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Full text of "The First Grammar of the language spoken by the Bontoc Igorot"

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THi; FIRST GRAMMAR 

OI'" THE LANOUAGi: SPOKEN 

BVTHE 

IIONTOC IGOROT 

WITH A 

VOCABULARY AtiD TEXTS 



THE FIRST GRAMMAR 



QY THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN 
BV THE 



BONTOC KiOROT 



W[TE[ 



A VOCABULARY AND TRXTS 



MYTllOLOr.V rOt.K-LORl' Ef[S.fOk!CAL EPISODES 



DV. CAR1_ WELHELW .^EIDEWADLIL 



cmcAGO 
rriE OPEN CGUKT PUL;L1SILIXG COMrANY 

■OVDChH AGEHTS 

KFj;\\ I'lL-'L. rirr.Tii, urnM^ /k i'-., IrTJir 






COPYHlCHT OCT<»B^ I907 



TflE AUTHOB HGSEBVCS THE CTfiHir QF 
TEANSLATTOV FOB HTU5ILF 



THJ! I'l.'ll^Ekl.l'LiUN Of TEfia VTOKK if- DET. EVI TIE!', U»^' 
TID^NCC, THE UNTIEING ACTIVITY AND UBERALlTV OP 
UH. aiDNEV Tj:i£W^sreiN GF CmCACD. THBOUCH 
HIS 1HFI,UENTTAL 80J,]C|TftTtON THE FOLLOWJNfi 
■MNTftlBUTOfeS HAVfe GftLTGEtt TitS AliT-fffltt Anh trii: 
APPfiKlATlUE ETimitNT AND INVESTKATOT OF MAIAITO- 
POLYNlSTAJr LAWCTJACES TO- EVEBLASTIWC GHATTTUDB: 

MRSs LEW HAV^ ]>}L ClTTO L. ^FHHIDT 

KISS. ALT-GUSITA HAT»HH£lH^ ilJtB, CAITHPBIBE: BE'J'P 

Uir. EIDI4EV LOBWENSTEIN HlSS A1.UA SETPP 

to TJliv:vE COfiTKlEHTOl'S 'J'lH!:^ 1^'IHK I!: f ^ iL'h [ ]i El 



2i::ovi5 



PREFACE 



ThPB ho6^, the ^Rt fiart of which conlabs iht First GrsmnBr of ihe 

hiflienrj iimvricitii rfnj ijLjcx|jlor'?(l }^.\\-\!^[f!i^c f.f ihc Bomi^i; FynTOt. is based 
tvclii^ivdy i.jL [he iiiiileTiil ■\vlikh Ihc Aiirliur Jiai nhtnim-d pci<^ii,illv from 
the lip« flf Severn] !-rii|i]Hj .>( I|;6-l-oI why vcrc on oxliibjiicm i:i Clurjjjo rlur- 
injj the Snnirtiff ^i^J Aiiinnm oS 1906 till Ocloter g, and in 1907 from May 
j^. lo Augu'^t 20, Tiity .t-tirr ijtiiIlt llic n-iiiiiagiin^iif oi \tr;''--r=. Fe'd-rr, 
Kvider :inr] i^chiieitTcivltnI. cilloi^ctlicr 501111: ulin'i,' nn?]i ,-ainJ "^■aiiicn, Ei.ti mir 
leen mndiiclei |o Ihw Unilrd Stales bv Mr StJinndexvirjif frum iliejr lir.mcs 
jr I5on(oo fii ilir; v^ry l^wrr c>t M'M'f^i Liiff.ii and from aesfral ofliw t&wns in 
llic "vjillf^j- .ki [he Rio Cliicn <1(? 0^;^l^'Jl^l 

In Ihc Auiniiiii ■■[ icjo't ilic fij-,! ^ri'ti]' ^vas joined by another cutitinecnt 
of about thirty men and moined who had been scattero] at dilffrcdt pTacet 
ovor lh[^ CfflJiHry, Tty t. dn^rLi^iriii of ^i T'V-rli:!'.-^! Ci^tirt llicv ivm- .irder(?(! tn 
h^ iininncd 3iid [ran ifei' rcil to CJiJciyn, ib'T^ N> |■i^v^^|l (]ic (lav (mr llicir rt- 
tura. to Bonloc. On Ibf ^p^tcioii- iWlil ^i ibr l*ivei-vie^v I'^rk tliia uiifor- 
liUiaJe SM^iinil jr'''ii'J-* fo'ind ^veJl ImiU hou^^ jud hiirnanc Oreatment, after 
?^ll "^xiKTlfnce lo llie conlrsiry; lli?jr mreKiffeiioe -And ki't'n ^cn"* iif jii^fi^ 
^^nr5<iailH?d [hcin tliut llie iiiJiiiiloU ivrnm^i^s lifl<i l>ecii IciHklcd urjiiii ihcjii, ^l 
their firel contact with our civilization, liyour iudiviifdal onty, th^r forroer 
manegcr, aiiCl not by the Govcrmmen*- When rhc?* Igorot who wtr* kept 



Tiii THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGORfTT 

away from liieir bonieB since tbnr departure for the Si. LjTiua World's 

E:^|K.::^iri..ii had h^n pcrniirlcci i-o return — ppimilci, !,ui itcIi in .'-^- 
pericLcc— to ll-icir cniirciy, Lii'U iJiciul'cr- of lli^lr L'r^up li-'SrJ ^o rciii.fiii 
abpvt tivo moiLths m Pivtrviv^v r^irk and *ii:iTr;il inonr[i>lnrii;cr in v.-inmLs 
chk-s .-ind towns as wiuiesaes in behalf o* ibe United Stat« in some appar- 
cnlly endle^^i. T.l■^v'il(i^■H ^pmn^^ lliclr [irTy;rii|niinLU rrinr-cr l^all-^iie^. Sev- 
ei'kl bi ih^-^c njili^'c-- ^Iso litliW fliL ^niho-r gic.alv in coLkcidig material 
from lii<: ^i.okcii liini^.^t^'-. And &o did Af^piiuv-^n. ii yoiitiL^ tnnti from 
Alnh, v,-hf' leiii^Hidl in Cliicic^ uiidi-r ilif tnr.- m" Vlr. Georgf |^ [tlli^, Qvil 
Eif^lm-L-r i^f lEic ^cdc^,^l Siacinl Cfflnp-iny. in uL-iitT lo ,inejid j-cSunal :i( dif- 
If ft-rsl [il.-irr^ 

ConsidLMfillf diHiiiilht^ were cDcountcrtd during the first time which 
llii? AiLlli.ir -jinii ^iFlh Ihe JhojoI ac lln-ir r;nii|ilirc, llicdr (ar'^c. under tJie 
r'lofs 'hf ilitir lini^. olj--i:i\'itii; dicni [liiu.ving ^ptrLC^, tunl-ciolm^ in ^!iam- 
batlla, SAa^mfi^. d.iiti'm^, rhfash-ins;, preparing;lfteiriii&iU, con-iLiucilnj; rice- 
t?rrfiW5, m^"^l''g -;|»^n(rii. pNiLiijii' JijkLs Jiimilijing poilm'. iVjrmfnii: pipes^ 
ivmvrng, etc. The difliinlili^': -■'nntrl an lir-^T I'lcii iLiisiinnoiinnMc, T^r iidiic 
'^r iln>w whom the Author iiici ni firsi imiJiTiiij'Kl Engl[?h *.Ml3"jfii'iiily wdl 
to cooipreheaid qDesl£DdS- or to give explanations. (Nor do the T^i^rot on- 
phy nnv iiiellioil nr pn:^'=i;'i'. ,-inv knoivlcl^e of cniiiinilLijijr ilicir langii^ffeor 
ihuiigJits lo any kuiii ai .vriilny wli;U'-'n:vi:r). Tliiiv il bccuiie ni;c<;'-'i^ry to 
force the way into their idii>in b\ ili.'ic i(!ifjii]. Kni i^lmr li^d ^ii^Mj^iri'd^ m 
the beginning, to he almost a nii?FDrEiine» proved aflerwards lohe: a blessing: 
llif iicocssily i\i iiKiniT in Wn- TC^u^irch 3lnio^( e>^fly':ivi'li- Ihpir vurnEiculaTj 
■ lni>iigfi .lUifli lilt iilni'nlijrjlrir Mi'.rci.'' kd :ri pniuiiiE^ ^^eiuilcic mid ^^urcecl 
iii.-Lfen.il, such a^ in many other M.jbyi.-Prihn^"-i.in id[^lul■^ i^ collccEi?.f iram 
unreliable Iraiulations of |he Bible, from praycrfiOoUs, manuals for priesta, 
repi^TL'^ i;F uniiliildi^^icril ofTii:!^!'!, traHnM't^, iniiiSioimrif^ aiid ^iiiill^r !=nur<:c; 
Kq boo^ oi cliii^ liPiuj cvi-^i, n^ ytl in Ihc Bijnloc J^^rol vernicLila r. 

Only during dip In'il faur d^yi ni llii" 1^i\Tf\\ ^-njimm iij If/Jf) ft young 
Poiitocnaan of aiirpri^ln^ iiLFi^llj^^enec and a quidfly acquir*d, rrin^ikahlo 
l^nnivledeo oi Kn2l[-;|i, K^Lli'iiLyl'ine^, cr[|[i;i:l "Aii(ero dl>ferr[,'' reUirncd frum 
nihcr E.dFc's In Clii^JEL^o Fiiid iiirllieredir^i-tiiliEiKy Ibc rcvi^iinii of llit iniilcrial 
previously jE^-Tinol. Thus the Author hesiuie conviatcd that [he treasure 
he had gathered, dianks to th« assistance of Anattwasal, Bi^, Julio Balioa^ 



PREFACE j^ 

fail Tlnc.iEiy ^Ciller al lionloc. knowing ?p;lii1-Ii jijid BonU.i; Iji/toi), Mu- 
lcii£, l.ililib, Doiiiiiieci, AH^aiiv^^n, r j IcLig-n^,, runmat;. T;,>iiaii aii.l i<.-.my 
otiitrs, slood the test and ctmad be relied ypcfli- 

Hi^ Liiv<::i|ii;;.tJon, plo[H:^r-work Ihroi^^ui, prodoccd furThetmora am- 
ple rviJmci: fhal any all-cnipl lo :Jp|»ly lo tliii iill-.m lln? rul^^-; y( ||i^ liucli 
iiTni'ltr coii^liuclioin <yi tlio JM^iliiy Liitgiijii^j? ^v-i-nkl |,^ r„ijic The Irufh 
oi a passBg:e in l^f. Dr. Kenwacd Brandatclter'a bo^t "HEibio-jJolyiiu- 
Bi'^lie Tor^hungen." 2. Rdh-:, IH, p. jj, ivj^ diu^ -vtriij.illy in-nvcn A- 
It is refreshing irj ^-r luiic-lioiiorti] ilyjiJiias iliziUtrrd bv IvclLur kEn.v.lcd^c, 
fhf? paB^agc from one of ftp wwlleni tioolfj r>f ciii\t gri:i[ ■^-li^lar =lmll l^ 

"Ein Hauplgruii'l, d^as iininer ii.itli :;(i vic!^ f^rfiii^c Any:li;jiLLiii^<:ii 
iihcr die niahio-|>alynesi&clitn &]trrii:li-:r=':li^]iiiiiii^Cii jni LTmliiuf sicul, lic£:i: 
darin, da^3 d[c bclreffeiidrn FoTSch*rdaBMrLbjisclie nl5 BaeiSTervrcnder, 
tiiii sii-h ihre Aniichieii vom MP Spr.-Lclih.iii y.\j bildtn, ..alinnd dic^i: voii 
alkniiP ]diomcii i Idkichi: am Liiilr(iL''hjJj;ir5ji'n liir ■^.J.li': Srudieii i%[." 

Wbik th* mahJi-Kil ¥«■- i^lccn down durlif^^ rhr firii feiv ^%eeks witbimt 
any defmitc pbn, Ihe f,-i^cmliii£ ^uitc^s i^oon iiiiliictr] ^^l^: Aiitliof t-a pi'i^c^.l 
ivsloniallcally. Hcr]<:clordi it wa^ hi-- :,\m lo ■el[ci( [r.ini the l^ofot il' LllflLlv 
C>;^Tiiplr& as possible, dlLu'^lrnlivc a( graiQitialic;.! rules already skcHlnMl, ^iid 
to collect an -exLensiv^ Vocab■^lflry of gmuine Bontoc Igorot wonls. But, 
ELS a QPLller 0{ no less impoi'laf^ie, hs jI^gt neg-fected io UIk dc-w-n also from 
tlie Igorrti'^i mimisi coi]versai[rjii Ji? [jl;lii_v |jhr-fl'^? a^ lit could uIhuiti, dl- 
thoiig;3i (lie '^Lti'i'itaiice of most o( Eheiii l^=L^ i|i«ii:C '►bMrLirc, nl EliaE firsl|]*rlrid 
of his research, TbiE practice funtisheid excellent training for the ear; 
^ei'^fal iiirjnlhs Ja(er I lie rcvi^icuT of tliia iijflterial, (■hLind l>y the wayside, ^ut 
ctjnscLeutiou.^ly t^hnimitkd w wriling^ proved il lo If 0I grealcr t.iluf: thfin 
bfsd b«:c:n ^xpectenl. 

Whtn eight tiiontbs later, qq May iS. 1907, a. large group of diftertnt 
]j»ui'oC c^i^ne iti Chicai^o (aiiionE llitii I'ldy I'Vilun^lnng and a iv-onijin, Sii>'<' 
h'om Ea«;m, hjd Ijcoi licri? bcfnit), llii- crfiri; kirvfl^T of llie iornier ye^r 
was gone over, e':pei;lalTv iviiPi I'^Tlnngl-orig'* rlc.er -I'iiii'iErjnce, and iHeiI of 
Mityv. OkRhui, Langaj^n, Tjumigyay, Kalaog^^ Abakid and Angay, 
Akiinay, Tongay, Biiniegda, Kodson, Fiinj^cd and olbtr^s. Several cliapli^ri 
of ihc Craimnar ivcrci coiiipkCcd, rev nei-lions ware ^milled, Ihc V't^ELliiifafv 



I THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOrrOC IG<JRCT 

was increased, and the extremely important third part of this book, tix 
T<L'xii — Ilic 'jTily Ttxt? L.'iiilJn^ i>j Hot laiij^iijgc — were niictsied b* Mat- 
ni, ranged aini I'aloiiglong. As llie Aiilliur tiad iiii^jiimMltf [iiciiniirlied lii^ 
\iii:.iluil,iry jind prricliccd lii^ j^raiiLnLfLlitril tulc'^, lie iv;h iitilL lo i-HLivcr-ic 
wilboul dH&^lly ivith thest diCBl 5]fii^theLiC pmple, men of asEonishing in- 
teUigeiici;, iiilorn iiidcpciiJencc mid franknei'i, ^ti'oii^ prLiiciplii:; i.f lii:nn?sly, 
Idml 4|i5po.-,Liioii, a vivid desire lor [earn I114', and lilc'vied wllli ihr; ilii-ini: ^ii: 
of healthy humor; men so ditfi-imt frcoi the crowd that visited their vHla^e 
at the "Willie Cily." They leadily coiiipielniLidnil Hit iulvjLiitaec= ^^l ivlnl 
■vc nit accuslfiEiictl lift call ckili^^atioii. Scienl Ig^iii'ol wt-yi- wi.^^ rcinu^li "••! 
!■> vv[s[i a great deal of ii jh eKchinge far ilielr ?irciiii0ij& ^nJ po^i" life dud 
llicir flLHiriifjIc quaUtics [iJid simiiJt IjuI 'kx'jt rcligioy* fecliuga. . . 

And lioiv kindly did ihey |)iinriLi-?, on llieir own nccrnd, la {[iriil':li ■iliU 
Tiiorc IcifoTuialli^i nijuxnilTi^ llieir cu'-iiijiis ^iid c^'rcninini;!, IhcJT Ii'j;i;th.Is 
and nr.idLCLonE:, prayers, fion^p their "n]d Inagu^e" (aaid to be preserved iq 
oDedisiLiii^ ^eifkiiieiu), ivlieii die Aiiiliirr would coine 10 [hdr conQtry to live 

.ninoiij:; lllmi' TtiU', COnli'lclriic Crt.tCy! cr>nJWJonCf:. 

Till? iLie yf Hitir vernacular i'tolii llic very oiil=et did n^^C only yield an 
oiorniQus quantity gf lingtiislic material, oesxly twiee as mucli ae is eon- 
laiiittt [n llic Crjmijiiar ^md \'Oi;j'biilary (llirmk'i ta ihc lijrirul's f;ir-i;am^ 
puticnc<;!),bnl it f:nablcd (lie [Livc&Ugator jlio to gEiiii a more inliiiiiile knowl- 
cdj^ of ihc iiili'll'.'<:lii.il i,<|jrn:ily imd lln: iiiiidc; of liic nf Jl'c Ij^'t^h. .^]a^y 
.1 sijiEiiient o{ travelers h^ th« Ilonloc r^-ion that was held out to them for 
verifjciliori, iiitt i^illi ;i[i iranic;il >.T[iil-r, iir iviili £CJiernl ^[i.ifcmj^ iif llirir 
liea^ls. l£ limy n[so be saiil liiai ilie at[t;iiipi? at Ci^^iiveisliig ni -cviiral vis- 
iters in their villAgt at Chicago who -claimed lo have acquifcil j bmiivlcdge 
of then' idiom, at the Igorot's hoiae ht the Fhilippmea, were a complete fail^ 

f:ii^idt[i(s ^'f iJic iJiiiUiJt JK'JtJjt Lnii^Liii^i*^ ^\lnj wLaii ly iGiid aboiii tliis 
rrllhi; ami (htij- ln.nii; will find no link iniiinu^iHon m a number oF [[riidcio and 
la Uoka trea^ng of thi' T'ljilipplnt:; in general and of the Eontoc region m 
partfCTiIar. toothing; -nf tlii? kind 'hoiil^l he sou^lit in lEiis thOtU, \.Ti[li.Ti 
with the inifinioii uf furniihin£ iiiaierial for turihet pliilological htiiilic^. A 
few souroea for inforniaJioii sltall Lie iiiencioned; liil ihe AnElinr hy no mcara 
inlpnde to give a cuiiiplete hibliographical list, as, for instance, an e^trac^E 



from Setana's "Biblioteza Filifwia/' or from the bodi wilh tlie same title b-y 

the erilTii:iu **liol.ir T- H, f'jril^t dc T.-ivzr^, |.ul'lislied in 1(103. at "W&shii^- 
lon, imrlvT lilt riir'tliun of ihe Library <--f Coiiarc^s iind llie UiiiejiJ oi In- 
Aiil^Li" Arfa[i^. 

The nmnerocis aiilclcs and "Ahhandliii^ffl" by Prof, Dr. Ferd. Blu- 
iiieiitrift, i.-'-fi'-'cinl ly i<h "Wi^wch v'mis Elhno^fPiiliic ilcr riilll|i]»inLTi. uill 
eiciiT R^ili? dcr Philippiiiffii; Ci^tlin, J I'erlln;?, rP^j" i\'i:ifn- 21^-^1'', I'Ji-otd 
im ol'!5o!elv iiia[f]ri:Ll, rimipiltil wilh ["r^iiiewiirlliy eiirturanci] from douhtful 
gflurres, vjJU nor £pve reliable mfonnalion eoixemmf; our p'K>plH?, Iiowtver 
iiilorolmi; llip vpHoiis llieonei of llur ^iilliOr mny li'-. M'^i r*rai. Semper'a 
flrii.-^c in \'iil. 1^1 nf ihf '"itrdkuri'lc:," p. '^o-i/i. cimcriiiis ^Kciillnr crrnr': ^fo^e 
reliable secDis 10 bi' Ot H^mf. "Mfvur'', lecture on the Ig6rot in ilic "i^ciiKi'lirifl 
fiir ■nifiiK^li-iirii'." Vnl I j, 1BS3, Pag, S??-^^- (I^- Meyer has visited the 
lf(4J{oi in ilieir cauniry). 

The EJL;Pif<i ^'nJLiiLic of the "PuUicationcn aus dem Kgl Ethnc^raph- 
ischen Museuin za Dresden: Die Philippinm. I. Nord-Uicon, ion A. B. 
Mi^rer mid A. SHjIi^dciibcrE. I'^'jo'' ■^hciw^on 1^ lable^ wifh l^kc-iHi-tiT. btlii^tra- 
lioua ::Onie i[|L;ilH^nn.'Lii*. ninJ [itiii= '•< llii: li^i.r.ii niin.iiii iho^o 0] 'Hlirr tnhie^. 
In tbe introduction preceding thew tables wherevw tKe "Ie^ot"-naiiws lor 
s<:vcr^l object? arc ^ivi;ii, iliey iire ilmn^l imrNcqjlilin^Llly VltoiijCj i. ^-'.^ 
tllcy ^irc not llie ii.iiiie-i under ^^llich ifio noiilncmcn hn^i'v \hc-c "biccij-. 

In hi'- tei>oTt in ifie '■/.■lis.hclfi fiir Kidm-iln^li?," Vol. zft iSSB, p. 34 fl. 
Dr, Aleitaiider Schadiaibo^ Kivee a concise, bterestjng account ol the Tfi6roi 
Ai- Ific !£)/irQ[ 5dmiai?il. ifir*; icpm [ cunrnirih rii.iny corrccr ■HmleiiiriH-,: i( Jin 
(■onr-; lo 1m? inuri: (nil li nil iIkhi nllicr rirficL' |>iilifi-licd IcFiirc He dc^ciilit- 
iln^ir hndifv i^nd iik'hijlI di,ir:L^icrMii.'i, r.Hiiiilv lifi-, chiHbinh,couvade, nam- 
ing, the "pabafar^an" attd "ol<«'," l^ia^ma^n.^^;';'i and penmancit mat- 
ri^ges, laltoo, dr*^, oniaiiiciiH, ..Hr'vn^. Iioii.eiiold iili.'n'.ik :iLi'i impk- 
nicnl^ TiL^ritiilliirc. <lrinic4i^ ^iiitiiii]?, Iim(iiii|; ^n-d P'^hing, fond. di^rlling-B, 
li€^Hl-lnmiin^., fii^iival? and rer^iiionic-, dances, continuous fends, skill a& 
IrOD-workcrs, forges, counciln of old men, smokii^ pipes, superslilioiis, anilo- 
cult, nii.liiMnc*., liLiL-[;il. wortd-diiTviifa, 1 -aH aim-J.i'k, ftt. 

The latent popular l>ook 1^ the monOfirapIi oi Dr, AH>ett Ern^^c Jenki 
Oil <Jie Tionln?: J|;.jr.-i, pLihlislied by iKrKiEiiiolcgii;^! Survey of the Philippine 

Islanria t-wboae directnr Dr. Jenka was ai thai tiine}, Monil-i, i'}05- Thi3 



i'Ki;FACE iciii 

rfsearcfa, which ought to be based LipoD th£ re&iills of new, uninduenced In- 

xiLiJ nol ii|"iii i-[j|if;iOil^ fififfL,-;. iiij^li: tiy iHn^-iunjiiics ami Uicir [iin^rf^iHi-.!:?. It 
were btst tn consider tbe entire field cf PltLlippiDe Lan^^ua^es as yet un- 
touch^ and to b<:iii\i riiiL"' to s(iu»ly {hut i\-A niEbi'ml [jorMJiml ■;^'iii|iiillTy wrili 
the iiilivt- f } "jtiie Priii:lil"'C[J[e dt". iiialaiiscbion Bau^iil^, die plnlip]>liiL- 
?rlicn S|irncli'^". die nliiiehiTi au? ikti^stiriin Giiniden ilon moi&len F'jr&cilicriJ 
kanm erreichbar slnd*' (G. von der GabelenEz^ Spra^wisBcnschaft, a. Aufl. 
von All'TtcliC Gr^if ^'Oll iler Sclmlenliiirg). 

ll Li* iiide<:d a pi'y uu'Entr^'i; tlic ^rjujiitkring of tinte, enerj;)- Jiul -i^- 
j^apiiy upon antiquatEd and queatiimab!? material Ihst shouUI tia Ehflrniiiiilily 
^^oc^lcil nirC before -conrparfl^tive sludies aro aUeiniil'.yl. 

W'lillf cnnij-Tiiiie ilic (iriminiu' scM'r,d iiiuLh.jiU di ni rfiaining Lli*: lij^iil;' 
rial '■iij^y':-"'il ihcniM:!' I:-.. Tlic AtitluT .'"is-Jurli-iJ — Imli-'cd iiot without 
heaitati-on — that it would bt tmrt convenient for student* (rained in tlie 
Grammors gf IndoiTHjriinaiiJc Lani^rn^ij^',.-:, ii liu .vnidil reiain, "lili -Ii|:.'!i1 iii-^^i- 
ficati(Di£, the cusli'iiirLW <.rdcr o-l (fic tli,-L|ilci'- in ^i|i,li tii-'UiiLnnr^ lE In: ivi.iuld 
treat first tTie article, then the noun, pronoun, a-di«tive, etc, juat as if the 
Baxvx Lir;:ii;i'!^" vcm\i] di^trnguiEili tlie sanw grammaticjit cjilcsoi-ics ns 
ihc TiKl'kgc L-nmTii^: I..int,iia5;'^- Tlii' ii-ii.'tlnjr| -rt-med h-cSpfnl f'lr :ici|iLiriiiff 
kii^iivk-.lec .11 lli^ ld<'^\n I^Lil f..r pT-i^-lltu tlie ^liid.-nl hut,! ^li^nluU'ly .ili^n- 
don Ibose loniieT conceptions of ethology and syntax whith he may liave 
^ired from his previous Studies 0* the J:b^^K■.l.] "c iiincfiTn noniiaiik ■■r 
RoiJiiiEKf T_:iiisl(;lC^'' i T-I'C ■Conner In? cnn fr'.'^' liiiii'di" frnn|ilL^ifl.' fjotn diujj- 
ifiji 10 lii:^ (nrmcL- noili.ii'- I.I Llic -^li iKlnr^' of 'a linigun^^- ind ndapt hiniadf 
1o new categories of Ibiguiatk elements, the earlier lie will auccttd in enter- 
ing into the spirit of tWe admiraiJe. idbin Tlit ALilhiMf fiidr^ivi^r^ Hi si^hi'-t 
the lUidrnl'ii'iih A] iio«i hie mean*, im mcIi ^imrSc P^iR^ ""i t^"^ Gctninn^r, 
TTicrcf^irt in lo-.niy p^^rLRcs liter;!! Lmidasi.m^- of r^ur'^e in recklessly 
nni|l|:sleil Ktigtish and sDinctimos in Gennau, French, Spanish, Lattn elt— 
have been added to the free translation iiiio our Irilnin. Ii I'* ln.ptil Lliiil" 
\hcf':hv xhfi eninprdienairni or many .i fniisuurlinii in Igurcjl MiLiuciilar will 
bt 1:icilil:iEC<[. 

An nhuiidrance of pxaoiplei accofflpanv the ral« of the Grammar, Most 
serve to illustrate tlie same rule from various viewpdnts whicli only the i^i- 



xiv THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOWTOC TGOROT 

denl who proccflls from chapter bi chapUr will iLiid?r5taadr Sam? cK^i.irpk'^ 
Inhc liecii rulrletl ^villi llie JiilenEion of not fcxvinj*; valuable iiiatorial junirl'l 
ill ilic '\iiiliiir'': ilii^Vr Tli^'^ ^ippariiiiiiy ?iiperflunuq exmnple'? may furili-rr 
llic ■Tdi'iLiictd Miiiiciil':!' I rivf^l i go [i^fli liiyiinil Ibi; ^rn|ic rjf Elii' mil' [r> ^I'liic^li 
lliey are atlacli«L 

A coii^.l-l'ir^l.li- iLJiiirniiii iii llllpllEl:l^^le^^ iinler[il [s ^iTIl ni Imiid; ^lii'h -^r 
jl ^vlll lie ■;aimvninii;aied, np<»n r^'iiic.-iC, to ^icliol^irs jini] gtiideiii^ \v[io •<.\-y.-h 
jiddiiion^l CKampIci fur rules r^cnlilislicil in this Gracimaror for other aci- 
':nllfi[^ purfir^'^-, 

r^rliciiljrly ill ihe lir^t psrt o( tlic Gr,^^l^lilr (he qn^nfilj*:; nS ■^vlLnJflt;! 
arc martiedi t-o avuul trrnf: .is jniitli n^ |ii>'^'.lMe, ific ^uTipIe vnfe ; iiiiy sylliilil^' 
that a no( marked long is short, seemed lifirdly suflidcnt for Kn^iah read- 
ers, aa CN peri-o]fco has. slioivii. 

A«e[H^rLtepl;i^v'[uiLJiJObt wurJ'., ri^, ili.- sir>--^. d«fl not (J*aya fall ut*™" 
the lony fl.yllahlt [Long syllables arc scarc^lj longer than short syllalde^ll 
Aii hiLI cxaiiiplf;?. an? rccordcil cx^c^lya.'s they wcreuhtained from llii; l^i'^ral, 
jnd as life men p-ii>afnmcc^\ lln- ■:;[iiie \v<-^l^•[ In [[it s^ine coli::[i iicdon r>(l-cn 
v^illi rl[jin|;rd ■■■mnd-o and ^ccenl^,. [l liap|i-eiis dui: b'nm: Inrnnslslrrify pi'c- 
v-aila in orilko^rnpliy, accents and qusntjiy, IMiis ia due to the natives' elocu- 
Jloii, bill not III life ■\ulbur- lie doc-'DoUnn^idcr liinivlE nilidtd lo <:rtitte 
T nrirm.-iJ Ijjijrol L^ngLiasit, ImL be is lioiind, in a "vvoil: of lliis clii^ir:ii:t[T, to 
wckc do^vii erii-h v'>ri3 ris lie ln^rd i( f runs llie: mm "ho appfitCfJ to uae the 
purvsl langD^e, And thva it i^ hoped diat this book compTia^a troslwortliy 
iiiiileriiif ftjt fiirlliErr iCiidies l!^f.h ivurd HtmS |il:riisc liiis lietii rciicnucilly 
vcrlliwl fiy vaiirjn^ single iiiilividu^M, h> siiiall and larger giuu^i nS men iJld 
v-'^tmen, yoiicg and old, at difFerenl times and occasioiiis, ofteci rmployfd tin- 
ejfpccredly In conversation, and spedal care was taken no) to tire a man, as 
iherj- i^ ilonj!'-''' Icsl (ired men an^iver soa^lin |jlen<c ibc irriuijer- 

\V'or'lT of (lit lloeano jikI oth^r idioint Ii3vc bi-cn cirniinnlcd i" i^j f[ir 
as they 3«in not to be completely adopted by the Boitluc Ig6rol. Tn doubt- 
ful instances the supposed for^gti origin is indicated by: flloc?). When 
a ]-}[iCA^6 -M' wftffj wfL5 ilnajiimoii'^Jy 'U'l'lii-fd ( f i','rjii(-ii tly 0-i-ei^ wllli [i Jipfinct 
di^ilrtinl) lo lie an Il^jtiini^mi it wci:^ br^u-dtd ^:i ^luch; flUx,) W^rd.i ol 
Sp^ni'^lL origin art Tnarlwd: (Sp.). Vacianf; arc someiirics added to chc 
nriginal; they are placed in biacleels. The fo-rcii in brackeis is not meant to 



PREFACE XV 

be U?3 correct or icsa uaual, or to be the ooly Tariant, 'Not ^^1 the omia- 
sum of viLrionls indicAlc thai ntioe cjist^. 

Xniiibers iii t 1 Jcnclc &r':[iorj of ihc Crumiiijr, If j ijpil.il |'rc';[d'.-'i 
ihe jLiimbcr, llie o>:3[ii|)lc i% icItcEcd h-om llic Tcxls m P;u"l IIJ. 

Thf capi?3le signify: 



B 


li.ullL of Cdi.n>i'njL 


r 


Pr[lpr[l:ijin iiid P^lpal^ikJiig" 


H 


Ilcadliunter*' Ri:lurn 


R 


'I'Ilc kjt jnd LUdJruUiccs 


K 


Kilbin- 


S 


Tlic Sl^cs 


L 


I_iiriLa^v[^ 


T 


Til [11 


J.[ 


^laiilei' 







Muse of the l1lii?|r5[ioiis have been chosen from more tbiin .i IminlriMJ 
and fifty EiriiilisT pluni-oRTaiihs taken by Kr, P. C- AI>lioIt, the Manager at 
Poole's I'lmlini; l-luiis^^ in riiiH:^^i>. "h^r. AiiNoU iiinnii'"-i."l ^r^'^l Icili^re^l 
ill Lln^ l]-i']i'0[ and III lliciT i\cffr|ii: I ^ii icuJi'-bl^J to liiiii Tot llii] ]scriiii-^'niiiri 
inK ii^jnj; lii'^ ji.hiiinlili? colltciLoii lit p\aies; for w"-nf f^tvrf^ T iim iixleliicd 
to Mr Feldei-, Mr. R, Earle, Mr. H. W. ^iilt-jii and uiheT', 

Tht sJud«it -will take notice of a list of Addejida aiid Corrl^^iiiuU :H il»<^ 
end of the book. 

Dp. PHii,. Cahl WiTjfBLM SEmEHADiti* 

Chicago^ October «giileetith, r^f>7- 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 GRAMMAR 



1, InlroiliKtioii 

2. _'\I|iIi:iIjce 

^. JincrrlirLTii^Kl Si'tind-^ 

4- Vl^lvd-'^■-!^i[ll]I^Lioll 

5. ConO'sction 

7, Apliaeresis 

Sl S™<:niK: 

10. Sivjrjil>|jyki[ i]i I-oan- Words 

I Ir Con:i<:injLiil-Aviiiiii].-ition 

I J. h^k!i(k ii'f kfikek 

zj. Yennis changes lo Mftfin be- 
fiiri: |.ir|iii'k 

r4. "McjEi.t H:]iii]ii>;i:s (o Tcmtia be- 
fore TCElLlls 

i^^ A' ("liiinj^':'* I't M lieforc T^- 

iif. JciicucH^nlic J 

17. lin.tl ^ 

iS. Eiabd;ici£rmia 

2tx /■' cliansei \o F> or P, before 

a f onsonqnt 

1: 1 DQi]1»ring of ConsonaDts 



■^2. Bf. fj: dt ioL If, kli. It 

25. Gioinl OhvV 

a6. Oii^iriLLty of Syllables 

sy. Ao^ent 

^. Ru^liiiiliC'tlJon 

25. I'riijtiiiioii 

30, 2T, 3i. Articles fujn. jflji 

37. ricoun-ilif .\rlii-lp 

38. Arfii:lj: rq^'-srcd 

4a Ugatureg 

41. oij 

4^ (leraiii^ Indicator -b 

43. C'opiil.i ya 

,44, Subsl^Tilivr L fn^nii 

45r Proper Nains» Gtogxapli. 

46. Ko (Render rtr InflLtdoii 

a,';. Malt, fcnuitc 
4Sa9.5<^5i- Plural 
52' 53' 54. 55- Prelbc /f-^ 

5^. ^llfllN -Ofl 



JEVlll 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



5;. -3H with n:imj;'i of periOfl:^ 

iind louiii 

^'A- -iJ-JJ &iir5j.-^eij Tj> Verbala 

Sg. Fang- 

6a SiH- 

6t, iF/^ntol-: Ig/froi 

6a. Mm-, Kin-: u^inrr 

63. /I*-: proEr-^sion 

64. /n- accompl lulled I'tf^iili:; con- 

crete rtilUrt 

65- /t- (Tiili^l ■ iiiiJliit[on^ [m;Lj^Hj 

66. Toys, ivilli refUipl. rout 

67. "Witii n -3"?. a c^tif^' 

65. Tjrl uS Ih-: Ixi-ly p+ft-Tlcd 

69, fniir tun: lr[|J[, ^I:|ll 

70. \''rrf|,il Ki-Jliils 

rj"7?' Cn.?it litljilit^ii?! 

76. '^CaTnpijiiniJ MiiiiTi'^r" ii 

J-. Mriii'ri.il ^viili c<y 

7a, Ap]Kj:^i|kni vlLiIi <i\ 

79, /J['J Fp^jjJo^, fico'iJ Ldngfny 

So. Loan Wordpi 

8l-fl-j Vtr-itnii] rrrmciiii!* 

85. C-n': rthuiuri'^ of llic Per- 
sonal PraiLmm-, 

S6. ffya a,v la!t1ki, [afiiyi 

^", rronn-iiin^ a^ j^iitijcci: 

88. P'Crsoaa] EiuJii^ca <^ Verbs 

&|. Oiiii'^'iiiin 111 Ofijetfl 

r>o. T-nfnllvi- iwrlicli:': mi jul.I i^ 

gi, Appo^iliffli ro Persgnftl Pro- 
nouru 

9J-98. Deuionslrative Pronouns 

99, Wa, JO, l/dj as Pronouns 
160. Xiiv. ijii!^- "\tifi i^, ire"' 
loj. rQ':«e?'H'c Snflixoi 
LO^H A''aA preceding noiuis wilh 



fC3. 


Acceni shifting caused by 




i!ie Siiffi:^ 


104 


U'lC of the Possessive Siif- 




flMCS 


105. 


*j[fji j/mat — JT djnfl 


lOti. 


I^os^es^ivei as ■vcrb-il Snl' 




r[>:c'^ 


107. 


tita, "property' 


icfS. 


"bdi^' withno4iPis 


log 


'^'raiae" 


iia 


Fos^^a^ives with nouos in 




-IP', -rt 


iji. 


Rcfli:K[vt; f^Tyut. body 


1T2, 


RtdjJTOcality 


"3 


IiiLopislv^:: 'sa/lh 


"4 


I ' ri n 1 i 1 ivt A'l JJ-T I ivc ^ 


i^S- 


116. PJ.ice flf the iLiributiY? 




Adjecii^c 


"7- 


Prti^LLaiiue AdjctMJvp 


lid. 


>'trLijij^-cd AUjccLJvL' 


nrj. 


Adiecuve.: ^viifi mii 


I^O. 


Adjeciives with m 


I£I. 


AdJei."livL?w.iLh'rrfl-, no- snH 




Adi'?cllvc^ of -Mplerial 


123, 


RednjiL Adjectives 


1^3. 


CorTL|>ar,»lii-c: 


T24. 


I'ercplira^^lic CoiTi|)arisoQ 


ti5. 


Superlative 


136. 


LhlI< iii ]tTlv.i[li>' |ir-irfiKLh 


127, 


*'hi:ijrl]f. leiigch" etc. 


123. 


IitdcFin. Pfoiioua, &>iiie!iody 


129. 


Siiiiii:cliirig 


130. 


"aMrtain" 


'3»' 


Nobudy 


',^=^- 


Ni^tliiiig' 


1.^3' 


No, not any 


IJ4. 


All 


'I^S. 


Much, mnny-j autre, most 


136. 


Few 


13-- 


Somu, icveral, 3 iew 



CONTENTS 



siy 



'3^ 


Otiier, dilTBTHit 


'■r^- 


i2'y- 


I~^'i:r>, cicli 


'74. 


UO. 


Any ^vhiicver 


T75^ 


140. 


■Tliat (thing)" 


176. 


141 ■ 


TKc One — the oCflLlT 




142. 


GenoT,i[i7iiis "oiiy" 




M3 


Tlfr ^^Linc 


'77- 


144. 


anJka; uprAf 




HS- 


IriLi'iTii^.iliix- 




141^, 


VVIiy? j/j-*/ 


179. 


H^ 


Wiial? 'igii^.'' 


iSo. 


14&. 


. limy jEiuili? tinf' 


181. 


14^- 


vliifh? u^£ ajr„ what kind 


T^J. 




oi... 


1^3- 


I5tt 


iiJLriMlu^^iiofli 10 the Verb 




'SI- 


Routb 


1S4. 


!."■ 


VerbalTzation of Ronts 


laj. 


i53. 


Fer3^>iial acid Posacssiv-e 


lad. 


1S4- 


l^cT'oinii.il iiinl Pfwflcssiv-e 


1S7. 




^'f^^l^ fr^Jiii iMii^ n^f'T 


lR8. 


^55- 


Ver3i£ un theit Ccmuiioii 


if?j. 




Use 


i<10, 


T£i<n-J 


5ft. Voices^ TcFiE^es, Mixtds 


141. 


1,^0 


\ erh:ils; Kom'.Ti actioajs 


10^. 


IfXI 


\"arifni^ Modifier*! 


193 


l6f. 


Pcr*i01l;ll \'^'^|^?, 1 3 ^-f in 1 lioll 


T^' 


162. 


Winning uf Tcrfioiial Verbs 


195' 


163- 


PaTadi^m of a Persouiil 






Verh 


196. 


1 64. 


TliiriJ piTBon sin^ulsr 




165. 


PrmunDTi with 3rd srn^nJar 


197. 


T&6. 


Cupula ya between! «Lihjecl 






and j)cr*.[iiiril verl* 


igS- 


J 67. 


Pre- acid Infix':'' 




I6S. 


/«- 


199. 


169. 


in- Willi a feuh' Possess. Verbs 


300. 



170-172, L'lJi- 



20T. 



^111-; to become 

l.'i"-. lioioLJII:^ !■> fuLLirL 

Mu- C-DejKjncrilca) 

Jlforig- cDinbined with Snb- 

ataDlives and verbal end- 
ings 
M'ang- with certab verbal 

tiVM^ foFniiii^ pei'sojin[ 

verbs 
Tlic rrcicrlT' 
"AngiiiCT^i ." ill 
Prercrili? of nilv-prfJEOf lime 
IliiiIIii.l;'- o1 111.' TrclcriiL' 
|-'iiliirv IV'.'li?: cd- nml I'.nd- 

ings 
IniperaEive 

(7m- omrirfd in Impdrative 
Urging Pflrdcleg wilh Ira- 

pcraiivft. 
Ta: cohorla^Te 
r.ii, cc, OiiijiiLi<.lLvc Fariiclc 
I'CFlplir.iizii oi 3rd pcr^ou 

imperative 
v'-'ik'i , 4yt<*^ <:'•, 
Cniijinicii^'e 
Nom.agentia; Participle, In- 

finifiire 

Komen flfjmEi'r with tnin- 

Moricii -iL'lLriTii^ 

Possfsi^nu T'^iitfiijgs 10 Xyiii- 

en actionis 
-as: rl.-[vi-j'lM;Ll ;iLn^i(ifrtlu'ni 

ni'i-niFy ]iH"[|jvc 
Examples of Ntmiina aclion- 

is 
Con^lractions wfTh Per^nnal 

Olijcit rii I'lThinnnl Vcrliii 
Place of SiLbjecl 
Subject of ya 



xx 



THE LA^TrlTAr.R OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



202. 



209. 
a TO. 



2ri. 

21 f,. 

S17. 
=i3. 



219 

221. 
2:32- 



Apftn^ilioii m 1^1 01" irnd 

perain 
P. !-*?*:■'[■. c Vi?rb'^- Defini- 

li"n 
Xomeii Actionts; Woima 

rija.ffibr "Subject" 
"Subjpcl" Lirccedea; verb has 

en<SmH. 
"Siilijfci" ioWows fin Gcni- 

im:], ':-rls iiij emliii?;; 

bul «jiiii-(liiK?s -fja ill plir- 

ral 
"SLiltfe-cl" ill ricnilivL- pmnf 
Oil J" ■-iiPij''cli''e (jiJiiilii'H.' 

i:liiiiicc;i t" ]rtJ>:^:hSi^t 

Geii. 
Persoual Pronoun prcced- 

iiii; >,'mLii:iL Eiclivni-i 
Rni>ls ^,i|li -i-'f, --IJI, I- 
VcL hnliz^l inn of Root 
Tlif "'Jirnjct dj|f:l" 
Lm|ili'VTiic[U III llie various 

vrrTjaliinng Pardclea in 

RcfjtioTf of the "direct Oh- 

jccc'' !■> ihc -*'pr- Ve-fb 
The Ob](^:t ni tIio -an- Verbs 
Thfi Object of the i- Verbs 

(F^inl-Xale c^ Hi', cm in j; llkr 
criYiiii^iMl^ diK-li iiie of 
"the TIjree Passives" jn 
olIicT PhiiippLni? Latl- 

Tlie -c'i Conjugation 

ivlif-'n VL'rbjili'l'rl 
P^riJille"'^ for -*•■ Verba 
Accent 
TV Si^ Omjugation 



225. 

226r 

22P. 



JJ9. 



231. 



Paradigms for -an Verbs 
The *■- CraijugatioTi 

Por:hi1ij?Tii'i f-ir i- Verbs 
Pnfix I- mill ri"ii|[i..i1 i 
Vci Ijs wlili ciiii[Tig: -a^ . I'er- 
*>iial Vci'b£i c-c : -rrrr \'4:rbs 

or: (■- Vcito 

Niiincn actioiu?; of 1- I'lirbs 

ttdili Ci^iiiiivi: ImJitatDr: 

Prctcrilc . it- 

Ip- .t*. prclfx .lEidas infix 

In- as prcto to t- Verbs 

^^-tiii.h dropf-, Hxceptunis 



2^^^ W-^fm I'ij • i"f^ii 



Jtf changes to iV in ihc Pre- 
terite 

J^'^and 337. SuFftEeR nntl ^.ndiiig^ 

in iIk' J'rrliiril^^ 
V'ccbpi iviEh -c^ in llit I'rcltc- 
ite 

PrtL'-itili lit \i-ih\- in -^adi 
Ftiik^u-l- .mil fiidU-k, 

Hsj'iiydvet 

FdhiTv ni iVtisessivt Verbs 

Conjunctive 

Imperative 

Nonifli aclionis (and "Infin- 
itive" > 

IiiJuiiEivt ai tlic Trclfiricc:. of 
certaiQ Va-bs in -^: 

Ni'nien ^ictJonis in luifiir-: 
Nomen agenti^ 

Mtiiiniiij! nS \\\q X'nuicii 

ai;ciii[? 
Nothcii agenll? nii noun 
!<omfn ri^f^nd'EO^'errin^^Aii 

object (rji:!Li[t["ve f^fjjH:ct.) 



a.H- 



240. 



£4r. 

240 ■ 



345. 
247- 

249- 



CONTENTS 



XXI 



25a. AfoH.^-; Biiflg- 

153. -o?^ Llrri]'|i'il- F«'-i']>Ci'tis< 2^u. 

254, NociLCLi a.ireiiiL!; lincs nol taka 

personal auKiiga 

555. Excc^ili'Mi'.- >y.MnLn.i ag:cnti^ agj;, 

ele; T*rwnql W'rb^ 38?. 
2c6- F'lr.iill^nis 01 Noinina agen- 

Regiii.Tr ard ajiomalous ^ 

fornix 

J57. WoniciL nprnfis with pms«s- 1^5. 

i'"c cndmjJa 

258-210. ?pccml W'llinl Foriiqs aS^- 

j6i- "Fi.r .-.li.-Mii", "lo ■.-.linin": sP^ 

I?llOf -IfJJi ]M|>i-i(-i^ilT ffld- 

ic-^ji. end [US'* 

26 J Piirc; "Jffus", R'li'l, -^n, piJS- J^J. 

s(i4- iiirfiiiE^cT Riiiplii-i'i 295- 

364. Till; PrL='^iw 296. 

2^6. FwmsiiiDn =97- 

2i>9 Arciii l^i!ll P,i*.*,i.-e Vorbs 299. 

370, jtfd atkd 1; wr/ 300. 

2^ji JWfl arnj ^L "Jrj^j-: III : j~it 3'-''- 

dmppcd; or: malpa 302- 

272. Nimn-ii actionia in tTie Pas- _\0^ 

27 j !rx;nn|.1cs for Passive 305- 

?74. J^^r:iilic[ji'^ lor Passive; itle .^*J-' 

Fis^Lve i^oiiicn i^tiwJiS i°7 

275. Exampio for Passive Coti- 2C&. 

'.Itiictinn^ ^'^J- 

£j6. Panic, Pre^ Taaa. as Pailic^ ^^'^■ 

2??. Ernph^sis. rnlroilUftiOrt 312. 

P7-&I 5<ilijfC[ enipliasjicd 3^3' 



Tht pr«&1firt|^ 'Siihjecl 

slightly C[iiplLii5l.:tii 
Verb liiii oiidiiiifs 3[ni Sub- 
jccl follou'ii Willi ligature 
ay ("Apposition") 

Suhifl 'viHl !']r>Til, ly.inl- 
Muiiitn ■^^;|■llll:^ ([Tflinji^ini,' 

(lie Veib 
Olj,'t:Cl Clllplt^Lil'Ofl 

Virmu- oilifT flniiHiis tm- 

ph.iHL'<:rl 
I'cr^nn "lor whom" empha- 

sdzed 
PliL-c r[iipfi;3'ii.:a3 
] inii', \i,niii'r. Ilrji^ri'i: cii!- 

l*h allied 
Proniiicnoii-^ Kx3ini»lc^ 
391, 292. Rcdiiplic'Liimi qI 

J'liwni. "kitpem oy bof'dri^' 
Prefixes 
Fa- 
Pin- pang- 
Ktx- 
Mflifl- 
tiaka- 
Molil- 

Ma-mi- 
Njfrflitr- 

Modilitn :if W-rlij 
Bd; "CoflJuiKlive'' 

A'/^r '. It i^i* 

Hi! lick' 
!'.':■! I.' 

Afji.v; ifljiis 

KaHkani 

Ka^ 

Sataa 



X?JI 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



JM^ 


77'V;i'f ra 




349- 


Prepositions fiovcrning; fiKU 


3^5- 


^jatcTAvT 




,■^5'^ 


-Vfi^.i:-' 


31^ 


.^^^rJ?^l77oft "VOfigkay 


; Apid- 


:3Si. 


-Vi'Jii a">i.. ^rj^e ^^" 




\'ai/gkoy 




352- 


W}iy? 


3t^ 


Jliiclli'VEii'f \'crb-^ 




353 


hiiS'f imipdak- 1 come 


318. 


/ioji.'rf'/u 






fToni 


319- 


Kc^rlL'vl;^ 




354^ 


A",rJ? -vlien? 


320. 


yjjit" 




355 


K<fd^ lifiw Iink-Ii ' 


321- 


/fa 




s.sr. 


Ilmi' miiny tiiiT:^? 


3^3- 


Ma//d 




,^.S7. 


V .Ji/i/tf / 


333^ 


fofe^* 




3i^ 


Hoiv? 


3^- 


Till riJi 




359- 


How lODg? How small f etc 


3^5- 


Nur, ni:lMLi'r 




3'xv 


Tndd^iKit QutetionB 


32<i, 


Tjjrf 




sV'i- 


T^T^i- 


32;- 


Keij^ij: 




36^- 


^t*;^. JFviffl ; (^7j'*/i^.'iiy.'') 


^aa 


^'Rdjiiivi: Clnit^ic^V' 




:t'"M- 


JjIiOjiitIjc i^hrajc-o for our 


329- 


Rcliii N'oiniiiEitive 






co|mla 


33a 


Kdnl r.aiili^e 




.V':- 


'rr> Becoiiii- : i*i»- 


33 T' 


Rdat. Ilriliv: 




566. 


To H^.e 


332' 


Relat AccnsatJve 




36?- 


Numerals; Cardin;ih and 


3.1^. 


Ki'bl. Time. Plate 






Ordinals 


354. 


Re 1 Ell jTi^truni':iil 




368. 


Distritradves 


3,^.- 


Piejhj'iiriona with R.elative&; 


365^ 


Multiplicativcs 




F;:'iiJTipk? 




^70 


r'r^irli'.ii]^ 


35I' 


i'crsoTi.-.E I'r.mmms 


as antc- 


.!7i- 


(".'rnJiFial Adverl>; 




cedent; indefbiite 


anteced- 


373. 


Comrf/diioi^-iluji 




C:Pt 




373- 


NuJiiciiCdJ Idi^jnis 


^A7- 


T-m in Rtl. Clauses 




374. 


Prep4»iti(ni3 


33^ 


Komen acEionia aa 


anteced" 


ars- 


|jlh:;'=us'-l'i' Mifflin I?' r,\ 


1^0. 


Interrngalive Scdtenccs 




i'j"c posit ion? 


340- 


Qinstion hv inloiinticm 


^76^ 


Vf rbfi with pftlfft^itiurlal (10- 


34^. 


Ay^^ 






tion 


343- 


Ngin in. Quffltions 




177- 


TjKative Preposition: is 


343^ 


Vt-^ ! litcn 




iTS. 


Is: r«tat,niofioiito;iiiotii>tt 


344 


^'inn ^vHb m^mla 






from 


345- 


Sitat with Verb, na 


subject 


37^ 


Is; rest at.... 


34^ 


i'lijj* ^^ AccTi^^tivf 


ul.J5Ct 


^So. 


fi: motion towsfd 


34r 


Who^<:? 




jHL 


h: proceilfni?; Ilie of>iiTi;l of 


3+S- 


Si'tu za Dative 






Personal Verbs 





CONTENTS 


htl 


382. 


Is aflFT Certain Verts 


+'^ 


Man 


■^^ 


h: Hjilivc 


4,R. 


K-xy or /-'jv 


3^- 


At: moiiuii from,. 


4iy 


.'Uajjj ^cJj' 


3^5- 


Ij: Partitive (S-eparnEionl 


426. 


Ann/o 


3S6. 


/xr 3Tx,Tniplc'; fur "[■^[tnlvi" 


421. 


Adp; ma •idji 


387. 


I-f, !\[tfi tn\r/fd 


423. 


Kini nr ('\}n 


338. 


!■, ^ificr fiiLJii and ketjdng 


423- 


ya 


3S9. 


Is, i.l]l!i ail. CI lis 


424- 


Yaifa 


390. 


/j: hy, wiih pasaivc Verbs 


425. 


Mo 


^^r. 


/■: III -( rill ntntal 


426. 


Ko 


392. 


I.':, mrli adjociivL^ fur ;id 


42?, 


Nangko 




vertifl 


428. 


La 


393' 


Is: \tril\fCi-.il 


42CI 


7 'if/tir la :ii 


394' 


fhliiT i.-[ii[niitrc Tii^s nif jl:. 


4.W- 


/j.'jj, 'fi 


yn 


/j; inucKlutiin^ iiIjuk's oi 


431. 


CoojiiLiciians 




|llLr|■LlS^' 'ir i1)li[^^nli"ii 


43J' 


G>fjiilr[|i'-c 


3'''' 


I' r.'|"M ['.'<!, fiy alCrncllm 


433- 


Arf,'iTs;i(].-e 


397. 


Fi"cro=iLi'jn,ii FJiriASCS 


434- 


1 >J'^jiintlivii 


39S. 


Sotting- In Trtuji of 


4.1^. 


"A<lvi?] Iji.tI CriTiinniziioni:'' 


399. 


.'ia/cS'i^- iifar "by 




a!*io, !i)o 


^oo. 


3'^v^'jjj^- Fjchiu'd 


4.^'"' 


Ki'lji.-iif^. i!n[-i:u|irni 


401. 


Fiicg_ iviili 


43 r 


Sit. i-if. ilien 


402. 


? j(ii« ivilhin 


438. 


h^fcd 


-pa- 


Ampon tinfiJ 


A.\'^- 


Kctji''!^ Vi'LLIj l£l^i\l 


404. 


iCi^SH'fl- bftM-pfn 


440 


Kfl, yn l:c! ami lln^ii 


40S- 


T.mt} imU'jr 


44T- 


Kify^i:cd ctj;. onil tlieii 


4art. 


tJ-^/idFr on J'Jii 


442. 


IiiCcrcjill.iJ: "ih-prtforff" 


40-7. 


'i'on_gtiii nlvi-.e 


44!^^ 


^ 111 mril incite Coiiiiin^:[iDns: 


4aS. 


fdiuiujuii] pi opo^ii[(fflal 




XV lien 




plirase: 


■4-14 


Willie 


4tKJ. 


Ailverlii^l Expresskms 


445' 


After 


410 


^iin|i[i' .(mj! CQinpoiind Ad- 


44fh. 


Bi?Tarc: 




1 erl^ 


4^7- 


l.!ii(ii 


411. 


Adifriivpsfls Adverbs 


445- 


As often as 


412. 


-^ilvcrbF. nf Vhi^s 


440' 


As Innjf a'^ 


4'3. 


Aih. crbs r>f 'I'lnic 


4 SO 


A^ jooQ ai 


414. 


A.lvcrli> of Qivility iinj 


45'^ 


I!ec;jii.'<;. lay 




;\ fa finer 


45-'. 


Conililioim] Serili'nrt!^ 


41^. 


_\d^'e] l>*. oi Oiiannifv 


4S3- 


CuTiiLCJi-^ii'e -Clau'es 


4f<-.. 


P^rlLtk^ 


454 


JuBt as if 



^fXlv 



THE LA>JCUA^JR OP THE DOMTOC ICOHOT 



455. Fjnfl] t^liLU'?';'* 

4StL RcsLili Cliiuics 

457. Decliiraiive "ih,-it" 

45S, Object Clause dependml 

ii[ioif T^rioLis Verbs 
45^ l^a'i^ I414I 
4fio. LquJvEilciUi for out Depend- 

eiin JiiliEiiiJv'c 

«xpressji^ btaes^: eat- 
able e(c . 
46J. TrtLi?l'jtf Clio 113 



APPENDIX 



r^'jili.>nal Appellalivc!^ 
l'rri]s<T N^riie? 
GeogTP pineal K^irfi 



PART II : VOCABULARY 



Preface — Voeabulaiv 



PART Tri; TEXTS 
Preface — Tesls 

The HeiidliiinlKrs' Reliini 
The BiLlik of C;jloutan 
TlieHatiind Lli* Rrotliers 
TheSfarS 
TiHn 

'J'li? Monkey 

Fdpat^ma and i'&Spalilficin^ 

Varia 

SongB 



Addaiiia- Corrigcnd^i 



PART i 



GRAMMAR 



.,\ 



\'^ 



GRAMMAR 



I. The l^ngungc nf tTic Emitnc Tfjoro! In?!r>n;r5 lo riie ^faliiyo-Polynp' 

^inn tniLiilv. ll. jj; siKjhen by l\\': li-QU'l inluhmun^ (*i llit i^hmloJ Kojuoc, or 
F/^iif/iij. [lie c^b|ulJil tA (lie SLiLi|irovi]ff:c B'tmrnc, ?;ihiai:c<[ in the narrou .'nlkv 
III I}k' kia ^'liicii, in iht^ iiJo-uiilaiiioiLs iiLlcrioi iiE Nrrlli LiF^on. 

Pr^Ltllc^illi eIio s^Liiiff l^[i;5L]ig;i?, IjiiC ^v\^\l cl[iileclJ£: \'iiri;iliiiii';^ k Pipukeii in 
Krlaiii [ij%ni:^ 0-1 lln^ Boiudc [■ep^imi. 'I'fi^' cxnci LiuirJicrriiiil lnc;n.[oiL oE ihc^c 
MwttS tan IW t»s iltt*nDina^» as (lie ^T^i.'iini.' nup? nndi^kctclu'nof thcBontoc 
ii:j^""['iii -.cnLi la In; li!.n[(^iii<e;isin" !■; in lo'^^il-k Ut ii^ctriiiEn ilm nuniliiT "f ihr 
li;iir[i< ii^iii); Lhi'v v'TiiinciiliT, *^lnci? fLClion, <;n.S:^ Jiid |>ljjiilj5y tthi I'* bt 
minjrlcd in rfic i^jln'inl rtporl^ oi tiia-ny ^"ear':- 

A li'ol Lif ilir iiriTLie-, ril mn:!!. nf ilic lown^. in llnjilr" firiirnqniiJiiiun, is 
i^ivcn m jn A|ifkTiillx la llie JltimiiiJir. 



TIlKAL.rirARET 



3- The Alplialiei of tlic Unnioc t^ocol ia expreasrd in this Craimuar, 
Vof.ibiitjirv ^11(1 (lie Tex<^ viirh lln:::.c Itiiera; 

vowflts 

a us in father; soaielinies objured as in draw. 

|[ iii. in f^ir. 

e flitJ S iii in nipii- 

f at ^ in nk^'lt. 

i v-ov:el5 Hiitlu^Liing Lenvcm e imd i. 

t as ill rib, nmciiiuc 



4 thj: lanj".l"agr op tjif. rontoc tgqrot 

o ad in no, luole. 

» voiv^el-i IliiciLiQiiiiij between i> -iniJ n. 

o li. in G. Konci;, or F. Icii. I'lnal o is frequeati; foU-ov^'td b/ 

H :i' ill TTile, pLi]l. 

u :■ ; 111 G. I fill, or T. mur ; sonietinies like Riissiaii jeriii 

AU L)l|iliihanj;sai^vMalie wiiLafm&i CMS^dutnlal sound y or w, 

ay ne^rlv lil^e ai in aisle, 

ey iLenrK like ev in eye, or ei in lieighl. 

oy .i^ ill I'', fi^iiilLe 

oy as in boy, 

i«i ns ill |i', faulMi'. 

iiy ill in I" tnyrm 

fla, ofl, aff 05 in Jmii. ; JH?iiveeii an. uif, u* and 2. fcillowiiig vowel 3 m>mi- 

iH^jcallc ^litSe, zii is LifsetEeiJ^ as i]i ihe name AnaStivAiol. 
*M ixt 'Jii^ iii[iifiiii3lLijii ci Is :i ^tisilntllj projiniuiced, vcxy slioi'l 





3S [ii bed. 
J.? ill door. 


/ 


aa ia Rne, 


£ 
jt 


jL- in gel. 
ns ill kliii] 


f 


as in Jivc- 


nl 


;ls in me. 


n 


jis in iii'tw. 

iLs in i>in : bivt Without the FaUowloe spirltus a&]ier add ofL«i 


J 
j 


nturb, 
as Id ?e«; always Toii:dras, 
^ofLer ihnn B^^Jal^ *- 'war d, .vilhoul f!ic folbv^Jt^^ SpSritUS 


w 


a;pi?r. 
as iu winter; a con^vcirtniiil u. 


V 


a^ln yard^ iifivay^ conMuljiUit- 


**£ 


a'i ill i"iiig or 'oig- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT J 

dj y. in jicni. 

ij ai in duxE:; r^/ and t; ;iro -dental?, not palalil&j Sr-ec|ueDtly 

ihey are near ds aod ^fi^ (d and t '^niouiUe.") 

C, ft, q, f, &, *, i, finri Lbe EiLglii'li fritalivt' fft arc mrt in t^e Igorat Al- 
|i]iabei. (C rinil ^1 ;irc U6i:6 lieie in ilti cmnbinRdon jA aniJ in the dialectic 

jjjiiltural ch.y 



INTERCHANGJ-.D SOUNDS 



3 



[>la[ec(ic ^rUlinrw a-nd individllHl tiWonaialHity in i>rrmnrn-i:iti^ 
Caiis<:r:] ■^me diflicnUlc^ in %^|^ilillg (luivn irir ivorrk, a^ lliey ivcri> s|^>f.kcn hy 
Tgi'.r.ft from ihe!>c riiwn^' Eo]uoc, Eaniokl, Alab, Tiikukim, Ha^iS, Ssg- 

adfi, Tjiukons. Sjibmiefirt, Kono^an. O^tJri an l^oiot pTi>naiiiii'al ii word 
(iSfcrciitIv :il dillcrdit liiiifs, titiiig evidently viiconicio-n^ oE tlie viclalLon, 

^r. wfikli lia? Li^LiJJIy s cieHT Muntl, i*. ?nnielinic^ Oifiwipred, fsjiecralli' in 

inacccntctl ■^ytUUIej. Tn d few words llll1l^l a h ini'-ti:ii!ifi^C'\ With i, Jis 
ill ti/iJtji, 'ip4f, <l>e prqiO'iiiiin ?j or id : ividtji, ap<h, a^ orad. c ;m<l i are 
^"-avs clo^c iin.l llit'ref^i"': triii^l^iilly iinercliani^nJi oEltii b \s iiroinJiinitd 
b^iead Thii^ ''lie ninkft' is: knp(*na, kap/no. bapha, kifp^ntt. Cold: 
lifSi'nj^, i'tri'iy^, Itfrcng. Also fji and oy arc inttrclianged ; ^yrf.'w^ and 
p(jdSyeb.'-i kill." 

Close y ^iirl 1^ (as Til>fiv-e' c antl n .nre iiilercTii-^niCctl ; internitrji^lc 
saiinda, c'.'pn;5H?med bj S, seem 1^ be pre(crr*d; firfyo, i-;/^H, irf?j^^ ; ^orid- 

Tlie fcllowing mtctdianges OCTiit : 
btrl^veen / and *; M^y' -""^ ''^hdyi: woir^n: fdfQ and ft^J^! ?[oiie. 
btlween p and fr; fi/^ff* ^«<* pf^°^- topi^^ 
between fe ^nd g^ fei>Hif?prit -auA ginUfdrnk : "1 said." 
bcl'A'een ( anJ <^i Ji>>nf*/rdfe and dom-^iifl*: I retiirrt. 
litUeeiL d/ ail<J i^, djfla -itid d^Jo; tongut. 



6 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOK'TOC ICORQT 

hei^iirtii ij and i^ unii df and d; ijdkdnt!^ tiSkSm-f, djSko/iiif, ddkam!'. we, 
heiween sk and s: J<tf, dfha: dog. 

Ill 3 few jurticiec p iiilercluii^es widi it; pay^ iiav: pan, ifljj; /i^'n, fcin. 
(Ill ilil= bunk ilie (iiniis wiih ^ !►, *, t. dj, ij src preffrrH, br;i;aiisc 
Ttonl'ii: ■ricii U'&f ihein inosllj. Collal-etal Entiiis are glveTi ■>ti;j5luni«lly 

Very rarcty die coiiifiinaiion? -kyii 2114I -k^n iv<?re lii[er";hji«£rd ivitli a 
jiiiLHir^l like ch m Scotcli lirtli, or in Ti i\aclicni t'A lya? fyuml Irul [v^ii^c. m 
collateral ffl3'iii&: dcf\M f<ir rf^jH, day; iud fr[djj£j^c/rfi for ladn^dk^^, Lljjti. 



ROJARKS 0^" PHOKOLOGY 



Afler llie diafeclk and iiidiviilu^t fiiter^3]ig?s ^i;/^t p^onclic cH^IJif^ 

stiall iifnv he cnn^iiiiercd 



4 Vi>w[l As^JTuiladon Idbes plarr occHaiod&lly, as: iontSlfnk tor 
jjjHid/iflft, I j-elurn; mUkisi^^ak for mii^/fJjtf^s*^ f fall, 

i [if Ihc iircfis in chnni-c^ Jo f or ^ btfurP t and f; Oi ij, ns ^igkdUok, I 



5. CoTitraoiLon ia rare; even in a series of like vowels ^ich is pro- 

nutlnced dittini:!]^, a^; srrmd-n-ab, I go home. But jI&o Ihese slurred forniii 
■>cciLr in rapid convcr^ijujon: mHitiibidk for vfjrflj&ffiijit. I '■moke; akt^na for 
*tJ(f^no, "lie carries ;" fi^ntdko for ifdenfJko, "-we set" 



fl. Synaeresi? 15 found in: iflav' (*^i" "tld) far lud/^d, "not cxJadng;" 
fre<[iien(:l> lln? prefix ma- before nn i- Verb is iinil<:d inloODesylTablc: tnUf^fo 
(or; iii/'^iuj for ™fl//g(D| being held. 



y. Apliaerff<ii« lake? pket a^Lisr i^ preceding vowel ! p/in I3lififi' Hts^no, 
the man works, for e^nfxuiw; thus ihe ligacnre 'y for ayj 'n for the particle 



THE LANGUAG1-: OF THE UONTOC IG^RUT 



ffl.; 'j OT 'i?i for the prepoaiiion is. Aphacrcsii affccis mostly s, £ and i. 

i/Stticc: Mriicaim f-jr JT^. Avtencaiio, Gmafdo for ^^uiHjJdu.) 



8. Syticopr. Tn Verhil Eooc^ a ^h^ri vowrl lnjl^s'cpn two curaonanis 
is dr*i^|Kd, if prt;fiweR nr Riil+i^fty arc aj^jrlufiriHtd. Kwam|ik^: Rw)f: 
tij-ed: dptek. "I iiieel-" E. ijipab: ndtpab. liavirig betn caught; R. Uimor 
mddno [itatai^], heing worked- pSshong, sea; pdfhn^ek [^tF>wjfi|, "L iiiuti- 
ilaie," R, jWfffi: pf^m'fe, I break, fld/>[f«, htoktii; R. sibfarf: nidsfad, beiii^ 
aiiswefed- 5d oi l^to [ foJf^J, lliree; //j/ra, five- katidek -. kahndck, "I divide 
iflto ihre^ into live pans." 



Lf. A-pncnpe; ^ for ta, iTiat; j' [i'l'] for (lie peraoiial articfe a. before 
a v<^ivcl, if ihe preceding word ends in a vowel. Oilier in&lances art very 
rare. 



la S^varalpliakni otcurs regLilarlj' in liijraworri'i, if a mule ii separated 
fr^n ilic Vnllo-^vint; \i<\n\A, as: 5p. (r<;ti, Ig. J^Wu; Sp. ttanvia, If. tSldhia 

CufJSONANT CSANCSS 

|]. AijsiTrijIiiioii. The iia^al 'i^' uf die preliit-es luajjg- and p-ang- 

Ixifiirc K f, p Eo HJ, and ihe /^ /". p diMppear ; 
litfj^FC d, f. dj, if, di, 1^. ariiJ aliio hefore s 1o jj, and tbc^c ini- 
tial cnnsonaiitg dE^iippear. 
Before j; and t i.lie nasal ng rciiiains. unchanged^ but £ ami A- dia- 
apptJir. 
Examples wiW be found in tlie sccliniis ireaiiiig of (he Komcn aKenil^. 
Bill if n£ ii no! (he rcmiijiaEioir of ina/j^- m fau^-, the leltert i, t, c'c, d^ 
Bui di ■ifippear - as r d");siij much ^ iiflHgijlj', nnly. 



12. In Bontoc the rcgTjTar form k^tkch is clianged to: iikkck. "I 
know." Other eimilar assiiniilatiQiia sccrn miL 1^^ qccui. 



THF LANGUAGE OF THE EO>JT0C IGOROT 

13. Befnre a ll<]uid tin bennea t, p. t btcciiic frecjuentl)' nwiiliac ^, ^, d. 

14. Ecfoye a teuuis a moriij [;h^i:ifie? foiitetijiie^ into a teinii&. 



ig. jV bffort labiaU 15 rjrcty d^^imihT-i?'! in in. .V before g and h 



lf>. TiUctvocfllic t is sometinie& instrtnln nnil I Itelweeii tivo u is Ere- 
(TjiTently dropped ; ;#l%(i / Ijelweeii livo oilier ^-owcli IS !^^[ in wclain ivotiIs- 
(The ■c<:[hJi|>M?5 'tJ Inicrv^jcalic / setmi tu br i>n<: uf ilic cliar^cEeriscica of ilie 
dialect of [he loivn ^/fl&, as: i>i,^^fliiii, I ant ,^^l Ahl>-iii^ii, i? uauolly puj- 
ncniLK-ed; iy-fa&jjfe,) 

Ex,iinplf*^: y. iii.=eried; paik/ieir [/•atk^hk], "I slop," trom Rodi /'W 
[f'jiiLJl ; ifiifkdianlia, iheir weeping, from H- Ska; drom /i?d, a servant i 
i^dkk, "I i^frp-il nui]" fla^jtdij^^'flrt for innkaiaytnti wiilltfl. or ^raidied (C 

Lloii; jjuj^tWt for uiuiiASk, I get; (fyiif Wf -7Wa, come! ^dSinrp^W. 

Kn; (li? verli "10 bung" h-i* ilirmigh^wl dc^ibk fitnn^: iydik and iydlik. 



T?. Final J bHones often a sonant liqii-id, simikr to i in our word 

bottfe. 



1^. LaWati-^trLUs i^ found in ^1 looriwrirris with r; Ricardo bi.turnt!i: 
Licaldso; insurreclQ?: ^ns^tliktosk, ora*i; ^laz; cargador; kai^ads^I; libro; 



19. P,P,li,t^},ti, change re&FKiccively jjiio b, g, d. vihfsi Qtey bfromc 

fiiiil cijii.i^omiLls, especiiilly in f<:r1airt verbal fOtTTT!- 

l-inal b, ^,d aTeoitvn Sf^irtdv audible; ltn:y rorne then ntar a spiriius 
lenis. (Tn donblEul case.-, these ^i>iind^ were elici|-cd by inducing an Igorot 
(o siiffis tt^f p^E^e??iws, which ri.rf, after conwnaiils: i'j> ^iid wo, my and 
ibv or yoij, Ijut., afiei vowela; k and m.) 



TEC LANGUAOrL OF THE BQNTOC IGOKOT <j 

ai Before g. mnwnanl f cbangefi into ft (or ^) ; arid dj. ds, it. Is atio 
dor t. 



DOUBLING OF C0TJ30Nj\NT9 

^1. Wilhoiit -diiy iTiJeiii rc^^on cotisrui^nl^ are fre^iLicnliy d<jiiljltil. 
One of theoi ^^es with the pr^f^lmg, <hji; wuh Ihe i.tH.nviiTR i^im-tl. 
dm/f/w-Jiid, old men- //Afg-ng-j't, "I hoai." 



:^A F,fr. /;in?umaElyiini.<l[,uPilea(]jLiLiii fr<**/fft, I kiimv); Lh-e mediiit 
;ii* i>lnct-l jHjff.rc tlfcse lelter^i insttani. ?■;: V, |;i, ^/f. A iiirimcntary [lau^c 
iiittfi'vciitf<i |i^tu'<:cn. b nnd f, jv jiiij t, (f jind l: Jjji3jiifi^.^/J. girl , f4b-fdl-]&, 
young Dian ; Mdllg-kCng, naui^ oi a lawd i tAd-ij^ngao, kiai, 

i.-^. A ^\^^ril li^', ^'v man)' ^yllaljlt' i^s il has vnwcl^ ar 'll|i!itliflnp&. 
One incervncallc crui'^iii.Tnr Jtoe^ willi [he noxl I'O^-eli two iiHecof^ljr lon- 
'.01131115 ai'-e divide^l and dinJr[hntKl ^\\.\^\^ twi Syllablea. Nj^ ml il;c com- 

lunaJion;! i?/, (/, dn, a zi^c f^niadered a^; one suuniL 

Sj^i-iiii, "wc Mke:" n^K-!^ri-ni?-!jii, ih^^y woiked ; t-tsiFO-tsdo-ko, 'Tgive/' 
tdt^-iviji, year. 



2^, M-lien dividing vi'urd^ [nio syll.ilile'; iLvhicti aever^l Inorot did ,fs 
cleverly as If rli^' lud been schooled), llie liiiaL consonant iii ■^iinir iirciiiies 
waaoflen cloubfcd; inanR-*i^d-tt>, rwkniE-. 



^S- (ilotlsf Check. In certain Tin-coniiioLiiided word^ a single coii*fl- 
iiaiii: htlwcen \-om'<:1s i?- pianoniiced. v!\\.\\ ihe preecdiiiK voiuel and wparaled 
Eij a dislin-cl pau^e^ a Gfollai t^heck, from the following voii'el, slciiil.Tr lo 
the hiatu? bEtweea two vowd?^ The occurrenqe of ilie doii:il Check i*i 
ftlricllj- idiomatic; the ivocils (mostly d-i *■■-}'] labic) lii MhLcli il 1^ employed can 
Only be learned hy ohsetvatinii. Fii lliese Exniiiple* the Glollal Cliecfc i^ 
marked hy /: 



10 



THE LANGUAGE OF THF. BOWTOC IGOROT 



■y^n/5 


kii older bcollicr 


tit /two 


true 


jin/is/f 


several brolhcr:? 
and sistci'5 


dy/ib 


erap« 


t5t/S 


Trail 


m/6 


penile 


£/ik/in 


I 


ad/f 


not [orf/] 


ib/a 


companion 


UUp/an 


3 loivn 


S/Ss/Sk 


like Linlo 


KSn/itang 


a lown 


pdd/o 


big slone baninicr 


PQl^p/i 


a seclion uf IJunl'^ 


iig/nt 


winnowiuB Iray 


Lan^fdg&R 


a proper name 


&m/fn 


all 







26. Syll;il>lcs ^rp iiiO'illy ?hnt[. Leiiglliening i& Ii5nsl1y cau?€J 'by 

accfnt or con^lrurtiiirtj lengiheneil syllables are \t\it. Ktile longer ihan short 
i.yllabJts. 

At:CFWT 

27. Ciieat incDiL^tancy previLils ii: accejitLJilJoii. lit di.'r&ylliihic wnrda 
tbe accent is u^iually on ilic paemililina. If in fnilv^ynibic word^ ihc anle- 
paeriulilnifl isi acccnied, 9 lesser K«nT is place^l <>o ihe uliin^a, 

Snnn-imicp uiords coiisi^iing iif ihe same wminl? bill rtl rlllT-crci-t mCniTt- 
ing ate di^tineui^cd hy different acceiiiuattun. 

sTiowii in ftnb£«:nn;rtl chaptcrii, 

b^USTLECATTOK 

2R, ReduplicaTinn, exiireiLiiin^ varioii?- ideas, as inieiislty, frc<|iiCTii:y, 

r^jetition, elt, i^ mo^c common. Tlic dllTerenc forcns nf redupliralion ;md 
tlieir fTrploynieiil will be di'!r:iis.flfd Iriler, 



29. The Bontoc l^orst speaks h[5 language in a "ilraishtiorvh-ard and 
hsrsh manner [''"{fftjojjj^dwijftyo inlittdek." He i^nol ashamed of bciiaj- 
ing emotion in hi5 inionation ; yet any excess of emolion, especially if 
expressed by pathetic chanting inlonation^ a ciiaracteristic of some toivns^ 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE RONTOC IGOHOT 



II 



h Iniii^tcd Ijy the Ecmtoi: Iy6t-cit tuW without hniiior— At the timt of cre- 
ali.m '.T a liclk laler hf* Idngiiage ami hi'i manner rti u^ing il vv'hIS- if unfit 
for comnicrdal ptr^ua^imi, tbal h\^ God.Itjindiir^g.deoineriii wiseto rrap^- 
fer the j,a]i ^nd day (Eor p^iirry) lo olhet inwn^ ;ind to more suave aale^- 

ineii |ser; t-uifdmig iS to ?6]. Since iluise dfly= tlie Btniia: T^rol prefers 
w^tririK Bcid jLiakin^ lipcirpi, ^hkld& and axes nui] n[][ni! ilit snil lo ihe pur- 
SUIT, of irjidt, lie is prnurj of hi?, jdioiii, which he ?|teak*:i Mfiidly and as 
negligently 35 lie chi>05es at Limes, -widi a manly ^nd syinpailieiit voice. 



THH ARTICLE 
3a The Arlidtt Mi It&i or d&n, st, tfd. 



:^t . A'rfH ^iriri ,Tp« are Used wfth ^ppi^HiTlives (fenotiriR pcr^^ri'i, aniiiial& 
iiT]^ lliiiiS^. coiicrclc ornl ab^cracl, of 3II Ei^TtdJ^rs. in singuli^r hthJ pkiral, 
Jlie'i? arllclcs tOrrrijiKjnd to our ileJinirc Hrli^l|- "ihc;" Ihey are aluo u'irn] in 
Bio^tcaw? ^vhcrp \vr ust the indefinite art [tic and, wiih Reneric force, where 
w't oiiiii: Ihe anitlc- 

{There is iin indp'Tinile article in Boolnc Igorrti; Ita. one, 1^ a niinitr?!, 
bnt has not been wtnkrncd lo mi imjeliitite article^ In the canihinatir'n Hir, 
rsa it means a ccriflin [>i|<;, yr, if rcpeiiLtd ^i c:»rreliiL[>T, Ihc one— Iht onhtr, 
It is iLiucli more emphatic lha.n otir indefinite arlicle. Hi>w nn irileHiiiH! 
direct oUjccI of an Evnclisli verh is exipre^&cd in Ti^iWt, by iKi: "]>i:r5'jTi^1 
verb" and ih-r. prc|io&iliun Ji, but witliom any article, will V ^^ii^intd in 

In Ttiifijl: ihc arlicle denoles rallicr thst a fiubstuntivc ip Inlicri n': ri 

^vholc iLiiui Ihat it 15 d-cfinite. 



5J. A'iffi and ViiJf art n-Ol inflecleri. They coTiNt of the lo-ialivc 
adverbs (^vlikli ?ervt iil?^J Afl pi^rsortcil and rtii tlcniUiUJirjUvc prcinijun&) na, 
here, or ja, fhcre, and ihc aggluiirjaieri "lii;aiure" n. 

f-'on ]i ali^ays iise<! in coii^er^tion \riih appelhiiive'^; it '-^ afsn i.isc4 
exclusj vely v,'ilh Nomina Jicliojiis and Nmnina agenlis of Verl**., and mMi 
names ol twms after tlie preposiiioii d, if the ajwaker tb present at Hie kj'vn. 



1^ 



THE lAN(itJAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



Smr is <oiiinJ ill n^rr-iiiv^-, lrt:kl.fre, songs, etc- It is UHd with Bub- 
sltfnl-lvf:,s which hnvc ?ici:n Tin:n|Hirir'l ln'iari; iik a s|i>ry ijr whicli arc Mip- 
poMtl l<] In; fjni-ilisr li> Ihc |iiltiii;r, A iiutiiliiT lA cxHmjtlts in fhr IV'als 
Finil ill rlilsc rrlj[|iiin In ,rir, llicrt: ^ni] llial, perniil sniiseliiiics 1" Irjjiistate .'ran 
by I'lirast'i ll'kf;: *li;it ^vcU known, ili,|[ :3liihvc i[ii;n[lr>n[<l, ihiit l^niiliar... 

Nv di:IJni(c rule hn llir iiin*^ ^ij .fii'i irtn be i^^UWi^litJ, Tlic ][,'rjTul 
iiileT-.ii.in!;'.^! ii. In each -Cdv:, ivitht>u.L Jmit'ilioii Id nn't. 

Examples ; 

nan ktlyan^ 
HUM p!ua}ig 
nan k&idsay 
is FSitH Fiiiito!' 
rj nnn Tfik/^kuFt 
is rmn Mu-nHa 



>ian S&ldii-i 


the man 


itan fSf^yi 


rlie u'QTiUTn 


na'i angdnga 


the child 


nan Jjrf 


Hie d^p 


f Off f^ti'ik 


ilie pi^ 


nan dfoiig 


the lioii^e 



IliP ^pear 

Ihe ax 

|]ic ^liitJd 

in Hontoc , .. . 
- s,- Li ine sj>eaket 

m lu^-iirin', , , ^ ' ^^ 
M.„ila (i=»E..T.M. 



in 



jiTjj tdkii rlic {alrefl-ly nicniii>ncd) pcupk. 



jj Tlic Pergonal Ardde ii cctisists of -*, which representft probribly 

[he nrLitJe cJcijk'-lii. and f, ^vhich i't'''^c^:H(;'j ^J^■^L[l^sl^^^livl: lor^c- ,Vpj j" its 
oripliial [<iriEi j' [ot j/c'J, is often aJftxcd lo Ehc liudl vhm-lI oi a prttiding 
word 



;^i. Si L^ eiii]>li:i>'ed as a deJiniie artrcle with tho ncDiJiiatLve (and "accb- 
*3live") of 

I. Proper iiamea nf Fctsotis. 

3. Subatfintivps deiioiiiij; kiiislit]>, where -li is iiitcTchanaeahk ividi 

Esajfipltsj si AiiaAivii^a!: si Miii^g; nPiimna^; si FSloitgicng (i. 
e. "/i'H^to"}; si Ak^miy: si A^gay; si Tdkay; si S^yo. 

si 4"ia llif failief ji yfijj/3 ihi okfcr bratlier or sister 

si tn& Ihe iiiother ji dndtji itie yoiiiiget hrolhet or siater 

si ^i^ft'ini Che liusban'l or ^vjle jj ikid the grandfaiher 

^1 preceding a proptr name with an initial vow'i:l iind frjl[ijwin^ ii wor*] 
uilJL a ritiiil vowel ia chan^fid. lo .t' or ,T^i' in tb<:5<: c^kiimi^ka; 
/nM ^' Ant^rp? where is AntcrO? 

iniiiilH ih' 0{S$huii Oloshan li;i5 come 
t«"[iifl ?■■ Smjfifil ills fillicr comes honn: 
AyAkany-it ih' fnH calt molher! 



TFF I.AXGUAGb: OF TJlF. UONTOC ICrlilRt^r li 

^ [sh'l L9 also found aometimea with projicr namts hejjiiini-n^ willi ;i 
consGii^iQl; Hnmdii ih' i- tinged, l^^n^e^ li^^ returned .^fni, .^h' ,\tttfyi(i ^ vf, a 

pS"! la c][>sely c<aiini':rf'il iviih the i>ro]nr name or term of J^nship mil can 

iiol hi: ii5H?d, \i a mri'lilii:r ^l^^:l:^ll^^■^, ;ii"Lbe g<>od inthsr-.^'ita't (iiol ; si) hazels 
ay lima; Ihe ilirpo uncle? : tian ti}l6^y Hialtt. 

i\'a'i wciT!* ji^O tc- In: pt-olcrieiL, U iU'iS imd InA ha^t Hie p^^'^^ic'^slve ^nf- 
tixc^ of tlic iiril pct'^nn slii^ulir, my; v-an dmiik. my (allicr - nan in^k, my 
mulhtr. 



3^. -Si foniis also compoun-da witb same personal pr[taaUbfl,ifljiAt/-'K, 
I; i/ftj, ^il™i j'j'*, he; sttodi, that; jAifl, who? etc. 



,0. Tin? pergonal j.rl]'cle Ji must hoe lie tonfoirndcd ^v[|Il ihc iiiveitecl 

form I'E ilie lr>cailve pre|io^it[rm U, \a jjlitases l[k[; diim ^iiftjU.do^^ hcjtd; 

AmirriLaii soldier— ji is of course noi the anicJe^ hix 76], 



37. Pkciiiaoli^ ii^t of artkk& occur^alw.bul rarely, ai- tniS aa'i si 
A'taBtii'tdxat/ vs'Liere is Aiiaui'.s&iil! fHPf f j Liin/'ht'Ig^ [he Igorut'ii littd 
LumawLg, 

^^J!. Jn El if^flf:! M substantive? tlu* tirtiole is placed U) <;Jicli ' Tifur */"Aaff 
yd nan tlifa;y vii nan p!ini»^^sh y3 ttan K^'i^-'^i. llic kpife, spear (lil^'lc), 
UK (blade) and ^lin^- 

y^. TBic CnlkcEive l-'<:rMiiiaf Ariid-e. K ^omc sub&lanlive? — usually 
tvo 1^ proiH^r Li^mes or lerni^ ^>1 kiii5h[|i, are c;>nn£tted by -ind" (m Ihi^ 
ta^: ftc>i} Itn: Cilleclivt Article (j(i [J.-^S] [5 placed ^oLrle^i^leB belore llic 
series, and no other article is employed ^vlilf any of the foll<nviii^ ivoid^; 
lia Oi^shJn kert LaK^^^Sit vfM-iytjd 'md, Olo^haii and l-Jfti^agan rtrt ijere. 
trU J'^pafdsna kHH PdSpdltiking. PjlTfaliuna ^nd Pal|>alakin£, 
ijA A^ni ken Ina, father ^nd modicr ; ijH y1^i/n t^JJ d-r^^jV, ilie older and the 



14 THE LANGUAr.R OF THE BONTOC 1G0R0T 

"The ]i!Lrcnls" i^ ^omelimes eHpresi'?rlE)>'oiic^L]b^taTilive, fallier, niotlief, 
preceded by ffft: ti^ tit'iihi^ Eii. Iliey his fatbcr; l/S btdnS. lit, they hia 
iiinllifF, (T, Cf\. 

Tilt U'.l' "f Ihc Coileciive Fersoiiil Arlicid iiinoEat aTl comfiion ■ Ehe cou- 
slructjoii : xi rffljil y^ st 'InH. idllicT and iroiIilt, i^ preierrod. 

Tja is n\<.t} I'lTmiid in (.omlj[nEil[oTi ivicli pronimns in il^ial and pliir^rl, ai: 
/;"d/(il, we boLli (you nM Ui tjakamt, wt; ijiUt^a, Itii-y; 0"t^ Ji7P(s, tlic;5Ci Jj<f 
J5[Ji, thoie, etc., and ^s sullix ckrJV<:Ej iri>iil pronuunj.. |«a, loG, 195. j 

<Jih€i- remark? aJKiui ili(? use ol ihe Arfjelcs ivili lie loiind in peversl fol- 

Ju^vm^ sections q£ Ellis Grammar 



THE LIGATURES 



40 T1kIi\<:i]j word^ ivhi<jh arc llfcijuf-ht In hi? in cl'^'^c connccliaii niili 
enrli ■.iifirr siiuic pi,iT|icli:& Jirr iiljv*:<l ivliicli ciiay Ic- called Ivijiaditc^. 

Tlwor^iH (^flllc-': Lii;;aiirta iSiS yftl Urtknewtl; hefe it may ^iilTice to 
Bay flui Llii-y urr hm-iI v[-ry i:>:tiTisin?ly, -iconriJin(f [o dii^dncJ rules u'luch 
QTC ydvtii in sevxral =iil>.«T|iif nl tliap|-i'rs 'A iliis Crriniinjir. 

some "knoivled^c n( Lin- (luiriion ff Ihe J.igjlur<s. 



4,r. H^y or 'y serves as a coiiiieclive Lhelwecii a iubstnntiwe and {la 

allnljulivc ad]ec1[vi? t^liicli can eilfier jiicccdc or (olli>iv: 

ijjM f^tSs ny /tfi'tg tlic ^iiiall Iiqusc 
ttan i:^\'u ay tfpljo the Vjjgjj tree 

itan iiSytJ'y i/ittj^ 

nrbettnefii a sub^ljinti^-e and its nniuentl: if^Stty f^lfgy -fmir pigs; 

or- Itfiivceii fl '^iifjslanCiix or pronoun and apposiliOTii imn i ^^IffSay lU^ntnk, 

ihe Tgoroi, Btijiiocratn; f/iif'3' i;^n/ii-, you, jis Lhcokkr broUier- 
i>r Itflwc^n tiling nnd niaCenal; iingal ay f&ltdog. an earring of gold- 
[jr beUveeri dtmanslmtLve pronoun an-J subst^nlivc; nunndy ay iH^dft, ihf? 

i:lLicLtiii 



TJIE lANOLTAGE OF TliE BONTOC IGOROT 15 

or between -oiir "nicccMlenI and n rcliJiive clau'^c;" fnlS nan fSldkf ay 

iian£-f!i is nan ftHl^g? wliere is th^: man ivEio ruok tho ipr^r? 
or, ill our gratiiTiiiiicjil cf>ncep[ioi:i, ln-rnri: :^ ijtpendcnL JniinLlive: ISyijlk ay 

fimUy. T v^'artl co en j 
or before ii "parliciiile" iiKnlifyiiig 1 v«b" khnvdnliti^y ^wm^r^ttr, lie ^^iil 

■oJiyinE; 
nn'l in a iiuniljej- nf ijHicr in'ilaiice'^ tn ^e rreaUd in various ^ecLions ot tlila 
Grjiinmar. 

./v h imaccciiLc.l, oin-ri ■^oirctli-- aiidilile. Ti Ih-: pTcceding ivlird ends 
in nwi -.fH'n '^ylfalplc, fill'; r.italiirc [3 iiijiially riUaclinl, jn Ihe l.friii '31, to the 
filial voi\e], liticcially id j. it, «, .^uinclmit^ in ^^ raroly lo 1' or f, tint tn?n?r 
11 ,1 ^ll|lll|l|n||^, 

-^1' luij- nn t[|iiiTakiil in iTi* In do-Germanic lajipurie<:'i fl cannot he 
ii-,iiiJiJ.iLi'<l. Ifn^vevtT, words lilii^ "'namely," or tlic rL'^iiii-i^ pmnriEin iviifitbe 
Mf|ni.l:i iiijiy Ijn.il]ia1c. if iieccfis,-ji'%', ^\k cujiipriliMn^ion oi ay in ni.my cases 
where it 1- ■i-.-.l. Thus tiy '\il1 reca'-iori^lly In; reiideTed in [liU iKKik by 
*'who (wliidi) i':, nr-c, iva-^, Tvcre " 

TjuE It sli'jiil-l jl^.jvb be ikcpl in niiini, lliziL Uils !■■ bv no inean*, a direi;| 
tiTiii^il^iTn^n f'f ef|Li['ih'[^t (>l fly; il ia only a means for <:v|i|,iiiiing ceri,i[ii gon- 
atructions in n'hkh ay occurs. 



42. Tljc T.jjjfliijTt -fl dn.Tchctl lu iIk liiifil "^'owcl of a ^iih-ntiinrivt or 
Ndiikii nclliiiiis l'rillii-,i'rd fiy ;iri octuT ■jiibi'lantLie ni pioii-rtun, indj'jl'.'s Ihat 
theseworifsstLndin a rcbtionlo rach olher, the Eni;li'li e-;|i][\ alenl Jor which 

wr^iliUn? apnsscs&ivc [i^eiiliivt or ^ '^iil)j^[ivi' jjcmlive. Tlie woril i>Trli ilit' 
^iifTiKcii -Ii h ihc iinnieii I'eRtn;, Mil' ih-xi ^.aril nj-mc'^ llic |ni-i=csjo[ nr aRCJil. 

iiii^i fobdi\ga'i nan tatdM the pipe trf the itijlh 

it^iiii liSH lobfdUa Uie young" iiiaiira giving hiiLk, or "ihc yoiinp man 

Sivtf*. tincfc." 



4:S' y'^- ivliich may bp comrfdered a Uq^Enre, wrv« ns copula betwesi 

9. ^iiiy^';intive ami ckc suEi^orpiifin |>i'eiiicaLivc ?ifh*ii,inclv-i', ^dicctivc or active 
"|i^rln:i|>le" (i. e. v^tIitiI adjecliie of a "iiur«^jiial verh") ; ihr? rnupfn yn i::in 
only Ix: u!:i:lI, if llie&e P"fs<!]4:aEiv'c ekiiienns follaiv <]ie siibiect. [Btfveeji 
Mibjiti ;in<l JLi-live |jarliri|ilc. ya is frnzqncntly oiiiilCetl ] 

jjffw lal-^Myc nasi filtwfdko \\\.f^ nmn l5 iny fri&id- 

nai kiiy& ya dittjo llic Ircc i: lii^h ; 

itnn minsdi'kld yti inmdtS Ibe girl "ia bavin^ coam," has cook. 



i6 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONlTOC IGOROT 



'I'lii: c'i|J!ilri y(j ii3int Ih- <^in]>lH._v<-iJ l.i'iwceii tiie 6ubJ«t and ihe foll'>wiiiu 
P-i'^'iivc |i;irliripli' (oi a "]Hii'it^iii--<: vi:rlf' ) : 

nan lalilki yn i[i(tT!fid ihc ni^n WfH bound (imprisoned J. 

This copulative ya must he 6{^l\a^u]!i.i^ iiotD ths canjunctlod ya, aod, 
also froiD tbe affirinative particle yO- [433,] 



TflESLUSSTAMTLVE 



44. I Vimiiivc Siilj'.liiiilivc'i in Ltocuoi' ie;iirat ciiTisk! inn.'^tlyof a di'^iyl- 
\*hir. root ;md nr-c n:i.n;i|[y ;t<:L;<?n(''-j rjn Oi'' piii'TiiilLiinrLJ 



fi/ bid, (a^vn 
Triij 11,1b IT ''syifwdii 



.!;j|!yfljj;; *ij>ear 
fj^iuim iv^cer 
M'ai-CT- hulT^lii {vlldj 
bu'ihaEid nr wife 

Soirn? Jippear in r-edii|jli(a"lrd f'»rni; 

Pcrion^: laltfki w\su fl'Myf woman 

fohfdUd yuunH man tflgmdpM^ 

Aiiiiiiala and Tilings: dyttyam bird ti^ljv" Irtcii&t 

iJl/^ig a. fish fdbfa^ troe: f^'-^' f^i: 

Jjrftyd imoii^e flnHfojifld ljn[(':r[ly /''^i;/'"*^ pulilic Eore.'.l 



dfilJ^fr 


way, roa<l 

|]n.iid 

enemy 


kal^aay 


bnHle 

^iiieid 


nn^^'igd 


child 


I'Ouiig girl 
old ivinian 



*5,. Tlie derivaLJOL] nnd jueaiiifli; ^i \->t'^\--^t niijnc^ iird 'A ^i^i'^T.^p'ilcil 
n.|lllc^ (li< wlilfli H 11^ L ]■: given in [lie Appendix lo lln:Or;imiii;i.r) ■^cnin. to bi.' 
fiTgnllrn by ibe I^nr^i, nor Is it poaeiblc to determine eiyniult^ically (hur 
sigriiricati'jii. 



nor iiilfeclion ru indicalc <:^a'.: nr niinihcr 



THE LANGUAGE Ul- JUE fiOifJTOC IGOROT tj 

4/ Tft di'.ljni^isli ^^x: r.f por^fliis; ^nj jiuiriafs the viord& lilliiki or 
fAfayf^ msl* ir,c (enisle, Jire pld-cd hjicc iK.- Mibstiiniiv*^. ^oniienrta] Ihv wy. 



d^ffitzvd-'y !ald^i 


iLUabanri 


ydn/n^'y laliTki 


rj]iJcr l)rotliT'r 


'I'ifficu^S 'y f II f if yi 


ivifc 


yihi/ii'y foffiyi 


"I'I'T zvmir 


dniik ay Isl^ki 


*'>ii 


ikfd ay htdki 


t,T:lrir|ijHlli?r 


dnSk ay fafdyi 


<Uugliler 


ikid a\ ,'-rfi7vi 


^^riiJidniiJtlier 


dsj^'y JaJd^i 


lll;j k' i]u^ 


kftjin^ a-v laltiH 


lir'-giirir 


ifiS\- fnfifyi 


^^mnlrj fl^h^ 


JiUjh!^ ay fulifyi 


?;1lc-^^ii^|[ 



Tlie di^LiiuLiiin ■male" or "female" is omitted, if fhe Bor is unimpOrtflnt 

Or nifdcrslnirhi frirnn ilie toncext. 

SfMii* [<[^ii^e-tlt| aniiii^i]^ li^^-e, as \n most languag-«, special names for 
Ibc male uniii ibn- I.Tiink Ein-d ^\^ a name for (hfi SpKie^ i^: 
mi^iidl: cfilckeri kaJ^-.attan ci'i-k mmi^aUik lien [fiiifi^-^ i:hkk]<:{) 
f^fSb hog jf).} hoar jjj-ii ^oiv ((iindk yi'iici;; |i[j;) 

bAw^ Ume waler buJftf]'* (d^/^ bull i:iluifi1l;ifan cow (o* ftij^h^). 



4R ViiK ^ fi;^\' escepdoii^, Hk]!? is n" jilural fnirii. Frpqnenllj the 

coiirexl .iiiil ,iKri Iht suflixe* of vcrhs :ire- j^li.in'iiijj llie iiiJiiilitT, 

'noK kdy^ y& iSnffi' eIic ii'-ec !■; Iii-xli, nx- ilie trees art liisli 
jjifii (iy^y(i*i riem'J\'(iD iln? [>lrcl fli^', 
nail Ayjiyii'it tilmaydolja ific Uli'ds lly 



49, These EubstaDthres have reduplicaled pli]i?l forma : 

laldki TiiiJf iHMldki rii.Ti 

/j/fiv/ vi'i^iuari fi^fi^/iiyi [f'^l'[<'MyS] women 

fSbfdtlJi young: man fdbfdfdUe yoivag mra 

m^md'^kld girl miimiUiiiJ^lfTd ^-irls 

ffprd* diild [iiitjiprisig) ■ rfirdjrdt children 

Id various mamiers the foilDwin^ wori]B lorm ihdr plural: 

'^JJ-''"^'' I'l'il'^l J;iiiy voiing liuiniiii heiii-;) rninLri'- t:i[lii,T ii iidiangEd, or has 

i?<i^tiii^d, or bonows llie foviii tFn^itH/u-, chiliiren, 
3jji/,7iPiii iilil raaii SH»/df?HHTiJ old men fii/InU a\dvfiMi3ai hit'tni 
okl ^'onifn C'lu' J"f<* father anf( U^& m&rh*r f^iii^in ujLch;i[^ei:;il|. 
NoUci.- Ilic liniii and P]L]riLl ; -fin^ki i'xo brorlnirs i^r si^Eer^, '.fnH^/i 
^■vrral l>rolliers or &i*.ltfi5, cf. [fio|- 

\t\ ivirrsMvt' flie?-f unu^itik] ii^nn^ ^v^.■^J? founds Jjjjflt yoiidig pig! 
flwu^jjidfr, Jiin'r^'^/at hen: mangmaiTgdlak and ,taf+;*i/£pjj cock: /^[►frffSru/^ou 



i8 THE LANGUAGF. OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



^o. T[itrc 1^ rf ]^r(i^le lit Bonloc Ig'mA inditallng ihe plural nf iir>un5- 
Mratlier iwgjdfl nor Hm/Zii serve as ^iicfi pAr'icles, They e>:prcpi:i 
niiKh, msiiy or ^11, ^fl in Knglish. 



51. If nuineraia, or -oilier espre^^iiints JsTjIing niore than ■in\r, prc:- 
cdr l!i€ ^ul>Pil:iiiliv*3 which have plural ii>rni*, ihf.- sinpuiar lonii? are oflcn 
U£ed. iflfl (pW^ fdbfdilS the three yoirrg Ttien [|„ Sj), 



FUKMATION OF ?OB,STANTIV]-,S 



Bv alTi^iing ctrla-in particlr^ lo ;> rtml, someliine? wifh redni'llr^tiora, 
groups of *ub? 1:11111 ves ^rp <<>riind "^vhi^h po&^eBs each wirti]iL>rt chctractcris- 
tic3. 

AlthouglL uifliiy zexiAAnaiJion^ foimpJ thiH are strictly idi-inrflik atid 
cajinoi be cla?^iliHj, the general forte of sonie formatjv^ pjrcic^ics tfln tn 



5?. Kfl- denotes soLiieiiiLies ihaT. onr: ohji^ct 1^ lucjnt in il.s enlireiicss, 
or several logelher a? a vliole : 

kMlSng/iii tlie coffin (uJilfl^eiff), hidLJij;; wj(h all it^ pflrls Ihc wife o-^ 

Lutnftwig |L. Ki ] 
kSSSydSn ilie large J"a?kc.1: itiio Afaich Ihtf ei""! crawled [1\ 4I {tSydStij 
ItAtj^a^in Jlifr river {ij^Hum-' v^sUf}; G. G^'^'i^s^i' 
idjp(<Ff-ift liei^ ■wiih ciiictleis i^mi^ni^k) 

kSidta peracmalLly (idk/t) ; G. das Wesen ries Manner [L. 34J 
kdsShfflons receptacle, bastiel fnr an i^iieiriy'^i hear"! [H, 4J cl. (56] 



53.. AV and £emiu3iion of a dis-''_vHahic rooi. or reiiuplLCfllion of Ih* 

(irsi uvo sjllaljle^ ai a [ri^yllaftic, pri>ilutcs Cfilleccive^; if *i j:tri.Tlfr(ilc I0I-- 
Vms. H i? regularly in piui-di- 

kAisa^ldkt all men, ilit whol? crowd ; C. die Maainschafi 

klffStif^fdyi y\] ivointt], ur aJsor each vi-omar of Ih^ sssemtty 



THE LANGUAGE -OF THE BONTOG IGOROT if) 

kSadmaTnantdxkld yll the ^Jrl'i, each ^irl 

kdo'tgdofg^nga all Ibc children, <:a.ch chi!d 

kiibfiiiftl'hidiyH ci^ry frarri<.Tl niiin 

tUlifkHlJkfr every pfTsiin 

kSSfongtifonii each haiii^e, ihe wliolt ernup i>f ^niu%es 

itJcife^fTfr^i^ QAKh ilay of <i ixrlnin pericid 

ifSdsFUdsFH ^11 The dttps, eiicJi d-'f- ol a pack 

kaliivtlfdij a maiS -of vl<>inJ* i G. <las Gtwblke 



54. Ka- aiid nuimzrals deiu^te cnmp^iiioiiship: 

jjd" kapdtmi our four -cMipajiions (^/iJ^ Four) 
jiaFf tJji^HJflji our aix companiOnK (^hJht, /flfm, sbr) 
fun kalmipi-! onr five cwiip&nions (J^tfeJ, live) 



5c. Ka- aoii roi>i (and -na. wliich is the possessive siifinx ui Ihe ll^ifd 
per&on ^in^ilai: \\i-i. her, iis, and vjlLhout uhich audi iuthstaniives were 
lately oLljinwJ) form? abitraci aubsCiintiveB.: 

imn itJi^wi/rffifl its Iitighl; fiid fwa tflaflJ;Vi[ TtaFf trfjw^ how much (is) 

ihr heishi iyf Ihc Irte? how liLgli h Ihc irec? 
flflii t(((r£//Hidffo it', iruili 
nan kif^Hj^^^o [kii^dfdiiA\ ii5 iliicknc&d 
nan k^i{.^6if>i»a il;. distance 

nun hUhi^i! knowledge (iVoih ih* verbal rcN>t ff'4.' linow) 
nan h&f^hfSyfAni hisii^ler.G "das Wt?ibhchf ." 



5& -/?n, a liicalive suffix of "10 *l extensive il'ir, driinle^ a placii; fri,-- 
^fiilly llie prclis /fn- is tinpluyed with ihe same r-Xtr; 

kdpdyHifK place for ricefield 
frdt*?ysdM place for wood 
kimp^yHn LiTc|ilacc 
k^lfSnaitan waterplace 
f^Cintd3» balltep^aize 
Spfii^pSn forge (rJ/'dJp. bellov.4) 
dl/rc^Sn place "for charcoal 



20 THP LANT.UAGT^ OP TITT T^On'TOC TGOkOt 

kSf'dl&ijtm&n place ^vlicrc imii i^kept 

^abafditji^it a comiiiTiiiily house, wliere certain cermionies are perfornicdj 
^[iifl n ^le(!piii^ pkcc for nld men ^iid l>uy?. 

-rijj i^ llie eniUn^' of TTi,inv" niniTi'^ demoling a vessel, receplacle; tm^aa 
La^kei, /ifE^if-ifl jar, ^ahdan watcr-ve^sol. With wrlu^ dmotjii^ ro fill, pul 



57. -i^B is al?;rj llic ending o( many [ii\\"n=. in \.vz<it\.\ sr> \\v (ind n ihd 
Eontoc ntK-^: 'i iikHk^n; SaWJ'iig^'i; IJ^tfllkdi [Dcllc-Jr]; ^^stf^s^knH; 

ftitiiyi^n; AiiyT^/'r.^'iri. SigUiHn: Fvkti^n; I.\Y.t'4Hn; th'^kin. And al*irt 
^'iim: [in.i|H:r njiirc? cif m.cn end in -jir, ;i.i Laiig/4^^'r, Ol^sh^n, DttyipQity 



5W. vfjf is auffised lo ittIkiIe ivliirh are Foirined into nguas drnottDg 
]oc;k[iiy; [iie-^e afirmiid in Jei'tmi Linyiiaiie. Lit:? vertSn sudi noun*; lu^e 
even [Piiiporal fo-riiis, ii>r ihe presejil mid j>ri:leri[e. 

■niiL!,iiv^pAn sleeping pJace, nH'.dyi'p^'i 3 -fjirTJuT slripliijj jtUici- 
Jiik'ljffait or ifiHukfjfiaH sillin|f pl[ii;e. seat, "chair" 
i'ldldiin cooking pl^ce, prel, ifrmif^fln 

■wr-j^prfu?p, iiaif'^ai |il;i't fRini ^v']l^c^T or^ oorrn-o, oairit 
jirri/jJti^i^Pf, wfl(rfip:afl I'l^ct >v'hcr<? |'ci>;ilc lire, lived 
siit^UlmU't <]^incing place 
piiHcjnn pUte "where knives cin be liliai [jeiied, whet£Loitt. 



51? Fang- deiioies diat a prrsonor a ihln^ lielimg'i eo place or object. 

pan^dio bclQiieiiie" lo a. ■^rf lion of a 1o>in, bclnif a mfinber ihereoJ, an "Jin 

foiiipiiniini 
panf.'dfifHg [i mcjiibcr of a houseFiold, members ol the same family. 
pQngdl6 from Tr^'i ijf ^riniEiU, tisrli ^:unin:cn.'d ^vilh ibe fl^ff, h<"ad [pungSlti 

iiciir^ in "ijIJ i.^nguageL" Ibe oldt&t brotlier, "bead brLitht'' /' iww 

Cilllfll >7i^T/^) 

Jvmfif^iii i\ s<:<;lliiji of Hicnioiiniaiii range f/i^n^ + Z^^g; SaodhimleB [li]) 

fanglgniit ^ bundle of a shield, elc, {tgnait "I hold") 



THE LAKGLAGE OF THE nONTOC IGOKOT zi 



60- ^fn- is ilie prefix of unions it is usually combined with fang: 

d!tipang-, rjrcly wicli assiiuilaLl^m; j|]]|^.7ri£-, 
linSg/f l)io!ln?r5 and Bisterii logetlier, G- <lic- C<."^chiMslcr 

sittfifn^^ fling one fjiiirly 
si<ip6mll!gan one ivhole &eciliij[ fif a moiiiniiiii 
diipdngdl a[] inligbilaiils nf a (a\i-n ijr cininln' 
.'hif'd'in^i'o llie|>?iLrenEsanili;i'an.lii.ircn1-^-of mie funnily 
S>tp<ifiganifk llio cliildi'eii Jinil k;ran.khiliJrcii ui oni^ faniiJy 
sifipaiigiiUi'.niil ',[[\ i]"ieiiih lOKClhcr 
j^inkJ.iiid [iic hiocliei-f^-iii-l^w |[.. 71] 
sJnds^f^-iua luL'ifiaiid rMiH iv-ii<: : 0. EJiepiiai 

N'oiic<; ihtse leruis m whkh oiilyihe ri.nrtiii^ riri^ ii^nicil: 
ii'rdma Jjllier with his LlidMi.r cliildreii |M. if | 
smf'ti Tji4jilieir ujeIi ht-t- rliilil or rliiMreii 



'•I- !- placed ticftf^fc ill*: n^nse of a Idiiii or 1 eRio-ii di-iiol^-s e|j^ Jiiltnlr- 

nail. H-'riiilok llie Bonlotnicn ISomdkl; iyA-nttdffo 

nan lTi\kiU-a'i Ih-c man nt men fr^in T. iM&Ugkong \intMal!^k'}'\g\ 

iiaif ^^JjJj lilt Alal^ineii [^'^i^atj Si'c: [^r 6, L. r^-iSJ 

Htrt heloiiG?! rli*^ flyiLVjf.iqjy n( tht nflnie Igorot. JgSldt \Jh^m], 
S|i^n. Jynrrote^ Eiiid Ygarrolci^ is ri^id liy Di T H. P^ido dc TrL\-i:]'^ iii lifs 
"EiiiTiolo^ia de los \oiiilir-rs ilc Ra'-ii'- dc niiprim? (ci. II. Liflo, Disiciio <lc: 
I^junrn, |>. 17I in c(tii^\^\ oi i- and Hit roirn ^rJ^jf, whicli nit^im in Tn^.ili^;;. 
as Tivcr.i ^ay^, s HLniinrjiiTi tbain; hfji't IgdlC'l (or; iGdiol) ii cq^uiviileiit 
to "moumaiDeer," in German "Bprcspssen." — 

IS rhi^ be correct, tlic ijjfirulji^vi; rii|<i|il<:il llicir n:inii? frniii 7\. foreisjit 
iriljc- They have ii^ <?xpbn;[l 1 iin \o yiTiT f'^r Ihtfr Inbal ,iL>ih?lln<ive. 



63, Miii- and n^n- aggliil mated lu ;iii nbji:i:l dcnytc^ il'' o-iviicr or pn-^-" 
sessoT. fl/j"^- is ihe prC'^^nU, nUi- ih.: j>rrlcrilc iirdix: Ihc laitizr is in cmii- 
niiThji u^i?, vviihoLii reference i.f -iirn: \w-^. Stia- ex|im5u rather; EiiiaJiiiii^ 

lundf&ng rtwnercpf a houxe hiwofj^f^tf^a p'.-reon la whom ii child hfJniTgs 

niiif<!!/cg owner of a ?pejr trruw^^^ii oivn^r <.'i 3 geciCruij^, ioinrUjlli 
niKSfffrloni^ owner of a cap, hue niimiiiiug owner of a tiufTaJo 
ninp/naitg owner oi an ax nsntdpii\ owner of rice wint 



33 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



f^;^. In- i>refiKeiJ lo word^ indiciilcs llieir coniieclioii ^'illi verb?; oi llic 
"perfoniii" d.T^^; iIkv iirt verbiil rnlic<;lLVfl% Miiiilar lo pirl[c[ples jn j^Ml^c, 
Used iskib^lsjiljvi'ly. d5 inl^ifly ^ i'-;H':bni^n, injdyan, a Sfcccrer, injltf?bdk, 
[nzsiibokl, i tunjurcr Ltf discust. 



64. 5ub?;tan1ive5 with iln? Infix -f'n- are coDii«ted with th< idea o( ihe 

pcGdnci: of .in acconii>li5hi:d aclion. asi 

tfuihi!, fhttalf, kinkfd^ fhiUkn^ khda of plaited rattan 

fJ/idod !i iiiijrr it'll Eiiiin'ii li^b 

(Also "equipped with:" s'mrlaii.^fltrn. a spear with wnzny ba-rbs: m^itiiii/.) 



Cy~, In- iniixed iiun ilic raliipllf^iifd laci di?i[L'Li-s nn :n-i;oiiip(lslir<r 
iniilatinDD, Ai: hnaHflitkfi (irciti mk^, inir^iici, iii.iei 1, ^ hiirrinii iii^iirr r^irvcl 
111 ivnoei, such as ^ spogii b^iulJ^s, Qii llii; towls of C^tHJiJ 'ir^i^'- pi]>['^, ijli;. 



66. YKe names of loya sliow i. ie-lu(>lkated root, l>y which probably the 

stfl imiier J] 1^ nf chilli rfii a[1(^iii[iliiii^(a*i|iCiil[ i'^ iiiiiljihwl- 

faf'f/fp^ ^ loy 'pff^r isbdfnng it fy 1ii>ijhc 

fij.Jjft -I doK T7l^^i^' rii I'lijy kihkUfdyo a toy hors« 

wi>j^rlj]u^ n iftj l"LlJ;iJo S'lipiiyd a mortal ftf n ncc ni.intatioTi 

^Jv o^i'tT UimimUJV':'^ ^ctnl to txl-U ^:^i:q>l ihe nEiniei £or Loys, niodclt. 
imit^luiniii il "lirclc." "sm^JI" bh-^W be cxprci^ccl, Ihc .idjcciive fdn!^ is used ; 
HiK ianig ay tSflkn si kdy^^ ^hc Icatltit oi >a tree. 



67. The ^njni^l or thiJii; wilh -which OD? nalks, camefl. gees, or ii-hich 
one carries fs expressed tiy eilh^r maf^^- or htj^j- prefixed Co llie reduplic^Erirf 
jorms of 511 bslan lives; I he Sandhi rules for mang- are p;iven in [n]- 

( These prefixes form also wilh verhal lools "participles oi acdve" or 
Nomina ;ig'ent[s; Tlie followirg' «<{3inpleb ar^ probably hybrids hetv,(Wii n-puii^ 
anil verba! adjeciives). They are coiiiiecieil \\i\\\ *.uli?taii[ive« or pronoifn^. 
like participles, hy ay: vin/tlf tian lal^ki sy niamipfnan^, the man fomes 
with an ^yz. caTryinj^ an 3>r ("g>:iTi[^"). 



THT^ LAYCUAGE of THE BONTOC IGOROT 23 

m/imtsdikioBig v'oh a hat i>i6<iataf-4gp with tobacco 

fnHmufdto iviifi a cii^i i-fdPF^ffid^f^uN ivith a g-]asfi 

}'i^<i'^iklindlG with Eli(? duiiljk' l>,islieE ciilltjJ ; i:i»idits 

mitiklkfrndia \ mii\ ^^^kikvnitio] with the "kicnala" 
»iandliii\ ifyd'y mi'ikL/^mdl-r Jie ivalk? fnrrymg a "tlmala" 

mmA(tj-ity with lire tmnpripftSiUjfm wiEli ir<*ri 

mirtMsS wilh ;i d(>|i rtiuiSjUsJJr'iwn wah water 

nnHpaptlkiiy v.i\\^ nee r'tiufiiffijui- ivilJi ,1 pi^ 

n\t>^Hiia(dyQ ■iviLlj si hur&L mzniffEAi^oy with a ^pfsr 

n\i>ikakdpii^ Willi CfJLlon i'iii\l^l^!f^^ willi a koy 

IV^scr^^'H? ?uWx."^ nre omiftol in ihc^r ivinihinnlmn'' hecmuCS with hia 
spear; vin'lh s/y3'j) "lintriiiJ^fiiy, 



0^. Tim p£Li'[f>f llif liody U'hich i;^^'OL]nde^l, ]iit,^lrin:kclt, 1=. espres^eil 
by lln? infjK -j^^- placorj jnio ihc reclLipKcdifiori ot siifi^laniivc-i wirli jjiiEial con- 
sonants ; to llinae ■v-llli ;ni iuEliiil vowel m- k p[efi:<ed nnrl lln: iriitial voacI i^ 
ilojifjkd. Foi^eaivi- siiJliKC- ivJiich Jieolli^rwisecomiL^jifly ui^edtviUiparta 
o( cht! body 111113L he ^un-idtil in nhese coiiibiiiaiioii^ 

Hwflm|>lc':' T hit Hm "with a *tpear m h'n arm. Ann: i/iinx, rcdupl. 

/fV/"iff, Jr" witli ifllly -J^-; Jrnj.; ii>rm : HitHUiia Trajislatiaii ■ hhtayittigko 
^iya jf j?ffii Uniilma. TJiUa ; Wiiundcd in lite 

thTgtl dinidtpay pihoiildcr bijuybdkii 

b<!mJ iH^Sl^ eye i^iinAmdlS 

(ifpcr piiiL of Lite iJiig-h jn^^fi? rar ^■^Ptofr^^-t'i'jj^ 

bclLy binaiiddS [yVjui/flMj rroiith linofi^pek 

leg iimiJki krier }diuoko>\!;l-6n^,^ 

i'jot tjltiiijdpa'i hearl pi'ti'p^^o 



Gg. Prr'^aJis skilled in Irade or profession art dtnoEcd by Ihc pirtjj^lc 
^^m- inflcrctij |n3i> [hr rcduplicaimn of □ siibiUnlivj; (or virb;il rtX'i) Ittgin- 



24 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

jiiiic M"i"lh ^ [;i>ns(ni,inl , murdpi wuh an miii^l voMel douUfe itii*i 'H^^WHcl unA 
J.ake irjji- ns prt;fji^. By ihe rtduplicEirioii ihe cusloiiiur^', t-epealcd ^«ap.i- 
liaii. llic It^fle {-, iihdic^lcd, 

Root; ka^h; him\ji'kd^b, ^i ni.nkcr; 

Root: shafad, planej nhaviHiSn^tait, n carpenter^ builder; 

kiintakii.(rb ii f'int^d, potter, fc: funiafdiiga; 

fa/eJ^^ Jaltoci- fvaiafdti-k', ^ l^Llnix'T; 

irrcg'. ; ftifrhnsJia. =mi[li; 



|7o. Tbii- ^w\^y:l niiT nci^uh t1;i?A of Siiljsl anti ves cGii^i=ls <^f Vvrlmls: 
Xoiiiliiji Agend'i (toncrdj; ntmn'i) anil Xomiiia ai'lioiii^ (rtl>slr3i;L iijun^) 
The tAlciJl oJ lliis cUiiS uJ I'mri ni^iy \k [riEi^med, if ^%c coii*idrr ili,n — 
^fiffikliig liccf niily ill girnpral irrcri'^ — ihj; Eiiplish Tiaii^iii^-e Verb (;or 
\^'haE [<, n:iinft3 ^rt) !■; ii'>[ rr:pri's^-n[i;«T In Hunl'X: Ii^rcn: by a ver[>, hui t>y n 
vcrhal iiirmii, a Hojiieii ricilurtlfl [ wiiTi .iriiv", ]flH nyi |'iLi?ivt character !) ^^iLii 
rhc sLilTiKcs -i?JJ, or-au, n-r [lie prtffis J-, ind. In iddiiion, pr>:se&?[vH? ending^. 
TbUse. g. does ttf/i^rt not say; L mati?, but: my maldivr, G. mein Madien, 
Ital. il niio lar; and ieyfjen-tdka: out rte'^lrr nr ^ffiiriTi^, G. iins<!r ^elicien 
And aydhaiitjd means "Jliey call" iji Enifili'^li, bill ib wjv-.: Ihcir calling; lln^ 
aim rcii^lifrl hy Lli^ii" CAllirt|V, fi^ 

(For ihjs rca^ii Iraiislllvo verbal plir^'M;^ :itt mnrkcil by " " Jii tlieir 
Irnifc^lalioii, aa this if, far frini ln;ing lllcr^il). 

Onlv ilii^i iiLucli liere Ahaui ilioto nojii*; uliitJi will hi? irp.TinJ fully m ihe 
cha|iier5 cm ib(^ Verli, wlicrc al^n iJ-fe tharacieri^iifi:^ oi ilie Nomtn agcnti^ 
(aa: the brin^r, fh* killer, |he finder) vHU be discqasfd- B«u^ nrnins add 
havrirg frefiiiciiiLy Eh^ article tl]e> cmgbi in be inenLioned [n \y\h dipp^'-''' '^n Ibe 
sjil>^l:aiitk'e?. 



CASE RELATIONS 



yi Sijl>*i1an filler !r.m\ liieir artifle^ are uniiiUcr-fHl in Ronloc leiirnl 
Tlicre Jp a!f:^lucely na "Declen^iion" la ■i:j:pres^ tisci; Inii in Boflitoc Jcorai 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 



35 



Tbege CDai^lnj^:lioiia: 



1 



Tfic ;i]i|n-ll.i1ivf^ villi llic jir'icle iiiiii 
or son. iiml uranLV t]:iiiLe*i ^iid (i>riii*, ul 
kjdship with th< artktc si or tJA- 



II 



Corr&pood lo the Kngli^li 



XomiisaLitfe and Accu^aii^'i? 



Prot>tT Ti^iTLii"! iiiirl lenn^ of fciniihij]^ 
ftfllm^'iTii; ;l \''^>iiieii Tti^eiii, williouf 
article a. "if i'oll<?ciive article tin ii 
hoiU'VOT, ri:lnini;il [L 3g; 37]; 

'I'lic Subs(;inilve d(?iioliiic lli<? ^ifenl 
f nl ki\^'i:ill lln" Ntunen aclloiii^. 



Py^be'^i.ivc or Siihjeclive Geni- 



Live 



Tin: |o[;niliT: Preiioiiuon w- |W. \ 
'jft.| lic(i>ri^ :ifi|wllativc^ \\'\\\\ ('jr \\\\\\- 
our) article; 

Tlji: Prqjci^iliion hfw hefore proper 
names and lerme of kinship ; the article 



Al] other Cn^c Rd^liiT,, ai, fur 
in^Cain:':; oIjjccIivj: ^nilivc, pjirli- 
lite prnilivc. il.ilive, accii^aliviz. 
isftcr "]>cr.'-nLiiil" vcrh^,, nbla^ive, 
locative, inj.lriinwrLiali*i, n^^wx of 
[Xtsi^ivc vcl*'7 ('- f- verbal foTiiis 
u'iih i^rcfix wj- 01- JJET-), H?lc. etc 



RE^L^RK.s 



ad T. anf] TT. Tlie iio^ilkm of our subject and gbiect in cfW5*iriicrioii& 
M'ilh vcib^ 4'liicli we consider fiistoiiiarily ir.nisiiivo. but whiVh -ire of a 
totally different iiilure in U^niLoc Igoi^C (pnii ar<? -called fn -his l«ok brieJfy 
"po&&es&ivf' verbs'" ). \vy[\ Lm: *:-*: plained in IjI.t cliapier^ oi Ihifl Grainmar. 

^d II- Tlie Noinen rigrn^, le it ,i ■^nfislaiilive wr n X<>inen 5J:JnkHf?, 
oblain^ rht lig-iilur^ -t, i£ ii i;i"d' in ^ voivel |4J|, 



36 THE LANGUAGE OF THE EQ^TOC IGOROT 

nun dfong nan laldki llic ^[nl!f^: -jf ibc man 

HtTJj Sjdpan nan nn^^iga ilfc f'>n( of Ihc rliild 

Hjjif kuldsay ffjji fumabiai^^md tlit'!^)iir^lrl yr Th': v^arfior 

nan oi-U-^ii S-dnged ilii- ■■ifij- ni TanK'^l 

/'jiwflji nati f^Jiim lli-r- '..■iviiii; iif llip Igi'trol; ""llff^ Ij;iirnl say?" [i^lFA^] 
fiitfpt^tM nan Job/of/iyi die Itfliei'iii^ ni llit w/omcn; "Ihe women bf[i eve" 

'I'ht N"m-cn rTi!<:ii& wich Unal vowd- 
Ti3J^ f^-crii-r nuf[ mtjvi-lko llic diij; vf my frl^ml 
Wflp^ //jij 'iflJJ j/^rfjiJj't iln" Inrnl ( [Own) iif (Ihc "ni^itncinen 
wdfp fJJoH 'urij ndu'ij: itii: hrniii i>f ilie huifalo 

J/jffiFjj iiflij fobf'til" Llir iniy':^ l[i>k!liip; "ilio litty liold^'* 

hjiJ-liti nan luiilki lli* ciban'^ ctianglne; "ilie iiiiii ch^iig-ci" 

jjjTd^ jJOfE /fjjifl B^gti^ wilmt (is) iheiliowingoJ BiijjMJ "wfi;il Jots TJuj;li 

M£d£ JJffp fhfakafi fna? whai (ii) ilic asking of mullicrl ""'Kfltdce^imollier 
fld. III. n^dve, e(c. : ftsaolsdima nan fohtfn^a Ji 'cau al/vidim "ln^ 

Sifiitfi nan fir/f k^h Maiy^ '"ilirtu ihci parriiirr To Maf>iil" 

/ii-\-d!f'ia iiiiii kdy^ ken i*idka "lit broit^lil (lie wtkhI Io lii= nKHlier" 

inJiQnii Qtc^ia*i i-i nn" Hthis'xdyA "ive sjnv many nl yuiir irundi" 

ifya nan tii^nHia'sSt iiar\ hdytm "lie (i^) liie culler of [hi: iri'-:" 

ijinngungk&ml'^ Jian indkn'i we are eating the fi^uJ (Ks. uf ^ '^per^oiial 

verb") 
junju^ftiTikr'i itffjj (j^^rifKi drink iTie ivaEcr! fHx. nf ii "personal verb") 

Dchtr cxnmjkti'nS iiTc ^iv[ji in llie chapler on"Frc|i'^siliiJTi.il Tcrrns"" {^JJ 



7:?. Soiii-eiJine^ pleonaalic nmsEtuctLons sre tound, asr is nan kei\ 
Aat^f^, Io Aiirem;[jiiju ken nmj^tja. m chfir fmlier [I_ ^gj, 10 or at Ih'^ir 



73. Siutc Icrni? fif [i-inship m^y hav-e die article si iis wCll tfiv bu-Hh the 
pltrn^r "Jlie huiist of fyllicr" i^ cilhcr; tan dfong dmi htre ihe article si 
mii&l beomillcil!), i>t: Hiru dft^ag nan dm&. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THY. BOf^TQC [GOROT 27 

74. EKceinioii?. li enip[]asii:<^i1, |,lace, cauM. instrmnw^ time; Th« 
iiitlircrl (^Ijiecl or iLjilve, ejU" , cirs Ic nn.l-r llic ?;ul.j^c[ < i. c. in -our. biil nos tlii: 
li;oru[S criiiccriioii!) of |i':nili^r vcfbil fovms; in ifii^ rnst ilie riil.:^ ..f (he 
mt ot is and ken do not hyld, hin dilTrrcal constructiooB are eniplpyed, [358- 

264]. 



75. Tlie Moiiirn rci^ens of 'a po^i-^ir'^^iv'.- i-ciiiEiM? nltlnlni iniuecimej Ihc 
pO'->C'i'?ii'(^ .^iilTrxj; -HfT, Jii?, hc-r, iU; aii-l ^;jj, tJicir; fra^r (ffiukira nan 
•i'n/'1i»a. III. "his piy oT ihc old iimn," irafl tMdiny/jtl u^rr /sf J«J, H[> "tlieir 

^liii'lils of [lie ejiciiiy." Tliipi iileoiinsljc ciiEi-innrli'Jii iva-i, lio'^cvrr, rcjicted 



76. Tf 3 suJistantiT^f 5»ands ip allribotive rcLiIion Eo air oilier siifjataii- 
live (JTi wJii^^h a:-^ ™iii? laiiemyciH brni i:nm])rtL]iid limine), [fio |ircpo?itk>n 
aj, ill iE*, invcrii-il Form si h placcii Ivciiuern iheni. Tlie AHiitiuiivc ^iibjil^iiiive 
■which lA II br: Idhrn in i ijeiieralizliii; scn«: WInws [he other, ific liyn^iicc -n 
dsusecrwitfi 1he]l^^.-l:■^[u]Eno^L^ if itftnili- in j vrm^l; 

^ioii it tigjiii .Ic-r'^ hejid, d. Frir?(-M(ni>f 

jtQn ilU'fi TJ ^/(jji^ Ihe jE^^i^^ry roof 

fdMn ii dm iJoi-'i [oolh 

^Siigo'i ^1 iiii^ "hcidljori?," iknll 

tia« ^iU/t^ ji Ig^iot ihe IsjoroL l,ing(i,ipe 

i^flij^ j( A'lfaf^ ^\/t] rjf ji monkey 

t^fitn si piikky rli-t Ic^i 

dnak s^ Limidin^i; " LuxitS.iAg-3oa" [L. t] 

ti'n/^oii si iSfi iiMiiiil^lil 

ijfTH InbiAhon si i-5i.'iJok si mtiiiiib llic Ijc^iniiinc of rock's crow |B. 24] 



77 But ii die aitrihuic denotes material, or^in, «t., Ih-: litr^'n'"': «¥ '^ 
used: dfon^ ny bold, slone liou^e; frZ/iflff ay jiultl^-S, <^Xev\. 'k.r\iie\ tstja'y 
fiffiiA, ptirk. 



7ft, A ifub^lantive in ApposilLoii vvitJi aa other is coiiiLecled wilh [t "by 
ay: a ■4ndiS'U'j^ia/ a^ altiuidho ya ^^lJmu.y Arsau^rasal, my friend, has gOAc; 



^ 



THR LANGUAGE OF THE RONTOC JGOKOT 



in Bonloc ; 
"fj !ci!ifk^ ay non dnt-aa 'ia}i ^naniagktd ya tifrd^y the man, ^he f^llicr 

■jf I lie girlj has died. 



7fi. The *iil]?r/iniives "fown," "myLJiiUin," "scLlion tirdtn" artctoi- 

necEed .villi rlie fnlli.'^'irn;- nuri': hy j,', irf. -Jrf; "^au J'^-r'd f-^n'ok, Hic lyivii 
o( Boiiioc; nan (ili^ ad Pi^kis-, ilic momilain Pokii^ n^iJfu'd JJn^cfity. tLic 



IXJAN WORDS 



ji ?1;r;lioil ol RuillOi' llflvc irllcClcd ([ic 
been ur^»l ufn-m blii; rg.'trcii liy Incvji^ 

H'liilc pr<^li;ibly lainsl ol chr^c Iji 

Iiarrbiiier wJ(ii"//i'fl {_'fiari!ih') 
.vagnn kolimdlo {carrmtiato) 

cnw /dfra (z-^fj) 

liciur d7ii, tfiaih, dlas (J^oru) 

book ^ifiifj (/"jiro) 

flag handJia {bandera) 

lraiin%ay taldbya, tafdnfya, 

ialabfytt (Iranvia) 
street, Ingliway kdha {ralzada) 
aclioo] t'.'ci^ia 
hal iombl^lo (nfmbrero} 
H)du '/t^dia.'<h fjjAcrfjfH) 
soldier soldddiOj if/fdiJilif 

lohacco iafd^o (.labucfii 
steam^hiv* b6bSl, h&MU {vapifr) 
Aincriciti MelikdnC 



.\^K^, wilti wEii^h Llii^ Lloi^jiTi? livin^^ in 
B^^l^lX■ illruin, n Imrirfier |i( ivi>rd5 li;tie 
blc oli'lll j.iiloii; ihi'^i; ii-nnU isro tioutly 
^, |l nwcfli^^iry. See (lo, jR]. 
,m WnrnK ji.rr- ^lu'll llCTO^ lilluTT, riill 

I'ilipino^ FiUpfnasli 

ro\\'ii chref pies/dc'nic (/•residcTit^y 
pi<]Hire talrfto, liiolitti} {*^irai\}) 
dollar I'Jsosh^ p^shosh (ficsDJ 
xSuiiday, week jfoFffjnjfto (Domu/go) 
iVJEch J^/fli.'Ji ('fJi?;) 
crois kfiCailt, kdf'jilt {cms) 
pound Ubla {Ubra} 

rnojii ku^itd i,Cfm'!o^ 

Some Projur if^ijnes: 

Ricard-o f-\kcildsa 
kiUlro Anf^h, Anfiro 
Maria Miil\<a 



I. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THII ROKTOC IGORQT sy 

TltESCiNAJ. PRONOUNS 



&£. Tlie Pei-Minal Pfonoun5 are: 

SiiigLilai Dinl PUirjil 

J^tf^n l^dSt/^^j, L iiicl. fj.iflj KK tivo, J. iiicL Ifi^liU-o v: (us) 

.TfffiMil, T(iini;) I. c, vrtJ -tnd 1 L cxlL r/dtdwi/ we (ub) 

a. j/ij ibmu (Lhi^c). (us twaj II. Sjakayri' you 

yuu ill. ;;Vi^fjo iliey <Elie][j) 



H^j Tbir PcTsiin.Tl Proroiini awe cijiiil>[ii bilious iiT tlic arCide fi ill sine- 

llI.ii"^ dii.1 oi ijii jji diiiil jnj plural, i,vhli oiiici parliclcs. 



&^. Sak/Sn cini^kl? af <,i, ih*: pron-ociijiial ]>arl[i:le ut nad ihc ■^liffix-cj^, 
whidi IS al*ji niiiiloy.'.l wilh .1 .eroiip of "'|i'i-^=':!*si\'H? lerli^" C'-'igl- ''iraii'^l- 
uvtr^"). -trt iiuJoi^'!^ ilijiMlic j-Lidun unnicd by Jhc vcrljal roui aUttifi in 
objciji (ill ail riciivc i^eusc, mi *ficr llie erruncoii'i iiaJicioiiai ck":iLiL£ as 
one ol tlie "thr« PassiBes!")illm& in Tknloc ^rcrt tke indivklual '^" is 
rcpicsenicil uai TiiiTTly .i'^ .| |k;rnj>njlny, IjiU n'^ii pfrs-r.nalilyofoitigv, bcuit; 
nun ifllt iir liidlHrrcni, or ci'Cn pjis^ivi; ;itI siHTitjii);-, 

iV^-J. i:on^ls[liie f,[ ^j in-l [f^e i^tynoTiiindJ fjlciiu-nt ka, k Uie ffOnomi 
LI5i?ll cXcIlhii'cU iib .idilrf'i'.in^ iinv ^irij^fk pCrSliH- 

Sfy^, coii5[-5Elii£ of ^1 anil |>robal>ly ;i [^.>inljjnatioir af * Slid lyfl, in used 
inn'.lly foi' fkeicnii'^: ^"r (]iiTij''ii, "-iJ," MfniK'KnK"; Jhc loc^Hvc ;idvcrb^ H3 , [l<:no[- 
i[ig ais oLjccJ near cJic biJCAk-:r, i?r Jif, au ubjtct utar Uic |j':tioii aiJdrc&scd, 
are oiiip-loyed. 

Ill J/fjfrifur/ 311(1 tjQttaygS Ibej'e i?, fifiii'Ii^ eTh- ^rlirlr l)A ^iiil lliri pro- 
nopunaL iuffisc^ -hj^ and -%'4+:, an elein^.TiL ^ir A'hich {■^ |>roLi:ibly coEIkiLihc, 
like l]ie prefiK kn [52 t |. 

Tbe J in l}alta amJ (juflja is ]Ti\]y:ih]y llic LOiiliaclJ^d ILgiilJie ij)i: 
Ijaftf'a for J/a o;>' J;i3 (,')- ni a ileinoiijlrjnlve eleiiitiH. 



S4, Roniur ^[^rot has, brsidee llie tiire« perN>Jiq In aiiigvl^r and pLural, 
A pronirtin tur tht £rst person dual ; thi^ pronoun must be u^ed, if the speaker 



30 THE LANGUAGE OF THE EOMTOC IGOROT 

iitckidi:^ wie person whom hr ^t^Jdrc&^r:^. Il rxf-rts^t&r vt'c Iwo, yoa and 1; 
rs" p' lu. I'hc Other miji^iriH dndl furnis miiht Iw circiimi^rilK:'!. Wc Iwn. 
jtjy companitin ard 1 (bul not Iht i>cr^oii addrea^ied), h. tjah^mfay djdS; 
yan |wo ; ijiikiyA ay djiin, etc. 

The fir'^i pcrsait plural tia'^ l>^''> fiitiiii; 

a. An inclusive form ijiidko, includiiig' person ar person address^; 
all persfi]i? influde-T in "ivt" must he more iliaii [ifco; v-e all. you included; 
t^o £^ vsi; noi cl lu; nos ci i/os. 

b, An exclusive form tjShSmt, e>:cltidiiig ibe person or persons qd- 
dreised : we jIqii« l»ut not you. 



^>^. Cai^t Relations. The Eomi of ilie Fer.si^naJ Pronoun notninALive 
nnd Jccu^iiiive i^ alike in Tgorot, 

The p(is?es4iive geiiilfve of the Periional Pri>nouii is eipr^sfCfS Iw jiiiwie?- 
slve ^uFlixe.i: ag^luiinaied ■□ ilie cihjecE po«ise«^?erL [loitl ]. 

All other or obliquecase relations nre iiidicateil liy t(?« (u'hlch is catled 
in [hi*! h.v>tflprepii4i[ion,flHdHol Art fpUlii^ue ci=# oE llie pdCPrtn;^! atlkl*!) 
Tims' fte- may establish this paradigm (i>( chc Singular) : 

Nomirir and Actus, sdk/^n stkn ifya 

l^o^'ncsijive GciJ. SuJSk -tfl, -k ^iffl] -«nt, -m -Hd 

Objcfit Gen. and other Obliauc Cafics Wn -iik/in kSt\ sika ken slya 

(no(j ii^nfiii) 

Th? paradigm of the Dual and Plural Is formed anuloglcally- 



R6, When il is considered ntccs^ry to distingujah sex, taldhi, man, or 
fofdyi, woman, is place^l wj(h ihe lignitirr ay afier Ihe proiKHJit. (Used 
very rar*t3') ; itya'y laldky he; jfiva'^i f^Myi, she. 



S7. The personal pronouns, as 5ubJ(x:l& uf "vcrhi, iirc only uiicd I0 cin- 
fihjsize the agenl. 'I'he)" are placed bviim i>r after a "ixirsoii.il" vcrh; IhiI 

(liey must precede a "iiosw&sive" verb. 



^. ThepersQihai pronnun?^ art uiie^l .is suffixes of a atum category oi 
verbal comhinaiion*, bui jn fhcs<^ sborcmed forms; 



THE LANGUACilL OF THE DONTOC IGOROT 31 

Sb^olar T)<.t:a Plural 

I. -ak T. -(-1 I. incl. -tdiffiiy -Ittko 

I- ':xr}. -kAmi 

3. -ka n. -k^y^. -kay^ 

3. (no su^x.) Ill, -Ija 

(Verhs w[ih th^^e suffixes arc CfllLrtI in '"liis boot firli^lly; ptri^on^l vcrljs; 
Bomc of ilicm co-rrtftpflnd to our iTiLrEmiiili%ts.) 



R9. TTifi Ttfle'i^li accusatives lilni, her, il, Ihcm, referring lo a ■iiibiitafl- 

d?? niprlioncd IfffoTf nrc iisiiitlly omidcd. Likewise ihe datives of Ihc pro- 
nouns arc nmill-rt! Aitci verb? oi givin^^ sliovn'jng, bringing, telling. H 'j'>lf- 
underslood J iKc rgi^rol say: "give (he [tchi/^ tor: "give ii^s ("lie Icon-" 



W Tlielmalive |>arl!df^Hdain[ Jd. s1aiii[ingVor"il"or "ihcm" (ililngs 
nnly'). -do not begin a ^nlencc. Tli^ ire ii?cd mostly, in ihls nifJinine. a« 

^cciis;iii\Tt Tbetr preposiiion fnr [Eie i>ljlir|iif cases is; ij, or ?jy mtwihe- 



91. The niodifirrL. iif personal pranmin* arc coniiecled by fly: 

i$l!f?>i a\i iFintok I, a BonHocman 

tjdk^y^ ay fobfajdyi.' ye woitienl 

I'jStdlp'y i^di amni!i<titt> vjs foilr 3rt poitic 

.tfli^'y-ljUy yiju Llicre 

ijakdm! ay nav we here 

j/fljS jjnn mWi/^— fflt//ii. J/iiiM/. wlio has fome?— T. We. 

j/wd iroH oydbum' st kd ya ifyd "^%'linm do ynu calt^" vtm and him 

(jd^fd a(Jiiio'r-?i>injd wc luro, you and I, sh^li ^ 

tflMjJy jfja he (?h?) lias gone 

ffjao/jdowTi? jfl ken tjakam/f "give it to flsl" 

f(jMin UPH ^fffljfd ftj^n sfy^S "sliow him the poi!'^ 

ffSldko hifUtibldica is nan dfang wc ^t^ jgoiiiK to biiild (he hnu^e 

JHJf^j'r' J'hff/ (W/,t itlia V!\\STS is mother? 'T liave not T«n (Tier}" 

fld/t t*^tt^ sf \& "1 do nol know hinh (her)'^ 

j/yd'>' ^iOl kekkfm sa "sl"^, she knov,? ii" 

jdt//ii (iniflifrttfjt a^dgM I have teiurrtcd yesterday 



3» THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOEOT 

finmt^ftka sfka^y alhi'ulki} yrju my fricmJ love rttunied 
ijakmul t'<ii:dif'u'"fif nan fdietl "vvc, '\v^ txi>el ihe enemy'' 

ki'Jf-khiyfi liuhjd "yfv. kno^v ihcm" 

ijiiftiii yii s^k/H <n.lii"niif^imi tlKy arti 1 sEiall conic 

kdu^iii mr^—mitngcvgjfi' sf sit.' "tJiC it!" 

iil^irii sit i^^ J!'^*^ 'J f 1'-' ""'} 

iytiil! fo h^u i/k'i "J. luring it to yott" 

iHk/^n i'lr ilka iitlM^eid^snS I and you stay here 



TiRMOX STRATI \'E FRO ^Ja UN'S 



92, I'be ]>ninii*;ir;LLiv[? rrotiftiiri'^ ^ri: ooiiiprniinlE of articles, deiiioii- 

Tin; jirilck'v ii^i'-jl in ilfr^r < "n 1 lii Eliiiion s art ii ^n.l j/ij ior p«raona» nan 
and (rardy) stm ior Uiings. 



g;5 The DHnMi^tralive Pronoruisare both, disjiuiclive and cOQJuocEive; 
in lilt I^Eler cn?e llif li^.iEiire av i^u^fd; Ibere are, Iiowgvbt, a few -PKanEples 



94, The f^llo'vinjr ]>r&TicnjTis njit iTitfl in rcfj^ri'TLi-i; iiv ^>h<\o\y\'. 
Siiipilar Pkiriif 

j^Jdf/d thia ijdtS»a these 

j/WsAd that (near) . tidiBshi those (nearj 

.v/jjJJ/ ibai UHftant) fjdiddl fiiose (ili.^tiiiitl 

St"; jirlii^lf; It/, ilrrnon-trjlivi; jwrtviiki m, ^hii | hj ; ai). di [ifrr: tjHy} : 
locative TJtl^Trl)''. 

Er (he prcccdiTiu w-jrJ ciiH-i in it vowel, s/i-h!^, etc,. Is oflen cJiaiigcd I0 
llie im^cti'nlciJ s'tM! or sh't^df; its an cii'.lilic it is jkr.nKmn.i;.! with ibt 
preceding word, which ia then accented oD the ultima. 

jjjfd /ttidtf ulicrc i& ihi^ iiiaic^ juJ^ s'tSnSt where is that man! 

sftMl pa-^mS sh'tin& iLjs or tliatpcrson 



THK l.ANGUAf^E OF THE BOMTOC IGOROT ^3 

y^. A!srt Lhe personal proiwuii siyS is uiitd J!i !l 'loni^n^lTiiliv* pru- 
iLoun;Jd fact, no dietiocl line can b« drawn beiw^eec ihtise Iwo clasis^s o( pifr 



fifi ■\\'lien .f/ijrro, s/loifiix, j-ff iJffr" ^ire placed in T-J&^t: si^ivc or ^ubjcEivj; 
gcTiitiV(?, sr is di-o]'[n:>l ; in ttlhcr .^;^^(^ rtlalioiis m siiigiilar tJH lircttfk'^ ^■^ujf, 
t6.sHA, iidt; ken ia acccntftl. 

j-ioFi al^ii iMi llio hiz.iiJ oi lli^iL JJiTJJ liirift ^ojia llic cliil<[ of lliis 

As Lhcj-: I'TpnipIc^ sliow, Wi^j. CiJ^^rd. /i>^d iJrjiv. lIio accentor llie ulliim 

of tlic preceding v^''Jrdr 

Kaumple^: 
all'^dkif ^rMf iliai (is) iny h-[cni1 
sU<'"ila\* iaidki iIj^lE iimii 
ftr^tfrjfiir .^/^(ifro^ "il*t >nii know lliiij pcr?aii?^' 
/djfiak 'tai fajilgo t^ic r^^f/ "T yiv<: Hi'; i.'hncm tg that iraiL^ 
aaeiitiiko !jdt6>!ii ' uc sec lliew" 
fr^flHrijd^fif? tf^i 'idfi^dl "lie lofd iliow jx^'Jitlr'' 



97. Tlie-4^ pTonoiin? grr il'^il in rclHrrenti: <u iliiugs, biiL a^'? ^Qinctiirn-s 
to pcrrsonji; Singular and J'luriil , Jidnldna, idnU'ihd. ndnSodf {sdnti^di) . 

'\'\vt:\- rcni^iti uiichHingcd in pns?e^^i.'e in-l siil-jeciivc gmilivf!; In d>lir|iie 
ciitB (liev iiri; ^T^vfrjieil by liie pr<:|Kf"iiiioii l^. 

IE d[^jiin'.Ci-ve, they point lo ^ (liing alrezdy incnHoned- 

i>\tjd^6n.mi mtntddl *'*e liavfi foniMl this one" 

fliirfft^^jfJ nAnWdiay kdy?^ "Eio ivii! ciit down that tree" 



qS. More frtquen[1y wc linrl . iiafmiiy. tlii^, [Hiesc, ami n.mi}dy 
IwaitlAy] timl, Lhnse: lh*y rrfiT, il di^jmiaivc, 10 dislinclivc \\\\\\^i. 
(nanndy is prob-ahly ; nan na py.) Buih arc U5ii;il|y connected ljy ay with 
5ub5t^ni.ive5.; th".-:e suhstaiitivx'^ may denote iier^^n^ and tiiiii^'i. Instead 
of the form naium ^''^ ^"^'^ ofkr najs ..aj' my wiili ihc ■.nlm^-niive inter- 
posed. (Also plural forms: nttti'iifyl;a, 'ia>t/isjl/a. >ianfo.id!Ja, nanfodfl/a 
occur.) 

'lanixd'j ay ffljjjj^j; iit» -ivdn^ay 'lay tliii river 
HanSf/iy ay fobati^n iliai pJpr 



34 THE lANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

ttanm^y ay "iaiiraii\ifj;i.-id ch-e^e girl^ 

fiacm iiau djda'y fdlfcg; l/ytj/^m nattiiy paym^ n&Mjdyf "you Me the 
tM-a ipears- da you waiil ihi^ ^jj' iliaE?'- /djaai't ntmn^y.' ''give me 



'jy. T]ic loc-Hivc advcr]>Pi fra, Iml: more co]miii:iiily m nnd fji or rjd\ 
\i}^y\ ^et^'ealaoasdi^fifjiclfve proiinuiis, rcfeiTiiii; lo iiifklliiilc ohjccis, as 
I'V. (-i?ci jLJiilfcb. TlicnbliqiK c-i^l'*! i%ti-. i- !,a, .n va;-rJ jjo, si ntx, r"j ^/'^v; r"j 
tfi, Ihi-y ,ir<: kkmiijl -wllh Ujcnl ^<|vrrbs: lililirr or liirr-; llii(hi.'r nr tlicrc- 

(Thcre [ii no iio^sc.M^ive or aubjti^ii^c *,'^rtii]ve of iw, .tiz and 00' 
ȣi^ in^ ^vlial i? lEial? 
iydim $a Wtr Mj/^.' '"hrin^ ["hat 1o li-iiiil" 

aykJ inn-iud fji? t^ th;i[ b^d P kmvfi jit/ iliisis good; all right. 



ion. Nay and ^jJy [l/i^yl piniced at tlif; Iffeimiiii^ uf a pliraivi: tiican : 
here i&, iliere i*i, I;t. voitv voila, 

nay si avs^fjif there i^ ilie yoiE]iaer t-roilier! 

L'l'be Cf?ii.ure nf poininnE is uaiiallv cxi^'Ui^^ bv pJOLrudiiig Ihe jaw)- 



FOSSE;^^! vjiS 



|>fr.srtiial pT(^^o^l^!^ — arc iTnt-luvtj^ in ■HiinirK: li^orot. iiislead of i>Lir posscs- 

Priji^cs^or, Oivner:— Tti Singular In Dii^l Itj Flur^l 

I, -iiQ, but -t wiXKX pure v'ovvels; my I. -(n, un-r, i. c. L mK\.-f<tk^,-idkQ 
a. -ffw, but -m (titer pure vowels: of tiB two, our 

lliT. >our £>r : y<Wf flWd L (^Clu?. -illj, wlif 

J, -na lii^i Ji'-'T, J(^. raiTH:. II. -j'u, -jff^ y^ur 

TIL -fjii, their 
(For Dual and T. inJ and I. ^xcl Pliiral see 184]) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROr 35 

Tto. Siibsl3iil[v.c5 wilb ihcsK ^xt^vii art pf^rd^i! b> iKt niiide. 



TO::^ Tlip^e ^iiffhxci, cxccpl -k and -HI, liave siinnelime^ llie lendeocy of 
<i rawing Ibe ric^.ciil r>f llir: ■iHh^Liinli^'i.'-, nr of iiiy word coiiibiiiciJ 'Lvitli llicni, 
to its u]iLiu[i. I^'nin:! imts iLie iiDdil vi>weJ oi a di*ajllabic is lengilK-ncil. 



i ftj- Tbe Pcijij-ci^ivf^ jr-^ Uhtd jiiojL cKieiiiiively, hoc nnly wi(h Icnn'^ of 
l:iiisliij> and ]>arls o( Llm lu'dy jnd in ii.t'^'i unln^re ibcy ,irc iiidi^|>en.i>^Lil-c, ln.it 
:,ho ftberff (li-ey aii|ien.i lo le M]ll-cvidi'nl, t^^pcoJ-illy the Jrn^qnenT n;e nf -f ^i 
iiiid -tjn i^ bi iiiaiiy iiislaiicos &(i-ici:ly idioni^ilio. ^For Ibeir pleon.isiiif: iim; 
W'[lli a cm^liili^t po?rf^^ive ^i'n[|[v<; '^'^i: [751)- 

CollMtora ei vf«-a|jnlarit<i will Jrciiiif.'nily obtsin a toiicrele sub^r^rlivc 
wicli pos!>c5S.ivf sufli'io.!, a.i: ^loi: or fi^mJi <^r ■iJOni, my, yuur, hi^ lie.id, 
[bi&icjd -T'E Hie (arcu: /ilS^ he^d), if be pninii to aiioiber nianS or bis oivn 

[l1?£L(l 



105 If tbc suflij: -*, my. ia used vrill "father" or "mcrflier/^ it scEoii 

cust'iniary lo ciiiploy Hir ardck mn; 'vlihout ib[i liuflix to dniploy si- 

Example'; 
rum soiiifirtgko (s^bioxg, hat), hwh sokl6»gmo, 'Uii jotWii^m, jeoj; .co/tJJu^^a, 
lia'i ii]fr/yii^tf!"ft«, nan ^f^i^^igpfffj P'fl" ^okio'^gyj^, it^m ^^klongtfd: 
my, ihv, \*\''-: etc., lut vr Inli. 

elc : my, thy. his, ett-, hy<i^e or hou^c^ 
ffii^i irVirgtii, nat tfpdumG. •lan kipd'ta (lor kif'^n-n-a): my, thy, etc, 

knif*. 
ji (or: flfl^O >Viii/at. ^f (^t. j.flif) y^i'/aft, si (nr; waif) :iriiH/*rflii; aiy, tliy, 

eic, older ht.nbcr. 
nan ^TS*. pa^i Jjf^"i. nan d^^na' tiiy. lliy, hi^ ilog 

jjfHf /;r>, r^aP^ /;ip«, na» nt-i^. 'laii til>ni: my, Iby, lil-^, out cjunli> or (Own. 
uoH j^Jjrfftjto, njT^i (fFEdfftjiJcj; my, >'uilr cliild, 
^3fr ffitd^'ko^ "«fi tJ^/iyitfJ): my. your spear. 

nn'iitifta: onrniodicr (Dual) ; :lie moilier nE us two, you and me. 
Hon ttdtja'x tljaa: ihc Dioibci of ibe iwu. 



3C THF- TANGUA.GE Or THE liOKTOC IGOROT 

ran inaidko! our mudtcr [ii mure llun Iwo children of hPr ^i^cflli lo oire' 
anolber). 

Jifl" ijnkdnko, nan ij^kftSsnoy ivnn fjiykdHnu: my, your. Ins bi^g; "t/j^ijet." 



ic^. These iMjsie^siue BiitBxes are omblTieii with varioii? Psrti^ <jf 
S|>eecli, iiol only SLibstanlives 

One of ibeir mo^t LmporHanl functions consists in Jlicir dcnolinj! W\k 
proQominat 5ubjizcl of cmr "Iransilirc" vctTjs; Ibc^'C arf iD Llonlyi; Ij^'irol 
TioE verbs in our icric, bill verbid nonns^ Koniinri aclionis, 3^ Trciitjorwl 
Lcfore fjol, tu whkb the pyii^ciSLvc suAixcs iirc a^^]ii(iJi^li^| to -ll^iL-iiiei*!'^]' 
(lie ifCrtitm of Ibc iiefni, f''or \\n?, rca^r^n lbt;y arii Li^rjnf;! in Ibj;^ Ijot^k "pa.v 
icssivr" verb*!, oppnsjU' lo lln: "En:rional"" vcth'i [i^^fT-l, 

TVii^ir "sc In lln-sc c-onl'-inaliiin? will Ik' treated in llic ciiaplcr^ on the 
Vcrb'i 1 195] i it sbalf Iw merely in'licaicd iicrc ui s l<w tjtaaiplc^: 

'Aum. si:[. ieyfj^, loving', liHn^, i-vi^liinji; i^vlj^nSdkn, our li'klnjj. wisli- 

in^, 'Svc lyv«, like, v^ JKb ;" Gi:r. imKcr Wnni^difn. 
Koni. .icr, iljvsaa. finiliji^ (iilace nf finiJiti^) : ii^iismv^. your flddij^- 

1>I,U<:. "yr3U l^nd." 
iNom. act a7flt(j, ln^KlrinlrLg ; itiii'^nd, hia, Iwr, its b«g:inQTpg, "he, ahe, it 

bi;K"Tiii," 
Kom. ad, 3iul'ii\ obanging- /snlflik^ my changing"; Gcr. mcdn Weciiaelii, "J 

chalet" 
Num. rici. ibfoka, asking; tbfAJ^am, ihy asking, "llion askcil, yon ask.'* 



107. Disjunctive posKisive^ arc csi)!"';'^'^^''! by cointinntiona \yi(\\ tlie 
joot l/dii^ i\.hic!i denotes ovvnership, iK'S'ic&siyn. |>rj|'crJy, but only famlerijil 
iiwuttJiTi ift, i^ot of persniL*!, part^ of one's body, qnaliiics, etc. 

h^a/r h U.'^td Oflc" friilhciiii ihe article nau. 
?ian k^ak or kJjik: my prO|itny, Of. mine; nan kJa'K, tbine, yotirN; ttan 
k^dna, hi:^, her^ ll?, ^jJH ^■(^irfJ^ ouis (of u^ lu'o); trflw kosldk^, 
u«rii n«?f ii-iim/^ ours; no^i AiJjyni, yours; nan ki^ctlja, Lhtir.'i, 

Examples : 
nan dfongko ya nan kdam my Hiiiise nml >ni]r:i 
«rin K&dngifa ya nan kffSmt ilicir biifijbcs. (S|i- "cirab jiu" ) jndcmrs 
nan kutld&mo ya ijon kodn^ youT nightcap and hers 

With (lie copula ya, isj arc, was, were, clc. {43] (,Elie aritcle KtUi ia 

emitted) : 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGDROT 



17 



%imndy ay dfoti^ ya kSak [his liou?? i*; mfnc, ttloiig's lo rat 
diigfi'i ay kQfdyo ya k&dnd many bars^ axe his 

nan. pSlHtjftn ay f;rfj ya kddUtko tli:3l iriiji ]■, i>iir& 

Oilier rHT-ait:;: 

isykS kdam saf w Ibntyoiirs? tloei iliai belong lo yoii/ [ayk^: \i\ttrToga- 
tivc panic fe) 

intH nan kbdlsa [lor; k6dt^,i\? whcie ij theirs? 

nm h/iiin jjoff Qllmtiyii ihc p™|itrty of ytnjr friend, ihat of jour friend 

C*rf"tf wii:!i fiiiiil H, ^d? E42I) 
HEfij d^k ya fian k^ari yAnJn^ (nr : fran yjhi/ah) niv ilog -ind lliat of my 

older brcillier 
ifflfl bihikttio yn jjfln t^^djj <^'jjU-/i/ your money 3n.[ Hi^[ of Adjkld 

lilit iviili persona: wflpr 'iinil/ik ya nan. aiidfjiiu my youn^^cr brother 
and yoLirs; ,f* aj-Zr+a-j^ ya .'.i aKiH^'wam Jiiy ^i^ife niid ■y<-av'< 

AjiiI vvilh |>arli of tlic body: -nnn iSmttm ya tian ilmdnn v'>i]r li^iiid 
and lii^; nan millltlf payme>fjon m^fd^a mv eye ni" ln^ 

O'l-^T".!; ihti^e pJivEiseiv; 

Wfl^' "rt^i faJf^g^o; infd huu k^an MSUng? hi^ri: 1*; my spar; where is 

Molcng's^ 
crrf/"^ /mdjiT jfnjj nifddnM*; fhulsab van kdoii AKtho I did tiflt re»d yfliir 

k'llvr; I read Ajiicru',s, 



To^. Rarely «■.' find hf^a in adrifinlive ci)nnir<;*Lijji witTj nouns \ if M, 
the jLoaaea^iirtEi 1- rrii|khri-iizedj '\aii kiJaJf nv izf&n^, mv I'ruptriy, iijiiu'ly: a 
hOUHe:oTr my *Wrt house; HB^ti^^□llT ay fdluk. your pig (not mine). 



loii. The sent€nM; "the liodsc isminf" is also circiiinscribed by; I am 

Idc fioii^c-yivner: ^ak/Sn nan nindjmg; Uiia construclioii is indeid f>T^- 
fcrrcd by llic Ig"oroC; li. ||>?| 

Anil ?*> thev ■^ay for i ■^hut liousc [5- this^ ^/fij* hun ni'wifong ay nayf 
IrT. who 13 iLie lioiise-oirner here (or: i\\\i\ 

ll may be &a[(E hei^e also thai *'owiict" in general nirans: niinkdS or 
ttiiikdd; liie^e ivnrds ait paiciciples ni Xoni. ageiiEJ? and riiufrc is oi" si 
befoifi ttie f^llo^vjng" obj-ect. Hik/in natt minkd^ is Jiair if/(m£; I ([1111) 
the owner of Die liou&c; liie hoii^c is mine. (And: inkSab is.— .J oivn, f-os- 
Mss) ; TTflfl I'UiibSa IS "On ■dihi, n ntH' fangd, ilio oitiier of sail, of pQicery 



3^ THt LANGUAGE OF THE BOXTOC JGOROT 

3IU. Some ?Lib^iaiidvea eidli^f in-enof-anwe akinloverlml n^uni. nr 

reaKy terljak If ill*: ■iuflisLS Ijr "iny" nnrl "chv" Pilmll be ailil^il lo ih^'&e, 
I heir filial Ji icdri-hnptfl, ;iiiH 3'^ Uity end tPicTi in vow*J?, -t rjf -"i i^ ^iifExed; 
a?: 

TTflfl ijia.ifiy^/-in, (he ^Ffepii^ place; 'Hf^J snas^y^^al;^ >iatz m^s^y^paat, my. 
lliy sleeping pi /ice, 
Bu! iu!her*iiave [he *ulfi;;i;4 -ko and -iho.- "jjj kipdn^kit. na'i kipd>i»iQ. 
lay. lliv knife 



EEFLEXIVK A\=D RECTPftOCAl. 



ITJ. Tiiiilead of Refte«it'e Pi'oti^jn^ Igiirni Language fiaes the word 
^ivaif, Ihjdy, wjiii ^ija&essive sulftxea. uulc&s z. vecb LXaQlHiJis ihc reflexive 
i'lca vi'iihin ilvcU. 

kidf'i'ii nail d-n'iihia "he hlle^ liimself" 

akdiliak nan ^ivdkko "1 lieal jiiiseli" 

Hd?j lal^ln jyi'itfd^yid nan a^'dk'ia ihe mnn ■bllltTi hini'^clE 

Bitt, *-g.H ^isak, I washmjadf, vfithout object, as the verb is rertei;- 

ivc l>v [Is form a^ a "middle/' 



i\2. Rcciptfcaliiy is iic-E e>:pre?-?€d Tiv anv pioiioQii, l>yL hy !hc verbal 
prefix i"ji -asi [301]. 



THE I^:TE^"s^\■E pronoun 



1 1,'^. The Intensive Ptotiduu -Kl"f- ia- isd-dlo. 

sak/^n n^idil? I royseH stf&di Isddto be himself 

nan aU-jAdko t.uWo my friend liiin^J.'-lf 
nan fafafffyi tsddio ibe women tlieiii -elves 
kji-i-^'ifnlito t.fdJIo "he xs;i[d" (ioii) liiniiclf 

Ohsofve the [diomadc ii&e oi liilJiilo m thc^e p^issaget: frmn Ti;:?t^! 
inli'iniina t!,ddlo nan iiiang^h'-'u lie foiimi al fast llie iliief JS 2.1 



THt^ LAyGXTAr.Tt Ol' TtlE liO>rTOO ICOROT 



i^ 



Qdtiddlo fiiiiitfu^onak J ?ilidll indi\^l (yr; finally) ,"iwalte [5. 13} -(od- ia 

the pTefiN of fiiliirr ini'^) 
adtsddla jiirntlinn^ (To .^nli.'iry llielr iin^llicr tom|hUlnlrn; .ii ilic Itn-l tind- 

linp vnud. Ii'.t (wij ion'. f;nlh-cr ii-clJ-iJrcriJ ^firt^, ■^Ji^i'i^^.) "Iliii surely 

for: ill Ij'^O ^v-|I| liurnl" (K. ^1 
Iphigh<f /sdd!o "I Iry i[ mv^^tJa'' 
adi'ittdio fsltiii'ck "I myscK ?bflll H.-oTk" 
na" laldh Is^dto iM-ntdti'smi llic man Itiiii^elf CEime here 
.fd*//ji tsddk ivtiak' "\ iriy<itflf .ciu'" (ii) 

sak/^ii Isddlo Jiflri 'liiii^f/a km s!ya "I nijaeit aaw him" (I oiy^elE 'am' 
Ihc rilnjiTV[;r of lliiia), 



THEADJECrrVE 



114- '^^ muriber of primitive Adjectives Is iimited in Bontoc IgArot 

A<[i';cli'N'C5 JT'i n'Jl inpli^'i'-'l '-■> ^li^tiimiiish binj;uljT nv pivral or p;eiider 
'\'hcy nj'pe'AC ofcoi in ii re^^u|Jlicy^^;ll finn, '^lii':li ^rrvi". (n iirleii'^ilj' llie 
quality expressed by the Adjective. Not All AdjMliViS, hMv-evfir, admil 

|-i'dii|>lic,-Ll[oii, ri'; r.-g- Idfai^^, cold; -ind ■^■iiiie nre fmmd niiTy iif rhi' n^dupli- 
L-iled foriif, ,n V. ^. lia^ljilki, h\%, l,ir^i:. 

Examples: 





ijiipfc Im 


^T^od 


i 


i>i:[LlLiflLl 


^ tdTX^f 


honeat^ etc 


-) 


bad 


□Frj^ii^flf^ 


thoroughly 


fisid ^'^'3;; 


hiffh 


1 


tall 


> dnijS 


long 


) 


SHIi^fl 


\ i^'^k 


liUli^ 


lO'V 


3lii*rl 


a^m 


Urge 


[ ijikktjdH 


cold 


ktu'<i^ 



inn 



■Rrduplicfitcd 



f:a^/ti!'/' 



angangSidd 

(or, by gemination: anffUdnifii) 

fSiiiiinlg {-\ iJotibliLiI plural form: 

jawitiic^ i& ill': only ]kliLr,il ronsi ol>' 
[aiiu'd uf ;in ;Lilj[<.mr ^ Jii |l- ^j, 
54. 5Si U'^tUr*' ■ fil'ii!hfdi'ii.-it!g* 

Qsa^dfk 

very liL^,'; i/akjfa^i^a f^^at/afc^if^, 
i]akf}Qi6Ra' K it ;l nmnrj lii-nMien 
f ijiid f [ii ilirs wordl- 

(No redujil, form) 



40 THE T,ANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 

!^iii]ple Furm Kf.'diitilit^Ltct! 

warni dtong -atittiOHS 

liol mdmiJSon^ 

bkck . 

blue \ tfgtlM (inKgfiid: painted w (tyerf Mack) 

iimk bro-wnj 

red kttaii imgkftad) 

wiliilt ffff^aD (in- OF iHJ^Jtod) 

yelloiw f^ktn^l 

greeti kSgfdMy» (lj[. like mo^^) 

brown kog ifilii (lit. like a ''rice hird") 

5oine adfecljves are identical willi sub^laTitlvcS, at amd»\(i, -^M ^inflii}, 

ot^ijn^jS yoTciig (cliild); for "olJ" iind "ne*," tif [hirga, ^e the Vocaliu- 
lar> Ohserve: an -c^ld hau^i:; afviffon^ adi6n^^&dttm <lii, a [ioii?e "for a 
1-oiig: lime"). 



iTv Tlic aUribufive adjective eitlier pr^c^dei or folfow^ the ^ub^Caii' 
live, a]>p;irLTilly williout ilisLiiicliou as tn crtiphasia; good, bad, small, Li§ 
nsimlly pri'i:cde. Tn eitfipr (xi?^ the ligarure ay is Decfssary. 

wflfl kSivh Qy Isl-^hi tht ii'^'A l}-'," 
uat fj^ld^a-v ay ittngfHd the bkick .^liidd 
H Tjiimt^ya-v ay aimJuid ul-J 'r:ii]Diyyjy 
jjfl^^ aiidnl/'i'y kity/^ iJie vcrv liii;h tree 
jjfln iiSaiig ay ifakt^a^tfa ihe vqtv bi^ butfaJ'j 
iJdPi tJyL"/( av Qlhi'idko my ^ood friend 



1 16. Vrrbii.1 iidjectivM or pnrticiplts foliow the subaiaJitive: 

ufl-fl fdn^a'y nafdintsJi xhi broken pol 

ijfljj kdyfic tiy m^d^kfud tht falling Trfft 



117. 'Ilic |>rcdii;jtivt ^djeciive diher precedes Ihe ai^ject withonl cop- 
uEa; 



kdUr'h "ffJi itiiff?^ llie spear i& jjood 



THf--: T.A-KGL"AG1'^ OV THE-: UOMTOC EGOROT 41 

fSii^g Si anJkko my cbjW ji liltlc 
mamdtvn^ nan p<ttatjh'i ihr iron it \\vt 
f<M nan lnhl^ki iHc niril a.rc (i^f 

Or i[ follows Ibf subji^cti crnincclvil liy ihc toifula ja i 
Bfln fafif\i yti ftJa'/j a^ J'^wS The i^-omsn is EjcfliiliEul ("good tft sec") 
nan mainametgkid ya fon/^ ihc pirl^ iirc [itllt; 
Bflff hd!j£vs ya adsifmCd ihc brni^ i:i h^Mvy 
miE fobfufdilo y/j abaflkas (Jie jaiingni«i an: stroDg 



jtS If lilt flubject of a prtdica^ivo ndjpctive !■; a i>*r}iOTi3l j>ronuiiii, thft 
adjeclive obloias the pergonal aufTixes |^j and is thus verbAbaud: 

I, antjiiak I am tail 

a. Q'ltjdka you are tall 

3, antj/!} siya Eie, slie, i! i5 !iill 

D. anijdta we ["i^o are tail 

L iilil. ant}didko v;^ are lall 

I. exd. anljdkatiit ivc arc t^iU 

II. anljiikayA y!\} nrz lilU 

III. HTWj^i^ tiicy ^irc t.ill 

Aliio cOEftlriJtliunii liTi^i thi;:^;' o^ciir ; sika ya diiijii, ij&k^y^ ynJuiwl'i: 
but llic first pffSOn-^ nvc rLl■^■;l^^ iiifiixf<i, y\iler ihe ili-ird slnyul-ir, %vliidi 
lias Jio atiffix, a proLioun (nr olhtr siibjed, if if •^.ni^ not precede) as \/y<i, 
sJiGdi, ffl^ "IT; or J;i mii^l lie |>1aceii ; tJjy/A j/)'ifj lie l5 godUi k^vh Mj ibal 
is good. 



119- Pryi; J';^?i V*; 'Hi^Hty, or irrtii^uion oi n r|iialii.- iiicn a higher ajc- 
preiT, i? cjfprrs^cd by ndillng in lUc^ verbalized fnnn? [he particle ?^Fri as 
prefix, heftJr-: an inili^l v-t^ivch bnl a'^ itiUs, if ttie arljeclive l>e^ii'; willi^coii- 
aoiiaiii: As infii. jj?/j ia pbccd ibclw-ctn ilic illi[i.^l coii'^onam jnd ilie Hr^t 
■vowel 

jimaijijifak 1 am ecllinj; Call, or laller 

Jium dwfsak I ,nni icclLins K'M'I, nr liecter 
/f[fK-?^jjJ'^jr* L b^ii-cnic ^niall. c-r smaller 
pwn.ifiia/i 1 become p^r, or poorer 
/M'^EarfjdFigy'f^jpjt T jjrinv rich 



4? THE lANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 

To form llie prelerii? liie "^tujEiiienl" fn- i& combined ivrlll Bin, Ji Ix'inj; 
i]ri;i|>]ieil' iitrn- (not; iittm-) ; tbeM fonm £le--isniilc o coiidirion Hut Tips been 
aiEaiiiedi Jjjjjjflfff?t1ii7^, i have l-rcniiii^ ^rurtji r^ll ; /rHnr-l'ji j'^cit, I TiJu-e 
become small; pimn/fjiak,! liiive faccffnii' [iwr ; iKJjj^J^Ji^iMl ii^ lurnine c^ild, 

iiyiiiidi£i!g, il 1i9S tdnied cold. 



which hii'i hcf-'n ^il.iini:di as n^Siid, hl^ck, tmi uing/'id. blackened; ^long^ 
warm ; riTjJfuuj;, Ji^kvin^ lurrcil ivami- pdkao, wliiEe; iitj'dka^ {!tiip^kan]\. 
d/^d ivhilt. 

Oiflv i>illi [ht j>relis nj- ire; /p^vdiirrf, =ofi; I'/y/fp^f*, lighc; iiiHim^t^ 



iji Sirtinc adjectives ivi^li llie prefiKcs ^^^a- iinil fri- Jif r^'^llv- p^isiilve 
jl^rlici|i|c^; uaf^tihd, sliar[>; iii^ilkod. Ic-jn. ■i;ii]:i-ci^li:i]- maidlinii, naki^il; 

iia- [iitprtleriie- in llie.-e ixrhni ridjn^lii-cs "ri:r- and iic- are ^rencratly used 
villitn.i[ dlslJiiTlLon of Iciisc; tji- f? |irr:fLrr<:d. 

inrTica^ed [iiyj, ura- ov uo- niiiK l*e dr^Eipi^d, Ijeiore ujjj- is added; e. g. 
muf/l/fid cbziii^c^ to fiitit/k^td: j;i;itiny k^Ti, 

Adjectives denoting material are lacking ; they muat be circumacrilwd 
93 fciirows? a woodnif house, nan diang aykdy^. [41 J 



J J?. Adjectivea^ in Iheir simple f omi or redvplicatei^t may be niDdilied 
by adverbs such as: 

very, coo fjfffjJmrf hals^iH<i ny !/t'.^ii£ very rolitoo cold 

a liule rtit/£ al^/l ny Jli:''ii^ a IbUlo Marm 

Less aHUeh akakfl oy 'lapdiid lc*s hlijirp 

(^l^ervc I lie |tlira?c'i ; 

akakfl irajj /iJ'f^'ifg mhuilnf mO ai/'^^tiJ lu Ir^i* Hit tofd lu-d^y tiifiii yes- 

nan l^jay akaJcfl ai"! Jy/jlid'/a mo jijj* piitang lit, the epear, le&i iLs &Ljaip- 

ti\^s than (EhiiL oi) Lhc ax 



THE LANGL'ACE OF THE ROWTOC IGOROT 43 

153, CoiaipiriiliT-e. For i^Jiiipar^Li^e ihe rcdupUcriltL] (inlgi^iif^injc) 
fii rill's are ii^d. 

'"Than," and 111 compari!*oiis oS equalk^' ":ls," i^' jjjrj. (.Mu i^ai^a j <-ini- 
jiiiictioii iibeaisDnfi: if aiid: \\1ien;aii(] an fifliTina.iive pai'ikle: i'erily [425]) 

aiid'ifj^ JJH" hitvffc mo ita'i dfoiij Llie Etee is higher lUaii i\w biou^i? 
nanmry ay palatitm ya ki}^iu-U nia tfan g^l!lya lliis iron is LM?tEor l]ian 

amdm^ak mo tj^^fjd I jni i>l(Lcr didii Uicy^ojJjyu^uflir jjjy.., I iun >miu^cr 

I ban.,. 
m'l klf-if'jj^kv ytt 'riip^ii^'lf^/l'/ iflO -^aJJ f^f'iij'i^rr'^ my "kniff ia sharper thgn 

yiiiir lis 
flflff /jrf jiT (T^o.tJ/t "Jrt nofl /iJ Ihe o!»e i^ STiorler "than the ott-er 

If -Mi nLijr^ilvi: liji-i nil rHiufiliculeii fnrni^ l-ialsilmff is ca\^\ijyid: 
imraJ-nd'y Ittf^/ig in-y iiau tjsdeilii col-dcr ili^n IipiI (i<-c) 



1^4 Cniiipai"iii>n may also Ije ci rcii[ii::^cri|icil liy Lvn nnilEliclLC plii-a^^s 
In iiixraini^lll^m ; nnj loi' "I lie Irce Is lii.chcr lli.n llic h'>nH!-^' •■>ay: ''Ihr lri;'> is 
liigli: lliu bou^c j-^ &iiui!l;" a}\ij6 nan kdyiK, fd'^^Z '^fl'i ^7i^".C 
Or iiiQti: ejiii>liai[c^Ny: a'la^jJ^ij iiaii kity^, fat'fiiflg Jiffn iZ^ong 

(This doea, oF course, not imply lliat clic house is really small; it ia ooLy 
sai'[ Lo l>L: :iJljaLJ jjt cQ]Li]>aTiaoii with th? trt^,) 



12^ TIlc fell lift is Live iilei is i?N|-iTCsi<'il hy :!<ldiii'' lo a Coiiip^r?livc 
pbrjiKe. thi- u'rtcds; "^ii Jjh/a, ^'ilun hII," hoff f/fljj jv fobfJlio ya abuf/ka^ 
mo mm tfm/* ay fal?fofdllo, this ycrmt^ man is the strongest; lit. "stronsfer 
thaa all youii^ jneo." 



136. Tliere aic no iiegala.'c ur iirivallie |>ri.'li\e^ in Ui'mot Ijri.ral {as 
111 Rn^li-'^lii itrrliappy, rViLejtjpcr^U', i(fJMtl^Jj-[e)i Elit iiiij^^livi^.' -iii//, Jii/J 
i^r mofd. i^<! eEi: are n&ed inM*:.i'l. 



I J?. In icjflie ctmatructiotiB the abstract noun derived irom the adjec- 
tive l55l is used: 

idJ xan kda'>tjS'i «a!, Uy^^ '"'hri.v much J^ ihe height tif Ihf ti-ee" ("Jin^V 
high" 1.^" I'f'l I'e ex-prcistd liicralij') 



44 THF. LANGUAGE OF THF. BOKTOC TGOHOT 



kud nan ktUuSiv-nrttnan -Uf^nj^ji ya 'itm flff how far i^ chc river fnmi the 

k^dS^iynoii k6&Hij^n Kaa-nay ayl^l^yanantjuy "equal (i^) ihe tengih of 

lliis slick and llial" 
nan ktiyei ya It&g nanpay iran kSSsdj^ia | i6], llie tiee is equally as thick 

as that (poinling at another tree) 
kad nan lal^Cvflni'? ho-w old [s hel ("how inimy liis years") 
uariMO'j tfj oiif:tf'ii^a -na^/^gh^n mo /fa:: aaithho thifi boy is oCdcr ("more 

gro'wfl") thaa my md, 



IXDliPlNlTE PRONOUNS 



128. Somebody, AnybiMjy i^ eKpTr:'^icd soTncliinei hy tdkA. a person- 
nay nan fdkft, htrc i-* '^omchodyi jjjfr^Tjjay !/ik^ 'ma^ is anybody here? 
I^kf^ inntdU '^hna, soinebn-ly lias ci>ine, 

Most fftqilfinriy it iR cli'fiarnJiif iljf d hv the idlaiiiatic wrb »*W 

[»5^rrf;>J ; \hcrt \^, ihtre exi'ii'i, Tr, i| y a. 

worf*/ jirtFt iK'iidU ay ti/kPi "ll»crc is a perfion liawTng come," scmebody bas 

come, 
ffifldrf list piimd^Mko "thtri: i:^ a kiJlin^-objecl of miiifi," I bave killed 

iOnicun':. 

ii'odd >mn niifniikuA ken sfka *'t[ii?re Is a caller o£ yOil," somebody calls you. 

In I'hraiCi with ilic idlcTrc^alive panicle ayk^ we liiid-tflj^ for wodd: 

aykd ii>ay k^kki'm ad Fdli^f "is ihcrf? akm^ivitig-objcct of ^'ours at BarllgT' 

do yon know ^nybudy al fiarligV 
oy,t J H'py e7jJ^fji ? "iJ ibttf 5n ftbj&it of yoin- s-pein^i" do you ?ee anybody? 
ayh^ii'ay inflam is nan ds&k? "did j'on s«e any dug of mine?'' 



ISO- SomtTltln^H Anythinjfr Is p^preswd liy n aimihr circuin?cr{ptiOTi 

vi<iddy aan idjj^ak ken tjakay^ "there is aa ol>j«[ Qt tuy givjig tv you," 

i have souielhing for yflU, 
Tvodtl nat i'lsSkh ken sak/^» "tbere i? a hurlirg io me," somclhing' 

Jiiirt? ine. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC LGOROT 



4S 



lio. A certain: hoh fftTy-... 

"-]?[ f.^a'y mi£6)if^^ adumAti ao/iionf a ncrtrim cliild (whom, you know — 

^vboni J ■^\\A\\ nur name) will c-oitk' soon. 



rji. NubocLy ic r:xtirc.''M:d by die id inn la lie iwa/id, Eiie neR;atii-e nf 
mcdd-; it si^ii(]e3 nnn-Pxisccncc; '"ihore ia no.,,." M^M [mlfl; mayd] 
rtfrjiiiTC^ spatial CGiisl.rui:i:lj.n^ which will be iJI.'cu*i*icil in t\v: cluplor^ on 

iHafd Ifik^ "ihcf-c 1^ no persan,"' Ttlitujy, 

maid Uiilak is idi-fx "Eliere 1^ noi ni_v ■ifcirj; ■>£ pcr-ioii^," T ■iee iiob(i<ly. 

ia mafd maii^dk''i6 si m "that there be niii ^ijty (jIo.iIli-) iliitf qI this," thai 

iiohoiiv su'a]& this 



ij2, K'nlliing; maid 'kick "Ehert i& no sedag object of mijir," 1 do 

pM sec any tiling 
wii^fi irrj^mr there i^ im pmprriv of h\.'i, lie iia^; noihing 
QiimaM alde/n "llicre will not be 2.ny iak.ing-jbjca ui yoii," you will not 

receive anvthiiig. 



ij]^. y-o. Not any ia atso circnmiCTlbed l>y ma/d: 
ji{i\i f^idf^wa mu/d jiHji ilif .voi'ld (had) iii^iUi^dt^uitis [l.,rl 
maid kaldmynii "ibcrt \i no ^liieCd oC hl5," lie has no sbickl 
jjifl/rf frrf'iTf^' is l^idf'tty "thETC is nol my eating" of l)tea<!,'' I ilo rol e^ir 

any bread 
iiioid iydJna's pafa/j/ia "there Is no- bringing of hh of any iron,-" lie doffs 

nijt bring any iitm. 
jnfii f'liv tuJntii/aii "liierc T? nnl any wiit of niijit," I liavt no nifc 

iiiutd itijdiani'i/'s s^iigHii^ we Aid act find miy ring'; 

p^k^n [fiiiiSn] ime^n^ "iioi tSii^ biu sDiiieLJiiLie di ftcrtni ]" oli^Ltve Uhc 
CKamplei fdk^n patatjim naiiiidy. hdin-.tg 'iamidy, ibli Id no irtnij [his ia 
brass. |3?3] 



r34n All: Smfn^ hik''5 frcviucnily rlir ^rhrfc, il i-h I'trinccfc'l with 
nriuna by ay, if timln is prcOtdcil by n-an] in litis cnj,(- ll piic^itij. nsnailv aU, 
i. e- the whole. 



46 Tllt£ LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 

amfn >ja»r k^ak all my property aiiiln- nati ^liaitdkhn fill iliy clkit^li'^rt 
amfyiayli1k& al[ people (in Ihc ihurld) nun amSn <ty idkSl all (lliose) 

people 
Hfln amtn ay dfofi;; \\w whdlv hoirsc 
a'ltfit ay t^ket ay tfrigait^il^d yH bad pi:<^']<: 
flflrrff FiiJ^ fsjj'y induok one wliolc cliKkcn 
nan am/n ay fafiit^it'n ihe ivhulc wurkl 
3ian am/'i ay Uf ilic whule lo'vn b«[/« ijaft tii all tmms 
flaw amin oy f^ink llic ^v|i'>lc ]'ip 
amfn nannity ay fuudnif^ ay iff<rn^ alf tUesf Utile liou^m 
fliirrF' Hart '/j'rfu'ji mtJ'fiiiit lnuli tn' yuur eyi-i 
t^il^vn^ Mill/ iiin/ii v!<: M iirc ^'^rliliie; we iViir(: [i^e^flier 
i>i/j"tfi urrtftj wflrt- biiiikin<! brine jH yuiti" nioiic)- 
in»i /nimtiik is n-JM (fffr/t ny Jjifi^m I iV^iik ^H rlie v.acr 
Itdild^nn a"i^>l lie vill ■^'t ,lll (irtf'^n'i nr (li-iliyi) 
mUkifQfi^gmdiiikn atnfnt kt usdll ftghil 
lifntn^k^i'd ay } gSl'Tt u«i^\hii"ifii\vn\dlahHii'i iaf^lilf^ltil/ ya k^sfirv^Mta: 

wi all, u-e T^fjrfir, ^^'ertt ra tak* all fn^^ ani^l f^."ich dog-. [B. la.] 
Of"^r'J^(?iti? flV talnldki ivQdfiy ^tii:i/in^t^ko we all liave, eacLi Dian^ o-ur liJil^i. 
Iclluni; kHi^»s ^/^ ''^'^ J^ all ; Eliis is Ehe einJ 
if TLQKm (orw siiigile) rfi^jrw during iLie wholL^djyn iill diiy long 



135. Mncli, Many : dngs&n; HyJka; vfllh the IJgatqrf ay. 

dnsJiuit ciy Uik^ iciary pcr.'ioiis - ang^an ay ijfm^m itiucEi ivater; ang^aii 

ffflFi uyiijjd^rt [ht birils Arc riiiiLy 
flngijfnfeflp^^l [(Jtt^jQw^tiAJWn tve are maiiv; sc: ffni;tfij!(fffro, dfjfidjjto^'rf 
[un^HSiiSkHy^], ^n^ianli^; aydka ay f^nga many flowers; 
aydka'y htktk iruch inojicy 
TLKjmiii;ti, toil Tnany. fjuij^wtir ay {it\gs&n. 
Very njcti, gre^i many: (i>ifdrtj;^i3ff. 
afl^irjA^3<A» flfiu (litrf iiy mf^j^ifu rj wflfl sa&vitn oy ^sn£y ^e^t mapy peo- 
pk were l>jiriit in dealli la^il ye^r. 
Mi>r':r ) nit^ii^t^iSii; adfidsa. ang/J'i£f:Sn nJif lalaictk^ tuo uotj fafufdyi 
Mi^^i. fSceal^n: [S&^l ih^fcare morf njtu tJiaa wi>tiifii 

//jflofjc^iWU (Triiirf.^iS give ^nie. us) morel 
bAdgaa ju*i as iniicli; ivoddy keti sak/itt ay k^^tia I bave ju^tJiEnmrh 



THE LAMGUAGE OF THE BONTOC KiOKOT 47 



136, T^vr. 31? ft ay.... ak^kft ay.... Ton few; t^txdm&'y iik(l ay. .. 

ffkh ay alhvfdho Fc-iv friPTnta of mine; nhfi nun olfiiiiAIiit "ly Erienflsare 
few- Skfffc^mf we are few; akftkHyir^ yoil firt few; at//;a nan tdka 
there ate icw people (here) : akakU 'ftii-,., le^^ than... 



137. Some, Several, A Few is oStcii cxpreawd by tJie "'pefamial" 

*iirins oi Eht Wbs: hi'udsb^k Uii^ti'^f -of ibie "poshes?;] ve" fonii kd^c!/^ Js 
df'i'tf^, [ builil sinie lioiiiei.— Or rLrcuiih&cr[|ie(lL n'lidif ?fiijj nihddfikat^ ss 
fidJi inAddpai, \i'Md mn ml-^l4i^k'i'^ 'i "an k-fu'ig/fn some were sliot in 
tlieir hdnrlji, ^rtciie in clieEr furclicnds. jB. ^:i\ 

iicrii (iJ/i^iio utii/iyliiL^s fil, nau fa^i^'iirf ffiFiflyi;<^'j pH^pSg some go itilo tlie 

Eo^Mi, 5on^z iiilo llie fore=.l. 0'"" tUpJna: a "i>iirt") 
.M?i*' i[aF[ di^/iijy,,. if(^t^ naPT -ifft/' cV lalaldki "I sec ;t h* men" (or: 

u'odil >iit\i lalaldki ay iltlei). 
i:^kl'ci.- ^au idpM na>i idkm ad Alah [iiol; tBphta\i Of: ^■^jJ.i (^fii; *^«iv* 

a^' i.'l/j^ "I Uiiov" !>cv-^t:iI p-eopl-e ^[ Abt. 
And: iidkdfJi <iy.... nan nakafh ay dsa vjmc Jr^s 
j^nadSytia *um nSk^h ay f^s^! "rliey killed ^\vrA\ eamaea" 
na'i iiakaf/i ri>' lydyam ^•ir ndtp^d/ *,ever;il liiril^^ were cau^it 
?iffV na>i fflbfiin. in^ka's nifk^ff-!^ Iieie .^tc ■^FJiTi^ec ^i.-e ine i>Giiie f 



I^ All Olh^ir, a djff-ertiil '■□?■ f^kki'n; in nlher ^f ihc saint kimi: 

fljn f^'**^ ay tdki* Uic O-ttipr people; nffii f^ftfrf^ aji a^'^^^rflm -Hfrerenl 

birds ; fSk^fi siyo. tCkk^n not lie, l.^ir mioilier 
flfln iSkkin ^y kddsoy: a liilTercnt ^hi^'ld; ufl-n ifi/dn 'wn koidiny: au 

oilier slii-eldoE Ihf ^ame kind, nft ii i[ii>iicl. ('Vii is ^1^"* "* c™^ 

pdninn'') 

l^kffUn HUa adumM .\d riLlJcr oiie -.vill vi^hic 

I( "jn -uiher" means "^le more,," it is expressed l>y fffr/j, ot td^/n^ Ji^ain- 

sndi:a's sin iid)if:a/t is (/t'jiH"- dkis, vr: kdi^ngka a^a'i i«i tflfl^a»... ffive 

ine Ein ulher (one more j gla^i^of %vatfr 
is tirAr an olfier idiiie, the nexi liiue 



43 THE J-AMGUAGL OF THLI BO^JTOC IGOROT 

139. Evcev, Each: roBjfcf/Af-— Also expresud by the prefix fru- and 
gctniiuKiOJi (I'T rcdiiplk^tinn) of iln? lirsl cwc syllables | Sil' 

wtishlj/ii ifiSsityep^ lol ci ery one ^feopf 

m\hi Gy hlaiifki a'ashtj/n Jimis! Icl cnc h of thf mm "waiih liimW-Tf I 

',.vashtfln?;ha}ifl hifsilnJi evcjy oup of n^ is wrirkiii'E; {KiOihtjiii Ijkcs llie 

■ini'fi.'ic'n, r'illuT pcr3(jn^l ur LulSsf&iivr, fram (hi: vcrf^li f-jrml) 
W£?ifr(;j."n^*^Vrfl: i>itk'i*sl'^g'n4! Jtl 11^ .ill JiK^itf l?t ^ery one £^t! 

ii'mlii^/tui v^'Jy is ubdfon^na iinw is'fufTt'r/rfnfi pvery one fakes to bis Irome 

lil^ |Mll'l Ifm iftl Tii.Ml (L. 'j'jj 

TfriiiAi^jijii[/ evf^ry m^t ^Tli; ffQihtjiaidko every me M Lii (yoir included) 
T^iuji'riy'/flj|«r i^(?£"ff 511 t^iry one nf you ie*s iliatj aiasiiljivii^^ iimSlen^ 

I'very rme nl yon is reccing 
flia.iJfj;/n^;i] innidngmawg tv^^y one nf ili^iin perionn.s 3 wramotiy (sacri- 

liccs) 
washif/ngi/timJ' htm^yso every one of us is moDing 

if^ £fj (mimera'U sigTibtfvicig ''one") occurs sametuuea <Tesig]i^liiig 

"each;" 

nicy nan liHd^y inldH: -iin Aif left tjSttjt '^Md nan. kaidtavna ya tia'i if^da'y 
fnif-^gnn JicrC nrp [liri^e icien, eiicli lia? a aliielil ,iiiii iwo ^peiir& 

Each sinj^lc oni:; djfia'y p^jmnh ijjjj Usaotjr/ioko ii lan /.ta'y tdk^ "I g^'er" 

liv-ii pc*;ii« lo cacli single man 
»ifii oFff/jj jy t^"ij;;jjd« uvcrjllilnR 



140. An^, vi'lMltvrj-: A^y \dliiy, A^ai] ^which is also ihe eqiilvalcni 

ior our ''iicvrr mini") i^ Li^erf in coiiihliiiition wiUi other proiioims lfin%: 
fiUiy .ifnffe .nny person wli^iitv^^r; avlthani tiidy .ifnit i^cii iji/tji call 

aiiyont oi than, yfm pteasc;. fi,lrdiv^Hysc n-an tii-iy sftiei call any- 

oiii-. 
rf/.zy Ji^S^ anylliing Bl flJl, any whatever, dn^fi^nyii S/dy ngSg^ "fin any- 

[liiiig yon please." V^r '^^l/iy ngig" we liear oficii; "^li^n^dg." 

