seventh Pennsylvania, under Major 
Wynkoop, made a reconnoissance in front of General Palmer s divi 
sion, which occupied a position on the left of the line. One battalion, 
Fourth Michigan, under Captain Mix, was sent out on the Jefferson 
pike, and did not rejoin the brigade until the following day. 

The army advanced at about eleven o clock A. M., the Third Ken 
tucky and one company of the Second Indiana, under Colonel Murray, 
on the left flank, and the Fourth Michigan, under my immediate 
direction, covering the right flank. 

Camped near Stewart s Creek this night. 

Sunday, December 28. I sent one battalion Seventh Pennsylvania, 
under Captain Jennings, to relieve the battalion Fourth Michigan on 
the Jefferson pike. 

Monday, December 29. The army again advanced the Seventh 

35 



410 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

Pennsylvania, under Major Wynkoop, on the left flank ; the Third 
Kentucky, under Colonel Murray, on the right flank ; the Fourth 
Michigan, under Lieutenant Colonel Dickinson, in reserve ; Second 
Indiana on courier duty. Light skirmishing with the enemy all day. 
Found the enemy in position in front of Murfreesboro at about three 
o clock P. M. Bivouacked immediately in rear of our line of battle. 

Tuesday, December 30. One battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania 
and one battalion of the Third Kentucky formed a chain of vedettes in 
rear of line of battle, with orders to drive up all stragglers. 

Under orders from the Colonel commanding the division, I took the 
Fourth Michigan, and one battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania, back 
on the Nashville road to operate against Wheeler s Cnvalry, who, a few 
hours before, had captured the train of the Twenty-Eighth Brigade on 
the Jefferson pike. Between Stewart s Creek and Lavergne I met the 
enemy, who were chiefly dressed in our uniforms. The Seventh Penn 
sylvania drove them until after dark. I joined Colonel Walker s bri 
gade, and camped with them near Lavergne for the night. 

Wednesday, December 31. Under orders from General Ro?ecrans I 
reported to Brigadier General Stanley, Chief of Cavalry, who came 
up the same morning with the First Middle Tennessee, and a part of 
the Fifteenth Pennsylvania, and in accordance with his orders we 
moved rapidly across the country toward the right flank of General 
McCook s position, leaving Lieutenant Colonel Dickinson with one 
hundred and twenty men to protect Lieutenant Newell s section of 
artillery at the Cross-roads, north-west from Stewart s Creek. The 
enemy s cavalry fell back rapidly before us for some miles. When 
close to Overall s Creek our own artillery, in position to our left, opened 
on us with shell, and wounded severely one man of the Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania. 

Crossing Overall s Creek, I took up position parallel to and about 
three-quarters of a mile from the Murfreesboro and Nashville pike ; 
the Fourth Michigan, under command of Captain Mix, forming a line 
of dismounted skirmishers close to the edge of the woods, out of which 
they had driven a large force of the enemy s cavalry. They were 
supported by a portion of the First Middle Tennessee Cavalry, also 
dismounted. 

Captain Jennings battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania, and two 
companies of the Third Kentucky, under Captain Davis, were posted 
in the woods near and to the right of the Fourth Michigan, with the 
Fifteenth Pennsylvania (the :--.arson Troop) in their rear. 

My entire force at this time numbered nine hundred and fifty men. 
The enemy advanced rapidly with two thousand five hundred cav 
alry, mounted and dismounted, and three pieces of artillery, all under 
the command of Generals Wheeler, Wharton, and Buford. They drove 
back the Fourth Michigan to the line of the First Tennessee skirm 
ishers, and then attacked the Seventh Pennsylvania with great fury, 
but met with a determined resistance. I went forward to the line of 
dismounted skirmishers and endeavored to move them to the right to 
strengthen the Seventh Pennsylvania, but the moment the right of the 
line showed itself from behind the fence where they were posted, the 
whole of the enemy s fire was directed on it, turning it completely round. 






OFFICIAL REPORTS. 411 

At this moment the Fifteenth Pennsylvania gave way and retreated 
rapidly, leaving the battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania and the 
dismounted men entirely unsupported, and no alternative but to 
retreat. I fell back a short distance and reformed in the rear of a 
rising ground, which protected us from the enemy s artillery. 

The rebel cavalry followed us up sharply into the open ground, and 
now menaced us with three strong lines, two directly in front of our 
position, and one opposite our left flank, with its right thrown well 
forward, and a strong body of skirmishers in the woods on our right, 
threatening that flank. 

General Stanley ordered a charge, and he himself led two companies 
of the Fourth Michigan (II and K), with about fifty men of the Fif 
teenth Pennsylvania, against the line in front of our left. lie routed 
the enemy and captured one stand of colors, which was brought in by 
a sergeant of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania. 

Captain Jennings, of the Seventh Pennsylvania, with his battalion, 
supported this movement. At the same time I charged the first line in 
our front with the Fourth Michigan and First Tennessee, and drove 
them from the field. The second line was formed on the far side of a, 
lane, with a partially destroyed fence on each side, and still stood their 
ground. I reformed my men and again charged. The enemy again 
broke, and were driven from the field in the wildest confusion. 

I held the ground that night, with the First Tennessee, Fifteenth 
Pennsylvania, and Fourth Michigan, picketing all of my first position. 

A sergeant of the Seventh Pennsylvania, who was taken prisoner by 
the enemy when we were driven back, states that before we charged 
we had killed twenty-seven, including many officers. 

January 1, 2. and 3. Had the brigade under arms all day, with two 
regiments on picket and skirmishing with the enemy s pickets. 

January 4. I moved the brigade to Wilkinson s Cross-roads and 
bivouacked there for the night, with the Fourth Cavalry. 

January 5. I marched through Murfreesboro and took the Manches 
ter pike. One mile out I met the enemy s pickets and reported the 
fact to General Stanley, who ordered an advance and took the lead 
with the Fourth Cavalry. 

After crossing a small creek, about two miles from Murfreesboro, the 
bridge over which had been destroyed, the rebels commenced shelling us. 

I sent the Third Kentucky well to the right and front and the Sev 
enth Pennsylvania to the left, keeping the Fourth Michigan and First 
and Second Tennessee in reserve. After some little delay we again 
advanced. The Fourth Michigan, being next to and on the right of 
the road with one company, advanced as skirmishers; the Third Ken 
tucky on the right of the Fourth Michigan, the First Tennessee on the 
right of the Third Kentucky, and the Second Tennessee in reserve. In 
this formation we moved through a cedar-thicket, with a dense under 
growth, rendering it almost impossible to force our way through. We 
had occasional heavy skirmishing with the enemy, who continued to 
shell us as we advanced. 

About six miles out we met the enemy in force. A sharp skirmish 
ensued, the Fourth Cavalry, First Tennessee Infantry, and the Seventh 
Pennsylvania Cavalry having to bear the brunt of *.he fight on our side. 



412 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



The enemy were driven from the field with heavy loss, and we 
returned to within a mile and a half of Murfreesboro and went into 
camp. 

CASUALTIES. 



REGIMENTS. 


Killed | Wounded j Missing. 


Aggregate 


o 

93 
o 

* 
f* 


S> 



Officers. 


t 



2 


Officers. 


g 

o 
13 




3 
o 
$ 

>~s 


gj 

o 

3 
















14 
01 
9 
19 

13 

17 

183 


2d Indiana Cavalry ... 




1 






1 

"i 

2 


13 
50 
1 

12 

8 
5 

89 


1 

1 
1 



1 

f, 


7th Pennsylvania Cavalry 




2 




9 

7 
8 
5 
10 

87 


3d Kentucky Cavalrv 




1 

1 

2 


1 
1 
1 


4th Michigan Cavalrv 




1st Middle Tennessee Cavalry 
2d East Tennessee Cavalry 


Total... 




7 


8 



Horses killed, 01 ; wounded, 65. 



Colonel Murray with a handful of men, performed services that 
would do honor to a full regiment. 

Captain Mix, with about fifty men, not only drove two hundred of 
the enemy for over two miles, but he there held his position against an 
entire regiment of rebel cavalry. 

Lieutenant Eldridge, with eighteen men, and dismounted, attacked 
the enemy, routed them, and recaptured a wagon full of ammunition. 

In the engagement of Wednesday, the 31st, while leading his com 
pany in a charge, Captain Mix s horse was shot, under him, and, in the 
same charge, Lieutenant Woollcy, my Acting Assistant Adjutant Gen 
eral, was thrown from his horse, severely hurting his leg, notwith 
standing which he remounted and continued to perform all his duties. 

In explanation of the large number of " missing" reported by the 
Seventh Pennsylvania, I would call your attention to the fact that the 
entire force of one battalion was deployed as a chain of vedettes in 
rear of our line of battle, when the Right Wing was driven back, and 
many of the men must have been captured by the enemy while endeav 
oring to drive forward the struggling infantry. 

In reporting such officers and men who deserve special mention, I 
must confine myself to those who came under my personal observation. 

First Sergeant Bedtelyon, of Company K, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, 
rode by my side during both charges against the enemy in the 
engagement of Wednesday evening, December 31st, and displayed 
great gallantry and coolness. I have recommended him to his Excel 
lency, the Governor of Michigan, for promotion. Bugler Ben Depen- 
brock, Second Indiana Cavalry, and Quartermaster Sergeant Edward 
Owen, Fourth Michigan Cavalry when we were driven back in the 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 413 

early part of the evening of December 31st, I was on foot and in rear 
of the dismounted skirmishers who were running for their horses 
when these two callant, soldiers galloped to the front, bringing up my 
horse. Lieutenant John Woollej 7 ", Second Indiana Cavalry, Acting 
Ass stant Adjutant General, First Cavalry Brigade, was thrown from 
his horse and so severely hurt that he could not walk without great dif 
ficulty, continued to press to the front on foot until he got another 
horse, and remained on the field until long after the engagement was 
over. Captain Frank W. Mix, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, had his horse 
shot under him during the first charge ; he pressed forward on foot, 
caught a stray horse, and led his company in the second charge. 
Many others undoubtedly did as well as those I have mentioned, but 
the above are the cases that came under my immediate notice. 

The brigade has captured and turned over one hundred and ninety- 
two prisoners. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. H. G. MINTY, 

Colonel Commanding. 



THE RIGHT WING. 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF GEN. R. W. JOHNSON. 

HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION, ") 

EIGHT WING, January 6, 18G3. / 

Major J. A. Campbell, Assistant Adjutant General : 

I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of 
the Second Division, under my command, beginning December 26, 
1862. the day upon which it left Nashville, and terminating on Jan 
uary 6, 1863 : 

Agreeably to orders, the divisions of the Right Wing of the Four 
teenth Army Corps marched from their camps near Nashville, taking 
the Nolensville pike, and arrived in that village the same day, at four 
o clock P. M. On the following day the same divisions, with mine in 
advance, marched to Triune. The rebel rear guard contested the 
ground inch by inch, and the day was passed constantly skirmishing 
with them, with no loss on our side, but several casualties on their 
part. Triune was occupied by my division about four P. M. The fol 
lowing day (December 28), the command remained in Triune. A 
reconnoissance, to ascertain the direction the enemy had retreated, 
was made by a brigade of my command, commanded by Brigadier 
General A. Willich. It having ascertained that the enemy had 
retreated toward Murfreesboro, I was ordered to leave a brigade at 



414 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

Triune, and on the 29th to march on Murfreesboro on what is known 
as the Balle Jack road. Colonel P. P. Baldwin, Third Brigade, was 
left at Triune. The command arrived at Wilkinson s Cross roads 
about eight P. M., on the 20th, and an order sent at once to Colonel 
Baldwin to move forward his brigade, which arrived early on the 
afternoon of the 30th. My division was in reserve on the 29th. On 
the following morning, December 30, General Sherridan s division was 
ordered to advance in line of battle, covering the Wilkinson pike, 
while General Davis division marched in the same order, on the right 
of General Sherridan. My division, being held in reserve, was 
marched in column on the pike. There being no troops on General 
Davis right, and General Sherridan s left being guarded by General 
Crittenden s left wing (N. B. Negley s division of Center), I was 
ordered to oblique to the right, covering the right of General Davis 
division. About two o clock P. M. I received an order from Major 
General McCook to look well to my right, as General Hardee (rebel), 
with his corp?, was on the right flank of our column. I ordered the 
Second Brigade, Brigadier General E. N. Kirk commanding, to take 
position with his brigade, his left resting against, the right of General 
Davis, his right refused so as to cover our right flank. About dark I 
placed General Willich s on the right of Kirk s, refusing his right, and 
directed a heavy line of skirmishers to be thrown forward, connecting 
on the left with those of General Davis, and extending to the right 
and rear, near the Wilkinson pike This line of skirmishers was 
thrown forward about six hundred yards, and near those of the enemy. 
My Third Brigade, Colonel Baldwin commanding, was held in reserve. 
In consultation with General McCook, late in the afternoon of the 30th, 
he informed me that he had reliable information to tiie effect that the 
center of the rebel line of battle was opposite to our extreme right, 
and that we would probably be attacked by the entire rebel army early 
on the following morning. His prediction proved true. lie also in 
formed me that he had communicated this information to the Com 
manding General. I expected a change in the programme for the 
following day, but none was made. My brigade commanders were 
called together, and the operations of the following day fully explained 
to them. Every arrangement was made for an attack. Two gallant 
and experienced officers commanded my two advance brigades, and 
every precaution was taken against surprise. 

At twenty-two minutes past six o clock on the morning of the 31st, 
the outposts in front of my division were driven in by an overwhelm 
ing force of infantry, outnumbering my forces greatly, and known to 
contain about thirty-five thousand men. At the same time my extreme 
vijrlit was attacked by the enemy s cavalry. The gallant Kirk and 
Willich soon opened up a heavy fire of musketry and artillery on the 
advancing columns, causing wavering in the ranks, but fresh columns 
would soon repine 2 them, and it was apparent that to fall back was a 
"military necessity." Pklgarton s Battery, after firing three rounds, 
had so many of his hordes killed as to render it unmanageable, lie, 
however, remained with it, and continued so fire, until he fell by a 
severe wound, and he and his battery fell into the hands of the enemy. 
Before falling back, the horse of General Willich was killed, and he 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 415 

was wounded and taken prisoner. About the same time, General Kirk 
received a severe wound, which disabled him. Seeing the pressure 
upon my lines, I ordered up my reserve brigade, under the gallant 
Baldwin. The troops of his brigade advanced promptly, and delivered 
their fire, holding their ground for some time, but, they, too, were com 
pelled to fall back. The troops of this division, for the first time, were 
compelled to yield the field temporarily, but the heroes of Shiloh and 
Perryville did not abandon their ground until forced to do so by the 
immense masses of the enemy hurled against them, and then inch by 
inch. 

The ground over which the division passed, covered with the ene 
my s dead and those of our own men, shows that the field was warmly 
contested. Several times the lines were reformed and resistance 
offered, but the columns of the enemy were too heavy for a single line, 
and ours would have to yield. Finally the left flank of my division 
reached the line of General Rousseau s, when it was reformed and 
fought until out of ammunition, but my efficient ordnance officer, Lieu 
tenant Murdoch, had a supply in readiness, which was soon issued, 
and the division assisted in driving the enemy from the field in their 
last desperate struggle of the day. Soon the curtain of darkness fell 
upon the scene of blood, and all was quiet, awaiting the coining of 
morn to renew hostilities. 

Morning came but the enemy had withdrawn. January 1 was a 
day of comparative quiet in camp, few shots being fired, but many 
preparations made for a heavy battle on the following day. General 
Crittenden s wing was attacked in force on the 2d, and one of my bri 
gades, Colonel Gibson s, was sent to reinforce them. For the gallant 
part taken by it reference is made to the report of Major General Crit- 
tenderi. The enemy evacuated Murfreesboro on the night of the 3d. 
On the 6th I was ordered to move my camp to a point on the Shelby- 
ville road, four miles south of Murfreesboro. 

The conduct of the officers and men under my command was good. 
The Louisville Legion, under the command of the gallant Lieutenant 
Colonel Berry, brought off by hand one cannon, after the horses were 
killed. They yielded the ground only when overpowered, offering an 
obstinate resistance at every point. Some few in each regiment 
becoming panic-stricken, fled to Nashville for safety. Captain Simon- 
son managed his battery with skill and courage, and with it did good 
execution. He lost two guns, but not until the horses had been killed 
anjl the guns disabled. Goodspeed s Battery lost three guns and quite 
a number of horses. This battery was handled well and did good 
execution, under Lieutenant Belden. 

After the capture of General Willich, his brigade was commanded 
temporarily by Colonel Wallace of the Fifteenth Ohio, but was after 
ward commanded by Colonel W. H. Gibson, Forty-Ninth Ohio. Gen 
eral Kirk becoming disabled was replaced by Colonel Dodge, Thirtieth 
Indiana, while the Third Brigade was commanded by Colonel Bald 
win. These four Colonels have demonstrated their fitness for command 
on several bloody fields, and are recommended to my superiors for pro 
motion. Their coolness and courage rendered them conspicuous 
throughout the bloody engagement. Major Klein and his battalion 



416 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

of the Third Indiana Cavalry, deserve special mention under their 
gallant leader; the battalion was always in front, and rendered effi 
cient service. 

To Captains Barker, Hooker, Thruston, and McLeland : Lieutenants 
Taft, Hills, and Sheets of my staff, many thanks are due for their effi 
ciency and promptness in carrying orders to all parts of the field. 
My Medical Director, Surgeon Marks, and the medical officers of the 
division, Avere untiring in their exertions to alleviate the sufferings of 
the wounded, and to them my thanks are due. My escort, composed 
of the following named men of the Third Kentucky Cavalry, who 
accompanied me throughout the engagement, deserves special mention 
for their good conduct: 

Sergeant Wm. C. Miles ; privates Geo. Long, Thos. Salycrs, John 
Christian, John Whitten, James Bowen, B. Hammerslein, R. A. Novah. 

Private Bowen s horse was killed by a cannon ball. 

The loss of the division was as follows : Killed, 2GO; wounded, 1,005; 
missing, 1,280; total, 2,545. 

The missing are supposed to have been captured. 
Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

K. W. JOHNSON, 

Brigadier General Commanding. 



GENERAL JEFF. C. DAVIS REPORT. 

EIGHT WING, 
January 8, 1863 



HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, EIGHT WING, "> 



Major J, A. Campbell, Acting Adjutant General: 

MAJOR I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
part taken by the division under my command, in the recent opera 
tions against the enemy s forces in the vicinity of Triune and Mur- 
freesboro : 

On the morning of the 26th ult., in compliance with instructions 
received from the General commanding the Ilight Wing, I broke up 
camp at St. James Chapel, on Mill Creek, and advanced upon Nolefis- 
ville via the Edrnonson pike, as far as Prim s blacksmith shop; from 
thence m} T advance was over a rugged country road, rendered almost 
impassable by the incessant rain which had been falling in torrents 
during the entire morning. 

The enemy s pickets were discovered by my cavalry escort, corn- 
posed of Company B, Thirty-Sixth Illinois Volunteers, under com 
mand of Captain Shirer, within a few miles of our camp. This small 
force of cavalry being the only mounted force under our command, I 
ordered them to the front, with instructions to drive in the enemy s 
pickets, and to attack him on his flanks at every opportunity. So 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 417 

effectually was this clone that the infantry and artillery were enabled 
to move with little interruption to within a mile of Nolensville. By 
this time I had learned from reliable information, through citizens as 
well as cavalry scouts, that the enemy occupied the town in some 
force both of cavalry and artillery. 

The First Brigade, consisting of the Twenty-Second Indiana, Sev 
enty-Fourth, Seventy-Fifth, and Fifty-Ninth Illinois Regiments, and 
the Fifth Wisconsin Battery, commanded by Colonel P. Sidney Post, 
was immediately deployed for an advance upon the town. Piriney s 
Fifth Wisconsin Battery was posted so as to command the town and 
all approaches from the south-west. The enemy s cavalry was seen 
by this time taking position on a range of hills south-west of town, 
and was evidently attempting to flank our position. A few shells 
from Piriney s Battery soon caused them to fall back. A battery 
which by this time they had succeeded in getting into position, 
opened fire but, was after a few rounds silenced by Pinney s guns. 

The Second Brigade, consisting of the Twenty-First and Thirty- 
Eighth Illinois, Fifteenth Wisconsin, and One Hundred and First 
Ohio Regiments, and the Second Minnesota Battery, commanded by 
Colonel Carlin, had by this time formed a line of battle on Post s 
right, and moving rapidly forward soon engaged the enemy s dis 
mounted cavalry in a sharp skirmish. 

The Third Brigade, consisting of the Twenty-Fifth and Thirty-Fifth 
Illinois, Eighty-First Indiana, and the Eighth Wisconsin Battery, 
commanded by Colonel Woodruff, was deployed on the right so as to 
check any effort which might be made to attack my flank from this 
direction. Carlin advanced in excellent order, driving everything 
before him until ordered to halt, having dislodged the enemy from 
his position entirely. 

By this time I ascertained that the enemy would probably make 
another effort to resist our advance about two miles further on, and 
notwithstanding it was late in the afternoon, and the men were much 
fatigued from a hard day s march through rain and mud, I could riot 
forego the opportunity thus offered in giving them another chance 
to signalize their courage and endurance. Ascertaining the enemy s 
position as well as I could I ordered the advance. Their linos were 
soon discovered, occupying a range of high rocky hills, through 
which the Nolensville and Triune pike passes, known as "Knob s 
Gap." This was a favorable position to the enemy and well guarded 
by artillery, which opened fire at long range upon Carlin s lines. 
Hotchkiss and Piriney s Batteries were rapidly brought into action 
and opened fire, while Carlin s brigade charged the battery, carried 
the hights in his front and captured two guns. Post s brigade car 
ried the hights on the left of the road with but little resistance, while 
Woodruff s brigade drove in the enemy s skirmishers on the extreme 
right, 

The day had now closed and I ordered the troops to bivouac in 
accordance with instructions from the General Commanding, AV!IO 
arrived at this time upon the ground, followed by Generals Shcrri- 
dan s and Johnson s divisions. 

The steady courage and soldierly zeal displayed on this occasion by 



418 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

both officers and men, gave ample assurance of what could be 
expected of them in the coming struggle at Murfreesboro. 

On the 27th, in accordance with the General s instructions, the 
division took position at the junction of the Balle Jack road with the 
Noleusville pike, one mile from Triune, where it remained in bivouac 
until the morning of the 29th, at which time the advance was 
resumed. In compliance with instructions, I moved forward on the 
Balle Jack as far as Stewart s Creek, a few miles beyond which it was 
reported by our cavalry the enemy had shown himself in considera 
ble force. The General Commanding arriving at this time in person, 
at the head of the column, ordered a halt until the division in the 
rear could be brought up. 

Brigadier General Stanley, commanding the cavalry in advance, 
soon reported the road clear and the march was resumed without 
obstruction, until the entire command reached the Wilkinson pike, 
six miles from Murfreesboro. 

The division bivouacked during the night at Overall s Creek, three 
and a half miles from Murfreesboro, the left brigade resting on the 
Wilkinson pike. On the morning of the 30th the division moved for 
ward and took position on General Sherridan s right, about three 
hundred yards south of and parallel to the Wilkinson pike, in which 
position it remained until two o clock P. M. A few companies of 
skirmishers thrown to the front, in a skirt of timber land, soon found 
those of the enemy, and for several hours a brisk skirmish was kept 
up with varying results. 

