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Full text of "Greek Grammar for Colleges"

GREEK GRAMMAR 
FOR COLLEGES 



HERBERT WEIR SMYTH 



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A GREEK GRAMMAR 



FOR COLLEGES 



BY 

HERBERT WEIR SMYTH 

Ph.D., University of Gottingen 

eliot professor of greek literature in harvard 
university 



3>»it 



AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO 

BOSTON ATLANTA 



OOPTBIGHT, 1920, BY 

HERBERT WEIE SMTTH 

Ali. kightb keberved 

bmtth. gbeek gw^mm^r foe 00llegb6 

W. P. I 



PREFACE 

The present book, apart from its greater extent and certain differ- 
ences of statement and arrangement, has, in general, the same plan 
as the author's Greek Qrammar for Schools and Colleges, It is a 
descriptive, not an historical, nor a comparative, grammar. Though 
it has adopted many of the assured results of Comparative Linguis- 
tics, especially in the field of Analogy, it has excluded much of the 
more complicated matter that belongs to a purely scientific treat- 
ment of the problems of Morphology. It has been my purpose to set 
forth the essential forms of Attic speech, and of the other dialects, 
as far as they appear in literature ; to devote greater attention to 
the Formation of Words and to the Particles than is usually given to 
these subjects except in much more extensive works ; and to supple- 
ment the statement of the principles of Syntax with information 
that will prove of service to the student as his knowledge widens 
and deepens. 

As to the extent of all amplification of the bare facts of Mor- 
phology and Syntax, probably no two makers of a book of this char- 
acter, necessarily restricted by considerations of space, will be of the 
same mind. I can only hope that I have attained such a measure of 
success as will commend itself to the judgment of those who are 
engaged in teaching Greek in our colleges and universities. I trust, 
however, that the extent of the enlarged work may lead no one to 
the opinion that I advocate the study of formal grammar as an end 
in itself ; though I would have every student come to know, and the 
sooner the better, that without an exact knowledge of the language 
there can be no thorough appreciation of the literature of Ancient 
Greece, or of any other land ancient or modern. 

In addition to the authorities mentioned on page 5, I have con- 
sulted with profit Delbrtick's SyntaMische Forschumgeny Gilder- 
sleeve's numerous and illuminating papers in the American Journal 
of Philology and in the Transactions of the American Philological 
Association, Schanz's Beitrdge zur Jiistorisch^n Syntax der griecJiischen 
SprachSy Riddell's Digest of Platonic Idioms^ La Uoche's Gramma- 
tische Studien in the Zeitschrift ftlr oesterreichische Gymnasien 
for 1904, Porman's Selections from Plata, Scliulze's Quaestiones 



vi PREFACE 

Epicae, Hale's Extended and Remote Deliberatives in Greek in the 
Transactions of the American Philological Association for 1893, 
Harry's two articles, TJie Omission of the Article with Substantives 
after ovtosj oSe, cKctvos in Prose in the Transactions for 1898, and Tlie 
Perfect Subjunctive^ Optative^ and Imperative in Greek in the Classi- 
cal Review for 1905, Headlam's Greek Prohibitions in the Classical 
Review for 1905, Marchant's papers on The Agent in the Attic Orators 
in the same journal for 1889, Miss Meissner's dissertation on yap 
(University of Chicago), Stahl's Kritisch-historische Syntax des 
griecJiischen Verbums, and Wright's Comparative Grammar of the 
Greek J^anguage. I have examined many school grammars of Greek 
in English, German, and French, among which I would particularize 
those of Hadley-Allen, Goodwin, Babbitt, Goodell, Sonnenschein, 
Kaegi, Koch, Croiset et Petitjean. I am much indebted also to 
Thompson's Greek Syntax. 

I would finally express my thanks for helpful criticism from Pro- 
fessor Allen R. Benner of Andover Academy, Professor Haven J). 
Brackett of Clark College, Professor Hermann Collitz of the Johns 
Hopkins University, Professor Archibald L. Hodges of the Wadleigh 
High School, Kew York, Dr, Maurice W. Mather, formerly Instnictor 
in Harvard University, Professor Hanns Oertel of Yale University, 
and Professor Erank E. Woodruff of Bowdoin College. Dr. J. W. 
H. Walden, formerly Instructor in Harvard, has lent me invaluable 
aid by placing at my service his knowledge and skill in the prepa- 
ration of the Indices. 

HEEBEKT WEIE SMYTH. 

Cambridge, 

Aug. 1,1918. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 

The Greek Language and its Dialects 1 

Advanced Works on Grammar and Dialects ,...,. 5 
Abbreviations 6 

PART I: LETTERS, SOUNDS, SYLLABLES, ACCENT 

The Alphabet 7 

Vowels and Diphthongs . . , . , . . » . . 8 

Breathings 9 

Consonants and their Divisions . 10 

Pronunciation 12 

Vowel Change . . . = 14 

Euphony of Vowels 18 

Hiatus 18 

Contraction 19 

Synizesis 21 

Crasis 22 

Elision 23 

Aph aeresis 24 

Euphony of Consonants . 24-33 

Pinal Consonants 33 

Movable Consonants 34 

Syllables, and their Quantity 34-36 

Accent : General Principles 37 

Accent as affected by Contraction, Crasis, Elision , ... 40 

Change of Accent in Declension, Inflection, and Composition . . 41 

Proclitics and Enclitics ^41, 42 

Marks of Punctuation . 43 

PART II: INFLECTION 

Parts of Speech, Stems, Roots 44 

Declension : 

Number, Gender, Cases 45, 46 

Rules for Accent of Nouns, Case Endings of -Nouns ... 47, 48 

Declension of Suhstantives 48-72 

First Declension (Stems in a) 48-52 

Second Declension (Stems in o) 53-56 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Third Declension (Consonant Stems) , 66-71 

Formation of Cases and Stems, Gender 58-60 

Labial Stems 60 

Dental Steins . . . . 61 

Liquid Stems . . . . . 62 

Stems in Sigma ' . . . .64 

Stems in os, 0}{f) 66 

Stems in t and u 67 

Stems in ev, av, ov 69 

Stems in 01 .70 

Cases in -^i(f) 71 

Irregular Declension 71 

Dkclension op Adjectives 73-86 

First and Second Declensions 73 

Third Declension 77 

Consonant and Vowel Declension Combined 79 

Irregular Declension 85 

Comparison of Adjectives . . . . . . . . .86 

Declension op Pkonodns . 90-98 

Personal i*ronouns 90 

Intensive Pronoun aiirds 92 

Reflexive Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns 93 

Reciprocal Pronoun, Definite Article, Demonstrative Prououus . . 94 

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 95 

&\\os, 5erm, etc., Relative Pronouns 96 

Correlative Pronouns 98 

Adveebs : Origin, Comparison, Correlative Adverbs .... 99-102 

NCMEBALS 102-106 

Verbs " 106-224 

Voices, Moods, Verbal Nouns, Tenses 107 

Number, Person, Tense-stems 108 

Principal Parts, Verb-stems 109 

fi Inflection, MI Inflection, Thematic Vowel 110 

Paradigms 112-142 

Vowel Verbs : Synopsis- and Conjugation of X6w .... 112 
Vowel Verbs Contracted : rZ/idw, Troie'oj, 577X6&J, etc. . . . 120 

Consonant Verbs 128 

/Ai- Verbs : t167jjj,i^ ierT}^L^ dldu^fit, OfiKvi/fii ..... 134 

Accent of Verbs 143 

Augment 145 

Reduplication 147 

Tense-suffixes, Thematic Vowel 150 

Mood-suffixes ' . . . .151 

Personal Endings 162 

Formation of Tense-systems ... .... 157-182 

Changes in the Verb-stem . . . . , . . .157 



CONTENTS is 



PAGT! 



Present and Imperfect 163-170 

rirst Class (Simple Class) .163 

Second Class (Tau Class) 164 

Third Class (Iota Class) ]65 

Tourth Class (Nu Class) .167 

Fifth Class (<r/c Class) , . , 168 

Sixth Class (Mixed Class) 169 

Future, Active and Middle 170 

First Aorist, Active and Middle . .172 

Second Aorist, Active and Middle 174 

First Perfect and Pluperfect, Active 176 

Second Perfect and Pluperfect, Active 177 

Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect, Middle 178 

First Passive (First Aorist and First Future) 180 

Second Passive (Second Aorist and Second Future) . . . .181 

Periphrastic Forms 182 

First Conjugation or Verbs in ri , . 183-202 

Vowel Verbs 184 

Liquid Verbs, Stop Verbs 185,186 

Inflection of Q- Verbs 188-202 

Present and Imperfect, Active and Middle 188 

Contract Verbs . .190 

Future Active and Middle, Future Perfect 193 

Future Passive 194 

First Aorist, Active and Middle 194 

First and Second Aorist Passive . , ■ . . . .195 

Second Aorist, Active and Middle 196 

First and Second Perfect and Pluperfect, Active . . . .198 

Perfect and Pluperfect, Middle 201 

Second Conjugation or Verbs in MI 202-218 

Present System : First or Simple Class . . . . . . . 203 

Fourth Class 204 

Inflection of Ml-Verbs 205-210' 

Present and Imperfect 206 

Futures, First Aorist, Second Aorist 208 

First and Second Perfect and Pluperfect, Active, Perfect Middle . 210 

Irregular Ml-Verbs . . 210-218 

eifxL^ elfJLi, "t?/ai, ^vP-'- • ... . . . . . 210-215 

Tj/xat, Kddfjfiai, KcT/xai .......... 216 

^fii, XP^, oUa 217 

Peculiarities in the Use of Voice-forms . . - . . . , 218-222 
Future Middle with Active Meaning . . . ... . 219 

Middle Deponents, Passive Deponents 220 

Deponents with Passive Meaning 221 

Active Verbs with Aorist Passive in a Middle Sense . . . . 222 
Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Senses 222 



X CONTENTS 

PAKT III: FORMATION OF WORDS 

PAGB 

Primary and Secondary Stems 225 

Primitive and Denominative Words 226 

Suffixes / . .226 

Changes in Stems . 228 

Formation of Substantives 229 

Fonnation of Adjectives 236 

List of Noun SufEixes 238-244 

Denominative Verbs 245 

First Part of a Compound . . . 247-260 

Last Part of a Compound 250-251 

Accent of Compounds, Meaning of Compounds 252 

PAKT IV: SYNTAX 
Sentences, Subject, Predicate . , 255 

SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 

Subject a Substantive or an Equivalent ....... 256 

Predicate Nouns, Attributive Adjective 256 

Appositive, Copula, Object 257 

Expansion of Subject and Predicate . 258 

The Concords 258 

The Subject 259-261 

Its Omission 259 

"Impersonal Verbs, Subject of the Infinitive 260 

Case of the Subject : the Nominative 261 

The Predicate 261-265 

Omission of the Verb . . ■ 261 

Concord of Subject and Predicate 262 

With One Subject 263 

With Two or More Subjects 264 

Concord of Predicate Substantives 265 

Apposition 266 

Peculiarities in the Use of Number,. Gender, Person , . . , 269-272 

Adjectives 272-283 

Attributive Adjectives : their Agreement 2Y2 

Predicate Adjectives : their Agreement 275 

Attraction of Predicate Nouns 278 

Comparison of Adjectives (and Adverbs) . . . ^ . . . 278 

Adverbs ' ... 283 

The Article 284^298 

6, 7}, t6 in Homer , 284 

o, 7), t6 as a Relative and Demonstrative 285 

o, 7], rb as the Article 286 

Position of the Article 293 

Pronouns , 298-311 



CONTENTS xi 

PACK 

Personal Pronouns 298 

Possessive Pronouns 299 

The Pronoun avro^ 302 

Reflexive Pronouns 304 

Demonstrative Pronouns 307 

Interrogative Pronouns * 309 

Indefinite Pronouns 310 

fiXXos, ^epos, dWi^Xoiv . . . . , , , . . .311 

TITS OASES 

Vocative * 312 

Genitive , 313-337 

Genitive Proper with Kouns . 313 

Genitive of Possession 314 

Genitive of the Divided Whole (Partitive) 315 

Genitive of Quality , . . .317 

Genitive of Explanation 317 

Genitive of Material, Measure 318 

Genitive, Subjective and Objective 3] 8 

Genitive of Value 319 

Genitive Proper with Verbs 320 

Partitive Genitive 320 

Genitive of Price and Value 325 

Genitive of Crime and Accountability 325 

Genitive of Connection 326 

Genitive with Compound Verbs 327 

Genitive Proper : I'ree Uses 328 

Ablatival Genitive vrith Verbs 328 

Genitive of Separation 328 

Genitive of Distinction, Comparison 330 

Genitive of Cause 330 

Genitive of Source 331 

Genitive with Adjectives ■ . . 332 

Genitive with Adyerbs 335 

Genitive of Time and Place 336 

Dative 337-353 

Dative Proper 338 

Dative Dependent on a Single Word 338 

Direct Complement 338 

Indirect Complement 340 

Direct or Indirect Complement . / 340 

Dative as a Modifier of the Sentence 341 

Dative of Interest 341 

Dative of Kelation 344 

Dative with Adjectives, Adverbs, Substantives 345 

Instrumental Dative * . . , 346 



xii CONTENTS 

I'AGP- 

In strum ental Dative Proper 346 

Comitative Dative . 349 

With Adjectives, Adverbs, Substantives 351 

Locative Dative 351 

Dative with Compound Verbs 353 

Accusative ... * 353-365 

Accusative of Internal Object (Object Effected) 356 

Cognate Accusative • . . . . 355 

Accusative of Result 357 

Accusative of Extent 357 

Terminal Accusative , . \ . 358 

Accusative of External Object (Object Affected) 358 

Free Uses of the Accusative 360 

Accusative of Respect 360 

Adverbial Accusative 361 

Two Accusatives v^ith One Verb 362 

Two Verbs with a Common Object 364 

77/^ PREPOSITIONS 

Origin and Development 365 

Variation 369 

Repetition and Omission 369 

( )rdinary Uses , . . 370 

List of Prepositions 371-388 

Improper Prepositions . 388 

THE VERB 

The Voices 389-398 

Active Voice 389 

Middle Voice . . . ' 390 

Passive Voice . . . . . 394 

The Moons 398-412 

ThePaTticle.fi J/ 398 

The Moods in Simple Sentences 400 

Indicative without &v . . , . . . . ... 400 

Indicative with 6.v . . 402 

Subjunctive without dv 403 

Subjunctive with &v 406 

Optative without &v . . . . . . - . . . 406 

Optative with fij' .......... . 407 

Imperative - ... 409 

Infinitive and Participle with fi J' 411 

The Tenses . . . - .412-437 

Kind of Time, Stage of Action 413 

Tenses outside of the Indicative 415 

Tenses of the Indicative 421 



CONTENTS xiii 

PA OR 

Present . , , , . . .421 

Imperfect 428 

Future . . 427 

Aorist . ' .... 429 

Perfect 434 

Pluperfect 435 

Future Perfect 43t> 

Periphrastic Tenses 43(5 

The Infinitive 437-404 

Subject and Predicate Noun with Infinitive 438 

Personal and Impersonal Construction 440 

Infinitive without the Article , . ■ . 441 

As Subject, Predicate, and Appositive . , . ' . . , .441 

Not in Indirect Discourse ' . 442 

After Verbs of will or desire 443 

After Other Verbs . 446 

After Adjectives, Adverbs, and Substantives 445 

Infinitive of Purpose and Result . . . . . . , 446 

Absolute Infinitive 447 

Infinitive in Commands, Wishes, and Exclamations . < . 4*48 

In Indirect Discourse 449 

Infinitive with the Article 460 

The Pakticiple ...... ..... 454-479 

Attributive Participle 455 

Circumstantial Participle 466 

Genitive Absolute . 469 

Accusative Absolute ■ . 461 

Adverbs used in Connection with Circumstantial Participles . 462 

Supplementary Participle ... 465 

Not in Indirect Discourse 466 

In Indirect Discourse 470 

Omission of ^jy 472 

ojs with a Participle in Indirect Discourse . . . ... . 473 

Verbs taking either the Participle or the Infinitive 474 

Remarks on Some Uses of Participles 477 

Verbal Adjectives in -Wos 479-480 

Personal and Impersonal Constructions 480 

Sumjmaky op the Forms op Simple Senten^ces 481 

SYNTAX OF THE COMPOUND SENTENCE 

Asyndeton ' 484 

Coordination in Place of Subordination — Parataxis 485 

SYNTAX OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 

General View 487 

Anticipation (or Prolepsis) .... 488 



xiv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

AssimilatioT) of Moods 489 

Tliree Main Classes of Subordinate Clauses 492 

PuEPOSE Clauses (Final Clauses) . . . , . . . 493-496 

Equivalents of a Final Clause , . . 496 

Object Clauses 496-503 

Connection of Final with Object Clauses 497 

Object Clauses with Verbs of Efiort 497 

Object Clauses with Verbs of Caution . . . . . . . 500 

Object Clauses with Verbs of Fearing , 500 

Causal Clauses 503-505 

el instead of Uri after Verbs of Emotion 506 

Result Clauses (Consecutive Clauses) . , . . . 506-511 

&(Tr€ with ibe Infinitive 607 

&(Tr€ with a Finite Verb 610 

Peoviso Clauses with i<p' v, i<f> (^re 512 

Conditional Clauses 612-537 

Classification 513 

Table of Conditional Forms 616 

Present and Past Conditions 516 

Simple Present and Past Conditions 516 

Present and Past Unreal Conditions . , . . . . .518 

Unreal Conditions — Apodosis without d*' 520 

Future Conditions . 522 

More Vivid Future Conditions . . . . . . . . 623 

Emotional Future Conditions 525 

Less Vivid Future Conditions 626 

General Conditions > . 627 

Present General Conditions .528 

Past General Conditions 628 

Indicative Form of General Conditions 529 

Different Forms of Conditional Sentences in the Same Sentence . . 629 

Variations from the Ordinary Forms and Meanings of Conditional Sentences 630 

Modifications of the Protasis 530 

Modifications of the Apodosis 531 

Protasis and Apodosis Combined . 532 

Less Usual Combinations of Complete Prolasis and Apodosis . . . 634 

el with the Optative, Apodosis a Primary Tense of the Indicative, etc. . 635 

Two or More Protases or Apodoses in One Sentence 536 

Concessive Clauses 537-539 

Temporal Clauses ' . ... 639-665 

Indicative Temporal Clauses referring to Present or Past Time . , ,641 

Temporal Clauses referring to the Future . 643 

Temporal Clauses in Generic Sentences 545 

Temporal Clauses denoting Purpose . . . . . . . . 547 



CONTENTS 



XV 



Summary of the Constructions of ^ojs so long as and until 
General Rule for wplv before^ until 

TTplv with the Indicative - . 

irplv with the Subjunctive 

irpiv with the Optative . 

irpiv with tlie Infinitive . 

irpSrepov .■^, irpbadev ■^, irplv ^^ irdpos 

CoMPAUATivB Clauses 

Similes and Comparisons 

Relative Clauses 

Relative Pronouns 

Concord of Relative Pronouns 

The Antecedent of Relative Clauses 

Definite and Indefinite Antecedent 

Omission of the Antecedent . 

Relative not Repeated . 

Attraction of Relative Pronouns 

Case of the Relative with Omitted Antecedent 

Inverse Attraction of Relative Pronouns 

Incorporation of the Antecedent . 
Other Peculiarities of Relative Clauses 
Use of the Moods in Relative Clauses 
Classes of Relative Clauses . 

Ordinary Relative Clauses 

Relative Clauses of Purpose 

Relative Clauses of Cause 

Relative Clauses of Result 

Conditional Relative Clauses 
Less Usual Forms . 
Dependent Substantive Clauses 
Dependent Statements with on or us 
Indirect Discourse 

General Principles . 

Simple Sentences in Indirect Discourse 

Complex Sentences in Indirect Discourse 

Implied Indirect Discourse . 

Remarks on the Constructions of Indirect Discourse 



PAnK 

548 
549 
651 
552 
553 
553 
555 

555-560 
. 559 

660-580 
561 
562 
663 
663 
664 
566 
567 
568 
569 
670 
571 
572 
573 
573 
674 
574 
575 
576 
580 

580-696 
581 
584 
585 
687 
587 
589 
590 



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 

Direct Questions - 697 

Indirect Questions 601 

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES 

Direct Exclamatory Sentences . . . . , . . . . 606 

Indirect Exclamatory Sentences . . . . . . . . . 607 



xvi CONTENTS 

PAGK 

NEGATIVE SENTENCES 

Difference between ou and M^ 608. 

Position of oi> and mi^ ■ • • ■ ... . . . . . 609 

oiJ Adherescent ............ 610 

oiJ after €i (Mi/) 611 

oi> and yuij with Indicative and Optative 612 

fxT^ with Subjunctive and Imperative .614 

Negatives of Indirect Discourse . . , . . . . . .615 

oif and jj.-^ -with the Infinitive . . 615-618 

Not in Indirect Discourse . 615 

In Indirect Discourse .617 

01/ and fi-^i with the Participle 618 

o^ and fjLifi with Substantives and Adject) ve.s used Substantively . . . 619 

oideh, /jLTjdeb 620 

Apparent Exchange of od and /a^ 620 

fjLr} and fx^ ov with the Infinitive depending on Verbs of Negative Meaning . 622 
fjLT} 0-6 with the Infinitive depending on Negatived Verbs .... 624- 
fxT) ov with the Participle depending on Negatived Verbs .... 625 

fxit and yu-fj ov with the Subjunctive and Indicative 620 

Redundant ov witli trX-^v. etc 626 

oi> ;ui7 ............. . 620 

Negatives with &ffTe and the Infinitive 627 

Accumulation of Negatives 628 

Some Negative Phrases 629 

PARTICLES 

General View 631 

List of Particles . 63*2-671 

FIGURES 

List of Grammatical and Rhetorical Figures ..... 671-68.3 



Appendix : List of Verbs 684-722 

English Index . . . . , . . : . . . 723-756 
Greeklndex . .......... 757-784 



INTRODUCTION 



THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND ITS DIALECTS 



A. Greek, the language of the inhabitants of Greece, has been 
constantly spoken from the time of Homer to the present day. The 
inhabitants of ancient Greece and other Greeks dwelling in the 
islands and on the coasts of the Mediterranean called themselves (as 
do the modern Greeks) by the name Hellenes ("EAAi7i/es), their country 
HeUas CEXXas), and their language the Hellenic (rf 'EXX-^nK-^ yXJiTra). 
We call them Greeks from the Latin Graeci^ the name given them by 
the Romans, who applied to the entire people a name properly re- 
stricted to the VpoLOL, the first Hellenes of whom the Romans had 
knowledge. 

N. 1, --- Grraeci (older Graici) contains a Latin suffis -icus ; and the n^ma 
TpaiKoi^ which occurs first in Aristotle, is borrowed from Latin. The Tlomati 
designation is derived either from the Tpatot, a Boeotian tribe that took part in 
the colonization of Cyme in Italy, or from the Tpatoi, a larger tribe of the same 
stock that lived in Epims. . 

N. 2. — No collective name for * all Greece ' appears in Homer, to whom the 
Hellenes are the inhabitants of Hellas, a district forming part of the kingdom of 
Peleiis (B 683) and situated in the S.E. of the country later called Thessaly, 
'EXXas for ' all Greece ' occurs first in Hesiod. The Greeks in general are callei 
by Homer 'Axatof, 'Apyeioiy AavaoL 

B. Greek is related to the languages of the Indians (Sanskrit), Per- 
sians (Zend), Armenians, Albanians, Slavonians, Lithuanians, RomanS; 
Celts, and Germans. These various languages are all of the same 
stock, and together constitute the Indo-European family of languages. 
An important relation of Greek to English, which is, a branch of the 
Germanic tongue, is illustrated by Grimm's law of the ^ permutation 
of consonants ' : 

e = d\ x = g 

6^pd j XV^ 
door 



n=f 


T = th 


K = h 


§=p 


d = t 


y=.cik) 


4>=^'b 


waT-iip 
father 


Tpeh 
three 


KapSla 
heart 


thorp 


S6o 
two 


dyp6s 
acre 


<pipu 
bear. 



The above English words are said to be cognate with the Greek 
words. Derived words, such as geography, theatre, are l^orrowed. 
directly or indirectly, from the Greek (-yewypat^ta, OedTpov), 



GKEEK GRAM. 



2 INTRODUCTION' 

C. At the earliest known period of its history the Greek language 
was divided into dialects. Corresponding to the chief divisions of 
the Greeks into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians (a division unknown 
to Homer), three groups of dialects are commonly distinguished; 
Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, of which Attic is a sister dialect. Aeolic and 
Doric are more nearly related to each other than is either to Ionic. 

Aeolic: spoken in Aeolis, Lesbos, and kindred with, the dialect 
of Thessaly (except Phthiotis) and of Eoeotia (though Boeotian has 
many Doric ingredients). In this book ^Aeolic' means Lesbian 
Aeolic, 

N. 1, — Aeolic retains primitive d (30) ; changes r before i to a (115) ; has 
recessive accent (162 D.), and many other peculiarities. 

Doric : spoken in Peloponnesus (except Arcadia and Elis), in several 
of the islands of the Aegean (Crete, Melos, Th.era, Bhodes, etc.), in 
parts of Sicily and in Southern Italy. 

N. 2. — Doric retains primitive d (30), keeps r before * (115 D.). Almost all 
Doric dialects have -fies for -/itv (462 D.), the infinitive in -fiev for -vai (469 D.), 
the future in -fw from verbs in -fw (516 D.), the future in -trajy -troOfiac (540 a). 

N. 3. — The sab-dialects of Lacouia, Crete, and Southern Italy, and of their 
several colonies, are often called Severer (or Old) Doric ; the others are called 
Milder (or New) Doric. Severer Doric has tj and a? where Milder Doric has e* 
and ov (69 D. 4, 5 ; 280 D.). There are also differences in verbal forms (654). 

Ionic : spoken in Ionia, in most of the islands of the Aegean, in a 
few towns of Sicily, etc. 

N. 4. — Ionic changes primitive d to tj (30) ; changes t before t to a (115) ; 
has lost digamma, which is still found in Aeolic and Doric ; often refuses to con- 
tract vowels ; keeps a mute smooth before the rough breathing (124 D.) ; has k 
for IT in pronominal forms (132 D.). 

N. 5. — The following dialects do not fall under the above divisions : Arcadian 
(and the kindred Cyprian, which are often classed with Aeolic), Elean, and the 
dialects of N.W. Greece (Locris, Phocis, Aetolia, Acamania, Epinis, etc.). 
N.W. Greek resembles Doric, 

N. 6. — The dialects that retain a (30) are called A dialects (Aeolic, Doric, 
etc.); Ionic and Attic are the only H dialects. The Eastern dialects (Aeolic, 
Ionic) change n to at (115). 

IS- 7, — The local dialects, with the exception of Tzaconian (a Laconian 
idiom), died out gradually and ceased to exist by 300 a.d. 

D. The chief dialects that occur in literature are as follo^vs (almost 
all poetry is composed in a mixture of dialects) : 

Aeolic: in the Lesbian lyric poets Alcaeus and Sappho (600 b.c). Numer- 
ous Aeolisms appear in epic poetry, and some in tragedy. Theocritus' idylls 
28-30 are in Aeolic, 

Doric: in many lyric poets, notably in Pindar (born 522 b.c.} ; in the bucolic 
(pastoral) poetry of Theocritus (about 310-about 245 b.c). Both of these poets 



INTRODUCTION 3 

adopt soiiie epic and Aeolic forms. The choral parts of Attic tragedy also admit 
some Doric forms. There is no Doric, as there is no Aeolic, literary prose. 

Ionic: (1) Old Ionic or Epic^ the chief ingredient of the dialect of Homer 
and of Hesiod (before 700 b.c). Almost all subsequent poetry admits epic 
words and forms. (2) New Ionic (500~i00), the dialect of Herodotus (484-425) 
and of the medical writer Hippocrates (born 460), In the period between Old 
and New Ionic : Archilochus, tlie lyric poet (about 700-650 b.c). 

Attic : (kindred to Ionic) was used by the great writers of Athens in the fifth 
and fourth centuries b.c. , the period of her political and literary supremacy. In 
it are composed the works of the tragic poets Aeschylus (525-456), Sophocles 
(496-406), Euripides (about 480-406), the comic poet Aristophanes (about 450- 
385), the historians Thucydides (died before 396) and Xenophon (about 4?A~ 
about 355), the orators Lysias (born about 450), Isocrates (436-338), Aeschines 
(389-314), Demosthenes (383-322), and tlie philosopher Plato (427-347). 

E. The Attic dialect was distinguished by its refinement, precision, 
and beauty; it occupied an intermediate position between tlie soft 
Ionic and the rough Doric, and avoided the pronounced extremes of 
other dialects. By reason of its cultivation at the hands of the 
greatest writers from 500 b.c. to 300 B.C., it became the standard 
literary dialect; though Old Ionic was still occasionally employed 
in later epic, and Boric in pastoral poetry. 

N. 1, — The dialect of the tragic poets and Thucydides is often called Old Attic 
in contrast to New Atiic, that used by most other Attic writers. Plato stands 
on the border-line. The dialect of tragedy contains some Homeric, Doric, and 
Aeolic forms ; these are more frequent in the choral than in the dialogue parts. 
The choral parts take over forms used in the Aeolic-Doric lyric ; the dialogue 
parts show the influence of the iambic poetry of the lonians. But the tendency 
of Attic speech in literature was to free itself from the influence of the dialect 
used by the tribe originating any literary type ; and by the fourth century pure 
Attic was generally used throughout. The normal language of the people 
("Standard Attic") is best seen in Aristophanes and the orators. The native 
Attic speech as it appears in inscriptions shows no local differences ; the speech 
of Attica was practically uniform. Only the lowest classes, among which were 
many foreigners, used forms that do not follow the ordinary phonetic laws. The 
language of tbe religious cults is sometimes archaic in character. 

N. 2. — Old Attic writers use aa for rr (78), pa- for pp (79), ^6y for 0-6^ vnth, 
is for els into^ tj for ei (\dT;for Xdct, thou loosest), -ijs in the plural of substantives 
ii\-€6s (^ao-iX-^s, 277), and occasionally -arat and -aro in the third plural of the 
perfect and pluperfect (465 f). 

With the Macedonian conquest Athens ceased to produce great 
writers, but Attic culture and the Attic dialect were diffused far and 
wide. With this extension of its range, Attic lost its purity ; which 
had indeed begun to decline in Aristotle (384-322 b.c). 

F. Koin^ or Common dialect (17 K'uvyj 8idk€KTo<s). The Koiiie took its 
rise in the Alexandrian period, so called from the preeminence of 



4 INTRODUCTION 

Alexandria in Egypt as a centre of learning until the Roman con- 
quest of the East ; and lasted to the end of the ancient world (sixth 
century a.d.). It was the language used by persons speaking Greek 
from Gaul to Syria, and was marked by numerous varieties. In its 
spoken form the Koine consisted of the spoken form of Attic inter- 
mingled with a considerable number of Ionic words and some loans 
from other dialects, but with Attic orthography. The literary form, 
a compromise between Attic literary usage and the spoken language, 
was an artificial and almost stationary idiom from which the living 
speech drew farther and farther apart. 

In the Koinfe are composed the writings of the historians Polybius (about 
205-about 120 B.C.), Diodorus (under Augustus), Plutarch (about 46-about 
120 A.D.), Arrian (about 95-175 a.d.), Cassius Die (about 150-about 235 a.d.), 
the rhetoricians Dionysius of Halicarnassus (under Augustus), Lucian (about 
120-about 180 a.d.), and the geographer Strabo (about 64 b.c.-19 a.d.). Jose- 
phus, the Jewish historian (37 A.D.-ahout 100), also used the Koinfe. 

N. 1. — The name Atticist is given to those reactionary writers in the Koinfe 
dialect {e.g. Lucian) who aimed at reproducing the purity of the earlier Attic. 
The Atticists flourished chiefly in the second century a.d. 

N. 2, — Some writers distinguish, as a form of the Koinfe, the Hellenistic, a 
name restricted by them to the language of the New Testament and of the 
Septuagint (the partly literal, partly tolerably free, Greek translation of the Old 
Testament made by Grecized Jews at Alexandria and begun under Ptolemy 
Philadelphns 285-247 b.c). The word Sellenistie is derived from 'EXKtjvutti^s 
(from eWrjvl^oj speak Greek), a term applied to persons not of Greek birth 
(especially Jews), who had learned Greek. The New Testament is composed in 
the popular language of the time, which in that work is more or less influenced 
by classical models. No accurate distinction can be drawn between the Koinfe 
and Hellenistic. 

G. Modern Greek appears in literature certainly as early as the 
eleventh century, when the literary language, which was still em- 
ployed by scholars and churchmen, was no longer understood by the 
common people. During the middle ages and until about the time of 
the Greek Revolution (1821-1831), the language was called Romaic 
(^Vui^aUrj), from the fact that the people claimed the name of 
Romans (VoifjuitoL), since the capital of the Koman Empire had been 
transferred to Constantinople. The natural language of the modern 
Greeks is the outcome of a continual development of the Koine in its 
spoken forra. At the present day tlie dialect of a Greek peasant is 
still organically the same as that of the age of Demosthenes; while 
the written language, and to a less extent the spoken language o^ 
cultivated A.thenians and of those who have been influenced by the 
University at Athens, have been largely assimilated to the ancient 
idiom. Modern Greek, while retaining in general the orthography 
of the classical period, is very different in respect of pronunciation. 



INTRODUCtlOK 5 

Advanced works on grammar and dialects 

Ahrens : De Graecfie linguae dialectis (I. Aeolic 1839, II. Doric 1843). Gott- 
ingen. Still serviceable for Doric. 

Blass : Pronunciation of Ancient Greek. Translated from the third German 
edition by Purton. Cambridge, Eng., 1890. 

BoiSACQ: Les Dialectes doriens. Paris-Li^ge, 1891. 

Beugmann : Griecliische Grammatik. 4te Aufl, Mlinchen, 1913. Purely com- 
parative. 

Chandler: Greek Accentuation. 2d ed. Oxford, 1881. 

GiLDEESLEEVE AND MiLLER : Syntax of Classical Greek from Homer to Demos- 
thenes. Part i. New York, 1900. Part ii, 1911. 

Goodwin : Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. Rewritten and 
enlarged, Boston, 1890. 

Henhy : Precis de Grammaire compar^e du Grec et du Latin. 5th ed. Paris, 
1894, Translation (from the 2d ed.) by Elliott: A Short Comparative 
Grammar of Greek and Latin. London, 1890. 

HiRT : Handbuch der Griechischen Laut- mid Formenlehre. Heidelberg, 1902. 
Comparative. 

EoFPMANN : Die griechischen Dialekte. Vol. i. Der siid-achaische Dialekt (Ar- 
cadian, Cyprian), Gottingen, 1891. Vol. ii, Der nord-achaische Dialekt 
(Thessalian, Aeolic, Boeotian), 1893. Vol. iii. Der ionische Dialekt (Quellen 
und Lautlehre), 1898. 

Krugeh : Griechische Sprachlehre. Part i, 6te Aufl., 1875. Fart ii, 4te Aufl., 
1862. Leipzig. Valuable for examples of syntax. 

KuHNER : Ausftihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. 3te Aufl. Part i 
by Blass. Part ii (Syntax) by Gerth. Hannover, 1890-1904. The only 
modern complete Greek Grammar. The part by Blass contains good colletv 
tions, but is insufficient on the side of comparative grammar. 

Meister : Die griechischen Dialekte. Vol. i. Asiatisch-aolisch, Bootisch, Thes- 
salisch, Gottingen, 1882. Vol. ii. Eleisch, Arkadisch, Kyprisch, 1889. 

Meisteehans : Grapimatik der attiscben Inschriften. 3te Aufl, Berlin, 1900. 

Meyer : Griechische Grammatik. 3te Aufl. Leipzig, 1896. Comparative, with 
due attention to inscriptional forms. Deals only with sounds and forms, 

Monro : A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. 2d ed. Oxford, 1891. Valuable, 
especially for its treatment of syntax. 

RiEMANK AND GoELzER : Grammaire compar^e du Grec et du Latin. Vol. i, 
Phonetique et Etude des Formes, Paris, 1901. Vol. ii. Syntaxe, 1897, 

Smyth : The Sounds and Inflections of the Greek Dialects, Ionic, Oxford, 1894, 

Van Leeuwen : Enchiridium dictionis epicae. Lugd! Bat. , 1892-94. Contains 
a full discussion of forms, and aims at reconstructing the primitive text of 
Homer. i 

Veitch : Greek Verbs Irregular and Defective. New ed. Oxford, 1887. 



INTIIODUCTION 



ABBREVIATION'S 



A. 


= Aeschylus, 


Ag. 


= AgaTiiemiuHi. 


Ch. 


= Cboepbori. 


Eum. 


= Eiiiiienides. 


Pers. 


= Persae. 


Pr. 


= Prometheus. 


Sept. 


= Septem. 


Snpp. 


= Supplices. 


Aes. 


= Aeschines. 


And. 


= Andocides. 


Ant. 


= Antiphon. 


Antipli 


. = Aiitiplianes. 


Ar. 


= Aristophanes, 


Acli. 


= Achariienses. 


Av. 


= Avee. 


Eccl. 


= Ecclesiazusae. 


Eq. 


= Equite3. 


Lys. 


= Lysistrata. 


Nub. 


= Nubes. 


P. 


= Pax. 


Pint. 


= Plutus. 


Ptaii. 


= Pvanae. 


Thesin 


.= ThesmophoriazuEae 


Vesp. 


= Vespae. 


C.LA. 


= Corpus in- 




scriptionuni 




Atticaniin. 


Com. Fr.= Comic Frag- 




ments. 


D. 


= Demosthenes. 


Diog. 


= Diogenes 


Laert 


Laertius. 


E. 


= Euripides. 


Ale. 


= Alcestis. 


Ana. 


= Andromacbe. 


Bacch. 


= Racchae. 


Cycl. 


= Cyclops. 


El. 


= Electra. 


Hec, 


= Hecuba. 


Hel. 


= Helena. 


Heracl 


= Heraclidae. 



H. F. 


= Hercules ftirens. 


Lys. 


= Lysis. 


Hipp. 


= llippolytus. 


yim. 


~ Meno. 


I. A. 


= 1 phigenia Auli- 


Menex.= Menexenus. 




d en sis. 


Par. 


= Parmenides. 


l.T. 


= I])bigeDiaTaunca. 


Ph. 


= Phaedo. 


Med. 


= Medea. 


Phae. 


= Phaedrua 


Or. 


= Orestes. 


Phil. 


= Philebus. 


Pboen. 


= Pboenissae. 


Pol. 


= Politicus. 


Supp. 


= Supplices. 


Pr. 


= Protagoras. 


'J^ro. 


= Troades. ' 


R. 


= Eespublica. 


Hdt. 


= Herodotus. 


Soph. 


= Sophletes. 


Horn. 


= Homer. 


S. 
Th. 


= Symposium. 
= ^J'heaetetus. 


Tbe books of the Iliad are 


Theag 


.^Theages. 


designated by Greek capi- 


Tim. 


= Timaeus. 


tals (A, B, r, etc.) ; those 
of the Odyssey by Greek 


s. 

a; 


= Sophocles. 

= Ajax. 
= Antigone. 


small letters (a, |3, y, etc.). 


A.I. 
Ant. 


I. 


= Isocrates, 


El. 


= Electra. 


I.G.A, 


= Inscriptiones 


0. C. 


= Oedipus Coloneus. 




Graecae an- 


0. T. 


= Oedipus Tyrannus. 






Ph. 


= Pbiloctetes. 




tiquiasimae. 


Tr. 


~ 'J'rachiniae. 


Is. 


= Isaeus. 


Stob. = 


= Stobaeus, 


Lye. 


= Lycurgus. 


Flor. 


= Florilegium. 


L. 


= Lysias. 


T. -- 


= Thucydides. 


Men. 


= Menander. 


X. 


= Xenophon. 


Sent. 


= Sententiae. 


A. 


= Anabasis. 


Philem 


=: Philemon. 


Ap. 


= A pologia. 


Find. 


= Pindar. 


Ages. 


= Agesilaus. 


P. > 


= Plato. 


C. 


= Cyropaedia. 






Eq. 


= de re eqaestri. 


A. 


= A])oIog1a. 


n. 


= Hellenica. 


Ale, 


= Alcibiades. 


Hi. 


= Hiero. 


Charm 


= Oharmjdes. 


Hipp. 


= Hipparcblcus. 


Or. 


= Crito. 


M. 


= Memorabilia. 


Crat. 


= Cratylus, 


0. 


= Oeconomicus. 


Critl. 


= Critias. 


E. A. 


= Pespublica Athenl- 


Ea. 


= Euthydemus. 




ensis. 


Euth. 


= Euthypbro. * 


E. L. 


= Eespublica Lace- 


G. 


= Gorgias. 




daemonia. 


Hipp. M. = Hippias Major. 


S. 


= Symposium. 


Each. 


= Laches. 


Vect. 


= de vectigalibus. 


L. 


= Legres. 


Ten. 


= de venatione. 



The dramatists are cited by Dindorf' s lines. But Tragic fragnnents (Fr. or 
Frag.) are cited by Nauck's numbers, Comic fragments (except Menander's 
Sententiae) by Kock's volumes and pages. The Orators are ciled by the numbers 
of the speeches and the sections in the Teubner editions. 

Other abbreviations : — k.t.X. = Kal rh \onrd {et cetera); scU. = scilicet; i.e. = 
id est; ib. = ibidem; e.g. = exempli gratia; I.E. = Indo-European ; )(= as 
contrasted with. 



PAET I 



LETTERS, SOUNDS, SYLLABLES, ACCENT 



THE ALPHABET 



1. Tlie Greek alphabet has tAventy-four letters. 



Form 


Name 




Equivalents 


Sound 












as in 


A 


a 


3X<jia 


alpha 


a 


d: aha; a; father 


B 


P 


fi^ra 


beta 


b 


beg 


r 


7 


yafifia 


gamma 


y 


go 


A 


B 


Se'Ara 


delta 


d 


dig 


E 


£ 


tt, t {t il^lXov) 


epsilon 


e 


met 


Z 


c 


^ijra 


meta 


% 


daze 


H 


V 


7}Ta 


eta 


e 


Fr. fete 


® 


0, '? 


OtJto. 


tMta 


tk 


thin 


I 


t 


IwTa 


iota 


i e: 


meteor; i: police 


K 


K 


KaTTTra 


kappa 


c,k 


kin 


A 


\ 


XdfxfSha 


lambda 


I 


let 


M 


f^ 


flV 


mu 


m 


met 


N 


V 


vu 


nu 


n 


net 


S 


i 


H^f^ 


xi 


X 


lax 


o 





OVj 6 (o fUKpOv) 


omlcron 


6 


obey 


n 


TT 


ttCi (ttT) 


pi 


P 


pet 


p 


P 


pa) 


rho 


r 


run 


5 


0-, S 


criywa 


Sigma 


s 


such 


T 


T 


rav 


tau 


t 


tar 


Y 


V 


^ (v i/'tAoV) 


upsilon 


{u)y u'. 


Fr. tu; u: Fr. sur 


^ 


4- 


</,a(<jbr) 


phi 


ph 


graphic 


X 


X 


x^«^ (xO 


chi 


c/i 


Germ. Biachen 


^ 


V' 


i/^eT (i/^r) 


psi 


ps 


gypsum 


a 


(U 


w (w ^tya) 


omega 


p 


note 



a. Sigma (not capital) at the end of a -word is written s, elsewhere a. Thus, 
aeKT/jiSs earthqualce. 

b. The names in parentheses, irom which are derived those in current use, 
were given at a late period, some as late as the Middle Ages. Thus, epsilon 
means.' siTO/>?« e,' npsllon 'simple u,' to distinguish these letters from at, oi, 
which were sounded like e and v, 

7 



8 LETTERS, VOWELS, AND DIPHTHONGS [2 

C. Labda is a better attested ancient name than lambda. 

2. The Greek alphabet as given above originated in Ionia, and was adopted 
at Athens in 403 b.c. The letters from A to T are derived from Phoenician and 
have Semitic names. The signs T to n were invented by the Greeks. From the 
Greek alphabet are derived the alphabets of most European countries. The 
ancients used only the large letters, called majuscules (capitals as E, uncials as 
G); the small letters {minuscules), v^^hich were used as a literary hand in the 
ninth century, are cursive forms of the uncials. 

a. Before 403 b.c. iu the official Attic alphabet E stood for c, 77, spurious « 
(6), for 0, w, spurious ov (6), H for the rough breathing, XS for S, *S for ^. 
A was written for 7, and \ for X. Thus ; 

EAOX^ENTEIBOV EIKAITOIAEMOI ^Soiev rrj povXrj k^i t(2 S^/.a>. 

EPITEAEIONENAIAPOTOAPAYPIO cVtTT/'Setor etvat S.7r6 tov 6.pyvp(ov. 

3. In the older period there were tv/o other letters: (1) F: faC-y vau^ called 
digamma (i.e. double-gamma) from its shape. It stood after e and was pro- 
nounced like w. f was written in Boeotian as late as 200 b.c. (2) ?; Kbir-ira, 
koppa, which stood after tt. Another s, called san^ is found in the sign -3^, 
called samph te. san + pi. On these signs as numerals, see 348. 

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS 

_ 4. There are seyen vowels : a, e, 7}, i, o, v, o). Of these e and are 
always short, and take about half the time to pronounce as tj and (o, 
which are always long ; a, t, u are short in some syllables, long in 
others. In this Grammar, when a, t, v are not marked as long (a, I, 
v) they are understood to be short. All yowels with the circumflex 
(149) are long. On length by position, see 144. 

a. Vowels are said to be open or close according as the mouth is more open 

3 D. Vau was in use as a genuine sound at the time the Homeric poems were 
composed, though it is found in no Mss. of Homer. Many apparent irregularities 
of epic verse (such as hiatus, 47 D.) can be explained only by supposing that f 
was actually sounded. Examples of words containing f are : Aarv town, diya^ 
lord, avBdvoj please, etK<xj give way (cp. loeak), etfcoin twenty (cp. viginti), ^Ka- 
a-Tos each, cKibv willing^ eXirofiaL hope (cp. voluptas), MoiKa am like, 'eo, or, ? him, ^| 
six, €7ros word, elirov said, ip'yov, €p6aj work, ^vvv^l clothe, fr. f^tr-vvfxi (cp. vestis), 
€pi<jj will say (cp. verhum), ^o-irepos evening (cp. vesper)^ fov violet (cp. viola), 
eros year (cp, vetus), ^5ys siaeet (cp. stiavis), LdeTv (olSa) know (cp. videre, wit), 
U strejigth (cp. vis), ir4a willow (cp. vitis, vnthy), oJkos house (cp. vims), oJvos 
wine (cp. vinum), h his (123), 6%^^ carriage (cp. veho, wain). Van was lost 
first before o-sounds (opdw ^e.e, cp. be-iyar«). p occurred also in the middle of 
words : kK^pos glory, alpd alwn/ix, 6pts sheep (cp. ovts)^ K\ypis key (Dor. K'Kdis, cp. 
clavis), ^ivfos strajiger, Aifi to Zeus, KoKpts heautiful. Cp. 20, 31^ 37 D., 122^ 123, 



9] 



DIPHTHONGS, BREATHINGS 



or less open in pronouncing them, the tongue and lips assuming different posi- 
tions in the case of each. 

5. A diphthong (St<^^oyyos having two sounds) combines two vowels 
in one syllable. The second vowel is t or v. The diphthongs are : 
atj ct, OL, d,r), Wy av, evj ov, >^v, and vt. The t of the so-called improper 
diphthongs, a, rj, a), is written below the line and is called iota snh~ 
script. But with capital letters, i is written on the line {adscript)^ 
as THI OIAHI = rrj toBfj or 'OtS^ to the song. All diphthongs are long. 

a. In a, 17, ip the i ceased to be written about 100 b.c. The custom of 
writing t under the line is as late as about the eleventh century. 

6. «, ov are either genuine or spurious (apparent) diphthongs (26). Genuine 
€t, ov are a combination of e + t, o + y, as in Xci'ttw / leave (cp. \i\onra I have left, 
35 a), 7^v€t to a ram (49), dK^Xou^os follower (cp. x^XeuSos way). Spurious ei, 
ov arise from contraction (60) or compensatory lengthening (37). Thus, ^0£Xei 
he loved, from iiptXee, deis placing from deyr-s ; i(pl\ovv they loved from i<pi\eov, 
ttXoOs voyage from irX6os, Sotis gimng from bovr-s. 



open 



7. The figure of a 
triangle represents the 
relations of the vowels 
and spurions diph- 
thongs to one another. 




From 5 to l and 
from 5 to ov the eleva- 
tion of the tongue grad- 
ually increases, oj, o, 
ov, V are accompanied 
by rounding of the lips. 



close 



8. Diaeresis. — A double dot^ the mark of diaeresis (Swit/oeo-tg sepa- 
ration), may be written over t or v when these do not form a diph- 
thong with the preceding vowel : irpotcrTrjfXL I set before, vrjt to a ship. 

BREATHINGS 

9. Every initial vowel or diphthong has either the rough (') or 
the smooth (') breathing. The rough breathing {spiritus asper) is 
pronounced as h, which is sounded before the vowel; the smooth 



6 D, A diphthong ujv occurs in New Ionic (wwr^s the same from 6 airds 68 D,, 
e^wvTov of myself = ep-avrov 329 D., SujO^a = 6avpa wonder). Ionic has t}v for 
Attic av in some words (Hom. vr)vs ship). 

8 D. In poetry and in certain dialects vowels are often written apart which 
later formed diphthongs : Trdts (or irdi's) boy or girl, YliiXetSt)^ son of Peleus^ 46 
(or 4v) well, *Ai5'r]s (or 'Atdr)s) Hades.) yiye'i to a race. 

9 D. Tlie Ionic of Asia Minor lost the rough breathing at an early date. So also 
before p (13), Its occurrence in compounds (124 D.) is a relic of the period when 



10 JiRKATllINGS, CONSONANTS [lo 

breathing (s^jiritus lenis) is not sounded. Thus, o/3oj hdros boundary, 
6 09 oros mountain. 

10. Initial v {v and u) always has the rough breathing. 

11. Diphthongs take the breathing, as the accent (152) , over the second vowel : 
atp^w hair6o / seize., aXpu) alro / lift. But q.^ ri, ^ take both the breathing and 
the accent on the first vowel, even when i is written in the line (6): (?5w ='A£5w 
J sing , q.5T}s ^''Aid'tjs Hades, hnt Ahdds Aeneas. The WTiting dld-nXos (' AlS-nXos^ 
destroying shows that at does not here form a diphthong ; and hence is some- 
times written ai" (8), 

12. In coKipound words (as in npoopav to foresee, from -n-pS + opav) the rough 
breathing is not written, though it must often have been pronounced: cp. i^^dpd, 
a hall with seais^ Lat. exhedra^ exedra^ TroXu/axwp very learned., Lat. polyhistor. 
On Attic inscriptions in the old alphabet (2 a) we find ETHOPKON eMpKov 
faithful to one^s oath. 

13. Every initial p has the rough breathing : prjroyp orator (Lat. 
rhetor). Medial pp is written pp in some texts : lEvppo? Pyrrhus. 

14. The sign for the rough breathing is derived from H, which in the Old 
Attic alphabet (2 a) was used to denote h. Thus, HO 6 the. After H was used 
to denote 17, one half (I-) was used for h (about 300 b.c), and, later, the other 
half (M) for the smooth breathing. Prom F and H come the forms ' and '. 

CONSONANTS 

15. The seventeen consonants are divided into stops (or mutes), 
spirants, liquids, nasals, and double consonants. They may be 
arranged according to tlie degree of tension or slackness of the vocal 
chords in sounding them, as follows : 

a. Voiced (sonant, i.e. sounding) consonants are produced when the vocal 
chords vibrate. The sounds are represented by the letters j3, 5, 7 (stops), X, p 
(liquids), /x, v, 7-nasal (19 a) (nasals), and f. (All the vowels are voiced.) 
P with the rough breathing is voiceless. 

b. Voiceless (surd, i.e. hushed) consonants require no exertion of the vocal 
chords. These are tt, r, /c, 0, (9, x (stops), 0- (spirant or sibilant), and ^ and ^. 

c. AiTanged according to the increasing degree of noise, nearest to the vowels 
are the nasals, iu sounding which the air escapes without friction through the 
DOse ; next come the semivowels i; and t_ (20 a), the liquids, and the spirant <r, in 

it was still sounded in the simple word. Horn, sometimes has the smooth where 
Attic has the rough breathing in forms that are not Attic : 'AWrjs ("Aid-r}^), the god 
Hades., a\ro sprang (dXXo/iat), &i^v5is together (cp. ciAta), ^Aios sun {-^Xios), iidts 
dawn (^ws), t'pTjl hawk (tepdl), odpos boundary {Upos). But also in 4/ia0a xoagon 
(Attic cifia^a). In Laconian medial a- became' (h) : iuiKac = iUiKrjffe he con- 
quered, 

10 D. In Aeolic, i>, like all the other vowels (and the diphthongs), always has 
the smooth breathing, The epic forms ijfifj.es you, Hfif^i, ij/j.fi€ (325 D.) are Aeolic. 



21] CONSONANTS 11 

sounding which the air escapes with friction through the cavity of the mouth ; 
next come the stops, which are produced by a removal of an obstruction ; and 
finally the double consonants. 

16. Stops (or mutes). Stopped consonants are so called because 
in sonnding them the breath passage is for a inoinent completely 
closed. The stops are divided into three dasf^es (according to the 
part of the mouth chiefly active in sounding them) and into three 
orders (according to the degree of force in the expiratory effort). 





Classes 




Orders 


Labial (lip sounds) 


w p <P 


Smooth 


IT T K 


Dental (teeth sounds) 


T 5 6 


Middle 


§ 5 7 


Palatal (palate sounds) 


K 7 X 


Hough 


4> e X 



a. The dentals are sometimes called lin(jtials. The rough stops are also 
called a^irates (lit. breathed sounds) because they were sounded with a strong 
emissiOTi of breath (26). The smooth stops are thus distinguished from the 
rough stops by the absence of breathing. ' {h)\s also an aspirate. The middle 
stops owe their name to their position in the above grouping, which is that of 
the Greek gxamm avians. 

17. Spirants. — There is one spirant: or (also called a sibilant). 

a. A spirant is heard -when the breath passage of the oral cavity is so nar- 
rowed that a rubbing noise is produced by an expiration. 

18. Liquids. — There are two liquids: A and p. Initial p always 
has the rough breathing (13). 

19. Nasals. — There are three nasals: ju, (labial), v (dental), and 
y-nasai (palatal). 

a. Gamma before /c, 7, x, | is called 7-nasal. It had the sound of n in thinks 
and was represented by n in Latin. Thus, AyKvpa (Lat, ancora) anchor^ dyy^Xos 
(Lat. angelus) messenger^ <x<pLy^ sphinx. 

b. The name liquids is oiten used to include both liquids and nasals. 

20. Semivowels. — t, ri, tlie liquids, nasals, and the spirant or are 
often called semivowels, (c becoming (, and /r are also called spirants.) 

a. When i and v correspond to %j and w (cp. minion, persuade) they are said 
to be unsy]labic; and, with a following vowel, make one syllable out of two. 
Semivocalic t and v are written ^ and y. Initial i^ passed into* (/^), as in ^irap 
liver, Lat. jecur ^ and into f in '^vybv yoke, Lat. jugum (here it is often called 
the spirant yod). Initial y was written f (S). Medial i^, i^ before vowels were 
often lost, as in rlfid-(i^)(o I honour, j3o(y)-6s, gen. of ^ou-s ox, cow (43). 

b. The form of many words is due to the fact that the liquids, nasals, and o- 
may fulfil the office of a vowel to form syllables (cp. 'Jmdle^ even, pst). This is 
expressed by X, ^^ ^, jO, ^^ to be read ' syllabic X,' etc., or ' sonant X ' (see 35b, c). 

21. Double Consonants. — These are ^, ^, and xj/. t, is a combination 
of (tS (or S?) or St (26). t is ^vritten for kct, yo-, x(t ; ^ for ttot, jScr, <^cr. 



12 



PRONUKClATiON 



[22 



22. 



TABLE OF CONSONANT SOUNDS 



Divisions 


Physiological Bitferences 


Labial 


Dentul 


Palatal 


Nasals 


Voiced 


M 


V 


7-nasal (19 a) 


Semivowtls 


Voiced 


y(f) 




kiv) 


Liquids 


Voiced 




X p* 


Spirants 


Voiced 
Voiceless 




0", s 




f 

Stops 


Voiced 
Voiceless 
Voiceless Aspirate 


^ (middle) 
IT (smooth) 
(p (rough) 


5 (middle) 
T (smooth) 

6 (rough) 


y (middle) 
K (smooth) 
X (rough) 


Double 1 
corisoriants [ 


Voiced 
Voiceless 


f 


r 


^ 



p is voiceless. 



t tr M'as voiced only when it had the i souud (2C). 



ANCIENT GREEK PRONUNCIATION 

23. The pronunciation of Ancient Greek Yaried much according 
to time and place, and differed in many important respects from 
that of the modern language. V^hile in general Greek of the classical 
period was a phonetic language^ i.e. its letters represented the sounds^ 
and no heard sound was unexpressed in writing (but see 108), in course 
of time many words were retained in their old form though their pro- 
nunciation had changed. The tendency of the language was thus to 
become more and more unphonetic. Our current pronunciation of 
Ancient Greek is only in part even approximately correct for the 
period from the death of Pericles (429 B.C.) to that of Demosthenes 
(322) ; and in the case of several sounds, e.g. f, <j>, x? ^, it is certainly 
erroneous for that period. But ignorance of the exact pronunciation, 
as well as long-established usage, must render any reform pedantical, 
if not impossible. In addition to^ and in further qualiiication of, the 
list of sound equivalents in 1 we may note the following : 

24. Vowels. — Short a, i, v differed in sound from the correspondhig long 
vowels only in being less prolonged ; e and probably differed from rj and w also 
in being less open, a difference that is impossible to parallel in English as our 
short vowels are more open than the long vowels, a : as a in Germ. Jiat. There 
is no true a in accented syllables in English ; the a of idea^ aha is a neutral 
vowel, c: as e in bont&; somewhat similar is a in bakery. t| : as S in -fete^ or 

24 D. In Lesbos, Boeotia, Laconia, possibly in Ionia, and in some other 
places, V was still sounded 00 after it became like Germ, u in Attic. 



26] PKONUNCIATION 13 

nearly as e in where. X : nearly as the first e in meteor^ eternal o: as o in Fr. 
mot, BOmeyihSbt like unaccented o in obey or phonetic (as often sounded). a> : as 
in Fr. encore. Eng. o is prevailingly diphthongal (o"). v was originally 
sounded as u in prune, but by the fifth century had become like that of Fr. tu, 
Germ. thur. It never had in Attic the sound of u in mute. After v had become 
like Germ, u, the only means to represent the sound of the old v (oo in moon) 
was ov (25). Observe, however, that, In diphthongs, final i; retained the old v 
sound. 

25. Diphthongs. — The diphthongs were sounded nearly as follows : 
ai as in Cairo av as ou in out vv as eh'-oo 
€L as in vein ev as e (met) + oo (moon) wv as 6h'-oo 

ot as in soil ov as in ourang m as in Fr. huit 

In a, Ti, (t) the long open vowels had completely overpowered the i by 100 B.C., 
so that t ceased to be written (5 a). The t is now generally neglected in pro- 
nunciation though it may have still been sounded to some extent in the fourth 
century b.c. — The genuine diphthongs ci and ov (6) were originally distinct 
double sounds (eh'-i, oh'-oo), and as such were written EI, OT in the Old Attic 
alphabet (2 a): EPEIAE ^7ra5^, TOYTON roiirajj/. The spurious diphthongs 
ei and ov (6) are digraphs representing the long sounds of simple e (French e) 
and original v. By 400 b.c. genuine €l and ov had become simple single sounds 
pronounced as ei in vein and ou in ourang ; and spurious €i and ov, which had 
been written E and (2 a), were now often written EI and OT. After 300 b.c. 
€1 gradually acquired the sound of ei in seize. «u was sounded like eh'-oo, t]u 
and <av like eh'-oo, oh'-oo, pronounced rapidly but smoothly, m is now com- 
monly sounded as ui in quit. It occurred only before vowels, and the loss of 
the i in v6s son (4S) shows that the diphthongal sound was disliked. 

26, Consonants. — Most of the consonants were sounded as in English (1). 
Before t, k, y, r, o- never had a sh (or zh} sound heard in Lycia (AvkIo.'), Asia 
{'AaLa). o" was usually like our sharp s ; but before voiced consonants (15 a) 
it probably was soft, like z ; thus we find both Kdtfios and K6iJfj.os on inscriptions. 
— 1^ was probably = ^d, whether it arose from an original <7-5 (as in 'A^^i'a^f, 
from ' Ae7]va(v)s~d€ Athens-wards), or from dz, developed from dy (as in ^vy6if, 
from (d)yv'y6v, c^.jugum). The z in zd gradually extinguished the d, until in 
the HeUenistic period (p. 4) f sank to z (as in zeal), which is the sound in 
Modern Greek. — The aspirates <[>, 6, x were voiceless stops (15 b, 16 a) followed 
by a strong expiration : tr^, t^, k^ as in upheaval, hothouse, backhand (though 
here ft, is in a different syllable from the stop). Thus, (pe'Oyta was ir'e^yiD, Qi\o} 
was rVXw, fEx<^ was e-Zw. Cp. i<t> (^ for ^7r(i) 'w, etc. Probably only one h was 
heard when two aspirates came together, as in ix^p6s (iKTp6s). After 300 a. d. 
(probably) <p, B, and % became spirants, 4> being sounded as / (as in ^fXiTnros 
Philip), as th in theatre, % ^s ch in German ich or loch. The stage between 
aspirates and spirants is sometimes represented by the writing tt^ ( = p/), r^, kx, 

26 D. Aeolic has <rh for f in ^<Tho$ (6^os hranch). In late Laconian 6 passed 
into <r {(T-qplov = diqplov wild beast). In Laconian and some other dialects j9 
became a spirant and was written for f. 8 became a spirant in Attic after Christ, 



14 



VOWKL CHANGE 



[27 



which are affricata. — The neglect of the h in Latin representations of ^, e, x 
possibly shows that these sounds consisted of a stop -|- h. Thus, Pilipus — 
^DitTTTos, tus = B-6o$, Aciles = ' AxiXXeiis. Modern Greek has the spirantic sounds, 
and these, though at variance with classical pronunciation, are now usually 
adopted. See also 108. 

VOWEL CHANGE 

27. Quantitative Vowel Gradation. — In the formation and inflec- 
tion of words a short vowel often interchanges with its correspond- 
ing long vowel. Thus 



SHORT 


a 


c 


c 





V 


LONG 1f| (a 


after e, t, p, 31) 


n 


E. 


<a 


ii 


Tt/ta-ca 


id-a; 


(piXe-oj 


IK&VU} 


dTjXo-oj 


<PlJ~<Tl$ 


I honour 


I permit 


Hove 


I come 


I show 


nature 


rl/AlJ-lTW 


M-coj 


(}>L\i}-a<3i 


Ikolvov 


StjXw-ctw 


(pv-fj.a 


future 


future 


future 


iinperf. 


future 


growtJi 



28. Difference in quantity between Attic and Epic words is due chiefly either 
to (1) metrical lengthening, or to (2) different phonetic treatment, as KaXfbs, 
Tivffii become Epic k5X6% fair^ riuu} I pay (37 D, 1), Attic ^aX6s, Ttput. 

29. The initial short vowel of a word forming the second part of a compound 
is often lengthened : (jTpaTTjybs general {crTpa.r6s army + dyeip to lead 887 d). 

30. Attic if|, a. — Attic has 7j for original d of the earlier period, 
as 4n]fX7} report (Lat. Juma), Ionic also has tj for original d. Doric 
sLnd Aeolic retain original d (4>d^a). 

28 D. Metrical lengthening. — Many words, which would otherwise not fit 
into the verse, show in the Epic ei for e, ov (rarely ot) for o, and a, I, v for 
a, 1, y. Thus, ehaXios in the sea for IvaXto^, elQ.pLv6s vernal for iapivts^ inrdpoxoi 
eminent for vripoxos, elXi^Xovda have come for iX-rjXovdiXj ovXopjEvos destructive, 
accursed for 6X6jievos^ ovpea mountains from 6po$, Oi>Xii/t7roto of Olympus from 
"OXvp.iros. before a vowel appears as ol in ttvolt) breath. Similarly, -fiyd&eos 
very holy for dyddeos ; but rivepboei^ windy (from dvepLos') has the tj of i^TrTj^e/io? 
ii-nder the ^vind (29), and Tidii^epos placing (for TLd4/j£Pos} borrows ij from t16t)p.u 

A short syllable under the rhythmic accent (^ ictus ') is lengthened metrically : 
(1) in words having three or more short syllables: the first of three shorts 
(o^X(5/x«vos), the second of four shorts (iirelpoxos) , the third of five shorts (dire- 
peto-ta boundless); (2) in words in which the short ictus syllable is followed by 
two longs and a short (OiJXiJyiAiroto). A short syllable not under the rhythmic 
accent is lengthened when it is preceded and followed by a long • thus, any vowel 
preceded by f (irvelw breathe — irvefcd}^ t or v before a vowel {irpodvjjirfcri. zeal). 

30 D, 1. Doric and Aeolic retain original 5, as in fj.d\ov apple (cp. Lat. malum, 
Att. p.7}Xoy)^ Kapv^ herald (Att. xTjpi/^). But Doric and Aeolic have original 17 
when 17 interchanges with 6, as in rt^tj/At I place ^ Tldep-ev we place., fiArrjp pjdripa 
mother., iroijd.'^v iroi/jiivL shepherd. 

2, Ionic has y after e, i, and p. Thus, yeperj, a-KLrjy ijfi^pij. 



34] VOWKL CHANGE 15 

a. This is true also of the d whidi is the result of early Compensative length- 
ening, by \vhicli -ava-~, -ao-X-, -a<r/i-, and ~aav- changed to -aff-, -aX-, -a/i-, and 
-dv-, (See 37 Id.) But in a few cases like rds for rdvs, and in iraa-a for Trdvaa 
(113) where the combination av<r arose at a later period, a was not changed to ij. 
ifipavai for y^^^/at Jo weaije follows T€Tpava( to pierce. 

b. Original d became t) after u, as ^i;-^ growth. In some words, however, we 
find a. 

31. In Attic alone tliis -q was changed back to a: 

1. When preceded by a /) ; as vfiepd day, x^P^ country. This appears to liave 

taken place even though, an o intervened; as dKp6afji.a a musical piece, 
d6p6d. collected. 

Exceptions : (a) But pfrj was changed to pi} : as xSprj for Kopfr) maiden. 
(b)' Likewise pTj, when the result of contraction of pea, remained: as 5pij 
from 6pea mountains, (c) And pa-rj was changed to ppi} : as Kdpprj for Kdpa-n 
(79) one of the temples. 

2. When preceded by e or t : as yeved ge7ieraUon, ajcid shadow. 

This change takes place even when the ?; is the result of the contraction 
of ea: as yyta healthy, ivSed lacking, for y7(^ from i'7te(o-)a, ^fffe^^ from 
^y5ee((r)a ; also, if originally a f intervened, as v4d for vefd young (Lat 
Tiora). 

Exceptions : Some exceptions are due to analogy : ir^^ healthy, eO^u^ 
shapely (292 d) follow o-a^^ clear. 

32. In the choruses of tragedy Doric a is often used for rj. Thus, 
fiarrjp mother^ "A^X^ souly ya. eai'th, Svcrrdvos wretched, Ifiav went. 

33. The dialects frequently show vowel sounds that do not occur 
in the corresponding Attic words. 

34. Transfer of Quantity. — t/o, -qa often exchange quantities, be- 
coming ceo, ca. Thus, At/o? (Epic Aad? folli'?) becomes Aeoig, as ttoAt^o? 
becomes ttoAcws of^ a city ; reOvrforo? reOveCiros dead; ^ao-tA^a ^acriAea 

33 D. a for c ; lap6? sacred, ".Aprafits (for "Apre/its), rpdiro} turn Dor. ; < for a : 
fi^pcros courage Aeol., ^pcnfv male, bpiw see, ria-aepes four (= rirrapes) lon. ; a 
for o : didKarloi (for didKda-ioi) 200 Dor., ^tto Mftcier Aeol. ; o for o: GTphro% {crpa- 
t6s) army, 6v (dvd) up Aeol., r^opes (r^rrapes) four Dor. j « f Or i] : ^(r<rcov inferior 
{^TTwv) Ion.; < for o : 'AttAXw*/ Dor. (also 'AttoXXwv); « for ei: /^^fw;' greater 
Ion. ; c for t : K^pvdv mix (= Kipvdvai for Kepavvijyai) Aeol. ; t f or € : (frrfij hearth 
Ion,, lo-Tttt Dor. (for eo-ria), x/>^ios (xpweos) golden Aeol., 0i6s gfod Boeot., 
Koa-fito) arrange Dor, ; u for a : iria-vpes four {rirrapes) Horn. ; v for o : 6vvfM 
name Dor., Aeol., dTri) from Aeol.; aforou: tSv accordingly Ion., Dor, 

34 D. Often in Ionic : 'Arprf5ew from^earlier 'ArpeUdo son of Atreus^ iK^rea 
from iKirdo suppliant. This ew generally ^makes a single syllable in poetry (60). 
The 1)0 intermediate between do and coj is rarely found. 



16 



VOWEL CHAI^GE 



[35 



35. Qualitative Vowel Gradation. — In the same root or suffix we 
find an interchange among different vowels (and diphthongs) simi- 
lar to the interchange in singy sang, sung, 

a. This variation appears in strong grades and in a weak grade (including 
actual expulsion of a vowel — in diphthongs, of the first vowel). Thus, <pip-io 
I carry, ^6p-o-s tribute^ (jxhp thief ^ (pap-i-rpa quiver^ di-<pp-o-s chariot (two- 
cari'ier)^ "Seiir-oj Heave, X^-Xocir-a I have left^ XL-ir-^iv to leave. The interchange 
is quantitative in 4>6p^-s 0i6p (cp. 27). 

b. When, by the expulsion of a vowel in the weak grade, an unpronounce- 
able combination of consonants resulted, a vowel sound was developed to render 
pronunciation possible. Thus, pa or ap was developed from p between conso- 
nants, as in Tra-Tpct-crt from Trarp-ci (262) ; and a from v^ as in airb-fxix-ro'V for 
avTo-a-v-Tov automaton (^acting of Us own will), cp. f^iv-o-s rage, p.^-fiov-a I yearn. 
So in dvofxalvo} name for bvop^v-iio ; cp. 6vofia. 

c. A vowel may also take the place of an original liquid or nasal after a con- 
sonant J as IXCca for i\vcfx. This p, \ fi, i' in b and c .is called sonant liquid 
or sonant nasal. 



36. 



TABLE OF THE CHIEF VOWEL GRADES 



Strong Grades 
1. 2. 

a. e : 

b. ec : oi 
C. €V : ov 



Weak Grade 



or a 



strong Grades 
1. 2. 



17 : w 



Weak Grade 



e or a 



( i-yev-d-fi-i^v I became : y4-yov-a lam born yi~y v-o-fxai I become 

Xrp^u I turn : rpoir-ij rout i-rpdir-riv IwaS put tO flight 

ireid-w I persuade : -jr^-noLd-a I trust (568) Tcid-avbs persuasive 

i\eT[/(6)<r-o-fjLai. I shall go : i\-7i\ovd~a I have goTie ij\vd-o-v I went (Epic) 

0d-/i£ (Dor. , 30) I say : (pio-vi^ speech <pa-pLiv we speak 

j Ti-Ofj-fiL I place : d(o-fji6-s heap 0€~t6'S placed, adopted 

I p-fiy-vv-fiil break : e-ppwy-a I have broken 4-ppdy-r} it was broken 

di-dof-fit I give dL-5o~fi€v we give 

N, 1. — Relatively few words show examples of all the above series of grades. 
Some have five grades, as Tra-rijp, jra-r^p-a, e-d-ird-rwp, ed-ird-Top-a, ira-r p-6s. 
N. 2. — e and t vary in ireravvvfit irirvTjfii spread out. 

COMPENSATORY LENGTHENING 

37. Compensatory lengthening is the lengthening of a short vowel 
to make up for the omission of a consonant. 



37 D, 1. Ionic agrees with Attic except where the omitted consonant was f, 
which in Attic disappeared after a consonant without causing lengthening. 
Thus, ^€Lvos for ^^vos stranger, el'vcKa on account of (also in Dem.) for ^v€Ka, 
odpos boundary for 5pos, Kovpos boy for K6pos, fiovvos alone for fx-dfos. These 
forms are also used generally in poetry. 



42] 



VOWEL CHANGE- 



17 



The short vowels 


a 


c 


I 





■u 


are lengthened to 


a 


Cl 


I 


ov 


V 


thus the forms 


rdv-s 


i-fiev-<ra 


iKKiv-aa 


rifs 


8€lKvVyT-S 


become 


rds 


tlJ.et.va. 


e/cXtj/a 


TOlJs 


5€IrKv6s 




the 


I remained 


Ileane^ 


the 


showing 



a. Thus are formed ktHvu) I kill for Kxev-tw, t^^clpw I destroy for (pe^p-iw, 

S6T€Lpa giver for 5orep-;ta, /cXi^w J lean for KXiy-jto), 6\o4>vp(i) I laTnent for 6\o(pvp-iu}. 

. b. a becomes 77 in the c-aorist of verbs whose stems end in X, p, or v^ when 

not preceded by i or />. Thus, i<^au-aa becomes e-^ijya 7 showed, but iw^pap-aa 

becomes iir^pava I finished. , So o-eXiJvT? mooTi for ae\aa-vi) (ffAas gleamy 

c. The diphthongs ei and oy due to this lengthening are spurious (6). 

38. a arises from at upon the loss of its i (43) in aef always (from aieQ, 
aeris ea^^^ (a£€T6s), /cXdci toeeps (icXafci), ^Xdd olive-tree (^XaiS, cp. Lat oZiva). 

a. This change took place only when ai was followed by f (alfei^ aif^b^ from 
d/rteros, KXatfei from KXa/rtei, 111, 128) or i {Qij^als the Theldid from e7?j8aUs); 
and only when /: or i was not followed by 0. 



SHOETEKING, ADDITION, AND OTHER VOWBi CHANGES 

39. Shortening. — A long vowel may be shortened before another long 
vowel : jSafTiX^toy from ^a<n\i]u>v of kings^ vewv from vtjQv of ships, T€6v€(bs from 
r€6vT}(JI}s dead. 

40. A long vowel before t, u, a nasal, or a liquid + a following consonant 
was regularly shortened : vavs from original I'cius ship, ifiiyev from i-fiiyq-vr 
were mixed. The \ong vowel was often introduced again, as Ion. V7)vs ship, 

41. Addition. — a, e, o are sometimes prefixed before X, /a, p, p (prothetic 
vowels). Thus, d-Xef^w anoint with oil, Mnos fat; i-pv6p6s red (cp. Lat. ruber), 
i-^Uoct. from i-{f)€iKo<ri ; <i-/A6p7i'iJf*i ixnpe; ^-x^^s and x^^s yesterday, f-Kxts loeoseZ 
(ktiS^t} weasel-skin helmet) are doubtful cases, 

42. Development. — A medial vowel is sometimes developed from X or v 
between two consonants ; thus aX, Xa ; ap, pa ; av (35 b). Also (rarely) in 
forms like Ion. /3dpa7xos = Att. §p6,yxo's hoarseness. 



2, Doric generally lengthens e and to ?? and w : ^^j/or, &pos, KQpos, f^wvos. 
So fiuxra muse from iM>v<Ta for iwvrux, rtis for rii/s J/ie, "^jiAi am for ^tr/ii, xv^^^*- 
1000 for xeo-Xioi, Ionic x^^Xfoc. (In some Doric dialects f drops as in Attic (^^ws, 
opos); and ays, ovs may become as, os: 5e£rjr6ras Zor(fe, r6s the.) 

3. Aeolic has ats, eis (a genuine diphth.), ois from avs, fvs, oys. Thus, iraia-a all 
(Cretan 'jrdv<ra, Att. 7ra<ra), \tfoi<ri they loose from X^Joktc. Elsewhere AeoL prefers 
assimilated forms (Ji^ewa., €K\ivva, ^ewos, ewcKa, 6ppos, ^fifu^ x^^^'^O- But single y, 
P are also found, as in /c6pa, /xifos. Aeolic has (pB^ppw, /cXfj-fw, 6\o<pippo} ; cp. 37 a.. 

39 B. In the Ionic genitive of A stems (214 D. 8) -cwv is from -tjwy out of -awy. 
So in Tonic j3a<riX^a from ^ao-tXTja king. So even before a short vowel in Horn. 
Vpi^os, iipcoi hero (cp. 148 D. 3). 

GREEK GRAM. 2 



18 EUPHONY OF VOWELS [43 

43. Disappearance. — Tlie t and v of diphthongs often disappear before a 
following vowel. Thus, u6s from vi6s son^ ^o~S$ genitive of )3o0-s ox, cow. t and 
i; here became semivowels (i, y), which are not written. Cp. 148 D. 3. 

44. a. Tiie disappearance of e before a vowel is often called hyphaeresis (Jxpai- 
p€<Tis omission). Thus Ionic yoaa-ds chick for veoa-ads^ opri} for eo/jrij festival ; ddeujs 
fearlessly for dSe^us. Here e was sounded nearly like y and was not written. 

b. The disappearance of a short vowel between consonants is called syncope 
{avyKoir-q CUUing up). Thus irtirrw fall for Trt-Trer-w, narpSs father for iraripoi. 
Syncopated forms show the weak grade oE vowel gradation (35, Sej). 

45. Assimilation. — A vowel may be assimilated to the vowel standing in 
the following syllable : ^i^Xioy book from ^v^Xlov (^iJ^Xos papyrus). 

a. On assimilation in distracted verbs (opdu see, etc.), see 643 ff., 652. 

EUPHONY OF VOWELS 
CONTACT OF VOWELS AND HIATUS 

46. Attic more than any other dialect disliked the immediate 
succession of two vowel sounds in adjoining syllables. To avoid 
such succession, which often arose in the formation and inflection of 
wordSj various means were employed : contraction (48 ff.), when the 
vowels collided in the middle of a word ; or, when the succession 
occurred between two words (hiatus) y by crasis (62 ff.), elision (70 ff.), 
aphaeresis (76), or by affixing a movable consonant at the end of 
the former word (134). 

47. Hiatus is usually avoided in prose writers, by elision (70 ff.) ; but in 
cases where elision is not possible, hiatus is allowed to remain by different 
writers in different degrees, commonly after short words, such as w, €£, ij, Kat, 
/i^, and the forms of the article. 

43 D. So in Hdt. Khrai for KeUrai lies, ^a64a for §adeia deep. 

44 a. D. Cp, Horn, deoi A 18 (one syllable), t becomes t, in Horn. ■jr6Xios (two 
syllables) $ 567. i rarely disappears : 5^/xoy for 5-i}p.iov belonging to the people 
M 213. 

47 D. Hiatus is allowed in certain cases. 

1. In epic poetry : a. After i and v. Si.^ovt a.fji(ph, o-tJ ia-cn. 

b. After a long final syllable having the rhythmic accent : fioi iOfKovaa 
C^j- \^ \^ -:-. v^). 

c. AVhen a long final syllable is shortened before an initial vowel {weak, or 
improper, hiatus) : dKT^ i<i> ii^prfhT} {_^ ,^ -^ ^ :_), 

d. When the concurrent vowels are separated by the caesura ; often after 
the fourth foot : dXV &y ifxuv bxi(av iTri^-qaeo, j &(ppa tSr/at ; very often between 
the short syllables of the third foot (the feminine caesura) : as, dXX' dK^ovaa 
Kdd-qao, I ^/iv 5' iirtireldeo fxtStp ; rarely after the first foot : airdp 6 iyvdj A 333. 

e. Where f has been lost. 

2. Jn Attic poetry hiatus is allowable, as in 1 c, and after tI what f e5 well, 
interjections, xcpf concerning, and in oiU (p-'nde) eU (for ovdeis, {j.-r}d€Ls no one). 



54] CONTRACTION 19 

CONTBACTIOK 

48. Contraction unites in a single long vowel ot diphthong two 
vowels or a vowel and a diphthong standing next each other in 
successive syllables in the same word. 

a. Occasion for contraction is made especially by the concurrence of vowel 
sounds which were once separated by o-, v (/:), and ^(17, 20 a). 

The following are the chief rules governing contcaction : 

49. (I) Two vowels which can form a diphthong (5) unite to 
form that diphthong ; yeVel' = yivuj alSoC = atSotj KXrjZ$fyov = KX^Bpov- 

50. (II) Like Vowels, — Like vowels, whether short or long, unite 
in the common long ; ce, oo become €i, ov (6) : yip^a = y^pa, <f>tXey]T€ 
= <lti\^re] e^iAec = k^iX^i, Si^Xoofiev = SrjXovfiev. 

a. I is rarely contracted with i (6<pi + iSlov = dtpibiov small snake) or u with v 
(us son in inscriptions, from y(i)iJs — vlb^, 43). 

51. (Ill) Unlike Vowels. — Unlike vowels are assimilated, either 
the second to the first (progressive assimilation) or the first to the 
second (regressive assimilation). 

a. An o sound always prevails over an a or e sound : o or « before or after a, 
and before r\^ forms «. oe and €o form ov (a spurious diphthong, 6). Thus, 

but (pi\4ofMev = ipL\ov/jL€Vj dij^derov — djjXovTOv. 

b. When a and t ot t\ come together the vowel sound thu precedes prevails, 
and we have a or ■»] : fipae = Spa,, TlfxdTjre = TLfidTe, 6p€a = tpif. 

c. V rarely contracts : v + i, = u in IxOoSiov from IxdvlSiov small Jlsh,- v + € 
strictly never becomes v (273). 

52. (IV) Vowels and Diphthongs. — A vowel disappears before a 
diphthong beginning with the same sound : fxvdm = fxvai, tjuXUi = 
<f>iX€Tj SrjXooi = SrjXol. 

53. A vowel before a diphtliong not beginning with the same 
sound generally contracts with the first vowel of the diphthong j the 
last vowel, if i, is subscript (5): rlpiati^^Tliiaj rlfjidoifi^v^Tlfxwfxev, 
AetVeit = XeiTnjj /Ji€fXVTjOifJir)V = /jt€/AVu)/ii/v. 

a. But € + ot becomes oi ; <pi\4oi. = 4>i\oT j o + tt, o + ^ become oi. : 5t}\6€l = 

54 . Spurious €l and ov are treated like e and o : Tifj.deiv=r'i^ap, ST)\6eiv= dTJXovv, 
rifji.dov<n=:TifjLQo-i (but r'i.iJ.du=Tl(i^ and dii\6ei = d7]Xoi^ since ei is here genuine ; 6). 

50 D, L + I = 1 occurs chiefly in the Ionic, Doric, and AeoUc dative singular 
of nouns in -is (268 D.), as in TrdXu = wSXi j also in the optjutive, as in tpdi-l-To = 



20 



EUPHONY OF VOWELS 



[55 



55. (Y) Three Vowels. — When three vowels come together, the 
last two unite first, and the resulting diphthong may be contracted 
with the first vowel : thus, rZ/ia is from TZ/xa-17 oiit of Tt/Aa-e(o-)at ; hut 
IIcptKAeoi^s from Ile/ot/cAeeos. 

56. Irregularities. — A short vowel preceding a or any long vowel or diph- 
thong, in contracts of the first and second declensions, is apparently absorbed 
(235, 290) : xP^^^°- = XP^<^°^ (not xp^<^v)^ airXda — dirXa (not dirXa)), by analogy 
to tlie a which marks the neuter plural, xp^<^^<^*-^ = xP^'^'^'^^- (So 17/i^as — ^mSs 
to show the -as of the accus. pi.) Only in the singular of the first declension 
does eel become 17 (or a after a vowel or p): xp^^^^o-^ = XP^<^V^-> apyvpig, = dpyvp^. 
In the third declension eea becomes ed (265); tea or vea becomes id (ud) or (tj (vtj). 
See 292 d. 

Various special cases will be considered under their appropriate sections. 

57. The contraction of a long vowel with a short vowel sometimes does not 
occur by reason of analogy. Thus, ^-Tjt (two syllables) follows ptjds, the older 
form of yetis (275). Sometimes tlie long vowel was shortened (39) or transfer 
of quantity took place (34). 

58. Vowels that were once separated' by a or t (20) are often not con- 
tracted in dissyllabic forms, but contracted in polysyllabic forms. Thus, 9e(a-)6s 
god^ but QovKvdid-rjs Thucydides (deos -f- kvSos glory). 



59. 




TABLE 


OF VOWEL CONTRACTIONS 










[After CL or ou 


ge7i. means genuine, sp. means spurious.} 




a -\- a 


= d 


y^paa 


= yipa. 


e -f- at 


-V 


XfJeai 


= \iy 


d-\-a 


= d 


Xdas 


= \ds 






whence Xoet 


a -\- a 


= d 


/3e/3dd(7£ 


— /Se^dtrt 




= at 


Xpv<r^ais 


~ xpvcaTs 


a + a: 


= at 


fivdat 


= fivat 






(56) 




a'-\- q. 


= ^ 


fivdq. 


=• flV$ 


e -\-€ 


= et (sp.) 


<^tX^eT€ 


— <pl\€LTe 


a+e 


= d 


Tt/idere 


■= TtflSLTC 


€ -\- ei (gen.) 


=: et (gen,) 0tX^f t 


= <pt\€l 


a -) f 1 (gen.) 


= ^ 


Tt/idet 


- Tlfli 


e + et (ep.) 


= et (sp.) 


0tX^et»' 


= (ptkeiy 


a + 6£ (ap.) 


= d 


T'lfideiv 


= Tifidv 


f -f-r? 


= V 


<pLk^T}T€ 


= (piKTJTe 


a-f- 7j 


= d 


TTfidrjTe 


= TifiSiTe 


e + V 


= V 


<pi\4ri 


= <pi\y 


a + T? 


= ^ 


TifiaT] 


= rlp.^ 


e -\-t 


= ei (gen 


) 7ej'et 


— yiv€L 


a + t 


= at 


K^pa'C 


= K^pat 


€ + 


= ov (sp.) (pikhfiev 


= (piKovfiev 


a-\-L 


= ? 


pdtrepos 


= p4t€pos 


€ -\- 01 


= 01 


<plk4oiT€ 


~ (pikolre 


a -\- 


= w 


TLfLdofLey 


= rlfiCopjev 


e -f- OU (sp.) 


— ov 


<pt\40V<TL 


= (pikovai 


a -\- OL 


= V 


TLfJ.doLfJ.1 


:= TlfKpfll 


€ -\-V 


= €V 


ih 


= €d 


a -f- ou (Bp.) 


= w 


iripLde^a-') 


(55) 


€ -\- (J>) 


^ iO 


<pL\4(t} 


= (ptXu 








= iTlfLU 


e -h V 


= V 


Xpv(Tii^ 


= Xpi^^<? 


a ~f- w 


= to 


rlfidb) 


= Tt/iW 


17 ~f- at 


— V 


\vT]((r)ai 


= Xl}7, 


e -f-a 


= 1 


retxea 


= TdxT? 


Tj-l-e 


= 17 


r'lfjL'qevTOs 


= TlflTJVTOS 




= d 


dar^a 


= 6<7Ta(66) 


7) + €L (gen.) 


= V 


f^" 


= tv 


€ +d 


= 17 


dTrX^d 


= cltt'Stj 


77 ~f- et (sp.) 


= 17 


Tlp.T}€lS 


- Tlf^7}S 



55 D. In Hom, detos of fear from 54€(<r)-os the first two vowels unite. 



6i] 



CONTRACTION, SYNIZESIS 



21 







TABLE OF VOWEL CONTRACTIONS - 


Concluded 




ij + v 




= V 


(^avr}r}T€ = (^aviJTe 


+7J 


= ot 


57jX(5tJ 


= SijXot 


TJ + V 




= v 


fi}?? = r5 




= V 


56:?s 


= 6(?s 


■n-\- 01 




= V 


jxefiv-ijoi/JiTjv = 


+ i 


= ot 


^X^i- 


= ^XOi 








tiefiv(ffir]v 


-\- 


= ou 


(6p.) 7rX6os 


= ttXoCs 


v + <- 




= V 


kXtjis =: kX^s 


+ ot 


= 01 


drjKdoLfiej' 


= d7}\0t/Ji€V 


L + i 




r= I 


XUos ~ Xtos 


-]- OU (8p.) 


=: OV (6p,) d7]\6oVffl 


= drfKooffi 


o -\' a 




= tJ 


aiS6a = a/Sw 


+ C«J 


=:: w 


dr)\6o} 


= SijXoj 






= d 


airX6a = airXa 


+ V 


= V 


7rX6(^ 


= -n-Xy 








(66) 


«; +t 


= V 


iX^ufStoy 


= IX^iSiov 


+€ 




= OU (Bp 


) i5^\o€ = iSri\ov 


u + u 


— V 


i>i;s (for 


ul6s)=vs 


+ €t 


(geil.)— 01 


dr]K6€L = dr]\o7 


w + a 


= w 


^pwtt 


= -!}pw 


+ €t 


(Bp.) 


= ov 


d7)\6€LV = StjXoVV 


W + I 


= V 


rjpwt 


= Vv 


-f T? 




= a; 


5r]\6r}T€ = 57}\wT€ 


0?+ w 


= w 


5£iw(Hom.)= 5 a? 



N. — The forms of plyoo) shiver contract from the stem pt7w- (yielding w or v). 



SYNIZESIS 

60. In poetry two vowels, or a Towel and a diphthong, belonging 
to successive syllables may unite to form a single syllable in pronun- 
ciation, but not in writing. Thus, j9e\ca missiles, TrdXew? city, UTjkrjLa.' 
Seo) son of Peleios, xpvo-€<j) golden. This is called Synizesis (crwi^?;crt9 
settling together). ^ 

61. Synizesis may occur between two words when the first ends 
in a long vowel or diphthong. This is especially the case with 8y 

59 D- Attic contracts more, Ionic less, than the other dialects. The laws of 
contraction often differ in the different dialects. 

' 1. Ionic (Old and New) is distinguished by its absence of contraction. Thus, 
ir\6os for ttXoOs voyage^ reix^a for relxv walls, 6<rr4a for bcra bones, doidiq for 
(pSi^ song, depyds for dpy6s idle. The Mss. of Hdt. generally leave ee, eij iincon- 
tracted ; but this is probably erroneous in most cases. Ionic rarely contracts 
where Attic does not : oySioKovra for dySo-^Kovra eighty. 

2. €0, ew, €ov generally remain open in all dialects except Attic. In Ionic ew 
is usually monosyllabic. Ionic (and less often Doric) may contract eo, eov to ev: 
a-ev from <t^o of thee, ^i\€v<ri from <pi\iov<n they love. 

3. ao, do, aoj, do; . contract to d in Doric and Aeolic. Thus, 'ATpelSd from 
'ArpefSdo, Dor. 7€Xd;'Tt they laugh fToray€\dovTi, x^^P^-^ from x^pauji/ of countries. 
In Aeolic od =d in ^d66€VTL (Ion. ^webevrt)— Att. ^o-qBovvTi aiding (dative). 

4. Doric contracts ae to -tj ; aTj to tj ; act, a?/ to tj. Thus, vUri from utxae con- 
quer ! Qp^ from bpdei and opdji ; but de — d (a'Xios from aiXios, Horn. ij Aios sun), 

5. The Severer (and earlier) Doric contracts ee to ij, and oe, oo to oj. Thus, 
(piK-Z/TU} from 0tXe^Tcu, St]\wt€ from drfKSere, tVTrw from IVtto-o (230 D.); the Milder 
(and later) Doric and N. W. Greek contract to et, and ov. Aeohc agrees with the 
Severer Doric. 



22 CRASIS [62 

now, rj 07^ 7} (iiiterrog.), /x-^ not^ eVet si'nce, eyw /, <o oh ; as ^ ov 18. 

a. The term synizesis is often restricted to cases where the first vowel is long, 
Where the first vowel is short, c, i were sounded nearly like y ; v nearly like w. 
Cp, 44 a. The single syllable produced by synizesis is almost always long. 

CEASIS 

62. Crasis (Kpacts miTigling) is the contraction of a vowel or 
dii)hthong at the end of a word with a vowel or diphthong begin- 
ning the following word. Over the syllable resulting from contrac- 
tion is placed a ' called coronis (Kop<j)vU hook), as raA.Aa from to. akXa 
the other things, the rest. 

a. The coronis is not written when the rough breathing stands on the first 
word : 6 SLvOptoiros = avOpiJiros. 

b. Crasis does not occur when the first vowel may be elided. (Some editors 
write T&Wa^ etc.) 

63. Crasis occurs in general only between words that belong together ; and 
the first of the two words united by crasis is usually the less important ; as the 
article, relative pronoun (6, a), Trp6, Kal, Sr/, w. Crasis occurs chiefly in poetry, 

a. It is rare in liom., common in the dialogue parts of the drama (especially 
in comedy), and frequent in the orators. 

64. IT, T, K become 0, ^, x when the next word begins with the rough breath- 
ing (124) : T^ iiij.4pq.— OriiJ.4pq. the daijy koI ol and the = xo^ (68 c), 

65. Iota subscript (5) appears in the syllable resulting from crasis oiily when 
the fii«t syllable of the second word contains an i : iyd) olda = iy^da I know 
(but T^ opydvif} = Toypydvii} the instrumenty 68 a). 

66. The rules for crasis are in general the same as those for contraction 
(48 fE.). Thus, ri> 6vofxa = roCvofxa the name^ 6 iv — ovv^ c3 B-vep = Cjvep oh 7nan, 
irpb ix^^ ~ Tfpo^x^^ excelling.) to ifxanov = BolfxaTiov the cloak (64), a iydi — dydj. 

But the following exceptions are to be noted (67-09) : 

67. A diphthong may lose its final vowel : ot ifwl = oufwl, <roi iarl = aoianU, 
fxov i<TTi — fw<}<TTt, cp. 43, 68. 

68. The final vowel or diphthong of the article, and of toL^ is dropped, and an 
initial a of the next word is lengthened unless it is the first vowel of a diph- 
thong. The same rule applies in part to kolL 

a. Article. — 6 avitp z= av^p^ oi dvSpes = avdpes, aX dyadai = dyadai, tj aX-^Oeia ~ 
aXiJ^eta, tov dv5p6s — rdvdpbs, tw dvSpl = Tavdp^ 6 airr6s = aurds the same^ tov 
adroO = TCt&rov of the same. 

b- Tot. — Tol dpa = rdpa^i fxivroi Av = fxevrdv. 
. C. Ka£. — (1) at is dropped : Kal aiirds = Kai^ris, Kal 06 = /coO, Kal 7} = x^: *cii 
ol = xoi, Kal t/cereiJeTe = xt'^^reiJeTe and ye beseech (64). (2) at is contracted 
chiefly before e and ei : Kal iv= Kav, nal iydi — KcLyd}, Kal is = Kas, Kal eTra = 
K^Ttt (note however Kal et = k^I, Kal els ~ /cets); also before o in Kal Sre = x^^e, 
Kal 5ir(os = x^Tws (64). 



74] ELISION 23 

N. — The exceptions in 68 a-c to the laws of contraction are due to the desire 
to let the vowel of the more important word prevail : avTjp^ not cuvijpj because of 

69. Most crasis forms of ^repos other are derived from ^Tepos^ the earlier form : 
thus, 6 ^repos = arepos, oi ^repoi = arepoi ; but tov iripov = Ooiripov (64). 

ELISION 

70. Elision is the expulsion of a short vowel at the end of a word 
before a word beginning with a vowel. An apostrophe (') marks the 
place where the vowel is elided. 

d\X'(d) (i7€, fSuJK (a) ivv4a, i<p' (=r iiri') eavrov (64), exoi/i (0 &v^ 'yivoir {o) &v. 

a. Elision is often not expressed to the eye except in poetiy. Both inscrip- 
tions and the Mss. of prose writers are very inconsistent, but even where the 
elision is not expressed, it seems to have occurred in speaking ; i.e. 6de eJire and 
65' elTre were spoken alike. The Mss. are of little value in such cases. 

71. Elision affects only unimportant words or syllables, such as particles, 
adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions of two syllables (except Trep/, tfxp'j 
fi^XPh ^"^t 72 b, c), and the final syllables of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. 

a. The final vowel of an emphatic personal pronoun is rarely elided. 

72. Elision does not occur in 

a. Monosyllables, except such as end in e (r^, 5^, 7^). 

b. The conjunction Stl that {or is Sre when). 

c. The prepositions irph before^ ^xPh P-^XP'- until^ and irepl concerning (except 
before t). 

d. The dative singular ending i of the third declension, and in o-t, the ending 
of the dative plural. 

e. Words with final v, 

73. Except iarl is, forms admitting movable v (134 a) do not suSer elision 
in prose. (But some cases of « in the -perfect occur in Demosthenes.) 

74. at in the personal endings and the infinitive is elided in Aristophanes ; 
scarcely ever, if at all, in tragedy ; its ehsion in prose is doubtful, oi is elided 
in tragedy in otp.01 alas. 

68 D. Horn, has fipto-ros = 6 fipttrros, tairbs — b airrb^. Hdt, has ovrepo'i = 6 
?Tepos, wvijp = 6 a.vi}p^ thvrol = oi adrol, Tthvrb = rb aiJT6, t^vtov = tov ai^TOV^ iwvTov 
= #0 avTov^ wvdpes = ol Sivdpes. Doric has k^ttL = Kal hrl. 

72 D. Absence of elision in Homer often proves the loss of f (3), as in 
Kara. dffTv X 1. Epic admits elision in <ra thy, pd., in tbe dat. sing, of the third 
decl., in -o-i and -at in the personal endings, and in -mt, -o-^at of the infinitive, 
and (rarely) in /iof, vol^ roi, dva oh king, and &m = dyda-TTjOi rise up, elide only 
once, Idi and never. Hdt. elides less often than Attic prose ; but the Mss. are 
not a sure guide, wepi sometimes appears as Tr4p in Doric and Aeolic before 
words beginning with other vowels tlian i. ^^e?' dS^vai A 272. Cp. 148 D. 1, 

73 D. In poetry a vowel capable of taking movable v is often cut off. 



24 EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS [75 

75. Interior elision takes place in forming compound words. Here 
the apostrophe is not used. Thus, ovSets no one from ovBk ets, KaOopdo) 
look down upon from Kara opato, fxeOtrjfjiL let go from /jueTa frjfu (124). 

a. 65i, Tovrt this are derived from tiie demonstrative pronouns 55e, toOto 
-f the deictic ending I (333 g). 

b. Interior elision does not always occur in the formation of compounds. 
Thus, ffKTjTrrovxos sceptre-hearing from a-KifjirTo -f oxos (i.e. <roxos), Cp. 878. 

c. On the accent in elision, see 174. 

APHAERESIS (iNYEKSE ELISION) 

76. Aphaeresis {d4>g.lp€<ns taking away') is the elision of e at the beginning 
of a word after a word ending in a long vowel or diphthong. This occurs only 
in poetry, and chiefly after /xt? not, ij or. Thus, fi^ ' vraOda, ij V^j irapi^oi 'fxavrbp^ 
avTT} '^Tj^Bev, In some texts editors prefer to adopt crasis (62) or synizesis (60). 
a is rarely elided thus. 

EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS 

77. Assimilation. — A consonant is sometimes assimilated to an- 
other consonant in the same word. This assimilation may be either 
partial, as in €-7r€fx<l>-6rjv I was sent for e-Tre/xTr-^T^i/ (82), or complete, as 
in kfxfxivii) I abide by for h-ixevoy (94). 

a. A preceding consonant is generally assimilated to a following consonant. 
Assimilation to a preceding consonant, as in dXKvfii I destroy for dX-w-jMi, is rare. 

DOUBLIKG OP CONSONANTS 

78. Attic has tt for cro- of Ionic and most other dialects : TrparTto 

do for wpdacrat, OaXcnra sea for ^aA.ao-cra, KpeiTTojv Stronger for Kpetacrayv. 

a. Tragedy and Thucydides adopt a-a as an lonism. On xap^eo-o-a see 114 a. 

b. TT is used for that aa which is regularly formed by k or x ^-nd i (112), 
sometimes by r, ^, and i (114). On tt in"'ATTiK-6s see 83 a, 

75 D. Apocope (dTrojcoTr-^ cutting off) occurs when a final short vowel is cut 
off before an initial consonant. In literatui-e apocope is confined to poetry, but 
in the prose inscriptions of the dialects it is frequent. Thus, inHom., as sepa- 
rate words and in compounds, dv, kcit, irdp {dir, vir rarely) for dvd, KaTd, irapd 
(ctTri, vTr6). Final T is assimilated to a following consonant (but KaTdaveTv to die, 
not KaddavcLv, cp. 83 a); so final v by 91-95. Thus, dXX^^ai to pick up^ h^i irbvov 
into the strife ; Kd^^ake threw down., KdWnre left behind, KaKKeiovTe? lit. lying 
down, Kavd^aLs break in pieces, for Kapfd^ats — KaT-fd^ai^, kclS 54, KaSSva-ai enter- 
ing into, KcLv iredlov through the plain, Kay y6vv on the knee (kag not kang), Kap 
p6ov in the stream; v^^dWeiv interrupt, dinr^fji'^eL will send away. When three 
consonants collide, the final consonant of the apocopate word is usually lost, as 
KaKrave slew, from Kdntcrave out of KaT(4)KTav€. Apocope occurs rarely in Attic 
poetiy. itSt for ttotL (— irp6$ in meaning) is frequent in Doric and .Boeotian. 

N, — The shorter forms may have originated from elision. 



82] EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS 25 

79. Later Attic has pp for po- of older Attic : Odppo^ courage = 

Odp(TOSf dpprjv male = apo-rjv. 

a. But p<r does not become pp in the dative plural (pi^rop-crt orators) and in 
words containing the suffix -^is for -ns (dp-ais raising). 

b. Ionic and most other dialects have pa: pa in Attic tragedy and Thucydides 
is probably an lonism, Xenophon has pa- and pp, 

80. An initial p is doubled wken a simple vowel is placed before it 
in inflection or composition. Thus, after the syllabic augment (429), 
e-pp€L was flowing from peco ; and in /caXti-ppoo? fair flowing. After a 
diphthong p is not doubled ; ev-poos fair flowing, 

a. This pp, due to assimilation of cp {^-ppei^ Ka\i~ppoos)^ or fp (ipp-^Sy tvas 
spoken), is strictly retained in the interior of a word; but simplified to single p 
when standing at the beginning, i.e. p^oj is for pp^^co. In coniposition (e£f-poos) 
single p is due to the influence of the simplified initial sound. 

b. A different pp arises from assimilation of po- (79), pe (sounded like py, 44, 
117), and vp (95). 

81. /3, 7, 5 are not doubled in Attic (cp. 75 D.). In 77 the first 7 is nasal 
(19 a), <^, X, ^ are not doubled in Attic ; instead, we have x0, kx, tB as in 
5;a7r0ci Sappho, BdKxos Bacchus, 'ArOis (Atthis) Attic. Cp. 83 a. 

CONSONANTS WITH CONSONANTS 
STOPS BEFORE STOPS 

82. A labial or a paJatal stop (16) before a dental stop (t, S, 6) 
must be of the same order (16). ^ 

a. pT, 4»T become irr : (reTpl^-Tai) r^rptTTTat has been rubbed from Tpi^-ta 
rub; (y€ypa4>-raL) y^ypaiTTai has been written from ypdip-u> write, -yr, xt 
become kt: (XeXey-rai) \^\€KTaL has been said from X^7-aj say; (^e^pex-rai) 
§4^p€KT(iL has been moistened from ^pe'x-w moisten. 

80 D. In Horn, and even in prose p may remain single after a vowel : €-pe^€ 
did from p^^w, wraXXt-poos. So ia6-ppoiros and lcr6-poiros (by analogy to ^67ros) 
equally hdlanced. iK xetpw;' ^Aea p^v M 159 represents /3Aea pp^o;/. Cp. 146 D. 

81 D. 1. Horn, has many cases of doubled liquids and nasals : eXXajSe took, 
&\\7)KTos unceasing, dfifiopos without lot in^ ^iXo^^etS^s fond oj smiles, dydyyt*pos 
very snowy, dpyewSs white, eweire relate. These forms are due to the assimila^ 
tion of <T and X, p., or y. Thus, dyd-yui(pos is from dya-avi^os, cp'. sn in snow. 

2. Doubled stops: ottl that {afod-Tt), oinroTi as (a-fod-iroTe), €8d€ia-€ feared 
{i8f€tae), 

3. .o-o- in p.4aaos middle (for p£$ios tnedius, 114), dirlffa-u backward, in the 
datives of c-stems, as ^ireo-crt (250 I), 2), and in verbs with stems in c {rp^a-a-e), 

4. One of these doubled consonants may be dropped without lengthening the 
preceding vowel: 'Odvaei^/s from 'OSuo-o-et/s, ^^cros, 6irl<ro3. So in 'AxtXciJs from 
'AxtXXeiJs. On 55, /3)3, see 75 D. A-eolic has many doubled consonants due t'l 
assimilation (37 D. 3). 



26 EUPHONY OF CONSONAN'rS [83 

t). irS, 4»S become p8 : (KXeir-dTjv) k\4^87)v by stealth from kX^tt-t-io steal ; 
(ypa4>b'i)v) ypd^Sijv scraping from ypi4>~(a write (originally scratchy scrape). 
kS becomes -yS : {TrXeK-Sijv) irXiybrjv entwined from ttX^k-w plait. 

c. ir6, pd become <j>6: {iirefiTr-S-qv) 4ir^fx<p67]v I was sent from tt^/xtt-w send,' 
{jlrpl^-drf) ^Tpt^e-r] It was rubbed (jpi^-w rub). kO, -yO become x®: (^tXck-^t?) 
dirX^xOv it was plaited (ttX^k-oj plait) ; {i\€y-$'rj) iX^xOtj it was said (\4y-(a say) 

N. 1. — Cp. eTTTct seven, e^^ofj/ys seventh, i^B-^^tpos lasting seven days. 

N. 2. — But ^/c o^iJ of remains unchanged : iK8LS<apu su7're7ider, iK9i(a run out 
(104). 

83. A dental stop before another dental stop becomes a-. 

dwarSs practicable for dwr-ros from dv\jr(a complete, tare you know for IS-re, 
oiaSa. thou knowest for oi5-^a^ Tr^Tretcrrai has been persuaded for ireTretd-rai, 
iirei<T6'r)v I was persuaded for iiretS-d'ijv. 
a. TT, t6 remain unchanged in 'AttlkSs, 'Ardls Attic, and In Kardavetv die 

(75 D., 81). So TT for £r<r (78). 

84. Any stop standing before a stop other than r, 8,6, or in other combina- 
tion than Tr<f>, jcx, t^ (81) is dropped, as in K€K6^il(^)-Ka I have brought, 7 before 
fj 7j or X is gamma-nasal (19 a), not a stop. 

STOPS BEFORE M 

85. Before /x, the labial stops (tt, /B, <^) become /x ; the palatal stops 
K, X become y ; y before /x remains unchanged. 

i(;tt/ia e?/e for dfr-pia (cp. fiTrwTra), XAet/i/xai / /taue 6ee7l ?(?/it for XeXei7r-/Aat from 
Xe/ir-w Zeave, T4Tplp.p.aL for TerpiJS-^ai from rpi^-io rub, y^ypa^p-ai for yeypa^- 
fxat from ypd4>-(a write, ir^TrXey p.ai for 7re7rXeK-/xat from tX^/c-w plait, r^revyp-at 
for rerevx-P'O'i- from rei^x-w build. 

a. K and x Diay remain unchanged before /i in a noun-suffix : dK-/ii5 etZjye, 
Spax-p--^ drachma. Kp. remains when brought together by phonetic cbange 
(128 a), as in K^-Kpuj-Ka am wearied (Kdp.'vw). 

b. 77M Ei'Tid p.p.p. become yp and pp.. Thus, iX-^Xeyp-aL for iX-qXeyy-p-ai from 
iXv/Xeyx-P'^i {iX^yx-^ COnviCt), Tr^ireppat for Treirep.p.-pa.L from 7re7re^7r-;iai (Tr^/iTr-w 
send). 

86. A dental stop (t, S, ^) before /x often appears to become a-. 

ThnS; yvv<Tfxat for TjvvT-fxai (avvT-<a complete)^ Trecj^pao-fidL for 7r£<^/)aS-/xa.t 

{4>paZ,ui declare) J TreTreio-fxat for TreTTccO-fjiai (yreiO-o) persuade). 

87. On the other hand, since these stops are actually retained in many words, 
such as iperpJiv oar, ttStp-os fate, dptdp^bs number, <t must be explained as due 
to analogy. Thus, ijvvapLai, iri<ppaa'p.ai, iriTrcLffpat have taken on the ending -<7p,ai 
by analogy to -c-rat where <r is in place {ir4<ppa<rTai for Tre^pad-Tai), So ta-pav we 
knoiv (Hnm. tdp.€v) follows ta-re you know (for Id-r^)'. 6(rp.-f} odor stands for <56-<r/xi?. 

85 a. D. 'So in Horn. Xkp.€vo% favoring {iKdvia), aKaxp-^vos sharpened. 



97] EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS 27 

CONSONANTS BEFORE N 

88. P regularly and ^ usually become ju, before v. Tims, a-efivo<; 
revered for o-eyS-vos (o-eyS-o/xat), arvfjivo^ firm for (rrv<f)-vo<i (<rTv<^(i} contract). 

89. yLyvofiai become^ ytyvdjo-KU} know become yf^'o/iat, 7(P(6<r/cw in Attic after 
300 B.C., in Kew Ionic, late Doric, etc. 

90. Xv becomes AA in oXXvjxl destroy for oX-vvfiL. 

\y is kept m-TrlT^yafiai approach. On sigma before ;' see 105. 

N BEFORE CONSONANTS 

91. V befor.e -tt, P, <f>, ij/ becomes /x: e/xmTrTa) fall into for ev-TrtTTTO), 

€/x^aAAa> throiV in for cv-^aAAw, €/A<^atVa> exhibit for €v-<^atva), cfuf/v^os 
alive for iv~xj/vxo<;. 

92. F before k, y, ;)(, ^ becomes y-nasal (19 a) : iyKoXeo) bring a 
charge for eV-KoAeo), eyypa^o) iriscribe for iv-ypatpo), o-tjy;(ea) jpowr together 
for o-w-;)(£a), avyivoi grind up for o-w-^Co). 

93. V before t, 5, ^ remains unchanged. Here v may represent ;i : ^pov-T-f) 
thunder (/Spe/x-w roar). 

94. V before /a becomes /i : e/Ajacr/oo? moderate for iv-fiiTp<K, e/xjaeVo) 

a. Verbs in -j/oj may form the perfect middle in -ff/xat (489 h) ; as in iri<i>a(T- 
/jttti (from ipalvo} show) for 'jre<Pav-fiai (cp. 7r^0a7-/ca, ir^<pav~TaL). 

b. Here ;' does not become a ; but the ending -a/iai is borrowed ffom verbs 
with stems in a dental (as x^^paff/xai, on which see 87). 

95. V before A, p is assimilated (AA, pp) : o-vXXoyo's concourse for 
o-vv-Aoyos, <Tvpp€(j> fiow together for o-vv-/3c<o. 

96. V before o- is dropped and the preceding Towel is. lengthened 
(e to ct, o to ovj 37) : /xeAa? dZctcfc for /icAav-^, ets one for ev-s, Tt^ets pZac- 
ing for Ti^ev(T)-s, rovs for rdv-s. 

a. But in the dative plural v before -ai appears to be dropped without com- 
pensatory lengthening : iiiKaai for /xeXav-ffi, baifixxn for Saifiov-ffi divinities, <ppe<ri 
for <pp€v-(7i mind. But see 250 N. 

CONSONANTS BEFORE 2 

97. With o- a labial stop forms ij/, a palatal stop forms t 

\ebp(t} shall leave for Xenr-o-w ^^pv^ herald for ktjpvk-s 

rptfo} shall rub " rpl^-aw dfw s/ta^? Zfifl^ " (£7-0-0; 

ypdf(a shall write " ypatp-aw /3i^| COif^A '* )3'?X-s 

90 D, Aeolic /36XXa council, Attic jSovXiJ and Doric jSwXd (with compensatory 
lengthening), probably for )3oXm. 



28 EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS [98 

a. The only stop that can stand before o- is tt or /c, hence /3, become tt, and 
7, X become k. Tims, ypa<p~a-o}, ay-ijo) become ypair-o-w, dK-au. 

98. A dental stop before o- is assimilated (era) and one o- is 
dropped. 

a-Jj/jLao-i bodies for aoj/xaa-crL out of o-wjuar-o-t, iroa-i feet for iroa-aL OUt of ttoS-cti, 
6py(o-t birds for dpvla-at out of opvW-cri, So Trdo-xw sitffer for Trao-<Txw out of 
frad'CTKU} (cp. Trad-eiv and 126). 

a. 5 and ^ become r before cr: ttoS-cti, dpvW-cn become ^or-at^ 6pvir-<jL. 

99. /f is dropped before <tk in 5i5a(/c)-o-/ccj ^eac/i (5i5a/f-T6s taught). 
IT is dropped before (T<p \\\ /3Xa(Tr)(7~0?7/i/d evil-speaking. 

100. VT, v8, v^ before o- form vcro- (98), then vo-j finally v is dropped 
and the preceding vowel is lengthened (87). 

xa<ri all for irava-in out of Traj/T-o-ij Tc6€i<n placing for Ti6evff~(n out of ri6evT-<7i, 
So 7/705 ^iaTl^ for 7i7aj'r-s, Xfjoutri loosing for XDoj/r-o-i, a-rrela-co shall make 
ligation for crTrecS-crw, Treio-ojjLai shall suffer for ir€v6-(Top.aL (jr^vdos g^'i^f)- 

101. a. 4v z?i, o-ijv loii/i in composition are treated as follows: 

iv before p, cr, or ^ keeps its v: €v-pvdjxos in rhythm^ iy-a-Kevdi^o) prepare, iv- 

^euyvupLi yoke in. 
a-6v before cr and a vowel becomes o-ucr- : o-ucr-craj^aj help to save. 

before a- and a consonant or f, becomes o-f- : a-v-aK€vd^cj pack up, ai^-^yos 
yoked together. 

b. irav, irdXiv before tr either keep v or assimilate j' to o- : rr^-v-o-otpos all-wise, 
7rav-!T4\T}vos or 7ra<j-<j-A7)j'os the full moou, waKiv-a-KLOs thick- shaded .^ TToKia-o-vTos 
rushing back. 

'102. On p<7 see 79 a. \<r is retained in dXcros precinct, pa-, \<t may become 
p, X with leiigthening of the preceding vowel: ijyetpa I collected, -^7764X0 / an- 
nounced for -^yep-aa, TjyyeX-ija. 

2 BEFORE CONSONANTS 

103. Sigma between consonants is dropped: 7Jyy€X(o-)0e you have 
announced, ycypd<l>ia)dai to have written, lK(cr)/A7/vos of six months (e^ 
six, fiTfv month). 

a. But in compounds a is retained when the second part begins with cr: 
Bv-(nrov5os included in a truce. Compounds in Sva-- ill omit a before a word 
beginning with <r : 5i/crxiO'Tos hard to cleave for Suc-crxto-ros {<TX^t<^)- 

104. ^1 out of {=iKs} drops 0- in composition before another consonant, 
but usually retains its k unaltered : iKreLpu) stretch out, iKdldw/xi surrender., 

98 D. Horn, often retains <t<t : 7roo-<rl, 5da-cra<r6ai for dar-a-affdai {dario/jaL divide) . 
102 D. Horn, has cUpffe incited^ K^pae cut, ii'ho-at to coop up, K4\crai to put to 
shore. 



,12] EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS 29 

iK<pip(^ carry out, iKdoo} sacrifice, iKaif^w preserve from danger (not i^t^^w), 
iKfji.av6dvu learn thoroughly. Op. 82 n, 2, 130. 

105. a before fx oi v usually disappears with compensatory lengthening (37) 
as in elfxl for ia-fii. But c/i stays if /i belongs to a suffix and in compounds of 
5v<r~ ill .* Bv<7-fj.evT^s hostile. 

a. Assimilation takes place in U^XoTrdw-qaos for XIAottos vtjitos island of 
FelopSy ^vviijii clothe for ec-vv/xi (Ionic eUvfii)^ tppu wan flowing iov i-apei, 80 a. 

106. 0-6 becomes f in some adverbs denoting motion towards. Thus, 'AOt]- 
va^e for 'A^ijms-6e Atl^ens-wards (26, 342 a). 

107. Two sigmas brought together by inflection become cr: jStXecrt 
for jSeAecr-o-t missiles, cTrecrt forlxecr-crt WOrds (98), reAeVai for TcXccr-<jat 
(from reA-eo) accomf)lisli, stem reXea-). 

a. o-o- when = rr (78) never becomes o-. 

108. Many of the rules for the euphony of consonants were not established 
in the classical period. Inscriptions show a much freer practice, either marking 
the etymology, as ciit'/iaxos for a-^fx/iaxos ally (94), ivKaXelv for iyKa\e?v to bring 
a charge (92), or showing the actual pronunciation (phonetic spelling), as jby 
(= rif) KUKOf (92), rr]/i (= rrju) ^ovXrju (91), roX (= rbv) \byov^ eydoa-is for €k5o~ 
(Tts surrendering (104), ixHpio^ ix^vio for iK<p4po}, iKdvw (104). 

CONSONANTS WITH VOWELS 
CONSONANTS BEFORE I AND E 

109. Numerous changes occur before the semivowel t^ (= y, 20) before a 
TOwel. This y is often indicated by the sign £. In 110-117 (except in 115) 
ij&^y. 

110. \i becomes \\: oAXos for dAto? Lat. alius^ oAXo/u-at for aXio- 
fjiai Lat. salio, <j>v\Xov for <^vAtoi/ Lat. folium, 

111. After ai/, ov, ap, op, t IS shifted to the preceding syllable, form- 
ing ati/, otv, aip, otp. This is called Epenthesis (iTrlvOeais insertio7i), 

<paiv(j3 shoic for (pav-ua, jj.4\<xiva black for fxeXav-ut, <nraLpio gosp for (nrap-i<jj, (juoipa 
fate for fj,op~ia. (So KXaiot weep for K\af-iw 38 a.) On i after ei/, ep, t^-, ip, v;/, 
yp, see 37 a. 

112. Ki, xi become tt (=crcr 78): <^vAdrTa> guard for <f>vXxiK-ui} 
(cp. 4>'^ko.Krj guard) f japdrTO) disturb for Tapa;!(-ia) (cp. Tapaxy disorder). 

105 D. <T is assimilated in Aeol. and Horn. '4/jLiJLcuaL to be for ia-jj^vai (eimi), 
dpy€vv6s white for dpyea-vos, ip^^evvbs dark {ip€^e<r~vo$^ Cp. "EpejSos), d/i/ie loe, 
f!/i/ies ^0« (ao-jLte, i)<r/xes). Cp. 81 D. 

106 D. AeoHc has o-5 for medial f in iJo-Sos branch (6'fos), /ieX((r6w mafce 
melody (jieXi^w), 

107 D. Homer often retains o-o- : jSAeo-o-i, tTreo-o-i, rt\4<J(rai, 



30 EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS [113 

113. (I) Tt, Ol after long vowels, diphthongs, and consonants 
become or ; after short vowels ti, 6l become (r(r (Jaot = tt 78), which 
is simplified to o-. 

ala-a fate from atr-ta, Tracra (zZ? from Travr-ia, fx^aos middle (Horn, /x^crcros) 
from /jL€6-ips (cp. Lat. med^Uis), rda-os so great (Hom. rda-a-os) from ror-toj (cp. 
Lat. toti-dem). 

a. In the above cases rt passed into to-. Thus iravT-ia^ iravra-a, vava^aa, ndpaa 
(Cretan, Thessalian), irdaa (37 D, 3). 

114. (II) Ti, ^t become tt (= o-cr 78): ftiXirfa bee from /xeXtT-ta 
(cp. fjiiXij-LTo^ honey), Kopm-Ta equip from KopvO-Loi (cp. Kopusj -v^os helmet). 

a. x^p^€a-ffa graceful and other feminine adjectives in -ecrcra are poetical, and 
therefore do not assume the native Attic prose form in tt. But see 299 c- 

b. TT from Tt, ^t is due to analogy, chiefly of tt from kl. 

115. t before final t often becomes o-. Thus, Tt^Tyort places for 
Tt^iyrt ; also in irXovatos rich for TrAovT-tos (cp. ttXovtos wealth), 

a. rr before final t becomes I'cr, which drops v : ^x°^<^^ ihey have for €xovtl (37). 

116. St between vowels and yt after a vowel form t, : thus, cXTrt^o 

^OJ^e for €A.7rtS-ta), Trends On /ooi for TreS-tos (cp. TTcS-to-i/ ground), dpTrdloi 

seize for dpTray-tw (cp, apTra^ TOpacious), After a consonant yt forms 
S: epSoj iforA; from ipy-to), 

117. TTi becomes XT, as in xaX^xTw opjoressfrom xaX«T-iw. pe becomes pp in 
Boppds from Bop^a? Boreas. Here c was sounded nearly like y (44, 61 a). 



DISAPPEARANCE OF S AND F 

118. The spirant o- with a vowel before or after it is often lost. 
Its former presence is known bj earlier Greek forms or from the 
cognate languages. 

119. Initial a before a vowel becomes the rough breathing. 

cTTTd seven, Lat. septem; ^fiurvs half Lat. semi-; ia-Ttjfn put for (n-ffT-q-^i^ Lat. 

si-strO ; €iir6ix7jv I followed from i-aeir-o-ijitjp, Lat. sequor. 

a. When retained, this a- is due to phonetic change (as a-^v for ^vv, aTy^ silence 
for (xmyri Germ, schweigen), or to analogy. On the loss of * see 125 e, 

120. Between vowels cr is dropped. 

7^voi;j 0/ (z race from 'y€V€{cr)-os, J^nt, gener-is, XiJet i/iow loosest from Xt;^? for 
Xi;e-(o-)at, AfJou from eXue-(o-)o f/iow dt'dst Zonse /or thyself TtBeTo for TideTa-o, 
etrjv from ia--ni-P Old Lat. siem, dXifJ^e-ia ir-wJ/i from dX7j5ccr-ta. 

115 D. Doric often retains t {rld-nn, ix^vTi), <y^ is not from (Dor.) t4 (cp. 
Lat. ^0), i>or J9 (Tof from toI. 



,25] EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS 31 

a. Yet <y appears in some -a« forms. (rf^eo-ai, Uraao)^ and in Opa<jit = dapaM 
128. (J- between vowels is due to phonetic change (as a for o-o- 107, irXoiio-ior for 
B-Xoi/Tios 115) or to analogy (as eXDtra for ^XDa, modelled on ^5«K-o--a), cp, 35 c. 

121. o- usually disappears in the aorist of liquid verbs (active and middle; 
with lengthening of the preceding vowel (37): eo-retXa / sent for ^o-reX-o-a, t4>T}va 
J showed for i(f>av-<Ta^ i<f>-^yaro for i(f>av-craTO, Cp. 102, 

122- Digamma (3) has disappeared in Attic. 
The following special cases are to be noted : 

a. In nouns of the third declension with a stem in av, ev, or ov (43). Thus, 
vavi ship, gen. vetSs from vt}p-i^^ ^aaiK^'Os king, ge"n. ^ao-tX^ws from pa(n\T}f-o$ (34). 

b. In the augment and reduplication of verbs beginning with f : elpyai^dfiijv 
JworJced from i-frepya^ofirjv, eoi/ca am like from pcfoiKa, Cp. 431, 443. 

C, In verbs in eo? for e/rw : p^oj 7 ^ow, fut. pct;-<ro/i,at. 

123. Some words have lost initial <r/r • -^SiJs sweet (Lat. svLa{d)xis), o5, of, 
^ him^ Hi his (Lat. smms), t^os custom, ^9os character (Lat. con-suetus), 

ASPIRATION 

• 124. A smooth stop (ir, t, k), brought before the rough breathing 
hj elision, crasis, or in forming compounds, is made roughj becom- 
ing an aspirate (^, 0, x)- C!p. 16 a. 

d^' oV for <iTr(o) oh, yi^x^' HXtjy for y}L>KT{a) SXtjv (82) ; Oarepov the Other (69), 
$olfidTiav for ri ifidnov the cloak (66) ; p.e&itjp.i let go for /ieT(d) i7j/ii, aO^dSTjs sei/- 
wi7Zed from aijris scZ/ and aSeTv please, 

a. A medial rough breathing, passing over p, roughens a preceding smooth 
stop : (f>povp6s watchman from irpo-bpos, (ppoOdos gone from Trp6 and 656s, T^Optinrov 
four-horse chariot (rerp -\- i-mros), 

125. Two rough stops beginning successive syllables of the same 
word are avoided in Greek. A rough stop is changed into a smooth 
stop when the following syllable contains a rough stop. 

a. In reduplication (441) initial <p, 6, x are changed to ir, r, k. Thus, iritpevya 
for 0e-0eu-7a perfect of tpeOyw Jlee, Tl-Oij-pn place for di-$7}-pii, K^-x-rj-va for x^-XV-^o- 
perf. of xtii^Kt^ gape. 

b. In the first aorist passive imperative -0l becomes -n after -dr)-, as in XiJ-^T?-ri 
for \v-e7}'0i ; elsewhere -^t is retained (ypQei). 

c. In the aorist passive, de- and ^u- are changed to re- and tv- in i-r^-Oriv icas 
placed (rievfj^i) and i~T(i-er}v was sacrificed {dvot). 

d. From the same objection to a succession of rough stops are due dpLir^xu) 
dfiTria-xta clothe for dfi(p-, ^Kc-x^Lpia truce for ^xe-xeiptd (from ex^t^ and x^'P)* 

123 D. Horn, eiiadc pileased stands for iffcde from ecr/raSe. 

124 D. New Ionic generally leaves ir, r, k before the rough breathing: dir' o5, 
{j^tItjiu, Tovrepov. But in compounds (9 D.) 0, 9, x inay appear: pi^0o5os method 
(fUTd after + 656s way). 



32 EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS [126 

e. The rough breathing, as an aspirate (16 a), often disappeared when either 
of the two following syllables contains ^, e, or x- ^X^ have stands for t'xw 
= (T€X(^ (119, cp. e-trxof), the rough changing to the smooth breathing before a 
rough stop. The rough breathing reappears in the future e^w, Cp. fcxw restrain 
for tcxw from o-i-o-x-w, eSedXop foundation^ but iSos seat, Lat. sedes. 

f. In dpi^ hair, gen. sing, Tptx-6s for dpixos, dat. pi. 6pi^i ; rax^s swift, 
comparative Taxtwf (rare) or ddrTwv {dda-crujv) from 6ax^(^v (H-^)- 

g. In Ta0- (rd^os tom6), pres. ddtr-r-u} bury, fut. ^cti/'w, perf. r^^a/i-ziat (85); 
Tp^^o) nourish, fut. Bp^^tj, perf. T^-epap^fiat ; rpixi^ run, fut. dpi^op^ai ; Tpu0- 
{rpvip-ff delicacy), pres. dptJirro} enfeeble, fut. dp^^u}\ rtxpw smoke, perf. T4~6vp^fiat. 

N. — The two rough stops remain unchanged in the aorist passive idpi<pdf}v 
was nourished, i6p6(pd-r)v was enfeebled, i4>dpBr)v was shown forth, <hpdd}dr)i> was 
set upright, ^$4\xB^v was charmed, iKaddpBrjv was purified; in the perfect inf. 
ire^dvOai, K€Ka6dp6ai, reddc^dai ; in the imperatives ypd<p-r}dt, he Written, a-rpdcptjdi 
turn about^ (pd6i say. 

126. Transfer of Aspiration. — Aspiration may be transferred to 
a following syllable : 7raa-xa> for -rrad-crKw (cp. 98). 

127. Some roots show variation between a final smooth and a rough stop ; 
54xop.ai receive, SaipoSSKos bribe-taker ; d\€i<pu} anoint, XLttos fat; ttX^ko) weave, 
7rXoxu.6s braid of hair ; and in the perfect, as ^x<^ from ^70; lead. 

VABIOUS CONSONANT CHANGES 

128. Metathesis (transposition). — A vowel and a consonant often ex- 
change places : Jlviu^ the Pnyx, gen. IlvKvbs, tIktoj bear for ti-tk-uj (cp. rcK-eiy). 

a. Transposition proper does not occur where we have to do with ap, pa = p 
(20, 35 b) as in ddpa-os and Opdaos courage ; or with syncope (44 b) due to early 
shifting of accent, as in ir^r-ofiaifly, tTTe-pbv wing ; or where a long vowel follows 
the syncopated root, as in TiiL-voi re-Tfnj-Ka I have cut. 

In ^4^\T}Ka I have thrown {^dWuj throw), j3\t} is formed from jSeXc found in 
§e\e-p.vov missile. 

129. Dissimilation. — a. X sometimes becomes p when X appears in the 
same word .- dpja\4os painful for dXyaXeos (dXyos pain). 

b. A consonant (usually p) sometimes disappears when it occurs also in 
the adjoining syllable: Sp6<paKTos railing for dpv-(ppaKTos (lit. fenced by wood). 

c. Syllabic dissimilation or syncope occurs when the same or two similar 
syllables containing the same consonant succeed each other : d/i0opei5s a jar for 
dp.(j)L-(pop€v$, edpa-vvos bold for 6ap(ro-(rvvos. This is often called haj^lology. 

d. See also under 99, 125 a, b. 

126 D. Hdt. has iydaOra there (ivTavda), ivdevrev thenCe (ivnvdzv), KtOthv 
tunic (xtTtij'). 

127 r>. Horn, and Hdt. have aSns again (adOis), o^kI not (oiix^). All the 
dialects except Attic have S^KOfiat. 

128 D. Horn. Kpadir), Kapdir) heart, Kapna-Tos best (Kpdria-ros), ^dpSiaros slow- 
est (/3pa5i;s), Spards and -dapros from d4pu} flay, f~5paKov saw from d^pKofiai see. 



J33] I^INAL CONSONAxN'TS 33 

130. Development. — 5 is developed between v and p, as in ivbpbs of a man 
for dvpos from avTjp (cp. cinder with Lat. cineris) ; /3 is developed between /x and 
p (or X), as in fxea-rj/x^pia midday, south from fiecr-rj/xpia for fieir-rjfiepid from /a^o-oj 
middle and ^/i^/)a day (cp. chamber with Lat. camera). 

131. Labials and dentals often correspond : ttoij''?} and rlais retribution ; 
tp6vos murder, delvo) strike, rr and k: alTr6\os goat-herd, ^ovk6\os ox-herd, ttt 
for T is found in irTdXe/xos war, tttSXls city for 7r6\efios, irSXts. Cp. Neoptolemus 
and Ptolemy. So x^ and x in x^^'' ground, x^^a^ o« ^^^^ ground. 

132. The dialects often show consonants different from Attic in the same 
OT kindred words. 

FINAL CONSONANTS 

133. No consonant except v, p, or o- (including ^ and \j/) can stand 
at the end of a Greek word. All other consonants are dropped. 

a. Exceptions are the proclitics (179) iK out of, derived from 4^ (cp. 104, 
136), and oO«: not, of which oil is anotlier form (137). 

b. Examples of dropped final consonants : aGj^ia body for auifiar (gen. ffiafiar- 
os); TTfli oh boy for iratS (gen. iraiS-ds); ydXa milk for yakaKr (gen. yd\aKT-os); 
(pipov bearing for tpepovr (gen. <j>4povr-os) ; ktIp heart for kt}p^, cp. Kap5-ia. ; dXXo 
for dXi^oS (110), cp, Lat. aliud; %fp€p€-(r) was carrying, etpepo-v^r) were carry- 
ing (iGi c, e). 

c. An original final m preceded by a vowel becomes v, cp. Xinrov with Lat. 
equum. So ?*- one from e/i (349 a), Lat. sem-el, d/xa once. 

130 D. So in Horn. fi^-p-^Xw-Ka have gone from ^tXw from /ioX- in e~fw\-o-v 
(128a). At the beginning of words this p, is dropped; thus, /SXtio-zrw go, 
ppords mortal for ^/Spo-ros (root aV'o-j /^P~» ^-s J" mor-tuus). In composition /z 
remains, as in d-p^poros immortal ; but d-^poros immortal is formed from ^pords. 

132 D. T for <r : Doric rii, toL, t4, SidKarloL (5 la Kdcr to l), fiKarL (etKoaC), Ilorei- 
Sip (Xloo-eiStiv). 
fl- " T : Doric a-dfxepov to-day (rijpepov Attic, ff-fjpxpQv Ionic). 
K " TT : Ionic (not Horn.) Kbre when, KSrepos which of two ? Skojs, 

k6(T0S, KIJ. 

K " T : Doric Trdica {iritTe), S/ca {6t€). 

■y " ^ : Doric yX^cpapov eyelid, yXdxoJv (Ion. yXiix^v) pennyroyal, 

8 '* /3: Doric (55eX6s (^^oXos) a spit. ' 

IT " T : Hom. irla-vpes, Aeol. 1r4a-<rvpes four (r^r rapes) ; Aeol. tt^Xdi 

/ar c*.^ (cp. T7jX6(re), irifxirc five (Trivrc). 
e " T : see 126 *D. 
(|> *' ^ : Hom, 0-^p centaur (B-ijp beast), 
p " (T : (rhotacesm) : late Laconian, Elean r£p wAo, Thessal. Qe6p5o- 

ros god-given, 
a- ^^ 6 : late Laconian <ri6s for 0e6s god (26 D.). 
V " X : Doric ^v0€iv come. 

GREEK GRAM. — 3 



34 MOVABLK CONSONANTS [134 



MOVABLE CONSONANTS 

134. Movable N may be added at the end of a word when the next 
word begins with a vowel. Movable v may be annexed to words 
ending in -at ; to the third person singular in -e ; and to iarl is. 

Thus, iracriv €X€7€J' iKeiva he said that to everybody (but iraa-L X^ovcri raCra), 
'K^yov<riv i/jioi they speak to me (but X^yova-i /xoi), Hamv fiXXos the7'e is another 
(187 b), 'ke-qvifiiriv ^a-av they were at Athens. 

a. Except iari^ words tliat add *' do not elide tbeir final vowel (73). 

b. Verbs in -ew never (in Attic) add -v to the 3 sing, of the co7Uracted form : 
e5 iiroiei airhv he treated him well. But ^je: went and pluperfects (as ^dei knew) 
may add v. 

N. — Movable v is called v i<p€\KVffTLK6v (dragging after), 

135. Movable y is usually written at the end of clauses, and at the end of a 
verse In poetry. To make a syllable long by position (144) the poets add y 
before words beginning with a consonant. Prose inscriptions frequently use 
V before a consonant. 

136. Movable S appears in o:ut<09 thus, If out of, before vowels, ouro), 
iK before consonants. Thus, ovro)^ IttoUl lie acted thus but ovrta iroiu 
he acts thus; ef ayopas but €< rrjs dyopa^ Out of the market-place. 

a. eirdiii means straightway^ eidij straight towards. 

137. oOk not is used before the smooth breathing, oix (cp. 124) before 
the rough breathing: om 6Xiyoi^ oix v5^^- Before all consonants ot/ is written : 
-ot; woWol, oO p^'Stos. Standing alone or at the end of its clause ov is written o^ 

(rarely oCk:), as ttw? yap oti; for how not 9 Cp. 180 a. 

a. A longer form is 01^%^ (Ion. oWi) used before vowels and consonants. 

b, iitiKin no longer derive^ its k from the analogy of oiK^rt no longer. 

SYLLABLES 

138. There are as many syllables in a Greek word as there are 
separate vowels or diphthongs : thus, a-kyj-Oci-a truth. 

139. The last syllable is called the ultima; the next to the last 
syllable is called the 2^emdt (paen-ultima almost last) ; the one before 
the penult is called the antepenult (ante-paen-ultima). 

134 D. Horn, has iydi^v) I, 5.jifxi{y) to us, ij/ifjuiv) to you, <r(pi{v) to them. The 
suffixes -<pt and -Be vary with -<l>tv and -Bev. B€6<pi{v), -Kpho-Be^v), Also k^{v) 
= Attic 6,v, v{!(v) now. The Mss. of Hdt. avoid movable i/, but it occurs in Ionic 
inscriptions. Hdt. often has -Be for -Bev {irphcxd^ before, tirucxde hehind). 

136 D. Several adverbs often omit s without much regard to the following 
word: 6.}j.(pl about, dfjL<pls (poet.), n^xph ^Xpi- tiniil (rarely /u^xP's, dxpts), arp^/xas 
and drp^fjLa quietly , -iroWdKis often (ttoXXxw-j Horn., Hdt.), 



145] SYLLABLES 35 

140. In pronouncing Greek words and in writing (at the end of the line) 
the rules commonly observed are these : 

a. A single consonant standing between two vowels in one word belongs with 
the second vowel : A-yw, tro-^f-fu?. 

b. Any group of consonants that can begin a word, and a group formed by 
a stop with /i or y, and by fiy, belongs with the second vowel : nJ-irrt?, 6-75005, 
d-crrpov, f-x^os ; irpa,-yfj.a, ^-dvos, Xi-fiyj}. 

c. A group of consonants that cannot begin a word is divided between two 
syllables: dv-0os, ^X-iris, ep-7/xa. Doubled consonants are divided : ^dXar-Ta. 

d. Compounds divide at the point of union : elc-ip^po}^ irpocr-^^pw ; ay-dybi^ eiV- 
d7w, a-vv-ix^' (But the ancients often wrote a-y&'^w^ el-cdyof^ rpo-aeKdeXv^ i-^dy<a^ 
5i}-a-dp€(rTOS.) 

e. (T, when followed by one or more consonants, is either attached to the 
preceding vowel (&-pi<x-Tos)^ or, with the consonant, begins the following syllable 
(i-pt-o-ros) . (The ancients were not consistent, and there is evidence for the 
pronunciation d-picr-crroj.) 

f. The ancients divided €k Toirov as i-K tov-tov. This practice is now 
abandoned. 

141. A syllable ending in a vowel is said to be open ; one ending 
in a consonant is closed. Thus, in fi-j-r-Qp mother the first syllable is 
open, the second closed. 



QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES 

142. A syllable is short when it contains a short vowel followed 
by a vowel or a single consonant : ^€-05 godj i-vo-fju-o-a I thought. 

143. A syllable is long by nature when it contains a long vowel 
or a diphthong : ^^P^ country, Sov-Xo^ slave. 

144. A syllable is long by position when its vowel precedes two 
consonants or a double consonant : ittttos horse, ii out of, 

a. One or both of the two consonants lengthening a final syllable by position 
may belong to the next word : &\\os TroXtrTjs, &\\o kttj/jxl. 

b. Length by position does not affect the natui'al quantity of a vowel. Thus, 
both \i-^u I shall say and Xt^-^w 7 shall cease have the first syllable long by 
position ; but the first vowel is short in Xe^w, long in X'/j^u. 

145. A stop with a liquid after a short vowel need not make 
the preceding syllable long by position. A syllable containing a 
short vowel before a stop and a liquid is common (either short 
or long). When short, such syllables are said to have weak position. 

Thus, in ddKpv, Trarphs, 6ir\ov, t4kvov, tI Spqi the first syllable is either long or 
short as the verse reqiiires. In Homer the syllable before a stop with a liquid 
is us\ially long ; in Attic it is usually short. 

144 D. f may be one of the two consonants: irpbs (f)6lKoy ( w). 



36 SYLLABLES [146 

a. The stop and the liquid making weak position must stand in the same 
word or in the same part of a compound. Thus, in eK-Xdw / release the first 
syllable is always long, but in e-K>ve he heard it is common. 

b. /5, 7, 5 before /x, or v, and usually before X, make the preceding syllable 
long by position. Thus, dyv6s ( <^) pure^ jBt^Xlov (w (^ ^^) book. 

N. — ' Common ' quantity has been explained as due to a difference in syllabic 
division. Thus, in t€kvov^ the first syllable is closed (t^k-pop); while in tckpov 
the first syllable is open (ri-Kvop). Cp. 141. 

146. The quantity of most syllables is usually apparent. Thus, Syllables 

a. with 77, w, or a diphthong, are long. 

b. with f, 0, before a vowel oi' a single consonant, are short. 

c. with e, 0, before two consonants, or a double consonant, are long, 

d. with a, f, u, before two consonants, or a double consonant, are long. 
N. — But syllables with e, 0, or a, t, u before a stop and a liquid may be 

short (145). Cp. also 147 c, 

147. The quantity of syllables containing a, t, u before a vowel or a single 
consonant must be learned by observation, especially in poetry. Note, however, 
that a, i, u are always long 

a. when they have the circumflex accent : Tras, vfitp. 

b. when they arise from contraction (59) or crasis (62): y^pa from yipaa, 
apyds idle from d-ep7os (but apyds bright), Kayih from /cat ^yib. 

c. I and u are generally short before ^ (except as initial sounds in augmented 
forms, 435) and a, t, v before ^ Thus, K^piJI, iKi^pv^a, irpf^u}, dpTrafw, ^XTrffw. 

d. as, t$, and us are long when if or vt has dropped out before s (96, 100). 

e. The accent often shows the quantity (163, 164, 170). 

148. A vowel standing before another vowel in a Greek word is not neces- 
sarily short (as it usually is in classical Latin). 

146 D. In Hom. an initial liquid, nasal, and digamma (3) was probably 
doubled in pronunciation when it followed a short syllable carrying the 
rhythmic accent. Here a final short vowel appears in a long syllable ; iyl 
fieydpotai. (v_/ .z_ w w _:_ v^), cp. 28 D. The lengthening is sometimes due to the 

former presence of o- or f before the liquid or nasal : ore Xy^eiep ^ _: i_ ^^ (cp. 

dWijKTos unceasing tor d-crX'r}KTos), re p-j^eiv _: :_ (cp. &ppr}KTOs unbroken for 

d-fPVKros). (Cp. 80 a, 80 D., 81 D.) 

147 D. a, i, u in Hom. sometimes show a different quantity than in Attic. 
Thus, Att. icdX6s, rtpiOy <pdapu^ Xvu, Kt^jxl, Hom. /caX6s, rtvw, (pddpo) (28), and Xuw 
and "irjfxi usually. 

148 D. 1. In Horn., and sometimes in the lyric parts of the dram^a syllable 
ending in a long vowel or diphthong is shortened before an initial vowel ; dt^w iXiJjv 

(_:_ v^ w -L.)-, eijx^rai elvai (_l_ w w _: ), k\v61 /xev dpyvpiro^' (_i_ v^ w _l- w w ♦ ). 

Here i and u have become semivowels (20, 43) ; thus, eiixera \ yeivai, cp. 67. 
-«i) 'V^ -V ^ere shortened like d, 7, w. Thus, dairin^ WPV (— w \j ^ ), 

2. This shortening does not occur when the rhythmic accent falls upon the 
final syllable; dvrtdii^ 'OSutr^t (_:_ w w _:_ w w _:_ w), <^ ^*'' C-^-v^- w). 



154] ACCENT 37 



ACCENT 

149. There are three accents in Greek. No Greek accent can 
stand farther bacV than the antepenult, 

1. Acute (') : over short or long vowels and diphthongs. It may 
stdnd on ultima, penult, or antepenult : koAo?, Saifiwv, dvOpoiTro^. 

2. Circumflex ("): over vowels long by nature and diphthongs. It 
may stand on ultima or penult: yrj, O^ov, hSypov, tovto. 

3. Grave ('): over short or long vowels and diphthongs. It stands 
on the ultima only : tov dvhpd^ rrjv rvx^v, ol O^ol rrjs 'EAAa8o9. 

150. The acute marks syllables pronounced in a raised tone. 
The grave is a low-pitched tone as contrasted with the acute. The 
eircumiiex combines acute and grave. 

151. Accented syllables in Ancient Greek had a higher pitch {t6vos) them 
unaccented syllables, and it was the rising and falling of tbe pitch that made 
Ancient Greek a musical language. The Greek word for accent is irpocifUa 
(Lat. accentus : from ad-cano), i.e. 'song accompanying words.* Musical 
accent (elevation and depression of tone) is to be distinguished from quantity 
(duration of tone), and from rhythmic accent (stress of voice at fixed intervals 
when there is a regular sequence of long and short syllables), 

N. — The accent heard in Modern Greek and Enghsh is a stress-accent. 
Stress is produced by strong and weak expiration, and takes account of accented 
syllables to the neglect of the quantity of unaccented syllables. Thus, shortly 
after Christ, dvepuwos was often pronounced like a dactyl, tpiXos like a trochee ; 
and wp6(T03irov^ iwia, were even written irpoa-oTrov^ iwqa. 

152. The marks of accent are placed over the vowel of the accented syllable. 
A diphthong has the accent over its second vowel (jovto)^ except in the case of 
capital 9, 17, V (as "'Ai57;s, 5), where the accent stands before tlie first voweL 

153. A breathing is written before the acute and grave (oV, •^), but under 
the circumflex (w, oSros). Accents and breathings are placed before capitals: 
"OixTjpos^ *fipat. The accent stands over a mark of diaeresis (8) ; kXtj'iSi. 

154. The grave is written in place of a final acute on a word that 
is followed immediately by another word in the sentence. ThuSj 
fjLCTa rrjv fidx^^ after the battle (for fxerd rrjv fxdxqv). It is also some- 
times placed on rk, rl (334), to distinguish these indefinite pronouns 
from the interrogatives rt's, rt. 

a. An oxytone (157) changes its acute to the grave when followed by another 
word, except: (1) when the oxytone is followed by an enclitic (183 a); (2) in tIs, 
tL interrogative, as t/s oStos ; who'^s this ? (3) when an elided syllable follows 

3. Tlie shortening rarely occurs in the interior of a word. 'J'bus, Hom. ijpiaos 

( \j w), ^16}^ (\^ \j). In the Attic drama avTTft ( kj ), toiovtos (w \^), 

TTotw (v^ ), often written iroCo in inscriptions (cp. 43). 



S8 ACCENT [155 

the accented syllable: ci/x^' o^Vf (l'^^), "^t vvx&' oKv^ (174a); (4) when a 
colon or period follows. (Usage variey before a coiuiua.) 

155. The ancients regarded tlie grave originally as belonging to every sylla- 
ble not accented with the acute or circumflex ; and some Mss. show this in 
practice, e.g. w ay Kpar-^s. Later it was restricted to its use as a substitute for a 
final acute. ^ 

156. The circumflex is formed from the union of the acute and the grave 
^/\ __ ^ ^^ never from ^''. Thus, irah — irdis, e5 = ei>. Similarly, since every long 
vowel may be resolved into two short units (morae), ruyv may be regarded as 
= Tddy. The circumflex was thus spoken with a rising tone followed by one of 
lower pitch. fMoOa-a^ 5^/xos are thus = /j^i/a-a, S^cfios ; /xoiJcn^s, S^/xoy are = /xiiJcn^s, 
d^^fiov. In dLdovaa (i.e. 5i56i)cra) compared with 5t5oi/s the accent has receded 
(159) one mora. 

a. The whole vowel receives the acute when the second short unit of a vowel 
long by nature is accented : At = Ait. 

157. Words are named according to their accent as follows: 
Oxytone (acute on the ultima) : Ojjp^ KoKost AeAvKws. 
Paroxytone (acute on the penult) : X^w, XetVoj, AeAukotos. 
Proparoxytoue (acute on the antepenult) : av6pwro<;, TratSevo/zei/, 
Perispomenon (circumflex on the ultima) : y^, Oeov. 
Properispomenon (circumflex on the penult) : Tr/oofts, fiovo-a. 
Barytone (when the ultima is unaccented, 158) : /xovcra, iJi-^rrjpf ^roXe/xo?. 

158. A word is called barytone {^apt>-rovos deep-toned, low-toned) when it 
has no accent on the ultima. All paroxytones, proparoxytones, and properi- 
spomena are also barytones. 

159. An accent is called recessive when it moves back as far from the end 
of the word as the quantity of the ultima permits (166*). The quantity of the 
penult is here disregarded (^Tp^irwfiev). Cp. 178. 

160. Oxytone (o|i;s, sharp + rSvos) means * shaip-toned,' perispomenon (irept- 
cmhpievoi) ' tumed-around ' {circumjlectns, 15(>). Paroxytone and proparoxytone 
are derived from 6^^rovo$ with the prepositions irapd and irpb respectively. Acute 
corresponds to Lat. acutus (ti^em, scil. Trpocrt^jS^a). 

161. The invention of the marks of accent is attributed to Aristophanes of 
Byzantium, librarian at Alexandria about 200 b.c. The use of signs served to 
fix the correct accentuation, which was becoming uncertain in the third century 
B.C.; marked the variation of dialect usage; and rendered the acquisition of 
Greek easier for foreigners. The signs for the accents (and the breathings) 
were not regularly employed in Mss. till after 600 a.d. 

162. The position of the accent has to be learned by observation. But the 
kind of accent is determined by the following rules. 

162 D. 1. Aeolic has recessive (159) accent in all words except prepositions 
and coniunctions. Thus, crStpos, ZeOs, i.e. 7,4vs, aSros, Xiireiv (= Xnreiv)^ \iirovTO% 



i69] ACCENT 39 

163, The antepenult, if accented, can have the acute only (avOpay 
■7ro9, pafjLkeia qtceeu^ otKoc^uAaKos of a house-guard). If the ultima is 
long, either by nature or by position (144), tlie antepenult cannot 
tate an accent: hence dvOpu}Trov (176a), fiaaikeCd kingdom, OLKo<f>vXa^. 

a. Some nouns in -ecus and -eioy admit the acute on the antepenult. Thus, 
the genitive of nouns in -is and -us (irdXeois, TriXtw;', dtrreajs), the forms of the 
Attic declension, as ?Xews (289). So the Ionic genitive in -ew (TroXtrew) ; also 
some compound adjectives in -ws, as diaepw unhappy in love, ufkepws lofty 
antlered. On (Svtivojv see 186. 

~ 164. The penult, if accented and long, takes the circumflex -when 
the ultima is short by nature (i/^o-o?, ravTo), In all other cases it has 
the acute (<^d^os, XeXvKOTO'^f tovtov). 

a. Apparent exceptions are &(rT€, ouns, ijde (properly ^5e). See 186. 

b. A final syllable containing a vowel short by nature followed by ^ orf does 
not permit the acute to stand on the antepenult {oUocp^Xa^) ; but the circumflex 
may stand on the penult (Kijpv^) . 

165. The ultima, if accented and short, has the acute (TroTa/jto?) ; 
if accented and long, has either the acute (XeXvKoi?), or the circumflex 
(liepiKXyji). 

166. When the ultima is long, the acute cannot stand on the 
antepenult, nor the circumflex on the penult. Thus, av^powrou and 
hS>pov are impossible. 

167. When the ultima is short, a word, if accented 

a. on the ultima, has the acute : o-o<^o?, 

b. on a short penult, has the acute : i/o^o?. 

c. on a long penult, has the circumflex: d^pov, 

d. on the antepenult, has the acute : dvOpoyTros. 

168. When the ultima is long, a word, if accented 

a. on the ultima, has the acute or the circumflex: eyco, o-o<^cos, 

b. on the penult, has the acute : Ximv, ^Ifxuiv. 

169. Final -at and -ot are regarded as short: fioOcrai, /3oE/Xo/iat, irpinroKai, 
S.v6po}iroL. But in the optative -cl and -oi are long (Xoaat, ^ovXeOoi), as in con- 
tracted syllables. So also iu the locative otKoi at home (but ohoi houses). 

a. The difference in the quantitative treatment of -ai and -oi depends on an 
original difference of accentuation that may have vanished in Greek, -ai and 

2. Doric regarded final -o: (169) as long (dvepd-rroi), and probably -at in nouns 
(xtipai); made paroxytones the 3 pi. act. of the past tenses {i<^ipov, iXttrav) and 
such words as TrafSes, yv^atKis, irrtiras ; made perispomena the gen. masc. pi. of 
pronouns (rourwv, dXXwj') and the gen. fern. pi. of adj. in -os {&!i<poTepav). The 
substitution, in the accus. pi., of -a^^ and -o^ for -as and -ous, caused no change 
in the accent (Trdo-as, dju^r^Xos). 



40 ACCENT [170 

-Of, when short, were pronounced with a clipped, or simple, tone; when long, 
with a drawled, or compound, tone. 

170. The quantity of a, t, v (147) may often be learned from the accent. 
Thus, in OdXarra^ Tf^Awrus, tttjxvs^ diiyafjus^ fiTJvii, the vowel of the last syllable 
must be short; in ^L\os the i must be short (otherwise <pi\os). Cp. 163, 

ACCEKT AS AFFECTED BY CONTRACTION, OKASIS, AND ELISION 

171. Contraction. — If either of the syllables to be contracted had 
an accent, the contracted syllable has an accent. Thus : 

a. A contracted antepenult has the acute ; tpiKeb^xevos = <pi\oT6p,€vos. 

b. A contracted penult has the circumflex when the ultima is short ; the 
acute, when the ultima is long : <PlK^ov<xi = <^iXovcri, *pi\e6fT0}v = <pL\ovyro}v. 

c. A contracted ultima has the acute when the uncontracted form was 
oxytone : earadbs = €ct<Jjs ; Otherwise, the circumflex : ^iKioi = <pi\Co. 

N. 1. — A contracted syllable has the circumflex only when, in the uncon- 
tracted form, an acute was followed by the (unwritten) grave (156, 156). 
Thus, UepiKX^^s = IlfpisX^s, rZ/xadj = tT/xw. In all other cases we have the acute : 

N. 2. — Exceptions to 171 "are often due to the analogy of other forms (236 a, 
264 e, 279 a, 290 c, 309 a). 

172. If neither of the syllables to be contracted had an accent, 
the contracted syllable has no accent : c^tAee = c^iAet, yeVet = yeVa, 
TrejowrAoos = TTcjotVAo-us. For exceptions, see 236 b. 

173. Crasis, — In crasis, the first word (as less important) loses 
its accent : rayaOd for ra dyaBd, rdv for ra ev, Kayui for xai eyw. 

a- If the second word is a dissyllabic paroxytone with short nltima, it is uncer- 
tain whether, in crasis, the paroxytone remains or changes to properispomenoa. 
In this book roijpyov^ raXXa are written for t6 ep-yov, to. &\\a ; but many scholars 
write ro^pyov, raXXa. 

174. EHsion. — In elision, oxytone prepositions and conjunctions 
lose their accent : Trap' (for irapa) €/Aot), dAA*(for aAAa) eyw. In other oxy- 
tones the accent is thrown back to the penult : ttoAA' (for ttoXXo.) enaOov. 

a. Observe that in ttS'XX ewadov the acute is not changed to the grave (154 a, 
3). A circumflex does not result from the recession of the accent. Thus, (^ij/a* 
(not <prj^) i-yih for Kpi)^! iyC). rtvd and irord^ after a word which cannot receive 
their accent (183 d), drop their accent : ourw tot ^v, 

ANASTROPHE 

175. Anastrophe (drao-rpo^^ turning-back) occurs in the case of 
oxytone prepositions of two syllables, which throw the accent back 
on the first syllable. 



179] ACCENT, I>KUCL1TICS 41 

a. When the preposition follows its case : tovt(j}v w^pi (for rrepi roiirajj-) 
about these things. No other prepoBition than rrepi follows its case in prose. 

N. 1. — In poetry anastrophe occurs with the other dissyllabic prepositions 
(except avrl^ dfL<pl^ 5id). Ill Homer a preposition following its verb and sepa- 
rated from it by tmesis (1650) also admits anastrophe (Xovcrr) 6.Tro for dTroXoiJo-7;). 

N. 2. — When the final vowel of the preposition is elided, the accent is dropped 
if no mark of punctuation intervenes: x^P'^^'' ^^ ijfj£T^py<np B 374. 

b. When a preposition stands for a compound formed of the preposition and 
iarL Thus, irdpa for -rrdpeari it is permitted^ tvi for ti^e^rt it is possible 
(Jvi is a poetic form of iv). 

N. — In poetry, trdpa, may stand for irdpeiai or irdpeifu ; and &va arise f up I 
is used for dyda-TTjdi. Horn, has ^vl — tEveKri. 

CHANGE OF ACCENT IN DECLENSION, INFLECTION, AND 
COMPOSITION 

176. When a short ultima of the nominative is lengthened in an 
oblique case 

a. a proparoxytone becomes paroxytone : OdXarra 6aXdTTr)<;, dvOpoiiroq 
ayOpiDTTOV. 

b. a properispomenon becomes paroxytone: fjLovaa fxovcnfs, Sdpov ^(i)pov. 

c. an oxytone becomes perispomenon in the genitive and dative of 
the second declension : Oeos $€ov Oedo Btuiv Bwh. 

177. When, for a long ultima, a short ultima is substituted in 
inflection 

a. a dissyllabic paroxytone (with penult long by nature) becomes 
properispomenon : Xvw Xve. 

b. a polysyllabic paroxytone (^^^ith penult either long or short) be- 
comes proparoxytone : -Raihevtsi iraCSeve, TrXtKU) TrXcKO/xev. 

178. In composition the accent is usually recessive (159) in the 
case of substantives and adjectives, regularly in the case of verbs : 
jffaats avd^ao-Ls, ^eo? aOco?, Xve dnoXve. 

a. Proper names having the form of a substantive, adjective, or participle, 
usually change the accent : "EXn-ts (^Xtt^s), TXolvkos (-yXavKSs)^ IVXw/ {yiXwv)* 

b. Special cases will be considered under Declension and Inflection. 

PROCLITICS 

179. Ten monosyllabic words have no accent and are closely con- 
nected with the following word. They are called proclitics (from 
TTpoKXtvo) lean forward). They are: 

The forms of the article beginning with a vowel (o, ^, ol, at); the 
prepositions iv, eis (e?), ii (ck) ; the conjunction el if; w? aSy that 
(also a preposition to) j the negative adverb ov (ovk, ov-x^, 137). 



42 ACCENT, ENCLITICS [i8o 

180. A proclitic sometimes takes an accent, thus : 

a. ov at the end of a sentence : ^ij's, r^ ov; do you say so or not f irws 7ap 
ov ; for why not 9 Also ov no standing alone. 

b. ^^ iv^ and ets receive an acute in poetry when they follow the word to 
which they belong and stand at the end of the verse : Ko^KQiv i^ out of evils ^ 472. 

c. ojs as becomes ^s in poetry Tvhen it f ollovps its noun : debs &s as a god. ws 
standing for ovrais is written &$ even in prose (oiS* &s not even thus). 

d. When the proclitic precedes an enclitic (183 e): cv run, 

N. — 6 used as a relative (for 6's, 1105) is written 6, On 6 demonstrative 
see 1114. 

ENCLITICS 

181. Enclitics (from cyK\tVw lean on, upon) are words attaching 
themselves closely to the i^receding word, after which they are pro- 
nounced rapidly. Enclitics usually lose their accent. They are : 

a. The personal pronouns /wu, /xol, fi4', <j-oO, a-oi, <t^; ov^ ol, ^, and (in 
poetry) (r<picri. 

b. The indefinite pronoun t is, ri in all cases (inclading tov, tQ> for nvbs, 
Tivl^ but excluding drra = Tivd); the indefinite adverbs iro^ (or iro^i), ttt?, ttoL, 
-KoQiv. irori, irii, xt6s. When Used as interrogatives these words are not enclitic 
(t/s, rf, TToO (or 7r6$i), ttiJ, tto?, irbQev^ Trdre, ttw, ttujs). 

c. All dissyllabic forms of the present indicative of djd am and ^i-ntxl say 
{i.e. all except e? and <Pvs). 

d. The particles y^, t^, rot, irip ; the inseparable -5e in 65e, roa-da-de^ etc. 

N. — Enchtics, when they retain their accent, are called orthotone. See 187. 

182. The accent of an eucliticj when it is thrown back upon the 
preceding word, always .ajjpears as an acute : Oyp re (not Orjp re) 'from 

183. The word preceding an enclitic is treated as follows : 

a. An oxytone keeps its accent, and does not change an acute to a grave 
(154 a): 56s ^tot, koKSv iffri. 

b. A perispomenon keeps its accent : ^tXtS o-e, tI}j.G)v tivoiv. 

c. A proparoxytone or properispomenon receives, as an additional accent, 
the acute on the ultima: dvOptJirds rts, EvdpojTrot rti'es, ■^Kov<rii rivuv ; a-Qxrbv ^€, 
7ra?5^s Tives. 

d. A paroxytone receives no additional accent : a monosyllabic enclitic loses 
its accent (x^pa t(s, <pl\os /xov), a dissyllabic enclitic retains its accent (x^P^^ 
Ti,v6^, tpl\oL Tirves) except when its final vowel is ehded (174 a). 

181 D. Also enclitic are the dialectic and poetical forms /ieC, o-^, crcO, rol, t^, 
and TiJ (accus. = <x4), eo, ev, edev., fjLlv, viv, a-4>i, <T<i>lv^ a<f>4^ aipco^, <r4>wtv, (r<p4cov, 
(r<p4as^ <r<pas and <r<pas, (r(p4a,; aLso the particles vii or p^v (not pDv), Epic k4 (k4v), 
6i}v^ pd J and Epic ia-a-i, Ion. els, thou art. 



i88] ACCENT, PUNCTUATION 43 

N. — Like paroxytones are treated proper ispomena ending in £ or ^ when 
followed by a dissyllabic enclitic : Kijpv^ i<Tri ; and so probably KTipv^ res. 
e. A proclitic (17V)) takes an acute : €v rtrt, et xij/es. 

184- Since an enclitic, on losing its accent, forms a part of the preceding 
word, the writing dvepuwos ns would violate the rule (149) that no word can be 
accented on a syllable before the antepenult, A paroxytoue receives no addi- 
tional accent in order that two successive syllables may not have the acute (not 

185- Wlien several enclitics occur iu succession, each receives an accent 
from the following, only the last having no accent : d ttoi/ rh nva tdoi ^x^pbv if 
ever any one saw an enemy anywhere T. 4. 47. 

186. Sometimes an enclitic unites with a preceding word to form a compound 
(cp. Lat. -gwe, -ue), which is accented as if the enclitic were still a separate word. 
Thus, ovT€(not oJre), oxrre, €it€, fcairot, o&tiws, <^tipi, (Sptivcjv ; usually xep (oifcr^fp); 
and the inseparable -Se in o5e, roiJo-Se, otKadi; and -Be and -xt in ci$e (poetic aide), 
valxt- ovre, (^rtvt, etc., are not real exceptions to the rules of accent (163, 164). 

a, olos T€ able is sometimes written oUffre. oOk odu is usuahy written ovkow 
not therefore^ and not therefore ? in distinction from oi/Kovv therefore, eyd} ye 
and ifjLol ye may become e7w7e, efjioiye. 

187. An enclitic retains its accent (is orthotone, cp. 181 N.): 

a. When it is emphatic, as in contrasts : ^ trot tj tQ irarpi gov either to you 
or to your father (^^oy, ^/xo/, ep.^ are emphatic: dich mat k^oi tell me too)^ and 
at the beginning of a sentence or clause : 0?;/*i ydp I say in fact. 

b. etrri is written eo-ri at the beginning of a sentence ; wljen it expresses 
existence or possibility; when it follows oiS/c, /iij, eZ, cl??, ko^^ dWd (ordXX'), 
TovTo (or tovt); and in ea-nv oi some., €<ttlv 6t€ sometimes. Thus, el €<rTit> ovtu}s 
if it is so, TOVTO 6 ea-Tt that which exists. 

C. In the phrases -jroW /a^v . . . ttotc 5^, nvcs ^h . . . TLvh hi. 

d. After a word suffering elision : ttoWoX 5' el<7iv (for 5^ eia-iv), ravr ia-Ti. 

e. When a dissyllabic enclitic follows a paroxytone (183 d). 

N. 1. — When, they are used as indirect reflexives in Attic prose (1228), the 
pronouns of the tliird person oB and a^lci are orthotone, ol is generally enclitic, 
while i is generally orthotone. 

N. 2. — After oxytone prepositions and 'ivcKa enclitic pronouns (except rh) 
usually keep their accent (iirl <rol, not i-rri o-ot ; eveKa aov^ not '€V€Ki <tov ; ^vcKd xov^ 
not HeKa Tov). ifjLov, ipioi.^ efii are used after prepositions {except 7rp6s p.e ; and 
in the drama dpL<f>C (loi). 