That thing: fioii xfiaa; iyttjm nan sJ'ii. itriim Itiiil tiling! 

141. The one — the other; nan /so- — tin fs&i nan fson£ — nan tsnn^. 



IHE LAt^^GUAGE OF THIi liOXTifC TCOROT 40 



142, The ^rnsrali^Tg "one," Ger. man, Fr. ott, is usually ejcpresKd 

b\ cli'' iliLTil ptr'.ciii [iltiral. uiy ii-?'j^gHnijo, Amiatja if ooe has eaten, one 



14,-?. Tlic ■o^im-: nan k&Jgnd; {h^, like), tif li^-'d. ilie ^ame as 
this; Hg tffi jAfO tbc same a* he; W^ A*» '^^ the same as that (per- 

3011); ii'if kn^^ki? m-y u'lu^lI. Gcr ineinfaglciclieii; nan k&dgmo ny la!'fki 
ill*? j.jnii' niJiii .j'i ynii, OTie like yoii. 

""I'lii' very same'* i& auiii-eiiiiLe'^ reiid-crcd In ilifts, n-l'^n; rini! by [He 
"i-iii|>li;jlic'' fo-Tmrucliim ■ {nun) k'fyJV nan itlliik d^h ''Hir tree I ^i^v 



144. Sincfly tdimrmtie •ienTi tn be inSha and dn/ii Likr "di^ina" m 
Greek, afn^j^s d^nultfi :^^jjtic(iiLit?i a perioii (orlhmg) ^'"hidi x\\k ■^pt^k';!" crtn- 
nol or will nul nJiTie, as In Elic oxclaiiiiilion' dnf'i, mtokd iHy dlfifSf htil 
soine fine! tomel SonieEline?, Iiowtver, ii prc<.c<li"^ ^i [irojier nanm, a?' da^ i 
GHQk4 'H', ylni^'i, pa}zgdlikd' snat lie! ;Vnli:r'> i'^>riic .nntkly lievel 

And wlili llic dfc.ir.LcleT nf n ilcm'in'icralivc : ^i andlm Mdtyfii nan 
I'liok^hid this man, Mdtyll, iS th* rtflfrai.n'. 

Oliservi? Elie smiikir \IM of Hatii: S'tfn kq ' yoii Iii-tc! (Tlm^ tlie |i'jL- 
[CfS iruiii Saiitriki siiinininre iLiuir cuiLiiii!' ivuli IIkit "-arc . iUilnSj^'. tiay si 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



\^:,. Tiiij Tnlrrra^iiiiie*; I'fiqEiire pcaiHir mn^tmctioii-^ ivhicCi ii^ilJ bt 
ex:|>famcd 111 liilcr (-h^|Hcr.■: Ikre lljcy uyc [iierely elln^ll■:TJE■^J mil jLIus- 
iratcii hv a fe^' cKJimpk'.. As. these sbow, the InterropatLvra obiaia m ccr- 
1:1 in [jlira-.e'- llie iHTMin^l suflisfs. 



146. Who? Whom'i ^Yfrrf.^ tnn^kr? if The ptMi;!-!" Jt" ainl llie ]^^^^^a^- 
aEdve elenienl rr^. ^Jo cnpnlii is u^cd ^ilei .f/fis. 

j^Mjf f^/fi' ^^"^ " thet^r ^■''O '5 thai? 



50 THE LANGUAGE OF THE RON' I'OC IGOROT 

j/jjd HJH w6diVikii3? who i^ here? 

j/flBt nan -ivSiid'ik itfon^r who ii in Ihc house i' 

ifnr^ka^ wlto are j'ou? sln^ljil^ ivlw arc ihcy? 



147. \\Tl3tf fi^flf* 

b^SjF jrf.^ i^lial !« Cki3? "j-iJ^ ';"/ what is tliai? (I)iil' -a^Hij.' means: bad) 
tiyiffff^ itihi .it'll iS^nu'^^tsa? lit. ivhal ^rc y-uii lo liuiiiegl^at 1. e. Iirjvi' aj^e 
yiiti rtlalcil Eu liuii? 
"Whal J-ifl you say?", 'Svhall" [^ r;:pri'&ia3 liy the LiEcrjccLicni ; «5n? 
proiiouiice^I u-uli rising iiitoiiiJUirni, 



14ft. How iiiiicb } Knw many? iiQit^ 
kad lien f^sfrl? liow niany jtc lln? pncmips? !^od ay f/f^^l/ liow many 

tod fl^i fiii<sy/ Low m^uiy t^Kiirj ^ 



j/'/ii* uj fu!^\'i' whicli i^oiiiiiTil ;(/^jrt av fabjafd-iif »vl]j^:h wyincn? 

ifj^iT^i; uji lidy^? -vililcli Irte, or lrc<"'^? 

fj^'iJ^ uy iSJi'jrj? nanndy? whflT klnJ of coal i^, tliU? 

tjJiT^' '^y if^i'fyab nan ifi^Sy^'srui' wliich n.f [hf?i; *ihiekl* ar? pfHirs? 

uga^ oy filtfcg nan Idylj^m? nhicb spear "da you wani?"' or; '^'i^H 'J'"' 
^S^S ^y fobanga nan iSyif^n 'tan ialdi/i^ which pi[je "doEstfaeman want?" 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE UON'EYK: !GOROT 51 



THE VERB 



150. "Vj-tI^ij" of ihc liiiiiioc I'^-Jiot l^mjjuaRe coiisiii oC Ri>oi*^ wiih 
l^rpfises. Infixes ar i^ll^Ti>L^::^. Tlic rnul i^ tniplovcil eillier 35 verL^il a^licc- 



h^l rOi^lt;, Or ■^ubi tan Li ■'£■:_ ailiCLLi''c*;, :siU-?rbs, nm morals, iiriinciuris - m ^liort, 
n<:;irly <:v[rv PnirL nr S^pctch may 'Crve as RhvjI i\Tid i^ vetlialijed in v^iriouB 

PriniilLvi.' WtIi.iI Ruoh; aria-l> "nnd" amipek "I rmd'" (my linrll[i|:^) 

Ar|J^^.I■in.■: ifj(i/^t sliorS pMsdikek "1 sliiirleii" 

NcgatUr ; J^/ iAiJ/i I "'rtiii-iC ;" I iln imi ; I <lcny, etc 

Kumetal: /ja one pAtsdek "I leave alooe" 

Pronoun : ^h\u wlio? jf'r??ta ' nWt an? jou! 



J5£. B^ combinatian iviUi ceruiii piirijtks tin iflm* I'-im lie %'erhall7.?d 
into: 

1), VerSals ^'illi the |>reli.'i-e^ f inlixcs) in-, rim-, uioti^-, p.riT-, ptc. ; Ihe^*: 
Vt^rljaU okaijf [he |ier&oii.il fniffj-it^ ^"*-n'lin^^") -af^y -ka oic. ]?■&]. Whh- 
<^iH eiirlliie^, the vci-bjl- of llli!^ catcL-'io ^rr mO'-i ^iiniUr to OUT parliciplefi 
or verbal aJjecdvea [uspctially ol iutrafliitiVSi) ! going, hsTii^ piUe, sleep- 
ing', lo^![ e!c 

Tlicy einpliiiiiac Ihc i;ihn<liir'ni or j;LiEe In wliinrli ihr Mibjec! i-;, or (lie 
aclioii performeil bv XXa: mjbjtct: llit: aclion i* cmi'-irkTtd nf ^rcaler JDJ{«i>rL- 
a]ice clian ilie obfti.r. 

S). Vcrkih v,[lb (he cliaracter oj \-':rbril nnuiis, Noiniiui aiilonis; iJie 
aciiijTi luimtfl by Ibtjii: I'erbal'. hJiltis a dcliciiie ofjji:ci oi ci'jL3JdH.Tiible 
jniporisjiic. -'?.iit:b verJfa.! foiiiipijons corrfsiwiddj in mosl instaifCEi lo our 



52 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

[iaii5iiivt vL;rbs. Thsy are fomifd by adding ^vto kinds •?[ jiirtcles to a 

rinoC; 

|i) py^'^C'^5ii>c '^ulliKi'^ ("cnilini^V'). liy fhest posse-^sive (^mliEies [ici6| 
Uiir snJjjei:c 'ii a tr^u':]Elve veri* Is rcpre^eiiltd, \i ihe ^tibject 1^ a pet*.iiiial 



153. la this book the VerbaCa are cLaeslfied according m tticxr end- 
ings, 35: 

:') l:Vi'^fiii:il V«rh*i I *HfUiie in -ak. -ha, -to, '*fl*fl^ -idmi -eid (Tli*^ 
Icnii "Inlraiislllvcs" wfiitli woulil bt i^unt ^ippriipi'i^iCe Lor many v^^rb;; of 
ilili «-ni?£nry wrnild be jnisloadijt-t, a^ many oi ilieiii ait ii'cd aUu ii*, Iran- 
i^i[ii.rj^, lliougli w'jtJi le?' iraiiMtive ittrix Iban the verba of the daas b.) 

(I!y (iaiiii]ip; llieiii "Actn'e-:" they yiiuki ]iot In: i:l[^-liiii;iii&ln;d fiom 
Llio^e of das'. 1>, v;|iicTi ^iTC lilicwi'^e Aclne-^, ii[llioti;,'"li liiey [ire c^ille<J liy a 
tiiiLe-lioiiorcd ivroiig icrni. "Kaisiixh." 111 "Shcr M. 1'. Laiipia^j. J.c^s 
incoritcc h llie [-.thi "Grniij> livkilii^iiiii'" iar ■-]^'>'. Ii,) 

3>) Po^iSfasive Vfrbfi; Uhm- ar<: iU |rriT:i[li.c! {in .mr ci>iKT!pliod) ; in 
fad, they ar« iimiB^ NuiriLim ai^tiuuiD, niU' rQi^£';»iV<: ^HLJin^'^. 



154. PraciirBHymcKlprimi-tive verbal roAs and many otHer roots can 

]ie iTJLnsfnnneil iiiio Tjuih, b'cr^oiial and PosGB&ive verbE^ by oi^loying 

.arioLi' panicky, a-:; 

Verhal Kcol - kat^h; Per'idiial \'erli; f) iiikiM-itk I am i:i:ikin^, ImitLliiii?; 

:?) knmjf^biik I aLJi^'oin^- lo ]lln^;CllOl^ 
Po^w^ive Vei'b: kitpck I iiiako, I nm iiiLikJT'li 
AdjeclLve Root: dlun^; 

P^rsouat \'i?rb: f | ifj^^oFr^jt J ;i[ii w;iriii idtiyn^ak) 

■S) ii'ndSoHgiik I ,ini jj^ctlcii^ ^viiriii 
Possesaive Verfj ; j'a^tv}t^clt T make warm 



'S.> ^'crb!J ,irt wnlincd, in ilirs GriiimtiHtr, lo ilif categwira 'Tctsonal" 
and "Possesave" only according 10 their cominoii umi, E, e, in a^^^^V4? 'l^ulara- 
tive ma[n wTilen-ce^. Tlieir commoiL fornix (.'ucL aa ^vfu m The Vocatn- 



THE LAKGUAGF: -of Tfi£ BONTOC TGOROT s^ 

In ccrtatn cnnstrnctinni, dmw^ai [^tcr ji leii^tii, fJit verbs ol on* cato- 

jjnn- jirc ti'-iri'^filnnirrl Inii [In nilisT cjCj^'Ty; ivben Ehis t^kcE place, thvir 

|Mr|[Lli:K nui':! I.i ^-h^ll[;'Ml .iccordiii^b ■ (^onie of lliese Cirnislriicliori^ jcc; 
^cry-nt; I'TiipEi n'ji ij yf ili^ dir-tcln the innJirfcl objeci, ihc iigeiil, pJrttr, lime, 
iii'^lriHiiciil, v^n'ic. |icrv>n ir>L- i^'lii>iii ^n iicrirm i= perlofnieih lli^ •^^'■'■[^■c; 
Can^icuciioLi!* corrc-^finniling", xis ii '.tii:. Eo -Dor rclarjvc tlaubcs, iUJiic jnnr- 
rc^ative aenlences etc) 

VQjCtS TtV-'I'S MDOIB 

i^Ci. Tlic \'uicc*. ^ct; ill': Aijilve ^irid ific Pas^Ivc 
TJn: I'fc*!'!]!;!! \^Lrhs nri- iiciL',- k'liiiii.l In Uii' A-fiu'^ Voice- 
Tlie Po.-i'oi'.Hsive Vcrhi occur dihi^r in ili-o Aci:iwor Passive Voice; Clic 
Aclivc con Sinn: clou is iiuicli pitferjT'l lo llic Pa^^l^'i]-. 

I 'l*[ip iciTii ''1^' Eie*. tia'ivi',^' imli-rliimlcK iiiviiili^d wime rpnturiM Ago 
h\- ?i|l:^lllsl[ r.rfiiuin^Lrian.-' ic-c llic lliree aclive coiijii^-alloiis in oilier Pliilip- 
jhiiic l.ingLi.ii^t-- (l>LiE not llonLof I^oriicli ]iiu5ll>i? ri^iecccd a: uiTniisrui?. Tiuc 
Mnti: ]-t:i.' (u"lIIv :i11 I'lulippinrsl'i und C'op^isl-: of atore or If^s c]b-ir>!e[i? Pliifip- 
piiie (ii-pnimsir^ ^irc i-linj^ijij; lo tbic wtyng designation, Jt actiua pcu^vcr to 
gLi'e El few verl>' iiere in fhcir 

i\c.i.]\i- nnd Passive 

Freseot 

I and 3. SJiag. I^yriek, SHtj^m, v'-y Ha' Ickliig mal^yttdalt. maicytidka 

\ ,1111, clinn art Iiki'i 

my, ihy u^iliiig- iiiofitktiSiwon^ka 

T Jim, lli.m :iti called 

JLiding; (bul no!: Iicirj; Iml- I am, lIioli arl liidden 
den by me, thee! ) 



157- The Tenses are: Present, Prelerite, Fnture. 
ig3. The Moods are: IndicatLi-e atid Tciperalive- 
159, VetbaU are: Nonien acllonis, Nomei^ agenlij. 



54 THF. T.ANGUAGL: OF THE BOXTOC IGOROT 

i6o- By rcduiiliciULOH, prLfixci, anxiiiiirie?, aiiverh*i, pnrride' many 
li;iiiprir,il jthI nwJal variations are -eKpres&ed, as llic IeuhiciIklI*: IMS', |'llii>c;r- 
fccl, c'lnjunclivc^ optallve, coiidiEJonal, caLisjilive, ri.iiLliori!ilivi:, frciiiicnta- 
liv?, Jiil?iL&Lve, wyperalLVCn patenlial, recjpr'>fnl, i^riplu^j^ t}f the icvH;raI tle- 
iiKEits oi a senl&nce, elc- 



PERSON-AT. VERBS 



i6t- '"Fi:T:HJ'n[il \'erbs" is an ablirevJj.li'il teriii fnrj A'crb? with tiid' 
idgs <ler[%'efl from the Pergonal Proiiouii' |SS] . Tlie^i; verlj.^ ini;|ii-dc t^iUi, 
intraiisidvfs and cfitain transitave^; ibev hiii'p iin Prt'i^ivc. 



i6a- Personal vcrF)5 i'Kifr'.-&5; 

Th* fifale <x condition of a perwii or a thiofi:; "to Im." 

hlttkitik I iiiii ri niriii; aifxi'iditk I rfm a iricnd: l^ow/m^ 1 zm good; 

lti!tfkdntl viT ari' nhri'c - n^ynk T ^m Ihtc, !■>, mi' njici ; 

ins^ki'a!? wlwre are wef siniliaf who art you^ 

tr^ififSyH? |iU'v niaTjv -irt yayi jj Bf^V^n^ti,^ I aiji Mvlcn^ 

I ^'li^rhiiml' we are Jg6roL- fal/^n^^ii it Ip nuL v<^u. bm oiiuthcr perstm; 

iSomAk'fieilH'/ ws arc Samukimcn, from Samokj. 

The change from one condiElon inio another ("itillf Jlie partfcTe wm) ; 
"to Ix'onie, eel, prow." 

nwaltiiyidak I am becoming' a friend; iiimiinigak I am gelling f^riiall- 
tamiionsak I ^iii gel ting uinii ; lumul/ng^i it grows ttark, 

Tnirflmiiivi: dCiinn. 
umdiiak I cymi'; /Jiw^^'fife i pr^j inidkftfknif I rnii; 
(jHifj/tJ??frn£ I ^m tiltinij; mpsflyeiurk I sleep; 
matJilftkHair I an^ r\\[vi:\ inti^d^^k E remain at a plw*; 
ivoddak \w6ddyak\ I -cxi&l, iiin iircscnl. 

Trnnsitivc action with more streae on the verE> than on a detinite object^ 
chc oEjjc^l IjeinK indefiniec or general or latieii in a pariicii'e sen**, as; T tjit 
mrai, I huild houMs^ T smolie luhai^cn; T gel ?ionie wood, Personal vtrbs 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC tGOHOT 53 

wilti Ir^in^itlvC ifrc:, 35 lh<;ijc <:Kanipl':5 coinafii, arr: (iirciiril irtrm ihe same 
rAM ,1!^ rhcir rv>^n3J<:. tlic i*D:^:ie'^5ivd verbs; ih* laTt^i', hOM.'tvCi', govern el 
d^liniie- obi<:ci which ii of no leaa iiaporlance than tht verb, as: 1 build llie 
mayor's lioii3c, I biiioke- llsis cij!":ii", I eaT llic meac. 

Thut ill Boiil'K Ig"orot llie inieiliuii "ulial ^ire you iloirtgc" wuiild b? 
aiiswcrcJ hy j pergonal "oerb in die seutcDce: -*i ain reading U'ice-T'," 
{tHfJ^aal.- f'j sftlad) ■ LuiE l>y a cognate pu^se'^Piiie veib 111 llie 3eiileiiC(!; "I, 
am resKling" iny ^on'a Ictlti""' {faidci^ Jiirir ifflad nan anttkko). 
titd'igiinak i^ jjcfij lindf-ay 1 eat lu'ead- ki(r\ek tiaii liiid^'ay I eat Ihe bread; 
(boili rvanganak and haiick have tlie roij-l ti7J'). 

Si^i]iClii|n^*i lIic |n?r-HKial rcfif is Intraiisitite or iiiodial, white the cng- 
jiatc posKasive verb ia tranaitii'^: faw^^aeb I wake sooiebodj up; 

ftftfiJff^^rtiJifjt I wake jp from my sleep. 

THB FHESEffT 

n^.^. ParadigfjLB of the Personal Verb 

S I tnosf'yrj}ak Tsltip A«.^^^ii£ I w^i-k 

3 Pmsiiycf' (stvn) fir, ■^li'^. n j!-I(^l:|>s mfxj^ji^'^ lie, slie, it ^vorki 

P. T. iacL iKmnyepfdkf I'.e sleefi i^its^n&utko w.' ^^yrk 

1. cxcL p\tij;ny'*filr3m/ ive ^lce[j ^ntsftK^tiiiaf ivc worlf 

n. wioj^^Vf'7ifri3>'rt yoiL sltep c»ri?iJi^^>i3y« you work 

III. tKOiUy^pija they sleep (:^jJjiifn^'r;(i (liey work 



jf-q. The [hiril person sin-KuUr h^^'^mi ■■iirir.\; it re|>rci<:n[^ che E;iiri]jk!j[ 
vxrltdl fiiriii oi die |)er^ollal verb'- ami i'- ul^'ciLicil ^vilh Ehe verbal adjective 
or -partiu;^; it cories|xn]d-i alw !■> our irt'iiLilivt lO f^rlaiu con-rrin:tiriTT'. 

nan ongon^n ifv Hinjrfyi?/' rho ilccpin^ cliild 
Uytfck ay mm'iyi'!' aiiii.'dnl' I like to slee|i now. 



165, 1'lie persona-l pronoun* Ye. she, it are placed after this third per- 
s(iii form. v.'hlle che other |>er,'-'tn'' r|o ni^i reriuire aiiv additional per^niial pro- 
nniLiis, unlfiii ihc ^iihifcl -^luH in: tjii]ibilfijf:c0: 

wm^^r J^va he CfJLUM, or: she codica; um^^ itya ajj fafdvi *ilic corner 
[86] 



56 Tilt la^JGUaCe of the boktoc jgo-rot 

s£ba ^nisandka you, yon work - i/afiiki) ent.iJinotdka ]l is ytM Hiitt we 
who arc woi^king, riok/in dmiiyak I fur my p^drt, I go. 

As the example*! sliov,, ih(? f.rrj,0[i.-^l cmlingi Eire alw suflixed, n [lie 
per^oiiil proiiiiuji*; ptpiiedc the v<:j-Jt. lhi[ if ilic subiinnci^'e ir> which "he. 
she, ii'' refer? Imsfn^en [ii^nfmneil imnn-'li^idy bd'jrr, j/j'a i^ ciiii[itedj intfi 



166. _A sijigulnr s-ulisUiuK't is sumelimes coimecled b^ (he copula ya 

ivith lilt fo31o\viiij> verl>al (■^^n^^ 

nUii iAitm^^hid m/tr?iyc^. ur ; nan manuSgktd ya inas^ycp, llie girl sleeps. 

(Bill ii rlie siiliject i* in ]jliiial and if jw is emptoyed, the veib has !he 

eniliilH -l/d: tcin laialilki ya ^nt-ntnSifa Tliis coii?Lr ncllcin ah-: iisnJ \ij 
ihf l^'ijy! ill liifl fc^- CKJinipfes.) 

PSE- AND TNTm«l UF rnH^IWrtL V-EBB6 

■ i^y. Pwiionai Vai+ia from primitive verhal TOots ifquji-e, wiifciout 
any tN^qJli^m, ilit ijrcrii 1^- or llic pr-jin t?? iiifiK rf^r-, -urn-, 

Personal Verbs frDm olhi^r ruott ait jomc:linn:& Lonitined wilh tbeae 
panicles. 

TTie Prefix /»- 

if^R Tiic ?reli\ t'h- |fir-. cir-, iif-] indicates siiiiplv llul t ro.il is. 
tjan^Eonned into a Terb. Tri [lik t unction, in- 'a rievet Infixed- ll iiroceile's 
botli, vowels artiT can'^onantB, 

III ?ofiif iiisL.iii-ff^ in- si^ffifs rntlurn slattorcoiidilio-n tfian an^cfifiir, 
nr\ ^itlltJn i^nj!" 'ni wiHimrl cliiiirix, i^'innriiiuc^ jm :fciiiiii Iti ^ intcsccnt ^talt, 
as £t were: tnfUisi^iiik . I ^m hu^illc, cunTlnui- if he lii^sHlc. 

FtrHJnnl v-crlf^ df;ri vtd f r^nn ^ul^^^(^[iv^f. Hij?|'i.Mr in iwv torciift octii^inii- 
ally, ivilli Ihi?; prcJii. nr willioiit il, while [lie nn:i:iii[ii[^">f llie verb i^cinaiiii^ die; 
same. Tin- 11 of in- is very rarely as^iiiiililed (o a siifjieciiicn [ coiisongiic; hut 
fiefiire i ue find u?uallv jj^^ ((H" n, B-fii^r-e t ,ind tj ^r Jf iln^ pfCJis. ilt- 
sppearB often ag ^^^ or rfn-. 
Verb* with if*-: 

initfiayak 1 play ino^ddak I am ^fr^nl intfk^u^ I ivccj> 

iijamlji^ak I kocp ^varm infdsaak I rc^ld int-u^fdak I wurk fur wages 



THE LA2fGUAGE OF THK EONTOtJ IGOROT 



57 



inlaUyadak 1 rejoice 
InfalognMa^ I Tight 
cnlsiiflO'ik r %vork 



iii/ffovak I wejve 

tngkdHok r speHk 



insos6iii:cfiik I 3in angry 

*rn^ftrf*w«£Bit I crawl 

am ^11 enemy 



169- The prefix m- [^nr. en-, &n-\ ^h^djrs ^nly wim pet&oiial verbs; in 
ven- (cv^ cxc^iili'ms il 1*- fomid "'itli imj'o!'*:'.''!'*: vcrli*;, as ; 

^dfuadjf!aefr I 'lnubc iTT^ita.f^i^ii^fi ! mix ^n^kakatyviciek I place in 
the <:crTrt. 

If Olhcr |Mii&CMiivi: iTrli:= hLi^iji wuIj m, "Hi'^ i'i n*' [iri;l1x. lu( leloiijis to 
the riirtC, a&j hiiimck T ilricik, in/^ft I Jm'H, /j^/irfe I cloic. 

Vlip licefix -in- sbiJll H'H l-e cnnEoun^U'il wiLli [fit "^lURLiicnt" fn- wEiidl 
la prfl- or infised to verbs, as a temporal |>uuclc, iiidiCtfEuig tlK preteriie, 

Tlie Pre- or Infix Un- 

I7i>. ^'ji- [si'i-, om-\ i:i used exdn^ivHy I'-lili rei-soiisil Verb''- 'i'm ia 
prefiw'l 111 iiiiliial v(>.n'l'=^ j< Hit-re i; an iiiidal i;.hii',.nirLin, urn enters IV tool 
and taSets itB place between the initial con&Odant and the vowel of the first 
^.■liable. 

Root aii: im/tfUak I cooie; Rao-t jangoit: Jh"i^'.igc^'iak 1 awake. 



171- 



l!m i-H ^:m]lll^y<■ll lo e.vnr-f-n v^^rii^iK iilcos jii luinEiriLian willi per- 
sonal verbi; in iiuinj ca^ts it i'^ u^'l ■ilri^^Lly idi-oniatknllv and mdefiiiprily, 
I(itidica(en siniLi^cmi':^ ihai Ihe action is periornied by tlie sutjecl upon him- 
H'H --'r cm^ccrn^n^ him^^elf (ainilar 'n;(Gicd Middle and rLrtsm ricrman 

r'^Hcxivt verPi'-). 



mnff^H^k 


T rest 


iif»i!d<iii 


J .vaiL 


Amrsiik 


T wash niy&di 


itmf'iu'iiak 


T drink 


tsimdhfjihiilc 


I ^(Eind 


Uim^Syak 


1 ■;lo[i 



I sic down 

r ^[t in i^i'i-ot fashion 
I r^iiiic 



Sa THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKITOC IGOROT 

172. Since mntion ccpDCcms precmJOQidy th* subject ("I ouive ary- 
self"), iflui- iis Luuad with (he vnfj5"^S cuininK. goinR", etc. Ruch are; 

/?njji;vai^ I j^-f liividyaoak I mn a^'ay jji.ifli?Jjt i come lir*riic 

iimJiiak i come lu^^jijaifajt I fly srimkepak [ enler 

itfm^tfjjfTfr I ^o ?way futifttSak T go oin irfFFfi^t-iiiiEt I ^pproiidi 

hfrn^nfidiiii- f cumc Jown tfcmdliak I iclurn /nFJfiJfrmj^at t ^o to irark 



i-y Un\ denore^ al^.!^ ^^p^clally with ^ub^Taiuivt^ jihJ iidjcchve^, (o 
liec'iiiie, Eo he lraii*,fnriiicil, tn pn^i? Erocn ,1 tr^iidilliin lnli.i a more intcose or 

JiiglifT (>]i4*;i- ^^l Hie cffli'ljlion (a^: T am ^tUiil^'- cirone.'F) : 

iintaihi'i'iisk ! Iiccnrne 9 friend ftH'iiku-^nk f ;ini jjcHing stronger 

fmnsifalak T hecfipic an enemy HJ'F'^'fi^ci^' T :(ni jirL>'vjn^; ^Id 
dju'tiadjiHiiiTk 1 pc< hl<iii'fy ^Jiwir^'ifnuf'f I am lurninf; w^iiie 

piimAsiah J liecLiiiic iHiur, piii>rer n^umflidi^^ I -srri ^i^lhnj; djrli 
£«njudtJfl^yi?/ifljt 1 gti rJclier hittnlladak J am g^'Hin^ red 

fri[in.}foak I pniv ir^^iiiJiffi/ilrnfli I iraii'iftjrm nivsclf^ change 

kttmAy^ak I iweoint woad, a tpee flijiJii/^i^dfr I ^n^ cU.icigefl inlfj alone 
kui3i^Uin^ak I bctcnni? an eag-Ic 



174. i/ijj iiidkalf5 in cerlaiii coiiiji04.iEioii% llint an action uiifj 'in: pcr- 
foriiicil ill llie near fialure; s/^incLiiiic^ ii iiaake=a v-crb (in iiitdy^ljvc, Its effect 
is seen by comparing the me^mngof verbsof tbc-i«-cal^l^ry widiihoseliav- 

Eng ui'i, 

!t'imAibo.k i.t iffon^ I am goings to tiui[iil houses 

inkdibak is tifonx I am fmildiiiii hinusc*; 

fimr}^iddak I iniiallfsar, Ihe^in lobtatraid 

iii^^indak J ,1111 jjlraicl 

ziiria^/fftii'iai T '■ihadi soon uiary 

inuydt^iiJdati I r<'l''brj|F? my wfddini^ 

tfi/^iool- I slinJl cc-th, I an] ^Ijirlicig to cook 

iiit^tnnk i cook 

himcn-^\aoak I shiilB liiive a hoddiiy 

I'^Jfjignnot 1 i-nlcbrtflc ;i holiiliiv 

(TJtiii clic Bon^ocincn Jinnouiice n huliday sei doun hy ceria-in nen 
acting ^8 pnesi^ hy tbcc^ll; UimengaoldkQ—-i ft: iiiitn.^aotdkV"—'!) 
u»i:iij3if ii is going to rain- iiiritjdn it ^E rainiag 



THE L.\N<JUACE OF THE EOTTTOr TGOROT 



SO 



The PrefixMfl- 



175. Tlie Prefix mc-, ivliicli is the Pa^^ive Prefis i.f Ji'^'^'^irninlvc vcr"bi, 
■deijotes lliflt ilic *iuUjcci i^ being piiT. nr !n^ hecii pui Iciiii ilLctinnilliicm n^mtd 
"by ili[ r-iinl Kri-ijiitiiily ■^iifli verii': faii^ry a p.i.':':!,'^ Iden, -fi- "I f;ill" cnn- 
vGys Ihi: [dc^ I'f [in ■Jiilivjiril tauic Oi i^ij f^lliH^', 'T aili ihr/^wn -lnwnj" or; 
'T sink," the idea "3 am l)<:m;G; diuMiieid." OftcnEljc L-'iiin-|iLi.>ii ola middltpre- 
v;iil'; ill 1E1PIC verli= \villi ujif. (Mo- Tiefore i bct.iicie*! ^lomcLiTiies fwfjiiid fiif.'i 

mo-iJ^yepak I ?lee|-> mH'iJyak 1 [mi ilviii^^ 

fnafj'.f^i^flj;flA I Cake leave ma/flyddii^ I ]'rin|>cr 

ma/n^Snak T ero\v ( jiiaj'fij.'T^A^p,t I i-ill iJovn (vdlhout former 

iitattlkita/: I live i tiim.iLL ^VlL^ ifie ^rnmiil) Synonyms: 

{"linl it a/Ill k , 'naAknagab \m£iiktsa^ol^] 
mQdi(^mi';ak L f^l] over {fry-iii i^t-jncliiii; rin 
tljc J,^rOLiil'l) Si'JLilllJill: 

»!\<;!'pl}'iiiik I <;lunible and fall 



The Prefix jVo*£- 



iy&. Tliel'relix.Wj^f^- («Him, -rirorf-, sc-? ] 11]) rnnililTied with substaTi- 
ih'es denotes an aciion oiiinecLed vrii\i die tiling nn.-nlJaTn:d, ^? ilict exaiii- 
[tlc^ slimv ■ 

^lifftrJAfPTcf' I walk oil a r'wri, iTilvfl 
f»r£]ic;;flpz'ifflfr I ptay 

mQHgd-iSt^ik I eo luintiiig ivicti ilftg* 
ii\ Q'i-^j^V^ ak r gather WNid 
>nanai:rjiiak 1 get wat«r (suHiw -jjj* i'i 

dro[i|HXl) 
wroH^J^'fl^p* 1 i;;ili;h fi^li with tlie M;i'S^ 

movgn-sfiwcngak I iint^ i%hil>; ivorldug 
initni^ifiak L illg: ^i^tr 

uiixmdlrsg^uk 1 :^lior.t 

monii^niak I dano': 
mandiifeirak I ilance a t^dfck 
i}tan^iaoah T -liance (tvIIIi ax, fihicid, 

Bi>ear) 



d^jirii 


road 


ferf/-i"a 


prayer 


:Av* 


dog 


ti^j'^t 


ivood 


saktfi^an 


wj(er vessel 


k^y^X 


fi*ili b^sk-:! 


dytmg 


war srmg 


a\'ti-aie!ij: 


iniUi^lria] son^ 


I'^ki .' k 


Irid 111 ^weei f-oiatoes 


MldUb [pdh&tf^\ ^-un 


(tff^/e^^ 


dance 


sdgni 


^viiiiiaii's dance 


Iddjek 


a iiiaii^^ Hdaiice 


ljt4/ao ; 


L paiilaiiijiiijc ^Qlodaiice- 



60 Tin: LAWGUAGL OF THE BOX'TOC EGOROT 



j^iin^^sa g<Mig maiigiittgf^ak I dance striking r.]ie gflw^jj 

faiddvJig beELii mmiialftdoHgak I galhei' beans 



J 77. Mang- ionti% in Miiihiiialion willi possc^sitc vi;rb5, N'oniiin 
Agcimi? (The ■'l^ol|)ei', {^W-^t, ^Inili^r," fto.")' tLi^^e ilo ni>L i.-iks ilif [irr^ijrt^l 
endings, as: the lielpcr, ntaaittd/ang; I an llie lieljter: !,/ik//it (n-J»jl 
mamiidjat^ Bii( chc fofloivrii!" NoniiiiEi agciili? are Irealcrl n^ persrtii.i] 

itj^'jiefc I fill numgCnaie I eat wmgdngka. mdngHn cEi\ 

rMlbidek 1 smoke ma'titi'/^aJf I smoke inanubitlka, manjlMa elc. 

fnkif/^ek I ncl off IiljiIi:^ 'jjifFfli(tiJa.t (^nc fr <lroppcd) J go JieaiJIiuiUiiig 



17H Oclier Prefixes villi perioiial verbal form^ ^vill bt ireated in 

Tyt). Tiie Prderlle +3 formed Hy ii?fiig Ih? partinre in-, wliicli sliall be 

r.ri\]'i<{. ]Kfi ^'wigiy^aK' To di3tiiis:Lii!'li it f'T ^ brirt term, from t\w j>rt(iy ijj- 



iSo. Atii^mr'niiV i'itrinibiiiwl \i.iili ilir pariide ■«- to: inm-. (>/ is 
eli<Jed; ;r ij- nul .Tiri-in'ihilcil). 

The a of iht eiiisfitent in is dropped, if a verb has the preSx m-; ^vr find 
id the Pr*tertite: iir- + in ^ n^-. 

WtIjs with ilic prclixcs I'ltr- or "i^-ix-j mam-, -man- chasige these into na~ 

i/T mtiig', iia»\-. nan- in the Pielfirilc, 

u'l'tifu-'nak I (frinTf inmiinii'iak J drank: jiPtdHak 1 come r"n''^-/^i-it 

T carrie 

linmdiiak I reliirneil 
But » of wh- is not dropped, if wn- is f oUovFcd hy a codsodant : 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 6i 

S^jfik^pak [ enter isti^xtkepak 1 enEered 

iimji jQitak t Jirrjvc; siiUntd jiina!/ I arrived idie posilion oE ruji - in 

imd]<imtk i'^ [rrr[:;'ii]ar) 
ingliyd lak [ swim ni»'^'k-ydlok I ^wam 
ijji^fyaji il r?iin jj^^fAf^/ii« 1l rnliied 
iiiOjtuitrf^^ofe I D.irrriEi' jiJ«iJ(.'rTtrfJdi T n:irra.ted 
inkd^bak 1 make Frmtf^f^dt I iii^nJe 
Ans4kffck I aoj pkk n/nsiikiiak I ivai-.i<jk 
/■iFj^d^aft I work «^fj^i>iit t uurkeLl 
fn^kjiitii: J <.peil; ^jtfij;tJ/[at I ipolte 
jiijFr^'iijjdt I i:al jj^rii,;'HJjjff/f I ^lu 
mudjTf^ji 1 ale^p ntK^ycpok I akpC 
rffdJjrf'dPEjyf I wall itH'iifianak \ ^v^jlkcd 
matdkficak I Jive 'iu!ii\ii^alc T IImjiL 



iKi. I'er^onal verlje derived from siibslantives, adj«tivC6, adverbs^ 
etc., tiave the preterite augmenf only, ff they have the particles tn- or tm-- 
Otlier'.[sc llinj |ia-;l [s isprusM!!] !■■ .[ddiii^' adverbs ■•{ lime, ^^ aJfrfff^J-ffHrt 
"some ijinc .t^o," li> (lie prtsciK iomi^. 

iMttid/eng il itirjig olil iiiii>u!tfn_]^ is liuned cold 

i'lfafo^nldiik I fiji;!!!. idnjaloii'U'diih I f-oiijjEii 

ji^ujjg^'F^giJii^ I am veiling, a cliild ; ic\jiaug6»g<iak I ftas ymmg:, n chfld 

wnjljohjiait 1 am ^n^lting ^variii snmihon^ak T wAS g'^Min;; w.itul 

<j^/:t'rrfofr I am a IrJeiid Ji^f-^'idai- <fdiat\ ^iidiini T -Mt^ :\ Irii-iu] formerly 



Ji^j. TlicverMlHidinga of the preterite a.rc the same ae those of tTic 

]lrr^tnl . 

lyiyndliak I htjliu: mw^^fa we Ewa came >ii"iiiiitiiko we csme find.) 

prrmj^ir" {sf^^i) lie., ■■he, if t^inc imiK'/Jftayri yiii taine 



''nii^litjic they canie 



THE fnTURE 



Pri'ij^TaL ^viihiiiii Any [ilionflk of i>iIiit ^-han^f^; ilie eiidrii-^s nrc Ihc ■i^me 
a^ m the PreKnt 



iy2 THE LANGUA-GE OF THE BONTOC IGORQT 

eduisiiiiiak r sbjil com-:; adt&indUak I sliall return, adMisfmo^k I 

adaUii'idnk 1 sli^ll be l frjendj adfiimthsi^ak 1 ■^halL bccjiin: ■im^ll 
ii'f"[jfifrj(ff/,' 1 sliall In: jiick L adnam^diiak I ^'iljall tjt 
Bdpuiiifiiiifk T shiill Ix'c-ome iioor 

adluj'iil'^ng it »vil[ be told; Jii^ jutnk adlamsmhhfia t\\t |kjt^i will Ih? i3[- 
cdkumoTl'fskdyti ymif ^viJI Jn: grxnJ ; 'jj^frjffdv^i*"^/ s^ iffor^ ivc jiluJl ■eio 
liOnic. 

1S4 The Inipccalivc ^:ln|lloy!^ the same fornix as ilie Pr««dt Indicani^'e; 
llity are bEiokvu to thiii <:>;Jnil>k: 

riw]/7_vtif' g-ot 

anrffiJ'.' In? may gol ci. [189] 

iijjf^jfjj' Iti us [uo jjoT ^'go wtt IM^ [if bMt floe person [.1 iiddresseil) 

umiiyldijot IrHi'i (-all) go! 

tiNiiiykayi^ .' go yel 

iU'iliyljH! iliey may go I lei ihtm go! cf [1S9J 



1P5. Tlie [i^irlJcle iijjj 1^ aomctiiiie^ dropped in llie laiperative: 

haniitko' (^nl. ii>t"!<t'iiifktt'f cnme dmni ! 
^tfii}i'ifftflu*fr' (siid: ftniirffffwf tavff ^ tjo away! 



iRf. CtiEniii urging or entreating ParticLes, aa^ rti^^^ H>d, mAitdji 
ere often pla«d after aa imperaliTe- 

lit/kjfyiV mifuf roiM tbcfl! i>\<»iubS^>id k-ayd! ctmie. smoke! Ger. rauche 

niir ^iinnialE 
rnir'i^nyi^'jveigirir 'HO- 4dfi! sing, di> please! Gcr, so singe docli! Fr. chadU 

dcjjii 

(In <:onvor35hon these pniTi-cl-?'? ^vTr^ rl'^^cly i:^inn«t*d ^^'irh tli^iTsc^ding' 
vcrif, a? eiiclllic:; unacc-eiiled feji'fl drawv llie accent of the i-^rh 10 llic 
nkiin^i.) 



THE L.\NG'_".AGK OF THE aUiVTOC IGOROT 63 

la;. in n^rraiioii am! iimgj llie crnijimcrioH W, that, in order diat, 

(slwivi eKp]-e35[iig iHoll[j.jn} 15 placeiJ j^ccasioiiially Ijeioce iiii;.i:rEL(ives, 
especially before ih.? Jlrsi |":TifOn5; !a hiii\alajtiH.-o... lei us (.^11 liiilicr... 
Ja whiujirrf^ij rfijfl p>^// let u% iir'ii j^[i lEiere! [L li^f 
If "ia'!£ifvft^la let u, [wo gel urtii.Tl 



iSB. The pirlidc ed [cl. 'd, ':], iis^^S lo exprei-j ^ ■^vtnjdnctive" in.Xhl- 
foUoivs snitietiiups nn iiiipeiatu-e ; ilio r'lminaii'J is ihui soitcncd to a rciiur^i: 
diikSd! yoii ought so- come f |L. 75. | 
!iiiidf6is_\^kayri "tan c,/' v-ouyught lo pet iiiArtieill |L. 47.] 
iad'a'd \il /iib/jiy ive twn oiiijhl li> ^o lioiii-e ; come, Iti us j^u li.nrie! fM 11,] 
hfdiTfrff'iJ man: ;;(i, priiyl j(Ji/fif"ji »fjr ififjiay iitiifma! It'[ n^, firu>^ ga 
togeiber as iailicr acd sont |M. 11. j 



1^. Tlie ililrd person? nf tFu' im|n;i-^ii^'£: are ii'^iiiiJly^ircum&crLljt:^ f>y 
'<:rirence5 like: I ^^•^I]t. [elJ, otdtc hiu] Eu ccmj*- iiwat ^a itttiMi .Tfya, ^-t^.. 



190. Observe ifie it^lsted iiiipei;hEl.-e (n. ifidjcadvc (qiiii could lie 
aaccrujniijf: mtiiia. iiitl:-iy^ ' ^vvl r'Frdi'rt is k/iyf^' ^j.'c (iiiei iU.mi: 
wood! [iiidka^s or mi?"iir'rJi ^rr llic iimiiil fotni*i.| 

And ihc-Ht form? ar^ilii-d in ag-itpled coiivc-r^allnif (.tr i^ltira' tome!: 
dyfrfl/ (to/ ikd J^^A! 'kif MVfl',' and m ylural: /(■djs wf^m.' ^tirno wjriji." 

TUB co:jjuxctivj! 

191 Tilt (.on.iuiictii'C i:; iisrd \ciy T.irefy; n im i]i(llc.[lt<> h_v |il:*cliiji i^d 
[ei^^d] aiter ||)t vcrl)L itmUHiU- ei! I uui^lil loc-nmc, I mayi:oriie, iif/rdhta^d^ 
iMtdli'd nc. Orhc-i- modal (rtrms nf ihc vcrJj 01 [jliiases iviih ilie loice of 
i.o]liu[icLjv(^ an: ■^vtn in t\\c cliapters on par(!i:]cs and auxiliary verljs ("t^i*, 
ngefj ck, tak, Isnk <.-!<:,) and aijlvcrljs, 

THE NOUlH- AGKHTZS, P-ABtlCIFLE, IJ^CT?^itIVE Off Tafi PfiBSOHAL YPKH 

1^- The simple verbnL form, -without endanj^, as found m tbe tliird 
pereoq smg'Dkr d£ tbe present and pretcrii*:, lorvcs In most conatriictiDns 



64 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC JGOHOT 

whtfri^ TIn!i"li^li cin|itayr, pariici|ilt;^ or iiifinitiv-e^, asi jjou fiis&i oy ifi'my 
tlie ciiejiiy '^vlin is'" [4 e | golii^, [In: going enemy; Ji yla/tck oy in"\-''!' 
my brolljer wiio [iai elitivc'Ij nii)i /ftiyl* /ly nmdJ^'i'Jil lln J^l|i"ffi irr^i 
nan kd-vsc ay nadflkad Ehe falScji tree, 

itmii'i^iadali av t^iuSli ! Eiiii :ii rn nl <'-• rcturit; iuabfdliii<tk ^y "ia}\dlaii- 

1 fill] abit 10 Wiilk: TlodkU^^o'y I'u^i^iJii I nni'ii ^iiir^il;. 
sftSl no'i umiSh '' wlin "i'. Uk- ciinicr? " ivlii^ tiinits? :/p^^+: nan tt-tiigon'^ 



193. T3ie Xomen aiiciiliij Iut^ Mimeliiiits [Jie prefix «^{ff-, prol. iii'jj-, 
w[ncli iseinploycJ will* v(;rlti lli^t h^vt^ llifr pi-efiK in-, ^*fl-. 

j/«i* ncrrj ni^ngkMt^ who i,'* rlic .^pf.iker? j^'if# nan ninuHadf wliois 
the one iiiv[ii;E; uriltcii Cf""*^"! I'l-^^l'i-'loir ) . 

THI VOBAt NOUN (HOMEN ACTlONIS) OF THE FEBSQHAt, VfflBH 

194. The Verbal Wonit. cxprr^Mn^ 7ii\ iirtion afi ii- Uitnp', L p- by a ™b- 
j;Unlni.' uilhor without artJtle Oil* crmiin^. iIa= Kiinmitn, ^ i\fti», il veiiir. 
el veriir etc ), i^ exloii^ivcfy L-Liipfoycl m ■vjsri.>L]*. cim?lTLiclioii^, \dien, for 
iiiuance, placi:, lime, cau.se pIc. ■■Iinll bt cmplia^iKed. It is jn-enjeded by ihe 
ar iJde -nan. 

Tli£ Nomen actionis ai Personal Verb^ i^ loiiiicd by ^affixing -as to 
th* "InliniUve:" poBBeasive endii^ art (urthermorc auflfixed to -ok-, in order 
toindirjlir ihr jii^rnL, ns in; luy coiiimp. her &i''L-''i"?i ^''^' liji'i'ing" 

ii llie [L^cnl is cKifresscil by a siirj'lEiiilivr, Hi'- jios*.c"iv-c eTidii^ is 
rlri>p|M?d ill sinKtif^r. an-J [lii' Komeii diclioiii;; end;* in -n'l; in ]>l"r:il l[ie pos- 
?n:^fivi; eiidiiiy; -f;ir i'^ r^^i'tly 'Irrimni!. 'I'be 'nbsinntive ft^llfi^-i, ;is ii ^ubjei^i- 
i\-<: CiCiiiln'-e, In our coneeiHion. 



195. In tlie Pr^t and SKcmd sing^ar the » of -an la dif^pfd. and. the 

HiiliiiS^s Ti-e, because added Ij u vowcL-fc, (fur-ibo"} and -mj Cfor-jriy"). f iot | 
Tl If third 'iiiKulnr endu in -trrtif ((i>r fj^f-fl<j1. 



iyf>- ^"- rcf-ers to ^e^-efril ri.litflii^l fflsli^n^^ lirw^il. tefiipoiTil, rau;3[ 
Pie. I li'.t^iisi- Il occur*, niosllv in In^cjiive plfrji^c'^. jud ■^liitc 1e is ilic foTiiia- 
dve of substantives detioiing piace |5^f]i it inay Jw called a kicalive EuffL^ 



3- 




D. I. 




P. I. 


incl. 


L 


Oscl. 


TI. 




ni. 





THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONH.li; JCaE^OT 65 

197. Examples, The Nouun actionis of imdli is umJiltaH, ot ^iifi'^l/: 

\\"\\\, |ii}>it4i4iivc snflixes: 

[utiii R'l.jiiincn (in In; ■!] -^I iii^ii !-!■ lied gramiuaLLtiilly Iruiu 
ihtf (lanir; form in ll>^ inrik'iitii'O 
a_ cfrrrJ^-i- an + jj]((1> . '<»>iJliam,nQnumdliam thy comii^, 

nJeiii KoiiimieLi 
iJimJ^j+ajj-l-ffii: ijjiii7//aflff, jj^u ^^jfu^/^jj a hl'^, \mit. il-^coraiiri"- 
umallntitu: nai' iiiiiaifanla llic coming; .if iiij tivo 
mil alfanid t^u - iJifir iiiiiaUattdho nirr cunlng 
^MPPa/ZaiTJi/: na» f^ffiirf/iriJJii/ uiir cruninn 
j^^PAiiWawv^ : ison iiiiii'itmiy^ \<\ut coming 
viniUantia. mm uinal/a'ilja llf^r ti'mjifg 

(Thefn|[im'iTiscjijm]>]c=;^ce nnin^ipaied from later c[ia|itH?i'?]) 

T'^St'^'i """ '"a^uyepaurdko ilie (piilhlic, coraniunail) forest |s WT ^l«-|>LnLr 
lilflcci in Ihc fuTf^'nl iv<: ilcep 

iiif/i tfuii iii^it^inufiyi^T where k your eating phtM? where do yoB eat? 

j^j^^ j^iT^j aa't^\/in^ii.y<ir wbtre i'l ytniT "past" eatiDg place? wliere did you 

k\t!l 'Ida miw\tdli'iiii ^ ;il u'liai [nut wiLiyoneorifj^ 

(jjifjj) TtifJJj^c JfiTJi ^li'sttii^an ftaii !-i!di:i eIic rl^'rr m xhT irun's wni1(inff 

jtJ.ii-!'- jil lln^ rjvrr [lie ni;iii E^ ivorki[i|? 
(ijojO j'irJfl',i;'iiW ucit uniaSinfifif I/o "ilie Ijaiile i^ Hit reason, c^n*;!' o[ imr 

L(^riil[i|-: nil arfiiiiTfl nf |[iu b;inlc ive come" 
flinaa ino^ddetinijis nasi lniitidki the town i9 the men's dweUin^ place; in 

Uic \v\\n lilt LiLC-n ;irc iJivellmi; 
nun taS[2i-t}i ay inm^v 1^1 'tfitUnndtmni l^il V-^ir "11^5 our i^orfcin^ 

lime," la^[ yewi n'e ^vorkiil 
jjj^i' ^^cTjj tftiivanrja iiji'i f^-j/if \'-\ies-e Isi (Ik yinii iiini ^if Uk' itli'ryl^ 

^vlieri: d-y lli-e lp>>rol: ^'.A 

I'h^. TJii^ ^ijhuicL Hif PcriMflBl V"tcb5 {but not the agent of Nonnipa 

actioiii^^ is in [in; iiOEiLJiiiicivf:. 



1^). TJie 
a proper name 



e object of peraonql vei'ba rfqnires tTie preposition is, or (if 

', a perscnal pronoun^ a term of kjii^Jii|), :l denicmslrative pro- 



SS THE LA^'GUA(;E OF THR [JONTOC TCOROT 



nwMi with si-) t^e prq>iiiiLln>ii frfn (7l[T. S.Sl i ifm/flMrp;ijft jj jrarr i/£'"p[r£FF[ 
I di'iaik the iv.ilcr- manfiantfa is Jdflfr p^^tf^-OH EJii?y eat the ioocli 
pwii-id^yi jo' 1 f^fuji iliey slaiiy^liieL jug"?;; kiitiiSfhhSint a ja ve art 
goinR" to make thii- ifPiiiidah ken y!gft!l^^fin I wait for Agpauwaiij 
Unij^j'rttat tf'j ^^ta I ':^ll ion; pitfiiad^yl/n in''n fSdi they kill Ihis ooe; 



;ro. iN.ift -*f Ibt Sllbjecl fll ftffinrlativ* dwlffi-atii-e ^erttcdrcS. The 
pcr'^nnnl yinTioiins, iT^cd onlv lE llie BUbjeCl sJi^ill lie ciii]'h;:i=iJeiL ]kreccile llie 
'■erlr <viilv Elic iiF(Hiimn 'lE die lliird ■^iTiplilflr, j/jJf, n?n;illy frill'>"ft ihc icrb: 

!,iiif/t\\ umtiliai T cQiiii?; ijjkflin/ nin^liyiiiliiit\ii' we were swimming; 
tjjiitja i^itakiiihiie tliey run; ia'^j'^ J^~ J^a he came; stka kwnHtdhka 

you i:!iini>; iiitfiia sitodi llii^ one crioi; iaf^/^i\ y\t -ffk^c ya sfya 
tntiniibUl!dk{i J, ;/m[ ^iiil fie nic -iiK'liiiig ; sak/i^n yji s/ya adu"iilcngt.aint 
I iuw[ he wilt reisi. 



^ui. Tlie SuiiinLriiiliiT-^, (li.-|ii"iT^lrritiii: ,iri(l iinktiiinr I 'roEioiiiia, 
X iiuici- jU,, as sulsjecli, cithci^ pc-cctd-c uf foJkjw iLJc vtrlj. 

If these subjects precede, the ci>pLita. ya (for sir^ular smd plural and 
afl lc[^^^3 i- ofiCTt placed betwam subject and verb; but ntvtr if Ihe sub- 
jtii loHoi^s. 
fWH on^dw?o vno-'^y^p; ntw oHgSnga ya mas^yep the child sleepn 

iv [Jn-|.-iivil !■:» lie iiLtnmcll Llie li ltrnh jjsdk 
Or: mi^fyci' 'laji •ii'^_vi'"i£a; ^ngftdUtja hoh aitariii. 
si B^i-sti Unni^li: ur: si B^gti ya linmdU; or: linmdli si BAgU Bugti 

ll.3S ri'LUnil'll. 

sti6df sumda; or: .rf]iij?if •^/ludl tlii; out' conitjs hunie, iiilo ilii: lioiise. 

fU'ttilji'm^rja fiJJi diJ/jsT'f At'jj J/fl^'d^'it iliHj iTLcii'li ior^<.'( ■■hjh 

k/Jld!tf^iili! i-< vn UtiiH^ydo'- fi ^Jl <tn^ riicii, eacli, hfivc fled. 

na>i diHii\n<i y-a niiiiii/tf^fj^ Ilit^i'Jd iil^li iIJU jc^Ilils 

Fr-ipj ifji/a'y fiyhfti^aUii c-^midlju i* w^J'^ f^ii^pdg- ihmh Ija ya maH^yep ya xaa 
h^ Vrr ki'i'utiiah is <i>in tjTvjI Uv-o young iiieii ate i^Mjling in tlic 
fore*!; one ■ikejis ^nil llii- allier lias climbi'd on ? Iree 

iml/fjot^ jf<JT "tart\il^iki<i A't^ sok/^n llie ijirl lia-! fari?;oLfen me 

(tiiiimdU s' dina ih^ JMli^r vill com* - ^hp^^lV^) :' /jjj l( Jil^'i llie mallii^r !■= 
go[iig to conk svveet poiaEoes. 



THE l.ANGUA-GE OF TTIF QONTOC IGORQT 67 

aoi. The -BubSitaiilive subject in the firataod second person Mowg the 
verb conneccei by ay: 

^i\airai?/i;ii^f.^»if ny IgSiot v:e Tp:nL-iii ^irt; iljuiclrii^' 
^ogfuiihfm'y tjlhi'tdun yon sjujnk iis ovr fri?nii 
AlfsilK/fJiayA ay laialdki you, men, work. 

Tn ififs |>:»&i[ii>ii lln^ Mibsl^]HLve li .^vl'f'iillv fii? [he lr!;^Liiri- m^Eicites) 
conftnlcrcii a.- l>oiiij^ in a[ipo;oiEi.>Li n-iiU a riroRoiiiiLi.il ^iil.j^ct: wc, ^ Igurol; 
3s has been expjv^gwd in the afioiiid ei;amplc. So also \n the injpcralive: 

rtW^vj'H ffv a Iiu'mI !,••'! njiiic je, my fiionil'i jra%', ymi "ivha are" my friends) 

tiiivi^inldi^ku ay /-^(floi' lei il^ ri|-lit;,^. l;;..r.irl 

Ay does iMt connfid iijiiriin; J'^m^iktmldiio atn^ let us all sit down ! 



POSSESSIVE VERBS 



20^. "Po'i'^i'i.kjvi: Verba" is an abbrflti'ited leriu for; V^fbilizeJ Eoots 



204. K!y lerfjili/ini;- .-, v""X. 1. -e ntinitliiifj; i.^ Ir Cht [uriicl-es -an, or; 
-^n, or: i-j w'li nliHiiiiL vcrlml nmin'^i iVoiniiia aciiniil': If wi: [f.ia\A^'.i thcHC 
freely, wt may tise cr^Lii^^iiLv-^- 'i-rbi, ■\'h[cli are ifieir e.|Lii>.ili;nl in Ejigljsli, 



^oj. The; SLibjcrl o[ rmr [miiiilive vcrbiii, i-^rc^^^H, ij il k ii [ici-tiiiul 
projL.iiiji In IlujjIiijJi. l>y tlie |>;>**.L'^-i\'[; ■-ii|iixi-s in [(uuU^i: Igorol. fio/il 

tmiii'^iiUilro our seeking; ^'we srcb" 

fityiJiijafjiii! ihoir |iJiviric:"(1H'vpay" 

A/i'-ifl^- nij hul-liiii;, "lliokl" 

tjip-fp^iia his (her, ila) catching; "he (ahe, it) catcher" 

Wiiimui. prt':'^i"''oive einliiii-^; an/fprn orj 'mil nnJpi.'", ^enrkliig, Gf^r. 
das ^iLclien- fuydtiji^n^ V-v-'ing li^s vcrlj^^l iitrLiJi, not p^rlicipl^;, in EjigJish), 



68 THE LANXiUAGEi OF THE BUNTOC 1C;URUT 



2o6, If llic Eiipli':li ';ybj&:t o£ u iruiL^iiilve vc\rb i'i a suhmiJiitive, dem- 
on Mr;iiivr ^ir in.kliriiit- prirmirnjT, li iHAy prFunlf Llic rg.iroi \'aTn. jiciioiiis, ot 
folium' il, 



:?07. if The ?.ni>jwt T>r«cdcE the \t>m. acdodis, it is in ffic X'l^niin^Eive 
(Cas. rectus), i. e. a Nomiintive ■|>enili'n^ i ilit Nom, acdoDia rtcdvea the 

sufflK -'la in PiiiieiilaL\ -//if [n pEnr^t. 

nflir faldki sibi^^'iti nair i-/jft (ke iiinn, lii^ cudiTiy: the tree; "the dibh 

cul5 lilt tree" 
iiifir I'ohfaj^iyi agt'^e-\fjQ naa sakfj/fan llie ^vnnipr, tlieir ijiirryliifj: tbe j;irs 
jjifrr dn^nak kaiiAiija ini'i mdkan llic tJiililr.'n, lln^ir eiiiiiig; (lie tite. 



aoS. If the "subject" fdlowi* the Nom. fLCLi™i<i u Mti^inioiiur 
employed ofneii, p^rliciiljily atler iubi'rJinrf"<: i;oi»jiiiitlioni, nr in wiilciices 
liitr&luced by "llien, llierctipon" |4..Jf>; 4^^*] ). H niay lnj 1lniiij;lit l^j be in ill-? 
genitive. Tlie Nomen acttonis has i]s.u,i1]y no pussesiiivv emJuiH: Im^ ^er 
|s8o]. It ilic \'<iiii, actumis !:iid^ \n a voivel, (lie "j^eniti'^'e-indlcplrjr" -u 

h^n^ iHBt o"^S>igi.i ttt'K-'n^iit-j! thi child's eating: the pouiicled rice (rice- 

f-dcd kanili itft't f"bfilf3Ho <}ien llie raying of (he yuiin^ uii-n ; "Hicn IhK 

y.niTi^ men say,"" Or; 
firf'fii'J frrtFrjJjj. ay jf/bl-of'fUi' [aSo] then tlicir .■'.lyine (of lliem, lUmK-lyO 

llie ynuiig tiittl 
yVdfff 'Uift /i;f[ fiflji ,^\'jfl llie ib^f'b ^'?e[ng : llis du<:r 
ieiidf^heiuja nan f'tbfafdlhr nan (di;cg rlitir ihiawinep il.e yunM^ citen's : 

the spears (better; ffkifsln'ii) 
fhfataan !ddf ihe ^L^kijijj oi ihii (iii;in) ; '^k: avt:^" (Or: jRrfJdi ibfo^dna, 

\\ [|F] iiifiix, I>ecnn5c the in1'j''i;i prci^edcs ibe verh) 

ilifakan: Ihf Mom. ad. ibf^ka aud lig.xi -Ji 
/ju^fi'p; Bou/afrf^ii wh t^Jni ihc ^M'lr.uiN (-bniij^iiiij^ihu money 

fsilhlin: the Noni. Bet. tiubh jnl iLynl -n 
iigton nan ia!iih I'nn kanfyab llie iii.in'ij bol'llii^: I'lC hllivkl 



209. The ^ubblatiIJv« Gubjcct foUomnglheNomenattignisisfivinJenci;' 
in a genitive T-datLon to thr verbal noun. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 69 

i) Tlie po.i?ci5Lvo cmliny. of ciir Norn. aci. represent tht yi-niiixt oi 
the ptriioiial pronouns L lliert ific ;ij^-ii' "I <'Lir irrLnsinivftj is m the geiudve. 

htoct iilso llie sul>s(aiilLvt fiillow[ng" flic Xitrn. ^tl- j'^ m H^mtivi? 

3) 'Hir tigalLirc 01 "gciiisive indkiilor" -n i^uinl'- nninii^ljkriUy h) the 
f oUo vi' ill jj K'^' '' '' '"'^' 

51 'I'hc i^cTi^onfi] ariidf- -^r' i^ rjiniited, if i proper name or term of kin- 
ship MIrm's tilt NoiiL. act af. [71 li] 

k^jr-'ig i^amSn fo^f'aldmti rhereupon the ^^jiiiif 01 Palpakiina; or: there-" 

upon Pdl|>,iljni;i f-iys. 
ii'Slin Affihj} mn tiyi/jpf^^tif Aiiiern's reiLiniintJ- my knife 

f^fJ^'ff r Ihe ^JoTL], atl. ?'f J^^' and ligal -" 
paUtJ<''i !Mf na^i ptiiang ilic ^li;irpcniiig of this msn; the ax 

t6di. ■^iilijctlivt geiL dS iit^i. 



3J0- What appears to oilr ronicptioil &a a auhj«tirt ftiaiitive, is pre- 

^■ninjblv ri i>o*i*n:-^ive ^ciiiiivi? lo ilie mind "f ihc T|^''trin- !■> Ih-icii :iii icI[iiil ii 
Hill': diflcrcnl frirmi n Elilii?:, "b<:ciiii-e il lin^ [i n.^im::"' ilif :\isem 1*, Lheci Llio 
^^pctSaes&of" of thi-v "thjiiii " Hfuvn^voT, nrnciT; in jnvtnin^'iilifni, ny £l Nrmscn 
Tc*;<:iis iiid the fiillo-\i'iTij5 juniii, mny Tic coiicizivcd ns ^ lauiinnicul noun !>■ 
tht lyiilOt — .111(1 'illn:r^. 



2TT. li the ajfenl is expreawd in English by a iiersonal pronomi and 

shnll ho ciii|ihj-i7ixl, ir ifrii:n[c: (lie Xnm, jicT.. a^ ;i nominative pendens 
[^■(i^l, .-iiid ihi' N'>iii. iici- li,3S ili(^ |K.'.i.e^si\'e cn'ling; 

Ijat^'^ 1^1 j^wt naK iyrffd We. ovr iHim^: the meat 
sak/hi ij-iiidko nan M^'iayko I. ttly lA v-i»i?; iVyWW \ my I'liitld 

IWarr iliicu^ime the rifl^itmii iiJ our dirrin iiliiccl lo [In? Nrmii^n HCii 
ooia, il \-. nt;c<-^sarv i^ t>:|il;iiii slie (orniailfn nf ilie Xojiien aclinni'v i>f the 

PoaseaaiYe Verbs, 



_'i^-. If T'xA-, '^li.ill Ik fiiritied inio Hoiiiinj ^i;iH.ii[*. iliev rcTcK-i; (differ 
cersin i^hoiieut dmnj^4 |^?q] ) one nC ih,?^ ver|i:Lll!ing j>EiTiiilr',: 

L the ^iuffiK in (but no prefix) 
II, Ihe ?ulTix -an (hiil n'j prelW) 

in. ilie \iXiLf\.-!z i- (fjul no iuilii:) 



70 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 

213. By CflntbdiAtiiXi vntfa one of the^e particle? Ihcrootis treiiafonucd 

inl'j ;iii .^cJiie ^"e^L^3f Xouii Tlie pjfticlei iriJicatr: Llial llie ^flii^ri niirjird 
bv the mnt pj^set froin [lie ^eciil Cii an nbjecl. Tli(?y ^n-t: [ba Atlivr \\-t- 
bal Hdiui transidve farce 



2n. The direct object, il not emphasiitd, foll'ip'^ (he if^rb; if the sah- 
j«t ia |placi:d afler the verb, iht direct objtcl o^mtjv uMi.illy iliird. 



31^. It is Imp'ii^jTjIf m BonJw l^nror Lan^aj^e to determjn* — fw 

r'liiiiiioi] ii'ief — hy llie iiitniiing of llie iihce, u-lilcli uf (hi: [lircc v':rlk^ll-'lnp 
piirtLclc5 miLil fic eiii|iloyed iii iran^iarcuiiij^ i rn.n: Intii :i Vnmen indiOiiil 
Ct^omiDon use" means: a verb xiwd in asimjib ^itfimini ivc d 11.1.1 mi [vc inain 
aeDteDce» ia wbich do dement i^ emphssized, and which is ira the sclive 
voice,) 

The Latin versus memoriales invented by Spanish ^ram- 
nwrijinv fr.ir Tn'/^dlo^ — h r.itlicr sclio^iiCic ifiniii ^-ch-ol- 
:\Y^\ ^llecniil "f classifying ^'erb^ accDL-Jinp" lo llieir 
tfic;iiiiiiE sn-T fflfnl — prOve to be a complete fEiiUire, if 

applied 10 Bonioc Ij^orot LaLi,[»iiE[jii'. — It wifl he iiecea- 
a^rv l'> iiieinnnze ench verb .ii il occurs in c^niiiioii i»?e 
wi^h iri proper 5^l.ni^^^^ -^j, -.uj, ^i- prt^li.'^ ^, fi' sivM 
lieie and ill ihe Vocabylarv. 



JT&. Since Ibc Niinn-T^ iirtiijlki^ ]">^'^f^:i<'^ \(:.\vi c {•jt<.<: — .i% lias fiecoiiie 
evHTcjil ihroii^li iripny viru'iis cs|n.-riiiitnlT \\\lh llic s|i'>keii lan^iLage — llie 
relatkras of ihe direct object or accusative, in our aMn:c|iiinii, to ihe Nainen 

h"l) EitkfL" (he obiecl oi llif !^nm. Jid, is in ihe acciLsallvu: il i^ gov- 
iTiiPif bi- ihc Nmii. act. ivliith ]»as il? (raiisilivc force 111 ihe ^ufllx -At, If 
ive reprcaeiil ibii (ran^ilive futce of -^1 hy uiir verbs "lo affect," or "to 
Cirmcerii" m" "lo influence," vc fshlaiii lhi& Ir^nslaliuii; 

ill'te-k i-un alf-jjidko mv meefinjf affects my friend; Qrer. mein BegegneD 

helrilTE iiieiinjii Frt'und 
hytfCftrtif t}£ti}a: our iikiiiy tcmctrii^ liiem 
tokSysiiic nan lyngt'us-^a- hi= advising influences the child 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGORUl ;i 

b) Or [lie iihiKl i' in the pfediOaliv* rtMlihAlivCJ llw Ifflrt^tivS lorM 
of -At aiAy te in<licated by vriKds like "aim," ^'t^j^ct ;" 

piidv^eny'i nn^i kdvse your 5i>lii<init-aiLri iis^ . the w-xxl 
atdhi/iik^ HUT iSffeg ■mr EnUinjf-olif-x"' ■'■! ■ '''*^ ^"^ 
tfii/^'pt .^^iirj-i^ ^ifljr trfi'flJi,? AuKjH^^ jii^kiiii-^ipi ('s); the spear 
Oc: ^! Amero knf-^ixa nan I^Jyiui^ .VaiU'T.i, liL'o iii;iLitii^-;j1i[|j t:ie -^f-eaf 



ZTr T^e rrhtion o-f tin? r>hi'xl [n llf ^'l:l^Ll■n ;bi-lii.iii^ ^,illi ^ulllx -j^^ 
!■= jiifiloynis III \^K caii^lfucLiiin nitnlioiurl in ! ^ili|, ii 'v"S :l^'^iim-e Tilt |W:^- 
■-ililily llijl -o'l l'^ |ir(fb;iljlj ji:li:iilii:,Tl ivilh -it^i!,<jz \\\fvt\w a vnnncion of -j'u, 
in iliis (:n(iil>i«i,niini[ i^lili Xi.eii. .iciiuiii^. The fuLLoviiu^ Uicury ^.e^iii-. lo be 
inrnre i>trn.rif)la: 

-An is JiL Iri^riLivi' panicle, n^ aiiixcd cu MiliMrinii^T-'i in fjlf-si^]. The 
object ii ihc p]j<-|.' iv-lii^rc lliu jiclloii ii^niaed hy lln A-i^lkc Xi.eii ace. "lake: 
place," \a which at ttt*la; il is rlie aidof Ihe iiclinn. WrtJiii ir^ii^ljiit: 

aydkanl^ko Pfl^r «Wii-r"(f^^W ■m'- L:illiii|:-eiid \is| ; ihe mun 

fadsdngat'tsa "ro« /^iHf i^nr iK^lpliiji-pCace (I'^l ; llie cncmi-es 

vmi fobiafdyi iMdanfja itwi Idfid Ihe womfti, Iheif w^^lhEit^-plpje (iii) : 

tTlic eiiLimeiaiion r>5 riiialoeroiis inataticei, wlicrc wc liuil ^ CLi-:Lnji oi 
plate with the direct ohject, in many langriagea, ia beyond th-c scope of lliis 

book,) 



Jl8. Tlie rd,>'ii.in rif lln: filsiefl i.v Xoniiiii p^tii^Tii!^ \i\\\\ lli« pfcfiH '- 
.fppc^r'; t.^ hn: ibc ^.inic js Ib^ic lO N'oin. acl. willi -j?jj- i- peri'onii-; h'.Te ^ 
ijimilar function a* -t'n does there; i- directs the aelioo tovfards the aim, the 

r.lijer;i. 

(7- niav he cnmpuwd wilh oiir prcTij: fi^- (ir bespeak, be?tn'dc, brbll; 
or it t\i^-y repre.'^nl Lbe prrpo^ll Ian in Eind nijiy iben Iw? ccunifarcd wilh; 
invade, oiieml, [iLTsiiaile, provide, and .nhrr prepoiiiioiiiil conii-nurKK)' 



"H'hmLj L-oiiiirnl*iil fi" iriLinl^ [rilii-.-r, [3 mT-^ 'sinl, In Laii.i lln" PfUlurL' nF htiL- ThrH 
F=''t'^i li.L? Slim-anil], fflimrli:^ Ij^O m r- |i.v-"rl'>r, ^nri li-jn.mvL'l <r(-llllnii =1, Hi- :Il'('|>|i''. -.HuHh^ b 
ibli l^CvflEr inhiTie"-hp|ifin ni" lli^ Aphivf VVrlal V.ion JHjfil a^LiOri-ll in 'iVlTif^iC aild I? |ll^ rilT 
rtzLl^ oE ^l-cr^L oifi" Hrli'-i -n. .n Jli' ^i.i.Lrt l5nrL>l LliitildpC ll^t Vccl>al ^Jljliti ll ^^fldllll) nnl pj-.'iit. 
IilL VLli'it IT irs: rliararKr. 

Ii J Pdi'iiT i-. Vinml, |lni-t i; l■l^^ i"l h'l-il. m '11 liim jnd mi'Oi!- iir lurtrti l^iS-^TCI : orr-liH 

jba- + jiiLiL -I- jutwiul iiDdLiii. ExflcriQuiLU wniiiy Iffitui !►> mennf. ol ihElr y-|.ii .^riia^i-iji- IM 



7J THE LAXlCUAGi: OF THE liOXTOC IGOROT 

In certain case i- poinra Co a person in whose behalf aoothcr acta* and 
10 the tool which a person uses in. pcrformmjr or exccntJng that which the 

W.ni, net. nniTie'. 

haiihvjko iion nolaidjigjia mv liidin^ nfftctrj hi=. hat, mv tiidin^-ohjcct: bis 

't'f!i\'^ nan sfiJad kcii <)!-i,l'a"- y'mr sri'^'inj; 1*;""!^ fi'^) ^lic IlIkt, In 'lloshan. 
i:':iii}l<jf,il!0 >\aji Isljii fj noil <h^ iin ^lunij-.iiiri. (Ill *ih:;iI, in rlit do^ 
i!,'b6i'a iiiiv p!r\Qii^ li fiun t'ij^ lii-^ f.iiiiiniH'-U'r'l lU.' -.i^. for iLie wood. 
iktiS'at' i!ka ii ■laii tftlity my ]iruvid[ii^-aLLii ( ivilh ilif; 5jicar) : you. 



■ul itiou^li iJi iiT^T^. Lfrtl j4DV<i] mdlEiHlalilT didr rorm ccmiaDUBiieiB ol on utlve lad ■ nanirc 

iiiF& 

iiiriii ^^llll II ^llll liili'liiiiifnii.v f"pi«iL FLUiL rt|iMbljMlii\l iLikL lii^^h^ ^ll''^': |^ aL.v VtllM L^LUn io) 
h-iM/ n«?.-nry fl n |'i ['vf.'- ami in £i.iii|i.ir' I In "\tH' lI lirrl-hlOIIIUld "*lil hfn I ijiZl" SiTJ ihc Mlhx 
li;FiC"nl iE ^TT4'il |ii>r4i, ^lr^hLM^^, confL'-LOnj!^. }ir.i>LT look", 'M^ll iTlf li^infl iti^ifr' :[h-i1-'ii Ii> 
iKi Tiiii^^r. Tin rfiLill nl ijcli IjlLirr cartfuL ini-i'^linmnl- fnlO "l"T [iPrifik'': Mni.iLiii.ii, 111' (ill'.:. 
Iiin ol I JLL■^ inJ ^in^' in lln unbiJlJ d-iji^:!; ul iTll i||Pi'|iii ItiH-'s (mlsIiI U- he tiii.'I ^^LCTinLU Ifl 
CmiM'iiivc Pliiliil'iaii|: ^1^1^ 'cfiK III Tciv ^mlf On ■lie iinnlijtk iiiareiia! *r Iniiil. i'liU -It ^ufnit 
□iilLciijI ullecLcd bj iHipliilalqpul unpjli"^ 'iUia li:** ^innablL cxi:fnlii>ji^^ eikIi ^e Tannn, tiH^ 

TllL ILJlti'TiLliiriiis il-rm ..* |lif Thif' Pi|i[v« .'i-likh mji- hjv* iprLiiiV l<nill H- inrffiirinlLji': in- 
*b£iily ifi ilfilinBiirh JifltM'Mi 111' ll^ruii.LiLitTi and (he iVru mliiuDl^ ■^n; tni[i|'i!''il lin^miiiiLiriP-ij irl 
IMH^v gramiTunr-. Jiid lnm*L .iniilu-. and p<[H^' yii i- .ltiuli ^ I^iilieflliC diil^l^. HiJiH-c JuuuL <tLj'[i[tJ, 
Th? Thrfe PaiiLVf? anJ llnlr jILft^il »e|ilnallinn ixOiLf (t in'.huice, in 

Fr. Ff'IM=i:Li Lf-IW. lirtm. Ilotinj |I6B|, mrrci^idj y jUinrni'lLi psf d P, CbTiD, 3- rtlt 

MjL,t-"i 1916. p L^i liirifTLiU'ii 'tr hicho. la H|ur r^ kechol. 

b^n, PcluVniL d« TdlJ-fh-. ArLi' it La LtllS"a TgaaLa, :Honi|i.ili iC 1796, p. 31, rfimpKBg Muiili 

IKO |. 20. JJ. IL II BiriOrtdL. llteS fl. ^. ?J, :0 ft. 

TnrLlmo ^^l^flLnll1 .\' lii Mt rmrlri. Eii ■i,.' i^ OPfoaScft TTlFf-TaiHlt. UjiHIa UPB, p. 37-41. 

Ounil. I^iiilmrn. TfiG Tj?jIiw LjoishJii^. fLr Miniii L^fJ. |i SJ If _ 

f hi PiimLnLli. Lu'JiiU. Cu<Vii <iv L Fjnivnns. AliiiiU lllJQ. £i. 3* J.. ■II. H. 

f Fr JuiL hd,,'. (Tprani FIi^p -H^iina. IlKi'^f, i. iili'.-. Tamfiiiiina n?^? v -i'. '"^ 

/H^i^U MinLnd'. Aril. d<l Is I- Hi^Fvn-llilwrijnj, ■Ji' ki [-In -k Pinijl ^[1llll1 IHIH. ]i 4S^ i£ 
ft, ?^ ■^■"rLti''^' r"' '^' "" ?■■"' ^li^cLTin, famMlmng 16^, [i|i- HH'tl- 

Fr Fflu 'illlHirn. linm lii'(a!J. M.iUI-yn IftW. ». SJ li 
Fr. Bniinii 7.iiw. ^Ell-Ln .111 Ur OilLnilurfT . . iiJiDl-^'lo ■'I Vi'Hi^ MvihK IHBt jl IB 6. 

IV JijJLi'iiii ■!■: Cntin, N'lL.-a I'-run 'lap jEl*, Hjdrid ^K7^ B- Ifo llW, 171-177 IT. 
p. IiiJiii^ ] u amuTiJ, Oc d' Li L (I? MjniiJiiGiiiau. M-iill» 11^-. p 41-4/. 

p. Fr. FriiKbMiJe t< /■^■^f. Vni' > RlHj; flela L. Tngalt, 1S2 < liupwnaaiKTfl -cIh Don Jh*«c 
UuIb Da^dt L-Di TccDU Olik.ii, ]■ E^l rl 

t'r |ii-^ Hi.. Id Cii>iinoiiiini7^. L«C»iiFi ^ Gtiia. HiBpiin-VaplB, lituiSh lf0f, p. TQ ff. 3 cd. 

IfflJ, [1 '<i-^l 'I ^1 1*=^ f ^'i H 

tf Dh^U BtCfl^fli. \rlL' df lj 1. PaniTigii?^, hULVT.II an.i.L 1'3(i I- 4J-6^ 

Fr Jn^r Mini FajMi. dt CLmai, ^rir ^.Llr^ . .Ic I.l L Yliiii-it;, M=iiiiln IflHicip. 'ti ff' (^ 

.^ I .|-hr< I'l'.ii.i'* ■li^ -iin|ilL 'iKll'ri^i'i'''^ J 

V T Fl. Fmnciw^ EirFzmj. \in: I. C'linma. 2 n' I'amliuiyiii j 13^;, p. 73. 
Mariinr. CiiR [If i". 'rk- iTi'l IJiOIVl* Tli!my:i llij.t.inr,. rFjaiiiLJilliu M^. p C, 
Jnliui L'lifis. >.1'inilii I Ltmn- piatHtn LTaiT'lie. B-j-'.^f ci' a 1^', p 4S 

Vrr.! nr R^riNi'ir:! LlranilLfufHT' Tnn.l'n und fJi.laiiJ-Lii, Lii^'m lyft.p. flS; bdl cf, Brflnd- 

mCltr, BuiLili Ullfftn d(l WjI ig-i^y mm M jLiiMllLil. \J JS IS"! £*- 

AckiiiCi! Miiijii Cii[jiin»ii« TaaJ-lut ^Xliii.i'abEiac I'l^, v J^-J^- 



(SentCTC^ lilcf T^e last caauot; be liLiri^L^acd Literally, iim even by^ the 

mo^c bailssLvon- <|i-li>nloii nf our i<[[niii. 'I'lu'y ^m]I he irt.iiLiI in i.il[i:r 
cli;[|ni^F=, H-vIicrt it hili he aliaitii, how even llic in<licc<,c oLjixi, lIic niiliit- 
nieiii and oihfst elements qan be wade- the aubjectj or ihc direct object of 
epecial forma of ihe N-omen actionis.) 



Tiw diwusgion o( the ctoiBiructions in the eismplcfl rrt -^t, -an, f- Verba 
given in [sid-srSJ was jiucdiij^'^iI 'c-t ili^' jmrfi'i^c ■'{ f:ii [lliniiii|_' iF.ui'.laLviii 
and r^trnii'l^ti'm a-nd uirli U« jsiU;ji]iiJoii lAuii iIiul v-erc in EdiUlic 
Igorol fiH(;<i i)f (]ie jub^niilivc, diatinctiinia between ncmiiiiatrvc and acoj- 
sativc, <'ivic[i do. ][] i^cr, jiqI r^iM: ibe BorlOT ^rot does nol diatinguiali 
belweeii Cildi^S fcclu? and diluiun'-. 



Ljiid-lrl Vcilktil-'iii'lL' van \i?^rldLiJjLb lildlC, 1^8?. VJ H, ,L, ;. |. ^Jt. 

Al'I'TLll'l .M llT^.k^, f|-l| 4'l 

riiTirn iDi[ iTlf Gjh-lHTi'i, Sliriv^liMJi.iirnvililir", ? fluB, p. 363, 

F^l■il^J^I. llulkl Gt.iiiJnH dcf 5 [Tich m f'-.* ii-.[±*rr, II. Hi IL M-lli, |j ll' (Tl.,. Tj.m.-l- 
111 ih,T,ii^Mi,ij. ildJa iOdi LD iJufl waj^m-ji L'/i'^ii": -ili» h j™t -^H'lt 'li^' "■' ^"' ^"^'■" 
1' liLini'. ' I'lfir. flBcTI 

}amt= Bj.iiCH&iMmcclIniCw-nt '"■ of <Wp tSionpHs fl'^ul PfhidiJn nl tf»f EmimiM 
tl L.iJiniiJK', Viil I p J72, --p 'r>[|j^j -Im^-i liLlltr ilillUlinn i^hin ijih-lirik^ "ti 51' I'l '"'i^ CfJiUnur 
bj .'rarHIEdl nlf :'^ l^it^. ^Illtu IH i!i -lin».mi ihlf^ bti""|i| rai.rt ' anil k-.-" pi.T'iv< ■■kniMil- p 274^ 
'■Oir r^s^i'" fl^rru-ni UKuaDi. imW {n dK i- cwj uml;^ ' - - ; ^ J-i 1.3 "il"i' -in ^nil -in c^-fiua- 



74 



THE LANGUAGE OF TIIK BOXTOC IGOROT 



TITE ACTIVE 



ri.F:;;i'?hT 



THt -ZiA" CO^iJUG^VTIOPi 



219. Thr ro>ii receives the Eullix -^ and the p&saeasive endings wbLcb 

In lingular ilit n of -^ Li dro|)pi?d {ab^orLtd), wlicn the ending.'* iirc 
infilrtT- As (lif: \"nm, act. cuds, H.ticf di'oppiiig n, in the vowel tf, [lit liiiigii- 
]ir emliiigs art: 
-k{ior\ Ho), -IH (for: -bw): ilie coin linfiiioiis arc lliereEore: ^t, -^m |-j"^|, 

-i'lja [-bna']. 
Riioi; ;>tfljA Noisi act. ^ekdihoi "lo throw;" fihdskek, fckdsh^tn. 



iaft Geiorc (akinfi lb*: vf:rl>^li':in^ ^Hik -^, the tOiJI tlnil&l-^irf^ i^tf- 
lain plionetic chynjjei. If llir: |rf^.l sylfiiblr li( I He tc<i\ caiiLuiiLS a ?lini'L e 
([iiiJ in jiULJic cjijci jn p), lI a'^ ?}--iicD|>ale.l, 

The final media h changed To tenuis: final b preceded by a. o, Vi. u 
ch^Liigi?^ inlQ /. FinEil tf ch.THRe^ in li^ncr.. Ig/.roi iiiio df at lj\ ^iIut irtv-ns 
rci^iiii if; lull li flnaJ d is preceded by fl ctJCi^imanl, afler ^ ha^ been synci^- 
pated, i( changes lo f Between ill*: ftna.! diplilhong- ao |ir*| aiirl -ck llie 
consniiaiH hi 15 oflen inierleJ. 



Root! 



rCnoc : 



ka^b hdpek 


T make 


siho 


iihd-ck 


1 cut 




(IJl. "iny in-skjng") 




nil, 


"my tuning") 


afed dpiek 


I rnt<jt 


tjusag 


tjatdkeic 


T dj.'lde 


kalab kaidjek 


I climl} 


ai'^eiL 


Jng'ick 


I make 


U'^id Uytf ck 


1 '^dnl| \Wk 


kail 


kditek 


I eal 


failed faWc}ek 


Ibiad 


fizum 


Siiumek 


IdriiLk 


fofij: fli^'^h^k 


1 u'ipe 


anap 


n^dpck 


r seek 


.•:\i!^^d sin^teh 


1 si ill g 


ijjingao 


Ijoiigdonvk 


1 loie 


ffto ffidek 


1 cook 


lirleg 


t/lkck 


I pierce 


k't'k [y!hk\hmek rknow 


liuyiid 


hiyill}c^ 


1 pull 


f'lm fa.'iick 


r read 


apayao 


jtpayi}o',.i}ek 


L i>iir5ll« 



THE LAMi:iUAGE Oi^ -mi" no>:Toc tgorOt 



sikf^h ilkpck 
fayii fay if elf 

2ZS- 



I f rilei" 

1 poamU rif ■: 



f'.'iac ill 






L ^rai 

I throw 



Rooi jtflpf cnt 


Roci i!a 


■ifC 


I'Toiii /.L'Ara^^f il;[ov. 


Noiii. ant., tiliu'n 


^^^Lll, rtu, 


/iuiii 


X^>itj. acL. fekdsh^} 


L- 


ktii'eic 


il^rlr 




fckd^hek 


3- 


kitn^t'i {l:dm»!'\ 


iini'-'i [ila 


'III] 


jchifsht^'" [fchi^shiiii 


3. 


kat^^m {kai\S fia\ 


ihz^wii 




fekiUUi^i!^ 


D, 


kaii/'im 


j'.dfi\!a 




jrk!id\.i^'l!a 


t ka 


kiriit^itifl.'o 


U4^Mtd}cf> 




f^i/,i-:f\/'il!Jl!'? 


1. ctd. 


ilif'i\i''!i'j/ 


iliit^M'iit 




jek/f.ifu'niii/ 


TT. 


kifu^'iy^ 


ii4'><\yf^ 




iirl.-<i::f\''i'y!^ 


IIL 


baahffit [kn't^tfiif \ 


il'Ii'ntja 




Ickdif\i'i>'}a 



3S2. Th?aci**nt i?iLi i. sin^il^r jtl-imyn nn the pj«iiiiltiiii!L Tht acceni 

of ihe 3. 5]ii^il[ir i'H on Lht antipEienulliiiin, il the 1. sjnj^il^T 'i^i'. "i^i"'^ ilian 
uva syll.ibln?^; biil on die pneiiultiim, if clic i. ^inpnl^^r \y.\^ only cvo ^vl- 
labl»- Tlw same xnlr hi.l-ls inr ihe ^lunFandjt- P^uTal. LLTijilli'Tiine occiiti 
only in tlie 3, ^inKiil'H'n ii it is ac«nte'! 

Ti! ilie r. txd. ind 2- plyral Ihc iilclm fs sViort flijrl Bf^ented; ^[^q the 

anEi-p^eniikimii is ■^Hehlly ^cceiiKd. 

Tlie tinJins" of [hi; t. iiicl. plur,-il lia^ a sh;iT|i JCi^tnU -'fffro; IIij: sc^- 

aml vowel b'-'lorr this ^-ndiiig hzs n ijIl^IiL acceiil. 



333, TTieroot, chained 39 witb the -** verbs [320J, receiv.s ihc (Liica- 
riwtf) siifiiH -fljt ^nJ Ihi: [latshcs^ivft endillgf^: ihe jjof [lie suffix -(Jjc i^ ilrtrpped 
(or ?lj50TbciJ) [t] th^ ^in^ulrir, 

Rc-jt: fatgf^b Nom. act. idn^fan tocloae i^n^it^. idnsfam, tofigfJua 

«Hxit: Rool: 

/flW j^ydsjiik J pay /"niirff fl^kiti^wiili 1 <:.>][ 

foiljdfijc i'adjdi'gaii I lielp ^^ff'/i w-^-i/idt I m^<iIi 

itff/H^ tfl/rt/ofe I kaMpak] I dig pff frftr* I "nfrn 

ilfifl Jfl^<^ff& i buy fatc>i jdlbaX^ I lattoo 



7G 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC ICOROT 



224. 






Paradigjus 




R'H>i ; 


ta^gi'b cli'jp 


Roor 


< 


ayag calT RnnTi 


tj^l^jiab rtpen 


r^om. aci. 


run^/flii 


Xdiii 


. atl. 


jj'f?';irii NoiiL Jicl. icku/ifaii 


1. 


fuiigfak 






aydktth 


tcfjudfah 


?. 


t^ngJQm 






oydkam 


iik»dfa\i\ 


.!■ 


tangf^Kti 






aydki^nn 


iekiidfano 


D. 


^angfit'ifo 






aydkania 


ic^tififaitlo 


I. incJ. 


tangfatitfUfo 






oydkanlt^/jo 


Ickudfanldko 


1. excl 


fnnf:ja'i^3%i 






itydko'iin'/ 


Scffudfanfit 


IT. 


Xoigf/iiiyd 






pydkwtyi^ 


icffudfany^ 


ni. 


tQ'llf'X^tji^ 






aydfrtpnj^ 


(gfiv4fantf(i 


For the acoents see | 


"222]. 









YHE A CONJUGATION 

ajg. Tho LiLn:h3nR»!d rix>i r<:i:tivi'& iht ijrtfiN ]'-, uliitli \i joinclin)es 
coi]lnc(eil «"i[li an iiiLlL^il 1 nf ifnj roit. J- Ln;forc ,tn iniliril lo.ril icKccpt 
ii ciii-n pniiirjji[iC(nl iy- or v. 

ftflh'k and tsiok I lifW. i^ik or y*fti I bring 

The [irj^j-t?;- Lvo ciidinjrs of lUc t. .icid ?. sini^ibr .arc -ko. -mo. if llic 
root leEiiLiii^ (K't hi a cuii-jnanl or diyJitJiOii^j but -k, -ui, li in a vcvdr Tlie 
fiiul media is sometiDiea dialled iato tJie laiuiE. 



226. 






rar3Hj[^iii7 






Raoe, 


ifjua give 


Hoot 


: t&li 


g"ivc li^ck 


kcK.1; 


laho lic|i 


*inm. acl. 


id Ilia 


>'9m 


.act. 


tm 


Nijni. ii'.L 


ima 


1. 


iJjual- 






,imr 




ilifbck 


2. 


idirid'n 






fiAh"i 




t!itho"i 


:i- 


idj/idita 






ii^liim 




ililbo'iti 


D. 


nflffoSa 






iidhfn 




iidbota 


I, icol 


id/iiiiitdki' 






ii&iiUkO 




imoiM-d 


I, excl. 


idjlfaii'l 






UMimf 




Udbifni! 


IT, 


adfOayd 






ifdliyi^ 




iiiiboyA 


in. 


idjjifi'j't 






i!dlitja 




iidbi)l)a 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



;; 



RMt: 



dju show 



Nom- act, fdju 

1. idjiik 

■2. id'jUin 

3. i-i/zina 

D, tdiiira 

L exf f. idjttmi 

ir, /.'yriyi* 

III, ;i//rfj;a 

For the accents aee [33? j. 



Root: /ffniif plani 



itvttUko 

itdnitmi 
itonfdlja 



Redupl, Rool; l.s/ii-lra'} 
(ao: -liiihllioiig) j^ii'c 
Mom, iic[, lis^cflsjio 

ilSiSolsaottHi'i 



227. Itmiijt (le dii-iiiiK^iiMml wheltiwanimtinliig thepridi^v ot ihci- 

conjiCE^tion, or vlietfier Imn^f i helimc' in \\h- r("i[- [n ilm liiii^r c-.i-k (lie 
vTrli beJon^^ Cor lie -tjj o-f lu ihr- -ran i-onjii^nion, ^s Ear nuisance ; 

l^iiak I liol<l. 



??i^, Ob&crvaiioii.— Vttbfi tniliri: Ifi rlnz 1, :iiieulrrr in -ok tcluiiE lo 
line uf lilt tlifce ilifltitEiL cnnjiij^-jtioni. 

•t) if ihe peraonal Tfrtj'L: Fw-fkif/i^t J 'ir ?. ^ing, luf^^if^ir; T. locI, 

b1 la l>K' -ajj vcrlh^: U,a.mk I lind; I. iiicL iljdsaHtdki' (>vllli n'J 
c| 10 Lljr I- ^orb? y.V^U.rt 1 ask;l. incl. (bftSkat^ko (without «0 

V<TiionrLl vei'h? I'rin he recognLztil 1:1 ]ii^iiy c^itj* hv tin- [wrUrli:', rf]>i 
and in, ur bj ih.:ir iuLrdUiLUi'e nie^isiii^. Jti order la [lliiin^'Liisli lie["ci:ii 
the -on and the i- verbs, the i- verbs in fominon use are ^Jiieu here: 

/bfSkak I ask /(r;afe I eau meal [ifujai} ] a^pitiiaJ:^ I «v;tnr 

;iJ;/ftf* i ^'jve /jtist ] tiike [irme riri oiiLli (Ilu- 

fi'iiaii'al: [ iarlii-l tsilkanak> I i?TC|jjre camn? ) 

tpStlok 1 ahow iklmak I stir wilh a apoon iju^'o/' F li^c 



the [igainri' ("eciiiu.c Ijidii'^iur") h, if a ^i^^^l^l^ siibkTi iaUi^^'^. ilirm 
[4J, aoS fj. 



7S 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC lOOKOT 



keijen^ idj/i/in ho nays luiAf-ny tcJi tsHahi^ and then the mother gives 

M.nn: Itrcrnl Id ln:r rliilil ; {idfAn i Hg. -u'j 
iig^e. iitJ" i.^iJUrc /■"ir^j£;(7(i,' '^\lial (is) Lilt briii^jii^ Iioljic of faiigedT" 

whul Oinj?. h'jin^d finny liaiiie? (_iidii ■+ lig. ie) 
Hdbcn "On I'iftJVi liv -crrhfJu^ "llii' vQiiinii'i liey^iiiniiig to work,'' tlit 

waman l>e^uis to work (ildbv + lig. n) 
«g&^ 'tan iydiii iiti'i aihuid'\ii^ ulial |l^) lln: brinsnij^ i>j li[i frii-'Lirll \<A\^* 

d6f£ [li^ Eritiid Ir'iiijj? (r\^i?V [j'^J^ ] I li^. ") 

(This J!^. -ir should not be rni^ken for a lioal conaaDsnt of the Nom, 
set) 

TEE ACTIVE 
ajOr Tln^ "AugiiiLiii." Tbic cliarrn:i(!ri*.iic of ilie Preterite ai the Pos- 



33Jr T}'- ij, j>ri:ri>;<:il (o verity nf lln' -(^ir ^nil -hjj ch'^s hi'fj][i[iiii|^ with 

fl vinvel or <"ll|ihili'iii^'; Ijiii --fn- i^ inh;:i:'l. or pl^id:*! beivveea iln? miilal con- 
(imiiiiil and Itie loflrnvint^ vrurr'l ."" ''irh^ bogiiiiuiig ivfth a con^ciiianl. 

inffak iiiJu'ilc-^ I liojlcr] fi'thftj^/a fsntrfl'lak I ■smoked 

ultfirii iniUoit I rnXikcil 1^/"-." ■'/ ii* taken as one consoiiaiic! | 

avJJaai! luay/ilrtil, 1 cfiU^'f 'ibtfci: dinfbok- I cut 

/.tai' inlicul T d.id !_<-nah m'^iiak I licid 



232- VerltG of the i- conji^atioii take «-aaa prefis,lnit drop their i-: 

idjdak itdiii<ik J s^v: 

Ibja-kak hifiikak I a5k<:d 

l^ji^j/' fnioUk I Telnrncd 

Gut if [lie aLKSiiieiit, ivlicii prefL.\eiE, woiiid cjliij*: tlie ^cciiruiljtuin of 
coTisonants, 1- la relained; 

igtffk intstok I held 



THTT LA\"r,UACR OF THR EONTOC TOOROT 



79 



ttftifk iniUwk I uiitd iia tool 



23J, Verbs vfilh ibe causative prelix ^ [?9Sl ti"" regularly ih- as a 
prefls.: 

papQstek I make pc^ir, inpap^dk 

fOUt^gek, ippij47V'ii:^-" I mad^ warm 

l'aU.iidd-!h, iufiio,^!'!'H--' I i:nii?i:i:l to fear, 1 frifiiWitcd 

IAru'i*(? cliose v/uli [lit ^iii|i.>ritativepTe&x fn-: 

j-afckitcifcL'^ inpasckmibko I ordo-wl to open 

pa&ittb, inpadHk I made go 

pasikpek, inpask^pko I ordered Hj i^' liirn 



334. \'cL"lj^ njlli prclix^"^ wjlh iLJiLiriT m cliiUii;*: llii:^ i"'," '[ in iIh' |ii"i?- 
tcrite, (Siicii pL-i?lixes iire- "^o-, 'iioii^-, iir/;^, Jjnrtj-, r.r^^Y- cL-:;., Uie foci:e 
of %vlikll ■^111 be Irealed later,) 



2j5r Notice tbe changes of 

The Verba: 

H^rrrFfi")j^i?,(» [ lliiiik 
eiic /'laifjiitick 1 ilusil'l 
^"l:'kasi<itt^'--ck 1 niiv 

.'if.'/iii!iitff I muniiln'r 

^fjt [ JiU 
tj&n^/ngeh I hear 
sfhpck £ tiller 
Jtt^jtAf t I Knuw 

tilkck 1 iif'Tti' 
t^fngek L measurt 

j/ji>;[i7t L iiiiig: 



ttie Preterite foTDis of ihtse Verba; 
have Inllic Preterite: 



111 ILl[lI'^l 



*tterev 



pi'iici/:;ko 
kiiiii'itnik 



So 



THE LAXT.UACF: of the EO\'TOC TCWl^OT 



i^ii'i/fek I wrwk J^hiiiolf 

Olbcr ituiiv ot icss adomalous )irct<rile £omis att fs^vcn in the Yocab- 
ukry. 

Tlie Siifiixes aad Kndiogs in the Preterite 

3_^'i. \~eiUi. of the -/i'l coiijii^ntinn Veep -itji in ilie [jiLieiJi'?- [22^] 
Verbs 01 rlie -fn conjiigjUion <frnp llie ^nSix -^ 
Verbi oi Ebe i- cuujiL^iiun di'up ihe ]>reiix i-. Ijajz] 



i>;^7 Sin« the Noraen wrloni? o* the -jh gnd *- vei-bs is not changed 

ill llh fiTnf '^niEii!, Ubc i^r-ettril-! af '.\i<: -ait niLiI i- coiijuj;aLii:ni*i li^i! ib-e ^^lue 
cii'lini^'; :T5 lli[ pri;sc[i[: id ihi! 1. *^iiiL,'ufr[r k nflei' ^ii:nl \hii'cI, iio ailer 

rixili. lltjiLTc ilm cnil, Ici T nrtd ?. ^ilcij^nlnr In -to, -ijju, ii t\w roai ler- 
niin^cei in ^ ■zonM-inani, Enii in -^^ -jrj, ii ilio r.ioi hn*i .i liriil \-oiv(-tr ^ A few 

Par^dignis 



-An 



1- 



Kli"C : 


fayad pay 


-faha ^^k: 


N(H"- 3Cl. 


fayiirjan 


\''faka 


PrtfflLt 


j^ydljak 


Ihfilkik 


Prclcriin.- i. 


finayilTiak I |>r[[J 


/nfJkai- I 


2. 


findydtjam 


/"^■^fajjj 


.^- 


lii\ayiltjiliia 


fll/"dt;^ffP 


D. 


i iiioydl }itnta 


iifukdta 


T. [iid. 


i!noyatjaniAi,o 


I'lfakaniko 


J, c&L 


finaydrjaiiij'./ 


mfdkam! 


TI. 


tniaydl !ttny& 


n'fdfr^y^ 


!IT. 


fiHaydtjantja 


iuf&kJtJti 



■f"c^^ liikc along 
sliced iir/fu'g^Jf^tLDOkalo^ 

infill' i\ljii 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOMTOC ICOffOT 



Sr 



-Eh 



Root: 


ala take 


*ri'« in(kvt 


ftjj(i& climb 


kun c^t 


Noni. ,icE. 


a!/i^tt 


t rii'^ i'ji 


*j;rf"/i'.c 


td'ien 


Pieiciil 


ahUk 


k I'^'/ifi- 


Mitf.^k 


Irit'iP^ 


Preterite 1. 


in^lftk 


kiii/^iri[!u' 


kinoldblpo 


ii'u.mi^^o 




[ look 


J iiinvi^J 


1 cliiiiLed 


I iin^ 


a. 


tih^Jdm 


k'uhL-^'ii 


^mdifl!6mo 


AiB4fl*np 


3 


"PlJ^'/lIrt 


frmJTi-'rtfrii 


M'uiUfhnQ 


ifjj^rfjifl 


D. 


Mnihfn 


*?'H/?U^fjr 


k'nttltlbfn 


hindii/a 


I. incl 


mtilitfjiko 


frjjjc'™^^i?t(i 


kiiiaSabrdko 


kiaa".tdf!ii 


1. excl. 


iniZUtyn! 


frrii/ic'^jjj/ 


t'i'\d>uh3if 


ki}ufifiiif 


IJ. 


iiiltiityfi 


t-TFc/Kiajii-i 


itmiflaliT:^ 


^'iJ?r/]'^!t 


iir. 


ifuiiaijii 


tTfr/^'»f/cJ 


iiiaaldb^ja 


(^Wlif/B 



Sit oi6ck 1 cook i tti&iok 
fay/ick L ihJiindi finctyuk 
antek I reap; inf^ijt 

inAfA Ilrtif: Jnftiilki.' 
OMifpek I Sfrk - i7i4>\ul'ko 

akL^ilheh 1 droti, I'thkl^iiklco 
idpek \ytip£'k] I umnt; i>\vJipl>o 

fa/^ijek [ bimi: finaUlkQ 

tjuldkck I divido- ijinaidlcio 



sibSek r cut; zmH-ok 
hapi/tek I pray; kii'dpatk 

fikdshek I fiiil^fi, fn\i^tl.iUko 
f*tlfnck I [iirii over- fUiali't^ko- 
Kkdyck [ Itl .■|['-iie; firrfi'jJjF^o 
kdpck i iiuliti i?riif?^/i/£o 

atthick I rciiiiivi', ind'on^ko 
fiiufd'iek 1 [iiJI; .'[irw?rVyi(j-i6o 



S^e also [33SJj wTiere eome anomalotiE pr«terile forms are given. 



2^^^. A ffw vcibi cird. in preterite iD-fJt;asthr dual uidphiral show, 

llu'v do rn.i drj^p Ulc sufti^ -fw. Tht'ix preterite EOLiltLf-s are the same aa 

llivir tildin^s in [hi jiri'sinl. 'lilMC found fttc; 

tjcn^/n^ek T hear ; ijin^/n^vh 
indymifjuiiflii 1 iIhuIil- tiff'iii}Viid?tidck UiS] 

^ikikafyjiick I pui in iiiid^i- ncwkaktid'ii'dick \2^^\ 

kdo<V€k \kajfLi'bk\ I cartas; kindJiitick [kiiia>)wok\ 

yadngcf^ek T cl-o wi[]i energy; ivyac^ngcbek 

ifliiiiiigck [iii'ldfino^r] I In^li ; hpadngek [inpadHgok\, (probably an i- 

iij^kek I (ellj v^m; mtjUttek, (probably an i- verb: iijdi^ok) 



Hi THE LAi^GUAtiE OF JklE BONTOC H^JOROT 

_'\9 Tlic ptubcritc of -verbs with iDserted wis: 

ijimgdowfic i \iyK-ipiwngJt/ko 

puayAeh I l[]*,ult: iiipi^'iyiSko 

hif:kkdovjck I pierce- i!iiu.-,hk^'iliii 

apayiioTuek I pursue- inapaydfyko 

palakdi^wck \ ivaeJ oJT (ii sJi'mke) ; InfalakdiSlto [ajj ] 

iik'^'Mck [ak°iUk\ I Meal; inak^^fto 



240. rmervocaliclifi tti4r»reFent is c[ropT>«l in fh& preterite rf: 

pQJkiU-k \palkdtek\ 1 sm]i: ii^^J/tct [irr^fJ/itfrffl 
fidtck I stiiiJ our- fiiieiah 

Tfiu^ 3-hif[-ore iln: eii-fiziy fUupdyiiyek [iapcydek\ 1 carry in my hand 
is (Irofijunl Lii ilie preterite: Unapdyok. 

fay^k^-l.- Ifjfkfk] } "liip, fin^tyk^ 
(Se* [235] and the Vofdliubry.) 

?4i Irf Ihc Future liie particle ad- {at-} is prefued lo the forms of 
the present; 0^ is noL assinijiated. 

IhL'^in , tidii<t^'i(i hi' ii'lll Mill'- ai!p/!s\eii\A ym i''[|| breaks 
(siik^k^'HjQ they wiJl maJie. 

THl^ CONJUHCTlVE 

S4a. Th? particle .'^ |f?J, 'J |'f| indipgtPS in v^mf^ cnsei a "coiijunc- 
live^ I ir|i] ; il folloiVi lln? vi?rl>. (Vanoirs mo-Jal ideis OKpre^^^ied hy aox- 
iliirii^*!, ad^'^rtia- eic-, will l>e diicus^icil in liter clni^ier!. ) 
kJin^fi cd you iiugliL Irt, vriii .■shoul.l eat, you would eaf. 
sctcfdick I'd T -■^lioulri i:--jrry, I vMiuld carry. 
'bfabafiTku'd we otigUi ut ^ak^ we should ask. 



THE LAN'GUAGli OF THE T50NTOC IC0150T Sj 



TJIF, TML'EPATJVfi 

2^7 Tlie Tiiipi^T.'ilive li;ib Hi-: snnie loicii'. ^s Uie Present liielicaliv: ;. 
the cnn^ujiclioii fir, ihflt. {txprci^MTijc llL^; valjLive or piup^Hl [jreccJ-;? liunic- 
timcs tKe i. |icr--'>T] <lii^l khA plural, r^.rdy 'iiigii[;ir. Also I'lriiis uilli Er.]- 
lowinK" ■^'■^ I ^4^ I ^'.-'"•-'- [o UKiirci-- [i h'^^ (■xriiiEiif^ ciiiiiinaiul or a ini4iuti>L 

tflmy^^'^^J.' Jiami/^HVPr! hasten! ^^f^^jji.' /■;JiJ:^s IidIiI fn^^tl 

^ p\tii^v^ni3ko na>t j^^fil' kt us kill iIil i^iii^niies! 

i//ti-k fd nan f-iiyi? f aiifiliL lo see cht i"!!'*: |>LiiLl^Li.>ii, Id me set. . 

THI NOMETT ACTHJNia (AND JWriHlTlVE] 

J44 The Xoiuen nrli'ims fiitceaponda lo dtur "Infinitive." Ita char- 
jicicr nnil furiiutioii have bfi<n treated in [iO+, 213, 2j:,^ ff-] for the Present 

Tn tlip Preterite the posaeseive endinga of the Indicative are dropped: 

hho^pk-> r made: kinJdb: inStak I cOokcd; mrf(r;; iiiaydk.Jk I 
calleil ; iii^jfl/'^ir, Uni'ydiJko I iv.inCi], likeiT : irn^yad; iiij-^HIi 
I pskejl: iVritj,- inu-nili/o J iiliini':il iniSnid. 

I'As -flfl verti9 retuln -oh in the jndica.tiv« of Uw preterite [256], -cm 

js aM- Vcpi in tlie Nora, act of the preterite: wi'ftflB, "the havit^ ntade" 

(tQ liELVO inade). 

fmavudjais "the havidg paid/" liiagf^-:iii "having houg-ht." 



^4'\, Ofj^crv-; lIv? X^iii, ni<"'- ill 'liii i^tcctiii" 1" iliosc uer!>=i 
m uir jjfr.'i: I nia<le: I'ldu^n^u 
tj'mg/ngeJi I heard" 'ji'ig/i'go [li'!'S/"S-'>'] 
kfndoiuch I nri-?iiTf(l, 4:inliT;iLcd: liindozDO 
itey/ii!ji^'^f.-ck 1 dill ■villi tncrty; inyoii"i:fl<'f.' 
inpitdngtl! 1 iflaialied' rnpiidngo \iMpd'}"^''-^] 
ifipddkek 1 3Eo|>ped: inpddka 



346, Tlif- X'''>in acl. ill llic fii'iiTC i'^ inniied i>y prtlixliiif nd- i-i' lln: 
Noin act, of tlieprewiil' adhftp^Ji. "lo Le aboiil Ui iriskc." <fd!!if^l<-ii "l^ 
he aboul lo ask" It 13 u=od L-arj:b ; regularly ihc i^rc^etiE takes lis place. 



34 the: LAN"GUACr OF THR EONTOC TCOROT 

tHB NOMEW AGBNTTB (AtTlVB PAHTI':if Li;) 

24y. The Noin^ii agml:i= is furnicd by add[iLK (o llie rool llic ]>rLlis<:5 ; 
nutn^- fcT (he- present; navg- lor [he [JrclciH?; julnutng- for ib-iz fiiiurf, 
Afler ifie S^iidlii iiiles ^[^'eii in [ii] mang- cliaiiK^;^ lo- 'nam- or j-uirii-. 
I'hi? [H'efiK of verhs u'ilJi iiikiil V i^ win-, iiiii-, aJii'm--, llie only pos^es- 
sivt verb, whicli was iaiuul lo Ijegin v^'iili ?^ laker^ ^^Ji"ir j >iSiii>iiinck;\ tliiiik; 



?4y. The N-Jiiieii ageiilia denale? Efie iigeni of llie iicliim indic^lcd fiy 
ilic I'ool; il coLTC^pcmd? fr(?i(neiitfy lo out Nniii. afi;. ^'- . writer, si:ii;cr, 
reader, otatoT' I* uuctl aUributively v,[(\\ a suliUiuivc, <:ormecled hy ay, 
it c^ii E"? lT.iii^]^lci\ hy oitr intticdplei in nclive. 

nan f^fjyi ny -•'liiKniUf'iid llie wYunun a^ planLer, tbe pTaoting wcxnan, tli« 
WCOfilE Alio [>U]ltS. 



?4ij. T]]e Ncmifn ageniii [^ a concrete noun and lakes as such rc^- 

ba'i\ ifcic HTlicle nif-n. 



2K,ir. Tln' XriEiiei! .liiciitis ^■iveTii-; ,ii] <ibjcct: [lii? i^ iiivarinbly pro 
Ctd'il l'\ llir; iirepJiiviLioii ^'j: |'j, 's!i, st\. Hcfore noun'; ivluch lake ill? pet- 
MTp] (irtitic, fei'Fc j^ fT»if.l.we<i. — ( Hei-ij fIic construction wiTh jj, ^e^p«ti^¥]^' 
kifH, r<.']ir':">i'ii|P, m rmr ti^cifcpliaii, an objective! geniuve.) 

ffan m^ngdi'b is i\.nn"'1y rr.v (J^foy -.hi- jiinker ol iliis -ipMr: he whorrtilfes 

Ihia £pCiir. 
TtflPi mon^iJya.f; ken A^pifmenn ihi; iinU«^r oi Ag|>auwaiJ i llie one talJing 

Aj"|iiiii\Tan. 
ffjjj fJiJfl^ivrr jr' .fa llic one- having catLTi th'a 
nail iiiitiiiitiad Ic^n iQdi iIlc one who fetters liim 
nan nan^/la Ifft i/lfa the one who saw you 



?5i. ir ,-L vci'b lia^ [he caii'^aiivi? or authoritative prefix [295] pa-.ihii 
is changed TO ipa- *hei] »ionj- « prefised. 

pGolkk I c^Use lij i^iiTiiei TUP' mp-r^^ffJ^Jj 



THE LAKOU^GK Ul" TIJE JiOHTOC iGGROT fls 



352, Jtfw^- chan^ sometrnKS to ming-, i£ llie verb lias an inillal *. 
isuhlik 1 change; «wn moHgis^i ac rum MW^t-'lPbli 



253. i- Verbs retain i after ffOfl^; -ah verbs drop -an in the Nom. ag. 
form. 

^f^A I hold; nan moHgf^o the iiold^r 

Itut 04- is retained Tn: ^^^^ 1 do^ fflnm^^Affli Jft^fr, Igiv«; 
»ifliijv/jt(aJi,' aii-l ill ^mi: ollirx'^ which urs dissyllabic In I 3ms. prt'^rnl. 



354, Tlir ■Nniiieii npeiilis ■locb nuE [.ikf llic^pi:! ^i.iinSeiiiliiip;'^!!! phrases 
like: I iiu ili-i^ \\iTUPi-, yoii arc rlic hiliicr, '^■? aro ilie iiinlscr'. In ^ucli 
coii^criiiiioiiiibepeTSDoalprcmoimg (or substantiva) prucate the HnchangHJ 
Mf.iii. ic 

sak/^1- '^rriJ it\a>if;it^b is nvit ka!Js-ty I am tlir- master cf thcsbfdd, 
slka /idyi Kidii^vAi'.' nail kiiyft vdm ^r^ ilii tiringer of ihi: wood. 
sfya na'i i/tln^uu j.t "w iir-JfrrrH Jit i^ ^lie one m-|io ^Ic itif I'W.il (rice). 
tjdid)^D nnn iiiitn\it'<s^\i^ kf'i ifiilifa we are thi' lirly-TS ot ilicmi it is wc 
Who heip Ihem. 



2ji. OiiJij a lifiiiled luiiritiVT i>f N'oniiiu ag<:iiti5 fOTnled thiis from. 
hci'bjil rnrjf ai"e ireaEcil a? persnii.il ^'tTb^.^ .■^ucli aie. 
liitbidck I smote; N. a^. vondlAa: Pctr, verTi: moBtftirfet, mtwaftirfia^ 

Ef?wf.f I ':ai; M. ^^, ^rt^ii,i;-irii; Fcrs, vetb: n!dn^aiiak,»Hi!ig^gka,wdn^iM, 

m/liieilii-fillf/y cLc. 

Thus pfrdj^z.yfrn'it I t'O lieart-btintiiig, irniii fakdh^k: ma\i\^iki'i7kak 
T ga [n work, fmni ftfkndlci-k. Sec [i?fi: 177]. 



^561 Exampka of Nomiji^ nji^niJ^ilmvfdfromllicptCBeptindicatiyf l 
V-frb? wilh itiitial I'owcl . 
andpek 1 ^ctk »ia'!gd>tttb{i>) flajdngko I bi-]!: ma'tgitdfon 



THE LAK'iUAfiF. OF THF. liOXfOC ItiOliQT 



ogpdiek 1 piilL ^iv^y frfriu^r''^/'.r,^(() 
ujtr^liffjt 1 Fct alone )HffH|iU(ij^ 



itldek I taks moTis-iffl 

d'ii<J^'t T bring ma'tgiyifi \w'xngyai\ 

infUl- \ t"ji[ i/'O'ig/'ii'^i-t) 

dfink I viT^v<; mangdfiry 

abjol^sk ] }i<:][^-vf mnng<thf<Sl^<l 

an^ang/hk 1 lovi: Hrougrtrt^rfJigfl 

fg-^'dtCk I lifl "^IfW^/^fflif^M 

idj^ak I givp niangidj^d 

Verbs with iid[{^ A, /'^ ^, (bnt tioI: causHtiTe pa-) '. 
hi'.kScft I tear tnafvifshi padSyek I slay, kill inaniddoy 

jiiti^Snek I awake iiiamdii^Sn pthAick J ciir^'c ijnrjii/t.ir|rf] 

fQinijihi'ii I dash, ]>ri?ak tuamdkavi paiiongck I CHt ofl mfxmoihn^ 
f^dsln^h I fiiii&li ^JUJ^jJcSfli?! piif-rk f tliut'^'j I'^aui/^f 

Verbs wihh the cansflfivf prefix fio-'- 

papxtskk r make pour tmiigiptip^.)i padjul^<-k I ciiJikc liloorly 
palitjdngck 1 nink^ l>iir™ v!a>}^tpad]dla 

tiini/^ip'tf/lji'-i/^ pitluk'idi:!, 1 gel mati^ipa!At,-lj\t 
pirSHifi-ck [ iniJktl^nil niirngifiiilfiiig 

Verbs n-ith inrlfnl d, f, t, dr, dj, tr<. fj,. sk: 

fokifneh I adviee, lcaH:h mimdkon 

sib<dek I ''Lit Fi-rijJE^^ii' 

ijoidkek I divide iinjflf?^^^^ 
tjongdoweh 5 lust? «juJ^^;f[^;;WJ* 
iiiddeh T Di>en my eve ijr,jjji(irf 

[/?f4|Jji?iaj||J 

Verb? w'itli initial f, ft: 

gatldeb [kaili^ek] I divide into three pari& iiiangdtio 

liildyak I peal iirjii^/yfjv ka^dek I ciicv uiajj^^^'a 

Verbs with initial I: 

lafdkek I cut up (animala) langdei- 

minldfak laf^shak 

iabfdiik I v/aiih (cloilit minidbfa lid^dc/t 

la^'M^ ! buy mUild^o 



dasidek 


I roast niaiias/o 


di-kdek- 


I bewd manf^ko 


lekiii^ink 


I open tntin^tiiab 


svHfek 


£ tuTD victn/^'ii 


Sit/faf: 


I Bwpep nmnts/i 


suftisk 


I Irani ma'i/fUi 


S'?ii^_iimg\ 


:k L &iin:l] "mi^yjrf,*Jjii' 


^lel'dk^aii 


1 blo%v mtjiifihok 



1 'Iry imiifdngo 

1 iin'lT'::i5 ininidff'sli 

i ]i\i'\ by bcndjng 



THE LANGUAGE OF i'ilE BOMTOC IGOROT R7 

lof^^fjffh T ^^i^r' fonl'hit'k I roll mini^nfoH 

mif/ISlrdtji {Ilocaao) hh4sh^k 1 turn mittilkinh 

Verbs vidi j», B^: 

Till' iiillijivini; l"!'^' r.Lii lie ^upplcLiitntcJ iruuj Llje: \'utabtilar j- ) i^ciilaina 
some v(H)^ ^viili nun; or Ic^b anomalouj Nomina ageaiis. In mwy of ih^^ 

S.iriii*. \'i leco^ni';': ilir r^aE hvliich ]ijt I'l'cn ir^rsfomicd lo inalpe Uv prcs- 

^LiL ,t[H[ \\\v\d^ .ii'iicrirs .I|^'jl1[| in [fii] Nn'm .i^luIi'^: 

dk!ich I i^ivc jjia^p.i?iit^fir^ |-.".ll 
dngitek I make wniT^fiujj«e» 
fV^ff jt r lUMt man-ydfj-d 
fidUk I send out jjjrfirrrfiJ 

fi^bif-'hclc \ ifiri>ii- »uhi\k\ss \i>i<lmlccish\ 

feiiyek 1 tire mdmlty 

tgnak 1 hold manxfitan 

fkak 1 do "tsM^fkii'i 

kdnak I ^p-L:ak ?jjLirL_i-:L'^ni 

hdpek Intake nmitf^di-b[p] 

hSdfah I bite ^^attgldfim 

IjftrFsek T ounoiiiiil mi>ilhi}ish \nnf\iriiik\ 
j'iliick \\iTK:\k in'hi\'e" \i3i^n\iHi}ii\ 
i"Ja!i [('fink] 1 il^-^Lray Uy Cut mtl't'imft 
pinik I nil "i^'iiins 

ji'.v''jji!'i?it I reiticinber mi^nin/ri! [iJi/i\n^'i"Ci^i] 
sibfdtfk I aiis«v» tiidnfiilll] 
sikpck I Clilfr irfiJp^tc/' [jii^<A;.'tf/'| 

jvldoh I uJ/iifir[ 1 icacli .iirmrfis (ilie psrlk. of tin? iicraoii,-!! verk mil 

t^lkrk I [nf".c (i:iir&) int?'ihk 

tSmmek ( j-res-, -''td>i>nby 

Upngek I jneafiurc mdnp^nj^ 

tjhi^/n^ok I heiir- jj?/'ji/h^o [)j],^jr/jjfiy.v| 

tjif^dpck r caicii ijj,/jij^iifif ji>l 

r0f£^f£ E ^dre&s^ speak lit titanos^yil 



S8 THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC iGOROT 



I. 

z- 
a 

L ind. 

r. cKc!. 
ri. 

TIL 



1 •ta'igitsaofstioSi tt 
vtaitgi Tsao Isoi/a i\ tA ko 



tcm iUt^i] jnJ.^I , imt in ccrlain con^iifiicEiDji:, (su":.Li rui "rcULive chuFies" 
^villi niir "ri-'LTd^'c" in rlnuvei or in [nk'rrd^iui^^c ■.I'nk'n.-iri ivilh "ri wlionf?" 
wlicrc? "^'hcr ? '^ii.) ii lalicpi tlie Ifcalivc -^iirTN -an. dnd, in iddiiiuii, thu pos- 
seaaive ajdiug^; the rcauLt are these luitran&latabk fonii^; 

nsiT't^itsilorsao "gii'er" Jjii7rr^^ft';,'^a "[;ivcr" mangi^i^b] J'] "nidkcr*' 
niai:f.iti{iofsdociL- !ita'!i;icljljaiik 'naii^^'^l'a^ 

'II iT 'igidj'i d a*i (t mit'ijiiiepa n m 

m icii '^idj I'd 11 ntHkti intin^i^^Jt^j'aji i^i^o 

Tiia" gidjitdxtniii-i m aw -^ il cpdii'n t 

viix'i^i I i I riJ? irli^'i^ >li J '\^Ht'pdii \'/t 

ttti/ij^! ijjiid am fa iiin'igiT^pd' tija 

mcj^ JjiJjJi^' rz>' Jiirrr^^^f^fljff.^dflirjj/j^ii? fi p^ffji kaiitytib "ll]C man to ■vrlimn sii; 

lia^'(! fjivuii ill.; 5IiI(;IhJ." 
iWi^ nO" 'lan/'if^^hm if nflm oydyamf "where did yM hear iKfi biid?'* 

(Lhe ^ JLJ n<i'i/ngdiQ»i i^ ^upEii^ni'. ; [rO]) 
^tt fjiiFi 'i!<i'i_^ff<,i}^fxdiiai Jdifrr fu/dyi ii tail- bildknEiT "'.O vvlif-jii il^cji ili*^ 

li'omnii ^"L^'e her money?" (&inc<: ihc Jiibjc^l foLlDTtS, lilt fjidim" -mx 

ib dropperl ) 
■fnM nan 'nusi^^jtisfi^'tiliiii ij 'lon t^ayf "wliere doc? heh+de the Spear?" 
■tHfJ j^iTJt fTJjj]f7ff^f7('/'ijjj >fjf^ Qlk,'idmo is nan dfongna? "v^'licrj; will your 

irifiid biEikl lii^ liouie?" 
had nan man^depavyi |j hith fobdngakf "when do you make my pipe?" 

('|'he*,c c,\nii)]iles ;ir(? glvcci liiire iiieielv in ^lintv ihc foi-ni' of the fs'oiii 
Jig,, but not w iUiLstrate the construction of these senfenc^s V) 

Tl f-H?f(n:ii[^ cvl.ltiil, ifum ihi'^-j; fix^iin]*!^^, ibil llif \'rtTii, flfi^Atifl "hsfi 
hc^ Irjin^lorn"'!! inlri :t Nmn. sicliijif-^- 

li is ncc'&ary io um', in ,\c1i%'€, ilic Nunicn flCcnli'- (Init irnt lln: vtrbal 
^loiitl of a po^BGi&ivG vech, ivlien llit iiwaliv^" .i-uffii: -ajj ^lull be addiid: e. g. 
if -OF^ slhsil be siifliNcd to aniipel^, I seek, i! r^nnul In; lulfiKcd directly to 
llie -sneiit anap, hul iimsl he suffixed lo tJic Numcn agciilisr ^Jian^iJflu/'OJi. 
Se? examples: |33". 335. 33^1 



THE LAXGUaGFl Of the BOWTOC TGOKOT Stj 



SPECIAL VERBAL FORMS 



25S. TKe V-erbat Formi irpriierf 111 [-^^ lo 2=,y] aic ibose conrnwiJy 
Used. They are perR'^i-l'-' ^ui^cltMiL (ocoDDectiii iJedarriilM^ iiiain ^^tmo^ 

Ihc u-uj[ d'.'mtnt'. uf ^ ^(;n[r:iice: ^ub|etl, iiredic^le, diiecL r.n.l iii(lltei;L 
"hicct, iiliii'*:. iii'ilrnrnciil, Eiiiic, [ii^iiiier, etc , w.'i(li tacli oilier. W^ find. Ilii%^"- 
ever, m ihij 1 .mj^uj^'^ r.iitly iiior^ ilinii tvo adverbial phrases (besides iikf 

ji.1-1, [irnll.-ril!' jlthI al■|^iO ill oiie wiiUciice. 

lid! I]y i:[iLplovLn5 ^p-f^cJal vei-hal forms th* per-ion in whM* 

licli.iLf, iar iv-ln^Eii ^iL .itliuii Is pcrrniiiietl, 01 ibe iiisli niiieiil ii'.td. In I lie .tciIoii, 
01 tIic pliTicc, time, cjiil^c, uliei'i?, ylioii, i^-liy elm adioQ liitti^placi!, luol-:, \vl1I 
take place» can be made the ''subject" or "objeci," as we should, say. If 
rhi'i ori'LiucLirtii i: clio^cn by ilie Eoiiinc TjiTirolj Hit nllier clciiiciil^ aic 
[■oveiiiod bv die prcpo-;nioiis is arnJ /^fjd, ^% Llie cxaiiiplt^ will ■-lio^'^'. 

CUuc Ihc-sc |iTC|ir>'iilji:ini* iirc GmiUcil lifter F-iM^ivc \ i:rlijl Kouna with 
ILlc liii ^l[i'i' ■iiilllji -nw ; M'l; Ihi.' firsl fimr cxnuLiilKb ua |>.ij;i" 105). 



:!;c|. Tliii-i f.tF iiLsljmn' llic '.^nl'^^^f■■^P ri>r, "v,!- ^llL lln" ^nl'l buftjilo 
Willi 'lli^ -i|ICjlr'^ In idij frjri;il' ii. iji c'lmniiin i'hiv^t'-hIIoii . 

pad^tttidko na*t SySrvoK is nan P^gpag is nan idfcy (our kiUmg--iiiiii: 

the bulTiiJo, in llie ftire^l, wiLli ibe spi^.iriv) 

niiL \vc- sliiU iirid fr.rnr. oi ill*: v.-ib wliiih <'Pi-ibJ<: Hi. to Siiy; 

Uui' klUiiie-i>bf^! Ihc forest, fi?r iTie b-iTlTifrr, with spears; or 

Our killiiiy-Lool. ■ipur-^, hn llic Ijuff.iln, [ii ilie forcsli or, if we kill tlie 

.niiiiiial lor .1 fri^Tnl, i<jf hj,', \^-L^iiIijLii fcj'-i;; 
Our killiiic "Eii^iielics" , ilic fricnil, (killing ri(| Hic lulfalo In the lore;*:. 

All tlicsc %pjii^'ric« are construcied l>i means of Certain verbal forma 
niiide from iirif -.imX [he !^3lnc root. But nnl it] roiii'^ ^fnn 1|h ttc c^ftJLlilc of 
Iheinp lliu*, irriLi'^furTin'jJ- ivhile some- con nal bi' iii^'cl Miii'^ i^ci iJ-coLiiil oi 
Uieir mediiiiig, oili.-n jtrc nor iisc-i diua for idkunatic. f&isonSr 



260. T]ie rules fur lln; = |ie c 1 1 1 v-erlial iaciii?, foi rlieir ir-^u ^iid Ibiir 
c-jrrci^pondJEi^ coiiiliiiialitiri wilh prcfixi^, *niffi>c^ and ending ^t'- fiimly 
e^l?bli?bed; ivliile iin defiiiue mips cnii be sutcd for (he l^nns a1 ilie -Ai, 



go- THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOMTOC rCOROT 

-Of and r \-*:dii\ iLi ilieir coin lii ^ ji il& q I3i5]i i. ^ n'> T^soii can be 

femiii, .vliy i poi^cifii'c verb iiinilo troin a verh^l inol ItflcniEfi, in ic^ coni- 
iiioii use, 10 ihe -om, or m llie -<'jr, or (o eIic i- Conjugalicni r'.'-^]>cchvclj-. 



^T, Tlie cfimbin^tlDTi : i 4- Roof + on + pASS^asive endings is used, if 
ihv pcraon for '<■ li o m ^n ^CEion 1?kcs f Jace ^hall be made the "objart" 
of a traiuidve vtarb. 

tfify^frft I mnk-:, RcOl iir^^^j; ^' + t'l'' + fi + *i? becomes, aJlcr ilnipijlne w 
,mrl mldinf" k in Lilt rini^] ir: flL-HbaJi: "I [irovidt o man liy iiiflkiiie" 
[ftitf<ak] 

tkobak -ifSvdl 13 IJif'ty T make fl ?i>ear for him 

(In tonunOn ^li-rour'orr kJf'dc "mi tSfuy k^ Iddf.) 
iotdak pan !alii!i^/::iis mdkait \ tnuk fi^n^L ror Llm iiitii, or also; i'ot^iik iV 

ipHilSyck jJiTif '^/^f? I'j fdln^ I kill pij^^^ f-ir die |H:'f|'l-: 

iOromiidko nan ci _°iin g<i' s miiktin \^'c <:ook firnni fur the iliUjTin 

itibijak si hxa a kdyo 1 ctl down a tree for tbe PioUicr (In t d. ; iihiicb 

nat kiivo keti f*iu) 
tdigkdjik sika is nit't f'Jh I Ixnd \hp. piick lor ytwi 
ifpapak l/a/lja is rtflN fij'.*>^r« I tf^ti^h ll^-e birds for thi'ku {tjip/fpfh: 1 

ciich) 
ial'firnrni I'l'i fnhfafiivi is nan k^f'B^ "e catcli Jhe fish ior th* i¥omeii 

(In c, 'L. : jiJ^VjijjjJ" f fflji kiitf!^ in iio^r fobj^fityi) 
ilabfiXuntjn wim ffJ'fii/<!t!o i^iru T-'ii'^rj ibty i^'asli ilie brcech-cloth fot ihft 

fpiiifiJgii'io sok/'^n IS 'i(J'i irfvrJ ln' ^[ilils [hn wiiod for me 

fiipll ai, i:ti'ia' lie splji , .. fji^j'^iJi^ij^^djjif J lie IV ill i|iln. . . 
wari a>^"!'iJu iM'ipii'U! slkn i\ ^Eir>i k^nlyab the old man maka for you a 

shidiJ 
-^li/i mij^jia"^!?';;^!.^ iklJytiittjtt f-jatlji^st tdtfi the girls ]>efl.l "lofci" for them 
i'ihiy,Svm si A'Ui'"! is klpd'i you b"ii5;lit --i kciifc fnr ArhU'Tirt 
iKlis\tgfdtamif si>ca is mn l-Angn^^^mv ^e filial! carry youj- la^Pji-c 

("tiling's'") for yuu 
fSeJta^fitm tuitt ^poisnoH p^>i_g\iaii! '>|h:e3 the Uixii i*f iJic maaler! 



iii'^rriiineal or luol iimj-J in nijil^mj; ■^[iiiiiliiiij^ sliall be iieaied is lb*: 



THE LAMGUaGi: Of the EONTOC JGIDKOT !ji 

"object" of n trnnRitivt verb. (In T. an^^ 3, ■^ingii^lar -ki} <ir -m-o 13 added to 
roois ending ifl a coiisoiiiinl vy di]»hiliQiij!", Dibierivisc tlic eiiddn^;': arc: -it 
or -m) porUjt^e^ T cm 'liT^ Ru'il {'•ttlon^: xpol}\\'ig^a ''1 u^e ^is loil"' 
or: iii> i"'>l i''- -- 

ipothm^ko mm p/kang is flon ^lo I cul o-ff tlie head wirb the ax 

iiSbi^m nan pfnnig h nan k'tv-o ^nn cirl dnnji ilie lice I'llli llic .u 
iii,>i.'hnfi n.?Fr .^//i.irf i> Jiflir is-tfif ""v ou^ ihi.^ nicjil villi [fit kuiic 

idfgkok nan Ifmak I", i\a'\ t^hi I Irtiiil die ilJcij l^ilfl llli ll^lld 

if/iii/iFfO j^nji /^lii^i^'jj jj ^rcj^ fiyifyam lie catches the birdi \uith the snare 

iriiHiifki ytiiw Skmi ii \ni" ^'i/r/"?* \^■c caicli ilic fi'^h "]ili ilie net 

liiijdtja na'! fJyVjj ii !\aii /ildsoti llicy ^VIl^ll ifm cnjil w\i\i ■msip 

infdrf^r\o fiitu S&lo'sh Hflft rfj* he slruck the dog with Ihe stick 

ifiifmigync ?piiij TtvJia.t' li ppjji bityot ■■iilii iln '^lyKl ^^illi lli<: ax! 

aclikaJpku jpou ''ri_i'o jj nun dfov^ T -^liriH iiirikc ilf liun-,.' ^>f wtmI fmsK- 

iirtl, n'3' [i>:^tniTiii;ifir) 
ikldytjn teija f'Jp-an is jjith r^^ti ilic/ jhj^I iIlc "Uuki" itilli ili-- kiilic^, 

(ktl^yah) 
iliigHriif i\Ult fatfdO'^ !ri n-f.in^^ .\<- luiv lllo fdinlr: iviLll fTi^c ) ^iffd 
ixdgjaimi '\Qif pSkiiiwi 'taw d-^^b ,vi' i\irrv llic bi3\i-* nci ^nr 'hiiiblder& 
ii.:ii;4Jph\7 iW! uUj/?^ in irj3j^ /ij^'ji.^'jfiijj I doae the doof with the key 
il lo!a!{Ul!ro nan k^pn'c is uan iiindpay ivi? ^ividf llic l>fcn':l I'llli llic \:m\': 

{ffatd/iek) 
iiilphtilpkv ntm Sdlog '.< j'rfji dg^b I npcncl Ifm lln^J ivuli !i diii^J 
ifiiit-k nail U'liitk is nan iii<i\iak I iJii:as Life cliicktii v nh my li:ind 

/fiid^' no'i tiiykay ii nan pd^ff 1 ^^.'nrk. T lilE lUc in-t- Eic[il I'lch tlic iwjie 

/pwtti n^'i !f'/'nm is 'tsu toditan jou lUt Lhc |ar wilh y-oui" li^nd {/f'ivft^ 

prtnncl^) 
vtlOag^piiii Hon iig/ti 'sh ftflfl layd^H we covered ilie basket witli ihc ayite^ 

T]iii3 al^' iliviUk nnn /jy^ijj'n^ ft^^r .(/j'j T -•.\)<iitk M ih? war W him 
ingk&Htdlfo nan dndnoklttka ^\i; 5|>ijlr:v nljf'H ■^ut clii[drcii. 



26;^. Till' ]* f a c e can Ijc iii^ulc ill': --ulijei:! Ii^' n-iiiH vcrli^il (uniis ivllli 
the ]oc;Uivc -iinitT -fffl. Tins suffix i^ niinclicl fa vcrLal iumis u» Ihc Act- 
ive Willi ihr i.r<:iii: PPM*ig-, if the verb bclon|^!> 10 the category of the "pos- 



^ THE LAN(^UA.GI- OF TliF. BONTOC IGOROT 

sessive verbs f* the sentence is ^waya inlradiicfllby die substantive (-Drloca- 

|[ve ach'-eiLiI iJenoliiii' ibe [jL^ccl 

loi wood (for ■ siMek turn kd-yo is hum p^gfog I cut the wood 

in die iore;*!^ 
-MB tjHa n-Trit iiie!n^c>(dan>iu ii H<rn ai^ksn (he prd is our cookfftg-place 
for riix (for: jitd^Jt^ti "an mifkaii is aan tjtla'j 

^foK£ nilii Jtiauigl-^a'inii 17 "an tSio iii iln? Iirn]*!: ..u l.i^iid ihc- ^liizV ("fnr: 

At nprr iHa'iuflu'jtxk jf rpuji jA^^I ia khe town I biod ihe enemy (fori 

fakUji'l^ '\iin /lisi^l ii nai Hi'} 
-ii-ihgfi wuj] mHiip.aMantdl/0 is nan Ifl^g in Ihe river we aught theiish 

( foTi itislclifko "OH Ifli^'ig is tai' li-'-fiiga) 
lum H'lif^p iiuu "tt.'riia''fda)i 1101 iiKftoiiidgkid is jj-tmi iskI^s in ilie rivet 

ibi; girl.? nrc: \v,l^llL|nJ; |ln^ l^ri^cnih doth. {i^\ nmi mdinami/;^ 

tiihfifu'iifii nun Ttiirprj: ij HiTT vtfy\-ga'] 
■Hiln tifo"^; nriiJ 'pc|jj'jj'j^";;ajpir r^ j^^« ii^.io lie i] kills the wood m the h(Miw 

(fun I'iiil'igim/t lEifjj t^j'fl r5 '"''I 'Jf'JHg) 
hlii "an f^i<tn^l<f\'itfiim i' titii (i^frf yond'^r iv?: pLnil ilic "loki" (fur: 

hfdynfrM-i Friijj Soil! hiji; -moH-gfayanmi, ayncop. Irom: 

jj JIT fti^Hiiy n" "11 /) 
/A' itpir ma^t-gif'^'iidlio ket MSl^£ in Itie Eoivit we meet Moleng, the 

toivrt 1; OLii' luyetiiig-filace irtP Molen^ (rv^i" ififchidko it MSlAtg 

j^/niwi ji^fl jijijfrjjift'f^flii'* ^'* 'W'' f/ihftnga in rhf bairRe yoq make t^ pipes 

tjliiT i\a>i inSi'oi'pjiiUii!/'} in rian 'djav in Elie y.iril ^ve iii.ikc speai'^ (for: 
inkacpiiiko is no." idfov 11 «ir>j tjUn; Uibdi^bab: the imcaaiml vbr 
inalead of the posaessive: kctf^rF,^} 
dg(th nan maiig-itafd'taium i> irofl bildhi-.i in [tic bos ivc liifle uur luniieiy 
/iFJiT pa^i Had:iiye^a"rdkc fieri] nas our sleep iiig-]>lace i^ioi : jrdLf^^yf^/iJrfifl 

The same rerbal forms wilh suflijt -an an employed, ii [inic ur LiUic 
slisll be fxpress^. Sec [zSS], firat exampls. 



1^64. Whilt thui some stress ifi Inid upon (he tlenieiits treaEcd us "aab' 

jccti" or "ohjocEs," sdoiigcr eiiiphrL^is d* exp^c"-l?^t l*y placing the liiipor- 
laiii ^ubsUnijic^ or imtnoLin fit nL (hc^ Itfyjiuiin^i' ai n fiiii^iicc, f-ulloved 
"by noH and the Ncntjeii actJonis- Tlii'^ i-|iri:iiruc[ii>ii \iiU Iw irt^ied IrLter, 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE TIOKTOC ICORQT ijj 

ina-, in jii-i^^diT; ua-, [11 prctcrfli:; jJma- [uffir^-], [n hitiircL I0 fhe foot 0I 
verba. The endings ar« i'tr^iiijial. 



^&6 -i'^i Verbs drop ^n; -flw Verba relaiii -da; ; 1- Vcrhs tetaini-, 
In Llic Pa'isl'He iftl -■!»[ Verlj5 ciie personal ciicl[iLg- -if/', -iir, -fn, -tifho, 
-kQjiit, kHyri, -ija aic added to -an, Luc tTie fiajl n oi -aa ia uot di^opjuid. 



^67. The p]"pfi>io!> HfiT-, HO-, ci/fp^j-, di'Tilr iliii pn-^-.li.-': st.iii; nr con- 
dition, named bi llic root: llic^c p^j.'^ivi: forms .--k.-. h^ Ih: crui^i^liTtil v'tIi^I 
iidjccij\"ej, TKy a^c ijikn ii^f-iJ b'? i( J ic i ■vf'- ^^Tl.l 'v.iicii-LirEi ^vitii .huIi'^i.iei- 
li.'ds l>y jT^ij ilicy iallo^v itm suEjilantivc, ^vitli ivLi'^h cJujy att coimcclcd 
a II rib J lively. 



26S. The verbal root uirdergQexS IIlc soine phonetic changes 3S treated 

h prtccdinfi" chfipters. 

26r| The agjoit of the passive verb la governed by ihe preposition « 

Of iti^n. 



?70. jV/a- ]jiefivei] to ^ ^'crb?; 1? frtqiK^nily foii(r.io<ft1 u'illi j- into 
Irikcwisc fl^-and fly/wpf-. Al'^o ffw^r-, nay- aa6inimay- is heard some- 



271. Th<: c^ii5nlive preliK /14J- [■; reiairieil, if slre^v i^ bid ii|ion Mif 
nrlioni but pa- i^ rlrojiijed niler F^fa,- II inore stress [5 [aiJ ii[nin Hi*: il^ile 



94 



THE LANCUAGR OP THE TIO^TOC JGO^OT 



or coiicJicion. C(. -Ger. : da^ Haiia wini [i/uiia-) ^ebsni:; da? Haui fat 
(jjuj) gebiiin. Si>rtieiiiiiif5 i is inserled bclwecii mo- aikd -pa-\ mSlpd-). 



prcccd'rd by Ihe locatire »\i\V\x -n'l Ex. paii iiialipdjuiiiia iliedr twiDg" 



27.-!. l\xani|lll-S ^>r Pi^.-^Im? foi 

"pis'iiv-: virrlinl .iiljtfiivfs" ; belii^ 

tU4^k I tn.kc i'fddla 
ffffeh I clioos^ ifiapfli 
faitiycir I k[ll m.aj>ddby (bin 

tuAddy: dead) 
flj:^-[^ft [ carry iFfdrfg^o 
otSck I cch?k pp/aif Ifj 
tok^nek 1 adri&e mafSkffifi 
intSeh 1 boil pp^j/>rjY[^] [FPErl^'/PEff 

jakd^h^k I break maf^lrnsk 
fchdskck I tliroft fn^bka-'<<i 

{mdplfash] 
ffdneli I eyl mdfeafl ("fond") 
fS!dr;ek I bind j)i<xf4lud 
i/yfjek i -tviint maf^yod 
IjOfi^dowek 1 lu'it "iiff/^iflX'"" 
iiftek I nn.'cl miiiffcd 
kdpek i ni^lke m^ktieh 
sibfdtek J AnH\nr vi^fifnii 
pflttek I bri'uk mdpint 
hSkkek I knr.\^ i/^kSLk 
tjip4pch I '^'Hcli miiii-iih 
itafoagko I liitJe atdfidfon 

{«i}tdfa>i\ 
l!g!vk I kaM, keep mSSgio 

hfbfiitifU I 5u?p<?tid iijSiji/fbfud 
iUibak i Enegiii mAitdbo 



•m'. fprceiii |>3riici|ilcs in p^?;=[ve" or 
held; Iwiiig &tii!, beiii? c^lltd tsc.j. 

sddek 1 e^rpect mJtid 
•ilkpiii J enler md.ikep 
i^H'^k ] pierce "iAitch 
{•^nack I lilJ iiiifmci 

tiiiini^l! I vork fFrtrVrt-o 
kdmi'nh r embr.fci', nr.ire'^] 

patkMck I 5lo|> ma/p^tk'} {^y] 
si^s/juiiici- E ft'llClnll^T jji^Jj^jj^ft 

//iTt f inakc wti mnf^oy (iitjbi*y: 

k^dfjik J bile mohJiffua 
pnak 1 burn ^jjit/'hOH 
cij'fjftiift I ^."iill maiiyiifiiii 
ukdfjak 1 i:iit Ibe neck mSiikiitjoH. 
ikak 1 do wa/kii'i 
i^nak I livl'l jiF(S/];/iflFr 

etkiak [ ^ivc jprd^^ifajj 
fdydljak I |i5y malayitsjai 
kHoyak \ pwl iFiai'^rfjflFj 

isiibUk I cliaiige »i!iL<cubli 

\'iiisubh] 
i\'d^h T luring mSi'ydi [maiydH] 
ipttHuit T slioiv m^rj^if /Ju 



THE LANOUAGF- fF THR EOMTOC ICOI^OT 



95 



iiliiinoh I ImriL iiiaitSiiino 
tdjak I shov w/Jfff 

Othet iia^Mve foTins are i^voi In the Vbcabularj. 



!bf&kah I iiik maihiaha 



?74 




Pltilfll^lll'! 








FKESEHT PASSIVE 






/ot^^E Ibind 


ayHka^ I call 


fsMk 1 fhfln^ 




ftW/^^J«f^ 


maaydhan 


iiiahiif'ii 




lieing" liiiinll 


be iiic -i;;!!!^'! 


l^i^iiiy: ifiaiige-il 


f. 


mtifdlAdak 


HIAr^^Vr? ka^Hik 


ffiati-i^bSiak 




J ;nii lirtudil 


1 am called 


I .i\\i chunj^ti] 


5- 


jj^if/^aJftiita 


^p^iTa^'d'Ti'^^ij^d 


iim 1 Tu*<i/k<i 


3. 


HlP/j?/fl^J [.l/j'fll 


inGin-dkat\ 


miijiijlili isfya) 


D. 


fFra/.//flTi'if 


m'idyiJ^'iHia 


limiwibl'^fa 


T incL 


jnafitlivdiitko 


mituytihayifdko 


m^ahiibHi^ho 


T. cxc[. 


n\aial^dkSm! 


mQayC\iimp.k\i>ni 


m-it'siii'l^'fii"'^ 


il. 


luafAlAdMy/^ 


li'iayUi^dny^ My A 


inaisnl'ffMy^ 


Ill, 


Tnofdifitdija 


maaydkfmija 


umi^idiiflfa 



PBETEaiTK PASSIVE 
i nfl'^ i:l]ari£!!d Culili Penoinl SnlTim-^) 



n^,.i^l4tfVd'ik 1 .^liall h^ bomid adijJtiayrlMfiok 1 fihaU k ceiled 
ar/McnJA/J/^Jiflt I *^!iall he cliaiigcd (■■iili I ^Ti-iflyal StifFJx'-n ). 

The "1 n nil i I i v.-'- haa the same fomi as the "Participle;" mofdfxd. 

The Iiaperative dwa not e^fist; any [lnnrcikal foniis and ,in> 
eRpjpTinieiibrivG iite of iheiii Iri 'letirwn:':!' h'iti iiiicxcciilifiiKilly iliiii<;1, 
■'liccaij-^c ynu caih not lell a man ivka ^li^ili l>c dime to liim" .(BjI the mU- 
iiaiiicd "Tliiec rp^=[ve=" (ibc "Hi'nu* H<?lrliv"iu," my Ai'livc 'i'n-'^i?*'':iv'j 
Verb'-") ivrrcpntin Ik' Impi-rnlrvt v/i(]inu( lii'-iitnlumi, lluiv ?ho',^> .il'* il>-n 
the -i'fl. -flfc and ?- strb^ are conceived lo be Active Nmnina afieirtis-)— 



t^ THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

Tht NomcTi Bctionifiof the Passive liaa (ss is the case with all 

licr'ionis] verfi* | lOJ-l) ll-'* Iricad^'e siilfi.^ -an an<l posstssiv? ending; not 

mupadSyait llie- coiidilion ol being kidd. 

nti'i nmf'iid^yali my being k][k(E^ itan i^MipadSyam iliy helng kllledi 
fliTJj mal-adoyana his Ijtinj; killed; uifia mapad^ysMini nitr being 
killed; iiflTf fftapailSya^yii ymr being killed aUi. 

TiK-^-.- frtrms arc cnip['iy-f d [jl talaiia csHi.'iLriKLirtLJ:^, ^s "r^riiL^t^ ^^liiij?n;'i" 
(as rri: -.iy\ iiiicrrrij;jil,'C -■U'liieiicc : eic 

AlclHnif;ii l^i'o'.ln: ivmstiriiflLon*! occur cuiw ^n<f linn, l£ic .^ 1 1 i v c i? 
mudi pfeieried itt common cwverFail^n 



Mifii fdljcg ya mihiii^b is nu't a!hin\fko llic -;i>car i' m^'le i^v my friend 

wriji df'i'ig ja uakifi^b t^ii (i;^/ llic hoiii^ bn'^ iitcii buJIc by biin 

■nH'spaif fiOK axilyam is tmn Itslitlri llie bird hjs Iwcn cauglil by the man 

aiafjckitft'it.'anai/ >fii 'f<ta I ivii'; cnllcd liv die Sithcr 

Hf/H /.^if'ii lalAln ya nti(<^dSy is nait ft*sPll one inaii ^^'iin sI^Iti by tbe afetny 

.T/ii'Ci "moyuiti/fl^^ta'jft iruu fafiiyi j-iii are (rilled by ihe \\onmii 

ji(])j HiPTj^^l^f^i^ ya iKcik^ykny ken imtna ibe cliiid ivii-; rfvlod W sleep by 

il 1 mother 
jidj^ iidang ya nayif^ycg frf« safe/^n (lie buff rilo hai-ihecn ■-Ishbcdliy ni€ 
^diii-ii[<i!j}i!itidkd»t/^s nan f^sui ivc shall Ik' atc^ckeil !>y Ihc cneiiij 
jia/l^^/f^p "OK dwa'k the liwiy hii^ tureJi buritd 
Bflfr fjfjJ^flfflu ^ natdngfan rs jinn ^^tf* the dflnr bss been fockoi^ iviiTi a 

lock 
iiiidlatja nan sufAdino your Icltcrs b.ivc hern rccivol 
jAiH Ffffu napodSy is upij f^st^l? who i'^ 1li<; OnE hilled by 3he tnemy? 

vwho ^I'p^ killed 
3iaidk-a.^k ^an fdtjga Uie pol in br-okt-n ; Tf(^jj fisiijin 'ly nnfffl^ssh ihe 

broken |i'jl 
nan f^nga ya nafdkask the pot iV broken 

RjTH f^i'ig yf ti^padSytja is im^ hinitii'i llie pig^ haw been kjllod by Ek& 

men 
mafU'Isdngaii nan ongof^a ^hi sjUk^mt f\*<- fKiy ji liclnj; Ji.dfu-cl by us 
-nmf^s-' Jifft diff^ IS wan fof'tyi ilie dug i.'* k>iii by ihr nomfiTi 
■hW" biidklja ya ymitdfon is nt-x l/H^!^ clielr money iva^ liiddeii by the 

people 
is dfoat^ ya ntit(insfan ttm f-dii:^tHGn in the house Iht ^ooxs were cLoaed 
irirn pdiUog ya ittaifi^Kid tbe rice ia planted 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE RONTOC IGOTtOT 97 

276. SoLifii'iii-'- ihi' ii"fliir:<t shffvte that the participle jwrscnt cjf the 
passive enpr^sscs neecssily, \ikt a Lfftjn K«™n<TivL(iii, or n |>iLnicipiinu 
nect&?[|.3li'^i 

7iflrt lafiiki ny mi!f/i\j*d can memTij ilie iii^n ivliois being limnd : 'in ihe 
maa wIki is to be LchukE. Thus: iMvidy ay dfoag yc mOitd^o 

(his liinisc L' tn l,e ■^nld. 
mn 1,-afdyo ya mafdi^ uy ppfji/i/if ihr liorae ma^t Iw wliippeil {jTjwIition 

oi llie p.irl[<.i|ilc, cx]i|:im'^ laiirf ) 
It exprus'^'.'s ;lI^" itblliiy in a pii^?ive aaiac: ma/iiji//;. drinlcable; 
■mdhan: i;;Uiil>[f:; Iilih:l:: "ii>nii, boJLcil rice." 



EXPRHSI^IOM OF EMPHASIS 



277. TIic cnii'^lmdinn nf [iFliriii,iLii-u dtclnintin] i^tnlcnh-^-^ lin^ Ijiicii 
trea.tfil 111 sevtital vTt'Vioii^ -.-.-(Ih.h:^' [41 ; 4.?; 7r ; S.| , uSj HJ^, igH-zoj^ 
205-211 ; 2i4-?i''i; 2^4| - in -mlv f''iv of iln-^.c cDnstnicllons a certBin clemeni 
of a ^■TL1(^n.--t ^vt.". cmpliii-iLaHril, cu^ in |jqo; jii , Ji-il- Tlit ciMi^iniciinni 
cxpLiJin^l in |jjS-j6;i] expri',', ;i iiio^L'tnlff ^li-d-o on llic A-irdft .leiinlni^ 
the indirect object, instrument, place, tSme etc. 

But lE .-^ 1 1 il c tm[ilm--i'^ '^'i.i^l l-i; l:ii'' tip"ii ^ ■:ui"[:iiii ^''^mcnt; p^cci^f 
cons^rin-ti'ii-^ JLi'i? cm I ill" '-■oil. I'Mnlly ilii^ uurd ■nn'-i'lcn'il of prcn.-iiiiiiciii 
nuporlancfi is pBated at the l.i'i;iiiihiiy uE.-j ^cnfmr<": vrtl^nl iiuiink 'if Viiriou'. 
forni-H ,iii.l t<ircc fnll'i.i' jl. 'I'lit*^ iomi^ 11,-171' It-lh iri"-'ii ni- JUfccoraiu scl- 
tfan^. yiTji^liinjillv allu'iion!, wei* made to tliar pra-ctkai um. This latter 

shall n&wbt di-tM^F-cd 



27a APrfHiominal Subject i& cmpln-,L7cd liy pJ^ciiia ilie [ter- 
''OMnI pronoiitiF. in f)ulfi. jktiiei.iI i^iiil pr^ic^^ive vnrli-- 'L'lir vs^rli reliiin:n il?< 
H:iHliii|?i: Mie jt.'rii.rinl praiioun rirccoiile'- it [>.lloivi llii' ]>.t -01:1,11 vcrli, Lrnl iL 
ELl«'iiy= precnl.'^ iln? pii^^f'-^i.'e vorh. ( in the latlcr case ii rs a nonsiiiatiire 

pendens, s^: \Vr — , iiur litniinc il'': i^Ei^ii".) 

jo*/^" "'"^''"^ ^ cc-iiie; j/frrt rijijjffvirfl you t;o- tmm^Ulja f/.l/lja 
tlicy reiirrned^ ^;fj&.jj.jf tP'"rd:rfN5->^''n" ivc go jvny, Jjdtdko 
umafmidldlf^ ^\i: ^Tiall Etfcocne friend:^; ffUkiiy^ admafniddkHy^ 
yun will Ije bound (imprisoned). 



98 THE LA:\GLAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

si&fhi fekdshek nan fStfcs f ihraw the spear; ijak^inf ml^limi tijin 

laydan we relnriied llic Ijiislcct- sfka idpim aun blta^ yiiu tXHinl 
llie inon^y; s!t6-dl aldncna nan kitytt lie (lliiJl one) remove* ihe 
wood; tjaldifo iil^entdko 'san litja ive cfii>k llie meal- ijHicHy^ 
so-gfdtfny/^ nan fAgshon^ yoinr^ri'v (lit buiid!;^- /Ja/j/a pod^yiafja 
}\an 4^1^ ll]ty slaughter Llic dog:; ifScili iytHna nan fdaga ii« 



:?7y. The S nb i l a ii E i v e S ii h j eel ticlnjr priiccdi;'' or folln-w^ eIic 
p-rcdicflte hvilliniit hein|^ cciiphn^ized hv it« v,^ri^us p.i.-'ilioii- ji^l it ippeai'^ 
ihi! ilie preee^in|? (.uhpniiiivf <iii|ijfc?[ i<. <.]ii;liLiv i?ini^h,i<.i!?<?^ ?^ineiiniL'j. 

nan laUtki mmdWina flicnian lu.s ct^mc Licre ; nan mamamii^kid inm^yfh 
liir; vii innidylj^') the ^irl? !i3ve gone: jr Ani^ro fa^d^na i^-in 
i^iait Antero reaii*i Ihe lelti^r- jia" f^i^! f-tn^ai'lja dis^j,iisi ay 
dffiig llie eiieinie? hutin inaiiy liouses; ^iTjitm^gvaifaUtj^tia 
nan ftnang Tjuiiiigyal sdiirpeiis llie isc ; is Aia^invdja! fnpaScHna 
k^n sak/^R nun kiwh ay Mlif.t^y Aimu^'^^^l lias a^iil »iff a fiiit 



2?0 IJ ihc SliJi-jccI full'uvi [1 |K>s^cf'?Jve verl in llic ^[ngiilar, it has 
b'-m V'tiil al>ovc |J0^} Ih.ii: [lie v-:rb i=. ivillioul eiidinCh and llie following 
&uJ}j«.t ni^y ht lliniiR"lil to lie in th* "K^iiili^'e;" 

ketjtng Ijipap^n Bi^gli nan ^dfag Iheii BiigLi caiclie^ llie wild cliicfceii 
(or: £1 B^gti tjipdp^na....') 

But soineTinws, niiv?tly iti iiafr^ilive, ifif \-tr\t 'ri^\^\i\^ jr« f>o^?i^^^in^ end- 
ing; ami llie suh^EaiuiiHt, ilius eiiipFuslztd, Is ^^llll[l^l■^(^ wlili rlie ]>ref«|liip 
verb bv at: ilil? coii=irri[;il[|ii Is nlwayi riii]>Iiiyr>| If ih^ nns',<:ssK<" i-rrb !« 
in rlit (lingular wiih its {nil '.Tidini,^:?, :iml tr<:rin<:n(lyif it ]■; in rlit'fihirJ. TK- 
Mibsl.intlvc !■=. P'i llii' lienliirt ay inditalcs. in a^nii>^iliijn wilh Mn' siibjr't 
rc|jrc^ciil<?d by ihe Bidii^ of Ibc verb. 

Thus we ni^y !i3y. in^tcnd ai; KefjiFag an/ipi^ wifu Jchfdlti) n^a 
ijckdsna then tlir vounK man ^cfks hi^ pocket {b:^|^) - - ; Kffj/rtg 
andp^na ay fobfdUo nan ijokdr^na, lit. : then iht: ^ccklnK-ulJl^i;! -^f li^ni 
(-'ru), l1^ j tonlbi, his p'ii.kcl-— Here llx ■iiibjii:! is crrphasircd by bcin^' 
pbc«l in apposiiirtn with the verbal ending -itiir We may tran^lale frf^cly ; 
then lie, the young man, seeks hUpoekcl- 

/^in the cHacipk ahoiva, the article nan ii umitled afttr a3r In thta con- 
struction. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 99 

2R1. T]ie S LI El j € c ) is inucli ^Irongor en]pli3^i?«dt H it n folbmd by 
ilic S'oEii. ayeiiiia i\'hLcli (akei llie article 'rani wilh petsonqlvrrbs ihfl "paflj- 

cipk"' Is used. {Li)2. iqy, ^^^-^$7] 

.iik/Jn Jiat mangiUh is nan tffong I jin tlie maker o[ tlie hon^t; it is I 

w3iD iasAc the hou?e 
sfka ita'i itimdU yon ar-c Hit "cOtiict--" j| It >\>u wdo Cflmc 
frflH cagBn^it n'tn HO-riiyi^p I'snd tl^' r'hikl i^i t\\i: tyni^ \\']\o ^iept h*re 
tfokam/ iitin nda^tin is nan m^'in^ \W, we liriv^: r^i^u the [iQiinilcd i[co 
tjnkHv^ KUii majdia. yoii are tliose ivlio are aeiil ouL (pa«iivc verlutL 

fo-riii* l>eloiig" 10 x\k personal verb calegury; liciice ilie "paniciple" i^ 

used) 
liakayd nan iiantJa [/iwiidfa] ken tfnftfa yyii, yyu iiiit iheiii cnn! 
ji'trmtt rrdit non^ytU ri nrtft ffJtflj this is the one who hroiijclil iht rice 
snlz/Jii nan iiidiino'sna I, I -.mi ivarkiciy- hne 
!rH6iid.'y fafdyi itan nSngiek kSn t&df tlik i^iijiiiiii, <iliekiuw him 
nan -fmsl^i nan natn^an is unrc amln ay dlang iE 'va^ ^ Cn^my \v]>0 lmrB|t 

ll^*■v^ ^11 lilt i;rHmiir[<:5 
tJ Ai^ay jEiiJJ ^iiagdPb is nan Sji-Jidixk^ Aiigay, she made m> ptuJfet 
s! T'^yran 11:11s nangtudni si -ia Ta/nan, he Jid9 jai6 so ("he wa* the uUcr 

of ii") 
j/,tii tui" mdr/ffgi} ken sak/Jn yon, you hear tii* 
"inn maftamii'^kid nan mangfiay is nan tdki llie girl^, lliey ^te pealing; ihe 

"l-jki" 
Tfflfl dWfL'f^j'fla j^irc p(fi*f"iirf 4ftr j/>'ir lii'- fT[ciKl u was u'lio answered him 
nan amdmo pan ninidfufi is with fJli^t^ n waij Hit old man ivhu cut up the 

pie 

«jn £//itf urrH iJf^MiJTJjjdyafJ is nan lala^dhi Uie ina?Eei'| lie i^ill pi^y Llie nitu 

si dnia nan namfli V'.\ih::r. he lia?; cIiomjii 

s-a!f/^n nan iitanittng^yi t^-j snditi I, 1 a-.r[ik-e our inollier. 

( A5 in i.|ue^liiiji^ lifginninp inrfi who? or ivlial? a^ sulject of the sen- 
l^-n.T. llie 5iil>jpct i^ ciiipli.-|'ii7c:<l. tKie l-iotn. ag. 15 employed in surfi casrs; aee 
1,1451 1 ^'niy t^o eN^iiipIc^ !>hn\\ be ^[vcn licrc: 

jfnS MOff mangwdni ji to who is "(he siiyei" o( ihis? who aa^s SoT 
H£jj^ ntfi* f'ttaad^ what 13 il thai happened?^ 



29j. The K'<^ni. agentis eiiiployerl in flie fiiteg^oiiic; seiileiic^s winch 
crnikhaj-izc? Ihe *iii|ijnt[, layi al^o aorm? td'eaa 011 ihe verb; IheTcrb, a^ Notci. 
ag., i^ eerlainiy o-f greater Importance iik ihi: coiiilrticlion lliail il'i object, 



iQo THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONITQC IGOROT 

j\ verb iTiny al^rj be t:mplia''iie<J, i. c. Tin? a c ( i cm maybe te]>re%eiikd oi 
^^rt;i[cf iiiii>i:iiniico tlian ilie objecl, l>y enij>loying Ih? persoDal vcriQl forma 

iii-'.cnJ tif |[|[' |.fis*ie*.sivt vertjnl fornix. 

Mpffk JJflT ^fOTi^, tiipaiiii: r Jniild tliK liiin^P; th« }Lai]<ie i^ af :;iTTii|ar iirifinr- 

laiicc as piy buil'liiig ri , 
i'lkd^bak i^ dfong, means; I a]ii busj' building, "liouses" helng of le%? 

iiTspor lance lliaii my occiipiilion. See |ifi2|. 

(The "nittis-m ionm of vtrbs by which iri,;iT iniH^rianct ii^ r^i^i^d will 

Ijc Irtnlcil l.-ilcr in ifii; thniilcri m KcdHphcatlon, Modal Auxili^TiCi, 



^W:^. The "Atcu-^fltiv* hjett," ji'. wc ^-UriiU 937. Is s.tr6nj?ly 

Liii[ihn-;ijcd ^^\ Ixmi?" ikk<:cd ?! Ilic licginiiing 'tf ^ 'it.'nicncu, fnll'uvcil by (lie 
Xoiiien -Kiiniiis v^'ixh lis ciidiiii;*; chi^ Kum. .tii. must Ijkc [lie Eiiiicle. (The 
Copula^ igiiai^dsafiiuLiTin:^, (lothisctmslrui^tion Uic article of die siib^iaii- 
livo, i( th4? hteginning of ihc Sentence 19 nsnaJly CmiLtcil; rs llie^e cxaaiple^ 

AjMig nan kAp^k n h^ci!;? I ni:ikc.' (lit. hrmtje iti my imkiiir^l 

lif^ec va nan padSy^iidkfi xhi •Aoj' \\<i kill 

j/ta nan l^yljck "voii arc my likiii.g," it ii ycnf wliom I like 

laldM nan mayiii^an nan ofigongo Ll w^-. a man rhin [in: child tailed 

iigia va nan iiillami 's n^n pdgpag ^ Jci^r we --^'.k in ih-c (ore?l 

i'Alit^ litin adf'adSyentja llic !>!;; (hey will slau^ter 

(uflFi) <tfon'^ i^djj k<tp^n nan idflki vi liim^ff il is llit man liiiiliJi 

{jjon) ojT^JiJffl >JOFf fadsdit^an tai Jaldhi il i^ :[ cbilil lli^T ihe ina.n helps 

jta/^£ia^ nan- tgtoh a ahiekl I keep 

kalilsay ya nflii /^fun nan fii^Ai ei shield i[]e enemy \tffsps (iiiotiy -it: 

S;cnil:. JiiiJicalov) 
anandk/ja nan ildfan nan fobftifdyi I'lf iimdlifiii nan /z4js^ th«r children 

ttic WQJiJ^Jt hide, [i llie CL^^micLi cdjijc 
fobfiilio nan fin^!itdyii ii nan Hi n vouii;?; man it waa yoii fettertd in llie 

io\vn 
b/ia^ nan ildiina clu: nioiiej' lie icuin? 
bfiak nan itStin nan !aldk! il is money UiaJ the man returns {itdliny -n: 

ligature, '^genitive indicatoh") 

(Si lite i|i ■jiiC'ilioii*! witli ill? rif i^u ".i ( jvcf ivh^iii i' wlial? i^-Jij^h? llie direct 
object af Craositive verbs is enphasUcd, the same coostruction is employed 
tlicrc [346 1 
f/ii» nan M^ny^F whom rio yuu sec? 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT loi 



neig ay ififuii non l^ysjcn nan aU'midtno? i^hich 5pcar Aoqs your friend 
fikt? (lit- wliicli ^car is "Ihr litiiie'^f /'""' 'ritniii") 



284. If llie |i c r Ti II for iv li in. llic i n 5 C r n men C ivilli wliith, 
llicp \'A>-t V\:\wic. llicl nnc w-lifii, llie i" ea !i mi ^vtiy jin n^linii ispcrfnTinc<l 
'ihnll In- ■;llll more empliiksi::''*^ Eliiii by iho ii>ccial ^'ciiiiil forms pi veil in \2:yA- 
?64f, lliff*.e eleiinjnc= ar<; pl^ct;*! nl iIip li'!irin]iiiig 'H" a ';':nlcnri:; icrli.il crip- 
hm,iiii)ii^ (wLih nirrr) fullriw, lLijil riEc ^criv^d from the sptdal v«baL fomifi. 



2B5. EmphnsiB of the Pe r s 11 for w h m an acliou Jakc3 pistce. 

shonn ay lalilifi nan tkabnk ts nan s^khn;: Fur llils nmi J m.ikc [hi: Im 
iitodiay fcbjdiio n<iii ihad{i^iiy:S is nan s^'keid [ikab-dnyiil for llfal Inty 

Ijikut niiji ifldnnf/llfPt 1.1 nan vi4kan (or the ]>eople il 15 Ihiil irr cnzik lUc 

if /Fr-7 j^iEfl isihdam i?, nan kdyo for lEn: ir'jditr you ru( die tviiorl 

Hccqiieiilly <lie Noni. a^q^enlii form ivilli 'vafn-i "ni'^J-. "'"t-, willi Elic 
^□Rix -j^r iiiid posies&ii'e endiiij;'' iPi u^cd; 

fi/'oijii jjifjr j^iffna/^Jjuuiiii [Fiw^ufl!fliJiir^j^/l is uJn «(iiJij?flt'^w for Oil r 
ninslcr wc bini iJic Ihicf, dt, dpntni nan ifa/ddsaumi 11 "d" 
i\inn^dk''u. Tlie ci^ii*.lru-ctioii ivilli ihe Noin. iig. i? ;iri:f'-Freil, (Il 
15 u^cd (?.>:clL]ii^rely in questions tcgiTiiiing" iviih: lo ivhnjii? for 
whoiiiT h47, 34S]J 

j/iS naa HOPrgirjoffJjj/oaFu is nan s^ladT ir\ wliocii did. you %ivi the 



\i\v.-\\.f],. 

vnantttyo irarr iliJfl/kua j\ norr patalj/m "ivilli ihc hammer lie sit ike-; I he [ntn 
kat}tisa KQn if<i!ndtdko is nan iaidki w]\\i thi; ^-hiiin u'C Ijind Llic liluji 
Ji?Jj uflii ifatgkn ken sty<i vi'illi a ■^ckk I strike- liini 
jdlffg nan ipad^vkc is no'i f^£F*f wilh iKc spenr I kill tlie cncny 
plsian^ 'tan ifakdgmi it pfiiJJ ^16 v, lili I lit iixe^ we cut olT iHc hi?;[d*. 
jiili nan intang/bko is nan p^nsuan w'nh tlie 1-ock I hi'.rcjiiid lite <lrKir 
nonJflyo nun viM^b nfiJi fuf^tmhati jj h<t« Ififay willi a hdmnier llie 
gniidi made ihc <pr^r 



loa THK LANGUAGIi Oi" Tllli UOWTOC TGOROT 

naimity Tan itfta'rf/'Hip is Tflfl rf^afr.' ^I'iih Lliisi open Iht bos! 
nanndy wapi j'Ff^tii^Ji^ifu ii itaii Uio -vi'illi llilc he Inrikc [he slick 

jjffrrHj/ti "OJt ifafgitro ia nan iJjf* ivllli llii*i yfu ^crflic tbc dug 

(Questioiiii l*si'if'i't ^i^ii^i "wil^' lUut?" "mxh u'liich Eool?" have tlie 
3aii]c cm^[TLicli(in ; ^^£il£ ucru i^.iJrfrtHfl w Hffn /if/jr' with "what do-yotl 
cue llie iiieai^ ) 



2?-^. Euipdasis o[ [he P I ac e vi'lioic aii ac[ioii i*i performed. CI- |3&,'5|- 

(Tfif ]<>cjCJvc Nniri. vt-rlijilr has Invjirljljly ll>r ]'nrfi*ci of Ihe Nonfen 
3(^nti^.) Willi r*^?<-^^ii,* vtrh^-- 

i\ari fiiuo uan mfrii^fj/ogi^iro is ion ktfyo Ibc garden h hh "pliiii([iig- 

phtc" £or ll-ie Ircc; in Ihc j;ard<;n he |f]Jn(i. Iln: tr<:c 
k&/^p^/SpH>i iidff HAafr/tii'tiircrt I'j iiaH pataijJm XWz lorg* is tlie place 

where he himiricr^ cJi'; It'HI 
I4ktm Rjrn min^^Hitjunam is 'ran j/rrftfi in [he j;rjk';^. yon ixiQ'Cil Ihc 

*'alnjka" i. t a pfljn^ed woollen ^tick placed in tiiv ground an-l di- 

recl-ed a_ga[iis[ [lie enemy, 
f/tj-y^ uflFf uiit^ipayittija is nan dio into [lie ^'sitjog" [a basket used aleo 

as PlsIi rttt) [key placf*^ rhe 3iead 
P^£!"^S ""^ inanihAai! i^, itjin btiyit [ii tlie foresi I cut lite wnnod- or alsn: 

if iiai fi^sP^^ """ fJO tfiifjtif fr fV njin kdyBt: in the fore^l i? my 

cull iTig-pla<]e for wcitni^ or: stlntei- na^t krtyfl t-V ffffJi pdgpag 
dff>}i^ Ffiijj inflF^r_pi[.'*ViJ?f jfli rV jjifi Idle ill [lie liouse ive btiid ih* slick 
/J[ nan vamaidtjantja is van fdatl in ihe to'i^'ii lliey iiiiprisoiied (bound) 

I he enemy 
v/fiiga nan m^"Iabf4aityfi if nan ivd'iis yon wa^ti il»e breech cloili in tbe 

river 
titta nan manga^bantdtjo [or; i^ikapanidko] in prffn ii^fflj we itiJikt ihe 

spears in llie yard 

With persMial verbs : 

pd^pa^ nan^'^fsdnifak, iHifsflnoaiii , /^iitsJ^n^dn*!, entsdnodnfn In ihe for- 

tJil J ^VLjrh, you wijrli, he ^^orks, vtt Lwo work clc, 
na»>idy ay dfvng nan tiod^yana ihiij tn>u^ k [hr fil'i*:^ "whcrt he died 
HQ'ti'ty ixy Hi n-r's nadSytxa tan a»t4fia itiie town IE the place wbcfc Ids 

f;i[licr died 
pdgpnt^ nan tHteilfianidk-o ilie inmst is oirr -abode, Qhe "place ivjicre we 

tjjjff Hdfl \nteiUean suet aydya-vi chc Irce is ihe btjme of the bird 



THE LA.N(;UAG!i OF TUK BOHTOC ICOROT loj 

stniclioii: 

inl^ imii vion^iafdnana U "on apSiigHaT wliere does he hide liis iiect- 



?Kfi, TfH' ii;|[iie Cini![riicritm5 nre employed lo eniplia^T^e ^dv^rhijil 
I'.hrrL^r'. rtf itniK ftftiTirtiv til Tiint, M^micr, De[fi"5H^. ?tJ!. Tho^e Terri^ it* 
phici^il i^t [lit lifgiiiniiip o( a wnlence. (ollu-wed by verbal nouns. 

Time; ndif^hip nan inuynt.fdnaiitui orf F^ntok [l ivji allernoon, ivlieii «e 

aTrJvxd al TToiitoc. [Ti. 56.] 
Dcijjcc; SsafntiiKi ifl" 'Wiipfj(fs!at}^ Acf saf^/^i "Kjy iwa^ih you reproach 

Maierial : jfO^^Eify ay frf^ya iidpr t-f^^* ?j iSli/)it from this W(»d I muke a 

^pearshafl. Cons^r, 1^33] 
ndnlo'ia'y f^ctlalfim tian kap&iitdko is t^fay ai llid^ iron ivc 

mikT" y\'fAv bla'lrb. Con:ilr. 1^33] 
QuaiiEJty: dng'ian pqh iiiH^iiii ay kdlj^'a grcjt injny were the fish Tie 

caughl. [P. ?.] 
Pritr: mlifpi nan nangiiagoanidka in nan kaydii^ for litly cenia wc jmld 

tLjc ^ipcar. 



2S9 Kt'cripilubliijii. — Frcnn[?ciioLii EwaTiiphB, il]u<iLraT[rL^ varimis ver- 
bat foviiis Iri vjiriyiis caiL'i of EmpJiasis. 

CommiHi coriitTuciian: padSyck fian dy&iifan \aydwuyi\ it tinn i^fay is 
'lan pdgpas \ kiCl Ihj? biilliilo wilh llie ipear In die iomi 

Subjccl ciiipli. sak/^n ^ijjj wiamirJ^y jj naif dj'JTtrflu 

Suhfecl emliEi. nnd personal veTit; firi/^jj ^KFWrrfrf.Jy^ri jj ii^w j/jiflifflu jj. .. 

dyinvi ?i/in padSy^iako ive kill,,.. , jzitij ^inniiSynij ivt 
killr-J; jfjTjj adp-ad&y^vii ive ^liall klll,„, 

inpadiyko fkit.; wfl« itdipadSykc 
Pl^irccmph, pd^p-ig- tian paf^d'^yan is nan ttyiin'aii (llivredupL pirfiod^ 

iJcnoles "ouF ciAi^loiiiafy lnirLliiig-ErLiujid") 
Inatr^ anph. witii pu^^hive: tlifay nan nuipad^y i; nart dyHtfoti is nan 

pd^p/ig Willi Lhc spear ihe LijlYaio wjis killed ra the foruE 



IO+ THE I.ANGUAGF OF THE BOKTOC TGOROT 

otfit^nmi n^'j ffitdya ts 'lan bdy&k it dfo}fg we cook Elie (sliclled) rice in 

Ihe pen (kellle) in llie lioii&e 
(prclcTili; : inStSmi nan mdkaii is n-a" b/iyak...) ^indlfaii: rice that ia 

cijoked) 
Subject t'mpli. tjakSmS nan mang6i(f is nan fh}dyfit -is nan b^yink j'j..„ 
Pirsun, for whom, cni|jh. t4ifit tia" iotdonmS is nan flntjyn ii iMB,.-, 
Olijctl timtili. jfridy/« nan oldtfnl^ka is nnn bdyt^k is dfon^ 
Pl^ce ("Ihj^ tsijc") mrph. biiyi«if tian tnan^vtdisntliko %i imn ffniiySi ii 

dfong 
Place ("th<: house") <:n]vli- ^fo>'£ "Jtn <nimg-dtof-KiitiiO is j^^jj ift/ikiiii 

Cominon nzonf^lrnclioii j -an i'erl>s 

k&/dtanmf nait Idta we dig llie ^ronml 

Eifiplias. ifil^i imn kct/dfaiinii ihe gniuiiil we dig 

d'tza nan k^/A^anirti llie j^'ardcn vn <\\ff^ 

kdyhay ii/ih iiiil/^fmi ^'llli flu' p<j1<; \v"C -diji 

gads^ngy^n nan ^ntj^nodnitti for 1^l1? ricli m^ii we ivork (liuT: 

gadxif'igy^fr tttn ikit/itpmi iiieaii^: M'e biiry ilie rich inan) 

Pa^^ive: CoiUEnnn con^lr, mn pi/n^uan ya uatdngfai <he door^ are 
Kmpli^is. cJoseri 

ji dfo'ig ya 'wl^ii-gfav )i«« p/tn^\tO'i in ttir: hiau'^e ihe do-ira srr flowed 
if'^/f^. lifffT mfr/<Vil"^i'fi f"j >if?R /ifitf^'iia^t wiih Ihe kty Iht doors arc c\q^ 
tjiUiiko "kjji wni/r"fjrjJ^/j?jJLrn n^tn ^^ngvan (ihc agtal cmphj-iizcil!) by UB 
tilt (loots are c Invest 

("FoT ih* f,i(]ier llie dtmr is closed" wii'j changed by the Igcrol iiilo! 
lEie fa^licr snys \ Id liie door be closejl; si dma ba^d'm en : tnaitdng^p nan 
pdngaan) 

Ciniiiiu'n cDiisiriiciioii : (-verbs 

ii^Utji! iiflft b^tiik iliry rtiiirn iliv iiioufy 

Empha^. Ije/lja niru mongii^Si u 'ryu if^'/flfr lliey are Uie persons v^ha 

rcllirn.... 
friVut Htf% iti^liija iho nnuu-y il i^ ih^t Lbey rtiurn 

djon^ nun man^itolficnlia is nan biluk in [he li'jiis<: ihcy rtliirn ilic money 
fdltdifg 'ifTfi mangis^hli^iLijis a'j fran ^rVwt for E<»ld Ehey cliatige ihe "silver'* 

(For (he woimn ility di^ngf: rht iiionry; ihr jiilvcr into gold . faSfiio^ 
nan mangisibUatlfa is aan biiak fly kt^an nan fobfafdyi, ]\t-i "as ihe 
"■oiiicn'3 property" [BO?^.!) 

P^^sivei Coiiiiiioi] noiislr. nan bilak ya inaisili>!' [misubli] ken tjakatnl 
[lie money is changed by us 



THE -LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGORO'l' tos 

Kntphaiisi 

tiatdko nan yaQimhlian ni^i ifHak- l:> in the imn^ is chan^iT ("vfc fare) 

llie iilacc foi" — Llie h^ing ciiangcJ — fi 4l]c money) 
fifoi'g "^"l "misubifor' 'mn hiiak iii llie liQii=t Ihc money [3 cliaiigcil. 
fidldcg nan fl\Qiii'bU<>i' nun bilak for ^■>\A ilic silver h cliangeni 
imir btlak yd nutvs^bU ay k^an tiaa fobfafdyi th^ iiiver ii chjini^Td i-jr the 

Common conitr. na'i hifdii! Hifg-Stfa wflir cffS thi? in:in pell? Jlie dt^ 
?~inplia^. ia!iiki ^m" mU'^^Uii^o ix "in JfS ii !■< ihc inaii ^.■fl■i *,tll:i (lie dog 
3s& urrii i^jij;f?ji nail lataki il i-^ che dog Thai ilie nnn ?rlh (ii : 

ligar.) 
itjcii^ nan man^la^^an nan lalakt ts uafi lasfH in Jlie licrnse ibie 

in:3n„. 
bthi' iifl'c "jfm^'id^fifiJ^if li "ffn jJ^onj; fur fiilver he Mils Ibe 

ir jwiffufl utin ifa^danix i^ tan pdkuy fot his faUur be sells the 

rice 

Passivti CoTiimon ciin^rr. nan asl9 yit mmiiigff iht doc ^^ ^'''1 
EmpliGs. iafuiri iicii ipnUn^tfot nan -u^ by ilic m^ii i]ie iloy is said 
a/ojj,^ f^ijj^ ijojjfl^rl^ijj -rdPi rjsi^ in tlie house the dt^g I'a'; =ol.l 
^/^ij^' Hfl;j ir^iSa^oan nan <ifon^ f;>T -^ilvtr llic Ikjliw vviis ?ofri 
jii^jio nail maiiag^a" nan pixhuy i'>r the fiichci' llie rice i= aoM 

QmmfOn conslr. irijusdlkn nun k4yK u-e ■'how [he tree 

Eiiiplia<i. tjiiidko nan iiraK^/djn u wjji t^j'» vv*. vrt ^Ttow ihi tree 

tjfj'fl jrap^ idjuiAK'o iliir IriT it ii tvt: >how 

pdgpa£ nan "ui'i^idjftam^ko h nun tiryif jri lUr furc&l wr 
liiihi^ko uan fnun^fdiirk is nan k'ayn whh my fin^r I eht^v the 

Free 
laraidhi nan mangidjt^aniJko is tubt. kayift lolbemcD we show 
the [r<T 

P^aijiv-e; Crtmnion confer. jr^jPt kdyf* ya mafdju k/nt/stdko the free is 

shown Tiy n? 
JIiiipli^^. Ijaidko nan maid/Jiun nan kHylX hy v^ llie riec i& shown 

pdgpag nan masJj/lan nan kdy^ jn [he forest ihe Ir^e Is ahowll 

Coiinnnn co]i5[r. i/Sfd.i^ko nan klfian I ]ii<ie (lie knife 

J'nipha^. saii/^fi nan m^igirdft>n is nan ktpan il 15 I who liide (he knife 



io6 THE IjVMGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 

i£«6 nun man^iliifotiBli is tian klpan in llic box I hide llLC 
knife 

d^fitti tan man^iiajdnifiildko 'j nan kJpon in the: box wc hide 

niiJJ- alliiAdko nan fjian-gintjonak is mm ktpaii for my fnend I 
biJe Ibcknifc 
PaasLve: Coaimoo consir, nan klflaji yn miisi4fjf'i Ihc knife is hidden 
Eniplia^, ftg^b iron tjusimf^aan ntin iffpan in Ihc !x»x iHc kraifc is hidden 

Common ton^tr. nmi l^idsog- jia maittim'd is nan fobfSfdyj Itie rice is 

planted by llic ■^■ontcn 
Ejn^fluLS. tjat^ktr nrlH mnifonltsati ton pttdso^ by ub Tlit ritu i^ ^Uoted 
[? iniicried r deni^fl moiiilff } 
pdyt Tifln >aaitm(tia'i iritjj- padsv^ m Uic rice firJd cht rii:c is 

planlril 
si /na nan ijiaifoallsan TUm padsog for tnollier the rice js pbnte<l 

Common consl ruction: -in verbs 

fuJ^tj^y^ nan ioidki wcm h[iid ibe man 

F'"nip]ia5, tjakdy^ nan mamdlsd si nan laldhi you, you bind llic man 
laittki nan falzitjinySc life man il i^ llial you bind 
djong nan iwamal^fjanysi is san laldki in [lie liousf you bind 

the mail 
katjSna natt ifdlsidy^ is nan latdki with a cbiain you. bind the 

man 
poUsta jjflrt matnalifdsaiiyec is nati laldki for [lie edn^tabTer yOil 
111 lid [[ie man 
Paasiwe: Common coiiatr. uan laldki ya nafdlecd the nian ivas bound 
Fraph tfabSyi^ nan mafalild^an [ma/al^dan] nan Idiaki hy i-ou [he iiiaii 
is 1>oimd 
dfong nan nafal^dsan nan laidhi in [he lioiifie die man was IjoutmI, 
kat^/na nan inaifdir^d nan laldki witli a eliiiiii l]ie man i« bnund 
p^lisfa nan ttafjlitdtaH natt iaidlti lar tb* PftrtiEablei" ibe ii^an waa 
bound 

P«r»0]u[ Tcrh?. CmtiTnon coasFructJooi: 

AUsQndkdjuf is naji pftyo i^e ^vork in tlie riee fieW 

Tttpph Han /ijjj'i) POM- f'n/junojifljni In llie rice field we are working 
nan pdyo nan €n!sdnSan isan laldki in llie r. [he man works 
kepdgpag nan ismayditan nan aydyam in llic lore^l the birds fly 
kdykay non ienotJko wirli i pole we- woik {tlno- fi-ojn i&unSck, 
po&5ei5. vh.) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THT? I^ON'IOC iGOkOT 107 



pdyak S/''ij('£p ^dyok] ^*tn ifpy^P'ljl wHl" vrine^ tf'cy l^y 
pilyak iiJu itiiyasc nan ay'dyam ^vjili ivliiy^ iln: birdb lly 

gdya'i tun itaydftarttjH^ If iydisja nayi Sj^t} for [|it ^DUpg birda 

Eliey fly aw^v, iHaL Uiey bring them food 
/sua ffjir intedScdnfni ]i<!pu we ^lay 
/fwa «an niniedp^na liere. he stayed 



SEDLTLTCATION 



ReJuplJ call oil is eiditr p^rlbal, as fangfaii^Jnck I w^tic up, or Kemi- 
natiDii, api ^?j(rTi;;cpr-"r<ipt£i7iriit I cat. Usually unly ihc roul 1^ re<liipli- 
raicil .inil prrfi^^L-esi precr;<lc ilio redup-liciJtrd foiflLj ihcre ite^ linwever, sojiie 
■ejtCfipiions. 



jgT. Theredirplicated form of the i-erh represents, as it were, art image 

lii lim aitioci! as (lit aclioii i^ rcpeatorl, Eliut ihe rnni, or p^rls nf it are 
[cpcaleJ. ReptaleJ or lEeralivn? aclion i^ jdi;ikl[i:ar ^illli ihe icoqiienlJilLvei 
and the effect of reixiatcd aclicm fs iriEeinive Ciiininualive ov d^iralive 
.icfiiin may be ihongliE lo coii^i^t of crni?L;^iU]y ^cp^y^^O[] aclioii TM^ rcdi[p- 
!ic4lnl vltIj?; eKpre'^^; i'e|>el,iliori; inlensllj-- coiuliiuiillrtii; iJuraEicm; ciiiilin- 
Tied i:r"iii:iinx>ra¥iecni3 action.; the repi'^iri^d ^t-diiii niny ;i(Tcc[ ?i-vtraJ olijecta 
and lini", (hii^ \i:vhi\ form can cypress Ehi; i(W i>f plur^lily if nlijctl^ (I 
make tcpcjitirdly a 5pear=I nijike siime sprjir*) , irlm^^ily itivc^Ivc* occ^- 
^jonally cmnparl'oriji (I like eiti:e^dijL|;lj - [ prrfef, I liWc beiier). — Tlm^ 
many varinu? mf^snings can bt iniparlcrvE fo ii vcrlj by rcluiJli^^lJtii; it^ riWt; 
bnt ill Biiiircii: It-rirryt reiiuplic^iinn. doc. n-cl e?|ircs!> l-cn^r, 13'^ jtrcscni or 
future. — Thtf T¥icaiiiii|; inu'il. In. many in^lances be dclcniiincd from the 
^ontexi; I>ijc offcri ws find n:d^l|'!ici^tcd forms uted idiciniLilically aypar^nlly 
'-^■[Ihoni deftimfil.- reason; ■iOinetimef; the depiire of an eir'^rion^l speaker to 
dfiiipt inrBt vividly iiilip! ^ttminl ior Ihc rcduplicaled fomi. 

(Bo^ide^ [his inetliud of cxpTe=sLn[' repeated, inleiisive, Offidnaed 
^i-iicn certain ndvcrb% au^iJiaritft and other verb? may be used for the same 
purpose. ] 



ToS THK LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

3^?. Ex;ini|ili'-'i 
iJifSkak. tbfiikiifili-aii I Jii^k .tlE^ii; 1 ask m.-any ■|>eoplH?^ I [ni-iuirc li-igcrK, . 

ayitkak: liy^aydkak I r^ll ylten. T call ^'^y-.rA |tfi50iis.„ 

rtvi'f^ialc: iiw^ali^Uak [ fcri^- o-fieu; iKsnaUJUiik I U'.e*! 1o come 

{nni'Xiiiliak I cmTi? Ti<:?''vr) 
firj/toai^. infik'Sdl-^k J cry tiiuil , T Lociliiiue crying;.. - 
it*yitnftmak . iiuUnuUmmak I /Xrlwk ji^.tin iiid Tgsir, I kficjf ill'-inbing 
itidngpnak: miliganm/fiiga-nok I e^L niEeii; I am ^dtin^ (at the aamc 

timf. mcanwliLlel 
fhu'.yak. 'hniimriyak F ^ t^fipfltfrfly' * walk on... 
]trfv'''^?t"^'" friO'f^'i'y'^^^/^^ I pi^l' ilrfn^ly; "T jnill and pull".,. 
t&tiidlialfr tft"ii*i/*^ndljck I rttuni htvituI (iiiic?, I couiiniie returning;... 
L'Mffak-: l-fH-lkMifaif I nih Imrd, I k'^i" ralibiiiR:,.. 
if/fek: fiiilUek \il\ldck] T 'ce itjieal<!d]y; I di^.tr^-c, lircp Inot^Tiie... 
trffrot; kit^mkdiitilf } lalk inuch- (pteler.: ifpr3i'(ii-^'fl;ti<Jj"'fr-') 
ifaotfl^or ipooipaoHko I srnil repe.itwily, I umtiiiiEt to bend.-> 
fdjub: fiiji'/djni- 1 ■^lirn.' -.fl^'ii, f^rtiiilly .. 

cumukljfiiik. Iiiitiitktj^liikti^ak- \ sitofitii. T stu siltiuft, T continnf to siC 
feiT.GfffrJTirit: iidgoko^dfi^^k I -.triVc vii^T0Li4,l>, I give imny bJin^.^... 
aitfct- aldaftfirk I lake apnin iiiid ^ifi^lii, T lake several tliiiL^S^. 
i'llUI'T.'isal:! : tnliii'Hlwisak J kecii i-n iralkln^i I walk around... 
kamdck: kakamdek I lissteii inorc; haki^niack ay niatmlan I go f^sliT 
ahit'i^V^b: alahi'idyek I T-clnr-J; nltiinndyck ay engk&ll 1 siic^k m-orc 

iloivly 
ttfylfek: icyi^yijek J Ifkn; iKKer. I j>rcfcr,-- 

ijjfljT^yi^^if'i' masuyj^.iuyepak I conlinin: 10 ^l^]>, I aletp profoundly.,. 
^ngttklialt! ingkaUkdliak I ttf^ talkii^... 