About two o clock P. M., the General Commanding ordered a gen 
eral advance of the whole line. This the enemy seemed at first dis 
posed to resist onlj r with his skirmishers; gradually, however, as 
both parties strengthened their lines of skirmishers, the contest 
became more animated. Our main lines steadily advanced, occupy 
ing and holding the ground gained by the skirmishers, until about 
half an hour before sunset, when the enemy s position was plainly 
discovered running diagonally across the old Murfreesboro and 
Franklin road. The enemy s batteries now announced our close prox- 
iniitv to their lines. Carpenter s and Ilotchkiss Batteries were soon 
brought into position and opened fire. Woodruff s and Carlin s bri 
gades by this time felt the fire of the enemy s main lines and 
responded in the most gallant manner. 

Post s brigade, moving steadily forward on the right, after a 
most obstinate resistance on the part of the enemy succeeded in 
driving his skirmishers from a strong position in our front, for 
cing them to retire upon their main lines. Night soon brought 
a close to the conflict. Receiving directions at this time, from 
General McCook, to desist from any further offensive demonstration 
further than what might be necessary to hold my position, I ordered 
the troops to rest for the night on their arms. Two brigades of Gen 
eral Johnson s division, heretofore held in reserve, arrived and took 
position on my right about sunset, thus extending our line of battle 
beyond the old Franklin and Murfreesboro road. These brigades 
were commanded by Generals Willich and Kirk. 

The night passed off quietly until about daylight, when the ene- 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 419 

my s forces were observed by our pickets to be in motion. Their 
object could not, however, with certainty be determined until near 
sunrise, when a vigorous attack was made upon Willich s and Kirk s 
brigades. These troops seemed not to have been fully prepared for 
the assault, and with little or no resistance retreated from their posi 
tion leaving their artillery in the hands of the enemy. This left my 
right brigade exposed to a flank movement, which the enemy ifas 
now rapidly executing, and compelled me to order Post s brigade to 
fall back and partially change its front. Simultaneous with this 
movement the enemy commenced a heavy and very determined attack 
on both Carlin s and Woodruff s brigades. 

These brigades were fully prepared for the attack, and received it with 
veteran courage. The conflict was fierce in the extreme on both sides. 
Our loss was heavy, and that of the enemy no less. It was according 
to my observations, the best contested point of the day, and would 
have been held but for the overwhelming force moving so persistently 
against my right. Carlin finding his right flank being severely pushed 
and threatened with being turned, ordered his troops to retire. Wood 
ruffs brigade succeeded in repulsing the enemy, and holding its posi 
tion until the withdrawal of the troops on both its flanks compelled it 
to retire 

Pinricy s Battery, which had posted in an open field upon my 
extreme right, and ordered to be supported by a part of Post s bri 
gade, now opened a destructive fire upon the enemy s advancing lines. 
This gallant and distinguished battery, supported by the Twenty-Sec 
ond Indiana and Fifty-Ninth Illinois regiments, together with a bri 
gade, of General Johnson s division, commanded by Colonel Baldwin 
(Sixth Indiana Volunteers), for a short time brought the enemy to a 
check on our right. Ilotchkiss Battery, had also by this time taken 
an excellent position near the Wilkinson pike, so as to command 
the enemy s approach across a large cotton-field in his front, over 
which he was now advancing. The infantry, however, contrary to 
expectations, failed to support this battery, and after firing a few 
rounds was forced to retire. In accordance with instructions re 
ceived during the night, announcing the plan of operations for the 
day, I desisted from any further attempts to engage the enemy except 
by skirmishers thrown to the rear for that purpose until iny lines had 
reached within a few hundred yards of the Nashville and Murfrees- 
boro pike?, when I again determined to reform my lines to resist his 
further advance. To this order but few of the regiments responded, 
their ranks being much thinned by killed and wounded, and not a few 
availed themselves of the favorable opportunity offered by the dense 
woods through which we were compelled to pass to skulk like cowards 
from the ranks. 

The reserve force here moved to the front and relieved my command 
from any further participation in the engagement, until late in the 
afternoon when in compliance with instructions I took position on the 
right. My skirmishers were immediately thrown out and soon engaged 
the enemy s until night brought a close to hostilities for the day. 

During the 1st and 2d of January, the division occupied tiiis posi 
tion in skirmishing with the enemy s pickets until late in the afternoon 



420 OFFICIAL KEPORTS. 

of the 2d, when I received orders from General Eosecrans to hasten to 
the support of a part of General Crittenden s command, who had been 
sometime hotly engaged with the enemy across the river on our 
extreme left. 

Moving as rapidly as possible across the river to the field of battle, 
I found our gallant troops forcing the enemy back on his reserves. 
The brigade of Colonel Woodruff, being in the advance, only arrived 
in time to participate in the general engagement. 

After relieving the troops of General Palmer and Colonel Beatty, 
and particularly the brigade of Colonel Hazen, which had so nobly 
vindicated their courage in the then closing conflict, I ordered a 
heavy line of skirmishers to be thrown out. The enemy s lines were 
soon encountered, and a renewal of the engagement seemed imminent. 
A few rounds of grape and cannister from one of our batteries, how 
ever, caused them to withdraw, and night again brought a cessation 
of hostilities. 

During the night I disposed of my troops in such manner as would 
best enable me to repel an attack, and in compliance with instructions, 
I directed rifle pits and breastworks to be thrown up. This was done, 
and morning found us well prepared for any emergency, either offen 
sive or defensive. 

The following day (3d January), considerable skirmishing was kept 
up Avithout abatement from early in the morning until dark. During 
the night, I received orders from General Crittenden to withdraw my 
command from the east bank of the river, and to report with it to 
General Me Cook. 

This movement was executed between one and four o clock in the 
morning, during which time the rain fell incessantly. The pickets 
about this time reported the enemy as having been very active in their 
movements during the latter part of the night, and their convictions 
that he was evacuating his position. Further observations made after 
daylight proved this to be the case. 

The following list of casualties shows a loss in the division during 
the several engagements above described, as follows : 

OFFICERS. 

Killed 16 

Wounded 34 

Missing 2 52 

ENLISTED MEN. 

Killed 17G 

Wounded 784 

Missing 3991,359 

Total 1,411 

This division lost three pieces of artillery, and captured two In the 
list of officers killed are the names of Colonel Stem, One Hundred and 
First Ohio ; Colonel Williams, Twenty-Fifth Illinois ; Lieutenant Col 
onel W r ooster, One Hundred and First Ohio ; Lieutenant Colonel McKee, 
Fifteenth Wisconsin; Captain Carpenter, Eighth Wisconsin Battery, 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 421 

and Captain McCullocli, Second Kentucky Cavalry of my staff, whose 
noble deeds of valor on the field, had already placed their names on the 
list of brave men. The history of the war will record no brighter names, 
and the country will mourn the loss of no more devoted patriots than 
these. 

Among the wounded are Colonel Alexander, Twenty-First Illinois ; 
Lieutenant Colonel Tanner, Twenty-Second Indiana ; Captain Pinney, 
Fifth Wisconsin Battery, and Captain Austin, Acting Assistant Adju 
tant General, on the staff of Colonel Woodruff, whose names it affords 
me special gratification to mention. 

From the 2Gth of December, until the close of the engagement on 
the 4th of January, at Murfreesboro, no entire day elapsed that the 
division or some portion of it did not engage the enemy. During a 
great part of the time, the weather was excessively inclement and the 
troops suffered much from exposure. A heavy list of casualties and 
much suffering was unavoidable under the circumstances. 

It affords me much pleasure to be able to report the cheerful and 
soldier-like manner in which these hardships and privations were 
endured by the troops throughout. History will record, and the coun 
try reward, their deeds. 

My staff consisting of T. W. Morrison, Acting Assistant Adjutant 
General; Captain H. Pease, Inspector General; Captain McCulloch, 
Lieutenants Frank E. Reynolds, and Thomas H. Dailcy, Aidsdecamp; 
Surgeon J. L. Judd, Medical Director ; Captain Shriver, Ordnance 
Officer; Lieutenant R. Plunket, Provost Marshal; private Frank Clark, 
Clerk to the Assistant Adjutant General, and Acting Aiddecamp ; 
deported themselves throughout the entire campaign, as well as on the 
battle-field, with distingushed zeal and conspicuous gallantry. 

While expressing my high regard and approbation of the General Com 
manding, 1 desire to tender my thanks to yourself. Major, and to Col 
onel Langdon, Major Bates, Captains Thruston, William?, and Fisher, 
of his staff, for the prompt and efficient manner in which the field 
duties were performed by them. 

During the several engagements in which the division pai-ticipated, 
my subaltern officers attracted my admiration by their conspicuous 
gallantry, and whose names, I regret, can not be mentioned in this 
report. They will be remembered in future recommendations for pro 
motion. 

I am, Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JEFF. C. DAVIS, 
Brigadier General Commanding. 



422 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



GENERAL P. II. SHERRIDAN S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, RIGHT WING, ") 

CAMP ON STONE RIVER, TENNESSEE, I 

January 9, 1863. J 

Major J. A. Campbell, Adjutant General and Chief of Staff: 

MAJOR In obedience to instructions from the headquarters of the 
Right Wing, I have the honor to report the following as the operations 
of my division, from the 26th day of December, 1862, to the 6th day 
of January, 1863. 

On the 26th of December I moved from camp, near Nashville, on the 
Nolensville pike, in the direction of Nolensville. At the crossing of 
Mill Creek the enemy s cavalry made some resistance, but were soon 
routed, one private and one Lieutenant of the enemy being captured. 

On approaching Nolensville, I received a message from General 
Davis, who had arrived at Nolensville, via the Edmonson pike, that the 
enemy were in considerable force on his front, and requesting me to 
support him. 

On the arrival of the head of my division at Nolensviile, General 
Davis advanced upon the enemy s position about two miles south of 
that place, supported by my division. The enemy had here made a 
stand in a gap of the mountains, but after a sharp conflict with Gen 
eral Davis command, were routed and one piece of artillery captured. 

On the next day (27th) I supported General Johnson s division in its 
advance on Triune, where the enemy were supposed to be in consider- 
able force. 

The town was taken possession of after a slight resistance, the main 
portion of their forces having evacuated the place. 

On the 28th I encamped at Triune. On the 29th I supported General 
Davis division, which had the advance from Triune on Murfreesboro, 
encamping that night at Wilkinson s Cross-roads, from which point 
there is a good turnpike to Murfreesboro. 

On the next day (30th) I took the advance of the Right Wing on 
this turnpike, toward Murfreesboro, General Stanley with a regiment 
of cavalry having been thrown in advance. 

After arriving at a point about three miles from Murfreesboro, the 
enemy s infantry pickets were encountered and driven back, their 
numbers constantly increasing until I had arrived within about two 
miles and a quarter of Murfreesboro. At this point the resistance 
was so strong as to require two regiments to drive them. T was here 
directed by Major General McCook to form my line of battle and 
place my artillery in position. My line was formed on the right of the 
pike and obliquely to it, four regiments to the front with a second line 
of four regiments, within short supporting distance, in the rear, with, 
a reserve of one brigade, in column of regiments, to the rear and oppo 
site the center. General Davis was then ordered to close in and form 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 423 

on my right, the enemy all this time keeping up a heavy artillery 
and musketry fire upon my skirmishers. 

The enemy continued to occupy, with their skirmishers, a heavy belt 
of timber to the right and front of my line, and across some open 
fields, and near where the left of General Davis division was intended 
to rest. General Davis was then directed by Major General McCook to 
swing his division, and I was directed to swing my right brigade with 
it until our continuous line would front nearly due east. This would 
give us possession of the timber above alluded to, and which was occu 
pied by the enemy s skirmishers in considerable force. This move 
ment was successfully executed, after a stubborn resistance on the 
part of the enemy, in which they used one battery of artillery. This 
battery was silenced in a very short time by Bush s and Hescock s Bat 
teries, of my division, and two of the enemy s pieces disabled. 

At sundown I had taken up my position, my right resting in the 
timber, my left on the Wilkinson pike, my reserve brigade of four regi 
ments to the rear and opposite the center. 

The killed and wounded during the day was seventy-five men. 
General Davis left was closed in on my right, and his line thrown to 
the rear, so that it formed nearly a right angle with mine. General 
Negley s division, of Thomas Corps, was immediately on my left, his 
right resting on the left hand side of the Wilkinson pike. 

The enemy appeared to be in strong force in a heavy cedar-woods, 
across an open valley in my front and parallel to it, the cedar extend 
ing the whole length of the valley, the distance across the valley vary 
ing from three hundred to four hundred yards. 

At two o clock on the morning of the 31st, General Sill, who had 
command of my right brigade, reported great activity on the part of 
the enemy immediately in his front. This being the narrowest point 
in the valley, I was fearful that an attack might occur at that point. I 
therefore directed two regiments from the reserve to report to General 
Sill, who placed them in position in very short supporting distance of 
his lines. 

At four o clock in the morning the division was assembled under 
arms, and the cannoniers at their pieces. About fifteen minutes after 
seven o clock in the morning, the enemy advanced to the attack across 
an open cottonficld on Sill s front. This column was opened on by 
Bush s Battery, of Sill s brigade, which had a direct fire on its front. 
Also by Hescock s and Houghtaling s Batteries, which had an oblique 
fire on their front, from a commanding position near the center of my 
line. The effect of this fire upon the enemy s columns was terrible. 
The enemy, however, continued to advance until they had reached 
nearly the edge of the timber, when they were opened upon by Sill s 
inf.mtry at a range of not over fifty yards. The destruction to the 
enemy s column, which was closed in mass, being several regiments in 
depth, was terrible. For a short time they withstood the fire, wavered, 
then broke and ran. Sill directing his troops to charge, which was 
gallantly responded to, and the enemy driven back across the valley 
and behind their intrenchments. In this charge I had the misfortune 
to lose General Sill, who was killed. 

The brigade then fell back in good order and renewed its original 



424 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

lines. The enemy soon rallied and advanced to the attack on my 
extreme right, and in front of Colonel Woodruff, of Davis division. 
Here, unfortunately, the brigade of Colonel Woodruff gave way, also 
one regiment of Sill s brigade, which was in the second line. This 
regiment fell back some distance into the open field and then rallied, 
its place being occupied by a third regiment of my reserve. At this 
time the enemy, who had attacked on the extreme right of our wing, 
against Johnson, and also on Davis front, had been successful, and 
the two divisions on my right were retiring in great confusion, closely 
followed by the enemy, completely turning my position, and exposing 
my line to a fire from the rear. I hastily withdrew the whole of Sill s 
brigade, and the three regiments sent to support it, at the same time 
directing Colonel Roberts, of the left brigade, who had changed front 
and formed in column of regiments, to charge the enemy in the timber 
from which I had withdrawn three regiments. This was very gal 
lantly done by Colonel Roberts, who captured one piece of the enemv s 
artillery, which had to be abandoned. 

In the meantime I had formed Sill s and Shaeffer s brigades on a 
line at right angles to my first line, and behind the three batteries of 
artillery, which were placed in a fine position, directing Colonel Roberts 
to return and form on the new line. I then made an unavailing 
attempt to form the troops on my right on this line, in front of which 
there were open fields through which the enemy was approaching 
under a heavy fire from Hescock s, Houghlaling s, and Bush s batteries. 

After the attempt had proved to be entirely unsuccessful, and my 
right was again turned, General McCook directed me to advance to the 
front and form on the right of Negley. This movement was success 
fully accomplished, under a heavy fire of musketry and artillery, every 
regiment of mine remaining unbroken. 

I took position on Negley s right, Roberts brigade having been 
placed in position at right angles to Negley s line, facing to the south, 
the other two brigades being placed to the rear and at right angles 
with Roberts and facing the west, covering the rear of Negley s lines. 
I then directed Houghtaling s Battery to take position at the angle of 
these two lines, Captain Hescock sending one section of his battery, 
under Lieutenant Taliaferro, and one section of Bush s Battery to the 
same point, the remaining pieces of Hescock s and Bush s Batteries 
were placed on the right of Negley s line, facing toward Murfrees- 
boro. In this position I was immediately attacked, when one of the 
bitterest and most sanguinary contests of the whole day occurred. 

General Cheatham s division advanced on Roberts brigade, and 
heavy masses of the enemy with three batteries of artillery advanced 
over the open ground which I had occupied in the previous part of the 
engagement, at the same time the enemy opening from their intrench- 
nients in the direction of Murfreesboro. 

The contest then became terrible. The enemy made three attacks 
and were three times repulsed, the artillery range of the respective 
batteries being not over two hundred yards. In these attacks Roberts 
brigade lost its gallant commander, who was killed. 

There was no sign of faltering with the men, the only cry being for 
more ammunition, which, unfortunately, could not be supplied on 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 425 

account of the discomfiture of the troops on the right of oar wing, 
which allowed the enemy to come in and capture our ammunition 
train. 

Shaeffer s brigade being entirely out of ammunition, I directed them 
to fix bayonets and await the enemy. Roberts brigade, which was 
nearly out of ammunition, I directed to fall back resisting the enemy. 
Captain Houghtaling having exhausted all his ammunition, and nearly 
all the horses of his battery having been killed, attempted, with the 
assistance of the men, to withdraw his pieces by hand. 

Lieutenant Taliaferro, commanding the section of Hescock s Battery, 
having been killed, and several of his horses shot, his two pieces were 
brought off by his sergeant with the assistance of the men. The diffi 
culty of withdrawing the artillery here became very great, the ground 
being rocky and covered with a dense growth of cedar. Houghtaling s 
Battery had to be abandoned, and also two pieces of Bush s Battery. 
The remaining pieces of artillery in the division were brought through 
the cedars with great difficulty, under a terrible fire from the enemy, 
on to the open space on the Murfreesboro pike, near the right of Gen 
eral Palmer s division. In coming through the cedars two regiments 
of Shaeffer s brigade succeeded in obtaining ammunition, and were 
immediately put in front to resist the enemy, who appeared to be driv 
ing in our entire lines. 

On arriving at the open space I was directed by Major General Rose 
crans to take those two regiments and put them into action on the 
right of Palmer s division, where the enemy were pressing heavily. 
The two regiments went in very gallantly, driving- the enemy from the 
cedar timber and some distance to the front. At the same time I put 
four pieces of Hescock s Battery into action near by and on the same 
front. The other two regiments of Shaeffer s brigade, and the Thirty- 
Sixth Illinois of Sill s brigade, were directed to cross the railroad, 
where they could obtain ammunition. I then, by direction of Major 
General Me Cook, withdrew the two regiments that had been placed on 
the right of Palmer s division, also Captain Hescock s pieces, that 
point having been given up to the enemy in the rearrangement of our 
lines. 

These regiments of Shaeffer s brigade having supplied themselves 
with ammunition, I put it into action, by direction of Major General 
Rosecrans, directly to the front and right of General Wood s division, 
on the left hand side of the railroad. 

The brigade advanced through a clump of timber, and took position 
on the edge of a cottonfield, close upon the enemy s lines, relieving the 
division of General Wood, which was falling back under a heavy 
pressure from the enemy. 

At this point I lost my third and last brigade commander, Colonel 
Shaeffer, who was killed. The brigade, remaining in this position 
until after it had expended its ammunition, was withdrawn to the rear 
of this timber, when it was again supplied and joined by the Thirty- 
Sixth Illinois. I was here directed ly General Rosecrans to form a 
close column of attack and charge the enemy should they again come 
down on the open ground. 



426 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

The remaining portion of the evening this gallant brigale remained 
in close column of regiments, and under lire of the enemy s batteries, 
which killed about twenty of the men by round shot. In the mean 
time. Colonel Roberts brigade, which had come out of the cedars 
unbroken, was put into action by General Me Cook at, a point a short 
distance to the rear, where the enemy threatened our communications 
on the Murfreesboro pike. 

The brigade having but three or four rounds of ammunition, cheer 
fully went into action, gallantly charged the enemy, routing them, 
recapturing two pieces of artillery, and taking forty prisoners. The 
rout of the enemy at this point deserves special consideration, as they 
had here nearly reached the Muifreesboro pike. 

On the night of the 31st I was placed in position on the Murfrees 
boro pike, facing south, and on the ground where Roberts brigade had 
charged the enemy, General Davis being on my right. 

On the 1st of January heavy skirmish fighting with occasional 
artillery shots on both sides was kept up till about three o clock P. M., 
when a charge was made by a brigade of the enemy on my position. 
This was handsomely repulsed, and one officer and eighty-live men of 
the enemy captured. Colonel Walker s brigade, of Thomas Corps, was 
also placed under my command temporarily, having a position on rny 
left, where the same character of fighting was kept up. 

On the 2d of January Colonel Walker sustained two heavy attacks, 
which he gallantly repulsed. On the 3d skirmishing took place 
throughout the day. On the 4th all was quiet in front, the enemy 
having disappeared. On the 5th nothing of importance occurred, and 
on the 6th I moved my camp to its present camp on Stone River, three 
miles south of Murfreesboro on the Shelbyville pike. 

I trust that the General Commanding is satisfied with my division. 
It fought bravely and well. The loss of Iloughtaling s Battery and 
one section of Bush s was unavoidable. All the horses were shot 
down or disabled, Captain Houghtaling wounded, and Lieutenant Tal- 
iaferro killed. 

My division, alone and unbroken, made a gallant stand to protect 
the right flank of our army, being all that remained of the Right 
AVing. Had my ammunition held out I would not have fallen back, 
although such were my orders if hard pressed. As it was, this 
determined stand of my troops gave time for a rearrangement of our 
lines. 

The division mourns the loss of Sill, ShaefTer, and Roberts. They 
were all instantly killed, and at the moment when their gallant bri 
gades were charging the enemy. They were true soldievs prompt 
and brave. 

On the death of these officers, respectively, Colonel Greusel, Thirty- 
Sixth Illinois, took command of Sill s brigade, Lieutenant Colonel 
Lai bold t, Second Missouri, of Shaeffer s, and Colonel Bradley of Rob 
erts brigade. These officers behaved gallantly throughout the day. 

It is also my sad duty to record the death of Colonel F. A. Harring 
ton, of the Twenty-Seventh. Illinois, who fell heroically leading his 
regiment to the charge. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 427 

I refer with pride to the splendid conduct, bravery, and efficiency 
of the following regimental commanders, and the officers and men of 
their respective commands: 

Colonel F. T. Sherman, Eighty-Eighth Illinois. 

Major F. Ehrler, Second Missouri. 

Lieutenant Colonel John Weber, Fifteenth Missouri. 

Captain W. W. Barrett, Forty-Fourth Illinois (wounded). 

Major W. A. Presson, Seventy-Third Illinois (wounded). 

Major Silas Miller, Thirty-Sixth Illinois (wounded and prisoner). 

Captain P. C. Oleson, Thirty-Sixth Illinois. 

Major E C. Hubbard, Twenty-Fourth Wisconsin. 

Lieutenant Colonel McCreery, Twenty-First Michigan. 

Lieutenant Colonel N. II. Walworth, Forty-Second Illinois. 

Lieutenant Colonel F. Swannick, Twenty-Second Illinois (wounded 
and prisoner). 

Captain Samuel Johnson, Twenty-Second Illinois. 

Major W. A. Schmitt, Twenty-Seventh Illinois. 

Captain Wescott, Fifty-First Illinois. 

I respectfully bring to the notice of the General Commanding the 
good conduct of Captain Hescock, Chief of Artillery, whose services 
were almost invaluable. Also. Captains Houghtaling and Bush, and 
the officers and men of their batteries. 