MARKS OF PUNCTUATION 

188. Greek has four marks of punctuation. The comma and period have 
the same forms as in English. For the colon and semicolon Greek has only one 
sign, a point above the line (•): ol 5^ t/S^oj? ^TreWovTo- eiriarevov yb,p aiT<f and 
they gladly obeyed; for they trusted him X. A. 1. 2. 2. The jnark of interroga- 
tion ( ; ) is the same as our semicolon : irws ydp ov ; for why not f 



PART II 



INFLECTION 

189. Parts of Speech. — Greek has the following parts of speech : 
substantives, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, con- 
junctions, and particles. In this Grammar noun is used to include 
both the substantive and the adjective. 

190. Inflection is the change in the form of nouns, pronouns, and 
verbs which indicates their relation to other words in the sentence. 
Declension is the inflection of substantives, adjectives (including par- 
ticiples), and pronouns ; conjugation is the inflection of verbs. 

191. Stems. — Inflection is shown by the addition of endings to the stem, 
which is that part of a word which sets iorth the idea ; the endings fit the -word 
to stand in various relations to other words in the sentence. The endings 
originally had distinct meanings, which are now seldom apparent. In verbs they 
represent the force of the personal pronouns in English ; in nouns they often 
'correspond to the ideas expressed by a/, to, for, etc. Thus, the stem X070- 
becomes X67o-s word, the stem X€7o- becomes \4yo-ii€v we say. Whether a stem 
is used as a noun or a verb depends solely on its signification ; maiiy stems are 
used both for nouns and for verbs, as rt/xa- in tI/xtJ honour, rlfia- in rZ/xd-o? 
/ honour ; iXirid- in ^\iri(5)-s hope, iXwi^cj I hope {^XttlS-lw). The pure stem, 
that is, the stem without any ending, may serve as a word ; as x^/?" landf X^ye 
speak ! Xdye oh word I 

192. The stem often changes in form, but not in meaning, in nouns and 
ve^hs. Thus, the stem of X670-S word is X070- or Xo7€-, of -rrar-qp father is irar^p- 
(strong stem) or irarp- (weak stem) ; of Xelvo-iJ^v we leave is Xclito-, of i-Xiiro- 
fi€v we left is \lvo-. The verbal stem is also modified to indicate change in time : 
rlfiri-a-o-fisv we shall honour. 

193. Roots. — The fundamental part of a word, which remains after the 
word has been analyzed into all its component parts, is called a root When 
a stem agrees in form with a root (as in 7ro5-6s, gen. of iroiJs foot) it is called a 
root-stem. A root contains the mere idea of a word in the vaguest and most 
abstract form possible. Thus, the root Xe7i and in another form X07, contains 
the idea of saying simply. By the addition of a formative element we arrive 
at the stems Xf7o- and X070- in \iyo-^€v we say, X670-S word {i.e. what is said). 

44 



i8e-i97] DECLENSION 45 

Words are built by adding to the root certain formative suffixes by which the 
stem and then the word, ready for use, is constructed. Thus, from the root \v 
are formed \^-<n-s loosing^ M-rpo-v ransom^ 'Kv-tl-k^-s able to Zoose, \v-67}~va.L to 
have loosed. The formation of the stem by the addition of suffixes to the root 
is treated in Part III. The root itself may assume various forms without change 
of meaning, as X€7 in \4y-o-fiev we say, X07 in X67-0-9 word, 

N. — Since Greek is connected with the other Indo-European languages, the 
roots which we establish in Greek by analysis of a word into its simplest form 
often reappear in the connected languages (p. 1, A). Thus, the root ^ep of ^ipio 
I bear is seen in Sanskrit bhdrami^ Lat. fero, Germ, ge-hixren. The assumption 
of roots is merely a grammatical convenience in the analysis of word-forms, and 
their determination is part of comparative grammar. Roots and suffixes as such 
never existed as independent words in Greek, or indeed in any known period of 
the parent language from which Greek and the other Indo-European tongues 
are derived. The theory that all roots are monosyllables is ill supported. As 
far back as we can follow the history of the Indo-European languages we find 
only complete words ; hence their analysis into component morphological ele- 
ments is merely a scientific device for purposes of arrangement and classification. 

DECLENSION 

194. Declension deals with variations of nnmberj gender, and case. 

195. Number. — There are three numbers: singular, dual, and 
plural. The dual speaks of two or a pair, as tw 6<f>0aXfLo) the two 
eyes; but it is not often used, and the plural (which denotes more 
than one) is frequently substituted for it (oi 6<^Bak^0L the eyes). 

196. Gender, — There are three genders : masculine, feminine, and 
■neuter. 

a. Gender strictly marks sex-distinction. But in Greek, as in German and 
Erench, many inanimate objects are regarded as masculine or feminine. Such 
words are said to have 'grammatical ' gender, which is determined only by their 
form. Words denoting objects without natural gender usually show their gram- 
matical gender by the form of the adjective, as fiaKpbs Xoyos a long speech^ 
fiaxpa j/^tros a long island, ^laKpov relxos a long wall. 

b. The gender of Greek words is usually indicated by means of the article : 
6 for masculine, -?? for feminine, t6 for neuter. 

197. Rule of Natural Gender. — Kouus denoting male persons are 
masculine, nouns denoting female persons are feminine. Thus, 
o vfxvTT}^ seaman, o-TpaTtwri?? soldier, y} yvvr] woman, 7) Kopyj maiden. 

a, A whole class is designated by the masculine: ol dydptoTroi men, i.e. men 
and women. 

b. ExcEi^TiONS TO THii; Rule of Natural Gender. — Diminutives in -lov 
are neuter (199 d), as to avepdjiriov manikin (6 &v6po)Tros man), to -n-atdlov little 
child (male or female, 6 or ^ 7ra?s child), to y\)mioi' little looman (v ywrj woman). 
Also the words t4kvov, t^kos child (strictly 'thing horn '), aivdpdirodov captive. 



46 DECLENSION [igft 

198. Common Gender, — Many nouns denoting persons are either masculine 

or femmine. 'J'hus, 6 wats bop, ij irats girl, 6 Oeos god, i} deos (rj Bed poet. ) goddess. 
So with names of animals : 6 ^oCs ox, i] jSoOs cokj, 6 'ittttos horse^ i} 'iinros mare. 

. a. Some names of animals have only one grammatical gender without regard 
to sex, as 6 Xayios he-hare or she-hare, 17 dXtiirij^ he-fox ov i>he~fox. 

199. Gender of Sexless Objects. — The gender of most nouns denot- 
ing sexless objects has to be learned by the endings (211; 228, 255) 
and by observation. The following general rules should be noted. 

a. Masculine are the names of winds, months, and most rivers. Thus, 6 Bop4as 
the North Wind, 6 'EKaroiijiaL'Jiv Hecatombacon, 6 Ky}<pi,cro-6s Cephissus. 

N. — The gender of these proper names is made to correspond to 6 Ave/xos wind, 
b ti-fjv month, 6 iroTaiJ,6s river. In the case of winds and rivers the gender may 
be due in part to personification. 

b. Peminine are the names of almost all countries, islands, cities, trees, 
and plants. Thus, i) 'Attlkv Attica, ij AtjXos Delos, 17 KSpivdos Corinth, -f] irirvs 
pine, 7} diMireXos vine. The gender here follows that of -^ 7^ or -^ x<^P^ land, 
country ^ ij ptjctos island, ij irSXis city, 17 SpOs, originally ti^ee in general, but later 
oak (to 54y5pov is the ordinary word for tree). 

c. Feminine are most abstract words, that is, words denoting a quality or a con- 
dition. Thus, 7} dperri virtue, 7) e^voLo. good-will, i) rax^Ttjs swiftness, ij iXirls hope. 

d. Neuter are diminutives (197 b), words and expressions quoted, letters of 
the alphabet, infinitives, and indeclinable nouns. Thus, rb 6/iets the word 'you,^ 
rb yvibdi aeavTov the saying ' learn to know thyself rb AX^a alpha, to Tratdetjeip 
to educate, rd xP^*^^ necessity. 

N. — But some names of women end in -iov(197b): -ij TXvKipLov Glycerium. 

200. Remarks. — a. Most of the exceptions to 199 a^b are due to 
the endings; e.g. 17 Ai^^t? Lethe, ->] Sti/$ Styx (rivers of the Lower World), rb 
"Apyos Argos, 6 KaXvddbv Gati/don, rb'lXioy Ilium, ol AeKtpoi Delphi, 6 Xujt6s lotus, 

h. Change in gender is often associated with change in form ; 6 X^kqs he-wolf, 
7] \vKaLva she-ivolf, 6 ttoitjtt^s poet, v TroL-^TpLo. poetess, b §ioTos and ij pior-^ life, 
6 Tp6iros manner, ij rpoiry} rout. 

c. The gender of one word may influence that of another word of like mean- 
ing. Thus 7} vTjao^ island and 17 Xidos stone are feminine probably because of 
7) yTJ land and 7? ir^rpa. rock. 

201. Cases. — There are five cases : nominative, genitive, dative, 
accusative, and vocative. The genitive denotes from as well as of, 
the dative denotes to or for and also by, toith, on, in, at, etc. The 
other cases are used as in Latin. 

a. The genitive, dative, and accusative are called oblique cases to distin- 
guish them from the nominative and vocative. 

202. The vocative is often like the nominative in the singular ; in 
the pkiral it is always the same. Nominative, vocative, and accusa- 
tive have the same form in neuter words, and always have -a in the 



209] BECLEKSION 47 

pluraL In the dual there are two forms, oiie for nominative, accusa- 
tive, and vocative, the other for genitive and dative, 

203. Lost Cases. — Greek lias generally lost the forms of the instrumental 
and locative cases (which liave hecome fused with the dative) and of the ahlative. 
The Greek dative is used to express hy, as in ^tq.^ Lat. vl ; with^ as in \Wol% with 
stones; and z«, o?z, as in 7^ on the earth. From may be expressed by the geni- 
tive : TT^/jpoj 'SiirdpT-qs far from Sparta. When the genitive and dative do duty 
for the ablative, prepositions are often used. Instances of the forms of the 
lost cases are given in 341. 

204. Declensions. — There are three declensions, which are named 
from the stems to which the case endings are attached. 

1. First or A-declension, with stems in a ] tt^_ ^ t^„^i^„„: 

t: c^ i ^j 1 • •i.^ V ■ ^ Vowel iJeciension. 

2. Second or O-declension, with steins in o \ 

3. Third or Consonant declension, with stems in a consonant or in i 

and "0. 

The nominative and accusative are alike in the singular and plural 
of all neuter nouns. The nominative and vocative are alike in the 
plural. 

GENERAL RULES EOE THE ACCENT OE NOUNS 

205. Substantives and adjectives accent, in the oblique cases, the 
same syllable as is accented in the nominative, pi'ovided the ultima 
permits (163); otherwise the folloviang syllable receives the accent. 

1 decl. BdXaTTa.^ daXdrrtjSy OaXdrrQ^ ddXarrav, ^dXarrai (109), daXdrrais, 

OoXdrrds. 

2 decl. Hydpujiros, dvdpdiirov; dvOpdliTrcp, AvdpoJToy^ dydpuiirot (169), dvOpdircoy, 

dvdpdnrois, dvdpihirovs, 

3 decl, \iu}v^ X^ovTOS, Xhtrri, Xiovra.^ X^ovres, Xebvrdov. 

Adj. : fi^tos (287), d^ia^ Sl^lov^ d^lov^ d^id$^ d^icp^ a^ict, d^iwv, d^lois. 
Xap£eiS (299), x^pfeyros, xapUvri., xapUvTa, xapt^vTwi'. 

206. The character of the accent depends on the general laws (167, 168, 
176), Thus, vJKTj^ VLKaL (169) ; ddpov, 5<ipou, 5wpa ; <rwp.a, crco^aaTos, crtup-tiTwv, 

207. Oxytones of the first and second declensions are perispomena in 
the genitive and dative of all numbers : cr/cift, crKtas, (tki^, gkiQv^ aKials ; Oeds, 
Beov, $€(f, deQv, Beoh ; <pav€p6s, (pavepov, (pavepcp, 0avepa)v, (pavepois. 

208. The genitive plural of all substantives of the first declension has the 
circumflex on the a? of -cov. Thus, jAktj viKtov; ddXarra OaXarriov; ttoXlti^s iroXi- 
TW*' ; vedvlas yeavicov. 

209. The fem. gen. plural of adjectives and participles in -os has the same 
accent and fomi a,s the masculine and neuter. Thus, dCKaios, gen. pi. SiKaloju 

■ (in all genders) ; \v6fj.€vos, gen. pi. \vop^4vu3v (in all genders). 



48 



FJR8T iJECLKNSlOxN (a-STEMS) 



[210 



210, 



Nom. 

Gen. 

]>at. 

Ace. 

Voc. 

N. A. V. 
G. D. 

N. V. 

Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 



CASK ENmNGS OF NOU^'S 



Vowel Deci-ension 


Consonant Decli 


JNSION 


SINGULAR 






Masc, and JTem . Neuter 


Masc. aad Fern. 


Neuter 


-s or none -v 


-s or none 


none 


-s or -to 


-OS 




-I 


-t 




-V 


-V or -d 


none 


none -v 


none or like Nom. 


none 


DUAL 






none 


-« 




-IV 


-OLV 





PLURAL 

-d 



-(|>V 
■IS (-LO-1) 



-vs (-as) 



-£S -a 

-wv 
-o-L, -cro-i, -£(ro-i 
-vs, -ds -a 



a. The stem may undergo a change npon its union with the case ending, as 
in the genitive plural of the first declension (213). Cp. 258, 264, 268, etc. 

b. In the Yowel declensio]i, -t of the nominative plural is borrowed from the 
inflection of pronouns (^Ketw-t) . 



SUBSTANTIVES 
FIRST DECLENSION (STEMS IN a) 

211. Stems ill d are masculine or feminine. The feminine nomi- 
native singular ends in -d, -a, or -y; the masculine nominative singu- 
lar adds -s to the stem, and thus ends in -ds or -rjs. 

212, Table of the union of the case endings (when there are any) with the 
final vowel of the stem. 



Fem. Sing. 




Masc. Sing. 


Masc. Fem. Pl. 


Masc. Fem. Dua 


Nom. a or a 


T) a-s T)-s 


a-i 


N. A.V. a 


Gen. a-s or iq-s 


1Q-S 


a-io (Horn, a-o) 


wv(for^-«v, a-o)v) 


G. D. a-iv 


Dat. a-i or Tj-i 


TJ-l 


a-i T|-i 


a-is or a-io-L(v) 




Ace. a-v or a-v 


T|-V 


a-v T)-v 


as (for a-vs) 




Voc. a or a 


^ 


a d or ifi 


a^i 





Observe the shortening of the stem in vocative singular and plural, in nomi- 
native and dative plural, and genitive and dative dual. 



21 



5] FIRST DECLENSION (a-STEMS) 49 



213- Accent. — For special rule of accent in the genitive plural, see 208. 
The genitive plural is always perispomenon since -CUv is contracted from -4-o}v de- 
rived from original (and Horn.) -d-ojv (61). Final -at is treated as short (169). 

a. The form of the gen. pi. is taken from the pronominal adjective, i.e. 
(Horn.) 0€&o3v goddesses follows the analogy of (Horn.) rAoyy (332 D.) for rd- 
((r)wj', c£ Lat. istd-rum ded-rum. 

214. The dialects show various forms. 

215. Dative Plural. — The ending -atfe-t(v) occurs in Attic poetry 
(SiVaio-i from StKT/ right J SeaTroratcri from Seo-TrdrT^? lord). 

SL. Attic inscriptions to 420 b.c. have -r}<Ti (written -tjwi), -r}<n, and (after e, 
h P) 'f'^'' (written -atcrt) and -aai. Thus, dpaxiJ'V^^t- and dpax^-vi^i- drachmas^ 
rafilaffi and rafjiidai stewards. ~7]<n and -dai are properly endings of the locative 
case' (341). 

214 D. 1. For t;, Doric and Aeolic have original d; thus,>im, vUds, viKg.^ 
idiidv ; iroXiTds, Kptrds^ 'Arpeidds. 

2. Ionic has 7} for the d of Attic even after e, t, and p ; thu?, ^ewij, okiT;, ayop-n-, 
fioipr)^^ IMtpy (nom. pLoipd)^ veijviTjs. Thus, dyop-n^ -•^s, -^, -i^v ; veijviTjs^ -ov, -i?, -t}v. 
But Horn, has Bed goddess, 'EppieLds Hermes. 

3. The dialects admit -a in the nom. sing, less often than does Attic. Thus, 
lomc wpijpivr) stem, Kviff 7} savour (Alt. Trpip.va, KvXdo), Dor. ToKpJa. daring. Ionic 
has -q for a in the abstracts in -eir), -oit} (d\r)d€i7) truths evvoir) good-will). Horn. 
has v6fj.<f>d oh maiden from vipi<f)r). 

4. Worn. sing. masc. — Horn, has -ra for -ttjs in iTnrbra horseman, iTnrTjXdra 
driver of horses, ye<p€\7]y€p4Ta cloud-collector, Kvavoxatra dark-haired; and, with 
recessive accent, /ATjTiera counsellor. So in the adj. eipiLfOTra far-sounding. Cp. 
Lat poeta, scriba. 

5. Gen. sing. masc. — (a) -ao, the original form from d-(c)o, is used by Horn. 
(ArpelSdo). It contracts in Aeolic and Doric to -a (Arpddd). 

(b) -€w, from 7?o (= do) by 34, is also used by Horn., who makes it a single 
syllable by synizesis (60), as in 'ArpeiSeuj. Hdt. has ~ew, as TroXirew (163 a), 

(c) -w in Horn, after a vowel, Bopiw (nom. Bop^T^s). 

6. Accus. sing. masc. — In proper names Hdt, often has -ea borrowed from 
s stems (264), as MiXridSea for MiXTidSrj-v. 

7. Dual. — Hom. has the nom. dual of masculines only. In the gen. and dat. 
Horn, has -aiv and also -auv. 

8. Gen. plur. — (a) -acov, the original fonn, occurs in Hom, (/xovaduv, d7o- 
pAoov). In Aeolic and Doric -duiv contracts to (b) -av (dyopdv). The Doric -dv 
is found also in the choral songs of the drama (jerpdv rocks), (c) -cwv, the 
Ionic form, appears in Homer, who usually makes it a single syllable by synizesis 
(60) as in ^ovX^uv, from ^ovX-fi plan, -iuv is from -iiw;>, Ionic for -dtav. (d) -wv 
in Hom. generally after vowels (kXktiiov, from K\iaiT] hut). 

9. Dat. plur. : -'!?(ti(j>), -175, generally before vowels, and (rarely) -aij in Hom. 
Ionic lias -T?(ri, Aeolic -ai.(n(v)^ -ais, Doric -atj. 

10. Accus. plur. : -avs, -cis^ ds in various Doric dialects, -ats in Aeolic. 

GKEEK GRAM. — 4 



50 



FIRST DKGLENSION (a-STKMS) 



[216 



216. 






I. FEMININES 
SIKGULAH 








land 


fivlKTi 

victory 


flight 


t) |xoipa 


T) ^XuTTtt 

(7XwTTa-) 
tongue 


f) edXttTTa 

(dakaTTo.-) 
sea 


Norn. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Voc. 


X"pa 

X«pas 

X"P* 

X«pa-v 

X«ptt 


vtKTl 

vtKT) 
vtKTl-V 


DDAL 


jioipa 

{xoipas 

lioipa 

jxotpa-v 

fiotpa 


YXwTTa 

YXuTT-qs 

yXwttti 

■yXwTTa-v 

■yXuTTa 


6dXaTTtt 

DaXdrrris 

6aXdTTT) 

0dXaTTa-v 

0dXaTTa 


N.A.V. 
G.D. 


X^pa 
X«paLv 


vtKa 

VfKttLV 


<|>u'yaiv 

PLURAL 


jxoLpa 
jxotpaiv 


YXtiTTCL 

•yXtoTTaiv 


0aXdTTtt 
OaXdrratv 


N.Y. 
Gen. 
Dat. ■ 
Ace. 


X<Spai 
X«poiv 
XtiipaiS 
X<!ipas 


viKaL 
viKtliv 
vfKais 
VtKcLs 




jxoLpai, 
|iotp<Sv 
jxoLpais 
jxoLpas 


^XtOTTal 

yXwttwv 
■yXtoTTats 
■yXt&TTa9 


6dXaTTat 
0aXaTTdiv 
eaXdrrats 
OaXdrras 



&pa season, rifUpa day, aKos. shadow, jmixv battle, rix^v o,rt, yvw^tj judgment, tI^it} 
Jionor, dper-^ virtue, puovaa muse, irpQpa prow, oi/ia^a loagon, d6^a opinion. 

217. Rules. — a. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a 
yowel (o-Kti shadow) or p (/Aotpa), alpha is kept tlirougliout tlie singular, 

• b. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a consonant not p, 
alpha is changed to -n in the genitive and dative singular. 

c. If tlie nominative singular ends in 7?, 77 is kept in all the cases of the singular. 

d. When the genitive singular has -77s, final a of the nominative singular is 
always short; when t\ie genitive singular has -a?, the final a is generally long. 

Femiiiines fall iut'o two classes : 

218. (I) Feminines with a or f] in all the cases of the singular. 
After e, 1, or p, a appears in all the cases of the singular, as in yeped race, 

oUia house, x^P^ land. Otherwise, -q throughout the singular, as ukt) victory. 
a. After o, we find both a and tj, as o-rotl porch, ^oi} shout, d/coij hearing, 
po7} current, pba pomegranate. After p we have -q in Kbp-rj girl, Sep-rj neck (31). 

219. (II) Feminines with a in the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative singular. The quantity of the vowel is generally shown 
by the accent (163, 164). 

In this class are included: 
1. Substantives having cr (^, ^, tt^ or <j<t), %, XX, or atv before the final a show 
a in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and -q m gen, and dat. sing. Thus, 



223] 



FIRST DECLENSION (a-STEMS) 



51 



fxovaa muse, ixoija-'ijs, /^i^ctj, a/xa^a wagon, rpdirei^a table, yXQrra tongue, 

pl^a root^ dixiWa contest, \iaiva lioness. Others are rdX/xa daring, Slaira 

mode of life, &Kav6a thorn, fivla jly. 
% Substantives in a in noin., accus,, and voc. sing., and d in gen. and dat. sing. 
a. Substantives in -eia and -rpia denoting females, as ^aaiXeia queen (but 

^ao-iXetd kingdom), \pd\rpLa female harper; so the fern, of adj. in -vs, 

as y\vK6s, yXvKeia sweet. 
h. Abstracts in -eta and -oia from adjectives in -rjs and -oor, as oK-^deta truth 

(fTom 6Xy\Bi)^ true), etvoia good imll (from e^vovs, eijvoos kind, 290). 
c. Most substantives in ~pa after a diphtliong or v, as fjLoipa fate^ yitpvpa bridge, 

220. Exceptions to 219, 1 : Kdpa-q temple (later Kbpprf), 'ipamj dew; to 2 b : in 
Attic poetry, AXTfdeld, edvold, dyvold ignorance, which owe their d to the influence 
of the genitive and dative dXTj^eidj, dXvjOeli^^ etc. 

221. Most, if not all, of the substantives in a are formed by the addition of 
the suffix la or la (20); thus, yXioTra from yXoix-ta (cp. yXujxiy-^^ points), y^<pvpa 
from ye<pvp-La, Soreipa giver from 5orep-t.a (and so (p^povaa heanng from ^epovr- 
to), ptmpa from fMop-La, \pd\Tp-ia. 



222. 



II. MASCULINES 







SINGULAR 








6 vedvias 


6 iroXlTTis 


6 KplTTlS 


'ArpeiSus 




{vedvid-) 


(TToXtrd-) 


(/cptrd-) 


('AT/36f5d-) 




young man 


citiiseti 


judge 


son of Atreus 


Nom. 


v€avta-s 


iroXtrq-s 


KpiTTJ-S 


'ArpttSii-s 


Gen. 


vtavLov 


iroXtTOu 


KpiTOO 


'ArpetSou 


Dat. 


veavia 


TToXlTT] 


KpiTTJ 


•ArpeiST, 


Ace. 


v€avia-v 


TroXlTT^-v 


KplTT|-V 


*ATptl5Tl-V 


Voc, 


veavia 


TToXtra 

DUAL 


KptTO, 


*Atp€£St] 


K.A.V. 


v€av£a 


TToXlTa 


KpLTO 


'ArpeiSa 


G. D. 


veavCaLv 


TToXiTatv 

PLURAL 


KptTtttv 


'AxpeCSatv 


N.V. 


veavtai 


iroXtTttt 


KptTttL 


'ArpetSat 


Gen. 


vcaviwv 


iroXiTtiv 


KplTWV 


'ATpeiSttfv 


Dat. 


veaviots 


iroXirais 


KplTttts 


*ATpet8ais 


Ace. 


veavias 


•iroXtTds 


KplT^S 


'ATpeiSds 



Ta/jids Steward, Alveld^ Aeneas, — vaiur7)s sailor, To^^r-qs bownian, (TTpaTLdTtjs sol- 
dier., SeaTrdTTfs rider, — jua^Tjri^s 'pupil, Troiijri^s poet — II^/xrTjs Persian, 

223. Accent. — The vocative of beaTrbr-qs lord is SeaTrorct. 



52 



FIRST DECLENSION (a-STEMS) 



[224 



224. a and 1^. — In the final syllable of the singular d appears after e, *, and p ; 
otherwise we find 77. Cp. 218. 

a. Exceptions are compounds in -/j.4TpT}s : yeu-fxirpTjs measurer of land. 

225. Genitive singular. — The form in ~ov is borrowed from the genitive 
singular of the second declension. A few words in -as, generally names of persons 
not Greeks, have -d, the Doric genitive (214 D. 5) ; 'Avvl^ds Hannibal^ gen. 'Avvl^a. 

226. Vocative singular. — Masculines in -ds have the vocative in -d (veavLa) ; 
those in -ttjs have -a (TroXIra), all others in -rfs have -7; ('ArpeiS?;, KpovLd-r) son of 
Kronos) except names of nations and co'mpounds: Il^po-a Persian^ iKOda 
Scythian^ yiw-fxirpa (nom. yew-p^rpTjs measurer of land)^ Traido-rpi^a gymnastic 
master, 

CONTRACTS (FEMININES AND MASCULINES) 

227. Contracts in a or 17 from ea or aa liave the circumflex in all 
the cases : nominative feminine -S, -rj^ masculine -as, -^s. 



'Epjiiis Hermes 

('Ep/*r^ for 
'Ep/icd-) 

'EpJi-q-S 

*Ep)iov 

'Epjiti 

'Epp,ii-v 

*EpjtTi 







SINGULAR 






T] (ivd mina 


T) (riJKTi Jig tree 


Boppds Boreas 




{lj,vd- for 


(o-uKTj- for 


(Boppd- for 




/j.v(m-) 


a-vKed-) 


Boped- 117) 


Nom. 


(IVtt 


cruKii 


Boppd-s 


Gen, 


(IVttS 


O-iiKTlS 


BoppoO 


Dat. 


JtV^ 


(riiKfi 


Boppa 


Ace. 


jjLVtt-V 


cruKti-v 


Boppd-v 


Voc. 


\iva 


DUAL 


Boppd 


N. A. V. 


^va 


cruKO. 




G. D. 


|xvatv 


<riiKatv 

PLURAL 




N.V. 


|ivai 


(TuKai 




Gen. 


{XVWV 


OTJKoiv 




Dat. 


|ivais 


cruKais 




Ace. 


|ivds 


trvKcts 





*Ep}id 
'Epfwiiv 



'Epfiai 

*Ep}lb>V 

'Ep(iats 
'Epfids 



The dual and plural of "Ep/x^s mean statues of Hermes, 

Other examples : ij 'Adrjvd Athena (from 'A$y}va(i)d-), yij earth (7ed- or yad-) 
with no plural in Attic, ij ya\^ weasel (7aXed-), 17 dSeX^iS^ mece (dSeX^iSed-), 
6 'ATreXX-^y ^jpe?2es ('ATreXXed-). 



227 D. Hdt. has fipiai, fiv^uv, fjLV(§ds, yrj and yeQv^ 'Ep/t^s, Bop^j. 
A^Tjmf??, 7^ (and 7ata), (rvKi-q^ "Ep/xelds 214 D. 2, Bopiijs. 



Horn, has 



23i] SKCONB DECLENSION (o-STEMS) 53 

SECOJSIU DECLENSION (STEMS IN o) 

228. O stems in the nominative add -s to the stem in masculines 
and femininesj -v in neuters. The feminines, of which there are 
feWj are declined like the masculines. In the neuters, nominative, 
vocative, and accusative singular liave the same form (in -o-v) ; in 
the plural these cases end in -a. 

229. TABLE OF THE UNION OF THE CASE ENDINGS WITH 

THE STEM VOWEL 



SINGULAR 


DUAL 




PLURAL 


Masc. and Fem. Feuter 


Masc, Fem., and Keuter 




Masc. ajid Fem. Keuter 


Nom. o-s o-v 


N, A. V. » 


Nom. 


o-i a 


Gen. ov (for o-(i)o) 


G. D. o-iv 


Gen. 


6)V 


Dat. ({) (for o-i) 




Dat. 


o-is or o-to-i(v) 


Ace. o-v 




Ace. 


ovs (for o-vs) a 


Voc. e o-v 




Voc. 


o-i d 



a. Final -oi is treated as short (169). 

b. The dat. sing, in -(fj represents the union of the stem vowel -o and ai, 
the original case ending in the I. B. languages. Forms in -oi, as o'ikol at home^ 
may he locatives (-o + j, the locative ending). — The stem vowel o varies with e, 
which appears in the vocative sing., and in iravb-q^tl (locative) in full force. — 
N. A. V. dual -w is for I. E. 6u. — The genitive pi. -lav is due to the union of 
-0 + cov, which contracted to -lav in the earliest period of the language. — The 
neuter plural is probably the relic of a feminine collective ending in -a, which 
was shortened to -a. 



230. 1 


^he dialects sh 


ow various forms. 






231. 




SINGULAR 








6 iir-iros horse 


6 avfipwiros man 


T) oSos way 


TO 8wpov gift 




(Itttto-) 


{avdpwrro-^ 


(65o-) 


(5aj/)o-) 


Nom. 


iiriro-s 


avOp<oiro-s 


686-s 


8a)po-v 


Gen. - 


iinroTJ 


dvdp(0irov 


68oi) 


8(l>pou 


Dat. 


- ITTTTip 


avepto-n-ta) 


6B« 


S<5p.. 


Ace. 


I'lriro-v 


avflpcD-rro-v 


686-v 


8wpo-v 


Voc. 


Itinrc 


avOpcD-ire 


68^ 


8wpo-v 



230 D. 1. Gen. sing. — oio, the original form, appears in Horn. -rroXipLoio. 
By loss of i (43) comes -oo, which is sometimes read in Horn. (Ki6\oo for Al6\ov 
K 36). By contraction of oo comes -ov found in Hom., Ionic, Milder Doric. 
00 yields ta in Aeolic and Severer Doric (tinro}). 

2. Dual. oai' in Hom. (t-mrouv). 

3. Dat. pi, oi<7i(v) Hom., Aeolic, Ionic, 

4. Ace. pi. ovs is from -ov-i (found in Cretan), that is, the accus. sing. + s. 

From -oj-s comes -ois Severer Doric, -ois Aeolic^ -os Cretan and in Dor. poetry, 
-pvf is Horn., Ionic, and Milder Doric. 



64 SECOND DECLENSION (o-STEMSJ ^sa 



BOAL 





6 Viriros horse 

(tTTTTO-) 


6 avBpcoTTos man 


ij oSds way 
(65o-) 


TO 8wpov gift 
(5wpo-) 


N. A. V. 
G. D, 


Linru> 
lirirotv 


dvOpwirw 

dvSpWTTOlV 

PLURAL 


68^ 
68o£v 


8c&pa> 
8upoiv 


isi.y. 

Gen. 

Dat. 
Ace. 


iinroi 
iir-irtov 
Itinrois 


avOpwiroi 
dvOpwirwy 
dvepwTTOis 

dvOpWTTOUS 


68oC 
68a>v 
68ois 
oSovs 





Masculine : X670? word^ d^/io? people, SoOXos s?a??e, Kivdvvos danger^ -n-dXefws war; 
dypdi fields iroTa^6s river^ apiB^s number. Femiiiine : vijcos island, ^ireLpo's 
mainland ; b{i]) Tpo<p6$ mirse. Neuter : epyov vjork, TrT€p6v wing, deXirvov dinner. 

232. Feminines. — a. See 197 for vi)6s daughter-in-law ; see 199 fox vijo-os 
island (cp. 200 c), A^Xos (the island of) Velos, KdpLvdo? Corinth, <p7]y6? (acorn- 
bearing) oak^ dp-TTiXos vine. 

b. Some are properly adjectives used substantively : diaX^KTos {sciL yXQrra 
speccli) dialect, didp-erpos (scil. ypap-p.-^ line) diameter, afjXews (scil. dvpd door) 
house-door, <r6yK\7]T0i {scil. ^ovXi^ council) legislative body, cptjfw? and Tjiriipos 
(scil. x<^P^ country) desert and mainland. 

c. Words for way : odds and K^XevBos vjay ; and dp-a^Lrbt carriage-road, drpairhs 
foot-path, which may be adjectival (b) with bUs omitted. 

d. Various other words : §a.<yavos touch-stone, ^L^\os book, yipavo^ crane, 
ymdos jaw, yvfos chalk, 54\tos writing-tablet, 5ok6s beam, dp6<7os dew, KdpXvo^ 
oven, KdpSoTTos kneading-trough, kI^ojtos <^hest, Kdirpo? dung, \7)v6s wine-press, 
XCdos stone (200 c), j^iaos disease, irXLvdo? brick, pd^dos rod, aop6s coffin, airobhs 
ashes, Td<ppos trench, xv^^^ coffer, ^dp.pjos sand, i^7]<pos pebble, 

233. Vocative. — The nominative ^co? ig xised instead of the voca- 
tive. ahiX4>6^ brother retracts the accent (aSfA<^f). 

234. Dative Plural. — The ending -otcrt(y) often appears in poetry^ 
rarely in Attic prose (Plato). 

a. In Old Attic inscriptions -ot? displaces -oi(7l{v) about 444 e.g. 



CONTRACTED SUBSTANTIVES 

235. Stems in eo and 00 are contracted according to 50, 51. ea in 
the neuter becomes a (56). 

235 D. Homeric and loinic generally have the open forms, olvoxbos wine- 
poiirer does not contract in Attic since it standis for olvoxofos. 



238] 



SECOND DECLENSION (o-STEMS) 



55 









SINGULAR 








6 vovs 


mind 


6 irepfirXous sailing around 


TO oo-Tovv hone 




(V00-) 


(irepL-rrXoo-) 


(6a-T€o-) 


Norn. 


(uoo-s) 


vov-s 


(ireplTrXoos) 


ireptirXov-s 


{6<TTio-v) 


OO-TOV-V 


Gen. 


(v6ov) 


vov 


(ireptirXdov) 


ireptirXou 


{bariov) 


OO-TOO 


Dat. 


(p6v) 


vw 


(irepLirXdci}) 


Tr€p£irXtj» 


{6<Tr^(f3) 


OO-T^ 


Ace. 


{vbo-v) 


voO-v 


{irepiirXoo-v) 


ircpiirXou-v 


(6(Tt4o-v) 


oo-To-O-v 


Voc. 


ivbe) 


voS 


{jrepiirXoe) 

BUAL 


ircpt-irXov 


(btrrio-v) 


oo-ToO-v 


N. A. V. 


(.6<.) 


vd> 


(jrepiirXho}) 


irtpiirXw 


(Sa-Hc,) 


ba-ri 


G. D. 


{yooiv) 


VOIV 


(TTCpLTrXbotv) 
PLURAL 


irepiirXoiv 


(b<TTiOLv) 


OO-TOtv 


N.V. 


(u6oi) 


vol 


(TrepiTrXooL) 


irepiirXei 


(d<TT4a) 


oo-rd 


Gen. 


{voiav) 


v«v 


{irepLirXbtav) 


ircpiirXwv 


(&a-Tio}v) 


6o-T«v 


Dat. 


(v6ois) 


vots 


{irepLirXdois) 


irtpiirXois 


{6<TT^0is) 


OO-TOtS 


Ace. 


(fbovs) 


voOs 


{jepLirXbovs) 


irepiirXovs 


(6<TTda) 


OO-TO, 



6 wXoOs (ttXoos) voyage, 6 povs (p6os) stream, to Kayovv (Kdveov) basket. 

236. Accent — a. The nominative dual is irregularly oxytone: v(h, oo-rd^^ not 
vQ, 6<TT(x) according to 171, N. 2. 

b. Kdvovv {KOLveov) basket receives its accent (not Acdwu;') from that of the geni- 
tive and dative koj/oC, Kayt^, Cp. 290 c. 

c. Compounds retain the accent on the syllable that has it in the nominative 
singular: eKirXovs from ^kttXoos ; €KirXov (not iKirXov) from eKirXoov ; eKirXatv (not 
VkttXwc) from ^KTrXdcjv, 

ATTIC DECLENSION 

237. Some substantives ending in -ew? are placed under the Second 
Declension because they are derived from earlier o stems preceded 
by a long vowel (-ew; from -7^09, 34). A few others have a consonant 
before -tu?. The yocative has no special form. 

N. — This declension is called " Attic '^ because the words in question gener- 
ally show -US in Attic and -os in the Koin6 dialect (p. 3, F). 



238. 



SlNGULAIt 



Nom. v€t&-s (Ionic vrjd-s) 

Gen. vtdf ( " I'-rjov) 

Bat. v€a) ( " vvv) 

Ace. V€WV ( " V1j6-^) 



6 v€(&s temple 

DUAL 

N. A. vew (Ionic v-n-b) 
G. D. vitav ( " PTjoiy) 



PLUEAL 

Nom. v£(j> (Ionic vi}ol) 
Gen. viutv ( *' ciyufv) 
Dat. vews ( " i''r)ots} 
Ace. vews ( " ^/ijoiis) 



238 D. Horn, has vtjos temple, Xd6s people^ kolXos cahle, Xay^o6s hare, ydXoios 
§ister-in~law, 'A^ows, KAws ; Hdt. has Xc(6s, Xa76s, K^os. Horn, and Hdt. have 



56 THIRD DECLENSION [239 

a. So 6 Xecis people^ 6 MevAews Menelaus^ 6 Xa7wj hare. Observe that w is 
found in every form, and that it takes i subscript in the dative of all numbers 
where an ordinary o stem has t. 

b. There are no neuter substantives belonging to the Attic declension in 
standard classical literature ; but neuter adjectives (289) end in -(av. 

c. v€u}^ and most words of this declension owe their forms to transfer of 
quantity (34) or to shortening (39). Thus, yctis is from vr)6i (^ Doric ra6s), 
peJiv from vr}6v ; v€(^ is from vt}^. \aytis is contracted from \ayuj6s. 

d. In the accusative singular some words end in -w or -wv, as \ay<h or \ayu}v 
hare. So 6 "A^ws, ij K^ws, ij T^cos, -n Kws, 6 Mtvws. ij ^ws dawn always has ?w. 

239. Accent. — a. The accent of the nominative is kept in all cases. Mey^- 
Xeojs (163 a) retains the accent of the earlier MeviXdos. 

b. The genitive and dative are oxytone when the final syllable is accented. 

N. — The accentuation of the words of this declension is doubtful. Some of 
the ancients accented \ay<I}i, XaySv^^ others Xa7ajs, Xa7w»', etc. 



THIRD DECLENSION 

240. This declension includes stems ending in a consonant, in t, u, 
or a diphthong, and some in w and o, representing w/r and 01. 

N. — To determine whether a noun belongs to the third declension it is neces- 
sary in most cases to know the stem, which is usually found by dropping -os of 
the genitive singular. Stems in t and u are classed under the consonant declen- 
sion because neither of these vowels admits contraction with the case endings 
beginning with a vowel, herein being like a consonant. 

FORMATION OF CASES: NOMINATIVE SINGULAR 

241. Masculine and feminine stems not ending in v, p, s and ovt, 
add s. 

a. A labial (tt, /3, 0) + s becomes f (97), 

b. A dental (r, 5, e) + s becomes aa- (98), which is reduced to s (107). 

c. A palatal (k, y, x) or kt + s becomes ^ (97). 
(The same changes occur in the dative plural.) 

ytf vulture yvir-ds, "Apa^ Arab "Apa^-os ; KaKiTijs baseness KaKSr-nr-os, eXirls 
hope ^X7rf5-os, 6pvis bird 6pvi$-os ; (p6\a^ guard 0i/XaK-os, fido-rX^ scourge fida-rly-oi^ 
crdXirt7f trumpet adXiriyy-os, 6vv^ nail 6tnrx-oi, vO^ night wKT-ds ; dX-s salt a\-6s, 
ix^vs fish lx&0~os ; 4\^(pas elephant €\i(pavr-os. 

242. Masculine and feminine stems ending in v, p, and s reject s 
and lengthen a preceding vowel if short (e to 77, o to J). 

dalfiojv divinity 5aifxov-os, x^f-f^^^ winter x^'-l^^^~^^-> Xifiijv harbour \Lfxiv-oSf 
"'EWtjv Greek "EXXijj'-os ; prjrwp orator pi^rop-os, di^p air d^p-os, <p6p thief 0a?p-6s, 

•^(6s, gen. •37oi?s, dawn^ whence Att. ^ws by 39, Horn, has n^Tew-o, the original 
foi-m of the genitive, from Xi^Tubs. v€(b is from vectw out of vrjoo. 



249] THIRD DECLENSION 57 

Tpi^PV^ trireme (stem Tpiijpea-, 263 la), aldiis shame (stem aiSotr-, 266). On pLijv 
see 269 end. iFor stems in es, nominative hjs, see 263 c. 

243. Masculine stems in orr drop t (133) and lengthen o to <o: 
yepoiv old man yeporr-o?, Xemv Uon Xeovr-o<s. 

244. Neuters show the pure stem, from which final t and other con- 
sonants not standing at the end of a word (133) are dropped : 5p/na 

chariot ap/Aar-os, xpayfia thing irpayjjjcj.T-O'i, yaXa millc yoAaKT-o? (133 b). 

245. Summary. — s is added to stems ending in a labial, dental, palatal, 
and in a^r, cpt, vvt ; to some stems in v (as efs one iv-os, ^tAas blacJc /liXav-os) ; 
to stems in eu, au, ou ; and to masc. and fern, stems in t and v. s is not added to 
most stems ending in v, nor to those in ovr, Pf es, as, os, v (neut.), w(f), o(t), 

ACCUSATIVE SINGULAE, 

246. Masculines and feminines usually add a to stems ending in a 
consonant ; v to stems ending in t or -u. 

yvir-a, 6yvx~a, i\i<pavr~a^ \Ljji.^v-a, p-i^rop-a, \iovT-a ; iriXi-p, Ix^t-v^ §ov~v from 
7r6Xt-s city, Ix^i-s fish, /Sou-s OX, COW, Stems in ev take a (276). 

247. Barytone stems of two syllables ending in tr, i^, lO usually 
drop the dental and add v. 

X<^pi-^ grace (stem x^P'-'^-) X^-p'-^i «P'^ strife (ipi-S-) ^piv, tpvTs bird (6pvl6-) tpvlv. 
So eijeXTTis hopeful (etfeXTTtS-) eijeXiriif (292). Oxy tones end in a : iXirld-a, <TippayiSa 
(a<ppdyts seal). 

a. /cXets key (jcXeiS-), Old Att. kXt/'s, has KXeiy (late /cXeZSa), ace. pi. kXeis (late 
jcXetSas). 

VOCATIVE SmGULAE. 

248. The vocative of masculines and feminines is usually the pure 
stem. 

ir6\t (irSXi-s city), pov (jSou-s ox, cow), liiiKpaT^s (Sw/cpdrT^s). Stems in id and 
vr cannot retain final 5 and t (133), lience "Aprepn from "Apre/jtis {'kpreixiS-), iral 
from irais boy^ girl {iraiS-), vedvt from vedpis maiden (peawS-) ; y^pov from y^pwv 
old man (yepovr-), ylyav from 7^705 giant (yiyam--). 

249. The vocative is the same as the nominative : 

a. In stems ending in a stop (16) consonant (except those in ir, i5, 16 ; vt in 
nouns): S> <j)<ika^ watchman. (Afas Ajax (Alavr-) is nom, and voc.) 

243 D. Hdt. lias 65(by tooth ddovr-os. Attic dSoiis has the inflection of a par- 
ticiple in ~ovs (307) . 

247 D. The ace. in a (xapira, epida, 6pvWa) occurs in Hom., Hdt., and in Attic 
poetry. So Kdpvda and Kdpw (Kdpvs helmet) in Hom. 

349 D. Hom. has dva oh king as well as dva^ (dvaKT-); AJav from Aiavr-. 
UovXvddfid, Adoddpid (from stems in avr) are later forms due to analogy. 



58 THIRD DECLENSION [250 

b. In oxytone stems ending in a liquid and not tailing s to form their nomi- 
native (242): u iroi^rfjv shepherd {iroifiev-); but dvi^p man, Trari^p father have 
dvfp, irdrep (262). Barytones use the stem as the vocative : daifiov, pijrop 
from Salfitov divinity, pifirwp orator. 

c. In all participles. 

DATIVE DUAL AND PLURAL 

250. The dative plural adds -at to the stem. 

' kpa.\p ('Apa^-) "Apai/'i, fxaaTi^ (fiaaTly-) iidan^i, ^v\a^ (<pv\aK--) <p6\a^i, crw/xa 
(o-w/iar-) ailifxaai (98), iXirls (iXwiS-) ATrtVt (98), 6pvls (opvW-) 6pvl(7i (98), A^^d? 
(i\e(pavT-) i\i<pa(rij d-fjp .(67)p-) d^jpaL 

a. Stems in vt drop vr and lengthen the preceding vowel (100) : \iujv (Xeovr-) 
X^oucrt, ylyds (^yiyavr-) yiyd<n. 

b. Stems in v drop v without lengthening the preceding vowel (if short); 
balpLbiv (daifjLOv-) daLfxcdi, iroifiTiv (iroifjuev-) troifiio-if <pp7}v mind {(ppev-) 4>pi<jL 

N. — Strictly v is not dropped, but since the stem of the dat. pi. is weak in 
form (253 a) the v stood originally between two consonants and should become 
a (35 b). Thus, 4)pa<jim Pindar is for ^pwt. Attic ^pecrt borrows its e from 
(ppheSf (^pevQv, etc. So Tro(/i^<r(, for irotfiaffi from iroifxvffi, because of iroip.ives, etc. 

c. p0- is not changed to pp (79 a). 

ACCUSATIVE PLURAL 

251. a. The ending -as is produced by adding vs to the stem (v becoming a 
between two consonants by 35 b). Thus <pij\aK-as is from (pv\aK-vs. This -as 
may be added even to t and v stems : Horn. 7r6X(-as, Ixdii-as, Hdt, irTjx^-as, Horn. 
ir6Xis is from ir6X(-;/s (Cretan). 

b. The nominative pi. masc. or fern, is sometimes used instead of the accusa- 
live pi. : rpt-^peis 264, TriXets and tttjxus 268. 

ACCENT, STEM FORMATIOI^, QUANTITY, GENDER 

252. Accent. — Stems of one syllable accent the case ending in the 
genitive and dative of all numbers ; and -wv and -oiv take the circuin- 
fiex accent. Thus, <^Xiip vein, <^\€^-o?, <f>\el3'tov ; drjp wild beast, dr}p-6<i, 
Brjp-oiVj 6r)p-wv ', dpti hair, Tpi^-6's, TpL)(-^v^ 

a. Exceptions. The ending of the gen. dual and pi. is not accented in the 
case of 6, i} irah boy^ girl, 6 S/xtis slave^ 6 dihs jackal^ 6 Tpcis TYojan, 17 54s iorch^ 

250 D. 1. Horn, has only -ouv in the gen. and dat. dual. 

2. In the dat. pi. Horn, has ~(tl (p^Xea-ai, Siiraa-aL), and in a few cases -etrt, 
reduced from -eacn (dvaKT-eai'); -aat occurs after vowels (ydmj-crai ; for yivixn ?), 
~€(ra-i was added both to stems not ending in a- (irdS-ea-a-i, ^d-eaai, dvhp-eaci, dt-eaai, 
274 D.), and even to stems in tr (^Tr^-eo-o-t). Horn, has also 7ro<ro-£, wocri; Pind. 
xapirecro-i, Oipnaai, Tragedy has this -^a-cri (^Kop<)9-i<T<n)^ and so Aeolic, and the 
Doric of Corinth, 



255] THIKD DECLENSION 69 

ro 0t<js Uglily TO o5s ear. Thus, iraiSoj;' (but Trattrt), Tpc6wjt', utwv, etc. So lUv 
&em^, ^vTiov (305). 

b. A trisylla'bic form, if contracted, does not show the accent on the case 
ending : ^p-os for eap-os, ^p-i for eap-i, from rb cap spring. 

253. Variation of Stem Formation. — Many words of the third declension 
show traces of an original variation of stem that is due to the influence of a 
shifting accent which is seen in some of the cognate languages. In Greek this 
variation has often been obscured by the analogy of other forms. Thus waripujp, 
in comparison with Horn. iraTpQv^ Lat. patrum^ gets its e from irar^pes. 

a. Variation of stem is seen in w»', ov (259) ; ijp, ep, pa (262) ; 77s, etr- (264) ; 
in stems in t, ei (270) ; u, ev (270) ; ev, t}v (278) ; ot, a? (279), etc. Words in wv, 
TIP show a middle form op, ep, and a weak form in ;' (250 N.). 

b. Several words ending in p show a parallel stem in t ; thus, vdojp vmter 
ii5aT-os, T^TTttp liver r}ir<rr-os^ (ppiap tank (pp^ar-os (but poet. Sd/idp wife Sdfiapr-os). 
The reason for this change is uncertain, but ax is derived from m after a con- 
sonant (35 b) : {fdvTos, TjirpTot^ cp. Lat. jecinoi^s, noni. jecur, ^irap is probably 
derived from ijirapT (133).- 

c. -aros was transferred from such genitives as ^vi/iaros, -^Traros to other nouter 
words : ydmros from 76^11 kiiee^ instead of yovf-os, whence Horn. 70^^65, 0(3s 
light, for (pdos (stem ^aeo--), has taken on the r inflection (0wt-As, etc.). 

d. Neuter stems in -es show -os in the nominative. Cp. eVos year (stem irea-) 
with Lat. vetiis^ veter-is {for vetes-is) , 

254. Variation of Quantity. — a. In poetiy the quantity of t in words in 
-ts may differ from that of prose ; as in tragedy 6pvis hird^ k6vU dust, 6(ph serpent 
(in prose 6pm, Kom, 6<pis); so in Pind. Ix^vs (prose Ix&Vi) fish. 

b. K^pv^ herald, ^oin^ Phoenician, pAurX^ whip have long v and i in the 
oblique cases except the dat. pi. {k-^pvkos^ ^oIvTki^ ixdarlya^ etc.). aXdjirtj^ fox has 
e in the gen. dXcbireKos^ etc., by analogy to such words as ttoi/jltjv^ irotji^vos (dXw- 
TTTjfctJv occurs in Ionic), irvp fire has irvpbs^ Trvpi, etc. (285, 25). 

255. Gender. — The gender of substantives of the third declension 
is frequently known by the last letters of the stem. 

1. Masculine are steins ending in 

a. VT : 65oiis tooth (65ovt-)^ dpaKcoy serpent {SpaKovr-). 

b. T^T, <0T : 7r^P7;s day-lahourer {irei^r-)^ ydXw laughter {y€\o)T-). 
Exceptions. Stems in -ttjt (2, b) : -^ icdi^s dress (iadtjT-), rb <pS)s light (tpojr-). 

c. v: \€L/i(J}v meadoxo (Xei/io^-). 

Exceptions. Fern. : stems in 70^, bov (2, a), and (pp-rfv mind (<pp€v-), U 
strength (fv-), pts nose (ply-), dKrU ray (dKrip-), yXtoxis arrow-point (yXoj- 
Xiv-), d)5fs hirth-pang {<hdlv-)^ eUdyv image (elKov-), ijl'cjy shore (ijiov-), x^'^*' 
earth (x^(5p-), x^t^v snow (x^ov-), dXmibv halcyon {d^Kvov-), etc., 0, 7} x'h^ 
goose (xvf-)' 

d. p: Si^p wild beast (^7;p-), <p(i>p thief i<p<jjp-'). 

Exceptions. Fem. ; ^efp Jiand (x^p-)^ Ki)p fate (>c7;p-), yo.<jri)p belly (yatrrefy-) ; 
neut. : stems in ap (3, a), irvp fire (irup-), and the indeclinable TrAwp mov- 
ster^ T^KfKjjp (Horn.) token^ etc. 

e. £\j : yop€ijs parent, (pope^s murderer. 



60 



THIRD DECJ.ENSION: LABIAL STEMS 



[256 



2. Feminixie are stems ending in 

a. 70V, Sov : (TT ay d}v drop ((TTayov-), x^^^^^^ swallow (xeXTSop-). 

b. TT^T, S, 0: KaKdrijs baseness (/ca/coTTjr-), e/jis Strife (4pid~)y iXiris hope (eXTTtS-). 
Exceptions. Masc. : xoiJs foot (iro5-), 6, 17 Spuls bird (6pvid~). 

C. I, V with nom. in -ts, -us : x6Xi-s city, iVxo-s strength. 

Exceptions. Masc. : 64)i-s sei^ent, ^x*--^ viper, 6pxi--^ testicle; ^orpv-s cluster 
of grapes, Ix^^-^ fi^h, ixO-s mouse, v^kv-s corpse, o-rdxv-s ear of corn, 
ir^XeKv-s axe, TT-^xu-s fore-arm; and 6, 17 <rv-s or &-y swine, 

d. OL : i5xt6 ec/io, TretiS'w persuasion. 

3. Neuter are stems endiiLg in 

a. oT, ap : irpdy/Mi thing (tt pay /mit-), yiKrap nectar (v€KTap-). But 6 ^dp starling. 

b. as, es (with nom. in -os) : Kp^as flesh {Kpeaa-')^ yifos race (yevccr-). 
C- I, D with nom. in -(,-1; : tjivdin mustard, 6,(ttv city. 

N. — No stem ending in x, )S, or «, 7, x is neuter. 
256. STEMS IN A LABIAL (it, ^, <^) OU IN A PALATAL (/C, 7, %) 









. SINGULAR 










i Aieto»i/ 

(Ai'^tox-) 
Ethiopian 


t4.x^+ 

(0Xej3-) 


6 4)i;Xa| 

(^uXttK-) 

watchman 


(0aXa77-) 
phalanx 


(aZ7-) (Tptx--,125f) 
goat hair 


Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

.Ace. 

,Voc. 


Aietoti/ 

AlOlOTT-OS 

AiecoT-L 

AlfliOTT-a 
Aietoi)/ 


4,x^^ 

<|>X€p-6s 

4>X€p-i' 

<t>Xip-a 
<|>Xe^ 


4)vXa| 

4>-u'XaK-os 

4>v'XaK-i 

4>vXaK-a 

4>vXa| 

DUAL 


4,dXa7| 

4)dXa77-os 

4)dXa7'Y-L 

4>dXaY"y-a 

^dXaYl 


ate 
aW-6s 
al^-t 
at-y-a 

an 


ep£| 

Tpix-os 
Tpix-C 
rpCx-a 
ep£g 


N. A.V. 
G. D. 


AteCoir-f 

AieLOTT-OtV 


c^x€'p-€ 

<j)X€P-OlV 


4>v'XaK-€ 
t|)vXdK-oiv 

PLURAL 


<|)dXaYY~^ 
<t)aXd'Y'Y-oi,v 


aXy-€ 
aJ^-OLV 


Tptx-< 
TpLX-Otv 


N. V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


AteCoT-cs 
Atetoir-iov 

AteCo4AL(v) 
AlOioir-as 


<t.X^p-€s 

4>X€P-0iv 

4,X€+c(v) 

4)X^P-as 


<t>-uXaK-€s 
<|>tiXdK-«v 
4)vXa^(v) 
4»-uXaK-as 


4»dXaY7-es 
4)aXd7'y-o)v 
4)dXa7^i(v) 
4>dXa77-as 


at^-cs 
at-y-fiiv 
al|£(v) 
at-y-as 


TpCx-€S 
TpiX-»V 

eptgt(v) 

TpCx-as 



Masculine: jcXtii/' tAie/ (kXwx-), 7fj\i' vulture (yvir-), "Apa^}/ Arab ('ApajS-), 
6 ibpa^ breastplate (duypaK-), 6w^ nail (6vvx~y Feminine: KXiixa^ ladder (/cXZ- 
fxaK-), /A<i<rTt^ whip (p-auTly-^ 254 b), crdXTr(7| trumpet (jaXiriyy-), KarifKiip 
Upper story (^KaTTjXKp-). 



»58] 



THIRD DECLENSION: DENTAL STEMS 



61 



257. 



STEMS IN A DENTAL (t, 3, 0) 

A. MASCULINES AND FEMININES 

SINGULAR 





Ae^js 


fl IXirts 


Ti xapts 


6 T) opvis 


6 ^t^as 


6 ylpav 




(Bvr-) 


(ATTiS-) 


(xa/Jtr-) 


((5pi'i^-) 


(7t7aj;T^) 


(yepopT-) 




serf 


hope 


5'j'(2ce 


bird 


giant 


old man 


Norn. 


e^s 


eXiris 


Xdpts 


opvts 


ylyas 


yiptav 


Gen. 


Otit-os 


e\Tri8-os 


xdptT-os 


6pvt8-os 


•yi-yavT-os 


■yipovT-os 


Dat. 


0T1T-C 


€Xir£S-t 


XdpiT-L 


opvie-i 


■yC"yavT-i 


■yepovT-i 


Ace. 


wTiT-a 


eXirtS-a 


Xdpiv 


OpVLV 


■yt-yavT-a 


■y^povT-a 


Voc. 


e^s 


iXiri 


Xdpt 

DUAL 


opvl 


^t^av 


7€pov 


N. A.V. 


QflT-t 


cXirCB-e 


XdptT-6 


opvie-€ ' 


■^lyavT-t 


'yepovT-c 


G. D. 


6tit-oiv 


^XTTtS-OlV 


XaptT-otv 

PLUEAL 


opvi6-oiv 


-yi-yavT-oiv 


■ytpdvT-oiv 


N.V. 


eT]T-es 


IXiriB-es 


Xdp«.T-£s 


6pvte-€S 


yiyavT-is 


7€pOVT-€S 


Gen. 


frriT-wv 


cX7rtS-(ov 


XaptT-tov 


6pvt6-wv 


■yi-ydyT-wv 


■yepovT-wv 


Dat. 


By\a-l(v) 


€X'irto-i(v) 


Xdpio-t(v) 


6pvto-i(v) 


yiyaa-i(v) 


y^povu-i(v) 


Ace. 


e-HT-as 


€XirCS-as 


xdptT-as 


6pvi6-as 


■Yi-yavT-as 


•yepovT-as 



Masculine: 7^0;? Jaughter (yeXtur-), fK4<j)a^ elephant (i\e<pavT-), \eoiv lion 
(Xeoj/T-), (55ojJ? tooth (ddopT-), VOC. (55ot)s. Eeminine : ^0-^171 clothing {^a$7]T-), 
€pLS strife (ipid-), dcTTTis shield (do-TTiS-), trarph fatherland (-jrarpiS-), /cdpyj 
helmet Qcopvd-). 
a. In irovi foot, Doric 7rt6? (stem xo5-) ou is irregular. 

258. B. NEUTERS WITH STEMS IN t AND IN St VARYING WITH as 

SINGULAR 



erwfJLtt body 

((TOJ/XaT-) 

N. A. V. o-(op,a 
Gen. o-to}jLaT-os 

Dat. crtofiar-t 



(i77raT-) 
11 Trap 
'fiTraT-os 
il7raT-t 



Tcpas portent 

(^Tepar-^ 
Tt'pas 

T€paT-OS 

TCpar-t 



Ktpas horn 
(Kcpar-, K€pa<T-) 

K€pas 

K€paT-os (fcepa-os) KCptos 

K€paT-i (/c^pa-V) K€pat 



257 D. xpcij s^i?i (xpojT-) and some other words often show a stem with no 
T. Thus, Horn, xpoo^, xpo' (also Hdt.), xp^°-^ and also, hut rarely, xP^^^^i 
Xpi^Ta, Horn, has tSpoj, yfKi^y ^poi for Att. l8pQ)Tt (t5pc6? sweait), yeXom (yi\o}^ 
laughter), epojn (epw? ?o'ye). Hom. lias also ace, l5pQ, 7^0? (or 7^0;;'), tpop 
(from epos). Some stems in -i5 are generally t stems in Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic : 
e^Tis, Qerios (hut SiriSos 9 370), Ildpu, Ildpioj. 

258 D The other dialects rarely show the t forms. Hom. has ripas, repaa 
(reipea)^ repdwp, T€pde<r<n, Wpas, K€pao$^ /c^pai, K^pa.^ Kepdcov, K^pcuri and Kepdeaai. 



62 



THIRD DECLKNSIO^^: DENTAL STEMS 



[259 



B. NEUTERS W^ITH STEMS IN t AND IN ttT VARYING WITH as — 









Concluded 












DUAL 








<rwjia 6oc?2^ 


tjirap liver 


Tcpas portent 


K€pas horn 






(cw/xaT-) 


(J)irar-) 


(repar-) 


(KCpOLT-j K€pa<T-) 




N. A, V. <ru>\LaT-€ 


■HiraT-e 


T€paT-€ 


K€paT-e (/cepa-t) 


K^pa 


G. D. 


0-fa>(idT-OtV 


TjirdT-oiv 


T€pttT-OlV 

PLURAL 


K€paT-oiv (KCpa-OLv) 


K€p^V 


N.V. 


o-(o|jLaT-a 


'H'lraT-a 


Ttpar-a 


K€paT-a (^K^pa-a) 


K€pa 


Gen. 


o-ajjidtT-wv 


Tl"irttT-ti>V 


T€pdT-a>v 


K€paT-(i)V (K€pd-CJP) 


K€pWV 


Dat. 


<rtojiao-i(v) 


Tl'irao-i(v) 


T€pa(ri(v) 


K€pa<ri(v) 




Ace. 


<r<u(iaT-o 


■fj-iraT-a 


T€paT-a 


K€paT-a (/c^pa-a) 


«pa 



6voixa name (iw/Aar-), a-rd/xa. mouth ((TTOfioLT ), /zAi honey (/xeXtr-), 7dXa mi7^ 
(7aXaKT-, 133 b), 0aij Zzgr/if (^wr-), A:^p heart (for /ctj/jS-, 133 b). 

a. Stems in as (264) drop a- before the endings and contract ao, aw to w, 
and aa to d. 

b. /c^pas, meaning toiiigr 0/ an army^ is declined from the stem Kcpaa-- (^ttI 
Kipws in single file) ; in the meaning horn^ from the stem KepdT-. 

c. For the inflection Tjirap, ^rar-os, see 253 b. Of like inflection are dXeitpap 
fat, 4>p4ap cistern, 84\€ap bait, and poetic ^ixap day, eJdap food, ireTpap end. 

d. T^paj, K^pas form their nominative from a stem in s. So, too, w^pas end 
TT^par-os, 0a)s UgJit (contracted from (pdo$) 0ajT-6s (253 c). 



259 


. STEMS 


IN A LIQUID (X, 


/)) OR A 


NASAL \ 


(.). 








SINGULAR 




« 




6e^p 


6 p^Ta>p 


^Pis 


Ti-yejiwv 


d-ywy 


TroijiTiv 




(Svp-) 


(pVTOp-) 


(p?.-) 


(7;7e/xoP-) 


(d7wv-) 


(TTOiJliCt'-) 




wild beast 


orator 


?iose 


leader 


contest 


shepherd 


Nom. 


Otip 


pTJTCOp 


^ts 


Tj-yep-wv 


d-ywv 


iroifiTiv 


Gen. 


e^ip-os 


pilTOp-OS 


^lv-6s 


Tj-yejiov-os 


d-ytov-os 


iroi,|i^v-os 


Dat. 


Gtip-C 


pT]TOp-l 


^iv-£ 


ti-yejiov-i 


d-yoiv-i 


TTOlJiCV-l 


Ace. 


e-qp-a 


P^Top-a 


piv-a 


ti-yciiov-a 


d'ytj^v-a 


iroiiJL^v-a 


Voc. 


e^p 


pilTOp 


pts 


Ti'yep.uv 


ay&v 


iroijiTiv 



Hdt. lias e for a before a vowel (cp. 264 D. 3) in r^peos, repea (also r^paros, ripara), 
K^peos, K^p€t, K^pea, Kepecvv. Hom. has irelpas Treiparos for wepas iriparos. From 
^dos (06ws), whence ^ujs, he has dat, 0aei, pi. 0dea, 0dos is used in tragedy. 

259 D. Late Greek shows d€\<piv, piv^ eiv shore (Hom. ei%), ^Xfiips worm in 
Hippocrates has its v from the oblique cases. Hom. has -^^pi, ijipa from a-qpair; 
from Kpodoiv Hom. has Kpovtojvos and Kpot^owr. fidKaps is Doric for /xdKap happy. 
Find, has 0pacr/ (250 N.). Ionic /xe/s, Doric mt?s are from ^evs for /xt/^'s (40, 37 D. 
1, 2). Aeolic gen. fiijpvos is from /xTjvff-os, 



262] 



TJirilD DECLENSION: LIQUID STEMS 



63 



STEMS IN A LIQUID (X, p) OR A NASAL (v) — Concluded 



DUAL 





oGVip 

(evp-) 
wild beast 


6 p^TWp 

(h'^op-) 

orator 


^pls 

reose 


leader 


aymv 

{dycji'-) 
contest 


(-rroifjijev-) 
shepherd 


N. A. 
G. D. 


6iip-oiv 


pi^Top-e 

pllTOp-OlV 


puv-. 
piv-oiv 

PLURAL 


t)7€|a6v-€ 
Ti-yenov-otv 


aymv-i 


iroipiv-c 
iroific'v-otv 


N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


erip-es 
6t)p-wv 
eTip-(r£(v) 
erip^as 


pi^Top-es 

pT)T6p-WV 
pT)TOp-O-l(v) 

pit]Top-as 


piV-«S 
piv-«v 

plo-C(v) 
ptv-as 


f]-yefi6v-€s 
T)7e|i6v-a>v 
T)7€H6o-i(v) 
T)"ye|i.ov-a5 


d'y«»<ri(v) 
d-yoiv-as 


iroipiv-wv 

iroin€tri(v) 

iroinc'v-as 



at^V upper air {aldep-)^ 6 Kparijp mixing boxol {npar-qp-')^ 6 <p<hp thief (4>cjp-), t6 
vGKrap nectar (veKrap-^ 6 deXcpts dolphUl (SeX^I;/-), 6 "EXXijr Greek (^WK\ijv-) ^ 
6 dalixuv divinity (Sai/xov-), voc, datfiov, 249 b. The only X stem is 6 a\^ salt 
(pi. grains of salt) ; -f? aXs (poetic) means sea. 6 juij;/ month was originally a 
sigjna stem (/x'^j'cr-, cp. mensis). 

260. Accusative Sing. — 'AiriXXw and IlocretSw are found as well as 'Air6X- 
Xwm, llocretSui^'a. The shorter forms are regular in inscriptions, and occur espe- 
cially in expressions of swearing after vt; t6v, fia rbv (1590 b). 

261. Vocative. — cwr-fip jiweser-yei', 'A'n-6XXtijj/, Yloc^ibCjv (from Iloo-etS^wv, -aiav^ 
■^fwv) have voc. (TQ>r€p, "AiroXXov, IlocretSov with recessive accent. Recessive 
accent also occurs in compound proper names in -wj/; as ' kya.p.^jxviisv^ ' Aydixefivov ; 
Airro/jJdcjv^ AvrSfiedov ; ^iX'^^fKav^ ^tkTJfWv ; but not in those in -(ppuiv (^vdixppov), 
AaKibaifxiav has AaKedai/Jiov, 



STEMS IN ep VAEYING WITH p 

262. Several words in -r-qp show three forms of stem gradation : -Tijp strong, 
'T€p middle, -rp weak, p between consonants becomes pa (35 b). The vocative 
has recessive accent, dvjfp man has the weak form in p even before vowels ; 
between v and p, 5 is inserted by 130. 



260 D. KVKedov potion usually has KVKeGj for KVK€S>va. 

262 D. Poetry often ha.s irar^pos, Tcarepi, fiTjrepos, fi-nr^pi, etc. Poetical are 
trarpuu ; dvyarepi, dvyarpa^ d^arpe^., Ovyarp&v^ Ovyar^peo-o-i^ di^yarpas, yaar^pos, 
etc. ; and dv^pos, dv^pi, dv^pa, dv^pes^ dvipwv^ dvipas all with long a. Hom. has 
S-vSpea-a-L and dySpdai (with -act only in this word), A7]p.7jTpos and A-qfi'^repo^. 



64 



TJmiB DECLENSION: LIQUID STEMS 



[263 



rTJp 





(irarep-) 

father 


Nom. 
Gen. 


iraTiip 
iraTp-ds 


Dat. 

Ace, ■ 
Voc. 


iraTp-C 

TTttT^p-a 

Trdrep 



N. A. V. iraWp-e 

G. D. TTttT^p-OtV 



N. V. TraT4p-€S 

Gen. iraTcp-tov 

Dat. 'iraTpd-€ri(v) 

Ace. TTttTcp-as 



SlNGULAIl 






^ ft^Ttlp 

(AtTjre/)-) 
mother 


T) OiryttTiip 

daughter 


6 dv^p 

{dvep- Ot dv{5)p-) 
man 


^^T7,p 

(«lTp-6s 

(MlTp-C 

(illTCp-tt 

li7]T«p 


OwYaTTip 

O-u-yarp-ds 

9iryaTp-£ 

0-u7ttT^p-a 

Ov'-yarcp 


dvnljp 
dvSp-6s 
dvSp-t 
avSp-a 

ttVCp 


DUAL 






}iTlTc'p-e 
ji-qr^p-oiv 


Ov-yaT^p-t 
Ov-yttTcp-oiv 


av8p-< 
dvSp-oiv 


PLURAL 






[jn]T€'p-«v 

|iT]Tpd-<rt(v) 
}i11T€'p-ttS 


9v-yaTe'p-«s 
9-u7a,T«p-«v 
9v-yttTpd-o-i,(v) 
9D7aT€'p-tts 


avSp-cs 

dvSp-uiv 

dvSpd-o-i(v) 

dv&p-as 



a. The accent in the weak forms of /ii^TT^p, evydTT)p in the gen. and dat. 

sing, follows that of xaTp6s, iraTpl. 

b. yac-Ti^p belly, has ya<7Tp6sj etc. Aij/iijTijp is inflected Ai^fnjrpo^, Ai^ju-T^rpi, 
A^/i7jTpa, A'^/XT^rep, 

c. d<7Ti^p star has gen, dcrr^pos, dat. d<7T4pi, dat. pL da-Tpda. 



STEMS IN SIGMA (e9, a?, 09) 

263. Stems in sigma are contracted where o- falls out between the 
vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending (120). Thus, yevos 
race, gen. 7eve(cr)-os yeVovs, dat. 7eve(cr)-t y€i/et, cp. Lat. genus gener-is (for 
genes-is), gener-i. 

SL. The masculine and feminine accusative plural, when it is contracted, bor- 
rows the form of the contracted nominative plural, -tir is not derived from -eas. 
In the dative plural the union of o- of the stem and o- of the ending produces o-tr, 
which is reduced to <t without lengthening the preceding vowel (107). 

b. Masculine stems in es with the nominative in -tjs are proper names; the 
feminine rpi-^pt^s trireme is an adjective used substantively (properly, tHply 
fitted; 7] Tpt^pTjs (mus) ' ship with three banks of oars'). 

c. Neuters with stems in es have -os in the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative singular ; neuters with stems in as have -as in these cases. 

d. Some stems in as have also a stem in ar or dr (258). 



264] 



THIRD DECLENSION: STOMA STEMS 



65 



264. 


6 SaKpdTTjs Socrates 6 AT]}io<r8€VT]s Demosthenes 




(SwK/aaretr-) 




(A7?/w(r^ew(r-) 


Nom. 


SaKpciTTis 




ATiiLoo-e^vris 


Gen. 


{'ZwKpdTe-os) 2ti)KpdT0VS (ArjjJjocrd^ve-os) Ar]\io<r9ivovi 


Dat. 


(Soj/fpdre-t) 2a)KpaT€i {AT)jMo-$ip€~i) A-r\\i.o<rBiv€i 


Ace. 


(SwKpdre-a) StoKpArT] {ArifAoaO^ 


v€-a) Ai\^o<T^ivi\ 


Voc, 


2<iiKpttT€S 


BINGULAE 


AT]}JL6<r8€V€S 




4) TptVjpTIS 


TO -ytVOS 


TO -y^'pas 




(rpi-npea-) 


(7ej/e£7--) 


{yepaa-) 




tnreme 


race 


prize 


Nom. 


Tpi^pris 


^^vos 


Y^pas 


Gen. 


{rpti)p€-os) Tpi-fjpov$ 


(7^w-os) -y^votjs 


(7^pa-os) 7€p<us 


Dat. 


(jpLijpe-i) Tpiifipci 


(y^ve-i) yivii 


(7^pa-() Y^pai 


Ace. 


{rpi-^pe-a) TpiT^pn 


7€VOS 


Y^'ptis 


Voc. 


TpiT]p€S 


•yt'vos 
DUAL 


7«pcis 


N. A. V. 


(rpt^pe-e) rpi^pti 


(7^1/e-e) -ymi 


(7^pa-e) ^4pa 


G.D. 


(TpL7}pi~oiv) Tpi-qpoiv 


PLURAL 


(7c/xi-oi;') ^tpwv 


N.V. 


(rpi-^pe-es) rpiriptis 


(7^»'e-a) 7IV,, 


(7^pa-a) Y^pa 


Gen. 


(jpirjp^-cxjv) TplT|po>V 


(7ej'^-wi') 7€ve&v 


(7€/)d-w;') -ycpftiv 


Dat. 


(Tpiiip€<T'<Ti) Tpi"qp€cri(v) 


{y4vjE<T-<n) 7€V€cri(v) 


{yipaa-aC) •>(i\iO.<Ti{y) 


Ace. 


Tpwfjpets 


{yive-a) y€vt| 


(y^pa-a) yipa 



Aioy^vTj'i Diogenes^ T-jnro/cpdrijs Hippocrates. Neuiers : eros yea?*, eCpos widths 
$i0os S'WJord, reix^s zoai?, 7^paj oM agfe, >cp^as fiesh (for ^epai /io?'w see 258). 

a. Proper names in --qs liave recessive accent in the vocative. 

b. Proper names in -y^vns^ -Kpdrris, -p^dtn^s, ~<pdv7]s, etc., may have an accus. 
in -7?i/ derived from the lirst declension. Tims, XuyKpdT-ijv, ' Api<TTo<pdvT}v^ like 
^ArfielS-np (222, 282 N.). But names in -kXtjs (265) have only -ed. 

c. Proper names in -tjs often show -eos, -ea in the lyrie parts of tragedy. 

d. Neuters in -os often show open forms (especially -€(ov) in Attic poetry. 
-et^ip is frequent in Xenophon. 

e. Tpi-^poiv and rpi-qpiov have irregular accent by analogy to the other forms. 

f. A preceding p does not prevent the contraction of ea to 7;, as 6p7j from 
t6 ^pos mountain (cp. 31. 1). 

g. The dat. sing, of as stems is properly -at ; but -a is often written on 
the authority of the ancient grammarians. This a may possibly be due to the 
analogy of g. in d stems. 



264 D. 1. Horn, uses the open or the closed forms according to convenience. 
-CVS occurs in the gen. of a few words in -oj {^^Xevs) ; -eaip is often a monosyl- 

GKEEK GRAM, 5 



66 THIRD DECLENSION: STEMS IN 02, fi(F) [265 

265. When -ea- of the stem is preceded by e, the forms are inflected as fol- 
lows : Td d^os fear (Sefo--), UepLKXijs from IleptKXeTjs Pericles (IlepifcXeerr-) : 



Nom. 


8^05 


(nept/cX^Tjs) 


IlepLKXTJS 


Gen. 


(5^e-os) Se'ovs 


(nept/cX^e-os) 


IleptKXeoTJs 


Bat. 


(5^£>0 8&1 


(IIepiKXcf€-i) 


IIeplkXcC 


Ace. 


S^os 


(IlepiKX^e-a) 


ncpiKXca 


Voc. 


84os 


(nep/^X€€s) 


IlepCKXeis 




So 'Hpa/cX-^s Heracles^ 


Xo<poK\i]s Sophocles. 





a. After e, ea contracts to a (56). On the contraction of -e^os, see 65. 

b. 5<^os is uncontracted because the form was originally 5eioj (58). 

STEMS IN 0? 

266, ri cdSm shame is the only os stem in Attic. It is inflected 
in the singular only. Norn. alSws, Gen. al8ovs (alSo-os), Dat. alSot (aiSo-t), 
Ace. al8w (alBo-a), Voc. alBt&s. 

STEMS IN 6)(f) 

267. Steins in top have lost 'uaw and appear as w stems. This w 
contracts with the case endings in the dative and accusative singu- 
lar and in the nominative and accusative plural. Stems in wp are 
masculine. 

lable (60), as is the accus. sing, and pi. -^a from nom. -tjj or -os. Hdt. has open 
-eos^ -€a, ~€€s (?), -ea. In the dat. pi. Horn, has ^Aefrtr^ ^SAetri, and ^eX^eaai 
' (250 D. 2) from ^€Kos missile. 

2. Stems in as are generally uncontracted in Horn. (yTfipaos, y^paC), but we 
find -0.1 in the dat. sing., Kpeiav and KpeiCov in the gen. pi. In the nom. and ace. 
pi. a is short iyipa\ and this is sometimes the case even in Attic poetry (Kp4d). 
The explanation is obscure (yipd does not stand for y4pa), Horn, has S^iratro-t 
and BeTrdsa-a-L (5^jras CUp), 

3. In Hom. and Hdt. several words in -as show e for a before a vowel (cp. 
opiij in Hdt. for bpdtS). Hom. : odbas ground, oifSeor, oiSSei' and o^Sei ; Kdas fleece^ 
Kciea, Kiiecri ; Hdt. : y^pas^ 7^peos, but Kp4as, Kpiu}s^ KpeOiV. In Attic poetry : ^p^ras 
image, ppSreos^ ^p^t€l, etc. Cp. 258 T). 

265 D. Hom. has K\4a (for K\4a ?), and from -kXtjs : -^os, -■^i ; Hdt. : -4qs (for 
-(^eoy), -ii\ -ed. Por -^^os, -^^a the open -eeos, -e'ea may be read. Attic poetry often 
has the open forms -^175 (also in prose inscrip.), -iei, -ees. 

266 D. Hom, and Ion. ij ijtbs dawn {ijoa-) is inflected like a/Stir. !For albovs, 
TjC) we may read albbos, 1760 and some other open forms in Hom. The Attic form 
^m is declined according to 238 ; but the accus. is '4o3 (238 d). Hom. has i5p6a 
from I5pc£»s sweat (usually a r stem). Cp. 257 T>. 

267 D. Hom. has ^piSi (for ^pi^ read T/ptJt), ^puya (or ypcj')^ r/poes -^pojaSy Mivoia 
and Mtw. Hdt. has the gen. Mivoi and Mi^'wos, the ace. irdTpiov^ rjpuyv^ but /xijTpaja. 



268] THIRD DECLENSION: STEMS IN I AND Y 67 

SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL 

Nom. r\pta% Jiero N. A. V. -tipw-e N. V. Tipw-ts (rarely ijpws) 

Gen. iip«-os G. D. T)p»-oiv Gen. T|p«-a>v 

Dat. iip»-i (usually Tf{p<$) Dat. TJp«-<ri(v) 

Ace. iipw-o (usually v\p(a) Ace. ijpw-os (rarely i^pws) 

Voc. TJpws 

Tpws Trojan (252 a), irdrpws father's brother^ ^■i)rpi»is mother^s brother^ S/nt&s 
sZa^Je (poetic, cp. 252 a). 

a. Forms of the Attic second declension (237) are gen. ^pw, Mtv<a, ace. ^ptav ; 
dual ijpy;' (on an inscription). 

STEMS IN L AND v 

268. Most steins in t and some stems in v show the pure stem vowel 
only in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. In the 
other cases they show an e in place of t and v, and -ws instead of -os 
in the genitive singular. Contraction takes place when this c stands 
before c, i, or a of the case ending, 

SIKGULAK 

T| TToXts city o Trrixvs forearm to oo-tv ^owre t) <rvs soio 6 tx^vs^sft- 

(TToXt-) ('TT/xi'-) (dtrri/') 

Nom, iroXi-s irf^xv-s acT-u 

Gen. iroXc-cos iTiqX*"*"*s a<rTt-«s 

Dat. (ir6\€-L) ttoXcl (Tr-^xe-t) ir^x*'' (dtrre-i) atrTct 

Ace. iroXv-v ir^X^"" a.<rrv 

Voe* iroXi '"■'IX^ ao"ni 

DUAL 

N.A.y, (ir6Xe-e) ttoXcl (tt^x^"^) '""^X*'' (ficrre-e) cLcttci <rv-i Ix^v-i 

G. D. TToXc-oiv 'n-T]x^-*''V dorrt-oiv <rv-oiv Ix^^"*^^ 

FLUltAL 

N. V. (x6Xe-€s) iroXtvs (in7xt-€s) Tr^x*''^ (ficre-a) acTTT) in5-€S tx^v-^S 

Gen. iroXc-uv TTi^X*"***' acrc-wv <rv-«v Ix^v-wv 

Dat. 'n-6Xe-o-i(v) Trii]X«-o-i'(v) ocrT€-<ri(v) (rv-{ri(v) tx6v-<ri(v) 

Ace. TToXtis 'iriqX*''S ((Scre-tt) ao-Tii trvs ^X^^S 

268 D. L I stems, a. Doric, Aeolic, and New Ionic retain the t stem with- 
out variation in all cases : 7r6Xts, ir6Xtos, iroXI (from iroXt-t) and rarely irdXet in 
Bdt., irdXiVj TrdXi, TT^XieSj TroX^wi-, iriXiCt, iriXts fl'Om 7r6X(»'j (Cretan), and TriXtas. 



(o-i/-) 


Ox&v-] 


<rv-s 


ixets-s 


<rv-os 


ixev-os 


<rv-t 


ixev-t 


trv-v 


ixe^-v 


<rv 


txetS 



68 THIRD DECLENSION: STEMS IN I AND Y [269 

269. Stems in i and v are of two kinds : — 

1. a. Stems in i, with genitive in -€ws, as (masc.) fiduTL? seer^ €xts viper ; (fern.) 

7r6Xts city^ 7rof7;crt? postry, d6va.fn^ power, tTTdcris faction^ v§pis outrage. 
Neuter nominatives in -c are not used in classical prose. 
b. Stems in t, with genitive in -ios, as 6 kU weevil, gen. w-is, dat, ki-I ; and 
so in proper names in -ts, as A^ySafus Lygdamis, gen. Avy6d{uos. 

2. a. Stems in k, with genitive in -vos ; as (masc.) /xPs moitse, ^drpvs cluster 

of grapes, tx&vs fish; (fern.) 5pvs oak, dt^pvs eyebrow, l(Txi^ force. 
b. Stems in y, with genitive in -€(os: (masc.) tt^x^s forearm, jtAckus axe; 

(neut.) dcrry town, 
N. 1. — In the nom., ace., and voc. sing, barytone steins in i; have short v ; 
osytone substantives (usually) and monosyllables' have i; ; and monosyllables 
circumflex the v (cryy, aOv, aO), 

N. 2. — i) ^7x^^'^s eel follows i'x^s in the singular (iyxe\v-os^ etc.), but -rr^x^^ 
in the plural (iyx^'^^'-h etc.). But this does not hold for Aristotle. 

270. Stems in t and v vaiy with stronger stems, of which e in the cases other 
than nom., ace, and voc. sing, is a survival. Thus : 

a. t, V, as in 'n-6Xt-s, irrjxv-s. 

b. €1, €v, which before vowels lost their i and u (43), as in 7roXe(f )-i, 7ro\€{t)-€s, 

7n7X^(!i)-^s ; which contract to 7r6X^i, irdXeis, 7n7xets. 

c. There is also a stem in 7, as in Horn. 7r6\r}-os (268 D. 1, c), whence irdXe-ujs. 
N. 1. — 7r6Xe-os in Attic poetry for the sake of the metre is due to the analogy 

of f stems with gen. in ~€-os {ifd^-os, 297). Horn. 7^'>7;^;e-os is the regular form (from 
■3n7xe(u)-os). Attic TTiJxf-ws follows TrdXectJS. TrbXe-at and Tri'Jxe-o'i for 7r6Xi-tri and 
TTT^X^-'^'^ are due to the analogy of forms from stems in et, ev (wdXe-ojv, tttJx^-wj', etc.). 
N. 2. — The dual TroXee occurs in some Mss. 

271. Accent. — Final -&js of the genitive singular does not prevent the 
acute from standing on the antepenult (163 a). Thus 7r6Xe-ajs, 7ri7xe-ws, fi(TT6-ws. 
■jToXe-ws retains the accent of the earlier irSX-n-os, which, by transference of quantity 
(34), became irdXe-cas. The accent of the gen, pi. follows that of the gen. sing. 

272. Accusative plural, — 7r6Xeis, ir-rix^ts are borrowed from the nominative. 
IxGvs is from IxOvp-s. ixd^as occurs in late Greek. Cp. 251 a. 

b. Horn, has 7r6Xis, 7r6Xios, w6Xi, -rrdXei or -u (for which some read 7r6xr, as k6vI ; 
it6(T€i is correct) and TTToXd', w6\lv, wSXi ; pi. TroXtes, -rroXlcjv, irSXea-i, (some read 
instead TriXio-i) or iroXiea-a-i (260 D. 2) i-rrdX^effiv, irdXls or 7r6Xias (iroXeLs appears 
in some texts). 

C. Horn, has also forms with t} : 7r6Xr]o$, -itoXtji, 7r6X7;es, iroXTjas. 

2. V Stems, a. Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic have the open forms irrjx^e?, da-rei, 
&(TTea ; in the gen. sing, -os, never -ws (tt'^x^o^, dareos). In the dat. sing, of words 
of more than one syllable Horn, has -vi or -vi, as v€kvl {viKvs corpse), but Hdt. 
does not show -vl. 

b. The gen. pi. has the regular accent (trrjx^iov, dcTi^ojv). On the dat. ireX^- 
KCtrtrt, viKva<TL, irirv<F<n (some WOUld read viKvai, ttItvo-i), v€K<je<T<T.i, see 260 D. 2. 
Horn, has accus, tx^^"^ ^i^<I txd^a^, Hdt. has ixOuas very rarely. 



275] THIRD DKCLKNSIOX: STP:MS IN EY, AY, OY 69 

273. Contraction. — Ix^v (once) for lxQ{>e and IxOm for-lx6ij€s occur in 
comedy. ixOv is not a legitimate contraction, as v cannot contract with € 
(51 c). ^x^vs (for Lxd^es) is the accus. form used as the nom. (251 b). 

274. ots sheep is declined as follows : o!?, ot-6s, ol-l, ol-v^ oJ ; dual, ol~€, ol-otv ; 
pi. of-es, ol'wv^ ol-al^ oJ-s, Here the stem is ot, representing 6fi, which is 
properly an i stem : 6ft-?, Lat. ovi-s. 



275. STEMS IN ev, av, ov 

SINGULAR 

6 pa<rL\€v-s T] "YpaO-s t) vav-s 6, t| ^ov-s 

king old vjoman shijD ox, cow 

Nom. pa<riX€v-s -ypav-s vav-s Poi)-s 

Gen. pa<riX€-us 7pa-6s vc-tos Po-6s 

Dat. (paaiK^-i) Pao-iXei ^pa-t v-n-t po-t 

Acc, Pao-iX6-a 7pa0-v vav-v pov-v 

Voc. Pao-iXeO -ypaO vav pov 

DUAL 

N. A. V. pa<riXfi 7pS^* vT^-t p6-€ 

G. D. Pao-iX^-oiv "ypa-oiv ve-otv po-oiv 

PLDEAL 

N-TT- f BcuriXfis, later ^ ^ » o, 

.V. 1 „ !; >7pa-€s VT|-€S Po-€S 

I Pao-LXeis J 

Gen. Pao-iXc-uv -ypa-wv 

Bat. Pao-iX60-<ri(v) 7pau-<ri(v) 

Acc, Ptt<nX4-as ^paO-s 

Like paaikeijs are declined the masculine oxytones 6 £7rxeiJs horseman, 6 Upe^s 
priest, 6 yoyetis parent, 6 <pove6s murderer j like j8oOs is declined 6 x°^^ three- 
quart measure (but acc. xoa and xoas). 



V€-WV 


po-wv 


vau-<ri(v) 


pou-<r£(v) 


vav-s 


pov-s 



274 D. Horn, has 6i's, dtos and otos, bl'v, 61'es, dtojy and oICjv^ otecai {oXefftri o 
and 6€<T<Tt, tfrs(?). 

275 D. 1. Horn, has jSacriX^os, -7}i, -7ja, -ev, -^«, -eCcrt (and --^ecrcrt), -■^as. 
Also -e'os, -^i, -^a, from the stem €f = ev. -evs and -et for -^os and -eV are not 
common. 'Arpeus, TyfieiJs have -^(f )-os etc. regularly (Ti56^ from Ivdia). Hdt. 
has -^oj, -€L or -«, -^a, -eO, -^es, -^ojv^ -eO(r(, -^as. 

2. Horn, has ypTjvs or ypv'vs^ yp'>Pj ypv^ and 7/)77v ; the unattic ^Secrcri (and 
^oyo-i), p6as (and jSoPs), /Swp acc. sing. H 238. The Doric nom. sing: is ^ws, 
acc. pi. ^Cjs. 

3. The declension of vav$ in Doric, Homer, and Herodotus is as follows : 



70 



THIRD OliCLENSIOxX: STKMS IN 01 



[276 



276. Substantives in -eiJs preceded by a vowel may contract in the gen. and 
ace. sing, and pi. Thus, aXieiJs fisharman has gen. dXi^w? or dXttDs, ace. dXt^a 
or dXia, gen. pl.'dXttwf or dXtfiv, ace. pi. dXi^d? or dXtd?. All other forms are 
regular. The contracted forms were in use in the fifth century, but in the 
fourth (especially after 350 b.c.) the open forms are common. So are declined 
Ei5j3oeus Euhoean from Ei^/SoteiJs, Hai/jateiis Peiraeiis^ nXaraifiJs Plataean. 

277. Other Forms, —a. In tlie drama from words in -etis we find rarely 
-4a, in ace. sing., -^as in ace. pi. -^s and -Qos, -■^es, -ijas are occasionally found. 

b. Tlie nom. pi. in older Attic ended in -7}$ (/Sao-iX^j), derived either from 
'Tjes by contraction or from -^775 (once on an inscription) by 34. -ijs occurs on 
inscriptions till about 360 n.c, and is the form to be adopted in the texts of 
authors of the fifth century and in Plato, -ies occurs rarely, but is suspected. 
/SacriXets (regular on inscriptions after 829 b.c.) is from analogy to ^Sels. 

c. The ace. pi. ^acriXeis was not used till the end of the fourth century, -tjs 
(the nom. form) is used for the ace. in a few passages (251b). 

278. Stem Variation. — Stems ending m ey, av, ov ]ose v before case end- 
ings beginning with a vowel, v passing into f (48). Stems in eu show the pure 
form only in the vocative ; other forms are derived from the stronger stem 7}v. 
Tjv and dv before a consonant become cu, av (40) as in ^acnXeiJs, ^acrtXeCcrt, vaus, 
vavffi from /3acrtX77iis, mus, etc. From ^a(yLX7}(f)-ot, -7j(f)~i^ -i}{^f)-a, -■^(/r)-af 
come, by transfer of quantity (34)^ the Attic forms. So Kcis is derived from 
y7}(f)-6s. In ^affL\4iav, i>eQ>v^ e is shortened from the 7? of )3acriX^w»', v7}Qiv by 39. 
|3o-6s, etc. are from the stem j3ou- /So^r-, cp. Lat. hovis. 



STEMS IN" 01 



279, Stems in ot, with nominative in -ai, turn i into unwritten t {y) 
(43) before the endings beginning with a vowel, ti ireM persuasion 
is thus declined : 

N. iretBci. G. ireiBoiis (TrViflo-o?). D. ir€t6oi (ireLdS-L). A. iretBw (w€L66-a). 
V. ircLeot. Dual and plural are wanting. 







SINGULAR 










PLURAL 








Doric 


Homer 


Ildt. 






Doric 




Homer 






Hdt. 


Nom. 


va€-s 


vir)v-s 


vi^iJ-s 






vd-6s 




V€-6S 






V^-€S 


Gen. 


va-6s 


VTl-OS, 


vc-os 

(and } 


vy]-6s 


?) 


va-av 




V€-tOV 






V€-WV 


Dat. 


va4 


vt,4 


v,l4- 






vav-crC(v), 
va-€0-q-i.(v) 


vf]v-(rL(v) 
VTi-€o-o-i(v), 


v^- 


eo-o-i(v) 


v-qv-cri 


Ace. 


vav-v 


vfj-a, 
v€-a 


v€-a 






va-as 




v-ri-as, 
v€-as 






v^-as 



Horn, has vavai in muo-ifcXurir. 

279 D. In Ionic the forms are contracted (t€l6ovs, etc.). Hdt. has ace. ^loOx' 
from "Itij, A7}Tovv, but also 7ret^c6. 



284] CASE IN -4.l(v), lEUEGULAIi DECLENSION 71 

So -nx*^ echOy eiJeo-roi well-heing, (peidtb sparing^ ZairipiOy At^tw, KaXy^ti. oi stems 
are chiefly used for women's names. 

a. A stronger form of the stem is wi, seen in the earlier form of the nomi- 
native (Sa7r0v, A7)T<^). The accusative has the accent of the nominative. 

b. When dual and plural occur, they ave of the second declension : nom. 
\€xol (late) from Xex^^ woman in child-bed, ace. 'yoprotJs from yopyw gorgon. 

c. i} dKibv image^ ij drjBwv nightingale^ properly from stems in o^■, have certain 
forms from this declension (eUovs, eUd, voc. 6,r]6oL), 

CASES IN -(^i(i') 

280. Cases in -4>i.(v). 0^(0 is often added to noun stems in Horn, to 

express the relations of the lost instrumental, locative, and ablative, both 
suigular and (more commonly) plural ; rarely to express the relations of the 
genitive and dative cases. From a steins are made singulars, from o stems 
singulars or plurals, from consonant stems almost always plurals. Except in 
ded-iptv with the gods ~*pt(v) is not added to a stem denoting a person, (a) Instru- 
mental: §ly)-(pi by might, ir^pij-ipi with the other (hand), 5aKpv6-<piv with tears; 
(h) Locative : 6^p7}-<pL at the door, 6pe<T-<pi on the mountains ; (c) Ablative : 
K€(pa\T}-<piv from off the head; especially with prepositions, as iK ttovto-^lv from 
off the sea, clto vav~<pLv from the ships. 

IRREGULAR DECLENSION 

281. The gender in the singular and in the plural may not be the same: 
6 (TiTOi grain, to a-Tra; 6 5etr/i6s chain, rh. dea-fjud chains (oi 5€<r/jai cases of im- 
prisonment) ; t6 a-Td5iojf stade, race-course, pi. to. (rrdbia and d o-TctStoi. 

282. XJsuaUy the irregularity consists in a word having two different stems. 

a. Both stems have a common nominative singular : (TK^Toi darkness, aKbrov 
(FK&n^, etc. (like 'Itttov iTnrq}) Or (tkotovs a-Korei (like 7^toi;s yiv^i). So rov " AQio, 
and Tov'^diov from 'A^ws (238 d), rhv r^Kpir-rj and rov SojKpdr-rjv (264 b). These 
are called heteroclites (iT€p6K\iTa differently declined). 

N. Many compound proper names in -ijs' (especially names of foreigners) 
have forms of the 1 and 3 decL, as Tto-o-a^epf-rjs, -vovs, -vtj and -vei. So QeoKpivy) 
(voc.) in Demostli., Aeuyidv^ and Aecovidea in Hdt. 

b. Certain cases are formed from another stem than that of the nom. sin- 
gular; 6 6v€Lpo-s dream, geia. bveipar-ot (as if from to 6veipap), or (less freq.) 
ivelpov; SO rbv 'A-Tr^XXwrn and rbv 'Ax6XXaj (260), rod vi4os and tov vloO (285,27). 
These are called metaplastic forms (fi€Ta7r\a<T/i6s change of formation). 

^ 283. Defectives are substantives having, by reason of their meaning or use, 
only one number or only certain cases. Thus, sing, only : 6 d^p air, 6 aldi^p 
upper air; plur. only : rd Atoviaia, rd 'OXj^pLTia the Dionysiac (Olympic) festival, 
oi irtja-iai anmial winds; in some cases only : <L /xAe my good sir or madam; 
dmp dream; 6<p€\os use only in nom. ; Xi^6s \i^a from *X/i/' stream, libation. 

■ 284. Indeclinables are substantives having one form for all cases : rb xpetif, 
TOV xP^^^-> etc. fatality, rb &\<pa alpha, to Xiyeiv to speak, most cardinal num- 
bers (Tb 5^Ka (e?i), several foreign words, as 'laKdip Jacob, Aapid Vavidf 



72 IKUEGULAH SUBSTANTIVES [285 



235. LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL IRREGULAR SUBSTANTIVES 

1. "Ap-qs (6) Ares, stems 'Apea-, 'Apev- from 'Apeaf-, G, "Apew? (poet. "Apeoj), 

D. "Apei, A. "ApT} (poet. "Apea), "ApTjv, Epic G. 'Apr/os, "Apeos, D. "Apr^t, 
"Apet, A. "ApTja, " Apriv. Hdt. "Apeos, "Apei, "Apea. Aeolic^Apeus, "Apevos, etc. 

2. apriv (6, 17) lamb^ sheep^ stems dp€v-, dpv-, dpva-. Thus, dpv~6s, dpv-l, dpy-a, 

dpv-€Sf dpv-Q>Vy dpvd~cn (Hom. fipv-ecro-t), Sipv-a^ (declined like a subst. in 
--np)- Nom. dp-fiv occurs ou inscript. but dp.v6s (2 decl.) is commonly used. 

3. YoLXa (t(4) ?m7A (133), 7(£Xa«:T-o?, ydXaKi -t, etc. 

4. -yeXtos (6) laughter, y^XojT-os^ etc. Attic poets A. y^Xura or 7(?Xajv. Hom. 

has D. 7A(p, A. 7(?Xw, 7^0);^ or 7^X01 (?) from Aeol. 7^X05. Cp. 267 D. 
6. yovv (t6) knee, ybvar-o^, etc. Ionic and poetic yo^vur-os^ jo^yar-i^ etc. Epic 
also 7oui'-6s, 7ou»^/, 7ouj^a, pi. yoOv'Oiv, yoiv-eaai (250 D. 2). The forms in 
Qv are from yovf- (37 D. 1, 253 c); cf. Lat. genu. 

6. ■y^VT) (19) woma^l, 7i;;'aiK-6s, yvfaiK-l, yuyaiK-a, j^vo.l (133) ; dual yvyatK-^,, 

■yvvatK-OLv ; pi. yvvatK-eSy ywaiK-Qv, yvvac^L, yvvatK-as. The gen. and dat. of 
all numbers accent the last syllable (cp. dv^p). Comic poets have A. 
yvvT^v, 7uras, N. pi. yvvai. 

7. SdKpvov (t6) teai\ BaKpvou, etc., in prose aud poetry. SdKpv (t6) is usually 
^ poetic, D. pi. SdKpvtTL, 

8. Se'vSpov {t6) tree, 54vSpov, etc. Also D. sing. divSp^t, pi. divbp-q, divSpenL. Hdt. 

lias S^vdpov, d^vdpeov and 5^;/5pos. 

9. 5€os (t6) fear (deed-), 5^us, 5^ei. Hom. ddov^ 55 D. Cp. 265. 

10. Sdpu (t(5) spear, Sdpar-os, dipar-i, pi. SSpar-a, etc. Poetic 5<?p-6f, 5op-/ (also in 

prose) and d6p-eL (like &<tt€l). Ionic and poetic 5oiipar-os, etc., Epic also 
5ovp-6s 5ovp~i, dual 5o5p-e, pi. 5oup-a, 5oi5p-ajy, SoOp-eacrt (250 D. 2). The forms 
with ou are from 5op/:- (37 D. 1). 

11. €p«s (6) love, ipo3T-os, etc. Poetical epos, €pv, epo»'. Cp. 257 D. 

12. Zevs (6) Zews, Ai-6?, At-/, A/-a, ZeO. Zeiis is from Ateus, Ai-6s, etc., from Aif-. 

Ionic and poetic Z??;**??, Zt/j'/, Z^ra. 

13. 6€|JLis (-i^) justice and the goddess Themis {deixid-), S^fxid-os, d^ixid-i, d^pn-v. Hom. 

has d€p,L<TT-o%, etc. Pind. d4p.LT~os^ d^p^-v, ei/iir-es. Hdt, dip.t-o'i. In the 
phrase ^(^/wir eZi'cii /«5 esse (indie. d4p,Ls ia-rl), Qkixi^ is indeclinable. 

14. Kdpa (t(5) head (poetic) used in Attic only in N. A. V. sing., but dat. /c(£p<ji. 

Other cases are from the stem Kpar-, G. /fpdr-is, D. Kpa-r/ ; also rh Kpdr-a 
N. A. sing. , Kpar-as A. pi. 

Epic shows the stems Kpaar-, Kpar-, /capTjar-, /capr/r-. N. /capTj, G. KpdaroSy 
Kpdris, KapT^aros, Kapryros, T). /cpdari, Kpdri, Kapijart, /cdp7|rt, A. /cdp. N, pi. 
Kctpa, Kpdara, Kapi^arUf and Kdprjva, G, Kpariov, KapTjviov, D. /cpdcrf, A. Kpdra.. 

15. Kvcov (6, r?) dogr, jici;j>-6j, Ku;^-f, Kijv-a, k6ov ; AriJi'-e, /cuj'-oiv ; Ki;v-es, kuv-u)j', /cufft, 

x'i3j'-as. 

16. Xaas (0) stone, poetic also Xas, G. XSof (or Xdoy), D. Xdi", A. \aav, XSa; 

dual Xde ; pi. Xd-es, Xd-wv, Xd-eaci, Xd-eai. 

17. fittpTvs (6, r?) toitness, ixdprvp-os, etc., but D. pi. pAprv-at. Hom. has N. p,dpTV' 

pos, pi, fidpTvpoi. 

18. OtSt-irovs (6) Oedipus, G. Om-rroSo^, OldLirou, OldtiroSd (Dor,), D. OlSlirodi, 

A, Oidlirovv, OldtTToddv, V. OZStVous, Oldiirov. 



287] DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 73 

19. ovcipos (6) and 6veLpop (r6, Ionic and poetic) dreamy 6v€ipov, etc., but also 

6v€ipaT-os, etc. t6 6vap only in N. A. 

20. fipvts (o, Tj) bird (257). A. 6pvWa and ^pwi' (247). Poetic 6pvis, A. ^pwi*; 

pi. N. 6pv€Ls, G. fipi'ewj/, A. ^pj/ets or ^pm. Dor. G. 6pvtx~oti etc. 

21. ficrcrc dual, two eyes^ pi. G. 6<rafi}v, D. 6a-o-Ois (-oicri). 

22. ovs (t6) ear, a)T-6s, cir-/, pi, cSr-a, ^T-oji' (252 a), too-i; from the stem tir- 

contracted from oi5(o-)aT-, whence ^(i;)aT-. o5s is from 60s, whence also 
the Doric nom. 5s, Horn. G. oi'ar-os, pL oifar-a, o^ckfi and t&o-f. 

23. Ilvug {i}) Pnyx (128), livKv-bs^ Hvkp-I, JlTixv-a, and also Uvvk-Ss, IIvvk4, TlvtiK-a. 

24. irptorpeuT^s (6) envoy has in the pi. usually the forms of the poetic vpia^vs 

old man^ properly an adj., old. Thus, N. sing. Trpeo-jSeyrifJi, G. irpea^evrovy 
etc., N. pi. TTp^o-^ets, G. 'trp4(T^€tx}y, D. irpi<r^e<7i, A. Trpi<x^€is (rarely TTpe- 
ff^evTdi, etc.). irp4a^vs meaning oZr7 ma)i is poetic in the sing. (A. wpia^w^ 
V. TTp^tr/Su) and pi, (Trp^o-jScis) ; meaning envoj/ irp^a^vs is poetic and rare 
.in the sing, (dual irpeo-j3^ from 7rpeo-/3ei5s). irpea^tTtjs old man is used 
in prose and poetry in all numbers. 

25. irvp (r6) ^re (irup-, 254 b), 7rvp-6s, 7rup-f, pi. ri Trypd watch-Jires, 2nd decl. 
■26. tJ8&>p (t6) water ^ vSar-os, vSar-t, pi. liSar-a, ijSa-T-Wf, etc. Cp. 253 b. 

27. vi6s (6) son has three stems : 1. uio-, whence uioO, etc., according to the 2nd 

decl. 2. utu-, whence ul^os, uie?, dual uie?, ut^oip, pi. ule?s, ui^wi', vU<n, vLELt, 
The stems uio- and vlv-, usually lose their 1 (43) : ijov, v^os, etc. 3. vl~ in 
Hom. G. vTos^ D. uft, A. via, daal utc, pi. tres, vid<n, vlas. 

28. x«^P (^) ^*«"<^> Xf'p-<*yi X^^P'^j X^^p-«>* <i^^l X^^/o-^) X^P-o'^^} pl- X«^P-«i x^^p-^^i 

X^p-<^ii x^'^p-'^^- Poetic also xep-6s, x^P-^> stc; dual, x^'P-o''*'* ^tt. inscr. 
have x^^po?;', x^'-P<^^- Horn, agrees with Att. prose and Hdt. except that 
he has also x^p-^? x^^p-^^<^'' x^^P-^<^*- 

29. XP"S (0) s/cijz, xpwT-6s, xp^"^-^ (but xpv ill tbe phrase ^v XPV)) XP^'^ra, Poetic 

Xpo-6^, Xpo-h XP^-°-> li^6 aiStas, 266. 

ADJECTIVES 
ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLEIJTSIONS 

286. Adjectives of Three Endings. — Most adjectives of the vowel 
declension have three endiogs : -09, -tj (or -a), ~ov. The masculine 
and neuter are declined according to the second declension, the 
feminine according to the first. 

a. When e, t, or p (30, 218) precedes -05 the feminine ends in -d, not in -77. 
But adjectives in -00s (not preceded by p) have t}. Thus, 67500s, dydSi], &ydoov 
eighth, 6.$p6os^ 6.$p6d, a.6p6ov crowded. See 290 e. 

287. dya^os (jood^ a^ios wovthy, /juxKpds long are thus declined : 

285 D. 27. Hom. has also i;i6s, viov, vi6v, vU, vlQv, vioicri; ui^i, vWi^ vUa, vUes 
and uteis, ui^as. VI sometimes makes a short syllable in ui6s, vldv^ vU (148 D. 3). 

287 D. In the fern. nom. sing. Ionic has -17, never -a. ; in the fem. gen. pi. 
Hom. has -acav (less ofteii -^ojv) ; Hdt. has -^ojp in osytone adjectives and parti- 
ciples, and so probably in barytones. 



74 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 



[288 



Nom. &Yad65 d'yaO^ d^yaOov 

Gen. cLYaOoO d^adTls d'yaOoii 

Dat. d-yaOw d-yaO-g d-yaOw 

Ace. d-yafldv d'yaO'qv d^aOdv 

Voc. ayaBi d^aG^ d-yaOov 



N. A.V. d-yaOcS d^aOa d'yaGw 
G. D, d*ya0otv d'yaOaiv d-yaOotv 



SINGULAR 










d^OS 


dgta 


d|tov 


jiaKpos 


llttKpd 


(laKpov 


d|iov 


diids 


dgCoti 


[laKpov 


jittKpas 


[laKpov 


data, 


d|Ca 


dgio. 


JittKp^ 


jittKpa 


|iaKp^ 


d^iov 


d€£dv 


d|iov 


littKpOV 


jiaKpdv 


(xaKpov 


agu 


dgCd 


d^LOV 


liaKfM 


(laKpa 


^aKpov 



DUAL 



d|(w d|Cd d|ia> 
dgCoiv d^Cakvd|ioiv 



IxaKpci) |xaKpa (laKpu 
{xaKpoCv (xaKpaiv (xaKpotv 



PLURAL 



N. V. d'yadoC d'yaGai d-yaOd d^ioi d^iai d|ia [laKpoL (laKpaC [laKpd 

Gen. d-yadcdv d'yaOwv d^aOcbv d^Cwv d|i<>>v d^Cuv )x<iKpuv (iaKpwv (laKpwv 

Dat. d"ya0o£s d-yaOats o.yaBoi's d^iots d^iais d^tots |iaKpots |xaKpats (laxpois 

Ace. d-yaOovs d-yaOas d^aOd dgtovs d|tds d|ta |iaKpoiis |iaKpas naKpd 

4ff6'\6s good^ KaK6s bad, (To<p6s wise, Kov<poSj K0}j<p7}j Kov<pov light, 5^Xos clear ,* 
di/SpeiOS, dydpeid^ dydpelov courageous^ dUaios jUSt, o/xotos like^ atVxpAs, aiVxpa, 
alffxp^^ 6ase, i\e66€pos free ; all participles in -os and all superlatives. 

a. The accent in the feminine nominative and genitive plural follows that 
of the masculine : fi^iat, d^L^v^ not d^Lai, d^iCjv^ as would be expected according 
to the rule for substantives (205), e.g. as in alrid cause, ahiai, alnwy. 

b. All adjectives and participles may use the masculine instead of the 
feminine dual forms : rib dyadu} /xtjT^pe the two good mothers. 

288. Adjectives of Two Endings. — Adjectives using the mascu- 
line for the feminine are called adjectives of two endings. Most 
sTich adjectives are compounds. 

289. aSiKos unjust (a- without^ hiK-q justice)^ <f>p6vtfjLos prudenty and 
tA,e<os propitious are declined thus : 









Sll^GULAK 










Masc. and Fern, 


, Neut. 


Masc. and Fern. 


Neut. 


Masc. and Fem 


1. Neut. 


Nom. 


dSiKOs 


dSlKOV 


<jjp6vijios 


4)p6vi|iov 


ifX€o)s 


ifXtwv 


Gen. 


dSiKov 


d8£K0-u 


<t>povC|io\] 


<))povC^o\i 


a€« 


a€« 


Dat. 


dSCKO) 


dSCKcp 


<|jpuviini> 


4)povL|ia) 


i'X€a, 


tXtw 


Ace. 


dSiKOv 


afiiKov 


<t)p<ivt|iov 


<|)p6vt/iov 


I'Xccov 


^cuv 


Voc. 


d8lKC 


dSiKov 


<|)p6vi|ic 


4)p6vi|xov 


tXtws 


t'Xccov 



289 D. Horn, has iXaos or iXaos ; TrXelos, TrXei?;, TrXetoj' (Hdt. vrX^os, irXirj, 
irXiov) ; (Tws (only in this form), and 0-60?, 0-617, ciov. Horn, has N. ftis, A. ^ibv 
living., and ^aj(5s, ^t»Ji^, fwov living. 



ago] 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 



76 



DUAL 





Masc. and Fem 


. Neut. 


Masc. and Fem. 


Went. 


Masc. and Feir 


1. Neut. 


N. A. 


V. dSlKO) 


dSlKU) 


^povl\ua 


<f>povLp.a> 


i\t<o 


iiX«0) 


G.D. 


dSLKOiv 


dSCKOLV 


<}>pOVl(JLOlV 
PLURAL 


<f>pOv£|JLOlV 


i\i<ov 


l£X«<j.v 


N.V. 


aSiKoi 


aSiKa 


4>p<Svi(ioi 


<|>p6vifi.tt 


IfXecd 


aea 


Gen. 


olSlkuv 


dStKwv 


<|>povip.o)v 


<|>povip.(i>v 


{Xcuv 


ilX^wv 


Dat. 


dSiKois 


dStKOLS 


c)>povCp.oi5 


<|>povijw)is 


a^us 


VXeuis 


Ace. 


dSiKovs 


aSiKa 


<f>povi(iovs 


<}>p6vip.a 


l£X«a.s 


tX€a 



a. Like &5iKos are declined the compounded &~\oyos irrational^ ft-Ti/ios dis- 
honoured^ d-x/'^os useless, tfi-ireipos experienced, iiri-fpdovos envious, eC-fews 
hospitable, vtt-t^koos obedient. Like (pp6vtfj/>s are declined the uncompounded 
^dp^apos barbarian, tjci/xoj gwie^, f/^pos fa?7i€, XdXos talkative. 

b. Like* i'Xcws are declined other adjectives of the Attic declension (237), as 
SiKcpcas without horns, a^Ldxpeojs serviceable. For the accent, see 163 a. Adjec- 
tives in -ws, -iov have -a in the neut, pi., hut liCTrXew occurs in Xenophon. 

C. irXe'tos full has three endings : ttX^ws, Tr\4d, ir\4wv, pi. irXit^, ir\4ai, 7r\da, 
hut most compounds, such as ffxirXetas quite full, have the fem. like the masc, 
rus safe has usually sing. N. o-tDs masc, fem. (rarely ecC), <xQ)v neut., A. <xCbv\ 
plur. N. (TV masc, fem., aa. neut., A. <xQ)$ masc, fem,, aa neut. Other cases 
are supplied hy aG>os, <rcid, aOiov. <yCoov also occurs in the accusative. 

d. In poetry, and sometimes in prose, adjectives commonly of two endings 
have a feminine form, as irdTpios paternal, ^fatos violent; and those commonly 
of three endings have no feminine, as dvayKolos necessary, <f>i\ios friendly, 

290. Contracted Adjectives. — Most adjectives in -cos and -005 are 
contracted. Examples : xpi^o-eo? golden, apyvpeos of silver, airXoos simple 
(feminine d;rAed). 



N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace 



N. A. y. 

G. D. 



(xp<^o"fos) 
{xpv<t4ov') 
{xpv<T4(f) 
(xp^<T€ov) 



{xpvciio) 
(x/>w^oiv) 



XpUo-ovs 
Xpvo-ov 
Xpu(r« 
XpiJo-oCv 



Xpva-w 
Xpvo-oiv 



SINGULAR 

(Xpu<r^a) 
{xpvffiB.%) 
(Xpva4a) 
{xpv<^^dv) 

DUAL 

(xpvo-^a) 

(xp^c^aij') 



Xpvo-fi 
Xpv<H]s 
Xpvo-fi 
Xpvcriiv 



Xpvo-a 

Xpucraiv 



(XptSffeo*-) 
(XpiJcr^ou) 
(xpva^v) 

(Xpi)<T€OV) 



(Xpva^ca) 
(xpy<''^0(f) 



Xpv«rovv 
XP^<rov 
Xpvtra 
Xpvo-otiv 

Xpv(r(& 
Xpvo-otv 



^- ^- (xP^^^^oi) XP^*'"®^ 

Gen. (xpvo'^ajy) xp^t'"*'*''' 

Dat. (x/>t}(r^ois) XP^''"°''5 

Acc. (xpiJo-^ous) XP^''"®^? 



PLURAL 

(xptSceai) XP^*'"*^ 

(xpvo"^ajv) XP^*'""^ 

(xpCcr^ats) XP'"°"*''^S 

(Xpvc^as) XP^*'"^S 



(Xpf5<rea) XP^*^^ 

(xpi^f^wj-) XP^*^**^ 

(xpi'o'^ots) XP^^®^5 

(Xp(5<rea) XP^«^«i 



76 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 



[290 



SISGVi.AH 



N. V. (dp7(5peos) dpYvpov; 

Gen. (dpyvp^ov') dpYupoS 

Dat. {dpyvp^^}) dpY^pw 

Ace. (dpyipeov) dp-yupovv 



N. A. V. (dpyvp^u}) dpYvptii 
G. D. [dpyvp^oiv") dp^vpoLV 



(dpyuped) dp-yupd 

{dpyvpiai) dpyvpas 

(dpyvpda^ dpy-upa 

{dpyvp4av) dp-yupdv 



DUAL 



{dpyvp46.^ dp-y-upd 
(^dpyvpiaiv) dp-yvpatv 



{dpyipeov') dp-yvpoiiv 

(dpyvp4ov') dpY^poO 

(dpyvp4i^) dpYvp^ 

(dpyijpeov') dp-yvpoiiv 



(^dpyvp4(A)) dp-yvpijo 
(d.p7up^oiJ') dp-yvpoiv 



N, V. (dpyipeoi) dp^vpot 

Gen. {dpyvplb}v) dp^vpuv 

Dat. {dpyvpioii) dpyvpOLs 

Ace. (^dpyvp^ovs^ dp-yvpous 



(dpyupeaC) dp-yvpai 
{dpyvp4(i3v) dpYvpuv 
(dpyvp^ai?) dp-y-upais 
(dpyvp^d^) dp-yvpds 



(dpyi6p€a) dp^vpd 

(dpyvpifov^ dp-yvpwv 

(dpyvp^oi^) dpyvpois 

(dpydpea) apyvpS. 









SINGULAR 




JSI.V. 


(AttX^os) 


dirXoCs 


(clTrX^a) 


d-rrXT) 


Gen, 


(a7rX6ou) 


d-rrXoO 


(dTrX^as) 


dirXfjs 


Dat. 


(a7rX6(fj) 


dirXw 


(dTrX^^) 


d^rXr) 


Ace, 


(AttXAoi') 


dirXoiiv 


(aTrX^dj/) 


dirXfiv 



(dTrXioj/) d-irXoiiv 

(dTrXioy) dirXoB 

(d7rX6(f)) dirXw 

(ttTrXooJ') dirXo.iiv 



N. A. V. (d7rX6a)) dirXtS 
G. D, (dTrXiotj/) dirXoiv 



(dTrX^d) dirXd 
(dTrX^aii') dirXaiv 



(dirX6a)) dirXifi 
(aTrXiotj-) dirXou 



PLUKAL 








(aTrX^at) 


dirXat 


(dirX(5a) 


d-irXd 


(dirX^tov) 


d-irXwv 


(dirXtSojv) 


dirXtoiv 


(dir^^acs) 


d-ffXats 


(ttTrXoois) 


d-n-Xots 


(dTrX^ds) 


dirXds 


(ttTrXoa) 


d-rXd 



N. V. (d7rX6o£) dirXoi 

Gen. (d7rX6wj') dirXuv 

Dat. {dirXSois) d-irXots 

Ace. (dTrXiou?) dirXoiis 

a. So xo-^foCs, -^, -ovv brazen, (poivlKov^, -i), -ovp crimson, irop<f>\)pov's^ -d, ~ovv dark 
red, <7i5Tjpovs^ -d, -oDv of iron, StirXovs^ -^, -ovv twofold, and other multipli- 
catives in -ttXoOs (354 b). Compounds of two endings (288): eijvovs, -ovy 
(eijvoos) well disposed, dwXous, -ovv (dTrXoos) not navigable, eijpovs^ -ovv 
(eijpoos) fair-flowing. These have open oa in the neuter plural. 

b. The vocative and dual of contracted adjectives are very rare. 

c. Adjectives whose uncontracted form in the nom. sing, has the accent on 
the antepenult (x;>6<reos, irop<f>vp€os) take in the contracted form a circnrafieK 
on their last syllable (xpi^o'oOs, irop<j)vpom) by analogy to the gen. and dat, sing. 
The accent of the nom. dual masculine and neuter is also irregular 
(xpyo'ti, not xP^<^^^' 



292] DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 77 

d. Eor peculiarities of contraction see 56. airXij is from dTrX^a, not from AttX^i?. 

e. Some adjectives are not contracted : dpYaX^os diffieull, K€p5a\^os crafty, 
v^os young, 6j5oos eighth, ddpdos crowded (usually). (Here co and oo were prob- 
ably separated originally by /:, 3.) 

ADJECTIVES OF THE CONSONANT DECLENSION 

291. Such adjectives as belong only to the consonant declension 
have two endings. Most such adjectives have steins in es (nomi- 
native -t;? and -cs) and ov (nominative -mv and -ov). Under ov stems 
fall comparative adjectives, as ^cXtcwv, ySeXrZov better. 

a. There are some compounds with otlier stems : M. F. drdrwp, N. dirarop 
fatherless, G. dirdTopos ; diroXis diroXt without a country^ dirS'Xidos ; aiiTOKpdrwp 
airoKparop independent, airoKpaTopos ; Upp-ov (older iLparijv) dppev male, dppevos ; 
€ijx°-p''S e^xO'P'- (tgrcedble, evxdpnos ; etreXTris e^jeXiri hopeful, cOAttiSos. For the ace. 
of stems in it and t5 see 247, Neut. e^xa/jt and e^eKwt. iovevxa-piT, eieXirid (133). 

292. aXrjOris (aXyjOicr-) true, cv-cXttls (eveXTrcS-) hopeful are thus declined: 

SINGULAR 

Masc. and Fem. Neut. Masc. and Fem. Neut. 

Nom. aXii9iis dX-qBes «v€Xiris eiStXiri 

Gen. (d\'t)6e-os) a\-r\QQv$ €V€XiriS-os 

Dat. (dX7;e^~t) dX-rieet tv^XiriS-i 

Acc. {dX-qOi-a) dXTi0fi dX-qG^ cvcXiriv ciJcXiri 

Voc. dX^ees dX-qOes ciJtXiri 

DUAL 

N. A.V, (d\v&^-e) dXiiBei €v€'XiriS-t 

G. D. (d^Tjei-oLv) dX-qeoiv tveXiriS-oiv 



N. V. {d\i)d^-€s) dX-qeets (dXijde-a) dX-qOf] €V€Xiri8-es €veXiriS-a 

Gen. (d\i)e4-o}v) dX-riewv ^vtXiriS-wv 

Dat. (d,X7?e^(j--o-tl07) dXTi0€(ri(v) €v^'irio-t(v) 

Acc. dX-qSeis {d^-ijOi-a) dX^O^ €vA.iriS-as €i&€Xm8-a 

a. &\7}6€s means indeed! Like dX-rjO-^s are declined craipTis clear, e^ri-x^s 
lucky, eiryev/js high-horn, dtr^ei/^s weak, lyKpar-^^ self-restrained, irXiip-qs full, 

292 D, The uncontracted forms of es stems appear in Horn, and Hdt. 
-€i and -ees are, however, sometimes contracted in Horn., and properly should 
be written -ei and -ets in Hdt. The acc. pi. masc. and fem, is -cas in Horn, 
and Hdt. From adj. in -e??? Hdt. has evS^S. for ivBe4a, Horn. ivKKuas for 
^v/cXf^as, ivppeios for ivppeios. 



78 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES [293 

b. The accusative pi. dXvOeis has the form of the nominative. 

c. Compound adjectives in -77s not accented on the last syllable shov? reces- 
sive accent even in the contracted forms. Thus, (piXaX-fjOajs lover of truths neut. 
«pL\d\r}6€S, airrdpKTjs self-sufficient^ neut. afJrap>ces, gen. pi. auTdpKCJv, not airrapKUfv. 

N. — Except in neuter wrords in -u)5es, -wXes, -wp«, and -ifpfs^ as e^ufSes sioeet- 
smelUng, voS^pes reaching to the feel. But rpi-fipcov, not rpi-qpGiv^ from rpi-^p-i^s, 264. 

d. €€{<x)a becomes cd, not er} (50) : €i)>cXea, ^vSea fOr eu/cXc^a, ivde^a from 
ci>kXci7s glorious, iv5ei^$ needy (G. €i)>cXeoGs, ^vSeous). But ie(cr)a and uc(cr)a yield 
»d or t?;, ua or vrj. Thus, ^7^^ or ^f-v (^f^s healthy)^ €v<f>va or €i)0u'i7 (einpv-fis 
comely), cp, 56, 31, 2> The forms in -■^ are due to the analogy of such forms as 
ifuf>€p7j {iijup€p^s resembling) i 

293, Stems ill ov : (.vhatfUiiv happy, yScXnov better : 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace, 

Voc. 

N. A. V. 
G. D, 



N.V. €«8aCtxov.es' .^Saifxov-a / P^XTiov-^s P^Xrtov-a 

Gen. «-u6ai.}i6v-<i)v pcXriov-wv 

Dat. €ii8aifio<ri(v) p€XTto<ri(v) 

Ace. €iSat^ov-as cv8atHov-a | P^X-rtov-os p€XTtov-a 

a. Like eidalfiajt/ are declined fivifjfiwv pivijfjjov mindful^ dyvtifujov S,ypa}(jMv 
unfeeling^ &(ppci}v dtppov senseless^ ir^TTd^v tt^ttov ripe, fftbfppojv ffCj4>pov prudent, 

b. Like p^Xritov are declined fiei^uv p^l^ov greater, Kuiduiv KaKiov baser, 
iXdrrojif liXdrrov less. 

c. The neuter nominative and accusative have recessive accent. 

d. Comparatives are formed from stems in 0*' and in 0? ; cp. Lat. melioris 
for melios-is. os appears in jSeXriw for /3eXTio(,(r)-a, ace. sing. masc. fern, and 
nom. ace. neut. pi., and in ^eXrtovs for ^e\Tto{<r)-€s, nom. pi. masc. fern. The 
accusative plural borrows the nominative form. Cp. 251 b. The shorter forms 
were move frequent in everyday speech than in literature. 



SINGULAR 




Maec. and Fem. Neut. 


Masc. and Fem. Neut. 


€v8at[ia»v ciJ8ai|A0v 


PtXrtwv pariov 


tvSai\ix>v-os 


p€\Tt0V-0S 


€v8ai|jL0v-i 


PcXrtov-i 


€v8aC(xov-a €ii8a),(iov 


p€\Ttov-a or pcXxtti) P^Xtiov 


cv8atfiOv €fi8aijiov 


P^XtIOV pa-TlOV 


DUAL 




£v8aipL0v-€ 


^Xriovi 


€v8aiji6v-oiv 


p€\Tl<Sv-OlV 



298] DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 79 

CONSONANT AND VOWEL DECLENSION COMBINED 

294. Adjectives of the consonant declension having a separate 
form for the feminine inflect the feminine like a substantive of the 
first declension ending in -a (216). 

295. The feminine is made from the stem of the masculine (and 
neuter) by adding the suffix -«i {ya)^ which is combined with^the 
preceding syllable in different Vays. The genitive plural feminine 
is always perispomenon (cp. 208). For the feminine dual, see 287 b. 

296. Stems in v (--us, -€ia, -v). — The masculine and neuter have 
the inflection of tt^xv? and ao-rv, except that the genitive singular 
masculine and neuter ends in -os (not -ws) and -ea in the neuter 
plural remains uncontracted. 

297. Yjhv^ sweet is thus declined : 





SINGULAR 








Masc, 




Fem. 


Neut. 


Norn. 


^s,;-s 




^Seia 


{}8v 


Gen. 


4,S*-os 




^8£ias 


ijS^-os 


Dat. 


(^5^0 ^Set 




^8eCa 


(775^1) T)8<1 


Ace. 


TiSv'-v 




YlS«ia-v 


4,8v 


Voc. 


{{Sv 


BUAL 


T)8£ia 


^81; 


N. A. V. 


^hU 




f|SeUi 


Tl84-€ 


G. D. 


T)8«-01V 


PLURAL 


^8€C-aiv 


Tj8^-OlV 


N.V. 


(i75^«) ^8€is 




T|8elai 


^6^-a 


GeD. 


Yl8£-«V 




T)8€10>V 


f}8€-0>V 


Dat, 


T)8€-(ri(v) 




T|8€{ais 


Ti8^-<ri(v) 


Aoc. 


4l8€ts 




4i8*Cas 


4,8^a 



So jSa^t/s deep, yXvK^s sweet, evp^s broad, (5fi/s sharpy raxi^s swift. 

■ a. In 7?5eta -jta has been added to ^5e/r- = v^ev-, a stronger form of the stem 
'h^v- (cp. 270). The nominative masculine ijdeis Is used for the accnsative. 

b. The adjectives of this declension are oxytone, except -fj/xt^ys half^ ei)\v<; 
female^ and some compounds, as SiTnjx^s of two cubits. 

298. Stems in v (-as, -aiva, -av, -11V, -civa, -€v), /ji£>tas black, riprjv 

tender are declined as follows: 

■ 296 D. Horn, lias usually -etct, -ci???, -ei'?;, etc. ; sometimes -^a, -^t/s, -^77, etc. 
The forms without i (43) are regular in Hdt. For -t^v Horn, has -^a in eipia 
'^dvTQv the wide sea, ijSvs and OtjXvs are sometimes feminine in Horn, 



80 



DJECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 



[299 









SINGULAR 








Nom. 


liAas 


pAaiva 


(i^av 


T^pt^V 


T€p€iva 


T€pev 


Gen. 


p.A.ay-os 


[leXatvt^S 


|i^av-os 


Wp6V-09 


T€p€tvT)S 


T4p€V-0S 


Dat. 


jjLA.av-1 


(icXaivT) 


(xcXav-i 


T€'p€V-l 


T€p€lVT) 


T€p€V-l 


Ace. 


|x^av-a 


|x4Xaiva-v 


}utKav 


rifuv-a 


Tc'p6iva-v 


T€'p€V 


Voc. 


p.^av 


|x4Xaiva 


(icXav 

DUAL 


T€pev 


Tep€iva 


T€p€V 


N. A. V. 


|i^av-€ 


(icXaCva 


|i^av-c 


T€p€V-€ 


T€p€lVa 


T€p€V-€ 


G. D. 


|X€Xdv-oiv 


|i€XaCvai,v 


|xeXdv-o(.v 

PLURAL 


T€p^V-OlV 


Tcpcivaiv 


T€p€V-OlV 


N.V. 


|i4Xav-cs 


ix^aivai 


|i4Xav-a 


T€'p€V-€5 


T^pttvai 


T€p€V-a 


Gen. 


jj.€Xdv-wv 


jieXaLvuv 


|i€Xdv-ti)v 


T€p€v-a)V 


Tcpeivwv 


T€p€V-«V 


Dat. 


|i^ao-i(v) 


p.eXa£vaLs 


|i€Xa(r(.(v) 


T€p€(ri,(v) 


TcpeCvat^s 


ripia-i(v) 


Ace. 


|iA.av-a5 


|i€Xa£vas 


|X€Xav-a 


T€p€v-as 


T€p€Cvas 


riptv-a 



Like fi4\ds is declined one adjective : rctXas, rdXaiya, raXav xoretched. 

a. ju.Aas is for /leXaf-s by 37, 96. With the exception of /xASs and rdXas, 
adjective stems in v reject s in the nom. sing. /liXaa-i for fieXav-a-t 96 a, 250 N. 
The feminine forms }i4\aiva and r^pa^a come from /ieXa»'-(a, repev-ia by 111. 
The vocatives /xAay and r^pev are rare, the nominative being used instead. 

299. Stems in vt occur in a fe^^ adjectives and in many participles 
(301). x^P^^*-^ graceful and ttSs all are declined thus : 









SINGULAE 








Nom, 


XapCcis 


XapC€<ro-a 


XapCcv 


iras 


irdo-a 


irdv 


Gen. 


Xap£€VT-o$ 


Xapt^o-o-i^s 


Xapi€VT-os 


iravT-6s 


irdo-t^s 


iravT-os 


Dat. 


XapUvT-i 


Xapw'o-OT] 


XcipievT-t 


iravT-i 


irdtri] 


iravT-t 


Ace. 


XapUvT-a 


XapCeo-o-a-v 


XapUv 


■irdvT-a 


ird<ra-v 


irdv 


Voc. 


Xapt€V 


XapUo-cra 


XapUv 

DUAL 


^as 


irdo-a 


irdv 


N. A. V. 


XaptevT-€ 


XapieVo-a 


Xapi€VT-€ 








G. D. 


Xapt€vT-oiv 


XapteVo-aiv 


Xapi€vT-oiv 

PLURAL 








N.V. 


XapUvT-es 


Xaptco-o-at 


XapievT-a 


irdvT-es 


•irdo-at 


irdvT-a 


Gen. 


Xapt€vT-wv 


XCtpieo-o-oiv 


\apiivr~av 


irdvT-a)v 


irao-wv 


irdvT-wv 


Dat. 


Xapte(ri(v) 


XapicVo-ais 


Xap£€(rt(v) 


ird(n(v) 


irdo-ais 


ird<rt(v) 


Ace. 


Xap£€vT-as 


XCtpi^tro-as 


XapL6VT-a 


irdvT-as 


irdo-as 


irdvT-a 



299 D. Horn, has aifiaTdecrcra bloody, aKiSevra shadowy, but ri(jJi)S and tI/xtJ- 
eir raZwa&^e, rTfMTjvTa and ri/nJei'Ta. Doric has sometimes -as, -a^Tos for -decs, 
-devToSf as (pwyavra. Attic poetry often has the open forms -6eiy, -6e(r(ra. 



305] DECLENSION OF PAKTICIPLES 81 

Like xc'/'^f" ^re inflected irrepUi^ winged^ (pbiv^eis voiced^ 8aKpv6€is tearfttl. 
Adjectives in ~6€ls and -■^«y are generally poetical or Ionic, (ptavrjevra meaning 
ooweis is always open. 

a. x^P^^^^) Tas are derived from xopte;^-s, iravr-s by 100 ; xa/>£ej' from xapffvr- 
by 133. The d of irav (for irai'(T)-) is irregular and borrowed from Tras. Com- 
pounds have a : dirav^ a^fiirav. 

b. Prom xaptt'T- is derived xapicatra with o-o-, not tt^ by 114 a. x^P'^t- is a 
weak form of the stem x^-ptei'T- ; it appears also in x^pf^*^'- for x^pf-^T-^^f- (98). 
Participles in -etr (307) foi-m the feminine from the strong stem -€vt -\- la. iraa-a 
stands for iran-cra out of TTavT-ia (113 a). irdvTOJv, iraai are accented contrary 
to 252 ; but iraM-6s, -jratrrl, ira.ffwv are regular. 

C. Adjectives in ~6eis contract, as /ieXtroOs, ^eXtroOrra, /ieXtroifj', G. ^leXtroypros, 
fjxXiTOiurrTjs, etc. (/ieXtr6ets honied), irrepbeis has Trrepoun-a, irrepovaa-a. So in 
names of places : 'Ap7ecj'oOo-£rai Argennusae for -Ua-ffat ; 'Pa/x^'oCs, -oDrros, for 

DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES 

300. Like dya^os, -17^ -ov are inflected all the participles of the 
middle, and the future passive participle. 

301. Participles of the active voice (except the perfect, 309), 
and the aorist passive pai'ticiple have steins in vt. The masculine 
and neuter follow the third declension, the feminine follows the 
hrst declension. 

a. Most stems in on- -make the nom. sing. masc. without s, like yipi>}v (243). 
But stems in on- in the present and second aorist of /xt-verbs (6i5oiis, 5oiJs), and 
all stems in an-, evr^ urr, add s, lose vr (100), and lengthen the preceding vowel 
(-OUS, -cts, -as, -Ds, 37). In like manner the dat. pi, is foraied : -ovr-ai = -ovai, etc. 

N. — The stem of participles in -wv, -ovros was originally wkt. 7epwv was orig- 
inally a participle. 

b. The nominative neuter of all participles drops final t of the stem (133), 

c. The perfect active participle (stem or) has -ws in the masculine, -os in the 
neuter, -ws and -os are for -f wt-s, -for-s. 

d. The feminine singular is made by adding la to the stem. Thus, \6ovaa 
(XvovT-ia)^ oVaa (6vT-ia)^ ttrracra (laTairr-Lo.) ^ Tideiaa (TidevT-ia). The perfect 
adds -i;(o-)-^ta, as in elS-v'ta. 

302. The vocative of all participles is the same as the nominative. 

303. Participles in -wp, -ds, -ets, -ous, -Cs frequently use the masculine for 
the feminine in the dual. 

304. The accent of monosyllabic participles is an exception to 252 : fijv, 6vto^ 
(not ivrdi)^ (Trds, <tt6,vtos. 

305. Participles in -«v, -ouo-a, -ov (to-verbs) : Xvoiv loosing (stem 
A.VOVT-), wv being (stem 6vt-). 

305 D. In the feminine of participles from steins in ovr, avr (306), Aeolic has 
-oi(7a, -a«ra (XiSottTa, \i5crato-a), and -ais in the masouhne {\taai$), 

GREEK aRAM. 6 



82 



DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES 



[306 



N. V, 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



N. A.V. 
G. D. 



Masc. 
Kvitv 

XvovT-i 
XvovT-a 



XvOVT-€ 

XxiovT-oiv 



Fern. 

Xvovcra 
X\iovoT]s 
Xvov(rT| 
Xvouo-a-v 



Xvovcra 
Xvovcraiv 



SINGULAR 

Neiit. 
X-uov 

XvOVT-OS 

XiJovT-i 
Xvov 

DUAL 
XVOVT-C 

Xi36vT-otv 



Masc. 



Neiit. 



«v 


ovo-a 


6v 


OVT-OS 


ovo-iis 


6vT-os 


OVT-l 


oiJo-tl 


OVT-l 


6vT-a 


ovo-a-v 


6v 


OVT-C 


oiio-a 


OVT-€ 


OVT-OIV 


ova-aiv 


6'vT-OtV 



N. V. XvovT-cs Xvovo-ai Xvovr-a 

Gen. XvdvT-wv Xvovo-wv Xvovt-gjv 

Dat, Xvova-i(v) XrovVais Xvouo-i(v) 

Acc. XvovT-as Xiiovo-as Xvovr-a 



ovT-cs ou(rai ovr-a 

ovT-dJv ova-tav ovt-wv 

ovo-i(v) oiio-ats ov(ri(v) 

ovT-as oiJo-as ovr-a 



So are inflected TroLtSeiJwj^ educating^ ypd(pccv writing, (piptav hearing, 

a. All participles in -wr are inflected like \t)iov, those in -ihv having the 
accent of &v^ 6vtos, etc. ; as XiTrcii^, Xnrovaa, \liv6v having left. Such participles 
are from w-verbs, in which is a part of the tense suffix. 

b. Like participles are declined the adjectives eK(hv, €Kov<ja, ckov willing, dKO)v, 
aKov<Ta, aKOv unwilling (for de/vroji', etc.), G. aKovro?, aycoucTTjs, aKOvros. 

306. Participles in -as, -ao-a, -av : XvG-ds having loosed, Icrrds setting. 



SINGULAR 

N. V. Xvo-as Xvcrdo-a Xv<rav uo-ras 

Gen, Xvo-avT-os X-uj-doris Xvo-avr-os icrrdvT-os 

Dat. Xvo-avT-L Xv<rao-T) Xv<ravT-i io-tolvt'-l 

Acc. Xv<ravT-a Xvcrao-a-v XOo-av to-TclvT-a 



lo-rdo-a lo-rdv 

ttrracnis lo-ravT-os 

LCrTaCT) tCTTOLVT-t 

t(rTa(ra-v lo-Tdv 



DUAL 



N. A. V, Xvo-avT-€ Xvo-atra Xvo-avr-c 
G. D. Xv<rdvT-otv Xvo-ao-aiv Xiio-dvT-otv 



LO-TavT-C 

i<rTdvT-ouv IcTTacraiv to-TavT-oiv 









PLURAL 


N.Y. 


Xvo-avT-cs 


Xvo-ao-ai 


Xvo-avT-a 


Gen. 


Xvo-dvT-(i>v 


Xvo-ao-civ 


XiJ(rdvT-o>v 


Dat. 


Xv<ra(ri(v) 


Xvcratrais 


Xv(ra(ri(v) 


Acc. 


Xvo-avT-as 


XiJo-acras 


Xvo-avT-a 



La-TdvT-€s Lo-rdo-ai lo-rdvT-a 

Lo-TavT-wv lo-Tao-wv Lo-ravT-wv 

l<rTd(rt(v) l(rT?ltrats i(rTao-t(v) 

lo-ravT-as lo-rao-as to-rdvT-a 



So are declined iraibe^fa-as having educated, <TTr)<ras having set. 



3^9] 



declp:nsion of paktjcjples 



83 



307. Participles in -€ts, -eio-a, -€v ; -ous, -ovo-a, -ov (/xt-vei'bs) : tlOcls 
placing, SiSom giving. 



jif, V. Tide 15 TiSeic-a 

Gen. Ti0€VT-os Ti0€urt]s 

J)at. TlBcVT-l Tl0€UrT| 



Ace. 



Tl0€VT-a 



SINGULAR 








T10«V 


SiSov's 


8L8owa 


8i86v 


TL0€VT-OS 


6i86vT-os 


8t80WT]S 


8t8ovT-os 


T10CVT-1 


8i86vT-i 


8i8ov(rT| 


8i86vT-i 


Ttecv 


8i86vT-a 


8i8owa-v 


8i86v 



N. A. V. Tl0€'vT-€ TlBcwra T10€VT-€ 

G, 1). T10€VT-OI,V Tl0€l(raiV T104VT-OIV 



8i86vT--€ 8L8ov(ra 8i86vt-c 
8i86vT-otv 8i8ov(raLv 8l86vt-oiv 



N. V. T10€VT-€S Tt0€l<rai Tt6€VT-a 

Gen. TiBcvT-tDv TiBcio-oiv Ti6€VT-<»>V 

Dat. TL0€i(ri(v) TiGeicais Ti0et(rL(v) 

Ace. Ti0c'vT-as Ti0£i(ras Ti6c'vT-a 



8t8ov-T€s 8i8ov(rai 8i.86vT-a 

8i86vT-t»)v 8t8ov(r(ov 8i86vT-a>v 

8i8ov(ri(v) 8i8oT;(raLs 8i8oi;(rt(v) 

8i8dvT-as 8i8oT;<ras 8i86vT-a 



So are inflected Sets having placed, watdevdeis having been educated, Xvdels 
having been loosed, Soi^s having given. 

a. In participles with stems in ovt of /ii-verbs the o belongs to the verb-stem. 

308. Participles in -vs, -vo-a, -w : BetKvtx; showing, <^^s horn. 



SINGULAR 

N. V. 8eiKvvs hiiKVva-Q. 8€ikvt;v 

Gen. SciKvvvT-os SeiKvutr-qs Scikvvvt-os 

Dat. SeiKVlJvT-L SglKl-Ua-T] 8eLKVVVT-l 

Ace, 8€iKvijvT-a 8eiKvvo-a-v 8«ikv'uv 

DUAL 

N. A. V. 8€lKVv'vT-e 8ci.KVVO-a 8€IKVVVT-€ 

G. D. 8€tKVVVT-0tV 8(lKVVXaLV 8€lKVVVT-0tV 



<pvs <puo-a 9VV 

<})vvT-os <j;u(rT]s <})vvt-os 

<})VVT-l 4>V0-T) <|)t5vT-1 

<|)v'vT-a <|>v(ra-v <})vv 



Aiv VT-oiv (bvtraiv <bvvT-oiv 









PLUKAL 


N.V. 


8€tKVVVT-es 


8€iKvv(raL 


8€LKVVVT-a 


Gen. 


SetKVVl'T-WV 


8€iKvv<raiv 


BilKVVVT-i3iV 


Dat. 


8eLKVUcri(v) 


8€tKviJo-aLS 


haKvv(ri(v) 


Ace. 


5€tKvvvT-as 


5€tKvvo-as 


8«iKVT;vT-a 



4)i;vTcs ^va-a.1 <t)vvT-a 

<})VVTO}V ^^JcStV . <})VVT-a)V 

4)v(rt(v) <)}ua-ais <})vo-i(v) 

<})vvT-as (jj^o'^S <t>vvT-a 



309. Perfect active participles in -m, -via, -os : \c\vk<o<; having 
loosed, etSto, knowing. 

309a. D. Tlom. has earado^, io-raQa-a, earad^, G. ecrraoTos, f'tc., lidt. eo-retis, 
ecrrewo-a, eareif^^ G. eaTewros. t'lc. Some editions have ea-TeQra m Hom. 



84 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES 



[310 



N,V. 
Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 



XeXuKdr-os 

\€XvK6T-t 

XcXuKOT-a 



N.A.V. XtkvKOT-i 

G. J>. XeXuKOT-otv 



XcXvKvta 

XeXvKvtas 
XcXvKvtif 
XeXvKvifi-v 



XcXvKvia 
XeXvKvCaiv 



singular 
XcXvk6s 

XcXvKOT-OS 
XcXvKOT-l 

XcXvKos 

DUAL 
XtXvKOT-e 
X€XvK6T-OtV 



€lS(&$ € 18 via clSos 

ttSoT-os tl8t)ias elBoT-os 

clS^T-i €l8uia tlSoT-i 

clSoT-a clSvia-v. clSos 



€t86T-€ tlSuCa 
clSoT-OLv clSvtaiv 



c186t-€ 
£186t-oiv 



N, V. X«Xvk6t-€s 

Gen. XeXvKOT-wv 

Dat. X eXuKocr i (v) 

Ace. XcXvKOT-as 



XeXvKvtai 
XeXvkviwv 
XcXvKVLais 
XtXuKvias 



PLURAL 

XeXvKOT-a 
X<Xvk6t-u)v 
X£Xvk6o-i(v) 
XeXvKOT-a 



«186t-« €l8vtai €l86T-a 

«t86T-fa)v et8mu)V etSoT-wv 

et86(ri(v) £l8Diais €l86(ri(v) 

etSdr-as cISvias ct86T~a 



So are inflected TreiraidevKds, ireTra.idevKvTa, xeirat5eu/c6s having educated; 
yeyovujs, yeyovvia, yeyovds born. 

a. iardis Standing (contracted from eo-radts) is inflected ecrrcis, ea-TCxra, ia-rbs, 
G. to-ToJTos (with irregular accent, from ^(nabroi)^ ea-TJjo-r]^^ ea-rOros ; pi. N. ccrTwres, 
ia-Tioffai, ecTT una, G. iaTdltruv^ etxrioao}}/. So Tedveibs, redveQa-a, reBved^ dead. 

N. • — iffrbs (the usual spelling in the neut. nom.) has -6s (not-tis) in imitation 
of €id6s and of forms in -k6s, thus distinguishing the neuter from the masculine. 

310. Contracted Participles. — The present participle of verbs in 
-au), -€0i, -ou), aad the future participle of liquid verbs (401) and of 
.Attic futures (53S) are contracted. rlfjLuiv honouring^ iroiwy making, 
are thus declined: 

SINGULAR 



N. V. (Tt/xdajt-) tI]lu>v 

Gen. (TljU-dOJ'TOs) TlfL«VT-OS 

Dat. (TtjU.ci.OKrt) TlJIWVT-l 

Ago. (rtjLtdoj'Ta) Ti^t«vT-a 



1^. A.V. (TtjLtdoJTe) Tl\L<aVT-t 

G, D. (riixabvToiv) ti|jl«vt-oiv 



N. V. (TtjLtdojTes) TlJi«VT-CS 

Gen. (rl}xa.6vrij>v) ti^(&vt-wv 

Dat. (TijLtdouat) Tiji«(ri(v) 

Acc. (Tl}x6,ovTas) Ti|xtovT-as 



(rljxdovo'a) TijLoitra 

(Tt/x.aotycfTjs) TifxtiKnis 

(rlixao^fO-Q) Ti|JLt&o-Tl 

(rtju.doucra^') Ti;(j,a>cra-v 

DUAL 
(rt/Ltaoivo-d) TiiJLt&tra 
(ri}Mi,oTi<ra,iv) Ti|Jit&(raiv 

PLURAL 

(Tt/xdoucat) Ti^ucai 
(rljjjxova&v) Ti|Ji<o(rwv 
(Tr/x.aoi;(rats) Ti|ji*icraLS 
(rt/xaouo-ds) Tijit&tras 



(jlixdov) Tifioiv 

(TtjU.d0VT0s) Tl|JlO)VT-OS 
(Ti/xdojTt) Tl(J,«VT-l 



(jlixdovre) ti(J.»vt-« 

(jt(X<xbvTOlv) Tl|JltOVT-OlV 



(TtjLtdotT-a) Ti(j,tovT-a 
(r~i)xa.6vTwv) Ti|JH&VT'wa>v 
(jl^xdovai) TC(j.t5(ri ( v) 
(rtjLtdoi/Ta) TifiwvT-a 



310 D. Aeolic has also Tt/xats, xoiets. SiJXots from TiimiJii, iroirjiJii^ dTJXutfii. 



311. 



ADJECTIVES OF IRREGULAR DECLENSION 



85 



SINGULAR 



Gen. (-n-ot^ovTOs) itolovvt-os 
Dat. (troUovTi) iroiovvT-i 
Acc. (TTOi^owa) iroioiivT-a 



(iroieoviXa') iroiovo-a (iroiiop) iroLOvv 

(woL€o6(r7)s) iroto-uo-Tjs (Trot^o^Tos) iroioOvT-os 

(TTOieoiJtr'Tj) iroiovo-Tj (woiiovTi) ttoiovvt-l 

(TToi^oi/crai') iroiovo-a-v {woUov) ttoiovv 



N. A.y. (TTOL^ovre) iroioGvT-e (iroteoiJtrd) -Troiouo-a (jroi^ovTe) iroiovvT-f 
G, D. (TTovebvrotv^ ttoiovvt-olv (Troieoi/trat^-) iroioiicrttLv {TroLebwoiv) ttoiouvt-oiv 



PIATRAI^ 



N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Acc. 



(TroL4ovT€s) iroLovvT-€S (^Troi4ov<TaL) iroiouo-aL (iroUovTa) iroiovvT-a 

(woLebvTijov) TTOLovvT-cov {irOLeovffwv) TTOiovcrcov {iroLebvTuiv) iroiovvj-wv 

(TTOt^ovcrt) iroiovcri(v) (TroteoiJcrais) iroiovcrttLS (^iroi^ovaC) 'TroioiJcrt(v) 

(TTOt^oj/ras) irotovvT-cis (Trottoiitras) TroLoipa-ds (jroLhvra) irotovvr-a 



a. The present participle of StjXw (StjXAw) manifest is inflected like Troidjv: 
thus, STjXcof', STjXoOtra, StjXoOj/, G. StjXoQj'tos, SijXoiJcnjs, drjXovvroSf etc. 



ADJECTIVES OF IRREGULAR DECLENSION 

311. The irregular adjectives fieya<^ great (stems /xeya- and /xeyoXo-) 
and TToXm much (stems iroXv- and ttoAAo-) are thus declined : 



SINGULAR 

Nom. (1(7 as (Ji€-ydXii \>-^'i^ 

Gen. p-e^aXov ^.c-yaX-qs (ic-yaXov 

Dat. (jLcydXw [jLC"yttXT| [ic-ydXw 

Acc. [jLe\av iieydX-riv [le'^a 

VOC. fjL£-ydXc fjL€-ydX-q \i€ya 



TToXvs TToXXV) iroXij 

TToXXov iroXXfis iroXXov 

TToXX^ iroXX-^ TTOXX^ 

iroXrv iroXXV^v TroXr 



N. A.V. 
G. D. 



fjLe-yttX« 
^C'ydXoi 



^icydXa 
liC'ydXttiv 



p-ydXto 
^c-ydXoi 



N. V. ^e-ydXci ^icydXai }i€-ydXa 

Gen. jjLC'ydXojv [le-ydXwv [w-ydXiov 

Dat, pLC-ydXcis }JL€"ydXaLS jtc-yaXois 

Acc. [j.c'ydXo-us }jL£-ydXas fiE-ydXa 



iroXXoi ToXXat iroXXd 

iroXXwv ToXX*»v TToXXoiv 

iroXXois ToXXais ttoXXoEs 

TToXXovs ToXXas TroXXd 



311 D. Horn, has some forms from the stem iroXv- (irovXv-) which are not Attic: 
G. sroX^oy, N. pi, woXhs, G. iroKiuv, D, TToXeetro-t (250 D. 2), iraX^a-at and iro\^(Ti, 



86 ADJECTIVES OF IRRKGULAR DECLENSION [31^ 

a Except in tlie forms ^eyas, t^yav^ .i^^ya^ the adjective fjL^yas is inflected as if 
the noiiiiiiative sing, m.isc. were ixeydXos. fjiiya-i is HOinetiines found in the voc. 
sing. Except in ir^X:;?, iroXOv, iroXv, the adjective wjXijs is inflected as if the 
nominative sing. Uiasc. were woWds. 

b. The stem ttoXXo- is from ttoXuo-, i.e. ttoX/to-, \f being assimilated to XX. 

C. TTp^os mild forms its masc. and neuter sing, and dual Irom the stem ■jrpg.o-; 
its fern, in all numbers from the stem Trpdv-, as noni. Trpdeia for Trpdev-ia formed 
like TjdeTa (297 a). Thus Trpaos, npdeia^ wp^ov, G. irpdov^ Trpdetds, wpg,ov, etc. In 
the plural we have 



N. V. 


TTpaot or T-paets 


irpactai 


irpda or -n-paea 


Gen. 


irpatov or irpa^tov 


TTpatioiv 


TTpowv or irpae'tov 


Dat, 


irpaois or 'n-pae'«rt(v) 


irpaEtais 


irpaois or 'Trpa€(ri(v) 


Ace. 


irpcjiovs 


'irpa€tas 


irpda or irpata 



d. Some compounds of ttovs foot (rro5-) have ~ovv in the nom. sing. neut. 
and sometimes in the ace. sing, raasc. by analogy to d-n-XoOs (290). Thus, 
Tplirovs three-footed^ Tpiirow (but ace. Tplwoda tripod). 

ADJBCTI\^ES OF ONE ENDING 

312. Adjectives of one ending have the same termination for masculine and 
feminine. The neuter (like masc. and fern.) sometimes occure in oblique cases. 
Examples : dyvdjs dyyuir-os unkiunon or unknowing^ dwais d-rraLd-o? childlesSy 
dpyfjs dpyfjT-os white^ dpr-a^ dp-jray-os rajmcioiiS^ /jidKap pxiKap-os blessed^ dyed/ids 
dKdjLtarr-os unwearied. Here belong also certain other adjectives commonly used 
as substantives, as yvp.vr)^ yv/jiv'^r-os light armed^ ir4v7)$ 7r€V7}T-os poor^ 4>vyds 
<pvyd5-os fugitive, '^Xt| ^XtK-os comrade, dXa^djv d\a^6v-os flatterer. Some are 
masculine only, as ideXom-^s (-oC) volunteer. Adj. in ~k -Ldos are feminine only: 
'EXXtjvLs Greeks -rraTpU {soil. 7^) fatherlandy ffv/jifiaxis (irSXts) an allied state. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

313, Comparison by -rcpoj, -raros. — The usual endings are : 
For the comparative : -r^pos m. -repd f , -repov n. 
For the superlative: -raros m. -rarrj f. -rarov n. 

The endings are added to the masculine stem of the positive. 
Comparatives are declined like a^ios, superlatives like ayaOo^ (287). 

8f]Xos (StjXo-) clear, 8t]X6-t£pos, STjXo-TaTos ; to-xvpos {lax^po-} strong ^ W^^- 
T€pos, to-xvpo-TttTOs ; (i^Xas (/aeA-av-) hluck-y (leXdv-repos, fwXdv-TaTos ; Papvs 
{Papv-') heavy, (3apv-T€pos, papv-raros; dX-qO'^s (oXtjOeg-) true, dXT]6car-T£pos, 

dXT]9€Cr-TaTOS ; «VkX£1^S (eUKAffCr-) famous, «VKi^€€(r-T£pOS, €VKX€€a-TttTOS. 

A. TToXiai. Horn, has also iroXXbs, iroXX-fi, TroXXbv (like dyadbs), and these forms 
are commonly used by Hdt. ttouX'j? (for ttoX-jj) is sometimes fern, in Horn. 



3i8] COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 87 

a. x°-P^^^T^P^^i -iaraTos are from xaptcT-repos, -raros (83, 299 b), from x^/Jtets 
graceful. Compounds of x^^P^s grace add o to the stem (xa/xr-o-), whence iwixa- 
piT(i)T€pos more pleasing. Tr^mjs poor has irev^a-repos from Treper-repos, with e for 17. 

b. Originally -repos had no other force tliaii to contrast one idea with another, 
and this function is retained in Se^Lrspos right ) ( dpLa-repo^ left, Tj/i^repos our ) ( 
o^^TEpos your, Horn, has several such words: dypdrepos loild )( tame^ 6r{\i^epai 
yufalKcs )( men, cp. Arcadian dppivrepos from dppTj;' male. Cp. 1082 b. 

314. xA^djectives in -0? with a short penult lengthen o to w: vcVs 
n€to, v€<s}-T€pos, vew-raros, yaXeTro-'i difficult, )(oXe7T(ii-T€po<;, T^aXcTr w-raros. 
An undue succession of short syllables is thus avoided. 

a. If the penult is long either by nature or by position (144), is not 
lengthened : 'Xeirrds lean^ Xeirrbrepos, 'XeTrr&raTos. A stop and a liquid almost 
always make position here (cp. 145) ; as TrtKpds bitter, iriKp67epos, Tri/cpdraros. 
/cewis empty and a-revSs narrow were originally Kevfos, a-revfos (Ionic k€iv6s^ 
(rreivdi, 37 D. 1), hence k€v6t€pos^ dTevbrepos. 

315. The following drop the stem ^owel o : y€pai6-s aged, yepat-repos, yepal- 
raros; 7raXat6-s ancient^ iraXaf-repos, iroKai-raTOS ] axoXaro-s slow, (rxo'\cii-T€pos^ 
frXoXa^TttTos ; (pL\o-s dear, <pL\~Tepos (poetic)^ (piX-raros (319, 11). 

a. Some other adjectives reject the stem vowel o and end in -atrepos, 
-atTOTos, as 7?<Tuxos quiet, fuos equal, bpdpios early. These, like (rxoXafrepos and 
yepaLrepos.) imitate iraXaiTepos, which is properly derived from the adverb TrdXat 
long ago. So fMea-airepos, -airaTos imitate fj-eaat- in Horn. fxeffai-TToXios middle-aged- 

316. -€o-T€pos, -€o-TttTos. — By imitation of words like d\r)d4(T~T€pos, d\yi$4<r- 
raros (.S13), -effTepos, -eararos are added to stems in ov and to some in oo (con- 
tracted to ou). Thus, eidaificov happy, eidaifjuov-^(JT€pos, -^crraTOS ; aTrXoOs simple, 
dTrXotJo-repos (for dirXo-ecTepos), dirXo^araTos ; eijvovs well-disposed, eivorjarepos, 
-o^tjTarqs, and so in all others in -vovs from voOs mind. (Others in -oos have 
-owTcpos : d6po(i)T€pos mo7^e crowded from. d,dp6os.^ 

a. Some stems in ov substitute o for ov ; as (from iirtXifio-ficjv forgetful, iiriXr)- 
(T/Mv^ff-repos) iTri\7}(Tfi6-TaTos ; Trtwv fat, Trtirepos, irXoTaros ; TreVwv ripe has Treiral- 
repos^ ireiralTaTos. Cp. 315 a. 

b. Other cases : (with loss of o) ^ppw/x^w-s strong, ippojfiev^arepoSy -^araros, 
&KpdTO'S unmixed, aKpareo-raros, Afffievo-s glad, &(p6ovo-s abundant 

317. -i<rT€pos, -wrraTos. — By imitation of words like dxapijTepos for dxapir- 
Tepos (83) from &x<^pts disagreeable, -uTrepos, -KTTaTos are used especially with 
adjectives of a bad meaning, as KXeirT-iaraTos (kXcitttjs thief, 321), KaKrjyop- 
la-Tepos {KaKifiyopos abusive), XaX-La-repos (XdXos talkative^. 

318. Comparison by -iwv, -lo-ros. — Some adjectives add to the root 
of the positive the endings -Iwv for the masculine and feminine, -lov 

314 a. D. Horn. it^Dpciraros (but cp. Att, ol^pti), Xapdyraros (Xaepciraros ?). 

318 D. Horn, and Doric poetry have also -Xwv, which is as old as -loyv. Forms 
in ~~io)v, ~i<TTos are much commoner in poeti-y tlian in prose. Hom, has ^ddiaros 
{^a6<i% deep), ^pdaawv {^pax^s short), ^dpdiffTos (^padis SlOW), kvSkttos (Kv8p6s 
glorious), &Ki<rTos (c&kiJs quick) . 



88 



COMPAKISON OF ADJECTIVES 



[319 



for the neuter to form the comparative, and -to-ro? --q -ov to form the 
superlative. The vowel (or the syllable po) standing before s of the 
nominative is thus lost. 



Positive 

TjS-v-s sweet (Ji i}$~cvi^ pleasure) 
Tax-v-s swift (t6 Tctx-os swiftness) 
\i.(y-a-s great (to ^iy-eBos greatness) 
akytivos painful (t6 ^.Xy-os pain) 
alerx-pd-s shameful (rb altrx-os shame) 
ex0-p6-s hateful^ hostile (t6 '4xd-o$ hate) 



Comparative 

T)8-tuV 

e^TTWV (112, 126 f ) 
jt€£5a)v (116) 

4x6-f«v 



SlTPEBLATIVE 

t]8-i(rTos 
rdx-ioTos 

liC'Y-WTTOS 

a\Y-i<rTOs 

alltrx-'-OTos 

cx^-to-Tos 



Forms in -iiav are declined like ^eXTtojv (293), those in -laros like dyadhs (287). 

319. Irregular Comparison. — The commonest adjectives forming 
irregular degrees of comparison by reason of the sound changes or 
because several words are grouped under one positive, are the follow- 
ing. Poetic or Ionic forms are in ( ). 



1. cLYaOos good 



(Kpar^s powerful) 
(cp. Kpdros Strength) 



2. KaKos bad 



3. KoXos beautiful 

4. jiaKpos long 
6. iie'vas great 



a.\uivciv (from djxef-TtJi^) 
(^dpeltjv) 

pcXrtuv 

(piXrepos^ not in Horn.) 

Kp€£TTft)V, Kp€CtrO-«V 

^Kp^a-awv) 

(<p^pT€pos) 

X(oo)v (Xo3i(jJv^ X(alT€pos) 
KaKio>v (KaKd)T€pos) peior 
X€£p»v(xepeftJ»') meaner^ de- 
terior (xetp^rcpos, xe/)et6- 

T€pOs) 

TjTTwv, TJ(r(rwv (for ijK-lojv) 
weaker^ inferior {^aauv) 
KaXXtwv 

}iaKp6T€pos {fidaawv) 

\i.ii.%av 318 (jj^^wv) 



apuTTOs (dp-^T-^ vir- 
tue) 
pA-Twrxos 

(^^XraroJ, not in 

Horn.) 
KparitTTOS 

(Kd/JTtO-TOs) 

((pipraTOS, (p^pta-ros) 

XwCTTOS 
KCLKWrTOS 

XeipicTTOs 



(^Kio-Tos, rare), adv. 
^KUjTa least of all 
KaXXiQ-Tos (kciXX-os 
beauty) 

liaKpOTttTOS (p.'^KL- 

crroj) 
|JL€YUCrTOS 



319 D. Horn, has also KcpdaXeos gainful, crafty^ KepStuv, KipSicros ; plytwv, 
oiyiffTos more, most dreadful (cp. ptyos cold^ piyTjXo? chilling), k-^Sio-tos {ktjS€ios 
dear, KTjSo? care). 



;32^J 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 



89 



6. litKpos small ftiKportpos 

(Adx^itj f- of Aaxi)?) ^XaTTov, ^Xao-o-cov (for i\a- 

7. oXt'^os Zt'WZe, pi. /ewj 6Xett»v (inscriptions) 

(vTT'dXi^uy Horn, rather less) 

8. iroXvs much, jjI. many -n-XtCwv, irXewv, neut. irXwv, 

irXeiv 

9. paStos easy paojv (Ion. pTjlwv) 
(p7}l5iOs) Qrjlrepos) 

10. Taxvs quick OaTTWv, 9;l(r(r«v 

(raxi^Tepos) 

11. <|>£Xos dear ((pLXTepos) 

<|>tXa£T€pos (Xenoph.) 
((^tX/wi/, rare in Horn.) 



jiiKporaros 
IXdxio-Tos 

(/i€r<7Tos, rare) 

irXtiCTos 

p^(rTOs 

(P7}iTaT0S. p^ta-Toi) 
TttXW-TOS 

(rax'^raros) 
<|>tXTaTos 
(juXatraxos (Xenoph.) 



a. dfielvcov, &pi<rros express ajptittide^ capacity or -wor^A {able, brave, excellent) ; 
^eXrtwj', j3Ar«rTos, a moral idea {virtuous) ; Kpelrrwv, KpdncrTos, force and superi- 
ority {strong) {riTTojv is the opposite of Kpelrruv) ; X^wv means more desirable, 
more agreeable (t5 Xtpo-re my good friend) ; xadwj', KaKLo-ros express moral perver- 
sity^ cowardice ; xeipwv, x^^P^'^'^'^^i insufficiency, lacJc of a quality (Zess good) 
(worthless, good for nothing is 0aGXos). 

b. iXtrrwv, iXarjov, i\dxi-<TTo$ refer to size : smaller (opposed to p^el^oiv) ; 
or to multitude : fewer (opp. to irXdwv). peitav, ixeXov, ^ttov, ■^Kia-ra also belong 
both to fUKp6s and to 6X^70$. 

c. The orators prefer the longer form of irXeLtav, esijecially the contracted 
TrXe^w, irXeiovs, but the neut. irXiov. TrXeTy is not contracted from irXdov. 