24^y Grenccf intensity is expressed by- repedTion of a verb, ^ith the 
intetpowil ligature ay\ the aecwid time the verti is in the "infinitive." 

^ntiwt^kn ay t^nls^im yoti inir^l w^rk, y^u wfck moil sSTenncm sly... 

J'fifo.tyfn ay fi'ftiJ^a yo" must Ack 

■mir/ijtjrfJsr'j/ii_?tflj'rtf ay mafukltf^waii y^ia rnHal be caJied 

}iit» litia^ki mafiikd^-ii'anfj't oy I'tufukds-^nn Lht iiieii iiiusi be called 

Hori friiyn jfTrtj/^ir uy miislbo ihc iTcc mii^i in; tut 'lawn 

kdp^fft jjr ktipi^tr ntf't dfvg you nniit make Ibr bo-li^t 



Till' LA^JCLTAGP OF THE BONTOC ItiOROT icyg 

sitsfiftew ay ia^iitl^n nan k-ifyQ yofl! n«"st tarry ihe vood 

nan laid hi foyd ^.^St'*l ny fdyjftf^an w-J^i f-if'l ihi unn nitus! |>iiy llif M:rv-jLii1 
fian lalaldki (aJj/Jigantjay fadjifuj^im nifi- foJtfaffiyi the men imii-it Kflp 

ihc ii'riiiieii 
iicirr flilu^ iixAp&ASy oy mdp/idSv adwdni (lif i^if^ tnisil li<; killetl now 
ijOFr ,y.-:a admdpu/i^y "-y admif pUd^y ai^cil-a-. tlie liog must be Idtled 

lOLIIOTrOlH- 

wflip moii^iik^it }}!isf(ilMd t^y majdlscd ilie ili [ef mu^l bebimiwi (iinpjisoiiec!) 
niTJi kafciyii miif^ig iiy iMsfdig iXtit horae ritti&l tie wLi[)|ied 

(Thia cunstiucLion is nuL used in the preterilc). 



PRt-KIKK.S 



JIM. Tlie djiir.ifif r oF ?iaun: priifi^i;:^ [md fliar effect upon verba! rai:^ 
liave fjeeii itoktiiil in urevinu'i ja.irljan'^, ,im 

ii«- pi^xorirtfiicof Per^^^iil verbi [170-174] 

«- I'll- pri'fix Jif hV'F'^rjinf ^ri.|-Fj^ ] i^^} 

fn- the prtUrii.' ".mpinem" [if^, jjuj 

«i>w»£- PWJW- nian- jww- the pTcJiM?5 for Nnitiiiin :xi{y^i\s [247:193] 

i- die pruFzf iif i\. ctTlain calcsf>i"y f'f vcrtif [22f)-^3oJ 

«w- llie pj'isluc prefix [265 fl cf. 175] 

ird- tbe temporal prelix for the future teose [183, 341], 

Of ^eat ImpDrtance ar* Uic folLowii^ prelbtes which modif j the action 
expreas*d by jhe Ntmi. actionis: 

295- PA- 

I'l- (and i/ia-), prefixeil ici nxjls (priiiihive verba! nwls Of aabstan- 

livc3, fl<licctivf5, :n1vcTl!& el*, u^^ed a': r^iul'.t, |^^ulluc^"^ (.iiubaiive nt hcii-' 
tive vcrli'i; soiiieiimci cliey espres^ lliii.1 (he !>ubjrtt '>rJtr!>or u-]W nii nilitr 
10 (jerfciriji pn a-ciiiin (aullioriLjT.ii,e -vtrbsr "I ninlic y'>u ^^limc") 

IE iirtj- or Hiflji£- are prtfised iiy pit-.ii'- inhcrkil bcl wi;cn [he4icprefi>K6' 



no THE LANGLTAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

IE th« prt'i'^ivd' par^« ma- is u<!ed in [iJ^iibin^fiJ^n wiHi l*a-\ mapa- 
(pr«t«r- ncpa-'), the r^ultang iana conwj'^ tbe YerbaE id«a; if ^ is oiait- 
twl, tilt! f'jrni i'^ TflHu'c ^n ailjutliv'', iTidn a "piii^'Ji^': T"^rlic:i[jlc" M^ilh verbal 
fora'. |?7l [ f I'Vcqucnily i ii^ irf-TCol litlu'tcii wm- ;irnl /kj-: rfriiijirt-| 

The cjiisaliv<^ verba b<:bjag lo Ihe -in clasa in oclivci bi passive Ihcy 
arc ]fersoii[Ll verbs. |^"i,'i| 

dfiljo i:lI1; paanljoek I iiial^e (alT, T Icn^tlica; prciicr. iiipadnijok; 

/jrfji poor^ papusic!^ I make pour ifipaplisik^ y'\ot pup/isi 

gadiitngyitn ricli ; pagadsdn^yenck L cnricli 

asd/k [ifidik\ shore; paoidSkek I sliorlen 

djdla blood; padja!tlek 1 make blcHxlyi I cauw lo bleed 

slh £.|>k'ndOr, ray; panilck t (-an:e lo ihiii-c. ! ea;*! Iigbt, itflecl hg"ht 

ii/jj^^EO^ I tOinc; pd6lfck \pillfek\ I onier lo cunie, 1 make ethue 

"jDJi^j.f/'j.^ I sleep; pusuy^fek 1 pun to ^kep 

iniaU^ok I ci^y ; poii^^ek I oider lo stay 

luiaaktjlink T ■'j|- paln/kfj/Iek I ^el 

Hifw^idrfaJ; I am ^ifrdiil; fwogi'Jdfk I fri^lcii ; prel:. inpacgidtko; 

inapa^giad Ir-ighrcnoil; mirJ^'iuf ;(frjiiJ 
/tiJ one, paiidck I leave aliTK; md/ia/^fr, left jl'^nc; m(i!ia alone 
litlen^ ccAd; paias^niiek I make cold 
fff/ir Itaf, per'^Liif^f i:fliis[iiivc vli. umipaS^fuak J cause m sprout iortli, 

I makr j;rii\v 
lekudfeif T open; paiekudf^k J order lo open |L 45 ] 
4!kpek ] enter; p(ii/kpcfi I imke cnKr 
tjdn&m Ttaler , polj^a^inek [paijilnsm^i'] 1 eaiise fo melt 
n^/iiJ bktii, ^/bJ red; pan^Jtldck. pakflJdek [ make blaelt. red 
ittottg warm; pailii'igeb I cn;lli<: iv&rm; Jiapnifrop^ (traifadtoitg} 

having been lA'arcneil; madfong being wjnii 
ilitek I 3ce; IpaJJak I n^ke set i. c. I iliow 
iuiptfyao/^k I Hy- pufaydoifinc aif tjdya "she makes (liim) flj- to Hit 

B»=y" [S. 7-] 
^ngMSiak I speak; pokolh-k I (^iiu^e tu lipj^^k; F <:r:low ^v^<lL .np-?ec)i^ 

(LsiHiiiirt^J jflij rf;'i*ir, pakolU'ta tfafijH is nfj kirliii si iS-ndsdn^a.- 

"Lumaiuig made ihe iwo s|>t:ak ilie laneuagc oi Sadan^-Lnc3i/' 

[L,4i 
inkydtak I swim paiiy^tdnidko nan JfiintJk lei us make the boys swucl 
ki^mitanab I fo oui:- pak^nck 1 cKticl, pretar. inpSikdangko 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT m 



<^pa- in: fraJ^v^k \falSyek; in Brniluc oot: pMidyek] IkiU, sJay, »«d3 
lo liavi? benroin-i: ;m inttgral pirl of [hi^ vrrij as Ihe |io^ilioji !■[ itic 
iiiiixc<l oiigmcrt inilif^ifs: pinaitsykit I Irilkd: mnpaddy mr^ans: 
billed. slsLn; nuJUvy; dj^tng, or; Liaving just died; nddoy: de^c^) 

Verbs wilh ^^^^l:h^I^ll;lli^'c nn^^nlni; i^ov<:rn Hit jierwn ivliitli Is '»rilcr-:d 
n:s <lirec[ ol>ji:!c(, lurl tlic uli]cct iiffcclcil l>y ll^<; Si'linn r-o preceded Ijy lln: pic[>- 
□silion is: 

papildn^i^l- nan tvtitki is nan k<iyo 1 urdcr ihc man lo spKl lln- wood 
HO'i Joftfyi piiolif^na unn is'i-dk'iit ti wit'i flmtyPc Ihc woiiiaii riiAkr', her 
ilinjlliIrT cwk [lic rior, 



iij5, /'/■W- 



Fj'^^- or Mil- \!'.i>t-, he'r-. p,}H-] M'l[h pOi^CSilvJ?, and ^irn^- ivilTi per- 
scna! vctTjs (bcion: cniisonaiits ao-riieliinLiJi pa'cga- placed after Lhr: prcMs iii: 
/jij<J-,g,j.] •]<-n<,\,:-^ miKk, vivid BCLJoiL, /"-'ifi- ifi prcfiKtd !■? (lie root <lni:l Iht 
verU lia" |i(^s^e*,^lvi; TTnEinj;'.. In die prelerilc pin- is replaced liy uiH'. 
(/■hi- Meflis therefore to be mfd wiili preicrit* forms i- c. wfifiouL ^nilix 
-A:, if prefixed to ^in verba,) 

pi>ik(ikdn,^ko irnen: lian-) I t-jil: iiuickl;^; prel 'iin^htkdngki 

pi'is'ih^pko J cuter ifiiickh'; [>rci. ninsik^pita 

pa\\_itis/h-L-pa/^ or mpihiga&iUcpak 1 b-lccp (]iiick!y, f^Jl asleep quii'ldj-; 

{i>i)pn'ig6yi'h [paa^Ayak; prm^otiak-] I go quickly; ninpait^Syah. — 
P-ji^4ykii! go ijuiL^klj! 

/■■vri^ra^Tri-'JJir,;? 1 ^ni^kt liftrll ift' it ll 

l"tnga<ed^eka'<iii>iit scay K^fc iiiiiiiedialel.\'l 

/■iprfra^^^po nn-j dfoi^' riiiikc i|]i: hfli.i5e '"jus-E mw!" 

pinfayltitsak I pa> inmediately- prcl. miifayddf^nb 

irifpt^noif [ iiW ^t <rticc 

fr^ffJ^flt or pinJ^aU< I i^ke (jtiickly 

H-itfr^,J|jflt I ?icp quicltJy, tread up™; prct. wj^tj/^tjat 

enpdfip^akaltai^ I ■i|>ealf fgtit 

iti«ipQohho or pinipaoitkn f send ^ukUy 

fifToydftfl^^j nun faidyi' c^ll Ihe woman ipirkly, risihl now! 
f^'ni'^H^jjfl nofT dsH he lioJds Ihc dog quickly 
p-misijdyf^ hqk iiijn! cat die meal quickly 



112 THE LANGUAGE OF THE EOWTOC IGOKOT 

f^nap^yartff in9,k4 fir* e,X <m'z<:\ i^yji^ju, : ffi-mfi'm ay mongdpwyi haiux 

Id aiiiitL? rirc!) 
nt'iapuydna inm itpuy iic biiiK lln' hrj; rimrkly 

kii'l'afitjit'i^'^n "wi kityof IJRtlt ^"nidkc Ijuin") the wood at cmcel 
pangdliffi' I 'mic i|iiLrkly f fnnj^O/fkay^ iimi\! come ye then, at oncef 
jirf'n'i^iiifkehfik I cnfpr riniclfly 
inf'ff't^itt^lfUiifnlr I niii iniir cili;i tcly 
piiifckdsh^t! iia'i h4tn is ititn frisPtl I lliroiv qiii-ckly (iie stiini? ag^in'^I The 

^.'ncmy 
pinpikisliiiu n-iiii sMod lie Icirs ijiuckly the lelCer 
pi'ipad/oiiS^fitko nan ^aa^sa' les us i|nic:kly slnlie ll»t guiigl 
piiiSifii^fam nati /"iJn^jlffT/ cPn^p Ihe door qj[ck]j[ 
itp<"t£it[iit<tnk I j^ oni r|(ijrhly iinvidiaak I go oiil) 
ptuknyjifka I |mll f.Tol 
piiifiad^yini imii filUig! kil[ llic pi^r iiuitklv! 
nfnpatl^ym nun itsCf lie kilfcl [lie dop al once 
pintjfptptdko nan mSnok^ lei ii'^ i|ijickli' calclf liit; c-hiclien?.r 
pintft^itiii'/ f j'l /j'?J^a we reiinjve liie pots qiij<:klj' f j/i^^i'*) 
pinkddn^ko I u'kc ^ivay [iiiiued lately (iffjJf?cfr) 
pmfdiAdirti' stfor^lf IhjkI hiiif riuieldy ! 
pinpak'^d'ick I drive aw-iy ijiileklv (iiolice Elie jtreaent fornil} 

Tlie [iicfix pki- is a[*.i> ii^ul i" ilircjiitfriiife: 

iFEii adlka eim^Jl'fail k^n jat/ZN, pi'Spad/^tk s^koT if yon do not untiC mc, 

I sirifce VLiu ( inline dia(.?ly) f [P, lo. | 
ydim, yiiitii 'mn fSnan^ m /•uiptid^ySa no! hiinj;, i>rinj; iho ^x, Eli^t wt^ 

(I wo) kill ilir? one! | R. ii.J 
mji adik^y^ hmtdyan piafsnjii.- sjJkdyri! if ynu do n^ Tun, 1 shall holri 

iou! 

And in our WiTi|Xir9l cfavaps wtlh "as ■■<»n as" ^n- is prefixed to the 

vtrlj of iht main sentence; mo tjip^peuidk^ nan ffydyam, pinfiad^ytilko 
fy^y^/d; v^ii^n ^'T Crtllib lh<: tirdij ftc kjjl thciii quickly; •Jt: ^& at-jn *& >i'c 
cnti;h the lj[rils, ve ki[l ihcm. 

Kii- prefixed to tlie redupliealt^il r<>Dl diiiiaLi:?! adlon i^omplclrd in llie 

jiriiEifiliiile p^^e: I have juii i\iiw liiiisliei! - -, T jii'^L diifc - -, 1 tornjitttr"! 
rixciiily A";!- i;<^ubirii;d wiiii ^ Ic•r^l wlii^li li.-js n-j cTidini^s d<:inilc^ a condl- 
(jcin thai "hai been enrcred nuios Jimc agn, a^ koldn^o having Income dry, 

drioi 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT iij 



hal^Uah I cjiiiit juil niW; L'sl/^tkimii^ sii}V jlbikiif \\^ c:;^LiK' f.his very 

tiifji/fi'iiiruit I fii'-l 'tr.inlr 
liiil';\fhfi,\iMitak J iml Miiriked 
kadkad/d/itMak 1 Just u-.tlki^d 

kakQkd^l'ko na'i dl'^ni^ I Jii^di: ijic Ivi-iiin: iiisL im'', :l ■:lv>n v.liilc 4igo 

Icnit'lja'onl HI"! .^/rrfjj'jj^ ■.'^ jiLil ioiLinl l[ie ricig (tijasoky 

liii'iiij^ifw^nek I ju^L di^J 

kabtal'i!k-aj,hkn >iisn bth'^ao I Jii^^r hiokf- the g^ri"^^ (jtthd^iick'} 

laf-AiMhAr^ko .tj ^ma 1 jn'.l iiU'-'l Hit l^iciiur {j^kit/^-,>.'uk) 

kanynydgk^ si Batgli 1 jtiBt call^c] liugll Ltrvi^tflfe) 

):iti^l^\'i'iU I just beld 

fr^jt.^^TL'.'i'irfib I joal told (t<!T(f^) 

kii^'i<l'\ii^ki> tiaif ^okli^ir-S'no I U'l -^'.^ieLu your li^il 

^ml^ck^kfdko [kiilwhSkbthft\ n<i'i Uiniti- I jti'^i cm tjiv Iraml {kdkStjek 

kniiitkdkiin^ho iiixn "fdhaii I ju'^i -it^' the food, nor (ietinek) 
i:os>"f!^s!\-itf-i^<fi'kn [karl'i'b'.i;liii''i^'^f^k''] nan laldki I just hir lilt inan. 

kiishubj,hsibpH^"!! nail f^iSl ii nvir JMjc^ ^^'^ 'ni- i-l'*: tJieinj' i-uil* llie 

speare junl now 
l^iitlfh/c tiun ali!4^k<- i iu^l ivJiv, iin lUKle 
kuFk^iii'n^i-k \ka!kad'ltri;cb\ I ju^L lii^jiirl 
i:rii;rfi.J^fra/' I ]iisl ivi?n( oii( {i:iim(lc<i\ai>') 
l:aphiipiifk<.' iJ^m k/f'C! '" iroT .■:ii4!oii^ 1 iif;;! [.njJ, fclie kiuie inlo th-e bai^kcL 

froiP^JF^3'i'>f_?a f.^' rmff rfn i;rrir lliey j-u-ii iil^f^l in the "angin" (low diamber 

in a lioii^'^e, likii el larye b^>xj 
ka/oiStok man /jf;a I jusE cooked th? meat 

In ihii neg^i[i\-i? ^m^ittt {jidikUm: wtdonot...) to- denotes "rarely:" 
oitfiarti iia!s!i<}i-:ij'a is djse we eai rarely a dog: (dogs). 

In %eiileiici?i ivilli I'-if lij^ity] ■"^l^E \q\" "'mil," [|u? pri'^-rvc prefix i^ 
'tn-, inMcad th" ^/^^- ar uw-, ^ita':li€d lo llio iiLiL-cdu|ilicrLlH:il i.>iil: 

ifiW ^diJf.7 nol yet torAcd ig/i k-ukjU^h iLot yet made 

iSff kakdkoit nol yol cul ji^a ^if/;^jjiJ lioI y-et filled 

\ga kaf^ija nut ici eaiea 



114 THE LANGUAGE OF TiaE BONTOC IGOROT 

i^a haitdt}b hah itjiffia "ilieir bird (L e. amen) waa tioi accompli 5h?d," 
ilieir omen did not lum out favorably 

nadto itan iit'ikan ihe ric<: is ciwkcd; r^iT ktidlo lian miikiXn Ifie ricc is 
not J el cooktd 

Kq- prefixed to the rcdoplital^J root ivhidi musl i-ikp per^iojB^il nnl- 
iiTg^ e^liTcs'ieB |i«trrtdci3 ocsion ("1 do as If 3 -) : 

hakdibhd^hak is nan dfong T net rs if I were Imilding :i house 

hal^rnwix^ftoak I do ^5 if I weie ^vorkmg 

hlitmtmin^nihoytt is nan IjSnSciii von cmlj* act 39 Ji yffuwere ilriiikiii^ llie 

iroFi Itiltki halsdiatridtait [icadjiladjAlan.\ llic iii^iii |)feleiiil;3 Hi v.a\\L 

J^nsukilmk/'fja tta/i .loldAdify liio ^mldiLics j>rr;ie]ij ii> be sick 
kakolmki^vf.^lta yrni jireEeiifl (o be ffood 

Tlic prclrriit and Julurc <ir»: i'xi)rc55cd lj> .idvcrjjs r>j tim^, -I'l: 
adsdngadlVfi '■'',<^mc li-nie :jyo;" or- a/Vd^ni "s<>on" tie, 

3/il*iT- prclrriti;: Ji'iku- hiiurc: flf^jjiift<j- e\rtre5i.it5 ahdiiy a1 aci- 

in^; vcrfj^ [^<niifiincd ,i'ilh Ihl^ ]>r<:(i'< Ijkf |UT'j|n.'il endinyi. 

viakdtpabi'k *s nan (^gsa I am aWe lo C^lch the de^r 

vmkakiiibkiTmi is nan dfong W2 can huild <ltc Itoii&c 

vtak-ak^ljJdak [makal/okifdai] is nan hf/a 1 can ctiE tin: iinzat 

rrrjJi^iE^ju&Mii.^ jj nan tafdgo 1 can SDiol:e (iiibacco 

mokmuyipMy^ you cati <-!eep 

ttfakadjitla'iak I ^m ^l>lf En \\a.\\< 

tifaUafalognididko mo n'Sd^ nan pi'iangt^ko va *ttm falfegfdko ive are 

able lo liglit, if ue liiitc our lia[(lL>a.-ces :i:iid spear* 
makaxibSka 'ih nan kftyo ya makapitdngfia you can cut down and &|>lil 

ilie wood 
makotdyao nan aydjam llie bird i-Jiii fly 
wiakakydrkami' i hjji w^ngu v-t caji awlm in llie river 
makjs^oyali 1 cap go {jirirkii^!'yi'k] 

(AhiliFy 1^ aJiiij] cxpTsSc-J by tbc inodal Juxilljfy: inaj^ifH-; 
rfiafdiinak ay inkyat I c-tn sivimj jjiafiil/n^to ay kop^n nun dffi^ T 
ain able lo huild ihe hoiis^K.) CI. [31?] 



299- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOftOT 115 



.\'Ak'A- 



doing:). ^1 i? pi"obAi>t\ [lie j>rel-etile of iitaJia- :iiiil mcjinii rlicn; I liave 
been able \v '}c\...aiuI lijive rioiie.. The vcil> E^ikcj pcrsin^(| -cndinci. (Per- 
jion."!] vcrb^ ofiLaiii^ tlie aufti.i -a^j| 

nakd^^U'dnk I! lan sfilad I have fml^lied wciiin^ ilii k'Jicr 
jiiz*uJwi'J/rffl n jit T have l>een iinin^" 

nabdkaiiak is nan ti'idpay I luve fiiiufnid ealiiig ilic l>ri>Ai| 
"ai/cika^pbiiiiii is 'infi k^tiift \\f liai'c fini^lfe*! iiialiini^ [Jii; nit,'li[ tA^ 
imkfilif/iiiii jit >i<n\ fiihj<ildyi is mm pdd^o^ is non fi(Jyo the wmnrn have 

finished i>liiiiEdiig The clce In ihe "semeniera-" 
■nakaol^kaiiii IS utin m^kau we li^vc iiriislitjl c-xtking llie rliv 
'iithnknp!dah I h.Tve liD[&lied praying, per running n i^vi'.'nLOiiy 
nQkii!'"ig5h^fH"i!k 1 li.Tve (iiii&lied culling: (|hr J»i^ ircc acro%5, in (he 

Fill dill f) 
7iakasuyS j'a'ink I liJive lini'^hc'I skepiiij?" [al?o' T had fIffpO 
nakosmtj^fMunk T biave fml-^ln-il (lie "^rui^ur-cerwfjony (ij-crifiting a pig) 
jjifl'fj/jift^^(f(j*iii* 1 have fiiii^ilieil smukijl^ 
ti'ikGtsmidanaIr \ hji-f liiii^hei] y-orking 
^akakalfanak T h^w: (iui'ilied ?peakin^ 

300. W.-IAV- 

Maki-, -or ^jjt*r- rireft>:<;d To ll^e l'^^^.| -^'hicli taki?s |>trsima] eaidliie* 
<1ciLr.lc& ail ■JcLr.iTi iieriormejl liy cou;>eralioii or in cruiijjaiii-cjEi^biip with olhcr^i. 

makikdi'bak u nan dlan^ I biiifd 1 gran.iry \w{x\\ i.ih^r', assisting me 

makidturk I iOnic togeliitr wiiL oiherfl. 

arfPFfiitirojrf^iffi r siliAll converse ftiih . frfji f/j/r/ff Willi ihoo 

*-ritr"<jmjfl£dt I fighi in cojij]>ariv wuli iiiv comrades 

"tiiafahgnfdoff I ^n Fu fcar^lf wifh my iricnd- 

™j*r>id* rr >tan m'hiok J |>riiiK wi|]i others tiic cbi-ckeiis 

mihliimdka'ni we ivork togetlicr, fn nuV^'"-" 

mikiiiif-widiit I i^hy wiih oiliers 

Hiit^^jTj^fiiJj.j^ -i,.erj.ltoEe.}.rr; «iuktki,n t.en ijafljc he eats wirh lliem 

"(rii/HfjiaZ-r^fl Tve p.nmcT rkc log^Elirr 

mt,t^i,'fft Ign ivith ^>ihf rs. Uci:ompany(^yiion. Hii/rf^fiflfr I ^0 yiili..,); 

uan ^i/«e nvikikby y,i tMf [makii\<ik. viokUfyak, mahidSyoh^ iJie 

riKgOffi wilh him 
makikalitdka 3e-[ u^ spt^k [ogfilli^r 



ii6 THE LAXGUA<3R OV THK [JOTCTOC IGOROr 

HotitsubJiilfa they are siDdkin)]^ lo^fili^r 

'jr-JAT^'fi'i'iv'r ^'ui A'lJtficifiSial I ■^pcak iviili All^Ll■^^l■i;^l 

Mialiifiilc^iiiilfitl'o ti'nhi! kt ui jU Rglit! (iyjiQii. u-Hiht^mtdho >nnkifalS\i- 

nu^iaHwidtiSki' v,'.- .ffe mutual friends 
301. INASJ- 

The combijiafiim: i'l - asi H root vitJi pci =j3]i^l ciiJici^'i. ■'^.(h^':^^es 

reciprocal rehlions. -ini- \,ji Iht tolljitral foini; -o.i;{-. 'i'Jicre iji 00 

maa/Uatffko. un'si/ddftand; inasi/ii^kay^, iimsi/ildtja: we^ yot, Ihey^ 

nee c^cli 'D-rJicr 
inai\kickidl-o v,t know each other prefer, HEKCtiitf^ifrfflfi^o 

i'i>i^i!ofL-t!"^':i^isi\ii \\^ i€7ic[i r'^ik aihcT. tit atlvise KicEi other 
jjmr </tj? i\\iiJiii:if^/iff\t [■iifa\-iA-iil3t^<ja\ tlie ibi;:^ bil£ each other 

tHOS^/lai-a vf two see eacli other 

itan it'jriirnj/i iii(i.'!il;</i:_<^<i^S!<i llic i.liiklri'n alrfki.' c.i^[i udnT, picter. 
llllia!:!fL-:}_';^lil^iJC Jut. <ll/fFrtf,j^L?^Lljj^fji; 

inaiitjen^ng^koHti wc Eiear each otlier 

11 11 -■^tkclLi'J 
!ui>i f'if-Jy! ity HAy ya siii^//f< iuo^^kf^kkBihi tbie lv(>JilAa in-d I knOw each 

01 her 
fi\Uihifi!' mim'-'K'imojUiytdkot forward! let us all kilf each olhar (die 

Ln'Iflhi'T): (;i JiJitrlo iTy-) 
^Haiaicj^-.idl<!Jro i^c like •-:.i-:\-\ 'Hhi.T \ /■itn^Heyadidkit} 
St akfi yangkay ny C'w.iipiid^ykGnii cy !_^?i^lof and only little (was lackCa^ 

Ihal) welgorot kiLeil e^di u\h^^ [B. j.r 1 

In urJ'.T io L\|jrc5s i^iiddon ai-tion cerlpiiii fier-^oiial vcrbi lal^e llie pre- 
rixcii ^^/a ('>lloived by aii\ ma.'mi is [irefiKed lo rool^ wilh ma iii[lial voivel, 
b<i1 jf di root begins wrth a conscmant^ Hid i:'- pieliMecl and oh ib pLicfd aflei 
L[ic iiiiliT.1 i:oii':iiiniil (f^jjj- *;''pniii S.a iin^licjili' (]ir> p^'^'^ive, l[io .i^ciicv "f an 



THE J.AXGCAGE OF THE BOKTOC [GOROT xt; 

(TTieat cDTDbinalions are nearly equivatent to (host with the prefix f/ia- 

ur /■(!■;[■;-"> 

T am starllfd by fear) 

Ij/i'jjifrtj^iii.- I yiu!o-u"ii niiTtomtkijfial! \ i^il ikunr -nrLiltnC^ 

J^^/rr^J^a* I ^lup iiio^irnri^i^yirt I li iiiierlcd) i slo]^ ?[ once 

rdn^^i/jiafrot I ^y uialumfydP^i: J Ify ■.n'ld'^nly preiei\ iiutuiid-iafcai- 

TJingka- ^'^ ni'tka- I'rclixcil It r<irit'' fiii ms vcrfjsl jLclictii !-■:■- I'lili-li f1':n"lc 
n condition wlitcb has iiccn triiiiiil lately nitniifo:!. Tlii'i pruli.v r-i i'v'i-|''nrly 

iT^i' [MiiirnEl.llion of Uit pri'lirilj; nf f^f?"]], um:<1 fTCIJlHIinU' l.'llll lliTs-hnrLl ,-■■[-!« 
(■A', ^T'liLi ^[i^^ prefix nkfiTi, Jiii.l (tF /'jr- 'iipfnifvini!" :[crijin|>li'-litil .Ji-li.ni. 

rt 19 pop'iiblc lhat *.iii:li criiii<ijiiiLii"iis inT.T ]tei*nniil eiKlin!;\ :illhoLl^l 
Hjnly formifl ^^-'JllirMii e-rnliiiu*, tim: licm i-r>lf''ctrii ; 

mukadto tun mdka'i \\k: i\<:': is rrjidy ii'nkcd. I:if; fjecii rooked some lime 
agvi 

prc^i ti?yi? ViJ luiik^itbi* lire iitc !■: ;ilrc^<ly cut c|in\ ii 
rrijj*arfi*y jiurf (iit« ilic iiersnii? uic ijIrcMj 0<:Eid 
'vmhai^sa nan T.ldd'Uo your Ittter has been read twfore 
iciwkiikifeb na>} iiPfnv ihe 5i>c:li- is ^^i^^Jy, li^is J.i.'cei jua'lL' 
p^a^^ f-irja ya ciininrt'^ihd [imikaki'kci] lIip [iicni J* :LlrM<lv clil 
FriJ]^'aJfturf/nrf, nin;y^>Qldh^fa>l nan pahguan tlie door la already opened, 
cfQ=e(l 

Ai !liL- lae of nioal prefiMa, also Ihe use of mngka- Is rdkjiiijilicAlly 
<M^pfTn^d te MfUlil verba, while olher verb^ require a difFereni consfrueiJOii- 



M0DIFT3^R,S Ol" VERBS 



:i04. Ai; Ihe Prtfiirc'r tr?M(>d In llU'[ifi.-cdliitrclinplci-> serve Er. .'::|.rf--^ 
ctri:iin moods Or leii=C'; jr [he veil>, s„ ih^rc- cxisi m nmiinc T^.in.i -.\\'^o 
s<tme nnJdif>ii]j "auicijjeries" with Btmilat funclion^. 



iiS VilR LAKfiUA^E OF TI-IE BOMTOC ICGROT 



hi Ihc clr;i|.(tr or .Vlicrljjv [409-410!- 

Smnc "f tlwie leinLViT^iJ arnJ niudnl "diuxiliatKs" hnvc line ^iiplnici of 
fi^rhrlES, Others those of -verbalized adverbs, olhers ihosfi ai v'er]>s. 

Scver^il Hjf llic-iHj "jiLiNrli^irij^s" iirc ]>^'»]-|]cle.'> wilhcuteDdings, a^: n^, figff. 

Several precede the verb (wicJioiil licniirre av) ; they l.iko lo [hciii-;ol\'Ci 
IhepersGiijl, rc-fjorlivcly [nks^csiivc un<liii5s (ro]iJ llii:\nrfi. Tlic vcibpppeaTS 
cTt "Iiiiiiiilivc" Sue li are' cin, tch, hml/, i!/u?, fl'tjifs. Isii, i^ankn'tf. 

Fe^'CfEil TiTi cimiieclcd hy nv ivnh die ^iiL^c'nieiit "IitfiiiLlivc;" ificj have 
tlieii" ov.11 (uiiinJUieiicetl) einlingM ,im ijfjia. Sfitffffa, fjifkasko. 

J05 /["if |cJ], 'd [V] lollawinG'^f^ vtxh e^■[lre5'^^:E^ ii?^iialU' .in <ilili^iHnin 
oughr;! sluiulil) jiud soiiitiini-?-^ it indiciiie-' ili-? iirciilLty of ji crmdiiion or 
^CfJo-n, ^s V: t.\pr(^''-,ti! Ijy oiif C'^mj nncln'o ur CQiidilioit^iL (L i^lioiikl or 
Tiuidj!. irii^lfl. !■■'. bcfi>ii](-, ntl elc ). Tn a few irizitnrnre? "(nT^ wfls ii!<ed 
ni^lcud af erf. Ci |t^: 24?). 

If a verli Tiiorlificrl ljy ■''^ lii' li' j;ive ii|> irs endings (u .1 p^|■^.-|■Lm|; vcr- 
hjlizeiE adverb, erf Jakes I'ls idinx' ;iIIit ilif n'lM'rli. 

F.d i-. iihn inimd eiTUt oUkt (atLjp^ri^M'f ^>rtrds nr^L only nifli^r verbs; 
it e>ci>vc=';e'^ ^l^i> (licru ihi: idcj 'if irrcnlfly or (■lillji^juii'ii, n'- -.\ l<:w CKiini' 
pic? wiU illustrate. 

fusis^'-'i^tili t-d I should i\\': [pi'onoLiii-ccd as crdici:; frfJTr//viiW^/.ti?jii 
in^loktV't vou Q-Li^Iil [n cook (otocb: jKisse?^. vb, ; j'f^Ma,*: ]n.-rjoniil I'b.) 
alikd-v'd "I'm ' vuv i>li|>-Ih ig come "dow I' ^\%gka'd Halt! yfn\ nn^ht logol 
iidpim cd 'liri nfn'i'; v<^n ou[?]illo build xhs Iichtj] 
frik^ftii^anljti'il "iTjJ -iir^^^rri^ii lliey ouKht lo t^II Il]<^ ^^Mlf'f 

iirttflySiii'ii >:l<- 
nan ffibf-tiidyi jimdlUia'd is dfon^ fhe ivntnen nife'Tt fo come into (lie hoii!!* 

rjullja i'iiif4y!ja'ii if. nan wifiiis llici ouE;hi: lo ■v^'cavc the hreecb cl^klb 
3J0FP (nlnldki i/up^ntfifd nan fiitigtnf^ i]ie men cfti)^h\ lo nififce lEn? i|icaTi 
iiilcdet'kivi'i'il i.v'Jfl >ou oii^lit lo sEny liere 
pollongentdiio'd nat sSkod w^ oLigiil Ao cut oJt Lbe jhust supporting- ihe 

Hflpr fobfafdUo i^Lfulfgnfija'd llie young men ougM to fi^t 
aFFt/jj. iakakiimuii^'d -.i\\ ouj^bt lo ba*,ien 



THE L.\NGU_AGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT ng 



mo'i^i*nr^Jio^d ii'iu. isaldko'd f'l/s-^no let ua first eal, thfn work (isa. then. 

lalccs llie endinjj Iroin etiiri-iiif) 
tiigkaiiiik mt [for: €\t] I ^lu-'iH ^P^it: 

vL.iL iiLJLV ■^n'Jii 1>e lai.'1'i: ■iiioii) iht l^r^K^t 
(if S.'iist.^ii\i\Q /!>i" IcydJka ^y I'lan^fla km sfka "greal would be any jKty tf 

^i\-ka'J.'f^'^t \oi\ ouylil tOfl«. fathj?r [Ml,^.] 
aSdta'^ id fobf^y let J3 I wo ^o (n ili-e imui ^lirtmi^) iMii.] 
nanmai^iij' Ifom inj-nyiZi ay sf'e'ri^/dko'd y najihigo^h tli^i fiiieaE) .vliicli 
>'^■>l1 nuTi m li:iveUruiL!;lil I-hik? (i ii. Id *^un(f}, thai it ^liotik! fje uiy 

/■af/^^iif-^^TF'.f J]^^ leE us kill Ibi-! [S, 5] 

Jfl od uh'ui'Mh jm li?L iiie watch this [S. l] fid [ed] prtce^Lcii [lem ihcvtil)! 
i^!i dti Riicn rsafrsit \ijafffn\ I ■vli'nilil lfl.-r m £o Ln sec dicm |L. ^7-] 
*^J' cd /fai'ii -ro'i "'idl<f^,\ta \ h.hi^Iii ir. £11 Lii iU(? ''snimy" fM. ;| 
(/jSSy fcn.vfrri ffi Sjipilpitu LliFiL (pig) you flioul*] ngnin (^aj-fni) t-rttO^i 

jtir^j'jJJ i^-oti [Jic ciidiiii" ifom rjtp-jf\''i; Ilciilc cd folJon ■■ tiTi^^r | [., (•4] 
/}iimniiia man ed\ an let us celH?l>r:[|H? our weiiklinf^! |L J^^| ril li-llavs Lli-e 

parl[cl':-. 
kasi'iyi^'d \'6r, ta iflnk od ijal^ayd viju Ddght lo brii^ here again (ibe 

fir«); 1^ iti« watch yO*l\ [L. j6\ 
iiuibfayflknyii^ii \ii 'nftlro sa'i ml'i (Cn'T '■pokcO ^ou oiip^ii (a fia[l (salr- 

■vaLer), ain3 llit ■^.ilL ivns l—ilu<l. | L |H| 
itihisi^kayii'd vmi i.nj^'lii iy lii-ll it (rhij iJ^ilH fl,. iS-J 
imdcd \isiid pd\ }iQi! iSkismi '\an a^hi rr^' nay bore lie iTie "^eat" of the 

salt |L. ^o] 
iis'i Jiitjalf^iiiw^^d ti:dal\-a iniiiuktGii .(jlvi safc/^n {ol) yonr fiiti (n-'lucli you 

li.iJ caL3i?liL"j Mill i^-onlJ no! give me any (P. 13) 
^nttfd inlaws is dm&a let ns Iwo go to clear 4he soil for our garden f R t 1 



;ioli. The pai'Li(lf>s ii^cl and n^i'i arc? i?iis|>[Qvcd fo form the paioiilial 
or riiiMialivt mood; [lii?y arc cfiuiualcnl 10 our ■ pn^-^iMi'. ihrnkiMv, perhaps. 
-V^'jPi ]t alujiys im&i-pri'.iiive. In dccliiralive senLciici:^ iir^et Ls ii^eil. ^^^rir 
utrcirs only iri interi'0|^;%llv? .'*n(enc€3, and sometiFncs in sentences declara- 
ffvc in kiiat, IpjI lEiifrri^aiivc in scii-it. 

Onr senteitcfs dcpemlng on audi (iliraseB like "I hope Ihat ... I 
e>:pccl lliat, I ^lupi-n^e tliat, I anticipaie ilial," are rendered in Bontoc Igirot 



i?(} THE LAKGUACyE OF THE BO:CTCC ICOROT 

□sEially by deckmlive sentences with ngit; the verbs "hope, expect, niilici' 

p,^^e" etc. arc I'limn.-'l. 

NgSt takes .ilso ilie future iirirtixad- from the verb- ddngei, 

Th? particle aittdy often precedea Hgst totdy ttgif s£tiNii perliiaps he 

aady 'i^el ii\/ii'iittfiyvf^ li<^ i^ perhaps sleeping; lie may be sleeping; I tliJnEc 
he ''!<.-''ps 

ndngel wndU n'in^tji [si aitdiji] \ny vouiigu' brother may come, will per- 

adagfi kophit [ .(■ii/icTiifil nsn r^^fi h? \vj\\ i>ro+inbly mnlw the rain hat 

{ayi:^ h ;iii liH(^rrngaT[v'e parCiclc) 
afldy ii^^N ^K'Piiif'snn ]!<■ i.; [lei'lmps liere; he may be here 
^idy ii^ci is i'Jl^\^ -fla-^i p.-rUapb jn ilLrec hours, ("at i o'clock"), in about 

adtiget ttmiititja nan tdkA is mUt-.^ip (he peofilf -will rehirii, I think, in 

ill'' nflci iin'">Li 
dAj^^f rr^'.'J i^'ud^hja if r^txcsknchtn't ly- prcawf, they nre in tffe achool- 

limi-i- 
afli^i' ii^^'i'f 'ii'ilc/(dfl^a''i MiirUa yini ^-rrc itriil>r[lhl_v living eji I^t^nila 
V fitly ■'•;cl -,^.•o^l^i'!:!^/ tmti fitj'fyr ilt*^ ■MDiiiriii ni^iy Iw; lii-re 

ffv>,-/-hfi jjj;ijr nmtiUt v-iM jau probably cj'iiic? 

or/rriri?f nmrfTifli 1 presume T shall conie 

a^.dy n:j,d is nan t4kken ay dfoti^ probably in die olber hflnae (wiiiiout 

^^■i 111 
aati-i '/■■ei rfim-fli he may have coiuc 

c/ady fi'^e! /iii^a'.- slia ilii^ 1= a lie, I pTeimme [sJia: -w] 
iwjv -'■■ijv teyijt^m "•^ifi iry 'nufsir r"j Piinnrn^' faitlul^ia "lie re yon like perhaps 

to be left alone, on th-is earth'' tirddlofll; eauii inttrro^^tiv^) |S.lil 

EK, TBK 

^0-. Elf riiul Tell aie vtrb'^ tii" niotion. cxprti tiinK" : 3" go, in order to 
. . . 'I'hcy preccile ilie verl) wTiich v^ in llic "Infinitive'" an-cl l^ihe to chein- 
selvea the yerbal endinffs^ no hgature is employed bel-Dfeen tbe« "auxiU 
iariep" anil ihc: fnllo-wiTtj^ vi^i'fi. 

J:t iiieam ! i^>-; (ft I ?haiild, ought to gi), let tne gol 1 have !o s^; 
^f mav -(and for to, ,t chjiJiiiiciIhiii c>:|ji'e?;^[ii'^ vatlil^rni nr i>Lirp'jijf:i Lliul J 
1^) Tlie?o "aijsili-iricb" [:jfpr<:« real mnlioii; not futurity alone j'^ f^ur 
"i Jill yoiii^ to write" jfjr: I ih^H lurire. Fr. je vflis ^crire for: j'^ricaL 



ek 


tPlf 


em [fliT 1 


lem [ lowi ] 


'''lii [^'ia\ 


Si'fiis [l^'ra 


^.,lfi 


t^a 


I'jj.'jJ'to 


iimftfi:!' 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE SONTOC KJORQT ui 

The lomis of eb and tek, after having* Ish-si the endings fmrn the verbs 

depei*fTii>!f on llifiii, are' 

h'eri^jnah POsaesaive: 

I. ci: teh 

3. en {ot\ Icii 

T iisci ^i\t(lko Icnlitka 

T. oxcl. c-'i^i-a'iif lr'ij;k^iiit i:it"i^ [^jn/if \ ft^umfllifVHfl 

(Instead of ilie iir&i. sing, of the perwuial lotiii usually the piK3C!^^ive 
form ia emplcnyal; the correct forni: riwit ia found in bat few e^ornrlci;. 

f£ mi/.'i:ii'i I ii" ci' i:itt; 'f'; rrfaf^_.;'iiu I ought ta ^ to eat; I must sa to 

Tek folTowed hy ed produces deaideradve mood (but tlie notEon of 

j;ai:i^' 1; L cliijiicd) ; 

tck ed ''nrsfino J ilK»ulil Vikc in qa !a 'vf^rV. 
Wntdha'd inf^S4.^u\\i \.t sliunkf Hke i-.i ^c* It* fi[;hl 

am with aecOTnl or th.it.1 jnirij>n ic ^'Miirc^';?- oblifTiKion? 
!^ii^l.-a'd iimlh-'!^ yoa 0[]j;li[ Jq pd iq tosI 
J<'fl rj^ mrrjJv fit ■■Li|;hL eu l'i' 

TFIfJif'^ Ui\!;^'d\ tHiSiiiy^f- llii-y rjiirilil (o ^0 to sleep 
cpfFFc/ iii\df'^--i iiiiu bihJi uc i^'o l'> ^ci:!; (lie inoii^y 
f^flj;frjFFr/ ij/aiinl'/rti^ we jfo to dfulire 

mjitff^'t? iiitii\iil' jT ja voiigQ [Q tLifl: i| (indn^tpjl:^ . p'.'T'.i^nnl verb) 
cngak humiStab ii luui kiiy.' J y.n I.f cLlml. upun a Irec inr; r/f kitmdlab) 
Sua oydkd't Ji^ir anitl.'jiii he goea to call his diild 

c\\ xmd-iiiii is tiiiii aiiti^-na lie goes to call tii-i lIiIIiI (iiindyQ^^ok : person 
vb.) 

ci- ^lat'ii I y^ 10 sc<:; Fnj-ii fnfdyi 6i'.a ^lani ilic woman fiWfl to Srt 

c^« lyli '\a'i |d"ir.L..j yuLj ^) 10 III in^ Hit |1g1 

l/etf^'ig e'l ay4k-<ii\ 'lo'i iuldki ilien ibi? man goes Eo call [oidiQg omilted 

bft^uio^?- J]ir -iihijoc: f.iU'iirn'] 
ketjSnj^ Ai\i! aydlran nan laldki Ihen be gos Jo q^]] tllC Oian 

fii"Cti>^v^ iiih^d-^QSc yi^n [[-0 [li n.-v 

cmuLb U'U'k, c'igak] ^rrrjj [ gn lu ^^'insb myself; or' f^^ aiJti*' 

cjj^'Au]iji"jj,flrr^fll'« .v.- go to gel ^von.l 



rjj THE LAKGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROf 

ek u»iii!ii jr aj-rly 1 ^> u, gri fire, liyM 

tfi jirf'^a [ii\iidiii\ 'r/r p/itatjfm J ^h. tr^ ^ft iron 

CJi^i-ifiJi/ JjJJj£^(j 's/r hld/jM is Satstino tfii i;4ham! ivc tjo to get .some men 

if %vnrk [or us 
i'iiii\T iil*:!cn aaw patatjim \v^ go [i> lake the iron (itfifet .' poas. Yh.; 

umiHoaff pors, vbj 

cj^f/jT fi<is^\-<:i- tlifv went 10 slwjv The preieriie iscipreiiflcrthyilicpn::- 

(■iii i]j ( k ■Jinililnitl rt-iih ihc jircrLriU' of I lie i^ij-rnilcnl veib. 
r'irit iii!'iy,dy^ ny sfidld Ihc Iwf IjruUicr iverit lo Rd: \voiy& [K. I ] 
l^'igkiiiiiJ I'iiin^iiy^ ^i iii'<i! lei us ^ tc gel dry atlcks^ braiiclica [K, a) 
eulu ma'inilid a rrjijj kdinanfa lei u^ \.wtj go (o aliarpeii our ^y.t^ 11^- 5l 

ela unidyttk is foujnntiivi i go lo c^il! <■ ]i^v\'t: [K r?] 

ick od //cvj'ii fialfjQ I ^lioulil lil-e (o ]jo (o see lliom jL 37] 

Jira crjiii'ffJi jjtjj !nldJ.-i i^lie gou= lio call Llio iiiJiii [L 41^] 

j'lT f^^jfj fTj'iVita^j j-fljj idlii'y f^fdilo .mil lie £*■!;■! to c^lH Llircr vhhjl^i iiicii 

^fj^ sutp^'i nan li-d.\hGn^ lei iiit ^T 1it:t f-O) ilfLrii iiff Hit .v^ier [1?. ij 

Hk nii.l fi^* ^rc ciiLf>loy<''l in aflsTHiatJvc (ItcLirjinv: .■^^ntcnccii onlyi in 
Ili'liJJdllvC Jlilll Inte-rrji^rLllve .1;nl<:iii;c? Ul? VCrli if 1 Jiuj'd ^' , I ^y, nillbl bc Il'-Cll. 
t'i' i;^ jil?irj JmjiKl wmdiiiitii ^vilhoiil any dcpeiillijnl vLrlji ai^kiiytf! ^Oyt! 
i^iilkix nunt' ^rt ilier! ifnfo'd -id LiJiHi^' IcL us lw" ^.1. ui I -,in;Liil [1 - 51] 
Thia uee of ek h probably limited lo iiDperalive (and hortatoiy) fortns. 

ISSA 

ja"^. /fjirfr preci^de^, fi^ a (iLlur^ "■inxiTiaTi-," iTje "fn Tin i live" of llit 
]jre&enl nf verbs : [l takes llic perwiial or poi=os5lvc eiidiiigs to lEseLf itrni 
the verb- Its farms are Jtien: 



Pf f ^on^l ; 


Pftfls«slv« : 


I, 


w4iri |jjj4^/f| 


fs^nk 


2. 


r'i3^Jfr^a 


/fis^iii 


3. 


/F.J4I 


fSS^'W 


D. 


tJf'/M 


issiitii 


I. tncl. 


iJJiT'^itd 


issaidko 


I. exd. 


isfif^^mi 


issdm 


IT. 


issukHy^ 


issdyti 


nr. 


isidtja 


i-watfii 



THE LANGUAGE OF Tk\h BONTOC IGOROT 1^3 

B«^es e:(pmsiii^ futurity, issa is uaed frequioitly to esprcss n 
rti]ueBt, a Diil'l li[]|>rr;sli''':-L ynu vifl briii.E?'. i>lease! — cniitt: tu-inorraWj 
will vnri? 

I'sfitk'^i'n irm^y it itii vie shall go ta town (soini, aflo" a while etc) 

j'j,h-^jjid' k'i^'en ':a\i fabcfAii-^aii we shall tlicii lm[l<i llic Liiiiiiriiinriy lioiise 

tuJM iJJJ^fyVr llicn y-in will cmie 

fo(j jiFFcrf}.' ^fioj!i ?'f Jiffri ^rrri ilicii Jliis niie >^JM gn ini-j the ^rdcii 

issav^ /••fil^yt^n 'w fiifuU you. vciW kill ihe pig 

wiTjji ydt '^iiik j^^iTff you "will hring (he leUcr 

isslfhiy^ ""liiHyrp you i'"ill '-k'cii 

itru^^' '''.^'1' '""< ''■"'* ■"111 'vill 'n'W thir Jnjj 

iu<ftl*i maii4\- (Ju;y ivilj die 

issdiiii iidii nan h!?.ik lir n-lM ilii^n yi.'c lijck llic iiiqlk?^ 

Tji-^TFr 3'fir vo'i k'is/i'i^ a.izt'Akury \\\\] ynn brfii^ ilic lirns.i to-morrow? 

r'.(^ji^'iv« itfiiih j.T ij^pf /JiJir; j't ito'i /ijffiu/n uji HHTif,^'.^ wita joil come into 

Ollr iimiilri iiczil I'tiL ' 
ifir-fSHf )>.t^/w^' jim^y very 50on 1 ?!i;^][ e<' 
i':ui')i f/u/rai: "uii lf!•iti^^^ "yuiiivlll liavc ii<, cliilil" ihe poiiinktl ric^: ("I , 7I 

{i'liriuiki'o- [Jirire Is u rhilil oj mine ; iiiiiirtil:}iiio clc.) 
JTVflPff f"H(;"i]n^i noJJ rjiTJJi- iJj/^u^^v^j ny jfiJ^i-'^/^rt llieri; will be (li^jKef.hrlh) 

vrtLiir ^rtn ihc ioo-i jnii i-;iii-.ciJ In- lie hfnui;lii i^ m.- | M. ri) 
isswii wiinafi',.i\'if'ink inrii k-/'itsp„f/ia"i rhere '.ill bi' yimr child rlie rlaugh- 

tcr nf yojir ^tCQiifl ii.ifc- |M. i^] 
f"i\^*(? /?^Fprd^^j;^OFr ^Fij ja^/^fj] '.in I'lll aiv^ike inc |^, loj 
ia sssSk cti h,mii'^'.'s UjhfJ^o'x Fifial^/! nay Ihat i ^alJ go lo buy tobacco 

of 3'in.3li-hls l^iln;;- H, l^-] 
'ni^ ti. fl^jjj, er?y Itnldyk^s i}»a, fjj^iin IjO'di^Mt why, ccrliiinly, because I 

ni^ulo It hlni |,l|j-l iir=i iji-^:,!, y.iii y-ill caicli ill |L. <53l 

clrlrili |L. 74| 
r.Tff/fr fmipn!/iiV.vh fj.hmm I -JklI! ci-e,'-[e water [L 69] 
i.ts^i.-i\-^ "rud,^y irrrr/ij vnii nill rill die 
JJ.r'j MmfissdlipumdiiisxaHMasljrm tlieenem™ will come in tlien^hl 

/fPL% IPTJAS 

W). -V'lisakr^rdjuiko <iar*]y fls ^jnonyin: fpSfasah cr ipija'^ko) 
^nectdms ih^- Prrticrite "Infiniii^r^" <.f ,'erf)5, -lenv(c ail action already 
;iccoiii|iliilied, ihii consiviiciion i■^ alutui criiiivalem i.i our i.lup-?rf«t or to 
phr^ae^ with iSc aiverbs "alreiidy, bff,^i-f, brmcrly." Th* brms, l.avmg 
(akcn the rndiiig', ^if die folloivdn^ verb, are: 



124 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 





Fer&Odal: 


Possessive: 


r. 


^fusek 


ff^r,3iak 


tffufkc^ 


if^!}t!sko 


2. 


4fini.-a 


jf^ijiLika 


djiis'no 


ipildimi' 


3 


iSfits 


IpljOS 


dfusna 


ipijii'ina 


D. 


/jfusia 


/prjas-'a 


4fr4sta 


iffjtisia 


I. injjl 


iif\'.-':f^i:i> 


\pt)iXS\lfko 


afnstdko 


ipt;Qsi/ikG 


1. excl. 


af'istni'if 


ip!j<t^kn"!/ 


of' ism/ 


if-r/asinf 


11. 


•3fiixi:ny/^ 


ifitja-cli-iiyj^ 


af\ isyi^ 


if<'/a^yii< 


III. 


iifffitja 


ipsjil.i!jil 


di'ii-iijn 


\pUdsl)ii 



dfvskil fi^aydljiin ] liad paid. I paid already, I p;LJ<l bckirc 

if-tjtiii-i' jill'llidfU'Jtlli I llJld r.lllnJll 

dfiisnit iii/p't 111? Iiirl |>r(]-'.*.cil 

iptjihmi hif'H&it nuit t'flfcj^ yvii >ciu iliu keys before 

iffiii i'i'"d\' i^/om/. Ihl', iiL.iii lirnl il[(j-iiU f^fiiie 

lifiisinu ki'i'ii'ii'ii ti'jj ^ak/^'t W'U lalil iin.- Injfun; 

afiiska^ni n^i^fh'^f ii iianijiti ny tif'/i\_i^ w: sJcju before in ytKidcT housc 

ipljusf/Av'^ 'ics\!;lciUi vim Jnil .■ipinVcn 

nan /.Uti iifii-r hiiiiviuvi ?'j -/irir i/i'iiK-m. tlie itog had drunk the water 

irapf l(ihl'^i:i <ffi'sfja Kinfui^^.ud is "<"i {•^st'''^ thtmcii hadfl-ltcfldy fougEil 

jn clu' furcit 
o[-jhkiiyi9 fkJl^iJ;l?'^ [tt^itgOH] you have already grown 

dfiiskc h!t\4^h jj|fi| iir.^inig T hnd [n;i(Te (he rinjr 

ofii::kai'il ''■iiiifl-i'i \\c li^d nlready waltzed 

nan ongoit^^a jffusna piiiadQy im" hduk jj ^\aii fdto lln? l:oy li^<l kille'l llie 

LiioLikey vviLli jl *(one 
jrfmmi hujasan nan ha'v Jtlogisiiaji k/iiiuhinl- wi: liad fuund one egg iu 

I In? cliicl^ciL 
HOH fafdyi dfuma Urt^nfait nan pdtt^uat* the woman had closed the door 

bo fore 
si diwa ilfin'ta mffa if ha tlit fatber Iiad seen, yon 
nan all'^idiiw itfitstia tuful.-.i yoac friends had aaVr.f ln:fiiT<: 

nan !}otjd d/iisno rj/'i^/ngo iurn k^^hn tli? mmise fwd heard the cat 

si r-ihnnak dfusnain^hdnn •mnkCiyn I'mnn.ik tiEiil lnii-iii?d die wi>od 
Kin ma'\dli''\i df\is>ia -ifUiifim >wi btiak [iic ihitf Imd hidden llie money 
c,i tna dfn.ma intdju ken sfku nan ij/^kor^ llic iii'^llbcr liEid alicwii you the 

bag 
ipridika i'lniflif iit feSaiitJi^ have ymi bten in Eyiilt^ bclorei ("Jia-l you 

gone") 



THR LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC fGOROT 125 

ilfjiitja napnd6y taj' f^i/^l tine eiiemiea had bo.'if shui 

af^ikS'til Nuaydko'! x>: li^v-c J-ccii cjillcii Jiofore 

nail i-'fya dfus nnsfbi' llic Iti't fi^*i hetii cul d-ri'^n bi'i'kr'- (linii^ ng'i) 

HtHJ iivjj'j^rrp !pfjiti it^fpoh thft bird lia-d been cau^t 

noK /i^A h/ iptjdilja uapiHidit Ehe eneniTea bad been cxpelfccL 

Sra TjA, [t/a] n met e^rai^ively emplm-M! "auxiliary." precedes 

ihq verb, liiki"- (lie enjfiiiS' fioiii (lie vei Ij piiJ, In il»e fuuire [cn'e, jilso ha 
preAx /t<i-: It li; ii-cd in |irc-cin, preltrilc niid iiilure. 7'?cj !■: coitiiecleil 'vllh 
the folloiULiL' verl^ :i(i if ^^ m-u- a tJi"efix, Sarniiiic orip ivard, 

■J'lie fja^al nicTiiiiig: of isa is: frapieticy; froia Uiia aU udier in*aiiii(ga 

by ijfl the verbal action is rcpreaenledaa frequent, rcpeiieif.aninnn- 
ary, continiud 0- *:■ "iieqiieiii" in uriufcrrifpicif ^iic^^rstiun - iiji acilniL .11-^ 
ftftlved into its j;lii5;1<: inoiiiciH! ^■iifi-'^diiic r^plrllyl. .i.nlciiipoiaiicou'^ |-1 .■, 
fi.nimiicd ]>^fanc\ !■. nn oLfjH^r aaii^n), jiffecim^ saxr-il rl[fferfin objf'cl'. 
(1, ■;. rnitiilcd v.ilh ijicFi new ol.jcilj yr objects nlllit ■^■ii': kind (in filiir^^ff. 

Tja Can tlierefoTfl be translated, for Instance, hv '"'often,*' ''I hk to," 
by oui '"■LJrygre^&i^■<: pre:.™! nr p^.^i ur fulure," "1 k^-qt vn . . .," ''mtail'. 
vbiln?, ' '"^1 ihe --3IIIC ilrnc:" [|-^ iiicaiiiji.!- beconief. c iikni froni the contest. 
Th(j:l3?T.rr,l:ir,'ivio-r Crtn^^icudon^ in tli.- ir^c of ^; tbeywouTdnever employ 
il to cxpresii :i '.inijle iniTcpciilcrl oc i!l<..'jnCinupd nclli^n^ 

Ts<i ^^ mitd ;dio in cuiuiixdoi] -vvlLli 'Svm. aciioiu'i if they nre preceded 
hy llic rirtide «o'i\ it •^[.in<\-. bclWfhin the riiridfr ,nd t3ie Noiii, a^ti- 
■ini=. L:^l.nle iornis .ff /jjjt ■^vLl|ch L-cseiiiUk' lli€ per^imi;.! |ir.moun? shnnkl 
not be confounded viOi these H 





P^f^fm^d; 


Tils', <.■-?; i\-e: 


i. 


'■"'i'li [l.>d/i] 


tsdk \rsdkl 


3. 


S;,/ika 


is<1"t 


D. 


tsA 
isdta 


tr4ntt (without endiflg' '^tr) hof^f 


I. incL 


i^ji'iko 


r^J/tfl-n 


I. PxcL 


lid If Hill f 


fsff'ri 


n. 


Ji/fi}^yi!i 


fs'fyfe 


III. 


J-^'ffja [tsdlsa] 


It/it ja [tsj/tsa] 


i\\^ llifj till^uiiiR cxaniiilcs 


%linw, llic verlh^ nri- n.mielime! In iheii" 



red.»|.lica(.d fo,:,.i^ ^^.l.icl, rLl.^nv, even i^nLout fid-, ^vOLlld MilTic^ to ricnolc 
xepeatfli, cootmued etc. action [100-294]. 



litf THP l,AKGUAGE OF TllV. HONTQC TGOROT 

iidak mQjUyjp^ I ubc to sleep; tsatth mQSii\f^^ ima I "alwnys" 5lep;> hen: 

tstiak nasilyeji I ii§ed to Bleep; T wae 3lecj>rii^ meanwhile; 1 C0ll'1[nilE:d HI 

sleep 
odudak >i\Qsily€p I sliaiL oileii sl^icii^ I ^li^ll &[cLp mcjnwIjJlG 
/xdfi ffji^fl^N I U5I? IQ do-; I freqciciilly dn^ I do sfHnetimes, I <iD at the same 

lime 
tssk indngnen I used lo do: I did ofitii; I ivii^ doing: I coiiliinitd to do 
tsitkQmi ^itT^li.no ive work nsiiallyj but: tjtikaau ^aistinf^ka/zti wc work, 

il is we who wovk [^7] 
Is^ak iimdlitfii I CEHne often 
tsdija mmigitii iliey usiiuny eaE; but ijaitja maugifnija Ihcy ciH liitrional 

pron. fjisftjn] 

tsdmi angisciiiig'im \\t make u^icli 

fsJak lanpfibta T sni^kc ir?u:[liy; T nflen ^^iiioke: 't^anubl^ok I -inii>!k« 

]ii5l now 
tsiftja iydh llicv tJ'iili fr(N|Uciilly; lliev used lo (iiku 
/j^tfl >f]fli/iig-fi >\tu arc ik;r=Ejiri[ig t'^ffliEliiued] 
isatdifo naUtt^ei we. wete p^rrtiiJi-lrte^ {(-. ^ '"'u'luk wcirtJn^"; J-^iifPTiip^r- 

JiJrfi moii^hlalsSbln I sitifilrp nflen; (or; iiiflFii^&^iifjfl&Mot) 
ff^r^j lalaidki tsdtsa mffii^blftfsUbki iPic tiwiii ?tiioUe ofleii, iiBiially 
mas^yc^jfi t.-ntka dkU ^nlsiinti I slcrji, yim (again) ^Jt ivorkiiig ; or; I 

s|r;ep while you are wnrkin^^ (jit ]Jn' ■irime llciii;] 
infriwak tsaf^Hy^ dkis insilkd 1 read while you are wriiing (rffttV; 

2^111) 
nun tffFri/^jjfl tsS iiiiii\^bit\ is nan kaapfeyaii rhc old man k used to smoke a! 

Ihe fire place 
Isdk Mp^'f, udk bindeb ytai Unifuii T make, I m.fJe usu^illy the cap (of 

]Jj>rLi^>i: men) 
!idm kind^b addgka. nan f^fay \vc mmk- yesttrdriy Ih? a^tiirb (Jrcvcrrtl 

objfd'!, our iii.-jkijij^ ^'a^ repeaterl ivilh each ^pear) 
atitsdjK! pml-fyeii imyi f^H'^ 've ?hal] kill ilie pi^!, severaJ pig* (oiir kill- 
ing WJ1J bt rep^ateil willi eadi single ^jg) 
way Jj 'i(?il ffAiio^n ili--rc is iMnrk fiir nn: i-ct do; "1 am busy" 111. ■ ilicre 

i^ -for my ^''coiilinoiis" "vvorkliig" (*i = h] 
tidk fiin^N I usually ';ee iiak i'llta I uaiially saw ddtsah iiaiht 1 sliull 

ftfltJi see 
Ji<f indjJJ^J^gidT av wjjji^i lie i!oms4 ^j-neiinie?" lit. "f r*^iie i^tly one time 

he i:oiiies" irm'tifn^^aii: once, one liiue 
tsdkamf tn^niiblis i:^ f!iiipa»ifii.^!,itn ^wc snmlie suiiieiinie': 



THE LAXT.TIAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 117 

fffsart i^dya inkdi'pan [inkij-i^ti] U dfong Udak iiniikn^ ^vlijfit yon arc 
liuikling J hiuse, I am rescing. — in^4i'f-an: froiii llie per?, \h. 
inlf/i^bolf [ink^/fcpai!] iiidic Nom. attioriis, nilli suffix 'an; Ka late*; 
-yif, ^. K.. your Lu[ldinj!. /jicfH. rtq.uir^ llw Nom. ficT.-CcmslTiicFibi], 

3*1 will lie cxiil^inci^ Ul*r. 

iT^w itii^k'iv P"ff JJ^iri'irr^r'JH/iTii yon i^^eft osi TAlkUlg "tily ( in fuiO ; yr-ii 
are on\y joliin^ (Nom, act, wifli mHa -tm; of vb. ktmtik I sayj 

hsan tsdtsa ^ins^'!"<!'! 'Ttirinj^' ihrlr ivorking, while ihcy arc working, 

ifpti'^n^ lidmi p^i,f$y^\( trflpj /"^'i'^ tjip" iK4"i^ijn ih.^ '"i*; kjll ifn: pigii of 
[he [iiliabiCEiiil^ 01 Cacirlrtn (severaf obiecl*; ri-p-i'diU'il ncO i B. 9] 

iidjeng rsJ\i\s s/l'f'^rr nan jifi/n^ .^i iTiii:dijiii^ ci <.sif"ii f^mila nan fiidiotja 
ItiriL \\q ^nT'TKd ill':- liflii&cs ^>f Che pco|j[e of Tflkulj[|i^ rinil [jiikkiv 
i<>ok [titlr cihiic ^ii-iv [ H. io| 

IfiAtja mnaidii i.i Siogi\k>'ii cf hdija ka'iinfmsn. .they always come to otLr 

rear an J koe]> sayiiij;^'.. ( R, i -,] 

ker/cng Is-^ii'i ilsd^trtii^ nmi k'ibk^vb si f^lxg ya nan ak^f ayritik-au tIhh 

wc ^ly^ fdipiii'l llie pL^^V-n.s [iiirl a little 1 ico 
/^,^izm itiiiniik mi fjcfjjr Jupaiydi ily jrjJS^Vio you will Imvp a*; yiiur fior 

"your re|>ea[',i||y sending, my i<Kid".— fviJf* L biiiig; ipaydtk \ 

c-^ws'! to hriiic, T r>rr|cr io bring; in pijiylii: Nom acl. [11 pteLerllc.) 
aiabiidabadm^an is nan Ijiofi a'\^biin ny Sdnusn ya nan f>_gsl\a meki (juTt 

Inl.i Iht ric') of ivlijit P rtfi-L-n fiiiiUed, wsM pig .ind ffi-cr [M. J^J 
kffijeag nan laltiki fa/ffta Sj^aSWifde}}' rtaa jhcn^Jdna, tuinii \hd/s^ Elicn 

ilic bny. a'^ oHcii as lie received his food, he buried tt |M. 4] (Hi?- 

I'lr. Present ) 

tiju^^jyu Csj hbkStjen ntiid/6>ia nan f si ja he goes (to his uncl*"s), and his 
uncle v^dijiislcullini; meal rcoii(em|». Jidion) [K. aj); ^fn; ending- 

oinineil, bcr^u^t Elm '^uPjjeci'" Itjilnws (in genitive; nomin. : si 
aUfd/oiia) (?o8] 

indidifniko ya Ua kbkSti^n aliiti/nif frjsi ht^a I waE [icepins anrl Ju&l (hen 
my undc cut iht meat | T<. ^4] 

nan iir^tin^ .iv tajwift^Pr^fflj f.^Jfr idj^ad}^ the i-nundcii riee she oiW,^ 

flaked lor I 3hvay^ ^jve lier (llisror Pi-c^irtt) |T. 8] {"wheiievcc 

she ^Eiked— 1 i;ave"> 

tsit et madngtfay «an dnmh then ahwaya (each time) the sugar cane is 

calfn up (5. i| 

ta od abn^lok va nan Isa 'nafigdn^kay iV nan dnash:' le[ m^ Witch here 
Ihe "one freqiienlly eaiio^' ihe sugar canel [S. ij 



J jr 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOXTOC ICiOROT 



^11 ilterr !■,, i? i],;a ^aTigjr ^ov ^vjtli its younif which wv arc rttJajDg 
("inr <*!ir "finj fcf''lin;;"i fl,. 45J 
noH fjiiit ibfakiif^kd ^in ijakHy^ "my telling you oftai/' iwhal I told you 
so often |Iv- 32J. 



/£i7rr]^flfrfijj 

ka'tkaiiildk-y 
kttT hati fun 

kairhaiiP.!!' 



^11. A'd^i^Wcxpres'^c? iir FHcd iaic f irrnre, ond also ana?lif>n or tvciit 
lliat IT iiliiii^JT (.timvkli^fJ "^fr tluii 'vtrnW aliiif.<i-i b^v^ bIkq yl^-:<:, JCdT^ilff/ 
takes llic ending-'^ fr^m ific itrh ^tlijch ii precedes. ItB farm', /irvi 

Pei'ional ; Poaae&siit: 

D. fi^dhi&dffAei 

1. incld ftofr/fuirrffftri 

I. excl. kaiiknt/ktimF 

II. frflrrtjj^^il'diipl^ 

Til /fifFftjf^^'r^'jT 

ku'ikmifulf iwHga" I ^liaH ^ooli ciH 
work 

hankanttja kuiniih'i' i^ 'Jun kdyi' !jji I'jJiii'iak ken ffrfi^/i 

]]ui!li ivjil ■^uOn ^ IiitlIj nl'i'iiL il Ifct 
kaiikdniir (ckitsl'en I'liii ftdlffc^ \ ■-fi.-iH InuiiffllAlcty llii'fii. Ilif *[i-c:[r 
kaiihauhn iyiii nO*i pttitffhyt van m-MI simn brinii tlic Ir'm 
siyda/if knnkiiufn^ i^nf^yn mK f^t^g Uie oMer hf jollier wUlsoonlvill th* 

kanhtfmk fifkdsh^n nut b^itgixS^ I &haU aoofl break Ihe glass; synon.: 

fiikd';!\€k i\iiii hijifgaj^ iiaadfVvi (very *iiiO[i) 
kankvniick naJklma [jjt-fl^'^c.?! I tnnn; nivir fiiHiut;, I ^!mo^t fell 
nan dudmik kuHka'itljti "ttydgya^ tlv: cl"ldr<:n ^liijr>',l -ftll 
kfinl'dnim /vjdkii.fli 'irfii !ifjpr^irW van cjeik iirar breaking Ihc glu-i* 
fratftoji/^'^i ff"fi<isli nH'i fjiiii(J;'jijjjr wc havt iiliiiosi: fnishcd crnr workiji^^ 
Fra^' fdiiga kw<k"'ii viitkif^b x\i<: |iol [■■ ,t1ihos( made 
praF( on^jji^s kn^ibi^ni'iii fad^ydn nair mittm iht hay nilninii. lilE (lie mark 
iron klt'iif kaiika'tfna fiinad^y 'tair Ittlaldhi Mghming almoaL killed the ncn 
KOri lalaiiihi kGnkGnfija nnpudSy is nan k^ijo [be men were almost killed 

Ijj" JJghlnJLi^' 



you wiD Boon 



FtHimak aiid 



TlIF T.AN'CUAGt OE' 'I'UK ItOS'TOC TCOkO'L' 129 

kaiibSivI ay ka'y 0ias almoal (soon) om hoHT 

KASFN 

3[r,'. Kiijf'i [imiEis; .ig.iiii, cn:cc iTi:>ie. in i^ ^iiiiiLiLJriii^.s (■hflo'Mrd bv 
flir [iin^Liiiigciil^Jc imlvcrfj 'ilifs — nlio, l[kcw i^*:, Jg'jiii, oi ivJiicli il iccmfi lo 
ben j>ei]nni.iutiii- 

Ka-ifis vTT'li;^ flic v<-r\i, lakes ihe en-iln^s iroui ihc I'crb, .iird ip 
foturi' Ll'tl*ic il*,ii il*. piellx ail-. ][? forms are 





P^rwiuil: 


ro'-'ncsive: 


1, 


^4r/hiiJ& 


Actf/t 


2 


&f?3-/fl^'t(J 


kaatnt 


.^ 


Z^^jfH 


kojAta 


iX 


Ifu.'iS'i [>fnsf'ilti 1 


kasftila 


I. incl. 


k-ti^ildkii [l^,uinlitko\ 


btiM'tldk-/ 


I- excl. 


kai(nf.kamf 


htshiiiJt 


II. 


ko-ihi^bdyft 


tir.f/frj'^ 


TTT. 


i-'i.'ifr/ti [kajf'iijol 


('■/^/f^^^;j 


Im^/uali ^nlsSiiG I 


wnrl; Mp-^in Piikssiia Um/l;^ 


1V« two £hbl] ?o aCain 


iad/n^lciiyiic injii'th 


yoLj liavi? fiiiin: a^jiii luas/rij^i-ii mangdyeng! fting 


agiiinl 






itujrrrfii''to fekdihen 


jmji /"divVt' li't u!> [lirawtbe 


Spears on« more! (Or: 



[ckiif:l'ir<iidkt akis nan fatje^f^ 
kas/m kdp^KsaJ make Ihia aKainl repair ttiisC 

Mkn.'-Jnlia u»i4Ji na>! pA>fn.[^yi ihr wr.incn uill tnine ^nyjiil 

kn'Jw^kn rruirfnj.' i,ike agaioE 

toi^]. -fi^ »rflf+a.^^'a.f u j^ fwaa) again to-morrow, "on tlw followinc 

-fey" JM_ 3| 

^'4Ji/jj ^^^.f um/j^/ di IS ;i_crLm iiii^lit |S. M] 

i«isaE:aiTi to-inarraw (f. r. "^1 the ni::it diy") "Elie [icuc/' piid jg-ain 

r^e two brolliers go ^ul ., fR. 4] 
koj/ity^-J y^, )„„ ^^hi lalfntig af^[n ^1,. 10] 
tjOi !.ni/m cd ritfJpen that oac ytm ought to cati^ agaii] |J.. (^4] 



1^0 Till.'. L^VNiGUAGE OF THE BOXTOC JGOROT 

keij^'i^ J^iishia tikis panJ/faeitt tlun he drove (tbp pig) alsa again up 

ya hoslii 'Jl^'i-t uiniimrk iSr» ud'imtJS^agSii snd Uin widower became af;;ain 

father |L. SS| 
Jitisi'il^i:^ iiiuHa let us :igr[[ii loc-V. fni . [H. ift] 
kmlSjtifwidiigcn-^eljhtg ka^hjo padSy^u Sjatfja thej had again c«ne 

to life; then iliey kJlled tbem (i^ v- Luiaawig^a aons J once iDor? |l.. 92} 

Observe lliest- |>lirisses: irtiFi tnj.^/.^ i'liiiiMi my slepiiallier (iify '*ggaiii- 

r^iLlier") I lan Imshn t'ltiia your ^lopiiiolhcr; 'imi ka.rfnii riifn-i liis 

stepiootKer. 

is k&j/'i vn j',« t(i.c/ij j[|>f[in ami ai^'^lii- f Jf^w a.frt'tf'to.f, nr: kSi/ri iswi^kas, 
•rr: n frds^iJ Ttrdtirj -lay ,ifler lo-nioiroiv ; kdsf'i adii'^ka, or: ^'j 
tflj/j^ ff.^frti day be/oTi^ le^itrdd)- 

hOiT't I'Ji tflj/Ji (.(Jifu: niie liiin? ami an atlicr Uiiic not; in Ihcj'c 

Hn.isagi'.'i ; nyhi'inko Iioifn \n6giaSgiiid ya kastn fsiion? fire ivt 
ciju^ari^^ al Qiie linn] ami ^E ,th olhcr liirn: iiolf [1^. ^7] 
uj'ti^tnj k<Tifn inadka ya kmfn tsiia'i^ ^o- yoti cry a1 one lime and 
al an other Uroe itot? (wby do ywu cry aomedmes? ) [K. T4] 



ATXir.lARIt.S CONJSTfilJCTUD W'VTU LIGATURE AY 



TJic folLowLHE "[Liix[1i-iric^" jrr fuiiiiccLcif luili Ehe vtr!) by flr; (hey 
ii^ iifll lake \\\o kinds -^f cnnlfnG^, Hie "d<'(jendenl" verlj i^i in llie "Inlini- 
tive," or flDaielirnes m the form of thu Nomen i^cnds, (Our co|>ula "lo 
he" [s iiilicri'iiE En tlii^ cfilcgoiy of Au^ilirirkji.) Soilk iiiifJotiaiiL "iiiKilia' 
rirs" ■>! llil? cla^s aie i^iveii liere ; oilier^ v,^\\ be cnuni'T;i.li:d in llie cliaplfiTB 
on the AjivertiB, 

J [■3, ?i^f|J iiieaii.s ■ very ^ogii- in ,1 moinent ; il tcfcrii Id the iinTrrdi^tC 
future sn^ can not be employed with any past leiise. L'tiiaily the verb !.« 
In lhepr-;^eiit Len^e, rarely in ihe fiimi'e 

Tn crfninecilon willi verbs sditS remains either tinchnngrd, \- *. J^w 

vi'ilhoul ciidiiigs and llie main vei'b lakes endings^ 

Or i^Hfl E^kP3 the pcr&onal (itevcT Ihe possesbive) miiinE^, M'hilo the 
ninin verb lia* no endings 



THi-: lAXGIJArrE OF THli BOXM^OC TGOROT 13" 

In ?i^er case tlie ligaUirf ay fallows sdrUt. 

Tlic iorni^ oi sdiio . S-icis-'- s^lniiJk: -■\<iniikj^; idim- Dual; sdnaie^; 

Plurah siiii^l>ii?0'. jJFtrfirrfwr/j im^b^y^: utaSlja. 

(PosK^ave vcrl.'^ teiaiii \Wit ending usually in ihe ihiKl su^ul^r, ^a 

in^jiff Ii;l^ mlj uniJim: In dii^ |n:r?;'nit 

idnaai: iry jj^w^^i" Or rf?Jifl 'v uvuV'nk T ioine. "in a monieflf' 

S^'iof^a'-v umcfii it Jia'ia'y jmtdUkn vrtu came ia a ntooient 

jfiffo'u rfiirrf^j lie v^iJI iMiiif iiiiinedj^blely 
.(Jj^rft.Nii/.ry i^ui^J^J ivr AJJ-w^'i; iiffi^itfi&mf \vq Flmll come at ooce 
jj/ri0ij.t' oy jj/i?'jj^^Fr ii nan indktm I cciuie jusL now tu «at the ticc; 1 ajn 

grofrtfi la i^^L now 
.ttfnajt aj /jflrf/f^jj itan ttflfi^f: or idwaflft a^f vum^^tmlf U -iwn J-^'i/rj Ljr 

.•iaiitt'y andpck 'uru li^lf''^ I slnll ■;i'i;k Lfie key iiirLnciiiately 
stina'y adumiiyaf! iz ^li I ^U^U ^rt L-c In^ii al once 
sdiiQQk oy ywa'^ih^ i^ 'lan kdya T i-liall cut die woo^l vtry :iy'Jii 
.ii^jiiT 'y s'b/ieiiliflct/ van tdy/t ive ^hall cin llie ivhkI luTlhwilli 
nan ?a!/fl.'i sdna'y (ck^ihi'iia nan hdyang )lic ni^n ^ull inimcilialely Lliri>vv 

Him iajdi'i sd'ia\' aiijdii iln' ivr'niun ^vill cojik? ret once 

sdtio-'y kisp^ini mih t^foy,- <w. isndkAftii ay nimi^dt^b is iwH tAfoy; on 

lU'idkuiiii iiy L'Qpi'ji iiaii tilfn'j we ?bj]l iii^kc Hit ^i|>i':ir liimiCEli.iirly 
sdnaak ay iniiii^fii is nau oiigon^a I siiall e*J lo !"^<: tin? <:liil'l ^it once 
sdmak oy aydbim sSJta;fn: sdaiiak ay tMottgiiytk tan sika I cill yoa 3tE 

uiacc 

fTlie jnrlkipiql form of tbp iriRin verb (Nam. aijcntis) is i>reicrLed 
to [lie "JiifiiiLlive" ; sdiiaa!/ ay uiamildsait^ "L ■^lulll JiiinK([|^lr]}" k' s 

Observe the use oi sdnal aa oniWfc upon an order; aa; paii^alik-Sygi 

aililu! AiiJ, jffFra.' come alf i|LiLtl;ty[ Aiii. ''jiifl nionicnll" Cji;t, "^Iticli!" 

Tl E[i[^ ■►Ujcrl i& "llifOM^ii io someone, bl^ allciiliijn 1^ C^Ucl fiyr "Wfir 

ftir.v-'" (toy is :lii uRinriaiivt panicle)! 3'.. tsd'fi'd Uandu ki-'z tmaij^'ia 

C'l '^.-idni kd...y> llbcn lie ^a]K'i,l x<f lii'i yi^iingcr brolbet (\^'h[|if tlirowicig 

down bis le^^ In iiim): "now' betel here ic comesl"' IK. 7} 

teij^iij- k^\idii at'idf/a en ''sdi/a iiay nan ij^yificm!" TiicrcupDn llatlr laifitr 

■.;i.id; "tiere (yjni:a llic water!" <^r, "tjkiUi kuiniiil <j^-' W^^^er!" 

IL41] 

TjnjITJA 

314. TjHjftfa n-ieaas: atill, yet^ it has usii<k]ly pcrsonaT ejirflngs aad h 

conncd.-d Willi T.b<: vtrb by ay, if I jit jit ja lias iTllri|^s, tbe verb is wilhont 



132 THE LANGUAGIi 01' THE EONTOC IGOEOT 

The verti ib usuaUy preceddl by l^o [or I/a], mdicating the cQntiFiua' 

lian i^E lilt tuiLilliluii <•[ ;ji;Lii;ni j,'^!'*]- -- Frfyniiiiiily Hit |>er«i^[L.il f»>riii k 
ii-(.NJ iii^if^d iif \\v \iu'^fif^-^\vv fijFTii of iraii^iEive vcrl)^: ink^di^bifl/ iiiMeait 
of kdpgJi. I mnSm iiil.'i//i\,Jirfj iil^iLcuiI q1 Liimfdck. i seyj; ihcse personal 
verbs ^ipiii^^r in tFicOr p.Lriicipi^il I'orjij^ ; inkiffl', iymf>nid 

tjilfttja/a; Plural: tfttjiljUtdbo ; ijiJjlijJl^dfftl!; j;iijiijit&Sy'^ ,- ijiijiij/jij^. 

t;i/f!f)ai!a'v l/a iiiiiii^ait \oii are ■■till '.-aliiij; 

tjitj/lja ay t",iiyj^ kchi^n nan rndku'i^ ^rc j'Ou Still eating tlic net? 

ijifffilii'y !^dm hdpiii nan iifaii^ you are still buitding* the honse 

tjitjhja kct lak/hi nan kspdr.^H I have yet the kiufe (lit. "yet to lue my 

l:iiife"'j 
lji!,Hti(ii:S»ifay (sa ''ntsfhi-? ■wc are ytL ^^rkJiiR 
tjitjiijdScAy^ ay f/a maiiatif^ng^ are yaii '^lill <laLi':iiijj? 
ijitjlljaka'^ hii niair/thfn yea are alill ftmokin^ 
jitru f(rhiii(tiyi ja rjirjiijd'/a'vuL ilic moeiiuji ^r?: %!ill liert 
tjitjUja^ ify lii^ ifikOeb ii idfay or: ifiiiflja ay l^tfpcL- nan l/tfay 1 iiiii 

Still mAkin^ fipesfa 

nr/^j t)'i}^on^a tjitjUja 'y mjt^k^i iTi-c i:fiil<l is ^.illl ^.l-ck 

ijiijtijitJik 'ev Ss-a ifiniii/Ji/tiiL^ isr nan kdypc E am siill cntlJnt" wood; or: 

ij\iftrjdkti"\i av t-^a m6n-^a'i. i<, nan iSki we jre itill e.Tiiiig lln: "itj|i[" 
ijis}i!;dtjis nun fi'hjafnyi av f/^J int-Jmid is imit jddso ili*; ■i»uiia':n are slil] 

jt TyjJt;aji j'^ tiiSstfiit 'w jj.vri C"'jj', ^zj^rt Tiinji-ij- d^ ■:lill in Clijcinju 

ij Xii^l^ng ya ijiljfija iii l-se>tio^ ad.idn^\i}d\'m Muli:ii^ was atill Id boaitoc 

liildy 
ayi'/ liilj/tfn sh'. Intern tuna? T;^ Amero still here? 
Hif>i yin/nk ijiljlljii'y tja i>t]^d^b u nan dfriHgiui ruj Inrothcr Is alill build- 

Ijilftljti '5' /g^jfr niJji j/jrt ii nan Jijanjiko I *iLirl keep ihe ilog in my liouae 
l/iljtlfinii- ny /tJ'J'e'i'' i.i fiaq j/iHgsiag Z am sdU makiiiii; ringa 

315. Tjdl^a^k-o [ndkashko, J/jw^^o-ft-nl. nhviiv:* wiili tlic- pft^?ffis[vc 
endiirgs, ts coiiiiecl-c<l ivilfi life patiiciple or Noin. ngcntis of Hic follnwiiig 
verb by niie l[^altirc- if;^': H expre=5es aiiddi:!!, iiiiniedislc jcli-^n. 

Tlic forms art ; biiig, rjdkasi;!?; tjdka.rmo: tjtiA^asna^ Un:A: iSitlnalG; 
Plural; tjakastdko; tjd&as^nt; tidkoiyA; tjal:d:tja. 



THE LANrTlJAGi: OF TK[". BONIXDC IGOROT 133 

ijdkii'hf'n m JJJ'J^fj;iJ^^ T cn imnicili-if^p 

tMOJt sii/nffat' itoi' 'nldh', tjiu iiyit':i<<t\t Ch^trTiuij o-y tuxidyast when the man 

C^llie, |]ii: hllfTnlih r,in -.iiilrli'nl y rnvTv : 
issait fii^^fa\\\ riiiii f'iin^inJti. ijii/ia.ima'y fuinoitif^'Ci a:^ flftOn as yisu cTo&e 

ilic rl-r>rir, n Im ek ■Lnik 1 nl once^ 
ts^S^mhtfa 'v \\'»!tiv*ifi iiiiiiiciIi:iIl'I^' rhey started running :j.\\:\y {\l. j^j 
krij/ng tf6tgkasiai ay s^mkip is nan p^g^^g Ihen w^ Wt^t ^t OiiCv Into 

LliC far'-ie I II. 41)] 
tprf.-r/ ti^l<t<-:i<h ,i\' lh<«^yt,r^ \/f SHkttfffOk M\^ thtrl hv flew mfmedfalely 

rn^,=iy jEiil J:rkil ; tiV^.;.''/''/*!^' |K n"ij 
is'icd dwtin^'ii 'c\tii tas^duG ya Uitkash'ia ay n\ai'<iilj^Skifh j".t rra-p kaf\l fasts 

ttien ]iit fjiollicr-in-law drinks and He (i. e. i.^rrr^W'ii;) ihimIt.^'!; Iiiin 

iniiiiciji^iclv iiii^> [III? Tock. I i„ 7OI 
t}iiki"l\"n 'I.I' 'i^'iaiiSU li p^iiji ^r/i^jrr li.- ririurned Ihe knife at oiicf 
ijdHr,hij>i'y niiu\k>i;{h fi ppi^jj. (nfifl they suddenly liurled Btones (fthifskek 

I Lhi'owJ 

316. SumyJak y^/i^kny {dti^kayj crmveys the idea of doing £oniE- 

[liiiiLMTtdiiMvdy |;l^ vJ"iii',V,?_v.-ririlj, in ilii'. plir;i-.<: cx]>|-c'.^eBj ; Uhsspflf- 

.=--\i!l\ rililiii;;- .ink ,iiiil i,'.|i[ir.'^ [||^ IJ^.lLilr'' ^ry. 

Its fomisatc: Siiiguiar: ssmyital W"'"*y^i^' samyd^]; jumydba; 

sflmy.1, n,i.nl' .^t.:>,y,t!a- Pltir^r- .-^jmyaurko; ju^nji^Wini"; xamyat&yA; 

Pfek'i' !'tiiin)y^rdlt y^tn^^cay Fiil. -Jiijiiiriy^Tot jroHgfe^ 

^''"\nyj!ifir viifi^k^y jy Itt^il'flatfn ym cto nothinE Fiul sil down ; "yo" =1™ 

iii'l accivc" 
jMftH'4Jtdv>* jf/fr.^frfl>i oji ^keJi/US you arc onk ^iitnlsiiic 
^ff»fyi7 yiTJii'^-fry fri?jj ^/(hj a,! ^.i^f^ ^^^i, .<,j7^/rl^^_.:^j.j you aioiie have a hat 

("il ii iinly for yfi. ilmi iIi.t.- ]■: vnur fnl") 
jdtKVf y,fi,^kay k^ tddJ ay ^odd n/m k^sjls ay fifdsdna he alone has a 

simtmy^ok >irij^tflv ay inmdH \ alone liave roine 

yrNJJVif^cT ydn-kayay biSfdi'b ij *,j*rfV^ y"" <''^' n-.niiiig but iiiafd: jlneJ.!;; 
^\w\\-4kad>igf.-ayay M^'h nm f,-<}gm yrjii Jihi^y^ '-l^ke llic Eon.l lliLiiff for 

ycnir.'^cir" 
-u^^r.iiflf^^td i'rfrr^trty oy .jj^pi.^/.^^ ^r^ .Jo, noiijiuji liuL smoke 



i:^4 THE LANGUAGE. OF THK BONTOC IGOkOT 

In H airailar way dpid- [ittrid; lib^d-] h uficd loi^prCT^tticiaincidLj; 
haidpSd- lak« cither ptrsfmBt or pa'^^r'^^ivc <;in(iiisj> ;iml ir^- i'^ omidcif; 

thcTcfurc :l bdj^t:^ U> ilit "-m^riJlHirii's"' tTumKriei^iJ in |,J07-3i2l bill is 

4f'!'iiik \ii'i'^lcay^itrihn} I do nolhiiig else Inil tvoirk. 

dlriid aiiglray uiitn^an ifya lie is oi\]y eatiiip 

ii!'iilk& ytiii^liiiy htlphi nan /i/ji,(^o I do ihi'lbnij^ but in.ike Ilie pots 

di-^"fJrra ji^u^iuy /i/fa'rn lit inily .i^k-; 

dhuiimi yiffs^bav t*"dt^eii iiatt kiHa \\i iiiilv s|ilii ihe wyitl 



MODIFYING VELRnS 



317. In ^;^flTo^ ihcTe are luini'.Toii'i icrlii^ ivEiich ^^c'rcrn, di u'c ^luiukl 
say, a Heji-indcin Infiniuvc Mnny <'i ilit;'^': vrrl>^ niny l*c Fi>iiti'I ii iIh: 
VoL;nbii(arv ; only llie iiii:i=-[ iinporlinl ^hn.ll lie ^Jvi.il ln:r<;. The "D^^"^'^''-- 
ent Infinitiiic" is preceded by the ligature ny. 

yachgckck \ i^lrivc, I ii?n: rntr;;y, fierce, zenl 

yaffil ^cki-l/ ay eni<idi!0 \ -ivuik lini d 

jiflr/ff^i.-Fifm ay h^k^U you speafc loml 

yanii^rki^'iidlf-i ay maiig'ij^^tt^i^ lei us box vigorou!*lv! 

iririrJpc^^t<?i rf-j UniikA^'HrnH I called loud 
layiijfu^i-tr^ ixy fiflfiJ \i<: '^^^ iicw^il Inrd 
yaakitko.yitolfntko ^'\ dOiJlicile" [ynrr/wjirfytd] 

j'(ii^Wf"ij ^^1 ^ii^k'iJf v\t's '^]»'s-jk in a Iom- T4H10 

jijjfjfic^jj'j^'y iiy ^uliJ^/i'} I iv'irk jl lllll?; 
kawAeic T hasua; PrcKr. t/nj?m«*- 

tMH^^i'jji n^i triHfl>' L'l-i ii'tictly 

quickly 
ftrT^j^jHWi fiv fir"fliJ/' I I'^rri" in hiiMi: 
k-ttiiatnAt-k ay i'Hitkfak T run f ^-■oler (C*^^||>il^^^|v^^c>;|l^^;^5^^l 

by rtttupllta^ioTj) 
kakamiii^i\yii aj /^iujjfli/j't^j^ dance fasterl 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOHOT 135 

ahtnliyck L do '■liiw[j , txl(ihtndx"--l^ T il't Tii.tr*: -.loyly, vcr^ 'foh\U 
itMms/fyem ay ^n^S/iHi.' «|icnl; niiirf ■^Itm.-ly 
iimlalundvko ay tinm^li \tr^mJti] I rrlumi'i^ more slowlj, 
vory ilo^i'ly 

If^yljclf ] >^aii[, lihc; kyU^yijd: T prefer 

li^ylji^iimf uy fBf'iidU id f^iitak y--v .v;iiil \o rolurn lo 

ISoiilo': 
l^ylj^uiii/ ay f!a/i. 'lan til \\-<: Ilk.' In iix ihe ciH' 
ItrVl^ylj^'iidko ay h//ci ttan mSnok mo nun JsJf ivt [jrnier 

eating a tliicki^n |y ^ainig ri dog; w* r-alhcr eal chicken 

IlkiLII iJag 

Mjrr;j?t j/^a ay tujnjjlfiiii L want ynu to sii dowTi 
Ityytjam! tsaJs^tia 'y ij/n^/itg^n ^n "c Irlft v^rv milch 

to he^ir llils 
imcyiidrta ay f\uiiily iliry viTinied logo (OT: 0^ (SMily; but 
ilii: itrcicnie foLlrti\..'; uKunlly ifii: preferiu of tlie govern- 
ing VCrlh) 
iSiibof/ \ Ik'^ii[ 

^^^&(im fl,ii ('ij^j^jjr?,' Ijceiii l'> "orkl 
il^hofdho'y infdl^^id let lis T^egiu lo fi^ht 

i'ildbotjit'y piidn^en luw bdy^ ility [nr^^jn \Q P])iLL iJlc 
wood (iir, rty pinffa'if^ nan kayri: or ny mamllang is 

adildbvmi ay o!de>i >iaii ffody^ <^^- sfiall bogiir Lo .-i.nk tin? 
rice (or; ay mat^lfti' is nan ffnd';^) 
ii""g^yait i ^Li.|i [d^mk^yak; domg^yak t^Xi:.] 

''img^yak- ay maii-illai' J -rop runiiine- 
r-^UFFr^t'i^j'f/j (Jjpz»FPrfr<*//if ] uy nuii^fhn [iiey&lrippi'if riinning 
titm^SykHrru ay i}jt!si?iio tay miifil kdyr^ ivc cta.ci; fruiii 
working, because iln:rc i> no w"0.! 
ir.JJ?j<^^t; /n^j^l^^. 1 fiiiisl,, tnJ; are d^rJ £reqireiic]y in >Ut, |ji«ivej 
naifmk^ iiiid un/^^c^^^ foifc^ed by an 'HJiLT pLiSiivt Rut <il50 (lie 
BClive occurs sometiiDes: 

(T"ft^£'t u^r »jt?j]H.,^rr I fiiii-^li u.ilin^ 

fjuiiiliNrrdifj try cnf.\dito \c\ *i5 emil rtur wvorkingE 
ffftii'ihenyi^ av mjni't/^^ t"s ^^a^^ diajrf ' finish your bnildinp 
I (it granary! 

finsiddhia'y pind/id [t.r; ai; paf/lj^ii, ^rr ay namdUd j'f..,] 



13& THE LANGUAGE OF THE Bajn-OC IGOROT 

tian {stja yn niiii»t!/o ay mii^tn the musC h conked, has 

Ei«n cooked, is finished c-'ukiiit;; 
miii t^fa\' I'f nn^mf^ti ay yrnkd^b ilic .'penr [i jlrtiidy iindi;, 

1-1 lini'^lli:cl 
iitidmii-o'y "lizuld'hiii j^iJii itit<id ilie leiLer i-i .ilrcTly ^»rni''n 
'lofiiaifi ^v 'lai^tmiii i\ait fi/iiny llie coiil i; iiiiisln:'! '.(^ivliiy 

fyir.tirti'ffi^u iH' cfeJjj^jjcj I wovV. ^11 flay Long i 1 conlinue 

i'^To lOiiliiiiic'" I'l ^lI^o CK|iri??!*eJ by kosfii i^li] . kust'ii^^'it'v 
/nlsf^'if |lf^ "u imrkiny;! caiiliinii: workjiig) 
iP^ngki* I li"y J/i^Ji,'i"to f"^' iFrtJi^iiiL'^iij' I Ir^ Ell s^iy 

i/it'iigl^o av lif'icii 'f^a I try lu iin^ti yuii (iir: nr >n»n^^fed 

ipt'iiFrjn uy ]|]J]|Jj7e;-> .tf fdn^a llie\ Ej'y lf> iuilt pul^ 
:yliviii- 1 L'l, pcrniil 

iviivom mk/M uy ^iaen m' Icl iiit ?ee lliatl 

here 

fijfjifS'-.'jLr.t I -li [iriiiii'iJLJLiL'lv, iJir^tly: I il-* i^^ tht fii'^c iliiiii; 

j^hjjJS.Jmjjj av Miaji/ibf-r y.m sjii.>k^: ii:iuiicdirLl-:ly 
{•atidit.ihisi.- jy flfffji^-iJan is Bfffr ir-i:l'}>ri^i:o I r;ike off my 

hnl JLiiLiic^lin-Hcly <■'!>, /rj<JJJf^- I EEike ulT) 
jli>*i!L-^f> j^art Lu'iulwii; yu panderskdria nan ijiaam ay 
t'litn f-fiifSl-a [aiiikh'I!^ iriilorv ami niksdiretlly fof water 
{lli-i fiisl pcC !■! a:jl:ir|^...J |N- ^i | 
piina/^^hantdkc^y >i\ihiy.iii ii nan milkan let UB eat the 
Tice. iis llic Flt^I ivC il-rJ 
miibf^ffi [I'icfaUn] "possible" ur "able," d? common to Bonloc Ip/fl-Ql and 
to Ilotano; with peraonalor poMeasivc .inilnp*. ]( uieEinft; I can, lam 
3l>li;, pii.l cKi>rt^!;t^ ino^lly ptiyi^H'^i! afiility; iiitihlnl ilbilily i*.chi<:f]y 
exi>rc^sr'l tiy iti?iti^i?fr, I kll'>l^ (ff. Pi'- foiiz'oir :isfi nnvi''). 

The u«e of th* eiiflinp* seF-msi lt> he uncettflln; with petsonal veiba both. 
mabfdlSnak [moidlt'^a!;^\ ^nd mabfaHn'^fro [i\iisfmfiigku\ are fniplnycjl; 
lKi*5^i;^:ve vcrls |ircfcr mi^fQUngko {mQbf<ifl'nzkQ\,— 'SQ\a'u ig^roL tejerltJi 
thf UM of tbe |>Lr3jEil eiidLiigs. 



THE LAMGUACrE OF THE BONTOC IGOliOT 13; 

iiiabf<il/iisl-'" •".' fi^dpi'ii Jdf?ri iffoii^ I inn bllild Ibe hiuse 

ii\nii7l}nri 'y f^!" nan kipan fio c;in kicqi llic kniir 

ki'kk^nfJQ^y 'iifi^ti nun bfh\k iIh'v <tiii (iiuiliT'^lriiiil ii.l ■niml \.W ni'iin:; 

uiahfii'inJja 'y j'/itakili'hi'^ tetuj f<ilfi.\i- cfiLj tJiii wnn] ail" ili-c sii'rnr'^ 

iiialiiihvfi ii\ itUjn ^fvii you. caa WlIIcJi Iiljti |//^i/i'^i, /r/i/o'/c I ^nuli] 

niif'full'ii^'Jfo or niabfiiliiiiik ny uiiuili I riii r[J>fc lo uome 

ninj/rliiiiiii tiy ma.i^ycp I dn ■olc'ii (or : p^Pci/aZ/ris-ttk) 

nafdUnak ay nas^yep I was able Eo 5J<Kp 

tiitl'fethiKt'y i^iiulititi pcijjj IjJy?^ Ifcc ,i-;i-, ,ibj<: III clhiiil> lli^' Ivi^e 

itiiifiili'ixito'y I-.\li< so vim i:;in hvq' lln^, h*M rlns 

inobidlhi jv umiiii 'tan tiicidi^lciii il ji- |iii'.'-ilklL ihat the girl Kniie^ (rti-j 

iT^niifi iijjirf^^' lion Mia-'im^^i-iti | .■\of^| ) 
jj-ffV mahffiiin ny n'liflci;; hud LI !■; iiul |irt«'ib[f nj r«t here 
icckkchuia ay jj]flrr^;'rVj'.;Hi {.' /''irr^ir ihcy crni (liiioiv Eu) *icll ji.r'; [cf. t , i8| 
aykSira ntif »iohfnU\t iv f&maldk/ii'>-?' cim joii iinl renuLin ^[;n(fln^? 
fi^i;u_i, ^jjjjji aiU until jnUii ay ia^jiriin nan kdyO^ ay nayf whj can we nor 

ciriy thisi iviiI]»IT 
mabi^fn: i( is possible, !t may be; fTIoc, ^^h, i>nwer, i^llftv) 
di>-iu^tii jJiTJi ijioblaUiiiiio ill. ^vllil1 [^ [i^&^lMl for yon, 'lif wlinl ytm can 
niiibfiilhiti ijj' cJjjzj'jj In: can do evtrjlliinj, tvti;Lli[iij5 i^ (K>:;^ifjlc tu him. 



:Sl^. CombiiiJlJtuls of |xi4«fi^i\(? sufltxc^ ivhfli ruul^, ^vlildi -.xf: sub- 
sl,^^^ivcs, Mrve 3QroetiiiiC5 as "auxifiaries" or mridiliers of verb*; i^ 

f/'Lflf ClKfiilll, liabll. ncjljfl' (Imt: /*iJi/ 111?,-!!!?: CErc) 
fhtiifco iiy 'i\<ii/iy..'i> [| ii mj- Lu^iam io^kH?|i; I ii^c lo sleep 
fJiadiiii ay mdngan it dsa it is our custom t-o eat dogs ; vc art wont to cat 

([ni^i: wii ni.c lo eul (|r)pn 
iifl/rt.j^fj ^jan i.',diin,it^Uli<i ay umfkizg aftei 0"t. "finished") the work rhey 
u^e In rcit 

Ui<Uiiiiiay b^>tiiUf<i}\',is>iii>^^idti! ive li4? Jo ait Oil lElf ^tono* at lliy comu- 
cil house 

tT\k!i{*h.-i iiy miiijii [ifi^t,! ,0 coine [infrodkoi my ^'former'' CBistumj. 

fJlQ Lhr ilireci ^vdy; Eollyv^ol by 111* ctipul:! y«T 
dialiyo \dy<,i^ in. dErccL ..ay- fi "lo flnje ." J llri' ^1 I'lux 
j^flju yrr shuinkef' if nan ff/og vour <[ir«t .vuy i^ niterlngthe Errl's dormi- 

rorj; you tTi|,:r iiit<:i:t]y Ihe ^\r\\ dunnilory 
k^/hig aiatt jan tn^dlina yu kunid!af> 1: kdya tlien his son imjutdJAniy 
climbed upon a tree [M, i:?] 



13» THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOXTOC TGOROT 

mn^yka ad Kand^/fi J^effi^iig jfiam ya ad Fdntsk you go to Candon and 

fr<>ni (here direclly lo Boiitoc 
kmjhig illami ya nan p^spag e! ioikf^dm ya ad SefVJihiU'n ititn we went 

direclly iiico ibe lorest anit wt came {Hit ("our ■e^e5s"Jt at Cervantes 

Pc* clmihk- plifaaa coaault the Vmaljiil-^i-y 



MiC.ATlVES 



3Jy. Tlie use oi iJie difEcrcriL nc^:iuv£?i ijt lifliilof l^i'^raL is <h'L[Tiiiim;Ll 
by sir id rule?. 

Tlic negatives are; dd!^ *'?*'; tno/fd- fSk^n; ij4on. They are also 
em [lidded, according ia cerlaiii rult*!, 33 iLie parlicl-? oi an^vec : ''ii.>". 

\i ilie ^ollin^-ille di?^:ii?:iQii will slpu^i-, ilie nc^yiiics Ukc 1u liiuuich'cs 
tke failings of verbal forma aad are tlnis verbalised, 

ADl 

320, y^ii/, iiol, is usicd as siiik]>]e iiegativt willi vcrtj=^ e^peci-ilTy in [lie 
|ir[;«eii[ and fiilure, b<H riirely wieIi pa?! lenses. .^J/ is alao ilie iiegalive 
panicle foi' pfohihitiv* int[Wfnti^'e- nud \v'A\i tiie ^an^uitctEi:^ fair expee^^^?^ 
negative purpose "llial nol; lesl". 

^1// affecls u wtiole senlence or a single i^'or^I. In the Tatter case it 
cofresponds SHjmi.'<[inJ?s lo our pi'ivitive pi oliN».'!i im-, iu-, liii- tic. ; lliere are 
no privalive p^irlicles found m coiiibiiialioii willi any words in Bont-oc I^otdt- 

Aii! v;hh ihi; cndiiijE^ l;ik.cn fToai the v^B> appca^^ ■" these forms: 

Pcrsuiml; Po^iof^'^ivr; 

I, adfuA- ad fie 

3. aiUk<f B'Um 

3. ittU afl^i'ii 

I J. adlta <idJ!ti 

I. Jncl, itdildku odndki: 

I. e>:c1, nd/kiim/ n-Um! 

U. amayi^ adJyn 

111. ad^if" adJrfa 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC AtOR^T ijy 

III (iinii-p adt Uk«4 (besJdes the etmliifg^J ^\tn iht future |)r?fix aS- 

orf/dfr B^Kf^W I do Prt com* adtk kifkfc^n I rto nrrt know 

adad/'k^ii-.i itt'iUci^ \vc ^.li:ilf not odad/mt lagfdlhi sn ^c iliall riGE 

ff^^t carry [Jii^i 

ti4i £itis^»o stya hciloes not work ir^^ira kd^^n 'tan djon^ he does not 

l>u[ld iln? Hi>usc 
tifijr//i]j3))!? »?F?ifV I'vf// ^^'f? 'hull flftF ^ tliere 

iifiif luidifs adt lunidyaSf ihi' n^n iJ"ct rnnl i iiii 

Tioji fjjijyi^ji^'j ad!lja i}ii:y.il i. "o'l -.i'd'i/.tt llic cliildrtii []■> not sivlm in il»n 

riv^r 
iiap^ jafdyi adina allien nan iif/^irn lli>: .runi^n docs iinl Inkt- llic knife 
nflfr FFfj'jjififr-igt^j^ fli^/j/if jahd^he'i iwn f-\nga ihe ^irls do Jiat bre^ the jars 
flrf/ft l^ytjnt jfi T do not like ihat 

adlha eiigi^dlt! du iioi ^pcakf a.it^-/iyii J''igkaU.'' do >t not spcatl 
ffJ/^o CHgkd Infill Li riliiy >t_^as L' Td k^n l-idt &' nul sny aiiylhiiig ivhal^n- 

ivtr ^r lL|[^ Lij JiJDil 
ffrf/ tif/fwAi iiol I [lie, "uiilrLie-" au'/ k^wh nil giX-rl, nul f.iir, "uiifait'' 
ffd^/ hag nai'iiay infr llLo ihi^., "di^^^lrnlljir'' 
adtmi !kad ay fumdya^ jj t^fit f^l^^nifl ii i* aVi y^r i;HetWL Ui run awaj 

ill Laiilo 
mtfini ijcn^'/icg^ii tjakayA we do not hear you 
ij [;^af+:^^ irrf/ijii .^i&ifi'ii na'i k^vfi l.lj?;aLig drirfl not 'ill lUe wood 
fTTjrJj^irf'^'iifJ' — adiisl: ' iiTi yniL -ilrniil? — nii! (I rfm nwt) 

umavliUvi^/ — ad^kSmt' .\\'<: >&ii ^i^iii^^ — h'll 

fTHiJj ktivfc ya adf tfaktjdki \hi litmse Ia nn'l l;ir^ 

fl(// Hs/ki'ii nan kdliiia lii^ 'lords nire nol true 

j3i^/ifl." ilrf/tfli doii'[] <loiri[ (ii the verb whidi [hp si>paL!C]' h^^ in hit iiiin-d 

i^ i per-'^oiiEil verb) 
oIAhJ adf^f dcm'tl don't! {f| the epeaber has a possessive verb in his 

mind) 
ndfka ka^ f'^l^y' ^y i'tdka do not cry like a woman ' 
Sll/ tJit'A .fri,' pr^^J^ Jfl.' llii^ Is nnl giwl: Ihii: is |»ad! 
adfmi Itfyljcn «jr irifedefi-' ';riii -wt <h not libc Irs ^lay here 
wCTPi f?ftf/,t i?'if!hrihn "my noi s|n:akliiE" (ne£^i. Nom, ai;L) 

From ihc rool udf iHe posanK^sjve V(;rOr ird^et, |ircr. i'l^dik, p^^sivc 
ijifM?i?i^ i^ iliTivcil, meaning: T deny, rtfufic, fi^j-bid, "Id mil: adkk sikatty 
Hmtty I forliid you to go- aiifMmi rj-iftjay e^gktxif ivc let Hiori ml 

SlKnlk. 

ffdry no? 



I40 THE LANGUAGE OP THE BONTOC IGOROT 

ayk^kif i'rsak/f? are you sickl Sdt! luT {odhkf) 

}imdykaint ad Mit'iHn ia c'i_%kaml ''ikifH' is liitnsHv; irclji'ii,f; irdt !\an fdhit 

]d ii'^ ^"0 [ri Mniiifii ihiil ut m^ikc n iivi.il; llicii llic people "do Jiot," 

icfmr 1^^ ^j ||!. 4r| 
hetjhtg hand'W Oi "ivM^yiii'i\i\l jjmjE,'" kcfj^a^, trdfiut ihtn lie \::.y\5- ''le-t 

fn/nil'tn i/y "i/m^^ifjJti c'l '^h.s^iiifkv ta "iifi^imtHkof iz4cd adf ill*: says 

[^^yilli^J : "fornc 'lo^vci, l}ijil wa mjiv cjill IllCTI [Ifccr ■^nii) jloci llQ-t 

(come (IfPWD) [K, 16J 
kajidnf.ia on [/fanQuSfa en ] "ifiUfaitt 'tan iiif:ttit\\!" ; f^cfj^'ig Adf llicv say: 

"ciTime OLiI t-o fhnci?! (lit/ t^kt ^iic y.^iif tLindn^il ; I lien ^lic ilnftS 

no! [I.. S7I 
sO'/la'd foJif^^i; hetji'uf^ Sdl Ici tu iwo go liiiciit, ihcL iic Jixs nu-L, lit 

mhiiti^^nia is ntin fcfu/dii-/^'; .jv l?^TJ^^5 Ifl ii*, It.i lfvi> ^kilte iD ihe little 

ad/ HtdlaUn ,<ir/ Ihis la nuiHTiriililc 

adSak iiiaftllncd I Am iiui Ihjjleu!, ii"[ t. pri-i^n^r 

(tdJkomt mQay*ikQ}\ kJii fdtl/ w- .in imC r,jllri.| h\ lijin 

AhlioiifjJi aif/ \^ Ihe ne^ialivi? ior vcrl": in ihi; |m".i:jil ;i.lhI fuuirj^, JL 

o^f/t lindg.i tan h!ipi\ \ dnj jii'l Iniv Ihe cHloii 

ffd/jjj! hj'tiatfd \siin k'ffd\'^y ii-t ^liil lun .'iond Ihc ]v>r;c 

"d/kilf/f Kllllll^i hV|' <lnJ Tl'»( CQIIIC. 

^JT, l^iiiyi tgdy, not, not at all, la the oe^tive for the preterite; 

empliiVHl ^[Tielimff^ ivilh xiv- iirc&ent; il t!LJi|jliJBi?ci the iicgalioii Ij^if fa 
not used wkli ilir ijiip^'r^ni-M' <.r ihc fiilure. Ji ukes Eioni ilie verb ihi; per- 
sonal or iKiaaessivt cn'lin^^. Jls f anas are: 





F'eriniial: 


Pjt'isr'jfl^'ft: 


I. 


igdali. 


ii^d'^ak 


Igfik 


igU^^i} 


2 


igiika 


i^tsvka 


l^ltiyi 


indynnf 


3- 


i^d 


k^y 


i^tJiia 


'i:<fyna 


B. 


igdta 


t^iiyia 


i^iif^ 


i^dylii 


I. incl. 


igstdto 


igoyidho 


igaidko 


i_]^:iyfdii-/: 


I..'>:d. 


igdkami 


igdykStfif 


ijfSmf 


ij^flymS 


JJ, 


i^ilkSy^ 


igtfyka"^^ 


i^crya 


igify^ 


111. 


igdtja 


igdytja 


ygdtja 


jgilytjtc 



THU i-AKGUAGE OF THE BONTOC iGOROr ui 

(The forma igdykn and igdyma seem to be used very rarely). 

Tlie \vt\) is in the |iieiei'kc ^ll[l ■-uinetinie? in the present; but evtn in 

if,-^ak iim^'t 1 did jioi s;ii, J iii;vflr "woit 

t£-j?i'4:HVj^^^ miis'iyef %n.'i: iIhI hoi f^lt^n (ori ^^fi^yr/'J 

i^^iijj jakdJiL-n nan id^uan lie did nol break Uic tin jU i;tr (oi; jiniikasli') 

is"^ W;V w M fl^™ flj^V^ffffl ycu ncvtf showed ihis lo jour friaids 

igdy!.-ti U;-"k] kdn^w in Tfi.iT n.-ver beEore *attii ihis 

Ig^ ilU'ldfi i/ivr 3li^ dill ilil1 tilEUr: 

igifykii shm^-ftid mm J^undUi I did not csrry- ihe douhle-tasket "Amflfo" 

igSm! I'mt's chx {iiiJlii"\ I'e- illfl not see it 

ayk^k^-^jrie fia^J^y£f'^—i;;db«>iil< did yon sleec*? — rt^l (w* did not) 

aytk^ nohtuiiv ^lyn/ — i£d! did he foiish cooking? — no! (he did not) 

l^ji-'-ivc foriii-i ]i.v<:s llie prefJK ko, instead of ma- and ho-, if conn-Ect«i 
wiih Hie jf-'Hrilivc i!:d ; 

i^i! \:ah6ket \'i>a^Sht!\ nan iitja llie inent wan no! cooker? 

igd kQ^SQ '\an jfiidvi^ dK rici; ^vns jlol i:wkcil (ii not vei doue) 

j^iTJj fii'_^it ya \'^il hap^van iVw: jiir !■> lUil rilleili wJi iinl Ullccl CQJiiplcTely 

mm jdlft-^^ ya i-^ii hahiicb Ae spear was not madei ia nut yet ready 

I'Ski^ ya l-ctjJn^ ii /i^ir k-al/.t^^ Pokis ^lon^ vrb "O* Tiiijndated (by the 

Grc.-it l'Ux[) "|L. 5J 
istiljo'd yti "lani^'fy^ ya !r;d kakii^h nan iljii!}a; isAf/a'd f^'iiSh then llity 

^^'Cii[ 11 llic %vncxl^ ^"iiiadc ;i cpreiiioiiy"^ and Unc onicii^s ili<E ii"[ liirr 

mil f[LvniiiLly ("i^'CLC ml done, iic<:ij-iii]ilialii?d") ; lln:n-iL|Hir[ <\n-y 

R'UininJ [I., m] 
l^d kal^y nm \ti decid, [iliiiust dcjJ 
^.^i^y Irdpno not yet full, not E^uite fiiU 

MA/W 

322. M&/td is a I'erwnat Vcrlj, not u neg-jtivc particle; it denotes 

ncirL-cx[5rLncc ^nd cjn be Irjn^l^iicd lilcully by: ihcrt Ii-iujI ; ificri' [^ n."; 
Gc-r. 1:-. ist ni'.Lit i'rjrli;Lnd':ii ; ljj jjibr n[<:lit. — 'I'bii h.x'inX iis'-Mnm^ i)f mit/ltl 
itiii'il bc' ki:]>t in irjnil, if lis virioiii cnipluynicnl sli;d] lie iiiidrrsliiiuli In 
fiicl, nil il?i ^jim^irtJdkmij Lm^rjnis ]XT:i|iinir.iUri, if wi: di^fi^H"vt llinn j"L^v .-i^jt- 
ii'iices Will' ■"iliere- d'>es (Jn) niii i^::i'^i." 

n\.a/ld Is '^licn irnn^lnici-l bv li'^ crinl'HiilcnL . not -"my, hi, noiLiIiig"- 
vtrbs -ill CGiLiiccLioii wtlh I liifl Idi'tEiiJilif ni-^nEi'ni' tiili^I hn in llie[r Noiiicn 
actionis; as llie lg6rot say: '^leje is niit any ui^kjug-of- yours of jars:" 



142 TnK LANGUAGE OF THE ISONTOC iGOROT 

jjia/fd kaphypi »> fi^n}:it; the Nom. act. aiipejrs wiilioiiE iwi; rli-: o\i\t:<:t of 
I1j<: Son;, act. can be cnnSLdere.! i-ih-: iin ol>;eciive i^enlilvc, Bicncr it i^ pre- 
CciIj:'! I>j !s. iita/f,i Jias ^i: fi-er':iin^| vt-rfj tJie&c forjiis: mJ/id'ik I riin not 
prcscnl; ma/fSka; ma/hi I'fA^I; "rfl/Afffl; ma/ldldkif; mn/fdkiUn/; 

(All ma/!d nicnns "fhereisnw (.'Ki^HfiE: iliere ij iinl prej^iii," ivt ^luU 
find [3&^fJ a verb, the opjto&ilc of iwd//rf, ftlifcfi expresses exist^no^ "thCTC 
[-■■ ; '^•jodit ) 

Mj/ff^, beirt^ aii iiidep(^nr[ciil I'ftFh, fll<iH Tfflt like the endings of other 
verl5 (as ad£ and igd Jo} , ii li^s a iu\^^TC■ f unii ; oJiiia/til; the following 
verb, Worn. acE., slues [iiH l-ikt (lii- iiilnrc iirthx. 

ma/'fii n^ai'!^ ilaerc is no tuiffal*! (hei'el 

md/fii iitk!^'j\jiii llier* is no peisoii liere^ nobody is here 

ifia/fd kdncf: Elicri; i^! nn eaiiiip;"-o£-aiine; T -cth :inEliiiigi I ilo not eat any- 

111 Lllg 

fia/fd toNf'njfl* ynu doiinl eflEiLinEtiiiig 

TKa/fd kindngko I d[d not cas anylliing 

adnia/Zd kdn^'t 1 -Is.ill nil eat -inylliiiig 

ma/td nafiHioah Jiolliinj; is bi'Qken 

sf i-'d'if^cd yn ma/fd hud I'^n^cjl i^ rn'l |irt=cni lieve. Tlie iit-gaEive 
amwtr upiin :j question like: "ifl raiij^&l JbcrtT' i^ nni ff*^/. tiyt: ma/fd 

niit/ki dsr* no dn^, mi\/!d k-ay^ no vooi], mn/ld f^a^i no cnmiiy 
ma/Silh\ifil>iiik I tWiid noEliin;;;: ''Eliftf is riiiLiuj-hawiTi.|;-fiJimd" 

a4"l'l/fd ffjiivtiiil vOU »vil[ IH^E (irKi .ItIvLIiitii; 

ma/fd liv!* h iifiak or: -ma/M i-'rfhi: j'a J.-« T rli-l not ^« ony df^ 

1 Lit, r I. (iK-rfi K;ii^,L^ mn {il"y) du^' for [Jiy ieeiji^, i. Llmrt n;iiM5 
iK>E my seeing' of pny d"£ ) 

ma/idak h«a adji^^-i- I iv^s noL h^u yi'^trf^iay 
ma/id iiya hno -^divdiu be I? nvL licrc Ul-^J^^y ori f^™ ™ 'ffiiAc^ /V^ra 

aditfd'ti 
ma/fd ^lii/tuo nolxKly v: ii-'orking (there exi&b? not uny working man, 

any ftOTkcr) 
iita/id t^^iioiiui he does not work anything 
admajid c'ds/Jno nolxKly will work 
nta/f*l man^lek jj ju nobody kno^vs tliJil ("tbtre Tke^IS none knowing' 

that") 
viia/!d mial/yad ay mangilsdjirna^ k^r sfya nobudy KviiKi lo give Eo [iiin 
ma/fd masiiycp nobody sleej}^ 
i^a/fd iiikdcb is C&joy nobody make* apeafa (pera. v\i iiikdi'bak is... ) 



TUE. LAX'CUAGE OF THE DOMTOC iCflROT 143 

iim/fti irwui-Ayad a >ntit iaiuidki Tiiil">dj 1- ii^yiii^ ll'? ii'en 

(As these examplea abow, mtnJ in the meaning *'i|i>l>CiLly ' rcqiuiea noc 
Ihe "Nomen -actionia, but tTie Nomen agcDfja or "PardcLpLc ;" the reasoo 

ln?c<>nics evideiil liy the Titcrj! l^all5laEi^^ll ) 

jj]/rf namaddy Ji frufl Ja^jltc" iir.lio.ly h.-nj killnl llic man (ihere ivai nol iiiy 
iLayer of llie juaii] 

ii\a/fd i'l'iiifli iiol-Tiili- li^'i I'r-iHn: (ilii;ri' It r.nii': Tiuvin^ itmic) 

}mi/fd liikfc ii uialiapa'iiy k^n r6iil iigliodi' cm sLay thii om: ("llicrc js 

none as to be nble lo slEiy'') 
jua/Zd iLi)'/'i!mt^ ij k/fimk licn .i/lda I do nnt think of nm-lhlni,'. ^vliich I 

iiiL^ln loll you ^"lh^?l■e i^ iioi iiiy-L[iriikliie for iiiy-ielllng Lo yciif'^) 
raa//d ati'ff^i^na lie docs not ^eel: aniyihiiig, iiia/fd jjd crn^'jJjrd^ jj ,!f[ 

iioho-Jy ietki it 
jAiM *kHi ffi^i^P—jiia/td' who is the ^iie^iy? — NolK^flyl (th^r* is none) 
!'^3^ "a/i iioS^lc t6ska? — ma/td? ivliat i*. ihe siw nl' lliis' ^ iiiiLhuig' 
■J110//1/ tud^tirco-.' n\ftf!\l i\o\\'gM6nf.i\\ol "ihere i? mi advriiilage for you; 

you are 'ujirxl for iioiliing! ' " 
ildfo'imc anit'i 'fiiji b'diSkmo la iiia/^d iiian^^k'Ti hide afl your moiity, lesl 

;iryl>Dd> Mc.il il 1 
jiiof/d biUtkN llicio iv iin ruincif (»f infiic: I liave no iiioiiev 
iaaft'i inflak si t'lknf I liavc seen no pcTMn. nobody 
vx/fd kdnek is tinifpav I do not «at ^ny lin^nd 
ma/id yifi'ia in Jiiilalihi adzi'tlni he does not hiine n^iiy iron lo-dny 
siin/'ld ittjftjuinim is .t/i/j^si"^ wc did iiol find any rdij; 
ii/hiia/^ti U'ig^yfic is dii^san voii will not at all sell msm (ma/id: 

CnipljiLLk ILegiLL.J 
■<iia//d /itum^n ii rj^uttw you do tiot drink any wafer 
■<i\ii/ld mal}ii'iiia' Llifn^ k iioliiinf; herr; lo wcl (lit. j lo be seen) 
mafld ura/jMjjjj /^^^^ ihi;rt' l-^ Tiy(hinj^ ^KX*: Vf drink (lit.; lo be drunk) 
jiia/fd mahiieb hita i^ Iflfny iIhtc iii niilliiny here lo mnke [ into) spcari of 
j/_Vii yn jim/ZA /sua he i? not (nol at alE) here 

ma//d inled^E ta lafdf^o rV uflu fnhd'i^af: itiirri: I'l no |aUMi:o in my pi|»i? 
vm/Ztf \mfd] ^rgka'kalf a/ht-d-ii! kt nobody l^illr now' 
itm/^d ijojifyi} l-S^ tjiff^ki} "Thfre 1*^ no horse tor ■n.'^;'" we have 110 liorse; 

Tif one oJ LIS iia.« a lior«e 
wna/M Uneyddko I wauled jioEHne; ^^^<^ sidd^m you hke nothing, yoti. 

Ore di^t^Ltislied 
fljfflrfl//rf (J^ajFf [Sl/iem] ^-oii ttill get mothingj ynu will not get anything 



144 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 

aiJtua/Td faydlftmlfa ken ifakayA they wiIJ no', ]>i^> \'h-ui ^Lnyt[ijiii> 
i'\'i/lil iianiimt do not say anything:! f^'let there not be your ^a;'[iiijf ") 
iFro ^tiiec iiai\ nimifciti ay '<iii-f!i, '"a//d l-oitiia if any -one is coming lale, 

he gtli? iioihiiig. (kd/iS;}.' (107IY]) 
adma/Zd b^an there vniH -not he ^oythhi^ for you; you vriUnol haveaoy- 

ihiii^; ("llicrc ivill not tit yom riro]>crly") 
iiia/fd f/Qidsoy Jrcii T&ng/iv ilicrc i^ no i\Vin\(\ for Tucgay ; Tongay has no 

shjeM 
iii/d it'll j\/i\;iia ihci^i^ K 110 ■^ciiie of E1J5; lie li[ii nu sense 
uj^'J Mnkduhui'.^i ^fnfob ll»crt [s im Sili[| fnr him (oeat [P. 7] 
IJki?" "jrf jjLJi/ ktriiefd IS ai^S^b iiciv riiiin'l, ii." I <lr> nnl cil nny frtij|[ [P. 7| 
rf 'iia//d in! jth\aiini! ij, firia^: kdnfwg iicii mij^nn'-.m! jinJ »vi' [Il<J tt>[ 

fjiitl ciiiy piji^: i^'ri^Hii \\t fonLK[ fJl, 15-] 
iff/if Jiotigiiii'ig'ia 'lai' J^ay^eiiyfi "iiotlime 1^ i''^ vdltic, yniii g'.Tllicrcd 

''^'Jo(\ l" the wo'><l ivlhii}] vijii yjilhrrerl I'' '-^■rlfiU'S'- | k, ^J 
iay sutd slddt^m ^n^lca^ii iwrn^t^clyt^ bt^cauac you arc dj^atislicdr we go lo 

mfd lonsfltfn^ino yoU ate "wrOrthles-'' | f.. 64I I ''■ 7^] 

nan foumn^a ttm/td jfHg itic .vrlrl, lhci-c were no uiuuutiJni t^iji iHe 

Frtrlfi hi.L', mlliuiit iPi-'iiii(jnni 

liiu/Ui ^sifldm f-r ;ifl?r frrfil-jjjfl u'c fij'inotsw anything flf your tlaiij^hi^r, 

we iljr] ii'>r I'.'c iiLr ^t .ill ['I'. 5; | 
si pay I^alpdd^'ing mo/ld uj^J^jj^ ii kdif^u P^LlpiaiaEiii^ utdud did nol 

catdiaity Mi |P. 2] 

3a3' Fdk^n liakfti; f^i:^>i], an iiiioinalic iiegjitivc wiilioiit English 
eqliivaleiil. is u^cd in iiidk^lt lliJH an qIjjl'ci or iiimlitv is nnl wlmx one 
f[iy= H^r .T^k':, Inil --oniclliiiie eUu ; ^*. i iiielii, |ioinUne ^E a lirn?-? chain woiilil 
,'-ay ; "lhi& ii nol Rold" iiarrjjifv ]<ih^K falfdof^; hy llac li^sp of fak^ he 
imj^lica LbaL ^lic iLjIil^ l^ ^LJieLLjijt^ elfe, ^vliih^iIilli^- djftcrcLiL iri'in ^^td; it 
is brass. 

T-akcn 15 cmplf ><:d unly with noiini, piid socnelnrurs wills adjoccive? and 
p'[verlj-^. bi[t not witli verlv: in iln? ''Iiiflicalivo;" lE XiyVt^ Sroni llie n^mni^ llieir 
poasessi've s-ufSxea.'-' Tlie )>hras-e4.: not I but..., not you buC.., nor he buL.. 
f:ti 3re eyprci^ed fjv 1h* ptT5irtai iindiiig^ oi fShhi: fQl-^nak, jahS^pha. 
fchSi siytjy fnk^nfa, ftkStitiSko. fakSngkamf. f3k^n^k<iyPt, fakSiiffn. 

f-akJn !■■ 'd]-M "itd a'n jnswer "iiii;" il nieana; not what you Say, bnt 
somelhing'cliiL'OT Jifferen! ("y^^i] Jire iTii^Li^ikeft"). 



THE LA\'GUAGlj^ OF THE BONTOC IGOTIQT 



'45 



ri/mnay ay dfoii^ fSkJiko kiia ili[3 lioiise ia uo[ mine (my propcttj)— but 

il lii-loiic LG an oilier 
iianiiaTf ay i^fav fak^ta [fHkhmi fak3Ha\ kSa this Spear is not his own — 

but.. 
fdkSnak rd Fdirgcd^ Ol^shmi .iak//ii 1 fiiu iiol Hrtnt^il ; I jjtn drjpiliELii 

/dt/ff jobfafdxi mil ^oy vv-irniieii ( Lui j^irls., or mea... or boys._) 

fakln dif, kSiha sc ihi^ l*i iiol a ilop; it iji- a c^l 

fakJitak, k'kken ay luidki lion I, bul aiiollicr man 

/irlri'riait j.< /(.pruv nol 1 Eiin gi^iiig; (iii>Eicc llic iv-<c of Hie preposKiiin iVr) 

fahSii .■'ti' (Ills IS HOC correcl^ it i^ not (liis, Ijut — ; "ynii ai'c iiii^talctii," 

([| is riglil, il is correal ; sfa saf} 
fat-Simfi ii 'langwdm il iva« iiol T wb-n ?,ijd ^o. lnic — ; (noti<7e die ii5(? qi 

*j wn^ [tif >-im. a(;ertti3 &!■ "Partj^ipkl"! 
fak'hik^ is 'i^i\ ^dn£ii^\i jj la ii vaa nfH von v^-fio nuide ll][^ 
f^k^nak is i/iiiiitii is iian tastmin ay imiifly h ^vns not L who oaniclast year 
faH^'i fojifyi no'i 'laiiaJi'l} si sa ncrt a wouekh has made thii^ 
fak^nut ' ni>, iinl II (a=. ansivcr upon e|ui::^ lions like. M-'Ssil j-jn ^vhf ilid il?) 
foh'^nkmiii! n'H m'cI ^llfto: fakBn lifii:&mft 
fakSumi ndonz Tnnourcinlc: [l ls not our cnltle 
fixk^'Hk<o ki^Hy fffk^icfw Uiia, fnlf^ii'iu kdv, fHk^mm icda... It. ilot--'- noi bcloiij* 

tori-Hf, >fm. him, u^: il is no! mmv, >'<"mr?, Eik, our?. , 
wciKi^/'tJ'i^ ay niifr /uAifnfl ifJfl Lliis liauivC Lj; niJt lij&. 
iitiJiii'ry inkHtii di'ia Llii'. isnui the jailitr of u? (twoLioyO 
HdKHO^ /fli.>jj kdan Tdytan this Is not Taynan*Si docs n-oi lielnng [oTay- 

nan — hut lo some niTier ^oy 
fakJn iia\i kan^ni ^hlni ymi sav i'^ "ot correct 

fakSnkami TagMo^; r^ol/ilk^mf we are not Tag^lo^ ; we are Igotol 
Bjij^.? fsakL<:ciki 'lat wH^ldn^-'i'tf — f&k^n tsakiscfki is your liat large? — not 

Lirge! 
faii^ii jidiir^f'ii noL [o-day (butaonie other day^ 
fak^rt sffsh kiftin this is na kiiifc ('j&; prepo?. tfl 
/ir*^ii jo is fi/iiiim llii% [*; no water 
fdhSnak k^n sf\'a I am not lie 

fui'^nak si Mdly&, ii ^niJ/oak- I am nol Matyu, but I am Antero 
jaif^n itya fH'ken nol he liul An other 
na' nangk^ (aJiJn tji'i faf^yi' ivefl! (aurprisen; wby. this IB no woinanl 

inidki iji' itii? [s a man 
adfakSi^iiti [> mingd'^b iildiny nol you will make ilie ^pear! 
adfakSnak is ^laty it is not I who will go 
fakenhUmi fs nangwStti 'ih sa it was nol w* who said this 



145 THE LANCxUAGE OF THE CQNTOC IGQItOT 

adfakJ/ika '5 umdH! il \b not you who will cdnit! 
fakSimk jr maugtf'^b is nan iifi^is il is wft 1 who will biiiM llie hou^*: 
f'ikhiki^mi 's n^pi'xd^y i'< ?j("i i'^4ki \\ w^'i eh»( ■ivc wis? hilled Ih? mm 
(Hill if Ih^; '-iibj^'ct i^ nol cni|ili^5LZ-cd; i^dmi pinadSy lAOre taldki) 
^yk^ fiik^i Mi^ i'^ il nu'l iij? !■> it dcffcrcnl? 
fak^nkoyei'sh rnitdJi it is not jou who shall cornel [I-. 59J 
faffS'i ■•■a'^k ii^lddjiy fay fanahfuyiifnifi (}i.";i- arc no li^& (wliole trunks 

of lrej?sj lioonif^ii? ility rtri' iiiii^li 1<>r5 stn^ll fl,. 53] 
RongljSi fak^H tjakdy^ Lt inkdeb ji fdA^o why! il is not jou who mLike 

i^rs |L. jj| 
.(ffljjjif'fl nan (PFT^f/Zua iTpr ^^nangko^&pom ndmo '" i.<:d ^d kandn mil yfin/tr 

■Fj* "faff^n! iTpad pay ay laUiigcSilngo!" j^aid (lie younger hmthcrr 

"wlijl thi!^ :j indtdyoiir lep[" Iheii ^aid die older: "no! tt i^ well 

<lricawooJ[' IK.8] 
jflfr//n fr_^'''^ va fafo^uii^? "I nm probably not i?" ( Ejipr^^&ioii of iiidig- 

nafiE egoj^ni- mlili fliK^K words Falp^l^nu rcfuiv^ !o giv? up a part 

ol (lie Ush lie had caugliij tqvrivaUnl; X'f. ' li^v*: i^ Jo^itt out fgr 

myi^clfi). [P 51 
fak^nnJf si maitgdyak i-i nan ^naniHiiJa it was (is) noli wlw cjlkd (call) 

lln;ir child ri-ii 
fak^it sfyn ii langtila is nait b^lafa it wa? not Tii' wh<i Tec^eivral ihc mc/itty 
faifJiii sfyit if: mistfbr^ is nan kJivo il sv^j kot b* who had t^ul Ihc lf4e 



314. Tsddn {dd^H\, aiol jet, nni, is employed a? iitja:a[LVH; with reriis 
only.— y jfi^'i 1j probably an Tlocano lo^n-ivord, C-f. "jtftBi.''" — Its iimm- 

iiig i^ past, \i'lic[|n;j the v?rb i^ iri the preaenlor preterile len^c; the vcrbiiE 
endiiigsi are ^hiJccd lo tsdati whicli appears Iheii in iliesc forms 1 





Personal : 


Po'sessj^'e 


I. 


tsadmrk [fxdiiitiik\ 


fi^dnko 


2. 


Isadtika 


ti&dnmo 


3. 


Istfan 


liSdna 


D. 


fsadnfa 


ff^dnw 


L iticl- 


iiidnitlko 


IsSATildko 


r. fjtci. 


Is^dfkiimf 


ls3Aain! 


H, 


fxS^nkdy^ 


IsS&nyEi 


IIT. 


isadnlfa 


tsSAnija 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 147 

(Cerlam fonuA of thiB n^ativpe must not lie coiifound-fd with aimilar 
fomis of !sa^ "oilen, Liiually/' [ijio] ) 

Tsdan is frequently followed by the emphasizing p^rndc pay: isdiM 
pay, out vel. There is bo futbre form aS fsttoH. .li u poidt^ al-ways lo the 
past. 

{*'Not yet" wlfh the pre^^t 11 expre^.S'.fl Ihus: adfk fshJslu'n nan 

bati^ odK^dni I do nol {yet) throw the &(ime injw. Or; irrf f I'tfijfr cfr nan 

batd is drktii I ih^ll flonn rhr'^"' [lie sionr:) 
!&ad^ak f^ay inmfly 1 have not yet jt^ne, i^oj?"nt(f /loy imn/Sy; s/yn Sidan 

pay tnmJiy cli', 
SsiiJKko fek'Jshcn mm fdifefi T did uoi (yd) thnr-v ilio s|i-enr 
Jiorfflift wflft^ji/ii 031 i'JJW^d, JtJj t^Ji ^fr/(?'rt£frij jifj/F[.iii/i I can not yd 

iv'krk, lk;[.3ii'^e Tiij linger is ImrE 
IsA/inkihnF innidii we did no( fyei) come (syiioii, : i^dl^mni iiiii\Atc') 
liisdnkii tia£n 1 iliil iLiil y£l ^e- 

^idl^frtdi k^p^ii nan katd^uv lie diil not yeE niaki? Ehe sliield 
;^J^niru hindeh thu [lineup I Imv'e iinl yd iiinde ifie n*: 
inm-dU fian JsUii}idMiif ay^ — tsddH ptry! did voiit friejid coin<?' ^ not yell 
nad^y ican itddnio? — tsddit ' did >Dut fjrollier liiep — no! \lie ddd not) 
^daii tt*ifdkask nan (asiiian tinz small jar is not yel broken 



325. The jiirBS^ea "nor." ''dot did 1," "nor waa V "nor do (am) F' 
Att tKiift'^sed Jn Eiiiii^ I^Vot thus; 

tiJS k^i-sak/^.n dkii lai,; "like iijl1^^ inf .ilsa," (tli? negaUve lieiitg t)jd(- 
t-ed) ; or : ifl£ Mn ia/ke-n ^iiii l^ak tlain nor Jid I see him (a iieg- 
qljvewitii a uer1>). 



326. /*rfJr(> an emfihafiidnjf porticlei is nB«l to mnnection with D^a- 

igdak pdud hmdyififfc 1 did ni^l al all nm aw^y 
adfak pd^d mnnSbia 1 do never imoke 

itnaaia^ nan tJJ^n^m ya adTm p^tdd nv>i_gnS>i^eii nan j^ndy^ ilie vvaier [s 
boiling andj-'OU du nft al all care fur lln; Tic* |l-, 57"| {or: adlpadd 

fi^jjrfd adim pddd tjipdJiSn JiflH kSum? h<>'A' ItM^g (will it take until) you 
(itotj caLdi your "pigT" ^/(iffJy^ liow luii(j lime, letiuire? a negative) 
IL.61] 



14a THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC IGOROT 

tftj/ra^fra 'j Hiifpdad makiUpap is ion Himt then you fibne can ''nbso- 

luteJy" nntcjuvli yoiirs | L- 61 J 
lay n/is/^ii nflfl oibfi y*i mi/ka pdM umit>otdja is Ij/ni9in bcf-aiisc ilie 

].r;0|llr ,|r[' llilr'^ly md yyn Jy ny^ "at ^H" tr^^ilt^ d-liy ^VrttCf [1- 7::| 
fangofangJnek i/itjJ 3'fl crrf/tj ^jj'JJ /rf"r^H^fl*i I kctp trying to awake 

joTi and jou iie»'cr wafci; il]> ^S. i:J 

327, Ketj^Kg, a word wifh variouB meaning", "soi iDOStly as cim- 
juiiclion "'Iheji,'' '^lliereupoH," and alfjo w[Lh The ^^'►ning: "it 15 all ; il i-^ 
fLiiisKed," is meiLtioci ed [lere iviiJi eIic iiegiiiwcs, I.H'aii^r kcSj^n^ tsprcs&ei 
sametiini:^ iJte itegj^jv^, H^xciusjve idi^^i: "iioL any (ilhcr Eiut y<fU, l^ut I, but 
lie etc." Or; ciily yon; ycni eKcliisiTPly ; escep-t ynu; nune e?vcepl yyw. 

ki'lj^iig t.ikes ihe peT^nal endings to espie^s: none \m< T- [ii>n': bllt 
'/ow, jn>ne bul lii; tir. )t^ forms arc; Sing.: i. keij^ngak- 2 fcerjJ'ipkn, 
3. kctj^H^ i.ih")) Dual; kelj^n^tn; PhiriL L iiicl tj^f/ctr^f^i^-y,- 
1. P3:c;1- if^ijAiy^kimf; IT, keifSn^^khy^; IIL kaii^agtJQ. 

The vtrh jiaveruf't i»y ketji't^ is i;on nc<:T.<:d wiili il ty ilie prepo^iticn 
£, ; rarely hy ^j'. mid J^ f rci|in:nlly acj-'um iianicd by n negative panicle: 

lidek aiii?ii ay lalaldUi. kc!}i*ng si Mdl^n-^ is ma/ld sina T Bee all men, 

t?;<cpi Mrjliiig, (ti^) is i\'}K ]»re5ent iiere 
l^ytjt'nmi nttn Oin/n ay ay<fyVJH, ketj^n-^ iiiiii tUin is tdtmi Ifytj^n we (iTte 

all JjLid-o, except l]ie "iic^-liird" (we do nut Jrke) 
aititn ay ffbjsxfdyi w/fd^fju'stiiij keif^nj^ si AJifindy is ma/id sina all ilie 

%vunn:n Jtc pr'^sent, except Aknnay (i^ not hcrej 
I'-^tj^n^ak is 'f'nkn^b si l^fay nniie but I, J alone mak* ?peiii^, just I make 

Slirari 
k£tf^g sfya 15 mffndMa none but he 15 smoking 
ayhS k^tjjfn^ nit is kiiyffff is thi? alE luood? 
keijcns ^y am/n-xmak is ij^imm "c]ided h my drinking VFater," I do not 

(Irank :iny more water 
kt^ljlfngkll's ndl pd&d makdtpop li nan kSam none bul you. cannot calth 

yours, [r e. only you cannot... [L. fii] 
ay!fa k^^sj^n^ na'sh m-itniJky^? liave you. do more chickena than iliese, are 

(llci^ all yuiimhitkcns? [L. ^'s] 



thil lan'(;ua(;i; oi" tiii-: uomtoc icorot 149 

EQUIVALENTS HOR RELATIVE SENTENCES 



,V^. Uunlc: lyorol eiii]>lGy& lh<: ]i|;tfl"iir<: ay to cjniiccl ivIielI we call 

"Rclalive Sentences" wilb (lie iiiaiii icnkTitc or iHc "iiilcirtiJent." Tlicre 
13 Tlo "Edrilivi: Pronoun" in Bontnc Lj^oral^ Eind Ihcrc ait^ in facli no "Rfl- 
^[ive ijenientcj." Tin: ]>l]ra=e foll<>win£,'" oy mip^lil In? crnisiiiereHj [for con- 
venience 5ake and fdr tli? easier n^^lc^^^^l^dinll■ "i many e^.Tninlcpj g[ven 
Iiere; but nDl as a lrLiiL&]i\u-?L]]| : «jthvr Jii 9t')^i^^j[i'>n ^vitb xh<: .iiiti^c^d^EiL, 
fii' in connet'lion with ils iiileccdcnl hy ii relallvc n.n(l The copnlii [nlierent 
10 a-i|; ^vlio f>r wliick i^, "vvn^, nrc, were cic, 

{Rul it wrmld iml "faciliralc n[llk^^lind.inJ; ro ■:onsiikr iry a relative, 
(lijit i"oveiiis "FLiiile verbal Eoriii'^/' ,i:i iu EnKli-^h') 

An invcrl^ii con^trnrtinn jj; rrmnd occn^ioimlly (pir^mc oy^ini>Ic5 will 
Inlloiv [■^.'S'^l ) ; Ibe ini:i.Tclianj;<.' Ix'tiv-'m Ih-: "jinleetrlcnt" .ind (lie prcdicale 
iii tlie "rtlafive ^=ien(':ncc". Thu^ Ihe Mrnlercc; Eli'nv n- tbc Iclirr ^rhich 
you bring, ran be arrai^o]: 

Slicnv LIS Ibe leller ivliicli-i'i youi'-l^rf[^ir^-objflCl 
Or: 

Shou u^ \-oy\T brill Hing-objccl: whi".li-iK ;i Irllir 

^TEle ivonJ^ connccled liy liy^caa art cxi»ri";'U;d liy <>t3c wiinl ju Unn- 

V-LTioiii cases of equivalentii for our rdativc coiutcuciiojjs will now be 

treated. 



32Q. NoMTrh'ATivTi C'V TuT R'SLflTtivp. Cnn&trinjlioii ; Antecedent 
— oy— "Parlicipfi:" (ci jierwiial verlssl or Mom. af^entis (of poBMsive 
verba), '['he N^uin. ?ij?. rcniil^*^ if kf^i"? it'' object luj^ol 
Iffytjcnmf adu fraiiinj fjy tojtr/j i^c Ijki; Lfic slileld ivhicli i^ sc^kkI, f'ljy/ 

i-vliicb is) 
naif (aldki ay igdlof ya nan ffltwi^ko iti* man (wbo is) an Ig^toL ia my 

friend 
kumaffSbka 's k4yo ay 4aS}o elinil> ii|ion a free which is b[^li 
iB^ «afi ongSn^n ay vuu&ysp^ vthttt is the diiLJ that aJncpij ? (thf fJiiW 

■jlee]»inj;} 
j'fl/Jufi naF^ ^g!a ay linmdyita I Saw [he deer which \v,is niTin.lTi!i 
y^fk^k nan hlaldki ay< Misitno Unt^SKvfj'i) I know tin- Ttieii who Jru 

working 



150 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

s^u'i r/ikee iy ^^Fprff]' mf Mitldm^.'h ihe people ivlio ^o in ^TallJ]rts [E, 4] 
imd Han Ja'.aldL-i uy >iaii^ycp !.':>mt whcr.; ^^rc 111? iiKii v:\\Q were aleepjLig 

here? 
nan fibfMo ay si yuit/^l.- d/Sfaiti-dttgHa Sdk/in ih-: bay, as my older 

broilier, will i\t-[\' nw (dj; who IB EOj,. or: as my..) 
/■^^^u-ii jjaFr /dtff a_v fikitta ti^fl he k'.Tjji ibc tow wliich is ifot his own 
nm> fiffjfyi oy fintiili [fu? uvhrii.nn irhr^ i:nmv^ 
HOH ong^nga ay ma^^sp (^) <JifJ imiko Uie child that skcrjs is not 

k^kkck nun IsUiki aii adutudfi I tiiia^i' Elm ni^ who will conit! 

nan it'lt ay kinmdan ya kSiik (lie 'li'y Llidl "^i'cjl^ 'nil i-^ in[nc 

nan angif'ign ny utafda is Hi \\k- iio-v u'lin 1:- ■^.^nr i'* l<'i\n 

nan ifndxH ay maiUo ken fjakSwi tlxc rJcc whicJi is conked by u^ 

nan lal^Zki <ty umif/i ya n ihUlha llie iiinri 'vlin i-nnn:- is mv jjrjmlf^Ltli'-a' 

jifffi fiifiiyi ay 'iiaal^y i'- nan vrdnis in^cd^c hysa ilii: wirmijn ivh^ wove 

[lie lireecfi t\'ji\\ jjv(:^ Ikt^ (pcr&, sb. iniif\jy<ik I wcuve) 
slya rwi'ity KUn in^'tfic ny admapad^y a/^^rtai llit^ is llie cliiclfeci wliitli 

wi][ soon l-ic killed 
nan inlJI^i <iy Smui'k'jit tma ya n-atpf^ is uaa ftlii l^^ ujaa v/tiQ- ii siliing 

lifrr crime domi thv inDiiiit^iii 
nanna^ 'tail ialal^ki ay vmfiuM'il/a n dngsan t!ie&e ;irc the nieii whO 

■■THJ^ki: jn laineh 
liffn irtlnk ay n^tkd'in the ni'iney wliicli fiai beeif fJividcd into th fee 'part'! 
ytmi .vftk'hfit^ vy ma/Ssahf-vd ya kS^ik th* lirir ivli^li i'. ?u?nf"d?d: I? Kiin^ 
HCf^ Ittiiiti iry mrfwj^ffi'fr iV na^J t^.fay tin: nijn wliu injbcj. Ilie i]>ejr..("(]ie 

man i^'lio IS llie iiiakci" ot Hhe ■iperir" hut not; wlm niiikcs! ) 
mm dSiiifi- ay tninldgo u nan patatjtm my ira^l-tT who biivi the irou (is 

llie hiij'er) 
iwm fobfJ/lo fly maK_g4ycik kdn hat/^n. the yoifnji man who calli mc ((lie 

neff fifdyi (ty mJngiek ken l^'^imAirk ihc woman who knmua Puniiiak 
tf/Ji i]flF[ ioJa^i tiy nangydi it jiuji mdnok yoniler Is^ ihr man who brjjii^hl 

Llje fJiJtUii (y'\v} wrifi Ihc hrin|;i;r of th^ dtickcn) 
nan iaidki ay »itng(ila 'i nafr t/^u^ rfl ticjiii^^t^r^ iJie ician who look ihe 

iiiciriey is a ihiei 
k^kfu-ek nan fohldUo ay nangd^b is nan fd'igkai^ I km^w the hoy who 

made tlie s-pei^r 
iniS nan fafd-yi ay natt^vrdni li j!o^ n\\i^fi 15 [lit wi^nifln wKd siii! ^o^ 
Hji^m nail on_g^n^ii ay naii^dlab is van kdyo? do you see Elic hoy wlio 

climiltfcf the Iree? 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTQC KiQKOT l^l 

llie jn,ir ^ho giivi- mc bi^ sM-'ld Ijve^ ai Tucucar; ihc nmn, "the 



3J0. GE»[T)rvH oP Tsik RtLATTVE. CooBlractirm? Ante^edeiii — av 

— prrli>: wiJj- lo "Ihr ]>itsoo or thing; own«d — is nan — 'Nomen acticmis 

(with pii-.'.ciiln: rnilinyi) 

jifji- ^er; |6i| , a liiera] [r^n^l/iLjyr is iiniJiiisible. 

ilic l"iy I'lin-i- Ti.il tIii: j^irl h,is ulhCii ("lliis is tli':lnjy ••■"'no l?; ihc Im- 

nwiLcr- [[][(? liaL) ii*r Ifii' ^irl'h Inkiny"). (jiiiHa ami Cn'Tifij^-r' Intfi- 

calor -jj 'uHlxi-il) 
ntm f/iff^yi ny mnjtthdn^^ is nan lin<t^]<iak clie '"'^mad whou pipe I have 

boughL.ijJJ ttnii tinngdaay^. .you have bnii^lit 
HOH ia\dhi flv ui^fa^jiawo ?'j nan iianxaiiivcp die [H^n ivlio-'ic wile is sleep- 

[115 
jra^i !alitkz ay niniifong is nan napiAiiii Llicmjiii u'Iioi^l; lnnJ'^ a'l liiiiiil 
"an faf'hn ay "inefitafi is nan initi-s ilir woimji ■vvlia^k: (Hild v,crp^ 
nay twrji jMfeg ay Vfipdtlang nan padd'ien^na here is the spp^r whoK 

uliafc is l^ff-ki:]!; ,is llie -.ptar cniiinn Ik- M^ "QWTierj" thecQnatnicdoii 

iii ihu spc^ir i\-liicli Is Urnkcii, iLs ?liail 



,?;^[. l>ATivBnF THS Rai^Tive- Coiisii ucHon ■ Aiiiectdeii : — if;^ — 
^^'>me^ .if;«itLs with i^uffix -on and possessive eniJIiii;?. Translation iiiipo^- 

nan Saldki ay nangitsasttsdoana (naHfiEVjaar;rIor7j/) van y/in/ak jj uotr 

k/jtari ya ^a'iicl'i^.;yen tha man M whom my brothfir give the knile 

ii VrtaLlhy 
nofl lal/fl/i ay man^itsaolfaodny^ %s iian t(/ia«...tlie insn (-omhoni you give.. 

ay 'nan^hsaotsdf'aii! \c- ivliom vou s'l'-t ( %Jiig"LilaT ) 
niin fof'tyi ay rnGTigiy^Him is nan kdyl?l the ^v^inan II' wTioth j<>" lining 

tfic wood (maKgiyallain or : wangiyaiam; inferred I, ^c ['^D 
Ham Snanak ay mangitju^nmt is i^aa f^nga Ehc cIiildrcB to whom wc sliatv 

ilie lli>.ver*i 
iiOfl f/jft i2;v flra^^^Vjau/if^jwij. firii. op^^^t'jjgjj a nan- istja the dug to which 

(he fluid ^hii tbf jiioM 
Mim attwidtdi;o ay nangi('aoidQKfdka is nan dgSh owr friends to whom 

we sent ihe box 



152 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOKOT 

tbe ^tifnaea to wliom w« do Eiot show 4he as^att 
iijiit ib/tttdkd ay Hfigitsaotsaoantdko \y nttn iinikaii our coinpanioiis ta 
lutiom y>c E,"Lve (Ii? rice 
(proTjjibly: "our companions who are our-givnig-place far rite'^) 

^"Sllc■ll toiiipliL';i[f;([ couijlruak^n': pa ihnse in fi^-^o ^iid 331] are, -of 
coLirso, t:^lreiiic!y r^rc. Si'nipltr hyi>o(aclic eon^lriiclioiig: llie M.'Oiiieii acp 
iingri^j beauaevfeiJo nol filiow...] yr jfar^itacljc con ^1 ructions: we do not 
show llic '.irniifiii lilt Ligatc; they iire ajigry, art used aTmnst exclusivety.) 



^11^. AccuaATrvE OF THB Reiativb- "Con stmctuM : Antetedmt — 
ay — Xoiiieii actionia y/ith possessive endirigg, 

lurn laiiihi ay i.'^Hr/ii it-'odil'.^iia i\k ni.-in wbmn. i know ia here (tbe man 

wlni is :iiy-ki]un-lni;-^lnf I-h here) 
aykhtt bifla t\a^ fj/fhai^ av hi^Jitfim ?mw titf/iyif did you s« t\:i 'ti-dg wh[di 

ihe woman lias woveiil {inafo anil lie^i. -'t, Iht "s;tniiivc [iidiciitur") 
ir-]fl OKXtinga ay rti/iami llie cliiMT^Ti nx bjnv Ithc (.'hildreii, oijr-i^-ciiiit-.iiiii j 
nan i2iiyfJ[ oy iibdmy^ the tr« which yoia tut ilnun (llietree which is 

ycrn r-ciHl li»^- aim 1 
nan sJ^klovg ay lagdan nan ali-w'iJ!/o ilie liai which my frjeii4 buys (as my 

frimd'^ bdvme-QbJLflJ 
nan b/lak ay hubllna ifi-o iiioQey thai lie cfirinee'i 
nttn htja ayiydin nan ongSngn llse meat wEdch llie boj hriogs (as ilie hmy's 

trjii:^jji:E;-ij'b)tci; jvi^i snd Ligal. -n) 
"iirn ktiy&C ay adfym sibScjs et admae'ngan the tree which I'on do imt cut 

rfrtwii will Gr"U' (ct . mlioinalic parCicle iJr<N:edmg a main still } 
it^n 't^tiu^ ay ^(tiiSy^ntjit llie caraliao which (hev ure kilEiiig [as ihcir kilU 

liLg-airn) 
nay )iJpf fulisd i\y aidJanii here is the Iciter we have teceii'&L 
ttttn sahifi:' nun fg4lot ay ^init^b Abbot ya kdwL Ihc jficturci of ilit Ig6rot 

whkh Mr. Abbol: made are good (whii^Ti were Mr, Abbcrt'a making' 

aim) 
nan lindpay ay kindftio (he hreail yOB ate fa^ yonr-earing-objert) 
ivdddy ken sfJia nan sSiad ay -•unufdiiin nan andljik yaa have thft letter 

wJiith nybmlhiT ha*; WT[lten 
inJ^WJn foh^ngft 'y knag^akf wiicEe k Ihe prpe 1 have bought? 
nan iifonji 35' fla/rm ya -nan pabaf^T^gan Hit house you icc is the '^ate- 

luiigau'' 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC rCOROT 152 

nan 'hrk ay ad^yet ttydkaii ad/ umdJi ilie dog which you da not call docs 

nol oinc 
nnn fofdyi ay k£kk^nyj?r- ya ^t^4no r> nrrri: pdyo Ibe wonr&Ti whom you 
knuw ii working in die rice jwilcli 

nun faf^y! iil^goiio n/tu .';?iig^in£ ay iiir!(tsif'%(i ihc rtioniaii wlJ iTic ring 

woddy Hi'ii -'■■id'//" 'j'fi ktpan ny imtij^am I li^ve the knife you gave (mc). 



325. Relative RiFBiKiNd ra Ftace ob Time. Construction: Aow- 
caJent — ay — verb willi loca.Live buflix -an. aiifl ]H''='^c''Sivc cnilirK?;- 

1UH fli ay fifydftakak ya adsd/iezvi the coimlry where I <^^i lium is far 
a,w[Ly (I bePTi faimkko. Fr. /enfaiile; ntiiydH/iknk I »n^ burn: 
[nfyd'iu^ol^] ; 111*: [jcjitivc (orin ii3cil li'^rc rr. tonlrflclCi;! ir<^\ 
myanak-nn-iik, ^my-^^ciTli^-b•JT^-\)h^•:t:•y my I hjrll«-pl:JCf ; I'lir Ijiilb 
place: uiydPtt/fanm: hatt ^ve ivtr^ bnrn ; Htyi^itlrifami.) 

Kta in ny mdyaL' ya liai/Uiiki lo couiiirv \vEii:L"e I went 'v\ lirii* 

Qb:o'?Ti-3lioii: Tlic verb ityak, I e^, I? never jsod in decliriilu'e rri.TiTi 

Mnlciicc- or inconinijuids; bul only in Liilcirrtg^tivc and ■^iiborllln-ilc ■^Mu■^e^^ 

I go to (he ■.uiinlry: uvniynk t.'> tii,'\iw\ f\.ii\\ dyak ly Hi: 

Ai Kuiiitn ^cli-Jnis r itan dyoky nan dyam cli?. "niy. ynur gnin^,'' we 

find this pecbliaj 'Verb'* Jn trnphinlr dcbritiint^ ycnleDtcs, a'i: crJ iLd^od 

fmt iiyim: 10 Ibt KoFtti (ihc Jjagod-Tribc) be ymT fioiae] lieLake your- 

■:d( tij Lhr Nurih! 

ipftfum fiffff dfo^s "? mied^fOH ^*raBt-.-:dial &hi>w fmp) the hon** where 

nay }iau kiSsm-ad ay ninlalo^ix-ftanmi adS^ka here !■> Ilic place wliere we 

foiighl vcilenliiy ikdffa.'ad: (lie ]>lji7c, tpuL thsT was ourhaliTtfield) 
(djnm nail pdyo ay iiinli/J^oan nan lafaldki shiiiv me the r ice patch wh^rs 

the Qien worT^ed 
HO^' non tli ay inted^edntja here is the town whcrr Ihcy live 
nan dfong ay mamoyddiSna ii nan n\d-nno Iht liousc in ^vliitliiie pays, [lie 

i.^(jrking-nien ifavddsak I pjy; Nom. [i^. msxmdyad; from lliia 

Worn. ng. Ibc lotat. Noin. is m^dc: na« vtirninydd-^irk, my payiDg- 

platc.'; ftflPi mi!FFJByjidjfln/flfei7 our |)flyiiij;-pl,) 
HOH d^Wb oy mangitafdnana is u^iw sin gal llic Ix*?; in which ahebidtd ihe 

c,3rriiies i^thc bns ivliich is lier-liiding-|jla<;c Jor tarrings) 
jjirix d>i^flfl uy ffflSTijY/(?flfl tlie clLa]n"l>eT ^vhece h"; lilfjq''^ ^a^ lii^ 5l«:piiig- 

placcj 



154- THE LA^^GUAGE OP THE BONTOC TGOllOT 

BflrtfjJjf nan dfon^: ay nadtvifna Ijrrric ilii:ln>u-o in ivliiclf lietlfefl 
HfM lifimg ay nad^ynn pm-?Frfl ifie house in which his fatlier died 

KQit i'dgpitfr ay mttiub^antdko is nan kdyif ihi: forest M-!iere we cut ihe 
Lrcr^ {'-•ibiiek; ^Jliih sg. ntanib^. loc^i, N'om. mambn-an) 

imif pd^pa^ ny natfitiddyanyrie Li nan 'fgrn ilie iort-St io wliich you ki\f 
1 he dei:r 

^Pij^j- rf/i?JJ|; ijy itan^^Jljii.'iaiitdkii i.'; lum bilak [lie liQiifif wh^-Tr m"c fninid [he 

t\ati zvdn^a ay man^iihnija U nan kdrpu the river wticrc Ihty ire catch- 

ii^ Clie fash 
Hapf -•vd-nga ay rnkyai/^injn ili^: ri.-iT ivliei e Miey ?-iviii 
Hflff //i ay iim/Jyan nan lalaldhi mc l'>u-n wfiilhei' the men j^r,, 
ji^Ff Hi ay nan^faoJimi O/ifsliaii ft ntm bitttkna lEic lowii [o wliitli OJo- 

■^li;iii i-':ni hi' luojieiH 
nim iljiffan i.iy^/m^\ajitjfkj} id Ffiafr^k the road on ivl^irh -v^'i^ r*^ to Eorimc 
nun piljo tty fnangilanltjan (ij: I iiiQjill(') nan fobfnidyi jj ira^ fddso^ 

lilt rii.e fn:l:i vvheie Elie ivaiiii^n |>i;[nl -llii: riee 
nm Hi fij' ndpooiitciko ya nd Fi^inok the tomi ivlienct ^v^■ i.jni'.' it Bonloc 
Hm //j :i.v iijfl/ian (fur. nalpd^n'j nan Igiiiai ilie couiiLry ^iihrncc Ibc [go- 

rol liii'.'c ccijiie 
Jifirr ^fl^j!>i aj icffidfciff^' i.\ pfUM ?ir/frf/fiiiiJi?t.i die man in MfiuJii- hcni-c ivt 

live (tJit laa-ii %tho ii [fit <jwncr-uf-liie lion&e, tlie liniiw lur nur liv[ii^- 

'The place wbere..." is r^irlarly express«l by one nobn: ncy hoa 

"fliff ^fV^^^Fff(li*■3 : Ifcrc i-^ out sleepi]»i[-plJc':, riiMicad of; ilie place wli^r^ iv^ 
^letp- n*x» iiiiii/\r<tg<!'ilja. llicir rt'-^linjj-|>ljc<:, or ; ih-c place where lliey t-csn: 
ti/l'l enf-ihnwinyl^ yjlir I'trking-iil^tc; nnn m'nt.'^iinodnyA your foriner 
iviirl(inj;-jfl,in;^ }\on iiinnolil'ndj'tja [li-:ir djin:jn^"-pliice (svncopaled iVrjiii 
■HimtoUfcnan^ja') \tiait intitlrtokd'inu OUrrJinn.in'^-pliL'.c. — Pos se^alve Verbs 
\\t\^^. th^' lyc^^Jivt' !jiift>: -OH r.nly in MieiT form ^s Nomen AffrtFi?^ ilfluilk,' 
T iil^nL ; itaii mnn^ifoiiiljatt: rlie pJiintin^-^'Uriri faydtfa^ I pay; jjtru 
^P^ifiji(]ji(/c/rapr lEic i>ayin^-|)Jjct. — 

Also with passive forma: 

jsa'i 4fa ay iiaptrii^vn'r nan dssc iht munfil iiiHT^ i^licr': Ihc d"s wa^ kilk'I 
jjflu piiyij a\' Siiaiidnssaii iia>i pittho^ {fnaii^ntsan, v.iiii iiiscr^t'l i iindcli-dcd 

( for ■'naifon/dany the iitid ivhere nee ia plaifted 
fliffr k-dnifad a\' naiF-iniii! nan sfn^^siHj^ (lie place wlicfe tlie iliig ft'as foiiud 

(wdiiiTiJOrf Tor ; frfl^'(|Jjjfif^) 
Hay Kdfl naUag^jm nan pdl/iiy liere is the place whtn Ihe rice was Bold 



THE LAXGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOHOT 155 

Timi?; ijflfp dkyt! a-y ininalfak- is nan /it ya tin^asc the day 00 which I 

came lo to\vii wn'i a biollrlay {imiialfak = iti'iaU -1- ai\ +■ rtt) 
rail !oaw!n ay ninJed^i^iinitK ad ^fanifji [lie y*^3c in wliidi we 
lived at Waiiila. 



334. RCLATEVE ln;Fl;flPT^'1:; to iN&iRirMEN^, CoifRUTiction: Anttcc- 

*len[ — iT-i' — ''prlt [ii ii? in'^iruiuental form [262] n^ Nom. ;i<-iiiinis iv-liTi p.>'^- 
^e^i.jL^'e PTidint' 

imif liB'i idfiii; ay irpaddvmo i.i nan f^.^^lf wJiete ialht spear with whjgh 
you liii lite ciiemyT (rtjc &pe^r i-vliicli was ytmr-hitdog-inaimnifiit 
for,..) 

nm Jiiirrr[/^vi^ ^y itifrtfkL-a is 'tan palaljfm the hammer nilh which 1 strike 
ilie ii'oii (my 3ii(nng-cool') 

tidR manTfly-a ay fsit'ta ikA^b j,t natt trffffy ya nafttkash thj^ Iwrimtr ^viCh 

tun Ti'd.'ray ay '{•otltfiianfi i- na'i i/dyfic Ilic ^k "vvjih which vvt cut off the 

vpockI 
vinn (ff^eg oy ilftng^b >tan laldki i-f JirtH pifngunn iHc key v\'l[li w'liJcJi Llie 

ii]^ii rln^L"' ihc rioor ( wliicif i= ibe nian'i cla^iji^-lnsl run Lent) 
jjifn fdiiiik<i»i 031 f^jJ.fi^yrifi r"r ^]irfj tt,yd-Mlm Che spear im'Hi uliicti lie kill^ tlie 

Inilfrilo 
3ian k^fii'i' a'v fiti^t'Jf [ik^kA} ■"•i'l fcbfiifdyi i.i nan ti^lii tfn: kniie with 

^I'lijib Ihc ^nimcn 1.11I llir "luEiJ" 1 c '^i^rLl potjilofs" 
BJfjir ptiwng ay inputlSngko It nan dlihia ihc -a-a. iviili vj\\it\\ 1 cfiopped off 

his head 
van Hiffifftyt^ ay t\ai^dS'^ /jflrf f4fliy l^e hjjnimer ivrlli which the 5p*ar 

»v;ii made' 



335. Relative covEfi^^et) pt various PMPoamows. The conatmc- 
tions htcoaie evident frooi tlie^^ examples: 

iiat hfdki ay badfink ay t'nUmif} \\\i\ ih^iti tviiIi whoiii T u'rtfk; (ihe man 39 
my cuniiianioTi wEio worfcsi kad^ak: iny pEiTtiier, comrade, if Ihere 
flri' fnil livrj |>[T'i3n5; olhenviae: /&/ff, the coiiipanion ) 

nan dpi! ay ^nfimoaniifko [lit im^^lei' fur vlioni ivf work 

wnii dpay rtv Hcrj^'^an nan /sl/ci tlie Tire nith ivfuth [lir nie^ii was cooked 
(rtiK hrc. Ilic "]»3^'^ivH?"-coot:iiig-j»lace irti [lie iiieae) 

"qn pdn-gaan ur lumakljikanidko die door a[ whidi we 5Lanil ^our ataiid- 
iiig>lace ) 



IS6 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

mi'i rf^owz: iJ.v miiifiiisok is itan itarigtidmnmi if unit falldog the liouse 

Fn:lih]nl ivhicli wt loiiiirl llic |i*^l(1 
wcrij ^i^o'y kdyrt iy tumukfjfianiai is JJifrf '^iib^ikoTudi'r'fia llic ftwo) Jreea 

bcfv^ccn whicli we are silling (wliicli i*, .ruir .iit|[|ij' [J[^^t«; Iheir apiiCG 

'lit dfnK^ iiy I'ni^iinoaiilifko n nan ia.ia>:fl'\_^^nii or: ...ay saiokdngena 

niti ^nfiuKonnfitko ih* hou&F befcpre ■which wc wods 
HQu /'p.i?( ay l<tt<tlifki ay tb/ak aji ^nisdito ilie four men ^vl|h -^vbiiri I wurk 

(ivJirt 'Lrt: my (^mnr^id?? ) 
Fffifl laiitldlci ay !lr/a»z ay tnaii^^d^b fa hob dfong the mai with whom YOU 

\m\d (lie hi'ii^c 
ffijfl nUiviilyM iy ikapdnyl^ \iirai'bihiy^\ is Ban fdtfeg your fTieti-ii fnr 

^vh.>Tii ynii gn^fkc Ih-c :^|'-?^rs 
mJH fubfitllir ay iyitbfniit i-^ «iiij wtfii/^ Ihc vitung" man for wlioiii you 

wtavt Elielircfc[i cEaili : (iyitlffnk: ] Wfcsve for ■ioniclindy) 
turn j^nds/Z'tgyej! ay 'ii<rltigi}<rirmt i^ 'Halt piikiiy lln: riili cn^ii frjiii vvlioiii 

W(? bnugliE ^lic rirt" i^vliu I'j "iir-buvini'-jfl^t.e for rrct) 
nsn laliiki ay isiingdStiiv^ is ma Jd!i\iiii tht man froffl wlioni yuii obi^incd 

(lie ■' Hcl |]r^ 
h£jj* ^ayiti' ay isity^ manx^^fJn is na*i h^pi-i die man from whom you 

usually get ih^' ciULyn 
nan ai'iftma ay inafaMyan nan ffil't^ llie nld iii^ii hi \vIliiiii ihciij^'ji 

killed (v^hii i? tlie '"hi?Ln£-ki]led-p!j-i:e" of the pig), 
Of|^^rvil^LllJ^, AllhuiiKh such lNl^^il"(.' tanfilrurli^ns in rckilivc crELH^es 
csls', itic ^cl[vc is ii5(3l a.linoE( eKcUi^[^'cly; the ^^tr^n wlio kill-cd [lie pig. — 



336. RBLATITE HEfEHBIWii TO PEEtUNAl, PHOPTOtiaS AND TO AN IPfOTlP- 

IHIT-I? Afi-TECEDlCri-T. 

Sfft/^n Tjrij mjijii^! li !■: T who i-iicni'i 7 t^m) tht "oiie-li^i^infl-fomp" 
j/ic tati na-i^sfiAd if hpk -^^klong it was yoii wlio l^id dn^-n llie liaE 
jf^'if itiijj nafdi^d ii w!i:i he ivhu waii 'jouri'I, (impri^onnJ) 
tjitk^mf ivn mnngtek kcn ijoflja we Jire Hniic who "know tb?m 
kctj^itgilit^n ion ijaftja liy nif^f^ kM ^/yfl. .Lheti chf>sc who were wjih hin 
saw.,.. 
The Tndefinile aniecedenl "ihat," Fr. ce qui, ce qoi. la 
expressed by the Koin. ^clioiiis preceded by ihe ar1[cle: 
IJ£H^/n^^»t}a aan kt^ndnmi llicv liear Ithst ^^'hicii) ivliat Vr'e ?ay; "onr 



THE. LANGUAGE OF THE BOMTOC IGOROT iS? 

ipifhni n<m lnlj<ist!tn ?hnw fine) wliat yon liirre foimd, "yuur finding" 

iitdiM»i nan kmo^fm wv ^ec tvIiat lie msde 

adlk UySi^n 'ntn hit-^ttotsduna T d" nol 11^:^ wlial he gave (nir) 

atf/p"! ?Jiif^(ii^n uj k^p^n lUiii ifUndti nan laiitjii ay kdfiit we caikiigit molt? 

ivh^C ilie man lells u^ la make 
<i(^/t l:ikk^'3 uu« iiMitiuo T f]^^ iiol mider^land u'li^it !ie says ("!ii^ saying") 
ifUd^'Ko bS'i iaif/^it nan iya/na tdl me wlial "he brln^ ("hts hrliigiiig") 
Hfli li^ycjMa \'a k^wTi ih:it whicfi he i^aiiis r? good 
ij^ng/agf^l: Sm^H udH katidti^ T Ikftir :yII b<^ ^^_<'^ [ ''all lii; ^fiyin^) 
lua/fd /tfffl jifl'f l^stjem here j^ noihijig yon lik'? (bm: v^ajfd f^ylj^m 

you lite Jiolhiiig) 
irflff(?'"J d"E/« t^J! fj.(]//*i )ifli! k^hkein tell nie afl yow. know 

"The ftuc who," "those who" h esprcsaed by i:he 'Tariitiplc" 

or y.'r'iTL ^e'cuii:! with the arljck: 

inlii imn naji^iidad is nan kiin!ydl"iif where ii Che uac who laid dowa his 

sIiJd<l 
nay Jicrt nti'^gi^i^^f !s natt Mink hert {*■ llie iiiic ivlio relurntil iTic m^nry 
ilUhi^ nan nan^pa ken sjakayi^ Uii? Is ilip iin^ ulio ■^^%v y^m 
i/rprff *n»j iiaK^ydi ii; am kdijn^a this is the one who broui;'ht Ihe brjS'i 

([Jie firiiL^'cr iii ulir hmsj^) 
alay i!nn ity hha "10 yaH/fd Uk4^l>-aa. &>>! makifaf^j^iUd any one ^vho is 

rioL ^Lroti^, rloe^ iioL go lohallle, with fi:i criiiiraiie^ : "who^nevcTj if 

there exial^ no 5(reiiglli-Tif?, 602s. not ../' 
£tllry -itAit ay fsha hjo adftdsa fnof diittkfut ya gadxJigjen whosoever has 

more money is d "^divaiigjcAi", n wealthy Liiiiii 
mo ^fitii tan insakTt adl (^vts^HO ei'ecyoiie vIlo is sick doe^ not ivort ^"w 

iinS"...[f jny <jne 1^ 5-cck,...) 
mo stna nan nang^tfin is HiTW kipdtf^ko isdkcngna k^n sak/^n! he "ivho h^S 

l^ken my knife, ^liall return it lo^ mel {mo: \i; sinit-: "-ho, anyonej 



3^<7. Jf ihc prcdic^itt of flic "relAiKt clause" denotes customary, fre» 
quenl^ ci>nl][med, ^iiinihaiieous or rcpeiled acljon, Ija f^io] i? placed btfoTC 
Jhe verlia] form- ija ^ii^nik oiten for Ha and is cotiiiecied, in eonveraadun, 
with (j^'; if^fjLi. (In ttiia gr^ir^LiLajr it ia however separaLed.) 

nan fnirnlffyi? vy Is^na ikd^b ij i*fl" tdfay Ihc hsmmf r with which he used. 

to niakc ^feais f^34-| 
HJn maHtHyo *cy tjci ikd^b ^joff Iddki is iiai iilfny Thf hamn^er w[th which 

Ihe man u^malJj maktb spcacs 



158 THE L.'^NGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

MJji *ian idl^ki dj' i)il f'jdl iftingydi is rrfljj imSpay liere is ilie mar whn 

brings (ever/ (hyj the brcrtjJ 
nay nan fobj afdUo ay tjtitja [Udlia\ "Wt^fstfois nan !sl;a here are ihe 

youiie" inen who ofrm cal Ihe Jiieai 
wifjrfi? nan naamaili^ngwi ay !sf< matuUiit ij san /,'id "jth -aiJ/tga iherc vras 

a widower wbo lascd u, sJi^rpen lii? a^L at fhc lianks uf the river 

[L- W3I- Or: why was Uicii ^li.irijr'nmi!: &iiiiii]r;Lneoiii aciioii. 



2^B Tnirrchiin^ of llnj Kom. ictioais wilh ihe Antecedenl [32S] lake^ 

ifiltf Jtan nangdfan ^matn ay htjaf wlicre is (he meal whi-cli yoar lallier 

hah bruufi'hc? (iraslc^d of nun utja ay nttngaian amain] ; alio; inCo 

"aw imniJiilaii (fmap" j-t nan isijuT 
M ^T^fl ald£n -i/m inUak ay ualilngoli^iigci ay lipdd lei iia two go loget llie 

lery dry wood which I h;ive seen (L. 3] 
engkAy^'d iiiigo nun /una^^inA ay fiinga you shiillgo [0 wll the Jars which 

yi>ii have made fL. 24) 
Han tsdk andban ay tdman >■« no-n Sgsit ibe wild pigi and deer wlifcb T 

u^cdt-JhLim |M, S| 
ya nan tsam inpaiydi ay shen^^dko ;in(| llic luwl which j'ou used Jo send 

(had ]icr brlnK I^J Jne} |M, iii| 
^ngscn itsn inti^nit {indl6na\ ay kdtj-'u many, plenty 'irere Ihe fish which 

hccanj^br IP. ?! 
aydka NOH iiid^flt ai' i^fj^w ^rcaJ msriy src Th<; (iKh wh-ifh 1 caught [P. 8| 
^mdytja nan ninfdfis ay iinjlki Ihe Ejrolhen who had ckiired the ground 

n-cnt [R. 81. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 159 



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 



^■^;^Cf. S e II I c n c e - Q u e 3 I i 11 s, f. e. q[i**iiinn*i wliicH may Iw 
ar>^v,crcd hy "jcs" yr ''ii-^," iiiive: eitlicf ilie iocm rtf rftrclar^nivc ■ooitcnces, 

or they hegln iviih ilie iiiterrogaiive panicle '^ayk^" (In ils vjj"iinjs 
frtrum) folloived "by llie verh ivliot endings are Iraiisferred in at-vi^- 

■jhc fHjri^iiai vctli if. in ii? "P^riiciiffi" ^or "Infinitive") itun', thc 

possK^jx-f^ vfrb ill llic E<vrpn of ihe NJ.micri ^ctjonis- — 

AVord-Ques tie 11^ are inlrodinred by inlcrrog^alivn? pronoLiiis -cir 
adverbs; sucli as: j^jiu, fig&gy Ifird.inlo, «tc. who, ivliat, whtn, wbeT-t!, etc. 

To lliesi? proiioLiiia o-r adverbs our copula (is, arc, Tvas, wen: etc.) h 
iiiliereiil; (key require llieretore constvLic^ioiis vj'ilh ncii a.iid Verbal Noi]ii:*i: 
Nom. actiDiiis, respeclively Koin, agoiili?. W* mnsf iioE coii^Lrufl.' w-lio 
come? v.liac do yoit [liliik^ ^vliete dnc? Fie five? buE: ivlio i? ilic "fo-Tcicrr" 
what is vOLir EJiiiikiiii^? wliete is III? liiiiig-place? 



340- Senience-QueiitiQns Wiilioiil idt^fro^livr pprliolc, Ijul 
with the intoD&tion rising ^ind rcrLcbms '1^ liiglicsl tf>ne at ihe final Towel 
of the stinlciitci 

adunidUka dkii? will rou come af-aiii? 

Uitm(^li s/yaf h^"- lie velurned? 

kavjfs van mAban? i^lhe rice pood? 

kau'fskaf EiTe y-ou ivell? 

abiot^t^m jflP du you believ-e iliat' 

itidnapyfk tian dn&adkf fliii vou ?f*lr Uit fhildrtD? 

sokl4ngino 'iQindy? is Tills youi' hat? 

FrcqiienOv Ihe |>ar1fi:!c ity. witii Jnlerrf^-ptivTi for«, is placed al Ihc aid 
of a qucshoii, similarly i<^ ilip reptiition if <^iir aiisiIiaTy vcxU: did you find 

11k !et(er^ ddd you? (Or n^}n-, ^cc [jo&J) 

iHw^yfrfl oy^ did ycm ^o, di-d yoa? 
^a^Hy^pija ayf do they sleep? 

Tlll^ fijir'licle ay is employed willi all iiriiis *if iiLieslions treated ill ihf 

loFJoTv-ing ^ccliojia^ widi ^o[l^ sen teiic*-<|in.'^r Ions ind vnord-quealions. 



160 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROO^ 



|4i, ScnIcTicc-QuciilioDS ate frequently introdiLcvd by Ibr nntranslal- 
flbtc fiartitk <tvkS {aikA; uyki; nyk^: Jt/|,- n-ykA con^^ls jtrobjbly of tlic 
JTil".'rrujrJEivi^ oy mA ^n ck*ment ko wiiir!i it fyiin'l ;lI:>u ii] olher combination'^ 

AykS mrrtly indicates Ihj^ Ihe c^lrfl':^^;^ of Ih^ scnlcii^c at wliopie head 
ii ■nliiiii:!:* i^ intcrrujjjiivc. Ir liikcs rn ihdi llic cridinffs from tht f oKo^'iii^ 
«etk (If a nc^i^iion |irci;-:dt'«- life vrrli, ayk^ lalcr>^ i.hc ending From (lie 
negative, '^o lliat. in Ihis c;iie, bolh vcib ;md ncji^livc a^l]^e3^ willioiit eiid- 

Ayk^ ot aykS ^|jpv^r::i in lhC5'> formSj after taking llic cndiit'^s f rori 
ilic vcrfj; 



Personal: 






Pnieeasive: 


i. oyy<sk {iiyk§ak: 


jjt^afr; 


dVit/'lftl 


fl^'t^fr (ajfrif*; atft; -jyt/ij 


? nyk^'kt 






iTJ'it/lJT 


3. ^Tjfr^ 






ii_\iir/ira 


D. aykita 






fl_yt/Jfl 


1. iflCl. tiykefdlio 






iiykHdko 


I. txd. ny^iHnif 






aykftni 


11. (i^.^/Wyfif 






ityk^yt^ 


11 T, aylfhja 






aykiijn 


ayhSha adzimdUjSkisT wifl ytJif 1 


:oiue neai 


11? 


j>'*f^ fi^^HiJ/f" jfviT n>'? h-is he r^iurTied* 


rioi' Irafn er zurudc, ja? 



ayiiS hSivTs naii mdhan ayf i'i tin; ricK ^joo'l?' 

fljii^t^FP^ abjoifilc'" sa? du you believe" Juil!' 

oji*?'>« rtJ/ nbfotftU'n sa? -do vmi not lx;lifvr lliJtli' 

ayhiyft tiidntip nan dudnafc? did yon ^c^k ihc chiMr^nr 

ayi^ys idl mfj^san Jiaf tfirdnakf did you not (uid llu! iliildrpn ' 

iiyk6 .'(okldiigmo nanntty? is Una your liJit? 

ay^^kay^ iiavtiblitf did you smoke? 

ajii^ftn iTukdka'i^ iiie you a iiiaii from I'LicucaTi? ;irc ynu fiom Tucucan? 

ayk^kayi^ iF^fitok^ rirc >aii Bonloc'tneii? 

ayitJ flfjnHoji ay dfo'i^ ya kSam? i-! llf[*i house yours? 

ayit^ x>-'6diiy ke-n sika Ran fiifdg-} ay k-dah ayf liave you any lybacco ^or 

nic^ ("ii? ihfri; mth yon trjhAi^i:^ ivljich -will be- my |jro|'^rty") 
fljiWnd k^kk^H flya. ay fafdxi tf? do vou "knoi-v her' 
ayJiJyA ktntek nan aifivitlfti ny^ did vou know our friends? 
axkhn infla nan fi^siti ay? Il^|v^; yi>ii ^en llie eiieiiiy? 
fly*J inkdeb sfya ii nan dfoHg ay? is he biiikliii^ llie granary? 
aykSnsfhkash nan fdlffi^ ny? d:d helbrowtW siK^r? 



THE L.\N<JUA<JE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT tfil 

ayk/^^a iifii^ na'\Ablif have you emukrd hfclorc? 

aykhn rj-j?" iiiHn ta'/ diil \fi3 net set? ifiis? 

ayk^m i^diffiif: i/JniL'dm ta tiv^ lijiil um nnl ^3]'l iJii'- lieJoio^ 

ayhhja '\a!chiidfjn nan pdn^uan' lijivt llic ik-'Ji'- l>c':ii ■-ijeiie*!? 

ayk^ UgtQH nQii lali^kl >ia!\ a'usi ay^ *l'!ei> Hit m-in h-M Jlic ilog? (ff^io 

iind lig'. -ix> ^L^ ili^ iiirin'*! Ii^rdinij-niiii ihc jlni;?! 
ayk^ ^•.-r^ay {ayiL-hvay] jt huj^ uti^iin^^ii i\iin kip'htgko ay' lifls the boy 

oiy kttifr? 
(ijfirf fiiaydk'tit na'i laldki nan anAhm^ illil rln nijin cjJI liis (fiild? 
iiyt'' kf'iisil \inn jfiH nan !iija? ili.l llur' iliii; ■'?[ Ifn; nic^il'' 
ijifrJ kdpen liiin inldki nan lufay ^ ilin-i (Jir ninn niiike tlie spear? 
aykiija kapen iiit<t ttifoyt do flicy ciijikr lit.: h|i':3T?' 
a\ki i'dj'^ji Fr^jj fisluUhi i^ii l/?f^v ' <lri tfn; iin:ri make Ihe speant? 
ayhS wddil'fMa^^h'dmaf [^ [lie (aclier licr.^P {'sNa—hna:-ih'"si. p'r-rj-on. .ir(.) 
ai'fr^'^if /jJt^iJ I' 'lix'igit'i^ni'n it laf w-aa if jioi j'uu ^biil jo atlitr?} »vIio 

di^l LI ? 
aj't^ sfka nair iiaiti/iba'f' U i\/in fiivga uy^ va^ il van ihrii lirnkc EliTpol? 

fakinaki iint 1 1 
uj*i3 /fltJjA fiif* i'. iLiiihr ■^ri^ 1^ ilii^ [iol lijjlil? 
dj_vi.^*^l>'?i 'lasflycf? <li.l yuu ■^kq^r j£^W>jr/' ■^e rlr^ ciof ' 
ay^^!:n nmdU asTt'dknif will you iconic (■j-nianoiv? ad^aki I shall not! 
ayl:^ niskts^J^ sfysf !m!v lie (ir]i:^IiL;j| cru^kiiijc^ lsda}\ pay! iinl yt\[ 
ayk^j/'i hisakiS? are you -iick? i[^ [iifinyiimx like our j iia%v! |, dJ/,' no! 
aykoidkn Bgon/iig-^JH nj i'&niokf arc wt near Bontoc? dd/, adiffAwt 

/ripj' irrrt'p; fjrIaFf ' iio^ quite fjir nwjiy, HijC yd 
vkt-n-uiy {for: lyJ^J -.t'oday, [s lliere?) 'nrihffiyi^f ]vjy: yoll any rice? (ia 

lfiH?ri' jroiir rk:'?) 
ny'lTf^ sak/^'i-' uyk^ siya^ is il I? li i[ he? 
ajiifif? wodd' "Id? iahehcri? yna/'idl nol ma/ti kay sfna he is indHd 

nol hero 
(jyit^ S>tdkm<> ihvd!f is ihi^ ynur chlTd? fakSnko dtmk! noi iiiliic! 
ayt^tayiA iiuiidli^ did yrju tuiiie; fokSn tfdkSintf or: ffikiKWrnir not 

wc (Inn odiciir)] 
*Vir^ fjTifflj' 110-^ ySit/mn? lia? yoiir older brother diedi' JsrfflK.' or: f^-|? 

n<t! (fi€ has iicnj 
ny'jfl^iSri^ igd itafdi^ar have y-uii not bfcn fctitredr p£fJ*Bjjj^.' no! 
aykSij-i t-itTt'^f na'iiii\ -ly t^j^y? arr Ihepie p>[n:ar& j^ood? 



16; THE tANGUAGE OF THE J30NT0C IGOEtOr 



^42. Ill InliTro-gHii'i' ii^-rFilt'iicc; frc4|ueinlj' lliu parlitk ng/i, perhaps, 
ptnfjalily, is ein|iloycd, v.illi i>r 'virhoiri ar/,*'- parlicii[arly ivllh Hic fulure: 
adumdlii^a nginf \'.i\\ yen pri'lKiUly '.onic? fiaddynitja Ufj'i 'i^n fii^ngf 
will they iierh.-ips kill Ihcpi-;? iiiunih 'iguj si f'lisJ' did mollicF perlKip;; 
conm ■■ Ccr. isl die Muller ivolil ^'eknnmirn; .V^fii 15 always po^lftOiiliv* 
[ind employed onlj m int^iTOf^ative s^nteocca. 



34,^. Tli[> ^(lirimlii-'' ii]'1'<.-t ">"C5" L' • ^y' or: f/^iz.' f;ir^j|j . L'JiIi.tIIj 
ilie verb oi ihe iiatcrrut^atm; -■sciilcii'^c is iep<:He45 ^s Ein^vcr, i^EHiuiil ?nd 
E^meiime^ with "oyf: 

itykfi" iiifh styn? ilji! yun iijc Jiini? (^,1'-) '"^/-^^ ' )'^\ J '■a'^ ^liiiii)! 

utiiitfrsiwrU 
(A.s ihosc [■siTTipli"; sho'v, fhc iilijccl i^ itoE r-epeated in ilic ntpiswcr.) 

Tlic ;sdvi'rb oE rciJly; fXt^'i (prnb^ilily iin I!i:m::lih> liijui-u^trfll is used 
rrf*atedl_\ by a |ii.tm.ii Ir'^tcnjng tn aiinElierVs ivord?, Ei> iiidk.lCc lli-c liitlcner's 
iliciuiiin - ns Grr, v)? jn? jiii etc. 

TJ|[ iiri^frilln; jilvcrlis of rc]'ly [i;ivc fieen lri'n.li'd liofor*; [,t'y-^;4]. 
&?nic hnvr ln-fTi rn-iiiiiiiiliiicl in ilic r^.iiiii'lc; siveii ^il»nwi^. — 

S/A'U 

344. \VyrJ-Qu''^lir]n^ i^'ithj/fi'f \ifiii^].' ■'^Jlt^? ^inn uki'5 llie 
pcr^^nnl -ciidijiss in inn"ilior'^ bki;; Vr-ho jiiii I ? ^^'Iio ^rc you' clt. Wi; may 
roii^idtr ^ulr tii]»uJ,i \v hi: iTih'.T<:nl lu ilnn. If lift iiilj/txt oj "ihe question is 

^ ndiin^ sJnu rnnjiin'o liTi^-lmn^'l; Ihi nrrnn fiilJo"-?.. 

^Snuak? wht am J? sindka^ ivlio irl Choii? Jt'jiii styaf ivlio i'; he? 

sindkamt? viho arc ■we? -tutdi^ny^? ivbo are ytm ' iia^ifif 

who li ihiilf {^/f: thurc) 
jJW j! Aiigay? ivlio ji Aii^jy? iAw si AbukldT "vi'ho li Abat:[d^ 
^/tff^ rffo^i yi\amd^}^id ay noy^ ivhii i:^ lliis ^irl? 

j/jjii irfl^f dpom? whn is ymir niasEer? 

iirni >ian amdy^f %\.'lio is \'Oiit fmlicr? 