Surgeon D. J. Griffiths, Medical Director of my division, and Doctor 
Me Arthur of the Board of Medical Examiners of Illinois, were most 
assiduous in their care of the wounded. 

Major II. F. Dietz, Provost Marshal, Captain Morhnrdt, Topographi 
cal Engineer, Lieutenant George Lee, Acting Assistant Adjutant Gen 
eral, Lieutenants A. M. Denning, Frank II. Allen, E. W. DeBruin, J. 
L. Forman, and Soward, Aidsdeeamp, officers of my staff", were of the 
greatest service to me, delivering my orders faithfully, and promptly 
discharging the duties of their respective positions. 

The ammunition train above alluded to as captured, was retaken 
from the enemy by the good conduct of Captain Thruston, ordnance 
officer of the corps, and Lieutenant Douglas, ordnance officer of my 
division, who, with Sergeant Cooper of my escort, rallied the strag 
glers and drove off the enemy s cavalry. 

The following is the total of casualties in the division : 

OFFICERS. 

Killed 15 

Wounded 38 

Missing 11 64 

ENLISTED MEN. 

Killed 223 

Wounded 943 

Missing.. 400-1,500 



Total 1,030 

Of the eleven officers and four hundred enlisted men missing, many 
are known to be wounded and in the hands of the enemy. 



428 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

Prisoners were captured from the enemy by my division as follows : 

Majors 1 

Captains , 1 

Lieutenants 3 

Enlisted men 216 

Total 221 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

P. H. SHERRIDAN, 

Brigadier General Commanding. 



THE CENTER. 



GENERAL JAS. S. NEGLEY S EEPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTH DIVISION, ~> 

MURFHEESBORO, January 8, 1863. j 
Major George E. Flynt, Chief of Staff : 

SIR I have the honor to submit the following report of the opera 
tions of the troops under my command, in the engagements with the 
enemy on Stone River : 

On Tuesday morning, December 30, 1862, the Eighth Division, 
composed of the Seventh and Twenty-Ninth brigades, Schultz s, Mar 
shall s and Wells batteries, was posted on a rolling slope of the west 
bank of Stone River, in advance, but joining the extreme right of 
General Crittenden s line, and the left of General McCook s. 

In the rear and on the right, was a dense cedar-wood with a broken, 
rocky surface. From one position, several roads were cut through the 
woods in our rear, by which to bring iip the artillery and ammunition 
trains. 

In front, a heavy growth of oak timber extended toward the river. 
w r hich was about a mile distant. A narrow thicket, diagonally crossed 
our left, and skirted the base of a cultivated slope, expanding to the 
width of a mile, as it approached the Nashville pike. 

This slope aiforded the enemy his most commanding position (in the 
Center), on the crest of which his rifle pits extended (with intervals) 
from the oak timber immediately in my front, to the Nashville pike, 
with a battery of four Napoleon and two iron guns, placed in position, 
near the woods, and about eight hundred yards from my position. 

Behind this timber, on the river bank, the enemy massed his col 
umns, for the movements of the next day. 

His skirmishers were driven from our immediate front after a sharp 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 429 

contest ; in which the Nineteenth Illinois and Seventy-Eighth Penn 
sylvania Volunteers, displayed admirable efficiency. The position of 
my command was held, under a heavy fire, until darkness terminated 
the skirmishing in our front, by which time, we had inflicted consider 
able loss upon the enemy. 

In the meantime, General Sherridan s division, came up and formed 
" line of battle" (his left resting on my right), and began to advance, 
driving the enemy, until he had passed the center of my brigade. 

While General Sherridan was in this position, I changed my front 
slightly, bearing it more to the left, to avoid masking a portion of 
Sherridan s command. 

The troops remained in this position and in "order of battle" all 
night, cheerfully enduring the cold and rain, awaiting the morrow s 
sun, to renew the contest. 

Early the next morning, and before the heavy fog had drifted from 
our front, the enemy, in strong force, attacked General McCook s 
right, commencing a general engagement, which increased in intensity 
toward his left. 

Sherridan s division stood its ground manfully, supported by the 
Eighth Division, repulsing and driving the enemy at every advance. 

the enemy still gained ground on General McCook s right, and suc 
ceeded in placing several batteries in position, which covered my 
right; from these, and the battery on ray left, which now opened, the 
troops were exposed to a converging fire, which was most destructive. 

Houghtaling s, Schultz s, Marshall s, Bush s and Wells Batteries, 
were all ordered into action in my front, pouring destructive volleys 
of grape and shell into the advancing columns of the enemy, mowing 
him down like swaths of grain. 

For four hours, the Eighth Division, with a portion of Sherridan s and 
Palmer s divisions, maintained their position, amid a murderous storm 
of lead and iron, strewing the ground with their heroic dead. 

The enemy, maddened to desperation, by the determined resistance, 
still pressed forward fresh troops, concentrating and forming them in 
a concentric line, on either flank. 

By eleven o clock, Sherridan s men, with their ammuniton exhausted, 
were falling back. General Ptousseau s reserve and General Palmer s 
division, had retired in the rear of the cedars, to form a new line. 
The artillery ammunition was expended, that of the infantry reduced 
to a few rounds. The artillery horses were nearly all killed or 
wounded ; my ammunition train had been sent back, to avoid capture; 
a heavy column of the enemy was marching directly to our rear, 
through the cedars. Communication with Generals Rosecrans and 
Thomas, was entirely cut off, and it was manifestly impossible for my 
command to hold the position, without eventually making a hopeless, 
fruitless sacrifice of the whole division. 

To retire, was but to cut our way through the ranks of the enemy. 
The order was given and manfully executed; driving back the enemy 
in front, and checking his approaching columns in our rear. 

All the regiments in my command, distinguished themselves for 
their coolness and daring, frequently halting and charging the enemy, 
under a withering fire of musketry. 



430 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

On npproaching General Rousseau s line, the battalion of regulars, 
under command of Major King, at my request, gallantly charged for 
ward to our assistance, sustaining a severe loss in officers and men 
in the effort. 

Colonels Stanley and Miller now promptly reformed their brigades, 
with the remaining portions of the batteries, and took position on the 
new line, as designated by Major General Thomas. 

Shortly afterward the Twenty-Ninth Brigade was ordered to the 
left, to repel an attack from the enemy s cavalry upon the trains. 

The troops remained in line all night, and the next day in "order 
of battle" until noon, when the division was ordered to the right of 
General McCook s line, in expectation of an attack upon his front. 

The next day (January 2) at one o clock P. M., my command was 
ordered to the support of General Crittenden, on the left, and took 
position in the rear of the batteries, on the west bank of Stone River. 

About three P. M. a strong force of the enemy, with artillery, 
advanced rapidly upon General Van Cleve s division ; which, after 
sustaining a severe fire for twenty or thirty minutes, fell back in con 
siderable disorder; the enemy pressing vigorously forward to the river 
bank. 

At this important moment, the Eighth Division was ordered to 
advance, which it did promptly ; the men crossing the river and 
charging up the steep bank with unflinching bravery. The Twenty- 
First, Eighteenth, Sixty-Ninth, and Seventy-Fourth Ohio, Nineteenth 
Illinois, Eleventh Michigan, Thirty-Seventh Indiana, and Seventy- 
Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, displaying their usual promptness 
and gallantry. Four pieces of artillery and a stand of colors belong 
ing to the Twenty-Sixth (rebel) Tennessee, were captured at the point 
of the bayonet, also a large number of prisoners ; the enemy retreat 
ing in disorder. 

It is proper to mention here, that the artillery practice of Schultz s, 
Mendenhall s, Standards, Wells , Marshall s, and Stokes batteries, 
which were acting temporarily under my orders, in this engagement, 
was highly satisfactory; giving the enemy great tribulation. 

The promptness displayed by Captain Stokes, in bringing his bat 
tery into action by my orders, and the efficient manner with which it 
was served, affords additional evidence of his marked ability and 
bravery as an officer and patriot. In the same connection, I feel per 
mitted to speak in complimentary terms of the gallant Morton, and 
his Pioneer Brigade, which marched forward under a scathing fire, to 
the support of my division. 

The enemy having fallen back to his intrenchments, my division 
recrossed the river and resumed its former position. 

On the evening of the 4th, the Twenty-Ninth Brigade was moved 
forward to the north bank of Stone River, near the railroad, as an 
advanced force. On the same day, General Spears First Tennessee 
Brigade, was assigned to the Eighth Division. This brigade distin 
guished itself on the evening of the 2d, in a desperate charge on the 
enemy. On the morning of the 5th, I was ordered to take command 
of the advance and pursue the enemy toward Murfreesboro. 

By nine A. M., the Eighth Division, Walkers brigade, Pioneer Brigade, 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 431 

and Genci al Stanley s cavalry force had crossed the river and taken 
possession of Murfrccsboro, without meeting any resistance; the rear 
guard of the enemy retreating on the Manchester and Shelbyville 
roads, our cavalry pursuing, supported by the Twenty-Ninth Brigade, 
on the Shelbyville pike, and by Colonel Byrd s First East Tennessee 
Regiment, on the Manchester pike. 

The rear guard of the enemy (three regiments cavalry and one bat 
tery) was overtaken on the Manchester, five miles from Murfrecsboro. 
Colonel Byrd fearlessly charged this unequal force of the enemy, 
driving him from his position, with a loss of four killed and twelve 
wounded; enemy s loss not ascertained. 

Our army marched quietly into Murfreesboro, the chosen position 
of the enemy, which he was forced to abandon after a series of des 
perate engagements. The joyful hopes of traitors have been crushed 5 
treason receiving another fatal blow. 

My command enthusiastically join me in expression of admiration 
of the official conduct of Generals Ilosecrans and Thomas. During 
the most eventful periods of the engagements their presence was at 
the point of danger, aiding with their counsels and animating the 
troops by their personal bravery and cool determination. 

I refer to my command with feelings of national pride for the living, 
and personal sorrow for the dead. Without a murmur, they made 
forced marches over almost impassable roads, through drenching win 
ter rains, without blankets or a change of clothing; deprived of 
sleep or repose, constantly on duty for eleven days; living three days 
on a pint of flour and parched corn. Ever vigilant, always ready, 
sacrificing their lives with a contempt of peril, displaying the cool 
ness, determination, and high discipline of veterans, they are enti 
tled to our country s gratitude. Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Tennessee, may proudly inscribe 
upon their scrolls of fame the names of the Seventy-Eighth Pennsyl 
vania Volunteers, Eighteenth, Twenty-First. Sixty-Ninth, and Sev 
enty-Fourth Ohio, Schultz s and Marshall s (Ohio) Batteries, the 
Eleventh Michigan, Nineteenth Illinois, Thirty-Seventh Indiana, 
Wells section (Kentucky) Battery, and Spears Tennessee Brigade. 

I wisli to make honorable mention of the bravery and efficient 
services rendered by the following named officers and men, for whom 
I earnestly request promotion: 

Brigadier General Spears, commanding First Tennessee Brigade. 

Colonel T. R. Stanley, Eighteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, com 
manding Twenty-Ninth Brigade. 

Colonel John T. Miller, Twenty-Ninth Indiana Volunteers, com 
manding Seventh Brigade. 

Captain Jas. St. Clair Morton, commanding Pioneer Brigade. 

Captain James H. Stokes, commanding Chicago Battery. 

Major John H. King, commanding Fifteenth United States Infantry. 

Captain Bush, commanding Fourth Indiana Battery. 

Captain James A. Lowrie, Assistant Adjutant General. 

Lieutenant Fred. II. Kennedy, Aiddecamp. 

Captain Charles T. Wing, Assistant Quartermaster. 



432 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

Major Fred. H. Gross, Medical Director. 

Captain James R. Hayden, Ordnance Officer. 

Lieutenant. Wm. \V. Barker, Aiddecamp. 

Lieutenant Robert H. Cochran, Provost Marshal. 

Lieutenant Francis Riddell, Acting Assistant Commissary of Sub 
sistence. 

Lieutenant Charles C. Cook, Acting Aiddecamp. 

Lieutenant W. D. Ingraham, Topographical Engineers. 

Captain Frederick Schultz and Lieutenant Joseph Hein, Battery M, 
First Ohio Artillery. 

Lieutenants Alex. Marshall, John Crable, and Robert D. Whittleaey, 
Battery G, First Ohio Artillery. 

Captain W. E. Standart, Battery B, First Ohio Artillery. 

Lieutenant A. A. Ellsworth, Commanding Wells Section Kentucky 
Artillery. 

Lieutenant W. H. Spence, Wells Section Kentucky Artillery. 

Lieutenant H. Terry, Third Ohio Cavalry. 

Secretaries Sergeant H. B. Fletcher, Company K, Nineteenth Illi 
nois Volunteers; Corporal Rufus Rice, Company K, First Wisconsin 
Volunteers; Private James A. Sangston, Company C, Seventy-Ninth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and Sergeant Charles Rambour, Company 
K, Seventy-Fourth Ohio Volunteers. Wm. Longwell, Orderly, Sev 
enth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Escort Sergeant George C. Lee, Corporal E.H. Daugherty, Privates 
Henry Schwenk, Henry B. Zimmerman, John Higgins, Leon Starr, 
Daniel Walker, John McCorkle, Abraham Keppuly, George Gillem, 
John Cunningham. 

CASUALTIES. 

The following is an approximate report of the casualties in my 
command, during the battles before Murfreesboro, December 30th and 
31st, 18G2, and January 2d and 3d, 1863: 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



433 



bd 



II 



REMARKS. My command captured upward of four hundred p 
of regimental colors. 


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37 



434 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



GENERAL L. H. ROUSSEAU S EEPORT. 

VJLLE, T 
January 



NASHVILLE, TENN., \ 
11, 1863. / 



Major George K Flynt, Chief of Staff : 

SIR I have the honor to report the part taken by my command, the 
Third Division of the army, in the battle of Murfreesboro, begun on 
the 31st ult., and ended on the 3d inst. : 

Early on the morning of the 30th ult., in obedience to the order of 
Major General Thomas, my division moved forward toward Murfrees 
boro from Stewartsboro, on the Nashville and Murfreesboro turnpike, 
about nine miles from the latter place. On the march forward several 
dispatches from General Rosecrans reached me, asking exactly where 
my command was, and the hour and minute of the day. In conse 
quence we moved rapidly forward, halted but once, and that for only 
five minutes. About half past ten o clock, A. M., we reached a point 
three miles from Murfreesboro, where General Rosecrans and Thomas 
were, on the Nashville and Murfreesboro turnpike, and remained 
during the day, and bivouacked at night. 

At about nine o clock A. M. on the 31st, the report of artillery and 
the heavy firing of small arms on our right announced that the battle 
had begun by an attack on the Right Wing, commanded by Major 
General McCook. It was not long before the direction from which the 
firing came, indicated that General McCook s command had given way 
and was yielding ground to the enemy. His forces seemed to swing 
round toward our right and rear. At this time General Thomas ordered 
me to advance my division quickly to the front to the assistance of 
General McCook. 

On reaching the right of General Negley s line of battle, General 
Thomas there directed me to let my left rest on his right, and to deploy 
my division off toward the right as far as I could, so as to resist the 
pressure on General McCook. 

We consulted and agreed as to where the line should be formed. 
This was in a dense cedar-brake, through which my troops marched in 
quick time to get into position before the enemy reached us. He was 
then but a few hundred yards to the front, sweeping up in immense 
numbers, driving everything before him. This ground was new and 
unknown to us all. The woods were almost impassable to infantry, 
and artillery was perfectly useless, but the line was promptly formed. 
The Seventeenth Brigade, Colonel John Beatty commanding, on the 
left, the Regular Brigade, Lieutenant Colonel 0. L. Shepard commanding, 
on the right; the Ninth Brigade, Colonel B. F. Scribner commanding, 
was placed perhaps a hundred yards in rear and opposite the center 
of the front line, so as to support either or both of the brigades in 
front as occasion might require. My recollection is that perhaps the 
Second and Thirty-Third Ohio regiments filled a gap between General 
Negley s right and the Seventeenth Brigade, occasioned by the effort to 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 435 

extend our lines far enough to the right to afford the desired aid to 
General Me Cook. 

The Twenty-Eighth Brigade, Colonel John C. Starkweather com 
manding, and Stone s Battery of the First Kentucky Artillery, were at 
Jefferson crossing on Stone Itiver, about eight miles below. 

Our lines were hardly formed before a dropping fire from the enemy 
announced his approach. General McCook s troops, in a good deal of 
confusion, retired through our lines, and around our right under a 
most terrific fire. The enemy in pursuit furiously assailed our front, 
and greatly outflanking us, passed around to our right and rear. 

By General Thomas direction I had already ordered the artillery, 
Loomis and Guenther s Batteries, to the open field in the rear. See 
ing that my command was outflanked on the right, I sent orders to the 
brigade commanders to retire at once also to this field, and riding back 
myself, I posted the batteries on a ridge in the open ground parallel 
with our line of battle, and as my men emerged from the woods they 
were ordered to take position on the right and left, and in support of 
these batteries, which was promptly done. We had perhaps four or five 
hundred yards of open ground in our front. While the batteries were 
unlimbering 1 , seeing General Van Cleve close by, I rode up and asked 
him if he would move his command to the right, and aid in checking 
up the enemy by forming on my left, and thus giving us a more ex 
tended line in that direction in the new position taken. In the 
promptest manner possible his line was put in motion, and in double- 
quick time reached the desired point in good season. 

As the enemy emerged from the woods in great force shouting and 
cheering, the batteries of Loomis and Guenther, double-shotted with 
canister, opened upon them. They moved straight ahead for awhile, 
but were finally driven back with immense loss. In a little while thpy 
rallied again, and as it seemed, with fresh troops, asrain assailed our 
position, and were again, after a fierce struggle, driven back. Four 
deliberate and fiercely sustained assaults were made upon our posi 
tion, and repulsed. During the last assault I was informed that our 
troops were advancing on our right, and saw troops, out of my divi 
sion, led by General Rosecrans, moving in that direction. I informed 
General Thomas of the fact, and asked leave to advance my lines. He 
directed me to do so. We made a charge upon the enemy and drove 
him into the woods, my staff and orderlies capturing some seventeen 
prisoners, including a Captain and Lieutenant, who were within one 
hundred and thirty yards of the batteries. This ended the fighting 
of that day, the enemy in immense force hovering in the woods (luring 
the night, while we slept upon our arms on the field of battle. We 
occupied this position during the three following days and nights of 
the fight. Under General Thomas direction I had it intrenched by 
rifle-pits, and believe the enemy could not have taken it at all. 

During the day, the Twenty-Eighth Brigade, Colonel Starkweather, 
was attacked by Wheeler s Cavalry in force, and some of the wagons 
of his train were burned before they reached him, having started that 
morning from Stewartsboro to join him. The enemy were finally 
repulsed and driven off with loss. Starkweather s loss was small. In 
this affair the whole brigade behaved handsomely. 



436 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

The burden of the fight fell upon the Second Wisconsin, Lieutenant 
Colonel Hobart commanding. This regiment, led by its efficient com 
mander, behaved like veterans. From the evening of the 81st until 
Saturday night, no general battle occurred in front of my division, 
though firing of artillery and small arms was kept up during the day, 
and much of the small arms during the night. The rain on the night 
of the 31st, which continued at intervals until the Saturday night fol 
lowing, rendered the ground occupied by my command exceedingly 
sloppy and muddy, and during much of the time my men had neither 
shelter, food, nor fire. I procured corn, which they parched and ate, and 
some of them ate horse-steaks cut and broiled from horses on the 
battle-field. Day and night in the cold, wet, and mud, my men suf 
fered severely, but during the whole time I did not hear one single 
murmur at their hardships, but all were cheerful and ever ready to 
stand by their arms and fight. Such endurance I never saw. In these 
severe trials of their patience and their strength, they were much 
encouraged by the constant presence and solicitous anxiety of General 
Thomas for their welfare. 

On the evening of Saturday, 3d inst., I asked permission of General 
Thomas to drive the enemy from a wood on our left front, to which he 
gave his consent. Just before I directed the batteries of Guenther and 
Loomis to shell the woods with six rounds per gun, fired as rapidly as 
possible. This was very handsomely done, and ended just at dark, 
when the Third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel 0. H. Lawson, and Eighty- 
P^ighth Indiana, Colonel George Humphreys, both under command of 
the brigade commander, Colonel John Beatty, moved promptly up to 
the woods. When near the woods they received a heavy fire from the 
enemy, but returned it vigorously a>nd gallantly, and pressed forward. 
On reaching the woods a fresh body of the enemy, attracted by the fire, 
moved up on their left to support them. On that body of the enemy 
Loomis Battery opened with shell. The fusilade was very rapid, and 
continued for perhaps three-quarters of an hour, when Beatty s com 
mand drove the enemy at the point of the bayonet, and held the woods. 
It turned out that the enemy were posted behind a stone breastwork in 
the woods, and when ousted about thirty men were taken prisoners 
behind the woods. This ended the battle of Murfreesboro. 

On the morning of the 31st six companies of the Second Kentucky 
Cavalry, Major Thomas P. Nicholas commanding, were ordered down 
to watch and defend the fords of Stone River to our left and rear. 
The cavalry of the enemy several times, in force, attempted to cross 
these fords, but Nicholas very gallantly repulsed them with loss, and 
they did not cross the river. 

I should have mentioned that Friday evening late I was directed by 
General Thomas to place a regiment in the woods on our left front as 
an outpost, and with the view to hold the woods, as they were near 
our lines, and the enemy could greatly annoy us if allowed to hold 
them. Our skirmishers were then just leaving the woods. I oi dered 
the Forty-Second Indiana, Lieutenant Colonel Shanklin commanding, 
to take that position, which he did. But early the next morning the 
enemy, in large force, attacked Colonel Shanklin, first furiously shell 
ing the woods, and drove the regiment back to our lines, taking 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 437 

Shanklin prisoner. It was this wood that was retaken on Saturday 
night as before described. 

The troops of the division behaved admirably. I could not wish 
them to behave more gallantly. The Ninth and Seventeenth Brijia ics, 
under the lead of their gallant commanders, Scribner and Beatty, 
were, as well as the Twenty-Eighth Brigade, Colonel Starkweather, 
veterans ; they were with me at Chaplin Hills, and could not act badly. 

The Twenty-Eighth Brigade held a position in our front after the 
first day s fighting, and did it bravely, doing all that was required of 
them like true soldiers. 

The brigade of United States Infantry, Lieutenant Colonel 0. L. 
Shepard commanding, was on the extreme right. On that body of 
brave men the shock of battle fell heaviest, and its loss was most 
severe. Over one-third of the command fell killed or wounded. But 
it stood up to the work and bravely breasted the storm, and though 
Major King, commanding the Fifteenth, and Major Slemmer ("Old 
Pickens "), the Sixteenth, fell severely wounded, and Major Carpenter, 
commanding the Nineteenth, fell dead in the last charge, together with 
many other brave officers and men, the brigade did not falter for a 
moment. These three battalions were a part of my old Fourth Brigade 
at the battle of Shiloh. 

The Eighteenth Infantry, Majors Townsend and Caldwell command 
ing, were new troops to me, but I am proud now to say we know each 
other. If I could I would promote every officer and non-commissioned 
officer and private of this brigade of Regulars for gallantry and 
good service in this terrific battle. I make no distinction between 
these troops and my brave volunteer regiments, for in my judgment 
there were never better troops than these regiments in the world. But 
the troops of the line are soldiers by profession, and with a view to the 
future I feel it my duty to say what I have of them. The brigade was 
admirably and gallantly handled by Lieutenant Colonel Shepard. 