320. Defectives. — Some comparatives and superlatives are derived from 
prepositions or adverbs : 



(jrp6 before) 

{i>ir4p over, beyond) 



TTpSrepos former irpQros first 

vir^prepos (poetlc) higher, ifir^pTaros (poetic) ?iigh- 
superior. est^ supreme. 

{irX-qalov near) irX-rjo-calrepos irXTjaLalraros 

{irpovpyov serviceable) irpovpyLairepos 

va-T€pos later, latter vcrraTos latest, last 

a. -aros appears in viraros highest, eo-xctTo? farthest, extreme (from i^), 

321. In poetry and sometimes in prose comjjaratives and superlatives are 
formed from substantives and pronouns. Horn, has ^aa^Xe^T epos more kingly, 



320 D. Horn, has oirXSrepos younger, oirXSraros. Several defectives denote 
place; iTra(7ff6T€pos {d<r<Foy nearer), irapolrepos {irdpoidev before)^ lAVXoiraros {fivxol 
in a recess), -aros in p^a-aros, fxia-a-aros {pi<ros middle), irijpaTos last, viaros lowest. 
i'or vffraros Horn, has ixTTdrios • and Sevraros last from deiirepos second. 



90 DECLENSION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS [322 

-Taros (^acrtXe^s king)^ eraipdraros a closest companion (iTdlpoi comrade)) K^vrepoi 
more doglike^ -raros (k^ojv dog\ KovpSrepos more youthful (^Kovpos a youth). 
Aristophanes has KXewTLcTaros most thievish (kX^tttijs thief, 317), and airSraros 
his very self, ipsissimzis. 

322. Double Comparison. — A double comparative occurs sometimes to pro- 
duce a comic effect, as Kwreptbr^pos (321). A double superlative is Trpdmaro^. 

323. Comparison by /xoAAovj fxAXiyra. — Instead of the forms in 
-T€po^, -TttTo; or -loyv, -tcrT05 the adverbs /aoAXov more, fiaXca-Ta most, may 
be used with the positive ; as yJaXkov <j>LX.o<i more dear, dearer, /xaXto-ra 
0tXo? most dear, dearest. This is the only way of comparing parti- 
ciples and words that do not take the comparative and superlative 
endings (jxaXkov €ko)v more willing). 

a. Comparison by ^SXkov^ nAXtdra is common in the case of compound 
adjectives, adjectives with a prepositional prefix, verbal adjectives in -t6s, and 
adjectives in -ios. 

324. To express equality or inferiority ovrw as (often in correlation with 
&ff7r€p), ijTTov less^ may be placed before the positive. Thus, as good as hand- 
some may be expressed by ovrus dyaObs ihffirep /cat K<ik6%, Sxnrep ar(a.dbi ovtw koX 
KoKSi, ovx ^TTov Ka\bi ^ Kai dyaddi. 



PRONOUNS 

325. The Personal Pronouns. — The pronouns of the first, second, 
and third person are declined as follows: 

SINGULAR 

Nom. lyiit I a-v thou he, shcy it (325 d) 

Gen. 4)iov ; jio-u enclitic' a-ov ; crov enclitic ov ; ou enclitic 

Dat. «|xoC ; |jLot enclitic <roi ; c-oi enclitic ol ; ol enclitic 

Ace. i\Li ; jjic enclitic a-i ; u-i enclitic ^ ; i enclitic 

DUAL 

N. A. v<& we two 0-^6 you two 

G. D. v«v a-(t>wv 

PLURAL 

Nom, TiiJL€is we vyuvs you u-^iU they 

Gen. rjiAWv vjjlwv a-^&v 

Dat. T|jiiv vjiiv (r4>C(ri(v) 

Ace. T|)xas v)xds (r4>ds 

325 D. 1. Homer inflects the personal pronouns as follows. (The forms d/i/j^^ 
L- are Aeolic^. 



vfiH' are Aeolic) 



325] DECLENSION OF PEHSONAL PRONOUlfS 91 

§i The enclitic forms fwv^ fwi, fie ; <roi;, troi, <re are used when the pronoun 
is unemphatic, the longer forms ifioO^ i/Miyifi^ and tlie accented troO^ troi, ai are 

SINGULAR 

Nom, €Y<&, iy&v o-v, tvvt] 

f c{icLo, €^eo, Ifuv, o-cto, <rc'o, o-co (encl. cio, ifo, co (end.), 

Gen. ^ li€v (end.) , €jtc0€v A396), <rcv, €v, cv (end.), 

I o-ei) (end.) J <re9ev eOcv, eOev (end.) 

Dat. €ftoi, jwi (end.) o-oi, xoi (end.), retv «>t, ol, ol (end.) 

Ace. i^i^ fjL€ (end.) o-e, o-€ (end.) «, i', c (end,), jiiv (end.) 



DUAL 

N. A, v«i, vto O'<{>o)i, <r^di o-<)>a>E (end.) 

G. D. voiiv o'4>c«iv, o-4>«v (5 62) o-<JMi>iv (end.) 

PLURAL 

Nom. TiJtets, ajijJL€s vjjlcis, iJjin«s (and voc.) 

[ <r<|>€a)v (end.), <r<j>wv 

Dat j ^H^^''' ^^^^^^('') vniv, i5jijit(v) o-<|)£<ri(.v),o-<j)i<n(v) (end.), 



Ace 



[ o-<j)iv (end.) 

tT)^4as, cl{i^E vH^c'as, v^jjlc <r<{>€as, o-<|>cas (end.), 

o-4>« (end.) 

<r^e (end.) is used as accus. of all genders and numbers. 
2. Herodotus inflects the personal pronouns as follows : 

SINGULAR 



Nom. 


i-i& 




crv 




Gen. 


kyAo^ Ijicv, }icv (end.) 


<r^o, crev, o-€v (end.) 


ei (end.) 


Dat. 


fjjiot, iJioi (end.) 


o-oi, TOi (end.) 


oi (end.) 


Ace. 


k^i, ll€ 


(end.) 


0-4, <re (end.) 

PLURAL 


k (end.), jjiiv (end.) 


Nom. 


^fl€l5 




V(X€IS 


<r4«i5 


Gen. 


^^Amv 




V(XCW 


o-<})€(av, o-<|)€o>v (end.) 


Dat. 


4|JJLIV 




VJJllV 


<r<|>C<ri, <r4>uri (end.) 


Ace. 


|¥^as 




v(Ji4as 


<r4>€'as, o-<|>€as (encl.), neiit. 
o-<|>€a (end.) 



<T4>iffi is used for eavrots, -ctis ; <T<pi (encl.) for airoh^ -ais ; c^ea (end.) for avrd. 

3. Ionic Ml*' (end.) is used in all genders (eum, earn, id), but not in the 
plural. AfifjiL, ijfifie occur a few times, a^dev often, in tragedy. 

4. The chief forms peculiar to Doric are : 1, iyJjv also before consonants ; 
G. ifi4os, ifiovs, ifieOs ; D. ifilv ; PI. N. afi4s ; G, dfiicav^ dfiQv; I). dfilv(l), dfity ; 
A. a/A^. II, tiJ, TjJyTj ; G. t4os, reous, reOs, r^o, reO, reov ; D, rfi', rii'i; ; A. t4, riv, 
TTj ; PI. N. fc/i^$ ; G. Ifji4<i)v; D, ir^fy, u/ttj' ; A. t/i.^. III. G. ^oGs, ^oG ; D. /rb ; 
A. vly ; PI. G. a-<p€Lu}v, \p4u}v ; D. i^fv, ^Iv ; A. cr<^^, ^^, 



92 DECLENSION OF avTos [326 

used when the pronoun is emphatic. Thus, 56s fioi t6 pipXiov give me the hfiok^ 
obK ifiol^ dXXA (Tol iiri^ovXe^ovcri they are plotting noiagainat ine, hut against you. 
See 187 a. On the use after prepositions see 187 N. 2. 

b. For ^7ti, iiioi^ av the emphatic 6'7aj7e, e^i7e (186 a), a^fye occur. Also 

c. The use of the plural you for thou is unknown in Ancient Greek ; hence 
vfjLets is used only in addressing moL'e than one person. 

d. Of the forms of the third personal pronoun only the datives ol and a-<plcri ( v) are 
commonly used in Attic prose, and then only as indirect reflexives (12*28). To 
express the personal pronouns of the third person we find usually : ckcIvos, oJjtos, 
etc., in the nominative (1104), and the obUque forms of a{)r6s in all other cases. 

e. For the accus. of o5 the tragic poets use vlv (end.) and a-0e (end.) for 
masc. and fern., both sing, and pi. (= eum^ earn,; eos, eas). Doric so uses viv. 
ff<plv is rarely singular (ei) in tragedy. 

f . ijfiojv^ rfAtti', -^/xas, bfiQv^ bfiiv, tfids^ when unemphatic, are sometimes accented 
in poetry on the penult, and -Iv and -ds are usually shortened. Thus, ■^/xwy, 
VP^Lv, -^/jxLs, v^iov^ vfiLv, vfjLas . -Iv and -as are sometimes shortened even if the 
pronouns are emphatic, and we have ^ju,£j/, t^/acLs, 6/a/j/, u/ids. tr^ds occurs for tr^as. 

326. Stems. — I. (^)/ie- (cp. Lat. mc), vuj- (cp. Lat. no-s), (^)a«>-, vp^-. 
ifwv is from 4p,4o ; ijf^U from d/A/ie-es (37) with the rough breathing in imitation 
of vfieTs ; rjfiiov from i}fji^ioVj ijpLds from ijfiias with d not t} by 56. ^7ci is not con- 
nected with these stems. II. a-v- and ere- from r^e ; to- ; (r0w- ; v/xe- from vfi/jie- 
(37). III. ^ for (T/re (cp. Lat. se), e^ for tre/re, ot for c/ro-t, and (r0e-. The 
form of the stems and formation of the cases is often obscare. 

327. The Intensive Pronoun avros. — a^ro? self is declined thus; 

. SINGULAR 
Masc. Fein. JTeut. Masc. 

Nom. avTos avT-q avTO N. A. avTw 
Gen. avToi) airfis avrov Gr. D, airotv avratv a^TOtv Gen. avTWv avTwv avTwv 
Dat. avT^ avT-g avrw Dat. avTOts avrats avTOis 

Ace. avT6v a^TT|v uvto Acc. avToiJS avr^s a-urd 

a^T 6s is declined like dya66s (287), but there is no vocative and the neuter 
nominative and accusative have no -v. But i-avrbv the same is common (328 N.). 

328. a-uTos is a definite adjective and a pronoun. It has three 
meanings : 

a. self: standing by itself in the nominative, a^ros 6 dv-qp or 6 avijp air^s the 
man himself or (without the article) in agreement with a substantive 
or pronoun ; as dv5p6s avrov of the man himself 

327 D. Hdt. has a.<n-iuiv in the genitive plural. ~Eot the crasis w^Tbs (Hom.)) 
on^ris, rwvTb (Hdt.), see 68 T). 



DUAL 




PLURAL 


Fem. 


Neut. 


Masc, Fem. Neut. 


air^ 


air^ 


Norn. avTOt avraC avrd 



330] KEFLKXIVE AND POSSESSIVE FKONOUNS 93 

b. him, her, it^ them, etc. : standing by itself in an oblique case (never in the 

nominative). The oblique cases of auros are generally used instead of ov, 
or, ?, etc., as 6 irarTjp ai/rov his father, ol Tra'ides avrdv their children. 

c. same : when it is preceded by the article in any case : 6 airrds dv^p the same 

man, rod aurov av^pbs of the same man. 
N. — The article and ai>r6s may unite by crasis (68 a) : aifrdi, airifj, rainb or 
ravrbv ; ravrov^ raiiTTjs ; ra-brQ, ravrrj, etc. Distinguish aWi} the same f. from 
ttUTT? this f. ; rairrd the same ii. from ravra these things n, ; rair^ from rairy. 

329. Reflexive Pronouns. — The reflexive pronouns (referring back 
to the subject of the sentence) are formed by compounding the 
stems of the personal pronouns with the oblique cases of avros. 
In the plural both pronouns are declined separately, but the third 
person has also the compounded form. The nominative is excluded 
by the meaning. There is no dual. 

myself thyself himself, Jierself itself 

Gen, €jiavTov, -fjs o-eavTO-O, -% {a-avrov, -r\%) lavTOv, -fjs, -oi (avTOii, -fjs, -ov) 

Dat. l{j.avTu, -rf <reai)TW, -fj (o-avTW, -fj) lavTw, -fj, -^ (avTw, -f], -w) 

Acc. l|iavT6v, -T|v o-eaiiTov, --fiv (o-avrdv, -iriv) eavrov, -ifiv, -6 (a-urov, -t|v, -6) 

ourselves yourselves themselves 

Gen. T)|jLwv avTwv v|iuv a\PT«v caurwv or tr^av avroiv 

Dat. Ti|J.iv aiilTots, -ats v|J.iv atixots, -ais eaurots, -ais, -ots or o-<|)i(riv 

atiTOis, -ais 
Acc. f|{j.as aiPTovs, -as vjids avrovs, -as latirovs, -as, -d or o-<|)as ati- 

Tovs, -as 

a. For eavrCov, etc., we find avrCjv, avroli, -ats, ai^roi5s, -ds. Distinguish avrov 
of himself ivom airov (^2S) . 

330, Possessive Pronouns. — Possessive pronouns, formed from the 
stems of the personal pronouns, are declined like aya^os, a|to? (287). 

€(i6s Ifur] €|i6v m.v, wi?^ own y mine Tijierepos -a -ov our, our ownj ours 

tros o-^ <rdv thy, thine own; thine vfie'rcpos -a -ov your, your own; yours 
[os "n ov /lis (/ier, ^ts) own'] o-tj>eTepos -a -ov their own 

329 D. Horn, never compounds the two pronouns : thus, ifx^Oev aiJr^s, <roi 
avTipy ol avTip, €€ avTQv, k avrijv, Hdt. has a few cases of the uncompoimded 
forms ; usually ^jueojiiroC, -rtfJ, -rbv, aeoiurov, ecoyroO, €(j}VtCju, -otcrt, -ois, and (T<p^ijjv 
aiiTu)v^ etc. The forms with eoju started with eoji-TtD in the dative from eo^?) 
a^Tw, and spread thence to the other cases. 

330 D. 1. Horn, has also reos thy^ eos for os his, her own, kfios onr, hfios 
your, <T(p6$ their (rarely of the singular), voytrepos of us two, <r<p(jtT€pos of yon 
two. For ip.6s Attic poetry may use d;i6s (sometimes printed afc6s) our. 

2. 6's, 46s in Horn, may mean my own, yoxir own (1230 a). 



94 



DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS: 6X\i\\oiV, 6 



[331 



a. DisLinguish the adjectival from the pronominal use ; 6 ifibs <f>i\os or 6 ^L\os 
6 e/Aos my friend (adj.) from ^t'Xos ifids a friend of mine (pron.). See 1196 a, 

b. OS is not used in Attic prose. For /lis, her, its, ai/rov, -■^s, -oO are used. 

331. Reciprocal Pronoun. — The reciprocal pronoun, meaning one 
another, each other, is made by doubling the stem of oAAo? (oAA-aXXo-). 
It is used only in the oblique cases of the dual and plural. (Cp. alii 
aliorum, alter alterius). 



DUAL 



Gen. dXXr|Xoiv dXX^Xaiv dXX^Xoiv 

Dat. dXXifjXoiv dXXrjXaiv dXX-f|XoLv 

Ace. dXXVjX(>> dXXrjXd dXXVjXo} 



dXXir]X(>>v dXXV]Xo)v dXXrjXuv 
dXXr|Xois dXX-^Xais dXX^Xois 
dXX^Xovs dXX-^Xas aXXT^Xa 



332. The Definite Article. — The definite article 6, ij, to (stems 6-, 
a-, TO-) is thus declined : 





SINGULAR 






DUAL 






PLURAL 




Nom. 


6 


Tl TO 


N. A. 


TCG 


T« 


T« 


Nom. 


ol ai 


Ttt 


Gen, 


Toii 


TfjS TOV 


G. D. 


TOlV 


TOtv 


TOIV 


Gen. 


TWV TWV 


TWV 


Dat. 


tG 


T-n T« 










Dat. 


TOIS TttlS 


TOIS 


Ace. 


TOV 


TT|V TO 










Ace. 


TOUS TttS 


Td 



a. The definite article is a weakened demonstrative pronoun, and is still used 
as a demonstrative in Homer (1100). 

b. rd (especially) and Tdif, the feminine forms in tlie dual, are very rare in 
the authors, and are unknown on Attic prose inscriptions of the classical period. 

333. Demonstrative Pronouns. — The chief demonstrative pronouns 
are oSe this (here), outos this, that, e/cetvos that {there, yonder), 

SINGULAH 

Nom. S8€ v^hi t68€ otjtos avr-q tovto tKttvos ^Ktivt] €K€ivo 
Gen. ToiiSc Tf|a-S€ tovSc tovtov TaiiTT]s tovtov ckcivov Ikcivt]s ^k€ivov 

Dat. TwSc TflSt T*n8€ TOVTOJ Ta-UT^J TOVTW €K€Cvt{) IkCIVTI CKCIVO) 

ACC. TOvSt Tf|v8€ t686 TOiiTOV TOLVTr\V TOVTO CK€lVOV €K€tVTlV CK€lVO 



332 D, Horn, has also gen. tolo^ gen. dat. dual touv, nom. pi. rot, rai ; gen. 
pi, feni. T6.(jiv ; dat. pi. inasc. toIcl, fern. r%<jL, t^s (Hdt. to'kti^ t%<jC). Doric are 
Tui, Tas, etc. ; pi. also N. rof, rat ; G. fern. rav. Generally poetit are roltrt, Talei. 
Tol fjL^v, Toi S^ occur rarely in tragedy for ol /a^i^, ol S4. 

333 D. For T0Le6€ Horn, has also roio-Seo-o-i or Toiadiiri, Doric has n. pi. roiSroi, 
Ta^rai, gen. pi. fem. ravTav (Aeol. ravrav). KeTvos occurs iu lldt, (together with 
iK€ivos). Doric and Aeolic have k^vos. 



334j 



VECLEI^SIO^ OF 68e, OUTOS, €K€iVOS 



95 



N. A. T<iS« r&tt T«8< 

Gr. D. TOlvSt TOtvSt TOtvSt 



DUAL 
TOVTO) TOVTW TOVTO) CKetvU CK<£v<i) CKclvU 

TOVTOIV TOVTOtV TOVTOIV CKCIVOIV EKcCvOlV tKiivOlV 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 

a. 



oiSc aiSe rdSe 
TwvSc TwvSc T»v8e 
Toi(r8< Tat<r8€ roicrSe 
Tov<r8« Ta<r8e rdSt 



PLURAL 

ovTOi avTai ravra 
TovTwv Tovrtav tovtwv 
TOVTois ravrais tovtois 
TOVTovs TavTds ravra 



CK61V01 ^KElVai €K£lva 

CKCivo>v ^K<iva>v IkcIvov 
iKCivobs CKcCvais 4k€ivoi$ 
CKcCvovs CKCivas 4K€iva 

t6 this or thaL with the 



8d€ is formed from the old demonstrative 6, ij, 
indeclinable demonstrative (and enclitic) ending -de here (cp. hl-c from /a-ce, 
Fr. ce~ci). For the accent of tJSc, ol'Se, ai'5e see. 186. 

b. ouTos has tlie rough hreatliing and r in the same places as the article, ov 
corresponds to the o, at; to the a, of the article. For ovros as a vocative, see 
1288 a. (oStos is from 6 + the particle *v + the demonstrative suffix to -\- $). 

c. ^K€Lvos has a variant form Keivos in poetry, and sometimes in prose (De- 
mosthenes). (^K€(»'os stands for 4k€(i)-€vos from ^Kct the^'e -f suffix -cwjs.) 

d. Other demonstrative pronouns are 

TOcr6(r5e roo-iJSe TO(r6i'6e so much, so many 

Totbade rotdSe rotApSt s?AcA (in quality) 

T7}\tK6(Td€ T^jXiKi^de tt]\lk6v5€ SO oM, SO Qveat 

These are formed from -5e and the (usually) poetic ritros, rotos, tt]\Ikos with the 
same meanings. 

e. Combinations of the above words and oSros are 



Jpointii 
(to wl] 



pointing forward 
what follows). 



so much, so many ^ .^^j backward 
such (m quality) }■ .. .. ^r..^^A^.\ 



ToaovTOS ToaavTT) TO<rovro(lv) 

roioVTOS raaOrv Tocovro(p) ,uon yn quatuyj . ^^^ ^^^^ precedes). 

r-qXiKovTos TTjXttcaiTT} ttjXlkovto^v) so old, so great J 

The forms in -v are more common than those in -o, Attic prose inscriptions 
have only -ov. 

f. The dual rarely has separate feminine forms. 

g. The deictic suffix -I may be added to demonstratives for emphasis. 
Before it a, e, o are dropped. Thus, 65i this man here, 7j5i, To5i, G. roi/St, r-qadt, 
etc. ; oirroa-i, avTTjl, rovri, ovroXt, rovrtopi. ,So with Other demonstratives and 
with adverbs : ToaovToa-t, outoktz, a>5i. For -I we have, in comedy, -71 or (rarely) 
-51 formed from 7(e), 5(e) + t Thus, aifrjjyi, tovtojI, tovtoBl. 

334. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. — The interrogative 
pronoun tls, tC who, which, what .? never changes its accent to the 
grave (154). The indefinite pronoun rts, rl any one, some one, any- 
thing, something is enclitic (181 b). 

333 e, D. Horn, always, Hdt. rarely, has the final v, 

334 D. Horn, and Hdt. have G. rio, rev, D. t^(^ (rqi Horn.), G. r^<^v, D. r^oicrt. 
These forms are also indefinite and enclitic (gen. Tcfip Hdt.). Horn, has do-o-a 
for the indefinite nvd. 



96 



DECLENSION OF tCs, tIs, ETC. 



[335 



Norn. 
Gen, 
i>at. 
Ace. 

N. A. V. 
G. D. 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 



TlS 



T[v-a 



tCv-€S 



TCv-as 



IntGirogalive 


SJNGUtAJt 

tC 


tCv-os, toO 




tLv-i, r<o 


t( 


tCv-e 


DUAL 


tCv-oiv 






PLURAL 




Ttv-a 


tEv-oiv 




Tl-O-t(v) 





Indefinite 



TlS 



Tiva 



r\ 



TIV-6S1 


TOB 


rtv-i, 


T^ 


TlVH^ 




TlV-otv 



rtv-a 



TIV-€S 



TlV-ttS 



Tiv-wv 

Tl-O-C(v) 



a. firra (not enclitic) is sometimes used for the indefinite nm. 
derived from such locutions as TroXXaTxa, properly TroWd + rra (for ria). 



TlV-d 

TlV-d 

&TTa is 



335. a\Xos. — The indefinite pronoun oXAos miotlier (Lat. a?ms^ cp. 
1.10) is declmed like a^ros: aAXos, aXA?;, o^VXo (never oAXov).- 

336. A€lva. — The indefinite pronoun detva^ always used with the article, 
means such a one. It is declined thus : sing. 6, ij, rb Seim ; tov^ ttjs, tov de?vos ; 
t45, t^j Tip ^^Ivt ; rhv^ "^V^^ "^^ deiva ; plur. (masc.) ol Selves., rCtv Seivcjiv, rois 8€?vas. 
Example : 6 delva tov delvos tov de'iva eiffij'y'yeiXev such a one son of such a one 
impeached such a one [D.] 13. 5. detva is rarely indeclinable. Its use is 
colloquial and it occurs (in poetry) only in comedy. 

337- Other indefinite pronominal adjectives are : ^T€pos, -a, -ov : with 
article, the otiier, one of two, the one (Lat. alter, alteruter); without article, 
other y another, a second (alius). By crasis (69) arepos, BiTepov, etc, €KttT€pos, 
-a, -ov: each (of two) uterque ; pi. either party y both parties^ as utrique. Kko- 
o-TOs, -1], -ov : eac?i, each one, every ^ every one, used of more than one (quisque), 
|x6vos, -y\, -ov : alone, only, sole, iras (299) : all^ entire, evei'y. The negatives 
owSeCs, jiiiScts (349 b) no one (poetical ovtis, /jlt^tis, in prose only oijTi, fi-^Tt, 
declined like rl%; accent 186), Lat. nemo, nullus. oiS^repos, (j.Ti8^T€pos neither 
of two (Lat. neuter). 

338. Relative Pronouns.- — The relative pronoun os^ ^, o who, 
which, that is declined thns : 

338 D. 1. Horn, uses the demonstrative forms 6, 15, t6 (332) as relatives 
(1105). In this case the nom, pi. has toL, Tai (332 D.). 

2. Besides the forms in 338, Horn, has gen. 00 (miswritten 6ov) and ^T?t. 

3. Hdt. has 6s, rj, rfi, oX, at, rd. In the oblique cases he uses tov, t^s, etc. ; 
though, especially after prepositions capable of elision, he has the relative forms, 
as Si o£, Trap v» 'far i^v^ vtt &v ; also ^s 6. 



339] 



DECLENSIOK OF 6s, octtis 



97 



SINGULAR 

Nom, 8s -fi 



Dat. 

Ace. 



ov 



T 

T) 



o 

8 





DUAL 


N. A. 


iS «£> 


G. D. 


oXv olv 



Nom, 


ol' 


at 


& 


Gen. 


tav 






Dat. 


ols 


ah 


ots 


Ace. 


oiis 


as 


Cl 



a. The feminine dual forms a and alv are seldom, if ever, used in Attic. 

b. 6's is used as a demonstrative in Homer and sometimes in prose (1113). 

c. The enclitic particle -irep may be added to a relative pronoun (or adverb) 
to emphasize the connection between the relative and its antecedent. Thus, 
g<r-xep, Tj-irep, 6-irep the very person wlw^ the very thing which; so cJcrire/) just as, 
flfTirep is declined like 6s. 

d. Enclitic re is added in i<p' <^Te on condition tJiat, oU$ re (186 a) able to^ 
&Te inasmuch as. 

339. The indefinite or general relative prononn oaris, ynq, o n 

whoever (any-who, any-which), any one who^ whatever, anything which, 
inflects each part (05 and tU) separately. For the accentj see 186. 









SINGULAR 




Nom. 


OO-TVS 




TITLS 


8tl 


Gen. 


O-UTIVOC;, OTOW 


iqo-Tivos 


OVTIVOS, OTOU 


Dat. 


WTtVl, 6toj> 




tJtivi 


^IVl, OTW 


Aec. 


iJvTiva 




TJvTlVa 

DUAL 


8Tt 


N.A, 


WTLV€ 




«TIV€ 


WTLVe 


G. D. 


OXVTVVOLV 




otvTVVOlV 

PLUKAL 


OIVTIVOLV 


Nom. 


oI'tivcs 




aVTVV€S 


axiva, &TTa 


Gen. 


(SvTlVWV, OT<i)V 


iSvTlVWV 


WTTVVOJV, 8tWV 


Dat. 


oXo-TtO-t(v), 


OTOIS 


alo-Tvo-i(v) 


OUrTLO-l(v), OTOIS 


Ace. 


oilo-Ttvas 




a<rTivas 


OLTlVa, OLTTa 



a. The neuter 5 n is sometimes printed o^n to avoid confusion with the con- 
junction Sri that^ because. 

b. The shorter forms are rare in prose, but almost universal in poetry (espe- 
cially 6'toi;, cfrw). Inscriptions have almost always orov^ 8T<i)^ arra. 

c. The phiral arra is to be distinguished from firra (334 a). 

339 D. Horn, has the following special forms. The forms not in ( ) are used 
also by Hdt. In the nom. and ace. Hdt has the usual forms. 



SINGULAR 

Kom. (Stls) (8 ttl) 

Gen. (oTT€o), (orreu) 8t€u 

Dat. 8T€<i> 

Acc; (8Ttva) (8 ttl) 

GREEK GRA3f. —7 



PLURAL 

Stcwv 

OT^OlO-l 



Sutra- a 



(8Tivas) 



98 



COKHELATIVE PRONOUNS 



[340 



d. tIs may be added to oirorepos, oVos, olos (340) to make them more indefinite, 
as ojTOfos Tts of ^rJiatHocver kind. 

e. o^v, 5ifJ, or S-^TTore may be added to the indefinite pronouns to make 
them a-s general as possible, as oarujovv (or oan^ o5v)y T}Tt<rouv, bnovy any one 
whatever, any thing whatever, and so oTroioutr-Tivas-oOp, o(xrt(x-^i]'TroT€, or oaTLcr-tt)- 
TTOT-ovv. In these combinations all relative or interrogative force is lost. 

f. The uncompounded relatives are often used in an exclamatory sense, 
and sometimes as indirect interrogatives. Indefinite relatives may be used as 
indirect interrogatives, 

340. Correlative Pronouns. — Many pronominal adjectives corre- 
spond to each other in form and meaning. In the following list 
poetic or rare forms are placed iu ( )• 



Interrogative ; 
Direct or 
Indirect 


Indefinite 
(Enclitic) 


Demonstrative 


Kelative 
(Specific) or 
Exclflinntory 


Indefinite Kelative 
or Indirect 
InteiTog-fttive 


rliWhO? 

which? what? 
qui? 


some one, any 
one, aliquis, 
quidam 


(6, Ss) 55€ this 
(here), hie 
o&Tos this, that 
is, ille 
^KeTpos ille 


OS w/io, which 
qui 


So-Tts whoever, 
any one loho 
quisquis^ 
qnicunque 


irbr epos 

whiCrhoftwof- 

uter? 


irbrepa or 
7roT€p6$ one of 
two (rare) 


erepos the one or 
the other of two 
alter 


oirdrepos 

whichever 
of the tioo 


oirdrepos 

whichever 
of the txoo 
utercumque 


wbaos how 
.much? how 
many? quan- 
tus f quot 9 


TToads of some 
quantity or 
number 


(r6<xos) ! 

, / ! much, 
TOffbcrde < 

so 

TOffOVTOS 

[ many 
tantus, tot 


Scros OS 
much as, 
as many as 
quantus, quot 


bir6(Tos 

of whatever 
size, number 
quantuscumqne^ 
quotquot 


TTOiOS 

of what sort ? 
qualis? 


7roi6s of some 
sort 


(tows) 1 
, ^ such 

1 talis 

TOIOVTOS J 


olos of which 
sort, 

(such) as 
qualis 


biroTos 

of whatever sort 

qualisoumque 


TTT/XfKOS 

how old f 
how large? 


tttjXIkos 
of some 
age, size 


(TT)\iKOs) 
T1)XLK6(r5€ ^ 
T7}\lK0VT0^ 


'so old, 

so 

young, 

so 

large, 

so 
. great 


tjXLkos of 
which age, 
size^ (as old, 
large) as 


of whatever age 
or size 



340 D. Horn, has (Aeolic) tttt in dirirdrepos^ oirTroTos, and ^ro- in So-o-os, rSffffos, 
etc. Hdt. has k for tt in (6)k6t€pos, (6)k6<7o$, (6)koTos. 



342] ADVERBS 99 



ADVERBS 

341. Origin- — Adverbs, like prepositions and conjunctions, were originally 
case forms, made from the stems of nouns and pronouns. Some of these nomi- 
nal and pronominal stems have gone out of common use, so that only petrified 
forms are left in the adverbs. Some of these words were still felt to be live 
cases ; in others no consciousness of their origin survived. Many adverbs show 
old suffixes joined to the stem or to a case form (34*2). It is sometimes uncertain 
whether we should speak of adverbs or of nouns with local endings, 

Nominative (rare) : irv^ with clenched fist ^ aira^ once^ avaiil^ pell-mell. 

Genitive : 'cjnjs day after to-morrow, i^s next, ttou, oD where^ airov in the very 
place, cKiroddjv out of the way (Jk + irodCyv)] by analogy, ifiirodixjv in one'*s way. 

Dative: drjfwa-iqi at public cost, \6.epq. in secret^ Koivy in common, etc. (1527 b), 
dW-T} otherwise, irrj how. 

Accusative : very common, especially such adverbs as have the form of the 
accusative of neuter adjectives, as ttoXiJ much, fUKp6v a little, TpQrov at first, 
T-qpjEpov to-day, TToWd often. See 1606-1611. 

Locative: oXko-l at home (oT/co-s house), 'la-Ofw-i at the Isthmus, iroT whither, and 
all adverbs in -o:. The -t of the consonantal declension is properly the ending 
of the locative, as in MapadQv-L at Marathon; ~oi<n (234) in stems, in con- 
trast to -ois ; -aa-L {-7]<tl) in A stems (215) : 6^pd<TL at the doors, nXaratatri 
at Plataea, 'Kd-fiv-qai at Athens; further in irdXai long ago<, ^Kei there, wavd-rjfieL 
in full force. 

Instrumental : dvoj above, Kdrta below, oitnii not yet, (3-5c thus (but the forms 
in -oj may be ablatives) ; Kpvcpij and \d6pd in secret. 

Ablative : all adverbs in -cjs, as ws as, ovtojs thus, Gripuis otherwise. Here, e.g. 
original erepi^d (cp. Old Lat. altod, abl. of altus) became ercpw (133), which 
took on -s from the analogy of such -words as dfi<pls parallel to i/x^L 

342. Place. — To denote place tlie common endings are : — 

-t, -6l, -(Ti at J in to denote place where (locative), -ov, the sign of the 

genitive, is also common. 
'9ev from to denote the place whence (ablative). 
-Be (-^c), -ere to, toward to denote place whither. 

In the following examples poetical words are bracketed. 

oltKo-t (oI'ko-8i) at home otKO-Oev from home oliKaSe (otK6v8t) homeward 

(oijca- is an old accusative form. ) 
a\Xo-0i elsewhere aX.Xo-9€v from elsewhere oXKo-trt elsewhither 

or aXX-ax-o\i dXX-ax-o-6€v ttXX-ax-o-o"e 

342 D. Horn, has many cases of the local endings, e.g, ovpavh-Oi in heaven, 
dyopij-dev from the assembly ; also after prepositions as a genitive case: i$ d\6- 
B^v out of the sea, ^1X16-61 irpb before Ilium. Cp. ifiiBev, a^d^v, ^Bev, 325 D. 1. -Se in 

' aXa-5e to the sea, 7r6\Lv-d€ to the city, irebiov-be to the plain, ' Aid 6<r~h to (the house 

• Of) Hades, 6V-5e dbfwv-de to his house. 



100 



ADVKKBS 



[343 



a,ji4)OT€p»-0i on both a)i<|)0Tepw-6cv from both (d|i<|)OTcpa)-crt to both sides) 



sides 
-ravT-ax-ot in every 
direction 



sides 
iravT-ax-o-Gcv from every 

side 
TravT-o-Gcv (rare) 



'iravT~a\-6-a-i in all 

directions 



TravT-o-o-€ 



avTov in the very place auro-Qcv from the very 



6}LQv at the same place 

'APtjvij-o-j, at Athens 
^OXDjAirta-o-i at Olympia 



avTo-trt to the very place 

6jx6-6€v from the same o/io-o-e to the same place 

place 

'AeTjvi]-6cv frojn Athens 'AGrjvaJe to Athens 

'0\v[L'Tria.-Q^v from Olympia 'OXvjnrta^e to Olympia 



a. In -af€, -5e is added to the accusative (1589), and stands for -a(j/)sj 
the old ace. pl.,+ -Se (Eng. to). Cp. 26, 100. The other endings are added to 
the stem, -a-e is usually added only to pronominal Ktenis. -crt forms a locative 
plural. sometiines takes the place of a of the first declension {pl'^odeu from 
the root^ stem fn^d-), or is added to consonant stems- Words in -repo- lengthen 
to &?. Between stem and ending ax is often inserted. 

b. -dev may take the form -de in poetry, and especially when the idea of 
whence is lost, as xpicr^e in front (134 I).), -da is found in ^vda in all dialects. 
-$a for -$€v occurs in Aeolic and })oric. 

c. Some local adverhs are made from prepositions, as &voj ahove^ i^uj outside^ 
€(xu} within^ kutw below, irpbad^v in front. 

343. Manner. — Adverbs of manrLer ending in -w? have the accent 
and form of the genitive plural masculine ^ith -s in place of -v. 



SiKaios 


just 


KaKOS 


bad 


airXoOs 


simple 


<ra<|>T|s 


plain 


TiSus 


pleasant 


(r«4>pti>v 


prudent 


aXXos 


other 


irds 


all 


^v 


being 



hlKOXiHV 


Siicaiws 


justly 


KaKuiv 


KaKWS 


ill 


ctTrXSv 


d7rXu>s 


simply 


cra4>«v 


o-a4>ws 


plainly 


\^%i<^v 


^S*'^s 


pleasantly 


<ru)(|>p6vu)v 


(r6»4>pova>s 


prudently 


aXXoiv 


iiXXo>B 


otherwise 


iravTwv 


irdvTws 


in every vmy 


OVT6>V 


OVTWS 


really 



a. Adverhs in -ojs are not formed from the genitive plural, but are originally 
old ablatives from o stems (341), and thence transferred to other stems. The 
analogy of the genitive plural assisted the transference. 

344. Various Other Endings. — Adverhs have many other endings, e.g. : — 
-a: a/ia at the same time, /xdXa very, rdxa qnlckly (in Attic prose perhaps). 
-aKts: iroWdKLs many times, often, eKaaraKts each time, roaavrdKis so often, otrti- 
KI.S as often as, irXeicrrdKLs very often, d'KvydKcs seldom, irXeoraKis onore times. The 
forms without ~? (oo-d/ct, iroWdKL) are earlier, and ~s has been added by imitation 
of dis, Tpisr -^Tiv : (TvWTj(id7}v in short. -Sov: evSov vnthin, (rx^56v almost. -€t: 



346] 



COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 



101 



vavdvfj^i in full levy (341, locative), -tc : Sre when (Aeolic Sra, Dor. oxa), -rt, 
-o-Tt: ideXouri voluntarily^ 'EWijvuTTi in Greek (fashion). 

345. Comparison of Adverbs. — In adverbs derived from adjectives 
the comparative is the same as the neuter singular of the compara- 
tive of the adjective; the superlative is the same as the neuter plural 
of the superlative adjective. 



(ro<{)tos 


wisely 


(ro<{)toT€pov 


(ro<{>cgTaTa 


X^aptevTws 


gracefully 


XapLto-Ttpov 


XapLco-raTa ' 


€uSai|i6va>s 


happily 


eiSatjjLOveo-Tepov 


€uSat|iov€(rTaTa 


KokSys 


well 


koXXTov 


KaXXto-Ta 


^8^«s 


pleasantly 


T^SlOV 


i]8tcrTa 






ilTTov less (319, 2) 


T]KtO-Ta 


€5 


well • 


ajjietvov 


dpwTTa 


(adv. of 


d-yaeos good) 






|idXa 


very 


|JLdXXov 


jidXuTTa 


a. Adverbs of place ending in w. 


> and some otliers, retain 


w in the compara- 


tive and superlative. 






avo) 


above 


dva>T€pa) 


dvWTdTW 


nop pta 


afar 


Troppft)T€p<«) 


TropptordTftj 



b. ^yyijs near has iyyir^pov (-r4pco)^ iyyvrdru} (-rara rare), irpcf early has 
irpiSiairepov^ irpuiLairara. 

c. There are some forms in -ws from, comparatives : ac<f>a\€a-Tipuis (aa(pa\i- 
arepov) more securely, ^<E\Tl6vtj3s (piXrlov) better. Superlatives in -ov are usually 
poetic J as jjL^yia-rov. 

346. Correlative Adverbs. — Adverbs from pronominal stems often 
correspond in form and meaning. In the list on p. 102 poetic or 
rare v^^ords are in ( ). 

a. The demonstratives in ( ) are foreign to Attic prose except in certain 
phrases, as Kal &$ even thus, oio' (fiv^') &s not even thus (cp. 180 c); ^vea fiev . . . 
ivda d4 here . . . there, evdev {/jl^v) Kal evdev {df) from this side and that, 
ivda and ^vdev are usually relatives, 'dvBa taking the place of oD xishere and ol 
whither, and 'ivdev of od'ev lohence, 

b. TOT^ fj,€v . . . Tore 5^ is synonymous "with ttot^ fxev . . . ttot^ 5^. 

c. oSj' (339 e) may be added for indefiniteness ; oirwcovv in any tmy what- 
ever, oirodiEvoOv from what place soever, ttot^ is often used after interrogatives 
to give an intensive force, as in ris irore who in the world (as qui tandem^ ; 
also with negatives, as in o^irore never, o-uiruiroTe never yet. Other negatives 
are oCSafioO nowhere, ouda/iy in no way, oi}6a/Au)s in no manner. 

346 D. 1. Horn, has (Aeolic) tttt in STnrios, binrore ; Hdt. has k for the 7r-forms, 
e.g. mv, K0<>.^ 6kov, K6re, etc. Hdt. has ivdavra., ivdevnv for 4vrad6a, ivrevOev (126 D.). 
2. Poetic are irddL for ttoC, SBi for o5, ^/ms vjhen, ^ which way, where, etc. 



102 



CORRKLATIVE ADVKRBS 



[347 





Interrogative ; 

Direct and 

Indirect 


Jjxlefijiite 
(Enditic) 


r)einoJist,]'flt]*ve 


lielaLive Sitecific 


Indefinite Eelative 

01' Indirect 

Interrogative 




iroO 

where f 


Tro6 
somewhere 


^n-aC^a there 
e/f€i yonder 


o5 where 
{$v6a where) 


oTTov where- 
(ever) 


Place 


whence f 


Trod4v from 
some place 


{ivd€v) ivdivbe, 
iyT€vd€v thence 
iKeWev from 
yonder 


36€v whence 
(evdev whence^ 


oirdSev whence- 
(soever) 




trot 

whither? 


TToL to 
some place 


ivravda thither 
4k€l<t€ thither 


of whithei' 
{ivOa whither) 


&iroi whither- 
(soever) 




w6t€ 

when ? 


TTOT^ some 
time^ ever 


t6t€ then 


8r€ when 


oir&re when- 
(ever) 


Time 


w-qvLKa at 

what time ? 




(r-qvlKo) ^ at 

T7)VLKdd€ j- that 

TTjviKavra J ti7ne 


ijvlKa at which 
time 


OTTT^viKa at 

which time 


Way 


tttJ which 
toayf hovjf 


Trrj some 

way, 

somehow 


{rfDrride, raijTri 

this way, thus 


ft in xchich 
way, as 


Sirr} in which 
way, as 


Manner 


iruJs how 9 


TTWS 

somehdw 


ovTUj(s) thus, 
SO, in this way 
^Kdvijis in that 
way 


ws as, how 


oirws how 



NUMERALS 

347. The numeral adjectives and corresponding adverbs are as 
follows : 



34.7 D. 1. Por the cardinals 1-4, see 349 D. Horn, has, for 12, 8u>d€Ka (for 5/r w- 
d€Ka), dvi^dcKa, avid dvoKaldcKa (also generally poetic); 20, etKoai and ielKoai; 
30, Tpf^Kovroi ; 80, dydibxovTa ; 00, ^vevi^Kovra and ivv^Kovra ; 200 and 300, biriK^- 
atoL, rpt-qKixjioL ; 9000 and 10,000, iwedx^y^ot, d€Kdxi'>^oL (-x^iXoi ?). He has also 
the oi-dinals 3d, Tpiraros ; 4th, r^rparos ; 7tU, efSdofiaros ; 8th, dydiaroi ; 9th, 



347] 




NUMERALS 


103 


Sign 


Cabdinal 


Ordinal 


Advebb 


1 


a' 


€ls, (ita, tv one 


irpwTos first 


aiTttl once 


2 


P' 


Bvo two 


8€VTepos second 


8 IS twice 


3 


•i' 


Tp€is, Tpta three 


Tptros third 


Tpts thrice 


4 


8' 


TtTXapCS, TtTTttpa 

(T€o-<rap«s, T«ro-apa) 


TeVapros, -"H) -ov 


TCTpaKLS 


5 


«' 


irivTt 


ireniTTOs 


irevTOLKis 


6 


c' 


•^i 


i:KTOS 


l^aKis 


7 


V 


4irTd 


iip8op.os 


eirrdKLs 


8 


^' 


OKTtil 


67800s 


OKTaKlS 


9 


e' 


^vv^a 


fvaros 


cvdKis 


10 


i' 


8€Ka 


8€'KaTos, -T), -ov 


8€KdKlS 


11 


la' 


€v8cKa 


€v8eKaTOs 


Cv8(KdKlS 


12 


tp' 


8u8€Ka 


8<ij8^KaTos 


8a)8eKdKis 


13 


^y 


Tpets (Tpia) Kai 8€Ka 
(or Tp^icTKatScKa) 


Tptros Kai 8eKaTOS 


TpeurKai8eKaKis 


14 


i8' 


Wrrapcs (WrTapa) Kai 
8€Ka 


TcrapTos Ktti 8eKaTOs 


T€TrapecrKai8€ KdKis 


16 


le' 


ir€VT€Kai8€Ka 


irep-iTTOs Kai 8€KaTOs 


•irevTeKai8eKdKis 


16 


ir' 


€KKai8€Ka (for €^Kai8€Ka €KTOS Kttl ScKaTOS 


eKKai8eKdKLS 






103) 






17 


tf 


eirTaKttt8€Ka 


ep8op.os Kttl 8^KaTos 


«rTaKai8eKdKis 


18 


^l' 


oKTo)Ka(8eKa 


67800S Kai 8€'KaTos 


6KT(i)Kai8eKdKis 


19 


lO' 


lvV€ttKttt8€Ka 


Evaros Kai 8€KaTos 


€vv(aKai8eKdKis 


20 


k' 


€l'KO<ri (v) 


eUoo-Tos, --ill -ov 


elKo<rdKis 


21 


Ka' 


els Kai €lLKocri(v) or 
€lCKoa-i (Kai) els 


irpuTOs Kai elKOo-Tos 


elKOo-aKis aira^ 


30 


X' 


TpiaKovra 


TpiaKOCTTOS 


TpiaKovrdKis 


40 


J^' 


TeTTapdKOvra 


TCTTapaKOCTTOS 


T€TTapaKOVTdKlS 


50 


v' 


irevT-^iKOVTa 


ireVTTJKOCTTOS 


irevn^KOVTaKis 


60 


r 


el^iKOvra 


e^T^KOO-TOS 


e^KOvxttKis 


70 


o' 


eP8op.T]K0VTa 


€P8op.11KOO-T6s 


ePSop-TlKOVTOKlS 


80 


it' 


078oT|KOVTa 


678oT]KOcrT6s 


678011 KovrdKis 



etVaros ; 12th, SuwS^Karos ; 13th, Tpicr(Tpeicr- ?)Ka(5^/faTos ; 20tb, ieiKoarbs ) and 
the Attic form of each. 

2. Ildt. has 8vih8€Ka (SuwS^KaTos), Tea-a-epecTKaLbeKa indeclmatile (rea-a-epeaKaidi- 
ifaros), rpi'fiKovTa (rpLtiKoffrb^)^ T€<7<7€pdKovTa^ 6y5<cKovTa^ 5ir}K6<7ioi (j8vr}KO(no(Tri>s) ^ 
rpi.T)K6(noi.: for evaros he has ef^'aTOs, and SO eivcLKLSf elvaKdmot, etVtt/cicrxtXtoi. 

3. Aeolic has ir^fi-Tre for 5 (cp. Horn. Tre/nrd^oXov five-pronged fork) , gen. plur. 
■7r^piiro}v inflected, as also 5^kuiv^ retjffepaKbvrwv^ etc. ; for 1000, x^Wioi. Doric has, 
for 1, -^s (37 D. 2); 4, r^ro/jes ; 6, f4^\ 7th, gjSSe/Aos ; 12, 5i;c65e/ca ; 20, /rfrari, 
fdKaTL] 40, T€Tpd)KoyTa (TerpajKocrris); 200, etc., diaKarioi, etc.; 1000, XV^'-O'- and 
XeiX/oi (37 D, 2) ; for 1st, Trporos. 



104 






NUMERALS 


t3 


Sign 


Cakdinal 


Ordinal 


Adveeb 


90 


9' 


ivivi\Kovra 


Iv€vtikoo-t6s 


4v£VT|K0VTdKlS 


100 


p' 


€KaTdv 


Ikotoo-tos, -ilt -ov 


eKOTOVTOLKlS 


200 


cr' 


8iaKdo-ioi, -ai. 


-a 8iaKoo-ioa'T6s 


BiaKoo-idKis 


300 


T 


TpiaKocrioi 


TptaKOCTLOCTTOS 


TpiaKOO-lOKlS 


400 


V 


T€TpaK6o-lOl 


T€TpaKO(rioo-T6s 


TCTpOKOO-ldlKlS 


600 


¥ 


irevTaKocrtoi 


irevTaKOcriocrTds 


ir€VTaKO(riaKis 


600 


x' 


llaKOO-LOl 


elaKoo-ioo-Tos 


e|aKoo-idKis 


700 


+; 


lirraKOO-ioi 


eirraKocriooTOS 


eiTTOKOcridKis 


800 


w' 


oKTaKOcrtoi 


OKTaKOO-tOCTTOS 


OKTaKOO-ldKLS 


900 


1^' 


cvaK6o-ioi 


IvaKOo-ioo-TOS 


4vaKoo-idKis 


1,000 


,a 


XtXtoi, -oi, -a 


XiXiocTTds, -TJ, -6v 


XiXtdKis 


2,000 


.P 


BiirxtXioi 


hia-XiKioa-ros 


8iG-xiXtdKis 


3,000 


.V 


TpicrxtXioi 


TpicrxiXioo-TOS 


TpKTXiXldKlS 


10,000 


,1 


jivpioi, -ai, -a 


|i,vpioo-T6s 


^vpidKis 


20,000 


,K 


Sicr^vpioi 


8io-}].vpLOcrT65 


8io-p,aJp\,dKis 


100,000 


,P 


ScKaKio-fLvpiOL 


8«KaKi(rn,=DptocrT6s 


BEKaKicr^vpidKis 



N. — Above 10,000 : 5i5o (Mptddes 20,000, etc., fj.vpLdKi,s /jl^ploi, i.e, 10,000 x 10,000. 

348. Notation. — The system of alphabetic notation came into use after the 
second century b,c. The first nine letters stand for units, the second nine for 
tens, the third nine for hundreds (27 letters). In addition to the 24 letters of 
the alphabet, three obsolete signs are employed : r, a form identical with the 
late abbreviation for (tt, in place of the lost f (3), once used for 6 ; 9 (koppa), 
In the same order as Lat. q, for 90 ; for 900, ^ sampi^ probably for san, an old 
form of sigma^ +pi From 1 to 999 a stroke stands above the letter, for lOOO's 
the same signs are used but -with the stroke below the letter (a' = 1, /a = 1000). 
Only the last letter in any given series has the stroke above : pv^' 157, va' 401, 
,a'T;^t' 1910- d is sometimes used for 10,000 ; ^ for 20,000, etc. 

a. In the classical period the following system was used according to the 
inscriptions : 1=1, 1111 = 4, f iT^vre) = 5, PI = 6, A (S^xa) = 10, A A = 20, 
H (iKardv) - 100, H H = 200, X = 1000, M = 10,000, P (ireirrdKLi 54Ka) = 50, 
fxX (TrevrdKii x^'-^'-'^'- + X''''^''<^'d =6000. 

b. For the numbers from 1 to 24 the letters, used in continuous succession, 
are frequently usedto designate the books of the Iliad (A, B, r, etc.) and of the 
Odyssey (a, jS, 7, etc). 

349. Tlie cardinals from 1 to 4 are declined as follows: 



349 D. Horn, has, for /i£a, ta (irjs, ly, tav) ; for evl^ i<^ ; 5iio, 86(0 (undecUned) ; 
the adj. forms 5oic6 and pi. Sotol regularly declined. For 4, r^aaapes, (Aeolic) 
wlavpes ; Piud. has T^rpcurtv. Hdt. has 5i}o sometimes undeclined, also dvQvj 
dvo7(n; r^aaepes, -a, reaaipcav^ r^aaepai', reaaepeaKaideKa 14 undeclined. Aeolic 
5l5e(7ty 2 ; ir^cro-vpes^ ir^avpa for 4. 



35o] NUMERALS 105 

one two three four 

Nom. €ls |ita 'dv N. A. Svo rpets rpta T€TTap€S Wrrapa 

Gen. IviSs |iids Ivds Gr. D. Stjolv rpiwv TCTrdpwv 

Dat. €v£ (11,$ Ivt Tpio-i(v) T^Tap(ri(v) 

Ace. ilva jiCav Jev rpets TpCa Terrapas Ttrrapa 

a. eh is for iv-s (cp. 245). The stem ev was originally <re/x (Lat. semel, sim- 
plex^ singuli)y weak forms of which are fi-ra^, d-TrXous, from <r/t-7r- (35 h). /xfa 
stands for (r/j^ia. ' 

b. oi)5^ €fs, f(.Tj5€ els 9io( even one unite (with change in accent) to form the 
compounds oiJScfs, fx-rjSeis no one. These words are declined like eh : thus, otJSeis, 
ouSe/xfa, ov84v, oi8€v6s^ ovSefiids, oi5€v6sj etc., and sometimes in the plural (no 
men.) none or nobodies) ov54i>€s, ovSivojv, oiJS^ffi, oiShas, Por emphasis the com- 
pounds may he divided, as oiSe eh not one. A preposition or &v may separate 
the two parts, as ov8^ dwd fiias from not a single one., oiiS" hv ivl ne uni quidem. 

c. TTpQros (primus) means the first among more than two, wpin-epos (prior) 
the first of two. 

d. dvo may he used with the gen. and dat. pL, as Brio fjLVTjyCiv of two months. 
SvoTv occurs rarely with plurals : Trawriv . . . dvolv D. 39. 32. dvelv for dvoiv does 
not appear till ahout 300 b.c. 

e. fi/x0w both, N. A. &/j.<pof^ G. D. aix<poiv (Lat. ambo). But both is more 

commonly dficpSrepoi^ -ai, -a. 

f. Por T^rapesy -paKovra, etc., early Attic prose and tragedy have r^o-trapes, etc. 

g. Tlie first numeral is inflected in rpets Kal d^Ka 13, rh-rapes koX d^Ka 14, 
TpeiffKaideKa and Ionic Teac-epea-KaiSeKa (very rare in Attic) are indeclinable. 

350. The cardinals from 5 to 199 are indeclinable ; from 200 the 
cardinals, and all the ordinals from first on, are declined like dya^og. 

a. Compound numbers above 20 are expressed by placing the smaller num- 
ber first (with Kal) or the larger number first (with or without mi). 

8vo Kal €iKo<ri(v) txoo and twenty ScT^repos Kal €Iko<tt6s 

efKOffi Kal Si'/o twenty and two, or dKo<n 5i5o twenty-two elKoc-rhs Kal Beirepos 

656 = TT^vre Kal TrevrijKOVTa koI Trej/ra/citriot or Trevra/citrioi (koI) irevr'rjKovra (koI) 
ir^vre. 

b. Por 21st, 31st, etc., elf (for xpuiros) Kal €lko<tt6^ (TpLdKo<rT6s) is permissible, 
but otherwise the cardinal is rarely thus Joined with the ordinal. 

0. Compounds of 10, 20, etc., wdth 8 and 9 are usually expressed by sub- 
traction with the participle of d^to lack^ as 18, 19, Svolv (iybs) diovres efKocrt. So 
vavffl fji,Lds Seo^ffais TeTTapaKOvra with 39 ships^ Svoly biovra irevr-qKOvra tTij 
48 years; and with ordinals hb^ Stof elKoffrhv eros the 19th year. The same 
method may be employed in other numbers than 8's or 9's : eirTd &Tro5iovTe$ 
TpLdK6aioi, i.e. 293. 

d. An ordinal followed by iirl SeKa denotes the day of the month from the 
13th to the 19th, as tt^ju-tttt; iwl d^Ka on the 15th. 



106 ADVEKBS [351 

351. With the collective words (996) tj tiriros cavalry, it A<nris men with 
shields, numerals in -loi may appear even in the singular : SiaKoirid iinros 200 
horse T. 1, tJ2, dirjris juujo/ct Kal reTpcucoffld 10,400 horse X. A. 1. 7. 10. 

352. iutpnoi, the greatest number expressed by a smg]e word, means 10,000 ; 
^vpioi^ countless^ infinite. In the latter sense the singular may "be used, as 
iivpld ^prifxla infinite solitude P. L. 677 E. 

353. Fractions a-re expressed in seyeral ways: -ijjLito-us |, 6 ^jjnavs roO AptOfiuov 
huff the number, aX ■fjp.La-ei.ai rdv veOiv half of the €hi]3S, rb ijfutrv rod <rTpa.TOV half 
Che army, i}fji,iTd\ain-oy half a talent ^ rpio, Tj/xiraXaura 1^ talents^ Tpirov 7)fxip.vaiOP 
2| liliiiae; TfHT-rjpiMpMv -|^ xe/ATrT-rjjLwptfrv ^, iirirpiTO'^ 1-|, -^flrfT-eaxTOS li, riSj' -rivre aX 
56o fwlpai f . But wlien the numerator is lees hy <??ie than the denominator, the 
genitive is omitted and only the article and fjiiprj ars nsedi as to. rpia. p.4p7i |j 
i.e. the three parts (scil. of four'). 

354. Other classes of numeral words. 

a. Distributives proper, answering the question how many each? are wanting 
in Greek, Insteadj dvd, ets, and Kard, with the accus., and -compomids of crriv 
with^ are used : Kara ^tjo or a^vdvo two by tvoOy two each (Lat. }}ini). The cardinals 
are often used alone, as av^pl eKd^n^ Scjjcj trivre dpjvplov ^vas singulis militibus 
dabo quinas argenti minas X. A. 1. 4. 13. 

b. MiiUiplicatives in -irXous -fold (from -ttXoos, Lat. -plex)^ dirXous simple^ 
5irjrXous twofold, TpnrXovs threefold^ iroWarXoOs rndnifold. 

c. Proportionals in -jrXao-toj : StxXdcrtos iwiice as great or (plur.) as m^Jijf, 
ToXAaxXdo-tor ma^iiy iimes as ^r€at (many). 

d. 5trT(5s means double, tpltt6s treble (from 5ix-^''^» rpLx-tos 112). 

N. — Multiplication. — Adverbs ansift^ering tlie question how many times ? are 
used in multiplication : rd 5ls -wivre d^Ka earlv twice five are ten. See also 347 N. 

e. Atstract and Collective Nurnh^rs in -dr (gen. -d?-os). all feminine: €v±5 
or )ji9va% the Miimber one, nnity^ monad, 5vds the 7iumhr:T two^ duality^ r^i-ds 
trinity, triad, SeKiis decad, decade^ ^kis, fKarovrds, x^^'^s, jxvpias myriad, iKarby 
fivpidSes a million. Also in -tJ? : TpiTrvs (-lios) the third of <i tribe (properly the 
number three), rerpaKv-s. 

i. Adjectives in -atos, answering the question 07i w?iat day? Bevrepaios (or rj 
jevrepac?.) diTTjX^e hc departed on the second day. 

g. Adverbs of Division. — fj-ovaxv singly, in one way only, Stxa, dtxv i^ two 
parts., doubly., rplxv^ '^^Tp'^xa, etc., iroXXaxa in many urays^ irain-axv i^ every way. 



VERBS 

INFLECTION : PEELIMINAKY EEMABKS (355-380) 

355. The Greek verb shows distinctions of voicej mood^ verbal 
noun, tense, number^ and person. 

3&4D. Hdt. has Si^os (from Stx&~!.oi)^ rpt^h for dnr6$, rpirr^s; a-lso -ttXijctcos 
and -fpaffiOi. Horn, ha^s ^ixo- and &ix^°-\ '^P^'X^ *'^d Tpt-xda. ; rpisrX^, rerpoTrX^, 



36o] VERBS: PRELIMINARY REMARKS 107 

356. Voices. — There are three voices : active, middlej and passive, 

a. The middle usually den'otes that the subject acts on himself or for him- 
selft as XojJo;(iat wash myself, ajitvajxai defend myself (lit. ward off for myself). 

b. The passive borrows all its fonns, except the future and aorist, from the 
middle. 

c. Deponent verbs have an active meaning but only middle (or middle and 
passive) forms. If its aorist has the middle form, a deponent is called a mid- 
dle deponent (xapi^ofiai gratify^ ixapLadjMrjp); if its aorist has the passive form, 
a deponent is called a passive deponent {iveviiiojj^ai reflect on, iv€$vfi:^$r}v'). 
Deponents usually prefer the passive to the middle forms of the aorist. 

357. Moods. — Four moods, the indicative, subjunctive, optative, 
imperative, are ceilled Jinite, because the person is defined by the end- 
ing (366). The infinitive, strictly a verbal noun (358), is sometimes 
classed as a mood. 

358. Verbal Nouns. — Verbal forms that share certain properties 
of nouns are called verbal nouns. There are two kinds of verbal 
nouns. 

1. Substantival : the infinitive. 

N. — The infinitive is properly a case form (chiefly dative, rarely locative), 
herein being like a substantive. 

2. Adjectival (inflected like adjectives) : 

a. Participles : active, middle, and passive. 

b. Verbal adjectives : 

In -Tos, denoting possibility, as c^iAt^tos lovable, or with the 

force of a perfect passive participle, as ypaTTTo? written. 
In -T€os, denoting necessity, as ypa-n-Ttos that must he written. 

359. Tenses. — There are seven tenses in the indicative: present, 
imperfect, future, aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. 
The future perfect commonly has a passive force, but it may be 
active or middle in meaning (see 581). 

The subjunctive has three tenses : present, aorist, and perfect. 
The optative and infinitive have five tenses : present, future, aorist, 
perfect, and future perfect. 

The imperative has three tenses ; present, aorist, and perfect. 

360. Primary and Secondary Tenses. — There are two classes of 
tenses in the indicative : (1) Primary (or Principal) tenses, the pres- 
ent and perfect expressing present time, the future and future per- 
fect expressing future time; (2) Secondary (or Histoncal) tenses, 
the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist expressing past time. The 
secondary tenses have an augment (428) prefixed. 

359 D. Horn* does not use the future or future perfect in the optative. 



108 VEKBS: PRKUMIXAUY REMARKS [361 

361. Second Aorists, etc. — Some verbs have tenses called second 
aorists (aetivCj middle, and passive), second perfects and pluperfects 
(active only), and second futures (passive). The meaning of these 
tenses ordinarily corresponds to that of the first aorist, etc. ; but 
when a verb has both forms in any tense (which is rarely the case), 
the two forms usually differ in meaning. Sometimes one form is 
poetical, the other used in prose. 

362. No single Greek verb shows all the tenses mentioned in 
359 and 361 ; and the paradigms are therefore taken from differ- 
ent verbs. 

363. Number. — There are three numbers : the singular, dual, and 
plural. 

364. Person. — There are three persons (first, second, and third) 
in the indicative, subjunctive, and optative. The imperative has 
only the second and third persons. 

a. Except in a few cases in poetry (465 c) the first person plural is used for 
the first person dual. 

365. Inflection. — The inflection of a verb consists in the addition 
of certain endings to the different stems. 

366. Endings. — The endings in the finite moods (357) show 
whether the subject is first, second, or third person ; and indicate 
number and voice. See 462 ff, 

a. The middle has a different set of endings from the active. The passive 
has the endings of the middle except in the aorist, which has the active endings. 

b. The indicative has two sets of endings in the active and in the middle : 
one for primary tenses, the other for secondary tenses. 

c. The subjunctive uses the same endings as the primary tenses of the indica- 
tive ; the optative uses the same as those of the secondary tenses. 

STEMS 

367. A Greek verb has two kinds of stems: (1) the tense-stem, to 
which the endings are attached, and (2) a common verb-stem 
(also called theme) from which all the tense-stems are derived. 
The tense-stem is usually made from the verb-stem by prefixing 
a reduplication-syllable (439), and by affixing signs for mood (457, 
459) and tense (455). A tense-stem may be identical with a verb- 
stem. 

368. The Tense-stems. — The tenses fall into nine classes called 
tense-systems. Each tense-system has its own separate tense-stem. 





S-YSTEMS. 


T. 


Present^ in 


II. 


Future, 


in. 


First aorist, 


IV. 


Second aorist, 


Y. 


First perfect, 


VL 


Second perfect. 


YII. 


Perfect middle, 


VUI. 


First passive. 


IX. 


Second passive^ 



37a] VERBS: PUELU'li:NAiiy KEMARKS 109 



TENSES. 

including present aiid imperfect * 
future active and middle, 
first aorist active ^^d middle, 
second aorist active and middle*. 
^ first perfect^ first pluperfect^ and fut. perf. , active, 
second perfect and second phtperfeot active, 
perfect aad pluperfect middle <ipass,), future perfect 
first aorist and first future passive, 
second aorist and second future pas^ve. 

The tense-stems are explained in detail in 497-597. 

a. Since few verbs have both the first and second form of the same tense 
(•^61), most verbs have only six of these nine systems j many verbs do not even 
have six. Scarcely any verb shows ^11 nine systems. 

b. There are also secondary tense-stems for the future passive, the pla- 
perfect, and the future perfect. 

c. The tense-stems assume separate forms in tlie different moods. 

369. The principal parts of a verb are the iirst person singular 
indicative of the tense-systems occurring in it. These are generally 
six : the present, future, first aoristj first (or second) perfect active, 
the perfect middle, and the first (or second) aorist passive. The 
future middle is given if there is no future active. The second 
aorist (active or middle) is added if it occurs. Thus : 

Xvo) loose, XDctw, IXuera, kiXvKaf kdkvpiaL, IXvB-qv^ 

XeiTTiH leave, X^'jl/oif XiXouraf X^Xe^ifXpMi, IXttf^Orjjv, 2 aor. eXtirov* 

ypd4>{ii write} ypdij/iOy cypaxpa, ylypacj^a, ytypa/A/jtat, 2 aor. pasS. lypd<^'qv. 

370. The principal parts of deponent verbs (Sb6 c) ai'e the present^ 
future, perfect, and aorist indicative. Both first and second aorists 
are given if tliej occur. 

/SovXopAxL ivish, povXridopxii, /SefiovXrjfiat, i^ovXi^Orjiv (passive deponent). 
ylyvofjiai become, yev^cro/xat, y€.yiv'qpja.L, 2 aor. iyevojxrjv (middle depocent), 
ep-yajo/xat WOrlc, ipy(i<Top,at, €tpya(TdfXY}v^ eipyaxrpjaXy dpydaOrfV. 

371. Verb-stem (or Theme). — The tense-stems are made from one 
fundamental stem called the verb-stem (or theme). 

This Yerl:)-stem may be a root (193) as in Ti-oj honour^ or a root to which a 
derivative suffix has been appended, as In rt-^-o? honour. 

372. A verb forming its tense-stems directly from a root is called 
0. 2')Timitive verb. A denominative verb forms its tense-stems from a 
longer verb-stem, originally a noun-stem ; as SovXow enslave from 
SouAo9 slave. Verbs in /xt (379), and verbs in o) of t^o syllables 
(in the present indicative active, as Xey-w sr^edk) or of three syllables 



110 VERB-STEMS, THEMATIC VOWEL [373 

(in the middle^ as Se;)(o/xat receive) are generally primitive. Others 
are denominative. 

373. The verb-stem may show numerous modifications in form. 
Thus, corresponding to tlie gradations in sing^ sang, sung (35), the verb 

\elir-ia leave shows the stems Xeiir-, XoiTr- (2 perf. X^-Xoiir-a), Xitt- (2 aor. e-Xiir-o-v) ; 
the verb tpe^-ujiee shows (pevy- and (pvy- (2 aor. €-<pvy-0'v). In p-j^yvvfu break we 
find the three steins ^177, pwy (2 perf. eppwya), pay (2 aor. pass, ippdyrivy crrAX-w 
send has the stems areX- and trraX- (perf. $-<rraK-Ka^ 2 fut. pass. <7Ta\-^<To/xaL). 

a. When the fundamental stem shows modifications, it is customary for 
convenience to call its shorter (or shortest) form the rerb-stem, and to derive 
the other forms from it. The student must, however, beware of assuming that 
the short forms are older than the other forms. 

374. The verb-stem may also show modifications in quantity, as 
present Xv-o) loose, perfect Xe-Xv-Ka. 

N. — Various causes produce this variation. Xvco has u from analogy to 
Xi5-a-aj, €-\v~(7a where the verb-stem \v has been regularly lengthened (534, 643). 
For Attic (pSdvu anticipate Hom. has <pe&v(jj for (pdavfoj (28, 147 D.). 

375. a> Inflection and iii Inflection. — There are two slightly dif- 
ferent methods of inflecting verbs, the first according to the common, 
the second according to the jit system. The names w-verhs and /xt- 
verbs (a small class) refer to the ending of the first person singular 
active of the present tense indicative only : A^-a> loose, rCBij-iJii place, 

a. In the w inflection the teuse-steni ends in the thematic vowel. To this 
form belong all futures, and the presents, imperfects, and second aorists showing 
the thematic vowel. 

376. According to the ending of the verb-stem, co-verbs are termed : 

1. Yowel (or pure) verbs': 

a. Kot contracted : those that end in v or t, as Xv-w loose, 7ratScv-<o 

educate, xp'l-^ arioint. Such verbs retain the final vowel 
of the stem unchanged in all their forms. 

b. Contracted: those that end in a, c, o, as TlfX(x> honour from 

rlju-a-o), TTotw make from TroU-ny, St/Acu manifest from St/Ao-o). 

2. Consonant verbs, as: 

Liquid or nasal verbs : Sfp-w flay, fxev-io remain. 

Verbs ending in a stop (or mute), as dy-oj lead, TrttO-w persuade. 

N. — Verbs ending in a stop consonant are called labial, dental, or palatal 
verbs. Consonant verbs do not retain the final consonant of the stem un- 
changed in all their forms. The final consonant may be assimilated to a fol- 
lowing consonant, or may form with it a double consonant. 

377. Thematic Vowel. — Some tense-stems end in a vowel which 
varies between o and e (or w and rj) in certain forms. This is called 
the thematic (or variable) vowel. Thus Xto-fiev Xve-re, Xvio-fji^v Xv-q-re, 



38i] CONJUGATION: LIST OF PARADIGMS 111 

Xvo-o-fji€v \vcre-T€. The thematic vowel is written ^/^ or "/^, as Xv^/^-, 
ypoi<f>'^/v' See 456. 

378. 6 is used before ji or v in the indicative, and in the optative, 
u before ^ or v in the subjunctive, elsewhere t is used in the indica- 
tive (t] in the subjunctive). 

379. In the /xt inflection no thematic vowel is employed, and the 
endings are attached directly to the tense-stem. The fit form is used 
only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist. In the other 
tenses, verbs in /At generally show the same inflection as co-verbs. 
For further explanation of the w and the fit inflection see 602 ff., 717 ff. 

380. Meanings of the Tenses and Moods. — In the synopsis (382) 
meanings are given wherever these are not dependent on the use of 
the various forms in the sentence. The meanings of the subjunctive 
and optative forms and the difference between the tenses can be 
learned satisfactorily only from the syntax. Some of these meanings 
may here be given : 

a. Subjunctive : \tcofxev or Xva-ccpiev let us loose, (iav) Xow or \i)<rco (if) I loose, 

(I'm) ypd4>co (that) I may write. 

b. Optative : (eWc) \6oifjii or \maiixL (would) that I may loose ! (d) Xtoi^v 

or \6craLfX€v (if) we should loose. 

381. CONJUGATION : LIST OF PARADIGMS 

I. Verbs in »: 

A. Vowel verbs not contracted : 

Synopsis and conjugation of Xvo> (pp. 112-118). 
Second aorist (active and middle) of XetVa) (p. 119), 
Second perfect and pluperfect (active) of XetVo). 

B. Vowel verbs contracted : 

Present and imperfect of Ttp-ao, woUoi, SrjXooi (pp. 120-123). 

C. Consonant verbs ; 

Liquid and nasal verbs; future and first aorist (active and 
middle), second aorist and second future passive of <^atVaj 
(pp. 128-129). 

Labial, dental, and palatal verbs: perfect and pluperfect, 

middle (passive) of XetTrw, yp(i<f>0)^ Trei'^oj, TrparTO), eXf'y;;^^ 

(p. 130). Perfect of the liquid verbs d-yyiXXw, <^ajVa>; and 
perfect of reX^o) (p. 131). 
II. Verbs in fii. 

A. Present, imperfect, and 2 aorist of TiBrjfxi, LGTrjfxt. StSco/xt 

(pp. 135 ff.). 
Second aorist middle of iTrpidfirjv (p. 138). 

B. Present and imperfect of StUvvfxi (p. 140). 
Second aorist : eSvv (p. 140). 



112 



CONJUGATION OF S2- VERBS 



[382 



382. 



I. PRESENT SYSTEM 
Pi-eseiit tmd. Imperfect 
\v<a I loose or am 
loosing 
tkvov I was loos- 
ing 

XVOIJJLI 

Imper. Xve loose 
Infin. Xveiv to loose 



Active 
Indie 



Subj. 

Opt. 



Part, 

Middle 
Indie. 



Xvwv loosing 



Xvofiai I loose (for 
myself) 
cXiJojiTjv / was 
loosing (for 
myself) 
Xvofiai 

Imper. Xvov loose (for thy- 
self) 
Xveo-8ai to loose (for 
one''s self) 



Subj. 
Opt 



■Infin, 



Part. Xu6}jL«vos loosing (for 
one^s self) 



Passive : 

Indie. Xvojiat lam 
i\v6\i.r\v 



Subj. 
Opt. 
Imper. 
Infin. 

Part. 



/ was . 
Like Middle 



^ (being) 
loosed 



n. future system 

Future 

Xvo-w / shall loose 



CONJUGATION 

(a) vowel VERBS: 

Synopsis of 

iii. fie&t aorist system 

1 Aoriet 



XvO'Olfll 

Xweiv to be about to 

loose 
Xvo-wv about to loose 

Xvo-ojiai / shall loose 
(for myself) 



'ikva-a I loosed 

Xv(rti> 

Xvo-ak)JLk 

X-uo-ov loose 

XSo-ai to loose or to 

have loosed 
Xvo-as having loosed 



eXtJo-djjLTiv / loosed (for 
myself) 



\vtroi\ir\v 



Xv(rti>)jLai 

\va-ai loose (for thy- 
self) 
Xva-ta-Bai tO be about to Kva-aa-Qai to loose or to 
loose (for one''s self) have loosed (for ■ 
one's self) 
Xu(r6}JL£vos about to Xijo-djievos having 
loose (for one^s self) loosed (for one's self ) 

VUl FIRST PASSIVE SYSTEM 
1 Future 

Xv0i^(ro}jLaL / shall be 
loosed 



1 Aorist 



IXvGiiv I was loosed 



\vQu) (for Xvd4u') 
Xv0iio-oijii)v Xv0eiT)v 

X\i0T]Ti he loosed 
Xu6i^(r£o-0ai to be about XvSfjvai to be loosed or 
to he loosed to have been loosed 

XuBiio-ofievos about to XvBeis having been 
he loosed loosed 



Verbal adjectives • j ^^'^^^ ^^^^ "^^^V ^^ loosed, loosed 



\ XvTtos thai must be loosed, (requiriDg) to be loosed 



382] 



SYNOPSIS OF \v(o 



113 



OF n-VERBS; * 

NOT C-ONTR ACTED 
Xvw (Xv, \v) loose 

v. FIRST PERFECT SYSTEM 
] Perfect and Pluperfect Active 

X4XvKa / have loosed 

IXcXvKT) I had loosed 

XcXvKus St or XcX-uKo) 
XcXvKots th\v or XcXvKOi^L 
X€XvK«bs Xa-Bi or [X^vkc] ^ 
XcXvK^vai to have loosed 

XcXvK^s having loosed 



Vn. PERFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM 



Perfect and Pluperfect Middle 
X«XvjjLai I have loosed (for myself) 

eXcX-wiJLi^v I had loosed (for myself) 



XeXv^jLcvos (0 
XeX-wjjL^vos rfi^v 
\i\v<ro (712, 714) 

XcXitio-dai to have loosed (for one^s self) 



XcXviiivos having loosed (for one''s self) 



Perfect and Pluperfect Passive Future Perfect Paselve 

X4Xvp.ai I have | been XeXvo-oftat I shall have 

fXeXvfjLi^v / had [ loosed been loosed 



Like Middle 



XcXvO-otjJLT^V 

XcXvcrerOat 

X€Xv(r<ijJL€vos 



1 The simple forms of the perfect imperative active of X^w prohably never 
occur in classical Greek (697), but are included to show the inflection. 

GREEK GRAM. — 8 



114 



CONJUGATION OF fi-VERBS 



[383 



383. 



Indicative. 



Subjunctive. 



Optative. 



Present 

S. 1. \va 

2. Xvcis 

3. Xvei 

D. 2. \V€T0V 

3. XveTov 

P. 1. XvO(Jl€V 

2. \vtTi 

3. Xvovtri 

S. 1. X^« 

2. Xvxis 

3. XvTi 

D. 2. XvT|TOV 
3. XvT|TOV 

p. 1. Xvupev 

2. XvilT€ 

3. Xvuxri 

S. 1. Xtjoujxt 

2. Xvois 

3. X^oi 

D. 2. XvoiTov 
3. Xvo£tt|v 

P. 1. XtjOl(A€V 

2. XlJOI,T€ 

3. Xvoicv 



I. 


(A) 


VOWEL VERBS: 
1. Active 


Imperfect 




Future 


€XvOV 




X^<ru 


iKvts 




XvO-€lS 


tkw 




\v<rti 


4X^€T0V 




Xv<r€TOV 


€X\i*TT|V 




Xv<r€TOV 


€XvO[JL€V 




Xvo-ojtev 


IX^€T€ 




XvO-€T€ 


eKvov 




Xvo-ovo-t 



Xvo-oiiii 

Xv<rois 

Xvo-oi 

XvO-OlTOV 

Xvo-oCTtjv 

X^<rOL|JL€V 

\v(roir€ 

XvO-OLCV 



Imperative. 



Infinitive. 
Participle. 



S. 2. Xv€ 

3. Xv^TC* 

D. 2. \veTOv 

3. XiJ€TWV 

p. 2. XvCTt 

3. \v6vrav 
Xveuv 



Xvb>v, XvODO-O, 

Xwv (306) 



Xv<r€iv 

X^<r»v, X^o-ovo-a, 
Xvo-ov (305) 



383] 



VOWEL VERES: ACTIVE OF \vo) 



115 



NOT 


CONTRACTED 






Voice of Xvo) 












1 Aorist 


1 Perfect 


1 Pluperfect 


Ind. 


S. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


eXiio-a 

eXiio-as 

ekva-e 


XcXvKa 

X^-uKas 

X^VKC 


€X«Xt;Kii 
€X£Xvictis 

4X£XlJK£l(v) 




D. 


2. 
3. 


cXvo-aTOv 
IXva-drijv 


XtXvKarov 

XeXvKttTOV 


^XcXvKETOV 
tXtXvK^HV 


-' 


P. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


€Xv<rajt€v 

eXvo-art 

eXvo-av 


XeXvKttjwv 

XeXvKart 

XeXvKao-i 


eXcXvK^ficv 

IX€XliK€T£ 

IXcXvKco-av 


SUBJ. 


S. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


X<J<ro> 
Xvo^js 

X^O-T, 


X£Xi;Ka>s « (691) or 

X£XvKWS ifs 
XfXvKWS ^ 


XtXvKw (692) 

XcXvKTjS 

XeXvKTj 




D. 


2. 
3. 


XvO-T]TOV 

Xv<rT]TOV 


X€X'UK6t€ ■^TOV 
XfXvKOTC ^TOV 


\tKvKy\rov 

\eKvKy\TOV 




P, 


1. 
2. 
3, 


Xio<ro)H€V 

Xv<rT]T€ 

Xva-ojo-t 


X£Xvk6t€S TJTe 
X«Xvk6t€S 2>crt 


XcXvKu^v 

"KtKvKryri 

XtXvKwo-i 


Opt. 


S. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Xvo-aifii 

Xvo-ais, Xvo-€ias (668) 

X^o-ai, Xv<r£« (668) 


XcXuKws €\:tiv (694) or 


XAvKoijti, -ot-qv 

XfXvKOlS, -0i't\% 

XeXvKOi, -o(t] 




D. 


2. 
3. 


XveraiTOv 
Xvo-aCT-qv 


XcXvKOTC €1lT]T0V, ttrov 
X€Xvk6t€ tl-^ITTIV, €1'tt)V 


XtXvKOlTOV 

XiXvkoCttjv 




P. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Xv<raip,£V 

Xv<raiT€ 

Xv<rai€V, Xv<r£tav (668) 


X£X-uk6t€s c^TlHtv, €£jJ*V 

XcXvKOTCS i^Tt, €tT£ 

XtXvKOTts el'-qo-avT €l£v 


X(XvKOl^£V 

X£XvKOlT€ 

X(XvKOl€V 


Imp. 


S. 


2. 
3. 


Xvo-ov 
XvcrdTO) 


XeXvK^Js i:o-et (697) or 


[X^vK€ (697) 

XAVKCTO) 




B. 


2. 
3, 


Xv<raTov 
Xvo-aTO)v 


X€XvKdT€ €O-T0V 

XeXvKOTC €<rTa)v 


XcXvKCTOV 

XeXvK^Ttov 




P. 


2. 
3. 


Xvo-aT€ 
Xvo-dvTWv 


XeXvKOTes ^ri 

XeXvKOTCS OVTWV 


X£XVK€T€] 


Inf. 






Xv<rai 


XeXvK^vat 




Paet. 




Xviras, Xvo-a<ra, 
Xv<rav (306) 


XeXvKis, XeXvKvta, 
XtXvKos (309) 





116 



CONJUGATION OF O-VERBS 



[383 













2. Middle! 






Present 




Imperfect 


Future 


Indicative. 


S. 1. 
2. 
3. 


Xvofjiai 
Xvti, Xv€l 

XvCTttl 


(628) 


tXvofiTiv 

i\€tTO 


Xvo-ofiai 

XvoTi, \vo-ti (628) 

Xvcrerai 




D. 2. 


Xv£<r0ov 




iXvta-Bov 


Xvo-£o-0ov 




3. 


Xv€(r0ov 




cXvco-Otiv 


Xvo-eo-eov 




P. 1. 

2. 


XvojuOa 
Xv€cr0e 




eXvoixcOa 

IXlf€O-0€ 


Xv(r6(«ea 
XtSo-to-ec 




3. 


XvOVTttl 




^XlJOVTO 


Xvo-ovrai 


Subjunctive. 


S. 1. 
2. 
3. 

D. 2. 
3. 

P. 1. 
2. 
3. 


Xvttf^ai 

X^r, 

Xv-riTtti 

XlJTlO-eov 

XvTio-eov 

X\J(G|u6a 
Xvwvrai 








Optative. 


S. 1. 

2. 


XvoCfjir)v 
XiSoio 






XvO-0L)11]V 

XvtroLO 




3. 


XvOtTO 






Xvo-otTo 




B. 2. 


Xvoicrfiov 






Xvo-oktOov 




3. 


\voi(rBr\v 






Xtio-oi(r0nv 




P. 1. 

2, 


Xvoi\uBa: 
Xvoio-0€ 






Xvo-oCficda 
Xvo-oio-6e 




3 


XvOtVTO 






XvO-OtVTO 


Imperative. 


S. 2, 
3. 

D. 2. 
3. 

P. 2. 
3. 


X60V 
Xv^o-eo) 

Xv£o-6ov 
Xvia-Boiv 

X^eo-Oc 

Xv€o-Ocav 








Infinitive. 


• 


Xveo-dai 






Xv(r€(r6ai 


Participle. 




Xvojuvos, Xvoji^vTi, 
Xvofjicvov (287) 




XiJ(r6jJL€vos, -r\, 
-ov (287) 


1 Xtiw in the middle usually 


means to 


release for 


one's self, get some one set 



free^ hence to ransom, redeem, deliver. 



383] 



VOWEL VERBS: MIDDLE OF kv<^ 



117 



Voice of Xv« 


















1 Aorist 


Perfect 




Pluperfect. 


Indicative. 


S. 


1. 
2. 


eXvo-djiiiv 
4XtS<ro) 


XeXv^at, 
XeXvaai 




tXcXviiiiv 






3. 


4Xvo-aTO 


XAvrai 




cXcXvTO 




D. 


2. 


eXvo-ao-Opv 


XAv<r0ov 




IX€X\)o-8ov 






3. 


^vo-dcrOtiv 


XeXvo-eov 




IXtXuaOT^t' 




P. 


1. 

2. 


IXvo-d^tea 
IXvo-ao-e€ 


X€Xii|«9o 

x^vo-et 




IX€XvH.€0a 
IXeXvo-Oc 






3. 


IXvo-avTO 


X^vvrai 




IXAVVTO 


Subjunctive. 


S. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Xvo-«jiai 

X^oT, 

Xvo-iiTat 


X€Xt.ji^vos 5 (599 f) 

X€Xt)|t^VOS "QS 

XcXvfi^vos xf 


1 






D. 


2. 
3. 


XVOTJCUOV 

Xvo-iio-eov 


XeXvfUvW TJTOV 








P. 


1. 
2. 

3. 


Xvo-t&fuOa 

XvCP1]0-e€ 

Xvo-wvrai 








Optative. 


S. 


L 
2. 
3, 


XiJo-a£jtif|v 

Xvo-aio 

Xvo-aiTo 


\Av[Uvo^dy\v(i599f) 






D. 


2. 


Xv(rai(rdov 


XeXvji^vco d'nTOv or 


€It01 


/ 






3. 


Xuo-aio-Siiv 


XtXvji^vw €17)1-1] V or 


€V.Tr\ 


V 




P. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Xvo-aifieOa 

Xv(raio-9« 

Xvo-aivTO 


XtXvjt^voi ctrificv or etftev 
XeXvjiivoi cl'iiTc or etr* 
XcXvftevoi itr\a-av or iliv 


Imperative. 


S. 


2. 
3. 


Xvo-oi 
Xv<rdo-0« 


X^vo-o (599 g) 
XcXvo-Oo) (712) 








D. 


2. 
3. 


Xvo-ao-eov 
Xvo-cwr0«v 


X^vo-eov 

X€XvO-0O)V 






Infinitive. 


P. 


2. 
3. 


Xvo-€ur0€ 
Xvo-do-0«v 

Xvo-ao-Oai 


\i\va-Bt 
XcXio-ewv 

XcXvo^ai 






Participle. 






Xvo-djxcvos, -t], -ov 

(287) 


XtXvji^vos, -^j -ov 

(287) 







118 



CONJUGATION^ OF O-VERBS 



[383 



3. Passive Voice of \va 









Future Perfect 


1 Aorist 




1 Future 


Indicative. 


S, 


1. 
2. 
3. 


XcXvo-o^ai 
XeXvafl, X€Xvo-£t 
X€Xv<r€Tai 


€Xv0iis 
4Xv6ti 




XvOirjo-oiiai 
XvOV^o-t), Xv0Vjo-€t 
XvO-rfjertTat 




D. 


2. 
3. 


\Avtrta-&ov 
X€Xvo-€<r6ov 


cXvOt^Tov 

iXv0lf)T11V 




Xvet]o-€<r0ov 
XvOifjo-co-Oov 




P. 


1. 

2. 
3, 


X€Xv«r€o-e€ 
XcXvo-ovTat 


cXv0tin€v 




Xv6t)(r6(JLc6a 

Xv6iq<r€o-0e 

XvO-^o-ovrat 


Subjunctive. 


, S. 

D. 
P. 


1. 

2. 
3. 

2. 
3. 

1. 

2. 
3. 




Xvdu 

Xvdfis 

Xve^ 

XveflTOV 

Xv6t]tov 
XvOu|i.€v 

XveilT€ 

Xv0«<ri 






Optative. 


S. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


X€Xi)<rot(tnv 
XcXvo-oio 

XcXvO-OlTO 


\v9dr\v 

Xvdciiis 
Xv0cCii 




Xv0t)o-o£jtiiV 
Xv0Vjo-oio 

Xv0V)O-OlTO 




D. 


2. 
3. 


XcXvo-0 10-60 V 

X€Xtjo"oCo-6t]v 


XvOctTov or 
Xv6€(ttiv or 


XvOctt^Tov 

Xd0€1'^TT)V 


XveVjo-owrOov 
XDO-qo-oto-Otiv 




P. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


XcX\)o-oiji.€ea 
XcXvcroicrBc 

XcXvO-OLVTO 


Xu0€tji€v or 
Xve€iTc or X 
Xv0€tcv or X 


Xu0€iT|JlfV 
,\)0€£t1T€ 


Xv6t]o-of^€0a 
Xve^<rowr0€ 


Imperative, 


S. 
D. 
P. 


2. 
3, 

2. 
3. 

2. 
3. 




Xi0t]Tl 

Xu0V)Ta) 

Xv0'HTOV 

XvO-^TttV 

XvO^VTWV 






Infinitive. 






XcXvcrco-Oai 


Xv0iivai 




Xv0^ir€<r0ai 


Participle. 






XeXvo-6 ficvos, 
-r\, -ov (287) 


Xv0€is, XvO€io-a, 

X^eev (307) 


XvOi^o-dfuvos, 
-t,, -ov (287) 



384] O-VEUBS: SECOND AORIST, SECOND TERFECT 119 

384. As examples of the second aorist and second perfect systems 
(368), the second aorist active and middle and the second perfect and 
pluperfect active of XciVw leave are here given. 









2 Aorist Active 


2 Aorist Middle 2 Perfect 


2 Plnperfect 


IND. 


S. 


1. 


€Xtirov 


IXiirdfi-qv 


X^OLira 


iXeXoCmi 






2. 


iiXiircs 


aCirov 


X^oiiras 


cXcXo(ir-r]5 






3. 


eXiir* 


iXitrtro 


X^oiirc 


IX£Xo£ir€i(v) 




D. 


2. 


IXiircTOv 


aCir«r0ov 


XeXoCirarov 


^cXoCircTOv 






3. 


€XiirerT]v 


IXfir^<r6T]v 


XcXoCirarov 


JXcXoiir^TTiv 




P. 


1. 


IXCirofuv 


IXiirbp^Oa 


X€XoCirap,cv 


^cXoCirciLcv 






2. 


iXtir€T« 


iXhr€<re€ 


XcXoCirarc 


^XcXoCircTC 






3. 


eXiirov 


IXC-irovTO 


XcXoCirao-i 


^cXoCirfcav 


SUBJ, 


. S. 


1. 


XCiro) 


XCira)}uii 


XcXoiirws « (599 c) or 


XtXoCiro, (692) 






2. 


\iir^S 


\iira 


XcXoLira>s -05 


XtXot-iTis 






3. 


UlTQ 


XimiTai 


XcXoi'ira>s -q 


XcXoCirg 




D. 


2. 


XtirriTOv 


XCirt|<r6ov 


XtXoiirOTt ?|TOV 


XcXotirnTOv 






3. 


XtlTTlTOV 


Xiini<r6ov 


XcXoiirtiTC Vov 


XeXoCirtfTOv 




P. 


1. 


Xivanuv 


Xiiri&}W0tt 


XcXoiiroTCS wjuv 


XcXoCirtop.cv 






2. 


Xtir¥jT« 


\iirr\a-9t 


XcXoiirdrcs tJt* 


XcXoiirTjTc 






3. 


X£ira><ri 


Xtirwvrai 


X€X0Lir6T€S wo-i 


XcXoCiroKTi 


Opt. 


S. 


1. 


Xiirotfki 


XfiroCji-Tjv 


XtXoiirtos ttiiv (699 e) or 


XcXoCiroi|ii (695) 






2. 


Xtirois 


XCiroio 


XcXoiirois elCi^s 


XcXoCirois 






3. 


XCiroi 


Xltoito 


X«Xoiira)s €tT| 


XcXoCiroi 




D. 


2. 


XiiroiTOv 


XCiTX)io-6ov 


X^Xoi-JTOTt «tT]TOV, €ItOV 


XcXoCiroiTOv 






3. 


XittoCtiiv 


XiiroCcrOilv 


XtXci-jriTt «lVirr)v, ti'n\v 


XcXoiirolrriv 




P. 


1. 


XCiroijitv 


Xi.iroC|u9a 


XtXoiiroTts tli^lH^v, «l}i,«v 


XcXoCiroifUV 






2. 


XiiroiTt 


Xfirowre^ 


XcXotirdrcs <tTjT€, cIt* 


XcXoliroiTC 






3. 


Xtirowv 


XCttoivto 


XcXoiirdrcs ttTjo-av, <t<v 


XcXoCirouv 


Imp. 


S. 


2. 
3. 


Xtirc 
Xiir<T« 


Xiirov 

Xiirfo-6a» 








D. 


2. 

3. 


XiirtTOV 

Xiir^Twv 


Xiir«<r9ov 
Xnr^o-6a)V 








P. 


2. 
3. 


Xlir€TC 

Xiir6vT«v 


Xtir«o-ec 
Xtir^(r9o)v 


< 




Inf. 






Xiirttv 


Xiir^cr9ai 


XcXoiTT^vai 




Part 






Xiiri&v, Xiirov 


r- Xfiroiwvos, 


X«Xoiirt&s, -via, -OS (3091 


1 



o-a, Xiirov -T)^ -ov 

(305 a) (287) 



120 



CONJUGATION OF ^VEUBS 



[385 



I. (b) vowel VERBS; CONTRACTED VERBS 

385. Verbs in -atf), -e<o, -oo) are contracted only in the present and 
imperfect. The principle3 of contraction are explained in 49-55. 
Tl/i.ao> (tl/jjo.-) honour, iroUai (ttolc-) make, and Srf\6a> (St^Ao-) manifest are 
thus inflected in the present and imperfect of the active, middle and 
passive. 

Active 
present indicative 



s. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


(rlfidei) 


Tt(t« 




iroiw 

irotets 
iroiel 


($77X60.) 
CdrjXdeLs) 


8itX& 

Bi^Xois 

Si^Xot 


n 


,2. 
3. 


(rTfidcTov) 

(rlfidcTov) 


TtjiOLTOV 

Ttjiarov 


(irOL^CTOv') 

(ttoUctov) 


irottiTOv 
irowiTOV 




8t]Xovtov 

8l|X0VT0V 


p. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


(rTfjL&ofJxv) 

(ti/x6.€T€) 

(Tt/idoufft) 


TlJittTt 


(iroi^ovtr:) 


iroio-O^cv 

XOt€tT€ 
TOiOVO-i 


(SrjMo/xey) 

(5tjX4€T€) 

(5i7X6ou(rt) 


Si^Xov^v 

81^X0 VT€ 

8T|Xov<ri 










IMPERFECT 






s. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


(irtfiaov) 

(itt/JUl€S) 


Irtficov 

€Tt^S 

4TtHia 


(JiroUov) 


hroiovv 
liroicis 


(^SiSXoof) 
(^5^Xoes) 
(iS-^Xoe) 


{SVjXovv 
48^Xovs 
£8ilXov 



D. 2. (^r/«£fTo;') iTifiotTov 

3. (irJiJLaiTijv) tTi}i.aTqv 

P. 1. (^Ti/iio^*') 4Tt|IW}JL€V 

2. (^rt/lAfTc) €Tt|ldT€ 

3. (itifJAOV) i'tiy.lAV 



(iiroihTOv) lirowiTOV 
(^o^foj') e-iroCovv 



(^Ji^X^eToc) 48t)Xovtov 

(iSijXoh-tjv) 48T]Xo<iTT]v 

{4871X60 fiey) 48t)Xov|I€v 

{iSrjXdere) IS-qXovTt 

(iS^Xoov) i^\ovv 



PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 



S. 1. (Tt/ido)) Tl\iM 

2. (ri/idijs) Ti|ig,s 

3. (rl/idTj) Ti|i^ 

D. 2. (rlfid-qTov) TijxaTov 

3. (Tlfidr}Tov) TtfidTOv 

P. 1. (rf/idwAtf*') Ttji«|i€v 

2. (rl/idi^rt) TtjJLttTe 

3. (rifiduai) Ti\uaa-K 



(ttoi^tjs) 
(irothj) 

(iroLhjTov) 

{TTOl^tp-Ov) 

(xOf^TJTf) irotf^Tt 
(irof^wci) irOioaL 



1T0l(i> 

ITOtllTOV 
XOlf^TOV 



(577X60)) 8t]Xu 

(577X6TJS) 8nXots 

(SyjXSv) 8tiXoi 

(577X67;to»') B-qXwTOv 

(STjXii^TOJ') 8t)Xwtov 

(^drjXdtijfiev) 8t)X«|I€V 

(8y)X&i}T€) 8t)X»t€ 

(di!jX6o}(Tt) ST|X»<ri- 



385] 



VOWEL VEKBS: CONTKACTED VEKBS 



121 



Active — Concluded 
PRESENT OPTATIVE (see 393) 
S. 1. (rlfj.aol'nv) Ttjitp'tiv (iroL€oi7)v) iroiof-qv 

2. (rlpALoi-q^) Ti|J.cptis (roieo^Tjs) iroiott]? 

3. (Tl^a.oii) TifitpTi (roieofij) irotoCri 
D. 2. (jXiia.oly)Tov) Tifj^Tjroy (roieolTiTOv) ttoioItjtov 

3. (rljMoi^^Tijv) rlp^i^-fiTiiv {iroieoi'^r'nv) TroLOiif}TT]v 
P. 1, (jlfiaoiiifi^v) Tlfi(^T}fiev (iroieoiTjfiev) ttoioItiijxv 
2. (rt/iaofTjTc) TifKfjTjTe (Troteofi^rc) Troioirjre 
3- (rl^aoiTjaav) rljMipTjffav (Troieoiiqffav) Troiolnjffay 



or 

S. 1. (rZ/idot/it) 

2. (rt/wiots) 

3. (Tt/idot) 
D. 2. (xi/idotTo;') 

3. (TlfiOLOiTTJv) 

p. 1, (ylpdot)j£v) 

2. (rl/idotrc) 

3. (Tlfiioiey) 

S. 2. (rf/tae) 

3. (Ti/itt^Tw) 

D, 2. (rZ/AdeTo;') 

3. (rZ/ia^Twv) 

P. 2. (rZ/ideTe) 

3. (Tip.<i6vT(av) 



TCfliflfll 

Tl}J.WTOV 

TlliWT1]V 

TtJi&JJ.€V 

Tt}J.WTt 

TlJiWCV 



TXfxa 

Tt)l^TtD 

Tl}J.aTOV 
TtlJiaTtOV 
TtJlCLTC 



(TToUotfll) 

{yroiiovs) 
{■KOLioC) 
(jrdUoiTOv) 



wo to I fit 
iroLots 

TTOlOt 
TTOIOITOV 

iroioiTi]v 

TTOIOIJMV 

iroioiTfi 
irotoi€v 



(5tj\oo/ijj;) StiXo£t]v 

(57j\oofi;s) Si]XoCtis 

{d'qXooLT}) StiXoCi] 

(5i?\oofi;Toy) drjKoitjTOV 

(^dtjKoOL'^TTJV^ blfKOL'f}Tr}V 

(brikooir}}i£v) drj^olTifiey 

(SijXoo/i^Te) br}\oCi]T€ 

{p7}\oolT}ffa.p) brjKobqffCLv 

or 
(SijXiot/u) 



PRESENT IMPERATIVE 

TToCct 
itomCtu) 



(TTofee) 
(TTOte^Tw) 
{TTOLhrov) 
{Troieirtiiv) 

(TTOt^eTc) 



irowtTov 

irOl€lTCi>V 



(5i;X(iots) 
(SijXdoi) 

(StjXAoitov) 

(S'ljXooiT'ov) 

(^dfjXdotfjLey) 

(Si^X^oire) 

(57jX6oiei') 

(57jXoe) 
(5ij Xo^Tw) 
(^8t}\6€tov) 



dtjKoTfii 
SfjXots 
StjXoT 
811X01TOV 

ST|XotTt]V 

St]Xotjxcv 

BTjXotTC 

StjXoXcv 

8ir|Xov 
8t]Xovt« 

8l]X0VT0V 
StlXoVTCOV 

StjXovTe 



TtfJ.^VT«v (irotedvTiov') iroiovvrov (5ijXo6vt£j;') St|XovvT«v 

PRESENT INFINITIVE 

Ti^v (TToi^eij') TTOiflv (^dtjXdeiv) BtjXovv 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 
(rifjidijjv) Tijitov (ttoUciJv) iroitov (^57}\6ojv) 8i]Xwv 

For the inflection of contracted participles, see 810. Por the infinitive, see 
469 a. 

Attic prose always, and Attic poetry usually, use the contracted forms. 

N. 1. — The open forms of verbs in -aw are sometimes fonnd in Homer. Verbs 
in -€cj often show the uftcontracted forms in Homer ; in Herodotus contraction 
properly takes place except before o and <a. Verbs in -ow never appear in their 
uncontracted forms in any author. 

N. 2. — iroK^cj sometimes loses its i (43) except before o somids. 



122 



CONJUGATION OF 12- VERBS 



[385 



S. 1. (Ti/JtdofjLai) Tijtwjtoi 

2. (rl^Tj, Tlfjidei) ri\).o. 

3. (^rX/J-derai) TtfJiaTai 

D. 2. (Ttfid€<r6ov) Tt|ido-eov 

3. (rlfidecrdov) Tt|ia(r6ov 

P. 1. (jXfiabfieda) Tt(x»(Ji<0a 

2, (rt^ciecr^e) Tt|id(r9« 

3. (Ti/iaO^Ttti) Tl|l«VTai 



Middle and Passive 
rresent indicative 
(irociofiai) iroioviJkai 

{iroiieTat) irotevTai 



(TTOLha-dov) 
(iroi^ecr^of) 

(7roi€6/Ae^a) 
(7rot^e<r^e) 



iroicto-Oov 
iroL€L(r6ov 

iroioiJ|i€6a 
iroi«C(r9€ 



(Trot^ojTtti) iroioOvTai 



(57;X6(j/iat) 

(Si^Xierai) 

(57;X6€0'^oi') 
(57;X(iecr^oj') 

(J8riko6^0a) 

(5r)\6€(re€) 

(57jX6o»Tai) 



IMPERFECT 



S. 1. {iTXfj.a6fi7}v) 

2. (^Ti/xdou) 

3. (irifjideTo') 

D.,2. {irlfidecrdov) 

P. 1. {iTlfiab^Oa) 

3. (^Ti^Ldorro) 



S. 1. (rr/jw£w;«it) 

2., {rlfidri) 

8, (ri/xaT/rai) 

D. 2. (rt^iiciT/cr^of') 

3. (Tr/idijcr^OJ') 

P. 1; (rlfiadfieda) 

2. (ri/idT^cr^e) 

3. (TtjLfcdiorrai) 



4ti{jlw 

iTlftClTO 
6TL{JLd(r80V 

€TLfiUfJl€8a 



CTipWVTO 



TLfi,a)|xai 
TijiLa 

Ti^dcrBov 
Tt(jid(r9ov 

Tl}IC&{JL€9a 

Tijtd<r0€ 

Tl|i«VTai 






C'IF0l01Li]l,1)V 

cirolov 
liroiciTO 

eiroitto-flov 

^iroioti^da 

cirouio-Oc 

eiroiovvTO 



PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 

(^iroiicjfiaL^ iroiu|jLaL 

(iroi^Tj) iroirj 

(iroi^T^Tat) iroiflTai 

(^TTOi^TjaBov) iroifio*9ov 

(TroL^tiddov) irotfjcflov 

(TToicii^e^a) TTOiupcda 

(TToi^tjaOe) iroifjo-Bt 

(Troi^wvrat) iroLuvrai 



{id7}\6ov) 
(^Si^Xdero) 

(iSTjXdea-eov) 

(^577X60 KTO) 



(STjXoT^Tai) 



8iiX.oi 

8TlX.0VTttl 

StiXotjctOov 
BuXoCo-Oov 

Si]XoVi^€6a 

8t|Xo€o'6« 

Si^XovvTai 



l8i)Xovp.i[iv 
ISi]Xov 

ISl^XoVTO 

€8T}Xo€<r6ov 

^811X0 vo-di^v 

l8T)Xov|J.E6a 
€8i[)Xoti{r6€ 

€8t]XoVVT0 



8i]Xtofiai 

StiXoE 

&r|XtDTaL 

8iiX»<r9ov 
8i[iX(oo-8ov 

8'qX(ofji£8a 

8T|X«<r8e 

8't}XibvTai 



PRESENT OPTATIVE 

S. 1. (Tl^olfitjv) Tt(A<[i|jniv {7roi€oLfi7}v) Troio£|Jii]V {drjXoolfirjtf) Zr{Ko(]kr\v 

2. (TLfidoio) Ttjtwo (ttoUolo) iroioio (517X60*0) 8i)XoiO 

3. (rlfldoiTo) TlfJLWTO {vot^OLTo) TTOIOITO (57]\6oLTo) 8llXoiTO 

v. 2. (^TifidoiaOov) Ti(i«o-8ov (iroi^oLadov) iroiot<r8ov {5r}\6our6oi>) 8iiXoio-dov 

3. (TTfj.aola-$7}v) Tifi,tt»o-8Tr)v (TroLeoladtjv) iroioi<r8T|V (drjXooLffdrjv) Zrii\oi<rBr\v 

P. 1. {rifiaoifxcda) Ti|JLtt)(A€8a (Troieolfieda) TTOKoiyiiQa (dtjXoolfuda) 8T|Xo£(A«8a 

2. {Ttfidoiade) Tt(i^<r8e (TroiioiaBe) iroioto-Be (d-qXootaOe) 8nXoi<r9e 

3. (^TlfldotVTo} Tl(A^VTO (iTOt^Oi^o) TTOlotvTO {SfjXSoLVTo') BllXotVTO 



38?] 



VOWEL VERBS: COXTKACTED VERBS 



123 



Middle and Passive — Concluded 



PRESENT IMPERATIVE 



S. 2. 
3. 


(rlfidov} 
(rTfiaiaOoi') 


TlfitS 


(iroieiaBia') 


iroioii 
iroicCo-Ou 


(S7,\6ov) 


811X0O 
StiXovo-Ou 


D. 2. 

3. 




TijiacrOov 
Ti|iao-0a)v 


(iroLiccrdov) 


iroieio-0ov 
iroida-Bdiv 




8iiXov(reov 
BiiXowOtDv 


P. 2. 
3. 






(iroLicffde} 


iroictcrSc 
iroietcrOeov 


(SiqXoiaduv) 


811X0 Oo-Oc 
8iiXovo-6<ov 



PRESENT INFINITIVE 

(ri/iidefr^ai) Ti|J.ao-dai (■7roi^e<r6at) iroitttrBai (^S^tjXdea dai) 8iiXovo-0ai 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

(jlfxa6fX£voi) TijiwjLcvos (Trotei/iei'o?) iroiovfwvos (677Xo6fi€TOs) Si^Xov^cvos 



386. Examples of Contracted Verbs. 

1. Verbs in -aw : 

diraTdti) deceive (dirdTi} deceit) 
Podw shout (/So-)} shout) 
[wXeTdti) practise (^cX^ttj practice) 
viKd<a conquer (dKtj victory) 

2. Verbs in -ew : 

dStKt'w do wrong (SlSikos unjust) 
PoiiOetD assist (^07jd6^ assisting) 
Koa-\iita order (ndeijo^ order) 
\Li(r4<>> hate (fiicros hate) 



opfidw set in motion (opfi-r] impulse) 
TTcipdoiJiaL attempt (Trapa trial) 
TcXewTdo) finish (reXewri^ end) 
ToX(id(i) dare (rdXfxa daring) 



otK€'a> inhabit (oIkos house^ poetic) 
TToXcfK'w make tear (roKcfios loar) 
«J>0ov€'(i» envy (<pd6uos envy) 
<J>iX€'a> love (<pl\os friend) 



3. Verbs in -ow : 

d^iou think worthy (d^tos worthy) Kvpow make valid (Kvpoj authority) 

SovXoo) ensZaue (SoOXos sZaue) To\^]i.6(ii make an enemy of {irdXefios war) 

IX€'u6€p6a> sei /ree (^XeiJ^e^s /i^ee) o-T€«|>av6ci) crown (crT^<pavos crown) 

Jvydto put under the yoke (^try&v yoke) Tairtivdo) humiliate (raTreiris humbled) 



387. Principal parts of Contracted Verbs. 

Tl|JLda> Tip.irio-0) Irfixiio-tt TtrtfjiiiKa TCTtix-qimi irl\i.'ffir\v 

6i]pda) Oiipao-« l9^pao-a TtO^ipaKa T€6T|pa[JWii lOTipaGiiv 

iroieto TTOL'^io-ai lTroiT|o-a ir^TroiiiKa TrcTrotiipiai ^itoit^Qtiv 

8'nX6» SiiXcio-w €8T|Xo)o-a 8€8'^Xti)Ka 8e8TJXft>Hai «8'nXw6iiv 



124 



COKJUGATlON OF 0-VERBS 



L388 



388. 




Synopsis of Tijid-o) honour 




Pj-ea. Act. 


IlTlpf. Act 


Fut. Act. 


Aor. Act. 


Perf. Act. Plup. Act, 


Lid. Ti|i« 


IrtjJLWV 


Tl(11tlO-W 


iTt\i.r\(ra 


TCTiflllKa €T€Tt)JL1^K11 


Sub. Tl)JL» 






TX|iif|<rw 


T€Tl)J.T]Ka)S Si 


Opt. TlflCp'tlV, - 


«|ii 


Tl)lTJO-OL}lL 


Ti)xyj<raL}iL 


T€Tt)JLllKWS fi'l]V 


Imp. tt\ia 






ri fill (TO V 




Inf. Tijiav 




TtJl-^0-€lV 


Tijitjo-at 


T€Tt)JL11K€Vat 


Par. TLfiwv 




TI)1T|0-<0V 


Ti)iiti<ras 


T€Tl)lT]K(6s 


Mid. 


Pass. 


MkUlIe 


, Middle 


Mid. Pass. 


Ind. TtjicS|JLaL 


lTl|JtWJJL111 


' Ti)i-^(ro|iai 


€Tt(1110-d|111V 


T€Tt|jLii|JLai Itctiixtjijliiv 


Sub. TlflWJlOL 






TLix-^o-to^ai 


T€Tt|JL11)JL^V0S W 


Opt. Tl}l<p)111V 




Tijiiio-oCjjtiiv 


Ti)iT|<rai)JLiiv 


T€Tl}JLt]fJLlvOS €tT|V 


Imp. Ttfiw 






TljJLii<raL 


T€Tt|JL11(rO 


Inf. Tr)xdo-9aL 




Tt)iif|(r€<r9ai 


Ti)ii^<r«ur0at 


T€TX(iii(r0ai 


Par. Tt|i<ifi€vo< 




Tt|1110-6}I.€V0S 


Tl|ll]<rd|l€VOS T€TL|111)l€VOS 






Passive 


Passive 


Fut. Perf. Pass. 


Ind. 




TLji-qeiio-ojtat 


€Tijl^BllV 


T€Tijtyj<ro|iaL 


Sub. 






TL|11]B« 




Opt. 




TLiiiiBiio-oiiiiiv 


TtJJLIlBeLTlV 


T€Tl|JtTl(ro£}111V 


Imp. 






TlJf^BllTL 




Inf. 




TLJJLT]01^<r€O-0ai 


TtJJL1]0fivat 


T€Tr|jtifi(r€o-0aL 


Par. 




TL|i'r]B'r](r6)jL€vos 


TlJJLTjBtlS 


T€TlJlTl<r6|JL€V0S 




Verbal adjectives: 


TLJJLllTdS, Tr)171Tt'oS 


389. 




Synopsis of 


0Tipd-w hunt 




Pred. Act, 


Impf. Act 


. Fut. Act. 


Aor. Act. 


Perf. Act. Plop. Act, 


Ind. 0Tjpw 


IBiipav 


0Tipa<ra> 


€0^pa<ra 


T€0TlpttKa 4T€0T]paK11 


Sub., Btipui 






0ilpao-oj 


T€BtlpaKtl)S u 


Opt. etipwTiv, - 


tOflt 


BTipa<roi|iL 


BtipatraLjjLL 


T60iipaKws rf-qv 


Imp. e^pa 






0Tipa<rov 




Inf. Btipctv 




0Tipao-€iv 


Btipdo-ai 


TcBripaK^vai 


Par. 011 p«v 




Brjpao-wv 


0iipa<ras 


T€BT|pdKc6s 


Mid. 


P.ass. 


Middle 


Middle 


Mid. Pass. 


Ind. 0iipw(iaL 


l0Tipw(JLTiv eiipa<ro|iat 


€Biipa<rd)iiiv 


T€0T|pa|iai lT€0Tipa|niv 


Sub. Br\pS>\i.ai 






BT|pa<ra>|xaL 


Te0T|pd}icvos u 


Opt. etiptoVriv 




Q'f\pa.<roi\Lt\v 


6iipa<raC|tTiv 


T€BT]pa|X€vos ttiiv 


Imp. 0iipc5 






B-^pao-OL 


T€0'^pa(ro 


Inf. 9iipa<r0at 




0T]pao-€(r0ai 


0ilpd<rcurBat 


T€0iipd<r0ai 


Par. Biiptijitvos 


0iipa<r6}i€vos 


B-qpao-dfJievos TeBT^pajievos 






Passive (late) 


Passive 




Ind. 




[6iipa0i^(rojiai] 


IBilpaBiiv 


Verbal adjectives: 


Sub. 






BtipaBb) 


0ilpdT6s 


Opt. 




[0ilpa0ii<ro£jjLiiv] 


BtlpaBttiiv 


0ilpaT^os 


Imp. 






0Tlpa0T]Tt 




Inf. 




[0Tlpa0^<r€<r0ai] 


0Tlpa0fivat 




Par. 




[0'npa0Ti(r6fi€vos] 0Tipa0€is 





39i] 



VOWEL VERBS: CONTRACTED VERBS 



125 



390. 


Stnopsis of iroi€-a» make 






Pres. Act, Impf. Act. 


Fut, Act. 


A or. Act. 


Perf. Act. Plup. Act, 


Ind. 


iroLw liroCovv 


irOLTio-aj 


^iroCiio-a 


TTCiroiiiKa lireiroi'^Kii 


Sub. 


iroiw 




iroi-^<ra> 


irtirotiiKws a 


Opt. 


TTOtoCnv, -Oljl.1 


'iroi'ii<rot}i.i 


iroi^o-atji.i 


'ir€ironiKa)S etiiv 


Imp. 


TTOUt 




TTOtllO-OV 




Inf. 


TTOWIV 


TTOlTJCrttV 


irouTio-ai 


irciroiiiK^vaL 


Par. 


TTOltav 


TroiTi<ra>v 


TTO 111 eras 


•ir€'iroi'!iK«s 




Mid. Pass. 


Middle 


Middle 


Mid. Pass. 


Ind. 


iroioi)|iai ciroiovfiiiv 


'iroi'^<ro|iat 


liroiii<rd|iiiv 


ir€iroii]nat eire-iroi-^^jLiiv 


Sub. 


iroiw^jiai. 




iroi^o-^iiat 


ireironijJLevos w 


Opt. 


TTOioCiiiiv 


'rroiT\(roi\i.r\v 


irotii<rai(jLiiv 


'ir«'ironin^vos etiiv 


Imp. 


TTOtOV 




'jToii]<rai 


ireiroltio-o 


Inf. 


TTOwio-eai 


irot^ireo-eai 


iroi'^o-acrflat 


•ir£iTOiTio"0at 


Par. 


TTOtoiifievos 


TTOi-ricrbiievos 


TTOiiio-a^jLevos 


ire-iroii]|j,4vos 






Passive 


Passive 


Fut. Pttrf. JPasB. 


Ind. 




iroiT)6^<ro|iai 


liro 1^011 V 


ircirOLiicrofjLat 


Sub. 






'iroi-i]B<a 




Opt. 




TTO 111611 crotHTiv 


TTOtllBttllV 


'ir«'iroLi]crot}i.iiv 


Imp. 






iro 111011 Ti 




Inf. 




iTOi-q^a-io-Ba.i 


TrotT]0iivaL 


irtTTOLijo-eo-Oai 


Par. 




'iTon\Bt]<r6\iivo^ 


iroiTidtts 


irciroiTio-ojJLevos 




Verbal adjectiyes : iroiTiTds, ironiTeos 


391. 


Stnopsis of t€X< 


i-ca complete 


. 




Pres. Act. Impf. Act. 


Fut. Act. 


Aor. Act. 


Perf. Act. Plup. Act. 


Ind. 


TcXw tTcXoDV 


TcXoi (reX^cro), 488) IreXeo-a 


TeWX«Ka cTCTcXeKii 


Sub. 


TCXW 




T€X«'o-a> 


TtTtXtKWS W 


Opt. 


TCXOITIV, -Ot|Il 


TtXoClJV, -Ol|It 


T€X^<rai|ii 


T€T€X«Ka)S ttrjv 


Imp. 


Tikfl 




TcXeo-ov 




Inf. 


TeXeiv 


T€X«IV 


T€X€'o-at 


TCTcXticevat 


Par. 


TtXwv 


TiXav 


TcXtVas 


T€T€X<K(dS 




Mid. Pass. 


Middle 


Middle 


Mid. Pass. . 


Ind. 


TcXoO^jiai lTeXoi)ji,iiv 


f TcXoiifiai 


|TeXe(rtt|iT)v 


TtTeXto-jiot €T€T€Xecrjiiiv 


Sub. 


TeXwfitat 




T€Xca-a)|iai 


T€T£X«(rpivos S> 


Opt. 


T€Xoi|I11V 


rtkoi\i.'T]v 


T€X€<raC(jLiiv 


T€T€X£(r(JL^VOS ih]V 


Imp. 


TcXoi) 




T&iitrai 


T€T€X€<rO 


Inf. 


T€X£icr0ai 


rtXiia-Bai 


T£X€o-ao-0ai 


T€T£X«V0ai 


Par. 


T€XoV(I£VOS 


T€XoV}JL€VOS 

Passive 


TcXeo-djjLcvos 

Pafisive 


TCTcXeo-^jLevos 


Ind. 




T€X«cr6itio-ofittt 


It€X^o-6tiv 


Verbal adjectives: 


Sub. 






TcXeo-eoi 


TcXcCTTDS 


Opt. 




T€X€crOTnroC)jtTiv 


TeXco-OciTiv 


TcXtCTTtOS 


Imp. 






T€X^cr0T]Tl 




Inf. 




TcXco-e-^o-eo-eai 


TcXeo-eiivat 




Par. 




T€X€(r0no-6p.evos 


T€X€<r0€lS 





126 



CONJUGATION OF O-VERBS 



[392 



392. 1 


Synopsis of 


8i)X6-a> manifest 


Pres, Act. Itnpf. Act. 


Fut. Act. 


A or. Act. Perf. Act. Plup. Act. 


Ind. Zy\\& iS-^Xovv 


8i]Xt&<ra> 


48irjX<i><ra StS-^XwHa €8€8i]Xwkt) 


Sub. 8ti\« 




8'qX(&(rw 8€8iiXo)Ku>s 


Opt. 8tiXo£tiv, -oi|ii 


StiXwo-oijii 


8i]X«(rai}j.L ScStiXqkws (I'l^v 


Imp. S^Xov 




Zi\\it>crov 


Inf. StjXovv 


8tjX«o-€lv 


S-qXwo-ai 8e8i|XuKevaL 


Par. 8i]X«v 


StiX(£>o-«v 


8i]XJKras S€8i|Xfl>K<i>s 


Mid. Pass. 


Middle 


Middle Mid. Pass. 



Ind. 8T)Xovp.aL €8t]Xou}JkT]v 8t)X(i^<ro|iai 

(asi)ass., 809) 
Sub. 8TiXw}i.ai 

Opt, BrjXotfMjv Si|Xa)o-o£p.iiv 

Imp. 811X00 

Inf, 8i)XoGo-6ai 8i]Xwo-«o-6ai 

Par. 8iiXoujjt€vos Sif]Xa)o-6p.evos 



8€8i]Xo)|jLevos u> 

8e8'f|Xwo-o 
8€Si]Xwo-6ai 

S€8lf]X«Ji,€V0S 



Ind. 

Sub. 

Opt. . 

Imp. 

Inf. 

Par.' 



Passive 
S-qXwO-^o-ojJiai 



Passive 



Fut. Perf. Pass. 



€8iflX^9i|v ScS'qXticrop.at 

S-qXtDOw 

8T}Xa>6i|0-o({JiT]v 87]Xa)6eiT|v S€Si)Xa>a-o£p.i|v 

8t|X»9t|tl 

8i]X«a0^(r£(r6aL 8i]X<i>6fjvaL SfSi^Xucrco-Oai 

BtiXwBiio-oiwvos 8ifiXti>6€LS 8€8i(iXa>cr6jMvos 

Verbal adjectives : 8tiXwt6s, 8if]X«T€os 



REMARKS ON THE CONTRACTED VERBS 

393. In the present optative active there are two forms : (1) that 
with the modal sign -tj;^-, having -v in the 1 sing.^ and -aav in the 3 p). ; 
(2) that with the modal sign -l-, having -fn in the 1 sing., and -ev in 
the 3 pi. The first form is more common in the singular^ the second 
in the dual and plural. 

Tifiwiiv (rarely rcfiQ^), ti^utov (rarely TlpL<^'nroy)^ TiHLwjiev (rarely rifn^vf^ev) ^ 
iroioiTiv (rarely 7roio?/it)i wotoiTOv (rarely •troiQl-qrov'), -n-oiotiKv (rarely troiol-qft^v) ^ 
hr^oly\v (rarely t-qholpn)^ StiXoitov (rarely h-ffKoi-qrov) , Sr^XoLfitv (rarely briXol-qfj.^v) . 

394. Ten verbs in -aw show 7; where we expect a. These are Sti^w 
tklrstf ^w Uvej Trew^ hunger^ kv scrape, vt^ spin (rare), a-fxth tvash, x^*^ 
give oracles, x/>t^ a^'n eciger/or (rare), -xpOi^i use, and \f/l^ rub. See 641. 



399] 



VOWEL VEKBS: CONTRACTED VEKBS 



127 



395. ^ui live and -xp^fiai use are inflected as follows ia the present 
indicatiYe, sulDJ-anctiYe and imperative and in tlie imperfect. 







Indie. 


and Subj. 


Imperative 


Imperfect 


s. 


1. 
2. 
3. 




Xpwfiai 
XPB 

XP^TOl 


tt] XP" 




^xp^i^n*' 
4xp» 

«XpilTO 


D, 


2. 

a 


li\TOV 

Wov 


xp^io-eov 
xp^o-eov 


Jt]Tov xP^''^***' 

tTJTWV XP^<^^«V 


^TiTOV 


ixp*io-eov 

€XP^O-eT|V 


P. 


1. 

2. 
3. 




Xpfifieea 

Xpfia-Bf 

XP<ivTai 

Infinitive: Jiiv, 


t»VTO>V XP^""®*^*' 

, Xpil*r6at Participle : Jwv, 


l?fiT€ 

, XP<i»ievos 


^p(&it€eo 
€XP^o-e« 

IXPWVTO 



396. Katu) burn^ kMIoj weep^ do not contract the forms in wbicli 
appeared (38). Thus, /cdoj, /cdetj, Kdei, Kaofiev, Kaerey KdovoTi. 



has dis- 



-irX^w 




irXcojiev 


i'lrXeov 


ir\e£s 


irXeiTOv 


•irX.€tT€ 


£'!rX€tS 


irXct 


irXciTOv 


ifXt'ovo-t 


^Xct 



397. Verbs in -ew of two syllables do not contract e with o or w. 
The present and imperfect indicative of ttXcw sail are inflected as 
follows. 

l-irXe'ojiov 
iirXcCTOv lirXcvT€ 

l'irX€tTi]v SirXcov 

and so irXco), 'irX«'oi(itj irXct, irXtiv, irXewv, TrX€ovo-a, irX^v. In like manner Ocu 
run^ irvia> hreathe. 

a. 5^w need has Seis, 5€i if is necessary, d^j}, d^oi, SeTy^ t6 d^ov what is neces- 
sary ; d^ofiat leant, request^ has d^et, Seirai, deSfieda, d^cofiau Bat 8du bind is 
nsnally an exception, making 5e?s, Set, Sovfiey, edovy bound, to 8ovv that which 
binds, 6ov/jMi, dovvrai, but Sedfievov, 5^ov ajDpear in some wi'iters. 

b. f^w scrape contracts. jSS^cij, ^^w and rp^o} have lost <r ; ttX^oj, tf^w, ttv^oj 
haye lost i/(/r) ;. 5^0? need is for Seucroj ; 5^w &md is for Seioj. 

398. Two verbs in -ow, tSpow sw?ea^, ptydw shiver, may have w and w 
instead of ov and oi. See 641. 

Thus, indie. plyCi, ply<$Sj plyi^ (or p'lyoi), opt. plyt^Tjy, inf. ^17 wv (or piyovp), 
part. piyQiv. ?<o tSpajcf, opt. iSptifi; (or t5/3oI), part. i5paj;' (or Idpovv). 

a. Xot/cj 4(jas/i, "when it drops its v (43), contracts like 5i;X6w. Thus, XotJoj, 
XoiJeis, XotJei, but \oOfiev (for Xo(i;)o-/i,6f), XoCrt, Xoutrt ; and so in other forms, as 
<Xoi/, XoCrai, Xovtr^ai, Xoi//xefos. 

b. otofiat think (imperfect ipdfnjv) has the parallel forms oJfiat (j^^t^v). 

399. Movable v is never (in Attic) added to the contracted 3 sing. 
imperfect (cTrotct, not IttoUiv). 



128 



CONJUGATION OF O-VERBS 



[400 



I. (C) CONSONANT VERBS 

400. Verbs whose stems end in a consonant are in general inflected 
like non-contracting w-verbs in all tenses. The future active and mid- 
dle of liquid and nasal verbs are inflected like contracted e<t)-verbs. 

401. Liquid and Nasal Verbs : future active and middle of 
<^atVa> sliow. 

Future Active 



Indicative. S. 



Infinitive. 
Participle. 



D. 2 
3 

P, 1 

2 



Optative. S, 



S, 1 
2 
3 

D, 2 

3 

P. 1 

2 



(0awoi7/s) 

(j/paveolTTiv) 

(jpavioiTe) 
(j(pavioL€v) 

or 

{(pavioLTov) 
{ipaveoir-qv) 

{(pav^oLliev) 

{(paviocev) 
{fpavUtv) 



(pavw 
<)>avei: 

<|)aV€lTOV 

<i>av€iTov 

<)>avovp,€v 

<)>avciTe 

<{)avovcrL 

<}>avoCT|v 
<}>avoC't]s 
<|>avoCii 

<)>avolTOv 
<|>avoCTqv 

<|>avoLfjicv 

<)>aVOLT€ 

<)>avOLCV 



<)>avo£|iu 

<)>avots 

<|>avot 

<)>avo£Tov 
<|>avoiTi]v 

<)>avoI}ji€v 

<|>aVOLT€ 

<)>avoiev 
<|>av€tv 



Future Middle 



(0a ^/^ij or-^et) (}>av^ or -€w 
(^<f>avi€Tixt) «|)av€tTai 



(|>avcf(r0ov 
<)>avet<r0ov 

<|>avov}ic0a 

<)>av€b(rdc 

<|>avovvToi 

<}>avoC}iT|v 

<}>avoio 

<|>avoiTo 

<|>avoL(r6ov 
<|>avo((r6T]v 

(^(paveoLfieda) <}>avoC^0a 



(jfpavieaBov) 

(jpavebpueda) 

(ipap^otn-ac) 

(^(paveoifj.rjv) 
(jcjiavioLo) 

(^(pavioiadov) 



{(pavioKTde) 
(<l)av4oivTo) 



<|>avoL<r6c 
<f»avoivTO 



{<f>avi€a6at) <f»avet<r6ai. 



(jpavioiv^ (pOLf^ovtra, <|>avuv, <|)avo-S<ra, (jpavcbjjjeyos^ <|>avov}i€V05, 
<f>aviov) ^avovv ->;, -oi/) -t|, -ov 

(310 ) (287) 



402] 



CONSONANT VERBS: <f>aLv<o 



129 



402. Liquid and Nasal Verbs: first aorist active and middle, 
second aorist and second future j^assive of t^iVw sJioiv, 









1 Aorist Active 


1 Aorist Middle 


2 Aorist Passive 


2 Future Passive 


Ind. 


S, 


1. 


€4)11 va 


i^v6.\LT\V 


^4.dvt,v 


<{)avi^o-0)jLai 






2. 


€4>l]VttS 


c4>^Vb> 


€4.dvtlS 


<|»avT)(rtj, (jjaWjtrei 






3. 


«<i)l]V€ 


i^-fivaro 


44.dvTl 


^avfia-iTav 




D, 


,2. 


€4)1QVaTOV 


k^i[vaa-dov 


c4>dvT]TOV 


4avirio-eo-0ov 






3. 


44)11 vaTT^v 


i^r\vao-Br\v 


€4»av^Tiiv 


4aviio-€O-0ov 




P. 


1. 


44»^vaji6v 


«4>*nvd}jL€6a 


tifidv-qfuv 


<|iavi]O-6jJL£0a 






2. 


e4>if)vaT€ 


t4ti\va<rBt 


€4'ttV'qT€ 


(j>av^€O-0€ 






3. 


Icjiiivav 


€<j»^vavTO 


i^dvr\o-av 


<|iavifjo-ovTat 


Sdbj, 


S. 


1. 


c|>i^vw 


c|>i^vo>}jLai 


^avS> 








2. 


4>^VTis 


4)^VTJ 


4>av^S 








3. 


4>^m 


4>ifv'iiTai 


(|)av^ 






D. 


2. 




4>^VTia-0ov 


<()avf)TOv 








3. 


t|>'^VTlTOV 


4)i]v*r](r9ov 


4>avfiT0v 






P. 


1. 


4)1QV<i>}JL€V 


4>'qvw}JL£6a 


4>av«ji.€v 








2. 


4>^VT1T€ 


^'f\vi\a-B€ 


4)avf)T€ 








3. 


(|>'^V<i><rt 


4>if]va)vTat 


4>av£o-i 




Opt. 


S. 


1. 


4>'^vai}jL<, 


^r\vai]i-T\v 


<f)ave£Tiv 


^avt]a-oi\Lr\v 






2. 


<|)^vais or 4)ifjv€ias (668) 4>^vaio 


<j)av€ttis ' 


^avfi<roio 






3. 


(|)^vai or c|)Vjvei€ (668) 


4)ifjvaiT0 


4>av€iT^ 


<|iavif)o-oiTO 




D. 


, 2. 


4)ifivaiT0v 


c|>t]vaia-0ov 


4>av€iTov or 
(|)av€CtiTOv 


4>aviri<rowr9ov 






3. 


4)TlvaCTHv 


(fn]vaCv-6i]v 


(fiavcCrrfv or 

<f)av€lTJTTlV 


4iavT]<roto-0T]v 




P. 


1, 


4)V*"'''l*^v 


(fii^vaCfAcOa 


.4)av£i}jL€v or 


<|iavt^(ro(|JL€0a 






2. 


c|>^vaiT€ 


c|)^vaia-06 


4)av€iTe or 
4>av€Ci]Tc 


4iav^(roio-0« 






3. 


4>^vai€v or c|>f|v€iav 

(668) 


4>^vaivT0 


4>av€i€v or 
<|>av€£iio-av 


cfiav^o-oivTO 


Imp. 


S. 


2. 


(|>T1V0V 


4>T]vai 


4)dvT]9i 








3. 


4>1]vdT(l> 


4>'nvd<r6o> 


4>avriTw 






D, 


.2. 


c|>TjvaTOv 


<|>^vao-6ov 


<|)dvT|TOV 








3, 


4)11vdT(DV 


4>tfvdo-6o>v 


4»avifiTa)v 






P. 


2. 


4>i^vaT€ 


(|)if)vao-0« 


4.dvTlT€ 








3. 


(fmvdvTwv 


<j)iivdo-0«v 


<f)av€'vT«v 


• 


Inf. 






c|>tivat 


(|>T]vao-0ai 


4>avT]vai 


4iav^io-€(r0at 


Part, 






c|>^vas, -ao-a, 4>»ivav 


4)11vd}JL€V0Si -T 


1, t|)av€Cs, 


cfiavTio-opLtvos, -T], 








(306) 


-ov (287) 


t|)av€to-a, 


-ov (287) 












c|>avcv(307) 






GREEK GRAM. —9 









130 



CONJUGATION OF O- VERBS 



[403 



PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT MIDDLE (AND PASSIVE) 

403. In the perfect and pluperfect middle (and passive) of stems 
ending in a consonant certain euphonic changes (409) occur upon 
the addition of the personal endings. 

404. Several verbs with stems ending in a short yowel retain 
that vowel in the perfect (and in other tenses) ; snch stems originally 
ended in a--, as reXi-a) finish^ from tcXo? end (reXeo--). This o- appears 
in the perfect middle stem (reTeXc-o-'/Aat, TereXc-tr-Tat). In the second 
person singular and plural but one o- is found r rereXe-o-at, reriXe-uOe. 
By analogy some other verbs have a o- at the end of the verbal stem. 

405. In the perfect and pluperfect middle the third person plural 
of stems ending in a consonant or of stems adding o- consists of the 
perfect middle participle with ela-i are (in the perfect) and yjcrav were 
(in the pluperfect). 

406. Perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of XctVo) (AetTr-) 
leave^ ypd<l>o) (ypa<j>-) write f iruBm {irtid-) persuaxle, Trpdrra) {irpdy-) do. 







Perfect Indicative 




s. 


1. XcXcip-p-ai 

2. XAei+ai 
.3. Xi^ciiTTai 


7€7pa|i(iai 
Y^Ypairrai 




irc'ircio-ai 


ir^po^H-ai. 

ircirpa^ai 

ir^'irpoKTai 


D 


. 2. X€Xci(f>eov 
3. X.cX€iit>6ov 


7€-ypai|>6ov 
7€7pa(j>eov 




■n-CTTCia^ov 
■ireireio-6ov 


■n-eirpax^ov 
7r€7rpax9ov 


P. 


,1. XcXcfp-HLcOa 

2. xa€i4>e€ 

3. \cXcip.p.^voi tia-i 


7€7p(l|i|i€ea 
7^7pac|)0€ 


clo-i 


■)r€ir€£(rp.€6a 
ircircio-iJicvoi clcrl 


ir€irp?l'yp.€6a 

ir^irpaxec 
ireirpa'yjt^voi tUrl 






Pluperfect 




S, 


1. IXcXcCfi-iLTiv 

2. IXaci\|/o 

3. IX^CITTTO 


«7«7pa}niTlv 

lY^7pa4/o 

l-Yt^pa-iTTo 




€'ir€'ireto-TO 


l'ir€'irp^'/HT}V 

l7r€7rpa|o 

€Tr€TrpaKTO 


D. 


2. €X€X«i4>eov 

3. €X€X€£4)eriv 


l7^'ypa((>9ov 
^7€7pA4)9r]v 




^ir^ireio-eov 


eireirpaxOov 
iTKirpdxOlv 


l\ 


1. €X€Xci(ip.€6a 

2. ix^€t(j>e€ 

3. X€Xci}L}L^voi T|(rav 


^7€7pdjin€ea 
7€7pan>i^vot 


■QO-av 




€ir€'irpa7|i€ea 

eir^irpax^e 
TTcirpayii^vot -qo-av 



Perfect Subjunctive and Optative 

7€7pa(ip.^vos w ireireicrjicvos w ir€irpa"ypi^vos w 

■ire'irpa7|Ji^vos cTtiv 



XeXciiJi^^vos el'T|v -ye^paiiii^vos €tT]v ircTrtio-p.^vos €i-r\ 



407] CONSONANT VERBS: PERFECT, PLUPERFECT 131 





Perfect Imperative 




S. 2. XcXct^J/o 
3. XeX€i4>6» 


7^Vpa^o 


ir€ir6to-o 
ireir6t(r6» 


weirpa^o 
w«rpax8to> 


D. 2. xa€i4»eov 

3. XcXci({)dti>v 


•y€^pa(|)6ov 
. -yt-ypdcljflwv 


ir^ttcrSov 
ireirc£(rO«v 


irHrpax^ov 
ir€irpax0»v 


P. 2. xai€i<|)e€ 

3. X€X€£(t>da>v 


7€Ypa(|)ee 
7€-ypd<|)0(i>v 




-ir^irpaxec 
ireirpJ^X^"*' 



Perfect Infinitive and Participle 

XcXclcftdai -ye-ypdc^daL ircircCcrdai. irdrpax^ai 

X€X€i|ip.€vos,-ii,-ov 7€-ypap.p.€'vos,-ii, -ov ir€ir6io-p.^vos, -11,-0 V Treirpa-yp-^vos, -i], -ov 



407. Perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of IXcyx"> i'^^^yX') 

confute, d-yyeXXo) (dyyeX-) ann0U7lce, <^atVa) (<^av-) s/lOW, reAeo) (reXe-) 
finish. 



S. 1. iXifjXc^jtai 

2. 4XT|X€'y|at 

3. eXriXt-yKTai 

D. 2. IX^Xe'yxOov 

3. af|X€vx6ov 

P. 1. €XiiX€'7tJL€ea 

2. 4XtiX€yx6« 

3. eXiiXc'y^^voi cto-C 



Perfect Indicative 



TJ-y^eXp-at 
il-yyeXo-at 
•q'yytXTai 

iJYycXfiov 
•q-yyeXOov 

TJ-y-ytXntBa 
•q-yyeXfit 
T|'yy€Xp,4voi iWi 



(ir€'<|)av(rai, 707 a) 
ir^<|)avTat 

'jr^<|)av6ov 
ir€(^av6ov 

irc({)do-p.cda 
'n'c4>ao-p.€voi €to-£ 



T(T€X«-0--pAl 

TiT^€-o-at 

T€T^€-0--Tai 

T(TA.€-crflov 

TIT^C-0-60V 

T«T€X^-(r-p*6a 
Ter€Xc-(r-p.^voi clo-£ 



Pluperfect Indicative 



S. 1. iXiiXc'-yHLnv 

2. eXTiXt-ylo 

3. 4X'<iX€7KTO 

D. 2. IXriXe^xfiov 
3. ^Xi^Xc^x^^v 

P. 1. a-qX^jieea 
2. iXT|X€YX^« 



•ij-yYeXo-o 
ij-yycXro 

•ij"y"y€X0ov 
Ti-yytXQiiv 

ij'yycXSt 



C'ir€(f>do*p.-r]V 
(^ir€<|)avo-o, 707 a) 
i'jr€<|)ai'To ■ 

iiK^idvOiiv 

<'ir£(t>do-}w6a 
€ir^4»av6e 



3. ^Xi]Xe-yp4voi rjo-av TJ'wcXp.^voi rjo-av 'jr6<|)a(rp.€V0t TJo-av 



4-T«T€X^-o--p.iiv 

l-T€T^(-(rO 
l-T€T€X€-O-0OV 

e-TeTcX^-crO-qv 

i-T€TcX«-0--JJLt9a 

TeT€Xc-(r-p,€voi t](rav 



Perfect Subjunctive and Optative 

cXi]Xe-Y|1C'vOS « Ti*y*yeXp.€VOS « 'ir€<|>aO-p,€VOS « TtT€X€0-|JiivOS « 



132 



CO^^JTJGATION OF il-VERBS 



[408 



Perfect Imperative 



s. 2. ^^\€7eo 

3. iXr,\fYXe« 




(Tr^<|>av<ro, 712 a) 
'ir€<|>dv0o> 


T€T€X^-ir0a> 


D. 2. {k-fiKeyxOov 
3. l\r\\i^x^<ov 


•rjfytXOov 
•nfy^0a>v 


•ir4<|>aveov 
'ire<|><iv0o>v 


T€T«X€-<r0OV 

T€T€\4-<r0a>v 


P. 2. af)X€Yxe€ 
3. 4\T]Xfyx«"v 




'ir€<j>Av0«v 


T€T€X€-ir0€ 

T€T€X^-<r0a>v 






Perfect Infinitive and Participle 



T|77€Xfl«VOS, -Ti, 



■n'€<|>dvdaL 
T€<j>aa'pi4vo$, -1], 



T€T€X€-o-9ai 

T€T€X€-<r-pl€VOS, -T], 



EXPLANATION OF THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT FORMS 

408. Tlie perii:)lirastic third plural is used instead of the forms 
derived directly from the union of the stem with the ending. 

Thus, yeypa/x/j.ivoi eial is used for yeypatp-vrai which WOUld become yeyp6.<paTa.i. 
by 35 b, v betweeji consonants passing into a. The periphrastic form is also 
used in verbs adding a to their stems, as rercXe-o-'ju^wt d<jl for r€T€\€-(r-vrai. 
Stems in v that drop v in the perfect system form their perfect and pluperfect 
regularly ; thus, Kpivcj (Kpiv-) judge has Kinpivrai^ ^k^kpivto. 

N. — On the retention of -arai, -aro see 465 f, 

409. Euphonic Changes. — For the euphonic changes in these forms 
see 82-87, 103. 

a. Labial Stems. — \4\eLfji-fjiai is for XcXetff-jnat, XAct^-^oj/ is for XeXctir-o-^o;', 
\4\€i4>e€ is for \€\€Lir-ffd€ (103). In the same manner are inflected other labial 
stems, as Tpt^(o {rpl^-) rub, piwro} (pl-T-) throw : Tirp'ifj^fi.a.L for rerplp-fiat, rh-pl- 
^ot for rcTpi/9-£rat, etc. Stems ending in ^n^ drop ir before /i, but retain it before 
other consonants. Thus, 



ircwefi'ir-fmL becomes ir^irefXfjiaL 
Trerc/iTT-crot " 7r^7rc/i^at 



ir€Tre/xir-fi€6a becomes Treirififieda, 
TreTrefXTT-a-ee " Triir€(x<p0€ (103) 



b. Dental Stems. — iriir€L<j-Tai is for ir^ireie-Tai (88), iriTreicr-eov is for TTCiret^- 
dov (83), TT^TTCKT^e is for ireTreid' ((r)6€ (83, 103). Tbe <7 thus produced was trans- 

409 b. D. Horn, has the original forms irecppadfjiivos, KeKopvdp,€vos. 



411] CONSONANT VERBS: PERFECT, PLUPERFECT 133 

f erred to the first persons ir^iriia/Mn, ir^ireicixtdo. (8C>, 87). Like ir^Treia/iai, 
etc., are formed and inflected ifeva^i from fei/5w (^euS-) deceive^ v^cppaij/jLai 
from (fipd^ia ((f}paS~) declare, ^o-TreianaL (100) from air^vSu) {<nr€v5-) pour a 
libation. 

C. Palatal Stems. — wh-pa^ai is for ireirpajy-cai (97), ir^irpdKTai is for ireTTfdy- 
rat (82a), TT^pax^e is for TreTrpay-ade (103), Like Tr^irpayfiaL are inilected 
ttX^kw (irXe/c-) weave TritrXey-fxai, dyio (dy-) lead ^y/Mit, dXAdrru (dXXay-) ez- 
change ijWay/JULi^ rapdrro} (rapax-) COn/use Terdpay/xaL. Stems in -yx cbaiigu 
X before fx to y and drop one 7 (as in A^Xey-ptat for iXrjXeyy-fxai^ 85 and 
85 b), but keep the second palatal before otber consonants (as in AiJXey^ai 
for ^X-qXeyx-cat, 97 ; iX-ffKeyK-Tai for iX-qXeyx-rai., 82). On tte reduplication 
see 446. 

d. Liquid and Nasal Stem.s. — Stems in X or p are inflected like ^YyeX/wii, 
as a-rfKXcj (erreX-^ crraX-) send ea-TaXfjM.L, atpo) (dp-) raise ^pfuu, iyelpoi (iyep-) 
wake tr-fiyepfxai (440). Stems in v retaining tlie nasal are inflected like w^4>aa-/xai, 
as a-Tjfxalvoj (ffTjfjLav-') Signify aea-^ixaa-fxai. (For -<Tfxai see 94 a and b.) Stems 
in V dropping the nasal (669 a) are inflected like X^Xvuai, as Kptvc^ (Kpiv-) judge 
K^Kpi/xau 

e. Vowel Stems adding <r. — Here the stem ends in a vowel except before 
fx and T ; thus, rer^Xe-crai, TeTiX^-ffOov, reT^Xe-cde : but reriXe-ff-fitLL^ TeTeX^-tr-ixe^a, 
T€TiX€-a--Tai. 

N. — Since the stem of reXioj is properly reXeff- (reX^fr-jtw, 624) , the original 
inflection is TereXecr-crat, whence TCT^Xe-ffai (107) ; rer^Xcff-Tou ; T€T€X€a-<r6ov^ 
T£T€X€(r-<r6€, whence r^riXtadov^ rer^Xeffde (103), TeriXecr fxai and rereX^a-fJieda are 
due to the analogy of the other forms. 



410. The forms iri^^avo-at, ^ir^^artro, and ir^^o.vffo are not attested. Op. 



707 



411. The principal parts of the verbs in 406^07 are as follows 



ctYY^XXtt) announce (d-yyeX-), olyy^Xw, 

T]-yY"^<^) TiW^^KO-i 'nYy'^t^**^) T|77€\- 

Qr\v, 
'ypd4>(i> lorite (-ypa^)-), "ypd\|/a), e-ypa^l/a, 

■ye7pa<|>a, yiypa}^.^Lal, 2 aor. pass. 

I'ypd<|>ir|v. 
iXiyX^ confute (^X^YX-)) ^^^'yI") "n^^Yl*? 

X«t'ir» leave (Xwr-, Xtiir-, Xoiir-), X€C\|/«, 
2 perf. X«Xonrtt, X4X€L)]i)xai, EXeC({>6T|v, 
2 a. tXwrov. 

TTilBta persuade (iriO-, ireiO-, iroiO-), 
Tr€C(r«, «r««ra, 1 perf. ircireiKa / have 



persuaded^ 2 perf. ire'iroiOa / trvst, 

ireireio-fjtcti, ^ttcio-Otiv, 
irpaTTto do (irpttY-), irpa^o), €Trpa^a, 

2 perf. •ir€'irpa7a I have fared and 

/ have done., ir^pa'YiJi.ai, ^irpaxB-qv. 
TcXcoo finish (rcXt-o--), rtXto, Ir^eo-a, 

T€T«'\€Ktt, T«T€X«0-}iai, 4t€X€0-6i1V. 

c|>aCvti) s7iow(<|>av-), <|>av», «<|>'i]va, Iperf. 
'ir€<|>a'yKa Ihave shown^ 2 perf. ir€4>'iiva 
I haxie ajypeared^ ir^ao-fiai, €<t>dv6ifiv 
I was shown, 2 aor, pass. i<|>dvifiv I 

appeared. 



134 COJ^JUGATION OF MI-VERBS [412 

CONJUGATION OF JJLl-VERBS 

412. The conjugation of /At-verbs differs from that of a>-verbs 
only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist a.ctive and middle ; 
and (rarely) in the second perfect. The /xt forms are made by 
adding the endings directly to the tense-stem without any thematic 
vowel, except in the subjunctive of all verbs, and in the optative of 
verbs ending in -vufit. 

413. Verbs having second aorists and second perfects of the 
/jLt form are, as a rule, w-verbs, not /At-verbs, in the present, Thas, 
the second aorists : eftrfv (^atVo) go), eyvojv (ytyvolo-Ka) know) ; the 
second perfect : riOva^tv (OvyJo-ko) die), 

414. There are two main classes of /xt-verbs. 

A. The root class. This class commonly ends in -rj-fit or -oi-fxt 
(from stems in e, a, or o). The present stem is usually reduplicated, 
but may be the sajne as the verb-stem, which is a root. 

Verb-stem Present Stem Present 

Oe-, Orj- riBe-j ti$7}- (for OtOe, OtOt}, 125 a) TiOrjfxL place 

€-, ■^' te-j trj- (for crtcre, crtcrrj) l-q^ii Send 

crra-j o-ryj- ttrra-, tcrrT/- (for (ncrraj (rtaTTj, 119) Icrrrffxi set 

So-f Sw- StSo-, StSa>- St^a)/At give 

<f)a-j <l>r}- <fMr, <j>rj- <f)7jfML say 

' B. The -vvfu class. This class adds w (vv), after a vowel vw (wv), 
to the verb-stem. In the subjunctive and optative regularly, and 
sometimes in the indicative, verbs in -vvfxi are inflected like verbs 
in -0). 



3rb-stein 


Present Stem 


Present 


SetK- 


SetKvu-, Sei/cvij- 


SetKW/xt show 


t,€vy- 


^evyvv-, t^cvyvv- 


^evyvvpi yoke 


Kepa- 


Kepawv-, Kepawu- 


Kepavvvpi mix 


hy- 


prjyvv-, pTjyvv- 


priyvvp^L break 


<rySe- 


a^ewv-f (T^evvv- 


aj^evvvpi extinguish 



C. There are some (mostly poetic) verbs in -y-niju^ which add m-, vt]- to form 
the present stem j as ddjj^vq-yj. I subdue, 5a.ix-va-fxev we subdue. 

415. All the possible fii forms do not occur in any single verb. Tidrjfii 
and 5I5w/u are incomplete and iiTegular in the second aorist active ; and e<r^7)v 
went out from a-^iwvfii is the only second aorist formed from w/xi-verbs. 
iwpidfjLTjy I bought, second aorist middle (from the stem Trpta- with no present), 
is given in the paradigms in place of the missing form of IVrTj/x* ; and edvv 
I entered from 56w (but formed as if from 5vfii) in place of a second aorist of the 
yy/ii-verbs. 



4i6] 



CONJUGATION OF rt'^i^/xt, tari^/xt, StSw/xt 



135 



416. (A) Root Class. — Inflection of riOrjfit 
give, in the present, imperfeetj and second 
CTTpta/xijv / bought. 



place, tcTTjfit sety StSwjuit 
aorist tenses ; and of 







Active 








Present Indicative 




S. 1. 
2. 
3. 


Tt-dti-jj-i 


t-O-TTl-O-t 


SU8a)-o-L 


r>. 2. 


TC-Bt-TOV 


t-OTa-TOV 


81-So-TOv 


3. 


tC-9€-tov 


i-o-ra-Tov 


8U80-TOV 


P. 1. 

2. 


tC-0€-JX€V 
tC-0€-T€ 


l-O-Ta-JMV 

i-o-Ta-Tt 


St-8o-}wv 
8£-8o-T€ 


3. 


Ti-Ot-ao-i 


i-o-rdo-i 
Imperfect 


8L-86-d<rt 


S. 1. 
2. 
3. 


^-T£-e«is (74610) 


i;-<rTTj 


l-8t-Sovv(7461)) 

I-8C-80VS 

I-8C.80V 


D. 2. 


I-t£-0€-tov 


£-oTa-Tov 


l-8£-8o-Tov 


3. 


€-Tl-6€-TI)V 


i-o-ToL-niv 


{-Bi-Bo-n^v 


P. 1. 
2. 


e-T£-e€-|Wv 

C-Tt-et-Tt 


t-o-Ta-jicv 

if-0-Ta-T€ 


l-8£-8o-j«v 
|.8£-8o-T€ 


3. 


€-T£-e€-<rav 


if-CTTa-o-av 

Present Subjunctive 


^.B£-8o.(rav 


S. 1. 


Ti-eoi 


i-0-T« 


8i-S« 


2. 
3. 


Tl-Ofi-S 

Tt-efi 


i-o-Tg-S 


8i-8»-s 


D. 2. 


Tt-6T]-T0V 


l-O-TIJ-TOV 


8i-8»-Tov 


3. 


Tl-6fi-T0V 


t-O-Ttj-TOV 


8i-8«-Tov 


P. 1. 
2, 
3. 


Tl-ew-}l€V 
Tl-9fi-T€ 

Ti-e«-<ri 


l-C-TTl-T€ 

i-(rT»-<ri 

Present Optative 


Sl-8(0'}1CV 
8t-8«-T€ 

8i-8»-<ri 


S. 1. 
2. 
3, 


Tl-6€Ct]-V 


l-0-TaiT)-V 

l-o-Tatii-s 
i-oTaCi] 


Si-8oCi]-v 
Sl-8o£ii-$ 
Si-8o£ii 


D.2. 


Tl-6€l-TOV 


L-O-Tttl-TOV 


8l-8ot-TOV 


3. 


Tl-0€£-T11V 


l-OTai-TTJV 


6l.-8oC-TT]V 


P. 1. 
2. 


Tl-9€C-T€ 


l-trTal-\L€v 
i-a-ral-Tt 


Si-8oi-}icv 
8i-8ol-Te 


3. 


Tt-e€W-V 


i-a-raU-v 


6i-8ol€-v 



136 



> 


CONJUGATION OF MI- VERBS 








Active — Concluded 








Present Optative 




D, 2. 

3, 
P. 1. 

2. 

3. 


or (750) 

Tl-0€tll-TOV 
Tt-0€t^-TllV 
Tl-0€(l]-(l€V 
TI-0€Ct]-T€ 

Ti-0€tii-<rav 


or (750) 
Uo-TaiTi-TOv 

l-0-Tai^-TT]V 

l-o-rat-q-TC 
l-o-Tai-q-o-av 


or (750) 
8t-8o('ri-TOv 
81-801-^ -rriv 
8i-8o('q-^v 
8i-So£ii-T€ 
8i-8oC-q-a-av 


S. 2. 
3. 


TC.0€t (746 b) 

Tl-Qi-Tta 


Present Imperative 

l-O-TT) 

i-o-Ta-Tw 


8£-8ov 
8i-86-Ta) 


D. 2. 
3. 


tC-06-tov 

Tl-0€-T»V 


i'-o-ra-TOv 

l-O-TO-TiUV 


8t-8o-TOV 

8i-86-TO)v 


P. 2. 
3. 


Tl-0€-T€ 
Tl-0^-VT<UV 


t-o-Ta-TC 
i-<rTa-vT«v 


8C-8o-T€ 

8i-86-vr»v 



[416 



Present Infinitive 



Ti-0€-vat 



i-o-Ta-vai 



Present Participle 
Ti-0€ts, -€t<ra, -€v (307) i-o-ras, -aca, -dv (306) 



8i-8d-vai 



8i-8ovs» -oOo-a, -ov 



(307) 









Middle and Passive 










Present Indicative 




s. 


1. 
2. 


Tt-0€-|j.at 
Ti-6€-(rai 


I'-o-ra-iiat 
i-o-ra-o-ai 


8£-8o-H.ai(747f) 
8(-8o-o-ai 




3. 


Tt-0€-Tai 


t-o-Ta-Tat 


8C-8o-Tai 


D. 


2. 


Tl-et-O-Oov 


I'-o-ra-o-Oov 


8i-8o-o-eov 




3. 


Ti-0€-(r0ov 


lL-o-Ttt-<r0ov 


8C-8O-O-0OV 


P. 


1. 

2. 


Tt-0€-jji€ea 

T£-0€-(r0€ 


i-o-Td-^€0a 
l'-o-Ta-o-0€ 


8i-86-pL€0a 
8t-8o-o-0€ 




3. 


Tt-0C-VTai 


i-o-ra-vrai 


8£-8o-vTai 


S. 


1. 

2. 


e-Tt-0€-|j.'qv 
l-T£-0€-<ro 


C-o-Td-jt-qv 
i!-(rTa-<ro 


|.8t-86-H.iiv(747f) 
I-8C-80-O-0 




3. 


4-TC-e€-T0 


t-o-ra-To 


€-8t-80-T0 


D. 


2. 


€-tC-0€-o-0ov 


If-o-ra-orOov 


^8C-8o-o■eov 




3. 


l-Ti-Oc-o-e-qv 


i-(rTei-o"07)v 


4-8i-86-o-8tiv 


P. 


1. 
2. 


4-Ti-0€.(i€0a 

l-Tt-0€-(r0€ 


i-o-Td-jt€0a 

l-O"Tet-O"0€ 


4-8i-86-(i€0a 
€-8£-8o-(re€ 




3. 


€-Tl-0€-VTO 


L-CTTei-VTO 


€-8t-8o-VTO 



4i6] 



CONJUGATION OF TiOTjfxt, l^r-q^i, StSto/ju 



137 



Middle and Passive — Concluded 









Present Subjunctive 




s. 


1. 


Ti-6w-|iai 


l-crTw-|iai 


8i-8u-}jLaL 




2, 


Ti-e^ 


t-CTTT) 


8i-S^ 




3. 


Tt-0T]-Tai 


t-crrfj-Tai 


8t-8«-Tat 


D. 


2. 


ti-6ti-o-0ov 


U(rTii-(r6ov 


8i-8«-o-9ov 




3. 


Tt-0T]-(r9ov 


t-o-TTi-o-0ov 


8i-8w-{reov 


P. 


1. 


Tt-6«-jjL€0a 


i-o-Ti&-[jLe6a 


8i>8<lo-|jLc6a 




2. 


Ti-eii-(r0e 


t-(rTTi-(r0€ 


8i-8«-<re€ 




3. 


Tt-0w-vTat 


t-o-T«-vTai 
Present Optative 


8i-8w-vTaL 


S. 


1. 


Tt-0€i-|IT)V 


l-0-Tai-|IT]V 


SuSot-HLtiv 




2. 


Tl-0€t-O 


t-o-Tai-o 


81-801-0 




3. 


TL-6€t-T0 


i-OTat-To 


81-801-To 


D. 


2. 


Tt-e€i-<r0ov 


l-aTat-(r0ov 


8t-8oi-o-eov 




3. 


Tt-6€£-0-6t|V 


i-o-Tat-o-0T]v 


8t-8oi-(r6t]v 


P. 


1. 


Tl-0€£-fJL€6a 


L-o-Tai-}jL€6a 


8i-8o£-}JL€6a 




2. 


Ti-0€t-(re€ 


l-o-Tai-o-6€ 


8i-8oi-(re€ 




3. 


Tt-6€l-VT0 

or 


t-o-Tat-vro 


8i-8ot-vTO 


S. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Tl-0€£-|ItJV 
Tl-e€l-0 

Tt-Bot-To (746 c) 






D. 


2. 
3. 


Tl-0Ol-O^OV 
TI-0OI-O-0T1V 






P. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Tt-6o£-|i€0a 

Tt-6oi-0'6€ 
Tt-6oi-VTO 


Present Imperative 




S. 


2. 


t£-0€-o-o 


I-CTOl-ITO 


8t-8o-(ro 




3. 


Ti-e^.(re« 


i-o-rd-o^w 


8i-86-(re« . 


D. 


2. 


Tt-0€-(reov 


It-o-Ta-o-Bov 


81-80-0-eov 




3. 


Ti-ec-o-Gwv 


l-o-rd-o-Swv 


8i-86-cr6«v 


P. 


2. 


Tt-0€-O-6€ 


i-o-Ta-trOt 


8i-8o-(ree 




3. 


Ti-64-(r0«v 


L-o-Td-o-0wv 

Present Infinitive 


8t-86-o-6wv 






T£-e€-(reai 


V-o-ra-o^ai 
Present Participle 


8£-8o-o-0ai 






Tt-0€'-|l€VOS 


i-o-Td-|i€vos 


8l-8d-fl€V0S 



138 



CO^'JUGATION OF Ml- VERBS 



[416 











SeCONB AORIST 














Indicative 










Active 


Middle 


Active 


Middle 


Active 


Middle 


s. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


(geiiKa,755)l-e«-tiilv 

(i'GTiKas) £-0oi) 
(eOiiKe) £.e€-TO 


'i-a-Tti-v Stood €7rpidfjLiiv (415) 

«-<mi-s €T-pLW 
^'-o-Ti^ tuptaTO 


(^8uiKa,755)e-86-HLilv 
(756 b) 
(€5wKas) £-Sou 

(fiSwM) £-So-TO 


D, 


. 2. 
3. 


€-e«-TOV 
£-9€-TT]V 


£-e£-<r6ov 


ii-O-Tll-TOV 


l-TTpia-o-Gov 
€-'Trpid-<r9i[iv 


£-80-T0V 
£-S6-TllV 


£-8o-(r9ov 
e-S6-o-9iiv 


P- 


1. 
2. 
3. 


£-6£-(JL£V 
£-e£-T£ 

€-0€-o-av 


€-d€-HL£da 
£-0£-<re£ 

€-0£-VTO 


£-0-T11-p.£V 
€-<rTll-T£ 


£-'irpLd-ft£9a 

€-Trpta-o-9£ 

£-irpLa-vTo 


€-8o-p.£V 
^-80-T£ 

£-8o-(rav 


£-86-HL€9a 
iE'-8o-o^« 

£'-8o-VTO 




' 






Subjunctive 






S. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


dc5 


6&)-p.aL 

«ti 

011-Tai 


arra 
o-Tg-B 

(TTfi 


'n-pta,-|iai(424,N.2) 8ai 
irpiTi 8«-s 

TTplTJ-Tai 8$ 


8«-fiai 

85 

8»-Tai 


D. 


. 2. 
3. 


Bti-tov 

ef)-Tov 


Br\~<rBov 
Br\-a-Bov 


O-TTl-TOV 
a-Tf\-TOV 


trpir\-frBov 
irpiii-o-Gov 


5tii-TOV 
8«-T0V 


8W-0-90V 
8«-<r9ov 


P. 


1. 
2. 
3'. 


0W-|X€V 
efj-T€ 


0fl-<re€ 
e»-VTai 


<rT»-|16V 

<rTfj-T€ 

OTW-O-L 


'irpid&-p.c9a 
11 piT|-o-9c 
irptu-VTat 


8a»-|X£v 

8a-T£ 

8£i-o-t 


8<6-|i€9a 

8»-<r9£ 

8w-VTai 










Optative 






S. 


1. 

2. 

3. 


e€iii 


0£C-|111V 
9£C-T0, 90L-TC 


a-rair\~v 
o-TaiTj-s 


•rrpiaC-|iT|v 
•rrpiai-o(424,N.2) 

TTpiai-TO 


801T1-V 
8oiTi-s 
8oCti 


8oi-|xiiv 

801-0 

801-TO 


B. 


, 2. 
3. 


Gei-Tov 

8£l-TT|V 


9€t-<r9ov 
9£i-o-9tiv 


o-rai-TOv 

O-TttL-TTlV 


, TTpCai-o-Gov 
T7piai-o-9iiv 


8ot-TOV 
Soi-THV 


8oi-o-9ov 
8ot-o-9iiv 


P. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


e£l-|X£V 
e£t-T£ 

Geu-v 


9£i-|X£9a 
9£L-<r9« 

9€l-VT0 


0-TaL-|X£V 

o-Tai-T£ 

O-TttU-V 


•rrpiaC-(jL£9a 
T7pCai-<r9£ 

T7pCai-VT0 


8oi-|iev 

801 -T£ 

8oi£-v 


8oL-|XE9a 

8oL-<r9£ 

8oi-vTO 






or (758) 


or (746 c) 


or (758) 




or (758) 




D. 


2. 
3. 


eeiTi-TOv 




0-TaCT|-TOV 

o-Taifj-rnv 




8otTl-TOV 

8oi^-Tiiv 




P. 


1. 

2. 

3. 


GcLTj-lxev 

9£LT|-T£ 

96LT|-<rav 


9oLp.£9a 

9oio-9£ 

9otvTo 


<rTaCTi-|i«v 

o-TaLTi-T« 

o-raiTi-o-av 




Soi1]-|X£V 

8oCTi-Te 
8oiT]-o-av 





iJ?] 



COKJCGAtlOK OF riByf^i, turyf^i, khtopn 



189 











Second Aorist- 


— Concluded 














hn^^^er alive 






s. 


2. 


e^-s 


Bov 


o-Tii-01 


irptw 


S6-S 


&0V 




3. 


Oc-TW 


Gt-creo) 


(TTItl-TO) 


irpid-o-Bti) 


86.T« 


86-0-00) 


D. 


2. 


06-TOV 


e«-o-eov 


<rTTJ-TOV 


irpia-o-Bov 


86-Tov 


86-o-eov 




3. 


0e'-T«v 


ec-o-etov 


irTi\-Tti)V 


irpLCL-o-Bwv 


86-T<i>v 


86-o-6«v 


P. 


2. 


ee-T£ 


ec-(rfle 


<rTjl-Te 


Trpia-trBc 


86-Tt 


86-o-ee 




3. 