345' Sfnu, who?, a.3 subject of a qiie^noit, rei]iiLT-es parEiclpial on- 
5trlitt[ijns. Il j& foflowed bj tlie TartJci^e" of peratmal verbs fnnd ui 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BO^JTQC ICOROT 1-63 

passive verli::, a^ lliey lielirtcie^ Ln llie -category i^E ]n?r-:ni[nl \trljs) and by tlic 
rjoinen pgejilia of pu^ge^-^ive verl^g. Tlit arliclt preceilc- alv.^j-^ ihc "Par- 
ticiple" or is'rtiJi. agaiilis. 

■r/nri ita'! tiiirizh i.'im? wlio WHKS there? ^who is ihe t>iie comii^) 

i/iiit niia miiiinifJi:' wiip ^vill cujlic? .^fiii mm -i/^'udii^^rtaF who i:i hern? 
.i/iui iiopT 'ii!ijiiati^ mjf^ '^lio I'va'; uarl;iiiy v-uiiikr? 

stnu nan mf^g ke^ i^Hf who wmc* with y^u? 



> 



.-ifnu null miiteg k^n fodt^ ^vli-. rnmf iviili Iflrii 

j/jjjj iJiJFc mtfxtdSy is nn'i ffisMy .'In' Ills I 'mi ■.lam by ihe enemy? 

j/iirr jra^i mnjdir^ii kht Ij'ilijiif wlii^ is beinp; bound by liicm? 

d^lJH "OFF tUii\L^lt.^ ■■lin liiis U'lurncil? 

j^j^jj ijjfr ju^FJE^Jij^ff/n ji jcjTJi dfo'ii:^ .ubo ifl 5lMfdrtK in the house? 

slim iimi. himilyaii? ,ilin I'i riinnini; Ji'-,iLy? 

sfiiu nan iii(ni^zwiliii is Timmiiyr \\\i<s ij^ys fio (ihat)? (wbQ Ls rhe sayer 

of thatp) 
stnii n^K iia\i^i,'jfiii tV 'ii!iL'i^\f v.Ii.f ^j[i1 ?-^' 
ifiiii unit iiiangdiiub Kn ttik/^'if ivlio ^ccic^ rm:? 
j/i»i^ «fffi: iiiiiii^/'n^ii [man-^/fi£oy; fiiimg/noy]is nan a^yamf who hears 

Il3c bir<[^ 
etnu nair titiim^t^^on k^tt iCdtf who wakes him. up? 
•ilnit najL lian^t^^lr ii won dfofi'^^ u-lio iimile \]vi Imiiiic? 
.•^rnu iiitir "iitngfek kein lodf? \:\\-> kllo^.■■' himr 
ttttti iruii nG'igSl^iis Him katnpthinf who has taktpi (forcitly) your sword 

("|jy|i^")P 
stnii naiT t>ii\giUn- is nan rotfdghit? who has taken my k*y? 
SJllll n3it lia maiigy^i is "an /ilja^ hvli-it liniigs- Jlic ]in:;it L3-n.kli> ? 
sf'tn 'nin nit'igfla's nan tal^ki^ \\\\o lia.! ^tcii x\\c iiLin? 
sfxu flii>J! 'iting/ljti'i is imi! sing^/iig'ia? i'Iid liaj foiLnd his tu^F 
i!nu nan Hf^jx^djj^n is jf^w f^uMtjhn lc/?ii s!ka? wh(ili^!;s^[.'fjTi ym ihtifon? 
sinu nan nmigv^jdm si nc kce rjaJjdyi:^ " \vlio ha? Jold yuii tliiii? 
iltiM ntxn jtui/igdyali kirn .iQk/Si%? who ia calliDg mt? 
ittm nan niiUi^tlm is wjijj Ir/tyo? who cut dnwn lln? irce ? 
,^/'rrd Ffffjj. FFcrriJ^^y.^^ r'-r ihjjj £ttb^tosi\ka? ulin is Li'[iisii3K my ^l"i>c^? 
*/»![ nan. nan^ipHy is no'i f^dsok is itian dfovgt who put my coar into the 

*/ftfi wfjjj. wfjf'jj^n-j^ dj nan mifhanf u'lio ea(3 the rice? 



1^4 THE lANGUAGE OF THli UONTOC IGOKOT 

346. S/'iu as flireci ol>j*ci, ivlioiii' staii-diaT ilie Irfgiiiiiiiig of Ehe ques- 
tion ;. il i? fol[rnved by ibic Noiiien aclio-iiis wilb poiiessive endings if llie 
^uhjccl is a persoiial proLioiiii in Engli^Vi; Hit iirlkk precedes ihe- Norn. 
acLioiiis. [f llic 5iil>jcct ii -^ noun, 111*: N'umi.-ii Ji [iimi? baj nu endings; [l [l 
end? ii^ a vow^l^ ihc "(jciiHivc InJu-Eilttr" Or J-iS<»(uri: -n 11 ?uffix:ed. 

s/flN WflF: k^^ireni? ^vliftiii ilii you kitoiv? 

slmi niiir fi'iiiktfifji'am^ w-hmn dlii ynu nzall? 

st'nt iidii- iiai^"'^ ivliiiiii drt you 5ee? (^vho ia Elie ^eeinij-aini-yoTiis] 

j^rff vaj[ tje!}^n^/n^tm ay fsa man^nyicweiig^ "whonifJo.^oulieat aiiigingf 

sf'iii lif'i l^'iimt^m'^ wlioin il^ lou paers? 

st'in 'laii avdhan-tjaf ^vlioiii do tln^A' call' 

i^hi}! nan ayttkan (or' ayitkiiufja) nan lalaldkif whom ili> ilif men rati? 

^Smi iidfe levijeKM:^^ vbioiii rlo ycm like? 

j/j^jj nflFf ffgfi'i iia'i mam^gffid? fthcrni docs ih* girj liold^ (J^^Jcn.' with 

Gen. Iiid. -li) 
stiiu ixan adpadSyi'ny^^ irlioni \\\\\ voii kill: 
jfjjii nati intAfotti^ whom d]d lie liide? 
siiiu nan iiiiiaidko'' wlioni dk\ \\i see? 

I F "vrli'iin" >ili;ill hi: iiinrc OLiiiili^i'^i/CLl, Llii' \-lcyn\ ji|;i'iUl= ivuH locjillv^ 
;i|jfliJ4 -a" [in-d I'Ojscjn^ivj; cii'lin^^ii ^•-■. ['niiilov^-c]- iiixh (nsi;- ^(.'■'in Hi \k vciy 
rare, is: 
i/jdj. jiop }na<\giiyakdny:^? ^usoally: jrtjn ^^ifn cydhGnySt) w^om <Ji> yon 

cjII? 
j/hi/ ijjii iwjf 3" ji«.ijjipf3'flt ^ (J JTiSfTlJ^d} ivfi-rt I? il ilb?n y.m l)ind? 
sfnu nan tiia'i^H'fol^nyHf (u'iii^illy . ibf^y^) iv-lio js n ih-.n yoii imkii wtii' 

Pttsoii^l vt\ bs are nol used in llii-^ cnn^lniclion ; only one TdoubtfTlJ) 
exaiLiple lias t"?cn obtiMii*:'!: sfnu nan It^mkoithiy^'^ "hijin ilid yon slop?; 
also ill ihis cas<: lli<! iiiftix 'frji h rLHi<:h':r.l !<» llH" vnU: iFUnh'iyak (intervo- 
calic i mbcrlcd). ('!"hc jiosic&iLvij verb JruT" llie k^hic rOftl ifi; pa-tk6!ek, 
Willi cau^udvc |)i:v(ix. ^a |ii[ait: pitk^lek^). 



347, Sinn folljivcJ by n noiin ^viili preli:^ tiin- [<j2\, forma a phrase 

by wliicli OUT po&Ec^bivt Krnicivf "*boj.<:" v-. circiiiii':i;ribtd r 
si>\u nan nindfou^? who i-! line hon&e-own<:r? whose bioiise is il? 
c/^jji nail nin^tiPt'ihrfi? v^'hose dog is that? ('iMfi = fslji) 
sAr?! '/an ninoii^^ttf^a ay nayf wlirt^c child is tins? 

sfnu nait nindfoiig is nan indyjtm^ into Vi'liosc linuse did jou go (liave 
yog Iweii) ? 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC !G01?0T 165 

sttta ua» tsiL-idkifing ii aau in^ianyA-" ^%liim: liai liiii yoii talw? (who ia 
Tlie li:sl-oivricr, fnr j-nur Jufcliig: — Jhe liat) 

.vinu nan mnitn^iijiga ay Jtamait^y if jeai! mmiSkko' who^e \vy^ Irillerf 

my cliicfceii?" 
sftiu nan ntiidfoii^ ay hdp^ii nan laldkx? wliose Eiouie doe? (lie man huild? 

{niitd{ong, or: nan nink^a nan diong; nink-oa ii said only of iiioce- 

TJsl property I 
j&u wflrt ntiifiiifeg av Mna^pnaf wliosc sp-ciir liai In: niiil';? ("The par+ide 

ay refers in lliia and aiinQar ccnilTili^Lion^ Li> Hie; prctciling noun 

ac|i^r;U['l froiii lis prclis niu — ; ninfaifi^g ay.-., ay rcicri to fa^fe^. 

nol "lo uiiifa^firg.y 



34S. Tlic (IjCivt "lo whom?" i'^ expressed hy sfnt And Ihc Niom. 
jgcnli^ wiMi the prefix r-. Ihc ^iifiix -an ^nd Mjth iHl^'nci'ni^T einJin^b (i6l I ; 

T-be dire:! oIijC-Cl oE tlu- NTiimtn jgmMs is govCTiii^d hy il^e j>rc|">silioii u, 
(The N<micn a^nlih has ml flufliK, if the ^ubjeci j< n n(.un J 

.■rAifl Ttait nangipailam j.t nan s^gfif to wfinin did vi^n show (he rain Jial' 
j/njj nmr man^ipal^adnya is nan nt^iadi' lo wlioni do yoi[ ■ilioi^r itie leKer^ 
f/nii nan itangitsaoliaoiinSfa is nan kattlpitF lo whom did Jhey g"ivc the 

dinner -basket? 
itna nan mangitmolsdoan Jimt iaidki is nan bUak? to whuni df^s (he m^n 

give tfie money?" (ivlio [s ihe niaii'i civiii^-plaee foi llie muncy?) 
sinu nan tnangiyallani tF Vat kdy'o^ io uFiDin do you brii^ Ihe tvoixl^ (J 

in&crt^dl 
i/>i« ^iiTfj inn_ef"i'a/^aFr^/a'jft nttff p/tkiryt to whom did they brli^f tht ri-ce? 
ffiiri rrafi admansitsaotsdoOH mm l&tdUhi is isan Zafitf to whom "^ill tlie 

men give chc s^El? 



349 E\nni|i]es illu?lrr[LiJig (lie ci>ii*.(ri]cti'sii% of the iiilerrocative fjhj- 
noun giii'eriiiNl hv -I'^iriud? [iri^pO'ilioilJ- (similar lo sucli conitriicl[un3 Vnilh, 
Iht rclaiive pronauni^) cf- [33S] : 

j/ffMHiru iydbfam is tmnw^ms? for i^'liom. do ym iv-cave the breech cl-olh? 

{iy^bfak: I weave ft^r ioiiieune ) 
stnu nna sMapdny^ is tmn k^Slaf^f forwhom are yon making Ihe nlelil- 

cap? {ikal>d}iy», or; ikaihdnya.) 
i/hii Htrn ^ijij/^jj^iflm (piiir, F^pir tfflfjwji^apjj-W)-' fnr wIioiil do yoii wurk? 
jiViH nan nong/nn^'i^n/dny^ si sa? for i-vhom did yi^u do it? 



i66 Ulii LAKGUAGE OF THE EOXTOC IGOROT 



situ nan ^ifucgJi^iiyA is iKf with whom did job go to town P (who -vat 

yonr coiiipaiiioiia, iJin^c gnlng ivilli, lo l-nwn ) 
itiia nan kGdudno uj' ujirj^isj/a U nan injo^ u'jlIi wIloth did he est the 

m^ali' i/who ivjs liis -cniiipaiiinii? said nf bul ivii persoii*i- ncfn 

kailtiaky i^aifiiaiii, kailii^Ka; =o' tiffJi'lJUj out CDnipanifiii q( cliree per- 

fiunij; kapdtun nf loiir piZL"50ii^) 
i/jijj im?[ /&/iiin p;^' inmttfi adAgkaf wiili wlioiii did you come ye-3[er<lay? 

("l»o ft^i your coiiipniiLoii, fb/a. wIiq came yesti?r<lay?) 
itnk }H3'i ib/nidkQ ay fna'igdcb is rrap! t<aiviifong? with wJionido wc build 

Ihc liufi' 
jfnu ipa^f \b/(tn!i ay masfiyep* vrrUi ivhoTti (Tocp he sleep? 
j^-Jii^ ^jriFr tb/ti'2 fiiTFr laldki ay cnlifino^ vvilli vfiom rloe^ llic ma^l WOrk? 
j/?ij( HffH ib/tfyff ay mutttltan' with uliniii iIq joii lv^lk^ 
it'll! nn'i iiJi'ila^Sam i^ nan pdhuy^ h'fiiii \^]irhni da j-mi Iniy thp fiCe? 
^/jiii flQFr "iitlaj^i^aiiS/a is nan 'li/n^ [nun wlirjiii did llfccv bvy (he ^pK? 
^/jiij fffjjz Hni'i^iimnyfi is jjfi?i kth^in^^ irtMii •aUoih Jo ymi net Hit bra^i? 
^f*^( poll Lillys iiia«glfla/in iV <rj>i jdyashT fr^ni ivlham do you u^uiillv ^tt 

ymir Mitjiir cane-ljr.iiniv? 
si'iu nail njipud^yaii is nun jfit'ig? by wboni was [he pi^ killed? 
j/rttt nan niiogifan is von nflaigr by nhom wa£ lbc^uff!llo sold^ 

(Tlie aclive craistructioa is preferable to the pi^-^rvf.) 

NGAG 

3;a 'Ihc rules e&lubli'^liGd for j/iiw hold sl'^ for ii/J.^'.^ uh^il? Wc 
'iiay atiumc aliio ihai oui' cnpiiln !■; jnhcrcni: lo 'igd? 

Examples of C'>n',i:riicli'jiii in ivliicli n^a^ i? subject oi" dir^cl abject, or 
where it jg govcriMd by onr prepositions; 

ngiii-m^ u'hfllitlhi^? n^is ifi/ ivhii. jc yonder? whatisfhal? (also 

Hinyrify, Ji; Grr. isaa soil ilas licisi^eii?) 
n£i^£ ntiH i^dfjaini^ uli^il i*, lif^ JiiUiiei' 
ugdg noK kotiJffko ay iiit^lnd? of ivhai advaotag* li il for nic In wrift? 

*i'Fiji| ji ilie use i>f my writing? 
i^'dj^ '"J" ">ndli istjl^ what conit^ chtrc? 
"£^^ nflw ilmnik ist)i? ivEiul ^'mne Ihcrc^ 
itgdg nan Smod; nein ttimad^ m'Ei.iI li.Tppcns; liEippened? 
ng^gn&n dmad ken s!kaf wkat happens to you^ im-w ^rr y<ju? Iio^ir do 

y'}\\ '1^1 
"S^S njjn iimad is itan tjUpiinmof how U your Fod? 



THE LAMGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOKOT 167 

ijgrl£ jjflw fmii-ad Is nan diomf vtiiat *'han liappentd" to your bead? wliat is 

ilie j[i:|i[i;r i^iili your liead? 
fli^dj; 1"" twndya^ ut}{'' wb^x flie* there? 
ngtig sflrt )jji>j^j?e^' jf jifl^ domdngehT whal iiiiidi: ili*? noise? 
B£4^ifraHTflH jI^^J B^gti? wliat ;irc you lo I1eihI[?, 1. c. lioiv jcc juii rclEiicd 

to him? 

^ri^S ■f^" rffl<'fH.' U'lLrLl <L^ VOL! iee? 

fj^dg Ffjjj nlntn^mcm^ v,1i^[E tin you l[i[]ifc? 

nga^ nai\ hvbhn AniiirQ? wliiil iloc!^ Aiilcro chiLnL-c? 

ng^S '""^ t^toit nan iataldkV' ■'Inl Jo llio iiieii li-ofil? 

"fif'^ fliTU shfakdljc Smfn? wh^ii ^0 all a^k? 

p^a^ iffljj tdji-i\i OlO!,ha\x fj j^itij afongiiaf \v'\vj<: i?; 0[i>sh:(ii showang in lias 

llQUSC? 

t(gi^ iijfT leytj^na [lcy!fStta]f what dnes Tie want? 

n^a^ 'I"" ifd'uiin si fa? iiliac do yoii ^ay Co this-? what do ynu call iliis' 

"t^S """ ^inri^i'/nij'jl'' wliat did you vaiil? 

ngUg nan vfflijpr^ iroi? fafdviT whal ia the woman doiiii[? 

''S"^ Ji"" ansi"^"*'^ U'lial i*, *.lie -loliic? 

"^^H 'f"" of^Cwj'^ jy Jalaldlii? \vliat aie you cooking, joU ni«i? 

n^(jg ifa^j hfalfffm b^'it tSiH? ^iliat d[d you a^kolliiiii^ 

H^i'g fioH bin's.'Jil'iin ifntain? .i-lial illd jr^ur fnlliti' *i^y' 

ij^d^ no-" 4fKsna iiiiAhaf wliaE liani lie asked: 

it^jl^ "fcjj tkaay^f wbai are yiu iloiiig' 

"£if^ >'<"t man^dl/^aify^ rc jiju jlndy^'' in vlia: do you coolt the rite; 

(ivhat is your-coot:iiig-|>lacc for th* rice?) 
"i'AS >^^'^ ijuMfiiiiQ ij nnfs kiiyo? wjtli ^> lint <lf» you cut llie wmkI? fwli-it 

is vour ciinJiiK-i-*^''!- fiJi ''if: iv04>l?) 
"£<^£ wp" fiaiiglhko'd U ytati fi^sch^ ulcli u-lim nni I (o co^er the liox? 
"^% 'ra?E inkdhiii kcyi niya? of vvlial did yrm .'^peak lo- hiin? {ikdlikt 1 

"^(S^; "">' i>ii<^ig 'H"i oij^oiga ken ^ita* uiLli wUnt ilid tEie boy slrcki" yOii? 
fj^ii^ prijfl ipdd/ong nan lulaidki ii na'i viin^sa? with wtat do llic men 
fltrikcdic gong? 

Olserve the JdiomL aykS n^iig tn... "why ^houJd I. ." (indignpnily) 

aykS 'i^Hg Sa l^miiyakf ivliy sliould I go? 

nyk^ iijiiig la iimolsihifa nan biiakmx ken s/yaf wliy rihoul'l w« g[vc Oiir 

money lo himr' 
aykS -Kgd^ ta allium fian ha ay hdlpu? why ilioul J yrJl* get a iinglt liflb? 



i6S THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOK^TOC IGOROT 

aykff iig&g til tUd^m -non k^vieiig nini tjdlidf wliy should yi>u gtt Ihe "car" 

of afisfi: ljdid> IP, 5 1 
ayhS n^da faafdt'iek i/kaf i^hy slioutil T uniie you? [P, lo] 
oj'Vi^ ir^t<^ iif O^d/^iii non g4^^ii\? \>l>y ^iLaylcl yo^i j'bi^Jii ili^ £'*''£' [P- "^^l 
aji^ lig^g fa lld^&yA "riu kajdyof wliy shotild yj^ii ■^eil iht ln>r^e ? 

A'ort -^ wh^r? is ncvrr ^n i:kiin:nl of a ^nCmce; ii is an ijiLerjocdoii 
cx]>TCi5in£ curios [|y, ^urpriisr, indiHn^li-on; nKcrrd wjili rising iiii-oiiiiiioii. 



35'. Sffiii iii;r.,and fig-ig ay.,.vi'hic!i.„?i u^-ed jclritjuijvtly w[l'h hub' 
slaniives, require (li-e Mine coiistriic<ioii5 as shiu .'Ind "^^g. Sf'iii pv.,.ifl 
used willi persojia- ig^g ii^...v.[th aiiiiii^U and thing-., Inn JilvO somrlrinifs 
wilh persons. — \'^3^ ay. .lias also Itie in-e^njng: wTiiTif kinll oEr., 

s/fr?( ay jjn^f^p^a nfli nadSv? ^'[licli hoy jfas dicdr 

ng^g civ kiintyak unn kdam? ivhicLi ^iliielil i?i yi>ur3? 

s/t^ uy laldfci iiflFr jinmdta? wliicii man weiil oul? (or ; ng^g ay !a!dki...) 

j/flH fly fafilyi ""On itai^iyAft's nun f is^hiingati? v^'bich ^oman Iiiisfiroufiht 

llie large jar^ (or: n^H^ ay fafayi .."^ 
sina ay ongOi^a- layi /^u^jiy ej iskn/lci? wlii-ch boy goes to ^c^^JOl? 
s/wu fly iifnii iiflFi "jffu^'tL'i?F(f' jj iioKp[-Tii^ wliicli old ivoiran ha'- sitid iJki^? 
5^^ju jjy tnamdgkid mat tidfidkas'i is rai> ^gmiY wlilrli ^Irl ^la^ Sioken 

llie pDl ? 
s/hj. ji/ laldkiima aydkanyi* ^ ^^'h[ch rmn do yon -:^ll? 
h£(S^ flv fi<?yi>* "iflB iihiigftmo? wlidcli ketde do you put on tUc Jirc? 
"£^£ fly n^niig ifi itd^oyA? ivhicEi tmffalo du >'on sell? 
*gfl£ (T^v i(?dyfl iJJH nnib^v'^T vliitii Iree did you ciil down? 
«g(i_5 fly fa 3?ijii intcddsdnlj<i nan !gff!ot? in wliicli loiinlry <lrt ihe Igorol 

live? 
ji^dg ay pStiun)^ im Uyfjem? ^vliicli ax do you like? 
Hg(f^ iry ialdki nitu inoy^kutt piltniak^ ^wfiicli iiian did. Fimtnak caTI? 
ngitg ay firMngu nan l^ytj^n na't fohfdllo? "whicli pipe does tttyimtig man 

like? 

*'^^S ^y ify^^Ji™ TTflnflrfy.' \vliai kind of a lord ia tliia? 

Mur« freqiienily the Igorol employ Ific cmisiruciion i^iili a "celalive 
cause," instead oi llie "jAth ay . Conslrilttifirt; il i^i-hirire idlQinafic Xi> SSy^ 
who is tbe man v/ho came? instead of ; wliii^li man came ? 

A few example? wiEl suffice, as ibese coji^l ruction'^ wlili tclalive and 
infei"j'^^siiv<? pfOrtiun? hav* li^tn rrcattd before ;tnd i][u:jlr^ltd by niany 
tsamplc^r 



THE I.AKGUAGI: OF THR BONTOC IGOROT if>9 

;/hh tutu ongSn^a ay Umiiy is istktlaf vf^iich boy (yiho \i the bov who...) 

gW!i to &cllOOl? 

n^dg nan i/ifay ay k'lna^f'mo? \vhJch spear did you dthIk? (which Is ^e 

ipear that you made:?) 
sttw }inn faffiyi uy iiimdh't wlti^h woman cameP (who js ilir woman ubo 

nf^a^ nan jit'ifa ay nnfijkazh^ %vbi<:li pot is "hrokeu? {wliich la the pot that 

is brrjkcnr") 
^&^K ""J" kd'^iKg try piiifm-' whicit ^jicir do you chcow? (whwh is [tie 

?pcar dial yiiiL choy&cr) 
sfiiu nan alfs^dtno <sy ruiin-^itktom is tian sdong si ttsn ayf Co ^vhich of 

your fricadi <la yim t;ii"e (suitu? of I iht dog^ ccell»? 
stnu nan laldki icy '^'cliiitodiry/^f ilh ivhicK man do- yoia ivock? 
rt^djl" t'ai fll (xy imlf'dny^ ['iaiflJanyi^]!' feoin whi":!! town did you start ^ 

NGAGBN 

352. "Why" is txprcflfltd by »f:<if:^" (pr^i^bly 3 compound of uf j^ 
and the '^useiUafy" t^t [joriJ^wliids lak^^ to itaelf CheeMiltaga of fhev&fh 

and appears 111 ilic.qi' (ornis; 





i'cr'oOnil; 


Posaes'iive; 


1. 


itg{ighi!yk |F[^p^i^jj^t| 


n^^^ek [I'g^g^k] 


2. 


n^aghjii^a {^^ag^ngkis\ 


rr^iij:hi 


3^ 


Kgig^K ["^f^i'pjf; wgjr£rfpcl 


ngigJiia [ngagSna 


I. incL 


iigil^enittk<^ 


icffSg^nf/Sko 


L exd. 


ngiigi'>i^kiinif 


ngdg^nm! 


IT. 


'^S^i:^"SkilS^ 


'ig{fgt!nyfi 


nj. 


ngii^^ii/a 


itgSg^iilja 



Th<- "cndinfii" t?i, i?u, elc, «'itLDUt «^J^-, ar* used sfun^timci for 
"^y;" I'hcy ^rc fiillcjv»T;il in n^ny cases hy ilie em phasic [up; panicle i/ta'i. 
The pardcle ayf stands u^uaLJy ^l ihe end oJ intctTO^lLTe EOitences of this 
tind. 
tigag^dngjia man madSlnidstm ay /um^lgj>nf why do yon get up 

('*awake"J so tflW? {vgagengha^ why. pray? Ger. ja warum 

dcmi? Fr. pcnrtiiioi dor;!?) 
''£1'^^"* ^^i -^"y [^^ f3'|-^ wliy do you brinij thfil? 
w^ir^^ji^itays iiia^i Jwni(^/r ay' why. \yray, did you cmc back? 
H£(l£ Hiat! f'ri^jo ■nSagkalf ayf why did Ihty ?peak? (wejh scijaralt^ 



170 THF_ LANr.UAGE OF THE RONTOC TGOROT 

^fltja mati adf Hnidiisna^ y,-]i\ rlo llicy iiol cuiiii? here? 
-ngSg^ntja mtin tfd'l ^tiii'io ay.' ivliy — say I — do llicy not ^voi'k? 
tgSfi^n -aydkaii uan laldki sJi-a ttyf u'by doe's llie man c^ilf you ^ 
iigSgcii^k^y^ iniiuili'd Samdki ay'' \\-hy diil vou come lo Saiiioki? 
Jig^g^nyBt igd iiis/'-no aan k'^yf^''}' ray ayf why did you iiol burn lliis wood: 
iigdgt'pija 'na-",tkSgorg iion laiaiAki ay/ iv]»y do tlic men sJrike -eacli ollief ? 

{'uasik^gon^^: [joTJJ 
iigug ma" /hi tiHdngltfn non ifgrkb ayt wliy diJ you covei llie Tiirni' 
ngagSn man inmdh's^Q'f \v'\',\' h.i? lie eon^e lii^fc? 
■"g'lg en mobSy \'rab^\ naii fddiok ay? vAvf is my coal \\-<:it 
ngug^ita fiinfkojh na/i Hgtipko ay^ why did h*: ht-cnic inv liox? 
Mud/ayf why ni>[!' |f"|; f^^Jif mUayf why (doti; lie) tioe? 
-ff^fr^frj'flf "rjijif jjfjiF ^^jiffraJi ny^ wliy Jid vou cooh ihc rici^, ™)iy-? 
igU^ihigkti nmn indka ay'' '•vhy .ire? you crjing ^ 
fl^f/^ffiji puiidyeii wii ih^ ny^ uliy do you kill iht ilii^? 
iif^iifl<fm;a i\np^<iii 'r<jji ^feng ay'.' why v^cie Elic liouscs biirnl?' 
'i^&g^n^ki tiiisii :vi?t tit' skua iry* savl why ate you here: i^'sh'ta: hiu*) 
ngd^enidki^ nai'i ii\aii^>iiiii^in ay umfU^i^g tty? nhy, piay, do we rest so 

HgHg^n iiuii pitien mm iohfufdyi akih sfleiig ayF why do tbe womtn B?1ect 

ibie UtaiiU? 
fl^fff:^'! tlden Istting nan tvfie ay? why does l?diiia; LilfC liii' rnllnn ? 
Mfidi'i'Jigiiij /ii.5u r-i 'idn^J'^b is kom k-^ofi-g nyf W'hy ilid you not make 

Ehie clirck^n fOOliT 
n^dgA mapfldfly jjun tfj^rairj- Ayr' why is tlie buffaTp killed? 
figH^Snfja mud'rgn »^» jtm^K ay j^bfafdyi ayf wliy are af] wouf^ft Iriugh- 

ing? 
diiyi^ man ttiidyeit slya ay? why do you spfiik io him? ^vliy do you 

addrts^ liiiii^ 
ngag^ngkSy^ f^o iniflra oy/ Unliy dr> yoii ktep crying? 
Sr tna//d ay? why iii there nodiiuu? 
fpr ijjfi/fi/ itfi^ff.favJJfr drj' w-hy hj*s he no ■shield? 
ngSg^itfdki) aii! Smuy if^'-^ \^'liy du >\c nol s**^ 
-fli'd^^jji ad/ k^nH'i uyf why d'j yoii not Id] (it)? 
ngag^jifika t}Al humiil'b i.) fl^fay ayf wiiy do younol make any -ipCHr^? 
I'g^^ "r^HJ ^Mgkayri adf manflbia ayf u'liy do you nol sinioke? 
ngUj^JHfja adt tutdyi^n sfl-idiay^ \i:hy do lliey nol *i|>cal( in. Lli.H orn:? 
>igdgfm fjprf y^r "(TT i'p/L/rffffffl a;^'^' ^vliy did you flever ljriri£ }'i>iJr fiun : 
Ji^<i£ "ra"i rfiigka adi ^itsiiij) ay? vhy are you not w^rn'king?' 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE DONTOC TGOkOT 171 

f^SH^'' rVi^ "<01''?fe(fii ''<it *7''^-?i'g<nil^/'hi ajr-^ i^'fiy 4id tti? boj not cjII 

me? 
'igif^fm isi.!f tdju h(?Ff ^[•}ii^iwir k^n idiiH ay? why dn yoii iiol iliow liijn 

j'OiiT house:' 
'ij^a^^ii nd! if^iv't Tiiyn(tfi iihk dxTi cyT why d«fl Taynaii not hold [be 

doe? 
'i^dg^n 1^^ nafdlHd iid'! iiiift^dk'^u oyf \^'hy h^s llie thitf iiol hoeii hi>uinL^ 
int igi/ payiiit na iiflT sok^ngi'm? \y\<y iliJ you nul fill (here vout loivl ? 

|R- 34| 
^n^kayA man l!i»UJya& ay/ why do jtju flet? [6. 50] 

353. ;^i^£^ {i}>i!£'\ where, wlilLfier nn'T ^vhc^TH^c^, rcr|iiire3 [lie localivt 
^liIRm -an- aflixeil (o llie Komeii ;icLii^iii«.. Tl liikP>i Ciidinj;^ onfy if (lie iub- 
jecl of Ilic qiie^sinii b a p<?i'^oiiiil proimun Miih ihf <:iiniil;i, js: where are 
^■oii? (The copula may be lliaucfic to be inherent tij mlit; Ihin wc can 
probably more TCiidily uinierslaml [lie various examnle?; Initi - irln-T*: i&, 
art, w-ji^i wer-:, dc.) inftfat^ ^vlicre am I' imiTka'' ^vberr ari' jou? 
iat^ sfyaf irlii^rc is he; mt<^ka>n'{? ivliere ,ire we? r^j Ji^*i3_i'i* ' ^vb<:rr 
arc jow? iHtdijaf where are ihey? 

tHlJyj Lpu,i:AJ5flfff vlicrc it Laneagaiii' iHf^ jh'^Hia/ where ia bfli^r- 

inS^ nan k^ifcvi-^dna [kafizi'/ldna] ? wbere ia his plaM? where [i bi:? 
jj*J(^HiifFi Jfrii no,}\ kipcugko? where is imy kiiiife again? (flifgriiy; Gcr. 

i\0 i^l iJcnn hcbon v\'ici1rr nicin Me^ser?") 
vmS pay nix'i tttiwiiikof i^'herc is my friend? {pQy: emplia^i^lng pnri k^lrj 
AJJJt^ Jid/i Htniiyifiiyi^f M'titri'-ik you go^ Or : tntt'RaTr aydnyA? IrtVffii- 

(M/i^ jidn iiited^c^'iija!' ivlicrc do ihcy reiiiddi' (live) 

iftii^ nan rJ'mitytim^ i'tl^ nan if yams' ^.liere drt von u'f^ 

T>jiH3 nji'i iia.'iuyclid'ivi^!' wliere did yu" slec|i ? (ftK':r<: was your sleeping'- 

place?) 
intJ nait iidiptzyan nun dnanakF nbeie iji ihv cblldrcn I'liiy? 
inid ^mn imafji}!^nyr^ is iiJjnnavaykf;jfSt^^ wheri:dl'E vou find (hl^ Srtui-d? 
iiil^ nan attwan^nndiia^ where v.ill he -^^7 

intd pan naiLgipdynm is nan soklSnf^ko uy^l ^■vllc^c ilid vfrn put my b^l -'' 
fu<ti jjflrt tiifii^Vif/^ira^j iton msmagkid is uMf kdrff^ts^ where did i.iie girl 

hidt llie blanket? 



irt THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

intifm-n imnf^itjdnami si iaf where did lie lind ihj'.? 

int^ nan ndngHinolsifv^m is nii>i bUak k^n I5dl? where JiJ vou givii him 

inid nun "lUtraa^SyaR nun f^lfeg u nan (alizJcif M'hcre did tlic 5]>ciir liii: Ihc 

inl^ nan nak^S'^^^V.^^y*^ wIh-tp tiav<^ j-.m Itmi luiri, .'slrn':k^ 

inli!f nsTA naftetJ/rf^JiiwiJ' where Jiave you been biiLtu ? 

lu^t* ^tf^ Jiixu npH_^i/ifl^"J^i^_vri !i Jhm Sfifad k^n i^JI^ wlierc did you show 

liiin llie lelLcr? 
ilflif pffij 'lan^ii'^jifttit Kot l^hlfthi fj ^anna'^? wliere did llie men say t^at? 
i'itS nan iiatnadSyaisja- rj j^uh litmai\t ivltcre did they kill ilie wild pi^? 
itfJd' nifn ninn^iiuhUantja is yian bilAki^a nun gads-dn^yen'^ wliere da llie 

rifli men cli^iigt; ilielr iiiniie}? 
j'liJf^uflii niit'i^afdna \rnQ}igaebitita\ U nan dfongna? wliere does he build 

bis hatw«? 

tflf rT ftilfl J^jfivif PHfi^fFj^JAfn r't TJ^j diA? where do you u&iKLlJy kec|» the 

dog? 
inid flaw aangw<iili!i>iy^ ii natmcy ay L-^UT where d[d yun &^y lliis wurd? 
i»^(r) nflw f/r4rjj^^f<Jt(fr^irf r'j 'lo-ii aydyam? iviierc do you hear Ihc <>irfl? 
r'fffi^ ftflfl indyat iiait diism^ vvfiere diil your fsllier g->? 
rffff) fTiiji jjicw^^rfro/j^/f^iv^ f'-f JJ^" aaiiftnfl/ where did you bury hi'i body? 
rffff' Hffjj ipi)dxttO itaTp^duv' -^.lieTe had you Leen ^queened? 
f^/ff jTflrt mongol^otvifi 'A uflT ffisifyii? wliefn: do ihey cool; iJie riTc? 
int<i nttit nafigaban nan yda/am is nan iflan^naf ftbcrc did your bri>(li(^t 

build his granary? \naii.gabitii; nan£apiin; nanga^pun; Un'i^iiehiiny 
ittiS nafi napadSyan ftatt ayA^aan? vAi^vq lias the buffaJo been killed? 
iiitii Han admapati^yatL nan dj:^7 where w[ll (he dog hv killed ? 
intS }ian naagaffdityA k^n ijdtija? ^vheie did you meet ihein? 
iniS flflif h^^wad nan ndnisSm^dny^? i%Jfere is yonr 'mjrkmg place? 

Moiion from J pl^ec i^ tx|iTe?bCd by [be tdioiiiaiic verb: malpo, 
to come frj^ni, or; to st^ri ai a yUcc; mafpc- Uke^ ilie personal endings, 
unless ilie locail^'t ^iiHIik -an wiih thr: iKi^hO^^lve ertdings an? required by 
[he consiruciioii; iii forcn'^ arr in the: [jrtlcriie ^whicb i& iiiest aliiio&t exclu- 
sivtly and has the same endings a^ (be i>Tj,ent; titalpdab, or ilie future: 
admalpJa'k') ihtis: 

Pcriion^l: Pcijij^i^ivc ^Itjcln-d in i^ulTjit -on-: 

J, nalpdiiik I i;amc Iruni, (I was saf^t^oA {n4!?a,k\ 

2, nalp^^a nctlpSam [ndipQm\ 

Z n^ipd nsffiJvna [nclf'^ntt] 



D. 


■nalpi^la 


T. inuL 


atilfioldk-^ 


I. csd. 


nalpijkaml 


TT. 


nntpiik^yA 


nr 


aolf'isja 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT i;j 

i!a!p^trr\ltJ [nti<[-d'ifa] 

nalpiJnnvii [nolpoKinf] 
nalpdany^ \iinlpiiiiVii\ 
imlpSamfa \ia!p^riSia\ 

itrij ysa't 'tafpiJam, nan ^alpdowy^f ^licru diji ycinooiiie from? v^hi^ji: \yj\-c 
yon fn^en^ "u lierc did yo<i ^isri: -cominc'" '■rlicre are you fromP 
iiitii jjow itislpiSan nan laldkif ivliciice ilid llie man cone? 
Ui-f'^ ni^n 'nalpdan ijujj fobfafdUo^ whence lini [lie yonng men [;inr<:? 
f«fj ^tiTJj }i'alp6am T ^.hoi^ arc you ^Jarling from? 
ittt^ a-an ad'na!ptf nf /a ^ wlience \vjlf ihty 5(ari? 

{jiafpdatr id fiiiitok I conic, I came from BoutocJ 

K.W 

^tfj4. S'dSjI iiK^iiis: iv-lieii ? anil J him' iiiiicEi, liovi niaiiv? T e m p o r 1. 1 
koti rcriniT*:?; Hir jN''^riii'ji ;»clioiils %viLh llie locEiliv;^ (HiJi-crhi^l) ■:iiliix -a^J iiad 
po&'^pii^Jivc LTuJiiic^ TEiP Noiiieii acEioiii.* i^ pi'ecederl hy the article wm. 
Qiiantilaliv-<- t-^-l i^ (nUrnvi'd hy ific Noiii. auLiaiii- wiUi^sse^ive eiid- 
inga w T t h IJ t -an. 

h*id nan man^Qiiiinaf wli^n do^!^ he viUP 

it<jii Hill ^ii!iiiii6di\af wIl*:!] ilu'.'^tii: ii-urk? (al^o: linw Ion? tiic^hework?) 

itiJii nan /nh/jpoa'i nan }alaldki? i^licn iJ'> Ihc iin:ii work? 

tad nan adiiutaUava^ ivlicn will lie t:rjinc? (^l^ii: tiJkod noil uiiialfaita) 

tiiii tan itniiiyanldko^ \i\wu shall vvr gn? 

jtjii JtJM iiim-jifanaf 'vlier nlid he cr^n^e? 

tfli^ uan uiiedSediiyri id Mattftttt wtitii will j'ni M;iy ill Mjinilii? <ki liow 
loi»^ iv[ll yuu itay... ; "Imw l<^nH" i'^ rxiir'r'^'^eil iiiort^ di'iliTittly hy 5;iy- 
ing; "how niiiiiy hJJiirs, d^y^, nsantli*; elt.: ^jiii uy f/inp^ nun 
inled/cdity^^ ho^v mJiij' imimli'i will jau iUiv? cf, I357I 

ifitd nan litingfloin ken sl^a' \vIi-cti 'ltd you =ci; liliui' 

kttd WOT ^jmii£i'^Ajjni« iV liir^i flndytk^ u'hoi will >\ni t-niit itii rice? 

itiT'f Hflw niilp'innyiA iii luicHhtxn? ivlun lUd ym m'liht Tcrini Tni'in'riii ? 

^nrf nan nalikudtantju.' when di<l Ihcy ii^titrl!" 

kad nan uan^apdnygi is nnn lifvn^i' ^vhcn di^l y^ii (mild Ihi; liijusc: 

tuni frnijj iiapadiiyd'ia'' whtii 11 ^s he killed? 

kid irrtn TjfffTgjT'Jp'/ffw rrajj aiht'idpio ti ia'f mIicr did yjur frlcnil ■^ay iliat^ 

had itan n(in^f!^f nau fafityi ^fjr s(kaf wlieii di-i llic wvuli*! ■^^ yi^"' 

^■ijf rE£jr' mafadsJtKgouUikAT when shall we be assiated? 



r74 THE LANGUAGE OF THF. tJONTQC IGOKQT 

hint TTjjn jinfditnitnn nan fttngitf whfrn h^^ tho pot been lirokeni' 

trr.^ un'i ii(rU-Jf"i 'tH'i .'i^hUm^f when lia.'^ Ilie i:a|i betn ma-lc? {'i<ikd^biin\ 

kad >3u'i mii'ij^i/afiifitisiju ny ^\i^lctd'/^ wJii.ii will (hty bri^n lu spc^kr" 

kuii nf'i icaiiiadn-am ad Piinfnk.^ when ilo yea leflve l^oncoo? 

iaiidiheffj Xoiiieii ageiilis, in jfre^ienu jiiowti?froj/j, prtL. nanictkazf^; 
n'i[]i Q(h'^rbLa.L ^uUix -iru: nmiidkofhim, and pos^s^^'e -^^is, liis: 

irad naif fimnaii^dndnaf ivlien did lie awake? 

k'ad FiPii nmigifdlidiKC? wlien dfd be sv^nk? 

had JJJH jumaidifnija nan dntxnfik? wh^n r|j> H^*' oliiUlrtn go- out ? 



kiidldka^ kaJkHirttf kadk&y^? kadijd^ boiv mnny arc ^'t; yoa-, ib*y? 
y:ir(J*i]yrf fl:i' I'rrr^f^yf "h^m jiatty wtfe yOU gOilie?" 

ktid'lit'y moiid^lvd is nan biitt^'" ln"v m[iry jrc Ihi^^ %vli" cirry ihc !*tDiiP? 
.feiif/ nflfl Jfupi!" ifan knjttyo^ limv [ii[[riy ieci bji^ [[ liarsi:? ^ liun' ni-my -irc 

the icef of .'I ^K^^?;<:?) 
tad jj["i bildkmo^ \\<ViV iimirh is ymr iiir>m'yr liow much money liivc >'>U? 

(o-r: I: ad Hat h^mt tiy blink? Or; kod 'Otn bHak jij ^vi^dtf ^i'n s/kif) 

KSd used with noiuis: *'how Tna.ny trees" — ia conslructfxl Tile allrifm- 

J[ve ifmi or JJ^i^^; ""c inay ^3y; ]nnv niiiiiy Jrc-:?. did ydii till doivn kiid ay 
l^iHo nan sn/fbojiii!' nr : liuiv many Jirc Ihc irrcs ivEijjjh you -ciii <lo'»"ii: 
had tiau J.vtyc ay sinftyoyA^ Th<^ COnSlrUctiiWS art iSUnd id thd ioUotviJ^ 

kad av lalatdki njtii Hafmf iicni'" niaiij" tucn do yon see? 

kad ay bftak nan iidyady^f hoiv much money do you [jjj 'i 

kad nan ^gsa ay iniiaa niin on^^n^Oi' Yiow nmny dctr did ihf boy sccT" 

kad ay fJjat iiaFf jjjij^j'ifwfffta^ hciv many montbi shall we (lavel? 

kad nan ifafdyo ay ma>i);.^yud is nan kalomdtof hoiu ni[iny liorsc'. pulld 

lli-j vclijclc? {m*s)!g^y^d ii'jiu kny^tjfk'. Num. w^. ni "iJii; hyisci" 

m ihe BuhjciO 
kad nan ialaldht -ay naiigydi xs lan a-nr^kliaf hOw miiny men hftV-'firOuji^E 

Ih-tir IickIlcs? 
kad fan f^sir! ay iiapad^y? hov many eiicmiei were fcillcjl; 
kad ijjfr J/i3 ay napotSaA? iv-w diuny btad? hvei'* cul oft ' 
kod uan iaiafdki ity ivddd'j^na^ hrnv mqiij men an? here? 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOHOT 175 

And in rlic iiliouis: kad iuaaidyf ihow miLch does this coat? or;; 

had jciijj Id^^ii 'imi ^Skloit!;? \vliai i^ Liic piiie of Lin: liai!' 

iifci' nam k-/i'ii^iri is iiaiiiiay* liow mucli do yiui ^vant ("saj'') for (liia? 
kad Haw itnavUhmv? how JUMiy chiHrai have yfiu? 

The fcllowii];! icntcn'.is illii:j|rjk' ilk- JilT^T^'EU'r- befween the coListruc- 

lion rtl [ c 111 p o ra I and of ij 11 ;i n 1 1 I 1 I i v r icad: 

had Httn !JdmQu gap-day ft fj jjith tllfay^ wh^jn will vf^n n^nkfl tBic gpcars? 
i&iTi^ 0]/ jflfay >ia'i ffdka(>^>H? (had HdTi t^fityay...) how manif Gpcars uilT 

ynu Lii;ike? 
tw^J rroH j^fl^r^i7fl,T;j^flfl jMm /fl/rfji it iriJii .r^iijyjtiEf,' ^vliemlid the wmasri 

£ell nil': rin|;&? 
Iiad ay s/n^n'tg u^'i inidgott mm faf^yi? (kad nsn Jia^^i"/; ay ..) bow 

many rijigs ftiil titf woRian scU? 
EiffJ iiflp? K/i'ij^tl/ityi^ rV Jirrji lnlviltlA' "lieii illd n)ii ?ci: llic eiu'ii? 
kad av fa!ir!'ikt umi i-ifiav^^ (kad nan lalaldlal oj.'-.) lio"\v iiLiiiiy i]ien diJ 

1,-ad nan iiinmnd^v'i'iyi* jt nan itf^? ^vlicm ^vil! ynii Idll \hi dnj;? 

itaii a^ jifj*: nun /•aitsy^i\y^? {i.'ai! nap dsa a\'. .) Iin^v iiLaiiu dnga Ju yiiu 

k[ll? 
frflif ?fifn jjiHuj^/iJJVri'* vvfi-Hi did you cddifP 
k^dk&yA <yy inmdii? Wiw many are you t^al came? 

110V\" MANY TI_\1E5-- 

T,^t. "iln.v miiny limfs" is expressed liy 4-iZf^ and Cja [310] preceding 

llie frtyniciilaciv-': W'tr* ol ihc vtrli v,\^h ihP ^.iilfiK -««■ 

trtrf %a» fMfn inmaiiaifan Ann? how ruatij fimes have you cixii': li'^re ^ 

i^J nun 'f-^vA ma3>aliiaUb-iian [mmmiir<ilff^wn]f how fflafly tifttS dri y^u 

(laii-ce ' 
ifTif rfan fjii^pa ifamcil^an u ^f^rf how inany tinte did he cut off heiiils ^ 
^j^ njjj Ijf^wr iHfprd^'an ad MSfika? Iv>wimny Time? did ynirer^ 10 America^ 
tfl^ }ian Sidnt nan ^! toil dan ken i/^'a-' Ini^v m^iny lime;, liave you Pieoji hiiii? 

WiEhoiit fjoiMi itaii HOTI niiigilail^m ifpn ifya? liow insny tinier liavc! 
you setii li[in? 

Oniy one example where nwn:^- is prdncd lo kad and pcrsninl eiidiiiji^ 
^re au^i^ed has been oblained; itianj^adhd sy fn^ii^d"^ii^n s> ifi^ lio^v 
many time? ar-e you d(?in^ Ibat? (and in thv proierli<:: iiflrrgjf'jjgjdt'rr u ja.* 
Iiiiw many rim-es did ycni do Ihal ?) 



176 THE J_ANGUAGL OF TilE UOKTOC IGOROT 

TAD DO 

^57. Tddilo, oflcii accompanied fjy ^ [li:g"alive^ iiie^ns: "liow loiiR will 
[| (;iki' until-. ■■" i*r: '■'ivlitfii finally.. ;"; il iiiiroduces ^ti iiiip.mcni: fnifacioii; 
the nc^live doiotea unfulfitlffil o^^l^tiun iii3d Ls lu be innkted in ir[Lii^'il^- 
tion: 

idtldo mill 'idfi}^ muSi' haw long will it ff^]ic nnJil H)cy roivi^^? vi'hfii ivilf 

|]n'\ fin.iliy come? 
idddo "iti't (tdf'iQ idj-rtt na" 4foitg7 ivlien iviil lie finally imilit llie hosi^c? 
idddD ndfia Jltiifjair? ^^Iisii will ^^ti eivq niiJilly Eirnve? [K. s] 
idddo na'i iiiaii£ap/!iiyA is nan dfcn^f how long wif] you still be hiiiFding 

t\\t liouse^ 
(W'iilirtui Tie^aiiv*aDd with Article ?nd Ntmicii acEionis with -an) 
idddo mo't <JiiA[£j piiad y*fi ira/i Istjitf when, [iideed, ivill lie bring (he 

mtiil '"-It laslr" "liow long <lncs lie iiol bring tlie meal ?" 
\fiAdo ma^i ndi' pdud umdh dtodiT how fuiifj lAiil il take uiilil he comesr 
kandna a "itiddo adlfja mndhf" (Li.iiii5-vvij;) ^ays: Liow long will in lake 

iinlil lliey (Elie -ilog" and llic dr^r) Hrrivc? |L, 8] 
td<tdo <idfi3i p^ud rjtpiipeti nun kSamt lioiv Inn^ ^^^ll il MIlC imlii yuin-fL|i;J> 

jour (pig)- (L. 61I 
rd^d'j !H"i maa^ilabdatitjat when will ibey fin.Mly lur^m? 

HOW? 

■\f^K, "Tfifm- ?" ill connection wilTi a vcrh-, jn: li'>\v d'> Ihc^' lliroiv iTic 
*fi*ar? i'^ circumscribed "by (lie pbra^r; ^vlial jirc Ihcy duing^ (veibs: 
dit^iick, tl^iik) to tbrow [he fipear? {or; ihey \v'lio ihrovv). 
li^a^ nn't dngi^'fi <iy mangd^ij u nan fijbdngur Iti^w do you iiiak-e tlie 

pipcbr (wiuil ari- yn.ii doln^; Jis ruaker of pipes?) 
jji^djj HO" (Trr.iTrApft Hj' iMilHnd^ how does he wnte? fo-r Koni. aj;.: 

n^Sa "If" ■r'ra^r;;ji^jfa rrj nandh'^'' hov iliil lie i%alk? 

n^&g "i"r -ini^T^jiOf ("J "luddfn u na>i- fddio? lio"w do Ihey uasli ihe coati ' 

'igSg rail indu'^ni^i ay n<in^!t^b is nu'i'iayf limv <liil vou do flii^ ? 

n^ag nan ifir^rr^/i nan fohj^ifdyi ay Hzang^ic is laii flndyA* liow do ike 

n^flg ftoii flpf^jji'"^/!! ny nidm^tish ii "O'l fdlj';^? hfl« An they throw the 

"ir*f ijifjj j/jj^'jifjj jjifjj /ifJifJ^ii n,v i^iinidd /Vfii^ is afln ijifn^i.ii]? how do the 
mm 'iinkc ilic Eone? {pnd/^Kgck) 



THE LANGUAGR OF THR BONTOC I&OROT 17-7 

359. "How V in couaecHois wilh an adjective (or adverb) is «Lpressed 

bv ihe derived ali'^Eraci ?iiln^i:;iiiiive prece<led by kMl lif>w miidif 

kM Mffi k'tH'Ujot 'I'tn Ifityaf lioiv lijgh 1& Uie Lrct: ("huw niiirh" is ibe 

hrij^lit of Ihc tree?) 
AtjJ nmi i&rtiTcfjdi'iHJ JJfTJi ljd>tS[>n? hfv,- .ff^-p l'^ (be w;ilcr? ["tlOiv much" L. 

The ikvW "jf th<: w3ttr ?) 
Aoi/ pjiT^j *frni:^jir«::u/f p^iji- IU^ bijw Tjir j& iht lomi? 
kod n<i" f:uiis-ii/k "H't l-Jlof lnnv ■^Ni'Ti ;■. |be ■^lif.k? 
turf jjrfjj hfiiJisdjl'S mi lidyof [liamdiSif \ ]iqw iliict: i? ilip rree? 
frtfii rriJFc !ii&ivi\t jmij atitrndj^ktii'' li.i^v old is iJie Kirl? (how many irt the 

year.-; oi ilie (-irl? 
ft-irrf iJv t/tVJi iiifH iwicd^cdnmi '.^na? liow lotig (hfw many ■lUy^J i^ill *ve 

remain here? 



INDIRECT QL"ESTIG_\S 



360. Indireci: Qije5t[oii3 are iiitEoduced by tbe particle jjj". In iiiaiiy 
Cases. (ea(-:c[ally if the que^Tion begin;, svHtli "what") tiie tJomen actioiii*i i' 
used 33 llie (lirecl object of iho in^in vrrb, a* llm Tlt^L i^Kaiiiplf j^lvcii lieci? 
JlliisHTaEe^. — ^Oi meaning "if" and "ivbeiber," ptccedt^ incerrijg^^iive pro- 
noun 3 ;tnd nJvcrbs 

adik k^kifM mo a^Hg naii k\ijina "I rto nof lintJw, ^'b^t he %vFin*.s 

Or; 
ff(i^t it(?ti^^JJ iiflFp lfvti^'"i "T <lo rioi [iii£"'\' bi^ waiiiliig" 
Uyft/jri* |tH?it,t*^Jl jrrnl J'^J^ UOff tfn^rf'rilJ fcdJfl lol^ki' clo 1.OU kllOW wll.ll lln? 

man *iaidr (avfi^^'f* ki-'kken iiffn feiFfw.idrriri iai^kif) 
'kiit'!i}i>tln(t fKO iviif nti'i in!A:udtiini [ka^jv-iidiia] be said whcit Iw wfiS 

(ivliern "hj^ place") 
htiii^nyfi »io kud iiait aHHiia lei I (me), ^vheiihe luiJI conie 
ihfnkdmi i(?^jj- lak/^ii ma ii^ag ji-jte ii'^dJ ken ssV/^a h«a9ks me what T 

liave 
iiaUtjSiigak tno tigag nan kinvritiilm ad^gktx T hav« fDr^;L>tlen what ynu 

sjici yetlerd^y 
k^kk^k iijii JJ^(;a£ TflJi mflfln^^j^aMfl I know wTiy Tie kiie1i& C"j?ffF fi>]li>wed 

Liy ibe Nciiii, rtfl. \vi|h |ht j!iiFFi>r -im expresses cau&c) 
flrf/nEi k^kk^n mo JJfcJ^ Tfl'' j&cfnffnfjfl we dii not know whiil tlify fiay 
ktatifm ifip tittS iia'i ayftKyS kll tuc, wlicre yon go 



I7S TTfE T.ANGUAGE OF THE BON'TOC LLiOROT 

ktinffm lao iiiit^li-ka IhjII me wliellier you Viiill come 

kikk^k mo n^^dgciigi;a MJtdii I umkrslniuf why you come 

j-icej; omdma kaiidno ken sak/Jii fuo liad ttaii iimiiyifny^ [lie okL man tella 

iiiv '.\hi-n yiiu ii.']ll go 
fdjaiti Vin i't-Sf^ nan tmngipi^ya'i nmt altimdko Li ttan fdkat sbow (me), 

wheic my friend liaio put cht n^ils 
itan f^fdyi ifjf^kdna tj^u nxk/Zis "ra iifrf unpp fmaydtifak (he ivonian askji 

me how iiiufh I hjvr i^jiirl 
handnya. kcit amdys 'H-o makistlak- cd U tSjiyn^y^ irll (i, c. i\-^k) ycuc 

falher ij ] slinli ^n i\iLli >ou \.i.t mnr ho"*ic |J,. 39] 
iiffakifmr ken. ijak^y^ ina ims^'iyfi JJnii invikyri ive ask ynu it yon wash 

j'OLir bodies 
ibfakam ken slya mc- it^^ natt maydiia j&k Lljjej wlicr^ he ^veiiL 
ibfakdlja mo "gig f\^n tnmad llicy ail: what lias happeaied 
ayk/fn hSkken mo sum wctji luaiitfi do you know wlio Ir^g come 
iirfakdna mo i'lt^ 'wjj rml^^a'i^'fV hr jsks i.vherc you cdinc from (wliere 

yijiT Ii^hihc Ijccji) 

ffrf/i t^itit^J! wfl« ^'jfffiifd I do jT-'il nndiirsitand "liis ^^yin!^," what he tays 
ifad^mn ken ioh/hi 'mt iydf'ra lell nie %\ihi| he bring!, (vt: mo "^ag nan 
iyitf'ia) 

li/laffdm tuo t'S'^S J'fJJJ t'ulpdana id Sagridsa we asit why he C91T« Erom 

SagUda 
kandm mo 'tgag nan ib/akdiia cell (mc) what he aska 
fraudm ncn himaS ken sfko Iclt (u^) wIihI ^as happened !□ you, v^hat i? 

ihe mailer w[lli ycm 
sfadgyit ken tjakamt mo ngag 'lan wig'iJnyf^ Irll ui fthal you are Hiing 
ibfakdna mo siui^ktiy^ li^ a^ka ^Jiy y<JU ^rc; wc ipr^t^ «fl« ^^^yft where 

yc-u \ivq; mo kttd "On <idinnfi!iit'iytv i>ln:ii you will come 
adlk kSbkht mo iniS ■'Hin kn^n'it-^'ia irddj^ka I do not luio where ke was 

ve slerd jy 
aykfyit SjSiig-/ng^n nan kandn nan i<tf4yiT du you Iie&r what the woman 

^3 vs ? 
a^'kMi k^kkihi nan kdp^n tuji o'l^^n^a oi" . mo "gag nan kitpfn nan 

ongonga^ dft vou knoiv i-vhal the bny nate^?' 
f3 ildSnmi sfka mo ksf ad} pitjpaaMlf4t\ HOii ka)^)i6tmiih Siom! let us see 

you, if noL the caTinon cracks jour head! |B. 51] 
tbfakjim ken fjafftsml mo wodfiy i^yrj^m lell u^ if [hcr« 1^ anythiag you 

i-oirjfni 6FPiiflfr//u uan kinwdnia Mdty^l l*J[ ine what Maeyu si>id1 

Idioiti; lak/Jn Dio nafdkash nan fdtiga "i do not care" whellier ihe poi 
IB brolien 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BDNTCX IGOROT 179 

tak/^'i mo adf}!<i iydi tiQ'i kifyiV \ d-o nai care {"nevermind") if 

lie <loes tiol bring [lie ivjkhI 
iiiui »Frfl !om<Hi ricvcrmbd if he reiiirns 
mif^ MO umdyija J []o not care whether they go. 



TQ Rl^ 



^61, Tlierc \?i no aLiKiliiry verb"Lobt" jti Jk'nlLK T^oroin ^vhich'vyiild 
coire^poiid to uui' copula. Tlic various ways of construe liny oiiiivjltnlt 
for Dur use of die copula viiW. lie ireaitd in Hit foUwing seciions. 

If "IQ- he'" nicnii?: 1*^ exisc, (n be pic-^tnt. lo b<: al a |>ki<:c (Tj. il v aj 
Ger, vorhaiideii aeiii; sich befindenX i( lias an ei|u[v3leni in : w^dd [iv^ddy^ ; 
btil ^vSdJ cannot be u^ed at cerlairl ciiscs alAlf-l ttf-!rt»v. 

II "En he" serves as niit co^mla hetivci.ii llic MjlijecL jiiui predicilire e!t 
m^nfii, ':Lich a? nnmi^ or adjecti^'es, il fLnd= il^ citiiv^lcnC in; 

A iii![Airi fiMtk" rti i'OI'h13" iht^ pfH^ilJcpiivc ck'nuTit fkrOH^^Ie? [lie-<iulT- 
j<^L w-idioul ligature; or 

llie prr'ional su(l[?<e^ attacbeii to words of iiCArly all cflCcg-orle.; 
(Lgymt gr!iiiiTi]:dical calP^irie'^ ^ro, of cni"irs<?, diffpTpnt i^t>[f^ i:iirO : or 
llic li^alurc ^o, ].tlatcd lnrlwccn ibc ]>recedinj» mifijcct iind Hi.- ■:iili- 
seqiiKit ])tedicative eT«neiil.[ ^tj^ 

fSir/f nan oiijiJiJ^a oc : nan ovgSuga ya fi'"ff. *^"^ cliild i'^ Jinnll i fthJii^h 
I am "-nofW 



362. WJfM or ufodiiy, nn istiomailc verti, dcnot-^s eyi'tence^ presence 
al ji ptace- ss: Ihcrc i*i, are, was, ivfre elc. : I am aoiiifv^'liercj I am |>r';^Cnt, 

fc/^flj' nan at^'if^'iar—naK drang!ja -j.-6dd. 'd Fapdi/Tay; sa}i uikidtjit 
ay vfdka 'svSdd 'd !^<ipdl/ta\ a trunk of a Irce i'. their curiyine-lveaiii 
111 tJH'y torp.ics 01 ?iJaJLi inei]). Theiir bf^ni i-^ (^^liH m cKislenf*) a.t 
fapaiay; thw rcpe made of a Kana (wdttf) ia at Papatay. [ L. ^1 



1. 


■arvilditk \-Niviidk 


o 


ivHiilii^a 


?. 


li-C'dit 


D. 


•iV''ddsa 


T, incl. 


W^diildko 


I. escl. 


wMitkSmf 


U. 


-drMdk^y:ii 


III. 


wMdtia 



]8a THE LAHCUAGF_ OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

WSdri fan be used oaly in affirmative scaKocu which can be ciiljdr 
declarative or LnltTrc^Dtivc. It caTi ivH fit ii'e<l in n^rg^Eive wnleiffc^i iiur 
a; -coirnla between 3Tjb)-.Tt Eiiid rrcdinH^'p iilenieTHfl ; nor in que&tbn b, l>egin' 
nidg with i"j*iJ; nOT id comni^il^ ( [iri|"?r;jiivej. 

won A 

363, W^dit ■>r wjdirfu takes rLonc hut persoiiiil cndinf^sr 

woddvuk T acii pieseiit; I am al a place, 

■o-'/fddvJa 
■!i}5ddyk&ml 

w^ddyija 

DLflfetlii: fornix of 'M^dd Jit: Of^iffl; rr<^dfi; -mltda; -a'ddja, zetid-sar^ ; 
li'ifla; also- a sound siinilar lo eiii Untjli^li r iv^^ |froiiJunctd by ^wwt: [^rot 
bet^veeii [lie lu-o vowt!*. 

Jn Lhe lliird person ^[jigiil^r (n^rcly in pkir^t) Vi\K Kj^^Uirc jtf ii^flfa 
ptriff*! hi-UveoiL ilie preceding subject ami is'ddd. 

Thf Fit lure T" ff tprei^^eil hv w3d4 and adverbs or adTfirbiaS phraiCs 

rienoiirg tjTuf : oi-u^^i'jj, iit-rnarroif, danj, soon etc. cL [413]. Also the 

furiii: iiJ:ii(jJtf IK u^ed someirjEies. 

Thf Prf teriT* i* Pxprf*s6pd by mlvftth* or Rdverhifi! pbra?e? of Biine: 

fid^^ka. yC&ler^lavj rtJjjjH^'Pi^unr, i-^irtjf lliih* ago <^[c. Of !be PrM^rile "L 
was'' !■, tircuni^tril'ed Ij- other verhfi, eKpetlaiU "^J^fri, I have come fioin, I 
am here fTOm, hfnce * 1 was there; I liave been ihere. [353] Or bv 
inmdlitilf^ I [:jimt; ninifd^e-ak. J Kfa>T'l, rr^iaiTi<!ii, aoidurnsd ar a plact. 

naJi fiifdyi ya niiipo'd i-t^niok th c woman wa^ in Bonlut 
naip^k^im jj japh tiunf wc vtcrt in our counlry (toivn) 
luf-J 'foH nolpd-am {udfS'niii-]^ where havt you been ? 

Ifflj^-jTia ai&D found in a fTequenJi»l[vefomi: -n'odn'oSdk^mf, we ^uere 
(llicrc) often, many limes. Tins reduplicalion cx|'rei5« also soiDCtime^ the 
comparative "more," a.^ ; 

wQdwi}ddy ....fno iliere is ^ore .».dun 

adiijodindddy ....mo there will be more .M-than [1S5}. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC iCiUROT iSi 



laslead of ivJidd Ehc aubj<lsTLtivr : *hmi haft-Mittfitay Uic ^l^icfi where he 

is {h\^. [s\Act') - 'ia:t har'twiidko, iny \Ahk<.: [Grrr iiiriTi Aii[i'iilFi.ill-;nr[ J Is si'mi'- 
titiie.: iiscn] (.Kiti^waif or tii^n'in/ n iirnluibly llii^ cilt^ilriicl naiiii {li^rivr^il 
ii-Qiii roni ivod.) 

J-Cnifrf ^n'\ ivi't.^r' ire ^rtiiicLiiin?-! c^>llllJille■J [iH'n a^itt'-aiiTj'? jry^'^it'iiy ' 
liAVrt'flif i^ rJitre' is...,prc^cJll? 

^U'iM, Eliere 19, tlicre arc, coircsponds aouielLnivs to auc "muiw," "sev-- 

cral" ■ V-'-" 

^iMf^(in Miij^ularl^ id ihc Ijcpimnijij^of talea (alaawith"fltfjiyp'X(f(Jujjj, 
sniiic time J^'o") is our; "Once upon a linic ibert was (.merej ;"" <^jcr. Ij-'- 
was cirnij^l. 

iy'/iid—wodil tan b'; Lrnf^lJied: s^me— atl'^i^; ^t some iiine>— ai 
n1hcr lime',. 

S-iryf 'Titre E?*' (but rarely "sPodd/'); Pr. Vf^d, atrmtipB-flies frc- 
qucnilv til': ^e^liiTL nF puiriCuiH ni jn '>l.ji;ct, 

'L'lii: ifci-JlivH? L lli-cre i-s no,..,, llif I'l' ■l"iC' iii>l exist, il ds iiul jireioiil, K" 

7iwvW liirf ,(;J>'i+: iheTC is fl trcc- ni(T/1d ^dyi^ there is no trtc 

.■:i"j'4j la lucdtiy li'nr lic i': liure {-^'oeiil's'ia sfyi) 
■!iii}ditKS\ii'i U mm fliwi yuu Me in our country, tbwn 

ito'r athvidbo ( v" ) '^'odd jj wi?'^ dfmi^iia mv friend is in hi'^ liotici^ 
\iQii fafifri ya Tfodd is Sn^lidta llie i^uiillii iz in SiiuSda 
iifi'i lalalifldi -^•od'f'.jo id Tid-^k'i'i llie inert ^io in TjclicflII 
zi'f-dii'.t'ia s'lna TJioHicr j-^ liuru (\j ^liJ vif li'oddy lsna"\ 
wiidii\' iioFi tffii'^i oy JjTitn yfi -.iiMdy nan ngag ay tdkf^ in fit't itm/n ty 
faiAmi'i! ilipn' nri' gi>a(l jmi Jid*l people "in ilie whole world," 

Kwrfrfi; ftow ffmiiyiii ya -rfUddy nan jobfdfln mm>: !ire married men, aonie 

jrc iimiuirricrl vinnL' "ii'ii 
s!'Dri-/.t,ffrf/ ji rrajj ^jli'rf /-"ffpf^dt drfrffAd ivo wert ifi Uie town of BonlcK 

yesteniay 
'!d\i^6ddykonif is mn^ djdhn wu ^.linll lie -on liie ro^nl 
udivoddtja^'i'ia llicy vill bi: lifrc 

aetdy vgcl if&dd is kii/istj"'<tl-x'i Ih' m^iv lie ^it i[ic ;;c1i™'SlirniM' 
aU'ly ir^cl mnScd^c ifya Qd Alan^ln ll« V^'.is pi-oPjjblj di Mamb {"hi: 

&l J yed" ) 
a^dy iigci zvodd'jl/! lie mjy he there 
■rrFFrf ir<j^^ ^vodd'iiiai' wlin It litrt ?■ 
.'■.tnii '/•111 voodd'sh df^ngy wlie* 15 51 honie? *bo ia in the house? 



rSz THl^ r.A\'GL^\G[^ OF THT^ llONTOC TCOKOT 

j^ iinl litre (not: :i'dddt"\ 
U'od^'ih iifff '}i!sffii;;3clriiii I vn-i client auiiii: Uinc Jijjo; ma/iddk rjtj/ I 

un= iiDt lln.'H! 
o-f'iViiifdkamf iJ DKCgiipan is iifini \\k iiv^W ioun Ik »i D;i^^u|.i5l] ; 

jjffii ptH^wy ya n'dJif is nan 4tiTii^ lln? rice ia [n (iie ci'^n'^i^y 

ijifpi fdkot vn TL-oJ-1S/a IS net ^^Hb ibit naih ;ire in lEie boK 

]U?j> J^ffi mffvtfjjj.' iviicrc linvj? voii iMeii? [where ilid you L''Ji'l 

iril^ noil kuri-za^Aiiio adti^i/.a^ ivIicTt wrre you i?cal<frdjy? ir'^d-^ir't fsn^ 

nff/fr k^kk^i ipifji knms>ddt]a IdoBOi know whiTt rhci axk ("iliur jliodi:") 
ij^d£ ov //f nit't nitl^^any^? in wliL.!* [.>wo havt yi.ii been r { jpir^/'fiif v^ | 

iiaip'Ji^k is »<i!^ df<vi^k<i 1 w-L?, ill ciiy himse; adUk naii-u I was not (did 

iii>l [;^^[l[C Eroin 10 

ii<f/J.:aiin uMpo ji fTjjn p^sP"^ '■'" ^"^'^ '^^ ■" ^1^^ freet 

jflf^ F^ Jij 'iif'ifai\i'' [nt}if^am\ • inJit nan tialp^nys'' \nalp!f<fny& | ulicre 

h^i e H*u lieeii? [van njilptfak iiitaibs il^n: iii\- blrih pliCf:) 
iHK firbfafifyi -nal^ja i-t nan p4yD tlie women were in th* ritr li<:l'U 
i7(fijjii^5''iiJJjjj' Jv ffjjji ptifipi^ i''e ■^lidll fie Cfi*^''* '" til* forest 
ay>cJA'a a-liii'idii'.'.niis' '^lll viju In- ("'c-cmc''} licrc? 

aykiii'av iuFhiin is nan rfjf*.' biave yi>ii ^eeri nay <lc>g^ [uvJ/fit-iiv iitf/am: !.■■, 
ft: wf;is rliLtL: ^rmr ^leeliiy uf n <^f>sE 

ilj:ii my I'liilil i-\a' iLjiLsforiucd iiiio a tice hitd? ("ii tlieie iin> i^ij.-- 
ing, ^ny liiKL^lniiLj;") [T, 8] 
^lJ^fr/■^'c^v uji/'f jJj/jjiJv-J' rii<i f fvet refuse aiiy)liij>g: .? f'\va3 (liere jtiy wji 

JJr^Tilliig") |T. H^l 
jii'-tiT;[r£jy a-jrffitteuw'-.^inA^ /nfj- ifSi^rtTunit.' are yi5u niirrlefl ^,,„I am E^orEi^ijilv 
iiol I (it ihf ro ail} wite-your^? There i:^ no ^vile-n line, indfcil) |L, R5I 

lETH^.^rf' nan inamRtiafc kir" itfttat '.lUiiefiiKlv c.ilU yiiu' ([iiprr is one I'^illiiig 
ynic) 

ayk-Ai.-Aiy k^kkfm ad i-dlligf do you bnon ffiiylirjdy at lt?rli^? 
mo ivifdAy adnian^'wdiif ken T6»gay if -inyiflu: wiH (til it to Tongiiv 
mo iuay uiuit^fb/uJ^i kcn l'/il^ii^it?n^ if inyllniy ij^.k'i Fjlonglonf* 
ayk/zt^ay /!am/' il-c ytv nre .invoiic? 

aykS wodii ay kint^kmo? is there anything thjT yon knew? Jid^fm know 
aitylliing: 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOJiOT 1^3 

viSiiii'sii tuidki ay i'lkd^b i<i iiun df/ing ilicre ii n man who builds houses 

l'\Jj ,- |iri'|jii*.ii, 1.4 '^r Ar') 

unx^ Hdii kcfdyo; inflak rhere are some horKs; I saw tJum, or: I savr 

wi}d4 ^^S ^Jf'iiidy! [h-pre watb; wme (oaTinon liall^) Til^e thr*!! [R 38] 

inad/ifm.... iWrtr wvi-r iXt-.tc] (killori) m \-mic Liiin: i'i':, m an o-Hut" 

five, *,aii:ie iiPr'i *i]ko[ in Ihcir liaiid'; . |R, ^^3| 
'ji'Qtid itan iij^a.'y fi'l/fdUo iliirn- i\.cTr i^vii vliniiK nirn ^K, 1 [ 
w^tlltl JJifW siitdk! ay mUn^^irnSib Lhcrc ivcrc twu broULa-& i^lio v»ciU liunl- 

ing [L, r| 
ivodii tra'i ^»dki a\ fiifiifii-<A iTn:r-: ivcrc nv;> ^.[■^iijirj; [T„ ?61 
Ti'o.frf jpfljj sinAJti ay /laifikst mS l\1kh ilii:rc w^-^ -1 lir<'ilicr iiiul liis sisUr 

liv[]kg lllL lll^lllEUrLill I'olLJi-i I J., 4] 

ivo^d itan s'mdki a\< infill ii iJHii ihtro ^vcre two lirnilkcr-i '■■lii "iircliod 

(lie t[i.t lilr.k |M. I J 
-.codtt nan -inajifi ii( i-ati&fiit ilicrc ivasa sugaT caiic plan toiit>n ill Falidful 

^ [S. ,| 
5L-H?(ff/ naj^ Jjfl'j* on^^ns^ ay fufdyi llwr* wn* on* i^irl ('!' 1 1 



^64. EnAUPtES of raUIVALBNTS FOR. OUH COPULA "TO DE." 

(M^iiy similar «x3iiipl<& liAvF been given in varLoutprecedingaecli-Qnai 
they arc recapiiiibltiJ lirrc aiwl 3i^:iiicntcd by olhtr f>::iriiple4.) 

Prciicaii vc ^ubatan live.': 
aifwidko J^i .1natt:i,iil.^ai Anau^aaoJ ia a irKiid <>i illiiK; or; si .■tuami-ii.'af 

fisfJclak I am ^n enruiy it)hi'ii\oh I :iin .1 irieit([ sak/Jn turn aliivntiiiti 

I am your friend 
it" Miil^nj^ak T am Molejig si F^^^dak I ma FaiiEiecl f^' .^l^f^oiut I 

am Artlffi'i^ 
inifikiak 1 a]is a inari iF!^'i!oktik I am from "Pontoc i'^ASbak I am 

froQi A]ab 
tg6lotab I am an Igoroi oykHg^ht .\S\af i*: li* an I^<"iro[" 
ttji^j^F^^gpdt r am ;i cliild, 7 arn voune amdmMii 1 ^in an 'tkl man, I am 

■did 
fakOnak si Oidshan I am iioE Olnsliflii ayUica fh' Mdiyi^" are yau 

Matvii? 



j*^ TEIE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IQDROT 

sfwt niin imtttlfAn IvfIiH? utio f*: iliat person ("tin? [ler^onalny of this") ? 
sttK nan kaiat^-tliJ tifaH? nho are these persons? {Ma-taka: alMtract 

Tumn, lllr ]>r:r*i'm;jlilyl 

Ijn^Sja a<in i^/ddUsiiUiko y\i:-^y are nur soldiers 

ifitdfto HiJ'^ fsfificjlj/i or, fri^ffillin tfJtaka w<! arc llicir cinjina*:-^ [ffifrfltia] 
isiii-d mml^y .'i PuJpiiitikin^- 'lan ^angadfUua falfdti^ nan ioktjJitmt gdn^sn. 

iJUrc liXki'iSiia kdljitsg then died P^lp^Ukin^; Jij^ <l<:(it[i-':li^ir ^v^is 

(inndi? nf) iron pa^i-, lii^ &cal w-tc j^'on^^, ''liii ri>|>t was a bias? 

Hjli^Lif" I. c. he liiid ;l t!iaiii icisttEid -of ^ rri]>c. |}'. !^| 
yat patoff^im man Jiaw li^iiit^.-mo Lunuhuif^ku! wtll ihi^jiJ SO create 

("make grow") tin; iwaler, if yoii Jirc Lunijuig' [I-. ?o] 

PreJl^ntive A.ijeF:live5 (iiiid '"ParttcTple^"): 

ftittidak J Jim ltf?[ ymbUyak I -fm Tircrl (jt^^flive of feiff\,cli-) 

kawhka yon aiv Kn'ii frfTTc^t .tO.'1 IiH'h ^iiod 

s/asaf tHiil ii righl] (-ill ri^li!!") u.iiTifrj; ,.-u ,' this c^liadl (pron. n£3_g; 

njin Sjifii/ikiii >'U i7Vu^i^ or; tiVi^jj;; ^jli/l ijifnaiit lLji; i\;iLtc is "ivrirni 

iinir fiififii/'Jvi Jd iJit'A oi ■ !iawf:<<i*s noK fohfafd\' llic vvnuicii arc gomd 

insSk-Ji iiarr laldki j^iyiiiii ya nabic?y the anan js aick or t»ied 

fly« iJjif'ftTt'tJ'fa ya intnfly iiii wife ii^g gpiie, i^ aUseiil ar : igmuiy fl^W 

TKiii lAngtay ya ti^fAl^nsk or: nafdhaih nan fiin^<ay tlie brnJee li brolfeii 
aiff hdji'/i nan niamauiif^^id or ; nan maiimmiig-kid ya adftja kH-n'fs ^Ijut 
iiol: adtlju ill Ilic beginning of the suiitencclJ The g'ii'ls are not 

kSwis narn^y II11& 15 K'^iml kazcfs itantjily llui h go.MJ 

^ntfo ita/i dfott^nn ]ii3 house is high dntja nan kifjik loine is high or: 

PEfTJj fr(Jflfr ya djitjo 
kawlsha'y laldki' lie 3 g"orjd in^Ttl 

ohi/iripmj rtji Igl^iot We nrc all Igor*'! akitJniii.i «e are fey 
liiUng oifwdnit i[ is crjid n^-diiy -/toii^' \idiigka {nan lif/on^ llie woiilltcr') 

jl wrii warm ye&lenlay 
Ijakfjitkiak irio .^/ka I ,im caller than you 

l*rc-d[cali>- c I'r onyuiis : 

Posccscivt: iTtTif pitttshg ^I'j feJii^ ilic hciidax ii mine: fal/hi/i' 
k&a. i& itol jnin<; 

Person al : mushdyn sak/Jn ya slka if T wete you 
moshdya ijah^mt \it k<:igkatrf ten ijakdy^ if wc wcru you {"lit-c nnUi 



THIi LANGUAGE OP 1 HE E0^'TOC fcGOKOT 1S5 

rak/Sn mm vtrngwi^i L la \\ is I hvlio said ao ("it") 

fakhiuM i-rt sfya I [ini cud ht 

N w ni r r a 1 ^1 . 

djit^kami i^e jre I wo; rvtSkHy^ ytjn Arc ihi-et, /-i'^drja iliey art Cue; 
ifrajji/iufj^^^a/t 1 riiu iht rirsti {rrriii^adfUjial: I ^m die la;;!.) 
jpfii^i ^<:;'f rrrfiifr I ^'"1 th? sixTh 

Advtrba (and PrcpD ait ianal Ter ms) : 

kadhay^ liO"' ninny a.re y-nu^ isndak J iiiii here is'iti^-*i yim arc htrc, 
ji.ii ■:[ay licrnj! iit-jsyal^ I am Uicrc, 1 remain llnjTO Cii^^i-iUj- 

rtJi^'iJA'fr HUn^ are yoii a rice l>ird' <."f. a;i'''iATit, tid/ak, M\ii/i(hk, i^ifuk. 
fiik<^M<ik eiCLj m the preceding sections I 

Observe (tie iri'^knl 'nic^liws; 

fljrtff t^itS'^hf' \^'lial? Iliipi ihslllj*; a .Iii^r^i 

Ijcn/ei'! !6w-tJ,h*l yoii ^iiy llul thi'o is .vaiur^! (—far f rotn il. it'a mud—) 

kipihi i>'M'f!i/f »r\i] (li^u ymi 0^1] a knifo?! 

lafhi t6na'.',h'! i*. ihaL indeed iii[dn[^lk-l? [M. ry] 

((jT^f-rve Llirj liy^Liira -» in Ihii^ miisiniction, suffixed to suhEtaTitiveB 

wjlli lin^l vii^.cli) 

Our jnhrase "I wa.s on the poinl I'E. - ." 1'^ expreSr^'l by ilic preieriic 
and liit^kay, or: y^gkay, only, jiLSl: 

fwi»iii}(iiik ^iigkny, ya ^ai looJii nan jafityi I was o]i l[ie point of gwjnji 
yilt, ''Vh-L"ii ^'ii; wiiiii^"'! LiiHie f'^ml, !<■' diere iva^ Tlic woiiejujI") 

:i^j^rrr'r'?/^i[t ihi^kiti u <^fo'i^ ]JhJ iec itipdHgalt^dfaii mrn it'iX 1 was 00 ihe 
liuinl uj c^lUTl^i?■^^lc Eh-um-, wln^n |En^ i!.>i; Ull me ("'and ilicn (nlii;|:|>', 
■:ii[|iU'TiU - -f'tinj^^-, llic dug 111! iiie''J, AL?rt ivllbi ihc jirL'^nt r 

lie »iri'n "II llic I'liiric i>i Ihr^nvine" ihc spear wlien lln:r<: "fame llviiip" 
a -sfjnc vliii.li hit him; ("and ilien ihere wsa a. amnt..."); pra?^/^o/^ 

iniiii fMfcff I hit v'ilh :i tlone 

TfiL prci^riic of [lie copula in sentences Mii:b as given Eibovc i::i U'-u.ill;y 
indkated hy adverhs nf time. Sometimea, if a word haa been verhali^^l 



iSfi TUF. LAMr.UAr.R OF THR HOS'TOC TGOROT 

by Ell c person ill i:iid[ii£s (^nd hy [irvfiNtii Aa staltrfin [167-177] )|tht verba! 
"iJLi^meiH" h (:mi>loyed to u^Epre^j i^i'-L 

Cerlalii advcrha ol liiiic iiidic^lc ihrj fuliii'c, in leniences in ™hicli we iise 
iln- fului't ol \ti<r copula ; and in siiaiit ca^ci ihi: prtfiK ad- is llswl, (Alsii 
ibt |>T<;li«, re*ii>ei lively liillx -rrvr is cni]'lciycd lo dtnol-e lritii?;Ll[on from one 
oHidiiion Inio ijiallitr jind to expres-: fulnre, as ha^ been e^plEiiiit'l in 1 173, 

174I) 

The "Infinilivc": iv Iv h -^'UTIer, to l>e ^Ir-ont^ elc i: ii^-UiiJU cs:[ir«scd 

iiv foi'ins nj(li verbid i>r':Fi:':<:i ot ulfixr^, .1*. llie^c i-.x^i»[l]i'^ ^lif>w-r 

soldiiilioak ] ain a ^old[t'r ; li!ytfct ff^' inwI'MdiV I tike to be a aoldier 

l^'vJffk ui- inl^dfof 1 like lo Ijc jti le<"^rut 

ijjfjir^^t^ij^fl [e-Hit'r^.'Mt^a] To be ^ child 

kihf^iift^ fobe good; ins&kit Xo hz sick; ie^tlj^^/'a ay I'uiiitiia.i lie i[ke5 

ro he, Eo become stiong 
'i-ffl/a i'iab/3ffij 11 v kmiiSwfi Lliey can not be good 



TO BRCOifH 



365. "Tn Brcflmp," lrgrtFi1l?nn from a stite or conrtiTton fntn nnotbor, 
ia exprri^ed regij[^[-]y ]j_v thr iirrfiK (>r iTifix -tiM-. Sniin:l"iiiic5 llic Jiiliirc 
(wjUi prelix 4ji^ , or indic;il-ed l>y an adverb 'if linifj) tonvcy-n llie idea of 
"bemmmg." [i73f] 
fumtkffsak I am ^Umii: etron^; I become alnmg 

ImndH-Kg i| ]p lurrLJTig cold fvintlUngCf ll j;rijwji djrk 

jfjjjj y^n/ak ya iiLMlMiho -tj (^«]Jj uiy hr'jtliir ivlll 1* (sodii) a soldier 

/j'mj"i3* (/j/fri Wfl'i yi^t^-j^fl Ih*; biy i'^ Kclliaig big 

/af^ a stone; ftim4ldck I an Crani-fornicd inio a slonc ^t/j^jjif^ffnA) 

ugAljaif a name njrJ*ifrJVi<J'J(ft 3 cli^n^e -my name, i. «. ! am rr.in^- 

fiirincil (3^ a gitJ becnne? a rice bird; a l>o> i;han^5 to ;i riwkf); 

l.uiniiuf^'s l>ri.lh':r-in-la-w ia tranafomnzd inlo a rotk, tic.) 
frrtfli? fl Ti]-r>rikeyL k\t^jtdofmk I iK^^omca nvmkcy 
rffFfjf(f?rj^ 3^(?ji fd^j-jj ihc " eadier is lurnjii^ warm 
puu!/^!>asc<iif. n^^umffifak, kiimHadak I am gelling white, lj[acl;, red 

iiliiQih^'idl^fj I nni fiecoiiiiiLg a friend 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE IJONTOC IIjOKOT iH^ 



TO HAVE 



IVodd [K'.7rfJy|; ftiir dirt^r oljetfi'^f "linv'i'" ln'^iMiic^ "in^i^ct; mir sub- 
JKi is governed l>y ilic prcposicijjn u, rr^pecirvcfy *tH. "1 have 3 houat" 
changes, in Ihi'- rttn'^lniclion, U>i "llicre Is Lo me a lioicse," 

Or:— f^nrfv/ [--^iiOiidy] \5 fdlftived Liy ilieolJKtof niir "have," wUh ims- 
5C55ivc- iiilfix<:s; Tv<^/i^ dfvn^ko: llicre is a fioiise of JiiEiie. Tf :i siiti^Eaiill^'c 
is ihc iiil'j^ct -rtl "liavo" ll i^ placed al llie l>ecii»iiiiiS of llic sentence, as 
nfoaiiiativc penduii !, ritnl ilie iihrfije widi li'odd follows; Ihe object has the 
SiifiiK*:^ ->ia or -tjti Ex lliere is 3 [iimie-in[ne^ Uic innn, Ihcrc ij- a boinc- 
hjs. ^■>nic[l[iies iJie verbs: Wgtok I lnjkl, liti'iii ff^iak T hu!d : ol/tcf^ 
i Lrik^ {in. Uje ]>reieriie: iiiiHa'j L (Ovk, i, V- I Li^v^^j padilttek 1 rntivv 
rlc, arc ■^ubsEiHiled for "lo li^vc." 

Phrases Vh'ilh JuSa. denoling proper Ly <Mjfr; my .ivri,), or with sub- 
siaiuives tliat luv* ilit prcJiK jrriii- or iiifi- [62] arc fi'ei|Tieii[li- e[iL|ilaved to 
lixpres^ our "lo luve." 

Fcv^onal pronoun = as ouT^'^iiljj''i'iof "to have:" 

ii'oilAy ken snk/in »ofi ^fm^S °''- 'if^oddy nan Jfnf^gfjo T liAi-f ^ hilUM 
^i-odifif kc'i sftra tiiin ^Sklo'ig or: zdoddy nan svkl^" f^'Ho j'm liavi? ft liab 
modify >\-^iA tC"tI KO-'i dta or ■ zi-'od-dy n^/i ^s^'t-n lir li-is ;i di'^ 
tl'od/? *[^r fjdttj/i Jiffrj t//ifl*f or^ wroJ^/ ^inw lapdnfiti [hey Iliu? (llio) ktii^i?? 
wdddy Hixu oiirftfrnn J liaise a son TircdiTy "lUi fitrrftVL' ^^j' ffftiy' I liaiT a 

dajji titer 
Ti'ui/;/ trflJi 'hi^iidk^ia hi: (.tn ^'iicf lia-^ (.hiVlrni 
^v^ddv 'i^'i tdtS'y ri/fangmi \'-e liav<: IhrcK caraliaoa 
iBo44y kfH ifiP^^'/^ HQK kalftsayii'i you have •our ^liie]<l^ 
adwiidiiy uait Mlilktm lie will Ii;lvi' milnt> (or. tiJaiifena naii inkUria] 
H*yrjeb rrv ^lia naiinay ay iJfong I shn^uild like i" have ilsi^ ln>uiu 
Uytjek uy minlr^a rra/i kajdy^f or: liytiek ay Wiiddy ktUfdyuk i like to 

liave a liorac 
adlka v'iahj&ltn av ^^0 na>i kaf'jyok you can nol have my horae 
ifgiott!- \l^Si!tn\ nan fail^gko you Inve (IlcctjI mv spc^r 
^oddy k<^ iat/Jii itatnay ay jd!feg I have llii& -iiir^.ir 
naiinay ay fdlfeg ya ki}ak (ibiis spear is inmel 1 have Jhia spear 
fji/^n >ifl« nmfrfJa nannay ay fdffeg ur: sak/hi hdrf iii*^fdlfsg ay Uffy T 

have lliis spear (I am llie "^pear-oi\'iicr") 



i8B THE LA.\GUAGE OF THF- BONTOC IGOltOT 

ri'Drf.ir nflrr jir/j/gk-^ I li^vr ^i ?peir r/i;fr'^ 'lan f^lfcg I keep the spear 

fnaad/tdsit titji t^j* jjjo qd^* lififiiHi I hav< iDore ihan you (more my prop- 

wifdw6ddy nan hUbuLo um nan bthilfko yon have mare money than [ 

l^yljenyA ay ifianii'ffS i<i '{•tir kfJiyft '"•? '^an tJrfjru yon ivacil [n li--ivc iiini-c 

li'itif^ icc'i jat/^Pi nnn i^lrU'i';^ ^/!sei'ig^'i"iii I ll,^d a hnl (ifinic tiriie ;"^ol 
Tt'fjf^fjv ''L'f ti/'ta fi'iii li!!n!f iuUddiia \\.f h^il ?oliio ji'oilcv iJ,ii -bcinrc-vci'tcr- 

" day 
uiudli/ *mjJ Sufdvko tult^^l/ii- T li^id i ^|ie,ii' ^■e*,ieri[:[\ 
wodii JJrfii- kuidvok vrr iJfT^c diffch \ line u Imi'se .iiiil a dof^ 
-Luciiif'^ imn ftu r;v il'fl/iTjiiJj^ ff hc ha& coxe horse 
Jii^cfi HdJfE ftdali I have lour ij^,?( nan ic6dlja ihcy liave TnuL- 
adaldi'nyst nun plnanz I'J ufl'J hilidias* voii M.il[ li^ive (gel) lim ax alkd tli* 

shield 
Uftta Tfju aliiek I ilull have fivci I t-ct fivL 
moihifya ivoddy dftg.ian irmi hildkJ/a If they }iad much money 

S U b *■ I ni if L 1 V :i * QUI s Lil> j (?c [ of ' ' In li a v t^ ' ' . 

ni^ luldki -.cviid iiflFi Ifma av HnHnd^na the man lias Pvc cliildrcif nr : 

mm laiaki Ihio 'mit ii'niitdk-ia 
mm laldJH nr nan ("fdyi -^ixfdit nan aiiiikij*! ay d^iiu a\ lainlitki a man Eiiid 

fl ^v^lll|JLll li.i'l l^^^' scm.'- liilvhiTvp ilie iio^lit^cjn ii^t; nf plural roriLiii) 
pfj"jjff,V fry /it/j^^j TCffdJ' uii^i fufdptu \.h\^ "nn lirm 4 iiiciir 
^Pii^jjjnv nj laIdH nd-n'odlfv niM lufdyim llils [Uiin V^lll fiaie a *,jiear 

wodi'f ndsfhi-^adM'f m'i hfitki ay •^vodil 'ia>t djjia'y andhxi ibert: liai^ hiitiif 
H nijin i"oT . '>iKk' ii]h'n n Irjn'' ilicre ^v-ls ;i iiinii) wlio lia([ IV Q cliiiili'cii 
iumnay ay fohfdilo indhn<! "ten linSUdkif ihis boj has (taken) my bat 
^ifTJf moiiittgtid ieyti^mx ifv d^t'n sif !lu' ijirl iv^imiJ Hi 1i;u"i: ilii'- 
'/an aFhi'iiiko va zi-'oddy 't^kkcn ay l.'df^i^ (ay f.-tpina) my Eri^nil hnfl oihcr 

Ihinj;^ to d(^ 
wi'dity kafdyo si iion Inl^bi llic iniin lid'^ a lioriic for: io^nti Ttotff^ fl^Pt 

kafdydjio) 
iiwrff^y Htrir jdkaf is nan on^'hi^a llic Ik'v liaii a tiail 

Niigalive: ^eiilffiiceij I lia^'t m^r : I In^-^ no: I Unv^ nol ^iiy; arc 
conslrncled willi ma/fd. Il is preferable in use the po*,?e*^?r^'e &iiffi?:es WLth 
the substitntiw: 



THE L^NGUAGC OF THE BONTOC IGQROT iJ^g 

iHa/fd kdyfif.' I linvt nt* wood (ihiTC i- no 'vood-niint) 

m^/'id bilfthija 1>n:y havr n^r any nv>rty 

ma/fd af'Jng tvd! lie Ii[l-^ 00 EiouM [ttitit ia no bullae of his) 

nan fof^yi iim/M a'idttii<i llif; wom^n has no cliild 

aytS-woddy iri'i hUdhmo^ have jou any moiKji' 

ny*^ Miij/W 'ffvn^nn? b,T; lie HOC any hoii'oO? 

liyifSna india »ifii t}i>kd$£ko? h;t& he (Jid ht fjkf) my kig'? 

j/iEU jmii -i-ioild tfff'r^-r ke'i tjitkixy^T ivha of >'ou ha« a h^u^ir? J^iJir oE) 

jrfjiij ijjF^ mim^Sgti} h jjflFE k'nydii^kiyf utso ha*; (i*; Ibe keeper) iiiy .^tn'^r? 

'igiig tun •n.'t'dd itfJi jMiI."' ^vliiil ii^vc yfiu ? 

itg-^S '^ijjj Jljoddy iii'ii s/ynf !■ lut li^? llrr 

ftf-i^ fCfift Zffdd ii iia/t (afdyi^ ^vli^t h^^ liit: •/.imi^pJ 

k'sil ntTH Hj«iriP(!';j'i*-' li'.iv iu:\-ny tJiUdrcn bavc yoii^ 

half jjrrn InJdi-rio^ [iciw luacli nitiney Jias Jic? (tu^ uua in/fSSia is bil^ktia?} 

kaiinaii adalaentf hOTvoiuch wilL yua have? (L^W rjUiain) 



MUMERALS 



367. As Use Igorol nw (he finger c:0"iiE, cli^lr mimeral aysleni ia -deci- 
ipal. Jf evei' a difforcrt syslem has bfcn cm[i]i>vwl| nti itace oJ rl lia^ bten 
ascerlaiiied irom llie several groups of I^orot Hint were foii'.ulLecC. 

The K'nmer^ils ^rt y^il in counlirg all inaaginablc objSCl^, ^uch a?- p*r- 
■^oiis^ n.nlciKil'^, ilil[i_gs eic, Tliere ar^ 110 "miiiicrjl affisus" (biith A'^ ; peTsoii, 
liead, ■ocer], tail, piece, stem^ Iruit etc) in Bonioc Igorot. 

Tlie Mumcrjli jre [nlj-cctivts or ^Is^irict rtrtiin^, ^5 onr "iinity," "rriti- 
icy." 'I'be fact IKeiI ll»cy are fre<[Ucnll:y prece-ltd by ihe arcicle jijh, nndilini; 
thci^ ending in a voivel (nke life "'gcnilivc inilicairir/' ilie li'gstnre-ft, seems 
tfi |ioinl Id llieir qiialiCy of IwLng nouns. 

Numeral U'lially precede, rarely follow, tbc Mibst^nllve^ ih^ ate Con- 
nected w'ELi il by aj, aonetiniea by -h. TJaia aui^ic -n ia only uaed if the 



IQD 



THE lAh'GUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGOROT 



ntmietals end in a voneJ; tral ay la ofwn tinploycd inslciiO ■>! -n. J(, how- 

^v?r, 5<!vern3 lens or hundreds are coniHejl l>v iinils ending in h v'>wtf, -'i ii 
cmplovixl cx(;lusivcly: /iiniZ^rt p^h "Jive Irn^" or £0; Ivl^'i lash^f "ihrcf 
hundrtds" or ,100 J Ihousands ]>rL'fcr ov. iSlo'y Itfo (of; iHldn tffo)- 

Ncujits wilh -iperial pliirat Enriii? .irc snincCiiTic-- ["liihI in their 'iinKnl^'^r 
form afKr niimcrnK Ct. [49!. 



Tlie tJuiiieral? ^rc: 






Ci 


ir rti)x:t ]■>, 


Ordinfl Jfl, priTedril by "an: 


T 


tza (;!■> iiJiit of 


(In: fir&l 


ifl-irwiArJf"r^ [nrajjirBjjppg] 




m<:iisure: f/w) 




(mesHs ^i\'i^\ cncO 


2 


tT^j^fi I^J^rt; ff/i^fl: '0'?^fn| 


Ih^ ^Ci.[in'l vi<fnidda \may^ttdda\ 


3 


tdlo \tM^:Vti?;tii!h\ 


(he ihird 


j]iflM^^<7w T"'*i3'^''f'^<^l 


4 


rpd! [^pift] 


the fourtii 


. ))itn\^{pd! [iiii^apdf] 


5 


ilma \Uina\ 


rlie 5LI1 


ni4sngar/«ia \maygaUtna] 


6 


^n^iit \fmfyi-. i>iim\ 


Ehe 6l1i 


iHaii^4>wi [vnty^dtitn] 


; 


rit^ 


Elie 7L[| 


iHjin^afitiJ [iikayxnffifi^] 


S 


7ud!o {adlo\ 


[he SlIi 


iiutngaii'dh \inQy^a'^dici\ 


9 


^/am [i/yam^ 


Ihe 9th 


ii\jsiigastaf>! [Tjiar'j.--iij/a)Jj] 


10 


p^So Ifi^'f,' p-if'.Q-! ^landiT 
for a vocalic ^, nearly: rj 
or; sin pt^o: "one 

nJecade" 


the LOlh 


m-aiigapij'i} [m<ii^apt^'ii] 


IE 


,rj^j [^io ya jsa 


the Mill 


mangaptfif ya ifsu 


iS 


sin pSlo ya djfJa 


theTalh 


mapgapSo ya ilj^a 


13 


ijfj p^^o ya Idl^ 


thP i^Ch 


iimn^apJ'o ya tdld 


14 


sift piPo ya fp4( 






IS 


i"u pd'o ya If ma 






20 


djuttn fi^'o 


the aoih 


mamidj^a'y pd'o i\\%. ay*) 


30 


10071 p3'-0 


ihe 30th 


iimmk'Wy pS'o 


40 


rpd! pS'a 






50 


Uiitdn ptf'o 






60 


rjf/jji pd'o 






70 


pilthi p3'o 






So 


Hifl^Jn pff'o 






90 


■irfmii ny pS'o 






ICO 


kd.<hi£i] 


Kh^ jQOlh 


m'ing^P&'o ny pd'a 


JOO 


(JjiiJn iat!id{ 


ihe JoolTi 


mnmidjda'y iasliSi 


300 


lotilii loshS! 






400 


tpdt iSsU^I 







Soo 


iiaiiin iAsh^t 


■?oo 


slam ay la^hSt 


lODO 


{tjif\sinUio;l!bo\ 


^CpDO 


dftla ay Ufa |i/;^'y l^fv] 


3000 


iSlo'y iif<! 


4IJIJO 


fpiit ay Itfij 


9000 


:,ta»i 05' Itfiy 


lOOCO 


M'r^p^'o'ytflo 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT lyi 



Observalion: 

Ucdiiuls iviEh tlie prtfcx mayj-a 
[>rpinia| aire nut u^erl in DoiiLou I^r'jrijt 
to dcnoie 'Ihe. fir&l, se^^ond, third fltCr 
dwsde" (.^*■ ill T:tff;,['>j; mvl In Pam- 



Uk lasl iiiojiggnij/djl 

naa iSh'ii liilal^ki rlihteinen; dj^an fcfdyi or : dj/^a'y fsfdyi lu'o wnm^n 
jjoF^ ItnUt^y kafiiy-t 5 lior^t^^ wafi ^jo'v laliiki ijiic m^n; jjifff r[.'i?if?'j' 

f^.io^Ji S pe&oi 
pjflw rFrtfHiATJUJi^' fly rffr^'u tb<: firtt ihy , nan niaygaffino^^r ffian l!ie 5di 

iin^rilli 
imn !^Wy ay d'iSnik ay ffintg three IfJtfc tHjIilrcn 
non ^ntjo ay kifya oy ipdt luiir liiyK Irccji 

tjnkayif ov J^ma ivc fiv<; (men)- ; tj^fj'a'y t/rrPH tlicy, nini: peiion?; 
iiuK .'inpd^o ken Ijakdyi^ irn oi yuUi ?jirri i3f>J ii nnn "lamamdgktd ten 

Q-f llie girl 5 
fill tjip/t one "tfii'df' :. <:- tin: tiuliiitc Ijcl^vcm llic ll|l^ ui lln: miJdlc 

fciigers oS iht nHt-sEj-tlcTi^d amis; aboat BvF f«t 

finger jili-iI iliiii ol ilie rhuiiib, botli cx1cndc<l 
sm jeii^S ay j'^huy un-c lunilfill i»f ilnfhrdi^lici! ru'<T 
iin //jfl^ one mcaiiirc containiuf; 5 handful':; ^n k^tad ?5 li^ndfnlij jrrt 

p^ak 5C-htfni]fiih; sinfJiiek nwliandJiils; sin r-f' 1000 handful^ 
jrtj Mn^^oit 'int ^l^^fi; -fj" ^Wj one "lihra"' Span, pnuni 
(CL (fn- 15 prcfi:^; iinpJ'ixufot^ unc family, oji£ |iDU5eiiold [59, 6o|) 
^titi/liioia ay dj/la \vt srt vjorkbu?, two ol ub 

/^'ifiim^kami ay tolif v^e aro working, idrcc nf ii':, Ibrpv men; ivp tliryi? 
waji naji d}iia'y fditga; pjfyam ii f/^nmm 'ro?i /m yn pdyatn na'i /sa'dli 

findy%t! here are Ewopots; E.U theoce vith water rmd tlic otiur wifli 

rice 
ttmiiytdi^o ay toll?, ay ffdt, f^ay>n6 ay Itma ]vx u\ gro, 3, 4 or 5 men 
nannay ipdt ay ttndndk ilicsc 4 childr<?ii; tiaiinay Um.a'y fufdyi ihese 5 

nait falf^gmi ay pij& our 7 spears ^ nan ammdktja 'y told their 3 children 
am/in nan dj/ia'y mdla both eyC5; am/fii nan djia'y -^ki both kga 

(hi- "0JITWO k^^") 
ani/fn nan dj^a'y ifma hfch hand& (hainl: Uma; Wma: Jive "fingers"} 



jgz THE LAXGUAGK OF THE BONTOC IGCROT 

i/ia-J^/f/'fia u-aFi fiii'ii ay f^sii^ iliey tiuglii <,i:i. j>|^^^ ][{. i6] 

rir ffiia ayJka't jaw tolS'y jobf4Uv li? ^ov^ \>j ci(|| llirte ^^►iiit!; iiieji [l.-^^] 

tiumersla take Ihc pe rso n it 1 tikdiii^^ ii^ plirascs like: we are 
ilirce; >>ni ^r.- live cK. 

Ca rdi iia I i ; 

rpdctdm! v-'f iirefour; ^fM/jj rhtj are (wfre) three; 0Titifrj>'iS f/iFfjj o^/ 
jre you Hvc men? 

litiatsiin^kauLi ay Inim or: iatwJt&mt oy n^ts^no w:, 6 men, ■v\'erc lurk- 
ing 

iiinUyfdlfo ay laHf or ; lolJkami ay i^iri'ty \nc, ^5 men, are ^oiui; 

r'sjpji trjJiiia"iffraFJFFJ^' aJ Mart/!i Hinaiip'i'iiiL-iiiiii ivhcn Vit lefl Manila, \vc 

wcrt ftity 

ifimflftl'n^ ay il-^rintok, walffkdmt ay iS'u'iiiik-i \vc i\<:rc 5 JSoniEot-ineii, 8 

S^iinjki-infn 
folfikniii'i hna vc jre llirce nfeii Ifere 
Amfn/i/fro iimiifc la mazvdh lei us see again, (hjic ihcrr:!!*:^ (ijjj^^i) |M. lO] 

T <! I na 1 s vidf personal «KJings; 

miiiiJ'iia^gak ay itm^h I cniiiij frr'!!, I am The firwfi to coms 

'iimiiitldtja ay n'/tiiikasit jt tan faJfi'^Tfa tlicy wc.f: ih? iliird fero-ap) 

throiving" llfeir 'pcai'? 
mfiK^tkd)M}!k6m! ay ianiftH ive c^mt Iji'-t 
nan Inl4ki an mangndifdji ay Hmniiynte llic iiijii vva: ific IfL^i wlm ll&l 



3f^. D i g [ r i luT 1 i V '^ N ij nu r ii I f liiive tbe prefis Jin-: 
Jiflii .^rn/ja ay pi^sosh one Jol[ar Eo eai:lt 
nan sinisidl^a Awo (q e:icli 
Hflpi .)Uif'Jio \iinftrila\ ifircf 10 each 
na" sinipdt fuiir lr> r^cli 

h saoUaoldki} na>i sinlSHo ay phoih ken tjditja leC u* yive ^.^ in t^ifli 
rAJsfj \villioul ili-HLriljuMvi; iorm; dfdS^'y phosh nan ilsa^mtohi h nl'i 

/fii'v ^rftat I E^'^'e ^--' lo escli ^in^le iiiiiii) 
■Ffrfjf jjrfjj. initj'y in^nidkii iin /ta }^est ijahja 'H'odd nan- hafdsavn(t ya aan 

djda'y filiffgiia hac art EEjr<^c iiiCU, ttity have tath A Shield und 

Civo spears 
dUii/if hii l}iitdk6 WoMy sSklong or ; atmHiJko ay Ifdaldki -wrfdoy sakifrng- 

idko cacli oi U5 lia? a li;iL 
dbfani sjatlfa u sinipdt ay f^Kg^ pfpscnl lh«iL -each with four hrind Tula (of 



THE LAMGIJAGF. OF THE BONTOC IGQROT ig^ 

369. Mull I |l f I C,T I [ V c s . 

is 'Haiiiiitsati^, if i\ia"iidifeti, is mant/t'h, is mdn^ipdif once; Iwict; three, 

fniii^ limici (pielcfjtc; is namhisan^^ nai'iid/lia cEc ) 
in-fla/f j/[pJ/ ij nanihsa'ii; i ^a'v Julii oiict 

iaaydkoiiiiJ nan fiff^yi h namtt'la w\i calli^il (Im vv'.iimii (lii'tu (Iniofl 
maiiiti'lo i%an kSah, iiiamfusaicj- 'lan k-Saiit 1 Juvii liiricc as uiiicli as ^ftu 

(thrice my property, once yours) 
(iJorc idJoni:ili<:;i|]y: ifodjuodif i-eii ial-/?ii irrn i^irw h^aiis T liii\-e 

I1[i>r(: [l^rJmil, for '■iini]»[LL"ilii-':!) Ilinn yrjiir pr^Li'^clj; or: addds-a 

Till' li^jUn\mR iiiLiUipliL.ilJie T'trl>-' iHjstraEethefariDalion of derivatives 

slriillM.r In fuv "ly doibhl*:," "lo Ci^ebk:" 

ttmtnidn/^cl: (prcffjr. f^jijuj^^ili't) I double- msmii'Iihif I irtblei 
iiuimipiltek I lUiLke it four Limu ;Lb Jdi^c; inamiUmdei etc. 



^70. Fractional Numeral a, djfifiidy:^ [fjf^jsaji] out hdf; 
ij/iv/iH ,'j sii^ftrot h^lf 3 cl][ckcii- t}hvan il f/hif^ liall a pig. ku'.'lH a 
ihjrd^ kal'i<^n c-t' fi^hig a lliirJ ->£ ^ pig- kapdi (ka-ijii!!} I lie [mirLli 
pari; I'iif^^jji/ii {^-a-fj^rf^fr) jj iii^aiin (lie fifth pan uf a Jjiiftjio. 
£sa'y f'iii^ iiacd !\aii tjiiL-Atia oue |iig and half iU^ed: a]ifl llicii) 
rf//^i:j ay ji^iug isdi^d na'i Sjh,'ait itaii /sa'y (fcfitg iv^o |>jg^ and ii fialf 

These verbs denote ' 'di vidin^t: m 1 1. _■, ^^, 4 i-if |uri^;" 

l^FidMiick I fijvirk int{>2 psrf!^" kal'iSek Jntf>,i: kiff'tftck into^: kni^imh'k 
ini-j 5: kzinliiick iiii'> G; kop'tdvU inru 7; ^'n7i'ri'i*L'.^ inLii 8- 
iir^'^ppjpi into 9; kapSaek into 10 pdrtSr — I <livi<ie into niaay 



371. Oirditial Adverbs. lahtairSna for the ricat linn: 

InhlahSna 'jft jii^ti^ganf^nJniilc -or: i^w^pr.?!' ja ir ijjh /jb/dJi^a Idoitiorlhe 

tir;i: lj]-n€ fabiabdna sa.' TliiPi 15 for tlie fir;E liiiit! 
piditifn/i \ bidti/ina] for tlie second time pidiidna is 'tian^angnSn^yitt: 

you do it tor ihe second lime; or: kapid>id*-k 
pii'l/ina iov the Ihir^f lime pii'i^na if rrmaHd'/ci he cunes for the third 

|[nn:; ti<mpf-ij'!:}ak I sliall d-o n fci the (li[i'd riLiii: 
fkapiftm ior llic fourtli time ikapdlntr's mmigUak km dya i ^e-e liim 

foj- the foUTili ti[iic 



194 TllV: LA>^GUAGE OF THE BOKrOC IGOROT 

372. Compantonahip, Prefix fefr, with coUective foffct, and 
possessive isufiixes comlxiicd with numerals produce novuu denodng- compait- 

iOii3lLi].i: 

HOT haduak my oiIiol c^nii|)anion. my |>3riiier 
ijflfr !u-ar'/^ini our thirij conip^icm 

flifw hapdimi, kahitiimi, kanfi^mmi |ta?f^FFJH?r] niir 41^1, fjuli, fy\\y crnninTn'iiiT 
/J^ffito^^f /jua Tfl jj-ifjr L-apif/nti ji^ WFF^rfJi ?'j iftt'ii we (lirvn? an? Iietc, And 
oilr fourtli comrade will smn cDme 



3^j. M i 'i f. [' 1 1 n n c r] II ^ numeral IMi r ri i^ c i . 

Till? nii[iLti(?r fA ]tei?oa5 or LhnigiR fGrniiiig- a group is ex|ireB6cd by: 

Itiis tiinihJTialian; unil(?r] 
finitirliini! tjii/lja ay siflisldna he i^n\ iJitiii out in firoiiiJi cf tvr'j, Ina bj 

two 

siuiiii-tH^ko wc move one beli[nd llie cUtcr (Tlsi? redujtlic^slijiT, 1^ isa, 

ileiLiilc*, |>l Lira [![_■, ^ek^eilI 'IiikI*: p^TsimsJ 
smSiff^itdinikumi w- i^oiii jjroupcof liio 
iiKSo0flof!ii -ry ni-^iidiifad we niartfi iliree nljre-fsi {if-r/i/adl^-'j 1 ^irrJingii 

id a Iciie or cnlnjiiii) 
siiiipii'dfji ny mSli'iitffad iliey fireiilacecf (or: iiinvc, u'alk e(i-.| fmir abrcJ'vt 
ii>ilii\mdkaim \\^ -Mt in scvcrjil £;roLi[i^, live men in i:acli £raui> 

Sinrilar terms are fonced by iirefiKu^ mO', ]>reter. iio- (i>a&sive pre- 
fives, ivSth tlie force of a "middle'^ here!) : 

mdfsaizd^fa lliry "i.yiin:'' One by uilt 
nadiiadiilth&ml \\q c.iiiic Iwn by twD 
admi'tclototdf jjt they will conie three by tbree 

TransicivK verbs arc derived from these forma: 

sinisitck I "ircat" one by one-; iinisd^iyri tfatt^a <iy mt^sttp you cotint 

III cm one by one 
smtsidj'dcif nan lalaldki ay mangityak 1 <ii!l ihe men two by two 

The adverb "first" is rfitu: ma>i£iinldl^o'd ^af_, isafdJio'd ^tii^m> 

leL IIS I^Fsl c.[1, llicn \%nrl:l 

man^i^n^iKikiiini ay iHnna/tfejis wc will fir^i d;iiicc 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT igs 

jjijrr jj/iia" noit hkiki Mmmitptddti; k/fpiditd^na won Ifian iwi fajifyi rlir: 
fjiLker 0-i [lio ■oin iiinrrn:d (o-r Uir aecodd lime; ht married Uie niatlitr 

of ihcfi^in |M. r| 

liap\diidek \k<iiHdisAi:k\ I ninrry fir llie second lliiir, kupitld^k for llie 
lliirij lifcife, or ^vil[i p':rs'Hi. \'lis.i itwnabijiitdak T ^ni j^oinp lo 
iiurry for llj*^ ^coml, kuma^ii'l^ak [--ii lLh: LLjiril Iiiill.^ 

en^iiadSiick I di>ul>r, 1*; ilerivd from Sao, two (as in man^ olber 
laiigiL^gea, cf tliibiiare, eiiiiniaHu, zweifeln ei4:.J 

In iln; j;,-j[i[e Iff'ny (fil^yed I'ilh riiund rruin, wliiifi ar^ rullcd iil otiicr^ 
placed fli siiJiie (lisimicf on ilic ^rauinj; a cliili]rfr'-i ^fijn':) ibr number of 
poiiils jiiaili; \'y A player are IndlcaLed; 

nuha/^iuttk I £<^[ one; naked s&aak I gm iwn- ssakict'i^ak; nakti/ipalak; 
^ifkfflhnatil' ; fful^'ioiKmak I gac 3, 4, s, 6. 

ttuutfaijt or isdngak I ani aEonc; ^Tcfi^gn^ ay i^iJii'J;|i I go rIoh^ 

jfa^i fafdyi mnytsti tty nKilf'^ ii ton i'ifgpi'g iht wcnf^n cvijiie^ alone fruiii 
ihc furr-iir fjjiajj'i(?iri or; »nt/isdak "T rim inyljiEcd," pa&^[vi: fire- 
fly JJJd-) 

Kon iiiMlju'y djsa lUc ilo^ of llic Lwo (nim) 

nun I4gi»i NcTii '/i^iJji ya ann icl^'y p^Sflsk tliP flpwf OKls thrc* pesos; 
(thf; prKCi'f ^iiv ■^|lv^^^■ b 3 tews) 
EK,iniple-i oi llie fnnr species: 

nan ipdt ya itai Ifma: i/am 4 and 5 are 9 

jiitt.pS'9 t'ttrkdair psiS: iot? lo iiiIiili^ 7 art? 3 ihdiinck I take off, diiiiiir- 

[^li) ; or; ^r>^fl nan makltyad: ^ are lell [kaydfjek I leavcj 
■^(/' fjjr U'ta: dju/Sn pl^'o 4 lliuo? 3 ace 20 
f/ffwf makdt'So it unn fol/^: i-^'l^ y dlv-likil by 3 art 3 



ig6 THE LAN^GUAGE OF THE HOKTOC IGOROT 



PREPOSITIONS 



374. PrepQsidons are: 

8r) The "tme" oi "simple'* prqio&itinn, ir = in, at, to, from elc. 

In=lcn:! "f 1.1 ihc "perioiinl" |irepo;[|[riii k£H mgisC he uaed wilh words tliat 
L^kn LiL isuiiiniJilivc llic |K:i ■-ninJ nclitfli?, 
and: 

h-) M'^T.I'^ i-vlili IIk' inialuicn uf n.mn'^ nr vrkil noun'' (jVuiti. jtli- 
Ohifi), often ]iFi.'.:':'"j<:i] Tiy lln.' j>re|fn-;itnin n nml ■^i^inoliiiie'' l>v llie ptIlcIl' 
PaOt- "Thc-vo ^voi'l?; in-rm "cn]n]Miiirnl pTcpo^iliaii?;" [liey Inko I lie pr^^'iciiih'c 
■^iiHixni', ^itI, Jl [loaled yg iitIj'-. llie iiufsuu^il ruiijctlii'oly llit' |)G^i.essive eiid- 
ilJg^. 

'I'hc txriiiipJes wUl ^how lilt ililTtrciit meanings of ihese "compound 
pr^ii '-■! I i' m ■■ " 

(rn Enfiiish "in. at, fr-om, by" etc. correspond to the "true" or "simple" 
pr^ii-oifiorr; iii^nMofiHTil ;ilii-'vc; ^vfiile "'•n .itcmnil uf, .it 11i'Mhi|> 'if, by means 
oi" wutikl Pic cl.issilicd here ^iin^n.ij lift "crhniimiiiirl ]ir<:|io''il[nii-^.") 



2^^ TJie ■^uU'^t^Liill^i: ^ov':fjitd liv ihe "i:oiiipiiiiiiil j>re[ii>illloji*," iinv 
be Jhoupht To It m ib.- ^i^jilrlvc (iF I1 Ui- euthiIiii'iI fu inii^f'T mir ■-iiiii'--|i- 
liijii 111" u'-t"' or 'lirk'n^rin '." Ui'-. i;njil>H- vcTnniml.ir, fiir i-jjnu'nk'nci^ !:[lIc-) : 
llic j'rtpu'iilJQJi;!! nonn {"i:ii]>," "aci.ount," nnj^n^"' in (Jie csnmiik^ Rivai 
below) takes Ibe suffixed "iZ^eiiiJiie iiidic;Llor'" or l[^.i[iire -rt, if it ends in a 
VOweL 

Perscaal pf onoim? governed by "comptmnd prepoBitions" are represented 
by the posscs&jvc suites, as in HjiglJsh: "on my accoont" (oci account of 
inO' "fill" "if-'ii^ K^kc" (for Ibf isak* of IIkiti). rVc|)ii6i[ional nnKit= tiiidlng 
in ^" t^k-r Ihc i^ullisc^ oE isc and 2iid ■oinj;. rifltr ^|^^'p|Jl^g iiii;il n. Iik-c Ihc 
vi-rtis uf Ibc -fS^ [f(i!.&: I. -ek a. -Ah {artt "^enke, enttui") ; it ia sa^yatitkeiy 
Ib^l iIkv arc vfrika] ni-iin^. 



37Ci 'riiere are no Ci^in pound' of pTcpoiinioii' coiiibiiied n'illi woTd? 
of iiilicr OLiU'Kc'rirs i,siiilL n3, invadr, uiiikrgOj pcrfiir^Jic, [raET^Iui^riii, ovn- 
tradiction) in Bnntoc IgOFOt. It 5«eid9, however, nort impossible that tho 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC [GflROT 1^7 

prefix I- placed Eo naniH ol towns {iSatrtffbi, iFlinttfk, iTuk^kaa) rcprt- 
*eii[*i tlie jirepofliLion is- se glso the prefix of the i- verbs, vih'ich gives 

BontQC Ig^ro* possessee a considerable iiiiuJ>cr of (uncomptninded) 
verbs tiiiin->[in; .[ pcfiio^liliiii;^] iiGiion, .is, our ir^ii^iii't v-crli*i [uiic^nii- 
poundeiU ■ rliiiib | lj|iijil|; fullou.' li^attfrl , 4?iuyr [iniu] J{ •^^^\:■^l I'Cdi*^ li.iie 
the ]iO:S:j'''-'-ivi; inilmjfs, i, t ii Hiiy jr<T irstij Eran si lively, lliey ilo ciftl reciuir* 
anv pTt^ibkiiHtr I\'>r i|n ili.' I'.'rkil iunns c^plniiii^il Ln |?5^-2'(4| rctiuirLi 
prepiMJlionfl Ig c<ivctii ilic indircti <iliji\[, pL"X iiiiininiiiii, tnisi- ui^. 
<|H?|iciii][iii::- ii|i"-L] lln: "^i-cial" vei^hsl fnTiii. 

{Il fian been -oPjioTved (fiat Llie I.qr'noi: iirefcTied Elic ■^iiii|ilc ^crb^ In 
Ilitw c^niplJCiTlcd iorini'; they My rjibcr; fei^/^ft pjfTH^^^ay t.) uaKtinsiil!l}-t?, 
tban: jkai'ptio 'nin maiiSflyo is nam i/ifay I nuke Iht lipcir sviLli Tlic liam- 
■ner.) 

Id the EijJlowLiig" setHQni* tlic |jr';|i'ii'ilfijn jj (*f"j wi^l b<; (''l:^'^|;(l fir--iii 
then "cnLii|Joinid pTefH:j'^ii.ioii=" vvill he iJL?cn=^eiL .iii'l mi;illy ;i Li'^t I'f nur 
pic|i'i'lunn« wilii llicii' Ig-Wol ei|niv'.[kiil-; '^]ll Ijc k'^'''''' 



IS 



,177- Tlie Tocative PrepngHrnn in .ippeirpf in Ibene vntioufi form*!: 1^: 
id;iu^ii'f: «: 'f; 'Wi: 'rf. Tlicrc are no dclinili: uk^ ior ihc use uT ilif*^'- 
forms. 'I'ln '-h.ins;'' brLiv<^n r ujirL n ■^ui'iu'- 10 Ih? i-iUlier dinleciic lli^m |)lii«- 
netic fiirfL'.tcxI by ihc firsf vmvi-l nE ihi: ioll^.i In^ '^onij. /t sian-ih iM'fjr^; 
vnueK ^j/ ^o^ i.s) ln?friTi: ci»n'i"Linr<'n; 't nv '.ifi is uicd fitter tlie [jrccciJiny 
fiinl voivel. is an<l il= incEnlliclLC fiTin "" Jir': jK-ij^ iiiLeicliELiiRen-I iM^liniil 
hesrtatUoi; their use depends merely upon enphony-. There i:! no different.-!: 
in the ■iuii[li<::iLiiiii iif ilii^ i^iL'ioiT foi iiiv fii-rt appcariiOixa^iunELlly siiort- 
eiic'l III ''ir '"' ■ncgll^cLii prorunii-l^Llan. 



,■(7^. The hnsiiLl £;i[,'i"iilic;ilinLi of K i:onM'_v*; a rncitivc iiniim: rc^t 
So>'>i]iLi aL n filace i niouon lo^varnJ or Cr> a |iI,ic<:, mnli-in troLVi ^ flpi:':. Tn 
Ibe ksl cave liie |ilace i^ llioL]g"liL ^s llic &larlins in'int <»! (lie innuoii. 

All ullicr iiLr'.iLiiiis;ii of ii nrc iruiiicrLl, derived iruiii rl--> lotiLlivt sijjnili- 
caEion. 

Tin: f,'ovcrnins v<:rb or The contcvl den-jinlnc lln? niejuilng of !.■<■ in 
[iiii'il caiic^ ont 01" lliciie iirepo^ilitms c^it Ix u^cd ill lian^lEiting JIJ Igyrol 
pliTHS': in uliich LT occurs: 



I9« THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

in , Lul-j. ,ii J 1'^, iriMjLi'l: ui; Eiiiiai; out cji , .fiinjiigi im'\ ^v\^]^k; n]oii; 
?SiLJiii^^ ' ''^ h "ffari com-i-riil[ig- III! 4cc«mt of; until: (iirtnAt^li ; alinui eic. 

An ciamiilc ivlm-h lHn-.lT^itC'^ 'in: f"riHLi]>al ^.i^mrLtJlirtn of is reierirliic 
to place fll, lo, <jr Erym wlildi.... nik.l nl i\!ildl (ht vtfb d^ltfi'juii)^^ lUc llitfan- 
iii^ of this universal pr^n^lkm, is: 

-kay-dtjem uurr klpQ}t is no'i i'atti^li/iaii luvc iKir; knir<: on flic nhairl 
jp't/fio uo?! *//!□?! js nan kainkfj/f-rii \iVAt': ilie knlfr ii|]ori the di^lH 
fl/rfi?"^ ^jff^j t/fifij PS ^PfTff t(j^jii'/;rfrtn lake [lie ttiife from ihc cluirl 

Tht prcpo^ififln « i^ems vror-ds of nearly all cjie^'irLCi, a&i aubslan- 

lin:-^, .irljixli^'c-^, -tIu'j'I^'^. jiiuiic]'?!:, ^■€Tl:al^ noting ;lih1 vptIjelI adjeclfvei *1c. 
I'phI kcii iiTiisI !>c n'-cd jiisltji't i>f i'^ ^villi per^iirnjal pronouns, prttptr ii^iiii;', al 
pcrHcnis and icrnii^nf kirisliiprf^|uiriiic iLc ;>i:j!vcnai .irliclc ,Ti m llit in^niina- 
[ivf. This Tfliclc u h ilr'ipiKil ^fler (iir; "|>er';oM,il |jfe|)rtvl-iliiii" ti-rr. (In 
llirs iMiut ti^ji i^ not vLf^cJ ^^ '"'H^bli'''" i.( lln- ptTsrtini srllclt} 



37r> /,:: r (■ ■^ L Ji I fin, Qi!j ? II I n ■: e . 

UflM ialaldki ^fi^uBfja is nfm pdya 1hcni«i ivarfc in tlic rice paicl) 
(or: niM pdyo Han^ats^noannailalalitkr I^S?^) 

(flij'^^cff iwi k't-i'e's^i aaii llina In? [jLiiilotl llic Jrec in lln; Ryriloii 
Wod/fvi-Siiii ii fill" ffii'ii iv-*- .■|r<? iji oiu' cfujiilry (umii) 

lumrti^lf/Hiifyff is nat fiiiiko sic -lii-vici nii ilic I>^ic1i 

N.'^iiio'^ qE lawns» and aonTe tenoE such as fli. towd. cotiiiEry; <Jhng, 
hoiiBc. Iiome; f-obf^y. rpgion ivhere one lives, etCr are iisii;lI!v- i»r<:c-i:dfiJ by 

rrjju., if Ihc speaker !■* ilicrt: if he is absent froan the place wbkh he nicn- 
UojL^, rFdJi i-^ oiii[ltedj 

uuthytitkc'd l^^'ituhf Il:[ us g*^ to Boiiioc! n'oddkdmi'i futji f^ciic^fjft ivc 
ari' \ii l!ciri|<>c 

iitfcd^cfaici} is nan ^fiiig \'-k .irc in ilie lioiise 
wodftkami is km ijn MSltiiij: \je n.re ^1 Holciig's licrnse 
li"i!ivaff ad Hi I go Lo l<i\'\!t\ ; '^'oddak- is nan Hi I am in (ht to\\'ii 
Ji A'la^w^sai ifit^it^e ill Tutflkan Aii^imvji^il lists in Tucucan 
iHiede^kamiis f\an Chicago iv.' .^triy in Oiir^iG"" 
is nan- (kid ai Llie left aide , JJ nan itfdko ai my lefi «ide 
is n/in dfJcu'Sn al llie righl .side: r* APFp a/Uvdn^k/t at my right side; 
fj Hirn dsf'^an nan djdia-n m the rigbc ciife nf [lie road 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC fGOROr i^g 

*Jirir jtififyi-^z'Odtf la^dy ngcl t-yntiii U'kkcn ay dfong ihe wmnaTLiaperliaps 

Observe tlie use of i"j in tlie |>lira?e3 : iimi Jh'd F^ntoic, llio loivii ot 
ilunirrjc; nan lifo'ii LamvingSit. ilic lo^vn accfioii Liiuiviiigoii; iuan 
tu/i'^ysan ad Kddstt^ x\iK rice fields ill K;idsiig": tioii fliig nd i^Skis the 
rnniiiiLiiin Poki^; iin^r itli^ ad Kdman Ih^ng eu. 

'taam'ini'i'^n^fia ad Servanles rtan wnht ififkafhSlli in Orvanles all thi^ 
counETvmeii were assembled [B. ^| 

fim\UivIlhu\s }iaii. tiufdca ken ijakmix^ id Kandidit iTn? iimsic ^^lld iiiarclied 

[itoiind null 11^ in ( (lie ^creclv nf ) Caiiiliiii | B. S| 
iimtsiin^kiiini ad Saiilo Toiims we arrived at St Toiiia? [B. 49] 
k€ti^-it<- k'a'nin nan Hdko ad FAngal ihcn said llic Hocanoi pl F,iiig:il 

IB. sol 
t^nlia mamaljfdimg i\4 UinaiX \.\*ty ivtnt 10 gel lnj^ii'. at L.inau |L. 2b'\ 
c! adiiidg/'tln j^ ii^'i jaffdnif^Vy dfo'ig An<\ <"^\^\\\t [ii Ihc linlc hut |^^. 14J 
f^ lifoHji nan inniLii^nhtH. ki'lj^ng manj^ni^i sffoi}; in ^Ui' brtLiSf [? j'liiir 

djneirn |ilrur : UiL'n ■;Mc 'l^ncii in Ilic liOil'^' [ I-. S6] 
ika/zif^tfa t/iitfji! tut l-iJ^alvi ad Ts/pesh iliey bury iliein at Bontoc at 

'l^iiipfsh I y.. g4| 
isdadlfa nan dlo <tv /i'lifkalf'i [fitdiiag^ia] ?'-^ jjot kuiiraftj^aii is nun lito 

llicy |iiil ilmin llir bend': clicy bid <-Lif.p|nrl nrV al iJie fire place in Lhe 

"a/fj" (cOUn^il-haLivc) [H, 4] 
nifv Viifv i/ytj/^m ^i^i'jj crv "rjjfia f'j uapr^fuy fakHuiika'' ynii like p':T-|-].T|],'i tj 

be left akme in tliift world? |S. 1 1] 
ff<f^t^ makd\-ad nan ai'dknOi's /ffon-^fja llieii lier danj;lil[T wds li;iL In iJielr 

, llOLliC |'l\ i] 

^aii JSiljii'sh Tjuly^-a llitir town ill tlie fPfrEoii "TjJ^iyn". i. p, Boiinn.' 

I Lijvi: Son^^J 
paslmycf'^nyKi'd 1.1 Hi" tfoyk viiii oiijilii Eii make ihem sleep on the board 

IIL 241 



Hmiiyidko i$ (flirij) ptf^h'Z' '^f- '■^'^e'* loibe for-:s|i 

inni^n ^fya'it Sam^ki b<: r.inir i<^ Saingki 

rtmdtcd ta tiumol/kayB* ix ann Hildlfj' we are glad tliat y&U h^i-t reliirned 

inlo i>ur i^-^unlrj [H. i3i| 
udtja'd to»i<iliis nua nfti/jn ll»en lliey return to their conunancicr [B. ji] 



100 THE LANGUAGEl OF THE BONTGC rCOROT 

ketf/pg iindlfna 'sh as^wHna is boh kjhl^n^'^n, kaji'n^ aiddim nsn di& 

thai ht til;p^ iln' 'liij; ^iid |)iiLs it at her feet, ihai ht takes the cock 

:iii[J yuli j| ;il liiT ln:nd |i" '^iJ 

i^cy ijc (lit rti;^:[il,iclc lor Ilc:l.U lo the pole (boshfl) ; they put Ihe 

litad inln [he r<.Tt|ilacle |li-4] 
vild ihii'iy Is naK pityo, lay l^^ii^g n^ibmly goes ID the liclda, bsauae ii is 

"hcnfl-burymK-S'-'bliiar' ]ll. io| 
(ir'J jiMn\da!ja nua I'ufdyi i^ nan 4to lliJil iTie women conn? M the council 

hmi'* l^i, i3-| 
'a ffFP^irJ/ftirj-'H U J^au /^"''r ud Keniii'ja'i come y-e iiHu viir Lu^^'n in ihc 

Tc^ian "Kcn'=rilj[in,'' i. c. Unnl.": |H 2j| 
s'ibdknk ifka t^ ntin- '^y^^ "O" dkyitf T I>I.lhv yt^u (|>jiiiblj awajr inio die 

kiln's niij-riinj^' Tri\^ |Ci'n)irrciiiyri uf bc;^^:^;L'.lle] 
inJkijaiii:t}i\n^ \s nAn fMu^a >ij? fiimprd fi^m trtf ro tree | M 13] 
vwitJUka ki->i 5ai//ji.' cocue lomc! rrwrjiyjtci ken i/yis' gi> to him I 



3^1 . MotFOD to a place, expressed by is, may he the reason 'for con- 

Mrij^liric Pcrifinai Verbs, Noin. SLjCJilii ajid Phrases in "whiclL our ol>jeH:l[i'<; 
gLnillvc ii'tTir^, nilli j'\ gioverlii^ llie nhjecL 

Tn/fngmrak tj tiOfl utifivn 1 e^t tbe riceL T rvt rite-, "T am ealinfjat, froni- 

a[iiung at l!it r[ce;" my actisin p.-^i^'C! ovrr to tli<! (i]>Ji:(:t tlirongh sj/ 
adtiddta fuindn^^nak, ino fmiiangdn^ka i^en mh/M \ sh[ill ciTlalnly 

jiivjke, ii yuLi w.ikc inc up |S- iJ| 
indka's moling, {na ^ivc in^ <imtie poLinjiod ri<]L-, niollier! |T. l\ 
l^'igkaiiJi mmigdyiic ^i If'pat' k-E ii': cu lo c^'''^'' ^''i' li^'suclie^ ! [K. 2} 
/iifihdy^ mndla is fdvaxhl go and bring rice-v^hiA^y [H, aj] 
imn liman nan iQldhi mang£imib ^i figia ya «iin Idm^n llie lioy'i f^Chcr 

bunlcd deer :iiiil wWA pi^:^ [M. 2] 
t'ngkdHftk is nan kilUii si !'^d!ot I speak (lie IgritDl-I.aiiguage (f J / : |76|) 
/nfa^ii ^itidpis is nmdia tuy odfija umdktar is pft.ii lei ui iivo clciir ibt 

Ij'raMnd for a ^.inlcii, hri^JU'^P- lliey ili> iiol gii'e ui any corn! [R. l] 
didfk/iyt^ fmnudJy ken t^V/^jj,' ila iiirtt kill me! [R. 12] 
j/'Jn ?r(j^i mdiigtik in nan [afdyi^ ivbo tnotts ;Le woiiianl 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BUXTOC IGOROT 3h^t 

38?. Tlie idea of molioD prevaila a1<n [ri tlio cnDBtriLctioi.1 of these 
verbs: 

shttnnlti .tiiiJ '\-^c"i"i2ljan si kdHhig !s dfoiiglja llie oi\i: ch^njl^c'! inlo an 

toggle uiEiLis liuinc Inri-] lliulr lifiu^t [K. 14] 
tfon amUna av n\:uii'idfr\an is kdak \\i?i ^oil LmnaloniiL^I jnto a monkey 

|M. m 

isdil"\i il/^pck iJiifl f^h^Diig ya kt'! iigi'i'ii^l/l'i ts mdkan llieii lie put ihe 

epopil inlo (the iK:ilin|:i waiter)- nwA il cli.ingcd Eo nte [R. sf\ 
tnSvftf .f/jijiif,?iii^^^i; ?ojj '\f^iiiT}idiiai> si i/hn Ulic fjir!) iraii^foriiierf infn a 

tift;l)ir(l L-iEiK' again li.niie | 1 . <j| 
u^iJj; 110" ffaiid\ii .<,i .fi?" .■hat niln yni cmll llu^? (ivlial: Jo you ^jy Hj llii&?) 
f^asciiis^r'ik^k sita is "au If/fny T reuuiid yoii of llni &p<:at 
?\ipa.ihpr^l:!iia ml^/h i!c\i \}aitja he leiniri'l^il T»ie of llieiti 
kiipck Jinrr p^t{itjlm is ti^jay I in;ikH? ^[itar blades of iron {I ma1« tlie iron 

iiilo si>eaL- Fjl.nlc-^.t 
ii\if/ Id iratitfb {smi {^ lit fay [licic isiuilliiiig liere loninke «|i(!-Tr';ofCE.[2?6j 
c-'ngiidyi^^d if"\d!<t ay i\!!ii\Aki is b/dd ta hap^ixyst is fdiiga'. go, yi.' Saiiio- 

kinn-^, \^ti cliy ih^t >ij'ii iiidkc |joii> of il! [I„ 2j | 
lid&isheni i^ t^fmii^ncit; fi^/^il\ct is dfow^ko p^odsrecdy iuto yunr huuK; 

I ^'k inln' mine I R, 20\ 
l/^ljc\]^ Js-r!k!^tii9s^-jf;ir is d/ons^ffa then they go quickly Into their ^lODfies 



^Sj /j. ?7.|U'fi?inf;; "motion to a pl^i^e," ^r dli-KTinn, i^ fhe pr^v^^lf ifm 

ni^ fur our ilalii-e relaliiiEi {jiiiljrccl iiJ>jec[) : 

ifsaoSsiioko J>a<\ s^ktoHg is nan fobfiHh I give the liat lo the bc-y 
ipuffini iiaimcy iri'i stya! '<\ntv tliw IP liini f 

/f/jriFir 'isiii l!ih\/yab !J m'l Miiki i-lini^' the man (lie vhicliJ 

.■[jjji tdkPi inldlitja iim\ bUak is 'tail ultzcidtia (lie people lud rtturiied ihe 

money lu iJicJr friends 
idjaam ta ^cw sakf^a! s:[ve n to ni-e! 

ifiiituiS'iih k/i' tddl I lold lum; kin-.vdmk *i7fr n^jjjfi I lold faiber 
ip^ifii'ni iia'i kaUsayna kci Mdtysc In? 'Iiou'^i Man^u liis shield 
i-id»a\t fni'ii^i} is TiJJJ dss^m ya nan ifgsa llieii lie iiiyi lt» hi'^ 'l"fi ^n'l liis 

d«t [L.8| 



202 T[]K LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 

itilaui nan 3[\/jij'j, furn btfijlir^ ...ken india take ihn? breecli cloll*, iJie bra*.s 

chaiji Lc^ ■j-ur taMher i^] US uvifl |K. lu| 
L^/fed kandn Palpaidma fren I'alpaldhi'ig Lliec said Palpaf^Jiia to Palpal- 

akiiig IP. 4l 

nan ttafit'igUsh ay mttkau y/fUiit j> nnn laltthii nan k&ii'ls ay mdkan y^Xna 

in ita'i uudk'ia 'y fufdyi llic roUt'ii rice she l>rinj;i !■> lln: boy, tbt' 

^wd to her 'kiii^Mrr |M. .■?] 
tayavy tjiimitsmak ay rfidngnpriy ki-w fjakSy^ him'd ii'irkiHat lK:<.fli(M 

'ivc iilioi (liin'k '>r ^atriri'inu tn ymi 1h:t'' ,iC Wakalan [F.al-jd Cere- 

nionj] 
ii]jrH->nj;('jii[ rV JUFf tt'iuk'ii\- fafifyi ^}[C lah^^ iL all fnr lier iFaugliler |\J, 3] 
iiatt Jjjii&m ya bOjs-'fs kcii i/ia l^a|*■r k j^(Vj[] for von 
li!aniti\a li:cn Budl)lna lie soy.iEahis ytmngcr l>rolln?r {K. 7] 
kaTii/i'i hen iiiifJa'ti ^'diam nan'iay la itandkino'" leH our inollier; 

"T,tkc ihis iliai in Ik; your cliild!" f K. io| xjnUa'n • 'is = en inuo- 

Oiicc^ III'; ^Ijsc^JUTSt 
itsairts<ioki''7i /i'riero I ^i\'z (ill io AnScrt* {'n:kcn) 
fjikiiyri ay t^^tnt mijtii'^hiiyii'ii suk/hi vou l^nroi, ^cco[i>iKiny nn:! 

A iiLiLiiher n( T*rb^ (^hnw, Rivp, proiiii'i?, l^riiij^ el-: I liavp uw alij-^L 
with j'f iir kcH be^icft^ a "dlrecl "hjtcl " 

A teur of ihos« verbs which difter in cotiEiruoiJon from our vCTbs ate 

fbfShak hen sika nan fcif-Jniuo i a^^kyou for yDurlolJEe 

f.-ii'itri- ken sfya nan tii\dpay I a*,k fiiin for ^read 

rEi7j^ jajdyi ki^iwdmna'i naa loldki tian bGak the woiiiaii asked tlic iik^n 

for money 
a-a'iilntja It^n sak/ht nan m^nok (licy iisk me for chickens 
fnydJjok 'IP" hhlitk^ is nn't f^itdQg J }r-\y ibc ^<jJd \^ the men ; I [i^i tijt 

mtn wilk g-'ld 
finoyitfjti'iifa nan iaiahiki u jjaf^ ^mpS'a ay p^svuh Wwy paid !cn ^lolldrs 

uj iht iin?ii 
dktak nan ougi'iiga is imn tudkan I give (In? child 50nn? rice 
lihtdtia iitk/4n IS 'iai\ Undpay ]w giv^a tat lirc^d (Rcciim-nl in "A-ccu&.,'' 

tiling viih jj) 

C'unfiare alsn The CiTniiinieTioiiii itilh the Idk^kiaiic verSal fonnB in 
[2;^ f[|, v-Ltrc elir iiidir^i i>l>jei;l, [ilace. iiisLriicnein, iluic, fn.ii*i<" t:\.i depeml 
diri'ctly ii|ion iht vcrh, while ihc otSitr cknKTit'^ ;irr' jjovtrnLtl by b. 



THE LANGUAGE Ol' THE IlO>^T0C IGOROT -26^ 

^K\. fs. molicm (rom ii [i I ^ |- 1'. A Jn cnsistmctioiis wirh vcrLK 

I'^liicli ^Lsiiify "IQ gn ^wny from, clinc "fryni'' ■kii'Hc?; Hit slarllni^ |]lict 
Tho verh nwd inotcly to ?yi>rt55 moT[(iT> frym ^ ^^]jcc it! inaSpCi, I Wniie 
from, I atart iMiiiinR iioni. (353 J 

iiitSpffjik iti F^'tfok r came irnm Roiilnjc 

f'imdJaali jf jraFf dion^ko I p;.:* i>nl: fioiii my lioiiii? 

i\nlpdiik if rra^^ /^[ I c:iiti^ from the -rnvt'Tt 

ixdlpiikiinil ad Alah ve cniiit truiii Alub (>^o i^ere fii Aliib) 

ntslpSija id Fii'iiik ya irtm^yfin id DakrlpSn ihej'" weiic frimi Diui^fM: tit 

Dagii|iJii 
itt'fiai/ nan s^lad ay 'tatf-3'd Tukftkdtt I received a leEler from Tiicucaii 

(fhst i^invt ii-om TinncjiO 
naipdt/ami's nan f!ii^ wc c?mc from ific niauiildin (I'gdg tr^ iU iio-it 

nafpdiiy^f fi'oiii "Yvhicli Hsiv]i did you oinc?) 
iintdnai' »<ilp6an riarp alhvidl'oT ftom wberc ta your fneiidrl 
tirifL(/iJJJi[fr i"^ nltii lli I rcliTiii frijin, I JcnUx llic lyun ^bul . flVin^hak i^ 

iiais Hi T reluiri lo ihe (yiMi t 

>lltlpd*it^ istf/ I C^nir fr'ini UiCre 

IfjSii'y •jSirs 'itrn tmilpo'd f^mok ya timay ad Titkfiliaii ii ii EJirec litnirs' 

walk fn^m Lk^nlu^- m Tiidj^dci 
lagd^k iJc?/t ifrir^ ttJJ Ai^pd&'^'ait I Imy lh€ rattan frtmi Agpauwaii 
aii^'iidSti' 'laii htlxik ti^u Lik^Jd.io "^ gel Jlie ntoney Iroin Ricjuln 
kad'ii^m sa l::c'i sah/iii take lliis away frniii nfe 

iitdlSna nan sli\gsing is nan (af/tyi lie look llit rlnu from Ih* woman 
iitpdd^iii^i^ "Oil sAlod ay fiaSf^'f i-r iifTH t^akisdki ay laldki I [■iics[\'5'\ llic 

loiter fn^Lii the hijj man 
lUM on^ou^a indliina nan ngdtjdra ken ti//dna ihe rliild got ita name f rcnn 

i[? eramlEalliei" 
iydpok nan d!id ad F/dlh^ J biiiiy llic wns. i'lolii Darlij; 
t.'^a/iJiidd'ii! nait lafpii is natt {aldki I L,"el the cottcm friniL the man 
HjiaS'^auwi nan pafaijftn ii namiay ay Salitk^i wc tmiiglil ilie iron froiiillii?. 

iiiai] 
kad nan taads^vin nan ad P^ntok ya ad Maiiflaf "what \a tiie distance 

froii] Fh. (0 M.?" Iiou' iAC h \l from B. lo M.? 
Isfaii ad/f/a ad-'idficwi i-i Jtan dfoiigt}a when lliey were not far from their 

^''hi vQii, im'igy^i is nannay sy f<idio ay imUdnand FAnloki' who brought 

Itiis co-It froLii ItonCoc? (..x»aE which lie took from B.) 
•adba'd Kit'r^n he caiiie irooi Ksn^ (m^bu'd dialect foruia^^o ad.r") 



2^ THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

iiialpr^oki:.i.'iiigtidfayaffmfiyaf;!fd^fdy!mif[.'iffni!] I i;ii from SagBda 

to Mayinit 
ifd^iii'ii na'i iifiiv ay itttald\iiFii ay tndpo'jih \ matfo is \ pSshxyii^ \p/fsi'}i^'] 

we scr ilii' [iri; |Llii' Ch|]|ii[liiit; ^lidhl flviiij:; from ihe sea |IJ- 3^1 
sou antikii<! Cf\! \i\\df<o'i^'i.i F^jxtok Irci cJiililrcii wJium bhc liad Jiruught 

rmiii llmliir f 1.. ftJ^l 
u\m>iii"ika\m i.i ii-nii l>ii\\_i^iiei Wi: *\\\tik [rtjiu the glaBB 
Hiiiiii^d"j^!ca'ii! is naf khu^ '^e cut fiimi i i^jl^ilfi 
iiigita 'nt^k'ii is ken aUsdn'ii gu niid '^c^ \\'Mi\i\.\i\ni^\ al vour iincl(?*s, 

from your uncle's hi^u^e |R| 23] i lilftwjse; \hi\\^fiia is t^u nlil^vu 

Tn: oflcn laktis il 10 Fii?- iiiiclcS |j-; l.--:is |imiiciLiiii^c' r.tl,-i''i\ 



,^Rj; III ccrEuiii p]iTu*,(;*- wt Hiiil j\ ii^"l In n pjirtitivc sense; 
ilijs 1156 nf Elie prepr>*-iElon may be itaceit Lii ":^eparaLWi; it/' i, e. jj with ibe 
notion of "from," "a lew taken from a niwnbct/' 
k/kkck J^fTJi ifmf^^h 'Uf'i Itlaltilfi I knui^' fiv'c of Hic men 
kad 'lu'i ins<thit frcJJ tjotlja ^^«w Miniiy of llicm arc '^i':k' 
i^J« WdB K^rfi fali<ld.pta kci' ijakoyti.-' wSo of you has gold? 
PPfl ibfl^^ht^J Q^' (isl<iltikt i'- 'nui ^»'tn ay !i^Jjol Ehe best rnen amoag all 

;Sj/iji jjfljr JiaifSv i.i lum fohfofdvi hvjj of tlit wr^mcn I'l;*'-': died 
ri;;7d lifffi 'tahiiki/f!cQii is nan idiiddso ■'( i-'Uipliiif C^i-|i iriTC -ItoE aiii'inH 
(n1) ibic J''il[pj-no-^l<licr-i [li ?Sli !>.- (irnoiiy (frurr llieionk'xi imly) 
?i:iiiJ(rii tf^^ !;a!iia H AhAidd iliiirf eh Ab^kid Riiaong" W\t-m, tine jf Lhcoi 
nay jifljr /iff ten rja/tj<j lji;re ii one uJ llieui 



386. "Partilivc i ^ '" may lie found also an these phmees : 
imy si &i6n! here is salt! (ilic ■.all o£ the salt veudoTS from Ma^h) 

anfinja! t'ii\ si jiiuK-' 'Tif' /Tf-in'JT;r''A^i.T* f-f fd'ij^n: vc |n:rji>fpt here *re 

pi>Es! liuy|Kii''i Cparikivf: xi faii^a} 
lav JJrrv fi fflad ay If^iii^frfan oy niiirldhywn k^i'i tjttfciiyri lipt^iiiic here f^ 

Eliick U.iixm i\ir u-Jiirh wr r^l] vi'u (iiivllr yiiu) [IJ, 3| } 
iiina k^y ti i/^ad ov naitl'i^olitrtgo.'' ilicr^: ^incs mnv "soidc" very dry 

w,v>il! |K. 8J 
fljtJ JU JJrr r' pd'iSQ? ia this *mid? [K. 9] 
i-rfno *iiv -" in/liiiij^oltlri^o 'y fandnig ay f>dngaf tbere crniw now ''aome'* 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC JGOROT 20- 



mSshdya isft^dtf Jn^soii -rV biUkM» IT I ImJ iiiucli iin.Liey (partit probably 

after: j.'^^.i; on^'un 'vfulil require: ay) 



dJL-ctI J^bjrfi, ilii* objHT'.t [: v"*-!:!!*-!] Iiy 11, re*peci[vcly bj. ken. \i mti//if ie 
C'JL]m:'.C'>Hl '^'illi a pi:r^'kn;j| vetli^ (lie aubjecr oi ihis verli is |irecuili?J by Is. 
rcjv^i-i iv?1y "by 4-i?rr. {Ma/ti not at aUj nat an\, nn; stc |ji2| J, 

it\a/!d kfi'ick j^ sJ'\A^a\' L do nol cal juiy lim^irl 
iwa/Id •fdf'i'i^ili J'tHa'Jfm ti-: i1<?l-i nt^t firm^^ jiiiy Irmi 
ma/fd ititjiJJi'i^JJi'f is -if'i^iiiig iu' iliil nnl IitkI .iiiy rjii^ 
avj^(* "'fd iStitc"! ii Q'vitvam ayf <\o yii ni'l <iIv--l:tvc aay bird? 
BiaZ-td snilok si tiihit 1 d[fl noJ ^ce any ii'.T'.Qin 
v<a/id uHlali ji ^t« or ; ina/fii dm u intiak I ilid mil- see any dog 
ria/fd Siiiimeni is IJl'uA"! yrrn <ln iir>l 'Lrink iiny iv^lcr 
)ii/'.' i-ilfilt'i- '-- la/ii/;o IS irnii job^ngcik iIhtcj is n' ni'irc tobjicco ia my pipe 
(in Llii^ c.\,L]iL|ili: IS, with the aubjecL, follinvfs an jnirarsftiv^ vcrb» rt 

in;r-01inl vl> !| 

jf ^11 l'^s!t-ultiii'rr_i: nra/fii indnxtt [i'idldna\ !s hdi^n Palpalakinf did 111M: 

CQifll ^iiv IliilL (P. j] 
ff/d kaiikihi^'id' ' <!l<-l^h liHj iIots not eat adj- fruil [P. 7] (irochak vers*] 
Ja^AiWr? Wij .td^ft j'-^ dkfoh I lIo tioI care if I have na fruit lr> ?at [P-j] 
Pia/M i"'si^"''"ii[' '-f fffin^ 'A^ 'Till fioc f.iiiJ any [lig^ |B. i i| 
wa//d ii\t}tin\i is uU'i iJJd.J'itJJiii ''ve have hoc seen your d-iu^bilCT [T. S] 
«ia//J /ijj»flj<(y/iiw?ifl k£H tjniJja rbey did not pjty them at all 



^H8. /-'-, ill lOTistructions wiili th': neg^i ' "*?^ : /o^^ and keijSng 
(probjli]y in a partitive sense), acciira in phrases bloc these: 

Jja.' -lUDigk'i fakSn i/i's fofdyif well I wliy, Ihis i& dcp woman [ 

fii^h: i<i 'j i^'//ia*^ Llii:^ i-' [io kniic 

^flAAi I" is (jali^dtiati thj& [^ iioi the fire place (in iHe lionse) 

fuk^nnk it lii-'^'J^y^i' Ic ^va:^ iiol I ivlio ^lepl 

fak^nSjiiii iiinnf^vi^ni k i?i uot llie-y who iiy.,, 

jakinkC'ii is iiifiQy h MiUka it wbp n-oi we ulio went to America 

fakSn .^fj 'j/^ SMi/iidoy Itii, [^ nu Crt^ [runic [L- ^4] 

fab^'\lcvyJi 'fl\ ji'iifli t^c/ nul y<>U limine (but irfEkera)- |L. 59] 

/.-irij^ng s/ya J.T tnaniibla iioTie but h* is smoking 



306 THR r,AN-GUAGE OF TITE BONTOC IGOROT 

keff^gah iJ inJjrfrf* si i^try it is jusl myself who mak? spcdrs 

ir>;4g-?JJ. ayk^ kci/Aig )ta 'sh monSky^T why, ia that ^1 yon have of 

cliickeiie- 
keSjS^E pay sa 'sh ^asii-sH^j^t^ttiiti iliia ii ^11 ue rai^o ("'wc rnake Efp inlo 

\.l\t c[iickeii iM'-kcE"; 
autin ay fobfafdyi yoimddtja 'sua, k'l-rj^ng si Al/ifnay is inti/id jtjjo jlU 

women Jire liere, ^'except Akuiia.^ ja not here" 

fs- ri-7]- 

Uiit i-fLiXiiijrte wiih ji (i. e, is) after the negative adi waa Qbtainftl] 
faill iJditii si j£& 'ii'i iiic- U'li ^nv <t'ij^' i-ike the he^'l |H '■] 



adwerb) is found in these icnus: ismx, or (ma; is sa; istji [for. it fjdy) 

ficrt, ih^-r^-, yon'icr. i'i:i',ik<r'' r.r iJTT.'./frfli; Iti-rpiHTrow, idSgkJt or (xiMgkn 
vK!=ler'lay: r'j kastn ivtlkas day aEler luiiioti-ou' (iko; ta^/'f ii.f'jirftflf) ; {■* 
j/"jvjj* 30Lin; fdkdoiii tn ail /.-amii a liiile v^'iiile ngo; i,f W.^fn Eigaiii, an 
oUier Lime: i.'r ^tr'di, ri -/STca^j ,il tlic kft, tighl 'ide; if ^^ijjj afcwifiika 
al my rlgjil *,iJe; adiuihii (also: ^'-fTivfiij) now ; Lod^y. 

nouEi^p vcrhil naun^ etc., (lie "coiii|30iiiid pre]io3iiittn&" ^^s c. jj. mir |irLj»oii- 
tion "on" tbes m tlie "-ctmi iioiind preposition:" on accmmt of). 



39^ h i_k^) orrc&poiid^ lo our "In'" iirnzccdinii; llie ajfeiil of 
passivi: verbi: 

naaydka^tfa tttm daatvib ii pjm amdfja (-or; k^'i amdi/'a') Ihc sons vert 

calkd bv ll^i^ii- father 
^ior^^rflj.1 ay djonf^ ya iiakd^b ken J^Iio Ihiii liimsc w^is hii[]t by Juliu 
HUH ioLaldki ya 'imfavJfjai is nan itfdija the men zn: btBng paid by thtif 

Tii.i^Eer 
HQH jj^^t-'iTH J'a 'iapadSv ken sak/Sn llie ljuff.il<j \van "kilkd by nie 
maay/f^miah ti?ji a/j'a I am called by him 
nan fafdyi jifl uafodsdngan is nan luldki Iht womim was liclpcx] Ijy IhL' 

mail 
nati fisit ya niiiglo ken tja/lja the do^j w^S kc:|jt l>y l]n:ni 
nau fi/fflt ya naiid/im is pmi tiJka. lite nroney H'iii li[diJeii by the pera{)na 
admafadsaii guiikOyii k^n tjakS-iiit you will be aasisted by us 



THE LANGUAGE OF THK llOXTOC IGOROT ?07 

39T. "By tncaii'; iii''rir in>^En]ineh-tal "with" is ej^prcssed b^ u, 
imlras the in&trLiinenlal furni al tlic verb is empkntd. [362; ^6] 

ktfpck nan Iflfny is nan mattl/lyo I iiiiiko llic ypcar ivicli llie liriiLninT 

[Or with ibc inslr. vcrljal fonii; \kdCbko \ikiftpko\ nan uiaiaSSyo r^ 
iiait t^fov) 
^adS\'ck nan ^^uv ii 'pjIjj tj^nio'i J cwlinuiii'^h l^'''tLll^'> ihc fiiT hy inlrr 
igiok nan Imluf/hi ay morndtoig i$ na'i itMd \v}V[ ihe Iiol iron s»ilh [lie 

iii3W ongi^iigti finmi^yiK^ n-in Scdnk rs Ufi faiH tli': boy killed a moiikty 

"lUi li 5tone 
ii^i^i Uklik^nd nan pOrfafiUn h Ji^?r ma'ifffy? r'j j^jtji k<t/op6dpQ>7 l»c ?tr[kc:i 

iJir: iron wi-lh ihc Ii5jnini:r m ch^ fi'rjjc; (or . irpapriJ^;iO ^pa^f fiiktlkua 

is mm f'olnfjt'v) 
ntx-'i liidki yd nujiflikii is 'i,i'i /^dgad tin mriii iv,!'' Iti'iiiid ivilli [In? rape 
HffJJ /i"i,-J yi n/lpr^ is tj^humi thfl pOt h lillc-l v^jtli y^lfi 
/i<fi'i]i.' 'laii Mii^a^ L^- lji?i,ii)n T Ji|] ih.: ^^Iiiii with water 

[Qi'j tjdiium ijo/r /iJj^i f'.< >i(i't bit»gaet) 
pjvihiyat 'd .saPF hdkwm n rfu.irii [if fi> uWiin fiU tlit pail ivuli fanioEe- 

vmes lliJil r pi^ (a fij^:!! LHit l^il^-'^) [L. 4OJ 



35^. /f Ifcfrirn? Adjectives denotes tlae nt :[ 11 11 c r in whidi an action 
t;i!kei |)ljce (jilverbiil tj) : 

j/-i'ir Jtgk-^H 's i-iif^afL'/s ts iitiir Mlfml hf speaks our Jjn^nji^'c wfll 

ikiina 'j k&.v^i lie ncL'. ivfll, linii''i^L!y 

k^pi'ii ii fcti?i'/s dc it \vc]\] bi'iin^i^iiji is "g-i^; ht; did it badly 

rjakljakljeiki 's okH aomev^hat large 

faiifaiffg SI dktt a littl^^ itjaii, rather ^[U^l 



393, ij, like our "in." "j[" dr. is used witb CKpres^ons of lliii-c; 

u froj/jj tSxigart -on ilie iiexi fiollefky- j; "cr/^,/ In ihe iiiitrning (at diiwii) 
15 pfflji id/"/ ill Uic i?veiii[i§; is nan uni.".' Jim in ilit iiigfit- td .iNifli/rflji 

ilk a short vvliile, iot a short wlhili: 
fj'it jjj//o vj Fdmnag is tiaii Hnp^lo 'y d^yu I liavc not seen Fumiiag foi 

10 day^ 
!J lipjA nsa^ftkyu iiikd'ta's sidsidi/mtta ii-onj iiomi till cvetiing 



3of4 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROr 



u vai> iiivyj^dfh [mailidtio] ^y dkyv on tilt third day 

iJjfcrff^trJiiii !■■■ !r-iii tjakfjUki oy dfong in nan Ifma aj dkyu we rmraiD in 

ij\an^iln/;k<iii\i w iwi iniisijfui we e3t rtiiriiiK tbe n^l [0, 23] 

kstj/n^ snmiid s''im/i'ia in '/•m Uifl ixd fobf^y lIt't ]ii^ falhcr went home, 

tu hib ''liOiiitjli^^i'Ji " duriuE [he ni^lit Iniidni^liE) 



31)4. I^E.iny oilicr rclaiions, ivliich ..!■ cx]ir.''-v In' ■.rrloii' lirLjMiailional 
plim-,L::, sliij'.,' [he iihosi cxLi^d^uc j^ph'^iili'ii oF iln; itrcijuaitiuii u. They 
cannot be trt'iiieil Jkte: ndiftustivdy; a fi.'w c^^lln]J)^^t must suilice: 

nr/frf(!i?at /jria tcf^p todi I rtinjiiii here wil[i Ihi^. out 

Tftufiita ^('pp fik/in vu-u jrc willi im: {in my lioiiic) \yjo^dkQ 'jj nok/^a; 

'n - h^n\ 
eiikQ-iltf •!£;•:!< 'lo" li'^f^i i'^ '^o'j .'in^ih-? I nLJ:^ <;i?rEet "'iUi inilk 
jjorr laldki ya mtd^y is "na /'Cf>'/^/'J'jj [hf ni;iii 'I[':d of fever (fs Kaii kizL'iil'ia\ 

UT |i.>i3oni « noK f4kak 'i( ^1 .irmn.l, .1 <-iil) 
/fl lii)>iii<i:iyi<fko -.-i^av— luhiti '.<, '!,',r^.ifilovcr'i fcbfuyx 's iff'rfp^y ay.... Id ua 

liill 1 inniL rtf siretit'tli — a v^'om^n wkli ■^iron^ Hji^lii [V^'tdding 

'3iii<otoy<!k-i"ii r'x iinir /ai^amd we are sj>e,iLlii^ ^Iji'Jl; iIic l>iil|]c {oc: 

fnldi^'iiit iiii\i f.'.tTii!! iimli'lcvfte'i, i>al[le i? our ri>|ilr) 
UldyMmi fn An^l/fy i^ ^^nu ffntfy^ -A'e ^pealc Eo Aiieloy LmifernijiK Ihi^ riee 
e'l (for; ",i;i^,!; l''?) JJiff t^ifhken t^iil nait ud ManHn aw' why ^i<.«r^ [In? ■jne 

kiiu'v "so much aUiul'' Manila? iilio .■afr^li':^ Manila) 
ijioji^wfi* ?t iifjff ('n^fraifj/" IT III' LiiiL'h-i ivliik ^jH:/ikin|; Idnrin^ Jii& !i|iejkiiig) 

(■jr; nifdjigo iiy '^H/;k<i!!) 
aHgii'iv/! isnah leiHiViinina ken lyakoyJi W 'lieE according to hi& ^'fying, ii^ 

lie told voii 
eiigi^i^hhdll is non lU^ciia lu' lailk? whilr iJiramm^ (in hi? drpamiTig) 
eitgk3li PJ 'r,f'i£ t'?'/ sak/^ii he ?;]>c^k?; iii^iillincly ■I'-^uE mc - ^Ifiiidcr? irn? 
iniagfdak rj rfl« hnutnp^lo 'y p6icsh tr 'cajj ^ss 'i' f;fiT;j I work for &5u ^i;r 

III- mill 
ifilA^nh nai\ iSfay 11 Jididpi I suld [te sptar foi 50 ccutfi (orj saiapi nan 

'langiini'diik is nan tdfa\<'] 
lis^^ak flifn lifile it^Pi A gf'd^-^^an I buy the rali.'aii fi'niii Agpauiv^n 
urrir o'lgiiitgt i'iiflana iiatr ngdljilna rj JJflrf ik/ilna ikiit ihfdnay Jin? boy 

gm fll? n.inl'' -from Ilis [;r;. nilE ;i I hcr 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOHQT sog 

isuars nslffdnan Jion 'u'i7^ki}i/ana ii[ the end of his speech^ after Jie liad 
spoken 

itidbftkod si lagl^a ^IIiiir lh[ii, ciiiaci^t^ on occoiciil ^f woctliig for 

iLiige:* l^oiigl 
toy nail kaf'bftak ya il^iflmft/a is nan od!k l-'ic,^ai!a'i bcjiufie iny si^MT, 

iln'v ini]>ri^oiicd her ifv jny nut truing (i. <^- ^^iih Jln'rn, ihc lii^iiiTec- 

f( alc/l y-tii^kny oy ^na^tpodSyhimf ify lgiyl^( is i/a" m/i'ip,ii.'ii'tfa'i iraii 
p.'eitd^iil^ nd MolS>W\h an.l l^■e l-gi,rot iliLi.h':L li.iil l(ifli-J cji'.li oliier 

011 a<^<;ywn of 'ii^ laik ^i iIil "i^r^T'^iacciii'" jt ^^i^|lJJ^JJ [b. 47] 

Hjafi J» a^rpwf : hcisffli^ii irlcinl (pretcrniing; iricml'iliijt, "n^ If lie wcrt^' 

"f sacfltiai" if) 
bapSnmi siya \s plei%d4nte ive make him pr-?siden[ 



395- SoinclimM ij introduce a ]m 1 1) r> s e c 1 ,1 ii *; e or a clause Cfui- 
taming an abliga t Jon ; or any kind ot aulwcantivc cbiisf , 

jj tnankidim i\aii dn<ili is i'lihii/na, is tapr^n-P iht ^^►[htr gives thccJuldio 
drink, io eat 

(akiak governs the "Accusative" nf tTie reicipient, Init tlie gift lates 
prepos. tJ; as: I pksctiI him wkha kuifo.J 

faidngko sa ii maii^il''fjni"i pui ihi? anjivlicrc! [fatdniica; i^^crv'^litTe; 
this stnlt^Jice \--- ^|rii;lU idiorn,3lli:!|| 

jfroF?iijtaj'^ jr inrj^d/cuk i^'in il ii ln-ller fnr ni*: "I" rciiijin licro 

jiiannifrad si it^i^miil faiitu oy sinAk! a kdUing il i&beuer lo transform our- 

it'ifiij?iT trail timnhfLmo ii i-o !■; yoii nhiiik; "yuii niiglil m kno^v ii" 
KOM ^oif in^tji 's inasdaiivak the younger sifter ±h.il! be Dl? wife | IL. 47| 

sai^/hi ya i? UumdUi 'sSj Ssalddliy [iideed, I iiiiibl li-r[nglliL-beoni^ [L. S4] 
sak/Jn imit is fitad f ^laii la care for it (lo procure lE) |L. 5?^| 
iiaFf^frfjr ftabtidki 's tjipApfii ilii* lu^ tf'iie vou oupJii ir> catcli [L. 6o| 
Gdtysi '^vdnisln nan tiaUfengitnan; nan naakifu is wa^itshiy^ ilonot blloiv 

the clear waler; llie iiiud'ly you inusl follow [T_. &>] 
iit kikddak f'r iian^'it^^fi lei nit Cin- ior (prcpjirr] niir ealiiig: [K. 15] 
/n kay mk/^nya ii Jndi!f<itb 1 indeed fiiii lu calch i^ \L. <ii | 
irr Hdif tdks 's rfnJi'fl-Mrti tile peopli? shall diinkl 



STo THE LANGUAGE OF TI-IE EONTOC tCCKOT 

,^^'.» /j, repeated, replacing j^, Ifw precedes a word that 

^vnnld hic c"nnccl<;<l ivich ,i folliiwini^ wuril by ihir ll'^iuurt try, ilic ligflCiir*^ flj;' 
is rlmiifred ofT™ info fj. (t'?f>fv:i^l]y if vnr iliT'ii not puT'^'ik Mir ftnit!) 

So witii iigalur? ay: iidgG}'^ an^ii^tk ay tt^fiy you &ci! m^my sptars; 
but: iria/fd ilif£oy/9i is iiir-;saii ii {is) S^fay you do DM at all ^1 many 

spears. 

m/iiiganak' ii djua 'sk jdiad I am eating two baiiflnj& (Or: nxhiganak is 

nan djfia ay (diad; ^wjih iinn before Itir.' (irst) 
ia ^ngka vmitln 'sh t^lo 'sh toyifan lli;it ycni gi.> to l>rin^ llirce li^sl^ets 

|L. 3^J ; nnidlai^k jj tt^l^y ^sh laytfar I get ti\if<: ha^kfis |L. ^12-] 
iniMau ha 'sh kdlj"u give nie one Jisli [P. 3] 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS 



^y^. TTitrn? ELi-H? ill IVmln-: J^-rfOT: ,vnne ^vor Ja ■ — TiDidrt&, or adverbs, 
or ver]>ri] root'i — which arc api>l['.'d to cjcprc^s more drfinircly ceitiin [^r-cpo- 
Eilional r^lalions, (]i:jii lln: prjuiiliv': iirtiJOSilion is. As (lie cx^iiitilcs n ill 
sliow, (lie l-Ttnii in ^vliicli [lie=c "'iJrcjHJ-Hinjinl Iciin^" iippeai i'^ eillior ihcir 
^Liiipli; roijl., fyf ihe rr>o[ wkh fiersunEil or po-tE^csciuo <ifid.inR<., i.niii<?!iii]o? 
;i]>|H;rLriiiy (n U" ^^ '"vccli:,,'" ?rtiiieiliiies jls iioiiii^ ,iiLli |">ssc'i*,li't *iufPtres. In 
]ii;ny upies Ihey '.trc Kuvi'rni^l b> i.'; ■i'li.h iXhiiil^iiijiliuTi', of yreposili*^] slid 

"lirpciwfh.ilion.it l-eriii!-" ;it* callo] "cominjiinil itri'iUhi-iliini?..'' 

Tfii? iiiosr ifuporlaiil: arc ircjEcd [n llic inNniiiiiR seclions, !o illii^tiate 
similar ajipJication of similar terms v^ich are given ainoiw ^ Ig^rot idio- 
matic prepositiitfia! expressions compiled in ^ecJicm I40SJ and ia the Vocab- 
ulary. 



"befare" {local[ve, noi tempore]). Su-^aliaa^ -oliiAlns ciinielljije*! [lie verbal 
suffix -^'r, Villi i\'liic[i tlie iiossc'-'-ivc snfliypji jirc tCunbinrd ; saiakda^eif ; 
.taiakfliig^iii] xa.fab Angina etc. J'receilcJ fiy ?> and Hie Jirlkle lliii com- 
pound prepi>e.ii[oii is entployed tn these phrasfst 

ij nan jujwft^"r££i!' I]efnr(! iiic 

(j non sashakting^a before hbn, hi frcmt of him 



rilli LANGUAGE OF THE EOHTOC TGOROT 2ti 

is noR seshaktSn^^nmi in front of us 

r'l 'iii» sashaktfii ^e'n iiift laldM in fruiil •" 'lie ninn 
"j}GddkQ \s MQii SQslmkdH^yk ytiii nip iii fmnl rj( nic 
flirm ongdni^a lumsktpi i-^ id" sasakJu^t'nyA the child sils before jou 

aait faf^yi yo tiii'inJklfclfis "Gil st!s''ukf!'igi.^'i umt umiit/l^kiti llic ivoEiiaii 

sIulkI in rrriiil iif ifiL j^irl 
■!<joi£4kff'm !-■ "(JJi .'<a-iaktJtgcit nan k^yo i^'e ^re in friiii of iln? trco- 
iiQlpSiio. is nin iuiak^ii^Viln riau <U'f'< H'^^y cjnic fruin "heforc" llie liou^e, 

from Uitir pliiif ill front ot Uit [loii'.t 

nnrf^jififf is ii^it saimJ^'fu^^H mtn pab^jf/^ngmi! ga to the froiit of ilie catui- 
til-li'just ! 

Aspersoiia! %'erb : 

snmashdkQ^igpli ken .r/kit 1 am before you, I atand heEore you 

junxifjjfatfi'rjita ti'ii Jift/Zic ymi ,ire in iroin iii me 
j/j-fj ^'fl ju^ii (T rJff/ta^j^ t-?^^ fijrf^ lie J; ici fi'oiiL ai [li.il One 
Also: ijisdkmisai ken siya I am in front of him 

i'lsiika'i gta ■■? i^vni .iTtf in riiMic 'if crii^U iilUc'r; wt ire iippttaitc, fiicin^ i-iich 
oilier 

As po sscssi vc verb: 

.Tjiaif/rij^i^^ sihn r am before ytm, I face you 

,Tflmtrfi£tjjjjjj tjallfa we are jji front of ibcm 

srna.'Jtjjjj^Afl sSniiSi- I .v"ii in frrtnT nf htm 

3jfat-?n^c* j^tcj ay inaxlilun J M'yik bcfurc yon (or: manitlanak is -mm 

sakdn^i^iii sak/-inl ii'iilk b£;fi>rt nuz! precede nicl 



.-jijy, RrtoT.; tfltdjij;, :,ha!fi'>tg. sahah^'t . ^tisakoni, denotes "vicinlly," 

"near." 

wod^ i/ya is nan sakSii lie i& near (or : irrsdk^n sfya) 

nan safr^ngko my iieiglil)or 

ipii/iun Hjjj tj^ijUfiii ij nail sQkSn nan Af>n\- [>\u \\w untcr ncw^ ilie fire 

inled^elitko is tan sakSn nan isjitnga t\r ^[Jiy {li^'e) nc^r the rii'tr 

ij iifln sasaiiSnek ; is nan iaiaf/^ii^iit; is 'lan sasak^u^na nejr nn;;>'<^ii, lilm 

"iitlpdkaim is iidfr jiajabSiJlfa ^v; t-.nwit fmn Titj'ir i.bfiii, iimii ilicir viciiiiiy 



112 THE LAXGL'^AGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

^umashai-i^u^kiinii is Kan fttig wu arc nvaj- tlic moantaiD (we are "geltii^' 

near) 
in^dkontja nan dn-anak ken i/tdtja iht chikfrisn are neat their n»Qiln?r 
simnailidkoiiafu- si nan dlang I w^\- nt.ir Hii: gTin,iry 

As|'0'iso*i'iiwe vci'li: 

sa^hahSnek stha T a|j|>rocidi yo!i 
sina.^h4kQn<i sck/^n lie iippioiicli^d me 

Observe the combinaLiEm oi "'compoiuu] prepositiona": 

iu-maiJitti-a^^ak is nan salcdi/v^ I am rioar y-nii and in hont -of you 
j^(-»jjr[TJiofr<JiJ^jta rr nan mbSn/j-t) vnu aj'c near lis (rant ol ine 
f)alt}a nfnta':kitko"^!iais nait iflfrtfrnwi tTiey are near in froalof ua 



400. Root: is^g<^. *ienotei "the rear," "'([le plac^ Lehiaid." 

f!}oddfik is rifi?! iiSgok noa kdyo I am >n:hind Hic Irt'c 

jjiPfi fafdyi tiinniiktjfi is latn is/^^ok nan iaidki ihc i^^ymjii zat bclijii-d ihe 

man 
flEffji isogSkki* {i.^o^Sgho\ list: pliicii behind me 
woddk is fian Ssagdkmo 1 am Itfliiiid ycrn 
iuorfi?fci[ ij nan: tsdgSf'lio vou jitc ln^liiiid ivie 
nan dklaniviodd 'sh naa Ueidgntf Mir: loae is lipliiiul liim 
nan djua oj ialaidki zt-'odiftja is 'tan Ssi^goM nvi cuni are in ihc rear 
IjakSmi wodiikdml is nan fs^^ifky/^ vit ar* bt'liind you 
{nij&mk nan fdkat is iiaM (irT^Oit nan dfofig ! Jwund llic radbehjnd the 

HfTH lalaldki i'ntsilnoSja is ftan is^gok van dlimg the men ire worliii^ 

IjtiJiind Hic granary 
utufiykay^ is Jtan fid^ok 'ittu (dkn/ ! ^0 U-hJiid tht ]n?ople[ 
illak nan f^sf^i ]i- nan tstigok nirn fstiklsdld ay batS I watch (observe^ 

llie enemy beliiint llip bj^ rock 
HdH sifkldngmo ya mlsahfUd is nan tsogdknio vobit hat is linugine- beliind 

^n_gka's nan tsdgokf ^u lieliind^ lo [he rc^irf 



TTIR language: of the BONTOC K50R0T J13 



As personal verb (only two examples arc at hand) : 

iaUog^gk^yd i-Ci\ ijakdini you are bfliind us 
inisog^gk^rttt k^K sika we are b^ind you 

As posaeasive veib: 

tufg&kek Jiika w inn'itffiin T ■i^ilk iK'liin.f voii 
iSPS^gkiny// /jiil?,im/' I:''.']* iivirni.] ii^i lii' Ik'ImfuI us! 
isogdkdno jMii djUa^ oa^dnga lie walks behind ihc two cbiEdrcd 



4i>i. liiiut: fiieg, denole-, jlc comi p^nf rncnl; "witli," and fnrms 
uauallyilie vcr"ba; ifit^s^o T lakt a^ Aiiy cviiip^i men ; unf/hgik I aiii 
wllb, I accomparij' (ihe pasai^c Eoriii of ijui-^kor ii'a-\ju€g-Qh ) Rarely 
used aa simple root: iiax fAe^: the MmfAliiaD: 

f/flJ/ZO iJiB! /if^ -^fli^fl llity ar« the comiianitsnfi cf Anlero, v^ith Antem 
jHtt/fd fitigko, isisdngak dngkay nobody le miTh mt, E am quite alone 

A? p e r ^ -n n a 1 v f t lj - 

infJisgai h£H tji'fffa f run ^^'[11] ihciu 
nijif^glfa k^ii ijakani'' ihey were wilb lis 

iii'f//f-itl: Avjj fjt'dtja ] mil, erf \^iili [liciii 

iiifiii'^fjti ti'jr l/'il"ii'il (ln'j- ^.tiL, '^cii: with us 

liyijfk ay mif^g k^a sika I llfce to he, to go with you 

tan ''■F_<^''li;^l v-o ''i-if^fl?'-^ [»'iflt'\<1 t^ "At "Wi/no (r>[- Sf^^ ^fpr^ii^) The 

i-hrkl 1-^ inktii mIi lu^' li; n-. I.hIi.t 
sfnn •'•7'! mf/ic^'i kcii lodlF who wa^ viili bun? 
si At\^\Sisjii^ai -nifdeg is kqii Sgdiot ad i"hkiii^» Aiiaii^.isnl ^vcnl wilh Ihi- 

Tgorot to Chicago 
maifaJ^!,-// .{'Cit "d-JJ'i ' corner with me ! go with iiKI 
)fif»^^^i^!^il'-ii I!, ii,i-i iiii:<.'idiiti is Hi we pj to tawii wilb our Irienda 
turn i.^jj/iufr niftUtr is nan y^/afs ay fafdyi ey UmHy is mm pdyo my 

i)W-f hnitlii^T u.'iii I'llli iin ^>W-r ^I'itci' V' i\\s ri.T-ftr'Irl 
siiuni ^v ItiliK:/ iiirii frt/^i;/.:!! uy !'imii\- ■ir/ Mii:iSla llii^ hi'lii ""eiit with iflC 

to Manila 
inmitii fiitiiiHtiifrifg hn iirk/^« ilii^ i-nii' t.uuc with nic 
jArrr fian iril\i,^-;t:ii'ir a ihf with hvliuiii rlul ynj go lo Ic'rii? \7nb!ii^g^^a"i\ 
^■i jinicro mifiirg ii'n U^gU id h'^nfok Aniero la ^iiig with hugi\ i^ 

ii-iii alhijul Jiff nifdeg ken sdk/in my friend went vith me 



SI4 THE LANGUAGE OF THK BONTOC LUOROT 

ifu^^ko slka is lifong I take ytrn with me in l;he boufiej yon arc iny wm- 

VJiniOn.r.. 
i^u^gmo flfrrr o'i^ongitt |jk<? ilie child wiih vnn ! 
i^i/rtf'^rt» 'fiJ" Jn(epp'tF^*r^' she IwH ll>e girl wiUi her 
ifu/gyrt Silk J in " "cfH tUyftJ liikr mii? \villi yosi iiilo your country f 
si dniit ifiit!gna tan utiikmi ti P^KP'^K ^^^ fallier look his hoy witli liiiii (0 

ji dtiiix infa^gna si ftia n-v iniiifiyija'd Da^Ap-aii F;i(lier i\tn1 wilb inolliti 
!■> Dfl^iipSn; lilr l-iilhtf loi^k iniiiher .vifli him... to Daf^np^m 

rroiiii''C 11011= example'*; 
dfiisnk niffieg ff^n fi^nri I Ii--jiI alroacly ^iie "v^'illi lliib iu.ltl 
iiiU^ffeaie hiia k^i I6dl I slay b?re wi!li liim (nol; nii/fl-'^- ihis "verb" 

express? preteni, pat-t cir Juiurc niolion, not re.cc it a place) 
j/ffEf ^^fljj nifiic^ yn t6dT? "ivlio wis wi:h liini^ ivho weni "wilh him? 
iiiftlisk af nangiflieg I 4oflk willi me 

fl/i/j'Hf nan owgoiiga jsywonsifffi^s' ^^^'- 'li*-' ^''''^^ ^''"i"' y*^" - 

l^ytji^k ay inangiffSi^k I like lo have ^\'ith mt (li hot oiigdnga llif fliild) 

Ac^.i:[iil>-inijin:nl cxiir^-^'.rtJ l>y [|ic |»reli--^; I'luln- ■-eo [300]; "I curat 
with a shield, an ax, a ijtcjr," ■ici- [6? J; and see (Jic -folln-^iiii^ sozlkra: Idio- 
matic preposilioaa] exprcssiojis. lu^lnunent^T" Willi ;" *,ee [551 J ; cf. |394|. 

The followif^E ^'conipoiuid prq>osiEJDiia"occiiranlj/iQ(»iibEniclian9].n« 
thoH! ^Ir«l b«l0w. 



^uz. Ts/iim or ^iariiiHfl [iydtm dciim\ "inside, uiihin," always 
witii is: 

?V i-iSfnuta iiitii a-rv4^ho ■virliiii vny lindy 
ss tfdi-t iiaji lifftB M'illilri ikc e^rlk 

xvoiidfta ix fsdim udJi Ij^n^m tlicv jin; villiiii (in: -vvaler, iiinlvr llif i^^H'i' 
[i'lkydtji ii /tan katj^nfttn they swiin on Ihe ivater^ -on Ihc surface) 

as^f n<m w^ddy is tm/inna^ wJua Is inside ? 



4uj. /i}»p5'i, 11 11 1 i I (vvllh or ivillicml j'-'| : 
ffiiti^itoab if (/fliprfrt axivdkaj: I *v(irk iiniil nn-iiirtrrtiw 
inicii^eaii hnadrnpon is sidsihtrnna I muHiii here imlil fvenTnc 



THH fANCUAGK OF THT? HOHTOC IGOROT 31$ 

niidnjglil, nioiDJTie, ^UTi^Jity, xicxi year 



404. Root; frafVo. tdszfjs, "Ihe ^pin:e Ijel w cciii. " 

ivi^dil is nan kakani^nlti h in bi;iv,t:^ii you mni 1111: {two persons) 

if nan !daki!fit!ny^ hc[weeii yon 

i'iktfftjuak is nai fUig ya'ian tt-'H'tga ] .wn lictw-een the mouniain an<| ^Jk- 
river 

kofk-untek: 1 ^0 llirougii (lie ceiilrc, Ihe mlildlfij kaHwilei- nan Jii I cross 
the tuvcD 



-405< 7^f^0 under, wm i:diffitta ihc apace beneath 

I'.f nan fsdo nim hUtS under the stone 

if^nak nun kuf'/^h ts Utfo na>t IftiyBt J liaM [he ntilcli Lmiler tiie WOOd 

?'jiJdfrJjfrtiru4./?j ^Jnic ^jfJH fditaiig iv^ run iin^kr tht bip Iree 

izitbfMiHO n^nnti'y a^ liioldto is isun kMjmii [is nan kakoafSna] nunljAy a\ 

Ittalifttf.' Imitf; tifcis |)dcliire hi:ndlli Hi;il picliirel 
fafjiJtu-k [polsJf^j'rek] I p[ace under, i-vl ben<:;itli; palsd/rxt-i'k nan dgitb 

is }\an dt^p I |HLJ tlie \■,i^x iindcr the tOo£ 



41MJ. Oihtit. ^st/n, lisften ' ' I li e Bap f , ' ' "ilie surface of"' (orUy 
found ill the siaius constrtictu^ with ligat, -u), 

if: nan ^sttn'nojt /flom upon y<>ur hcail, on top -o^ yoiii' li^ad 
is nan t^shon nan i:dya u[xm iVic tree, on ilic top o[ die tree 
■'( jjfln ^son nurj i&ktjdnn upon the chair 

i> aati ^iho}i flon l^ia niian the ground. 



^07- Root: Tdngtju ''th*^ space ahoi/e."' 
ij loii^l/'Jiiia nan t}dyn alwve llif ?kv 
liiron£fj^eii nan dh^ nlinve niy litEid 
fekdih^tii nun {difeg is r/fnglsu^ 111 row [he ^pear liigh up! 



3i6 Titr, s^amouaoi^ of The bontoc igorot 



IDIOMATIC PIUUOSITIONAL PHRASES 



4nRr fii the follawing sectiizms our prepi^siticm^ jn iJicir .ai-juuj apt^li- 

wrimE anJ iteir igorot eqmvai«ui^ ^fi^ enumerated, frtquenfy wix^ refer- 

(![ice Lg ]hrL'i:ci1i[ii4 [j^lt'I-: im lliis fir, iriiiii.u'. 

( [■■ir ill.' «'-'nr'^':':ni[i ni m.lik' nf mu- prepwilEortal pliro**e? by ip*ci(il ver- 
IkiI fotmavf BonlDC Igorot see: [^1-^64; find 285-290).) 

Alxree — [4,^1 

About — fs. maltftoydlfitiiii is un'i fdl^'xniif nr ■ falOi^u'd nssn f--/ii'!i 
vinfulvyilti" [t'-.iili/U'!vira>i] i*-- --ic: -.|H:;."Ll.iiit^ ^liiiLiI llic bjililc |,i'l4 J 
tf t ^cf'iiljrt Mi?rf fimtid ij vii'i /"n/'flu ulicy kivuv elIhulI [he wcnnaii; 
("rhc mattiT, ilic li^ip|ieninys lo Uit wmnan") 

(HI AcTiHiril of — ■ l^i'i^] lV-'j|iinnly die conjunction /ay, because, !>< 
nil] ?Joj «;d ; fr^/ri/i^' fpijrfjj^" luy l<ikii:ni<i I (lidnot come oit .n^i'^iui^ ^*i 
iJic ti^ht; iuy {intr hf- Sity) Kun WulhuJ on accouflt of UJa ujoiity 

Acrcppj — Cf, Vocabularir sub "acrosT^" cxpresKtl by vtrbs, such as: 

[ ^TL'^i ;i r|\<Tj iKttjcJilgi'h "It I I'lili^ ts 'Hill 1<!'t"Vll T lliriiM n -Knr 

across... Ve^s: ka^wdek I ^ through the middle; fiitsi^ek 1 

criJsS diuj^'atinlly 
Atler — lTe-niiiiil> ,i i>h''-i?c ^ikc oiir Nom. (or Accus.) ainolulus, pr& 

^i:din(r fhe mnin =c-nfcncc r^ ti^':'!, ivitli l|-<: i^-ii^-iivi: mitfvd'ii ^md 

naj^urih (of; ffltislwJi I Jini^Ji) . 'jnli^ttsl< imii fof'^^iiiil kcl!i'n_^ 

su'ii^ifbamf. "iht (iglif hfl-vinp" becji tudcil^ "[li'-n"' ■'-.- r'-iimi limine" 

or: Lif[i.T ihn (iptht 'u- ri'tiirn lioiii'^ 

ntaf^ash "^n falifen'^ isatdka'! '"iin^^yfiix "H?* ■Lnni'c liLlnji Ini- 

lahed thcQ vje sitig'^ ot: afts- the dance- we sing 

i'\ofMa^ii nan tifinu isdS.-nmi'r wntL-u^^ .ifi-ft rlic? v,-orl ivi- rcit 

jiif/^^ift^p ^^irip j^j^j i'll/ihstifi-j afC'T iIk' linrvLiL ,v-|' jiLij- f ■ lU-I'imH 

"I'shs," ill iln; Riij Chii^y) 

Or v-ilh "^iript^iav" "ilicrc Ltijig ny iifori-. mi l"n^Tr" (it'i\;kdyi:k: 

1 htin^ to an end, Enish, I ax Dp cTcrythin^ etc.) 

iidngk^y nan julJj^ntd /'iimiisildko jiiI'.t ifii w^j" »v-|' nrf-iirrilng (j.icji 

Or: iTPfffl^rVt^^i? 'jjjij i^ im'i 'mbfcitfihan ikt'f fnf-^^'fid w^ i::i[!iv li'^i't 

"upon th« ending of ihi war" (is with NoniOL actionis) ; after the 

war y.": tninc liere 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT ai? 

Or by a temporal clause: mo tttrngdngb^mt i^xitktaiH masSyep 

wlien fir) VL W.\\\^ u \{<^\^, •<',<: -lirill -ki'ii 

Or b^ vf:rb.il form- "-||li pruliy '-iiitir-. n^ik'xkittti'sheindn^atK^ 

I fiiii'-lii'l I'r-n [iij;. llien i air: s.i\tt nly prayti^ I ;il<' | JQOl 

Ami bv plir.Li.'', '^"[111 ^na nilirst: tmngernfiiia ny '.'wdii jjith 

i(l/i?Av i.wi'f- !i'iiiidiij;,iit ituM l<sfiiyi i\Yi>\ Ihi; iii.lii ^-,i]iic-, |||i;ii llic 

wrCiili'lii riivi'L^'; .ill'-r llu' iii.iil ^ .irri^ nl lU': IVfinizin T-'ATiki' 

sumki^fku flr.-ra inlah miid-ij- I ciiu-r ^ii'U'i yij>i\: )lL.r yon enKrfirBi, 

then 1 cnl?T 

bittvi'll'i! 'iH'i l/'fcl-c-'i r/V /jf/'iV JJ^J^^^ffJ^^lliJ JJ](^ y.il'i.-/?n ^in ^>Lflu^ 

miTi ""^nr d'l" ji iMrlicr ili.iii I i (■. Iii'k^ic iv.n, cii" I mciiI iIii'mi ^Ilct 

him 

ikddm^ ay itniiien^ L utiii iialipdsan iULt tiiini' in L^ oiii cu^iniii 

(tkad; fkad) tf} fcsl "tipftrt haviiTi? I^tav firifihed our work;" after 

our woiV t^'ifi^ihH: I nni^h) 

Or bv ii ill! {\iiiii} ii'iiJu ^•).',!i \iiiit1ii^n.'i] : aC the end □!,. 

is san fi\u''iJi;o-;ii mm iu'.ii^nui afitr tin.' laltle 

if -TdJJ ,-ar'/jJ,';.l,T/c Jzifrr ^>.\' 'v til.-V\t ailLf llircc -[.l'-^ 

is t\ti7: a\\i^fi\;fH :'] .:irj] ijiHi ay ithy;/ jfcT fuiir iliiy^. ioar days laler 

Against — Is. fehdsk^mimmfSlfegmiis nasi f^srtl vfe tlirow out spears 

against the eoemy 

Ago — Tbp cK|»T':&i{on r>( lime past is followed hy "ay iiii^iJ;^" i.r '^nv 
ndlo^'.h" {tA/4.'hak: I ]Haa by>: 
slam ay Ahytt av n\n\fi-y (ur. iTO'i prprrcfli') iUU* tliyfl Ij^ 

^t^/op^ /;f(T^^ if^' t\dloih llircu nhUiUhii i^o 
aynihi! 'y faH'H'/" oy Jidlash many years ago 

AlMg^ide — is sum iUd: on ihc rdgc, btujiidarj line, shore elc, 

rrriiJJiiyfiFrfiJVv L\ mm flid mfii^a Tel U". ivnlk .ilniii;-i<lt ilif Tiver 

i-- j'^ri Hill FcrlJj l.-til.-'Sy^iin rui ific udgL' ■►! lllC .[-TilVC 

iUd^i: '!•'!' ill ] pass Od tlie bnundary line of (lie country 

Tudfifjek [ȣ&f/jVtJ nmi -iwhga T I'oTlou- eIi^ rii-ci', 1 \x.\\k Jilongniclc 

the river 

ketj4ng m<i>'(ii.i>'idfigkami is nan ilid Km* k4lsa- dien we walk along 

tbeatKEL |IJ, 4^1 

Among— I3S5] 
^^- I379I 



aiR THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC rCORQT 

BclVn'Kii — I4043 "S*^^ '"^'^ katc'kitffK uAiaKcty ay fobdrt^a is nan tinak- 

r/H-eic av fob^n^a/ i'Jlmi is iJn? illlTiriiiice t>clv-ven ilii*. pipe and 111* 

Befflrt— I.«ative! |,'^0'^1- Temporal- usually cifiimi^ci-ilifd 1^^' \ Xt:V\\- 
porsl clause E>:prei5ed bj Kou^^i'J^Ka "earliEr"" fnir; than; 

itindli nan ialdki |av) waiig/fi'\^iia Jiro /jjjj fobfafilHo llic niriii 
<:jnie tn?f ure tht- buys 

Bthiiwl— |4-nol 

Beiieatli— |4o^'l| 

Concerning — !^\ ■^r; "i^boiit." 