I lost some of the bravest and best officers I had. Lieutenant Colo 
nel Kell, commanding Second Ohio, was killed. After he fell his regi 
ment was efficiently handled by Major Anson McCook, who ought to 
to be made Colonel of that regiment for gallantry on the field. Colonel 
Form an, my brave boy Colonel of the Fifteenth Kentucky, also fell. 
Major Carpenter, of the Nineteenth Infantry, fell in the last charge. 
His loss is irreparable. Many other gallant officers were lost. 

Of the batteries of Guenther and Loomis I can not say too much. 
Loomis was Chief of Artillery for the Third Division, and I am much 
indebted to him. His battery was commanded by Lieutenant Van 
Pelt. Guenther is but a Lieutenant. Both of these men deserve to be 
promoted, and ought to be at once. Without them we could not have 
held our position. 

I fell in with many gallant regiments and officers on the field not 
of my command. I wish I could name all of them here. While fall 
ing back to the line in the open field, I saw Colonel Charles Anderson 
gallantly and coolly rallying his men. Colonel Grider, of Kentucky, 
and his regiment, efficiently aided in repulsing the enemy. The 
Eighteenth Ohio, I think it was, though I do not know any of its offi 
cers, faced about, and charged the enemy in my presence, and I went 



438 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

along with it. The Eleventh Michigan and its gallant little Colonel 
(Stoughton) behaved well, and the Sixth Ohio Infantry, Colonel Nick 
Anderson, joined my command on the right of the Regular Brigade, 
and stood manfully up to the work. 

I fell in with the Louisville Legion in retreat, Lieutenant Colonel 
Berry commanding. This regiment, though retreating before an over 
whelming force, was dragging by hand a section of artillery which it 
had been ordered to support. A part of General McCook s wing of 
the army had fallen back with the rest, but through the woods and 
fields with great difficulty, bravely brought off the cannon it could no 
longer defend on the field. When I met it, it faced about and formed 
line of battle with cheers and shouts. 

To Lieutenant McDowell, my Acting Assistant Adjutant General; 
Lieutenant Armstrong, Second Kentucky Cavalry; Lieutenant Millard, 
Nineteenth United States Infantry, Inspector General; Captain Taylor, 
Fifteenth Kentucky, and Lieutenant Alf. Pirtle, Ordnance officer, my 
regular aids, and to Captain John D. Wickliffe and Lieutenant W. G. 
Jenkins, both of Second Kentucky Cavalry, aids for that battle, I am 
much indebted for services on that field. 

The wounded were kindly and tenderly cared for by the Third 
Division Medical Director, Surgeon Muscroft, and the other Surgeons 
of the command. 

Lieutenant McDowell was wounded. My orderlies, James Emery 
and the rest, went through the whole fight behaving well. Emery was 
wounded. Lieutenant Carpenter, First Ohio Volunteer Infantry, one 
of my aids, was so badly injured by the fall of his horse that I would 
not permit him to go on the field. Lieutenant Hartman, Seventy- 
Ninth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, a member of my staff, was ill 
with fever, and unable to leave his bed. 

It should be mentioned that the Eighty-Eighth Indiana, Colonel 
Humphreys, being placed at one of the fords on Stone River where our 
forces were temporarily driven back, very opportunely rallied the 
stragglers, and promptly crossed the river and drove the enemy back. 
In this he was aided by the stragglers, who rallied and fought well. 
The Colonel was wounded by a bayonet thrust in the hand in the 
atta ;k of Saturday night on the enemy in the woods in our front. 
I have the honor to be, etc., 

LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU, 

Major General. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 439 



THE LEFT WING. 



BRIGADIER GENERAL PALMER S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS SECOND DIVISION LEFT WING, 1 

CAMP NEAR MURFREESBORO, January 9, 1863. J 

Major L. Starling, Chief of Staff : 

MAJOR I have the honor to submit, for the information of the Gen 
eral Commanding, the following reports of the operations of this divi 
sion, from and including the 27th of December up to, and including the 
4th of January. 

At 11.20 A. M., on the 27th of December, while in camp near 
Lavergne, I received orders to move forward, following the division of 
General Wood, and to detach a brigade to proceed by the Jefferson 
pike and seize the bridge across Stewart s Creek. The duty of con 
ducting this operation was assigned to Colonel Hazen which was well 
and skillfully done. 

The brigades of Cruft and Grose reached the west bank of Stewart s 
Creek late in the afternoon of the 27th, and bivouacked there until the 
morning of the 29th. 

During all the day, Sunday, the 28th, the enemy s pickets were in 
sight across the creek, firing upon us occasionally at long range, but 
did us no harm. On Monday morning, 29th of December, at nine 
o clock, I was ordered to deploy one regiment as skirmishers; to dis 
pose of my other troops so as to support it, and move forward at ten 
o clock precisely and continue to advance until the enemy were found 
in position. 

This disposition was made. 

A few minutes before ten o clock, Parsons was ordered to shell the 
woods to our front, and at ten o clock Grose s brigade moved forward, 
skirmishing with the enemy, supported by the first brigade, Hazen not- 
having yet joined me. 

The command advanced steadily, driving the light force of rebel 
skirmishers before it to the top of the hill, some mile and a half this 
side of Stewart s Creek, and being under the impression that the divi 
sions of Wood and Negley were to advance with me. 

In a few moments Wood s advance came up on the left of the pike 
and the two divisions moved forward, constantly skirmishing (though 
much heavier on Wood s front than my own) to the ground occupied 
that night, afterward the theater of the battle of the 31st. 

During the day the casualties were ten wounded in Grose s brigade, 
none severely. 

On the morning of the 30th, my division was formed as follows : 
Third brigade (Grose s), in two lines, the left resting on the pike; first 
brigade (Graft s), to the right, extending across the point of woods, his 



440 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

extreme right retired to connect with Negley s left; and Hazen s bri 
gade in reserve. 

There was considerable skirmishing during the day, the greater por 
tion of which fell upon Craft s brigade, which was in rather unpleas 
ant proximity to a point of woods to his front and right, held by the 
enemy in strong force. 

About four o clock I was ordered to advance and open upon the 
enemy with all my artillery. This was not done, probably, as soon us 
the order contemplated. The ground occupied by the batteries at th<? 
time the order was received was low and confined; upon pushing for 
ward the skirmishers of the first brigade to clear the way to a good 
artillery position, in the open field to the front, the rebels were found 
numerous and stubborn. Learning very soon that a mere demonstra 
tion was intended, all my batteries opened, and, I am satisfied, dam 
aged the enemy considerably. The skirmish attending this movement 
was quite brisk; the troops engaged doing themselves great credit. 
This closed the operations of the day. 

On the morning of the 31st, Craft s brigade retained its position of 
the day before. Hazen s brigade had relieved Grose, who had fallen 
back to a point some two hundred yards to the rear, and was formed in 
two lines nearly opposite the interval between the First and Second 
Brigades; Standart s Battery on the extreme right, Parsons near the 
center. 

Early in the morning I rode to the right of my own command, and 
the battle had commenced on the extreme right of the line; soon after 
ward, near eight o clock, General Negley, through one of his staff, 
informed me he was about to advance and requested me to advance to 
cover his left. I gave notice of this to the General Commanding, and 
a few moments later received orders to move forward. I at once 
ordered General Cruft to advance, keeping close up well toward Neg 
ley; Colonel Hazen to go forward, observing the movements of Wood s 
right; and Grose to steadily advance, supporting the advance brigades, 
and all to use their artillery freely. 

My line had advanced hardly a hundred yards when, upon reach 
ing my own right, I found that General Negley had, instead of advanc 
ing, thrown back his right, so that his line was almost perpendicular 
to that of Cruft and to his rear; and it was also apparent that the 
enemy were driving General McCook back, and were rapidly approach 
ing our rear. 

Cruft s line was halted by my order. I rode to the left to make some 
disposition to meet the coming storm, and by the time I reached the 
open ground to the south of the pike, the heads of the enemy s columns 
had forced their way to the open ground to my rear. To order Grose 
to change front to the rear was the work of a moment, and he obeyed 
the order almost as soon as given; retiring his new left so as to bring 
the enemy under the direct fire of his line; he opened upon them in 
fine style and with great effect, and held his ground until the enemy 
were driven back. 

In the meantime General Negley s command had, to some extent, 
become compromised by the confusion on the right, and my first bri 
gade was exposed in front and flank to a severe attack, which alsa 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 441 

now extended along my whole front. Orders were sent to Colonel 
Hazen to fall back from the open cottonfield into which he had moved. 
He fell back a short distance, and a regiment from Wood s division 
which had occupied the crest of a low-wooded hill, between the pike 
and the railroad, having been removed, he took possession of that 
and there resisted the enemy. Hazen on the railroad, one or two 
regiments to the right, some troops in the point of woods south of the 
cottonfield and a short distance in advance of the general line, 
among whom I was only able to distinguish the gallant Colonel Whit- 
taker and his Sixth Kentucky ; still further to the right Cruft was 
fighting aided by Standards guns, and to the rear Grose was fighting 
with apparently great odds against him. All were acquitting them 
selves nobly, and all were hard pressed. I could see that Grose was 
losing a great many men, but the importance of Hazen s position 
determined me, if necessary, to expend the last man in holding it. 
I gave my attention from that time chiefly to that point. 

The One-Hundreth Illinois came up on the left of the railroad and 
fought steadily. As soon as Colonel Grose was relieved of the 
enemy in his rear, he again changed front, moved to the left and 
cooperated with Colonel Hazen. One regiment was sent to my sup 
port from General Wood s command, and which behaved splendidly. 
I regret my inability either to name the regiment or its officers. 
Again and again the attack was renewed by the enemy, and each 
time repulsed, and the gallant men who had so bravely struggled to 
hold the position occupied it during the night. 

Brigadier General Cruft deserves great praise for so long holding 
the important position occupied on our right, and for skillfully extri 
cating his command from the mass of confusion around it. Standart 
fought his guns until the enemy were upon him, and then brought them 
off safely ; while the Second Kentucky brought off by hand three guns 
abandoned by General Negley s division. 

Colonel Hazen proved himself a brave and able soldier by the skill 
and courage exhibited in forming and sheltering his troops, and in 
organizing and fighting all the materials around him for the mainte 
nance of his important position. 

Colonel Grose exhibited great coolness and bravery, and fought 
against great odds. He was under my eye during the whole day, and 
I could see nothing to improve in the management of his command. 

I shrink from the task of specially mentioning regiments or regi 
mental officers. All did their duty, and from my imperfect acquaint 
ance with regiments, I am apprehensive of injurious mistakes. 

I recognized during the battle the Forty-First Ohio, which fought 
until it expended its last cartridge, and was then relieved by the noble 
Ninth Indiana, which came into line with a heavy shout, inspiring 
all with confidence. The Eighty-Fourth, One Hundred and Tenth, 
and One- Hundredth Illinois I knew; all new regiments, and all so 
fought that even the veterans of "Shiloh " and other bloody fields had 
no occasion to boast over them. The Eighty-Fourth stood its ground 
until more than one-third of its number were killed or wounded. The 
Sixth Ohio, the Twenty-Fourth Ohio, the Twenty-Third Kentucky, and 
the Thirty-Sixth Indiana were pointed out to me; and I recognized the 



442 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

brave Colonel Whit-taker and his fighting men doing soldiers duty. I 
only saw the regiments of Craft s brigade fighting early in the day ; I 
had no fears for them where valor could win. Indeed the whole divi 
sion fought like soldiers trained under the rigid discipline of the 
lamented Nelson, and by their courage proved that they had caught 
a large portion of his heroic and unconquerable spirit. 

During the whole day I regarded the battery under the command 
of Lieutenant Parsons, assisted by Lieutenants Gushing and Htmt- 
ington, as my right arm, and well did the conduct of these courageous 
and skillful young officers justify my confidence. My orders to Par 
sons were simple : " Fight where you can do the most good." Never 
were orders better obeyed. 

The reported conduct of the other batteries attached to the division 
is equally favorable. They were in other parts of the field. 

My personal staff, Captain Norton, Acting Assistant Adjutant Gen 
eral; Lieutenants Simmons and Child; Lieutenant Croxton, Ordnance 
Officer ; Lieutenant Hays, Division Topographical Engineer ; Lieuten 
ant Shaw, Seventh Illinois Cavalry, were with me all day on the field, 
and carried my orders everywhere with the greatest courage. Lieu 
tenant Simmons was severely injured by a fragment of a shell. 

I can not commend the conduct of Doctor Sherman, Ninth Indiana 
Volunteers, Medical Director, too highly. At all times from the com 
mencement of the march from Nashville, and during the battles and 
skirmishes in which the division was engaged, up to the occupation 
of Murfreesboro, he was always at his post, and by his industry, 
humanity, and skill earned, not only my gratitude and that of this 
command, but that of the wounded of the enemy, many of whom were 
thrown upon his care. 

On the 1st of January, this division was relieved and placed in 
reserve. On Friday the 2d, Grose s brigade was ordered over the river 
to the left to support the division of Colonel Beatty, and during the 
action the brigade of Colonel Hazen was also ordered over to cooperate 
with Grose, while the First Brigade (Cruft s) was posted to support a 
battery on the hill near the ford. 

During the heavy cannonade the First Brigade maintained its posi 
tion with perfect coolness. 

While the engagement was going on across the river a rebel force 
of what seemed to be three small regiments, entered the clump of 
woods in front of the position of our batteries on the hill near the ford. 
These troops were in musket range of our right across the creek, and 
I determined at once to dislodge them. Seeing two regiments, one of 
which was commanded by Colonel Garrit, and the other by Colonel 
Attmire, I ordered them to advance to the edge of the wood and deploy 
some companies as skirmishers. They obeyed me cheerfully and 
pushed in. Not being willing to leave the repulse of the enemy a 
matter of doubt, or to expose these brave fellows to the danger of 
heavy loss, I ordered up two of Cruft s regiments, and upon approach 
ing the edge of the woods halted them, and told them it was my pur- 
. pose to clear the woods at the point of the bayonet. To inspire them 
with coolness and confidence, the preparation for the charge was 
made with great deliberation. To get the proper direction for the line, 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



443 



guides were thrown out and the proper changes were made. Bayo 
nets fixed, and these two regiments, Thirty-First Indiana and Ninetieth 
Ohio, ordered to clear the woods. They went in splendidly. It was 
done so quickly that the rebels had hardly time to discharge their 
pieces. They fled with the utmost speed. All these regiments behaved 
handsomely. 

The following is a list of the casualties of my command, and its 
fearful proportions demonstrate its hard service : 



COMMANDS. 


Killed. || Wounded. 


Missing. 


Aggregate.. 





o 

- 
4 

IB 


g 

(o 




9 

E 


O 

B 
o 
5 




o> 

d 


9 

E 


C 
5 
o 
(t> 
. 
pa 


5 

a 


f 




















397 
433 
659 
20 
22 
18 

11549 






44 
41 
97 
5 
2 
2 

191 


44 
46 
107 
5 
2 
2 


9 

17 
22 

"l 


218 
318 
456 
12 
14 
13 


227 
335 
478 
12 
14 
14 


6 
6 


120 
52 

74 
3 
6 
2 

257 


126 
52 
74 
3 
6 

-* 

263 


2d Brigade 


6 
10 


3d Brigade 




Parsons Battery 




Cockerell s Battery .. 




Total... 


16 


206 


491031 


1080 



I have the honor to be very respectfully, yours, 

J. M. PALMER, 
Brigadier General Commanding. 



GENERAL THOMAS J. WOOD S REPORT. 



NASHVILLE, TENN., 1 
January 6, 1863. f 
Major Lyne Starling, Chief of Staff: 

On the morning of the 26th ult., the Left Wing of the Fourteenth Army 
Corps broke up its encampment in the vicinity of Nashville, and 
moved toward the enemy. Reliable information assured us that they 
were encamped in force at and in the vicinity of Murfreesboro ; but 
as their cavalry, supported occasionally by infantry, had extended its 
operations up to our outposts, and as we had been compelled, some 
days previous to the movement on the 26th ult., to fight for the greater 
part of the forage consumed by our animals, it was supposed we would 
meet with resistance as soon as our troops passed beyond the lines of 



444 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

our own outposts. Nor was this expectation disappointed. The order 
of march, on the first day of the movement, placed the Second Division 
(General Palmer s) in advance, followed by my own. Several miles 
northward of Lavergne, a small hamlet nearly equidistant between 
Nashville and Murfreesboro, portions of the enemy were encountered 
by our advance guard, a cavalry force, and a running light at once 
commenced. The country occupied by these bodies of hostile troops. 
affords ground peculiarly favorable for a small force to retard the 
advance of a larger force. Large cultivated tracts occur at intervals, on 
either side of the turnpike road, biit the country between the cultivated 
tracts is densely wooded, and much of the woodland is interspersed 
with cedar. The face of the country is undulating, presenting a suc 
cession of swells and depressions. 

This brief description is applicable to the whole country between 
Nashville and Murfreseboro, and it will show to the most casual ob 
server how favorable it was for covering the movements and designs 
of the enemy in resisting our progress. The resistance of the enemy 
prevented our troops from gaining possession of the commanding 
hig-hts immediately south of Lavergne, during the first day s opera 
tion, and delayed the arrival of my division at the site selected for its 
encampment until some time after nightfall. The darkness of the 
evening and the lateness of the hour, prevented such a reconnoissance 
of the ground as is so necessary in close proximity to the enemy. But 
to guard effectually against surprise, a regiment from each brigade 
was thrown well forward as a grand guard, and the front and flanks 
of the division covered with a continuous line of skirmishers. 

The troops were ordered to be roused at an hour and a half before 
dawn of the following morning, to get their breakfast as speedily as 
possible, and to be formed under arms and in order of battle before 
daylight. An occasional shell from the opposing hights, with which the 
enemy commenced to greet us shortly after the morning broke, showed 
these precautions were not lost. As it was understood from the Com 
manding General of the Corps, that the Right Wing was not so far 
advanced as the Left, the latter did not move forward until eleven o clock 
A. M. on the 27th. At this hour the advance was ordered, and my 
division was directed to take the lead. The entire cavalry on duty 
with the Left Wing was ordered to report to me ; being satisfied, how 
ever, from the nature of the country that its position in the advance 
would be injudicious, and retard, rather than aid, the progress of the 
infantry, I directed it to take position in rear of the flanks of the 
leading brigade. I ordered Hascall s brigade to take the advance, and 
move forward in two lines, with the front and flanks well covered 
with skirmishers. The other two brigades, Wagner s and Marker s, 
were ordered to advance on either side of the turnpike road, prepared to 
sustain the leading brigade, and especially to protect its flanks. 
These two brigades were also ordered to protect their outer flanks by 
flankers. In this order the movement commenced. Possession of the 
hamlet of Lavergne was the first object to be attained. The enemy s 
were strongly posted in the houses, and on the wooded hights in the 
rear, where they were enabled to oppose our advance by a direct and 
cross-fire of musketry. Hascall s brigade advanced nobly across an 



OFFICIAL REt>OKTS. 445 

open field to the attack, and quickly routed the enemy from their strong 
hold. This was the work of only a few minutes, but more than 
twenty causalties in the two leading regiments proved how sharp was 
the fire of the enemy. The forward movement of Hascall s brigade 
was continued, supported by Estep s Eighth Indiana Battery. The en 
emy availed themselves of the numberless positions which occur along 
the entire road, to dispute our progress, but could not materially retard 
the advance of our troops so determined and enthusiastic. They con 
tinued to press forward through the densely-wooded country, in a 
drenching rain-storm, till the advance reached Stewart s Creek, distant 
some five miles from Lavergne. Stewart s Creek is a narrow, deep 
stream, flowing between high and precipitous banks. It is spanned 
by a wooden bridge, with a single arch. It was a matter of cardinal 
importance to secure possession of this bridge, as its destruction would 
entail difficulty and delay in crossing the river, and perhaps, involve 
the necessity of constructing a new bridge. The ndvance troops 
found, on their arrival, that the enemy had lighted a fire upon it, but 
had been pressed so warmly that there had been no time for the flames 
to be communicated to the bridge. The line of skirmishers and the 
Third Kentucky Volunteers, Colonel McKee, dashed bravely for 
ward, though opposed to a fire from the opposing direction, threw the 
combustible materials into the stream, and saved the bridge. While 
this gallant feat was being performed, the left flank of the leading 
brigade was attacked by cavalry. The menaced regiments immedi 
ately changed front to left, repulsed the attack, and a company of 
the One-Hundredth Illinois, Colonel Bartleson, succeeded in cutting 
off and capturing twenty-five prisoners, with their arms, and twelve 
horses with their accouterments. The result of the day s operations 
was twenty casualties, wounded, in Hascall s brigade, and some 
twenty-five prisoners taken from the enemy. The enemy fell back in 
great disorder from Stewart s Creek. He left tents standing on the 
southern bank of the creek, and in this encampment the ground was 
strewn with arms. 

Sunday, the 28th ult., we remained in camp waiting for the troops 
of the Right Wing and Center to get into position. 

Monday, the 29th, the advance was resumed. Wagner s brigade, of 
my division, was deployed, in order of battle, on the left or eastern, 
and a brigade of General Palmer s division on the right or western, 
side of the road. Cox s Tenth Indiana Battery, supported Wagner s 
brigade. Moving part passu, the two brigades advanced, clearing all 
opposition, till we arrived within two miles and a half of Murfrees- 
boro. Harker s brigade was disposed on the left of Wagner s brigade, 
in the advance, and Hascall s held in reserve. On arriving within 
two miles and a half of Murfreesboro, the evidences were perfectly 
unmistakable that the enemy were in force immediately in our front, 
prepared to resist, seriously and determinedly, our further advance. 
The rebels, displayed in battle array, were plainly seen in our front. 
Negley s division, which was to take position in the Center, to com 
plete the communication between the Right and Left Wings, was not 
up, but several miles in the rear. Van Cleve s division, which was to 
support the left, was in the rear of Negley s. Consequently I halted 



446 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

the troops in advance, reported the fact to General Crittenden, com 
manding the Left Wing, and desired further orders. Up to this moment, 
the information received had indicated, with considerable probability, 
that the enemy would evacuate Murfreesboro, offering no serious 
opposition. But observations assured me, very soon after arriving so 
near the town, that we should meet with determined resistance, and I 
did not deem it proper to precipitate the force in advance two divi 
sions, my own and Palmer s on the entire force of the enemy, with 
the remainder of our troops so far in the rear, as to make it entirely 
possible, perhaps probable, that a serious reverse would occur before 
they could support us. Furthermore, the afternoon was well nigh 
spent, and an attempt to advance would have involved us in the obscurity 
of the night, on unexamined ground, in the presence of an unseen foe, 
to whom our movements would have rendered us seriously vulnerable. 

The halt being approved, my division was disposed in order of battle, 
and the front securely guarded by a continuous line of skirmishers, 
thrown out well in advance of their reserves. The right of the divi 
sion, Wagner s brigade, rested on the turnpike, and occupied a piece of 
wooded ground, with an open field in front of it ; the center, Marker s 
brigade, occupied, in part, the woods in which Wagner s brigade was 
posted, and extended leftward into an open field, covered in front by a 
low swell which it was to occupy in case of an attack, and General lias- 
call s brigade was posted on the left of the division, with the left flank 
resting nearly on Stone River. The entire division was drawn up in two 
lines* Stone River runs obliquely in front of the position occupied by the 
division leaving a triangular piece of ground of some hundreds of yards 
in breadth in front of the right, and narrowing to almost a point in 
front of the left. 