6e-VTu)v 


ee.o-0«v 


CTTd-VTWV 


irpid-irBtov 


86-VT<i)V 


86-o-ea)v 






ert-vai 


ee.o-6ai 


(TTTi-vai 


irpia-o-Oai 


8ov-vai 


86-<r6ai 



Participle 

6e£s, 6et<ra, 0e-jwvos, ~r\, o-riis, o-rdcra, irpid-jwvos, -il, 
0€-v(3O7) -ov o-Td-v (306) -ov (287) 



8ovs, 8oBo-a, 8d-n.evos, 
86- V (307) -n, -ov 



SECOND PEEFECT OF fiL-VERBS 

417. A few verbs of the /^t class have a second perfect and plu- 
perfect. Only the dnal and plural occur ; for the singular, the first 
perfect and pluperfect are used. The second perfect and pluperfect 
of lo-TTj^L are inflected as follows : 







Second Perfect 










Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 






Imperative 


S. 1. 
2. 
3. 


(2o-riiKa) stand 
(iio-TTiKas) 

(€0-T11Ke) 


e-o-Tto 

4-o-Tfi-s 

e-o-Tfi 


i-a-Tair\-v (poetic) 

l-o-TaCT|-s 

e-o-TttCii 






i-o-Ta-Gi (poetic) 
i-o-rd-Tci) 


D. 2. 


?-o-Ta-Tov 


e-o-Tii-Tov 


e-o-rat-TOv or -aiTirov 


(4Clb) 


€-0-Ta-TOV 


3. 


'e-<rTa-Tov 


e-O-Tll-TOV 


e-o-Ttti-Ttiv or -anfJTtiv 






i-o-rd-Ttov 


P. 1. 


?-o-Ta-jiev 


e-OTtb-|iev 


e-o-Tai-jJLCV or -air\[ufv 








2. 


'i-a-ra-n 


e-o-Tii-T£ 


e-o-Tai-T€ or -al'r\Ti 






i-a-Ta-Ti 


3. 


£-o-Tdo-i 


€-0-TtI)-0-l 


€-o-Tai€-v or -air\<rav 






t-o-rd-vTtov 


Infinitive f-o-rd-vai Participt.e e-o-rtli-s, e-o-rwo-a, 


£-(rr6s (309 a) 



Second Pi^uPEitrECT 
S. 1. (ei<rTT|Kii) stood B. 2. ^-o-ra-Tov P- 1. c-o-Ta-jJicv 



3, €-<rTd~TT(v 
For a list of second perfects of the ni form, see 704-70-5. 



2. («L<rT^K1]s) 

3. (CLO-T^KCI) 



€-0-Ta-T€ 

'i-a-Ta-a-av 



140 



CONJUGATION OF MI-VEKBS 



[418 



418. (B) -vv[Li Class." — Inflection of the present system of ScUvvfjn 
show and of tlie second aorist iSiJv entered. 

Indicative 
Active Middle and Passive Active 

Present Imperfect Present Imperfect 2 Aorist 



S. 1. 
2. 
3. 


8€tK-viJ-|xi (746 a; 
8€tK-vii-cri 


) I-8€(k. 
l-8e£K. 
|.8€£k- 


vv- 
■vij. 
■vu 


-V (746 a) 8€tK-vu-nai I-8€ik-vt&-j«iv 

■S 8€£K-vv-<rai C-8€LK-VU-0-0 

8€lK-VU-Tai €-8€lK-VU-T0 


?-8ii-v (415) 
2-8ii-s 

€'-8v 


D. 2. 
3. 


8€Ck-vv-tov 

8€tK-V1l-TOV 


I-8€IK. 


■vu 


-TOV 8€£K-vtj-cr9ov €-8€£k- 
-rriv 8e£K-vv-o-0ov l-8€tK- 


-vv-(r9ov 


e-8v-Tov 

' f-Zv-TT]V 


P. 1. 

2. 
3. 


8€£k-VV-|1€V 

8CIK-VV-T€ 

8cLK*-VU-aO'l 


I-8€(k. 

€-8€£k- 
€-8€£k. 


VU-JICV 8€lK-VV-|JL€9a €-8ctK- 
VV-Ti hilK-VV-O-Bi €-8€lK- 

vv-o-av 8€tK-vv-vTai I-8c£k- 


-vu-iJt€9a 

■VV-VTO 


€-8\J-|X€V 

e-8iJ-o-av 


S. 1. 

2. 

3. 
D. 2. 

3. 
P. 1. 

2. 

3. 


8€IKVVT1S 
8€IKVV11 
8eiKVVT]TOV 
8€lKviJTlT0V 

8€iKv{ia»)xcv 

8€IKVV1]T€ 
8€tKVlitOO-t 






Subjunctive 

8€tKvvwji,ai 

8€tKVtiTl 
SctKVVTlTai 

8€tKvviicr8ov 

8€LKVVl]Cr9ov 

SciKvv(&|i€6a 

8€lKVVWVTat 






8ila> 
8ii)is 

8iT, 

hvryrov 
8tniT0v 

8'U(l>)XCV 
8ijl]T€ 

8irwcri 


■S. 1. 
2. 
3. 


8€tKviiot|j.i 

8€lKVV0tS 
SciKVVOl 






Optative 

8€lKVVo£^T|V 

8€IKVV010 

SeiKVVOlTO 








D. 2. 

3. 
P. 1. 

2. 

3. 


SciKVVOLTOV 

S€tKVDOlTTlV 

8ciKVVOl|X€V 

8€IKVV01T€ 

8€tKVli0l€V 






8€LKVVOlCr0OV 

S€tKvvo£cr6Tiv 
SciKvvotfLcda 
S€iKviioicr0€ 
SeiKvvoivTO 








S. 2, 
3, 


8€£K--vv(746a) 
8€iK-'vv-Ta> 






Imperative 

SciK-vu-cro 
BtiK-vv-tr9(a 






8€.9i 
8v-T« 


D. 2. 
3, 


8ctK-VU-TOV 
8€IK-VV-T(0V 






SciK-w-crdov 
S€tK-vv-cr9wv 






8i)-T0V 

8v-T«V 


P. 2. 
3. 


ScCk-w-tc 

8€lK-vi-VT«V 






S€£K-VD-cr9€ 
8€tK-vir-o-9wv 






8v-vTa>v 




8€iK-vv-vai (746 


a) 




Infinitive 

8€£K-vv-o-9at 






8i5-vai 


8ctK-vvs -Oo-a, -iv (308, 


, 746 a) 




Participle 

S€lK-VV-Jt€VOS, -1, -OV 




8vs, 8vo-a, 
Biv (308) 



42o] 



SYNOPSIS OF rie-qii-L, laryfXL 



141 



419. 


Synopsis of rLer[\i.i ($€-, dt}-) pla 


xe 




Pree. Act Impf. Act. Fut. Act. Aor. Act. 


1 Perf. 


Act. 1 Plup. Act, 


Ind. Tt6T||it krLBy\v Otio-w €6t|ko 


T€0T]l 


KO €T€6t|KT1 


Sub. T10W 


6(0 


T€0't]Ka>S w 


Opt, riB€ir\v 


Olfjo-OLIIL 6€LT|V 


T60T]KWS iS.J\V 


Imp, Tt0et 


0^ 






Inf. Tie^vat 


Br\trtiv 0€ivai 


TC0T1I 


K^Vttt 


Par, Tt0€ts 


0il<ro>v e€is 


T€011 


KWS 


Pres. M. P. Impf. M. P. Fut. Mid. 2 Aor. Mid. 


Vovi 


'. M. P. Plup. M. P. 


Ind, Ti0€|xot ertStixiiv O-rjo-Ofiai kB€\t.-r\v 




Sub. Ti0»[jLat 


0u[jiai 


T€0Cl|l€VOS W 


Opt, riBfl\t.r\v 


Bj\(roi\t.r\v 6€t|iT|v 


TcOci^cvos i\.r\v 


Imp. T£0€(ro 


6ov 


T€'0€wro 


Inf. T£0c<r0aL 


0T|(r€(r0ai 0€o-0ai 


T€0€i<r6ai 


Par. Ti0€|i£vos 


0il<r6|i€vos 0€(jicvos 

1 Fut. Pass. 1 Aor. Pass. 


T€e€l 


.|jivos 


Ind. 


T€0Ti<rOfJiat €T€0T|V 






Sub. 


T€0tO 






Opt. 


Te0Ti<roC|j.iiv t€0££tiv 






Imp. 


T€0T]Tt 






Inf. 


T€0'<i(r€<r0ai T€0i]vat 






Par. 


TiBj\a-6\l€V0S T«0€lS 








Verbal adjectives : Otrds, 6ct4os. 




420. Stnopsis op iLo-TTifii (o-ra-, o-ttj-) set (in perf. : 


and 2 


aor. stand) 


Pres. Impf. Act. 


Flit. Act. 1 Aor. Act. 2 Aor 


.Act. 


Perf. Plup. Act. 




o-Ttjo-o) shall set 




'itrTr\Ka Stand 


itrT-r\v 


€o-TT](ra seS €0-TTlV 


stood 


tlo-TTlKIl stood 


Sub. itrrta 


O-T-^O-O) CTTtO 




ItrTTJKW, €0-TU 


Opt, Lo-TttCiiv 


OTTJo-oifJii, o-TT|o-aL[j.i o-TaL-qv 


IcmfJKOijit, KTraCiiv 


Imp. I'o-TT] 


o-Tiio-ov <rTfi6i 




2(rTa0t 


Inf. to-rdvai 


frrr\(riiv <nr\(ra.\. o-TTivai 


«miK€vai, w-Tdvai. 


Par. lo-T^s 


a-T-fiu-av o-Tiio-as o-ras 




CCTTTIKtis, W-TWS 


Pres. Impf. M. P. 


Fut. Mid. 1 Aor. Mid. 




Fxit. Perf. Act. 


Ind. Itcrrafj-ai stand 


a'T'f\tro\i.a,\. (intrans.) 




loT'^lo) s/ia?? siantZ 


io-Tap.Tiv 


€o-TTio-dfjLTiv (trans.) 




Sub. ia-Twp.ai 








Opt. lo-TaCjJLiiv 


o-T-qo-oCfJiiiv o-TTnraifj.T]v 




lo-T'^loiIXt 


Imp. lo-rao-o 


o-TTio-at 






Inf. ito-Tao-0oi 


o-TT|cr€<r0at (TT'^o-ao-Oai. 




€(n"^^€LV 


Par. ifrrdixcvos 


(rTi](r6(i€vos (rTifi<rd|i€vos 

1 Put. Pass. 1 Aor. Pass. 




lo-TTJlwV 


Ind. 


(rraOTio-ojiat shall be €o-Td0Tiv was set 




Sub. 


set up a-TfxBSt 






Opt. 


<rTa6Ti<roC|iT]v o-TaOti-qv 






Imp. 


(rTd6T]Ti 






Inf. 


<rTa0T|(r€o-0ai o-TaOfivoi 






Par. 


<rTa0ii(rd|i€vos trraOeis 








Verbal adjectives : trraTds, o-tot 


ios. 





142 



CONJUGATION OF Ml-VEKBS 



[421 



421. 



Synopsis of 8t8«p.i (So-, 5u)-) give 



Pres. Act. 


linpf. Act. 


Fut. Act. 


A or. Act. 


1 Perf. Act. 


1 Plup. Act. 


Ind. 8i8a>ji.i 


ISLSovv 


8(jo-(i> 


fScDKa 


8^8wKa 


i8<8i&Kii 


Sul). 8i8w 






8<£ 


8€8(*>KWS «> 




Opt. 8i8otijv 




8^croi,jxi 


8o£t]v 


8£8a>Kcas €ti]v 




Imp. 8C80V 






Sos 






Inf. 8i86vat 




8a>o-eiv 


8ovvaL 


8c8«>K€vai 




Par. 8i8ovs 




8«(ra>v 


80VS 


8€8b>KWS 




Pres. M. p. 


Impf. M. P. 


Fut. ^Jkl. 


2 Aor. Mid. 


Perf. M. P. 


Plup. M. P.\ 


Ind. SiSojjiak 


€hiB6\i.'r\v 


8(00-0 |iai 


ih6\i.T\v 


8e8o|xai 


cSfSdiJ-Tiv 


Sub. 8i8«|xai 






8u|JLai 


SeSojievos S> 




Opt. SiSoCjjLiiv 




8a><roi|iiiv 


Soiix-qv 


8e8o(i,€vos cl'-qv 




Imp. SCSoo-o 






&0O 


8£8oo-o 




Inf.- 8£8oc-eai 




8c&o-€cr0at 


86(r0ai 


8€86<r9ai 




Par. 8(.8o|i€vos 




8o)o-6 fievos 

1 Flit. Pass. J 


S6|i€vos 
I Aor. Pasfi. 


ScSoHL^vos 




Ind. 




8o6T|(ro|iai 


I860T1V 






Sub, 






8oe« 






Opt. 






SoeciTiv 






Imp. 




BoO-qo-oCH-'nv 


S69T]Tt 






Inf. 




8o0Tio-€(r0tti 


So 01) vat 






Par. 




8o9T]o-6(ievos 


806 CIS 








Verbal adjectives : 


Sords, 8oT€OS 




422. 


Synopsis of 8£ikvvjj.i ($€lk-) show 




Pres. Act. 


Im])f. Act. 


Fut. Act. 


1 Aor. Act. 


1 Perf. Act. 


1 Plup. Act, 


Ind. S^CKvvjit 


iStlKVVV 


86i|a> 


e8€i|a 


8^8eLxa 


l8c8.Cxn 


Sub. 8etKvu« 






Scigo) 


S€8€tx»s « 




Opt. "SetKvvotjit 




8€l|0t(lt 


8eC|ai|j.i, 


8eS£tx«S e^v 




Imp. SeiKvxi 




• 


8€l|0V 






Inl SetKvvvttt 




8£l^lV 


8ei|ai 


ScBeiXtvat 




Par. SetKvvs 




8£i|ti)V 


86t|tts 


ScScLX^S 




Pres. M. P. 


Impf. M. P. 


Fut. Mifl. 


1 Aor. Mid. 


Perf. Mid. 


PluiK Mid. 


Ind. 8€£Kvii|iai 


l8etKVV}J.T|V 


8eL|o)iai. 


e8ei^d}j.T]v 


8e8€t'y|iai 


IScScC'YjJ.'qv 


Sub. SeiKvvwjitti 




8€i^<i>}j.at 


SeSei-yfievos <u 




Opt. 8€tkvtioC}i'riv 


8ei.|o£)j.'qv 


8€lgttlJJ.TlV 


8€8«i7p.4vos eir\v 


Imp. BfiKvva-o 






Sctgai 


m^^o 




Inl 8€CKvvcr9at 


8«C|co-eai 


86i|a(r0ai 


SeSetx^at 




Par. 8«i-Kvvp.€vos 


S€(.|6}ievos 


8ei|d)ievos 


tStiy\i.ivo<s 








Fut. Pa.sa. 


1 Aor. Pass. 






Ind. 




8€tx0T)cro|j.ai 


e8€txeiiv 






Sub. 






Seix^to 






Opt. 




86^x911 o-oijJtiiv 


Sctx^etTlv 






Imp. 






SeCx^ITt 






Inf. 




8€ix6T|cr6<r9ai 


8€ix9fjvat 






Par. 




8€tx6T](r6ji.€vo« 


r 8ctx0«ts 







Verbal adjectives : Sciktos, 8«tKT€os 



425] ACCENT OF VERBS 143 

ACCENT 

423. Simple or compound verbs usually thi^ow the accent as far 
back as the quantity of thelast syllable permits (recessive accent, 159). 

dTToXtiw, aTri\vov ; direifxi, <riJV€a-/X€P, a-ijfi(f>7}/xL, irdpeffTL, 

424. To this general rule there are exceptions. 

a. Enclitics. — All the forms of (p-qfiL saijy and dfii aiUy except <pyi and e?. 

b. Imperatives. — (1) The second person sing, of the second aorist active 
imperative of five verba is oxytone : eliri saij^ i\84 come^ ebpi find^ ib4 see, \a^i 
take. Their plurals are accented eiirire^ iXBere, etc. ; compounds have recessive 
accent : Kdretire, AireX^e, ¥(f>£Vpe, wapdXa^e. 

(2) The second aorist middle (2 sing.) is perispomenon, as \apov, irapa^aXoO, 
KaSeXov, 

c. Contracted verbs are only apparent exceptions: thus, e-g.^rlp^ for rlpAei, 
d7}\ovo-i for S7]\6ov<xL^ tpiXeLv for (f>L\4eLv. So the subjunctive of the first and sec- 
ond aorist passive XvOCt for \v$4o}y <pavu) for <pav4<j ; the optatives \v8€l/jl€v from 
\vd4'i-/x£v^ SiSoLfiev from didd-T-fiev ; the futures <pav<ji> for <pa.v€<a^ <pavoi/u for <pavioLfiL, 
<paveTv for <pav4eLv, <pavQ}v for <pa.v4<j)v j XLireTv for Xnr^ev ; and the present and sec- 
ond aorist active and middle subjunctive of most /ni-verbs, as TLdSi for ndiw, 
ftrrfi/zai, duifiat, perf, KeKTw/xat, On SiSoOtrt, rideiCL^ see 463 d. 

K. 1. — In atliematic optatives the accent does not recede beyond the diph- 
thong containing -r-, the sign of the optative mood : io-TaTo, IffToiyxv^ laroLTo, di- 
do'iro ; and so in XvOet/xev, Xvdelev. 

N. 2. — 8i6vafiai am able^ ^irliTra.p.a.L understand^ Kp4fiafiai hang, dviv-qfii profit^ 
and iTTptdjxtjv bought (749 b, 750 b, 757 a) have recessive accent in the subjunc- 
tive and optative (6i/»/w/iai, iTriaTojfiai, Si^vatTo, Kp^p^avro). 

d. Poetic forms sometimes fail to follow the rule, as ^div being. 

425. Infinitives, participles, and verbal adjectives are verbal nouns (358), 
and hence do not regularly sliov7 recessive accent. 

a. Infinitives. ~ The follovring infinitives accent the penult: all infinitives 
in -vai, as \e\vKiva.Ly Xvd-fjvaif l<rrdvaL, (rryvat (except Epic -pLevai, as (TT'^fxevai) ; 
in verbs in w the first aorist active, as XCtrat, xatSeutrai, the second aorist middle, 
as Xtx^cr^ai, the perfect (middle) passive, as XeX^aSai, ireiraiSevffdaL, TreTroLTJa-Qai. 

N. — The present inf. of contracted verbs and the second aorist active inf. 
of w-verbs have the perispomenon by 424 c. 

b. Participles. — (1) Oxytone: the mascnline and neuter sing, of the second 
aorist active, as Xnrdliv, \nr6v ; and of all participles of the third declension end- 
ing in -s in the masculine (except the first aorist active), as XvOels- Xv94v, XeXuKtis 
XeXuK(is, etrrtis iards, TiSeis tl64p,' SiSoh St86v^ lards Icrrdv, deLKyis SeiKvvv (but 
Xj/cas, TTOLTiffas) . Also iwv going from ef/u. 

425 a. D. The 2. aor. mid. inf. in Horn, is recessive in dy^peaSai (dyeipca assem- 
S2e) ; so the perf. dXaXi^o-^at (dXdo/iat wander)^ dxdx'jo'^ai (^tx^u/xai am distressed). 



144 ACCENT OF VERBS [426 

(2) Paroxytoiie : the perfect middle (passive) : XeXvfx^vos. 

N. — Participles are accented like adjectives, not like verbs. The fern. 
and neuter nom. accent the same syllable as the masc. nom. if the quantity of 
the ultima permits, thus iraideriutVy Trat^etJouca, Tratdevov (not iraldeuovy ; Traf^crdr, 
iroLi^ada-a, Trotrjaav (not TTolTjffav) ; (piXiov^ ^iXoOcra, (pCKovv (from <pt\^ov). 

c. Verbal Adjectives. — The verbal adjective in -tos is accented on the ultima 
(Xut6s); that in -reos on the penult (Xur^os). 

N. — Prepositional compounds in -tos denoting possibility generally accent 
the last syllable and have three endings (286), as StaXw^s dissoluble^ ^^aLp€T6s 
removable. Such compounds as have the force of a perfect passive participle 
accent the antepenult and have two endings, as SidXuros dissolved, i^alperos 
clwsen. All other compounds in -tos accent tlie antepenult and have two end- 
ings, as d/3aTos impassable^ x^V^'ofTjTos artificial. 

426. Exceptions to the recessive accent of compound verbs. — a. The accent 
cannot precede the augment or reduplication : direi/At am, absent, dirTjvwas absent^ 
elff-^XBov they entered, d'n--7)<rav they were absent; (i<p-iKTat arrived (cp, iKrai). 

N. — A long vowel or diphthong not changed by the augment receives the 
accent : uir-etw was yielding (indie. im-elKco, imper. uir-eijce), 

b. The accent cannot precede the last syllable of the preposition before the 
simple verb nor move back to the first of two prepositions : irepldes put around, 
c-vv^Kdos give up together (not a^vcKdos), t^vyKdOes put down together (not 0-157- 
Kades). Compounds of the second aorist active imperatives 56s, ?s, (9^5, and cx^s 
are thus paroxytone : iwlBes set on, irepide^ put around, hriax^^ ^old on. 

c. When compounded with a monosyllabic preposition, monosyllabic second 
aorist middle imperatives in -o£) from yut-verbs retain the circumflex : irpodov 
betray, ivSov put in. But the accent recedes when these imperatives prefix a 
dissyllabic preposition : dir6dov sell, KardSov put down. The open forms always 
have recessive accent, as evSeo, Karddeo. 

d. The accent of uncompounded infinitives, participles, aorist passive, per- 
fect passive, and of the second aorist middle imperative (2. p. sing. , but' see 
426 c) is retained in composition. 

e. dTT^o-Tat vnll be far from, iir^arai will be upon do not have recessive accent, 

f . Compound subjunctives are differently accentuated in the Mss. : dirodCjpLai 
and d-K65wpja,t,, ^ircdiJTaL and iiridTiraL ; the aorist of ^ly/it has vpoCofiaL and irpiw/xat, 
d-n-ix^ ^^ dTr6<7x<^M'°^i- Compound optatives retain the accent of the primitives : 
diroSoTTo, as Sotro. For awBoLTo, irpoffdoLade (746 c) the Mss. occasionally have 
(T'6vBoLTo, TTpbadoiade ; and so irpboiro. 

427. Final -at (and -ot) are regarded as long in the optative (169), elsewhere 
as short. Hence distinguish the forms of the first aorist. 

3. Slug. Opt. Act. Infin. Act. 2, Sing. Imper. Mid. 

\vo) \v(Tai )\M<rai Xvaai 

ajTToXviii OLTToXvcrat aTroXvaac airoXvcrai 

TratSeixi) 7rat8ev(Tai nacBevcraL TratScucrat 

425 b (2) D. But Horn, has dXaXiJ/xei/os (dXao/xat wander) ^ A/fax'^Mevos or dKtj- 
X^/Acws (Ax"^/*"'^ ^*^ dist7^essed), ia-a-ijjj^vos (o-€iio> drive). 



43i] AUGMExYT 145 

AUGMENT 

428. The augment (increase) denotes past time. It appears only 
in the seeoiidary or past tenses of the indicative mood, namely, im- 
perfect, aorist, and pluperfect. The augment lias two forms, the 
syllabic and the temporal. 

429. Syllabic Augment. — Verbs beginning with a consonant pre- 
fix e as the augment, which thus increases the word by one syllable. 
In the iDluperfect e is prefixed to the reduplication. 

Xvo) loose €-Xvov €~Xvo-a €~\€\vKrf 

■jratSeija) educate i-TralSevov €~7raiStv<Ta c-^€7raiSevKr) 

a. Verbs beginning with p double the p after the augment, ptirrta throw, 
i-pplirrov^ %-ppi\pCL^ i-ppi<pd7]v ; pjiyvv/xi breCbk^ ^'-ppTj^a, f-ppdyriv. 

N. — pp is here due to assimilation of /rp, as in Horn, ^ppe^a did (and ^pe^a) ; 
of ap in ^ppeov fioxoed. Cp. 80 a. 

430- j8o)/Xo;4tti wish, Hva^iai am able^ fiiWta intend augment with e or with tj 
(especially in later Attic) ; thiis, i^ovXS/xijv and -^^ovMfnjv, i5vvd/x7]v&nd ijSvvdixTjv, 
ldvv'f)6'r}v and ridwfjdTiv, 

a. These forms seem to be due to parallelism with ^deXov (from idi\(a wish) 
and ^SeXov (from dfKu). 

431. Some verbs beginning with a vowel take the syllabic aug- 
ment because they formerly began with a consonant. Thus, 

a-yvTJui break (pa-yvCiit), to^a, aor. pass. ^yr\v. 

oXCo-Kojiai am captured (paXto-Kojiat), imperf. ■IjXLa-KoiiTiVj aor. coXwv (with tem- 
poral augment) or t]Xwv. 
avSdvo) please (pavSdvw), aor, ^aSov (Ionic). 
dv-oL^a) open (pot-yvufit), imperf. dv-^cj)'yov. 
edo) permit (o-epao)), etwv, elLocra, el^0Tiv. 
itfi\i.a.i sit (for <rcSio)j,ai} , cio-d|iT|v. 

edtici) accustom ((r'p€0itto, cp. 123), etOitov, tlL0to-a, 6l0t(r0T)v. 
IXtTTto) roll (pcXtTTO)}, €tXiTTOv, rfXi^a, cIXCxOtiv. 
JXko) or eXKi/w draw (o-€Xk«}, cIXkov, eiXioJc-a, clXkipo-Oiiv, 
Kiro^Jiai follow (o-€ironai), ctirofiTiv. 
ep-yd^oiiaL work (^€p-yd|ojiai), €tp-ya<rd}iT)v. 
^pirti) creep (o-€pTra>), elpirov. 
eo-Tido) entertain ( peo-rtaw) , €i<rTtoJv, elo-rtac-a, €lcrTia0Tiv, 

429 a. D. Horn, has ^XXa/3€ tooh (for i-aXa^e), tweov swam (for i-<Tveov), ia- 
aelovTo shook (for i-rpeiovro), eddeiae feared (for 4-df€i<Te). ^jifiade learned is 
due to analogy. 

431 I>. SyUabic augment in Homer before a yowel is a sure proof of initial f 
in eeivov and some other verbs. Similar Ionic and poetic forms occur from 
eTSoy, etXw, efpw, cXttw, 'ivi/vpn, ^p5w, oiVoxo^io, etc. 
GKEEK GEAM. — 10 



146 



AUGMENT 



[432 



eX.t"> hold (crtx")^ fi^xov. 

Ifqjti send (o-io-riiJLtJ, aor. du, cItov for €-€-t<jv, €i6tiv for €-€-0iiv, 

tCTTTJIXt put (<rLCrTTJ[JLl), plup, flCTTI^KT] fOr €-<re-<rTT] KT] . 

opao) see (popairt), etipwv, et&pdKa or topdKa. 
<i6si) jr>M.s7t (pa>6€<i>), etiJftovv, eoxra, t«a-0T]v. 
u>v€0|JLaL buy (pwv^OfJLat), ea>vov|JL'r]v, £a>VT|dt]v. 
clSov saWy 2 aor. of opdw (for l-piSov). 
d\ov took^ 2 aor. of atpt'to (for 4-cXov). 

432. Some forms of some verbs in 431 are augmented as if no consonant 
had preceded the first vowel, as ^pya^SfLyv (and €lpya^6fjLT)v). 

433. Since f disappeared early, many augmented forms show no trace of its 
existence, as, (pKovp from oik^o^ dwell (foTKos). Besides e, r\ was also used as the 
syllabic augment. This appears in Horn, -ff-eld^ts (-17s ?), Attic -oSeis you knew. 

434. The verbs Hyvvy^L, aXta-KofjLai.y (dv)olyvvfjLi^ opdcy, which began originally 
with f, show forms that appear to have a double augment ; as idyyjv, edXojy, 
(dv)4<f}yov (rarely ijvoiyov)^ iJiptav^ kthpaKa (and kbpaKo), These forms appear to 
be due to transference of quantity (34) from -q-fayrjp, -q-poiyou^ -q-popuiv (cp. 43B). 

435. Temporal Augment. — Verbs beginning with a vowel take the 
temporal augment by lengthening the initial yowel. The temporal 
augment is so called because it usually increases the time required 
to pronounce' the initial syllable. Diphthongs lengthen their first 
vowel. 



a. becomes r\ : 


ay<a lead 


^ov 


€ " 


-n- 


eXirttw hope 


■fiX-iri^ov 


I ." 


i: 


tKtTevo) supplicate 


tKCTCVOV 


" 


ia: 


6p£t« mark off 


wpitov 


V ** 


V ; 


vPpit« insult 


vPpiJov 


at *' 


Ti' 


aipeto seize 


■n'povv 


av " 


r\v: 


auXe'o) play the flute tivXovv 


€L " 


Ti' 


elKcito) liken 


ifKatov 


€U " 


t\v: 


€{5)(^o[jLai pray 


^j&xtJK-nv 


01 " 


<!>; 


oIk««» dwell 


UKOUV 



tjXirwra 

wpicra 
vPpio-a 

■JluXTjo-a 
T|Ka<ra 

<i'KTj<ra 



■tlXiriKa 

iKeT€VKa 

i^piKa 

vpptKa 

TjptiKa 

'qvXTiKa 



TiXTrCK-q 

wpiKT] 

vPpCK-q 

XIP^KT) 
TJvXl^KIl 



436. Initial a becomes 77: ^5cxj sing, rjbov. Initial 7;, I, u; w remain un- 
clianged. Initial d usually becomes 7} : apiardu} hrealcfast^ rjpla-TTjo-a. dvaXla-Kut 
and dvaXSw expend form dvdXiiiaa and dj/ifJXwtra, dvdXtifdijv and dv-qk^d-qv. 

437. Initial diyjhthongs are sometimes unaugn:iented : av in avalvop.ai dry ; 
ei: fi'jta^Of, ijf/fa^oj' ; €V : €{>p^Or}p Mid 7)-bp497}v tTOyn fipla-KU} find, ei^dpLTjv and ijy|d- 
;[A7ji' from ei'xo/iai pray; ov is never augmented, since it is never a pure diph- 
thong when standing at the beginning of a verb-form. 



435 D. Initial a becomes a in Doric and Aeolic ; initial at and av remain. 



442] REDUPLICATION 14T 

438. Omission of tlie Augment. — a. In Attic tragedy the augment is some- 
times omitted in choral passages, rarely in the dialogue parts (messengers' 
speeches), wliich are nearer akin to i^rose. 

b. In xpvv (from xpv + ^y) the- augment is strictly unnecessary, but is often 
added (dxpv^) since the composition of xpv^ was forgotten. 

c. In Homer and the lyric poets either the syllabic or the temporal augment 
is often absent ; as 4>dTo and €4>aTo^ ^ijv and e^i?*', ^xo»' and el-^ov. Iteratives 
(495) in Honi, usually have no augment {^x^^>^°^)' 

N", — In Homer the absence of the augment represents the usage of the parent 
language, in which the augment was not necessarily added to mark past time. 
It is therefore erroneous, historically, to speak of the omission of the augment 
in Homer. 

d. In Herodotus the syllabic augment is omitted only in the case of pluper- 
fects and iteratives in (jkov ; the temporal augment is generally preserved, hut it 
is always omitted in verbs beginning with a:, ay, «, ei;, oi, and in 6.yiv€0}, de6\^w, 
dvcJjyo}, ^p5w, ^dw, opfiiw, etc. ; in others it is omitted only in some forms (as dyo~ 
peijw, &7W, ^Xkw, opfidco), and in others it is variable (dyv^XXoj, cltttw, &px^i ^'"'t- 
ara^aL^ dv^X^fJ^o-O ! i^ cases oi Attic reduplication the augment is never added. 
Hdt. omits the augment for the reduplication in the above verbs. 

REDUPLICATION 

439. Reduplication is the doublii:ig of the sound standing at the 
\)egiiining of a word. It is used in the perfect, pluperfect, and future 
perfect tenses in all the moods, to denote completed action. It is 
sometimes found also in the present and second aorist. 

440. Verbs beginning with a simple consonant (except p) or with a stop and 
a liquid (X, /x, v, p) place the initial consonant with e before the stem, Xuoj 
loose^ X^-XuKo, \€-\vK^vaiy \^-\v/xat, Xe-Xocro/xat ; 7pa^aj write, yi-ypa(pa\ KXtvca 
incline^ xi-KKiKa ; ^Xdrrrco injure, ^e-j3\a4>a, ; irptw saw, Tr^-TrpicFfxnt. 

a. Exceptions : verbs beginning with yv^ most of those with 7X, and some 
with j3X. Thus, yvoopi^oo recognize^ i-^v(i>pLKa ; yt-yyibo-KO) Jcnoio, i-yvujKia ; yXiJ^w 
oarve^ i-y\x}<pa ; ^Xatrrdvoi sprout, i-jSMartiKa (usu. ^e^XdtjTtjKa). 

441. An initial aspirate is reduplicated by the corresponding smooth stop ; 
(pQveTuuj murder^ ire~<p6u€VKa ; dow sacrifice, r^-dvKa ; x^P^^^ dance, Kc-x^pevKa. 

442. In all other cases the reduplication is formed like the augment 

a. Verbs beginning with a short vowel lengthen the vowel, as Hyw lead, ^x°- 5 
6pd6o) set upright^ iap6u}Ka, ; dyy4Wo> announce, TfyyeX/cct. 

b. Verbs beginning with two or more consonants (except a stop with a 
liquid), a double consonant, and p simply prefix e. p is here doubled (cp, 429 a), 

439 D. Reduplication (or the augment for the reduplication) is generally 
retained in Horn. Exceptions are 'ipxoirat and epxaro from fpyo) shut, di'w7a 
order, Harai from ^wv/jll clothe. On d^x^^rai await, ^Siyiitivwas expecting cp. 634. 

442. b. D. Hom. has pe-pvirco/i^uos {pviroco soil), ^fi/Mpe (fielpofiai oUain) 
for i-a/JLOpe 445 a, ^tjcvjxai ((revco urge) for i-Kcu-jxat ; Ionic has iKTrfuxai. 



148 KEDUPLICATION [443 

Thus, ktI^cj founds H-KTina ; a-ireipoj sow^ ^-a-irapfiaL ; o-rpaTfiyiw am general, 

i-<TTpar'^y'r}Ka ; fi/T^w seek, i-^ijrijKa ; i/'ai5&j touch, %-^avKa ; piirrw throWy ^ppltpa. 

N. — fXLfxvv(TK(t} remind and Krao/Mai acquire are exceptions: /x^-pivij/jiai, i-jxe- 

443. The verbs mentioned in 431 which originally began with a consonant 
now lost, reduplicate regularly. Since the reduplicated consonant has disap- 
peared only e is left, and this often contracts with the initial vowel of the theme. 
Thus, ed7a for pe-faya from pdyvvju breaks ewtr/uti for fe-foxr/xat from fwd^cu 
push j ^a-TT}Ka for a-ea-TijKa from tartiiu set j ei/ca for <T€<reKa. from Xtjjxl (crt-ffT/^ti) send, 

444. Pluperfect. — The pluperfect prefixes the syllabic augment e 
to the reduplicated perfect beginning with a consonant; when the 
perfect stem begins with a vowel the pluperfect retains the prefix of 
the perfect. 

Thus perf. \Av«:a, X^Xu/iai, plup. i-'KeX^Ktj, i-XeX^fiTjv ; perf. e-trraX/ca, e-crTaXjaai, 
plup. i-a-rd\K7)^ i-ardX/Jirfv from ariWoj send; perf. -f^ybpevKa, pltip. ijyope^K-q from 
dyope6(i} harangue ; perf. vpvk^o-^ plup. Hp-fiK-n from atp^oj seize. 

a. Verbs showing * Attic ' reduplication (446), in almost all cases aug- 
ment the pluperfect. 

b. The verbs of 431 follow the perfects of 443; as ^^77? (dyvvfju')^ idajix-nv 

(ci^eoj), diJiriv (iT/jUt), ippwyr) from (f)p7iyvvfu, io-ttj/xl forms eLO-T-qK-r} (= i^-((r)ecrr7/«:7/), 

Ion. and poet. ea-r-ZiKT) (rare in Att, prose), eot/ca am like forms icfKr), 

445. Some verbs beginning with a liquid or fi take et instead of the redupli- 
cation: Xajtpttvw (Xa^-) take, et-X7j0a, ct-Xi^fcjuai, ei-X-qip'i] ; \a.-<f\avo> (Xax-) obtain 
by lot, et-XijxO', ^i-^^XV j Xey« collect (in composition) -ef-Xoxa* -^'^-^^XVi -et-Xey/ji^L 
(rarely X^-Xe7^at) ; jieCpojiai receive a share, et-ixapTai it is fated, ^i-ixapTo with 
rough breathing ; also the stems ep, p^ say, d-prjKa, el-p-^ kt}. 

a. etXijtpa is from £re-crX7?0a by 37 (cp. Hom. eXXa^op for i-a-\a^ov), eLfxaprai. 
is from o-e-tr/ia/jrai (cp. Hom, ffifwpe'). The other forms are probably analogues 
of eiX7j<^a. 

446. Attic Reduplication, — Some verbs whose themes begin with 
a, e, or o, followed by a single consonant, reduplicate by repeating 
the initial vowel and the consonant and by lengthening a and e to y^ 

o to 0). Thus ayetpoi collect , ay-yjyepKa, ay-yyepfuxL \ eyetpo awaken^ 

444 b. D. Hdt. has oiKa (for ^oiKa), ew^a, ^ti^ea ; Hom. has eto^ev and efw^e. 

445 D. Hom. Seldw fear stands for Se-Sfuy from de-Sfo(L)a (cp. Sf^os). So 
SeiSoLKO, for 5e-5^oi/ca. For SeiSfKTo greeted we should read St^Sckto with 7j-redu- 
plication. Hdt. has XeXd^rjKa and -\€\a/x/x4vos. X^Xrifx/xai occurs in tragedy. 

446 D. — In Hom. ' Attic ' reduplication is even more frequent than in Attic ■ 
thus, iStjddjs from eSo) eat, iprjpLira have fallen^ ipipnrro (without lengthening) 
from ipcLiro) overthroiv, dpwpix'^Tai from 6piy(j3 reach, Por other poetical forms 
see in the List of Verbs dyeipia, atp^o), dXdo/iat, dpapia-KCxy^ ipeiddj, ipi^<^, '^X^i ^^^t 
opdo}, 6pjnjjxt. 



45o] POSITION or AUGMEMT AND IIEDLPLICA'J^IOK 149 

ly-rj-yipfxaL ; i\iyx<j> confute^ eX-T^Xey/xat ; opvrTin duj^ op-wpv^^a, 6p~<s>pvyfmL ; 
o^x-vvfxL swear, ofx-wixoKa j oX-Xu/Ai destroy, oX-toXcKa. So also {pepw bear, 
cvijvo^^a, ev-iyvey/Aat. 

a. The name '■ Attic ' was given by the Greek grammarians to this form of 
reduplication though it occurs in Homer and in the other dialects. 

b. dKOijut hear has d^-'^Koa for d/c-'^/co(i;)a ; dycj has ay-iioxo- for 6.y-^'y)oxo.. 
The pluperfect augments except in tJie case of verbs with initial e : -qK-tjKd-r), 
(bfi-wjxbKT), a'jru}\<i}\7} J but i\-7]\6dr}., iv-7]v4y/ji7]v. 

447. Reduplication in the Present. — A few verbs reduplicate in the present 
by prefixing the initial consonant and i, as yi-yvo/jLai, yL~yv(I)(rK<i}, fiL-/jiv^o-KO}, tI-ktu) 
for Ti-r(e)Kw, Tri-TTTw for 7ri-7r(e)TaJi i-ffTij/xt for ac-a-TTjfic, rl-drj/ML for St-Orj/xt (126 a), 
5i-5a)/ii. ttL^-ttXtj-iu Jill (irXa-, ttXt;-) and TrljXTrprjjXL hum {irpa-, rptj-) insert /jl. 

a. In some verbs the reduplication belongs to the verbal stem : j8ij8(ifaj make 
go ^jSf/3atra, SiSdcTKOj teach iSida^a. 

448. Reduplication in the Second Aorist. — &y(o lead forms the second aorist 
TJy-ayoy.^ dy-dyit)^ dy-dyotfii^ dy-ayctv^ middle rjy-ayd^rjy. So also ijv-eyKa and 
^;^€7K-0J' from 0^paj. 

POSITION OF AUGMENT AND EEDUPLIOATION IN COMPOUND 

VERBS 

449. In verbs compounded with a preposition, augment and redu- 
plication stand between the preposition and the verb. 

Thus, iiirep^aiviJi pasS Over, virep^^atvov, {/irep^^fSijKa ; eia-^dWw throw into, cla-^- 

a. Before e of the augment ^k regains its fuller form i^ (133 a), and ^v and 
a-^v reappear in their proper forms which were modified in the present. Thus 
^KjSdXXoj throw out, ^^^iSaXXoj', ^K/S^jSXijKa ; iixjSdWw throw into, iv4^a\\ov ; av\- 
X^yoci collect, a-vv^Xeyov, (rvveiXoxa- ', ayppiwro} throw together^ awippl^f'a, (Tvvip- 
p~L(f}a ; (TV(TK€vd^u} pack together, awccrKe-LXx^ov, (TvveaK€vd(r67)v, 

b. Prepositions (except irepi and Trp6) drop their final vowel : diro/SaXXw throw 
away, dir-^^aWov ; but irepi^dWo) throw around, Trepi^^aWov, wpo^aivo} step for- 
ward, Trpoi^-qv. But irph may contract with the augment (jpo^^v). 

450. But some verbs, which are not often used except as compounds, are 
treated like uncompound verbs and take the augment before tlie preposition, as 
^Kad'^fi'nv sat from Kadtj/xai, iKdSi^ov set, sat from KadL^w, r}ix<pU<ja. clothed from 
dix<ptivvvfj.L, ^KadevSov (and KaStjOSov) slept from Kade^do), TjTTKTTd/jiTjv, ^TrtcTiJ^iji' 
from iTri<TTa^aL understand. t-qiMi forms d<^tet and i]<pt€t. The simple verbs occur 
mostly in poetry. But d7roXai5w en^joy makes diroKiXavKa, i^erd^oo review i^-^raKa. 

448 D. Hom. has many reduplicated second aorists, as iri-TTLdov from TrcLdoi 
(tti^-) persuade, K€K\6/ji7)v, k€'k\6/j£vo^ from K^Xo/Mat command, \i-\adi<TdaL from 

\av6dvo} (\ad-) escape the notice of, ire-ipidi^adai from <p€ldofJ,aL (0i5-) spare, ^p-apov 

from dpaplcTKw {dp-) join, iap-opov from hpvvjxi arouse. The indicative forms may 
take the syllabic augment, as in i-7r«^-<^pa5ov from <ppd^w (<ppad-) tell. From 
iviTTTOi chide and epvKi^ check come -i'jvtTraTTQv and dvivlirov, and 'ijp'UaKOT. 



150 POSITION OF AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION [451 

451. Double Augment. — Some verbs take two augments, one "before and 
the other after tlie preposition, as -^v-eix^fi-rjv^ rjv-ea-x^M-V^ from dv-^xofj-ai endure^ 
-qv-dyx^ovv from ivox^^f^ annoy^ iirTjvi^pdaifjiai from ^iravopdooi set upright. So also, 
hy analogy to the foregoing, a few verbs derived from compound words : i7/i0€- 
o-^-qTovv ixoiw djj4>ia^7)r4(jj dispute.^ rjvTed^KCi from dvridLK^o} go to law (dvrLSiKos). 

452. Compounds of Svcr- ill and «v well. (1) Svarvx^t^ am unhappy, i-dva- 
TT^X^^^i Se-Sva-T^xV'^'^- Sva-rjpiarovp, dva-tjp^a-T'ijKa from Sv<T-ap€crT^(i} do not OCCur. 
(2) eifepyerioj do good, eiiepy^T-rfffav^ evepyir-qKa (inscrip.), eirtjpy^rijKa (texts), 

453. Verbs derived from compound nouns take the augment and the redupli- 
cation at the beginning ; Eisifivdo\6yovv^ fi€fw$oX6y7}Ka from /ivdo\oy4u} tell legends 
(^fu>do\6yos teller of legends) ; c^Koddfiow^ (^Ko56fn}Ka from oUoSofi^ci) hnild {olKo56fwi 
house-builder) ; ijfnrdXuv, iifnrdXijKa from ifiTroXdoj traffic in (e'^tiroXi^ traffic). 

a. iKK\ij(TLd^(jj hold an assembly (4KK\ri<ria.) makes -qK-KK-riala^ov or i^e-KXij- 
ala^ov. iyyvdo) pledge makes ivey^^ojv, ivey^rjaa and (better) r}yyi5o}v^ iiyyv7}cra. 

454. Verbs derived from compound nouns whose first part is a preposition 
are commonly treated as if compounded of a preposition and a simple verb ; as 
Ka.T7}yop4u} accuse (Kuri^opos), Kar'nyhpow, k ar 1776/317^0 ; ivSiifiiofiai ponder (evBv- 
fws) ^v€6vfji,'^6T)v, ivreBvfJL^adai ; iiriopKid} swear falsely (^xfopKOs), ItritopKtjKa -^ iy- 
X^(.pi^(^ entrust (iv xeipQ, ^vex^ipt-o-a. 

a. But several verbs are not treated as compomids, such as dwardo} deceive^ 
d-jnario} distrust^ dirop^o} am 171 difficulty^ TrapprjaLd^ofiai speak freely. 

TENSE-SUFFIXES, THEMATIC VOWEL, MOOD-SUFFIXES 

455. Tense-Suffixes. — The tense-suffixes, which are added to the verb-stem 
to form the tense-stems, consist of the thematic vowel and certain other letters. 
No tense-suffixes are added to the verb-stem (1) in the second aorist active 
and middle, and second perfect and pluperfect, of ^t-verbs ; (2) in the perfect 
and pluperfect middle of verbs in -w and -^tt. The tt nse-suffixes are as follows : — 

1. Present system, -%-, -t%-, -1%-, -v%', ~av%-, ~ve%-, ~va-, ~vv-, ~(0<^k% ; 
or none, as in <pa,-pAv, 

2. Fatnre system, -0-%-. 

3. First aorist syteni, -era-. 

4. Second aorist system, -%- ; or none, as in €-<tt7}-v. 

5. First perfect system, -#ca- (plupf. -ktj- from -Kea- ; ~k€i~ from -Kce- ; -k€~). 

6. Second perfect system, -a- (plupf. -??-, -ei-, or -e-) ; or none, as in ^-ara-re. 
1. Perfect middle system, none (future perfect -(t%-). 

8. First passive system, ^17-, -9e- (future passive -d-r)a%-). 

9. Second passive system, t?, -e- (future passive ~T}a%-). 

N, a in the aorist is properly a relic of the personal ending (666), 

456. Thematic Vowel. — The thematic, or variable, vowel appears at the 
end of the tense-stems in tlie present, imperfect, and second aorist active and 

455. D. For tlie Boric future -a-e%-, see 540. — For the Epic first aorist -a-%-, 
see 542 D. — For the doubling of <t in the future and first aorist, see 534 b. D., 
544 b. D. 



46i] THEMATIC A^OWKL, MOOD-SUFFIXKS 151 

middle of oj-verbs, and in all futures and future perfects. The thematic vowel 
in the indicative is o before jn or v (and in the optative of the tenses mentioned) ; 
elsewhere it is e. Thus, \v%-, \nr%-^ >^v<r%-, \veT}<r%~, \€Kv<j%- ; \to-l-^i. In 
the subjunctive it is ^ /-n. 

a. Attic inscriptions have both -endbjv and -o<j6(av in the imperative. 

457. Subjunctive. — In the subjunctive of all verbs the thematic vowel is 
^ ffi— Thus, Xoaj-/iev, XOTj-re, XOcrw-jue;', aTeiXi^-Te. 

a. Verbs in -vvy^i form their subjunctive like w-verbs. 

458. In the present and second aorist of jut-verbs, and in the aorist passive, 
^ /^ is added to the tense stem. Thus Tiddixev from Ti64-uj-ixey^ dw from 6^-w, 
Tidrjre from ri64-'n~T€, \v$Q from \v64-bj. 

459. Suffix of the Optative. — The optative adds the mood suffix -i-, or -nj- 
which contracts with the final vowel of the tense-stem : XvoijUi for XjSo-i-jLtt, <piKolr}v 
for (f>t\€o-iTj-v^ ridsitjp for Ti0e-i7}-y. -n}- occurs only before active endings. When 
the suffix is -it;-, the 1 pel's, sing, ends in -y; as T~L(xao-ir)-v — tTim^tjv; when it is 
-I-, the 1 pers. sing, ends in -/xt, as rl/xdo-l-ixt — rt/nffii. 

460. LT) is used as follows (in all other cases -I-) : — 

a. In contracted verbs in the singular, rarely in the dual and plural. -Z- 
appears in the dual and plural, rarely in the singular. 

b. In liquid verbs in the future active singular: 4>avoi-r)-v for (payeo-lrj-v. In 
the dual and plural -Z- : (pamlroy, (payoi/xev for <f)av€6-l-T0v^ <pav^6~l~ji€v, 

c. In the singular of /it- verbs : nOd-qv for TiOe-lij-v, SiSoitjv for SiSo-ir]-v^ dd-qv for 
de-i-q-y. Here the modal sign is added to the tense-stem without any thematic 
vowel. -Z- is more common in the dual and plural : Ttd^tfiev for nd^-l'iiey^ BlBqI- 
fiev for diS6-i-ix€y, ^erre for Bi-T-re. Verbs in -vviil make their optatives like Xi5w. 

d. In the aorist passive : \v6drjy for XvdeUtj-v, (pavet-qy for (paye-itj-y. In the 
dual and plural -Z- is more common : \v6ilfiey for 'kvS4-l-fi€v^ (pav^Tre for (pay4-l-T€. 

e. In some second perfects, as irpoeXijXvOoi'r)?, and in the second aorist axo'tijv 
from ex^ (b^t 'O-xoTfJLi in composition). 

N. — In the 3 pi. -it- is regular before ~v: \6o-te-y, nd^-le-v^ Xvde-U-y. 

461. a. In the 1 aor. opt. act. of w-verbs the endings -ems, -ete, and -etay are 
more common than -au, -at, -aiev. 

b. In the aor. opt. passive of all verbs and in the opt. of /it-verbs and of Con- 
tract verbs -iTov^ -iTYjy, 'tfiev, -ire, -lev are commoner than -lyjrov, -t-qr-qy^ ~iT}fi€v, 
-ir}T€^ -iTjcray, Prose writers use either the shorter or the longer forms ; poets use 
only the shorter forms. Except in contract verbs -t-qre is very common in the 2 
ph and is sometimes the only form in tlie Mss., as dol-qre^ dd-qre, yyolTjre, -^ai-qre^ 
\v6€i-r}T€, <payei7]T€ ; but the forms in question occur in prose writers and their 
genuineness is therefore unsupported by metrical evidence. 

•457 D. Horn, has -%- instead of -^/-q-, especially in the 1 aor., 2 aor. of /it- 
verbs, and 2 aor. pass, (^ip^acrofiey^ 5(6o/A€f, rpairetofiey ; also in toficy, etSo/jiev'), 
M'hese forms do not occur in tlie sing, or 3 pi. active. Verbs in w rarely show 
tills % in the pre>sent. (Otlier examples 532, 667 D., 682 D.) 

460 D. -IT]- is very rare in Hom. in the dual and plm'al.' 



152 



PERSONAL ENDINGS 



[462 



ENDINGS OF THE VERB : PERSONAL ENDINGS 

462. To make the complete verbal forms, to the tense-stems in the 
various moods are attached the personal endings in the finite moods 
and other endings in the infinitives, participles, and verbal adjectives. 
See 366. The personal endings of the four finite moods are given 
below. In many forms only the jat-verbs preserve distinct endings. 
Some of the endings are due to analogy of others and many are still 
unexplained. The first person dual, when it is used, has the form 
of the first person phiraL 



Active 



Middle 





INDICATIVE 




INDICATIVE 


INDICATIVE 


INDICATIVE 




(primary tenses) 


(secondary tenses ) 


(primary tenses) 


(secondary tenses^ 




AND 




AND 


AND 


AND 




6TJBJCNCTIVE 




OPTATIVE 


SUBJUNCTIVE 


OPTATIVE 


Sing. 


1. — or -jjtt 




-V 


-}JLai 


-JIllV 




2. -s (for-fft). -« 


a (-ado) 


-s, -o-eo 


-o-at 


-0-0 




3. -o-i (for -Tt) • 




— 


-TOl 


-TO 


Dual 


2. -TOV 




-TOV 


-o-eov 


-O-eov 




3. -TOV 




-TllV 


-O-0OV 


-o-eiiv 


Blur. 


1. -}jtev 




-JJLCV 


-)jLc6a 


-jieea 




2. -Tt 




-TC 


-o-e€ 


-<re€ 




3. -vo-i (for -vTi) 


Active 


-V, -o-av, 

' IMPEKATIVB 


-vTai 
Middle 


-VTO 




Sing. 2. 


— , -ei, -s 


-0-0 






3. 


-rto 




-o-Ow 






Dual 2. 


-TOV 




-o-eov 






3. 


-TWV 




-o-e»v 






Plur. 2. 


-TC 




-o-e€ 






3. 


-VTWV (- 


TCjjffav) 


-o-6wv ('ffeojaay) 



462 D. Doric has -rt for -o-t, -fj.es for -/xev, ~vti in 3 pi. , and -ray, -(rdav^ -}j.av for 
-T7JC, -ffd-rjv, -fxrju, -Tctv, -ffOdVf -fxav are also Aeolic. 

The close agreement between Greek and Sanskrit may be illustrated by tne 
inflection of Old Greek and Doric (pa/d say^ Skt. bh^rai shine, t<pepov^ Skt. 
abharam bore, 

(pa-fxi bha-mi (pa-rov blia-tas e<p€po-v abhara-m 
(p4-s bhS(-si <pa.~(j.4s bha-mas e<p€p€-s d.bhara-s 

(pa-rt bhi-ti 0a-T^ bha-tba 4'0epe-(T) dbhara-t 
<pa-Tbv bh£UthAs <p5.--vTl bha-nti i<pip€-Tov abhara-tam 



^(pepi-rrjv abbara-tam 
^(f)4po-fX€v ^bbara-ma 
€<p4p€-Tc ibhara-ta 
€<p€po-v(T) abbara-n(t) 



464] PERSONAL ENDINGS 153 

463. PRIMARY ENDINGS OF THE ACTIVE (IND. AND SUBJ.) 

a. I Sing, - — fit is found only in /xt-verbs. Verbs in -w ^ave no ending 
and simply lengthen the thematic vowel (Xow, Xeiiru^). The perfect has no per- 
sonal ending, -a taking the place of a thematic vowel. 

b. 2 Sing. — (1) -crt is found in Horn. ia-a-L thou art from the /w-verb ei/d I 
am; possibly also in <pys thou sayest. Attic d thou art is derived from ^-a-i. 
tlStj-s is obscure, \veis is probably for Xye-o-i, Xve'i, \v€i, to which s has been 
added. Subj. Xijtj-s follows the analogy of the indicative, but with long thematic 
vowel. Tidrjs for ndi-ys. In the perfect -s (not for -crt) has been added. 

(2) -Oa is a perfect ending, as in ol<r6a knowest for ot5 + da (83). From the 
perfect it spread to the imperfects ^<r6a wast, Tjeiada wentst, €<pT}c-da saidst^ 
and to -^d-qada or -rjdeiffda knewest. The perfect has commonly -as. ohdas and 
^(rdas are late. 

c. 3 Sing. Ti is found in jut- verbs ; ^<r-W, rWrfai for rieTj-ri (Doric) by 

115. Xoet is obscure, but it cannot be derived from Xve-c-i for XDf-rt. \67j, Ti6r[ 
(for Tideri) follow Xdet, but with long thematic vowel. In the perfect, -e with no 
personal endhig. 

d. 3 PI, — Original -vn is retained in Doric Xvovn, whence Attic Xiioycrt 
(115 a); ^fTi, Attic ela-L. Subj. Xoojtrt from Xdw-vri, TidOxri from TiS^oj-vri, Troiwai 
from TTOLujpTi (Dor.). Many fii forms are derived from -avrty as Ti9^d<n (ne^-avri), 
di56d(ri (5t56-afrt), ecrracrt (ecTTd-avTL), laraffL (from l<Trd-avri)^ the accent of which 
has been transferred to ndelffi (747 D. 1), StSoOo-t from (Dor.) Tld^-vri, diSo-t^ru 
-an from -vTi (35 b), properly the ending of the perfect after a consonant, ap- 
pears as -ao-t in Horn. Tre^iiracrt ; but it has been replaced by -do-t out of -ai^t, 
as in rerpdf}}-d(Ti. 

464. SECONDARY ENDINGS OF THE ACTIVE (IND. AND OPT.) 

The 0]Dtative usually has the endings of the secondary tenses of 
the indicative. 

463 a. D. The Horn. subj. ^^eXw/ii, rvx^jat, d7d7w/it, are new formations. 
Aeolic has (piXTjfn, boKi^wfii (indie). 

b. (1) eh or efs in Horn, and Hdt. is derived from el + s. Tor this form 
i<r<r{C) may be read in Horn. Theocr. has -es for -ets (d^Xyes^ etc.) and pert 

TreTrbveei^ (557. 2. D.). 

b. (2) -ffda in Horn, indie. 0^cr^a, rid-naSa, ^b-qada ; subj. i6i\T}<T$a also writ- 
ten ie^XTja-Oa ; opt. (rarely) K\aioi<Tda, ^aXourda. -dOa occurs also occasionally in 
Doric (Tro6op7}<r6a) and Aeolic (exenr^a, <pl\T}<rBa). 

c. Aeolic has rt^??, ttoit?, (TT€<pdvoi, but 9j(n sayfs. Subj. : Horn. iO^Xrjcn (also 
written id^Xrjai', cp. Arcad. ex??), (popi-offi^ e^-riai. 

d. Horn, has -acrt in td<n they go^ eda-i they are, and in /Se^aacrt, yeydaffi. 
Aeolic has Xdoicrt, (piXeuri, rifxaia-i. 

464 a. D. -f for -/xt is very rare (Tpi<poiv in Eur., dfidprotv in Cratinus). 
c. Doric -^s iflas for ■n<r{r). 

e. ~v is regular in Doric aud common in Horn, and later poetry ; as eo-ra-y 



154 PERSONAL ENDINGS [465 

a. I Sing. V stands for m (133 c), cp. €<^epo-^, Skt. abhara^m. After a 

consonant /j. (sonant nasal, 20 b, 35 c) became a : eXva-a for Avtrja, Epic Tja was for 
'f}{<j)a from i^tr/i. a In tlie pluperfect -rj is from e-a (467), ~v is found in the opta- 
tive when the mood suffix is -t??- ; elsewhere the optative has -/w. 

b. 2 Sing. — On -aSa see 4(j3 b (2) . 

c. 3 Sing. T drox)ped (133 b) in AiJe, irlOv, and in the opt. X601, etij (cp. 

Old Lat. sied). €\v<j€ has its -e from the perfect (cp. olSe) and shows no per- 
sonal ending. 

d. Dual. Tnjv is rarely found for -roy in the 2 dual (eipiTijv in Plato). 

Horn, has ire^xerov as 3 dual. 

e. 3 PL p for -jrr by 133 b. -aav (taken from the 1 aorist) is used (1) in 

the ijnperf. and 2 aor. of /ii-verbs, as iTiee-aav, %d€-<Tav ; (2) in the aor. pass. 
i\-6B7}-a-a.v^ i(pa.vT}-iTav (here -V preceded by a short vowel occurs in poetry, 
685 a. T).) ; (3) in the pluperf. iXeXiL/Ke-a-av ; (4) in the opt. when -lt}- is the modal 
suffix (460). In the opt. -crav is rare. 

465. ENDINGS OF THE MIDDLE (INDIC, SUBJ., OPT.) 

a. 2 Sing. — Primary -crat retains its <r in the perfect of all verbs (XAu-aai), 
and hi the pres. of /At-verbs (jide-aat). Elsewhere o- drops between vowels, as in 
X077 or \t€L from XOe-<rat, Xvd'fjar} or -et, <pavrj from tpajfie-aac^ rl/xg, from rl^de-aai ; 
subj. X1J17 from Xiri-crai, (p-^vj) from ^i^vo-aai, 6y from ^ijf-o-at, 5^ from 8(J}r}-<Taiy y 
from ei7-o-a£, ^tX'^ from (pLXeij-craL^ 517X0? from 6tjX6tj= d-qKbt^-aai, 

N. 1. — The forms -77 and -et are found in the present, future, and future per- 
fect. See 628. 

N. 2. — Hv<i. and SiSio? for SiJz'atrai, iiricTrq. and ^tticttt? for iTrio-raffat, etpiei for 
i(f>te(7ai^ are poetic and dialectic or late. 

b. 2 Sing. — -ffo stays in all plnps. and in the imperf. of fii-verbs. Else- 
where it loses its cr, as in iXtov from i\v€~cro, At5cr&? from iXvaa-ao, i^n^voi from 
^0^j'a-cro, iXiTTov froni ^XtVe-cro, e^^u from e^e-cro, ^TTptcj from iirpla-(ro^ ^rlpLw from 
irt/jide-a-o, i<f>i\ov from e0(Xee-cro. In the optative, Xooto, X/iroto, rt^eto, eZb, Xt/trato, 
from XPot-cro, etc. ; tI/jx^o from TifjAoi-a-o. 

N. 1. — ^StJj'a) or '^5i;;'{t; and i}iriar(j} are commoner than ^5iJyacro and ijirla-Taao 
from 6(5raju,a( am a?jZe and ^-rrlcrTa/xat understand. 

N. 2. — After a diphthong or a long vowel in tlie 2 aor. indie, mid. -ao is re- 
tained, SLS elffo (ti7JHi SSTld), ojvqcFo (^ovivrjfju benefit). 

(%arrj-aav)i edido-v (^iSl5o-<Tav), (piXijdey {i4>t\rjd'r}~<Tav)^ Tpd4>€v {iTpd<pr}-cFav). TlJC 
short vowel before ^(t) is explained by 40. Horn. ^€-v were became ^v., used 
in Dor, as 3 pi. ; in Attic it was used as 3 sing. 

465 a. D. Hom. has /3ot5Xeai, perf. ixeixirqai., but pres. Bivauai, irapiaraaaL ; 
6f€L is unique (for B^pcai) ; subj. Hv^at, Doric often contracts, as 0^17 for oU-ai. 
Aeolic generally leaves eat open (Kefc-e-at). Hdt. has open -eat, -ijat, 

b. Horn., Doric, and Aeohc have generally open forms, as Hom. /3dXXe-o 
(rarely ^dWev), (ioucra-o. epeto, o-7r€to are from -eeo. Hom. has i/xdpvao for Attic 
i/j-dpfac-o, and may drop <r even in the pluperfect (eaavo). When Doric con- 
tracts ap we have a. Jn Hdt. ao, eo are open, but tlie wriung ev for eo is found. 



466] PERSONAL ENDIKGS 155 

c. Dual. — The 1 pi, is ii8cd for the 1 dual except in the Ihyec poetic iorrna 
wepidib^dov, \€KelfXfx€dov^ dp/xiib/xe$oy. Hom. has -cdov for -c67}v in diapijaa-ea-dov, 

d. I PL — In epic and dramatic poetry -ixecda is often used for -fxeda for' 
metrical reasons (^ouXi^eo-^a, iTria-rd/xfada). 

e. 2 PL — On the loss of a- in a-Se (ea-raXde), see 103. 

f. 3 PL — After vowel stems -rrat, -yro are preserved. After stems ending 
in a consonant -vrai, -vro became -arai, -aro by 35 b. These forms were retained 

in prose till about 400 B.C. {e.g. rfrdxaTai, iTerdxaro), 
466. ENDINGS OF THE IMPERATIVE 

1. Active. 

a. 2 Sing. — Xue, X/ire, rldet (for rtde-e) have not lost -di. -$i is found 
in 2 aor, pass. <pdyr}'dL ; in a-TTj~$i and ^a-ra-6i ; in some 2 aorists, like yyu-di, 
T\T]-diy irl-dt^ whicli are fii forms tlK)ugh they have presents of the w form 
(087). Also in id-Bi he or know., t6i go, <pd&i or <pa6i say. XvOtiTi is for \vdrjei 
by 125 b. 

b. -? occurs in ^^s, ?f, 56?, ax^s (and in the rare dlyes^ irUis). This -s is not 
derived from -Si. 

c. XOtr-ov aor, act and XGcr-ai aor. mid, are obscure in origin. 

2. Middle. 

a. 2 Sing. 0-0 retains its a in th6 (rare) perf. of all verbs and in the pres. 

of /Dti-verbs (XAucro, ridctj-o., taraa-o). Elsewhere a- is dropped, as in Xoou from 
XfJe-tro, Xtxou from XiTr^-cro, ^oO from O^-ao, oS from ?-cro, ir/ji'w from irpla-a-o^ tIjulj 
from r't/Jide-a-o. 

N. — Tf^oy, io-Tw, 5f5ou are poetic or late. 

3. 3 PL — For -yruiv and -a-dojf we find -rwaav and -<Tdw<Tay in prose after 
Thucydides, in Euripides, and in inscriptions after 300 b.c. Thus, Xy^rwcray, \vad- 
Tcocraj', \v4(r6ii}<ray^ XvcdcBoyaoLv., XvdijTiao'a.v., XtTr^cjcrav, Xiir^tr^ctjcrav, <l)tivd<T6{i}<^a,v^ 
(pat^TOJcraVj Tlfxdadojo-a.v^ <pi\£lcr6<j}<ra,v^ ye')'pd<pd(>}(Tai'^ ■TreTrefcr^tocraj', Tid^TOJO'av, did6- 

N. ^eo-Twy for fi^^wv is rare, Attic inscriptions have (very rarely) 

f. -arat, -aro occur in Hom. regularly in the jjerfect and pluperfect of 
consonant stems, as Ter/jd^arai, ^arai for io'-i'Tai, ijaTo for Tia-yro from ^/iai 
(jia-ixat) ; also in stems ending in -i, as i<f>6laTo. -arai, -aro were transferred to 
vocalic stems, as jSe^XiJarai, ^e^X^aro, Hdt. Sw^arai. llom.has -5~aTai in At;- 
XaSarai from ^Xavvui drive. In the opt. -aro always {yevoiaro for 7^vO£vto). In 
Hdt. 7] before -arai, -aro is shortened, as perf. i\yiaraL for -qyij-arai — 'ij7i7i'Tat, 
e^e/SX^aro for -Tjaro, Eor Ketvrat, Hom. KtlaraL and KearaL, Hdt. lias K^arai, In 
the opt. Hdt. has -aro : ^oi/Xofaro, 5e^aiaro, In Hdt. -arat, -aro occur even in the 
present system, Ttd^arai, fiuv^arat, icTT^aTo. 

466 a, D. -^i is not rare in Horn., pres. 5f5w^i = StSov, BpvvSi, aor. /cXO^t, pert 
T4r\adi. Aeolic has ftrra, <^fXi7. irUi., 5ixoh SLSol (Pindar) are very rare. 

3. Doric lias also -j'tw, as in iru.pexbvTO} ; Aeolic -vrov, as ^ipovrov. Doric 
has -cr^w (pi.) and ~c-6u>v. 



156 ENDINGS OF THE mFlXTTIVE, PARTICIPLE [467 

ENDINGS OF THE PLUPERFECT, ENDINGS IN <r6 

467. Endings of the Pluperfect Active. t?, -77s, -€t(p) are derived from 

-e(<7)a, -6((r)as, -t(o-)e. In later Greek the endings are -etv, -as, -et(»'), -€i.tov^ 
-€iT7]y^ -€L/i€v^ -€ir€j aud vcry late -eio-av. 

468. The Endings -crOe, etc. — The o- of the endings -cr^e, -<r^a>, -<Tdov, -(xdusv, 
-crdai (409 N.) has no exact parallel in cognate languages, and seems to have 
spread in Greek from forms like TerAccr-^e, Hi;c^a-~$€, etc., where a sigma-stem 
was followed by original -de. 

ENDINGS OF THE INFINITIVE, PABTICXPLE, AND VERBAL 

ADJECTIVE / 

469. Infinitive. — The following are the endings added to the tense-stera to 
make the infinitive. 

a. -€v: in present and 2 aorist active of w- verbs, all futures active. Thus, Xvetv, 

TLjiav^ Xixeiv, Xvceiv^ (pavetv from \t€-€v^ rl/xde-ev^ \in^-€y^ \6<r€-€V^ (pav^e-ev. 

b. -ai : in 1 aon active, as XOo-a*, TraLdeva-at, det^au 

c. , -vai: (1) present, 2 perf. of /xt- verbs, the two passive aorists, as nd^-vai, €<jrd~ 

mi, \vd^-vai^ (pavTj'Vat; (2) perfect active, XtXuK^-mi, and elS^-vai from 
€id'€ (oI5a). 
N, 1. — The ending evai appears in the *2 aor. of /(xi- verbs, as doOvai from 86-evai, 
detpat from di-eyai, 

d. -o-Oai, : in other cases. 

N. 2. — The infinitives are old cases of substantives, those in -at being datives, 
the others locatives. 

470. Participles. — The stem of the participle is formed by adding the fol- 
lowing endings to the tense stem. 

a. -VT- : in all active tenses except the perfect, and in 1 and 2 aor. passive (301). 

b. -OT-: in the perfect active (for -/tot-) ; masc. -tbs, fern, -uta, neut. -6s (301 c). 
C. -(j.€vo- : in the middle, and in the passive except in the aoiist, 

471. Verbal Adjectives. — Most of the verbals in -t6s and -r^os are formed 
by adding these suffixes to the verbal stem of the aorist passive (first or second). 
Thus, (^tXijTis, -T^DS (i-<pLKifi-67iv) ; TreitTTos, -r^os (i-'ireia--6'r\v^ ; reXeo-ros, -r^os 
(i-Te\4<r-e'r}v) ; (TraXriis, -t4os {i-a-rdX-Tjv) ; ^Xrjrd^, -r^os {i-^X-^-dtjv) . On the 
accent of compound verbals, see 425 c. 

467 D. Horn, has -ea, -t?s, -« or ei-v (-ee only in ^Ste), -eo-aj/, and rarely -ov, 
-es, -e ; Hdt. has -ea, -eas, -ee (-ei ?), -care, -€<7av. 

469 D. -€v appears also in Horn, l^iev (miswritten Id^eiv), Horn, has no case 
of-emi (for Uvai write tixevai). For -ep or -pai Hom. often uses -|ji€vaL (also 
Aeolic) and -|i€v (which is also Doric) ; both endings show the accent on the 
preceding syllable, as ^evyv^jxevai^ efi/JLcvai (^-elmi), ^tX'^Acewi, o-Tiq/JLevaL, iffrdfjxpaL, 
d^4/jLepai, 6fjLoui3dri]/j.€vaL, Sa-^/iepai ; rid^/xep, eiM/iev, tfjjev^ d^/J^ep, i\8^/i€P^ d^4p.€P. Doric 
has -/xev in the aorist passive, as at(rxui'^'>)/Lt€v, -jxev is preceded^y a short syllable 
and generally stands before a vowel, -pat always follows a long vowel. Doric 
has -^p and -ev in the present. Aeolic has -7}p in the present and 2 aorist. 



477] CHAXGES IN THE VERB-STEM J57 

a. Some are derived from other stem forms (pres. and fut.), ae 0ep-r6s, 

472. Verbals in -t6s, -tt^, -rbv either (1) have the meaning of a perfect pas- 
sive participle, as Kpvirrbs hidden^ irai5evT6s educated, or (2) express possibility., 
as voTirds thinkable, bparbs visible. Many have either sigiiilicatioii, but some are 
passive only, as iroirjTSs done. See 425 c. N. 

a. Usually passive in meaning are verbals from deponent verbs, as fiifirjTdi 
imitated. 

b. Usually active in meaning are compounds derived from transitive active 
verbs ; but some intransitive verbs make active verbals, as pvrSs floimng. 

c. Many are active or passive, others only active : p^p.inb's blamed, blam- 
able, blaming., irLarbi trusting in (rare), trusted.^ d-rrpaKTos doing nothing, not 
done, (pdeyKTos sounding. 

473. Verbals in -rhs, -r^d, -t4ov express necessity (cp. the Lat, gerundive in 
-7idus). as doT^os that must be given, waidevTios educandus. 

FORMATION OF THE TENSE-SYSTEMS (fl AND MI-VERBS) 
CHANGES IN THE VEKB-STEM 

474. From the verb-stem (or theme) each tense-stem is formed by 
the addition of a teuse-suffix (455) or of a prefix, or of both. In 
475^95 certain modifications of the verb-stem are considered. 

475. Variation in Quantity. — Many verbs of the first class (498 ff.) 
show variation in the quantity of the vowel of the verb-stem, which is 
commonly long in the present but fluctuates in other tenses, as Xv-w, 
Xv'O-oij lA-u-tra, but XeXv-Kaj XeXv-fMUj iXv-Orjv. (Other examples, 500.) 

a. Some verbs of the Fourth Class (523 c) lengthen a short vowel of the pres- 
ent in some other tenses. Thus, Xafipdvuj (Xaj3-) take, Xi^^o/xat, €t\7}<f>a, d\7}iifw.L^ 
iX-qipd-qv, but 2 aor. iXa^ov. 

476. Vowel Gradation (35, 36). — Verbs of the first class show a 
variation between a strong grade (or two strong grades) and a weak 
grade. The weak grades, t, v, a, appear especially in the second 
aorist and second passive systems ; the corresponding strong grades, 
et (ot), ev (oTj), -q (to), appear usually in the other systems (ot, o-u, w, in 
the second perfect). 

a. Expulsion of a short vowel between consonants (so-called syncope 493) 
produces a weak form of the stem of the same grade as t, v, o (36). Cp. yi-yv-o- 
fia,L become (aor. i-yev-b-ixT^jv)^ i'TrT-6-fn}v (pres. tr^T-o-imi Jly) with e-XiTr-o-;', 
e-<pvy~o-v, i-TOLK-rj-v (477 c). So e-ax-o-v got from ex-w have. 

b. a is the weak form of -q (a), as in tt}/cw frdKTjv ; and of c, when e has X, /i, 
V, p before or after it, as in Tp^-rrw, irpdir-riv (479). 

477. The following examples illustrate the principles of 476. 

a. €t ot l: XcCttw leave, \d\pia, 2 pert XAoiTra, XAei/ijuat, i\ei<f)eT!if, 2 aor. eXiTTov. 



158 CHANGES IN THE VERB-STEM [478 

N. — The weak form appears when the verb undergoes Attic reduplication 
(440) ; as in dXei^w anoint^ 2 perf. dXiJXi^a, dX-^Xi/xtiai. ; ipelKio tear (Ionic and 
poetic), 2 perf. ipi^pLyfiai^ 2 aor. ^pmov ; ipeiTruj overthrow^ Kpic ipiifjiwa ; but 
ipeiSoj prop, ipT/}p€i<rfiai. 

b. €uouu: i\iv(6)<To/jiaL I shall go, 2 perf. i\-f}\vOa (Epic A^Xou5a), 2 aor. 
(Epic i]\v9oi>) ; <^€V7w Jlee^ 0€iifo/xat or 0eufo{J/xai, 2 perf. ir^cpevya, 2 aor. €<pvyov ; 
p^cj Jlow (foT pev-u, 43), piixTOjxai^ ippvTjKa (pue-), 2 aor. pass, ippv-qv, 

N. — x^^ P0U7' (for x€ii-w, 43), Ixea (for €X€ua), has u in k^x'^''^''') Kix^l^^'-) ^X^- 
dijv ; creiiw (poetic) urge, eVo-eua, €<T(rviiai^ io-avdijp or i<T66't]tf rushed. See also 
T€i/xw i^ the List of Verbs. 

C. T] (0 a: p'r\y-vv(JiL break^ pi^^t^, fppv^a, 2 perf. epptaya^ 2 aor, pass. ipparyrjp ; 
T-f\K-o} meit^i T^^w, €Tr)^a, T^TT/Ka, iTTixO-ny, 2 aor. pass. iTa.KT]v. 

N. — Verbs of class c usually have d in the 2 aorist, « in the 2 perfect (if 
there is one), elsewhere r\. w occurs in the present in Tpdryca gnaw, 2 SiOi\€Tpayop. 

478. Change of « to o in the Second Perfect. — In the second jjerfect 
c of the verb-stem is changed to o. 

kX^tt-t-w S^fiaZ K^KXo0a, (Jiiro-^KTelvu kill (^ktcp-, 519) -iKTova^ \iy-ia collect 
et\ox(^i T^OLO-x^i fut. TTfio-o/juii (from TrtvOdo^ai^ 100) ir^iropda, tt^imtt-oj send ir^iroiJicpa, 
<TTipy-(j} love €<rTOpya, tIktoj beget riroKa, rp^ir-cj turn rirpotpa., Tp4<p-(jj nourish 
TiTpQ<pa, <pddp-<j3 corrupt €<pdopa. So in yiy{€)vofJiai become iyepdfirjv^ y^yova; 
iytlpta awaken iyp-^yopa (446). This change corresponds to that of ei to ot (477 a), 

479. Change of « to a. — In verb-stems containing X, /x, v, p, an c is 

usually changed to a in the first perfect^ perfect middle, and second 
passive systems. 

rp^TT-ia turn, T^rpa/Ji/Jiai, irpdTrrjv (1 aor. irp^ipdi^p) ; Tp4(p-bJ feed, T^dpafx/iai^ 
iTpd<pr}v (1 aor. i9p4(p0rjp) ; crireipu ((TTrep-) SOW, €<nrap/jLaL, io-jrdpvv ; <p6€tpo} (<pd€p-) 
destroy, €<pdapimL, i<pddpr]v ; o-rAXw (o-reX-) send, ecrraXKa, %<TTa\jjiJ0ii^ io-ToX-qv ; 
relvia (t€v~) stretch, T^raKa^ T^rafiat, irdd-qv (1 aor.). 

a. Also in the 2 aor. pass, of kX^tttco steal (^/cXaTrTji^), irXiKca weave (i-rrXdKrjv), 
TipTTOj gladden (Epic iTdpwtjp). Many of these verbs also show o in the second 
perfect (478). 

480. This d is also found in the second aorist active and middle of KTeivca kill 

(JeKTapov poetic), Tijxvta CUt (dialectal erafiop)^ Tp^TTOJ turn (trpaTTOi' poetic), ripiroj 
gladden (jkrapirbix-qp poetic), poetic h^pKOfxai see (k'dpaKOp). Also Tripdw, TnTjO-a-w. 

481. € in the perfect middle in /c^NrXe/i/xat (/cXe-n-rw steal), ir^wXeyfjiaL (ttX^kw 
weave) is introduced from the present. 

482. The a in 479, 480 Is developed from a liquid or nasal brought between 
two COnsonantC (35 b). Thus, eVraX/xat, r^rafxai from ia-rXfiai, rcrg/iat, irdOrjp 
from iTvdrjp (20 b) . Here o-rX, tp represent weak grades of the stem. 

o 

483. a. The variations «, o, a, w appear in rpiwoj turn^ rp^i/^w, frpexf/a, 2 perf. 
T^r po0a, T^rpa/Jifxat, irpicpdtjp, 2 aor. pass. iTpdinjp', frequentative rpWTrdoj (807). 

b. The variations «, o, w appear in ttItoimll fly, iroT^o/jiai (poet.) and frequen- 
tative IT (OT do fiat (poet., 867) fly about. 



48.7] CHANGES IN THE VERB-STEM l59 

484. Ti, a in the Second Perfect. — In the second perfect a of the 
verb-stem is lengthened to t] (a) : OdWia (Oak-) bloom, rkBr^Xa ; <^atVw 

(<^av-) show, TTiKJiTjva ', fjbaivit) (/Aav-) madden, ix€/xr}va ; Kpd^oi (Kptty-) Cry 
out, K€Kpdya. 

485. Addition of «. — a. To the verb-stem e is added to make the present 
steDi in Soxecu seem, fut. 56^0), aor. eSo^a (5ok-) ; so in yafjL^w mat-ry, w^^a? push. 
Usually € is added in some stem other than the present 

b. In many verbs e is added to the verb-stem to form the tense-stems other 
than present, second aorist, and second perfect, e.g. fxaxofj-ai (ju-ax-) fiffht, fxaxov- 
ficu (=/iaxe(cr)o/iat), ^/iaxetrd/iTjj', /le/id xij/wtt. ^0 ^xOofuii am grieved, ^o^/XofxaL 
wishy yiyvop.a.L become, d^tj want, (^)6Ato wish, ju^XXw intend, ^\u is a care, 
oioyuai think. 

c. In some verbs e is added to form one or more tense-stems, as y^v<jj (/icv-) 
remain, ^fi^vqKa (pLcve-) to avoid -y-Ka in the perfect. So, v^fiu distribute, e'xw 
have, OLxOfxat am gone. So also SapSavdi, 6a-<palvofiai, piuj, a-rei^dJ (poetic), TU7xaj'aj. 

d. Some verbs have alternative presents with or without e. Here someiimes 
one is used in prose, the other in poetry, sometimes both are poetic or both used 
in prose. Thus, 'i\Koj draw (Horn, also eXjceto), taxw iax^<^ scmnd (both poetic), 
/i^Soj ^5^to (both poetic), piirru) and ^tlirT^w throw (both in prose), 

486. Addition of a and o, — a or o is added to the verb-stem in some verbs. 
Thus, fjvKaotjLai bellow (Epic 2 aor. /xtukov), i^jLVKTocrdixijv ; oKiaKOfiat (d\-) be cap- 
tured, oXibcrofutL from oho- ; &fxvv-^ swear (dfx-) &{xo<7a, <i/i(i/io«:a etc. (6}W-') ; 
oixo/J-cLi am gone. Epic orxw^a or ^X'^'^'^' 

487. Lengthening of Short Final Vowel. — Verb-stems ending in a 
short vowel generally lengthen that vowel before the tense-suffix 
in all tenses (except the present and imperfect) formed from them. 
Here a (except after e, l, and p) and c become y, o becomes <o. 

Tlfxd-ta (rlfxa-') honour, r'lfxifj-aw, irifXTj-a-a, Teri/iTj-zca, rert/iT^ynai, irl/ji'^-dnjv ; 
d-ripd-w (dfjpa-) hunt, Srjpd-aci}, idi^pd-a-a, etc. (389) ; iroi^o) (xoie-) make, ttoi-^-ctw, 
^irofiT-o-a, Treiroiiq-Ka, 'tr€'jroL'i}-fxat, iirot-fi-dTjv ; 5'r)'K6u> (SijXo-) manifest, Si^Xti-cto, 
^5iJXw-(ra, etc. ; ^dw permit, idaw, etc. 

a. Note aKpodao/xai^ '^Kpoa(7d/xT]v, etc., from aKpodofxat hear j xP^'^^i ^XPW°- 
from XP'^^ g'^'^^ oracles; xpwof^t, ^xp^°-Mv from xP°-°f^°-'- '"se; rpria-a} and 
%rpr](Ta. from Terpaivo} borC are from rpe- 

b. Verb-stems adding e or o (486), and stems apparently receiving a short final 
vowel by metathesis (128), lengthen the short final vowel, as ^oi/XojLtffi (/3oi/X-) 
mi^-h, ^ovK-fj-aoixai (^ouXe-, 485), Kdy.vw (Ka/x-) am weary, K^K/x-rj-Ka (K/xa-). 

485 D. Some Ionic and poetic verbs adding e are dX^^w, &\9ofxat, yeytav^ta, yiqdiia, 
dovirdta, tfpo/iat, etX^o?, ^iraup^w, KeXaS^w, K^Xofxai, k€vt4u}, k^Sw, KTVirita, Kvp4w, Xdtr/cw, 
/x4do/xat, fii^uj, iraTh/xat, pty^(a, tTrvy^co^ rop^d), X'^^^> ^iX<^w (poetic forms), XP°-''- 
(7fJ^(t} ; dfXTr\aKi(TK<j), aTra^pia ko) *, Epic iSiSda-Kija-a (SiSdc/coj), Trt^-^cw, ireTrtd-^a-w, 
irtdificras (Tre/^to), ire<ptb'f}<yop,ai (^(p^ibofxai). 

486 D. a Is added also in ^pvxdo/xat, yodd), Sijpido/xat, XtxM-dta, fji,7}Kdo/jLat, /xTjrtdo}. 
All these are mainly poetic. 



160 CHAis'GES IN THE VERB-STEM [488 

488. Retention of Short Final Vowel. — Many verb-stems ending 
apparently in a short vowel retain the short vowel, contrary to 487, 
in some or all the tenses. 

ye\a-(i} laugh^ 7eXaa-o^ai, iyeXaca^ iyeXdcrdrjv ; reX^w finish^ reXw from reXi-dj, 
^rAecra, rer^Xetfa, rer^Xea-fiat^ ireX^crd-qv; aviia accomplish^ dvv<T<a^ ^vv(Ta^ i}pv<rfiai, 

a. The following verbs retain the final short vowel of the verb-stem in all 
tenses: &ya-iJM.L, alS^-o/xaL^ dK^-ofJt.a.L, dX^-w, dvCi-o}, dp^cr/cw (dpe-), dp/c^-oj, dp6-o}j 
dptj-(i}j 7fXd-a>, 4\ai!>ya> (^Xa-), eXK^-to^ and ^Xk-ut {eXx-^-}^ efxi-w^ ipd-bf^ epa~fjuxi 
(poet.), i<Tdi(ji (Jcdi-^ ^5-6-, ido-')^ i^~i>}i dXd-ta^ iXdc/co/iai (iXa-), KXd-o; break, /xedtnTKU) 
(^fiedv-), f^-w, TTTv-ta (tttu-, ttti;-), <nrd~(a^ reX^-w, rp4-(a, <p6lv(j3 (0^t-), 0Xd-aj, 
xaXd-uf, x^'<^ ix^-)- -^Iso all verbs in -aj'w/u and -ewv^i (except ec^tjKa from 
a-^^vvvfj.t extinguisJi)^ and 6XX0/ii (6X-e-), 6^n'/xt (6;n-, <}/x,e-, bfxo-'), ffrhpvvfxi (<rTop-e). 

b. The following verbs keep short the final vowel in the future, but lengtlien 
it in one or more other tense-systems, or have double future fonns, one with the 
short vowel, the other with the long vowel: aij'^u (aty^cru, '^veaa^ HveKa, -^vid-qv^ 
yvTjIMit), &X^°P^'' i^X^'') ^X^^~)i KaX4-o}, fxaxofJ-a-i- (^^x-e-), fiVoj^ Trtvoi (irt-, xo-), 
■fro&^-bjf TTOvi-ij}^ ip6-io (Epic), (pddvia (jpBa-^. 

c. In some verbs the final short vowel of the verb-stem remains short in one 
or more tense-stems, but is lengthened in the future, as Se-w hind, 5i)<T0}^ ed-n^a, 
didfKa^ d^Se/nai^ i^idriv. So alpiw^ ^aivui (^a-), ^vv^o) (jSt-), 5i5o;jat (^So~, 5w-), 
6^5^'a-Jt^at, dt(c (dv-, S^-\ €vpi<rKCi> (eup-e-), exw (crex-i <^X^~)i ^^^ i^^'j ^^")> ^Vf^'- 
(e-, 7?-), 'i(7Tij{J.L (era-, <rT7j-), Xi)a; (Xu-, XD-), Tid-qfxi, (^e-, ^i?-), riyo; (ti-), 01;a) (^u-, 

(^D-), and the root ^p-, pe- (eTTroy). 

d. Most of the verbs refusing to lengthen a final short vowel have verb-stems 
originally ending in c (624) ; as reX^oj from TeXea-uo (cp, rb t4Xo%). By analogy 
to these, other verbs retain their short fuial vowel. 

489. Insertion of cr. — In the perfect middle and first aorist pas- 
sive systems, verbs which r.etain a short final vowel and some others 
usually insert cr before the personal ending. 

Thus, reX^w (488 d), rerAecr/xai, iTiXiadriv ] (Tirdoj draw^ ^<nraa-fiai^ i(nrd(rd7}Vf 
KeXe^oj order, K€k4X€V<t fJiai, iKeXe^jtrd-qv ; yiyvdiffKLj knoW. eyv(j}<Tfj.ai^ iyvdadTjv, 

a. If the aorist passive ends in -$7}v and not in -ffdrjv^ the perfect middle does 
not insert a-. Thus -Btjv^ not -cr^ijy, occurs in all verbs in -eua? except XetJo? stone 
to death, m all verbs in -ew which have -dr]v preceded by 77, in all verbs in -ow 
except x^^ heap up, and in all verbs in -aw except those that retain a. Stems 
originally ending in <r (624) properly show c, 

b. If the aorist passive ends in ht^tji^, the perfect middle may or may not 
insert a. Verbs in -a^j and -ifoj (stems -a5, -t5) regularly have a- by 83, 587. 
In the case of other verbs some always show cr, some never show o-, and some 
are doubtful. lu many cases the later usage with <r has crept into the Mss. of 

488 D. Here belong Epic dK7}5itv, kot4o}, Xo^w, veiKio), and the forms ttacra, 
-dya^jy, &€<7a. ip6<jj shows ^pv- and ipv-. 

489 D. Horn, has original forms in ir€<t>pa5fxivoi (4>pd^o}j, K€Kopv6fx4yos (Kopjirrw), 
iTri-Kidp^v (iref^w). 



49o] CHANGES IK THE VERB-STEM 161 

the classical authors (so with" the perfect of dXew, jSat'pw, Spdu), ^cirpi'D/it, (cXciw 
(kXtjw), a-<(Jfa), xP'^<^-> ^^^ "W^ith tlae aorist of iraijo}). 

c. The following verbs show an inserted cr both in the perfect middle and the 
aorist passive in claesical Greek : albiofiai, yiyvwaKU}^ eX/ctiw, ^Xiw, &pa6o)^ KcXeiJoj, 
KXdoJ, Kva(l)(iJy KOpivvvfitj KfXtw, ^bw, Trifnr\7j/j.i., tt/jIw, irTfTTOj, a-^ivvv/M, aeio}, (Tkc- 
5dyvv/iL, (TTrcia), rayiiw, reXio), rfpoj, ixt;, 0Xc£w, x<5w, XP^t^- 

d. The following form only the perfect middle with <x in classical Greek : ^vviia^ 
^vvvfXL (el/iai, but Hctto Hom.), ^piJw, ^djvvvfjLi^ f^w, *(i5i}(ro-o/iai, ttX^w, 0Xei}w (Hdt.). 

e. The following form only the aorist passive with a- in classical Greek : dya/iai , 
dKojJo), dioJaj, dp^ffKO}^ dx^o/xai, 7eXcla>, 5atyy/ii, Spdo), AiJoj, ^fia/xai^ ^pdw, tXaffKoyLiai, 
xXeiw '(/cXtJw), XeiJw, {j^ediLKrKU), fiinvj^aKO), 6t(o^ Svofiai (Hdt.), irafw, TraXafw, Trerd*^ 
vD/ii, iri/xirpyj/ii^ ^afoj, pdfvyv/iL^ (7Tbpvv}Xi^ XCt^^^w, xP'^^P'^'-i XP^^i XP^'^- 

f. Only in post-classical Greek is o- attested both in the perfect middle and 
aorist passive in dpK^w, ^^oj, Kkaiut^ (diro) XatJw, XAw, 6XXD/ii, TTP^w, xra^w, (Tdw, i/'atJoj. 
— Only in the perfect middle: dya/iai^ dKoiJw, dvtJto, 7eXdw, 5pdw, ^ju^w, epafiai^ 
KepdvvvfXL, KoXoiJa), fieO^aKCti, vaio), vdu> spin, dirviu), Tra/w, TraXafw, Trerdt'J'D/At (and in 
Ionic), irL/iirprj/ii (Aristotle; earlier peri. Tr^irpTjyuai), <Tr6pvv/iL, x^-^^^^^ fa<>03. 
When the perfect middle is not attested in classical Greek some at lea^t of 
the (T forms from the above verbs may represent classical usage, provided the 
aorist passive has -ffO-riv. — Only in the aorist passive : d/c^o/iat, dX^w, dpiJto, j3ai w, 
^vvioi, 7tiiw, eiXiuf, iXa^vw, epu/xat, ip6o3, ^(hvvvixi^ KaLoi, |^w, fiaxofxat, v4o) heap up, 
*656(7(70ixai, ttX^oj, ttti^oj, (T^^w, (pddvo). 

g. Some verbs have double forms (one of which may be disputed) in the 
classical period: Bvvajjiai: iSwrjdtjv and iSvvdadvv (chiefly Ionic and poetic); 
KcpdvvijfjLi : iKpSLdrjv and iKepdadrjy ; Kpovto : K€Kpovpxii better than KdKpovafiai ; via : 
vivrifxaL and v4v7}(TfxaL ; ojivUjii : 6}i(i)(xofxa.i (and ^juti/iotrrat), <h/i687]v and (bfida-dfjv, — 
Dialectal or dialectal and late are i^dlxrdTjv for i^o-^e-qv (jSodw), l\-f)\a<rixai yiKdaS-nv 
(Aai5vw), K€K6pf)jiai for KeKOpecjiaL (Kop^vvD/ii), ireir^Tacr^Ltat (irerdwu^it). 

h. Some verb-stems ending in i' show -<r-/iat in the perfect middle : ^SiSj-w, 
jxiaLvd), irax^vo), irepaivu, Otpaivoj, (palvo). Thus ir^tpafffiai, ijdv(r/xat, fie/xiaa-fxaL. 
Dialectal or late : ^t^Xo^'w, KOLKaivaj^ XeTrrtvo}, XvpLalvoixai, ^alvw, ^paivo)^ <njpiaivo). 
On -pLfiai see 579. 

i. Observe that some vowel verbs inserting o- do not lengthen the final vowel 
of the verb-stem in any tense (ycXdw, reXiut) ; and that some not inserting a 
(5^a>, 96o3, Xtcj) do not lengthen the final vowel in some tenses, ^ir-aivio) com- 
mend and irap-atp^w exhort do not insert <r and have the short vowel in all tenses. 

j. The insertion of o- in the perfect middle started in the 3 sing, and 2 pi. 
Before the endiiigs -rat and -cr^e, <r was retained in the case of ^erbs with stems 
originally ending in <r (as reX^w), or where <t developed from t, 5, $ (98) before 
-rat, -o-Se (ir^ireia-Tai from ireTreidraC), See 409 h, 624. In all cases where the 
verb-stem did not originally end in (t, the sigma forms are due to analogy; as in 
K€K4X€V<T/j.aL (/ceXeiJa)), iriTrXyjapjai (^TrlfnrXTjpii), eyvojcrfiat (ytyv<J}<TKO)'). 

490. Addition of 0. — The present stems of some poetical verbs are made 
by the addition of ^ ; as v-^-d-cj spin, ttX^-^-oj am full {Trip.-TrX'q-p.C). Cp. 832. 

490 D, A few verbs make poetic forms by adding -6%- to the present or 
the 2 aorist tense-stem, in which a or e (u once) takes the place of the thematic 

GREEK GRAM. — 11 



162 CHANGES IN THE VERB-STJiM [491 

a. Most of the indicative forras seem to be imperfects, but since some have the 
force of aorists (e.g., Sopli, O. (J. Sti-^, 1834, O. J\ 05U), in oei^aiu editions they 
are regarded as second aoiists, and the iiiliiiitives and participles are accented 
(against the Mss.) on the ultima {dicaKaOeiv, eUaddjv). 

491. Omission of v. — Some verbs in -voi drop the v of the verbal 
stem in the lirst perfect, perfect middle, and lirst passive systems. 

Kpivoi (Kpip-), judge, KiKpi-na^ KiKpi-fiai, iKpl-^7}v. So also K\ivo} incline^ ir\6vo} 
yjash, 

492. Metathesis. — The verbal stem may suffer metathesis (128). 

a. In the present : dvrjO-Ktj die^ 2 aor. edavov^ perf. T^dv^jtca. 

b. In other tenses : ^dXXw throw (^a\-), perf. ^e^XrjKa, ^^Xrfdrjv (jSX?;-); r^fivtj CUt 

(re^-i'-), 2 aor. €Tefiov, perf. r^rp.TjKa ; d4pKop.ai (5epK-) see, 2 aor. edpa- 
Kov; T^pircj delight, 2 aor. pass. ^rdpTr-qv and irpdTnjf (both poetical). 

493. Syncope. — Some verbs suffer syncope (44 b). 

a. In the present ; TrtwTojfall for Tr(-7r(e)T-w, iVx^ hold for (dr)i.dr(e)x-« (125 e), 

fiifiv(t} for /j.L-fjuey-(o. 

b. In the future : irT-^aofiai. from ir^TOfiai fly. 

c. In tlie second aorist : ^(tx^v for i-(T€x-ov from ^'x^ (Jx~ for (rex-, 125 e). 

d. In the perfect; ire-irra-fjiai have expanded from irerd-vvvfiL. 
N, — Syncopated forms are properly iveak stems (476 a). 

494. Reduplication. — The verb-stem may be reduplicated. 

a. In the present with t : yi-yv^'O-KCi} (yvoj-) knoiv, rl-d'q-p.i place, 'i-crrTj-fu set, 

8t-8(j3'fii give. The present reduplication may be carried over to other 
tenses: 5i5d(K:)cr/caj teach (99), diSd^ui. Withe ; re-rpalyoi bore. 

b. In the second aorist: &yo} (0.7-) lead, TJy-ay-ov ; ^irofiai follow, i<nr6p.T}v (for 

<7€~<J7r~Op.TJV^ . 

c. Eegularlj; with e in the perfect. 

495. Iterative Imperfects and Aorists in -o-k%-. — Homer and Herodotus 

have iterative imperfects and aorists in -uKoy and -aKopi-qv denoting a customary 
or repeated past actioji. Homer has iterative forms in the imperfect and 1 and 
2 aorist active and middle. Herodotus has no iteratives in the 1 aorist and few 

vowel of the simple verb. Such forms are chiefly Homeric, but occur sometimes 
in Attic poetry, very rarely in prose. Thus, <p\ey€da) (4>\^cj hum), edid)Kadov 
(dtdljKw pursue), eaxeOov (ex<^ have), ^-forms are found in moods other than 
the indicative {elKdSw, elKdBoi^i., dpvvddare, dLCOKadeiy, eUddciiv). 

492 D. See the List of Verhs for poetical forms of dpLapTdvoj, dapddvw, dpirroj, 

493 D, See the List of Verbs for poetical forras of ttAoj, TreXd^oj, /xAoj, p.4\o' 
p.a.1 ; also %T€Tp.ov found, €Tr€<pvov slew. 

494 D. Poetic dpapla-Ktj (dp) fit, and the intensivcs (867) p.ap-p.aip(»y {p.a.p-) 
flash, TTop-ipvpo} {(pvp-) grow red, irap.-fpa.lvoi {<pav-) shine brightly, iroL-irWuj} {ttw-) 
puff. Also with T) in dy-deK-ro greeted (Mss. deldeKTo). 



5O0] lUlESKNT SYSTEM: FIRST CLASS 163 

in the 2 aorist ; and only from w-verbs. Herodotus regularly and Homer usually 
omit tbe augment, -aw verbs have -aa-a-Kov or -a-a-Kov ; -ew verbs -ee-aKoy, in 
Hom. also -e-a-Kov. -a-a-Kou is rare in other verbs than those in -aw. The vowel 
preceding the suffix is always short, 

a. The suffix -<rK%- is added to the tense-stem. Imperf. : <p€6y€-(TK€ (<f>e6ycj 
Jlee), €xe~<TKOP (ex^ have), vlKd-a-Ko/xev (wKao) conquer)^ yoda-a-Ke (yodcj bewail)^ 
KpvTTTa-ffKe {Kp^TTTw kldc) , K'aX^e-ff/coJ' (KaXio) call), ^(avvOtrKero (^dfPVfU gird); 
1 aoT, : dTTo-Tp^a-a-Ke (oTrorp^w turn away) : 2 aor, : <p6ye-(TK€, o-rd-ffKe stood. 

VERB-STEM AND PRESENT STEVI 

496. Froni the verb-stem (oi' theme) the present stem is formed 
in several ways. All verbs are arranged iu the present system 
according to the method of forming the present stem from the verb- 
stem. Verbs are named according to the last letter of the verb-stem 
(376) : 1. Vowel Verbs, 2. Liquid Verbs (including liquids and 
nasals),- 3. Stop Verbs. 

I. PRESENT SYSTEM 

(PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE) 

497. The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five dif- 
ferent ways. There are^ therefore^ five classes of present stems. 
The verb-stem is sometimes the present stem, bat usually it is 
strengthened in different ways. A sixth class consists of irregular 
verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or 
stems of other tenses. 

FIRST OR SIMPLE CLASS 

498. Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem 
with or without the thematic vowel. 

499. (I) Presents with the thematic vowel (<o-verbs). The pres- 
ent stem is made by adding the thematic vowel %- to the verb-stem, 
as \v-fji, 7ratSeu-(u, irav-u), fi:v-(t), 7ret^-(o, <f>evy-(j), and the denominative 
verbs rlfid-oi, <^tA.e-aj, j3a(n\€v-(i}. For the personal endings, see 463 ff. 
For the derivation of many of these verbs, see 522. 

500. The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but 
either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -uw or -lo), 

1. a. Verbs in -vtj generally have v in Attic in the present ; as X()tJ loose, Svtj 
go under, 6v<j sacrifice (almost always), ^doj rfiake' grow (usually). Also in 
dXtSoj, dpTViii, ^pevdOofxat, yijpDofxai^ SaKpVtJ (oiice v), iSpVco, laxVd), Kontbyi^ Kvtcj, 

500. 1. B. Homer lias short v in dXi^o;, di'iJw, jSpi^tj, 5i5a;, ip^cj, -fifxijcj, rav6u, 
<i>(/bi, and in all denoniiiiative verbs except ip-qrvovro and ^irWoovffi, where v is 
metrically necessary ; long v In ^(5w, tttOw, 5a; ; anceps in duoj aaarifice (y doubt- 



164 PRESENT SYSTEM: FIRST CLASS, SECOND CLASS [501 
» 

/fojKfSaj, KwXOoj (usually), fxijvOdj^ ottPoj (^dirvio)}^ tttOw, pVo/xai, tjTDofxat^ TpDw, v€l ; 
possibly in e^Xiio/jtat, 17/itJa), /jn5w, ^tJw, ^Xiiw ; ^Xti'iJoj, /iTjpiJo/xat, TrXT;(?t;w (oiice t^, 
^truw. wpuw (0) is doubtful, 

b. -v(jj has V short iu dtftJcj, dptJco, ^p^w^ k\-Ou (but «XC^t), jue^i^w, and in all 
verbs in -wco, 

2. Attic lias Z in primitive verbs iu -ico, as Trptw, xp't^j X^^'^j ^^t, i in rfoj. De- 
nominative verbs have t ; but i^dtw. 

501. Several verbs with medial t, v iu the present, show r or Z, y or y in some 
other tense or tenses. Thus, ^Xt^cu press ridXi^a^ irviyta choke hrviy-r^v, rpi^u 
rub T^Tpitpa iTpi^rjv, TDipcj raise smoke iTv<pT}v^ "^px^ cool i\p6xv^' 

502. Verb-stems having the weak grades a, i, v, show the strong 
grades r}, Uy ev in the present; as TTJK-tD {raK-) melt, AftVo) (\nr-) leave^ 

a. To this class belong also XtJ(?w, o-ijTraj, T^drjira am astonished^ 2 aor, €Ta<poy, 
dXef^cu, (§^6ot/ca, 703), ef/ccu (eot/ca), (efw^a, 503 a), ^pef/ccj, ipelTroj, iref^w, (TTel^ti), 
ffTet'xw, <l>eiho}jja.i ; ipeOyofxai^ /ceiJ^w, ireOdofxaif ret^xw. 

503. Present Stems in -€%- for €v%-. — The strong form eu before the the- 
matic vowel became ef (eu) and then e (20 a, 43) in the verbs Bi<o run de^a-o/xaiy 
vtw swim ^yevaa, irXtw sai7 ewXevffa, irvm breathe %'rrvevcra^ pia> Jlow peuaofxaLy yjk<a 
pour K^VKa, Kixv/Mit, 4%^67}v. 

504. (II) Presents without the thematic vowel (/xi-verbs). The 
personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often 
reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong 
forms 7^, <D in the singular, weak forms € (a), o in the dual and plural. 
Thus Ti-6r}-fJii, TL-O^-fxev y t-CTTT^/xt for ai-crTrj-jJii {=^ (Ti-crTarjJiL), L-crTot-fxev ] 
St-Sa>-/xt, Si-Bo~fxev. 

a. - All verbs in /ml (enumerated 723 ff) belong to this class except those in 
'vij/xi (523 f) and -vn/xi (523 g). . 

SECOKD OR T CLASS (VERBS IN -7rT6)) 

505. The present stem is formed by adding -t%- to the verb- 
stem, which ends in tt, /3, or <^. The verb-stem is ascertained from 
tiie second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same 
root 

ful), dV(o rush on, rage^ \v<a (rarely XtJw), ttoittwJw, p^ofxai. Pindar has u short 
in Otjcj sacrifice, lo'x^^i ^^(^, ixavdof^ pi5cu, p^ofxatj in presents in -wcu, and in 
denominative verbs. 

2. Horn, has I in the primitives irio/xat and xp^^ ; hut rfw and rlw (refw ? ) ; 
-10} in denominatives (except fx-j^vle B 769). Kovita, dfofxai are from KOPL(iT)-ib}, 

3. Wliere Attic has C, Z in the present, and Epic i/, r, the former are due to 
the influence of u, Z in the future and aorist. '^ 

603 D. These verbs end in -euw in Aeolic {irve'uo} etc.). Epic TrXeiw, Trvefij have 
ei "by metrical lengthening (28 D.). 



513] PRESENT SYSTEM: THIRD (IOTA) CLASS 1G5 

KdiTTO} cut, verb-stem kott- in 2 aor. pass. e-Kow-njif. 

pXdirro) injure, *' " j3Xaj3- " " " i~§yd^--r)v. 

Ka\6TrT0} cover ^ " " KaXvp- •* KaXiijS-i; 7twi. 

piiTTCj throw, " " p'0-, ^'^ " 2 aor. pass. i-ppi<p-7)v. 
a. da-TpaTTTw lighten^ x^^^ttw oj3j5ress may be from -tt^w (117, 607). 

506. Some of the verbs of this class add e in the present or other tenses, as 

piTTT^ia throw, TTEKTiu} COfilb, T^TTTUJ Strike rVirT]<T(a. 

THIKD OK IOTA CLASS 

507. The present stem is formed by adding -t%- to the verb-stem 
and by making the necessaiy euphonic changes "(109-116). 

I. PRESENTS IN -Jw 

-508. Dental Verb-stems. — Verb-stems in S unite with t to form 
presents in -t^m (116), as <f>pdl<j) tell (<j}pa8-L0))j cXW^<o hope (cXTrtS-), 
KOfjLi^o) carry (KOfJuS-rj a carrying), o^<o smell (oS-fti; odour), KaOe^ofjuai seat 
myself (cS-os seat), 

a. o-^'^w save (for <Toj-t^(o) forms its tenses partly from the verb-stem <rw-, 
partly from the verb-stem o-wt-. 

509. Stems in 7. — Some verbs in ~^o) are derived from stems in 

y preceded by a vowel; as apTra^o) seize for dpTray-to) (cp. ap-n-ay-rj 

seizure^, Kpa^m cry out (2 aor. cKpayov). See 116, other examples 
623 y III. 

a. ifi^co wash makes its other tenses from the verb-stem vi^ (fut. vi^pca, cp. 
Horn. nirTOfiai), 

510. A few verbs with stems in 77 lose one 7 and have presents in -^w ; as 
nXd^o) scream (KXayy--:/}), fut. KXdy^oj ; caXTri^oj sound the trumpet iffaXirt-y^a 
(also X6^<o sob, TrXct^oi cause to wander). 

511. pe7i,w, ipytot jield p4^o} do (poetic) andepSw (Ionic and poetic). See IIG. 

512. Most verbs in -^to are not formed from stems in S or y, but 
are due to analogy. See 516, 623 y III, SG6, 6. 

II. PRESENTS IN -ttw (IONIC AND LATER ATTIC -<r<ra), 78) 

513. Palatal Verb-stems. — Stems ending in k or ^ unite with i 
to form presents in -tto) (-o-crou). 

(pvXaTTto guard from ^vXaK-j,o} (0yXaK-'jJ guard (112)); K-nptrrw proclaim from 
iC7}pvK-i(a (KTJpv^, KTjpVK-os); rapdrrca disturb from ra/jax-ioj (rapax-V Confusion). 
a. TT^TTw cook is for TreK-tu ; all other tenses are made from ttctt-. 

508 D, Aeolic has -cSw for -^w. 



166 PRESENT SYSTEM: THIRD (IOTA) CLASS [514 

514. Several verbs showing forms in 7 sccin to unite 7 withi to form pres- 
ents in -TTOi {-crcro}.) Thus dWdrroj change^ ixdrro} knead^ ttXt^tto) i<Lrike (with 
the 2 aoristS passive T7XXd7-rjv, ^/xd7-rjj/, ^7rX'^7-i7j'), Trpdrro} dO ('2 perl'. ireTrpaya, 
571), Tdrro) arrange (ray-Ss commander). 

a. So bpdrrojxai grasp, vdrrcj COmpress (616 b), v6tto} push, TmJo-ffW fold, 
ffOLTTO} load^ avpiTTO} pipcy (TtpdrTOi Jdll^ (ppdrro} fence. Trp&TTio has the late perf. 
■jriTTpaxo.' 

515. Some presents in -ttw (-o-o-o>) are formed from stems in t, 
like those from k^ x- 

Poet. ipi(r<T(a row (iph--7]s rower) aor, ijpea-a ; poet. Kopiaa-io arm {K6pv<; Kopvd-os 
helmet), iinperf. iKSpvaae, 
a. So also ^XLttoj take honey ^ irdrro} spHnkle, irrirrco pound, and i)erhaps irXdrToj 

form,' also d^dfftrw Hdt., and poetic t/xdo-o-o?, Xa^iJo-o-w, Xitrtro/xat. 
t). t'dTTw compress (yo-y-, vad-) eVa^a, vevaa-p,ai and vivayfiai, Cp. 514 a. 

516. Formations by Analogy. — a. As 7 + ^ and 5 + > unite to form f, none 
of the verbs in -ttu can be derived from -7^w or -5iiw. Since the future and 
aorist of verbs in -f'oj might often seem to be derived from stems in k, Xi ^r "^j ^-^ 
uncertainty arose as to these tenses : thus the future cr0d|w (cr0a7-(rw) from 
Epic a4)d^oi slay (<T<pay-iu) was confused in formation with <pv\d^io (<pv\aK-(ro}), 
and a present <7<pdTT0i was constructed like (pvXdTToj. Similarly, Attic dpTrdtroj 
(-o/xat) for Epic apird^u ; and SO in place of (poetic) apjiS^oj Jit (dp/xo5-) the form 
dofxbrTco was constructed. 

III. LIQUID AND NASAL STEMS 

517. (I) Presents in -Wta are formed from verb-stems in \, to 
which t is assimilated (110). Thus, dyy^'AXo) announce (dyyeX-,(.a))j 
crriWiji send (oreX-to)). 

518. (II) Presents in -atvo) and -atpo) are formed from verb-stems 
in -av and -a/o, the ^ being thrown back to unite with the vowel of tlie 

verb-stem (111). Thus^ <^atVaj show (<f>av~i(ii), ovofmivui name (6voju,av-ta)), 
Xa(po) rejoice (xa-p-toi). 

a. Many verbs add -tio to the weak form of the stem, as ouofxaiv-oj for 
(Svo/jtat'-taj from 6yop.v-tb}, Cp- nomen (35 b). 

b. Horn, has Kvdalvo} and KvSdvoi honour, /xeXatvw blacken and jUfXd^'w j77-oz(? 
Mack. 6\t(r9aivio slip is late for iXur^avw. 

c. The ending -att-co has been attached, by analogy, in dep/xalvoj make hot, etc. 
(620 III, 866.7), Likewise -ux'w (519) in poetic dprtvoi prepare, parallel to dprto} 
(in composition), by analogy to ^apvvdj weigh down, r^dtvcj sweeten. 

516 D. Homer has many cases of tbis confusion ; as iroXefiL^oj (iroXe/Jnd-) but 
jToXe/xt^w. Tn Doric the ^ forms from -f-w verbs are especially common, as x^P^^^ 
separate, x^^pi-^'^i ^X^P^^°- fral^oj sport has (late) eirat^a. 



523] PRESENT SYSTEM: FOUllTH (N) CLASS 167 

519. (Ill) Presents in -etvo), -eipw, -Ivoj, -Ipo), -vyojj and -Zpta are 
formed from stems in ev, ep, Xv, Ip, vv, vp with ^%- added. Here t 
disappears and the vowel preceding v or p is lengthened by compen- 
sation (e to ct ; t to i J u to {J). See 37 a, 111. 

Tcivw Stretch (rev-iui)^ (pdelpc,} destroy {(pdep-), Kptvu) (Kpiv-), oiKTipw pity (oUrtp-') 
generally written olKTelpo), ifitvui ward off (a/xw-)^ fxapTVpotiai call to witness 
{fxapTvp-). 

a. dcpeiXw (dtpeX") owe, am obliged is formed like relvo), (pOelpu) in order to dis- 
tinguish it from 6<p^\\u} (6(p€\-) increase formed regularly. Horn, has usually 
Aeolic (i^eXXw in the sense of 6(p€l\o}. Seipo) fiay (dep-iu)) is parallel to dep-co (499). 

520. Verb-stems in -av- for (av, -ap-). — Two verbs with verb-stems in ~av 
have presents in -aioj from -aiyrw out of -a/r-jtw (38 a) : Ka(« hum (/cat/-, /ca/r-), 
fut. /caiJ-crw ; and K\.ai« loeep (/cXay-, /cXa/r-), fut. K\a,u-aofjiai. Otliers 624 b. 

a. Attic prose often has /caw and /cXdw, derived from aif before ei (/cdcts, and, 
with a extended to the 1 person, Kdw). Cp. 396. 

521. Addition of «. — The following verbs add e in one or more tense-stems 
other than the present : /3dXXa) throw^ KadL^oj sit^ K\aiu> weep^ 6^0} smell. dcpe'CKbi 
owe^ am obliged, xa/pc^ rejoice. 

522. Contracted Verbs and Some Verbs in -t«, -v«. — a. Verbs in -aoj, -ew, 
-ow, which for convenience have been treated under the first class, properly 
belong here, i (?/) having been lost between vowels. Thus, rlfxaoi from rlfxa-iw 
(rt/ta-), oIk^o) dwell from oIk€-lw (oIk€~ alternate stem to oIko-, 229 b), 57?X6cj from 
di}\o-L(i}. So in denominatives, as poetic fXTqviw am wroth (/iTjyt-iw), ^Irf/w sow 
{(plTv-iw). Primitives in -iw, -yw are of uncertain origin. Cp. 608, 624. 

K — The rare spellings dXufw, ^ut'w, fxeOvlo}, (pvlw indicate their origin from -^w. 

b. So with stems in long vowels: dpQ do from dpd-iu, i^Cb live from fiv-jtw 
(cp. ^rjdt)^ x/)w give oracles from xp'n-i<^ (2 pers. xp^s, 394). 

FOUKTH OE N CLASS 

523. The present stem of the N class is formed from the verb- 
stem by the addition of a suffix containing v. 

a. -v%- is added : ddK~vu bite, r^fx-vio cut. 

So dVvo}, K6.p.v(i3^ 7riv(j}, Trirvoj poet., tLpco^ <p6dvo}, (f)div(j3. 

b. -av%- is added : alaO-dv-o/xaL perceive, ap^apT-dv-o) err. 

So av^dvo},' ^\a<TTdv(j3, dapddvw, direxOdvopxLi, oiddvo}, oKiaddvu)^ 6(p'\(.(TKdv(jy (526). 

c. -av%- is added and a nasal (/a, v, or 7 nasal) inserted in the verb-stem : 
\a.-fx-^-dv'W (Xa^-) take, \a-v-e-dv-u escape notice (Xa^-), Tu-7-x-dv-w happen (tvx-). 
So d;'5d;'w please (d5-), Oiyydpo} touch {Olj-), Kiyx^foj find (kix-), XaYxdj/w 

obtain by lot (Xax-), p^vddvta learn (p^ad-), irvvOdvop^aL inquire (jrvB-). 

d. -ve%- is added: jSD-j/^-oj stop up (also j3iiw), U-vi-o~p.ai come (also J/cw), 

519 D. Aeolic has here -ewoj, -eppoj, -ivvbi, -ippco, -wpoj, -uppot (37 D. 3) ; for 
KT€iy(j}^ it has KTaivoj ; cp. Doric (pSaipoj for (pdelpu). 



168 PRESENT SYSTEM: FIFTH (-a-Kin) CLASS [524 

Kv-vi-oi kiss, dfjLw-Krx-y^-o-fJ^at- have on, vw-ta-x-v^-o-/^'- promise (cp. T-o-x-w iov 
(rt-(rx-^j 493 a). 

e. -vv%- is added ; iXaiivio drive for iXa-w-oj. 

f. -vv (-WW after a short vowel) is added (second class of /ii- verbs, 414) : 
$€lK-vv'fjii show (d€LK-j present stem Set/cw-), ^eiJ7-w-/ii yoke (i^evy-)^ 6\\vfu destroy 
(for 6\-vvfit, 77 a) ; Kepd-vvv-fj-L mix (sepa-), <rK€da.-vvv-fit scatter (o-xeSa-). Others 
729 ft. Some of these verbs have presents in -uw (746). 

N. 1. — The forms in -wv/jll spread from ^vvv/jll, <7§hvv}u, vrhich are derived 
from €(r~vv/jLi, a-^ea-vvpu. 

N. 2. — Some verbs in -vw are formed from -i'f%- for -w%- ; as Horn, tlvo:, 
<peiv(o, 4>edyu), ifofjiaL from n-vf-t^, etc., (37 D. 1). Attic rivca, etc. dropped the f. 

g. -va, -vi\ are added (third class of pLt-verbs 412) ; as in (poetic) Sdfj.-v7]-iJLL 
I conquer, 5d/j,-va~/j£v we conquer (5a/A-), and in (t dS-vrj-fjit (rare in prose for 
<rK€ddvvv/jiL) scatter. The verbs of this class are chiefly poetic (Epic), and most 
have alternative forms in -aw. See 737. 

In two further divisions there is a transition to the Iota Class. 

h. -tv%- for -;^^% is added : ^aivdi go (^a-^'-iw), Kepdalvoi gain (/cepSa-t'-ta;), 
Terpah(a bore (r€Tpa-v~c<a). So poetic paiv<j} sprinkle. For the added v, cp. 
UK-v-<a (523 a). See 518 a. 

i. 'aiv%- for av-i% is added: datppaivo^at smell (Jxrippav-ioixaC), Horn. dXiraf- 
voiJjxL sin (also dXtrpaivoj). See 518 a, 

524. A short vowel of the verb-stem is leng1.hened in the case of some verbs 
to forin one or more of the tense-stems other than the present. Thus, Xafx^dvoj 
(Xa^-) take XiJi/'OjLtai (Xt;j9-) ; SdKfo} {8aK-) bite S-^^u (5i?/f-). So Xa7xdvw, Xa*^ 
ddfu}, Tvyxdvu, irvvOdvoixaL (tti/^-) inquire^ fut. irei/cro/iat (-n-ei/^-). 

a. ^e^yvvjxi yoke, irijyvvfXL fasten, p-nyvvfxi break have the strong grade in all 
tenses except the 2 pass, system, /jxlyvvixi mix (commonly written piyvvfiC) has 
/A17- only in the 2 perf . and 2 pass, systems. 

525. Addition of c and o. — ^. Many verbs add e to the verb-stem to form 
all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect ; as aladdvofxai, i/xaprdrw, 
dvddvta, av^dvw^ dTrexOdvo/iai, ^\a<rTdu(c, dapOdvo), Kiyxdpo), fjLav6dv(c, dXurddvo}, 
64>\i<rKdva}. One or more tenses with e added are formed by K€pdalyo), fiXXu/x-t, 
6(r<ppaiuofj.aL^ ardpyvfjn, rvyxo-v^. 

b. 6fjivvts.L swear has 6p.o- in all systems except the present and future, as 
fil/xotra, 6fJ,ii>fjL0Ka, but fut. 6fJU>vfxaL from d/J^ofmi. 

FIFTH OB INCEPTIVE 01. ASS (VEBBS IN -CTKco) 

526. The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -(rK%~ to the 
verb-stem if it ends in a vowel; -tcrK%- if it ends in a consonant. 
Thus, api'dKW p/ea6"6, evp-ca-Koi find. 

a. This class is called inceptive (or inchoative') because some of the verbs 
belonging to it have the sense of beginning or becoming (cp. Lat. -sco) ; as 
yrjpda-Kw grow old. But very £ew verba have this meaning. 

b. In Qvy<xK(a die^ jxtjxv^^a kui remind, -vxKfa was later added to verb-stems 
ending in a vowel, Tlie older forms are dv-qaKia, ixLixvT}<r Kbi, 



529] PRESENT SYSTEM: SIXTH (MIXED) CLASS 169 

c. The verb-stem is often reduplicated in the present; as 'yi-'yvdi-crKw know^ 
^L-^pth-<TKO} eat^ di~dpd~crK(a run away. Poetic dp-ap-iaK(a Jit, poetic dTr-a^-Zo-zcw 
deceive^ have the form of Attic reduplication, ixiaycj may stand for p.i-(/j,)<r'yu}. 

d. A stop consonant is dropped before -<r/cw (99) ; as 6t-5d(K)-o-Kw teach (cp. 
5t-5aK-T6s), <lXu(ic)-<rKw avoid^ \d{K)-<j-Ku> speak, irdo-xw su^er is for 7ra(&)-o-/cw 
(126). 

e. The present stem often shows the strong grades w (weak o) and 5 or ij 
(weak a). See b, c. Weak grades appear in (pdffKO) say^ ^da-Kw feed, 

f . On the iteratives in -<rK(»} see 495. 

527. Tbe following verbs belong to this class (poetic and Ionic forms are 
starred) : 

a. Vowel stems: dX6^(r/ca)* (dXSi?-), dva^idjo-Konai* (;3to), dp^<rK<a (dpe-), ^da-Ku* 

(/3a- for j3p-, 35 b), ^i^p6(rKu i^po~), jSXcio-Kw* (/xoX-, juXo-, jSXo-, 130 D.), ^6(rKco 
(j3o-), yevetdffKO} (cp. 7evetda;), yqpdffKO) (jTjpa-), yvyvdxTKia (7W-), dediffKo/Mit 
frighten, Sidpda-KOf (5pa-), ^jSao-KW (^j3a-), -^XdcKia''^ (^Xa-), dv-QCKOj (dav-^ 6va-), 
0p(^<rKOJ* i&op'., 0po-)f tXdff/co/iai (iXa-), kikXi^o-ko}* (/caXe-, kXt;-), /cuter KO/«tt* 
(/CU-), /j.€66aKii} (/xe^y-), p.ip.vi^<TKb3 (p.ya-), iriirLa-KU}* (tti-), imrpda-KO} (irpa-), TTtj'iJ- 
(TKw* (TTiw-), TTi^aycKCj* (^(pav-), rtTpdxTKOJ (jpo-'), <pd<rK(t} (0a-), ;i^d(r/cttj* (^a-). 

b. Consonant stems : akia-Ko/xai (dX-o-), dXiJcr/coj* (dXuK-), d/j.j3\l(rK<a (d/ij3X- d/x^Xo-), 

djMjrXaKlo-K03* {dp.TrXaK-), drnXIc/cw (di*-aX-&-), dira<pi(TK(a* (d-jr-a^-), dpapiffKOi* 
(d/)-), SeSLo-Ko/jLaL* welcome (de-StK-) and STjSla-Ko/xaL (usually written 5et5-) 
welcome, StSdc/cw (Si^ax-)? ^i<''fw (^ik-), ^Travpla-KO}* (ay^), ei/piaKO} {€vp-€-), 
Xda-KU* (XaK-), fxiffyuj* (/it7-), 6<pXuTKdv(i} (60X-e-), irdcxw (ira^-), ffTepLo-KOj 
(ffTep-e-')^ TLTva-KOfxai* (jt-rvK-), yXdcr/cw* (i-XoK-), x/"?iO"KOMC"* (XP'7-)- 

528. Addition of € and 0. — (TT€pi(TKo> deprive (cp. ar^pofxaC) makes all the 
other tense-stems from crrepe- ; €i>pL(TK03 has ei-joe- except in the present and 2 aorist. 
— dXUrKopjai am captured (dX-) adds in other tense-stems. 

SIXTH OR MIXED CLASS 

529. This class includes some irregular verbs, one or more, of 
whose tense-stems are quite different from others^ as Eng. am, 
was, be, Lat. sum^ fai. For the full list of forms see the List 
of Verbs. 

1. alp4(v (alpe-y eX-) take, fut. alpTjffco, 7}p7)Ka^ etc, 2 aor. eVKov. 

2. eiSov (f t5-, ^5-) saw, vidi, 2 aorist (with no present act.) ; 2 pf. oiSa know 

(794) . Middle dSofxai (poetic), tidov is used as 2 aor. of opdw (see below). 

3. eliroy (elir~, ip-, pe-) spoke, 2 aor. (no pres.) ; fut. (ip^o)) ipQ, pexf. et-p-q-Ka, 

€tpT}fxat., aor. pass. ippr/dTjv. The stem ip- is for fep-, seen in Lat. ver-hum. 
(Cp. 492.) p€- is for fp€, hence etpT^ixai for fe-fprj-ixai. 

4. epxo/xai (ipx-, iXevd-, iXvd-, ^Xd-), go. Fut. iXevao/j^ai (usually poet.), 2 perf. 

iX-ZiXvda, 2 aor. -^X^oj'. The Attic future is etpu shall go (774). Tbe im- 
perf. and tlie moods of the pres. other than the indie, use the forms of elpn, 

526 c. D. Horn, has ita-Kuj JiJcen for fsfi^K^-ffKO), also To-koj from fL{K)-<rKco, 
rtTi(K')~ffKop,aL prepare, d('5i{K')-a-K0fxai welcome. 



ITO PKESENT SYSTEM: SIXTIi (MIXED) CLASS [530 

6. iaOlo} (ia$-i i8-, 4}ay-) eat, fut. eSo/xat (541), pf. iS-^SoKa^ -ib-qSea fmi., i}5^a0i]v, 
2 aor. €4>ayov, 

6. opdoi (6/)a-, dir-y F'-^~) ®^^> ^^^^* Si^o/iai, perf. edpdKa or e6pd/ca, perf. mid. 

idjpdfjLaL or (5/i/Aat (ci7r-/iat), &<}>dr)v, 2 aor. tISov (see 2 above). 

7. irdo-xt^ (ira^-, irevd-) Suffer, fut. irelao/MLt for irevO-ffopiat (100), 2 pf. Triirovda, 

2 aor. ^ira^oj'. (See *526 d.) 

8. irfyw (in-, iro-) drink, from Trt-y-w (523 a), fut. Triofiat (641), pf. ir^Trwjca, 2 aor. 

^Triof, imp. ttWl (466, 1, a, 687). 

9. rp^x^ (jP^X- foi' ^P^X- (125 g), 5pa/A-, dpafie-) run^tuX. SpapLOVpLat, pf. SeSpdpL^Ka, 

2 aor. eSpapLov, 

10. ^^ptu (^ep-, oi-, ^ycK-, by reduplication and syncope iv-ev€K and ivejK-) bear ; fut. 

o?o-aj, aor. ijveyKa, perf. ^i^ijfox-a (446, 478), iv^ve-y-p.a.L, aor. pass, -fivix^-qv. 

11. cbviopai {(bye-, irpLa-') buy, fut, tii^i^tro/iai, perf. idviipxii, ia}yi^dii]v, Pov ioivrjffd- 

piTjv the form iirpLdp.r}jf is used. 

530. Apart from the irregularities of Class VI, some verbs may, by the 
formation of the verb-stem, belong to more than one class, as ^alvo) (III, IV), 
6ff<ppalvopLai (III, IV), 64>\iaKdv(o (IV, V), 

531. Many verbs have alternative forms, often of different classes, as Kvddv(o 
KvSalvo} honour, Ikco iKdvoj come, pLcXdv-o) grow black, peXaivw (/ieXav-ioj) blacken^ 
Kkd^oj {K\ayy-) KKayy-dv-oi scream, a<pd^(a aipdrrw slay (616). Cp. also dvOo) 
dvvTU} ax^complish^ dpiJoj dp<>T<j3 draw water, Ilom. ipiKoj, ipvKdvw, ipvKavdu} 
restrain. Cp. 866. 10, 

II. FUTURE SYSTEM 
(FUTUEE ACTIVE AND MIDDLE) 

532. Many, if not all, future forms in a are in reality aubiunctives of the 
first aorist. XtJtro), iraid€^<x(a, Xef^w, £rTTj(raj are alike future indicative and aorist 
subjunctive in form.. In poetry and in some dialects there is no external dif- 
ference between the future indicative and the aorist subjunctive when the latter 
has (as often in Hom.) a short mood-sign (457 ]>.) ; e.g., Horn. §^<Top.ev, dp.d- 
xperat, Ionic inscriptions iroi'^o-et. 

533. The future stem is formed by adding tlie tense-snffix -a-%- (-ccr%- 
in liquid stems, 535) to the verb-stem : \Z'~cro), I shall (or wilV) loose, 
Xv(jo{xa.i ; OiQ-aoy from Ti~$7)-fxi place ; Set'^o) from hdK-vv-fxi show. 

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades (476) the ending is added to 
the strong stem : XtiTrw Xeit^oj, ttJko) ttJIw, w^o) irv€<}<TopaL (503), 8L5(i}pL Sdjo-oi. 

534. Vowel Verbs. — Verb-stems ending in a short vowel lengthen 
the vowel before the tense suffix (a to tj except after e, i, p). Thus, 

a. On XP'^^ ^i'^^ oracles, xP'i^o^tat use, aKpodofxac hear, see 487 a. 

b. ^or verbs retaining a short final vowel, see 488. 

534 D. Doric and Aeolic always lengthen a to a (rl/uicrw). 
b. In verbs with stems originally ending in -cr Hom. often has a a- in the future : 
dvi;<a dvvaaecdai, reX^w reX^crcroj ; by analogy fiXXD/ii dX^aaoj (and dXiao), (SXcirat). 



539] FUTURE SYSTEM 171 

535. Liquid Verbs, — Verb-stems ending in X, fx, v, py add -eo-/^-; 

then o- drops and e contracts with the folloAving vowel. 

(palvoj (<pav-) show, (pavQy ^aveU from 0ai'-^(<r)cj, <^av-4(a)€is ; o-rAXw (creX-) 
send^ <rT€\ovfi£v^ a-reXeire from <rr€\-4(^(r')ofjL€i^j <rr€\-4(^cr')€T€. See p. 128. 

536. <r is retained in the poetic forms /cAo-oj (>cAXw land, A:eX-), >ci5p(rw (Kiptx) 
meet.) Kvp-), Bipaofiau (d^pofiat warm myself^ ^ep-)j ^p<^w {6pvi>}xt rouse^ dp-). So 
also in the aorist. See apapiaKw, erXw, Keipw, (pOelpw, (p6pw in tlie List of Verbs. 

537. Stop Verbs. — Labial (tt, /?, <^) and palatal (k, -y, x) stops at 
the end of the verb-stem unite with a to form ip or ^. Dentals 
(t, S, ^) are lost before <r (98). 

kStt-t-o) (k-ott-) C7^f, >c6i/'w, Kofoimi ; ^Xdir-r-o) (j3Xa^-) injure^ ^Xdi^w, ^\dfofji,ai ; 
ypd<p-(t3 write, ypd\ffa}, ypoApopxii ; ttX^k^-w weave, ttX^^oj, ttX^^o/mli ; X^y-w say, X^$w, 
X^^o/itti ; rapaTTii} (rapax-) disturb, Tapd^u), rapd^o/JLaL ; 0pdfw (0/ja5-) say, (ppd<rw, 
ireidu) {irid-, Tret^-) persuade,, ireiaw, ire/trojuat, 

a. When e or o is added to the Yerb-stem, it is lengthened to ?; or w : as 
^cdKoiixiL (jSouX-e-) W767i ^ov\'^<ro/j.ai, a\i<yKO(xai {d\~Q-) am captured aXdcKro/xai. So 
also in tlie first aorist and in other tenses where lejigtheniiig is regular, 

538. Attic Future. — Certain formations of the future are called 
Attic because they occur especially in that dialect in contrast to the 
later language ; they occur also in Homer, Herodotus, and in other 
dialects. 

539. These futures usually occur when o- is preceded by a or e and these 
vowels are not preceded by a syllable long by nature or position. Here <r is 
dropped and -dw and ~dw are contracted to -cS. When t precedes (t, the ending 
is i~(<7)4o} which contracts to -tw. 

a. >caX^aj call, reX^w JIvmIi drop the cr of KoK^ffo) Ka\4<ro/xai, t€\4<to} TeK^trofxac 
and the resulting Attic fonns are >caXc;j Ka\ovfjiaL^ reXw (reXoO^ai poetic), 

b. lKa6v<4} (Aa-) drive has Hom. Adw, Attic Aw. — Kaddi^ofxaL (>ca^e5-) sit has 
Attic Kadedov/Mai. — fjiaxofiat (yitax-c-) Jjght has Hom, ^ax^o'oynai (and /Jiax'^o'o/xai)^ 
Attic fxaxovfiai. — 6Xkvfii (^X-e-) destroy has Hom. dX^au?^ Attic 6\Q>. 

c. All verbs in -avvvp.L have futures in -d((r)a), -ui. Thus, aKebdvvvfii (crvtSa-) 
scatter, poet. o-KeSdo-w, Attic o-K-eStD. Similarly some verbs in -<vvv}xl : dixtpUvvvp^L 
(d/A0i€-) clothe, Epic dfj.<f>i4<T(j}, Attic d/i^iw ; a-TSpyv/u (o-rop-e-) spread, late crro- 
plata, Attic <rrop<h. 

d. A very few verbs in -afo; have the contracted form. ^ijSdi^o) {^Lj3a5~) 
cause to go usually has Attic jStjScS from ^i^da-ia. So 4^€tw/j,£v = i^erda-ofjiev from 

e. Verbs in -tfw of more than two syllables drop <r and insert e, thus making 
-i(a-)^a?, -i((r)^o^ai, which contract to -iw and -lovfiai^ as in the Boric future (540). 

53d D. These futures are often uncontracted in Homer (j3aX^w, KT€v4eLs, d7Ye- 
\4ov<nv) ; regularly in Aeolic ; in Hdt. properly only when e comes before o or w. 
537 D. Boric has -$w from most verbs in -fw (516 T).), 
539, b. D. Eor Horn, -ow for -aw, see 645. • 



172 FUTURE SYSTEM [540 

So vofii^w {vofxid-) consider makes pofiLceu)^ f^jut-eaj, vo/j,iu} and in like manner vo,ai- 
oOfiai, tooth inflected like TroicD, TroioO/Aat. So idioOai^ olKLodvres from edi^oj accus- 
tom, oIkI^cc colonize. But o-x^f^ (<''X^^-) split makes (tx/o-w. w/iitS etc. are due 
to the analogy of the liquid verbs. 

N. — Sucli forms in Attic texts as iXda-oj, reX^o-aj, wjutVoj, ^t^da-o} are erroneous, 

540. Doric Future. — Some verbs, which have a future middle with 
an active meaning, fol-m the stem of the future 'middle by adding 
-o-e%-, and contracting -o-eo/xat to -aovfiai. Such verbs (excej>t vca>, 
-jriTTTo)) tave also the regular future in -aofxai, 

K\alo> («:Xau-, 520) weep K\auaov/j,aL, vioj {w-, vev-) swi'in j^eucoOfxat (doubtful), 
ttX^oj (ttXu-, 7rXeu~) sail TrXeucrou/xaL^ irvioo (ttw-, irvev-') breathe Trveuo-ov/xat^ irtirro} 
(ireT-) fall Trecrovixai^ wwddvo/J^aL {irvd-, irevd-) Treva-ov/jiaL (once), <pe6y(i3 {^vy-, 
<p€vy-) <pev^ov/jiai^ xH^ ( X^5~) xecoO/iOi. 

a. The inflection of the Doric future is as follows : — 



XDcrw, -aov/xaL 
\va'€ts, -0-7} 
Xucret, -cretrat 



XDcoCjaes, -coiijfMeda 
XutretTe, -<reL<rd€ 
XuiTOVVTL, -(Tovvrai 



XDccSj', -(ToiJjtiez'os 
Xucretc, ~(T€L<y6aL 



b. These are called Doric futures because Doric usually makes all futures 
(active and middle) in -cr^w -crw, -aio/xaL -aodfxai. 

C. Attic TreaovfjLai (Hom. Treo-^Ojuat) from irtirroi fall COnies from Trereo/xat. Attic 
iireaov is derived from 2 aor, e-jrerov (Dor. and Aeol.) under the influence of Trecou/iat. 

541. Futures with Present Forms. — The following verbs have no 
future suflB-x, the future thus having the form' of a present : eSo/mt 
(iS-) eat, Tito/xat (jTi~) drinlc, x^^ (x^) ^^^^ X^^/^*^h poK^r, See 529. 5, 8, 

a. These are probably old subjunctives which have retained their future 
meaning. In eSoimi and -ntoixat the mood-sign Is short (457 D.). Hom. has 
^4o(xaL or ^eiofiai Uve^ 5i}w Jind^ KTiia (written xcfw) lie, i^av{}ij3 achieve, ip^w draw, 
ravOtj} Strelch, and dXetJerai avoid, viofxai go is for veao^aL. 

III. FIRST (SIGMATIC) AORiST SYSTEM 
(first AOllIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE) 

542. The first aorist stem is formed by adding the tense suffix -tra 
to the verb-stem : t~Xv-cra I loosed, Xuo-w, XvaaLfjn ; e-Set^a I showedy 
from SuK-iw-/jiu See 666. 

539 D. Hom. has det/ciw, ko/xi^, KrepLuj; and also reXioj, koK^oj, Adw, drrt6w, 
dajiihiaa-i (045), dvi^ui, ip^iovcri, raviova-i. Hdt. always uses the -lCo and 'oovfmi forms. 
Homeric futures in -eo; have a liquid before e, and are analogous to the futures 
of liquid verbs. 

540 D. Hom. io-o-eiTai (and ea-a-eraL, €(reTat, ecTai). In Doric there are three 
forms : (1) -aiuj (and -coj), -a-eo/iat (and -o-ov/xaL) ; and often with ey from eo as 
-evvTi, -evjies ; (2) -aioi with t from e before o and (o ; (3) the Attic forms. 

542 D. Mixed Aorists. — Hom. has some forms of the first aorist with the the- 
matic vowel (%) of the second aorist; as di^ere, d^eo-Oe (££70? lead), ^/Sijo-ero, 



545] FIRST AORIST SYSTEM 173 

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades (476), tlie tense-suffix is added 
to the strong stem : Tnidoj ^ireia-a, t-^ko} Ittj^o, ttv^oj 'tirveva-a^ 'ia-TitjfiL ((rra-, (Ttij-) 

l^. — TL67}fu (^e-, ^7^) place, Sldojfu (5o-, 5w-) give, i'qfj.i (e-, 17-) send have aorists 
in -KCL (edtjKa, eSojKtt, ^Ka in the singular : -with k rarely in the plural). See 755. 

543. Vowel Verbs. — Verb-stems ending in a Yowel lengthen a 
short final vowel before the tense-suffix (a to rj except after e, t, p). 

ThuSj Tt/Kxct) CTt/XT^cra, eao) etacra (431), </)iA€a> k(^iXr}<ja, 

a. x^^ (x^-t x^^--) X^F~) pour has the aorists e^ea, ix^^-M^ (Epic ^Bx^^^-i ^x^^°-~ 

ix-qv) from, ^x^i^'^'a', ^xei/craytiTji'. 

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel see 488. 

544. Liquid Verbs. — Verb-stems ending in A., /a, i/, p lose o- and 
lengthen their vowel in compensation (37) \ ato -q (after t or p to d), 
c to €Lj t to t^ 1; to V, 

ipaLj/03 (^ttf-) show, €0i7fa "for i(pav<Ta ; irtpaivw (irepav-) finish, iir^pava for 
iTrepav<Ta ; <rr^Xw (<rTeX-) send, etrretXafor ^crreXtraj Kpffw {Kpiv-) judge, (Kplva for 
^Kptvaa ; dWo/Jiat (aX-) 2eaj9, i}\dfi')jv for 7}\aa/i7}v. 

a. Some verbs in -at^'o? (-a^-) have -am instead of -T/m ; as yXvKahu sweeten 
iyX^Kava. So L(rxvoilvo} make thin, K^p^alvdi gain^ KOiKaivo) hollow OUty Xtiraivo} 
fatten, 6pyahb> be angry^ Trtiraivu} make ripe. Cp. 30 a. 

b. The poetic verbs retaining <r in the future (536) retain it also in the aorist. 

c. atpo} {dp-) raise is treated as if its verb-stem were ap- (contracted from 
dep- in deipo}} : aor. ^pa, apw, apaifu, dpov, dpat, apas, and ripdfxrjv, dpoifiat., apai- 
fiTjp, apa<y dai, apdpievos. 

d. ijvejKa is used as the first aorist of 0epaj hear, elira is rare for elirov (549). 

545. Stop Verbs. — Labial (tt, 13, <j>) atid palatal (k, y, x) stops at 
the end of the verb-stem unite with o- to form xj; or i. Dentals (r, 8, 
0) are lost before o- (cp. 98). 

Tr€fnr-(jj send k'-ire/jL^pa, iTrefjLfdfjirjv ; jSXdxToj (/SXajQ-) injure «/3Xa^a ; ypd<p-(a 
write %ypafa., 4ypa\pdii7fv ; irXeK-o) toeaiJe exXe^a, iir\^^d}j.iqv \ Xiy-oj say eXe^a ; ra- 
pdrroj (ra/jax-) disturb ^rdpa^a, eTa.pa^dp.riv ) poetic ipi<T<T03 {^per-) rOW ijpea-a ; 
(ppd^cii (<^pa5-) tell '44>pa<ra^ icppaa-dfi-rjv ; ireid-oj (tti^-, tftiO-, ttoiB-^ persuade eir^tcra. 

a.. On forms in cr from stems in 7 see 616. 

imper. jSi^ceo (^^aLvo) go}, idOaero (5iJw S6^), t^oi' (tKw COmc), oTtre, o!'creT€, ola^jxzv, 
ol<74p£vaL {(p^poj bring), imper. 6p<T€o rise (6pvvfjn. rouse). 

643 a. D. Homeric ^^XeudyLfrjp and -ifkedix-qv avoided, eKrja burned (Att. eKavc-a), 
ecro-eua drove^ also have lost o-. 

543 b- D. Horn, often has original cro-, as yeXdti} iy^Xaaaa, reX^o? ireXec-c-a ; in 
Others by analogy, as fiXXDjUi SX^ccra, bp^vvixt fijuocrcra, KaX^oi KdXea-aa. 

544 D. Horn, has Ionic -i^^/a for -dra after t or p. Aeolic assimilates <r to a> 
liquid; as cKpiwa^ dTr^o-reXXa, iv^p-imro, avpeppaiaa (— crvvelpdc-a), Cp. Hom. 
iorpcXXe (60eXXaj mcrease). 

546 D. Hom. often has a-a from dental stems, as iK6/j.t<r<ra iKojM<rcrdfirfy (ko/j-I^o}) , 
Doric has -^a from niost verbs in -^ot ; Hom. also has ^ (Tjpira^e). See 516 D. 



174 SECOND AORIST SYSTEM [546 

IV. SECOND AORIST SYSTEM 
(SECOND AORIST ACTIVE AKD MIDDLE) 

546. The second aorist is formed without any tense-suffix and 
only from the simple verb-stem. Only primitive*^ verbs (372) have 
second aorists. 

547. (I) il-Verbs. — Q- verbs make the second aorist by adding %~ to 
the verb-stem, which regularly ends in a consonant. Verbs showing 
vowel gradations (476) use the weak stem (otherwise there would be 
confusion with the imperfect). 

XeiTTw (XiTT-, XeiTT-) leave fKiiroi^, -i\nrb(X7}v ; (peu'yia (<pvy-, (pevy-) jlee ecpvyov ; 
TT^TOjitai Jly iTT6/jL7}v (476 a) ; Xa/i/3dvtu (Xa/3-) take eXa^ov. 

548. a. Vowel verbs rarely form second aorists, as the irregular aipiu seize 
{eTXovy 629. 1), iadlu eat {€<payov), opdoj (eldov). eiTLov drank {ttivu) is the only 
second aorist in prose from a vowel stem and having thematic inflection. 

b. Many w-verbs with stems ending in a vowel have second aorists formed 
like those of ;u,i-verbs. These are enumerated in 687. 

549. Verbs of the Eirst Class (499) adding a thematic vowel to the verb- 
stem form the second aorist (1) by reduplication (494), as Siyw lead ijyayov, 
and elTTov probably for i-pe-freir-ov ; (2) by syncope (493), as ir^ro^ai Jly ^wrdfi-nv, 
iyelpu) {iyep-) rouse Tjypd/JiTjv, ^irofiai, (<r€7r-) follow ^eirbtJ^-qvy imperf. eiirdfiTjv from 
^-ffeirofi-ov, €xoj (fftx-) have effxov ; (3) by using a for e (476 b) in poetic forms 
(480), as Tp^wu turn erpairov ; (4) by metathesis (492), as poet. bipKopxit see 

550. (II) Mi-Verbs. — The stem of the second aorist of /xt-verbs is 
the verb-stem without any thematic vowel. In the indicative active 
the strong form of the stem, which ends in a vowel, is regularly em- 
ployed. The middle uses the weak stem form. 

646 D. Hom. has more second aorists than Attic, which favoured the first 
aorist. Some derivative verbs have Homeric second aorists classed under them 
for convenience only, as ktvtt^u soujid eKTv-rrov ; p-vKdo/jLai roar ^/xvkov ; <TTvy4u 
hate i<TTvyov. These forms are derived from the pure verfi-stem (485 d, 553). 

547 D. Hom. often has no thematic vowel in the middle voice of w-verbs 
(id^fiTjv from bix°ij.<ii receive). See 634, 688. 

549 D. (1) Hom. has (i^KCKKero (K^Xo-fiai commaTid)^ \i\adov (\i)e~<a lie hid)j 
iw^cppade (0pdfw tell), imneeiv (ircLd-o} persuade) . TjptKaKov (^pd/c-w check), ijjdTTa- 
TTov and ivivlirov {iviima chide, inir-) have unusual formation. (2) ^-7rX-6- 
fn}v (Tr^\o-/j.ai am, COme, ireX-). (3) ewpaSov (ir^pB-ia SOCTc), irap-ov (jifir-v-iA cut). 
(4) ^\i}To (j3dXXw hit, 128 a). 



554] SECOKJ) AOUIST SYSTEM 175 

'i~aTij-fjii (<7Ta-, <TT7}-) set, second aorist eaTrjv^ effrrts, «<^'r^i €(TT7jtov, e<TT7}Tr)v, 
iffTt^ft^v^ eaTTjre^ carrfaav ; middle i-di-^7]v from rlOvfJ^'- (^€~, $7}-) place, i-56-fjir}v 
from didufjLL (5o-, 5a;-) give. 

551. Originally only the dual and plural showed the weak forms, which are 
retained in the second aorists of TLStjfu, eiSoj/Jn, and tTj^i : ide^^v^ eSofiev, dfiev (i-e- 
/iev), and in Horn, ^dr-riv (also ^-qr-qv) from €^7}v went. Elsewhere the weak 
grades have been displaced by the strong grades, which forced their way in from 
the singular. Thus, e'^vov, €<pvv in Pindar {=€yv<jj-<Ta.v, €<p\}-<ja,v), which come 
from ^7i'wi/(t), i(pvv(T) by 40. So Horn. ^rXav^ e^av. Such 3 pi. forms are rare 
in the dramatic poets. 

a. For the singular of rie-nfit, 5i5w/it, "77/zi, see 755 ; for the imperatives, 759 ; 
for the infinitives, 760. 

552. No verb in -vfii has a second aorist in Attic from the stem in v. 

553. The difference between an imperfect and an aorist depends formally on 
the character of the present. Thus %-<p'r}~v said is called an ' imperfect ' of ^i7-/it : 
but %-<TTT}-v stood is a * second aorist ' because it shows a different tense-stem 
than that of 'iffr-qpn. Similarly €-<p€p-ov is ' imperfect ' to ^^/poj, but e-reK-ov ' sec- 
ond aorist ' to tIktco because there is no present re/coj. eanxov is imperfect to 
arlxo), but second aorist to o-reixw. Cp. 546 D. 



NOTE ON THE SECOND AORIST AND SECOND PERFECT 

554. a. The second aorist and the second perfect are usually formed only 
from primitive verbs (372). These tenses are formed by adding the personal 
endings (inclusive of the thematic or tense vowel) to the verb-stem without any 
consonant tense-suffix. Cp. fXiwo-v with ^Xi)-a--a, iTpdir-Tjv with iTp^<p-d-7}v (rp^iroj 
turn), yi-y pa4>-a with XAy-/c-a. 

b. The second perfect and second aorist passive are historically older than 
the corresponding first perfect and first aorist. 

c. Tp4'7r<jj turn is the only verb that has three first aorists and three second 
aorists (596). 

d. Very few verbs have both the second aorist active and the second aorist 
passive. In cases where both occur, one form is rare, as ervirov (once in poetry), 
iri^WTjv (tiStttw striJce). 

e. In the same voice both the first and the second aorist (or perfect) are rare, 
as ^(pOaffa, i4>e-T}v ((pddva) anticipate). When both occur, the first aorist (or 
perfect) is often transitive, the second aorist (or perfect) is intransitive (819); 
as %(jTT}(Ta I erected, i.e. made stand, ^<tttjv I stood. In other cases one aorist 
is used in prose, the other in poetry : firetaa, poet, eirtdov (ireldo} persuade); or 
they occur in different dialects, as Attic iTd(p7}v, Ionic 40d<f>d'r]v {ddirru} bury); 
or one is much later than the other, as ^Xei^a, late for fXtirov, 

551 D. Horn, has ^kt&v I slew (KT^hw, ktcv-) with a taken from ^Krafiev, and 
oSra he wounded (oirdo}). 



1T6 FIRST PKHFECT SYSTEM [555 

V. FIRST (K) PERFECT SYSTEM 

(first perfect and pluperfect active) 

555. The stem of the first perfect is formed by adding -Ka to the 
reduplicated verb-stem. ke-kv-Ka I have loosed^ i-Xe-kwij I had loosed. 

a. The ^-perfect is later in origin than the second perfect and seems to have 
started from verb-stems in -«, as €-oiK-a (— f4-foiK-a) from er/cw resemble. 

b. Verbs showing the gradations et, ev : 01, ov: t, u (476) have ei, ev ; as TreWco 
{ttiS-^ Tret^-) persuade ir^ireiKa (560). But d4doiKa fear has ot (cp. 564). 

556. The first perfect is formed from verb-stems ending in a 
vowel, a liquid, or a dental stop {t, S, 9). 

557. Vowel Verbs. — Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel (if 
short) before -Ka, as rt/xa-a) honour Te-TLfXTj-Kay id-oi permit el&Ka, ttolI-o) 
make ir^-^oC't^-Ka, TiOrjfxt {Oe-, Ot}-) place rc-^iy-Ka, StSa)/u,t (So-jSoj-) give Si-SoiKa. 

558. This applies to verbs that add e (485). For verbs that retain a short 
final vowel, see 488. (Except a^4vvv^L (o-^e-) extinguiah^ which has ta^-qKa.') 

559. Liquid Verbs. — Many liquid verbs have no perfect or employ 
the second perfect. Examples of the regular formation are c^atVto 
(^av-) show J TTf^ayKa, dyyeAAw (dyycA-) announce, ^yycAfca. 

a. Some liqiiid verbs drop v • as KiKpiKa^ kU\lk<x from Kpivo) (Kpiv-) judge, 
KXtvoj {kXlv-) incline, retvu (rev-) stretch lias T^raKra from rervKa: 

' b. Monosyllabic stems change eto a ; as eo-TaX/ca, etpOapKa from o-tAXw (o-reX-) 
send, ipdeipo} {ipdep-) coiTupt. 

N.. For a we expect ; a is derived from the middle (eVraX^at, €<p6ap/jLat'). 

c. All steins in /jl and many 'others add e (485) ; as v4pm (j-e/i-e-), distribute 
vev^pLTjKa, /xAw (/xeX-e-) care for /Ae/xAi^/ca, Tvyxdvo}(rvx-€) happen TeTux''?f<i' 

d. Many liquid verbs suffer metathesis (492) and thus get the form of vowel 
verbs ; as jSdXXw (^aX-) t?irow ^4^\-qKa ; dtfyaKixi {6av-) die r^dvTjKa ; >caX^w (/caXe-, 
kXt]-') call KdKXtjKa ; Ka^vut (/ca/x-) am weary K^Kpi-rjKa ; t^/xj/co (re/i-) cut T4T^-r}Ka, 
Also iriTTTix} (irer-, ttto-) fall ir^irTCJKa. See 128 a, 

555 b. D. Horn. SefSw (used as a present) is for 5e-5fo(i)-a. deid- was writ- 
ten on account of the metre when f was lost, Horn. Sidia is for 5e-5(/:)i-a with 
the weak root that is used in S4di^v. See 703 D. 

657 D. 1. Horn, has the ic-perfect only in verbs with vowel verb-stems. Of 
these some have the second perfect in -a, particularly in participles. Thus k€- 
Kfnj6s^ Attic K€Kfir}Kd}s {Kdfi-u-tv am weary') ; KeKoprjibs (Kop4~vvvfiL satiate) ; Tr€<p6- 
Ka(TL and ir€<pT6d(rL (0t!aj pi'oduce). 

2. In some dialects a present was derived from the perfect stem ; as Horn, 
di/£i7w, Theocr. deSolKoj, 'jr€(p6K€i (in the 2 perf. : Theocr. weTrovdta), Inf. TedvdK-rjv 
(Aeol.), part. KCKXijyovres (Hom.), ire^piKc^v (Pind.). 

3. From ^^ixrjKa (^^-qKaofMai bleat) Hom. has the plup. iji^fi-rjKov, 



569] SECOND PERFECT SYSTEM 177 

560. Stop Verbs. — Dental stems drop r, S, before -Ka ; as Tret'^co 

(irtd-, neid', ttolO-) X)eTSuade TrcTretKtt, KO/At^o) (ko/jliS-) ca'ny KeKOfMiKa. 

vi. second perfect system 
(second perfect and pluperfect active) 

561. The stem of the second perfect is formed by adding a to the 
reduplicated verb-stem; yi-ypa^-a I have written (ypa^-o)). 

562. The second perfect is almost always formed from stems end- 
ing in a liquid or a stop consonant, and not from vowel stems. 

a. oLKT^KOa (d/coi5w hear) is for aK7}Ko(f^~a (^dKOf- =■ d/vou-, 43). 

563. Verb-stems showing variation between short and long vowels (476) 
have long vowels in the second perfect (a is thus regularly lengthened). Thus, 
TiQK(i} (raK-y Tt}K-) melt r^Tif]Ka, Kpdi^ui (Kpay-} cry out K^Kpaya^ <}>aiv(i} {(pav-) show 
Tritptjva have appeared (but Tri<payKa have s/iotcn), p-qyvvp.i (pay-^ pfyy-, p(^y-, 477 c) 
break eppooya. 

a. ettoda am accustomed (= (re-a-fcoO-a) has the strong form w (cp. ^Soi 
custom^ 123); Horn, e^w (Attic iOi^to accustom). 

564. The second perfect has o, oi when the verb-stem varies between a, e, 
o (478, 479) or t, et, ol (477 a) : Tp^4>-u} (rpe^-^ Tpo(p-, Tpa<p-) nourish rirpotpa, 'Kelirco 
(Xiir-y XetTT-, XotTT-) leave X^XotTra, weiffco (tti^-, Treid-, iroid-) persuade ireiroiOa trust. 

565. Similarly verbs with the variation u, ey, ou (47C) should have ov ; but 
this occurs only in Epic etX^Xou^a (=Att. iTii^Xvda); cp. i\e6(6y<TOfiai. Other 
verbs have eu, as <^ei57w Jiee Tr^<p€uya. 

566. After Attic reduplication (446) the stem of the second perfect has the 
weak form ; dXet^w (dXa^-, dXt^-) anoint dX-^Xt^a. 

567. Apart from the variations in 5G3-5G6 the vowel of the verb-stem re- 
mains unchanged: Si&yiypa<pa (ypdcfxi) write), Kikv(f>a {kOtttco StOOp, KV(p-). 

568. The meaning of the second perfect may diifer from that of the present ; 
as ^p-^yopa am awake from iyeipto wake up^ (rkarqpa grin from (ralpo) sweep. 
The second perfect often has the force of a present ; as iriiroLdix trust {iriireiKa 
have persuaded). See 819. 

569. Aspirated Second Perfects. — In many stems a final tt or ^ 
changes to ^ : a final k or y changes to ^, (^ and x here imitate 
verb- stems in <^ a^d j^^ as Tpi<fio}, opvTTo).) 

561 D. Horn, has several forms unknown to Attic : didou-rra (dovir-e-co sound), 
eoXTra (eXTr-oj hope), €Opya (pe^u) work), irpo-^i^ovKa (j9oiiXo/Aat loish), piip.r}\a (/iAcu 
care for). 

562 D. But S^dia fear from dFi-. See 555 b. D., 703. 

669 D. Horn, never aspirates ir, j3, k, y. Thus KeKoirdfs = Att. K€Ko<f>6? {Kbir-r-ia 
cut). The aspirated perfect occurs once in Hdt. {iwcTrh^KpfA 1. 85) ; but is un- 
known in Attic until t]ie fifth century b.c. Soph. Tr. 1009 {dpaT4Tpo<pai) is the 
only exami^le in tratccdy. 

GHKEK GUAM. — 12 



178 SECOND PERFECT SYSTEM [570 

Kbirrti) (kott-') cut K4K0(pa^ ir^fnr-w send Tr^7ro/A0a, ^Xdirrw (^Xa;3-) injure ^4- 
^\a<pa, Tpt^cj (rpi^-') rub r^rpltpa, ^uXdrroj (^<pv\aK-) guard -7re0i/Xaxa ; rp^^-w 
(rpecp-) nourish T^rpotpa ; dptirr tj (6pvx-) dig dpdjpvxa. 

570. Most such stems have a short vowel immediately before the final con- 
sonant; a long vowel precedes e.g. in SelK-vv-fii S^Seixa, kijpOttoj {ktjpvk-) -Ke/cij- 
pvxo-i TTT'^a-c-oj (ttttjk--) cTTT-^Jxa. rirpitpa and r^dXupa show i in contrast to t in the 
present (jpt^ia^ 6\1^U}). crrtpyoj, Xd/nrw do not aspirate (J^crTOpya, poet. XAa/u.7ra). 

571. The following verbs have aspirated second perfects : dyw, dWdrru}, 
dvolyw, ^Xd-TTTOJ, SeUvvfii, 8idl}Kii} (rare), ^Xi^w, KijpVrro}, kX^tttw, k^tttoj, Xoyx^J'W, 
Xa/ii^dvcj, XdiTTO), X^7aj collect, fidrru, fieiyvvfit., ir^/iiraj, itX^k-oj, TrpArra), 7m^(r<ra), 
Tdrru}, T/3^irw, rpi^Uj (p4poj (^/'iji'oxa), ^vXtirTo;. dvoiyu} or dvolyvvfxf. has tWO per- 
fects : dv4cpx°- ^nd dvit^ya. irpdrToj do has ir^irpaya have done and /are (weZZ or 
i^i), -and (generally later) ir^irpdxa. have done. 

572. Second Perfects of the jii-f onn. — Some verbs add the endings 
directly to the reduplicated verb-stem. Such second perfects lack 
the singular of the indicative. 

ifcTTj/ii ((TTtt-, (TTij-) set, 2 perf. stem ecrra- : ecra-fiev^ ^trra-re, eo-ra-trt, inf. 
ecrrd-rai; 2 plup. ^ara-aav (417). The singular is supplied by the forms in -m ; 
as ^o-TTjKtt. These second perfects are enumerated in 704. 

573. Stem Gradation. — Originally the second perfect was inflected through- 
out without any thematic vowel (cp. the perfect middle), but with stem-gra^ 
dation : strong forms in the singular, weak forms elsewhere, -a (1 singular) was 
introduced in part from the aorist and spread to the other persons. Corre- 
sponding to the inflection of oida (794) we expect iriiroida, Tr^Trotcr^a, iriiroide, 
iriiTKJTOv^ TT^iri.dfiev^ Tr^Trto-re, TreirLdarL (from Treirt.dvTt). Traces of this mode of 
inflection appear in Horn, yeydrrjv (from yeyvT7)v^ 35 b) yiyafiev from yi^ova ; 
tiKTov^ ittcTT}!', i'CKus from eot/ftt ; iTr^Trtdfieif ; p,4fiafi€v from {j^ipjova ; triiraa-Bc (for 
imradre = Treirvdre) from ir^irovda (other examples 704, 705). So the masc. and 
neut. participles have the strong forms, the feminine has the weak forms (p-€p,7)- 
*fc&s, p^fMKvla as ec5c6s, ISvla). 

V!L PERFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM 

(perfect ai^d pluperfect middle and passive, future 

PERFECT PASSIVE) 

574. The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive 
is the reduplicated verb-stem, to which the personal endings are 
directly attached. XiXv-^ai I have loosed myself or have been loosed^ 
€-AeAv-jw,7jv ; SiBo-fjxii (Bi-Bo)- fjn give), SeScty-/>tat (SctVvu-/xt show). On the 
euphonic changes of consonants, see 409. 

674 D, A thematic vowel precedes the ending in Horn. pi^fi^Xerat (/iAw care 
for)^ dpcbperai. (^6pvv}ii rouse). 



583] PEKFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM 179 

575. The stem of the perfect middle is in general the same as 
that of the first perfect active as regards its vowel (567), the reten- 
tion or expulsion of v (559 a), and metathesis (559 d). 

TifJLd-Ui honour TerifXTj-fxai. iTeTlp.Tjfj.T]v ; iroU-cj make ireTrolrf-nat iTreiroLTjfXTjv ; 
ypd(p-cj write y^ypapL-fxai ; Kptvtj (Kptp-) judge K^Kpt-fxai ; refpoj (rev-) Stretch rira- 
fmi ; (p6e,ipO) {(pSep-) corrupt ^(pdap-fxai ; jSaXXw (^a\~) throw ^i^'kri-fxat i§€^\i}p.T}v ; 
ireldiJ (ttlO-^ ireid-^ irot^-) persuade ir^ireurfxai i'ir€irel<Xfji7}v. 

576. The vowel of the perfect middle stem should show the weak form when 
there is variation between e (ei, ev) : o (ot, ov) : a (t, u). The weak form in a 
appears regularly in verbs containing a liquid (479) : that in u, in ir^v<Tfiai from 
irvvOdvofxaL (ttu^-, irevd-) learn, poet. ^crffvfxaL hasten from cret;w (cu-, crev-) urge. 

577. The vowel of the present has often displaced the weak form, as in 
rr^wXeyfiai (xX^k-w weave), X^XeLfXfxaL (Xelir-w leave), ir^ir€i<Tp.ai {rrdd-ta persuade), 
i^€vyp.ai {i/e^y-vv-fXL yoke). 

578. A final short vowel of the verb-stem is not lengthened in the verbs 
given in 488 a. e is added (485) in many verbs. For metathesis see 492 ; for 
Attic reduplication see 446. 

579. V is retained in endings not beginning with /x, as (pabu {<pav-) show, 
Tr^4>avTaL, iritpapOe. Before -/xat., we have fj. in &^vp.p.a.L from 6^tvu {6^vv-) sharpen, 
but usually v is replaced by o". On the insertion of <t, see 489. 

580. Future Perfect — The stem of the future perfect is formed 
by adding -cr%- to the stem of the perfect middle. A vowel imme- 
diately preceding -o-%- is always long, though it may have been short 
in the perfect middle. 

X«)-w loose, 'KeXv-crofxai I shall have been loosed (perf. mid. \^\v-fmi), 5^-w 
bind dedr^-a-Ofiai (perf. mid. diSe-fxai), ypa.<p-<a write yeypd^-ofiai, koX^oi call k€~ 

KXTJffOfiaL. 