Durine"" Expressed hy F^sart-wM^i NoniMi actlonia; as: liuring liieir figtit- 
Ingi [he ciKiiciii]mr:iiieiii]s a-cilun i*; ImlicriLi^d liy "Jid" l.'Siol 
T'-^an (nr; i.t-fifn) Isdfra infal'^gn/tiau 'i^oddnk id F^nioh dutinj'' 

/jjar; /^'J/yLi 'jj^rfjjiflq during Iheir wuiking 

tCiiisirucLiniis wiiU issQH will be treated in llie chapter on Con- 

jrlUflirlTL'i. ) 

Except — K-i^ij^n^. am/ii wodiitja isaa ketj^g si Fthttttak ATI are here 

except Fuiniialf. Sec [33?] 

j'oitSisgim ia itikSak noti {"li/Jii^'iix cul off a pie« ^ id«! ("that 
I havr") 

fray n-m bfhk ay k6an B^gii h<?re ift the monty for BngtJ (u^ 

tf^flJJ : a? Ik*- firO]>frty ■>!) 

ydi^tt nuM /sfj-t ay kifan »fft ! g^!of lie lirinf^h nie^i fr)r [lie Igi'irni 

way Kan ftl^eg ay k^an 'inii fo>i^ 'y lalaUthi here are the fipe^irfl for 

Wm^ (liTCf nu'n 

n<tJ!.nay ny fitlffg f'trir^tiix fc^ir Ihj-^ ^pc^r i'^ nol for him fnoF-bi'i 

proptrlv) 

flOfli- tdlfc^ya kdfiy^ I lie ^iff^r i? fiir von : fttlfhyO^ ifda iR noi fr>r 

yOiL 

iji-iifr ficrw pJxiaSjfni «_v tJan jjuff Uf-?i?" I hrlng t^r>:SpK^r fnrilie man 

nay n&a biltxk ctj' kif<imi here is ilic mii-ncy ^r>r ii-^ 

&|^rfjjy tfu to*/A ay idjUok ke>i tfa/tja T hnvff soincihiiiE (logi'/e) 

for LhCDi 



THE J.AXGL'AGP. OF THE ISQNTOC IGOROT ziy 

Hoy nan ptitaag ay kdoM. or: niry ntta ^tiijfi'gmo here is an axfgr 

HOtitiiiy kaufti ken stya lhi& is g(N>d f<ir him 

h<tit nail ki'itiiic i' .'•a^ liow niu<:li do y-oii iw.im for ib[^ ' 

t'hjdkak (ar: ^'jj'jiiftj l^<'ii-s/l:a jpiijj tZ/^ifr I a^hk vim fiir ihu LnUe 

in Front of ^ [.V^^l 

Fmn- [384] I353-] 

Notice the ■verba: ktt'ttifa<ta!^ is n>ui J?i I return ixftn flit tfl^Tlli 

bul : tl^mdliifk u rfujj i!\ {is fti) I rctiini lo I lit luw-n 

Lisan ai\!f)if <id^>f/V-m !.•; "tib 4fon^fii \^'hcii tfiey vvece tioE far from 

llicir lioLiie 

oid^'itdko Jian bllak hen Lik^hho Lve rfCtEvi' ilic muncy irdiii 

Rrchard 

(fjTM^t'j^tfft f/iijj kitijing is jum laUiki 1 receive the bcass inmi Lbe 

milt! 

adadjilM7i>i nan >mif<i}i.iiit}ii they c-oinc from afar 

From —To: malrJak ad Chiia^o ya iimUyii/:r ad Ft^aSok I gofruni Chi- 
cs^ lo Boiiloc 

ilabotdko tcy^ntidno !s fvan sinp^o ay Slas inkdm^s nan magdl^yu 
■ w^ work from ^o o'cl't^h \W\ Ji'-'n (""'e Ij^'^jii '<• wcrk.,.") 

idlo'y ffia^ nan malpo'd Trik/i/ra" ya fimuy ad I'-iinfok it is TfirM 

hours (wallt) from Tu^-iicaii [q Eoni'x: 

iiti£ii\vpik t-i 'san nia^iil/yu ii\k^na's sidsidstmna J slept fiom no-.n 

IlII evening \iiSildbo adwdtii from now uii; '"lit^'iin t^w" 

iFjiinokal^ 1 am iiom Bontoc ("3 Hontd^ man'") ; jFff^ ttjin fii»if 

uhfic^ iire xuii Ei'tii'' ^ .■fioic lii yniir loiviij 

inkdrnts satt kQ-ZonsSn^o'ia froiii lii^ 'boyiiuod on, sia« hi» boyTiocKl 

In loi^lM — is naa iSnga (in the Kiitrc) 

ii iian i^vgan uqk Jjaiiikijf^aii in Uic iiiidJIc r>l llic thsjr 

jj ^iTFr^iffra [11 ils centre; is fiais t^ttgaii itaii Hi in Llir; [JiJddle af 

the couiilry 

Also ^-itEi idei-^a [404] "liehvecn'^ is nati katV-iv^eriija Til tlitii' 

midst 

u aa't kaec-iv^n-a nan pi^shffitg in midst the ±ea 

TriPittad — ir motsdcia k/n iri,!i fak^n sii\df<ny, b^td tun iitd acts dona he 
^'ivfi Jiini ji -tuni: [ii'-|(::iil I'f bread (Ik givtS hiTU nn Ifread; sloiic J9 
lili ^'ivini;) 



220 THIi LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

iiiMdli irafi laUiki, fahfn fafdyi the man came instead of a wcniian 

In; lir.n— Li;9,^,jSi, 389,393,1 faSd, 287, aSa-). 

K'uar l>y — I399I Also; Kgan/ngAniadFAtitok near ligiituc 

Of- (rr, 3^1.3^5-394] Ui] 

Oli — [iTOr S93p 40SJ 

Opix)9^tc — [39a] 

Out of— Sec; from. The prcfKisiEimiiL notiM Jit inha-ail to the verb: 

funi'ihtih T go out; -f&dUJ^ T .■-uil.T ciixV: Hdi-,ff^ f take oikt ?tc. 

-\c L[ii? ^z'l<: — l.'dpat, isfpat 

i/iartdtanak is ium uapdtmff 1 nalk J.t joui iidi: 

itusitsfpaidJto wi are (go) Bid* by aide 

.■;ii^/J}i .-•//■Tti-if^ i', /if'?il\ia 'x na I am o" ilii'. '■Me 
r/trf :L-(ir/j?',rf '.h Hpidiia 'x iiT yoil BTC Ml Ul-il" :\'V: 

f. rr/'i'fyufi "Tf/j7ji iiy iiiij^, i: iipkfm 'jiJfl fty ftUg on this, that side 

•.•i l^li' II iKMrlli^iiL 

fjs'i" '"•ii'Hjaislji is apfd nan pSshong Hihcn theymEton theolher 

5idf uf (he &ca 

Since— [393] 

Through — "T^l■'lllp^l" i« iK|'rc-=M:iJ In- .-ll-!j--. ^ikIi ,i-^ ?1ic iiiCriin'-il^'c hiasr 

'tail fit [ rnn throt^h the toivn (or: mUflct^fi^l.^ j-i' /rhnfui. is nan 

fir, 

pnlfiiich TUtn batS is nan dlod I ihrow Ihe sicme through the fence 
Icl^ii^c!.' f yo tliroi^h the center; slllisk mm pa^pog I go Iliron^li 

flic (i>ri:s| 

t\att loshf4i£nii imr "getting thnin^," |>Iace of cKit 

Toward — [380I fnto the vidnity of: I399]. 

■mn^y^^iiili': inmin/t/rdyadTM^m ir? ^0 in ihc dircctmn of. 
[■hll■n^^^ "r<iuuciii 

''The direct way Lowaxd*' is expressed by the word; dla. witli posses- 
sive :iiffise5; iijji^_v^ff id ^nn Fi'finiiico, hctj^ng ifhini vir 'it Cliria^o yQU 
gu to Sail J'>^nci=<o ^nd i Iniiii iherel yau go [ii ^tia-iglil. rllreclLtJii li^wajiit 
Chicago 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE ROMTOC IGOROT sji 

(^d/afe ya Idyao: "m^ ^ir^ight dirtclion is mniiiag; Lfun, lurlhnith) 

ketj^ng dlan- tju aitdknn ya k^flub si nan fiidan^ ilicn Iiis aoa 

climbed dii'tftlly upfiii llif [ji^ trccii |M. r:"] 

ieetj^g dlami ya nutt fitgpag then we go drrecllj tnward (and into) 

the woods 

bfij^ng nan fu^m/ y^ 'ii i^HlMmg Ihen we go directly toward 

Fuladong |I-- 54] 

Under— [405] 

Until — [^9^] {■V^il Al^o: infutna is; inkein^'s nan tm 'y la&zvhi 

dll Djie (i. t. ncxl) ytor; for one >caT 
Upon — [ 406] 

With— |3<;t, 394, 4oi| T liavc, Kirry with nw: [67] Codpcralion: 
[300] 

Idiom: n£"dj iiun iTjJJi^i/i^yjjPi is %a? wliat am ynu dain^ wiih this? 
fur wliiit do you u*ie it? 

'^S^£ """ "ntfl^Tfiwi ji ^jpn bUdkk^^ wli.'Jl Ikivc ymi dune wilk my 

money' 

ngi^f ""» r/o/^Hip If flflji diTfl:.'' wiih whft! do you ainkc itiu dog? 

[26^1 {yiihax !<; your "slrikiiig-lool"" (ur ihc doj.') 

The incHifiivf Onal and Plnral forffls of verbs are employed often ta 

exprc^* tiflcipaniun'-Eiip; e g. ^o wilh mr: vmfiyidl^o ^eI us go, you and I, 
you and m'^^ ftm^yta: let us (two onlj) go; ^o wjih inc. 

Iiiji"lc;nl o( "w'itli" <!ie ton juncl iijn j'o, Aw^S. i; iiizcd mo=[ frrquently, or 
the "C(»[kt([vc Arti<:[(^'' tja, fylloivcd Tiy kfn |ig|: (ja dntu kctt ha 
FaiJicr with (and) iiioiiier- ijn Aim^wd'ml ken fUmnnk innrd/itja 'sua 
Aiiauwasfll c^Jnt here with pjinm^k. Or: -" l-ftnuiuk yti nikidli ken 
Ans^'WdiVi 

"I'hr; subttjiitlve: ib/it. conip^nion. \'i fi>nnd in^lcJd of Ibc ]>rc|)o:iitiDD 
"Switb" in many phraseft, as : sinu HdJi ib/dw ny iir't^y'^ wliu Aaa yBUr 
conip^niim in Koiiig^ 1. e. ivho i^-ent i^'ilh >oii? (Or: i/j^u nan nif^i'g ken 
sffta? — ^tnit FWfi ju^gmo? — j/jrrc ifun jtoj^i^iTMi/ 137? i) 
jfuM wan ib/dm ay fiangdeb it nn'i t^fo'tj^^ i%iili n.lfOTEi riiit ynu build the 

fra^Kiiy nau ih/aldko ay ntanlbs is nan kfiyt> with these men we cut the 
itee 

IdicMiis: irfltr .'Mwirnflj «aji jjN/na; liw father with his cbiW, Ibe mother 

with her child. 

s/nu pan taldki ay dnijo iJdn fdH-'iuJ^ wllio is the mnp with the long 
Uair^ 



223 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BCKTOC IGORQT 

Titc'i jafdyi oy ijakljifki irn-n SlU'ia (In: ivquijiii with ihc big bead 

■nan origHitf^a ffv tjfihifdki wfJi upiSna Hi? bo/ \v[\\i ili* [a^ rliifjli 

Idylf^fdk-^ ay intdy^ir tia" lalclki oy iiakJlud nan ^dSkna ive want 

i*> ^I'Ciik ir.i [ill- injTi iviih ific iji-irly lisir (i. 0. lo ilie "Negrito") 

ini^ n-nn Iddfti nj mitjodntjo twin f/oir-'hiitiaf wlicre is [lie iiiaif 

M'itli ttie liig eat? 

turn jobfdtli} ay abaffkash jjuff l^mdi'-i Uic yjjiing nmn wiih i\iv 

3 [rung ansis 

uan fafdyi a>i nofAfl^drf fjflff ^j/jujiwa the vvom^ln vvilli Ihc rmind face 

Ken 'ie-riifies "ivitli" jii [Jii^i e>:j3m[>kr sumcidkami ken A'stero jj 
dfUH^ko: ive [Tfi lA-jth Ant^rn into my Ikhi^c 

ma/ld inpaskfpna is nifiic^ ke\v sfya lie iti iioljin.l> (-[idr ivfih liiTii 
viik-itt'i^efja ifen iik/c'" Ihty tlay w[Th iiie, lliey arr: ■ivjttJ. tsis l^os] 

Wnbin — f4uj] 



<i. 



Wirlioui. — KNpr':^=ft1 hy plira^es willi: ma/id, ""ihere Is no— 

Amndiisk ay ina/fd sokf'haijo I cinie u'illiuin li;tL 
iiiPtdy s/ya mu/ldak lie \\cin ■vidmii-i iiic: 
mtt/'id btlah ken mk/t^n I nm ^liilioiil m-irn:y 

The confer uciioii': of Prepositions governing Interroga- 
tive^ or R vl ^ H V v:j hiVE been ej^pEamcd in [34S-35;( i 331-335] - 



ADVERBIAL EXPRESSIONS 



4Qi| Adverbial Expressions Cl)n:iis^ d f.iwp]': adverba, gr of ?u!i?Un- 
tT«5 with prri^risiiion^, i>f adjcclivM with preiHJsition^ ecc. 

Adverbial phraser are sonietiiiie? fanned by iiie-aFii! of ani^ilfnrv v^rts 
[308-31 7]. or of v<!rti5 conveying an arUejI-ial Jiolliiif I317-], or of vtili*, to 
ivliiclf i]fe advert-ial nocion i? inli-?rfn[ {fttiadiiab: T tumc biicfc; bumdnH'lok: 
I com? down; tftiflddflo^: T goartay etc.). In m Any in!^tJnces a prelis 
conveys an adverbial nation I296-305I, nr re<|iipli ration ii used instead of 
cfriajn adverbs fz^i-?^|, 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 223 

The adverha cf n^stion hav-e beta treated as "Negatives" in [319- 

,■^27] - NLiiiicricil adverb? in (.^69. J7I. ,'1".'5 I 



.■|ro- S"nie ^iiiipli? ndvoi lj& nk<^ ^'h-tI^^I endings as the "au?dJiary 
vLxL&" (wJiiili are imtced verl>aliyi.il "^liIv<:i liPi"). 

CoiDpound aiEverbe, consisting of the preposiliaD is ^nd Milisiannivc'-, 
appciir iitri=l cinminnnly w\']< IIlc iJiiiii-s'.lv^' '.iilTlx rro, lil«, ln;r, il*; ;s*.l u 
isiH"' on ij fsahiitto, inijidc. ot . "n itin mlrruli'.'' 



41 [ 'I'liorc in? no ioriiis f'lr iidverb^ f'trnKil nf j<lji:d ivp.'i. Tli*^ .idj*p- 
[iie Willi ij follows the verb; or tlic sdjcdivi^ (wiUioiil intpo^iiion) p""^- 
i;(ili'- till' XiiiiicLi iicllonl^. 

ikitfia ij- kdu/s lie acts wdl (39^5; ^i"; l-aiv/i >ia'i it'tna "good is his act- 
ing" 

j/vff ^'ii^kii'-f'o^ k3:vf^ Til? ^peiiki ^vclli rn": t^ia/r nan ^uglr/fffana 
j/rir ueriieJ/tili 'f yiri^'ajf/f hi: spoke vcr> is'i'll ; (?^io-..l]cllrr iHan) 
it-^ai'ifrdotja in akh; or; akit nai\ it^ni^liit'Aia Ihcygivc hui iiiilc 

Dit// FrcJJi 'iii'i'ilmtia lEicv lliink IJTtle 

ii^ii^ Ffrtjj l.-af^ntja ay .r/fkad they work badly nEsJcUig spear shaEts 

eii.rs/inti sf\'a is for; av) kHn'/j liv ^vork'i ^vclL 

kiipeii IS !!5wh.' do in ^relll kakaisjfsi^'i! ay rtiangd^tf! do Tt bcllcrl 

kaphyf^ i-i iiSmh* doit ft-ellj kakazvii^iryrft ay mangd^bt do il 1)ciicrl 

Cf, verify coiiveynig ilie ."idvettibf iiotioiii: wiili energy, <|ii"ifk:ly, 

aloivly^ gladly, cic. in l.'Ji"]. 

Ar^FHIl"! OP PtACe 

422. The locativfl particles na. tiJ, ij^y [ij^y. ^;/| whicb serve also da 

liiTiiion^lr.itlvr ]tr"nOii*i'. (ogl, i^fii AtUi^rti^ if preceded hy jj: Is nfi or: ilfjifl 
[j,T>i(/| smd. 'sira. 'slifta]: ber-e ^ncaT the speaker), liilbeT. 

ii ia- ibere (nLjj [hiTpfr5r?ri iddre^fl^), ihither 
uf;y [jj ^/jJj, ,rjdf, ij tj^y] yonder, thither, at or to the place yonder 
JJdy here \5.,. Ifffy ihcrc i^ 
iiiiil>dak isfj! I came from yonder. Ihencc 
.t/nb ijff ng&g iji? wlio, u'h,^l 1^ lliiit^ 

is*idka.' stay here I |L. ^AffJ ; fsii^iat I am here, I ^lay hcre^ in^iiyiik 
1 am vonder 



224 ''■-iJE. laKGUa-Ge of the bontoc iCorot 

ij rim^ ffi' fflfifrmw ^erywhere (lit m th^ whofc world) 

is kahfaitifatsr'c'jva overyvvliire- nrj i^ '^IJJ Wiffl.^, jtif^ffTCfrWri-'fli i^ nan 

latAmivis everywhere in ilie vvorld 
i^i'Ui''^^^'^ !i-iiy where van please- ^tity intS na "any wlicr^ liert'' 
iii.L'iti^'t'i \a!.hihfji, ad-riSii'iyaH. Qjf;6iviy^; adadsiki'i\ afar ; fuiiaffcii'/ is 

nan 'ifon^ lar (coin llie iiou^ej adaj^d-in'yinak I am lat av^'ay,— 

navi kaad^d'Mfmt: Mic disiance 
ni\'iiihd:viak 1 gn far aivay <Jcr. irti piitff-rnc mTcTi 
Jcnd j^jjj. k3ods!yiV^!t HfliJ jf^ /■'^iTfot y« nrf Ma}\Ha? liow far la Eflufnc 

fruiii Mniiila? 
fiihii.S'cwt van tjcgdngfja th.'^y Arc j;ir (i]>iiTi: ("Jar tlicir [nterval, space 

helivecLi"") 
■idjirS'^uJ flifn ij^gati^tiik-o \\^ ?kre far ,ipan 
ijHUjJuu or; k-ahkafiffa he is away, gone out; from: kt^ndanak 1 go 

out, away; and fnmtflairli I ^cr ai%ay 
j^ f^ii^ffSt, ad ttJvgljsc. is taiigt^ihia upwanls, aMfE- fj tongijAna db-JVJj 
jjnrf iJjiifyo^JJ fiiiiidyaft ad sJni^ft/t llie bird llifs hi^li 

jjgajVrr!;i?jir", Jfi sas-ili^'i n^ar (frfiK^iv'Fij^t 1 By> nesr) 

ij iXJii^udna f^>rwiird, to liK iiQUi; umiiyt^kif' "k\ liS £\j" f-rfrw^iriJr 

i-r ^%i>t hack^ behind, in tkc tear- vh, : .«fr^ffji^i?fe I lurn, Peisun. 

^rt}\'dkiini;ak; sahdii£i:k ay ?laJn 1 ]iiiil( liack 
^HHi^kiyTLgak ay iiudkiak 1 tqii bacV; pa-^ihakStigcl! I llirutv bacl^ 

Ct. Uooj 
ii u^jliiii 'iL Hie i"i?^^ (tlie hifr of a Mliiinn) 
iTiFf/jj I'tgeilier (^r: all)- madmnn^- a.sseiiibled, (ogeLlier; c£. prefij: 

maki- |30o|: and ptefij: .lin- |6nj ; iiadj\d!if!ik& we are close 

is fkid. !i dPitvan ai ili-e left, al (he riglii side- h ikldiio at my left side; 
i> ifRurarr nau dftt'ij^ at die riglit side of tEic hou^if 

i\dik\d -iroi-iiid vl), ■ inl/hiiiak 1 fiTO arouiiBl; n-r: fic^fTf^'-fflJ.^; Wfri^ around 

It tjshdiiii "on lis ^urfate ;" ^n llie -outsiile ^of a bo« eic.) , is i^Ha out- 
side of a lioiisc, "-in tlic yard" 

is Ua/hnna inside \isi}dimj odddWift) ; inildcbak adsaim I (five inio the 
water |4a^| 

is f^ft^a, IS tcn^dna; is kd&jua, is JL-a^Ti'dni in iiiid^i ; in wOH- kii^nftn-'detfja 

in ^huir iLiid&t 



THE LAMUUAGE OF THE JiONTOC IGOROT 235 

IS apidita'stia. is apldna 'j 5a on tliis, thai &ide; \i nan Uapdlks on inv 
sid*. Of. Ma. in slraiglit dircclioQ (3i3) 

'riif imcri-of^fi^re adverb?; wliere> vvhencc? whiih^T? ti. I333]- 

41, V M''>'-f "Aflvfrh^iof TIitip" nrc com^mi'l plir,ii^:ni S^l^^lilLl lives 
^^'Ltl^ rliH^ pi-epoi^irion '^•. qIIu'-t^ :irc i^rrjbnlily ndfciJ^tLVJ?^ riTf'^-^'l^^'^ ^v '-^ '^ 
ruhcLb*. willi r^. Several of the "advcrPj^" iiiiJ iheir ciiii^tiuciioiT^ lim 
heeii [reined befoi'i?, &iicli a^: hsak [30SI, .//f^j and ffljar [y^]' ■'f" (nl'oJ. 
t-JHtflfi/ [311 1, ifodn [112]. idnif [313], tfitjflja [ju), ijAkaskn j.^i^l, 
etc 

.A>4.i> icdLiiilic.niuii eKprt-ssc-i somelimes a tempornl rcTalJon: frequently^ 

/\nd vjirurm^ l(?[ii|"inl ndvcrlK iirnj cniilJuiioiT Tn lh(? pccrixf'i /■jj?- .md 

aJ^dflni, ffi^iinj iinw, Irnlay 

ailsdiigSdiim lorinerl^'. =01111? tiiiie apo. tficn 

^jo jFurm/Ffgjjff av . .^oniediuies Ger. oft cinTTiBl. fSd. |^io] 

/jffftffjir/ wjflFf ^^fi^ii fj i"JFf/iani/ir^jfl*r ^ve ■^iiiokc now ard [liun 

iinddlayu — sin^tH/vic LUie dpy ■ — lli'! oilier dsy 

itftdflirif sone liino jgo ; idhagitklifKni asIuirL while agn; adsdn^MMm 

a loiiK Inn? 3^»o 
iiflaftivft a year a^o aydktfy iaSwfn-ay innr^y grcpt many jenr* neo 
(J^iiJ, f^/yoj \^-l'l\ "nlrcridy," "htfort" 
i^ ka&.'u.'dkaffcwtikai very oEleu, every day, or ; fllivayi , ininkdna: fur 

all fiiture 
siis\sksya always; sissisS^tt ay inal-tn.'idia wc Urj will Lii: friend?; far 

evrr 
is kniaitzi'fraftJi'/n iof ci-ei, for many vears 

r.t fl(fT ii'i dkya all tlay longi iyatmky^kif I ojnijniie ^virkiiiE ^'J *l^y 
[J /flfr^afti^fliT [[f ^cpjfl/flfinil] Kkr llif first llni': 
TJ -uimfngian once [3?i| , irff; nuiny Ijinc?;, orifn: l^'o] 
i^^it [i[i 10 a certfllr Hmc, jfccr some time; aflcrwflrd^: ■^ee conjtinctinil' 

unlil 
is d^tii, is fVitA^iii ^fioil; Ji-jot lieij^eforlh |3o8| ; ErniiierfiatJ^ly: ijdkfiskri 

Ijij] ; ver^' snon, in a moinenl. j^nJ [3.1J] , vetyaoon; frnjitan/ 

|3ii|, sTiddetjIy: mo — on — I302]: quickly, soon' pi»- [ag^l 



226 THE LA[^GLAGE of THE BOXTOC IGORQT 



a^ai kiyH! in n iiioniein! idaaf yea, air; inimeidjatelyl Ger. jrt giddil 
i^itHin kay si akfl ya ' "wait n hltk! " 

is sinakflax in a very iiiori: \vtiile; forlEnvilb 

tsttai f^ay not vcl |^^4j; /jii}h;a vLt,sriL. [314] 

fini'kay ... ya frr^. uii [lie point of. 

fiiundl&dk ifiigkiy ya kel jvodd nan jafdyi E waa on the poljit nf 
gcNuf outj when the wcmaTi &tcK>i] Iheie (^ja krt: to mj surpriae) 
rf'^fl, />'!^'i(i; ^'b. iJjiin|"P9Frrfj^paA fir&l, at ftriH 
m-jngantdk^ 'd f^ira, isatdk^'d f^tftsrtio let u? Urst Ml, lhe*i w^fk! 
li/an^i/d/filfuik [ Jim Ihc la&[ (py.... Jjj ...) 
piis^iighvpiik , sum^^kopok I Jiiii chc hchI (ajii.. to. .) 
pdad ^vuli iK'guiLV'c: jiiTer L'^Jfi] 

kasSa jgJin ; cf. [312! ; jj kmJt^ ya is kas/n ^igaLn and again, repealtdly 
ij tflj/n JEi yfhcr time, or: is kas^/i dkyi on an oilier (foll^wLnjj) day 
fitt\i labhbi^iia mntnthf^it^f^ayS/. iiiikayS 'd tnnngdycng, isd it 

itttisiganH'idiigozh jjuh patpud^y ac lirsl yoii danfc, (lien you sing^ 

"linaJly i-Qine^" llie ^pear liiroivlng; [pron. : iiiawg an o n^ nqoih, 

see voc; "i:nd"| 
pia/fianid&ninJd I am lale- ijnj/di6+:»ifj?f+:«^jta av -(^h(i-j?jjo >oii ^v-iirk 1^1': 

"iLsrly" ii iLsiialfy exprc&bcd by Ihc Time: in di-e moniing, at noon etc., 
ale^ by pardd e&liipikaiicn of the vprl>. 

innuiHuiko ij /^r <i;rffi 'y fllan ay iitm/iy ya niiinHd^ctdko isaii jj d;tf* 'jft 

/rfan wc came to town tivoiiiontli? agodnd w: Jihall sliiy two oiontL^ 

lonf'er [^96] 
ian^nViiii pans Uav; quickly! saii^Jiy^n nan inmalhml liow quickly ygu 

came! 
sanauy^'i /tin nfin nitgya! am ii sa' [low ;oon you brought itf 
jflflgMyrffi p^K ft" naQlJaii nan kan^ntd^o' lioyv soon, lioiv- <^iiicl(lv -vva*, rjur 

iood [^OD^edl [E16] 
.mngMy^'i pan is "vangAipam n nan t^fay.' \\o\v quickly you iiiaile l[ie 

spears f 
adiiTttni. iiiiitittti to-day (or: now) 

adkSsfii d^ka, adilO-na [adid^itn] d;iy l4;fi>rc jcil-;rday 

aswilkis.1, isivdhas Ijj-niorrow 

kSi^w aswdi^as^ is ^a^fn witl/o.v day afler lo-nmrrou? 

is liosin dkyu IJie follo^ving, iir^t 

is san tjdy ay dkyu „» iJic ^am-c day 

is nan djiia, tdla. ay dkyu m twu three.. .days 

is nan ^-i-siHd very early in Die morning' 



THE LANGUACR OF THE BOWTOC rriOklVr 



^2-. 



ii nan ~titid 

IX "p/i (ibiffbikdt 

h 'lun flhikoi 

ii {abljbofi jr ffftllorl si tlkpi 

i$ ncadk'ytt 

iji IjiJji nmgdkyte 

is Htm l^gan si magdkyu 

is fliffi iF[jir>i^ 

is fJdti tri!<:^yjs0i[ 

is nnii xidsidif-ina 

is id'i "iaifi/m 

ir jjfitf /□// 

is JJcfH t^itgasi if laf/ 

rs !a!4'ii:f 



-is nan mairj/ii\ si dan'ii" 

as-.vdhd.t ss fibilrdi, ii lap 
fliTH fibxi/dt ay iiav 

nan t^n^at* ay }idlnsh. a\< ^'im^y 
'lUK liim.v!t av ndlmU 

■nan ta^-ivin ay um/tii 

fan ffian, fiandomfa^kfavidhsli 

nan f^an, nan domh\Q^it ay umdh 

ad f'ian /afnnir/'i 

is kasin tSngam 

i-^ frfij/fl dbya 

as^dkas is nai 'lisJlyaa 

iabSna oAvsiini 



i^cirly irt the morninR 

[;ir]y m llie numing 

cirlv in llie morning' 

;il (llic beg"iiini]ig oi) ^luiiri^i^ 

early iik loreiiooii (h^-ei n'tlnrk] 

nl [ifitin 

JiL the aElcrnooLi {2-4 o''cIikV) 

lafL' IJI afjcrnijoii (4-'i o'c]i>cfe- 

^Ilh<: liricui iiinset (siuisei: nal^hi'SJ) 

in the niglit 

in tlic inghT (ir-2i>'itiwl() 

,il iiircliiiglit 

dl aboiii z-4 A. M. {^nkok/fok nan 

liaKvJlaii ya sj\!ipQt/ii: llic cock 

irnjA's jnd il daiviisj 
"1[ If, gf Kin'^ to-morrow," "jt is gclting 

ill! hIIkt driy" 
it IS ^l"linp niidiii|ihL 
tn-nigli! 

lo-iniiirrnv iii^lil 
U5I [i[ghi: (or ■ jjcrn mastfif av iidiosb. 

ay ittni^y) 
tQ-KiOivm inortiiii^, iii|;hr 
this morning (ot i^ nan flUiidt) 
yc^ter^Dv moraing 
lii-^l lioldiT^y 
kiic year [ot , Htfiiif^vfin; -preterite of 

'J um-aVJe^i'Inj" or: vltaf^wfu) 

h^i month, wwH: (Donningo: Siunijay) 

ii^vt month, wtek 

\':pi Ficfore IelsI 

iiexi hofinlaj ("lioM-Jay again") 

On the following day 

to-innrrow nfl^rnnrvti 

from frt-day on, Jien<;cfttrlh ; lobdiui 
adu'dni is bskite' pan idkif u Iti/ay 
jdngkay irom ntni.' aa wc make 
only spear?, fal'dim 'd^di'i iwffwfl- 
i/inidffn frain nfiw iiJi let ui w^lk 
Or: ruiHl^bo advFdm from now on. 



JsS THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

Qifl hasfn not any more ; adl kasfit iasSkit lie 

13 no longer ill 

/^jodfoa^ adsdngs^um ''t?n? Iioii^e is oldf lit.: Tt 'Tas a hrmw 

long' 3gO| for a long liiii* 

Hrffug^iirfF^ff mj tarlitr than. „ biHitidnad nan t^kkcn 

ny tdkr^ nang&inu3ia mo sak/Sn an 
jlliLTpCrs'^ii cam? down earlier Ihanl 

oiiumAtiak a mai^adt^a ay dkyn T jihnlU cyme in Iwo days from now 

( "liji Lhe lietUTiil d*y") 

ji- maigdi'lo ay 4^yu ifl iliie£ -days Irom now ("on lhe third 

day") 

admmii/niSS'H'^, iniin.fin^vdjfdjiaJi ay um^y 1 sliall go first, last 
maftiidid nO'i- idfvn It i^ gn^lting morning; tdlini: l[int, wealti-er etc. 

f )t]icrve llici-: vfrbs, foriiieil hy |^^eli.^ing inang- nr iiifl- l-o llie reriupli- 
c^[cd iiuh^ianiivc inipiifying Lime: 
vtamibijibUidtak I coine-^ go, work etc. in (he niomirg; mmnibijibiknttfk 

fTv iiiiif?^?' I come in llie inorninR, early 
inailji"i'fia^l/i"iaii I iai\K [rt night, during the nij^hf; i:astjimna!-!imdkaft7f 

ay ne'iffino -we ivere u'orki]ip: during lhe niglii 
tiia^^miia^dliyi/ai/ "I do..„ a( noon" — ma^aniagiikyuak ay ffVmdIi I 

rfCurn ai nntm 
nutlttfHajiidt \ come ai ''niidnightf ^ngka man malafUaf? ay? ^^'lly do 

>'0u tome *ii> laic :ji nighif |M. i6| 

The inter rc^aliv* adv^rl-. wtipn? finw long ^ see |^g.|-, 356, 5571- t^'"- 
■:iilL lhe Vocabulary 5. v. ""Sca&'m^" snd "Moon." — 

AOVJiEQS Off QDALITY AHI) MAlJMiK 

4:74. Verbal prtfiK« eNpre55 frcqucullj EHlvi;rbijl noLif^s "tor whkh 
■vc '.'T¥i[iJo_v fldinerbs, a^' ^Jfl-. "quickly" ]2y6| i ta- "coinplelely" and ku- 
"undcr prcreti^e" f^i??! , >iaira- ^'completely" [299]^ inasi ''mulually" 
IjOif, Cf. Llie "auxiJiariesi:" f^c, "cuatomarily, usiiiiliy" I310] ; kanki^T^f 
"almost" [^i 1] '. suMiydah 'vdngkay cic. "only" [316] ; the sutslanlivcs dio 
and fkad ''^Eraiglil ditectloii" and "^custom" [jlS] ; an-J (]»c vcrl>i> CnUm- 
erjlcd ill [j^i?) 

kiig; kdSg i"i!^, like, lilrfwiBc, ihifi?, Cf. [143I 

ijidgna hkc'viic, like ili ("ita Hkenei^"! 
kog !g6ht like an Igoroi 
i?d(?!£nfl jthIU (?ijw llfce lhe ?iin. 



TH£ LAKVjUAGP: of nWi HOMTOC TCOJJOT 22<) 

odfko it4g faf'iyi ay !n4fta '\v »'^X cry |ilK a woniaa ! ("be aal Ijbc a 
wwnuin who r.ries") 

jlis^'rJiii .vid^^ dj> il like this! 

ihi^n/rin !S kti^frtHBi/yl doit likc^sl adfliSg noHndyf not like this I 

kd^^ ua" k^^ain "on kdok vour ]NiMni'-'-i<in Is likr ininti your?; [i juit ^t 

mnoli :\^ mine: ^■o^^ l^,■L^'e ri; nuicli ^.li I 
tiliriljjHa HOtt ktm^na u nan hdnck lie fata as uuicli a& 1 

kH'i 1^ *ioiiielriLic^ equivalffiil to "it mods to be": idg gt^tfya so l[ii^ 
■;c€iij^ <n Ijc Tiicl; [Ills Is lilii: slec:! 

FEa.iiiraj'ja 'i<fntjdy kaiii'jta this and tliat aresiljl-r; ^^hh Ilk'? that 

nk/i yiiiigJ^ay ef kadgiia it ia similar (lit. "bill lillk, Hkji it were alike") 

fUHTij' fl^' ktp'iin kdd£ liirn li^gaii iiaw f't'i^ff Hii- knlfr i'iT.L<i a^ iiiiicli a^ 

llf^' |ii»E f ''ilik knife, i^[u:i] ihe i^ricc 'if itic pal") 
ka-fpca iia" ajignciia ay 'nktfch si ia lie dul ir in lln' ■oJhul in'^liliiii 
kag ken iak/^n sfya fie ij like iiiy?;cir' frir^ .ti'ii mk/M !>tyi ny Jia^'i im 

]ool:-i likt inc^ k3^ loiiiS IIih-h, Ickc IIipI 
iiiiT ^^^^'^ ya ifQ<' TiTPEprrri; /iuji kaantjdna Jhe tree was aa higJl as that 
frjjg jrtifl like bcrc, like 1I115 

??ujj frnrf^ftj Ilk? iviy^elf (m? [nestle in! hen) - jjpjj kdd^ko ay t^hfi u per- 
son Hke nic 
pfpji tpi^^^niT likt you; hdgak JiJn iSdi I aan ]ike hini 

^f with verbal e^ndii^l (pCT^nftl, rrepectlvely possfsslv^) ami a fgl- 

loiviiifv "innnidvc" means "almost," "I came near;" 

5'crg'fil ^o^fdliS'i u^rr /SJf^ ^^e iiliiiu^E -cjiined the sConc 
kdgmo koldft'^H nan ktiyei ■mi iiLciin'.t cliiii1"?c.l llie Uee 
ifeo^jtojirf iitUtJycp y-ow ^lino-^l slept; l^d^vft in/la sak/^H v<jii alniosE 

sawmc 
k/if^ok Imindlt I nliiK'M rL'liinn]<l 

^it^ySngha kdaii ymi Umlc Klii: j nionkrv 

i.^alidma very Jn a hiyli iltHrcc; I'so inuth ; (j^^t^mrf ay Idictg '-cry 
cold, l<>o fnlrf , l^atiifm/i ay angai^HlHd Ijti Ttid 

in kaivts well- ii k^g^-iZ'h VAK':v\ U^SqS e-^fti^diLiijIy; (Hm.?) witli 
sLilliite^' isdtiifsnk nmd^s/id I fear ■:>ifeedliiyly, beyond measure; 
isddiotyii d'rgiien -^a yoir da lliis e>^^^Cl■di^l£]^ ■ii'ell 



330 TIIC LA\'GLJAGE OF THE EOWTDt IGOROT 

ffifiK^itaj better (toane-l pr-abiibly frcnn Hocaoo) 

maif'ilfa.i ii mititnau tito na" rf>jriiiffjji il i'^ bedcr lo <:at than la- nJrJLik. 
ina'idka^ iia'i nidiigan is iitiM mffkn'i it i-; Leder to eal nee 
mandkash si (or: nan) vmAyka it is bctler that jou gfo 
iiiandtit^ "tsii iiitfd^i: \' Hiut Vf^ntok il is ijtiltr lo stay al BoiiIdc 
mandkns a»ihi Titin mii'iiUo'i ft is lu'dcr llim ail walk 

mit'litkGsli " CfJ/atiFi^Jv^'if I '-t. k<tftrui'is natr- iotr^mg6yka\ n la better Lliat 
you ki'i']* (|ii]<-i 

imadkiuh ji iApdtpadSy iiio won «i*d*Vi a j/ii;;jF>r^ il li better to throw 

I ■'lirjirs I Hum In ui.il-;': rtn^i 
avifuiku^ u n^H'inri-^uiAni i.i k-dlSmji a ib [jtttti wc Iwo cfangt ourselvea 

itiUi c'.i^'ki jK i[] 
r'l •'■^'fg lir, h.-ailli': Idrt-iL'-ii it Is n'mii^^^, bml, i[ii|>rO|ieri l/i/^-^a nait 

}}itisiiyJf-n'ifj*' iL 1:^ ijiipriipc]', tiad llsal tSiey Jileon 
fiff<-[v\L, u,f/*ov« £'jj_titil/?' 'J'M,' il i:^ ivrijng; do IWl SpCflli h-(«! 
cidliiy iL IS vcfv hjiil, "a criiin.-" 
fjf ?^, n^'rr I:^c6, :14J] pcFlijip'i 
Hl/iiva ccrlninfv, irnLy, ■surely, rcallv 
is adt kdklelf secretlv -[lie, "far nol any knowltdge") 

EiinJ^ff /a il is .i-cH lii^i - "v-i: nrc ^l.iil ili.ii...," tondicf it i^miifiki 

"we art K^t\d thil juu Iihvi: tuiue!" ("ue ihaiik you fur Lomng") 
IJJ0 [liau I ^vitli nimiKiri-iOiii^) 
pdsi^ ilir'.>iij,'hriiii i.f one i^ulisBiinL;^: plsij^ l'^nf^4sei yu (Ins !■. Hlf ^.'[jisi 

/ifjjig m^Pinfr JjOFc /j()ji ihc iiuMi i^ ullflLifkriL I iii>i iiii^cd wJElj oihcr meat) 

pdit^ f(tUiiv^ jl is nif Rold, ]Hircfy e*^''^- uinii\i;'l ^^Jd 

li/n^ ['^^rtj'f "it matters not/' *'nev«iiriiid,*' "whaKver you ple:i?e" "J Ac 

II 01 til re" 
f*in5' ^''^Stjck i\ njj ^tnakt nes-GrmlDd, Lf I cut my Taand '. 
SUiy iimAyka £ do tioI tare if you ^j il is of im omi^sriiucaicc .. 
«y4tf ^^li.v i^ittsiinoidko^ ilo you (^vt) nirt tar-c if \\c ^vorlii' iii il "I m) 

Ijijpiirl^n-cc llipl we Vu'ork ? does i( ii-ol mailer: 
^tHy} v.ln«i rc«:c[%'[iii; a giftn meang; ''ihia was ngt expecHd, you ncod not 

tQ '"[■^VLird Tut" 
efiT^ J^v; any nin: you please; ^!.dy iigag: ■vh^lrvfrj riiiiy inlJ: 

■^iKT-iiti" yoii lik-c, any |i-[acc i^'lfatsouvcr 
rf^^jj rw^^ iian n^nnDrktjuifHa: wlicrever lu' ?a( dowti: i^By tnf^ nan 

ItKmoliihifja: wherever ihey reUirn 
iak/S'i "if mnttfr^ m\.\' tak/^n mo inmdhka "\ do not cnrt if you bavt 

com*" 
j/d correct, ri|^ti sia-sa lIil?, is dvirect, "all riphi" 



THE LANGUAGE OF THJL BONTOr IGOROT 231 

stama ngin [matt -ngitt] this iiii^lhe:il1 riglit, bni. . [L i:^] 
sufm^iiilffni l^'/cT "III Qii]/ ja] tlii; is iht rijihl o\iz^ siayiiaaJ/fsa /laii lillfcg' 

ilii^ 1;, lb*; fii^lil hind fi ,L &pc;ir! 
ayff^ sfa tfif islliai riKhl^ 
kasf'yu [kosfsiix]! llih looks ivell 1 

*fl»l^ ja a loan-wonl, u^d in aeveriil Philippjne J.iiJii^Liiigc^ ^t^ tlc.'ij^- 
TiJ(<: hI sJaJrniefli: as ihaJ of an ollirr ; heifce li^iiJ is rrc^nicnlly iiilrf|i'jl;il[J 
i[i iLnlirtn:! d I scon Tit; , like our "hn: .-aid, slic i^anJ, (lirv ^niil." "r^ "il ^v-i- 
'^i-d," !i is u'leil 111 iJie same saiee in Bootoc Ig6rot. 

'n^e iLiEerrogatiire adverb;: how? why? see 13^?, 35S, ^Sfi]. 

415. Tlic AdjcciLvc' deiicmmji ini.inuty, Indednlle Pronouns, certain 
iih^^f^ oi XiirtiH^i-al!! [[;^f.-\^(<\ .^Jwi, ^;^T, ?t7H-] art alw uwd as fidverhR. a? 
the firsi af ilii^sff c]^ainj>les shci^^ i 

i/n^^'fl'a miirh : euiifinosja 1^ d'x-^SiU'f ihey ■■^otI^ inii'.h ■ ffiJC-^iYJff'fr; ><:i.' 
aydha verv inudh, gre^i many |37o| 

nt/; link J nasiivil'lifko i.i akl! w: ^k|n liuk 
i"^t/ini copious, In great ma'*; '"ffl/nn "wana nol ID be iisfld atlrihii- 

(k'ely: 
m^i/^i! aait ilfigof- a\' fthi^a I ;fll grc^Tf iisnij' pofn 
m^i/an pthJU hiitj'^u [deiily aie lln: Ji^li 

itt^l/an >[jjr ij^Jjfin in ■;i'^:ai di^je:^ |Mii>e") clip ■,T;L-ihrt|^i)cr!^, i'tfiisi^ 
rffl^iiirijfl \' ka^uh very, i-no good ^or : kd^mcii) : biii i/pp^'^^J^^ iiid ay^ki 

can not be appPieil ^dverbiiilJi' ■villi aiijiTiJix^. — l^.if'-ain^i-ant} ay 

JanSufj; ivtf arc Jms &inall 
idiidsa more; ivodd ken lak/^'s tt.ldd^c 'j pitkuy «i,o rrti" tiJa?" I li^vc 

iDOre tice th an you 
rrro tftitcHjrffrii ej adadddsa, uitiiiyoitgltUso if we tnnn- iiinTe, ivc .yd ^lorsc; 

[lie iiiortf Ml? kiio^^', lln? \vor=ie ive bcoiin: 
frpo- furifiiCf/iiJyi. iff ainamdmid, Szakay^ uml'l^y is mnamdwid liic iiiort- 

yon u'ork, llie more i[re*l yon gi'l 
adfk l/yijen ay kar/rt 'n^Pi;au I do lion like to eat mort (lit "agaan") 
udddsa naa ftffaii u-io ittsH li^am T In^t more l[jan ym 
i^d4i<i i\Qn kan^na mo non k^jick lie ciia nwrc dian 1 
mdka 'j Sddds^Al igive (nw) more ! 

j'f -itA little, a ilick- *j|ffi«^mf;fl tj aid! llu-y iliinl^ lilire 
iflirftp "j afrA VfT^^Ajf gi>t (nn) ijiit ,1 Jink! 



^3^ THE LANGUAGE OF TH£ BOHTOC IGOROT 

akit Tjjj7i .'iiikfikii T am A Ikltc sji:t 

tilctl nan ldiefii<^ \\ is t. \{\\.\i colli 

sarnddl^a is -nnakllanf -iiaii. a liule' 

akakf! nan idtettg aiiwtini iir^i atlii^it-a It is Its? culd lo-nl^v ihnii y-c?Lciiini 

nflji S/ifay akakJf Jian falftna jjj-u ffai p/ntiii^ t[ie s|ii?ai: li ]e;« sliarp timii 

ftatsdma ny ak/l nan cnt^dn/ia'ii you are wurkiu^ loo ticili- 

kifh'if; (a [n?n ■,<ntt\} Lm liiiJe, "[Ihprc nr^ Tiiii.sinu..." Keioiig 'Icnot-:^ 
thai .1 ]'ff'^iii^ '^•^\"\t^ j^<'ii-A',<ii <^^fi'rTl^^\M^ '^i-riTij^ !■> jii>l: 'jontenlcd witli the 
amouni olTi^rcil liy the punrha&er or empiojrr^ or, lE a sinn is paid, that ii is- 
itoi siifl'icltni ■ 

t^iitng jjn ji^soih ' ii Cafk'-i one pCi^o; il i^ niic [icso Iqd fiEtlel 

kasFn, sgaw. means also; one more, <oineiDorc: 
indka ifiisifif give (mc) one (bi>iiit) more! fri^* ^^ anodicr! 

d'tgbay. yJiin^py only- ^ak/M ydugkay irnfy 1; rf/tfj y^gkay but 

ttvo, only Eivo 
Jjfli»r i/rpj;frfi3' iflJTJJjppciiJi^n'ieir/flj^' yiiii art .Hpcakinc in fun ooly! yua are 

only lalkiiig! 
(Cf. .ill "iy if (I ^ viin^kay, dpidah or: -ft-iiiJuy; ydn^_ks\- In [;^i|il . I do only 

onr iliiii;:; h^ ml :^i>Lie-di.iicc-L, "j^i'ftLj^^r {m\y \\ii& loriu, and perMH 

= ini;- 1^,1'^ ■^IvdiJ- liriinhif vev-i^'j 

pitkdm ny fnyo^ydking you do nothij^ but Unier 
ii t'iOH' "<J" "lairiddiii ^ vour [icutfier ^allier^ llie wi'<,\'i [H. n] 
ddl^na "n ■innke^-" ad/l, ad^: enough ' {Inmjectioii); od! ftrntind'^ 

it ii iiOl fiulildeHf 
ddlAna Hiin knt^al^l-idktia \i% s[?e Is sulTlcitiit, it i? larj^r; oiir.iif||[ 
ddliina mm kiMa'jofiUo \%e are iaM eiioui^li 
w3dd nan ddUim tr;; .wtr/^jj T bsve ern^ti^h 

ei^ltfna UGii kimlnl^ko I ^lilvl: t^iilrn suffiriLUlly ("niv eaJng- SuBices") 
dSUtna fUiH bHitkiUt he has etiOdgh looney (hi.', money siiFlrces] 
adt mudii'dy wni h'Utkino ?oh hav* nert enough money 
adJf saT ibis i'^ tnnugh '. 
aftdy It gel ('igin) aboui, pcrfiaps; nan iv5dd hen sak/^ii aady tigef tdU* 

'y f'^sosii I liave ^l1>ihu ihtee iietos 
aHiJy n^ct dj^a ay fffan :i.lioiil livo iiionllis 
aituiy ti_gei -ia td!a 'y Jias id about diror houiB. Cf. [306; 343] 

Th<: inicrrm^alive adverbs: hov ihiuJi? bow many? see [355]l how 
ir^rij limes? [.^56) 



THE i^AWGUAGE OF THF_ BONTQC TGOROT 2^2^ 



PARTJCItES 



416- Bontflc IpcVfit l.^n^ujije imkt% mrwi pyt(?n<iiv* iiiie of a iinnibei- 
of Ifiirliclc^ whii-li, luK';tEi-cl" with inijTC'o'oiv': inlan^fion n( senlcnti^s. color 
eidier -m '.^nlire itnlciicc or certain ]»[irls oi ,i wnlence. Tlie .ip|>llf;^Liiin of 
llieit p^rl[clcs IS liij-lily idionml[c; no iiiore deliiiid: rulet ci^ii [11? i^sliillHiLvl 
fJnii III plhcv l.inijLiage^ llian pns!es? ^mcii parLJcles. 

^Fosi of ihein :[tc |>ri*iiposiil i-c, li iliey rcfi^r lo ;i ^lini;!': wnrd: ii:=iualli' 
th*y art niiliiii: ^mrl \uy^ ■njiicfimc^ an hiUncnt': u|luii ihc iicccni: oE llie pie- 
cc'hnK wonJ; this afcfut is iiit[iiird in movo loiv.irrt the lin;il syllable. 

"rii[> vnirioiis iTieanln^!i nf [Uv'.c ^•■Art\c\\:-s,-iii\lit^\. fic seen from examples. 



417. McTJJ, j'OincliTiii:^ ^^hj^^ \b au inlcn&itc ji.irlicle: il ii ciiipLoyed \i.m- 
licularly 111 conimaLnli and qiic^di^ns. 

/'j^njfTJirff/ita "JizTi.' come down, thml descend ^ donci :io ^tcije dooli licr^li! 

IH '+1 

mdhd 'd *jjTJi.' fiTp fujiiK; ncmrf |M. 11] 

iiWt^ ?pr<3ii ^iT -TiJjj iiaitgaidna 'ih f^ijas' ivlicre shfuild lie ger meal ' {In: 
ironical, incrt^dnlou^,) fR. sji] and again: 

KLI nii-jl, pr^y ? (R- sl-^l 
inid nil"' I'l ttmis gdia^i\rk 'ih i}if where did ymi fel (« many berJtis'i 

jiafrf fii4n fcr -ffa^j riijuj^a^j d idnum? u^hflte will you lAJiC jinir weddfn^ 

fcjbl? [L. 50I 
[j^r j^^trii if" fobitiPH"! ay lielena nva iiiilfh Ibifc iiid«d is a handsomv 

)Tnine iDan mho takt3 iVic p-Jdii | Lr 3.^] 
tsiiMUiSis >vaH f?dl fo kt n^ tlitr jr^t mnrnr'l! [L. f;?: r;f. 49? 
6jtjiJ Diajj ^i7 rrflf^ izdfftzfadf ^^'liore, prfiv, ^linuld the [ilace h*:? 
i'lig/ia "JiEff.' go I go] alikftySi maiif conic nn, fcirivjird] (In ttle crvl 
wj!(jg ^Ji^y^fl ^*ii]fr stnuiy? \\-\\y i*; il [bat you go? 
ti^i^ fii^frdypt jjjflfi fifimdii lyt ivliy .lid j-ou rcliun^ iiijeed? 
"Zd^ "111" FJig-^ffl engkalf flji* %vliy do Ehcy ■opeaki' 
n^dg ^gkn uroir TPrflffairJifj^nr ay imndngon^ i.vbv do you gel up so lati;, 

[jTEiy? 



334 THF LANGIIAGR OF THH BONTOC IGOPOT 

hi^hii man adi I'lii-^litof yiXrf do you not work? 

"^dg man sa^ ^vli;U li Eli:il '' (iiirpThc; iiidigniition^ 

hi man jxad/^iiidnut (/j ^lajiihep ay? iiliy, piny, did hp clwp 50 Isit^ 

<//j; iii5lr:,-3il i>f j^j-(r) 
^ij I'tu'i fi-tip^'t nan iffon^ is /fl^r/j; ov? why liacs lie m^ke llie hosi^c ^o 

%lll3ll? 
tnidl^o man >fa^iJy»:J Id n? go i\wn fo gel "'ckh]! 

iiiii!' man si Md'yfi ity? whf re i;^ M^ilyn, ij^y '^ VVij jsi dtiiii tlRPinlicli M ^ 
b^tintayt^ 'nan^ iTtt aAVntyl "lutkl euclif" 
trJf^tiSj'ot iiJJiiJ '^ li"iv many are you iiideed}" 
Hi/hfjii "lan, ya inmdyt il [■: ccrlaliiJy Irue, tic is ^one' 
oaf man Haisdkub ^urel> jL dva noi. i^uJIji:^ [L. 2l^} 
ij«ifljiij|j]i 'ri f^cfljj ivr irnii^fii ["e.illy lo ^o [11- -i^l 

i^at fliiBL. fttiidnmo kftaf ii n mini', nut \Tjtir::^! 

Also il furiii /rr<j^j[j occur'?, ^^hich h prolKibly ^ contraciioii cf fff^jj fluri 
l|]i- liMjJilivi; |>prlii.i|ilc pfir, ficrc; 

tjakdtnJ manji iji ?j^ jma/n:^ /uip^^ w* who Eire gadieniig WSnS [f,. iS] 
ayk3ka ^nts^no ay^ ''nS.illnoak utainf! are jon working? C4:rlaEDly, 1 do 



118. Kay or Tflni (ilie iatler i? ^riirj m bt iBic llncimo furnO is ir^icd 
for ci"iipliri*,i«; it usually fallo^v* <lie word upon wlncli sinxitfl ^IrcsS ■ilijill Pic 
laid, Somclimes itfjf or pay i? placed luziivtwii the article and ihe nmin, or 
liclwccn llic |;r(;iJOftili(in iijii] the nyim. Il juny also lakf the future piclix 
ff'f- from Use verla. bill it -dwi nnl [;ik*r miy i-erbal fm-liii|^«. 

noy kay i^tfSm agin ay tns/fsa nt this spot you like ivtrch ance lo ^>e It-^fl 

:L]<>ne [S r i| 
nay p(t\ jifliJfi? uflff rVf/j?Ha lliere indeed was cooked 111* oilier (pi;j) [ 1.. 66] 
«ou /f-iTj fohiiiaii tan ffa'iy^n clii> projeci-iles of ihc nuns [B. 53] 
va jjfljf /iflv fuMlan jjojr fiJiifug [ii. &Rj and (lie IniDeEf; of Liie riUp': 
pflji /fifV "ifl'/t" ihe younger l.irolliti" 
t*f>ni j;-ff>' nan fjifiiFUmf hcrv tonics ll": >i-3ltr I [L 42) 
^(ijifl *dj ,^f' JZ/Wf/ rtT tt'iidngGldngo Jii:rc! firrr ronir'n i-rrfcclly di'v ivood 

|k:.3| 

adpayivdyiin now Indfed (ai it/dni ^vllh J^ny m.'^eried) [I-. ^1 

inSS payt inJif kay!' [K, i;] wiiere^ jiray? w^dcun? -woluri dem? 



TH£ L.A:^GUAGI; OI- the DONTOC IHOROT 2ih 



wtti tjj .<,i B^^n^ kvhere, pray, is Biil'Ie^ 

si pay Fiiftan nan 'nndnak km liickaiii/ l'\il:jn, '^hc hiii l^orii ii^ ( L, gj] 

si pay Ptilpaldkmg ma/U u^d&)i<i u kdti"ii f-Himl^kinK did iioE caltli ariy 

iisli [I', j] {i'loa'ya, furi I'j'aJjJ^ir. fr'mi n!^eif} 
ai^ii/ i^-iy'^' 'ciy suoTi! yes. suuiil 
kcfi^'fg "K^X {""i'*' ^^3' then? ^impalLent cpie&ticm at a pef^on Hsttii|r?§; 

\<r if ini-rriLiini, lo Lirs^e on llie speaker) 
^Jojh pay mo •^<sihii'i^vdit, i/)'fi /a4J^aiinra na/imMd liflw4V(r fiib he may 

Lie (Ihough. he lie rkh), he is veij' ^tiiiEjy 
ifffcJ poy Hkis n^'i ifiaatllyii '' '^licre i^ ilic haiiinier, i^^v'. "wo In dcnii 

wii:<lei' rfef Haiihi^fi'?" 
kctd pay ii/i'i faiaiiild/ ho'^ maiii- arc the iiii^ii- 
l^fijiiiii pay 'itiji /liitfpnv'^ di. viiii ri:ill' t^ii ili-? Iirtadr 
ki'imdan pBy In' Iiiij; "j^jth;. iiirk&i[ 

Sjikayii pay tiy iK'!ii'^!\ yOU, |n?^lc of Kan^u |[.. 92} 

!>i1ii^ piiy nafdiginh iiaa shcrr-^Mko in> food ia aO rotlen {fidsig: <hor- 

otiRlily) I M. ')\ 
ke!iS>ig kay mitiljfni dkis ;ind ihwi it lurns agaiii night [H, la] 

ir'/"?: proc^ro pny iind dicii il wqi^ cnokul 111. 18; cf. L 66| 

ff/iffrf fay ay iiatdn-^nldngo dry i.itwi31 fK. ^.] 

aylrSak pay ^htimditT sfinll I really so lioirnj? \K n | 

ad/^i /'B>" paiitiit'n nan pdshck, fay \itfijo/i s/'\a' do uol drive in th? iv^d^'f, 

bcrauic I ^in here'. |L S4I 
>}\ld pJiy as^lVwak T am siii^njly 11 nl married fl. ^5 | 
ddpay dkish \_akfji\ madJfy nan iii/gn^in tan ifstt 'y fjfiy ((he lire) Vihi':li 

life dog li]'iiiR4i ihero %^'ill s-urely ^ka he essjiigLiislie-ii (""die") [L. lu] 
dtdpay timd/iak I 'li:ill cerlriirily come 
ia^ ddpa-y angkdyttm 'itin ftndx^ \vx:im!-v \au \\-\\\ snreiy tnl ii|> all llie 

ji:niiiileil rite IT. 2| 

At the eEid o-f a sailenre pay and If^y appear oflen aa paya Add taya : 

Unem kayd! fine aiul "-ec! "i-ieli dock cmm;Lll'^ "just took a( UiisT 
oUi/Uy^ kayd (like one word: ^Hkayi^kay^.').' '■c-mc'. "koiniiu dojzli 

ciiinial, rdschi" 
hi:Sji>i^ sum^ubtj'a payd llicn llicy EiiTivt lal iionicji "diiiiii kaincii -■^it 

nl&o hcim" 
iydim kayd' so briii^ icf "^a bringe es dochl" 



33fi THE LANGUAGE UF THE BONTOC ICCRQT 

It is unci^rcain ^vlicllicr ilu- fjiijfc n i--. -a ['■Arm-o^ii- vowel, or whetlier 
/lay hrii lh:rn cain|>jn(.i| *vill] ;[ |S[[rll<:lt' y f4-?j) wlikli :i|l|>[^irT UTlrXmihlClfd 

■\villi pay [n llitw scciCiiitc,'', 

fijoni /jdrsuid taji frcfl s/ya yal zd give it to hun! 

rrS'jjfn fiff^' Ji akft ya' "ioon, jjk a iliorl whilu!" "in n monicin! ;'' "u'ail n 
litde!" 

l-'receded b^ J, the particte ^ai^ expr»±«i repro^i, ^a ifi il"'? I^^'^li'iiir 
dpay stdi'i! hiniudni is iimi tdk^* and why, ^ir, did ytwi not icU th^ moi? 

III. 4^t 



^I'f. Maui pay. or tiux'i\ pay m-t'i, winch i^ -> oinbinalioii -of iTn? |jai- 
(icLcs f^'O" ^Tiit /"Jiy, e>iprci;^'^ p Uro-na nsserli"ii ; 

\iyk^ umiltif' nay utndli iiuim pay munf i--. he cumirt^'.- iliere he comes, 

slircly [ 
.i/a mam pay^ ccrlainty ' it i^ corrcci, witTioiit :iri^ dqiiibtt it i'i evriTem! 
ffindya'ivii, fisy ffdy mam pay n taldki ay f\<ii\d(jan^ freu [jditjjij-f wt have 

filkil (iiiir Itfiiif-hn&kels), because, In! Ih<:rc was a man who liefpeJ 

u^ II -Vl 



jjo /fiiu/^ <!mirfe^'o «rtaiDly in Ihcse examples: 

rinrt/3 ya uimdii adivdm \w will certauiJy conie tn-dAy 

j7JJJj/i) /^'nnr(/>-fl»f;a liiev liavc uiidcnibledly run fiii'ay 

aii'i/if 'imAyfja cliey will surely gn ; 1 ain SEire (liat diey will go 

HfHtJ'pr^irij ^iir;i sikda — ent/tic 'd man nitida. — ann/S pat.fSn^ fu shda the 

■^un Iin-n rcadi-f^d I'hf iiiiridle: Id ys go lo eat dinner; surdy il iii linic 

fori! [liiiJii^tTial S'mgJ 



4jr. -^ffji, uiujllv ill combination: ma" j^i^yf Or. ma diiji cxpresws 
isoineilinea a rEqiieat^ in blalcmcnl^ ddj\ h^^ iilfirnialiive ford?: iaideed- cer- 
tain I y. 

i^agk-dlfkaya man ddjit ^pt^k, prai'! 

dtika "i<tn ddji lon-ic, |hl4-asc' 

fkayf* man ddjl: come iKcnl {\^\\y do you not come; come nowl) 

ijirtf ^fia .Jrfyfuopi indyapi^ whcrt rti^ yuii £o, say.' 

tfHrjiJijfJ'^a Hrijji (frf/i7 so nork ilicn ! 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC IGOKOT 237 

tniiihadc, kddija man ddjif haw many jrc \\ki-; inilccd? 
ifamti adjf su-' ilil'i i'i llic rij?:lit thiTi^, lo b*: 5nr<:f IL. 5s| 

sd^fa 'd Sua ifAji JU -<jurf'«J.' ^^lel-U'i £Olaee[}Ltr, fjth&ffLTid ^6n! |M. Tt] 
^, TnJi? Hra fif^/f nai fhidyA ^ well, where ilien is ilie ptjunded r[i:e ;■ [L. 57] 
9\iifig/nt^iig^m ma ddji nan idnoiJifo' you aiTaiige oiii wedding fea^iE, 



4??. ft'mtur pnH (^aw i'i Ihc llnc^iLil f iimi ) <:yprf:'n-'*i j^tonis-biiient, 
BUfJjl-i=c: 

sfnn kaii saT vrho, pray, is that? .Gcr. "Ja^ wtr ist denn (Baa?" 

With I'erhal ending*: if»w kanria saf wbo are these? 

ioniiitydn pun ii no/'-fiiiii uon l^rf/t'^hui'rf'' h^iv quickly our food Tj.Tsbcen 

^-'XtkiS't I R iG] 
3Ujjg![j'(/n /Wfl ij itda^!f(i.w>i i^ nan i^lf^i liu^v ljuLcIlI)- yen fcjujid iln: kty 
sai^giiyiffi lean nv'i iiifigynfam iir^w qiii|-kly jou liriiu^'lil IT 
*f^jT^ tfl« 'ivf^^ kelj^ii'- uf[ j/i m-on^ky^f ivliy, an^ tli^<Leal1 ><^iir cliickens? 

fi^iTfg ka» aykit^a wmo^ihi^^n)^? i.jv, -viliv il.t yi.ci ivntch me from above? 

r'lpCj j^tru, tEfljj^'id niarndtpab ya adfks ^itud ttal/tiipisf<; where ihen ? it i-! 
easy Bn r.aich, ami jiiii can nc^'Cr (nv>c jii nil) caicli li ? (K 6?) 

'['he phraser ku'idy poji, ^jtHnrlimes with endinca, expreases fli^iist 

Eind ^urpriijtr 

Jjanrty pan.' amfuydia 'jft jj nafikodka' wliyj 1*1 ihal sc! ulii^ is []ie reasrtci 

wliy j'nii are so lean! [M. lo] 
i-anrtykn pan Ji [afrtyif Imiv niiBerahle yon at-e, li'otiianl [M. 17 1 
ianfiyka pan si olhvid^ ,vlinl a hji'l friend yiiii j,re! 
^aifii^rfayfii tflj[ fj f^tmabfaWfnjd' ivhat poor fighters 50U arcl 
kanattja pant Lion I1.-11I ihe^ ^irel 
ifan^kam! pan' how iH.rf[Clicil we aT?' 



4^3. t'j, inlriMliiciTig a qu^^linii, esTpr^ci^t!!- curjiri^* or indijsDa Hon ; il. 
■ricsignales als/^ a caii'ie a^ sclf-cvidcnl fmil to be confotindc^T wiih iTic c-?p- 
-uLi^w, or wilhyff; and) : 



23S TH1-: LANGUAGES OF TUE BONTOC IGOEOT 

jra in'^ /my fj y^'frrfiiov' "'lyj whefc is Akuiiaj? Gtr p, vio isl dcnndir 

Akufiay ' 
ay^kffd ya.' gu oiil ^ ahead I Ger. also vorwarUt coniiniic then! 
yait^ti^ iian fnniad i^rhhj sjapdnmo^ vvoll, ^vlia< ba& happened to your foot? 

I'liJil !■; Lhi: rndlH-r \\-\ih >'(>iji" fiw>r^ 
aykS .Hkdyir [!,!iiii — ya\? ""how aboirt you?" 
(Tr^/ iFrujE t(]J\i7tr^'f ^uj' ^'ika 'y yd'i/a ya ^n^ka indmifhitish ii is noi eiioiigli 

(rn yj^tir k'jr-fujib''0. brr.niitf y^m, Ch^ oldfr Risi^r, always gn li^iih- 

jnj; (in-H|-:;nl r>( ivjrkin)!) Git. wtil du ja inniicr- - |I- eRJ 
>■(! %fli/ 'luii ffilu^ylV '^-iia^ T. liy, hoiv many V'iCS have you here' t L. 45I 



42j|.. Vdka (.■vprcssc'^ ''iIkih ni Icji'^Ef ilit s^>e;i](pr c^n -not oblain lehal 
he wi.!>hcs -icir] ji'.li'n fiT ■^'FTii-clhlng- jrFijrjyr Jn'.lc^iJ. 
yifhii jH^kn ntn ^dji " Hfltt JH^^tO'i^ wc:ll then {^.,if you dn iio( ^'ivc me ^ny 

iLienl...). JQ i;[vc UK ril Iciiit suim: rki; (instead) [ 
plikA'iiiix' — otffixk. — yiiku [tfi^i/i'cVrr if^y/.' come here[— I .slull nO( 1 — 

well lljen. slay ibcrd C^cr. nun, HO IjlerLe liorl! 
ilsneuii^iiw ^[ju (ifiiy ay nay! adf; if^^lok jfl, yiil^a map tiQ/i klpul' <(4si! 

f-'ive me Ibis apear! Xo; I keep it. Well, 50 give ine ^t Icasl Ihr: 

knife 1 

Vi/.^u yiiim nan y^i-ci\i^ nan iiiiti'^n -■<? ^^'^ "'^ i* l^^^E itio e.w of a fish! 

'[P-A] 
v^kts y')v'\ mai ran kSn-cug nOtt ijiitd! 10 giW ITW al lea^t the ear ci a 

'iiijjll n^h! [P. 5] 
jF^frtf v^if>r ijmn ?jpii. aptSng^y .^" tlkkd'n^! ^o give me at least Ihe 3eg of 

ci-ah. Gf!!-. ■h.^ ejlL mir dwh i.veri|j&lCTi& tine Krehsscheerel (F. &J 
ydtay^im man lai^ fsa 'y falfiia' so^ivcineat ItasLojtcironposH IF. ia\ 



ft iin.iv[ lie H3[&l[ngiiislied from nio\ ii, iirti fr.iiii m^. ih^in. 

rifwd^t^tfi'jnra "^0 you certainly come he re 

k^k sa mo- ikt^ak sdmo] ihjs ii ceTEainly mine! frt^auj sJm" (his 1^ 

vour^i i^iivcly 
■ins^ pay sak/^ mo^ ivliere am T (in a ])lclure oi it |^f nup of iji^ror:)^ 
ko si Fdn^ed nd>noi Ibis 15 Fangc<l, indeed! iHls ii Panged, 1 Jiirt lurel 
ndang ndm6.' lliis U indeed a bnlTala! 



THE 1-ANOUAGF. OF lllE BONTOC IGOKOT ijg 

Jgip ihdfnof that ia a deer^ to be sure 

[ii confbinalkin \vi[Ti >'U I423I; y^mirn? ^d^m hoh irf/e '>■ iayJanJ 
ct!rlain[y yen Itic Ihrrc Iwskcl*; [T. 34]^ 
n/fiig^ko ^pom ndino^ wliy, this is vour 1p^! [K. 81 

tta'i£i/o Itifiam n^mo' n'lfv, llie^e iire your iriTii! |K. 9] 
sohlSi\£mo n^ttio {na mo) IIil; n 5iLfi!y your lial 

Obser-vc fhe phra^ie: tna k3 wum fay... "no wonder; bccaus*,,,/' cer- 
tainly bceausi;, — 

Mill ko ittau lay jiniiyko flua, /i-'<a"t iiipdpf'n no irVOniJcr: ^el:Jl^i* I lisvt 

[ired il liril, yoii ^vill c^lcli ( the inn) |L. k^^ 
nto kd man lav iiiisipa/hig ken sak/in *iiy, certain!!^; bKBUse he oiadti 

me aiigty | L. 7.>f 



J -C- K6 rxpreswa surpriM \ ihitv it 1^ uscil in oudden reccgnition, inlro- 

kb si An^ay itiftHo .' ivhy, this is certainly Aiigay ! 

hi' tjatSyj/i man 'la' why, ihib, h Jiule.td you Ch«"*)! 
ki- fii'fsja -in ny? "'hyj '* it (hey? Gct. die btimI es also! 



427, A'rfif^^td, :l iiJLLEid? with vprha) cii'lin^, introHnceg s«iit?nc<s lo 

eqire<i?i ^x\t\\t\'-M jLtfrl ■-^meliineg repro[ii:h in an c xc [am alien 1 or (lut^lion; it?. 

KOsfgkSkay^; eEc ^nangkdk; nifngkom. 'lan^^i'diia etc. 

iVjjjj£i;o i*^ oEl*ii iollowcd by; ''^J-f [poi!. ^'^ii] 
iiifngti''l'i \tt4>is>!em\ oldi^ii iiat ktiyot '■'^ i[ j^ uni ivlii* inkc llit wood! 
/[fljdgMflfr lifodd'stta! '-.hv, here I am! Ger. aLw da ware ichi 
nai^l-i^ wiiifd 'snaJ <,i- he is here I (or: Jtorfff'Tud Tifl.') 
Fraflgfe^ poJ -fi Mdiysc laf nl*^ 1^ ibaL io. i= ilii^ M?lui^ 
«ojf.^tif«i bodztda [mej^^ieI nan sokldn^ko' 30 in was you who took my hat! 
iiQH^ki^m b'id inSla jjjji fa/dvi.' ?rt it .t^i^ lie vvlio unvv fMe woni.inl 
no»?^tr^ita /ftti/ maiS'aep? *,o '-irnj art ^ileeiJini:;-- 
drf,' n^ag iffljj a/fifij firff iTiiic^ifrci [antfikoy] tiaktutk-jcda.' seel what big 

Legs he ]\3st 
Adrtgkft pod oi/dley nan ikdk/an nan kaifm in/iiit'! how wretched 1^ yout 
?|epTiioi.hcr'? acting' [M. 10] 



^40 THE L.'^NGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGORGT 

najii^kblJbo o^shde^ n^sn sAengMiJa '^ amfii inn findkta why, have w-cnot 

prociLii'iJ fornl fitr all our cSiildrcii? |M, 17] 
jifijrgW>(r niangfsii u fafifyi! why. yim ^ic ^ miserable ^vcmi.iii ! fM. 17] 
iidngkoy JJaw pdlli>iig !}i? Iiom- lilil il bri:Ei1: oH here (a ^pent-libdc) ? 
naji'^hb ma/id makAhanf why, iI*ctc i'. nJ^Hiin^ to eaE ("rjolnltJc" ) 
mtn^jki} ijol tF^l^na mq/i ma/ii^mii^tinyitn^kiiy j'j aati cJudjftitfp.' ivtJM licrc 

arc ilio^e ivhn nli-njE &ai up aiy s ki^ar-citiie ! | S. 3 | Jd. 3. 4: bi/d 

M'lihoitl pjif>P],'iy I 
^ningkbm hand)! en " hv> ^i^alitdk^ ii mm Hi.... whv, yoa ;a> ; "wiitn wt 

con»e lu llio inwii.. |rci>rii.-n']ilnj; lln:Jr li'.-nler) |B. i6| 
natighb — pispishash dngUay^ u-h_v. iinly lutiily teiitsf |B ?g| 
naH^fio &y^f, fctldgnid Jiuii jisvdyak ?<lprjl,f "-hy, llii^ man calleil u^ out (or 

lijiirki |'Lir]>rUe aiul iiwlignjiikm of ilic ln6roE called liy ibie k;nlcr 

o( tlip ifl^ur^ei^cs "to a tkni^e") (R, ?6| 
ndngko S^kketi ay tolffcn^f I'ln, (liji, jj, a. diJrcrcnE dance' (B. 26J 
nd}igk6ma/!d madSy ken tsatdki^ ay i ^Jhf; nitn^kc keij^n^ nan vi'iitttktii.'.h 

h ifngsGti nan madSy ^i\(\ ■^trl ntiiii' uf u^ Ijr^'^roi had +g!ltn: <>nfy 

of []ie iLi-^nrjtclns iii^Jiiy h^^l fallen jB. 4^| 
ilJiii;kiy shSnS nan Sna^a^y \vl\y. Ihiij (jne is a lucky fe!l(Mi-! [R, 39] 
naiigko akiai:fl! uhv, il is vi-fy l[(llel 
H^rt^in? juJ'-rf'fi»>j^/u(i/rt_£Uci «irn tfl3.i(i^ffyH:' why, yonr "gculuK wi>fid" i? 

worthless! |K j] 
nn't^tjt pjifi H<f ifli Ji ng£lmiit^anta ay ^iadki is ki^llins \l is surely beller il 

ue tl^o hio^hers dijiif^- ourselves inl<^ tattles [K je| 
fHJij^'tJtfl i\afj</"j:fl ntmlpads^ ay hat sah/iHf -why^ yau make me 

a.=bamed |l^ ^i j 
riiiJi^f'^bin inlAiak sail ka'iliAd'H^i ay'' why haiv yoif piisJied votir brofher- 

iii-laiv Liilo die rock P [!_ 79] 
nangb^kav^ if^mfingai' Lt fUlil^n it apfiv.' wJiy did vou tarry bringing 



42S. La. oflcn combined v.[tb tim» |^ee examples in 417], scrvti to 
color a seiLcciice, parlicular[y a (|ue5iioai, with some irony, incredulity; 

iiti^ fKjjjj /ij nan nan^Aiam sisaf uhere did you heac that? Gh". V'n v^'illst 
kad initn lit tan wi-dd ken styn? bow miicb (fnc; he rbim lo h^ivc? 



THE LANGUAGE OF THL \ION10C IGOROT 



241 



429. Observt the use M la in the 9i:^>rrfLit plir-n&e : 

tsdka la 'sit sa? whaE can ^'cu do, — noDSHiac 1 

t-'-dka fa '.<!i ja, stitS naii iim/fiai'i si ^i/iif/urf Tyi" ^I'^nl fO iii^rrv ?!) — noii- 

•:':3\i'^', wli<.TC u'lJI ym i^cl your ^le^lilicac f^in.iL? [\., jq| 
tt^ti^ Iji? uiitonf'iigifa ken ijiIc/^ii^ n^ksioid! Viiii^ i« liiaLP yt>iJ want 

to figlil: ^I'alii nie? noHsciLse] 



430r 'i'li E'ti], ^fftr tcrli'. ■]( 'vi^'ijiR, uitroducea botTi direct and iiidi- 
rrrl dTftc^hirM', jl c.tLi never Pic onnllcd: 

kcf}Cng '■•a-Zn ka'/tin 'laii l.umdwig en "mdko'^h tslia 's inytiirii! ili-cn 
iid&t kaadti miftla £n "iiangko mfd. . then ssy Elieli [iiollie]" "ivliv.. 

itan hiilii:} hm{.'ifnh\a '11 "jidfk k^yif^it ia" '.he nmii baid! 'T do not want 

isitfa'tl kii'tudmUt... iliefi h? Slid... 

/i-fprcjfiifi ity jjiUFEjr^uj/jj^ cir '^iadika^d man!" ]i* wid: "go liome!" (Tie said 

savirii^") 



Tfu' ]i.ii(k-I!'^ ^iVn /■i[^^^^, (i[ivc Jmn Iri'.Uc:;! in ]'r-:c'xliii[" dtidiOnd fj4^; 
3ii6] i uji emphisi^c'^ .1 r|u*:'lH'ii^ pitad » nf^aliun. 

Tke i>arcide l''. furminfi ibc t'iiijiin':[iv<: .>f vi;rbs: SM |e88, 191, 343]. 
\ S^;nii' \i-iirjl-i emimcTuTeti anuvni^ "Adv^^^^e"' ntay also Iw i:l?i'i5ilu'fl amMig 
Ifi^ "t'jrlidci/') 



^42 THE LAVCJOAGF. OF THE EO>n:0C TGOROT 



CONJUNCTIONS 



jnndium; {.i'^: yn, la, iin>, Uiy vk.) ar ,^dv^'rlJ^;^l iOfijiiii[:liriJf\ vvhiili [ire 
r«+llv ^dv'crlis .null ^re Ir-ealcrl in llij^ clj.f|ilcr "cily li'x^ii'^': ihiy niriy h*: 
considcfpJ C<^n;uiicEii)iii in llfnt ihev in'Iic^ite the loj-H-'iil coiinciCion luztivcc]! 
aenteaces (as; dkii,i/ct}i'u^. CS etc ) ionieninics prii'Q.HJiional plirn^c^, i. e. 

Certain coajtinelion^ lake die cnilmgin from the verb. 

AfCiir mii.!t connincliniii the "iiiverlod order" is ^bsicrveif, i. c. iTic coii- 
jiintilnji i-i follijhvcj l>y e!ic verit, the vorb by lis ^ubftci, nbjcci, -idvi'i'lilzil 
adjiintlii ^U:. 

'J"Itc -C'vjrrliiirili: OillljllTlf lijll'^ ^ttz :.|\l^tl\■^\ Cxchf^\\ c]\ liScd 111 I' In nil]** 11 
cci]i^'ei'^iilLi:iii. Al^n in nnrrjifiT':, fur-ifiixi- [i iTcfiTrtd !■> h^ I'lilrtxi'-. 

COOflDINATC CONJUflCTlO-WB 

432. Copulative: j^, and, comiects su^le words with ejich other, 

nan dpny ya n«Ji ij^nSim lire aud waltr ; sak'/^ ys atka I iiJtd ytiu 

SI j/^^jfT y« Si /ml fr\\\KJ -.tud tiiollier 

nan koi^tufstug yu ki-^i^-iliK/ia-lrii ilse |iigs ^iicl do^^ 

si Ot'fihV" y<l ii /. «>Ji;/j%fl'! Olrt&liaii and Laiign.j;3n (or i (y'a Olfiihan ki^\ 

kefjt^irx "'"^^' '^^'^'^ "''■'" f'ii'^uiii^iinya ya i'iaba!d i/kai Itef dfr'ui nan 7^a ay 
soitKid%o rfi[r[iij>o(i cojik.-;^ again tLe ■coiiij>aiij-' aud dicii again one 
soldier is rihut |B. 29] 

jfi^r^y lif Mti" Jiff j/M(f / aji /tr/iy l^t^ jmtl ^li<- 

For l!n: con&lriiction! J/o A gpdnt'H'QM km TSv^ay A !iinl T. ; tfa 
4*na icc'i fiiit f^lhcr 3nd iiiolEier; see "Collective Arlicfe" [^^l Cf. ^iiid'ia 
the faTlier and liis cbild [60] For: siimadhSmi ken -iintero I aati Antero 

jjo home; [408 "wi[h"| 

(CopiJiniivL ctJiLJLjiioiiim ya must lit ili^linj^iiilnid from the copula 3^1 
("is, are, -was, were"! flod Irom tbe panicle haa [+23]) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGORO'I 243 

The n^^ativc copolative is 6«n m ibat examples. [325] : 
bti-g ken -tak/Zn dhii /sitk HoMh nor diff I '<•:>: il 

Or <i\-Ky-\ ■i.itli oiiiLssion ul llie Licir^li^'c : adtak i^iiihiuiii ii Ij^n-um^ iflg 
kefl siya dki': 1 dn iicil flriiif; iiiv u;iLei"; nor doe% lit. 

Kf:[tln:r — nor i^^ alsii CNjirciicd by ad/ — paying. 

^(^\y■^yt^<]cu^: ■:rin-^lrn'.(nm [- fr''<[ni'n(lv ciiiiilriyLJ in einiriiiTnl[oL] ; al=o 
isdtd: "and then" i=; diicii iomid ni^ conncclLvij in ^ ■vrric'^. {dUtd dl■^iJ;■■ 
DO-tcs usuaJly tempur^il siiccesbioti: "one af Eei' aa uilicr."} 

isded fildtijin nan yun/dita Tian wtinLiJia isdcd -nan dil<:dm»u ya nan 
^n^kitJfi^ yd nan i'^kiSH^im y•^ nn^ fobung^nn ya ">fJi i^'it/inj^na 
ya tian t/okJrJaa ibeii lii:; ol'ler hir-^Ther li''jk olt bi::^ bm-'.h-clull], 
tliK\i Ins sIilI! t.ih! Ill- ht'U ^frid bia Ijiit iind bi^ |iipc Jjui i^i'. bra^a- 
i-liiiin ^iirl his bna | C. &] 

rtg'iain 'uii tj!ikdflckif ya Jiiiir '<i'ant-iho. >\an ha!jf»g>i-^, sJim fiohb'fiijiko ya 
na» fohd'tgat liold |kcqi) my M^, Ijrt^cli-LlQlli, cl»am, lifil andpipc^ 
|K. fj| 

ketjSng iHJ^if'^ian 'lan ofol no'i gdn^sa ya uwr iijush^ isdcd nan fdiSnan, 
isdcd ncii i^'/ko"!: llicn l]ic r;il l.r'^i;;liL uiu ilie ^-tv^ ^lultJie f^pfnni, 
Ibtif llic i^r, iheii [Im |iv::jIIu |R. Ti<| 

ay^^a nan i'Ufhh ay kdly'ii, nan IjiUfd, liOfl it&kamd, isded nan Itl^a,^ 1 
lui^r i.uisilit ijlincy of ft^: t., ff , crabs- and "itling." {P. 7] 



433. Ai>VEB£ATivE; niddnnir \m'^. The conjunclion "but" ia in moat 
cSE^cs oiiiLiicjl, jsyrnk'^c ^nlilliu'iK pnidiiijing ^ ^[roiiHiT, niorr iiuprc^ivt 
OMifraioi lljjn jTiny ■.-■iniiintLloii, AI*o ya, ^iid, li sninclimr^f. U'.ed iii^tcEid qI 
the more f i^rccEuL siddttayx or the pbra^ae qay mod ddji inti'odLices adversa- 

dVL rTiin-.i;'..-^ 

inrii/^y jf Mi/Jt^'i^, iH"idh -li 0!:hJian Molciig hn? nuin;, bni OlQaliaii iia^ 

&[n:;LL-!f, .iMj'; jiTid i^bidd'^, I'm iii ^uil^ |R. 2^ J 
ifaflff^jio jtfK sak/in mm isija; fatten tiiidpay! send, me some meat, but 

n<j Ejri':ldf 
hcSj^ni; 'ffui TJii'fw T<m t»^<Ttnii, fiiddnipv t^n/fii f^yn ihen the tim bad bwri 

Ciinkc'l, lull !!<■ iiicnl [1-- ii| 
if^fok nm Oiu him. :.iiltfmy iulaiiis fismitla I k':i:]Hhe dog litrf, but it 

ivill aifnin run wiiC 
l^'y/l^mi ay laayi^bSa, siddiiay })i/ii [im/fdl a.pdy ^-v ^I'^ui CO sniuke, but 

tbere 1^ no L^lil 



2U THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

adi inStjaa adxjfdni, sidd^ay adtJtJf/Ofl asTV^kas h dods not r^iii 4o-d;iy, 

ii\{iiiiff<lco )nin kfS-nn. iiddnay i;:d<ii natriiMih 1 ^fspchfd for the koife, 

liUL J I'ljiili] ii'H liriil Ir 
.•iah/^ii ^ri^Aii_i^iiai- , ■iiUd'iiV I'ihit ama'n/dlca f wm vamiy, liiu ^o^l iire nkl 
iiif/ua \cJi 'iv\i /.I'JQ, i<dd'i<i\' nmi indkujx \'iif>ni \iyni'iij\ |jt 'It'CS iiqC Ijrjns 

KttjSng "tbal i' ^11," 'V^^crpt," "ilicr<:ii|"iii," i<:L I^JfJ- ,'3^7. Z^'^- 4^^ 
etc.] servos an siivcr'-mrio irfniiuiKd'H]. 

ildek amtsi crv johfafilfi^ kcrj^iig si ^k^lay is taa/fd tsna I see alt wcmieD, 



43i DisjVNCTivs: payin&.t^\ 

SitiJki p-jy"\f^ fof'h'i ii J'J.^i^ '" ^ ^^'H'l-.'i'' 

si Aii^iy ptiym^ -'•i lading ^ni;;iy -jr I'^rlijijj 

'/tci pay'iid ,*/>'■? ynii or lie 

r^t^^^ 'fr kf!'ui\ foyurd fakSti turn pfitaitg hand (mc) a knife or, if diCre is 

noni', nil ;ix ! 

afciT l"-nirjlT01V 



4,^5. '"AJ^'frhi^fr' Codjinrctions are: 

suk/hi jikii 1 ^Ist-. ii(7Pf fufffyi itkni ilic 'uniiaii loo 
j^^ £^ si^/^ Akin I aJ&D (lit. "like ine, tu"; 



4,'(0. Kctj^'ii^, ijElrcnJudiL^ ii .■vcnLciicc, i^crvciv as icuijhjraJ tonJuntlnVTi; 
JlioLeupoii, ilien. (In ii-cgligeni ptoiiiiiici^iiini U'^uallj; k'rjJtsg - or scarcely 
amJifjly : 't}cni; ; alai "kftjdii^^' DCCL]r&. ] — As l[ie f>i:iginal iiicaiiiiig of 
ketjeng ieeiii? In refer lo sonielhjng iiccoiiipl [^he^l, "tlial is afl," '"n \i eiid*rl,'' 
it inay be nearly eqiiivaleiil: to- the I.aLin coimeclivc phrase '*quo factg," 
\vhilc "th^Tcforo" ivfuild bf^ a Iree [raiial^tion. In n^irriTivc the Igorot will 
iicvcT gtc lircd Lrgiiiiiiikg eacli iieiv ^eriCerice witli ihjs lfcf;^ii^. 

The cDmnioTi constTucEion -ailer ketjeng ie the order: verb — suljecl 



THE Lj\NGUAGE of THE BOXTOC IGOROT J45 

nan laldkl irtmdii V dfon^a. kctjihtg a!deii (itn'i) a^d^-n-'Ane ny fnfdyi iidfl 

Ihc niriii cmni^^ Bionit; llitn Lis wife takes liis liaL., (llii^ M?coiirt 
iKrdcr is ^rmpfoyed rarely a(Lcr kctj^'i^') 

tlii;n lh<; i*iipl* ^lecnnie a greal iiimiy, ilicrcupon llicy h-:cn.^uc the 
inliahii.-JuK ii( ilic lATXh ('^'orUJ. [L. 15I 

Kf!j^ng followed liy llie ligaliire ay: ket}ing ay iiiitja'd infftnh 
theri^lipcin lEii'v fea^leil |L. 66j [Keijhig ay iiieiiiis also scnin?l[iiieii: ihcrc- 

kesf'*'!^ ny iimfiiun^ttii ii "ati sjjniim ihereiipon 1 dr[nk lln; ^»'al<.T 
Ic^ffJfig f[y ^TjjJJfin^iJJJ [huftii]rfj» (rii" "tlwH lliially") he su'iTike |P. 12 | 

43^, Hi, i-d, >, \i j-i ini enclitic '.I'njimcli'"!: "ih-i:!!,'' "ilicri iviihr>Lit 
dtlay/' ""Jiiiin^fliaEely Uieii ;" it signifies rlial llie =iic<.ci^irjii ttf dccil!: ■jr <:vrii'3 
takes phee rapi<l]y, liriiiieiliRiely, invariably, retrnliii'iy. Thug it is used also 
■jiu-ii ji- lln; lic^imln]^ tif ilie ;(|'xiilosl'i -^1 cniifl[iioiii[l clTii^ee., if llie |'r'>rri- 
■Hi^ pirci'fcs. ( II must Ih' dislrneiiii^liLd iruiii llic pniEicle i^d or cf irhicfi 
forms the "coniuitetive iiiuo'l" of vi'rtefj,'--lt is used .i*. conjinicdtni ul-mti 
Eind also in coniliLLuilLon willi atlicr ^'CHiJunclioiLS, as riUny* I'-iili ili^ M- 
lowing: 

43S, Tsdsd, [Jifreiip'jn, Uien, ihen iiiiniediaEcly. 'I'lii'- "co-iiiinmn'J" 11 
on^idrri'-O 'jni' ^^■^^[l, lliL: lirsl eleineiit of wliicli, fjp, t^kr^ Iht cnllinj,'s IrOni 
ihe verb. If llir; herljal (Uridine ^iLiaclied lo fit) has 8 final vowd, e is dideil: 

'rf. IFiir fVrffi iir /.fffl""!/ Ihc forms; '.TJd, V/ji^frf, '^fttft/, dM lo neglieeiit 

|iriiinfjicialrciii, are used frcijuciillv 1 

/jjiefi l'^ pr.jl>alily -a coinbiiial[oii nf ihc iireiiaj^illnn ii :iiid E[ie lutalive 
adv-etb .Vii, aii "upon thcte" ol' "thertypijn,'' fyllcjwed b^ ^^ = "Llien." Ihe 
forms q[ tliis can] unction arei 

Permnal : PoBsesfiJve : 

[. i^akcd iuihif 

z, i^diia^it isdmcd 

3, ijrfed [u-i'rf] iydna'd 

T, iTjfl, isardkiy'd isatdko'd 

J, esci, isdkSmPt! i^Jmrd 

III. isiiija'd i^dtja^d 



34^ THE I.AMGLTaOK of THIi ROXTOC IGORDT 

Tlie ConatnictifflT* arc: 

aj with [It r i ■> n ;i 1 vtrba; ia tbe 3. person aing;- or plur. The sa\t- 
jcct is: 

a) ,1 iirrijuT nrimc; ts-fcil i/miili si Fii't^c^ tficii T-inijml <'Onii'fl 

3) pi.TS'iii:3l prun-jiin, jrd persuii : i.^nfcJ iimdW i-fya ilien lit CDGies 

'isdija'd nmiiii {<;*ii!j-i) th?n tlicy Qomc 
'Hie subject U a pronoJin of i^^r or iiid pcrs : 

i;j?tc^rtc/'ii i/inith llicii ye come 
i.iutiij^'fJ 'tucifh Ifu'ii vuu come 

h) with ji II s ■^ c - '^ i ■■ e vi.tIki, in 111* 3rJ person aiiigiilar or [ilurnl, 

Thv sub JKt n : 

i) a subatantli'e in^ctf imiitn Ji^rr loldhi [li-.'n the man says (not: 

i-.-j/jj(rVO 
i.\iltja^d kumln now /a^fii^£t^ IhiiLi (lie intn ^ny (il?o : 

indcd; h\i\ Jlic (tlilrnl rn-rliii^ Milfisccl to isa- li n^cd 

TL^^Lif^rly iv-lrli ]>Jiir^| nlum'.) 
£) ii ]rriil)Cr iiiiinr itjJrr' Iciitdn l-'d'i^fd iJicri 1'',itij^<:(1 aayS 
Z) 4pcri,pronutid w^Tjjrf'^f tawif'ii ilstm lie sajj; 

isJlja'd kanda thai they say 

lidtjd'ci i-, iL^mi, btil llic stiljsl.iriCive i^ [inxi'ln^ by lUc Iii;:l1iire ftin 

iid'ia'i! kmidn ay n/kcidka then lie saya, my frienc] 
liJljor'tf kanfin ay alheidka thtn they say, my frieods. 

If th* SttbjecL i:^ J iir'jMOiiTi Iff [lie ivE oi juiil p^raon: 

isiUdhtf'd f^oiiii'i ihtn n^c ;;.iv 
ij;Jl'j*'d knmhr lln:ii yoii i;iy 
ijf(jff['d kaiidn ay if^dlvl Jhcn ^vt 1,50101 say 

(Thp r?asDa3 for these various CDfistTucBims have been e^qvlaioed ic 
preceding ch.iplcrs; as [aoD, 20T, aoA, 209] etc) 

ui»\ip<lko isatdka'd mniriyif^ .i-e j;^ ^nul ilu-ci ■■■^ O'-li^ 

iia}i laidbiiiimdh isded I'^usiitio Udcd Husdycj' \.\\i n?an came, then he 

ivorheil, llieii [ie &lepE 
ivmfly -vfya, ud^a'd ff'tkiLvh nan fiiU^ he h^ciii, lIigti fit hurled ilie <iiotic 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOUOT 547 

Hinldlii-il-ak ir^tllcid [toe: istfla^d] rjfispaj^ nan ihei I rjjji, ihen I cat^ht 

(he dng 
jjjjjjrf-i'i'j \a hdmcd j'idia lu^f l}ipi!nglic yoii warn and then you took my 

knife 
ivti'il /u'luwil'fin i?j]ia ^Iilli ['"pilicr s^i'l (duta \s v.iiliout nr^icle, ^s [fie 

lLiclcIc in [he Mymin. ivoiilrl b<;: 5j; nolice lln? Iigj^il -p^ ^uJlixcil [ft 

ti"5('j^jjj r "ill'' ^p''iik[iip: I'f I'jillicr'') 
noH tablabSiiit uin'mfifi'ii^^kay^, ijdiciiyii'ii nangdynig, 'sdei! man^utmiiiii!- 

gosh nan polpmi^y at fit&t you dance:, then yon mii^' .Liid T"i[ia]ly 

Isiitjo'd iimiiy nan talddiinin si Mi-Ukdnt td Tdfnig iheii iln? Aiiiccicaii 

■jtili|H'ri rii:|r^h In "^J'lilul'JU I l^i 6-l| 
itdiia'd it\<t"i^giiak u-y siiuUti; is!ftjir\! m^mtjon is Jiinr 1,-titJyita" ; isded 

ha'iiiji rr.jrt fK^lp'n .. Ilifii Llic vwf hn.iiVn^r': w^nX lo work, Uicii lliey 

ilrrlvrl in tIli' li>rC-[, lln'n lh|" vOLHiirrr -^i|lr,^^. [J^ i] 
isdtja^d cii p^ffi'igi-n ad MubUdbcddbud iLicn Llicy went lo inundate (111-: 

l;Lnd| :\\ \\:\]>i\\\\w>\.V^\->ixA |L. 2] 
isdtjit'd riiafJi,-'!^ h'i'Ia rc^jPi iiiif<dpiti:ii''- ya hdtja\l ^'i iiii'ilifl'-'i' ii 'inn 

fiillli: (cv: I307I ) lli'ii rlLI nn rlniiik, nil in,irri|'<| iiim, ainl Llim 

Lliey ijo Lii CikldL pii-^ [IT, 15] 
isdlja^d falarjcit na'i fdlu^, Udtja'd :<aQfd!e'i.^. llitn llir> fhluel Llie ply, 
llitEi lIu'.- iMrn 1e (oei LLitir iiliaiiliE'^rn^ |L. 17] 

jAfitiJi'^rJ UK m^iii* thai Mca;o tutat (un: I307I ), 

it severed \*:j\y^ EnlCrKi- Mii^ 4:^uiiclion, it lakes thfi endings from ill': 
nearest verb unly. 

isdlju'd HiangSydyeng ya kaKdtitsa ay wmns^JV^tM then tliey aing aucT say 

is^lfo'd ivint^fa va hap^vtjo... tlicn thcj'" get (cfsry) and make fpoti'') 

i^hdna'd sibv''>\ '\an f'difgn ya ifljr<^Piff'jr,,.llicji he cyls ll]*^ br^nclici ^nd 
Myi. . |k". 7] 



43i). Kj'lJ^iig Mid u^ficf combined t>ceiLr in tbeae otaraples ; 

kcii^i'g iidcit hisiidn JOH fiijdvi.. rhereTipon "tbHi"" the woman says.. 

bctj^'ng iidi;a'd h'^fygfn I liereupon they performwi the '"aangiu" ceit 
iiioiiy f 1„ (I? J 

created tb« salt ar Lakang^u {L. 18] 



J4S THJ£ Lj\NGUAGfi OF THE BONl-QC IGOHOT 

440d K^, yd kit^ "^aod tti€?D" is luied pimilArly Lo isded. as these eKsui' 

jiles iJfTislraEe. Soiiietiiiie^ ki^f -<n\ii- iv-. i\\i ^iinpli? coiiiioctiv'e m^IeIiowS par- 
licular Itmjiom I iiolinii. 

nifMnkh w kct "'nf'^y 'i'; ^"aa sidi ana <^ii:"i 

ifff'^^f^'jrr if t'id yd k^t li'i/iii^li cIlc Tiiollier iia^l j^nin? away and njHinietl 

yit kd i^fity iy tsukUagOaj. ya h-t nn'i fdi ay Skc ay Lmir^-idlii and lliej» 

tbt boar (is) big midlKesow (!*■) big | L 46J 
ketj^'ig ^lik va kirt i\imdy\ak ^rul '"xkih: Knic passed" a-, slie hovt cTiiTdrtu 

[L m _ 

mc ^i\Qii6yak k€t n^o iintJlykHyBJc Hai}ii na'i 'latfySaL \iidl^ah\ i^'lien 1 die, 

tlicii if you ^a lo 5(.'e iiiv fjirlli-plac(^ [L ^'j\ 
hrjSng ya Iret iiiaiigiiwi;o son inoiji tliereuiKin ihe younger &ibH^T liiiL'li'' 

ICf! !■, ]>rri1>afili iJ'.'nMtCat id inany cases wJlh th* following particle; 



44.T, Kj- ot jtoi^ wiiPi t[ii^ eiifliiii:^^ tril^on irom \\\^ Tol](>M'inff vwb, and 
ivitli ■iubiequent ct or f J ^like iitlhed'}. Thh- "vcrl>iil conjimcium" in':[iii?^ 
.il^f "^[iii ificii ;" il ?eeinji lo- he useil particularly m intruJtn:': n butklcn event 
or an iine>Lftfe[ed evenJ, a niirack, 5iirpi'[&o (.'(t. W^ Jorin4 ai'*: 

r-:r''Or;L]. Pi:i-^>t4,4,ivi^ : 



I. 


hbyiikcd 


kSki-d [kSyked. tfli^r] 


■^ 


kSyku'd 


k^mfd 


3- 


hA'd {kcd^kef-] 


k^na'd 


D, 


kSlu'd [kdyiii',1] 


kSia'd {kSyta'd\ 


r. lodL 


kbidlui'd 


kotfiho'd [kcyidko'ii] 


r. L'xd. 


kdyk^mf'd 


kSymi'd 


ti. 


k&yk/iyii'd 


kSyyfl'd 


11 L 


k^yt'ia'd 


kSytja'd 



buyakc-d untJii; iirin'fli ihen T amxe; came tJtci/ k^'pe'i ,- \:ind^b lh«i T 

jiiakc i niinJt 
fr^tfrf tr"»i/('& itan Uifdyw aiwi tlwn he made liifi spear 
kdydked |yho: ti^ti^f, ifreg:.] I'flwrf/i is itfi»i^iia and Hwn I camp into liis 

lioii&c 
ketjSiig dmfjaii 'lii'i fsa'y /^un IcSySsa'd inpapangdli nan soldddson si 

Meiikanif Jiiul Ibcn OiiC Tk^j>[^[h p^^'^rl, M\i\ ^L iirt« thft? •i[<Fi\e IhC 

Aiin?ri^:ii.n ioldicr'. [Jf. 6i\ 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT ^49 

iheii lif (LiL[iiiiivi|;l ltd ilie lidk clticken; ihen, behotd! thej grew 

^iui(Icnl>" Ell hfii? and cock'r | L, ^4] 
bet^ihig tiiiJid'iiia :-sn amSmoh ya It^yf^a'/f if'l^h "itulmt^/Ji-c-i ay iKn^icrii 
UQ'i J'tfitg ;uiJ iie fcl ihn? liuJe |jiRS nnrl tiieii inrlLiivlEli rtlio ih'.-v 

l'-''" fjiti.-oyri hhot uliy, .-nu .ire llicru! |L li| Cf |42fi | ) 
i\iicd ifniij'i'i y-i A'flfiif'ra'ji "ii* f/iH-^yii sJiti ar!^'^ tijcii lit Jirrived and 
aaid: "then jou are Iheae women!?" (surpriaedj [L, 27] (mlihout 

isd'iii'^t fkiiun nm ttSUSh if iwh fdnf^a^ \V Ir^'d fk&i] Isfj/f.- is>i>iiid rtkis 
iii/uta jJUFi filk/kon^ i\ 'rail /jij 'v f'ffi^ii y" Md \kcl\ nuiktin and 
then (llie lal) f^llrred u'[lli llie spiiirm in i\\.c jn^l Jiiid lielialil! iIi'.tU 
wai^ meat; then it ■stirred witli Lfic pi:yL[<? in theoUi':r rril ;ind TIkt< 
wjirke! [R 31, cl\ 2S, J7, ,-3o-| 

A5*f^ ufy txtkvdni ya ma/id' {';"'-\ li^i-l praniiaed us loodO and now there 
1.9 notallimg] |R f6] 

|^<'- i:i iiiLdi^Liljlally ilic ^[l^ll; ]>iir|irlc a-^ m |4J'i| iiiirl proMily nho 
juiijid ill dji; iiik'rr"j;jiljvL- cyko. ;ind in llie |j[ir[n:lt iiaii-^kb, H?x|ire--iiie suc- 
pHwJ 



.443, The i^'iniv.Tltnr for our iiiforciiEi;i1 "l1ii:r':fH*r'.\ for lliK rca-^oii, 011 
that arcnimt" Is foinuiiiiiU .\tyit in|biM:d b^ Ht' Vrim. n'.limii^ .villi suffix 
-m\ ; ulii'^ MT-flix, whLdi hyi; nsu^iUy l-K'ifivc ii\T\:it. is def^Kk'JIy I'rnT^^] m Mil'' 
mn£[|-ii-cl.io[i ; .^?_vJ. <^r .^/v-J /-i^' EO'I munsr Ciwi Lkr Lljiti, Tlit COniiruttiOn ii 
iTIu^traUil by examples : 

siya tji mm umalfoKtja this i; "their cammg-reaaon;" t1ierefor« th-ey come 

jii'<ff^ii Ifur: .t/jft f/j] Hffji oif/it rfjirfryji-j []iu[ulin"c I ilo iif-l: ;!o 

m'cti//t iiuK Htf^ii^ko; si/lnan [sfyii itait] adfic tnJsfliiotui 1 Imve a son 

fiiiKL'r; [liercsuri; I do not vnik 
i".^iti:italf; .^^ya naw iim^ninuitlt a iiaa Ijifn/tm I Eiiii ■^i-clh"; fur Lliis reai^pji I 

ii[]i ilrinkmp 'I'icer 
ifyuii''' iiu'i I'lahdimitja xlwyiiov: lliey vveep (iiuiii: }'\iiJ^tJi.\k_,v-\^'\y lii=(?j'Ecd /) 
-n/j'ct tji f\an i^dna itaii^aidaj^fii iliL'tuiVfrc ]k iliil imi iinrry 
(mijdka; .liya nan. inafigant^tsam 1 1 nan kif\^ y«i are tall, llKrefora you 

cjni r^'Jicli lln? h'ckhI ilM^Jiiii Liiiilcr n roof> 
tabi^yttk; .'rlyadsi jmn irdlL- l/mndc/fiin if imii fdlfc^ I Jiu tired, for this 

reason J dn noi nnte any Apcars 



aso THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

a^ifH JtflJJ iiitaf^hituijtt fj ntiK I'd^.k*^^ tlicrcfnie lliey liide m tJie fnreat 

TLis con&iriioiioii i? nicn ii'^e-l 1<kr riur ri"inlr i;hLii;rH, as ; it ig^/iheavy 
tliat.-; the IgArot would say: it is very hea.Ty; Ihercfore... 

nan fiit6 l/crJji] j'n ^jjr^si/nrfl uy adoiisiiittc! ; r-iy/l 'niu ■nil^lc r,uika<,n^fd(tin 
lEiK i^lljiic FJr I'cry imavy; iJicrtJJore T c:iii iioE carrj" iL- nv ; Is j^ci liciivy 
that I can not carry it (or: I Ciiiiiioi c<trr> ilie >[ijiic, ba^iiii^c — iay 

tlwh-otSQ is £0 strong that it puUa the A'agivLi [jiitZnan fiT- j^v-i^ jjcffl,»] 

Tij^i (fj^Jaii ya fsiifufiiio '}■ tcdtidjjfHi.'itin: sjti haw jflo/'^jrajji fhte way is so 

ur ([niii:), (liiii ir^n ELiH? iiitil 
^o'l Sj^i3Pi'ii VIS isatidniu 'y Idtci^: miita/i tiiitii iifnfsiNt ih? VRt^r 1^ so 

<:iilij, ilfji I do iiui Ij^llIhj 
RDPI 'fsn t-mlSthntl HJ?? 1cl}flH'>Jff: £JVa HAB flJ/j& ?F^J,!'Jj/ifV^^**'?l'il'IJ "ln^ do^ 

riiTi'j &ij ^nlic^^l^, <li^i 1 ciiii iicii follo.v it (UL: tlie tk^; ila ninniiig 

luQ iitst; lfi['i iiiv-iml inll.n' iri.L;-H'^[^ii*J 

A rather doulrt-ful phrase: "amfvydkasJi" follo-w«d by is may be used, 
if surprise stsll be CKprc^sfd ; as in : 

il"ifiiyilkit.'ih si nalUfodka' ,nli! ifieicfnit i'du iri: ;^i> lii^m! [JT. ]o| 
aiiilnydjcti'^ii Ji "nt/idha 'iFr-i' (lii^ ^.n^ tlie i casnii lliil von i.eic not liere! 
QiiifhyiJkO-sh >,! •mf'fhui 'fyic> thcrpEort He is bajiuid» imprisonedl 
amjiiy^kai^! fi tiiu/^d it nan dfmi'^rxa ' uli i i.\\:yi Is [lif rc^i^Hin ilnl lie is 
nfil ^1 hoLlll'] 

{Amfuydka^h can never be used with ist person, as: "that Js the rea- 
son lliai (/' but only nith Jnd and 3rd person : tliis is the reason timt yon^ 
he etc.) 

S/adsi atid u: stadsi's t^ta vmAia is affiwTdta therefore let us two go 

tu gri\ iiur l>iiT(fon (u'linij) | K. 4} 

Alqfl keff^ng ay js ujicd lo express ""therefore/' [436] 

SUPORD1J4ATE CONJUHCriONS 

44,V %Vhi:n, '"When" is c:i:[ir(^sstil liy the cniirlilimul c'jiiiiin<;tiuDr 
mS, (If) urhy/jsdjj. M^ requires tlie finite verb; wiu mv^t be used if 
iTit v-crl» Is Iji llic fiHurc tense- and ll may L-c Lis*d if l[ie vcrl> is in iht |)ri"S- 
i^iti I'iiflp' Li^ fiJLiiiJj ^'illi Uie pre&eiil and. esp-Lciall}' witli Ihi; iir<:l<.T[|p, 



Tii^ i,AN(3L'AGE OF THS BOKTOC IGOROT ^51 

Issat^ cori^lil* of ill'? pTcpo^ilEoii (-■ ami e!ii? arliclc -ian [^2] .^a'j preceile- 
llie Nomeii acllaiik iiC llic vti-l>. Tlie JgiWoL Jof-, f.ir Inslnnt*:. iinl cr-c- 
fttrnct i wlier i^ht cume, wc ?aw h^r, hiit: .if lu^r ^^muinc, w '; siTV ])er, 
FFff^ (tiil'nli cntfUt'w. iiillpay Ilk i.hfii |i(| 3 ilu ii^ji -nihrl;, I |ilay 
ufiF irjjj|jjr.]jjjj?"/rfj M FfoJJ k^pi. niiifM-o kapS'i j^-tfi ;j?/<ii/ v.1h:ii (i£'| i^'e drink 

Colite, \wt (In mil [iiJ|l!^ iiny ^|M,'^[r 
txnii'i inmiUi^a, arflln ay tdkfft nit'^^fntjn wlisa lie 'Hiini;. 'Al pcuirk wcit 

eadpg 
/rjAH Kuiiiait xan <fit\a. 'lan Sfianah ya kinm^cml/a am^ti whm tlie father 

caiiii:, clu' [-lillilrc:Li Snd .ill -^onc aim 
/jjdfl HiiitdJJ^ak jJ -l/jf/jli, fi'f^d.lf ;wjj ^/;^fl 0^ dst/k when I lived at 

Manila, I lirnl ll^a il"|>s 

nafi tafltki. nan.... wlicti [lie iiiiiii calltnl, llie \toy c^nic 
ifjcK 'la'r/n^dlafj U nan ohSkud. siadngoii^ when I hKiid the SlUry, T 

/'.finjj jinpfflftiTff/rfirfr ij 'fa^j siHud. iu\'lsiik v\\v:xi i had received Iht Irllrr. I 

lejij ir [.-Ij.; Ijoipi'cixtd ck) 
Issta innx.ahn\Udi<'0 'd Chicago, kina^pidko luvi df&iig^4ho i«lieo i'aftcr) 

wf ti^d lAijK to Clii<:a^, kve made out hguaea {\\i. "upon our ci>m- 

ing") 
tsian v\pfoU'nn sd^^hii. yn nln^djitn ■..■li^u ymi came yesterday, it was 

rainfi'g 
/fjaii inoyn'itiik^ is nua p^sfrcn^, nisTTfiyat^i-o ji na^^ kuf-j/ieHu wli-eii %ve 

were (' ht. : had s^'ni':) .i£ iln' ].iU<:. ix:: 5\v-.[iii {ill llie ^viler) 
fssan Ifinjna'fn-itiiti/ ad •\-ionf!/i. li'itanjyo'tiiciinif ivlieii wi: Ini-fl ^3aiii3a, wt 

W-TC llEly ]K:rsi|JIS 

fsjflrt indjc^fjn istjS' fr WJ>/^ 'r/i?t fyiMmg, njrtiali^yffdlja u'lien lliey mcl 

tssan kapdsik; kcvig^'i^imk; kn'nndm'sick ; mnidkttaf^; kagadiaiigyt^ngkc: 
kajikd-'ihijo: i^livn 1 ivj^ipiior: lil[lL:;old;.':ick; rich; ^irong (licjllliy) 



4.H. While, "Whik-" i5 CH]'m^ti] hy jji^rc, ^vbcii: ^rcniLti]|1> ^lie 
vcrlj or irerbfl. are reiln|)l[ci\[ei:l H> iii-Ill'^iH: that ODC acti.m anilmnes ■nimiil- 
U^icrtii'ly '^LiTi ill.? Liiliei. Tliis coiLieiJLparaiieDus action ts olao dt^iiinnl'^l 
bv lIlC ^liixllKiry f.M: 

/iA^fr ^^:rarfoArijL-/'.?frf>ir, i''tfsnndkitmi ivliile they (continue to) sleep^ we 
vc-jitV. (."during their steeping") 



252 THT?; LANGUAGE 01" THI^ liONTOC Tr.OROY 

fjisiit} kiiawad imii aiiwidko id Tiikffkai\: wtiiLe Dsy ftitnd was in Tucucan 
j'f '.vrffr en!y.HKoan <liLi'iii£ iiij iviirkln]^, ivhiJc 1 am at work 

(The srtide Jdfl i£ Gomctcities omilE^ before tsa.) 
tssan mnfnnmam is" Hint fj^iifim. tsJak Kan^ta vihUe yaa drink waler, I 

hsan M^imlhi'i {i^igkiiUwiyH') mii»i^-^yci> ff^ ity fafttyi whTl*youtglk, 

issa'i 'stftjii in'iiigityii" VhIiIJi? Lliry ^ire callng (ln't<<:r; u 'nrn, b':c^ii5c mrr. 

fijijii ;i.frr^f:^'WjJi^/a k^fi fUdf: while (ii'lii;n] llrty ^,].v, him 

llie .viiiifi'n sfll riifii'^, we jrij '-inglny (ivicli oi.il rpdupl.) 

l^saa s.iiltja 'iiji>loj;ii^-laii, wmldal; id F^'itok ivhilt tlicj uerc fighdngj L 

ivjii: nl nuiLloo 

V.I1II1? Faiigcd wn": ill llie linusff and 'vliilc lie saw Malyu 
is fiiTJi tssti man^liitan while E iiiii ealiiiR 
1? jutr Lfrfiffl rrfljf^'rfif^JTr v^'hite he w.if; i]ji:i[ig 
ij;.riait Ifdija iic\igkillian wliife Ihey wizq sI[I! ^iicjikini; 

By Circumlocuiftjn ; 

}nfd!faa)f, t.rdka. (tkrt msfHad I t'^3.4: "irreanwhilfl" yotf write: 1 re^td while 

HJi2*«ji:j>at, tiilk" 'i'l^'fJ -t'rifn^^pfi? 1 sIl^i i^ltik' yi'u ^vl'^k 
P;i r I i[i pial Cons true tiu' 11; 

ijofe falffki fiia/idltm py man-giv^'CTig -or . 'hih lat^ki "!>xn-^iyihi'eng ny istt 

ma/nUat llic man vralks uliik' siii|;LJi^ 
*natliigo is iiatf ewg/zatidins he l^iigh^ u-liik -ipc^iUnji l"iri hi>i ^prflkine") 

or: iiiaifngQ av ^ugbaU 
^'igkoi/ Si nan iirif^'ia In? ^[leak^ mIiiIc dr-tanima 
iiaii. kiUang inmdii av indka (iie l[llle Iwiy c.iiiie crviiig, nr, cridil Thilt 

Kajj. ialdhi zaiiUniig ay i^iaiii^bla Ulc uiiui reals wliilc lie auioki±a 



THE LAXGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT i<^^ 

445, Afier, Tpinporal .:laiises villi "after" are frepietitly intro- 

iJuctd lj.- l<i.<iiit\, wLitJi [44,^ I ; il.'' -" I l1^1^lu■l I L 11 1. 1 In M'rii.iifc lic'i'in^ soniC- 
Einic: Willi hcfj^K<^ (01" \^ni-d). ■.vIkt^'^v ir k I'vprr'^'i'Tl ihsf llic! aclmn of 
ilie iiiyiii sentence i:^ not simultanCL>xift with that of Mic ^uln'rilin^nc clause, 
hill f-clln'.^-s ii. (N'lfii:': llie pfi:*.eiir, liivieail <if ihi^ preii^riU'. in Hit niciin 
■iciik-nct") 

iljjflfl- Aift^niiia Bj, Aetj^ig ifuict^nw^'it after be had said iliis,lic Mnnncd 

ftr-ai/ ijcu^ii^Sna lu, kdj^ir-; ififtifu-duti afccr he hrid lirnr.] 1I115, he aikc<.l 
f.^-io'i ^/•sttoya': ii-i'i iaiiikL frefj^nt^ iii!l-tt//Jf!J,i s^\ct iIiu [nrin lijiil jiicilj llicy 

In LI' ml hi [II 
£ss:o'/ !i\\iiiMf:'jii<ii,-i iTior Tio In if '.ti ■'own 

afii;r jr(iu luve execiiled i\\\ [>n:1ers ('*liave doitie all rold yoii")| yxju 
Du^lil Id reliTm 

!^sa^ iniM^iija nan ^uur^ri, ifctji^n^ Ijnnidfvaf^fju ;iker ihey had seen wljal 

li.dil li;L]i|ioiK:il r "ilii^ h^|)|n?iim£:" k ilif; ili'<l 
ffian i'ii'i>ii!>ii\ 'lan tfpo, is^cd itndiji'n men ialiilH i!yi:i afCer the Diasterhad 

ciimi, llie mi^ii tollouc-dhim 
/.'^ffji ir^j^jj^s^nS^jT]! trji'^ f^^/^^iii XJ fd aflpr ^'our f,i[licr h,'dil ln;aT(l tlii: 
^v.^rrji >/il,i^,i}i^iiiiiii/i iiy f\}imdla \ia<i lu!al^!t-i, kclji'ii^ '•ii'il^i^pra si ! ftlio if 

IJfu'i^ •tixa X\u- iiitn ]\:\.d coin: qui. In: Itil Ji[l[o [iilo Hit lioij=c 

the ijiriii lijil h'\Lr<l this, he l][<J li[= li^imlc ei^. (iif'/'i^Slan: ^vni 

icL. Jroui nl^■' ^'l■m. -liiciiii^ 1^5"]. Tliu.i 313 thi' frilkiivine I'x^iiipJ?;;) 
^jjffrr j^iTij^^'/^iijjrr i:fi! tj^!t}ii, ifTmi^h i\<!'i I'lf'fvi ^huc vl'cjti^ ilieiu che 

i^'oiimi reEiLrrieil 
^siait sinumk-Jpuiiit ii •lan df^n^, aldenti ji^rr s,>ki'"i^i^ nau ■imj'p'li iiiler lie 

lind CLiLurciJ (he liaLne, fic- iwk lUe hm <ii my ynungcr IjrotNor 
/'.ffapr n!if>tidS\iti'd} mhii/^P'fja nan Qi,'dk^^ aJlt^ he li^ti b«n LbUed, lliey 

buried lLi=i lin<ly. 

"After" circaicnscribed l>y; fttdshekj I Unisli, accomplish: 

finAjsli nan fobfafdyi ay nfmgdfoy is nan -wdnis, keij^ne ui'iimtdlja nan 

flid.vH^srii aflci llie luiiiuiri Ii^jI wfi^^n lln- Ihrc^dL-dolli, tliej menrltd 
bi': Lual (In • [Jie ivoeiicei Jinwljiy FiTilslic'l ^viM-ving" ., , Efiereupoii Eliey 
[iiuiiilcd. ) 

VOILI'tir, pLIL oil 'iiiir "'i.iill'^!'' ]ir(J^'U- 2CKj] 

Ol by (lie aiiMiliar'n il/iis- dfui \sad6y nifu a'ijJ"ia, uiiija'd inkti/iip 
jifya Lifici' lIic Luaif iuid died, Llicj bulled lijui 



2U THE LANCUaOF. UF the BON^TOC KJORDT 

Or by the p-repo^icinn (j: -imti^fia^ /tsa i^ lum nabfztilian tui'i 

kakdtitja I caiiic lien:, iillcr ihcv li^<l caleii 

Qr by Ihc prefix iialia- (^yij|; infy^atf^jdifK nfirj l(t!aSdhl, herjAig 

iiim^yllti'sli hupdyfc. or: isdtja'd minlh' 'sh hapdys after tlie men 

liad cilcii, Ihry ivciil iiifn the ricc- i\i\d?, 
isAifa'd itakiikon, istltja'd iitaihuong nats tnawAgkid thai thejr had eaten, 

(hen tliC i^itTh ;i^s-i:iiib]':il |11. il ] -or; nftcr llicy lin<l e^iCeii, llie girls.. 
isifsfmid is biiyiU-itu; isitci! iiiikftfiviitiint: is bayf'knn; is^na'd iisd'^fia.t ii'iii 

bsydkia ^lie <.(^'ve.l lii- ■■■inj^'o; tlitn she had GnUhed sewing, then 

ihc [;ave„, fS, C| 

helj^ys^ '.fian^diiija; i-'ot^^it;^ iiitM.\n\d'ifjit, is'ifjii'd kandn ay sindki then 

llicy iliiicd- ilien ilicj luil iliru^t, (htii said the brotlDcr'... (I!. j6[.| 

Qr; alter if IP) liji.L <M[ii"'l. . 
ketj^n^ )iakaf-iiibtdanfja; kriji-'ii^ kfftkfn naii fftot... Elicn il»cy Jini^lied 

*,inokiii£, ilieci III.' r.Li -^lid ,, Or: ii]|-:r rlicy Ivid -]ii'^k<:'l. . |R. 17J 
iitllja'ii siisdiij^fti- ijdtja'd imhcsstiiigj !iiL<ttyt ya fok-'idk^f\n: mdvd mitiffik- 

iiiika'i va isifed kaniin mii ^i i.-umdrd^, lln:ii ih^'v srn.ri[ii:tvl , liii;ri 

lliev had a^ci-jficcd, and he wciil up, llipn he li^d ^^J^nrj Up ^nd I,iii:iiri- 

^^■lg sjilJ ... lL.&;r| Cf. |L.3gI 
kfijAi^ iimtf^diilia ya fJilmkd'iTJa, Uetj^'ip_ ftin^fiiiifi^ ^^e^ rJicv tnl, ^ilL:|l 

ihej l[iii?Lied caUii;!;, llien ihey ;*pii'^feil |H. iij] fJr' afler Cd-Jllng; 

th€y 5eparaled Cf. [H. i3 | 
(TJie coiL^truclLQJtJ the Fre^^ii^ rollQ^vcd by Ibe same verb wi(]i itiil:Q- 
is fofiiid ffei^iiieiilly in nniTalive ) 

Our clansfs vHtlli "after" are alao qircuniscribed by ^a fe^Eial £rsF: 
rrf^^j^ujjLjA fiFfu, iidalced enl.'iiUiCf i <zid firsts tbenl work; 4fti:r 1 \\',ivc ^.itfli 
I 5hall work 
ftan^aiitdko-'d i''ia. isaiil/lio'ci ^'ifsff^io ;iiter eating let us work ("let us first 

ent, dieii ivurk") 



446 R <? r r e "EeErjro" it ^[I'cianiBcribcd ljt B^ira, foUowtd by a 
scnience Imrinluced l>y isdcd: 

\imhka»ii ^itii isdkifnii^d luuiUl^fiii we wash ouraelves before we s\\ dawn 
Hit,; u"i' w^^'i fiF'^T, tliiin \vr ^h doivri) 
Or, ft^Bfl hcinj; omiit^d ; tid'i'i''kitoti}y'jk ken j/ya, issa HtH4y {hso: 
^iiKJh^ry [it future Icnse [3^]) I aball speak witji him, heft-re he goes 
Ei\v^y; "I shsill sih?al<: ivilli hiiii^ hn? vvill ^ a^vay.'' 
inUami nan iatatdki, Tsxilljatnadfiv ^ii; ^.^w^r the lil^ii Ijeiore ibey di<nl 



TIUL L\MGJA^K 01- THE RONTQC IGOROT ^55 

jan/!sk&inJ, issdkam m^it^ait w? with ourselves before- wc cat 
insul^/ta ken sak/^, issJka wttdU write I0 me, before roll come 



447. UotiT, "Unlil" i^ esp revised by ff/rjt or mitv/j^fr'j; btrth require 
a cfin ■-EriLicU.il willi Nfrni. jclj'n:[?. Sonici:iiiii:s Sh'k \s ioUov-'^d by ya^ and; 
ir sCEiii*! liml ill cliiii ta^e i^^ft iiicjns: "ijunic liinc ii^l'ojcd" am]... 

To,, "in order JJiat," ofLeii pTcceiJti^ 1^^?^, if Iht^ adiun guvcriicd by Slik 
isexpecled or icicciided. 

i^teMcf^ko him ^liJ^ mahf&ihlmri nan ta/Hivfn ivf; rfiii^jii litre iiiiEll ihe 

opdtffmi^ ^Jiriifiaj-'i la Siik hn'iiijtin^an imn i!ij-iiy I work the bcllowi imiil 

rlii: liri; liufTi^ 
Hhifcdik'nl!! rrf// Slik inalfnu iia» allwuiko I stay«l ihert, until ray friend 

cnnii' 
^^??ii^jj ixifjnirtv av !f9fay Slik a'.fak 3in1d thip: ?;|>car unltl T come 
/!;i;fjt tfiil' uJ/flm vfl jMtw^ [ liold il, until v^u coiiic: and tak* it 
cjjj,;/^iiiji!it j/'k utasfjvcpam I ■voil< uiilil yoit ulc'ep 

aili'M/l/'^'idsa inbdna is adlta madSyau wc tiv'> ^li;iLl be fr[cndB until wc die 
(Oiaenff itic n-cicat[vc; od^ia; "aa loi^ a» we i]o not die") 

ketf>1iig ^i'k Vfl Hkij: tfjiFi/Jti M dma LheLi "iiunc ume pataed" and itic filhi^r 

heif^g Mila va ^'1?^ inwdnah tKen "some time paesed" and she bore chil- 
dren |l.. 0S| 

kef/ifiig Sli'id ya kastit rfkis t<mJna-if safi itaamtiKin^aii. ilien "sortie lime 
pas?^d" und ^1^1^ uidii'C;!" a;ram Isecaiue fa.lhfi' |L. SS] 

i'tted^eak /sua inkitita's umairaui I ^tiy here Linlil iiiii cciiie. 

int^unSkam'f i'lhdna is ittnaifan 'tan lal^ki wt work ir^idl tlie man comes 
Cor: ia&lik) 

natl wn'tainit^kid innsuySptja inkdlia is ^tsuuiJaHlja tlie g^irls sfeep, until 
they work 

int(rdcfkiiy\i ^ms liikiina's snmkcptSnyii is nan fi-hvi i"cni3[ii licrc, irnlil yon 
K'J iiiiil I'll: 'Vinintilli'juiji'" 

'idndfa-k u't^y itlrdtn^s k"/'*!"' I ^lifill not ^o, uiiiEl you My (sol 

ji/^tiSmifikii'iiiii , lidlomi^imk i-vMt Liinr ! I shfill ri:(nrn, (j5>'iidtlii c^Jiir,) 
(In ^011^ djaler^c Ic/Jmd is useil like jT^ifr,- ia ktkud 'la'sh "lapdrt (tv let 

It r-oDLtnue luitil mornififr' |H 13]; hfkad alfuti aOtvut unlit tli? frieiiil 

cofrms.) 



?5'3 THE LAtJOUACE of THE BCNTCC IGOROT 

44*^. "As iiiien as, ivlientvcr :" frcf/t'ji^- hou Mftki ifdntt 
t.<,a*tivdiie}i nan •:!icit^^diia. t!:dna jied/itf llipii, us often n<^. \\n- lKt> rcci^iveil 
looif, lie Lmried il in llie grouinJ (^^. 4| (Re|>e;LEeil atlkjn i^\pr[?-,^i^U \y.- 



445, "A a loTiK i&" IS cxpreii^d by Usq«, wftile, f^Hou'fd liy *fa 
I444I ; also by Uihifiia is ■iv[lh a ncgali.'e: iakdttii is ndfla tnad^vin as 
as \^'c Iw^ dii ii-Jt <En:; ?3 long a= m fiv:. 



450. "A'i- s^^Ti Ti," jijy i.T /s.^un, the vetb of ihe main iciitcnce 

takes itic prcftc ^it (p^ii£-) ; cf. [^96] : 

ma inilak 'loii iaUtJ^i, pinpadSyho ^'- snrni 'a=. 1 ■aw the maif, 1 kLIlcjt him 
^inl^lt■ll^lfU■) 

mo iiip/il'i'uf/firii >iiin ayiiyit-ii, finpn/iiiyldbjt as soon ag kg caicFi Ihe birde. 

hw jjiw^Jf^j rciifj hija. piiu^fjittdko .\-- uo'jn [is 111'? meat ts cookedh let ub eat 
hiO'i i'[ii!iiii\n Hijjj laldin. inn) nyilwan l-iiti/a.'^na ay lumdyaa ,1 ^ ^ooTf as the 
iii^n c^Jir^c. [lie IjufTrilii 7(111 ifv.tv I iycr^uj-: 3 isl 

ab >ou i.iciS': tlie (lour, iltc ^Icciuii;^ cliriiiiLi^r becomes dark 



451 . R r i- ^ Li V c, j^iy^ Ji; ^ *'Cnic" CO [If Line! [oil I tlie VL:rlj of :l ^'^una] 
clause iji1rorliK'"i[ l>v Ig\ i- m Hi'' "[iiilicacivc ' {\\c pdirircli"- um, k'i, ]<t':- 
ceAhg tay^ empJiaaiie lb? causal clause; because Jnderd, certainly because. 
14^51 

i^dab I'nfffrffj, t<i\' n-ii'^dkiiaL- I did not comei because I wnis siek 
cTdy/jt in^bfalitt cy aliti!n na'i kdyBc, lay Ka/if/ti^ai I loh not lake the wood 

Ik:c-hi''C II IS iij[[]cij Gil 
kasfm kai\iJ'i, (av adlk ktnteh nan bandm tHI it again, hecsti'ie 1 did dot 

sLiidtr^i^rnf \vliai von ■^n'vA f'yonr -iniviiig'') 
itgtoiitf iiattndy. ray ie\jfieiiiiii u'l^ litn|i llii?, 1"ioc:lij'M' wi- like iL 
aitildko eitlsffiio, fay inteiigaaiiUdo a^i^'tJni we -do Liol work, bec3US£ we 

h-wv ri Imlirlay lO'daj 
odt %\i}ii4li sfya, tay aiifjodtiija rnv*- na^^'y^f''^'"' li? did ILQt <^9ti>?> because 

be slept so Idii^ 
td nidk^antiihc'd ay fifJi^, fay na^wn^'^iixdidko "we people cmglii lo eal. 

because nc nte hungry [R ;3o| 



THE LANGUAGE OF T31R r^OS'TUC rCKlItOT ^57 

ai rvnn iGNAL sEnTznces 

453. ,\-f:>, ii, and moiJidya^ siipposp fh^l, inlrndnce rondil[on^l chuMS; 
tiw-ifiihit iiLirodiicfj liypcnlicliij] ur "cynir'U'y-io-rjicL" cujidiiion'^- t'i inlro- 
tliice^ TreH^tieTitky ilic HpodoaiE, if thcprotBbis pr^ireil^^ Iiih^ds "ihoi;'^ Ger, 

Kw Ufnah JJ.1IJI t/^i7i], et ndi^iGk if T iipil [lie tiiiJe^ I -iliall U'ep it 

tno a*i!iifi\/t i^'ililt'ic j'-n kdz'ifs. <■£ tsdaldeiiyx ita'i slki nan l^tiig v<J iflrc j?i?^ 

If 'on (In iinl ^^-'.rk \^'^'ll. yw ivlll gi^l tood iur pigu anJ il.>gs 
WO fjifjifsam iiaii tjofcdl^kv. yitiiii i-cii saJi/^nt il you fiiiiJ ('"liave fomid") 

my lung, giic il I" mc ' 
sHffjJi|j/va ovfiyn'^rn*, d •ntfi/m/iyiiiriFh if T -^Tre ^ birJ, T shmjlJ fly 
itin laubff^li'iiik uy /jippJii^fl. fi adfimiCiHak i£ i can 59 onL, I i^IulJI g-o oliI 
iii\,)sfid\-a zvodity l^fi •mk/^'i /yflok, el Sag^ak 'lan dfoiig if t li:id .»ny 

inoncv, f -li'nilil liiiy Hit: liiiu^e 
ifnirrjji/^^r-T*, "U' I'lal^f^" "'" ""'^^^"^ I i^iuill cuiiie, Lf it is pa&sibl*: thai I 

cGiiii: 
^iigsan iian /'ilj^^ilt^ iiifi d»gia» na^i hnogdak I nfir^nU l^dvr ■^'^Ifl inueh, if 

I liad liim^'hi inin:[i 
i^gSg jfiTJj jfjj^iif'pjd, "^ij.<yii7jia gaaj!iitgyi^'i,^k>x^ ivhflt would you do, if you 

ivere rioli ^ 
uio umdUk(x, el Tlmuyak if yoii c<niif, I ^o 

r^/o Tl^nv >!(tn <i\Qtigiv-dm si sa i£ .inybofly ?aj'*i 4d (um' ™ woday) 
iuo-';fidya wadtika, eJ /i\ntiyalf -ii|i|hi-c lli,^l i'lii w^jiild cniiic, I slii'iild go 
"io fl'ii 'mit 'iaijgdl.il li 'laii kipihigfiu. ndkniigira ken tak/Ai if any one 

has taken my knife, he shall give It 1>ack to me 

ino'lidm kdaft nannjiVy ct kaivh if lh[^ w^re mine (if I liad1liiE>, i( would 

"he well 
moiiii:iyii nafi laldkr ya iHi^ii?S. ft i'il<^khk 1^ i^fi Idii suppoe.^- ihc man 

i\ere :l r.ic, llieii In? would crawl ill'* Ihc t;roLiiid 
nutsi/dvif i;iciiiaifidii£ye'jak. ct iui'nijdak a i^jJf iry kul^yo if I bhjuld gtl 

\CTy rich, I 5lif>uld Iilii' four horse- 
mosiu/ya Hiiek nan /rfjs/, ei padSyek 11 T lihould see the enemy, T should 

hill llilbl 
tnn k'i^ck \is>t slrr^ri'yi^, sldgok ts 'lav Mehkdno if I mak? ihp rinp^, I ^efl 

lliciiL [Il llii: -■Viiieiicau^ 
j\iifviidif}ii\' {ii^v: mosfidya woddy] biidl^i^o. -?J {amugdal;} ii dfoKj: li I liarf 

anyiiiO[H?v, I *.lioiil'! Iiuy a lioiise 
mcifidva Idtcfij^. ct -tiiati ^iwlsak if il '\ece cold, I hlK'tiM viA^ myscK lu a 



258 rilE L.^NGUAGl' Ol' Till' RONTOC iGORO-r 

jjirj k^ki:c*/ iitodl. e: ntak'HoliJyot ken i/va if I kneiv fhis man, ] jIfoilIiI 

conv'crsc with Eiini 
rtiyiWj'u na'i ongdni^i' J'l kJH'ii^, et iiUkaH^'niiylif^ i f 111-: l>oy v^'ecc nii 

tigk, he ^fluJd fly 
iiio!,kdya j\on lalifki ya !/!oii, eJ ktmlna Ha}f idk^ ii ibc nidi} were a lion, 

lie uoulJ €^l incn 
moiliiivo -Moddy d;^a ^sh no^n^ko, ^i is?:aolidofco wot fsa ken stkit if I 

li;.t1 l^vii biiff^iktc;, T :,lirtLiL.| ^1^'C ytm hih' 

■-Ik 'II 111 \"'t]<: 
in-oilufva i'lUiiJpKiK 'ICI1 ttJiii:^. ft furi^saui If you fiml ioiigliL ilit lucy^ you 

M'oiil'i IbJLVT Fnnnrl il 
ii'rSt' 'la'i d'l^ncn amt fi}bfafdt!o, moiitiiyii jv3day bitiiiiigtja? tvliat unilld 

X\\\z viiiiii'!- iin-ii iln, if Llify li.LiI Inline ' 

moihd^a kiitiHku ifv '.sjoddka 'md. ef imti^iiak if I iud kiio^i'n iIipI voti 

'vrrf licrr, J !ilii»iili] lijivc cfine 
"co-ii'-iyii ii'oildy djo'igkc, ct fiiashdycpak is /'■a li T had ft limwe, I should 

5ilC^I id il 
nioyhiivii aiittiilj/i sfl^df, cl rnafdh'ta ay isadfi/l iiopp f'tlsona li lie ivcre 

EalJcr^ lie ^'l■^ll■l 3ii!pend liis coat 
nn? k''kkci\Uikt} U a*iiidd'U<i, umuyoitf^iiiko i E ivc kiio'''" uujcc, wt h^ctinie 

u'<^r«i? {ihc nicwf: wc know, Efie ivoric va hccoiiioj 
JTtosluiyi' iiidf-n-'ii i^U'J hi:i'dtsey. et yiadSyka if ^"ou had taken tfie pi^san, 

)iiu hiiiiil(! Ii.ii ■- (lied 
iKOshdva idk/^ii ifka ii I iverc ycm |^'jo sak/fn ya sfha] 
nT^skfiya tjdltdm! va i^dgk^nt/ }!^n fffSMyii ii \vs w-^ro like yM 
'ir<>.'!hd\'a -aiodalttko id Fi^nlo^ adwdiij. cf am^iiUfko nan pdkky: isaldkif'd 

it'icfleiig if v-t ivere now in Ikintcic, wcvouTil reiip Iln: rice, Mirn 

we womlil re^t 
^jj-oj/nija sL'odatdko adsdit£^difm ad Maitfia, ft itaeiitdbo naii jaidgnid ii 

we had be€!n al Manila, we eliDuld have seen the b^tllc 
tti-oshdya itmdiitja 'sna nan MfHS/dno, el finfdifo-ih ran kdKyoi'. tjnn 

dfangys^ IE the Americans "woihlJ c<niie fiere, Jlie cjiinun u-uill'L 

qtikkly dash To pLecee your bou&c^ {B. 53] 



45!^' Cr> Jio r siii vr clans':^ arc inlrmtii'-td hy ^iry pay mo. 

.1] Hioii^h : 

ii!hy pay -mo gadsdngyen^ ^tyji isahdttia -ay aatuciid aJthougll h* is a ticli 
man, lie ii vei v sljjigv 



THf^ LANGUAGli OF THL! [JOKTOC lUOROT 25^ 



works weU 



454. "Ju^t 35 if*'' Is expressed by tajftiJj-r; 
kin-i^^-t^iUjii 'it^ii hdii^ois- kcfj^ng kashSii mctd/Sb Jian tjdya rliey £rcd liic 
giuis; Ihen it w^^ ji>st 4s if the skj v'^wld fall [B. ^^S| 



455, Final clauses. Ta, thn.t, expre&&&& ^rLirpofie; the verbis in 
the "Iiulicalivi]." V.fL"\: ta odf [I'ad!]. 
kih'B^f -^rr fu l:ckk^iiyec J itlJ ^lli^ ;1i;li: ■mii Irtion' it 
t<irtFfak ^d^ f^'^Ji'^ ^^ ^"^^ ''^■/^ ^ furci/Cf'jj^ I -over tb.^ pat that th.c meal 

-L;i.'- 'h.irill 

f',i)iJm rrdjj aUifri^iiio tQ ii:tuiiC'ii_^ha piit OQ youT coat that you tt warm 
BflH /o/^^ftc' uSjuana j'o?r patdljf'ii la kdf'^ui ^i t^fay ihe Piati gives you the 

iriiEi Lli.il ^■■■Li in.ike E.]>e.br?i oi ic 
fii/aft»wn l^lgn^imn in aiff futiidla n/in JiPi I ilust iht door les^the dog 

run HjiLl 
HwdJi.-s ia myi7i"i 'latr bHak it iis well that you brought the looney 
nm Jald^i iLmoLsdona ^^arr ifilad tea sthi ta fsf^divi the man giwa j-ou 

iIl'' liiiei' iliiiC von rcid il 
K-titiHstm! kcii tjahia ta -iinuflif;^ .vc tell theiu lo come; we order Ihcm to 

cuiiic 
liUhiS ta iKan-^dii\if.-a.' comr and eat! 
hi^idlsak- fiiur tti itpa'lam nan dfongmti Ihave come bere ihat jou show 

(trie) y'ur houfc 
itdf!c\isl\ka ra itai-m' turn nrouTid tliat yoo Srtf 
hditam ta lnni\ifaii ' lill Inin !■' jjo ."^iv.iyf 

f.-dtiam ta -ia^fifltiia i/trii d^mb'. loll liiiii, In? ^h;ill i-;irry ilie Ixjx! 
nmuydnta\f ta Udiiila uifrr tnmig^poii^fn i' nun l^i'ia^nfa 'y »ay Id us go 

Ei> 5ei? hicii ii[iii innkc; .ruir ^.ir^ien "e'''>^^' ^dl^ U'e?d:j ' |k. f)] 
ia/d^'am fii a-^da^waiii ra wiiilH'sna la 'tiikifii ij nn'-- Hii'ii tali youc ivife 

that she shall come here anil that she livt here in oui- l^ml |H ft] 
f?7i nj>iij-flfti'j l^hftindjiii ra ifuigaa stka id febfliy I ^o lo i;jll ibe liawk 

ilir.i It [akea yon lioiiie [K. i^) 
dlika'd Iti -.iiitviifmkii ' ciiiiie flu J drink! |L. 7i| 
/i'/tf/^flfr t^jj Jii<i M flrfffii tfl^rfji ji nan tAkiV 1 rcll ii to you tliiii yj^t do 

nr.l Li'll 1l !■> (lie in?op]e 
ifaf^nma •'^•i bifd!^-"i^ ta ma/fd man^dk^itl hide yom iiionty Ipse ^injiliody 

Steal i^: 



sfto I'HK lAX'GUAGK 0[' Till'". I30^^'^OC iriOKOT 

nvffj' iigS^ fa i^ntiiya/^/ nJu' oufiht J 10 go? (for Ihia idiom see: 35^1) 
ya ayk3 "gag la adl innkiutu^ well, wliy slionld he not caoie "home whli 

ytrn? IL.40I 
jtmdtcS fa i^iiak- iiadS\<y is il well Ihat ("are you glad that") I c5id not 

inhilf^yM<fk in laikip^ s/^tn IfHi (or- ay (loH^ ^ko rffrfj; ot; a-v »'.iit\g!ia 

dkis ijet sftit } J nm cliifl llial I ^ce yini apam 
i^m/fUf W lin'noUknyrr is no»i thtHk^ "-^c nrc j^IniJ" Hi^ii you Imvc rc-iunif^jj 

[i| (Xir i'in:n|r\' | ii-, i\\ \ 

Ta ia u&ed ^ometimea wilh Linperative, acd parJicukrly witli Hie coLidF' 
tnliv4: I Ih/S and oiHEitive: 

!a ^ntuyal^ ' \ avaihi \a i>o! nnv I eo! 

ffl oid^yK noit pi'flj?"fj£>i» .. rir ji"Mj].i/rfy£*i atS ^talifnitsh^ fa ifn^kdya 
iixunalffci'^ Lake \o\\.t Af.t--. Lcl iii' 1^0 In MJ[ll1l^^■:, |;a in dncu'e |ri, i] 
taifsdko'ii i^irt/ii minHnan if ^inilii ihuiL ^'ii'i: iiic: AjTin ;i lie:iii-]Mii| | [„ ^r } 
in nmil\-iiih/ rfnj ifj^/.' Iti n^ fjrMi;i' viHukr [L- 6y] ! 
irt imfioydta, la jiiuitaata ad fohfiivf Id in [all-. iiigeih*r, lei us go liirnnei 

[M. J4j 
VJ^'V* "t"' i/^wy ad ft^i'ts:; /a U!ak tjdhay&', brirtg Ui? life lo F^gtij^^ l^t 

nil? ivnitfi ^'lu! JL- ^\ c[ ij. 511 
fiT adi kifrndoa Kan 'Ukto-sh) Inft tlie in^urrcctoa not ^t awsyl |B, 6i>] 



4i^i"i ke^Lili C I a II ' e ■; ividi "that" aec [44^1i Also paratActic 

i-oiisTrii(-liim ii ii^iil, ^iirli n^: 

t.':<t(5tl"!ic ay liftciii^ y<i mi i»<t':hkdnikw\i iL Is \E:ry c^M Jind wc arc ErcC]'.- 
rii|^ here- i[ !■- ■^n fiilil ilm we freest hfrt 



457. ""rbui" iiitrodiitini; Oiijcct Claufl*? 3f[fr verbs (if ""say- 
in j;"' fji r*-]kr^'Srnlril Liy tfn: ]j;irticlu en {a?,o\ wln'b lrL(rn.UL[;cs iiolh, iodi- 
rti^c iinil i]irci;L dii^oiAr&i;. EHfl[n|>[i;i uf indirect difitiiurst; ; 
'ion lalif^i bi^i'ii.'ifiihia ken sair/^n eii u'/stfjn "im 'Uft iwi f-'<rja liin man 

tuld ine lliac llie doR had eaten t]ic ine.il 
tfiiTi'iin/'Pfa iiTT ijiitdko c\i itmdli nan f^sstl Jic informed ii^ lliaL ibe enemy 

would come ; or. khiii'^nfna ken fjatiOn/ na" f^iSii oy it<"^!i (wJEh- 

i>iil en:) 
si fnak kunitnn i^itfi sck/^^n en si diita ya inm^y ird il/au^fa raoTlier tella me 

ili^l falbcr hiii K(jnc tij Manila; fW: ..taniina si ^tno ayimn^y odM. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT a6i 

jjflPi faf/iyi kiH-n'tiniua i^i:'i .lak/iii en kiiidi'b iiirii asdi^Tvi^iia asn dfcng llie 
woiiiaii "In^l^l nil? lliiit licr liiiil>,iin:l li^id 1>eiiI[ llie house 

.fj -('Hdihaii ku mill a' II \tmdU 's smabftnti Olc-^haii siiys ihaJ he will conic 
suon 

kafiAna m nmfcddcha 'd F/ifitok he sny^ ynu wptc at Boutoc 

jiiTTf ulhi'idko ki'tii'ditfiia'" :taii aiidkna ya i'lsakft my frieiul told me that 
hi=. clll[il ^v,!'; ill 

Mii hix^y Gng5>iy.a ifj' lultfki fanwdnina ken -omiliia en nan yaii/ifiiu v.i 
ir-iiii.iyrfV 11,1 Ijdyn lilt imt son lold his ihilicr Lliat his oWer braiher 

jmii nufda k-aiid!\it cii amfa nan iptikiifV SrFytji^iiija ay infaidiiiit tbe mcE- 

^crii^er ■^.'■is [LiJil .[11 lIiu iifa].l(! \i-i^li rr> lij^^lil 
.w h/i^tt k:iiii:/aii/iiii i?i[ fliiii\if^o r! fs'j 'y tii7tjii^ l^n^jli Slid that he liad 

boUt^JU ''JK IlLlfLflll' 
itoiif&ia 'tf'j' /jiif^ I't si vun/iii'i ya i\.'M/r\"ni lie i^^ll'. him ihai Eiis ol<lcr 

brotlier i*. In-re 
^^ffii fafdvi ki'iivdnhia r'\ j^irn ffJtfl+: en aadSy nan amUiNri Uic wtriuaii told 

llie iicopk' ilinl liiii Lliilil IkliI ilitil 

ct komim ^n (tJ/ fumftjan^ jjjjj i^aydimmi then you Bay thaiour wotl 
does iiol l.iini [K_ JjJ 

Witli [Lu: "vcilj "ro write" (.urLicli i.-^, Iiaivtvcr. n-td iiio-i ipariiisly. 1^*^ 
pvitkiiC reasons): 

si Lilftil'ho liJ'is^sSdd jiaw tAlotr ya kSwIs Ricardo wrote that the w^rher 

n JhUh nittsiiiad uy dn^sina natt lalnl^bi ffv iH-ini^yad ay titmtli is a^dei'ii 

Jii]['> iiTiHL llvil ilicri u'crc iii.ini" men ivlio UTiuld lite lo come won 
iiisiitddija en ha 'jr laitiia ya naptiddy llit:y wrotu Ehdt uiic man was killed 



43^. Exdmi^kii of 0^^] *; c I C Jii li i^ ';:^ dq^t]Klil^■ upon ^n^ioL^:vOLlu■l■ 
verb? : 

iy^i^ sfha ay i&^y I allow tliat you j^o 

I f iliiHii . il is lint alliji^vcil lo MnoTi*" in liiis lii>ii=c ■ adfljo man&bla L'^ 
nan dfong iiv 'fiirr ur: /u«iia.' \id\hiiyii umiiffdia! JL i^ vh"Oils [b^i'l] I du 
nol fl.ini'kt!) 

I'lsoi^H^efAik {iiiiiUkctik) 'ay odtiji vmdli i am aiign' thai (bccanse) 

llicy (In nol conic 
abja!fltck rtan !aldi!i adiittdli I believe that the man will come 
031^^ ai>it}liil£ii ay aindli s'lod/' <\q you believe tbat he ames? 



?6j TUF. LANOUAtiE OF THE JSONTOC lOOROT 

itbfol&tek ay ttnmdli sfya I l>elieve tliat he has retunied 

.Wzo llie parliric a'isi/d ospresi^i^s ceti^[nLy, "I bcMcter" aii'i/ti ya 
iiiiidli iri^n'j/jjj he uil] ci^rr^iiiik tome Ln-<bv; 1 <ivliu\e ihal Iv: '•.iD Lrtmt. 
fridjuadjiiaef^ is bji altS^ta J di>iibl that he -will come 
t^TsdjiiJidiuaEh is iwi isinolfatt wan fafit-d I rl-niiliL ilia( [lie m^Eimi nilf 

co[iie kick 
iiriu'giddah is nan ai/\ina I 'cnr ili^il fit will coatc 
uml'gi'itdai^ lav infaf^nidiic'iika ay umdli 1 fcsr ll»3! vrm tonic lo^i lale 

(/i?ii: bci:3"ii3c: or: r.i nan naQrKmiiamam ir,v ifjir-?.'f') 
iiijn o'^g-Sng^ nm^giad tuy k^dfou nan itsft sfya (he buy fears le^t Elu: dog- 

hJLi' hiiin nr: fim^giad is ua'i '.•luiigedf-i'io'i 'lan ifsffc kct j/v! 
noH fobfofayi itmiisi'iiilfii lay at/iinulhSfG imn /djrti yn (r.^/'flttiir/rt ^^ctn 

(Jffe/jj iiy lit 111,' n^iijii^jii Ic^r iFiiii llic tiiciny i^'ill ^.'imi' ;iii'l Imni Hii' 

tfiasak nun aUiUia L forbrd liiin lu i-i'iifc (i furhul liis tojiiiiii^) i ] pri-'vcnl 
liim Irani conilne; or. udtk Wytj^n sfya 'y 'nudit 1 <lo not aunt 
lllrH [0 taihi^ 

^;/iinj[4JF^^i ay nan vfin/aiii ya Ivumfgn is Ufiir mlani^ \\<i h^\i: Jn:aril llinl 

your brollitr fia? hmuglil (lie tijft^l.i 
iji'ng/ngck nan fafdji ay i'ljulfasc I ln'^ir [liat the iv'nrii:iii silirnEts 
aykhn ff^n^/ngi'n -.lak/^ii ay cii^h^U av'' (fo voii litzit im^ ^.i-tjik " 
tJ-i^>JS/j'g<'* ^flii frrrpfifijj/ii wib nmrnorndghd [ liejr thai tlie girls have 

coiaie 

(Foj', "beraiTse," is said to be used wmetimes after verbs of iiesru^, 

living, Imowiiiff; biiT en aiuf d^i '.^aa to The prtfwabTe,) 

fldpi^^-f mndU -'J ^Tfl j-j *rf*j<j "i hope" tliai ibc jnolber wiU won come 

stjh/hi h^khirk uy HixUtfaHmo turn dsnh tsna 1 know Ibat yoa am hidicig 

ni} dOf^ bert 
si°3i0 trttj^jJfi >ry iiaji s^ad jib q^f/^ o^i FsSftfak he knows thai a lelWr hiis 

iCiTiie fjOni HOnl<>c^ 
j/^jj iiifkk'fiir ay ftil/fgiUd Tttn kiir'ii-4Hitjo ken sfkix ^otx krrow that thc^ 

me^nt haitlc, when ihty loH ycra [ B. 4'&1 
kAndin mii fafdyi t'l ydhtu rwj? kily^ rtl] Tlic vv-oman That '?'h* siiall brirtff 

lilt I'lK^rl 
kunitiLa nun oaf^dnga la litbid^na msn dkUmg he icUs thcchjkl lo wash the 

ciiJkl 
kmiiii! ke't !>tyt (a u»ijiii 1 <oU him to come, 1 order hini... (with cUtNe 

pteposi. ) 



THE LA"NGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC ICOROT 263 

dfmhna hinwdni ken sak/^rt «r jiiuoitdniKt nan kattUuf vn iji?w p/'iane; 

adivJiii jjjj/ZJ Ihc Nn.l |>Tar*i[^ci] mo N. j^lv^- |ini:l .1 ■^Lir^^lii ^ml ^n 

ax, "niirl iin^v "Jiur^' [.■■ rn^Iliini^," i. ^. liiiE li^ i\\i\ n:i| Irtish Jii^i ihriiNf!* 
nan fafdyi t/andna en iyditta «im tjffiait the waman promises to bnii^ (.lie 

line 
f^a'i'fumi i'l'Ji fj^J^ifyfr fji JQljdi\^/i>i}iii we pronii*ie yon to Help voii 
s^jt^t»H^ffl:i' /jy J^ifii d'nttfr yi inr'trly aJ Manila Issan tfao\i-^d'\^\ik I rtLuein- 

Lu' (CJiink) Lli^L ii\y IslJici' ^vcjlI Id .M:iisil^i ivlii^ii I i^n> cliikl ItliirlTi^ 

jay childhood J 
sssSn^rk fly phuidSyij^t ^fnst'^an uy !dh^ is iJflH ihmi I remejDL&r iliat iliey 

Lillt'l iii.juy iih:fi jn iiur UtrtJi 
ay'i{\n ^.ir^i'mkn^ nan k-midm ayf do yffu i"i.-inciiflii?T yrniT iirrjiiij-.u ? 
iUimnii fja/tj-s ay hif.'yr <i 'mn lu''"/^i'f '^4^ ■ii^t: ihjii. !Jii-y .ifc :;ivi]|]injif!; in 

(lie vinler 
i\l/loljii rrni.'E iul'iliJl:i iTV ct!a/i)'''iid \[v\ •-.^\'. lh,il ill": iiion l^■J|■|' fi^rltl l"[; 

tWat youpur rlw cfold in tlie fiJfrfiiii!;'-^l^.iL^il"T 

fhtt'k rrUlJ hldfld a\ umiili T vi't lTi.U IIlu i[i,^n Is tinning 
inilami tjai'ita a-,' iiii/plja^ ,>v ^:i., eIu'ili f.iU 
inShlja fffMJ jnjyf'Jj^^L.'a fF;^i uil^!^/ijj^ Hid.- ■-iiw iIult rlif c\ii\i] k'n 
ijclj^'i^ il^t'iiii' ran ifpuy ay "I'aldvaO: av iijaipS'<,ii pOsht}'!-; Llien ivr ^ef 
the fire |^.Xl^l^J^lln;.■ sll^'lkl 111 ILOili llu' SC^ |li. l^A 

liifpufal- lay iil/in-a \ !imir llial Ji 1?; frni? {hApatalr Iloc;mrjJ 

no.'! Jijjjiii/rjrti kiizi'f-s nan iaiitki ' .1.- lo i>iy Lliinkiny" tLt iLiaii ii j^ood j I 

think tliat Ihe man is ^ood 
Mun iiiamJm^io kor^!stja ir>' f\ifSiiidia I fliink Lliiif iIli-* iin^ t.'a"i(f 'LiiiLl^i 
j^ifji iri"jiiiijjji^'/i'if ndf fit/ht<a iiai\ Icaniiftt/a \\c lh[iik lha( they do aot HeN 

thf iriLili 
/TflJ' i'iniiifint /'I Ijn^lj-o Q*f! I'isiitiff Llic. Ihin'k ihiiL llic^ iirc mL jll 
7iifftitS)Hck ay ad'niidSi ^/ya I lliink llial liu ii'ill ci>iii^ 
It'yficf.- t/^it ij.ii hujie^/iTf;^^ 1 ni'li ili^ii ^c^n sk -lauii 

Uytj^ioi non Ialal4ki ay kaf^i'lja hoh /iifay (ay inklUt' Jt t^fay) we wish 

Ihi^l iho liicM iinke ■^jit^in 
ieyti-^'!fdk" iTjfrAf 'tan 'a'uliU-i ay kcmdan (or- fa ho^^jftantfa} we want all 

men Uj ^ ?n"^\ 
[^ylj^ij nun fofdyi ay msfj^itii} rn Jiarr t.itja (or; rn o'.'J^'\a jJrfu /jJ/ijJ I 

SVanI llie wniii."^!! !■> ci»k ifie iiieni 
Uyfjik ay taaiiitottfya kett stiea I Jihc 10 bfieak ta you 



26^ THE LANGUAGE OF TiUi r»OiNTOC IGOROT 

fiilfk l^yfj^'i ■n'irti- 'y fimuy ^ *lo not wani you to go away 

vii4 "lA'i ISyt^eiii oy irijiiiiv/jujjjf wliere do yrni i' JiiiE ii-^ Ur ^.i? ("iiur l^olmg- 

place"! 
Uyljcn'jit <}au a\jdh^ii iji/ ij^r^^ i,f jj^rr f^/j^^^ <ln:y wiili lliaC liti: cliiM got'^ 

iiilo lln: liodM' ^ 

/At^j'jjjj^j ^;irfrJvtfi fly Wft-iH (or; ta wnalikHyi^) wt wi^h that you come 



45'h. A'i li.Tih Wen 'Erileil in [4 J4 !, clic ^%oril 'iclfr'?, '"il vv^'- said,'' "lie 
s[uil" cl<Jr ih oflcii ijiicneJ in iiiilii'-cci or Jlrncl discourse lo Jesij^isale a 
quotatioiL f'vlk^viriK Hit t.^plaJlJUQJL '-A ilic tijiisuiKii^n jil indirect dia- 
cofitJiC in [A-'^^\ -> Vciv ojdiiipl'.-o 'hall be givci] lo iriu&ifn.lH: ttic use oi hand: 
'"■ka-ii'h'" kaii^ "v!C\]\" i',i^ ^^lifi; hfyn 'iisi\i\''y'. ka'id (In-. ['■ n'njd. was 
said Gcr, das ^[1 lliAi 6Cin. 

i'Hf£/HFfj".^H'?fr' hsayi^ pitdSy wnn ifiliig, kon^ \w -^aid yoii t^ ill kill tlic p[g 
iiiiiiiSyk-a ya iuinnd inith iniit Jni'ttnko. kmul il was said you had ccrnie 

and t^keil Illy \.\.iil<: 
aykSka iiin"f^ijJiay ay, kan^ do you come with a spear, was asked 

(T[ie plural: koHliisa is doublful, ae in: intsim^kay^, homStsa ynn 
work, ifity ei^ktE.) 

lid'iaUl Iranif ImnUn cii.„. iben he i9 said B have tpnkcn... [J.. ^6 J 



4fnD. I^qui valeii 1 1 [i>r onr Dependent TnfuiLLivi; f">iir 
Enfinilire 3s siibjei'l ov ohjett it i.'H]jrei,^j^tI [11 EiinliM: I^ural ici vatioiis, wiiys, 
iucli 01: Ilic Nom actions willi llie ardcfc, Elie "lulliijEive" i:Oiiinccted by 
ay, SionietJnies by is, etc. [4-1] 

'i'lic "Intinitivc" uf Fos-'C^-ii^'c VtrJjs coiiimcEed ljy ny ^vilTi X^yhz or 
A<Jjitl[vi:i IS iiitfT^;h^iiij;t^blc l^ illi the form of I lie ^onicLi ngciiii^. Thus 
lln: iiftiiaJ i-OQilrntTiOT] . Wyijek ay kdkkeft sftodi, I iv[-ili to kii'>w tliis 111-iii, 
itiay be changtd ly: l^yfjck ay "iiifn^ic* frf^ji fytf/, 1 wi^li lo ha j "knu^^cr" 
i>J ibi'n iiin ; mafnifn tv fafiijeii nn'i i:fp!in. il i; iiijssiMi: if sluriten ihe 
tnlfCj or, mixfaifn ay muHidtui n ijhjh J;//iaJi, iL in po^aible 40 be a sharper 

Deptndenl iipon Nnuns; 

!itQd}iii ay uiullcng is iiiaipcfsitii ran ituHtto [ufadno] il i^ our cuslorn lo 
rtilaJEtr ivurking 



THE J.AJiGUAGE OF THE BONTOC iGOKQT ^f.j 

fhtdlju ay TftAfi^wrr i.i .fiW il is iWir tii-oi'jpn li' •:.ii do^'- J3iS| 

rjgag !!0f6hki} 'i' ='»f^fljj.y ppru mn/ld Ui^f'Jt u'lnl 3dv^LH:Lj;j: id [here: for 

me to work, il there Is no pay? 
^Z^S ^oi^lt'iid iry "tmitiA^h [.: mm <Jf"it_i; iii^< map^iinf what !^ Ulc ust^ 

llor >oil) o1 huildiiig a hoiisc, i1 it i^lmrntd doivn? 
mfd «0'i^_'iJ'i_^ii!^ ay aiangoto u nan Lflja you are oi no use, nrorlliJess, in 

L^-ikuiy inciit 

ne|ieiiikiU upon V'crlial Nouns; 

et isaisditui ftdH UySdkfi flji **wti^J/a t^H j/y.r T sii^iii.i be vety fi:kd to set 

hiin; "my wisiiinK'' would be,., 

(n.irr y.i""ifrnk'>: "d.-^ Ci> mv jiirlyliL^," ''drj jiiv cifrnj<|cr^[l[jn" , -ct 

I k|>i;iidcnt upon Adjectives. (Sometimes the Passive is iL5«d 

iii-iiMfl L'f ilie Acliue) : 

'^!.^K '"^" ^Szt'/.<- a\ l^attdn/ wlircli ]^ correcL lo •.'.w'^ 
ii'odAy t^khcn ax kapSn T have ■uliizi ;]ii]ic'^ i'^ '^^■ 
fi'aUmii<r\toy ov ali!/'ii iia'i bf/ak in i^ epsv w- ijel iho liioih.'^ 

*i\/il'7'iof ay ■maSnE"^ it is easy to do (to be done) 

'S>,-/iJ' ar 'H'thto II 1-^ rlrrTJciilt lo wufk flo ^^e ivh^Vl":]) 

^.rj,'j«rJj ipa^r nmftyitufdko mo iia'i /'ifedc(fa'if<li'.> ''^nn n \-< Irfltcr that we 

g^ llian rtninin Hiti' (luan^k'n/i : ^dn [39^]) 

Jcd'.-^'/f jjjiE "jaji/tl.i,rii'^a'i -fya il i-. ri;;lii [■> lidii Im?! ||<asrive) 
adf u\iifa!/'i ay iimi'lri'-; Jl i-- iiLi|>ui:iLljli: ly tc^I 
ijiii^jT/Ff.j;r)yj^^izyi n (ciij] jm/td dtujidko el is sad for me (I am sorry) to 

fi-ive [!■■ Irlmil 
kaka/ig^d nan MoisakaHidkc is Hoa ajdwan it ie daogeraus for us lo go 

iic^ir ri fiuFl'fLlo 
nfmufy ya !^ajj/s a\ (iir ■ j'hj fiifni'ii iliis J? Rfiod to eJ.[ 
nan laldki ya iitjifJI^as ay ^mssiitr the man is strong so as io work 

iabaftkai, ^llL■uJl^, '^^:i nut ;,'iMi'i-n ,ijlv iniiii.1 

Depeiideiil tipoii V'cr bt : 

Authorilative and causative verbs ("I nialce Tiim cnnrc, oixler hiin lo 
come") wi[]i ihc |'Tcri>. pa- see [2^5! 

Verbs ^vicli ^d^mrbisl iioliun, i-ovemiinit ollior verb-, -itT (.^17! . ",-i'.^ 
Hflll d'lii^iii ify...., "i^p^ nan Iham ay.... *.ei? (.'SSH "Hoiv"! 

See also Finul Clauses: [455-J and ibe Au^itJaKes: IJ07 T.] 



266 THE U\N'GUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

tcittitliak' -ay tia^tt sfka I come to see you 

iiiiiiiili av nais'^h'di is nan fiO^tiy lie caiue t-o bring the rice 

^liiiiyaS/ ay frfniiito I yrt Uf unrk 

iisimd^nagiff ['/intnifknaf^ak] ny I'litsfiiio T go lo ihe field, foTflSl, river 

Ihmytfk iiiit^i\ tioftjti ay 'imiiaitii-'i:.; [ jTft to SM itieni dance (wilbout ayl) 
^/Hk^tjaii tj/n^/iig'^ ttOii tdkfSf ay /jitiKgtj^iviif; [ go to h*ar the people 

Wiii/iyl'^iid finin POfl ttlailiki Hy e^ift^i^gtrii we go to see Ihe men figllt 

p;J]j/7j.'ilJJJJj ay uiiilila !<i kfl(filiiflfl\i\^ ■<?ii ^■.' Ml yi-'E lilies jB I2| 

^lii'ja l:\iyfiijeii a-,' 'tin'id^ni \i\cy go to pnl] lier out to dance [J„ R/] 

ifii'it^i!'} ay inait^-^ni I ii'- to say 

i^lria ki^hki'n av 'iian-^UA^o xh^fi di> iinl iLii(ler?iLiiin[ to si:[l (sefliiig); 

lJ„iS| 
irctjt*ii-^ USdlod j\*in i^ngihi^a ny "laiigivdm llmii tli': h"\ imiM tell ( R. ^5) 
isiicd -f/iwik^p jfFFF Liii'xtzi'!^ ya i^aiidl^^hoii^ .it?" if^iium ay mang/bfakd 

liiTEi i .luiLJLU \)i_ HTLters and directly asks for water [I^ 41J 
i-A^ytsr-'d €lh'-< "nisii'i_^^ycii oy /m^tkt'n Man liit"^ uri'l l>ch'>ff[ I llii: pLf;'^ 

"l«^5lCll" 10 I^LTi^i- |L 4'ii 



461 I' Jir( [ c [ |) f 05 iifc connccli^d i^ [Ifi sijlj&lJiil[tc:& or prouoaiiv etc. 
by ay ; 

BOB fafdyi ay mtdsay^weng ihe singiQj^ woman, the woman who sings 

nun t-alifki av iiiiuitii lIil jh.lii iLnviu;; conw 

Htj'i oii^s^u^a nv vdi'}i\\ii!i ilit tlnlil l.ciiii^ utiout to rctum 

iia'i ia!ifi.-i a\- man^L-iUii si sa ihe rroii *t^ lji;^' liiis 

im" fff'lyi ffv iiiit/h' \'jid is liar atL/iliua the .■0111 nil l^i iiiy htj clill^ 

'i-ti'i fthii^a <iv "of<H-iril\ (lie Im-ktii pot 

The participle present of the passive expresses not oEily a passive action 

ir iir-npi"*^^*. I'^t ri fH-.i'-' -^l^i^ ron.'fv ilicimiirin nT ;iii acliGii 10 be ]icrfnrnial, 
}iki' G E^iifiLiiLlkc <jr fjririic ^■'■:'''''^il,ili^; iM« ^fo^ig ay iinxUtig" \"iliif_z'^\ 
ihc house llial imi^i IfC ^olil, iliat 1:, for ?aJr- lJ rxpri'^ics ■iJ'"', ^i-' llic coii- 
Lc.y! ivill fliou', r!ie po^'ibihiv oi pLTfnr[iiiii£ ilit rifiian im fin olijeci, asi 
miikan. tJMhIc ; >iiastf\^f-rii, :iljlc en l»e earned, porSzil.li;, 'ii'ifn rurr, ilr[rik^ble. 
h^LT |i 15, I r6| : the ;iii:i i]>iiin'c pdrilcijjie; and ""while'^: [444] ' itiinAU 
Itv 'la'ig-ti'go lie cjiirn: UiEiijIiiiig. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT aS? 



INT]]:RjeCilONS 



^1-2 ljile]".iLcl]nn= ire iniiiiern-iiL: in I'oninc Ip^^mT; iii^lhi. ^Mll^|■^t, :i» 
lij o-lLjci' lajigu^pc-;, ui iiiiiriiciilaic =.iiliiiiLi| oiln^ita iiit: iik]ici<:;Ll iviiJi bCKue 
<if the particles H^iuiLuer^ik^] in (41'i 430]* as ior instance itc-1 [426]. 

S^"' •:''iil '"Jincnectioii'^" -^oeiii rii he sTmrLencI forms oE verba, a^ ■ ahityr't 
maw.' OL" tkayf ma>ii conil alM "Icl \\h .i(i^ii.k tlicni!,*' a hi^tlt i.ry, |irril>- 
-abtyfat: if.'jt^'j-n ?fjpii.' huikas... give! /W^^j.' ki'tk h>o[1 (i^t/^^-, I -ce). 

The Igurui cfiH snnirliyrly '■•■[jiPiinr'^'^ by : ii\i^kii! wwkdy^t aittkdiitit 

be, jouihefe! Of J lll|/pf'llJJ/JJfy,^' Vmt jr! J-.' iv.t|.if! haUfrhl {tu\ 

Tliey ;illni<.l -oiihjih:":j jiUchIuiii by . lid^f iiijs>c: or ■ .lil-'.' lUr'nf <f^!^'i-' 
and [liev exL'n;^^ iTirir (^■^■Tl alleiilion lo ^irmie *in?nl:er'*i ivcird^ bj : Hc'^^' 
■^:A^/ttDd iheit -JjifiriH^Ll liy ilio afJiriiijIive; J^/yesI; but th«r disapproval 
"by n^! (]'r'H:i wiili ^ci r]l>*.CLi rerl j, as liih^li^lu luiv'l 

\[i iiilLiTi>ii,i'.lv!- uiLuvjt'CLluii 'vb^u r i=.: rr-^^^' riuirji .' 

Jilyful viirpri^i:: 'ijI' ii('. irid' '>r : 1^1^.' [4^()| 

Surprii-c; 'lii/aimt^^ A-^: nii'fi' ntffV ' mut <ii'"y :-t n'llli'! ■:r(^! -fi-] 
[Uc "jLiiiio-five"? ff. c. the ImniiU'L; "I ;i bi.n^c isiihi.iii c^ i-l^^riE cause, hencc 
tike hvoi'k of fill "jniHQ" ur j^liu^l.l 

Tlio rail: f\'Sdlni^'. urgeri \VirriOfS tu aliB';-!:. C\l?o; ?iiuif1jJdfej/ and : 
e'iidbof let us advance]) 

At an attatt th-e eoemy ia provoketi by: "t^fSt^iet^^'- r-opca-tol 
rapfcfiv". 

;jcl r<:[nly! ^^vcii,' ■TiCuui^^td,' i^o im .■urk! 

Sarlnc'-i, rarely IkhIHv |j;uii. Is ixprt^^td hj ; andaai fct\dna} ang^ 
fjy: Ji^'Jltiru.' 

Rciiri;! . ily^ti ^ay an! ilO^^" ^ad' *'wlh achadrl i^ff j''ifi" ni'- aaf^iki 
"I'll ilkhtn^t JiDw bad! the coat is turn! vrie schad«, daas der Rock zer- 

All rl^^ln , <;ivii m! tffm?^ ^a' dia' 

Vail pi>r>r itltirnr! I^aiiisf:^ii^!ca! ixow ar-c tii l>c ijiiiicil!) 
Mo'-I Eitiiiiaifly wv heur [lie [iUaj<JLli'jn a! coJorLd by nia iiucnosa- 
i'":. jfJiriuriLj.-i', ropi'ij^cbfiil ^'^[. icirr. 



2tA THR L'\Nr.liAGK OK THR HOXH'nC TGOROT 



APPENDIX 



TRLI1A1, APFELLATlVl^S, PI^FCJt NAJdE^ GEGCIT AP1I ICAL NA.UI^. 
Ilii' l^-riii riiiiiiin' Ti4"Tivi [s in ifinj vcrii.icLif^LV ■ ^^nji T^^if^"' 'i\ iFiiiifok 

^'I'lit siiltM^iill^f if-!i>cii« [ifrf/?ifj#j does ii-n ^iyciify EJie IgoroJ, i™t 
iiie^in* "iialEdn" or "irllx:" ^ihL "i-eople." 1 1 liv iios jny iialloiial ap|iell[iliA"'?, 
bur i.h ii<e<i of llir in:i!!lLlioi'irii> [nJiO'^ n-. well as of ihc E^oi'ol llieiii.'-i'lii:^.) 

Oilier lenii! are ■ nan iLd^od: [li-: people liviiij; iu Lhc Nortli; itan 
i.lflay: \\\i. Jn;^>^lllJ Ikfji^ solilIi ■>! lhc l^n^Uoc rirc^i. 

Jjfltf Aicitiftno the Amerletin 1 ■i'lff Srt-^'flyir [JJTfHWiyflRflJ the S]>rLiiiaid 
^ijt any y[iut [inn) ; 'luji filiphaic i\\t Tay 3lii ; rrd^^ hSlltd llic 
Mtgrilii fif lilt l'liilip|ilnc Islaink (111 : tlic men ^mlEi kuiky hair). 

l'rii|i[[- rs.iniE"- ni r ■" li .i 1 1 ]^'>'(L liir v.iiloLi-^ et.-isoii', awi ;[L ilElTiirtiil [icrioiJ-; 
aj flff , ii'o Ji.T Jn'5^incc^Jjmfl:H'i/jy^, Lin "|iresiilH?iiic" o( Twciicaii, i'3s uallcnJ 
fontitrU . l-ti'"liJyo, then TjagJag, and may assiUiie the lADie KxlSoiig ni 
time [ii Clinic, 

TIlus flip nnme^ pmimerffffl here (whose meannnjjs ccnj]d not he ascer- 
l^ncil) ^irr siitli j^ -r.jiL^ I^ornl Sr^iiL I'fhiiln^c find olhcr t'^lvn:^, ^ii rfi^ h.icini1y 
hor€ iihoiiL 1006. A'; an iii'li^'idnjil |>i-r|iiainii:<-il lii«i oi*.!! mine dilTeieiilh T-.t 
cliflerciil '>cc,^&^on^ and ,15 [ii= coiiiradi'*. \jrjed il [rei|Licnlly, ^cv-cral forms 
ol ihe same iiaiiit an? giveD licfe ill several in^Uiices- The naiiies ui 
^iijiiieii T.TC iiiarViedi iv. 

/i'lli^'-K [Anilflo, 111: Igorot nanie: M^yn \l-Gl^if^'w\ 

B^^^t! |F%Ji; Bd^tl\ ^S^^S 

LSpiip "Pflur Cddya" (n&sumed nani-c) ir. 

AfAUa/t Sliyo w. 

Ajii'eJATfjais [Jgpdiian; Agjiil-.t-a-'] Ol^s^in't [Ordsaii] 
fdnakati w. Tjumi'^yiii [Tsfimfgyai] 



THK languagl: 01' thl: bohtoc igokot 



^6^ 



(•it<i\io 'v. 

fjiipQs {Bdpa^: Ddba.\\ 

Aitgav IV. 

T/hti^iii,- \Dongay; ov ''lilfis' 

Kaldn^ad 

fsdittg [T^l^ay] v.\ 

Dmdf^e'T \T!i<'iflrc'i\ 

Fiit)iidnii\g 

.ViiArct '^ . 

HdgVQII 
FaiJgtdfa 
Lakdyeii 
Ki/bang 

Abfdnity IV. 

Ta/m 

Sdmhad 

Kmitdv^n iv. 
y^d/tjap V. 
Fo/lrhvfti 
l.orn6fo 

Kiidd/d v. 

Tif\1 nil 



M dry ft 

Fdnged 

Kvdi^o; [ Godsdo; GodjSo; Ko6do 

AifSii/jy I'r. 

lyiipeng [Vdfyfiipi] yv. 

Pdteng {}f4ti}n^\\ 

Oiiitun 

Mdis/kid 
A iidS^an 

AySdsog 

!'flngL-a!Y {B-'in.gl.-da] 

Labdan 

M n/dd IV. 

i ii'i^sa V. 

Lifng'tvity w. 
Fanda}\g 
Lf^a^ \\- 

0//an 
IVad/fg \K-. 

Attgby 
Fdtgka IV 
Mdlay w. 



270 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOUOT 

Tsa/dkas E,f^-dskni 

Sdyati Mating 

Saky^feM Ts^/lag 

Socit of the fonawiiig Names ol Towns in the Boiitoc area differ mocfi 
orle.-ip fr^ii llicir oflidal oami:s, iTic: <^^j:ia] Li;imc?, !■; >iTilteii bv tin: Sp[iri- 
iHJiU and rf'iiiincd by (he AiHerir^mi, nv*^ tliti'tfiitj; inrliisleJ in [_ J; vari- 
ants in Igorot lan^jiiaKi? nre mU-rii in [ | . 

FOntok (Bodtoc) S3li-:i^!idka'i [S-akos^'r^^'i] 

Jlfil/iu!d [Mfisidl {M^iyiiril) I-^lsaBf {ihi^.^o) 

SSgddsa [Sakdtim] {.^a^udd) AindStsafi [.•liiii-'tSii^\ {Ariisdao) 

fuldiasn {Bato^an) I'alil! {BaliU) 

Auikffni£ {Ankilin-g) A!ab [Aia!-] 

Tii/hong (TaJioitg) Bidlfsav \Fidcnsi<i\ 

Tsdliitan fDffjian) AkJiiuii {A^ain-n') 

A't/j*"» {Kiii\yn\ Tijp!iiz {Tt\htbm) 

F'h-/yi* { Avti'o-jjis'i) Pi!i/ii^ {BaiHg) 

(Tile iL^TTK^s ^bvh^ii iilavc wnlMin l^ll.' iiia^l irii|j.irf:iTil LinLTK- but tht'v 
n« by iic- iiitr-Mi-^ iliiiuciLt u, Unm :.i I'luciplfic list, Tlif prjuunrinLLun h> 
llmt of the Bnnl« ppopit jiol 'A llic inh^il>iiriiirso£lhe stv^^riil to.vn&f) 

TJic Eri^rapliirni di:ilrii;l? riJ RonliH: Are. from ^oiilli lo N'-orrli : 
Af^it — Mdg/^u—Di^r^/^y^Omjc^^. Tn iln^^ff di^irici'; ilie v^rioui "4lo," 
precimLTs. a« settled, sntaJI elans wLnj^^'' ■.oniir.lcriiiiftti forms the town of 
Boiitoc, They arc .iiiii.iii^l in ilii^ (ii^fvin'^ -a^ foHoi^'i: 

In D^di^/'^yi III Umf^g; 

La/ft n.-^Kgan L^K^fuy 

Pdd/pM^Sg 7'okLS>, 

H'i^ilfdTi I. 'iigbai' 

<Dtln?r locnlilie?; in Eoiilnc nre' TjaitAlOM, LSkkiyng. S6ki\i^; llie Bon^ 
loc region i5 calleJ Tj/tiya [gee ■ "liiHjjsHi'ial Song") or KenfdtjQii (H. 21 ] . 



In Af^'n: 


Tn jV^^/*J(.- 


Fnydyciig 


F/lig 


AjnkiPifta 


MJ^f^i^ 


I'alrlp/^ 


■ Tjdkon^ 


l-'nldytiii 





PART )[ 



VOCABULARY 



PREFACE 



M Iht fsdmtik^ aild Tcxls, fr*m. wl»[cli 111* "i^l-ai r,raramar of the 
Bodioc J^ijryi Language" wi& ccn3lru<:Kdf were oblainfti from the spukcfl 
lijTi^iji^e of llie Igurot, v.lin]ii llie Aiitbtir vl.=lte(] dally dutirig ihcir Etay in 
Chicago, ill llie suisiiiier aii'l (ill 'A i<jo5 and in the sumiiier of lyo?, thu? 
aho thi5 v(W5kihi'y ■w^'. collected from (he: firs! to (he las( word frotii the 
Mp?- Qi tJii^T Ir^clJigciLl, reajransive aitd hmnorous people. 

Bill the cdJIeclioii o( word^ given in the folliiwlrH" pages had lo be 
grcally reducedH inasiiiuch as a cnnsLilffalilc nunbt]" ut words, obtained 
from a mmi man cpnv<:n^r\t wi(h Ilooanuthan wi(h th& pjr-? BontM dia!«f, 
h^d ficcii rejccitd a'i Joan words by native Bonlocnien. Tbia task o-f 3elei;t- 
iii^ lIik fmr^ Uontoo ^^'Ords iva^ by no means easy; but it is beilcved, 
aflcr Miveral careful Tev[5[oii& of tbe vocabulary, thai die forrign tluucnt haa 
been iveeded out, or hss h^eu ftiarked as 5Ufli, wh^n i( jppcsrpd that a 
word liad been adopted frnni the Ilc^fltiOfl, fl mori: wotld-wise and less fero- 
cious people, endowed wiih a filriing fwrm-ercial ^pirif. ivlio huve invaded 
raRoy a town in Luzon. More pJijihIc and easily approachable to niissioii- 
^rj'^':, mnjiy of then have bwomc more or less Christian ; iheir language, dif- 
feienl from llie BonlOc [gorol, is to a large exieiit mingled wJLfi loan word^ 
and witli eKpres?[oiis wbcch a h[g]ier cuIeufc roidircH, As ifiJtiy of Ihem 
hare acquired some Joiowtedse of Spaoi&h, ihty were employed in certain 
ufiitjdl pObitJoni {even in {i>vit\i situated beyond the bomidarle? of llheir own 
lirovincej and as inlcrprelera i sonieiunes they also served as U'an^tOfS of 
eccleBiastieal liEerature etc. 

Thus llLr:ir Isngiiage ha^ l>i:cn influcTiced by a cullirre foreign to thein^ 
in woid and spirit, and there is som* imra^diale danger (liat also tlie vertiat^ 
ulars of the tribes visited hy nhein be infected by foreign ele]tien[s. For, 
accnrd^ to otpericnce and to Hie word? of the lea nicd R. H. Codrington, 
D.D„ ['The Melantiiati TangiLages,'' p. lOo] : "Missionary tr^nslalitni, 
^cinions, and speaking are the ruin of nadve languages." . . . 

Comparative PSiilologisis M-ho are pre^'eiiled from making tlieir studies 
with the IgOTOt of different regions, or wiih representative? from varioug 



fl;fl TBIE LAWGLTAGE OF THE BQKTOC IGOROT 

towns, caiuiDl be warded ■rnuii^h iig^iT.1 using Vocaliula rioi^ cnll^icd by 
unphi!jlog-[cjl and inconipclMJC cainpiler^, whalcver iJidr lilk^, uc Jjfficial 
pub-iucus may be, T^k warning is not at all iniiiecc^sjry, ^s ihr paat iia^- 

pTOVCD. 

Only wiirj', con&iderH comiiinn lo BaiiLof l^ii-cot and to JLocamj have 
been piiicnJ [iiTj the Vocabulary ; li the AuUmr ha^ not succeeded ciij[iplr[r:[)- 
in Ijanii^hing llocaiiD, li-e a':"l(*i llic :^i)irjc jf llie Bonloc LaiiK^'i^ i-Jr fur^ive- 
IH5.S, lEkewi^e if h* hae omitlnJ ime or ilit ctlier pure Ifitir&l uord Ehat 
teenied sii^piciou'i tt> him. 

Of £rca[ Tnllut, in collecting ihe Vocnilmljiry, was ihe facE lliat Llii' 
native? hi,6 brought with niiein a CQn5i(li:r;.l>lc ^fmount of i^'eapniis, lnHi^lnild 
uicii&il&, building iinaierials, loals; tiiat liiry were tm^iefl v.ith [iiiifding their 
(orges, houws, a inftiel of a rice terrace willi irrigjlinn ijKnnncI?;, ivuli 
weaving, cooliiiig, ^pe^-r-lhruwinE, b^tlHng-, forging sjicjirbladj?i, making 
potT^ry and br^lft^-Juf-cb, ]>lcaliiig hals, daiicingf, slnKln^, [j-:rEorniiiig ?^cri- 
fjce* ^iid ctrf;Tn<>rLJc:j, inir&iTig Hveral babies, and ychcr mcupalioiis iml enu- 
nieraled heie. 

Of equal value were the objects in LhP f Ihnograpliical coJlptiCJ'^n o( Ihe 
**FieEd Mhscuih," brmiglH (lilthir from tbe Bontoc Area by Mr. S. C Simms 
and placed on exiiihilion; at several vi^iic-i willi a group oi Igorol lli[s excel- 
lent colleclioa, a lasting nionuiiitin lo llie ahllily and eii-erev o( Mr. Simnis 
fiirrishtd J maisof iTi(ilrm[i<[on, of cour&e not only llic nanie^ of llie rNliifjited 
ofajcctA, but also lUAoy vcrb'i In [XnineL;iion -witfi liieir iiic, pnd amptc tniM- 
rtat for coiiveTialioii. 

A rno5t welcome aid were a-ho Ibo splendid iilu&Erjtioni in [lie VI II. VoL 
of Tbc "I'liljlJcalioncniius dcm K^l Ktlanographischeri Muwiiin zii Dn;sdcii," 
edited by Dr A. B. Meyer and A. Schjdenlkci^ i. Nord LniMi (Drcsdm 
i&>o. Siengd u. Markert), their "Album -vnn Phi]ippr»en-Typcn (ifigi)" 
and Meyer's "Album von Philippinen-Typeii (iS$5J]" aitd when, during (lie 
tccond vi&it of ihc I^oroi, a copy of Dr. Jenks' book hjid arrived, ihc. many 
illu^lrjlion^, wliicli increase e^seiuially llic value of tliis plc;l&an( pablir^ElDll 
of Mie Pliilippin-e Govemmenr, wtrt efoqii^iiily c^piained (o llir Author hy 
llie Igoiol- 11 was- infJctd siitprisinB \*? iioLicc how quickly and unfailingly 
Ihe inlFlligent pcopJ? i^omprchendrd [he Kenery, llie persons and their o«:u- 
paliods, Ihe iioi^finents represented on tiicse pkotograpli?. 



PREFACE 2:^7 

As it appeared convenicttt, the AiliIigl" lias referred seiier:^] liiiie^ in tiis 
Viic^biiiary lo illD':[r;^^i1>ll■i in Ehe vrorlra justmentMned. Meyer und Jclud- 
tnbcrg'^ "Xont Jriii'mi" is guoKd ; M. Sc-li ; ivhile J- stands iot Dr. JcjilLi' 

"The Eonioc iRorot." 

AlilioLigh Ehi3 VocalmlELiy has been elicited thronghoui from the liTiit^ 
Lini;ii[ij]^^ jt can nol claiiu to be the firal, but -only to be [he firsE oi it^ kiiiil 

.\ li^C i>( "BrmlriC" .vriril^l — (nrliinHH'h' 1 Vi:LJ :illl;jll ll*.[ - 1-^ j>[]inefl Isi 
Tred IT. S,3.\yyeT in lii^ "The Jnlnliilmifs ..t llic ['lillfp-piiie';; l,aTf.lnri. S.imp- 
son tiOiv, Maraloo and Co. 1900," p. 26^ tosfi", Tht fi^^nty rnrilvrm] iniiiiL 
]fMi'C been fulEecleri in mlier re_^Joii-!, fjifl not in ihe BonEoc \rcj, Ir ^. ;ik 
/'^_ut/ ; headnii^ri'', hfli: Tijcocij, *i:[-^liesL b\iy\tjne or fu^^fj: Tinse-flines; cag- 
^Aila ck'.) Snivycr^ lii^i is ba rjnlcwly incorrfct. 

jfhLii n-cv^ tliroiigli iho lanoiis tribes qI Niirrli J,ii70ii f'sr tbc "^rli'^rlirifl fur 
I^ilinoJi^ie," h.i'^ i>uhll^bed lliere ni i(>Si^, \'ol. Ji, p 6SJ lo 700. c^tcn-ii'.'i; 
v«c;il>d;ifiea rh five fiaraM MluTrtns" G.^i'in^ii. H^htiic. Banjiiie. U|l3^tl^aTld 
llKaiii?, While Stli.iLknbtjrs'i^ V'^iJ'i'-i'- i'"i ilur \'^<; mnncirf; mid cLutniii*, 01 
tlifi TtjotrtL cuin-sln liiilubiiphlv niiiny n I'Trcci ■^Ijicmcnl, Hit r;ittiiriiii ii( hi" 
"Bonloc" wir<[-, is [i^nhliii^ \.. rill tiliirtl ei^ro". In warcety ^ven "^'ord^ onl 
oi a htuidi^ iti his "B^lrtf-V(V^^b"fcni'y" th(^ Roiiroc an^'m csn he rcro^- 
njzcd. Ic L& dcplyriible Ihal Ibi; ^jilnT'vrse ket-n ijl>'^rver ha? losi himself in 
a pro-vlnce closed m him hy scicii sepT^ ib^r <jf linj^ii^ilf, ;iiiil tlin iiov.' aiid 
Iheo hre mori^ ifiin incorrect statements have really bwn taken scrloiLs. In 
■itTTiT: JilTTioiot nw^n'i^ry Ifl dimv llie iicgalive VEilueof ihe-cujlUcen fnluinni, 
S"jlh(!ri:d by Scbadcnbcrg in l^ifnli^i', l»v ^ctmc s.uiiple! lakeif .tI random ironi 
hi 5 li^c; 

kindle Pre Iclu^ain wnrk firrrTtirr 

bile fowaif^ rjlij<^ ^n^T'iWfftl? 

hriiLliei' praiJcf' he ificJrr 

hiiie'^J om/flj' uffJi f^t/iflf^J^f'ff'ifui^N ^('indow seliiia-g 

■'iTaiiPfr riirjjiupiJ^OP*^'>/-Jr>-^f>f-/i^J for dtisdus 

^o nn^vuc Ini'^ine';'; ff^rt^^iu fijif.'mr JTMfl 

]ar^ daina^ good cag gosii 

call oflW^^ ivood caco 



278 THE LA:JGUAGl:r OF THE BONTQC TGOROT 

you (wo daca\osa in /ilschi 

always fftifcledt/ima ffy oasatis ayai 

low putunnitltaro proceed jyfjir nasuvaga H_si}"t 

"qhal ya I can mcsiturt 

Itfp mi'ih'UJic liotliin^^ Is iinsu- 

2X pmangas inl^f Joifsina 

loice ameyac s[;n'f:[]) ipffJfitmo 

aio n,rbjiq«en looOi fffru^ 

iind^r^taiiil naagvto fifie f^ZiflFrnoiE 

sl.iv behind matayiian cis.ind si r/au :IiqiH arri>w*i p^^^na"! t^f; polffC'ifi 

l^Elcio Ir'nTTr-aiu itj miii* iiJu^i^^ body atifli 

clean (^jff^tJfl lA^fTm jnimfll ink'kici 

puir ^fffiffOflin ' asicinbly ijap 

And Ihijs ibi'i rjrflllr<:n^Lrrf of mJbhjfomuiliimgtKion, asif Ihererads-ted 
no avenging" snito in the wurldl 

Oi inFnilely g^reater value la the coU-ecEion oi about seven bunrlred 
noun^, twelve ^irljeclivf? and iniir -niverhs publi-^birl by Dr. Ifiik'i in lii'i "R-m- 
tr)c leor-jC"" lt!,'i. r(-linl>lc ;iri- ibi! verfh, .'nbcKt'^t iivfiiij In nnTnl>cr, ^ivL'n there 
in tbcir b^siil form. This ba^ been a^cerliincd by a ceniipr[r[sDn with llie same 
words iia mj uocabufciry wh«n fhe latler was revised in 1907 iwtb tte 1^6- 
rnt'^ fl'osi^ti^Tice. Distrepaiicir:^ occurred, of cour't, frw|LieiUlj-, -not anTv m 
oifbngrjpbv lull jlI';!) in mrri iiii't siiii[r-.Lii|n-*i in li-i^Kir^iiin: bill Ibty 
were not of m scrku? achflracler as to detract niiieh from the reli.-ibilKv of 
Th. Jenfcs' coflection made in tht tflwd of Boditoc. j^. Jenks was quite for- 
iLJiiALc nnl to jncctpariil.c nny IlociiiLO words into a Rnnlot Vocdhul^ry, 
Allhoirfih evidcntty nol 3 lln^il?[ al alf, he liiiciv -lo driiw hi'. tUncrcte nocirl-i 
from clear soorc^a ; whenever he could point at an object and wben hia ques- 
tion lua? ynJer*ilood, lie olrtujned tlie correct term and ivt^te il di>wTi a^ tKfSi- 
fcJeiitioa^lyAi^b^ could, during a stay ol lii't montb^ in the Bonrrjc Region, 
imlc^^ hi5 vocabulary was (>r*:srmeil i" bim [n Bcrnloc. 