Such was the position occupied by my division, Monday night. It 
remained in this position throughout Tuesday, the 30th the skirmish 
ers keeping up an active fire with the enemy. In this encounter, Lieu 
tenant Elliott, Adjutant of the Fifty-Seventh Indiana, was badly wound 
ed. In the afternoon, I had three days subsistence issued to the men; 
and, near nightfall, by order, twenty additional rounds of cartridges 
were distributed to them. Commanders were directed to instruct the 
troops to be exceedingly vigilant, and to report promptly any indica 
tion in their fronts of a movement by the enemy. The artillery horses 
were kept attached to their pieces. Between midnight and daylight 
Wednesday morning, I received a message from Colonel Wagner, to the 
effect that the enemy seemed to be moving large bodies of troops frotn 
the right to the left. I immediately dispatched the information to the 
headquarters of the Left Wing, and I doubt not it was sent thence to the 
Commanding General, and by him distributed to the rest of the corps. 
The division was roused at five o clock Wednesday morning ; the men 
took their breakfasts, and, before daylight, were ready for action. 
Shortly after dawn, I repaired to the headquarters of the Left Wing for 
orders. I met the Commanding General there, and received orders 
from him to commence passing Stone River, immediately in front of 
the division, by brigades. I rode at once to my division, and directed 
Colonel Harker to commence the movement with his brigade, dispatch 
ing an order to General Hascall to follow Colonel Harker, and an order 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 447 

to Colonel Wagner to follow General Hascall. While Colonel Harker 
was preparing to move, I rode to the front to examine the ground. A 
long, wooded ridge, withdrawn a few hundred yards from the streim, 
extends along the southern and eastern side of Stone River. On the 
crest of this ridge the enemy appeared to be posted in force. During 
the morning some firing had been heard on the right, but not to a 
sufficient extent to indicate that the troops were seriously engaged. 
But the sudden and fierce roar and rattle of musketry, which burst upon 
us at this moment, indicated that the enemy had attacked the Right 
Wing in heavy force, and soon the arrival of messengers, riding in hot 
haste, confirmed the indications. I was ordered to stop the movement 
to cross the river, and to withdraw the brigades to the rear, for the 
purpose of reinforcing the Center and Right. General Ha scull s and 
Col. Barker s brigades were withdrawn, and the latter, under orders 
from the Commanding General, moved to the right and rear. I ordered 
Colonel Wagner to hold his position in the woods at all hazards, as 
this was an important point, and so long as it was held, not only were 
our left front and flanks secured, but the command of the road leading 
to the rear preserved. The vigorous attack on our Right and Center, 
extended to our Left, and our whole line became seriously engaged. 
Not only was the extreme left exposed to the attack in the front, but 
was much harassed by the enemy s artillery, posted on the bight! on 
the southern side of Stone River. But the troops nobly maintained 
their position, and gallantly repulsed the enemy. A slackening of the 
enemy s fire at this moment, in his attack on our Center and Left, and 
other indications that his forces were weakening in the Center, ren 
dered the juncture apparently favorable for bringing additional and 
fresh troops into the engagement. Hascall s brigade was now brought 
forward, and put into position on the right of Wagner s brigade. But 
the abatement of the enemy s fire was but the lulling of the storm, to 
burst soon with greater fury. The attack was renewed on our Center 
and Left with redoubled violence. Hnscall s brigade had got into posi 
tion in good season, and aided in gallant style in driving back the 
enemy. Estep s Battery, generally associated with Hascall s brigade, 
had been detached early in the morning, and sent to the Right and 
rearward, to aid in driving back the enemy from our Center and 
Right. The falling back of the Right Wing had brought our lines into 
a crochet. This rendered the position of the troops on the extreme 
left particularly hazardous, for had the enemy succeeded in gaining 
the turnpike, in his attack on the Right, the Left would have been 
exposed to an attack in the reverse. This danger imposed on me 
the necessity of keeping a rigid watch to the right, to be prepared 
to change front in that direction, should it become necessary. Again 
the enemy were seen concentrating large masses of troops in the fields 
to the front and right, and soon these masses moved to the attack. 
Estep s Battery was now moved to the front to join Hascall s brigade. 
The artillery in the front lines, as well as those placed in the rear of 
the Center and Left, poured a destructive fire on the advancing foe, 
but on he came until within small-arm range, when he was repulsed 
and driven back. But our thinned ranks and dead and wounded 
officers told, in sad and unmistakable language, how seriously we were 



448 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

sufferers from these repeated assaults. Colonel McKee, of the Third 
Kentucky, had been killed ; and Colonel Hines and Lieutenant Colonel 
Dennard, of the Fifty-Seventh Indiana, and Colonel Blake and Lieuten 
ant Colonel Neff. of the Fortieth Indiana, with others, were wounded. 
During this attack, the Fifteenth Indiana, commanded by Lieutenant 
Colonel Wood, counter-charged on one of the enemy s regiments, and 
captured one hundred and seventy-five prisoners. The capture was from 
the Twentieth Louisiana. While this attack was in progress, I received 
a message from General Palmer, commanding the Second Division of the 
Left Wing, that he was sorely pressed, and desired I would send him 
a regiment, if I could possibly spare one. I sent an order to General 
Hascall, to send a regiment to General Palmer s assistance, if his own 
situation would warrant it. He dispatched the Fifty-Eighth Indiana, 
Colonel G. P. Buell s regiment, to report to General Palmer. The 
regiment got into position, reserved its fire until the enemy were in 
close range, and then poured in a withering discharge, from which the 
foe recoiled in disorder. Our extreme left next became the object 
of the enemy s attention. Skirmishers were seen descending the 
slope on the opposite side of the river, as also working their way 
down the stream for the purpose, apparently, of gaining our left 
flank and rear. A few well-directed charges of grape and canister 
from Cox s Battery, drove them back. This battery did most excellent 
service in counter-battering the enemy s artillery, posted on the hights 
on the southern side of the river. The afternoon was now well 
advanced, but the enemy did not seem disposed to relinquish the 
design of forcing us from our position. Heavy masses were again 
assembled in front of the center, with a view, evidently, of renewing 
the onset. But the well-directed fire of the artillery held them in 
check, and only a small force came within range of our small arms, 
which was readily repulsed. The enemy concluded his operations 
against the Left, as night approached, by opening on it w r ith his 
artillery. Cox s and Estep s Batteries gallantly and effectually replied. 
But darkness soon put a conclusion to this artillery duel, and when the 
night descended brought a period to the long and bloody contest of this 
ever-memorable day, which found the First and Second Brigades, 
Hascall s and Wagner s, occupying, with some slight interchange in the 
position of particular regiments, the ground on which they had gone 
into the fight in the morning. Every effort of the enemy to dislodge 
them had failed ; every attack was gallantly repulsed. I can not 
speak in too high terms of praise of the soldierly bearing and steadfast 
courage with which the officers and men of these two brigades 
maintained the battles throughout the day. Their good conduct 
deserves and will receive the highest commendations of their com 
manders and countrymen. The Commanding General of the enemy 
has borne testimony in his dispatch to the gallantry and success 
of their resistance. Cox s and Estep s Batteries were splendidly 
served throughout the day, and did the most effective service. They 
lost heavily in men and horses, and it was necessary for Estcp to 
call on the One-Hundredth Illinois, for a detail to aid in working 
his guns. I have previously remarked that the Third Brigade, Colonel 
Barker s, was detached early in the morning and sent to reinforce the 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 449 

Right. It remained on that part of the field during the entire day. I 
am not able, consequently, to speak of its service from personal observ 
ation. But its extremely heavy list of casualties shows how hotly it 
was engaged, and what valuable service it rendered. I am sure it met 
the expectation I had ever confidently entertained of what would be 
its bearing in presence of the foe. Bradley s Sixth Ohio Battery was 
associated with this brigade during the clay, was skillfully handled, and 
did most effective service. It lost two of its guns, but they were 
spiked before they were abandoned. They were subsequently recap 
tured by the Thirteenth Michigan, attached to this brigade. From 
all I have learned of the service of the Third Brigade and Bradley s 
Battery, I am sure they deserve equal commendation with the other 
two brigades and batteries, which so stoutly held the left. An official 
report of events so thrilling as those of the battle of the 31st ult., 
made from personal observations amid the din and roar of the conflict, 
and unaided by the reports of the subordinate commanders, must nec 
essarily present but a brief and meager outline of the part enacted by 
the troops whose services it professes to portray. A report so pre 
pared may, entirely unintentionally on the part of the writer, do injus 
tice to particular troops and officers. From the inability of reference 
to the reports of subordinate commanders, I can not give any detail of 
the heavy casualties of the battle of the 31st. I must leave them 
to be reported with the subsequent casualties by my successor in com 
mand. The absence of such reports prevents me from signalizing 
by names such regimental and company officers as particularly distin 
guished themselves. But where all did so well it would be difficult, 
perhaps invidious, to discriminate among them. To my brigade com 
manders, Brigadier General Hascall, commanding First Brigade, Colonel 
Wagner, Fifteenth Indiana, commanding Second Brigade, and Colonel 
Harker, Sixty-Fifth Ohio, commanding Third Brigade, my warmest 
thanks are due for their valuable assistance, their hearty co-operation, 
and intelligent performance of duty throughout the whole of that try 
ing day. For these services and their gallant and manly bearing 
under the heaviest tire, they richly deserve the highest commendation, 
and the gratitude of their countrymen. Colonels Wagner and Harker 
have long and ably commanded brigades, and I respectfully submit 
it would be simply an act of justice to confer on them the actual 
and legal rank of the command they have so long exercised. To Major 
S. Race, Chief of Artillery ; Surgeon W. W. Blair, Fifty-Eighth In 
diana ; Captain M. P. Bestow, Assistant Adjutant General; First 
Lieutenant J. L. Yargan, Fifty-Eighth Indiana, Aiddecamp ; Cap 
tain Y. R. Palmer, Thirteenth Michigan, Inspector General, and Major 
Walker, Second Indiana Cavalry, Volunteer Aiddecamp, my thanks 
are due and cordially given. Captain L. D. Myers, Division Quarter 
master ; Captain Henderson, Commissary of Subsistence to the division, 
and First Lieutenant Martin, Twenty -First Ohio, Signal Officer, but for 
some time engaged in performing the duties of Acting Assistant 
Quartermaster, great credit is due for the intelligent and efficient 
performance of duty in their respective departments. Captain Bruce, 
Fifty-Eighth Indiana, Ordnance Officer of the First Virginia, deserves 
credit for valuable services rendered in the Ordnance Department 

38 



450 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

for the entire division, during the absence of the Division Ordnance 
Officer. 

My division is composed of regiments from the States of Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Kentucky. To the relatives and personal 
friends of those who have fallen in defense of their country, I would 
respectfully offer my sympathy and condolence. 

About ten o clock Wednesday morning, during one of the heaviest 
attacks, I was struck by a Minnie ball on the inner side of the left heel. 
Fortunately, the ball struck obliquely, or the injury would have been 
much severer. My boot was torn open, the foot lacerated, and a severe 
contusion inflicted. I did not dismount from my horse till seven 
o clock in the evening. The coldness of the night, combined with the 
injury, made my foot so painful and stiff as to render it evident I 
would not be effective for immediate service. I was ordered by the 
Commanding General of the corps to repair that night, by ambulance, 
with an escort, to this city. It was with extreme regret I found myself 
in a condition to make it necessary, on account of my injury, to leave the 
division I had formed and so long commanded ; but the regret was alle 
viated by the reflection that I had left the division under the command 
of an able and experienced officer, one who had long served with it, who 
knew it well, and in whom it had confidence Brigadier General Hascall. 

I am still confined to my room, but trust ere long to be able to resume 
my duties. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

TH. J. WOOD, 

Brigadier General Commanding. 



GENERAL M. S. HASCALL S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, "> 
MURFHEESBORO, TEN*;., January 10, 1863. j 
Major Starling, Assistant Adjutant General : 

I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of 
this division during the recent battles, after the command devolved 
upon me, on the evening of December 31, 1862. At that time the divi 
sion was considerably scattered, as Colonel Barker s brigade had been 
in action during the 31st, on the extreme right, and had not returned. 
Colonel Wagner was in position to the left of the railroad, where he 
had been in action during the day, and my brigade was to the right of 
the railroad. About eleven P. M., of that day, Colonel Harker retired 
with his brigade, and the division was once more together. At this 
time I received an order to send all the wagons of the division to the 
rear ; and shortly after this was executed, I received orders from Gen 
eral Crittenden to fall back, so that my right should rest on the posi 
tion occupied by Stokes Battery, and my left on the right of General 
Palmer s division. This brought the new line of the division about five 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 451 

hundred yards to the rear of the one of the day before. The line of 
the division was now nearly at right angles with the railroad, with the 
center of the line resting on it, the First Brigade, Colonel Buell, on the 
right of the Third, Colonel Harker in the center, and the Second, Col 
onel Wagner s, on the left. In this position we lay all the next day 
(January 1, 1863) with nothing more than picket tiring and an occa 
sional artillery duel, to break the silence. The division lost, however, 
several killed and wounded during the day. Each of my brigades was 
in line of battle, and I was occupying so much front that it kept the 
men constantly on the alert. Most of the other divisions had one or 
two brigades in reserve and could, therefore, relieve their men some. 
We maintained this position during the night of the 1st and till about 
eight A. M. on the morning of the 2d, the batteries occupying the 
intervals between the brigades. At this time the enemy opened upon 
us the most terrific fire of shot and shell that we sustained during the 
entire engagement. It appears that during the night before, they had 
massed several batteries in our front, so they opened upon us from a 
line of batteries one-fourth of a mile long, all at once. They had our 
range perfectly, so that their shot were terribly effective from the first. 
Estep s Battery, on the right of my line, being in an exposed situation 
and receiving a very heavy fire, had to retire at once, not, however, 
till so many horses had been killed, as to render it necessary for two 
of the pieces to be hauled to the rear by the infantry. Bradley s Bat 
tery, with Colonel Harker, in the center, having a better position, and 
longer-range guns, opened a brisk fire on the enemy in return, and 
had every probability of maintaining their position until Stokes Bat 
tery, in their rear, undertook to open on the enemy with grape which 
took effect on Bradley s men, instead of the enemy, and compelled 
Bradley to retire. The infantry, however, along mv entire line, 
although suffering severely from the effects of this fire, all maintained 
their position. In about half an hour this firing ceased, and noth 
ing further, worthy of note, happened, until near four o clock in the 
afternoon of that day. At this time General Van Cleve s division, 
which was stationed across Stone River, to our left, was suddenly 
attacked by a heavy force of the enemy, under Breckinridge, and so 
fierce was the onslaught that the division was compelled, almost imme 
diately, to give way. General Jeff. C. Davis and General Negley were 
ordered to their relief with their divisions, and as soon as they had 
time to get over, the attack was checked, and the enemy began to 
retire. At this time I received an order from General Crittenden to 
cross with my division, and immediately piit the different brigades in 
motion. While crossing at the ford one or two pieces of the enemy s 
artillery were playing upon us, but as it was then dusk, their firing 
was not accurate, and I think we sustained no loss in crossing. By 
the time we were over it was dark, and the firing had nearly ceased. 
Negley s division was returning, and Davis had taken up a position a 
little in advance of where Van Cleve was attacked, his right resting 
on the bank of the river. I moved up and went into position on the 
left of Davis, my left inclining somewhat to the rear, to prevent it from, 
being turned. General Davis and myself then fortified our fronts 
as well as we could with the logs, stones, and rails at hand, and 



452 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

remained in this position that night, the next day (January 3), and 
till about twelve o clock that night, without anything more than picket 
firing transpiring. I should remark that it rained very hard all day 
January 3d, and during the night, so that our men and officers suffered 
severely. B;y this time the rain had so swollen the river that General 
Crittenden became apprehensive that it would not be fordable by 
morning, and we might be cut off from communication with the main 
body of the army. He then ordered us back, and my division took up 
a position in reserve near General Rosecran s headquarters, arriving 
there about two o clock in the morning, completely drenched with 
mud and rain. They had now been on duty four days and nights, 
some of the time with nothing to eat, and constantly in the front, 
where they had to be all the time on the alert. The next morning we 
heard that the enemy had evacuated. The battle was over. The con 
duct of the division, throughout, was admirable, and it can be truth 
fully said, concerning it, that it held its original position, and every 
other position assigned to it, during the whole four days. 

I am under great obligations to my brigade commanders, Colonels 
Wagner, Harker, and Buell. Colonel Wagner had his horse shot under 
him on the 31st., and his clothes completely riddled with bullets. He, 
nevertheless, stood by throughout, and ably and gallantly performed 
his duty. The conduct of Colonel Harker was equally brave and effi 
cient. They have now each commanded brigades for nearly a year, 
and it seems to me that common justice demands that they now receive 
the promotion they have so gallantly earned. Colonel Buell came in 
command of the First Brigade in consequence of my taking command 
of the division ; and, although comparatively inexperienced, he per 
formed every duty gallantly and well. All the officers of the division, 
with a single exception, behaved gallantly and did well, therefore, I 
need not discriminate. The exception was Colonel John W. Blake, of 
the Fortieth Indiana; and I consider it my duty to draw the line of 
distinction broad and deep between those who do well and those who 
prove recreant. He became so drunk as to be unfit for duty, before 
going into action, on the 31st., and was sent to the rear, in arrest, by 
his immediate commander, Colonel Wagner. The next that was heard 
from him, he was in Nashville, claiming to be wounded and a paroled 
prisoner. For this bad conduct I recommend that he be dishonorably 
discharged from the service. 

The casualties in the division were as follows : 

The First Brigade went into action with seventy-four officers and 
one thousand four hundred and fifty-four enlisted men, and lost : 

OFFICERS. 

Killed 4 

Wounded 21 25 

ENLISTED MEN. 

Killed 42 

Wounded 278 

Missing 34 354 

Total... 379 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 453 

The Second Brigade went into action with eighty-six officers and 
oue thousand three hundred and eighty enlisted men, and lost : 

OFFICERS. 

Killed 2 

Wounded 18 20 

ENLISTED MEN. 

Killed 64 

Wounded 269 

Missing .... 32 355 



Total 375 

The Third Brigade went into action with ninety-seven officers and 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety enlisted men, including the 
Sixth Ohio Battery, and lost : 

OFFICERS. 

Killed 6 

Wounded 17 22 

ENLISTED MEN. 

Killed 104 

Wounded 312 

Missing 101 617 



Total 539 

RECAPITULATION. 

The division went into action with two hundred and fifty-four offi 
cers and four thousand six hundred and eighty-three enlisted men, 
and lost : 

OFFICERS. 

Killed 11 

Wounded 66 67 

ENLISTED MEN. 

Killed 200 

Wounded 859 

Missing 1671,226 

Total 1,293 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. S. HASCALL, 
Brigadier General Commanding. 



454 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



GENERAL II. P. VAN CLEYE S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, "> 

ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND. J 

Major Lyne Starling, Assistant Adjutant General : 

MAJOR I have the honor to submit the following report of the oper 
ations of my division on the 31st of December, 1802 : 

At seven o clock on the morning of that day I received an order to 
cross Stone River, on which my left rested, and march toward Mur- 
freesboro. The First Brigade, Colonel Beatty, Third Brigade, Colonel 
Price, and the batteries, Captain Swallow commanding, were promptly 
moved over and formed into line ; the Second Brigade, Colonel Fyffe, 
being retained on the south side by a subsequent order. 

My lines being formed and about to advance, by your order I re- 
crossed the river, leaving the Third Brigade to guard the ford. With 
the First Brigade I marched rapidly to the support of General Rous 
seau, whose division was hard pressed by the enemy. We formed in a 
wood on the south side of the Murfreesboro and Nashville turnpike. 
Our lines were no sooner formed than the enemy were seen advancing, 
driving before them our scattered troops. Our ranks were opened to 
suffer them to pass, when they closed and opened on the enemy with a 
withering fire, who were soon brought to a halt. A murderous fire 
was kept up on both sides about twenty minutes, when the enemy 
began to recoil. Our second line now relieving the first with hearty 
cheer, the rebels broke and retreated. The Second Brigade coming up 
at this moment, formed on the right and joined in the pursuit. We 
pressed the enemy through this wood, then across an open field to 
another wood, where they appear to have met with reinforcements and 
reformed. The Seventh Indiana Battery, Captain Swallow, joined us 
on this open field, and rendered efficient aid. Here I received informa 
tion from General Rosecrans that General Rousseau was driving the 
enemy, accompanied with an order for me to press them hard. 

At the same moment I was notified by a messenger from Colonel 
Barker, whose brigade was to my right and rear, that the enemy were 
in force on my right in a wood, and were planting a battery there. I 
immediately sent a message to Colonel Harker to press the enemy 
hard, as I had no reserve to protect my right ; to Captain Swallow, 
who was doing good service with his battery, not to suffer it to be cap 
tured ; to Colonel Beatty to send two regiments, if they could possibly 
be spared, to the support of Colonel Fyffe, and a fourth to General 
Crittenden to inform him of my critical situation. The enemy now 
poured a galling fire of musketry, accompanied with grape and shell, 
on our right. Colonel Fyffe s brigade, supported by Captain Swallow s 
Battery, gallantly returned the fire, but being overpowered by numbers 
on front and flank, were soon compelled to retire, followed but a short 
distance by the enemy. Captain Swallow, to whom too much praise 
can not be awarded, brought off his battery safely. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 455 

Colonel Beatty, who had been pressing the enemy on the left, as soon 
as he learned the condition of affairs, retired in good order ; with two 
of his regiments was ordered by General Rosecrans to protect a bat 
tery on the Murfreesboro road; the remaining two regiments of his 
brigade and Colonel Fyffe s brigade were reformed, and took a position 
on the left of General McCook s Corps, and to the right of the Pioneer, 
which position we occupied without further adventure till after dark. 

I can not close this report without inviting your attention to the 
gallantry displayed by those under my command during this engage 
ment. To both officers and men too much praise can not be awarded. 
I would particularly notice the coolness, intrepidity, and skill of my 
brigade commanders, Colonels Beatty and Fyffe, and of Captain Swal 
low, Chief of Artillery. To the members of my staff, Captain E. A. 
Otis, Assistant Adjutant General ; Captain C. H. Wood, Inspector Gen 
eral ; Captain William Starling, Topographical Engineer ; Lieutenants 
T. F. Murdoch and H. M. Williams, Aidsdecarnp, I owe much for the 
promptness, faithfulness, and gallantry with which they executed my 
orders, and conveyed intelligence on the field. Sergeant R. B. Rhodes, 
of the First Ohio Cavalry, in command of my escort, conducted him 
self like a true soldier, and deserves honorable mention. 

A slight wound received early this day, becoming exceedingly pain 
ful, on the following morning I Avas compelled to turn over the com 
mand of the division to Colonel Beatty, and retire from the field. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. P. VAN CLEVE, 

Brigadier General. 



COLOKEL SAMUEL BEATTY S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, "l 

CAMP NEAR MURFREESBORO, January, 1863. / 

Major Lyne Starling, Assistant Adjutant General : 

MAJOR I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
operations of this division for the time embraced between the 1st and 
3d days of January, 1863, inclusive : 

I was called to the command of the division on the morning of Jan 
uary 1st, by General Van Cleve s disability from the wound received 
in the battle of the preceding day. 