581. The future perfect usually has a passive force. The <tctive meaning is 
found where the pei^ect middle or active lias an active meaning (1946, 1947). 

KeKT-qaofiai shall possess (K^Kri^fiaL possess), KCKpd^ofiaL shall Cry out (K^Kpaya 
a^ out), K€K\dy^ofj.aL shall scream {n^KXayya scream), p.^p.v-qffoiJ.a.L shall remem- 
ber (p.^fxvT]fj.at remeraber% Trew ava-ofiai. shall have ceased {iriiravfiai have ceased), 

582. Not all verbs can form a future perfect ; and few forms of this tense 
occur outside of the indicative : SiaireTroXefj.'na-SfjLevov Thuc. 7. 25 is the only sure 
example of the participle in classical Greek. The infinitive fxefivrjaeff dat occurs 
in Horn, and Attic prose, 

583. The periphrastic construction (601) of the perfect middle (passive) 
participle with eaofjiaL may be used for the future perfect, as ^^evfffx^pos icrop-at I 
shall have been deceived- 

680 D. Horn, has 5e5^fo/iai, pjefxvi^aofmL, K^aX-^a-p, Kep(oX(ii<reTat j KeKad-j/icrofMi, 
Tretpid-^ffeTai are from reduplicated aorists. 



180 FIRST PASSIVE SYSTEM (®H PASSIVE) [584 

584. Future Perfect Active. — The future perfect active of most 
verbs is formed periphrastically (600). Two perfects with a present 
meaning, earyxa I stand (JarrjfxL set) and reOvrjKa I a^m dead (OvijaKO)), 
form the future perfects io-Trjioi I shall stand, rcOvrjiui I shall be dead, 

VIII. FIRST PASSIVE SYSTEM (0H PASSIVE) 

(first aokist and first future passive) 

FIRST AORIST PASSIVE 

585. The stem of the first aorist passive is formed by adding -Orj- 
(oT -$€-) directly to the verb-stem : i-Xv-Orj-v I was loosed^ l-<j>dv'07j-v I 
was shown (<^tvw, <f>av-), i-So-Orj-v I was given (8t8w/jtt, 8f>-, S(i>-). 

a. '07]- appears in the indicative, imperative (escept the third plural), and 
infinitive ; -de- appears in the other moods. ~6r}- is found before a single conso- 
nant, -de- before two consonants or a vowel except in the uom. neuter of the 
participle. 

586. Tlie verb-stem agrees with tliat of the perfect middle herein : 

a. Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem, as re-rifx-rj-fxai, 
i-rlfx-n-d^v. On verbs vi^hich do not lengthen their final vowel, see 488. 

b. Liquid stems of one syllable change e to a, as T^-ra-fxai, 4-Td-$r)v (rei^'w 
stretch, rev-). But a-rpi<pLj turn^ t/j^ttcj tui'n, t/)^0w nourish have ^crrp^t^^T;*', iTp4- 
<pdi]v, ^dp^tjid-qv (rare), though the perfect middles are eo-T/ja^Lijuat, r^rpaixixai, r4- 
dpafx/xai, 

c. Primitive verbs showing in their stems the gradations e (ei, eu) : (oi, 01;) : 

a (t, v) have a strong form, as iTpi<pdT]v from rpiircj (rpeir-^ rpoir-, rpair-) turn, 
i'Kel<f>67}v from Xe^Trw (Xitt-, XetTr-, Xoitt-) leave^ iirXeriaOTji' from ttXi^w (ttXw-, TrXeu-) 
sail. . 

d. Primitive verbs showing m their stems a variation between e : tj and : a? 
have, in the first aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus, tI$7)/j.i (Be-, 67}-) ir^d-rjv, 
dldcom (5o-, 5w-) id6d7}v. 

e. Final v is dropped in some verbs : Ki-Kpi-/j.aL, iKplS-qv. See 491. 

f. The verb-stem may suffer metathesis : ^e~^\7]-/j.ai^ k-^X-fi-driv. See 492. 

g. Sigma is often added : Ke-Ki\eva--p.at, i-KeXeva-d-qv. See 489. 

587. Before B of the suffix, tt and /? become <^; k and y become 
X (82 c) ; T, 8, ^ become <x (83). <^ and x i^emain unaltered. 

XeiTT-o} 4\ei(}>-0if]v, ^Xdirro} (/3Xa^-) i§\d<p-Q'qv ; <l}vkdTT(:0- (0i7Xa/:-) ^(pvXdx-B'qv, 
&y-o) Tjx-^V^ ') KO/xL^oj (/co/wt5-) ^KOixia-d'qv, irel6-cc i7r€l<r-67)v ; ypd<p-u iypd<p-67]v^ ra- 
pdrrd} (rapaX'} ^rapdx-Otjv. 

584 D. Horn, has Kexapi^aw and Kex<^P'n<rofxai from xa^/^w (x^p-) rejoice. 

585 a. D. For -d-qaav we find -dei' m Honi., as btiKpiBev. 

686 b. D. 4o-Tpd<peT}v is Ionic and Doric ; Horn, and Hdt. have iTpd<p6T}v 
from Tp^ircc. Horn, has 4rdp<p6T]i> and iT^p<p67]v from Tipiro} gladden. 

686 e. D. Horn, has iKKLvB-nv and iK\L9t]v, iKpivd-rjv and iKpid-qv-j ibp<;v6'qv = Att. 
ldp6BT]v (i5/)i^w erect), dp.irvOyOijv (^dvaTrvio} revive). ^ 



594] SECOND PASSIVE SYSTEM (H PASSIVE) 181 

588. 6 of the verb-stem becomes t in i-T^-Oijv for i-de-O-nv, and in i-Tu-dt)]/ for 
i-dv-dTju from rLdTjfjLL (Oe-, 07)-) place and ^(^w {$v-, dv-) sacrifice. See 125 c. 

FIRST FUTURE PASSIVE 

589. The stem of the first future passive is formed by adding 
-(T%- to the stem of the first aoiist passive. It ends in -O-qc-o^ai. 
Thus, TratSeu^iy-cro/wxt I shall be educated, XvOrj-a-ofjiai I shall be loosed. 

Tifjido}, erlfx'^drjv TifjLrjdTia-OfMai ; idw, elddtjv eddrja-OfjLai ; XfiTroj, i\el<p9r}v \€i<p$-^(rofxai ; 
Ti6T}fJLt, iTedriv redi^aofxai ; didufxt, id6$T}v bodriaofiai ; SeUvvfjiL^ iSeLxdrjv deixO'^o'Ofiai, 

IX. SECOND PASSIVE SYSTEM CH PASSIVE) 

(second AORIST and second FUTUllE PASSIVE) 

SECOND AORIST PASSIVE 

590. The stem of ,the second aorist passive is formed by adding 
-r)- (or -e-) directly to the verb-stem. Thus, i/SXdjSrfv I was injured 
from ISXaTTTO) (ySAa/?-). 

a. -V- appears in the indicative, imperative (except the third plural), and 
infinitive; -e- appears in the other moods, -tj- is found before a single con- 
sonant, -e- before two consonants or a vowel except in the nom. neut. of the 
participle. 

591. The second aorist passive agrees in form with the second aorist active 
of yni-verbs ; cp. intransitive ^xdpriv rejoiced with ggt^v stood. The passive use 
was developed from the intransitive use. 

592. Primitive verbs showing in their stems the grades f : o : a have a. 
Thus an e of a monosyllabic verb-stem becomes a, as in ttX^k-w weave iir\dKT}v^ 
K\i7r-T~03 steal iKXdirtjv, (pdeipw (<p6€p-) coTvupt i<f>ddpi]y, (ttAXw (o-reX-) send 
io-TdXTjv. But \^yw collect has ^X^y^v. 

593. Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between a short 
and long vowel have, in the second aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus-Tijff&j 
(rax-, T'qK-') melt iTdKijv, p'^ywfj.i {pay-., prjy-, pcjy-) hreaJc ippdyrjv. 

a. But ttXtittw (xXay-, 7rX7;7-) h'trike lias ^-rrXdyrjv only in composition, as 
i^€ir\dyi)v ; otherwise ^7rXij7T)t'. 

594. The second aorist passive is the only aorist passive formed in Attic 
prose by &yvv/j.i (idytjy)-, ypd<poj {iypd<p7}y), d^pot (48dpT}v), ddwrca (^rd^Tjt-), kStttc^ 
(iKO'jnjy)^ fj.<iiv<j3 {^fj.dvtjv), vvtyoj (iirytyrjv), pdirroj (€ppd<l)7]v') , pioj (ippiiijv active), 
p-f{yv\}(i.i (ippdyTjf).! <r^7rw (^adinjv)., aKdirrta (iiTKacprjv')., inreLpoj (iffirdprjv'), (ttAXo; 
(iardXTjv), <r<pd^03 or (rtpdrroi (ia-ipdytjv), <T(pdW(i} {ia <pd\7\v) ., tO0w (^r6<pT}v), <p6etpO} 
{i<p$dp't)v pass, and intr.), (ptoj (in subj. 0yw), x°-^P^ {^x^P"^^ active). 

689 D. Horn, has no example of the first future passive. To express the 
idea of the passive future the future middle is used. See 802. Doric shows the 
active endings in both futures passive : SeixO'n'^odvTt, dvaypacpTjo-et - 

590 a. D, For --jjo-af we generally find -ev (from -vpt, 40) in Horn. ; also in Doric. 



182 SKCU^^B PASSIVE SYSTEM (H PASSIVE) [595 

595. Both the first aorist passive and the second aorist passive are formed 
by d\€i<po} {^\ei<p67}v)^ dWdTTtj {-tjWdxBTjv, T^\Xd7T7»'), (idtma (ejSd^ij*'), ^Xdirru 

kX^ttto} (^KKdirt^v) ^ KXtvoi (-e/cXfi'??!'), Kpriirroj {iKpii<p67]p')^ X^w collect (5ie\^x^'nv-» 
but (rvv€\^'qv\ /xdrTU) (Jfidy-qv')^ fieiyvv/j.L (^ifjlyrjv'), tr'^yvvfii {jTrdyTjv'), ttX^/co) 
(iTr\dK7}v)^ irX-^TTOj (iirX-^yi/jv and -eirXdyrjv) , f>hrrb} {^ppi<p6ir]v^ ippL<p7]v), <Trepi<7Kw 
(JaTepTidtiv)^ <7Tp4<(>(ji (^i<FTpd<pT}v), raTTta (^rdxOTjv), ti^kw {irdK-qt^), Tp^ircj (h-pd- 
TT-qv pass, and intr.), rp^iptj (irpdipTjv pass, and intr.), rpt^oj (iTpl0'r]v^'^Tpt<pd7}v), 
<paiv<a (i4>dvd'r]v WUS sllOWlly ^<pdvT}v appf^aved)^ (ppdyvvfiL (^(ppdxdvv) i ^tx<^ (i^^ii- 
xv^)- Most of these verbs use either the one in prose and the other in poetry, 
the dialects, or late Greek. Only the forms in common prose use are inserted 
in brackets. 

596. Only those verbs wliicli have no second aorist active show the second 
aorist passive ; except rpeTroj, which has all the aorists : active erpe^a and €Tpa~ 
irov turned; middle irpeT^dp-yv put to Jlight^ €Tpair6p.7)v turned myself, took to 
flight ; passive irpiipe-qv was turned^ iTpdir-nv was turned and turned myself* 

SECOND FUTURE PASSIVE 

597. The stem of tlie second future passive is formed by adding 
~a%- to the stem of the second aorist passive. It ends in -T/o-o/xat. 
Thus, ^Xr)^r}ao}jjo.i I shall be injured from /3\d7rro> (/SAayS-) l-pXap-q-v. 

kStt-t-o}, iKSjTTjv KOTTT^ao/xaL • ypd<pu}^ iypd<p'r]v ypa<priiTop.aL ; (paivoj, iipdvqy CLp- 
pearedt (l>avT]<rofiat ; (pdeipoj^ ^<p6dp7]p <p6apTi<ro/j.ai ; Tn^yvv/J-L fix^ iirdytjv irayi^aofiai. 

598. Most of the verbs in 594, 596 form second futures passive except dyvvfii^ 
dXe/^oj, ^diTTO}, ^p^Xcj, ^ei/yvvpj., OXt^ui, /cX^tttoj, fiaLvoy, p.dTT(j3^ pdirrw. 
But many of the second futures appear only in poetry or in late Greek, and some 
are fotmd only in composition. 

PERIPHRASTIC FORMS 

599. Perfect. — For the simple perfect and pluperfect periphrastic 
forms are often used. 

a. For the perfect or pluperfect active indicative the forms of the perfect 
active participle and dp.i or ^v may be used : as XeXyjctis elpj. for \4\vKa, XeXy/cc^? 
?iv for iXeX^Kt}. So ^eporjdtjKSTes ^aav for i^efSo7}6r}K€<7av {^o-qd^oy GOme to aid) ; 
eifil T€dT]Ku>s for Tid-qKa I have placed; yeypaipths ^v for iyey pd^T} I had written; 
Tr€7rov6(bs ijv I had suffered. Such forms are more common in the pluperfect 
and in general denote state rather than action. 

b. For the perfect active a periphrasis of the aorist participle and ix^ is 
sometimes used, especially when a perfect active form with transitive meaning 
is lacting ; as o-rTjcras ex^^ I have placed (go-rij/ca, intransitive, stand), ipaadeU 
€x<^ I have loved. So often because the aspirated perfect is not used, as ex^if 
rapd^ds thou hast stirred up. Cp. Jiabeo with the perfect participle. 

697 D. Horn, has only da-qaeaL (idd-qv learned), /JLiy^a-effdat {fjL€Lyvvp.L mix). 



6o4] PERIPHRASTIC FORMS 183 

c. In the perfect active subjunctive and optative the forms u\ -kw and ^Koifii 
are very rare. In their place the perfect active participle with (5 and €tT]v is usu- 
ally employed : XeXuKtbs (XeXoiTrtbs) o5, etTjv,- Other forms than 3 sing, and 3 pi. 
are rare. Cp. 691, 694. 

d. The perfect or pluperfect passive is often paraphrased by the perfect par- 
ticiple and iari or ^v; as yty pa fi/i4vov i(TTl it stands written^ iarl beboypjivov it 
stands resolved^ irap-qyyckfLhov ^v^irapijyyeKro (7rapa77AXa) (jive, orders'). 

e. In the third plural of the perfect and pluperfect middle (passive) the per- 
fect middle participle with etVi {fj<rav) is used when a stem ending in a consonant 
would come in direct contact with the endings -vrai^ -vto. See 408. 

f. The perfect subjunctive and optative middle are formed by the perfect 
middle participle with tS or etfjv : \e\vfiivos 5, et-qv. 

g. The perfect imperative of all voices may be expressed by combining tbe 
perfect participle with fo-^i, ro-rw (697). XeXuKtbs tadt loose, etc., eipijfiivov 
ItTTO) let it have been said^ yeyovihs ecrrw P. L. 951 Cj yeyovbres earwaav P. L. 779 d. 

h. Periphrasis of the infinitive is rare : redvTjK&ra eivai to be dead X. C. 1. 4. 11. 

600. Future Perfect Active. — The future perfect active of most 
verbs is formed by combining the perfect active participle vi'^ith ea-o- 
fxat shall be. ThiiSj yey pa^m tcroixac I shall have written^ cp. scripins 
ero. For the two verbs which do not use this periphrasis^ see 584. 

a. The perfect middle participle is used in the case of deponent verbs : dwo- 
\e\oyTjfi4vos Eaofiai And, 1. 72. 

601. Future Perfect Passive. — The future perfect passive may 
be expressed by using the perfect middle (passive) participle with 
ecrofULL shall he. Thus, iij/evcrfiivoL ^creo-Oe you will have been deceived. 

FIRST CONJUGATION OR VERBS IN Q. 

602. Verbs in -w have the thematic vowel -% (~^/v~) between the 
tense-stem and the personal endings in the present system. The 
name " tu-conjugation," or ^' thematic conjugatiouj" is applied to all 
verbs which form the present and imperfect with the thematic vowel. 

603. Inflected according to the ^-conjugation are all thematic 
presents and imperfects; those second aorists active and middle in 
which the tense-stem ends with the thematic vowel ; all fatures, all 
first aorists active and middle ; and most perfects and pluperfects 
active. 

604. Certain tenses of verbs ending in -<o in the first person 
present indicative active, or of deponent verbs in which the personal 
endings are preceded by the thematic vowel, are inflected without 
the thematic vowel, herein agreeing with //t-verbs. These tenses 
are: all aorists passive^ all perfects and pluperfects middle and 
passive j a few second perfects and pluperfects active ; and those 
second aorists active and middle in which the tense-stem does not 
end with the thematic vowel. But all subjunctives are thematic. 



184 a-C0NJUGAT10:N: VOWEL VEKBS [605 

605. Verbs in -a> fall into two main classes; distinguished by the 
last letter of the verb-stem : 

1. Vowel verbs : a. TJncontracted verbs, b. Contracted verbs. 

2. Consonant verbs : a. Liquid verbs, b. Stop (or mute) verbs. 
N. Under 2 fall also (c) those verbs whose stems ended in c or /r (624). 

606. Vowel Verbs. — Vowel verbs usually do not form second 
aorists, second perfects^ and second futures in the passive. A voM^el 
short in the present is commonly lengthened in the other tenses. 
Vowel verbs belong to the first class of present stems (498-504 ; but 
see 612). 

607. Vowel Verbs not contracted. — Vowel verbs not contracted have 
verb-stems ending in l^ u, or in a diphthong (at, ei, av, cu, ov), 

(i) €(t6Lii} eat^ irpiuj saw, xpto? anoint, poet. Sfoj fear^ rto) honour (600.2); 
(u) dviLioj accomplish, fiedito am intoxicated, Xco? loose, dico sacrifice^ <p6o} produce, 
KcoXvoi hinder (and many others, 500. 1 a); (ai) Kvaioj scratch, iralu) strike, irTaiui 
stumble, iraKaiw wrestle, dyaiofxat am indignant, daiw kindle, daiofxai divide, 
XiKaiofjLat desire eagerly, poet, fxaiofxai desire, valoj dioell, paiw stnke ; («i) /cXtjoj 
(later KXe/w) shut, cdoj shake. Epic ksIoj split and 7^est ; (av) avoj kindle, 6pa<jw 
break, airoXaijcj enjoy, TraiJw make cease (iraijofxai cease}, poet. /aiJw restj («v) 
j8a(riXei/w am king, ^ovXeijoj Gonsult {^ovXetjofxai deliberate), djipeixi) hunt, KeXevu) 
order, Xeuw stone, 7rai5€iJw educate, x°P^^^ dance, <pove^o} slay. Most verbs in -evw 
are either denominatives, as j3a(7iXei)w from jSatriXeiJs ; or are due to the analogy 
of such denominatives, as -n-atSei/w. yerjo/xaL taste is a primitive. 6ioj run, v4oj 
swim, ttX^w sail, irv^ta breathe, p^uj flow, x^w pour have forms in ei;, v ; cp. poet. 
aevo) urge, dXeiJw avert, d-xetJoj am grieved j (ov) olko^oo hear^ koXoijco dock, Kpo^u} 
beat, XoiJuj wash, 

608. Some primitive vowel verbs in -ioj, -uw (522) formed their present stem 
by the aid of the suffix jt(j;), which has been lost. Denominatives in -ioj, -yoj, 
-ei/w regularly added the suffix, as poet, fx-rjvi-o) am vy)'oth from fXT}VL-j,oj (fXTjvi-s 
wrath), poet. daKptco weep {ddKpv tear), poet, (plrd-w beget from ipTrv-ica, p^edvui 
am drunk, ^ao-tXeiJw am king. Poet, d-qpiofiai, fxaa-Tlo}, fi7}Tiojj.aL, ktjkLo)^ dxXi/w, 
y-TjpTL/o}, l66o). 

609. The stem of some of the uncontracted vowel verbs originally ended 
in (T or ^ (624). 

610. Some verbs with verb-stems in vowels form presents in -vco (523), as 
TTivw drink, <p&tvco perish ,' and in -o-koj (526). 

611. Vowel Verbs contracted. — Vowel verbs that contract have 
verb-stems ending in a, e, o, with some in d, rj, o>. 

612. All contracted verbs form tlieir present stem by the help of the suffix 
t(y), and properly belong to the Third Class (522). 

613. Some contracted verbs have verb-stems which originally ended in a 
or p (624). 



62o] ^^-CONJUGATION : LIQUID VERBS 185 

614. Liquid Verbs. — Liquid verbs have verb-stems in X, /a, y, p. 

The present is rarely formed from the simple verb-stem, as in /i^p-w remain; 
ordinarily the suffix i (?/) is added, as in cttAXo) (o-reX-tw) send, Kptvoj (kpXv-m) 
judge^ KTeivw {kt€v~lo}) slay, (paivoj {(pap-LOj) show. 

615. A short vowel of the verb-stem remains short in the future but is 
lengthened in the first aorist (544). Thus: 

a. o in the future, i] in the aorist: <pa.iv(a {(pav-) s?iow, ^ayw, €<p'r}va. In this 

class fall all verbs in -atj/w, -aipoj^ -aXXw. 

b. * in the future, et in the aorist: fx^p-oj remain^ /iepw,. e/;ieim ; (ttAXw ((ttcX-) 

send^ ffTe\u}f ecrretXa. Here belong verbs in -eXXw, -e/ioj, -e^vu, -epw, -etpw, 

-efW, -ELVOJ. 

c. t in the future, I in the aorist: kXIj^oj (kXiv-) incline^ kKXvQ>^ 'ikXlva.. Here 

belong verbs in -iXXw, -Ivw^ -Ipv. 

d. V in the future, v in the aorist: cropw (<Tvp~) drag, a-upCi, effvpa. Here belong 

verbs in -upoj, -vvoj. 
For the formation of the future stem see 635, of the aorist stem see 544. 

616. For the perfect stem see 559. Few liquid verbs make second perfects. 
On the change of c, a of the verb-stem to o, -q in the second perfect, see 478, 484, 

Liquid verbs with futures in -w do not form future perfects. 

617. Monosyllabic verb-stems containing e have a in tlie first perfect active, 
perfect middle, first aorist and future passive and in all second aorists, but o in 
the second perfect. Thus, (pdeipw ((t>6ep-) corrupt^ ecpOapKa, '4cf>dapfji<ii, i(f>ddpi}v, but 
di-4<p9opa ?iave destroyed (819), 

618. A few monosyllabic stems do.uot change e to a in the 2 aor., as r^fivoj cut 
irepjav (but %Ta,yx>v in Horn., Hdt. etc.), yiyvofuiL (yev-) become iyevSfi-qv. See also 
Seivoj, dipo^ai, K^Xo/xai, root ^ep-. Few liquid verbs form second aorists, 

619. Stems of more than one syllable do not change the vowel of the verb-stem. 

620. List of LicLuid Verbs. — The arrangement is according to the classes of 
the present stem. Words poetic or mainly poetic or poetic and Ionic are starred. 

I. j3oiiXo/xai (j3oi/X-e-), iO^Xoi (ideX-e-), elUoj* (elX-e-), i'XXw*, m^XXw, /xAw, 
TrAo/Atti*, (piXiw (Ex^ic 0tX-). — ^pe/xw*, 7^/xw, d^/Acy*, dipnoj*, v^fidj, rp^pM, 
and 7a/x^uj (ya/ji-e-). — yiyvofiat (yev-e-)^ /i^foj, p^ip^vta* (jiev-)^ irivopLai, 
ffOiviiy*, cTTivo), and yeyujvio}* (yeycav-e-). — Verbs in -e/iw and -evoj have 
only pres. and imperf., or form their tenses in part from other stems. — 
5^paj, Hpofiai (^p-e-), eppw (epp-e-), d^pofxai*, (Tripofiat^ 0^pw, ^aup^w*, 
(^irtKup-e-), and Kvpiu)* (/fup-e-), rop^w* (rop-e)* 
III. d"YctXXo(iai, dyyiXXbj^ a^oXXw*, ctXXo/xat, driTaXXo;*, jSdXXw, SaiSdXXw*, BaXXcti, 
i'dXXw*, LvddXXo/JLaL*', dK^XXoj, (j0e£Xw (dcpeX-, (J<^eiXe-), d^AXw*, TrciXXo), 

TTOiWXXw, (TkAXw*, (rrcXXb}, -tAXu, rtXXoj*, <r^dXXw, ^dXXw. atvw verbs 

(the following list includes primitives, and most of the denominatives in 
classical Greek from extant v-sLems, or from stems which once contained 
v; 5 18 a): a^vw*, d<r6/uiaivox^U d^pafvw*, Setfiaivdj^, dpaivia*^ ei^pafyw, 

614 D. 7r€(p6p<r€ordaL in Pindar is made from <p6pffu (4>vpc^ knead). 



186 ^CONJUGATION: STOP VERBS [621 

dav/xaivu}^ lalvoj*, Kaho)*^ Kpalv(t}*, KV(xa.lvu}*^ KOifiahco*, 'KvfxoiLvofiai^ fieXaivo- 

(TTrepfxalvuj*, TeKralvo^ai, (palvcj, <p\ey^aiv(i)^ X^'M^i^*''^*! XP^^^^' All Other 
denominatives in -atvoj are due to analogy ; as dypLaivca, chaivos^ ykvKfxivu}^ 
dva-X€palv(x}^ ixOpalvUf ffep/ialvw, IffxvO'ivtiJy Kepdalvoiy KOLkaLvcj, Kvdaivo}*^ Xeaivo)^ 
XeVKaivu}*, fxapaivo}^ pLapyalvai*^ fiLalpuj, pLupalvui^ ^rjpaivo}^ opfMiivoj*, d(r(ppalvo- 
jCitti, ireTTalyoj^ irepalvw^ iriKpaLvio^ ^UTrafvoj, rsTpaivia, Oyialvut vdpalvo}*, v4>alv(o^ 
XaXeiralvo}. — aXttiva*, yelvofiat*, ipeeivb}*^ ^efj'w*, ktcIvco, Treipeivoj*, ffTelvo)*, 
Tdvoi^ 4>aeiv(j}*. — kXcvco (icXt-»^), /cplyoj {KpL-v~)^ dptvca*^ (rivofiac (Xenoph.), 
(hdivoi. — aUrxvvw, aky6v(>}^ dpr^vco*^ ^aOtvw^ ^apDvuj, ^pa,86vw*, t/SjJj'oj, 
^apo-fSvo), Idtvw*, XeiTTlJva), 6^6vu}, dprtvu)*, irXtvu, — aXpta, dtnraLpo}, yepaiptJ*, 
ivalpto*', ^x^ct^/"^*! Kadalpuj, pLappLaLpai*, fieyalpco*^ caipw*,^ jKalpoj^ TeKfJUxlpofxai, 
X^lpi^ (x<^p-^')t i^o.ip(ti, — 0L7£Lpa), dpLelpo)*, delpoj, iyelpto, etpo/xac'^j -etpuj 
join, etpuj* say, i/Affpoj*, KeCpto, fMelpop.aL, Treipo}*j ffirtipio^ Telpw*^ tpOelpu). — 
olKrtpo) (miswritten olKTcCpw). — KLviipo|xai*, fiapT^pofiai^ /juvipo/Mxi*, fwp- 
jafSpoj*, fi6p(o*^ 656popLaLj 6\o4>tpop.aiy Trop<p6pu}*^ aipoi^ (p6p(jj*. 
IV. a. KapLVCJf T^fivo} ; b. d(pi\ia-Kdp(t} (60X-e-) ; ll. ^alvcti^ KepSaivio^ rerpaivw 
(also Class III) ; i. 6<y<ppaivop.ai (d(T0/)-e-), also Class III. V, See 527. 

621. Stop Verbs. — Many verb steins end in a stop (or mute) con- 
sonant. 

The present is formed either from the simple verb-stem, as in ttX^k-w weave, 
or by the addition of r or i (y) to the verb-stem, as in ^XdTrrw (^\aj3-) injure, 
(pvkdrrb} (4)v\aK~L(o) guard. All tenses except the present and imperfect are 
formed without the addition of r or t to the verb-stem ; thus, jSXdi/'w from 
j3Xaj3-(r-w, (pvXd^cj from <pv\aK-<r-u}. 

622. Some monosyllabic stems show a variation in the quantity of the stem 
vowel I or v, as rpt^u rub perf. r^r/ji^a, yj/tx^ <^ool 2 aor. pass, i^vxv^-, t-^koj melt 
(Doric rd/cw) 2 aor. pass. iTaK-rjf. Cp. 475, 477 c, 600. Many monosyllabic stems 
show qualitative vowel gradation;, t eu 01 ; w ev ov ; a t^ w ; a € o. For examples 
see 477-484. 

623. List of Stop Verbs. — The arrangement of the examples is by classes 
of the present stem. Words poetic or mainly poetic or poetic and Ionic are 
starred. The determination of the final consonant of the verb-stem of verbs in 
-(-to, -TTw (poetic, Ionic, and later Attic -cro-oj) is often impossible (516), 

TT-^ L |3X^7rw, Sp^TTOJ, eXTrco*, ^yeTrto*, ^irofiac, ipeiird}^, 'ipiro), Xd/xTru), XefTrw, X^ttw, 

jti^XTTW*, TT^/iTTW, TTp^irei, p^TTW, ripTTd}, Tp^TTOJ. 

II, dcTpdiTTU}^ yvdpLTrTCi;*^ ddiTTO}'*, ivlTrTu}*^ ip^irropiaL*, /dTrrw*, KdpjrTb), 

kX^TTTO), KdlTTU, fldpTTTOJ*, CTK^TTTOyWat, trWrijTTTW, (rK7}piirT0/J.aL*, ffKdtWTO}, 

XaX^TTTCij, and dovir^w* (5ou7r-e-), ktutt^cj* (/crUTr-e-), riiTTTCJ (ruir-e-). 
dfiel^o/MaL, dXt^co^ Xd^w*, ai^ofJudL^ a-Tel^o}*, rpi^u), (pi^Ofxat*, 
/SXdTTTw, KaXiiTTTO). — IV. c, Xajx^dvti (Xaj3-), 
dXef^w, yX^<pfj3, ypdtpio, ipi<poj, fj.^fx.<popLaL^ uelipei (yt^ei), jrf}<po}^ (nicpu, 

(TTpicput, Tp4<pcj, t6<P(jJ*. 
II; ctTrrco, ^diTTia, dpijirruj*, dd-n-Td} (125 g), Op^Trrw (125 g), KpinrTCo (Kpv^-, 

KpV§-), KilTTW, XdlTTO}^ pdTTTW, ptlTTU} (^ippl4>-'r)V, bUtpiTT-'^), aKdlTTW. 

IV, a. ttItvu}* = TTtTTTcj. — dX(pdv(i}* (dX0-). — V, d'rra(f}l(TKO}* (d^-e-). 



p- 


I. 




11. 


+- 


I. 



624] 12-00 N JUG ATION: STOP VERBS 187 

T — I- dar^oixat* (Sar-e-), Kevriu}* (fce»T-e-), irariofxtn (Trar-e-), irirofjiai (^Trer-, 
-rrre-') . 

III. d7pt6(r(rw*, a,lfid(T<T(a*^ ^XLttw ()3XiT- from (mKlt-^ 130), ^ffdrraj^ 4p4<r<T(a*^ 

\i<r<yotiaL*y Tvpirro} {irvper-y irvpe'y-^. 

IV. b. afiaprdvo) (a.fxapr-e-'), ^XatrTdvu (^XatTT-e-), 

S — I. 95w, dXlvSw* (dXivd-e-)^ dfi^pdu*, fipTw, eSw*, etSofxai*, iTrelyoj, ipeldcj*, 
(^Kad^e^Scj (ei'S-e-), ^5o)Ltat, /ct^Sw* (ffTj5-e-^, KwXfi'fiw*, fjijiSofxai* (yxe5-t-), 
fi'^dofxai*^ ir^pSofiai, cwivdci)^ cr7r«J5a), (peidofxai (also ilpie ^etSe-), '^eySo- 
Mat, and K€\ad4o)* («:eXa5-£-). 
III. Examples of denominatives from actual 5-stems. Tfjoivd^w, SeKcifw, 5t- 
;)td^aj, /it7dfojtiat*, 67rffo)iiat*, Trai^w, TreyiiTrdfio, \paKd^(a. — aiXi^ofxat^ dw- 

pi^d), ATrffoi, ipi^O), KCpKi^O}, \f)t^OfXaif (TToXifw, (ppoprL^O), \p7)(pl^(i}. 

TV, af>Sdp(t)^ (dS-e-), KepSalvu} (nepdav-, KepS-e-), o/Sdfoj* (ot5-e-), xapSdvu; 
(xa5-, xai-S-, X^^'^-)- 
9— I. aXecj*, dXdofxat* (d\e-e-), &x^o(mt, ^p<h6u}*, etojBa (id-, 563 a), ipeidof*, 
ex^w*, /feiJ^ti)*, /cXii^w*, XiJ^w*, ireldoj^ Tr^p^w*, TreiJ^optat*, xw^w, and 
yrjOioj (yv^-e-}, <h64o3 (djB-e-). 

III. JCopiJcrcrw*. 

IV. b. ala-ddvofiai (aZr^-e-), direxBdvo/iai (^x^-^-)i Sapddvo) (5ap^-€-), dXiffdavw 

(6Xi£r^-e-), Xai'^di'W (Xa^-), pxtvBdvoj (/iia^-t-), Trvv6dvofxa.t {yrvd-'). 
V. irdo-xojfor Tra^-ff^w (98, 126). 
K — I. PpVKO}, dipKofiai*, Sid^Kw, etKio yields efjcw* resemble^ eX^w, ipeiKO}*^ iptKoj*^ 
^KW, Xko}*, ireiKw*^ irXiKU, peyKCJ*, ti^ko}, tLktcj (tck-) and Sojc^w (So/c-e-), 
fxriKdofxai {/xrjK-a-), fiVKdofiai (jjvK-a-). 

III. alviTTOfxaiy 4'^TW^ deSlrrofiaL-, eXtrrw, ^t'£(T(raj*, dupificcui*, KrjptrTw, fxa- 

XdrTtjj, fjuuTTO}, irirru} (and Tr^irrw), TrXiffffo/xat^^ (ppima, Trr-qcaw, 
(pvKaTTu:. 

IV. a, Sdifw ; d. LKvdofxai (tV-). — V. See 527 b. 

V — I. &7(ij, dfi^yo), dpi77w*, iireiyo}^ etpyu, ipevyofjiai*^ ^^70)*, O'^yio^ X^w, Xt'7u, 
6p^7w*, ■7ri'£7(ij, ariyb}, o-T4pyu3, (Ttpiyyoj, r^yyui, Tix^yio*^ rpdyo), (pe&yw, 
ipOiyyoiMii^ <p\4y(D, (ppvyoj^ ^^7", and plyio) (pl7-f-), (Ttu7^w ((rTy7-€-). 

III. ep5w* and p^fw* (511). — fifojitat*, dXaXd^w*, dXaird^w*, dpTrd^w, a^Sdfw, 

^aa-rd^o}, Kpd^u, TrXdfw*, crd^o}, a-revd^u}, o-^dfw* (o-^arTw). — Sa'iftj*, 
6(a(jii^0}*y Kpl^w, fxaffri^u}, ffoKTrl^w, crT7;p£f(W, crrf^w, <TTpQ<pa\i^<a*, <jvpi^w^ 
rpii^aj*, (popfii^io*. — driJ^o/xai*, ypi^o), fiu^Uj 6\o\v^u}, Cfpi^oj, — oljith^w. 

IV. c. eiyydvoj (^£7-). — V. /i£(r7aj (526c). 

)^— I. <I7XW, iSpX^^, PP^X- in ^fipaxe*, ^pix<^, yMxo/mi, d^xofi^h A^7xw, epxo- 
^at, etfxOMot, «XW ((rex-)) ^ctxw*,r(TXtJ ((rttrx-w), Xeixw*, ^dxo^at (/xax-e-)) 
»''i?X'*'*i otxojJJOLL (olx-t-1 olx-0-}^ <Tp.trx<j}*i o't^^PX^*-) <^t^lx.^*i reix^*-* '^P^- 
Xw, rpyxw (rpCx-o-), i/'i7X'^. lA^Xt^, and ^pvxdofiai* (^pOx-a-). 

III, dfJL6(T(r(a*, ^^ttWj dpa/rro}^ dpvrru}^ TrrlJcrcrti), Trrcitro-w*, rapdrTO}. 

IV, C. Kt7xdi'a)* (/ctx-^) Xa7xdj'w (Xax-), Tiy7xdi'aj (tvx-^j '^^^X")- — d. d/u.- 

tri<rxv^ofLai {afnr€X-)i ^iricxv^oyiai (i^xcx-). — ■ V. 5t5d(r«-w (5t5ax-)- 
|,\); — I. dX^^w*(dX€^e-, dXe/f-),ai;|w.— IV, b. aO^dw (aOfc-).— I. ^^I^oi (ix^-e-^ 

624. Verbs in o- or p(v). — Some verb-stems ended originally in 

cr or ^. 



188 INFLECTION OF Q-YERBS [625 

a. Sigma-stems (cp. 488 d) with presents either from -a-oj or -o--iw. Thus 

(I) from -cr-oj; dKOUoj, auoj ?J^^^U, 7€«70), euoa, |'[^(jj, 0/>ajicj, Kpouw, vt(royxat* (^'i- 
p<r-ofxa,i^ cp. ^'6o■-Tos), |^w, o-efco, Tpicj^ ; (2) from -tr-jtw (488 d): dyafo/iat*, 
atS^o^at, iLKio^at (Horn. Aicelo/Lwii) , apK^oi^ yeXdoi, Aceioj* splits AcXefw* (z.e. 
icXe^cj) celebrate^ /coj>iw*, XiXalo/xaL*, fxatofiai*, vaioj* dwell, veiK^w (Hom. 
wt«tf£w), otw/Sapdoj*, otofiai (from (ii'o/xat), irevBiia (HoiD. irev^eiu}), irrlTTij 
(7rTtj>o--^aj), rcX^w (Hom. reXefoj), and some Others that do not lengthen the 
vowel of the verb-stem (488). 

Also others, such as i-piiXKO) (dpetr-), 'evm/xi, ^Svvvfii, p-^^vvvfii (732), — o" is 
retained in r^pcro/xai*. 

b. /r-stems (from -i^-ttij): Taiw*, dalijj^ kindle, Kaiui (520), ^Xaiw (520), ra£tj* 

swim^ flow i 222. — For the loss of f in ei(^, etc., see 43, 503. 

INFLECTION OF ft-VERBS 

625. Verbs which end in o) iu the first person present indicatiYe ac- 
tive, and deponent verbs in which the personal endings are preceded by 
the thematic vowel, have the following peculiarities of inflection : 

a. The thematic vowel usually appears in all tenses except the perfect and 
pluperfect middle (passive) and the aorist passive (except in the subjunctive). 
These three tenses are inflected like /;ti-verbs, 

b. The present and future singular active end in -w, -eis, ~€l (463). The ending 
-/Ai appears only in the optative. 

c. The thematic vowel unites in the indicative with the ending -vrt, and 
forms -ouo-i (463 d). 

d. The third plural active of past tenses ends in ~y, 

e. The imperative active has no personal ending in the second person singu- 
lar except '0~v in the first aorist. 

f. Except in the perfect and pluperfect the middle endings -aat and -vo lose 
a and contract with the final vowel of the tense-stem (466 a, b). In the optative 
contraction cannot take place (XDot-(o-)o, X(Jo-at-((3-)o). 

g. The infinitive active has ~€lv (for -e-ev) in the present, future, and second 
aorist ; -e-j/at in the perfect ; and -at in the aorist, 

fa. Active participles with stems in -ovr- have the nominative masculine in -wp. 

626. In 627-716 the method of inflection of all (o- verbs, both vowel 
and consonant, is described. The examples are generally taken from 
vowel verbs, but the statements hold true of consonant verbs. 

Forms of w-verbs which are inflected according to the non-thematic 
conjugation are included under the to-yerbs. 

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (PASSIVE) 

For the formation of the present stem see 497-531. 

627. Indicative. — Vowel and consoiiant verbs in -oj inflect the present by 
attaching the primary endings (when there are any) to the present stem in -% 



634] INFLECTION OF O-VEKBS: PKESKNT 189 

{-^ /t)-)- ^tjcj, Tijiiw (rtjicd-w), ipahui^ XeCnw. The imperfect attaches the second- 
ary endings, to the present stem with the augment. See the paradigmSj pp. 114, 
120- For tlie active forms -w, -etj, -et, see 463. 

628. -Tj and ~€i are found in the pres. fut. mid. and pass., fut. perf. 
pass. €-(cr)ai yields tj (written EI in the Old Attic alphabet, 2 a), which is 
usually given as the proper spelHng in the texts of the tragic poets, whereas et is 
printed in the teste of prose and comedy, et was often written for rii (rj) after 
400 B.C., as in dyadeT rvxei^ since both had the sound of a close long e. It is 
often impossible to settle the spelling ; but j3oi;Xei wishest, otei thinkest^ and 6\p^L 
shalt see (from opdoj) have only the -et forms, -et is sometimes called Attic and 
Ionic in contrast to --q of the other dialects, including the Koin^. 

629. Subjunctive. — The present subjunctive adds the primary endings to 
the tense-stem with the long thematic vowel. For the endings -ys, -?? see 463. 
Thus, XiJw, -■ps, -7j, Tifig.s (= Ttju,d-7)s), rt/ia (= Tljad-Tj), ^aivw^ev^ -Tjre, -wtrt (from 
-wpTt). Middle Xl?w-/iai, Xoi? (= X0T7-£rat), XuTj-rat ; Ti^a-cdov (^=z rl^d-q-cdov) ; 
^aivdi-fieda, (paCjrri-crde^ (PaXvw-vrai. 

630. Optative, — To the tense-stem ending in the thematic vowel (always o) 
are added the mood-sign -t- (-le-) or -i-q- (459, 460) and the secondary personal 
endings (except -/« for ~v^ where the mood sign is -I-, 459). In the 3 pi. we 
have ~Le-v. 

a. The final vowel of the tense-stem (o) conti-acts with the mood sufiBi (i), 
o-l becoming oi. Thus Xvot^t (Xoo-i~ju.i) , Xi5ots (Xoo-t-s), \toiev (Xto-ie-v)^ Xvoifitjv 
(XDo-i-ju,?;!'), \toio (XtJo-t-cro). 

631. Imperative. — The present imperative endings are added to the tense- 
stem with the thematic vowel e (o before -mttjv}. The 2 pers. sing, active has 
no ending, but uses the tense-stem instead {iraldeve, (patv^). In the middle -<ro 
loses its a- (406, 2 a) ; X&oy from Xoe-o-o, <palvov from <palve-(ro. On the forms in 
-€Twcrav and -ecrdwaav for -ovruu and -ccrOwv, see 466, 2 b. 

632. Infinitive. — The present stem unites with -<bv: \te-ev ~ Xtetv, \elire-ev 
= Xeiireiv. In the middle (passive) -<ri9at is added : Xte-c-dai^ X^lve-^rOai. 

633. Participle. — The present participle adds ~vt~ to the present stem end- 
ing in the thematic vowel o. Stems in -o-vt have the nominative singular in -w^. 
Thusmasc. X6wv from Xvovt-s^ fern. Xvovcra from Xvopr-j^a^ neut. Xvov from Xi;op(r). 
See 301 a and N. 

634. A few o)-verbs in the present and imperfect show forms of 
the /jtt-conj ligation. These are usually Epic. 

S^Xo/^Q'^ 3 pL Jexarai avjait for Sex^rai, part. S^fMems, imperf, iS^yfnjp. But 
these are often regarded as perfect and pluperfect without reduplication, id^firjv 

632 D. Severer Doric has exi?** and e'xej' ; Milder Doric has ^x^lv ; Aeolic has 
fXVf'' Horn, has dpLiveip^ djMjv^jjiepaL^ d^vp^ji^v. 

633 D. Aeolic has fem. -oura in the present and second aorist (37 D. 3), 
XtoLcra, XiiroKxa. 



190 INFLECTION OF O-VERBS: CONTEACT VEKBS [635 

in some passages is a second aorist (688). — e5w eat (529. 5), inf. idfxevai. — ^p<fw 
(or €ip(fw) in elp^araL. — XoOrai wash is from XSerat, not from XoiJw (cp. 398 a). — - 
oifiai think is probably a perfect to otofiai (oi-o-). — oi/rdw wound in oUra^ oitrd- 
fjjevai is 2 aor. — 0^pw i>ear, imper. (p^pre. 

CONTRACT VERBS 

635. Verbs in -acoj -ccd, -ocd contract the final a, c, o of the verb-stem 
with the thematic vowel -o/e {-^/t} ) in the present and imperfect 
tenses. ThuS; rlfxao) tI/xo), ttoUo) TTOttOj BrjXou) BrjXio ; ertfjuiov IrtfuaVy iiroieov 

iTTOLovv, iS'^Xoov i^Xovv. The rules of contraction are given in 49- 
55 ; the paradigms, p. 120. 

a. Open forms of -foj verbs occur in the lyric parts of tragedy. 

636. Subjunctive, — The subjunctive adds the primary endings. For the 
contractions see 59. 

637. Optative. — dot becomes ^, 4ol and 601 become oc. Thus, -do-T-/j.i ~ -<?Mt, 
-ao-lrj-v = -tpv^^ -ao-t-fjLTjp = -i^^j}v ; -eo-I-fii. = -oTfXL, -eo-l-q-v = ~ol7}v, -io-t-/j,7]j> = -ol(X7}v ; 
-6o-Z'-/it = -oijxt^ -0'L7)-v = -oItjv^ -oo-l-jMr]]/ = -oL/xtjv. Thus, TlfKfrjv (Tt/ioo-f'JT-J'), Ti/ji(^7]s 
(ri/iao-fT^-s), Ti/jopT] (rl/Aao-iT/), Tl/j.(p/X7}v (jlixao-\-p.7}v) ^ itoloIo (Troi^o-i-tro), Trototro 
(iroi^o-i-To) . 

638. In the singular -aw verbs usually end in -if-qv^ -v't/j, -t^??, rarely in -ipfj-i, 
-£^?i -£?, -ew verbs usually end in -oi-rivy -oirjs^ -oj'tj, rarely in -ot/xt, -ots, -01 (-o? 
chiefly in Tlato). 

639. Ill the dual and plural -aw verbs usually end in -^jroy, -(firrjv, -^puev, 
~<^T€, -t^ev^ rarely in -^'tjto^, -(fj^TT/y, -(^7]/jiev, -^V'^^i -^W^-^- -^^ verbs usually 
end in -otrov, -oIttjv^ -oT/xey^ -otre, -olev^ rarely in -oItjtov, -oit^ttjv, -oijjfiev, -oirjTCy 

640. Fev7 cases of the optative of -oo? verbs occur. In the sing, both -oitjv 
and -oT/Ai are found ; in the plur, -ot^ev, -o7t€^ -qI^v, For plytfTjv from plySuj shiver 
see 641. 

641. Several contract verbs have stems in -d^ -7^, -cd. 

These are the verbs of 394, 398 with apparently irregular contraction, and 
5puj do ; with presents made from -a-Lw^ -^-k^', -w-jiw. Thus, from f'^w, fijets, fT?ft 
and xpvop^ai, xP'J€((r)ai, xp-^erai come fw, f7?s, ^"77 and xpwMat, XPV^ XP^-rai ; SO 
8t\f"rjvy Tr€LVT)v from di\l/7)~€v, ireLpij-ep. i5p6o}, plySw (398) derive the forms in w and 
(f) from iSpw-, piyu- (ISpdu, plytiico from i5pa?cr-;(w, pTyuxr-iw). The forms in -ow 
are from the weaker stems Idpoa--, piyo<r-. 

641 D. Horn, has Sti/'dwv, Treivdui/, Trctj/TfJ/iiej/ai, /ii'do/Aat, Xpi'jwj' (Mss. xP^^tov) 
uttering oo^acles, yeXdfu, tSp6u}. The verbs in 394, except dnpu> and Trft/'o?, have 
stems in tj and a (36 e) ; thus, in Hdt., xparat from xP^i^^-ai, but xp^<^ imper., 
Xp€u>p^vos from xpvo^ xpv^iJ-eyos by 34. Horn, and lou, ^ww has the stem ^« 
(fw-^w), Hdt, has ^^^j 5ff ^p, but K^af, (T^dj', 



646] CONTRACT VERBS IN THE DIALECTS 191 



CONTRACT VERBS IN THE DIALECTS 

642. -a» Verbs in Homer. — Horn, leaves -aw verbs open 64 times, as vaterdu^ 
-dovatf ifXdei, doLdidovaa^ yodoifxev^ TfjXeddovTas. When contracted, -aw verbs have 
the Attic forms, as 6p&^ bpq.s^ bpq. ; as ;r€ip$ makest trial from Treipd€-((r)at from 
iTft/odoyuat ; ^pw didst pray from ifpd€-{a-)o from dpdofxai. 

643. When uncontTacted, verbs in -aw often show in the Mss. of Horn., not 
the original open forms, but "assimilated" forms of the concurrent vowels, 
ae, aet, ar) giving a double a sound by a prevailing over the e sound ; ao, aw, aoi, 
aou giving a double o sound by the o sound prevailing over the a. One of the 
vowels is commonly lengthened, rarely both. 



0€ — (1) ao : opdeadai = bpdacrdai, dyd- 

effOe = dydaede. 

— (2) aa : pivd€<r9ai = pipdaadai^ ijyd- 

eade = -^ydaade. 

aci = (1 ) o.a : opdets = 6pdg.s, idei =: idg., 

= (2) aa : pbeyoivdei = fievoivda. 
a-fl — (1) aa : idrjs = idg.s, 

= (2) aa : pLvdr) wooest 2 sing. mid. 
=: fivdg., 
ao — (1) o« : opdovres = opSojvres, 

= (2) lOO : rj^dovT€i-=r]^(hovT€z^^vd~ 
Qvro =. yuvdiovTO. 
tt<o = (1 ) oa> : bpdia = bpbiij^ ^odojv = 
^obiav. 



— (2) a>a> : fxevoivdo) = fievoivcxX)), 
aoi=:(l) o^ : bpdoire =bpb(fir€. 

= (2) (i>oi :■ ij^doifiL = r}^{boipLi, 
aou = (1) o<i> : bpdovffa = opiwcra, bpd- 
Qvai =: bpb(jj(n, aXdov (from 
d\d€Q imper, of dXdofiai) = 
dX6w. 

= (2) «« : Tj^dovca = ij^diuiffa^ 8pd- 
ovet = dpibua-i. ov here is 
a spurious diphthong (6) 
derived from -oyr-: bpcc- 
oirr-ia, 7)^aovT~i.a^ dpdovri ; 
or by contraction in dXdov 
from dXdeo. 



N. — dX6w from dXdeo wander is unique. yeXdjovre^ is from 7£Xciw (641). 

644. The a.ssimilated forms are used only when the second vowel (in the 
unchanged form) stood in a syllable long by nature or position. Hence bpoufiev^ 
bpaare^ bpaaro^ do not occur for bpdofxev^ etc. (^pLvojbpbevos for p^vabp^vos is ail excep- 
tion.) The first vowel is lengthened only when the metre requires it, as in 7)^6- 
ovT€^ for i)^dovr€s — w — w. Thns two long vowels do not occur in succession 
except to fit the form to the verse, as pLevoLvdoj for pLevoLvdio; but -^jStioi/ii, not 
i)^d}(^p.L, When the first vowel is metrically lengthened, the second vowel is not 
lengthened, though it may be long either in a final syllable (eis in p.€voLvdq.) or 
when it represents the spurious diphthong ov from -ovr- (as in i^jSciwo-a, 5p6waL 
for ij^dovaa, Spdovai from -ovriay -ovrL). 

645. The assimilated forms include the "Attic" future in -aw from -a<rw 
(539) ; as A6w<ri (= Adouo-i), KpepSio, 8apid<f., dapibuxru 

646. The assimilated forms are found only in the artificial language of 
Homer, Hesiod, and their imitators, and nowhere in the living speech. They 
are commonly explained as derived from the contracted forms by a process of 
'distraction,' and as inserted in the text for the sake of the metre. Thus 6p^s, 



192 CONTRACT VERBS JN THE DIALECTS [647 

^ou)VT€s, the spoken forms which had taken the place of original opdets, /3oao^T«, 
in the text, were expanded into opd^s, jSooajj-Tej, by repetition of the a and o. 
While the restoration of the original amcontracted forms is generally possible, 
and is adopted in several modern editions, a phonetic origin of many of the forms 
in question is still sought by some scholars who regard 6p6w as an intermediate 
stage between opdw and 6pQ. It will b^ observed, however, that the forms in 
G48 can be,4erived only from the unassimilated forms. 

647. In the imperfect contraction generally occurs, and assimilation is rare. 

648. Some verbs show eo for ao, as ^vreov^ Tpotreov^ /jLCPoLveov, iroTiovrai. 
Cp. 649, 653. 

649. -oa> verbs in Herodotus. — Hdt. contracts -aw verbs as they are con- 
tracted in Attic. In many cases before an sound the Mss. substitute e for a 
(roX/i^w, bpiwv^ i(poLT€ov). This e is never found in all the forms of the same 
verb, and the Mss. generally disagree on each occurrence of any form. — Hdt. 
always has -(prjp, -(fifM-nv, in the optative. 

650. -ea> verbs in Homer. — a. Horn, rarely contracts eoj and eo (except in 
the participle). In a few cases ev appears for eo, as TroLe^ix-qv ; rarely for eovy as 
TeXeuai. When the metre allows either -ee and -eet, or -et, the open forms are 
slightly more common, et is often necessary to admit a word into the verse (as 
Tjy^lcrdat^ 4(pl\€i), and is often found at the verse-end. -^-e-ai, -^-e-o, iu the 
2 sing. mid. may become -eTai, -ero, or -^ai, -^0, by the expulsion of one e ; as 
fiuOeTat or fjXid^ai saycst, aidelo show regard. 

b. |/«icefw, reXeLoj^ from -etr-ico (j/et/cetr-, reXecr-) are older forms than vetK^oj, 
T€\4u}. See 488 d, 624. deioi, 7rXe£w, TrveliD show metrical lengthening (28 D.). 
•c. On -T}fi€mL in Horn, see 657. 

651. -ecg verbs in Herodotus. — a. Hdt. generally leaves eo, ew, eov, open, 
except when a vowel precedes the e, in wliich case we find ev for eo (iyvoevvTe?) , 
In the 3 plur. -4ovo-i is kept except" in iroieOcri. For -i-€o in the 2 sing. mid. we find 
^-0 in airh. ee, eei, in Stems of more than one syllable, are usually uncoutracted 
in the Mss., but this is probably an error. Set it is necessary and de^v are never 
written otherwise. — The Ion. ey for eo, eou, occurs rarely in tragedy. 

b. In the optative Hdt. has -^ot after a consonant, as koK^ol, but -oT after a 

vowel, as Troiot/At, ttoloT. 

652. Verbs in -oa>. — a, Horn, always uses the contracted forms except in 
the case of such as show assimilation like that in -aw verbs. 

00 = (1) ocj : d7}l'6ovTo = d7}'i6uipro. I ooi = o(f : d7}i6oL€v — dyjidi^ev. 

(2) ojo : vTrv6ovras = vTrvdiovra^. \ oov — ow : dpdouai = d/)6wcri. 

b. Hdt. contracts -ow verbs as in Attic. Porms with ev for ov, as Si/caieOci, 
^5iKaievv, are incorrect. 

653. Doric. — Boric (59 T).) contracts ae and a?? to 17 ; aei and aTj to tj ; ao, 
aw, to d except in final syllables : rZ/icD, Tt/x.^s, ri/iij, rl/xa/xe?, rlfiTJTe., TlfJLdvTi., 
Ti/i7j, TLfiTjv. Monosyllabic stems have w from a -f- o or a 4- w. Some verbs in 
-aw have alternative forms in -ew (648), as op^o), rZ/i^w. 



66o] FUTURE, FUTURE PERFECT 39B 

654. The contractions of -ew verbs in Doric may be illustrated thus : 

Severer Doric Milder Doric 

<pi\iw, <pi\w^ <pi\i(o 0iX^w, (piKw 

<pi\ioix€s, <piKlofi€s, <piKi(i}fi€S, ^iXw/ies <pi\^Ofies-f ^(XoC/itey, (piXevfies 

<pi\7]T€ 0tXe(Te 

^iKiovTi^ (piKLovTi^ <pi\6vTi ^i\^ovti^ <pi\ovvTi, iptKevvTi 

a. iw for €0 is a diphthong, ev for eo is common in Theocritus. In Cretan 
t (= Jf) for e is often expelled (KoaixSvres = Kotxixiovres), 

655. Verbs in -ow contract oo and oe to w in Severer Doric and to ov in 
Milder Doric. 

656. Aeolic. — In Aeolic contract verbs commonly pass into the (Ut-conjuga^ 
tion : Ti/ittt/it, -ats, -at, rifidixev, rtixaTe, ri/xaKji, imperfect, irtfjiav, ^(/icts, iriixa, etc. 
inf. riiJudVj part. Ttju.ais, -qptos, mid. rifiaixai^ inf. jlfjAjxevai, So ^IXtj/xi, ^iXTj/jiev, 
^1\t]T€^ KplXeiai^ ^^tXi/r, inf. <pi\T]v^ part. ^iXeis, -evros. Thus 6p7;^i from ^p^w 
= Att. 6/)da), Kd\7}/Jii, atvqui. So also SiJXw^f, 3 pi. SiJXoicri, inf. Si^Xwi'. Besides 
these forms we find a few examples of the earlier inflection in -au, -ew, -ow, but 
these forms usually contract except in a few cases where e is followed by an o 
sound (iroT^ovrat) . From other tenses, e,g. the fut. in -770-0;, 77 has been trans- 
ferred to the present in dStKijw, tto^tSw. 

657. Horn, has several cases of contract verbs inflected according to the jw- 
conjugation in the 3 dual ; o-vXti-ttjv ((rOXaoj spoil), irpoffavZ-q-Tfiv (TrpotrauSdoj 
speak to), direiXi^-niv (dTreiX^w threaten), oixapT-fi-TTjy (6/xapT^w meet)\ also adw 
3 sing, imperf. (<7-a(Ja; keep safe). In the infinitive -T^^ewt, as ^o-fuxevai (■yodoj)^ 
ireivri/JL^at. (Tretpiw, 641), ^iXiJju.ei'ai (0iX^w), (popT^ixevai and (poprjvat (0op^aj). But 
d^Zi'^co has dyiv^fievaL. 

FUTURE ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (532 ff.). FUTUEE PERFECT 

(580 ff.) 

658. All vowel and consonant verbs in -w inflect the future alike. 

659. Indicative. — The future active and middle add the primary endings, 
and are inflected like the present ; as Xoo-w, Xvaoiiai. On the two endings of the 
second singular middle, see 628. Liquid verbs, Attic futures (538), Doric 
futures (540) are inflected like contract verbs in -ew ; thus (pavQ ^ayoG^ai, koXQ 
KoKovixai, and wea-oOiMxi, follow iroicj iroiovjxai (385). 

a. The only future perfect active from an w-verb is redv-fj^o} shall he dead 
(584), which is inflected like a future active. Ordinarily the periphrastic forma- 
tion is used : XeXei/Kiis icoixat shall have loosed. The future perfect passive (XeXc- 
(TOfiai shall have been loosed) is inflected like the future middle. The periphrastic 
forms and the future perfect passive rarely occ\;r outside of the indicative. 

660. Optative. — The inflection is like the present : Xiffo-T-m, Xvco-Un-nv, In 
the optative singular of liquid verbs, -n}-v, -itj-s,' -ltj^ in the dual and plural ~1-tov, 

GREEK GUAM. — 13 



194 FIRST AORIST [66i 

-t-T'nv, -l-fxev, -I-Tc, -te-y, are added to the stem ending in the thematic vowel o ; 
thus <pav€o-L7)v — (pavoirjv^ (pav^o-l-fxev = (pavoT/jucp. So in Attic futures in -d^w, as 
^1^6.^0} (639 d) cause to go : ^£)3<^7?y, -y'ljs, -<;)>, pL ^i^<^fX€v. 

661. Infinitive. — The future infinitive active adds -ev, as 'htaetv from '\6(r€-€v^ 
fpavelv from 4>avi(ff)€-€v. The infinitive middle adds-o-^at, as XiJo-c-o-^at, <pavd<j6a.^ 
from <pav^(a)€-Geai. 

662. Participle. — The future participle has the same endings as the present : 
X^ffiav \6aQV<7a \d<Tov^ <}>avQv (Pavovaa (pavodv, middle, XDci/ievos, (pavoifjxvot. 

FIRST AND SECOND FUTUKE PASSIVE (589, 597) 

663. All verbs' inflect the first and second future passive alike, 
that is, like the future raiddle. 

664. The indicative adds -fiai to the stem ending in -6t)&o- or -rjao-j as Xu^ij- 
<ro-fj.at^ (pav-^-cro-fxai. For the two forms of the second person singular see 628. 
The optative adds -l-fxtjv, as 'Kvd'T}<jo-i-p.r}v^ fpavqao-i-^jL-qv. The infinitive adds -tr^at, 
as \vd'f)-(T€~ff6ai, <l>av^<r€~<rdai. The participle adds -fxevos, as 'Xvdrjffd-fxevos, (pavrj- 

FIRST AOBIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (542) 

665. All vowel and consonant to- verbs inflect the first aorist alike. 

666. Indicative. — The secondary endings of the first aorist active were 
originally added to the stem ending in ~<t- ; thus, iXva-fi^ AD<r-s, ^XD<j--t, Ai;<7--/iev, 
^Xpcr-re, i\va-vT^ From iXvafx came IXDca (by 35 c),*'the a of which spread to 
the other forms except in the 3 sing. , where e was borrowed from the perfect. 

a. In the middle the secondary endings are added to the stem ending in -aa-. 
For the loss of <r in -<to^ see 465 b, 

667. Subjunctive. —In the subjunctive the long thematic vowel "^/tj- is 
substituted for the a of the indicative, and these forms are inflected like the 
present subjunctive: Xiicrw X^trw^uat, ^ijvo? (prjvfofiai. For the loss of a- in -craf 
see 465 a. 

668. Optative. — To the stem ending in a the mood-suffix t is added, making 
at, to which the same endings are affixed as in the present : Xtaa-l-fii = '\ta-ac/xi, 
'\va-a-z-fX7)v = \vcrai/x7}v, (pi^pa-l-piL = (privaifxt. The inflection in the middle is like 
that of the present. For the loss of o- in -o-o see 4C5 b. — In the active -etas, 
-€t€y ~€i,ap are more common than -ats, -at, -atev, 

661 D. Horn, has d^^/xemt, d^4fX€P, d^eiv. Doric has -rju, -eiv; Aeolic has -tjp. 

667 B, Hom. has forms with the short thematic vowel, as ip^<T<ro}x€v^ dXyiJ- 
trere, ve/>t€cr^crere ; ixvd-fiaoixai^ ^^cti^eat, iXao-rijaeo-^a, S^jX^o-erai. In such forms aor- 
ist subjunctive and future indicative are ahke (532), Pindar has ^dtro/xev, 
aT^ddaofxev (457 D.). 

668 D. Hom. has both sets of endings, but that in at is rarer. In the drama 
-ems is very much commoner than ~ais. -ats is most frequent in Plato and Xeno- 



675] FIRST AND SECOND AOKIST PASSIVE 195 

669. Imperative. — The regular endings (462) are added to the stem in -aa 
(or -a in liquid verbs) except in the active and middle 2 sing., in which -ov and -ai 
take the place of -a : \vaoy XDo-dTOj, XOa-tti Xvadado}, (pijvov (p-rjudruy, <prjvai <pr)pd<x6uy, 

670. Infinitive, — The aorist active infinitive ends in -ai, which is an old da- 
tive : the middle ends in -adai : \vaai \6aa-a6ai^ (Prjvai (pi}va~<TBai^ irK^^ai Tr\i^a-<rBau 

671. Participle. — The active participle adds -vt like the present: masc. 
/vCcrcts from XDcrai'T-s, fern. \i<ja(ja from Xyc^a^'T-ta, neut. \v<jav from XDcra>'(T). 
See 301. The middle ends in -ixevos : \v<Td-fx€vo$^ <p7}yd-jj£vos. 

FiBST AND seco:n"d aohist passive (585, 590) 

672. All vowel aud consonant verbs in -w inflect the aorists 
passive alike, that is, according to the //t-conjugation, except in the 
subjunctive. 

a. Vowel verbs rarely form second aoriste that are passive in fonn, as peoj 
flow, ippvTjv (803). But pew is properly not a vowel verb (see 503). 

673- Indicative. — The indicative adds the active secondary endings directly 
to the tense stem ending in -Btj- (first aorist) or -77- (second aorist). The inflec- 
tion is thus like that of the imperfect of a verb in -/ml. 

€Xv9t|-V eTL9T]-V IXv6t]-}JL€V CTC6c-[iCV 

eXvGii-s CTtGi^-s tXvfli^-Tov €tC9€-tov IXv6i]-t€ ItWc-tc 

€Xv6ii €Ti9i] €\v6t]-tiiv «Tt6e-Tiiv IXv0Ti-<rav cTtOe-crttv 

a. For -<7av we find -v from -v(t) in poetical and dialectic forms before which 
7] has been shortened to e (40), thus ^pp^-qdev for up/j,iQ6'r}<rav from op/jidw urge, 

674. Subjunctive. — The subjunctive adds -^/jj- to the tense stem ending 
in -$€- or -e- aud contracts: \v6Q, -^s, -■^, etc., from Xu(9^aj, -^tjs, -e?;, etc. ; fpavQ^ 
-^s, -v from <pav4o}, -^ijs, -^tj, etc. 

675. Optative. — The optative adds -I- or -n/- to the tense-stem er.ding in 
-$€- or -e-, and contracts. In the singular -i7]~ is regular ; in the dual aud plural 
-I- is generally preferred. Thus \vdeiiQv from \ve€~l7)-v^ (pavelTjv from <pav€~lTj-v, 

phon, less common in poetry, and very rare in the orators. Neither Thuc. nor 
Hdt. has -ais. -at is rare in prose, most examples being in l^lato and Demosthenes. 
Hdt. has no case. In Aristotle -ai is as common as -eie. -aUv is very rare in 
poetry, in Thuc. and Hdt., but slightly better represented in Xenophon and the 
orators, -eiav is probably the regular form in the drama. — The forms in -etas,, 
-tie, -€tav are called " Aeolic,'' but do not occur in the remains of that dialect. 

671 D, Aeolic has -ais, -aio-a, -av (37 D. 3). 

674 D. Hdt. leaves ew open (aiped^u, ^aWojo-i) but contracts e-q, e-Q (<pavv). 
Horn, has some forms ]ike tlie 2 aor. subj. of /ii-verbs. Thus, from dajxvdoj (dd- 
/JLVTjfjLi) subdue : SaAti^w, -ijTjr, --^t?, --rjere. So also Sai^o) (6a- learn), <ja.ir^rj ((TifiTTO) 
cause to rot), (pavfiri (<palp<o show)^ rpav^o/xev (ripTroj amuse). The spellings 
with €L (e.g. Sa/ietw, Saeiw) are probably incorrect. 



196 



FIRST AND SECOND AORIST PASSIVE 



[676 



\v6eiTov from "Kud^-l-Tov, <pav€iTov from (pavi-l-rov, Xvdeifxev from \vd€-i-/j£v, <l>a.velev 
from <pav^-t€'P, The inflection is like that of the present optative of a /xi-verb. 

XvOe-Ill-V Tl6£-lll-V Xu6€-t-fl€V T10€-1-}J,«V 

Xudc-fl^-S TlOt-tll-S Xu6£-t-TOV TlOc-t-TOV Xv0e-t-T€ Tl0€-i-T€ 

X-oee-C-ri TiBt-Ci] Xu0e-£-TT)v ti0€-.£-tt]v XvSe-U-v Ti0e-t€-v 

a. -elTjfj.ev is used only in prose (but Plato and Isocrates have also -€2/j^v). 
-elTyre is almost always found in the Mss. of prose writers ; -etre occurs 
only ill poetry (except irom /^i-verbs). -elep is more common in prose than 
-drjuav. 

676. Imperative. — The endings of the imperative are added to the 
tense-stem ending in -Or]- or -■>;-. Before -ptuv, -87]- and -17- become -de- and 
-e- (Xvd^vruv, ipavivrusv). For ~tl instead of -dt in the first aorist (Xvd-qri) see 
125 b. 

677. Infinitive. — vat is added to the tense-stem in -O-q- or -17- : XudTj-vai^ 

678. Participle. — The participle adds -cr, as masc, \vdfis from XvdcpT-s^ 
fem, Xveelca from Xvdevr-j^a, neut. Xy^^v from Xvdev^r). See 301. So (paveis, etc. 



SECOND AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (546) 

679. Most verbs in -w inflect the second aorist according to the 
CD-conjugation; some inflect it according to the /At-conjngafciou. 

680. The inflection of most second aorists of w-verbs is like that of an 
imperfect of w-verbs in the indicative, and like that of a present in the other 
moods. 

Xtire Xvc 

XiTTov (424 b. 2) Xvou 

Xiiretv (Xiire'-evj 424 c) Xvhv (Xve-«v) 

Xiir€~(r6ai Xv€-<r0at 

Xiirt&v XvcDV 

Xiir6-[ievo5 Xv6-}ievos 

For the loss of a in -do in the second person singular see 465 b. 

681. A number of w-verbs form their second aorists without a 
thematic vowel, herein agreeing with the second aorists of ^t-verbs. 
Cp. eSui/ p. 140. The second aorist of -yt-yvoi-o-Kto Iznoic is inflected 
as follows. 

677 D. Horn, has -/xepai, as ofwiudi^/xevai, Sai^/xevai (and SaTjvaL). Doric has 
-/xev, Aeolic -p (^}xedTL!<r6r)v = fxedvtrdTJpai), 

680 D. Horn, has the infinitives dir^/jLepat^ eliri/JLev. elireLv. For 6av4up (Attic 
eap€ip) etc., dapiep should be read. -4€lp in Hdt, is erroneous. Doric has ~^v^ 
as {jmK^v {^\<h(TKw go), Aeolic has -ijv, as \6,§7}v. 



t-XlTTO-V 


i'-Xvo-v 


l-Xtird-fiiiv 

XlTTW 


^-Xv6-|j,i]v 
Xvco 


X(irti>-(iai 

XlTTO-l-HllV 


XVOD-Jlttl 

Xvo-i-n-qv 



687] SECOND AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE 197 

682. The indicative is inflected like earrjv (p. 138) ; the subjunc- 
tive, like 85i (p, 138). 

Je-'yvw-v e-'YVw-iiev yva yv<o-[uv 

c-'yvto-s 'i-yvta-TOv €-'yv«-T€ "Yvw-s -yvw-tov •yvio-TC 

i-yvta €-'Yv»-TT|v c-'yvw-crav -yvw -yvw-tov •yvw-crt 

a. We expect ^yvorov, %yvo}iev, etc. (551), but the strong stem -yvfo- has been 
transferred to the dual and plural. So also in c/St^v, €4>6'qv, idlwv, — Subjunc- 
tive j3w, /35s, jS^, ^TjTov, ^Stfiev, /S^re, ^Cjffu On the formation of the subjunctive 
see 757 D. 

683. The optative is inflected like Solrjv (p. 138). 

•yvotiiv -YvotiJLcv or yvolT]\itv 

•yvottjs -YvotTOV or •yvoiiiTov "Yvoit^ or 'yvoCi]t€ 

■yvoCt) yvoiri\v or "yvonQTuv "yvotev or "YvoCiiirav 

a. So PaCtjVj fioLTov or ^alrjTov, ^aifxev Or ^aLTj/xev. In the 2 plur. the Mss. of 

prose writers have only -tijre (7J/of7;Te, -^alTjTe) ; but -t7;Te is not attested by the 

evidence of verse. 

684. The imperative is inflected like a-TrjOt (p. 139). 

■yvwOi, •yvtoTo* -yvwrov, 'yvcirwy -yvwre, yvovtojv 

a. In composition Sidyvojei^ dvd^Tjei (423). For pTjdt (from ^abw) -/3a in 
composition occurs in poetry, as dm/Sa. 

685. The infinitive adds -evat, as yvtovat from yvw-evat (like ar^vai 
from CTTi^evai), In composition Stayvcovat (426 d). 

686. The participle adds -vt-, as niasc. yvov<; from yvovr-?, fem. 
yi/owa from yvovT'ffiiy neut. yi/ov from yi/ov(T). See 301, In composi- 
tion Stayvov? (426 d), 

a. Before vt the long vowel a? is regularly shortened to o by 40. 

687. The following w-verbs have second aorists of the /At form. 

oXlaKOfMai (AA-o-) am captured, eli^a)^' or tJXoj;/ (dXw, aXol-rjv, a\wat, aXovs). 

^alvu {^a-^ go, e^-rjv (^tS, ^ai7/i/, ^ijet and also -^a in composition, jBijvai, jSas), 

/Si^w (/3to-) live, ^^ioiv (pLio, ^ic^Tjv, ^iCbvaiy j3to(Js). Honi. j3ic6ra) iraper. 

yT}pda-Kuj (yr}pa.~) grow old, yrjpdvaL poet., yrjpds Hom. 

yiyvdjo-KOJ (yvo-, 71/aj-) know^ eyvtav {yvCj, yvoitjv, yvddi, yvufvai, yvoh). 

-SiSpda-KO} {Spa-) run, only in composition, -iSpdv {-5pQ, -bpal-qv, -dpavat, -dpds). 

Hdt. has ^SpTjv, dprjvaL, Spas in composition. 
d6o} (8v-) enter eSvv entered inflected p. 140 (Stiw, opt, Hom. 5ot; and eKdvfiev for 

Sv-iT}f iKS\i-i-/j,€v ; 50^t, SvvaL, 5t5s). 
^X^ (cx^-) have, (Txi$ imper, 

682 D. iyvov^ from iyv(av(j') by 40, is found in Find. Hom. has Uw, ^rXav, 
€KTav ; Find, etpvv. — Horn, has parTjv and ^-j^ttjv. — Hom, has ^Xijerai, aXerat. — 
Subj. : Hom. has yv(i>03 dXtioj, yuiirjs yvtos, yvd}7} yvQ, ip.^T)'V dva^ri, yvGsTov, yv(bo- 
lj.€y 71/uj/Aej/, -^T}0}M€v tpd^uj/xtv, yvujQjai. yvQa-Lv ^Cxtlv (p6iu}(Tip. 

686 D. Hom. has yvupLevai, Stfievai, Krap-evai, and -KrdiLCv. 



198 • FIRST AKD SECOND PERFECT [688 

KTelvuj (^KT€V~^ KTa-) IcUlj €KTav, eVras, iVra, ttcrafiev^ 3 pL <EKTav 551 D, Sabj. 

KT4(OfjL€Vj inf. KTOifxevai KTdfjjEV^ part Krds ; iKTafXTjp was killed (^KTaadai, ktol- 

fieyos) ; all poetic forms. 
iriTOfxai (ttct-, tttc-, Trra-) ^?/, poet. ^irrTjV {inaiTjP^ Trrds), middle inrdjiw (rrd- 

adai, TTTtt^eyos). tttlI;, ttt^^c, rrr^^'at are late. 
TTirw (TTi-) drink^ wWi imper. 

o-kAXoj ill dTTOCK^XXw (c/ceX-, o-«:Xe-) d^'jr wjij, dTrocKX^yat. 

rXa- 6Ji(??i?*e, fat. T\Ti<rofJLai^ poetic €t\7}v (tXw, rXairjv, tXtjOl^ rXr\paL^ rXds). 
(pedvo} {4>Ba-) anticipate^ €<f>67}v ((pOw, 4>6ai7)v, 4>6^vai, rpeds), 
ipvci} ((f>v-) produce, i<l>vv was lyroduced^ am (<^i5a) siibj., ^Cra(, 0os 308), 

688. The following tu-verbs have in poetry (especially in Homer) second 
aorists of the /it form : HXKofiaL (a\<To, a\T6), diravpdo} (dTroiipdj), dpapLo-Kco (dpfjje- 
ros), doj (a/xerat), /SdXXco {^Vfx§\T\TT}v^ cjSXt^to), ^L^puxTKoj (ejSpajt'), root ye^'- (y^yro 
grasped), S^xop^ai (S^kto), Epic /fix^'''^ i^'^^XV^i f^X'^'^j kix^Ltj, KLx^vat and /cix^- 
fxevoLL^ Ktx^is and KLXTjfJjevos ; properly from /cfx'?/*')' '<^^'^w (dird/cXas), kXiJw (/cXC^i, 
k^kXvSi)^ KTt^o} (kt ifji€vos} , TOOt Xc^- (eXcKTO laid Mmsolf to rest)y Xvot (XiJto), oin-do} 
(^oSra^ o^d/iCTOs), TrdXXuj (TrdXro), rreXd^w {iirX-qfiT^v) , ir^pdo) (rr^pdac =^ Trepd-a-dai), 
irXdiO) (eirXojv), irvv- (dfJurvvTO revhted) , TrTiq<T(joi {KaraTrrrjT-qv)^ aeio) (^(TcriJ/iTjy, 

cXejfTo, TrdXro are properly first aorists (for iX€K-(T~To, TraX-c-To), a being lost 
between two consonants (103). 

FIRST AND SECOND PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT ACTIVE 
(555, 561) 

689. All TOW el and consonant yerbs in -w inflect the first perfect 
alike. Some verbs in -w inflect the second perfect according to the 
w-conj ligation, others inflect it_ according to the /At-conjugation. 

690. Indicative. — Originally the endings were added to the stem without 
any thematic vowel. Of this unthematic formation a few traces survive (573). 
In the 2 p. sing, the ending is -s, bnt originally -da ; in the 3 pi. -/fd^-t stands for 
Ka-vai out of Ka-vTL (100). TllUS X^XvKa, -as, -e, w47rofji.<f)a, -ar, -e, etc. The peri- 
phrastic combination occurs in the indicative (590 a). 

691. Subjunctive. — The perfect subjunctive is commonly formed periphras- 
tically by the perfect active particiijle and (3, Js, 5) etc. Thus XeXu/cw? (yejpa- 
4>(bs) <5, etc., XeXvKdres {y€ypa<f>6T€$) 3>p.ey, etc. Of the periphrastic forms only 
the 1 and 3 sing., 2 and 3 plur. are attested. 

692. Instances of the simple perfect subjunctive (XeXiJ/coj, y€ypd<po}) are very 
rare. The simple form is made by substituting tbe thematic vowel <^/-r} for a in 
the tense-stem. Only the sing, and tbe ?> plur. are attested from w-verbs. 

693. Besides e/5u) (oT5a) and i<TT'^Ky^ etc., Attic prose has only about 16 
occurrences of the simple perf. subj., and from the following verbs only : jSafyw, 
5^5 ta, iyelpQ}^ fOiKa^ 6v^<tkci}^ Xafx^dvco, Xav6dvcij, irda-x<^i ttolG}^ <f)voj. HippOCr, has 
forms from /StjSptio-Koj, irovu}, t€<5xw. There are about 30 occurrences in the 



702] SECOND PERFECTS OF THE MI-FORM 199 

poetry. Attic prose writers show about 25 cases of the periphrasis from all 
oj-verbs. 

694. Optative. — The perfect optativ.e is commonly formed periphrastically 
by the perfect active participle and cfi/p, efT^s, ettj, etc. Thus \ekvK<i}s {y€ypa(p<hi) 
ei-nv^ etc. , \e\vK6T€s {y€ypa<p6r€s) el/z€p, etc. The dual is exceedingly rai'e. 

695. Occasionally the simple forms are used {\e\6K0Lfxi, yey pi(poi]jiC), These 
are formed by adding the mood-sign Z, and the endings, to the tense-stem with 
the thematic Towel (o). All the -t77-forms are attested; of the -l-forms 
only the 3 sing, and 1 and 3 plur. 

696. Of the simple optative there are about 25 occurrences in Attic prose, 
and from the following verbs only: dTroxojptD, i^awarQ^ €l<x^iXhjj}^ Tra/jaSiSwjat, 
€Oi/fa, -ia-T^KOt, {nriqpeTQi^ OvQCKb)^ Xap^dcw, /caTaXc^Trw, iroiu, 7ra(rxW) Trpo^pxop.cn^ 
^juxiTTTw, 0Pw. In the poets there are about 16 occurrences. Prose writers show 
about 106 occurrences of the periphrastic forms. 

697. Imperative. — The usual form of the first perfect imperative is peri- 
phrastic : XeXvKws to-di^ co-tw, etc, No classical Attic writer uses the simple forms. 

698. The second perfect is rare, and occurs only in the case of verbs which 
have a present meaning. From active verbs inflected according to the w- conju- 
gation there occur k€xvv€T€ gape^ Ar. Ach. 133 (xacrKw, xap^), and KeKpiyere 
screech, Vesp, 415 (/cpdfw). Most second perfects show the fit form and have pres- 
ent meaning, as ridvadi (Horn.) Tedvdruj from dv^dKU) die, didiOi, from 5^5ia fear^ 
and KiKpdxOi- from Kpa^ta in Aristophanes. Most such second perfects are poetical. 

699. Infinitive. — The perfect infinitive adds -4-vai.y as \e\vKhat, XeXonr^vai. 

700. Participle. — Tlie suffixes of the perfect participle in the nominative 
are -(/r)t&s, -via, -(/:)6s, as XeXvKtis, \e\oiir6s. See 301 c, d, 309. 

701. Pluperfect Active. — The pluperfect is formed by adding -ea, -cas, -«, 
-eroy, -ert^v, -e/iep, -ere, -€<7av to the reduplicated stem. By contraction from 
AcXu/cea, -cas, -ee come tlie forms ^XeXiv/c?;, ~7}s -^'■{v). In the later language ec 
spread from the 3 sing, and was used throughout, as iXeX^Keiv, -ets, -et, -tiTov, 
-eiTTjv^ -ei^ey, -tire, and Very late -€L<rav. The best Mss. of Demosthenes have -etj' 
JQ 1 sing. Instead of the simple pluperfect we find periphrastic forms, 599 a. 

SECOND PERFECTS OF THE |ii-FORM 

702. A few w-verbs form their second perfects in the dual and 
plural without a by adding the endings directly to the stem. Herein 
these forms agree with the second perfect of fjn-Yorhs (417). In the 
singular a is used. 

699 D. Doric has ~7)v and -ciP, as BedOKifjv = dedvKivai, 7e7d(ceip = yeyov^mi, 
Aeolic has -7?f, as TedvdKT]v, 

700 D. In the 2 perf. Horn, sometimes has -Orr-o^ for -bT-o^^ as KeKp.7j(bs, -Qtos 
(/fdjLipw am weary'). In the 2 perf. Horn, sometimes has a for Attic 17 in the femi- 
nine, as dpTjpds dpapvla from &pripa (d papier Kbi Jit). See 573. Aeolic inflects 
the perfect participle as a present in -wj', -ovto^. Thus Horn. K€K\i^yopTas for 
K€K\Tf}y6Tas (^K\d^(i> scream), Find. Tr^<pptKovras (^pph-Tto shudder). 



200 



SEC0NJ3 PERFECTS OF THE MI-FORM 



[703 



703. The second perfect d^dia I fear usually has the forms of the first per- 
fect S^SoiKa in the singular; less frequently hi the plural. 



Perfect 


Pluperfect 


Subjunctive 


S^SoiKa or Sc'Sia 


c8«8oCkii 


or 


kSfU-q 


ScSU (rare) 


S^SoiKas or ScSias 


«8€8otK11S 


or 


I8€8Ctis 


Optative 


8^80 IKC or &€8l€ 


l8€80lK€l 


or 


c8€8Ui 


S€8i£iT]v (rare) 


8€8lTOV 


€8€8lTOV 






Imperative 


BeStTov 


iUhirriv 






8^8161 (poet.) 

Infinitive 


8€8ifi€v or 8€8oiKa(i€v 


€8€8l}l€V 






8€8uvai or 8€8oiK^vai 


8^8lT€ or 8€80LKaT6 


I8^8lt€ 








8€8taa-t or ScSotKao-L 


kZihiir CLv 


or 


c8£8olKC(rav 


Participle 



868it&s, -vta, -6s or 

8€8oiK«S, -vto, -OS. 

704. Other second perfects inflected like d^Sia are the following : 

a. ^aiv(a C)3a-) go, 1 perf. ^^^rjKa have gone^ stand fast regular ; 2 perf. 3 pi. ^e- 

§a<jL (poet.), subj. 3 pi. j3e^Q<ri, inf. ^e^dvai (poet, and Ion.), part. j9e/3tis 
(contracted from )8epac6s) ^ciSwaa, gen. ^e^Qros. 

b. 7£7TO/iat {yev-, 7a- ) become, 2 perf . 7e7ova am regular ; 2 perf. part. poet. 

yeydi's (coutracted from 7e7atis), yeyCiffa, gen. yeyCiros. 
C. 0vy<rKw (6av-, dva-) die, 1 perf, T^GvrjKa am dead regular ; 2 perf. du. r^dyarov, 
pi. T46vci/jL€v, rddvare, redvacri, 2 plup. 3 pi. ir^Ovaffav, 2 perf. opt. Tedvai-nv, 
imper. redvaro}^ inf. redpdvai^ pait. reSvedts^ -ewcra, -e6s, gen. -ewros. 

d, ioiKa {f€-fQLK-a) am like, appear (/k-, €tK-Jhas the ^t forms eoi7^ev(poet.), 

et^acri for ioiK-<x-d(Tt (poet, and in Plato). €oiKa (ioiKr] plup.) has also the 
foil, forms : iolKio, ^oIkol/ml, ioiKeuat (eiK^vat poet.), iocKibs (cIkJis also iu Plato). 

e. Kpd^uj (Kpay-) cry out, 2 peil. K^Kpdya hh present, imper. K^Kpaxdi and KeKpdyere, 

a thematic form (both hi Arfstoph.). 

705. Other verbs with second perfects of the /it-form (chiefly Homeric) are : 
&wo7a (^vwx^Oi ^i-^p(^crK<jJ (jSejSp wrc?) , iyelpiji) (^iypyyopa), ep^OfMat (e^X'^Xiv^/xev) , 

703 D. The root of d^dia. is 5/rt-, strong forms dfa-, dfoi-. Horn, has die, 8lov 
feared, fled; for d^dotxa, d^Sta he has deidotKa, delSta, etc. (once deSlacn), Here 
€1 is due to metrical lengthening, deldio, a present in form, is really a perfect 
for d€-5fo(i)-a. 

704 a. D. Horn, has 3 pi. ^ejSdao-t, iuf. jSt^dptej/, part, ^e^aws, ^e^auTa, gen. 
y3€/3a(STos ; 2 plup. fi^^aaap. 

b. Horn, has yeyddre and 7e7dd(7i, hif. 7e7d;i.€j', part. 7670061, 7e7ai;ra ; 2 plup. 
iKyeydrijv. 

C. Horn, ridvadt^ redvdfjievcu and T€dvdfxev, redvrjds -tjQtos and -ij^ros, fem. 

d. Horn, imperf. efK€, 2 perf. 3 du. H'Cktov, 2 plup. effj^-et itKrrjv^ 4o(.K€(rav, part. 
ioLK(I)s {elKibs 4> 254), e^K-yFa and ftKUta (eloiKvlai S 418) ; mid, TJi'KTOy %'ikto. Hdt. 
has oI«ra, oIkJjs. 



711] TERFECT, PLLTEKFECT MIDDLE (PASSIVE) 201 

fjA^ova (^e/itttis), Trdtrxw (ir^Troo'^e), ireidu} (^iv^indfxev)^ TriTrro) (Trerrtos), rOOt 5a- 
learn (S€Sac6s), root rXa- (r^rXa/iti/j rerXaf?;!/, r^rXa^t, rerXd/ieyai and rerXd/iei', 
TCT Xfjcis). 

PERFECT AKD PLUPERFECT MIDDLE AKD PASSIVE (574) 

706. All vowel and consonant verbs in -to inflect the perfect 
middle according to tlie /At-conjugation. 

707. Indicative- — The perfect middle is inflected by adding the primary 
middle endings directly to the tense-stem, herein agreeing with the ^t-conjuga- 
tion. The pluperfect adds the secondaiy middle endings. In Towel verbs the 
formation is simple, as in XAi;-;iat, iXeX^-fLtjv. But in consonant verbs, the con- 
sonant at the end of the stem comes into collision with the consonant at the 
beginning of the ending ; hence certain euphonic changes described in 409. 
The periphrastic form occurs in the 3 pi. and sometimes in the 3 sing. (599 d, e). 

a. Stems in y avoid the forms -v-aai, -vco ; thus, from <^a/j/w, instead of 
7r^0aj'(rat, iTr^<pav(TO the periphrastic 7r€<pa(7fi4vos ei, ^(rSa were probably used. 

708. Subjunctive. — The perfect middle subjunctive is commonly formed by 
periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and c3, Js, J, etc. Thus XeXu/i^ws tS. 

709. From two verbs, whose perfect stem ends in 77- (a), the simple forms are 
constracted. KTaojiat (Kxa-) acquire^ peri. KiKT-rjfiai possess (1946), forms its 
subjunctive by adding the thematic vowel -^/tj- to K€~KTa ; thus Ke-Kra-w-fiai — 
KCKToifiaL^ K€~Krd-r)'0-aL ■= K€KTy, K€-KTd-7}-Tai z= K€KT7]Tat, CtC. — nL[jLVT|crKt>) (fiva-) 
remind^ perf. fiifiyfjfiai remember (1946) : fie-fivd-w-fiai = fiefivStfiai, fi€fiv7}-d}-fi€da = 
fiefivtbfjueda. With ice/cr w^at, fxefivQuat, Cp. icrrw^iai^ p. 137. The periphrastic K€KT7)~ 
yjivo% (3, fi€fjivT)fi4vos (3 occur. 

710. Optative. — The perfect middle optative is commonly formed by the 
periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and efi?!/, etfjs, efi?, etc. Thus XeXu- 
liiyos etf^Vj etc. 

711. Some verbs add 4~fn}v^ -o-t-tn}p to the tense-stem (709). — a. Krdofiai 
(Kxa-) acquire, perf. KiKTijtiai possess (1940) : opt. KCKn^-i-fi-nv = K€KT'^fi-r]v, kckt-j- 
i-ao = K€Kr^o, K€KTr)-l~To = K€KT^ro, Less frequent and doubtful are KCKTiffnjy, 
-^jo, ~<^To^ -(ffieda from /ce/cT^;-o-t-;l7J^', etc, 

b. tiifiv's<rKU} (fiva-) remind, perf. y.i^vqy.ai remember; opt. fiefivn-t-fi-nu = t^efivi^- 
li-qv^ fiefiv-^-l-a-o = fiefiv^o, fiefiv^-l-ro = fjjefivyro, etc. The forms fi€fiv(^fn)v, -(?<), 
-^Jro, etc., from fiefivTj-o-t-fnjv, etc., are uncommon and suspected. 

c. Ka\4ii> (/caXe-, kXtj-) call, perf. KiKK-q^ai am called (1946) ; opt. K€KK'r}-t-y.'r}Vy 
etc. = KeKK'Qy.7)v, KeK'Xrio, ^cckX^to, KeKKrj^eda. 

d. pdWuf (/3aX-, /SX??-) tJirow, pert 8ia^i^\7}^ai, opt. 5ia^e/3X7jcr^e. 

N. — The forms in -rjfirjv, etc., have the /ii-f orm ; the doubtful -(^y.i)v, etc., 
belong to the w-conjugation. 

708 D. Hdt. has ficfiveibfieda, and this form may be read in $ 168. 
711 D. Horn, has \eXvTO a- 238 = XeXd-l-ro (cp. Salvvro). Pind. has iie^ivaiaro. 
fi^fivoio in Xen. is from fi€fj,yofiai. 



202 MI-GONJUGATION [712 

712. Imperative. — In the third person singular the perfect meaning is regu- 
larly retained, as €lp7)<Td(a let it have been said. The 2 sing, and pi. are generally 
found only in the case of perfects with a present meaning, as pi^fivTi<j6e remem- 
terl /Jir) Tr€<p6^7]<T9€ do not be afraid I iriiravao stop! See 698. 

a. The dual and 3 pi. are apparently wanting. The 2 sing, in -wo from stems 
in -v does not occur. For iri<^av<jo^ ire^^atr/i^ws taei was probably used, 

713. Attic prose writers have dva^€^\ir}a-$o}, diroK€Kpla-6w^ elpria-dcj^ iKT-qa-do}^ 
hpevcdoi, K€i<70, -Keiadu^^ KiKTrjao^ fJr^fiVTjaOey ireiraiffdo)^ ireirepdvdio, Tr€iroi7}<r0j ireirpd' 
(Tdco, Tr€<pda-d(i}, ire^b^rjirde, rerdx^a;, T€To\fi7)<r9o}, 

714. Instead of the simple forms of the imperative we find the periphrastic 
use of the perfect participle and 'i(r6i, ea-Tia, etc. (599 g). Thus elptiiiivov ^o-toj = 
elp'f}<j6(s>. 

715. Infinitive. — The perfect infinitive adds -(rdai^ as \e\ij-a-Oai. Consonant 
stems lose the a by 103^ as XeXeT^^ai, ireirpdx^cti (406), ^X7|\^7x6at, ir€<pdv8<xt 
(407). 

716. Participle. — The perfect participle adds -fiivos, as X^Xv/jl^vos, XeXeififi^ws^ 
ireirpa-yfiivos (406, 407). On the cr of 7re0ct(r/i^ws see 409 d. 

SECOND CONJUGATION OR VERBS IN MI 

717. Verbs in -/xt usually have no thematic vowel between the 
tense-stem and the personal endings in the present system (excei)t 
in the subjunctive). The name " ^t-conjugation/' or " non-thematic '' 
conjugation/' is applied to all verbs which form the present and 
imperfect without the thematic vowel. 

718. Of verbs ending in- -fxt the following tenses are inflected 
according to the ^t-conjugation (except in the subjunctive) : all 
non-thematic presents and imperfects ; all aorists passive; all per- 
fects and pluperfects middle ; those second aorists active and middle 
in which the tense-stem does not end with the thematic vowel ; one 
verb (laTT^fit) in the second perfect and pluperfect active. 

719. Certain tenses of verbs ending in -fjn in the first person pres- 
ent indicative active, or in -fjun in the present middle (and passive) 
when not preceded by the thematic vowel, are inflected according 
to the cj-coBJugation. These tenses are : all futures, all first aorists 
active and middle, most perfects and pluperfects active, and all sub- 
junctives. Verbs in -vvfjn regularly inflect the subjunctive and the 
optative according to the w-conj ligation. Furthermore, the 2 sing, 
in the present and 2 and 3 sing, in the imperfect active of certain 
verbsj and some other formsj follow the o>-coujugation (746)7 

720. Verbs in -fit add the endings directly either to the verb-stem 
(here a root) or after the suffixes w or vrj. Hence three classes are 
to be distinguished. 



727] , MI-CONJUGATIO^^: PRESENT SYSTEM 203 

A. Root class ; as <^7;-^i' say, verb-stem (and root) <pa-y <^rj-. This 
class often shows reduplication in the present and imperfect, as 8l- 
Sa)-/xt give. 

N, — Two verbs have verb-stems ending in a consonant: elfil am {^ff-fu) and 

^/iai sit (i)ff-^aC). 

B. -vv- class ; as SeU-vv-fjit show, verb-stem Sclk-, present stem SeiKvv-. 

C. A fe^^' verbs, mainly poetical, add va-, v-q- ; as a-Kt^v-q-^i o-KiS-ra- 

yuLCi/ scatter, Sa^-V7;-/Xi SafX-voL-fiev, siibdue. 

721. Deponent verbs without the thematic vowel are inflected according to 
the /At-conjugation, 

PRESENT SYSTEM 

722. Verbs in -/xt belong to the first or simple class (504) or to 
the fourth class (523). 

FIBST OE SIMPLE CLASS 

723. The present is made by adding the personal endings directly 
to the verb-stem, which is a root. This verb-stem may be used in 
its pure form or it may be reduplicated. 

a. Some verbs of this class with no^^active have a verb-stem of more than one 
syllable (usually two syllables). 

724. Unreduplicated Presents : et>t (iff-) am, elfxi (i-, el-) go, ^/xai (r]ff~) sit^ 
ri/xl say (9j said^ 3 sing.), Kelixai (k€l--) lie^ ^"niJ-l (0a-, ^tj-) say, xp'i His necessary 
(793) ; and poet. &7}ixi (dij-) bl(m. 

725. Deponents. — &ya~/xaL [and dydofxai) admire, Sia-fj-ai appear, dLe-fiatflee, 
make flee (cp. 5/w), d^iya-ixat avi able (737 a), ^wi-ffTa-ixai understand, ^pa-fxat love 
(poet, for ipdoj), iirrafxaL fly (late, see 720 a), Kpifut-ixai hang (iiitrans.), dvo-jjai 
insult, ■K^Td-fxa.i (poet, by-form of tt^to^l) fly, iirpLdij.i]v bought a second 
aorist, ffrevixai affi,rm. 

a. Other sucb forms are Horn. Xejiat {fie/xai) strive, etpvixai and %pvfxai rescue. 
Ion. \6.^}mi take. iiriaTrjTat II 243 owes its tj to such non-present forms as 

726. Reduplicated Presents. — 5/57j/At bind (rare for S^oj), Hdojfii (do-, 5w-) 
give, 177/11 (e-, 7]') send, Lo-TTjfxt (crra-, o-tt?-) set, kLxpvij-'- (xp°--i XPV') lend, dvlv-q/xt 
(6va-, 6v7}-) benefit, Trljj.ir'K'njxi (TfXa-, ttXt;-) fill, irifxirpTjfj.L (7r/3a-, Trpt]-) hum, 
Ti67}fjLL ($€-, $7)-) place. 

a. Also poetic ^ifivi^'- (jSct-, ^v) ffo, m Horn, ^i^ds striding, dl-^rjfiaL (also 
Ion.) seek, for di-diTj-ixai by 116 (cp, ^tjt^w seek), iXvixi (iXa-, tX??- for trwrXa-, 
<rLff\T]-) am propitious, tVra/Aat (late) for Trh-ofxai fly is an analogue of la-rafiai 
and is not properly reduplicated, rirp-nfu bore is late. 

727. Verbs in -jut reduplicate with l in the present. See 414, 447. TrL-fx-Trkrjju 
and iri~fj.~Trp7}}jiL may lose the inserted nasal in compounds of iv, but only when 
iv- takes the form ijx- ; as iixirLir^-tjixL, but iv^irl/j.ir'Kaa-av. Doric has Kiyxr^^u In 
6-vL-v7]-fXi the reduplication takes place after a vowel (verb-stem 6ya-, dvr]-). 



204 Mi-CONJUGATIOX: PRli:SENT SYSTEM [728 

a. Heduplication is in place only in present and imperfect ; but Horn, has 
SidiiicrofJiev. 

FOURTH CLASS 

728. Most /it-verbs of the fourth class add -w- (after a vowel; 
-VW-) to the verb-stem. 

729. Verb-stems in -a: Kcpd-vvvfii mix^ Kpefjid-vvvfjn hang (intrans.), Trerd- 
vyv^L spread, (rKeSd-wvfxL scatteT. 

730. Verb-stems in e (for eo-) : e-vvvfXL (in prose dfx^ni-vwfjii) clothe^ Kopi- 
t>vx}^L satiate, a^i~vvu^t extinguish. 

731. Verb-stems in w : '^^-vvv^j-i gird, pdc^vvv^ii strengthen, crrptb-ppvpu spread. 

732. All the forms in -y/'y/it started from verb-stems ending in <r : ^wvixl from 
ia-vv-p-t, <x^ivvvp.L from <r^€cr-vv-fjLi, ^(bvvvp.t from ^(aa-vv-p-t. All the Other verbs 
are analogues of these. 

733. Verb-stems in a consonant: 6,y-vvp.L break, &p-wp.ai earn, deU-vvp-i 
shoWy eXpy-vvp-i {= etpyoj) shut in, 'fevy-vvpn yoke (d'jfo)KT€i~pvp.i often written 
-KrivvvpLt {= Krdvu}) kill, p-dy-vvpn (miswritten piy-pvpii) mix, -oly-vvpi (= -0^7^) 
open, 6\\vp.t (6\-€) destroy, 6p.-vvpL (op.-^-, 6p.-o) sioear, 6p6py~vvpt wipe off, 
6p-vvpn rouse, 7nf)y-vvpt (iray-, injy-') fix, TrXTjy-vvp.L (once, in iKir'K'^yvva-dai ThuC. 
4. 125; cp. ttX^ttw), icrdp-vvpat sneeze, p^y-wp-i (pay-^ pvj-i fx^y-) break, arSp- 
vvpi spread, 4>pdy-vvp.i (= (ppdrToi) inclose. 

734. Poetic verbs: at-wpai take, &-vvfxi complete (dviioj), fix-'^/^'^' ^'^ 
troubled, 7d-i'v/Aat rejoice, 5a.L-vvpt entertain, Kal-wpat excel, Ki-wfxai move my- 
self ^ (cp. Kiviui)^ 6p4y-vupn reach, rd-wtiai strS^Ji, with vv carried into other 
tenses {ravOuj), rt-wpai (cp. Epic rivo} from n-vf-o}) better relwpai, chastise. 

735: The verbs whose verb-stem ends in a liquid or nasal often form the 
tenses other than the present by adding e or 0, as 6\\vpt (from 6\vvp.t) &\€(ra, 
(5Xt6Xe/fa (6\-€~^^ op.vvpt &po<ja (o/x-o-). 

736. w/it-verbs form only the present and imperfect according to the /it- 
conjugation ; with the exception of a-^i-wvpj., which has 2 aor. eo-^Tjv. The 
2 aorist passive and 2 future passive are rare, as p-^yvvp-L ippdy-qv iKpayi^aopai, 
^€6ypvpu i^yqv. 

IZl. -vTj^xi class. A few verbs add vrj- in the singular, va- in the 
plural, to the verb-stem. These verbs are almost entirely ^Doetical or 
dialectical ; and show by-forms in -mw. They are : 

5dp.v7}pn (dapvd(^) subdiic, Kipvyip^i (fftp^dw also Epic) miic, (cpf/APT]/ut (rtiiswritten 
Kp'^p.vript) suspend., ir4pvT}pL sell, Trlrvqixt (jr^rvdij}) spread, oTKidvTjpt (and Ki5v7}p.t) 
scatter. 

736 D. Prom verbs in -vvpn second aorists middle are formed in Horn, by 
only three verbs : pieiyvvpn (commonly written pAyvvp.i) mix epxKTo, tpvvp^t 7^ouse 
Qpro, TT'qyvvp.t. fix Kdr^ifqKTo. 



744] INFLECTION OF MI-VERBS 205 

a. Only in the middle : /xdpmfiai fight^ TriXvafiai (TriXmw) ajiproach. In d^~ 
vafMi am able, va has grown fast (cp. Swarhi). 

738. Stem Gradation. — Verbs of the root class show in the stem 
Yowel a variation between strong and weak grades in the present 
and imperfect indicative active. The singular has the strong grade, 
the dual and plural have the weak grade. The optative active and 
most middle forms have the weak grade. 

a. Tj strong (original and Dor. d), a ^eak ; 07j/i£ ^a/i^y, i<pT]v ^(pafiev; 'ia-TTjfjLL 

b. 1] Strong, « weak : TldTj/jn rldefiev, irldTju €Tl$€pL€i^ ; Itj^i Ufieu. 

c. a> Strong, o weak: dlSoj^ii biSo^v. 

d. et strong, i weak (cp. \dw(a ^Xiwov) : el/xi will go, tfief. Tlie grades ci, ot, i 

appear in elSQ, subjunctive of oJSa know, pi, ta-fiev for tSfjLev (790). 

739. In the second aorist ^o-ttjv I stood the strong form lias been carried 
from the singular through the dual and plural of the indicative. The strong 
stem occurs also in the imperative ((jTTjdi, arijTe) and infinitive (crr-^mi). 

740. The second aorist infinitive shows the weak stem : deipai from 64~€vai^ 
Sovvat from 56-€vai. Cp. 469 N, o-TTjvaL is, however, from (rr-^-emi (469 c. N.). 

741. A few root verbs retain the strong grade tj throughout. Thus, poet. 
&7]/ji.i hlov: ^-Tifiev ; divn^ is from dTjrres by 40 ; dl^Tffiai seek (poet. dl^eaSai is from 
ditofiai) ; TrifnrXrjfii Jill 2 aor. ipeTrXrjfirjVy Opt. ifnrXyfiTjv. 

742. Verbs adding pv show the strong form of the verb-stem in the present. 
pi^y-vv-fiL hreak 2 aor. pass, ippdytjv, /leiy-vv-fii (miswritten fityvvfii) mix 2 aor. 
pass, ifilyn^i t^iy-vv-pj. yoke 2 aor. pass, it^-qv. 

743. The ending w varies between strong vv and weak vv. Thus delKvvpn 
delKVVfiey, idelKvvv ^SeUvvfieP. 

iNFLECTlON OF MI-VERBS 

744. Verbs in -/At differ in inflection from verbs in -a> in the present 
and second aorist systems and (rarely) in the second perfect system. 
Verbs in -fit have the following peculiarities of inflection : 

a. The endings -/xt and ~ai (for original -n) occur in the present indicative 

active: rld'q-ixi, rldrj-a-L', (p'q-lJ't <p'r\-<Ti. 

b. The 3 plural present indicative active has generally the ending -a.<n, from 
a-a^T(, as Tidiaai, icrrda-L. So in the 2 perf . active ia-Tciai. 

c. The .3 plural of active past tenses has -a-ap: iTld€-(Tap. 

d. The imperative ending -6i is sometimes retained: (pa-SL, a-rij-di; some 
forms never had it: rt^et, icrrt], 

e. The middle endings -aat. and -cro regularly retain cr: ride-a-di, irlBe-a-o. 

N. — But iiot in the subjunctive or optative; and usually not in the second 
aorist; as ti$t] ior TiBirj-a-ai, ndeio for TL64-l-cro, eOov ior ^de-a-o, 

f. The infinitive active Ins ~vai : ne^-vai, dcdd-pai ; the 2 aorist active has -^pai 
rarely : OeTvai for 6i-^vo.L, Sovpat, for 86-tPat,. 



206 INFLECTION OF MI-VERBS [745 

g. Active participles with stems in -out- have the nominative sing. masc. in 
-oi/s(301a, 307 a): 5t5oi/s, 6t5(4-jn--os, ^ 

745. Forms of -fxi verbs which are inflected according to the 
thematic conjugation are included under the Second Conjugation. 

746. jLti-verbs may pass into tlie to inflection elsewliere than in the subjunc- 
tive, a. Verbs in -w/^t often inflect the present and imperfect active (not the 
middle) from a present in -vilxc; as SeiKv^o) (but usually SeUvvfjLL), SetKvdets, detK- 
fi;et, imperf. ideiKWOf^ -es, -e, etc. ; imper. SeUvve, inf. deiKv^eiv, part. SetKviJwv. 

b. rid7)/xi, Xffrrjfu^ diSw/xi, irj/j-t, etc., show some w-forms in pres. (and imperf.) 
indie, opt, imper. and infln. ; but the forms rtSiu)^ 'l<tt4<x}^ 5t56o), i^oj, do not occur 
in the 1 sing. 

c. In the present and second aorist optative of Tidrjfii and ilij/xt there is a 
transition to the w-conjugation but not in the 1 and 2 singular. The accent is 
differently reported: (1) as if the presents were tl84u), Uoj ; (2) as if the presents 
were ri^w, tw. Thus : 

Active: a.(pioLre for d,(pl€Lre, d<pLOi€v for d^Heiev. — Middle: ti8oito, iirtdoifjieda, 
<TVv6oiTO, iirtdoLVTo (also accented rWotro^ iwiOoivTo) ; irpooLTO, Trpootcr^e, wpootvro 
(also accented irp^otro, trpboLvTo). Hdt. has -diovro and -BelTo. The form in 
-olro for -eiTo occurs especially in Plato. 

d. The Mss. vary between rt^w/xat and r/^oj/Aat, awoddfiaL and dirbd(ap.ai (426 f). 

e. Some other /xt~verbs show alternative w-forms, as wifiir^do), -ew {iriiJ.Tr\T}(XL) , 
TTLTTpdco {TrlfXTTpTjixi)^ Houi. dydo/jLai (dya/JLat)^ and iXdo/xai (p<7}fit). So often with 
-yi7/u verbs (737), as Sa/j.vg. and ddfjiprja-i^ iKlpvd and KLpvds. 

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (PASSIVE) 

747. Present Indicative. — a. The primary personal endings are added to 
the stem with the strong form in the singular and the weak form in the dual 
and plural. 

b. In the 2 sing, t/^t/s, ?t7s, iVttjs, SeUvvs, etc., a has been added to the stem. 
This (T is obscure in origin, but cannot be derived from -<Tt. Tidets is rare. 

c. 3 sing. rldrjffL^ 'l(ttt)<tl^ etc., with -a for -n (463 c). 

d. 3 plur. TLdidcL^ l<xTd<TL, etc., from nd^-avrL, la-rd-avTc (4G3d). 

; e. For the retention of cr in ridc-aat, etc., see 465 a, b, and N. 2. 

f. mopuai in the middle present and imperfect is used only in composition, as 
dirodldofiac. But the simple form occurs in the passive. 

746 D. The tragic poets never have the w-forms ; the poets of the Old Comedy 
seldom ; those of the New Comedy often have the w-forms. — Plato usually has 
-uvdcru Horn, has ^evypvov (and ^€6yvuo-av^ ^pvvov, icfjLVve, b}J.vviro}^ etc.). Hdt. 
usually keeps the jat-fonns, but has some w-forms in 2, 8 sing. 3 pi. present 
indie, and part., and 1 sing., 3 pi, imperfect. Doric usually has the w-forms ; 
Aeolic has ^€<}yvv^ and 6ixvvv infin. 

747 D. 1- Horn, has Tid-qffda^ rie7)<n and ndeT, rt^eort ; 5i5ots and SidotaOa, Sl- 
dwai (usually) and 5t5oi, StSoDo-i, pTjyvOac from ptiyvv-vrL^ facn they go and eao-t 
they are. On UrdCKe see 495. Mid, ipApyao from fMdpvafMii,, 



75i] INFLECTJOJ^ OF MI- VERBS: PRESENT 207 

748. Imperfect —irideis irieet^ ihiUvv iSidovs idiSov (for ididuv, -ws, -w) are 
tliematic forms (740 b). For the imperfect of o6vajj.aL and iiritTTafiai see 465 b, 
N. 1. For the retention of <t in irieea-o see 466 b. 

749. Subjunctive. — Attic ridQ, etc., are derived by contraction from the 
forms of the weak stem to which the thematic vowel t^/^j has been added. Thus 

is derived from Icrr^w. See 746 b. Verbs in -vv/jll regularly inflect the subjunc- 
tive like oj-verbs : d€tKv6(,}, -vjjs, -li??. 

a. Similarly the middle (passive) forms are derived from Tie4w~{i<Lt Tie4'q-{<j)aL^ 
etc., 5t56w-/*at 5t56?7-((r)ai, l(TT4(M}-fiai iuWT;-(a)at, etc. For the loss of tr in -crai 
see 465 a. -pv/xl verba inflect the mid. subj. like Xow/^ai. 

b. bivajxai am able, iirla-rafuit understand, Kp^fia/xai hang^ and EyafjAxi admire 
put <^/-q in place of the stem-vowel so that there is no contraction : hivoijiaiy Uv-q^ 
divfjrai, dvvdjixeda^ etc. So, tOO, iirptaii-qv^ irpitiifiai (757 a). 

c. Traces oi -vrai in -vvfxi verbs are very rare: p-qyvinaL Hipponax 19; cp. 

^Hl(TK€^6.VVVTaL P. Fli. 77 b. 

750. Present Optative. — The optative active has the secondary endings 
and the mood sign -i-q- in the singular, -i- (-le- 3 pi.) in the dual and plural. In 
the dual and plural the longer {-it)-) forms are rare. Thus TiSei-qv {nee-l-q-v), 
ridetfiev (Ti64-l-fi€v)^ iffTaiy}v {i<TTa~i7}~v} iffralev (iard-te-v). The shorter forms in 
dual and plural occur in poetry and prose, the longer forms only in prose. 

a. Tlie middle (passive) lias the secondary endings and the mood sign -Z- 
througliont: Ttdei/irjv {Ttde-i-fiijv)^ io-Talfirjv (l<TTa-t-fji,7)v)j itxTaLfJi£6a (i(rTa-i-/ie^a), 
didoLVTo (SiSA-i-vTo). On TiOoLTo^ otc, see 740 c. 

b. The accent follows 424 c, N. 1 {riBeiTo not Tldeiro). But the verbs of 749 b 
are exceptional : dOvaio d^vairo ; and so 6vaio tvairo from oplyrj/xt benefit (424 c, N.2). 

751. Present Imperative. — rWei and 5l5ov are formed (cp. irotei and d-^Xov) 
from Tide-e, dido-€. Urr) and deUvu show the stronger stem forms. 

For the middle endings and the retention of tr, see 466. 2. a. —On the forms 
TtB^TOiffav for tl64vt<,}v^ rid^ffdiiUJav for tlB^o-Ocjv^ see 466. 2. b. 

2. Hdt. has tl6€l nffeTa-i ; tur^ is doubtful ; dtdoTs^ didoi^ di5o0(rt, tacrt eda-i, ^vvtrt 
and -v^ovffL. Middle : -arai and -aro (imperf. ) for -j/rai, -vro in TiO^aTai iTid^arOy 
IcrT^arat icrr^aro, dvp^arai 4bvviaro, -arai, -aro have been transferred from the per- 
fect and pluperfect of consonant stems, such as y€ypd(f)aTai, iy€ypd(f}aro (465 f). 

3. Doric has '{(ttcL/xl^ and d for tj in all tenses ((rrdcraj, eo-rdo-a, fo-rd;'); -Tt in 
3 sing. tWijti ; -yri in 3 pi. rWevri, Sldovri. 

4. Aeolic has t^^tjs, Tidrj, rldeuri] fcrrds, TtTTd; SiSws, SfSw ; bdixyds. 

748 D. Honi. has ^ti^ci, ^5f5ovs, ibibov. — Hdt. has vweperldea 1 sing., iSLdovv, 
45idov^ fff-Tci and dpiaTT) (both in Mss.). — In poetry -v occurs for -craj/ as rffev, 
yrdp, dLdov (464 e. D.). 

749 D. Dor. has n^^oj, -4oj/j,€p, but contracts ^ + ?? to t? ; pi. didupri (and 
ridTjvri). Dor. has Siimjuai, LVrdrai ; Hdt. ivLarTjTai, ^TricTT^wrxai, gw^wtT-ai. 

750 D. Horn, has the ^t-forms daivvTo and 8aiv6aro^ Plato has ir-qyvvTo. 

751 D. Hom, has IVttj and Kadlffrd^ 5£5aji9t, 4inrlTr\rj0i, Sfivvdi, 6ppv6i, 'icraao and 
Ifo-rao. rf^oi/, I'crrw occur in the drama. Find, has 5£5oi (active). 



208 INFLECTION OF MI-VERBS: FUTUUE, AOKIST [752 

752. Present Infinitive. — The active adds -mi, the middle -crdau deUvvfju 
admits the form deiKv^eiv. 

753. Present Participle. — The active adds -j't-, the middle -/Aecos. Thus 
TideLs (rt^f-fr-s), rideiaa {ride-PT-ia} ; Tid^-jjjevos, For SeiKvts we find S£iKvijo}v. 

THE FUTUKES 

754. The futures of verba in -ftt do not differ in formation and 
inflection from those of verbs in -w. 

del^ofifxi, S€Lx^V<^ofJ'Oi'', SeSel^o/Mat (late) or SeSetyfihos €<rofiai ; fieiyvv^in fiei^oj^ 
~fiixB'fi<TO(x<XL^ fjLLyT^(ro{j.ai (poet.), /jiepLei^ofiai (poet.) ; iri^yvvixi: ^nilw, vay^crofMi, 
a. eo-TTilw is the only future perfect from a /it-verb (584). 

FIRST AOEIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE 

755. The verbs rWijfii, itj/xL, SiSw^u form the singular active of the first 
aorist in ->c-a, thus, iO-qKa^ ^5tjKa^ rjKa. The forms of the second aorist (756) are 
generally used in the dual and plural and in the other moods. 

a. The form in k rarely appears outside of the singular, chiefly in the 3 pi., 
as €5cjKav (= 'dSoaav), less frequently in the 1 and 2 pi,, as iSdjKafiev, -are. 

b. That K was not a suffix but a part of an alternative root appears from a 
comparison of d7)K- in edrjKa and perf. rkB-qKa with flc~ in feci, 

c. ia-T-qfiL has e(TT7j(7a I set, placed (mid. icTrjc-dfivv), to be distinguished from 
2 aor, ea-TTjv I stood. 

"d. iS-nKdjjitjp isnn-Attic ; i^Kdfi-qv (in comp.) is rare and probably fomid only 
in the indie. ; iSojKdfX7}v is very late. 

SECOND AOEIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE 

756. Indicative. — Tid-qy.i^ t-^jLi^ 5£6w/it use the short grade forms in dual and 
plural active: '4-de-Tov, e-^e-^i/, sBe-a-av; el-rov^ el-fiev, eT-trav (for ^-i-rov, etc."); 
e-do'/x€v, e-5o-aav. In the singular the /c-forms, e(?7;/ca, ^Ktt, eSwjca, are used. 
lia-TTjfiL has ^(TT-qv, eo-TT/s, Ha-T-ij (for iarrjr, 464 c), icT-qfxev^ etc. (p. 138). 

a. (x§ivvv(xt extinguish is the only verb in -w/xi forming a second aorist {^(r^-qv, 
o-jSw, (T^el-qv^ (XJSrjBi^ ff^rjvat, tr^els). 

752 D- Horn, has -fievai or -vat preceded by -q in d-^fievac dijvai from d-q/xi blow, 
TLdrifi^vaL, KLX^ij£va.t and Kixv^^ai as from Kixv/J-t. Also IffTdfievai (and Iffrdfiev), 
^€vyv}!>fi€vaL (and feu7i'i5juej', once fei/YvC^er) . -/^e;' after a short vowel, as rie^fiev, 
5i56fi€v (once didovvai). Doric has ridifiev, biU^v. Theognis has rt^e?*/, ffwieTv. 

753 D. Horn, has Tie-Zi/jLepos K 34. 

755 D. Hom. has id-qKav^ eSojKav^ iv^Ka/x6v, O-^Karo ; Hdt. crvvd'^Kavro ; Pind. 

6T]Kd^€V09. 

756 D. Hom. has older ~y for -o-ai' in sarap (he uses ecrT7]<rav also), Dor. has 
e^ey, etrray, t Soy, For the iterative ard-ffKe, Sd-cKov See 495, 



759] INFLECTION OF MI-VERBS: SECOND AOKIST 209 

b. The middle uses the weak stems -^e-, -€-, -60- in i-6i-(x-t\v^ -et/iijf (for i-^-fi-qv), 
i-bb-Mv (only in composition). For the loss of a in -ao {idov^ eSov) see 465 b. 

c. In prose the only un compounded second aorists middle are iirpidfij]!' bought 
(pres. dJv4ofjiat) and <bvi}(n)y derived henefit {6vivn^C). Civiitxrjv keeps t) (poet. fifTjco, 
6v'f}fx^voi). tffT7)}iL does not make the form iaTa^Tjv. 

757. Second Aorist Subjunctive. — All the forms of the 2 aor. subj. are due 
to contraction of the thematic vowel with the weak stem-vowel. Thus 05, etc., 
fi'om 6iu, 64r}s, d4ri^ eitapjev^ etc. ; oj, etc., from ^w, tV, ew<ri ; 5tD, etc., from 56w, 
56ijs, 5hri ; o-rw, etc., from (rriw, ariys, etc., with e from ij before a vowel. Cp. 682. 

a. i-Kpidfi-nv has Trpioj/itti with w/^ in place of the final vowel of the stem 
(749 b). 

758. Second Aorist Optative. — The forms of the optative of the second 
aorist are made and inflected like those of the present except for the reduplica- 
tion. Thus, in the active: 6driv {6e~ii]-v^^ a-Talr^y ((rra-lTj-y) ^ Soifxev (56-1-/46^), 
Soiiv {db-L€-y), The shorter forms are preien-ed in the dual and plural, and 
poetry has only these ; prose admits either the longer or the shorter forms. 

a. In the 2 pi. cases of -Li}-re (SoiijTe) are more numerous than -£-re ; but they 
usually lack metrical warrant. 

b. Second aorists of stems in v lack the optative in Attic. 

C. In the middle: e^i^-nv (ee-t-fnjy), boLfx-nv (do-i-fx-nv), -^'ifnjv (e-t-/i7jv). For 
OolpLeda see 746 c. For the accent of nplaio see 424 c, N. 2. 

759. Second Aorist Imperative. —On ^^-s, 56-s, t'-s, see 406. 1. b. These 
verbs show the weak form of the stem (di-Tuj, ei-vrwv). i'o-TTj/ii and c^^wv^n have 
-6l in aTT]~6Ly or^7}-6L. For arrij-ei the poets may use -(TTd in composition, as dirbffTa 
stand off. 

a. The middle adds -<ro, which loses its cr after a short vowel, as in 6ov for 
e^-ffo, dov for 66-0-0, Trpfw (and poet, irpla-ffo). a is not dropped after a long 
vowel (6»'7j(ro). Cp. 465 b, K 2. 

c. p. In poetry: iirrdfiiov (prose -iirrbtJi'nv) from Trh-afxai Jly ; Horn. ttXtjto 
approached^ ^^Xtjto was hit (others, 688). 

757 D. The subjunctive shows traces of an earlier double form of inflection : 

1. With short thematic vowel : ^ijeis, B-fia^ 67I€tov, O^oixiv., e^€T€, e-Tiovat. 
Homer : ^■^o/icj', (rr-jjo/iej', -cr'fjerov.^ KLX'^ofxevy buiofiev^ dTod-ZjofMii, 

2. With long thematic vowel : e-ijo}, e-fi-o^, 671x1, ^iirirovy ei^w^e*', d-fiTire, eriwtri. 
Horn, ^ijw, ^TjTjs, 6ri7}, (rTT}?;?, ffr-jj??, dy^ij^ d(br} or d(iyr}<n, TrepiO-TiJajtri, 6c6w<ri. 

By shortening of the long vovvel of the stem we obtain a tliird form : 

3. e^u}^ e^ris, eiri, Bi-qroy^ Biiafiey, e^7}r€, e^ujct. Hom. d(f>4r}, e^io^i^v, o-r^/ie*', 
Hdt. 6ii)}y 64o}fj^v^ d^wffi, d4wixai, (rr^ajjuef, diroiTr^djaL^ Aeolic 6io3. 

4. From 3 are derived the contracted forms 60}, 6rjs, 6fi, etc. Hom. dmo-TT?, 
Scps, St? or d(p(n^ dCopLey; Dor. dwvrt; Hdt. -0j?, -^^Jrat ; SCifi^y^ -Swre, dw<n, 

N. —In Hom. the Mss. often have ei for rj of the stem, as Moj, ^elto, delofiev, 
KLxeiofxev. 

768 D. Hom. has ffTai-neay P 733, the only case of -itj- outside of the singular ; 
dvT} (for dv-i-q), ^Kdvfxey (for -SiJ-Z-^uej'), and <peiTO (for <p6i't-To) from <f>&tvo} perish. 

759 D, Horn, has 64o and ^yBeo. 

UUHEK OitAM. — 14 



210 INFLECTION OF Ml-VEKBS: rEIlFKCT [760 

b. In composition TreplOcs, air65os, vapd(TT7]di, evdov, TTpobov ; but Karddov^ irepl- 
Soi;, Tr€pldo(r$€ (426 b-c). 

C. For the 3 pi. d^rojo-ay, Sdrojffav^ ^(xQbxrav^ see 466. 2. b. 

760. Second Aorist Infinitive. — Tbe active adds -erat in detvai (d^-evai), 
(FTrjvaL (o-TTj-emi), 5ovvai (66-emi), elcai (^-emt). The middle adds -cr^at, as 

761. Second Aorist Participle. — The active adds -vr- like tbe present: dels 
(^de-vT-s^^ deio-a {de-vr-ia)^ 6iv (^e-x-r); ards (o-ra-jT-s), araaa (^<TTa~vr-j.a), <Trdv 
{(fra-vr). The middle adds -/xews, as O^-p^m^. 

FIRST AND SECOND PERFECT (AND PLUPERFECT) ACTIVE 

762. Indicative. — The perfect of rld7}p.i is r4$7]Ka. A later form rideiKa^ not 
found on Attic inscriptions till after 200 b.c. and dae to tbe analogy of eiwa, 
still appears in some texts, r^deKa is Doric. For KaOiaraKa Attic used Karacr-f}- 

a. Tbe dual and plural of tbe second perfect and pluperfect of XcTTjp.1 (417) 
are formed without k : ^ffrarov^ '^arap^ev (witliout augment in tbe pluperf.), iaraai 
from €-<TTa~avTL, pluperf. ^jTa-a-av. Tbe singular is supplied by tbe 1 perf. Uar-qKa 
1 stand, 

763. Subjunctive. — ecmj/fw and eo-rw appear in prose and poetry, ea-TTjKths 
(5 in prose. 

764. Optative. — eo-TiyKTOiMi occurs in comp. in prose, d<p€<rTu)T€s ehv in Plato, 
redTjKibs €CT}s and dedojKdres elev in Demosthenes, ea-ralriv is poetical. 

765. Imperative. — ^cradi is poetical. 

766. Infinitive and Participle. — iardvai and eo-rcfts are much more common 
than €(T'r7}Kivai and ea-TrjKtJbs. 

PERFECT MIDDLE (PASSIVE) 

767. TidcLiJLai even in composition is rare and is unknown on Attic inscrip- 
tions. For the pass, perf. Kei/xai (791) was used. Doric has ridcfiat, 

IRREGULAR MI-VERBS 

768. €l|j.i (i<r-, cp. Lat. esse) am has only the present and future 
systems. 

760 D. Horn, has d4p.€vaL^ Oipjev ; <TTiipjeva.L ; 56^evai, 86p.ev ; and Beivai^ ar^vai, 
hovvat. Dor. has 6ip^v, ddp^v, (TTapev, 

766 D. Horn, has iardpuevai and €<rrdp.€v^ ecrratis, -aAros. Hdt. has etrrecis, 
-eutros. Doric has -eta for -via (ea-rdKeia). 

768 D. 1. Homer has tbe following forms : 
Pres. ind. 2 sing. 4a-<Tl and efs, 1 pi, elp^v, 3 pL (clal, and) ed<Tt not enclitic. 
Imperf. ^a, ^a, ^ov, 2 sing, ijcrea, ^TjaBa, .3 sing, '^ev, ^t)v, ijrjv, fjv (rare), 3 pi. ^a-av, 

€<Tav; iterative (405) taKov (for ia-'O-Kov), 



77o] 



IllREGULAR MI-VEKBS: €l|JLi 



211 







Peesent 




Imperfect 


Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Oittetive 


Imx^erative 


Indicative 


Sing. 1 


clftC 


j; 


(I'llV 




T\ or Tjv 


2 


«l 


US 


*£t,s 


ia-Bi, 


^cr0a 


3 


ia-ri 


Tl 


.tTl 


JEO-TW 


¥ 


Dual 2 


Io-t6v 


TJTOV 


elt-qTov or etrov 


€0-TOV 


-qo-TOv 


3 


ecTTOV 


TJTOV 


€It|ttiv or cl'T-qv 


€0-T&>V 


Tio-TT]V 


Plur. 1 


^0-ft€V 


J>[i€V 


tlL-qfitv or ct[i€v 




^H-t^ 


2 


lo-Tt 


V. 


e^Tc or tlTt 


tO-T€ 


^Tt or ^erT€ (rare) 


3 


«t(r£ 


a>o-i 


tl-^a-av or «Icv 


iio-TOJV 


-qo-av 


Infin. 


flvuk 


Particip 


le wv, o5(ra, ov, £ 


jen. ovTos, o-u 


o-Tis, OVTOS, etc. (305) 



FirTunB (witli midflli! fonns) 
Eo-ofiui, 6o-[| (or Ieo-ci.), €OTai, tVeo-Oov, coto-Bov, lo-6[ic6a, €o-co-0€, to-ovrat, opt. 
lo-oLfLT)v, inf. co-co-Oai, part, co-ojicvos, -t|, -ov. 

a. The imperative 3 pi. 'da-rwa-av occurs in Plato and Demosthenes; dvrcjv in 
Plato and on inscriptioOxS. 

b. In composition &iy retains its accent, as ainav, dTroCo-a, d7r6f^os, etc. ; and 
so €(rTai, as dx^o-rai (420 e). 

769. The optative forms etrj^aey^ etrjre, €i7)(Tap are found only in prose writers. 
eJiJi€f occurs in poetry and Plato, eire only in poetry, eiev in poetry and prose and 
more frequently than €t7)(roLK 

770. The indicative et^ is for *i(r~ixt (37) ; e? is for *iffi (originally ia-ai, 
463 b) ; icr-rL retains the original ending n ; eiai is for (cr-)e;Tt, cp. Lat. sunt; 
icrfxep^ with a before /x despite 105 ; tlie a is due to the influence of i<rT4. The 
subjunctive tS is for ew, from ia-o} ; the optative etyjv is for i<T-i7}-v ; elfxev for ia-l- 
jx€v^ cp. Lat. smws. The infinitive ehai is for ecr-vai ; the participle ^y is for 
iihv^ from i<j-(av. 

Subj, to;, €7??, 3 sing, ei?, eTjcrt.. ijcrt, 3 pi. eojcri (twice tStri) ; n^retixi has 1 sing. /xer^o}, 

and ^erefw (with metrical lengthening). 
Opt. er??;', etc., also eois, eot ; Imper. 2 sing. tV-cro (middle form), ea-rw, 3 p].«crTa;i'. 
Inf. elyai and e/x/xevaL (for ia-fj^vai) , tjxixev^ also tfuevai^ €}X€v, 
Part, ^tiv, ^oOfra, ^6;*, etc., rarely the Attic forms. 
Fut. often with crcr : '4(T<70fxat and ecro^ai ; 3 sing. ecrerai, eVrai, ^ffo-erai, also ^cro-e?- 

rai (as in Dor.), (aa-ea-dat, iaa-S/xems. 

2. Herodotus has pres. ind. 2 sing, els, 1 pi. et/x^y ; imperf., the Attic forms and 
la, 2 sing, tas, 2 pi. eare ; Iterative ((tkov ; subj. ew, ewcrt ; opt. once ^i>-^oi, €tij<Fay, 
less freq. efej/ ; part. iJjv. 

3. Dor. pres. ind. 1 sing. i}/x[ and ei/xi, 2 sing. ^crfTi, 1 pi. rj/xii and e^^^s (Pind. 
€iix4v), 3 pi. ^i^/ ; imperf. 3 sing, ■^s (for ^cr-x), 1 pi. -^^s, 3 pi. ^<yai> and ^j^; inf. 
ijixev, etfxey ; part, etij' and fem. eacrtra, pi. cpres. P"'ut. ^crcreu^ai, -^, -^rai or -eixai, 
iaaovvTaL (540 D.). 

4. Aeoiic €^/xi out of ^o-^t * imper. eWo, part. «u3f , eVo-a (Sappho) ; imperf. eoj^. 



Indicative 
Sing, 1 €tjXL 

2 €t 

3 €t(ri 


Subjunctive 


Optative 
lloifii or 
I'ois 


ioi7\V 


Imperative 


Dual 2 
3 


Vtov 

iTOV 




Iryrov 


loiTOV 
to ITT] V 




trov 
Itwv 


Plur. 1 
2 
3 


»:t€ 

I'atru 




ftdfUV 
i!a>(ri 


I'oijxev 

i0lT€ 

Iloicv 




16VT(«>V 


Infinitive: Uvai. 


Partici] 


pie : l<&v, i 


lovo-a, 


lov, gen. 



212 IRREGULAR MI-VERBS; ctjii [771 

771. Old Attic ^ is from -$a (Horn.) = -70-/^, i.e. ^o-- augmented + the sec- 
ondary ending /jl, which becomes a by 35 c. ^s for yaOa is rare. The 3 pi. was 
originally ^c, contracted from ^ev (Horn.) ; this "^v came to be used as 3 sing. 
By analogy to ^/j^ev ^<rre the 1 sing, ^v was formed. 

772. Inflected according to the w-conjugation are the subjunctive, the parti- 
ciple &v^ and several dialect forms. 

773. etjit (t-j el- ; cp. Lat. l-re) go lias only the present system. 

Present Imperfect 

Indicative 
•ga or 'g€iv 

■gcHrBa or ffeis 
-gciv or ^'et 
iJtov 

^crav or fj^orav 
iv, gen, lovTos, lov(rT]s, toi^os, etc. 
Verbal Adjectives : tT6s(poet.), It€'os, Iti^Wos. 

a. The imperative 3 pi. trio(Tav occurs rarely in Xenophon and Plato. 

b. The participle Id^v is accented like a second aorist. The accent of the 
simple form of participle and infinitive is kept in composition, as Trapubv, Trapi- 
ovo-a/dTTi^rat. Otherwise the compounds have recessive accent so far as the rules 
allow : Trdpei/Jii, ^Treicri, but diTTJa, Trpojy/xev. 

774. ' eifu in the indicative present means I shall go, I am going. See 1880. 
For I go epxopi'at is used in the present indicative, but not (in prose) in the 
imperfect, or in the other moods. The scheme of naoods and tenses is as fol- 
lows : Present : indie, ^pxofjiai, subj. fw, opt. ioipn or IoLtjv, imper. Wt, inf. Umi^ 
part. l(^v. Imperfect : 770. Future: el/At, iXevcrolfnjv, AeiJcrecr^at, iXojcrdfievos. 

775. In the imperfect the older prose writers usually have ^a, jjewr^a, -jjet-v, 
the later have ^eif, -^eis, ^'et. The plural tOTms'yeifjxv and yeire are not classical. 
Prose writers seem to prefer yecrap to ^aav. The y here is the stem et augmented. 

776. The part., the subj v., and the opt. are inflected with the thematic 
vowel ; and so also some of the dialectical forms. 

773 D. Horn, has 2 sing. ehOa (Hesiod eh) ; subj. truxea and trih V'" and ty, 
tof/xv and fo/^r ; opt. Id-r} and toi ; iufin. f/iemt, ip^Ev, and Uvoll (twice). Imperf. : 
1 sing, -^'ta, dj-Tjioj/, 3 sing, -^ie, ^e, fjei (at the verse-end, ^e?), fe; dual tT-qv, 
pi. rio(j.€V^ T)Laav, iirrio-av^ tcrav^ rjCov, For rfia, fte, i^Xaav some write ^ea, ^ee, rjcaav. 
Future : efiro/xat U 462, 213. /re^o-o/xat S 8 and pelffaro, ipeiiraro prohably come 
from fte/jiaL strive (778). 

Hdt. : f:a, ijie, yXaav (Mss.), hut 7} for -rji. is correct. 



777] 



IRREGULAR MT-VERBS: Xti|II 



21 S 



in 


777, TLT1[IL(4-, 

flection of the 


^-) send is inflected nearly like 
present and second aorist syste 


Tl$r]fLi (i: 
ms is as 








Active 




Mii)i>Lii (Passive) 








l2?I)ICATIVE 






IwrHCATlVE 






PreB. 


Imperf. 


Second A or. 


Pres. 


Imperf. 


S. 


1 
2 
8 


tV,Ut5 (746 b)«£is (7461)) (ifKas) 
tTitri Ifei (^Kc) 


li«trai(465 a) U<ro - 
?€Tai Uro 


D. 


2 
3 


terov 

ttTOV 


tc'TTlV 


— cXtov 

— tirr\v 


&cr6ov 
teo-flov 


l^o-0tiv - 


P. 


1 
2 
3 


t'cjJLCV 

.ta(ri(463d) 


U\ltV 
t€T€ 

tco-av 


€l[X£V 

— drt 

— da-av 

Stjbjuncti\ 


t'evrai 

'E 


UiuQa - 
<!evTO - 


S. 


1 
2 
3 


tfi 




-if 


iw|jLai 
ttjrai 




D. 


,2 
3 


t-flTOV 
tT)TOV 




— ifrov 

— -qTOV 


tTio-eov 
tTio-eov 




P. 


1 
2 
3 


two- 1 




«|1€V 

OKTl 

Ol>TATIVE 


tw^€6a 

tfio-06 

tcivTai 




S. 


1 
2 
3 


t€£TlV 

teiTis 




-€l'tl 


teiTo 




D 


. 2 


teiTov or 




— cXtov or 


teitrdov 






3 


l€LT]TOV 

tctriiv or 




— eVi^Tov 
— elLTtiv or 


Ula-Qx]v 





. 135). The 

follows : 

Middle 



Second Aor. 

- eY|J.-»iv 

- elo-o 

- eiTo 

- «lo-0ov 

- eio-0iiv 

- cifieea 

- tla-Bt 

- elvTO 



tojiai 
iJTai 

ifo-Bov 

u|JLc6a 
if 0-6 6 
wvrai 

diiy\v (758 c) 

€10 
€IT0 

(— otTo) 

flcrSov 



— €IO-0T1V 



777 D. 1. In Horn. I'lj/xi usually has the initial l short. Present : -leh, I'tjaL 

and -tei, leZcTi from U-yn^ inf. UiJLevaL and -Ufiev. Imperf. : -i'eti', -i'ets, -I'ei, S pi. i'ej'. 

Future : tJctu, once dj^-^crei. i?'i7*sf ^omi ; TjKa and eV^, ivfiKo.jj.^v once, T^/cav 
once. Second Aorist : for the augmented el-forms Hoin. has usually the unaug- 
mented i- ; as ecrai-, 'ivro. In the subjunctive /xedelu^ (J^HVt <^<P^^ fiedto/juev, 

2. Hdt, has -Wt (accented -ifet), letcrt, imperf. -Ui, perf. dj^^tovTat for dveivrai,^ 
part. ii€-ii€T~L-fji4vos :for iiedafiivos. 

3. Dor, has perf. ^w«-a, ^wMai. 



214 



IRREGULAR MI-VKllBS 



LTlflL 



[778 



P. 


1 

2 


t€t|i€v or 
Uln or 




~ ei|i€v or 
— drt or 


tciiicOa 






— €i|i€0a 

(— oi}i.€ea) 

— €l(re€ 




3 


UUv or 
tet-ntrav 




— eXev or 
— eliiicrav 

Imperative 


Ulvro 






(— ol(r0€) 
— elvTo 

( — oIvTo) 


s. 


2 
3 


t'ci (746 b) 

t€TO) 




— c'to) 


te'(r0o) 






-?o-eo) 


D. 


, 2 


i!€TOV 




CTOV 


t€(r$ov 






— ?(r0ov 




3 


t€Ta)V 




tTO)V 


Wo-Bcov 






— S^trOuv 


P. 


2 


1!€T€ 




— in 


if€0-e€ 






— feV0€ 




3 


t€VTa,v(466.2, 


b) 


— evTwv 

I.VFlNiTTVE 

— €lvai 

Pakticiple 


tcvewv 

t€a-0ai 


(466, 2, 


,b) 


— €(r0ai 



t€{s, Uitra, Uv — €^5, — €l(ra, — €v te'jievos — Sifwvos 

Future : — r\a-(ti in prose only in composition ; — tja-ojj.at only in composition, 
First Aorist : ifKa in prose usnally in comp., — TiKd|n]v; both only in the indie. 
Perfect Active : — cUa only in composition. 
Perfect Middle (Passive) : — d\i.ai (plup. — etH-^v), — eilo-Oo), — etc-eat, — €l}j.€vos, 

only in composition, 
Aorist Passive : — i'iBr\v, — c0«, — tSi^vat, — €0€ls, only in composition. 
Future Passive : — €0'fi(ro[j,at, only, in composition. 
Verbal Adjectives : — Itos, — erws, only in composition. 

778. Since t'17/x' is reduplicated (probably for (n-<r'n-fit) the initial i should be 
short, as it is in Horn, (rarely in Attic poetry), t is probably due to confusion 
with the Z of Horn, te/j^ai (fie/iai) strite, a meaning that tefiai occasionally shows 
in Attic, i'e/iat meaning hasten occurs only in the present and imperfect. 

779. et is for e + e in the second aorist active (l-e-fiev = d/iev) ^ perfect 
active (i-i-Ka ~ eiKa)^ perfect middle (e-e-/i,a£ = a^ai), second aorist passive 
(i + €-07]}/ = eXd-qv). In the aorists k is the augment, in the perfects the first e is 
the reduplication of the weak stem i-. The first aorist ^-ko. has the strong stem 
form. Present subj. iui, iijs, etc, are for tew, teijs, etc. ; aor. subj. -S, --^s, etc., 
are for -^-w, -e-i7S, etc. 

780. Much confusion exists in the Mss. as regards the accentuation. Thus 
for leTs we find i'^ts, and in Horn, irpoUi (present), as if from Iw. See 746 c. 

781. For d^lotre, 6,<ptoL€v and irpooTro, Trpootc^e, irpooivTO (also accented -rrpb- 
otro, etc.) see 746 c. 



788] 



IRREGULAR MI-VERHS : ^r\[Li 



215 



782. The imperfect of d<pivf^'' is either dtpitji' or 7}<P'i'Vv (450). 

783. <j>T|fii (<^a-, <f>7]~, cp. Lat. JorTi) my, say ye,% or assent is inflected 
in the present as follows : 





Indie. 


Sing. 1 
2 
3 


4>ii's 


Dual 2 
3 


<|»aTOv 
<|>aT6v 


Plur. 1 
2 
3 


<f>aT€' 



Pkesekt 
Opt. 



Impekpect 



Iiuper. 



not found 
not found 





8<hv 


<{>a6i or ^d^i 


€(|)'no-9a or ecj*!!? 


<t>dTa> 


*<t>1 


4>dT0V 


e4)aTov 


(JXXTWV 


«4>dT'r]v 




e4>ap,Ev 


c|>dTe 


?4)ttTe 


4>dvTuv 


((jxKrav 



Subj. 

4>fi 

4>fiT0V 

<|>t5p,«v <J)aifi€V or <|>aiT^(i€V 

<{>wo*i (|>ai€v or 4>0't'no"av 
Infin. ; 4>dvai ; Partic. : poet. 4>^s, <j>do-a, ^w (Attic prose <|>tto-Kwv) ; Verbal 

Adj.: 4>a'''"0S (poet.), 4»a-T«os. 
Future : ^•f\<r<a^ 4>if|<r€LV, <|>T)(r«v. 

First Aorist : e<|>ii<ra, <()T|o-to, 4>irt<raLfiL, , <|>f|o-ai, <|>T|<ras. 

Perf. Pass. Imper. : ir«4>d(r6a) let it be said. 

784. All the forms of the present indicative except ^t/s are enclitic (181 c). 
— In composition criJ/i^Tj/it, criJ/x«^7js (but the Mss. often have <rv^<pT^s and a-vn<pys), 

785. In the optative <pdir€ does not occur, perhaps by chance (461, 683 a). 
(paTfJiev, <pakv are ordinary Attic ; (palrjjiiv, <f>alt]a-ap are rare. 

786. Middle forms in present, imperfect, and future are dialectic. 

787. o€ <p7}fiL means refitse (Lat. nego). In the meaning assert, <pd<rKU) is 
commonly used outside of the indicative. In the meaning say often, (pda-Kot is 
used. €<pTjcra and (pTJffoj are aor. and fut. in the meanings say yes and assent. 
^<p7}Vy €(pTj (and (pdvai) often correspond to Lat. inquam, inquit. 

788. €<ptjy and <pu, <pair)y may have an aoristic force. %<fii(}v and poet. i<pd^-r}v 
are both imperfect and second aorist. 

783 D. 1. Horn, has <pri<rBa for <py% ; subj, (p-fi-Q and <p^fn (4G3 c. D) for ^5 ; 
imperf. ^4>-t}v, Kpijv^ i^rja-da, (pTJ(r$a, ^(p-qs, <prjs, 3 S. €<pT}v, rarely (p^, 1 pi. <pafi^v, 
3 pi. i<paffav, (pdffav, f(pav, <pdv. 

2. Doric (pafii, <pari^ (pavri ; imperf. €<pd, <pa ; inf. ^d/xec ; fut. ^do-u, (pdao/jxn ; 
aor. €(paa-a. 

3. Aeolic (pain or (patjii, (pataSa, 3 S. (paicL.^ 3 pi. <paT<7i. 

786 D. Middle forms of <prifj.i are rare or unknovi^n in Attic (Plato has perf. 
imper. 7r€<pd<r6io)^ but common in other dialects ; yet the pres. indicative middle 
is rare. Hom. has imperf. i(pd/i'r)v, €<paTo or (pdro, etc., imper. ^do, <pd<Td(j3^ etc., 
inf. <pd<7Bai (and in choral poetry), part, (pdfievos (also in Hdt.). These middle 
forms are active in meaning. 



216 IRREGULAR MI-VERBS: TJlxai [789 

789. TjiJiaL (Y}cr-) sit is inflected only in the preseat system. The a- 
of the verb-stem appears only before -rat, -to, 

Pbebent Imperative Imperfect 

ifo-ai -qcrOov -qo-Oe i)<ro t]o-o i^o-0ov T](r0e 

iforai iJ(r9ov ijvTat tjo-Ow, etc. ij<rTO f)<r6i]v i|vto 

The sabjanctive and optative are wanting j present infinitive iio-0ai ; parti- 
ciple T]tJl€VOS. 

a. Uncompounded Tj/xai occurs only in Epic, tragedy, and Herodotus. The 
missing tenses are supplied by 'd^o/j^ai, f^w and I'^ofiaL, 

790. In place of yfjAii we find usually KdO-r}fj,ai in Attic prose and 
comedy. KdOyaai sometimes is perfect in meaning (J have sat, I have 
been seated). The cr of the verb-stem does not appear except before 

-TO. 

Prebent Impbefeot 

Indicative Subjunctive Optative Imperative Indicative 

S. 1 KaO-qiiai Ka0«|j,ai KaOoCjjLTiv €Ka6T||j.iiv (450) or tcaB^iiriv 

2 Kd6r|(rai Ka6fj KaOoto Ka&j\iro cKd6T](ro KaBr\a-o 

3 KctOTiTat KaOfiTai KaOoiTO Ka0TJ(r0a> €Kd0T]TO Ka0ti(rTO or 

KaOfJTO 

D. 2 Ktt0T](r0ov Ktt0t](r0ov Ka0ot(r0ov Kd0T](r0ov lKd0T]<r0ov KaOtjo-Oov 

3 Ktt0'qo-0ov Ka0fjo-0ov Ka0o£o-0i)v Ka0T](r0»v €Ka0ii(r0i]v Ka0T|(r0T]v 

F. 1 Ka0i]|i£0a Ka0(6|xe0a Ka0oC}ie0a eKa0'^|j.€6a Ka0T|tJ.E0a 

2 Kd0Ti(r0e Ka0Ti(r0e Ktt0ot<r0€ Kd0T]<r0€ €Kd0T](r0€ Ka0t](r0e 

3 Kd0T]VTai KaOwvTai Ka0oivTO Ka0T|(r0ci>v €Kd0'r]VTO Ka0f]VTO 

Infinitive : Ka0Ti<r0ai. ; Participle ; Ka0'iijjtevos. 

a. The imperative has KdOov in comedy for Kad'^ao. In the imperfect iKaernxtjv 
is used about as often as Kad-q/x-qv. 

b. The missing tenses are supplied by Kadi^o/naL^ KaOl^oj^ Kaei^ofiai. 

791. Kctiiai (k€c-) lie, am laid, regularly used in the present and 
imperfect instead of the perfect and pluperfect passive of T'O-qfxt 
place. 

789 D. Horn, has el'aTai, and i'arai (twice), ei^'aro, and earo once (once i^vro^, 

T}- is probably the correct spelling for el-. 

790 1>. Horn, has 3 pi. KaBeiaro {Kadijaro ?), Hdt. has Kariarai, kctHto ; ko- 
drjaro not KadT)TO. 

791 D. Horn, has 3 pi. pres. KeLarai, jc^arai, Kiovrai ; imperf. Keivro^ Ke^aro, 
KidTo^ iter, K^cTKero ; SUbj. /c^rai, and Kcrrai for K6(i)-e-Tai; fut. Keiaojaat. 

Hdt. has 3 sing. pres. K^erai and KeTrat, 3 pi. Kiarai ; imperf. ckslto, pi, iKiaro, 



794] 



IRREGULAR MI-VERBS: ot5a 



217 







Present 




Imperfect 




Indie. 


Subj. 


Opt. 


Imper, 


Inac. 


Sing. 1 


Kct^iai 








€Kd\Lr\v 


2 


K€io-ai 






Keio-0 


€K€lO-0 


3 


K€lTaL 


Kc-qrai 


K^OlTO 


Keto-e© 


CKCITO 


Dual 2 


Ktlc-Bov 






K€Mr9ov 


€Kcicr6ov 


3 


Keio-9ov 






Kila-Biav 


€K€wreTiv 


Plur. 1 


K€l^E6a 








€K€£(l€da 


2 


K€io-6e 


(8ia)K€Tio-e€ 




Kil<r9t 


€K€Ure€ 


3 


K€lVTai 


(KaTa)K«wvTaL 


(l7pOO-)K€OlVTO 


K(.i<rB<av 


€K€lVTO 






Infinitive : K«i<r0ai ; 


Participle : kcC 


[1€V0S. 





Future : Kcwrojiai., K€icnrj or Kei<r€L, Ktlo-cral, etc. 

a. In the subjunctive and optative k€l- becomes *ce~ before a vowel (43). 

b. Compounds have recessive accent in the present indicative and imperative : 
irapcLKet/xai, irapdKeiao^ but irapaKiiadai. 

792. Ti-|ll (cp. Lat. a-io) say occurs only in the present and imperfect 1 and 
3 sing., and is used in parentheses (as Lat. inquam. inquit). 

Forms : -^juf, 7}<Ti ; 7}Vyfj. Examples : ira?, ^/y,i, irat boy, I say, boy ! (emphatic 
repetition), ^v S' iyih said J, ^ 5' tfs said he (1113). 

793. XP''1 *'* ^^ necessary is really an indeclinable substantive meaning neces- 
sity with the verb understood. In the present indicative ia-rl is to be supplied. 
Elsewhere xpv unites with the form of the verb to be supplied ; as subj. xpv 
(xp^ +5), opt. xp^^V {xpv -h fiv)^ i"f. XP^f'ot ixp'h + ehai), part, indeclinable 

'xpediv (xpT/ + &v) ; imperf. xpv^ (xpv + '5^)) and less commonly 4xpv^ with an 
augment because the composite character of xpv^ "was forgotten, fut. XPW'^^-'- 
(xpv + eVrai). 

a. dir6)(^pT] it suffices has pi. diroxp^^a-ti part, diroxp^v, ~xp^<ro^t -xp^v-> imperf, 
dir^XPVi fut. diroxP^Cft, aor. d-jrixPV^^- 

794. olSa (tS, etS-e, otS- originally with p ; cp. Lat. v?'c?eo) Icn-ow is a 
second perfect with, the meaning of a present, and formed without 
reduplication. The second perfect and second pluperfect are in- 
flected as follows; 



792 D. Horn has ■?, Doric -qrl, Aeolic ^<Tt. 

793 D. Hdt. Jias XP"^-, XPV^i XPV^^-^-, hut dirpoxp^t diroxpdv. 

794 D. ]. Horn, has oldas a 337, S^dfiey^ fffdai (iVo-atr t for to" acrt 136); SUbj. eldiu) 
IT 236 and Id^ui (? IS 235), eUojxev and efSere with short thematic vowels; inf. 
tS/xevai, iS/ji£v ; part. eiSvia and ifiut'a. Pluperf. ijSea, ■§d7}(r6a r 93, T7ei5€ts(-7js?) 
X 280 with 7/ as augment (433), •^Stj, 17 See, TjefSet i 206, 3 pi. faai/ for B-<rav. 
Fut. etao/jiai, inf. €id7)<T4pi.€v and -treif. 

2. Hdt. has o?5as, fSjuet' and oi'5a/iec (rarely), ofSao-t, subj. e/5^uj, plup. iJSea, ^5ee 
(■gSet ?), -•gS^are, •gSeo-ai', fut. eiSV^. 

3. Dor. has tc-d,u.i (pi. ica^iv, taavri) and oTSo.. Boeotian has trro) for fq-rw. 
Aeolic has fdiSrjjML and oiSa, 



218 



IRREGULAR Ml-VEKBS: 0l6a 



[795 





IJldiC. 


Subj. 


Sing. 1 


otSa 


eL8co 


2 


olo-6a 


€18bs 


3 


otSf 


clSfl 


Dual 2 


ia-rov 


cIStitov 


3 


ia-rov 


€l8fiTOV 


Plur. 1 


I'o-fJiev 


ctScofUv 


2 


to-TC 


cl8fiTc 


3 


t<ra<ri 


cl8»(ri 





Second Plttperfect 


Imper. 


Indie. 




ij'Sii or TofSeiv 


iio-ei 


158710-60 or ^Sei-s 


\:<rT(o 


Tf8€i(v) 


toTOV 


130TOV 


UOTWV 


^Vttiv 




■go-iicv or T|'8c|A€v 


^O-TC 


^O-Tt ia'8€T€ 


toTCOV 


-go-av T|'8€(rav 



Second Pbrpect 
Opt. 
€l8eiT]v 
£l8cCi]s 
€t8e£Ti 
elSciTov 
el8€iT7iv 
elSeifJiev or dZtir)it.tv 

€l8eiT€ €l8€tT]Tt 

et8ci£v etSeiTjo-av 

Infinitive €l8^vai; Participle €t8tos, ctSuia, 6l86s (309); Verbal Adj. Io-tcos; Future 
€t<ro|iai. Compound crOvot8a am conscious of, 

795. The verb-stem has the me&mugfind out; hence the perfect oUa means 
I have found out and hence I know. 

796. In Ionic and late Greek we find oTSas, otda/jLev, etc. These forms are 
rare in Attic, oladas occurs in comedy. 

797. In the optative dual and plural prose writers have either the shorter 
or the longer fornis ; the poets only the shorter forms. 

798. Pluperfect ^deLu^ .^5ets occur in later Attic (Demosthenes), but are 
suspicious in earlier writers. -sdetaBa occurs in the best Mss. of Plato and else- 
where, but it is less correct Attic. 13 5?;? is incorrect, -gdei is rare, t^qtov^ -oarrjv 
are almost entirely poetic. In the plural Tidei/xeu^ TjSetre, -^Seiaav are post-classi- 
cal. fi5€fL€v^ ^Sere occur rarely in the Attic poets. 

799. oUBa is from clb + Ba ; i<TT€ from lb -f- re ; ta-Bi from i5 -!- Bl (83). ttrfiiv 
(older rS/uei') gets its a from t(jr€ (87). fo-dcrt is from lb -\- aavn^ with a from 
(Hom.).iVaj' = Ib-aav with the ending -nav (cp. cf^acrt 704 d). ^5?; is for tj-c/St; 
with -q as augment (433). 

PECL^LIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE VOICE-FORMS, ETC. 

800. Some verbs in the present appear in classical Greek in the 
active voice only, as ^atVw go, epwoi creep, rpcoo tremble; others in 
the middle only, as aXKofmi leap, /SovXofxai loish^ KaOrj^ai sit, Ket,uai lie. 

801. Outside of the present some active verbs show middle forms 
especially in the future, as fiija-ofxat shall go, dKova-ofiat shall hear (805) ; 
and some verbs exclusively or chiefly deponent show active forms 
especially in the perfect, as ytyT/o/xat become yeyova, {xaLvo/xat rage 
/xe/XTjva, ^ipKOjJxa poet., 2 aor. ISpaKOv, perf. SeSopKa. ^ 

802. For the passive voice the middle forms sufficed in most 
cases J many middle futures are still used passively (807), as adiK-ja-o- 

802 D. liom. has ^KTdfj.-qv was killed, eax^l^vv was staged. Cp. also -j^bea-dfXTjv 
and aidea- Be i> (aideo fiat respect)^ dteraTo and (bla-Briu (otofiai thinlc), ixo^<^<^°-f^V^ ^^^^ 
^Xo^i^B-qv (j(^o\6ii} enrage). 



807] 



VARIATION OF VOICE: FGTURE MIDDLE 



219 



/xat shall be -wronged; and traces of the passive use of the aorist 
middle appear in Horn., as ifikrjro was hit. This use was largely 
abandoned wlien -rjv and -O-qv came to be used as special marks of 
the passive. Originally neither -yv nor -Orjv was passive in meaning. 

803. The second aorist in -tjv is primarily intransitive and shows active 
inflection (as €<xT7}y stood). Many so-called passive forms are in fact merely 
intransitive aorists of active verbs, as ippij-rjv fromp^w fioio, KdTCKklvnv from Kora- 
K\tvo> lie down, and do not differ m meaning from the aorists of deponent verbs, 
as ifidv7)v from fiahofiai rage. 

804. The aorists in -6r]v that are called passive are often active or middle in 
meaning, as •^V^tji' took pleasure in from -^Jo/iat, ritrx^t^Ovf' /<??f ashamed from 
ai<rx^v(a disgrace^ aicrx^vo^ai am ashamed ; <hpyi(r67}v became angry from 6pyi^<a 
anger. 

FORMS OF ONE VOICE IN THE SENSE OF ANOTHER 

805. Future Middle with Active Meaning. — Many verbs have no 
active futare, but use ijistead the future middle in an active sense : 
XafJi/3dv<ii taJce Xrixj/ofxai, yiyvuxTKOi hliOW yviOcrofLai. 

a. Most such verbs denote a physical action, as the action of the vocal organs ; 
the action of the organs of sight, hearing, smell, touch ; the action of throat, 
mouth, lips ; bodily activity in general, voluntary or involuntary ; and other 
aspects of the physical side of human organism. 

806. Tn the follov^ing list of active verbs with middle futures those marked * 
have also an active future ; those marked t sometimes have an active future in 
late Greek. All verbs adding -ap- to form the present stem (523, b, c) have a 
middle future except at^^dw, Xavddvu, 6<}>\i<rKdvb}. Verbs denoting praise or 
blame usually have both an active and a middle future. 



*a5(i} 


t/3od&j 


elfii 


*KXd^aj 


old a 


TTITTTOJ 


^tIktu) 


tdKOiJoj 


t7eXda) 


*ifi4(.} 


*KXafw 


toi/iti^OJ 


TrX^to 


frXdw (^tXtjv) 


dXaXd^oj 


*77jpd(7KW 


^iiraiviw 


Kpdf^ 


6\o\ijto} 


Ty4cj 


rpixt^ 


^CLfiaprdvo} 


yT}p6(o 


ipvyydyu 


' ^KI^TTTCO 


iSfJLVVfll 


*Tro6io} 


rpjyyo} 


■\dTavTd(>3 


yiyvdxTKOi 


iadloy 


tKOJJrtJW 


opdw 


l>iu> 


TvyxO'Vi^ 


^ diroXaiOo} 


*ypiLf^o} 


davp.d^(a 


Xay xdvco 


^TOTlJfw 


*pO(l>4(i} 


TCjiSd^uj 


*a/)7rd^w 


ddKvu} 


»ddcj 


Xa/Aj3dccti 


o^Opiw 


ifflydu} 


<l>€i6ycj 


paSi^co 


5€C5oj 


*dLyydvw 


Xda-KO) 


irai^(j} 


f(rt(i}Trda} 


*<pedp(a 


^aivw 


(see 703) -Bv^ffKU) 


fiapddvd) 


■7rdax<^ 


a KdlTT o 


Xd<TK(tJ 


t^tio) 


-8t5pda-Kcj 


dpi^a-KOi 


*ve6u} 


fTTT/SdcU 


tcTrouSd^cj 


xH<^ 


*i3X^7rw 


^SldjKdJ 


Kd/lVU} 


v4<a swim 


irivw 


(late) 


*Xwp^t<j 


jSXtio-KOj 


*iyKO}iXLd^o} 


Kt(7)xdfa? 









a. Compounds of x^P^^ with dTro-, 0-07-, vapa-, irpoa-- have both active and 
middle futures ; other compounds have only the active futures. 

807. Future Middle with Passive Meaning. — In many verbs the 
future middle has the meaning of the future passive, as dBiK^w wrong, 
dSt/cT/o-o/Attt shall be wronged. 



220 VARIATION OF VOICE: FUTUKli: MIDDLE [808 

808. The following verbs commonly use the future middle iu a passive sense. 
(All of these have the future passive in late Greek, except df^^ia ^ijt^o}, ^dw, etpym, 
evedpeiLfO), ok^w, Traidayuiyitj}, irpoayopeijcaj crpefikow^ <rTV'y4o}.') 

dyyo^u not to know etpyo) shut fAaarlyoo} whip arpe^Xdaj rack 

dyoyyi^o/jiaL Contend ^KtrXvvo} wash out oUio} inhabit a-rvyio) hate (poet.) 

(iSiKi^w wrong iv€dpe^(jj lie in wait o/xoXoyew agree rapdrru) disturb 

dfx.(pL<r^r}r4<a dispute for (J^etotfoj reproach rrjpiaj guard 

dvoiyyvfiL open, C.I. A. iiTL^ov'Keva} plot TraL8ay(ayi(x} edtl- Tp4(po} nourish 

% 1054 (not found against cate rpi^<^ rub 

in literature) kx^aipw hate iroXe/j^u} wage war vu) o^ain 

&PX<^ *"^*^e €xw have irpoayopeiiw fore- 0iXeaj love 

StSdo-Kco teach depa-n-eiw tend tell <pvKdTT<o guard 

idi>i permit kwXow pii'&oent crTaOfidw measure 

809. Some Yerbs use in a passive sense both a future middle form 
and a future passive form. ; on the difference in meaning see 1738. 

^70) lead^ fi^Oywat, dxQ'h<^oiuxi. luiprvpkfi} bear toitness^ p^aprvpTja-o/Mit, 
dtrardb} deceive, dTrar-^aofJXLi^ i^aTrart}- fxaprvpTjO-jao/iai. 

d'^aofjMi. TToXiopKid} besiege^ -n-oXiopKiljcofxaLj troXi- 
av^dvfji increase, av^rjaofiat, OL^^'qB'fjffoixai. opK7)6r}<TOfxau 

/SXtiTTTW hurt, ^Xafoiiac^ ^Xa^i§(roju.at. ttpAttoj (?o, 7rpd^ojU.ai (rare), ir/jax^iJo'OMai. 

57]\6o} manifest, dr}\d}<TofxaL, StjXw^^cto- <Tr€p4o} deprive, d'!ro<TTep'^<TO}xaL, d-7ro<rT€- 

jLtai. p7)di^<ro/iaL. 

^Tj/(xt6w Jine, ^T)fiiii}a-o/j.a.L, ^7}/iL(o$-^(j-o/jLaL. Ttfido) honour, rlji-fjc-oixai, rtp.TjS'^crofxaL, 

KoKeu} call, KokovfiaL (rare), K\7]6-q<rofxau v^pi^oo insult, v^piovfiat, O^picrSTjO-OfjiaL. 

KTjpVTTO) proclaim, KtjpT^^ofjLat (rare), k-q- (pipu) hear, otuopjon, olaS-ja-o/jiai, Kareye- 

pyxd-fiaofiai. x^W°/^°''" 

Kpiv(a judge, KpLvovfxac, KpiO'/i<rofjLaL. <ppov^w : xara^poj'T^crojLtat despise, Kara- 
Xiyti) say-, \4^o/iaL (tragic), XexO'^a-ofxai. (Ppovrjd'^(JO}j.a.u 

Xeiiro} leave, diroXelfo/jLaL, diro\ei4>0'^a-o/xaL, dj^eXica aid, £i0eX^£ro,uat, (txpeXTjdifiaofxai. 

810. Middle Deponents. — Deponent verbs whose aorists have an 
active or middle ineaning with middle forms are called middle dex^o- 
nents. The aorist j^assive of such verbs, when it occurs, has a passive 
force. Thus aiTtdofuiL accuse^ rJTcaxTdfir^v accused^ yTLaOrjv was accused. 
Others 813 c. 