During" the sunrnier of i^O" I learned in the "l^irot Village" atCbJmgD, 
Irrtiii ^ itil^fliniifli'y, Fatber WA[ter C. Clapp, (wbi^ hid fn^^ahmit four ycarj 
wUh Ihe Eon.1^ ptO|fk ^i^ (isd T-tier^ R^Teral tonvfrt; 4\'j|h him &o thiit he 
liad aeqiilred several phrases of varioD? idinms) tbst he in collabotation with 
*i|inie Tgoroi and Ili^ano anr! several American ladies teflfliJn^ school in 



PREFACE 379 

BonCoc fiad begun |i> comp-ilc a Vocabulary, \i-hlcls wai> ccmlinued during 
]ii^ j|l>'^[;nr<; from the Inlands Tjy oilier^ Thjs Vocablary, rgorol-Hnq;- 
liivh iijirj Knglitili-lgorot, [& expecLfi] 10 lie of ^omc imporlancc, especially 
as one of the collaborainri^, :, Chjplaici of tbe Armj, ie said to have made 
SiniiTar sludici lorjtierly jirnnnjj ^ijine Indiani and pnsse^^ci ■.orn-e knowledge 
oS Clieii" grarniiiflr — AaiJ knowledge of liie almcLurc of a Isn^age is indi^- 
peiL^^hrc If-r colkcling th^ material ioi a Vot^biiUry llial ahaU be oi wim- 

I& it netcjisary (o ivarn ag^fiii'^i U'^ing my Vocabulary any nnc -nvho 
would, wifiiDiLT Imvirt^ kindled and pracliced (lie Graminar. iclempl lo 
<lerjve imy l"?ncii| f roni Ihe Vocabulary ^ Itiieinioricilly J have omilwd collo- 
quial plirnirfi almost coripletely ; in an idiom so [otallv differeni from our 
ii'-^Ti (and in ics siLQctuie aho ?o mm-h more complicaled dian Mrilflv) it 
would scarcely saii^fy B parrot tti Jcnow a few phraat^ ; and bt* th* tradts- 
man, lh& engineer, ihe Kachet, ih? jiii^i^iionary, Hi^ pfficial will nt^t a.nd shall 
not he ^^LiHUcI wilh ray Vocabulary, unless he Im previously compre- 
hended Jind [earned al Ac:i'.t the verbal forms and Lhe niosl necessary ruki 
of the OnlMrUctiDn of dedaradvc and inlerrogalivc sentences. 

In lilt Vucdbiiljiry many words lia^e 1>etn repealed in brackela in 
aliglnly changed formj ihc lefJroE'a inconstancy in proiiiiiiciai.ioii ntM^ii- 
laied tliese additions of irariaiit^. 

VctIb are given (irsl In tlie Present Active in their nrcst comidcm 
form (not ipmh} form); tfi? olher "principal parii" follnw: Preierrie — 
Passive Participle in Prcipnl — Noracn ;igcnlis. Personal Verts are foiuid 
in I'rcient and Preterite only. The Ififmllive of Pu^flr^i^ivc Vcrlis. K only 
nei^ded witiii'-Verba udio^e roots end in j; the Infinitive of all other V-cibs 
llie ^ludcm mu'^i he Hik to forn], Rc.jprauil Verbs are usually recorded in 
iheir ilieortfiica.1 Singular Snrm, 

WboKver t^t or more "Principal Part^" of a Verb, or either Ihe Pos- 
sessive form or the Personal foi'ni of ilie same Rno-t ip not given, it lias been 
^rltitlci] •rf\ly On [locOiml of deScient informahon^ this omission shall mil 
txp^es? tlii^t 111? V^ih jij qW':&^jpL la'.ki other forma, Tb^ ^tuJcnt of ibe 
Bontoc GramniaT can easily ccnstruci and <.upp1y tbe missing forms. "The 
Author thinks he could do the same; but he does not irklend to depart from 
his prlntipk ; lo write JoiTO oiJy what he has heard and as he. has heard il. 



aSo THF: language of the BOWTOC IGOLfOT 



II a Verlf i'i folluwcd by 3 synonvin'mi IrEinilallcn in parcnllir'ii^, jta 
li:ir|^ art ^ivcii ivich. thai synonynii e. g. "leyljirk 1 whjiI 0'^^'^)" ncddS" 
■firnl the Prcleri^e — Passive Farliciplc — >;omGii 3gen(i% uiideT"; "love" 

Numbers in bracliete refer to aections of Uie GramaiaT. 

The Aulhor rei]uesl*i Jind vi[\ receive irni^t gratefully for iiivesliga- 
iton anil *iclcciinii any ^ddldon or ciirreciiijii =ein l^^ liim l)y itiose vi'[io 
Icnoi* finrt iUo by lliow; who believe ro know. Airpit s-p^ce h^?, heeii pro 
■viikd Ijr ^<ldili<>[is or corr-ectionh in yh<: Vocabulary- Elij? vaiani space 
5hal[ convince the sludcnl that [tie Aulhor i^ far from rvmi>bdirriiij; bi*i Vo- 
■cabulary to he "eshauiti^'e." 



VOCABULARY 



H,Hn ^In'Jcfinitc ArlicltJ. Scc; (31) 

abandon kaydtjck (leave)^ paisdek — inpafsak — ma/ipaha — 

nfangipSlsn I leave alom: (^a -I- ha. ore) - 
ukdyeh — iiukdykc — ffia/Akay — maiic^kay 



flbTe 



inafallit \mabialfii \; mafdlinak \mabfdliyiak] — najdtinak 
{ Personal endings doubtful I) ; mafaifn^ko — nafal/a^k/t 
L317] 1 tiinaljle; Cf. f^QS] 



about 



agtdy »^^f' about ten ineii' aa^y t^^i -iiii^S'o^y laiuiitki; 
asdy pgel sfya: prabably he. 



above 



[I tdHgiju [tcfigistn] , tfiton-gtjiicn, high iibove^ in Ihe 
iWf. ad tfdya {as sfdya;ii ijftya] 



absoil ^cc; ma/fd "nut exisling" [322]: l^abi/afitia: Ju5t gone 

OUl (from; funidloiik'^, maldsinak I a]ii absent (from 
hank: etc Song Dialect) 



abundant angdngion; aydka; S-tafsitma (lj5| 

accept HannSk^ [UsKotko] — intattatko — im/itdiiui — maHgitdnui: 

I agree, accepl, ^lod aawnl; tsaivj!ddek—tH»ark'j}ddk<>^ 
naatstJetfead — maitdftwadj I accept an objecl offered, 
receive 



2^2 



THE LANGLEAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOEOT 



accompany v^if■ftc^ah — nif^egak: iHfdegak ay iimuy: \ p. ^'iEk 1^40i 
kadMh—kUiad/lak I ^a- a? cofiipanJOtt. Cf. [3J2I; 
tnikidiiak \mtikdUak\ I go with 

fft/f d\ ft;} — /"jjj s dil\ liD — jjj fl/ ffla jJf — fj^ umiiaiii 
!ipiish,'k — liiirpiishka — malfpash — tHinUpash (Hoc.?) 



Hchc 



wMt, ^tfftfl nm 6I0 headathr:; inp^t^g nan fob/d iTic 
tuolh acbcs 



H-cquaintffll iiidngfirfr : knowfng, from k^k&sk; s^m nan iiidtiglek ken 

j/yo' wlio ia acqiminlfd wiEh himf 



IS apld; if, apTd nan pdjchong aL'rnji^ ill? ^ea ; ji apfdna 
jsfj/ acto93 joiidet 



acro^ I go i^tfdngek; kamijd'i^ith {crti^a.) 



act Ihak; dtignek (do) 

Adam's apple iAJiifrd?flA 



tabidbiab—tinahtdbiak "I jjive idore" it^bik: I arid, I 
IfD Oa, continue 



&d<lrc^ 



ivri^y^k (^r^afcto) 



adiiKHUsh pdtuk^lnHdiiik—miipdlnR. Pcr^. ; hptjialr — nfnpatak I 

vjiim, 1 rcjirimaiid. J<Ji^<*fl^^ [advi*ie) 



adopt a child ai^i^tEri — inaidkko — madnak — mangdnak. 
(Bnt ; yndnganak, I -eaO 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE f^ONTOG ICOl^OT 



^^^ 



advance jimuyak- {ga) 



a4van|age kSlok. ng3_^ iron kaldk t^sha^ gI wTi;it ^nJvanlage is ihis? 

^vhal does (]il^ mean? for wlij( is [|iis jjnuil? what ii llic 
rci50]i of ni^ "S^,f ffofSkkc^ \vh-5i will it benefit me? 
ii^d^ kolSkka ay ^}i!ilinv ny'' ivhy shoulil I vnork? >iifd 
kotSkko i^ is of nfi u^c (^f iHtj ^t i^ in valii. 



advice 



feTtsj 



advi3« 



'ui'iJiict — rinoii^Siti^ko — iimtSk/^'i — mandkricH ivani, teach. 



afflict 






ind'ii^dak — idjidmSciia'if J appear alTlicled, glooiiiv, 
(ft FFrnJ <,dn_^aa k — sinm asifngaa h 



Afire 






; I biu^ dawa^ destroy Ly 



a&aid 



^^"ai^ l^^JT'^, '■^si'i^l; T am afraid: WJii-^fifTf/oi.' (1ear| 



fUfrfufA (frMn: fSfidshek. 1 finish): |4oSl. Or. i.^ yian 
natpdiQii: upon, after accaniplisliini; (from- lipd^theki; 
ii- .fifr ano-^gHsh: Jt Ihr cud of; cf. I'r. "'dii tioul d' une 

lieurc." , Ci>T3jirnc[i0n; [^i45l 



afcemoorj early aficriioon: h nav tiiagAfjvn; from afj^mt j-io'i^loclc 

jj Hflji iiitdkiij>; from ali-oul 4-6 o'clcHrk' jj fjan n^is^yufty 
at tlic thne of siuuet: is -hoh sidsids/jnia 



afterwards ^elji^ng, ibcmi|>oiL. I436I; is mv anSn^mh ndnS6t&. 
"it ihc raid o-J lJi]^" — 



38+ 



THE I.AMGUAfiE qF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



kd-i^Kj dkis [akfs] |;JT2J (dki^ - s]^>) 



agomal 



fE, kcJt 



flgatc 



abdngd {opdnz'oy] u^al fnr ncclilai^es 



agfl 



fcEm'Tufl," frfl(p»:H'^fta. Sec: ycjr 



ago 



ay inmdyj ay itd/osh [ay HiilS^sh^, from ladshak I pais by; 

liltle whi[e a^o; idkd7»m ion^: Time a^a; adsdngMMm 
?onie mouths ygo ; [(?iiT«?u/n or: ha 'y tttV^utn Oy lAlosh 
one year aijo; aydka'y taSmi/n Oy in*n/^y mitpy ycnlc^ ago 



&^Kt 



f!a»u^h-y (ai^cept) 



agrevmakl pdkya^ (oral dgrcciaicnl, iio< a written contract; Hoc.) 



flHI 



fadjdHgak (he^> 



Afr 



sAytuy (bivalh, hlawing^tc-) 



alike 



tfJji^nfl [j&i^j^iij 



olive 



otoldk^ y&daddki^\ ; maiatdksmk I am alive, {idbai 

Jiving bd re, peraon) 



aU 



dmrn. omSn ay tdk^ allpeoplc; ihJsJ^all. kelj^n^tji. 

f5sa| 



ell (pur^) pdsig, pdiig faliiSag allgolcl, puregold, withouradmixlui? 



Allow 



iy^yak (M) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGOROT 



28S 



alAUBl *outjiiir 13"! . <tktt ydnskny el HO-ydgya^ak I had almost 

(alJen {aktt yangkay ee-. "hul liltle, Ibeo") 



d1' 



ooe 



!ii"ig; liimalfine: isdngak; diirative: inijifn^at— 
jrffjudfwgpt; I rcTnaiii alone. I alone ^oiily 1); iak/^t 
it'i^kay; I im ^lunc, J ;iiii srpjr^tcd from, ( in Plur. : we 
are tn^ifierand ■^^p^mtt'f irnmotHtfr^l : mjt^i^pr/^jj^at— 
nak^kelj^yi^iik; ina/ist^'ixk [mir-yii'itilf]_, ^cc "abandon". 
I leave alone; vkdyek — iyrnk'tyko — mv/!iffity^-ma>iglikay. 



fllr-eady 



(Jfffjf/>';(fjl309] 



tftij [jt/J^ (po^(p-ti*il(Lvc) , iaic/Sn dhis T aImji^ fag 6fFP 
iflit/^ji Jjtif I also ("like myself, al^io'") 



although 



4% |4S3l 



aEtitudc kaantj^na "it^ aliiiude," aiiij &oflff(;'i^ij Man kdyo the 

lici^hl of Ihe iree (JfUflFffjiJ was always given in [lie con- 
stiiucl Elate) 



fllwflyB isSMsh'sya; ha^waka^ivdkas (everyday) - hStoAwlia^TvIn 

(cvtry year); is kala-J^wflasvtfn: forever 



JuxiaiCRn 



Mclibdno. Mdikdnos, {Melikitmish] 



arnong' 

and 

Anglehmk 



is, ke»i 



ya; et: and (hen 



fM^wui; line of ihe angk; lAfid; worm: kJlloHg. 
fengwfdab. Perwn. motn^agrvstak I angle 



j86 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



angry 



ihof;hdnsct \sosdngci]; siyimSngci: li^vins bccom? angty- 
i'T'Shosh'Jn.^elQk: I am angry; ^hsoi^ngeink^-siT^indngctak 
[ am ^L'li[iig nn^ry; inasisosdngettdko wc an: sngry at 
cacli other; pitshdngtek I inake angry — iipi^huKg^Sko — 
maipifskSn^et — mongipashSnget ; pa/hthek T make angry, 
provo-ke; pfrr^QiJ, r li'iipfis'kink, — inmipaisikak 



"anlto-pcet" b/^ih5 \p^s^]; (a wooden post wiili a h^il curved on ils lop 
and pbtixl 111 [he vard of iht councilliou^c of each "ato^'} 

ankle kinghtngi; jornt- ^"gft 



awmoy 



(by l^lkj Mntipiidyoitk — inmipadyoak; anAkek (trouble) 



aiYOllwr l^kkSfi; 4b&lh4r Or *'oiie niore'V dkii; nan /t/o Ihc 

oilier, the comj^anion 

answer, th? s^mfad 



Hnswer, I iihfAt^k—mfMh>—»iidf}Od—iK^>if'td. Perj. ; jnmfddak 

— sinumfadak {^ibfdlek s/ka. 1 ^inswer ^oii; Per*, dii 

"Accus,") 

BUI k^yim or kfliim, liirgcrcdaiit; /"sWt, small (Til rk bri^vn ; 

aldliiFdng, large, rtd ; iti^flgii'^, biliiig ant 

BDUS koidii_gad [gdiiHgatl] ; pana/lyays (for: pCKg -^ ta/i + an) 

any [laS, '29,131, '33-] 

anybcsdy ^^ify J^ftt 

anywhere ^^y -mo rnt^^ any [-Jace whatsoever ; rfljy tnf5na 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



2R7 



apart 

apiece 

appnHHzIi 



w: A.re ap^irt: mabeketj^K^kSmi. Set: jiIuih! 



ffda^ 



a turn isa i"iGz ooe') 



umaldliak I come nearer 



approve 



(tan^tko (dcccpl) 



Hi; jabfdy [fabff^y]: hijmf^read, place nrar home, near 
ih? town 



arise 



f-nmang^jiak—finm-^ng-iiiiat I rtriiid from skcp. 
lamdkejikak — timidkiflkak I iiiind iifi. ilaktjfgkj} T rise 



ami 



//jwa (1. e. hlad); upper arm tdklay, upijer arm near Jhe 

elbuw pihtgo. See: lueasiire 



BTiBilet pOKgfJnab; <ibbfl for men ■ biiar iii^k^ with cixk icatkers; 

idkiia: red ratlaii witEi pig^ »elh 

annpjt yikyeh 

around inJfkid T gj around. lituhh*ik (go), i«Ultivhak. I go 

arQun^ the [rec . Jiirrij-jift mlikid i-^ nc» bJyn plflcfd alt 
aroLiiid, made, put, tied aro-uml ; tuxlhriih, iJround me; 

arrfvei pddsoti_g: a pcrBon'5 arrival Bl a placv, town, on his Jour- 

nej-ja halirjng pl^ce (not the end of the JMimey) ; "^tape." 



amvc 



nmdobaii — sirat%4obiift i arrive at home 



333 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

artery Qdd [w4d. «M] 

M aa^whin: wIcf, /jMH [+t3] ; M = like; *il^.; as = bwauw: 

OA IT bQsh^n I454I 

afl«nd dfRfijpfr—iffnif^^iko—'iadffrid — Htanfiid [mant^M]; 

disltjeii fiflif ifUs I ascend the iiiaiinlajii 
manfg^dak — nanf^edak; mant^Mak is nati fitig I ascend 
ibe iDotlntaiD 



ashamed, 1 am ^*n4siak — inmdiiaJt. 1 niake a^liamenlj dskck — indshka 
'^iia^diika mitn ay engkilt is kSg tdna> be aaliaiiied to talk 
like ibai!" — '^tna/td dshim [dsh^m; dshom] you arc not 

asKained." 



ashore fj nan Hid nun •aid/t^^a (oi (he bank of tlie river); 

tjifiidkSak — tjinmdkaak \t!iiiiidkaiak\ ; amUidab — 
iranfiidiiJc I go a&Iiore.; alajtrdshek — inalajvilslikff — 
maald'H'ash — mangitldinask I pull ashore ; palsa/fdlek — 
inpatsdkak — ma/ipafsdka — mangij'alsiiki' I pu( 011 llie 
abore (after pulling ^l^hJfeJ; [p/Hjokiilek] [Hi. 240 1 

dfllc tbfukok — tnf&kak — ma/Ibfaka — Mongtbfalra { Constmc- 

tioD: person with, is or ifen-. tiling In "Aixiisaiive."') — 
Jbi^kak fci^rt j/yj *i!0 in-iS ssan flina I a&\c him wli^ce liis 
liome is. — fbfSAak ken sfka nan hipdmno I ask you (or 
your kiiiEe. — Freqiienl. : ibfakdfakak I ssk iriaiiy ques- 
lions, or; I ask ca^rly, I ask tiiany persotis, I ask around; 
IiifLnilive; /bf-aka. See Grammar fiz@|- 
Person. : umibfakdak — inmibfakdak; kotsditwefr 
[b^Ijdstwek] — kiiiGfsd»ko^-mat[gdtsaf9 [indngtsa/t] — 
mdkisa^ 1 ask for; Person.: kumtidstzfak or: 
inkctsd^ak; inkdtsdfiKih ken sFka ii tindpay 1 ask you for 



THE LAMGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



2S<J 



ask 



Ijftaii I fruJHjyrfHti'nt k^n tSdi ir idgfo I a^lc liim (or 

Qtt WMdjt, I ^a/; kdaak k^m sfka haw bfhk I ak yo^L 

foi money 

kimvdnslfa t^H sak/^n nan mtftoi llacy fisted nic fo-r 

chickens 



[ii£i?iliet 

iTisdmong9dk»—f\^dm€ngtdko- we a^£eniLi[e, came logelher 



ititnuiko (accent) 



fadjdis^ak (Help) 



at 

"STO" 



tj; itfff, Ej kc-i! A^i!^-w4sai: -ac AaddWfi&arb bouse 



Afl - a section of 3 (own, a "predm^i/' 5«: "^^ouTici! 

house f (he pcopfc ur one ato : pang^ta; ihe wliole alu. 



Attacik 



fi^0p:nfdf;h—fhiil{>gnfdk6—mafisli5gA\d—iiiam{ilSgi\id. 



aunt 



aiintflc ffv fsfdyi father's crater; y^i/at ind molhcr's 
oLder aiiler- anStjin tna iiiollier's yoiingef si.'^lcr- indek 
my fiLtb^r'^ br^ther'^ wife; (iLs Lraiisiiiivc verb indik^nz^n^-- 
1 have as my aunl ; in^fm you l»ave a^ your aunt, cir 
foster- mother ere.) 



autumn 



?\tt-. "season." 



averse faUikak \_faif.iiili) ^ fiili^dnlit^i? nan vwp^tttktj^ kl y^ li(lTO 

revenge for onr ^laJn ("bodies") I 



290 THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 

£wake fwidtjf^vnoJd (arise) ; futnafdngdna^: J ^m, keep ^wakc; 

inamuw Jrcn j^lcrp ; f'tnf^^m'k — fi'Jii-ufnf^ke—maf'iigim — 

inllhhhak: 1 keep awake, J wauch during Elie night 



away 



I rijn Jur riwiiy; hwniinnak — jniiftidanuk J £0 a»vay, I gu 
away, i. e. i*li[ ^f my LiULiSf ; jutndtoak — fiimdUak 



flwNlc 



iji 



iifikfl 



icn, ij fl 



U: 



BX 



ptna)\g; Tucucsn; kifmpR - ijaltk-sx lll^i^",; ^/Vflf 
al/aia; ^n ax willi very lonp "bcjk ;" mo^^jbiTH dji f'fnang} 
fiinifiigitik nx bLdc; (Tiot Ihc iHiiiilcd fi^rc cmll (fl l^kt 

pare/h flie (re^r) ihorn- rrfptfr [i. e. "moinh"} cd^e 

p^:^^ Itfiiefr] fly iiatidJe 

kaliiht ihe iron cap on die liaiidTe near tlie blade 

tdn^fa [d^n_gha |, or iigndian llie iron cap on tlie oth^r 

end o1 iJai? liaiidle 

kastt; kind^il; ^«elttdkan iings of hcjuco serving -^.s caps 

pha'ig si iLdkod llic Ijattk ;3x <jf Iribrt. in Lhc North; 

naw pdlik ay nmos^Git {z^in: "breast"); nir. liKttkiid tiy 

muos^an lhc ban'lk wjih a "no'oc" 



a:r and adze -wdsay (a ivortiiig: tool wilh changcjLle l>Tade); jefic 
blade; pakilija Jt^ndLe 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 2^1 



B 



baby aiinf^yan^ (vrry young)! kTUang I'Oyi ngdafi £irl ; 

ongdaga cliiJd 



tack oithelfoi^; £tjig. [il£c^\. tjMig backbone 



is !idgok [[Jc'soel; lo ihc rear |40i;4i2l 

IKm^liah I Hiome bath (tcirn<) 
pixshakdngek I ilirn\v hack (ihrow) 
iVtndkoigih ay imdkiuk I run Lack 
p4/ta<^lts!r ay fadidti I send back (aciidj 
in^dko^gak I Look back,, turn around 



bacDn {ilad 



bad dngiiliid, angdngSliid (bad, Irnt iirpruvalif c ; ugly) 

"■S'^S ["S^S] IhoroUghJy bn-3; i>liybiffllly and morally 
bad; Tucucanr idw^n^ 

oidlhy very hnid, very ivkked. id^wa bad. Improper, 

liidfx:cnl, wronfi licJ^iftj, Hoc, is used al^oj 

mof^rsi* ^ad, rnallc[(ni?, 4'ri-y (parnicularly o( a vi^maA) 



bag af cloth: Ij^kaSi; of dccrskiii . ffdtvt; oi a bladder; 

^/(/iTfj^; fitfong si fdSug, ur: sdgah. in llie bag" '-f "■*" 



bald 3jirfiff(^^ifn don ^0, iwn ^"^ot/ pSklang {V\o<:..'^ 



agi THE LANGUAGE Oh" TIH^^ D0^TOC IGOKOT 

bsU rnrnf^j^oh a ball of thread, string etc. 

bamboo kawiyyon [bawdyan]; tindnoitg. uaed f-or (nbcs ; (Jprt, 

for hiiikcc^ i /^'frCj /(^^"i [f^i/* ] uaed [or Ihe spcarbladci 
of ''/jjn^ftflit"; mdii^nse^ bankboo as "hac<l as irun," 
See- ;_ liib* 

"banana fdiad; ^.n^aU green; sdking; large, yellow 'F?i'rjijj^|' 

bank of river /ird; uo-p^ flid nan -iednga; pdna: ^■:il5liorc 

bart iHlS'Jili', a &F*3r with man>- barber siHatawUfin 

iatk f^piifi; inner h^irk ■ hf>'lid [fcj^&niJ] 






bam JIoMg 

barter sokddek — sinoitddko — tuasdkad — ntandiiad. Person,: 

sumdkadak — sinmdkadok. idjilab L< natt sifkad: I ^ive in. 
exchange See ; cl»ange 

hhvgddko — In^hugddkc — ma/tsh^^ad — mangJskAgad. 
{iietkitko: isGkdtka] 

basJut akaa-jfin small ba^ikei, cf graceful fcirm, broad round fim, 

tlie oih.er part conical wlili four "ribs." — Also: wonun^s 
^u\^\\ biL^ktl f^arried on tbe bach, 

aktd medium siae, f|ai, no liiij i" fron<, fi>T galherii^ 
shells 

olJjang woman's ba^kel, for vegezlabjt? 
fdkWn^ii kdtfii small fi.^li basket M. Sdv IX, \i 
faWifD basket for-camote 
faidaii^ bfldff^shapcd baskel M. Sell, IX, 9 
joldtang Earg-r rfcrplaele for skulla 



THE LANGUAGE OF THR BO^JTOC IGOROT 



=9i 



jdngast man's baskcl, lo be csiiTicd on iTie back, like J 
kn^pta'.t, wilh shoiilijjzr ^lr^i>'^; Ibc ^jijver, fdrtg^b, L^ made 
■of r^tldr knvcs; Iff fit/- si tij^e M, Scb. XIJI, 7 and S 

/^H Jijrtffnofr chicken hackee (br cfrcmonjes | 
gdl^S li'S''' basket jahioui C intlits) M. :5cli. fX, 10 
Aiifl.f Ji' ijdifiMi l>nl[]e- shaped ba^ki-l for hT* ^shoppers 
kai^pil LJiai)'^ dinner ba^k^l, coiL^i^Lm^ of kv^telI parli- 
lions, w:lh :i slrdiig for cartjiiig it 011 ifie ^liyiiUtr 

iwndta Inrpc [laii&por Cation baskets ai either tnd ?J ^| li^nE 

|iiilr, pdta^igy \v lir bsilnnced on g slioiilder 

fr^^ rillind ffit Iti'nkcl", dfaiii. sbotit 8 inches, serving in^ 

dlnner-jj!ate 

kdii^g farge receptacle for iji:*, m^idc o( bamboo W Scli. 

xia4 

W/oTi^ .lilfkeri c^p J T.XXVItl 
kotsdkud earlli backel 
kdv/tk ha^kel, used in fiiliing 

Id^shaii la.rgc flat basket, 110 rim in frtf^nlj u.^ef] for dngo, 
boiled caiiiole leaver, (Similar Eo tlic akld.') \ TJic larj:^5iL 
lu^ken in J. XCIV: (he aiiialler widiiii ihe iag.ihmi is ihc 
aMd-^ on top of ihcsc Iwo is Ihe falfiko; theji tliere ate sev- 
eral t^^^ and "ihc hiph, boltle-shaped beiiiiid t!ie dinner- 
vli(Ui 1^ the k^Ufitg. fyr fJ'tffya, poiindtd ri^;e. — | 
^fi^o a large low basket, for v-onienj to be carried on the 

head 

^iirJ 3 fi.'^h baskcl 

sak^ton^ funneJ-shiip<^ bapokcl, Itic temporary receptacle 

fur Jhf li^rnlii tiriiu^bt hoTn^ frym 'i 'iufct^^hil c:^f*dirion 

M 5ch, XVI, 15 

J^H^' m^it'fl basket, similar 10 Ihc faiigaa, biil wilhoiii 

cover ^^. f^di XTH, 5 

fhSton^ baskec m^pen.lcd 'hciieaih the ronf, for knife and 

spoons- basket m the fihfn (see; buildings), containing 

skulls: jftflMH£CIP[ 

lak^lsog [tak^fjcg] dErl ^oop 

taydSn wcmian's large transportation basket, carried on 

ths b^ad an^ usually placed lata the ^^u^ Tiie large bii&bet: 

J. XariandCXXI 

fSpil dinner basket 



39+ TEtE LAISGUACE OF THE BONTCC IGOROT 

bEisket tokS^fiil cliildrcn's iond Ija^kcl 

fdfon^^ r'.Tcpfiick iot irit-i*lic:d rice 



Iwt 



idm 



belhe 



rfwJd'ACifr,- Sf<-: viH^h 



battle 



fal^gnid Cianfe iviih mo'Terji ^irnip.. klifad) ; 



batde- ay en/figd/oa^ I ahinic n battle cry, ctialleiige 



be, to 



r3^i-5&S] 



aj/tfng; oE black seed: ^jJ.fflit; of gray seed: oiFdf^tty, 
i-edatone; api?i go, or: sf!^n£; large whitt agate ; f^kash 
ai brown herrif^-i! paUdbM 



b70^ 



t^pkcy 



ttam 



vertical: idkod- horlzonla!: fafifiglay; inclined: ft^kioii; 
a beam to carry a burden ; fi!an_^- I carry ■ ialttngko; 
fatifxwil: beam ii the aid of which 1 carry..,. See; poie, 
po3t, IhSikci: kim4ia 



bean 



fiddlong U'nTii-l-'iix] i frdS black and griy bcins; kd^ab 
ftrti^H green b^^nt, 

ndkek—itddp'^k'} — maiia^. Person.: in-^akak I gacher beans 
mamizldl-mg — n-iinai^U:ig I gu to g-ct btiins 



bear 



See: birlh; carry 



beard 



Sfipki near the i^rs; jd&o* al Ihc chin; j^nEJiPi any 
hair in the face, whiskers elc. 



THE LA^'GU^GE OF THE BONTOC IGQROT 



^S 



kog^}igel^ (strike) , fayik^k (wliip-) ; patiiyek (Itill) 
pat/Sngeh (slrike) I beat (he gong, tlie "gdngia." Se*: 
strike; knock; rap 



wiusttiiysix — Hiiai4y^g: I sLiAp? besuLJfufly (pm^, spears, 
iiWTi5ilg) 



bcww* 



lay; ino lio nvm lay: certainly because; because indeed 



beckon kawdiiiit—kitortidti^k I make a sign l*i come near, I call 



bed 



kalt'n (Igoroi?). sleeping bojrfl in Ihc '^dit^nij'^ the 
sleeping chaniijer; Hek; ffiryk a mal 



bedbug 

bee 

beef 



t/ffffr 



y^kan; bumblfhee; /*//jJg<ltt 



f4l^ (i. Ci co^) fstjo 'y ufffliig (irtcaT of ihe bvfEalii) 



beetle 



f^fit; fokfokfOd; kimkfmi cocki-oacli 



before 



i3iOMgHii**ffji WEJi . : "earlier than" bcfiirf ibe house: tj 

Jf/^fl ("ill [he coLiri"! 

•iny bcii>re yesterday kasln adflgka^ Or; ij kiL'ln ugka 



begin 



ii!^/mof?i; iBiiflf^iJiat I go beegi"^ 



bebegins ic speaki (Jdifi^jja 'j ^rr ^frif/ 



396 



THE LANGUAGE -QF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



beginning, tlie Isblibdna; (.ilie Fir^t) - is Hdn iaiflnbtina: heforehand 

kAjilahSan (he beginning 



behind Utigok ['Jt^fio^j." 'J Is^gok [400; 412]; 1 g" behind, 

lollnw um^nOdak; i^ogifkpk. ) h^v-cb'^Eiind i I (nit Lifliirtd- 
thein]?! I am in Efont;) ts/jgokek r/ftfl; you are behind me; 
ingks is tso^Sgbo^ go beliind me! 



bdkve abfei^iek^i-nabf^lutko — maabfdlud — mangabf^iud. Per- 

bellow (of the caraLao, wjler'butTala) in/ngdek nan n^anf:, Llic 

l». IjeJIows 



beDows opSifp; I work willi ih-e l>e[lDW^: opd^pak fealliera at 

llie pisloo ■ tsSdtii^d; lubes leading to iht fire ■ l^foHg 
[tdbot[g]j tilt blasl^ ait : sdysvy or: r/dt/fn (wind) 
Cf. Ling Rolh, N.Hivh?^ of Sarawak elc. II, ^36 f.; Jciik^, 
Lt. 1. 1^6 i.; Mcycr u. !^chadcii[w?rg. Album v. Phil.-'rypoi 
(T&gi) T-xi. 30; Leo Frabcnm, Gtot^r^ph. KuHiirkuiiili:, 
IV. Teil (1904) p. 200, Aijkn T[i(. IV. 

belly fSto [b^do] 

belong I '07J itfl'J' property. kJan t6df'- it belongs lo llial one 

...yit tdajt,..ris my property, belojigs <o me, 



bdow 

bench 

bavl 



fdngko (,Sp. hflTiro); tuktjtian: sitting pliLcc 

digkS^k — d\n!gk^k — madf^h^ — mnatgko. \tik3ffk, dig^ek] 
beni: nadfgdigk^; lidddck — iinidSdko — maJ/dod — 
mini^dod I b^nd and hurl ihereby (a finger etc.) 

ijap^sfiali^SjiKapSshak — mar)api7shan — tnandpoih I Ijcnd 
by laying a heavy mass upon ; tnabfdkog nan awdkno: 
his body ia bent. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE B0:^TOC IGOHOT 2^^^ 



bend 



pikMek—pinxk^dkiJ—niaptlfod — mumlhod I bend to a loop 



bcncatli is k6dpna; is hokod^ona (bcn^alli it) i is mta Isdn; is nin 

fv/fi) nan Suktj^aa: ht^mnh ihe chair, seaL I405I 



berry 
beside 



pJkong: pinid 



is nan Udpat] :\\ my sidci ii nan ts-apiitko [^;ir^j/^to| 



kdiQffits; krtgQwh }tio amfn- belter Ihan all 



betray ^ngakck (lie) 

bnta k&g6iu!s n-ro,,.. beller ihaii; mckdiiH: berter in lit^flb 

(from kadMi/ I uke away, <?. g. ^icldicts). 
mandkas il 15 IjeHer [414I (prabjbly Ilac^no' vb akdihiie, 
to imtjruvc, hcJl). 

mnndkixs u umaiianltfico \'. [i bcCltr cli3[ wiz go 
kumnvh nan salfftkor I am getting bcJlcr <niy iickiiess 
Kcls bclccr): or: tnak^onak, art: taku dwjiy, heal 

between kti^Jira |4g^] 

bevfliagca id/my. rice wine; fdy^'^h f&jjj: Ilocaro, rol IgorotJ, alco- 

holic hcvcrage made -of aii^Pr cane; fernicnicd by means 
^f t&hi^g, ilffing, J J<:niKnltd -drjuk made -yf meal, veg- 
etables, ^as'ihnppcis bonci r:ic. 



big 



ijahfiAk%; very big; IjakfjagJa yijakijQ^^ag^ ija^isagSra; 
r 15 a ruiigh sound between r and Ij — {"O^jiif^ijoJi^i^Jf- I 
rnskc "big, enlarge. 



and 



falStjfk — fjjfa/J/fij— wia/jfiftj— >«djjjJto<^. fJlsd: ^ti-ing, 

wire. 

mamitSiild^ I ami bamid, a prisoner, fettered. See: l[e. 



39fl 



THK I.Af^GL'AGli: OF THE BOWTOC IGOKOT 



bird 



aydyim; young l>[riJ ; ^3yad ny aytiyait; tfiaff si aydyoip 



bird's TKst dkaftt: dj^ng siaydya^yn ("house") 



I. '...< 

UULlI 



f/afaittek — in {liiliSlak — lacupn/ifh — mityigtpttfdla I ^ivc brilh 
or: l/im4kii^i^-i'niiniikk<ji — »t<t/id»ak \tafiiiiiik, vtayidnak\ 
Pct'ii.n-i n^idnakdk. insilSj{iak. "hjrlhflay:" dkyii ay 
ftftiH^JifTfl — Sec Ixjrn 



bit, 



iik^t fa liltlcj 



biw 



kSdfali \kM[ith'\ — hmMfak — makidfu^t — md't^d^h Prrsun.- 
i-yiliddffbak; {^umrlfl/ak. kagdek (chew) , 1 hite off: 
ffir^rf tek — ill angstktf — matig /Ik^ ad — matftig/td 



bitler 
black 



iaakild 



n^lUd [n^tfiS, inn^fHt]; ingiiatdi} vtvyhhcJi; kiimii^bnk 
ij: i'l'i^/iii I make black, paiiiE br^ck^ Or; p/tuj^ii/ffk — 
111 pit' igUtlko — ma/sfung/Hl — "laiigipo ngifil 



blackamith 
bladder 



fufiJimlni 



f/tjimg 



blade 



of spear i i^oy {tiifny, m pari f<jr (he whole ; the spear) ; 
bladeofnx: pif^dngash; blade of adze sdkn; ofknite: 

ktpan 



blanket f-iVi<; pltay; fUayay pinakpdkaK: a "pttay" of besl material 

and make; M 5ch. VIII, 4. 5.. 6, ; phay ay bdk"^ si 
faldsot^- made oi "fibeT of bean sialks" 
kddpof!: a girl's blanket 
[isydDJi^ dark blue blanket vilih while stripes; 
a ?irJpe: fdiid 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOWTOC IGOROT 



2r>l 



Mankel funljAla- wliicc bfatikel with blue stripvs, also: foMj^la 

ay liftidfz [Im/tpi 1, if llic ilrip*:^ src l>ri>tfd. M. ^cli. VIT^ 5 
ifiin Ji ov^llijga a Ijlankct ivf v.r.xiiy\n.g jcid i^jrryinjs a 
child 



Ueed 



(SiKtH-dlask ; fnmdla rtat^ djdia: the blood flows -rmt 



UJnd 



one-eyed nabfikei!; f/lltiiag; li^ldolf 
bijiid Willi open eyelids ftHix^; nci^iiUm/ 
(jmb^ld^ngtm: wilh i>Wi\r im^iW, ajbino) 



bknd 
blood 



jKdiifdhtjm^ 



fvylt-ngyoig 



d'jdla [dAla, f5fila\, djumndjdldak — djimn^diatdnk 1 am 

bloody 

padjaldck — inpadjdlak — mSi^odfdln — iiza'cs^pudt^Ja I make 

bloody 



["EiTH^ftc^f , pn^ht,bdki-k. I cauu to blow, i- e- I call the 
roiLJurcr. ihe "imrf^o*," io blow away siotne?? anil pains; 
^figki pmh^hifhf en An-d cJll iHe ciinjurer! 

filjtikek — fmt0^ko—ni&f!tjo^—niaffihhs: I bBow. iiiflaif 



bhu 



asAi (Sp. azar); f/fla, (fWim (Sp. Tlac); usually; ngflit. 
t. e, Mgck 



Unot 



maSp^d — nta-ngSpM I matie bEuiLt, dull 



300 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BCNTOC iGOROT 

boar f^B \hSa\; idm-an: wild boar 

board fi^shab 



boat fdngka (5p., Doc,) (unknown i-o iiio^i Igoroi) , babi^i, 

^itAiiiboAt (Sp. vapor) Idkid "a Span, bambcMcaDDe;" rafl 



bobbin mog^an: {poddimn in J.^-p.inio) 

body du^ak (living or dead ; men ar jniiiiAla) 

birfl,r mitck—iRlnifko — mfi/lmii—nmi^inid. (Iwil water) , 

al/juviiek bo-il down sne^r, ^iiH ; poiuditek [fiultydkek] — 

it jij I'vilin^, l.iiilfbJini^ . iw^-^g i< l^e^in^ i^ boil 
Person.; lu>'>dkak^liaumilliaii. liniiiitag nan Sjdnvm: ilit 
water l.n^il'^l 
tJrit [^/■?| ^ijjiinftpg. Il i^ boilings continues tu boil. 

bcdl. a /jwjiiy (fiirimdc -rlr,), :i ^£^r ffOTl ftbrtil' Jj,#ViIhprdjz 

bold nrat^nga^; I am brjit, "bold : }n<tl^n^<tgok 

bcpne /jtfflj;a ([(Spffr/Samflki.' J^iifiU/ and: tS^gar]; tngid 

BontcK Fi^SiiMi IF/ftirflt].' iP^niak an bhabiUnf ut Uonroo; 

iFiS'if'jkak r am fraiii Bonloc; iFriiitnk ay I^I^Jot a 
Bontoc Igoroi. Bonioc rcjjLoni TjlUyG, or: Ke^dtfan 
fin Songs.) 

bony njsftkod (lean, thin, Ekiiuiy) 

book ;/Wo (Sp- libro) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 



joi 



border 



timas (i)^rl, ili^-idinj; line, fronLler) ; fiid 



bore throi^h hishkds'cwcff — linushitd/^ha — mtldihlfai^ — "ihil3j:hkaM. 
tii^ck — (iiil^kko — ndiiek — mdnl^f/ pierce ilie ear lobe 



bom 



fir^ftdla {"ccma oul" from fnmdiank) : ma/i/tnalr 
("en fame"). 

I am horti as,,. piithfSI^iolf: vnulfliSwak f'j t;}^ag I am born 
as a mimkej, T became by bdrili a monkey; I make by binb, 
I create asj f^Fdnrek — finrtl^Ako — naf/^i^n [mabfSlii\ 
maidisaiiak — Kiritltsaf/ah (ad F^ntoS/) T am born (al 
Bonloc) 

itan ongonga ya finmdia ad^gha: Xbt child was bom yes- 
terday 



borrow tegh^d'^'ck — tink^sko — md{if''\i (eo borrovv any objenri) 

Xfipaha&wdtak is van htlak T borrow money {kaszudlek^ 

both Qjii/ff noil dj4o-. ("all Iwo") ; ofn/n nan djrfii'y indla^i bolb 

ai your cyf^ 



bmUe 



bdagasi ("gla^B"); f&itlya (Sp.) 



bottom of a 
pot, jar 
etc. 



koiAngad \gQldngait\ 



bough 



pdnga ^mall bougli, twig' p/Vigi 



boundary 



rfiH-^ (horder, pari) 



bow 



baitd^lay O^'r^-)- "w^ ^n<I irro-ws (5COrncd and n'^vfr 
used by genuine IgiroL) 



3oa 



THF_ LANGUAhT.E OF THE BOHTOC IGOROT 



bow down mif^cdnk^T^ifUfpedak 



bowels 



bowl 



fSang 

sdko^g (u^ed also aa cover for Jara) ; IjJiyo: Lvooden bowl. 
See: poi, dish, jar -elc. 



boi 



dgltb {dhi>p, dkub\. al^ "irunk'' filLfe box, lo keep 



boi, I 

brscciel 
braid 

branch 

brave 
bresd 

"break 



ofigi^ga '>' ia!d^' ("nulc thiM"'); hnity: klilnng; oTricT 
ihan Bbmil lwi[vc yf^irs: fobfiiih. Plural: ofi^fi^n^fl; 

fobfafJflo 

^Sti^ab; see "armlet'' 

ffffj/ft— iftir/iftto — iruirf^if— "'iflB£"i/fi«. Person,: Mndpitak 

pdnga; dry brflncU^ ifpitt 
kdtiing (also: bra^sduin) 

mdl^tigag; abafMns^i 

irndfyny [dindpay: A loan worJ. as the Tg^itor do rot make 
ajiv hread- Malay: lin^poy: knc^^lcd} 

pffnek — piirl^j^ko — mdpten — mdmiitn \md-nilcn\ 

fakdiheJf—finakdihko [fiii^kdshko\ — mfl/dto^yft— 
mam-ikash I brKJk and destroy {by violence) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



3-^3 



br«k 



FrrsoiL: fHmdkashak; iafdkashaf^. Duel frk-Asiu-k [ 

p<}tl^ngeh-^^inoll3iigko^»\apdtlo}\g — mam^HonQ I break 

off- p(i!i^n^''k JJPH foSlt^npeu: I brr^lk yff -f piece here 

kihSngek—klnil7^Ksko—inakfb<^ng—m<t*ii;lboitg break tn 

piKcsi flr: pitiiinidii^tk 

l*a/abSkck^npa/fib^^JfO brfali fOTTipleifly, smash !■> pieces 

y^ia/ikithkab- ilie lasi pieces l>rokeri off one aficr ihe "llirri 

in sniQll sectiaiis, a£ e, g, ^ 4ti^k J4 g[ir4di13Uy (hiirleiifil 

pekp^gkek — pineSfpSgko — HuipJii/i^j^ — mamifJape^ I break 

nn jirjn; lc>;;. ^Iso a r-tick el-c. — nap^kpeg nan IfmvK-: my 

iirm !■> brokm. 

sokptitek. I brfak a ilrinE". 



break^l 



i3iJfi_fOH f maj!^ and TQoi ! tai!) 



breast yd^o Uhd'^ho ] (of man an'J womaa) 

breastbone poldgpag 

breath ''^f^F.' ^f j'^ 

breathe /ir^ii>'irfe ijon f?fltA«' T draw inthe acr; inn^^saak Ihmthe; 

|]J:iTi-i?,tirfe L brcallie lieavily willi a wEiisllin^ soimdi 
T pant, bjtalhc aflcc carrying a burd-eii: ^'fiin^^idh^iut 



brffichclolh cuj/n'j, fcnTotii; fdia and Tii^lcis, for wojnen. Different 

kinds ! iSbtit, or', h^d^gag: yellowislf, made of (re-p fib-er, 

(jjftuf |s^^jif| iiieaiia jfao a large bag of nee) Undngag, 

made in Tnciican and Eidtiakan 

unjiatighan [win-anhan]: r*d and blue (black) 

finalcngf^n^an: very fin'? and elaborated, "ilJ String'' 

llina/dkna: with red end?:, tasavla 

tjindngto: v»'liii-c, for men 

landnlan' for m-en, similar i-o tjiidngia 

fd/a: f<ir men, sll blue 

f'indshian- lihic wiih ^jni(l| alripcS 

/|j//fl/ a linlc apron, also %voin by sn<n 



304 THE LANGUAGE QF THE flOKTOC IGOROT 



trlde Hm^fniig ay jnf^yi; hridcgro-jni : uimifou^ iv l<i!dhi 



brTdge 

Mdir 

bc%ht 



fugii/S/> flioc.) 

i^i; suff^i iw* itkyit: the 3iiji l5 sliiniri; l>rigl»i; [joiaZ/jly 
paiHi^l^ I caiL&c Co ihinc; I r<:nci;t lijflu fronf poliibed iiieial 
ihfiSffijati^ iiffn df^ny: the iire Ijurn^ wiHi a brj^lit flsme ; 



bring 



iyiiik [>'i^i*| — inydik — itfa/iydi [tnaydi, maydU\ — 
mtta^iydi [pfEtfiJ^y^r, msngy/rh. min^ydi]. Fi'^fjutiiUt. 
\di\dik. PeriOTi.j inyitiak [iiiydl!ai^^;umydiak [u'nydliiUi\. 
uaxydiak Jiiean? often: I go jnil brinj; 
CausaL paydiii, I ordtr to htia^, 1 Mud to Bom^body. 
iyiipoh — ityd/iol/ — mniydpi — nmi^i^iy^l'a [m/ngiydpo] I 
lirlng from- iydpok id t-'r^tfok: I lirlrj; fnlni Bcinloc 
ifd?ii,[? — imtJaf/ — Hia/ifitZa-'^nliins^isrta I bring, carry hrniit 
pasfkpck — 1^^ pa^ i-ipk'} — ma /tpiiskrj- — ma'i ^if jJjte/- - 
lh]'iiignin>lbchuii^e, (-ipm, ho-iteit) Alw: I order to enter 
itdlik 1 briTi£ hiifli (reiuni) 



broad 



anan 



d&VHi 



broil 



rjai/'wek; tjasi-wliek. S« ; roasi 



broken- mafdko^k, fi^uraf. fro™ fokd^hek I brrik, destroy 

hearted 



brook 



tublabftbimt (in rainy wasoii) ; bed of a bnDot: ; kinnd^an; 
wveraL tribuliirie'^ [ii llie riv^r Rio Chico, \^'hichar-epa^^iiig 
Dirougli Bonloi: ar* called: kS'uiaSi 



broom 



is/f; ose a brooAi : iisftak, P-er^oti, : imts/iuli 



its 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE JiONrOC TGGROT 305 

"brathcr ^ Tiic s^iiie IptiiiPi, only dLsliiigin^lied liy a<1(linc. ov ialdki, 
Or: ^ly fujdyi. serve (or boili bi'oilier and njster; 
Jlod \_dtad\: Ijmibcr, '■[iicr, U (he general tenn fory&wigcr 

ji^/a; tlie oUler lirolhcr ar .si&E-.T; ptiiiraE sumetioLCs: 

yu^^a; tlie aidtr-i bratlirr ar msIit wn^ c.illed in "old lan- 

guige:" pan_^ii!o "heinifJirolher," 

jjflrfj^i [j^i^/;"!}: ilip youiLgCT brother or siat«T^ plural 

SQiiitliinei: Snwidlji. 

[the second bruilm ; ni^nimd ay laldH; iha third: 

koHii'dicK ay inidki ; "i1h?t^ is no term fnr tlie fiiurEli do. 

Tirnllicr/') 

tirt'lh<:r? ^^^^^ sisifr^, "Civj^Ji""isKri" i/^t; Ui^iiaUy; .fin^ki, 

livri hTdBhcr'^ lit ■^j'^lers, suiAg/l, inoF': llipii l^vo brotheri 

■or <.Kterfi- 

ihe lirotlicr i? eg liis *iiltfrj "^'alttUktana;^' stii' calis liim: 

''kalalukfak," my brolhcr, 

ro a brother hia master if *'jfejv/ii/./VJji/;fp^rr,'" he tails her: 

kaiibfSah, mv 3L5Ii:[, ^I'licii speakinsj of l«ri' to othiT':, Or; 

fitldi/o ity fafd\<i, yi^n/aff ax faf/tvi. ixniitjUt (jiEi1f_pri] ^v 

pang^loi! ay jajdyx: iny oldest liiHer (If .■;fie is ilie iililesl 
child) ; sh^ahfkami: Vie are brotlter^ atid jsistersn we arc 
chiLdmo or the ■iEUnc p^rcni'i. 

brother-in-law kdstt<d av ialdki; sipiiej'-iii-law ■ f^dimii ffi' fafdyi. TTi* 

wiEt''. (nr Ini-obniid'?) -oiiter'i hn^band ■ a!'//lud ay laliZk! 
Tin; rcL»[iiJn^lii]» o( brollicr? (or nf sislecs-) -iji-liiv lo cacli 
Other: sinFngel. 

'brow kftomg 

ttrown W^ (iTnft, "lUce a ricdjird,'" dirkWu^-n r ■rj.'^rt "black;" 

redbrown: tnkfhd. "red;" light brown : /tu&Ai^' "/ello^." 

Ijubblo, [I iHfShfob^ (nai; tj^nrVm, nan fb/ib. Ihe water, Ibe spring, 

well), Sec, kiil 



3o6 



THE LA-NtiUAGE OF THE BON'TOC: IGOROT 



buck o^d?*'-; ^g3a'yM4hi 

bud fn^ 

bufMo Bubalus buffelua L. (Rqiorl oi [he FhiL Conun. IV, p, 

ijL) "wjiler -buffalo;" (J. |). 107L} biitw buffalo: VE^ouf 

cDi^i kainfdkyan; bull' tdf/rf; calf: /ijamiit <»>■ ayitwan, 
ay iiriiiig. Sec ivedding" 

bug tifib, fokfohtSd, kfteh 

build ijdpeh (mikej 

buUdlngs; ^7("t.<- tiouscj fa/ity [fil/4ii] large liau.^; fti^Jj/i/'iMi^ 

^Lnali hnu3i?, liLii; hou^ci oi an "jr^r>;" fdwi: couni-ilEimiSr 
oi the "(ftfl,*' place where l[ie iii-eii j^senitife in iTie cvenit^ 
lodlji:u^s afEa[rs an-d whci'e [he old men anil sinyje Ijijy^ 
^leep - see: "council house;" die sJoiie waM around ilie 
court: ijdpay; tEie flsl -itoncs on lof> oi llii^ wall: tdngf^u; 
abaff^ngo'i, \pabaf?ltn^iin] : house hkr llae ^'fdi>.'tj' but 
widi a larger oourl in franL, whfr^ctrtnujnics iirc frequently 
performed, ivifh ^Uiuj^btenric' of pifii, ([1^'^, cliicki^ns. Also 
dormilory for old and unnt^rricil young men jnd loya. 
rftog- dormiLory for tlic girls of an '"J^o-"" [^li^g] 
ttSlang: EfiTiaty 

buU toi/zi 

bullet jfJ&^d 

bunch onf bandful of ricecars: iinf^nge I367] 

bundle fdgsJmng; fugihSttgeh — finu^slidxgka — mahfAg^hi^n^ — 

jtiomigshong I pack into a bundle, bimdk, Le. one load; 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOInTTOC IGOROT 30? 



burden 



"Bt-iu/il; srr; "liuinllr;" 



bum 



pafilfdngek — inpafttjangka — ma/ipnfftjang — 
maHg-ipafitiaag I caii^c robiirn, kindle. Fcr?on.: 
funiitjdn^nh — finmilfdigak lo bom (inlmnsiEiirel 

infitfitjdngaff la burn bri^tiily, (0 be alJ^iic 

pill Imo ilie lire- I liLini ivood etc, Synonyni. i^li^ngak 

Hon i-jZyo (^vood) 

pdat [pifak, pdof^] — pindak — map^jm — [niapdan, 

"lap^a'i] — mdma. I burn doivii, destroy by fire (boiiaes, 

granaries etc. ) napt^an pan dfong: Ibe bouse [5 jfirc 

l&di\^Qk^tiiiMngiik — matSdngan: I burn my "hand, fto- 

gtr etc 

AI&q; naJtofi^on ntin ftinak, my hand a& EiurnceJ (dtoiig: 

warm); ii!^'igak I burn 

k/ffk {ifSfek)--kinf^k — snukfn — tnangffn. I Ijurn pclii 



bum, a maiafdhtjong 



bury Ika/^pkit—iiikit/ ^pk o — rna/ik4/^ /■ — mangikd/sup 

\ika/^iikzi\; I hiiii" in Ihc ^roun-J, I <li[j a hulc; 
felfdfulr: I hiiry {n miilnigbi) an enemy's iiead. 



busy 



I am busy L nay ji isalf Ssi^ito^it ("'here is to work for me"|. 
See "■work." 



but 



stddnny \^titdnity\ [43,1] i y lanlJ) 



butteffly 



f/n6lOfl)io: a. fiiiiall h. ■ akdkub 



buttock 



''0 [dpo, ^po\ 



button 



fridi. Uiiitiis (Sp, iLoc.) 



3o8 THE LANGUAGE OF THE UOX'TOC IGOROT 

fcuy ias$ak — Uaag4iA-'—mi^i^^3aK — xdnUf'^a. [ Pret ■ luia^daii, 

by motalbesi^. ] Person. ; lumag^ak — ii}ima_^oak. plact: 
for buying: kaldgSaii- 



by ^ovcTQan^ the a^eni of passive verLij is, ken [39d|. by 

and by ■ ?A a^daiii. 



cage t^ott£- ch[ck-?ii-l>aslicl. 

calf /^JiTiiot ff>' ajijJstnJjj (Ljr' ij aor uy) j calf of ilie leg: 

call, I aydlmk — {v{iydiiak^":'iay^kini^/fni'i^<iyai/ [maHf^ifyti^]- 

caTI; nfuney jtcAaoit (&eiy)r ^£i^^ Rjm kan^m si sa-F wbat 

dfl y9u ;liI| thi^? 

fiik-iwifaii — fi'tiikarii-.vfik — mafvkifrt^'tvt — Hmtrakaft Ttall 

lujii], shoiH 1-^ one; Pcr^dii.j i'lfHiuiAii'aic — 'linf ^iiaitTuak- 

ttSijyitk —himtdyak — malaiiiyatt — mintttliiy lo call lo come, 

to oil Jiear; Person. ■ iamHtiiynk — liysmai^yak. 

jrrVAi;'i7V,(; — y-inffhffalc — inayhhtji^ til call ni^Linals. 

Til* ca]|j yhktja.' 

"caiDote" (iwtcl puUilo) (ilti. V;iricli<.'5 ; fni^klo, bru^Tj, "Llic bc^l ,'' 

akufdwgtiiHg. Iirtuvn, inferior: shhhog^ lifiiii Jiroyiii: 

fioldki. wbi^c, "1n;[|i;r Ih^ln yft^^Jf Of ;" im Jtj', Ijro-ivn - ^fftfuw^^ 
Ijr^ivni khaeng; laitgrJ'ig/ag; Cimiylc-i^Lting.* . finulSimg; 
kiYcs: iTijJii (buikdas frtoil forpigO;'^^TTi*iif-%iick ■ jtfiutfu 
(icn|)knn:iit for digging Uj*] i fadngat^r [^[fiale paicli, 



TITE LAXX.Lf^GK 0I-- Tl|R nO^JTOC HJOROT 



309 



can^l 



nabjdtmak — nubfdUnok; mabfallngko [niafdhn^: ity\ 
See (agfcj 



csnal 



lihih: Jli^ one lor irrigsiioii or fiefd?. See' Img^ilon, 
trcj^lj, Wilier, a irciidi: taidkix 



carabao 



■:ee: hii (Villi 



CHTC 



tkttd. I take care, 3 c;irc fori thadak. ikiidka cic. 

r do n'lL I'^rc fur yon -•^iilf/M '\an ftird. I ilinll care i^r 

it, do i(, umiief i[. Al^; /.:flci.nl; ktk^dab jf ^jn^'^^Z-i.^if 

I blL^ll care jar, prepari' oar 'riniHr ll'odni/ \ktkndak] ay 

mangdtrj: [ take care lu uiiki: [ ln^F]* [iivsclf [■> ii. 

rite^/ 1 do not cam! r^^/?;' jimflykit* I do not cati- if 

you go! Or J rt^ify Jidu iim/jyira. iik/i^momitftd kdnib/ 

I do not ciire if I li[ivi; nolliliiji Vo e-nl 

T care for: !'iinigKfi':gS/o mfd wjyri^^^xynpjui}-. v'u care 

for TintblTij:;. >'t'n ari: ncji^lijfcni, worthies.?. 

T lai[c fioi'l drt (of i[i[|ilrcn), pLov[(le wiih food: 

d/6^hdek or: Nciir^rfif/jjg"ft — i\moi\gnS>\-^ko 

I tnWr r,3rf -jl ill-- ^ul: . lok^ngak — idJ^o^iJiJ^afe — 

maf>k3ftgan—>n<nidkvn£ (nur±c) 



cmpenMr s^mnQ-r-iidfad {^Idllcd inEioua^ ]>u]ldj[ig) ^ ^^e: pkne 

carriaEe jfeotfmJfo fi^oM^L^Ffrl (Sp- carromato) 

carrier ka'igkU'Ji'f! [kix/ikodnfJ] f&p. cargaJor) 

cany .^a_^(diirk—.iiiiij^fdsk<} — }rajiCt^fjtt — mUfldgfai \miindgfiid\~ 

R burden on I lie -lioiilder 

agt^ek — tnd^tith — nia/dgiif — mongAgto- on [3i£ Hieaid (ai 

\^'oiiien do) 

karkwHik — hi»ar'i',.vflik — makaawUi — m an gttSciuRi I carry 

the doulile bisket ^'kim/im.'' Al;i^' il!d?^'!t'i'-ik 

^jatasr--wfiko — infa/aftwfii^o — rttaibfaldrtwi/ I carry on a 



3IO 



TUli LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOKOT 



CHCTy 



Iwam on ilie ^liouldcr. {fatiiDVivil: tlip Ikhw, |Ki]r, at llic 
ends of ivKicli tht IjiirJrn i^ (i::^lfnf-ii.) 

ial^n^ko: I carry ;ni a l-c-ira, a buideji bejag ■iu&pcnded ai 
thi^ middle of Tht Iii'^tp 

sakStiyrii — jtfniiiri>'*i>— ind-ffifr^uj — maird/iluy 1 tarry a 
cbbid iin my arm 

isbf/iif/-^ncibld ill — maabfSt { dbja ^k — in diak — ma if fa — 
man^tifitl I cany ,i c'hild on my l>[ick, in I lie WTap if'^n 
istiak carry liociic (brinj; horn:) ; or; i'<bfpko 
iaffdlnelf I coiry wilh bulh ;irnib (fi box. laljlc ftc. bdori: 
my body) 

aW-btdek T carry ifJiffKr ilic arm 

udngi^ {is mn itji^kir) I carry ai\ my hack inataakfit 
lopayt^k T c^irry in rny liand 
piiilkfirk T rarrj inlo.,, (Iiriji^ in(o) 
iflilak IcarryouE- Iiifiriis. ■ ifdin 
igadn^ko I carry away (o an oilier place 
oj^h I cariy to an ofher placf in scvrrs] Trips 
fd^rt^ho I carry awa^ from a piicc i'xddn^ko — inn/tdan 
ifa/^Uk I carry 1-j (ht rctir, carry bjick [i/(fi'^t| 
SeeaLso: "lo lake, lo bring " 



castaway hjusfdkit, [SmAostdk*}] (tliri^w) 



caatrate fillfak — finitltak—^maf Ulla n^'mam/Hi 



eat 



k/Lka (loanwnid)i wilduil: fnyaet; stf<iy (coon!') 



catch 



Ifipdpek — tjinfdpko — mdtpab \mddpap\—mdnpisl>. Per- 

tnn. ij^mpSpok; slit{^k: I (lalre) fali^li, £^1. 1i<iIl ; Ctt : 
kats°^v.'ek. See: angle, nel, Itap, llsili etc. 
adikSek — inadfkok — maadtko — fiangadtko I catch in run- 
ning, pur^uin^; or: apaydsiwek (pnrsuc) 
b^n/nsk — ktiTtak — ndkna I calcli in a Irap or iiel^ ndktta: 
the prey, (aid^m sak/inf calch nief sik/am sak/^n.' 
catch my leg] in fi-aracsj 



4terpdlar k^tjing: aidtjnt 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE DOXTOC TGOROt 



2if 



tum^dyali (slop) 



celebrate- iaUfnptif^ah—niiti^iPts&tii: tumen^affct^ko aswJka^! ••^e 

keep liiiliniaj [o-niormwl (Ehu^ announce tlie hay^. cnllliLg 
from ato lo aSfl. a lio-liday proclaimeJ by ^oiiie sa-cred iiieii,) 
See: f^aat 



ceremonies tndngmayig C^^i^tifice ^ thicks ; prflyrr eic.) i Verb ; 

tiia.n£dp!ty ceremony villi ftre iij ihe lie-Id (or hou^e) 

sd>tgffe (aacrilicjiig a pig) Verb; inion^f^kQiys-i^ "^ve 

sacrifice... 

ftiaKaecvrhalr ot ■ isascisitsaii I perform a fe&5 iniporEaiit 

ceremony or sacrifice See: Toa^t. 

inafiilcak I perform accTfiiiony for Ihe miuI of ihe deceaaed, 

dtoag bnrlal ceremony; 

^4f/'"y: |'prfrirLii''d in [Jk' stirred guvc papal/l'sy by 
ihe pric'M'5 fimiaf'ifS/fuy; Verb: Mrojwi^tAflyff* 
(And areat majiy t^hec (Hcmoaies ci'jin.ccled wilb agricul- 
ture, weddings burial, sitlcrieK'^i heidhumlng, wind and 
weatber etc | 



certmn iif/fit'a Iriic; accjtani; naif fsa ay.. . oi ; zuod^ nan,.. 

there i^ i]nc 



chairi 



iaydkay; brass cbaiii kaydkay ay kdtjing; hai^na (Sp. 
cadena) 



chair 



I^orot: t^tk■tjQafi. kaiuktj/liiti {i seal); -'^'^^= sah/ibpn; 



chfiif lor a san^dtjii (The body, tied upon (be san^dtjil, i^ kcpl before 

coTfse Ihe hoii^ ^e^eral dayi, until [l is buried) 



chamber 



4n^o>i, 5CC ; bouse 



313 



THE T.AN'GUAGE OF THE BONTtJC JGOKOT 



^Tiylliin^'', monry. n^iTiie, cruih, ii'iirk, ilc. 

rcr'^ijiL-. iiisdHd^ik [^^Ffjiat, ti-^jljjJuil. Sre: "b.irfpr 

tsublfk — ^Vtiw//Ji'; — ii\ii/iiiih/i — \K/iti^lmbli. \ (hinge m.nry; 
Pcf^lii.; ui\/ib!iak — JUiiiJit'Htilc. Tiic pfli^^ilve in" TSii-Lille: 

nm/tsf/hliuk I miiTlbliakl nitaii^ also: I i-hciii^u ri\\ pIfirL, 

m^' urdei v^iiJi au oilLer ^r^o-n; 1 come iu kurii^ 1 L'ake Iija 

ptsce. 

ng&iKdSjQ-xik [i\gQmduaiiak\ — tigini}uitj^nak I cJiange 

irjv IIJ.IIH? (w^-ZZ/iTJi), I Iraiiifotiii myself (in fnUlta, (ale* 

etc ), 1 EiecoLiit. 

ndtftgn (frotn (^i^^h, olher, different) chang^ 



chEuit^ (i/^ifyd (a. pita 6f liflllibM, ^ jiidtee ha^, bi whidi an Uerb 

l>reiH(;nls iJcfi^fl ; xdky^ib ^i ■^InnJ.ir i:li,3r:ii, wnrds ulf 
«vil spirits ("aH^o"), mi^fonuni', ^i<:kri's&. ^dkaib: 
respJiil'lffi 1 pii't'' -of (onl; "Hic pcoptc in ilni- Korth in.xti; ii ; 
it iiLusL n.iL lje o|ieiii^il-'' Rsiictlally ^EronK ^* jrffriri^j j^ n 
TJiuiider'^ [iioilL: fobii r\a>i hkjo. Coiisideied mu^c preci- 
oiMi anJ boug^liE aL a liigli |jrict." 



chase off i'iikitdnek; >bi/ib^yk<} (drive) -^poshik&ii^ek I iJia^t^ back 

dMflp iiM PifljJ tdgOKH (lllllc its pricft); flij/a^i!" <Iloc.| 

cheat ioii^^'k (/y^i^(?t| — -^jFji1^o,(;^-fMQjJio — nUnldko; nocano^ 

IgvioL u^c besides xhva kadword: ^ngaknk, lo lie. 



ch«k 
chest 
chew 



tdmong . ncii the temples ; ipitg. 

idkeb (brea^ij Sic hox, Erunk. 

(a wij'V ek — HmimlgkQ [ ^ inamttkQ \ — malifntid. 
k<t^(ti^k — kit'i^ok — makdga — nwigti^a^ 



THr fjVNGUAGE OF THE BOWTOC IGOROT 



3'3 



tjhixk. wild fliiCt^o; ^(j/fl£ kSl^ti^'. chi ckeii iiiMp. 



ditef 



<ff It lowii, appointed by ihi: SiidnianJs; plcsidilnU , not 
"clilel,"' Isiil p ricli inyn '■!' j^rral inflin'n-r.' , git^siiny;yeii 
\l:titjdi!gvi.'i\\, "|iriiinii> ihUt j^^rr;-." nangiiiu. fl mfLh o£ 
lugli rank ^lluc.) 



ddld 



OrtgJw^'(J, PIlit.: oix^il'iga [or: CT^tf'jig'!!, 
jfpini, Plur, ■ iTvSnak- son or djiighkT 

mi^ditgaak. 1 iiiii young. 

tlie only cluM of j i^inily; filkl'i"g [Or: fta^ /jaj;^. llie 
only] Sc:: lMb\^ duy, ei""!, y-^ull«. 
jNip/iH.^aj^if^. all the children, of a family. 

uiiidu-iMv—iarnditataA- T liave, I liad cbildrcii. 



cbildish na^ngong 

ohin pi^"}:'' . (j:iv,htiiii?, usee] often as handle for Ihc ^oa^) 

Chinese I'/fiio \Ti/no] ; S^ugfay. 

chips .^dpfirf* 

mandiJig (llltr?) 



clLoke 



s^'f,:telc—n'ik/Cko^-niit^kifl—mdiik^l. Sec; ^.Irangle, siii- 

focatc 



chopoif fahdkcky Person, mamd'k&ah: potlSngak Sc*; cul 



314 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



church 



iJMa/iiFr (l<Hiiw-)Td) 



dgvr 



pmditjii ifromlloc. palSfheir, J roll) j afdn^ (Sp, 
"HahEinj?") 



circiilHi naiimltino. T iiiike round: fotv^ek — findwak — maf^ — 



drcurndK 

day 

dean 



ni^ydtak — ii'ii^ viirak — maiigyJian — man (gynt 



tti, JJdH tiCd I'^itnk die lowii of Bojitoc 



Udat {pftek: mod) 



apapif/iaA {pt^fiaa^ wEiiU'); tflc^n, i'upakdsc^iek; 

I am clean ; t>'^m^kftPivHik ; lul&iek — iiinldHto — mai^l^d 

— »i»/JJti(J: 1 dean a water iLliiinnel, pipe, clear, clear 

-w^Cer; naUl^ng(xyL. clean, ^ua^lied: natnh (Jrcm /rfJiffc; 

wash) 



clicnb 



kaldfek — k\Haldhkj^ — ynokdlah — mingdlah. Pwaon. : 
lmm4iiih^k — Iciimdlabak. cliinb e» niountiiin; sccr 
";|j>ceridr" (I ilait lo climb a nioiinlain in urdcr 10 i^'Oilc 
fokndhek — fin okntlgko. 
PeriDii. mamSgnakaif \mani3kfiQkiik.\ Srti ^OOUl-J 



cUng 



injdjiina* ; insdbfAdak. I am hangine and tiold fasi £o 
braiicEi 



clock Ulscsk (Sp. relO];}; rfiflj; "hours" (Sp.) 

close, 1 infaff — intnfak — lua/n/oir — manghifQi. 

hang^bbo — ftr langJbko—-ma/iSdti^^b — mangil dng-^b 
kimitfJt—kiniinflk^ — makfmil I close (my tycs) Cncfe/rtii*: 



TJi£ LA.NGL1AGE OF THK ftQNTOC IGQROT 



3^5 



clD6c, 1 bl[iid) kim/tek im-n tndtitk: I *lo^e my ry^h 

■cUwe ti^tther aiadjidjUHko: we are <::103« together, ■-it bt^ind in one sro"P 



:lou-d 



Uf^o, kMif^UfSd- fl [1155? of douds. (G. G^wolk) 



club 



idlo, a 5tick 



GOHl 



kulifdt {Sp. carbnii) charcoal: lining 



coast 



ymn ftid naa p6shong {pSihung: ^^-^) 



coat 



4kiangi Idmma H'i)maTi'5 coat; a man''s: fddo [fddso, 
hddo\ (lloc.( ma}iidd?oaki I put on j coaJ {Ow: I put on 
ipufko; T [ake-offi tfldHft) 



cock 



frf'^Hi/Cdn 



cocoanut fnvug \.»ly<^sA cocoflniii-oil: I'^nrt (Tloc \) 

jnilk o( c. : f/i/nuiu jf Aijing 



cofltn 



kjfpi', kd^iAh: T drink coft^f 



flii'fiEflft (probiblyj "sh^dy vl^cc," Jrom j^J^*-^) 



cohabit 



iyJlek — tny^lko. Person. ; iny^tak. 



cold 



Idii^nf^. «iashkd«^'ak \maihk4&ftk'\ I am cold, freeze 
ittiokhweng i[ i*; very i:o!d 
hiyjidteng — Unrnds^ng it inrni cold 
faiakiSw^Hgek — iipaiakitw^ngko I Jiiake cold 



-3Tfi 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE ^BONTOC IGOROT 



■cold, a lidybak in the Ihtoai i m^sig m the Dose; ma'^'^fi^tk : I 

have a cold. 



•cdkirbcMie 



^igptgifk 



■colled 



(l iiKcs ) obSfek — 1?^ b tJbbo — -ui^t^bo b — in o '\giibotr 

saliibek I c-ullccl iirnvision^ jinr[Sur.:r] by Hit "salufi" (llu^: ) 



cqU 



^ntinak ay kafilyo 



comb 



f^ffiid [tfStorf, sk^ud; Hoc; unl/ilysajl ; iok6tjsk — 
■Sinok^fttit — masi^kod — inandko<i: I comb. 



comb of cock jalon^afhig 



oombHt 



ialSgnii 



COTDC 



molcnif/i^' I' come with others. 

/(jnJ/ffr [i.sl/sk]—/>rf'ih'l'—f>''l-'7H 1 ■.lLU-^'; lo tome. 

'ka kay^l] 

f/n'ififiaH- [i&imf!iak]'-ii-iiii.!^linl£ I lAiniii bock 

pii'iiiinaiiuk \bt<tmiiii&doh]^-pitmitnMak I come doiun; 

fjiwiilaak — fiittudlaak [^immiali- 1 I fumt <>ul; 

lunniiiil ^d(i!f coiTfe oiiL of a hole, 3 narrow pasa, a forest- 

iumjJiafj — ibiPiAaab T come liiime (r.i Jh'^ hmiiic). 
fimd/anak [HnHsa/zal/] — h\/^mdjAnAk I trinn:. .irrivM:. 
-•^^nk^pak — smSmMpak £ coiiio In, fiiisfr^pei^: I order 
{» come in; ifaidliak I came ju^il rcivv [2^7| 
iamdsliisk — 'iflrfi'^jfiiaif' I tome over, nfro'^- 
malpdak I t'oinc iroin; |Fira/i,^iifr, y%iab/iiik\ i"r maljitfaiiyK 
tbc. forinS] malpd}\ySi, mob<h\&{ etc. atc Juanill rrrt^^i^flfe; 



Tl-jr-: LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



317 



come 'I'trJ^i-llia': , mon^ij^C^ilr 1 cr>[iic ivilli C^t'i). ^tau ^an 

nan^if^i'g ^en y/ka^ vi\"'i came ivilli yau} Sec: to go, lo 

command (iUneh. (AhibdiaL; IlDCACio?); fUfntb la.... T order tbat..,. 

lice, order. 

conuiKirLder dpo (loaii-ivord), ina&icr, lord, lender, employer etc.; 
mamiiin (Noin. ;ij;ciiti& oi lloL,3no filiiEk I order). 

conununlty iinpangiii Iht iniil-cd Icwn, laad. 

compaiuon //'/fj? (_/b/'i means iil^oi an oTher piece fi the ^xirr: kind: 

A-i, HJH fb/ai< Hflit kalAm^'i ^n otheh shield ^A llie ^ninc 
klihd, shape cEc.) 

icijn TifUfl£i,'j^,'^: l!ie One atcoiiipanyijig;, nflit mujj^i^i^jr 
k^^ fab/h lie who i^'dlks will', nie, fin'"conipaniQTi; 

tia/i kadflak my c<>ni|ianioti {of twit peraon?;) 

nifn i^a}'i6}m imr uimfi^riran (of Ihre* person^;) sfe [372.] 

cocnpHssion ^^£iiii£ |iJ^angl liec ■ I pity 
comprehend k/kktk (Ut^w^ 
conceal liafAigko fhidc) 



ajncCTiang- i-f, t^ 

cone ff^'^Ms c-onc iij pine 

cqnfidc abfo/tiKk (lu'lk'^e) 

conquer dmhak iaan /rf>ffO — iniimiiak — Kmdtumtn — man^dmis 

tn^HfAii^l: ilic enemy) 



3i8 



THE LAHGLIACE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



conquer i-J^aht^hat fi<f — \tpiipdttotko'\ — ii'ba^ifflo(k<? — utaihab^ffo^; 

liiWliy &ltc>oiiiig {itoat: bdidvtg:, pdUak, pdldi>s. a gun) 



coieider nfmrnmek (tfiink) 



tjiiue lo woik! 5ce: tsa |3lo| ; coLiliiiLialioii expressed by 
reduplication r^^O-J'>|.l ; coiiliiiujlly, all day loiig : 
iyagakydko, iyagnky^ko ay duliftna 1 work conriiiuaUj^ 
aII day lonj;; iyagakylena ay iniitfan it iz raiuing ccrntin- 
\fd\\y, all Jniry Tung 



contracl inisii,cffinraita{^[i.,I[rtc,) kumdibitk is bdsis: 1 make a 

coiHiact. — See; a^'teenieiil: 

CDnver^e with makilotl^yitk [miUil<t{^ytik\ — ftatitotl^ya^ . (with: is, ktn) 



coOk 



Persiiii. : vin'^toak — inintiloa!/- inSt^ak — iiinStnak. 
Ijiyliiyeh — iinuyitiyko — -"lairiyluv — iKinldylay^ I cook too 
irrui:>i, iao long 



CXHd 



ak/t ay Idieug (";i littje tald"') 



coqI.1 



falak\liv^g£k (told)^ paden^nliaclf (_itan Ij^nnm: iHe water) 



cdpk^ua 



pttSl/an; ladl/an nitn kdlf^u copLoua, plenly are tfie fisfi 



copper 



kiinfang \}idmhayig\ 



Gora 



f!ki (mojs^) 



corpse 



dwaif 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT jr.) 

cxrpulent alafdiiifsh 



cost 



tiiff uifii Uf^mn' Eiow inucli rfoe? itcosl? (how rnoch is its 

firice?- fiifi't. pric*) 

n(Tft i,y£-rtua JO Fititr'y pdii-rft it casta 5 peioa 

■tcTif saf "firtiv iiiucli is ilil% i'" 



ujEIuii 



*(iyjJJ [.^i^EjJ 



cough 



in^iok a!/— n h/fko tcfr 



crjuncilliouae fitwi. Al^o filecpiiig house for unniarTLed and old mrn iind 
for yining lioy. Similarly constmc^ed is ihc "pabai^igan" 
\abiifSiJgaK,\ whicli Jias lioivever in iroiil u ^nai-ious, l^ng 
WLirl, i^JkdL fflla {lii &ltmt wall; ijdfay), wliate Ut^cgurt 
ol tEiL ff^TyJ i& semi -circular ^nd snisll. 

Al Ihi- i4ivi [he men uf aa d!o, JctwD-sflcljon, assemble in 
tlie Cnenlii^ lo diiciiss nf^rlcr;* uf int<;rcsl to iheii' i?ftf ; (he*ie 
IWU publii' MrUCliirirh form llic "die." a name given firsl Eo 
lt.1^ pillilii f'l'apfrly £il A Irtwn ^^CtiOn. ^nd IrSn&kTrcd from 
ilie Itulldlngs [.1 Liie whole laivn ^ectinn and ils inhaljiJanls, 
a^ ifie IgornL aii^urert, — Slranger^ go fiml la Ihr "^lif' and 
send from tfiere tor llie man ihey wjcit 1.0 deal ivilh, Musi 
sacrifices are perJonned in ihe court o( ilie pabaf^nj^an^ a 
few also iQ the cnuri of llie fdwi. At the i/(o there are : 
Iff^ng the house, with afirqtiacc: aniff^an; 
fjflit Ihe cDiirr, 

i^gt^M or: fjd/iay flat atcces oa top of the enclosing wall, 
on whith the men &it 
hdi-ltii I ftfJj/rji] ;. |io5l Willi a roughly carved he&d; "anflo- 

k^^'njljfhn a fircplitc^ in Ihc t<jiirl 

fatdiaa^ it haskrr v^'ilb hiiuian ^tiill*, tropSiif^ o£ feuds 



count, 1 idffek \iydpek\ — i^idpb^^mdyab 

mangiap. Person, : aiydp^ik 



y>Ka/tab. mtyap^ — 



^3Q 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC HJOJJOT 



pjamjilg slick kfiiah; fciddfak — kin-jd/ffak I cut noshes iot^ 9. ^^lUnEing 
stick; the iiotchcs d^iolic d^ys at viark etc. 



country 



/|j. fellow comitrymar : siaptrug^i 



courageous m^ff^iigi^ 



court 



Ijiia- ti SfiSii niiT-side ai l}ie Ilou^c 



iiiak frjenila of equal &^t) 



ounc 



td'igi^b; lyg/^ ■ i:s>vct of a bpskeE (or a wdimo^Mii^ ^''Syjf 



cover^ 1 /pE/ut , t^'ti^Snk: itangibko (clow.) 

ki!fd>i<t^' I cover winli eEirdi. ■^aiid etc, 

inkf^ii^iKk 1 cover the e)%» with Diy hand, so aa no! ^ see 



cow 



fdkc^ (Sp, vaca); -of liie buffalo; Jiainjdl^yat 



coward! 



crab 



4ii?-flnjrf, cla^^■ of d crab . apdngoy, c.raba in Ihe irri- 
galed rice field: sdnian 



crawfish ptuhdyai^ 



tXBZJ 



n&l^dt^li [nAlyiilyii\ 



THE LANGUAUE OF THE BONTOC EGOKOT 



m 



cresle 



pal of risk — iiipatSf/^k — iitaijiaitfjf* — msn^ipatiff^: I make 
RroM'- I create iail. ireei, ^'iil'?r .. 



ciccV 



Ifl'itnis^^ taliUib-lkls^ (bri>iit) 



crocodile {f^yi Ifrn^Tj^r (li>aiiword) 



crooked 



Hisdi^digkif; digk^ek- I litntf 



cTHjss water kiljdi^d' — kimjditgko — fi aUt jci^— '^irix^tji'"^ . 



crow 



kdyanj! 



crow, to sngkokSbkak [engkuhSokak^ — nx'tghokSokak 



crush 



s^ktikek (£oT^i hainmcr) 



cry 



/^itfljlit'iri (ca]l}- Perwn. ■ inffSkaFiewaL- 

jndkaa.k — mndkaak 1 crv, ^veep 

'^n/ngftoalr , uiioiiflidlr I cry to llie enemj, cliallengt 



cultivate iKidpi7Jik — *i]')).'(?/if.firt,' I clear the g;Touiid for a field, ] 

wi^cd; I dig:, inkiiytayah 



cup '-i£ton_g {^^gOH^] 



cure, to I'&k^ak [b^ke^Si. niedLciru?); fli^v/f/iat (Hoc) S^e; blow 



curly k-ji/'it, MukSlod: a Negrito 



custoiti 



ikad {Jk<td\, styanan ^kddnti this is oiir custom 



333 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BQNTOC IGORGT 

cut* a jdkag, li wObnd 

Cut, I jaktthek — fiwfkd^ko—ynafdkag — mamlikag I cut aH ,i pari 

of lilt budy (hf^'l eLc ) mam/fl^aak I go head]iuiit[iig 
pW^ak [p^t6ak: /irti/iJfl&l — ^^)iH:r£Jj,(: — nmp^tdan — 
nmniHlt! T cut off 3 part of lit': liody 
.fihSetj^fii'ii'hoh — masfbiPi — ifianSbn I cm dowu (;i irtc, 
wood) Person, instbOQk 
sibldck—HKibl(if>—mnitbhi — "lan/hla \ cax down (^i ij-<:c) 

\m<tk^Wd\ 1 i^ut (wooil, nicai, cainott, jiij linger etc.) 

m/li^odak I cirl riij.ielt by ^cciJenl 

l^kidnk — linSk^dah — maluktdun — im*f}f9kit! 1 cut np the 

bmly 

big II^^^ acro^; in the middk 

oul a pi-eti? irnin Uif: nildrilc. I cm flr^■h.'^s 

poil6iigok — -pinorS/iri^^iib — map^idtyie^ait- — ttatvaHfltig/m- I 

cut ij(f -a iiKTi; j^^ Jin cud; C^'oni- -Lg, roriii niicerEaiii) 

I'kdiljafr [rfi^tflsali] — iniikiidjak — iiia/^fkddjaii — mai^gdkod 

I oil orT ^11 aiiinTinl's neck 

lafdhck — liuaf^^ko — maUfn^^i'ii'tlitfff^ I cul up tlje 

body, or a ILinb; cm [iilo larK'^r ^'^i-'ion'. ; tnrvt. 

lak-Ibcli — litiokfbko — matd}nh^-i\in't4lnh I cwi i-o emaU 

pieces; Person. ; ffimdkibnk — ls<\ii\4kibn^' 

iengpddek — siit-en^pild'fD — iitau*ii^p>xd^"i(tii^n^pnd I ml 

off -"vtcd. hi[;b ^r-x^-^; I tilt <[0Wii. Ml .. Irce 

kSlftik — kin-6iSak—m<!k3Uvn—nAitn^iot ! tut ihe hair (son 

pi»iingeJ^—f>ifMtdfi^ki}- — mnphan^ I fful wilJi [lir> :^>- 

pJnii».j; 
tvasdvsh — inimna^dyko |') — yi!aii}d.ria\ I cue ivilb llie 
working ax ^'jfjav 
kipdnek — bmipdngko I cut with Ihe knife t^pa*! 



THE LA>JGUACF. OF TI-IE EONTOC IC^OROT 32^ 



D 



daily htJi^t'ifkyn^ knm-A'ixkii^iBdhas 

dam Ungfd i\n the river) 

dam off saipek {saSpek: sM^k: ^s/ipek]—j!iHaibko—f>/^<iib 

{"iasdJh] — miri,ii?i; I'crson.i i'l^dibnk —itinsaibak ■ J 
dam oiE a part of a pDiid or river^ in ^^^t^ll li^k, lo irrigala 
etc 



dance tai'feng n"j<:ii's daiicc ((o (lie ioumiis o( gong^!;, j^no man 

behind che olbtr, iii j circle, who^e center is elI llic ddnccri' 

W'rbi ill tall fc'ii^ah. l^T . mOHalffengaJi 

IjdtaHf man's dance, ^KrfotniM by a sinffle (rarely t^va) 

iliiTt^^cr \.\mi txn'iilr.^i vt lLLi n^i, spc;,jr -jii-l ^hJl:l^l| panlojiiiiiuc 
!i(!:,Liirc*i ■:ug^(?-,Lii-c ii( allkcking rmd [n'lL':.3ilini; an eneiiivj 
thus lie riu'vei, -ahirmt L[ie daiifcrj; nf ilie Ui-Ufdm. 
Verb: 'natiSla^alf' \maiii^laaah\ ; die .!o[inlJnj;';n-- irafl- 

(ddjek iiiJii'i -dance iij>dii one spoc, (t> (lit ilciiv blinniljic 

jiOiinds oi [lie ;jongi^ a iolejnn leli^iuua nJaiLce. 

Vetb . iiiamtdjehQ k 

.id^m ^viimi:n's dnim', pj^rformrd J'illi oul^Tretcht'd ab-m^i" 

lUe luoinen ,ir<; nurkinn ciiii': by MqijMnjj: ii[ion one spoir 

bolilfne lobnccu \eiivrs in their Jiands. 

Verh' nmndfJiJiT*- 

maiigJii^mak I beat the "gan^si'" (i;iinj!j (o ihc dance 

lan "tamaitpH'ig/' ibe da-nce-lcailcr, ^^lLll::ie virlou- ^leps. 

and iiio-Eioiis llie oilier^ iiiiilalf white fLiilowJiig liijii 

iaiailbnan llii^ place where the dance is eicecuLed 



3^4 



THE LANGUAGE OF IHIi BONTOC IGOitOT 



danger 



kakif/Is^t 



dark 



irhafuUiiget. tm^tffi^eUfFJl. it grows iJjrk ■ fum«iingft 



dash 



fakdskek (I -daah to piKca; break) !^?c: throw 



dai^hter (Tflut ^y /f/^ji (child' 



dai^hlcr-in- tn4pv ay fafityi 

law 



dawn 



Wiri ; i"j' '!vfnl [is zvlid] at dawn ; maai^'ti Jl da win 



day 



dkytt [/Zirhur tort]y; ch like the Genrmn ^mttirflf spiranl] 

ittiwfii. i(/i[r^Jii Lo-day; ii:^ kmvukjiiina on ihc fiacni' day 

li kS^t» Zii^k-a^, ka^^n asindkas day after lii-niurftui* 

!A kastii ligiio, adiiiiina day lefore yesterday 

ij nan jm dkya j wii<?k dnj, »!1 d^iy long 

hadk^dkyu, kascwak a^'ivdkas rvcry day 

jjtjftji^i^o \Kyaka.hyiiko\ — ■hiiiktkyfjk'}-. I trinlinnc ill day 

loiijj 

•na/iald, mmt^id it l« e*:'!!!"^ i^'X 

"rjf^?wiJ&tff [HifflwitPj] an ^1[iGr day is l^rttjikin^ 

{.i fr(i.^/f[ iifryi- on tlie ncst ilay, ar , aa oilier diiy 

s-i'a^iLS a day of reat, a holiday 

See: UUI 



dead 



nad^y {nad/iy\, maf-addy killcri, mafadJy dying' 
fgdy bcd&y not yet dead, iiol quite -dead 



deaf 
dear 



tihiiitng; mai^iffeng deafened 



aydka nun tiigCAU , l.iatidma »an id^Hna "i ^s price is viety 
jDLicbi, very higli j" mi^Syad beloved^ leyiidta my dear. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGOKOT 



3?S 



death 



/d-*v Uldy, Sddy; Sd^\ ; kad^ynn: ifaWn place of deatb: 
licbth 



ileath-chair ian^ddjil ^ec; cLiiir. 



dAt 



^ftnn^; I om indebted, E owe: iiroit^dy wm otdn^ko (Hoc) 



deceive 



i^'igakak (lie); iok^^k (chdO 



declare 



kiifiok (sfly) 



decorated >ia/ih*ihfv^'! ii'irh HjriianLCcii;,, <i!'iLre^ ij.ir^'etl ^r hirrncil 

iiiLo nvciimI 
ikMcyiik i carvt, acraEcli, burn, cut iuLo nnod l^rii^^ot] 



dH!p 

deo- 



adadsdyim 



Sgsa 






dtfite tjitjingSdek ; pntfiHgfSd^k (make dirty) 

deity Lumdwj^ [oc: Katnf^yeHf also FSml 

delay ijani^n^u^ali—fji'itt^n^iis^jik 

deny ddA 1 do nt)t^ I refuse to do 

depart l/itm^oHali (go-away); kaydtjek (abaudou) 

deride dBg Tn^^Se^ —i'l •ni^'fn^o^^rHaaKS^S^ — nia Kg-i n^/fngo 



Ja6 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



4es€Knd. 



pmndiiadak \hiimdnada.k\; inOstgnik (go dov?i) 



desJrc,! 



idytjek (like) 



deatroy iufitkek — tinuf^gko — matfiftig — minli^fu^ (dealroy people, 

aiunials, by warcr, fire, tmltlcii, C5rl[ii]iiate) ; fakd^hek 

(break) ;^pi>ialf (burn) ; pttk<tKiKJ-ishck — inpakafcwdfchl^o 
inapakd&ctuash 1 dt5tr-uy, S|>oil (a knift, watch, hat etc.) 



dev 



ohn6 (fJ nati fibikdi, in ihe morning) 



dialect 



k&ie 



diarrhea *>Ky^^i ^•'^-- irJ^yirkak 

die, I i'lMSyak \mod'}yiik] \ 1 nm on tii? poirtt of ri^jilli, I die; 

maijuni^yak : I ^im dyin'^; umpaddy: killed; iiia4^ya/u- 
[madfiyt2k]—^nad^yck. 1 am dcid 



difference kaidkken: ^\gS.g iijp koi^kifm f}Qmidy tt ifantj/iy^ '^Aiit 

is (he diiEer-?rce between thi^ and llial? 



dlffcrenc i^kken (<"!'*'") 



difficult stbap; nallkad (Hoc.) sttcap pan kaiuiu^Ka [ffOi^thdw] 

[t i^ dJlHcLiU to [cam it 



^ 



ka/dpak [ka/dfaf^l—kina/^pa^^ainka/iifuxi [maka^fati] 
"dis a hole" {ikaMpko: I later, bury thr dca^I) 

iaytd^j^t — hinayktiyiny'^-iKak4jkay : or r nbk4e]/^S«4bkAk 
I dig in the field with il»e implemetJi, -s sfick: kdykay 
i^kiKdkk—fmkwiikQ^maf^kScal I tarn the 50il^f a field 



<llniliilsti 



tofinei (lak* ofE) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BO^'TOC IGOROT 



327 



din 



dSi^ug; ddmSngcg: it nifllfes a din, noise 



dine 
dinner 



rpfj/n^cHdi, See: eaf 



indngan 



dtp into waler xtap^kka — iHtapikbo — ma-itdpek — maitgifftfifk 



dipper 



!/iim 



iHr«:tion ucd/yfy. "-infS intii mtS/yoy ad Titki/kan? wliere ia tlie 

ViAy irt L'ui-iK^n?" (K"Ol i'^, or oy: (o go; prefix ma-- 

dia: lli(? dirffCL ^vay |ji-H| ; iii>\ ^"glfo my puins. niy 
ill r(^c Lion 

directly Vrrb: tiiutsJoshek T 50, do directly, pandSishak [317] 

din ijUigrid; ptleii (inndj 

dJrly maijTiigud, matjitjtai-ud; patjiit^Meli T uinkt clirLy , 

dirly, ^loveiilj, wicked^ vulg^t ■ Vir^n/"! 

dJ^CdSf jfTfi/i; j^j?-!;;*! H^^j diiiaki I am di^e^?fri by tlie iofliifiice tA 

an evil ^pltic: nay^ak. \'isdl:itak 1 ain ill 



dfeh 



iJ>«^ {k!ffg\ of Mjtkcrw-^rk; fj^yn/ ^i woodcu diflh; 

^ijjJiijJi^iiii :l wooden (fiyli . M. Sth. XlV. 4, 5. 



dislike, scorn ojjg^^xafr — i'\otigdsak — maoiig^saa 



lante : kokf^ok^ititai die distance, space iielvveeii, inl-etval , 



326 



THE L'iNGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



dHtribule iicalif.iko — iniuaUhko — mai-:u-flas — mau^iz^'diad' I dislri- 

bulf iiirii (ri ililTrrciil |>hn:^'s 

igaktf^gi.-c — 'n\gal:ti^^g!{o — mtii,\^Ak!!e'ig I linrad arojnJ 
Ali*o: r ]>^y mil i'-jj;['> *■> i i;roii|' 'tf ijioi 

T ilisEtitrxitc meal, hi^ porLion t^ eadi 



dive 



r'tliiicbak adsdyiitt 1 div? ''inside'' die watery mmnfkab 



divide 



tmiff!gfftf^—tj!}i ti fd^\:<^— "'<st jit full— ^"1 5 nip III: 

kadi'i'^i-l' : kiti'l^L-k-: imf-iJO-!.-. ^'liimcie!^ {k,!h>idcli\ |5/o| 

I ijiviili^ iiilrt 2, ;(, 4, 5 pafL^ 

Ij^liiL-ik is dirgsan. or di^^ijij7nt^,t rn' iiiUFCj?Virt [iimiiildalc] 

I di\'i<le [nlu [iiaiii p^ir!^, -c , amd^ek — I'lSmti^k'? — 

Ml Qdm a f — maniidt rr a.( 



dliTorced 



!^ottJifii;. !ni!0»^kf1ii\f '^'p ir<' <fivor«d 



dizzy 



dlhu^H^elr — -itialimf^^ko — iiiiioUweii<- i tn^e dizzy 



dQ 



iiutnt.: flra^ak{l act, behave) 

di>^i>ek—indi\gneii (Inlinilivt: iniln^nen) — }}mi!n^K€ti — 
mn'igr^ngniiH }Tiaka^iigi'.tuak I can Aa 
a^^g nan tlictnyl^'' 'vIiaI are you doing? "whal. is l-Eie 
maner wuli you?" 

^Ur^S ^f" ??^^jffd t.?^^ sikaf lioii' <lo you do' ("wliac bap- 
pens if yrln"') 

jiipr ^k4kim X\w jctiiig; th"; tfctioii j ih*; beliavloLU"; 
ngdg -TjiJJ Jkiiii-yJ^ tiy fnlfl-ay' or: n^SiJ "BOff ■aH£n^£3JR ay 
inUpiiy.^ hiJ-\.' .Ii] yuii play^ |3£^| 



dodge 



dodge spears, ^oiies etc. 



THK LA^■GUAGL; 01" TUll UOHTOC IGOROT 



3^9 



dg£ 



ii,ii* [diAf?; (?.m]; y^'Ling dog; l^*;^,' iin'.k, kmdJc ilo^; 
(Vjfl+: (';\' litldki. ay fafdyi 

n\ihiadsiiait \i>iakutdsiiak] \ ea^ dog (in company willi 
LUh'jc'.) [300 1 

kviLCi >vlij|f hair- Ldfiit^, n.'lLIi :i n-Uilc jn,irk Jiroiiiid the 
hnilj licl"ivi?(?n iarf- -inii Liiiidleg=, THirx, "rji'cPiird" ('Vay 
iKl}flird imif (sH^fJii'S^/jjfl t^j; (/fiJj tieu^u^e jLc fur i'^ red- 
brawD lilte ilje licehird"}. 



doer 



i:lp^>rj {{'aiJiipisd \ ?ilalk.=i |ilaf(;d hrf'jn; lIk' dr>'>t rin ji[^ 



Sec; cuintil-hoiij.c for girls, Jiw^. 



double, I 



hjflppfrdufiffe 



doubl, I 
down 
draw 
drcain 



endjuadf^ek — acmijiiuduiack [ifit] (Hoc) 

ij kUdpKti. Sec ! ^o, f'lU, dP'icend etc. 

JitiyriSjek (paW); draw away by iorce: ff^p-illfk {^nU) 






dread unw^idd^k is... (fear) 

dress, J if»i']to(pn on): aiidre^^: frj^pfj?* (rake off); jadsdak }ian 

oii'dkko I pul on iny coaE- or; niamddficak, inwdiiisok: 
1 [ic jro-cind the Ijre^chclolli; mangfuihak I jtul ^raiiiid 
my Nankcl dc. !^ee: Ijlaiikfl; breechcblh ; co^l; girdle; 
bal; jatEtct; ^kirl. 



330 



THR LA-NGUAGIi OF THE QONTOC IGOROT 



diill hoks 



hishkdi^yjGk (picri-'tl 



drink 



drink empiy: augli'iyfii^ a babt drintis, nurses: huffio 



drip 



i-nd^d/ddd Jjcrii (jV'uhjji Ihe ^vrL|l:^ ilriiis: int^i//ii!^ it is 
dripi>m£ 



drive 



f^aka dn i?t — i'lp^i i^a d'lgiiu — » laipakJan — iiia^ i^ipaJ^'fci n I 

dijvc jwjy 

pas^i aiidni^ei — iiipa^kdk o u j;fr o — st%a if'ashfikoi i^ — 

atangipa^yh^koiig i dr'wu liyii.k, or; ipulitydfftko I put to 

fli["ln 

P^'i^itsfidiViVi-k 1 i:lrj''p Joi^'i' .^[rp^Tn (fn th^ in"i"k^] 

^(Hf^i^ffct {/■fTfr^^M^'ttl 1 ilrive up alreuni (on ihc Li^nt;s> 

lokdkek I liriinC iniik 

ibibfyko—iiiiiib^yki}- — mnib/hoy I ilriv;^, tli^i^y? anlciijils 

I ';alj/lko — iii^^^Sj^iko — maizlflji-tl I drlvi^ d^acuc) iiilo- a 

pan^ndjidjfek I ilrivt ui ifie rear, bjcl^ 



drop, 1 \akydkeh — itiyalfyil'gko — "'"ytli^y'i: — "^('"sy^sy^E 

ak lifikei^—i II ak!£dg:lco—-f)ro/i litstf^ | mo/^ktittlf ] 

drown at^dljck — itianStko — madymd \}'iadiiud'\—9aivigdjtod 

['nttn^d'iK'!\ .' madnodali \madiiudak] I ani drowned 



drunk 



fjfejft {pSgis, bSges; pSitesJi clic.] 

jim/f^Ji?n^, in/Jtcnguif 1 itru ilnink; fot^f\gvk: I 1[i(o-kj- 
c^lf , make lirimh 



dnuikard umiffiuin u fdym)^ a drinker nf ''fdyosk" 

(Sec "btv':rae':*;"J 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGOROT 



331 



drum 
dry 



see; grtiig 

dry wood: Itpad, bdditg 



dry. T 



laii^-i^k — !iii/2ii^fiJi — mai^ngo. maldngaak 1 am dry, lean, 
feebk; ■^lamdkanQk I am dry (afier rjiii, lianliing elc.) 



dumb iif<_d'i^a!i: man^dn^tiliu^' 1 am diinil> 

dust ^i-^P^i 

dwell iiriPiJ^rait— H(nff<fd^ea£; I divdl alcoe rrifLfjL'ffla^ 

dwelling S*e; buildiiiu^, c^^llncll liousi?; hoii^ie, <li^ritiiiory 

dye him'f'b-rii ii iiHsiiit "Imake lil:iflc,'' liumfirhak L 

fiFTpfJ^^^ff "I Tiialte while" etc. 
puiijiitlletc I ri^e Mac!: (dark) Htidek I dye thie 

pak'iddE^ I -dj'e red 



cfch 



eagle 



tfflT 



inastrtjln; nnn'n (all) li^g] 

VKishtjln jiw /ffl; or ■ siffnalsmis pa.(^ single 



^1'2 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

ear ii»f rice ■'AniiJii fv. p^d nf Jteaiis, peas, an ear of grain etc, 

early t^ nrV^^ij {:^oon): T come farlv: umcddfiak u fibilfbikal 
(i^Arly in the momjug); earlier thaD..,. man^^n^mt 
[nni*^tfH^a] Htp Sfe: mornioe 

enrring sln^oi (colltcnvc frrm); piwnK^p/tnga: of ^ol-rl: krdney 

jiliapcd; jM^^iiip^. /&iJ, Jon;;, 3cc M. ^cli. |>ag:. J4. li^'' 4- 
■■fil In Itic IhIk. felck; enlargcil by :in I'^rjtlni:. s^i'r 

eanh /^;a 

earthquake ^.^.^ji 

Cflsl fd>Sjsn si dHya f^tmrise). Tcoiilo living t-S'^i from iht 

lioiiloc rpgioii; iKaknydn ("Cngsj'Jn'O 

csaf tnal<iiii!<f'i"y ; at: ridkriri. easy lo do, lit.: Idiowii, 

fWosive of fi^fritfit 

eat it^^iet— ttijfJ^jgfeo— jjiiitjjj] ™r/fl5"fl'J- (to ttil Tice, vefft- 

tables, fi.'-li.) 

fi^rMjjl, iniff^i^ak-; imffimgnk ken .^Hm J cal ^villi joej, 1 
■ ?.h;^r-i^ yanc itieal 

PHfra^^tJ?iit I iMOKiii/iiat. } - eal ^L noon- lujicli f^sja, 
an^^dyeff \angt;6yi^h\ — ina'iekit\<ko — madni^ha\ 
\»^^ii^kay\ I eal all up; nditgkay: "ifoLliing i^ left" 
Elijah "inhtjak — mal^lj^i — iiian^/^ija [szS-zs^] Tealineal 
fit£kakef^ — finshiS^bii — '-ndbsku^ I eai my fill 
idhshugal^: I am well saEisficd eating; I Inve ciioiig^li 
mikiSdiual} n^i (Tog" (in company) ioTi hijak na^ its^) 

ikalcfkok — inkatdkak — maikaldko — ina'igikaiitkn I ciH, 
live oa 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE liUNTOC lOOROT 333 

iafiktuffflU': iiie are eating at a feasl. a weJdiiig, luiieral elc. 
sknhskdbfsfj T eat secretly and grc-cdi[y; angSfnk I eat 
greedily 



edge 



ol an 3.x, kiiile: idpett ("mtnith")^ edge, border: /lid 

(banks of river) ^ 



ed 
eflbri 



I inake an elTnrl i yadngekek — fnyadng^ kstt — mayadiigeh^ 



^e 



/f/of [Ateg! 



dfihi 



j^i^'O; [|[C Polll: M£i«^r"f1ir(JJi>y p^'ij 



dbcw 



j/tff 



clc\t(n -sinpSlo \Q fio; [lie nilr mQ}igapf^G yafsa 

cmcTEe Ijumdimak — fjiismdkaaft 

empty eaten up, used up. mfn^kny (tin^ifivel^} {addn^kay] ; I 

emply: nirfnft (retiiove)- k&iinnk at^Sn turn inr^dde is 
ii<m idnga r take out all llia^ h coiilaiiied in llie jar, I 
tmpty the jar; not quile empty j I'^cj' hdpno not fuJI. 

tinl>ia« k^&iwek — kindst'ivsit — makdHyji' \ni'ikii3itvr<-'y\ 

\ niakd^ciL'ity \ — aiQugd/Xiucy 



end 



poiiiied end; j^rfjfh; blunt rnd: u^-J-H]«£rfTTtwfl (-hj.' iis 
eiirf)- end a| tlit la^vtr p^rl; nrrTi kodpna; end of a siory, 
of a ceremoiiy, -oi an actim, oi an event: anSngosk; is jmii 



J34- 
end 



THfr LA?^GUAGE OF THE EOJMTOC IGOROT 



an^gosh, followed bj genitive of noun or Nomen aclionla. 

IS jfled a': prepo^JEJoiial idiojii, Idke "alter," leciiporaL 
Idiom: "here is ihe end; llial [^ all:" k^i)^ng ijl 



end,! 



amffdek ; f^dih^^; Zipd^hck. (accompfish). 



enemy fdsfil \iusfi; ^^shoi; ii^she*!^ bu:iol; b»sl\ot\ — finul I ui 

/fli"B*i [5 a slighi bihlcrdl [iilku-iI stoy; [lyiii'^i-iivtra arc suf- 
fix'.-iJ ta f^?n: f^s&k; f^s^m. mfiisS/h/j I ;ini hoslilt, 



encrugh flJ6f ; adii saf this is ciioujjiif "sJop!" "uliiB wjL] do;" 

Midna, Simdn'dy H [5 ciioilL'li^ aoM'^n nan hal^^ahtddkiiu. 
he 15 Inll cinmgh ("hi^ ■ii^.r: suiHcPi")^ it i'^ th.I tnusl^h, 
something [i l^tkinj^; i/Jiifi^, ur: adt (>i"!dnb,y; 



enrich 



enter 



pa^ad^diigyeaeii — inpagads^mgySngka, 

sfhf<ek — zinl/^fko — nuiskef^ — miinkcp; likpi^k nan dfo'i^ I 
tnler ihe licnjf.e 

pitst'Jpei: — iiipask^pko I inal(e taifir, Jead inio (tlie huilK) 
paiis/bpek nan mSiioh' I iiipke eiiler frcqiieiilly eiiiclicn 
itilG [he coop: I lialch, rjj^c diicken; pas\s!kpck non 
I raL^€ piga (I cauie Ihciii to go into tfie pigifcii). 



entice Ihc enemy into an ambush; ibans^bdn^i'i' (I mhltLnd) 

enlfie tum-amiK ay... 

enlrails f^ang \fSang]. 

eqneL h&^gna {ii^ equal); hdd^na m^,.. ei|iial lo.. ; •namiay ya 

narnj^i k^gno: tha aa-^ lJl^c ati cqu^t, ^j^r^^M of e-i^iial 
fenglh, siae. 



THF. LANGnAGE OF THE ]in\'TOC TGOKOT 



.n^ 



equal 



it^g riai' k^ti'ii 'inn k^(t*i- >rtu have fC|iia]Jy nmch, just as 

mucli, 2S 3, 



fscjipc tumdyaptak — lUnsdyai^ak ; palttyiisetiiek. T Irr cii;->[n:, lei 

grt oul fiE n Lai^c, !ilT.ble 



^spOi^toJ ttkfjli'>k;«dstJ6kUalifj^^in: Ihi: ■■^i-.r h;3^ j:v!i|mcfllffd 



evening vt^iiya^ ([^te nElernooii) (flj,f?^jaft j; isdsidsfin-na at f un- 

set; [ill eveniiij;: inkjlna's siddsds/nfta; lliis evcniug: 



ever 



(for ever) ko^tv^kast^i^'dko.^ 



every 



'lixt^hf ihi. amfn: \SJ'\ '[^QIj I'vcrylir-dy : fnifii ay titkai; 

imfn; cK?r yiA'licre : lihyinl^; ir; kcr'ifaii!SaSd&-a^a, Or r 
Li timfn ay faid&ii<a ''in th-e whole luorlA" 



evil 



'^Z'^^Zl iilit^'<J- cvbl, wron^p torbiddeji. 



cixept 



ketj^ng [327; 408! ; ketjing — adt dugkay; mo ^sdi ^ngi/ay 



<;jtchai^e sSkad {skd/^ad) ; iiijffak is mtp .i^kail yiun sdfay: 1 give 

m f^diange ior Lhe bpsar. .Sec, l?arl?r. change 

exdaim fsimau-'ak (•.->([]) - j'uj/u^riFl- oji ^ngkiiU (effort) 

ei«remente tde I'l^/'j; place: kataimSyan^ Vtrhr JhjmJiJ'-u^ 



aj^ect 



(wait) i iiilitek I keep looWlng out (or (ace) 



,13'> 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 



«q)el 



Isakddnek (drive away) 



CKpMiaive fhigsaii nan titgdna, tsQ.lsd't\a nan tdg^HU: "miicli- (ttti 

much i^ ili price" 

explain ikzudnHc — iiiik-^vdnik — ma/ikii'ihzi ("lo tell about") 

See ■ 5[iow: iljuk 

Hfiingulsh paddyek {V\\\) nan dp\{\j I kill ibe fire 



eye 



i/'fff'^ [mdlu] hh eyf: m^ldnt: ■■Ore r^-esi kam4in, 



eyebrow ^tjCy 

eyelid fangidn^ib si mdto; ihc i>liite of the cy«. 6ki [3hii\. 

S'.T ; cInsH?, open 



&ce 
&ce. [ 



xaiaidn^ek- 1 sland in froni of 

jms^ptiagak 1 full in ^Hiking:, L slymfilc :ind JaJ] 
fnisdka/Piak '{ fall from a Erec, a ror^f, a Ia4d#r^ the lop 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTGC iGOKOr ^7 

&itl mu^kf^-ij^irJi \ii:e4khag--ll:]; i^Jklijigtr/^ I f;ill from a tree, 

rilo[ CiC, (per^-^ns i>n[y)! filiSfdki^L T mrikr fjl! 

wiaT/dgyagak [hnj/i^'^ia^ak] I laJl from Li'pi 

tHddobaii 1 fall, af Ibuigs^ {uiubLe ul itiie ^y. a btoii^ a 

Eiomo e-d: ) 

iiiitdncgdngjtk [matahdngak^ I {."ill over; atand and fsllj 

(]>moLii'. Ijcins: (ccblc) ; lokd'i^rk 1 rjii^c Ic fall 

^^j.rrfrftnifa^ I sL.in-1 ;ini| f:ill o.'tr: a tree, a iliiiir; (ihin^'^) 



fendly s\}'pdii^&iiSk paieiils and clii[dteii [^q, (i(j| 

si'tj'ili'gap^ piireiits and gT^mciparcLils, ante&lors 
.';in i'lhigHfi^iig (lie family in one linii^e- 
si<i^<!n^o[^K^ ay IgJiot an IjjiiroJ. jamily 



Jan ydbyab; Ifan: iydbyabait 



Jar u<!-i(iftj^^. itdad.tdfcjiri \ adadjthvi] ; 

ri riTy ili^Hiiuil iilritc; flrfirijOLc/inf 

jj^^i^jfjr^fliir'riTjt I l'" i'^^; prJn^Fi/ai/j,^f#nT'^t t go farther; 
pu'id-ioiV-ii^fck 3 send far svrny . miradnipJfzviirk: 1 am far 



feat cxfiit^i,c6'by tmniJek. T hJ:^l^:ll. {''amite!/ ay iimdH I come 

iiLil [317I 

faster: kirkiitta^k ay .. I ha'.toi more to,.., |/Ji^-: 296J 

^teu fiadngko (fix) Sec Lie, ns-il, bind 

fat ililck, cirpuleiii: ataldmcsU; iumdmi-iok I am gc( ling fat 

Jkt mcEt iditi'b: bacon: fffad 



33S THE L/VNGUACE OF THE BOMTOO IGOROT 

father i^ma_, o-ldmanL S^^nut; pluraL: ■am^m/mo; am4maali 

I ma old ; falliei' pnd child: sin^Sma; I Jiii father of many 
chcldrcn; makdnnkcik ; umAnakak I am the fatlierola 
chitd; amdek: I have as etcpf^llicrj si^'Tdian 

&ther-in-lavLr badai/dn^^an ay laldki 



fiitten 



fiafifjiifsirk 



fear 






feast 



tjdiyi-tio; T make a "feasl: y^ifjit,- 
I i^fiJcbrate ei ieasl; tjjimn^n^ 



father t(?JArf E^(f(o<fl, idiKeaiher- tsA<i!sdd U^ridf!S/d]. fcaclier^ 

(or fur of ai»[rna|';) 

tailfcalher 



feeble 



"jfT^tjrij^^; iupfiyan; masasdkyitak I wilk witli feeble steps. 



ftfd 



^asoddek — inpasdsok — maipoid^ I nurse a child 

pakdnek I tause to eat 

pa^gdji^i/--pinangdngko—i>iQp^n^,a}i—i«miiiJK^tf\i T feed 
an pnimHl; (aliO: I eiiLeriaiii a gne^'^r- liave at tljmitr) 
taS4ak — linolfiali^"iiil-iidan—'trtaKd/-ii I feeil a c.liilil or 
3Dini^l; Per^, mamtimii 

miktn!k<tk^-^i«ik'^kitk — '^lamikmlbun 1 feed clikkens 
tsakd'^nk^t-iinul-dnah — maUnhdnat^ 1 feed and raice pjga 



f«1 



by [□i]cl>ing": apondshck — inapondihko — maapdnash^ 
tnatgap^KOik 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOKOT 



^39 



f^l 5 cr«: Jiibfffi; tihtdek (cutdown), Person.: wimsWi/^ft. 

female [afdyi [fJ/i\ 

fence !p!ad; anffad; anifdtek — inanifdiko — maaiitfad — 

lyiangnyttfad I fence in ; i/iaiiffti-lak: I nuki: a f-cnce 



fertile 



mamf/ia.'v (frcjii f/kit.i, ^iceaglli, fruil etc.) 
fiiamfliasak • or; mi?mf:asak: I |irodiicc fruit 

jiif&l'4/vi7T.' produced; ripe 



fertilize 
fever 

few 



JfUmAiga k — hnsin^ii ^a t — iiiaJa m^n^a 



itlli' 



'I — miniii'neis 



i havfifeTfir: imptiosak nan ^wiikfiia 

if^ls, loi' f'-wi is<jfjj?iiia uviifr/t; ult/tkitm/: ^'e aie L-ut 
f >:i'. , tiu'i lapla : a part, aoiDt, e fev 



field 



riii:pHli;h. ptiyo [p^fy/y^]: i^oHtfiivr . inf Jir/jiJin, rice 

liirlll'o (:s ■^iiull rlrt; li'-LiL, niiJ'le hy rlulilrcr : paj'Jy/^) 

f'ljyi} ,iy kaatjisn rite fielil lo be irrigaledby rain (rff^ifn). 

Of ty carrying water to it 
f^txg; a sloping; i-lce [\.v.\'l. garden 

ffiiro' Rarden 

id'.oii.- fields ill ilic viciniry of a Wwn and IxlongJ^ie tf> ^*a 

JL]l]iibiiii]U&; |al&?: 'i^'c^iJl'.t) 



iifiti 






fight,! iniah^f'^dak — ytififalvgnfdul: : maliifafoghUak. I h£h( In 



340 



THE L.\KGITACE OF THE BO^TOC ICOROT 



light, I Fer&Qii, 1 in-^a^ii^ak — n-in\>>i^n^a'c I figlu with t1i« fbl^ 

J>ok; alH): mikf/fiiSn^aif (in dual ainl ]>lL]ra] cuilv) ^ (I alnk*:: 

baiEle ic ihe river benvfcn ^anioki and Boiiluc See: battle; 
»ar ; strike, "bo^. 



filfi 






aE 



pihtck \p!tii/ii£k] — phto-^i \pin/it€k I — indp'io f miipitfi}— 

pityak: I piil inlo 

svddak — sit'itddak — ma.inddcu. I JiiL j pifi':. I hll -x i"K ii-^i'li 

water: t:j^t»ma&—tii9isiimak^n\o!ii!Kni'\iiii^iwi^iiii»i 



fihby 



tttHjifff'sgud : ka'kdt^ii 



Iinal3y 



ma^^anoiiMgnsh: it ends wilh^ U comca list; 

nmn^^:^ani.tniii!^_odi hqh faldgixid a1 Last comes tlie fight 



find 



[it\i/'igSjas]i or: ifji'muli — fiUjunnk — ntaitjdnait — mati^hjatt 
>lt'!^i4l'i<f-':'ih [flUih4d*'Wk] I can fmd 



fine 



kaw/i av flail! (,K'>'"^ ^'^ ''*'^) 



finger 



iilji:ng \l!depg\. t\\\\a\h: pangaunlma , indoxi mem^d 
is iitiii pang ami! ma; middle Finger i ka/^zi-'do'i ik/fit!,ia. 
iiii<!dlc, bcJwixn} ; Tinff linger: fiif'i'u'd is van taawiLm; 
Lill[e iinger ' tkl^k'x-S- Sec: measure 



fk^eniBil K-^ka (also: toenaU); 



I acratcb wilb the nail: kvkifok — 



finish 



innki^eh; f/^dnUk; tipifshek (atLOin|)i[^li) : ungkiiyftf 1 
fini^Ji eiilng, l2.L;iiig etc. ; I a*ie up 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC EGOKUl 



J41 



are 



I rjijiltc i\vf , r hiiilrf n lire; idn^tko — iiddnJlti/' — rrui^di^d 

\fiifii>ii\!] . ar, ij^iisak — ijinfmak — mcijinmn, 

iAn^tki) nai' ^p\<y I luiild a tire ; ffhiiak Jiaw ijaUkati is 
dpuy "i provide die fireplace with fire." 

Fia^ lif-uv kan^na nan kdyti fire d':&lruy& (''^ii'^") 'lis ^^'ood, 
frf. udii /tj^uy pAana hjjj *iJ^'^ (burnii) 
i?j^d<_|i tr" afi^cj: a mj'Slcri^njfi lire, with. ml cvnk'ni caiis<, 
ilcstr'iying liouijcii. j'o'.riLnTil if. :iti -evil "itwJto." j2:ln.t-i. 
i^hni^itko — hikiigUkij- -\naiiihiigii I put (,i vpiici?!) on fire 
lo couk. \sh^wk I feed a ("ire, put wood \i\.U' it: paii^yck 
rrau (J/irry I t-xLinciLi^li ; pafifjcf'tgel/- I c;iiuc tD burn, 
iii^kc bum; jfttifrflfrat T I>Iqw air into fire. 



fire, I 



ki^stfnck — kinagsdaglko — flfoWjjfflU (IloCs?) I fire a gun 



fiicmsfhlnc kijlfii (;i piece df Tniiibor» I' snivcd acroffs with :in attier) 

ip'iliingko jjflit rfpuj' I strike fire wicli *re<?l: pdltin^. ^ml 
ivLlli flinl; J/u^^J^^ife'iJ^ bag io-r ^teel and fliislL /■oifca/f /jj^'flFr 

iSmcir: ludoii in o fireiiiLnhiiic C&J^i=i njmc fni llic enlite 
impltrif^nO. ^^bicli is ijjriil.c<f by jmiohin^ j |ii^Lon InEo a 
^ryliii.lir; s«: M. Sch. XVTT, i8, 19. 

fireplscc tiu'/j^an ([ilnce for "'wrtriiiiiiK")] ka/af'ttyan; tjnU^d'^ait 

In'^nli in a liou'c 

firewood kifyjv: i}i!pon(i: iMing: fwiH^,, liindliny ^viii-.!: Upad, 



flnt 



jjji7PF^ftjj(«^^ (HjflUf/ijgjaFJ I, nf fir-ol ; eifra f Jfid; oit^na; 

aj ?^mif^V.' I g-o Tir-'^l^ 'Fraw-^SFJftnj^^p oj' ^fiinkep: ji'> in first - 
at first: i-i lablabdnn \!oplap^iio\; Ihia is for the Jirsl 

JL for [lie first lime. 

1 do riireclly, a^ (he fir^l (hin^. f'ond/^ihii^ oy.... 



34? THK I.^MGITAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

fish tkayi ("jIjoui ij inclici lon^, I3al, aca-Ty, serjr broad"ji 

t'ldlid ["aliant 3-4 fctr Irinji:"^ «l 
^/■/^^ii' ("pbunl (i- 10 in. biiy"J 
*rf*j% (Very -.n.;!!!. likt a liJ^cr") [k^tj^xi kJtjytn] 

fish, I ?^^crJi^'j^/;''jjir(' — nnn^dlfUiok. /b wid/it 'c k'flfu 1 ^0 lO 

jji'V'fi'Fp^Tt'Eiii^i— ^^p'i^ji^EW'i^aA: \ iibh with ;i ]mok (hi^rik: 
fh!gu-id) 

matxitjSckah I liisli mth a apt ^'sflJKg'^ 
fr^_uaS^lttm g/ii: I driv« li&h into a trap of baskels 

ifidHj-diadfi I catch fish id a trap 

fla t ] rii^ik?? a li-sl ■ kiii'hSinck ■s\an Uniak — hiimhlml^^ 

titfai^ of wcsriite apparel: kn'hla (thia is fittii^, ad right) ; 

ill liiliDe: adimH/hi mn :f<?klong kim jWm,- Ute bat doea 
iioi lit yuii 

&n iftna (hatid; JiVC lin^fs) 

fix isaSngko — /nsai^ii^ko — mii/isilo'ig — inangisiioj/g 

itaic^ko. See-: tie, fasten. 

flag tiiiiiiii^lii (Sp. l)arLflera) 

flsinc ftijaHg 

flash ?jfrftifi'jfr— /ttan^tJiya,!] — j(flJaHj;frJwid2f[ fnf fire; gun- 

'hols; il iiiean.5 also; I coiidncl %^'ilh a ligfil: Wn^^itJa'-jfr 

flat tiiit erDund, level ; tjSd^; nQtjaptjdpi^ 

fjaptkek — tjitapfg^a—mafidpi^ — niaidfrg 1 nutie flat 



THE LANGUAGE 0|h' THE BO^-l'OC ICOROT 343 

£b1 p^/Hg (fibw, ht]Lipr)i i^jji ri'iigli Ic.ivc^; dpaah 

fea ttlang 

flee lumdyaSlttk — l^w\4ya^ak 

fldfa ftkash, Iftkas] 

JUnt IJttiKffkan. See: fire maiFiine 

Boat iHlabidfugfik—mHtabtdfti^ak 

Bog fay/kek [faytkeh\ (whtp) 

flocT ^ovtl^d with stones: ij^fay C^^^urt) (al!>otlif ^loiie wall 

gii ii^rj-courtl 

ftmr dJAu (Sp. hsrina) 

fiver llovT iilovrLy, litmFfus, or : ^'ji^^v"'^ "i^JJ ijJnt^m: ilie 
water flows over, J6 spilled, ilowoul: fitmdiaok. See: go 

out 

fly idHs 

ily lo and fro. Mil al>iiul 

iimayiik:ok—hnnii!)iuli-ali:: J ilv <bwn [Jw^ftffjwi&ftfel; 

juj^jy^f^-jT'ct I make fly 



344 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BON lOC iGOROr 

ifam ^iabj iiJ^m^J: it foam^ 

tog •rli'igdsy^, jnlsL, aLi;j>iiij Uf'tio l^cloud) 

Ibid Uifiek — iiadpik — wal^pi — man^pt 

folk i/ikJ9- 

foflow ffiu^tfci: — I'lJnoiko — ma/^ii od — " i uiig^iK d , 

Person. L flip^tTiioJafe [o'lidit-odaf^] ^- i'lmii'iodak- T wAlk 
beEiiniJ. Frcqucnl. jnd Diirjitii^cr snuat^iwdiik I l^eep 
wiilkiii^ lij^hird 

apaydr^fk (pursue) i ndxkf^ek (rnin":ii^') 
t^uak^Til^nnir — -mtf^uan {jmn Ajitlaii) 1 follon (a path; 
J dirtclion) 

food 'ndkan "catilfc," jhFj], dinner, Mippi^r. rii;c or vcgel^lilc*- 

ftlja iiieal 

jVr^^jgfi \s6iged] loiid ior pi-oplc working in ihe field 
tnjH t.jPM'Fr (CiJ^jf-wt Ifie "cntiTiy," fiitid; lan kflit^k. nan 

jtffn^ elc. See: e:aL 
^ii'flpf ^r^.'CnH il1''iin? rlc-e Itoiled wluli ^ugar; fotyd for liitle 

fj'JvK l;ikfif ci> [lit field 
<iihfdii anj fiiiyl PiiLeii i\'illi tice.; meat placed on tlie rice; 

ji]*.o: k^ia'i, ^t: Ijfpan 
Ifi'i!:^'! rallon^ foe soldiers; CSp, racion) 
k'fii^kb^' i^aiiiolf and nc* *iii/f*ff (in Tucin^an-diakcl) 
piii£ti<ti (Tiicucan) ■ loLU^'^l:3 and irce 
titag presierTerl iiit'ELl, l>acon 

b-dduwg meal Lioiled in ncj?, or toiled intjn put inio boiJed 
rice 

The f^rc ot the l£Orut, arranged n( lo their ta&tc. lb 
%aid to be : 

tirown. &niHll] i;r^hsb[ipper5' lji}tjon: i-r large green 
locusts: aba^br? ay tjdtfOH 
dter ] tf£js 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOWTOC IGOROT 



345 



food 



W'ihl lnjy Ionian 
\\'i\'\ chni^f.-n, i^f-ai^ 
domenjc diicken : m^viok 

t^l ■ ijii/i'i 

CiiDri { ^) Of ii'il^l friL (?)' f/^ifj [.v/irr| 

buffalo; iid^aij^ 

pork; tfi<'iig 

boiled ticc: I'ldifan, willi all viiiiid^, iiiBii^ad oE bread 
dog: ds^ (ia a tcrniiitnijl Jibh, for men .inJ "boys oiilyl) 



Abolish 



iia/ifn_^OKg ftliilnJl^ih) : nCxl^i'tl-'iti i'lldkoiSkoak: I att fool- 
iilily; dnf£QH^- LioiT^ciise! fo-oli^hil 



fool 



tilrils: ,<T^jufl( (claw) 



Ibrbid 



[2611383, ?Sg- .^54, 40&O '-';^m; (jmjiuiiction : Wj^ 

Con^lr. ipiiSirak hcit jn^iJO'^^'^jH." I farliiti yiiit]- eomff", 
thai jLtago, ^^HfTt'U. forbiddtii, wrong 



Ibrchead kttmg; See: hair 

fttrermcn mcaj7A:jw,- moi^rJtyu (about tt-2 rfcLotJ*) K'^l 

forqjflrt ff ,iniiii^l''r pat^^S" [ptnsg^U-] 

ftircski-n pracpuliuin ; gdyufi n i^lj; 

(draw hack ill*: |>r^cpucnim iuslek — /inllsi^ — Jiiaifidi] 



fbf«$t 



I go IQ llie forest Lii order lo Vi-'ork : mu'm^^t^kltk 



346 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 



for tver 



rj kalafff^vttasivi 



rjr 



in 



forge ^p6^pan T'pijco for belJoivi")- 

futge, li^LiiLiier (\\itli many lighl sirukes: tek^t^k — trffr..,), 

I cLii^li ^vjili a haiiiiTici oi' sioiic 

Per&Dii ; f^imshaak I jni worki]ig ill a forge- T am a smitli 

ioi^Cl lilft^n^aic — Unitjrfitgak — "ialit!Oir<^an — mitHtj/irtg. 

(The Passive: aialiljdiii^Qi\aii I ain foryoEltn) 

Ibrk l^ff^: r. sfick used as fork; l/bkek — iiflf^^ko — inHlldc^ 

siiihifeli- : I 'crsoa. : f i£ir/^/'t-ii T pierce with a forb: 

Rxmerly adsdngadum 

ibrty //^il'^ /^'^'i'-' ^Tif 4oTli : watt^iptit ^y p5'c> 

rcr^^rd !-f poiigpongr^'nai is ttnPf'ifinit; vi'i'i\ti"^pdti£i!ak 1 ^o fur- 

^%;irJ ifi-m the rear, I ad"Viince W ihe fronl, 

[jilcrjcirion "fun^flrtf!"' fuldlnl*' Or ■ 
uiiuiy<dk'r ti<'i!'i! (It: iiii all gu, sdv'unce^) 

four ^p^l [dpJt], l|i-';4[li; »\afigfpAi [>nJgA!'^!'\ 

fcwl a-ydyam ihivl) m^nok (cliickeii)- ^dfag (wild chicken) 

fTHgr^nl imit'igo/A 

freeze inaihka^ak — uaihkitiftQk: sJjekdaaJi [stkiieiak\^- 

siiidkdi^ak — inashi'/fetan I make free2e, eKpo&£ lo c->id 



THR lAKGUACE OP THE r!0hJTOC TCOROT 347 

Itcsh nlii!iJ'iif<i (fresh mcot, gnta grass, fruit eu:.] ; 

inJtfi^j^HTh: pfi« for clear, fresh water. 

Mend. alhiAd; ^iyfrv (I1-iic.?J kAg&yfnj befriended Lvaiiiajii 

tHottiaHTeida^ I am tO£fEther wilh frifods 

frog bigr n^Akngdkat; smaU: fdkfak 

front /ijiJJy^rrij;^^; the firal, taide Ime. jrftflH^: See [^98] 

mtitKQ.n^pdKgos!i: T :n[^'ajLi:i? Iivhiii ilie te.ir lo the front 

fruit ffkash {ftkas}; ftko^nvn jdlo^ fmi' of the baii3.Dalcee» 

;/*it^: fruit, flesh, inu-.-lc. ^irtngEli tic. 
>miU^d*iiii: time, s.i:'d^-in cl iVuiL 

fiy sisikek — >sinislgko — mastsig — nutrttsig. 

full nttpiio (fill); Jjrfy^j'o naPc Itmam- your Arm i?i b^-fltot "blW 

(filled M'ilh Ijlix-dJ ; \i<y\. r|u[|i: hill . f^-iij ><'d('im- 

fun ang^goj ahahfdng. mahahf^ngaJi I Kaee fun, I play, 

joke. 



348 THE LAWGL'AOE OF Tilt: BUNTUC [U<'ROT 



gain oJdfflft Clake)! «j///w* (I profit: Hoc.) 

gall dgku 

EHinblc (Verba ami vice imroducptd by Ilocano) : i*ii\hr:^hns:ak 

{|»l,iv ^1 h-ink"'') : I'adfrk 'm" ^^p''^K ' "-pin" (OinSp 
"hp.id nr r',Sglt.'' i^^nililint;! jiht'^kiii^ 

£aniC6 lip^- ii round rniit (nr^ii^L:?) js rolled from a dist^ccal; 

fitghgl'^r 'I sli^mbjictlc, u-ltli mcts Js mif^iles: Verb; 
"\f^s(ij£t'7(ffi , •jHl-if/yoff "ri]'" iii'l ■■^i<;K," lag. (Iloc.?J 

garden %'egctabie garden iieji i\\c haaar: fUdngOtt; on (he sidi: of 

plaiiled M'icli n-cc etc. 

gathei' js»iA\i^ei/ (^e^f-nible) Pcrs&n ■ »ia<hnrjiip.l^^Q, wegatlwf, 

cyire [c^cllier. See: collecL. 

tfokdfek — iji-takJtpko — matjilkoh — ii\a*\ifkob. I pick, up, 
gatfier. 

?^wi/^ffat [ri>ipjii?4ty 'c"if?nit l^-r'TiHuJydafr I yo and gci : 

Fren.. ttmaiiiia^^, 

inl^k^itak I ^ri,h'>rrr.u' sa-mcLliiag; ekintJir^u I ^ to gel 

rij/rd;o«rat I S<^i ii a place (:iE-rive) 

kwntgedok I gfc out of ilie way fof appraiadiing daiBgerJ 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT J49 

get mamdijSalf^namdMiil^ I gel head*; 

J j-el •<\oo6 {itdy/^): matfgdyscak; lean^ ijaftlfong)- 
mai'ial^loigak . cainotes {tdiii): man^ki/ik; pita 
{fi^/i£a]: piami^H-g^A-; »valer in a pol: i^aklj^cni): 
manaktf^ak etc. 

ghoal iTfr/M 

gii^e 'iawgkfian; vaVaw'^ hi-a?; ^[isiir .^a<i gl-ltiUst dy Irifljitg 

iQK^kf'aii ay kakos itiaii'? jiirille made nf nlc^in 
tkit iiidii'a or I'ljinjii's ginllc : j[T[iig"% of ralL^ii- M Sell. 
IX. 14-1;: X. 1.2. 
\i^^iha» \ak^san\ wjir^n'^ gErdlc; with bigshtll^ J. CXL. 



eirl m!im4£,kid. Plur. amiti^ai^^kid {from \\p.t 6l:h or Ttli 

year [.1 marriage) , gjrl, a^ IhJfiy- 'i^4dn, ilaii^liicr . 



f J;'^u ^' — i>tdj/isih —m/s/i/ij/ia \ 'n tdjfia J — ma^gidj^n. 

Infill ji/;/^ 
H&Wi — int^Hk — mtntdii [mfiflJrj — mitJtgitM: I g-ive Lack, 
rdiim, 

hohS'i^ko — fjiiakSn^ko — ii-.ai^itt^on)^ — "jflii^fSi/£ojj|[.' I 
^ivx [),ii:k, 

dk lak — ! )i^kiak—madktaii — man^ dkta-a ; 
Pcr}^on.: miidJ^lunak 1 g[vc a pari of vvtiaT T have, a piwe 
CI tuv mc:»|, juniC <^f iiiy ^^.^ood etc 
CoiiJlrii;ii<>n ; ttht^k sikt U 'lifT Istjak I give you ioriic ai 

m^meal; but: 
f! SQ^tJiddk ^ iti''l j/Jf(T tfjju /j^ja I give you a[] (lie intai, 
iFr^^'if.' [i?Hf[Jiii'] rFrjJirryfS,' tisij-l^ttd [mperal[ve5j glvel , 

the objeci 1^ pteccelcri fiy si or is. xndka'i iTou f^ngaf 

give me lliH? Ilower 1 

isxkdt f^ko ; \i£6gd3tgk'^] — iniikiiiigko — nmi-'ikune — 
y^^ngisikatig ■ 1 ^jve. as a preseut, al»ii&. Set : pity. 



550 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BGNTOC IGOEOT 

glad !ii!a!/yo*iak [infafffyadak]^n!nlai^yatlai:- I am glnd. 

Idiom: sak/Zn umiiSet ta mindtikat "E Kni glad thut jOu 

have come'" 

iiaufdko. I ana glad, hjppy on ^(.-rountoL, 

is htxlaliiynd . ^I'ldly 

man-^ipaii'ymi: i TJiflkc gbJ, I ^[clifilii -irtEiLeiiiic 



^4«-gajK (batlleor glas^) 



glide do=wn inndlotddiili — lUnoiitol^fhak (-as 4. £;. a slonc j^lidi:; down 

^ Liiuniit?in uidcj. 



glow tJ*HJi?^d'i£fife— .t[ft]irtf^dfl.£flfr (jij rcd-hoi icon) 

gLue fj/Jt^'d (ruade oS pinch) 

gnaw, I 'igonigdiak — nguwfiig^i/ik — iiiti'igoliigSlaHj 

Per?cni : Hgiimati/geffak 



go 



iHOT^ffifafr— Hd^'i'^jfiJWt (mupcg- and; diiilun. w'-dj. path, 
roiiG); I en, walk; 1 go; ^k. as au^ilia^>' |,^o7| 
Ai Nj^ni-n ndijiiii, (wiili siilTiKe.^i) is ineil: jrnjj. JjitiS "my 
Kuin^," dyom, iiy^ia. ayJila, ayaitltiii-i, ayanm)) ay^siyPi. 
aydntjit; Precerlcc ; s3%d\a^^ int/yaui... huS nan d^yam? 
when do y<M so? 



goaftcr ifiJnodak [o)iiJnodak\ — iirvtSnoJak I vtalk brfhind (fol- 

low: itndij-ek). S*;?; ^unyc. 



Tlili LANGUAGE Ob' THE EONTOC IGOKOT 



35* 



liskid^ck or kitjdn^ek [ cro-=is, ford. 



sense) 



go alnDT^aide lUdeh — uiU'dk^* — matli^—'i'iCin^fhd; f'ff.^t-n. : iiiithdak: 
T go along rhe boondaiJc-^, rhce-l^f, ^ tllvjilmj; line 

fli^ bank; M a riv'<?r; I folloiv die course of a river 

go apan iiitj^^mt^ldki!, iiiijef;d"f^hd>if, eit. (dual un'l pJurnl only): 

from cac.li iiilicr 
:^ra[t ^nel ^ve gn iiilo our liouaes 



go around U^.^kck — ifin li-Ukii \ liniwhh^O | — ai^Uibi.'ih | rru^/'jcri.^/i ; 

Synonym; ItUtjch — lini^-lika—inaUhid E'(?i-stWL : inUkfdak 



go ashore uiiiUidnk—inyatlidiik T bnii , 

ij'H'idkuak — rjinrndknak I cmcrar Jrom diving 



SO a-way 



jfettn^i^Jflci (tour ifilfr.it I — liinnt'fAnaJcf 



%oa.v/ay,far rt'miifi'i^'nwk [umad'uf-ii-iak]; 1 keep going far, I gu 
fi^rlJier; uftadadidrti^'iak 



go flwayj not i'tddttKok — nddina^ ; nvidmd^iini^ T gn ;i ]it(le fnrdier 



£0 back isntdiiitk — tinm^lm!! \toin6liak\ (return); 

JtiiHvSgedak {kpe.tnt^Mixk\ — kinmSgcddk 1 go back, and; 
J go to the side, out of oae'b way, 1 Ici 00c pass. 



353 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE iiUrJTOC ICX?ROT 



go between kaa.wffek — kinda.wak — makdr^-wa: al&o' T go itircnig;li the 
iniddk 

Ea dirwtly r/if-^p(-r'ff*W»^'^ — tiyntias.tdffwijiak- I go ijii ^iraiglic direc- 

tion to Illy 3i]ii 

gQ down humJnadnh \!'7'vid^iidak\ — bxit'nuiTindah . iSmnekuk- — 

Hn^mnekak Igod<kwni:ito£ bi>lc, n-ndfrHri'iiri.l ,|r'£et (aun) 

iiL^Mgak — »rr"jj^j('_^irt, utni^itiidiik'—i'iinii'iiJil/ik (iriiiii ^ 

TiirjiiniflJiO . i^ii-JJj'Lyi^fciJt— t/iziirfjri'i^ftdt.- 
ifl rrMtm jr j^d t — n j/fj/rijj u dak 



go Ibrth lastak — linnitak — inalastan — mi'i'id^i: 1 priss a crowd to 

go to the frcrni:; P-i'r&on. . iumdnak — •imindsiak^ 
iiitKif-n: n ."[jnd^ ant, jirujc:it> 

go hOfTiC siinadBali — sin\iiftda!d ; I make pn liuinci {■nsadrk 

[p/isi/l^^k I — iiipasdak — maipiiiifa — ma"gipji^'ta 

go iniQ 5/kpek--Jiiii-k^pii)—i'idjik-ep—tiitinl^6'p (tnlcr) ; 

Pcrjion, : xHftki^bai! — .'nnhHia'bak^ 
ill pangastkiiha h — 'iinpaiigas' k^bak , 

iminOtuk — ains/iiolak I l'^ "'to ^ bo:^, d vc&scl, n tii^kei 

go near .auiiidkiin-'l: [fi-jc-int^imak] — ^umifU'oiiaii- 

Jiiaisitki'lUlii—IHfisdkQn'jii^ suiimkb'/gJia^ come to rac! 



go in a aingle ma/ifadfddkd'Hl ur g-ii one brhlnd the other 



goon 



\l4pik—initap\k—nviitapi I go aa, proceed 
ildfiik ay eiiisfinti I go on workiitu; 



THE L.'VNGUAGE OF THE BONTOC LGCJJfOT 



353 



go out ftl■"rd!^!lxk^ftnmt1l^xulr; (juM ^on.c out, absent, ADtat hodie: 

kit-hliitfdla; nl.h": new fjcmi) 
' pairfaldek 1 L<:li la j^-o ojl, caiuc Lt? ^ uul, «qfeL 

MifUP'^.ti^Ji'Oj^' JfnijPidfJ^^f^^j^'atJ — 'tam^kna^aii I go oiil lo 

work in iLe luresl or htliS ; 

frv'^t'A'iigak- — fui»idknaf^ak I Start tL>ga out Iffworki 

sfok'iiig^fo iim-i oi\gdn!^a I i;'> !■> ivork Jb the fii:lil and 

T^kr ;i f^hild 'vith me 






fioup 



vttiiili^ii^ali — iiaidihi'^o!/ I jjo up ^[I'oain 

^juiiiUk-yaddi — .liiumiii-yfjdijk I l^o up, Step up, gvt qp H 

laildcf, a irayoji 

JuiiFriiiJifl^ir/^ — Imiciiiifaiagcili I go Up a hill 



middle (tqu?lly di!>l;LLi[ frnin [',o j>.Lr.illcl iHXimlary lines). 



fio wiih fn/rf^effA-— Hr""/rfpj;frt, mifdcj^dk—mfdi'^ak; mahUiai^— 



fi-j astray 



wjctrrf'n^?ifir,b— irrt5^fl£dd?ufr; I lose th-e way 



3(iiifn,;'fi irv jjJiTpi^r/ara; I gu l>efoic, prcc-cdc; 
f-^C):^gi:if ny iKniiidhn: I go Lelimdetc, 



JO W^ "fl^ii'^J ^j^jii.' go Slid ^pt ready! Sngkat /n^fnty^l ^" on! 

Inliitjecni-Dii; dia.' g;o on ! 
go on teiling jour Efory i ketjing pay! 



354 THE LANGUAGE OF THF- EONTOC IGOEOT 

goat kltjin_g; kdnfin^ (lofiti-^ord?) 

gc*t«- ffkek; finS^ket 

gold falfda^ \{ra!flog. bllh'^k] 

gfici^ idngsa (t:olLe4^([ve nainc); very l3r["e. froJw^dK; 

Ja.rgej inakdngcdh, imiiH: k-Hf-^h [k4hs]. 
handle' j^anj[£tnia?E; (niaii'i jAV.', strvififi a? liajidle ; 

st[ck for ^Inkinj; lln- ^ony;- p4if}ng; I <;lrilej patS'igtk 
— pinald'igko — -mapdtong. Or; tfciJii^^fl^njflE (also: I 
dance lo tht^ suuitdij ^J iht ^ong) 

g-Dod k^'jjls; very jfo-jdr kdgmvff, kazif/sefi I make ^ood; 

kakaw/seh i [iiiT^TOvci tioir&fJ'jiijt I am gecume gen*''- 
i anj jmprt^VLllJ^i pvJ!T-,vU<'l! I -dtj goo4, hcnefij. 

^^Bjrd fdlay; k!^d servinif ai^ mater vr::^5tl, iffljin. for pre- 

served aa^igd meal; tAgiang: ifv vr^tc^ 

gr^ /^u; of rice, bro^'d, unslielled 

EranBry '?/iE4f 

grand, great imkUag^a; rj<ikljak£^aff; ijakljak-g^ra- See: big. 



gtfindcWl'Jren jmf^^gdfri/t; sinpdn^Qpi}: grandparents and griindcKil- 
dreii 



grandikttier ikid \ikii\ ay laltiki; ap6 [dpo\: tlie lard, denntiiig a!*irt 
ihe ?ecoiiid, third etc, ofder generation- collecciveljy ; graud- 
pareni^, great grandparents, ancestors (loanvord) 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 355 



irapea 



Jy/tb 



graap 



ipd',;iodko fliold fasi)- t^nmek ^pre^^) 



See' ylra^v. 



grfiashoppcr and Incn^l i ij^ljon., brown, small, aba^k'i -iv tjf^tj^n. 
gri'cii, lar("c gr., pmin_gdyan, "'be[nil[iiil, of iiiediniii ilzt, 
jdlijw. tvich mjirk'^ on v^inoii^ p^ns of iLc body" 
r^flwii, ymme ^'"^h^Eiopper- ulh':r kindi: angasdlf: t^ioir: 
i$dik, Idiiwid: pakfidi f-nstcii^- S-:i^ ; biskcl. 

grasslMid, bllmsag [p^iil}a_£], ^Iloc. ?) uncullivaled soil 

paature 



grave kitkit/^pixn [kak<!6piiH; i-rtu^fanl hll^ia^pJace 

grsvel idkan 

fiTCHx idnib; inliimbak I eieasf iiivficlf 

Jtrwn k&gfdiiyi' [tag fdfiyi: Likr mo^h on stodcs in the riverl 

Erect paddtek: I receive as a. guest, "welconn: a visitor (recti^, 

groin lipyak; (the inner side of tlie thigh) 

ground t^ta, earili; [he whijlc emiimil: f\tktl\ild!ti; I pul itiio the 

ground: iiuidgko. U nvn ^ihon nan ^^'ru: -on iht groiiiid- 
M ^j^im nan J^(a; in ttie grcmii-d. 



356 THE LANGUAGE OF THE B0N"TOC IGOEOT 

grove ^rMV^i'v,- ifvki^yi^^iii 

grow T Tii^ikc j;rijii': s/kiic!^ — am^k^figkj} — maffhcix — "lantk^i 

(mrn, ■inini.il'o, pl^nl'-l. Or ; r'lgii-'teh — ini^n^dnghit — 
vtnifn^^itn. Or: pmKf^sk — iapaii^jifi^^Kta'^atSfo. 

itil^rilmgh^:j \;ki'—mii/ifiji I^Ji^ ley- ? 

{t^iii: li?,it| : oiili i-aid of pljiit'^, ^pniuliiig. 

I bcc<iim? lallj t/ui'tuiiliti.^itii: wc Jire ^rtjivnig in mjin- 

btr: iimnti^-'\tf*tgi:3ml (an^san. miicIO- ^i-t: >ilr«^lch, 

guide, 1 mif^ci'.ah ^'^ w[|[i) ; fban^dd'ij^o/i [if'aii:^S''^ii£;oIf'\; 

pO'/ipiiytll^ek. I c^ubi: (a fulto^v. 

gan ldiiij,_^ [(•JM-u^. piflrak^ hiHilul- etc.) 

(iL cajiJioLiL kany^ii (^p.) ; [julkt: fdl'Sia) 

gunpowder i^n^n Qk^-.} 

gush forth infiiifrilok nan fiAiii'tt the water ^usheji forHi 



THE LAN<::.nAOiv Oi^ TWir Ht^MTO^ lOOROT 



35; 



H 



hall 



ijtildlii (ice); Verb; tnanui^Ut it hajlg 



tiair 



the .'!b'>ri cui Inir avvr [lie fordi^a<l; f3ak it jjjji t^ngf^d 
Eiic loiij; hair, iisu^lly Eiickcil iiniitr cJi'i Hf-idj^Lj-r, 
tnktohd liair on Eop oi tlie bie^id - sln\siii\ h^ir in (he f^ci; ; 
klUin harran ilic brufy^ isSdtsod [tiUihjiid] hair f jnJ 
shorl fc.iclieri' of iiniin.ih (lilrdsl. See; laiJ, he^td 



halif 



djwwdtia {djadna, dytni'/fuft. if/fmn\; 
Haifa pig: djd-njcn \ijrA'an] .i^ jfrtu^: one ^ncl 3 hJl£ 
pig-; Ava'j fff'i^ i-!iied iiun tljitifd'^a {SjsTViJnix: ii^ hjlf] ; 
two and a half i djiiit 'y fi'lii"^ istle-l ^a\i i}/-wti" 'iun ij^'y 
fdtw^, See; split 



hdltl 
halt,! 
ham 
hetnmcr 



iitiiigSykirf lutftgSyk^^l od^! iioy, W iicnuii^hf 



isfdko (slop); Peracm.: ivngSyok — -iimi'/iglfyak. 



tipjiy [dibay] *jji! f^f^s 



pUd/^ (heavy filortcdainitier)^ tiktck | tikt!k\ Siti^illcr 
haiuinerof ironj iialf/lyo (5p. martillo) 



m'l-aihtek (io-r^e), also: I ^lounri. cru-^ili by ihtov^'iii^ 
btones 



5S^ 



THE f.ANriUAr.K OV TIIK HON R>C IGOftOT 



hand 



lf\"a (also: arm); Jdpa: palm; tdlad: the line in the 
]iMid dividing off the thumb 



hand aroand, 1 i!ifol^sh:t; i_';aiiii'uiijda; f/ JafHrvtfl ko C-Iijlfi^nk) 

handful, rice .i^ ini;iMirt Ojit ImTiiiiuJ oF unlhTashefl rice; jp»/A»£^ 

V'lwi li^mljfLllii ■ J-fFr /fiJJ.J 

One iLuii^lTHjd 1i;lih.Iiii1s: .tin flieL- 
Oi|f ihotL&iiiifl IljiuJJiiIe;; ftn ip-po 



handle 



paiigigi^itntin (flf a s\^l'd^, ]ax, gang) ; See: aji 



handle, I Mivf^cli fnnjvc) 



bong 



i<iii\'f!iik^ — hiiabf^iUtH' — nia/i^tfhfiid — mangis^bfad. 1 hang 

i.y\7 :i pu|^'; I Jiang into BfQoke L lal^ifvhoiiak. 



happen?, i[ //"tad (rtrfjirtj— ^rt'if^il. r^j^^^ "^''^ fJmaif hen slka? ivhal 

wLst hnpp'.'niNi !}nTe^ "n'liiit i^ Ilk' iiiEittiirr" ii^dg nan 
tnamd is 'mn ijijufniiio.^ wliat is tlio inalKf ivilli your i'xjt? 
iittn eiijuid; i'<*n hitn^d- [lie happening", [lie decide n[, occUT- 



hGp^ 



I em Iiiippy: tKlal^yattak (glad) -, cnasatfve: paleydtiek 
{pi^ayddei:\ 1 make happy; ileyddi}^: I anr happy od 

accDLinl of.... 



hard 



ink^fsd; akaH^iji^y {ukaidlj^, <ika'--^fsi\; paki'Sj^li-k \ 
make hard 



hflTvesI ^i^i- [frr/fu (rcsjiiiig); harvesi aea^on; iJ^j^^^jpe; lir^l liai- 

wesi sea5uiii l/Hnb; main harveii; //(Tot 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOXTOC IGOROT 359 

harvest, I anfek — indttUi — madii — mnngftti I iJliick off, rrap rice: 

Hiunrfi'ccjt, I harvest, ^ ''t<fki/' camoK or sweet poiatoes 



[})\ak<l'!iM\—»!'xi'^yh':l'r. t//''iriii*.'(" T l^-ii^tn^ii [Ui-ji'f 
Person.: hrtti'tCtnk- , iiifra^^niwc/.?.- I keep liastening; I 
Irn'^ic-n cnun- 
t^jjjj-jji'i' nv mi}iti!lii\i I walk fast, quicklv" kal^nivificih ay 

inmnflail I %vr[lk fil;,ll:r, iliorc ■Ulitkly, 
mai,hai\sfiiycncfk—itashangipiyn\iik I Jo v^ry ■luieklj' and 
Eealoualy; 1 dD ^ddenly. 



ail^T ^v-nxn nji iTur' lini-k. ni Mi-- lnii'K li' '.Ollljill lln: I'^lll? liair 
and '^ri'iu'x iilcnsi^ :i^ {•'^[••:\ nn.ciL'y etc.; fastcdiKi by a 

fiV^S-'iiii, ,'E fi'hfdi/o: iincu^Lrricd nia]i'& and boy's hat; d«- 
otitl^rl 'vlih j^n<in-^3. rtd rriUrLrt- /Ji?i1iik, a br^E biLttOh 
fi][ Ifip ; ktiloil, Je^lhi:L&- ^tkap, ^ liLllc wline slicH mi eich 
^lile; sdoiig Si /isit. li'ii^ *I-U!;'= Ittdi. 
fi^ui'td'. 111,1 r r icd in.m'^ Inl , liiilc fk'raniU'rl, ivnh tn'Ji^g 
rjj[^ oil cnijli shIl': l^li^k "I'lic kLnd ui U.i;^k''l mirk i; ; iiiidli. 
k^liaa: a sleeping bit far men and women, iVtIinc 11k licrid 
cla^eK, vl[||] [i mund hdn ijii (op; worn dutinK thcn^jhl; 
ivilEinii; jf''ior.iiniii mil ■^iTin^. 
S^gfi: .1 l.ir^^i' i^'.d fairi|irijiif hal Icf Jiieii 
fj^^tj' [fii^iLiiJy|; ^^cm.in'ii rarn pj ^^lecloj , a hni- mal 
basket, coveriii>j tlit liead mid l>;ick. 

T put OTX my hat: "ninokl-fn-^ak : J |)iii ^"nicihriLi; (pipe 
ttCb) itl'fO my hat: i€lfi:^n^*sk — sint'ldt^u^'ik — nt-ast/kli^H^an. 
sm4sI>l^lo (Sp. soinltrero): out stra-wha.t or hal 
tSlfon^ ii liead-cl-cith, Vlbfh by WOmen 
Stc ■ head biiinl. 



hai* siM^ngtek — SiHOSong^foo — witsss^gej — manosi^get (I am 

angry at) 



3^ 



THE L^^T.UA^^J: of the I30^n■0C IGOROT 



hagghty 

have 

hawk 

hay 

be 



tjayeiaii 



um 



lafdan \iahfdQ}i\, fanfunitzm ^size and colar oi a crow) 



l^kum UT '\ixldngn; 'f-'kam oy rtafihigo (dry gross) 



xiya, ifya ay laldki: sfiSdf, iffo/ta |Si-34 | cliis oiae, nlmi 
6at 



head. 



f^Jo; S^'fij^trd back of the head ^ tokickd [fEUtfiifrffJ lop 



headache Eii.^ri/,^-/ j?^ji rf/j th-e head aches ("ihfolis") ; *ifw^f^ jjjj. 

headbfltid o/rf"ffj?/Jf [jihf^u^i^od], iivmnil uraund the head lllc: -i tnrbnn. 

tlic liip luring; iial covered 

beadg«r Sc:<:j hrrt, beads, cover 



hujiiinj;; df. fakAkek^ I ml olf; <jri f'Heldak {{'oddok^ 
"iiH ^^o), &-i;e; ax 

p<iHty!fk i^errni'fliy afl<;r Bin^ct-'^'iJiif lic^-dliiintiiig 
mnttd^kity [ttutitgai^kny] «r4mQDial smiga after head- 
hunt rn^ 

isUdkak—iitiirnftkak — MflAi^«-/.4raff T ci>n?forfttf: Ih? pined 
hfnT bj' a ceremony (prayers and aajzrifiting a ]n^) 
rniiagist^ii}ij<ak' I Wdih llie gained lie^id in tlip rivrr 
ennJif^uk I address llie head and pray cvet i[ 



THE LA^'^^UAflF. OF THE RONTOC IGOROT 



361 



hffldhunWr ^^^-fi*^ l''^g^^,^J'" 'I'lli'lay M liuryipg' ihc head 
ji^-k^fplc —jini^aiikii — "idbkiLh: I biiry 3 hc^d 

short while after returniiig izom fight (Suspended on the 

fj/f'/ffrf^ licml-bci.'Httct, into which thr head Ihat had been 
buried is placed; il Is kept Jn the dto ([■^im'J 



heal 



aJcdshat [akdsa!^] — intilfihJiak — maakdiliaa. ( EloC-?) 

See: bkw;fitrobc 
v(tl-dit\i-. lii'.iU:il, ri'lli'^-rd {k^it'ii'k. I rtUeve, talte a-way 






hear 



IfSng/ngek \lfSng/nik! iiditg/n^ik; ij^gek; dhigtk; 

[<n""/'i£^'K.]. } lii-ar- I liSEiin- r bt-lr rlf 

tjefjhE/ns^t 1 teep liswoing 



heart 



pdi/y 



hearth ijaltkim; place for the hearth in a house: tjaUkdHan 

heat pa/atiisi^iclj — \\\pu/JS')K^ki' — mt/ipaiifii^^f! liiniUfiiiig] 

l'<T*;[iii. ■ iiiiiif'v'i^'ii! I Jill guBllii^ ivanii, btalLiJ 
pabQl^eeh^ifipakdlQ>igko—tna/!pakd}ii>\^: ii> heat iron 
(rcdhoO- ^tf; fire, cook, iioil 



heavy 



'tdad '^dmrl Itidtidsiluiiil 



heel 



paQpG^Ada \piTgp(igddsit\ 



height 



t!a/ansjS{na- its fici^it; h^ih kadfitjijx natL k4yjit the 
lieiglit of the Iree 



363 



TILE LAiNGUAGK 01^ THIL BOMTQC lGOkO"J' 



heighten pa /an /j^ck — iitpa/tiiUjol: — ^Ji tipadn I jo 



hop 



fntifii'tf^ak Yfo'lsdiigak; badtin'^iiit] — finadjttii^^ab — 
mafatfjdiigan — mi miidiaii'^ 

tkaiiak ay m/Siigan: I licfp myself at menl^ ^ff^adttli^ J 
car<?( - iki^dkayii ya tmlrayti uin^a.' betp ycmrficlv^l 



bdi 



wingttkki Lien aud LliicLtets; feuHifaei 



ber 



f PoasessivL ; lOE fT.i V^r-^. [iriin. : 8i If. 



herd 



smpangSpd ay nSang or: Hw^omiSaw^ aj iii>an^ a htcd 
of trnif sloes 



hen 



L'la lis'uf , 's'tjf, y/fliT." 'j^rw-/] 
htrt i;*, I'"r. vo^^-l , frQi'. 



hen ttankd'itta: [107-IT0] 

herself j/ya isMa (oj /'lifi^j'O [i 13J 

hide, I itafdjifj^a ^ tttafS" )^ko — mii/kdftm — mangitdf<m (hidt 

complin ciiEy] Person imdjonulc. 

Uanfhko^nssnfbto—iniiiimb — man^isdnih. I ^\\:a\\ (the 
i:neiiiy} in iiiiibiioli. 

hi':iimbiilf — mi^sdn-ibttk I liide myseli. seek shcLter behind 
fi iree, in el Imsb {hnijiilm^) ; 



Ude 
hiflh 



A^J^ fikin, leather. 

tSit'jo- [ini?ii&. : a'lduljo, anl^odntin; antjiiak i flni trill ; 
pajantfdck Iiiiakt: tfifl, Irjn^; i^moii^tj^Qh T yn hiyh up. 
CL I407J. 



THE LAKGtJAGE OF TJHC liONTOC R.OROT 361 



hEU 



tf^Kl'j^^ ei^fljai [iiij;fs/iiir] S« ; moiinlain, 



him 



|Ri ff.J .i!y(t;!,Sfd<n 



hindnioat udi/dji (thhj ■iiinrcT of amizial) ; tHaagtiiiJ/iljiat T 3lii 



hip 



tfian£ loin, ivai^t: i/p^jv \iiffnTy\ itir of flip: 
tinskiirgi hip lioiie 



hJs 



lioi ff.l 1G7 ff.] 



r'TWJWnAt (whiitle, of bullets) 



hit 



kiy^Sn^ck (strike) ; p<ad3^k (HU) ; inj'aJi'dd oyai' : 
1 acrcke^ lii! re]K'.<a<:ill>', I lr^ i.t liiL :i: inrj^i wjtJi spcarSj 1 
throw spcjrio 

fffji/^L'* Tv^'HiiO : (nlfi'ki'k (yptiJr); i^if^yi^h I'^in'jjr): 
shiijidkek — zhint<pd}?ki>—u\iishiipitk — maulipak: I lilt with 

/"oM'j?*— /iJjfl/rl^tii— fFri:/f7ij-— Hwmdo^ I Jiit rtiih a blone 

j'rfiu'Kj^n — intdn^ngka—HnJdiiteng t hit th-e target, ilie 



hliher 



see: fiere 



hoaiSff, 1 fim pc<ikJfiskii!t—->iitkiikfiah 



hog 



boar: fifu \''4ii], ftif iy, s'jiv; (^^c^; ^dr'-jji ^J*p |r., 4^], 
rasEralcJ li"Ki mtfilUaii. 



3fi4 THE LANGUAGF QF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 

IkM if^imh [/g'lai^] — j^^^^rraft— Hjo/f^on — mang^^n^'i. I lake 

liold nf, (jko 5'tniiflni' hy tif: hnnd, lioW f^sl 

ipdkoikv — uiifdi^otkc—fm/ip^kot — ml'iglpttko!: I hold 
li^liL iiri;s.s 

T li.ft.l fa«( ii^cf^.i); i^dfJcaci:- T h.hl.lln my .miTo (dubrirt) 
pQdxdngt^k — in^aii-nliigHo — fnapdil/iaiigj \ liolij, prtvent 
Iroiti lulling- I liold by tlic arm, by (lie hiUJd C^vaCkii^ band 
]n hand} 

Iiold up my ^rm. lom, li;md 



3»lc 



ka/i^^an {kaftha^i, ba/^pan'X , k^lr^ab. a kolc dug in ibe 
j;riiuiid: Vli,: k&/iTfiik; kaf^pak 

i^kasc, tf^aet. iHslika^: a hale in M-ood, iron; I riakt a 
^lole ; Iv.'UkAfcici-k ((ilercc) , iH5>c in [lie e-TrlulM;: (f'ifjt 
PQkka^kkitna'i: ptrforaLed, with nzfiiiy liolc^ 






l>orTke 



j?yitrj^ (Tioii=e), Hi (loujn, ccnialry) ; /'dJ^^/iy (homestead, 
vicinily oi the lioiiae or Ttiwii) 
Jimicyak is dfon^ho, ii fJik, ad fol>ffty I Gf> liome 
-sumJdak — sinmdSak I go tnniie 
sumdobak — sinn^dcil^ak I airivt al liomi: 
tnakuddak — imkisdSak I go liomc in cujEip.iny wich others, tg 
my, your lioi-nt: kin jjt/Jjt; i^u j/^d, {theiiDai, toij 



honey ij^i*f«Hi n j'rf/ff?if 

hoof k^kod 



hoolr 



digtf; aii^kliook ; f^ti^mid 



THE L-AXCUAGE OF THE EO^'TOC [GOPOT 



3&5 



hope 



skoshi^in'idak, sftm-^dnt. sddirk (v-Mil) 



bom 



idkod 



horse bafdyQ (Sp,: eaballo); atoyhor^e: kithk-af^'yQ 



hoiTsfback inkif^so/ak — ninkaf ifyo/ak I am on. h. 



hcK 



wam^ici^ ^[tii»c' hoi": ^--i', liir;ir: >>.irin, indlong ri is 



hour 



dlas (Sp. boras) 



hcFUse 



df^ng; Irirge lioii*ie: fdoy; Iiqi: k-'it\lifon^; loj 
hnniBe: abdfo»g 

Tla^ principal |'ail5 o£ Uic Boiit^ Tt;6roL's liou^it iin; i;niJin- 
ccuc'd liere; 5?e also: door, beam; roiif- cour": cLi\ — 
(Tlie hoiLae is built moat priinitively upiHi the uncoucr^ 
^roiiiid, Iml njl [■[Liicil on pobl?. II coiisi^cs <if a recEaii- 
ynl;ir -i|»rii:i fjilhmt li x 15 iccr), !-■■ ftinrcd in nji lliree side; 
by lK>^rds, .ln<L in |h[ r'-;ir liy ;l ■ilj'nirwp]! Tins eiiizlosiire 
is atiuiic Lliri-c /teL Jn^lij it li umUT ^ liiyli roof covered 
with aiTHw^ th.? roof CKrend^ ddum luflhyiir llircc 6ecr from 
Ihp gmuiid Till' rear iif lliii: '^pit^i? [*; UWen liy ^ rhdniltr, 
ni^C lMj^l;(^r lliaci iTiret j(?e[, ivllbrtLic v.ln'IlM''^ ar uirlioksj 
escepl a narrow doOT. By wooden partitione the space is 
(livkkd into iniall icction*.! Stir J. SXXIV, XXXV!!, 
XXXVIIJ. l.XXni. M. Sc^^. XI, 2, (5^^rfFr^rr>i) 
ifidil: t^'oodea cnclo^nnL'; 
AiTttrf.' &lone wjII in Hit rear : 
iSdjoy: from cnclosurt (■-'■itli door: pdngiian); 

fAgso: Fa.fler9; 

dapdfii section 31 the front CDclDSure; ther« is Lbe nior- 

Eiir. iJfe/rD>i |J^.(r7n|; 

tialikitnan : s^-riinn fnr the fireplace^ 'Idttheni" 

tjdkso |f/fJ"tW[rtj.' w.x>den piatfotm, raieed abom r fool 



35G THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 

house ehovt the groinid, foimi^ a spatioo^ bend] or ^hcif ; 

r^ij!;a". ji['T]^iT]!i 'haiiiJKr. '■uvrrcJ widi Isrurd?; dnglib; 
k6l?kob: piirnniins oji britli twh of tin: "on^fHr/' for ulcn- 

flfk: ini'liiiC^I bare lnnr'l.s :^L:i"^'ii? ^^ ''bcilK;'"' Ifnyk 

jifiig; f'i^y ^ secQiiil "*.tory" (5 x 6 feel) rulscil i^lmiri 7 
(t±i fniiii n^e ground in ili-e ceiiLrc 01 ilie ii^i fl-oor; 

atJiivldjait: place beneath the roof outside of tli^ Hqiisc, 
where biLfJeiii' ,irc Inicl iloi^'ii f.^Ha'Ji/.' burdeji); 

Itfciig: filial! ■iliclvL.s, Lif^ide ^tllc,^1ll tlic roof , 

fadn^an: ^^ird in which a house atanda. 



how 



l3.vS; ?^h^\2S^\Zb^)\ 



hundred jtii laskSt [UuSii kash^i; gasiSd] ; the lotflh : I'lai^apS'^o 

ay pS'o 



hungry' 



iii^iizfiiff ,■ jPfffeiffr^, maittviliah: \ ;im llU^^^^J. 



hunt 



nutii'^d^Hah — im'ix^sP'i^k: I biin^, cli.-jse vvllh irlug^ (-/r?*) 



hurl 



fekdihek (thrqvfj; fa/dki:k: I hurl a ^loiie (hit) 



hurry 



i\i> ill great liaste, ^ndtlerilv, 

Pci'^on. L I'/ikaJ^-iiit/itif, — iiiiiki'kdi'i^ak 



r pm hi a hut^y 



hurt 



kogSngck fslrikc); digdfkek—dimf!^ii!p:ko — tiadTgiO-f^; J 

Hdtidi'Jc r liiiri by bcnd[iiK (finger, fool tic.) 
fitc/ayr^ck Ifa/fiyfi-n'cr.-l — mpa/ay^lii> — am/spxtJ^u — 
mrtn^i'l'a'iy. 1 liurl imc'^ fnrebiigs- 1 in?|iH 
inp^l^g {>npf^lBg\: it burls 



TUB LANGUAGE OF TtlL BONIOC HJOROT 367 

hufiband asdtkwm ay !a!iJi}i [as^Tvn; asitoal 



but 



kalyiJfoug: abtifan^. 



1 

Ice 
Idle 



Ijni/illi- (biiawn only as h'Aiht'ynei} 



if 

Ifiorot 



fffav; mashdyp fwosdya]; (45^- 4^; 4^1 

I^dlii! [ikdiat]- iF^ftlok ay Ig^hL T^vnW^ Ig^t; Kn] 



01 



msSk^l (^ii^kii ^ffi"!:; angangalM (wllh i>rtpi:kfl. «; 



budly) 



imegie 



HtaiAto {nildlc\ (Sp. retrito) ; Hna^idka. an image, 

drjwii or carveif, ii'^ui^Hj of a man [idh^) ; .\ ivoodin 
cai-ved fignit or slalne rcpre^enling a man; M. Sell. I. 
Butalso: tinahtdk-a oy fanfa.'^: a lii/ard carved on thfl sur- 
face 0^ a slucld. 



IcolUtc tgtek (no jir«berite!) ; Igtek kmjh ialfna I iciiiaEe hi& vmy 

of sptakltig 



26S 



THR LAHGLTAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 



itmnediaielj' [^96; 3^3; ,'^'51 a^a&nl k^yit, ^iiak/nat. 



impTupcr mmwu, Idmwo ny inlika. ir ib fniproper to weep. El is 



Jn, into 



i^lUi] I3?7ff/ 



Increase in iiLnnbeu mQ/an^fdn^katii we increase in uLTniljer, 

nnilli|*ly 

tsJ^Htsk — ItinAomffk — mai^daw an — maad^^ ■ I niakij 
i^lrj^tr (ill imniber) 

initi-iaiton'diigJiiimi w^ produce luany thildien, po|fuljH; a 
land, (al&o af animals that have many youcg)- See: grow; 
high; big; stretch. 



lucked 



»i^nd \^\-^\\ ddji. 



ji rfiin n isvdsiidkc — i'i\tid-^!^dko — maiJidiisiii!. Person.: ias'idsudak 

1 Ijririg Lidiiigs, I liriiig au order, a clialleoge; 

inhatritania linf^awgfli: of one town or country; iS-am^ki, iJ'jik/ihan, 

iAiab \iAab\: iiihaliltanl of Saffioki, Tueucan, Aiab f6t] 



inhrrit 



atdek (lake) - /asWj/ft (Hoc) 



inn 



aiingim (ladg^ing liouae for strjiigcrs) (lloc.?) 



inquire 



fl>f^i/ali (a^k) 



insane 



mttl^^i^i 



Enside 



ijffaA»(na; [istjdim, isddim; adsiiyim.; In loivns squlK 
of BoiitDC! fTiJj'iH, wiOi llitf iiUerfliaTig-e of L, D, K. in 
va.riiJiis dialed ^1 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 



^i>9 



msEnict ioh'Snek (advise). Sec: teach. 



tnauU 



can?*' -in.ii'T; 'pthiit^u-i- - !iif'jf.hij;t-!.—ni-t/if^tii.^n^.' 



intellJAcni kauris run Attii. "good as 10 tbc braho;" kiiw(s mfi dh, 

"gcrtud as to the head;" iny^mis nan die {inydmin. toit) 



inieivi 



U'\'!jt^L' (likt) : T ^'^'niU , or ; ek. t.-k: I go I.'. . |ju7| 



lnujidaie ('iis!i,)'iii^'kis J/f^Anwi (with water), |^jft»i£fit] — ^'HpjAi?iii;fto 

— jji^pviion^. (^JfihfiB£." bi.g water, lake, ocean.) See: itri- 

galc 



ITCpTI 






irrigate j//FfMjiijri& [r^t&itfma^J — tptuffaueKak-"niatj^itm^ — 

moA^uts; I water the tic^helda. Se«: canal 



it 

iich 
Itt 



f/jTB, ja, »«!, rr^JiffiJirf. ftHnlirdf IS1-84I 



kiikd. It Llclic!*: jftj/Jii]!. 



roi-io4i 107-109] 



370 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



J 



ja-ckel for women ■ dklan^ {l^roi) ; lefm/ma (a short "bolei^o" 

of %\'lii[c ni^lcnnl.. with Itliie and red border slripta, iiied 
alio (o nrli-lli*: ihc dc^d) (Jluc.) 



jan fabfardljun. See: bind, fetter- 



fiisHifn^an: v<;ry Jar^f: Jar, for dry rife, i. e. Fur pdkUy, 
fjiyofny: "lio[iLe^riji|>cd, lar^E, uf liai'i! cIjiv" 
i4t,^iiifn [M(/SjjfHj| ,■ rtr; k/fmeii^- ahi^iit ft iiirhe* higli; 
glared; for llie alcoliolic beveraye f/ivash (Hoc: fitJai); 
the parJs of tills jug irei ^j^on^fJ^fjja, ilslop, liwak, tlie 
body; l^otiiiff^ad, i.Eie foot; j/^rVnd, a bejuco string 
arnund the iicck (lop) ol lliis jii^, ^'itli ;i loop foi" caiTviiig. 
T3ie a^^nan is nude in (lusc qu^liiiiti; (btginiiing wiili 
th«be£l): ivdnaa ay pad^s/deng; a) t^ay gowdk^n; 

Iitkiig: irrjill ''Ci'.*'!, ina'lr of "bcjua'^h" (a g<jiir<[J. 
S«: pot 



Jew's harp ab/^fyn 

Joint i^^ (ill the- body and ki stalka) 

j(frCij™t fftigdngo, nbitbfang; iiUiiHd. 

jcy knial^yad \kaialdyad\ 



THF. LAN'CLfAGE OF THE RONTOC TGOROT 



371 



joyful 



ctos? !■>■ iUTnping; 
Peraon. (FrcqiieiiL, ami Durative) : iiinkijdaklj^'ij^Qii — 
fiinaii-ijaiihl}dn^al- 1 juinp :icrn5?, (fttjcii tree to Ei'tc, 

ricmf-i a bfcii>k), I ken^p jniiipirig i^tc. 
i-iildptokak — nu'ldpiokal- I jump oil level groicnd, 
bninclldf*kak — l/iiiindid^kak-: I jump (Eike a eiasslioppcr, 

a flea) (<.!ioo[?) 
tffmtt/oidak — fiirm/t/odaky or. int4/odak — nint/i/odak.- I 

jiirn^ u^, lice: Itap 



jute 



t)^nsim-. Juice of rice: f/do; of siigiir c^nc: rfTtfd; 
chick Juice, like roain: }ifkid (pilcli) 



Jmt 



hitwii iS,iM&, right) 



ju3t fiaif 



frrt^^ttFir I454I 



K 



beep 



ttgf/>k Ugfoi!\ (lirilrl) r kffl^TJ ■iafe^ tkJi^ol^: i ki^ap, pre- 
ficcvc, Person, ttmikiiki'ak 



UeuKl 


ita (of vice) 


kettl-e 


/jrfj'oi [PwVi>£] 


Ifly 


t^f^s 



37^ THE J^WGUAGE OF THE BOT^TOC TGOROT 

kick ickidfuk \sikiyd!}aS^\^ii}iihidtak — masikidtttn (jiti: leg) 

I jay ifdyaJ^ — f/r no vfjtfyu !.- — u ro '/lyi pi vi'i 

katln^k — ki\ialkuh — inai-'dthan — m^tn^idim. (titp upon} 

PersoD. iMtallaak — aptkalitaie. 



kill p^d^yi-k [piui^yek: baddyek; fjatdy^Ji] — pivadSyi-o— 

itw/'od^i — mai'iiid^y. T\-T':\jn.: pitinail^y<d' [,''tiinad<^v/ik; 

huv'ft'dycilc. p\i"ia{Jyitk\^pi'^miid^y'tl\ ("l"lii' firm ii-*?d 

iii-i'hLly in lloimit Ji^s d utA oy). It signifies a\i^: t& 

lil[, to- e>:rl[iL;ul*;^, lu ■:l.iagl[l(^r iiiinj.ir^ 

Imthitdijisk — kii'fii'^uldk'^ — rHiikaiiiikad. ifadiyko: I u&c 

liii' kil^iji!;::, I kilJ willf.. . 



kIndto„ 



t^SsiJff ii.-.. {km....) 



kind 



ivl>at kind of.,.. tg^£ ^y—t [^9] 



kJiuUc lire 



aj^synh. i^i:\;: fire 



lETllg 



df< (loan-wGfdj Maky: han; Hot dn) 



knee 



Ibc fccrnileg; — of Ihe IjiiscH^jf. s^ky^ip kucopai*. 
k^yaf: patt cif the Ysg hack of tlie buef 



knJfc 



kfpai! 



knife: "bo4o" h^inpHa: Parts.- piSfek- liaiiille, fil^i-^., ^ilgc , fy^FiVt, 
baLk, dJji?, punii; iiiJi^^^£''rirri, ItelT nii ivliitli Llic A'C^^/iiZn 
hanK^; lliiji li-tir is nrjiaiiieined iviEii v!ii«e ]>icce3. nf a sli-cU 
I. L. kroldiigad Ji Spud, "file tLiiife 1*, kept upon a I«al1 shCdith 
uidili. mf iviioij ; ihi^ alienili ■ jd/f {Fd/i, iicre 'Vaj.'Liia," is 
akoabagfor th? gOD|r: fd/i-Hg^ngja; ^ndcf. fdi ay ^ko, 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE ROXTOC IGOR.OT 



37i 



knJfe "bolo" .1 iHiiw, fiii rcduiilii'jurif [■^ Mdi, fixfdyi: ^voinaii). >f. Sch. 
XVi, X, 9, The kumpHu. Is ^f vanoui size; the largesi 

^.er^'es ^*i }ia<c[iet ur as ivea|>Dii, 

knock afiflinst ^/sst^ksli 3 kT-qk \t\"ju. rttp fttftdoM. 

kjldt lie a silihodck — sinahhSdJ/iy — lua^althod. saithad. a knot (al 

tii« Old oi 3 thread) ^lloc.P) 

knot in AOOd ^j/lJfiJ.' ^'/"Frj^r'll ir ftrf]'f+ 



know 



liin>'v, I unJer-.ld.rLil, I juii ^c-yiijip)li:il ivliji one, I coiupre- 
hend. The verb: ifmmok.iiutmmok: Iktiow^fsinii Eiitnoc- 



knonvledfifl 
knuOklM 



,itquuiat3iice : takf£k 



Jingot 



374 



THIC LANGUAGE Oir TiiE ItONTOC ilWROr 



ladder 
ladle 



lake 

lame 
land 

laiublide 
language 
lard, ^t 
large 



/(Jji^it, l>ig, flal, l[ke a iliovcl; fan'^/fe!^ n<i/i 'it/fkait: T lake 
lite l>ciifed T[ce Jroiii tin: kcttk iind disiribule it; 
Person.: iiitd-ii''utik. 

k^Otjek — ^iiia/Stko — mtikii/oi. I l;nllc fnil ivuli ihe kdftd, 
i\ l^r^' 'li[i]'Lr, i/flii, ri l:[ijlr TTijuIr ijj ji j^uiiTd. 

iE/KY^ [i^jri^/i'/jfj| a omall iadlc^ ^spvun. Sec: apMD. 

ji^shang t_ay fA'tfj^}-' .i (s.mn.11} ■oCiJi *jr; j^^/oit, a pond 

yi/od; mapHay; T am Ume: i^pilayak \unplia-i'<^\ 

Hi; public land; piifgf'ag; fobfily H»e {tome land 
tfiion-, coMective: kiilniiina'i . (lie ciiliiviHed land, the RAAs 
near a InN-vn. li'jr. Otiiidr, (kkii-ife. 



kJfjay 

WF; nan kHUn si l_fijti)f: iTic Tf;6rm LangiEige 

ifinib 



isnl-isdlsi [!/:ikljdlA; tiilk!if1k>}], very large; i]<iyiixg3a 
[tjak-i}is^i>a^; ijahtja^HTa. see: MgJ 

ittan^dj'dSi ilic l^i^i Irj a line; it»3ngQsli \ht I'h&c or end 
0^ rt sior)', of eveiii^^ uf n^tl['?r]&, mail gad jHjiah I nni (lie 
Ih*.sI. manganan Ingush il Takes place a^ the la&t event; 



rm: langu^gk ok the EONfoc igorot 3^5 

iHBt "finally;'' 3i'ansa'\a"-f>i^o.i;hHaH falfiaidy: BE last npeura 

:irr ihrOwTi 

bbL inunth; »an f^an uynttiask. nanfi^an ay inmiiy. 

late >iJflfii ['in'tisui] , mn/j^Hr^'fj/Wflrnfr T nm IhIc ; 

jnii/dtBrmJfi'mlf ^ty fimiiy: I 9m ^rtm^ l:fre, 
ij new OfH^".^ffjJi won i^i Ji; j^jtyi*,- Jour ilaya later, 

laugh ^jjfriJjj^iJriit— Finjl^Jii^HJii*; fiy^^-nk; ^iigii''_i^iick: I UiLgli al 

orir, I (JcHilc; kuk^dn^o ridiciitoj.i 

lay down Luddkf — imadttko—ma/fichul \i'i(t/!5<fti\ — maKi^sdn^ 

p'iych C|iiil); ij'^fko (smi)- 

lay eggs moKg^ilog: (Lhe hen) lays eggn. 

lazy .iOK^^an; nini-dngdaii I ;im pcilin^; liii'y, wi'aiy 

kef '^d; mostly ia tht sUt. conatr, : iSfon; idfon jj Idkanv: a 

grass Itaf 

leak iK!i^ij<iiek—ninl'Uw<ik, pQkdtak I iiiyp a leai^ vniii a 

stc^iper: s&wat 

ytan (i!C'^dek—f"'j'i'f'>k<'—"'^f/^f-l- l make li^i|, rtuar vat hy 

■work; maflkud- Itan, eiuaciaifd; f/fe(u: kan meat, 

lean, I inst^tjagak — nituSl}''!:'''^ 

nhlfdn^ik (jnmp .ncrrji^!;)! iimkijdvif]:iil- • iutald/itifaif (nr: 
i>ibath^hi<}l'Jik) I U',i|) whi-lr Ji.liiiidri^- Jig-ainsl an enemy, 
I leap jn a batti* to <lo.|£i; tlie spears ilitown. 



3?fi 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



Lvanu 






]«ast akdyt iiTJ drain ("idsa TtiJln Jil]"J 



l^sve 



leflve 



t«ch 

Jeft Slide 

leg 



tend 



Li-eKirid, leave a rernaiTider, yLarnlon 
pii/hS ck — in pafsak — majij-a im ; 
itkdyek — mukdyi^o — ma/rikay — maa^dbay I leave aloLC 

(neans also: to let alone, to let go) 

ma^isidnsk^tyiT; intj^gdngk^mi wc take leav^ we part, we 

g"o lo ditftreitl ditctliims. 
p<idstdnck: I cau*ie lo part, sejiarule 



m 



diek 



tkid; (0 (he Icci r (j fkidjfn,- at my Icfi rV nayi ikfi^Jiij 

in/ntkid [i^lkid\ 

sfki; ciiTf of Llic lr£ . ffikia: upper le^: r*/iiT- [^^fl| 

boifts of ihc leg : tSngfW si ipo; leg al the back ol the 

-^ifr/flt I !ft:i^^; by the kg; le^ of chicken: f^yoiig; 
foreleg. f'niigSlo; liirtdleg, ^djfAji 

i'rsao2<^dt fro —intsaiKp4fktf — Hf ajt.--tfoTiiat — man^ii^diywat^ 
paka »wdtc!t — Ui paka i^ivdlk u, — >naipakdscti'ai — 
m^!Rgipak^ni.mi J r^ii'.r-, icll lo lend 



Lmgih 



ha/anij^na: jl^ k-ngth 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC HJQROT 



m 



len§:then f^nohfi^k (Keighlen^ ^i^i?: increase. 

less a^ikfl (tban:HH>); \cssea\ l/adaik (takeaway) 

l«i Fa adt 



l« 



l&[ W'A (hofiJtory) ■ la^ ^ g. let vj rest' Ja intiifengi^ke.' 

(or, i-viili C'fmijuiLci. Part, et [i3S]: mHi.VTj^;,£*iT'j we 

itiang-tyti<^ : I -iICj^v (Infinit. tyiiya^ ukdyek: I let alone 



kelter 



.^f^ii (JoajL-wordJ 



levd 



trail ou liic side oi a Jtioiiiiiiaiii 



lick djildi}lai/—'ljinHdi!lak'^miidfildjf(ifjr. Sri'! loiig^Lie. 

lid, cover s^kojiig: cover of a pot; a email pol plactd npon the open- 

m^ of an other pot 



He 



lie dc-wn 



Hfl 



irs^gfikak — winirtgakakr ittgakak: I belie, d«:eive. 
ingak : a lie, a riiae, a. tridf ; fnsdhoK a liaj 

intjiidlaf'fi^ —ttinf-j'i'ffu^^u!:-. i lie dOl^^^m my In-ck: 
iKS;!'l'iryti^- ■n\>!ijdpakah. Also: masdyepak (sFcep) ; 
mfiiliif^aij (rysi>- jnf-flinj-ak I lie on my sidtj 
inU^ff^b-ik- I lie on my face 

l^n^a^ fsQLiIJ 

lien, ivci|?;li[ 
sawiiti-k—smM->A-tfsK-Q — iiiQ^iiwai — manlktJii: I lift a burden 
i'rH/i^yko — ini'blifyko — ii\aiiii'iey: I Lift with que hand (an 

aniiDal by tiie hmdiegj, I liil From tbe groimd 



^7^ THE UVNCi^MGi\ OF IMF. EQNTOC IGOROr 

Hft -.'li-ffi'k — sinadi'l^o — masiidh — mand^lf T lifL rni my ^liouWcr 

cover, lid 
paton^,Ssdci>:: I ILfl, hold high n^ (_ai-ni, liand, footj 



Ught u}iabdii'^<v ['sha!'d'^-a-v\ Ij^'IiI, (:^f iln sun); 



likin^ak — (iJi^d'i''tik — fnaiSdn^wt J light my pfpp 
u^A-yttk: I Hi.iltL' ftrr. 

in^Syolf: T pm Eighr, fitc to. Sec: firt. 

iOKskSfVok {tQ>igk^4wak\ (flaah): I conduct with light 
Ughl 4^V^|^ (not heavy) 

li^tning ydp\af-; i[ [s lijihtiiinE ■ iiiyilpvuf-, litjlLlriiii^ strike: 

k/^iiian — human nan ktljo. "lljuiider" alrikea {tiAmiiitak: 

Peiv'von. frtrm root: £an "eat*"). 
kolyipycp: liglitnii^ without Ibunaf cr. 

J£ke,I Uyfjek \ltt'ftj^k'\—ihieyitdko — malSyad—^inl^y^nl: I like, 

vviirii, \\'Ar[i, iiiieml, love, desire etc. Hytjeh ay tttdn^an 
1 Ibkt n> cal Sec ■ pceici' 
Per-^iii.: iidtiU'yitJafd . I .tul CElad, cBi^erfvl, jnw>as- 

-hj'rfVct 1 lil^c, lovH?; Ffl/J {iniT/fd^-'iiddt^k "J am diJ'^iiLl^fieJ " 
k^ddliO- iny hkjii^. Lii^' pkn^urt, my iovc, my iviJi, in:cd, 

kag tdihd. ill(L- [111-- i^i'^ si^^ [-ifdJ] • llkf tlil:^, thus; 
k&e kc'i .'ih-n, like liiiii, Kei, it- iir: ^d^ k^n !ddi- k^gak I 
am like; i^uiig^o, llki: iny^elf, tJi?i'^-rt ity tluc^n. luaking 
like myself, ry*itTiihliii^i inc. k^nka kiiak- you jirf^ ]jkt' a 
Etioakey. ^t'uii] y^^/i^ fhUy dni (ii) likediii^i 
kash/ffn, like, ri-BeuihVmg , kashdfiak. I acji like, iGbonbre 



THE LANCUAG;^ of THE BONTOC IGOROT 379 

ID:* k(i3h/dii ynad^b nan tjd'^a, jUi[ 3& If llic sky w-Lrnld (sU 

i/j'o tU(M: likcwL^ti rjr, A"i;^ 'hj/nfijflfl if^ci (liki^ [li.il iiljo) 

3imb, bmnch f^nga 

limp inpflayak—'-iHnpfta^yiild (I am LameJ; ^ixprpHaynk, 

line iV, boundary ^jnc; ^mftfp divi.Lini- line, :l ji,,rl; 

ifadf^iikii — /itfii,iftf'iii-o — "ia'ifddfail — tiiaif^ijifdfati I 
arrange iii n atriiight iijic 

Up so^il {sdbil\ 

Liquid fiiiimdimin, pnltSnai- fnultcn iii'.'c^l) 

HsiPn tjeljAt£/tg£i (bear) 

little fdftfs f&ortff) (smaU) 



littlfl (in qivufliiy) al-Fs. vay liUlc dk<flril: loo linle: 

tiatsdma 'yoktt; too Jittle fi- e. lACking): f^Slo'tg; one 



Live tu be aliee: matdkAak — notdbStak; *'f: mafaidiirtak 

{iffkfff. J iii^n, n liviiij; lidnf,', n iicr^iui) and; ^'cidkstak. 
i"ted^^ak — 'finlird^cak I it-\y, rcmiiui, dvL'cllj sojoui ci ; 
Hinki/fiuk [viiJcifh-iik] 1 1[v>' jmioni; ^1 tnlM; En [Is coiiiilrj 
(Hi) nr; KJn/iiat — mmdii^'i, I livt in ^ i^>kvii, ^■>untTy, I 



lizflra /ijj/iij 



.?«o 



THE LANGUAGE OF TITE BONTOC IGOROT 



load, cargo drkitrid C^^ much as a iTkan caQ carry); af9ze!dljan: the 
[jlace iiEider llie roof onlsiiJe of [hi: hon?e, wln're llic lo^d, 
biii'den iLiiy "be laid down; tiynii»itii'dati . 1 am tarrying j 
load. 



lock 



fll ,3 -loor fi2h'(IIoc.> (nL(?|j;iirof nfednolcf^H; ^ee ; <[ooi) 



ktck, [ 



fiilfttfc; [/'nif/fltl; ifndih (Lloc), or: td»gfah -is iiuit 
Mi/t£; 1 "t]D.,e" wLl[i a key 



lOCUfll 



and gra^i.'hflpppr ; ^^tj (^''^sshopiwr. 



knn 



kUang 



liDneaome L'^dngnk [b^dx'gak] T sen liinc^i:iTni?, nlorif, or: 

miikdy<id^h, I am leii ^I.itiit, Ironi izuytZlj,:!: (Lcmvl), nr 
ntHisdak, Irom isJc^ (I It^avc alone) ; (/j(t; cme) 



Icnfi 



i?fr^/o. "iTif/ ttf^/n riifi[6A; ^e is no Tmi^cr Uf,' 



look 



iij?r't (?ee) : i^^at (walcli^ observe), look oialf f/aemf 
P[uT. iiii^tiv^.' Peraon, : ittnllSai/ — inntfldafd \3imf/3!^\ I 

loaU our ior, I rj'y to f^nd, to catcl'vetc^ 
UiiAnk I %]>v, look oul for, wail for 
OshtiSngitlj — inoihlj^ngak — initozhtjdiigan I look doivii, 

obbcn'c fToni !i hi;;h plnc'^: iwJ^Hjiffdat I look up 
insdfionzah — tiinsJktf'igak I look limk, J lijrn around 
kSJgak k^n lod! 1 Icjr.k like him (likr): 
kadgna ay Iht!^ Iinikm^ likr:, rtinrnihlinK 
fkadak I lu-jk lor, c^re, provide (f^rc). Sr;e: Fif>i;k. 



tookingalflss iiJ^a (U-k.) . J^^b'riH^ (Hoc.) 