At three P. M. on that day, I received orders to cross Stone River 
with my command at the "upper ford," and hold the hill overlooking 
the river near the ford. Accordingly at daybreak the Third Brigade, 
Colonel Price commanding, crossed the river at the place indicated, 
throwing out skirmishers and flankers. Colonel Price waa quickly 



456 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

followed by Colonel Fyfife s brigade ; the force being formed in two 
lines, the right retiring on the high ground near the river and east of 
the ford, and the left thrown forward so that the direction of the line 
should be nearly perpendicular to the river. 

In the meantime, the First Brigade, Colonel Grider commanding, 
had been disposed as follows : Two regiments were formed in the hol 
low near the hospital as a reserve, the other two remaining on the 
other side of the river to support a battery. 

The enemy s skirmishers were now discovered in a wood, distant 
half a mile or so from our first line, and occasional firing took place 
on both sides. 

Information of all these movements was sent to General Crittenden, 
who sent me word that if I needed artillery to order up a battery. 
The Third Wisconsin Battery, Lieutenant Livingston commanding, was 
accordingly, at about ten o clock A. M., ordered to cross the river and 
remain in the hollow near the ford. 

Small parties of the enemy s cavalry and infantry were occasionally 
seen, and at length a strong line was distinctly visible through the 
openings of the wood. Lieutenant Livingston was ordered to bring 
up his battery. It was accordingly placed in position on the rising 
ground in front of Colonel Fyffe s brigade. Several shells were thrown 
at the enemy s line, which caused its disappearance ; it was supposed 
that they had laid down. One section, Lieutenant Hubbard command 
ing, was now moved to the hill on the right, whence also one or two 
shells were thrown at detached parties. Colonel Fyffe s brigade was 
moved to the left of the battery, where it was covered by a skirt of 
woods. Our whole force had been constantly concealed by making the 
men lie down. 

About one o clock the remaining two regiments of Colonel Grider s 
brigade, the Nineteenth Ohio and Ninth Kentucky, were oi-dered to 
cross the river, which they did, forming near the hospital on the left 
of the other two regiments of the same brigade, to protect our left 
flank. The enemy s force was occasionally seen moving to our left, 
and Generals Crittenden and Palmer were advised of the fact; Colonel 
Grose was consequently ordered to support me. His brigade formed 
so as to protect our left, relieving the Nineteenth Ohio and Ninth Ken 
tucky. These two regiments were formed in rear of the right of the 
second line as a reserve, being posted in the hollow near the ford. 

No other disturbance occurred during the day, except the occasional 
firing of the skirmishers, so Colonel Grose s brigade and Livingston s 
Battery recrossed the river. About midnight we were alarmed by 
sharp firing from the skirmishers ; they reported that it was caused by 
the enemy s skirmishers advancing and firing upon us. One of our 
men was killed and one wounded. Nothing else occurred during the 
night. On the morning of Friday, January 2d, Livingston s Battery 
came across the river again, and was posted as before. There was 
light skirmishing during the earlier part of the day. 

The Seventy-Ninth Indiana, Colonel Knifler, was ordered to take 
place in the first line, to close the gap between Colonel Fyffe s brigade 
and the others. Nothing of note occurred until about eleven o clock, 
when the firing of the enemy s skirmishers became very constant and 



OFFICIAL REPOHTS. 457 

heavy, as they slowly crept up toward us. The skirmishers now 
reported a battery being planted in our front, and shortly afterward, 
that fifteen regiments of infantry and three pieces of artillery were 
moving to our left. 

Notice of all these movements was given to Generals Crittenclcn and 
Palmer, and Colonel Grose s brigade again came over to our support. 
About noon the enemy s battery opened with occasional shells, directed 
at Lieutenant Hubbard s section of artillery on the hill. The enemy s 
artillery were now seen moving to our left, and soon another battery 
opened fire upon Lieutenant Hubbard s section. 

As the enemy s skirmishers were so near that their firing was annoy 
ing and dangerous to the artillery, I ordered Lieutenant Livingston to 
retire and take a position on the hill near the hospital. A few shells 
were still thrown by the enemy s battery on our left, and occasional 
ones from an apparently heavy battery across the river. As the ene 
my s skirmishers pressed ours very closely, our lines were strength 
ened by throwing out two more companies. The firing was very sharp, 
and many of our men as well as theirs were wounded. At about half 
past two o clock it was reported that four more of the enemy s guns 
were moving toward our left. Word was sent of this, as in case of all 
other movements, to General Crittenden. At about three o clock our 
skirmishers reported that the enemy s skirmishers were throwing down 
the fence in front of our line. Orders were sent to Colonel Price to let 
his first line fall back behind the crest, of the hill, but before he could 
receive them the enemy were advancing across the field to the charge. 
They were formed in column, with a front of apparently two regiments. 

The first column was three regiments, or six ranks deep ; this was 
succeeded by a second of the same depth, and a third apparently 
greater. 

At the same moment their artillery opened from three or four differ 
ent points, throwing shot, shell, and canister directly into us. 

As the enemy s columns approached to within a hundred yards or 
so, the first line rose up and delivered a heavy fire upon their column, 
which checked it for a moment ; they soon pressed on, however. The 
regiments of the first line, the Fifty-First Ohio, Eighth Kentucky, and 
Thirty-Fifth and Seventy-Ninth Indiana, fought gallantly until the 
enemy were within a few yards of them, when, overpowered by num 
bers, they were compelled to retire. 

This movement confused and disorganized the second line, which 
also was ordered to fall back. The reserve, consisting of the Nine 
teenth Ohio, Ninth Kentucky, and Eleventh Kentucky, was now ordered 
up. They advanced most gallantly toward the crest of the hill, and 
poured a destructive fire upon the enemy, whose first column was by 
this time almost annihilated. Their supporting columns soon came up, 
however, and at the same time a force advanced along the river bank 
upon our right flank. Our men fought with most desperate courage, as 
will appear from their severe loss, until forced back by the actual 
pressure of the enemy. Even then they broke back from the right, 
file by file, stubbornly contesting their ground. At last, however, the 
right being forced back, the left was ordered to retire, which it slowly 
did until the bank of the river was reached. 

39 



458 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



Attempts were made to rally the men at several points, but it was 
impossible from the heavy fire and the close proximity of the enemy ; 
most of them were, therefore, forced across the river, where many of 
them rallied and returned with the first supporting troops ; and I am 
proud to say that the colors of the Nineteenth Ohio, Ninth Kentucky, 
and Fifty-First Ohio were the first to recross the stream after the 
enemy s check. The tremendous fire of our artillery on the south side 
of the river, with Livingston s Battery on the other, with the determ 
ined resistance they had met, had stopped the enemy at the river ; and 
now, as our troops pressed forward, they fled in confusion, leaving four 
of their guns. 

Several brave officers had rallied a great number of our men, and 
were the foremost in the advance. 

Night now came on and closed the pursuit. The regiments were 
rapidly reorganized, and in a few hours were in a state of efficiency, 
and turned out promptly and cheerfully at an alarm. 

The Second Brigade, Colonel Fyffe, was not attacked, the front of 
the enemy s column not extending to them. Seeing the right driven 
back, they also retired in good order. Lieutenant Livingston s Battery 
fired constantly and well from the first appearance of the enemy, until 
the very last moment he could remain safely. He then crossed the 
river without losing a piece. 

I can not too much commend the gallant manner in which my men 
fought, and the promptness with which, when forced to give way, they 
rallied and reorganized. 

The following is a report of the number of killed, wounded, and 
missing in the engagement before Murfreesboro, Tennessee : 



COMMANDS. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Missing. 


Aggregate.... 


O 

a 
o 

1 


t- 
ft 

a 


H3 

o 


C 

3J 

c. 

a 

ft 


g 

a> 
3 
: 



P" 


& 
o 

^ 


!^ 


2 


1-2 



E 












1 










Brigadier General Van Cleve . 








1 










1 
466 
481 
557 
25 

1530 


1st Brigade 


7 
4 
6 


59 
76 
75 
6 

216 


66 
80 
81 
6 

2?,?, 


10 
14 

1\ 

52 


303 
225 
307 
19 

854 


319 
239 
328 
19 

906 


1 


81 
160 
146 

387 


81 
162 
148 

391 


2d Brigade 




Artillery 


Total... 


17 



To the commanders of the different brigades, Colonels Grider, Price, 
and Fyffe, my thanks are due for the gallantry and coolness of their 
behavior under very trying circumstances. Lieutenant Livingston, of 
the Third Wisconsin Battery, did efficient service, and performed his 
duty ably and handsomely. Lieutenant Smoch, Third Kentucky Cav 
alry, who commanded a detachment of couriers, remained constantly 
on hand near me, and was of great use. 

To the following officers, members of my staff, I tender niy thanks 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 459 

for their assistance, and the manner in which it. was rendered : Cap 
tain E. A. Otis, Assistant Adjutant General ; Captain C. II. Wood, 
Acting Assistant Inspector General ; Captain William Starling, Topo 
graphical Engineer, and Lieutenants T. F. Murdoch and II. M. Wil 
liams, Aidsdecamp. 

Respectfully submitted, 

SAMUEL BEATTY, 

Colonel Commanding. 



CAPTAIN" J. ST. CLAIR MORTON S REPORT. 

The following is a full abstract of the Official Report 
of Captain James St. Clair Morton, Corps of Engi 
neers, commanding Brigade of Pioneers: 

The Pioneer Brigade of the Army of the Cumberland consists of 
three battalions of infantry, selected from forty different regiments, 
and the Chicago Board of Trade Battery, Captain Stokes. Captain 
Bridges, of the Nineteenth Illinois, commanded the First Battalion ; 
Captain Hood, of the Eleventh Michigan, the Second, and Captain 
Clements, of the Sixty-Ninth Ohio, the Third Battalion. 

On the march from Nashville the brigade constructed two bridges 
over Stewart s Creek, between the hours of four P. M. and four o clock 
A. M., 29th and 30th December, arriving at the battle-field on the 30th. 

On the morning of the 31st of December, the brigade, was engaged 
in improving the fords of Stone Kiver, in which the right battalion 
sustained the fire of some rebel cavalry. Captain (now Brigadier 
General) Morton was ordered, soon afterward, to take position in line 
of battle. The brigade was formed by order of General Rosecrans, 
in person, fronting toward the right. The enemy appeared on a rise 
of ground, in front, from which they had driven one of our batteries. 
Stokes Battery immediately opened fire, with canister, and drove 
them back. Captain Morton, at, the personal order of General Rose 
crans, who, with his staff accompanied him, advanced to the eminence 
and held it, nnder a heavy fire from the rebel batteries and sharp 
shooters. Stokes Battery was supported by the First Battalion, on 
the left, posted in a thicket; the Third Battalion on the right, its 
flank protected by the Second Battalion, posted in a wood, still 
further to the right. 

Shortly after the line was formed the enemy appeared across the 
field, preparing to charge upon one of our retiring detachments, 
which had been rallied by the Commanding General. Stokes Bat 
tery opened upon the foe, and the advance of the enemy was speedily 
arrested. The right battalion was attacked soon after, the enemy 



460 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

obviously intending to penetrate the line under cover of the forest. 
The battalion changed front to obtain a flanking fire, and by a single 
volley repulsed the enemy, composed of the Eleventh and Fourteenth 
Texas regiments. The Seventy-Ninth Indiana had rallied on the right 
of the battalion in the meantime, and assisted in the success. This 
was one of the most brilliant episodes of the battle. It followed 
quickly upon the charge made by the General in person, and was 
really the second act of the drama, which changed the tide of battle. 

Toward sunset the enemy appeared on Morton s left. Two sections 
of Stokes Battery were brought to the left of the First Battalion, 
and a brigade of the enemy which had attacked the battalion in the 
thicket, was bitterly repulsed. Their dead were left within fifty 
paces of Morton s lines. The troops behaved admirably. 

The Pioneers slept on their arms that night. Early NCAV Year s 
morning, the enemy again appeared on the left, apparently to advance 
through a gap between it and the Murfreesboro turnpike. Morton 
immediately changed front and occupied the gap. A hot engagement 
ensued, infantry and artillery being used so effectively that the 
enemy could not push beyond the edge of the wood, and they were 
finally driven back with severe loss. The position was held by the 
Pioneers until after nightfall, when they were relieved and formed 
in reserve. 

On the morning of Friday, the second part of the Pioneers were 
engaged making road-crossings over the railroad, when the enemy 
opened a severe cannonade. Stokes Battery returned the fire, and 
the battalions advanced, supporting it under a fire of solid shot and 
shell, until the rebel battery was silenced, when the Pioneers fell 
back to their position. 

In the afternoon, when Breckinridge made his attack upon Van 
Cleve s small division, which had been thrown across the river on our 
left, General Rosecrans, in person, ordered the Pioneers to the left as 
reinforcements. Morton marched his command at double-quick, and 
arrived on the line occupying a gap in it, under the firing of a rebel 
battery, which was soon silenced by Stokes Battery, which was 
worked with great skill and vigor. 

General Negley s (Eighth) division was already tremendously 
engaged. The enemy had advanced in columns of brigades six deep 
without intervals, presenting a most formidable mass, and threatening 
to carry everything before them. Our batteries opened in magnificent 
concert, and the most obstinate combat of the whole series of engage 
ments was culminating. General Negley now requested Morton to rein 
force him, and the Pioneers were at once moved up at double-quick 
and formed, the Third Battalion in second line behind the division 
under command of General Jeif. C. Davis, the First extending 
beyond it, and throwing out its own advance, occupying the space be 
tween it and the river ; Stokes Battery was posted on a knoll between 
the First and Second Battalions, the Second being in second line on the 
extreme right. The fighting, meantime, of the most violent descrip 
tion, was growing slack, and the enemy, finally defeated, were flying 
back to Murfreesboro, darkness preventing pursuit. 

After nightfall the Pioneers recrossed the river, and again assumed 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



461 



position in the reserve, the Second Battalion being detailed to dig 
rifle-pits in the front, near the pike and on the extreme right. They 
labored all night in the rain. On January 3d, the Third Battalion 
relieved the First, then on duty in the trendies ; on the 4th, the 
Second and Third Battalions began the construction of two lunettes on 
the north bank of the river, and the First Battalion began a trestle 
bridge across it ; on the 5th the work continued, and the Third 
Battalion, with the advance of the army, went in pursuit of the enemy. 
The loss of the brigade was as follows : 





OFFICERS. 


l 


IEN. 


g 




Wounded. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


r 


First ,.. 


3 


4 


5 


12 


Second ... . 




4 


5 


9 


Third 




4 


10 


1-1 




1 


3 


9 


13 












Total 


4 


15 


29 


IS 



The force of the brigade actually engaged was sixteen hundred men 
ninety-five in Stokes battery. 

Throughout the engagement the Pioneers behaved nobly, and upon 
requisition worked zealously night and day, although insufficiently 
subsisted, and under vicissitudes of inclement weather and rebel fire. 
Captain Morton euolgized the conduct of the artillerymen in the 
highest manner. They fought under the eye of the General, and 
Avon high encomiums from him. Captain Morton, in his report, says : 
" As the Commanding General was everywhere present on the field with 
his staff, he can not but have remarked the good service done by Captain 
Stokes, who manifested the greatest zeal, and managed his battery 
with the utmost decision and success." 

Captain Morton most honorably mentions his Adjutant, Lieutenant 
Lambessen, of the Nineteenth Illinois; his Inspectors, Lieutenants Clark 
of the Sixteenth United States Infantry, and Murphy of the Tvvent} - 
First Wisconsin ; his Aids, Lieutenant Reeve of the Thirty-Seventh 
Indiana, and Assistant Engineer Pearsall ; " all of whom exhibited,, 
the utmost ardor and alacrity in the performance of their duty." 

Captain Hood, Captain Clements and Captain Bridges, commanding 
the battalions, are highly extolled. The latter, though wounded on the 
31st remained in command of his battalion. 



462 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



CAPTAIN JOHN MENDENHALL S REPORT. 

HEADQUARTERS LEFT WIXG, 

January 10, 1803. 
Major L. Starling, Chief of Staff : 

MAJOR I have the honor to submit the following report of the oper 
ations of the artillery in the Left Wing from December 20, 1802, to 
January 2, 1803. This army marched from camp near Nashville, 
December 20th; the Left Wing marching on the Murfreesboro pike. 

December 26. About three P. M., our advance was brought to a 
stand-still near Lavergne, by a rebel battery. It was opposed by a 
section of artillery serving with the cavalry, which being unable to 
dislodge the enemy, our advance battery (Captain Standart, Battery 
B, First Ohio) was, after a little delay, put in position and opened fire, 
soon silencing the enemy. 

December 27. General Hascall took the advance with his brigade, 
and Lieutenant Estep s Eighth Indiana Battery. They marched stead 
ily forward till the enemy were driven across Stewart s Creek; the bat 
tery halting only when it was necessary to fire ; two pieces were 
posted near, covering the bridge. 

December 28. Some artillery was so disposed as to check the enemy, 
should they attempt to desti-oy or retake the bridge. 

December 29. Lieutenant Parsons, commanding Batteries H and 
M, Fourth Artillery, being in a commanding position, threw a few 
shells about nine A. M., driving the enemy s picket from the opposite 
woods. Our column advanced across the bridge at ten A. M., meet 
ing with little resistance till within about three miles of Murfrees 
boro. Our troops were placed in line of battle as they came up, the 
artillery remaining with their divisions. 

December 30. About nine A. M., the enemy opened fire upon Cap 
tain Cox s Tenth Indiana Battery (which was between the pike and 
the railroad, and in front partially covered by woods). Captain Brad- 
ley s Sixth Ohio Battery, at once took a position to the left of the woods 
and in a cornfield. The two batteries soon silenced that of the ene 
my s. One shot killed a man near where a number of General and 
Staff officers were standing, and another passing through Battery II, 
Fourth Artillery, killing one man, wounding another, besides disabling 
a horse. 

December 31. The Left Wing started to cross Stone River, about 
eight A. M., but before a division had crossed, intelligence was received 
that the Right was falling back. Colonel Fyffe s brigade, which was 
about crossing, was ordered to counter-march and move at double- 
quick to the Right. Captain Swallow s Seventh Indiana Battery 
operated for a time with this brigade, shelling the rebel cavalry from 
the brick hospital. Colonel Beatty s brigade, having recrossed the 
river, advanced to the support of the Right Wing ; but the Twenty- 
Sixth Pennsylvania Battery, Lieutenant Stevens commanding, being 
unable to follow the brigade through the woods, took a position near 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 463 

the pike, and received the enemy with shot and shell as they advanced 
after our retreating columns, and I think done his part in checking 
them. He advanced as they retreated, and took a position in a corn 
field on the right, of the pike near the three-mile post, and again 
opened upon the enemy. The position of this battery under went sev 
eral changes during the rest, of the day, but remained in the same 
immediate vicinity. The Third Wisconsin Battery, having recrosscd 
the river with the brigade, took a position commanding the ford and 
about twelve M., opened upon the enemy s cavalry, while attempting 
to drive off some of our wagons which had crossed the river, and were 
near a hospital we had established on the other side, driving them 
away with very little booty. The batteries of General Wood s division 
(Cox s Tenth Indiana, Estep s Eighth Indiana, and Bradley s Sixth Ohio, 
all under command of Major Race, of the First Ohio Artillery) fought 
with the brigades with which they were serving. I had no occasion to 
give special orders to them during the day. The batteries of General 
Palmer s division served with it during the morning, rendering good 
service. Captain Standart s Battery fell back with General Cruft s 
brigade, and was not again engaged during the day. Captain Cock- 
erell, during the afternoon, was ordered to the front, taking a position 
in the cornfield on the left of the woods where the enemy were mak 
ing such desperate attempts to force back the Left. At this place, 
Captain Cockerell was severely wounded in the foot, and the command 
of his battery devolved upon Lieutenant Osburn. Two guns of this bat 
tery were disabled from their own firing, the axles being too weak. One 
of the limbers of this battery was blown up during the day. Lieuten 
ant Parsons, commanding Batteries H and M, Fourth Artillery, was 
ordered up to support the Left, about four P. M., and took a position 
near the railroad. After he had expended all his ammunition, 
I sent Captain Swallow s Seventh Indiana Battery to replace him. 
These batteries did much to repel the enemy as they advanced with 
the evident determination to drive us back at all hazards if possible. 
During the night, the batteries were resupplied with ammunition, and 
I dii-ected them to take positions, as follows, before daylight, viz.: 
Lieutenant Livingston, commanding ford on the extreme left ; Cap 
tain Swallow, on his right, near the railroad; Lieutenant Stevens also 
near the railroad, but on the left of Captain Swallow. The batteries 
of the First Division between the railroad and the pike. Captain 
Bradley on the Left, Captain Cox on the Right, and Lieutenant 
Estep, in the Center. The Second Division batteries near the pike in 
reserve. 

During the morning, Lieutenant Livingston was directed to cross the 
river (he was assigned a position by Colonel Bcatty), and Captain 
Swallow took his place commanding the ford; Lieutenant Parsons was 
ordered to a position on General Rousseau s front by General Rose- 
crans, and Captain Cox was moved across the pike near Stokes 1 Bat 
tery, to support the right of his division, which had moved its right to 
that point. After dark, Captain Standart was ordered to relieve Stokes 
Battery. No firing, except now and then a shell at the enemy s pick 
ets, during the day. 

January 2. Early in the forenoon, the enemy opened fire first upon 



464 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

our Left, which was not responded to, their shot and shell doing no 
harm. They were opened more furiously upon the troops and batter 
ies near the railroad and pike, several of our batteries replying and 
soon silencing them. When the enemy had nearly ceased firing, 
Stokes Battery opened with canister upon Captain Bradley s Battery 
and Colonel Marker s brigade wounding several men and horses. 

Captain Standart, with three pieces, Captain Bradley s nnd Lieu 
tenant Estep s Batteries, retired a short distance to lit up, they hav 
ing received more or less injury from the enemy. Captain Bradley 
fell back on account of being fired into by Captain Stokes. He 
returned to his former position, after a little while, but Captain Stand- 
art and Lieutenant Estep remained in reserve. I then ordered Lieu 
tenant Parsons with Batteries H and M, Fourth Artillery, to a 
position on the ridge to the right of Captain Swallows (who was on 
the highest point-ridge, covering the ford) and Lieutenant Osburn, 
Battery F, First Ohio, to a position perhaps a hundred yards to the 
right of Lieutenant Parsons. During the afternoon Colonel Beatty 
changed the position of Lieutenant Livingston s Battery to near the 
the hospital (across the river). 