811. Passive Deponents. — Deponent verbs whose aorists have the 
passive form but the active or middle jneaning are called passive 
deponents; as f^ovXo^ai wish, aor, e^ovXyO-qv. The future is usually 
middle in form. Most passive deponents exi3ress mental action of 
some sort, 

812. In the following list verbs marked * have a future passive form and 
also a future middle form ; as dtoKiyofiai converse, aor. die\ixBr}v conversed, fnt. 
SiaX^^ofxai and SiaXexO-^a-ofxat shall converse. But TJoofjLat take pleasure in has 
only i}(T6-Q(ToiiaL, and -rjTTdoixaL yield to, am worsted has only ^TT-qB-^iyoixat. Verbs 
with t have also an aorist middle, but it is less common, or poetic, or late Greek. 



fli3] VAlilATiO.N OP VOICE: DEPO^NE^vTi? 221 

^dyafiai admire, rjydo-dTii/ *i]TTdofj.aL yield to^ TjTT-fjdTjv 

^WlSiofiai feel sharae^ -^Seadijv . (iv~)dvfi4ofuiL consider^ ivedvfx-fidfiv 

dXdo/Aat (usu. poet.) wander^ -hi^-^d-qv {7rpo-)dvfxio/MaL am eager^ Trpoe6vixi]d'qv 
^ ajMiWdoixaL contend^ 7}fiL\\i^$7}v *t(5ia-)X^0(ttai Converse, diekix^f}^ 

^dpviofiat deny, 7)pvTjd7}v {iiri~)fx^\ofxoiL car e for ^ iirefieX-fte-nv 

*(ix^o/xai am grieved, iix^i<7Bt)v {^Ta-)fii\oimL regret, fiere/j.eX'fie'nv 

^oiXofiai wish, i^ovX-fid-qv (430) (^o.Tro-)voioiJ.a,L despair, iir€voi}etiv 

diofiai want, kbeid-nv *(5ta-) w^o/Aai reflect, BL€voi}di)v 

d^pKOfiai (poet.) see, mpxBw liv-)vo4o}LCiL think of y ivevo-rje-np 

8tfva/jxxL am, aUe, iSw-fjO-nv (430) t (J-^i-) vo4oixa.i think on, iTevo-fiSriv 

ivavTibo^ai oppose, rivavTuiydyiv i(Trpo-)voioixaL foresee, provide, irpoe- 

iTriarafjiaL iinderstand, r)Tr LdT-qdfiV vo-fjdrjy 

epafiat ipdoi love, 7jpd<r67}v otofJ-ai think, (^i)6T)v 

evXa^^ofiat ' am Cantious, rjuXa^-^drjv (pLXoTlfxiofxai am avibitious, ifptXoTLfn^- 

1;^8ofj.aL take pleasure in, r^oBrjv Srfv 

a. Some verbs use either tlie aorist middle, or aorist passive without distmc- 
tioii, as ivavXi^ofiai bivouao, irpdyfjiaTcdo/jLaL am engaged in. 

b. Some verbs use both, but prefer the aorist middle, as diroKptvo/iaL answer, 
aTToXoyiofiai speak in defence, (xip.<pop.ai blame. 

c. Some verbs use the aorist passive Id an active or middle sense, as dirop^o/xat 
doubt, pass, be disputed, aor, i]7ropi)dj}v ] neipdoi prove, TreipdojMii try, aor. iireipid-qv 
(less often iiretpaffd/jiTjv), fut, •jretpdtro/uat and ir€ipddi}<7opxiii. ipdo: (poet. *pa^at) 
love has rjpdcrdTjy fell in love with, fut. ipaxrdriaoixai, 

813. Deponents with Passive Meaning. — Some deponent verbs have 
a passive mining. This is avoided by good writers in the present 
and imperfect or future passive, is not frequent in the aorist, but is 
common in the perfect and pkiperf ect passive. Thus dTreKptverat (olttc- 
kpIBtj) ravra this answer is (was) made is not good Greek. Fe^w verbs 
show the passive meaning in most of these tenses; as ^veofmi buy, 
am bought, iuyv-^Orjv ivas bought, ewv-^/Aat have bought^ have been bought. 

a. Present and Imperfect : d7wwfoMai contend, am contended for, ^id^ofidi force, 

am forced, Xv/iahofiai maltreat, am maltreated, <hv4o/j.aL buy, am bought. 

b. Future Passive : dirapvlopxiL deny, dirapvtjd^o-ofiat, ^pyd^o/xat work, do, ipyaaBr}- 

(TOfxai. 

c. Aorist Passive: These verbs (middle deponents, 810) have also an aorist 

middle; the aorist passive is used in a passive sense: dy(jjvi^oixai contend, 
aLKi^ofiaL harass, aiviTrofiai speak darkly, aiTidofiai accuse, dK^ofmi heal, 
/Stdfo/xai force, S^x^MO' receive, d^piop^ai present, ipyd^oiiai work, do, 177^0- 
P-ai lead, dedofiai behold, ido/xat heal, Krdofiai acquire, Xvp.aivop.aL maltreat, 
Xdi^dopLaL abuse, plp,iop(,aL imitate, 6XotpdpojxaL lament, irpocpairl^opLat feign an 
excuse, xp<^o/Aai use, <huiopi.aL buy. diroKpivopai has direKpivaro answered, 
direKpid-qv USU. means was separated. 

d. Perfect and Pluperfect: These verbs use the perfect middle in the middle' or 

the passive sense : dywvi^Qp.aL contend, alvLrTOfiai speak darkly, alndopiaL 
accuse, diroKptpofiaL ansiver, diroXoy^opat make a defence, ^Ld^op.ai force, 
€vdviJi4op.a,L consider, ipyd^opLat work, do, iVxcpiai pray, ■fjy^op.zt lead, nrdop^at 



222 VARIATION OF VOICE [814 

acquire^ Xw/Sao^at ahuse^ ixtjxavdofjiat devise^ (jifi^ofJLaL imitate, TrapprjaLd^OfxaL 
speak boldly-, iroXlTe^ofxai act as {discharge the duties of) a citizen^ irpdy/jLa- 
Tedofxai avi engaged in, a-KHrofjiai view, xpdofxai use, wv^ofiai buy. 

814. Active Verbs with Aorist Passive in a Middle Sense. — The 

aorist passive of some active verbs has a reflexive or middle sense, 
either sometimes or always. Thus €v<f>pa(v(i) gladden, -qix^pavOrjv re- 
joiced^ Kiv^Mi move^ eKlvrjOrjv was moved or moved myself, <^atVo) show, 
i<l)a,vrjv showed myself, appeared (€<J3dv0rjv usually luas sJiown). 

a. These verbs are often called middle passives. 

b. The middle and the passive form of the future of such verbs is often 
found, the middle being frequently preferred. 

815. Aorist Passive and Future Middle forms : 

aia-x^fi^ disgrace, xiax^v&'ny felt ^pji^^ anger, (hpylo-drjv became angry, 

ashamed, ai(rxu»'Op/U.ai dpyioufiaL 

dndui vex, ijVLd.d-qv felt vexed, dptdcrofjiat oppudo) incite, iopp.'qQ'qv set out, op/i-^o-o^at 

iireiyo} urge, yireixdv^ urged, ^irei^ofmL TTcldoi persuade, indadrjv obeyed, irela-o- 

€v<t>pa.iv(j} gladden, -qvippdvd-qv rejoiced, ixai 

€v<ppavovfxaL TrXavdu cause to wander, ^-n-y^v^d-qv 

Kiviij} move, iKiirqd'qv movcd (bestirred) wandered, irXavrja-ofjiai 

myself, Klrqcrofjiai iropeiJw convey, iTTope-ddtjv marched, tto- 

KOip.d(jj put to sleep, ^Koifxr}6y}v lay down pctJo-o^cai 

to sleep, Koip.'qaoix.ai <po^4(j} terrify, i<pQ^'r}67iv was afraid, <po- 

Xi/x(^a) vex, 4\vTr'q6-t]v grieved, XDir^o-Ojaai /S^o-o/iat 

a. dvdyofjiat, set sail, Kardyop-ai land, oirXl^opLai arm myself, •opfji^Ofxai lie at 
anchor, generally have an aorist middle. 

816. Aorist Passive and Future Passive forms ; 

p.tp.v'Qff K(j} remind, ipLj^a-dTjv remembered, cr^aXXw trip up, deceive, ia-cpdXrjv erred, 

pi.VTjcrd'qcrofxaL failed, (j-<paX^a-Ofjiai 

<TTp44>03 turn, icrrpd4>'nv turned, (TTptKp-q- r-qKOi cause to melt, irdK-qv dissolved, 

(Top.aL languished, Ta.Kri<TQfia.i 

817. Passive Aorist and Middle and Passive Future forms : 
diraXXdrTQ} release, dTrtjXXiyrjv departed, diraXXd^opiaL, aTraXXayr^CFOixai. 
(palvo) show, itpdvtjv appeared, 4>avovpLai, <f>api^crofJ.ai (819). 

818. Some verbs have a passive aorist rarely in a middle sense ; with the 
middle aorist in a different meaning. 

KOfxi^u bring, iKOfila-dtjv betook inyself, iKopLLo-dpL-qj/ carried off. 
(T(p^o} save, iffihd-qv saved myself {was saved), io-ojo-dpLtji/ saved for my- 
self, 
ypeidoj deceive, ifeta-B-qv deceived myself (was deceived), ^feva-dpLtjv lied. 

■819. In some verbs showing 1st and 2nd aorist, or 1st and 2nd perfect, the first 
tenses are generally transitive, the second tenses genei^ally intransitive. The 
future active of these verbs is transitive. In some transitive verbs the perfect 
(usually the 2nd perf.) is intransitive. 



8i9] TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE 223 

aYvvjii: trans. KardyvvfiL break, -^d^a; in trans. Kardyvvfjiai break, 2 aor. -eayriy; 

2 perf. -edya am broken. 
paCvw go : trans. j8i70'w shall cause to go, 1 aor. '4^j]<Ta, Ion. and poet. ; intrans. 

2 aor. i^-qv went^ pf. ^i^t^na. have gone, standfast, 
8vw: trans, cause to enter, sijik, put on, 56(ra;, eSDo-a, didvKa ; intrans. enter, pass 

under, 5oo/iai, So^w, 2 aor. ^'6u»' di?;ed, wewf down, 545vKa have entered, gone 

down. In prose usually KaraSow make sink, KariSvaa, Kara^ta-oi ; KaraSooyiiat 

si?i&, /caraStScro/iai, Kari5vv. — Of another'' s clothes, ivStw (iv4dv(ra) means jpw( 

on, d-jTodvo} 4k86u} (diredva-a 4^4dva-a) mean take off; of one''s own clothes, 4v- 

dvofJuiL and ividvv mean put on, dTro56oixai iKSdofxat (^dir45vu i^4dvv) mean 

take of. 
€7€Lpw: trans, rouse, wake up, iyepw, '^yeipa, etc. ; intrans. iydpo^ax wake, am 

awakey iyepd^a-ofiaL, ijyipd-qv, 2 aor. rjypd/jLTjv awoke, 2 perf. iyprqyopa am awake. 
XiTTq^i set: trans. cmfjcrQ} shall set, 1 aor. ecrrTjo-a set, iarddriv was set, tarafxai 

set for myself, o-T'i^cro^ai, 4a-TT)(rdix7}v, Four active tenses are intrans. : 2 aor. 

icTi}v (set myself) stood, pf. ^o-rTjjca (have set myself) stand, am standing, 

ela-TifjKT} stood, was standing, 2 perf. '^a-rarov stand, fut. pf. ecrr-jJIw shall stand. 

So also XcTTafiai set myself, stand, c-r-qao^ai. 

N. — The same distinction prevails in the compounds: dvicTrnxi raise up, 
dv4<xrT]v stood up, d4>la-r7)fjLi set off, cause to revolt, dir^a-rijv stood off, revolted, 
d<p4<Tri}Ka am distant, am in revolt ; 4<pL(TTr}ixL set over, H^o-tt^v set myself over, 
44>4<TT7}Ka am set over; KaOia-rrjiit set down, establish, Karia-r-qv establisJied my- 
self, became established, KaBiar-qKo. am established. The aorist middle lias a 
different meaning : Karea-Ti^craro established for himself; crvyia-TTj/jiL introduce, 
unite, <rvv4(TTT}yjev banded together, 
Xetiru) leave; trans. Xefi^co, ^Xnrov, \4\onra have left, have failed, am wanting. 

Xel-TTofiai mid. = remain (leave myself), pass. z= am left, am left behind, am 

inferior; 2 aor. mid. 4Xnr6fjL7]v left for myself (in Horn, was left, am inferior), 

Xe/V'o/iat loill leave for myself, will remain, be left. 
|io£v(o : trans, madden, iKfiaivcj, -txavQ, -4}x-qva ; intrans. rage, ^aivoiiai, (Mvovfiai, 

4^dv7jv, 2 perf. ii4}i'qva am raging. 
oXXvjiL : trans, destroy {perdo), dirdWvtu, -oXoi, -ciXeca, -oXtiXeAca have ruined 

{perdidi) ; intrans, j.iem/fc (pereo), diriXXujLiat, -oXovp-ai, 2 aor. -wX 6^47??', 2 perf. 

-6Xa)Xa am ruined (perii). 
ireCGw : trans, persuade, ire/o-w, lireiaa, Tr^ireiKa have persuaded, i-Kilad-qv, ireiffdi}- 

a-oixai ; intrans. (persuade myself) obey, believe, ireWofmi, ireLaotMai, iirelcrOrfv, 

'ir4'ir€ia-fMit am convinced; 2 perf, ir^iroi^a I trust (= -n-KTreiioj) is rare in prose. 
tr^Yv^f^'-: trans, fix, make fast, tttJ^w, e-n-TjIa, 4'in/}x&vv ', intrans. am fixed, 

freeze, ir-fiywiiai, Trayria-ofxaL, 4irdyT]v, 2 perf. 7r^7r7j7a am fixed, frozen. 
irtvo) drink : 2 aor. Hiriov drank, 1 aor. ^wlaa caused to drink- 
irX'^iTTa) : trans, terrify, 4K'jr\riTrto, /carairX'jJrTa;, '4'ir\r}^a ; intrans. am affrighted, 

4K'ir\'/}TT0tJiai, •eirXdyrfv. 
irpaTTt* do : iriirpdxa (probably late) have done, ■!r4irpaya, have fared (well or ill) 

and have done. 
p-^Yvv^i : trans, break, -pi}|w, cppij^a ; intrans, break, burst, p-f^yvvtiaL, -payria-otiai, 

4ppdyi)v, 2 perf. $ppojya am broken. 
o-ptvvvjii: trans, extinguish, put out, d'Ko<T^4vvv^j.i, d7r4a-^€cra, dTr€<r^4aeT}v ; intrans.^ 



224 TKANSrnVE ANJD INTRANSITIVB [820 

be extinguished^ go out, dTroa-^dvwfXat, d7ro(r^iJo-oju,ai, dTr4<7^7)vWent OUtf 6.Tri<7^r}Ka 

am extinguished. 

<ri^Trw : traus. make rot; intrans. rot^ a-^troixai^ ^ad'rr'qv rotted, 2 perf . ffiffTj-tra am 
rotten. 

Ti^KO) : trans, cause to melt ; intrans. melt^ ri^/co^ai, erdK-qv, 2 perf. r^rr^Ka am 
melted. 

<t>tt£vw : trans, show, 0civw, €<p7)va^ 7r4<payKa have shown, -rr ^<pa<TfiaL, 4(pdv6rjv was 
shown, made known; trans, also show, declare, <palvofjiaL, (pavoOfMn, icpTjvdfxrjv 
showed (rare and poetic in the simple form ; diretp7jvdfn}v declared is com- 
mon); intrans. show oneself^ appear, <palvofmt, (pav/jffofiai and (pavod/j.ai, i(pdvT}v 
appeared, 2 perf. ^^(p-nva have shown myself, appeared. The middle means 
show oneself, appear; the passive, am shoion, am made evident, tpap-^^aofiac 
means shall appear or shall be shown., and is not very different in sense from 
<pavovfMaL (b\xt see 1738, 1911). 

<t>0€£p« : trans, destroy, diatpSelpcj, -(pSepQ, -^tpOeipa, ~i({i$apKa ; intrans. am ruined, 
Bia<p6€lpo}xa.L, -ec^ddpyjv, -(pdap-^aofxaL, 2 perf. 8L^(p$opa. am ruined in Horn., have 
destroyed in Attic poetry. 

4w£i) : trans, bring forth, produce, tp6<T0}, H<pv<Ta ; intrans. am produced, come into 
being, 4)6ofmL, (pv<rofxat, ^(pvv, 2 perf. iricpvKa am by nature. 

820. Poetic forms: dpapltjKU) (dp-) Jit, 2 aor. ijpapov trans, and intrans. — 
ydvofxcLi am born, iyecvdfiTjv begat. — ipelKca rend, 2 aor. 'ijpiKov trans, rent and 
intrans. shivered. — ipei-rro} throw down, ■^pitrov trans, threw down and intrans. 
fell. — 6pvv{u rouse, 2 aor. &popov trans, roused and intrans. have risen. — dva- 
yvyv(h<TK(a read, dv^yvbjaa persuaded in Hdt., 2 aor. dp^ypwv read, recited. 

821. The foUov^ing are poetic intransitive second perfects: (Lpdpa fit (dpa- 
plcTKu Jit, trans.). — eoXira hope (Epic eXxw cause to hope). — K^K-rjSa sorrow 
(k-^Sw trouble). — 6pupa have arisen (6pvvfii rouse). 



PAET III 

FORMATION OF WORDS 

822. Inflected words generally consist of two distinct parts: a 
stem and an inflectional ending (191) : 

hu)po-v gift, stem Soopo-, inflectional ending v; 

Xvo-fiev we loose, stem Xio-, inflectional ending ^lcv, 
a. The inflectional endings of nouns and verbs, and the formation of verbal 
stems, have been treated under Inflection. The formation of words, as discussed 
here, deals primarily with the formation of noun-stems, of verbal stems derived 
from nouns, and of compound words. Uninflected words (adverbs, preposi- 
tions, conjunctions, ^nd particles) are mostly of pronominal origin and obscure ; 
such adverbs as show case forms are mentioned in 341 ff. 

823. Some stems are identical with roots (root-stems, 193) to which 
only an inflectional ending, or no ending at all, has been added. 

/SoO-s OX, COW fiv-s mouse S-s hog^ sow 

€Ts one (stem 4v-) vav~s ship i^X6| Jlame (ipX^y-io buvTi) 

e-qp wild beast (gen. (97;p-6s) 6\{/ voice (stem Sir-) x^^P hand (gen. x^i-P-^^) 

K^d^f thief (K\^ir-T~iu steal) ttoiJs foot (stem iroS-) x^*^^ earth (stem x^of-} 

824. Most stems are derived from roots by the addition of one or 
more formative suffixes. 

SQ~po~f gifty stem 5ct;po-, root 5w (Sl'dca-jM ffive), suffis po~. 

ypaijr-fiar~€6~s scribe, Stem ypaiifiaTev-^ root ypatp, SUfSxes jaar and €V. 

a. Most words are therefore built up from root, suffix, and inflectional end- 
ing by a process of composition analogous to that seen in compounds (869 ff.), 
in which the union of the various elements yields an idea different from that seen 
in each of the parts, 

825. A stem is primary if only one suffix is added to the root 
(SQi-po-v) ; secoyidary, when more than one suffix is added to the root 

(ypa/X'jiWLT-ev-s) . 

826. There are two kinds of stems : noun-stems (substantive and 
adjective) and verb-stems. 

827. Words containing a single stem are called simple wordS; as 
Xoyo-s speech; words containing two or more stems are called com- 
pound words, as Aoyo-y/jac^o-s speech-writer. 

GREEK GRAM. — 15 226 



226 FORMATION OF WORDS [828 

828. According to the character of the suffix words are called: 

a. Primitive (or Primary) : formed by the addition of a suffix either 

to a root or to a verb-stem to -which a vowel, usually e, has been 
added (485, 4.S6). 

Root ypacp : ypd<p~03 write, ypacf}--^ writing, ypa<p-e6-^ writer, ypafj^fia 
something written, ypafx-fxi^ line. 

Veih-Steinyev-e in yeye-crdac become (Jy^v6(i7)v, yi-yy-o/jiac'): yiv€-(Ti-^ gene- 
sU, origin; rep-e (rdpcj bore) : r^pe-rpo-v gimlet, instrument for boring. 

b. Denominative (or Secondary) : formed from a noun-stem (substan- 

tive or adjective) or adverb. 

ypa/Ji-ljiOiT-eOs writer (stem ypafifiar-, 110m. ypdiifxa) ; eifdaifxov-ia happi- 
ness (stem eddai/MOv-, noni. eOSalfxcov) ; dtKaLo-a-tJvi} justice, dl.Ka-Lo-^ just {81k7} 
right) ; <plX-io-s friendly {<pl\o~s dear) ; 5ov\6-t^ enslave (SoOXo-s slave) ; 
7raXat-6-s ancient, of old date, from the adverb TrdXat long ago. 

829. Suffixes forming primitive words are called primary suffixes j 
suffixes forming denominative words are called secondary suffixes. 

a. The distinction between prunary and secondary suffixes is not original 
and is often neglected. Thus, in d€Lv6s terrible (da- fear), w is a primary suf- 
fix ; in o-KOT€Ly6s dark (o-k-^tos, 858. 11), it is secondary. So English -able is both 
primary (readable) and secondary (companionable), 

b. It is often difficult to determine whether a suffix is added to a verb-stem or 
to a noTin-steni : l<Tx^-p^^ strong (lo-x^-^ strength, l^x^-^ <^'^^ strong). 

c. A primitive word may be formed from a verb-stem which is itself denomi- 
native : To^eu-Tiys bowman from ro^eiJ-w shoot with the boic^ derived from t6^o-v 
bow. A primitive may be formed with a suffix derived from a denominative : 
(pXey-vpo-s burning (4>\4y-o} burn) with vpo from \tyv-p6-s (Xty^-s) shrill. 

d. A denominative often has no corresponding primitive; sometimes the 
latter has been lost, sometimes it was presumed for the purpose of word-forma- 
tion by the imitative process always at work in the making of language. Thus, 
S^fi-v-to-v bed, from 8efjL-vo-v (5e/A-w build, construct). 

830. To determine the root all suffixes must be removed from the 
stem until only that part remains which contains the fundamental 
idea. 

a. Most roots are noun-roots or verb-roots ; but originally a root was neither 
noun or verb (193). Some roots are pronominal, and express direction or posi- 
tion. Greek has many words whose roots cannot be discovered. The form of 
a root in Greek is not necessarily that which Comparative Grammar shows was 
common to the cognate languages, 

b. Since the origin of many words, even with the help of the cognate lan- 
guages, is uncertain, we are often at a loss where to make the dividing line 
between root and suffix. Suffixes are often preceded by a vowel which may be 
regarded as a part of the suffix or as an expansion of the root (by some scholars 
regarded as a part of the root itself), 

831. Changes of the root-vowel. — a. The root- vowel is sometimes strong, 



833] FORMATION OF WORDS: SUFFIXES 227 

sometimes weak : ei, ot (weak t) ; ev, pv (weak v) ; r] or w (weak a or e). 'Keifi-fia 
remnant, \onr-6-s remaining, cp. Xe/ir-w, €-\nr-ov ; ^€vy-os team^ cp. ^eiy-vv-fn, 
^vy-bv yoke ; a-rrovd-^ zeal, a-weiLfd'O} hasten ; \-ifie-7} forgetfulness, \avddvb} (\ad-) 
forget ; fjd-os disposition, ed-os custom, habit • po}x-f^^ cleft, piiy-vv-fxt break 
(pay-, p^y-, pw7-)- Cp. 36. 

b. e often varies with o, sometimes with a ; ti sometimes varies with ». y6v-o-s 
offspring, yi-yv-ofiai (yev-) ; t6v-o-^ tone, relvw (rev) stretch ; Tpa<p-€p6s well-fed, 
Tpo<p-rj nourishment, rp^<p-oj nourish ; dpw7-6-s helping, iipijy-bj help, Cp. 36. 

832. Root-determinatives. — A consonant standing hetween root and suffix 
(or ending), and not modifying the meaning of the root, is called a root-determina- 
tive. 

^d'd-po-v pedestal, from ^alvcc go (jSa-) ; eV-^-co (poetical for ^a-Oico) eat, for 
id-O-oj, cp. Ionic eo-w ; irX^-^-o; (poet.) am full, irX^-^-os crowd, Tr\t)~6-d}pT) satiety, 
cp. itlp.-TrK'n-fjn ; <rTa-d-fi6s day''s journey, ard-O-fi-n a rule, from tarijfu (ara-) ; 
c/AiJ-X-w wipe, cp. <Tfido} wipe. — On the insertion of o-, see 836. 

a. The origin of root-determinatives is obscure. In part they may be 
relics of roots, in part due to the analogy of words containing the consonants in 
question. 

833. Suffixes. — A suffix is a formative element added to a root 
(or to a stem) and standing between the root and the ending. 
Suffixes limit or particularize the general meaning of the root; but 
only in a few cases is the distinct meaning of the suffix known to us. 

a. The origin of the Greek suffixes is often obscure ; of those inherited 
froin the parent language only some were employed to make new words ; others 
were formed by Greek itself (productive* suffixes), From the analogy of the 
modern languages we infer that some suffixes were once independent words, 
which, on becoming a part of a compound, lost their signification. Thus -hood, 
-head in childhood, godhead are derived from Old Eng. 'had,' Gothic 'haidus' 
character, nature; -ship in ownership, courtship, comes from a lost word meaning 
* shape ' ; ~ly in friendly from Old Eng. * lie ' body. So -c65t?s meaning stnclling 
(6fw), as in eiddri^ fragrant, acquired a range of meaning originally inappropriate 
to it bypassing into the general idea of * f ull of,' 'like,' as in Troidjd-rjs grassy 
(-rrola), Xot/ic«j57js pestilential (Aot/^6s), (t<P7}ku}5t]s wasp-like ((y<p^^). This suffix is 
distinct from -etSiJs having the form of, like (808 a). 

Conversely, many suffixes, themselves insignificant, acquired a definite mean- 
ing by reason of the root with which they were associated. — Irrespective of its 
meaning, one word may serve as a model for the creation of another word ; as 
starvation, constellation, etc., are modelled on contemplation, etc. 

b. Many dissyllabic suffixes, due to a combination of the final letter or 
letters of the stem and an original monosyllabic suffix, adapt themselves to inde- 
pendent use. Cp. ego-tism for ego-ism because oi patriot-ism, -alle in laughable 
and probable (from proha-hilis). Thus, patronymics in -dSijs, -jclSt;? 845. 2, 3 • 
words in -aiva. 843 b, 6 ; -a?os 858. 2 a ; -elov 851. 1 ; -^crepos 316 ; -^tt;s 843 a, N. ; 
-ijeis 858. 3 ; -rfCos 858. 2 b ; -€ios 858. 2 a ; ~6«s 858. 3 ; -i^iov 852, 2 ; -txT?? 843 a, 
N,, 844. 2 a ; -ci^^os 858. 9 ; -cirijs 843 a, N., 844. 2 a ; and many others. 

C. Simple sufiSxes are often added to case forms or adverbs, thus producing, 



228 FOEMATION OF AVORDS: CHANGES JN STEMS [834 

by contamination, dissyllabic suffixes ; as. dpxcu-o-s ancient 858. 2 a ; 7raXai-6-s 
of old date 828 b, iapt-vd-s vernal 868. 12 ; (pvui-Kd-s natural 858, ti b j cp. iv-d\L-o-s 
marine (otXs). 

d. Many compound suffises are formed by the union of two suffixes, new 
stems being created by the addition of a suffix to a stem, as : TTjp-to 851. 2, htk-io 
852. 6, taK-idio 854. See 854. 

e. Suffixes often show gradations : Tt]p, Tcop, Ttp, Tp (36 N. 1) as in So-r-^/s, 
8<h-Tccpj Sdreipa (out of 5oTe/>-jLa) giver j -ij/dX-rp-La harp-player / jiiiv jiv : Xl-iitjv 
harbour^ \1-/jlv-7j lake ; jJtwp ixap : r^K-ixojp^ r^K^/JLap goal ; cop p : u5-wp ivater^ 
v5-pd hydra ; «v av : t^kt-o)v carpenter^ fern, r^/craim, from r^KTav-La ; and in 
X^fo;/ ?io«, fern. Xe'at^a (843 b. 6). 

834. Changes in stems. — Various changes occur when a suffix is 
added to a stem. 

a. The final vowel of a stem is contracted with the initial vowel of a suffix : 
6(pLdiov small snaJce (6<pL' + idtov from 6(f>L-s). So when a consonant is dropped at 
the end of a stem : aido-io-s venerable (alSdbs reverence^ stem aiSocr-), /SacnXe-fd 
kingdom (/SaciXci;-? king^ stem ^acrtXe^- for /SacriXeii-, 43), dcrTe-?o-s refined (Acrru 
ct?y, stem daref:- for d<TTetr-, 43). cp. 858. 2. 

b. A long final vowel of a stem may be shortened before the initial vowel of 
a suffix : SUa-Lo-s jiist, dUr] right, stem 5tKd-. (Properly 5fKat is an old case 
form, 833 c, to which -o-s is added.) 

c. A final vowel or diphthong may be dropped before the initial vowel of a 
suffix : cro0-fd wisd'om (cro06-s wise), ri/i-to-s honoured, costly (tiiit} honour, stem 
Ti/xd-), ^aatX'LKd-s royal (^ao-tXeii-j king)^ iro\lr-LKb-s civic (TToXfTTjs Citizen, stem 
TToXIrd-). 

d.. The final letter or letters of a cobsonant stem may be dropped : ffoxppo-aivt} 
temperance, moderation (adxppwv temperate, stem acotppov-), /jxX-idpiov little song 
(/xA-os song, /xeXecr-), dXrfd-Lvd-s genuine (d\7)6'fis -h true). So apparently in the 
case of a vowel stem in d€<nr6-<7vvos belonging to the master (Seo-TrorT??). 

e. The final consonant of a stem undergoes regular euphonic change before 
the initial consonant of a suffix : ^\4fx-fia glance (^X^tt-w look), diKaa-Tris a judge 
(5tKa5-T7js, from SiKa^u) judge, stem SiKad-), wla--Ti-s faith (= irid-TL-s, from 'irelB-cj 
persuade, stem irid-), X^|ts style (= Xey-ai-s, from X^y-w speak). 

f. Stems in o have an alternative in e (cp. ^TrTro-s, voc. Linre; 229 b). This 
e often appears in denominatives : ok^-w dwell, oik^-ttjs house-servant, oiK€-To-s 
domestic (oJko-s house). 

g. Derivatives of d stems may apparently show o> in place of d ; as (TTpandi-Tris 
soldier {(TTp area army),~lTakLib-'rr}s an ItaUote, Greek inhabitant of Italy ("'iraXfd 
Italy), See 843 a, N. Stems in d have ti in tI/jli^-cls honoured (rlfj.rq, stem rl/xd-). 

h. Vowel stems, especially those derived from verbs, often lengthen a final 
short vowel before a suffix beginning with a consonant : irolTj-fia poem, Trolij-dt-s 
poetry, TrotTj-ri^-s poet, Tronj-Ti-Kb-s creative, poetical (7roi^-w make) ; beajxtb-Tri-s 
prisoner (Sec/ii-s, Sec/id fetters). Verbs with stems in a, e, o usually show in 
derivatives the stem vowel as found in the tenses other than the present ; as 
5t]\6-(o manifest, fut. 57jXti-(Tw, S^Xw-crt-s manifestation ; dpow plough, fut. <lp6-crw, 
&po-ffi-s arable land, dpo-TTjp ploughman ; evp-ieK-iv find out, fut. eu/j-ij-croj, evp-rj-fxa 
discovery, but €vp-€-<ns discovery, eifp-e-ri^s discoverer. 



839] FORMATION OF WOKDS : SUBSTANTIVES 229 

i. Vowel stems sometimes insert a vowel before a suffix beginning with a con- 
sonant : TToXt-i^-Tij-s, Ionic for ttoXi-tt^s citizen, irroXl-e-dpo-v (poetic) city, 

j. Consonant stems, and vowel stems not ending in o, often show o before a 
suffix in denominatives ; a stem in -ov is thus replaced by one in -o : awtppo- 
(T<fvri temperance {ed^tppoiv temperate, crw^po?'-) ; ai^aT-6-ets bloody (af^ua, -aros 
blood) and (tkl~6~€ls shadowtj (aKid shadow^ by analogy to doM-as wily^ 858, 3. 
Cp. 873-875. 

835. Several substantives are formed by reduplication : ay-uyy~rj training 
(&y-(jj lead), iS-u}8-ij food (Ionic sS-oj eat), yi-yds, -avros giant Some, by me- 
tathesis (128 a) : TfXTj-ei-s cutting (ri/x-v-o} cut). 

836. Insertion of sigma. — Between root (or stem) and suffix cr is often 
found, and in some cases it has become attached to the sufiSx. This parasitic 
letter spread from the perfect middle, where it is properly in place only in 
stems in r, 5, 0, or cr ; as in (Txi--<r'fJ-^s cleaving with cr from '€-<rxt-<^-f^o,L by 
analogy to e-crxtir-Tai for i-(rxi5-raL (ffx^^f^ cleave). In -(t-tt? s the transference 
was made easier by words like crxicr-T6s cloven for o-xi^-toj. This o- appears 
before many suffixes, and usually where the perfect middle has acquired it ('J89). 

fia : <Tird~<T-iia Spasm (^<nrd(jj rend, e criratr /xat), KsXev-a-fxa command {KeXeij-oj 
command, KeK^Xeva-fiai), fxla-(T-fxa stain (fjLtaivo} stain, fJiefiiaa- /mil) . — jjLO : <nra-<r-ii6s 
= <nrd-(y-jjia, K€\€v-<r-fx6s command. — ^t]', 8^-<r-fX'r} setting {Sdbi set). — Ti^s : KeXfv- 
a-Tijs signal-man, 6pxv-(^-TV^ dancer (Spx-^-ofiai dance), dwd-a-Ttji lord (5}jya~iiai 
am able). Also in dpa-a--TijpLos efficacious (dpd-o) do), 6px'n-<^-rpd dancing-place, 
TrX-q-c-p-bv-q fulness. -<T-p. has displaced 5^, -d-p. (832) in 6<rp.ri odour (earlier 65fjL7})^ 
pv-(T-p.6s (and pv-6-p.6s) rhythm. 

837. Insertion of tau. — In a few words t is inserted before the suffixes p.o, 
IM, 1X7), p.-qv. Thus, eip-e-T-p-^ command (itpi-opc, root e, 17), \ai-r-iia depth of the 
sea, dij-T-p.7] and dv-T-putjv breath {ji-qp-i blow). In iper-p.6-v oar the t may be 
pai-t of the verb-stem (ip4e<roj, 516), and have spread thence to the other words. 

FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES 

838. Some suffixes have a special significaiice ; of these the most 
important are given in 839-856. But suffixes commonly used with 
a special fTinctlon (such as to denote agency, action, instrument, etc.) 
are not restiicted to this function. Only a few have one function, 
as T€po to denote comparison. 

a. The instrument may be viewed as the agent, as in pai-a-rrip hammer.^ lit. 
smasher, from pai-w smash, rpo (863. 16) may express the agent, instrument, 
or place- Suffixes used to denote actioiis or abstract ideas often make concrete 
w^ords, as rpo^-^ nurture and nourishment, dyyeX-id message (cp. Eng. dwell- 
ing, clothing), iropepetov means ferry, ferry-boat, femjman's fee. Words 
originally denoting an agent have lost that meaning, as jra-r^/? father (orig. 
protector), and in many cases the original force is clianged. 

839. AGENCY 

a. The primary suffixes rd, rrjp, rop, rpo, ev, denoting the agent or 
doer of an action, are masculine. 



230 FOKMATION OF WORDS: SUBSTANTIVES [840 

1. ra (nom. -r^-s) : Kpt-rr}-^ Mdge {Kpivo} decide^ >^P^-)i KXeV-rv-s thief (ArXeTr-T-to 

Steal), iroLT]'TTj-s poety i.e. vnaker (7rote-w make), ai^XT^-nJ-s Jlute-player 
(aiJXf-(u pla^ the fiute)^ fiad-Tj-r-fi-i ^yujjil (^{xavddvL} leai^n^ ^ad-e-), Ik-^-ttj-s 
suppliant (iK-ve-oixat come, U-). 

2. T11P (nom. -T'^p) : do-T7)p giver (dl-dco-fic gwe^ 5o-, 5&;-), ffu-r-fjp saviour (<rt^-^a} 

save). 

3. Top (nom. -Twp) : p-^i-Tbip orator (ipeoi shall say^ ip-^ pe-), d-pti-Ka ha'oe 

spohen^ ktI<t-tu}p founder {ktL^u founds ktl8-), <T7}pAvT(ap cotiwiander, 
poet. ((TTjixaivcj give a signal, (T7]p,ap~). 

4. Tpo (nom, -rpo-s) : ta-Tp6-s physician (td-oixat heal). 

5. eu (nom. -eiJ-s) : ypa<p~e6-s vjriter (ypd(f>-0} write), roK-ed-s father (tIkto} 

beget, rex:-). 

b. The primary suffixes rpS^ rpid, r^ipd, rtS are feminine. 

1. TpiS (nom. -rpts) : ad\r]~rpls female flute-player. 

2. Tpia (nom. -rpia) : ttoi'^-t pt.a poetess (late) , ^dX^pia female harper (^dXXw 

play the harp, ^aX-). 

3. Ttipa (nom. -reipa from rep-ia) : (rdb-reipa fem. of <T(a-Tiip^ S6-T€ipa fem. of 

SO'Tl^p. 

4. TiS (nom. -t(s) : iK-i-ns female suppliant fem. of Ik-^-ttjs. 

c. The same root or verb-stem may have different suffises denoting the agent : 
yev-i-TT]Sj yev-e-Ti^p, yep-^-rcjp begetter^' pLad-'tj-rpb, or ixaB-'/j-rpia. female ptijnl, 
fem. of yua^-Tj-TiJr, 

d. Words in -r^p, -rpts, -cus are oxytone. Words in -rwp, -reipa, -rpia have 
recessive accent. Words in -rrjs are oxytone or paroxytone. 

e. See also oj^ (nom. -wp) 861, 18. 

840. NAMES OF ACTIONS AND ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES 

a. ^bstantives denoting actions often express abstract ideas, 
and names of actions and Verbal abstracts are often used con- 
cretely. Tlie following suffixes (except jjio, nominative -/ao-s, and 
ccr, nominative -os) form f eminines ; all are primary except td in 
some words. 

1. Ti (nom. -TL~s) : Tvia-ri-s faith (-n-et^-w persuade, iviB-), (pd-n-s rumottr {4>r]p,L 

say, (pa-). 

2. o-i (nom. -<TL-s): Xe|ts style (\ey-oi speak), Trolrj-ai-s poetry (Trote-oj make), 

<p6i-<n-s decay (<p0i-P~b: decay), S6~(ti-s act of giving or gift (Si-dio-pa give, 
do-f Sa}-)j 64-<n-s placing (TL-d7}-p.i place, Se-, dt]-), rd-ci-s tension (for 
Tv-ai-s 35b, from reivio stretch, rev-). <n i>s derived from n after a 
vowel (115). 

3. o-ia (nom. -(jld) : in substantives from verbs in -a^-w out of -ad-icj ; as 

SoKip.a<Tld exmnination (doKi/xd^ta examine, SoK/xnd-). 

4. TD (nom. -Ti^-s 863 a. 17) : rare, poetic and dialectic, id-Tj-rDs eating (poet. 

^d-cj eat), ^ot}~t6'S shouting (^od~oj shout). 

5. iJLO (nom. -p-l^s, masc.) : dLwy-p.6-s pursuit (Stti/c-w pursue), Trrap-pA-s sneez- 

ing {-jrrdp-vv-p.aL sneeze). On 6-fw see 832, <T-fjLo 836, t-(m> 837. C]), 
801, 1. 



841] FORMATION OF WORDS: SUBSTANTIVES 231 

6. jj.a (nora, -fjLTj) : yvib-ixri knowledge (yi-yvth-a-KU) know), <pri-/^r} report, omen 

(<pr}-fxi say), rl-fjirj honour (poet, rt-w honour), (ivq-fx-x] memory (fJn-fxv-ia-aKQ) 
remind). See also 861. 1. 

7. ji.a (nom. -fxa) : rdX-fxa daring {rXij-vai dare). 

8. to- (nom. -os, neut.): S^-os fear, ply-o^ cold. 

9. ta (nom. ~Ld) : primitive, from verb-stems, as fxav-Ld madness {pLaLvofiai rage, 

(xav-). Denominative: ijye/xov-id sovereignty {i}yefx(J)v leader), evepyeaia 
kind service (euepyer-ta from evepyerrjs doer of good deeds). Without any 
noun-stem: iroXiopKld siege (iroXtopKdo} besiege). Verbs in -ei/w deriyed 
from substantives, as xaiSeiJ-o) educate (xals child), show abstracts in -eid 
for e(i;)-ia (43) : iraiSeid education, (rrpareld campaign {arpaTcvoixat, take 
the field), ^aatXeid reign, kingdom {pacriXev-oj am king). 
10. o, a: see 859, 1, 2. 

b. Many feminine substantives expressing the abstract notion of 
the adjective are derived from adjective stems (a few from substan- 
tive or verb stems). Many of these denominatives express quality, 
cp. Eng, -ness, -hood. 

1. ta (nom. -m) : from adjectives in -i^s and -oos, -ovs, as dXiJ^eia truth for dXi]- 

^eo--ta from dXij^i^s tme ; ^vdeca ivant for ^;/6e(e)cr-(a from ivSe-f]^ needy, 
44 a, 292 d; euvoia kindness for eiJj'o(o)-ia from eivoo-s eiJwus kind, 

2. ta (nom. -^d) : ev5ai/iov-id happiness {€vdaifxk}v happy), (rvfifxax^d alliance 

(<7Tjfi/jLaxos fighting along ivith), aofp-id wisdom (ao^o-s xoise). Since t 
becomes a- before (d we have ddavacrid immortality {dddvaro-s immortal), 
Cp. 859. 6. 

3. <rvva (nora. -a-ivr}) : diKaio-ffvvT) justice (5kato-s jitst). Abstracts in -a-wt] are 

properly fern, of adj. in -<j-uj/os, as yTido-avvrj joy (yrjdS-crvpos joyful), 
-oaiv-q by analogy in fxavT-oo-^vT} art of divination {fxdvTL-s seer-). See 865. 7, 

4. TTiT (nom. -TT]s) : <PlX6'T7]s, -ttjtos friendship {(piXo-s friend), icro-rrjs, -rijros 

equality (iVo-s equal), ve6-TT]s youth {veo-s young), -n-axi^-Tijs thickness 
(iraxu-s thick). 

5. aS (nom. -as) : abstract substantives of number, as rpt-ds, -ados triad {rpels). 

fxov-ds, -ddos unit {fAovo-s alone, single). See also 863 b. 8. 

c. Some neuter abstracts express quality: rdx-os speed (rax-i^-s swift), 
e5p-os ividth (€up-iJ-s hroad). See 840 a. 8. 

d. A feminine adjective is used substantively in poet, invvTiq wisdom from 
TTLvvTh-s tmse ; with recessive accent in €X^pd enmity from ix^p6~s hostile, d^pfx-r) 
warmth from depfxo-s ivarm. 

e. Some compound adjectives in --qs yield (by analogy) abstracts in -id not 
in '€id ; as drvx'i-d misfortune from d-rvx-i^s unfortunate. Fluctuation often 
occurs, as in KaKorjOeia KaKorjOid Tiialignity from KaKo-rfOyjs ill-disposed ; Old Attic 
dX-qdeld ( = Ion. dXT]d€b]) for dXiJ^^ta, 

841. RESULT OF ACTION 

The result or effect of an action is expressed by the primary 
suffixes 



232 FORMATION OF WORDS: SUBSTANTIVES [843 

1. €s (nom. -OS, neut.): yiv-os race^ family^ stem yev-e<r- (yl-yv-ofiai am born^ 

i~y€V'6fi7}v, yev-}, T^K'Os child, stem T€K~€<r- {rUrta bring forth^ Tf>c-), ^ei/5-os 
lie^ stem -ij/evS-ecr- (i^eiJ5-w deceive), 

2. jiar (nom. -fia, neut.) : ypd/jr-fia thing written (yp<i(p-o} write'), v6T)-iia thought 

{voiw think) ^TroiT]-fM poem (Troii-oj make)^ 5ip-ixa hide (Sep-u) Jlay), r/iij-fia 
section (rifi-v<a cut, rep^^ ^m??-, 128 a). 

842. INSTRUMENT OR MEANS OF ACTION 

The instrument or means of an action is expressed by the primary 
suffixes 

1. Tpo (nom, -Tpo-v, neut.) : &po~Tpo-v plough {dp6-<jj plough), \6^po-v ransom 

(\t-u release, Xv-), <r€i-<x-Tpo-v rattle (<ref-aj shake^ 624 a), 5l-SaK-Tpo-v teacher"* s 
pay (SiSaffKoj teach, di8ax-)^ \ov-Tp6-v bath (bathing-water; XoiJ-w wash), 

2. 0-po (nom. ~epo-v, neut.) : KKel-epo-v bar for closing a door (KXef-w shut, 832). 

3. Tpa (nom. -Tpd, fern.) ; fidK-rpd kneading-trough {/jaxttw knead, fuay-), pi^-rpd 

compact (ip^o) ^pQ shall say, ip-, pe-), x^-^p^ pot {x^^ pour, x^-). 

4. rrip-Lo- (nom. -njp-Lo-v, neut.) : in a few words, as tto-tt^p-lo-v cup (irtvixt 

drink, tto- 529) ; deKK-r-^p-io-v spell, charm (d4\y-(a charm). See 858. 14. 

5. eio (rare ; nom. -elov, neut.) : Tpo<pGTa pay for rearing. See 863 a. 8. 

6. po (nom. -p6-v, neut.): irr-e-pb-v wing (Trir-oiicLi Jly), 

843. THE PERSON CONCERNED 

a. Tlie person concerned or occupied with anything is denoted by 
a denominative foraned by one of the following secondary suffixes : 

1. ev (nom. -eC-s, masc): ypa/jL^fiar-ei-s secretary (ypdfifia, -aros anything writ- 

ten), Up-GT^-s priest (tepi-s sacred), i7nr-ei5-s horseman ('iTnro-s horse), x^Xk- 
eiJ-s coppersmith (xoXk6-s co2?per). 

2. tS (nom. -nj-s, masc.) : va^-rtj-s, sailor (j^aO-s ship), to^6-tt]s bowman (r6^o-v 

bow), oIk^-ttjs house-servant (oIko-s house,S34: f) , Seo-inb-Tij-s prisoner (834 h.). 

N.^By analogy are formed: evv-^r-rj-s bed-fellow {^eifv-q bed), following oIk€- 

TT]-s ; oirX-tTijs heavy-armed soldier (d-rrXo-v, oVXa armour) following ttoXi-ttj-s 

from older ttAXI-s ; <xTparL-(brt}-s soldier (crrpaTid army) following S^ctixw-ttj-s, 

See 834 g. 

b. The following secondary suffixes form feminine substantives : 

1. la (nom. -ta) : corresponding to masculines in -ei^s, as Upeia priestess for 

te/j-cv-ia* (tep-ei)-s priest), ^acrLXeia queen (jSao-tX-eiJ-s king), See-atva below. 

2. iS (nom, 4s) : (papfiaK-b sorceress ((pdpfiaKo-v charm, poison, <papfiaK-aj-s sor- 

cerer), KaTTTjX-i? female huckster {Ka-mjXS-s huckster), <pvXaK-ls female guard 
(<pvXa^), 

3. TiS (nom. -rts) : corresponding to masculines in -rtj-s : olKi-ris house-maid 

(olKe-Tf]s), TroXt-Tts female citizen (TroXt-rTjs) , 

4. iTTa, lo-o-a (nom. -irra, -L<r<ra) : from ta added tO stems in r or k (112, 114), 

as dTJTTa female ,9c?'/from e-^T-La {e-Zjs, d-^T-bs serf), KiXi<r<ra Cilician woman 
from KtXtK-^a (KfXt^ Cilician) ; later, by analogy, ^acriXLcnra queen. 

5. atva (nom. -aiva.) corresponding to masculines in -uv : Xe-aiva lioness (Xd-wji 



845] FOKMATION 01^^ WORDS: SUBSTANTIVES 233 

lion), Oepdir-aiva handmaid (OepdTr-ujv attendant)^ Ad/c-aiya woman oj 
Laconia (Ad/c-wi' a Laconian). By analogy, in o stems : \iiK-aiva she-wolf 
(XiJ/co-s). -aiva Stands for -av-La^ ~av being a weak form of -we (833 e, 35 b). 

N. — Names of dealers in anytking usually end in -ttc^Xi;?, -oy ; fern. -xwXts, 
'iSos (irwX^oj sell)^ as jStjSXto-jrciXT^s bookseller (^^i^XLo-v book\ alro-^diXf]^ grain- 
dealer (a'lTo-s grain\ dpri^irioXLs hreadr-woman {&PTO-S bread), Cp. also KairijXli 
under t8. 

84:4. GENTILES OR PLACE NAMES 

Gentiles are denominative nouns denoting belonging to or coming 
from a particular oountryy nation, or city. Gentiles are formed from 
proper nouns by secondary suffixes. 

1. €v (nom. -eiJs, gen. -e'wj, masc), tS (nom. -£s, gen. £5-os, fern.) : 

nXaraier/s -eojs, IIXciTaits -i^os a Plataean (y) II Xdr am) ; 'E/jerpieiJs an 
Eretrian (17 'EpeVpia) ; MeyapeiJs, Me7a/jfs ct Megarian (rd Miyapa) ; Alo'XeiJs' 
Aeolian {AtoXos, mythical ancestor of the Aeolians). 
a. -is (-£5os) may denote a land or a dialect: v Aiopls (yr}) Doris; ij 
AloXls (yXCjTTa) the Aeolic dialed. 

2. Ta (nom. -T77-S, masc), ti8 (nom. -rfs, fern.) ; Te7ed-TT7j, Teyea-ns of Tegea 

{i} Te7ed) ; STrapr-ii-rijs, 'SirapT'ia-TiS of Sparta (^ 27rd/>Ta) ; Alylvrf-TTjS, 
AlylvTj-Tis of Aegina (^ A£'7ii'a) ; SujSa/j-z-Tivs, 'Zv^ap-^-ns Sybarite (^ Su^a- 
pts) ; SiKeXi-t5-T7;s, SiKeXi-cD-rts SiCiUote (^ Si/ctXia). 
a. The endings -rrijs, -cuti?? are due to analogy ; see 843 a. N, 

3. Other gentiles, properly adjectives, end in -los. -ua, as ' ABrjvaXo-Sy -aid of 

Athens (oi 'AdrfvaL), MiX77cr-iO-s for MiXTjr-io-s of Miletus (mXTjros), 'Oiro<)VT- 
io-s of Opus (Oirovs); (O^os, {^)Ka, as 'loji^-tKos loniG {'liov-es lonians) ; 
v6-s, v^ preceded by o(tj), I, as l,ap5L-dviy-s of Sardis (SdpSets), Aafx\l/aK-'nv6~s 
of Lampsacus (AdfjAJ/aKos) , Bv^avT-Xvo-s J^ijzantine (Bv^dvTiov). See 863 b. 12. 

845. PATRONYMICS 

PatronymicSj or denominative proper names denoting descent 
from a father or ancestor, are formed from proper names of persons 
by means of the following suffixes : 

1. 8a (nom. -5t7-s, masc), S (nom. -s, fern.) ; 

Boped-Sri-s son of Boreas i'em. Bopea-s, -60s iromBop^a-s 

Stems in d shorten a to a ; from such forms arose 

2. aSa (nom. -dSij-s, masc), aS (nom. -ds, fem.) : 

e€(TTL-dd7]-s son of Thestius fem. eean-ds, -ddos from eitrno-s 
From this type arose a new formation : 

3. taSa (nom. -cddTj-s, masc), laS (nom. -ids, fern.) : 

^epTfT-iddri-s son of Pheres fem. *ep7?r-tds, -idd-os from ^Sprjs (-TfTos) 

ne/3tn?-td577-s son of Perseus (fem. Ilepcnj-is, -£5-os) from IlepcreiJ-s 
T^Xap.ojv-tdb'n-s son of Telaraon from Te\afj.d}v {-Qivoi) 



234 rORMATlON OF WORDS: SUBSTANTIVES [846 

4. i8a (nom. -IStj-s^ masc.),'i8 (nom. -fs, fern.) : 

TavTaX-lS-n-s son of Tantalus fern. TarraX-fs, 4d-os from T^dvraXo-s 
Ke/c/joTT-fSij-s son of Cecrops fern. KeKpo7r-fs, -£5-os from KcKporp (-oiroi) 

OlveAd-n-s son of Oeneus fern. Olvy-ts^ -Id-os from 0^pe»J-s 

A7jTo-(57j-s S£?n 0/ Leio iem. At^toj-is, -/S-os from ATjrci (279) 

Stems in drop ; stems in ev (tju) drop u ; stems in 01 (wt) drop i. 

5. lov or tciv (poetic and rare ; nom. -ioiv, masc.) : 

Kpov-L(ov son of Cronus (also Kpov-ldTj-s)^ gen. Kpov-iov-oi or Kpov-tuv-os 
according to tlie metre, from Kp6vo~s. 

6. t«va or im (poetic and rare ; nom, -Kivf] or tvT], fem.) ; 

'AKpi(T-n^vv daughter of 'AKpLcrto-s * ASpTjar-ivt] daughter of "Ad ptja-ro-s 

B^6. Variations occur especially in poetry : a. Horn. IlTjXe-ldrf-T^ IJyj'Ke-iSvs, 
IIijXTj-iaSTj-s, and n^jXe-tup, son of IlTjXeiJ-s ; ' At pe-lSrj-s , 'Arpe-tSTj-s, and 'Atpe-tatv, 
son of 'Arpei-s. 

b. Two patronymic endings : T! oKa-tov-ldTj-s son ofTa\a6~s. 

c. The stem drops or adds a syllable : AcvkoK-IStj-s son of AevKoKLcjv, -lojv-os ; 
AafJ-TT-er-ldrj-s son o/Ad/i7ro-s. 

d. -iStjs is used in comic formations : xXeTrr-fSTj-s son of a thief. 

e. -vSds occurs in the dialects, as 'EirafjLeivdjvSa-s Epaminondas. 

i. -105, -€tos, may indicate descent, as TeXa/icipte ira? o/i son of Telamon^ Tyy- 
Sapeia dvydTTjp daughter of Tyndareus ; cp. Tennyson's *'Niobean daughter." 

847. A patronymic may include the father, as Ii.€i,<n<TTpa7 Idai the I*eisistra- 
tidae (Peisistratus and his sons). 

848. Most genuine patronymics are poetical and belong to the older language. 
In the classical period patronymics rarely indicate descent in the case of historical 
persons ; as ^iplirlSTjs, ' ApLffTflSijs. 

849. Metronymics denote descent from the mother, as Aoiva-tST}-'s son of 
Aai'd??, ^TKvp-id7]-s SOn of^i\^pa. 

850. Relationship is sometimes denoted by the suffixes i8to (nom. -idov-s son 
of} and iSeS (nom. -iSij daughter of) ; as d5eX0-t5oO-s ne^fhew^ dSeX^-tS'^ niece 
(d5eX06-s brother). 

PLACE 

851. Place may be expressed by the secondary suffixes 

1. to (nom. -to-p, neut.) : Alqvcitlov (scil. Upbv) temple of Dionysus^ "llpaiov 

JSeraeum. 

Also -€-to (nom. -e?o-y, neut.) ; from substantives in -ei/-s and by exten- 
sion in others; as xaX/ce-to-p forge (xaX/c-eu-s coppersmith)^ Q'q<yt-lov The- 
seum (67jcr6i5-s) , Xoy-clo-v place for speaking {Xdyo-s speech)^ ^vc^elo-v seat 
of the Muses (/loCo-a muse)., ' OXv/iiri-eTo-v Olympieum ('OX(J/i7rto-s Olympian 
Zeus) . 

2. ,TTip-io (nom. -r-qp-Lo-v^ neut.): derived from substantives in -ttJp (or -ti^s) ; 

as dKpodTTjp-io-v auditoriuvi (d/cpodrijp or d^podTi}? hearer)^ 4pyaar'})p-ix>~v 
workshop {4pya<rT7}p workman), ^ovXevTiqpiov senate house (^ovXevrrip or 
§ov\€VTris councillor, senator). See 863 a, 8, 



856] FORMATION OF WORDS: SUBSTANTIVES 235 

3. av (nom. -djv, gen. -wr-os, masc.) : dvSp~ihv apartment for men (dpijp, dpdp-6s 

man), linr-ibv stable (^iinro-s horse)^ irapSey-thv maiden'' s apartment^ Parthe- 
non^ temple of Pallas {Tra.p64vo-% maiden), olv-dov wine-cellar {olvo-s wine), 
dfX7r€\~(i}v vineyard (d/uTreXo-j vine). Forms in -€wv occur, as irepiarep-ediv 
dove-cote (wepiffrepd dove)y olve<hv. 

4. iTtS (nom. -iTis, fern,) : added to o^v^ dydpcov-lTis apartment for men, ywaLKu^v- 

iTis apartment for women. 
6. tovia (nom. -wMd, fem.) : poS-wj'id rose-bed (p6So-v rose), 
6. Tpa (rare ; nom. -rpd^ fem.) : 6px'^-<r-rpd dancing-place (opx^-ofMai dance), 

Tra\ai-a-Tpd twestUng-g round {irakal-o} lorestle). Cp. 836. 

DIMINUTIVES 

852. Diminutives are denominatives formed from the stems of 
substantives by various secondary suffixes, 

1. to (nom. -io-»/, neut.) : iraid-lo-y little child (iraZs, -jraid-hs), dpuie-io-v small bird 

{6pvTs, 6pvWos), da7ri5-t,0'V small shield (dtnrls^ dcrirld-os) . 
N. — Trisyllabic words are paroxytone if the first syllable is long by nature 
or position. 

2. iS-to (nom. -Ldio-v, neut.) : derived from such words as da-irld-co-p ; as ^Kp-ldw-p 

dagger (^l<pos sword, stem ^Kpea-), ^o-idio-v small cow (|3o0-s), oiKidio-v small 
house, oIkl + lSlov (oikIcl)^ IxOUio-v small Jish {Ix^ts). See 833 b, 

3. ap-io (nom. -dptov^ neut.) : iraib-dpLo-v little child. 

4. -uS-pio (nom. -iJSpioi', neut.) : ^X-iJSpto-f little song {}j£Kqs). 

5. vXXio (nom. -i/XXtoy, neut.) : iir-vWio-v little epic or -Gersicle (cTros). 

6. vo-KO, lo-Kci (nom. -^cr /cos, masc, -^<rA:?7, fem.): dv6po>Tr-i(TKo-s manikin, Taid-ta-Ko-'i 

young boy, 7rat5-f<r/c7j young girl. From this comes -co-k-io in da-irid-la-Kio-v 
small shield. 

853. Many other diminutives occur, as aKva : in TTLddKVT) wine-jar {-n-idos) ; 
i5, l5 : in d/ia^ls, -idos small wagon {cLfxa^a), v7}(rU, -tSos islet (vrjao-t) ; i8-€v : of the 
young of animals, as Xw-t5ei/y wolfs whelp CKijko-s), also mbei/s son^s son, grand- 
son (vi6s) ; ixo: (iprdXixos young bird (6praKli) chick; i^va : KvKixvT} (and xruX- 
ixviovj KvXtxvls) small cup (ki/Xi?). Rare or late are -dKidiov, -daiov, -d<pLov, 
-iddpiovy -LffKdptop, Lov, 861. 19, -i^Xos, and over 25 others. See Xo, 800. 1. 

854. Diminutives are often combined: TatS-icK-dptoj' stripling, (xetpaK-iov, 
/xetpaK-ltTKOs, fjL€LpaK-iX\-Lov, fxetpaK-vW-iSiov stripling {ixeipa^ lass)^ xXai'-ia'/c-tiJtoj' 
cloaklet (xXai/i?), i;qj5dpioy insect (i^t^ov animal). 

855. Some words, especially such as denote parts of the body, are diminu- 
tive in form, but not in meaning; as Kpdvlov skull, B-qplov beast (= S-qp), -jreSiov 
plain (TT^dov ground)., all in Homer, who has no diminutives. Diminutives often 
employed tend to lose their diminutive value. 

856. Diminutives may express affection, familiarity, daintiness, and some- 
times pity or contempt (cp. dar-ling, lord-ling). See the examples under 852, 
and also Trarp-ldiov daddy (-jraTifip), dS€\<})-i5to-v dear little brother, 'EcoKpaT-iStov 
dear iSocky, dvdpib-sr-Lov manikin. Some endings often have an ironical force, as 
TrXoi^T-a^ rich churl, ydarp-wv fat-belly. 



236 FORMATION OF WORDS: ADJKCTIVES [857 



FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES 

857. Adjectives are formed by the same suffixes as are used in 
substantives, the same formation producing in one case a substantive, 
in another an adjective. Many words formed with certain suffixes 
(to, /jLo, vo, po, to) are used as adjectives or as abstract substantives 
(usually femhiine or neuter). Thus <j>i\id friendly or friendship; so 
(rTe</)-avo-s croion ((xri<f>-<i) encircle) was originally an adjective. Many 
suf&xes have no characteristic signification. 

Adjectives are either primitive (from roots or verb-stems) or 
denominative (from substantives or other adjectives). But this 
distinction is often obliterated and dif^cult to determine. 

858. The following are the chief adjectival suffixes: 

1. o, a (nom. -o-j, -1] or -a, -o-v) : primary : Xot7r-6-s remaining (Xelir-oj leave^ 

XiTT-, XeiTT-, Xoiir-), \evK-6-s bright (Xfi^crcw shine^ XevK-uo). 

2. 10, la : a common suffix expressing that which pertains or belongs in any 

way to a person or thing. By union with a i^receding stem vowel we 
have aio^ €10^ oiOj (^o, vio. 

Primary (rare) : ay-io-s sacred (ayos expiation) ; with a comparative 
force: dXKos other (dX-jto-s alius), jxccos middle (/xe^-^o-s medius, 113). 

Secondary in rt/x-to-? worthy^ costly (rlfx'^ honour) ; 0£X-to-s friendly 
(0fXo-s dear) ; 6pd-to-s steep (dp96-s straight) ; TrXoucr-io-s Hch (irXoOro-s 
riches^ 115) ; dlKa-co-s just (dU-Tj right, 834 b) ; otKe-To-s domestic (oIko-s 
house, 834 f) ; irdTp-io-s hereditary (irari^p father, irarp-, 262) ; ^aa-iXe- 
to-s royal (^acriKe^-s king) ; 9€p€~io~s of summer (d^pos^ stem depea--) ; 
•aWo-h-s venerable {albws shame, stem a/5ocr-, 266) ; ijpi^oi heroic (^pois 
hero, vpu}/:-, 267) : tttix^-i-o-^ d cubit long (ir-^x^-s, 268). Thefeminines 
are often abstract substantives, as 4>i\-[d friendship. 

a. The ending -aTos has been transferred from a stems, as in x^P^-"-^^-^ 

of OT from dryland {x^po-os). The form t~aios occurs: S paxp^-^ouo-'i 
worth a drachma (dpaxp-v)- -f*^os has become independent in dvdp-eTo^ 
manly {dv-qp). On gentiles in -tos, see 844. 3. 

b. Ionic Ti-to (nom. -ijibs), properly from stems in ev (tfu), as Horn. xaX/ci^-i'p-s 

brazen (pertaining to a xa^ff'J-s brazier ; Attic x^^^f^^os, -ovs, see 858. 4), 
^ao-iK-^-LO-s royal ; and transferred in Ionic to other stems, as in ifoXe/x- 
i7io-s warlike, dvdpojT-rjio-s human (Attic dvdpdjTreio-s), dvbp-'ffLO-s manly, 

3. €VT for p^vT (nom. -eis) forms denominative adjectives denoting fulness or 

abundance (mostly poetic). 

Tlpi7)-eis (rTiJiTjs) honoured, and by analogy devdp-'^eis woody (devSpo-v 
tree) ; x^p^ets graceful (x<ipt-s), 5oX6-ets wily (§6Xo-s), and by analogy 
a.lp.ar-6-€LS bloody (at/ia, -ar-os blood, 834 ]), ixSv-6-eis full of fish, 
Kpv-6-eLS chilling {npt-os chill). Also in evpih-eis mouldy (ei^ptis, -wtos). 

4. €o (nom. -co-s, -oOs, 290) forms denominative adjectives denoting material : 

XpiJceos, xP^^°^^ golden (x/3i>o'6-s gold). 



858] FORMATION OF WORDS; ADJECTIVES 237 

a. €0 is derived from e-w, seen in xpi;cretos (poetic). Here e is part of the 
stem (834 f). On -ijl'os see 858. 2 b. 
6. €0- (nom. -?Js, -^s) : primitive: feuS-iJs false (fei^S-o) deceive) y a-acp-ifjs clear, 
irp7]v-'^s prone^ vyL-i}s healthy. Vei-y common in compounds, as 
d-a(f>aK~T^s unharmed, secure (d-priv. + o-^aX- in cr^dXXaj trip). 

6. Ko, aKO. iKO (nom. -/cos, very common, cp. 864. 1) : many denominatives 

formed Toy these suffixes denote relation, many others fitness or 
ahility. 

a. Denominatives: /layTt-Kd-s prophetic (/xavri-s prophet); (pvai-KS-s natural 

(^i5cri-s nalu7"e); 67}\v-k6-s feminine (67)\v-s female): Aapei~K6-i Daric 
{AapGio-i Darius). 

b. From 4>v(7i-K6-s, etc., iko was taken as an independent suffix in jiova-LKb-s 

musieal (fxouaa muse) ; ^apl3ap-cK6-s barbaric (^dp^apo-s barbarian^ 
foreigner) ; Sidaa-KoX-iKS-i able to teach (SiSda-KaXo-s teacher) ; /ia^Tj/xar- 
iKo-s fond of learning {ixadrnMa, -fiaro? thing learnt) ; Kepafi€-iK6~s Potters^ 
quarter., Cer amicus (fce/ja/ieii-s potter) ; paaiX-iKb-s royal (jSao-iXeiJ-s 
king); ijpw-LKd-s heroic, from ■^pu}(i:)^-oi hero j 'Axai-(/f6-s or 'Axci-tKi-s 
(38) Achaean (Axoit6-s Achaean). 

N. — apx^Kd-s able to rule (apx-v), 7pa(^-tK6-s able to write or draw (7pa0-i^), 
need not be derived directly from the root. 

c. KopLv6L~aK6-s Corinthian (KopLvd-Lo-s Corinthian); <nrovd€i-(iK6-s consisting 

of spondees (cnroyd-eto-s spondee). 

d. T-iKO represents lk6 added to the verbal in t6- (cp. also p.adtip.aT-LKb-s). 

Thus, XeK-TLKd-s suited to speaking (X^7-£j speak); aiadi]-TiK6~s capable 
of feeling {ala6-a.vo}j.aL feel); dpLdp-fi-TLKb-'s skilled in numbering {dpid- 
jTx^w to number); irp6iK-rLK6~s practical^ able to do (irpdrTto do); o-Keir- 
tlk6-s reflective (a-K^ir-r-oiiaL look carefully, consider). Added to a 
noun-stem : vav-riKb-s nautical {vau-s ship). 

7. Xo (nom. -Xo-s) : primary (usually active) and secondary. Cp. 860. 1. 

Primary in d€L-\6-s cowardly (d^doi-Ka fear, St-, Set-, Soi-) ; arpep-Xd-s 
twisted (aTpi<p-(a turn) ; tu0-X6-s blind (ti50-w raise a smoke) ; kolXos 
hollow (= /co/r-tXo-s, Lat. cav-us) ; rpox-aXd-s running (Tp4x-<^ run); 
eiK-eKo-s like (eoiica am like, eU-) ; KaftTT-iiXo-s bent (xi/iTr-r-oj bend) ; 
0etS-ajX6-s sparing (^efS-o/xat .spare). dirar-rj-Xh^ deceitful (dirdTH] deceit, 
diraTa-ia deceive) may be a primitive or a denominative, Cp. 860. 1. 

o-Xeo denoting quality in dp7r-aX^o-s attractive, ravishing (dpird^u 
seize), Bap(r-a'Keo-s bold (Odpa-os boldiiess). 

8. jio (nom. -jao-s, 861. 1) : primary ; 6ep'p.6~s loarm (dep-oj warm); secondary 

in ^^d-a-fjLo~s seventh. 

9. t-jio, tr-iixo (nom. -t/io-s, -a-ifio-s) : often denoting able to or fit to. Adjectives 

in t/Ao are primitive or denominative, and are derived from t-stems ; 
those in -cnfio are denominative and come mostly from stems m at -f /lo 
(as xpV~<!'i--l^o~^ useful, from xp^-crt-y lise); but aifio has thence been 
abstracted as an independent suffix, 

ddK-Lfw-s approved (5o/t-e-w seem good)] p^dx-ip^o-s warli7ce (iidxti ^<^i~ 
tie); i/6ja-tyC6o-s conformable to late (vSjxo-s); ^5-c65-t/io-s eatable (^S-ojS-tj 
food, poet. U-o) eat); Kaiai-ixo-s combustible {Kaw burn, Kav-ci-s burn- 



238 FORMATION OF WORDS; NOUN SUFFIXES [858 

ing); Mai-fio-s able to loose (XiJ-trt-s loosing); iinrd-ffifio-s Jit for riding 
(iirira^o/xai ride) ; aXci-ci/xo-s easy to take {dXLa-KOfiaL, fdXojr). 

10. |tov (nom. -ju,w»', -fwv) : primary in fivri-fiojv rfiindful {fit-fivy-a-KOfiai remem- 

ber), rX-j-fiojv enduring, wretched (s-tXtj-j' endured). Cp. 861. 8. 

11. vo (nom. -vo~s, 861. 11) : primary (usually passive) and secondary (829 a). 

Sometimes denoting that wLich may, can, or must be done. 

Primary in 5eL-v6-s fearful {8i-8oL-Ka fear, 61-, Set-, Sot-); <j-€fj^v6-s to 
be revered (0-(*j3-o/xai revere) ; TnB-dvb-s persuasive {ireid-o^ persuade, iriO-, 
■!r€i&-, iroL&-); Tri<r~vvo-s trusting (ireW-co), Secondary iu a- Kor€L-v6-s dark 
(= a-KoreiT-vo-s from 0-k6t~os darkness). 

12. tvo (nom. -ivo-s, 861. 11) : forms denominative adjectives oV material, as 

\lO-Lvo-s of stone (Xf^o-s), |i5X-ii/o-s wooden (^Ao-j') ; to denote time, 
and derived from snch forms as 4apL-v6-s vernal (eap spring), as in 
7}fi€p-iv6~s by day (vfit^pd), x*^^^-<^*^-^ of yesterday {x^^^) j other uses : 
dv$pif}Tr-Lvo-s human (dvOpunro-s man), &\7]6-lv6-s genuine (AXtj^tJ? true). 
tv€o in \a-tv€o-s — Xd-iVo-s stony (Xas stone). On -rjvos, -Tvos in gen- 
tiles, see 844. 3. 

13. po, pa (nom. -p6-s, -pd) : primary, and secondary. . Primary, in 4xO-p6-$ 

hated, hostile (%x^-<^ hate), Xafnr~p6-s s?iini?ig (\dfnr-(a sMne), xaXa-/>6-s 
slack (xaXd-w slacken). Secondary, in ^o^€-p6-s fearful (^6§o-s fear, 
0oj3%-, 834 f), Kpar-€p6-s mighty (Kpdr-os might); primary or secondary 
in dvid~p6-s grievous (dvld grief, dvid-o} grieve). See 860. 3. 

14. Tijp-to (nom. -^-fjpLo-s) : in denominatives, derived from substantives in -ttjp 

(or -rrjs) by the suffix lo ; but the substaiitive is not alvrays found. 

<y(a-Ti]p-io~^ preserving (<r(>i-T'^p saviour), v\'hence the abstract <T03T7}pld 
(858. 2) safety ; deXK-rrjp-Lo-s enchanting (deXK-ri^p charmer, 64\y-w en- 
cJiant), whence OekKr'qpLQv (842. 4), \v-Tfip-Lo~^ delivering (Xv-r-^p), 
opfiTjrTjpLov starting-place (^bp^dio, 6pfiS>/j,ai start). 

15. V (nom. -^-s, -eia^ -i5) ; primitives are -Sfdv-s sweet (-^S-o/wti am pleased)^ rax-^-s 

swift (rdx-os swiftness), ^qLO-ii-s deep (^dO-os depth). Cp. 859. 8. 

16. idhixr (nom. -iadrjs, -wSes) : in primitives (rare), as Trp€7r-dj§T]s proper (irpeTr-d) 

beseem); usually in denominatives denoting fulness or similarity: 
Trot-utSrjs grassy (iroid), aXji.a.T-fhS'qs looking nice blood (dlfia). See 833 a. 

17. Suffixes of Degree ; uov and to-ro (318) usually form primitives ; repo and 

TttTo (313 f£.), denominatives, repo occurs also in Trb-repo-s which of two 9 
Trp6-T€po-s earlier^ va--Tepo~s later, kKd-r^po-s each. On the suffix repo 
apparently without comparative force, see 1066, 1082 b. '4v~repo-v is 
substantivized (bowel); from ^v in. 

18. Suffixes of Participles and Verbal Adjectives (primary) : active vTf or, 301 a, c ; 

middle and passive fievo. Verbal adjectives denoting completion (usu- 
ally passive) to ; possibility and necessity to, tm (471-473), 
On the formation of Adverbs, see 341 fE. 

lilST OF NOUN SUFFIXES 

The list includes the chief suffixes used in substantives and adjectives. Sepa- 
ration of a suffix from the root is often arbitrary and uncertain. 



859] FORMATION OF WORDS: xVOUN SUFFIXES 239 

859. VOWEL SUFFIXES 

1. o: nom, -o-s masc, fein., -o-y neut, A coumion suffix in primitives denoting 

persons (usually male agents) or things (often abstracts). 

d/>x-6-s leader from fipx-^ lead; ^uy-6-v yoke from ^eiuy-mi-fit yoke 
i^^y--, i'c'O'-); X67-0-S speech from X(^7-w speak; vofj^o-t custom^ law from 
j'^/A-w distribute; o-t6X-o-s expedition from o-reXXaj ((j-reX-) sejid; rpo^-i-s 
(6, '^) niH'se from rp44>-ii} nourish; <(>bp-o~s tribute from ^^p-w bear, 
bring. 
a. The roots of some words appear only in other languages: oFk-o-s house, 
Lat. vlc^u-s. 
' b. The suffix has the accent when the agent is denoted, e of the root 
varies with (831 b). 

2. a: nom. ~a or -tj fern, A common suffix in primitives, usually to denote 

things, often abstracts (action). 

dpx-^ beginning from fipx-^ begin; Xot^-^ pouring from Xel^-ui pour ; 
fjdx-v Jlght from fidx-o/iai Jight ; <nrovh-i} haste from <r7ret/6-aj hasten; 
o-T^y-Tj roof from (xr^y-jj shelter; Tpo<p-ii nourishment from rpecp-o) 
nourish; riJx-^ chance from ru7xaj>w happen {rvx-)l <pop-d crop from 
<^^/)-aj 6ear; 0^7-1^ ^i^/it from 0eiJ7w ji?ee ((^^7-, 0^117-). 

a. The roots of some words appear only in other languages: yw-'f} woman 

(Eng. queen), 

b. Most substantives accent the suffix ; but many accent the penult, 

3. a : nom. -ds, -ijs, in a few masculines, usually compounds : iraiSo-Tpi^-v-s 

trainer of boys in gymnastics {rpi^o) rub). 

4. I, t: primary, in 6<p-i-s snake., poet, rpbx-'--^ runner {rp^x-^ run), 7r6X-t-s citi/ 

(originally ir<5X-(-s-), ijtf-l-i yearling. Many words with the i-suffix have 
taken on 6 or t ; as Att-^s hojye iXiri-d-os (eXir-o/Aat hope)j x'^P-^'^ grace 
X&pt-T-os (xa//5w rejoice, x^p-)- 

5. to: in a few primitive verbal adjectives (ay-io-s 858. 2), but common in 

denominate adjectives (858. 2), rare in substantives: wiKp-io-s bride- 
groom (v6ii<p7j bride) ; In names of things more concrete than those end- 
ing in -id : fiapr^p-Lo-v a testimony (cp. /xaprjjp-ia testimony) ; in gentiles 
(844. 3) ; in diminutives (852. 1), often in combination with other 
diminutive suffixes (a/jto, tSto, uXXw, etc. 852) ; often in combination 
with a final stem vowel (851. 1, 858. 2). 

6. ta, ta: rarely primary, in ^6^a flight (4>€^y-o) ff.ee) ; in verbal abstracts : 

fiavid madness (840 a. 9) ; usually secondary in the fem. of adj. m 
~6s: ^apeia = ^apev-ia, irirra pitch (= xt/c-^ta, Cp. Lat. piC-US), yXwrra 
tongue = y\<>jx~i<^ (cp. 7X<yx-i-? point, 7XtDx-es beards of corn), e^rra serf 
(843 b. 4) ; in the nom. fern, of participles in j't, or (\tovaa. from \vovr-ui, 
XekvKv-Ta); in denominative abstracts expressing quality (840 b, 1, 2); 
in names of persons: ra/j^ia-s steward {rip^v-tJi cut, €-rafj.-ov), NiKr-Id-s 
Nicias {vIkt) victory). — Often in combination with other suffixes: at^/a 
843 b. 5 ; -€-ia 840'a. 9 ; taca 843 b. 4 ; rpia, r^tpa 839 b. 2, 3. 

7. po, pa: primary, in 6/)os for lip(f)os houiidarij, K€v{f)6s empty, \ai{f)6s left 

(Lat. laeviis), Ka\{f)6s beautiful; (probably) secondary in verbals in 
-r^os (Xureos that must be loosed) and in adj. in -aX^os (860. 1). 



240 FORMATION OF WOKDS : NOUN SUFFIXES [860 

8. u.(€v): primary, in adjectives (858. 15), in substantives: yiv-v~% rJiUiy 
3r^X-y-s fore,-arm,. — 9, v : primary, in femi nines ; Icx-v-^ strength^ 
6(f)p-v-s eye-brow, veK~v-s (Horn.) corpse^ cf. Lat. ncc-are. — 10. ev (titj) : 
primary of the agent (839 a. 6) ; rarely of things : kott-cu-s chisel 
(Kbir-T-w cut) ; secondary, of the person concerned (843 a. 1), in gentiles 
(844. 1), rarely of things: Sopo/c-fiJ-s reed-thicket {86va^ reed) ; in diminu- 
tives in -(5eu5 (853).— 11. ol (nom. -c6): primary in ireid-db weiBoGs per- 
suasion (279). — 12. cop (nom.-ws) : primary in ^p-ws ^pw-os hero (267). 

860, SUFFIXES WITH LIQUIDS (X, p) 

1. Xo, Xa : primary, in <pv-\o-y race, (pv-X-fj dan (^c-w produce), ttl-Xo-s felt 

(Lat. pi-lu-s), ^€tjy-\7j loop of a yoke (^eijy-vv-fjLi yoke); a0-Xo-s contest, o,6~ 
M-y prize, TV(p-\6~$ blind (Tu<f>-u) raise a smoke), arpe^-M-s twisted (a-Tp^(p-cj 
turn). Cp. 858. 7, Secondary, in 7raxy-X6-s thickish (dimin.). aXo, aXa: 
primary, in 6fji<p-a\6~s navel, Kp&r-aKo-v clapper {kp6t-o-$ noise), yce^-aXiJ 
head, Tpox-aX6-s runninrj (rp^x-aj), irt-aKo-sfat {trTaivw fatten) ; secondary, 
in 6iJi^a\6-s level (o/xd-s one and the same). Developed from this are aXeo, 
aXta : irl-oK^o-s fat, K€pd-a\4o-s wily (/cep5-os gain), see 858. 7. eXo, eXa: 
priinary (prob.), in etK-eXo-s like (eoixa am like, €ik-), re^-Ai? cloud (Lat. 
nebula) ; secondary, in Bv~^e-\ri altar. -qXo, T|Xa : Ko^ir-rfKo-^ huckster 
(agency), dv-yfKi} sacrifice {ev-u>}, vf-rfKb-s lofty {'vf-os height)] primary or 
secondary; A7raT-')7-X6-s guileful (airarr} guile, dirard-d} cheat), crly-rfKo-s muie 
(ff'iy^ silence, alyd-o} am mute). iXo, tXa : primary, in rpox-tXo-s sandpiper 
(rp^x-^ run)) secondary, in 6py-i\o-^ passionate (opy-^).' iXo, iXa : pri- 
mary, in <rTp6^-L\o-s top (crTp^<p-u} turn) ; secondary, in irdd-tko-y sandal 
{w 46-7} fetter, iro^s foot). vXo, vXa : primaix in ddKT-v\o-s finger, aTa<p- 
vKi} bunch of grapes. Secondary, in fxiKK-vKo-s small (/xiKK-6-$). vXo, vka : 
acpovd-^KTj beetle. wXo, coXa : primary, in etd-uXo-v image {do-ojxai resemble), 
€i5x-tt'Xi7 ^mj/er (etfx-ojuat). Hare forms: aXio, aXtp.0, tXio, i(]Xto. 

2. Xv : primary, in 6^-\v-^ female (root &7) give suck). 

3. po, pa: primary, in substantives ; dy-pb-^ field, Lat. ager (tLy~w), v€K-p6~s corpse 

(cp. y^K-v-s), yafjL-^-p6-s son-in-law (ya/n-^-co marry, for j3 see, 130), ix^-p6-$ 
enemy, ^x^-pd hatred (e'x^-w hate), Hpyv-po-s silver, vd-pd hydra (yd-cop 
water); rarely, of instrument 842. 0; of place, in 4d-pd seat; primary, in 
adjectives (858. 13). apo, apa : primary, in §\€4>-apo-v eye-lid (j3X<^7r-w 
look), rdX-apo-s basket (rXdw, rX'^j/ai bear), 'Ktir-apb-s shiny (cp. X/tt-os 
fat), apo (iipo), apa ( 11 pa) : primary or secondary, in dvL-d-p6-s grievous 
{avid grief dvLd-oj grieve), Xv-n-.-Tj-pb-s painful (XvTt] pain, Xutt^-w grievey, 
secondary, m dv6-Tjp6-s flowery (dvd-os), and perhaps in Trov-7]p6-s toilsome 
(-rrbpo-s, TTov^-ofML toil). «po, €pa : secondary, in cpo^e-po-s terrible {<p6^o-s 
teri'or), whence cKL-epb-^ shady ((XKtd shade); also in irevd-epb-s father-in- 
law ~ lit. one who binds (cp. Tretcrjaa = 7rev6-(Tfia cable), iv-epoL those below 
the earth (iv). -upo, -upa : secondary, in Xiyv-pd-s (\iy}>-s) shrill, whence 
^Timsxy &x-^P°-^ *^^^<^.ff-> ^^^y-vp^-^ biir7iing (4>'^H-f^ burn). vpo,vpa: pri- 
mary or secondary, in ia-x^-pb-s strong Qax^-^ ti*^ strong, Icx^-^ strength); 
primary, in X^ir-vpo-v rind {\4ir-w peel) , y4<p-vpa bridge, wpo, wpa : primary, 
m 6ir-d)pd late summer {^T-iffdev at the rear, after). 



86i] FORMATION OF VVOIiDS : NOUN SUFFIXES 241 

4. pL (rare) : primary, Iw&K-pL-s hill-top (ap-po-s highest)^ td-pi-s knoimig (elbov^ 

5. pv (rare) : primary, in MK-pv tear ; cp. Old Lat dacncma for lacrima. 

6. ap: primary, in rj-jr-ap, ^irar-os liver (253 b), -n-i-ap fat.> e-ap spring. — 7. ep, 

Tip; primary, in ar}p d^p-os air (dt^pn blow, of the wind), at^-Tjp, ~4p-ov upper 
air {oXd-w kindle). — 8. top : primary : gen. -ar-o^ : vS-ojp water ; gen. -iapos : 
tx^P ichor, serum ; gen. -opoi : by analogy in auro-Kpar-wp possessing full 
poxcers (Kpar-o^ power). — 9. «pa : primary, in 7rX7j-^-c6p^ (Ionic) satiety, 
cp. 832. 

861. SUFFIXES WITH NASALS (]L, v) 

1. p.o, p.a (nom. jLw-s ; -jua and -/atj) : primary, in substantives denoting actions 
or abstract ideas (840 a. 5-7), and in some concretes: x^-Mti-s juice (xi<d 
pour, x^~)t ypO't^-fJ^V ^^we {-Ypd<p-o} write, draiv) ; in adjectives (858. 8, 9). On 
-T-joo -T-pLa, -6-p.o -6-p.a^ -<T-p.o -<T-p.a. See 837, 832, 836 ; secondary, rarely in 
substantives : 5pv-fji6-s coppice (5pG-s tree, oak), or adjectives: eru-juo-r true 
(irefii real). — i-[Lo: Secondary, derived from t stems (858. 9). — 2. jiar 
(nom. -pLo): primary, denoting result (841. 2). Here to p.a from p.^ (cp. 
6vopui name, Lat. nomen ; r^ppa. goal, Lat. terraen) r has been added ; 
cp. cognomentum. — 3. fxev (nom. -p-qv): primary, in TroL-pi}v shepherd, 
'Ki-p.'^v harbour. — 4. jicvo : primary, in participles: Xvi-pjevo-^. — 5, ^tt 
(rare): primary, in <p7}-pLi~s speecJi (poet, for <^t5-/x7j). — G. jtiv (nom. 
-pLis) : piim., p7}y~pd~s surf (p'^y-vv-pi break). — 7. ^vo, jtva : prim., in (rrd-juvo-s 
jar (t-cm?-/*t set, stand, o-ra-), ^eke-pvo-v dart {paXKo} throw), ttoL-pvtj flock, 
Xl-pLyq lake. — 8. jxov (nom. -pLiov) ; primary, in 7fy€-p(hv leader (ijyi-opaL lead) ; 
adjectives 858. 10. — 9. jjiova; primary, in Tr\7f'(T~povi} fulness {Ttip.-TcXTj-pi 
fill).— 10. (loiv (nom. -pLiov) : primary, in x^^-M-^^ winter^ \u~p<J)v meadow. 
11. vo, va: primary, in inr-vo-s sleep, Kair-vb-i S7noke, ttoi-vt) punishment^ ^iep-v/j 
dower (<p^p~<a bring), t€k-vo-^' child (tU't<jj bear., reK-), m adjectives (858. 11) ; 
secondary, in adjectives (868. 11), in (reK-q-vn moon {= o-e\ao'-v7}, o-eXas 
gleam), — avo, ava: primary, in a-T^<p~auo-s crovm, a-T€4)-dp'ij diadem (<tt€(^-o} 
encircle), Speir-awo-v, Speir-dvT} sickle (Sp^-rr-oj pluck)^ 8py-avo-;^ instrumenl 
(ipyov loork), dtjy-dptj whetstone (d-qy-fa whet); in adjectives: <TreY-av6-s 
(cp. (TT€y-v6s) water-tight (o-Tey-u shelter); secondary, in ^o-r-dyt] fodder 
(f3o~r6-s, /36-cr/fw graze), e8p~a.vo-v seat (eS-pd seat), avo (tjvo), ava (T\va.) : 
secondary, in gentiles (844. 3). cvo, eva: primary, in irape-evo-s maiden, 
<b\'4vr} elbow. T^vo, -qva: primary, in n-drj-vq nurse (Qija-^aL give suck). 
tvo, tva: secondary, in adjectives of material and time (858. 12), and in 
pa5~L)^6'S slender, p^X-bnj millet, tveo, ivea: secondary, in adjectives of 
material "(858. 12). tvo, iva: primary, in xaA-tfo-s bridle, <t^\~Ivq~v pars- 
ley ; secondary, in gentiles (844. 3); in pati'onymics (845. 6); in ipudp-iuo-s 
red mullet (ipvep6-s red) : ^oXfS-ivq a kind of j3oX^-6s (a bulb-root), ovo, 
ova: priinary, in k\-6i^o~s battle-rout (>ceX-o/i,a£ urge on); in abstracts, as 
ifb-ovi} pleasure {^h-opai am pleased), -uvo^ wa: primary, in Kop-^p-q club, 
irio^'VPO'S relying on (ireid-io persuade), vvo, vva.: primary, in kLp5-vvo-s 
danger, ata-x-^vq disgrace, oavo, tova; pi'imary, in «:oX-w^'6-s hill, Kop-chv-q 
crow. — 12. vv (rare); primary, in \Ly-v6-'i smoky fire. 

GREEK GI^AM, — 10 



242 ' FORMATIOX OF WORDS: NOUN SUFFIXES [862 

13. aiva : sncondary, of the person concerned (843 b. 5). — 1-^. av : primary, 
in /xAa5 ji^Xav-os hlac/c. — 15. ev (tioni. -Tjr): primary, in rep-rjv tender^ 
dpp-tjv male. — 16. r\v: primary, in irevd-'f}v inquirer (ireijd-o/j.ai^ irvvddvo}xai 
inquire), — 17. iv (nom. -Is) ; primary, in SeX^ts doZjp/u?!, w5is travail. — 
18. ov (nom, -wr) : primary, in words of agency : t^kt-cov carpenter^ Tpvy-ibv 
turtle-dove (rpv^o) murmzcr, rpvy-), KXvd-tov wave (kXi/^w dash, K\vd-); and 
in otliers, as eU-ibv image (eoiKa am liJce^ eiK~) , x'-'^'' snoio. — 10. lov : second- 
ary, in {j.a\aK-lo}p darling^ diminutiye of /^aXa/ci-s soft. — lov: primary, in 
comparatives ; TjS-it^v sweeter {ijd-ij-s) ; secondary, in patronymics (845. 5). 
— pov: primary, in iricjv fat. — 20. 6>v: secondary, in words denoting 
persons possessing some physical or mental quality, as ydarp-iav glutton 
(yaffT-qp belhj);, to denote place (851. 3); in names of months : 'AvOecrTT]- 
pnhp. — 21. fdv: primary, in ai(/:)tij/ a(/<3, gen. tticDv-os, — 22, iwv: second- 
ary, in patronymics (845. 5). — 23. t<uva : secondary, in patronymics 
(845. 6). 

862. SUFFIXES WITH LABIALS (ir, cj)) 

1. ott: primary, in cKiX-o-^ stake., pale {<7Ka.Woi stir up; split?). — 2. wir: 
primary, in Kdjv-ojf gnat. — '^>. 4>o, 4>a (rare) : primary, in Kp6r-a(poi the 
temples, Kopv-<p'/} head (Kopvs helmet) ; usually in names of animals, as 
fp-:(po-s kid, €Xa0os deer; secondary, in late diminutives : 0T]p'd(pLo-v in- 
sect {67}p beast), K€p8-Tj<pto-v petty gain (K4pd-os gain). 

863. SUFFIXES WITH DENTALS (t, S, 6) 

a. Suffixes with t, 

1. T : primary, at the end of stems, as d-yv(j!}s, d-yyQ-r-os unknown (yL-yyd}-(TKUj 

know). 

2. TO, Tcl: primary, in verbal adjectives in -t6-s (471) with the force of a 

perfect participle, as yvu-rd-s knovm (yi-yvtJj-a-KU) know)., (TTa-rb-^ 
placed^ standing (i-crTtj-fjn set^ place), or with th6 idea of possibility, 
as Xy-ri-s able to be loosed; in verbal abstracts, which sometimes be- 
come concrete: koI-to-s, koI-^t) bed {ae'i-fj.ai lie)^ ^pov-rr) thunder {^pifx-ia 
roar), <pv^6-v plant (jcptu produce), iro-Tb-v drink (irtvw drink, iro- 
629), Pio-t6s, ^io-r-q life, means of living (^io-s life); in numerals, 
rpi-To-s third, iK-To-s sex~tu-s. — In superlatives, io--to i>rimary, as 
Tjd'ta-To-s sweetest (7j5-6~?) ; rarOj secondary, as dXtjdecr-TaTo-s most tnie 
(d\7]d'^'i). — Ttt (nom, -TTj-s) : primary, to denote the agent (839 a. 1) ; 
secondary, to denote the i^erson concerned (843 a. 2). — aro, ara : 
primary, in ddp-aro-s death (dvo-aKw, dav-eiv die), Kapi-aTo-s weariness 
(^Kdii-voo, Ka/i-eiy am weary). exo, era : primary, in Tray-erd-s frost 
{■n-^y-vv-jii make hard) ; secondary, in evv-^rtj-s bed-fellow (edv^ bed, 
843 a. N.). ara anS, lira iitiS, ItS ItuS, wra «ti6, in gentiles (844. 2). 

3. tSt (tt)t) : secondary, in substs. denoting quality (840 b, 4). — 4. repo : 

primary, in verbal adjectives (473). — 5. reipa : primary, of the agent 
(839 b. 3). — 6. Tcpo: secondary, in comparatives (313) ; substantivized 
in €v-repo-v bowel. — 7. TT]p : primary, to denote the agent (839 a. 2), 
often regarded as the instrument: paicrr-qp hammer (8;''8a), dpv-rrffp 



863] FORMATION OF WORDS; ^OXJ^ SUFFIXES 243 

ladle. — 8. tt^p-lo : compound suflfix, of place (851. 2) , of means (842. 4), 
of wages (842. 5): 6p€ir-Trfpia retmrd for rearing (Tp^0-a)) ; in adjec- 
tives, 858. 14. — 9. TL : primary, to denote action or an abstract idea 
, (840a. 1) ; rarely, of persons: ixdv-Ti-s seer {^ah-ofmi rage, am in- 
spired, fiav-). — 10. tl8 : primary, of tlie agent (839 b. 4). — 11. rop; 
primary, of the agent (839 a. 3). — 12. rpa : primary, of instrument or 
meaiis (842, 3) ; of place (851. 6). — 13. rpia (noin. -rpia): primary, of the 
agent (839 b. 2) . — 14. rptS (nom. -rpLs) : primary, of the agent (839 b. 1). 
— 15. TpLo ; secondary, in dWd-rp-Lo-s belonging to another. — 16. rpo 
(-T/jo-$, -Tpo-v) : primary, to denote the agent (839 a. 4), instrument 
(842. 1), place, as d^a-rpo-v theatre {place for seeing)^ X^K-rpo-v bed.— 
17. Tv: primary, of actions or abstract ideas (840 a. 4); in &a--Tv city, 
4n-Tv sprout {(pi-oj produce) ; secondary, denoting connection with a 
numeral: rpir-rO-j third of a tribe (rpt-ro-s third). 
18. ar : primary, in K^pds, Kepar-os (and Kepws, 258) horn. — 19. t^t : primary, 
in TT^vijs^ -7]T-os serf {ir4v-o p.ai toil), irXdv-riT-es planets (Tr\avd-w wander), 

— 20. LT : primary, in /x^Xi, -tr-os honey (Lat. me?), x^P^" grace (xatpw 
rejoice, x<^p~)- See 859. 4, — 21. inS (nora. -ins, tern.) : secondary in 
words denoting place (851. 4). — 22. <i»t : primary, in y^Xios, -wtos 
laughter (yeXd-w laugh). — 23. vt ; primary, in active participles, 
(except the perfect), as Xco-cr-os ; in some adjectives inflected like 
participles {€k<I}v willing), and in participial substantives: dpdK-wv ser- 
pent {54pK~o/j.aL gleam, SpaK-€7v), also in X^ojv lion, ddd/xois adamant. 

— 24. p€VT (nom. -eis) : secondary, in adjectives denoting fulness 
(858. 3), and in some proper names of places : 'OttoCs Opus from 'Otto- 

f€VT-S (844. 3). 

"bl Suffixes with 5. 

1. 8: secondary, in patronyn^ics (845. 1). — 2. 8-avo : secondary, in o'Dn- 
Savo-s a nobodij {o^ns nobody), properly from rtS, neuter of ri, + av6-s. 
— €-8avo : primary, in pl7-e-5ai'6-s chilling {ply-^uj shudder). — 3. 8-aTro : 
secondary, in dWodaTrSs foreign, properly = aXXo5, neuter of fiXXos (cp, 
alind), + a7r6-s. — 4. 6-a : secondary, in patronymics (845. 1). — 5. 8-lo : 
crrd-fi-to-F Standing (i-a-TTj-pLL), with 5 prob. from a word containing the 
suffix 5, as d/x-fpdSio-s public from dix-(pad6-v publicly. — 6. 8&>v: primary, 
in /xeX-e-Scij/ care (ix^Xei is a care), dXy-rj-ddjv pain {dXye-ui suffer); sec- 
ondary, in KOTvXijSihv a cup-shaped hollow (kotiJXtj cup); cp. dxO-rj-dup 
dis/,ress {dx6-o% burden). — 7. 8<ova : primary, in /j.e\~€-Sd)VTj care (see 

dtjjv). 

8. aS : primary, in vnp-ds, -d5-os snow-flake (fi0-aj, better veLcp-tx)^ snoiv), 
4>vy~ds exile {(pe^y-i^ flee,, <pvy-), Xaixir-ds torch {M/xtt-ic sMne) ; second- 
ary, in abstract feminines denoting number (840 b. 5). — 9. ia8, 
10. taSa : secondary, in patronymics (845.3). — 11. aSio : secondary, 
in Kar-tofi-ddto-^ from the shoulder {^fM>-s), derived from dtx^-dd-io^s 
divided (SixBds, -dSos divided). — 12. lS : primaj'y, i]i dawns, 48-os shield, 
iXir-Ls hope (eXiro/j-aL hope) ; secondary, in adj. as av/x/xax^-s allied 
(7r6Xts) from a-vjxjj.axo-s allied with; in words denoting tlie person con- 
cerned (843 b. 2) ; in gentiles (844. 1), as lUpais Fersian %ooman; m 
femining patronymics (845. 4). — 13, i8a : secondary, in patronymics 



2-14 FORMATION OF WORDS: A^OUN SUFFIXES [864 

(845. 4). — 14. iSeo : secondary, in names of relationship (850). — 
15. i8ev: secondary, iu diminutives (853).— 16. i8to : secondary, in 
diminutives (852. 2), and transferred in fMotp-idio-s doomed (fMipa doom). 
— 17. 18: secondary, in kv-tj/mU greave {Kvififirj leg, thigh). — 18, v8a: 
secondary, in patronymics (846, e). — 19. loSeo- ; secondary, in adjec- 
tives of fulness (858. 16). 
c. Suffixes with. 0. 

1. appears in suffixes that are obscure in relation to root or stem (832) : 
6pi'ls 6pvld-os bird^ \f/dfia6os Sand, K^ados cicp, ir^XeSos ordure; several in -yd 
(probably not Greek), as ipi^-ivdos chick-pea. — 2. BXo, 0Xa: primary, 
in y4v-€-6\o-v, yeif-e-dXr] race (yiy-vofxai become, 7ff-)- — ^' 6^'-** • second- 
ary, in yev-d-dXio-s belonging to one'^s hirth. — 4. Opo, 0pa : primary, in 
iip-Bpo-v joint (dpapiaKtj join^ dp-), iiri-^d-Bpd ladder (^aivtj go, j3a-). 

864. SUFFIXES WITH PALATALS (k, 7, x) 

1. Ko, Ka: primary (rare), in Btj-kt] box (Tl-e7}-p,L place) ; secondary, in ad- 
jectives (858. 6). — ttKo (rare) ; primary, in pia\-aic6-s soft (cp. JjB,i. mollis) ; 
secondary in adjectiyes (858. 6. c). — laKO : secondary, in Kvp-taKS-s of the 
iord. — iKo, iKct: secondary, in adjectives (858. 6), in gentiles (844. 3), 
— 2. o-KO, o-Ka : primary, in SIctkos quoit (= Slk + o-Ko-yfrom StK-eTv throw), 
jSo-tTKiJ faod (cp. ^6-<TK(i} feed). — utko : secondary, in diminutives (852. 6). 

3. aK : primary, in jjielpa^ lass, fieipaK-io-v lad dimin. 854, K6\a^ flatterer. — 
4. aK: primary, in Bilspa^ hreast-plate. — b. ik : primary, in KiJXcf cupt, 
7j\i^ comrade. — 6. Ik: primary, in ir^pdi^, -I ko-s partridge. ^1. vk: pri- 
mary, in KTjpvi, -Dkos herald. 

8. a7 : primary, in dpira^ rapacious, dpiray-ri seizuT'c (cp. dpird^w seize), r- 
9, 17: primary, in iidani, -ly-os whip. — 10. vy: primary, iu dvrv^, -vyos 
rim. — 11. 77: primary, denoting something boUow, in (pdXay^ phalanx, 
irdXiriy^ trumpet, \dpvy^ larynx. 
12. ix© : secondary, in 6pTd\-txo-i chick, dimin. (6pTa\C-s chicken), 

865. SUFFIXES WITH SIGMA 

1. 0-1 (=r tl) : primary, denoting actions or abstract ideas (840 a. 2) ; rarely of 
persons : ird-a-L-s husband. — 2. o-td : primary, denoting actions or abstract 
ideas (840 a, 3). — 3. <rto : primary, in (xer-dp-aios raised from the ground 
(p.€T-aipo} lift up^ dp-). — 4. o-t[io : in adj. (858. 9). — 6. o-tt)vo : in 50(a-)- 
ar-qvo-s unhappy. — 6. o-To ; secondary, in TptaKo<n6-^ thirtieth from Tpi.a- 
KovT -{■ To-s. — 7, o-vvo, cTvvd : secondary, in adjectives : douXo-awos enslaved 
(5oOXo-s), 6dp(rvyos bold =^ dapa-o-avjfos {ddpa-os courage, 129 c), and in the 
feminine, to mal^e abstract substantives (840 b. 3). 

8, ao- : primary, in y^p-cts prize ; varying v^ith dr, as in rep-as r^par-o^ portent 
(258), or with ecr (264 D. 3). — 0. eo- : primary, denoting quality (840 a. 8) 
or result (841. 1) in adjectives (858. 5.) — 10. wr : primary, in k6vis dusty 
found in kovIw (= kovkj-ud, 500, 2, J)). — 11. lo-o-d : secondary, in words 
denoting the person concierned (843 b. 4). — 12. o<r ; primary, in ai^<is 
shaiTie {aidovs from ai5o(a-)-os, 26G), — 13. 100-: primary, in comparatives 
(298 d;3lB). 



S66] J^OKMATION OF WORDS: DENOMINATIVE VJEilBS 245 



DENOMINATIVE VEKBS 

The formation of primitive verbs (372) is treated in 496-529, 607-624, 
722-743. 

866. Denominative verbs are formed from the stems of nouns 
(substantives or adjectives). Verbs lacking s\ich a noun-stem are 
made on the model of the ordinary denominative verb. The prin- 
cipal terminations are as follows : 

1. -aoj : derived chiefly from words with a stems (a few from words of the second 

Oeclension). Verbs in -aw denote to do^ to be, or to have, that which is 
expressed by the stem. 

rtfid'Oj honour (rlfii^, stem rl/ia-), apL<7Td-o} breakfast {apLnro-v break- 
fast), ToKfid-o} dare (joXfia daring, stem toX/jlo.-), ico/xa-w wear long hair 
(K:6/i7j hairy. KOLfid-oj, lull to sleep, has no primitive noun. 

On -iacj and -aw denoting a desire or a bodily condition, see 868 b. 

2. -€« : derived chiefly from %- stems (834 f), and thence extended to all kinds of 

stems. Verbs in -ew denote a condition or an activity^ and are often 
intransitive. 

oUe-io dwell (o1ko-s house, oIk%~)^ <pL\i~(o love (^iXo-s dear, 4>t\%~'), 
vTT'qperiu} serve (iJ7n7p^T7js servant^ uinjperd-)^ cirvx-^'O) aril fortunate 
(eirrvxv^ fortiuiate, €vtvx^<t~), fd<r-^-o} hate {fiiaos hate, fiio-eo--'), a(j(f>pov-4~w 
am temperate {<j<h4>p<i}i>'), jmapTvp-^-oj bear witness (pLdprvs, -u/)-os). 
a. Some ew-verbs from eo-stems have older forms in -tfw (624 a). 

3. -0(1) : chiefly derived from o-stems. Verbs in -oo) are nsuaily factitive, denot- 

ing to cause or to make. 

5ij\6-o} manifest, make clear (StJXo-s), 5ouX6-cj enslave (SoOXo-s), ^77X6-0? 
emulate (^rj'Xo-s emulation')^ ^7}pi6-o} punish (^y/^^a damage), pa<TTly6-oj 
whip {fidffTi^, -lyos whip). dp6u) jilorigh has no primitive. 

On the formation of the present stem of verbs in -aw, -eu, -ow, 
see 522. 

4. -€V6) ; derived from substantives from eu-stems (607) and thence extended to 

other stems, ei;ty- verbs usually denote a condition, sometimes an actiinty. 
^atTi\€6-w am king, rule (/^aa-tXeu-s), ^ovXeij-o} counsel (/SovXtJ), KifSt/- 
v€i~o}ventu7^e, incur danger {kI}>^vvo-%) , 7rat5eii-w educate (rah hoy, girl), 
depaire^-o) attend (depdirojv attendant). 

5. -v« (rare) : from u-stems, as 5aKpi5-w weep (ddKpv tear), Cp. 008. 

6. -alia, -i£6> : derived originally from stems in 5 or 7 (as i\7ri^oj hope = iXTrid-io), 

apirdi^o) seize = apiray-Lti}), and thence widely extended to other stems (cp. 
623 5, 7). Snch verbs denote action. 

yvfivd^iij exercise {yv/xvds, -a5-or stripped.^ naked) ; dvoLyKd^ui compel 
(dvdyKT] necessity) ; drl/jid^ia dishonour (drlpjos) ; ^tafo/^ai use force 
(^ia force) ; Oavpud^io wonder (davpa) ; (ppovri^b} take care {(ppovris) ; 
v^pl^b) insult iy^pL-s outrage) ; vopi^ta consider {v6pjo-s custom, law) ; 
T€Lxi^t^ fortify (retx-os wall, stem retxecr-) ; x°-P^to/J^°'L ^0 a favour 
(xapis, -iTos favour). 



246 FORMATION OF WORDS; DENOMINATIVE VERBS [867 

a. Verbs in -t^co and -la^w derived from proper names express an adoption of 

languaffe, manners, opinions^ qv politics : 

eW-ijifl^oj s^jeak Greek ("EWtjv), j9a«:xtafw act like a bacchante 
(^aKxtt^Oi '>^aKU}vl^(o imitate Laconian manners (AaKwi-), /xi^S/^co side 
ivith the Medes (M^5os). 

b. Verbs in -e^^,, -o^oj, and -v^ca are rare (iri^^o} press, poet, decnrS^oj am lord, 

KOKKTLi^oj cry cuckoo). 

7. -atvw : originally from stems in -av + lw (518), but usually extended to other 

stems. See 620, III. 

/jLcXaivot} blacken {fiiXas black, /xeXay-), €v<ppaivci} gladden (€ij<pp(t}v glad, 
einppov'), a-r)/jiaivoj signify (trijA'a, o-'^/iar-os sign), x"'^^'^"'^^^ '^"^ angry 
(xaX€7r6-r hard, angry). 

8. -ijvci) : from stems in w -^ lo} (619). The primitive words of ten show stems 

in V. See 620, III. 

^ad6v(i} deepen {fiadd-^ deep), raxovw hasten (raxii-s swift), aiffxtviij 
disgrace (afo-x-os shame), dappvvio encourage (dapp-t^s courage). 

9. On other denoniinatives in Xw, j'w, pw, see 020, III ; on inceptives see 526-528. 
10. Parallel formations are frequent, often with different meanings. 

apicrrdu) take a midday meal, aptcri^uj give a midday meal; dnixdo}, 
(poet.) dTlii6(t}, aTliid^io dishonour ; SouXocj enslave, So^Xei^tj am a slave,' 
€v5ai.fMv^ijj am happy J ^tbaiiiovi^o} account happy, congratulate; dapp^oj 
am courageous., dapptvw encourage ; 6pK6o}, opd^w make one swear an 
oath; opfidw urge on, bpfiaivoj (poet.) ponder ; opiiio) lie at anchor, opfii^o) 
anchor trans, (opfios anchorage) ; irokGixiw {ttoX^iiI^w Epic) wage war, 
TToXe/j-So} make hostile; <TKi)vdo} put in shelter, mid. take up one'^s abode, 
o-Ktjv^oj am in camp, o-KTjvSto encamp, go into quarters ; a-wcppov^d} am tem- 
perate, ffuxppopi^ot} chasten; Tvpavv4u}, Tvpawejjoj am absolute rider, Tvpav- 
yl^cj take the part of absolute ruler, rvpawidw (late) smack of tyranny. 
.Cp. 531. 

867. Frequentative s and Intensives. — These are mostly poetical. -a« in 
(TTp'jjpdo} turn constantly {<TTpi<p<i} turn), rpioxdu) gallop {rp^xf^ run), TrordofxaL, 
TTOjrdo/Aat, and iror^o/jiaL, jly abOUt {irirofiai fly). -(TTpea) in iXaffrpicj drive {4Xdo}, 
iXavvoj). -raw in o-Kiprdo} sp>ring {<JKaipo} skip), -ra^w in iXKVffrd^cj drag about 
(^Xko) drag). With reduplication, often with change of the stem-vowel, in 
TTOiTTww jmff (TTviw breathe, ttw-), frop^^ipoj gleam darkly {(ptpw mix), 'jra^<paivo} 
shine brightly (jpaivu) bring to light, make appear), 

868. Desideratives express desire. Such verbs end in -o-ctw, -m«, and 
rarely in -aw. Thus, iroXefi-rja-elo} desire to wage war (TroXe/xew) , diraXXa^cla) wish 
to get rid of {dXXdTT<jj exchange), yeXaa-eicj wish to laugh (yeXdcj) ; o-rpaTTjytdcj 
vnsh to be general {ffrpaT-rjyds) ; (povdcj wish to shed blood (<p6vos murder). 

a. Verbs in -iaw and -aw are formed from substantives. Those in -traw may 
come from the futare stem. 

b. -taw and -aw may denote a bodily affection : 6<pdaX/jiLd(jj suffer from oph- 
thalmia {ixpdaX^id), ^pa7xatJ am hoarse (fipayxSs hoarse). Some verbs in 
-cjTTCj (-(jjc-ffcj) have a similar meaning: TvcpXdjTTO) am blind (tv<PX6s), and even 
\lji(h<T<TOi am hungry (Xl/j.6s hunger). 



872] FORMATION OF WORDS: COMFOUND WORDS 247 



COMPOUND WORDS 

869. A compound word is formed by the union of two or more 
parts ; as \oyo-ypd<f>o-^ speech-writer j St-e^-oSo-? outlet (lit. way out 
through). 

a. Compounds of three or more parts usually fall into two separate units ; as 
^arpaxo-fivo—fiax^ battle of the frogs-and-mice. Sucli compounds are common 
in comedy; as a-Tpeif/o-diKo—'irav-ovpyia rascally perversion of justice, 

b. In a compound word two or more members are united under one accent ; 
as in bldckberry contrasted with blade berrij. Most compounds in Greek, an 
inflected language, are genuine compounds, not mere word-groups such as are 
common in English, Yi^liich is for the most part devoid of inflections. 

c. Every compound contains a defining part and a defined part. The definuig 
part usually precedes: eii-rux'^s fortunate, as opposed to Suct-tuxt^s tmfortunate. 
The parts of a compound stand in various syntactical relations to each other, as 
that of adjective or attributive genitive to a substantive, or that of adverb or 
object to a verb, etc. Compounds may thus be regarded as abbreviated forms of 
syntax. Cp. 895 a, 897 N, 1, 

FIRST PART OF A COMPOUND 

870. The first part of a compound may be a noun-stem, a verb- 
stem, a numeral, a preposition or adverb, or an inseparable prefix. 

a. The use of stems in composition is a survival of a period in the history 
of language in which inflections were not fully developed. 

FIRST PART A NOUN-STEM 

871. First Declension (a-stems). — The first part may 

a. end in d or Tj (rarely): dyopd-v6fjio-s clerk of the market (dyopd), vlK7}~(p6po'S 

bringing victory {vikt}). 

b. end in o: dtKo-ypa,(po-s writer of lato-speeches (5£k7j justice'). Here o is 

substituted for a of t]je stem by analogy to o-stems, 
N. —7 Compounds of yrj earth have 7ew- (for 7170- by o4) ; as y€b)-jj.^rp7)s 
surveyor (land-measurer ; jxer pi la measure). Boric has 7a-yn^T/)T7s. Cp. 224 a. 

c. lose itis vowel before a vowel ; K€(f)aK-a\y'r)s cmising head-ache {K^tpaKi} head, 

d'Ky-os pain). 

872. Second Declension (o-stems). — The first part may 

a. end in 0: \oyo-ypd<po-$ speech-writer. 

b. end in d or 17 (rarely): Aa^rz-^oAo-s deer-shooting (^\a<pos, j9ctAAw). Here 7} 

is due to tlie analogy of d-stems. 

c. lose before a vowel : ij,6v~apxo-s monarch (sole rxder : p.bvo~s alone., ^px-^ 

rule). 
N. — Words of the 'Attic' declension may end in w, as veio-Kopo-s custodian 
of a temple (vedjs). 



248 FORMATION OF WORDS: COMPOUis^D WORDS [873 

873. Third Declension (consonant stems). — The first part may 

a. show tlie stem (t, u, au, ov): iJiavTt.-7r6\o-s inspired {fidvTi-s seer, ttA-w, cp. 

-KoXos), ixOv-^6\o~s catching-fish (i'x^os, ^dXXw), ^ov-k6\o-s oocr-herd (j3oC-s, 
-KoXo-s, cp. Lat. colo, and 131). 
N, — A few consonant stems retaiii the consonant: fieXdy-xoXos dipped in 
black bile (/A^Xas, x^M)- See also 870. 

b. add to the stem: (yoi^ar-o-<pi\ai, body-guard (crcD/ia body^ <pv\dTTCj guard), 

/j,T}rp-6~Tro\is mother-city, metropolis (fjL-^rrjp, ir6\is), <pv a L-o-Xdry os natural 
philosopher ((pvat-s nature), IxBv-o-irdXrfs fishmonger (Ix^vs, iruX^u sell). 
C. add a (rarely tj) • iroS-d-vnrrpo-v water for washing the feet (ttovs, vlirr(ji)^ 
XafiTraS-tj-SpofiicL torch-race. 

874. Compounds of ttSs all usually show irdv-^ as irdv-(To4>o-s (and ■ird(r-ao4>os 
101 b) all-wise, wa,p-pr}cia, frankness ('all-speaking'); but also iravr- in irdvT- 
apxos all-ruling y and iravr-o- in iravT-o-ird>\io-v bazaar (^itcjX^cj sell)* 

875. Neuter stems in fxar usually show ixar-o, as dydkfiaT-o-iroid-s sculptor 
(EyaXixa Statue, ttoUcj make). Some have /xa, as 6voiJ.a-K\vT&-s of famous name; 
some show /ao for /jtaro, as aljxo-ppayld hemorrhage (al/ia, -aros blood, p'qywfiL 
break, 80). 

876. Stems in ecr (nom. -7?s or -os) usually drop ea and add ; as fevS-o- 
fiaprvpld false testimony (■•p€vS~r}s) ; and so stems in atr, as Kp€o-<pdyo-s flesh-eating 
(Kp^as, 0a7eiJ' 529. 5). Some stems in ecr and acr retain ea- and a<r (in poetry), as 
craKecr-TrdXo-s Wielding a shield (o-aKos, TrdXXw), cr€\aG-~<p6po-s light-bringing (crAas, 
4>^po})] some add l (for sake of the metre), as 6pe<T~l-Tpo4>os mountain-bred {6pos, 
Tp4<ptj) ; these may belong to 879. 

877. Other abbreviations : yaXa-d-nvd-s nurse (yaXaKT- milk, dT^-aSat give 
suck); fjxXi-Tjd-fjs honey-sweet {fieXir-), /ceXai-pe^i^s black with clouds from 
KcXatTO-s black (cp. 129 c) and v^<pos cloud. 

878. Words once beginning with f or a-. — When the second part consists 
of a word beginning with digamnla, a preceding vowel is often not elided: 
KaKo-€py6s (Epic) doing ill (later KaKovpyos) from pipyo-v work ; /xTjpo-eiSiJs cres- 
cent-shaped {^-hvn moon, fetdos shape) ; rl/jd-opos (later Tifiwp6s) avenging {rlp.-fi 
honour, fopdw observe, defend). — Compounds of -oxos, from '4x<^ have (orig. 
cr^xw, -croxos) contract ; KK-qpovxo^ holding an allotment of land (kXtjpo-s lot), 
TToXi-ovxos protecting a city (for 7roXt-o-oxos). 

879. Flectional Compounds. — A compound whose first part is a case 
form, not a stem, is called a flectional compound (cp. sportsman, kinsfolk) : 
(1) nominative: Tp€L<T-Kai-S€Ka thiHeen; (2) genitive: At6<T-KovpoL Dioscuri 
(sons of Zeus), 'EXXiJct-ttoj'Tos Helle'^s sea, JleXoirov-y-qaos (for UeXowoa-vqaos, 
105 a,) Pelops^ island ; (3) dative: Sopi-XtjirTos won by the spear; (4) locative: 
65oi-7r6pos wayfarer, UvXoi-yev/js born in Fylus. — From such compounds deriva- 
tives may be formed, as "^W-qairbvTLo^ of the Hellespont, deoiaexdpid hatred of 
the gods. 

FIRST PART A VERB-STEM 

880. Some compounds have as their first part a verb-stem (cp. 
break-water^ jpick-pyocket, catch-penny). Sncli coin pounds are usually 



885] FORMATION OF WORDS: COMPOUND WORDS 2rt9 

poetic adjectives. The verb-stem is usually transitive and has the 
form that appears in the present or aorist. 

881. Before a vowel the verb-stem remains unchanged or drops a final 
vowel ; before a consonant it adds e, o, or l : (pip-aa-ins shieldr-b earing ^ }ila--6,vBpw- 
iro9 man-hating (/xco-^-w), iK~€~x^ipla, (125 d) holdi?ig of hands^ t?'uce, ^nr-o-o^Tparia 
desertion of the army^ vIk'6-^ov\os prevailing in the Senate^ apx-t-T^nriiiv master- 
builder. 

882. The verb-stem adds o-t (before a vowel, <t). Some insert e before 
ffi (o-) : o-w-o-i-TToXis saving the state (o-^'fw), pt\p-aa-jris craven^ lit. throwing away 
a shield (ptir-T-o)), b-q^l~6viw$ (and 5aK-€-6vfjLos) heart-eating (5d/c-;'-w), ekK-e-al- 
ir€7r\o? with long train, lit. trailing the robe (cp, iXK-e-x^Ttov) 

a. This e is the vowel added in many verb-stems (485). 

FIRST PART A NUMERAL 

883. The first part of a compound is often a numeral: Sl-ttovs 
biped, Tpt-7rov5 tripod (having three feet), riBp-nrirov four-horse chariot^ 
7r€VT-5B\ov contest in Jive events. 

FIRST PART A PREPOSITION OR ADVERB 

884. A preposition or adverb is often the first part of a com- 
pound : eto--oSos entrance, a7ro-<f>e6yQi Jiee from, ev-rvxo^ ^^(^PPVt act- 
fxvrjcrros ever to he rememhered. 

a. Except when the substantive is treated as a verbal (as in eftr-oSoy ew- 
trance^ cp, ela-Levat enter), prepositions are rarely compounded with substantives. 
Thus, cr^v-SovXos fellow-slave, vTro-dL5dorKa,\os (=6 vtto tlvl 5.) under-teacher ; also 
ixd-XeuKos whitish. 

b. The ordinary euphonic changes occur. Observe that irp6 before may 
contract with o or e to ou : irpo4x^ or irpo^x^ hold before (cp. 449 "b). See 124 a. 

c. -T} sometimes is inserted after a preposition or takes the place of a final 
vowel : v7r€p-7)-(pavos conspicuous, iir-Tj'PoXos having achieved. . 

d. Akin to adverbial compounds are some in <pL\~o, as <pi\o-}ifx6i}t one who 
gladly learns. 

FIRST PART AN INSEPARABLE PREFIX 

885.' Several prefixes occur only in composition : 
1, d(v)- (dj/- before a vowel, d- before a consonant ; alpha privative) with a 
negative force like Lat in-, Eng. un- {or -less) : dv-d^ws unworthy {= o<}k 
A^tos), av-6pjoio% unlike, av-(hZvvo$ anodyne (dddvy pain, cp. 887), d-vovs 
silly, d-TipLos unhonoured, d-Oeos godless, ydfios dyafws marriage that is 
no marriage, d- is also found before words once beginning with digamma 
or sigma: d-ajSry? unpleasant (f-rjd^?), d-opdros unseen (fopdoj), d-oirXos 
without shields (<T07r\ov), and, by contraction with the following vowel, 
aK(3}v (a-f^KOJv unwilling). But dv- often appears: dv-4\iricrTos (and 
fi-eXirros) unhopcd for (feXirh), Hf-oirXos Without shidd. 
a. d-, dp- (for V, 35 b) represent weak forms of r. E. ne 'not,' 



260 FORMATION OF WORDS: COMPOUND WORDS [886 

2, Tjjii- half (Lat. semi-) : t^/xj-kiJ/cXios semi-circular (kvkXos)^ rj^n-iXtos half as 

much again {SXos whole) ^ ijfu-dvi^s half-dead. 

3, 8uo-- (opposed to tC well) ill, un~^ mis-, denoting something difficulty had, or 

unfortunate, as 8ua--Tvx''^s unfortunate, dva-x^p-qs hard to manage, dva- 
5aifi(>}v of ill fortune (contrast ev-rvx'ris, eiJ-xcpiJs, e^-daifid^v), Sv<r-dp€(rTos 
ill-pleased, AitT-irapis ill-starred Faris. 

4, d- (or d-) copulative denotes union, likeness (cp. Lat. con-) ; d~Kb\ovdos at- 

tendant, agreeing with (KeXevdos path: i.e. going on the same road), 
a.-r6.\a.vro^ of the same weighty ^-iras all together. A variation of d-copu- 
lative is d~iutensive : d-rey^^ stretched (jeivi^ stretch), d-Tredos level {irHov 
ground). 
a. d-copiilative stands for <ra- (from o-^ 20, 35 c), and is connected with 
&fia, ofwv^ and bfio- together. 
6. VII- (poetic) -^vith the force of a negative (cp. Lat, ne) : v/}-Troivos unavenged 
(iroLvf} punishment), vq-irevd-q'i freeing from pain and sorrow (-rr^vdos). 
In some cases vt]- may be derived fi'om v (not) and the ?? of the second 
part, as v-tjo-tls not eating (poetic eS-tw, cp. 887). 

6. dpL-, epL- (poetic) with intensive force (cp. dpt-o-ros best), dpL-Trp€ir'r)s very 

distinguished (tt^^ttw), ipi-rlfios precious. 

7. oLYa- (poetic) intensive (cp. ^701/ very) : dyd-crrovos loud wailing (crrevo} 

groan) . 

8. 5a-, 5a- (poetic) intensive (for Sia, ~ dia- very, 116) : i^a-fievr/s very courageous 

(^ivos courage), Sd-o-x-tos thick-shaded (<rKid). 

LAST PART OF A COMPOUND 

886^ Compound Substantives and Adjectives. — The last part of a 
noun-compound consists of dj noun-stem or of a verb-stem with a 
noun-suffix. 

887. Kouns beginning with a, e, "0 lengthen these vowels (a and e to ?/, to 
oj) unless they are long by position. <rTpaT-7j76s army-leading, general {(Trpa.rb's, 
dycj), €v-'qv€}jLos with fair wind (ev well, dve^os), ^ev-rfKaa-la driving out of foreigners 
{^ivo^, iXadvo)), dv-ihw^ios nameless (dv-, lifOfJia), dp-(hfjLa\os uneven (dv-, 6/AaX6s). 

a. Some compounds of (£70; lead show d: \ox-dy6? captain (X6xos company). 

b. By analogy to the compound the simple form sometimes assumes a long 
vowel : -qvefjiiea-a-a vnndy. Cp. 28 D, 

c. Lengthening rarely occurs when a preposition or irds precedes : tyvv-ic^oirld 
conspiracy {6p.vvp.t .swear), ir av-i^y vpis general assembly (dyvpts = dyopa). 

d. The lengthening in 887 is property the result of early contraction Qrr pa.ro 
+ ayos). On tlie pattern of such contracted forms irrational lengthening occurs 
when the first part of the compound ends in a consonant, as dua-TjXey^^ (for 
5i;(r-aXe7?7s) criiel from dX^7w care for. 

888. A noun forming the last part of a conq^ound often changes 
its final syllable. 

N. Masculine or feminine nouns of the second or third declensions usually 
remain unaltered : ev-deos inspired, d-irais childless. 



892] FORMATION OP WORDS: COMPOUXT) WORDS 251 

a. -OS, -"n, -ov : form compound adjectives from nouns of the first declension, 
neuters of the second declension, nouns of the tlnrd declension, and from many 
verb-sieins, a-rlfws dishonoured (tI^t^) , ffi6v-$enrvos companion at table (Sei-n-j'o-v 
meal), df-acfiot bloodless (alfxa^ ^76), imrSy-x^ipos hundred-handed (x^ip)^ daa-p,o~ 
(p6poi bringing tribute ((pip-oj), y^ta-ypdtpoi geographer 871 b. N. (7pd0-w), ix^^- 
o-4>iyos Jish-eating {(pay^iv 529. 6). 

b. -t)s, -€s: form compound adjectives from nouns of tbe first and third de- 
clensions, and from many verb-stems: d-ruxi^s unfortunate (ti^xt?), d^Ka.-err}s 
often years {fh-os)^ ei-eid-qs heautiful in form (eUos), ev-fiae-^s quick at learning 
(^fiavddvbj, /Att^-), d-0ai'i^s invisible {(paLvw, tpav^). 

c. Other endings are -tis (gen. -ov) , ^tis, -rt^p : yebj-fi^rptji surveyor (871 b. N.), 
vofj.o-dirrjs law-giver (vbpjos^ rld-qp.i^ Be-), pLTjXo-^ori^p shepherd (/i^Xov, ^6-crKO} feed). 

d. Neuters in -p.a make adjectives in -ficjjv: rrpaypia thing, 6.-Trpiyp.wv inactive. 
0p^f mz'racf becomes -^pwv: ^^-(ppuu well-mindp.d^ cheerful. — Trar^/j/ai/ier becomes 
-irdTwp : d'irdrojp fatherless^ <pi.\o~Ta.TO}p loving his father. 

e. Compounds of yij land end in -7eios, -7€ws: Kard-yew^ subterranean, 
XeTrrd-^eooi of thin soil. — Compounds of vavs ship-, K^pas horn^ y^pas old age 
end in -ws, as Trepi-veios supercargo^ Oi^i-Kepws lofty-antlered (163 a), d-yifipcjs free 
from old age. 

889. The last member of a compound is often a verbal element that is 
not uaed separately : d7aX/Aar-o-'7rot6s statue-maker^ sculptor, Ott-tJkoos subject 
(dKoOu) hear, dKrfKoa)^ \oyo-ypd(pos speech-writer, -(popos bringing, -dop,os building, 
-Spop^os running are used separately in the meanings tribute^ building, race. 

890. An abstract word can enter into composition only by taking a deriva- 
tive ending (usually -la) formed from a real or assumed compound adjective : 
vav'% ship, P'dxv ff'U^^ = va}j~p.axos, whence vav-pLax^o. naval battle, eS well, 
/SoyXij counsel = e^^^ouXos, whence ev-^ovXld good counsel ; d^'-neg., dpxv ^^^^ 
= &p-(ipxos, whence dv-apxia anarchij ; ed well, irpa^is doing = *ei^pa^os, whence 
ei-TTpa^ld well-doing. Contrast eii-^ou\id with irpo-^oyX'^ forethought, €v-\oyia 
eulogy with Trp6'\oyos prologue. 

a. Only after a preposition does an abstract word remain unchanged : Trpo- 
^ovK-q forethought. Exceptions are rare : p.tcdo-<t>opG. receipt oftoages {p.ta-6bi, tpopd). 

891. Compound Verbs. — Verbs can be compounded directly only by prefix- 
ing a preposition, as a-vp^-pAxop-oa fight along with. 

a. A preposition (irpb-dea-is) derived its name from this use as a prefix. Origi- 
nally all prepositions were adverbs modifying the verb, and in Homer are partly 
so used. See 1638, 1639. Cp. upheave and heave up. 

892. All compound verbs not compounded with prepositions are denominji- 
tives (ending in -ew) and formed from real or assumed compound nouns. From 
vavs ship and pudxv fight comes vaipaxos fighting in ships, whence vavpax^co 
Jight in ships; so olKobop.iu) build a house from olKo~56p.os house-builder (oIkos, 
d^pM)). Contrast dva-Treidco bring over, convince with d-ina-rio} disbelieve (dE-irior- 
ros); dvTi-\iyo} speak against with hpa~\oyi<^ agree (6fji6\oyos agreeing). — e5 
d77AXaj announce good news cannot form a verb €ia77€XX(«j. 

a. drt/xdw (dr/to) dishonour. Saxpux^w shed tears are exceptions, dif-opoibco 
make unlike is not from dv- and bpjatbfa but from dv-bpotos unlike. 



252 FORMATION OF WORDS: ACCENT OF COMPOUNDS [893 



ACCENT OF COMPOUNDS 

893. Compounds generally have recessive accent, as tj>ik6-Ti{s.o<i 
loving-honour (rZ/u.?)). But there are many exceptions, e.g. — 

a. Primitives in -A, -1^, -^j, -eiJs, -//6s, and -^s usually keep their accent when 
compounded ; except dissyllabic words in -d, -^, --^s whose first part is not a 
preposition. Thus, KpiT-rjs judge, vTroKpiT^^ actoi\ 6v€LpoKpiT't)s intei-preter of dreams. 

b. Compound adjectives in -ijs, -es are usually oxytone : ei'ycp-rjs well-born. 

894. Compounds in -09 (not ~tos or -/cos) formed by the union of a noun or 
adverb and the stem of a transitive verb are : 

a. oxytone, when they have a long penult and an active meaning : (Trpar-irriis 

general. 

b. paroxytone^ when they have short penult and an active meaning: irarpo- 

kt6vos parricide^ \t6o-p6\os throvjing-stones^ Xat/xo-ri/zos throat-cutting ^ vdpo- 
<p6pos water-carrier. 

c. propar oxytone., when they have a short penult and passive meaning : irarpS- 

KTovos slain by a father, Xi^6-j3oAos pelted ivith stones.^ \ai/i6-To/xoit with 

throat cut, air6-'Ypa<pos written with one''s own hand. 
N. — Active compounds of -oxos (e^-w, 878), -apxos (&px~^)i -<tv\os (<7v\d-o} 
rob), -TTopeos (frepd-oj destroy) are proparoxytone ; i]vi-oxos {rein-holder) diariot- 
eer, XTnr-a.pxos commander of horses, lepd-crv'Xos temple-robber, TrToKl-iropOos sacking 
cities, pa^dovxos staff-hearer (pa^S6s) is contracted from pa§d6-oxos. 

MEANINa OF COMPOUNDS 

895; Compound nouns (substantives and adjectives) are divided, 
according to their meaning, into three main classes : determinative^ 
possessive, and prepositio7ial-phrase, compounds. 

a. The logical relation of the parts of compounds varies so greatly that boun- 
dary-lines between the different classes are difficult to set up, and a complete 
formal division is impossible. The poets show a much wider range of usage 
than the prose-writers. 

896. Determinative Compounds . — In most determinative com pound s 
the first part modifies or determines the second part : the modifier 
stands first, the principal word second. 

Thus by ha^nd-work a particular kind of work is meant, as contrasted with 
machine-work; cp. speech-writer and letter-writer, race-horse and horse-race. 

a. The first part may be an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, an inseparable 
prefix, or, in a few cases, a substantive. 

897. There are two kinds of determinative compounds. 

(1) Descriptive determinative compounds. — The first part defines or ex- 
plains the second part in the sense of an adjective or adverb. (This class is 
less numerous than the second class.) 

dfcpA-TToXts upper city, citadel (&Kpd TrS'Xts), 6/x6-dov'hos fellow-slave (dfxov Sov- 
"Keiitav, cp. 885. 4 a), d'-pi-yoyos late-born (6^pk yivbfievo's) , tt po-^ovKi) forethought, 



898] FORMATION OF WOllDS : MEAN ING OF COMPOUNDS 2o3 

d(x<pi-$^aTpov amphitheatre (a place-for-seeiiig round about), &-ypa<pos not written 
(oif yeypafijji^vos) . 

a. Copulative compounds are formed by the coordination of two substantives 
or adjectives : tar p6~/jLavT is physician and seer, y\vKi-TrtKpos sweetly-Utter. Similar 
is deaf-mute. So also in numerals ; diJh-deKa two (and) ten = 12. 

b. Comparative compounds (generally poetic) are /ieXi-j/SiJj honey-sweet 
(/ie'Xt, r)8vs) , iroS-i^v€fios ' Jpis Iris^ loith feet swift as the wind. Cp. eagle-eyed, 
goldfish, blockhead. Such compounds are often possessive (898) , as ^odo-dd- 
KTvXos rosy-Jingered, XpDtro-Ko/ii;? golden-haired. 

(2) Dependent determinative compounds. — A substantive forming either 
the first or the second part stands in the sense of an oblique case (with ox with- 
out a preposition) to the other part. 

Accusative : 'Koyo-ypdfpo? speech-writer (\6yovs ypd<pb}v')^ (rTptLT-'ijy6s army- 
leading^ general (yrparbv dycav)^ tpiX-dvOpwiros loving mankind (0iXajj/ dv6p<hTrovs)^ 
ScKTL-daifxwv superstitious (SeSiws tous Saifxavas) ; cp. pickpocket^ sightseer^ pains- 
taking, soothsayer, laughtei^-loving. 

Genitive ;. aTpaTb-tre^ov camp (a-rparov tt^Bop ground on which an army is 
encamped). In d^io-'Xoyos worthy of mention (d^ios \6yov) the defining part 
stands second (869 c) and is governed by the adjective part like a preposition 
(cp. 899). Cp. ringmaster, law-officer, jest-book, 

(Ablative): dvcixo-ffKeir-fis sheltering from the wind ; cp. land-breeze, sea-hreeze. 

Dative: laS-Oeos godlike (ta-os ^ew) ; cp. churchgoer, blood-thirsty. 

(Instrumental) : xetp-o-Troir^Tos made by hand (x^P'^^'- t''oi7}t6s), xpDcr6-5eTos 
bound with gold ixp^<^V 5eT6s) ; cp, thimder-strxick, storm-swept, star-sown. 

(Locative): olKo-yeyris born in the house (ev of/cy y€v6iJ.€vos), 6doi-ir6pos way- 
farer (879) ; cp. heartsick. 

N 1. — The Greeks did not think of any actual case relation as existing in these 
compounds, and the case relation that exists is purely logical. The same form 
may be analysed in different ways, as (piXdvOpioiro^ = <pi\u>v dv6p6irov$ or = (pl\os 
dvOpdjTOjy. 

N. 2. — Such compounds may often be analysed by a preposition and a de- 
pendent noun : Oeo-dixrjros god-built (ifirb rG>v deSjv dfn}T6s). 

898. Possessive Compounds. — In possessive compounds the fixsi; 
part defines the second as in determinatives ; but the whole com- 
pound is an adjective expressing a quality, with the idea of pos- 
session understood. In most possessive compounds the idea of 
having (e'xwv) is to be supplied. 

So, in English, redbreast is a bird having a red breast, the first part being an 
attribute of the second. 

dpyvp6-ro^Q$ having a silver ho^o ; jjxxKp6-x€ip having long arms, long-armed; 
deo-eiS-^/ls having the appearance (d^os) of a god, godlike; (Tii}-<ppwv having sound 
mind, temperate; Tcdp-Linros having four horses ; omS-tpottos of like character 
(opjo- occurs only in compounds, but note S/jjolos like); TroXu-zc^^aXo? many-headed ; 
ed-Tvx-^s having good fortune, fortunate ; SeKa-^ri^s lasting ten years (cp. a two- 
year-old) ; djXfpt-Kiojv having pillars round about; ev-Beos inspired (having a god 
within : iv iavr^ deiiv e'xo;;'). 



254: FOKMATION OF WORDS : MP:aNING OF COMPOUJSTDS [899 

a. Adjectives in -eiS-ris from eJdos form (aarep-o-eid-ris star-like, Ix0v-o-€i5'^s 
Jish-like, ^irfv-o-ciS-rjs crescent, iroXu-etSiJs of many kinds^ o-(paip-o-et57)s spherical) 
are to be distinguished from those in -d}5r,s derived from 6^0; sincll (833 a). 

b. English pos,sessive compounds in -ed apply that ending only to the com- 
pound as a whole and not to either member. In Milton : deep-throated, white- 
handed^ open-hearted; in Keats : sxibtle-caderwed. Besides those in -ed there 
are others such as Bluebeard. 

c. Many possessive compounds begin with d{v)~ negative or Sua- ill ; as <£-7rats 
childless (having no children or 7iot having children^ iraXbas ovk iyuiv)^ &-rtp.os 
dishonoured (haoing no honour)^ 5ricr-^ov\os ill advised (having evil counsels). 

899. Prepositional-phrase Compounds. — Many phrases made of a 
preposition and its object unite to form a compound and take on 
adjectival inflection. Such compounds are equivalent to the phrases 
in question with the idea of hemg ov the like added. 

Hir-oiKos colonist (away from home : air olkov) ; ^7xcipt5ios in the hand^ dagger 
(4y x^'-pO > ^yx.'^pi-os native (in the country : iv x<^P9-) ', iTriOaXdrTios dwelling on 
the coast (cttI daXdrrrj) ; i(p€<TTios on the hearth (i<p' eo-rf^) ; Kardyetos under- 
ground, cp. subterranean (Kara 7^5) ; Tapd-So^os contrary to opinion (irapd 
So^av) ; Trapd-fppcciv out of one''s onind, Lat. de~mens (irapd ttjv <f>p€va) ; vTr-eiBvvo^ 
under liability to give account (vir evdovais) ; so (ppoOSos gone ( —Trpo bbov y^vb- 
^levos, cp. 124 a). 

a. From such phrases are derived verbs and substantives : iyxeipit^^ put into 
one's hands, entrust, hiax^i-pi^^ have in hand^ manage (5ta xeipu);'), biairacwv 
octave-scald (7? bid Trdo-wv xopSu)^ (yvp.<pu}yia. the coucord through all the notes'). 
By analogy to iKTobJiv out of the way (eK vobujv) come ipuroSibv in the way and 
^/A7r65tos impciling., i^nrobi^oi impede. 

b. Tlie compounds of 899 I'epresent bits of syntax used so frequently together 
that they have become adherent. 



PAET IV 

SYNTAX 

DEFINITIONS 

900. A sentence expresses a thought Syntax (avvraiig arranging 
together) shows how the different parts of speech and their different 
inflectional forms are employed to form sentences. 

901. Sentences are either complete or incomplete (904). 

902. Every complete sentence must contain two members : 

1. The Subject : the person or thing about which something is said. 

2. The Predicate : what is said about the subject. 

Thus, t6 ^^pos (subj.) ^reXei^ra (pred.) the summer \ came to an end T. 3. 102, 
^X^e (pred.) KTjpv^ (subj.) a herald | came 3. US. 

903. Cojnplete sentences are simple, compound, or comjilex. In 
the simple sentence subject and predicate occur only once, A conv 
pound sentence (2162) consists of two or more simple sentences coor- 
dinated: rrj S^ v<rT€pa.La iTroptvovro Sia tov neSiOV, Kal Tiacra(^€pvr)<; eiTrero 
bid on the next day they marched through the plain and Tissaphernes 
kept following them X. A. 3. 4. 18. A complex sentence (2173) consists 
of a main sentence and one or more subordinate sentences : oTrore 5eot 
y€<f>vpciv Sia/3ai'v€iv, tcTTrevhev €Kao-To<; whenever it was necessary to cross a 
bridge, every one made haste 3. 4. 20, 

904. Incomplete sentences consist of a single member only. Such 
sentences stand outside the structure of the sentence. The chief 
classes of incomplete sentences are 

a. Iiitei'jections, such as c5, $l)eC, aWi, otfioi. 

b. Asseverations which serve as a predicate to a sentence spoken by another ; 
yal yes, surely, oij no, fxaXicTa certainly, KaXujs very well! 

c. Headings, titles: Kb/jov ' kva^aais the Expedition of Cprus^ 'AvTiy6vT} the 
Antigone, o-vMA^axfa ' Adr)va.iii}v koX Q^TToCKOtv the Alliance of the Athenians and 
Tfiessalians C. I. A. 4. 2. 69 b. 

d. Vocatives (1283), and nominatives used in exclamation (1288). 

e. Exclamations without a verb ; SeCpo hither I 

N. — Examples of such incomplete sentences in English are oh, assuredly, 
no wonder, right about face, away, fire I 

255 



256 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [905 

905. True impersonal verbs (932) have a grammatical subject in the personal 
ending ; but the real subject is properly an idea more or less vague Lhat is present 
to the mind of the speaker. Similar in nature are infinitives used in commands 
(2013). 

SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 

906. The most simple form of sentence is the finite verb: ia-rC 
he-is, Xeyo-fjiev we-say, hre-aOe yoxi-follow, • 

Here the subject is in the personal ending, the predicate in the verbal stem- 
No other single word tlian a verb can of itself form a complete sentence. 

907. The subject of a sentence is a substantive or one of its 
equivalents. 

908. Equivalents of the Substantive. — The function of the substantive 
may be assumed by a pronoun, adjective (in masculine and feminine more fre- 
quently with the article), numeral, participle, relative clause (0? iXiQ^Srjtrav rdv 
iroXefilcjy ra&riL ^yyeWov those of the enemy icho were captured made the same 
report X, A. 1. 7. 13) ; by the article with an adverb {oi t6t€ the men of that day), 
or with the genitive (rd rijs t6xv^ the incidents of fortune, fortjine (1299)); by 
a prepositional phrase (oi dfi4)i rbv 'SojKpdrT) Socrates and his followers; iirl fiiya 
a great part)^ a preposition with a numeral {ic^vyov irepl oKraKOffiovs about eight 
hundred took to flight X. H. 6. 5. 10); by an infinitive with or without tlie article 
(1984, 2025); and by any word or phrase viewed merely as a thing {rb tfiett 
bray \4yw, ttjv 7r6X(v X^7w when I say You, I mean the State D. 18. 88). Cp. 
1153 g. (ITurthermore, by a clause in a complex sentence, 2189. 1.) 

909. The predicate of a sentence is always a verb. The verb 
may either stand alone^ as in neptfcX^s ojryjXOe Pericles departed; or 
it may have certain modifiers, called comjAements to the predicate 
(nouns, participles, adverbs), as Ile/ptKXiys ojrYjXB^ Trpwros first (opyt^o- 
/tei/os in anger; rore then), Cp. 924. 

910. Predicate Nouns. — Nouns (substantival or adjectival) are 
often used as complements to the predicate. Thus, 

a. A predicate substantive is a substantive forming pai-t of the 
predicate and asserting something of its substantive : llepiKXrj^ VP^^V 
(TTparrjyos PeHcles was elected general^ ^iKta-O^ iKclvov irpca/ievri^v you 
elected him envoy L. 13, 10. 

b. A predicate adjective is an adjective forming part of the predicate 
and asserting something of its substantive : 6 avr^p StVato^ eo-rt the man 
is just, hofjitcrav IlepLKXed evTV)^ they thought Pericles fortunate. 

911. A predicate substantive or adjective may often be distinguished from 
an attributive (912) in that the former implies some form of elvaL be. Tims, 
wpecrpevTi^v and eirvxi) h\ 910. After verbs signifying to name or call, eJvai 
is sometimes expressed (1615), 

912. Attributive Adjective. — An attributive adjective is an adjec- 
tive simply added to a noun to describe it, and not forming any part 
of an assertion made about it : 6 St/caio? dvyjp the just-man. 



}2o] APPOSiTlVE, COPULA, OBJKCT 257 

913. All adjectives that are not attributiYe are predicate. So TpQroi arjti- 
Kovro they were the Jirst to arrive (1042 b), rotJrtf) tpl\(^ xp*^f^°^'- I tr^dt this man 
as a friend (= oSroy, ^ xp^f^'-i ipi^os icrTi). 

914. Under adjectives are included participles : 6 fxcWujv (attrib.) x6Xe/Aos 
the future wm\ ravra dirfby (pred.) dTTTjeti' saying this he went off, opCj tre 
KpifTTTovra (pred.) I see you hiding. 

915. Predicate substantives, adjectives, and participles, in agreement either 
with subject or object, are more common in Greek than in English, and often 
call for special shifts in translation : ^erecSpouy i^eKo/xKrav ras d^a^as th&y lifted 
the wagons and carried them out X. A. 1. 5. 8. Cp. 1579. 

916. Appositive. — An appositive is a noun added to another noun 
or to a pronoun to describe or define it : MtAnaST^s 6 o-TpaTrjyos Mil- 
tiadeSj the general^ vfj-cU ol tepets you, the priests, tovto, S crv etTre?, ael 
Trapeo-Tt^ axoXi] thiSy wkich you mentioned, is always present, (I mean) 
leisure P. Th. 172 d. 

917. Copula. — An indeterminate verb that serves simply to coupJe 
a predicate substantive or adjective to the subject is called a copula: 
Sefot^cjv rjv ^AOrjvatog Xenophoii was an Athenian. 

a. The most common copulative verbs are dvon he and ytyveadat become. 
Many other verbs serve as copulas: KaSla-ratrdai become, ir€<pvKiva.t.^ vrdpxeiy, ■n-^'Setv 
(poetical) be, Sokclv seem, <paiy€0-6at appear, KoKe'ia'dat, di^opbd^eadai^ aKoi!i€LV, k\6€lu 
(poetical) be called, Tvyx°-^^^^-> icvp^iv (;poQ%.) happen, turn out, alpeicdai be chosen, 
yopi^ecdoLi he regarded, KpiyetrBat be jiidged, and the like. 

918. a. • The copula is strictly the predicate or is a part of the predicate with 
its supplements. 

b. The above verbs may also be complete predicates : eo-rt debt there is' a god. 

c. Por the omission of tlie copula, see 944. 

d. A predicate substantive or adjective stands in the same case as the subject 
when coupled to it by a copulative verb (939). 

e. Por elvai added to a copulative verb, see 1615. 

919. Object. — A verb may have an object on which its action is 
exerted. The object is a substantive (or its equivalent, 908) in an 
oblique case. An object may be direct (in the accusative) or indirect 
(in the genitive or dative) : Kvpos Swo-et ei /xvas (direct) rS So-uXw (in- 
direct) Gyrus will give sixminae to the slave, tka^ov tt]<; ^wvt;? (indirect) 
rbv ^Opovrav (direct) they took hold of Orontas by the girdle X. A. 1. 
6. 10. 

920. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. — Verbs capable of taking 
a direct object are called transitive because their action 2)asses over 
to an object, Other verbs are called intransitive. 

a. But many intransitive verbs, as in English, are used transitively (1558, 
1559), and verbs usually tmnsitive often take an indirect object (1341 ft., 1460 ff., 
1471 ff.). 

GREEK GRAM. —17 



258 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [gai 



KINDS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

921. Simple sentences have six forms: Statements; Assump- 
tions, Commands, Wishes ; Questions; and Exclamations. Of these, 
Assumptions, Commands, and Wishes express will. See 2153 ff. 

EXPANSION OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 

922. The subject and the predicate may be expanded by amplifi- 
cation or qualification : 

923. Expansion of the Subject. —The suToject may he expanded: A. By 
amjjUJication : ^eAas Kal Rao-Lcov a.Tr^ir'Kevaav JCcnias and Pasion sailed away. 
B. By qualification : 1. By an attributive adjective, 6 dyadbs av-^p the good man., 
an attiibutive substantive denoting occupation^ condition, or age., dyijp crpa-r-riybs 
a captain (986), an adjective pronoun or numeral: jjixirtpos (piXos a friend of 
ourSj 560 TraiSe? two children. 2. By the genitive of a noun or substantive pro- 
noun (adnominal or attributive genitive): crr^tpavos xpiJo-oi? a crown of gold, 6 
irar^p -q/xQv our father. 3. By a prepositional phrase: odbs Kara tou yr}\6ipou 
a way doien the hill. 4. By an adverb : ol vvv HvdpwTroL the men of the present 
day. 6. By an appositive (910). A substantive in any case may be quahfied 
like the subject. 

924. Expansion of the Predicate. — The predicate may "be expanded : A. By 
amplification : oi Xoxayot aiTTfKdov Kal iTrolovy ovto) the captains departed and did 
so. B. By qualification : 1. By the oblique case of a noun, a substantive pro- 
noun, or a numeral. This is called the object (919, 920). Thus: 6pSy rbv dv5pa 
I see the man, 4>03vt\s d^oiJw / hear a voice, eiVeTo tQ) i^yejxbvL hP, followed the 
guide., dyatra -qfias he loves us, iviKrjae tt}v /J.dxv^ he won the battle (cognate 
accusative, 1567), eSw/ca b^Ka I gave ten. The oblique case may be followed by 
an adnominal genitive or a dative i-opuj 7ro\\oi>s rdv ■wo'KlrQv I see, many of the 
citizens. 2. By a preposition with its appropriate case: ^Xdov iirl tcls (TKrjvds 
they went to their tents. 3. By an infinitive : e^Aet aTrekdfXv he wishes to depart. 
4. By a participle : dp^ofjiai \iycjv I will begin my speech. 5. By an adverb or 
adverbial expression; ed tcrcj let him knoio wall, rrjs pvktos ^\d€ he came during 
the night., a-KriKd^ rpiTaTos he departed on the third day (1042). On complements 
to the predicate, see 909. 

AGREEMENT: THE CONCORDS 

925. There are three concords in simple sentences : 

1. A finite verb agrees with its subject in .number and person 
(949). 

2. A word in apposition with another word agrees with it in case 
(976), 

3. An adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, number, and 
case (1020). 

(For the concord of relative pronouns, see 2501.) 



931] THE SUI3JECT 259 

926. Apparent violation of the concords is to be explained either by 

a. Construction according to sense, where the agreement is with the 
real gender or number (e.g. 949 a, 950-953, 958, 996, 997, 1013, 1044, 
1050, 1055 a, 1058 b) ; or by 

b. Attrcictiorij when a word does not have its natural construction 
because of the influence of some other word or words in its clause 
(e.g. 1060 f£., 1239, 1978, 2465, 2502, 2522 ff.). This principle 
extends to moods and tenses (2183 ff.). 

THE SUBJECT 

927. The subject of a'finite verb is in the nominative: Kvpos Ijgoa 
Cyrus called out, 

928. The subject nominative may be replaced 

a. By a prepositional phrase in the accusative : ^v6v/xec<r&€ Ka&' eKda-rovs re Kal 
lii^TTafres Consider individually and all together T. 7. 64. 

b. By a genitive of the divided whole (1318) : IleXXTji'ers 5^ Kara Qe<nnias y€v6- 
pievoi ijxdxovTd re Kai h xtipa eirTirrov €Ka.r4pojv the Pellcnians who were opposed 
to the Thespians kept up the contest and several on both sides fell on the spot 
X. H. 4. 2. 20. 

OMISSION OF THE SUBJECT 

929. An unemphatic pronoun of the first or second, person is 
generally omitted : Xe'ye tov vofxov read the laio (spoken to the clerk 
of the court) D. 21. 8. 

930. An emphatic pronoun is generally expressed, as in contrasts : a-ii /xkv 
Keivov hd^xov^ iyih 5' ^Tret/it do thou wait for him, but J will depart S. Fh. 123. 
But often in poetry and sometimes in prose the pronoun is expressed when no 
contrast is intended. The first of two contrasted pronouns is sometimes oniitted : 
dXXa, el jSoiJXei, /iej'' ^irt t^ <rTpaTe6/xa,Ti, iyi) 5' iO^Xw Tropeiietr^at but, if you prefer^ 
remain with your division, lam willing to go X. A. 3. 4. 41. Cp. 1190, 1191. 

931. The nominative subject of the third person may be omitted 

a. "When it is expressed or implied in the context : 6 <r6s Trctr?;/) (po^drai /xt) to. 
€<rxara irddy your father is afraid lest he sufar death X. C. 3. 1. 22. 

b. When the subject is indefinite, especially when it is the same person or 
thing as the omitted subject of a preceding infinitive (937 a) : ^ tov oteffdat eiUvai 
(liMiQla), a ovK oJdev the ignorance of thinking one knows lohot one doe& not 
know P. A. 29 b. Often in legal language: 6 vbixo^, Ss /ceXeiiei to. eavrov i^etvai 
diaOea-daL Sinos ay iO^Xr) the law-, w>hich enjoins that a man has the right to dis~ 
piose of his p)ropertij as he wishes Is, 2. 13. 

c. AVhen a panicnlar person is meant, who is easily understood from tlie 
situation : robs i^o/xovs dvayv(haeTaL hc (the clerk) xcill read the laws Aes. 3. 15. 

d. When it is a general idea of person, and usually in the third person plural 
of verbs of saying and thinking : tl>s \iyovaLv as they say D. 5. 18. So <pQ.ai they 
saij, otovrai people think; cp. aiimt-, ferunt^ tradimt. 



260 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [932 

e. In descriptions of locality: ^vde KpTj/AvwSes/or it (the place) was steep T. 7. 84. 

f. In impersonal verbs (932, 934). 

932. Impersonal Verbs (905). — The subject of a true impersonal 
verb is a vague notion that cannot be supplied from the context: 

oi^€ rjv it was latGy KakSis ■ €)(€i it is ivell^ -^Zrj ^v afJ^<f>l ayophv TrXyjOovaav 
it was already about the time when the marhet-place is full X. A. 1, 8. 1, 
avTw ov Trpovx^p^i- H (the course of events) (Z^cZ not go well with him T. 1. 109, 

933. An impersonal verb the subject of which may be derived from 
the context is called quasi-impersonaL 

a. When the indefinite it anticipates an infinitive or subordinate proposition 
which forms the logical subject (1985). So with SoKet it seems^ a-v/x^ahei it /iry> 
X>ens^ '4^e<jTL it is perinittedj irp^xet, irpoa-'^KeL it is fitting-, (paiverai it appears^ 
iyivero it happened^ eicrj/et ^e venit me in mentem^ StjXoi it is evident^ etc. Thus, 
vfxds irpoa-'^Kei irpoOvfior^povs elvat it behooves you to be more zealous X. A. 3. 2. 1 5, 
eicrrJEL avToi)s ^ttws &v otKade a<piKU2vr<iL it came into their thoughts how they should 
reach home 6. 1. 17, 

b. So also with XP"^^ ^^^ it is necessary ; as, Set <t iXdeTv you ought to go (lit. to 
go binds you) . Tiie impersonal construction with ~t4oj' is equivalent to Set (2152 a) : 
^oTjdTjT^ov icrrl to?s Trpdyfiacriv v/xTv you must rescue the interests at stake D. 1, 17. 

934. In some so-called impersonal verbs the person is left unexpressed be- 
cause the actor is understood or implied in the action. So 

a. In expressions of natural phenomena originally viewed as produced by a 
divine agent : ^povra tonat^ v^i pluity veltpet ningit, xet^d^et it is stormy^ ecreiae 
it shook^ there was an earthquake. Tiie agent (ZeiJs, 6 (9e6s) is often (in Honi. 
always) expressed, as Zei>s da-TpdirTeL Tuppiter fidget. 

b. When the agent is known from the action, which is viewed as alone of 
importance : craXiri^ei the trumpet sounds (i.e. 6 <ra\Tn,yKT7)s <rd\irL^€L the trumpeter 
sounds the trurapet}^ iK-^pv^e proclamation was made {sciL 6 Kijpv^), crijiialvei the 
signal is given {sciL 6 KTJpv^ or 6 craXwi'yK.Tijs). 

935. In impersonal passives the subject is merely indicated in the verbal 
ending : \4yeraL re Kai ypdcperai speeches (\6yoi) and writings (ypdfj.jMiTa) are 
composed P. Fhae. 261 b. This construction is relatively rare, but commonest 
in the perfect and pluperfect : ovk dXXws ai>ToU ireTrovrjTai their labour has not 
been lost P. Phae. 232 a, iirel avroTt iroLpeffKc^aaro when their preparations were 
completed X. H. 1. 3. 20. 

936. Subject of the Infinitive. — The subject of the infinitive is in 
the accusa-tive : iKiXcvov avTov<; Tropevea-Oai they ordered that they should 
proceed X. A. 4.2.1. 

a. See 1975. On the nominative subject of the infinitive, see 1973. 

937. Omission of the Subject of the Infinitive. — The subject of the in- 
finitive is usually not expressed when it is the same as the subject or object 
(direct or indirect) of the principal verb ; €0?? idiXeiv he said he was unUing 
X. A. 4, 1. 27 (contrast dixit se velle)^ Trayres alTovvrac ToifS 6eoi>i to. (pavXa diro- 



944] THE NOMINATIVE 261 

Tpiireiy everybody prays the gods to avert evil X. S. 4. 47, h6s fwi rpus ij/Jpa? &p^ai 
ainov grant me the control of him for three days X. C. 1. 3. 11. Cp. 1060, 1973. 
a. An indefinite subject of the infinitive (rtj/d, avdpi^-rrov^) is usually omitted. 
Cp. 931 b, 1980. 

CASE OF THE SUBJECT: THE NOMINATIVE 

938. The nominative is tlie case of the subject ; the obliqne cases, 
with the exception of the adnominal genitive (1290 If.) and adnomiual 
dative (1502), are complements of the predicate. 

. 939. The nominative is the case of the subject of a finite verb and 
of a predicate nonn in agreement with the subject. Xlpolefo? Traprjv 
Proxenus was present X. A. 1. 2. 3, KXeapxo? 4>vyas rjv Clearchus was 
an exile 1. 1. 9. 

a. On the nominative subject of the infinitive, see 1973 ; in exclamations, 1288. 

940. Independent Nominative. — The nominative may be used independ- 
ently in citing the names of persons and things: wpo(T€L\'n(p€ t7]v tCjv irovnpQv 
KOLvrjv iirojvvpiiav <TVKo<pdvT7}s he received the common appellation of the vile, i.e. 
'' informer'' Aes. 2. 99, t6 6' u/ie?? orav \iyu, \4ybi ttjv trhXtv when I say YoUf I 
mean the State D. 18. 88. Cp. 908, (The accus. is also possible.) So in lists 
(cp. 904 c) ; TldT)iu 5iio iroiTjTtKTJs ddri * deia p-kv koI dvdpuirlvT] lassumte tWO kinds of 
poetry : the divine and the human P. Soph. 266 d. 

941. A sentence may begin with the nominative as the subject of the tliouglit 
in place of an oblique case : ol hk 0iXot, civ tls iTriar-qrat airoLS xPW^o,i-> ^^ (p'^^o'op.ev 
aiirois elvat ; but as for friends^ if one knows how to treat them^ what shall we call 
them ? X. O. 1. 14 (for Tobs 8k <pL\ovs . , . rl <p'l}crop,€V ^IvaC). 

a. On the nominative in suspense see under Anacoluthon (Index) , 

942. In referring to himself in letters a man may use his own name in tlie 
nominative, either in apposition to the first person contahied in the verb (976), or 
as subject of a verb in the third person ; Q^pio-roKXTjs iJKO} irapd <r^ I, Themistocles, 
have come to you T. 1. 137, ' kpTa^4p^T}5 vopLl^eL Artaxerxes thinks X. H. 5. 1. 31. 

a. A speaker referring to himself in the third person usually soon reverts 
to the first i3erson (D. 18. 79). 

943. When there is no danger of obscurity, the subject may shift without 
warning: piav p.kv vaOv XapL^dfovciv, ras S' dXXa? ovtc idvv7}dri<rav^ dXX' dTro(p€^yov<rLv 
they captured one ship; the rest they were ttnahle to capttire; hut they (tlie 
ships) escaped T. 7. 25, tQv v6p.o}v avrQv dKo^O^r^ ri K€\e\jov(TL fcal ri irapa^e^'/jKdtnv 
hear what the laws themselves command and what transgressions they (my oppo- 
nents) have committed D. 59. 116. 

THE PREDICATE 

Omission of the Verb 

944. Ellipsis of the Copula. — The copulative verb elvai is often 
omitted, especially the forms eo-rt and dai This occurs chiefly 



262 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [945 

a. In general or proverloial stateuieMts ; Kotvi] ij r^xv Kal rh fiiXhov ddpdrov 
chance is common to all and the future cannot he scanned I. 1. 20 ; b. in expres- 
sions of necessity, dut-y, etc. : avdyKT] (puXaTTendai it is necessary to be on our 
guard D. 9. 6. So witli <&/)d, Kaipds, eUSs, xP^^^i 5^;/, verbals i]i -t4ov (2152), as 
Bepairevriov rovs Oeo^s we Qiiust serve the gods X. M. 2. 1. 28; c. with various 
adjectives: fi^tos, 5u;'aT6s, 7rp6dvfxos^ Sf/catos, oios, (ppovdot, HoipiOt ; tliUS, i} ^/vx^ 
dovXe^eiv eroifxr] the soul is ready to be a servant P. Phae. 252 a, ei rts iirepcorc^itj 
irhnpov KpciTTov if anybody should ask vjhether it is better X. M. 1. 1. 9. 

945. Other forms of eivai are less commonly omitted : KoivwveXv ^Toi/xos (scil, 
€ifii)j olfxai 5^ Kal AdxvT<^ rovSe (scil, eroifxoy eJrai) / am ready to assist you and 
I think that Laches here is also ready P. Lach, 180 a, ov o-i) \oyoypd4>os (scil ei) ; 
are you not a speech-writer? D. 19. 250, vi>^ iv (i4(ri^ (scil, ^v) the night was half 
gone Aes. 3. 71, firoTra X^yeis Kal oiiSa/iojj irpos (rov {scil. Svto) you are talking 
absurdly and not at all Wee yourself X. M. 2. 3. 15, rois deoh iieylffT-q x^^pts 
(scil. effTu) to the gods let our heartiest thanks he given X. C. 7. 5. 72. Cp. 1041. 

946. In lively discourse the form of a verb signifying to do, speak^ come, go^ 
etc., may be omitted for brevity. The ellipsis is often unconscious and it is 
frequently uncertain what is to be supplied to complete the thought. Thus, rl 
SXko (scil. iiroinja-av) ^ iire^o^Xevffav ; wJiat else did they do except plot against us ? 
T. 3, 39, oi/Sev &X\o (scil, ttolwv) 7) ir6\Lv tt^v avrov diroXeiirojv doing nophing else ex- 
cept leaving his native city 2. 16, tva tI (scil. y4vT}rai) ; to what purpose f B. 19, 257, 
Trept ix€v To-uTov Kara (TxoKijv (scil. \i^oj) ahout this by and by 24. 187, /tij fxol ye 
(xvdov^ (scil. ^i^-nre) none of your legends for me ! Ar. Yesp. 1179, dXV (aKi^paaOe) 
Hrepov but consider another point L. 13. 79, c5 0iXe ^aTSpe, iroi dr] (scil. ei) Kal 
irhdev (scil. ^Keis) ; my dear Phaedrus whither, I beg of you, are you going and 
whence do you come ? P. Phae. 227 a, ovk es KbpaKat (scil. ippTfjo-eis) j will you nothe 
off to the crows ? Ar. Nub. 871, irpos o-e (scil, \k€T€<}w) yovdnop I entreat thee by 
thy knees E. Med. 324. Cp. 1599. 

947. Kai ravra and that too takps up a preceding expression : dypiojT^povs 
a&rois dirifpiqve . . . Kal raOr' els avrbv he made them more savage and that too 
toxoards himself P. G. 516 c ; often with concessive participles (2083) : Miviava 
5' oiiK i^T^rei, Kal ravra Trap' ' Apiaiov &v roD M4vwvos ^ivov he did not ask for Menon 
and that too although he came from Ariaeus, Menon'' s gvest-friend X. A. 2. 4. 15.' 
Cp. 1246, 2083. 

948. A verb that may easily be supplied from the context is often omitted. 
Thus, idv fjiddu}, -rraiiaofxai (scil. iroiiav) 6 ye a/cwj/ Trotd) if I learn better, / shall 
leave off doing w^aJ I do unintentionally P. A. 26 a, dixeXi^irds Sjvirep ol iroXKoi (scil. 
iirifxeXovvr at) not Caring for what most men care for 36 b, ikv afidts ^T/r^o-ere ravra, 
o'vTOJs (scil. €xovra) evp7}<7er€ if you inquire about this later, you will find that it 
is so 24 b. See under Brachylogy (Index). 