THE LANGUAGE 01' 'Tur! TlONlOr inDROT 361 

loom 'liibliin, (inaf^yak, I am weavii^). The ateiisils are 

Fig- atmve Fig. below 

tsokiib/i". Ic^ilitr ln'li, going arounri — a 

ibidm a b; ^ 

■^i^/iudr-. -ihunl-e c c 

fi-!f)/ii d d 

lilf'iiiis g e 

lidk-ln^mi or' 'iJihdfna}i e f 

A^Vf,'^ {Veil-"] — 1^ 

M^ffliJ f — 

■!ti\^wf!!an h — 



locee miulcrfttn (as a spearbladt from its shaft, an 9x from ite 

iLaiidleJ 
l'jji?^:I'if ^^'j^^ ■ \v]rk (<-)f ;:^;iririi'iilc CTt), rJQt tight 
ifi'g>f\'iili — i'liFi'^'i'ia',-- -'y.a'xpo-^d'ian • I le-c loose, &^:( free 
(e. p. 313 .iniiiirLl lli.il v.;[S t.miilic). i-^ersoii ; uiiiipoi^anatak. 
fadtdljek; obflttjeb: i lei ]oDae (nntie) 



la'il- iiat/tins^ai*; in,isiiii_^titaf.- i^ n/i't ftl^f'/i^. I 3iJi lost 
in tlie forest. 



load 3i4il«^e*ejfe ay rfitj:,'{-uif J iiin^l^c ';i^^»rl;^ if ^iK'^Hh I >p';^ili 

yix/S'ij^'s-Jwl •'\ tnai'jukm^ ] 'all loud {jli^carkTvn^-, [ (..lUj 



kpusc ■ti^?^*; kf^rng; nit: ftV; small l^use' t/iAirj'; I catch 

lii:c: ikat^ak natidU> (the head}— iH^iofJa* — ntmiiotdan 

Knre ^ytj'f^i "6*celheart:" bagdyim, or: iaJf-.ca- [iahtht^a]: 

in Soag-DlalecL my betoved: ho*f /^yfJrfjtOr 



3^i3 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOt EGOROT 



low, humble ti-^-dri: ("ihori:") 

low, nol loud yatHun/lL-o ay J'l^M// i spenk iov. 
rir/[[>^//jcft, i "■[liiti^r, |3[,"| 
yualrtn^ko a}/ inan^hin 1 walk noiselci^sly, I sneak. 



lucky 



ifno/Sti^y^ nal-ifist til"-:.) 



lull lo Bl«p *k"-sM$yk'i —uih'yk^yk'? -^imsii^^ylcoy —)"a!\Qik$yk'.'y, 



lunch 



t'^ljo. \t6tia\ • tel^tjan place or time for liiinrli 



lung 



fm. 



M 



mHcerntt inf^y^shok (clay for pottery, pouEiiiiiig ii with a ptElIe: 

ill /Id) 



mad, I am iitld/ktiak — htKiii^keliiii 



maiden ui^wfi/^friW, plur. manicmif^kid 

\mi.}ngdih\ T [iiaWc, 1nii[<L, llmllll^,^ct^lf^:. 
Lomakc 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOMTOC IGQROT 



JSJ 



inolx 



!K>>-iSlb>i^>- [i'lltHchal/] — 'linkiiibak I mi ai V^'rirk, nilkljij^, 

ilriil--iilc — hu-h&bak r iw'ik^ i^t iomeljody, h?, |-. ii^nhiik ami 
ioldfti is tiaii fdifeg: I make a spear for Ihe man [z^i] 

ikii^phi^ T miakc ivnli p lool ; c. ^. itat'i'lio ua\i klpaii h Mtat 

kolitsay I Liiiikc die ^hii:!'f iviiii iht }^iiik [if>^l 
dfoi!^ nan iiiaii^i"'bdi!>m YmaitgnS'iSif'!] i^ iiajf i Jii'fijii.iJ"; 
n? jiiiike ilic li.ii: 111 iIk liuii='' l-i>3l '^^'^'- 'lo, Tc'imitLish. 



mater frui^otrfifr [kii»ui.h''i^i'\; humnkds-h \t /rf'jd^'o a maker of 



male 



^dJ^i; 



msn 



lnl/Ufi; Plural 1 iHlSfitlii; person: tdkM; image oi a tnan, 

^A^^viwjjj'tJt [kfil/'i'i^yc'i]^ man oi lili^li j'^nk. \<iii:gdfu 

(Hoc.) 



manner /iarf [^J^ird, dkod] (I'ul. ft^^ti: r/irOj ""frr /.^'^■J^J^^ crnr 

BiAiiiitr, i-iiMuiTJ, ii-agf, Fi^^liion, law. 






many 



greal many : itnj^^iingj^an; iir: ayitlta tdjJ" how many? 
llJJl£f^[^.4rf||^ta"*^ we art; bdcoiiiriig niaiii-, imjitipij-^ 
ayPka 'ra« iiiJ'rgtek k^n i/ya: many kiiaw him. 



mark maion (^ sign on s tret, bodse, the Toad etc. ; target) 

mEuk» I mGl^mtk—ftinntifnak- — mamaf^nau, 

hkiiyiik^lj'fikd\ak — maltkiiyon — miniti'ay- I iiijkrk by coT- 
IiflK, sctalchiiigj carviug, vvriliog 



3^ 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE: BONTOC IGOROT 



mark, I SynoDyra: baldyak'^bmiidytik^tniti^olifya'i—ma/r^dlay. 

(I mark, decorate, "write") 



Tioi exist!) 

mamtd innn; lli-.^lycn; I nm nfnrrj<:r|, fitmiycnah; iiiarrii?d 

\vjiiia[i; a'd/^wj uy f^ftiyi. iLiini,iri red an.iii ; jcbf^l/h; 
iLJUJtiirjiaJ womao: in'iiKii'j;ki>i (girl nind isliiitilcr). 
bcc ■ husband ; ivife 

marriage- p^l^o; mp/ik''nh \inpihMk]: I perfnmi the mamag« 

ceremony certEiiuiLy, '>\.-<:-. ii-.ildijL^. 

many aic\&-K.'dc!r , Fcrioii : in/isiffirivaaii- — )ii'!aidiVi,}ai!K- I, am 

ttr,fii<ii!fl'^<<ia^- 1 [nil grmi^ tu Lii^ifi'y^ ^linll 'uan marry. 
'oiitifon^ii!: I JLip ii'JJJii; iLi m^iTry, to e&ln!i[i*ili my own 

Imjculiald: Qindmrr: jimAlfl^j^ak f:^}i Tdk/iy, I am 

yi.liig [■> marrv T.ikilj. 

givt III imrriEige, I Tiiaku innrry 
mi^lti^kti — miafi!"gko — nia\d!i-ii^_^mtfngsdioH^: L ]iiJTi-y, 
kabnijudck-; i-^i'i/'/Jpk I marry for the SK&nd, the third 

linic Person : IcunniJ^iiiudiif^ ; k-nfnnbil'i^ak. 

riflflter dpi (Hoc.}; tsidstio; tutitnh ^Sp. mscslro) ; also; Bchool- 

Diaeter^ teaf ber- 



ttat 



kitined; df-oyk; kdmiti (tloc ) 



xnalch 



kiip^h ; ikispdtok 1 IJ^bt .a match (.Sp, fo^foTij) 



matter IfFioin^: ng5g na*i ^mad? H£df Kon litmadT what hap- 

penn, liijJinTied' "ivhat r^ Jhe inaller'" Or' "g5^ >!<i'f 
indiigni!fi nan aif^dnga? vjhat did die child do?' "wl»al is 



T!TC I.ANi^UAGR OF THF. IsOMtoc IGOROT 



3S5 



aiflltcr Llic nirtrter with the ctirkP" ^Siiy^ it does noi mailer! 

litn'crEiiliul ! -S>Tii^[iy:i] ; tdk/^n. 
fi^J^ iian intnad n vH'i mdtamf ivlin: ][a|>|i(?nf:d lo your 



i»e 



mJi/^H [.•.iik/.ir,] ; Djtiwe; kSn iok/in. 



tneagre. lean iz/ifSkcd; fHnu (ean meat, musclt 
rncfll "liJ^i^if/i. See: eat, dinner, limch. 

mcaeurc, 1 t^ipiick. ivkh outstretched atms; 

sintj/pdz one ''(^M" 5-6 feet 

tfongAneh: frihrii i>olTit af lliiiTiih l-^i that of the laiddle- 
fingfr; oiie 4,|jaii. -An ijihiira'i 

l^p'i^eli — Hiip^nikQ — mdi I'eng—rndnpetig: I measure with 
i\. &hi'k, d jilrm^clc. See: [laiiilfLiI 



meat 



/j'/fl {sii]ii] ■ any iin^aL , /^^<ff : oaly porh and beef; 

kiSlnc (Sp. cariicj 

a jiiece, &li^re of meal: : zvdJii'ads 

I jjivi: n slKirc of meal ■ Awadwddko 

,3 j>irre aj nii-'dl I'li L^^ilud nee : bddaix^. Set : food, bicoii, 

li^nn, -fiit, 

ijctiH =y >.U/k\ iajd'y fHing; islj-f ay n^ain; meal of dog; 

pork; beef ti. r:. Buffalo) 



irKdk:iiK 



fj-^h'y [p^kif,- y^^sh cic, J ; if^n.t (Hoc) Sit^; lurc, 



nieec 



ek dpsen ■ I jfo lu incei , a»tdpitiii&k: I come to mmt 
titiidiiak ay umdfed ken. I come to meet. 



mcctine: place in^ipKui CiJiu: pl^cf^ wtitrc Lwcj rivers mctt: fjif/pran jj 



386 



THE LANGtlA-GE OF THE BONTOC HiOROr 



melody ^y^S (J" ^'andard melody, a* Buns' in one town, for a cer- 



nwH 



jial/^numak—^'ipaij-i^iit,m/i^- — mttii^tj^'jtiimun I melt metal, 

''niJik': IjqiiJii." 

mijiJinilfHtlr^fial/iiialfak tneil, becQine liquid. 

an&eit — indn-'it! — maiinu — tnangiiiju.: T disaitve rail, sugar. 



mend 



fagdbifh — tina^Slmk — ifiat^^'ib<tn. I iih'tkJ I'y ^fJiiiljij; a 
piece ujHin a linJe- Set: *ew. 



menairaaticsn idicii Verb: nmmdlaak — iiamdidak 



mcrchaiH mHitg'y. StLe: sell. 

measflge -siMmd. 

mcB&o^er f/fa. 

middle f^'i^a; in il^niirfdlr. r'i t^ngdna; is nan Itoatwifna. 

(l^iigt: Ihc iminl iTi iJLi:-Leai^r, kdfmwa- the jp^ce Ln?i^ieeii- 

the p\scx ;>rounil ilie ccnier), 

ij nafi ^a^'A'iiffnija- h:iiQ Lheir iiii-djiL, in chc niiddlL; ljE ^ 

^Pitjjtjifi;[rjfejt I place inio ilie iiilildle (TranaiL, but pre- 

lii^ i^-) i inka!ta/ftzi'tiab I ani Jii the ji3L<ldJe 

midn^ht tingan si iajt 

milk aitiisko {iijtdshoi sin6so\ 

mm for sng-HTfaDe: faUitis lfjiliy>ish\ ; infatl-^'iiak J i^ork 

the HagBr mill; ixtiaiujik: die Long beaan -of ilie mill 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



A^7 



millet 



filfii^ati (1t]^<J:J I d-Syba-- pfn^d ^wliite) - idfitg. 



mind 



PE/jjjrjq'rtJ, jiim'ifmelf : T ihink. 



mine 



my own: w^i" kSab [IU7 izoj 



minor 



Jrf^a ("fa«;' Hoc.); ^^Immg (line 



mislflken 1 fun llll^(-l|ic^ . f<tkhi fxi kd'^ak; >(iii div iniiCakcn 

/flt/w wjji t^ji/jHi (n^[ Illy, iiQ[ y(5ur ^iiyin^ l3?,il ) ; 
(dh^'c n^'t ki'iii'tfnik . I v\'a^ ]ni*.tat:er. 
fakhL sal )ai:^n ijiiy' tliis is a iiii«iiako 
osif £r\\fty nm\ kaudif\: "your sfiyiiig" doe^ iiol go," 



mb: 






moliir toolh ^uffjuo 



mold 



beaniEg wilh the j^pi 



mole 



sff)mf;- nialeoa the Jikin, like a lentil: f^ti^. 



ui*ia] "yes, in B moment" (as anewer upon an order - 



moi^cy t/^Wit [/'^^'^itl. Loin words; ifpitg: one [;-ejiT-i™^ 

dylht 



ilHBikcy 



kJas [kdnk] 



aas 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



numtti 
moon 



full raoonr fttftt^k^T^t; (See: opfti ihe eye) 

qm mu'^n . ^/iTfiig; iiio/nlma^. djirk, ih* moDit bci^g; not 

kdpiiodna nan f&itn 

ma In I ft! Mil a [iiialoff^fl'ina] 
kisulf if/tf r\a 



T. qnarteri 

2, (Quarters : 

3. qUarWra : 



^, tjuarler^: 

?, i|L]arler*i: 



more 



inirldiH/ik I ^\\t -itiM mace (I n*rd) , Sec: jocrcaflf. 
kiioiv inor£. 



mcuning wfid (d:3yl)r<?ak) ; jibtlrdl: mnTvfid it is gettii^ moTDuig 

ffiJiHflifT (f>' filiii/iSi: [iiii riiyrninL' 

jjiTii.irtij^ si ffbJi'di' lo-iiiorninv ninrninj; 

ntm fih!k4t ay H^Task: ye^icr'liy morning |4i,s| 

tflri/t^ijjr; "alinuC i^ o'clock A. M," 

ptumibijib-HL^umi:: I came early m the morning 

mfJTTDw. lo- orjcifiiiTt [i^Tf'^^ir:; (j-^-ci'i/^'d-N/j,' 'rh-a-'dl-asti J ,■ 

follii"'-lng -Tay;" k g. ht'ljdag mn^w^i-ai ya nmd/i^'i^k^m/ 
'j j/ufl /Ji, , "Llieii It lurji? (.i-T7iurroiv (tlie day tire-alis), 
an-d vve arrive fii die lowii ;" on Lhc hcke (Liy we arriyeJ jii 
th« town. 



morlHr i^jort fW,'iiff£l (for f-oLiiclLnif rict)i long mortar, Lite a 

[rougli : itbkan. 



mofiquitD 



fr^JmwH 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



iSg 



(dkyii (on stones in the river} ; b&g fdhym like mosa, i. 



moal 



'iddd-sa Bit) mi,tti; an^dagsoii MW oiJi/it; more than all 



mother jV?ir. i;r.iiid[ii'>ihi:r. !kid ny fifdyi; mother a.n^ ■:liii'l 

jr'ii/j^u, old tvUiLLiinr infntj- 



molhcr-in-taw kadukdn^Qn ay fafiPfi 



mount 



a hoTBe: inkofdyoak — »ijikaf4ypJtlt 



Toounx&in ff/i^ moimlfliri rang*: knf^li^oH; hti/lif/U^an: 

tt»p), -■iLiHiTiiil of ;i nu-iuntiiiij^ jin'iint;i[ii side dighjaa 



mouse 



£;Vi(;J [£iaJ3ti| 



DHuth 



tS-f'i'h 



move 



ibrtdSt'-t — JfiiSiuitlf —'iinkfzf.-n — "ifi^hvu. I move, toucli, 

atffneh: I remote; Persoiu: itkhi'wiff—tiiikfwiiick: I 

move myself, my Jiand, li^y, ^lo. 

ti'jpp^^^Jai: [ftiinnf^fifjirj I iiinvc fui. of the vrni. make 

room for one (being airaLd of dacig^r) 



ittueh 



jFi^trlrl,' riPigjF[£,!dflr JjiJ/ji7ina 'y i?jj^jifii. too mucfi ; 
ayfihu: verj julilIi; in<t!/a'i' phnty, iiiiichi (iii>L aiir[Jni- 
rively) - tiJrf'_j;jEJi jjio.,, even aa iniicli, jifsi a^ nmcfi as-.- 
fcif^/* liow iiiiiclii' 1 14*^1. adudsiien [adadf^iiian]: y lar^e 
quam-ily; jimtifi. 



mud 



pi'l^k 



390 



TlILi L;^N<;Ur\G£ OF TlH'^ UOM'OC IGUROT 



DTuddy, kifi^ek — Icsn/fr^lc — mak!ir^ — manglfse |T make water 

T malie nLiiddy) 



mumble 



i 'I If ^ k^tjothrk — fwia£^Sijo-tak 



mtirderer 
niusi, 1 



mule, I am 
my 



hil<iido\< ; iixpiid^-uak. t niurdcr 
ffkas Iftkash], Sn\ fruit. 

UotlSsko — ifi/ortdi!i/> fdniibcfiLl , iiiciiiii al^o: I desire vei'v 
mncii|. Or: ipfiitk^ {\\.\^o dfMiblJiil; I]oc;uioj f-il/f^if. 1 
tuuipclj. Use llic l"',isiLvi: rj| iKe AutlioriLalLve Verbal 
Form: maipa-. Ct. [1^7; iHBi 

[iai-]Ci6^ 107-TI1I 



N 



TWE 

nalL 

LUOK 



fdtsal 

if{i>iddko^i'if<ikdtiko — •ma'ifdkad — iimii'^ifdl-ad ^-ogpdtek 
nan fdkai 1 puU <hn nA\i uuE) 

kff^ (on haod or fool) ; kokda!/: I scratch with oiy nails- 

iiiii^fiad: having iiiidres&ed, fniin inlHttdak 



THE lANGUAGE OF THS BONTOC IGOROT 

jiiik'n'^m: calleJ, named. Sec say, kiiii-iik. 



35' 



nBiTflHon 



oMi^kf^d {ojf^i^hi^d] 






lOMgOg^kVtd. 



nsrnjw 



(n'tf/n'ig (very '^mall) 



nation ifitil'itfr [ipiH^i}/^' -ifirk/iol. folk; .V7trl^ilr\^i!i: l[n? inliabi- 

tsati oi one eolvu, dkstricL 



nayd 



b^sig [p^sig] (alfio the pralrirding corner of anything; 



near 



is near ; Pf^^frn/u^.i'ci ntl PAiil/i)/ clear Rirtntuc, afjiiirt^l in 
Ronlnc. [5rK)| 

kfkk&bi^dnv (Jie place near l>y; a little distance off. 
S«: approacli;comeT ;iliLHJ5i. 



neck fdkm^; l>ackoi the nockj (^/>i^'cd 

iieclda<:c af^ihgo (-if b*;nJ-); /ji^jlj'^a fly saSng si f4fug: necklfltt 

lEi.iflc of Ijir^^e [11^ irrHli , [■tfij;i:!/y: oi TurLil, 

>iafQ}tgl'ilii>\. |)r^kviili:d with a neckUice. 



need, 1 l^ijek (like) ; ^ce. ?cekr an-ff'rk. 

□ccdlc tfakd-j^m [ko'-tii-ysct^i] (Hoc?) 

neglect tfJi^i^ngantuk — tf^im^^asaJi. Ci. forget; rotten. 



39' i!IE LANGUAGL 01 T1H> 30MTOC JGOKO T 

Negrito kSlad ^iiai^ffhiii] (l c. air!y-li,iir<'f1) 

neighbor sohSu; hasahSnah T ?in z\ neiglilior ; nan sakSn^hif luj 

rwilher — nor a^f — poyntS 



nrtt 
net 



sitjug; I c;iicli lisli . !,itjf7kek: k^vr't^ fi'ifi-^iiskcc, lI':';-!! 



never 



(frf [321] ; (i^rf' .1EI etiipliat-ic Tiegiit['.'L' corrtisr^ynd^ oftiin 
to "never," "never bciocc," '"not yci.") 



nevermind! lildiT [diity] 



new 



born. kitlkaliikit a n<^w, rcTiilfy ni.nJ* ol>r<:'-"[ (lloi^.: jfrAvt, 
tjr logek: I cii^^kc) ; tifi^^JJa iici^ly obtaiiienJ. CT. [j-g/l 



newspaper MyiHi^o (loamvoird] ; 1,'^^ar/ fany written or prinlcri p.iper, 
lelCer, dncLiiiictil ccc,) 



next 



mfiL^rts^"'"-" "iUtfn'<ktibilr I am rJie next; 

Ji^mdiis^tfvbiik I aiif e"iiin^ Lo ^K [h'? next 

^rt(j jzrj-^ ivm^figkvb: .^^u Jirc ilir ntxl. 

nil ilie newt day: IJ kAsfn dkju; is ,'fl»f nafPizvakiisQna. 



night 



maHjliii: late cvcnins;; ^t/^: alioiiE mklnli^lH; taldno. 
jbout 2-'4 o'cloi.k i\. M. 

last ii[glitL itfkllfab, IO'nig"hlL ma^tjlvL !,i ^^nin- 
iiniaffan. [inr night, (Jic other nigJit, 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOS^TFQC EGOROl" 



353 



night 



(■i-niorrow iiiglfcii aizfifiraj si ntasijlm; 

iimlafl- it Ls gelling niidiiiglil 

nto.^tpmasl^hnak; mniaiHnl'hk: 1 come late in iL^ht. 



nigtilDLare 



I [Till 



THne 



slapi; \hc ninTH; omngasf't'n, or . nuiy_<!;a'ita'n ii^' sin 
pd'j) ya ff/ifit', lilt T/llli , t9iaii^/ipii^o ya sfain. Iof>7| 



nuwLy 



c-hmay p^c; l^e 90th: •mo'i^aiCam uv p^o 



nipple 



siii'j 



DO 



tid^;igd-,m&/l'i! {>\dii\, {iilr.'i [i'^-i^^] 



no, not any (3^3: ^z^\ 

nobody ma/ld Ulk^t |i,1il, ma/ld ^iisy ^iirit: flobodj wliu&u- 

ever; none at aU. 



nod, I 



ii[y(l'[^-t'dafi—niayiSnj^i\iak. (I a^d topent) 



noise 



d^->ndnfsg f^i*Jii(f'££^t|; it makes dois*. I nr^V'- ^1 ^rcjC 
□cnse; dongH-ck- -i^iii-c'ig^!cko [iHaony^.'f^ko]- 

nctrsc. I 111-ikc n sliglil ii.-^ise: trii^^l,-iiltildl.-Jitia>i — 
nhagkalo^-Sdi.ikiJk. l,-iilfho'i_i^' a ni>i.'ie- <'ri_i;i[ti]/.ii?jj^ it 
makcA soincnoBse. 



noon 



m'i-ii^f;tl »ii>i ttkyri: il i? noon. 



nor 



pavmd (^ ur) 



394 



THK f.ANGUAGP OF THIl BONTOC IGOROT 



notHi 



lit^'?<i; iif-/4 ^i/i'ptf, iwi ii-4g^: the pwpJc living noith 
oi DoDtuc 



ndae 



ti^g; I blow lu^' nu5t: insSngBiak- 



nostril 



ftandiigetdit 



DOt 



jjf; igjt; >Jira/frf; lnl^M; i-ijia'i; [^igs^?] 



no more 



jr^/ jtfjj/fl, DfrE any lAoger 



not yet 



"lifl/jy [322] 



ts^ffa pn-y [ij^inn p^y] -" 'g'^iig<^yi sutl ]>;irlic. pii-ssive with 

pfefixfto- LTiHii^iirl fi^Ke pr<;fix ma: i^if kaMi'bi wot yet 
made. 



now 



adwodniiidwdm; jusl now: sdna \^\^ 



mo-ipof! dsj — maiigipt!<:Jso 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



395 



obCT, 1 peci^iraitic; (Sn^nck aailn nan kd'uxn. nan dpok- 1 do afl 

tbat my ni4&ttJ' aa-ySr orders; or] ablviJitekj I bdieve^ f 
lieed (an tprdtr]. 



observe 
closely 



iiktrk — inaflak — maifla — manp/^a 



obtain 



alJek (lake): padi^nelc (receive)- huf^'-i'ddek 
See: gel, receive. 



offer 
<dl 



itsaoi^doko (give) 



[290 IT. ; 3ri>] j?ij^jir>t (jj Jityii (— iciany diiy,) 



f^u: {^ of cocoaniit (Itoc) 



idd. 



s»"''f^frii; er'^"'i, adult; 

nmtn^^^igan "rfl„,; Jieirjfflt^p^jfajj ucii.. ■ older llian .. 
awi^ndff, old man- ?fr/»jij, old ^vom^in ; Pliical ■ aiii/d)iAi'\a; 

indtina. imimma'y aiiit^itia- vei'r old, lou old. 
aaidmaak 1 .iin old; itmimidm&tik ! am growing nld; 
na^Akafak, I am very olil (Ilo':. ?) 

i^'ff /i^'u rrajj iaiiiitr/nko I ani Icii yi'iSrs old (kii pre my 
vears). toif iiifrr taa-^fna^ tiOiv old j^ he. hln: ? (Tlie 

Igrjrul do huwcTi.T no( cart lo count ll^r age b>' yeari) 
yiht/a: the oUkr trOlhrr -li- ■.Ulfr 

'rafj^*«(ir.- worn uiil, old , ^ald of things: old liial, coat 
Pli;.; Mofs/fnoJ [notjf^-nod}: nld, (rotCeji) 



39fJ 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC TGOKOT 



omen 



fijii. omcD-bLrd ("all red; black imder Ihe neck") 

wf PM^i^jrfldt — •na'tg4yJ«(i>r; 1 go lo llie ivoodi [t-^i-iSa^] 

t&conMiJl llu' uiiii.'i]-[jiril. 

tljuKialr—itlffin^iili i Bucceeil liiiin.iii£(carchini:) inaccotd- 

W^J" wncji; Hini^fiiyflfi 1 cona-uJt, try Co ijblaJa an 
omen ep the forestj at & /"ifcji*; T CX^VIL 



Oi 



«,J^ toff.l 



Mice 



mtimlngiat 



one 



/:-i: onc-v^ii^r: Atruj [^-^""^l," f-sdi^ak? T flm al'>nt; 

sm/saJsan^ One bv <'iii', s.^/sfTT,!,'" r "nly 'nii;, binfjlt 

i&i. one, \mli nn.'jL'iUri-^: .^m l}ipjf: (j-HL tjipii; '■^'i'. nn;;i ■■- 

urti mfingi: one hjjadful (of Hoe); m ^JOfic one 



omon 



f&ys.'ik (Il^cj-T tj^T&dFrf ■ g^irlic. 



only 



digh^y, y/fi i^kay, cipid yifanl-ay. Po^L[ios.j(i"ve, e, g. 

snk/M ydnakiiy^ imly I- /iir j'^pfj^^jji' iMiJy ooe. 

I do aliLtiine bul ,. or: T only. : phkuk—piidtkak ay ..,, or: 

dbidatl S« [316], 

.^ttjjjyi?iiA ydngkay — fJMtiflij'rfa* 3'i?jJ5"i'iJ>'; I do only.... 



open, I CL^fruci/fffr (ffi£?.d;ir<r| — linegkiidft^^matBgkMdfan^^ 

Ukviifeif — inich-a-'dbko — moldkurab — miHUk'nrab L open, 

hdiak' Aliib dialed. 

fitfliek — fiiiilj/tko^niofrtfil — iKamtfjir . I ofeii, unfold 

aiiylhiiig rolk'rl up. 

t.iiiidek—t-Fm^':i/^':?—H'Piihi^ {nan mtitok): I •}\j':n my eve 

fititiiek — fmifd^hu — it-mfltn^ ijiitn mdfaky: 1 0(>cii my eye 

wide, I ^stari;. 

takdngck — -Unakdji^ko — tnvidkan^ {i>-a<t top^kl/o): T open 

rtij' mourh 



TJIE LAKCUACE OF THE EONTOC IGOkOT 397 

ojWTiiort nfmmm; atmnlmko tuy oi>Iiuliii- 'tati utrtnfmko "iii lo- 

Illy i^plllioi'." 



OppO£l[« 



jj Ktiii ijini^iig; 1 am opp^aite: tm-f.^/inaak; ^ce ■ ^lido 



CT 



paymd 



ordeal 



l^bfan [I^fait; l/fbais\; sal'^i^aa ii Irinfl f>f gmpef rait 



!jitdv!^g 



cjrddr, I hSnak f say) ; oljSkek — irtoijS_gka — ma/St jok. I bring an 

iirder, r idL 

TuanfL ftifnck: 1 comnincid (lloe,) 



otphsi 
other 



tiatigS 



so 



iik/kcn (diFTrTcni), it^k/kt-n ay ittltA sii alhtr rnJlli 
Itrljrk/'ink ffv f^kit: I ELiii aiiDlliLT pi:r&i>ii. iMttrJ^e'i- dUeredj 
chdi]|;i''I (lO Jiii'^llier) 

fb/a: .in 'Ahev (nf ifii? saim? kjmJ), n iroinpaiiiuii; tjun 
ib/dntt uy kaltf.^uyj ihc otiicr shicM (of llic ^snmc fciiid). 
jn ■ttEicr, one more: ^is- nan tapTn-. the other gioiip 
iii... (ill ^lp[l'J!^i^[on lo 3 group incn'iocj-eil; or ;i^. E'V, "nous 
HI] I res Pa rd lie 115") 



Out 



ku'mtanak I go oift, eway; [37^1 

fuTKiZlaak r come oul : i^tdliiak I am OuC^idi; 

paUadiifk I drivf onl (rxijcl) 

ogpiiii^k I pull j'ul 

it^jAshek I tcdr Uul. 

/:f fli/tSfttf 1 pwur, tlirow <mX 

fadleb I send our (a sae^^engec) 



s^^ 



THE LANGUAGL: of Tllii LtOKTOC [GOROT 



CMt 



kadiifii I liikcuiil 

fliii}m ' louk <iw\ \ 

m/itfiJak t c'tnii.' I'lit of. [ram [5^] 



DutragC) CTJmc kakaS.^\i; kakifsif n^w4y^ this i? OLitr^h'-:i^iiT, '.rinLinaJ* 
winrkrd. oiiUhy: very bid. 

outside ij, tjtla fnot in Ihe house^ "ia the yard"): is flid crnl of 

town. 

iitidl-aak 1 ain oul^jiln?, iuiiidiaak I g"o, come cinlside; 
faldck 1 tjikc oul'oide. 



outsLdc, the iiii^aa/i (as *ggslicll, vvrap, 0Lii:;iile uf Ji Imd'^. pot etc.) its 
oucside; is dngtiua: on tlie, to tlie otliu' side 



CWffT 



?.rfiTK^I/4/ I4.07] 



overthrow ifakdii^k-o — im(i\kdii^bo — ma\i6fe<ft_^ — mdn^ti^kii'ig. 

o\K, I 'iVi^iiciy pJdn^kc: you owe: nwo^^ (►ffftfp*»o; mdif^ xan 

^Uhij.'jsii nv /wrrif ^v ph'f/sk kcvt sah/M lie awes me sih 
piiiUS, tJlan^: dcfic. (Hoc.?) 



owl 



t'Tii/i ; fra.i^iirri 



own I 



inkdaif — jjJiEjtJiiij. [G3] 



CtWUBT 



j]]jjJti^fl; triFrfr^iT 



TITE LAWGJA-Gi: OF THE HlilN'TOC KiOKOT 399 



pack fngshi^n^ck — f!i!u^\J\S't^ko — mafi1gshDng — mamS^iinjig 

I pack ill a biiiidlo. ^cc ■ wrrp, lie 

pad t^fft (a fiiig flf graw pl^wd flu the Iwfld when i;ari7ii^ a 

'bUT<.]\:it) 

poll ^if/friii'i 

pain b^ii^^ If^fi^g]; in-f^dsg [vipo/3gl il causes paiDj it hurts. 

pair simstd^ 

palm of hand Isihid (jtrifliculafly fl line in the palm; s«: hand); ^pa. 

pant, I ^F^j^f^frii^ [^Ffj/i'E(A'ot] — tiiiiiJiik-ak, i'iis^yxiiytil<:- 

pspa i^itiii (kixec); pafieS (Sp.) 

pflrdflfl /ij*ff»;ciiip*. 

psrenta pan^Afpng; tja tna k^n jln\a [39] \ ii ina ya si dma 

part dmas; p^rt, ^liare dn work {alloliiicnl) ; l^'i^'f. 

portionj tfkiiu; nan tapln. i pjrl, somr, si^iTr^l. 

part, we See ; leave 



4ao THE I_AMCUaCE OF THE BQNTOC iGOROT 

iitt^J/^iik ail" fill 'y dkyii lid hiat/Ia: I pn^s a day at M. 
paat Itdhih I'ltfko-ili] ; m'f'ia-^Ji. past- ywrg: r,Urfi laf^-^ifn ay 

paste ipakpa^ tii —i'tfakp^gKo — mai^iSk^ii^—mtiK^tf'dkf'/i£ . 

peaturt tiftWfl£ [^-*p^?/ji' ] (graji'^lanrl, unciiltivjiEed grtmrnJ) 

path djd'att. Scci ilr<.'ct. 

pay, I fityJlfak [bay^ak\ — -finO^dijOk — Hv^ayitlja'i — fl^iii>i.ij'crc^ 

Cnii?Ei- favtlrjat nan laldldk-i a nan bUik' I pay iiioncy 
to llie men 

iagf6tik—hii!\gi^>!k—}^id<t^t6ii"—>ninldgfi} I pay ivsgea; 
f\T5oi]. : i'!h;;fi}u^^'r-i'!liif;fifak: isildAak- I pay niany 
workmciii Ilix.) See: reward, 

peace pitj^n [petj^n'] : ivpitjhk^ni wc ba^t' pfiinr, live in ps^ace 

{lloc.J')- kafit'nlitffo 'lan pt^t/^n v-r nr^- ninklnj; |jeace- 
tnnkihfayi^&iak T makf pCiLce with- Per^im.: SniayascaM- 
roi'5e5&.; /ffyiiJf4'*"-fmi>rfOti? — HHj^rfyftBt— i^uwirtyjsj I 
appease, rccoinrik- 

pecl ?f^ (peel ol -DrangeB, bananas, comkask etc) 

pecln I kil<l\'ixk—if!'iifiay<!k-—-niakildyiin — mangUa^ (peel camoic 

nt.) PcTfion. : i'clf/layak — irinkfiiiviil!- ogisak I pc-:l 
die ^Ld o£ Eruil (oranges £tc-) 

p«p tlirough i^(jtiit/«gfiP*flit — mulnkhgantak 



THE LAMGLfAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROr 



4" 



people ip^kafi \ipiil:di9, i/n^tir«.' ifsk^!l•^; (ns jnii.>n, inl.c) 

pcrfbrele /u slii--ia-j'ei} — lisiushk4Jtko—»\iit''?'lihai^ — mi'\hUh!^ir¥ 

(p['.TCi'f; tckdfio^-: I iiulc fiolc5- n-i!c f-a!c fiiTfit an . willi 

ieikek: I piace the earlol^e (with the "lilgk," awL)(boreJ 



perhapa 

permit 
person 



fc^'i^f.' ii^ni till 'HiL^tii'ii-r only) [.■?o''l. Willi Fului"!? Pre- 
fix: ddngct: tUhi^ni On riucsiLOiiiniih); [Alab: wdiang] 



mafsfukak — aaS^fnkaJi. het: rieslroy. 



'y 



syait [jriyfltl (jel) 



idr^^ [hfhi]: "liOH k&-iSk^n tdshd: the pcrsonaJUy of 



perspire maifttgeta^ — HoUngettik; pcr*piraiicm ; Unget. 

p^t!e ''V''' M^'/'^l; ^'■i>i-iillpesllc,nccin:i'^her; f^-^k^ng \!^^'^"S\ 

ptiolc^raph iiliildfo (Sp, retrato) 

physJdan niedsfso (Sp.J; coiijuroi' iif .-[dm£S5^ i\\s£bGit; ^ei^: Mi^v 

pickup piij/d^h — l"'nilifdJ:i? — nutpttjid — maW^/id (pick up an object 

Irojii lIic grciinJ) 

gather fniit 

piclure liiQldm [t.alato\ C^p. rcrrato). Sff image: 

piece dinns (|iart); bhf^J: a. piece broioeii off; a^t ay . (a 

liiik) i ™Jc/bwJ: a |>iecE, share of meat 



402 THE LANGUAHI^ OF THE BONTGC TGOTIOT 

pfec« potlJ>>i^na: a piece cut or broken ofF ("from it^J; 
toipSha^ i breakoffa piec4^. S^-';; bruk 

picrra ^^^i/rti/*si.Tfe (perforate); pierce lliecarlobe: iiiktti (bore) 

p4g fliius: dmiftg: young pig". Sec: hog, cetemoniflfl. 

pigeon Mufdti; prtidka Qt^aviorAi) 

pOk/w ol^an {hba-drest}; f^ngajf. (Ilo':.) 

pin badjdyum [badjfiyitm; kadsaytmi tsokdymw^ (IlotJ 

pfndl iirif7fgrf;!—Sjt'ii!fiigl;!0—uiii!^fling — ia/ingfli't^. 



line f^/fyl^ |fr/''i*|; fdling. piiiulrec, idcn^^^ pitdi jiinc, 

ff*!tfng pine L'flijc:. 



pipe (I'hihtgii. oFclay: fabdnga tty hida lay pf/ek) 

M. Sch. jj iaiiiiil ^^1). XVIIT. J. i."\ CX 
li'iu/clii^Fic ay fol'iftf^a: bnss |npc w[Lfi llie infagc of ;■ ;,ll- 

liiiy inan on t!iu fjoivl 
likcjjjidZi/j^p^g, or: fiinofifji/n'.g, ar: piw^ii^'/g: br-i^sjcipc^ 

with smooth bdwl 
ionsy/^ps": pi[K'sirni; -v.^t^fV fi fi'b/Sn^t:!: pipe cleuier 
if^diiay. i-hjin m" cIk' |iL]tc tlurcr. 
-f^dJuk: I (ilia pipe; iddnjc^ttU- J hfihi a pipe 



pitcher See: jar; pot. 



THE LAMCUACE OF TIJI% UONTOC ICOROT 4^3 

pllfall Site wild bergs ; f!tu {"very ]a.rge"J; Utib. 

p[lted face {from smallpox) kaidJia 

pity, I .vi^dfijiifl! [i^iHfi^nir. ioj;!hf^iiti\—smsA^sak — 

nunHed'y^iiv — ioant^ang. Pefsoii i in!,isi\^ii\i^ak — 

ftni;r^^^4'''''i.' fiaiiiigdngfia.t you poor, piiiable maul 

place ketitrvad,' Plati: Is cxpicoicil rc;:n[irlv by iuflix -an: 

takldk/tan: jilacc u !iere people lii-:; vialp»an: pl^ce 
f rem which one comes etc ; kaiuUpan: place for making 
soiuefhiT^; mted^ian: place uhrri; :Ln u^jjetl (■^ l:<?pC- 
T placr: see: put. 

piain, icvcl ijMd 

ktntsuii tin3kt\o; iiiiof/liilo. 

pj^ne i. e. T uuiJii.' -nn^i'lli a linariT iviCli ^ii adze: shSfddab 

[ m I'/f-fti'i ] — ^^^"Fin fti-lAi t — I wa.lial li don — m and fad. 
^^^luiinmluffo'l: "^^ffj^E^rer-'' tsttshts^hsir 1 nifllc: i^niwfh, 
["iili sciio'^iili, ( ^iiiLinriiliS- 



plank l^kafi [It^shoh] 

plant /Vi'rL't [A^^f'] = ■j^edi n^g ay ftk^ff ffoitiidy.' U'lia! tnid 

Ljf D ptilirl 15 iLlIb? 

plain, I iion/il}o — inl,i>iflf:o^i\i"ii--y^id—"iiin^irdiiid (rice, paiji^g'). 

fer^ioii.; iJif^rrfi/ffj;-. ^'j^TiJ^moi',': I lraii--|fljnl, 
\lanfn\ko — J}tfanh\\kii — I'laltH'iuii — .nmigifdnim (1 plant 
fii^tcc pultHiJC!!, cjtniolc: (i^ti, mi' E.cciliiiii;i'f ciiiioli^: t^ii'C') 

Person, i inde^hs^. 



404 THE LANCiUACi: OF TEIL BONTOC IGOROT 

rteCc ib/o£ [*/fl£;fti^flft, iim.lc of braided hamboo; see: disb. 

jUay intfj'^y>tfi . inldki'lJuk. Ste gnme'; and ['Jij]! 

ittizdldtkih'if: W^ pJ^y ^vIlIi a luy pig (of cl:iy) 
ins^koiok: IpUijcaids; uiabahfiin^nff: 1 make fun, play. 

pJesBC f'.-.lcydl j^k ("I cnii'^c; io Kk^""), jf^^w^tej ir>- pixkytfj^n 

lyaiifj'/^. I In lu i-]p:i':i' you; /^VM -^if: ^ ^iJc'^ ''hi*'; iSii^ 
^Ira'^i-^ nil' {l<!ingiidj,i3'! He lydHiii PEfrw af'dy: pli;a=i?, tiring- 
the Liri^ Oc: i^nml^ihi^k'!^ plej^cE See. piiy.) 

pleniy apj^i/ji,^™^j , n\dl/^n [415!; iinii/nn nan ijtiijofi: llie 

lucListh :Jrt picniy, cii|i[Oii%. (_iii/il//in ustrf preiUcaEl'ely 

o.ihU. 
[dude tsudts^ak 1 pluck fc3lh«r^, Ti i^ir, 

pluck H>ff aH''i?£, I reap rice (harvest); kafiftek I pluck, tear out root 

and all (weed). 

poctot, l>flg Ij&kiigi \isAgac\; fP^slm [f^iia} (Sp. bolsa) pocket in. 
IroiLsera, parse. 

poij sitil^ {-iini^-i-:!}: cfii: pod; tfflS'y l^: three pods. 

pcrint Mso: iioin[''d rni] of any iirjpltmeiii, knife, as, <;|ie3r dc 

OT of ;i irccj py[^, ■i1[ok. Sliarp palnL ai an aabb-T^ also; 

point, 1 tdjuk \tdsi\}{\ fihcvvj; tdjam nan- angSn^^t puinl al tht 

child I 

pulBOD kiwdUtv \kyf(wdlay. kiwd{iay\ pi>i50!i J5 drug or of veii- 

iJTiiQii'i ?nakes 

pdsAn, T hiijAluyisk [kyimdf^eyak] — kinm^layak — inak^v-jjardyan — 



THE LAi^GUAGi: OF TU\i 1^(AT0C JbOtLOT 



4oS 



pole 
l»llEh 



faJjtswii (for carTying). See: post. 



/■rj !,-t>lvi/v fti^i ^j^'ii — ill j'^i/mi/ vari}, d& kit — mspttio! 

li i- iHill'.lieil, li sliinc-:. r'i!;:olyiiriyun. 

paiii/i^t — ij]/fiis^,'r'£ [p\\\a^-i(ii:.']—iii.ni/-\ts{ii I make light 

r&fl«l: from ^ putisted surface, ax, mirror etc. 



pond 



tifbhk 



poor 



prhi: \p7Ls^]; p£siah: I am poor; 
[iixir , papw!fk: I make poor. 



lak: T become 



pork 
peat 



ifljd ay fHfu^; tl^^,. '^•:<: ■ lirjg, pig, meat, bacon, fat. 



b^ihaj pQ:[ ■^viLll j [nad carved oi irooJ, L:ri:ci<:il m iJie 
'*4io."aa "anito-iBst/'altahi-clllhehaskel"sffl*rf;OHi^'with 

a liu.iil [■aiiied in ri fmid Iti ^UAfienrlcri during i coi'f?riioi:ii. 
/^■yir^'i (vol Licil) ; foUi'iy^Ui^ {h-rii^-iwA) ; idl^lo.l (niclincil) 
posts of a bmiM. Seei beam, pole. 



pot 



fiV'ip^J. 'naii\Angauk I ^'^ I'l ^I'l Jii'!^ Sue: j^ir. 
j^^f/^.jjr larfi: diiy pnL ["'ir ^.ilcr- 'imiin'iff/iaF.- I -c^i-ry 

aSfljt^j^H; ''I ^rei iv^tUT." 
h^yub Ipi^yol-] vcL-> Inr^^' |iot or kettle, for boiling rice. 
f^j"ir^;TiJi.' a |i[iclieT ivilli .^ ri.mdle, 
^i^fl?r ;l !:iiL!in clny |ns[ (.ikniL bur iiidie" [iiij;Ti) 
•^a^J'I'trii: llic rim; 'Iwt'l-- llif "kfly," l,:ihi"gaii: ike 

bottom; ^on^ii'viflaii: the handle. 



polslciea jiaiAius (Sy.) 



potter fiarVif4lt£1t: k^anakJ^ {kutoakdib] si fdnga (maker of pots) 



pound S/hla(Sp. libra); ontpound: sin l/bh 



4dG 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGDROT 



pound, I favfifl'. — liiitiyui: — luu/iJyn — hn/miivu. I j>oii[IlI ri'ce, pdkityr 

i^> iiiiifi'ii^, ili:ciiK.'j[l rprsoLi : iiifnyiiuk^-rvajdyuak. 

ittjptf^fiaj^irk- I |i'i[|[id i n't Jt n ccieiiiniiy, al a vreddiTig. 
tolSch I finiind l^rirk nf LiH^'es lo g.iiii liber. 
wiayi^h^'-Q': i^ prir^f !'/c/i3: £ potuid tii? cla^ to prepare it far 
tiijIl[li^^ |n'iii;rv\ 1, I.XXXTX, a. 

!>i"<:; hc'ti. ■-Ink'', li.ininiry. 



pour 



ati^iid: (rciiinvc) : I pnur from one pel into anolher, 
fn^'js/iiko [■'ii'uiasfdf.'ol F pour away (ihrow away), aa Use- 
leas. i3i:<: : |»IIL 



Lmn^vrin: T ]'r.,\ Lu J.ijjin'vifi, 
nton^tJ/'uJcilu-— }iai\j;apcifalt T pray, aaj prayera. 
Or: inkapi^—ninkapuiak. 



prwyer 



kHpiit 



prclcr 



Ic-jWytjek (like bctlcr) -. teytiyfjek nitnndy mo ntmtj^y: 1 
prefer ihis to that Ur. l^'xt^d^- tsatidm% lumady mo 
Ttantj^y. 



pregnant 



ui 



al/drm 



prepare (kutiiiir 1 cjirc; 5cc ■ care. 

maiigim'iiiqmaii'^ I pi'cpni'i? a ^.icril'icc 

isQsakdiiah — Fjj .^a.-i j liiiiiak — m aim r\Q k<in a — rini'\i i.-nsa/: liif ii 

Ipreparc, gri itidy 

preaent.l fun i.'adftik; wddiiyab- [-^6?] 



pf^iieni, gih j/^iwg,' isigdngio: I pre&cnt somebody with.,. (I grant, 
1 1 'lease, I oblige; I pity) (probably Tlocan a). See; pity. 



THE LANGUACK OF 1TiF EONTOC IGOROT 



407 



president "xiiAyoc," headman in a town : plesid^Hle; fiddJBU; 

I lualii; |iru%liJi:iiij /i-d'^sal: !i {itfiljfir!. u^td Id Plural 
only: f.iilii-ai\<i\i^iunilO':ii>i»:i — iiiui'fodOiiii} 
(IlocaiiD?) fiddjsfl: from Sp. gobErnadiir. [gef^nadj^l] 



[jjj,i',','f;,':'j'J I inc^!] :li [lie i-l-j^c^l li.knd 

•^<-wii, Stuff; sidsitjfb — iinidsflho — m^fd^i — mttnfdsit: 
I iiack together, pres« togelhcr, press inlo 9 masSr 



ptev«ii fpae/wmk (forbid) 

pc i cg ^'^^'* (Ivuin tin? piirrfin-^pr'n vic^v), fdicU {\<\-'-\\-'.- eiukE': liv 

tin? sulki). kad nan idgCim^ ^\lijt i^ Ht itl'.uj' haw 
much does ir cmtP win idgon nan pr^tatjim^ the price of 

Jl.c Jr.in. 



priest pimopdl/tay. (Sp. padre = /Tifcj*^). 

priawier naf/ilr^if (from: fal^fjek. 1 bind, iettcr, take prisoner)- 

privy AfliflitfjrJbM; hii/!',i(ia>\. 

probably a>ii^fd {4^0] , rrH^?y [.Ji^-j ; nf^dy jiyrfp/irin. probably 

your brolheri ngel; w^m." [306; 343ll ttidlmg (Alab 

dialeei etc.) 

prohibit Ipitai^'ok (forbid) 1 ntf^Vt I deny; moJifciiKit I am pro- 

hibited, prevented, kept away. 



pruouac 
properly 



k^ix [in? I 



40& 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



pTfeiituw pSta {ll«0. (rnlTodueed by th* Spamsh salditrj J 

prolecl ^■'tod, care^ fkadab ken sfya, I protect (care for) him^ 



provide 



flmdal}; i}o\\^nSii^'-lj (tare' 



pull 



kuydifc^ '^ f:in-:iyiiiko —"ink^^ — tHQig&y-nd. T draw 
(lbin"^i:s- a 'V:ij^-iin) , 

jiuiifuldfk- J criiL^e ii> go out, 1 puU frtil (one from a house) 
o^pmek^iaogpdtko — madgpad — mfmg&spod- I PnH oI^p 
out- 

Q>^Uktf—ifu>k'')li—ma<fkiii — man^j^kli}. ! puJi otT. 
knjdteh — k-iKiifolii'y — imxhiff'-id 1 |ili1I iiifl liJiii' (bt;jiril) 
See: pluck. 



poke tflJfA^iwff? »^jrt aP'^rf,' th^ vein (hfobs, 

piiniah fuy^kek [faytktk] (whip) 

pupil (-eyej kaJifmiifnf,-u [ kaHninm f//i-ii] 

piiichaae, 1 Sagffak {bixy); llic purcbaje: lagldgo 

pursue Qpoyiietck fn/iaii^^fVXLi'^l — inapaydska—maapAyosi — 

iWi'K^apdyiifi (["aflij^yj 

i'dik'^cli—i'itidik^^-^maa^ko {i}ia/idigko\. I purlin; ilic 

eiiemy. Sec; drive; loflow- 



ijSn&trt 



pdA 



fttfiadieu — r p^ lolddbo — tn ais •Unit — "i itn^itdlrtd 

iio s'iiJ^k'^ — iniDpt^^ko—tnoiti'f^iiog I push agarnst^ cause 

Eo liuiiiji ^i^'jiiji'-i: 
iiuut^^if—inUiUigkQ — maitdiag i pu&h inly Ihe inud 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC IGOKOT 



4oy 



put 



ipu^io — inpntko—Hiafpni — mn 'ij; Ipfi 

tiOfidkii I jn]E<l(niii([jy)L a!ii>:ek: I pii t cLsi^ivlierc f ri>[nOvc) 

iskttgiliko: I |nil on (iiiln) Jin:; Udiioh: J piil [ucl IcUo fwc; 
sinStek^^"ii'iStl:o — mtatiwd: I ]*ur iiiiidc (a boj;, -a V(]-&sel 
etc,); por^iidjidjfi'k I put behbid; ekingek I puE apart, 
separalpc: t''iyck, Ipuy'lc — tiindyu}' — pmpityat: (tr use 
f^rinSCf l/'I'/W.). I I'.ul, |i-^dr fiilij. 

put on; s«: dress, coai, ha.r|[prd!c, ^li^ef, bE^uLkti: i^viko. 
Or frimi irTrlis , i I niiiiie oi garciiijEil -! pa-^'iC'^'i. cndiDgs 



qumrrcl, I mti "':■■/ fa\l/ii! — iii-ia^Lis/jd'iak (irum sibf^tck, ;lll^^^^T; "Co 

aiii'voi' iinicli (i> one .''iirilliiT") 

iculd. cmui'.' Iroubft 
h/ifiwfrgtrk — nin^n&ngak: 1 cauiP (roublq by qiiarrcling 

quickly [29ft, ^02; 7,n\ ^^'^]-. »\'ji'7ff<\,^i^\wi\<}Ji^ I <lo qukkly, 

lnL*,ily, ^[idnJeiil'" [L. 4[>f 



quiet 



tijfi'i' H^ffi:^ 1 ,■ !u- '<<ii.it Sue ga!f — i!i<t"\ikS"e^ji>f. I kcip 
<liiicL, /'ifr.'7^^,\^'i?j^" I nirike h|hiuI, I 'krdiT |0 ki'"|i h|Iiii:I 

about; "icli vcrichiv^ig-:/' 

'I silence! kecii inucll 



quLver 



^tigkH/tjcnak — af^Skiifljaiak I lliiich, ihrob; "iuc:kiji" 



4TO 



THE LAXGUAGL OF THE EOXTOC ICOftOT 



R 



min 



&l}jn \Sija'\ . i^\.iait\ . cli': rjin i^ uvtr: fii\x/lk-'\e wan utf\.\n 



rflina, it ui^fian \iti4tja»\ — nin^SJan; adindij-ai'. it i\ilL rjiin; 

(alao; 3ra infffrjotTi Preter. yamn^r/^ii) "^l;'^; stop. 
^■■rrf^j^^Afj-' it riins very hardi U rains in Jucr<;iiir£. 



rainbow [n/'igJktm; (AUb: bidt^dkast). 



rainhat ninn'E : Ji/j/i- See Tjumigyay vvith his rafuhat ; J. LXXX. 



rainprolcclor 'vnman's; tJgiiy [id^] 



Tfliny season iiaiTp [(.'riff] 



rase 



esv^iftleh (lift)^ tahfygeh; raise, lift a li^htrai'i f^igfSek. 
p'tSougjiAehr I nis-c liigli np. 



rflp 



knock upan. 



rat 



•J!^i: (but: fl^l; LrcaLmg wind) 



Sp bejjco) 



THE LAiNGGAH^li OF THE BON'TOC nr;<JKOT 



411 



lAttk 



nbitkltia!gak—ninkUkftlit£iifi 



raw 



rjiv iiKiil: igd, koSto: "nol cookedf Udan naifttt: "not 
>ti i:ooktd" 



reach 



Jtncli (!'■■ slrcLchiiig) 

iayff^^'i^L- — iiiiuy'/fi/io — mal^yais. J ri^zntli a jilai-c bj' [im- 

ning. Peraoii.; luiwi^yaiia^ — UnmdyaSiak: I flecj run 

away. See: artivc 

litifek — limn^bhn—nial^Kvb — Hihslhteb T rtAcli (said of 

Person : iamiH\fb\ik — iinmlmlitk 



reail 



fi'.\i3-ek — fin^ak — mafdia — tnamdsit. Peracm. : iijfd.Sak 
[iBfiijflfcl (loan-word) 



refldy 



aySed »tani get ready! [ajwd.'l 

■f m<T?^;;iiJ '^r^;' ^rJ ; KinuL-iftuik i iiiiiki: rcndy (|ii"cp^FcJi 



real 



sit /Jam (tnae) 



l^p 



flH/cfr; wet harvest; bean&i rice; [^ck. 



rear 






rfsscm 



l^ngagi scmnd reasQUj good sense; life; sotiL 
See r advaniage. 



receive <^dek {\^\): isa^2i-ifdek — iiitatfw4(fhi>—rnof!dftivaiS- 



4[J 



THE LANGUACr. OF THE BONTOC IGORCT 



rcceiue p-addiiei: [pafjifit^ek] — iupdJutigk-o — miiipudiing — 

ina't^i/iddiitig: I receive ai my giitsl; al^o; I receive a 
lenci', 3 prc'ciil: etc , I l;il(e by lli<: li.Tiid 

ttxcgtiiie kMkek (know); Tpcucan: kotdkek 

red viklli^id; I dj'i' ri?<lj ftsi^iliZitdc — ii\piihUddhi3—mapiiSi/!itti.; 

kmiuilaiig ^uLiiii^ red hot. 

reed I'hif^b (-iny Ii'^Hoa' fitalks) 

rcfose adkk (iltiiy) 

reiare v^<ik^ieh: Per son, : (-r/>.^<>iutfaft-^rtci-^tffr-»dffA 

relfltivea ptrngiifvng (iathcs^OKiious---); ■-■i-i /-.,!' ng-ifni of Ibi: s^nic 



rcleese 



ip^f^dnak — irtpog^ttak — maipogdnan (let loose an animal 

liiiiclil) 



rely abfi'Uitsk (Ijelifve) 

remain h-AM^cnh — vmfcdi'cah \ml6tdboit\ 

sQiindiih. r :iL]i Icii, I leiii^jii behind and wait 

remember .\fihiikch — seimtii6)^kii — inrfvuit,!' — n\Anmi-l: 

s'jtifioiial- — itimdioKiik — mamaidttan — mongwdton: I 
fCiDcmbcr hy a mark, I recagniie by n sign E!ee i mark. 

remedy b^kfs (oi-edicine) ; dkash (Hoc.) 

remlfid pas-^s/tfi^i-l: — i'tf^-flfu'li-li-'j — iii!p'hh"ick [maif'dshm':/.!]. 

Conrtr.: is ^ovfrci*, ilio ^l.jr^^i •."ilhai m miml. 



THr. T.AMGUAr.F_ OF TTIR EONTTOC IOOrot 



4ii 



remnanr nittlidyad; what is left. See; leave 



remove atSneh — i'ldton^ko — •vza^ton — iKoti^dtan: put to an other 

filace. 
hiUtmb (lakea-way)j 

tn find !ji:il''Mli IliCm Ibi: \.Win'' Vf\\\th. 1 ^tck. 



repeir 



i!ac.!k kap^n I ni.il<c ;ij,"aiii [jijj; ^ifzij/ifl- (T iiiiik* good), 

il^af^iigho: I r-tpdir, |inl 1'j-i,''r[liur WiK ]>iccc!i. Sec ; iifeiid 



repedi 






resemble kashAmk; badgak (like) 

iiiu' pa/I I'll ^ — jjj£?fr^r^ir/,Vjj^/ 1 make i-c&l, I order In ri'&t. 
iii"iiii^i!f[L'ak — siiii/ias^fisbak: 1 sit down to rc&n- 



rctum nxm^lifili — tinmifliak. 

iu-.iidko'igah — £jKm4>ior^g<i^-' I go hacfcr 

pa!;adhl! — inl'iis£ab — inaipusiia — mang^ipafiAa: I vrJer to 

rmurii lionie 

Coti6lrtict : trtmSiiak i-r, 'i^n fh. I relum iniTa the idiwd ; 

hitc: i^Gi ^jij huinc 

return iiniik — mUflih — maitdli — man^itSh • I give bark, r':"irii 

isdknngko — i>i'\<ii-ongko—maisdkong. I give fmtk. 

revenge faUsak, See: avenger 

wwflTd, I latt-£l}ditiil! — tiwm^gtjdNrik — matQngijdaQn — mQ}^dngtjfm 

reward. tdngijon [idnsf^ati] ivage^, puy 



414 



THE LAN(jUAGE of TOE BONTOC IGOROT 



lib 

TbX 



itiJ!arig 

pdluy • ij[illiia;,lieil rice ; c^rs aiifl ^talk^ (ivhicli -i^ alio ibie 
''curfiJAJC/"' HI ir.hdt JLiionsULi:-Ii"i!i|ijl; icc: "IjajidfaL") 
pdl?ny rice [fir.islic^E; fid. ,t kcfLicl. gj'sin iij I'icc 
ffnAy^ \;tn{syii\: biitfkd'jr ]niiiiidi.iJ [jr^iini, 
t^b, or: ktki: shells of thf ^r:^m; ^'^pek chaff 
in^tin-^: jHlujiili^^l rliit; r]i'':[JH'.J 1 
m^ka-fi: 'VMiW (Rmlr y:i*n), IV]ilL^(^ ri«l 

patj^k: &tc<[lliig, vDuiL^ <\iaoi |/rij.'jr)y | 
tfiik4mi' riceatalt; y^r; ifu.';?! L'ar, [leail; 
I'f^dfr ("liair") bear<] f^^Liii • he^rdtd ] [cii 

Sen?; field; h(Lrv<:ilL ^r.uiary: pldnl; irria^'*:, food; poirnd. 

:C J 50115. 



'rice-Wrd" '^r'"- {kifUb: 3li iinplciiiLiil likt a broom, used lo siritc 



rich 



^'ffiFraiifrf'Ffj^'jFiiot.' I .mi i;i'ltij[j^ rich, 
piigadi/^ii_^yenfk: I iti.iIii' ricll. 



ride 



i'lfriifdyoak — aiakaf-fy^iak. kofdyn (Sp.) : hor;^; 

f]jvJifl;wit — n\i%ziikayak fTl'ic ) I ride lior^if^Lii'l:, or Ici a 
M±id.e, I drive. 



ridiculcius. 



kiiHiJiigO- otydgak I ridii;ii][. 



r?rLjj:l]C,carri:cE; ".illil^hir (Oc; lit/fwasa: this is true) 

aykJ -^t^ -Id ay? is ihis rrj;lil .■ ;liji 1 Jiglit? 

ifa irni HiijF -lu' Iproiiouncc : S!fiiinaii'lj/r-^!\ cljjs is the 

riglH ililiifi. ilie rinbt kindi "ihia is all rigiit" (pointing to 



right Mde 



f?ara'crii 



l<if?LiM; Aiwjfl] l-o the nglit: rj fr^Tiirrp/'pf 



lilK L'^NGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT US 

i^hteuiis, irn/'t'-mui'-. 'wH^man ty laldki: & righteous, upright, 

rim (of pots] sag^ban 

ring ■:!ri_f^j;fin'- (earriDgBDd Ei^^CTriTig ; a Ifiadword) 

ripe 'ia!t?ii' • •i'to\'i, ujirlpc; i^^y kdoin ; "lai^melr I cjii^c 

I" Ti|n;ii, iii^C dpe. 

rise fumdlaak — fmf>id!ank (.-uiiie riUL), fu-r'idia nan dkym ili-c 

sun ia risiiLg. f:tlelin! .i tfi-y\r &i.Liir[^c. 
patonstjliGk I cause Eo rise, I lift Ili^Jl ^i]^ 

river -j>d>i^ii [u^i^a, eidnc^n}; "meetinsf'' of nvn rii'cr-; 

irt .3 r[vcr. i^Gh'ipjf (.juu-k rlovN-lng ^^,-iUt); jAyci:^: prirl 
ol A TL^'cr [lu'^pni; i■L■h^^ly- pSshon^. J ■iingTmil "p^irL- 
(see: ms) ; dear rivett HaJ/J,'iJ,^''3jpirjj (*i(?c. fidi , //i'fffj.O 
muddy river; nukfin. Miinll nvi^r, Lri'jiiLiitv, lurook ; 

tUin") to Bontoc? 

4Ui: til? 'liiCCt* ■^ii-iij'lii i-o.:rl; ilUifi, my road, i^c^ ^.'a ad 

Saii\ifl><- '"l i;'f ilii-i^clly [■> Sjiii.iki/' 

roast dasiviek [dasfjid-l—dfrr^-rhiJ^ [i!i>rds\s«!^1—niaddi\?V. 

dry, pop; l^a/tw^.sJ'ch — tih!oMrii!ililio—"io!i4f*-ii'ii-h I rcflEr 
meat on ihu spii, ron.-i:nl mti^L: tii'i/iftzas. 
(tJta.ij-^ifslwk . [ pciioTiii 1 r^rreiiioiiy. ac which cneal is 
roi^btni). kafdek: I mast >vi[liin iht firt 

rob . 0£pdiSh (pull avffty) ; Tucut^n ; kQidijeb: I ralK awaj 

b^ viokDce, 



4^0 
rock 



THE LATJGUA.GE OF Til£ DONTOC I<}OROT 



rocky pL^ice: k^tong. 



rix'k in ^ nnjianliJin ^[-Ic, fj//'ffjA; 



roU 



olhiek—itiaU'te^kQ^'nixdU'i—winiiidJin. I tojf JiorLzoiilaJly, 
Oil ih(; kvd ^T^iiiTi^l [,i biOii':;, ii i-^g, ri biilJ cll.) 
hC'^':hck^k\t\o^-'^hki' — miik'i'ish . I roll down, on an inclined 

"J fell Jiii.l riille^l iTowp.'-' 

Ijuf'ikFk — iji'iapf^k't — Mi^ifiipilf — maiidpig: 1 roll oul, flat. 
h'll^iieli — tt'ti-iihhi^ho — niiiii^n/oii — mihi^ioii I foU Up 
^tobacco IfaveSj bLaiBlceis, paperj 



roof 



jfff' ■ rjihl^rii;an: lop oi llic mof, riJj^f- 

anglih: "laof" or covnrr or rhi' ^ln'jjin^-cli juniper ow^ifw; 

s«e: house. 
ua-^tdtjo't: pl.tcc I'cnc-arli [lie ov-jrliang^r^ pan o( list 
Tcof, outride Ibc liijiis''. 



room 



Seer liou?e; tfng^n: -slefpii^^-fhamhffr, fcw-fiffl,- fSp. cuarto, 

-A menu in ojr liomci). '■Riiiiui" nr Jof! on po'il^ ("^ccood 
Slrtry") in ^ ln'iiS'^ 'il r|ic T^orol: /^fi^^'j iJ/'-^j \is fdz'y] 
room or pijc? )4>r ■o'nni:ihiiig', ^pace ivlitrc ^ (hiiig is k.'pl; 

ma/id inddy/Ki nHH iJ£ii^\: tliere is no roont for the IttLDk, 



rocpstcr 



ksruw/lan 



root 



liftnt^l 



rope 



kdgod: 1 ILC wiih el ro|3i:; kasifdeh—kinn^^dk-^— 
m<sk*igod—tr'iSH^jtg&d. Sec: viiic iji&c<\ in*iiead ii( rope<) 



rosiji 



tffo 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BO^'TOC IGOROT n? 

rol HifliV'^flrtff-Tt, I Iti roi tst»i4de-k — tshenJdko — waudnad 

i\jijih-\^j^h ny wrAf^aii.' rollen, spuiltd food or Hot 

rough naka^iitad (rough surface) {iuiiiaii/dlad\ ; ins4p^d: iminl- 

rouiid^ I make tlmmtf<:k —lUilmm^k — tnalfuimti. circular; m/tf/sHfrkmg; 
■iplicrifil, rnundi naifnii'to. itaihniii!ii^i>K:y, 
fiir^ti^i.} — f))!J^L'iii> — malliii'a — inn^m^Fi'a; I mabo 3 round 
atuik, spe^rslidfl elc. 

rausc foKgdiisk (wakt): pakHdjici!: Iroiist an-d drive aul (drive) 

mb kSbkilnb — kmi^bifat — makthklftm — mfmgtbkih. 

,ktiti<ih (11^.) 

I'lAhkf'bho: I riifi ivIlTi an oElier iTiiiiy 

ilAtjch — ii/iljt^k.i — mai/tt'i Oian ainitkko) : I I'lih my Itody, 

armetf. 

apdshek — iiidl'ixxhko — wiadlfa.:)/. 1 i^iib iron: J riili "ivood ; 

with a rovjtii le-ii, cjHhI jf/msh 

rule, 1 indl-iiul — i\iinf{'Qij!i. T :'in "itfc;" niflstw, krd, ODployer^ 

coiiiinaiiiJ e r. 



{Jccldagati: ^I^g eLic boEicm oi a poi, jar eit) 

run takrdkpk — ij^nil'^rf^'^rj — 'niiidk'.a^ — maiiifkia^. I cro'n. 

>^-^\i T\x\\Yiii\% , takiaki-}\- }\i!n vitiiigir T run iIitou|:Ii \ht 
river 
rjjJj/frJutflt [j^^r,yu'^r^-J^l — 'fmf./^7.ria''. P run. 

pclaydftcck: I let run .nvr^y, oul^ 

f>i/i/_i; Ji^ta,^'^f ^//^'T. I run on* (li. llic l'oii[(, oiif af cliulinuse) 
iOtfid/fak ay it'dr^U'k: I mci li.ii.k (I [eHini nmning-J 
iKmifas: il runs over (wafer etc,) 



4IS 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOHOT 



run 



lumf^i/it'- ay inltf^lak: 1 run ihronffh (I pass tEirouEli run- 

ninK) 



rust 



Udi 



msi7 



naladimt 






»d 



am ><^d 

paiif^oy^sck \putigify^sl!ck\: 1 link-: ^jd (AlllJct) 
sad: iji/^j^^vi'i'f. nitfj^lmsh: heartbroken 

S;nJ, illilLC( 

mii'igihcgak— niml'i ?,!!■'! y.ok: 1 am ead, Aym^thizc, p-ily 



aeddle 


IJl|>flf/^l'4] (Sp ) 


3&lf , for 


ifiail^gii \"ifMgt'J 


salivH 


TAbfa 



a^/'i; .i^uiMl ("olil "or.L;" in Li^^) ; ■'jill'.-iik': (for Ir^ide, 
made III Miiinil); iiileh-'<', -rLiil.n'^kf^i- f&'i!iaii 



TliE LANtiLAGE OF THE llOXTOC IGOROI 41^ 

sail,! iasMio; dsinak. Person.: tHdsHiOb—^inds^Tiiik 



same, the 



'in" kiiitgHa (lilce); ilya tiU'liii thr very aame thia§f. 



aaod 



fad [r^hwd] 






save 



iohdkph—iifioh^zW^maidhog^mOTiSbag: I ivpare, ocodo 



SAW 



tamiHWcx:.')- 



sainv, J 



lakalj/ek — ItHak^jiA-^tfu^^dfji — mniok'Jiji (llw.) 



itj/ffif/.'^irrp^c/llj,^ — iil/llni;,flil ] j r rat rf ^«| — »iB«l^;llfJili 
[iijrtFr^]],iFri] I -.rA-y. [r[l| Liiinit. ordef^ Jinmnd, ask for, 
|>ronii^e^ bc|» etc. 

bJiJtf {kiin6lj<i^ [ifur.) "if H '!;iu1;"' "[^(.'ojilc say;" "Hierd is 
-J siiyin^." (a InaciMord, rVinTid In *;cirr,i[ ([ijikcia) 



gcfll* of fish nlfsi^ (bfirkj 



a »icar from a L-ni] ' jjr/;^'drpra>i 



scare. 



pitZ^ ld,}t-h — Inpao^i d'il-o—^tuipitSgiad [ intJtpH'fgvid] — 
maic^'pa^l^iciil: I tiiiist In fuar 

puiiivd/^ivci: — iiipmavitr'ckii — lijui/nj-JiTTtja T ct.-jre liirds, 
"inake fly;'' pahaiimk. drive ,i'vay: tjokdngek: 1 (njirc 
birds b;j' ([miiirsiiiig nil a piece of lisiiiliuo; f/^^nid^, ih'; 
sticks being moved by die current of the river. 



420 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



scarecrow kil^f^, ni-iiit '^f r.-muji, ri^sc milling' a bird with D-ntspreaiS 

wlcjiii, ^u^pciiiici] (in Ihe tlkIj piifjck. 

fak^d: a ri.iiiifiootLilK:, aCruck now Jiad then b^ wend moved 
hy fise ri^ei'; Ssolca//^: a. st^recr-ovr, sticks bcaliDg bam- 
boo, iLiove^l !iy [\\<: river. 



achool 



is^Sia (Sp. cscuele) i sclioolhousc: ka^x^ddan 



SCHSUIS 



tA.rfi& (TIqc,) 



scTdpe ba/SsaS/—bma/iiiaf^ — jjjfl&fl/^.rifH: I scrap* smooth 

itifitf'j'ift — i; ff flit <Si" 'ltd — iiKilc/'to'^t . T '[-r;djhc olT 
kirk/Sj'A-: I srrdiJ-t ol: [ho -Lm ai paEaii.'ii cLc, 

sci^tth h'ti.-Sal.' — t-jjfijttfj/i— Mjfftijt/SiTu.— jji,Tfr_?[5tj.' I .licnt^:!! witli 

lli^ iiaili 

kabffilai: — fnyml'i/ilak — makabflilaii — nuOlgdbfwt: I 
Scratch (said of a dog of cat etc,) 



sotw 



r^y^fr, ([!,.. : imlokot) 



BCti p^shong \p^o^g\ .- jfr/iiAjmf meana also a part of the river 

'A'ltlKHif I'lirri'nf, ii ■^injjriafil pari, 

search a'idpek — /■yiuniSj'f.-o — ina4iicp [viut^'i^h ] —'iitiiigiJnfip 



irmitniui: begins middJp of Febnnir\ i "i^ sunt inndnna 
titaf^ii'ihtjn ay in^nlma:" ifi lln: "\iiiiit^nit" llii:> hniili ^viirk- 
[iiL' ii lilt ii'^l'J. '■ c. liiEi^mj;, irnj^rtlmi^, (il-inurj;, ^iccdin^, 
cleat iiiy ilic ground ; ijtth; of rfsl. 

iiisd>najik 1 wurk in Ibe lidd, irdm^lanUng^ 



THE 1J\>TGUAGF. OF TRR KOH'lOC LGOROT 



4^T 



l^iah U-^m^ in ihc lirsl days of Mlay; "rs >iaii iiitab 
jiuhi^lji ny Jiiiiiii." In iht i^tnb ili'.'y Ucj^^iii rcnping ncr 
Uil'iU: \w^m^ nlMiin jLiri4d I'^l ; "?> i?.fij t^^ok hin^ffJ}^K si 
dni^ in ilie ^iiiiifc (n) ifii: nildille oS harveatiogr [fi^k\ 
IfpuFh: begins ahoui Jiilv isi; "is tan Ifpash itidiiE-iay 
iiflff dni:'' in llit ifpaih "iheit l3 no more" iiarvc^iiing 
faiHi"': • leg'[iis iiiijldlt: of Julv; "11 i/an fai/ijitg^ liay\i\^ 
mlfhns,, ttanlmlia iiiti^ 'f'igoy." in l[n? joi/lin^ or lalfimg 
Ihcj H't (li£i cjniQlc-vinc'ii m Ihc^ t'''*>iiii<[ 
zitkoii'ind. iK-j^in^ nliouc Si-fiUmliiT 4i[i, : "is jj.fii s'f>'a'n\nd 
sukiimviidtja '.f\ flnji! p3y/yS '' in I fir ^ili^nuiiiiit ilic .v "1 Ir.ir 
jTnl iviitfd" ilic iiLLiJ'Liild*. (and Hirn lUc •i«i\), 
f'l'li^k {pudjr^ii^l begins niiniillu uf XLi^emhcr, "r.t u^ru 
I'tif-'Hk /'U(?^tf;a, yu f^f'i^fo 'lan pats^h. ipSn nan fafafiJvi 
iimr patsdk L< niui iiiijjjji,?. f^Qxiktfyi'nljt/ nan t^la is ri^n 
kiiykay. " \n llic patsok tlicy 'pLiiil ^eedliii.ijs" and llie 
9e«[1iiig!^ grnw. Th* "women put (t^Ai, for; ipn^w: \\'\\.\\ 
^ciiilLvc -11^ lln" MirdJin^ [tiIu Ihc tknr'jd ,iiid v.ccdcd ^ail, 
Tlicy UiTii lliL ■^nil ulll[ llif p.hl-: ■;dll''il "I'dykay." 
'lilt pcrmd^i iriiiEi TirJi^ZfliriJ Lti fulfliii;^ hive the tolfiTlivo 
nnint: ljd^--j'i; llie pcricid! fruni fa/JliiiQ \cinn^mm JirC rlic 



««4id momirff!^ [it/ajj-iji/d/A.?| . 'jiai/^irfi^. tnJiUsd (Hoc.') 

secrelly "fi iid^ kt}li-relt." "ti>r ii'i kii'-ivledgf," le^L^ayom^know; 

ishridl/G. I conceal, keep secret 



seciion 



f»jfli 



SKMkjn "ato" seciioii r>1 a mwii, a "w^aril:" ^7/p," '>ri^irtalty the ruiEde of 
the group ot "pLililIc huilillcic^-" Itlis'i .[ml pahiifAugau, 
but fAtciidtd Ifllci' CO ^ipiify [lii^ *.ccliiiii 01 llic cowii 
Seei Appendix lo rlie G[aiiLiiiar. names of the aia in Bon- 
loc. See; biiiJdiiie;'^- 

pQKgdr-?: llic peo|'k' bebugju^' to I3ie same ti#o; 
sinpdiigatd: .\\\ iii-lii oi an ftCo taken as A ■vtholt 



4=" TITE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGDROT 

iilifek {i/l"k\: I otserve, l.iak ciniifully, spy, watch. 
iinifl'ta^,- — intnffisk ■ T liiuk uin lor: T ?rc lo fiiJii. Sfi-. ■|n:''p 



as DTDsment: fatdka; white se^: alltH-'uy; -'ciiieii 



R«dli'ng padjdk [pali^k, pafjuk]. Sec: transplant; seasoFLS 



seize ofiffj^ (take) ; o^pdtfk (puN out) ; kddtjgk (Tikqcsti} - 

I talie forcibly: ipdkoiko {hdiA fast) 



select ^ftA {dicwjse) 



vcri'," safc/^n l^ddlo. u\.v-.t^i 






tpiif^Uf^o [/f^ii'SV.-lHro] -i'ifiiafih' -!>utli'n(^\6— 
mang/pixftid- ^ ■^ciid .'in iihyec L, a I lim^, 

[\^[^I|^i•f|^l]: I ^(iml a person, njiviini, iin;s*ic[ig<^i' e^, 

jiKii, I kciip a3 vervain 
f-ali/iiliffk^ I cjLusi: (o ^"0 out, scnil mil. 
pal^l^ — i'lf'diik — iraipiiU — mair^ipdU: I iend back, order 

to retiiTD. 
pala^l^^k ay fSM^ni J ^cnd bno!:; pahuHk: T lifiiff au( lo 

' lake food, liotU Co sunn^ln^dj ("I rjuik': lirin^") 
pasi^dick: I send livimc; sec: rctUTd. . 



s«la* i^»^/i^- ^f^<^ JTidgiiient, r^a^on ififd !i}\\£i!^Hi-y' yon Aft 

II rrca ■enable, voli bjave no sense 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 



423 



»parale 



•kUn^pk — in ekdigbo—ma^if attg — ruang^koH^ 



servflnt /-fa; T j'-Ti^l ■ f-faak; 1 keep aa servanr: fSdifk (S«c: 



set 



i^nekak — Wn^nsftjii/ Hfrvmnek hah Jfkyu: the stin was 

pal/it k'jm-k' — I npu ir^ k tjtth — w m'frrt^ ktfff—w 1 j K^ip^ii ^ * ^Jjj ,■ 
I itt d'juji; I ofilcr tit sll diruMi (|i':T:^'>ns niflv!) 
haddko — inj^diliih^ — n\iii.<:ttaii — i-\\iiii^>-i<:>fad. I ipl (lo%vn a 
thii^, a burdm, a ve^^ol eic. 



Bet np 



tf'Jijek — i!'ii.i)dli>-> — matSod — man/fod: I erect^ place verd- 



seiiit 



umtiiak — wntitiak: I settle, live at a p]3j:t 

■tnuhifUitM — imkifU'tk . r ."-cnJflj live wilh oihers, in cODipauy, 

JllllOi]^' n lrili4; 



■Kvcn 



pU^; the 7lh : mvigapUS; fnaygefU^. 



sevenly /fflA ^0, the ?«h^ mnrj ^afHtd 'y pd'o 



several |i57i ?uoddjy.....oj; there are fsevpfaf) who... 

aift ay., "a f*wv." nakaffr ay .■ s.^veTnl na^r ^d^/jj ^ith 
'^frfli; SCv^r^' l^^^K', ^i-'m"; pt^i^lc. k-^kkifc /iiiii iCif^ii wv 

a part 0-f til? Bi>aLociiicii. 



WW 



isimfdti—^tsmifn^lk — mats fmid — nr^T^i/fnid. 
Person. : inlitmidck. patfimttko: I order to &ew 



shatle 



;iiLi III ill'' =h,irlL; '^inpain^hi' Im- til,'-ie lu'ii iikyn; eo 
JnLo the shade, because tlie smi is hot'' 



434 



thh: language of the eontoc igorot 



3hsdQw 



ci^ruc:^ 



shake 



iktvaf^Sgko {ikhi'J^^gbo^ — inhtwascSgho [in!cfwKSgfia\ — 
ifrait/jcias \"iaik!'iv&'\. I i^lnkc (a bow, ? Ijotlle elc.) 

LiiUL^l]' , 

icig, ;l;^ a b^iljintine .-[iLk, T s[jakc iOjEiconc by seising hie 

arm. 

iPct'd^^K'rijjj';.' 1 shake ray tie'jd. 



!ii^!jtl'i^aii a siiallow plact In a i'l"vcr, pa'^?nl>]i- cn fiiot 



shame £TAt' [(ij^l; k^i^ii il [■! ri ^lirimi: ! ((.-njjic^moli of pity 

and aRfi:?r) 
dihim: "shame on you!'^ 

ini[ 10 ^liaime 



shape, 1 



fyrm pcHij 



c — m^skJyng—i'iiindyicg: T ^h^pf.'. 



sharv 



tjt-wi- (ine-hwlf 85 3 flhor?; ftmar: part; e()Ff£"(i: ^bar* 
m i^'ork to be ijimc, in'-k; vfifd^ejad: a siinre. portiun of 
Liicjl, ikal.-!je}!gko: 1 ^i^-l d share, d parr bcc ; give. 



sharp napilfdpa'./d atdtStj^m. i&matjfm- it is ^]iarp (of bl:idt:i) 

sharpen paiffjfh — /piiurNfhi — a\iipdhJ^"iiimAlul. (.l linif*:. jk] 

mngy/iiii: — si fiat tFv^<il<: ■— iimsun^'jSii'i — fia-'tiirt^yu: J 
sharpen fo- a p4int. 



yhEivlngg, 

chipfl 



.vdppi}'] I uuL LifT ^■^^il"^^: i'f^^mpuh. 



THE LAN^Ji-iAi^li OF THE SONTOC IGUROT 4^5 



sbt 



siya 'v faf-dyi- sttodf ay fafdyi 



ami liaii-JiU: ^ci:: bnifr:) 



all elf 



Jjt^t^Tf ^f/f/t.'iynfj: large plalform exLendiitg from fronL of 
-A litjuse lo llic ^'dn^u'i" (^leepii^-box^, dd one aiclt of Ihc 

iff^nj^.- sDiaJI shelves under the roof. 



shell rii;i\ !n:iin'- cLc bv |Hinniliii^, llire^hlng- 

Ptrsori. . ir.pti^pa^^; sKh "pound," as ceremoay. 



shell 



dtkoiu. dikitn^on. ^i KirK'^ J^Ji-t ^li-rlK ni'trluT nf ^itarl, ivoni 

^fnu' I i 111 1"^ liv iiu'h 'in ilu'fr lircflid'^ili ^^ ^ii i^~iiaiiiciH 

iiQti: a small spiral ^liull. f aund near Ihe riuer ; 

/fkid: -$^p^tip' shell ai ■'nail 

kaiifii^;^'! •-! 'J'pml \^i■.' "liiiid|faLl" of cerlaJTi shclU witli 

which tlic Airing huidiug iJjc kiuLe 'kampfia" a de^tstzO. 



ahellcr Utin^- a hli^" |>rojuclliii^ ^loii*? in tlic wall of a stuicnU'ra, 

IfriLctiiii^ .i^.iiii;;!. raiii , ah^j^n^: a hul Id Ibe Hc?-£eldr 



ahfdd 



j^. "j.XL-VJ, xl:\ 1L 

Pjris: sakln-gaS: ibe lhr«e protruding aida on Ihe upper 

lon^dlang iibat^yab: the ccntern navel of the shield 

fak6l<ing lif . irtptd *i kurtfyab: ilic raltan lies across the 

^hk'ki, L'l'-JnJ! H^' i^liit^M more eniiiir^no: 

jaMp^'j^d.- Ilie -eTiuciiciibf ^:iu M ilii; Lower endi, fitting 9 

nunS in:^k; thus he ia iiieased U» ilic ground while Tieing 

Ijvlica^kd. 

CtJii^'jTi.JB." tKe hole for the hand, which hokis the i^liicld hiy 

the pangi^drum: ths}iinA\t Sc;^^' ^^■a^d olT. 



4=fi 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC IGORO't 



Shine 



.hijjjjj/J[ot. sni'iili tan ttUyu Hii.' ■^in l'^ .iljinlnj;; r.r : 
ma'if^efby'i. ^'aiilfek.: I inaJte ^liine, rellei-c llyiil m a mlrro-r, 
i^ia ^koSytl^VQ^ . it is BbiriJiig (pnlj^ficd lueLal ttc ) 



ahip 
shirt 



hfibAl ibffi^n; I'ah^W] fSp. vapor, s-Ceamer) 



j^ihii [fJtit}. fdljo. b4^] (ciKil)^ jtotifk/ifd (5p. cainlseta) 



ghcNs 



kdkod, .'iahdio^h \iapdioi(h\ (S|i iiopitoi), inkokddak, I 
pul on ili'jc''; inkokl^kodulf-. I wuar ^tciea. 



5hiyM 



haidAhjh [f'/iltSkak', i'jidr}gak\ — '■iii'ildiifi^S? — n^sbaidi^kan 
— maytuildf^g. Person. ; mcmifldithaJi — iiamdidvkak. I 
=|iool Willi ,1 guLi. rifli.'. ( liiji;.?) 

Jrapdoid™*. I siioot With buw irid arrow. (Not praj^Uced 
by the ^i.'irr>L ^vhn clespkc Lhe ii*ie iiF litnv ^it^l aiT.iv^' ) 



aliore 



— mai'ljalca — ma'i^/ijaka, 1 brin>; ii^ IIjc ■-[lUirfl, 

umtlidak. r b:d tE> the shore, baiifes 

'inHjjiifTf^it I iv"ne !■] Ehif ^liLire, i>lie of iFie iv^Cer. 



shoii 



atdtk; very abort, ^jOTKr: asasttik. LooBhort; (jaijjJ'hq 

'v fl^d/*; I .im :jhrir[: iliMku^\ 1 ^iii ^i^Hiiig ^lioH: 
iimdsdikiik; I lai^ik'^ *ilbf>n j'aasd/i-t-k^ a ?liori ^\'li[lfi 



shoulder piflfir {b^ktl] .in^jdt^k: I carry mi my sJiauld^ir. (cari> ) 

sliouldcrbltiL^ lian^kdH^sa 

flhQUt f^ktifaiixiaJ^ (call); yadijrr-kvk i!\i fM^(^f+-:L.-ap^ or: ay 

ftiam^frfl* I 'boiii, 'jU IrmJ 

;[[ lacking liini, I cli^llcngi:. 



THJi I.AMnUAGE OF THE m>KTOC IGOkOT 



427 



aho^v 



ipiltUsk -inf'ii}!3k — nia\pafU—}nait£.pi!ila. "J cjlw; tosee,-" 
sK^uiiirak I Eiliu^v myself. 



shower 



iiifsfkf.iii: II 'ihnvjer^, See: raiii. 



shrike 



Idla; al/imir "a bijrl ftimin?^ frorn the north, "Lcka," 

biCu li^cTotland; nik-r s^jmc iin»e it liMcunta idfa, and 
chasta au'Sy the sictbirdi, tfUic." 



shroud ft./ufrfjirn. inan's burial shroiid; the samt but wilh red 

.mil yoWov. iliitinK infmi'. J'"or Vn'oineiu jt./iii, ;ind 



9hvt 



/iJ^i^f^jt , /fl/j*,' uim^ifbhi} {c[o-c), kindiik (clonic Ihc 



ick 



SIC 



fmai-ft. i'i-dk!t>ik—^i:nitlftifak-' T am sick - im'ik/l Eiiirl, 



siclrtteaa 'iiikh. nHyJ^i; p6dt'g (]>ain|; jyit-ivcli [ofo'x'i Ji]: T cnuic 



side 



i: ir^J^ !i<tpJitkif. ill iii^y '>ide. dighjan: inonotairi side 
/^ri^(jnrh, f9l4(na): (its) outside, of a pat, jjiv, bos. 
t/^ir,J belli ) t^ .^Jj^'^j^y; .ii , I0 rli'r -inlip-r i^Ij!-'. 

(nflrf^E/'^^^^yt^' V-'C SrC: Tllbin.^ ■^idi.- by -ulr 



aeve 



aktfn^: tji^a^fkeli: 1 use a aieve, I sift. 



siieni, I am kitnifnckak [intm^iie^ak] — ki>tmiii£kali. ^'.imikfnekak: J 
keep si^Fnt, continue ta be silent. k^teg {.koTteg] sileat. 



438 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 



almt, I am r*/'f/£*p, E kcpp 5P a s«cr«t; TnKns. and Durati*'*; 

ufifr foii^'-'i'^vy Fiujd iirpSkm-J.' ' ym lii-:! belter Jicep qlucl-r 
{"stop" your moulhj. Or; p^ti^-^hi'j ijim» kaUmf emp /our 
words! 



silver 



min^tiy^gak: I sing dyeng. a man'': 'var *.iiih^ 
iiian^tiv^i'P'i^iiJ^. 3 '■lug izv^.-'CJ',;'". ;l iii^lii'^ ami ■■ariNin's 
iniUi':[ri;3l to-ii^i;. 

br-i:ii Uroii(;li"l fo rlie ^/f (^cc: toicucillioir;'?). 

ifrflj?^ifj^irt [iiiai/gviig^i^]: [ -"iLiir i^[tIioh! i^^ords, hum, 
droiic, 'iiig ^'vllablcs ^vitliuiil iiirjiiint: (i). 



single 



am 3?ft alod?. Set I363L DistfibutiveE. 



^nk 



p^In/rti^r:/^ — inpahl'iglio — i^iapdhun^: T caii-^c to ^inl (in 

vvaiorl 
liiintiJngak — UiinmnSugak: [ sink (in nitflr), I dro-WDi 

^jiien^ piiinfjils) i 
mal/itugak — naifiiu^ok, ori maltn^balr . I ^ink (f^f men, 

nnint^il^, thinjr-^) 
mail'iiak—niiiiiitak: I sink (in mod) 



■sister 



yfn/a 'y fafdyi.' drier aisur; anSlji {iHdlii]ay fafdyi: 

j/j^j M^l^:r (^Tiil liFiilhiT). kafahfnyiaiiif llif *.lsler (ai 
■calk'd liy lier brotherj 



5isttt-iii-lflw ('f^tfurf u.v/[f/^3'i Tlie ^^rifc nf my ivif?'s (re^ii. liiish:iTi<i'<i) 
brttclicr, ablilad ay fafiiyi 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOEOT 429 

tit tii-mnlri j'taJf— rini" nkt; f^jt- . I sic do^^'ii <jri a cha.ir^ bench etc. 

hi^miidon^^k— bi'un'itioti^ak: 1 sit, cower id Igorot fashion. 

(Al-a -nid ci hiiiiliv) 
patifliSjsiiHi. [ make sii Uown. cavis^ order to sit, I set. 



Bbc ffiim [^n£m; i^inm]; ibe 6th: jiumgdnim; viay^Jvim. 

Orif ■^i^ih I'l" ^ ply- kdiiim li f^t^g 



^vtXy ?'pr/ijj [tn/jjj| /'<>'o. die5fith: maygdiHui p^n. 



kiti.'d^k'iti. iLi 'nil ur Erie ■-^, itoy^oj^j'^iii?.' H?^ ^niaHncfio 



sHn klfbhob: of man, pig, dog, diiekcEi. 

Af^it/jl fl£ buffalOj tgw, deer; Icaili^r. 5ee: aiaJcc; 



skinny iiaitlroiL Ictii, <:m;i<JiiUid 

skin hddpas: woman's cotton skitt, while and blm^ Rl-mkct: 

Mfid: a shun ^kiri {liffiJ- ilirc.itl, uvlncj 

skull irr-r^tif^. tSn^an si fffo: ''bones of ihe bead." 

Sky r/r/jid,' is tjdyn: iky^Vnirdi.. high uji, Jiiufi,, sni high, 



slap, I la^'^bdkek — Unambd^ko — ifwidmb^g- I atrifce wUli the flat 

hand 



ataughier pad6'^<k (kLll): uMifdi {»k4is^\; 1 <;iit an aamui'! neck, 

ihriKiL; ilajt^kek: 1 cut an anlmaL'a body, cut up) 

slandfT, 1 eirjrkiiiiak is H-sHg 



4J0 Tiir: LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGORGT 

slay yifuWn'it (l<ill) J wilh ,i apear ■ falf^keX:; fakdhtiit: T cue 

ol¥ llie neck with llie ax, /■/uifi^ (TnciicaiiL k^yyian). See' 
P;l1I, sJnke. ciil. 



slop 



pasAycpck: J cnaUe sletp, order irj sleep. 
tkoykSyttQ; I lull, FDcb a child to ai^ep^ 



aT«p^g f^ff^cifi, tiJsi^i'cj'aM : sJ<^epjny |jlact; /Jt^'.- sleeping: -bo jfdr 

chamber i^ee, JormWoiy. 



(naffr^frig iinn fi^p^mi^ko: niy foot has iM^ti aflfeeji) 



slice, a 



potlSitgii-a; 21'tfti'nad: a oli-ce ui meat, a puniOD 



sBppeTy iiiijffiisoy (siiiootii); I nuike -lipinTj, sEnrKHh r pnl;<in^^/rk 



slow 



digUjin (hill'-jilt) 

atundyek; alaiundyek — mulahinifykii : I Liiakt ekji-vly, ilo 
sIovl'Iv I317I; 

^pegk iiurc Tlli^^'lvf Sec river, 



sm^L 



fiinig; 'try ^niall, iinalf'T: i<i'ii*t>ilg [/irii/fxir/i;]; too 



GmallpoK ^dlSvHg (llij'..) ; pitted face: haldka (IbCr) 

gmart frfrTf/.-wJTj ■i^:4.fe {gwdaslo the brain) ^ 

kuv/i tan f^io (liP-nl) 



TTtr l.ANrrllAGE OF THF. T^OMTOC Tf.llROT 



43^ 



psmash 



hilT'l, il.i-ili. (fa^il^hfk I bri'^k. ruici) 
strike to pieces 



smell, 1 
sm«ll, A 



son 



S-i^i gi^k — ifiiOHgs^gke — irra i/ftig.':ciif^ — si? an Ungson^. 



jit^n^^fion^. di^fth: likni-h, indkrth. ii. ■blinks. 5cc: 
fragranli 



gmlth fi4^ntska; fufuimhdaff: I am a smith, 

smithy opoifpaa: kttdfodptMv See: bclkw5;fot^ 

smoke aslttJk \orSfifi\. sokdshokak [nkftshokak]. I li^iig^ (iiieii) 

in die £i¥ioke. 

sus^baie: I draw m tlie aiioke lA'hJle yniokuig. 



tODOOth 



anaii 



snslu 



iffff^n^j^ [inijiii'gdy]: T iiin»;f ^iiinoili . pai!/inyj!i.-f:— 
ivpaljd'igi'li — nta!i'al}'i"^i''{y) .' 

rnrsftr.wi^.^fttii— 'ifJiififfj^^'^^''''^— JJ"''^'^'i'i'-^"-'''n 
apd^l'i:k — inapdshf/o — madpash mun^itptuk • i make 
^mji.ili: won.l. I>} nibMui; u'lHi .I>if:/i, til*? roll ^Ei k'-Lvc!;r,U 
^liriib- nn-ii.-ffii^ky idji/djck. I nnke ■iriirjoili p pel (,i^ pul- 
ler) ; 1 polish ihe pot, mabp it perfectly aincmlh. 

tdyitii. .idn^an.- f^nga; i^Jitjis; ffttan; shell ni 3 -n^il. 
sOp.iQp, likid. 

jifwlg: akin. i/6bkob^ iIk 'flil '.Hii: ^'i-.'^^ff^, poicoo 



43a 



THE LANGUAGR OF THE BO^TOC IGOROT 



Enare shy: for wild chicken; sisim, tfHgen: for bird^- 

kokdiimg: for wJld cals. 

snatch aldck (ukc); ogj'dieh (ipkc) 

snccEC, 1 iiiakiifak — mnakiifaki a '5iief?.t: ^/j3i 



smv tjuldiu (hailstCMe?; "ice," "sncm," mikEii.'vnlo ihc Ig6rol> 

BO nrf^Cthns); kandipdnt "ialliatso? ia tbal the reaacm?" 

ooek o^Alck — iiu^pck [i/i^po/:]—fiia>iji'ip-i'v — mai?j^iiy. 

gijH inyii"i/s; I make sofi : f^avifmiii^k^ 

tKai'hiisun. soft grniirni, prepared for planting", 
tHiUi/yitiy [iiafSylSy]: sofr meaf, borl^ tao long. 

Mil, I ijUjingddek—lpmtpng^ko — matjiiitngnd. i mzikc diiiy. 

Or; patjiRgiiiek- 

Sj^ouTrt ,^iy«Tiirrrf,' TiTu l/a&wj^dko. the plonze vshere I aid, was, 

WJOHWPd 

soldier iolddili? {^i>ldltd!>o\ (Sp.) 

mleoffooi J;iffrfi [Jd^Bj (N^ tcriLi for "aole,^'"but "fool") 

fiOHH SeeL several, some — sunn::: nith tap^na — Hiw tap^a^ 



THE LANr.[;Ar.r. of the bontoc igqrot 



43 i 



aornebody, (tsS; izgfF, ij?]. somethin)^ whatmtver: tilain^Sg; 



son 



liiirk, plur. dnHniik- Jnak ay la'itki. S'.-i:: 'h[lil. Tin? 
fiL-sllmrn; pnngiti'K Tl^* !.H?cond horn: tiJWwvf^Ji! rry !uldt/!. 
ThelhirU: n/Zs'^^il i> JJJH i/aft-Z^'don. I In: EimrEll: Fir/j-rfrf 
tV "mil iiinji,^j!r'/i (moxt lo llic il^inl), "^imiiy i " m\dlA^'w.' 



Bon-Cn-law jW^ aj laldki 



song 



pirl-i LiMcii:" a kind o\ a ki-vc--^nt;- Other ioiij^^-occ; bmg, 
nitl']tly. 



TOOn 



jdiftj tirj7 itry -i"iiiii, jii'Si now ! c-inalrtluji' very soon, in 
a short while, issak: [soSJ. tow soon? f-^dJo? I^S?!' 
u dXni: afEer a while. 



soot 



sorcerer 



sorrow 



ffynk 

infdyitn; in:fhi^bofi \ini^boh]: con jurer of aiclaiess (bkrtw) 



Sony, lam iis^i^i^j/'igak f [ plly) 

rrtiftfafdmak-- I repcuit (Alah-dralect) 



sound 
Sour 



gUMdng^sak; gHtiriii>s^ab: aoimd Tike a goag. 



134 THE LANGUAGE OF Till': BQNTOC ICOROT 

south dflisyj af'Sd -ipUiy. 

iitplay [n-i^phv, iytfj'ay]. i^'ni'lr living =oiuli iiii'l ■^i:ni[|ihVf*t 

SOW ^fta tti/iaydka: inolher mw 

sowj I i.iJ^ko. Stc: plant 



fiUJi9',va (world) ; kitft\>i^td (pliici: of &nj..iirn. -..Iiitq sniiio- 



gpan tfdn^m |/.vj-^[i'iJ'j|. disuni;'- bl^weai tipa of oiitslrclchcd 

lliiiml" ^ni.1 miililk'finpcr 

slrctdml arms and h^Jid^ 



spark: /iirjj^ .d af'/ly 



ffti-Uifj — I'ttkSHi: — I'Kiiiciiti: I -cp'^aJ. of., I Lieai a^ [opic 
>WfljtiJorc'':y<''& — uaitiflft^jrflfe: I speak with others- [ coii- 

(irjjJJ u^'.?jO"c ht^kutf- a Ijir^l tliirpi, iiujji*) 
pnhali^k: I -order to speab, mabe one apeak. 

Prirl.'-L ^tila'mid. birh 

3dso: I'Oinl, lliiirii (injjcrrei] Inio iFic slinfl)- ijfcn^. 
sdhod: ili-if Ij m^dc oi kahatan^ n kljid o( i-^wd. (nlso die 
entire apesr) 

firrmle; 
ki'inloiiili"'. ec|nipped ivilli an iron ferrule al IIi-l' end 
l^idiiSvS. Limi nn^, [o (is llio llioi ei gi [he spearWade [ii tiif: 

.-ha El 



THE LAM<^L'Ar;F. OF THE BOX'TOC fGORO'l' 4.^5 

spear kintkit: bej'uw (raiwn) pMmcii in^imra ^i|l; ii[iinr end, t<^ 

h'll'l ilic ilioriL. (6itw?jiJ meaiia a pwnlijr kind of plaiting; 

sec, pbit) 

V^detis; C-ollecIive Dames: tdfay; s^bifd- 

ftllfci;: 5ln>rl LLihJc, [■■■^o Ij-irbi, tlioiii ivilli four f;ic-ei. 

i\i. :^i.'li. [JL n. L2. J ['[nil' C. ;iii(l CXXVI. 
piiiilJf-o' liki: i'rlfcf^, but '^l^ll f-iuri'l iIiltii. 
fdn.^.liQX: in> Lurbb^ ilic J>l-i(li? ttf ir'jii ^r hjir'l li,-inil.oo. 

\f Sch. IV, 6, 7- J CI, [\t\iv. fdnsa»: iicarifmket] 

i^ri/jiTJ',^'.' Ill olci-:[iiL ih.ip'.'L Icrn^ hliile, twu ^acefulty 
<-\-.\-<':<} [j^LiIji; M. Sell. TIT. *j, 7. 3. .j. J. Ci. 

fmn'iiwidan : i^ui^kad. wiaUiniau, .■-ptrii's with many bsrha. 
M. .^cli III, i. d, J. 4, 5. 

fifat.-: [shfimlilr am; l-rnj;, mi-: ihwl bafb; or one set 
higher, one lower. 



spea/pl falf'^'y-d- — fiuntl^gko—inafiUfeg — 'i>an\i![f<'£. I liii \viiLi a 

5pcrir. tufiiyek — iitiiifiiyko — maf^fiiy — mciiftfuy: T hit 
villi ri i^pciiVj l]u"ij^^ a ^yij'-, "i^'iill--^"^^y"'^ ' J^^''|.' ilir'>'*'- 
in^ b^icaJ's, i i-Tj 1^ hit a ujJrk, i-i';ii:lki; !?peJIt[lcu^^Jll^. 
ifolf-iikQ: itrstfdyko: 1 use a apear. 



speech /tfW (words, language) 

spider kd^itm; fnl.fiik^: spider vfeb. 



splVic sl'l/ll-ii. ]iiiLflted aticlis stuck into the ground, hidden, under 

gt^^^ anil directed against an approachrng casiiy. 



^piilcd JWfl/^'ff^-pd. Ste: throw avjay. lumifoj: it runs over 

spine MuHgflagel {ka: coLect Snget: joiuls-J; marrow: fftfk. 



fflirlt Si^ . s'l '*'!■= a'ltio, iln' ■-nrvi. iiig ^mil o[ tin: dcjnl, kmnT or 

iHilitiLJLi^, iiroitaiii!^ 1"" ilt&iroyiiif:, iii;lin;ii^in^-- ihc hvmg, 
invoked. pi-npiri:il<:d by sacrifices and prayers. 



436 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

spirit inan/toak — ninanftoob: I perforin a Krenn.ny for <lie soul, 

ibo otiflo. All evil anilo: f'nt'floo. 'Vhc nnilo oi ii iv^rri^c 
fjllci] PTi banle jnd Idiffl^lnl; i^^nifii:. Sec; icu^j^H ■^""1. 
^rmam; a spirit, ni liiim,in f'lnn, di^iuHiin^ sIcquTF., like 
"nlgliiimir^?' or "Alb" C'Alpdi'uckcii"), 

jplt lwnfffaak-Hk\iu}faisk. Of. i'iii'tbj':'»lff—nirtt4bto<ik, 

sptendor, light .:/j'r, >ia:i sfltB nan dkyv: tlie Sftl^ndor of the sua, 

splil, 1 piUin^AFk- -pi'rii'l'i^ii:/' —un/pfiii'ii^ — iiiiiitiiuHg- I &pUt 

(yjrJi :iTi ^w.) iTi l\vtir alaoi Hp^ngeii. 
f-iivpiiiin^i:k: I ':|ili[ iiilnj iii^iir I'lici"'. 
li-miJki^lr—iinii!ti_i;i^o — mdlma^ — iiiJfnmO''^: 1 spfif ivifi an 

wcrleci <[i iT'en iiilo tli*: ^.Icin lif ^ Irri:- 
pattit'ck; I drive wcil^c^ deep inhW Lrit ^i^d tii^t i& ta 1>£ 

5]>Ll. 



spoiL paka/rv/^Iteh — in-pakaowMskko — maf'ithdoijia.shi 1 spnil^ 

ruin, hrrnk, niidt Liielus-^. 
I'afi^i't^t'^lij %p''ited fo'x]; t-mfihigo-^h nan iiidtaii: Ih-c 
rice is spoiled. Jkg: rot, aanasli, break. 

spoon ^;7:^jr[j^ G;ii-!!i'j . tUii^h [flm] ^mmli, tatin^ iponn, i^illi 

ll■;^L]Le!^ carv.'r] on Llii' Imidle: liiiakldkit av fliiish. 
See: ladle. 



spoiflt jjf^^x'^j. Tfip Im^liaiul cjfl? Iiis wift:, iiiid ill* '.vMz; !icr 

liiisbjind; u^tt/Vj.'iiU [nsd^vai^ , ozdoah'\. "my SpOuat." 



spread, I itJ^abldgko —mU'xblds^ko — rrtaitsahtag — yuan_^it$dbla^: I 

ijir^.'id mil d'^tli, ivmJ, |i[£Lti[& [o dry olc. 
ma/rtx'itdak I iJni "^^reiclicd," I gru"w iLbiLiidaiiiiy, ^.prcnd 
out by growing- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



427 



s-pring, 1 aktjiiiisck- I croBE bj spriiij^iiig; Person.: inalitjd'igak 

(jump) 

Spring, weL (bfib; hf^yi'^ijM hoh ft/i^; the Sjiting huUbles; 
iiditlfiitg: Ic IvriiE',, 1( is i hot spring. 



sprinkle 



[Kiff 



khvA^ko — Ui-it.okxXi'dEkc — mtnidkmog—itiavtgi'^'iiikin-iig 



sprout tJIth lamfikli^dak—Itfimftihk'fdix'r: hrcal; ilnongli llie groimd. 
See; gco-w 

spur of cock plik!>igi 



squal 



bum^tG'ignk (sil) 



squeeze, I ip!u]i: i^mf^ck; ifaf^rti!fki7 tpre<.<:}, if-zthi^Ain): I fiol-i Eight 



atab 



fifi^jiJ^fJit — fUiadydgak — 'ti^^ad;,}^ ';n»—'»i<i"iddyiJ^. I kill 
by aiHbtfing 



staff 



faildi! (Sp biblonj walkicig" stick; idio: sliiki sdhod: 
sbaf< of 5]}C^f, used as ataffi. 



stallcon 



th'!i.'y [fS-^ioy] St-T; ladder. 



kafit-jo ay l^dki 



stammer vatdlinir^-nistdlfQ''. ynaidh "an kHUna: "lals speech stam- 

IIIITS." 



stamp, tmyisdys^ — tsinaytsdyak-—rttitlfayt:rdyai!. itailnak. 

with fixrt Sec: ^lep, 



4?8 



THE LAXT.UAGE OF THE BOX'TOC IGOROT 



9l*THi 



!fi/mt!hfjik<$k [domdkdi^ak] — finmdktjikak: I auiid up. 

Hakljf^ko — iiital:ij/^!co — mail^klj\g. I ■:Liinl up, scl up an 

object. Ste: be5i3i;scliip 
palahljlkck I c.m^e lo ii^laiul^ I order lo ^i.ind iiji. 
m-aia^ngk^iii:: \^z ijUnd in unc \\\\c-. ^tJiiid rci^dy for o 

iw-ir/f".^s;f£p(:— 'fn/i^'^^Ji^t: T Mjnil up hi ^r.. T ri'^u iJnd Slnrl. 



stare, 1 fiidh^L nan mmak- I open my oyns ividi? (opeiij 

Start iUha^^ fb-Jgifi) 

inaliktyddak — nalihoitdak: I sUrt (■j^'i, lo iiinrcli; T 'id oiil 

Sil.iTE foT ivork in Mn^ lli'id. frirpsl (:ll .1 diaincn:) 
^ifgnifkek — fino^mi^iro—iiittft^^iiai^ --jjicrwS^iiat,- I ^Ijrt 

^lairnync lu j;ri in ivrkr 
ifc^i\!2gko ^ inp'y.nd^kii — }n(i{jif^yiai^ — mBn^iji^^naZ- I 

iE;ir[ fur wuik fljid Uke ^villf Jiii? C^ cuiiipanlon, ctilld) 



starve 



fi-jidieh — ine^wdtko — tnaei-wii — mangilew^: 1 starve 



stay 



Vifed^^aJi (ranain) [ mahjIycdaJ^. T ^ni kfl fu'liinjl, ;ibnc, 

I slay 
itt-tcfrSfdccok. I -Ijv ;i I"Jtij; ivhjfr, 

pded^ch: I mak^' -i;3>, 1 Order if* sLiay 



Sl-Kll 



Caral aa in Ger. nach^J 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGOROT 



^39 



steam 



aluifinivec: fo^, ciiisi. 



^ted 



£V%a [goUlya]; fid^Up (Hoc.) 



3t<rrn 



^fi'ii^ 



step.l 



tread ijpan 



1 have as slyputlier, cCepmoLlier (iir n^i u ■Tii;irdi;3n) 



sternum 



j^aht^f-a^: lower end of stcrnimi: loitdsid 



stick, E ipdtoyko — inpdtcyJio — maipdtoy—matLgipdtoy; I stick into, 

put into 



stkk 



iS^o; ^ce; scrilT^ s|iikc. 't.^Y'^'^J-' -■^lii'l' f'^l ["i"]lill^ [lie 
soiL Jitfwflji: for dr^\(»iiij" oiii MYtci fi'>[aLoc':. fa^n. I'^liip-, 
or ]:iii:k iih'iI for siiikiny i^f^k. iiuiniHi siiii used as 
fork 111 tuukirj;. Sci' : dour, j^on;^', |kole 



fltm 



tjitjttfa (yet) [3i4li iffiort puj; nol y-cE. See; ailoit, 



&tL% 



Person.: sum{"};i-iir'-—M'i"i!i^^ciai,\ 



stilly 

stinking 



hiylfdan; kipfdati; na/ftniid. 



r"jiiiit»fr; nkii^M 



44o 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BO^TTOC IGOROT 



stir 



Blon-iach. 



fitone 



■top 



iktsuak — iitb/ivak — maikfiiia—inO'tgikhi'ii- I slir with a 

spcMMi. See J move 

hif^k: I stii' iii> waiter, fliake ii muddv 

fSaag; iickniii fi slf-niacli: fdsSiag; I hj^c r^lrn my 
fill and Kiifttr: -mih^i^ith 

bald, \btiSv; ffl/^: iiccenl uaiially on ibc uII[iiij1. 

JxTd^o — imfdko — tnafsid — luaig/sid. Or . 

patkHck — inpdf^ok — maipAiko \ma\p'hkoy\i 

I'cryin-: iwi^Syah \Fo'rt^Sak; !oml^^'^air]—fwurrij;,iyiik- 3 

s[|f|i, C(?aw iroiii ; I ^lop on my wjy ; 

trrmi^j^yali ay f^m/H^ljif^: 1 rcnuin ■^Umline. Iiak. 

tam^oyba! 5iijy! (Or; ^i^^i^ .^-a^ ^lop ! ihis i^ eiioiigliT) 

p/tlfdlak: I ilop ;i [cik, willi a ^lopptt : sihi'at 

ikfrv^k: J stop rdin (^aid nJ Luiiiri^vig only!) 

Htm LvaiJtt'ig i^/iu^iia IiJH Stjan: God scopi (he r-im. 

natkyn: ■ilO|i]»e<i, i. e.j ihe rain li?i ctiiicel ; j*^/ifeyu nflU 

fl(?aii. |J]c^//t■'u| 

ijjfliJir/J^iAi'-mJEiif^Jijfr: 1 slop floatb^, Twiiiimidg. 



Btonrt (j^lrtiK (wuul): Ifmlim (iirong ^riimi) 

fjini'^'f^t-w^f — mango gdkfud . I rcJalc ;i slury 

r^r^m ; Inogdksiditk — m-'iogdhfttluL nan niitygO^^d 

\ni-'t^h^d\: ilic narmUr. 

etaut aii^dmesh Ccorimkiic) 

Biraight iJiWfjf^'i^; fiiff^f/fl^jr Etrai^liI T-tirougli Ibe cenlre. 

!e!£>tgek: I pa^i siuiylit ihrougli [Kd cenlre. F-ce: dircctlif 

atraighten, I MC'.kck — nMttkfk — mdUck — indiilHkcn (and: iffik^k): 
I LiL^kc ^lrd:^!il. 

uydljek — j'niiy4j!c/iy — mafPyod I'na/Jyiiii] I straighlen, 
erects "iirull, iti aright, fliake prosperous, sti^l-cli oin (my 
beat Iff:). 



THJi LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC iGOROT 



41L 



forward itii; numi^ciin^ii'-; *.|ieifcli i? aifal^liiLoTyv^inl (liLine':!, T^iigli, 
iinpi>li<e, iciifH?! alive, ujiflatlcriiiR. iii^nly). lE ii ^lIsq called : 
iiiJi/ide!d, I. e, slraiglic lo Ihc ]hdiii1. 
siiaifiliTwny, inrnj-'diartlyr sujiikflnn 



slran&er i'lj'ii'it: "'«"gilr "one who sojourns jn a tflwn." 



strangle apSngek — iniif-cn^ko — modpen^ — jnan^/fp^n^. Sep: clfoke. 



Straw 



kiilun \ttMiuii\i aSud: z\<iK zXtj'-i. 



^ircam 



lacttiga; ^m^ll ■r.lrcani: tabtfibdkQSi; kfnnm. ^c<:\ river. 



street 



ilfttlait; iitlsa ("liighway;" ^\\ cnhii^ 



strength //^a-^. k-^'f-iV. 

strelch, I uydijet (5ir^[j:h[cn) , I ^rrci-i-li auL my ^rm, linnd r:[i:., 

abundantly, in^ytidak: I lie outatretcheiT. 



Strike, I ftfi^iifcgtf* — !ii}\o^iJi\^!ic—jf\af!^S'^f'g—ii!tmg^£ong- E ^crLkr: 

^•'ixh t\K fisi; hiyx: liil wlili ilir :iriii. 
hogkSkeh: I ^(nl:': upon. r.ip. 

faJ/^ak — pinad/diik ^n<"p'i^d/^'i — inamdd/if I sirike 
Willi J ilulj, linniTiier, sElck. ax. fay/kcb- I "wliip, piuiish. 
Vif^ngckck irr fjylh't: I ^Ik-il* W'ilii fori!?, I ivliip ^Noleiit^y. 
Saf-'litnpnk — fiiii)kldn^ak — matokldn^ai — tnan^Mang: 1 

strike tJit liead f>r parts of it; ! Ijox ilie cjTi. 
E/piffii H/Ti! .t'/!;w; ihmider ("liylilTiiii^'l ^Iritck; (lijhie^-: 

I cat, 'Ir^vourl- Drj tiutdab rtd" kltjo. 
SampUk^h — linainpdgto — maldmpag — i^rOHdmpaS' i hit, 

sirihc with my fliil hand 
pa! /^tt^ei/ — pi'iat/Sngkif—>}iapiil/ctJS — marndt/oytg: I 

snikt iJie gong witli the fnt/a^g, "dmniiLJck." 



443 



THE LANGUACR OF THE UOMTCC IGOROT 



gltik(| 1 sipjik^i — siaj^ci^ito — mifshpai^: I alribe off {■<\.i- biilleis 

'ttik'? o-ff liraiiclicb from ir^-fs). 
fay^kck [fa^k-rk] Jiaii mSuok. I strike a Lliick^:n, kill hy 

atriking (whip). 
U^if!ekck. I slrike, hammer thcirort; T crusli Iiy slriking:; 

Scj^: fury'. 
l\il>tikck-- T iiflkr, InniinrT Imu '-.vn^W |iK'r«*i (-i ■-(rhiie eiij 
if-idiin^kv. I Mrike lire, sp^rl:*. ImnY llmiL, Sec; lireniacliiiie^ 
^t0j^>i6i;ki': f -[nke ai^Jiin-l (kanckj; 



string 



l^id: !ivf/i}ik: f iiuil^i; a string; fdlad: Gtrong stdngp 
>virt 



stroke 



okokityck — ill okakdyko — ntook^kay — tnaagok^ay ^iJii i i 
with tbe h&nd ov?r fur. over a sick Limb etc.) 



alrcmg f/ltat; ahajSlaai: (lieakliy, iniibcul^ir), tnn/ijfkos ^[ronjfcr; 

fllM^it jiTflft ; T Sim ^'iL'ltiiif islro-ii^'. I le-Lnvef. 

gained: ^(lon^ ("i a lliii"^;) H'-. •.vn-n], ro|i'\ 
iKfiffhas ay ^tils/inn. ijTrOdg for »oik[ii^. 



Biump of tree Sif'i^c<f 
subside 



tndsljak nan tf^nnjrt: the waters subside (alt^r the great 
flood); they cvaiioraic. 



such 



kd£ nfnd (Jilte this); jtd^ aOHiuiy. isatsdma tum angnintja 
hit^ KdtmJy: they do ten immy such things. 



k&aU}tHg: there ia BuHieienl(foraQpreacQl). S«: fflioiigh. 



suilbcate madpengai.-. Stc: ilran^'^c 

sugar /flc/r".- Igor,; cAi/'a,- [i^Aria] [load word; Ilot: lurfitir^],- 



Tlin; r.\NGl7AGE OF THE BONTOC IGUROT 



44 J 



svigiircane •litosh; d.7id: juict of st^tcan*?. 



Bugarpress falfji'ii \lalh(n^h\. !^cc. iiiilL 



summit t^k'i^k^n nw !tlig: tht tflp t»f tlw moiuiLaiii It'i^'-h^A 



sun 



Hniigilkyti. Ill'' Sin v'l'. sliiiiHi^, C'fz fiii'i//i 'laii tfkyu. 
})ri'ik-ijn-!fs jJiiJE ,fli\;i: L[]C3un "is- in tbe middle ;" it is noon. 



Sunday Donifi'i-o [D/omfti^hn], l^'s^^/i^: tli4 Ig6fOl holiday, pfC- 

clmnud I'v rniiii ;.crf»>riniiifi; piieslly fiLnclion^, about Ihrte 

lunci in ii monlli. 



suTirisf fal^ifti .vi dkyn; lablJibii'i -'ii /uliJU'i si iJl/yn: liegiimiii^ of 

simfi'.u. '\a'i 4>'\'u fuii'*7!i^ firifiiillti. llie sun is ri^iiij^, 
li?= riitn. (nu"i£tSkyii. tin: ■^Lin is sliinicie, il i^ gellmg day) 



£iinsei finfmdnj^mj: tiui^hnf/d (ilmnck nn'i i/frn'Pi: thcsun is sct- 

EiEig- liii/^miifi! imn /ti-yi'. ih'" ^mi li'i'^ ''^^, 
lfhin£'ka>i si (tl-yu: place (or tijnej of sunset; ft'ffst, 

supper t>i4js^an {tiiealj eaTicg)t 

Support fodjit'igtik (li-f'p) 

tuppose Itifll flJioJAJya [452]; 1 ^iippn^c; mnnfiMko. 

Sure lit/fTva. 

turfflce ^fho'i [rfM'i]' lop M. h Jiflrr i*,Tii3*f "Dii /^/j: -on (lie 

ground; Iml : u iitin kaf/l'"-i<ir-- on Ehe ^urEjc'uf Ihc wnicr. 

surprise, I patigbg^dch-^inpansJig^iikn—^ndl'iinfi^S'^d. 

tiiapangSgedi:!^ {mQpQug^g'x^nh]: I am surprised, (iiyij] 



444 



THE LAN'GLTAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



put 3 fence eround a house; I surruund a io\^n with war- 
rlnr*i tn-.) , Person.; inltkidak — ninUkidck: I go arniiiid- 
niir/ffr-L(ir'.(iri[: 3L]rToniid[iig;^, \ht place aroiind 
iibdjeJi-^i-iink^bko — maiikol! — niiHlikob: E surrormd, shut 
ill , ^rf 53, 



GWflUoW, I 



ogiu ^tj^k—intiy^m ff n^fefl— m aifj; man—niii i^if^m oti. 



swear an oalh isapat^ak — imapatditlf^tnn/i-^i'pdta^mi'tigiiitp^tn 

llg^roi and IIj^c.) \ iml'iilditk lixy fli/hvn: I Ukc n o^iti 



sweat 



U'Kf<;t 



sweat, 1 mai^'i^efak — nallugctak. isllk mOr^f't^e!: I am sweaiing 

sweep, t pakpdknk f ivlpe) ; iis/tah—sinis/iak—niOii^/ttm^: I Bweep 



avueet 



infilmsit 



sweet Scr. "'cflEtiiiia" 



Bwell 



hnmitvong. i' ■^i^oll^i ■ Jii'ffrtfji;\"rsjjg; ii has, la swdlleD. 
ki"m^yo>i_g nan !fii>ifk: niy srm i!> swollflr. 
tnajdisclak: 1 am sw-olleii (iii pit linitj^J. 



AW Jul 



inhvdJQk — mMkydlak. inkydlak is nan tli'iLtim: I ^iviin 
"in ibf ivaner." f'akydtck: I order en, make awiiii. 
jiiij'rfjot ijji /JiiiPiy is... I ?'viiii t*-, (a place) 
{iiiSabldfii^ak: 1 floa-l) 



awuK 



/tffnf, S«i hog. pig- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC IGOliOT 



44.^ 



mil 



(^i£vVi [//'ii?|; tpay (skori lail; aim: lassel or -frii^e); 

Udfnd [:[Llfc3r][er 



Tfllre 



aidi'l^—i>uihh--miidhi~maK^dh: I lake, gel, obiain. 

rtc-civi;, l;ik'' .1 lining nl lli mu, ^^'l^c, ^r:i'-|i, i"[E£li (l[<ili) ':[f., 
PenriTi-] 'inujUiii>i Yiiii!liv(iii\ — inmiiiutik- 1 ^m g:'>iii^ c'l 

lake 



lake, accept iiauit}dd^k (;l' <:i'\\x) 

take Hiway hudneh — ki-ad/tgim — atak^fu — maHglfan. 

H0nek; ka'kdlck, (rnnmt) 

from one what lie bdd^ to mt- talcc, accept from ihe hand, 
0hd'J-:li—i>\Qh44h'? — ma0hai — »ut»£^ka4- I ^^ as bcwty, 

b;' I'lrci:, I i^UiinL^T 

ii£Ahik-'iiiti'V;iik—>"tiit.^il}!a: J l.ike away and into th& 

"fif(?" (Sonp ■ilnleci) 

id'f'i^kii, i^^ntiri^lL-., (carry): I take lo a place; I lead olF 

yh/^.yk!> ly.Tjt^i; yo/6l!o\ — inxh^yho \inyoyko . i}iyQ/6ko\ 

— "\'j/y^y — Maii^yffy. I Inke rnar olhcr pJflce 

Person." MyJfyak — ninySyak 

take back isiiinrns^o; Udlik (.""oiiprii) 

lake down iroin uader th* roof, from a tree, a peg: pahaniidjfb — 

tJipabtipJiii:!/ — ■ iiuipirlriitiail — mangipahAnad, fbn'idtko; 
(Ci. p-Ain^ttMak I cgi.ue -Jo.vn.) 



Take bj force o^p^fel;!soldijek (pulf, rob) ; i>kddek f take as booty) 



446 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGQROT 

take home isdtxk (bring bomC:) ; Person.: uminfajt 

tAke into pa^/kpck (ciirri' iiiCn); isk^pko (luad iiilo n liou^e), 

idih\iikc: I late, corry [0 i\ iiliice; 

teke off li^n. brtenjUcl'^ili, lani ■ i- is d tie ft (laLt jivn^) 

filildjek- (iiiilic); ^afi^Jivt. ] ii[iilrc*-i 



take out of aTif>K, veaeel; pafoid€k-^itp<.'f!tkib^u\apof<iki 

\"iiipafiiii\ — maiiiiipitfjZia ^Cf ji'mdiituk. I t''! out J 
ifiituaii: f ntic: oil; fiu vinnrfinilv 



take a loaG ^iJ-uA (fQHofi); Sg^tak nafi d-iilan. 

take tchgdhCT ajjj'frr^i^^ Cii^^^i'i'''':! 



take up f^nii&tf*, satwiiek, isibJ^ln}. sa/i^fck, iekudfek: (lift) 

pitjfdffh (pick tip from tin; i>roniiil) 



tak^wltl" I '^^<? ^^ coniiJiiiiinii or I C'>iiiliic1: tfu^^ho — iiif\t^--^ka — 

maif/icj! [in\fit-.\i-] — ir-aii^'/Jt'.'^; or; aldeh iiy mai!<'\f^g; 

itai^s^ii^fm: I lake \virh mc an object: ifah^iitdko nan 
kaiamy!dko: i"- tiike our shields with its. 



tale tikjftd, og^k^d {okdkJ^d) 



— r\iih\ioi/}yak: T '.'inyflrae with olhijr^. (in Dual and 

Plural only) 

maloiSiy<^ — ^^foitityaii: I tell a long atory; talk long. 

"t'la/ld dngsan is kalthti^:" wlthotLl iHSirli frifklni;! (dn 

iioE lalli &o nmclil) 
"n^fl^ Hcj; foi-dyc'iiyei/:" "what are you iriH^lcie about?" 



TillL LANGUAGE Ul- TIIL! BONTOC IGOKQT 



447 



uU 



dntjo; anifnljo; dtujodntjo. too tall: tiaUdttbi 'y dutjo. 

kad UiT" t^-TiiJ'/i-fpfii^ tll■■^^■ LjilT I', il ? {ivi'v niurli [^ [is lielglil?) 



I tame: paam/tek — inpo/t'i'ok — ma\p0iimo — '<taii^'paifmo. 



ianAain Sec: gong. 

Wa\c, I taiiiit^iiiitk—iiiiawiuirwalc — miniimuifl\ar[—ii-!ij\uh'i'<i"-p. 

' tJiitiain: tliu ts^tt. Ijdg l^nilaia si as/n: it taates like salt 



tattoo, 1 jiftkak- — ItiiiiHiali — \i\c.f(ii.!n!'i — n\aniitU-t: 



tettw 



idtek \Jdtgg\ collect, aame; tididag: tattoo on breinL 



lallootr 



jfimajdtcJ/ 



leiKea 



f^y.-^ (line.) 



taxcarieclor iftfyxan [ifiinjlsanl 



tta 



tija [tisa] (lainwOrd) 



leach 






teacher 



miistla \vuisf&io; fmf/□^?J {Sp. inae^tro) 



tear, a 



liia;A*^3', I w^ep: indkaah. 



443 THIL LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC H^ORQT 

tear, J fif^fihck — pi'tikfiUiro — mopiki'-ii — iiatmShi^h. 

buk^ek \pUli!clr\ — [rf"F[?j*Jt — >t\obh^-' — n\n>nhki; 

.ii':!l'd'li:l: —ii'ii/^b^dJei> — mo-i^gliM — mom^gi/vd: I tear off 

fiiili-difiif^lfo (ftoiiij kaeJiicIc, I lake o([ : 1 iiiar of quickly 

iy p^yikidngko ncH kQwSii\imor {\\\^i\:\.c\i,g .) '1 tear off 
your ears j" J 



tease 



Q bafiui£i!k — i«vihdfa ngk-'^ — uimsbijfaii^ — man ^o bdftiii^ . 
deride. 



tell 



il'fafittl^ki': I itll it 10 iiUnv, i" ^H, J ;inii'nince 
itol0y'-k- I 1^11 (-iililrr^s)- i>i.iskiliildy<fk: Icoiivprse) 
in{>fJ-i<i^iiiik—<^iM'-gOkAdal: I tell a SliX-y, ulnlc J (ale. 
it^iik-ck \^iiii'}ki:^\—inijni^ck—maf!jug {niaii}uh\. I cell, 

ffivc an nrdci", coniiiiaiiJ, [iisErucl, 
(Also; fbfabak, I b"^, is Tispd for: I tell) 



temper, I \iintpko — Jiitln/piio — »ia/ihiib — jnaneitirHb: I temper iron. 

tempcsi U»\lim (^lunnl, if\lJii!/h!i {rAin. jih'mcrs), ipilMti (liail), 

ii/tjif (tlmndtrj, ytpytp {lij^JilTiln^O '-'i'-' 

temples ^^'"^g 

len ft'/o (Mike L in: rttUJ fp(ffl], Jifl^s; 

the lodi: natt^apS'o. indygap^'a 



iesti<dca 
than 



UigSii;::ongj ■■crotiun: fliK; fitifak: I castrate. 



jjfj 



p^jfl'tesed soroetimes by: "nmdfel," "it is ivell^ I ffm ^'\nd," 
a lerm of joyous ^pprov^f. iwteffct la iviiim imuneiy ken 



THE LAN'GUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



449 



thank, I sak/St^: it is well^ I atn glad that /ou ^ve this lo mc. 

itmdict la inmitSika: ll ib ;l caiii^e of juy Ili^iE you liaie 
come. OfEciJ kd't^Ss! g"^>^d, ivtlll is iiieii in cxpresn llisnks. 



am 



sa, 'imiijfSf,^ n^n t^df, [^^'OO]- io order that , !^ |455l 

456 T 457] 



tfiA 



ljo-40] 



thee 



ifk 



sma 



tbHTj ibieirs [lOi-iJi] 



ihem 



ii&itja [Liattsa 



thereupcwi 



ihCTC 



jj jfl [j; sa]; i.z!]f \ h'ji; hfi>; it<h].i^ tjdy, isljAy, [hijSy]. 
therg is; fjdy. ij^y imii f-lii^ir- llit-rc is Lhe|iiiL, 
there esiata, is^ waa, art, wete: -wodd; w6ddy [362 ^.\\ 

also reduiJlJciild ivitli ^rjjiip.ir alive or iiHL'iiiiJvc jneajiiiig; 
itiodiUflii*/ lli'^rc li iii^irr: .. ; ilioie ia noc; ma/Id. 



therefore J^rin^ HjWr.- Qt ■ j/yo ^jV non, . iind Mrtrii. acrinnis \v[i[i ^uillx 

-m Eni3 poi^scisivc ending'*. |44?l ('^f ^'^"i' -J'''fM"'**^^ 
si...; Sii-tj^n^ ay) 



Asm 



Spc; this 



Ihiok Sj^std/'ifl [asPied i^i\ {Ins in: rollj 



450 



THE L'VKGUAf^E OF THE BOXTOC IGOTiOT 



thiols 



fidi^lini^: kafahil^ii^an. (dejiK wood ) 



thfcf 



ak"^ifan; nftfn^Ji''M 



thSgh 



^/■o ['ipf>\: t^pay [iSfjiay, dtbay]; 
Ihigli »eai ^croruoi: iipyak 



tfafaie 
thJna 



ayayltbid; thin,, emaciated; ntiflkfl; inydhU it Is thin 
[lai-iii] 

etc- 



thlnk 



nimi tmeh — n inim-ntm ko — mafifmnim — nt hiiifinnim . 

Frcqu. riiid iiiltiia. : nhinfnfmnlmekr 

"ria/Sd itimnhti}ito- you do iiol lliiiik ai all : j'ou Sawc ni 

sense." 

^'viQdd is nan nimniuiko: you catt iuiagiue il; I nculnul 

Joll you." See: llioiiglil. 

SonieniiiLe} fcfifnat, f say, mpans: I think 0"^ our-; I ■should 

any). 

tliLiik ol, I alway-i rciiiciiibcr. f Cf. sc.iimk^k, \ ren]i'TL]l"T) , 
"I tliink" c.^iprcsnii^ iinctTliiiiilv [s Leiidercd. idirjEiL^nrjllj 
\ty ngd, dtu'l 'ig'i 1,^06; .^4?] ivn^ antdy iiget: pmliupg. 



thim 



tttfmW^: iiiay^dih \iiia)rgat'U\; on* third; kat'lS; 
ke^'idn Ji ffliitk- a Eiiii'd ol n pig. 



thirst 



oAdit [^fi^J 



thdfflty 
thirtj- 



iiai^oiiaji [uao/oJ^ou] I am tliiri^ly: unM/J'iiak 



OH^ pd'a llie jCidi ; maitiim'y pcl'o 



TKr r.AWGUAUE OF TITK 130NTOC TCOROT 



451 



thic, llicsc Fffl^^irfy, na [95-99! ; itionS- niln t^iid 



thorn 






ihcse 
thou 



^ici;: Ihnit 



jrft^j 



thought 'r^niiii'ii: i'tcA, iniemiun, pbn ere, 

"imii iii>i\iii/ii{rii. according to ciiy judgment, a& I IjdKv^- 
110 Ff flrrF[ir/mi(iJ fr^^^L'^.' j/yiTJ ill my jiidgiiicnt lie is eil'>d." 

thousand iff 0; sin Itfo; [/fbi'] 

Xhr^Sh faydek (pound) 

chrpad lf//ld \isl>C'l\ {of fiher; beaiiilaiki) ; Itiilifiii^k. 1 V^wi&J;, 

jijaki: Llir«it<T-QllfiberonHiekn«: J. I.XXXJIJ.) 



thrive 



ma/iiyadah—na/^yndixk (fir^w nraigfic; iec ; slraighlcn. 



throat 
Ihrob 



luleklekuttb *i<r>i ^^d: the vein it ihrobMne- 



through fw/jdJak fgo, pase llirOiiKli). ^?iii'ifr^?»TVi?fr ^picc^ic, Ijurc, 

slab til rough) 

legd/t-jjak —{ines>i:^V'-ak --'nalegdi^zMii: 1 bore hoks 

[llTOllgJl wood. 



4Sa THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOr^'OC IGOROT 

Throw feftdshek — fnikdikhi) — m4bkash — rndmtash: I stciiie, "Jasli 

to pieces- 
throw across pa^cijifiigch — in pa^lj^njiko — ma'spdhtjaii^ — iwangip-iiklfuvg 






throw "back p-is'iakJ-'y^t-i: — i'lprnhdhongko — moifashit/ffong — 



throw "beyond pafoidngek — inpafdsimgkir — maipafdsaHg — mtaiiipafJ^iig 

(over a hcdp:?, a fence) 



throw down ibdhak—hibahak—maiiidban — iitaiiphdban (iii^ike J-illj 
See J (lri>p. 
iiiptjdgko — iHstptj^gko — tninsfplJag—fKangisfftjag- 
tokdljek—titte/iitd^o — mat^ftcad—ttsiB^liad (oTtrtum) 



throw over ihkd^hko — iiiil'hitshko- — "Ktilykti.'^h — mongfbhosh {iii.ik-c 
liinibk ■jvcr); tokdn^^vk. Oi idu^ifn^ko {iiifkdngko'\: I 
throw -over, upieL 



Ihrow palfdtek — inpcUfitko — HwisdlfMd — mangipdifitd. 

through 

throw spears {uij^k^k, tiijdyrk, imydn^ik; fii}ighdftwck. Sec i *ipeai'. 

iiipadpadc'i'ah — mnpadj'adSyiih : I pr^iclicc ihrotviiig spea;'^ 



throw Stones farJi-eb — (inai>^hc—mafdo£—mamdog 
thumb pQfigamdaca 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC EGOROT 



453 



thunder 



k-itjd; k^lib \kdhb\- '■^•rr : ^Irikc. 



ttmndcTG, [t ^iigkAHh {ciigklS{b\ — unigi;i6iib 



ihus 



kd^ TftPkJ {Jike this); Mj nmR-dy; vjd^; "jhgi^eni nid^! 
Ikom sid^l do it thus !" 



ihy, thine [loi-r ii 



tickle 



!fitk'fyck — ip/iakdykif—tnaljiikay — m audkay 



d« 



fMtjek—fwutlddko — moydted — nuimiiiitd: I tie, fester, 
"imprison" 



tie with ropes k-r^^ilitk — Iti'usgifdak — i'i^i:a^ihiaii — man^Jgod 

tie together ^.tpnr^te strli^a: iSSp^k — Urtodpki> — mUto^p — KtfJUifflp! tyr: 

lellflj ck — tin nk^tko — *" alfflfrt— "t-a ndi-^-t 
i^tke k — fin J^gho^'niiS'ieii'^'^ tf'm ' ek 

tiefs^ (huiidle^] L itak'M-i.'—ii!<-i'rJ!li,i — maildJ^id^nu^J gifiil^sd . 

logctb^ {al^o; I lit jn .fniui.Ll Ln :v pote). 



tight 



s4mi^d 



tm 



ii\kitf!a ri-r- ^ii'^ [44?] 



time 



Is expressed l>y Ihe ivords; day, iiioiilli, yi'Ar elf, (Sonae- 

liLiLCif Ijv: fif' i"f| l'"^ ro'Eilon ii-car ;i lo-vn, nr "vcaclirir") 

»i^!af! noil Jdlon : "the time becsme fligbL" 

kdr>[vmd. 3>hf':, is al:fl used f-of f xleifcl rA tiint *pac^. 

tlic next tine. ^> idf/n; !i itaj/fc dkyr. next day, an otiicr 

time 



454 



THE LANGUAGE OF I HlL BONTOC IGOROT 



time 



fnOi/ZJ Ifaitinofil'ia kgn si^/Sn: T haw no CiDie. 

|[mi-a; b''L: '■Miilil|illr:^il>'i-s." I3G9I 



rin can 



Idf-o (5p.l Prenprvp!) m Tin Cluis. 



t^I 



f.'irfyck — finS^yho — "idbfcy — fufmley: 1 make tired. 



lired luJifita'. t^Ji^ji^ji^t.' I am lired. 

to fs. jf, [£<, ^^, aj, ^'f [71 -75 ; 37~-:](95] ; j'jJfjf'Jif, .*^f^- to [J47] 

tobacco i'if^gii 

tnj-day ad-jvdni; idwdni , u thJ" ^'ij'ff aj- j^c/v (<in this da^) 

toe past^am^ma ii nan l/^pdn (tbomH ruf the foot) : bi^toe; 

|[ie oibor loes have ilu? i>,.im'^ [ijiii'-:i a^ tlii.' "lini^erfl, with 
anJded; ii nan rfa/nfii (nr; ^1 Ifapitn). 

Callccr- name: kdmStt. f^twing: the deformity &f lh< big 
toe tiding ?.c|i;ir[ilcd from the othtre, [iitnin^ insidf:, 

tos^thcr m<!d"\oig: tittifn (aJO> -"JffiiFiftftj^tJjj'ft,' come togeCherl 

(assvDibF^:)' See IjooJ 
infji^£t<i (Dual), infat^tdlio (FIlii-.): Ictus go toj^tlhtr ! 



ton 



Lndifs: work 



toil, 1 



infagfSah — niiihj;fiMI^ - T work for wagfs- 



toniatocs Sflm^iShT (loanword) 



lo-mQiTow fljit'nJ'tifs; E-rtc'jl^iir^. S<e: day- 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC ir.OROT 



455 



tongB 



s!bi\l [i^'hid] : sibfdcic — -Aiiibf'iko — tinLi/bid- T hold, laSic 

iron Willi llic toiiss. inin:licr3. 



longtic djlta I dfJa]; ipadj/iak: t cause 1o Uck, i, t I feed a. child. 

tA-d^hi is mastjfvt ii dBUHin; is noHnsSy ay naitjTm. 



too 



df^.-ran: t'lv nincli ; is<tls'l"'<i .ty ak!r' ^'lo Mule, mil [■nough. 
|U"> link' riiiiNci, nil I'lii^Liyfi ji.iy . h'Jlii'i£! (lodciv-or^)] 
tml^Lj^iiiti'it: I ".Liii C'i'> iimcli," i, e : ] .ini loo i;C\'i^t-!;, too 
CHJHiii£^ IOC vit.kiii, "f;a:£i7"wi(jfru h-ii IjdlcJitif: jouare 
COO harsb with ua; you treat us too severely." 
tsatsdmaka ny fatitg; y-oii iire too ^mall. 



tocpth 



fofuf. niijl.ir; vSaro. tii^k, bcij- loi'ili, .•uton^; sniall 
tuuLli (<Lo^, lioaf etc J ; laii^'^fn. 



b^ 



ffshint |^*iiW.-r|; on its top: is dakSna. 

(^/Vrr^iiJ-i |'rf'./-"flir;=rru],- wp flf hoHs^, uf fOot; 

to"icg''. [iijt 111' Iteailk 

fih^'^-f^THji \lffU^kim\ ii !!l!^: top of mannlaiii; 

tiiH^i"a- t&p of a Iq^ .>iujnMuall; see; coiir.clLli.niJ.c. 

fdn^g' top of a vjall forming a terrace of XLCL'Jif [.[■^ 



torch, jfi/fd, made of jrf^f, pineicood, useri in'irfjij of triiidk;. 

forebrand 



touch, I apondsh^k — tnapon^hko — t/toapdnajik — mati^apSnash- I 

tovcl^, fot'l, i^Lpc; /^fFiTl' flialil); krj}jkk (move). 
liiu'lck — h'nM^l'f:!.' — 'iKjIfucb. " .Uit loiiclics. readier. 
PeraoiL: lumi'K'^^^k — h^cmS/icbak; nan tjimnn irimlmb ken 
sty<i. lliL' l^nll?|■ imirhi-s liin-i. 



toward is. H, ad. id, as, ken [^77-^95] i i^ "-w m^/yiyy: in the 

directioCL 



45fi 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



lown 



same W'^ti n^. in odi^r, 



(Tflck 



djrfifln (way); fooiprint; tjapdx {is tiSH Utta. is kitii 
pilckr <^lt th< ground, in the nrnd). 



Trade,! isheikddko (barler)- voiti^Jat (cliaiigc); 



ithQ 



djdlii'i £way) 



train 



"Lilroad Lr^Q : f/flii (froDi 5p, tren; f So] ;) 



tcamway iuldnlia; sal^iAa (5iih truivia.) 



iranBCjrm prj^'S^^Ji^i^iuj^fi — jj^'impi/jjifpra^ (1 Jraiiiforjii myself, a? \ii 



translaw kdmk it Is^^ot, is Meiikdne: I *ay in Ty^.roi, FjipHah. 



tt-ansplarit imdmaak — ninsdmaak 



Trap 



ohSjli'j'. fisli Irip, AtjJ: liicge i\i\\ Irap, Funnuliluped; 
j/fJd^. ml [rap; itijok: k[iid -of a ha*.l:el, iirl- 
ftAiHi;; a ^,'^;okc^ for c.^^clli^g lisli {mat^iywikixk') 

(engd^k — fi'i^ngak — mo^^nga: I raise a trap, 
k^nn^h—Jihao-k — jjii*p?if; I tatrii in a trap. 



Travel 



}tta\iiflanaic — naiid!anak (^djdSatt,, way); iftiii^Ukcdak ; 
inlilivisak . I Iravel, walk around 



tread upon ki'l^"*'k C^'^p); i^^irii-ik jV nuii j'H'rk pj' ndp^horii, I 
bTKad the watered wlL by (reading, atanipiiig. 



THE L.'VKGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOKOT 



457 



ireat well ohkdek icarc) : I provide viitii food etc 



treal HI umitaJdyuslMi'k : Inegltci, Aurftci'.' I aiimoy^ LrrtLiMi?: 

i.i,ii.},di'iiii!if' I [real beyoEnl measure [jec loo. 



tree 



tJ)'ff (pine tree); fddang: ull pine tree; tjdpimg^; 
fsaliJtfi'v' It link of a Iree ; t'^ifged: irpejitiiniii- 

I'li^^og: Jore&t; ht',av: sIlii:'- of iri'ci, <i]i ^vhich I.nnia- 
wlg's ?la[ii 30I15 ^vi;ri; tjirrlci.] lu Bijnlni^ fi^r I'vniil ; llie h!(ay, 
\A'An\Jn\ Iji liii; iriir(4l pupdt/Uiy ad S6i^i>k. h.wi^ j^ro^va lo 
large aiid tijic trcea. 



tremble i>ilayhit€niit.-^>iU'Hty^nl''nttk: I .^liiver- 



tribe 



ipii^afi [ipitkiift: i^kao; i'/^frfin. 



tribulary 
brook 



k(tma» 



tnjuble 



onfffiong. I am troubled; monSnangak — rtinon/fnongak. 



trouble, 1 OTufti^ffft — pHfltifi^gto — wna^Ditg—mimgdnong; 



iTQugti used in irrigation: taidkim (6U[ipi>rted by llie be^niB; 

tdki^ify; Ubkatii a trouglx or long mortar for ^K^ndu^ 
rice, 



liQUSSS f-nKlnf-fii {^p-)f ttunnaHld'oniik: 1 pat on trousers; 

i»pisn!dlo>tak: I wear trou^trh. 



458 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 



true 



tit/tvia [tii/i»a];tiiii/h:o 



mat, I 

truth 



d^Xb (vrpoden box) 

abfaiitlel.' (b^jlicve) 
katitijvdna 



pQfiitihcif — p-,}\j.is(Ui\ko--'moi'dfiash (Hot J 

i^bitck — H>if>^gl.-o—md!f.-k—y>iia'ifc!-. I iry patuln^ -tlr. 

while liijiliiiij', wjili ,1 5ln"k. 



tube 



fiiu'ih (for liquiit), stc: be vti^aj^C'S. fdyu^h^; J. CXIV. 
shorE lube lor ciicji : iJijin; long lube' urfon^ 



tuin,l h'kffihek — Utif^^rhf^it^maUkiish — minifknsh: I turn an 

<il>Jtc[ aroLiiiil a verticnl ;ixi5. 

ii'Uhiishtik — niii!!kiizki'<f: I Lmii u<\ ■^clE drunnil ([■► Jirt 

tight, kft Dt half a tutn. vrtiilc stamliiLit) ; I turn my head 

or Ej^ick lo 'i^iju'oiic; 7 liiuk .-aw.-Jv 

iiinfek — -jfrprfj""^ — nat^t^in —i\i!ii!S<ii. T Turn. ,ir objfict 

around, Lip^iid.' [Ir.'^ri; HmjAir"; itpaiclF dowiir 

f,iffnei^—final'''x':''—ii"!f'ih"—<"<i'fi'^f-"- 1 turn ^ay«- (^ 

llie pnycs ■>{ l>i"i[|Vs) Pcr?^!^. , \\\fiiliiaki I turn to the 

otiier iiicic, '^bile re*iLiiig iiii [lie ground, I roll froin the right 

[f] [lie left sifle oE my baily. 

mlik/fi^tak — niitiil^jhiak: iitpo^k4^ak: I mike ^ turn in 

w^lkjrtg-, tliaikge iny diri^iTiort, f^i t* tlio l*ft oi' riglil 

iii»fliitf?ji^Hit.' I [urn coiiiple[ely, I come buck on ni^' patb. 

ki^tiw^sek: I liini d wheel, a top etc 



turtle 



P^/Bt£ 



aouK tuoLh '^J -dog. 



; tusk ^E b<t^i, idang jf f^; 



TTiE T.ANGUAGF OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 



4S9 



twelve 

twenty 

twice 

twig 

rwins 

two 



fin^i; tuiiiig (lif liMj^ji fur kiniJlini; fin:) 



dpa^ 



djifft [d^! djl^iva] 



u 



udder s^io; stfAon si fdka: uJder rf a cow. 

a^j angSngai4d (ay Sttxfn) : bad (to act) 

ulcers l^t^ingi 

uirbrella l6Ss{f<if; pifytifj^ (Ibc) 

uncle aUiAo ay luidki: f^iliec's l>roElicr. y^n/ntt Inn; ur; 

andtfin tii-t: in-oditr's Ttothcr (older tlian she^ ytiimger 

lu^covor lekif^dfek (lid) 



46g 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE l^OMOC IGOROT 



under 



is tsdo [tsdiit\ (405; 408] 



undn&tEmd k^kkck (knf"\) 



undrsB kaitnck (l^ilic a^ray: hit, bretcricfo ill etc.) 

iaf^<,hak: uiidre^^ (el cliild); inldfo^hak; inffladah 



united 



pr^fi:fj3H- |6n| : awr/t la]l|i ma/imoKs ffl^iujmbkd) 



unicenied man' fobfdUo; woinan; mamdgkid (girJ) 



uni'Tpf 



/giT k4/0m "n^r rjpened' 



untie, T faiifdtjek — finfrdfdtho — ynafddf'ad — tniunJdfad 

fUdijek — fitiiidtko — maf^lad — tuamttad (the fjreechtl<n]i, 

hfdlj^i- — inobfAtko — nt aSb fad — mn'i^Jb/ad. 
Ftrson,; nmobfdia^ 



until 



inkdna is... SI'k ., uriiil riLumipiy: it ikd4tta's fitikat 
j4o:i, 447] ; kfka'd ultima: imtil he ccmcs. 



up istSfti^fj^ ad Ijdya [409^410^413] 



upon ii,si,i'^,ad^as; i? xau 4ifVii [ifiki"f] [4oGi4oSJ 



upwards istSngljf^. od fjdyt> Ijoy; 410; 41=! 



uiinaK 



aniij,f4ak—!>i>nufdah. nrin^l: ka/isf^an; 
Po^*c*.3. L isf'hlc: I urinate upon. 



THE LANGLfAC.[^ OF THF^: liONTOC IGOROT 



461 



urine 



Isfo [/jib^j 



ua 



(plui'. fxcliis.) I.'^J) If; S1-84I 



DK 



I D&eas a IimI^ insirunL.ni: Special Verbal Forms: l^jS- 

260; jr.?- ?S^3] Iji-;!] 

fNJjy.' [/"f^rr^A'l — ?rf/,'fiflt — m/fffvo — mint^fH9- I tlSt AS 

iviirkliig hjoI (M'oiiil rjrniii'.'t, I \^ork) ; "only -.m' (.f Fnrrl 

Lyuls, ujeUil Lii--Lrniii^'ii(=." I use iiiriiciiil: Ifiiiy^i;! [I I'Ut 

aomewherc) : ^^^ipj; fJU'f »\ai\^';fp/iycm is iian kdyof for 

vvliJLl ilo ynii u-^c llic ■■.'"■■I? 

rr_L'ifjj ^^an rrraj^j/.^i^^'^iir if jit ' for what do yfni use this?" 

ijuj;^^i'^^, I iJM :iJI ii]i l^nt.;.JI iijjI. 

£ JMi [ii; lk'i>i':i> (tii'-U^Lii) . Hiii'l^-.o tiy meimfUui. I use 

to walk; or: upjj^j ■.:uirV, — \i\\\\ifi\:/,iiAik. 

iifTiliig'ii^Xilc ify "Eijui'i^fo ■ I Li'i: In 'iinikn?. 

'■i^'j-H 'ii"i hotdk iSsliJ^ '"^^li;ii. i^ lijis j-umJ for;" y£ wliat 

use ia it? what does tliia- mefln? 

r]j;ij^^' nan kotSJ^mo aj iiiengd^b is tiaa df/in^F vihsl is llic 

t\^c line yoii hiiilil ;i li'ni^? 

ma/id 'ur-!pjii'\^moJ vfkLi arc of no uw, worthlesa! 



uvula 



^kUmg. See: gluiton. 



462 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IG0T40T 



V 



valn^Lu ma/id k^i'ilrmt nan eii^dnomm "ihere is no use of your 

vviir[:liig;'' ynii ^vork hi vain 



valley 



t}d6]^S 



vshie, pdcc pdtek; id^o 



vein 



ddd {anid, ^dtr\ 



vendor 



vtvMgO 



venom 



kiiedSay \l.'yiiwdfay: Mwfif.iay] 



vertebrEC 



3ngel si fljij^ [^da^] 



very 

vessel 

vlUfigC 



uatsdtaa. Expressed CBiu.lly Lpy Hcduplica^tioa : [122-126] 



Sm-; jn.r, pol, gtass, ci^, battle, gourd, tube, bowl, baalcet. 



tii 



vine 



Jftgo: leaver and sbnols <ti ^y-'CH pole^ti? (canioEe); 
udka [sijitka]: » ILtcc, A viae '^g dtroag as a roptj^ 



vmcgaj- 



htiim 



visible 
vUt 

VCdCE 

vomli 
vuh/a 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EOMTOC IGOfiOT 463 

ma/fla^ jiadistinctly visible, dm; iirA^i'imas. 

ebtSa^- I go tone; ildsk (»«}. 

MV: of miin, of bird; in/ngdek: of bu^ab; n^/^n^^o: 
of crow, 

ifH; rnddwad iCJlcili); dpid, idwid- dllotis. 



w 



waJc knmljdngale: 1 crn^s a river; T ivaiic lliroiigl* (In: waCer. 

wQgea idgfo:tdtigUaH [iilKgtjm\ 

wagon kGlaiadta [i^almdlo] (Sfi. f^rrom^ui, scab dsed in .\'Iartila) 

wail, howl inay!-!fkoiik^nsii!ii\dk'ia}^. 

"waist hffaig 



WAit 



itisd^dak: Ivaii- UUdek: I ^'ai [, keep waidid 



4^ 



THK LAX'lJUAGF. OF Tl\K UONtOC iOdrot 



wake 



».\', ri'nc, ^tC ii]». i\imfffihigotioh: 1 kec|i aivakff, 
inti'biibak — H/rl/biil'itk: i kccji a^rakc, yaicli iJiruugli ilie 
aight 



walk 



ihdck: 1 ^^,l]k a( llie LorderlLiie, Iroiiticr; Ver'^. : iimf/idaj^- 
titntfiuNiab; 1 ^v^lk Jvliiiid; rliii'^nii'^: umo«ihioiUit 

tr(/ni;rff: 1 wjik Llirr>nj;h thv center (of a towii^ rrglon) 
Jimfli^ifiUK'isijS:} —infiSiivufhjffsak: I walk "e^'efy^^]Le1'^!" 

walk rhrouffh, I pase a town, reflion; .ijid: 1 iunoiLJid, 
mndmixdtfKiik —finti'imiiiTnik. 1 l^kP ^ j.l]"rt ■^alk, wjll< n 

Jjttk. Sec: 8:0. 



*fl]i 



bthid. *iLnnr: uall at ihe rear of ,i hnn-'nC 

{iil<sd. die 'vondeci eiitlo-juri: o( .4 hnif-'.*; ami ils psrdtiona, 

!\. fence- ils franl tiiclo^ure: <-S(fji'y ) 

ijdf"iv: itoiie walE aro-niid e|il' /i/'^iJi or pab<tfii>'^an 

(abo the court is oiled sometimes ijjfray). The top o£ thie 

w:ilU !dng^''i<. i^ec: H:i?Liiii:J]lioii?ii:, 

li}f'i'!gi \\ali<jfa nee Cerr.ice; iL^cfiiin;; fjJii^i\_i^; ils 

inner side: tsjiiisiitjish. A iiieljo in liii^ wall ^villii a lai^^e^ 

slrjue as roofj where hcyi giiariJ[iii^ ilie Held*! cnav fmil sin;l- 

ler : Uatig- 



wander 



ttutndlaltah : Sii: V/aUl,^. 



want 



l^ijek (like) 



WOT 



faUfg'iit \ia\Sknid'\ ; nutncfkii. Jitiidhunrm^'- 
See J ^OTfjj' {vnritoifji). 



ward off piiliik,ii'^'>--'fl- — inpalAkdiSk^ — ma finish du}- \ !■. ar.l ^>(i (ji 

■.pcar or slnne iliro^vn aE me) ivl!lf Elie '.lileLil. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BON'IOC H.'^ROT 



4^5 



warm 



diOHS- i^dlCftgak: I am warm; umd'ottgith: 1 am get- 
ting warm ; •nuijiiri.- ]!!istfAi-lr]^fiitrii/tsoi.-—f'jisaii/ifo: T 
rtinii, make w jmi , iiinailU'H^iil,-; I rrnisiii wacfii; 
ptia!^n_gekj I make l^ arcii, I lurnl- 
ina'irljJuk ]r'\i!j/hlc]-- I rt'auii myself aL iJic imtj/^aii, dre- 



warrior 



fumal'f/ilii^iiiii [lig] 



wart 



/■aJ^ifjiJi 



wdfih 



face, liJiidi; F'.'rioii : rimi-'«ilr — htiMisali- 1 wai^ii iiiyjiclf, 

tiatlic. (w.[|[ioiu "liii'ak,^ body) 

fiiliiak — fiiuditat — mafui^an^-mattidiH: I wash my hands 

(jiurr lfii\ak) ; 

itdzhak [wdihak\ — i'utJiJusI: — ma/iiihl\aii: I iva^li (p.irls 

of Lliy lirtily, .vi.I'MJ, ■oloni;, dl'-ln.'^) 

likiikat — IftifiUkak — innlikiilfan' 1 wash idy headO'Cjn ^Jr?£') 

isH/dpuk — tiinH/^J'iil, — iwafm/iij'n'ir. T waah nij eye (nan 

(ii^.^.y^ijt — fi^'Til.s^&^ — masaJtjd/tan: T wish Ihe privy 

pans (wiJrfif-i^J^ij) 

Itihjiiuk—himbfdni^^atalni/fdwi: I wash clolh, a coat, 

sliirt etc. 



WMp 



if^/jj/iT;^'^t3ll 



watch dock Ul:^h (Sp- reloj) 



walch, guard iirf^iu; irtdkaal (a guard in tlie ri« plantation) 



watch, 1 Prtiaess, : fol^ek; a>-.nd!ak. 

Id I okSi \^^b — I f'/p J rohSii-^j/:} — m at of olfStt^a^i — tJi an ofSlf'jn^: 

J ivaldi (".1 he^d, Icsl miy rlog^ ^ct it") 

ii-.tidshi/oiiga!; — iiiiiodsl'tii^jigak' I watcK lo<iki|Lg down 



456 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTQC IGOROT 



waich from above; for: wit^^.^lnjoit^ak ^) 

iildek'- 1 watch, *&? clo^c 

oli?eive (llie enemy) 

ittlibtibak: I keep Jivdke ^vat-chiog durmg nnjht 



waicr 



f/(^FL[£'jL [ijilii^m; iliiiiniw ; d^HOm); Afl'/-^F[HJr[. a body i»f 
"^Jt;r, riicr, [joiiri, Gewh^^cr fjJiwiniif/: I walcr (irri' 
pjlc); ii\iiH'iJ^lJ/^aii: I get vvaEur. See: poL 



waicrEall moioywyoii. tjtpanh (ihc rock over which, or cnjt of which 

-Lvaier Hows) 



wave 



k'^b^giO^ li tj^ttm; ctirrent, ripples Iti a river: ftoHipo 



wax 



v!{d; h'iiga)7\: black iva* 



way 



dfa- direction, ,^^; "ifl^k y-i AMi: my direrl v-.-iy ij; loAlab_" 
U iWi kodjiUan. inii The vvjiy {\y\t\\K ^^alkin^) 
"rfi? no^^ mii/ypy id r'rh'lck^ ^vhixt j^ iIl(? wity lo BnnEoc? 
hi^l<iik<}- T objiirncl iliL ivay- im^Ittak: J inland m the way. 



wc 



/;Via (wc hvij] y(jii iinJ i|j tjaUtkQ (^vf^ iiLCilu.); 



weak ficf-iiyaii; tissdkyii: a i^mall flrtd weak map; 



wealthy j;i?tf.(j;^ir-y>'j^t |t{Aj;i/rr^jrjt^i]. Sh^cl ricli- 



weather i^njo^, idls/in- die ficfds siirrauadii^ a town; 

ffif«ji - L€ used in &ain« idioms lor "weallier" nr ""(inie" 



Pctbotl: indfSyali — niniifbyal!. -■?<:£:; lOKin, 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOSOT 



46; 



'weddin? l!>if"tna: weddlTig feaSt; ftnitUas^ rich ™an"i ■we<!diiig' 

kdkon^: connwted wilh ihe ^v[;Jlll^J;-^"Cm■Ll[Hl■y; tht h^ad 
of El ljiilf;ilo, ki'i'l si'V-T.lI wrtk'^ in lUr hon^c un.ltr (hr ri^DF, 
l^ |nii ■misirl^ iiijjtilicf v-idj tlit IicjJs uj udifT rccncly 

ijrr^'pr'^ii/'. I C(?li-ij[;iiL: ■vfiildliig, mrikc a iVa.ir- 
-^•Jti^jii • cci'':[i[Giiy .iTi LIii: ^ccDLid day (c;i[iii^ 3 pig)- 
iusli-^g: rest day alter vcrl-iliiip^ 

w«^c p^.^hvl'. p'Uld'ck: 1 ^plit by a i.tilgc C^pbL) 

.rflt^Jrp^"^irii&— ^i?i-7fejftiundaA — mo-'takammiltm; lH^tmak- I 

■w<:i:d. 

iflf;^j7ji(nt— Jrtiifj^i'u lak: 1 w«d the will of 1 rice larace: 

^biib!il\-: I ■^e^.i], iLtar llie gLiiuinl from lrcc=, [icdgcs; I 

iJiriM. iivLT nficr cLiniii!;: lnio ii. 

iuf^iL-k—kifjaf^tko — makdjot — i'\iiii^tifoi. 1 tear ouK, pluck 



week 



^■j'>i!'i;;lz'j (Sp. Domingo, Sunday) 



weep 



init^aai^^-nitnikiinh. 



wogh 



Ubldek CSp. libra) 



well 



spring: Tft/it; small v-.'Ll , jMj\id. 



wdU 



]'.f &rfn^r [4»i] 



WCQt 



iifmih-ka'i si i^kyii, "^un^''tl," 



wet, I 



ift/.^i^[/('Air|^h/o*— mdtti^flfRff&nj.mrffoyl. See: water; 
■.ixik- 



4^ 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



wet 



nJboy; I an wet: nabSyat/ \'i'if,iyok]r 



what 



"I'^S [f47: 350 E.; 35?]; !<s [iilcrjj:c[ioni iron:' "ivhJl 



wEialttoever Jilai n^S^ [tiJ^''r^d_\; 



wheel 



kO"gin!iiga (l]iii.^ 



when 



fi^^ [354! ; "lien, conjunction : [443 ; 444; 445] 



wEicnce, iniS [dnldy [353]. 

where, 
whither 



whereaboulft fafU'i^iid (plaice; alft) ptritnl, £p3cej. 



wEiei 



pattsiek \baUdek\ (sharpen} 



whether 



mo 



whetstone poUtjitH [baUdan] ; itsfian lds3H] 



which? 



s^u ay.- ngUg-. [145]; Relat pronoun fjjS-j^S] 



whn* 



conjurKtion ■ [444 ] ; a little vhile ' j,iH ahflfta. 



whip fd/ig 



whip^ I fayihek {faytkek\ — fsnftiko — vafdig—mumdii;: whip 

horse, puaJah a man by Vibippln^. Person-: fnmliigak. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



4(1 ij 



whirf inlilhuiii t^un rjVii^jir, wAvi ivhirls, 

Mrhiaky "fAvash" (,iii ^Icoliolle: Picvcn^ in.iiJc oi sugarcane) 

\^"higper iniibi/fiafc — ntiitifntfiak 

btMllie v^ lifSLliiig. aller Imrd work 

n\iiipi!pd>'iifi' . Ill L i,-iui\Jibak is impi^kaa. 

whoiwhom? j/?i^<" |i4'>, .1.44-3Fii^| As Ifelaidv^^ Pronouns: [3?^-3.^^1 



whoae? 



,^4/ 



whoaocvcr ^^rt! sfnu 

v/htAc aintii: aiiifn nan tsa'y tn/inofr^ llic i^'Tiole chicken; i.i nan 

iin iJkyii. ihp whulc Aiy : naii /i<"/n ay JK: the ^vhoJe 

con 11 1 T^. 



why? 
ivicked 



135a] < why TTolP en adi ay? 

ligU^. mji'igh". Iiiftf-ii'i/' -1 ^viikpd actiOTi (rot person"), 
"it i& lad, ^vrau^, foi'bidd-eji." 



wide 



i3u!a-j.^a . tnnsiit-fufafa (wide sbws, trouaers); I inake 



wid 



ow 



^7/jtUi [liJ^AoiftJ 



widoiiutr 



d.masd>ig [S>*idshdng\, nadntasdiigan. 



4?o THE T.ANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



wlfia 



Oj^ATva ay fafdyi 



wUtl 



dtdb (of animaU) 



wi 



ild buf^li) dydwan \dy&aian\ 



"wild cai" fiiyaff 



wild chicken iiJy'^j^; i^ild (and domestipcated) cocki hii^w!ia>\ 



vAl^ hog ^^?FFHjjj, /■"1/11511 



will.I tfyi;*t (llke)i ch,iek. I go to... [3*7] ; /jiflt|.loK] 



will, I jT/-",/>tt— jpfa^r/.^:t(i— rr^dii/ff^; I ^i-in jti games: 

i lose; uiadfak^l'. 



-wind tfakhe; f^mmi: i/mUm: whirlwind, Ijphoon; aiipdspo^; 

lA-tnt! 1 iHiUiko: I tvinU ar<^iiiid, a llifcjii riri-nn'l ilif iLiL£.er ntc 

window f^fifiiui (Sp, ; venfMu); ^ifttfl tnJoc.J 



Wine 
wing 
wink 



"ijipuy:" ttfM-wide. 



wliini>w, I tdp/aJi^fiiidp/ak — matdp/an. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



47' 



winnowinE ^tg/rt: fSamoki: If/kd) 

tray 

vIpeofT popdkak—pinopdkak — inapopdhttfi (a lablt. floor, Ficcich) 

apandihch — jixuponiishko — maJipdna'.h — iiiattgapJKosh : I 

u'i|Hi my liLCO, my luni], liorly, I loiidi. 



wire 



frf^fVi^ \fiilo,S\ fdlod ay patatjtiKi ay iatjUti 
fal^Sjek: I bind, tic, fetter, iripn^oii. 



sii ironi 



wise HkEHiA^Anan {timn/ineif: 1 think); "dioi^hlful;" 

wish, [ Hyijek (lUce). luywisli: rutitlfytfck. a nisli: hal^yad 



-fiiih 



tiif^c^air' I am, go ■wflli... Hui^^ho. I inki' v. ilh Jiic 



without tH<\-/fd f4oSj ; "inmdli ay tua/fd sokSt^n^'ra. li?b3Afom& 

without hat" 



w<Mnb 
wonder, I 



fSf^vir J'liirfil ; fdfiifd\i; o-ld wuman: intna; 

\'\\n : fjj/jj/fliT. Sue: yirl 
tmktl(i{dyiak: T viiii ilie girl^' dormitory, the ■^iof 

fj/i l^jitf; /jip^l J» on^Snsa 

uiadodSggdak — nadodS^idak ; Htai^ak^-tiaSdank . 

jti'js (grntric i^nr.l -]ici ilir: |inci' ivm.]'}: 

mangliyfifali. 1 i^il uoml, aciri: I ^ii icifo [lie ivumlji m cciii- 

&nll llic onuii-I'lriJ. 

f/'lj'o'rg (^Kc); irJ"irJ,^ti (■ipec); baidyiH ay ijdpang: wood. 

i'jv liJjrulks, ^ptnr?l cic. 

kayifek ftiJvi^fit; frijji^JtJ;] — ti'i!i£;vi^'t' — '"ikdya — JHttagdyn: E 

get wofid 



47a THIL L-VMCU^Gi? OF THF ROMTOC Tr,OROT 

wood UfvH: dry woud, llrsivsU'd. f'dgj'a^, i-trk-lyf^an ^r.ivc^ 

fi>resl Flee- i^rov^'. 
ttrdtih^mi: fire ivf>rnl, 
mtKUpatak: I get dry wood, break it off from a tree 

mamtfiii'i^ak: I ^"iitlier dry ivood [toiii llie ground. 
b^tiii\i[. niiy dry fiif^voo<l. 



wocA 



ts'idtfnd \t.\diiUt-d]: ^hnrt h^ir, fur of sheep, buffalo, dog- 

iindiliGrE icjEliefs q£ iortl. 



word 
wort; 



k^ii (aperch, Janiraage) 



liflao \!}^o\ 



wotU, T l^midct: \_ssundek; ijuKJck; ts^eh; fs^n/tf^ib] — tsfn/nut — 

m^UiQ — mdi\/f\o. 

iVr^rjii.. t'lrfj^fioai \intjdr\oak\ — tUKis^ioa!; 

"wm/fil '"'i^iJino IS iuai kalalffKonf no Work in the li-eTda ! 

(on lir>lidnyj" 

<."-nii^C . paln^ck—ini'dinak — m^pilsxo — mangip4>uo: I 

tniv^fijuk—'iti'h^'j^i'ki T vifJik Il'T ^vages 
Wfl-ir^.J'jrriji'jrt' ! go (lui tn ^vitrk. (f^j^iafi: u'ork rfay) 
iiimimaali — jj^'^ri^iuraif^: I viurk in [in:! fieli]' wyediii^i, iliy- 
giiig^ i-lcardiig Elm [irouiiif, pccparjiig it for j>Iaii]iiig, e^jujc- 
lally transplanting'. 



woT&man 



(TlfJilJU/JJ^II^ 



worlii 



fatiiit'Ufr, •/•m Itt-n'iii;. 



worm 



iftilang (alsa: Littl-e boy, baby); ftkis: vermiq, ma^ot 



wcase 



(jijif^H^f^y, ]r»iiriii(;»jci/(7fr. I am ^riMEg H'Orw. 



wound. 



fdbag (cjiracd by cutting, hitting, sirikiiig) 



niF LANGUAGE OF THE I5QNT0C TGOROT 



473 



wound, I See. cat; hit; slflb,vjirikc, ihron dt Ci. [f^] 

"VTrap, I jn/iivfr — i'iizi''5iil: — mui^l^u" — jufii^ghvii. 1 y--r&p into a 

ifoi<t-'^'i'ik^k'iiO'"<^'i<i^ — "mii^o'iiiTiuifi — miiiii^fhiiiiii , I \\r3|j 

inlii lirii?]i, p:iper, a iiia( elc. 

I unwrap: fiO^nek nan fwU, nan toifr^Jio. 

wrapper A-i."i\i^'\<i: tvnq-fn-r of cl.nli. |>ri|n'r, Iitk-ii. 

WKBllc inljfpahak — nutijfpiUufk: P«SfnL <ti ijipdpfk: I caltfi. 



wring, I 



.'itii/dak — si«ids^4ak — moiidsfdai — viatttdsid: I wring wet 

cloih, 



wrist 



pmsfii^^San |pUH;^rrr;/ffiimi| 



write 



kaUryak (inark l>j icr^li:Ui[i^, brdn'lini;. chIIijiij:, effing) 
s^UMal/ — ■,uxii}diSak—»!(tsni^dii*i^"i(ini^i(td. (Hix tic.) 

pa^ulddi-k ^ I'lpitisuiiidko -^ maiptt^/fHnif.: 1 make ivrili;, I 
order to wrLle. 



wrong "^iTi' (l*iid); frJSiL'if (iiiar;il]y h^il, forliidiiitn. M'ri)nt^ inde- 

cent); oldfdy (viTy li,iiJ; ^v-kIi-^; sLilJ i>orsc (liriTj iiift-,tit)-, 
Tuiiicjn; id-ii'i!'i£. 



474 



THE LANGUAGH OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



yar^ 






yaiti 
yawn 

7^ 



l/ffid 



II' 



//fflbifk — nin/^bak 



!tinjiifii \iim'Sii: r^ohi; last year: ^ia\i fjaro/ji av iitnifiy. 



yeiLl 



^]i/ji^^-?flfljt— i-jfff/jij^onfr.- I vfli Itf-fjjre liiJitle, shorn to Iht 

enemy, clullengc (licnij oc; i^rtgkn'lifhiii''. 

et/ngaoji'^a!^: I slioul, vfH u'luk rciuiiiLns from siicccss- 

lul h^^dluiiLiJLi^. 



yeUow fiilifnj^i (probably the yeUow blossom of a. plant c^ltd 



JM 



Sy' m^ij' [»eii] [■it/rp- c^firr'^^ri ilic Ilsioht's aiteniion; 
lie lUteis i1 now jnd lln-n wlill(? an oilier sp[;jk? lo Iiim(. 



y«lerday 



yet 



adl^gkix {jiid^kii\; day ■bei<>re j'-eiCerdayi ^a.'ifn l'd^f!k<:i; 






THC LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC U,(JROT 



4?5 



yonder isiji [i^tjAy, istj^, sidf}; mulfiai jau yi>nder T onAt/ you 

ymiderl [l44l- 






j/i?fl (sin^.J ; tjJkiiy^ [iiiii^iiyf7\ (plural) 



young man: fobfif/h, jounj^' woman, girl; mamiigkidi 

ifjj^Jjr" imi^lji]. yj-iinger Wochtror fiisttr. 

/jitfir'jt. yi^iing c-i nnliiiaL:, -(irtF; fiUHiiio ov- ), 
yoTingdog: dfreh; fining cliickLir fmpat \h>\p>t:\h\, vrnjnj; 
blrdi i^j^iri: sx avifyav.f, or: g-dyad ay aydyain dmj^ii: 
j'oiiisg pig. ftimdio ay kJslia: young caE /nJnai^ ny 
itflioitf." .vjvng l>uJl^lij, /la^pft- iry kafifyQ. (umdlt ay 
i^nftlyo' young lioric. inUiigh^'tg- young, fresli jilanl, 



your, yours | loi^Tll], 

yfjwlh k''/v"^<f"i;*'' childhood, i.if,-ti'ia\ m'! f/a/tpin^ihu^n, from 

rlillilliriiiil oil If FriiiJ ki/iii!-^dnga. Id rlilldlii>r^i] 



PART 111 



TEXTS 



4S2 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOKOT 

MaJyu had left ib Bodlo": a family ol whom be oftai ibouglit '*ich 

l'jnj;ijiL^ V-.\[e iJiil not permit him to -^ec hii \ir\i-r ^iij ?rt[i= aii.l liojiie agiiin. 
Snd iiiliiiE!i ^iimi: iNi- .iiIht .liy, ^bit ^faly^l had nilictl :.i\ Driraii, in Mlch- 
ij^aiin oil Srp[einl>ci" lliiril, in icriI^. 

And aa no alODfi Ixariiyj his aame luirk^ iln? place where bi9 soul left 
(lie body, tliis hook shall prcscrvt; hi? Iikene*i? Eiiiif hi^i name. 

\^^<, U the menu ro hnve Fitcn Ihc lir'.c 1.* It^in^f '■■.er to m^Tnorp, td his 
own idiom, ilie legends of hia inlje contained in thi^ look. It v^ill ii^vtr 
be for^i'lttJf ^'lili ii'li'ii picn he reciicil ilie ^.ik-^ af (he world's trtaiioii 
and of Ihe deed;* of Corl, kTLij.''[i (■> ihe [ioiiliic Ic'-mt ns Ltiniaivij^. <Tn ihf 
day I.eiorc ilie I^'>roi"s dciiarhire w* Sfll: hit^-lln''" (ill '^Ee in tlie it'ighi in 
his hui aioiLiirl ihe fire, -whife a ihunkr^iLnnn raged andto-rrtms o£ r^Lin 
rn-linl il'Jii-ii, reiiiiniliiie liini of hi^ f^ir lii>mc: llicTr jiml llicii iL ^iJi* Lhat 
he cccLlcd^ as hii l.l?L (;irci\ell, Uic Wofk-^ong. 

His slori*s and wna^ may thus b* t;Ll.Lii hy his widow and soo^ as 

And if some ont should re^id (n itiiiii IIk^ Lnlt-s ri:'tiir<[--i] hcT(? -ii' ihey 
tJTEie irojii MalyiiV^ hps, then may Ihcir reminliraii'i; of llieir kind and vi^e 
lafhec bf ion^fr strong aiid not roo biTtrr! 

S''t .'■h-ii] i *;v^r t^rg^i yo(i, luj g4wd idoid and i>alitiii. i'^iacher, 
Matyu I 



Wiicii ccmsiiriiiiiR llii^ T^'s^*i lo uniting, llie Aullior oli^ieivecl hispVLir-- 
cipl^" il Laklii*^ do'V'ii ]irecL&ely M'hal In: ln.-,ir<l ,ind ai he htnnl il , be h^s nut 
correcled ,i si-n^Ie w>ij]id or vford or phrase, eitn when be met imnii^lakalhly 
with irrcsLilai-[iLes. howevo-, ihis occurred rarely. "The flow o* norrauon 
uTL'i Tinl inierriiptcd hy questinns or hii'^rf'.'Ti^nce whvn a lU^bJij^ b^'^mi'd ol> 
■■ciirc, except by she -nceiisiional r*que^( ol repealing a phrase -or of speaking 
more alowEy. 

I'lie oilfio^aphy ni Ihe Tc^ilPi dilirr^. In niriny |>nji^,iHf>s cnn'^ldcrably 
jrliTTi llifll ill [he Grammar and Vocabulary; (h? orlhography sometime? 
varittj ev-en in the same sentence, esaedy as [lie sj>oke[i langua:e;e varied. 
The interlinear Tcrsion, acme notea and his knowJedg* gaineJ hnm the pre- 



THE LAXGL'AGE OF TILE BONTOC IGOROT 4S3 

L-ddmg Granunar and Vocabulary wilt cmablt the StudenE to reduce LinLi^iinl 
variariL*! Lo llie slanJard EtiniT-. 

'l*liji.iil:iv-Oi'[llv .3:isl-lin|i: in i\ii: Ir^n^lilllOII ■>! lllC Ti?\l^ wA'i ti^lliliTcd 
by F&Ion?cl<'rii;- •'^^' ^" nllitr.- iIk AiiLlii;r ii^ iiKH'LC<l Sar tiK' i^iJlniLiHiiJon of 
tcrl^lii djllicult pasaagHjs. 

Tin? Texls -ire divide'l Liitii ■'mall =eclfnii';, [ii nr<fcr Iri iinke il |»n-!=rhle 
to locale <\uola(ioii^ iii (lie Gianiiiiiir ; jiao Jii tlie cx|jl,iii;ilti]"y nole; rci\TciiC* 
is made 10 these sections. In the trivn.iladoiL Lhe ^^ri^^jc i>r Iil'^^oiIc^iI ?!<::»' 
ml 'vliLcli ]>ri:\"iil'- lhr<iLij;tir'ur Ihc 'Vi:.\i^ Ins freiiueiilly l.i^eii clnEiged IiiIq 
uui PictcrUe. l'os?;cpisi\-e \'crb-i and lIh^-i' PcT^ivmiiJ Vtr)>H Vhbiili j^ovcm 
an t>bject liave Ikeea rcinJeiecl iiilo tlieir eiiiiiv.iltiilS, OUf Jiditf tT^IUiLivf 
Vcibs. 

Afj'jul "ilir LiEjpririjiin^c uf gciiLifiii: Tcxi^ "R. H. CodriiiRioii. 11 D., 
■^^riHi in Ills "The Mi'l;i.ni"il^Lii', Sliidies in Aiitlir'^poln^j' niid l''olk LorP. 
Oxford, 5891,'' p. 356; Th« value of Inily oalive stories la beyond all (\[v\>- 
lunij they exhibil na-Vivt life in ilir |>3i-iLrLjlrLr derail?; uliitli •cuac ia tlie 
tourse oi 3 narradyr; they ire full 01 ilte ■■»rn-ir|.'llr'n'^ \iliii:li ilic unlive peo- 
ple enterlan abrmt the w^rld .irDniirl ilieiii. ihcy '^\\ov- rhc iialive mind active 
Id fancy find JTO-b^'iiiflti"!! ■m^l ihey ionDa rich store of subjeets for compar- 
iBon with the folk taJei oi uther ].ov*s of ifu- 'voi-ld. 



The ContHits ol this Part 111 are: 

1. LtiTT^wiGf 7- Koillii^ 

2. Headliunien" l^cdirci 8. TheMnnkL-y 

j. Tilt BalllcuS Cji IVffan i^, FaJpiirijnj [^nd i'j^Jiijln^iiiiL^ 

4. Tlic Rat and lh<; HrOlKtrs 10. Vai'la 

5. The Stars 11- Songa. 

6. Til ill 



LUMAWIG 



WBdii nan sinttl/i ay mtStif^Snn/i ay /fitab si 7. rritr-f rtrij; nan ^atdrtvrQ ^ ' 

^i-n rm-^ whu QaaLvd, ^rni Ol i.MuLixij; Ltii' mDj]i] 

n'r' Iiii'IIjcii 

iua/fil filu^. ts^d nan -^aul^iia, £t Fffrf ma^rgdiiwbfiQ. ya ma/Id ka-= 

Iberc ijc HLUDii- H^r llti' TiocLd I'lj xIii'il LbC. IjU.i', CbiTL ii di? ld'.<Ii- 

hdiitan imn. J^man ya ngn S^stK-is^d hittdn nan. y^/a e>i - 

log pl^tc iS LIl? v/i\-I pv'' ^"'l "''' lirVr IliVr ^ufi Iti'' I'I'li'c bnTllff 



"poshng^nla^d ikjjj jar^sczi-a, la maiffl^d nati fflig." Udtja'd 



- tT,?i?<f kandn nif! yfiir/u a "dnlci'd 'mifmi^oHg." i^ft/ja'ti ^ 

UiEb ^1 3 llif old'c b a* Iwn qu U pel ■ tlHp. Milieu Ut^ 

R-> (u uii^nU hrB]> ill' li—il -liil.el nl MfllairLMiluLnLll. Tlnn cluy "im' i1i« 



'^i/gi va d>t,i:-iix'r najs iieikaci ay l<i>'ia^ y-i '?rm fl.i^fJ ya jjinr r/iksf. 



- ketfAig nal^ug amln nan Sifk^. ju-Hil-f \iiii ■mfifks <iy >uiidh->^ ^ 
ll«ii Irti^l Wf^nhfrL all IhC r«i|il^ Tlwcr sn- 1 Irinrillin- ivbo alive 



4^ THE T.AMGUAGE OF THE BOr^TOC IGOKOT 



'^^ ad PSkis. - tfeljSn^ ind^tjoti^ si J.umduijg ya jiji/rffi^djiu'rf Fd/iis ya 

U tOUs. TJJIEI loi^b < 4i>lvi] JvDiMui^^ and li? 1 17.1k'! i1 17^ n Ih> IVklli lii|i| 



Jl Jb Uic ihiiLf tiuL nwlMd lb} mKr); OtrnittiiV ib< aii-nii: cf Ibr CuotLn 

(pine*) iinrl ?iiHr. 

* - inded lumiiviik .fj Liiirrjf?[ij^ j'o ^ir'i£?prir e^j "trf lj/ii^ily/7 shay -isded 

Then j[€^uiiiU Jolfidv^lV aful Wit Oil. VDjar* Ibi-i Tiap 



kandn son ial<ik\ en "fiJ*dnj^ ua ya nay ijtiihkit'Vkiiiiil ^" 

ftjM (be Dur ~i:iiir liffF Kiirl iLcrr vr Ircfrc. 






iriJeii liij^yii nan dgsa ya nan listi ny ^inuy nd K^fuftitiiiaii 
Thfii i»iiiij Lin Attt JiUd lllC ^1 m«\i irt KjLuwLUn 



ya umiiarsa is flUu J^rry j'.frfnTii iir^(j,?u waj* LumAwi^ tjatija. 

man tliV' r*^ t^C lin Tlwr dwdiId LDIIib^)f LlLtal. 



He mvi hen lonf Ibu;^ ilo ncl fiirr*! Tb'n |^c< [,iiiiiiijie H 



Xo^ffiVTvAAL is/inifii bani!in is nan dsj^na ya nan dgslta en 



'-fliijifti^frilj'd /jsm^iigsft U faa/^ft iJ Spdy" isdna'd kan^n en 

■AvL VQU lUL^i' Itie ^cniltDi^ lor Cir. TJien hE um'a 



"rfj^.' jfii?>/y« nan ftpny ad F^kii; ta itlak tj&k&ySr 



' - kfij^ng "mJyijd 'sh jun tea^ii'J'ta nan pdi!"-ng ya mad^y jitja j^^^o' 

Jlacn IlLCV E" inl-D Ibc midille ol Ili«- Elood bii'I dead li Lhr ^le 



THE LAIJGUAGE OF THE BONTOC iCiOROT 4S7 



av indatja ad KataHivttan. - isdna^d kantfu €h "'jiangk^f^ffyff '■ '" 

Blllil I ML'. UiiLEl Wllcn 

iildi^is VI f^isdSy y^ri k^an Ji'fH dg^H- i.idi^d IfUndt J.i^ju^/w?^ <"j! 

be and v/m Ilidt ol llie liar T1i«d iuyt Ijunian ig* 

it iTllL bUrcLi "l«j hfi'niTieuif.bf'l Itif Iiiililing (hJ Hit d^g :^ell|^fl■ 



— isifed fiikyal turn Lnmdvi^, J^mlsn'i yn pinfdnishntt ji^w dpiiy ay '^ 

ItJ^b IkvinLk LlUIIIMIJ!. Iif arrlbf ii nitil UL'c ijuirLly the fiii: lltul 



xKfgiiaK san ds\in.a. isiina'd id/dti ad Fdkii. isdna'd Mm'l aan Ifpwy 

ya ixtlf^^Ha nan nniiki -keijSttg m^sljok nan tjinum xiAed " 

||-^^L ivirma i1l« Im^.bi'E lud flLVII ?iaj>OrdlVV lltV ^Ul^C tLtn 

aj'.Lf r. 

Ifd'lfi'l nsn fiifilyi £" "j/c "'K "X''"'" .^''/<''-i«>' li^tglfS ki'^-^l^i*, t'ty 

^'Ij Ibe —jiT^iiTi' Ihtn rinL pEjliii.|ii lijt, Bb|' abnniLniUr bi- 

bc iLfjtiE ^lEiUJ, an?? 

iinakikS'iit." kdji^'i-^ si !-ittiijfibig utasar^iivJ'ia IjSff^a. kei maltdi>n 

^rjjjj fof^yi- ketjSng mukdaakt ja. ■ isd^d potWngi'n Lumtiw/g itan " 

•ibt MrtniiB TJl^M Ufcf}' biLiI DiBlii Tbea ml ylT r»[iiij wi|r 

i.biLi["n 

-?^j^Mij aj iJ'ii'^Irr isdn-a'd ka'idn ii uan idnab, ti 'xan djJ-wa '1 

□liUli ifc'l Tl«ri 111' liTi In llu' rtiri!, 1^ l-^l fii IlL^blj 



4SS THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOR<:]T 



ii^ii '^m^kdifMyii'd ay djSwa oy idw^hy' yo n^nghAlflja 's kalfn si 



1* iKinian^. — inpahali^mi ijafija ay djfla Tr bJiUn si imMaifgk^ig. 



PVcak iiibUH 

tnii'iiiawcii tj&hja. San dj&t ay iiiiMjIii^A-Sn^ i^akdnak^JQ \i 
Miil/^k-:>t^; soft didit (ty iKm4im£ nakdtuiklja nd Kindoiig. 



^ — {/eff^'ij^ tj'i "i^if'ii:.'*i>i iKi" t'ttH. kelji^'iji Ijdf'jii nun wafli i^ 'ion 
Iki'ii Ibf^' VTiltipJ^Dff Mit pEnpl«. 'Llii'n tP^^ iirr ir^^iKiti-irii r,t rFif 

'* jatd/kivit. i^FfjC'-'i^ pnlruliCim jofc i^y^ir irj' liJnUb ttJ^i'i is 'ka.Jtn si 

,.ml[ fl.f II li' hill J In t|>rut UK finl= 'V-H'i' H't 

iGElLcrj dinLrct 

iAfiwd. Wfji'"f^ t'!<iff>f'iiil^tja. kt^lj''"'^ tftiltja noil unifh ri 'ion 
Haptnil-DtOI, 

i>rMiD:i iv^inn M4di>]iui Lb^j? si<- lli« EIdLi u ann-iDD 11, tlLC ruEicm'IDeir, 



Hi C ICUVI-BIEI, TnlclMia-IMUl^ BOClif-IDEii. Tiira Ii nLis'.iJLalid Uh 



fiilSjtJva jf JjflW ?^*W. kctj^Kg ^jiiHj'if H?ii^rflff irJ" tit«. 

^ucIhL iri lak |i«iple TiKiL ■■!'> oittH! (Ik fjn^r 



lh*n. U^rJLliC irmlciirgn Ibf mil al l4li|iij;ao, Thf n lie MJ^ 



THE LAPJGUAGE OF THE EONTOC IGOROT 4^9 

iw.i djumL UiflL-di^wn iMillj, im\. IcilLhI mji Uir wH TIlsd 1i# yiv" 



'inih/l^huyii'd'" yu atltljti hc^k-ktu qv tn,ifr_f^il/r^o ii saji a^Jn. fay 

I'limmiil B^l] |l[J ail. I nol iJiEj' kii-Jn [IflrtiJ Id £c]] U.c la]!, lirfin-c 






(■here; bLI. 'nHDiH H&Jfl FVL nLBM »IL ^1 Itm \e BS^fl 



Vbfl\ IllU'yriil i|?| limr^ptfrll ■Ohirir."' tliC HiE oi iUt •^\\l. 

kiiir] 



jiji 'lay. Ijuhiyn ii/ik ini'i^^ti if fan a^^ji, fn-, nfljj.?|fv'iir 'v iFftsiW^^ 



ya «|Jj(ttJ^?amJ^ >iai-^ i^alhja. lagl^^o nget nan hSan tjdfliKii.' 



kdj^fi'^ is4ua'd kSadn dkU an "Sngkdy^'d tuniffa, ay iF^nink, ^ 



is bldu, fiP knp^H^it is filn^a-" kctj^'ig knpSima ya itiT miishityiig. 



i't\Hl iJij ^l^f ^|i^' (jijI yijii I oil' ilc D idliD? p.ilL l'iicLliue 

m.V be jTiuc lii'Laiiii± 'DD iici[ kni?^- n\\ li\^it '^WlUS llL? LQ 

pinpiT'l;' i_iniiili 

tjakSyA" — isdna'd aidn^H ad Siun^ki nati fdn^t tsifna^d in/f/l'i 23 



490 THE L-^K'GUAGE OF THE BDWTOC IGOROT 

■"^ flt "Sngkay^'d umdla, ay iSam-dki, is btda, la kap^nya it fdngo' 

\ i!a a\u.lX Ely lO pt', RDinnliLiiKD, cId^ Uml yua !□ .!>.■' |Xi(]. 