About four P. M., while riding along the pike with General Critten- 
den, we heard heavy firing of artillery and musketry on the Left. We 
at once rode briskly over, and arriving upon the. hill near the fords 
saw our infantry retiring before the enemy. The General asked me 
if I could not do something to relieve Colonel Beatty with my guns 
Captain Swallow had already opened with his battery. I ordered 
Lieutenant Parsons to move a little forward with his guns; then 
rode back to bring up Lieutenant Estep with his Eight Indiana Bat 
tery; meeting Captain Morton with his brigade of Pioneers, he 
asked for advice and I told him to move briskly forward with his 
brigade, and send his battery to the crest of the hill near the batteries 
engaged; the Eighth Indiana Battery took position to the right of 
Lieutenant Parsons. Seeing that Lieutenant Osburn was in position 
(between Lieutenant Parsons and Estep) I rode to Lieutenant Stevens 
Twenty-Sixth Pennsylvania Battery, and directed him to change front 
to fire* to the left, and open fire; and then to Captain Standart s, 
and directed him to move to the left with his pieces, and take position 
covering the ford. I found that Captain Bradley had anticipated my 
wishes, and had changed front to fire to the left, and opened upon the 
enemy. This battery was near the railroad. Lieutenant Livingston s 
Battery (which was across the river) opened upon the advancing 
enemy and continued to fire until he thought he could no longer main 
tain his position when he crossed over, one section at a time, and 
opened fire again. The firing ceased about dark. During this ter 
rible encounter of little more than an hour in duration, forty-three 
pieces of artillery belonging to the Left Wing. Captain Stokes Bat 
tery of six guns and the batteries of General Negley s division about 
nine guns, making a total of about fifty-eight pieces, opened fire upon 
the enemy. The enemy soon retired; our troops following. Throe 
batteries of the Left Wing, besides those of General Davis, crossed 
the river in pursuit. During this engagement, Lieutenant Parsons 
had one of his howitzers dismounted by a shot from the enemy, but it 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



465 



was almost immediately replaced by one captured from the enemy 
and brought over by the Nineteenth Illinois. * 

Captain Cockerell and Lieutenant Buckmar were both wounded on 
the 31st. The former commanded Battery F, First Ohio, and the lat 
ter belonged to the Seventh Indiana Battery. Major Race, First Ohio 
Artillery, Chief of Artillery, in the First Division, and the several 
battery commanders with their officers and men all, with one exception, 
deserves most grateful mention for their coolness and bravery 
throughout the battle. Lieutenant Parsons, commanding Batteries 
H and M, Fourth Artillery, and his officers, Lieutenants Gushing 
and Huntington, deserve great credit for their courage under the hot 
test of the enemy s fire. They were probably under closer fire and 
more of it than any other battery in the Left, Wing, and perhaps in 
the army. I am more than pleased with the way they behaved, ns 
well as the brave men under them. Captain Bradley, Sixth Ohio 
Battery, deserves particular notice for the manner in which he 
handled his battery. The one exception above referred to, is Lieuten 
ant Richard Jervis, of the Eighth Indiana, who is represented to have 
acted in a very cowardly manner, by retiring a section of the battery 
at a critical moment without orders, or notifying his battery com 
mander. 

The following are the casualties, etc., in the several batteries : 





O 

3? 




JH E N . 




BATTERIES AND COMMANDERS. 


cers wounded. 


~ 


r 


Missing 


H and M Fourth Artillery Lieutenant Parsons .. 




2 


14 


ft 


B First Ohio Captain Standart 




3 


13 


3 


F First Ohio Captain Cockerell 


1 


2 


12 




Seventh Indiana Captain Swallow . 


1 


4 


7 










4 




Twenty-Sixth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Stevens.. 
Eighth Indiana Lieutenant Estep 




2 


7 
6 


G 


Tenth Indiana, Captain Cox , 




1 


4 




Sixth Ohio. Captain Bradley , 




2 


2 


1 












Total... 


2 


16 


69 


10 



I am, Major, very respectfully, 

Your most obedient servant, 

JOHN MENDENHALL, 

Chief of Artillery. 



OFFICIAL REPORT 



OP 



GENERAL BRAXTON BRAGG. 



HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF TENNESSEE, | 

TULLAHOMA, February 23, 18G3. j 

SIR On the 26th of December last the enemy advanced, in force, 
from Nashville, to attack us at Murfreesboro. It had been well ascer 
tained that his effective force was over sixty thousand effective men. 
Before night, on that day, the object of the movement was developed, 
by our dispositions in front, and orders were given for the necessary 
concentration of our forces there distributed, as follows: 

Folk s corps and three brigades of Breckinridge s division, Hardee s 
corps, at Murfreesboro; the balance of Hardee s corps, near Eaglcville, 
about twenty miles west of Murfreesboro; McCown s division (which, 
with Stevenson s division removed, constituted Smith s corps) at 
Ready ville, twelve miles east of Murfreesboro; the three cavalry bri 
gades of Wheeler, Wharton, and Pegram, occupying the entire front 
of our infantry, and covering all approaches to within ten miles of 
Nashville ; Buford s small cavalry brigade, of about six hundred, 
at McMinnville. The brigades of Forrest and Morgan, about five thou 
sand effective cavalry, were absent, on special service, in West Ten 
nessee and Northern Kentucky, as will be more fully noted hereafter. 
Jackson s small infantry brigade was in the rear, guarding the rail 
road from Bridgeport, Alabama, to the mountains. On Sunday, the 
28th, our main force of infantry and artillery was concentrated in 
front of Murfreesboro; while the cavalry, supported by three brigades 
of infantry and three batteries of artillery, impeded the advance of the 
enemy by constant skirmishing and sudden and unexpected attacks. 
To the skillful manner in which the cavalry, thus ably supported, was 
handled, and to the exceeding gallantry of its officers and men, must 
be attributed the four days time consumed by the enemy in reaching 
the battle-field, a distance of only twenty miles from his encampment, 
over fine macadamized roads. 

(46G) 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 467 

Fully aware of the greatly superior numbers of the enemy, as indi 
cated in my early reports from this quarter, it was our policy to await 
attack. The position was selected and line developed with this inten 
tion. Owing to the convergence upon our depot of so many fine 
roads, by which the enemy could approach, we were confined in 
our selection to a line near enough to the point of juncture to enable us 
to successfully cover them all until the real point of attack should be" 
developed. 

On Monday, the 29th, it was reported that heavy columns moved on 
both the direct road from Lavergne and on the one leading into the 
Lebanon road, by way of Jefferson. But on Tuesday, the 30th, it was 
ascertained that the Jefferson pike was abandoned by a countermarch, 
and the whole forces of the enemy were concentrated on and near the 
direct road on the west of Stone River. 

Our arrangements were all completed before the enemy crossed Stew 
art s Creek, nine miles out, and the infantry brigades were at once 
called in; and the cavalry was ordered to fall back more rapidly, hav 
ing most gallantly discharged its duty and fully accomplished the objects 
desired. Late on Monday it became apparent the enemy was extend 
ing to his right to flank us on the left. McCown s division, in reserve, 
was promptly thrown to that flank, and added to the command of 
Lieutenant General Polk. The enemy not meeting our expectations 
of making an attack on Tuesday which was consumed in artillery 
firing and heavy skirmishing, with the exception of a dash late in the 
evening on the left of Withers division, which was repulsed and 
severely punished It was determined to assail him on Wednesday 
morning, the 1st. 

For this purpose Cleborne s division, Hardee ; s corps, was moved 
from the second line on the right to the corresponding position on ^he 
left, and Lieutenant General Hardee was ordered to that point, a iid 
assigned to the command of that and McCown s division. This dispo 
sition, the result of necessity, left me 110 reserve; but Breckinridge s 
command on the right, not now threatened, was regarded as a source of 
supply for any reinforcements absolutely necessary to other parts of 
the field. Stone River, at its low stage, was fordable at any point 
for infantry, and, at short intervals, perfectly practicable for artil 
lery. 

These dispositions completed, General Hardee was ordered to assail 
the enemy at daylight on Wednesday, the 31st, the attack to be taken 
up by Polk s command in succession, to the right flank ; the move to 
be made by a constant wheel to the right on Polk s right, as a point; 
the object being to force the enemy back on Stone River, and, if prac 
ticable, by the aid of cavalry, cut him off from his base of operations 
and supplies by the Nashville pike. 

The lines were now bivouacked at a distance, in places of not more 
than five hundred yards, the camp fires of the two being within 
distinct view. General Whartoivs cavalry brigade had been kept on 
oar left to watch and check the movements of the enemy in that 
direction, and to prevent his gaining the railroad in our rear, the 
preservation of which was of vital importance. In this he was aided 
by Brigadier General A. Buford, who had a small command of six 



468 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

hundred new cavalry. The duty was most ably, gallantly, and suc 
cessfully performed. 

On Monday night Brigadier General Wheeler proceeded with his 
cavalry brigade and one regiment from Pegram s, as ordered, to gain 
the enemy s rear. By Tuesday morning, moving on the Jefferson 
pike, around the enemy s left flank, he had gained the rear of their 
whole army, and soon attacked their trains, their guards, and the 
numerous stragglers. 

He succeeded in capturing several hundred prisoners and destroy 
ing hundreds of wagons loaded with supplies and baggage. After 
clearing the road he made his way entirely around, and joined the 
cavalry on our left. 

The failure of General McCown to execute, during the night, an 
order for a slight change in the line of his division, and Avhich had to 
be done the next morning, caused some delay in the general and 
vigorous assault by Lieutenant General Hardee. But about seven 
o clock the rattle of musketry and the roar of artillery announced the 
beginning of the conflict. The enemy was taken completely by sur 
prise ; general and staff officers were not mounted, artillery horses not 
hitched, and infantry not formed. A hot and inviting breakfast of 
coffee and other luxuries, to which our gallant and hardy men had 
long been strangers, was found upon the fire, unserved, and was left 
while we pushed on to a more inviting feast, that of captured artillery, 
flying battalions, and hosts of craven prisoners, begging for their lives 
they had forfeited by their acts of brutality and atrocity. While thus 
routing and pushing the enemy on his front, Lieutenant General 
Hardee announced to me, by a messenger, that the movement was not 
being as promptly executed by Major General Cheathanrs command 
on his right the left of General Folk s corps as he expected, and 
that his line was consequently exposed to an enfilading fire from the 
enemy s artillei y in that front. The necessary instructions for prompt 
movement at that point were immediately dispatched, and in a short 
time our whole line, except Breckinridge s command, was warmly 
engaged. From this time we continued to drive the enemy more or 
less rapidly, until his line was thrown entirely back at right angles 
to his first position, and occupied the cut of the railroad along which 
he had massed his reserves and posted very strong batteries. The 
enemy s loss was very heavy in killed and wounded far exceeding 
our own, as appeared from a critical examination of the field, now 
almost entirely in our possession. Of artillery alone we had secured 
more than twenty-five pieces. 

While the infantry and artillery were engaged in this successful 
work, Brigadier General Wharton, with his cavalry command, was 
most actively and gallantly engaged on the enemy s right and rear, 
where he inflicted a heavy loss in killed and wounded, captured a full 
buttery of artillery attempting to escape, and secured and sent in near 
two thousand prisoners. 

These important successes and results had not been achieved with 
out, heavy sacrifices on our part, as the resistance of the enemy, after 
the first surprise, was most gallant and obstinate. 

Finding Lieutenant General Hardee so formidably opposed by the 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 469 

movement of the enemy to his front, reinforcements for him were 
ordered from Major General Breckinridge, but the orders were counter 
manded, as will hereafter appear, and Folk s corps was pressed forward 
with vigor, hoping to draw the enemy back or rout him on (lie right, 
as he had already been on the left. We succeeded in driving him from 
every position except the strong one held by his extreme left flank, 
resting on Stone River, and covered by a concentration of artillery of 
superior range and caliber, which seemed to bid us defiance. The 
difficulties of our general advance had been greatly enhanced by the 
topography of the country. All parts of our line had to pass in their 
progress over ground of the roughest character, covered with huge 
stones, and studded with the densest growth of cedar, the branches 
reaching the gixmnd, and forming an almost impassable "brake. .Our 
artillery could rarely be used; while the enemy, holding defensive 
lines, had selected formidable positions for his batteries, and this dense 
cover for his infantry, from both of which he had to be dislodged by 
our infantry alone. The determined and unvarying gallantry of our 
troops, and the uninterrupted success which attended their repeated 
charges against these strongholds, defended by double their numbers, 
fully justified the unbounded confidence I had ever reposed in them, 
and have so often expressed. 

To meet our successful advances, and to retrieve his hopes in the 
front of his left, the enemy early transferred a portion of his reserve 
from his left to that flank, and by two o clock had succeeded in con 
centrating such a force in Lieutenant General Hardee s front as to 
check his further progress. Our two lines had, by this time, become 
almost blended, so weakened were they by losses, exhaustion, and 
extension to cover the enemy s whole front. 

As early as ten o clock A. M., Major General Breckinridge was 
called on for one brigade, and, soon after, for a second, to reinforce or 
act as a reserve to Lieutenant General Hardee. His reply to the first 
call represented the enemy crossing Stone River in heavy force, in his 
immediate front ; and on receiving the second order, he informed me 
that they had already crossed in heavy force, and were advancing to 
attack his lines. He was immediately ordered not to await attack, but 
to advance and meet them. About this same time a report reached me 
that a heavy force of the enemy s infantry was advancing on the 
Lebanon road, about five miles in Breckinridge s front, Brigadier 
General Pegram, who had been sent to that road, to cover the flank of 
the infantry with his cavalry brigade save two regiments detached 
with Wheeler and Wharton was ordered forward immediately to 
develop any such movement. The orders for the two brigades from 
Breckinridge were countermanded, while dispositions were made, at 
his request, to reinforce him. Before they could be carried out. the 
movement ordered disclosed the fact that no force had crossed Stone 
River, that the only enemy in our immediate front there was a small 
body of sharpshooters, and that there was no advance on tho Lebanon 
road. These unfortunate misapprehensions on that part of the field, 
which, with proper precaution, could not have existed, withheld from 
active operation three fine brigades, until the enemy had succeeded in 



470 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

checking our progress, had reestablished his lines, and had collected 
many of his broken battalions. 

Having now settled the question that no movement was being made 
against our right, and none even to be apprehended, Breckinridge was 
ordered to leave two brigades to support the batteries at " A," on his 
side of Stone River, and with the balance of the force to cross to the 
left and report to Lieutenant General Polk. By the time this could be 
accomplished it was too late to send this force to Lieutenant General 
Hardee s support, who was unable to make further progress, and he 
was directed to maintain his position. Polk was directed, with these 
reinforcements, to throw all the force he could collect upon the enemy s 
extreme left, and thereby either carry that strong point, which had so 
far resisted us successfully, or, failing in that, at least to draw off from 
Hardee s front the formidable opposition there concentrated. 

The three brigades of Jackson, Preston and Adams, were successively 
reported for this work. How gallantly they moved to their work, and 
how much they suffered in the determined effort to accomplish it, will 
best appear from the reports of subordinate commanders, and the state 
ment of losses therewith. Upon this flank their strongest defensive 
position resting on the river bank the enemy had concentrated not 
less than twenty pieces of artillery, masked almost entirely from view, 
but covering an open space in front of several hundred yards, sup 
ported right, left and rear by heavy masses of infantry. 

The position proved impenetrable, and, after two unsuccessful efforts, 
the attempt to carry it by infantry was abandoned. Our heaviest bat 
teries of artillery and rifled guns of long range were now concentrated 
in front, and their fires opened on this position. After a cannonade of 
some time, the enemy s fire slackened, and finally closed near night 
fall. Lieutenant General Hardee had slightly retired his line from the 
furthest point he had attained, for better position and cover, without 
molestation from the enemy. 

Lieutenant General Polk s infantry, including the three reinforced 
brigades, uniting their front with Hardee s right, and extending to 
our extreme right flank, formed a continuous line, very nearly perpen 
dicular to the original line of battle, thus leaving nearly the Avhole 
field, with all its trophies, the enemy s dead and many of his wounded, 
his hospitals and stores, in our possession. The body of Brigadier 
General Sill, one of their division commanders, was found where he had 
fallen, and was sent to town and decently interred, although he had 
forfeited all claim to such consideration by the acts of cruelty, barbarity 
and atrocity but a few days before committed, under his authority, on 
the women and children and old men living near the road on which he 
had made a reconnoissance. 

During the afternoon Brigadier General Pegram, discovering a 
hospital and large numbers of stragglers in the rear of the enemy s 
lines and across Stone River, charged them with his cavalry, and 
captured about one hundred and seventy prisoners. 

Both armies, exhausted by a conflict of full ten hours duration, 
rarely surpassed for its continued intensity and heavy losses sustained, 
sank to rest with the sun, and perfect quiet prevailed for the night. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 471 

At dawn on Thursday morning, the first of January, orders were sent 
to the several commanders to press forward their skirmishers, feel the 
enemy, and report any change in his position. Major General Breck- 
inridge had been transferred to the right of Stone River, to resume the 
command of that position, now held by two of his brigades. It was 
soon reported that no change had occurred, except the withdrawal of 
the enemy from the advanced position occupied by his left flank. 
Finding, upon further examination, that this was the case, the right 
flank of Lieutenant General Folk s corps was thrown forward to occupy 
the ground for which we had so obstinately contended the evening 
before. This shortened our lines considerably, and gave us possession 
of the center battle-field, from which we gleaned the spoils and trophies 
throughout the day, and transferred them rapidly to the rear. 

A careful reconnoissance of the enemy s position was ordered, and 
the most of the cavalry was put in motion for the roads in his rear^ to 
cut off his trains and develop any movement. It was soon ascertained 
that he was still in very heavy force all along our front, occupying a 
position strong by nature and improved by such work as could be 
done by night by his reserves. 

In a short time reports from the cavalry informed me that heavy 
trains were moving toward Nashville, some of the wagons loaded, and 
all the ambulances filled with wounded. These were attacked at 
different places, many wagons destroyed, and hundreds of prisoners 
paroled. No doubt this induced the enemy to send large escorts of 
cavalry, and artillery and infantry with later trains, and thus the 
impression was made on our ablest commanders that a retrograde 
movement was going on. 

Our forces, greatly wearied and much reduced by heavy losses, were 
held ready to avail themselves of any change in the enemy s position ; 
but it was deemed unadvisable to assail him as there established. The 
whole day, after these dispositions, was passed without an important 
movement on either side, and was consumed by us in gleaning the 
battle-field, burying the dead, and replenishing ammunition. 

At daylight on Friday, the 2d, orders to feel the enemy and ascer 
tain his position were repeated with the same result. The cavalry 
brigades of Wheeler and Wharton had returned during the night, 
greatly exhausted from long continued service, with but little rest or 
food to either man or horse. Both the commanders reported the indi 
cations from the enemy s movements the same. Allowing them only a 
few hours to feed and rest, and sending the two detached regiments 
back to Pegram s brigade, Wharton was ordered to the right bank 
across Stone River, immediately in Brcckinridge s front. Reconnois- 
sances by several staff officers soon developed the fact that a division 
had quietly crossed unopposed, and established themselves on and 
under cover of an eminence from which Lieutenant General Folk s line 
was commanded and enfiladed. The dislodgement of this force or the 
withdrawal of Folk s line, was an evident necessity. The latter 
involved consequences not to be entertained. Orders were conse 
quently given for the concentration of the whole of General Breckin- 
ridge s division, in front of the position to be taken, the addition to his 
command of the ten Napoleon guns, twelve-pounders, under Captain 



472 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

F. H. Robertson, an able and accomplished artillery officer, and for the 
cavalry forces of Wharton and Pegram, about two thousand men, to join 
in his attack on the right. Major General Breckinridgc was sent for, and 
advised of the movement and its objects, the securing and holding the 
position which protected Polk s flank, and gave us command of the 
enemy s, by which to enfilade him. He was informed of the disposi 
tion of the forces placed at his disposal, and instructed with them to 
drive the enemy back, crown the hill, intrench his artillery, and hold 
the position. 

To distract their attention from our real object, a heavy fire was 
ordered to be opened from Folk s front, at the exact hour at which the 
movement was to begin. At other points, throughout both lines, all 
was quiet. General Breckinridge, at three P. M., reported he would 
advance at four. Folk s batteries promptly opened fire, and were soon 
answered by the enemy. A heavy cannonade of some fifteen minutes 
was succeeded by the musketry, which soon became general. The con 
test was short and severe; the enemy was driven back, and the emi 
nence gained; but the movement, as a whole, was a failure, and the 
position was again yielded. Our forces were moved, unfortunately, 
to the left so far as to throw a portion of them into and over Stone 
River, where they encountered heavy masses of the enemy, while those 
against whom they were intended to operate on our side of the river 
had a destructive enfilade on ovir whole line. Our reserved line was 
so close to the front as to receive the enemy s fire, and, returning it, 
took their friends in the rear. The cavalry force was left entirely out 
of the action. 

Learning from my own staff officers, sent to the scene, of the dis 
orderly retreat being made by General Breckinridge s division, Brig- 
dier General Patton Anderson s fine brigade of Mississippians, the 
nearest body of troops, was promptly ordered to the relief. On reach 
ing the field and moving forward, Anderson found himself in front of 
Breckinridge s infantry, and soon encountered the enemy s light troops 
close upon our artillery, which had been left without support. This 
noble brigade, under its cool and gallant chief, drove the enemy back, 
and saved all the guns not captured before its arrival, Captain F. H. 
Robertson, after the disabling wound received by Major Graves, General 
Breckinridge s gallant and efficient Chief of Artillery, took the entire 
charge of the artillery of the division, in addition to his own. To his 
gallantry, energy and fearlessness, is due the smallness of our loss 
sustained before the arrival of support only three guns. His report 
will show the important part he played in this attack and repulse. 
Before the end of the whole movement, it was quite dark. Anderson s 
command held a position next the enemy, corresponding nearly with 
our original line, while Breckinridge s brigade commanders collected 
their men, as far as practicable in the darkness, and took irregular 
positions on Anderson s left and rear. At daylight in the morning 
they were moved forward to the front, and the whole line was reestab- 
lished without opposition. During the night Major General Cleborne s 
division was re-transferred to its original position on the right, and 
Lieutenant General Hardee directed to resume his command there, and 
restore our line. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 473 

On Saturday morning, the 3d, our forces had been in line of battle 
five days and nights, with but little rest. Having no reserves, their 
baggage and tents had been loaded, and the wagons were four miles 
off; their provisions, if cooked at all, were most improperly prepared 
with scanty means; the weather had been severe from cold and alrno-t 
constant rain, and we had no change of clothing, and in many places 
could not have fire. The necessary consequence was the great 
exhaustion of both officers and men, many having, to be sent to the hos 
pitals in the rear, and more still were beginning to straggle from their 
commands, an evil from which we had so far suffered but little. Dur 
ing the whole of this day the rain continued to fall with little inter 
mission, and the rapid rise in Stone River indicated that it soon would 
be unfoi-dable. Late on Tuesday night I had received the captured 
papers of Major General McCook, commanding one corps d armee of the 
enemy, showing their effective strength to have been very nearly, if 
not quite, seventy thousand men. Before noon, reports from Brigadier 
General Wheeler satisfied me that the enemy, instead of retiring, was 
receiving reinforcements. 

Common prudence and the safety of my army, upon which even the 
safety of our cause depended, left no doubt in my mind as to the 
necessity of my withdrawal from so unequal a contest. My orders 
were accordingly given about noon for the movement of the trains and 
for the necessary preparations of troops. 

Under the efficient management of the different staff departments, 
everything had been secured and transfei*red to the rear, including 
prisoners, captured artillery, small arms, subsistence, means of trans 
portation, and nearly all of our wounded able to bear moving. No 
movements were made by the troops on either side during this most 
inclement day, save just at night, when a sharp skirmish occurred 
between Folk s right and the enemy s left flank, resulting in nothing 
decisive. The only question with me was, whether the movements 
should be made at once or delayed twenty-four hours to save a few of 
our wounded. As it was probable we should lose by exhaustion as 
many as we should remove of the wounded, my inclination to remain 
was yielded. The whole force, except the cavalry, was put in motion 
at eleven o clock P. M., and the army retired in perfect order to its 
present position, behind Duck River, without receiving or giving a 
shot. Our cavalry held the position before Murfreesboro until Mon- 
da}r morning, the 5th, when it quietly retired, as ordered, to cover our 
front. 