CONCORD OF SUBJECT AND PEEDICATB 

949. A finite verb agrees with its subject in number and person. 
Thus, rovTQ rb \p'^<pi.<rp.a iyivero this hill vxis passed L. 13. 5G, 5 d45oiK iyih p,^ 

trdd-qd'' vfxeTs which I fear lest you may suffer X>. 9. 65, ij:^ d' d-}ro\pr}<pl<70}vrai ol dWoi, 



957] CONCORD OF SUBJECT AND PREDICATE 263 

&7r L}jL€v airavTes rovp.irdKiv but if the rest vote against (following), we shall all 
return back again X. A. 1. 4. 15, rd) ^4vu ribds ^iXw ia-Tov ifjuh these two strangers 
are friends of mine P, G. 487 a. 

a. The verbal predicate, when a copulative verb (917), may be attracted 
to the number of a predicate noun, which often stands between subject and 
"verb : to x^P^^^ tovto^ birep irpSrepov 'Efy^a 65oi iKoXovjn-o this place wMch was 
formerly called Nine Ways T. 4. 102, dirav t6 }i4<7ov rtSf retxCiv i)<Tav (rrdSioL rpelt 
the entire space between the walls was three stades X. A. 1. 4. 4. So with the 
participles of such COXJUlative verbs : r^y -qdovr^v SidKerc ws dyadby 6v (for odaav) 
you chase after pleasure as if it were a good P. Pr. 354 c, 

WITH ONE SUBJECT 

Subject in the Singular^ Verb in the Plural 

950. With singular collective substantives (996) denoting persons 
and with like words implying a plural, the verb may stand in the 
plural. 

Thus, t6 (TTpaT^ireSov iv alrlg, ^x^^^^^ Tbv'Aytv dvcx^^povv the army retitmed 
holding Agis at fault T. 5. 60, rotaSiTa dKoiada-a r/ wdXts ~ Ayt^a-iXaov ctXovro ^aaCKia. 
the city^ after hearing such arguments^ chose Agesilaus king X, H. 3. 3. 4. So 
with /SoyX-^ senate^ iJ.4pos part, TrXijOos multitude, 5^/xos people, ^X^^s throng. 

951. So with exracTOs : rGiv iavTov ^/caaros Kal tratSoov Kal xP'OP-'^t^^ dpxovat 
every man is master of his own children and property X. R. L. 6. 1. 

952. If g/catrros, e^drepos, diXXos are added in apposition to a plural subject, 
the verb generally remains plural : iy(b re koL aii p-aKphv \6yov kKdrepos direTdvafiev 
both you and I have carried on a long controversy P. Pr. 361 a. If the verb 
follows the apposition, it may be singular ; ohroi fi^v dWos dXXa X^7ei these say^ 
some one thing, some another X. A. 2. 1. 15. Cp. 982. 

953. A subject in the singular, followed by a clause containing the prepo- 
sition }i€T(i with, rarely takes a plural verb : 'AX\'t/3t(i57js /xera MoLvrtdiov t-mrajv 
eiiropifjcravret dTr4SpcLffa.v Alcihiades and Mantitheus escaped because they xoere 
well provided with horses X, H. 1. 1. 10. 

Subject in the Dualj Verb in the Plural 

954. The first person dual agrees in form with the first person plural (462). 

955. A dual subject may take a plural verb : Sevoc^wi/rt. trpoo-irpe-^ov 
Svo vedviWw tivo youths ran up to Xenophon X. A. 4.3.10. In the 
orators the dual verb is almost always used. 

956. The dual and plural verb may alternate ; atpecrtp eiXir-qv re Kal SLcirpd- 
^avTo the two souls have made their choice and xrat it into effect P. Phae. 
256 c. 

957. The neuter dual may be followed by the dual, the plural, or the singular 
verb (A 104, 200, M 4G6). 



264 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [958 



Subject in the Plural, Verb in the Singular 

958. A neuter plural subject is regarded as a collective (996), and 
has its verb in the singular: KoAa rjv ra <r<f}dyia, the sacrifices were 
propitious X. A. 4. 3. 19. 

N. — The neuter plural seems to have been originally in part identical in 
form with the feminine singular in a, and to have had a collective meaning. 

959. A plviral verb may be used when stress is laid on the fact 
that the neuter plural subject is composed of persons or of several 
parts : TO, Tekr) rdv Aa/ceSat/xovt'ojv avTov iieTrefuf/av the Lacedaemonian 
magistrates despatched him T. 4. 88, (pavepa, ^crav koI urTrtoj/ koI avOpia-n-biv 
ixvr] TToXXd many traces both of horses and of men were plain X.A.I. 7. 17. 

a. With the above exception Attic regularly uses the singular verb. Homer 
uses the singular three times as often as the plural, and the plural less frequently 
with neuter adjectives and pronouns than with substantives. In some cases 
(B 135) the metre decides the choice. 

960. EoUowing the construction of SoK^t ravTa, we find Bb^av ravra. when it 
had been thus decided X. A 4. 1.13, and also Sb^avra raOra X. H. 3. 2. 19, See 

2078 a. 

961. Pindaric Construction. A masculine or feminine plural subject occa- 
sionally is used with eVrt, 9}v, ylyverai^ as : ian koX iv rais dXXats rrbXeaiv dpxovrh 
Te Kdl drjuos there are in the other cities too rulers and populace P. 11.462 e. The 
verb usually precedes, and the subject is still undetermined ; hence the plural 
is added as an afterthought. (Cp. Shakesp. " far behind his worth | Comes all 
the praises.") In Greek poetry this construction is rarely- used with other verbs. 
On e<TTLv o'i^ see 2513. 

a. ^v was originally plural (464 e. D), and seems to survive in that use. 

Subject in the Plural, Verb in the Dual 

962. A plural subject may take a dual verb when the subject is a 
pair or two pairs : at i-mroi SpafieTTjv the span of mares ran "^ 392. 

a. This is common when 5i^o, fi,u0w, a}x<p6Tepoi. are used with a plural subject: 
5^0 dvdpes Trpo<j€\d6vTe "^AyiSt SteXeyio-Oijv /lij -rroteTv /J.dxv^ i'i^O men Coming to Agis 
urged Mm not to fight T. 5. 59. But even with these words the plural is pre- 
ferred. The neuter plural with 5iJo rarely takes the dual verb (P. Tim. 56 e), 

WITH TWO OR MORE SUBJECTS 

963. (T) AVhen the subjects are different individuals or things and 
stand in the third person 

964. With two subjects in the singular, the verb may be dual or plural : 
KptTids Kol ' AXKL^iddys idvvdaSTjv iK€Lv<^ xpb3(xivii3 <Tv\x\xdx^ twv kTciBv^j^Lthv Kparelv 
Critias and Alcibiades were able to keep control of their appetites by the help 



973] CONCORD OF SUBJECT Ax\I) PREDICATE 265 

of his example X. M. 1.2. 24, 'S.ipvfiibojv Kal l:>o(poKKT}i d(piK6pi€vot. is KipKvpav iarpd- 
T€v<Tav on their arrival in Oorcyra Eurymedon and Sophocles proceeded to make 
an attack T. 4. 46. 

965. In Homer the verb may intervene between the subjects (AlcmaniG ' 
Construction) : eis 'Ax^povra Jlvpi^iXey^Ouu re p^ovacu KciKur^s re Fyriphlegcthon 
and Oocytus jiow into Acheron k 633. 

966. The verb may agree with the nearest or most important of two or more 
subjects. The verb may be placed 

a. Before both subjects : ^Ke fxev 6 Qep<Taj6pas nal 6 'E^tJ/cccttos els A^(r^ov Kal 
ipKovv iK€i Thersagoras and Execestus came to Lesbos and settled there D. 23. 148. 

b. After the first subject ; o re IIoXe/xap%os rJK€ Kal ' Adelpiavros Kat 'NiK'qpaTos 
Kal dXKoi TLvis Polemarchus came and Adimantus and Niceratus and certain 
others P. R. 327 b, ^oKlvo^ <^X'^ro koI ol <rdv avrQ Fhalinus and his companions 
departed X. A. 2. 2. 1. 

c. After both subjects : to ^ovXevTifipLov koX 6 drjpxts Trapoparai the senate and 
Che people are disi^egarded Aes. 3. 250. (Cp. Shakesp. " my mistress and her 
sister stays.") 

967. (II) With several subjects referring to different persons the 
verb is in the plural ; in the j^rsf person, if one of the subjects is first 
person; in the second person, if the subjects are second and third 
person : v^eh Sc Kat eya> raSc Acyo/Aev hut you and I say this P. L. 661 b, 
7fixtL<i Koi otSe ovK aXXrjv av nva ^vvaLfxeOa loSrjv aSew we and these men 
could not sing any other song 666 d, ov crv fxovo's ovSk ol o-ol <jt>tXot 7rp<hToL 
ravTTjv Soiav eVxerc not you alone nor your friends are the first who have 
held this opinion 888 b. 

968. But the verb may be singular if it refers to the nearer or more important 
or more emphatic subject : irdpeifit Kal ej<l; Kal oStos ^pvvi<ricos KoX HoXvKpiXT'qs lam, 
present and so are Fhryniscus here and Polycrates X, A. 7. 2. 29. 

969. The verb may agree in person with the nearer or more important sub- 
ject : (tC t€ ycip "EXXr^v el Kal tj^lels for you are a Greek and so are we X, A. 2. 1. 16. 

970. With subjects connected by the disjunctives v or, v — v either — or, 
cvT€ — ouT€ neither — nor, the verb agi-ees in number with the nearer subject 
when each subject is taken by itself : oire a-i) out' a^' fiXXos ot/Seis Mvair dvTeLireXv 
neither you nor anybody else could reply X. M. 4. 4. 7. 

971. When the subjects are taken together, the plural occurs : a I^r}p.o<p(av ^ 
BTjpLTnridtjs e'xouo-t tQv ip.G}v what Demophon or Therippides have of my property 
D. 27. 12. This is unusual 

, 972. When v than unites two subjects, if the verb follows -7, it agrees with 
the second subject : tj^xV ^^l ^^'Krlof ^ -^yum 7jp.wv avrwv ^TTip.eXoip.eBa fortune 
always takes better care of us than we do of ourselves D. 4. 12. ' 

CONCORD OF PREDICATE SUBSTANTIVES 

973. A predicate substantive agrees with its subject in case: 
MtAxtaST?? rjv arparrj-yos Miltiades was a genarah 



266 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTE^X^E [974 

974. A predicate substantive may agree in gender and number 
with its subject ; but this is often impossible : rvxy ra Ouyrdv irpay/naTa 
fliQ affairs of mortals are chance Trag. frag. p. 782, irdvT rjv 'AXe^av^pos 
Alexander was everything I). 23. 120. 

975. A predicate substantive or adjective agrees -with the subject of the 
governing verb when the subject of the infinitive is omitted because it is t)ie 
same as that of the governing verb (937): oix ofioXoyi^a-u} &k\tjtos rjueLv I shall 
not admit that I have come uninvited P. S. 174 d, etirep a^cov/jiev iXevdepoi elmt if 
indeed we claim to he free X. C. 8.1.4. 

On the agreement of demonstrative and relative pronouns with a 
predicate substantive, see 1239, 2502 e. 

APPOSITION 

976. Concord. — An appositive (916) agrees in case with the word 
it describes : KoXaKi, Setvcf Or^pM khI fieyio-rr] /SAcl^Stj to a flatterer^ a ter- 
rible beast and a very great source of injury P. Phae, 240 b. An 
appositive also agrees in case with the pronoun contained in a verb : 
TaXBv^io'ij tJkq), AavafSojv vTrrjpirTj^i 7, TaUhyhius^ have coraef the servant 
of the Danaids E. Hec. 503. Cp. 942. 

977. An appositive to a possessive pronoun stands in the genitive, in 
agreement with tlie personal pronoun implied in the possessive : rov iixhv 
(= ifxov') rov Takanrdpov ^lov the life of me, wretched one Ar. Pint. 33, rd vp.i- 
T€p (= bixojy) odnQ)v Ko/jLielade you will regain your own D. 4. 7. Cp. 1200. 2. b, 
1202. 2'. b. 

978. An appositive in the genitive may follow an adjective equivalent to a 
geuitive : 'Xd-qvaios (='A07}vQi') &y, TriXeojs rrjs fi€yt<TT7]s heinfj an Athenian, a 
citizen oj the greatest city P. A. 29 d. 

979. Agreement in number between the appositive and its noun is unneces- 
sary and often impossible : 8^/3ai, iroXts da-TvyeiTOJv Thebes^ a neighbouring city 
Aes. 3. 133. So with Jwpa in poetry : yd/jiosj XP^^V^ ^ AippoStr-rjs dQpa^ marriage, 
gift of golden Aphrodite Theognis 1293. 

980. An appositive to two substantives is dual or plural ■ ddppos Kal <p6^os, 
&(ppov€ ^vfj.^o'^Xoj daring and fear, ttvo unintelligent counsellors P. Tiin. 69 d, utttos 
Tr6voi Te, KvptoL <Tvyo3/jL6Tai sleep and toil^ supreme conspirators A. Eum. 127. 

981. Partitive Apposition {oyfuia. KaO' 6Xov Kal jxipo^, construction of 
the zvhole and part). The parts are represented by the appositives, 

• which stand in the same case as the whole, which is placed first to 
show the subject or objecit of the sentence: toj oSw, 17 jxlv eU fiaKapoiv 
vr{crov<s, rj S' ets rdprapov tivo roodsj the one to the Islands of the Blest, 
the other to Tartarus P. G. 524 a {distributive apposition). The apposi- 
tives are generally in the nominative (o ^eV, -^ Si ; ol ^eV, ol Se), rarely 
in the accusative. 



986] APPOSITION 267 

a. The wliole may stand in tlie singular : \4yeTai ^vxv n fih vovv ex^tv, i} 
5e &.vQiav ; with regard to the soul, is one said to have intelllgenca^ the other folly f 
P. Ph. 93 b. 

982. To the Avord denoting the whole the appositive may be a 
collective singular {adjunctive ai>position) : ourot filv aXAos aXXa Xtyzt 
these say, some one thing, some another X. A. 2. 1. 15 (cp. rjpuiroiv Se aXKo% 

aXXo P. Charm. 153 c), ot aTfiarrjyoi f^pa-^iois e/cacrros aTreXoyT^craro €(ich 

of the generals defe-nded himself hriejly X. H. 1. 7. 5. Cp. 952, 

983. The apposition may be limited to one or more parts : "HekowowiiaLOi Kal 
ol ^<){Xfxaxot. ra Siio ^^pij tiw-thirds of the Feloporuiesians and the allies T. 2. 47. 
Often "With participles : (oi 'A^Tjvatoi) ave^vqaOTicrav Kal rovde rod eVoys, (pda^KOvres 
oi irpeff^irepot irdXai ^deoSai the Athenians bethought tJu'Tiiselves of this verse too, 
the old men saying that it had been uttered long before T. 2. 54. 

984. In partitive apposition emphasis is laid on the ichole, which is stated 
at once as the snbject or object of the seiitence. In tlie genitive of the divided 
whole (1306) emphasis is laid on the parts ; tlms, twv irdXeoov ai ijAv rvpavvouvTai, at 
5^ dtjpLOKpaTovvTaL, at 5e dpia-roKparoupraL of States some are despotic^ others demo- 
cratic^ others aristocratic P. R. 338 d. 

985. Construction of the Whole and Part in Poetry. — In Homer and 
later poets a verb may take two objects, one denoting the person, the other the 
part especially affected by the action : rov h' dopi xX-ij^' avx^m him he smote 
in the neck with his sivord A 240, ^ o-e x65as j^fi^et she icill wash thy feet r 356. 
But the accusative of the part, often explained as an a.ppositive, Tn^as an external 
object (1554 b) that became an accusative of respect (1601 a). In ' Axatoto-tc 5e (iAya. 
ffdivos ffjL^ak' eKdffTop Kapdirj and she set mighty strength in tha heart of each of the 
Achaeans A 11, efcda-Ttf is a partitive aiDi^ositive, Kapdiri is local dative and gram- 
matically independent of 'Axatotcrtf. The construction is very rare in prose : 
rot's vUaiv airQu dperrj 7rapay€V0{x^V7} rats \p\)xo-'i^ if virtue IS imparted in the SOuls 
of their sons P. Lach, 190 b. 

986. Attributive Apposition. — A substantive may be used as an 
attributive to another substantive. This is common v\dth substan- 
tives denoting occupation, condition^ or age (usually with av-^p, dvOpw- 
TTOSy yvvTj) ; av7)p prjTiDp a p^Mic Sj^ealcer, dvr^p rvpavvo^ a despotf TrpeajSvraL 
avOpo)7roi old men, ypav<; yvvrj an, old woman. So also TreAracrrat ®paKe? 

Thracian targeteers X. A. 1. 2. 9, oAc^pos MaKeSwv a scoundrel of a Mace- 
donian J). 9. 31 j ''EAA?;v (for 'EAA?yi/tK05), as ol ''EAA??ves TreAraarat the 
GreeJc targeteers X. A. 6. 5. 26. 

a. In standard prose "EXX?;*' is used as an adjective only of persons (in poetry 
also of things). 

b. The addition of dvrjp often implies respect : dvbpes ffTpa.TLQTaL fellow sol- 
diers X, A. 1. 3. 3, tS dpdpes diKaaral jurymen, gentlemen of the jury D. 27. 1. 
(Cp. foemen.) The addition of Hvepwiro^ often implies contempt: dvdputtros 76??? 
a juggling fellow Aes. 2. 153. 

c. Many of the substantives thus qualified by an attributive substantive were 
originally participles, as y^ptjjv du^p an old man P. Lys. 223 b. 



268 SYNTAX or THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [987 

987. Descriptive Apposition. — Here the appositive describes some- 
thing detiuite that has just been mentiotied : y Yifierepa. -n-dAts, ^ kolvy] 
KaraKfyvyY] tw ^EXXrjviDv 07ir city, the commoii refuge of the Greeks Aes. 
3. 134. 

988. Explanatory Apposition. — Here the apx>ositive explains a 
general or vague statement: tovtov TlfjL<ji}}jLaL, Iv TrpvTavuco (rlnja-eoi? I 
propose this as the penalty, maintenance in the Prytaneum P. A. 37 a^ 
/Aey'crrov kokov aTraAAa-y^, TTov-qpia^ deliverance frojn the greatest of evils, 
vice P. G. 478 d. So in geographical statements : Kv^rpoi/ iKape ... eg 
Ild(}>ov she came to Cyprus, to Paphos 6 362 ; cp. e? AcoptSs, Botox/ to the 
territory of the Dorians in which Boemn lies T. 1. 107. 

989. Ill Homer the substantival article at the beginning of a sentence may 
be followed by an appositive noun at or near the end : tj S' d4Kov<T dfxa tolo-l yvin] 
Kiev hut shoy the ivoman, went unwillingly with tJiem A 348. 

990. rouTo, airb rovro, aiJro, iKeivo often introduce emphatically a following 
substantive (or an equivalent, 90S); ^Ketvo K^pBaiveiv f|7etTat, t-jj^ i}Sovif}v this 
(namely) pleasure it regards as gain P. R. 6'06b. Cp. 1248. 

991. Apposition to a Sentence. — A noun in the nominative or 
accusative may stand in apposition to the action expressed by a^ 
whole sentence or by some part of it. 

a. The appositive is nominative when a nominative precedes: ifj-^ffvov Uavr] 
irpSipaa-L^ I was tipsy, a sufficient excuse Philemon (Com. frag. 2. 531). 

b. The appositive is accusative, and states a reason, result, intention, effect, 
or the like : p~n{/€L dTrb Tr-dpyov^ \vyp6v 6'\cSpov will hurl thee from the battle- 
ment, ■ a grievous death Q, 735, '^\^V7}V Krdvwfj^ev^ MevAe*^ Xvirt^y iriKpav 
let us slay Helen and thus cause a sore grief to Menelaus E. Or. 1105, eu5ai/Ao- 
votrjs,' fMLtr'Obu i]U<ttwv \6y(av blest be thou — a return for thy most welcome tidings 
E. El. 231. 

N. — The appositive accusative is often cognate (1563 f.): opas BTtipvc-d^d, 
^cXirrov 6\f/Lv thou beholdest Eurystheus^ an unexpected sight E. Heracl, 930. 

992. An effect or result may be denoted by an appositive in other cases : 
i7rc{>dtov irpoffSeiffdai pxa doKet fj.v6ojv 'drt tlvCjv we need^ it seems, some further words 
to act as a spell V. L. 903 b. 

993. Erom the construction in 991b arose many adverbial accusatives 
(1606 ff.) such as x"Ptj/ on account of -rrpbcpao-iv in pretence, dojpedv gratis; as 
OS Tts 5e TptLtjov iirl vTjvcri (pipoiro . . . xaptJ/ "Ekto^os whoever of the Trojans 
rushed at the ships as a favour to Hector (for Hector's sake) O 744. 

994. Many neuter words are used in apposition to a sentence or 
clause, which they usually precede. Such are a{x4>6r€pov, a.}x<f>6r€pcx. 
both, TO ^eivoTarov the most dreadful thing, hvolv darepov or Oarepa one 
or the othery ro havrCov the contrary, to k€.<^6Xo,lov the chief point, to Xcyo- 
jLievov as the saying is, ovSir^pov neither thing, o-TjfjLetov Se sign, rcKfxi^pLov 
8e evidence, to TeXevratov the last thing, ro rrj<^ Trapotjat'ti? as the jproverb 



999] PECULIARniES IN THE USE OF NUMBER 269 

runSj avro tovto this very thing^ ravro tovto this same thing. Thus, 
Tous ctja^orepa raSra, kcll evvov<i rrj -jroA-ct koX 7tX.ov(jlov<; those who are both 
loyal to the State and rich D. 18. 171, elntv on Set Svolv darepov, rj KctVove 
iv Okvv$io fXT] oIk€lv t) avTov iv MaKeBovta he said that one of two things 
was necessary — either that they sJiould not live at Olynthus or he him- 
self in Macedon 9. 11, to he fxeyta-Tovy iroMf^ov avT elpyvrj's €;)(ovres and 
what is worst of all, having war instead of peace T. 2. 65 , aXX -q, to 
XeySfjievov, kcltottiv kopTJjq yJKOjxcv ; hut Ivave toe come ' after a feast ' as the 
saying is ^ P. G. 447 a, tovto avro to to^) ^Ofxrjpov in these very words of 
Homer P.A. 34d. 

995. Very comaion are introductory relative clauses forming a nominative 
predicate of the sentence that follows : 3 5^ -rravTwy d^ivdrarov hut what is most 
terrible of all L. 30. 29. itrrl is regularly omitted (944). Such relatiye clauses are 
followed by an independent sentence, a clause with or:, by aVe ^dp, Srav^ 6rav ydp^ 
eL Similarly t6 5' ^crxarov trdvrojp, on but what is worst of all P. Ph. 66 d, etc. 

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF NUMBER 

996. Collective. Singular. — A noun in the singular may denote a 
nmnber of persons or things : 6 M^Sos the Medes T. 1. 69, to ^EXXt/vikoV 
the Greeks 1.1, to jSap/SapLKov the barbarians 7. 29, -^ irXlvBo'i the bricks 
3. 20, LTTTTov t^iD ets xiXtdv I have about a thousand horse X. C. 4. 6. 2, 
fjLvpLo. da-Trh ten thousand heavy armed X.A.I. 7. 10. On the plural 
verb with collectives, see 950. Cp. 1024, 1044, 

a. So with the neuter participle : to /iax6^epo>' almost = ol imx^fievoi the com- 
batants T. 4. 96. 

b. The name of a nation with the article may denote one person as the 
representative (King, etc.) of a class : 6 MaKeSibv the Macedonian (Philip) I). 1.6. 

997. The inhabitants of a place may be implied in the name of the place : 
Aia^os a-TricTTT} jSovXrfd^vres kuI irpb rod -rroXi/nou Lesbos revolted^ having wished to 
do so even before the war T. 3. 2. 

998. Distributive Singular. — The singular of abstract nouns may 
be used distributively (rarely with concrete substantives) ; oaot SiKatot 
lyivovTo iv ra> kavrCov fSiio all who proved themselves just in their lives 
y. A. 41 a, Stttf^opot Tov Tpo-rrov different in character T. 8. 96. The dis- 
tributive plural (1004) is more common than the distributive singular : 
cp. veoLvtai ra? oxpei^ youths in appearance L. 10. 29 with yfids tt}v oxj/lv 
pleasing in appearance P. K. 452 b. 

999. Dual. — The dual is chiefly employed of two persons or things which, 
by nature or association, form a i^air : (i^^aX/xci the eyes (both mes)^ xape the 
hands^ i-inra a span of horses. The addition of &fL<pw hath indicates that the two 
things belong together -. Si'^o emphasizes the number. Eoth (i/i^w and 5iio were 
early used with the plural. The dual died out in the living speech of Attica by 
300 B.C. Aeolic has no dual, and Ionic lost it vei-y early. In Hom. the dual is 
used freely, and often in conjunction with the plural. 



270 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [looo 

1000. Plural. — The plural of proper names, of materials, and of 
abstracts is used to denote a class. (1) of proper names: ©yark^men 
like Tlieseus P. Tli. 169 b. (2) of materials: here the plaral denotes 
the parts, the different kinds of a thing, a mass, etc. : ro^a how Hdt. 
3. 78, TTvpot, KpWai wheats barley X. A. 4. 5. 26, oXvoi imnes 4. 4. 9, KpiS. 
meat Ar, Kan. 653 (/cpeas piece of meat), rjXioi hot days T. 7. 87, 
ivXjcL timber T. 7. 25. (3) of abstracts: here the plural refers to the 
single kinds, cases, occasions, manifestations of the idea expressed 
by the abstract substantive ; or is referred to several persons : 
dyu<jj/jioa-vvai misunderstandings X. A. 2. 5. 6, daX-Trr] degrees of heat 
X. M. 1. 4. 13. Used in the plural, abstract nouns may become con- 
crete, as Ta<f>aL funeral T. 2. 34 (Ta<^7J sepulture), ev<f>po(rvv(LL good cheer- 
X. C 7. 2. 2S (eixppocrvvy] mirth), x^^P'-'^^^ proofs of good will, presents 
D. 8. 53, evvotai cases of benevolence, presents D. 8. 25. 

a. Many concrete substantives are commonly used only in the plural : 
TTiJXai gate^ B<>pat, door^ rd '0Xi)/A7rta the Olympic festival ; and in poetiy 5co/iara 
house, K}djj,aK€s ladder, XiKrpa bed; cp. 1006. 

b. The plural, especially in poetry, may correspond to the English indefinite 
singular : iirl vavcrL by ship, 

1001- In Homer the plural denotes the various forms in which a quality is 
manifested : reKroa^vaL the arts of the carpenter e 250. In poetry, often of feel- 
ings, emotions, etc. : /xaviai (attacks of) madness A. Pr, 879. 

1002. oi5^p€$ (ij.r]3^p€s) denotes classes of men, states, nations (I). 5. 15). " 

1003. The neuter plural is often used even in reference to a single 
idea or thought in order to represent it in its entirety or in its de- 
tails, as ra d\r)6rj the truth. This is very common with neuter pro- 
nouns : ix^ipovofJiovv Se " ravra yap rjTncrrdp.Tjv but I waved my arms, 
for I knew hoiv to do this X. S. 2: 19, St.d ra^^ioiv quickly P. A. 32 d. 

a, Thucydides is fond of the neuter plural of verbal adjectives used im- 
personally : i\pT}(pia-aj/To TroXejj.yjria elvat they voted that it was necessary to make 
war T. 1.88, dS^fara ^v it vms impossible 4. 1. Cp. 1052. 

1004. Distributive Pliiral. — Abstract substantives are often used 

distributively in the plural : crlyal rSy vecorepcov irapa TTpCO'lBvTepOi'S 

the silence of the younger men in the presence of their elders P. R. 425 a. 

1005. Names of towns and parts of the body are sometimes plural : 
'A^^yat Athens, ®rj/3ai Thebes^ u-rrjBy) and crr^va breast (chiefly poetic). 
The name of the inhabitants is often used for the name of a city : 
AeX<l>o{ D. 5. 25. 

1006. Plural of Majesty (poetic). — The plural may be used to lend 
dignity : Opovot throne S. Ant. 1041, crKrJTrrpa scepter A. Ag. 1265, Sthpuara 
dioelling e 6 ; TraiSiKo. favourite in prose (only in the plural form). 

1007. Here belongs the allusive plural by which one person is 
alluded to in tlie plural number : Seo-Trorwi/ OnvdroLo-i by the death of 



IOI5] PF.CULIARITIES IN THE USE OF NUMBER, GENDER 271 

ou7^ lord A. Oil. 52, waOovaa 7r/)05 rojv <fiLXrdro}v T (Clytaeimiesti'a) hav- 
ing suffered at the hands of my dearest ones (Orestos) A. Kum. 100. 

1008. Plural of Modesty. — A speaker in referring to himself may 
use the first person plural as a modest form of statement. In 
prose, of an author : hvoid iroff r/fjuv iyev^ro the refiection once occurred 
to me X. C. 1. 1. 1. In tragedy, often with interchange of plm'al and 
singular : d KOikvofjieo-Oa jxi] fxaOeiv a povXojxai if I (Creusa) am pre- 
vented from learning what I wish E. Ion 301, cKeT^vo/xev a/x<j>l o-av 
ycvetd^a . . . Trpoa-Trtrvwv I entreat thee^ as I grasp thy beard E. H. F, 
1206. See 1009. 

1009. In tragedy, if a woman, speaking of herself, uses the plural 
verb (1008), an adjective or participle, in agreement with the subject, 
is feminine singular or masculine plural: ijAtoi/ fiapTvpajji^dOa, Spiha 
a Spav ov jBovkofiat I call the swi to witness, that I am acting against 
my will E. H. E. 85S, apKovfji^v rnxeh ol TrpoOvrju-KovTe*; ukBcv it ts enoxtgh 
that I (Alcestis) die in thy stead E. Ale. 383. 

1010. eiV^, 4>4pe^ Hye may be used as stereotyped formulas, witliout regard 
to the imniber of persons addressed : elwd p^i, w ^ilyKparis re Kal &^as ol &\'\ot 
tell rue, Socrates and the rest ofyott P. Eu. 283 b. 

1011. One person may be addressed as the representative of two or more who 
are present, or of his family : "Avrivo^ ov rws eVrtf . . , ^te^' viilv SaiwaOai 
Antinotts, it is in no wise possible to feast loith yoii j3 310. w t4kvov^ ^ wap^aTov ; 
my children, are ye here 9 S. 0. C. 1102. So in dramatic poetrj'-, the coryphaeas 
may be regarded as the representative of the whole chorus, as w ^4vot, ixt) 
ti avip-Q rh eipLL Strangers (addressed to the whole chorus) do not ask (the sin- 
gular of the coryphaeus) ine who I am S. 0. C. 207. 

1012. Greek writers often shift from a particular to a general statement and 
mce versa^ thus permitting a free transition from singular to plural, and from 
plural to singular: ovdk rare (TVyxaipei b rvpapyos' ivdeearipoLS y^p oSai raireLvO' 
T^pois airo'is oiovraL xpijo-^at not even then does the despot re.joicewitk the rest ; for 
the more they are in want^ the more submissive he thinks to find them X. Hi. 5. 4. 

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF GENDER 

1013. Construction according to the Sense (926 a).— The real, not the 
grammatical, gender often determines the agreement : w (piXTaT, 6 wepLaaa 
Tlp^7j0els TiKvov O dearest, O cjreathj honoured child E. Tro. 735 (this use of the 
attributive adjective is poetical), rk fieipaKia Tpbs d\\7i}\.ovs diakeybfxevoi the youths 
conversing with one another V. Lach.lSOei, raOr eX^yejy ij avaiS^^ avr-r] ^e^aXi^, 
i^€\7)\vd(I}s this shameless f<dlow spoke thus when he came out D. 21. 117. 

1014. So in periphrases: ts TT/Xe/aaxoto ^? iraripa idwv mighty Jelemachus, 
gazing at his father tt 47G, to Sk tG>v TrpeajBvT^pojv ■i^p.wv . . . x^'-po^'^^^ "^V ^Keivwv 
7rat5t(? we the elders delighting in their sport P, L. (557 d. 

1015- The masculine is used for person in general : ovk au^^erai TiKToyra^ 
fiXXour, OVK €xov(T avTTi riKva wifriiitful herself she will not endure that others 



272 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1016 

bear children E. And. 712, onorepos av fi ^eKricjp, etO' dv^p etff ij yvvifj which 
ever of the two is superior^ whether the man or the vmman X.O. 7,27, So ol 
yov€is parents^ ol w aides children. See 1055. 
See also 1009, 1050. 

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF PERSON 

1016. rts or TTd.<i may be used in the drama with the second per- 
son of the imperative : tTo> ri%, eto-ayycXXe go, one of you, announce 
E. Bacch. 173. 

1017. The second person singular is used to designate an imagi- 
nary person, as in proverbs : ^vyri% €TniitXov tyj^ aeavrov care for thy 
own soul Men. Sent. 551, and in such phrases as etSe? av you would 
have seen (1784 a), -^yijo-aLQ av you might think, as credideris (1824). 

a. Hdt. -uses the second person in directions to travellers (2. 30). 
See also 942. 

ADJECTIVES 

1018. Adjectives modify substantives (including words used sub- 
stantively; 908); and substantive pronouns. Adjectives are either 
attnbutim (912) or predicate (910). 

1019. The equivalents of an adjective are : a particix^le (oi napbvTes TroWtraL 
the citizens who are present); a noun in apposition (Atj fjLotrddvrjs 6 p-^roip Demos- 
thenes the orator, i.e, not A7]fiocrd4pT}s 6 arparTjyos, bfxets ol 'Adr)vaLOi you Athe- 
nians) ; an oblique case {(TT^(l>avo'i XP^(^^^ (^ crown of gold^ r^s aur^s yvihti-qs ^y<h 
I am Ukeniinded) ; an oblique case with a preposition (ai ip t^ "Aaia. Tr6\etj the 
cities in Asia); an adverb (ol irdXai the ancients). (Furthermore, a clause in a 
complex sentence : t6 reixf-fTfia., ^v avrbdi^ alpov(7L they captured the fortress 
which was there; cp. 2542.) 

1020. Concord. — An adjective agrees with its substantive in 
gender, number, and case. This holds true also of the article, ad- 
jective pronouns, and participles : thus, A. Attributive : 6 StWo? avrfp 
the just man, rov SiKaiov dvSpo^, rw 5t/cata> dvSpe, ol hiKaioi dvSpes, etc., 
ovTos 6 avrjp this man, tovtov tcw dvSpo'S, etc., -rj <jiLXovcra OvyaTTjp the 

loving daughter. B. Predicate : koXo^ 6 dy<liv the prize is glorious, 
TavT Icrrlv dXyjOrj these things are true, at apto-rat SoKoucrat elvai <^w£t$ 
tJie natures which seem to be best X. M. 4. 1. 3. 

On the agreement of demonstrative pronouns used adjectively with 
a predicate substantive, see 1239. For relative pronouns, see 2501. 

ATTIillBrTIYB ADJECTIVES 
ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY 

1021. An attributive adjective (or participle) generally with the 
article, often dispenses with its substantive, and thus itself acquires 
the value of a substantive. 



10271 ATTRlBUTtV^ ADJECTIVES 273 

a. This occurs wlien the substantive may "be supplied from the context ; 
when it is a general notion ; oi* when it is oniiLted in common expressions of a 
definite character, when the ellix^sis is conscious. 

1022. Masculine or feminine, when the substantive is a person : 6 SUaios the 
just man^ 5Uaios a just man, ot 'A^rjuaioL the AthenianSy oi ttoKKoL the manj/, 
the rabble^ oi oKiyoi the oligarchical party ^ ol ^Qv\6^tvoi all who will, rj koKt^ the 
beautiful woman, -f/ reKovcra the mother (poet., E. Ale. 167), iKKKTjacd^ovcai women 
in assembly. 

1023. Neuter, when the substantive idea is thing in general : t6 iuyaehv the 
(highest) good l\ R. 506 b (but rk ayaBd good things L. 12. 33), rb dXij^^s truth 
P. G. 473 b, TO Kotpbv the commonwealth Ant. 3. ^6. 3, rh io-6/ievov the future Aes. 
3. 165, rb XeySfievov as the saying is T. 7. 68, a/xtpl jji4<7ov -^jU^^ds about mid-day 
X. A. 4. 4. 1, iirl TToX^ over a wide space T. 1. 18. 

1024. In words denoting a collection (996) of persons or facts : rb -ott^koov 
the subjects T.6. 69, r6 ^ap^apiKhv the barbarian force X.A.I. 2.1, rb ^v/xixa- 
XtKbv the allied forces T. 4. 77 (and many words in -ik6v), Th'EWTjvtKd Greek 
history T. 1. 97 ; and in words denoting festivals (ra 'OXii/aTta the Olympian 
^amesX. H, 7.4. 28). 

1025. With participles, especially in Thucydides : rb dpyi^dfieyoi^ ttjs dpyijs 
their angry feelings T. 2. 50, ttjs irdXews rb rljxdjfievov the dignity of the State 2. 63. 
The action of the verb is here represented as taking place under particular 
circumstances or at a particular time. These participles are not dead abstrac- 
tions, but abstract qualities in action. 

1026. A substantivized adjective may appear in the neuter plural 
as well as in tlie neuter singular : ra Sf^ta rov K^paro^ the right of the 
wing X. A. 1. 8. 4, r^s ;SaA.a/At^05 to, -noXXd the greater part of Salamis 
T. 2. 94, €7ri TrXeto-Tov avO fniiyriiiv to the greatest part of ^mankind 1. 1, 
h ToOro Svo-T^xtas to this degree of misfortune 7. S6 (cp. 1325). 

a- On the construction of t^s 717s ^ ttoXXiJ the greater 2:)art of the land T. 
2. 56, see 1313. 

1027. In common expressions a definite noun is often implied 
(such, as rjfjiipa day, oSd? way, x^^p hand). 

a.. Masculine: KdXtro? gulf d'lbvios the Ionian g\ili T. 6. 34, o-rparos force, 
6 Tre^i the land force 1, 47. 

b. Feminine : yt] land (x^ps country) — dirb ttjs kavTC>vfrom their own country 
T. 1. 15 ; ov^ 17 'EXXds 01;^' 17 ^dp^apot neither Greece nor barbaric ]and I). 9. 27 ; 
yv<ii^\\ judgment : Kara t^v i^iiv according to mtj oyiimon Ar. Eccl. 153, ^k t^s 
ptKiia-ns according to the prevailing o\:>imon X. A. 6. 1.18; StKTj suit: ip-q^-qv icaTTj- 
yopovvT^s bringing an accusation in a case where there is no defence P. A. 18 c ; 
TijjL^pa day : ttjv ia-repaCdv the next day X, C, 1.2. 11, ttj irpoTepaig, the day before 
L.19. 22; K^pas wing: Tb eirdijvv/juov the ?e/it wing T. 4. 96 ; ]upi% part: dKOffT-q 
a twentieth 6. 54 ; jjLotpa portion : i) Treirpfxipi^vT} (1. 10. 61) or -7 elfMpixivtj (T), 18.205) 
the allotted portion^ destiny ; vaOs ship : ij Tptrjpijs the ship tuit/i three banks of 
oars; 6S6s loay : cideia by the straight road P. L. 716 a, ttjv TaxicrTi^v by the 

GJiJiEK GRAM, 18 



274 SYNTAX OF THE SlxMPLE SENTENCE [1028 

shortest way X. A. 1. 3. 14 ; Tt'xvii art: fiova-iKy the art of music V. L. G68 a ; 
X€ip hand: €u de^i^ 011 the right liaud X, A. 1. 5. 1, e^ apia-repai oil the left 

4. 8. 2 ; ^ii4***s vote : ttiv ivavriav 'Nldg, edero lie voted in opposition to Nioias 
P.Lacli. 184 d. 

1028. Tlie coutext often determines the substantive to be supphed : toO- 
rov dpiKpajov (is 6\Cyd$ (TrAv^as) iraic-eLe;^ they shouted that he had dealt him 
(too, 1063) few blows X. A. 5. 8. 12, Tpta. rdXavra koX xiMas (Spax^d?) three 
talents and a thousand drachmas D. 27. 34- cp. a dollar ajid twenty (cents). 
Cp. 1572. 

1029. From such substantivized adjectives arose ixtauy preposi- 
tional and adverbial expressions of wliose source the Greeks them- 
selves had probably lost sight. Many of these seem to be analogues 
of phrases once containing oSo? : rrjv aXXoj? il/r]4>^^€o-6€ you vote to no 
purpose D. 19. 181 (i.e. the ivay leading elsewhere than the goal), 
ttTTo ttJs irp<j}Tr)<s at the 'very beginning T. 7. 43, arro r^? to-Tjs on an 
equality 1, 15, e| ivavrld^ from an opposite direction, facing 7. 44. 

AGREEMENT OF ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES 

1030. An attributive adjective belonging to more than one sub- 
stantive agrees with the nearest : tov KaXov KayaBov avSpa Kal ywatKa 
ev^aifxova ehai ^Y}fXL the perfect man and woman are happy I maintain 
P. G. 470 e. In some cases it is repeated with each substantive 
(often for emphasis) : tv a-oifx e^^i/ koI ^v-x/jv fxCav having one body and 
one soul D. 19. 227. 

1031. But occasionally the adjective agrees with the more important substan- 
tive : o a-t'yXo^ SiivaTui eTrr^ 6^o\oi)s Kal ij^nc^SXioy ' Attlkovs the sighiS iS worth 
seven and 'a half Attic obols X. A. 1. 5. 6. 

1032. Of two adjectives with one substantive, one may stand in 
closer relation to the substantive, while the other qualifies the ex- 
pression thus formed : TroAt? €pi7/xTj fxeydX-r) a la'rge deserted-city X. A. 
1.5.4. 

1033. If one substantive has several attributive adjectives, these 
are sometimes added without a conjunction (by Asyndeton) : Kpca 
ajv.ta, kpi<^€icL, -xplptm flesh of lambs, kids, swiyie X, A. 4, 5, 31. This 
is commoner in poetry, especially when the adjectives are descrip- 
tive : lyxo? PplBv jxeya (jTipapov a spear heavy, huge, stout n 141. 

1034. ^ Two adjectives joined by KaC may form one combined notion 
in English, which omits the conjunction. Bo often with ttqXv^ to 
emphasize tbe idea of i:)lurality : iroWa KayaOd many blessings X. A. 

5. 6. 4, TToAAA Koi Setm many dreadful sufferings I). 37. 57. 

a. Ka\bs KayaOhs means an anstocrat (in the political sense), or is used of 
a perfect quality or action (in the moral sense) as T, 4. 40, P. A. 21 d. 



I042] PREDICATE ADJECTIVES 276 

1035. An attributive adjective is often used in poetry instead of the a.ttribu- 
tive genitive : ^Lt) 'H/^a/cXi^eti? B 058 the might of Heracles (cp. " a Nioboan daugh- 
ter" Tennyson); rarely in prose : iroraja6s, edpos irXedpiam a river ^ a jjlethron in 
width X. A. 4. C. 4. 

1036. An attributive adjective belonging logically to a dependent genitive is 
often used in poetry with a go vera ing substantive : veiKoi dydpCbv ^■Ova.Lp.ov kindred 
strife of men S. A. 793 (for strife of kindred mm), Karely in prose in the case 
of the possessive pronoun : ev rip vjj^ripi,} dadevn ttjs yyib/xtjs in the iveakness of 
your X)urpose T. 2.61. 

1037. An attributive adjective may dispense with its substantive when that 
substantive is express'ed in the context : ij^t^x^l t^s Kak\l(7T7}s (r^x^V^) ■^^S" 
r€xy<^f he shares in the fairest of the arts W G. 448 c. 

1038. A substantivized participle may take the genitive rather than the case 
proper to the verb whence it is derived : ^aaiMcos TrpocnJ/coj/res relations of the 
king T. 1. 128 ; contrast llepiKX^s 6 ^/xoi irpoa-^Kiov Pericles my relation X. H. 1.7.21. 

1039. Adjectives used substantively may take an attributive : ot 
vixirtpoi hva^tvds your enemies X. H. 5. 2. 33. 



PREDICATE ADJECTIVES 

1040. The predicate adjective is employed 

a. With intransitive verbs signifying to he, become, and the like (917): ij S^ 
xdpis 6.57)\os yeyeifTjrac the favour has heen concealed Aes. o. 233. So with 
active verbs which take a preposition : yofjLovs edeffde iir' dd'^Xois rots dSiKiJtrowt 
you have enacted laws with regard to offenders who are unknown 1). 21. 30. 

b. With transitive verbs: (1) to qualify the object of the verb directly and 
immediately : roiis KaKois xPV'^'^o^^ vo^i'^av to judge had men good S. 0. T. 60!), 
(2) to express the result of the action (the proleptic use, 1579). So with av^eiv 
grow^ aXp€Lv raise with ^^yas greats fj^rioipos on high, yT/'ijX6s high, /ia/tpos large. 

1041. With verbs of saying and thinking the predicate adjective is usually 
connected with its noun by ehai, with verbs of perceiving, showing, by &v (2106) : 
ov54va ydp oJfiai 5aL^bvfj}v elvai uaKbv for I think no one of the gods is hase E. I. T. 
391, SijXoi xI^^vSt] TT)y dcadi^KTjv od<rav it shov^s that the ivill is false D. 45. 34. But 
dvaiis sometimes omitted(945), aSras7d/9A:aXa? ir pd^e is diraff as dyadas (l}fw\oy7j<Ta- 
p.€v for we have agreed that all honourable actions are good P. Pr. 359 e. On the 
omission of &v^ see 2117. For elvai with verbs of naming and calling, see 1615. 

1042. Several adjectives of time, iilace, order of successio7i, etc., are 
used as predicates where English employs an adverb or a preposi- 
tion with its case : dc^tKvowTat rptracot they arrive on the third day 
X. A. 5. S. 2, KarijiaivQv dKOTcuoi they descended in the dark 4. 1. 10. In 
such cases the adjective is regarded as a' qucdity of the subject ; 
whereas an adverb would regard the manner of the action. 

a. Time, place : xpoi'to? late, 6p6pios in the morning, Sevrepaios on the second 
day, iroa-Taios hoiv many days ? viraidpios in the open air. 



276 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1043 

b. Order of succession : Tpuiros^ irphrepos firsts wrepos later ^ /Mia-ot in the 
midst^ reXevTocos last^ varaTo^ last. 

N. — When one action is opposed to another m order of sequence, the 
adverbs xpwTov, TrpSrepov, vo-rarov^ etc., not the adjectives tt/jujtos, etc., must be 
used : irpwrov fikv iSdKpve iroX^v xpbvov . . . eira 5^ eXe^e roiciSe first he Wept for 
a long fme, then he spoke as follows X. A. 1. 3. 2. Hence distinguish 
TTpCjTos ry irSXet irpoa^^aXe he VMS the first to attack the city, 
irp^hrr} rrj irdXct irpocri^aXe the city ivas the first place he attacked. 

TrpCjrov ry -rrdXei irpoa-i^aXe his first act was to attack the City. 

The same rule applies in the case of /u6tos, fi6vov, as jmSptjp t^v ^ttlo-toXtiv Hypa^a 
this is the only letter I wrote, p^bvov 'dypaypa rrj*- iiriaroXifiv 'J only wrote (but did 
not send) the letter. But this distinctioiii is not always observed (Aes. 3.69). 

104:3. So also with adjectives of degree^ mental attitude^ manner, etc, : 
^dpovrat oi Xidoi iroXXoi the stones are thrown in great numbers X. A. 4. 7. 7, 
Toi>s veKpoifs virocrTrdvdovs diridoaav they restored the dead under a truce T. 1, 63, 
ot 6eol ei;p.ev€Ls Trip.Trov<Ti ae the gods send you forth favourably X.C.I. 6. 2. 
So with pidyas high, d<rp€vos gladly, iaovatos, eKiiv willingly^ 6pKLos under oath, 
al<l)ui5i.Qt suddenly. On <iXXos, see 1272. 

AGREEMENT OF PREDICATE ADJECTIVES (AND PABTICIPLES) 
WITH ONE SUBJECT 

1044. A circumstantial participle (2054) referring to a collective noun (096) 
may be plural : t6 o-rpdreu^ua iiropL^ero <Ttrov Kdirrovres toi)s ^ovs the army pro- 
vided itself with provisions by killing the cattle X. A, 2. 1. 6. So after oi)5e£s, as 
oiJSets iKOLfi-qd-q (= Trdvres iv ay pvirvicf, ^aav) Tob$ dTro\u>X6Tas TrevSovvres no one 
slejH because they were all bewailing the dead X. H. 2. 2. 3. Cp. 950. 

1045. A plural participle may be used with a dual verb : ^y^Xaa dr-qy &p<puy 
jSX^aifres els dXX-^Xovs both looked at each other and burst out laughing 
P. Eu. 273 d. A dual participle may be used with a plural verb : woO iror 6v6' 
Tjifpi^p^eOa ; where in the world are we? E. I. T. 777. 

1046. A dual subject may be followed by a plural predicate adjective or 
participle : el ydp tls <paiij tCj -n-oXet rot^rw irXelcrTwv dya$Civ alrLds yeyev^adai if 
any one should assert that these two cities have been the cause of very many 
blessings I. 12. 156. 

1047. A predicate adjective is neuter singular when the subject is 
an infinitive, a sentence^ or a general thought : 7}8v ttoXAot)? ix'^povs 
€x^iv; is it pleasant to have many enemies? D. 19. 221, S77A.01/ 8' otl ravr 
ia-TLv aX-qOrj it is clear that these things are true 2. 19. 

1048. A predicate adjective referring to a masculine or feminine 
singular subject is often neuter singular and equivalent to a sub- 
stantive. This occurs chiefly in statements of a general truth, 
where the subject refers to a wliole class, not to an individual thing. 
ThuSj KoXov dpTfvr] peace is a fine thing D. 19. 336^ ajn<xTov rats ttoXX- 



1058] AGREEMENT OF PREDICATE ADJECTIVES 277 

retat'; rj rvpavvis despotism IS an object of m.isirust to fr^e states 1. 5, 
fi€it,ov TToAts €vos dvSpos tJie slote is larger than the individual P. R. 368 e. 
So also in the plural (1056). 

1049. So with names of places : eVrt 5e ^ Xai/Jtii^eia eo'xaTo;' r^s Botojxfar 
Chaeronea is on the frontier of Boeotia T. 4. 76. 

1050. A predicate superlative agrees in gender either with the 
subject or (usually) with a dependent .genitive: v6<n3iv xa-Ae7ra>TaTo? 
c^^oVos envy is the most fell of diseases Men. fr. 535, a-vfjL^ovXo^; dya06<; 
•^prjo-LfJuoTarov airdvTuiv tojv KTfjiia.Toiv a good counsellor is tlie most usefvl 
of all possessions I. 2. 53. 

1051. For a predicate adjective used wliere English has an adverb, cp. 1042. 

1052. A predicate adjective is often used in the neuter plural (especially 
with verbal adjectives in -rds and -r^os in Thucydides and the poets): ^7rei5:7 
eroijixa ^v, avriyeTo when (all) loas ready, he put out to sea T. 2, 56, ASjuvara 9jv 
Toi/s AoKpovs dfitvfff dat it loas impossible to resist the LocHans 4, 1, ^S6/fei i-mx^i-- 
pjjT^a dvai they decided to make the attempt 2. 3, Cp- 1003 a, 

WITH TWO OR MORE SUBJECTS 

1053. With two or more substantives a predicate adjective is plural, 
except v?hen it agrees with the nearer subject: <^6^qs koI vo^os t/cavos 
tpmra KwXuetv fear and the law are capable of restraining love X. C. 
5. 1. 10, TToXXcjv Se Xoycov koX Oopvfiov yiyvoyihov there arising much dis- 
cussion and confusion D. 3. 4. See 968. 

1054. With substantives denoting persons of like gender, a predicate adjec- 
tive is of the same gender : 'Kyaduyv koL HicaKparv^ \onrol Agathon and Socrates 
are left P. S. 193 c. 

1055. When the persons are of different gender, the masculine prevails : tbs 
elSe iraripa. re koX jJiTjT^pa Kal d5eX(^oi)s Kal t^v eain-ov yvvaiKa alxiJ-o.^^i^Tovs yeyevi}- 
fxivovs, iSdKpvffe when he saw that Ms father and mother and brothers and wife 
had been made prisoners of war, he burst into tears X. C. 3. 1. 7, 

a. But pei'sons are sometimes regarded as things: ^x'^ airOiv Kal t^kvo. koI 
yvvaiKaz cppovpoiipieva I have their children and loives under guard X. A. 1. 4, 8. 

1056. With substantives denoting things of like gender a predicate adjective 
is of the same gender and plural. A neuter plural with the singular verb is 
often preferred: eiyiveiai re koX 5uvd/x.etr koI Tlfxai difKa 4<rTLV dyada 6vTa noble 
birth and power and honour are clearly good things P. Eu. 279 "b. 

1057. AVlien the things are of different gender, a predicate adjective is 
neuter plui-al with singular verb : A/^ot re Kal irMvSoi. koL ^iJXa Kal KSpapio^ dTaKTWs 
ipplfifiiva ovStv xP'h^^'-^^ ^(ttiv stones and bricks and pieces of wood and tiles 
thrown together at random are useless X. M. 3. 1. 7. 

1058. When the substantives denote both persons and thiJigs, a predicate 
adjective is — a. plural, and follows the gender of the person, if the person is 
more important, or if the thing is treated as a person : yp^Sia Kal yepdvrta. Kai 



278 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1059 

irp6^ara d^Lya Kat /SoOs KaTa\e\€L}iij,4vovi old women and old men and a few sheep 
and oxen thai had been left hehind X. A. 6. 3. 22, ^ riixi ko-^ ^iXLTriros ^aau rwv 
fpycjv KtjpLOL Fortune and Philip were masters of the situation Aes. 2. 118, 

b. or is neuter plural if the person is treated like a thing : -^ KaWic^r-q iroXlrela 
re Kal 6 /cdXXicrros dvrjp Xonra olp ij/xcy etrj dieXdeiv we should Still have tO treat of 
the noblest polity and the noblest man P. R. 662 a. 

1059. The verbal and the adjective predicate may agree with the first of two 
SuhjectS as the more important : Bpao-fSas Kal rb irXTJdos i-n-i rk fj-er^utpa T7JS TrdXetas 
irpdrrero ^ovXbfievo'S Kar' 8.Kpas iXeiv avr-qv BraMdaS with the bulk of his trOOpS 

turned to the upper part of the city wishing to capture it completely T. 4. 112. 
For further uses of predicate adjectives, see 1150 ft'., 1168 ff., 2647. 

ATTRACTION OF PREDICATE NOUNS WITH THE INFINITIVE TO THE 
CASE OF THE OBJECT OF THE GOVERNING VERB 

1060. When the subject of the infinitive is the same as a genitive . 
or dative depending on the governing verb, it is often omitted. 

1061. A predicate adjective referring to a genitive regularly stands in the 
genitive, "but a predicate substantive or participle generally stands in the accusa- 
tive in agi-eement with the unexpressed subject of the infinitive : Ktpov i54ovro 
cbs npodvjjjordrov 'yev4<T6oiL they entreated Cyrus to show himself as zealous as 

possible X. H. 1. 5. 2, virb rQv Seofi^viiiv pjov TrpoaraTTjv yev^adai by those who 

begged me to become their chief X. C. 7. 2, 23, hiofxai hp^Qv ideXijo-aL fiov dKoOaai, 
viroXo'yi^o/ji4vovs rb irX-rjOos rQv alrt&v I beg of you that you be willing to listen to 
me, paying heed to the number of charges Aes. 2. 1. 

1062. A predicate substantive, adjective, or participle referring to a dative 
stands in the dative or in the accusative in agreement with the unexpressed 
subject of -the infinitive : vOu o-oi ^^ea-nv dvdpl yevio-Oai. now it is in your power to 
prove yourself a man X. A. 7. 1. 21^ AaKeSai/jLovCoLi e^€<7Tiv b/xlv <piXovs yevkcdai 
it is in your power to become friends to the Lacedaemonians T. 4. 29, ^So^ev 
a^ToTs . . . i^oirXia-afiivoLs irpoUvai they decided to arm themselves fully and to 
advance X. A. 2. 1. 2, edo^ev ai^roTs irpo^uXa/cas Karaa-T-^craj^Tas crvyKoXeiv Toi)S 
(TTparnhTds they decided to station pickets and to assemble the soldiers 3. 2. 1, 
<7vpi<pip€i airroLs <l>CXovs eTcat ^aXXo;' ij -jroXepiiov^ it is for their interest to befriends 
rather than enemies X. 0. 11. 23. 

For predicate nouns in the nominative or accusative in agreement 
with omitted subject of the infinitive, see 1973-1975. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (AND ADVERBS) 

POSITIVE 

1063. The positive, used to imply that something is not suited 
or inadequate for the purpose in question, is especially common 
before an infinitive with -or without wcrre ("wqI : (to vSwo) d/vvoov 



or without wcrre (<Ls) : (to vSojp) kJ/vxP^v 



io69] COMPARISON 279 

iariv <ocrT£ XovcraGrOaL the water IS too cold foT bathing X. M. 3, 13. 3, 
vqcs oXtyai afxvveiv ships too fen) to defend T. 1. 50, fjjaKpov av u-q /^ot 
Xeyav it would take too long foj^ me to state And. 2. 15. 

1064. A positive adjective followed by tlie genitive of the same adjective 
has, in poetry, the force of a superlative : KaKa KaKQv woe of woe S. 0. C. 1238. 

1065. jxaXkov yj rather than, more . . , than may be used after a posi- 
tive: TrpoOufjioi^ fjioXXov t} ^tXo>? more jiTompt than kindly A.Ag. 1591. 

COMPARATIVE 

1066. The comparative expresses contrast or comparison. Thus, 
Sfi^irepos is right in contrast to its opposite, dptcrTe/Dos left. Cp. 1082 b. 
Usually comparison is expressed, as ev re koI x^tpov well or ill T. 2, 35. 

a. When the positive precedes, ixaXXov alone may stand for the comparative ; 
as in iK€tvoi T€ S,^LOi iirahov Kal ert jj^aXKov (i.e. d^iuyrepot) ol irar^pes they are worthy 
of praise aoid still more worthy are our fathers T. 2. 36. 

b. The persons or things with which comparison is made may include all 
others of the same class : 7}^Q}v 6 yepairepos the elder (= eldest) of us X. G. 5. 1. 6. 

1067. Tlie comparative is sometimes used merely as an intensive 
and does not differ essentially from tlie positive: tovtoh/ Karaheio-rtpoq 
at a disadvantage with (inferior to) these men D. 27. 2. 

1068. Por the nse of fiaXXov instead of the comparative, and fxaXiara 
instead of the superlative, see 323. When either form can be used, 
that with fiSXXov or fidXiorra is more emphatic. Tliucydides some- 
times uses TrXeW (rt), to irXiov instead of /xaXXov. 

1069. The comparative degree may be followed by the genitive 
(1431) or by yj than : cro</>a)Te/Dos i/jiov or cro<^toT€po? rj eyo) wiser than I. 
The genitive may precede or follow the comparative. With ij, the 
persons or things compared usually stand in the same case, and 
always so when they are connected by the same verb : <^tXco yap ov 
ere iJidXXov r} B6/jlovs e/xovs for I do not love thee more than my own house 
E. Med. 327. 

a. The genitive is usual if two subjects would have the same verb in com- 
mon ; as ol Kp7}T€s ^pax^repa tuv Uepa-Qj/ irb^evov the Cretans shot a shorter 
distance than the Persians (= ^ oi Uepa-ai) X. A. 3. 3. 7. 

b. When two objects have the same verb in common: if the object stands 
(1) in the accusative, the genitive is preferred, as ifx,ol doKe? Kvpos, ownvas ^v 
opq, dyado^/s^ (piXeiv oijdev tjttov iavTou Cyrus seems to me to love all whom he 
finds excellent quite as much as he loves himself X. C. 2. 3. 12, but the accusative 
is not uncommon, as E.Med. 327 quoted above; (2) in the dative, the genitive 
is frequent, as irpoa-JKeL p.oi p,a.Wop erepiav . . . dpxeip it behooves me rather than 
others to rule T. 6. 16 ; (8) in the genitive^ the genitive is very rare (X. M.4. 3. 10). 
Here tj is preferred to the genitive for the sake of euphony; ol yap trov-qpol 
TToXir TrXeiSvoiv euepyetn&v rj ol xpijcrrot (not tQv xp^ctwp) 54ovrai for the wicked 
need more favours than the good X. M, 2. 6. 27. 



280 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1070 

c. The genitive is often used where ij would he followed hy some other 
case than nominative or accusative, or by a preposition : raOra Tots oTrXtrais ovx 
^(T<jov Twv vavTujv (= -^ To'is caiiTats) Trapa/ceXeiioAtat I address these exhortations 
to the hoplites not less than to the sailors T. 7. 68, (deT ^Xiireiv) €ts rijv i/jt.TreLpldu 
ij.dWoi' TTjs dp€T7}s {=7^ els TTjv oipeT-^v) we must look at skill more tlmn (at) 
courage Aristotle, Politics 1309 h 6. 

d. k\6.rT(jJv {x^^P^^i ivSe^arepos^ uo-repos, etc.) ovdevhs inferior to none, greater 
than all; here ^ is not used). Thus, SouXeiiety dovXeidv oySc/xias "fiTTov alaxP^^ ^^ 
endure a most disgraceful slavery X. M. 1. 5.6. 

1070. The word following ij may he the suhject of a new verb (expressed or 
understood) : -rj/xeis inrb Kpeirrovos SidaaKdXov TreTratdeTLifjt^Oa t) oSrot toe have been 
educated 'by a better teacher than they (have been) X. C. 2. 3. 13 ; but this word 
is more often attracted into the case of the preceding word : nvh koX iK deivo- 
Tiptav ^ roLcoi'Se (= i} Totdde ia-rlv) iafJbSTjaau some have been rescued from dangers 
even greater than these T. 7. 77. The genitive is also common without ij : \4yuv 
6x1 otfirw . . . ToOrov njdtovt otui^ ^xtriixoi saying that he had never met with sweeter 
wine than this X. A. 1, 9. 25. 

1071. ws for ij is rare, and suspected by some. But cp. A. Pr. 629, P. A. 
30 b, 36 d, R.526C. 

1072. /MaWov 7J may be used though a comparative precedes : alperSrepbv 
^(TTL jMOLXop-^vovs aTTodvQGKeLv {jloXKov 7} <p€&yovTas aip^ecdac it is more desirable for 
men to die fighting (rather) than to save themselves by running away X.CiS, 3. 61. 
Here /jlcLWop ij is to be taken with the verb. 

1073. Instead of the genitive or -ij, the prepositions dtn-f, irpi (w. gen.) or -n-pAs, 
irapd (w. accus.) are sometimes used with the comparative : KaTepydaaadai alpe- 
Tcorepou^eivai rbv KoXbv ddvarov dvrl tov al<rxpov ^iov to make a noble death more 
desirable than (instead of) a shameful life X. R. L. 9. 1, jut^ iralSas irepl vXelovos 
TToiod irpb TOV btKaiov do not consider children of more account fAan (before) justice 
P. Cr. 64 b, x^'-i^^^ iMei^ojv irapd rijj/ KaSea-TTjKVtap upav a CoM tOO severe for (iu 
comparison with) the actual time of year T. 4. 6. 

1074. In statements of number and measure ■^ may be omitted after the 
adverbial comparatives irXiov Qn-Xelv') more^ eXdrrov {p,€Lov) less, which do not 
alter their case and number : w^pLTrei oOk '^Xdrrov d^Ka (p^povras vvp he sends not 
less than ten men carrying fire X, li. 4. 5. 4, ir^Xts irX^ov TrevTaKidxi-Xitav dvBp&p 
a city of more than 5000 men 6. 3. 16. Even when tj is kept, -n-X^oy (TrXeif), etc., 
remains unchanged: iv irXetu ( = TrXefocrti') ^ Stdjcoo-Zots ereatv in more than ^00 
years D. 24. 141, ro^brds irXeti' ^ eXKoat /jivpidSas more bowmen than W myriads 
X. C. 2. 1. 6. 

a. In place of the adverbial irX^ov^ etc., we find also the adjectival forms 
with or without ■^ or with the genitive : To^brds irXelovs 7} TerpaKiaxtXiovs more bow- 
men than 4000 X. C. 2. 1. 5, ir-q yeyovCs^ irXelw e^Sop.'^Kovra more than 70 years 
old P. A. 17 d, linrids TrXelovs rptaKoaiojv more than 300 horse X. H. 1. 3. 10. 

1075. The genitive sometimes occurs together with ^^ and either when the 
genitive has a separate construction, or is a pronoun to which the ^ clause stands 
as an appositive, or of which it is explanatory. Thus, irpoyei ttX^ov . . .' -^ 5iKa 
araSiiav he advanced more than ten stades X, H, 4.0.5 (here irXiov is treated as a 



io82] COMPARISON 281 

substantive), r^s yap civ yivoLTO radri}? fiavia fj^ei^coy ^ , . . i^fxas KUkIos jroieip ; for 
what madness could be greater than {this) . . . to use us ill f Is. 1. 20. Cp. 1070. 

X076. Compendious Comparison. — The possessor, rather than the 
object possessed, may be put in the genitive after a comparative : d 

S' ly/Aft? vn-niKQv KTr}a-ai}}.Sa. jjJq -^eipov rouroiv (^ tov totjtwv LTnnKov) but 

if we sJiould raise a ca oalry-jforce not inferior to theirs X. C. 4. 3. 7. 

1077. Comparison witli a Noun representing a clause. — When one person 
or thing is to be compared, not with another person or thing in regard to its 
quality, but with an entire idea expressed by a clause {e,g. 7} (Lc-Te with the infini- 
tive, ^ a;j with the potential optative, or ^ and a finite verb), this clause may be 
abridged into a substantive or a participle. Thus, tt pay jj,a i)^7ri^os Kpela-a-ov an 
event beyond our expectations (too great to he expected) T. 2. 64, Trpoacaripca rod 
Katpou TTpoiopTes advanrAng further than the proper measure {i.e. further than they 
should have gone) X. A. 4. 3. 84, ws tCjv ye irapovrajv ouk hv irpd^avTC^ X^^P^^ ^'^ i^e 
belief that they could not fare worse than at^wesent (•§ ra Traphvra icTiv) T. 7.67. 

1078. Reflexive Comparison. — The comparative followed by the 
reflexive pronoun in the genitive is used to denote that an object 
displays a quality in a higher degree than usual. The degree of 
increase is measured by comparison with the subject itself, avro? is 
often added to the subject : avTol avrC^v EvfjiaOea-Tcpoi yt-yvovrat thei/ learn 
more easily than before 1. 15. 267, TAoLimwrepot lavrthv yt-yvd/Acvot becorrb- 
ing richer than they were before T. 1. 8, Cp. 1093. 

1079. Proportional Comparison, — After a comparative^ ^ Kara with 
the accusative (1690. "2 c), or rj <^<rr€y rj <us, rarely 17 alone, with the 
infinitive (not with the indicative), denote too high or too low 
a degree : o'jrAa en TrAetoj rj Kara tov? v€Kpov<; IXri^^Bi] more arms 
were taken than there were men slain T, 7. 45, ^o/JoC/juit /x^ rt /xet^ov rj 
(ocTTc c^epeLv Svvao-Oat KaKov rfj TroXet (rvfi^fj I fectv lest there should befall 
the State an evil too great for it to he able to bear X. M. 3. 5. 17 (2264). 

1080. Double Comparison, — -Two adjectives (or adverbs) referring 
to the same subject, when compared with each other, are both put 
in the comparative: rj is always used : 17 eipi^vY} avayKatorepd 17 fcaAArW 
a peace inevitable rather than honourable Aes. 3. 69, o-uvro/AoiTepov rj 
o-a^jjeo-T^pov StaA.e;^^5'^at to discourse briefly rather than clearly 1. 6. 24. 

a. fiaWop may be used with the first adjective in the positive (cp. 1065), and 
if before the second : Trpbdu/jos /iSXkov ij cocpwTipo. with more affection than pru- 
dence E. Med. 486. 

1 1081. A comparative may follow a positive to mark the contrast with it : 
Kai /ufcpa Kai ^e/fw both small and great{e'r) D. 21. 14. 

1082. The compaTative may stand alone, the second part being 
implied. 

a. That which is exceeded is indicated by the sense only : ol <To<pibTepoL the 
wiser (those wiser than the rest) ; ^v etp-^vr) ai xoXetj dixdvov% ras yi^ibfias iyovffLv in 



282 . SYNTAX OF tup: simple sentence [1083 

time of peace States are actuated by higher convictions (than in time of war) 
T. 3. 82. So Tt muirepQv something new (move recent than that already known) 
P. Pr. 810 a (often = a calamity x'^v a revolutionary movement); wrepov ^kov they 
came too late T. 7. 27; and often where we supply is usual {rights fitting, etc.). 

b. The Horn. drjX^Tepai -ywoTiKe's implies a Comparison with men. In KOpor . . . 
iyeySvei firjTpbs dfidi/ovos, warpos de viroSeeiTT^pov Cyrus was bom of a mother of 
superior, but of a father of inferior race (Hdt. 1. 91) the comparison is between 
the qualities of mother and father respectively. Cp. 313 b. 

c. The comparative denotes excess : /Mei^oaiv cpyois iTrix^LpodvTes ov fUKpois KaKo?s 
7r€pi7riirTov<TL by entering upon undertakings too great they encounter no slight 
troubles X. M. 4. 2. 35. 

d. The comparative is used to soften an expression (rather, somewhat) ; 
dypoLKorepov somewhat boorishly P. G. 486 c, dfx^\4<jT€pov iiropeTiero he proceeded 
rather carelessly X. H. 4. 8. 36. Here the quality is compared with its absence 
or with its opposite. 

1083. The comparative is often used where English requires the positive : ov 
yap x^'tpov TToWdKis aKoijeiv for His not a bad thing to hear often P. Ph. 105 a. 

1084. Strengthened forms, — The comparative may be strengthened by I'rt, 
TToXXtJj, /ittK-pt? (1613), iroXiu (1609), TTokv ert, etc. fiaWov is sometimes used with 
the comparative : alaxvpr-qporipo /xdWou rod deovros more bashful than they ought 
to be P. G. 487 b. So the correlative 6(r(p, 6<jov -. oVt^ pteifous etVt ras S-feis, ro^ovrip 
(xdWov dpy^s H^ioi elm the braver they are to appearances, the more they deserve 
our anger L. 10. 29. 

SUPERLATIVE 

1085. The superlative expresses either the highest degree of a 
quality (the relative superlative : 6 ao<f>o>Taros dvrjp the ivisest man) or 
a very high degree of a quality (the absolute superlative, which does 
not take the article : dur^p (rot^wrfiro? a very wise maii). The relative 
superlative is followed by the genitive of the person or thing sur- 
passed (1315, 1434). On the agreement^ see 1050. 

a. The class to which an individual, marked by the superlative, belongs, 
may be designated by a genitive of the divided whole (1316) : 6 cro^tiraroj rCiv 
"EXX^^wf the wisest of the Greeks. So often by iravTOiv: irdvr(av dvdpdyirwv dyviii- 
ixoviaraTOL the most senseless of all men Lye. 54, On tlie superlative witli dXXco;', 
see 1434. 

b. With two the comparative exhausts all the degrees of comparison: hence 
TrpSrepos and irpwros, varepos and uo-raros, CKdrepos each of tWO, and ^Kaaros each 
of several, are carefully to be distinguished. 

1086. Strengthened Forms. — The superlative may be strengthened by pre- 
fixing ort OT cos, rarely ^ (also ojov or ottcos in poetry): on irXeiaroL as many men 
as possible, on rdxi-o-ra as quickly a.'^ possible, ■§ dpi<TTov the very bestnvay X. C. 
7. 5.82 (oTTws dpiffra A. Ag. GOO). cJrt or ws is always added wlipn a preposition 
precedes the superlative : ws ets urevdornrov into as narT<ntt compass as possible 
X. 0. 18. 8. 6js and 5rt may be iLsed together : a>s on ^4\n<jTov ep.k y^veaSai for me 
to becA)me as good as may be V. S, 218 d. 



1094] COMPARISON 283 

a. With ws and ij, rarely with oirrj (not with on)^ a form of Simnat or oT6s re 
eipLi^ etc., may be employed: dLtjyiqffofiai vjjup wj av h^vta^ai 5ia ^paxvTdrwv I will 
relate to you in the briefest terms I can I. 21. 2. 

1087. olos may strengthen the superlatiye : op&vTes ra irpdyfiara o{>x o^ct 
^Artara i-^ rip 7r6Xei 6vTa observing that affairs are not in the very best state in 
the city X. 13. 23. If Scos or birbaos take the place of ofos, a fonu, or a synonym, 
of 5^va^aL is usually added : -qyayov avfijjidxovs OTrdaous irXeio-Tovs idvvdjXTjv I 
brought the veil/ largest number of allies 1 could X. C. 4. 6. 29. ottoios is rare 
(Thuc, riato). 

1088. eU &vi)p in apposition to the person designated may be added to 
strengthen the superlative : ' kvri<pQiv TrXcio-ra eZ? avT]p dvvdpievos dxpeXetv Antiphon 
being able to render (most aid as one man) aid beyond any other man T. 8.68. 

1089. iv Tois is used before the superlative in all genders and numbers (esp. 
in Hdt., Thuc. 5 Plato) : t*)^?? 17 o-rdats . . . e5o£e ixdWov, BlSti 4v toU irpibTi] iyivero 
the revolution seemed the more criiel since it xoas the first T. 3. 81, iv roTs TrXet- 
o-TUL di] i>T}€s an' a^rrois eyevovTo they had the very largest numher of ships 3. 17. 

1090. fidXicra, or TrXeicTOv, fxiyiarov^ OCCUrs with the superlative: ol ^dXiara 
dvoi]T6TaroL the very stupidest P. 'J'im. 92 a. In poetry ^a^i;- has the effect of a 
superlative : ^adijirXovros exceeding rich A. Supp. 555. 

1091. Kai eveil, ttoXX^, p^aKpi^ (1513), TToXi; (1609), Trapa TohJii^ wavra {rd 
irivTa), the correlative So-tfj also strengthen the superlative. 

1092. Ill poetry (rarely in prose) a superlative may be strengthened by the 
addition of the genitive of the same adjective in the positive: & KaKwv KdKiare 
oh, vilest of the vile S. 0. T. 334. 

1093. Reflexive comparison (cp. 1078) occurs with the superlative ; d/A^XiJ- 
rara aurbs a^rov bpq. his Sight is at its dullest P. L. 715 d. 

ADVERBS 

1094. Adverbs are of two kinds 

a. Ordinary adverbs, denoting manner^ degree, timej place, etc. 
Ordinary adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, and (rarely) 
vSnbstantives : oTricrBev yevo/uevo? getting behind X. A. 1. 8. 24, ^vOh i/36d 
straightiuay he shouted 1. 8, 1, (^avepov rj^ already dear L. 4. 6, ttoXv 
Odrrov much more quickly X. A. 1. 5. 2, eS fxaXa very easily 6, 1. 1, €u<6- 
Tto? rpoTTov TLvd in a zvay reasonably J). 8. 41, fxdXa (TVficf>opa a great 
misfortune X. C. 4. 2. 5, ^aXa arparrj-yo^ an excellent general X. H. 
G. 2. 39. 

b. Sentence adverbs (or particles) are adverbs that affect the sen- 
tence as a whole or give emphasis to particular words of any kind. 
Greek has many sentence adverbs, some of which are treated more 
fully under Particles. 

Such are words of interrogation (i?, apa, ficav) ; of affirmation and confidence 
(StJ now^ indeed^ S-iJra surely, yi at least, even, ^ really, /htjv in truth, vi} surely, 



284 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1095 

TOi surely); of uncertainty ((Vws, ttov, rdxa. perhaps) ; of negation (ov, fi-^, ovroi, 
fi^TOL. etc.) ; of limitation {dv 1701 ff.). 

1095. Tije equivalents of an ordinary adverb are : an oblique case (i^aa-iXevep 
eiKocTLV Httj he reigned for tioenty years^ 1581, 1582 ; dKoveiv airovd'^ to listen atten- 
tively, T^ iia-repaia inope^ojn-o they promeded on the next day^ and many otlier 
datives, 1527 b ; ?)K€ t^v raxl^crrrji' he came in the quickest way, and many other 
accusatives, 1606-1611) ; an oblique case with a preposition (did, rdxovs fj^Oe he 
crime qiiicJcly = rax^t^^^ dn o'Uov opfiCcfiaL I start from home = o'cKodep, iy r^ 
€ix<{}av€i clearly^ idLdov wpbs tt)v d^Lav he gave according to merit = d^iojs, irpo? 
^la.i' forcibly — jSiaiws) ; a participle (yeXQv eJ-rre he said xciih a laugh, laugh- 
Ingly). (Furthermore, a clause in a complex sentence, as eicrTrrjd'na-avTes . . . 
doLTTov ^ ib% Tts av cpero leaping in more quickly than one ivould have thought 
X.A.I. 5. 8; cp. 2189. 3.) 

1096. In the attributive position an ordinaxy adverb may serve as 
an adjective: iv tw TrX-qatov TrapaSeta-o} in the neighbouring park X, A. 
2. 4. 16, o iKciOev ayyeAos the messenger from that quarter P. B. 619 b, 
rapa-xT) 17 rare the Confusion of that time L. 6. 35. See 1153 e. n. 

1097. a. An ordinary adverb qualifying a verb is often so used that it may 
be referred to the subject or object of the sentence where an adjective could 
stand. Thus, ware . . , viroXaix^dvecrdaL fiei^ovois ^ Kara rrjv d^iav SO as tO he re- 
garded as greater (lit. in a greater way) than {according to) their deserts 1. 1 1. 24. ■ 

b. Hxo- and x^P'^ apart, cKds far, ^771;$ near and some other ordinary 
adverbs supply, with cTyai or yiyveadat, the place of missing adjectives. Thus, 
xwpts ao(l>id ^cTTb dvSpeias wisdoni IS different from courage P. Lach. 195 a. 

1098. For adjectives used adverbially, see 1042 ; for degrees of comparison, 
345, 1068 ; for the genitive or dative after adverbs, 1437 ff,, 1499 ff.; for adverbs 
used as prepositions, 1700 ff. ; for a relative adverb used with names of things 
as an equivalent of a relative pronoun preceded by iv, eis, e^, see 2499. 

THE ARTICLE-ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 

1099. The article 6, y, t6, was originally a demonstrative pronoun, 
and as such supplied the place of the personal pronoun of the third 
person. By gradual weakening it became the definite article. It 
also served as a relative pronoun (1105). (Cp. Germ, der, demonstra- 
tive article and relative; French le from ille.) b as a demonstrative 
is still retained in part in Attic prose (1106), while the beginnings 
of its use as the article are seen even in Homer (1102). 

6, T|, TO IN HOMEB 

1100. In Homer o, 17, to is usually a demonstrative pronoun and 
is used substantively or adjectively ; it also serves as the personal 
pronoun of the third person : aXXa to $avjjidt,(i> but I marvel at this 
S 655, Tov XoipTjrrjpa cttcq-^oXov this prating brawler B 275; rrjv S' cyw 
ov \v(Toi but her I tvill not release A 29. 



1108] THE ARTICLE 285 

1101. In its substantival use 6 either marks a contrast or recalls the subject 
(the anaphoric use). But with dWd^ 5*^, airdp the subject is generally changed. 
It often precedes au explanatory relative clause : rOv ot vvu ^porol dai, of those 
who are now moHal men A 272. 

1102. 0, rf, rb often approaches to its later use as the definite article or is 
actually so used: rhv fi^v . . . rhv 5' 'ir^pov E 145 (cp. 1107). a. The substan- 
tive often stands in apposition, and is added, as an afterthought, to the demon- 
strative (especially 6 hi) which is still an independent pronoun : airiip 6 Tolct 
yipiov oSbv -rjyefidvevGv but Tie, tJie old man, was leading the way for them w 225. 
In some cases the appositive is needed to complete the sense : ^Trel t6 ye KaXby 
dKovipLEP iffTlv doidov since this — to listen to a minstrel — is a good thing a 370. 
b. Often with adjectives and participles used substantively, with pronouns, and 
adverbs ; especially when a contrast or distinction is implied : ot &\\ol the others 
$371, rd itro-Sfieva the things that are to he A 70, to irdpos formerly N228. The 
attributive adj. before the noun: rots trot/s thy 4^572, rd iiiyiara. &e9\a the 
greatest prises ^G40 ; and in apposition i^lpovrbv dX^fjTTjp Irus, the beggar 0-333. 
Horn, has irarrip ovpiSs 360 (but does not use 6 irar^p 6 ^p.6s). 

1103. In Horn. 6 contrasts two objects, indicates a change of person, or a 
change of action on the part of the same person. Attic 6 defines. 

1104. Tlie transition from the demonstrative to the article is so gradual that 
it is often impossible to distinguish between the two. Ordinarily Homer does 
not use the article where it is required in Attic prose. The Epic use is adopted 
in general by the lyric poets and in the lyric parts of tragedy. Even in tragic 
dialogue the article is less common than in prose. Hdt. has 6 bk and he^ 6 ydp 
for he. 

6, T|, TO AS A RELATIVE 

1105. The demonstrative 6, ij, rd is tised as a relative pronoun in 
Homer only ^vlien the antecedent is definite (cp. that) : r^vx^a 8' c^eva- 
pi^Cj ra ol Trope xa-^Keos "Aprjs he stripj^ed off the arms that brazen Ares 
had given him H 146. The tragic poets use only the forms in r-, 
and chiefly to avoid hiatus or to produce position : Krdvovaa tovs ov 
Xpr} KTav€iv slaying those whom it is not right to slay E. And. 810. 
(o = OS E. Hipp, 625.) On the use in Herodotus, see 338 D. 3. 

6, Tl, TO AS A DEMOKSTKATIYE IT>^ ATTIC PEOSE 

1106. The demonstrative force of o, 17, t6 survives chiefly in con- 
nection with x^articles (fx4vj Se, yej toC\ and with Kal preceding 6). 

1107. is a demonstrative commonly before p.4v^ 5^, and especially in con- 
trasted expressions : p-^v . . . 6 de the one, this . . . the other^ that, as in ot fxh 
iiropeiuovTo, 01 d' e'liropro the oiie party proceeded^ the other followed X. A. 3. 4.16. 

1108. The reference may be indefinite ; in which case rls is often added : 
Toiis p^kv dir4KT€tv€, rods 5' i^t^^aXev some he put to death^ and others he expelled 
X. A. 1. 1. 7, ol p.h Ttves d'iridvii<XKov^ ol 5* ^^€vyoy some were Ulled, hut others 
escaped C, 3, 2. 10. 



286 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTKNCE [nog 

1109. Witli prepositions the order is usually inverted : iK fi^v tCjv^ d$ U 
rd (1663 a). 

1110. In late writers (but in Demosthenes) the relative is used as in 1107 : 
ir6Xeis, as fi^v dvaipQv, eis as 5^ toi>s <pvyddas Kardywv destroying some cities, into 
others bringing bade their exiles D. 18. 71 (the first instance). 

1111. Note the adverbial expressions ; t6 (ra) iiAv . . . rb (rd) 5e oil the one 
hand . . , on the other hand, partly . . . partly (so also toOto ix^v . . , tovto 
54 12bQ) ] Tb d4 TL partly, ry fUv . . . r^ 5^ in this way . . . in that way^ rd 34 
whereas (1112), ry rot therefore. 

1112. 6 5^, ij 54, rh 54 (without a preceding /x4v clause) often mean but (or and) 
he, she, this. In the nominative the person referred to is usually difierent from 
the subject of the main verb ; KDpos 5L5w(riv adrip }xvpiovs ScipeLKo6s • 6 5^ XajSuji' t6 
Xpi'<rlov K.T.X. Cyrus gives /im (Clearchus) 10,000 darics ; and he taking the 
money, etc. X. A. 1. 1. 9, raOra d7ra77^XXoi;(rt rots (TTpaTLthTaLS • tois Si- iinotj^la. ^v 
8tl HyoL irpbv ^ao-ik4d they report this to the soldiers ; and they had a suspicion 
that he was leading (them) against the king X. A. 1, 3. 21, rd 5' ouk %<xti toi.ovtov 
whereas this is not so P. A. 37 a. 

VARIOUS USES OF 6 (os), t) (rO, To DEMONSTRATIVE 

1113. As a personal pronoun, chiefly after ^a/, and in the nominative : Kal 
5s (ij) and he (she) : Kal ot eiirov and they said X. A. 7. 6. 4. Also in -^ 5' 6s and 
he said P. R. 327 c (792). So Kal t6v (j^v) used as the accusative of Kal 6s, as sub- 
ject of a following infinitive in indirect discourse : Kal top eiireTv and (he said that) 
he said P. S. 174 a. 

1114. In the nominative os, tJ, are usually thus written. Some write 5, ^, o'i, 
aX when these words are used as demonstratives ; but $ ix4v . . . 5 5^ is rare. 

a. The forms 6s, ij, here apparently relatives with an older demonstrative 
force, may.be in reality demonstratives, 6's being the demonstrative (article) 6 to 
which the nominative sign -s has been -added. From this 6'? may be derived, by 
analogy, the demonstrative nse of 6', and of ois, oy? in fixed expressions (1110). 

1115. Also in t6p Kal t6v this one and that one L. 1. 23, t6 Kal rb this and 
that D. 9. 68, TCI Kal TO. D. 21. 141, oi^T€ rots ovt€ Tois neither to these nor to those 
P, Ij. 701 e. In the nom. 5s Kal 6's such and such an one Hdt, 4. 68. 

1116. In an oblique case before the relatives ds, Sa-os, oTos : t6v re EWi/Kptro^ 
. , . Kal rbv OS €<p'r} SecFirbTitjs ro&rov elvai, ixdpTupas irap4^0fxaL and as witness I will 
produce both EuthycHtus and the man who said he was his master L. 23. 8. 
6p4y€TaL toO 6 Hcttlv ta-ov he aims at that which is equal P. Ph. 75b, and often in 
Plato in defining philosophical terms. 

1117. Rarely with prepositions, except in irpb roO (or irporoO) before this time 
T. 1. 118. On iv rols witli the superlative, see 1089, 

6, T|, t6 AS AN ARTICLE (the} IN ATTIC (ESPECIALLY 
IN prose) 

1118. The article 6, tj, to marks objects as definite and known, 
whether individuals (the particular article) or classes (the generic 



ti22] THE ARTICLE 287 

article). The context must determine the presence of the generic 
article. 

a. There is no indefinite article in Greek, but a, an is often represented by 
rh (1267). 

THE PARTICULAR ARTICLE 

1119. The particular article denotes individual persons or things 
as distinguished from others of the same kind. Thus, fiatvcTai 
avOpisiiro^ the man is mad (a definite person, distinguished from other 
men) P, Phae. 268 c. 

1120. Special uses of the particular article. The particular article 
defines 

a. Objects well "known : 6 tCou eirra aro<pd)Taros lldXuy Solon the wisest of the 
Seven {Sages) '^. Tim. 2^^. 

b- Objects already mentioned or in the mind of the speaker or writer (the 
anaphoric article) : ^irov 6tl rdXaprop apyvpCov 'eTOLjio^ €^7)v dovvai ...68^ Xa^cjv 
TO rdXavTov k.t.X. I said that I was ready to give him a talent of silver . . . and 
he taking the talent, etc. L. 12. 9-10. 

c. Objects specially present to the senses or mind (the deictic article) : Xa^^ 
Tb pt^XLov take the book P. Th. 143 c, ^ovXdpieuos t^v p.ix7]v Trot-^crat wishing to 
fight the hattle T. 4. 91. Hence the article is regularly used with demonstrative 
pronouns (1176). 

N. — The foregoing (a-c) uses recall the old demonstrative force of the 
article. Words that ordinarily have no article may receive the article when this 
older force is present. 

d. Objects particularized by an attributive or by a following description : 
6 drjixos 6 *Adt]vaL(i3v the people of the Athenians Aes. 3. 116, X^^ye rijv kiriaToXiiVy rjv 
^Veyitfev read the letter that he sent I>. 18. 39. Cp. 1178 d. 

e. Objects marked as usual or proper under the circumstances : to /jl^pos tQv 
\p'^(pcjp 6 SicbKcjp ovK eXa^ep the prosecutor did not get the (requisite) part of the 
votes R 18. 103. 

f . Objects represen tative of their class (the distributive article, which resembles 
the generic use ; often translated by a, each) : viricrxv^'iTat bibceiv rpla Tj/j^idapeiKo. 
rov /iTjvbs T^ cTTpaTiihTT} he promises to give each soldier three Jmlf-darics a month 
X. A. 1.3. 21. But the article may be omitted : Kai dXovro 5<^Ka, 'ha dnb ^OX^s 
and they chose ten, one from {each) tribe X. H. 2. 4. 23. 

1121. The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive 
pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor : Kvpo^ Kara- 
77978170-01? aTTo rov apiJLaro<5 tov 0(x>pdKa eveSv Gyrus leaped down from his 
chariot and put on his breastplate X. A. 1. 8. 3. 

THE GENERIC ARTICLE 

1122. The generic article denotes an entire class as distinguished 
from other classes. Thus, 6 dvOpoj-n-os man (as distinguished from 

other beings), ol yepovreq the aged; Sa tov crrpivrK^r-qv (po/StiCrOat fxaXXov 

rov dpxovra. rj rov? TroXe/^ttou? the (o) soldier should fear his commander 



^88 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTJ5NCJS [1123 

rather than the enemy X. A. 2. 6. 10^ Trovrjpov 6 <TvKo<^dvT7}^ the infornier 
is a -vile thing D. 18. 242. 

1123. In the singular the generic article makes a single object the repre- 
sentative of the entire class ; in the plural it denotes all the objects belonging to 
a class. The generic article is especially common, in the plural, with adjectives 
used substantively : quk &sf res etTrot ws roi>y KaKOijpyous /cat aScKous eta. tcarayeXdy no 
one could say that he permitted the malefactor and the wrongdoer to deride 
Mm X. A. 1. 9. 13. 

1124. The Article with Participles. — A participle with the article 
may denote an entire class : 6 fiov\6fji€vo<; any one who wishes. Cp. 
2050, 2052. 

6 Tvx<iiv any chance comer., 6 ijyrja-Sfievos a guide^ ovk a-rzop'^ceTe tQiv id€\7)<r6v- 
Twp virip vfiwv Kit^dvvcdecv you will not be in want of those who will be willing 
to encounter danger for you D. 20. 166, ol XoyoiroLouprei newsmongers 4.49. 
The same sense is expressed by Tras 6 with a participle or adjective. On the 
article with a participle in the predicate, see 1152. 

a. When the reference is to a particular occasion, the article may be particu- 
lar (2052) ; as 6 \4yo}v the speaker on a definite occasion, 

THE ARTICLE WITH NUMERALS - 

1125. The article may be used with cardinal numerals 

a. When the numeral states the definite part of a whole (expressed or under- 
stood) : dTrT](Tav tSjv X6xwy ddfScKa 6vt<jjv ol rpecs of the compa?iies, nuniberiug 
twelve (in all), there were absent three X. H. 7.6. 10, cIs irapa roiis ^e^a one 
man in (comparison with) ten X. O. 20. 16, rip irdvre ras 5uo pjoipas two fifths 
T, I.-IO, SiL/o p.ip'T) two thirds 3. 15. (The genitive is omitted when the denomi- 
nator exceeds the numerator by one.^ 

b. When the numeral is approximate : e/aeiyav rjn^pas kpL^tl ras TpidKopm they 
remained about thirty days X. A^4. 8. 22, yeyovor^s ra TTevrr^Kovra. ^r-q about 
fifty years of age X. C. 1. 2. 13. 

c. When the number is used abstractly (without reference to any definite 
object) : dVojs p.T] ipcZs 6tc ia-nv ra 5ibd€Ka dls e^ beware of saying IS is twice 6 
P. B. 337 b, 

N. Ordinals usually omit the article and regularly do so in statements of 
time in the dative (1540) : d^vr^pt^ p.-qvl ttjv irdKiv ireixi-^ov in the second month 
they fortified the city T, 8. 64. 

FLUCTUATIOIIir IN THE USE OF THE ABTICLE : OMISSION OF 

THE ARTICLE 

1126. The article is often omitted (1) in words and phrases which have sur- 
vived from the period when o, ^, t6 was a demonstrative pronoun ; (2) when a 
word is sufficiently definite by itself ; (3) when a word exj)resses a general con- 
ception without regard to its application to a definite person. The generic article 
is frequently omitted, especially with abstracts (1132), without appreciable differ- 
ence in meaning. Its presence or absence is often determined by the need of 
distinguishing subject from predicate (1150), by the rhythm of the sentence, etc. 



II36] . THE ARTICLE 289 

1127. The article is omitted in many adverbial designations of 
time, mostly with prepositions (except rjfjiepd^ by day, vvkt6<; by night). 

Thus, irepl fji^ffds v^KTa^ about midnight^ a^a ^'^ .?W5J before daylight^ &pg. 'erovs 
at the season of the year. So with 6pdpos daybreak, Sei\r] afternoon, ecnripa. 
evening., ^ap spring; and ew iral5o)y from childhood. Most of the above cases 
are survivals of the older period when the article had a demonstrative force. 

1128. The article is very often omitted in phrases containing a preposition : 
H apxv Tov A670U in the beginning of the speech D. 37. 23, t^oj ^AC}v out of reach 
of the missiles X. A, 3. 4. 15, 'RL6va ttjv iirl SrpDju6i'i Eton on the Strymon T. 1. 98. 

1129. Words denoting persons, when they ai^e used of a class, may owit the 
article. So &v6p<o7ros, (TTpaT7/76s, Oeos divinity, god (6 ^cos the particular god). 
Thus, -irdvTDv fx^Tpov dvdpwTr6s iffTLv man is the measure of all things P. Th. 178 b. 

1130. Adjectives and participles used substantively have no article when the 
reference is general: Mtov ijp.4pas midday X. A. 1. 8. 8, i^vxpov cold, d^pixtv heat 
P. S. 186 d, TrifjApat irpoKarakTjypQp.ivQvs to. itKpa, to send men to preocoupy the 
heights X. A. 1. 3. 14. Rarely when an adverb is u>sed adjectively : tCjv ^x^pwv 
&pST]y 6\€6pos the utter destruction of the enemy T). 19. 141. 

THE ARTICLE WITH ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES 

1131. Abstract substantives generally have the article: -f} apcr^ 
/AoAAov ^ tJ <pvyr] crajf ei ra? (/^iJYay valo'itr leather than flight saves men^s 
lives X, C.A.I. 5. 

1132. The names of the virtues, vices, arts, sciences, occupations often omit 
the article: rt <ru4>po(TvP7], tI p.avl5.; what is temperance, what is madness? 
X. M. 1. 1. 16, dpx^ (piXids p.kv fVaiws, %x^P°-^ ^^ ^oyas praise is the beginning of 
friendship, blame of enmity I, 1. 83. Similarly puovaK-^ music, y€<x}pyid agricul- 
ture. So also with 86^a opinion, vovs mind, rix^ ^^^'^ v6/jlos laio. 

1133.' The article must be used when reference is made to a definite person 
or thing or to an object well known: r? rdv ''EW-nvoiv eHvoia the goodwill of the 
Greeks Aes. 3. 70, (yyXv) i) o-x^^'n your usual idleness D. 8, 53, 

1134. The article maybe omitted in designations of space; as ;3ct^os depthy 
v\pos height, also pAy^dos size, ttX^^os size^ amount, yivos and 6vofj,ay used as 
accusatives of respect (1600), may omit the article. 

1135. The article may be omitted with some concrete words conveying a 
general idea, as i^dx'^ soul, crw^a body (but the parts of the body regularly have 
the article). 

THE ARTICLE WITH PROPER NAMES 

1136. Names of persons and places are individual and therefore 
omit the article unless previonsly mentioned (1120 b) or specially 
marked as vp-ell known : ©ouxuSiSi;? ^AOyvalo^; Thncydides an Athenian 
T. 1. 1, rov? CTTpaTLfOTas: a-urSv, rov<; xapa KXeap;)(ov aTreX^ovra?, eta Kiipos 
Tov KXdapxov l^etv their soldiers who seceded to Clearchus, Cyrus 
allowed Clearchus to retain X. A. 1. 4. 7, 6 ^oXcov D. 20. 90, ol 'Hpd- 
AcXces the Heradeses P. Th. 169 b. 

SEEEK GUAM. — 19 



290 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1137 

1137. Names of deities omit the article, except wbeii emphatic {i>^ tov ALa 
by Zeus) or when definite cults are referred to : to rijs 'A&rjydi- edos the sanctuai-y 
of Athena (at Athens) J. 15. "l. Names of festivals vary in prose writers (no 
article in inscriptions) : llavad'qva.i.a the PanaUienaea (but Ilava^j^fafois toU 
fUKpoTs at the Lesser Panathenaea L. 21. 4). Names of shrines have the article. 

1138. Names of nations may omit the article, but ol "EXXt^j/cs is usual when 
opposed to oi ^dp0apoL the barbarians. When nations are opposed, the article is 
usually absent : 6 irSXefios ' A6T}va.l<jjv /cat U.cXoTTovi'Tjcriojv T. 2, 1 (but 6 TrSXe/jLos rCov 
UeXoTrofvrjalbjy Kal ' Ad-qvalojv 1, 1). The name of a nation without the article 
denotes the entire people. Names of families may omit the article : 'Atr/cXT^Trtti- 
5atP. R.406a. 

1139. Continents ; 17 EupdjTr?? Europe, ij 'Aa-ia Asia. Other names of coun- 
tries, except those originally adjectives (as ij 'Attlk-^ Attica), oinit the article 
(At/S(/T7 Libya), yi} and xc«jpa may be added only to such nasnes as are treated 
as adjectives : i) Botwria (7-^) Boeotia. The names of countries standing in 
the genitive of the divided whole (1-^11) usually omit the article only when the 
genitive precedes the governing noun : Sc/ceXias t6 irXela-rov the most of Sicily 
T. 1. 12. The article is generally used with names of mountains and rivers ; 
"but is often omitted with na.mes of islands, seas (but 6 Ilofros the PontiLs), nud 
winds. Names of cities usually omit the article. Names of cities, rivers, and 
mountains often add 7r6Xts, TrorajtiAs, 6pos (1142 c). The article is omitted with 
proper names joined with avr6s used predicatively (1206 b): ai/Tojs ' Ad-qvaloui 
the Athenians themselves T. 4. 73. 

1140. Several appellatives, treated like proper names, may omit the article : 
^acrtXeiJs the king of J^ersia (6 /SacrtXeiis is anaphoric (1120 b) or refer.s expressly to 
a definite person) . Titles of ofB.cial persons; Trpvrdvei^ the Pry tans, a-TparTfyoi 
the Generals. Names of relationship, etc. : irariip father, av^p husband, ywi) 
wife (but the article is needed when a definite individual is spoken of). Thus : 
T)Kov 5k ry /iff fivrtipy r<^ 5e yvfi] Kal iraZSes to One there came his mother, to 
another his wife and children And. 1. 48. So also -war pis fatherland. 

1141. Similarly in the case of words forming a class by themselves, and some 
others used definitely : i^'Xtos sun, oupavSs heaven, (Spat seasons, xepauwos thunder, 
ddvaros death ; do-rv, 7r6XiS city, dKp6iro\is citadel, dyopd mavket-plnce, retxos 
city^wall, -wpvTaveiov xyrytaneum, j/^cos island (all used of definite places) , ddXarra 
sea as opposed to the mainland, but i} ddXarra of a definite sea ; similarly 7?} 
eaHh, land. 

1142. When the name of a person or place is defined by an apposi- 
tive (916) or attributivej the following distinctions are to be noted : 

a. Persons: XlepSiKKds 'AXe^dv5pou Pcrdiccas, son of Alexander T. 2. 99: the 
official designation merely stating the parentage. Atj/jLoa-d^vijs 6 ' AXKia-Bivous (the 
popular designation) distinguishes Demosthenes, the son of Alcisthenes (T. 3.91) 
from other persons named Demosthenes. (Similarly with names of nations.) 

b. Deities : the article is used with the name and with the epithet or (less 
often) with neither : t<^ Ad t^ 'OXv^irif^ to Olympian Zeus T. 5. 31, Ad iXevdepliiS 
to Zeus guardian of freedom 2. 71, 



II49] THE ARTICLE 291 

c. Geographical Names are usually treated as attributives, as 6 E^^pdrT^s 
Trorafxds the river Euxjhvates X. A'. 1. 4. 11, 17 B6X/?'?? Xiyocvi? lake Bolbe T. 4. 103. 
In a very few cases (six times in Thuc.) 6 is omitted with the name of a 
river when -woraixbt is inserted ; hut Hdt. often omits 6. With the names of 
mountains the order is rh Ji-f}\iov 6pos Mt. Pelion Hdt. 7. 129 when the gender 
agrees, but otherwise h rb 6pos ttjv 'lanivTjv to Mt. Istone T. 3. 85 (rarely as i/irb 
rrj Atrvy n^ 6pei at the foot of 3ft. Aetna T. 3. 116). With names of islands, 
towns, etc., the order varies: rb Uapd^vtov 176X10- fxa the town of Parthenium 
X. A. 7.8. 21 ; 7] ^uTTctXeia vt)<to^ the island of PsyttaUa Hdt. 8. 95; Ipayia i) 
vTjcros the island of Tragia T. 1. 116 ; rod Heipaiwi tqv \Lfi4vos of the, harbour of 
Feiraeus T. 2. 93 ; to (ppoipLov rb Ad^5a\ov fort Labdalon 7. 3. The city of Mende 
would he M^J'St; 7r6Xis, ij M^vStj t) 7r6XtSj M^j'Si? i} t6\ls. 

OTHER USES OF THE ARTICLE 

1143. A single article, used with the first of two or more nouns connected by 
and^ X'roduces the effect of a single notion : oi c-TparTf/ol Kal XoxcljoI the generals 
and captains (the commanding officers) X. A. 2. 2. 8, ra^ fxeyiaras Kal Aaxfcra? 
vavs the largest and the smallest ships (the whole fleet) T. 1. 10, ^ rdv iroXXwi' 5ia- 
jSoX-^ T€ Kal <p66voi the calumniation and envy of the multitude P. A, 28 a, Rarely 
when the substantives are of different genders : irepl ras eaur&v fvxai Kal adp-ara 
concerning their own lives and persons X. A. 3. 2. 20. 

1144. A repeated article lays stress on each word : 6 0p$^ Kat 6 ^dp^apos the 
Thracian and the barbarian D. 23. 132 (here the subject remaios the same), ol 
cTTpaT-qyol Kal ol XoxcljoI the generals and the captains X, A. 7. 1. 13. 

1145. Instead of repeating a noun with the article it may suffice to repeat 
the article : 6 jStos 6 tQv Ihioirevovroiv rj 6 rGsv rvpavvevbvroyv the life Of persons in 
a private station or that of princes I. 2. 4. 

1146. A substantive followed by an attributive genitive and forming with it 
a compound idea, usually omits the article: reXevrr} rod ^iov (the) end of his life 
('life-end' as life-time) X. A. 1.1.1. (Less commonly 17 reXeuT?; rov plov 
X.A.I. 9. 30.) Cp. 1295 a. 

1147. When the genitive dependent on a substantive is a proper name : 
p£TcL Ef/jSofds d\(jicriy after the capture of Euboea T. 2. 2, and /icra r^v A4a^ov 
dXudiv after the capture of Lesbos 3. 51. A preceding genitive thus often takes 
the place of the article : Slo, xp^^ov ttXtjBos by reason of the extent of time T. 1. 1. 

1148. Concrete coordinated words forming a copulative expression may omit 
the article : irpbs o^v iralSajv Kal yvvaiKwy Ik€T€^o} vpids by your children and wives 
I beseech you L. 4. 20, ttoXlv Kal oiKlds -ripXv Trapadore surrender to us your city 
and houses T. 2. 72, lepeiat Kal Upeli priestesses and priests P. H.461 a. Cp. man 
and wife^ horse and rider. 

1149. An appositive to the personal pronouns of the first and second persons 
has the article when the appositive would have it (as third person) with the pro- 
noun omitted : tfiels ol T]y€jx6v€% irpbs ^jU.e Trdvres a-vpL^dWere do yoii. Captains, all 
confer with me (ol Tjye/j.bves a-v/x^dWova-i) X. C. 6. 2. 4], oO a-(pb5pa xp^l^^^^ oi 
Kpijres Tor? ^ej/i/cots iroiijp.aaiv we Cretans do not make very much use of foreign 



292 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SKNTENCE [1150 

poems P. L. 680 c, x°-^P<^ dKo^oiv tfxCjv tC}v ao^Qp I delight in listening to you sages 
P. Ion 632 d. 

THE ARTICLE AND A PREDICATE NOUN 

1150. A predicate noun has no article, and is tlius distinguished 
from the subject : KaXetrat -q a.Kp6'n-o)aq crt vtt 'A97]vato)v ttoXls the acropo- ■ 
lis is still called ' city ' by the Athenians T. 2. 15. 

1151. Predicate comparatives and superlatives, possessive pronouDS, and 
ordinals have no article : (pfirji/ ttjv i/iavToO ywaTica TracrOiv <x<j}(j>povecrrdT7]V e'ivai I 
thought that my wife was (the) most virtuous of all L. 1. io, Xatp€<pu>y i/jibs 
kraipo-i ^v Chaerephon was a friend of mine P. A. 21 a. Cp. 1125 d. 

1152. Even in the predicate the article is used with a noun referring to a defi- 
nite object (an individual or a class) that is well known, previously mentioned 
or hinted at, or identical with the subject : ol 5' fiXXot iirLxeipoOtn fidWeiv rhv 
A^^Liriroy dvaKokovvres rhv irpodSrTjy the rest try to strike Dexippus calling him 
''the traitor'' X. A.6.6, 7, ol/rot ^crav oI <p£iyopT€s top fXejxo^ these men were 
those who (as I have said) avoided the inquiry Ant. 6. 27. ot rtdiiJjevoi Toi>s vd^wvs ol 
d<xdevei's dvSpcjiroL elcn KaX ol ttoWoI the enactors of the laws are the weak men and the 

multitude P. G. 483 b, vwdnrTeve be elvai rbv Sia^dWovra Mdviava he SUSpected that 

it was Menon who traduced him X. A. 2. 5. 28 (here subject and predicate could 
change places). So also with 6 ajjr^s the same (1209 a), ddrepov one of two (69), 
ro-i/vavrlov the opposite. 

SUBSTANTIVE-MAKING POWER OF THE ABTICLE 

1153. The article has the power to make substantival any word 
or words to which it is prefixed. 

a. Adjectives : 6 cro^6s the wise man^ to hUaiov justice. 

b. Participles (with indefinite force) : 6 §ov\bp.evQs whoever wills^ the Jirst 
that offers. Cp. 1124. 

N. 1. — Such participial nouns appear in active, middle, and passive forms, 
and admit the distinctions of tense : ol ideXrjcrovTes fxheiv those who shall be willing 
to remain X. li. 7. 5. 24. 

N. 2. — Thucydides often substantivizes the neuter participle to form abstract 
expressions ; rrjs 7r6Xews to Ti/xti/xewc the dignity of the State 2. C3. Such parti- 
cipial nouns denote an action regulated by time and circumstance. Contrast rb 
S€8i6s fear (m actual operation) 1. 36 with rb Sios (simply /ear in the abstract). 

c. Preposition and case : ol i-n-l rQv irpd'yp.dTuv those in power ^ the government 
D. 18. 247, ol 4y rrj ^Xt/cict those in the prime of life T. 6. 24. 

d. With the genitive , forming a noun-phrase (1299) : rd twj' crrpaTMribv the con- 
dition of the soldiers X. A. 3. 1. 20, rd r^s dpyrjs.the outbursts of wrath T. 2. 60. 

e. Adverbs: ot t evdov (rvveXa^i^dvovro Kal oi ^ktos KareKdir-qaav those whO Were 
inside were an^ested and those outside were cut down X. A. 2. 5.32. Similarly 
ot t6t€ the men of that time, ol ^ku the dead, ol TrdXai the ancients. 

N. — An adverb preceded by the article may be used like an adjective : o dpOw 
Kv^epvTjTT}^ the good pilot P. R, 341 c. The article is rarely omitted. 



ti6o] THE ARTICLE 293 

i. Infinitives : koKovo-I ye dKo\a<Tlav to utto twv TjSofiov &ipx^<^OaL theij Gall intem- 
perance being ruled by one'^s pleasures P. Ph. 68 e. 

g. Any single word or clause : rb ujneTs 6r<iv X^w, ttipttoXlv X^7aj wJien I say 
Tow, Imean the State D. 18. 88, virep^as rd dlKds uwex^Too rod <p6vov omitti7ig 
(the words) ' let hvn submit to judgmeiU for the murder ' D. 23. 220. 

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE 

Attributive Position of the Article 

1154. A word or group of words standing between the article and 
its noun, or immediately after tlie article if the noun, witli or without 
the article, precedes, is aai attributive. Thus, 6 o-o<^6<s avijp, 6 aurjp 6 
<To<f}6s, or dvqp 6 <To<fi6<s (ep. 1168). 

1155. This holds true except in the case of such x^ost-positive words as /k^v, 
6^, 7^, T^, 7cip, 5-)}, oJ}jiai^ odv^ Toivvv ; and xi? in Hdt. : rCov res Uefxreojp one of the 
Persians L 85. In Attic, tIs intervenes only when an attributive follows the 
article : rwv ^ap^apwv npes iinrioov some of the barbarian cavalry X. A. 2. 6. 32. 

1156. Adjectives, participles, adverbs, and (generally) prepositions with 
their cases, if preceded by the article, have attributive position. 

1157. (I) Commonly, as in English, the article and the attributive precede 
the noun : 6 o-o^is av-rip the wise man. In this arrangement the emphasis is on 
the attributive. Thus, r^ -n-pciTTj r?M^/>? on the first day T, 3. 06, iv r^S irpb rod 
XP^vif} informer times T>. 53. 12, rdi' iK rwv "EiW-nvwv eh rovs ^ap^ipovs <pb^ov Iddjv 
seeing the teiror inspi^^ed by the Greeks in the barbarians X. A. 1.2. 18. 

1158. (2) Less often, the article and the attributive follow the noun preceded 
by the article : 6 dvijp 6 <ro<p6s the wise man. Thus, rd crrpdreupia to tCjv 'A$Tjpdluv 
the army of the Athenians T. 8. 50, ip ry iropelgi ry ij-^xp*- ^""i BdXarrav on the 
journey as far as the sea X. A. 5. 1. 1. In this arrangement the emphasis is on 
the noun, as something definite or previously mentioned, and the attributive is 
added by way of explanation. So toi)s kuvo.^ roi/s xa\e?roi>s SiS^dat they tie up the 
dogsy the savage ones (I mean) X. A, 5, 8, 24. 

1159. (3) Least often, the noun takes no article before it, when it would 
have none if the attributive were dropped : dprjp 6 ffo<p6^ the wise man (lit. a 
man^ I mean the wise one). Thus, /idxats rats irXeLoa-i. in the greater number 
of battles T. 7. 11, cnJvetjat }ikv deoh^ a-uyetpn 5e cip6p<hTroLS rots dyaSois I associate 
with godSj I associate with good men X. M. 2. 1. 32. In this arrangement the 
attributive is added by way of exjDlanatiou ; as in the last example : loith men, 
the good (I mean). 

1160. A proper name, defining a preceding noun with the article, may itself 
have the article ; 6 d5e\<pds b' Ap^do^xnot (his) brother Arethusius D. 53. 10. Cp. 
1142 c. An appositive to a proper name has the article when it designates a 
characteristic or something well known : b liiiKojp b Trahatbs tJv <pL\65f}fws Solon of 
ancient times was a lover of the people Ar. Nub. 1187, na<r£aji^ 6 Me7apeijs Pasion^ 
the Megarian X. A. 1. 4. 7. 



294 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1161 

1161. The genitive of a substantive limiting the meaning of an- 
other substantive may take any one of four positions : — 

a. t6 tov Trar/jos ^i^Viov the father's hook (very common). Thus, -q rdv 
redvedjTCJv dp^r-^ the voloitv of the dead L. 12. 3G. 

b. Th ^i^Xlov rb rod Trarpds (less common). Thus, i) otKid ij 'Sifioovos the houise 
of Simon L. 3. 32. 

c. rod irarpbs rb ^i^Xiov (to emphasize the genitive or when a genitive has just 
preceded). TIius, rijs viktjs rb ^4yedo$ the greatness of the victory X. H. 6. 4. 19. 

d. rb /3tj3Xio^ rod Trarp6s (very common). Thus, rj rdXfia rwv \ey6vrcov the 
effrontery of the speakers L. 12. 41. The genitive of the divided w^hole (1306) 
is so placed or as in c. 

N. 1. — A substantive with no article is sometimes follov^ed by the article 
and the attributive genitive : lirl o-ktjv^v i6vre$ rT}v ^evocpCjpros going to the tent 
(namely, that) of Xenophon X. A. 6. 4. 19. Cp. 1159. 

1162. The order bringing together the same forms of the article (jspl rod rod 
irarpbs ^i^Xiov) is avoided, but tV7o or three articles of different form may stand' 
together : rb r^s rod ^aiyovros r^x^V^ €pyov the worJc of the art of the wool-carder 
P. Pol. 281 a. 

1163. The attributive position is employed v?ith the possessive pronouns and 
the possessive genitives of the reflexive and demonstrative pronouns (1184)-, avr6s 
meaning same (1173), and -n-as expressing the sum total (1174). ■ 

1164. Two or more attributives of a substantive are variously placed : (1) eh 
ra$ &\\d$'ApKaSiKa$ irSXei? to the Other Arcadian cities X. H. 7. 4. 38. (2) rb €v 
'Apicadlg. rb rod Atos rod AvKaiov Upbv the sanctuary of Lycean Zeus in Arcadia 
P. R. 565 d. (3) is rbv iirl t((J (rrbpian rod Xi/i^yos trrevod 6vro$ rbv 'irepov iT'upyov 
to the other tower at the mouth of the harbour which was narrow T. 8. 90. 
(4) iv rrj oIkIo. ry Xapfiidov r^ tro.pk rb 'OXv^tticIov in the hoUSe of Charmides 
by the Olympieinn And. 1. 16. (5) dirb rwv iv r% 'Aa-la irbXetav 'EXXi7*'t5wj' 
from the Greek cities in Asia X. H. 4. 3. 15. (6) irpbs rrjv ek rrjs XtKcXlds 
rCjv * Adrjvaioov fjLeydXijv KaKOTrpdyidv ' loith regard to the great failure of the 
Athenians in Sicily T. 8. 2. (7) rb re^xos rb (xaKpbv rb vonov the long southern 
wall And. 3. 7. 

1165. A relative or temporal clause may be treated as an attributive : "LbXtav 
ipdo-^i roifs oios odros dvOpdotrovs Solon detested men like this man here D. 19. 254. ' 

1166. Position of an attributive participle with its modifiers (A = article, 
N = noun, P = participle, D = word or words dependent on P) : (1) APNI) ; 
rbv i(f>€(rrriKbra kLuBvvou ry irSXei the danger ivipending over the State T>- 18. 17(5. 
(2) APDN : roi}$ trepiea-r-i^Kbra? r^ irSXet Kiv8Dvovs T>. 18. 179. (3) ADPN ; rbv 
rbrer^ irSXenrepLa-rdvrd kIvSvvov D. IS. ISS. (4) NADP : iroLpLovex^i- Siivafnv ri]v 
. . . KaradovXo}<TO{jAv7}v SiTravras he has in readiness a force to enslave all "D.^. '^^. 

1167 a. Especially after verbal substantives denoting an action or a state an 
attributive prepositional phrase is added without the article being repeated : ryjv 
fieydXtjv (rrpareidv ^Adiivaiujv Kat rdv ^MiiyAx^v ^s Atyoirrov the great expedition Of 
the Athenians and tlieir allies to Egypt T. 1. 110. 

b. A word defining a substantivized participle, adjective, or infinitive may 



1172] THE ARTICLE 295 

be placed "before the article for emphasis : Kal ravra rous elBdras KoXoviiev and we 
will summon those vjIw have knowledge of this D. 57. 65, to6to}v tols ivavTioi^ 
with the opposite of these T. 7. 75. 

Predicate Position of Adjectives 

1163. A predicate adjective either precedes or follows the article 
and its noun : o-o(^os 6 dv-rjp or o avqf^ cro4>6<; the man is wise. 

Thus, dreXeiT^ viKjiaviarTjaav they retired with their victory incomplete T. 8. 27, 
\l/i\7]v ^x^^ TV^ K€<pa\iqv with his head hare X. A. 1.8.6, ras rpt-^peis dc^iXKvaav 
K€viis they towed off the ships without their crews T. 2. 93, 

a. This is called the predicate position, which often lends emphasis. 

1169. A predicate adjective or substantive may thus be the equivalent of a 
clause of a complex sentence : add^^arov tt^v irepl avrCfv, ^vq}njv KaroKd^ovaiv 
they will leave behind a remembrance of themselves that will never die I. 9. 3, 
hr-qpero irbtrov tl (Lyot to crr/jareujua he asked about how large the force Was that 
he was leading (:= -n-Sffov n el-q rb o-rpdrev/jia &yoi 2647) X. C. 2. 1. 2, irap eKbvrwi' 
tQ>v ^uiJLfidxcfjy rijv ijy^p.ovia.v tK'x^ov they received the leadership from their allies 
(being willing) who were willing to confer it 1. 1. 17. 

1170. A predicate expression may stand inside an attributive phrase ■ 6 S^ivbs 
(pred.) Xeyo/xe/'os yeij^pyos he who is called a skilful agriculturist X. 0. 19. 14. 
This is common with participles of naming with the article. 

1171. The predicate position is employed with the demonstratives ovtos^ 
ode^ iKeivos-) and &iJ.(p(>^, dfi^pdnpos, eKarepos, and ^Kaaros ; with the possessive 
genitives of personal and relative pronouns (1185, 1196) and of avrSs (1201); 
with avTos meaning self (1203 b) ; with the genitive of the divided whole (1306), 
as To'LiTui' 01 7r\ei(TTQt the most of these X. A. 1.5. 1-3, 61 iLpia-roL tQv Trepl airbv 
the bravest of his companions 1. 8. 27 ; and with Trds meaning all (1174 b). 

a. Tliis ivise man is outo^ 6 a-otpbs dvijp^ 6 <ro<pbs dvTjp oSros (aud also 6 aoipbs 
o5tos dvTjp^. 

PECULIARITIES OF POSITION "WITH THE ARTICLE 

1172. Adjectives of Place. — When used in the predicate position (1108) 
ciKpos (high) means the top of fAc'cros {middle) means the middle of to-xaros 
(extreme) means the end of. Cp. summus.^ medius, extremals. 

AUrihiitive Position Predicate Position 

rb &KPOV 6pos the lofty mountain ^T,' ^t ^^'' I ^^''/''^ ^"^ • 

TO 6pos ^Kpov \ the mountain 

ij ^ia-n dyopd the central market ^^^'^ ^ .^^""P^ ] «'^^^/^^^«'*^ f 

7/ dyopa fjL^a-T] \ the market 

7} iaxdrv ^wos the farthest island 'r^r^^ ? '^'^'' ] ^^'\^^^(}f % 

•^ ij v7)(Tos i(Txdr'q J the island 

Thus, TTiEpl &KpaLs Tttis xepo-i x^'-p'^^^^ gloves on the fingers (points of the 
hands) X. 0. 8. 8. 17, 8id /lia-ov rod Trapadeia-ov pu flows through the middle of 
the park X. A. 1. 2. 7. The meaning of the predicate position is also expressed 
by (rb) SsKpov Tov 6povs^ (to) p,i<Tov rijs dyopas^ etc. 



296 SYNTAX Oi^^ THE SiMrLK SENTENCE [1173 

1173. jioVos, riiiio-vs. — (1) Attributive: 6 fj.6voi irais the only son^ aX i]fj.Lcreiai 
xdpiTes half-favours. (2) ^Predicate: fj.6vos 6 Trats (or 6 Trats fjudvos) Tra/fet the 
hoy plays alone, ^^ktvs 6 /3/os (or 6 j3£os ^imo-vs) halfoflife^ to, dpfxara ra ijijleea 
ha If of the chario ts. 

avTo's: (1) Attributive: 6 a&rbs dvijp the same man, (2) Predicate: airds 6 
dv-jp or 6 dvT}p aCfT6s the man himself. 

1174. iras (and In the strengthened forms aTras^ (riJ/xTras all 'together), a. In 
tlie attributive position ttSs denotes the whole regarded as the sum of all its 
parts (the sum totals the collective body) : ol Trdvres TroXTrat the whole body of 
citizens^ rj xacra StKcXid the whole of Sicily., diroKTeivaL rods diravras MuTtXi^vabus 
to put to death the entire. Mitylenean population T. 3. 36. 

N, — Hence, with numbers, ol Trdvres, to. (r^fiiravTa in all : €^aK6<TLoi koI X'-^'-o'- 
OL Trdvres 1600 in all T. 1. 60. 

b. In the predicate (and usual) position ttSs means all : Trdvres ol iroXlTai or 
(often emphatic) ol TroXirai irdvTes all the citizens (individually), irepl irdvras 
Toiis d€0^$ Tjare^TjKdin Kal els SLiracrav Trjv irbXtv i)(j.apr'^KaCLv they have committed 
impiety towards all the gods and have sinned against the whole State L. 14. 42. 

c. Without the article : iravres TroXtrat all (conceivable) citizens, }i.L<jdw<yd}j.e~ 
VOL irdvras dvdpibirovs hiring every conceivable person L. 12. 60. 

N. 1. — In the meaning pure., nothing but., irds is strictly a predicate and has 
no article : /ciSkXc^ <ppovpoijfX€vos vtrb TrdvTijjv iroXepilijjv hemmied in by a ring of 
guards all of whom are his enemies (^— Trdvres v<p' wv (ppovpeXraL ttoX^jxloL elo-L) 
P. K. 679 b. So Tracra «:a/cfa titter baseness. 

N. 2. — The article is not used with irds if the noun, standing alone, would 
have no article. 

N. 3, — In the singular, irds often means evei'y : <ji)v col Tracra obht efjiropos with 
you every road is easy to travel X. A. 2. 5. 9, -rraa-a ^dXacrcra every sea T. 2. 41. 

1175. pXos : (1) Attributive: rb oKov arpdrev^a the whole army ; (2) Predi- 
cate : 6\ov rb arrpdrevfia (or to (TTpdT€V)j.a 6Xof) the army as a whole., ttjv vuKra SXtjv 
the entire night. With no article : 6\ov CTpdrevfj-a a whole army., 6'Xa trrpaTctJ/iaTa 
whole armies. 

1176. The demonstrative pronouns outos, oSe, ckcZi/os, and avrds self, 
in agreement yri^h a noun, usually take the article, and stand in 
the predicate position (1168) : ouros 6 avrjp or 6 avrjp ovtos (never 
o ovToq dvijp) this man, avTo<s 6 avyp or o dvrjp avros the man himself 
(6 avTos dvYJp the same man 1173). 

1177. One or more words may separate the demonstrative from its noun : 
6 to6tov epojs Tov dvdpibirov the love of this man P. S. 213 c. Note also tQ>v oiKeiwv 
TLves Twv iKiivojv some of their slaves (some of the slaves of those men) P. A. 33 d. 

1178. avTo<s, oSe, eKcXvoq sometimes omit the article, 

a. Regularly, when the noun is in the predicate: avri) cVtoj iKavj) dTroXoyid 
let this be a sufficient defence P. A. 24 b, oifxaL ifiTjp ra^TT^v Trarplda dvaL I think 
this is my native country X. A. 4. 8. 4. 

b. Usually, with proper names, except when anaphoric (1120 b) : ineivos 
eovKvSld-ns that (well-known) Thucydidcs Ar. Ach, 708. 



ii84] THE ARTICLE 297 

c. Usually, with definite numbers : ravras Tpi&KovTa fjLvds these thirty minae 
D. 27, 23. 

d. Optionally, when a relative clause follows : iirl y^v ttjvSc i}\6ofj.€v, iv f oi 
iraripes rjfjiQv MtJSw;/ iKpdTtjffav we have come against this land^ in which our 
fathers conquered the Medes T. 2. 74. 

e. In the phrase (often contemptuous) oCtos clvIjp P. G. 505 c ; aaid in other 
expressions denoting some emotion : dvdpcciros oifroa-t D. 18. 243. 

f . Sometimes, when the demonstrative follows its noun : iirlypa/xfj-a T66e T. 6. 
59. So often in Ildt, 

g. Frequently, in i^oetry. 

1179. it/Li^w, d/Li06Tepos both^ eKarepos each (of two), isKaiTTos each (of several) 
have the predicate position. But with eKao-roi the article is often omitted : Kara 
T^v TjfjLipav iKaa-TTjv (day by day and) every day, Ka9' €Kd<rTT]v ijfxipdv evei^ day, 

1180. The demonstratives of quality and quantity, rotovro^, rotdtrde, too-oOtos, 
Tocbcbe^ ttiKlkovtos^ when they take the article, usually follow it : t(^v toctoiJtwi' 
Kal TOio{)Tijov a.-ya.dCjv of SO many and such blessings D. 18, 305, tovto to tolovtov 
'4dos such a practice as this 21. 123. 6 Seiva such a one (336) regularly takes 
the article. 

a. But the predicate position occurs: Too-airr] i) irpdyTt} irapaa-Kevr} irpbs Tov 
irdXe/Mov SidirXei SO great ivas the Jirst armament which crossed over for the war 
T. 6. 44. 

1181. An attributive, following the article, may be separated from its noun 
by a pronoun ; i] irdXai r{^(ov <pvais our old nature P. S. 189 d, i) arevi} aurT} 6S6s 
(for avrtj i) <rT€vi] 656s) this narrow road X. A. 4. 2. 6. 

1182. I^ossessive pronouns take the article only ^hen a definite 
person or thing is meant, and stand between article and noun: to 
ifxov pijikiov 'my hook, to. rffxerepa fii^Xia OUT hooks, 

a. But names of relationship, 7r6Xis, irarpU^ etc., do not require the article 
(1140). 

1183. The article is not used with possessive pronouns or the genitive of 
personal and reflexive pronouns (cp. 1184, 1185) : 

a. When no particular object is meant ; ifidv ^t§\iov or ^t^'Kiov fjLou a book of 
mine. 

b. Wlien these pronouns belong to the predicate : f^adt}T7]s yi-yova a6^ I have 
become a pupil of yours P. Euth. 5 a, ot \6yovs; i^avrov \iywv not speaking loords 
of my own D. 9. 41. 

POSITION OF THE GENITIVE OF PRONOUNS AND THE ARTICLE 

1184. In the attributive position (1154) stands the genitive of the demonstra- 
tive, reflexive, and reciprocal jDronouns. rb ro^rov ^t^\iov or rb ^L^\iov rb totjtov 
his book, TO ifjLavrov §i^\iov^ or to ^i^\tov to €/j.avTov my own hook ; (xeTeirippdTo 
rijv eavTov dvyaT^pa Kal tov 7ra?5a a^r^s he sent for his daughter and her child 
X. C. 1. 3. 1. 

a. The type to §l§\Iov Toiiroi; is rare and suspected except when another 
attributive is added : t^ vvv v^pei to^tov 1). 4. 3. The types to ^i^\Lov ifMavTov 
(Hdt. (>. 23) and t6 aOrov ^l^XLov (T. 6. 102) are rare. 



298 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1185 

1185. In the predicate position stands 

a, Tiie genitive of the personal pronouns (whether partitive or not) : t6 
^L^\iov fiov (<TOVf aJ^ToG, etc.), or fiov {aov, airov^ etc.) rb §L§Xiov when otlier 
words precede, as 6s Ixei <jov ri)v dSeX^'^c who has your sister to wife And. 1. 60. 

b. The genitive of the other pronouns used partitively. 

N. 1. — Homer does not use the article in the above cases, and often employs 
the orthotone forms (o-eio fi^ya k\4os thy great fame ir 241). Even in Attic 
ifiov for fiov occurs (ifiov rk (popria my wares At. Vesp. 1398). 

N. 2. — The differences of position between 1184 and 1185 may be thus illus- 
trated : ]j^y J)qqJc is pretty : Ka\6v €<xtl rb ^t^Xlov fwv. 

Kak6v iffri fiov rb ^i^XLov. 
My pretty book : rb Kokbv /lov ^tfiXiov, 

They read their books : ra iavruv ^i^Xla dvayiyvda-Kovcru 

INTERROGATIVES, ttWos, iroXvs, oXiyo^ WITH THE ARTICLE 

1186. The inteiTogatives rts, ttoTo? may take the article wlien a 
question is asked about an object before mentioned : ^Q. vvv 87 

CKetm, c5 <^atSpe, hvvdixeOa Kptveiv, <^AI. ra Trota ; SoCR. JSfow at last we 
can decide those questions. Ph. (The) what questions? P. Phae. 277 a. 

1187. So even with a personal pronoun : A. 5e0po 6^ eiOtf tj/iQiv ... B. ttoI 
X^7ets Kal irapa rivas roiis vfids ; A. Come hither straight to US, B. -Wliither 
do you mean and who are you that lam to come to (you being who) ? P.Lys.203 b. 

1188. aXXos other. — 6 dtXXo? in the singular usually means the rest (v dW-rj 
'EXXds the rest of Crreece); in the plural, the others (ol dXXot "EXXijj/es the other 
(ceteri) Greeks, hu.t d\Xot"'E\\7]V€s other (o Hi) Greeks), A substantivized adjec- 
tive or participle usually has the article when it stands in apposition to oi dWoi: 
raXXa to. TroXtTiKd the Other civic affairs X. Hi. 9. 6. On tiXXos, 6 AXXos (some- 
times erepos) "besides, see 1272. 

1189. iroX-vs, oXC-yos: to ttoXj; usually means the great{er) part, ol woWoL the 
multitude, the vulgar crowd ; -n-Xeioves several, ol TrXeLoves the majority, the mass; 
irXeL<jTOL very many^ ol TrXeto-rot the most ; dXlyot few, oi dXlyoL the oligarchs (as 
opposed to ol TToXXoL). Note iroXiJs predicative : eirel idtpa iroXXa ra Kp4a when he 
saw that there was abundance of meat X. C. 1. 3. 6. 

PRONOUNS 
THE PERSOKAL PKONOUNS 

1190. The nominative of the personal pronoun is usually omitted 
except wken emphatic, e.g. in contrasts, ivhether expressed or implied : 

€7ret Vfxeis ifjuol ov OlXere TruQec-Qaij cyoj avv vfuv hpoixax since yoic are not 

willing to obey me, I will follow along with you- X. A. 1. 3. 6. In con- 
trasts the first xH'onoun is sometimes omitted (930). 

1191. Where there is no contrast the addition of the pronoun may strengthen 
the verb : el fJ.7}5i roOro fSo^Xei dTroKpivaa-Oai, cr^ 5e rovvrevdev X^ye if you do not wish 
to reply even to this, tell me then X. C. 5. 5. 21. 



iigSj PERSONAL AND POSSKSSlVE PRONOUNS 299 

1192. The forms ifjLoO^ i/ioL^ and ifjii and the accented forms of the pronoun of 
the second person (:>25a) are used wheu empluitio and usually after preposi- 
tions : Kal irela-ds ifi^ Trio-TOL fbioKas iioi. Kol eXa^es Trap ifiou and after prevailiJig on 
me you gave me pledges of faith ami received them from me X. A. 1. 6. 7. Cp. 
187 N. 2. On the reflexive use of the personal pronouns of the first and second 
persons, see 1222-1224. 

1193. ^7c6, <r<f (t/Lt'Ss, o-6s) are rarely used of an imagmary person ('any- 
body'): D. 9. 17, X. R. A. 1. 11. 

1194. The nominative of the pronoun of the third person is replaced by 
iKcTvos (of absent persons), 35e, ovtos (of present persons), 6 jjl^v . . . 6 Si (at the 
beginning of a sentence), and by auros in contrasts. The oblique cases of the 
foregoing replace o5, etc., which in Attic prose are usually indirect reflexives 
(1228, 1229). ov and 'i m Attic prose occur chiefly in poetical passages of Plato ; 
in Attic poetry they arc personal pronouns. The pronoun of tlie third person 
is very rare in the orators. 

1195. Homer uses h, of, etc., as personal pronouns (= aOroO, airi^j etc., in 
Attic), in which case tliey are enclitic : dia fMarroaOvriy^ r^v ol ir6p€ ^oT^os by the 
art of divination^ which Phoebus gave to him A 72. Homer also uses fo, ol, etc., 
either as direct (= eauroC, etc., 1218) or as indirect reflexives (= aSrou, etc., 1225). 
In the former case they are orthotone ; in the latter, either enc]itic or orthotojie. 
Thtis, ot TTttiSa ioiKbra yeivaTo he begat a son like unto himself E 800, oij nvd 
(pTjaiv bfjjoLov ot i}x€vai Aa^aiDp he says there is no one of the Danaans like unto 
himself I 306. Hdt. agrees with Horn, except that e5, ol are not direct reflexives 
and oithotone ; (t^jIo-i (not (rcpi) is reflexive. 



THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

Por the article with a possessive pronoun see 1182-1183. 

1196. The possessive pronouns (330) of the first and second per- 
sons are tlie equivalents of the possessive genitive of the personal 
pronouns : e/Aos = /lov, cro5 = <tov, -^fxercpo': = -^fXijyV) v}xiT€po<i =; Vfxuyv. 

a. When the possessives refer to a definite, particular thing, they have the 
article, which always precedes (1182); the personal pronouns have the predicate 
position (1185), Distinguish 6 ^m^s <pL\os, 6 (pi\os 6 iij,6s, 6 0iXor fiov my friend 
from (pl\os iij.6s^ (f)i\os fwv a friend of mine, 

b. A word may stand in the genitive In apposition to the personal pronoun 
implied in a possessive pronoun. See 977. 

1197. A possessive pronoun may have the force of an oljjective. genitive 
(cp. 1331) of the personal pronoun : <i>i\ig, r^ ifiy out of friendship for me X. C. 
3. 1. 28. {(ptXla 7] ifii) usually means my frie'nd.sMp (for others)). 

1198. The possessive pronouns of the first and second persons are 
sometimes reflexive (when the subject of the sentence and the pos- 
sessor are the same person)^ sometimes not reflexive. 



300 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [irgg 



1199. FIRST AND SECOND PERSONS SINGULAR 

1. Not reflexive (adjective m?/, tliy (your) ; pronoun mme, thine 

t^t6s, (Tos : opq, Tov i/jibv (piXov he sees my friend^ opg, rbv cov traripa she sees your 
father, (rrepyeL rbv e/jibv iraripoi he loves my father (or TOV iraripa rbv ifx6v or 
Trarepa rbv ep,bv'y or rov iraT^pa jjjov or fxjav rbv vardpa), ol ifxoi d(p6a\/Ml /caX- 
Xiove^ Slvtuv (twv et-rjaay my eyes will prove to he more beautiful than yours 
X. S. 5. 5. 

2, Eeflexive (iny own, thine (your) oion), 

a. tjiavTov, ortavTov, in the attrilDutive position (very common) : eXa/3o;' rbv 

ifxavTov /xiedby (or rbv p.iGdbv rbv ifxavYov) I received my (oton) pay^ TOP 
dS€\(pbv rbv i/jiavrov cTre/ii^a I sent my (own) brother Aes. 2. 94, Kavl Tois 
aavr^s KaKoT<7i Kavl roTs i/MoTs yeh^s ; art thou laughing at thine own misery 
and at mine? S. El. 879- 

b. €ji6s, <r6s (less common): a-r^pyta rbv i/xbv Traripa I love my (own) father^ 

(TT^pyeii TTjv (jTjv /MTjr^pa you love your {own) mother^ ij ^/mt} yw^ my wife X. 
C. 7. 2.28, dS€\4)bs rijs fijjrpbs r^s ifirj^ brother of my mother And. 1. 117. 
C. ^jtos avTov, (TOS avTov (poetical) : rbv 4/xbv avroO Trar4pa (j3 45, S. O. T. 416). 
d. jiov, crov (rare): rbv irar^pa /jlov Antl 1. 23. 

N. — When the possessor is not to he mistaken, the article alone is placed 
hefore the substantive and the possessive or reflexive pronoun is omitted (cp. 
1121). Thus, aripyeis rbv iraripa you love your (own) father^ uripyei rbv Trarepa 
he loves his (own) father^ <Tr4pyov<7L rbv nar^pa they love their (own) father, 

1200: FIRST AND SECOND PERSONS PLURAL 

1. Not reflexive (adjective our, your; pronoiui 07irs, yours), 

a. f|ji€T€pos, vjteTepos : 6 T^fiirepos ^iXos our friend (more common than 6 (piXos 
ijfxQv), 6 vfx4r€pos (pi\os your friend (more common than 6 <pi\o^ vfxwv), ^V'^t}- 
ffiv TToiotjfxevot 'fj v/xCjv ?i rOiv v/xerepiov tcv6s making a search for you or for 
anything of yours L. 12. 30. 

2. Reflexive {our oion, your own), 

a. (jjierepos, vjicrepos (common) : aripyofjiev rbv Tjji^Tepov <pi\ov we love our own 

fi'iend, cr^pyere rbv b/ji^repov <pi\ov you love your own friend. 

b. Usually the intensive avrQv is used with ij/x^repos, tpierepos in agreement with 

7}!xu)v (vfxuiv) implied In the possessive forms. This gives a stronger form 
of reflexive. Thns : 

f||i€Tepos q{itc»v, -u^CTCpo; avTwv: ar^pyo/j.€v rbv ij/xirepov airQv (piXov we 
love our own friend^ olKoBbpjri^a ^ rdv (pi\u)V nvl t^ i^fxerepov avrdv a house 
eit%er for some one of our friends or our own P. G. 514 h ; cripyere rbv 
v/xirepov airOiv (pi\ov you love your own f7^end, StSdeKere roi>s TratSas roi/i 
vp.€r4povs avrQv teach your own children I. 3. 57. 

c. T|ji»v, -ujiwv (rare) : alnthixedarovs iran^pas Tjixdv let US accuse Our (own) fathers 

P. Each. 179 c. 

d. r\\L(av avTwv, v]i&v aiiTWV (very rare) : 8lKaiov rj/jias - . . (paLvetrdai /xrjre tj/mwv 



1202] rOSSESSIVE PBONOUNS 301 

a^Qy T^? S6^$ ivd€€<rr4povi it is not right for us to show ourselves inferior 
to our own fame V. 2. 11, rot ricv 'i-mrd)}/ koX ra v^xwif avrCiv 6ir\a the equip' 
merits both of your horses and yourselves X. C. (3. 3. 21. 

1201. THIRD PERSON SINGULAR 

1. Not reflexive (his, her, its). 

a. QVTov, aiiTTls, aitrov in the predicate position (very commoii): opQi rby <pl\ov 

aOroO (auT^s) / see his (her) friend^ yiyv^crKwv avroxj rijv dvSpeiay knowing 
his courage P. Pr, 310 d, 

b. €K€£vov, etc., or tovtov, etc. in the attributive position (very common) : bpCi 

rov ifibv 4>VKov^ oiJ rbv iKeivov I see my friend^ nothiSt ^^hkvovvtcli -Trap' Apt-cuov 
Kcu r^v iKeivov (rrpaTiiy they come up with Ariaeus and his army X. A. 2. 2, 8, 
TrapeKdXea-i nva^ twv ro'Lirov iinTTjbelwv he summoned some of his friends 
L. 3. 11. 

c. OS, % bv, Horn. e6s, f^, ebv (poetical): r^v yT]fj,ev ebv 5ti /cdXXos he married 

her because of her beauty X 282. Horn, has ev rarely for avrov, avrij?. 

2. Kefiexive (his own, her own). 

a. «avToO, eavTTJs, in the attributive position (very common): aripyei rbv eavrov 

4>i\ov he loves his own friend, bpa tt]v rnvrfj? urirepa she sees her own mother ^ 
TTjv iavTod ddekcpTjv 5i5u<rL "LetBrj he gives his own sister in marriage to Seu- 
thes T. 2. 101, v^pt^ei yvvaiKa ttji^ eavrov he misuses his own wife Ajid. 4. 15. 
This is the only way in prose to express his own^ her own. 

b. OS («6s): poetical. Sometimes in Homer 6s (e6s) has the sense of own with 

no reference to the third person (12.30 a). 
C. OS avTOv, avrfis (poetical) : 6v avrov ircLTipa. (K 204). 

1202. THIRD PERSON PLURAL 

1. Not reflexive (their). 

a. avTwv in the predicate position (very common): 6 4>i\cs avTwv their friend. 

b. «K€£vwv, TovTwv in the attributive position (very common): 6 roi^rtoj' (iK€ipwv) 

4>t\os their friend, 5td rijv iKeivujv dtrL^ridv because of distrust of them 
And. 3. 2. 

c. <rtj>««v (Ionic): Hdt. 5. 58. 

2. Reflexive (their own), 

a. laDTwv (very common) : aT^pyov<n rovs eavr&v 4>l\ovs they love their oivn 

friends, twv kavrCiv <Tvp,p,dxo}v KaT€<pp6vovv they despised their own allies 
X. H.4.4. 7. 

b. o-tft^epos avTwv, the intensive avT&jf agreeing with ff(^Q>v implied in <7^€T€po$ 

(common): oiKerds rov$ (r<p€T^povs avrdv ^■niKa'KovvTa.L they call their OWn 
slaves as witnesses Ant. 1. 30. 
C. <r^av alJTWv, without the article (rare): ra bi>bp^a.Ta diaTrpSLTTovrai (T<pix)v airrQv 
irpo<7ypa4>T]vai they contrived that their own names were added L. 13. 72. 
Cp. 1234. Tov <r<pwv avrCbv is not used. 

d. o-^^Tcpos (rare in prose): 'RokxitoI fi^pos to <7<piT€pov TrapeixovTo the Boeotians 

furnished their oion contingent T. 2, 12. 



302 



SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 



[1203 



o-<|)wv in the predicate position, occasionally in Thucydides, as rous ^u/i/xdxous 

ididiaav <T<pQ>v they vjere afraid of their ovjn allies 5. 14. Cp. 1228 N. 2. 
1203. Summary of possessive forms (poetical forms in parenthesis). 
a. Not reflexive 



my ifj^s fjMv our ijfjLh-epos 

thy <t6s a-ou your t/i^repos 

his^ her (Ss Hom,, rare) auToC, -ijs their 

(e5 Horn., rare) 
N. — ijfjL^Tepos and v/i^Tepot are more used than ijfiCjv and bfuQiv, 
b. Reflexive 
my own ^/jl6s (^/x6s aiTov, -ijs) efxavrov^ -ijs 
thy own Gbs (o-os o^ToO, -^s) ffeavTov^-rjS 
his, her 

own (6's) (os ayroO, -^s) iaurov, -■^s 
(poet, and 
Ionic) 



((Fcpicov Ionic) 



our own 
your own 
their own 



r}fJL^T€pOS 
V/JL^TSpOS 
<T<f)iT€pOS 

(rare) 



iffi^repos avrSiv 

V/JL^TCpOS aVTWV 

acpirepos avrQif 
eavrQp, <T<pQ)v 
(rare) , 
<7<pQv ainQ>v 

' N. — In the plural 7}p.Q>v adrCbv, vj^wv a^rGiv are replaced by TjpiiTepoi airoiv^ 
v/iirepos auTLov, and these forms are commoner than Tj/iirepos, vixerepos. <y(p^T€pos 
avTU)v is less common than eavrQv. <r<p€T€pos in poetry may mean mine own^ 
thine owriy your own. 

THE PBONOUN CtuTO? 

1204. avr6'5 is used as an adjective and as a pronoun. It has three 
distinct uses : (1) as an intensive adjective pronoun it means sdf 
(ipse). (2) As an adjective pronoun, when preceded by the article, 
it means same (idem). (3) In oblique cases as the personal pro- 
noun of the third person, kiTriy her; it^ tliem (euniy earn, id, eos, eaSj ea), 

1205. Only the first two uses are Homeric. In Hom. avros denotes the 
principal person or thing, in opposition to what is subordinate, and is intensive 
by contrast : adrbv /cat depdirovra the man himself and his attendant Z 18 (cp. 
cr^crdu a^rbv Kal iraUas P. G. 511 e and see 1208 d). On avrd^ as a refifixive, see 
1228 a; on air6s emphatic with other pronouns, see 1233 fE. 

1206. a^To's is intensive (self) 

a. In the nomincUive case, when standing alone : avrol tyjv yrjv 
€<Txov they (the Athenians) seized the land themselves T. 1, 114. Here 
aiiTos emphasizes the word understood and is not a personal pronoun. 

b. In any case, when in the predicate position (1168) with a sub- 
stantive, or in agreement with a pronoun ; avro? o avypf 6 dvrjp airds 
the man himself^ avrov to5 dvSpos, rov dvSpos a-urov, etc. 

1207. With a proper name or a word denoting an individual, the article is 
omitted : airds M^i-wv Menon himself X. A. 2. 1. 5, trph avrov ^aa-ikio}^ in front 
of the Great King hims(df 1. 7. 11. 

1208. The word emphasized may be an oblique case which must be supplied : 
eXe7e 5c Kal ai}Th^ 6 BpocriSas ttj GecrtraXtDv yrj Kal a{>To?s (scil. rots ©ecrcraXofs) <pl,\os 
€}v Uvai and Brasidas himself also said that he came as a friend to the country 



1216] THE PRONOUN" ayrf>? 303 

of the Thessalians ainl to the Thessalians themfirlvcs T. 4. 78, Se? rolvw toOt ^S-q 
<7Koir€iv {scil. -nfids) avToiis we must forthwith consider this inatCei' ourselves D. 2.2. 

1209. Special renderings of the emphatic avros : 

a. By itself in itself unaided, alone, etc. : uiJttj i] oK-^Oeta the naked truth 
Aes. 3. 207, t6 irXeov tov x<^p^ov airb Kaprepbv vTvr}px€ the greater part of the place 
was strong in itself {withont artificial fortification) T. 4. 4. On adrct^ dsf5pd<n 
men and all, see 1525. aijtb with 'a noun of any gender is used by Plato to denote 
the abstract idea, of a thing : a^Th to Ka\6v ideal beauty R. 493 e, airb dLKaiojiJvr) 
ideal justice 472 c. 

b. Just, merely: adrb to 8iov just what we want X. A. 4. 7. 7, aiTa TdSe 
merely this T. 1. 139. 

C. IToluntavily : dvSpas^ ot Kal toTs fii] ^ttlkoXov pivots airol ^tt kti par eiovc l men 
who uninvited turn their arms even against those who do not ask their assist- 
ance T. 4. CO. 

d. T?ie Master (said by a pupil or slave) : Autos e0a the Master (Pythagoras) 
said it {ij^se dixit) Diog. Laert. 8. 1. 40, tLs ohros; Airrhs. tIs AifT6s; ^loKpcLTtfs 
Who's this? The Master. Wio's the Master? Socrates Ar. :N'ub. 220. 

e. With ordinals : ripi8r} Trp€<r^€VT7}i 8^KaToi avrbs he was chosen envoy with 
nine others {i.e. himself the tenth) X. H. 2. 2. 17. 

1210. After the articlej in the attributive position (1154), ahro^ in 
any case means same. 

Thus 6 avTO's dv-fip, rarely (6) d.vT]p 6 aur6s the same man,' tov avTov dipovs in 
the same summer T. 4. 58, to. avrb. raura these same things X. A. 1. 1. 7, oi tous 
avToiis aUl Trepl tQ)v airCov \6yov^ \4yovT€s the people who are continually making 
the same speeches about the same things Ant. 5. 50. 

a. So as a predicate: iyd p,€v 6 ain-bs elfii, ifieh Se fieTa^dWeTe I am the same, 
it is you who change T. 2. 61. 

1211. In Horn, airo^, without the article, may mean the same : ^px^ 5^ t(? 
avT7}v 656v, ^v'7r€p oi ftXXot and he guided him by the same way as the others had 
gone & 107. 

1212. avT05 when unemphatic and standing alone in the oblique 
cases means Mm^ lier^ it, them. €K€\evov avryjv aTrUvai tlmj ordered her 
to depart L. 1. 12. 

1213. Unemphatic aiiTov, etc., do not stand at the beginning of a sentence. 

1214. avTov, etc., usually take up a preceding noun (the anaphoric use): 
KoXiaas dk Adfivtinroy \4yu) irpbs atThv Tab^ summoning Damnippus, I speak to 
him as follows L. 12. 14. But an oblique case of airSs is often suppressed where 
English employs the pronoun of the third p^son : ifiimrXas diravruyv ttjv yvihp.r)v 
di^^efiTre having satisfied the minds of all he dismissed them X. A. 1. 7. 8, 

1215. aiJ-roO, etc., may be added pleonastically ; ir^ipdaopiaL rt^ Trd-mrt^, KpaTi- 
c-Tos utf iinreis, <rv/nfiaxe^y avTip I will try, since I am an excellent horseman, to he 
an ally to my grandfather X. C. 1. 3. 15. 

1216. auTou, etc., are emphatic (= adroO toiJtov, etc.) in a main clause when 
followed by a relative clause referring to a^roOj etc. : dp-qKas aiib, Si Sirep iyiaye 



304 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1217 

ra iixa, ipya TrXeiVrou di^ta fo/M^co ehai yon have mentioned the very quality for 
which I consider my work loorth the hie/heat price X. M. 3. 10. 14. But when 
tlie relative clause precedes, avrov, etc., are not emphatic : ovs 5^ fiii evpicKov^ 
KeyordtpLov avToTs iTroiijaap they built a cenotaph for those whom they could not 
X. A. 6. 4. 9. 



1217. ai/Tou, etc., are often used where, after a conjunction, we expect the 
obliciue case of a relative pronoun : 6 fii} oldi /xtjS* ex^t airov (rtppayTSa which he 
does not know nor does he have the seal of it P. Th. 192 a. 

THE KEFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

1218. Direct Reflexives. — The reflexive pronouns are used directly 
when they refer to the chief word (usually the subject) of the sen- 
tence or clause in which they stand. 

yvu}6t aeavrSv learn to know thyself P, Charm. 164 e, <T4>dTT€L iavr-^v she kills 
herself X. C. 7. 3. 14, Ka8' iavroi^s ^ovXevadfxevoi ret OTrXa Trap^Socrav Kal <r<^ds aiJroiJs 
after deliberating apart by themselves they surrendered their arms and themselves 
(their persons) T. 4. 38. Less commonly the reference is to the object, whicb. 
often stands In a prominent place : rous de TrepiolKovs dcpiJKGv iirl ra? eavrCJv TT^Xets 
but the perioeci he dismissed to their own cities X. H. 6. o. 21. 

1219. The direct reflexives are regular in prose if, in the same clause, the 
prondun refers emphatically to the subject and is the direct object of the main verb : 
ifiavrbv (not ifik') ^Tratvw I praise myself. The iisage of poetry is freer ; arivw 
uk fidWov ij ^fii I mourn thee rather than myself E. Hipp. 1409. 

1220. The reflexives may retain or abandon their differentiating force. 
Contrast the third example in 1218 with irapidoaav o-^ds a^roijs they surrendered 
(themselves) T. 7. 82. 

1221. . The reflexives of the first and second persons are not used in a subordi- 
nate clause to refer to the subject of the main clause. 

1222. The personal pronouns are sometimes used in a reflexive sense: 
dpTjuovvrSs re fiov Kat X^yovro^ ttoXXA. Kai dvd^ta i/Jiov wailing and saying much 
unworthy of myself P. A. 38 e (contrast dKoOa-ei xoXXA Kai dvd^ia <ravTov you will 
hear much umwrtJiy of yourself P. Cr. 53 e), doKta ^ot ddiivaros eivai I {seem to 
myself to he} think I am unable P. R. 368 b (less usually 5ok<^ i/unvr^). So in 
Hom.: iywy ifi^ XiffOfiat I will ransom myself K 378. Cp. 1195. 

1223. ifii, o-i^ not ifiavrSv, a-eavrSv^ are generally used as subject of the infini- 
tive : iyd) oJfiaL kuI ifie Kai a^ to dSiKeTy rod ddcK€L(T$ai KaKiov ijyeta-SaL I think that 
both you and I believe that it is worse to do wrong than to be xoronged P. G. 474 b. 

1224. The use in 1222, 1223 generally occurs when tliere is a contrast 
between two persons, or when the speaker is not thinking of himself to 'the 
exclusion of others. Cp. 1974. 

1225. Indirect Reflexives. — The reflexive pronouns are used indi- 
rectly when, in a dependent clause, they refer to the subject of the 
main clause. 



1229] RKFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 305 

'O/i^o-TTjs ^treto-eu 'AOijmicv$ eavrbi' Kardyeiv Orestef; per/^uoxled the Athenunis to 
restore him^self) T. 1. Ill, ifiouXero 6 K\^apxos dirav to o-rpdreviia irpbs eavrov 
'^X^Lv rT]v yv(ijj.Tjv GLearchus wUihed the entire army to he demoted io himself X. A. 
2. 5. 29. Cp. sibi^ se. 

1226. When the subject of the leading clause is not the same aa the subject 
of the subordinate clause or of the accusative with the infinitive (1975)^ the 
context must decide to which subject the reflexive pronoun refers : (6 Kar-riyopos) 
€<pT} . . . dvaireidovra rous v^ov% avrhv . . . ovtoj S Land e vac roijs ^avrcp a-vvdvras k.t.X. 
the accuser said that, by persuading the young, he (Socrates) so disposed his (^,e. 
Socrates') pupils^ etc. X- M. 1. 2. 52. 

1227. eauToC, etc,, are rarely used as indirect reflexives in adjectival clauses : 
TO, vavd-ytaf Sera irpb? ttj cavruv (7^) ^^t dvelXovro they took up the wrecks, as 
many as were close to their own land T. 2. 92. 

1228. Instead of the indirect iavrov^ etc., there may be used 

a. The oblique cases of aOros : ^Tretparo TO!>s ' Adrivaiovt t-^s h aiirov dpyiji irapa- 
\6cLv he tried to divert the Athenians from their anger against himself T. 2. 65. 
When eavTov^ etc. precede, avTov, etc. are usual instead of the direct reflexive : 
TT]v eavrou yv(j!>p,7)v diretpaii^eTO SwKpdrTjs irpos rous ofil^ovvras avr^ SocratCS was 
wont to set forth Ms opinion to those who conversed tcith him X.M..4. 7. 1. 

b. Of the forms of the third personal pronoun, ol and <T(}>i<rL (rarely oD, <T<peTs, 
(r0cDv, and <7<pas). Tims, -qpivrd a.vTr}v el c-^eXiJo-oi StJaKov^cai 61 he asked her if she 
would be willing to do him a service Ant, 1. 16, rovs iraUas ^KeXevov tov Kvpou 
hetaBat dLa'irpd^a<T$aL acpldiv they ordered their hoys to ask Cyrus to get it done for 
them X. C. 1. 4, 1, KcXeiJovo-t y6.p rjfiai jcoti/y (Mera (j<l>G)v wo\€iie'iv for they urge us 
to make war in common loith them And. 3. 27, e^Tj 5^, iireLd-f} o& iK^ijvai ttjv \pvxTlv 

d<pLKv€l<jdaL <r(pas els t^ttov Ttvb. daifMopiov he said that when his soul had 

departed out of him, they (he and others) came to a mysterious x:>lace P. R. 614 b. 
See 1195. 

N, 1. — a-<p€h may be employed in a dependent sentence if the pronoun is itself 
the subject of a subordinate statement, and when the reference to the subject of the 
leading verb is demanded byway of contrast or emphasis : eiaaydyihvroM dWovs 
<TTpaTf}yovs . . . Wyet;/ iK^Xevev aiJroOs oVt oi^oev B,v tjttov crcpeii dydyoiev ttjv crrpaTidv 
^ ^€vo<pQv after bringing in the rest -of the generals he urged them to say that 
they could lead the army j^ist as well as Xenophon X. A. 7. 5. 9. Here txvroi 
{ipsx) is possible. In the singular auT6s is necessary. 

N. 2, — Thucydides often uses the plural forms in reference to the nearest sub- 
ject: Toi)s ^vfi/xdxovs i545L<Tav a(pQ>v they Were afraid of their own allies {=:<r(pu)v 
a^rCjv) 5. 14. 

N. 3. — ^avTou, etc., are either direct or indirect reflexives, ol and acplaL are 
only indirect reflexives. 

1229. o£, <r<pi(n^ etc., and the oblique cases of a^rhs are used when the sub- 
ordinate clause does not form a part of the thought of the principal subject. 
This is usual in subordinate indicative clauses, and veiy common in on and ws 
clauses, in indirect questions, and in general in subordinate clauses not directly 
dependent on the main verb: rwv 7rp^o-/3ew>/, ot (T<pl<7L (1481) irepl tQv (r-rofSajv 
iTvxov dirdvrei, T}fi^\6vv they thought no more about their envoys, who were absent 

CEKJBK GUAM. — 20 



306 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1230 

on the subject of the truce T. 5.44, 4<po^ovvTo fiij iwidoivro avrots ol iroXifitoi, they 
were afraid lest the enemy should attack them{selves) X. A. 3. 4. 1. 

1230. The reflexive pronoun of the third person is sometimes used 
for that of the first or second : Set ^/aSs dvepeaOat eavroik we onust ask 
ourselves P. Ph. 78 b, irapdyycXk^ rok eavTov give orders to your men 
X. C. 6. 3. 27. 

a. In Homer 8s his is used for 4/^6$ or <r6s : oijroi tyiaye -f}? yairis dvvafiat y\vK€- 
p(bT€pov SXko Idiadat I can look on nothing sweeter than my own la'nd i 28. 

1231. Reciprocal Reflexive. — The phiral forms of the reflexive pro- 
nouns are often used for the reciprocal dXX'^Xaiv, oAXiyXot?, etc. : -qfjuv 
avToh SiokeiofjieOa we Will converse with (ourselves) one another D. 48. 6. 

1232. But the reciprocal must be used when the idea ' each for or with him- 
self ' is expressed or implied : fidWov xafpoucn;' iirl rots dXX^Xajv KaKoh ij toTs avriov 
t6lots dyadoTs (= -^ ^ttI toTs avrov ^Kaa-ros dyadocs) they take greater pleasure in one 
another'* s troitbles than each man in his own good fortune 1.4. 168, ovre yb.p 
eavToh ovre dXhrrfKois bfwXoyovcriv they are in agreement neither with themselves nor 
with one another P. Phae. 2>)7 c. Keciprocal and reflexive may occur in the same 
sentence without difference of meaning (I). 48.9). The reflexive is regularly- 
used when there is a contrast (expressed or implied) with SXkoi : (pdovov<TLvkavroU 
ixdXkov ri Tois AXXots dvdptbirots they envy one another more than (they envy) the 
rest of mankind X. M. 3. 5. 16. 



avTOS EMPHATIC OR REFLEXIVE WITH OTHER PRONOUNS 

1233. Of the plural forms, -rj/xQy avrCov^ etc. may be either emphatic or 
reflexive ; avrCbv TjjxQfv, etc. are emphatic only ; but o-ipdv airQv is only reflexive 
{ain-Cfv <7(p'Qv is not used). In Horn, ai^ric may mean myself thyself or himself 
and € aiLfrSvj ol aiiTi^, etc. are either emphatic or reflexive. 

1234. ■r}iiQ>v {tixQv, 0-0(3^') avrQv often mean 'their own men,* Hheir own 
side' : (pv\aKi]v <r(pQv re avrQv Kal rQv ^vfi/idxojv Kara\t'ir6vT€S leaving a garrison 
(consisting) of their own men and of the allies T, 5. 114. 

1235. auTos, in agreement with the subject, may be used in conjunction 
with a reflexive pronoun for the sake of emphasis : airoi i(p' eavTQ)v ix^pow 
they marched by themselves X. A. 2. 4. 10, airbs . . . eavrbv iv fi^atii KarerLdero 
ToO o-rparoTT^Sov he located himself in the centre of the camp X, C. 8. 5. 8. 

1236. air6s may be added to a personal pronoun for emphasis. The forms 
4/1^ avrSv^ avrbv jLte, etc. are not reflexive like ifiavrbv, etc. Thus, tovs iratSas rov? 
ifiods ijtrxi't'e Kal i/j^ avrhv v^pt<T€ he disgraced my Children and insulted me myself 
L. 1. 4. Cp. ai)T(? ixot iiriaavTo he sprang upon me myself E 459, Cp. 329 D. 

1237. The force of airbs thus added is to differentiate. Thus ^^ a^ri*- 
means myself and no other, i/j,avT6v means simply myself without reference to 
others, u/xas a^roiJ? is the usual order in the reflexive combination ; but the 
differentiating you yourselves {and no others) may be u/aSj ai/ro^s or aiL/rovs u/taj. 



1246] DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 307 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

1238. Tlie demonstrative pronouns are nsed substantively or ad- 
jectively : ovtos, or ovto<; 6 avrjp, this man. 

1239. A demonstrative pronoun may agree in gender with a siibstantive 
predicated of it, if connected with the substantive by a copulative verb (917) 
expressed or understood : avrij (for toCto) dpla-Tt} dcdaaKaXla tMs is the best 
manner of learning X. C. 8. 7. 24, el Sd ns Tair-riv (for tovto) dp-^vr]v vTro\ap.^6.veL 
hut if any one regards this as peace I). 9. 9. 

a. But the unattracted neuter is comuion, especially in definitions where the 
pronoun is the predicate : rovr ta-nv t) diKaLoa^vt] this is (what we call) justice 
P. R. 432 b. So oix vppf'S ravT iarl; is not this insolence? Ar. Ran. 21. 

1240. 0VT09 and o8e this usually refer to sometliing near in place, 
time, or thought ; €k6lvo£ that refers to something more remote, ovroo-t 
and 6St are emphatic, deictic (333 g) forms (this here), 

1241. Distinction between ovtos and 6Sc. — ode hie points with emphasis to 
an object in the immediate (actual or mental) vicinity of the speaker, or to 
something just noticed. In the drama it announces the approach of a new actor. 
6Se is even used of the speaker himself as the demonstrative of the first person 
(1242). OVTOS iste may refer to a person close at hand, but less vividly, as in 
statements in regard to a person concerning whom a question has been asked. 
When 6de and oSros are contrasted, o5e refers to the more important, ovtos to the 
less important, object. Thus, dXX' 6de jSao-iXeuj x^P^^ ^^f^^ ^o I here comes the king 
S. Ant. 155, a'vTT] 7r<^Xas aoO here she (the person you ask for) is near thee S. El. 
1474, Kal ravT &KoiJ€iy Kan r&fB' aXytom SO that loe ohey both in these things and 
in things yet more grievous S. Ant. 64. See also 1245. oSro? has a wider range 
of use than the other demonstratives. 

1242. ^5e is used in poetiy for ^7t6 : rT]<jH{— ^p,ov) yz ^<h<jT]^ in while 1 still 
live S. Tr. 305. Also for the possessive pronoun of the first person : et' ns roiJcrS' 
d/coiio-erat X670US if any one shall hear these my words S. El. 1004. 

1243. ovTOi is sometimes used of the second person: tIs ovroai; -w/io's this 
here 9 {— who are you f) Ar. Ach. 1048. So in exclamations : olroi^ rl Troteis ; you 
there ! what are you doing f Ar. Ran, 198. 

1244. rdde, rdSe Trdvra (ravra Trdvra) are used of something close at hand : 
oi)/c "lajj-e? rdde dffiv the people here are not lonians T. 6. 77. 

1245. ouTos (rotoi^To?, too-oGtos, and ovrm) generally refers to what 
precedes^ oSe (rotocrSe, rocrocrSe, TT^Xt/cocrSe, and toSfe) to what follows. 

Thus, TOLdSf eXe^ej^ he spoJce as follows^ but rotaOra (rocrauTa) eiir<i2V after 
spealdng thus. Cp. 6 KOpos dfcoycrds roC TwjSpiJou rotaura roidde rpbs avrbv eXe^e 
Cyrus after hearing these icords ofGobryas answered him as follows X. C. 5. 2. 31. 

1246. Kal ot/TQs meaning (1) h<3 too, likevjise ; (2) and in fact, and that too, 
points back : 'A7£ds Kal SwKpdTT^s . . . Kal ro<)TUi dwedap^TTjv Agius and Socrates 
. . . they too were put to death X. A. 2. 6. 30; dTs:6poiv icrri . . . Kai rounav Tovt^pwv 
it is characteristic of men without resources and that too worthless 2. 5. 21 (cp. 
1320). On Kai ravra see 947. 



308 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1249 

1247. But otro^, etc. sometimes (especially in the neuter) refer to what 
follows, and o5e, etc. (though much less often) refer to what precedes : fjxra 5^ 
Tovrov efjre roffovrov but after him he spoke as follows X. A, 1. 3. 14, rotoiirovs 
XSyovt elirev he spoke as follows T. 4. 58, rotdSe trapaKeXevdiJuevos exhorting them 
thus (as set forth before) 7. 78, wde BawTova-tv they bury them thus ^as described 
before) 2. 34, ourois c'xet the case is as follows (often in the orators). 