^ isdtja'd ki'i'li'b^ yii k<"idn jflpr I.umliitrig cii ^^JnghAyd'd liiigo nan 

Hun (bflf liBd mnilt v>E h^ Luauiif ^rtiiuiBlgo toHlL 



^ ki'ia^pyn ay fdnga." i^^ilsa pay il^gn >'fl nutl/a"- -Lriiim'd ieaiidn 

yuai -t Tilth |>j!« 1 IiCj HU, LiiiWrl, Ii> ^e'\'l, and P"^' nuny I't^n Ln inji 

bff 
ffH "ifSkdyS oy iPdttokf B-w U^int mw k^iiyu. iay aataa&zvfsJ' nan 

to^ji'Pf," k^tj^'ig tji's ok^kud. -^ — - si Mdliod fia'i ni'inkl^kiid — —- 

1tfaJllB>ll> 



^ W6dd -'niii Jtliidfri sv fSfalii^i ^y ^msa m-amalddung ad Ldnao ; ya 



^ ti/nd^ -il\' f-HHuhfig ay m^ihtjong ^d Paiajsjf^lu, isdmr'd, kanS, 

ItLTE [^ Likm^Tug tU lajbdown U IttLnhigalu, J'tifhi hf, ilicuinl. 



Ujl Itl HI' flu li»ip« lliHD. Tb^i btjrn'rTi diuI sryt 



"kS tittki/iyd sha ayf.^' - "fsdkami mo-n na iry mainal^don^ ya Ttay adf 
vlijl sv.'MrA Iblf [i l-icv Lmltvil eilLkTiji^ii?.Liiv ami ]ii-rc aot 



kniidkgtb nan falaid^gMyAV^' - "aJ/ nmn ktfs^lfi^b tay sfkii 'y y^fi/iX 

13 flulFiLi^ 111 OHE (HlllUfl ll (flll^ nnl luUliiic-m h.c^aii'.f ymi iVic fllElCE 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGORO J 491 



fH Rlai^^halblrj. 'J tifn uvi lOs qLiLei Ui^luny; 






B^inile (Khl 01 III* Ili'H'W. ThCB f7i\ -M ■■ill- ll||- i-innxir 

■.i-iln 

kHJhi^ ipA^pag SQA Lttm^'Mi^ san nnlfii- ny ffildf^ag ii nan loyiiaw. 



TbCD lil/ii Inll TiLi'i] |i|'|i.i:il kiL^liA -the jtvsf.t I'JHd 

BJIW 

iafTn itirui^ff p^niJi Lumdmig en "indbit ^sh Jj/tii 'i l^y^ins, la isidka'd 
nSflin ui^ iHiliKiiii^ [JlDiJ ( Qi^}- thtnlber 'inflkO; fHltill 



kaifn iim^^Ulir'! i$ fiiiiifs '" k-cl^^fi^ spa^pit,\^na is 'lat ^tttayydan ya 

Jl-ain gliT |air| j [od lh.ra M <HvUb (ill |iil'> il"' TiHltl nii.L 



[I in fnll jl 'u. [Iiri (l^'i ("nvTK, llw 1^* mil Ihi'j Bi] v/hy' 

ll'.IILFi 

nay rii'ik'fs-<i-y lat djiiwn ^y fayd^n." ■ Ic^lj^ns kattd» ntm Lvmdwig ^ 



no i\'^Wl•c yroi I'honiri'c LilnL yOU gn I" ft" ihrfc la^tti I'llCIl 

sumtJct io-n im^iji <ty amth 'j faydan. kcl}^ng kandii jc?rr {tt^iji km 

Sri^ lii:^n« llii: juiqiicr lo krcl buflktb. IhCD uyB Ihr yi'iir^U^r lo 

iiidna 'n ''^I'udlaak is I'lS 'j'l laydan." — isifcd h/inifii in Sua 'n "vttS ^ 

inclba iiHnhi'r 



492 THF- T^AHGUaGF. op THR BOWTOC IGOltOT 



Hhb 'Ii ymi ec" lli*l^ tMliyi ■'try I*- ■umb^rc) hcmti Thi^n 



}?andii Mjj jHff^ji iS "tj^^ HiaH Ji fGbftifinin cy alA'Jua nan szil^; 

ityi rlit Illinium Huvelfl ladHd ^yoana mvit ^ii<i r-^kti IlLt [ml' 

he duUn [IbEDil Id dir iHBAct bhI ilmjM blJnl Tli^D Uv3 ktr i» 

IIlii ii^inn^' "'^11 llif n, Likr Ih' Ihrbe !iiiilirLn T!i<ii ^ii'i li?rJjlb<j 



-■^ "fl^nw ^firn !^iilokfi}! tSsf^Sf" - k^tj^Ot^ Id/dn urrw d'i^iji fan !otd'y 

*lm|i:J IliC [in-oii lt«B Thru Ifirrifft (hi jdun^r 111' Ihire 

-l-LlT 



pTiUg^kfjffng ay tnangipd^pa^ is hm iSJ/y 'y faydon. keJjJn^ 

•l\3'n'iii't!i rildlilB ILb'^i t mVi Ib^ llirri' bi:krli Ib«n 

qu ic-klj 



"cjjlii^'ft'rf no/J if/^<« 'i' /a^'rfjJ! ay nay." keiihi isdan nan ih\dki 



'' mn itflkun'y fJiydnn — isffcd kar-dn tj-n amiitsn km it^dt^-o en "nyh^yi- 



^ndyan atiita.?" kaiidiiljir vn "piadyanmt tay Ij^i mam- pay si laJd^i 

lill oil ll^(y sn l,l(fl^l^d^llll'm|^ bMa-BM HtWB VM^Ly d inun 



'^ ff;K fifndtjpi"^ h''n ffUk^Ntf ay srW-ti ^fj iniffii-." - ii^fff hindn tuih 

T«]]|J hi«l|jeil m iiblrtH l-'E'l Tlir^ .nji 



THE LAN"GLrAGE OF THE BONfOC IGOROT 



4'>3 



lut'/ffia CI3 '-ay! CLgf.-dyie'if ia atdcuyn nun ib/dtta. ta ifStSknyK'd i-*^ 

fClnpjniu^L 

sumfta ay idtS." ketjffttg amJytfn yc rcn/ubwUxiiH fty siimtZa. 

(iLlllrlii^f JLnii Uliu' I.O nail WjUl lnj-«iiEr 



h^fi^i^ sitttiJobija paya. tsttml 'nn laUikr mtii a^ividnu ad ip/tfpit. 
1:1^11 Uigiirrivt, flurtly. Brpauihc am hi^ laiT.l*ii »t IpJiAilI. 

- tstfcif i-'ajidn 'iJii i.um(i-ii<i^ en '\'>iiz^a\'?''d fa t-audiiyn livii afiulytt, ^ 
lli'ii -I ■ InmupiH I'lm ■-iL'^iilili.'i: lliif yiMiaiilr ,-jiir 

t^L?L<r, 

mo mahi'ifsjifk cf {<, <Jfo",^j:ii." is4//a'ii fl't'ii-a is nan ken aaidtsii en 

a^ii|: I.Llhi.T 

'lull ^rrne tl»e i 'HlliiJ inJIi noiiLur 'Hi't ■^nvt |[i<|- 'jiIluc 

urn aa 

i-ii "yii aykS tgdg la odi maUisdaf" isded sumdhong nan in/^tn 

"TTliFPlmld udE «Dfivnii joaf" Tim nUiroB iln^ Miun:.->T 



llr 



ti-nv 



j'fT 6iia ayukan saji laidk-i \-i unfi^cglsa ya sumii/itblia i^ 

iiiL:! 1/"'^ W till L]i^ ri.111 .inil l}»r} go IWTtJlii' t^il .itciii; iiI 



dfongtsa. iidcd tsim^kust sua. fobfdUo ya indsHysvy is 

[hcil liULiDi' T liLii nil'.'Loi^Li llir 'i)JJ^^ ru^'i i,r\ii ^WV^fi umlci' 

nan a^kv-'that} . '^"•J hnmfn ^on dmait ttantodftfa 'y siiidki en ■*! 






ay fKott^tbf&hA. hctj/n^ kanstn anidisa en "sOna fyay nan Iji'wiimf 



494 TILE I.AN'GUAGE OJ^ THE B^rJTOC K^ROT 



IlL»n w-\i L-illlHmV llliT 1^111" nnil imEll-. nnil iBj' 



a I J^*ri ^nlhiLiu ll^Ci' lliLii I :Hiill :iih:fiilk '111 I [Blltrr fil bTiiiD7 

^ - kffjt'ng jii/tiV-mfii! /■iJ|-i?- {•atckwAbno m^i k^/pu^. ^fl/'^ng 



[I7III1' IJIIL llllktd ULC nhirt^n ii ml I liH r-lii-Lrl Hhil ^Ull tlC IBl ll hvllj , OCI' 



UJl pj "'onmlBlw llifiL «v:, innnnwia ■ jnu shall IhIdk 

uji^^rifG i^V, fit I'Mmfkak tsailja." kctj^i'^ iink*nikdnii no^j fmi^iiih; 

ciOV-iLiClL lluil 1 Ici^'l ILl4i^l ItiCii li^ ElOll= III' i^mif 

*^ kHylsa'd mangwon^dlaiJ ya kakd^'whan. - isdna'd d^is kanffn 

Ici Ihcv UlifiV III Ir^ Itrn^ guLckbT ni*' cuili Thi'iL tiV o^iln ^i^ 



pji "yd lead flwn fttliH^yii '^k^a/" tided k<i»dn sun amdisa en "ya 

Ami Jl^TH ^'('^i" PU^ h-FCL TIlfh iAVi Ibi'ii Ikllicc ■rrJI, 

ftcfj^g P'iiy na't !sajig ay kiindi^ak ay 4ko h tsdtni imklsukfttaTl.." 

oil tb Lvlrril ibc ^Ln^lv IhTiilt joutitj) i^i^ tm oij[ leliin^. 
(]uv-in|^ jjvl bxii t 

*5 - jjrf'd kan^n sun Lumdwi^ en "pa^dnya'd ran kdkTi'an is dngo, 

TItVli 'niii IiOiiiBivli; VTiu ilinlJ Jl]] l]jE ful uilli niret' 



M fit la/dai." kefjSag tal^ana -fon ani^iok ya kSit'tt'd likU 

llml I ||i> la Itb^ Till II ll" firtl? l|jc yuUB^Iilf!' ^nil l,i| Lll'j "ln" 



THE LANGUAGE OF TIIF. COr^TQC IGOROT 495 



niiiil'iin.g»y£ii aji Ka.ifl.-ctt tan ffftiig yokel f^fHy oy t siikt-'iil^^ai: ^"^ 
liuiEii Id ffn-fi i\uL. pL^ Bod b&r, ac u id le 1^ 



ycbei Mfl» fiU ay dka ya fja^i^rf'^j. - ii^tcd ka'ijtn ..-u'l am^tsa en *' 

j-iii'l Itic irlLi[MlT--U^ IH liiTtii J Imi MJ' ^ !kr[r liilhf r 



i.^f]1' ]u>i tIiuuLiI ll■DJc^ iht oldteflleKr HtCh ^m Lluu*'!)! 



lb< lUDiil^ll i^li* ^iLi ^il'. Tliln mil" iSii'ir falb^ i^li^' 



kdu.'h liw afa^i)jdim tiaii yrin/a; tay mtitgkd hawL'; JJitu mtiikdbi/ab 



isnanyiin/a." Uiifd iaaiidn sail Liim'hi.'ig 'rii ''tfiii iiifSlfi 's i'lastii^^i^jai. 

Dm uUct. ritrn -c.(^ Luiiinnl:.; Ihi' '-oiin^Tf^ i!. lo mi' ujifi, 

—III lliDl'-dLI' Tlirr uii Lllinaw^K ivc ^tiiiL:lil 

isded kotuSn son kashfidis^ a "f.^rfid^J't'i itaf inlJ nim uttufiasH ii 

TlL*n H'3 liiD 111" 1 ou?: - Ti jp-T nrfi " ^krrr i|i.|mi ^I'l 

li mlliri-iD-lnv 

rrJnfftn^ HiIhj^Ao ^Jtu 4:1^ ma/!d; n^mig cd »ia/fd; fHtiig fd 

yon ^'h,? liLij tbur Qfiiif; 1<d llkCrt Hon?; fm^Y. 

llltn LlllL'ktll lll«r \-K\,l-. Ollil Ill'-IL l»'l LuDIJ^Hf 

uroLkL It h'lJiiLir l* 

baaCi 

"oAfkadak .n !d>wtdk^.'' isded kanJn sttn hi-^ii^/in(B en '^inf/f man 

I ilull r4nv-i.l? lor tml nrHllU- Tlk^ii •m:i I^i^ riiere pjav 

IciiM LirciUnr iil-livi 

la naj* ?[*Ptfi/aiJjjj vj fdn-om? mfd dihi^shiin ay iiKt't^'^'H'!! c-i 
lA'ill jau i^t ^^mr nut art ^tju ii'^iini'il If mv 



4'^ THf^ LAN'GUAfJF. OF THE BOXTOC TGOROT 



I Ml h:^ I'^iL IL Tlirii i\) J LujiLBViif \'} 111; vliy 

* rl' 111 i>i £'jn"^ i^r'^llrs-i Ij- iiH^ 

»Jd nt>'\^>idn£»io, iay {-••nluJiuir 'ifiii i\^iti/'iitfjrhi''i ken raii/Si^s'' 



isjTiJir'd imi!^ kea ar^BtTvina en "I'lila^f! ail L'fnuo tuy :/ji iri' 

TbifiLlic -.JV" Id Ub wte iti il3 Hi «in ffi l.'iilO biTiii]:? ri|^hl 

lit a, 

^- rirTf7/[Sa^a'Ji(j, " /tfj fjiaJjt?iF[<J 'y itiml'niJ.^ht sii' kif;/!'! ken suk/tfu." 
kstji^yig i'lur/fy/m 'd i.dimo ys if^lja'd i}'irol,fya ay sixash^wa; 

lb I'll lliV^ ^bc^l li^ 1,niLao iLiiil IIllh l.\Vi :]HaLr m^ IioiI 4ti'I anil 

•/■.•lfi\ 

kaiufn nan Lu-iiuksfig ei "fjumn^la man edV ^e!j^ii^ Sfii'mufi^Hr 
H-,! l j»mn «lg U'l' tM'ri iniif^il llini lh#i Ilil'i>ii 

lu bhivc ■ Ti'B'iL 'iv^'lil illl-l iLff:L 

'^ - isded filfUi-'ti: -rVj^f-ff S'l ntinfa/fTa u l.:tild^''y, s.uJcd 'i'i»*y 

L4 



jjiTu r^j^f^ ^o< uuidla is taSldi^y ya fonobfdnanlg nun tJidatsa 

1ie«-Li"i^i:=- TliTii -ji- I,t(iiHi.ii; iiinl '1^1 1 li'W iiiLhiii 



l-ifCBDM \tr> ^lli*H "1*1 m± ^olO b'^' rn^-lunk: 



JIkil 1l-- [?[*- lu K^■L^Hl|, [,[iiil:^iu b? cnli.loh'-ii lUS^ 



fd'laug ail djii-ix'ii iaSfdi^c 'd Ktidk/ni ya fcka^Jiina nan l/ilaiiy_ ad 

plU':\m3 '""^ I" il^!" "I >:t^1"HI "H'l h■]I[^ 111* Tci In 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC ir.dROT 



497 



LAnao ii^na'd kiPutn is H(Hi fdktt'n "std ma adji sa mm tgaUtdify ■"" 

lAlBc^ Tlit-nln' i-l;: m ,^,l y-^^-^Ai lli-,,|rl„ iiiil,..>|, i|„m h,,. |cLill^.^ 

kind 

ay fflj kay! enf^koyii mmila yn f/iinxbf'fmfi/^" - tutvij'd ^ntidn en ^ 

ha^ bn' ym -r-um W ^ellliiMC vn. mh-M c,|,l=. lr<i, h,' ^M^M 



lie il.L'.t L.-T-inmb; |nn ^e iv.tk-t +<ilI?- iii-.ii the. 

l-onfiU kl tntld, U>d iLmi |lik> LiiHin nwl fjlLrri aIiIi uMl^r 

Biirr /jjZj'i-g. - ijtJf fi karUia itan f^-.jrfjfJ.fna 'n '"vif-' rjrCf) rira -/^jr ^ 

Ibe kRtlB. [fan Siyt hl^ Ui^lirr-.r, l^^^ ....V.' ^vji m , lU.l^i^d 

rtrt^i fl'itiy^f ndffgkd !fnr'»n/!^ nttn ljt''i!iii'i v" '"^^'i' !'<'hd nQ^iCisiini-i^K 



«(W fltiity^.'^ kcfp'vg ka'Hhi jdu Luprkfioif cft "sak/In turn mftngfkad 

ttp rlftE Lbvik oUip [.Jiiiintu' I |h:i: J Hit orn^armf 



ay uMidla 's findyKt." iidna'd tsa itf^^i/in m» Jju 'v f/^flus i\ 

m Ifet rlw Tllfn lie "oflrn'" pai-ii r:ic uni- Imsin 



■^ricr Id Hyr brRIn. J h^ii lIlQflfF hill, Ihc Ilic 



bityng. "-viiifi! k<t'iih' mm ^{^•-3'fnix i'}i "yn, tJoniirrJn ^!m tntt d/ffi nnu " 

Ir^lLLr', "Ctfi'l ■"?' Ill- •-tlV ..III |ir"vii'i' iiii,^^l 

[ini|]nr Ill-Inn 

Id'U'fttko." iidi'd ka"dn saa LumJwig en "sak/Jtt mva is ^bad." 
I'll I jFi'n Ki^fl StuaM*/ig I (ubIi<} nre 

isdna'd yiihtjdii* ya maK^onAufd son ^gsa. - isdnt^d kn^A'\ at "■' 

TiLbltir call'. .iDil Hjil (01:11 ^.nt -hci Tlr-D Ik ii:- 

"■iLtlllOtfll" 



4'A THE LANGUAGE OF TRE: BONTOC TGOROT 



iH^on (oBgkl) n CHnii«; t«ruiBB ^jAg QiLi Tli'd fi^\i\ h- inilli ami 



'tm:1 



yj Miiiiifi jjifn fihiig. - iiiiiicr'd katiJn is nan liikric m "^i'/lskfpi tj/i'i'pup 

'<-<rn[ |"L- J III II 1 4 fldvB ICh Uk pi'i^pLc L^i^Ii at iiii taldi 



<ii ^iSA'iai"' istficii'd i-aii^M r* ^^mr tSsitdnu an '"•nu'itjlii i'viiki\dk' '•' 

Mi?n»n' Tlinn ]i4i <^\-'i l:^ hiH tbal ►ii:i,'*in-u nfiLill 

hrnHifi-in-taw 1*« 

tiifdp^f fjf"firl' 'la'i itiiat nan ki^dtju ya i^'j? ir'-ih^fj''ip sail 

fW CBlclli'iJI- Had nbiqliC Lli< ]i<?'i|iJr Ul^J^ bul rroil cinldiBlrii 



bcvlbte-ln-lii-u 

llieri In I: -umim JllL4tX TIkh l^ibij^jlL- filhlDi) bii IgpwLawia- 

br»lJ]«r-l D-kv 

*i - jtdtjJjj iiaii LiKiiitziii^ fu "laddS adti^ tutad f}if'Apin tutu hSwrtT 

BUB 1,□lllll^-^' tovloDf do^m il «U ^-ildi -jau^ 



wtj'- Liiil-L '^Liili III' p^iplp a^'l uli-ni 1 .'II iLi« Jl jII lhii 'iWh 



TKm™ wlij, "Hill i|^i-lt il.iii' "In i:n' !>: ;inj ^lii>-hiiill 

^ - isiied ijipdpin -wur Vjjjit^/ufg- ya pttuiky^na pan udjtdji ya 

Tli^n (fildirin I,ll1NJl^■^|' iurl Qu'iil^ny vnii.|ji ||iv ri'mlli?.!: ■iiiil 



fnnisHrl^yHa. isdmi'4 ha'nd'i mt "iitt& pan; ndngkd trurmttipup yn 

llfti l| up qoif kly. T)Ha 1-^ nm y.>wat pTflsJ ^vlw, i['^'--.ih> l-^i -ml 

f IS. lit «trli. 

nramA Wall naiBldl idtf, |]>g' OUlii isliib. Ibr p'opLc dilL --gj iIbII 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BO^"TOC TGQROT 490 



tjipdp^ aoH kdom." ■ is4e4 kandw mm iramidiia 'n ''ma ka man tay ^^ 

tirvillKC iii-la\i 
I lirfl 'ill Itci:, IIlit i i>ii r^iUli. TIlmh --:iy- IMiiHhi^ Ilite iI i-, 



ant'l III II 'JIjeii MFTLkh .in Ll.^ Liim ah'I iL :lni/kl{^ aji^L jjaiji 

.iLiLiuUll I li-iillLLI-iu- liiv 

lumdyao. - kcij^f^ ka/i-hi l.wr'kr'ii; ken kas^dna 't "ndn^^i', mid ** 

b<cifl>b-Lii4B« 



ii 



*'Ariii*m ri At»hi ^1|;lll,l I'heiL I'r -ijT^i IL i.ciL'e-. Up ^I^CADL Tkcr Mil 

Btnun" ■"" "lijiiki 

so? I krjth^d'ia ny Lumd-a-'ig en '"hiiS man, ury "lakalfidfkaT" 
'\Qii)lgl{l'\,yt .T('|| t'Jj^c^xo. isded kasin ttnivy son knf^^^dn^ 'y 

bnAllia^lB-lBB', ImllLLT-iii-lum, 

L}i''tiJ;:'!g ya ^insi^-vii'-^i- iiifiiu'd kiiniiii en "a!^''\'\ cd na. Its 
Lun iiii^, ^'"1 ^a-ji-^ IcLT lln" lie =y:- fflfl ^mpa ll UUL 

yo/Siio, tfsy I/Si Htlkiiiip mm idtc'i" - isdtja'd fd/dn ya Ifotidu sau ^ 
ntva tv- iliiTi' iiiMiL-Tiii rli^ 'iiiiit" TliHillifi' orrylllouul flji 

Z.urw^mj en "nay pay isa/Sfo nan ib/ttna." knfjSKg pay itiftiagtja. 

LAnutalB iatt hirlHHl arc 'L^ liiiJi itfj^laH. 

omtril ''■.iiiiijiiiiviii- " 

ILL|i]>llll^r pi^iil 

t^fjf'iiir Ty^/frfj'/HW Vi^y^ij' !« ohdiongini jJrfii iMjimMwu- - isdtsa'd ^^ 

Tlua Hdionr tiL«B to lilalm-l bi. mnl (panlon > Tl>eii IIk/ 



SJD THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOWTOC IGOEOT 



.iI'jiIl ji'.eiilI'Ii' .iL LIlc tea.! la ebI- linn IIkii LIl*^ 



iiiciidcc ^\le•l [.Liir lbs oil I iiifii l]i<^ii fIli^i 



bjn.\iiiii iJctiLcAiig and li< iiiirl^ i "lihi Th^ n Iil^ k.ii] ^-lHi-iI ^dij t]],4iL 

I L,LllllilD/LEl 

bi llic Ineat ^Ibe odieii) 



6?; 



- tj-dtia'd "iongd-yn ya tay/i-Ji'cit.fni *o«i flAkiui. indija'd 

TIuuillLtj G« to Uelsnsl and l'Oh^ijI "^ull li m hk i^Il" f^iTiLi^T h IIi<.i ■Ii^\ 



^ mnwgrfjiH ytf igd kalnfib nan atjfitja i idt ja'd 

' -ail Unatuai" uid hV "i-rlti'ifiL' iiiuu ju>]4i^ic :Jmi lJi^ 

bKOKV-U'Mi- 

"iiniipQfd(oha 's liifnw, lay tual-tdnta nan dle\u ya n^^//tiJ ffm/n int 

mkr giDvtCtJiJrJ Timer lie- Li'i nmil] Ihc luii dinl Lb:r^l^ ill the 

I'Rhise 



tdkHf f.'i-J;^iij; kauifn I^umektiis im "ndn^ko, nan ijiuinn nan 



fig n IBftl) 



■tH'lL 

JOB kask^dna 'a "yn: paiofS^m, man naa ij^num. y^t "S'iS "f-u'J. Wf 

btHillKf-lll-lw 11 it. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT ;oi 



Lumjfuiigkii^" - ketj^iij; kaiiiin nan si Lwneiwig en '^iia^fgk^ka '■'' 
^ ait if' liitiniUrig' TbfD 93.^' LiiiiidV'i^ \:\\y Juycu 



scmipSdshi ay ken sak/Jnf" betj^yig inottgoou^dtii ay s/nkashud. 

Diikf ilcIlaliiii] me Tbrn q<idr>i'lMl ilu> Viv 

I [][ifilLi.Lj i jBnahdain-lBW. 

ket}^i\g \mflyt}a 'd Sifngii^. - injfd ^an^n iikii nan k-iiadna 'n '^ 

TlUll lll'-> I/O npiHEif* Tbrn ""!' BhUill liiH 

brullMC, LibrL-iq 

'■iiAi^ko, m!d noftgifSngmo. Wy <u^ft/M nan tAkj^i ya sdlka piUd 

■111. juiLlliHi; jQU (Mr' li«niu'* Ujifly the jitiilJfl BjVi ]i>^ ihll "il jII 

uDii^af^fo iF tj-f'ium pj;." - uit*-d ku'rdn sav LMyndwig cii '* 

49AdP noHr T1i«n la^i Liini^nii^ 



"iat^kfi^idko ay tiika, la utiiilc>ig!dknr i^dnn^d fufdi.-!.',! nati 

LrLuft ti[ ilinin, |ji^le, lliai "" tmc TIjeti hr HmJ: ^ilb lb' 

lib BPLsI 



f.(//ifftfi jifl infutfiituk Jiffn ^/j^prrjifr. isttna'd f^anitu i.) Kitii id^iX 

racV md OlII spnifi' ■In' n 'Mr Hull In 'Ji-=- ri> lb' f^'^e 



■-"[EluLL Ibit iira'Lliiil'' ■.li'ii- InillL llir LriMln'T-in-JJt- lU illluk 



- tided katidn ifTTJ Lf(t^^f?:uf^ c^i "udlkn iiiiitnum; ta i^sdta '* 
man^Std^djidp ay ami'tii'n; tl tan tdkf-i 's ihwifnum.^' ki^tjihig 



laffia^h 'tan tdkKl ay him!>ui»i. Ud^-I iimfniim itc'i I-um^lvig. 

bn,l f ib.lf.l Hie pe^lf ilrilLkiUfl Tl»rii HLniikS l.iiiniivTj- 



- isftna'd kaiidfi ii uif" t^'ai/^d^a on '^dfik-i'd, !a uj?j^>jrfwitfl.'" - if:d,-d ^^ 

hinKlitr -I II-LH-H 



5oa THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOSOT 

Ion iitnlnum nan kailklna >fl iiitkaskna ay mait£iti*fk'>sh is nan 

dilptj bl<. jpd "IIP hnli^iili" is pusJilnaChiniJ nlo itr 

bjdhhn-ill -L*» 

" kalsfl^sh.-kcff^Hi^ ^jiitxdla nan I;^«u)H IJ won /wianff^fiff. 



'^ - k^ijHg karr^n Lum-dwig 6>% "frnrffra.' fa^ inmipaiiyoka ken sab/in" 



Th<nlli*T nail* vr,r,rl« "-d Tdt " Thr-D go holiit th^ p»pl* 

tfjf^' kfffi^n^ kuntfn saw. Lum^iri^ on '^mo kb man iny intnipa/ffik 



40 



Illfl Urea IhiJ " pvrlrM-mrd Tlrfn (ll^J ^"-llicil 






- isdtjad inlofiJya ay sinasdr^wa, knndna 'n "iftfrifi^Mfr ed si alt^ngan," 

TI^CIl tbei lilhri J7 JlLilburKl Skill I»p «yi I JibLL makt a i:iHfifl 

hetjSng sindt^na sh' aidsiwS.na is nan kdai^ngati. ftctj?ng aid^a jcrw 



dsu ya ipUySna's kafjapdna fdkan; Fdtan nan n^ddjan HafiaidPiwcn 

■Abb fliisl plMci iiVi lo Lbt lor4 '>'! Culcim- Fulian: Ihe roiDe al Ite fife 

tuA 

Liitn4v!ig~ ftni^ag alifna ^an ks^cvfttart ya ipuySna is k^lon Fdfian, 

A Lmidhvig Tlirr "br lak?2 a lull. unJ pluev |1M ul Hl\t< bead al FokBb. 

mil 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 50:1 



Fov {^ytji^n Lumdavg ay Jlmiiy ad fjdyd. muif'l-nti pay ii as<t«tv^'Hi. ^■^' 

be- "Sins Ulliiai'iH 'K aci I1 lli^ilii. pr^anuU lili wile 

- Udiia'd an^ijf'n jan alSngan. n^d kirndu J-rtrndang en "lio "- 

rnit^kio^ nait sikiald^iini, c'l/itgc^iiga nan -isti; mo trUtSkiiGg is 



If&olodna, iiihak^i'kka 'y ^aitTiiftan! adfka pay Tna /tsitlalit mo! 



JfO/uil/fam ad Tt'n^Myan" ln^tj^^i^ nai^dSa ad T^n^iityiOL 

yrni lir.il 1^ 1L TinLrlayiiD Tbcn il ^kifJiicil III Till|;1a} JU. 

llonpLllg 
pLsLC 

— wSdd St san f*anma.TkJng<i" ty UO"!a»iitlid if san lUd nan Tt'ffn^a. ^ 

kelj^e aiit^'Hiif.^'^hen sau am/ttma ion iioaSffHgot. kecj^n^ alln^na 

Thra li?btiL>iil LIiB yld IIIDH '\<c c^Uiri Tlmi hi: (ljrf:J 

1') r<ilL It, 

I\1<. i-lH lii^rvll^ill Itwa !■■? fMT^ ahll fciWP "i CnH th«r >iJiiiifr nun 

bi]iii« 

isdtja'd aUnSrt ya pnua!f4'.^aija. - k-etj^'jg iiaikk6nis ya keijJn^ ^ 

Thi'Ti Ihr- rihlllilj Jnl pul [I ulioTC IIl^'Ii li. Invrn, nnd Ihen 



^f^iiSff ti Fi^lia" ya kafidna 'ii. ''iidf"t pay patiiii^H nan pd^Uek. fiiy 

ijKdk'i FiiliDH unil t1|' ili> n"[ '^1 e i]?rp l!i» Wl^l!' lifCaUH 



ftrf™ft i/na,'" frt'ij^'Ji; mfdegtsa ^y iuiiida jd fotf/!y. tfJ//*f^ 

(bill nut lur^ Tlien Ibcv [UkrtlJlLI fin bonic I" lliK lUTi. Tb^ri 



i^rf«^jrfaj7ut'jiJ;"j rV dfong^ja. - hetjSng isded kandn san fafjfyi m ^ 

Ibtj- ilii«lly liO <'^ Ikr [r lKiL]'4r. T\ivr Umi jvl dH' "ninin 



S04 THE LAXGUAGK OF THE UONTOC iGtiftn? 

i,-HJ -ayi'/ -way ,i„ifi!,:i,r, '" ntft^i kamti i\in naama.uiv ,^an en "m/j *-„ 



■ Ll^ut IPIirif; I fltj AmnLc-rrr, iHiliVhl Tlirtl 'II . hi i«ijf.| 












r'hm 






nqlbl ■ 
^ ''""'" h"^... -I..,, _^ f^,| rTMiiH H.,„rr Then.. i™ 

-IJLin llwb ]V._..I^ Irrh.l JL ' ^ 



-i^L.n J„ '*t.rl..li||.|,rr> (f,^ -i.r'.^r. 



Tlprn 



l-iilHj.l'.e 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE SONTOC IGOROT 505 

rt Pilfvii jt'ihux'it nan iiiiiH/'n^-fnan, iiisn iiokfffi is ■^tflFrf.f^u j'jj'" ''-^^ 
i>iu iK»1 III iHPlkpk^ liu 'It IT WMlEC lilt ilirlr iialir iiiilM >ijII Li^llnA 

l.-clji^»S nalfffn nan mttlm 'd Kdn'n; 'nihic'ipdiiaA ntrn iiid''Si \i 

Tlir-ii *-i ilirlj till' 1flili^> KHIiulI: <1<»" ll»a^ i^jiiiint 

i^iLiiitm^ licit if/n 

L^iii|.„ •\Y\-->\ llii> ilirli -flfir "ip. I^IH^ TbHi Hi^v rr^tiMt 

irliL^ K.Ln'iU'iii^nl 

llldil IIhjl iIj5> jr* (IftL J. UiLij jn> lilt [^dnijii-iiii'iP liitl* lilt. -ti± 



,va kasfffa fiiimSigOK. betj^ng fttstfi^ f'adSy^ Ifdftja. iip-ijhig 

onjiavarrevd'ii^f/a av imifi ^ifi^'ii -ca "if pay rj^knn ini\i iiiiufmif^ iz^n 

[||r,'r™r<lhtl.il "".■i;L: '"■^wd, 5^1^^ J" ibrj-tcplBJ 



riul:.hr,f" is^itfa'd ^a"ihi ^>'j -'fsai^HM^ pay. <iy iKtia'a, vt adSliiyil 



pciiulijU? 



rraii tl'-^tWuir \a ^"f^" 'H^'" tjaitjti, .-t ty^lJi^^'/a nan baay; 
„.. B..„i.,i.,i >^ so -^« ■-- '""' J'/.nrpoT" '"^ "™v'- 

b IrrW lli,h' -litl-.. ■■ nil- (at.' 'iL'illl I'-' l^i"^' ■"" 



□re 



ika/ifptja fja/ija ad F^»Uk ad Tslpc^h. nan iir^nstjc 



Srifi THE LAI^GUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOEOT 



^ w-^d^ 'd Fap-ift/tay; jab- tdkiija ay wdka Tt-idii 'd Pnp4W"y. 

[HllUj land, 

K^tjdng pay ijai. si Miityi^ mrn ni'iSk&d. 

"TIlli II all " UbiCyo ivuD tlr [ iiDTinlor 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 

Tlie meaning" of Lumdivig is iios known ; probabfy {;) ltc\t\ IdiLti-^: 
world ("Wellwalicr"! ; wjih pre-infjs wn^ ium occurs in several priijier 
nsDies). ArlLcks uscti wjtli Lum^jftg: ^an, sok and peTEOii. arL. si {.vi ie 
dropped in G<:nHivc). The v^riou^ arlicici ^how iliat Lutnihvi^ ii IiolIi, an 
appcllgtivt ;iinl ii prO|)Cr Ji;i[rc. (Ko root "la-ivig" could be ascerlJiiiied ) 

1. n-n'tk sj L. "LiiiDaii'l£'50n5" [?6}. kaUitdtan: "a pljcc from vvliicli 
game Kna uul cir^in:^ I he ioiH o£ ^ rofky Tumunliiin; vh. isadj^tkc. I "corner." 

2. asakdlui: rnugli, "kinky, like iiegriio hair," nncitn, lUiduladng, 
mnuntHiinoiis. 

3. fn iVitf^A-pji^n [3'7]; '^<'i?W#W4^tf*iJ. "ntar B^toti, nortli," 
jir^fj^^^igfffr: I puC ^ "--alMon^" intu the river [il (Jic end of 9 ilani. 

4. ^^^i£ ai Pdkis: nLOiiTiUiD lunrth of ^IciDtoc. 

5. inJil^oag: P^r^on. vb., JiUjSiigatiti: Po5itz<i. vh. 

6. "kiljak&ydiku}" (as one ivotid) 

7. Kpfassu/^on: iin'iint^kin >east of liuoLoc 

12. stan^angihi fa^ one luord), ul(cr-:d hesiiaiingly, l^i^h dlaappi'oval 

malldoH. not by her broChcr-husbjniJj Uut tliroiigli l-irrnaivj^s jnflucijce 
(as all Ig^rul ^rsst^rtcd). 



THE T.ANr.UAGF. OF TUT. B0\'TOC IGOROT 507 

ij, uhieib: a ^lirub, orr rueh; "wwd mlh pitV' reed. 

In addiliiiii lo llic^e men, llie -jlTiipriiig of ih* Iwo ^urvivot^ uf Elw 
Gr^ir Flaod, J.unmyig de^mcJ it nete^sify to creat* inert tfom ref?d, t^can^e 
"flrf/ fffli^^ijj jjifji tdkn ii nan fatdntwn: llicre were nal enoiitjii |iei)|>le in 
the worW 

14. r^j/iJ^T'd £jff... I310]. 

15. ijtitfja BflH-wBi/li.' "Ikejif* Hie inlial'llAnb uf/' 

16. mFtioang: in-: proler, aiiE^neni; iliey liavp i^eLfled ^nd ire now 
seltkrs. 

iS. LoitfJii^iro- nv^r Bonloc >rtru ^uWifto; our apeeth, 1, 1;. oi 05 
Boiitociraen. 

19. M^vinit, n-hicli prixliicc:^ sail from lioc spring': [145 Sfc ^'i-f. : 

JO. ia^Jit^o nj;-et...: ihey nui^t, I pre^uine. |nnchai<? all iliey need, m 
they do Tint mjiniifacLure and are rallitr warritrb an«J l[llcr? -of ilie sull i[ian 
cloqiiciil fijid ^UAve tradesmen. 

23. S:iiii'>lci; renowned for [ls i>yclcry. J, a?. 

25. -fi Mdlkod ..: i tiandarjl cJo'iing f'Jrrniila. Here endtd tlie 
IgArol'fi first narratioa of Lumawig:. (^Ta1^:orf : an jmaeitiary [P} oar- 

ralOT, 10 wtioiii ino5l [iJc!^ ^re as^:rihed,j "11 this bnnula j& oniuifd, \ht 
■narr^illir 1^ liauiktfd by ln:Hlvy ilrcam?,." Ma<yu recited llils and chc follow- 
ing parls of tbe Lumav-ig-Myth. 

?7. Tj^fttfrf. t^k cd [30?; 24?] ; od =cd 

33, iiiJj iirdn Ja; ^urpri^e^ iiicrediLliiy akiakSl: "wt have but litlle 
hei^jk!. in our garden." 

^R. Ip/!p{ni: ai the tonrt iTinit flf Bontoc 

y}. ii mn- km...: plcon;ibl. ij=e of an. [j;j\. (StHiicTfmc^: ^1 (he 
house of N. N.) 



5o8 THK r..\NCrUA<:;F OF THK B0N"TOC IGORQT 

40. aykd ngag (a...: "what is the Kisun Ibalb-citioiild.,.'' ^fiiifJymy: 
get air, "becaase tt is very hoi." 

41, ponda-.ha!B: I do as the firsl Chilli C di> dirpclly. kantin 
amifJsa: ri rapped .a; the gp^iking of Iheir father; alao: ^qfe^u tr^iPE itmiitsa. 

43. kfirnksiak. synon.: ^ffTft/^^sat.' "T geiqirong, he^ilHiy;! hvA well" 

13, {iniil-sfkpefd: T m^ake freiiuently ga into, i c, J jmc (chicken'^) 
every evening into the cjOfi; I fai^e, ke^p tij^i'^^u; <^c JJ^lSjt ^jj,, e^ipr^-;.^- 
ing surprise, Mn-ictimc^ indigiijiiion or an^r. 



45 



i^ txtimi.. for mir "regular" ^ceding-, [^l^l 



43. »Acariti^''.taEi-; '"I break off al tlie ^nd, llie fitsl piece oi a slick, 
then the ncjit/' teffcf(j^£; "and it is endrd; 110 more talk," 

53. tfirlddd\. Iwi] ii'liole tttiiiks of big irccs, laid piirnllcl upon tlie 
ground, io support vessel* lian^jjig above fire. 

54, Sa kay sak/^n...: "let it tie 1 who tnus-l B^l." ya: emphatic. 

35- simnH^djhti (anf word) ; syji^n, ; -jAt ™,' i^i> i'' ri^hl f The Ji:- 
Lanct Leiweni Kadkad and Laiiao iz ".^vi-r^il nnJes,'' 

Sq, fifffft^"-''' '^'xlding of poor peoplf. ivlili ■:iijiie puch, biiE isJifnne- 
wedding oi the ricli, [jriimineiil, "gads'fip.yi'ii," ^'lili meat oi iijftflfl;^' (Injf- 
£alo>, many pigs etc. 

60. PahdHd: *'two miles from Boatoc^' pttnf-fn^ck- 1 drive hack 
"on -Ihe rivetb^rtk:" "iff nan toiyrfjiiJi," at other places: paskahJuiek. 
K4link: "'^'^ry neac J,anao." 

"calchahle," ■^yiion. ; malttnoy li m^ipaf: esay lo be caught. («o coicli) 

62 »fli7. certairly! feri mioi; "a wondEr mdeedr ?fl3'.' because. 

64. i'tiii n^ytgn^^tao \non3ngmo] ■ "you are of no uae, wcq-tblesE, 
good for noiLine," 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 509 

65. tdlan: weather^ time of the day, Ihe Gelds of a CDnimiiiiity (sut- 

dfri*i, ricelietils t:r.'z ) 

6*}. ib/dna: che pig's romp^niDns, the OLhcr piga. 

dj. vi\angjiikiim\. "^vc \mvt g liitir rfrfmoiry, nf difffrrni ocoiiioii^: 

also mi lliL d.i} riflir iln" iv-nl<liii!;. A pi^ is ^illi^d ;[i: Lht "rQn^/uy" .t 
clii^b-cji tf t I 111' "jjirifTi'^jjfTPr;'."' ftt!citdki::k: T iUirt li> ivurk, \i\r.i friendij fruuu 
the hi>bs& xn g'j Lo lLjc iiii>uiiiaiiis^ lortst, itdds^ "Ear from Ldwii/' 

iimrjr^dyiitii/ ^ti^ya. iv.mjcI). "I lie|-iii a -CLrLiiioity in llie alo (my li^'wii 
■-I'tlloTi) U^' i-oiii^ Cn lIii: v.(»J=, where I oljicrvi: lKi: lakcn^, ]>[irEicul3rly eIic 
Ijirtf '/r/ft' ^all red^ with p lilack mark under Ihc ncckj ; 1 f^scrvc 11=. H'l^hx 
iind cnuiil il-^ c;illr" 

68. kaytk-'c-i-fsir <ra>i lUik^i! {{I.^r-^tid]. Itiey cijn:.iili whether th<y 
■'hj\} ^[1 10 li3;lil NvirTi Ihi' iribc.', living in^rlli oi lUe K^iiCnc arr.i. igd 
kakdib (fi-tiTn hlf'^h. I luiil:!:. rLCi!Qni|.lL^lO ; Ml vn^nie. \Vt\. doiie, tiirnei'l i^nt 
not UiC:|]. 

74, hidta (y^l- 

"ft. riitrt.Jijjn |3i5]j 

^1. ^idfff ifin hastTa^ttax: f<jr aJJdnii. nd tjdya: to "K«aveD," 

Sj. 'fffl//j(P^'''Jit- I iicise Iroin fluj.Lin^ in ^ riiT:r -ic it ■^h^Uow place, 
or held upli-v r.n-l;-, t-it kj/i:'.cUU»i a^ '' .. "you-f :^iopjii»^' [ilacc &ELall 
be at T." 

^:5, ^^^LTiip^^Jrjr ^liarpening his ax or knife on a stone, alitrjp/f^hirk 

is jjurr /^o'lt^utxr- I llsh one rmjii ihr n'sLer; if^rriiT^Ej' I'rds. cuinHi-o 
^Ikci:- I fdl "Lihf ^ hi;:'' piirmbiih-k. I pLil on the l-unl 11 out wqUx, 

36. mamd/ljuijft: biniiiiEij; hCiJ'l^; "'ilie\ liail luiiiitHj ,irid (iilceia liume 
»hp lieads; Ihi'y pi'c fncmul ihr lir:ii]liLiiiloi^' nli".." jjjf[[//,-^ifj: JUPf idJii: 
''Lhi; ^loiinrl -inl( In ihat Mik. uli^r^^ KliIwii I'm Ji'^rl over whil-- lUnuiiij;; and 
liLildiug leiivCb oi ioIklcco in Iioe JLaml:^" 



510 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 

8g. M3t! fj^lpakiinr'. >ialp6ak]' "my bii-ThpliCc," lit. my-wnniT^-froni- 
plac€. kctjt'ii^ iiakSftt nan mdbSt 'd I'fSnfalt: "ihe ri^er coming from 

(aiabrte - malj-f) B'jnirj' (tvliiih is hsii^lIIv mii'ldy) luiipciitd ;il Ibsf lime lo 
Itc di'^m ib.in \W Kniioii ■■lrf;-ini, [|kiI h^il h':c.u uv.\'i': namJdy fiy ,i rjin- 
srona. T^us LomawLg's eons went Astray. 

yi. Tin: rcinilrrr^-lion Uikus pl;i<:'> while the KanoupfiDple had tumedi 

sldMlfa: "lilt l>L;'>plr f'lukfd Ji^ck." 

gj^. ^jp"ffjriff^j^dvi(.' prftter. of the Peraon. V'b. puiMadoyuk. 

^t_^. lilan^: a lon^ pole to vphieli t^-e body of a mnn slairi in Eiaiilc 
(rtPiin^ ou. Jii5 ^-bicld^ i^ ilc<I cn b*' ciJTie*] fionfc J CXXXW 

brlay 3pccic: ■■ '"'l"hc bilsy plaiilcd in llie grove 'palpal/my ad \ifkok' 



HEADHUNTERS" RETURN AND CEREMONIES 



Haow COOK tha liradluiiiHis. TIll'> ilr^nn.' ^n-l (bqi ijdelirf "Ajtng^' 

iLiff '"Hlnl: J, " kCrp 

Bfad LJli'\ jliwuCiiLjj 



T!JE LANOUAni^ OF THE BO,\'Tor IGOROT 511 

I-alfii-iy: sin&h^ 'jA iry nasdysuyr? [stH^ka 'sh ay na^64jiiy\ "-^ 



LiccffWI ol It, 






iiii>iiiinsii'i''<:fka \</r thin.' 
Tim fhflll ' Mil Ml' mL 



HtlLllhlj; "IJIH- 

r^D^H^r I r. ludlflj 



nc-^- lli'-^ lilvflKllliW JH tU^niE tli'j pn| ili.wiL Lilt hrt.1 11 1.LtL [IIEj I.B1I oi: afl , 



'KrWD I FiMIII^I I IL..UH}. 

f^lHk ya shilsJ&antja; 310 m^ngant/s pn^ Of^'iifm/jjia, ketjdne 
\i\'^. inri UFKLbHU) ud Iubhl IIif nlil iIii'ii thn 



ipiiffja nnit iih h %aii k\is/ik/iln'[g. - bctjt'j'^ mffd«\nvig nan ^ 

ttiKy ]iil [}iL heiA ialo Ibc hiiil^ ^bi'ii duciiibM tbt 






Cf^ "f'abicnddif'iyti nan dio. ta iitfadyn j.. la-i tntaUbnan 

I4 kt 'Lu 1 II LEiO Iii'utI ''lIidC ^cij li^ ill mC llie il 1I|i:^|)I.Kl 

iloii^n 






5ia THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

Tbtn itiBi^Bhl anil ibey mlic Ibc hvwl; l1iiTBiii?4a 1M> la Eht hiiii>Iu 



is nan a'o- igd^d tatakjkdnga^ nan fobfdlio ya nan f'l/n" naa 
ii> Ihi iiiir. TliHi kKptoTdi Oie j«u$ mej ami ihL' uHitt 



' [jirfjiifl'Tt.uu i'3ilf <ili!,-ii .it dii^ nun oto. ■ h.'if^n^ fxbikdt; Umjj'if 

iLiJTCLLiI ii.Lii Id 1.1k? il*:!."- Clli' Iii'.ihL TIii:Ii riL.111111:.; Ilicii IIil^^- 



Lflkc^ili 'ml I'll' I- in'" HiF ln-klL ThL'h Hit' l.iki? ',i'| lu Ibc in-.: 



isdtja'd meng-ef-fli-i^ 11 na/i ^U iisi ji-dn^ti. itjitja'd Ornish hok 

LJlUEl LiLSl ^Lt'i'^ ' I*' ''" '''^ IhiiiL '.lllii- t.i.--.T rt\r\i cliH HBsli Ibf 

htliilr pciFin^ tbeiiu«lv», 

fohfdilo, Isdtja'd nit shall Bon '"". kclfi'ig i'at^-<fT^dh^ntjii ya 

yemna mxa; iticn lIi^j ^'1^l■ Uw tand 'il> n III'!' 111.L Li'Mi iLit am] 

Tin rr^lunl: 

^ lujfi/jjjfiffiyji rtji tii^^iJIiEf/f iifl^r dlo. iilted iusdba nun •imdma \iit 

LJU-j L'4i I 'i^ii'li'-il mrlb Ul( timl. TUcD ?^i? ptijiiri an n^il iiiiii an<l 



i/ariiina 'h "laUiyam --d ixsd-ffC'n^anc, la 'mld^h is ua<i flimi." -'•umiSat/a 

-Llli i:. 



to tka bwD men Ib^ '.m^ Itifv-i^k? j vi-!i ^'-' ^it) 

Jbcii Itii^ 'i|iJ>;v {1^1 1 llif II Ihf^' iNioli lil^ iJkd (Iiei ^ini- -^I'l ^^^^ 



'31 moHgw^^Mon ''andpcHadyii^kaiii ta w/fshl;iii itmSia \c- ii.idaziiishnti. 



Tken [I IL nijjhl itgiir TbEFi [Ji?j hajy Ibf bfiiJ 



THE LANGLfAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT SL? 






Tl^ii i' 11 JnrI izf,- l!n ijH nlth y/i^ hai^ n liuliilni mil tioKhhIj 
[liy-MiiiifT 

dmky is '""a P^yyu^ l-iy iriglztg kelj^ng ml^ngao '^ 

iroi::< li^ IIlf llrlrin, Fieisiiibf Itn '^hoJ^ Tlmi Lri»|j- 

niin umiffi; tna/ld fum'^kyitk. isdfja^/1 nia}Hiif^lfiiy nun f^bfiith 



jru nan /nuinif^kid. kami'r nan in-imdg/iiil , 

ind Uie btIi. ^ Hit. ^Ib; 



yuu. iprnd li^llcnilk 

ill tlUif 



(wlnlt) your HinlhjT ii ^dLhi'TLiii^ rliu llry ^dUrl 



f>») m InTTi rHi' J"*!"!; " "-II 






II 



pUfrdm ny inyakydkin g 



stmdm 031 tsaljakkiskis 

y-ni f jci]i±li tl hIdvIbh 






SU THE LA\'GUAGL OF Till: BONTOC IGOROT 



H.I3 _ kavitu iikis tan viamdgkid: 



Ivtun '^pUiLowD" i^ly 






'if /jiofr cn h'mdgo 






|1ii| I'oii IiiVl {i[| !'> [IkF i^roirl of 



^V JVlLlL till' Vtil111>| 1111^11 









cid/jjj akian si Jnam 

jCH 'lo nit in'? jny I'l |mir ■iei.iIii'j 



buk 

^^ ksiihig mLhitoiSyafja nan amdm/ma. "ayclka mnn fjtl 

^tbr\t fnici^ 'iP-\ 1^: / Iht I'll! 1^1'" iLr^lonfl [IbbIb) IhllF 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGOFLGT 51.S 



Lll ith ^ni] n IIlfd ilici ^n kLL Lbi: iDdiciaL inni iLhiI UkLH Hn'- 

*Ti tnJHtjtpap is nan. fUtug. - tfinpitpija h-ijj /tiw iiTJJ'/n iftr'f nair 1^ 



iri/ph nan inasdfiiwitn fH "mfi'Rw ikil'in is .iihti!t\i<iki'. kc^inidko 

k<i<rul uf Ibij iLidllll^l rii|i| n il'if nnl '.ulUu lor uur mol- Ictoi Bgi^lt 



mntio, — kofidntja na^i djJ^ti 'y /ii!t!h "fir nia^vJ^'." 

Iij^li lir, MV fPTO irhcn l<L lb«< <I|^1lI 

- U^fljii'd J'd^ff^'i flflii f^frf^; i-iift/a^d s<r^f4Ji^>i ya y^itja 'j hcwc " 



bojM': HILll lb^^ nLILL^l' ID iLll' fj^i rllLlL Ml'; Pl|^ Ihl I H-T^ if. Ihf 

•ito. k'C'>i<it}i'ntsa j'lr I'l di'itl ji^. ■ kcljhtg naSio pay. is'lfd '■■ 

1|ii, Tlici ^mL an'l L&it IIlchl Tlmi 1i- 1 mnil-l-l Tli'-i' 



ifaidn na'i iir'i't"i/r"a 'n "4tigiidy^'it omSn^^ tiffn fobfafttyi la 'd 

^l|- [In- ftl.l HrfTI JOaBlBll lil* [!■ fllMniljLtf Llll' iMur IlhI 



IblVBlKr III" nOiimi, inl.i tilt iHh IIliu IhtT ijI bilJ fJUMb tUlDf 



keljing mn-.isfji'istj'i: k^lji*'!^ wasSi/jf'i JKHuiiJ^ttiaH^ is nan 

ElttD l^cy hi".ldi^Il riii'TL WlfVW-^ haaUi^i"' t rim i f □! Jd 

af^lij'igij/i. k-ciii'ns ififSalja Htm Mitga ya isti^Mtjii /.'. 'i4i'i 
^Jfi^sjji. ijoiijii'd ^^^^.^ mflfl "^tJuflt j'ct fayfti'nfja. 

daw. VJiCiitb^ lal- -' -^11111.^11 »n,l Nrnl il 



Si6 THE L-^KGUAGE OF THE B0[^TOC TCCROT 

^™ kitjins mirf^ nan m&noh- - [ktmSntjii «» "tuiy pay idirtay n 

III LIlf nUb L.nnw IIk JUIIIHmBBE ™op»M\ I'l' -UrilKl". 

^' - isdsj&'d ti^akdkan^ ndt/a'd mci/hiiino'i^ uir?r inamd^kid ya tuia 



fpbfdllo ii nan dtn. isftfjo'd handii b'lj "nta'i'minyisdfco 'd'" 

yCtlli^ □Li'nl 61 ElU filo T]i<"illii'/ ^]-. IeIoi^Uh.L in ^Mf. 

iiifcd i-aiijin i\aic fabfi/Ho 'u "^!H.}\l,■dy^ um^ in Id^nan la 



^^ iJA^fr4JBtwrf<^rf/to ai' nan laiaifbnan. - ii<t>-it kamoi "fa'i riiGmdgkid'- 

l-i: pl]A.[ IL l.l Lhl^ ^1 Itc lIllKIHJ^lLjCf lIlfD iAj lilt Mirl- 

T-'ifen!". i'litJiAmaiirdlii <f ''mMi^jJ^ify oj' jjjtfj^^^m ad FdUig; 

- ' - "W* Shvt CaUlL In HuilL.d^ b^Tiivi.i^liiii-1, III? mil uhh jI I*"'*!!,'! 



j« ay^koTK nan fiaigj^fo'i^j^mo! !a iiMnUkdyec i^ »an liuiii ad 
jiLiI ulL vuii j-liiii hniil}' icunu >i- [nUi ULir m*M. !<i 

Kensdtjon; lay nay si fUad ay kin^pntsn -ay tinnidtaymi kgn I jakSyil. 

CBiua b w3ikli 

ya itan^litja rU/twti ii nan fthni. ya if^olfSisam ti PSn^ed 



fjsiija is fiaii trtidi'to So mav^JfntJa. ya nakakdntjo 

Ili; Mii'iii LjiVit HtVUl lliil liujdt bdiJ Hi--, Hiinnli 



2i 



irdlfe^d ^litHf^j *ft "^ttgk^yff wndio is fdyash. lo frmtuminufnttiko xi 

Tll*n (li'> «| ^OJfl I^St lira>il.' Ilihi ~^ mafci' (hi±]Li Jii.l 

licinli 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 517 



mof^l^^S^jo- ufted i&wH^ ira)' laattuSgkui sn "'ptt-shuy^pinytt^ d is nan ^^ 

[|i*j j^nLru-nk Thru ii. I.ii >;ir"L& pnl rHifnii In lifp nn fc- 



niaE 






UaLjV 1= llir iianiitor Jiiil PBlGngluDi; dIIiI I fillUtj. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 



TI"T *t'renLiiiiLC5 ailrr ^.nccc^i^iiL]! vvartate are cnllcji vamiyiftkny, rniin: 
jalt^f^tiy. A ccceinoni^il ijOng. a responsive ^oug, jr mongalfikiJy, Erom; 



I. 



fifiC^-n and I.Tdlji^ [3«o|- iiJaFt^fivi^"^.' wflr'^on^'- 



?. raaj^^-^i-yr iiniicofiiH.;iItanJ: "rtri (lie nUier side of ilu' rivrT. |irp- 
teiidiii^ Co be l^jn>raiil of iv^rl^Ltc;" ab*.co[nJLJi^, ."ih'.-cnl. Or, w-nzhSy 
ijdv abocjit yLJinlcT. vnttis- hrtechclolh, presented la war riots - 
■izfilm'iiik. I ^ivi:, clolhe n-illi J waiiis. 

The Mcire 1^ iaml>n:. ^vIeIi sirtrn^ iciBis, the natural accent It^ng jlisre- 
g-iirnJcd: -,.|-.|-' -|-'-|-J'|'-''[''. iia^ka 'sh ^ maikitiljfiy 
- u'aiisnnyxi '.f/i ifimaydlldy. 

3. nuWjiiiwife: I am away; e.g.: -na^dssii-uk is i^kkeu ay Hi: 1 ajD 
iWnt lit :^n iirlier rovvn or coiinlry; I nm pre^'cnled (Erom uirniry '>r par- 

\v[\h c\t, jLce^ "I do noL den?i-vt a.ny meac, aa a coward {Qgiddan}." .•.fiuuf; 
we Vf\c. ;al[, 

4. ^fo: coun^.i[lL.>iise, see Voc. .litidkak {ilviS}!ii!ak\. onTy cere- 
monial killing. -.ak'Sio'ii^: ^ filnni'l-!ilia[)i*d R'niimr^iry he3dba=ket. 

bS^hh: Size Vnc. po=i. (Olsttve [In ^^ins^Lilai i'^Fiiii'. jobf^ii^K 
"uinitiskrd. fojdyi used oflcn here for plural [J 



5i8 TUF. r.ANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

6. noH ib/oK mm... and the "oilier,"' i. c. and bc.-[([f:5 rlii: indrT['.-rl nifTi. 

l^rayiiin, invokmu Ihc -lOii! of llic ^l:^l^. ^^i?.^/rfr6. uiHTmiiiiiii;U i"i<MTirni,', 

8. I'll'' rjH m!iti addresses the head : "tall your wife:" that vit kill 
her aLsu ! \\\^'igfn^id!: T hum, droDF songs without words. 

Cf. oita^enad'iS^ixii! . |'rof>alily andp^a. 'd. '*hc sEiaU search" [tons, 
if. ^i I ] ; lull '.my niU'iit|ki" "T -'iKilin^' the mcanji^ of this ]>lir.iM' mms uli'^hc- 
tcb-iiiil. ""it iin:nnsr uvr i'-. iln' ri^^lil tlinr, jiisi no^v.'' jri-'Si^iiiA ri';i&( 
thirkai, -ti^g, I'-'irk, 

JO. Tliiy hury tlu' hi'.nl in llu' tflo. tiiiiic'\_<^aotdko iit^n^ao'i ' ive ?h^]\ 
(m"0 cck'bralc ^ holiilrfy, Imi r ri|£fH^Lry^'^',tD. i^<: ;irc Lclc1>rj[iiij!". 

1 1. iitiifH: llic ^vhi^lc fri.v-n fcfeliT-ite-; llii^ (hi> : Lfie oilier i.(?ri?iiirtn Jes 
^vej'c perfnin:ed only by th.il nio ("i\"aTi["| lo ^vf:jc!i llie ^■iLli^jr lii:lon^'.! 

Tho^p ^Uiu an: iJckMkd in Ific "■.UTini'n .ini^'hacmii," iho rti/iinQli/lifiy. 
r»iii=l work for tin ihIu't |i^rly, ncl -vxjd etc. II Llicg^irU mji 3n]j lail lo 
get Shr'iT prize, they tak<^ ihr loy&' luils, pipea etc Girls who have lost ^tc 
bifigs, hrccilicltJth etc., oUicruiic liic boys wiU tear down the dlog (girl's 
dornLil'jry). 

^ikak: 1 waste my lime; or: I donolhing, btit.... piikdna t^ mcingan. 

he s;>cndB sli his rimeeaf^iie fi'^m^^ln^i T j^athtr tdrfpi£,drj woodj fut- 
wood. 

ij. 'nrrj/tjfrf. llii? iv-i-, i^^rKd to liave no meaning. Prohably: 

13. ^'J frX It^ riot CfAst fri^ui rl rl sv. ^■^l hr ifiLFL cliaIli?lfy:nJ|; ^lOngS 
( jJrc-ifl'^v'l-'rry 'VnnlCJt i>E \\'ilril^"), luL nh ri:^ify ijlillf 'lie 3Liri rliiiS," 

/jjofr; I50KJ' I'^nalok: "» plate where ffood tobacco is sold; North of 
Bontoc." 

14. stbfoH. k^mn, t}tpo»: meat eaten to the rice occasioually, 

r^khi^' I ^ivc '.niiif i>f my ctwn; imi^lr. , iicrMiji in caa, rectus, thlDf 

eivCTi ^villl pcepof. i-.. 



THE LA\'r,L"AGF OF THIi EONTOC TOIJliOT 515 

i^;, liviika,.., "Tliis siiL§:iiL^ lasts too Long," Old laea are Ihe 
uin|)jr'-^ oi [Tie <e.i?iTig toiitc^l. patavolwifdhif- celebrate the last day of 
the ie^Liva! ; ]>erforiii llie Ijiksl rileio, HiiisIl. 

16- -All epls'jJi? ironi w Iie:<dliunicr^' ft^tivnl ; Lji lIic ii)llov\'iiig ■lescrl|j- 
tion I'ecollccEioii^ al ccal cvcnUi and txplinatioD -uf cu^mrnia aic nilcrmmgled. 

17. ■'Of^ftiick: t lift <aad carry) upon my shoulder, irndjodfong: 
Collei^live fornf. 

i3 Women enter the ato only if ptrmitLtd lo do 90. 

19. Kiik<}kdnt}o: Eicre without sulhx ffu, ^cr; R, 16, R. 17 and Istjgi. 

nut-flSIHHi'tfi^O. ivi' [i.irl Jiicl j;", rni Lj Ii% liiiii-'-K, llnliir Imuir-, /ifihJn'^lj'i 
(onlv licri'! J |illLr-3l rurni, ,-'l;'.'l.-i:k [fiif-i-L-] I ■i]il|j, hc^l !■> iJuJlli uilli 

many tbws, 'which niakea ihe diidten niurt piLliiLahlt-" 

jo- "i'rji.'=ilng to the tiens'a health;" tAklcj \t4kay\: tlie strong arm 
ilirii killi'd ilii' crifiiiv am] choppuil otf dm head: ii'ficcicintd l>y a pari of 
iht diicktn- 'yianan-^ilkann. v--: |'f;iy for jli'I lio|ie, exjueci. 

Zi. mtinnaiit-^ldk-o'd 'U- ^iniul in Ev.'o l[iie:i, one formed hy the niec, 
facing the other, lUai of iln ■vomeu, [ii ordtr Lu iin^. 

12. The "l.mVjj^'" rjLi^i:sl"i of ic^<:r^l viT'.r-n; iIit ind'Miy rji llic Jirciiler 
part ui h?!ic1l '"■:t-h: 1= cli.uiml in'Tio-iinynsiy, l«iii |.jni,['ji nvir into iJ I'EiT^iiji: 
of astQiiiahir^ musical hvadty and palhoSr 

Fii'iii.d.^(i]t^ iif llfirln;; ^-nd^LiLly a reminiscence iff an old feud ^vilfi 
Baelig Tail' "^nii'>' ■>( .:l^[iTi l'iii-iuh!'iiO !■- iininked, niiire viclIth^ art 
wanted. In ihc following the tiairator has coniouDcTed facta and pLiaiLla^^'. 

2^. iffHk: tlie hare hoard in tlie Igorot's ^le^ing cliamber (or: ntat), 

by tuphcinv (lr.ij;i^ IroEij) , in n^.ilily iJie f)oar4l 01: i^'NilIi rlic dc^d bo'.ty i^ 
[ltd lu \k imvK.d lioiiic. jj!flf/i?.i^jti'rr "uuik \yi<k" '••v yyu, pmg.^sii. 
"long time ago." (only heri: ') 



5?o TTTIL LANGUAGE OF THt BOHTOC TGOROT 



THE IGOROT IN THE BATTLE OF CALO/OCAN 



" ' /prs^/fffJrt.fft si Dan fiffcng uiinUi 'd F^nto^ ya en^^f^ah a4 F^ntok; 

I'hf- iibEui iL-£^ii llivii iLilfiD; ^nniH-i. 1^ I^oilIk uiirl Ifll!. Lk!. ill RonLiv- 






la nld^nyu nan (•uiJirgj}'!, uttir JdOfifyahyn^ -rtfu t^fnyyu ya iiin kd'!^sa. 

[a>,r ;-- i-ijill Jijut sK|*|ilt, iiiiji Eji^irs mil llir- jr.iii^ 

IbJllLr dif^, 

ta iimuy<d/!fD ad ^Tnlfin^sh, Us ^'if^kHyJ^ uuinisffftif^ et addn^'vUn nan 

l?l iH |jn 'c- fdiiliiTl in, |[-i ll^ In iIiili[< :biMi lillkIi iuiII I</ 



'4l'l "'0'''f;i Tlhii Ihir [!» |jVO|-IV I Ik lOiillk^ \<\f\' mn 



p^ itm/fyfjo id pitgly^^, Ifyf ow//*r aj fcfdtio ya fndj^ ntm 

an.L l;u lullb^ l<ncr«l IhMmiK jII >nliQB hKII Art DBAcBdf 

IUTi r lLiiiLi||hi[il IllEi i-Hi i.|>i'iil' 111 L[ i^trlupr. n lif irn:" 



' ^afd/Jii. (->t' i'ci'i^ed ay iSatuSki'f adfk Idyijdn ay ^mity, tay nan 

I PiiniTfl livni ^nuiLoki, 'I'r iiijC Like lO pt L^^l^mn- 



THK TANf.UAGF OF THE RONTOC JGOROT Jji 

ms iufrr llifi" Lirfii hhi lor HIV noI "cii"|iii^ iil'i" ir" Jlini I ifi 1-1' k Ihif 111 

lay ihfdludtja \';ii ktrfibfhl/. - f^efjh^ ihiiuy ""^ tifffPi; -iffh-^ Ngt^and * 
iian rdk^: st s!ya nan iipcn 'lan Ig6lo£ keln'ng titolikoiliOi^anif 



*ii^ <Cii\ic U> FniLi^Dln JirJ UtbD l]K> IlkO nl-H «^ltic 



iPtlugn^ii. {i'itijyiti'rj id .5<ikf>if. liil P^ntit/i: ) i(etj^}\£_ iti'it'iuiJ nan 

llbA>H>l I'sDi^UIIL '.'^1 ILEA! Itirlui- JIl^U 4-C Utl^ 

Paatv". 

fsa 'v /j^Nj^? r^ rod^y'iitHi in tstfon aan fdJftt ay dmiiy ad Maf-^^io'iJi. 

ant III; D.ul ^ii: It III foc-l nltbe Dicn vili'i :.;ci Fi? U'llL'liii 



ki-ij/n^ maHkittidkafU^ fV flan i^bikci cl ujiuaitkUm ad Cdy/ait^^. ^ 

'\Vxtu wellart 1b the mormna BtJ crniLt lj fliijniLir, 



TlihMi ll:ii' Iwrii t)-!- (i>^il MM I [lif: lLiri;iLlrd ■ hulf mIh H:- -i^i" iii»«L 

[irrpjiii'l 

TlcTl ni±rjL ■■ tcmi Hill vf (Dili' L-l tiT^JlUCH, 



Tlifii ii't liilrl^iMD ■iliil fvk <Hir iin'Ml ■ncirrfivi: lloirin-mtn, 



w^iiftat'it ay iSa'Ur^ki; isited ttOH iMafttit^ iTftJfifi^w. itiiMalfg/kons. 

rmlit ,i„iili.,ni lfa«1L LJKHrnH>IM lituc.iii. ^[l■lik^.fca. 

Fniiiinki, M»yrj|il. 

iKittda^g, iS'ak'^dM, I'SUfl'a^, iT/fU^i^. iKih^n, ilgk^oti amln ay 

TtEJIBUP, E-iyHlB. J.liixin. li.Liihiii, KAnbC- ^iin..j j]1 lli« 



6 



SJJ? TJ1£ LANGUAGE. OF THF. BOTCTOC ICOROT 



1^ ^ kallifU inmlSytja ad Mal/fncsh kcij^iig iiakakdngkS'iii 'd !\£nt'ant^^ 



■^ifj mnQiikaffii ad Atzk&ki --niia.^akdnG amin r^an kdm'mm. piitadSytja 

anil n ^1J|||^' \t ^iikjiri |jrr|Virii| ■"-•i- ^H iniir T'lii^l Ld^T IitI l.ilJf J 



fiQjj fAka aif- ir,ijdmi. vaamoatndn^tr-a ad 'i^'Tvii'ift'.- 'ion a'ftfii oy 

I ci<^ IfT unc nicfll A- -imlil i^L t imi± jI C^r^■allM^ ill 



Icwn^rini Tlicn iCi-i niiicDin^ anl nciliuC end t("i^r In 









"■'/ KdndsoH ya vmHiivrUivii jiaw wlJsiko imn tjdkami id K/tfid.^m^. 

Eu CiOiSiiil fiJUl UtULtLU UIiLiLLUd UiL l^dud ^iLTL u^ a'. 



^ hcij^yig inlcdeSkami U sflH tjakfjdkai ay dftmg is lOfl ijWa '31 akyu, y-i 

JIlcli ^i 7L1J In .1 -111'-- hl^||1^|' Hi' iii^h AHil 



Th&ii HI' Mil tin p(g« of Candon-piflplE, TIilmi hi'i'^iuE 



W ^ untAlllianu 'd TShftijing. - kHjJitg H^irii JkpH nan fff/ing .■;/ 

ard "iuLi: III 1 hluLjiii^' J'h^ii •/.•> tiktH llrt Iiuiiki 

tTaK-^t}inf^ cl isjfiiti firii^h nan fdd <ofjo^ umo_^fdi!tja imfl JTak^iying. 
ulTjkslilllE- juiil UlLf lliLU (Uaib, driDldoEr Uii Tak -EUT*!* 



THEi i.AXT.UACE OF THE HOWTOC IGOROT 525 

n nm^a liLnilit.lnr.L fill; 1.;-mcK, T^i.-ii ■^i' -itirl 



moll V"l 

Indian, £Ui,inay mt\/id ^nj-t. ti^!;i'it^ nx'Ayl^ajfn el ohaii^mxi Jiflrf 
j1«| twt DO in»L. TIjch Bfl^ ami lii>tll>-lrin:ei 



DSe Imw iijil' Irfii^i^ iL En QBrgqana. IbOB laaHV: amf tfiok 



nan kafdyo^ heii''^i'i: \^Ji^m fstja^ toy kHg fSkas ji tdk» nan 






to T^DStoit iM' Ir-'vi. \a nlgU n^:!' Li,q I Lin,.l,i:il ni fan?. 



Uded atntnkami ay If^Slot -,<a uitffyi-ami ny niii,t[>n ii 'ipit hafAlitfStiii' 

'Hi\'n ^-linll, I'l' li^ir'il, jpJ Iji IbLl :.nibii^ l^l!"' 






-kt-Jjt'n^ utridU Mffh Foldddso ay insul/ktosFj ya s>ikor:idoipt t.', 1^ 
Tb™ ronie :lit inkliei-, ivho ii['^iir"'nlnc, "ii'l j'J; hv 

'I* 






5a4 THt LANtiU.\(iK OF THI£ RONWC KiOROT 

IH'I il lllll^' ILL-'. Mlfn ^C rjCl lIlCIL ■^1' k!'? '1 



a crtliiin Utivn I ■L'l iurl y iiu^ llir ti^liil t> III? Idwti nlirji' vc it7l\-i'iI 

ITm I mil htTf iL \'iiri IlmI n^ md mrM ijl hiilTiLlfi Tlitn 



1* tMOfH^^AfRt; "!<itik^dd^ami oj j^ifjr ni/fJ. - riffia^/fraf^fr 'd Santo Toiiias. 

^tcile^ ^-^ -lirl III ■111' .iiujuiiiL' ^i k'v.iLi' Li^ S.bUlO T(i|ll^.1. 



kctj^iig -nui/ld uoi^Jo jj frJj*cnjFTi. tft/*:^^^ I'rrjjit'Jjjjj 'rrjTJJizf is fSHi^ 

Tlieit 0^1 ii/f- coliol oil! I'hiil. ThKii ii-E L^u la ^trk pL|;^ 



ya T,^ hdnfUff;; fit Wfi/fd iHtf^ni^*inii ^r ffflti^. kdjtlina iiun iitlj^t'iainiii. 

HIhI fJOuC llii"^ HI" 'ny Wf Hi^l pi;.]., lthwLb ^| VUT flndir^ 



'■^ H^lj/^iig^ ydirja nan fl't/fy^. - kctji'/ig ttfiianiin is itan Jpoini 'h 






1' jjfjn Idii-it^n nan rakfk' , k\'t n<ty odwdni im ttm/fdt" kflji^ng 

diE rULid uC UlL lUCILk BIhl hat no^ lli^r^m I'liCU 

iihfiit^ Don Bfiottg uon katimi ya kan^na 'v '^IkddkSyd ya 

SMiiorfis llun UiUii^ iVili -i«i1' ill^fl iLt fSS' oir^ fi.r bilJ 



It 



ffdkHyit tjdmpaf ifr f^'^'^ >'a'.E "Q" flndy^.'' - ^eSj^'y^i^ iktk'dd^k 

]<ihi lif<p (iil[Iiir|{ Pi;i dD(L CK?' Tben I lilfflllcil 

[iHttl 

wTJi sin.pd'i0i^Hg ay Fi!iptk6. kiijhg km/fnfja ^n %Jfka 

4 lariLilv (if FLlipinin, THt IIi'v "i^ llo I^Ol 



I-Hf? LAf^GUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



5=5 



>u)>!id3y ken ijdkimi! fa vmoftHtami ts kiiuim kelji'iig madta najt "-'^ 
kill U HrUBfcH^L: }'^DF muL TIieu iir^L^ rli^ 



yndkcin y<! nun it^h^mii Ij^tjJu^ iidbt>k /ly m^i?'ij^i1fi ya kfij^e 

(II, m.l (3Jll^ Tlnib Tbtpn mIiuk bti.L IFiml 









nun ifmoU'folsa ki^fn'ti^ isitlja'd iuf'nan tii '' nynnHliihin ail .]falSni).\ii." 

^ UnU^^jjlf^. T^LCI' Xtiey l^cep ujLi:^ 11 '.hill rr.,;^ ,u Ma]clkJ^ 



Tlnii ^< Limit 1I Kil^lot in ill, i->suil[p Tbcn 



ilklilhu''!. ^||Li:niil'1'i L^ "90 niEfl." Tirib vi^jj^ ulirl 



I7DC ]]<Kla 'm.\' our liioil don iiDl mil&CE lien i^^ u.i 



iTtHlull mil "Viqj TIrfB llHf MV ^* iIkhoI ,ui. 



-kajfHff Htalik^ad nan f!ti». ket^^ng uw/lyka/ni wi bafokAtkami ^ 
IrBJrtAid). 

|J| llie Liai". Tlun ■^eL■^^V.e li. ^Jjlo-an l.>rf.ilHiHl oulj. 



$s6 THE L^KCIUAGP: OF THE BONTOC TGOROT 






?h* t. CHILI' ffrihii UH lldz^lr: ( Itc Hir u!. VI .I'n 



HilSHti ay tabl4bofi ti kok-fok S' m^nolc. ketjdn^ kaniln G^la^h uy 
An LiJOE cf iKqinaiDif ot my/lag i?t lh^j. TkEii u^^ IJaLoati, 



4HII I nKriircC^r M tu ^ Aioinid to Paopd Litbiml M^itllaL 



}ieSjhi^ miihkoddira''u ay /Iniiiy <id i'-ji'ig^d y<i dn^san imn ^oldddso. 

IlitJi nt lUlC 1(1 H^ (^ i an^, il -ini.l bi^iii |nh|i ilhi lolrlitr^ 



'^ kd)ing niOiidfigirayfii id Fdngcd. — hdg t6^ nan kaadm^Tufiia 

XliCii HI' ^^ "j tiLlli'" In Pan^id Lll.i' lliii iin^ lUc 'li-.LiiLLif, 



is nantjM. - ' ■ nai»a'igfpau£fikan'i; wodit nan ifffayim'. fffl^'i^wt, 
K Ihc v-TJdfT. B^liid grant la Uic liLi nl , •/!( IuilI ijxiic-, iHLlLfj^m. 

util aUttOa ■» rUhi. TbtD tqa^lmL i>iii' 

soidddto is tfM fisufttti; pmjilddkan natt MeHf^^nn. bfffjfa^ 

mAAmr fa tbe HMliEn kid i^iur TIliuiI ib^ Al□<^ClllI^ Tbfn 



^' ird^i^.til iSkketi ay tallf ett^ saf." - JietfAig iantdnmi on "avtol^ko kmttt 

vbpi q iliSiT^nC iIjike Ii llIL^ TliVii ^c ?tI\- ' j.rf ^'^ ■'Kibe- 

Llnii': 



THE LA.NGUAGE OF THE hONTOC RiOEOT 527 

nan nafiokliiikan ay is so. y^iija :di kul/IJK. Jietj^^ng imidykaini 

iLn Drfn ibol t-Eif, S'l't? J Tl]i'> lair on |li*lriih. Tli^ v/r ro 

IlLtrr. flliciul 



"■ railriiBil. Jlitb liiilt 



1,1 ""lr.Ji.1. Jlifb iLi.lc Ibr aAMrni, ^nrl ii.,iiiv fsiel i]i 



pryj^r LcmiJiiii freai IbUntn which :<ni3 1IIV xuIiJidh 

III*'. 



MeHkdno- djda niy- iiiiboti/nka" i> nan ftldddsftK si FiH^Ha. 



tj-c/ii^ ^f^^if/iiiftji nan sini^iimp^im yis "nrft-aWrftajj Jtn n^w /ra'v « 

'[lull i?Liia& fl^dlll ujii cainpanj- jdJ I^ Bliifl ngRin t,av 






ta itdfoai'ii liti'i- thi/akms, iiy tna/M bdldsig'ni; ir^fj^ag /tngi^ay nan 
s^odmt yn Fwr-i {'i'i4'i^"\i. - fa^fj^'r^ ufudli tikis imn sinkwffpJnya ii *^ 

mu^pniQ ^dd lie'lkifin 'I'llVU l^^huj jitdjji I'll, -vijipan^ ai 



flflH iiJii^i?t7rJd ya mahaliliikan ^k's 'inn idfo ny i<}idii^soH ii Pilipliif. 

ncun Biid nri' ^lioL a|^tiir ltijc< i^lilin", FilliiLnu, 



ketj^^ htHiiianlsti tian linkitttipdnya ya mtsvbk dkis turn dj/tzimn 
TJifD crICHLli lh» nu cam pun I' mn' niyli^iigiij " ns^ 1 11 \-Bia 



kumpdu'^'a. kptji^ng af^^isn nan foynnfi'ftfp ; ka/fffattlfa nayi ffflii- ^i 



5^8 THF_ LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOG ir.O}ii}[- 



^^ ikd/aptja am ft nnn fobolitfja. isiisjif'd !"iiii^!i I'r intn op^rja; 
Ottftx^ iti lli'ir urrFirlf'i: Tli^n ^lii'j' rfluKh 1i- 1l^l'■F 

*' kantfil/Ji en "tUtn^kay mrw faboid'ti^^ - kctjj'n^ umdli nan dj^^v 

□n tt\ijtr p 

tKHS^/Jiijrfl. 7y/srf^" wDii madSy ii}i fitim, m/fd^ nan Iftna- i^.'i'i/i/l van 



Bllul imo [111 iiHDrt llincih UQfi Nfifjilu" ^linl liLn 



hii fr>jE}iriid Tb?D ■I'lrnlfa (IIV ijbv ujoieiiil^ ajid ^ '? (LhiirtLri'iL' ' l^m 



^* ay kmwpdnyn. ■ dngsi^a nan nojftfj ken i'0t]^. iln^s^xn nc't ^d/d is 



nan iftm. k^jt^ng kutudan nmi tSh 'y hv»rpitnya. igadntsa nan 

(he glDEiJii] Tb^li fkliMiI I 111- liilfr CUnipilll&i IbfL- lerjhjii' Ibi' 



dn^san ay naii^y; yS/Sja 'i hatHin. keSj^ng minUiif ^Hi nan Al//ia 'y 
^ kt*mpdnya. keijSn^ mal'olMtcan nan i^di rt>' soUM'so, - kasllja dkh 



toiii^U san djAivaii kumpdnya. ketj^ng iiiifi/iytro nan dhyu jvr ^flji^Kg 

rflurD IbE IKD LuiD|jDaL[^ Tlitb luch] dirk lli-c day Jiid IIi<b 



*^ ktgsaninfjit non hdny^n, kl^s^nfn na's iolddti^nn si Melifsdno. - k^jSng 



\njifltiii^ nan f^bt/ian si kdnyon et fsjfna ponj/p-ik nan p^^pOf.. Hi^j^llX 

nailDlEel EJH: jQeJI Vt aOlWiii OlKp clU'n lIIilIi tH? EitfMl, T\>vu 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTflC ICO MO 1 



52'> 



Wf- TLiii iii-'ij vnil L-uiiL-j I\! Iliclralr iii^hii ^-iri llic Hod llicB 



is nan k/tttUn ay tsa iuyfi hfrn f,f!dJ.f^a. labQhi/^lcn" nun Isa ay 
<al>limrf) 

turn, AmlftdH HAnld/ -wj: ■.IidI a| ^H B<Jll«IRD. *f KIllHllI ^L 



itniUin, tut^ja kiS y4i Man iiad^iy ny fiibal^^li:o>\. ^'i'l'g.'-tfu'jn nmi 

tllflnifl r'lr-^ |]i(h 'irir>>; llir .Il.i.I .^I.d h^^ Ihxn <^hr.| LIic^i'k iIii^ 

kdn^^on; ketjSng kaskSn mod/Sb noH tjdyo. kd^ irn'i'itfy - 'i\jn 



ThcN liiirln-;L llir ■JililLir^, flmc-icini cm Lhc kml IPirn 



'iiH>:diMA turtfn nan 'silfklask; iiinfiyiia '^.k 11./111 kotHui. Tsdkamf 

lhc nil Uh [iniir»en« lit i'f 1:41 -n Hie Iini:i, 1V'-o Vx.x.y- 



ltmft\avt ya il'f^nmi nan f^Mfan is ft/tnyrui tiy paHii^/IS-^^Jnr nan Wfa. 

ni|Wii-i>; mtil •/i-- y:c lhc klic:! of dinnoii lliiil lli^i'^:^ ii|i llir OjTrli. 

flOInf dii^^F^ <il '-iniiiii k.ll II L^'lllll I (iipi^il LI-..1L 



tnatndh/on. IsatsdHia nan madSy -is van 'siitktosh. adadd'im luiii 

riOOnT clone DIBDV Ihi' 'li'jj HIIIDiqjilH iDHOmrHH; nlinCL' lb< 



530 rim i.aK'(\itaGi: of mn LtuN-rOC lOoirO- 



" ■" matidy uto is nan (atdgnh t; ikti^ot is na't Hiif iraji IkdliiS - ketj^g 

dtttll Hub jn Hit n|;liiL- 'iJ [|':ii-'L iii llii' LoinCij uE [Jk I^cgI Thm 



•/I— <lc- FLinI ifii Id MaloliH ITitir fiim ILnl-i'iri ^^^ir 



]rlpr|i'Dl#r li-r u^i^n In Mujilln, In H'^ ^i^ Ln imiI:u "rHiLnkiJ" 



1-dtj.L mnoDi:; n» ] ^oml , i^liyl on I: llir riihiirnLln- iii.liii 



Hanmaddy." kctj^ng iamSHtja siSdya»- fl',' '^•KH'^f^i yaisded ti ^!diTmi; 
ttKt iLeui] ilii:ii ilii;>' rrtnmi StfmD Itkmi andfuUin' lluliiiir 

ay iFAatofi \iJc't --i i''jiSi-/k\i\,^ nv iFtin'oi: ad MaiifU. ketj^tig 

homBaaliK^ Ibni I^Ie lilnR Imilt H'lliICK, Vt UUuli. T^« 



HKyan Id ifi- lum mil 1 ii^xmiilIi'I ihr- liiill- oi ^7iL^i TJwd 



iiiiu-J'dneng is boh. kahaNwdi}'i! ja. l,-i-^;/}i^ kaiitja sitatdbcn^ tid 



,if/i!'jiujth fff ifmUft-nij/i kpft tjof'am/. l^tjSng kpfifttv/r hft fjnkQi'ti'ii 

U<itulo« (Ikil LIluj arnvL' ii[[li ui., Ulcd IIhj lav I" u'. 

filllUHBl 

"if'Kr/^i nan M^Hk^bo ed KalS/dkan ei (mukit-^ttiji u.rrr i^oiifoiffitn^: 

rlii'v OIIID, dh? AnHfkailB, lu CjIiXVih add dnlmfid H-ir llliL |i|i iLi;^ 



■*! piiiAa'ii.ia aiiif'i na" .unfiftiii va "J!cika-:h it'ufn m l-U'ii/^jfiin.'' -- kef j Jig 

L'li'i InjiJi-*'! ^11 'All; cliacilici aiul Jiculim iir« a]] ^Liun IlKU^ TIk^l 



THK T.ANGUAGE OF THE ftONTOC TGOROT ^5' 



ibf^^ttu is aan plesid^te ad Mal^osk; katUtnm ct "uiiitixkiMnI 'dad ^'^ 

ivf a.-.k t^<-. ■'lifi'-idibii^ ■ -.1 '111 "I", iLi -.ly .n.:in;li[ I-: |;i. Ifl 



Annoc IIkii it i'- i''-ii^"rT<)w anil .LL'a n vi 3-k inil lie El< -lai- 

IrJUhi 1 



wbi/l DOIH l*llwl -"I J™ ""l F™"}' ^■.Ll wilL^-'' 



ketjAtg ffoHiiniai ben K&smi oyifAnlok e'l -'tJifl:ii\nJ cl — kumhii — en 

ThcD "tMy bh EdvuI h^miBoQloc ^^-.li.iiijl — irll liLiTiil — go 



taUfeit£v nan ki/jw/hum kciji'iig iiodi^dm ay fdkx ay ««%," 

mdirrm: ?lh i-'n H^if -ml, LlHU nc DIUP. W id«b. pi- 

- ketj/pg ittdnoKg tja Mff^is/ish ay iFd ntok beti ^gdvid iy iSom^ki. ^ 



tji't.f^i ^f/fkivish ay iP^jstok k^ix Ngdwid ^^"ffk/if b^kkfm ay fa/^grtil 



nun Jdtiw4mtia kt^t J'lt/-?, Ifoy iir^/jJJ /■Jjiur-Zjii is iron Jrftft ^ Jilk/d 
^/salbM^ m }Vii «IJ' 'I"' "^ "'I il.^) 1° 'J'^ area' Tin 

lun » lenson' mn-iM' I tamil kmiivii i|IH( "Ii«'Tii ' 



kandtvtja, et kdtrak anJna is na» tdkst mo l^ytjinfja ay t^dkifal^init." 
VUDhIf I WOBid HrM !■! Ilii> mslJ " |li.^- n'f^iH to ^lonr. 

- fJ Ojfe/t ydngbay ay ^tuisif'ad^yharrri av fg/fhr ix fiffli tnosi^TviiKiaK *' 

Hun mile Ull^CblL«l>, Ub^i: ^^■- '"■ulil lil'.'-lill^L "^ l,:r,"if Idj :Iii' s^'Hij- "f 

liicli olhfr 

■he pcmlriilr ■[ JLlnl.!" Ili^l ■^^ minU t* eIic^. 'IL IgOWt. 



S^a THE LaNGUaGl; OI' tilL BONtOC IGOROT 



TbrD liL ii>i Idnri^ tbeiiJ JfccB bfJo^iHri TIieb 

(umaji'/Wiifini nj" !^<tloS; kflfi'n^ iitanad<xldiik^ifi/ is nan Hid no" h'flio, 
•*<• \v\i i>ll K'O IfniiTil llL*r miviiIlL iin IM^ MiLirifiJn' ':i>'i-L 



Vlti'Li 'V iiii-n Ul ^\<\if Ii>LuaI rllVU n-V luim^iJiul^Lj 









liv<i] fu^E^^ ' i-iti:" ^1^ Llv^-:| ^li ijUiili: ir« LFit 



^ itfl?ifeflH/ji jj /rnjjj'j* ya 'ujj; <f/Fr/^u > kclj^ng unialtif.Q.m ad I'dngal. 



Jtifn zuy^ .n Jli>La-|ij nl [j'ljbial "lij ilfi .■>il •W l-i-^ 









-- k.'/jJifi I'liiilfi-H"/' 'li TnhAjji'c^. l-anifnlsa Hkis en "^gkHya tnan 



THE LANT.L'AGE OF THE EONTOC IGCROT 



5i^ 






- keij^ng ijtidgmi ken tjafsja en "flan pay fnbi^an unn httnySn ya ■■■• 



TdT Ufl, Tbm wt i»f inppow Hitj iWiiil.L Ii«ri' Ibe 



Jfi'WJ^frt, cf pmfdka.iti nan kdt'ii^i^ 'lait Hfvigyu." - k-j'/j^ie siamx ^ 
jifl fr^« ('^gpii£^ 1^' losJif/ldmi ya ad Senunnf/s- k-clji'jig ndn^'igmi ya 

Ml lUIIHl 

1^ liiilmlniifl Thfii •//tilt:'. cbKfeU' Hlkl ■»:>.?. Hwn 



umaJfkami ad ^U<sh. ^efj^ig jfla'ii'\t nan Liaf^i^ttki ay ftStue; 
■r^fonir to \\.ib. Jfi'm ^elik^ a fi[|! pijv 



pad^yei/mi ya istj^iiii. finayitdsaitmi -t! tfnitx 'y p^so^h ii nan 
nF lil] iDil ^1 :l i.i bjrl ji^ Hpf d? mn 1o IJl^ 



^iRGDiKr TIlijti hif hpM la HUUwtp Id lb? Jllatinfhi. z\'jt. TheD Ibrv 



ciLll«rlfd LDf dill urC pki I}l« rirv Ifir ptonlr ^| 'lIiiI- 



itsaatsdotja d«gkay ken IjakSini. - keijt^ng inaHkiidiikaini *iy nmdh '* 



Bd Fjkntok ketj^n^ tadosh^nmi ad Af^n ay tUn- nan /Uho nd 

to Dtralac Then — r iii>llimll!- U ^fnu, l(i( allfixabUi Jl 

I'lll^menl 



534 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC JGORQT 



"^^ F^iiloSt. liiftffihip nan iKnmfsdr\anm ed /'**iifpfr. -- kctj^n^ kamhi mm 

H-onCoL. i:i1b?Al[?r- 'iiii Brn^ul liiiii' il DontLH. Tbi'li iib> 111? 

(ltd" 

aykSk^yn natdkit amfif" k'tadn "iru idh^ en "a^r-jf "iitt twaw^A^ift 

jr« 'Oil jll''i? Ill I 'II' II11: ]wip]^ h'lf jliil L-iii ihjhij^ m 



lO H^ ;iliTrT| \i" Ijnif *i;priii hl|-f nil lli^ [-jtI' IIii;> ILsIIh 



jfeoiufiHiii. kerj^'K^ kdjrnnmf ken ij^s^a en "taatsiiimji nan fchJiai mm 

firOavsn^. 1.1" eniFJinmu Ibc uriLSJi. TtifQ Ultva^ 



cii "rir 'iH'i pay fobiylcn 'sait bdid^gr^ kandniyii en " uuifAmiXif uy 



l-\:( rjin |li^ huJIfU cil rULciL TIli'ti LIii:. •^< i-tulbtt/ mil 

[wml 



utmtli 'sal"" k-tij^/i^ sih'di^nmi yn katidmni fn "'adrnn^iifja 's»a lay 

tjfalV lifr' ThCB tS nU^nVI 3illr| -vl] iVvi ^H mini: ^irre bj. 



ty pi!,(songllo ad AfrtM"jifti/j - kctf^ng ka^/lja kiriitln. ai '^klii j^ii 

lb?' ^|i7[i 'iC Ma]i>l«L TtMD Llityi^MiJl ^ai iii%itu 

ali^iitjuT" kdj^'ig adlm-i 'ih^aha, tay kaiitliiiiii eii "la adi h/k'ndmi 

triti Ibv iLVOMr Thrn ^C lid Kinl lliL l>ri^>iae nV HQi IcI Jn'L i'icji]>^ 



^L nan 'itktoih-" - Ikelj^g ay tHnna/ikami is ^ti. keff^ng kan^u huh 

Ihr I iLiiirnr.o'. Thrn iv. mlrr li>pn, Thrii lay 



THR [.ANGL'AI^F OF THR RONTOC inORO'l' 5^5 



oil' rrllLlV'-'l "wt IIV f llil' ' ItliLl VOJ IVlliril^l l^l Oil I" Ifihlll, 






^Iiljrn. AJitnlb^ii^. Ttic-ii LJir) aefjteiJ fHrl^ iii M\\- 

Then "|iiiC Uic .^'it^rKinh mu iij UlCd iM'i'^ il i^ " ii'Hii H^uf;. 

Ircljhig I'luniUmjii -J'liln iuiii iri-hilok el faitgdjwntfa nan kafilytirja. 

Tlirn i^ •'ul ill lii.iiiui- iii| (fill Lhrir ImrdW. 

pi^QpLc 

— adiii^^' "i"r -St'ldddssti si Meiikdno nan 'ilktosh; intiaija juju Is^ ^ 

fTllElil '^t :niant, 1^l■'^lCJ^^ LLii' ■ii^mrri'iri?:. TIkv h>tii' 

pUTlBf im|iliqh' 

ffj It-f^iiti: VI 'II'" ii^lu 'y sold^d'^c- inJeil naa ho- ay n<t<mhicikmi. 
lii-i-'iini'i .mil thrae njdierd, iIluil oBe wW an^wkul. 



aii-Jn ay i^Iikihi ay .\Mifihon si FiUp^'io il (i'lmiiyoiiliii is nun ftU^\ 

ji] nl'i^i Mhl'hiTH L ill 111!"", IlKn UmI rk-ii (n llic im^iiLjin'. 



et Utyd^ivi'nlja ird Tsienf;. hcij^ng ibfitkirn Hnit iP/i'iioi: y^ ^ 

IbCD IH-j I-— I hi. vl liLluhm, I. in [I'll lln Bjn|miniL aDd 

nwiniiB' 

lUH iSiimifH tian djdlim is ''.an soidii'^s&n si MeHJtdnG ad TSftn^. 

i\\' ^iiL.JinTiL Lbii' Ir'll Tv flit *.Nklltr' .lllTrl?:!!' In 'lLiqii-,1, 



irm^ytja nd S-iiy/ju cf aldSntja ffOfl aSiif^CV>T>i Agin^ldo ya nan 
Hi^ j{a |i' l^uim Di'ib «i|itim the I'-i'i' it AflLdnldD and 



till ^ oun^i.^ Ui-^OI Ifu^ -a'.iMuc, Flli|iiriO, LEil\ lihi^L, Ibc 



5J6 TEIE LANGUAGE OF THF BOWTOC IGOROT 



1^ ^^ I^diitdno; nan soidddfum si Mdikdnif ^inoliiantja nan dlon kdh 



'HUBfiqrni, |lirv luuif^ bin bn lli< ){fr<uiLrl -il i,ai]i|in SlanEa^ Ibc iMirial plB<< 



^ —kefj^n^ ii-dk<o»glfa nan asdswon Cin-dldo ad i'-i^ntol: ya nan 
Tlirn lbi;> LuniluLrfd llir Mifr (il d^fi^iblllfi Or DOBtOb OOd 



andtjfna 'y fafityi, iidad nan f:ia ^y Mehkdno ay findlecd Gindido. 

iLmpriPoiLFi 

FUnged. 



I LmpriPoiLFil ^ 



EXPLANATORY MOTES 

The "Biilll'' 'II Cilnucan^" de^cribeil by Ibic r'^mfuljinl (il jia^siwe 
re^i&ljinte jnd VrUnt ^*'l[]Lilraival of primitively ^Fmcd iortcs who h-id (o Ijv 
iiieie Pi|>ci;lrilOr?. justify Thf %vord "combiil;tnf") l"'.ing<!rl fT'nn S^moU^ V-iyn- 
loc'a sibicr-S'j'vnj 'vas fouglii c^rly [n I'cbru^ ly. iftgii. ( Nime^ nf |)crsoni> 
and ijT tuvni -iTi g:lvc[i iii Fanijcd'? proniin'.itili'jn.l 

I, 'it falfjiii. k^'i lah/'^n — ktin^su. ^J'l^m. — Mairil.i'. in Hniai^n. — 
s/bxti^ I ^''/'"J£.' I - i^opper coin ; rto itpuig are consl'Icr&J equinaknl to i pc« 

g . inag/Schi*-; cJi ; gutluial ; iflterdianged here 'tilli ky. 

JO, iidmi- "^vt "ufMn," repeatedlj, aiiii^ii^ houses were pLund-erel 

II. td£. iiffFr //fvn. "Il iMiked lllUe..," flfm^m-iWa^ 

I 4 ir; jJOJi iviid : is nan wH^. 

15. /■|ijj?jitt.- 3l>elTed am! imundcd rice, uiicooiktd. indtan: cuukMl riLc, 
"r-ilnMe." [4(11 | 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOIvTOC IGOROT 557 

16. kSy H^^r mkudj/i: c£. LEie Greek *'iita Jnd^fiMitttifl." 

17. fkndak. I cart, |'roi'['lc; T help myself - tkaihm ay mdngim: Kelp 

iS. iktkiitdek: ogogiddeb. i>;i'iadSyiMb: personal vb ^gkaitid -oce 
Voc. iooil 

ig. "we shall come 10 MilOloa," e?h«iwe sball Jind pknty prorLsLoas. 

ai. Or: mabaldn^dHkixmi: vt vnlibt iho-t. 

'^2 biiokdnkimi: Tlocanoveib: ride on horaebaek; 
riffii; Span, tren; |i8]. 

25, kltg tbt^- Fatm^d showed ihe distance lo be about 200 pacea. 

i6. faUffii-.: ]i:>^]. i\^»^J/o bod- [4?7l 

J?, jtdj/n — ya tNittn: Eiqtlan. "we fan not l^^lr^ i' ii we -riy-i affaidj" 
DTL "why &Ei;ill i^'e^ heinj^ iiu cn^viiiil'; ^l ntlier Iimc5, liccoiiic couardu no'^v." 

28. ko!ilvi--ili ■*' "j>lacc w-licre sol Jici !^ hiJc, kiiteljiiirdo^i'ii arnl ^honl- 
ing." Pri'JuMy jl rallrcmJ eiLibjiikiin?nl so/dJdsot si FxHi-.itj: p "njor^i- 
puund ti'nijii" 1"i[l)iLii'>-='>Ulicrij ; so: 50/^1^5011 si- Melikdiio. An.icr[c;iii- 
soldiers, but nijt: soldTersoi tli« Americans. [76J. 

30. imblik: I exchai^>c; passive mMSvl^iak: T am cxchej^jcd, or, as 

nh-fdlt: 1 i:hsii;j^ iny!^tlr" ivith imofhuT! I t;ib<' fhi; plii^e ,>f ^m other; I 

Tipluci? in Eliril (-"^Jii'l jilsi" Hf iLit irii^\t;iii'-ril "T Ihl- ^Lrlr^). 

31. jay/m-fi^ttf' *^ji. Itriyi^ner:! !cri///fantfa: mat*^ lirtf^^ fu lln^ 
grpiind; il-'dwpija- ilu-j lnir\ Lii Lhu'ic liftji?*i, foboldtio: Uicir Piullei^: yc: 
cartridges ivith buJLcts. 

Zh\ ^H ^/*^ Ji *" ^/^ fly, or rf/tfwMn,' two, tsaicdii^o [j'Sl- 

;;^S. itil^ Ffflmif/ji. Ra-ng^-d illu'itrating thia passage sliowcil liii leg: at 
Ibc ^iikli:, I hen liis li-^ls lidd ri^ellitt. 



538 THK I.ANGUAGK OF THE HONTOC [GOROT 

40 p!ifad6na: pinadSyna. 

41, uid in fflhw pys^rfEcs : fkdl&i for IgJftot. 

41. G^la^li, a linlf'ljrJM'J, Ignrol srd T^galog, livts in l!onTii:a^ I^IW^ 
"jbWo^" jjfi^. nor. 

42. ketj^ng nan: "exclusively." 
45- f^^■ to go ^307]. 

4& F;a..,.LitfR,,.,; [39]. d ^dj; I^roE anJ llociiikQ panicle^. 

48 u^jE^;v*aiiii''f. woul? of Kc-smi lifter an oiber refusal oi the 
'^pre^iiltnn?." 1, e, xYx^'ntayor" of MiiltJiai 11 uan Hid nan iialia: may a]so 
mean: alcng' ihi: roatl. 

^0. cn^kaysi: ngsg^ngk^yuT why? 1^35^] 

51. /•hijiii^il'iih-^-- T break all to pieces, anMsh ccnopletdy. (Pref, 

fin-, "^.uictly i" ofi *'>i-} |?g6|, 

gj. "^g^x '""' (tng'tinfiii- 111 .vliiiE do they do there? "how did you 
frirtdicr'::" 

^4. j?r'/Fr^ui[?wt.' rtur i>-oiii!;r-aiin; (fir>MUJ>v n^a ^n-mi). ilUii,iv our 
ilircciicn, ilireti way [.-JiS], hue ifiaimi: •mi Eikin^. "we lake," for. uidfttmi. 

55. /im^^/Jt^ijAr' I order icn:oIlei:t Ci)rovi^i tins etc.) irojuhouyetohiKiM, 
Willi Hit iJi^canri [ict-iii-eaiiuie. sdlub 

56. Af^ii. a ili'icici uf Bojiioc ivherc iiio^ily ininnkr^ IIdcjiio?, Iiiive 
setlled, i'dli},i\-ip nmi . T[irn3 cnii>bi;ii[serl tiy Xiini, ;i.tioiii5 ivitJi ^uHix -flfl. 
Cf. |j6j^ 104], 

,1^7. iwdted ;idv<:rb. Edioni; u is wi^ll, file^sant; "we are glad;" also: 

"I 1-h.^nl; ycill:" Jff^/Al J'Hiitlcd fii... filial . ) 
"K'^K '""^ i'ldngnfuyi.. [.■(^fi) 

^S- ijjagn^nlja tor: lj^aj:/ngt'nfja. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BQNTOC IGORG'l' 539 

60. ^bfixi^nb. J n'^l!. iniiulrL- 2I I a^k lor, _i) J jin',.i'':r if ^■ikcd, 
answer j rjiiryliim, T lell. liilinilivi: ilifdicu; ibjtzkaN^ lU *iz, ^c. [iJt^l 

61. ketj^"^\ iiy. Tmally Elicii al Issl.... f Soiiiefiiiiei ■ cliererore). 

62. linddko: I put down, UDsaddle, aSble. 

63. tn^nija U,r'. ii\di3!jd l3\'^7^wj?»tjii,iTATi^i\.iv%-. "r«ch by run- 

64. Tht guides were : Kam^doii iti lAiffiiXit and fti^g oi SaiHOkiv 



THE RAT ANP THE TWO BROTHERS 



tturStUCt hill. iinhiliH.H ICitjUa lK££in£ Iw 'itm Bii.l not ^n'CBTiv 

noH ((?fc» tjpJij'i. iidtfa'd ivlolJya ity sindki ya kandnisa //y 

Ihc Dfi-QlC lIlfD. TJllQ 'JKf ^OllV^t^ 111? binlhrpi an.l ni^ 



"THju^fiirfrti fit "Alia 'd enldpi^ is r^mciia, tuy adtiia U'luf^tan iv pfki. 
—jimfi |(t 4r ►o'niH»:i''" a flUFrifii- v Ihi? naU gift oitp 



'rbm ITir, ^1. 1(1 "«!! llirf liinHni^ 'i'hffii hbnj ^u, IJit> ^esl 

trflu j/maj '^hI'J iinpwzfi/ktiit isdija'd '■TrtiJa, lay •'na^tfl'm. 

a part Vlt iJuniDlaLD-iriUDli. Hica tbiL £o Iigdi«, at iC i^ m^lil 



2 



540 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BDNTOC IGOROT 



hi in.ilii' nlrlti t lir^r ^r'lm fhi'y Lmc 'lu^ii Ihc ''tiigJ' ' jiliI 



nan IdiOj am£n iwi ftili'ih'ig yi "^" f'^M'ig, - kfftf^g ua^^'jli" 



pnlD BBd UltT nilOIII', [lir zijfniD rLhril ' rK.lilay'' "i/i-ti llii' IIIIIV 

Ijililllil-' BOiLD liepioiil 

* jifl kn^itja dkis iimfiy nfljJ sinifkr. - wnffvfja 'd ya iltiurja nan 

ABd <liEy ihiTHiri mK lbs biolbipr*. Ihe^-^a and wp 



lUfil mil libil pinvii ^ln Hia« "III tin: viTi'1 T]i4'ii tl.rjieain 

^ri^Eii 

-w«hL d^Lb mil IDO^ dDxn Ibt ^Cdmi. [JLUJ iL >.Jii itiKl^l HimI 



I'^IILE III IE! ItlTII I 






klbkib/bUd ^niihu^hv^di/ti oy sif'itf'" 



^ - kerf^ng moi^wdk-ash nan jal^^wo. ya mi'/Jyija sail nmUj-ii ax 

'Vf-Cll'fl" 

' ixmi^n, ya itdntja 'J ya tmn^fo akfs not fu/Ah^ig. isdeJ k-an^ 



THE LAXCUAGE OF THE BOKTOC FGOROT 541 









■ail 1I ijii I : "kill kill Rcan IIk L'ouiigi:: ibc ill lliil uilii kilp Lili ' 

- isdcd pintjlpap lun ta^tfi 'j'ti kitudno >■ nun yii'i/i^nit '" ^ ydim. "-l 

ILtll tmc]!!" l|illcHj lln Jinnaic ^Dil ■i»yt lo lilt o| ||| labUg 

jF/lim KM pAtJR^, ta pinpadSysa kg! stidnil Htm (inimJey kn 

Winii III* J< lUil I" ki I L '111 Hk 1 1 lliiU' iliL, in llif "ni^ li'THTi^' 

llll'l ■ 



tjaha ay sindki." - ttff/^wg kondn son d/fol en ''.i.f/kayfk p\i»tisd6y i-* 



mr l«in|jj limn i"]- \-'w^ ilLr-i n mn: mid i|iinH; 

jam uLLn 



lnolJici 

]jri>lbrT' 

- isited taiidii rai: -i/lnl en "liinipo^iindng>c&yii, Sa iimityritk-o 1. '"' 
THI'II ■a\-- LIjl 111 Ml EiK lr?c III iKk'-' iiLi-o 



rD| biLUkb TliEB Ibi^ iflBiiAll III iIIlIoli-l. 



tbEn ■DJk fill' ml J 4rti.tr luui ric, i? bcocLrc^, liijl I }i[rpdr« 



S*a THii LAKlJUAGEi OF TUV. BOm'OC IGOROT 



" '-* frfjTi^i^J(?tr?,'"' i'.djja'd ^itt^iub ay sindkL ketj^n^ li^tff-ufl nflft S/toi 

niij fr^Kl 1 lii'D lli*\- co\i'r Ibi'ir !]li' TIlcd 1ll^^ the rRl 

^^ lion fdgki/ng: ya nufkan. ikitut^na nan JSfjmli. >ir i^ijiX. - kftijiK^ 

llie PCiIIe! ■lid IKC [I ^iLf] IliE -.}PO]ii QH'I 111 (u^lL^ 'riiriL 

ih^CiV lljiOikUli [hi vomsc; Il4|Ii|i ILxU Ibc oMcC biFlund Tlt<:ji '-.lI^^ llti' 



A/liyf i-n ''iiUJia^il. 'd la nuutgattidko, lay nay nadio nan iian^itl^ko." 

■il [Diai< l«1U «[, Emvi.!^ ll?T' klOuk^il On- fiuiL 



h^t}^*tS kO'^f^ J-ffH y/in./a on ^'swigt/y/fn ptai s! na/otJ^a'i nan 

ijif l(Hiil rbeiL Ltitv cjil riii'lt Lli<\ rimiliiMl I'Mllilk IbViL Ltit-- 



v rliL III uMwn hrr^kf, ua Ji[«Ijlj:i. 'ILc^ eIic £iji i^tieiL .?iu ckias'i 

ke!}>^'ry, l:a'itlii ?imi /f/ti'l ,'ii "ifS'kuyrJ 'd sfiia '" iddt/a 'd llmiiy try-'<in4fii. 

fkcn :(iiy> IIh rjL luiliC [|^» iliVII lll^ ^ III' 

brollun^ 

'* - kefji^g inf^afdlan hht iT/^r>J prdjj fffii^.^iz it! jjah ftj»ih, Ltifeti ncm 

Ili^n KmjL. oiLl 'lie E'^t D- fnj^ .inil j :p.Kin, tlLrn a 



tii^iian ay pad^gi!eng,isi^eii nai\ idg/>^">ty,. i'daikanAn nan y^n/a'ti 



'.ei iiM±h:cLiflll^i' *hiit ir fh* UH u^lli'" |]i'H ■Ji^'^i I III' yriLinji^er 



en "kdak man imfcndy nji ttf*tjh ya nan fd^/kons." isdfti inh/fon nim 

Bic |iEH>prn> 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOWTOC TGOROT 54.^ 

yd'i/a nun ^lin^^ayaitainaitrianay pniiAigdeHg. tsdlja'd Cbfat^wil "^-^ 

uLili" (lit \^'"iw: nnrl .l.r jti I lij-n i li.. .jjr . .i-i .1 

ay sitidki hop ^4n^xa ya nm tflrfnaji ay pad^sdeH£. isftcif .ifya nur 

. ^ ^l-" ■^ii'.' Md tt< Jar [h^ii II I-, ihe 

inkditii mi'i y/iit/it. isti^d kaiidu nan S/iot rn "it^p^ka^i^ ','.'" irtiijit'd ^'-' 

rntperlj tbc older Tb«l aaifl Ih'' ml Voaeujlbt TliHtbn 

iV- I1 ili'ii lli^ llr.|flLl■^^ TliciL llr ^ ^ l^L^-^ llir Td^ii 






ietjA^g if'iiaauh jra« sjeimm. iidnad ibTi/io "n>i l'f\ii!i i', now fdasa 



■Dal 

itf^ rndkan. - kdv/m titm ssdw/wf: i^n "niii^^ki''. fjlfa nan 



n^maiij^.i;dii:'H fan tlja^hi'^ Lufija'd aidngHH. - isded f£ldl£n nan ^ 

[hmi^in^ dI Hk ^proii fL^Dllirt ril Tl^ni -miN mil lIihj 



y^/a nan andkimi- ^fffrfi 'fH/k^t i- Avn itHtd/ornf ketj^s 

oHtC big 1-11 p.. In l>irr<iiL' bl vflUTBnil^ ^ Tlnu 

'^jni^rli ini; 

fitniiy ya Ua kok^tj^n aliid/Hua tiaa Isljd r^tfcd S/itiiSli iaa im^'h\f^ii 

Li^t:iLii"i awi be laarMLng Uamtde Hit inaH, Tk«i rtf arui Oie Ixii 



544 THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC lUDROT 



I*-' - kctj/'nf^ k<i'nt-n apufna 'f "int^ ^^y: n^d^inr i^d paydn nasi 
'JtiiQ id^h 111-. [hUL-II v-lldl Iyu- ll?i i^hj ilnE ^-.iii nul UN 






Jut wBt iLli- iiiiL^lq, Ltit iiiiiL J ^i?n r fD j^-.i. I>'<ILI-.I' I riiii liii-lifiil, 

^' - iiifcd koHdn amdna ^n *'iRfff snott la *JifiJ tfjiJJgrt^ifwp 'rft hijtif" 



liefjAif^ a^dlnd nat D^g/^ga. ay waii^i:dni en "istjdt tit/fwa ov fstjd 

nan dttaia ftat intflji nat utjd; y-fiy^j'iia rV ^pi f/Hlel/foip ya 

tbt tun III llii' 'ijun>;cr -I'liir I'lcjl, lii' r.irrii'' il lo Kii. IJII^ |^'~ Add 



kapi^n ahlA/Sna en '''uitS man !a na^r 'lanp^dlan durum f'j tluh ^:(;ii^* 



7T '• 



tsa iH^ien liinir^ lan f^tj'i." - i.'difa'd m/wiff^iviili. 

I llwii £ool.i; mil liittEE hlejL Tlrfn [h^i p^cirinnsil n £*rf nimi) 

Icuu-Uil niEa'.l 



isdtj^d ^miiy nan pangdl'm^; ma/arndts^txa i-^ na« dfong itait mdtji 
Thaithty ro the tUs-v)mt/ami(au, tbeyHSBMBUe in (li» livueof Tfar jovufer. 



TliiT lie puLi DP Pin lln |h:.| Lhun tie Mil ni^li waler IIie pit T^fii 



ntlumak nan l/t'titvi^ iddna^d iUJpeh iihk fdg/kong ya ho! ngiiut'drjsn 
WMlhjiliiit LM miiu llieiil;u atirs llu- priLk ^ml Id' u i-lH:i|,'(»r 

ltl«D 



THE LAN<JUA\}E OF THE BOKlOC IGOROT g-jj 



is indk^ii- - is^tii'd is^^Hd nan f'sa ay fdupa r^j/nn'if f;^>i^iflffij. ^ ^^ 

inio IIVL. lliui 111! pull iidSei: j^glliei piL, lll^Li IK |nil: vadr in 



taited Utumab- ttaa fdngQ. \srf^d Ud^ek Aan ffjush; kot istfd. 

rl"li H<iLlt lilt iH.1 TliTTihc .hrc llir ijni^ii, lb^lll.i' hIm 

I1I'£| 

TJLIIi ul^tiih? IIle |itciEiJc jnil smy wlty' IIiisUidil 



fliioiftfov, ^ffj kapl^kfit -^JiJJ /ij'^djfj I'll ^-7^ h'jo-. - ilaf^/fkia itan ^^ 

tBibtk- tl'alLl^L hLHlipi IIlc '.[innn iiuil l| Ie uloIiI bL :LiJi L:ic 



pnLJt dn^L LLia "tji.l'." TItfii llLr» 1-^.1 and tlu^BB}' 



'^koli^^l/fii-yu 'd nan fs'ja, <a 'ftG'igaitldkc''i ay cditit^ lay 

j-Hju inLi|;lil Ki i-uL |Ke omt (llll ■'^^il, "t [-copl?. brcniiM 



'iaf^ar^-u'adf^ko " - iidcd fti<Tngatdyc'\g ^a^l lald'ki ya kanl/aptfiia en- ^' 

hL.^.t ^ir", luinli'r: 'J. If" ;.bKH lilt nun jti.L ""]- 






i'lfaktfiklstii 'ja'y miiifdii^u. 

111' h iL.^-p.lvrt^'f I 

Kci/i^i,^ Iji. Si Mdikodnmi ninttkifki^ii. MaiyTf ya Antern. 

TIlii Ii oil ' MjII-tiI" liChi! muiHltq. MHl^-ll jnri \iilfci. 



5+6 TUP. LANGUAGE QF THE BONTQC IGOROT 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 

J. i'iki: iriai^e Eiildf-hak: I clesr ilie ground, eu! gr^s^ ^Jiid ^Jirjiba 
away, mangsiindali: I am making' el "garden." 

?. irJi^mij/^rtofl. i>iii? seclloii n( Llic entire iihouiilaiii tniige. if/ii^: a 

^. iia-n^ f'iHtSek [•:en^f't^di-k]: 1 ciil dovvii a iree, *'by c'loppinji the 
slcni obliqiTffyr" ffSfioKg: a Iree (but not ]udc) ; "it makes much smoke." 
t^io: sliok, ^lirub. fdiang: "hLgli and big trw, pint" 

5. Tyi/frir [lulfejjj. a ^iErang vim^, 'lik'Ca rope," a liaoe, 

6. /^a^^^t-- I throvf cpjfr; zaX dowji and throw over- 

7. 'hJ'jh^: s« B. ^Or TJie m?tre is frothaic, with Blrong ictos, 

lo. paddnek: I pcrcdvc; a.fld: I receive; I receive [lospilably; 
obioin I li. \. = tjeng/ng^HijOy ihey hear, 

12 psimodiiy: 1.. 9?- H, i^. i'niJ!Js}t I rim after one tg cgtdi hiiui 
pin-: quickly [si^j. 

1^-5, S^/sS^nan: Frequent, of /^oi. (FTilensiviiri: J^gttak)- 

15, e>ikt!lti}'ak: I cowirray OTi, hold my hntid'^ ln^fi>rc my eyes. 

klkadai^. see Vol '"cuk." Tlit ■iprii>n anj p^^^lc ch^nficl m food, or 
TAllirr itii?3i aTid rirc drii|)pnl Erum Lhar inlo Lhf pol. prjitk- n 5iiii,5ll 
"prtlaLn-[iia=[ier." 

16 inki^h^avah. I pee^i Ibrougli inv fingers, held before iny eyes. 
jflj[£Tf;l'iJij pii'i. hvyi qylcV:lv ' ffrcriTafl^rfva^fflAj I haiCen, I do pfcnnetEiinj! 
bnaity; svn'jn. ; kn-niiiek. I lia*,teii. "^angnydn pan is maiigd^-batn is nan 
t^syT "h'jw (|iiicUy you are milking the apear!" 



THE LANGUAGE 0¥ T"HE BONTQC IGOKOT 54? 

18. fia(f>)fal4fk^ 1 maki? ^0 ™i, r take ant of a bwi, a r^jver. 

ay pi.tid^\>jide>i_g: h^t V.k\ "jflr^, kliid< nt." 

I'Jic r^l djviil^'S, £""£ ^'"^ ."pnaii — jar and pectin?- this seems Jo ill-; 
aider "brother too partiii], the spoon beii^ niDch Diore valuable Iban live 

ptslli'. Hi' JTiEi'EiiJ': (o give llie ^pooii to ll»e yn^iingcr lor ihc lac^llt; bill hr 
is |>er'!n:i'Liid Liy Iii5 clirewd brolkei' (who iiinl obs^r^cjl thp riit's Iridic) lo 
take lilt iai iiLsii?a-i. Je seems lliai die ^'■junj^cr linJi". cJrcfiiHv Ills mjiyic 
gift'i, wlille lliH? oldt;r CELrries his pri;^<:nl!: ri]>L:iiU On t "fatliSi'^'iU^' ^ P'^l^ 
b^Uci4:ed uii die ^IhouEder. 

k-otdk: Eidvaiii[ige;nieaniog;oy:. 

?2, kdnan: atcj^iili 

2.1 Fi ,(','"■ = iiii-T' llir lioiEii? of,.. fta kifkhjen. and just then ccmtin-' 
ued to cut, was cattine. (Jia, Jja], 

34. imd kay. for inld pizy. 

3^, Pflft' maj ,'a [4^^]- 'Jtt irfl'^;;uJi^FnJ [jJtfn^u^'^ifiii?| ■ Lis gctlin^- 
place, lil-'i Laking. jj^h t-'idtj't iihfan; Lhu'lr ''usual," "fi'-?(|ii'.-n[^" "nruatumtfr; ' 
meat eaten with ritt \'iK. {mA. 

?7. nitmdSHis^ [miiJj'ioit'isAflt J : 1 [lerloi-ni a leaser ceranonj-j 

SmitiuLiiffk: I brOil tncAt 'liluinai/- iinu'taii in 2^. 

iB- tjoM^mrHt, and later - ijeni^man 

;t [. "^^^le ilaiidft Ibsrf [i laVeoiil Hcc fi-oni "[jc in'i ^Jid t'^dfi^^|l>^nt ir 
to the gticiti, iisLJLg tf shovel, a ilat spoon "' 



548 Till' LANGUAGli; OF THR BO^JTOC IGOEOT 



rHE STARS 



Tlirr^ El '.ugiir-''! nf ill TaJbi^'l E'>--l IIl'- iL-^ncr lo biii]i«i fill^n thrit 



tituitn^icay jra-j ifiiush. isdms^d kan^ti e'c ''la od nkudlak jjo 'mil t-iu 
LEFJlTEi vf 1b# can-. TJtHli \\". •ayi L?! dli' nalib i\ere lh# 



^ tna'igihijikay is nan ifiiishko ay nay/' - is-tfcd maldj! fa ak'icili'ia; 

[B(T[ ll|l v\ ■|l> El(r{ ntLII tl 1l-i- dill] lie ^^iLtll- 

dogar ran? iiij;lil 

lUifllijp tiS loillkl n-iiili. In-niinrr(ii, Hi'l HIWl lUfbt ^ml h* (in.1: 

^ $idd^/y san tyiaiigdngkttyii'ighay !i mit dpashna. - k^lf^n^ kamiim fn 



'Virrnj;*!' &oi tfdfiJitd 'iit'i tnn'i^itn^knydtcgkoy is now ^nathhof" 

l4fl - lluif are tirf Mhrn .il \tt- mHhHj mill' 



kelj?i!g adik^mi tjattf/t. isdna'd iffttkoi nai fia»g sy lu/il/fi, 
rLcb tjL- r>iii]iit-s Itieiu, rlivu Iik il'^icIkh b Btn^lr pJun 



* - ii^aa^d kaniff ir'i ''ntndijrdyn '^jj (J^e^j is .or, Itr xiantdho ija "ir, 

Tki'ii be taji ^^lI\y ligbt bfr< IIliI m'f^^ lll-Viil 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 549 



lay ijdt^iiA b<it Mon mun ^dn_gkayiJii p_kay is ttatt ifttajSiJie." — is^ni^d ^-^ 

[ii^ Iben ITTcl Lin cjIffTi ot •"•, hi_|;jT-raiiT ilppfl Bt 

arnir 

tdRE&T t-'i " J^-tifffy^nidkit ffd n^r - isdna'd katitin ci "adi'kSyu 

jfljt rt onphlUi hiU tliii Tb^ii -fii- T- 'I'l '■■ "^< 

hUl EoHii llkca lliEy *v Hi Willi thr tifurc nl LIil ij|;u-i9ac^ [Jbrn L]i''v- go 



Hh lib biiii-i- I'licii mirrii^ii { Itrr/ iFi' 'iii r^r 'il 111'- Mi|r:ir-iriii' IFir-D I.\<t 



iiLalcdimktja 'ill liiitdlja. - k^tj^ng l'ji 'utngilyu -i iijrfMfi'iijJii j'CJ ^ 
liii? ihiililrji, Stb, Turn ]|1hI In^d unul herliu-limiHE Hi>d 






- iJ^U'd (YJl^J^^ WITH 'i.J^ir* tJ »iflB c^HOft fljl y4s/<ti el paUtydltivM<i 
Tl^ii ^Ilo I^''''^- ''i^ iliillt!, 'o IIi^ uiIi, CIlf '.I'IcH, lltrn ilir injl-r' Iiiid JLy 



ad ijdya. jjrfrrf kanf^Ti ^an ir-dljz bcit arrrdna 'n "t/dy pay tiitmdyarif 

b UlI' Tlun ^'= ill. ioiiU|ri il [.- [.bR F^llici j5Bd« buUawii 

in J "I'll"-! 4(;.ilii b^L-jiin^ Ihi^ llirlt. Tl-I MH]i'<qn 1- 

IjTuLtitl . n-filit 

aaaia li^ liiifliBTLiC Then Vbf lako jL;^in DUE liuc lor anr) 



t'clayd^-A^'ia: j'Qlnydftivi^ Jray .wii fffdyi. ij'f/^^ moziu^dku' ya '' 
l\\i\'t•'^^p^ Q^', fh^Ii-l:'; hini lly, Mti? Ili# ^omar TIifh CiE l>fCln[Tll'^) uhiil 



550 THE LAl^GUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 

^^ i'ls/idstut s/in i'ifftji ken inx-itim y*p iofK^na r« "tj^y p<^y rJftiT 



"' i^pctdya^ tna kaScwa'tnmU" - isited kani!" amiftja en ^'ifsjtka 

Hmrli' n> ■l>iri>i« uHr Itl |i kllC ItiiLFJCT Tllrli lai^ lln'ic f'lrlii'c yuj ^Zl 



aifakr- wav jl ':|LV takvii Ibi? '»ili' uLii dIii? in 'iriiili^le Lli?n 

{[JilWJ lirciLlifr' 

1' /Mrfjaii^i^ij^'tfl ten jafe/Jft/' - tfJjVjj^ batiiiii nan ii/flji eii ''Adect 



Jtl> U>qB^Rlr iDU liul iDU da m dll ^'jkcuiJ bere. Imlccd, yao fUa |ir[JiiLj»( 






malaft 4Ims ya pald-y^i^ii-'fuo nan^iottg ay a^dnffa; ya ^di makiitayoSt, 

JL-Ja agaiTi MI'I tiff i^^" Hy ^^-^ "d^ c^iiIiI l.nl ikH llt»nfl^, 

^ - isdsd kQnd« san in^fja en "ketjSn^ makdyadkxtyft 'd >iiiia ay tSlS. 

?ni*n laffl (Imi Thfu iiimri lill ■|l^^h■ ilijiw 

mCilbEj 

/j'n^iJv^ ir:7 jiu-dfr// fji; nii\\ lay adlkaytc makalcfyoa, e! adisakdyu 

frm li^uLbCCI ilvit, bb >ULr HOl hX^i 11/ lb?n yiu xijr 

rtlUUJlI" 

ail unaff/f, Hi ad/ikapdntjn rjiikuyH is b^liiakyu el a-flsok-fyn 

'irolltCli' , lliiin Ili«y'lb nube lir yiii 711111 Itieit \ifu. mil I 1v 



nan ifuw^san nan tif^ft. ketj^'ig ivimtynff j^itfi indtja ad ijdya. 

lM».mlli?i lui ^ ni iii'ri Tli*n Ill's ihfn ho [lic^ly. 

mi^LLLcr 



553 TUL LAS'GUAC.E OF THF. EOMTOC TGOROT 

ffiinfiin ^lonr;, leiiisakiivH ^ty .linM/f: you shall iTma>n hifrthcjs aa^ sbalt 

IHjt beioriir ^(nr^ (ilr. itdl^<t^iiy^, frtiTEi fi£J. "^rtii '*[ll rlhTilinLlu"5. 
ijd-i-t(iF/'-dJ^-f\ff: llicy, lilt pcopli:, "W'lll inake for yan |2(>t) . 
ifaw/iiin. oc: ifuhii'^'tian, Jroiii ' ^/^TJ, laxcs. (Ilncaiio) 



TiLm 



"indt^ 'j mfting. fwif.' fir kitn^k" \-c!j^iij^ akldna is imyiin^ jjid 



umikna. - k^tj^ng ifat/fa ^ixridn^ fii "[iii/';ii rft»j i'^ mdH>i-^\y ioy 

al^:tLl4'|. 

mnba 

IP. lou .111. lar JV lli^ im 'fll^iL CIPF llir £|l||.I. VlifP 



HjB berfUbOv Pi?3'Qi> 'Lib! yuq-nl t]ccid*«I t^b™ 



THE LA^^ri^JAriR Oh' tkk hontoc igorot 553 



'Uihahfiyl'i'in A inJna. - is/f''il nidi'" rTJj?jfr /lan fnktil'ia" yix ;'>i '''-' 

bji| Il'^iiiIi^iI tiM riiMlii'c fti^iL IaI'i'. Ilm iiiiolltrr ili^ <v:i|| ijli iiii| I'lV-c 

Ja b" ■"■^i'' Hub lV^•■tl ttffdangTdej m Omi Lion^c Tlkm Im# 



4 



tiandkijlt it hidna - i,tieii aidt'n fiair ongSiif^a nan ijydn'i ya i'lsfiwt 
WgaHEln her niodirr Tbcn l.iliti lln cNilil Ihi; Im-Xfl iiiii( li-ivv 



fi waj! ffuliiyi^ii'i. is4':a^it aldeii nan ti_g/3 \a ilang^Lita i^ nan 

hno lltl l)ii£l'rl rhrn ilLf Lakci Ih? cuicc Dur] }i*]li ll 4>n ueiud Lbr 

L ainnuvn^Hii-l raj ) 

katfiy^an. I^efjhj Unitmn si iirdMo ya pciikpSna wan sak^iJian. 

liBlihaL, [iLvn acnii?^ Iicr mulbcr jd J ^jecici lfI IVi^ ^j'xr j.lCj 



TlitTi 3li*?^l: iJcrni III* J" die*«k5 lur rlajj^hWr T^rfn 






=□■[ dmiUEinc. TIkiii ||iaLii T.I1? H'nlcri Ibi'ic liiii-f Tlifn ^hl:]lHBc: 



nem &ji;:kdlo! okod ii nun halaydcn. i.wfti/i'if }cl!udjf'n nan Ug/S ya 

tlij nEiLdH: Ib llu ttfA^ Tln^Ti dti? □Lk<^ u^ ttic [o^<r and 



th« l1iqBD"ii lUrpM. TltCUT - - I'^i vil| 



kT*r ^ tbe limnmtl Tln'ii ■cc-- Iiotihi'IIht Im l^i^vn md l»n-wm 

FOOT 

jiflw ^^pfift tfcw otirfjtftfl. - ki'lj^H^ liidii^ jSj' i>}dii^ ya kan^H^ dy, '^ 



5S4 THE [ANtiUAGE OF THE BOKTOC ICOROT 

■■' * "irjj*^ way mamanf'ii'a'ii e't n^^m^ds-xn i^aii anjikko is tfUnf ayk^ 

Wimti :iiv lliJl chan^^L^m ny- Into n r|'i| 

luiiy ^dfk ifdnoy; mo nan mMn^g ay kanakamiiut, et isak id/t/adf/la" 

CHT IduI P"i' ni'hiiL lic-t H^ml 1i*i -il'iiii Ihcii 1 Hn ||nij 

(Ik wn-hl ^[1^^^^ 

si ffijfl. kelj^i^ kasfiin kik/ngkin^. framiat^a uy inkt^igking J7». 






KetfJtt^ tji is okSlkrfJ. Si Mdlkod nun ninokdkptd. 

Emli'L lli'ri' IlL^ IHll "Hflu IViiil " I' Ihf mi r".>| 



p^ic'ii^loi'!: (yiutero). 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 

J. jJifir ffio 'y. 'A ceruiii (noE: a girl), findyn. Iiiilkd rice, whkh is 
poiuidcd 10 iisOlitig, iJce-meaL 

:i -jjjjj/ wyiij;Tr^'j?j;i)M.' ''you jre good lot" nodiing" ("Taiii^oiLiL'hLs; 
viinijcn"); iiilpuy: ad Eakeii fi'oni i[n? vtrb aiigkdyint. naf^abfayiJa: 

3. iHWrf jj^'j/ff ■ '^ii.li iliHj vvaier-jai", uia^g {■ saktj^an. nan^kt/Sf: 
;5reteriEp^ j'n n^ndkSj^, ptoiioLiiitniJ ■ ?'rrir<T'jdtfyJ»; the verb ^: goes, muat 
noT Ix' niTitiiltuTi ^or Llm Aiiy;inciil in MEch coriiEi[ik^litHis! 

4. Sntt'iO'i- slie arriYed at licnrM^ "^Bhe returns." 

4. Paiikpina i^t: pa/Mkp^"a, lii. ■ ;;lie causes to enter; she carries 
into the tiDiise. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE EOXTQC FGOROT 555 

5. Rtdii[jlJcaiioii: ^lie aaka eag-erly and frequent]/, "evtrywherP,*' 
maiiy pei'adDs; slic keep^ aaking. 

6. i^aif'i'ja. iliey again; IhF r:liil<l is transForTned into several birds! 

7. hsim. Which tnkc!^ litr/^ fhr pnisCEnivt trdirg ^rom ii}anak-{nii>), as 
auKii. of future. Scr [308 1 

"|( Villi liki' Ihi'lli^r III Vm-]< n>[iE- ncf. rliuii yiiiir iliilil, vm ■^JklH Iijvhj llie 
rice Hi yiiuT i^liilil liejn.ebrili,"' (Tlii^ plirrii^e i>i:ciij.': frcL|iie-n[lv .jflcr incta- 
raOTlili'jM"^: K. irt, M. 6, 12.^ 

J*. uv/J.'vrri' ni' i Jvi?i^ wrrv- SMV, flyneop. form of aoday "i? tli^Ti; 
iiny one ^iijrng lli-ic" On "wlio ■vniikl say lli^it.. ^vhn. ^^-oiikl beSieve 
ifial . ^vnuld iiiiy imt iiiufiiiit ihni . "' ifdnoy agree, pr^in ,t \'-t^h, ''s^y 
yes!" ^^^y jtirrfa^o^^i^rnr: whenever; asmany timesas: SedupL tsak:ott£E., 
"eadi tjincj" J iv-^^'\ to... 

9, ^)o; collecliTC article [39 ff.J they, ivliuni her rnollfcr rtiircstnf^; 
tlii^ fninily irr^fl^jnnrr.?; rcrfumny, inmcriCiiin iinrl -rLCriliirijig ^'f ;i chii-ktii. 
The Liiclr'' I'o tT'n:li;ur;. llii: n.ilnril Jirrrnt ylcM'. lo lln' rliylbmrcjil ictu'.l 
K€i)^g iji: hs synoit wab giv^: hu/^uj/d, from fOtdsh^k, \ tiniali, cud. 



ROLLING 



H'^niJ! nan iijfiwti 'y l^ibfddOy non ha 'y yflii/iL yd nan an^lji '^ ' 
Airjj Jiifffi^f/v'S fly ^/mdki. isdija'd isda na'i hma^dtpi. 



j5& THE LAN(iUAGE OF THE BONTUC I(J<?ROT 



■^ ' iided is^on indija ya a^t fum/'ja/ig. Uiicd ktsidn indija c« 

T^Ka patrDlu Uie'a boE imt it Liiijl±. TIjeii ■^s ibcli 

Are B DtfafT, inu h n 



: 



fH.1 'iiii inur ■ '""-'l llir a jriri siL\i Ift in|:i^ 'i I'll vrxi-l^ 

ilcr Thicit l]lr^ K" ll^rii iIli> Ui'r'i. Elialr "v(H»d fepl doI ftbmm. 

Eir^ii^liE'. honii' ^oIUd" 

isded JtflH^f hiiitia ^i/ 'Uia'ti^k^. niid noiii'iiSn^ irnFf Jjifir^i7;\'ifa"]jrf 
mw Ei]'i [lti>ir n'tiv' HDLILiiil; IIiu vdlu^ l<F ^-^ir ^'Hul- 

' frry ifi/ fttnr'ip'igj nan ydngkay dskok^a mut lin^ian'' - L^cd 

b^ JU.14 ii rlac-J Iri'11 ia\j Ufllarnkt 'i&l <-.<y niui-li Llllii 

mn 
f-ovyA^" nut \Sn/a i>an kalln indtja. iriJiio'il l^anda ic nan 

uhKhrc 
art^lf^na 'n "Snta mamtiHd ii nan ^asifdnta ia ^ai/i aiit^ son 

inliak dj' «if^.ifn£rtft*ii^fl jtv //po(, cl idtsdAto fumltj{mg." 



isdedr kaadn nan an^tji -nt "niiin^ay^!a 'd hnaf isiJ£'l kiniiii 

lUa HJiyn tilt >-^i|»|l''' fclUH tn-^gniMKKl il-JII Tbcn -nj- 

bralhcr 

KoH yim/^'io '» '-/fnta 'sh «oB ij/H 'y k^wad lUtn dttli^nSff ay 






THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGhLIRDT 537 



]'ld1.b' 

fcf OUT fcoftllr Tbtn KBIT 111* rtlHjr letasufi tft Hd.!- h.-iilc liUf, 

tsft'/a^d ihn-ijwi !■■ no'i frifiSTiarJ n-M tSntjuci'i'io ay fddon^ 



-isded foiddiin n\in yiin/dnn irau aii^Hiwa, iidtd nan dikdmno ^ 

I)if n i^nlifi 'liL^ ihlil'i Ili: IiTiiIi^Ii-iIFi Itirit 111- lillVll 



ud hikj[Lr'IV iii'L Iil: liat aikL ]ii^ pi|< ililI 



hdtjhi^Ka ya •iai\ tjiykdfiiiia. i^dtia'd kJindn ?= nan irtd'i f'la ^n 

bill I iTD-i-cluin iiilL Ufipnehi TBoili^ <v.mi im lin^ MiMiijLilr 

hr'illi' r 



^ffenam nan Ifok^Ftkn , nan ;i.'anfsko, nan k/tlj/n^ho, nan ^olei^gko, 

bold in> p.hi]dj IJII liri^LliL-lOLU. D>| Cll^i:i, lOfltat. 



nan di^dfiil^o ym^nn fn^ftiif^ak-" ifrded t;}imiiiialM\a)iyj/n/ii a'(f^i\^rjffi^ 

D^ lilivkt ItVl I Of pi p^ rtirn (li'iili^ llic tili^T Ili^'Ii iip 



- 'shiinad sib/fin nan f>'Uiga jo ko,ndna 're "ng^ki ngdkr ya isdna'tt 

TlLtP lit LLiliiilT - 'ihi'.tli iJiil S1J- - - md [Irfn bii- 



tfmrfft ken andljlno en "sdaH k&yf isded paddn^ »ioTr ^nSrjlna >A 

^iiv 111 (il»joanH*r "i^Ll ITian ri-r^ii^ h-.t ^OL:^g^^ 

l-ocipna - inicd kitftdn nan antJiiUai en ^'iidtigki/; ApotK 'i4 ma.'" ^sded 

htiiLi\' lli^i^ -■^^ iliL \uuiLi'^r vHy' vcvr ]c£ lb|i, [nlrr I^Mfl 

linlliCJ 

kand'i nan yl^n/a ™ "fa^Sni Itpa! j'oy ay iahfng€ldiii;or haslna 

H^l^ llii iJiltr "uW V}', hnic-L, tiIsihI, \-i-r_L ili; nj^^qn lie 

liTi>llirj 



SSS THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 



1^ ^ ifatcin eit '^ng^k! n^^k' ijJ«d kov si itpat ay naldngotdngo'" -- — 

liL 'a\i "rleHL tmHhI ll■rl-lll■^ 1 1 riLru a ^l<ll■ lij 

"iL^ngifii: kudiiLiii nan afinn nd moT ^'fakoni katiiian naa 



i^nga •^lia 'y 'ilild/j^lMitg^r - "^h1" isM kSM^tt iUjii inSi'^, 

l.ralKli. lido, wnpity. ill, (liiiL Jl^ UlLt laua^ti. 



"ayi/f ays "a ^sh pdiigo? isdiigkij; ^pum ijit ad me/" - 



'fcgJt/ a^^it' liina kiiv_, ii iiafilngoidn^i' 'y ianit'tia ay pii\'^af' 
"iiflil -..v. 'I,, rini.ll VJAgs 



^:iiU-\i kniiiiw nun in^lji m "ndngk^,- !f"i(i^ v.d >nii"' '•fak^n!" tided 

ri«:i --i--. Ilii± _.vniiL4;i.[ irby[ ?™ir B'm llii^ viTili- iiD, IlLtn 



'" handwi nan y^/ji; '"pdn^a sha 'y 'lins^fiaMna'iJ" - ishMd iifL-zifk" ii 

^M.H ilLI ol'ltt InLii- llit-t vl'i lIfv 'Huh -.liJLrlr^l 



t\\.' ftHer titzUVH. fJltltlLtDI - - - _ _ _ Hwnltt 



^ifirJ»E !f nan i>i6fjlnix m "i.'.ffam ittiu tv'f/ns, 'lun kdtjmg, Jiifji idkloffg, 

kpjk ■□ IIpS vi^i^iIT Ukr Imnit llji; hcucll- Hi^ Lrn-.'-.liniTi, (ht but. 

bnrthtr itIqLIl, 

nan ssin^kitan ya nan fohAn^iik tcU tiiJta: kaiiditi ken JJJiif^ "j! "^/^(■iJi 

tin h^ll 311.1 iiL. pi]!*- Id u-ir IVJI li" ni"! liLl-r 

noUltp IDDlllfT 

"I n^ffFfj?!- /a I'laiti^lemoP' - 'skded indha ftOrt at^dlsina, kami'Hi fn 
LiLLir lliMl i1lc> be yuiiC TllPd rrlEii Uk ymiDnu Lt^^ 



"aykSak pay sliumtt^r yu Ji^J^ kotifkko ay tnakayad tew tV'fSar 

'linll I "*»lll i^uduriH Rill "lul "i^ilil n "■' htJBS left alinte wiTll uDr 



THE LANGUAGE OF THli; BONTOC ICOROT 559 

adngkp; imairj?frci.= ■£ 'ij^niinit-wrntir'^ try si'uilii ,'■; k^iiing." ^ i- 

Vti-: III' hilHr nr Irir:li-iriinnT:tli.r- i^i liruhli^M inli. 'n^LT<Dl-H^I^4?>. 



TlhH «>' ilii uliloi I L" l"L-.ill .1 iLiniL iIihI III I^Vk: 

.'/Sa I'J johj/iy" isdi-d .-iiuniia van an^tji ya iiondtttt he>i. iin'iia 

y\ii lUM* nan gouluur Ibe /aiagei and h^^jt |(i |]L'lr niiTll-'c 



tolic llil: liTfcili 111^1 liii: a:i<l i:l<iLli^ iiibit iIli |iJ~c ■'' 
UMb' 

yfhi/a^. fa i'wil"-""^, 'cy Iicfi4ii\fkij ken T/akainl ay .-linilki: 

111^ nU.ci ibn I'ou llll^f ^ll"^"lJ *' "(H> if^tr^-j-^M arf iq iiu biLUlicji. 
■iituUlvc afljoai-flcita, 

(031 ih/J nddAn. t*nffkai"i '•:fing*fyo el kanAn en "ad^ fniu/tf'ti^ 

tor nnblnp yeullh. wflfio Ed ^ Tocd, Uhh inn ^i| il-bc^noi buiii 



!■ 



nan tay^^mi.^' - isd'd ia^ba turn siittdtf-a; kandna 'r iti an ^n^t'i r-i 

Hu-wmd. Tlmn trim Uwtr bIifk,''^ '.ivin,? 

naUKT 



"ffgw^ koidk i''i\iiAi" i-ncil kittt^it HciK iit-i^tji <-^! "■/Vi ^'iJT h'j" 



lumji^i 
j'uiLur he in iFiin '.Jujin 1:1 1 Lu .in tiii^H Ilmli llii'>- iHCli liCl iiLllidtfllL 



tlKn Ga4BH]v4BE ■}■£ "lEiiBifaiiiB?i] iolci Bk rtglc" to Olal hOaOt I.ii'n lir M>i 



<]pi>ii |]|i iiip in' ilivrbmHE Ttirmtbey «l bM IEl?; p ve(1liiiij 



^6o THI= lAM(iUAGf: OF TIJE liOSJTOC IGOROT 



III- iiii'il H]^B■e] aonl tiE ■||'^^ Inkiiq hC4BlF '-luu^'.? i^n 

Inp at lliBilioiur Tlicit ^or-pt llifir 'h'. :t3|- -im'^kiiii; 

inijLhffT, 

e» "bonddka fa inaiigaiil^ka!" isfied adf; ifdi-d ljifh(i.-"ii uy 
EoniF iliiU'Ji iI-DE f-'i'zui TlLi^-i 111' i]iH"i LLirn h? iiibDifiliarlv 

IKlI, 

riimtiyaiic ya rnkulkolc. 






EXPLANATORY NOTES 

I. fobfdUo: ei[iig. for plui"., fi,'' oflcjil fffr^J;!, or: tndtii. 
kinaydtfa. kdyst, udwI, with [ircfcnlr infix: lhc[r wood i^lijcli tliey Iiad 
gallftrtd 

ii/fUQn: Num. ^iMiQni^; is^'ui ind "i^cnilivf-iLiJi'.^ilijr" -n, 
Kj"iii:r^. aif, dr^wn jrd -ojnikcn wilh di'i[""^il ! 

2 i/pflrf \lfp^i^: dry brancln:^ on Ircci-. {Mdk^: dry vrood falleD 

from Ircfs.) imn kay^cnyu or: t^^c^TUf'^^'u. 

J. payv^fii- Of pa/ayi/^ii- ptt/ay^eJi- I hiiirt, m.^till hy n'i>rda, 
frrffFn-jj^i "I'lUiat^n word for: pSitang^ an ax. adiiddla: "(liii very ^^'ood/' or: 
"surelj;" tv^iidl^i raeans ; seH, Hie aanie, the very ssmc Cf. S. ^ and 12. 

4, an^ji was cunslantly irL^ercloii^cil wiLh iii^iji. 
sta tji 'f, or shadiis ■ thereftire. 

5 lyrfJo..., how lone will ic lake tn get ibere ... I357I 
limit /ant a: fnif getting-pl^ce, of u^ two ; ttm-ala-aji-ia. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT s^i 

"nMM«"|" i e ]>rtL-:li-<:lL'ili. 

7, .Tjfj<?.^r[ , 1 .-. he cut or l>roli? pR hi « TinibSj imitating; Hie sound of 

ctiickin^ ivivul. "idr.n k^yt" talllii!^ one's niteation to an object thrown lo 

liiiii. lex's! out, it cymes iiom'[ I^iJ]- 

8. aitm": prirm : ttdmn; 'no. affLTiLiJii'-c I'^rEictt, trviplij&i^ijij; }><t: 
here; ^f^'. ^ii'Mit. fuksii! nu! not aiiv liuili bul... [3^3 1 ki-i^a [iv-'tdtiial^ 
StWiA i;fliii]igafon. 

H^. (QHtiiiig: the only plnraT forni of an adjective -obtaJaed- 

in Jj fpcuijrft"jrj.- Cr T 7 ainT T^'ole. 

1,^ fiiit^umQak: HL I fini (no much- too cjacting:, tna/Id iiddek: I 

14, aaif itijj^'irii;^iiij3 "yrni[- -cukine," wlial yi>Li soiigln. br-oiiylil aboat ; 
i, e, if i« 'irf'ur i-iii]'.: you d''b.'L"vt il . H'ldpcli. I ^ccl;, seiircli 

kai/n .. kai^r, . tht ■jnr 1 11:11- ym cry, the oilier tunc '"not any raore^'' 
">ou cannot help crying duw;" idiomat, cf. B.a/. 

16. IfdkasHa \3L^}. 

St Malkod. Ihc Ti.irrnliir ehu^T. ln^ naimzd; if h: i^ imkrrjwr, ""^^rtlVl^l'" 
iTiiiil he numtd :i^ tlic iniiJ^lji^r. iiun^nlor of [li'- l.iie- (■ir: "mo "u^ 
niiok^liDtd s< Ma!li:-jd. el inlfm liufsf^-c'i il "M.ilkoiJ'' 1^ lEn: narr^iiir, ycju 
do no! Jrciim (of Ihe :vH>ry}. |in Qu-i ^chJ-^T'-f'* "Tin? ^;ah:ll^i Dinl^tt" 
(Idiniii of rtiL; Ib^iloi in licngLiej). Ii-Jlin'i|, Survey Publii-MElona, Vn] 11, 
Pftrl J, iMflnili, J^S, p. 1S7, the word nmlkul is aaid to mean: the Apec- 



5^^ TLH;, LAFGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOlK.iT 



THE MONKEY 



TllfT' *CP J l4i:ilhi'T bikL J M-.li'j nbij I'Btclb rliTblfnl h, [bi? buy 



infSla « riwfl, mm- fa/ftyi in[Slu is kapdyoan. nan dman fr-iu 

L-iidTil] asi.r'lriii Itif tieL .iiaeiIa a cici'&i'I'l Ihij blEicr ii llii' 



fi?J^£[ ,(T>m(i^[J??ir, tfT^'rdnJ.^THJ fun /nai tiJJJ fajdyi. 

It^; Il3i] ni1rii(^l i> "ffiif^ rifibr.; lib! iii|Fri»L llif iFi^rli^r ^1t (liE f\r\. 






nati /a/ji^i man^itnTtb si ^fffl ya kbii Idman. nan h^dang ixa» 

nl lLii l>i»y IkLDt-i JcQ and >-||i| |i!^] Tti' mvat 'if IJiv 



dL'Ifc Ituil 111 1i|i mil], ivbli^b i% pjrb, id ^'bcr ^Ibcitng" hor kb 

a ';ir fvfdyi. ttidkan ydn^kny nan yiifna is fun Jaid^i. - k'a.rtu 

il^jablec RIl'V iLnly {!"' li" bniii^iL^ bi Ili« toy. A^;a±i 



cbEldietJ. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOBOT 563 



111? ri^lLtil iiit Ji' |i^ Ifii Ihij nnrl IIlp iT'ifd JUi' 

l-Ti:i^H 



4 



bl lur JmixlLli:: Tlllli Cllf \^l. i- 'tiLinilln nur t^I^Ii K&rti^l 

Willi 

(jrfMd isefftvJdAt bah shengidna, ^i^^jii ikd/Hp; s'^mya ya't^^finy 






- t>i'sfUi:od sail laidfn, Uiy n^ifdngosh fmn tJO yiojr Pifn tarJii* ^ 

i'rnj[LiLi"L LIIC I'^i Ih^.-^uc.' l'ulIcil i^ "-A—. mHi4l lirtia^llg" nf Ilia 

nafiBH41m- T]lmi iBj'H hii^ Ullin I im'l la Mc "aaoaj" 

kefj?n^ ^imii'y ><i nmtiita; ifiTfrfji et jn ibfakdn son loldki ken 

Hrh i;v»^ Lii'ljilur, Iii'qad Ibea, and. Ul1» llic bay lo 



III'. I mil?! i>r '<'<- 111^41 l^idl li-cuCli':! TULjI :II^ Ixi]' /EA|£ ^i^I^lII 



wtat bappeiwd » yoibDual JIii-il vii faiivm 



bsDfli ruu oil-Ill m&il' Ihf inB flLy inuLln-i , '1141^ OF BVal HU 

(■-ha-ilil M) 

'iisfthf^osli/' - kcli^n_Z tiJTJ^'J flprrjJji^ i?jj "i.'hI rra^i /laji ^iat mpayiir 
raiwn. LJu:ll ii|i lUBJalJltt ^^lH, HuI I "'VH^ lUHi^iiL 



5G+ nil- LANGUAGE OF TilV. UONTOC IGOROT 



Bl-S ay sh^£^dmo'il ToifkiUi et ^nabiidabad^iigan is nan tsak an^ban ay 

Bi yijui ini'.il, TILE nn^l diedI .iildci! Ii. rl ll-nn ^rli^l! I ^lllli limiiti'iL 

^ iifmaii yo no'i ^gM." "ffpl)^'\§ haiiiJn .tifn <xiidkiia 'it "pdii£ pay 

Willi \l\u 1"-y iV-.t. ^'IrK :^i::i IklBBDC OtOTOOgMj 



coiLcn v.71^ 11.^ oirul fpfaicb jAU oR«L luve BabL Tim r^jt kbuber 



'fp "kmitfi'f'iii! iniifin'tf^uyh -^' 'iaf/l:odkti' ndn^ldo pot t>!if!iiy rma 



'^ ikiiiciirt nan kasim ('fr/'ro.'" - isti-.-if i^aiiii'i iitin amUna s)i "^dSta ^d 
iJ fohfiyf^' kefjAt£ (tdt; ka^dna ay maaffoidni en "s&dka 'rf 

iinin" hc'Jt'ii^ kaud" uiiiil'ia 'n '^nJdla'if nutudjl ay sin/fiit.a.''' 

inilKe<l llkri AQ'il hlE 1.1 ll'-l' [ft ». ^a hl>nit, tt/TK/Uh. i' T'^rJli'i ^bJ 



^llfB ' Uiflij^d '^f tdnsQD IB dbiAIiie an Ihi^h Lcn'n Then 

infl^/ih; kaifiina ay otlkilh: '^ftJf/ fi^£-'" "U^ni^i iirjn^k 'Ittn 

lie itrtapi:, in -^'^ tt-aiiliii^ - - yon \hi.E tiui'f- u. fli i lil tlW 



dnak in/n hi'^bldiiani ya nan tsara inpaydi ay sheng^dko ^y 
tiiLld oE nidi iFLunil aU* Miul ^i-u u.ii^r iirmlnk. in^i miMl Mut 



\iat z-jHr" Tlicit i^Lt^jr. biifalhrr jii'L IIllh hefaVow 



l\<v ioii '•!■ jiiiiEJ] "ul-wu-t" OH (III? in'-'M ITlwD l«e|ifl Briim 



THE J,AX';L'AGE: of THf" n0^fTOC■ IGOROT 5^5 






jidffiffdgt^fiff i^ "C! fdnfanfg ey /ffarti;.^' - adt son atidkna: kanitins '^ 

\i< l'<'a^bllll liic III J LillLe Iluh^i' [iKdaeil b— -on 'lij M^|| 

IlI'MK ■«. 



i-y/irt." bi'l/Ms -UHrL/Jfi s'' a"ii!i\ii u uop^ /j/^ aJ foffffiy. 






- kciii^iig Jiai'Jn mil n ^diViva ay laldki en "iafin IfSifd 'jfc.' kaf^atkaptrn ^^ 
Thai fliyB lb? bariHdid nl^lu ttts "m[HablH" joa 

^j fafayi Ha>igk.6ka iiiixngf.in is (n/ityi naitgkbldko dSshdcn 



th^tjI kif lH our chil'lji'Ti Tllta 111 \i^\i, t-WJii 



bii □lIc. TncB rill' I ai« ■Lli'i?ici"[ HfiBmi i4d 



Hgi'tnnidsait i.\ kd/ak ct S^^a anvhig/'n ann kit/ak ay 






TJiunoll *l iN^ULe. "HlLknl " 1' Ih* unnlur 



MjflyPt JO FatSngiontr. 



lIDll 



5M THE L^NGU-ACE OF the; BQNTQC IGORQT 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 



1. itf^Iu Qc : JiifSylxi. 

2. "sS/^nged," carried lo- [lie Ptld in Ihc l^ji'^lii:! "((^/'i^" ^^onai'-li '^f rJM 
wfTIi "bttdais^," a infc^: '>f in''5t [il^<'<!r] an Hl<? riff. ^.1;wU)! anrJ ^^ra 

aniSiigfut: lil. 'Slif as^einlircs/' 1 e she lafce? ^11 ihe jcical: irnin ■>£ her 
sMp.=03i'B sliHFt. "*;liy liitk*: iL ill liigetlier riul," lor lier nwii diild. 

3- flip sindki: in apposftion ivft!i -^/a. tfipir, nfimely of the... 
The boy has do ljic^i at all and %*i\i bc^id^g ^ilIy l'^^sli ricv. 

4- .sfhi^yo [shimya yd'ighay]: Et ^^^"[V'^frrt ^'-/u^fro^ fl5f fNdii;!^&/a; 
yfu al-fine ai"i: sinoVing"^ .fuuiyi/tii yi^ngkay <t'j kiiTuh niin ktfutf. yon rilonr- 
late ibic gnad (liiii^? for j^oiiTMlfr sttmyili^u ytl't^i:f}\ o-y i'tkii^h iz f'itgti: 
cmly fhey are iimkiLi^ "prjUcry. iidma- rnutli (iiiiredu|>lii:^ird only here). 

5- ihfakxth. I a^![, and: I answer a que^iicm, I tell. (Peraoo, in cas. 

Qbliq.) 

6. Form-ular h?ani iijav\ak. . sec; T.j: FC.iol [iifrii 12. ];;fr&. I 
br'ms; pn/y^ik: aulboT[tali\"efy ; I order lo lirJnK. I ^I'ni] cill. "^-/^ 'Jff'l 
/HMOtT^ ""bai if. she niaiLer with.." from llmad, ii h;L|>|ii"n^. 

'H. Ri'tl'ddabadiUfgan: "riclily'' provid«l with meat; mudim^at pJaccd 

on rn-i.'. 

9. p/tsig ■ piirt, u'[ih-out any admijtliirr: ; ["tfAg loHdug: il i.9all gold, 

pure ^olH. 

TO. ifeflnrf[/VM.' an eizflairiacioii of ^ngry mr|>rii<: when d [ico Bering llie 

crniae of wmt f:vi]. ?ef 17, wlicre fto^jflHuii j pcr^onj] 5uffi.s. 

ani'itydkash . i-^; l'>r llii*i reason; tlierefon:. a»ijii\-^kask L', Jira/fiilca 
\iins: "for ilii'^ ic^i'oOn you ivcre iioi beml" (u&ljI moitlv [11 eKclainatiomJ. 
oJdidy- Btill atroiiger thaii ngSSg, had, meaiL 

II. idiilii'4: horlatofj mood, with infir -mh- omitfed ; deals 
md 'J'i/^: "done," "gehoi wir also;" sinrfma: [6o]. 



THE LA^JGUAGK OF THE BOXTOC IGOitUT s^7 

12 d!a: ilie dlti:ci w^y : lln: miiiiediaiely foJlowiag action [3tS] . 

h^gi" iiiHerjeclinii of ihc niijnkcy faiijtiiagi^ r'tjUiii, ,, ^<:r N^m tu 6, 

ij. iRnkaadhtsoHg.- In? juntpcd from iree to tree ; frequent, form. 

14. ^jJ tfuroti; licsa/* nJirn, l^l:v':TJl tim^, keeps aayiog, (Wd, not 

JsjfiJif, 'iciJii": llje "^ub^ei^L" f.illaiv:, llii,' verb, i 
ntdd^'Onak. I live i\'LLlinul tite, iji i;clcbin;j. 

j6. frf^Ffifji; acceni! but in ly: kumtn. mnivfUafful^. [41.^1- 

17. taSfntdmLh; this (.yoa olU) night? ficfiiimroin^tfif this you 
clAim to be water ' asifiiH/ntf.',!;^ vc^ii r.ifl ibi:^ .1 do;;' ([nnnicallv) 

fi/A'kdek: I ktpp yell, ^i.'i? uii.ni|-;i nml ru'vir iilI-^-h o gi"?; T provlflt 
M'"li]i jfl^'ntv; I lri:;U ivcll. (are for. 

fi-anti/kap-^ii. "h'lv- iiiEi'-Tible, wicked joit are 1" lix.. kaaailjafa" lioiv 
badtbeyare! ]tffHrr//.vji|//i^jj. howbad ycu araT [km/Ukdyu pOH^. 

1 1^. pi'ii jayijdyan, -or: bimtjaytjdyan: "kjclt quii:klv/' nfea; fromi 
fA, 1 ^; ^Hd^ or: Sna. 



PALPALAiVlA AND PALPALAKING 



4Tl|Cy, > PalpaluiU Uld J'^C^'hkljiK in" l^'l^m ulTiLn-'rr PsIjiolniDB 



sofipfiia iiii'i pnl\ff'if. si I'lUpaidkia^ kanit'cii ken Falpoltfinij or 



563 THE LANGUAGE OF THF. BOMUC lOOROT 



■'I ''iit^peiita -^a -ay lij^a.'" adc-d ka'iJn Palpaidi'xa en "suSfeb na /ty 

Ltt Di Inm lluil "iGni'fltEE" Tben 'j]^ l'zl|ialjiii.i I iI.idI ciQ lllid 

■laiLl ijIE 

Cjong." miteii handn Falpal^kiK^ en '^lek ^tSpin nan p&shoHg." 

■iLi?liO Xlirii ^Byi I'dlpilabin;^ Ifl uiE i|.itii oil Lli^ -Vli^LldllL 

CI Id y^<m. 

" - tided si'idib PnlpalAma nan f^^l^po. jfHgsm Trflw inftfiiie ny hdij^u. 

TIlfji limn] uD E'^I IhU^IiI-h Lb' ruTf-iil mini' W h'iIl bf. 'niaik Gall, 



I'll piLalimj; nirEliiDf i-iiLL(jir^, li^ll. XUdl »>S J'dLEUiJiit iil>; 



c» "indk-i 'i ha 'sh kdtfnf i'ded frtJudu PaJpaidma ta "ytg&g 

^ivr jinc> oat tikb Tbejl .j^ : hliiil Jiii j ^lul ■^ 



tflj^tto fl^' nmngif'iditi.sQO ken .'ifkat ayk^ "^<>i!. tn aliii'in nai tsa ay 

mf M jii-E fniLC^ In ii.li uLj <iM£1lI ,^ii Io oat 

"almiLiH?" ^ 

* Iriflpnr' - iideit leOH^n Palpaldking h£>t Palpjldma en '^yiika; 

f,,|j iLl^n K'^" I^lI palnlLiiiir 1u I'lil imLiihu ^I'll IlLKii; 



ji^jjij jran l/dtiicitg nan imtj'^u inof" i'tli'd l-iiiidn i'tdpullii-'ia i?t( 
give tme) Ihr cir "F ii lr*li 'i 'i'^ '^i ' l&JfoluiHi 



'' ""^Jil kotdifi^o ta 'iiiii^m nan kihvpng ran kdtj^ur' - iaifcd /muSi 

bvlml 15 ri^ii^e lli»l >ODr« (In PbC o( aIIaIi llniL -Jj- 



I'nlfilallUILr B^ll [H(ll, 'n^iit (iTifj tin ror ufi "tiiilirl " I'hicn 






THE LANGUAGE 01- Till'. U0^JTU1. IGOROT s6<) 



di:hSmii!'' isifc-d kan-fn Falpalilma en "tiyb9 ng&g ta ald^m- nan ^-^ 






isdiJi'd ildht nan akfSh; ii^i^d iiAtiei\ nan akfJh. ifdnii'i! iiauiln tpr 

TlHtk Jw KO ii rcLiLl I.Kii be I'jia llii' Icuil TIii'ilIii' ^a) ^ 



"fi:ti>.' - ji>b' mid kGnl^'""^ii'i 's akfi'b!^' i.'.di-il kmidn i't.fpM'na 
fahl bbl mil 1^1 IF l^ tiPftitN |nl| Imil' 'l]L«n uj i; tu I]>iIleiibi 



en "(flt/Ar- mc "ifd kdneh is altf^b, <iydk(i n-aa indfak a^- h/ttj^u, 

1^ il nu["iTiii \-Mt (nil Imn I1*iity 1 lii.c .^^Linlil |i|j^ 



■JWH ijaHd. ffflx dgk^f^d indfd nan Uihig." - 'iiitija'd suviih id }i>bftj\: 

"Ijalld" irjh llieli aL'^> "lillfij^ " tl^tli VK-y tni biome 






IPrklj^^nn ■£i!'i_gi'i: nan lak/d'ia kdf'nn^. - is^rd ^.-atifii iejjjj ' 



hif/^ if: nan in/'ro fJj "svsttym'dka 'jiiif, ^i /pf^td^mf r<iFrj^rr n ji-a^Tcif/fffi 

|>l«]hl* [ri (In :i^i| "lViLUH n3.l turr -lI 1:1 i^ Id fiC-. H CnU 



is uldngyid ad Kal-^^-.-cHixa." natja'd k&mdan. - hdcd kanj/n i* 

hr Jtl^Jl- "^•"'■""J u' Kilii iii liar. TIliii tlwi niPt u^ii' . TlHII Eai": 






iViTd f?r 'Mrf n£ilf '■! /.'fdij^k .■ifkar isdna'il 'f<""fi en "^fdj/m 



570 THE LAKGJAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOSOT 

P-i* sak/Sii pay; prpf adfki uniSbfat iken iok/^a, iiiiipadAik ^Ikaf 

Btc ll ii^l iJ'i IiiLiI ■ililli' t\K. J 1iiIil'I.L> ^'tMi^ '-.in 



Tli^n ^lii' ilii:i^l llii' Jl^I. riii'iL J mil .lUd. Illi' hi"-it:iil TiWil BCrlfe 






i^ KirSuf^'.L-Jfnu. isiitja'd tjipdp^ Jon fMdrf3i. - isdtja'd kanda ™ 



— - — — let ■udci'H ' 4<il;< lI■^ ^ac il ti< duiji iliLi<.]i 

ilUn I'll 

kefjin^ tota^kaatja nan hfywitgria ya ka/itjin ay in~h'd/ffj^. 

JIliii thflF "pLarcvl" lil^ fm >ini3 lie llbimlird '''i-iy mucli.'* 



13 Ketjf}!^ fu't^go'i. - isdcd kanifn Palpaiifwa cii "yJitn nan. ^.'u 'y 
ibfiL lit' J L'li F [!i. liitn iu|t niJi^DiEii pwt (mr) our 



gdtgsat" hded koii^ Palpnlitkiftg *" "^yh^ ^&^S ^** ai^i^n nan 



■ gen; ^qr "flphina" ^nidiiilKH ^l]JJl± ^IIl nir ntUttaffll 



y/im man tiaii fsa ^y {>iUdar "no! ayk^ ^g^g t<i nii^t'iit^ 



jou k/tjosng ii tjaif-d ei adUu ils^oisao ksa mk/JH ya.'^ 



Kci}f^ng ip ii (fk'ilcr^d. SiM^Ucod nan nmok^fbSid. 



Mi3iy& and Fal^KgioKg. 



THE LAXGUACE OF THt BONTOC IGOrOt 5?i 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 



dam off a parJ oE n I'lver (■> CxCii.li IJih. pahi{-4- Yhc wJivc^, tippling, t-^U'^T^ 
by a stonjbed, the current, p^shortg; a sla^anL prin ^>f a nier [iiciil. ihc 
sea). 

£. tfldoHB for: j^jil/d^iij. JflgM^j,., lit.: luudi wiia lii^ catttimg, 

3. uls&sh: 13961. a vfr^ Prgdi; Jfl . . Triiim: whatisilthaL "why 
aliouW T, ynii, h? '^Ec. ?" wf-og" kotdkkc. of vvliii adlviinilage, usi?, [■, it for 

Die? 

5 h^!j'i<. l-j^l/,1, Itlciig: -ice VcT. Ilili, 

sak/'^n I'.iv'f'" f'lkt^nali-T "I h^ivc 10 fiwk ouf for myself; why slinulil nni 
I myicli come fji-sL.^" "am 1 pcriunfa noi if" 

7. al/ilo: flat stones, 9s resling place f>»r people- Coming to an nto. 

akfiiA/ foh: a ioiimi iniiLalmg .lU'Eilloviri^. The moire of llji:i i(*rrt 
is trochaic iak/in: "1 do u-sEcan:; ii luaiteia noL; ^n'nonyiii j silhi 

R .fnj]^^i7'//if; J. XLI, SrtTrk.iil'-i r[i'nllMzIiair. 

9. i>p/7ia: an old noman gnardni^ the i!ea4r 

1 1 tjif'dp^a: itif '[cid ]& ■vr]p|>ri-oCi] ^t h^ivc rc j!".l LIIC(1 lilc ,1(1 ll lij Jl^(ic 
run away. 

1^, '^Ijsrke^Q.'" aji €>Ldaiiuuoii, "iiol in Igor^l Titi^^Uflgc," ^i^ wn'i 
rl^LiTied. lolnSkaIr I drive a v^'dge, a poiiiCed |ilece of vvo.nJ, i\ i|)[]!-L jrito 
ihc H^ar of a person Eu coiavmce myself oE liis -deatii. k'ihje'i ny , [?4}3| , 

13. ^nalpAfU>- kdlj^a. fish, wilh prelcdtfi infia -in-. "Vour former 
catch fn^^ ii!>ti."' 

14. jjri? proEii. as Eiagl, ■ iiaw. kdwcHg: "eara" i e. gHls. 



57a THE LANGUAGE OF THE B0^'TOC EGOROT 



VARIA 



WlwD (hci .^ tu Liiirli;, ^li*iiL (111' ■iii'Ti- jR-il lln CTWDLiea Tlir 



II1I1I L|nL' liTiIli luClJc-'tf^^^ III? IfE^niiHE jni! cill Ihdl FlikIL cimr nn 



nfl?i frfjsA 7ia" faffiMy! Ttm^^'ddfjit iv JJ^tr nV/a^^ jra?P filial ya 



ij liifji i?jfrMrH*:ujJ'JjJiji iJ "111 f!i. ii^tljri ikjfc jiiSii/tiHa'itiff is "an 



pifgpifii; if\i^gi\a nan dnaHdl/fja. t\aK laiaidki fuinistii^awtjn ay 

LvrrTiili IIlci laVt lnlu]i|:i Lboll ^.tiililnri Llii' nitn ?rLlninL 



TPTflj^^'j-'i^Hf C« "thayv want mid IftinSyAs! {iddhu-' -■>m4ka'sli ay 



umSgiad^ - maHgitsimadnyf^kct adikdentifkn tjtr na!" — 

^'Ov.Ulil? ]*l "B all di< UfitlUCL I Ifl Hi EiiiCTUi' CliriE lidf 



iufaiii/otja ya fekitsh^tiifa nan f^lji^s is nan Ms^l. 



THE I^ANGUAGE OF THE EOHTOC IGOROT 573 

Moles- la a'naf^an: a Noiii<ii i-clioni'^? 1[ieiI "it i? CDinine-limr:" irfi 
^'ci'ming-pliice^" (akitk^nUja. they liil rhc c^nh and stiokr it with tlie 
blades of llieir ^Kes, their blade.' being lidd III' On lliff Knumrl; lIic warriors 
p-reletid (o ':h[ifpc-L] ll»J?in. M^JTJjJft^WJ^'^Ji^fl. Mornen a^enli*; of ;^rfa,&, I burn, 
deslroy b-j' Rrt. 

fnlitiaii! Imtili^ crv ol atiack - '"Imtrali i'* fmiigHiimadi'ylcrk-o: "tei u;* 
all kill f;u"h oclicr [ii2|." 'iid-ikdcti- pursue, or: catch Tiiimiiig af<cr. 
inl-iltJ/oafi. I leap cociiliiuiilly, on llie same spor, j Litllc for-n'^rd or Ui llic 
aidci To diid^e spears, jEQues, and to keep iiij budy cvtc ctadj ioi dtlack 
iind defence 



— Mo mM/M nan Hon^, $i ^gka pash^bok nan ntniihin' ^^ 

(ft™!") 

hTji tiffo^/t uw/ffi mm fi.i^hnir ya suhSkSna wait Slatt^, ei nuikdan 

•li iliillL. i-'hiiiL-l LiLv "i>-injur<r" jn'l IiLud.'.jL JOIE htAd UhB rtDHTdL If 



^tlt iwbin; 111 jriur ^lCJ^I Tti* " luuiq rir' ' naitf ijijir;^ 



ivlin [i Uli UMi. iiialilrt' III >''li 'I'l "Vnnbinl Iji Tiij.Lt III 



Jim oj Kjkitjiij JlU^ UmLLt j1| JOO -f^n 

• iialrdati. -"^subiH^ak -ifha is *vn sJSy*g tmndkyv-'" tf^i\i'd makjian. 

iliprcDn-nl. lUai' J"" mi'-' 'lit '"•'■ nUti' Suril mliuil Thill III' fdl^O-ril 

fl E. htolol J 



Ts'oTe? L "I'lic "iiealin^ blu^tr/' Ihc Lorijuriir, reniov'CJ. ,ln C''! spirit (hat 
hasciiisejJ [I|tic^3, ELii "aiiflo," ^s iliii-f ol ^'iViffUjak" anij Kkt^-iijiiy.^' I 
cause sic-knc=i-'i; fly/;i'A!'c*, or: iy^N-'^k. wiili ihe Noin. ageniis : mihsgyu 
\m4itg'^rt;nuingfi\'\^i\. Observe; t/^.^ and a/feir. iMviJ:^ and sdya^: the 
"morLuifi-rfly^/' j/tfl, I blow you^ onitn, ml'',. , 



S74 THT^ T.ANTGUAGE OF THE EOWTOC ICOROT 



T'le ''tiiShl-'l^lf" |{i>i'° In lti« nijltl. T"}!? "]iin&in li □ lii)^ 



I, E ^Vj Ui-" illijvr liii5 J iir* cun iiKikr iid btiiVi fill Ibiil 



mare. ikkwdpko: I movr:, Iry 1u J>r(-Lillnj; ikkli:k'>.tsdbnii nan Siitd: Llic 
pulse beati; anito: -muI yf dtjd , KKa^c, 






/tmfk ny tnAngSpdy kcit tjdkayii^ hna'd Waf/dian: fay dyam 






Tiiulli]'lf inr^Li' 



Notfls: "Ijibfld-Ceremony:" Upon the took: /jJfc ^arf i-Vnkiihn. "j^r 
di'>t;tn1 fram lionto':," TH^ ru-ti m^r {.^ir^^v^irjjy^jj) i^frfonTi :v i'\T':-^;trrif,i-v 
(mdn^-if'^y) ami i^iilL ilii;ir Lh^^kc^i game [^ i^rtine "LO Ibi^ vfry {pddlo ) 
•^1>'A Irom ilicirhome at Qktki." iimJlik-': T remember, "donevei ut^Ici;!, 

Blwaj'fi think of. ." 



ITk y^unj' I'^J*!' il*! ncil fill Ifif lii'H ••I rJiirl'fbi, hii>-ii:f i{ Liiir ^iln 



ijuff ffrfJv if wJi^Tot, fJfif inSdhSa^. cl imakh nan- adSyna ^ 

th-. tiMT »r CliLLktrL, \i\\VU lit lilliv tlKti >JCk Ilk^Li^li liii'j add 



THE T.AN'f^l'AGL", QF THE BONTGC ICOROT 57S 

uiiiS^iad. nan ifnj:kay amdm/ma ^'a nan iii^n/itu not mongisSja '^' '■ 

]m hamnrdlfr O^lj Ul'Litu:!! diliI ohL vdiikh btc III? c«irj^ 

(V -nan ddffy si mfiiiok. fay ida^-aju fj 'lan ong^nga. 

Nnifls: flr/fTj' iiTid ivijj' [tidily]- tiver; jt ik forliKlrlrn .il*o to nc fhc 
heart of cliiHTken. old jiieii i married men who are flot alifKHd by llw sptlL 



— Mo iit-ieiiin -nan j/.'n ay fsa itmS'i/Snod ke» dlkti, lii/Swa ^ 
/I >nu ilfi^lf] nf ■! i|i)|! fliivujfl (i'IIiiaIiiv jtm. lL i ■■ a Lrx.i' -iyii 



ffait ^VM ml] i\a''e fhlLiHD. 



iiLbntoLirj !■ 

iSitm^ki j-i NiTT Uihiiih, ald'^nfp nan fuft^ ya foktfil'i'nS!''. -ivcili^ 

ijHiiL"lL iliiTiiii,' Iht ■ iLilLlli^L." Tn^yluVt i-h:*.e ami Hiro* iliriii. S^hili' 

LDho-LoIiiiiln 

iiat\ maSokldtJ^an is najs dio povmd i^ nan ifji'ali. 

Btii Fill un ll^if lii'b.L- i^j ijii lh< bi^liTi 



Moice: di^'iak ■a.. "Boiiiocboy?" (7fil Ushiish: fj^'hrirj! afta' tlin? 
r[i.e-l]aTvcil. ^a^i^ iiiid ; fdto. bitto: iloiie. toklilngak: I hit tin? he;id ; bj' 
zn^poa^ here alsoivilh : dwafit^chody. 



— — Dafk} s!ka iumg^yka.' l^yl/^k ay maklfoiSya ken X^ka! fdlk ' 



kikk^n najt djdtan; masdyigiitak is nan pdgpag. iptt}^tn jfapt 

ka<n* UiC liBil J bBi-c ]ci:1. Uiv k^t III 111? Idnvl Hli(i'« Iha 



576 THE LANGLIAGF: OF THL BO.NTOC IGOROT 



ArKliur Lu ElonlciL ut □ 1:1:^1 ni [■mi nic hilii'ii alkiU qr aiij*« 






ino amdlikit ud l-'^'iloJi. cf wn/Sykumi amfn ay umdfed ktii j/kn is 

If FOn ^^ITir to Innlor, ^f- at jII Iro idecI viii 



nan sak^ii nan v^ngn. 



ayk/ way idkffc 'sua?' intS pay si dmam advtf-ii? af^lty ngri 

In anytuxlj it^'V ^ il^rf :uii| l*llii"r hh*^ ii'-i'mlili 

(ill lininel |ii) 

wodfl'i itfoti^. ks.mita!\iik aT.adka.'i; ndadtk fdti'n .s/ka n-nirdkns. 

lit 1^ [□ Lhl ib'ni'e. 1 -IjjII LrJ^^ ln-inorrij^, J -kill ikir -51 j-HI ll»niijrinw. 



nAfka^p^kitkalf is ^Idi ni'ag si sa k/n iSjX. sfnu hok itaiij^wAni ss 

[Id ni>1 LOII bn^lliLnif cil Vm Id 1i im | ItiT'i "dHd 'qi^L 



saf nan nimn/mlca afiCjty n^H itya y fafdyi. 

Kf utajoy UiLiUiJiie KULItt^ "'"1 



t^'liriDii! nan flfnsi ya pad/fyittfiU iidn- f^siir*!uilS 

W^li'"* Djr ODiinIr* jnri n* till uni riirinjl 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT S77 



SONGS 



"The followinpf Songa hav^ been nroHeetwl wiih eTircme difficnlcy. 
MiLiv ivordt. ;iiiil i>liriiiic:^ oi Llieie bebng lo a "5oTag-l>in^l':tl ;" llicir tK^tl 
irHTinmE ti-ulfi ^nnitlliiies iiol Ije ascerlamed iind fr(\|iicnlly ilrfTcrcnc l^iir"!. 
differed ^reaEly as to i[»eir iiieinin^; aitd ycr Ibis "Sont'-Uialttl," luiiK ita 
"wru^ils oi llie nid folks," innat l>c of jjrcdlt^it jrlcrc^T. ic- RlliniilogiiiLs and 
Pliilitlogi^l^l Tlie follo^ving '^•tj^^^ li^rn: b'^n rcvf^ied carefully W'licii 
they are sui^, eI rtqtlirtS dlieh pfSCt<<^ !■> recrtgni^e die ain^k ivoM^ in 
tbciL otieii rcp-ralcd^ [l[j,i"onriei'!cii single =ylkhle«, oc iii their coinicc [ion 
i^'H^l svll.ililci of ^nli5t'|«cnl v^'or'l*^, .if separation by iiicii njn^lesa sounds 
:<nd iv^rd?. TLic sTrnrturc o1 ihtf ver?^? i^ &lr[t:(ly rliylliTiiicHl ; I'hc ictm 
falls usually On llie ?, 4, <^i ?.ylla|ile, *oiiieliiii-i?s on th-c i. 3, 5 ; ^o ''■r m^y chII 
llic mctr^- ciEltcr jiinibic or trocbak. iRhymeg occnr iTiiLRtly at the ends of 
Iwo i.ijmrunii'i: ^'erse^i: iiio:ii lines end in -J, ailichctl 10 ihe la^i ^viini, even 
if it cndi in a. In reciting; (iioi singing or <:liri.ni[n.g) ilic naiural itceiii nf 
words IS completely superseded by <be rhytBunlcal jctue. 



5;S THR rAXGUAGK OF THR HONTnC TGOKOT 

INDUSTRIAL SONGS {Ay«hi&i£} 
(Suog when workjiig in the ricc-ficld:i) 

Tji'iv^ -a. Nt'itSngan yian sikii 'J 

Kc Ivifl l»i^hi^ ihc lilt Siltl. 

DII^'LI«, 

snfHkfy 'd m-QHit-'iit -d 
iFf n^ K^ Lu nL 






Tjish^ -a la f^yfayM fak-i^ -& 



iuiix y ninjkisttfd -fl 

lh*KI^''l"'i "hacil ir.llaLiglL " 



pabfiiyfay Ko^si^ii -fl 
dig, 

KiM^ia 'd Mahifd -a 



tatJ toy f^Uiyigkji -a 



mo tiSna inis^ -H 

il I 1,diiudtl;) bkd nude ci]iib1 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOXTOC IGOROT 579 



nan t^nod f^n iolff -S 

the ttitlta ul lltV ■■uirLin:^ 

JOlfl, 



Lhal ELFETVIII' L.>1]|l] dm 



Tan j(^'fli>£ jf 'n^i-Pigif -d) 

UlC IrOl! IdF 111' cllll'llTTI 






ti| Itifirliywn M 'I'lilyn 

IBuD^^-r^jjion] 



fay sigaiig pay -<ini3 -<i 
H tr l&piLliljIi. luLcfd. bin 



ny nihit;U'lijud -i 



(ibcu^glO III' ^wld, viil?^ 









la Ibrir [o^il HI Tjulja 



nay f^ -^is'^'^S ■*^'"^ ■* 

butt Lod«4, iL '] f iimbi? , JiiT( 



58o THE LANGUAGE OE THE QOXTOC IGOROT 



ttabdttga 'sh dngongJ S 

in UHvf tn'Cdln-V t tbilil 












si4ma'ig ay tnintsuKfi '^ 






?7fite& ■ (/nn'i -if and l/ishit -a: words precp^firg- ilif inrtg^, Viki: invl- 
[irioiis lo join a 5[ii^cr. i>ift''ii:'i»' to f* in Elic mlriilk (te'tga); "n i5 
nnoTi." -li^a: Sun, lyunji-dijlfit. momt-'^/tak . I eai, luni^i, 

mf-f feJua: i. «. L-nnr'*^^, llie did oj [Jie I^oiol- ipfrt Vl^jjo wa^; rip^crtcd 
most emphalitally to ln^ unili?rj.lrtl"l to refer lo divinely If He fiJiil made 
tqu^] Ihe working-pok^, i. c. Lfic "baykay," [lie primitive agriculmm] inipk- 
uietH oi L!ie Ignroli the pole is said itielDpliarically of inaiikiiid- ''if all men 
had been creiiled cuiiaJ." 

TIj? line:* in () are a vatianie. Tj^lyS: Uj*; regjoii -ot Boiiioc. 

j«iii^;iiflf;«p. "wander ^iliouE lo seek work " iumvaj "It is luclty" [ ?) -. 
hut cf : T^T.4 dnd Mole*;; !:ui3iyiit}k yangkay. "I oiiLy; probally : slie, my 
sweetlieait obiIj" i-il'^ i'He, d'>cs iiotliing hut sin idle. nij^^j'/j'Si^r^ifa.' pre- 
fii* mingi-; ,sc<: [^00; ^^Jiti- 1 nabonga 'j/r; "lo be born ai a limtian being" 
("ein Mrn^chenkind'') i aflet lliis verse tlie (doubtful) ]]nc wrii in&erJed: 
iiabjSl\-ii jj ongd -iT; "to be carried as a biibv." !ongyaiya-a: 9 word {pt 
plirase) said to b< "without meaninE-" 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE QONTOC IGOROT 5P1 



A "L0VR->^OXC 






fof ffVUii iL r^ .M7U l^ir^ iJiiTi )«ii' 



^iii f|ii-i|iiu-l ni, lo^ltifj, 



beLond in I'jul.a 

1J. ». BiniUc) 






Pnli, ^Im L:in 'Ijul'l 



Hlicu ibF toi^lnB Jon 



.TJj^yiu ay ck ^r'rjTtrr -ir 












SBa THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOKTOC IGCROT 



ay ttjfartifi^fi 'shi/'iS 

|l J 111 lf:)^ hire, 



's son fUliftvr^ 'rA Tfulyii -tL 

br Ibr f-irlfiTl Ht Tjuljil 



NoCcs' Ssadiorif^a: "you are very" {fiiidio. iiitcn&ivc dnd '.-!*[ivc). 
^hoshangdu, vreary^ lazy, loYe-^ick, longing: cf. sumdngaak. I rcrr hiay. 
jfttijj.' iOiijE; di;ili?cl for ,*j^jii. ck-f '^Pch." =u!;^?;lc'l by I'-al^nglnn^. 

''Tlic Iclovcd lic& do^^'Q mi s 3kcp!iij;-lK.ijird in i-lir dlc^^ llii: girl's i)<^r- 
jLiilffv; iJicrc 15^1 19 iiiLiI h^T, my Jicoil, jn niidil iIk -ulicr j^'ri'^r' 

na^tfriTfrs 'c^^J^fr; "J mii'ol live f,ir !i"ciy, %vIliIi: ■^lic ij. in ati "^l»g" il. 

fafi^/t-^'u. Horldjor. rcglor. ciui'iry 



\V EL>DlM<^-SONG 



WhUe I'ei'EornkJEi^ |be ceremDny of pouDdit^ rice (i^p^SP^S^ ^^ 

^I'wIilirLp;, iiten atjd wrjmen sing alternately: 



'E'lie woniciL. i\j lumdlaySukt? -.i'Hy '- ^i — — JS 

III ub jj" 111 -.^il ■.oiiK 



lEinn dI ^lrvcJ.llI 



tA •aiary nriiM.gf6d*iein — tf'^ ^f 



rim ^iim- cum 

LoiLy 






TIEU LANGUAGE OF THE BDNTOC TGOKOl 5^3 



IM UH £D Ld call Bone 



.fiibfa'.'i 'i Jiiii S'ayuy -■ - j}c 6c 



LliiiL ■umii'- bliiH ii.tI 



■ lO: -'irillk 



Nolc*: TIk' nn'iri' i^ irotliak. Ijkir zintJ ihylhm cQiritidc ^W- in 
this nong with JlG inltru-Liiig nielofly, ollivl t^.'ni' The men ^nig llieir p^rl 
in a sl[iJi>lri|-'l niHoil/, llieii die ■\^'oni''n in ;l .[llYtrciii melody Tlie ^^inc 
nwllable.s nrr nfl^ri repcacud, lln.' ■i-nnl'i larji iir.a s.^llaljlc^i (hubi? nrc 5h^-n|jly 
.■^ifLTiii^rl and bo tmin-ecttid iviili clu' sivII^lIiIv^ of -iihsii|iirm unTd.H ihril jiac 
wncd^ IhLcrjrrif! aliuoit Jiidi5l[nj;iii'.li:iljlc. Fiich Siiit tlap^ 'li.irplj. I'^uli a 
strong ^I't;'!' lie ini <Il? I:iii j.yll;LML'- Llie [jauM:'; iirt ■^iL-ji-ily i.hii^Lin cil by all 
^itigCL"'^, '^Uo slop 3ii(L L"cbL;j;iTi uillniin iii.\. iiiiiMjnn 

-,t'iig.>!llu\'Q}i. =ini^'iJ.iaki;L, ihos-m/Jik: J Cdriy o. double-basted, a 
■^iiwi^t^." is to7i.gtsia7i: the lown is in the valley, most rice-patches are on 
ihi' niuUTilEiin ijidcs iilKnt iLic eovvlj. 

j//firy.' iliigh, ui'l'i^i' 1*^ kayukyfick: I weed a field, tear out the grass. 
Their rice^ their rice-fielda: i. & those oi Ihe young cOilplft. 



EETJKN't; TJI 



ADDENDA CORRIGENDA 



PART I 



The nmnbcTS d«n*t* s«ti*n*, arUe^^ i>r?c?ded by t>. [p^^ef. E?f in^an? 



7. Mdikixno. for Mf.'iVairo 

fo. bS^Qsh, \ov ^6lo-'^n 

18. Lihaldso. Eur LCcoliLso 

jj fJjjV. (or ^j^ 

45. copuli, foi toupla 

^G. .ffl^ir/rtflFr, (or jut/^ifFr 

67 «ii'\jtisl^ad, for mi«jns^{ad 

71, 11- ,i[jp^lljli-ve, fur i^|i,^l;Jli^T 
Ti- I'lil ( ^n'fi're "ln^r<^ l^hc arlicli'" 
S]. a, |>cr!iiins a-il'lre^&ed 
£9. place tc-loii ift*:! "IcfoTc" 
i,19. Tfial V.y;. kiiii£nAn means: 

lliinK in Uie liouae, fiiiuse- 
hold iii<;iisil 
151- ^Tfljfr "i^eek/' atidpfsk "I wek" 

(nvl , fin-d) 
i&O. nmsdkit*ik, for ufasiikitok 



n)£. 1 mTiii :d|k:j1c, add: T desire 
103. FF/rfr- I'.'Lin'- !■> lie Lepanto-Di- 

Fidd ^. L negaLJve: adfk 

I9r|. r.x. =.. Or M'lth posaeas, Vb.; 

sistdek ^Agp. 
331. fJirW^et rir: ?;i^I)/tif*; f<-, 3^ t 

SDoaut 
?57. -iin can be a<[de<l lo 1- \'(?rb? 

wirhuiil [ircliKnij; iiiai£- 
iSS. I.T51 line; lliree. "for four 
:?63. Ex. 4. ^e^Le^: j>/£^<Tnya titut 

findyat u :qaH a/<if^ 



588 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOHTOC liiUKOT 



2^)2 


En. 14. place is before nan 


J,1^. 


27c,. 


r.x. 4. let fkJH pfffco^i] 






i'ii;sim 


353. 


=83. 


WciciC "in flll^" |JL1L ] 




2&9- 


p. JO.-i- Pl.ic£' tfiipha.: . add: 
Or; i\ii*' "ic'»ttid^\'iiii\i\i 


35.1- 


2-/2. 


tl>B last verb: ^gkdiiak, lor 


350- 


j'}6 


|irH?lix r'rr, fur In 


p.Tf 


z<)7 


p. IT4. Pretended aclion: The 





roni [.■. ^'I'nnn.ilci] : llic ^*;iii- 
inaLiDJi 1^ iuiiJcHuiLiS iiicijiii- 
pTete^ as the fiodl cr>iisnnjiiit 
i£ wiLJtLed in ^ lie ^cmiLiLLLion 

?99. Oh^(^rve Incoii^Li^leiii lorcii^: in 
I-L.2I, L 1.22 ; H.t^ 

,^1x1. [gfl with others! th? forma lis 
I ] iflpst t>« plac^ afler 

,^01 . In lids Construction in- is the 

Prp-fir {ar I'its. \>r?m; nfao 

HIOJJ^' lli^iy li*: jtr^Ji^i'-l To 

-a^i- 
^^7- p. 122, 1']^ 7. lite two broth- 

yr^, mr broclicT 
310. y. 124, l^x ^1- ii'uiL' btloiv: 

man^dk'u, thief 
J17. |i. 130. T ciinlioue^ ac^d : l^cc 

[310] 
321 Kx. IE. tht meal was not cut 
^2,1 The N"om. .^fntis with ptef 

"-,cf, [348] 
J3ij |i. 3^7,Ex.rt. t3eloiiE5lr>1'36o) 



First EJt. mto jra^^ nnrr^rfW^; 
naa^dli^n i*.ciiiiEracl.cd irnni 
Han^alo niid off 

for F.nJJJfy. 

p. J7,3, Juie 7 £iojji bcJtuvi 
prtsent 

p. 178, Ex. 10. HUL ^ altffr 

ttie sentence 
p. iBiJinftiT. Rtadj l,^^v"Lr*lriciial, 

for was 
|i. i3j,'Ex. Sh frombclow; Read is, 

for Tt 
p. 184- Ey ^. >^cp,"ir!in:' katdki^n 

p. irtci, !li? 'jrh, lulli iitayi^c--, for 

367, last Exr put who beiween man 

and -was 
301- ^- ,^- P"< I before hold 
p. 23". V.x. 4. ■^imrise: faldan 
p. 330, til tl»c l?Jl. 3 111 R, dial w-ere 
obtaiDcd and vi'-i'liieil in T-liia 
form, the Noiti. acUooiis 
(with aiiffix -an) [l94 IT-] 

^tLiii- logkjilly preferable, 

p. 333, Ex. 2, Irom btlow : imja, ioc 
engija 

\t. ^53, Ejl 5. ai\in-^d}\iin, fyi 

449. hiseri. loT^ between aa — aa 

p. i'iS, ]■«- 'J- J^J^'j^J^J'^i'tfl' T re- 
nit:iiibefc-d (tliun^lii). 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BONTOC IGOROT 5^9 



Syo THE LANGUAGE OF THE BO^fTOC IGOROT 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOHTOC IGOBOT 391 



S5i THE LAKGUAGE OP THE BQNTOC IGOROT 



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GRAOUAn UBRARY 



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