We left about one thousand two hundred badly wounded, one-half 
of whom, we learn, have since died from the severity of their injuries; 
about three hundred sick, too feeble to bear transportation; and about 
two hundred well men and medical officers as their attendants. [The 
real number was two thousand eight hundred. Author of Rosecrans 
Campaign.] In addition to this, the enemy had captured about eight 
hundred prisoners from us. As the one thousand two hundred wounded 
are counted once under that head among our losses, they should be 
excluded from the general total. 

As an offset to this loss," we had secured, as will appear from the 
report of my Inspector General, considerably over six thousand prison- 

40 



474 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

ers ; had captured over thirty pieces of artillery, six thousand stand 
of small arms, ambulances, mules, and harness, with a lai-ge amount 
of valuable property, all of which was secured and appropriated to 
proper uses. Beside all this secured, we had burned not less than 
eight hundred wagons, mostly laden with various articles, such as 
arms, ammunition, provisions, baggage, clothing, medicines and 
hospital stores. We had lost three pieces of artillery only, all in 
Breckinridge s repulse. A number of stands of colors nine of which 
are forwarded with this report were also captured on the field. Others 
known to have been taken were not sent in. 

The number of fighting men we had on the field, on the morning 
of the 31st of December, was less than thirty-five thousand, of which 
about thirty thousand were infantry and artillery. 

Among the gallant dead the nation is called to mourn, none could 
have fallen more honored or regretted than Brigadier Generals James 
E. Rains and R. W. Hanson. They yielded their lives in the heroic 
discharge of duty, and leave their honored names as a rich legacy to 
their descendants. Brigadier General James R. Chalmers and D. W. 
Adams received disabling wounds on Wednesday, I arn happy to say 
not serious, but which deprived us of their valuable services. Having 
been under my immediate command since the beginning of the war, I 
can bear evidence to their devotion and to the conspicuous gallantry 
which has marked their services on every field. 

For the sacred names of other heroes and patriots of lower grades, 
who gave their lives, illustrating the character of the Confederate 
soldier on this bloody field, I must refer to the reports of subordinate 
commanders, and to the list which will be submitted. Our loss, it will 
be seen, exceeded ten thousand, nine thousand of ivhom were killed and 
wounded. 

The enemy s loss we have no means of knowing with certainty. One 
corps, commanded by Major General Thomas J. Crittenden, which was 
least exposed in the engagement, reports over five thousand killed and 
wounded. As they had two other corps and a separate division, third 
of a corps, and their cavalry, it is safely estimated at three thousand 
killed and sixteen thousand wounded ; adding six thousand two 
hundred and seventy-three prisoners, and we have a total of twenty-five 
thousand two hundred and seventy-three. 

Lieutenant Generals L. Polk and W. J. Hardee, commanding corps, 
Major Generals J. M. Withers and P. R. Cleborne, commanding divi 
sions, are especially commended to the Government for the valor, skill 
and ability displayed by them throughout the engagement. 

Brigadier General J. Pat ton Anderson, for the coolness, judgment, 
and courage with which he interposed his brigade between our retreat 
ing forces and the enemy, largely superior to him, on Friday evening, 
and saved our artillery, is justly entitled to special mention. 

Brigadier Generals Joseph Wheeler and John II. Wharton, com 
manding cavalry brigades, were preeminently distinguished through 
out the action, as they had been for a month previous, in many 
successive actions w r ith the enemy. Under their skillful and gallant 
lead, the reputation of our cavalry has been greatly enhanced. 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 475 

For the just commendation of many other officers, many of whom 
were preeminently distinguished, I must refer to the reports of their 
more immediate commanders. 

To the private soldier a fair meed of praise is due; and, though it is 
seldom given, and so rarely expected that it may be considered out 
of place, I can not, in justice to myself, withhold the opinion ever 
entertained, and so often expressed, during our struggle for independ 
ence. In the absence of the instruction and discipline of old armies, 
and of the confidence which long association produces between vet 
erans, we have, in a great measure, to trust to the individuality and 
self-reliance of the private soMier. Without the incentive or the 
motive which controls the officer, who hopes to live in history, 
without the hope of reward, and actuated only by a sense of duty and 
patriotism, he has, in this great contest, justly judged that the cause 
was his own, and gone into it with a determination to conquer or die, 
to be free or not to be at all. No enconium is too high, no honor too 
great for such a soldiery. However much of credit and glory may be 
given, and probably justly given to the leaders in our struggle, history 
will yet award the main honor where it is due to the private soldier, 
who, without hope of reward, and with no other incentive than a con 
sciousness of rectitude, has encountered all the hardships and suffered 
all the privations. Well has it been said: "The first monument our 
Confederacy rears when our independence shall have been won, should 
be a lofty shaft, pure and spotless, bearing this inscription, To the 
unknown and unrecorded dead." 

The members of my staff arduously engaged in their several duties 
before, during and since the prolonged engagement, are deserving a 
mention in this report. 

Lieutenant Colonels George G. Gardner and G. W. Brent and Captain 
P. Thompson, Adjutant Inspector General s department; First Lieu 
tenants Towson Ellis and F. S. Parker, regular Airldecamps; Lieuten 
ant Colonel Beard, Inspector General; Lieutenant Colonels A. J. Hay? 
and P. A. May; Major James Stainbridge, Louisiana Infantry, and 
Major Wm. Clarelate, Seventh Alabama Volunteers. Adjutant Assistant 
Inspector Generals; Lieutenant Colonel L. W. O Bannow, Chief Quar 
termaster; Major J. J. Walker, Chief Commissary; Majors F. Molloy 
and G. M. Hillyer, Assistants; Lieutenant Colonel H. Aladowski, Chief 
of Ordnance; Captain W. H. Warren and 0. T. Gibbs and Lieutenant 
W. F. Johnson, Assistants; Captain S. W. Steelc, Assistant Chief Engi 
neer, and Lieutenants H. C. Forie, and II. II. Buchanan, and J. R. P. 
McFall; Lieutenant Colonel J. H. Ilollinquist, Acting Chief of Artil- 
tery; First Lieutenant R. II. Thompson, Assistant Surgeon; A. J. 
Foard, Medical Director; Surgeon E. A. Llewcllen. Assistant Medical 
Director; Acting Surgeon T. G. Richardson, attendant on myself, staff 
and esc/ort; Colonel David Urquhart, of Louisiana: J. Stoddard John 
ston, of Kentucky; and St. Leger Grenfel, of England, the two former 
vo unteer aids, long on my staff, serving me most effectively; Ahijor K. 
W. Baylor, A. Q. M.; Major B. 0. Kennedy, A. C. S., and Lieutenant 
William M. Bridges, aiddecamp to the late Brigadier General Duncan, 
reported just before the engagement, and joined my staff, on which 



476 OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

they served through the battle; Colonel M. L. Clark, of the Artillery 
P. A., did me the favor to join and serve on my staff during the 
engagement. 

His Excellency William G. Harris, Governor of Tennessee, and the 
Hon. Andrew Ewing, member of the Military Court, volunteered their 
services and rendered me efficient aid, especially with the Tennessee 
troops, largely in the ascendant in the army. It is but due to a zealous and 
efficient laborer in our cause, that I here bear testimony to the cordial 
support given me at all times, since meeting him a year ago in West 
Tennessee, by His Excellency Governor Harris. From the field of 
Shiloh, where he received in his arms the dying form of the lamented 
Johnson, to the last struggle at Murfreesboro, he has been one of us, 
and has shared all our privations and dangers, while giving us his per 
sonal and political influence with all the power he possessed at the 
head of the State Government. To the medical department of the 
army, under the able administration of Surgeon Foard. great credit is 
due for the success which attended their labors. Sharing none of the 
excitement and glory of the field, these officers, in their labor of love, 
devoted themselves assiduously in attending the sufferings of their 
brother soldiers at war, when others are seeking repose. The reports 
of subordinate commanders have been specially called for, and are 
soon expected, when they will be promptly forwarded. 

During the time the operations at Murfreesboro were being con 
ducted, important expeditions under Brigadier Generals Forrest and 
Morgan were absent in W r est Tennessee and Northern Kentucky. The 
reports already forwarded show the complete success which attended 
these gallant Brigadiers, and commend them to the confidence of the 
Government, and gratitude of the country. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

BRAXTON BRAGG, 

General Commanding. 
GENERAL S. COOPER, Adjutant General, Richmond, Va. 



Publications of Moore, Witstach, Keys Co. 



:R,:D 

CYCLOPEDIA OP MODERN TRAVEL. 

A Record of Adventure, Exploration and discovery for (he past fifty years. Comprising 
Narratives of the most distini/uished Trawlers since the bei/inning of this Century. Prepared 
and arranged by Bayard Taylor. 1 vol. royal 8vo. 10..4 pp. Embellished with fine por 
traits on sti el by BvJttre, and illustrated bi/ over si^ty wood engravings by Orr, and thirteen 
authentic Naps by Schonberg. Sold by canvassing agents only. 

A magnificent octavo volume, which for general interest and value, is worthy of th< 
diotinguished compiler, and equally worthy of universal patronage. The volume reallj 
contains the value of a whole library, reliable as a book of reference, and as interesting 
us a book of romance. Springfield (Mass.) Rpublican. 

The popular lectures and writings of Bayard Taylor, have awakened in the United 
States a thirst for information respecting foreign countries and nations. A striking 
proof of this is given in the fact that a publishing house in Cincinnati, have issued 
under the auspices of Bayard Taylor, a volume of nearly one thousand pp., devoted 
exclusively to records of travel. These Reports are perfectly reliable; the matters ot 
fact of each explorer, often in his own language, are condensed into a consecutive narra 
tive, by the most competent living author in the same department. N. Y. Independent. 

TheVeading public owes to Bayard Taylor many a debt for rare and valuable instruc 
tion, most agreeably conveyed ; but we doubt if he ever performed a more useful service 
than in compiling this massive, varied and most valuable volume. The entire circle of 
books of which he has given the spirit and juice, would form a library ; and many of 
them are now almost inaccessible. Mr. Taylor s part has been conscientiously done. It 
is not merely a work of selection and groupings ; much of it is his own statement of the 
results more voluminously given, and written in a clear and elegant style. We can not 
but regard it as a very useful as well as entertaining work, well adapted to communicate 
accurate and comprehensive views of the world, and supplying for families an almost 
inexhaustible fund of pleasant reading. XT. Y. Evangelist. 

No writer of the present age can be found so admirably qualified for such an under 
taking. Louisville Journal. 

Such is the full title-page of a magnificent octavo volume of 1034 pages, just issued. 
< t $ * \Vesaid "a magnificent octavo." It is so whether we consider its contents, or 
the superb style in which the publishers have gotten it up. It is just the book for the 
family library ; all classes will be interested in its perusal. Ladies Repository. 

The conception of this work is admirable ; and its execution is what might be expected 
from one of the most accomplished and intelligent travelers of the age. * * * It IB 
remarkable for compactness, condensation and symmetry ; and whoever will take the 
time to read it through, will possess himself of an amount of information, in respect to 
the physical, intellectual, and moral condition of almost every portion of the globe, 
which he can scarcely expect to find elsewhere. The work is illustrated with a large 
number of maps and engravings, which are executed with great skill and care, and add 
much to the interest of the narratives to which they are prefixed. Puritan Recorder. 

Mr. Bayard Taylor is the very Ulysses of modern tourists, and Emperor Adrian of 
living ramblers and so is qualified to edit, or compile from the works of other travelers. 
* * * It is but the merest justice to say, that Mr. Taylor has done all that even an 
uneasily satisfied reader could expect, to produce a capital book. Boston Chronicle. 

Apart from the confidence inspired by the name of the writer, it needs but a brief 
explanation of its contents to show that it forms a highly important addition to the 
family library. Its pages are crowded with interesting information. N. Y. Trilmne. 

From Professor G. C. Fulton of Harvard University. 

A scholar, traveler and writer, having a reputation so deservedly high in this three 
fold relation as Bayard Taylor, may be presumed to give his name only to works worthy 
of it. The present volume I have examined carefully, and have read a considerable part 
of it; and I have found it prepared and arranged with excellent judgment, and filled 
with matter of the highest intei-est and value. Both the plan and execution are in my 
judgment marked by ability, extensive knowledge, good taste, and good sense. 
From Oliver Wendell Holmes, M. D., Author of "Tlie Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, " etc. 
Mr. Bayard Taylor has done the reading public a great favor in bringing together the 
most essential and interesting portions of so many narratives within a very moderate 
compass, and in such a form as to be accessible to multitudes whose libraries must take 
little room and cost but moderate expenditure. It is safe to say that no man s selection 
would be accepted so unhesitatingly in America as those of our own favorite travel 
Btory-teller. 

From Hon. Robert C. Winlhrop, of Boston, formerly Speaker House of Representatives, U. 8 
I have examined it with great interest. It contains a large amount of entertaining 
aud instructive matter, very conveniently and carefully arranged ; and I shall value it 
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Publications of Moore, Wilstach, Keys & Co. 

THE SCIENCE OF EDUCATION; 

AND ART OF TEACHING. IN Two PARTS. BY JOHN OGDEN, A. M. 

1 Vol., 12mo. 480 pp. Price, SI. 25. 

It is proper to say that Mr. Ogden has, for the last six or seven years, been engaged 
almost exclusively with Teachers and in Normal Schools. 

NOTICES. 

From the Rev. Wm. Russell, State Educational Lecturer, Massachusetts. 
The truly philosophical and thoroughly practical methods of early culture, suggested 
to the primary teacher, if faithfully acted on, would make our elementary schools 
scenes of the most attractive and delightful, as well aa instructive, occupation for 
childhood. 

From Wm. F. Phelps, A. M., Principal of the N. J. Slate Normal School. 

MY DEAR SIR: Allow me to say that, in my humble judgment, you have struck the 
right vein, both in the conception and execution of your ideas regarding the Philosophy ol 
Teaching. You afford a splendid contribution to our limited means for the training of 
Teachers. A good scholar merely has fulfilled only one of the conditions essential to a 
good educator. What we most need is a clear elucidation and a scientific classification 
of the principles of education, so that they may be mastered and applied to the rearing 
and training of rational and immortal beings. I need not assure you that this task you 
have, according to my notions, most happily executed. The application of diagrams to 
the work seems to mo to be a happy thought, addressing the subject to that most perfect 
of all senses, the sense of sight. 

From Cyrus Knowlton, Esq., Principal of Hughes Hiyh School, Cincinnati. 

It is by far the best work of the kind with which I am acquainted. 

From A. J. Eickoff, late Superintendent of Cincinnati Public Schools. 
MESSRS. MOORE, WILSTACH, KEYS & Co. : 

I have given attention to every work announced in England or this country, treating 
upon this subject ; and I may say, without hesitation, that Mr. Ogden s treatise is, in 
its conception and arrangement, the most scientific among them all. It can not be read 
by the teacher without great practical advantage; it will prepare him for the business 
of the schoolroom; it \\ill give new direction to his speculations; it will, I believe, 
greatly assist to establish the business of teaching as a profession. 

Schoolmasters owe it to themselves and their profession, to give this book a circula 
tion never yet reached by any of a similar character. Its use should not be confined to 
teachers alone. It should find a place in the library of every family, as the most valua 
ble contribution yet made in our language for the advancement of education. 
OGDEN ON EDUCATION, 

Is a very full and systematic work on the general subject of education, full of sug 
gestive thoughts, tersely expressed. They deserve and demand proper consideration, 
seasoned by that confidence in their author which his evident carefulness and experience 
beget. Rhode Island Schoolmaster. 

Is just the hand-book for teachers who intend to be thorough and foremost in their 
profession. Intelligent parents would find it an interesting and valuable aid in the 
hours when they "ponder in their hearts" how to bring up children. Toronto (G. W.) 
Colonist. 

A very elaborate, philosophical, and thorough work on a great subject, too much 
overlooked by thinking men. * * * Must be immensely valuable to every parent 
and teacher. N. Y. Observer. 

Contains, in a single volume, a great deal of valuable material. The whole subject of 
human culture is laid before the reader, and treated in simple yet comprehensive Ian 
guage. .* * * Parents and teachers should be induced to study this-excellent work. 
Mass. Teacher. 

Has many features, both novel and ingenious, which entitle it to consideration as an 
original work. New York Century. 

Enters very fully and closely into the Philosophy of teaching. Philadelphia Press. 

Is a sound, judicious and original work. It does not deal in commonly-received 
notions, but really enters into the profound themes, upon which it treats with great 
strength of thought, keenness of perception, and practical skill. Zion s Herald, Boston. 

It is the only work extant that can pretend to a full and complete system of instruc 
tion. Much has previously been written on the subject that is valuable, which had 
failed, however, in a great measure, to become available, because of the absence of sys 
tem, and a failure even to recognize a systematic arrangement as a desideratum. Mr. 
Ogcleu approximates more nearly a scientific treatment of his subject than any author 
wo have met. loiva Instructor and School Journal. 



Publications of Moore, Wilstach, Keys & Co. 



We recommend all the boys in the land to get these books and read them. 
Pittsburg Gazette. 

MAN-OF-WAR LIFE, 

A Boy s Experience in the United States Navy. By CHARLES NORDHOFF. fkventh 
Edition. One volume, lG??io., illustrated. Muslin, 75 cents. Muslin, gilt, $1. 

THE MERCHANT VESSEL, 

A Sailor Boy s Voyage to ffte the World. By CHARLES NORDHOFF. Seventh Edition. 
One volume, ICmo., illustrated. Muslin, 75 cents. Muslin, gilt, $1. 

WHALING AND FISHING, 

By CHARLES NORDHOFF, Author of " Man-of- War Li/*." "T fie Merchant Vessel," etc. 
One volume, IQmo., illustrated. Muslin, 15 cents. 

A writer who is destined to cheer the family circle in _ any thousand houses on 
many a winter night. He writes well admirably; that is, fiimply and truthfully, 
and in a very interesting way indeed. He tells the story of the vicissitudes, as well 
as the pleasures, of the Tile of the boy or man before the mast, EO that no youth who 
longs to be on the "deep blue sea" may hereafter say that it was out of his power 
.o learn precisely what he would have to encounter on becoming a sailor. The moral 
f the work is excellent, and its style pithy and descriptive. Washington Star. 

Full of variety, and adapted to awaken the interest of young people in traveling 
adventure, while it must greatly extend their geographical knowledge. N. Y. Times. 

Very striking and graphic pictures of the life at sea, evidently authentic and very 

instructive lias adventure enough to please, yet truth enough to dissipate 

the charm of a sailor s life. N. Y. Evangelist. 

There is in them a vast amount of information respecting the commerce of the 
world. Presbyterian Witness. 

These books are not for mere children, but for lads of some years and discretion. 
They are remarkably well written. N. Y. Independent. 

One of the best and truest descriptions of seamen and of a seaman s life eve 
given tc the public, and the reader is only left to wonder why one who can write so 

remarkably well, had ever any thing to do with the rigging He describes the 

various countries which he visited so far only, be it remembered, as they fell under 
his own observation and this careful restriction and regard to the truth forms one 
of the principal charms of the works. Boston Traveler. 

Has a flue eye for observation and excellent descriptive powers. Louisville Cour. 

Multitudes of young readers will delight in these books. Presbyterian Banner. 

Since Dana s "Two Years Bulb re the Ma^t," we do not call to mind anymore 
admirable descriptions of a sailor s life at sea than are contained in these graphic 
volumes. Herman Melville s nautical narratives are more highly spiced with 
piquant descriptive scenes, it is true, but for quiet, absorbing, and, as far as lands 
men can judge, faithful accounts of life on shipboard, commend us to this anony 
mous author. He somewhat resembles Capt. Basil Hall in his lively pictures of the 
routine of sea service, but he is not so rambling nor so flippant as that celebrated 
"old salt." N. Y. Tribune. 

It (Man-of- War Life) is excellently well written, is characterized by a high moral 
tone, and impresses the reader with the truthfulness of its sketches, while it has all. 
the fascination of a romance. It is by far the best book for boys that we have ever 
Been. It both instructs and amuses them. Indeed, there are few men who win 
commence this book and lay it down unfinished. Lexington Ky., Statesman. 

Mr. Nordhoff is a young writer who has seen every variety of sea life, from the 
artistic organization of the Man-of-War to the rough and tumble arrangements of a 
Nantuoket whaler; and without assuming any of the airs of authorship, has given 
a strait-forward account of his adventures, which, in frank confiding naturalness, 
are not without something of the secret charm which so bewilders all classes of 
readers in the perusal of works like Robinson Crusoe. Not that lie makes use of 
any imaginary touches to add to the piquancy of his autobiographical confessions, 
but he lias the rare gift of investing every day realities with an atmosphere of hu 
man sympathy which is more effective than the most dazzling colors of romance. 
Harper s Magazine. 



HUGH 

SCENES AND LEGENDS OF THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND 
By Hugh Miller, author of " Footprints of the Creator." 1 vol. 
12 mo. Pp. 436. Price $1. 

" A delightful book by one of the most delightful of living authors." 
#. Y. Cour. and Enq. 

"In this book Hugh Miller appears as the simple dramatist, reproducing 
home stories and legends in their native costume, and in full life. The vol 
ume is rich in entertainment for all lovers of the genuine Scotch character." 
JV. Y. Independent. 

"Fascinating portraits of quaint original characters and charming tales of 
the old faded superstitions of Scotland, make up the Scenes and Legends. 
Purity of diction and thoughtful earnestness, with a vein of easy, half-con 
cealed humor pervading it, are the characteristics of the author s style. Ad 
ded to these, in the present volume, are frequent touches of the most elegantly 
wrought fancy ; passages of sorrowful tenderness that change the opening 
smile into a tear, and exalted sentiment that brings reflection to the heart." 
Citizen. 

"This is a book which will be read by those who have read the other works 
of this distinguished author. His beautiful style, his powers of description, 
his pathos, his quiet humor and manly good sense would give interest to 
any subject. * * There is no part of the book that is not interesting." 
Louisville Journal. 

" This is one of the most unique and original books that has been written 
for many years, uniting in a singularly happy manner all the charms of fic 
tion to the more substantial and enduring graces of truth. The author is a 
capital story teller, prefacing what he has to say with no learned circumlo 
cutions. We cannot now call to mind any other style that so admirably com 
bines every requisite for this kind of writing, with the exception of that of 
his mort illustrious countryman, Scott, as the one Hugh Miller possesses." 
Columbian. 

" The contents of the book will be as instructive and entertaining, as the 
exterior is elegant and attractive. Hugh Miller writes like a living man, who 
has eyes, and ears, and intellect, and a heart of his own, and not like a gal 
vanized skeleton, who inflicts his dull repetitions of what other men have 
seen and felt in stately stupidity upon their unfortunate readers. His obser 
vation is keen, and his powers of description unrivaled. His style is like a 
mountain-stream, that flows on in beauty and freshness, imparting enliven 
ing influences all around. His reflections, when he indulges in them, are 
just and impressive." Christian Herald. 

" Tales so romantic, yet so natural, and told in a vein of unaffected sim 
plicity and graphic delineation, rivaling Hogg and Scott, of the same land, 
will command avast number of admiring readers." N. Y. Christ. Intel. 

" The interest of its facts far exceeds romance." N. Y. Evan. 
" This book is worthy of a place by the side of the world-renowned vol 
umes which have already proceeded from the same pen." Pfdl. Chronicle. 



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