1248. ovTos (especially in the neuter tovto) may refer forward to a word or 
sentence in apposition : tbs ixi] tovto yMvov ivvou>uTai, tL ireia-ovTat that they may 
not consider this alone (namely) what they shall suffer X. A. 3. 1. 41. So also 
ourws. iK€Lvos also may refer forward : ^kcivo Kepdalvetv rjyelTaL t^v Tjbov^v this 
(namely) pleasure^ it regards as gain P. R, 606 b. Cp. 990, 

1249. ovTos (toioutos, etc.) is regularly, bde (TotSffSe^ etc.) rarely, used as the 
demonstrative antecedent of a relative: dTav roiaDra X^7t?s, a oi>d€Ls 5,^ (p-fjcreiev 
a.vBp<Im<jv When you say such things as no one ^?^ the world would say P. G-. 473 e. 
our OS is often used without a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence. 

1250. When 65e retains its full force the relative clause is to be regarded as 
a snpplementary addition: o5 b^ odv HvsKa X^yu) raOra iravTa T6d* iffTi but here's 
the reason why I say all this ! P. Charm. 165 a. 

1251. The demonstratives odros^ etc., when used as antecedents, have an 
emphatic force that does not reproduce the (unemphatic) English demonstra- 
tive t?iose^ e. g. in you released those who were -present. Here Greek nses the 
participle {^roii^ Trapom-as dweXto-aTe L. 20. 20) Or omits the antecedent. « 

1252. ouTos (less often iKeivo^) may take up and emphaeize a preceding subject 
or object. In this use the pronoun generally comes first, but may be placed 
after an emphatic word : Trof/jcraVTes o-t'^Xtjv ^yp'r}4>l(ravTo eh TWL}T'r}v dvaypd<pCLv Toi>s 
aXiT-qpLovs having made a slab they voted to inscribe on it the (names of the) 
offenders Lye. 117, 6. clr etVijr, k'fifieve rotJr.otJ whatever you say, hold to it 
P. R. .345 b. The anaphoric <kvt6s in its oblique cases is weaker (1214). 

1253. TovTo^ raOra (and avTo) may take up a substantive idea not expressed 
by a preceding neuter word : ot ttjv 'EXXdSa TjXevOipuxrav • Tjfiets 5e oid' rjpXv a'^Toit 
^€^aiovfiev a^Th (i.e. ttjv 4\ev6epidv') vjho freed Greece j whereas we cannot secure 
this (liberty) even for ourselves T. 1. 122. 

1254. OVTOS (less frequently iKeTvos) is used of well known persons and things. 
Thus, Vopyids ovtos this (famous) Gorgias P. Hipp. M. 282 b (cp. ille),ToiiTovs rovs 
QvKOfpdvTds these (notorious) infoim.ers P. Cr. 45 a (cp. iste), rdv ' ApicrrelStjv 
iKelvov J^a? (famous) Aristides D. 3. 21, KaXXfaj/ 4k€Tvov that (infamous) Callias 
2. 19. iK€Lvos may be used of a deceased person (P. R. 368 a). 

1255. When, in the same sentence, and referring to the same object, o5tos 
(or iKetvos) is used more than once, the object thus designated is more or less 
emphatic : 6 debs i^atpoiJfjLevos ro^rtav rov vovv roiirot? ;^p^Tai VTttjp^Tats the god 
deprives them of their senses and employs them as his ministers V. Ion 534 c, 
Por the repeated ovtos (4k€?vos) an oblique case of aiTos is usual. 

1256. TOVTO jxiv . . . roOro 5^ first . - . secondly, partly . . . partly has, 
especially in Hdt., nearly the sense of Th p.€v . . . to 5^ (1111). 



1263] DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 309 

■1257. €Kclvo<; refers back (rarely forward^ 1248), but implies re- 
moteness in place, time, or tliought. 

KOpos Kadopg. ^acrtXe'd Kai rb dfj.^' iKctvov aTTcfios Cyvus perc&ives the king and 
the band around him X. A. 1.8. 26, v^e^ iK^tvai ^-n-iTrXiovcnv yonder are ships sail- 
ing up to us T. 1. 51. 

1258. eVetTOS may refer to any person other than the speaker and the person 
addressed ; *and may be employed of a person not definitely described, but 
referred to in a supposed case. It is even used of the person already referred 
to by aifTbs in an oblique case : a.v avT<^ 5l5<2s dpytipLoy Kai ireiOrjs iKeivov if you 
give him money and persuade him P. Pr. 310d. eKelvos, when so used, usually 
stands in a different case than atrhs. The order iKtXvos . . . avT6s is found : 

•Kphs jx^v iKeivovs oOk eiTrev rjv e^oi yv(I}fi7}Vj dXX' dTrl7rep.il/ev ai;T0us he did not tell 

them the plan he had, but dismissed them X, H. 3. 2. 9. 

1259. When used to set forth a contrast to another person, ineivos may even 
refer to the subject of the leading verb (apparent reflexive use) : oray iv rrj yy 
bpQaty -rjfxas 5r)ovvTds re /cai TOLKeivcjv (pSeipoi^ras when they (the Athenians) see ^ls 
(the Dorians) in their land plundering and destroying their property ( = Td; eaurQv) 
T. 2. 11, «Xe^e TOis XaXSafots on ■^koi obTf diroX^aac ^TrtdvpLLoi^ iKeivovs ovre iroXeixetv 
d^6ix€vos he said to the Chaldaeans that he had come neither loith the desire to 
destroy them {iKeivovs is stronger than atJTotJs) nor because he wanted to war 
with them X. C. 3. 2. 12. 

1260. In the phrase 6Se iKcTvos, ode marks a person or thing as present, iKeivos 
a person or thing mentioned before or well known : 65' iKeivos iytb lo ! I am he 
S. O. C. 138. Colloquial expressions a,re rovr iKelvo there it is! (lit. this is that) 
Ar. Ach.41, and t65' ^kgivo I told you so E. Med. 98, 

1261. Distinction between ovtos and €K€ivos. — When reference is made to 
one of two contrasted objects, odros refers to the object nearer to the speaker's 
thought, or to the more important object, or to the object last mentioned. Thus, 
&<TT€ iroXij B.V diKa(,6repov iKeiuois rots ypd/x/j.a<xiv ^ ro^rois Tnarcdoire SO that you must 
with more justice put your trust in those lists (not yet put in as evidence) than 
in these muster-rolls (already mentioned) L. 16. 7, el Sk rovro aoi SoKei puKpov 
ehat, iKeivo Karavdrjcrov but if this appear to you imimportanty consider the follow- 
ing X. C. 5. £3. 29. eK€7vos may refer to an object tliat has immediately preceded : 
Kai {Set) TO ^iXriarov del, (XT) rb paarov^ airavras Xiyetv ■ iir iKuvo p.ev (i.e. r6 
paarov) ydp i) cp'uais avri) jSaSietrat, ^irl toOto de (t6 ^^Xriarov) rw \6yq> Set Trpod- 
yecrdai 5iSd(XKovTa tov dyaObv ttoXitt/i' it is necessary that all should speak what is 
always most salutary^ not what is most agreeable ; for to the latter nature her- 
self will incline ; to the former a good citizen must direct by argument and 
instruction D. 8. 72. 

THE INTERROGATIVE PROKOUNS 

1262. The interrogative pronouns are used substantively rt?; 
who? or adject ively tl? avyp; what mmif 

1263. The interrogaiives (pronouns and adverbs, 340, 346) are 
used in direct and in indirect^ questions. In indirect questions 



310 SYNTAX OP THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1264 

the indefinite relatives ocrrt?, etc., are generally used instead of the 
interrogatives. 

tI ^o^Xerai ijfuv xpw^'^'- i for what pu7'pose does he desire to employ us f 
X. A. 1. 3. 18, oi}K o(5a 6 n &v tls xrwo-i-to o-^rots I do not know for what service 
any one could employ them 3. 1. 40, A. TryviK ia-rlv dpa r-^s r]fi4pas ; B. oTtjvlKa ; 
A. WhaVs the time of day f B. ( You ask), what time of day it is f Ar. A v. 1499. 

N.^For peculiarities of Interrogative Sentences, see 2666, 2668. • 

1264. ri is used for riva as the predicate of a neuter plural subject when the 
general result is sought and the subject is considered as a unit : ravra 5k tI ia-nv ; 
but these things, what are they? Aes. 3. 167. riva emphasizes the details: riv 
odv i<jTL ravra ; D. 18. 246. 

1265. ris asks a question concerning the class, rt concerning the nature of a 
thing: elT^ ris t} r^X"*? say of what sort the art is P. G. 449 a, ri a-ai^poa-JL/vr}, ri 
ttoXTtlkSs; what is temperance, what is a statesman? X. M. 1. 1. 16, (p66yov dk 
o-kottQv 6 TL etTj considering what envy is (quid sit invidia) X. M. 3. 9. 8. 

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

1266. The indefinite pronoun rU, tI is used both substantively 
(some one) and adjectively (any^ some), rt?, tI cannot stand at 
the beginning of a sentence (181 b). 

1267. In the singular, tIs is used in a'collective sense : everybody {for anybody) ; 
cp. Germ, man^ Er. on : dWa iiiaet ris iKelvov but everybody detests him D. 4. 8. 
^Kaffrbz Tts, Tras ris each one, every one are generally used in this sense. tU 
may be a covert allusion to a known person ; ddbaei tls Uktjv some one (i.e. you) 
will pay the penalty Ar. Ran. 554. It may also stand for /or we. Even when 
added to a noun with the article, tU denotes the indefiniteness of the person 
referred to-: orav d' 6 Ktptos Trapy tl$, Vfitbv darts iarh yye/jubv kt\, but whenever 
your master arrives, whoever he be that is your leader, etc, S. 0. C. 289. With 
a substantive, ris may often be rendered a, an, as in ^repos ris dwdarris another 
dignitary X. A. 1. 2. 20 ; or, to express indefiniteness of nature, by a sort of, 
etc., as in el fiev Beat rivh elaiv oi dalfwves if the ' daimones'' are a sort of gods 
P. A. 27 d. 

1268. With adjectives, adverbs, and numerals, tU may strengthen or weaken 
an assertion, apologize for a comparison, and in general qualify a statement: 
fietj'is Tis dvrjp a very terrible man P. E. 596 c, ^U3^ tls a sort of gad-fly 
P. A. .30 e, ax^Uv Tt pretty nearly X. 0. 4. 11, rpidKovrd nves about 30 T. 8.73. 
But in 'Trap€j4vovT6 rives 660 vijes the numeral is appositional to nvis {certain, 
that is, two ships joined them) T. 8. 100. 

1269. Tts, tI sometimes means somebody, or something, of importance: rb 
doKetv TLvh eivai the seeming to be somebody D. 21. 213, €do^4 n X^ynv he seemed 
to say something of moment X. C. 1. 4. 20. 

1270. rl is not omitted in davfiaaTov X^eis what you say is wonderful 
P. L. 657 a. ^ TLS ^ oifSeis means few or none X. C. 7. 6. 45, r{ tl t) oifSdv little 
or nothing P. A. 17 b. 



1278] dWo';^ eVepo?, aWrfKoiv 311 



THE ADJECTIVE PROKOUNS aXXo^ A^T) €T€po<i 

1271. aA.A.05 Strictly means ot?ter (of several), ^repo^ other (of two). 
On o aAAo5, oi aWoi see 1188, 

a. 'drepos is sometimes used loosely for &\\os, but always with a sense of dif- 
ference ; when so used it does not take the article. 

1272. dXXos, and ^repo's (rarely), may be used attnbiiti"vely with a substan- 
tive, which is to be regarded as ztx appositive. In this sense they may be 
rendered besides, moreover^ as weXl : ol dWoi 'Adr^pacoi the Athenians as well 
(Che others, i.e. the Athenians) T. 7. 70, robs inrXirds kuI roi>? S.\\ovs linr^as the 
hoplites and the cavalry besides X. H. 2. 4, 9, y4pbyv x^P^'^ f^^^' ^'r^pov veadov an 
old man comes with (a second person, a young man) a young man besides 
Ar. Eccl. 849. Cp. " A^nd there were also two other malefactors led with him to 
be put to death " St. Luke 28. 32. 

1273. dXXos other, rest often precedes the particular thing with which it is 
contrasted ; rd re dXXa irifxTjcre Kal fjLvpLovs eSuKe SapeiKotjs he gave me ten thou- 
sand darics besides honouring me in other ways (lit. he both honoured me in other 
wa'JS and etc.) X. A. 1. 3. 3, r^J fJ-^v fiXXy arpar^ i)<y^x'^t^^j GKarbv ok ireXratrT'ds 
TrpoTT^fiTT^i with the rest of the army he kept quiet, hut sent forward a hundred 
peltasts T. 4.111. 

1274. &\\os followed by another of its own cases or by an adverb derived 
from itself (cp. alius aliud, one . . . one, another . . . another) does not require 
the second half of the statement to be expressed : dXXos dWa X^y^i one says 
one thing, another (says) another X. A. 2. 1. 15 (lit. another other things). So 
fiXXoi fiXXttJs, dXXot &\\od€v. 

a. Similarly ^rcpos, as <TVfx4>opa kripa. er^povs TTL^^ei one calamity oppresses one, 
another others E. Ale, 893. 

1275. After 6 iSXXos an adjective or a participle used substantively usually 
requires the article : raXXa rd pL^yiara the other matters of the highest moment 
P. A. 22 d. Here to. fx^yicrra is in ap].iosition to raWa (1272). ol &W01 Trdvres ol, 
rdXXa vdpra rd sometimes omit the linal article. 

1276. 6 dXXos often means usual, general : irapa rbv ^Wop rp6irov contrary 
to my usual disposition Ant. 3. /3. 1. 

THE BECIPROCAL PKONOUX 

1277. The pronoun' oXX^Xotv expresses reciprocal relation: w? S' 
clSeVt/v oA.A.t^A.ovs 17 yvvY] koI 6 'AjSpttSaras, yjfrrratpvro aX\r}\ovfi when 
Abradatas and his ivife saw each other, they mutually embraced X. C. 
6, 1. 47. 

1278. To express reciprocal relation Greek uses also (1) the middle forms 
(1726) ; (2) the reflexive pronoun (1281); or (3) a substantive is repeated : dvT]p 
€\€v &vdpa man fell upon man O 328. 

On lielative Pronouns see ncder Complex Sentences (2493 ff.). 



312 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1279 



THE CASES 

1279. Of the cases belonging to the Indo-European language, Greek 
has lost the free use of three : instrumentalj locative, and ablative. 
A few of the forms of these cases have been preserved (341, 1449, 
1535) ; the syntactical functions of the instrumental and locative 
were taken over by the dative ; those of the ablative by the genitive. 
The genitive and dative cases are therefore composite or mixed cases. 

N. — The reasons that led to the formation of composite cases are either 
(1) formal or (2) functional. Thus (1) xdipq, is both dat. aad loc. ; Xb-^ois 
represents the instr, X67ots and the loc. \ifyoiffi. ; in consonantal stems both abla- 
tive and genitive ended in -os ; (2) verbs of ruling may take eltlier the dat. or 
the loc, hence the latter case would be absorbed by the former j furthermore 
the use of prepositions especially with loc. and instr. was attended by a certain 
indifference as regards the form of the case. 

1280. Through the influence of one construction upon another it 
often becomes impossible to mark off the later from the original 
use of the genitive and dative. It must be remembered that since lan- 
guage is a natural growth and Greek was spoken and written before 
formal categories were set up by Grammar, all the uses of the cases 
cannot be apportioned with definiteness. 

1281. The cases fall into two main divisions. Cases of the Sub- 
ject: nominative (and vocative). Cases of the Predicate: accusa- 
tive, dative. The genitive may define either the subject (with nouns) 
or the ^predicate (with verbs). On the nominative, see 938 ff. 

1282. The content of a thought may be expressed in different ways in dif- 
ferent languages. Thus, -n-^idia o-e, but persuadeo tibi (in classical Latin): and 
even in the same language, the same 'verb may have varying constructions to 
express different shades of meaning. 

VOCATIVE 

1283. The vocative is used in exclamations and in direct address : 
m Zev KOL Oeoi oh Zeus and ye gods P. Pr. 310 d, avOpoiTre my good fellow 
X. C. 2. 2. 7. The vocative forms an incomplete sentence (904 d). 

a. The vocative is never followed immediately by 5^ or ydp. 

1284. In ordinary conversation and public speeches, the polite c2 is usually 
added. Without w the vocative may express astonishment, joy, contempt, a 
threat, or a warning, etc. Thus dKo^ets AtVx^f^ ; d'' ye hear, Aeschineaf D. 18. 
121. But this distinction is not always observed, though in general cS has a 
familiar tone which was unsuited to elevated poetry. 

1285. Tlie vocative is usually found in the Interior of a sentence. At the 
beginning it is emphatic. In prose %<p'q, in poetry w, may stand between tlie voca^ 
tive and an attributive or between an attributive and the vocative ; in jDoetry & 
may be repeated for emphasis. 



1294] THE GENITIVE 313 

1286. In late poetry a predicate adjective may be attracted into the vocative : 
6Xj3i6 /fw/)6 7^^010 blessed, oh boy^ may est thou be Theocr. 17. 66. Cp. Matutine 
pater seu lane Ubeniius audis Hor. S. 2. 6. 20. 

1287. By the omission of triJ or vfiets the nominative with the article may 
stand in apposition to a vocative : w &v8p€s oi irapdprei you^ gentlemen^ who are 
present P. Pr. 837 c, w Kupe ical ol fiXXot 114p<Tai Cyrus and the rest of you Persians 
X, C. 3, 3- 20 ; and in apposition to the prononn in the verb : 6 Trats, dKoXo^dci 
boy^ attend me Ar. Kan. 621. 

1288. The nominative may be used in exclamations as a predicate v?ith the 
subject unexpressed : w wiKpbs deoU oh loathed of heaven S. Ph. 254, <pi\ot w 
MeWXae ah dear Menelaus A 180 ; and connected with the vocative by and: 
(5 w6\is Kal dijfie oh City and people Ar. Eq. 273. In exclamations about a person : 
^ 7evj/ato$ oh the noble man P. Phae. 227 c. 

a. ovTot is regular in address : ovros, tI irdcx^is^ c3 ^avdia ; ho there, I say^ 
Xanihias^ what is the matter with you f Ar. Vesp. 1 ; w oirros, Ma^ ho there^ 
I say, Ajax S. Aj. 89. 

GENITIVE 

1289. The genitive most commonly limits the meaning of sub- 
stantives, adjectiveSj and adverbs, less commonly that of verbs. 

Since the genitive has absorbed the ablative it includes (1) the 
genitive proper, denoting the class to which a person or thing be- 
longs, and (2) the ablatival genitive, 

a. The name genitive is derived from casus genitivus, the case of origin^ 
the inadequate Latin translation of yeviKTj Trrwo-t? case denoting the class. 

THE GENITIVE PROPER WITH NOUNS 

(adnominal genitive) 

1290. A substantive in the genitive limits the meaning of a sub- 
stantive on which it depends. 

1291. The genitive limits for the time being the scope of tlie substantive on 
whicli it depends by referring it to a particular class or description, or by regard- 
uig it as a part of a whole. The genitive is akin in meaning to the adjective and 
may often be translated by an epithet. Cp. (TT4<pavoi xp^<^^o^ "^^th xp^<^^^^ <^t^~ 
<po.vos, 06/3o$ TToK^filov with TroX^yUtos 06/3os, to edpoi irK^dpov with to e^pos irXedpiatov 
(1035). But the use of the adjective is not everywhere parallel to that of the 
genitive. 

1292. In poetry a genitive is often used with /Sfa, fiivosy ire^vos might, etc., 
instead of the corresponding adjective : ^i-r} Ato^'^Seos mighty Diomede E 781. 

1293. In poetry 54piasform^ Kdpd and fcerpaXy head, etc., are used with a geni- 
tive to express majestic or loved persons or objects : 'l^fi-jvns Kdpa S, Ant. 1. 

1294. XPW<^ thing is used 'in prose with a genitive to express size, strength, 
etc. : <T<piv§oyT)r(av Tra/AiroXtJ tl xpil^^ <2 'isery large mass of slingers X. C. 2. ]. 5, 
Cp. 1322. 



314 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1295 

1295. The genitive with substantives denotes in general a connection or de- 
pendence between two words. This connection must often be determined (1) by 
the meaning of the words, (2) by the context, (8) by the facts presupposed as 
known (1301). The same construction may often be placed under more than one 
of tlie different classes mentioned below ; and the connection between the two 
substantives is often so loose that it is difficult to include with precision all cases 
under specific grammatical classes. 

a. The two substantives may be so closely connected as to be equiyalent to a 
single compound idea : TeXevri] rod ^iov 'life-end' (cp. life-time') X. A. 1. 1. 1. 
Cp.'^lUe. 

b. The genitive with substantives has either the attributive (1154), or, in the 
case of the genitive of the divided whole (130G), and of personal pronouns (1185), 
the predicate, position (1168), 

1296. Words denoting number, especially numerals or substantives with 
numerals, often agree in case with the limited word instead of standing in the 
genitive : 4>6pos T4<r<rapa rdXavra a tribute of four talents T. 4. 57 (cp. 1323), 
h ras vavs, at i<ppo6povv 5(Jo, Karafpuyovres fleeing to the ships, two of which were 
keeping guard 4. 1U>. So with oi fxiv, ol 84 in apposition to the subject (981). 

GENITIVE OF POSSESSION OK BELONGING 

1297. The genitive denotes ownership, possession, or belonging: 
17 oLKid ri 'StLjxcovo'; the house of Simon L. 3. 32, 6 Kvpov aroXo? the exjM- 
dition of Cyrus X. A. 1. 2. 5. Cp. the dative of possession (1476). 

1298. Here may be classed the genitive of origin : 01 S6Xajras v6}jjoi the laws 
of Solon D. 20. 103, ^ ^Trto-roX?/ roG ^iXiTnrov the letter of Philip 18. 37, K6/xaTa 
iravroiujv avijxujv waves caused by all kinds of winds B 390. 

1299. The possessive genitive is used with the neuter article (singular or 
plural) denoting affairs, conditions, power, and the like: rh tCjv i4>6pii3v the 
power of the ephm^s 3^. L. 712 d, to t^s r^xfv^ the function of the art V, G. 460 c, 
TO rod i:,6\u3vos the maxim of Solon P. Lach. 188 b, dd-qXa rd rdv ttoX^/judv the 
chances of war are uncertain T. 2. 11, ra rijs TroXeojs the interests of the State 
P. A. 36 c, ra roir S'/j/iov (ppove? is 071 the Side of the people Ar. Eq. 1216. Some- 
times this is almost a mere periplirasis for the thing itself : r6 r^s r^xv^ chance 
J). 4. 12 ret rijs ffciirTjplas safety 23. 103, ri r^s oaids, brih-qiror iari the quality 
of holiness^ lohatever it is 21. 120, to r^y irpea-^vripcuf rjixQy we elders P. L. 057 d. 
So rb ro{!rov S, Aj. 124 is almost = oSros, as To^/xof is = iydj or ijxe, Cp. L. 8. 19. 

1300. The genitive of possession may be used after a demonstrative or rela- 
tive pronoun : rovro /xov SiajSdXXei he attacks this action of mine D. 18. 28. 

1301. With persons the genitive may denote the relation of child to parent, 
wife to husband, and of inferior to superior : QovKvBiB'ns 6 '0\6pov Tlmcydides^ 
the son of Olorus T. 4. 104 (and so vlSs is regularly omitted in Attic official 
documents), Atos "Aprepics Artemis, daughter of Zeus B. Aj. 172, ij H^pXtcvdioivos 
MeXia-rixv Melistiche wife of Smicythion Ar. Eccl. 40, Av5bs 6 ^epeKX^ous Lydus, 
the slave of Pherecles And. 1. 17, ol l^ivoivos the troop>s of Menon X. A. 1. 5. 13 
(ol rov M^vcovos ffrpanCirai 1. 5. 11). 



1307] THE GENITIYE 315 

a. In poetry we may have an attributive adjective: TeXa^tii'ios Ktaa (= Afas 

TeXaAtwws) B 528. Cp. 846 f. 

1302. The word on which the possessive genitive depends may be repre- 
sented by the article : ctTro r^s eavrSiv from their own country (717?) T. 1. 15 
(cp. 1027 b). A word for dwelling (olxid, d6^os, and also l€p6v) is perhaps omitted 
after ^v, ets, and sometimes after ^^. Thus, ^v 'Aplippovos at Ariphron^s P. Pr. 
320 a, iv ALovvaov (saZ. l€p<^) at the shrine of Dionysus D.5, 7, ets 5i8a<TKd\ov 
<j>0LTav to go to school X- C, 2, 3. 9, ^k UarpoKX^ovs epxoficLL I oovie from Patro- 
clus's Ar. Phit. 84, So, in Homer, dv{eb) 'Aldao. 

1303. Predicate Use. — The genitive may be connected with the 
noun it limits by means of a verb. 

^liriroKpdTtjs 4<ttI oIkIEs fieydXtjs Hippocrates is of an influential house P. Pr. 
316 b, BotojTtDv Tj 7r6Xts ecTTat the city toill belong to the Boeotians L. 12.58, i} ZAetd 
iari TTjs 'Aalas Zelea is in Asia T). 9. 43, ovd^ ttjs aiir^s QpiK'Q'i iy4vof'To nor did 
they belong to the same TJirace T. 2. 29, a diiixei rod ^pTjipla/xcnos, ra.vr'' ia-riv the 
clauses in the bill which he attacks^ are these D. 18. 56. 

1304. The genitive with elfil may denote the person whose nature ^ duty^ 
custom^ etc., it is to do that set forth in an infinitive subject of the verb: 
irevlav ^4petv 0^ 'iravT6s, &W' dvdpbs cro^oO "'tis the sage^ not every one, who can 
bear poverty Men. Sent. 463, 8ok€? diKalov toOt' eivai -jroXtrov this seems to be the 
duty of a just citizen D. 8. 72, tCjv vlKihvTuiv io-rl Kai ra iavruv (ji^^eiv koX rh, tCjv 
ijTTijop.ivoov \afi^dveLv it is the custom of conquerors to keep what is their own and 
to take the possessions of the defeated X. A. 3. 2. 39. 

1305. With verbs signifying to refer or attribute, by thought, word, or action, 
anything to a person or class. Such verbs are to think, regord, make, name, 
choose, appoint, etc. 

Xoyl^ov ... TO, 5' AXXa rijs rvxv^ deem that ther est belongs to chance E. Ale. 789, 
Tojv i\evdepo3rdrij3v oXkusv voficc-deiaa deemed a daughter of a house most free E. 
And. 12, ip-^ ypd<p€ rOiv 'nnrsveiv vTrepeTTLdv/jioiLivTtov put me down as one of those 
who desire exceedingly to serve on horseback X. C, 4. 3. 21, r^s irpibr-q^ rd^em 
rerayp^vos assigned to the first class L. 14. 11 j rijs &ya0Tjs r^xv^ "^V^ iriXews eJvai 
rie-qp.i I reckon as belonging to the good fortune of the State T). 18, 254, el Si^ 
TLves TTjv 'Aaidv eavrCov -rrotovvraL but if some are claiming Asia as their own 
X, Ages. 1. 33, yoptl^ei bpdi eavrov chat he thinks that you are in his power 
X. A. 2. 1.11. 

GE]^ITIVE OF THE DIYIBEI) WHOLE (PAHTITIVE GENITIVE) 

1306. The genitive may denote a •whole, a part of vrhich is denoted 
by the noiin it limits. The genitive of the divided whole may be 
used with any word that expresses or implies a part. 

1307. Position. — The genitive of the whole stands before or after the word 
denoting the part : rQ>v epq.KO}v ire^raarai targeteers of the Thracians T. 7.27, 

01 diropoi rCbv ttoXItQv the needy among the citizens T>. 18, 104 ; rarely between the 
limited noun and its article: oi rdv ddlKcov d<pLKvo^pevoL those of the unrighteous 
who come here, P. G. 525 c. Cp, 1161 N. 1. " 



316 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1308 

1308. AVhen all are included there is no partition : so in outol iravT^s all of 
these., all these^ T^rrapes i]'j.€is ^^ev there were four of us, t6 ttSLv wXijdos twv 
ottXItwv the entire hody of the hopliies T. 8. 93, ocrot ^o-re tQv ofMoicov as many of 
you as belong to the 'peers ' X. A. 4. 6. 14. 

1309. The idea of division is often not exi^licitly stated. See third example 
in 1310. 

1310. (I) The genitive of the divided whole is used with sub- 
stantives, 

fi4pos TL rC)v ^ap^dpwv some part of the barbarians T. 1. 1, oi Atopics iifiQiv 
those of us icho are Dorians 4. Gl. The governing word may be omitted ; 'Apx^as 
tCjv 'BpaK\€iSQv Archias (one) of the Ileraclidae T. 6. 3. To an indefinite 
substantive without the article may be added a genitive denoting the special 
sort : <l>e/3aiJXas Wpar]^ rihv SrjfWTQv Ther aulas, a Persian^ one of the common 
peo2:)le X. C. 2. 3. 7. 

1311. ChorograpMc Genitive. — ttjs 'Attlk-ijs is Oh6ijv to Oeno'e in Attica 
T. 2. 18 (or is Olv67}y t-jJ? 'Atti/ctjSj not is rijs 'Attiktjs Ohorji'}, rrjs 'IraKlds AoKpot 
the Locrians in Italy 3. 8G. The article, which is always used witli the genitive 
of the country (as a place well known), is rarely added to the governing sub- 
stantive (t6 Ki^vaiop TTJs Ev^olds Cenaeuiu in Euhoea T S. 93). 

1312. (11) With substantive adjectives and paxtieiples. 

ol &5iKot tC)v dvdpdjiroiu the unjust among men D. 27. 68 (but always ol 6v7)toI 
dvOpwiroi), ^6ms tuv irpvTdvcuv alone of the prytans P. A. 32 b, oKlyot a^rQv 
few of them X. A. 3. 1. 3, rdv d'K'Kwv 'EK\iQjfci}v 6 ^ovXo/jlevos whoever of the rest, 
of the Greeks so desires T. 3. 92, So rb KaravriKpi} airQv tou uirTjXalov the part of 
the cavern facing them P. R. 515 a. For Jiihil novi the Greek says oOd^p Katvov. 

1313. Adjectives denoting magnitude, and some others, may conform in 
gender to the genitive, instead of appearing in the neuter : 'ir^fiov t-^s 7-^5 t^v 
TToW-ov they ravaged most of the land T. 2. 56, r^s 7^? ij dpla-rr) the best of the 
land 1. 2. This construction occurs more frequently in prose than in poetry. 

1314. But such adjectives, especially when singular, may be used in the 
neuter : tG}v ' Apytloiv 'hoydSoiv t6 iroXi the greater part of the picked Argives T. 
5. 73, iTrl TToXii T1JS xcipas over a great part of the land 4. 3. 

1315. (Ill) With comparatives and superlatives. 

7jimQ)v 6 7epaiT€pos the elder of us X. C. 5. 1. 6 (10f>6 b), ol -n-pea^-OTaroi tCjv (TTpa- 
rTjyQv the oldest of the generals X. A. 3. 3. 11, crtTw Trdvriav d,v6pihirwv TrXeiVrt^ 
Xpi^P'€& ^TreicrdKTtj loe make use of imported grain more than all other people 

D. 18. 87. So witll a superlative adverb : ij j'ays dp^frd p.oi eVXet -n-ainhs rod 
(j-rpaTOTrihov my ship was the best sailer of the whole squadron L. 21, 6. 

1316. In poetry this use is extended to positive adjectives : ApideUeTos 
dvdpQv Gonspieuous among men A 248, c5 <pt\a. yvpaiKQv oh dear among women 

E. Ale. 460. In tragedy an adjective may be emphasized by the addition of the 
same adjective in the genitive : dppTjr' dpp-qrwv horrors uiispeaJcable S. 0. T. 465. 
Cp. 1064. 

1317. . (lY) With substantive pronouns and numerals. 



1322] thp: genitive 31T 

oi fi€v ai/TUfv^ ol 5' oij some of them and not others P. A. 24 e, ot wrepov i\'^4>dT}- 
aav Twv TToKeiiiuiv those of the enemy who were taken later X, A, 1. 7, 13, ouSeiy 
dvdpdiTTUJv no one in the world P. S. 220 a, ri rod 7€ixovs a part of the wall T. 
7. 4, Tis deQv one of the gods E. Hec. 164 {tIs Bets a god X. C. 5. 2. 12), tv rCtv 
TToWQv one of the mamj things P. A. 17 a ; rarely after demonstrative pronouns : 
ToiJrois tQv dvOpd^TTdiv to these {of) men T. 1. 71. 

a. With dXlyoL and with numerals d'jr6 and i^ are rarely added : iK TptQv tv 
one of three S.Tr. 734, i^ with superlatives is also rare. See also 1688, 1 c 

1318. The genitive of the divided whole may do duty as the subject of a 
finite verb (928b) or of the infinitive: {^(pacrav) iirtixeLyvivaL <t4>Cov irpbs iKelmvs 
they said that some of their number associated with them X. A. 3, 5. 16. 

1319. Predicate Use. — ^v 5' airdv <l'aXtws and among them was Phalinus 
X. A, 2. 1. 7^ '2i6\o}v tQv eirra (to4>i<xtwv iKkT^dt] Solon was called one of the Seven 
Sages I. 15, 235, rw;^ droTnardrtav av etr] it would he very strange I), 1, 26 ; and 
often with verbs signifying to he^ become, think, say^ name, choose. With some 
of these verbs ds with the genitive may be used instead of the genitive alone. 

GENITIVE OF QUALITY 

1320. The genitive to denote quality occurs chiefly as a predicate. 
i(av Tpbirov 7i<Tiix^ov being of a peaceful disposition Hdt. 1, 107, oi 5^ nves rijs 

aiJr-ijs yvibfiTji dXiyoL KaT^(f>vyoi' but some few of the same opinion fled T. 3. 70, 
ravTa ira}nrbW(av iari \6'y(ov this calls for a thorough discussion P. L. 642 a, 
deijipTjaar avrbv, fiT) oTror^pov tov \6yov^ d\X OTroripov rod ^iov icriv consider, not 
the manner of his speech^ hut the manner of his life Aes, 3. 168, d doKet radra 
Kal SairdvTjs /jLeydXTjr Kal Trbvwv TroWG}v koI tt pay {J^ar elds elvai if; these matters Seem 
to involve great expense and much toil and trouble D. 8. 48. 

a. The attributive use occurs in poetry : x^P'^^v evd^i^dpcju Bvpcjirds Europe 
vnth its pastures amid fair trees E. I. T. 134, Xcvktjs x'-^^o^ Trripv^ a wing white 
as S710W (of white snow) S. Ant. 114. 

1321. The use of the genitive to express quality, corresponding to the Latin 
genitive, occurs in the non-predicate position, only when age or size is exactly 
expressed by the addition of a numeral (genitive of measure, 1325), The Latin 
genitive of quality in mulier mirae pulchritudinis is expressed by ywi] davfiaaid 
fcdXXos (or TOV /cdXXous), Tyi^r? davjjiacid Iddv, yvvrj ^xovaa dauixdcnov crxvf^i ®tc. 

GEiNlTIVE OF EXPLANATION (APPOSITIVE GENITIVE) 

1322. The genitive of an explicit word may explain the meaning 
of a more general word. 

^l\lov 7r6\is E 642, as urhs Bomae^ deWai nain-otiav dv^fiojv blasts formed of 
wi.7ids of every sort e 292. This constiniction is chiefly poetic, but in prose 
we find vbs fieya xPVf^^- <^ monster (great affair, 1204) of a boar Hdt. 1. 36, rh 6pos 
TTjs 'IffrdjvTjs Mt. Istone T. 4. 46 (very rare, 1142 c). An articular infinitive in 
the genitive often defines the application of a substantive ; duadld ij rod oUcddi 
€L84vai d o^K oUev the ignorance of thinking one knows what one does not know 
P. A. 29 b. 



318 SYi^TAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1323 

. a. But with Sw/xa the person or thing named is usually in apposition to 
6w/xa : T(^ S^ vecordrif idifj.-qv 6vofjLa KaWlcrrpaTop I gave the youngest the name 
CalUstratus D. 43. 74. 

GENITIVE OP MATERIAL OR CONTENTS 

1323. The genitive expresses inateriai or contents. 

^>/cps dUvrojv the fence (consisting) of the teeth A 350, /cpijr?? ^Bio^ uSaros 
a spring of sweet water X. A. 6, 4. 4, o-wpot airov^ ^i5Xwj', \id<j3v heaps of corn, 
xvood, stones X. H. 4. 4, 12, i^aKdcria rdXayra (popov six hundred talents in taxes 
T..2. 13 (cp. 1296). 

1324. Predicate Use : <xT€<pdpovs poSwp 6vras, dXX' ov xpyo-foL- crowns that 
were of roses^ not of gold J). 22. 70, ^(xrpuiixivT} iarl 656s Xldov a road \tMs paved 
ivith stone Hdt. 2. 138, and often with verbs of making^ which admit also the 
instrumental dative. Hdt. has iroieTadat dirS and e/c rtvos. 

GENITIVE OF MEASURE 

1325. The genitive denotes measure of si^ace, time, or degree. 

6ktw ffraZLiiiv reixos a wall eight stades long T. 7. 2, wiyre ijiJLepQv alria pro- 
visions for Jive days 7. 43 (cp. fossa pedum qui7idecim, exilium decern annorum). 
Less commonly with a neuter adjective or pronoun : iirl pi,4ya ^x^P^<^^v dwdpi^ws 
they advanced to a great pitch of power T. 1. 118, rl 56^7js some honour (aliquid 
famae) 1. 5, dfjL-rjxo-yoy eidaipiovlas (something infinite in the loay of happiness) 
infinite happiness P. A. 41 c (with emphasis on the adj.)- But the phrases ds 
TOVTO, ets To<rovTo dfpiK^ffdai (rj/cetj/, iXdei;/, Trpoa^aheip, usually With a personal 
subject) fohowed'by the genitive of abstracts are common: eis tovto dpdcrovs 
d<j>iK€To he reached such a pitch of boldness T). 21. 194, iy ira.vrl ddvfjilds in utter 
despondency T. 7. 55, ^v roirq} wapaa- Kevins in this stage of preparation 2. 17, 
Kara tovto Kf^tpov at that critical moment 7. 2. The article with this genitive is 
unusual in classical Greek : eh tovto ^ttjs -fiXiKlds to this stage of life L. 6. 3. 
Some of these genitives may also be explained by 1300. 

1326. Under the head of measure belongs amount : Svoiv {jlvolv irpSo-oSos an 
income of two minae X. Vect, 3. 10. Cp. 1296, 1323. 

1327. Predicate Use. — ^ireiSdv ^tCov ^ tls TpidnowTa when a man is thirty 
years old P. L, 721a, rd Telx'n ^v <FTadluv 6kt<I} the walls were eight stades long 
T. 4. 6Q. 

SUBJECTIVE AKD OBJECTIVE GENITIVE 

1328. With a verbal noun the genitive may denote the subject or 
object of the action expressed in the noun. 

a. Many of these genitives derive their construction from that of the kindred 
verbs : toO vdaTos ^iridv^a desire for water T. 2. 52 (1349), x^^'^^ ^i-^^ anger he- 
cause of his son 138 (1405). But the verbal idea sometimes requires the 
accusative, or (less commonly) the dative. 

1329. In poetry an adjective may take the place of the genitive : wares 6 
§aa-iX€Los the return of the king A. Pers. 8. Cp. 1291. 



1338] THE GENITIVE 319 

1330. The Subjective Genitive is active in sense: r(^v ^ap^dpcjf <p6^os the 
fear of the barbarians (wliich they feel : ol ^dp^apoi </to/Soi?n-at) X. A. 1. 2. 17, 
7} ^ao-iX^wr HtopKia, the perjury of the king (^atriXeus iwiopKei) 3. 2. 4, to 6pyi^6- 
nevov TTfs yvd}(j.7}s their angry feelings T, 2. 59 (such genitives with substantive 
participles are common in Thucydides ; op. 1153 b, N. 2). 

1331. The Objective Genitive is passive in sense, and is very common with 
substantives denoting a frame of mind or an emotion : <p6^os tSjv EiXcirwc the 
fear of the Helots (felt towards them : (po^odmat Toi>s E'/Xwras) T. 3, 54, ij tQjv 
'EWrifQjv eijvota good-will towards the Greeks (ei/voet rois "EXXT^o-i) X. A. 4. 7. 20, 
i) TG>y KaXQv (rvvovcrla intercourse with the good (iT{fvei<n rots xaXo^s) P. L, 838 a- 

a. The objective genitive often precedes another genitive on which it depends : 
juterd TTjs ^u/i/ittx^ds rijs atV-^o-eajs with the request for an alliance T. 1. 32. 

1332. Various prepositions are used in translating the objective genitive : 
OeCiv irdXefjLos war with the gods X. A. 2. 5. 7, UpKOL deuv oaths hy the gods 
E- Hipp. 657, deiov cvxaf prayers to the gods P. Phae. 244e, ahK-nfidrv^v Apy-f} 
anger at injustice L. 12. 20, iyKpdr^ia rjdovrjs moderation in pleasure I. 1. 21, 
7) Tibv 7}5ovu}v VLK7} victor't/ over pUasiires P. L. 840 c, rpoirata ^ap^dptav memorials 
of victory over barbarians X- A. 7. 6. 36, Trapatv^aeis riov ^vvaWaywv exhortations 
to reconciliation T. 4. 59, fxvBos tpfXicv tidings about friends S. Ant. 11, (xov (xv6o^ 
speecJi with thee S. 0. C, 1103. In OavaTov \6gls release from death i 421, 
fteraTrawwXTj iroX^fjLOLo respite from war T 201, it is unceitain whether the genitive 
is objective or ablatival (1392). 

1333. The objective genitive is often used when a prepositional expression, 
giving greater precision, is more usual : rh Meyapiwv i^i^0to-/xa the decree relating 
to (ttcpQ the Megarians T. 1. 140, air6^a<n^ t^s yrjs a descent upon the land {is 
T7}v yrjv) 1.108, d7r6o-Tao-is Tiiv ^ ke-qvai^v revolt from the Athenians (dirb rCiv 
" AdT^valuiy) 8. 5. 

1334. For the objective genitive a possessive pronoun is sometimes used: 
G7)v xdpiv for thy sake P. Soph. 242 a, 5ia^o\r} ^ ifji-/} calumniation of me P. A. 
20 e. 6 ^/x6s ^<5j3os is usually objective : the fear which linspire. (But aov ^06or 
speech with thee S. 0- C. 1161.) 

1335. Pr^icate Use. — oi tQ>v KaKo6py(cv oTktqs, dXXA t-^j 8iK7}s compassion 
is not for wrong-doers^ but for justice E, fr. 270. 

GENITIVE OF YALUE 

1336. The genitive expresses value. 

lepd TpLujv ToKdvTuv offerings worth three talents L, 30. 20, x^^^^ tpaxp.C^v 
SiK7}v (pe^yui lam defendant in an action involving a thousand drachmas D. 55. 25. 

1337. Predicate Use ; roifs aix/^aXtirous too-oiJtwj' xpvt^^'^^^ 'Xveadai to ransom 
the captives at so high a price Y>. 19. 222, rpiCov dpaxiMOJv Trovrjpbs &v a threepenny 
rogue 19. 200, 

TWO GENITIVES WITH ONE NOUN 

1338. Two genitives expressing different relations may be used 
with one nouiL 



320 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1339 

ol AvOpioirot dioL TO avToov 5io^ roD davdrov KaraipevdovTai by reason of their fear 
of death men tell lies P. Pli. 8&a, Aiovoaov trpea^vrdv %op6s a chorus of old men 
in honour of Dionysus P. L. 60513, 7} tou AdxvTos rCov veujp dpx^ Laches'^ com- 
mand of the fleet T. 3. 115, r? ^a.i.6.Ku)v TrpoevoiK-rja-t^ t^s Kepfcdpas the former occu- 
pation of Corcyra hy the Phaeacians 1.25. 

GENITIVE WITH VERBS 

1339. The genitive may serve as the immediate complement of a 
verb, or it may appear, as a secondary definition, along with an 
accusative which is the immediate object of the verb (920, 1392, 
1405). 

1340. The subject of au active verb governing the genitive may 
become the subject of the passive construction : NtK-jJparos cpSv r^s 
vuvatKo? dvreparai Niceratus, whx> is in love with his wife, is loved in 
return X, S. 8. 3. Cp. 1745 a. 

THE GENITIVE PROPER WITH VERBS 
THE PARTITIVE GEl^ITTVE 

1341. A verb may be followed by the partitive genitive if the 
action affects the object only in part. If the entire object is 
affected, the verb in question takes tlie accusative. 

'AdpTjaroto 5' e^i^fie evyarpcjv he married one of Adrastus^ daughters E 121, 
Twv TTdbXvjv Xafi^dvei he takes some of the colts X. A. 4. 5. 35, \aj36vr€^ toC jSapjBapi- 
Kov (TTparov taking part of the barbarian force 1. 6. 7, kX^tttovtcs toG Spovs seiz-. 
ing part of the mountain secretly 4. 6. 15 (cp. rod 6povs K\4-^a.i n 4. 6. 11), rijs yijs 
irepxiv'they ravaged part oi the land T. 2. 56 (cp. r^v yrjv irdaap €rep,ov 2. 57 and 
%T€pA3v T^s y^s T^v TToXK'^v 2. 56), KaTear/rj ttjs K€<pa\ris he had a hole knocked 
somewtere in his head Ar. Vesp. 1428 (rijv K€<pa\^v Kareayivai to have one's 
head broken D. 54. 35). 

1342. With impersonals a partitive genitive does duty as the subject : ttoX^- 
PA3V oiL> pi€T7jv aiuTTJ shc had 110 shuTe in war X. C. 7. 2. 28, ^pol ovS^pidOev Trpoa-^Kei 
To6rov ToC irp6.yfj.a.ros I have no part whatever in this affair And. 4. 34. Cp. 1318. 

1343. The genitive is used with verbs of sharing. 

TrdvTGS fxerdxov tt); iopr^s all took part in the festival X. A. 5. 3. 9, peredi- 
doaap dXXiJXois &v {= to'6t(ov 6.) eixov gkolcttol they shared with each other what 
each had 4. 5. 6, rb dvdpwirivov yivos peTeiX-qcpev ddavaaias the human race has re- 
ceived a portion of immortality P. L. 721 "b, a-trov K0Lv(tjv€Lv to take a share of 
food X. M. 2. 6. 22, 5ik<llo<tvv7)s ovdep vpTv ■n-poa'i/jicei you have no concern in right- 
eous dealing X, H. 2. 4. 40, TroXtrefd, ev 17 Tr4viq(7iv oi p.4t€<7tiv dpx^s a foi^n of 
government in which the poor have no 2^art in the management of affairs P. R. 
550c. So with ^leraXayx^*'^^*' ^^^ <^ share (along with somebody else), ffwai- 
pecrdai and KoivoDcrBai take part in^ peraireiv &iid pi€ra7roL€i(T$aL demand a share in. 

1344. The part received or taken, if expressed, stands in the accusative. 
ol rdpoivvoL Tojj' pi€yl(TTO)v dyadCjv ^Xdxto-ra pjeT4xova-L tyrants have the smallest por- 



I350] THE GENITIVE 321 

t'lon in tJie greatest blessings X. Hi. 2. 6, tq^tojv /jLeraiTec to ^ipo% he demands 
his share of this Ar. Vesp. 072. 

a. Witli ixireaTi tlie part may be added in the uominative : (xirearL x^m^'' 
Tibv ireirpdypievoiv ixipos ye too have had a share in these doings E. I. T. 
1299. 

1345. The genitire is used with verbs signifying to touchj take 
hold of, make trial of, 

(t} y&aos) ^^aro tGiv av6po}Tr(j3v the plague laid hold of the men T. 2. 48, r^s 
yydt/jLTjs T^s avr^s exojjun I hold tO the same opi7lion 1. 140, ip r^ ix'^pL^^ri e/ioO kKlvtj 
on the couch next to me P. S. 217 d, avriXd^ea-Be tSjv 7rpayjj.dTtov take our public 
policy in hand D. 1. 20, Sttojs veip/ppro tov reixovs to make an attempt on (a 
part of) the wall T. 2. 81. So with il/a^eip touch (rare in prose), dpr^xec-dai cling 
tOy iTrikap.^<iv€<Tdac and av\\ap.^dv€a-dai lay hold Of 

1346. The genitive of the pari, with the accusative of the person (the whole) 
who has been touched, is chiefly poetical; tov 5^ Treo-Avra ttoSw;' eXajSe but him 
as he fell, he seized hy his feet A 463, %\a,^ov rijs ^(i>vf}$ t6p 'Op^vrav they took hold 
of Orontas by the girdle X. A. 1. 6. 10 (but p,ov \a^6fi€vos tt^s x^'-P^^ taking me 
by the hand P. Charm. 15Sb), &y€tv ttjs rjvidi Tbv Xttttop to lead the horse by the 
bridle X. Eq. 6. 9 (cp. povv 5' dy^Ttjv Kcpdoov^ they led the cow by the hor7isy4S9). 

1347. Verbs of beseeching take the genitive by analogy to verbs of touching : 
ifjL^^ \i<ya-4<rK€To yo-bvwv she besought one by {clasping') my knees 1451 (cp. yeyeiov 
a.-\pd(jxvos \i<T<jeffda.i beseech by to^iching his chin K 464). 

1348. The genitive is iised witli verbs of beginning. 

a. Partitive ; e^f? KGpop dpx^tf tov '\6yov &5€ he said that Gyrus began the 
discussion as follows X. A, 1. Q. 5, toD \6yov tjpx^to ^5e he began his speech as 
follows 3. 2. 7. On Hpxctv as distinguished from dpxea&ai see 1734. 5. 

b. Ablatival (1391) denoting the point of departure : a-h S' dp^ofiai I will 
make a beginning with thee I 97. In this sense diro or i^ is usually added: 
dp^dfjLevoL dirii <tov T>. 18. 297, dp^o/xac dirb ttjs taTpiK^s \^y(j3v I Will make a begin- 
ning by speaking of medicine P* S, 186 b. 

1349. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to aim at, strive 
after, desire (genitive of the end desired). 

dvQpdfTijJv (yToxdp^ir&ai to aim at men X. C. 1. 6. 29, i<plipjevoL rtSv K€p5wv desir- 
ing gain T. 1. 8, Trdj/res twv dyaSuiv ^irt&vfjLovcLv all men desire what is good V. H. 
438 a, Tb^pav tQiv koXQiv the passionate love of what is noble Aes. 1. L'i?, ireivioat 
%p7ifj.6.Tiav they are hungry for toealth X. S. 4. SG, 7r6Xts iX^vdeplds dt^-ja-da-a a 
state .thirsting for freedom P. B. 562 c. So with dXaTeijciv shoot at (poet.), Xt- 
\a,kc$ac desire (poet.), yXlx^crdat desire. <pi\€tj> love., iroOdy long for take the 
accusative. 

1350. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to remh, obtain 
(genitive of the end attained). 

TT]i dperiji i4>tKi<T&ai to attain to virtue I. 1. 5, Oi aKovTic-Tal ^pax^Tepa 7ik6vti^oj^ 
^ a>s i^iKvitffdaL rOiv <7<p€v5ovijTccv the javelin-throwers did not hurl far enongh to 
reach the slingers X. A, 3. 3. 7, o-irovSQv €tux€ he obtained a truce 3. 1. 28. 

GRKEK GRAM. 21 



322 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1351 

So with Kvpetv obtain (poet.), KKyipovojieLv inherit^ d7roTvyx<iv€Lv fail to hit, rvy- 
Xoivetv, wlien compounded witli it/, iiri, irapd, irepl, and (T^p, takes tlie dative. 
Xayxdveip ohtaiii hy lot usually takes the accusalive. 

a. This genitive and that of 1349 form tlie genitive of the goal. 

1351. The genitive of the thing ohtained may be joined with an ablatival 
genitive (1410) of the person : ov d^ 6^ irdvrwp oltjxeda, reti^ecdai iiraivov in a case 
where we expect to xoin praise from all men X. A. 5. 7. 33, But where the thing 
obtained is expressed by a neuter pronoun, the accusative is employed. 

1352. It is uncertain whether verbs signifying to miss take a partitive or an 
ablatival genitive ; ov5€ts i}fidpTavev dvSpd^ no one missed his man X. A. 3. 4* 15, 
c<}>akivT€s TTji S6^7}s disappointed in expectations T. 4. 85. 

1353. Verbs of approaching and meeting take the genitive according to 
1343 or 1349. These verbs are poetical. Thus, dm-idiov ravpwv for the purpose 
of obtaining (his share of) hnlls a 25, avr-^au} rovd' dv4pos I will encounter this 
man U 423, ireXda-ai veQiv to approach the ships S. Aj, 709. In the meaning (Zraif? 
near to verbs of approaching take the dative (1463), 

1354. The genitive is used with verbs of smelling, 

&^o} p.6pov I smell of perfume Ar. Eccl. 524. So Trvetv fxhpov to 'breathe (smell of) 
perfume S. fr. 140. 

1355. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to enjoy, taste, 
eat, drink. 

dTToXauo/xej' irdvTojv tCjv dyaddv we enjoy all the good things X. M. 4, 3. 11, 
eiojxov Tov XA70U enjoy the discourse P. R. 352 b, dXtyoL a-trov ^ye^<ravTo few 
tasted food X. A. 3. 1. 3. So (rarely) with ijdeadaL take pleasure in. 

a. Here belong iadieit^, irtveLv when they do not signify to eat up or drink 
up : (bpLtov ia-dieiv airojv to eat them alive X. H. 3. 3. 6, irUetv otyoLo drink some 
wine X 11,'as boire du vin (but irtveiv olvov drink wine S 5, as hoire le vin). 
Words denoting food and drink are placed in the accusative when they are 
regarded as kinds of nourishment, 

1356. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to remember y 
remind, forget, care fm^, and neglect. 

rdv dir6vT(j}v <pl\u3v fiipLvijao remember your absent friends I. 1. 26, po^\oiia.L 5' 
O/xas dvafiv7]<yai twv 4p.ol ireTrpdy/jiivuiv I desire to remind you of my past actions 
And. 4. 41, 84doiKa p.^ i'irLKad{hp,€da t^? otKaS^e 68ov I fear lest we may forget the 
way home X. A. 3. 2. 25, 4irLp.eK6p.evoi ol pev vTro^ylcjv, ot 5^ a-KevuPv some taking 
rare of the pack animals^ othefs of the baggage 4. 3. 30, rijs rdbv -n-oKKwv 56^7}S Set 
7}pas (ppovri^eiv we must pay heed to the worhVs opinion P. Cr. 48 a, tL i^piv r^s 
tQv ttoWlov 56^77? p4\eL\ what do we care for the world'' s opinion? 44c, to7s 
(TirovSaLois ovx oUvTe t^s dperTjs dp.eXe'iv the serious Cannot disregard virtue L 1, 48, 
pTjdevbs dXiytjipeire p-qbi KaTa^povetre (cp. 1385) ruv 7rpoa-TeTayp,4vo}V neither neglect 
nor despise any command laid on you 3. 48. 

1357. So with pvrjpoj^veiv remember (but usually with the accus., especially 
of things), d/ivrjpoveiv not to ^eak of, K-^SecBaL care for, ivrpiTreadcLL give heed to, 



1363] THE GENITIVE 323 

iu6vfjL€ta&at think deeply of, irpoopav make provision for (in Hdt.), yxera/iAet not 
it repents me, KOLTaiJx'Kelv neglect. 

1358. Majiy of these verbs also take the accusative. With the accus. 
/jLefj,v7]iT6ai means to remember something as a whole, with the gen. to rememh&r 
something about a thing, bethink oneself. The accus, is usually .found with 
verbs oi remembering and forgetting ^vhen they mean to hold or not to hold in 
memot^^ and when the object is a thing. Neuter pronouns must stand in the 
accus. iTriKav6dv€<rdixi forget takes either the genitive or the accusative, Xavdd- 
veffdaL (usually poetical) always takes the genitive. fxi'Xei it is a care^ iTrijj.i\e(xdaL 
care for^ fxe^vijffdaL think about may take -rrepL with the genitive. oUa generally 
means I remember when it has a person as the object (in the accusative). 

1359. Verbs of reminding may take two accusatives : TaC^ vir^p.vqa tjjus I 
have reminded you of this D. 19. 25 (1628). 

1360. With fiiXei, the subject, if a neuter pronoun, may sometimes stand 
in the nominative (the personal construction) : ravra deia fieXrjcrei G-od will care 
for this P. Phae. 238 d. Except in poetry the subject in the nominative is very 
rare witli other words than neuter pronouns : x^P°'' '"■airt fxeXovji T. L. 835 e. 

1361. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to hear and 
perceive: olkovclv, kXv£lv (poet.) hearj aKpoaadat listen to^ aicrOdvtudai 
perc^ivBj TrwOdvea-dai hear, learn of, a-wUvai understand, 6<j^paivcKT6ai 
scent. The person or things whose words, sound, etc. are perceived 
by the senses, stands in the genitive ; the words, sound, etc. generally 
stand in the accusative. 

rtvbs TJKovff eiirbpTos I heard somebody say D. 8. 4, aKoija-avTes ttjs crdXinyyos 
hearing the sound of the trumpat X. A. 4. 2. 8, dKoicravres top dbpv^ov hearing 
the noise 4.4. 21, oiKpoihpMvoL tov q.5ovTos listening to the singer X. C, 1.3. 10, 8ctol 
dXXTjXwr ^viftecrai' all who understood each other T. 1, 3, tireLdav jwl^ ns rd \ey6- 
/uem when one understands ivhat is said P. Pr. 325 c (verbs of understanding, 
cvvlivdi and iirlcTTaordaL, Usually take the accus.), Kpop-fxi^iav 6cr4>pahopiaL I smell 
onions Ar. Ran. 0-54. 

a. A supplementary participle is often used in agreement with the genitive of 
the person from whom sfmiething is heard : \4yovros ipiov aKpodcrovrai ol v^ot the 
young men will listen when I speak P. A.37d. 

b. The accusative is almost always used when the thing heard is expressed 
by a substantivized neuter adjective or participle, but the genitive plural in the 
case of olroi, 55e, aijros, and os is frequent. 

1362. A double genitive, of the person and of the thing, is rare with dKOToecv : 
t€}v vTcep T-Qs •yp<x<p7\'s diKalojv dKoOeiv fiov to listen to my just pleas as regards the 
indictment D. 18. 9, 

1363. aKo^etv, aladdvecrdai, Trvv6dv€<Tdai, meaning to become aware of, learn, 
take the accusative (with a participle in indirect discourse, 2112 b) of a personal 
or impersonal object : oi U JlXaratr^s, tbs r^ffdovro ivdov re 6rras rois 0-n^alovs Kai 
Ka.TeLKT]p.p4vr]v t^v ird'Kiv but the Flataeans, when they became aware that the 
Thebans were inside and that the city had been captured T. 2. y, Trv66p.€voL 'Apra- 
^ip^Tiv Tidv-riKbra. having learned that Artaxerxes was dead 4. 60. 



32i SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1364 

a. To hear a thing is usually dKoieiv n when the thing heard is something 
definite and when the meaning is simply hear, not listen to. 

1364. iKoiieiv, d/cpoacr^ai, TTuv^dj'ecr^cit, meaning to hearfrom^ learn from^ take 
the genitive of the actual source (1411). 

1365. dKoieiv, K\iJ€tVy TTwddveadai rtvos may mean to hear about^ hear of: 
ei 54 x€ redv-qOfTos aKo^o-rjs but if you hear that he is dead a 289, KXiojv troO hearing 
about thee S. 0. C. 307, ojs ^-rriLrdopTo ttjs U^jXov KaTeikTjfJLfiepTjs when they heard of 
the capture of Pylos T. 4. 6. For the participle (not in indirect discourse) 
see 2112 a. irepl is often used with the genitive without the participle. 

1366. In the meaning heed, hearken, obey, verhs of hearing generally 
take the genitive : 6.kov€ -rrdvrojv^ iK\4yov 5* A (TVfjL(l>4p€L listen to everything, 
but choose that which is profitable Men. Sent. 566, r (3 1/ TroX^fiiuiv aKoieiv to submit 
to enemies X, C. 8. 1. 4, Treidea-dai takes the genitive, instead of the dative, hy 
analogy to this use (Hdt, 6. 12, T. 7. 73). (On the dative with ctKoi/eiy obey 
see 1465.) 

1367. aladdveadat takes the genitive, or (less frequently) the accusative, of 
the thing immediately perceived by the senses : t^s Kpavyijs ^cdovro they heard 
the noise X, H. 4. 4. 4, -^o-deTo rk yty v6fjL€va he perceived what was happening 
X. C. 3. 1. 4. The genitive is less common than the accusative when the per- 
ception is intellectual : 6js yadovro T€ixi.t<>^ru}v when they heard that they were 
progressing with their fortification T, 5, 83, Cp. 1363. 

1368. Some verbs, ordinarily construed with the accusative, take the geni- 
tive hy the analogy of aluddvec-Oai, etc. ; €yv(i} firoTra ifiov ttoiovvtos he knew that I 
was acting absurdly X. C. 7. 2. 18, dyvoovvre^ dXXiJXwj' n \4yofiev each of us 
mistaking what the other says P. G. 517 c. This construction of verbs of 
knowing (and showing) occurs in Attic only when a participle accompanies the 
genitive. 

1369. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to Jill, to be full 
of. The thing filled is put in the accusative. 

oiK ipLTr\-qa€T€ trjv ddXaTrav Tpi-qpoiv ; vnll you not cover the sea with your tri- 
remes 9 D. 8. 74, dvaTr\rj(Tai alriQiv to implicate in guilt P. A. 32 c, rpotpTjs eiuwopetv 
to have plenty of provisions X. Vect. 6. 1, rpiijpTjs aetjaypi^vr} dvdpdjtrosv a trireme 
stowed.with men X. 0. 8. 8, u^pews pLea-rovaOai to be filled with pride P. L. 713 c, 
So with TrX-qdeiv, wXrjpovv, y^pietv, TrXovTctv, Spidetv (poet.), ^p'Otiv (poet.). 

a. Here belong also x^^P crrdfet dvrjX-fjs "Apeos his hand drips with sacrifice to 
Ares S. El. 1423, pLeduo-delsrov v^xrapos intoxicated with nectar P. S. 203 h, i) -rrriy^ 
pel •■pvxpov uSaros the spring fiows with cold water P. Phae. 230 b. The instru- 
mental dative is sometimes used. 

1370. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to rule, command, 
lead. 

detov rb ideKbvriov ^px^i-^ it is divine to rule over loilling subjects X. 0. 21, 12, 
TTJS da\dTTr}s iKpdrei he ^vaH master of the sea P. Menex. 239e, "Epws t€}p deOiv 
^a(n\€6€L Love is king of the gods P. S. 195 c, i}yeLro ttjs ^^odov he led the expe- 
dition T. 2, 10, a-TpaTTjye'iv rdv ^vujv to be general of the mercenaries X, A, 



1375] THE GENITIVE 325 

2. 6. 28. So -with TvpavpcTv be absolute master of, dvaa-a-eiv be lord of (poet.), 
TjyefjMveiiciv be commander of. This genitive is connected with lliat of 1402. 

1371. Several verbs of ruling take the accusative when they mean to con- 
quer, overcome (so Kparetv), or when they express the domain over which the 
rule extends ; as t^v UeXo'jrdpvTjcrov Tretpaa-de fir) 4\d(f<7(i) e^yjyciffdat try not to lessen 
your dominion over the Peloponnese T. 1. 71. Tj-yelo-dai nn means to be a guide 
to any one, show any one the way. Cp. 1537. 

GENITIVE OF PRICE AND VALUE 

1372. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to buy^ sell^ costj 
value,' exchange. The price for which one gives or does anything 
stands in the genitive. 

apyvplov TTpla&daL ^ diroSda-dai 'i-mrov to buy or sell a horse for money P. R. 333 b, 
Qefii(7T0K\ia twv fieylijTwv Sojpedv '^^luaap they deemed lliemistocles worthy of 
the greatest gifts I. 4. 154, ovk dyraWaKriov fioi. rrjv tptXoTiixCdv oifdevos K^pdovs I 
must not barter my public sxnrit for any price X). 19. 223. So wath r6.Treiv rate, 
ixLijdovv let., /jLL<76ov(7$aL hire^ ipyd^e<76ai loorfc, and with any verh of doing anytlnng 
for a wage, as oi ttjs irap ijixipap x'^P'-'''^^ ''"^ p-^K^TO, TTJ^ wdXeuiS dTroXtoXe/cires those 
who have ruined the highest interests of the State to purchase ephemeral popularity 
D. 8. 70, x6<7oi; 8tSd(TK€i ; irivre p.vQiv for hov) much does he teach f for five minae 
P. A. 20 b, 01 XttXSaioi pLLddov ffTpaTeijQjrraL the Chaldaeans sei^e for pay X, C. 3. 
2. 7. ■ 

a. The instrumental dative Is also used. With verbs of exchanging^ dvri is 
usual (1683). 

1373. To value highly and lightly is irepl ttoXXoC (ttX^ows, irXe/o-roy) and 
irept 6\lyov (^i\6.Trovo^, eXaxtcrroif) Tip£.a$ai OT Troicurdai : rd, TrXeltrrov d^ia irepl ^\a- 
Xi<Trov TTomrai, rk be ^avXSrepa irepl irXeiovos he makes least account of what i$ 
most important^ and sets higher what is less estimable V. A. 30 a. The genitive 
of value, without Trepl^ is rare : iroXXoO irOLodp.ai dK7)Ko4vat a aK-qKoa Jlpuiraydpov I 
esteem it greatly to have heard what I did from Protagoras P. Pr. 328 d. 

a. The genitive of cause is rarely used to express the thing bought or that for 
which pay is demanded : o^biva, r^s <Tvvov<rld^ dpyvpiov Trpdrrei you charge nobody 
anything for your teaching X. M. 1. 6. 11, rpe'is p.vqX St^picrKov three minae for a 
small chariot Ar. Nub. 31. 

1374. In legal language Ti/aav tlvl davdrov is to fix the penalty at death (said 
of the jury, which is not interested in the result), Tlp.dcr6ai nvt davdrov to pro- 
pose death as the penalty (said of the accuser, who is interested), and Ti}xdada.i 
rivos to propose a penalty against oneself (said of the accused). Cp, rlixdral 
fjLoi dvTjp davdrov the man proposes death as my penally P. A. 36 b, dXXa Si} 
(Pvyij^ Ttp.'/io'oiixaL ; i'crojs ydp dv yuoi to^tov T~Lfii^<raiT€ but shall Iprcpose exile as my 
penalty? for perhaps you (the jui-y) might fix it at this 37 c. So 6avdTov with 
KpiveiVf 8nJbK€tv, virdyeiv. Cp, 1379. 

GENITIVE OF CRIME AND ACCOUNTABILITY 

1375. With verbs of judicial action the genitive denotes the crime, 
the accusative denotes the person accused. 



326 SYNTAX OF THE >SIMPLE SENTENCE [1376 

alriaffdat dXk-fjKom rov yeyevr}fjbevou to accuse, one another of what had hap- 
pened X. Ages. 1. 83, diiliKw /JL€v KaKTjyopiaSf rfj 5' air^ >/'^0V <p6vov (peOyw I bring 
an accusation for defamation and at the same trial am prosecuted for murder 
L. 11. 12, ^/ue 6 MAtjtos dcre^eias iypd->paro Meletus prosecuted me for impiety 
P, Euth. 5 c, ddjpwv iKpldrjffav they were tried for bribery L, 27. 3. On verbs of 
accusing and condemning compounded with Kara, see 1^85. 

1376. So with &}xtve<Tdai. and KoXd^eiv punish, eladyeiv and 'rrpoffKoKeTa-dai 
summon into courts aXpelv convict^ rl/jLupeta-daL take vengeance on. With TlfjLwpeiv 
avenge and \a.yxa-v€Lv obtain leave to bring a suit, the person avenged and the 
person agahist whom the suit is brought are put in the dative. So with Sikol- 
^eadal rivi rtvos to go to law loith a man about something. 

1377. Verbs of judicial action may take a cognate accusative (dtK-tjVf ypa(j>-qv)^ 
on which the genitive ol the crime depends : ypa4>7}v ujSpews Kai SIktjv KaK-qyopia^ 
<pev^€raL he will be brought to trial on an indictment for outrage and on a civil 
action for slander D. 21. 32. Prom this adnouiiiial use arose the construction 
of the genitive with this class of verbs. 

1378. oXlffKecdaL (aXuiva.i) be convicted, 6<p\i<TKdv€Lv lose a suit, <p€Oy€iv be 

prosecuted are equivalent to passives : Mv ns aX(? /cXoiriJs . . , Kav dcrrparefas Ti? 

6<p\'r} if any one be condemned for th(ft . . . and if any one be convicted of deser- 
tion T). 24. 103, do-ejSefd? <p€6yovTci virb Mekrirov being tried for impiety on the 
indictment of Meletus P. A. 35 d. dtpXiaKdyetv may take diKijv as a cognate accus. 
(dxpXtjKivai Uktjv to be Cast in a siiit At. Av. 1457) ; the crime or the penalty 
may stand in the genitive (with or without diKtjv), or in the accusative: 6ir6aoi 
kXoittjs -^ h<hpwv 6(p\oL€y all who had been convicted of embezzlement or bribery 
And. 1. 74, v<l> t}xQ}v davdrov diK-rjv 6<p\iLv having incurred through your verdict the 
penalty -of death, virb rrjs dXTjdeids (hfXtjKdr^s ixoxdiqpiav condeonned by the truth 
to suffer the penalty of wickedness P. A. 39 b. 

1379. With verbs of judicial action the genitive of the penalty may be 
regarded as a genitive of value : davdrov Kptvov<n they judge in matters of life and 
death X. C. 1. 2. 14. So irwdyeiv tlvo. davdrov to impeach a man on a capital charge 
X. H. 2. 3, 12 ; Cp. T'l/xav davdrov 1374. 

a. With many verbs of judicial action Trepi is used, 

GENITIVE OF CONNECTION 

1380. Tlie genitive may express a moT*e or less close connectAon 
or relation, where irept is sometimes added. 

With verbs of saying or thinking : ri 5^ tinr^v oUi ; hut what do you think of 
horses? P. R- 459b. Often in poetry : dirk 54 ixoi irarphs but tell me about my 
father X 174, rov ntKriyviirov rl <pys ; what dost thou say of thy brother f S. El. 317. 

1381. The genitive is often used loosely, especially at the beginning of a 
construction, to state the subject of a remark ; ittttos ^v KaKovpy^, rbv iinr^d Kad- 
^ojjjev ri}^ 5k yvvaiKhs, d KaKoiroid KrX. if a hm^se is vicious, we lay the fault to the 
groom; but as regards a wife, if she conducts herself ill, etc. X. O. 3. 11, 
wo-aiSrajs 5k Kal rQv dWoov rexvQv and SO in the case of the other arts too 
P. Charm. 165 d, rl 5k r(av iroWQv koKQv ] what about the many beautiful things 9 
P. Ph. 78 d. 



1387] THE GENITIVE 327 



GENITIVE WITH COMPOUND VERBS 

1382. The genitive depends on the meaning of a compound verb as a whole 
(1) if the simple verb takes the genitive without a preposition, as vTreiKeiv 
withdraw, trapa\C€iv release, irapaxttfp^tv surrender (1892), i<p~t£<rdai desire (\M9^\ 
or (2) if the compound has acquired through, the preposition a signification 
different from that of the simple verb with the preposition : thus airoyvbvres 
T^j iXevdepldi desjJairing of freedom L. 2. 46 cannot be expressed by 7i^iAres 
d-rrb rrji iXevSepLds. But it is often difficult to determine whether the genitive 
depends on the compound verb as a whole or on the preposition contained in it. 

1383. A verb compounded with a preposition taking the dative or accusa- 
tive may take tlie genitive by analogy of another compound verb whose preposi- 
tion requires the genitive : so iiM^aiuetv Spwv to set foot on the boundaries S.O. C. 
400 by analogy to iTn^alveiv tQv opuiv P. L. 778e. 

1384. Many verbs compounded with airb, Tp6, vir4p, iirl^ and Kara take the 
genitive when the compound may be resolved into the simple verb and the prepo- 
sition without change in the sense : roi/s <ru(ji(i6.xov'i d-n-oTp^T^avres r^s yvd>/i7js 
dissuading the allies from their purpose And. 3. 21, TrpoaTr€ffTA\7]<rav rijs dTro- 
<rrdcreajs they Were despatched btfore the revolt T. 8. 5, iroXXois 7/ y\CjTTa irporp^xei 
rrjs Siavoids in many people the tongue outruns the thought 1. 1. 41, {ol Tro\4fuoi) 
ifirepKdBTjVTai rj/xdv the enemy are stationed above us X. A. 5. 1. 9, r^J iiripdvTL 
7rp<I}T<f ToD relxovs to the first one setting foot on the wall T. 4. 116. This use is 
most frequent when the prepositions are used in their proper signification. 
Many compounds of virep take the accusative. 

a. This use is especially common with /card against or at : p.-fi (xov KaretTrris 
don''t speak against me P. Th. 149 a, KarefeiffarS fj^ov he spoke falsely against 
me D. 18. 9, T^evSij KareyXibrrii;^ /j.ov he mouthed lies at me Ar. Ach. 380. The 
construction in 1384 is post-Homeric. 

1385. The verbs of accusing and condemning (cp. 1375) containing Kard in 
composition {KarayLyvuicrKetv decide against, KaradiKd^etv adjudge against, Kara- 
■ij/ri<pi^e<TdaL vote against, KaraKpiveiv give sentence against) take a genitive of the 
person, and an accusative of the penalty. KarijyopeTv accuse^ Kar ay tyvtHxyKeiv 
and KaTa^p7)<pl^€ff&aL take a genitive of the person, an accusative of the crime : 
KarayvQimc diopodoKLdy i/xov to pronounce me guilty of bribery L. 21. 21, to^tov 
StiXidv KaTa^T}<pl^€(TOaL to vote him guilty of coioardice 14. 11, tQv Sia(pvy6vTujv 
edvarov Karayvhres having condemned the fugitives to death T. 0, 60 ; 2^erson, 
crime, and penalty : ttoXKQv ol Trardpes fiTjSuTfioG Qdvaroy KaT^yvdjsav our fathers 
passed sentence of death against many for favouring the Persians 1. 4. 157. The 
genitive is rarely used to express the crime or the penalty : rapavbfjwv airov 
Karriyopelv to accuse him- of proposing unconstitutional measures D. 21. 5 ; cp. 
dvffp(iir(jjv KaTaipT}(pLcrdivT03v ddvarov men who have been condemned to death 
P. n. 558 a. 

1386. In general, prose, as distinguished from poetry, repeats the preposi- 
tion contained in the compound ; but Kara is not repeated. 

1387. Passive. — ddvaros avrCiv KareyvtiiydT) sentence Of death was passed on 



328 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1388 

them L. 13.39 (so /care^Tj^tcr/ii^TO? ^v fwu 6 ddvaro^ X. Ap.27), KaTTjyopeTro airov 
ovx rjKLffTa fn}di<r/ji,6s he was especially accused of favouring the Persians T. 1. 95. 

FREE USES OF THE GENITIVE 

1388. Many verbs ordinarily construed witJi the accusative are also fol- 
lowed by a genitive of a person, apparently dependent on the verb but in reality 
governed by an accusative, generally a neuter pronoun or a dependent clause. 
Thus, rdd' a^ToO dyafiai I admire this in him X. Ages. 2. 7, tovto iiraivQ "A77J- 
(TcXaov I praise this in Agesilaus 8. 4, alrOiv %v idavfiaaa I v:as ast07iished at one 
thing in them P. A. 17 a, 'A07)vaioi (T<pQ>v ravra oiJ/c airod^^ovrai the Athenians will 
not be satisfied with them in this T, 7. 48, 6 /x^/xt^ovrat ^dXio-ra ij^uiv which they 
most censure in us 1. 84, el dyacrat toO irarpb^ offa ir^irpaxe if you admire in 
my father what he has done (the actions of my father) X. C, 3. 1. 15, 5ia^€<iju€ws 
ainOiv oa-Tjv x^P"-^ e'xotei' contemplating how large a counti^ they possess X. A. 
3. 1. 19, 9avixd^(t} tQ)v cTTparTjyQv on oi irupGivrat rijjXv ^KKopl^av fflTi)pi(nov I won- 
der that the generals do not try to supply us with money for p^rovisions 6. 2. 4, 
iv€v6r}(Te dd air Civ Kai ws iirrjpfbrujv dWrjlKovs he took note also how they asked each 
othsr questions X. C. 5. 2. 18. So with SecjpeTv observe, birovoelv feel suspicious 
of hdvjxeUdai consider^ etc. 

1389. Trom such constructions arose the use of the genitive in actual 
dependence on the verb without an accusative word or clause : dya<TaL ain-oO you 
admire him X. M, 2. 6. 33, davfid^oj rdv v-n-^p rij? IdLds Si^ijs dirodvyffK€Lv i6€\6vTi^v 
I wonder at those who are willing to die in defence of their personal opinions 
I. 6. 93. The use in 1389 recalls that with altrddveadai (1367). On dyac-OaL, 
eavfid^eiv with the genitive of cause, see 1405. 

139Q. A form of the genitive of possession appears in poetry with verbal 
adjectives and passive participles to denote the personal origin of an action (cp. 
1298) : KeLvqs didaKrd taught of her S. El. 344, €/c5t5ax^ets Toijf Kar oIkoi* informed 
by those in' the hotise S. Tr. 934, TrXrjyeh Svyarpdi struck by a daughter E, Or. 497. 
Cp. 5t6(j- Soros given of God; and ''beloved of the Lord," 

On the genitive absolutBj see 2070. 

THE ABLATIVAL GENITIVE WITH VERBS 

1391. The same verb may govern both a true genitive and an ablatival 
genitive. So dpx^o-Oat to begin (1348 a) and to start from^ tx^cr^at to hold to 
(1345) and to keep oneself from. In many cases it is difficult to decide whether 
the genitive in question was originally the true genitive or the ablatival genitive, 
or whether the two have been combined ; e.g, in kvv4t} plvov ironjTT] a cap made 
of hide K 262, KvinXhov idi^aro rjs dX6xoio he received a goblet from his wife 
ii 305. So with verbs to hear from^ know of (1304, 1411), and verbs of emo- 
tion (1405), the partitive idea, cause, and source are hard to distinguish. Other 
cases open to doubt are verbs of missing (1362), being deceived (1392), and the 
exclamatory genitive (1407). 

GENITIVE OF SEPAKATION 

1392. With verbs signifying to cease, release, remove, resirainj 
give up, failj he distant froni, etc., the genitive denotes separation. 



1399] THE GENITIVE 329 

XriyeLP rwy irbvtav to cease from toil 1,1. 14, iTLar'^jjiT} x^^P'-i'^f^^^V 5tKatQa^vT]$ 
knowledge divorced from justice P. Menex. 246 e, /ierao-Tas rrjs 'AOrjvaLojv $u^- 
/iaxfas withdrawing from the alliance loith the Athenians T. 2. 67, Trai/o-avffes 
(drrbv rijs <TTpaTT}ytds removing him from his office of general X. H. 6. 2. 13, 
dpy€<T$ac rrjs dyopas to be excluded from the forum L. 6. 24, o-wo-at KaKov to save 
from evil S. Ph. 919, iKu>Xvov rijs Tropelas ai/rbv they prevented Mm from passing 
X. Ages. 2.2, iras du7Koi Srio &vhpa$ e^et rod /xij Karadvvai each skin will keep two 
men from sinldng X. A. 3. 5. 11, \6yov reXevrav to end a speech T. 3. 59, ttjs 
iXevdeplds Trapax^p^o'at ^iXiTnnp to surrender their freedom to Philip D. 18.68, 
ov ttSvwv xxpteroj oiJ KifSvpcov affnartiTo^ oO xP'HI^t^v i4)€td€T0 he did not relax his 
toil, stand aloof from dangers, or spare his money X. Ages. 7. 1, ypevae^vres 
TUP i\7rl5u}v disappointed of their expectations I. 4, 58 (but cp. 1352), i) vrjcos 
oi iroXO dUxovffa r^s riireipov the island being not far distant from the main- 
land T. 3. 61. 

1393. Several verbs of separation^ such as iXevdepow (especially with a 
personal subject), may take dx6 or i^ when the local idea is prominent. 
Many take also the accusative. 

1394. The genitive, instead of the accusative (1628), may be used with verbs 
of depriving : dTroffrepeT p^ rQy xpVP''^'^^^ he deprives me of my property I. 17. 35,' 
ru>v dXXwv d<paipoiLip,€voL xp^/wira taking away property from others X. M. 1. 6. 3. 

1395. The genitive of the place whence is employed in poetry where a com- 
pound verb would be used in prose : ^dOpwv taraade rise from the steps S. O. T. 
142 (cp. WaviaravraL OaKccv they rise from their seats X. S- 4. 31), x^ovos deipds 
raising from the ground S. Ant. 417. 

1396. The genitive with verbs signifying to want, lack, errviyty, etc. 
may be classed with the genitive of separation. 

Twv iTTLrrideiojv ovk dTrop'f}<xop.ev we shall not want provisions X. A. 2. 2. 11, 
^Tralfov ofjTrore cnravi^ere you never lack praise X. Hi. 1. 14, dvdpQv rdv§€ irdXiv 
Kei>S>aaL to empty this city of its men A. Supp. 660. So with iXXeiTreif and <7t^- 
p€(TdaL lack, 4pT]jwvv deliver from. 

1397. 8^0} I lack (the personal construction) usually takes the genitive of 
quantity : iroXXov ye d4o} nothing of the sort P. Phae. 228 a, ptKpov eSeov iv x^po"* 
ru>v oirXiT&v elvai they vjere nearly at close quarters with the hoplites X. H, 4, 6. 11, 
Toa-oTLfTov 5iw ^ijXovp I am SO far from admiring D. 8, 70 (also Toaovrov 5^w). 

1398. biop,aL I want, request may take the genitive, or the accusative (regu- 
larly of neuter pronouns and adjectives), of the thing wanted ; and the geni- 
tive of the person : ipuj^hp^ems Srov diotro^ 'A<rK(av, €<p7}, dicrxiXiuv ^eijcofxat being 
asked what he needed, he said ' / shall have need of two thousand skins ' X. A. 
3. 6. 9, rovro vpCov 5€op,aL I ask this of you P. A. 17 c. The genitive of the thing 
and of the person is unusual ; deSp^evoi Kipov dXXos dXXrji xpa^ews petitioning 
Gyrus about different matters X. C. 8, 3. 19. 

1399. 5c? (impersonal) is frequently used with genitives of quantity : ttoXXov 
Se? oirrojs ^x^^y far from that being the case P. A. 35 d, ovd^ iroXXov fie? D. 8. 42 
(only in D.) and ot/6' 6X1701; del no, far from it D. 19. 184. Selv may be omitted 
(but not v^ith iroXXoO), leaving dXiyov and piKpov in the sense of almost, all but: 



830 sy:^tax of the sijiple sentence [1400 

6\Lyov irdpTcs almost all P. R, 552 d, dXiyov elXov tt]v irokiv they all hut took 
the city T. 8, 35. On Mv used absolutely, see 2012 d ; on ^4iav with numerals, 350 c. 

1400. 5ei (xoi Tivos means I have need of something. In place of the dative 
(1467) an accusative of the person is rarely allowed in poetry on the analogy 
of Set with the infinitive (1985) : oi Trdvov woWov /i,e de? I have need of no great 
toil E. Hipp. 23 (often in E.). The thing needed is rarely put in the accusative : 
etTi dhi Tip xop(p if the chorus need anything Ant. 6. 12 (here some regard tI as 
nominative). Cp. 1562i 

GENITIVE OF DISTINCTION AND OF COMPABISON 

1401. The genitive is used with verbs of differing, 

&PX<^v ayadbs oidev Siacp^pei irarpos dyadov a good ruler differs in no respect 
from a good father X. C. 8. 1. 1. 

1402. With, verbs signifying to surjia'is, be inferior to^ the genitive 
denotes that with, which anything is compared. 

rTpLais To^Tujv iirXeoveKre'iTe you had the advantage over them in honours X. A. 
3. 1. 37, rjTTGivTo rov ySaros they were overpowered by the water X, H. 5. 2. 5, 
va-repeTv tGiv ipyoiv to he too late for operations D. 4. 38, t)^Q)v Xeitpdivres inferior 
to us X. A. 7. 7.31. So v\'ith irpeo-^eiJeiv hold the first place ^ dpi<jTt<)eiv he heat 
(poet.), jMeLovadai fall short of fieioveKTeTv be Worse off iXarrovjOai he at a diS' 
advantage. viKdadai nvos is chiefly poetic. riTraadaL often takes vwo. Akin to 
this genitive is that with verbs of ruling (1370), which are often derived from a 
substantive signifying ruler. 

1403. Many verbs compounded with irpS, irepi, virip denoting superiority 
take the genitive, which may depend on the preposition (1384) : rdxet -wepLeyivov 
auToO you excelled him in speed X. C. 3. 1. 19, yvdjir} irpoix^'-^ '^^^ evavritav to 
excel the enemy in spirit T. 2. 62, tols oirXois aifrdv vireptp^po/xev we surpass them 
in our infantry 1. 81. So with Trept^trcn, virepix^^v- Trporljidv^ irpoKpiveiv^ and 
TTpoaipetadai prefer^ irpoenrriKivaL he at the head of certainly take tlie genitive by 
reason of the preposition. virep^dWeiv and virep^aheLv surpass take the accusa- 
tive. 

1404. The object compared may be expressed by irpS^ dvri with the genitive, 
or by Trapd, irpbs with the accusative. See under Prepositions. That in which 
one thing is superior or inferior to another usually stands in the dative (1513, 
1515). 

GENITIVE OP CAUSE 

1405. With verbs of emotion the genitiye denotes the cause. Such 
verbs are to wonder at, admire^ enmj^ praise^ blame, liate^ P^^Vj gfi'^^t'e 
for, be angry at, take vengeance on, and the like. 

idaTufiaa-a ttjs toXjjltjs TG}v\eybvT(jov I wondered at the hardihood of the speakers 
L.. 12. 41, TovTov dyaa-deh r^s irpadrTjrot admiring him for his mildness X. C. 
2.3. 21, ^7j\w ere Tov toO, t-^s 5^ SeiXldt crrvyu) I envy thee for thy prudence, I hate 
thee for. thy cowardice S, El. 1027, a-k i]vdaifi6via-a tov Tpoirov I thought you happy 



Mil] Tllli: GENITIVE ' 331 

because of your disposition P, Cr.43b, avyxaipi^ rCbu yeyevrjfjievoiv I share the joy 
at what has happe7ied ]). 16. 15, avex^adai tQp olKeiuv dfj.eXovfx^yojy to put up with 
the neglect of my household affairs V. A. 31 b, t6v ^ivov dlKaioy abeffai TpodvfiLas 
it is right to praise the stranger for his zeal E. I. A. 1371, oijiror dvSpl rc^Se ktjpv- 
KcupidTwv fiifi^ji never ivilt thou blame me for my tidings A. Sept. 651, tov ird^ous 
f^KTlpev a-L/TOf he 2^itied him for his misery X. C. 5,4,32, ovd' clkos xaXeircSs tp^pav 
ain-wv nor is it reasonable to grieve about them T. 2. 62, o^k^tl &V o&rot KKiirroviTiv 
opyi^ecde^ dXX' Sv avrol \afx(Sdv€T€ xdtpii' i'a-re you are no longer angry at their 
thefts^ hut you are grateful for what you get yourselves L. 27. 11, rjfjiwp'qaaa-dai 
aiiTovs ri}s ^irLdiceuis to take revenge on them for their attack X. A. 7.4. 23. Here 
belongs, by analogy, (Tvyycyvdc-Keiy airoU xpv t-^s ^iridvpilds it is necessary io for- 
give them for their desire P. Eu. 306 c (usually crvyytyvdMrKeip ttjv iTTLevfiidv red or 

a. The genitive of cause is partly a true genitive, partly ablatival. 

1406. With the above verbs the person stands in the accusative or dative. 
Some of these verbs take the dative or iirl and the dative {e.g. dXyeTv, cr^veiv, 
&X^^'^^°'h (pOoveiv) to express the cause of the emotion. See tlie Lexicon. 

1407. The genitive of cause is used in exclamations and is often preceded 
by an interjection : 0eO toO dvSpos alas for the man f X. C. 3. 1 . 39, ttjs ti;x7?s my 
ill luck ! 2. 2. 3. In tragedy, the genitive of a pronoun or adjective after otixoi 
or &IJLOL refers to the second or third persoji. For the first person the nominative 
is used (otfxoi rd'ka.Lva ah me., miserable! S.Ant. 654). 

1408. Allied to the genitive of cause is the genitive of purpose in rod with 
the infinitive (esp. with ^^, 2032 e), and in expressions where evera is usually 
employed, as ^ -ratr' dirdrT} <TVf>€<rK€vd<T67j tov irept ^coKdas 6\dOpov the 1^71016 fraud 
was contrived for the purpose of ruining the Phocians D, 19. 76. 

1409. Closely connected with the genitive of cause is the genitive with verbs 
of disputing : od /Sao-iXe? din-LiroLo^pLeda ttjs dpxv^ ^'^ have no dispute with the king 
about his empire X. A. 2. 1. 23, ■ftp.cpic^-qT'qdep 'Epex&€? ttjs TroXem he disputed 
the possession of the city with Erechtheus I. 12. 198, ap ovv fiij ijfuv ^vavrnJoa-eTaL 
TTjs aTraywyTji ; well then he will not oppose us ahoiit the removal (of the army), 
will he f X. A. 7. 6. 5. dvT it oiela Bat claim may follow 1349 (r^r xAXews dvre- 
TTotoOrro they laid claim to the city T. 4. 122). Verbs of diluting are some- 
times referred to 1343 or 1340. 

GENITIVE OF SOURCE 

1410. The genitive may denote the source. 

Trl6(av7i<picr(y€ro oiyos wine was broached from the casks ^p 306, Acipdov Kal Tlapv- 
adriSos yiyvovrai Traides &{>o of Darius and Parysatis are born two sons X. A. 
1. 1. 1, raOra S4 crov Tvx^vTes Obtaining this of you 6. 6. 32, jua^e juov Kal rdSe learn 
this also from me X. C. 1.6. 44. 

1411. With verbs of hearing from and the like the genitive is probably abla- 
tival rather than partitive (1304) ; 4fMou dKoiaecde Trdaav t^v dX-qdeifiv from me you 
shall hear the whole truth P. A. 17 b, tovtlov TwddvofiaL 6tl ovk d^arbv 4aTL rb bpo^ 
I learn from these men that the mountain is not impassable X. A. 4.6. 17, roLaOrd 



832 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1412 

Tov irapovTos enXvop svch a talo- T hoard from some one who was present S. Kl. 424, 
eld4vai b4 aov XPV^^ I desire to know of thee S. El. 668. 

a. Usually (except with •n-wddvea'daL) \ve have Trapd {dirb rarely), i^ or irpb$ 
(in poetry and Hdt.) with verbs of hearing from. 

b. The genitive with eivai in irarpos 5' et/x dyadoTo I am of a good father * 109, 
roLo6riov fxiv iare Trpoy6vii}v of sudi ancestors are you X. A.?j.2.\-i is often re- 
garded as a genitive of source, but is probably possessive. 

GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 

1412. The genitive is used with many adjectives corresponding 
in derivation or meaning to verbs taking the genitive. 

1413. The adjective often borrows tlie construction with the genitive from . 
that of the corresponding verb ; but when the verb takes another case (especially 
the accusative), or when there is no verb corresponding to the adjective, the 
adjective may govern the genitive to express possession, connection more or less 
close, or'by analogy. Many of the genitives in question may be classed as objec- 
tive as well as partitive or ablatival. Kigid distinction between the undenneu- 
tioned classes nmst not be insisted on. 

1414. Possession and Belonging (1297). — 6 k'pojs kolvos Tdvnav dvdpdrrrojv love 
common to all men i*. S. 205a (cp. Kotvi^velv 1343), tepAs rod adroO Beov sacred to 
the same god P. PI). 85 b, ol kLvSvvol tQv ^(peffTtjKdrcjv iStoc the dangers belong to 
the cominanders D. 2. 28. So with olKehs and ^frcxt^pios peculiar to. kolvos 
(usually), oirno? inclined to^ appropriate to, and fSios also take the dative (1499). 

1415. Sharing (1343). — ao(pLds fx^roxos partaking in wisdom P. L. 689 d, 
iadfxoLpoi Trdvrujv having an equal share in everything X. C. 2. 1. 31, v^pem A/ioipos 
having -^no part in vjantonness P. S. 181c. So HkXtjpos vnthov;t lot 1% Afx^roxos 
not sharing in. 

1416. -Touching, Desiring, Attaining, Tasting (1345, 1350, 1355). —di/'au- 
a-ros eyx^^^ '^^ot touching a spear S. O.'T. 969, x^P^s &v irpbdvfxoL yeyevqfxeSa grati- 
tude for the objects of our zeal T. 3. 67, TraLdeLds iir-^^oXoL having attained to 
(possessed of) culture P. E. 724 b, iXevdepids dyeua-ros not tasting freedom P. R. 
576 a. So dTL/crepcjs passionately desirous of. 

1417. Connection. — dKoXovda dWriXcov dependent on one another X. 0. 
11. 12, ra To&ru}v d5e\<pd what iS akin to this X.Hi. 1.22, tS>v TrpoetpTjfxivojv eirb- 
fxevai dTToSei^eis expositions agreeing with ivhat had pi^eceded P. It. 504 b, 4>^yos 
vTTvov bidhoxoy light succeeding sleep S. Ph. 867. All these adjectives take also 
the dative : as does 0-^776^17? akin, which'has become a substantive. 

1418. Capacity and Fitness. — Adjectives in -ik6$ from active verbs, and 
some others : irapaa KevaCTiKov tCjv els rbv Trb\efXov rov arparTjybv elyai XPV '^^^ TOpc- 
(TTLKov tQv eiriTTjbeibJv roh arparnJiTaLS the general must be able to provide what is 
needed in war and to supply provisions for Jiis men X. M. 3. 1. 6. So BtbacKoKiKb's 
able to instruct, wpdKnKbs able to effect. Here may belong yd/Mjv copaid ripe for 
marriage X. C. 4. 6. 9. 

1419. Experience (1345), — oSojv eix-rretpos acquainted ivith the roads X. C. 
5. 3. 35, TTjs da\dffa"tj^ iTTLa-TTjfjLiov acquainted with the sea T, 1. 142, LStchrTjs to6tov 



1428] THE GENITIVE 338 

Toy €pyov unskilled in this business X. O. 3.9. So with rpl^wv skilled in^ Tv4>\6i 
blind, dweipos unacquainted,, ayOfivaarro^ unpractised, atraiSevros uneducated, diJ^Tjs 
unaccustomed, d^cfiadrjs late in learning, (pLkojxaOijs fond of learning. 

1420. Remembering, Caring For (1366). — KaKQ>v iivfjiiov^s 'mindful of crime 
A. Eum. 382, ^ir L/j,e\iis t(vv (pLXoov attentive to friends X. M. 2. 6*. 35, afivfuj-fjiv tQ>v 
Kivdivdiv unmindful of dangers Ant. 2. a. 7 ; and, by analogy, cvyyvibjjMv rwv 
dvdpijwivwv ajxaprriixiiroiv forgiving of kuraau errors X. C. 6. 1. 37. So d/jx\r^s care- 
less of , iirCki]<Tjxii}v forgetful of 

1421. Perception (1361). — Compounds in --^kooj from 6.kq{iw : \6yo}v KaXQv 
dir-^KooL hearers of noble words P. K. 499 a, vTr-fjKoot Bea-o-aXiop subjects of the 
Thessalians T. 4. 78, vinfjKoos tQv 701'^^;' obedient to parents P. R. 463 d, dvijKooL 
TTctiSe/ds ignorant of culture Aes. 1. 141. So o-vvi^koos hearing together^ KarijKoo^ 
obeying, ^tt-^koos, /caT')7Koo5, and uitiJkoos also take the dative. 

1422. Fulness (1369). —x^^P^^ V 'r<&Xis ijp fiea-T-:^ the citij was full of rejoic- 
ing D. 18. 217, TrapaSeicos dypLuiv dT}pi<jv TrX-^pTjs « park full of wild beasts X. A. 
1. 2. 7, TrXoucrtiirepos (ppov/jcreoos richer in good sense P. Pol. 261 e, ^tX65ajpos eifie- 
veCas generous of good-will P. S. 197 d, SLirXyc-ros xpw^-t^^ greedy of money 
X. C- 8. 2, 20. So with e/A7rXews, ciifnrXeoys. irXijpTjt may take the dative. 

1423. Ruling (1370). — raiiri/s K'Opios TTJs x'^P^^ master of this country 
D. 3. 16, aKparijs dpyijs unrestrained in passion T. 3. 84. So with ^yKparir}s master 
of, avTOKpdrcjp Complete master of, dKpdTwp intemperate in. 

1424. Value (1372). — rdTris d^id BcKa fivwy a rug worth ten minae X. A, 
7. 3. 27, do^a. xpij/i.tt'Ttijp ovK o)vr}TT^ reputation is not to be bought for money I. 2. 32. 
So with dvrd^ios worths io-oppowo^ in equal poise ivith (T. 2. 42), d|i6xpeu)s sufficient, 
dvd^Loi unworthy. d^i6v tivl with the infinitive denotes it is meet for a person to 
do something or the like. 

1425. Accountability (1375). — ai^nos To<>Tuiv accountable for this P. G. 447 a, 
evoxos XnroTa^Lov liable to a charge of desertion L. 14. 5, dce/Sefdj VTrodtKos sub- 
ject to a trial for impiety P. L. 907 e, yTroreX-fjs (popov subject to tribute T. 1. 19, 
ro^Twv vweiOvvos v/mv responsible to you for this D. 8. 69, dOipoL rOiv iSiKTjfidrcop un- 
punished for offences Lye. 79. evoxos usually takes the dative, and so ifrre^evvo^ 
meaning dependent on or exposed to. The above comiDounds of inrS take the 
genitive by virtue of the substantive contained in them. 

1426. Place. — ivavrlos opposite and a few otlier adjectives denoting near- 
ness or approach (1353) may take the genitive, chiefly in poetry ; evavrloi ea-roLv 
'AxaiCiv they stood opposite the Achaeans P 343. Cp. toD TLSrrou iTriKdpaiai at 
an angle with the Fontus Ildt, 7. 36. ivavrLos usually takes tlie dative, 

1427. Separation (1392). —^iXwj' dyaSuip epi)fioL deprived of good friends 
X. M, 4.4. 24, ^vx^ ii^'X^ o-(bfmros the soul separated from the body P. L. 899 a, 
(peL8o}\ol xp-fj/Actrcup sparing of money P. R. 548 b (or perhaps under 1356), v\ys 
Kadaphv clear of undergrowth X. O, 16. 13, ^tTrauo-ros 76^1' never ceasing lamenta- 
tions E. Supp. 82. So witli iXevOepos free from, dyv6s pure from, innocent of, 
dp<pav6s bereft of, yvjxvos stripped of, fwvos alone. 

1428. Compounds of alpha privative. — In addititm to the a,djectives with 
alpha privative which take the genitive by reason of the notion expressed in the 



33-i SYNTAX OF THK SIMPLE SENTENCE [1429 

verb, or by analogy, there are many others, some of which take the genitive 
because of tbe idea of separation, 'especially when the genitive is of kindred 
meaning and an attributive adjective is adtled for the purpose of more exact 
definition. Thus, drl/xos deprived ofy airad-^s not suJRring^ dreX-^s free from 
(1892) : as rlfiijs &ti/jos deprived of honour P. L. 774 b, fiTrats dppivwv waldwv 
without male children I. 12. 126, rod i^Sia-Tov Bed/jiaTos dd^aros not seeing the mosi 
pleasant sight X. M. 2. 1.31, &4>wvos rijade rijs dpds vnthout uttering this curse 
S. O. C. 806. This is more frequent in poetry than prose. 

a. So when the adjectives are passive : <pi\ojv dKXauTos unwept by friends 
S. Ant. 847, cp. KaKi^v SvadXtJTos ovdels no one is hard for evil fortune to ca2')ture 
S. O. C. 1722. The genitive with adjectives in alpha privative is sometimes called 
the genitive of relation. 

1429. Want (1896). — ap/jiara Keva rjvibx^^ chariots deprived of their 
drivers X. A. 1. 8. 20, ivdeys dperijs lacking virtue V. K. 381 c. So with 7r^;^s 
poor^ eXXiirijs and i-n-Ldei^s lacking, 

1430. Distinction (1401). — didipopos tQ>v dWujv different from the rest P, 
Par. 160 d, erepov rd -IjSij toO dyadou pleasure is different from what is good P. G. 
500 d, dXXa tSjv biKaiwv at variance with juHice X. M. 4. 4. 25 {6XKot is almost 
a comparative). So with dXXotbs and dWbrptos alien from (also with dat. 
unfavourable to,, disinclined to). dLd<popos with dative means at variance with. 

1431. Comparison (1402). — Adjectives of the comparative degi-ee or imply- 
ing comparison take the genitive. The genitive denotes the standard or point of 
departure from which the comparison is made, and often expresses a condensed 
comparison when actions are couipared. Thus, -^ttojv d/xad^s <7o<pov, SetKos dv- 
dpelov an ignorant man is inferior to a wise man,, a con'ard to a brave man 
P. Phae. 239 a, Kpelrrbv itrn \6yov to KctXXos ttjs yvpaiKds the beauty of the woman 
is too great for descri^Mon X, M. 8. 11. 1, 'ETn5a|a irpor^pd Kvpov irivre ijfi^pais 
d(f>tK€To Epyaxa arrived five days before Cyrus X. A. 1. 2. 25, Karadee^r^pdv tt)v 
56^av TTjs iXTridos ^Xa^ev the reputatian he acquired fell short of his expectation 
1. 2. 7. So with Seurepos, ycrrepatos, wepirrds. Comparatives with ij^ 1069. 

1432. So with multiplicatives in -ttXovs and -irXdcrtos : dLirXda-ia diriSojKev 
i3v fXa^ev it returned double what it received X. C. 8. 3. 38. So with TroXXocrrbs. 

1433. The genitive with the comparative often takes the place of ij with 
another construction : adXcdirepov ian /x^ vytovs awfxaros ( = ^ firj ityiu (xd^fxarL) firj 
ifyuL ^vxv (TvvoLKetv it is more wretched to diuell with a diseased soul than a dis- 
eased body P. G-. 479 b, TrXeio(n vav<Tl tQp 'Adtjvaiuv (= '^ ol ' AdtjvcuoL) irapTJcav 
they came with more ships than the Athenians T. 8. 62. 

1434. The superlative with the genitive is both partitive and ablatival ; 
the latter, when a thing is compared with many things taken singly. Thus, 
<ro<p(hraro% dvBpdjirojv P. A. 22 c means Wisest among men (part.) and wiser than 
any other single man. The partitive idea is the stronger. The comparative 
and the superlative idea are both expressed in dvr^p eirtetK^s vlov diroX^crds oiVet 
f>q.ara rwv dXXojv a reasonable man will hear the loss of a son more easily than 
other men (and most easily of all men) P. Jl. 603 e, arpardd p.eyL<7Ti) rCiv irpo 
aiJr^s an expedition g^'eater than any preceding it T. 1. 10, tQ>v fiXXojj^ mTaroi the 
last among nations D. 8, 72. _ Cp. fiovos twv dXXojv = alone of all D. 21. 223. 



1439] THE GENITIVE 385 

1435. Cause (1405). — edSaintjv rou rpoirov happy because of his disposition 
■P.Pli. 58 e, SeLXaLos ttjs <Tv^(pQpd.^ wretched because of thy lot S. O.T. 1347, ^dXavoi 
6avfM(xiai rod fiey^dovs dates wonderful for their si^e X. A. 2. 3. 15, ir^pi<pQ^o% rov 
KaTa<f}povr}dTjvai fearful of becoming an object of contempt V. Pliae. 239 b. So 
with rdXds and tXi^/aojv wretched, 

1436. Free Use. — a. Compound adjectives formed of a preposition and 
substantive may take a genitive dependent on the substantive: (ncfjv^^ vTavKoi 
under the shelter of the tent S. Aj. 796 (= uir6 ai)X5). . Frequent in poetry. 

b. Some adjectives are freely used witli the genitive in poetry, as y6.jj,oi ILdpi- 
5os dXidpioL 4)lXa}v the marriage of Paris bringing ruin on his friends A. Ag. 1156. 
This is rare in prose : rb irvp iiriKovpov ^pvxov^ fire that protects against cold X. M. 
4. 3. 7, KaKovpyos p.€v tQv &\\(jjv, iavrov d^ KaKovpydrepos doing evil to the Others 
hut more to himself 1. 5. 3, 6 t'^j 'EXXdSos oKirripLos the curse and destroyer of 
Greece Aes. 3. 157. These adjectives are practically equivalent to substantives. 
Cp. amans patriae. 

GENITIVE WITH ADVERBS 

1437. The genitive is used with adverbs derived from adjectives 
which take the genitive, and with adverbs akin to verbs followed by 
the genitive. 

TO. ToiJTov e^Tjs what comes after this P. R, .390 a (1345), ipc>}TiK(os ^xovcn roO 
K€pSaiv€iv they are in love with gain X. 0. 12. 15 (cp. 1349), eO'di) AvKebv straight 
for the Lyceum P. Lys. 203 b (cp. Wixxe vebs he made straight for the ship 693 ; 
1353), ivain-iov airdvrwp in the presence of all T. 6. 25, 7r\r}criov Q-q^Zv near Thebes 
D. 9. 27, T^eiXov ^rAas near the Nile A. Supp. 308 (1353), 7oi^wj' dp^Xicrrepov ex^iv 
be too neglectful of one's parents P.L. 932 a (1356), ^k: Trdvrwv rQv ifiirelptjs auroC 
Jx^^^v of all those acqicainted with him X. A. 2, 6. 1, p,Tjdevbs dirdpm exeiv to be 
inexperienced in nothing 1. 1, 52 (1345), d^iojs dvdpbs dyadov in a manner worthy 
of a good man P. A, 32 e, irp€Tr6vTtJs tQv 7rpa^dvTU)2> in a manner appropriate to 
the doers P. Menex. 239 c (1372), 8ia4>€p6vT03s rOv fiXXo:;' dv6pd37r<av above the rest 
of men X. Hi. 7.4 (1401), irovijpld ddrTov davdrov dec ^ wickedness flies faster than 
fate'' P. A. 39 a (1402), TrevBiKois ^xovca Tov dSeXcpoO mourning for her brother 
X.C. 6. 2.7 (1405). 

1438. An adverb with €x^iv or dtaK€L<T6ai is often used as a periphrasis for 
an adjective with ehai or for a verb. 

1439. The genitive is nsed with many adverbs (a) of place, 
(b) of timej (c) of quantity. 

a. ifi^a\€Lv TTov T^s ^Keivoiv x^^pos to make an attack at some point of their 
country X. C. 6. 1. 42, alcSbpjBvoz od ^v kukov perceiving what a plight he was in 
D. 23. 156, ol TT po€K'f}\\}& d(X€\y€lds to lohat a p)it€li of wanton arrogance he has 
come 4. 9, ivravda rijs TroXlreid^ at that point of the administration 18. 62^ €i54vai 
6tov 7-^5 iffTiv to know where in the world he is V. Il.403e, iroppw tjSt] tov fiiov^ 
Bavdrou S^ 4yyijs already far advanced in life, near death P. A. 38 c, ^ttI rdde 
*ao-^Xi5os on this side of Phaselis I. 7. 80, irphs ^op^dv tov SK:6/xj3pou north of 
Mt. Scombi'us T. 2. 96, {iWoi, dXXj? rijs trdXeoys some in onepart^ others in another 



336 SYNTAX UF THli SlMPLK SKN 1 i^:NCK [1440 

part of the city 2. 4, diravrLKpii r-fji 'ATTiKTjs opposite Attica D. 8. 36. So with 
ivrSi inside^ €t<ro) within, iKarepoid^p onboth sides, 6in<yd€v behind, irpbadtv before. 

b. irrjpiK iarlv dpa Tijs i]fjL4pa.s ; at what time of day ? Ar. Av. 1498, TTJi 7}/Ji4pa.s 
6\p4 late in the day X. H. 2. 1. 23. 

c. rG)v toloCtojv dd7)v enough of such matters P. Charm. 153 d, to{)t<x)v aXts 
enough of this X. C. 8. 7. 25. 

1440, Most of the genitives in 1439 are partitive. Some of the adverbs 
falling under ]437 take also the dative {dyxh ^TTiJs, Tr\7}<jiov in the poets, e^^s, 

Z44Z. The genitive is used with adverbs of manner, especially with the 
intransitive e'xw, ^kw (Hdt.). The genitive usually has no article: ws rdxovs 
^Ka(TTos elxev as fast as each could (with what measure of speed he had) X. H. 

4, 5. 15, ws TToBwv eix^v as fast as my legs could carry me Hdt. 6. 116, ^xoyres 
€d 4>p€vS}v being in their right rainds E. Hipp. 4G2, ei? (j-ti/xaros '^^eiv to be in good 
bodily condition P. ll. 404 d (Cp. 407 C, to^^ v'^LeLvd^ exo^ras ret adbfiara those who 
are sound in body : with the article, 1121), xPVMi^Tc^f ed ^koptbs well off Hdt. 

5. 62, TQ\J TToXifMOV KaXojs 456k€l 7) 7r6Xis KadLcTTaffOai . . . rrjs re iiri QpaKTjs irapdSov 
XPW^fJ^^ ^^eif thay tho^ight that the city was well situated for the war and would 
prove useful for the march along Thrace T. 3. 92. 

1442. This use is probably derived from that with adverbs of place : thus 
TTws e'xet^ 56^v^ ; in What state of mind are you 9 P. R. 456 d is due to the 
analogy of ttoO dS^rjs ; (cp. Swot yvcvfxrjs S. Kl. 922). 

Z443'! The genitive is used ^vith many adverbs denoting separation. Thus, 
Harai r) xf'vx'b x^P*-^ '^^^ (T<hp,a,To^ the soid will exist xmthout the body P. Ph. 66 e, 
BLx^ rov vfj^T^pov ttX^Bov^ separate from your force X. C. 6. 1. 8, irptaw tQv 
TTTjyiav far from the sources X. A. 3. 2. 22, ifxirobC^v aXXi^Xois iroWwv xai dyaOQv 
ea-eade you will prevent one another from enjoying many blessings X. C. 
8.5,24, \d6pa. tCjv o-rpaTKvrwp Without the knowledge of the soldiers X.A.I. 
3. 8. So with e^w outside^ iKT6s without, outside, iripav across, Kpi4>a unbe- 
known to. 

GENITIVE OF TIME AND PLACE 

1444. Time. — The genitive denotes the time within which, or at 
a certain point ofiohich, an action takes place. As contrasted with 
the accusative of time (1582), tlie .genitive denotes a portion of time. 
Hence the genitive of time is partitive. Cp. rov fuv x^^/w-^va ^a o 
6e6<s, rov Se Oiptos XPV'-'^'^^^''^^'' '^^ ^Sart during the (entire) winter the 
god rainSj but in (a part of) summer they need the water Hdt. 3. 117. 

ijjjL^pas by day, vvkt6s at or by night, fiea-Tjfi^pids at midday, SelXrjs in the 
afternoon, ia-irepas in the evening, 6^povs in summer, x^'/^wi^os in winter, ^pos 
in spring, oTrtipd? in autumn, tov Xoin-oO in the future. The addition of article 
or attributive usually defines the time more exactly. Thus, ovkovv jjSif fi^v 64povs 
^vx€tvT]v exf', v5i> de x^'-P-^^os oKeetvrjvj is it not pleasant to have {a house) cool 
in summer, and toarm in v'ititer 9 X. M. 3. 8. 9, c^x^"^*^ '^v^ wktos he departed 
during the night X. A. 7.2,17, koL ij/iipas Kai wktos dywy eTri toi)s iroXefiiovs both 
by day and by night leading against the enemy 2. 6. 7, HXeyov rod Xonrov firjKirL 



1450] ME GENITIVE 337 

i^elvai avoixiat fip^ai thcij said that for the future (at any time in the future) it 
should no longer he permiUed to set an example of lawlessnass 5. 7. 34. (Dis- 
tinguish TO Xotirdv for the (entire) future 3. 2. 8.) ivrhs vnthin is sometimes 
added to the genitive. 

1445. The addition of the article may have a distributive sense: BpaxfJi^v 
i\d/jL^av€ T7}s i}fjL4pds he received a drachm a day T. 3. 17. 

1446. The genitive may denote the lime since an action has happened or the 
time until an action, will happen : o^hek }xi ttw ijpibr-qKe Kaivbv oiiUvRoWQv h-Qiv for 
many years nohody has put a new question to me P. G. 448 a, {3a<Ti\€ui ov /wixetrai 
d^Ka i}/j£pQv the king will not jight for ten days X. A, 1. 7. 18. 

1447. The genitive may or mnj not denote a definite part of the time during 
which anything takes place ; the dative fixes the time explicitly eitlier hy speci- 
fying a definite point in a given period or by contracting the whale period to a 
definite point ; the accusative expresses the whole extent of time from beginning 
to end : cp. rrj di varepaiq, oi piv^ASrjvaloL to re TrpodiffTeiov ctXo;^ kolItt^v -ijpiipdp dird- 
ffau id'j^ovv T'Jjj' yijv^ oi re rpta/coo-ioi tC}v liKLWUaluiv ttjs ^ttioiJo-t/s yvKrbs tiTrexwp'fjo'ffy 
on the next day the Athenians captured the suburb and laid waste the land for 
that entire day^ while the three hundred Scionaeans departed in the course of the 
following night T. 4. 130 ; r}p.ipq, 5k dp^dp-evot tplt-q ws otKoBev wpjxTjo-ai', TaijTrjp t€ 
elpjd^ovTo Kal t^j' TETapT-qv koI t^s irep.TrT'qs p^xp'- apidTov beginning on the third 
day after their dep)arture, they continued their icork (all) this day and the fourth, 
and on the fifth until the mid-day meal 4. 90. 

a. The genitive of time is less common than the dative of time (1539) with 
ordinals, or with 6he, oVtos, iKeiva^ ; as raiirTjs t^j vvkt6? T. G. 97, P. Cr. 44 a, 
iKdvov rod pLijj'ds in the course of that month X. M. 4. 8. 2. For d^povs we find 
iv $ip€i rarely and, in poetry, Bipci. T. 4. 133 has both tov avToO dipovs and iv 
Tw aiTcp dip€i in the course of the same summer ; cp. fo-os j5^et iv re d^peC koI x^'-- 
pQvL 6 ''IcTTpo^ Hdt. 4. 50 and ''Iff-rpos iaos phi d^peos /cat x^'^P'^^^^ 4. 48 (the Ister 
flows with the same volume in summer and winter). 

1448. Place. — The genitive denotes the place within which or at 
which an action happens. This is more frequent in poetry tlian in 
prose. 

ireSioto Smk^/jlcv to chase Over the plain E 222, l^cv toIxov tov eripoio he was 
sitting hy the other wall (lit. in a place of the wall) I 219, \^\ovpivos ^QKeavolo 
having bathed in Oceanus E 6, ot)T€ Jl6\ov Uprj's oW "Apyeos ofjTc lAuK'^v-qs neither 
in sacred Pylos nor in Argos nor in Mycenae <p 108, Tovd' elcrcdi^w T€ix^<i}v thou 
didst admit this man within the walls E. Phoen. 451, thai tov irpoaw to go 
forward X. A. 1. 3. 1, i-n-^rdx^i'ov r?;? bdov Toi>i a-xo^aiTepov irpocnovras they has- 
tened on their way those loho came up more slowly T. 4. 47 ; ?vamj xei/?os oIkovo-i 
they dwell on the left hand A. Pr. 714 (possibly ablatival). 

1449. Many adverbs of place are genitives in form (aOroi/ there^ ttoO where f 
ovbapjDv no^vhere). Cp. 341. 

DATIVE 

1450. The Greek dative does duty for three cases: the dative 
proper^ and two lost cases, the instrumental and the locative. 

CKKKK GllAM. — 22 



338 SY.XTAX OF rilE SIMPLK SENTENCE [1451 

a. The dative derives its name (ij SoriKyj Trrwtrt?, casus dativus) from the 
use with didomi (14t)l)). 

1451. The dative is a necessary complement of a verb when the 
information given by the verb is incomplete ^vithout the addition 
of the idea expressed by the dative. Thus, Trftfeat he obeys, calls for 
the adOation of an idea to complete the sense^ as toIs vo/Aots the laivs. 

1452. I'he dative as a voluntary complement of a verb adds some- 
thing unessential to the completion of an idea. Thus, avroh ol 
/3dpfi(xpoL awrjXdov the barbarians departed — for them (to their ad- 
vantage). Here belongs the dative of interest^ 1474 If. 

1453. But the boundary line between the necessary and the voluutary 
complement is not always clearly marked. When the idea of the action, not 
the object of the action, is emphatic, a verb, usually requiring a dative to com- 
plete its meaning, may be used alone, as irddeTat he is obedient. 

1454. With many intransitive verbs the dative is the sole complement. 
With transitive verbs it is the indirect complement (dative of the indirect or 
remoter object, usually a person) ; that is, it further delines the meaning of 
a verb already defined in part by the accusative. 

1455. Many verbs so vary in meaning that they may take the dative either 
alone or along with the accusative (sometimes the genitive). No rules can be 
given, and English usage is not always the same as Greek usage. 

1456. The voice often determines the construction. Thus, Trddeiv nvd to per- 
suade some one, ireideffdai tivl to persuade oneself for some one (obey some one)^ 
K€\€tj€iP TLvdb raOra -KOieiv to order some one to do this, irapaKeXeTjeo-daL rivi raCra 
TToieiy to exhort some one to do this, ■ - 

DATIVE PROPER 

1457. The dative proper denotes that to or for -which something 
is or is done. 

1458. It is either (1) used with single words (verbs, adjectives, and some- 
times with adverbs and substantives) or (2) it serves to define an entire sentence ; 
herein unlike the genitive and accusative, which usually modify single members 
of a sentence. The connection between dative and verb is less Intimate than 
that between genitive or accusative and verb. 

1459. The dative proper is largely personal, and denotes the person who is 
interested in or affected by the action ; and includes 1401-1473 as well as 1474 ff. 
The dative proper is not often used with things; when so used there is usually 
personification or semi-personification, 

THE BATIVE DEPENDENT ON A SINGLE WORD 
DATIVE AS DIRECT COMPLEMENT OF VERES 

1460. The dative may be used as the sole complement of many 
verbs that are usually transitive in English. Such are 



1467] THE DATIVE 339 

1461. (I) To benefit^ help, injure^ please^ displease^ he friendly or 
hostile, blame, be angi-y, threaten, envy. 

^ot]0€ii'Toi<Ttp 7}5iK7)^iyots to help the wronged E. I. A. 79, oiK B.v ■fjvdx^^'- ^f' Vf^^^ 
he would not now be troubling us V. 3. 6, dvrl toV a-wepyelv eavroh to, (TVfx<p4potrra 
i'Tr7}p€d^ov(nv dXXiJXots instead of cooperating for their mutual interests^ they re- 
mle one another X. M. 3. 5. 16, d roh irX^ociv dp^crKovrh ia-fiev, tol(t8' SLf p.6voL^ 
o^K dpQOis dTrapi<jKoip.ev if we are pleaaing to the majority^ it would not he right- 
if we should displease them alone T. 1. 38, etSvoetv rots KaKdvois to be friendly to the 
ill-intentioned X. C. 8. 2. 1, ifwl opyl^ovrai they are angry at me P. A. 23 c, 
TV Q'qpafx^v€L ■^ireiXovv they threatened Theramenes T. 8. 92, ov ipdovQv roh wXov- 
TovijLv not cherishing envy against the rich X. A. 1. 9. 19. 

1462. Some yerlDS of benefiting and injuring take the accusative {Cotpekelv, 
^XdirreiVj 1591 a) ; filaeiv rim hate some one, XOo-ireXel*', avfifp^peiv be of advan- 
tage take the dative. 

1463. (II) To meet, approach, yield, 

i-rrel 8^ aT-f^vryjaav ciirols ot o-TpaT7)yoi but when the generals met them X. A. 
2. 3. 17, irepLTvyxdvei ^iXoKparci he meets Philocrates X. H.4. 8. 24, ttoLols ov xpv 
6f}pioLs ireXd^etv what wild beasts one must not approach X. C. 1. 4. 7, ai> 5' elK 
dvdyK-Q Ka.1 deoiat /jltj /idxov yield to necessity and war not with heaven E. fr. 716. 
On. the genitive with verbs of approaching, see 1353. 

1464. (Ill) To obey, serve, pardon, trust, advise, command, etc. 

- TOLt v6^0LS Treidov obey the laws 1.1.16, t45 tfieTipif ^V(j.tp6p(f inraKOT^etp to be 
subservient to your interests T, 5. 98, av ^tfjSe^ig. SovXe^ys tQvtjSovQv if you are 
the slave of no pleasure I. 2. 29, i-rrlo-Tevov avri^ al -rrdXeis the cities trusted him 
X, A. 1. .9. 8, aTpaTfjyip a-TpaTnirats TrapatvovpTL a general advising his men 
P. Ion 540 d, tQ Mvo-i^ ia-l^pL-qve ^peijyeiv he ordered the Mt/sian to flee X. A. 5. 2. 
30, TV KXedpxv ^^^ ^yeiv he shouted to Clearchus to lead X. A. 1. 8. 12. 

1^65. /ceXeiJeif command (strictly impel) may be followed in Attic by the 
accusative and (usually) the infinitive; in Horn, by the dative either alone or 
with the infinitive. Many verbs of commanding (irapayy^XK^iv, diaKeXeiea-dai) 
take in Attic the accusative, not the dative, when used with the infinitive (1996 n.). 
uTraKoiieti/ (and aKoiietv = obey) may take the genitive (1366). 

1466. (IV) To be Wke or unlilce, compare, befit. 

ioLicivaL ToTs TOtoiirois to be like SUCh men P. E. 349 d, tL oiSv -rrp^Trei dpdpi Tr4v7)TL ; 
what then befits a poor man ? P. A. 36 d. 

1467. The dative of the. person and the genitive of the thing are used with 
the impersonals bet (1400), nireffn, /x^Xet, fierafLiXei^ irpoa-fiKei. Thus, p-icBo- 
<p6pwp dvdpl rvpdvvi^ 5a a tyrant needs mercenaries X. Hi. 8. 10, «s ov p.€Tov aiSrots 
'Einddiivov -inasmuch as they had nothing to do with Epidamnus T. 1.28, o^x ^^ 
l^idcaTo fxerifieXev ar^ry he did not repent of his acts of violence And. 4. 17, ro^rcp 
TTjs Boitur/as -Kpoa-^K^i oiS4v he has nothing to do with Boeotia X. A. 3. 1. 31. e^eo-ri 
/xoi it is in my power does not take the genitive. For the accusative instead of 
the dative, see 1400. Cp. 1344. 



340 SYNTAX OF THE SJMPLK SENTENCE [1468 

a. For 5oK€t /xot it seems to me (mihi videtuv)^ 5okuj jnot (mihi vidcoj-) may be 
used. b. For other cases of the dative as direct complement see 1476, 1481. 

1468. An intransitive verb taking the dative can form a personal passive, 
the dative becoming the nominative subject of the passive. Cp. 1745. 

DATIVE AS INDIRECT COMPLEMENT OF VERBS 

1469. Many verbs take the dative as tlie indirect object together 
with an accusative as the direct object. The indirect object is com- 
monly introduced in English by to. 

Kvpos Sldcjcriv airi^ i^ fjLTjvQv }xia$6p Cyrus gives him pay for sioc months X. A. 
1.1. 10, Tip 'TpKavLui 'liTTTov ^Sdj/jijcaro he presented a horse to the Myrcanian X, C. 
8.4.24, TO. di dXXa dLav€i/j.ai rots a-TparTjyois to distribute the rest to the generals 
X. A. 7. 5.2, {xiKphv /j,€yd\u> eiKaaai to Compare a small thing to a great thing 
T.4.36, ir^fiTTu^v avT^ dyy€\ov sending a messenger to him X, A, 1.3. 8, vitktxvoi'- 
fxal aoi 5iKa TdXavra I promise yotc ten talents 1.7.18, rovro o-ot 5' €<ln€/jLai I lay 
this charge upon thee S. Aj. 116, irap-Qvet roh 'Ad-qvaLots roidde he advised the 
Athenians as follows T. (>. 8, e/Mi ^trp^i^ai ra^r-qv ttjp a,px'f}v to entrust this com- 
mand to me X. A,6. 1. 31, Xeyeip ravra rois CTpaTiibrai^ to Say this to the Soldiers 
1.4.11 {\iyeiv irpSs ripa lacks the personal touch of the dative, which indicates 
interest in the person addressed). A dependent clause often represents the 
accusative. 

1470. Passive. — The accusative of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive, the dative remains : iKeivip avrij i} xt6pd iS6$7} this land was given to 
him X.H.3.1,6. 

DATIVE AS DIRECT OR INDIRECT COMPLEMENT OF VERBS 

1471. 'Many verbs may take the dative either alone or with the 
accusative. 

ovdevl /jL^/jupofMCLL I fiiid fauU with no one D. 21,190, rl &v /jlol /jl^/x<Polo ; what 
fault would you have to find with me ? X. 0. 2. 15 ; vTr-qpirQ toTs Seoh lam a se?- 
vant of the gods X.C. 8. 2. 22, "Epufrc irav vTnjpere? he serves Eros in everything 
P. S. 190 c ; TrapaK€\e<!ovTaL tois irepl viktjs d/itXAw^^fois they exhoH those who are 
striving for victory 1.9.79, TaOra toTs ott Xirais irapaKcXevofxai I address this exhor- 
tation to the hoplites T. 7.63 ; 6v€L5t^€T€ rois dStKoCcrif you reproach the guilty 
L. 27.16 (also accus.), QTj^alois rijv dpLa.didv dveidi^ovaL they upbraid the Thebans 
with their ignorance 1. 15. 248 ; 6€oTs €i^diJ.€voi having pra*jed to the gods T. 3. 58, 
€if^d}i€voL TOLs &€ois Ta.ya.6d having prayed to the gods for success X.C. 2.3. 1 (cp. 
aCrelv rivd ri, 1628). So iirir~ip.av {kyKoKglv) rivt to censure {accuse) some one., 
iTTiTlixdv (iyKokeiv) ri tlvl censure something in (bring an accusation against) 
some one.' So dTreiXetv threaten; and d/jitvetv^ dXe^eiv, dp-Ziyeiv ward off (rtvi n 
in poetry, 1483). 

1472. Tlfxijjpeiv (poet. Tifxbjpe'iadai) tlvi means to avenge some one (take 
vengeance for some one)., as rlixoiprjaetv <tol tov raidbi uTrtcrxi'oO/iat I promise to 
avenge you because of (on the murderer of) your son X, C. 4. 6. 8, el rTp.ujp'^ffeL^ 



1479] THK IJATTVE 841 

narp6K\q) tov (povov if you avenge the murder of Patrodus P. A. 28 c, TLjxu}pe'i(r$ai 
(rarely rlfiupeii') xim means to avenge oneself upon some one ( punish some one). 

1473. For the dative of purpose (to what end 9)^ common iu Latin witli a 
second dative (dono dare)^ Greek uses a predicate noun-. iKehtf) ij x<^P°' 5u)pop 
i56dT] the coun^'y was given to him as a gift X. H.3. 1.0. The usage in Attic 
inscriptions (^Xot rats 96pai^ nails for the doors C.I. A. 2, add. 83i b, 1, 38) is 
somewhat similar to the Latin' usage. Cp, 1502, 

a. The infinitive was origin ally , at least in part, a dative of an abstract 
substantive, and served to mark purpose : rk r &p c^foje 6eQ)v 'dptdi ^uf^rjKe 
fidxecdai ; who then of the gods brovght the twain together (for) to contend in 
strife? A 8. Cp. " what went ye out for to see ? '' St. Malth, 11. 8. 

DATIVE AS A MODIFIER OF THE SENTENCE 
DATIVE OF INTEREST 

1474. The person /or whom something is or is done^ or in reference 
to whose case an action is viewed, is put in the dative. 

a. Many of the verbs in 14(11 ff, take a dative of interest. 1476 ff. are special 
cases. 

1475. After verbs of motion the dative (usually personal) is used, especially 
in poetry; X6i/>ay i/xol dpiyovras reaching out their hands to me /x 257, ^vx^is 
"AiSl -Kpotayj/ev hurled their souls on to Hades (a person) A 3 ; rarely, in prose, 
after verbs not compounded with a preposition .- irxorres (^sciL ras mvs) 'Yvyiq} 
putting in at Bhegium T. 7. 1. Cp. 1485. 

1476. Dative of the Possessor. — The person for whom a thing 
exists is put in the dative with eha.L, ylyv^adai, vTrdfix^'-v^ <j>uvat (poet.), 
etc., when he is regarded as interested in its possession. 

(iXXots ix^v xP'^f^'^'^^' ^<^Ti^ iipAv Se ^^}ip,axot dyaOol Others have riches, we have 
good allies T. 1. 86, r^ 5iK:a/w irapa OeQv 5Qpa ylyvenxi. gifts are bestowed vpon the 
just man by the gods F. E. 61Se, yrdpxet rj/xTi' ovdev rQv i-jrirrfdeliji' we have no 
S2ipply of provisions X. A. 2. 2. 11, iraai dvaroh e0i} /iipos death is the natural lot 
of all men S. E].860, 

1477. So with verbs of thinking and perceiving : rbf ayaSbv &px°f''^°'' ^^^-" 
TTovTa vdpLov dvdpihirois iviipnGev Cyrus considered that a good ruler was a living 
laxo to man X. C 8. 1,22^ dappovci pAXicra TrgX^/xtot, ^rav rois ivtiprlois irpdypara 
irvvBdvojvr ai the enemy are most courageous when they learn that the forces 
opposed to them are in trouble X. Hipp, 5. 8, 

1478. In the phrase 6i>op.d (^(rri) nvi the name is put in the same case as 
fiw/xa. Thus, ^5o^a obKouffaL 6vo/jLa avrQ ehai ' Aydduiva I thought 1 heard his name, 
xms Agatkon P. Pr. 315e. 6i>op.d p^l inn and 6vo/xa {^Tro}wp.iav) ix^ ar^ treated 
as the passives of 6w/xd,^w. Cp. 1322 a. 

1479. Here belong the phrases (1) rl {icnv) ip,ol koX col; vahat have J to do 
with thee f ; cp. ri ry i'6/xaj Kal ttj ^affdvcp; what have the law and torture in 
common? J). 29. 3(). (2) ri ravr i/wi; vjhat have I to do with this? D. 54. 17. 
(;3) tI e/xoi ttX^oV; whal gain have I? X. C. 5. 5. 'U, 



S42 SY:NTAX of the simple sentence [1480 

1480. The dative of the possessor denotes that something is at the disposal 
of a person or has fallen to his share temporarily. The genitive of possession 
lays stress on the person vt^ho owns something. The dative answers the question 
what is it that he has ?, the genitive answers the question who is it that has some- 
thing f The uses of the two cases are often parallel, but not interchangeable. 
Thus, in Kvpos, o5 <n; ecrei t6 dird roOSe Oyrus^ to vjhom you will he'nCPfo7'th belong 
X. C. 5. 1.6, V would be inappropriate. With a noun in the genitive the dative 
of the possessor is used (rCiv iKar^pois ^vfifidxiov T. 2. 1) ; with a noun in the 
dative, the genitive of the possessor (rots iavru^v ^v/ji/jidxois 1. 18). 

1481. Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage (dativus commodi et 
incommodi), — The person oi' tiling for whose advantage or disad- 
vantage, anything is or is done, is put in the dative. The dative 
often has to be translated as if the possessive genitive were used ; 
but the meaning is different. 

c'-rretST} avrocs 01 ^dp^apoi 4k ttjs x^P^^ dTr7j\8ov after the barbarians had departed 
(for them, to their advantage) from their country T. 1.89, 6Xko crpdr^vixa. a.vr^ 
avv(\^€ro another army was being raised for him X. A. 1.1,9, ^EXXy tolovtos 
irXoyrer, Kal ovx eaury such a man is rich for another, and not for himself P. Mene:s.. 
246 e, (Tre<}iavQv<T0ai t^j 0e(p to he crowned in honour of the god X. H. 4. 3. 21, *iXi- 
<tt157}s iTTparre ^LXlTnTtfj Fhilistides was working in the interest of Fhilip D. 9. 69, 
ri xp'^l^'^* °-^^^ dvdpwiroU KaKQv money is a cause of misery to mankimd 
E. Fr. 632, ol Qpg>K€s ol t^j Ar)/Jio<r6^v€L v<TT€pi)<ra.vT€s the Thraciaiis who came too 
late (for, i.e.) to help Demosthenes T. 7. 29, riSe ij r}(x^pd rots "KKXrja-t fieydXccv KaKu/v 
&p^€i this day will be to the Greeks the beginning of great sorroios 2. 12, av rls 
<Toi rOiV oIk€tCov dwoSpg, if any of your slaves runs aioay X. M. 2. 10. 1. 

a. For the middle denoting to do something for oneself, see 1719. 

b. In the last example in 1481, as elsewhere, the dative of a personal pro- 
noun is used where a possessive pronoun would explicitly denote the owner. 

1482. A dative, dependent on the sentence, may appear to depend on a 
substantive: <toI S^ ddbo-uj dvSpa rr} dvyarpi to you I will give a husband for 
your daughter X. C. 8. 4.24. Common in Hdt. 

1483. With verbs of depriving, warding off, and the like, the dative of the 
person may be nsed : rb a-vffTpanieLv d<j>iKuv a<j>i(riv ide^Orjcray they asked him 
to relieve them (lit. take away for them) from serving in the war X.C. 7. 1.44, 
AavaoLixiv Xotybv dfivvov ward off ruin from (for) the Danai A 456. So d\4^€iv 
TivL TL (poet.). Cp. 1392, 1628. 

1484. With verbs of receiving and buying,' the person who gives or sells 
may stand in the dative. In S^x^o-Oat ri nvi (chiefly poetic) the dative denotes 
the interest of the recipient in the donor : Q4fic<rTi S^kto S^vai she to'ok the cup 
from (for, i.e. to please) Themis 87. So with irba-ov Trplwfiai crot ri p^^oipfSia; 
at what price am I to buy the pigs of you? Ar, Ach. 812. 

1485. With verbs of motion the dative of the person to whom is properly a 
dative of advantage or disadvantage : -^X^e rots ' AO-nJ^f^lois tj dyyeXLd the message 
came to (for) the Athenians T.l. 61. Cp. 1475. 

1486. Dative of Feeling (Ethical Dative). — The personal pro- 



1489] THE DATIVE 343 

nouns of the first and second person are often used to denote tlie 
interest of the speaker, or to secure the interest of the person spoken 
to, in an action or statement. 

pi4/jiV7jc-e^ {ML /jii) dopv^elv pray remember not to make a disturbance P. A. 27 b, 
dfjiovadrepoi yevfjaovraL vpuv ol vioL your young men will grow less cultivated P, R. 
546 d, TotovTo vpuv i<TTL 7) Tvpavvls such a thing, you know, is despotism Hdt. 5.921?, 
'Apra^^pjTjs iifup 'Tar da weds iart Trats Artaphemes, you know, is Hystaspes'' son 
5. 30. The dative of feeling may denote surprise : c3 yu-^rep, ws koKSs fwt 6 iraTTTros 
oh motJier, how handsome grandpa is X. C. 1. 3. 2. With the dative of feeling 
cp. '* knock me here" Shakesp. T. of Sh. 1.2. 8, "study me how to please the 
eye" L. L. L, i. 1. 80. toI surely, often used to introduce general statements or 
maxims, is a petrified dative of feeling (= (roi), 

a. This dative in the third person is very rare (aur^ in P, R. 343 a). 

b. This construction reproduces the familiar style of conversation and may 
often be translated by / heg you, please, you see, let me tell you, etc. Some- 
times the idea cannot be given in translation. This dative is a form of 1481. 

1487. Ijiol povXoji^vo) Io-tC, etc. — Instead of a sentence with a finite 
verb, a participle usually denoting inclination or aversion is added to 
the dative of the person interested, which depends on a form of etvat, 

yiyvecrdai, etc. 

T(p Tr\if)6ei rufv IVKaTatCovoi} ^ovKoiiivi^ ^vrQv ' KOrivaiujv dtp l<Tra<T Bat the Plataean 
democracy did not wish to revolt from the Athenians {— t6 ttX-^^os o^ik ^jSoiIXero 
d<pisTTa<T6aL) T. 2. 3 (lit. it was not for them when wishing), av ^o^Aojxhoii dKoieiv 
f} TovTotai, pLpTjad-^aofjiaL if these men (the jui'y) desire to hear it, 1 shall take the 
matter up later (^=: av odroi dfcotlei^ j3ot!Xwj^at) T). 18. 11, iirav^Xdufiev, et aoi i]8o- 
fxiui^ icTTlv let US go hack if it is your pleasure to do so P. Ph. 78 b, d /x-i] da-fx^vois 
vfuu d<pLypLaL if I have corae against your will T. 4. 85, I^IkIo. tr pocr^exoiiiviii i}v to. 
Trapa r&v 'E7e(Tratw;' Nicias was prepared for the news from the Egestaeans 6. 46, 
^v 5e ov t43 ' AyqaLkdiji axdofxepcp this wa3 not disp>leasing to Agesilaus X. H. 
5. 3. 13. Cp. quihus helium volentihus erat. 

1488. Dative of the Agent. — With passive verbs (usually in the 
perfect and pluperfect) and regularly with verbal adjectives in -t6s 
and -T€o<Sy the person in whose interest an action is done, is put in 
the dative. The notion of agency does not belong to the dative, but 
it is a natural inference that the person interested is the agent. 

i/xol Kal toCtois iriTrpaKTai has heen done by (for) me and these men D. 19. 205, 
iTTCLd^ airoLs 7rap€<TK€Tjaa-ro when they had got their preparations ready T. 1. 46, 
TocraCrd /iot elp-^cdw let SO much have heen said by me L. 24. 4, ifrj^piudoLL t^ 
;3ouX^ let it have heen decreed by the senate C. I. A. 2. 55. 9, 

a. With verbal adjectives in -t6% and -reos (2149) : rot? oUoi i;7}\(jjThs en- 
vied by those at home X. A. 1. 7. 4, i}jjuj> y v-n-^p rrjs i'Kevdepids dyiapta-riov we at 
least must struggle to defend our freedom D.9. 70. For the accus. with -t^ov, see 
2152 a, 

1489. The usual restriction of the datiT?e to tejises of completed action seems 
to be due to the fact that the agent is represented as placed in the position of 



3-14 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1490 

viewing an already completed action in the light of its relation to himself (inter- 
est, advantage, possession). 

1490. The dative of the agent is rarely employed with other tenses than 
perfect and pluperfect : X^yerac rjfjuv is said by us P. L. 715 b, tois KepKiipaiots oix 
ewpQvTo the ships were not seen hy (were invisible to) the Oorcyraeans T. 1.51 ; 
present, T. 4. 64, 109 ; aorist T. 2. 7. 

1491. The person by whom (not for whom) an action is explicitly 
said to be done, is put in the genitive with wo (1698. 1. b). 

1492. The dative of the personal agent is used (1) when the subject is 
impersonal, the verb being transitive or intransitive, (2) when the subject is 
personal and the person is treated as a thing in order to express scorn (twice 
only in the orators : D. 19. 247, 57. 10). 

1493. i;ir6 with the genitive of the personal agent is used (1) when the sub- 
ject is a person, a city, a country, or is otherwise quasi-personal, (2) when the 
verb is intransitive even if the subject is a thing, as tQv retxt^v i>Tr6 rufv ^ap^dpwv 
TreTTTOiKSrojp the walls having been destroyed by the barbarians Aes. 2. 172, (3) in 
a few cases with an impersonal subject, usually for the sake of emphasis, as 
a>? €TaLpa ^v , . , VTO tCjv SXkwv OLKetcov Kai vTrd tu>v yeiTSvcav fMefiapr^prjrai that 
she was an hetaera has been testijied hy the rest of his relatives and by his 
neighbours Is. 3. 13. 

a. PiKda-dai, r}TTdcr6aL to be Conquered may be followed by the dative of a 
person, by vtrd npos, or by the genitive (1402). 

1494. When the agent is a thing, not a person, the dative is commonly 
used whether the subject is personal or impersonal. If the subject is personal, 
vt6 may be used ; in which case the inanimate agent is personilied (see 1698. 
l.N. 1). vird is rarely used when the subject is impersonah inr6 is never used 
with the impersonal perfect passive of an intransitive verb. 

DATIVE OF RELATION 

1495. The dative may be used of a person to whose case the 
statement of the predicate is limited. 

ipe&yetv a^rocs aa^aXia-Tephv icmv fj i}/juv it is safer for them to flee than for us 
X. A. 3. 2. 19, TpL-/ip€L itrrlv els 'UpaKXeiav TipApds fiaKpds irXoDs for a trireme it is 
a long day's sail to Heraclea 6. 4. 2. Such cases as Sp6fio? iyivero toIs (ttpclthLtclls 
the soldiers began to run X. A. 1. 2. 17 belong here rather than under 1476 or 1488. 

a. (as restrictive is often added: /xaKpa wj yepovn 656s a long road (at least) 
for an old man S. O. C.20, (XUippoa-vvTjs d^ w? irX-^Oei ov rd roidde fiiyta-ra; for 
the mass of men are not the chief points of temperance such as these f P. E. 389 d. 

1496. Dative of Reference. — The dative of a noun or pronoun 
often denotes the person in whose opinion a statement holds good. 

ydfwvs roiis irpdjrovs iyd/lei Ueparjat 6 Adpelos Darius contracted marriages 
most .distinguished in the eyes of the Persians Hdt. 3, 88, irdai vlKdv rots KpiTals 
to be victorious in the judgment of all the judges Ar. A v. 445, iroXXoicnv oUrpos 
pitiful in the eyes of many R. Tr. 1071. irapd is often used, as in Trapd Adpeic^ 
Kpir^ in the opinion of Darius Hdt, 3. 160, 



1499] THE DATIVE 345 

1497. Tlie dative participle, without a noun or pronoun, is fre- 
quently used in tlie singular or plural to denote indefinitely the per- 
son judging or observing. This construction is most common with 
participles of verbs of coming or going and with participles of verbs 
of considering. 

7} BpaKT} iffrlv iTTL Se^ia els rhv JlbvTov €l(nr\iovTt, Tlivace IS on the right as you 
sail into the PontUS X. A. 6. 4. 1, i\e'^ov on ij 6dbs dta^dvn Hv -n-OTaijJbv ^iri 
Aiididv ^4pot they said that, when you had crossed the Hver, the road led to Lydia 
3. 5. 15, o^K odv droTTOv dtaXoyL^ofJidvoLS rds Sdjpeds vvvl irXeiovs eJvai ; is it not strange^ 
when we reflect^ that gifts are more frequent now f Aes. 3. 179, rb fiiv ^^wOev dTrro- 
/x^v(i) <rw(ua oiK dydv Oep/ibp^p if you touched the surface the body was not very hot 
T. 2. 49, TTpbs dKp^\€iav CKOirov^ivi^ 6 ^7raiv&rr}S rod StKaiov dXirjOei^eL if you look at 
the matter from the point of view of advantage^ the panegyrist of justice speaks 
the truth P. R. 689 c. So (ojr) <Tvvek6vTi elireTv (X. A. 3. 1.38) to speak briefly 
(lit. /or one having brought the matter into small compass), (jvveKbvri D;4. 7. 

a. The participle of verbs of coming or going is commonly used in statements 
of geographical situation, 

b. The present participle is more common than the aorist in the case of all 
yerbs belonging under 1497. 

1498. Dative of the Participle expressing Time. — In expressions 
of time a participle is often used with the dative of the person 
interested in the action of the subject, and especially to express the 
time that has passed since an action has occurred (cp. '*and this is 
the sixth month with her, who was called barren" St. Luke i. 36). 

dLiropovvTL 5' avrQ cpx^srai UpofXTjO^i^s Frometheus comes to him in his perplexity 
P. l*r. 321 C, ^€vo(pQvTi 7rop€vo}J.iv<fi oi tTTTreis ^tT-i/7x<ii'oucri TrpeajSt^rais while Xeno- 
phon was on the march, his horsemen fell in with some old men X. A. 6.3. ]0. 
The idiom is often transfen^ed from persons to things : Tjixipai pAKiara f}<jav rrj 
MvTikiQvr) id'XojKvlg, eTrrd, or is rb "^(i^arov KariwXeveap about seven days had 
passed since the capture of Mytilene, when they sailed into Emhatum T. 3. 29. 
Tills construction is frequent in Horn, and Hdt. Tiie participle is rarely- 
omitted (T. 1. 13.). 

a. A temporal clause may take the place of the participle : t^ (rrparia, dtp' 
ov i^iir\€V(jev els SiKeXtat', ^St] ^cttI 5iio Kal irevr-^KovTa err] it is already fifty-tWO 
years since the expedition sailed to Sicily Is. 6. 14. 

DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES, ETC. 

1499. Adjectives, adverbs, and substantives, of kindred meaning 
with the foregoing verbs, take the da-tive to define their meaning. 

^aaiXei <pi\oL friendly to the king X. A. 2. ].20, e^vovs t<^ brf^K^ well disposed 
to the people. And. 4. 16, rols vbixois €voxos subject to the laws D. 21. 35, ix^pbv 
iXevOcpig. Kal vh}ioL$ ivavrlov hostile to liberty and o]?posed to law C. 25, ^i/^/xax^p 
irlevvoi relying on the alliance T. 6. 2, 4>6pip vtttjkooi subject to tribute 7.67, ^v 
TTot^re 6/xota roh Xo-yois if you act in accordance with your words 2. 72, arparbs 
tcros Kal TrapaTT^-^crios t^ Trporepy an army equal or nearly so to the former 7. 42, 



346 SYNTAX OF THK SLMPLE SENTENCE [1500 

dd€\(pcL TCL ^ovXcT^iMara tqls €pyoLs plans like the deeds L, 2. 64, dXXiJXois dvojxoLojs 
in a way unlike to each other T. Tiin. SO d. For substantives see 1502. 

a. Some adjectives, as 0/Xos, ix^pos, may be treated as substantives and 
take the genitive. Some adjectives often diSer slightly in meaning -when they 
take the genitive. 

1500. Witli 6 avTos the same. — r-fj >/ ayr-fj j/ yvdo^njv iixol '4x^iv to he of the same 
mind as I aw L. 3. 21, roO aiTov ijj.oi irarpd^ of the same father as lam D, 40. 34, 
ravra 4>povQ>y ifjLol agreeing vjith me ]8. 304, 

1501- With adjectives and adverbs of similarity and dissimilarity the com- 
parison is often condensed (brachylogy) : opLoiav rais SotJXais eJxe r'fjj' iad^ra 
she had a dress on like (that of) her servants X. C. 5. 1. 4 (the possessor for the 
thing possessed, = t^ eo-^Tjrt Tu>y SouXwv), 'Op0ei yXunjija r) ivavrin a tongue unlike 
(that of) Orpheus A. Ag. 1629. 

a. After adjectives and adverbs of likeness we also find Kal, 6<nr€p (6(nr€p). 
Thus, Trade'iu rairbv Sirep TroXXd/cts Tpbrepov ireTrhvdare tO suffer the same as yoU 
have often suffered before T>. 1. 8, oix ofwlcjs irewoiTiKda-L kclI" Oix-t^pos they have not 
composed their poetry as Homer did P. Ion 631 d. 

1502. The dative after substantives is chiefly used when the substantive 
expresses the act denoted by the kindred verb requiring the dative : ^ttl^ovXtj 
ijxol a plot against me X. A. 5.6.29, SiciSoxos KkedvSpt^ a successor to Oleander 
7.2. 5, 7] ifxT] TV 6€(^ V7n]p€ffla my service to the god P. A. 30 a, Bat also in 
other cases: <pi\la rots 'AO-Qpaiois friendship for the Athenians T. 5. 5, v/jlpoi 
deals hymns to the gods P, R. 607 a, ^06oia rots o-TpareuoAt^wts supplies for the 
troops T>, 3. 20, ijXoi rais d\ipats nails for the doors (1473). 

a. Both a genitive and a dative may depend on the same substantive; i} rov 
deov 56<rts vfitv the god^s gift to you P. A. 30 d. 

INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE 

1503. The Greek datiye, as the representative of the lost mstru- 
mental case, denotes that by which or with which an action is done 
or accompanied. It is of two kinds ; (1) Tlie instrumental dative 
proper J (2) The com itative dative. 

1504. When the idea denoted by the noun in the dative is the instrument or 
means., it falls under (1) ; if it is a person (not regarded as the instrument 
or means) or any other living being, or a thing regarded as a person, it belongs 
under (2) ; if an action, under (2). 

1505. Abstract substantives with or without an attributive often, stand in 
the instrumental dative instead of the cognate accusative (1577). 

INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE PROPER 

1506. The dative denotes instrument or means, manner, and 
cause. 

1507. Instrument or Means. — €/3aXX^ jxe \i6ois he liit me with stones L. 3. 8, 
l7}<n rr} i^ivr} he hurls his ax at him (hlirh with his ax) X. A. 1, 5. 12, raT^ /laxaipais 



I5I2] THE DATIVE 347 

K6irTovT€s hacking them with their swords 4. C. 26, oudkv ijfve tovtols he accom- 
plished nothing by this D.2I , 104, i^-r^iii^jxrav xp^^ao'ti' they pimished him by a fine 
T. 2. 65, vouTot TToXXv (i'San) during a heavy rain X. H. 1. 1. 10 (934). So 
with S^x^^^'i^ • ''"*^*' T6Xeaiv o^ Sexofxevwy a^Toi)s dyopa oOde dcTTsi, vdan dk Kal 6pfjic^ 
as the cities did not admit them to a market nor even into the town, but (only) to 
water and anchorage T. 6. 44. Often with passives: (^KodofM-qix^voi^ wXlydoLs built 
vf bricks X.A. 2.4. 12, 

a. The instrumental dative is often akin to the comitative dative : dXcbfievos 
v-qi re Kal erdpoio-i wandering loiih his ship and companions X 161, vtjvctIp 
olx'fiorovTai they shall go with their ships Q 731, dvfxtp Kal ptJltfirj to wX^ov imvfid- 
xovv ij ^TTKTT'fjjiy they fought with passionate violence and brute force rather 
than by a system of tactics T. 1. 49. 

b. Persons may be regarded as instruments : 4>v\aTT5fji€POi (piXa^i defending 
themselves by pickets X, A. 6. 4. 27. Often in poetry (S. Ant. 164). 

c. Verbs of raining or snowing take the dative or accusative (1570 a). 

1508. Under Means fall : 

a. The dative of. price (cp. 1372) : ^^pet tC^u ddLKTjfjLdTDv tov Klvdvvov ^^eirpiavTo 
they freed themselves from the danger at the price of a part of their unjust gains 
L. 27. 6. 

b. Earely, the dative with verbs of filling (cp. 1369) : ddKpvcrt irdv t6 crrpd- 
revfxa irX-qaOiv the entire army being filled with tears T. 7. 75. 

c. The dative of material and constituent parts: Kar^aKevdaaTo dpfiara 
TpoxoLS lax^poLs he made chariots with strong wheels X. C. 6. 1. 29. 

1509. xp^o-^ai use (strictly employ oneself vjith, get something done with ; 
cp. uti)^ and sometimes voixl^eiv, take the dative. Thus, oi-re to^tol'^ {joh vop.ip.oLi) 
XPW^i- oHO' oh 7} &\\t] 'EXXiiy vopL^ei neither acts according to these institiitions 
nor observes those accepted by the rest of Greece T. 1, 77. A predicate noun 
may be added to the dative : rot'TOis xpa);Tai dopv<p6pois they make use of them as 
a body-guard^. Hi. 5. 3. The use to which an object is put may be expressed 
by a neuter pronoun in the accus. (J573) ; ri xpi?c6jue^a to-6t(^; what use shall 
we make of it f D. 3. 0. 

1510. The instrumental dative occurs alter substantives: ^i^Tjo-is crx'hlJ-^^^ 
imitaZion by means of gestures P. R. 397 b, 

1511. The instrumental dative of means is often, especially in poetry, re- 
inforced by the prepositions h, a^v, ifird : iv \6yoi.s irelQeiv to persuade by words 
S, Ph. 1393, oi deol iy toTs iepots ia-fiptivav the Qods have shown by the victims 
X, A. 6. 1, 31 ; aijy yripq. §ap€is heavy with old age S. O. T. 17 ; woXis x^P<^^^ ^<P' 
7}pjeT4p7i<7Lv aXoOffa a city Captured by our hands B 374. 

1512. Dative of Standard of Judgment. —- That by wliich anything is 
measured, or judged, is put in the dative : ^wepe-rp'riaavTo -rah hn^okah tG>v 
irXlvdbjv they measured the ladders by the layers of bricks T. 3. 20, rij^de S^Xoc 
^v it was plain from what followed X. A. 2, 3. 1, oh -rpos toi)s dWovt ireiroi-qKe 
dei T€Kpaip€a-OaL we must judge by what he has done to the rest p..9. 10, tLvi xpv 
Kpivecrdai rd piWovra. Ka\Cbs KpLdr}jea-da.L j dp oiijK ^pireipiq. t€ Kai (ppoy^aei Kal X67V ; 
by what standard must we judge that the judgment may be connect ? Is it not by 



348 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [^5^3 

experience and njif^dom and reasoning ? V. K. 582 a. Witli verbs of judging 4k 
and dird are common. 

1513. Manner (see also 1527). — The dative of manner is used 
with comparative adjectives and other exj^ressions of comparison 
to mark the degree by which one thing differs from another (Dative 
of Measure of Difference). 

K€<pa\^ ^\dTTCi}v a head shorter^ (lit. hy the head) P. Ph. 101 a, ov TroXXats 
Tjfiipais varepov 9)\$ev he arrived not many days later X. H. 1. 1. 1, Ibvrei d^Ko. 
■f)lj.^pa.Ls irph TLavadvvaiujv coming ten days before, the Fanathenaic festival T. 5.47, 
ro(roijT(p T]8lov fw Sa({) TrXelco KiKrijixai. the more I possess the -more pleasant is my life 
X. C. 8. 3.40, TToXXy fMeL^ojv iyiyvero tj ^otj 8(rif 5tj irXeiovs iyiyvovro the shouting 
became much louder as the men increased in number X. A. 4. 7. 23. So with 
voW^ by much, dXiyi^} bij little., r^ Traprl in every respect (by all odds). 

a. With tlie superlative : fiaKpip dptq-Ta by far the best P. L. 858 e. 

1514. With comparatives the accusatives (1586) r(, ri, oiJ^i^i', /iTjS^i' without a 
substantive are always used; oiS^v tjttov nihilo minus X. A.7. 5. 9. In Attic 
prose (except in Thuc.) ttoXiJ and 6X^701^ are more common than -n-oXXip and 6\lycf 
with comparatives. Hom. has only ttoXi) fiel^ivv. 

1515. Measure of difference may be expressed by '4v nvi ; dfs n, Kard tl ; 
or by iiri TLvi. 

1516. The dative of manner may denote the particular point of 
view from which a statement is made. This occurs chiefly with 
intransitive adjectives but also with intransitive verbs (Dative of 
Respect). (Cp. 1600.) 

avTjp T)\LKia in v4os a man still young in years T. 5. 43, to7s o-ci/xao-t rb irXiov 
ia-x^ova-a -^ tols xpiJ/^cKTip a power stronger in men than in money 1. 121, do-6ep7}s 
t45 a-<i/j.ari weak in body 1). 21. 165, ttj ^ojvtJ Tpax^s harsh of voice X. A. 2.6. 9, 
(ppop'^crei dia<p4po}v distinguished in understanding X. C. 2. 3. 5, tS>v rdre Su^d/xei 
irpo^X^^' superior in power to the men of that time T. 1.9, 6v6iJ.aTt awovSai a 
truce so far as the name goes 6. 10, 

a. The accusative of respect (1600) is often nearly equivalent to the dative 
of respect. 

1517. Cause. — The dative, especially with verbs of emotion, ex- 
presses the occasion (external cause) or the motive (internal cause). 

Occasion : r^ riJxi? ^Tricras confident hy reason of his good fortune T. 3. 97, 
davfid^ca TT} dTTOKXTj'o-ei jiov tCjv irvKwv I am astonished 'at being shut out of the 
gates 4. 85, to^tols tjo-^tj he was pleased at tJiis X. A. 1. 9. 26, 'f}x96iJLi6a rots 
yeyevT}iiivoL% we were troubled at what had occurred 5, 7. 20, xaXcTrws <pipu} rots 
irapovci TTpdyfjiacLP I am troubled at the present occurrences 1.3.3. Motive: 
(piKlq. Kai eitvoiq. eirbfjievoL following out of friendship and good vnll X. A. 2. 6. 13. 
Occasion and motive: oi fiev diropia drnXoiduyv, ot 5e dTTLffria some (carried their 
own food) because they lacked servants, others through distrust of them T. 7. 75, 
ujSpei Kai ovK otvip tovto ttolQp doing this out of insolence and not because he was 
drunk D. 21.74, 



1524] THE DATIVE 849 

1518. Some verbs of emotion take iiri (with dat.) to denote the cause ; so 
always fieya (ppov^'iv to plume onese?/,-and often xoZpetv rejoice^ 'Kvw€i<T&ac grieve, 
&yavaKT€iv be vexed, ala-x^vea-dat ]be ashamed. Many verbs take the genitive (1405). 

1519. The dative of cause sometimes approximates to a dative of purpose 
(1473) ; 'AdrjvoLot i<p' 7]fxds cbp/iTjpTai Aeovriuuv KaToiKLa-ei the Athenians have set 
out against us (loith a view to) to restore the Leontines T. 6. 33. This construc- 
tion is common with other verbal nouns in Thucydides. 

1520. Cause is often expressed by 5ia with the accusative, virh with the 
genitive, less frequently by d/i<^£ or wepi with the dative (poet.) or t-Kip vrith the 
genitive (poet.). 

COMITATIVE DATIVE 

1521. The comitative form of the instrumental dative denotes 
the persons or things which accompany or take part in an action. 

1522. Prepositions of accompaniment {}1€t6. with gen., (t^v) are often used, 
especially when the verb does not denote accompaniment or union. 

1523. Dative of Association. — The dative is used with words de- 
noting friendly or hostile association or intercourse. This dative is 
especially common in the plural and after middle verbs. 

a. KaKoi^ 6fju\Q>p KavTos eK^-qa-ri KaKds if tlion associate with the evil, in the end 
thou too wilt become evil thyself Men. Sent. 274, &\\7jXols 5t€i\iyp.€da toe have 
conversed with each other P. A. 37 a, rtp w\r}6^i rh. p-qdhTa KoivdxravTe^ commxini- 
caiing to the people what had been said T. 2. 72, Sedfievoi roirs (pe^yoiTas ^waWd^ai. 
c(pi<Tt asking that they Teconcile their exiles with them 1. 24, e:s \Syovs <tql iXdelv 
to have an interview with you X. A. 2. 5. 4, /xeTe(rxT?Ka/xei' \jp.7v 6v<nCop we have 
participated in your festivals X. H. 2. 4. 20, dXXi^Xois <nrovSas iwoi-^cavTo they 
made a truce with one another 3. 2. 20, a^rors 5td <pi\ids livai to enter into friend- 
ship with them X. A. 3. 2. 8. So with verbs of meeting : irpo(r4px€<T^a.i, jrpoo-Tvyxd- 
veiv and ivrvyx^veiv, cLTra.vTa.v. 

b. TToXXors 6\iyoi p-axSpievoi fevj fighting with many T. 4. 36, Ki5pv Tro\eiwdvre^ 
vjaging war with Cyrus 1. 1.3, d/i^icr/SijToOtrt /j.h Sl eijvoiav oi 4>i\oi rots (plXois, epl- 
^oua-L S€oi dcdipopoi dW-riXots friends disp?ite ivith friends good-naturedly, hut 
adi-ersaries wrangle with one another P. Pr. 337 b, Uko.^ dWrjXois SiKd^oprat they 
bring lawsuits against one another X. M. 3. 5. 16, Siatp^pea-Oai tovtols to be at 
variance with these men IX 18. 31 (and so many compounds of 5td), qvk €<p7) tov$ 
\6yov^ rots epyois bp.oXoy€Lp he said their words did not agree with their deeds 
T. 5. 55. So also ripl Sid, iroXepLOv (5ta ^d%Tjs, els xetpcts) Upai, rivi b/ioae %u;^etj^, etc. 

N. 1, — Tro\€fji£?p (fxax^T^oLi) <tvp tlpl (^/xerd tipo^) means to xfioge war in con- 
junction with some one. 

N. 2. — Verbs of friendly or hostile association, and especially periphrases with 
iroieia-Ba.i (iroXefiov, criropdds), often take the accusative with irpds. 

1524. Dative of Accompaniment. — The dative of accompaniment 
is used with verbs signifying to accom'pavy, follow, etc. 

dKoXovdeiP tQ Tjyovfi^vL} to follow the leader P, R, 474 c, eTrecr^at \}}UP ^ovXo/j.ai 



350 SYNTAX OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE [1525 

lam willing to follow you X. A. 3. 1. 25, fj^erd with the genitive is often used, 
as are <t{iv and d/xa with the dative. 

1525. With aiiTos. — The idea of accompaniment is often expressed by 
a^rds joined to the dative. This use is common when the debtructi.on of a per- 
son or thing Is referred to. Thus, tQv veCjv fj.ia a'uroh dvdpdffiv one of (he ships 
with its crew T. 4. 14, efTrcp -^Keiv eh ras rd^eis airrots cr€<pdvoi% he bade them 
come to their posts ^ crowns and all X. C. 3. 3. 40. The article after ai^rds is rare ; 
and ffiv is rarely added (X. C, 2.2, 9). Horn, has this dative only with lifeless 
objects. 

1526. Dative of Military Accompaniment. — The dative is used in the 

description of military movements to denote the accompaniment (troops, ships, 
etc.) of a leader: ^^eXai/pet r^J a-rpaTe^fxan iravrl he marches out with all his 
army X. A. 1. 7. 14. <r^v is often used with words denoting troops (T. 6. 62). 

a. An extension of this usage occurs when the persons in the dative are 
essentially the same as the persons forming the subject (distributive use) : ijfuv 
icpeiiroin-o ol iroXifMtoL Kal linriK^ Kal TrcKraa'TiKip the enemy pursued US With their 
cavalry and peltasts X. A. 7. 6. 29. 

b. The dative of military accompaniment is often equivalent to. a dative of 
means when the verb does not denote the leadership of a general. 

1527. Dative of Accompanying Circumstance. — The dative, usually 
of an abstract substantivCj may denote accompauying circumstance 
and manner. 

a. The substantive has an attribute : iroWy ^orj irpoo-4K€LVTo they attacked 
with loud shouts T. 4. 127, iravrl ceivet with all one's might 6. 23, r^xv dyady 
with good fortune C. I. A. 2. 17. 7. So Travrl (oi)5en, dWtfi, ro^np t^) Tp&irt^. 
Manner may be expressed by the adjective, as /Siafy davdri^ diroOv^a-Keip to die 
(by) a violent death X. Hi. 4. 3 (= pig,). 

b. Maiiy particular substantives have no attribute and are used adverbially : 
d€Lv dp6fj.<i} to run at full speed X. A.'l. 8. 19, ^Ig, by force, dUj} justly, SdXcp by 
craft, (rip) ep7v in fact, vo'vxv quietly, KOfudrj (with care) entirely, K6<T/j,if in 
order, duly, k^/kXcp round about, (rt?) \hrYip in word, irpo<pd(r€L ostensibly, cly^, 
ffiunrrj in Silence, a-rrovdrj hastily, with difficulty, t^ d\7)d€lg, in truth, rep 6vtl in 
reality, dpyrj in anger, (puyrj in hasty flight. 

N. — When no adjective is used, prepositional phrases or adverbs are gener- 
ally employed : <tvv Kpavy^, <ri>v dlKri, /j,€Td 5//c7js, Trpbs §iav (or ^laicos). 

c. Here belongs the dative of feminine adjectives with a substantive (o5if, 
etc.) omitted, as toi^ttj in t^iis xoay, here, dWr) in another way, elsewhere^ ir^, ^ 
in what (ichich) way. So di^/j-oa-lq, at public expense, iSia privately, koiv^ in com- 
mon, Tref'S on foot. 

N. — Some of these forms are instrumental